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IJHIV.OF 
blWHTO 

(man 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

TEACH TOLLET 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LVI. 
TEACH TOLLET 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1898 

[All rights reserved] 



DP, 
18 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FIFTY-SIXTH VOLUME. 



A. A 

G. A. A. . 
J. G. A. . , 
P. J. A . . . 
A. J. A. 

W. A 

J. B. B. . . 

M. B 

E. B 

T. B 

L. B-E. . . . 
C. E. B. . . 

C. B 

H. E. D. B, 
G. C. B. . 
T. G. B. . , 

G. S. B. . 
T. B. B. . 
A. B. B. . . 
E. W. B. . 
E. I. C. . . 
W. C-K. . 
J. L. C. . 
J. W. C-K. 
E. C-E. . 



THE EEV. CANON AINOER. 

G. A. AITKEN. 

J. G. ALGEE. 

P. J. ANDERSON. 

SIB ALEXANDER JOHN ABBUTHNOT, 

K.C.S.I. 

WALTER ARMSTRONG. 
THE LATE J. B. BAILEY. 
Miss BATESON. 
THE KEV. EONALD BAYNE. 
THOMAS BAYNE. 
LIONEL BEALE, M.B., F.E.S. 
C. EAYMOND BEAZLEY. 
PROFESSOR CECIL BENDALL. 
THE EEV. H. E. D. BLAKISTON. 
THE LATE G. C. BOASE. 

THE EEV. PROFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.E.S. 

G. S. BOULGER. 

T. B. BROWNING. 

THE EEV. A. E. BUCKLAND. 

E. W. BUBNIE. 

E. IRVING CABLYLE. 

WILLIAM CABB. 

J. L. CAW. 

J. WILLIS CLARK. 

SIR EBNEST CLABKE, F.S.A. 



J. C. C.. . . 
A. M. C-E. . 

T. C 

W. P. C. . . 

L. C 

H. D 

C. D 

E. D 

F. E 

C. L. F. . . 
C. H. F. . . 
J. G. F-H. . 
W. G. D. F. 

F. W. G. . . 

A. G 

E. E. G. . . 
J. C. H. . . 
J. A. H. 

T. H 

A. H-N. . . 
C. A. H. . . 
T. F. H. . . 
W. A. S. H. 

G. J. H. . . 

W. H 

W. H. H. 



J. CHUBTON COLLINS. 
Miss A. M. COOKE. 
THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

W. P. CODBTNEY. 

LIONEL COST, F.S.A. 

HENBY DAVEY. 

CAMPBELL DODGSON. 

EOBEBT DUNLOP. 

FRANCIS ESPINASSE. 

C. LITTON FALKINEB. 

C. H. FIRTH. 

SIR JOSHUA FITCH. 

THE EEV. W. G. D. FLBTCHEB. 

F. W. GAMBLE, M.Sc. 

THE EEV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

E. E. GRAVES. 

J. CUTHBEBT HADDEN. 

J. A. HAMILTON. 



THE EEV. THOMAS HAMILTON, 
D.D. 

ABTHUB HABDEN, M.Sc., PH.D. 

C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 

T. F. HENDEBSON. 

PBOFESSOB W. A. S. HEWINS. 

G. J. HOLYOAKE. 

THE EEV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

THE EEV. W. H. BUTTON, B.D. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



R. J. J. . . . 


THE REV. R. JENKIN JONES. 


D'A. P. . . . 


D'ARCY POWER, F.R.C.S. 


C. K 


CHARLES KENT. 


F. R 


FRASER RAE. 


C. L. K. . . 


C. L. KINGSFORD. 


W. E. R. . . 


W. E. RHODES. 


J. K 


JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 


J. M. R. . . 


J. M. RlGG. 


J. K. L. 


PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 


H. J. R. . . 


H. J. ROBINSON. 


E. L 


Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 


J. H. R. . . 


J. H. ROUND. 


S. L. . . . . 


SIDNEY LEE. 


H. S. S. . . 


H. S. SALT. 


B. H. L. . . 


R. H. LEGGK. 


T. S 


THOMAS SECCOMBE. 


E. M. L. . . 


COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 


C. F. S. 


Miss C. FELL SMITH. 


J. E. L. . . 


J. E. LLOYD. 


L. S 


LESLIE STEPHEN. 


J. H. L. . . 


THE REV. J. H. LUPTON, D.D. 


G. S-H. . . . 


GEORGE STRONACH. 


J. E. M. . . 


J. R. MACDONALD. 


C. W. S. . . 


C. W. SUTTON. 


W. E. M. . 


W. E. MANNERS. 


J. T-T. . . . 


JAMES TAIT. 


E. C. M. . . 


E. C. MARCHANT. 


H. R. T. . . 


H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 


L. M. M. . . 


MlSS MlDDLETON. 


D. LL. T.. . 


D. LLEUFER THOMAS. 


N. M 


NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 


E. M. T-D.. 


Miss TODD. 


J. B. M. . . 


J. BASS MULLINGER. 


T. F. T. 


PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 


G. LE G. N. 


G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 


G. J. T. 


G. J. TURNER. 


K. N 


Miss KATE NORGATE. 


A. R. U. . . 


A. R. URQUHAHT, M.D. 


D. J. O'D. . 


D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 


R. H. V. . . 


COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E., 


F. M. O'D. . 


F. M. O'DoNOGHUE, F.S.A. 




C.B. 


T. O 


THE REV. THOMAS OLDEN. 


W. W. W. . 


SURGEON-CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB. 


A. F. P. . . 


A. F. POLLARD. 


H. A. W. . . 


H. A. WEBSTER. 


S. L.-P.. . . 


STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 


S. W 


STEPHEN WHEELER. 


B. P 


Miss BERTHA PORTER. 


B. B. W. . . 


B. B. WOODWARD. 











DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Teach 



Teach 



TEACH or THATCH, EDWARD (d. 
1718), pirate, commonly known as Black- 
beard, is said to have been a native of Bristol, 
to have gone out to the West Indies during 
the war of the Spanish succession, and to 
have been then employed as a privateer or 
buccaneer. When the peace came in 1713 
the privateers virtually refused to recognise 
it, and in large numbers turned pirates. Vast 
numbers of seamen joined them, and, while 
keeping up a pretence of warring against the 
French or Spaniards, plundered all that came 
in their way with absolute impartiality. 
Thatch was one of the earliest to play the 
role of pirate. He is first heard of in 1716, 
and in 1717 was in command of a sloop 
cruising in company with one Benjamin 
Hornigold. Among other prizes was a large 
French Guinea ship, which Thatch took com- 
mand of and fitted as a ship of war mount- 
ing 40 guns, naming her Queen Anne's Re- 
venge. On the arrival of Woodes Rogers [q.v.] 
as governor of the Bahamas, Hornigold went 
in and accepted the king's mercy ; but Thatch 
continued his cruise through the West India 
Islands, along the Spanish Main, then north 
along the coast of Carolina and Virginia, 
making many prizes, and rendering his name 
terrible. He sent one Richards, whom he 
had placed in command of a tender, with a 
party of men up to Charlestown to demand 
a medicine-chest properly fitted. If it was 
not given he would put his prisoners to 
death. While one of the prisoners pre- 
sented this demand, Richards and his fel- 
lows swaggered through the town, spread- 
ing such terror that the magistrates did not 
venture to refuse the medicine-chest. Then 
the pirates went northwards ; but on orabout 
10 June 1718, attempting to go into a creek 
in North Carolina known as Topsail Inlet, 

VOL. LVI. 



the Queen Anne's Revenge struck on the 
bar and became a total wreck. Of three 
sloops in company, one was also wrecked on 
the bar. Thatch and his men escaped in 
the other two. They seem to have then 
quarrelled; many of the men were put on 
shore and dispersed ; some found their way 
into Virginia and were hanged ; the sloops 
separated, and Thatch, with some twenty or 
thirty men, went to Bath-town in North 
Carolina to surrender to the king's pro- 
clamation. 

It appears that he found allies in the 
governor, one Eden, and his secretary, Tobias 
Knight, who was also collector of the pro- 
vince. He brought in some prizes, which 
his friends condemned in due form. He met 
at sea two French ships, one laden, the other 
in ballast. He put all the Frenchmen into 
the empty ship, brought in the full one, and 
made affidavit that he had found her de- 
serted at sea not a soul on board. The 
story was accepted. Eden got sixty hogs- 
heads of sugar as his share, Knight got 
twenty, and the ship, said to be in danger 
of sinking and so blocking the river, was 
taken outside and burnt, for fear that she 
might be recognised. Thatch meanwhile led 
a rollicking life, spending his money freely 
on shore, but compelling the planters to 
supply his wants, and levying heavy toll on 
all the vessels that came up the river or went 
down. As it was useless to apply to Eden 
for redress, the sufferers were at last driven 
to send their complaint to Colonel Alexander 
Spottiswood [q. v.], lieutenant-governor of 
Virginia, who referred the matter to Captain 
George Gordon of the Pearl, and Ellis Brand 
of the Lyme, two frigates then lying in 
James River for the protection of the trade 
against pirates. Gordon and Brand had 



Teach 



Teddeman 



already heard of Thatch's proceedings, and 
had ascertained that their ships could not 
get at him. Now, in consultation with 
Spottiswood, it was determined to send two 
small sloops taken up for the occasion, and 
manned and armed from the frigates, under 
the command of Robert Maynard, the first 
lieutenant of the Pearl, while Brand went 
overland to consult with Eden, whose com- 
plicity was not known to Spottiswood and 
his friends. 

On 22 Nov. the sloops came up the creek, 
and, having approached so near the pirate 
as to interchange Homeric compliments, re- 
ceived the fire of the pirate's guns, loaded 
to the muzzle with swan shot and scrap iron. 
All the officers in Lyme's boat were killed, 
and many men in both. Maynard closed, 
boarded, sword in hand, and shot Thatch 
dead. Several pirates were killed, others 
' jumped overboard, fifteen were taken alive, 
Thatch's head was cut off, and easy to be 
recognised by its abundant black beard 
suspended from the end of the bowsprit. The 
sloops with their prize returned to James 
River, where thirteen out of the fifteen pri- 
soners were hanged. Brand had meantime 
made a perquisition on shore, and seized a 
quantity of sugar, cocoa, and other mer- 
chandise said to be Thatch's. In doing this 
he was much obstructed by Knight, who, 
together with Eden, afterwards entered an 
action against him for taking what belonged 
to them. The pirate sloop and property were 
sold for over 2,000/., which Gordon and 
Brand insisted should be divided as prize 
money among the whole ship's companies, 
while Maynard claimed that it ought to go 
entirely to him and those who had taken 
it. This led to a very angry and unseemly 
quarrel, which ended in the professional ruin 
cf all the three. Neither Gordon nor Brand 
seems to have had any further employment, 
and Maynard, whose capture of the pirate 
was a very dashing piece of work, was not 
promoted till 1740. 

Thatch as Teach or Blackboard has long 
been received as the ideal pirate of fiction 
or romance, and nearly as many legends 
have been fathered on him as on William 
Kidd [q. v.], with perhaps a little more 
reason. It may indeed be taken as certain 
' that he did not bury any large hoard of 
treasure in some unknown bay, and that he 
never had it to bury. On the other hand, 
the story of his blowing out the lights in 
the course of a drinking bout and firing off 
his pistols under the table, to the serious 
damage of the legs of one of his companions, 
is officially told as a reason for not hanging 
the latter. Teach seems to have been fierce, 



reckless, and brutal, without even the virtue 
of honesty to his fellows. 

In all the official papers, naval or colonial, 
respecting this pirate, he is called Thatch or 
Thach ; the name Teach which has been 
commonly adopted, on the authority of John- 
son, has no official sanction. It is quite im- 
possible to say that either Thatch or Teach 
was his proper name. 

[The Life in Charles Johnson's Lives of the 
Pyrates (1724) is thoroughly accurate, as far as 
it can be tested by the official records, which 
are very full. These are Order in Council, 
24 Aug. 1721, with memorial from Robert May- 
nard ; Admiralty Records, Captains' Letters, 
B. 11, Ellis Brand to Admiralty, 12 July 1718, 
6 Feb. and 12 March 1718-19; G. 5, Gordon 
to Admiralty, 14 Sept. 1721 ; P. 6, Letters of 
Vincent Pearse, Captain of the Phoenix : Board 
of Trade, Bahamas 1.] J. K. L. 

TEDDEMAN, SIE THOMAS (d. 1668 ?), 
vice-admiral, was presumably one of a family 
who had been shipowners at Dover at the 
close of the sixteenth century {Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, Navy Records Society, i. 
86). His father, also Thomas, was still living 
at Dover in 1658, and is probably the man 
described as a jurate of Dover in a com- 
mission of 28 Oct. 1653. It is, however, 
impossible to discriminate between the two, 
and the jurate of 1653 may have been the 
future vice-admiral. In either case Tedde- 
man does not seem to have served at sea 
during the civil war ; but in 1660 he com- 
manded the Tredagh in the Mediterranean, 
and in May was cruising in the Straits of 
Gibraltar and as far east as Algiers ; on 
31 May he met off Algiers six Spanish ships, 
which he chased into Gibraltar and under 
the guns of the forts. In November 1660 
he was appointed captain of the Resolution ; 
in May 1661 of the Fairfax. In 1663 he 
commanded the Kent, in which, in July, he 
carried the Earl of Carlisle to Archangel on 
an embassy to Russia. In May 1664 he was 
moved into the Revenge ; and in 1665, in the 
Royal Katherine, was rear-admiral of the 
blue squadron, with the Earl of Sandwich, 
in the action off Lowestoft. For this service 
he was knighted on 1 July. Afterwards, 
still with Sandwich, he was at the attack on 
Bergen and the subsequent capture of the 
Dutch East Indiamen [see MONTAGU, ED- 
WARD, EARL OF SANDWICH]. Still in the 
Royal Katherine, he was vice-admiral of 
the blue squadron in the four days' fight, 
1-4 June 1666, and vice-admiral of the 
white in the St. James's fight, 25 July. He 
had no command in 1667, and his name does 
not occur again. His contemporary, Captain 
Henry Teddeman, also of Dover, was pre- 



Teeling 



Teesdale 



sumably a brother ; and the name was still 
in the ' Navy List ' a hundred years later. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. i. 47: State Papers, 
Dom., Charles II (see Calendars).] J. K. L. 

TEELING, BARTHOLOMEW (1774- 
1798), United Irishman, was the eldest son 
of Luke Teeling and of Mary, daughter of 
John Taaffe of Smarmore Castle, Louth. 
He was born in 1774 at Lisburn, where 
his father, a descendant of an old Anglo- 
Norman family long settled in co. Meath, 
had established himself as a linen mer- 
chant. The elder Teeling was a delegate 
for co- Antrim to the catholic convention of 
1793, better known as the ' Back Lane par- 
liament.' Though not a United Irishman, 
he was actively connected with the leaders 
of the United Irish Society, and was arrested 
on suspicion of treason in 1796 and con- 
fined in Carrickfergus prison till 1802. 

Bartholomew, who was educated in Dub- 
lin at the academy of the Rev. W. Dubordieu, 
a French protestant clergyman, joined the 
United Irish movement before he was twenty, 
and was an active member of the club com- 
mittee. In 1796 he went to France to aid 
in the efforts of Wolfe Tone and others to 
induce the French government to undertake 
an invasion of Ireland. His mission having 
become known to the Irish government, he 
deemed it unsafe to return to England, and 
accepted a commission in the French army 
in the name of Biron. He served a cam- 
paign under Hoche with the army of the 
Rhine. In the autumn of 1798 he was at- 
tached to the expedition organised against 
Ireland as aide-de-camp and interpreter to 
General Humbert, and, embarking at La 
Rochelle, landed with the French army at 
Killala. During the brief campaign of less 
than three weeks' duration, which termi- 
nated with the surrender of Ballinamuck, 
Teeling distinguished himself by his personal 
courage, particularly at the battle of Co- 
looney. Being excluded as a British subject 
from the benefit of the exchange of prisoners 
which followed the surrender, though claimed 
by Humbert as his aide-de-camp, he was 
removed to Dublin, where he was tried 
before a court-martial. At the trial the 
evidence for the prosecution, though con- 
clusive as to Teeling's treason, was highly 
creditable to his humanity and tolerance, 
one of the witnesses deposing that when 
some of the rebels had endeavoured to 
excuse the outrages they had committed, on 
the ground that the victims were protestants, 
' Mr. Teeling warmly exclaimed that he knew 
of no difference between a protestant and a 
catholic, nor should any be allowed' (Irish 



Monthly Register, October 1798). But, 
despite an energetic appeal by Humbert, who 
wrote that ' Teeling, by his bravery and gene- 
rous conduct in all the* towns through which 
we have passed, has prevented the insurgents 
from indulging in the most criminal ex- 
cesses,' he was sentenced to death bv the 
court-martial. The viceroy finding himself 
unable to comply with the recommendation 
to mercy by which the sentence was accom- 
panied, Teeling suffered the extreme penalty 
of the law at Arbour Hill on 24 Sept. 1 7 '.'->. 

CHARLES HAMILTON TEELIXG (1778- 
1850),' Irish journalist, was a younger brother 
of Bartholomew, and, like him, connected 
with the United Irish movement. On 1 6 Sept. 
1790, when still a lad, he was arrested 
with his father by Lord Castlereagh on sus- 
picion of treason. He had previously been 
offered a commission in the British army, 
but had declined it as incompatible with his 
political sentiments. In 1802 he settled at 
Dundalk as a linen-bleacher. Subsequently 
he became proprietor of the 'Belfast Northern 
Herald,' and later on removed to Newry, 
where he established the ' Newry Examiner.' 
He was also (1832-5) the proprietor and 
editor of a monthly periodical, the ' Ulster 
Magazine.' In 1828 Teeling published his 
' Personal Narrative of the Rebellion of 
1798,' and in 1832 a 'Sequel' to this work 
appeared. The 'Narrative,' especially the 
earlier portion, is of considerable historical 
value. Though feeble as a literary perform- 
ance, it throws much light on the state of 
feeling among the Roman catholics of Ulster 
prior to the Rebellion, and upon the later 
stages of the United Irish movement, as well 
as upon the actual progress of the insurrec- 
tion in Ulster. In 183o Teeling published 
' The History and Consequences of the Battle 
of the Diamond,' a pamphlet which gives 
the Roman catholic version of the events in 
which the Orange Society originated, and in 
which the author himself had some share. 
Teeling died in Dublin in 1850. In 1802 he 
married Miss Carolan of Carrickmacross, co, 
Monaghan. His eldest daughter married, 
in 1836, Thomas (afterwards Lord) O'Hagan 
[q. v.], lord chancellor of Ireland. 

[Personal Narrative of the Irish Rebellion, 
pp. 14-22, Sequel thereto, pp. 2 09-32 ; Madden'i 
United Irishmen, i. 326, iv. 15-27; J. BoWM 
Daly's Ireland in '98, pp. 375-41 
Autobiography, ed. Barry O'Brien, 1893, n. 347 ; 
Cornwallis Correspondence, ii. 389, 402 ; I. 
Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, v. 6.1; pri- 
vate information.] 

TEESDALE, SIR CIIRISTOl'HKIl 
CHARLES (1833-1893), major-general, 
royal artillerv, son of Lieutenant-general 

J 



Teesdale 



Teesdale 



Henry George Teesdale of South Bersted, 
Sussex, was born at the Cape of Good Hope 
on 1 June 1833. He entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich in May 1848, 
and received a commission as second lieu- 
tenant in the royal artillery on 18 June 
1851. He went to Corfu in 1852, was pro- 
moted to be first lieutenant on 22 April 
1853, and in the following year was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Colonel (afterwards 
General Sir) "William Fenwick Williams 
[q.v.], British commissioner with the Turkish 
army in Asia Minor during the war with 
Russia. 

Teesdale, with Dr. Humphry Sandwith 
[q. v.], another member of the British com- 
missioner's staff, accompanied Williams to 
Erzeroum, and thence to Kars, where they 
arrived on 24 Sept. 1854. Williams re- 
turned to the headquarters of the Turkish 
army at Erzeroum, leaving Teesdale at Kars 
to establish what discipline and order he 
could. During the whole winter Teesdale, 
aided by his interpreter, Mr. Zohrab, worked 
incessantly to secure the well-being of the 
troops in Kars. Sandwith says he exhibited 
such a rare combination of firmness and 
conciliatory tact that he won all hearts, 
and the grey-bearded old general, Kheriin 
Pasha, never ventured on any act of impor- 
tance without first consulting this young 
subaltern of artillery. Colonel (afterwards 
Sir) Henry Atwell Lake [q.v.] and Captain 
Henry Langhorne Thompson [q. v.] having 
arrived at Kars in March 1855, Teesdale re- 
turned to Erzeroum and rejoined his chief, 
who, in January, had been made a lieu- 
tenant-general, or ferik, in the Turkish army, 
and a pasha. At the same time Teesdale 
had been made a major in the Turkish army. 
In a letter from the foreign office dated 
7 March 1855, her majesty's government ap- 
proved of Teesdale's efforts in averting from 
the garrison of Kars the horrors that they 
suffered from famine in the previous winter. 
After the thawing of the snow Teesdale 
was daily engaged with Williams from early 
morning to sunset in fortifying all the heights 
around Erzeroum. 

On 1 June 1855 a courier from Lake in- 
formed Williams of the formidable Russian 
army assembled at Gumri, and the indica- 
tion of a speedy advance upon Kars. On 
the following day Teesdale started with Wil- 
liams and Sandwith for Kars, arriving there 
on 7 June. On the 9th Teesdale, with Zohrab 
his interpreter, went to his post at the 
Tahmasp batteries, and on the 12th he made 
a reconnaissance of the Russian camp. On 
the 16th the Russians, twenty-five thousand 
strong, attacked early in the morning, but 



were repulsed by the artillery fire of the 
fortress. Williams, in his despatch, records 
his thanks to Teesdale, ' whose labours were 
incessant.' Two days later the Russians 
established a blockade of Kars, and shortly 
afterwards intercepted communication with 
Erzeroum. The garrison of Kars was con- 
tinually occupied in skirmishes with the 
enemy, and in the task of strengthening the 
fortifications. On 7 Aug. an attack was 
made by the Russians, who were again 
beaten off. 

Teesdale lived in Tahmasp Tabia with 
that gallant Hungarian and first-rate 
soldier, General Kmety, for whom he had a 
great admiration. He acted as chief of his 
staff, and, besides his graver duties, was 
constantly engaged in harassing the Cossacks 
with parties of riflemen, or in menacing and 
attacking the Russian cavalry with a com- 
pany of rifles and a couple of guns. 

Early in September the weather grew 
suddenly cold, and snow fell. Provisions 
were scarce, and desertions became fre- 
quent. Late in the month cholera appeared. 
At 4 A.M. on 29 Sept. the Russian general 
Mouravieff, with the bulk of his army, at- 
tacked the heights above Kars and on the 
opposite side of the river. At Tahmasp 
the advance was distinctly heard and pre- 
parations made to meet it. The guns were 
quietly charged with grape. Teesdale, re- 
turning from his rounds, flung himself into 
the most exposed battery in the redoubt, 
Yuksek Tabia, the key of the position. The 
Russians advanced with their usual steadi- 
ness in three close columns, supported by 
twenty-four guns, and hoped under cover of 
the mist and in the dim light of dawn to 
effect a surprise ; but they were received 
with a crushing artillery fire of grape. 
Undaunted, the Russian infantry cheered 
and rushed up the hill to the breastworks, 
and, in spite of a murderous fire of mus- 
ketry, drove out the Turks and advanced to 
the rear of the redoubts of Tahmasp and 
Yuksek Tabia, where desperate fighting took 
place. Teesdale turned some of his guns to 
the rear and worked them vigorously. The 
redoubts being closed in rear and flanking 
one another, the artillery and musketry fire 
from them made havoc in the ranks of the 
assailants. Nevertheless the Russians pre- 
cipitated themselves upon the works, and 
some even effected an entrance. Three 
were killed ' on the platform of a gun 
which at that moment was being worked by 
Teesdale, who then sprang out and led two 
charges with the bayonet, the Turks fight- 
ing like heroes ' (Letter from General Wil- 
liams, 30 Sept. 1855). 



Teesdale 



Tegai 



During the hottest part of the action, 
when the enemy's fire had driven the 
Turkish artillerymen from their guns, Tees- 
dale rallied his gunners, and by his intrepid 
example induced them to return to their 
posts. After having led the final charge 
which completed the victory of the day, 
Teesdale, at great personal risk, saved from 
the fury of his Turks a considerable num- 
ber of the disabled among the enemy, who 
were lying wounded outside the works. 
This was witnessed and gratefully acknow- 
ledged before the Russian staff by General 
Mouravieff (London Gazette, 25 Sept. 1857). 
The battle of Kars lasted seven and a half 
hours. Near midday, however, the Russians 
were driven off in great disorder, and fled 
down the heights under a heavy musketry 
fire. Their loss was over six thousand 
killed and about as many wounded. 

Teesdale, who was hit by a piece of spent 
shell and received a severe contusion, was 
most favourably mentioned in despatches. 
On 12 Oct. General Williams wrote : ' My 
aide-de-camp, Teesdale, had charge of the 
central redoubt and fought like a lion.' 
After the battle the mushir, on behalf of 
the sultan, decorated Teesdale with the 
third class of the order of the Medjidie, 
and promoted him to be a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Turkish army (Despatch 
from General Williams to Lord Claren- 
don, 31 Oct. 1855). 

Cholera and famine assumed serious pro- 
portions in October, and, although the 
former ceased in November, severe cold 
added to the sufferings of the garrison, 
and every night a number of desertions 
took place. On 22 Oct. news had arrived 
of a relieving army of twenty thousand men 
under Selim Pasha, and in the middle of 
November it was daily expected from Erze- 
roum, where it had arrived at the beginning 
of the month. But Selim had no intention 
of advancing. On 24 Nov. it was considered 
impossible to hold out any longer, and, there 
being no hope of relief, Teesdale was sent 
with a flag of truce to the Russian camp to 
arrange for a meeting of the generals and to 
discuss terms of capitulation ; these were 
arranged the following day, and on the 28th 
the garrison laid down its arms, and Tees- 
dale and the other English officers became 
prisoners of war. 

The English officers were most hospitably 
treated by the Russians, and started on 
30 Nov. for Tiflis, which they reached on 
8 Dec. In January 1856 Teesdale accom- 
panied General Williams to Riazan, about 
180 miles from Moscow. After having been 
presented to the czar in March, they were 



given their liberty and proceeded to Eng- 
land. 

Teesdale was made a C.B. on 21 June 
1856, though still a lieutenant of royal 
artillery. He was also made an officer of 
the Legion of Honour, received the medal for 
Kars, and on 25 Sept. 1857 was awarded 
the Victoria Cross for acts of bravery at 
the battle of 29 Sept. 1855. 

From 1856 to 1859 Teesdale continued to 
serve as aide-de-camp to Fenwick- Williams, 
who had been appointed commandant of the 
Woolwich district. On 1 Jan. 1858 he was 
promoted to be second captain in the royal 
artillery, and on the 15th of the same month 
to be brevet major in the army for distin- 
guished service in the field. On 9 Nov. 
1858 he was appointed equerry to the Prince 
of Wales, a position which he held for thirty- 
two years. From 1859 to 1864 he was again 
aide-de-camp to Fenwick-Williams during 
his term of office as inspector-general of 
artillery at headquarters in London. Tees- 
dale was promoted to be first captain in the 
royal artillery on 3 Feb. 1866, brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 14 Dec. 1868, major royal 
artillery on 5 July 1872, and lieutenant- 
colonel in his regiment on 23 Sept. 1875. 
He was appointed aide-de-camp to the queen 
and promoted to be colonel in the army on 
1 Oct. 1877, regimental colonel on 1 Oct. 
1882, and major-general on 22 April 1887. 
On 8 July 1887, on the occasion of the 
queen's jubilee, he was made a knight com- 
mander of St. Michael and St. George. 

In 1890 Teesdale resigned the appoint- 
ment of equerry to the Prince of Wales, 
and was appointed master of the ceremonies 
and extra equerry to the prince, positions 
which he held until his death. He retired 
from the army active list with a pension on 
22 April 1892. He died, unmarried, on 

1 Nov. 1893 at his residence, The Ark, South 
Bersted, Sussex, from a paralytic stroke, a 
few days after his return from a small estate 
he had in Germany. He was buried on 
4 Nov. in South Bersted churchyard. He 
wrote a slight sketch of the services of Sir 
W. F. Williams for the 'Proceedings' of 
the Royal Artillery Institution (vol. xii. 
pt. ix.) 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Royal 
Artillery Records; Times (London), 2 and 6 Nov. 
1893; United Service Mag. 1855 and 1857; 
Gent. Mag. 1856 and 1858; Lake's Kars and 
our Captivity in Russia, 1856; Sandwith's Nar- 
rative of the Siege of Kars, 185(5 ; A Campaign 
with the Turks in Asia, by Charles Duncan, 

2 vols. 1856.] R- H. V. 
TEGAI (1805-1864), Welsh poet. [See 

HUGHES, HUGH.] 



Tegg 



TEGG, THOMAS (1776-1845), book- 
seller, the son of a grocer, was born at Wim- 
bledon, Surrey, on 4 March 1776. Being 
left an orphan at the age of five, he was sent 
to Galashiel in Selkirkshire, where he was 
boarded, lodged, clothed, and educated for 
ten guineas a year. In 1785 he was bound 
apprentice to Alexander Meggett, a book- 
seller at Dalkeith. His master treating him 
very badly, he ran away, and for a month 
gained a living at Berwick by selling chap- 
books about fortune-telling, conjuring, and 
dreams. At Newcastle he stayed some 
weeks, and formed an acquaintance with 
Thomas Bewick, the wood engraver. Pro- 
ceeding to Sheffield, he obtained employ- 
ment from Gale, the proprietor of the ' Shef- 
field Register,' at seven shillings a week, 
and during a residence of nine months saw 
Tom Paine and Charles Dibdin. His further 
wanderings led him to Ireland and Wales, 
and then, after some years at Lynn in Nor- 
folk, he came to London in 1796, and ob- 
tained an engagement with William Lane, 
the proprietor of the Minerva Library at 
53 Leadenhall Street. He subsequently served 
with John and Arthur Arch, the quaker 
booksellers of Gracechurch Street, where he 
stayed until he began business on his own 
account. 

Having received 200/. from the wreck of 
his father's property, he took a shop in part- 
nership with a Mr. Dewick in Aldersgate 
Street, and became a bookmaker as well as 
a bookseller, his first small book, ' The Com- 
plete Confectioner,' reaching a second edition. 
On 20 April 1800 he married, and opened a 
shop in St. John Street, Clerkenwell, but, 
losing money through the treachery of a 
friend, he took out a country auction license 
to try his fortune in the provinces. He 
started with a stock of shilling political pam- 
phlets and some thousands of the ' Monthly 
Visitor.' At Worcester he obtained a parcel 
of books from a clergyman, and held his first 
auction, which produced 30/. With his wife 
acting as clerk, he travelled through the 
country, buying up duplicates in private 
libraries, and rapidly paying off his debts. 
Returning to London in 1805, he opened a 
shop at 111 Cheapside, and began printing a 
series of pamphlets which were abridgments 
of popular works. His success was great. 
Of such books he at one time had two hun- 
dred kinds, many of which sold to the extent 
of four thousand copies. Up to the close of 
1840 he published four thousand works on 
his own account, of which not more than 
twenty were failures. Of ' The Whole Life 
of Nelson,' which he brought out immediately 
after the receipt of the news of the battle of 



Trafalgar in 1805, he sold fifty thousand six- 
penny copies, and of ' The Life of Mrs. Mary 
Ann Clarke,' 1810, thirteen thousand copies 
at 7s. Gd. each. 

In 1824 he purchased the copyright of 
Hone's ' Everyday Book and Table Book,' 
and, republishing the whole in weekly parts, 
cleared a very large profit. He then gave 
Hone 500/. to write ' The Year Book,' which 
proved much less successful. 

As soon as his own publications com- 
menced paying well he gave up the auctions, 
which he had continued nightly at 111 Cheap- 
side. In 1824 he made his final move to 
73 Cheapside. In 1825 he commenced ' The 
London Encyclopaedia of Science, Art, Lite- 
rature, and Practical Mechanics,' which ran 
to twenty-two volumes. But his reputation 
as a bookseller chiefly rested upon his cheap 
reprints, abridgments of popular works, and 
his distribution of remainders, which he pur- 
chased on a very large scale. He is mentioned 
as a populariser of literature in Thomas Car- 
lyle's famous petition on the copyright bill 
in April 1839. 

In 1835, being then a common councilman 
of the ward of Cheap, he was nominated an 
alderman, but was not elected. In 1836 he 
was chosen sheriff, and paid the fine to escape 
serving. To the usual fine of 400/. he added 
another 100/.. and the whole went to found 
a Tegg scholarship at the City of London 
school, and he increased the gift by a valu- 
able collection of books. 

He died on 21 April 1845, and was buried 
at Wimbledon. He was generally believed 
to have been the original of Timothy Twigg 
in Thomas Hood's novel, ' Tylney Hall,' 
3vols. 1834. Tegg left three sons, of whom 
Thomas Tegg, a bookseller, died on 15 Sept. 
1871 (Bookseller, 30 June 1864 p. 372, 3 Oct. 
1871 p. 811); and William is separately 
noticed. 

Tegg was author of: 1. 'Memoirs of Sir 
F. Burdett,' 1804. 2. ' Tegg's Prime Song 
Book, bang up to the mark,' 1810 ; third col- 
lection, 1810; fourth collection, 1810. 3. 'The 
Rise, Progress, and Termination of the O. P. 
War at Covent Garden, in Poetic Epistles,' 
1810. 4. 'Chronology, or the Historical 
Companion: a register of events from the 
earliest period to the present time,' 1811 ; 
5th edit. 1854. 5. ' Book of Utility or Re- 
pository of useful Information, connected 
with the Moral, Intellectual, and Physical 
Condition of Man,' 1822. G. ' Remarks on 
the Speech of Serjeant Talfourd on the Laws 
relating to Copyright,' 1837. 7. 'Handbook 
forEmigrants, containing Informationon Do- 
mestic, Mechanical, Medical, and other sub- 
jects,' 1839. 8. ' Extension of Copyright pro- 



Teilo 



posed by Serjeant Talfourd,' 1840. 9. ' Trea- 
sury of Wit and Anecdote,' 1842. 10. ' A 
Present to an Apprentice,' 2nd edit. 1848. 
He also edited ' The Magazine of Knowledge 
and Amusement,' 1843-4 ; twelve numbers 
only. 

[Curwen's Booksellers, 1873, pp. 379-98; 
Bookseller, 1 Sept. 1870, p. 756.] G. C. B. 

TEGG, WILLIAM (1816-1895), son of 
Thomas Tegg [q. v.], was born in Cheapside, 
London, in 181ti. After being articled to an 
engraver, he was taken into his father's pub- 
lishing and bookselling business, to which 
he succeeded on his father's death in 1845. 
He was well known as a publisher of school- 
books, and he also formed a considerable 
export connection. One branch of his busi- 
ness consisted of the reprinting of standard 
works at very moderate prices. In his later 
years he removed to 85 Queen Street, Cheap- 
side. 

He knew intimately George Cruikshank 
and Charles Dickens in their early days, while 
Kean, Kemble, and Dion Boucicault were 
his fast friends. He was a well-known and 
energetic member of the common council of 
the city of London. He retired from busi- 
ness some time before his death, which took 
place at 13 Doughty Street, London, on 
23 Dec. 1895. 

His name is attached to upwards of forty 
works, many of them compilations. The fol- 
lowing are the best known: 1. 'The Cruet 
Stand : a Collection of Anecdotes,' 1871. 
2. 'Epitaphs . . . and a Selection of Epi- 
grams,' 1875. 3. ' Proverbs from Far and 
Near, Wise Sentences . . .,' 1875. 4. ' Laco- 
nics, or good Words of the Best Authors,' 
1875. 5. 'The Mixture for Low Spirits, being 
a Compound of Witty Sayings,' 4th ed. 187(3. 
6. 'Trials of W. Hone for publishing Three 
Parodies,' 187G. 7. ' Wills of their own, 
Curious, Eccentric, and Benevolent,' 1876, 
4th ed. 1879. 8. ' The Last Act, being the 
Funeral Rites of Nations and Individuals,' 
1^7'i. 9. ' Meetings and Greetings : Saluta- 
tions of Nations,' 1877. 10. 'The Knot tied, 
Marriage Ceremonies of all Nations,' 1877. 
11. 'Posts and -Telegraphs, Past and Pre- 
sent, with an Account of the Telephone 
and Phonograph,' 1878. 12. ' Shakespeare 
and his Contemporaries, together with the 
Plots of his Plays, Theatres, and Actors,' 
1879. Under the name of Peter Parley he 
brought out much popular juvenile litera- 
ture, which was either reprinted from or 
founded on books written by the American 
writer, Samuel Griswold Goodrich (ALLi- 
BONE, Diet, of English Literature, 1859, 
i. 703). 



[Times, 27 Dec. 1895, p. 7; Athemeum. 1895, 
ii. 903; Bookseller, 30 June 1864, 10 Jan 
1896.1 G. C. B. ^ 

TEGID (1792-1852), Welsh poet and 
antiquary. [See JOXES, JOHN.] 

TEIGNMOUTH, BARON. "[See SIIOEE, 
JOHN, first baron, 1751-1834.] 

TEILO (fl. 550), British saint, was born 

at ' Eccluis Gunniau (or Guiniau) ' in the 

neighbourhood of Tenby (Lib. Land. pp. 124, 

255). The statement of the life in tlu- 

' Liber Landavensis ' that he was of noble 

parentage is supported by the genealogies, 

which make him the son of a man variously 

called Enoc, Eusych, Cussith, and Eisyllt, 

and great-grandson of Ceredig ap Cunedda 

Wledig (Myvyrian Arc/iaioloyy, 2nd edit. 

pp. 415, 430; lolo MSS. p. 124). In the 

life of Oudoceus in the 'Liber Landavensis' 

the form is Ensic (p. 130). Mr. Phillimore be- 

lieves (Cymmrodor, xi. 125) the name should 

be Usyllt, the patron saint of St. Issell'a, 

near Tenby. Teilo's first preceptor was, 

according to his legend, Dyfrig (cf. the Life 

of Dyfrig in Lib. Land. p. 80). He next 

entered the monastic school of Paulinus, 

where David (d. 601 ?) [q. v.], his kinsman, 

was his fellow-pupil. In substantial agree- 

ment with the accounts given in the legends 

of David and Padarn, it is said that the three 

saints received a divine command to visit 

Jerusalem, where they were made bishops 

a story clearly meant to bring out British 

independence of Home. Teilo especially dis- 

tinguished himself on this journey by his 

saintly humility and power as a preacher. 

He received as a gift a bell of miraculous 

virtue, and returned to take charge of the 

diocese of Llandaff in succession to Dyfrig. 

Almost immediately, however, the yellow 

plague (which is known to have caused the 

death of MaelgwnGwynedd about 547) began 

to rage in Britain, whereupon Teilo, at the 

bidding of an angel, withdrew to Brittany, 

spending some time on the way as the guest 

of King Geraint of Cornwall. When the 

plague was over it was his wish to return to 

this country, but, at the instance of King 

Budic and Bishop Samson [q.v.],he remained 

in Brittany for seven years and seven months. 

Returning at last to his bishopric, he became 

chief over all the churches of 'dextralis 

Britannia,' sending Ismael to fill the place 

of David at Menevia, and other disciples of 

his to new dioceses which he created. As 

his end drew near, three churches, viz. 

Penally, Llandaff, and Llandeilo Fawr 

(where he died), contended for the honour 

of receiving his corpse, but the dispute was 

settled by the creation of three bodies, a 



Teilo 



8 



Telfer 



miracle which is the subject of one of the 
triads (Myv. Arch. 1st ser. p. 44). 

This is the Llandaff account of Teilo, 
meant to bring out his position as second 
bishop of the see. In Rhygyfarch's ' Life of 
St. David,' written before 1099, Teilo ap- 
pears, on the other hand, as a disciple of 
that saint (Cambro-British Saints, pp. 124, 
135) ; and, according 1 to Giraldus Cambrensis 
(Itinerary, ii. 1, MS. d. vi. 102, of Rolls 
edit.), he was his immediate successor as 
bishop of St. David's. There is, however, 
no reason to suppose he was a diocesan 
bishop at all. Like others of his age, he 
founded monasteries (many of them bearing 
his name), and Llandaft' was perhaps the 
'archimonasterium' (for the term see Lib. 
Land. pp. 74, 75, 129) or parent house 
(Cummrodor, xi. 115-16). Dedications to St. 
Teilo are to be found throughout South 
Wales; Rees (Welsh Saints, pp. 245-6) 
gives a list of eighteen, and a number of 
other 'Teilo' churches, which have dis- 
appeared or cannot be identified, are men- 
tioned in the ' Liber Landavensis.' That 
David and Teilo worked together appears 
likely from the fact that of the eighteen 
Welsh dedications to Teilo all but three are 
within the region of David's activity, and 
outside that district between the Usk and 
the Tawy in which there are practically no 
' Dewi ' churches. 

There are no recognised dedications to 
Teilo in Cornwall or Devon, though Borlase 
seeks (Age of the Saints, p. 134) to connect 
him with Endellion, St. Issey, Philleigh, 
and other places. The two forms of the 
saint's name, Eliud and Teilo (old Welsh 
' Teliau ' ), are both old (see the marginalia 
of the ' Book of St. Chad,' as printed in the 
1893 edition of the Lib. Land.) Professor 
Rhys believes the latter to be a compound 
of the prefix ' to ' and the proper name Eliau 
or Eiliau (Arch. Cambr. 5th ser. xii. 37-8). 
Teilo's festival was 9 Feb. 

[Teilo is the subject of a life which appears 
in the Liber L-mda vensis (ed. 1893, pp. 97-117), 
in the portion written about 1150, and also in 
the Cottonian MS. Vesp. A. xiv. art. 4, which is 
of about 1200. In the latter manuscript the 
life is ascribed to ' Geoffrey, brother of bishop 
Urban of Llandaff,' whom Mr. Gwenogvryn 
Evans seeks (pref. to Lib. Land. p. xxi) to 
identify with Geoffrey of Monmouth. An 
abridged version, found, according to Hardy 
(Descriptive Catalogue, i. 132), in Cottonian 
MS. Tib. E. i. fol. 16, was ascribed to John of 
Tinmouth [q. v.], was used by Capgrave (Nova 
Legenda Angliae, p. 280 b), and taken from him 
by the Bollandists (Acta S3. Feb. 9, ii. 308) ; 
other authorities cited.] J. E. L. 



TELFAIR, CHARLES (1777P-1833), 
naturalist, was born at Belfast about 1777, 
and settled in Mauritius, where he practised 
as a surgeon. He became a correspondent of 
Sir William Jackson Hooker [q. v.], sending 
plants to Kew, and established the botanical 
gardens at Mauritius and Reunion. He also 
collected bones of the solitaire from Rodri- 
guez, which he forwarded to the Zoological 
Society and to the Andersonian Museum, 
Glasgow. In 1830 he published ' Some 
Account of the State of Slavery at Mauri- 
tius since the British Occupation in 1810, in 
Refutation of Anonymous Charges . . . 
against Government and that Colony,' Port 
Louis, 4to. He died at Port Louis on 
14 July 1833, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery there. There is an oil portrait of Tel- 
fair at the Masonic Lodge, Port Louis, and 
Hooker commemorated him by the African 
genus Telfairia in the cucumber family. 
His wife, who died in 1832, also communi- 
cated drawings and specimens of Mauritius 
algae to Hooker and Harvey. 

[Journal of Botany, 1834, p. 1 50; Strickland 
and Melville's Dodo and its Kindred, 1848, 
p. 52 ; Britten and Boulger's Biographical Index 
of Botanists.] G. S. B. 

TELFER, JAMES (1800-1862), minor 
poet, son of a shepherd, was born in the 
parish of Southdean, Roxburghshire, on 3 Dec. 
1800. Beginning life as a shepherd, he gra- 
dually educated himself for the post of a 
country schoolmaster. He taught first at 
Castleton,Langholm,Dumfriesshire, and then 
for twenty-five years conducted a small ad- 
venture school at Saughtrees, Liddisdale, 
Roxburghshire. On a very limited income 
he supported a wife and family, and found 
leisure for literary work. From youth he 
had been an admirer and imitator of James 
Hogg (1770-1835) [q. v.], the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, who befriended him. As a writer of 
the archaic and quaint ballad style illus- 
trated in Hogg's ' Queen's Wake,' Telfer 
eventually attained a measure of ease and 
even elegance in composition, and in 1824 
he published a volume entitled ' Border 
Ballads and Miscellaneous Poems.' The 
ballad, ' The Gloamyne Buchte,' descriptive 
of the potent influence of fairy song, is 
a skilful development of a happy concep- 
tion. Telfer contributed to Wilson's 'Tales 
of the Borders,' 1834, and in 1835 he pub- 
lished ' Barbara Gray,' an interesting prose 
tale. A selected volume of his prose and 
verse appeared in 1852. He died on 18 Jan. 
1862. 

[Rogprs's Modern Scottish Minstrel ; Grant 
Wilson's Poets and Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. 



Telford 



Telford 



TELFORD, THOMAS (1757-1834), engi- 
neer, was born on 9 Aug. 1757 at Westerkirk, 
a secluded hainlet of Eskdale, in Eastern 
Dumfriesshire. He lost his father, a shep- 
herd, a few months after his birth, and was 
left to the care of his mother, who earned 
a scanty living by occasional farm work. 
When he was old enough he herded cattle 
and made himself generally useful to the 
neighbouring farmers, and grew up so cheer- 
ful a boy that he was known as 'Laughing 
Tarn.' At intervals he attended the parish 
school of Westerkirk, where he learned 
nothing more than the three R's. He was 
about fifteen when he was apprenticed to a 
mason at Langholm, where a new Duke of 
Buccleuch was improving the houses and 
holdings of his tenantry, and Telford found 
much and varied work for his hands to do. 
His industry, intelligence, and love of read- 
ing attracted the notice of a Langholm lady, 
who made him free of her little library, and 
thus was fostered a love of literature which 
continued with him to the end of his busy 
life. ' Paradise Lost ' and Burns's ' Poems ' 
were among his favourite books, and from 
reading verse lie took to writing it. His ap- 
prenticeship was over, and he was working 
as a journeyman mason at eighteenpence a 
day, when at two-and-twenty he found his 
rhymes admitted into Ruddiman's ' Edin- 
burgh Magazine ' (see MAINE, Siller Gun, 
ed. 1836, p. 227). A poetical address to 
Burns entreating him to write more verse 
in the spirit of the ' Cotter's Saturday Night ' 
was found among Burns's papers after his 
death, and a portion of it was published in 
the first edition of Currie's ' Burns ' (1800, 
App. ii. note D). The most ambitious of 
Telford's early metrical performances was 
' Eskdale,' a poem descriptive of his native 
district, which was first published in the 
'Poetical Museum' (Hawick, 1784), and 
was reprinted by Telford himself with a 
few additions, and for private circulation, 
some forty years afterwards. Southey said 
of it, ' Many poems which evinced less obser- 
vation, less feeling, and were in all respects 
of less promise, have obtained university 
prizes.' 

Having learned in the way of his trade all 
that was to be learned in Eskdale, Telford 
removed in 1780 to Edinburgh, where the 
new town was in course of being built, and, 
skilled masons being in demand, he easily 
found suitable employment. He availed 
himself of the opportunities which his stay 
afforded him for studying and sketching 
specimens of the older architecture of Scot- 
land. After spending two years in Edinburgh 
he resolved on trying his fortune in London, 



whither he proceeded at the age of twenty- 
five. His first employment was as a hewer 
at Somerset House, then in course of erection 
by Sir William Chambers. Two years later, 
in 1784, Telford received a commission (it is 
not known how procured) to superintend the 
erection, among other buildings, of a house 
for the occupation of the commissioner of 
Portsmouth dockyard. Here he had op- 
portunities, which he did not neglect, for 
watching dockyard operations of various 
kinds, by a knowledge of which he profited 
in after life. His work in his own depart- 
ment gave great satisfaction. He amused 
his leisure by writing verses, and he improved 
it^ by studying chemistry. By the end of 
1786 his task was completed, and now a 
new and wider career was opened to him. 

One of Telford's Dumfriesshire acquaint- 
ances and patrons was a Mr. Johnstone of 
Westerhall, who assumed the name of Pul- 
teney on marrying a great heiress, the niece 
of William Pulteney, earl of Bath [q.v.l Be- 
fore Telford left London for Portsmouth Mr. 
(afterwards Sir William) Pulteney had con- 
sulted him respecting some repairs to be 
executed in the family mansion at Wester- 
hall, and took a great liking to his young 
countryman. Pulteney became through his 
wife a large landowner in the neighbour- 
hood of Shrewsbury, which he long repre- 
sented in parliament. When Telford's em- 
ployment at Portsmouth came to an end, 
Pulteney thought of fitting up the castle at 
Shrewsbury as a residence, and invited Tel- 
ford to Shrewsbury to superintend the 
required alterations. Telford accepted the 
invitation, and while he was working at the 
alterations the office of surveyor of public 
works for Shropshire became vacant. The 
appointment was bestowed on Telford, doubt- 
less through the influence of Pulteney. Of 
Telford's multifarious, important, and trying 
duties in this responsible and conspicuous 
position, it must suffice to say that he dis- 
charged them most successfully and made 
himself personally popular, so much so that 
in 1793, without solicitation on his part, he 
was appointed by the Shropshire county 
magnates sole agent, engineer, and architect 
of the Ellesmere canal, projected to connect 
the Mersey, the Dee, and the Severn. It 
was the greatest work of the kind then in 
course of being undertaken in the United 
Kingdom. On accepting the appointment 
Telford resigned the county surveyorship of 
Shropshire. His salary as engineer of the 
Ellesmere canal was only 500/. a year, and 
out of this he had to pay a clerk, a foreman, 
and his own travelling expenses. 

The labours of Telford as engineer of the 



Telford 



10 



Telford 



Ellesmere canal include two achievements 
which were on a scale then unparalleled in 
England and marked by great originality. 
The aqueducts over the valley of the Ceiriog 
at Chirk and over the Dee at Pont-Cysylltau 
have been pronounced by the chief English 
historian of inland navigation to be ' among 
the boldest efforts of human invention in 
modern times.' The originality of the concep- 
tion carried out lay in both cases not so much 
in the magnitude of the aqueducts, unprece- 
dented as this was, as in the construction of 
the bed in which the canal was carried over 
river and valley. A similar feat had been per- 
formed by Brindley, but he transported the 
water of the canal in a bed of puddled earth, 
and necessarily of a breadth which required 
the support of piers, abutments, and arches 
of the most massive masonry. In spite of 
this the frosts, by expanding the moist puddle, 
frequently produced fissures which burst the 
masonry, suffering the water to escape, and 
sometimes causing the overthrow of the 
aqueducts. For the bed of puddled earth 
Telford substituted a trough of cast-iron 
plates infixed in square stone masonry. Not 
only was the displacement produced by frosts 
averted, but there was a great saving in 
the size and strength of the masonry, an 
enormous amount of which would have been 
required to support a puddled channel at 
the height of the Chirk and Pont-Cysylltau 
aqueducts. The Chirk aqueduct consisted 
of ten arches of forty span each, carrying 
the canal 70 ft. above the level of the river 
over a valley 700 ft. wide, and forming a 
most picturesque object in a beautiful land- 
scape. On a still larger scale was the Pont- 
Cysylltau aqueduct over the Dee four miles 
north of Chirk and in the vale of Llangollen ; 
121 ft. over the level of the river at low 
water the canal was carried in its cast-iron 
trough, with a water-way 11 ft. 10 in. 
wide, and nineteen arches extending to the 
length of 1,007 ft. The first stone of the 
Chirk aqueduct was laid on 17 June 1796, 
and it was completed in 1801. The first 
stone of the other great aqueduct was laid on 
'2~> June 1795, and it was opened for traffic 
in 1805. Of this Pont-Cysylltau aqueduct 
Sir Walter Scott said to Southey that 'it 
was the most impressive work of art which 
he had ever seen ' (SMILES, p. 159). 

In 1800 Telford was in London giving 
evidence before a select committee of the 
House of Commons which was considering 
projects for the improvement of the port of 
London. One of these was the removal 
of the old London Bridge and the erection 
of a new one. While surveyor of public 
works for Shropshire Telford had had much 



experience in bridge-building. Of several 
iron bridges which he built in that county, 
the earliest, in 1795-8, was a very fine one 
over the Severn at Buildwas, about midway 
between Shrewsbury and Bridgnorth ; it con- 
sisted of a single arch of 130 feet span. He 
now proposed to erect a new London Bridge 
of iron and of a single arch. The scheme 
was ridiculed by many, but, after listening 
to the evidence of experts, a parliamentary 
committee approved of it, and the preliminary 
works were, it seems, actually begun. The 
execution of the bold project was not pro- 
ceeded with, on account, it is said, of difficul- 
ties connected with makingthe necessary ap- 
proaches (ib. p. 181). But Telford's plan of 
the new bridge was published in 1 801 , and pro- 
cured him favourable notice in high quarters, 
from the king and the Prince of Wales 
downwards. 

Telford's skill and energies were now to 
be utilised for an object very dear to him, 
the improvement of his native country. At 
the beginning of the century, at the instance 
of his old friend Sir William Pulteney, who 
was governor of the British Fisheries Society, 
he inspected the harbours at their various 
stations on the northern and eastern coasts 
of Scotland, and drew up an instructive and 
suggestive report. Telford's name was now 
well known in London, but doubtless this 
report contributed to procure him in 1801 a 
commission from the government to under- 
take a far wider Scottish survey. This step 
was taken from considerations partly con- 
nected with national defence. There was 
no naval station anywhere on the Scottish 
coasts, and an old project was being revived 
to make the great glen of Scotland, which 
cuts it diagonally from the Xorth Sea to the 
Atlantic, available as a water-way for ships 
of war as well as for traffic. The results of 
Telford's investigations were printed in an 
exhaustive report presented to parliament 
in 1803. Two bodies of commissioners were 
appointed to superintend and make provi- 
sion for carrying out his recommendations, 
which included the construction of the Cale- 
donian canal in the central glen already men- 
tioned, and, what was still more urgently 
needed, extensive road-making and bridge- 
building in the highlands and northern coun- 
ties of Scotland. Telford was appointed en- 
gineer of the Caledonian canal, the whole 
cost of which was tobedefrayed byparliamen- 
tary grants. The expenditure on the road- 
making and bridge-building, to be planned 
by him, was to be met only partly by parlia- 
mentary grants, government supplying one 
half of the money required wherever the land- 
owners were ready to contribute the other 



Telford 



Telford 



half. The landowners as a body cheerfully 
accepted this arrangement, while Telford 
threw himself body and soul into both enter- 
prises with a patriotic even greater than his 
customary professional zeal. 

The chief roads in the highlands and 
northern counties of Scotland had been made 
after the rebellions of 1715 and 1745 purely 
for military purposes, and were quite inade- 
quate as means of general communication. 
The usefulness, such as it was, of these 
military roads was moreover marred by the 
absence of bridges: for instance, over the 
Tay at Dunkeld and the Spey at Fochabers, 
these and other principal rivers having to be 
crossed by ferry-boats, always inconvenient 
and often dangerous. In mountainous dis- 
tricts the people were scattered in isolated 
clusters of miserable huts, without possibility 
of intercommunication, and with no industry 
so profitableas the illicit distillation of whisky. 
' The interior of the county of Sutherland 
being inaccessible, the only track lay along 
the shore among rocks and sands, which were 
covered by the sea at every tide.' In eighteen 
years, thanks to the indefatigable energy of 
Telford, to the prudent liberality of the 
government, and to the public spirit of the 
landowners, the face of the Scottish high- 
lands and northern counties was completely 
changed. Nine hundred and twenty miles 
of good roads and 1:20 bridges were added 
to their means of communication. In his 
survey of the results of these operations and 
of his labours on the Caledonian canal Tel- 
ford speaks not merely as an engineer, but as 
a social economist and reformer. Three thou- 
sand two hundred men had been annually 
employed, and taught for the first time the 
use of tools. ' These undertakings,' he said, 
' may be regarded in the light of a working 
academy, from which eight hundred men have 
annually gone forth improved workmen.' 
The plough of civilisation had been substi- 
tuted for the former crooked stick, with a 
piece of iron affixed to it, to be drawn or 
pushed along, and wheeled vehicles carried 
the loads formerly borne on the backs of 
women. The spectacle of habits of industry 
and its rewards had raised the moral standard 
of the population. According to Telford, 
' about 200,000/. had been granted in fifteen 
years,' and the country had been advanced 
' at least a century.' 

The execution of Telford's plans for the 
improvement of Scottish harbours and fish- 
ing stations followed on the successful in- 
ception of his road-making and bridge-build- 
ing. Of the more important of his harbour 
works, that at the great fishery station Wick, 
begun in 1808, was the earliest, while about 



the latest which he designed was that at 
Dundee in 1814. Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
Banff, Leith,the port of Edinburgh, are only 
a few of his works of harbour extension and 
construction which did so much for the com- 
merce and fisheries of Scotland, and in some 
cases his labours were facilitated by pre- 
vious reports on Scottish harbours made by 
Beanie [see RENNIE, JOHN, 1788-18211 
whose recommendations had not been carried 
out from a lack of funds. In this respect 
Telford was morel fortunate, considerable 
advances from the fund accumulated by the 
commissioners of forfeited estates in Scot- 
land being made to aid local contributions on 
harbour works. 

Of Telford's engineering enterprises in 
Scotland the most conspicuous, but far from 
the most useful, was the Caledonian canal. 
Though nature had furnished for it most of 
the water-way, the twenty or so miles of 
land which connected the various fresh-water 
lochs forming the main route of the canal, 
some sixty miles in length, stretched through 
a country full of engineering difficulties. 
Moreover the canal was planned on an un- 
usually large scale, for use by ships of war ; 
it was to have been 110 feet wide at the 
entrance. From the nature of the ground at 
the north-eastern and south-western termini 
of the canal immense labour was required 
to provide basins from which in all twenty- 
eight locks had to be constructed from the en- 
trance locks at each extremity, so as to reach 
the highest point on the canal a hundred 
feet above high-water mark. Between Loch 
Eil, which was to be the southernmost point 
of the canal, and the loch next to it on the 
north, Loch Lochy, the distance was only 
eight miles, but the difference between their 
levels was ninety feet. It was necessary to 
connect them by a series of eight gigantic 
locks, to which Telford gave the name of 
' Neptune's Staircase.' The works were com- 
menced at the beginning of 1804, but it was 
not until October 1822 that the first vessel 
traversed the canal from sea to sea. It had 
cost nearly a million sterling, twice the 
amount of the original estimate. Still worse, 
it proved to be almost useless in comparison 
with the expectations which Telford had 
formed of its commercial promise. This was 
the one great disappointment of his profes- 
sional career. His own theory for the finan- 
cial failure of the canal was that, while 
he had reckoned on a very profitable trade 
in timber to be conveyed from the Baltic to 
the western ports of "Great Britain and to 
Ireland, this hope was defeated by the policy 
of the government and of parliament in 
levying an almost prohibitory duty on Baltic 



Tclford 



12 



Telford 



timber in favour of that of Canada. He 
himself reaped little pecuniary profit from the 
time and labour which he devoted to the 
canal. As its engineer-in-chief during twenty- 
one years he received in that capacity only 
2371. per annum. 

AVhile engaged in these Scottish under- 
takings, Telford was also busily occupied in 
England. He had numerous engagements 
to construct and improve canals. In two 
instances he was called on to follow, with 
improved machinery and appliances, where 
Brindley had led the way. One was the sub- 
stitution of a new tunnel for that which had 
been made by Brindley, but had become in- 
adequate, at Harecastle Hill in Staffordshire 
on the Grand Junction canal ; another was 
the improvement, sometimes amounting to 
reconstruction, of Brindley's Birmingham 
canal, which at the point of its entrance into 
Birmingham had become ' little better than 
a crooked ditch.' Long before this Telford's 
reputation as a canal-maker had procured 
him a continental reputation. In 1808-10 
he planned and personally contributed to the 
construction of the Gotha canal, to complete 
the communication between the Baltic and 
the Xorth Sea. Presenting difficulties similar 
to those which he had overcome in the case 
of the Caledonian canal, the work was on 
a much larger scale, the length of the arti- 
ficial canal which had to be made to connect 
the lakes being 55 miles, and that of the 
whole navigation 120 miles. In Sweden he 
was feted as a public benefactor, and the 
king conferred on him the Swedish order of 
knighthood, honours of akind never bestowed 
on him at home. 

The improvement of old and the con- 
struction of new roads in England were re- 
quired by the industrial development of the 
country, bringing with it an increased need 
for safe and rapid postal communication. A 
parliamentary committee in 1814 having re- 
ported on the ruinous and dangerous state 
of the roads between Carlisle and Glasgow, 
the legislature found it desirable, from the 
national importance of the route, to vote 
50,000/. for its improvement. Sixty-nine miles, 
two-thirds of the new and improved road, 
were placed under Telford's charge, and, like 
all his English roads, it was constructed with 
a solidity greater than that obtained by the 
subsequent and more popular system of 
Macadam. Of Telford's other English road 
improvements the most noticeable were those 
through which the mountainous regions of 
North Wales were permeated by roads with 
their accompanying bridges, while through the 
creation of a new and safe route, under the 
direction of a parliamentary commission, from 



Shrewsbury to Holyhead, communication 
between London and Dublin, to say nothing 
of the benefits conferred on the districts 
traversed, was greatly facilitated. But the 
very increase of traffic thus caused made 
only more apparent the inconvenience and 
peril attached to the transit of passengers and 
goods in open ferry-boats over the dangerous 
straits of Menai. It was resolved that they 
should be bridged. The task having been 
entrusted to Telford, the execution of it was 
one of his greatest engineering achieve- 
ments. 

Telford's design for the Menai bridge was 
based on the suspension principle, of which 
few English engineers had hitherto made 
any practical trial. Telford's application of 
it at Menai was on a scale of enormous mag- 
nitude. When it had been approved by emi- 
nent experts, and recommended by a select 
committee of the House of Commons, parlia- 
ment granted the money required for the 
execution of the scheme. The main chains 
of wrought iron on which the roadway was 
to be laid were sixteen in number, and the 
distance between the piers which supported 
them was no less than 550 feet ; the pyra- 
mids, this being the form which the piers 
assumed at their utmost elevation, were 
53 feet above the level of the road- 
way, and the height of each of the two 
principal piers on which the main chains 
of the bridge were to be suspended was 
153 feet. The first stone of the main pier 
was laid in August 1819, but it was not 
until six years afterwards that things were 
sufficiently advanced for the difficult opera- 
tion of hoisting into position the first 
of the main chains, weighing 23 tons 
between the points of suspension. On 
26 April 1825 an enormous assemblage on 
the banks of the straits witnessed the opera- 
tion, and hailed its success with loud and 
prolonged cheering. Telford himself had 
come from London to Bangor to superintend 
the operations. Anxiety respecting their 
result had kept him sleepless for weeks. It 
is said that when on the eventful day some 
friends came to congratulate him on his 
success, they found him on his knees engaged 
in prayer. Soon afterwards, in 1826, Telford 
erected a suspension bridge on the same prin- 
ciple as that at Menai over the estuary of the 
Conway. 

During the speculative mania of 1825-6 
a good many railways were projected, among 
them one in 1825 for a line from London 
to Liverpool. The canal proprietors, alarmed 
at the threatened competition with their 
water-ways, consulted Telford, whose advice 
was that the existing canal systems should 



Telford 



Telford 



be made as complete as possible. Accordingly 
lie was commissioned to design the Bir- 
mingham and Liverpool junction from a 
point on the Birmingham canal near Wolver- 
hampton to Ellesmere Port on the Mersey, 
an operation by which a second communica- 
tion was established between Birmingham 
on the one hand, and Liverpool and Man- 
chester on the other. This was the last of 
Telford's canals. It is said that he declined 
the appointment of engineer to theprojected 
Liverpool and Manchester railway because 
it might injuriously aft'ect the interests of 
the canal proprietors. 

Among the latest works planned by Tel- 
ford. and executed after he was seventy, 
were the fine bridges at Tewkesbury (1826) ; 
a cast-iron bridge of one arch, and that at 
Gloucester (1828) of one large stone arch ; 
the St. Katherine Docks at London, opened 
in 1828; the noble Dean Bridge at Edinburgh 
(1831) ; the skilfully planned North Level 
drainage in the Fen country (1830-4) ; and 
the great bridge over the Clyde at Glasgow 
(1833-5), which was not opened until rather 
more than a year after Telford's death. His 
latest professional engagement was in 1834, 
when, at the request of the great Duke of 
Wellington, as lord warden of the Cinque 
ports, he visited Dover and framed a plan 
for the improvement of its harbour. 

During his latest years, when he had re- 
tired from active employment and deafness 
diminished his enjoyment of society, he drew 
up a detailed account of his chief engineering 
enterprises, to which he prefixed a fragment 
of autobiography. Telford was one of the 
founders, in 1818, of the society which be- 
came the Institute of Civil Engineers. He 
was its first president, and sedulously fostered 
its development, bestowing on it the nucleus 
of a library, and aiding strenuously in pro- 
curing for it a charter of incorporation in 
1828. The institute received from him its 
first legacy, amounting to 2,0001. 

Telford died at 24 Abingdon Street, West- 
minster, on 2 Sept. 1834. He was buried on 
10 Sept. in Westminster Abbey, near the 
middle of the nave. In the east aisle of the 
north transept there is a fine statue of him 
by Bailey. A portrait by Sir Henry Rae- 
burn belonged to Mrs. Burge in 1807 (Cat. 
of Portrait Exhibition at South Kensington, 
1808, No. 166). A second portrait, by Lane, 
belongs to the Institute of Civil Engineers. 

Although Telford was unmarried and his 
habits were inexpensive, he did not die rich. 
At the end of his career his investments 
brought him in no more than 800/. a year. 
He thought less of professional gain than 
of the benefits conferred on his country by 



his labours. So great) was his disinterested 
zeal for the promotion of works of public 
utility that in the case of the British Fisheries 
Society, the promoters of which were ani- 
mated more by public spirit than by the 
hope of profit, while acting for many years 
as its engineer he refused any remuneration 
for his labour, or even paym'ent for the ex- 

Giiditure which he incurred in its service, 
is professional charges were so moderate 
that, it is said, a deputation of representative 
engineers once formally expostulated with 
him on the subject (SMILES, p. 317). II- 
carried his indifference to money matters so 
far that, when making his will, he fancied 
himself worth only 16,OOOZ. instead of the 
30,0001. which was found to be the real 
amount. He was a man of a kindly and 
generous disposition. He showed his life- 
long attachment to his native district, the 
scene of his humble beginnings, not merely by 
reproducing as soon as he became prosperous 
the poem on Eskdale which he had written 
when he was a journeyman mason, but by 
remitting sums of money every winter for 
the benefit of its poorer inhabitants. He 
also bequeathed to aid in one case, and to 
establish in another, free public libraries at 
Westerkirk and Langholm in his native 
valley. 

Telford was of social disposition, a blithe 
companion, and full of anecdote. His per- 
sonality was so attractive as considerably to 
increase the number of visitors to and cus- 
tomers of the Salopian coffee-house, after- 
wards the Ship hotel, which for twenty-one 
years he made his headquarters in London. 
He came to be considered a valuable fixture 
of the establishment. When he left it to 
occupy a house of his own in Abingdon 
Street, a new landlord of the Salopian, who 
had just entered into possession, was indig- 
nant. 'What!' he exclaimed, 'leave tli- 
house ? Why, sir, I have just paid 7oO/. for 
you ! ' (SMILES, p. 302). 

Telford's love of literature and of verse- 
writing clung to him from his early days. 
At one of the busiest periods of his life he 
is found now criticising Goethe and Kot- 
zebue, now studying Dugald Stewart on the 
human mind and Alison on taste. He was 
the warm friend of Thomas Campbell and of 
Southey. He formed a strong attachment 
to Campbell after the appearance of the 
' Pleasures of Hope,' and acted to him ns hi-j 
helpful mentor. Writing to Dr. Currie in 
1802, Campbell says: 'I have become ac- 
quainted with Telford the engineer ; a fellow 
of infinite humour and of strong enterprising 
mind. He has almost made me a bridge- 
builder already ; at least he has inspired me 



Telford 

with new sensations of interest in the im- 
provement and ornament of our country. . . . 
Telford is a most useful cicerone in London. 
He is so universally acquainted and so popu- 
lar in his manners that he can introduce one 
to all kinds of novelty and all descriptions 
of interesting society.' Campbell is said to 
have been staying with Telford at the Salo- 
pian when writing ' Hohenlinden,' and to 
have adopted ' important emendations ' sug- 
gested by Telford (SMILES, p. 384). Telford 
became godfather to his eldest son, and be- 
queathed Campbell 500/. He left a legacy 
of the same amount to Southey, to whom it 
came very seasonably, and who said of Tel- 
ford, 'A man more heartily to be liked, more 
worthy to be esteemed and admired, I have 
never fallen in with.' There is an agreeable 
account by Southey of a tour which he made 
with Telford in the highlands and far north 
of Scotland in 1819. He records in it the 
vivid impressions made on him by Telford's 
roads, bridges, and harbours, and by what 
was then completed of the Caledonian canal. 
Extracts from Southey's narrative were first 
printed by Dr. Smiles in his ' Life of Telford.' 
Southey's last contribution to the ' Quarterly 
Review ' (March 1839) was a very genial 
and appreciative article on Telford's career 
and character. 

Southey's article was a review of an 
elaborate work which appeared in 1838, as 
the ' Life of Thomas Telford, Civil Engineer, 
written by himself, containing a Descriptive 
Narrative of his Professional Labours, 
with aFolio Atlas and Copper Plates, edited 
by John Rickman, one of his Executors, 
with a Preface, Supplement, Annota- 
tions, and Index.' In this volume Telford's 
accounts of his various engineering enter- 
prises, great and small, are ample and 
luminous. Rickman added biographical 
traits and anecdotes of Telford. The sup- 
plement contains many elucidations of his 
professional career and a few of his personal 
character, among the former being his re- 
ports to parliament, &c., and those of par- 
liamentary commissioners under whose su- 
pervision some of the most important of 
his enterprises were executed. In one of 
the appendices his poem on ' Eskdale ' is 
reprinted. There is also a copy of his will. 
' Some Account of the Inland Navigation 
of the County of Salop ' was contributed by 
Telford to Archdeacon Plymley's ' General 
View of the Agriculture of Shropshire' 
(London, 1802). He also wrote for Sir 
David Brewster's ' Edinburgh Encyclo- 
psedia,' to the production of which work he 
gave financial assistance, the articles on 
' Bridges,' ' Civil Architecture,' and 'Inland 



* Tempest 

Navigation ; ' in the first of these, presum- 
ably from his want of mathematical know- 
ledge, he was assisted by A. Nimmo. 

[The personal as distinguished from the pro- 
fessional autobiography of Telford given in the 
volume edited by Rickman is meagre, and ceases 
with his settlement at Shrewsbury. The one 
great authority for Telford's biography is Dr. 
Smiles's Life, 1st ed. 1861; 2nd ed. 1867 (to 
which all the references in the preceding article 
are made). Dr. Smiles threw much new and in- 
teresting light on Telford's personal character, 
as well as on his professional career, by publish- 
ing for the first time extracts from Telford's 
letters to his old schoolfellow in Eskdale, 
Andrew Little of Langholm. There is a valuable 
article by Sir David Brewster on Telford as an 
engineer in the 'Edinburgh Review' for Octo- 
ber 1839. Telford as a road-maker is dealt 
with exhaustively in Sir Henry Parnell's 
Treatise on Roads, wherein the Principles on 
which Roads should be made are explained and 
illustrated by the Plans, Specifications, and 
Contracts made use of by Thomas Telford, Esq., 
London, 1833.] F. E. 

TELYNOG (1840-1865), Welsh poet. 
[See EVANS, THOMAS.] 

TEMPEST, PIERCE (1653-1717), 
printseller, born at Tong, Yorkshire, in July 
1653, was the sixth son of Henry Tempest 
of Tong by his wife, Mary Bushall, and 
brother of Sir John Tempest, first baronet. It 
is said that he was a pupil and assistant of 
Wenceslaus Hollar [q. v.], and some of the 
prints which bear his name as the publisher 
have been assumed to be his own work ; but 
there is no actual evidence that he ever 
practised engraving. Establishing himself 
in the Strand as a book and print seller about, 
1680, Tempest issued some sets of plates of 
birds and beasts etched by Francis Place and 
John Griffier from drawings by Francis Bar- 
low ; a few mezzotint portraits by Place and 
others, chiefly of royal personages ; and a 
translation of C. Ripa's ' Iconologia,' 1709. 
But he is best known by the celebrated ' Cryes 
of the City of London,' which he published 
in 1711, a series of seventy-four portraits, 
from drawings by Marcellus Laroon the 
elder [q. v.], of itinerant dealers and other 
remarkable characters who at that time fre- 
quented the streets of the metropolis; the 
plates were probably all engraved by John 
Savage (Jl. 1690-1700) [q. v.], whose name 
appears upon one of them. Tempest died 
on 1 April 1717, and was buried at St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, London. There is a mezzo- 
tint portrait of him by Place, after G. Heems- 
kerk, with the motto 'Cavetevobis principes,' 
and the figure of a nonconformist minister 
in the ' Cryes ' is said to represent him. 



Temple 



Temple 



[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Chaloner Smith's 
?ritish Mezzotinto Portraits ; Dodd's manuscript 
;Iist. of Engravers in Brit. Mus. (Addit. MS. 
3406); information from Major Tempest of 
Sroughton Hall.] F. M. O'D. 

TEMPLE, EARL. [See GRANVILLE, Ri- 
IIAKD TEMPLE, 1711-1779.] 

i TEMPLE, HEXRY, first VISCOTJNT 
ALMERSTOX(1673?-1757), born about 1673, 
as the eldest surviving son of Sir John 
"emple, speaker of the Irish House of Com- 
i ions [see under TEMPLE, SIR JOHN]. On 
1 Sept. 1680, when about seven years old, he 
as appointed, with Luke King, chief remem- 
rancer of the court of exchequer in Ireland, 
IT their joint lives, and on King's death the 
rant was renewed to Temple and his son 
enry for life (G June 1716). It was then 
orth nearly 2,000/. per annum (SwiFT, 
'orks, 1883 ed. vi. 416). Temple was 
eated, on 12 March 1722-3, a peer of Ire- 
nd as Baron Temple of Mount Temple, co. 
ligo, and Viscount Palmerston of Palmer- 
on, co. Dublin. He sat in the English 
louse of Commons for East Grinstead, 
issex, 1727-34, Bossiney, Cornwall, 1734- 
41, and Weobly, Herefordshire, 1741-47, 
d was a supporter of Sir Robert "Walpole's 
Iniinistration. In the interest of Walpole 
offered Dr. William Webster in 1734 a 
rown pension of 300 /.per annum if he would 
urn the ' Weekly Miscellany ' into a mini- 
terial paper (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, v. 162). 
sir Charles Hanbury Williams wrote several 
skits upon ' Little Broadbottom Palmerston ' 
Works, i. 189, ii. 265, iii. 36). He was cured 
t Bath in 1736 of a severe illness (WILLIAM 
LIVER, Practical Essay on Warm Bathing, 
nd edit. pp. 60-2). Palmerston added the 
garden front to the house at East Sheen 
XYSOXS, Environs, i. 371), and greatly im- 
proved the mansion of Broadlands, near Rom- 
ey, Hampshire (Hist. MSS. Comm. 14th 
Rep. App. ix. 251). The volume of ' Poems 
on several Occasions' (1736) by Stephen Duck 
"q. v.l, the 'thresher,' patronised by Queen 
Caroline, includes 'A Journey to Maryborough, 
'ath,' inscribed to Viscount Palmerston. 
'art of the poem describes a feast given by 
he peer annually on 30 June to the threshers 
f the village of Charlton, between Pewsey 
nd Amesbury, Wiltshire, in honour of 
uck, a native of that place. The dinner is 
till given every year, and its cost is partly 
rovided from the rent of a piece of land 
iven by Lord Palmerston. 
Palmerston was a correspondent of the 
uchess of Marlborough, and some angry 
tters passed between him and Swift in 
anuary 1725-6 ( Works, 1883 edit. xvii. 23- 



29). He helped Bishop Berkeley in his 
scheme concerning the island of St. Chris- 
topher (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App 
p. 242), and he presented to Eton College 
in 1750 four large volumes on ' iraldrr 
which had been painted for Ilemv VIII by 
John Tirol (id. 9th Rep. App. i. 357). He 
died at Chelsea on 10 June 1757, aged 84. 

He married, first, Anne, only daughter 'of 
Abraham Houblon, governor of the Bank of 
England. She died on 8 Dec. 1735, having 
had issue, with other children, a son Henry 
who married, on 18 June 1735, Elizabeth' 
eldest daughter of Colonel Lee, whose widow, 
Lady Elizabeth, had become in May 1731 
the wife of Edward Young the poet. 'llmry 
Temple's wife died of consumption at Mont- 
pellier, on her way to Nice, in October 17:;ii. 
He was usually considered the Philander, 
and his wife was cei iainly the Narcissa, of 
Young's ' Night Thoughts'' (Night iii.) As 
a protestant she was denied Christian burial 
at Montpellier, and was finally buried in the 
old protestant burial-ground of the Ilotel- 
Dieu at Lyons, 729 livres having been paid 
for permission to inter her remains there 
(MURRAY, Handbook to France, 1892, ii. 27). 
The widower married, on 12 Sept. 1738, Jane, 
youngest daughter of Sir John Barnard [q.v.j, 
lord mayor of London, and left at his decease, 
on 18 Aug. 1740, Henry Temple, second vis- 
count Palmerston [q.'v.] The first Lord 
Palmerston married as his second wife, 
11 May 1738, Isabella, daughter of Sir 
Francis Gerard, bart., and relict of Sir John 
Fryer, bart. She died on 10 Aug. 1762. 

[Burke's Extinct Peerage; Lodge's Irish Peer- 
age, ed. Archdall, v. 240-4 ; Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Eesristers, pp. 7, 382 ; Johnson's 
Poets, ed. Cunningham, iii. 330-2.] W. P. C. 

TEMPLE, HENRY, second VISCOUNT 
PALMERSTON (1739-1802), son of Henry 
Temple (d. 1 740) by his second wife, and 
grandson of Henry, first viscount [q. v.], was 
born on 4 Dec. 1739. At a by-election on 
28 May 1762, he was returned to parliament 
in the interest of the family of Buller for the 
Cornish borough of East Looe, and sat for 
it until 1768. He subsequently represented 
the constituencies of Southampton (176.^ 7 ! , 
Hastings (1774-80 and 1780-84), Borough- 
bridge in Yorkshire (1784-90), Newport, Isle 
of Wight (1790-96), and Winchester (1796 
to death). He seconded the address in !).- 
cember 1765. In the same month he was 
appointed to a seat at the board of trade. 
From September 1766 to December 1777 he 
was a lord of the admiralty, and from the 
latter date to the accession of the Rockingha in 
ministry in March 1782 he was a lord of the 



Temple 



16 



Temple 



treasury. He was a member of the com- 
mittee nominated by Lord North in Novem- 
ber 1772 to inquire into the affairs of the 
East India Company, but he did not attain 
to distinction in political life. 

Throughout his life Palmerston was fond 
of travel, of social life, and of the company of 
distinguished men. He was walking with 
"Wilkes in the streets of Paris in 1763 when 
the patriot was challenged by a Scotsman 
serving in the French army. Late in the 
same year he passed through Lausanne, when 
Gibbon praised his scheme of travel and pro- 
phesied that he would derive great improve- 
ment from it. Ho was elected a member of 
the Catch Club in 1771, and Gibbon dined 
with him on 20 May 1776 at <a great dinner 
of Catches.' He was created a D.C.L. of 
Oxford on 7 July 1773. At his first nomina- 
tion on 1 July 1783 for ' The Club ' he was, 
against Johnson's opinion, rejected ; but on 
10 Feb. 1784 he was duly elected (BOSWELL, 
ed. Napier, iv. 163). A letter from him in 
1777 is in Garrick's ' Correspondence ' (ii. 
270-1) ; Sir Joshua Reynolds often dined 
at his house, and Palmerston was one of the 
pall-bearers at the funerals of Garrick and 
Reynolds. Under the will of Sir Joshua 
he had the second choice of any picture 
painted by him, and he selected the ' Infant 
Academy.' 

AVilliam Pars [q. v.] accompanied Palmer- 
ston to the continent in 1767, and made many 
drawings of scenes which they visited. When 
at Spa they met Frances, only daughter of Sir 
Francis Poole, bart., of Poole Hall, Chester. 
She was ten years older than Lord Palmer- 
ston, but ' agreeable, sensible, and so clever,' 
that, although he desired a fortune and she 
was poor, he married her on 6 Oct. 1767 
(MRS. OSBORIT, Letters, p. 174; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. vii. 340). She died at the 
Admiralty, Whitehall, London, on 1 June 
1769, having had a daughter born on 17 May, 
and was buried in a vault under the abbey 
church of Romsey, Hampshire. A mural 
tablet to her memory, with an inscription in 
prose by her husband, was placed under its 
west window. His lines on her death, be- 
ginning with the words 

Whoe'er, like me, with trembling anguish brings 
His heart's whole treasure to fair Bristol's springs, 

have been much admired, and are often 
attributed to Mason. 

Palmerston married, as his second wife, at 
Bath, on 5 Jan. 1783, Mary, daughter of 
Benjamin Thomas Mee, and sister of Benja- 
min Mee, director of the Bank of England ; 
like her husband, she revelled in society. The 
house at Sheen, their favourite resort, is de- 



scribed as ' a prodigious, great, magnificent 
old-fashioned house, with pleasure-grounds 
of 70 acres, pieces of water, artificial mounts, 
and so forth ;' and their assemblies at the 
town house in Hanover Square were famous 
(DR. BURNEY, Memoirs, iii. 271-2). No 
schoolboy was ' so fond of a breaking-up as 
Lord Palmerston is of a j unket and pleasur- 
ing.' Their life is made a ' toil of pleasure.' 

Early in April 1802 Palmerston was very 
ill, but 'in good spirits, cracking his jokes 
and reading from morning to night.' He 
died of an ossified throat at his house in 
Hanover Square, London, on 16 April 1802. 
His widow died at Broadlands (the family 
seat near Romsey, Hampshire, which Palmer- 
ston had greatly enlarged and adorned) on 
20 Jan. 1805. Both of them were buried iii 
the vault under Romsey church, and against 
the west wall of the nave a monument, by 
Flaxinan, was erected to their memory. Of 
their large family, the eldest was the states- 
man, Henry John Temple, third viscounjt 
Palmerston [q.v.] 

Palmerston's ' Diary in France during July 
and August 1791 ' was published at Cam- 
bridge in 1885 as an appendix to ' The Des- 
patches of Earl Gower, English Ambassador 
at Paris ' (ed. 0. Browning). 

Verses by Lord Palmerston are in Lady 
Miller's ' Poetical Amusements at a Villa 
near Bath ' (i. 12, 52-7, 60-3), the ' Newj 
Foundling Hospital for Wit ' (i. 51-9), and; 
Walpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors ' (edj 
Park, v. 327-8). Those in the first of these 1 
collections are described by Walpole as 'very, 
pretty' (Letters, vi. 171), but they were) 
ridiculed by Tickell in his satire, 'Thei 
Wreath of Fashion.' His mezzotint portraits 
were sold by Christie & Manson in May 
1890; his pictures in April 1891. 

[Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. Archdall, v. 244 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1802 i.: 
381, 1805 p. 95; Spence's Romsey Church, pp.j 
40-2 ; Brayley and Britton's Beauties of Eng- 
land and Wales, vi. 223 ; Pratt's Harvest Home,i 
i. 78 ; Courtney's Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, p.; 
124 ; Grenville Papers, i. 443-6 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 382, v. 620, 3rd ser. i. 388 ; 
Walpole's Journals, 1771-1783, i. 168, ii. 174 ;' 
Croker Papers, i. 17; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes,! 
vii. 4 ; Wooll's Warton, p. 84 ; Walpole's Letters,' 
vi. 178, 217, 269-70, vii. 54; Alger's English- 
men in the French Revolution, pp. 105-7; Chat- 
ham Corresp. ii. 350 ; Lord Minto's Life, passim ; 
Gibbon's Letters, i. 50,283; Leslie and TaylorV 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, i. 380, 386, ii. 53, 414, 632', 
636.] W. P. C. 

\ TEMPLE, HENRY JOHN, third VIS- 
COUNT PALMERSTON in the peerage of Ire- 
land (1784-1865), statesman, was the eldex 



Temple 17 



Temple 



son of Henry Temple, second viscount [q. v.], 
by his second wife, Mary, daughter of Ben- 
jamin Thomas Mee of Bath. He was born 
at his father's English estate, Broadlands, 
Hampshire, on 20 Oct. 1784. Much of his 
childhood was spent abroad, chiefly in Italy, 
and at home his education was begun by an 
Italian refugee named Kavizzotti; but in 
1795 he entered Harrow, where he rose to 
be a monitor, and thrice ' declaimed ' in 
Latin and English at speeches in 1800. 
Althorp and Aberdeen were among his 
schoolfellows. In 1800 he w r as sent to Edin- 
burgh to board with Dugald Stewart [q. v.l 
and attend his lectures. Here, says Lord 
Palmerston (in a fragment of autobiography 
written in 1830), ' I laid the foundation for 
whatever useful knowledge and habits of 
mind I possess.' Stewart gave him a very 
high character in every respect ; and to moral 
qualities the boy added the advantage of a 
strikingly handsome face and figure, which 
afterwards procured him the nickname of 
1 Cupid ' among his intimates. From Edin- 
burgh he proceeded to Cambridge, where he 
was admitted to St. John's College on 4 April 
1803 (Register of the College). Dr. Outram, 
afterwards a canon of Lichfield, was his 
private tutor, and commended his pupil's 
* regularity of conduct.' At the college ex- 
aminations Henry Temple was always in 
the first class, and he seems to have regarded 
the Cambridge studies as somewhat ele- 
mentary after his Edinburgh training. He 
joined the Johnian corps of volunteers, and 
thus early showed his interest, never abated, 
in the national defences. He did not matri- 
culate in the university till 27 Jan. 1806, 
and on the same day he proceeded master of 
arts without examination, jure natalium, 
as was then the privilege of noblemen (Rey. 
Univ. Cambr.} By this time he had suc- 
ceeded to the Irish peerage on his father's 
death on 16 April 1802. 

In 1806, while still only an ' inceptor,' he 
stood in the tory interest for the seat of 
burgess for the university, vacant by the death 
of Pitt, and, though Lord Henry Petty won 
the contest, Palmerston was only seventeen 
votes below Althorp, the second candidate. 
In the same year, at the general election, 
he was returned for Horsham at a cost of 
1,500Z. ; but there was a double return, and 
he was unseated on petition 20 Jan. 1807. 
After again contesting Cambridge University 
in May 1807, and failing by only four votes, 
he soon afterwards found a seat at Newtown, 
Isle of Wight, a pocket borough of Sir 
Leonard Holmes, who exacted the curious 
stipulation that the candidate, even at elec- 
tions, should ' never set foot in the place.' 

VOL. LTI. 



By the influence of his guardian, Lord 
Malmesbury, he had already (3 April 1807) 
been appointed a lord of the admiralty in 
the Portland administration, and his first 
speech (3 Feb. 1808) related to a naval 
measure. He rose to defend the government 
against an attack directed upon them for 
not laying before the house full papers on 
the recent expedition to Denmark. The 
speech was a vindication of the necessity of -.4 
secrecy in diplomatic correspondence. Al- \/ 
though a rare and only on great occasions 
an eloquent speaker, he was a close observer 
of current political movements, and a journal 
which he kept from 1806 to 1808 shows that 
he early devoted particular attention to 
foreign affairs. In October 1809 the new 
prime minister, Spencer Perceval, offered Pal- 
merston conditionally the choice of the post 
of chancellor of the exchequer, of a junior 
lordship of the treasury with an understood 
succession to the exchequer, or of secretary 
at war with a seat in the cabinet. The 
young man consulted Lord Malmesbury and 
other friends, but he had already made up 
his mind. He clearly realised the dangers 
of premature promotion, and accordingly de- 
clined the higher office, accepting the post 
of secretary at war, but without a seat in 
the cabinet. He was sworn of the privy 
council on 1 Xov. 1H):. 

Palmerston entereTT upon his duties at the 
war office on 27 Oct. 1809, and held his 
post for nearly twenty years (till 1828) 
under the five administrations respectively 
of Perceval, Lord Liverpool, Canning, Lord 
Goderich, and (for a few months) the Duke 
of Wellington. Apparently he was content 
with his work, for he successively declined 
Lord Liverpool's offers of the post of chief 
secretary for Ireland, governor-general <>!' 
India, and the post office with an English 
peerage. Like not a few English statesmen 
of high family and social tastes, he had at 
that time little ambition, and performed his 
official labours more as a duty to his country 
than as a step to power. He was, in fact, a 
man of fashion, a sportsman, a bit of a dandy, 
a light of Almack's, and all that this implied ; 
also something of a wit, writing parodies 
for the ' New Whig Guide.' His steady at- 
tachment to his post is the more remarkable, 
since the duties of the secretary at war were 
mainly concerned with dreary financial cal- 
culations, while the secretary for war con- 
trolled the military policy. Palmerston 
held that it was his business to stand be- 
tween the spending authorities i.e. the 
secretary for war and the commander-m- 
chief and the public, and to control and 
economise military expenditure in the best 








Temple 



18 



Temple 



interests of the country without jeopardising 
the utmost, efficiency of its troops and de- 
fences. In the same way he maintained 
the ' right of entree to the closet,' or personal 
access to the sovereign, which his prede- 
cessor had surrendered in favour of the com- 
mander-in-chief. Besides asserting the rights 
of his office, Palmerston had a laborious task 
in removing the many abuses which had 
crept into the administration of his depart- 
ment. In the House of Commons he spoke 
only on matters concerning his office, and 
maintained absolute silence upon Liverpool's 
repressive measures. Some of his official 
reforms excited the animosity of interested 
persons, and a mad lieutenant, Davis, at- 
tempted to assassinate him on the steps of 
the war office on 8 April 1818. Fortunately 
the ball inflicted only a slight wound in 
the hip, and Palmerston, with characteristic 
magnanimity, paid counsel to conduct the 
prisoner's defence. 

During nearly the whole of his tenure of 
the war office he sat as a burgess for Cam- 
bridge University, for which he was first 
returned in March 1811, and was re-elected 
in 1812, 1818, 1820, and 1826, the last time 
after a keen contest with Goulburn. He 
was once more returned for Cambridge in 
December 1830, but was rejected in the fol- 
lowing year on account of his resolute sup- 
port of parliamentary reform. He complained 
that members of his own government used 
their influence against him, and recorded 
that this was the beginning of his breach 
with the tories. His next seat was Bletch- 
ingley, Surrey (18 July 1831), and when 
this disappeared in the Reform Act he was 
returned for South Hampshire (15 Dec. 
1832). Rejected by the South Hampshire 
electors in 1834, he remained without a seat 
till 1 June 1835, when he found a quiet and 
steadfast constituency in Tiverton, of which 
he continued to be member up to his death, 
thirty years later. 

With the accession of Canning to power 
in 1827, Palmerston received promises of 
promotion. Although as foreign secretary 
Canning had found his colleague remarkably 
silent, and complained that he could not drag 
'that three-decker Palmerston into action' 
except when his own war department was the 
subject of discussion, the new prime minister 
did not hesitate to place him in the cabinet, 
and even to offer him the office of chancellor 
of the exchequer, as Perceval had done nearly 
twenty years before. The king, however, dis- 
liked Palmerston, and Canning had to revoke 
his promise. Palmerston took the change of 
plan with his usual good temper ; but when, 
some time afterwards, Canning offered him 



(at the king's suggestion, he explained) the go- 
vernorship of Jamaica, Palmerston ' laughed 
so heartily ' in his face that Canning 'looked 
quite put out. and I was obliged to grow 
serious again ' (autobiographical fragment in 
ASHLEY'S Life of Palmerston, ed. 1879, i. 
105-8). Palmerston's jolly ' Ha, ha ! ' was 
a thing to be remembered. Presently Can- 
ning offered him the governor-generalship 
of India, as Lord Liverpool had done before, 
but it was declined on the score of climate and 
health. After the prime minister's sudden 
death (8 Aug. 1827) and the brief admini- 
stration of ' Goody Goderich,' which expired 
six months later [see ROBIXSON, FREDERICK 
JOHN], Canning's supporters, including Pal- 
merston, resolved ' as a party' to continue 
in the Duke of Wellington's government. 
The differences, however, between the 
' friends of Mr. Canning ' and the older school 
of tories the 'pig-tails,' as Palmerston 
called them were too deep-rooted to permit 
an enduring alliance, and in four months 
(May 1828), on the pretext of the East 
Retford bill, the Canningites left the govern- 
ment, as they had entered it, ' as a party.' 

( 'mining's influence moulded Palmerstou's 
political convictions, especially on foreign 
policy. Canning's principles governed Pal- 
merston's conduct of continental relations 
throughout his life. The inheritance of a 
portion of Canning's mantle explains the 
isolation and independence of Palmerston's 
position duringnearly the whole of his career. 
He never belonged strictly to any party or 
faction. Tories thought him too whiggish, 
and whigs suspected him of toryism, and he 
certainly combined some of the principles of 
both parties. The rupture between the Can- 
ningites and the tories threw the former 
into the arms of the whigs, and after 1828 
Palmerston always acted with them, some- 
times in combination with the Peelites or 
liberal-conservatives. But though he acted 
with whigs, and liked them and agreed with 
them much more than with the tories (as 
he wrote to his brother, Sir William Temple, 
18 Jan. .1828), he never was a true whig, 
much less a true liberal. He pledged him- 
self to no party, but judged every question 
on its merits. 

During the two years of opposition in the 
House of Commons, Palmerston's attention 
was closely fixed upon the continental com- 
plications, especially in Portugal and Greece. 
On 1 June 1829 he made his first great speech 
on foreign affairs, his first public declaration 
of foreign policy, and his first decided ora- 
torical success. He denounced the govern- 
ment's countenance of Dom Miguel, lamented 
that England had not shared with France 



Temple 



Temple 



the honour of expelling the Egyptians from 
the Morea, and ridiculed the absurdity of 
creating ' a Greece which should contain 
neither Athens, nor Thebes, nor Marathon, 
nor Salamis, nor Platrea, nor Thermopylae, 
nor Missolonghi.' In home affairs he interfered 
but little. Since 1812 he had consistently 
advocated and voted for catholic emancipa- 
tion; he had voted against the dissenters' 
disabilities bill in 1828 because no provision 
had been made on behalf of the Iloman 
catholics ; and in the great debate of 1829 
he spoke (18 March) with much spirit on be- 
half of emancipation, which he predicted, in 
his sanguine way, would ' give peace to Ire- 
land.' His influence and reputation had by 
this time grown so considerable that the 
Duke of Wellington twice sought his co- 
operation in 1830 as a member of his cabinet ; 
but, apart from other differences, Palmer- 
ston's -advocacy of parliamentary reform 
made any such alliance impossible. 

Whenf Loxd Grey formed his administra- 
tion in 1830 Palmerston became (22 Nov.) 
secretary of state for foreign affairs, and he 
held the office for the next eleven years con- 
tiuously, except for the four months (De- 
cember 1834 to April 1835) during which 
Sir Robert Peel was premier. His first 
negotiation was one of the most difficult 
and perhaps the most successful of all. The 
Belgians, smarting under the tyranny of the 
Dutch and inspirited by the Paris revolu- 
tion of July, v had risen on 28 Aug. 1830, 
and severed the factitious union of the 
Netherlands which the Vienna congress had 
set up as a barrier against French expansion. 
The immediate danger was that Belgium, 
if defeated by Holland, would appeal to the 
known sympathy of France, and French as- 
sistance might develop into French annexa- 
tion, or at least involve the destruction of 
the barrier fortresses. -The Belgians were 
fully aware of England's anxiety on this 
point, and played their cards with skill. 
Lord Aberdeen, who was at the foreign office 
when the revolution took place, wisely sum- 
moned a conference of the representatives of 
the five powers, when it became evident 
that the autocratic states, Eussia, Austria, 
and Prussia, were all for maintaining the 
provisions of the treaty of 1815, and Russia 
even advocated a forcible restoration of the 
union. They agreed, however, in arranging 
an armistice between the belligerents pend- 
ing negotiations. Palmerston, coming into 
office in November, saw that the Belgians 
could not go longer in double harness, and, 
supported by France, he succeeded within a 
month in inducing the conference to consent 
(20 Dec.) to the independence of Belgium 



as a neutral state guaranteed by the powers 
who all pledged themselves to seek no in- 
crease of territory in connection with tin- 
new arrangement. If it was difficult to get 
the autocratic powers to agree to the sepa- 
ration, it was even harder to persuade France 
to sign the self-denying clause, and the at- 
tainment of both objects is a striking te-ti- 
mony to Palmerston's diplomatic driB. Th- 
articles of peace were signed by the five 
powers on 27 Jan. 1831. The Dutch ac- . 
cepted but the Belgians refused them, and, 
in accordance with their policy of playing oil' 
France against England, they proceeded to 
elect as their king Louis-Philippe's son, the 
Due de Nemours. Palmerston immediately 
informed the French government that the 
acceptance of the Belgian crown by a French 
prince meant war with England, and he 
prevailed upon the conference still sitting 
in London to agree to reject any candidate 
who belonged to the reigning families of the 
five powers. France alone stood out, and 
some irritation was displayed at Paris, inso- 
much that Palmerston bad to instruct our 
ambassador (15 Feb. 1831) to inform Se- 
bastiani that ' our desire for peace will 
never lead us to submit to affront either 
in language or in act.' So early had the 
' Palmerstonian style ' been adopted. Louis- 
Philippe had the sense to decline the offer 
for his son, and, after further opposition, 
the Belgians elected Prince Leopold as their 
king, and accepted the London articles 
(slightly modified in their favour) on Pal- 
merston's ultimatum of 29 May. It was now 
the turn of the Dutch to refuse; they re- 
newed the war and defeated the Belgian 
army. France went to the rescue, and the 
dangers of French occupation again con- 
fronted the cabinet. It demanded the 



combination of tact and firmness on the part 
of Palmerston to secure on lo Sept. !>.'!L' 
the definite promise of the unconditional 
withdrawal of the French army. (,)n 15 Nov. 
a final act of separation was signed by the 
conference, and, after some demur, accept, d 
by Belgium. Holland still held out, and 
Antwerp was bombarded by theFrench, while 
an English squadron blocked the Scheldt. 
The city surrendered on 23 Dec. !>"-' ; tin- 
French army withdrew according to en- 
gagement; five of the frontier fortr 
were dismantled without consultation with 
France; and Belgium was thenceforward 
free. The independence of Belgium ha- 
been cited as the most enduring monument 
of Palmerston's diplomacy. It was the tirst 
stone dislodged from the portentous fabric 
erected by the congress of Vienna, and tin- 
change has stood the test of time. Belgium 

C - 






Temple 



20 



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was the only continental state, save Russia, 
that passed through the storm of 1848 un- 
moved. 

Palmerston had always taken a sympa- 
thetic interest in the struggle of the Greeks for 
independence, and had opposed in the Wei- j 
lington cabinet of 1828, and afterwards in par- | 
liament, the limitation of the new state of j 
Greece to the Morea. He alone in the cabi- j 
net had advocated as early as 182 7, in Gode- 
rich's time, the despatch of a British force 
to drive out Ibrahim Pasha, and had con- 
sistently maintained that the only frontier 
for Greece against Turkey was the line from 
Volo to Arta which had been recommended 
by Sir Stratford Canning and the other com- 
missioners at Poros, but overruled by Lord 
Aberdeen. When Palmerston came into 
office he sent Sir Stratford on a special 
embassy to Constantinople, and this frontier 
was at last conceded by Turkey on 22 July 
1832 (L.4.NE-POOLE, Life of Stratford Can- 
ning, i. 498). 

The troubles in Portugal and Spain en- 
gaged the foreign secretary's vigilant at- 
tention. He had condemned the perjury 
of the usurper Miguel while in opposi- 
tion, and when in office he sent him ' a 
peremptory demand for immediate and full 
redress ' in respect to the British officers im- 
prisoned at Lisbon, which was at once com- 
plied with. On the arrival of Dom Pedro, 
however, in July 1832, to assert his own and 
his daughter's interests, Miguel began a series 
of cruel persecutions and arbitrary terrorism, 
which filled the gaols and produced general 
anarchy. English and French officers were 
actually maltreated in the streets. Both 
countries sent ships of war to protect their 
subjects, and Dom Pedro was supported by 
a large number of English volunteers. Pal- 
merston hoped to work upon the moderate 
ministry in Spain, which had just replaced 
the ' apostolicals,' and induce them to co- 
operate in getting rid of Dom Miguel, whose 
court was a rallying point for their opponents, 
and in sending Dom Pedro back to Brazil. 
He founded this hope partly on the analogy 
between Spain and Portugal in the disputed 
succession, a daughter and a rival uncle 
being the problem in each case. Accord- 
ingly he sent Sir^Stratford Canning on a 
special mission to Madrid, near the close of 
1832, to propose 'the establishment of Donna 
Maria on the throne as queen [of Portugal], 
and the relinquishment by Dom Pedro of 
his claim to the regency during the minority 
of his daughter ' (Life of Stratford Canning, 
ii. 25). Though Queen Christina of Spain 
was favourable, Canning found, the king, 
Ferdinand VII, and his minister, Zea Ber- 



mudez, obdurate, and returned to England 
without accomplishing his purpose. Before 
this Palmerston's Portuguese policy had been 
censured in the House of Lords, but the 
commons had approved the support of Donna 
Maria and constitutionalism, and recognised 
that our friendly and almost protective rela- 
tions with Portugal justified our interference. 
The death of Ferdinand, on 29 Sept, 1833, 
created in Spain, as was foreseen, a situa- 
tion closely parallel to that in Portugal. 
Ferdinand, with the consent of the cortes, 
had repealed the pragmatic sanction of 1713 
in favour of his daughter Isabella , who thus 
became queen ; while her uncle, Don Carlos, 
like Miguel in Portugal, denied the validity 
of her succession, and claimed the throne for 
himself. In this double crisis Palmerston 
played what he rightly called ' a great stroke.' 
By his sole exertions a quadruple alliance 
was constituted by a treaty signed on 22 April 
1834 by England, France, Spain, and Por- 
tugal, in which all four powers pledged them- 
selves to expel both Miguel and Carlos from 
the peninsula. He wrote in high glee (to 
his brother, 21 April 1834) : ' I carried it 
through the cabinet by a coup de main. 1 Be- 
yond its immediate purpose, he hoped it 
would ' serve as a powerful counterpoise to 
the holy alliance.' The mere rumour was 
enough for the usurpers : Miguel and Carlos 
fled from the peninsula. But France soon 
showed signs of defection. Palmerston 
seems to have wounded the sensibility of 
' old Talley,' as he called him ; and Talley- 
rand, on his return to Paris in 1835, is said 
to have avenged this bysetting Louis-Philippe 
against him. The late cordiality vanished, 
and Spain was again plunged in anarchy. The 
presence of a British squadron on the coast and 
the landing of an auxiliary legion under De 
Lacy Evans did little good, and aroused very 
hostile criticism in England. Sir IT. Har- 
dinge moved an address to the king cen- 
suring the employment of British troops in 
Spain without a declaration of war ; but 
after three nights' debate Palmerston got 
up, and in a fine speech lasting three hours 
turned the tables on his opponents, and 
carried the house completely with him. The 
government had a majority of thirty-six, and 
the minister was cheered 'riotously.' His 
Spanish policy had achieved something. 'The 
Carlist cause failed,' as he said; 'the caiiM- 
of the constitution prevailed,' and he had also 
defeated the schemes of Dom Miguel in 
Portugal. ^ 

If France showed little cordiality toward^* 
the end of the Spanish negotiations, she was 
much more seriously hostile to Palmerston's 
eastern policy, and that policy has been more 



Temple 



21 



Temple 






severely criticised than perhaps any other 
part of his management of foreign affairs. 
His constant support of Turkey has been 
censured as an upholding of barbarism against 
civilisation. It must, however, be remem- 
bered that Palmerston's tenure of the foreign 
office from 1830 to 1841 coincided with the 
extraordinary revival and reforming efforts 
of that energetic and courageous sultan 
Mahmud II, when many statesmen enter- 
tained sanguine hopes of the regeneration of 
Turkey. Palmerston himself did not believe 
that the Ottoman empire was decaying ; on 
the contrary, he held that ten years of peace 
might convert it into ' a respectable power ' 
(letters to H. Bulwer, 22 Sept. 1838, 1 Sept. 
1839). Besides this hope, he was firmly con- 
vinced of the paramount importance of main- 
taining a barrier between Russia and the 
Mediterranean. Russia, however, was not 
the only danger. The 'eastern question' of 
that time presented a new feature in the for- 
midable antagonism of a great vassal, Mo- 
hammed Ali, the pasha of Egypt. The first 
phase of his attack upon the sultan, culmi- 
nating in the victory of Koniya (December 
1832), was carried out without any inter- 
ference by Palmerston. He foresaw indeed 
that unless the powers intervened, Russia 
would undertake the defence of Turkey by 
herself ; but he failed to convince Lord Grey's 
cabinet of the importance of succouring the 
Porte. Turkey, deserted by Ecgland and 
by France (who, imbued with the old Na- 
poleonic idea, encouraged the pasha), was 
forced to appeal to Russia, who willingly sent 
fifteen thousand troops to Asiatic Turkey, 
compelled Ibrahim to retire, and saved Con- 
stantinople. In return the tsar exacted from 
the sultan the treaty of UnJ^iar Skelesi on 
8 July 1833, by which Russia acquired the, 

_~. right to interfere in defence of Turkey, and 
the Black Sea was converted into a Russian 
lake. Palmerston in vain protested both at 
Constantinople and at St. Petersburg, and 
even sent the Mediterranean squadron to 
cruise off the Dardanelles. Henceforward 
his eyes were open to the aggrandising policy 
of Russia and her hostile influence not only 
in Europe but in Persia and Afghanistan, 
which brought about Burnes's mission and 
the beginning of the Afghan troubles. In 
spite of his suspicion of Russia, however, on 
his return to office in 1835 under Melbourne, 
after Peel's brief administration, Palmerston 
found it necessary in 1840 to enter into an 
alliance with the very power he suspected, 

V in the very quarter to which his suspicions 
chiefly pointed. 

The cause lay in the increasing alienation 
of France. The policy of Louis-Philippe 



and Thiers was to give Mohammed Ali a 
free hand, in the hope (as Remusat admitted) 
that Egypt might become a respectable 
second-class power in the Mediterranean, 
bound in gratitude to support France in the 
contest with England that was anticipated 
by many observers. Palmerston had tried to 
induce France to join him in an engagement 
to defend Turkey by sea if attacked ; but he 
had failed to bring the king or Thiers to his 
view, and their and Soult's response to his 
overtures bred in him a profound distrust of 
Louis-Philippe and his advisers. "When, 
therefore, the Egyptians again overran Syria, 
delivered a crushing blow to the Turks at the 
battle of Nezib on 25 June 1839, and by the 
treachery of the Turkish admiral obtained 
possession of the Ottoman fleet, Palmerston 
abandoned all thoughts of joint action with 
France, and opened negotiation.-; with Russia. 
Jnact ion .meant dividing the Ottoman empire 
into two 'parts, of which one would be the 
satellite of France, and the other the depen--# 
dent of Russia, while in both the interests 
and influence of England would be sacri-^. 
ficed and her prestige humiliated (to Lord 
Melbourne, 5 July 1840). Russia received his 
proposals with eagerness. Nothing was more 
to the mindof Nicholas than to detach (ir. 'in 
Britain from her former cordial understand- 
ing with Louis-Philippe, and friendly nego- 
tiations rapidly arranged the quadrilateral 
treaty of 15 July 1840, by which England, 
Russia, Austria, and Prussia agreed wit h t lie 
Porte to drive back the Egyptians and to 
pacify the Levant. 

Palmerston did not carry his quadrilateral 
alliance without considerable opposition. In 
the cabinet Lords Holland and Clarendon, 
and later Lord John Russell, were strongly 
against him : so, as afterwards appeared, was 
Melbourne ; so was the court ; and so was 
Lord Granville, the ambassador at Paris. 
Palmerston, however,was resolute, and placed 
his resignation in Melbourne's hands as t In- 
alternative toaccepting his policy (GREMLLE, 
Journal, pt. ii. vol. i. p. 308). Ultimately the 
measure was adopted by the majority of the 
cabinet. The fears which had been '\- 
pressed that Mohammed Ali, with French 
encouragement, was too strong for us, and 
that France would declare war, proved 
groundless. Palmerston had throughout 
maintained that Mohammed Ali was not 
Tfearly sostrongas he seemed, and that Louis- 
Philippe was ' not the man to run amuck, 
especially without any adequate motive ' (to 
II. Bulwer, 21 July 1840). Everything he 
prophesied came true. Beyrout, Sidon, and 
St. Jean d'Acre were successively taken by t h.- 
British fleet under Charles Napier between 



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September and November 1840; Ibrahim was 
forced to retreat to Egypt, and Mohammed 
All was obliged to accept (11 Jan. 1841) 
the hereditary pashaship of Egypt, without 
an inch of Syria, and to restore the Turkish, 
fleet to its rightful owner. ' Palmerston 
is triumphant,' wrote Greville reluctantly ; 
' everything has turned out well for him. 
He is justified by the success of his opera- 
tions, and by the revelations of Thiers and 
Remusat ' (Lc. i. 354). French diplomacy 
failed to upset these arrangements ; and, 
when the Toulon fleet was strengthened in 
an ominous manner, Palmerston retorted by 
equipping more ships, and instructed (22 Sept. 
1840) Bulwer, the charge d'affaires at Paris, 
to tell Thiers, ' in the most friendly and in- 
offensive manner possible, that if France 
throws down the gauntlet we shall not refuse 
to pick it up.' Mohammed Ali, he added, 
would 'just be chucked into the Nile.' The 

A instruction was only too ' Palmerstoniaii ' 
neglect of the forms of courtesy, of the 
suai-iter in modo, was his great diplomatic 

Nj fault but it had its effect. The risk of a 
diplomatic rupture with France vanished, 
and the success of the naval campaign in the 
Levant convinced Louis-Philippe, and led 
1 to the fall of Thiers and the succession of 
r ' Guizot the cautious.' In the settlement of 
theEgyptian question Palmerston refused 
to allow France to have any voice ; she would 
not join when she was wanted, and she 
should not meddle when she was not wanted 
(to Granville, 30 Nov. 1840). There was an 
injudicious flavour of revenge about this ex- 
clusion, and Palmerston's energetic language 
undoubtedly irritated Louis-Philippe, and 
stung him to the point of paying England 
off by the treachery of the Spanish mar- 
riages ; but it is admitted even by Greville 
that Palmerston bore himself with great mo- 
desty after his triumph over France, and let 
no sign of exultation escape him (loc. cit. 
i. 370). The parties to the quadruple alli- 
, ance concluded a convention on 13 July 
1841 by which Mohammed Ali was recog- 
nised as hereditary pasha of Egypt under 
the definite suzerainty of the sultan, the 
Bosporus and Dardanelles were closed to 
ships of war of every nation, and Turkey 
was placed formally under the protection 
of the guaranteeing powers. The treaty of 
\ Unkiar Skelesi was wiped out. 
V" With the first so-called ' opium war ' with 

7 \ China the home government had scarcely 
anything to do. Their distance and igno- 
rance of Chinese policy threw the matter into 
the hands of the local authority. Palmerston, 
like the chief superintendent, of course dis- 
avowed any protection to opium smuggling, 



but when Commissioner Lin declared war by 
banishing every foreigner from Chinese soil, 
there was nothing for it but to carry the con- 
test to a satisfactory conclusion. Graham's 
motion of censure in April 1840 was easily 
defeated, and the annexation of Hong-Kong 
and the opening of five ports to foreign trade 
were important commercial acquisitions. 
Meanwhile to Palmerston's efforts was due 
the slave trade convention of the European 
powers of 1841. There was no object for 
which Palmerston worked harder throughout 
his career than the suppression of the slave 
trade. He frequently spoke on the subject 
in the House of Commons, where the aboli- 
tion of slavery was voted in 1833 at a cost 
of twenty millions; 'a splendid instance,' he 
said, ' of generosity and justice, unexampled 
in the history of the world.' 

By his conduct of foreign affairs from 1830 
to 1841 (continuously, except for the brief 
interval in 18345 during which Peel held 
office) Palmerston, ' without any following 
in parliament, and without much influence 
in the country, raised the prestige of England 
throughout Europe to a height which it had 
not occupied sinceWaterloo^He had created 
Belgium, saved Portugal and Spain from 
absolutism, rescued Turkey from l\ussia, and 
the high way to India from France '(SAXDERS, 
Life, p. 79). y When he came into office he 
found eighteen treaties in force ; when he left 
he had added fourteen more, some of the first 
magnitude. A strong foreign policy had 
proved, moreover, to be a policy of peace. 
Apart from the concerns of his department, 
Palmerston, as was his custom, took little 
part in the work or talk of the House of Com- 
mons. His reputation was far greater abroad 
than at home. The most important per- 
sonal event of these years was his marriage, 
on 11 Dec. 1839, to Lord Melbourne's sister, 
the widow of Earl Cowper. This lady, by her 
charm, intellect, tact, and experience, lent a 
powerful support to her husband, and the 
informal diplomatic work accomplished at 
her salon prepared or supplemented the in- 
terviews and transactions of the foreign 
office. 

In opposition from 1841 to 1846, during 
Peel's administration, Palmerston took a 
larger share in the debates in the House of 
Commons. His periodical reviews of foreign 
policy were looked forward to with appre- 
hension by the tory government ; for while 
he said that ministers were simply ' living 
upon our leavings,' and ' carousing upon the 
provisions they found in the larder,' he saw 
nothing but danger in Lord Aberdeen's ' anti- 
quated imbecility ' and timid use of these 
'leavings;' he said the government 'purchased 






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v 



temporary security by lasting sacrifices,' and 
lie denounced the habit of making concessions 
(as in the Ashburton treaty with America) 
as fatal to a nation's interests, tranquillity, 
and honour. It was rumoured that he sup- 
ported these opinions by articles in the 
4 Morning Chronicle ; ' and, though he 
denied this when in office, Aberdeen and 
Greville certainly attributed many of the 
most vehement ' leaders ' to him when he 
was ' out ' (GREVILLE, Journal, pt. ii. vol. i. 
p. 327, vol. ii. pp. 105, 109, &c.) In home 
affairs he was a free-trader, as he understood 
it, though he advocalM a fixed duty on corn ; 
he supported his intimate friend Lord Ashley 
(afterwards Shaftesbury) in his measures for 
the regulation of women's and children's 
labour and the limiting of hours of work in 
factories, and voted in 1845 for the May- 
ooth bill. 

On 25 June 1846 Peel was defeated on 
the Irish coercion bill and placed his resig- 
nation in the hands of the queen. The new 
prime minister, Lord John Russell, naturally 
invited Palmerston to resume the seals of 
the foreign office, though the appointment 
was not made without apprehensions of his 
stalwart policy. For the third time he took 
ujT the threads of diplomacy in Downing 
Street on 3 July 1846. The affairs of Switzer- 
land were then in a serious crisis : the federal 
diet on 20 July declared the dissentient Son- 
derbund of the seven Roman catholic cantons 
to be illegal, and in September decreed the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from the country ; 
civil war ensued. France suggested armed 
intervention and a revision of the federal 
constitution by the powers. Palmerston re- 
fused to agree to any use of force or to any 
tinkering of the constitution by outside 
powers ; he was willing to join in mediation 
on certain conditions, but he wished the 
Swiss themselves, after the dissolution of 
the Sonderbund, to modify their constitution 
in the mode prescribed in their federal pact, 
as guaranteed by the powers. His chief 
object in debating each point in detail was 
to gain time for the diet, and prevent France 
or Austria finding a pretext for the invasion 
of Switzerland. In this he succeeded, and, 
in spite of the sympathy of France and 
Austria with the seven defeated cantons, the 
policy advocated by England was carried out, 
I the Sonderbund was abolished, the Jesuits 

| expelled, and the federal pact re-established. 
Palmerston's obstinate delay and prudent 

. | advice materially contributed to the preser- 

\vation of Swiss independence. 

Meanwhile Louis-Philippe, who was am- 
bitious of a dynastic union between France 
and Spain, avenged himself for Palmerstou's 

VOL. LVJ. 



3 Temple 

eastern policy of 1840. He had promised 
Queen Victoria, on her visit to him at the 
Chateau d'Eu in September 1843, to delay 
the marriage of his son, the Due de Mont- 
pensier, with the younger infanta of Spain 
until her elder sister, the queen of Spain, 
was married and had issue. At the same 
time the pretensions to the young queen's 
hand alike of Prince Albert's brother Ernest, 
duke of Saxe-Coburg, and of the French 
king's eldest son were withdrawn, and it 
was agreed that a Spanish suitor of the 
Bourbon line should be chosen either Fran- 
cisco de Paula, duke of Cadiz, or his brother 
Enrique, duke of Seville. On 18 July 1846 
Palmerston, having just returned to the., 
foreign office, sent to the Spanish ministers \ 
an outspoken despatch condemning their | 
misgovernment, and there fell into the error : 
of mentioning the Duke of Coburg with the ! 
two Spanish princes as the suitors from / 
whom the Spanish queen's husband was to 
be selected. The French ambassador in 
London protested, and Coburg's name was 
withdrawn. But Louis-Philippe and his 
minister Guizot, in defiance ot the agree- 
ment of the Chateau d'Eu, made Palmer- 
ston's despatch the pretext for independent*-** 
action. They arranged that the Duke of 
Cadiz, although Louis-Philippe knew him to 
be unfit for matrimony, should be at once 
united in marriage to the Spanish queen, 
and that that marriage and the marriage of 
the Due de Montpensier with the younger 
infanta should be celebrated on the same 
day. Both marriages took place on 10 Oct. 
(Annual Reg. 1847, p. 396; D'HAUSSON- 
VILLE, Politique Exterieure de la France, 
i. 156 ; ALISON, vii. 600 et seq. ; SPENCER 
WALPOLE, v. 534 ; GRANIER DE CASSAGNAC, 
Chute de Louis-Philippe). The result was 
that the Orleanist dynasty lost the support 
of England, its only friend in Europe, and 
thereby prepared its own fall. 

From the autumn of 1846 to the spring of 
1847 Palmersten was anxiously engaged in 
dealing with the Portuguese imbroglio. His 
sending the fleet in November to coerce the 

. . ,11*1 *.!_ _ 



rebellious junta and to re-establish the 






queen on conditions involving her return 
from absolutism to her former constitutional 
system of government, though successfully 
effected with the concurrence of France and 
Spain and the final acceptance of Donna 
Maria, was much criticised ; but the motions 
of censure in both houses of parliament col- 
lapsed ludicrously. Palmerston's defence was 
set forth in the well-considered memorandum 
of 25 March 1847. ._^-- 

The troubles in Spain and Portugal, 
Switzerland and Cracow (against whose .x 



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/ annexation by Austria he earnestly pro- 

M tested) were trifles compared with the 
general upheaval of the 'year of revolu- 
tions.' Palmerston was not taken by sur- 
prise ; he had foreseen sweeping changes and 
reforms, though hardly so general a move- 
ment as actually took place. In an admi- 
rable circular addressed in January 1848 
to the British representatives in Italy, he 
urged them to impress upon the Italian 
rulers the dangerous temper of the times, 
and the risk of persistent obstruction of 
reasonable reforms. In this spirit he had 
sent Lord Minto in 1847 on a special mis- 
sion to the sovereigns of Italy to warn and 
prepare them for the popular judgment to 
come ; but the mission came too late ; the 
' Young Italian ' party was past control, and 

/* the princes were supine or incapable. Pal- 
j merston's personal desire was for a kingdom 
of Northern Italy, from the Alps to the 
I Adriatic, under Charles Albert of Sardinia, 
combined with a confederation of Italian 
states ; and he was convinced that to Austria 
her Italian provinces were really a source of 
weakness ' the heel of Achilles, and not 
the shield of Ajax.' He was out in his 
reckoning for Italian independence by some 
ten years, but even he could not foresee the 
remarkable recuperative power of Austria, 
whose system of government (an ' old woman,' 
a ' European China ') he abhorred, though he 
fully recognised the importance of her em- 

, pire as an element in the European equili- 
brium. Throughout the revolutionary tur- 
moil his sympathies were frankly on the side 
of ' oppressed nationalities,' and his advice 
was always exerted on behalf of constitu- 
tional as against absolutist principles ; but, 
to the surprise of his detractors, he main- 
tained a policy of neutrality in diplomatic 
action, and left each state to mend its affairs 
in its own way. 'Every post,' he wrote, 
' sends me a lamenting minister throwing 
himself and his country upon England for 
help, which I am obliged to tell him we 
cannot afford him.' The chief exception to 
this rule was his dictatorial lecture to the 
queen of Spain on 16 March 1848, which was 
indignantly returned, and led to Sir H. L. 
Bulwer's dismissal from Madrid ; but even 
here the fault lay less with the principal 
than with the agent (who was not instructed 
to show the despatch, much less to publish it 
in the Spanish opposition papers), though 
I Palmerston's loyalty to his officer forbade 

V the admission. Another instance of indis- 
creet interference was the permission given 
to the ordnance of Woolwich to supply arms 
indirectly to the Sicilian insurgents. Only 
the unmitigated brutalities of 'Bomba' could 



palliate such a breach of neutrality; but 
Palmerston's disgust and indignation were 
so widely shared by Englishmen that when 
he was brought to book in the commons, his 
defence, in ' a slashing impudent speech ' 
(GKEVILLE, Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. 277), 
completely carried the house with him. His 
efforts in conjunction with France to mediate 
between Austria and Sardinia had little > 
effect beyond procuring slightly better terms 
of peace for the latter ; but the Marquis \ 
Massimo d'Azeglio's grateful letter of thanks 
(August 1849) showed how they were ap- 
preciated in Italy, and a result of this sym- 
pathy appeared later in the Sardinian con- | 
tingent in the Crimean war. 

The French revolution of February 1848 
found no cold reception from Palmerston. 
' Our principles of action,' he instructed Lord 
Normanby on 26 Feb., ' are to acknowledge 
whatever rule may be established with ap- 
parent prospect of permanency, but none 
other. We desire friendship and extended 
commercial intercourse with France, and ; 
peace between France and the rest of Europe " 
He fully trusted Lamartine's sincerity and 
pacific intentions, and used his influence at ; 
foreign courts on his behalf. One result was 
seen in Lamartine's chilly reception of Smith 
O'Brien's Irish deputation ; and the value of 
Palmerston's exertions in preventing fric- 
tion between the powers and the French pro- 
visional government was warmly attested 
by the sagacious king of the Belgians, who 
stated (3 Jan. 1849) that this policy had 
assisted the French government in ' a system 
of moderation which it could but with great 
difficulty have maintained if it had not been 
acting in concert with England.' 

The rigours adopted by Austria in sup- 
pressing the rebellions in Italy and Hungary I 
excited England's indignant ' disgust,' as I 
Palmerston bade Lord Ponsonby tell Prince 
Schwarzenberg ' openly and decidedly.' 
When Kossuth and other defeated leaders of" 
the Hungarian revolution, with over three , 
thousand Hungarian and Polish followers,' 
took refuge in Turkey in August 1849, the 
ambassadors of Austria and Russia de- 
manded their extradition. On the advice of 
Sir Stratford Canning, supported by the 
French ambassador, the sultan declined to 
give up the refugees. The Austrian and Rus- 
sian representatives at the Porte continued 
to insist in violent and imperious terms, and 
on 4 Sept. Prince Michael Radzivil arrived 
at Constantinople charged with an ultima- 
tum from the tsar, announcing that the 
escape of a single refugee would be taken as 
a declaration of war. The Turkish govern- 
ment, in great alarm, sought counsel with 



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the ' Great Elchi,' and Sir Stratford Canning 
[q. v.] took upon himself the responsibility of 
advising resolute resistance, and, in conjunc- 
tion with his French colleague, allowed the 
Porte to understand that in the event of war 
Turkey would have the support of England 
and France (LANE- Poo LE, Life of Stratford 
Canning, ii. 191). Upon this the imperial 
ambassadors broke off diplomatic relations 
with the Porte. Palmerston at once obtained 
the consent of the cabinet to support Turkey 
in her generous action, and to make friendly 
representations at Vienna and Petersburg 
to induce the emperors ' not to press the 
Sultan to do that which a regard for his 
honour and the common dictates of humanity 
forbid him to do.' At the same time the 
English and French squadrons were in- 
structed to move up to the Dardanelles with 
orders to go to the aid of the sultan if he 
should invite them (to S. Canning, 2 Oct. 
1849). Palmerston was careful to explain 
to Baron Brunnow that this step was in no 
sense a threat, but merely a measure ' to pre- 
vent accidents,' and to ' comfort and support 
the sultan ' ' like holding a bottle of salts 
to the nose of a lady who had been frightened.' 
He was fully conscious, however, of the 
gravity of the situation, and prepared to go 
all lengths in support of Turkey, ' let who 
will be against her ' (to Ponsonby, 6 Oct. 
1849). Firm language and the presence of 
the fleets brought the two emperors to 
reason, and in a fortnight Austria privately 
intimated that the extradition would not be 
insisted on. 

' Palmerston's chivalrous defence of the 
refugees brought him great renown in Eng- 
land, which his imprudent reception of a 
deputation of London radicals, overflowing 
with virulent abuse of the two emperors, did 
nothing to diminish. The 'judicious bottle- 
holder,' as he then styled himself, was the 
most popular man in thecountrv (cf. cartoon 
in Punch, 6 Dec.' 1851). The 'Pacifico affair,' 
which occurred shortly afterwards, tested his 
popularity. Two British subjects, Dr. George 
Finlay [q. v.] and David Pacifico [q. v.], had 
laid claims against the Greek government 
for injuries suffered by them at the hands of 
Greek subjects. The Greek government re- 
pudiated their right to compensation. Conse- 
quently Admiral Sir William Parker [q. v.] 
blockaded the Piraeus in January 1850. The 
claims were clear, and force was used only 
after every diplomatic expedient had been 
exhausted. ' It is our long forbearance, and 
not our precipitation, that deserves remark,' 
said Palmerston. The French government 
offered to mediate, but on 21 April the French 
mediator at Athens, Baron Gros, threw up his 



mission as hopeless. The coercion of ( i : 
by the English fleet was renewed (25 April), 
and the Greek government compelled to ac- 
cept England's terms (26 April). The re- 
newed blockade of the Piraeus was held by 
France to be a breach of an arrangement 
made in London on 18 April between Pal- 
merston and the French ambassador, Drouyn 
de Lhuys. It seems that the promptness of 
action taken at Athens by Admiral Parker 
and by Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) 
Wyse [q.v.],the British minister at Athens, 
who was not informed of the negotiations in 
London, was not foreseen by the foreign 
secretary. It had, however, been understood 
all along that, if French mediation failed, 
coercion m ight be renewed without further re- 
ference to the home government (GREvu.i.i:. 
Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. 334). The French 
government seized the opportunity to fix a 
quarrel upon England in order to muki- ;i 
decent figure before the warlike party in tin- 
assembly at Paris. With a great show of 
offended integrity, and expressly on the 
queen's birthday, they recalled Drouyn de 
Lhuys from London, and in the chambers 
openly taxed the English government with 
duplicity. Those who understood French 
politics were not deceived. 'Oh, it's all non- 
sense,' said the old Duke of Wellington; 
and Palmerston did not think it evendvorth 
while to retaliate by recalling Lord Nor- 
manby from Paris. He hastened, on the con- 
trary, to conciliate French susceptibilities by 
consulting Guizot in the final settlement of 
some outstanding claims upon Greece, and 
the storm blew over. The House of Lords 
indeed censured him by a majority of thirty- 
seven, on Lord Stanley's motion on 17 June, 
supported by Aberdeen and Brougham: but 
in the commons Roebuck's vote of confidence 
was carried in favour of the government by 
forty-six. The debate,which lasted four night s, 
was made memorable by the brilliant spm-ln > 
of Gladstone, Cockburn,and Peel, who spoke 
for the last time, for his fatal accident hap- 
pened next day ; but the chief honours fell t 
Palmerston. In his famous ' civis llomanus ' 
oration he for more than four hours vindi- 
cated his whole foreign policy with a bread t Ii 
of view, a tenacity of logical argument, H 
moderation of tone, and a height of eloquence 
which the house listened to with rapture and 
interrupted with volleys of cheers. It \v;t> 
the greatest speech he ever made ; ' a most 
able and temperate speech, a speech wliioli 
made us all proud of the man who delivered 
it,' said Sir Robert Peel, generous to tin 
last. It ' was an extraordinary effort,' v. 
Sir George 0. Lewis (to Sir K. Head. Istt<-r*. 
p. -'7). 'He defeated the whole con- 



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I 



1 



. 



tive party, protectionists, and Peelites, sup- 
ported by the extreme radicals,~and backed 
by the " Times " and all the organised forces 
of foreign diplomacy.' Palmerston came 
through the lobby with a triumphant ma- 
jority, and the conspiracy of foreign powers 
and English factions to overthrow him had 
only made him, as he said himself, 'for the 
present the most popular minister that for 
a very long course of time has held my 
office.' For- the first time he became 'the 
man of the people,' ' the most popular man 
in the country,' said Lord Grey (GREVILLE, 
I.e. p. 347), and was clearly marked out as 
the future head of the government. 

Palmerston's constant activity and dis- 
position to tender advice or mediation in 
European disputes procured him the repu- 
tation of a universal intermeddler, and the 
blunt vigour of some of his despatches and 
diplomatic instructions conveyed a pugna- 
cious impression which led to the nickname 
of ' firebrand ; ' while his jaunty, confident, 
off-hand air in the house gave a totally 
false impression of levity and indifference to 
serious issues. That he made numerous 
enemies abroad by his truculent style and 
stubborn tenacity of purpose is not to be 
denied ; but the enmity of foreign statesmen 
is no proof of a mistaken English policy, 
and the result of his strong policy was peace. 
Just when he was at the height of his power 
and popularity as foreign minister an event 
happened which had not been unforeseen by 
those acquainted with the court. During 
the years he had held the seals of the foreign 
office under Lord Melbourne he had been 
allowed to do as he pleased in his own de- 
partment. He exerted ' an absolute despo- 
tism at the F. O. . . . without the slightest 
control, and scarcely any interference on the 
part of his colleagues ' (GREVILLE, Journal, 
pt. ii. vol. i. p. 298). He created, in fact, an 
imperium in imperio, which, however well 
it worked under his able rule, was hardly 
likely to commend itself to a more vigilant 
prime minister, or to a court which con- 
ceived the regulation of foreign affairs to be 
its peculiar province. On several occasions 
Palmerston had taken upon himself to des- 
patch instructions involving serious ques- 
tions of policy without consulting the crown 
or his colleagues, whom he too often left in 
ignorance of important transactions. These 
acts of independence brought upon him the 
queen's memorandum of 12 Aug. 1850, in 
which he was required to ' distinctly state 
what he proposes in a given case, in order 
that the queen may know as distinctly to 
what she is giving her royal sanction ;' and 
it was further commanded that a measure 



once sanctioned ' be not arbitrarily altered 
or modified by the minister ' on pain of dis-' 
missal (ASHLEY, Life, ii. 219). Palmerston 
did not resign at once, because he under- 
stood that the memorandum was confidential 
between Lord John Eussell and himself, and 
he did not wish to publish to the house and 
country what had the air of a personal dispute 
between a minister and his sovereign (ib. ii. 
226-7). He protested to Prince Albert that 
it was not in him to intend the slightest dis- 
respect to the queen, pleaded extreme pres- t 
sure of urgent business, and promised toif 
comply with her majesty's instructions. But 1 
sixteen years' management of the foreign 
relations of England may well have bred a 
self-confidence and decision which brooked 
with difficulty the control of less experienced 
persons, and it would not be easy (if it were 
necessary) to absolve Palmerston from the 
charge of independence in more than the 
minor affairs of his office. Many instances 
occurred both before and after the queen's 
' memorandum,' and it is clear that from i 
1849 onwards the court was anxious to rid i 
itself of the foreign minister, and that i 
eventually Lord John Russell resolved to 
exert his authority on the first pretext. The 
one he chose was flimsy enough (GREVILLE, 
Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. 430 ; MALMESBURY, 
Memoirs, i. 301). In unofficial conversation 
with Count Walewski, the French ambassa- 
dor, Palmerston expressed his approval of 
Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of 2 Dec. 1851, 
and for this he was curtly dismissed from office 
by Lord John Russell on the 19th, and even 
insulted by the offer of the lord-lieutenancy 
of Ireland. The pretext was C07isiderably : 
weakened by the fact that Lord John him- 
self and several members of his cabinet had 
expressed similar opinions of the coup d'etat 
to the same person at nearly the same time ; 
but the theory seems to have been that an 
expression of approval from the foreign 
secretary to the French representative, 
whether official or merely 'officious,' meant a 
great deal more than the opinions of other 
members of the government. ' There was a 
Palmerston,' said Disraeli, and the clubs 
believed that the ' Firebrand ' was quenched 
for ever. Schwarzenberg rejoiced and gave 
a ball, and Prussian opinion was summed up 
in the doggerel lines : 

Hat der Teufel einen Sohn, 
So ist er sicher Palmerston. 

In England, however, people and press 
lamented, and Lord John was considered to 
have behaved badly. Within three weeks 
the government were defeated on an amend- 
ment moved by Lord Palmerstou to Russell's 



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1 



militia bill, and resigned. They had long 
been tottering, and were glad once more to 
avail themselves of a pretext. The result of 
the division was a surprise to Palmerston, 
^vho had not intended to turn them out (to 
his brother, 24 Feb. ; LEWIS, Letters, p. 
251). 

During the 305 days of the first Derby 
administration Palmerston thrice refused 
invitations to join the conservative govern- 
ment. He rendered cordial aid, however, to 
Lord Malmesbury, the new foreign secretary 
(MAIMESBUKY, Mem. i. 317), and on 23 Nov. 
1852 he saved the government from defeat by 
an adroit amendment to Villiers's free-trade 
resolution : but the respite was short. On 
3 Dec. they were beaten on Disraeli's budget, 
and resigned. In the coalition government 
under Aberdeen, Palmerston, pressed by 
Lords Lansdowne and Clarendon, took the 
home office, the post he had settled upon be- 
forehand as his choice in any government 
(to his brother, 17 Nov. 1852). He did not 
feel equal to ' the immense labour of the 
foreign office ; ' and probably he did not care 
to run the chance of further repression, 
though he now stood ' in better odour at 
Windsor ' (GREVILLE, I.e. pt. iii.vol.i. p. 14). 
But before he joined the cabinet of the 
statesman whose foreign policy he had per- 
sistently attacked, lie took care to ascertain 
that his own principles would be maintained. 
He proved an admirable home secretary, vigi- 
; lant, assiduous, observant of details, original 
in remedies. Stimulated by Lord Shaftes- 
bury, he introduced or supported various 
improvements in factory acts, carried out 
prison reforms, established the ticket-of-Ieave 
system and reformatory schools, and put a 
stop to intramural burials. He shone as a 
receiver of deputations, and got rid of many 
a troublesome interrogator with a good- 
humoured jest. On the question of parlia- 
mentary reform lie was not in accord with 
Kus-ell, and resigned on 16 Dec. 1853 on 
the proposals for a reform bill : but re- 
turned to office after ten days on the under- 
standing that the details of the bill were 
still open to discussion. Another subject 
on which the cabinet disagreed was the 
negotiation Avhich preceded the Crimean 



war. Palmerston was all for vigorous action, 



which, he believed, would avert war. Aber- 
deen, however, was tied by his secret agree- 
ment with the Emperor Nicholas, signed in 
1844 (MALMESBURY, Memoirs, i. 402), grant- 
ing the very points at issue, and was consti- 
tutionally unequal to strong measures. Of 
Lord Clarendon, who early in the administra- 
tion succeeded Russell at the foreign office, 
Palmerstou had a high opinion, and supported 



7 Temple 

him in the cabinet. Concession, he held, only 
led to more extortionate demands. 'The 
Russian government has been led on step by 
step by the apparent timidity of the govern- 
ment of England,' he told the cabinet, when 
pressing for the despatch of the fleets to the 
Bosporus in July 1853, as a reply to Russia's 
occupation of the principalities. He believed 
the tsar had resolved upon 'the complete 
submission of Turkey,' and was ' bent upon a 
stand-up fight,' ' If lie is determined to break 
a lance with us,' he wrote to Sidney Herbert, 
21 Sept., ' why, then, have at him,'say I, and 
perhaps he may have enough of it before we 
have done with him.' It is curious, however, 
that the special act which provoked the de- 
claration of war the sending of the allied 
fleets to take possession of the Black Sea 
was ordered by the cabinet during the inter- 
val of Palmerston's resignation. When war 
had been declared, and the troops were at 
Varna, Palmerston laid a memorandum before \ 
the cabinet (14 June 1854) in which he argued 
that the mere driving of the Russians out of 
the principalities was not a sufficient reprisal, 
and that 'it seems absolutely necessary that 
some heavy blow should be struck at the 
naval power and territorial dimensions of 
Russia.' His proposals were the capture of 
Sevastopol, the occupation of the Crimea, 
and the expulsion of the Russians from 
Georgia and Circassia. His plan was adopted 
by the cabinet, and afterwards warmly sup- 
ported by Gladstone (ASHLEY, Life, ii. 300). 
No one then foresaw the long delays, the 
blunders, the mismanagement, and the 
terrible hardships of the ensuing winter. 
When things looked blackest there was a 
feeling that Palmerston Avas the only man, 
and Lord John Russell proposed that the 
two offices of secretary for war and secretary 
jal war should be unitedTn Palmerston. On 
Aberdeen's rejection of this sensible pro- 
posal, Lord John resigned, 23 Jan. 1 >"">, 
sooner than resist Roebuck's mot ii m ( i'S Jan.) 
for a select committee of inquiry into the 
state of our army in the Crimea. After two 
nights' debate the government were defeated 
by a majority of 157, and resigned on 1 Feb. 
1855. 

On the fall of the Aberdeen ministry Lord 
Derby attempted to forma government, and 
invited Palmerston to take the leadership 
of the House of Commons, which Disraeli 
was willing to surrender to him. Finding, 
however, that none of the late cabinet would 
go with him, Palmerston declined, engaging 
at the same time to support any government 
that carried on the war with energy, and 
sustained the dignity and interests of the 
country abroad. When both Lord Derby 



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and Lord John Russell had failed to con- I 
struct an administration, although Palmer- j 
ston magnanimously consented to serve again ! 
under ' Johnny,' he was himself sent for by | 
the queen, and, after some delay, succeeded 
(6 Feb. 1855) in forming a government ofj 
whigs and Peelites ; the latter, however 
(Gladstone, Graham, and Sidney Herbert), 
retired within three weeks, on Palmerston's 
reluctant consent to the appointment of 
Roebuck's committee of inquiry into the 
management of the war. Their places were 
filled by Sir G. C. Lewis, Sir C. Wood, and 
Lord John Russell, and the cabinet thus 
gained in strength and unity especially as 
Russell was fortunately absent at the Vienna , 
conference. 

The situation when Palmerston at last be- 
came prime minister of England, at the age 
of seventy, was full of danger and perplexity. 
The siege of Sevastopol seemed no nearer a 
conclusion ; the alliance of the four powers 
was shaken ; the emperor of the French had 
lost heart, and was falling more and more 
under the influence of financiers ; the sultan 
of Turkey was squandering borrowed money 
on luxuries and showing himself unworthy of 
support; parties in England were broken up | 
and disorganised, and the House of Commons 
was in a captious mood. At first Palmer- 
ston's old energy and address seem to have 
deserted him, but it was not long before 
his tact and temper began to reassert their 
power. He infused a new energy into the 
military departments, where his long expe- 
rience as secretary at war served him in 
good stead. He united the secretaryships 
for and at war in one post, which he gave to 
Lord Panmure ; he formed a special transport 
branch at the admiralty ; sent out Sir John 
McNeill [q. v.] to reconstitute the commis- 
sariat at Balaclava, and despatched a strong 
sanitary commission with peremptory powers ! 
to overhaul the hospitals and camp. He re- 
monstrated personally with Louis Napoleon j 
upon his desire for peace at any price ; and j 
urged him (28 May 1855) ' not to allow 
diplomacy to rob us of the great and impor- 
tant advantages which we are on the point 
f of gaining.' In a querulous House of Com- 
mons his splendid generalship carried him 
triumphantly through the session. The 
Manchester party he treated with con- 
temptuous banter, and refused to ' count for 
anything ' the country was plainly against ! 
them ; but he vigorously repulsed the attacks 
of the conservatives, and administered a 
severe rebuke (30 July) to Mr. Gladstone 
and the other Peelites who had in office gone 
willingly into the war, and then turned 
round and denounced it. The new energy 



communicated to the army was rewarded 
by the fall of the south side of Sevastopol in 
September, and then once more Austria 
tried her hand at negotiations for peace. 
Palmerston firmly refused to consent to 
Buol's proposal to let the Black Sea ques- 
tion be the subject of a separate arrange- 
ment between Russia and Turkey ' I had 
better beforehand take the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds,' he said but greatly as he and Cla- 
rendon would have preferred a third year's 
campaign, to complete the punishment of 
Russia, he found himself forced, by the 
action of the emperor of the French and the 
pressure of Austria, to agree to the treaty of 
Paris, 30 March 1850. The guarantee by the 
powers of the integrity and independence of 
the Turkish empire, the abnegation by them 
of any right to interfere between the sultan 
and his subjects, and the neutralisation of 
the Black Sea, with the cession of Bessa- 
rabia to Roumania and the destruction of 
the forts of Sevastopol, appeared to him a 
fairly satisfactory ending to the struggle. 
The Declaration of Paris, abolishing priva- 
teering and recognising neutral goods and 
bottoms, followed. The Garter was the ex- 
pression of his sovereign's well-deserved ap- 
probation (12 July 1856). 

Shortly after France had joined in guaran- 
teeing the integrity of the Ottoman em- 
pire, she proposed to England, with splendid 
inconsistency, to partition the Turkish pos- 
sessions in North Africa England to have 
Egypt. While pointing out the moral im- 
possibility of the scheme, Palmerston stated 
to Lord Clarendon his conviction that the 
only importance of Egypt to England con- 
sisted in keeping open the road to India. 
He opposed the project of the Suez Canal) 
tooth and nail; the reasons he gave have for 
the most part been proved fallacious, but the 
real ground of his opposition was the fear that 
France might seize it in time of war and re- 
duce Egypt to vassalage: "He had little faith 
in the constancy of French friendship ; ' in 
our alliance with France,' he wrote (to 
Clarendon, 29 Sept. 1857), ' we are riding a 
runaway horse, and must always be on our 
guard.' He predicted the risk of a Franco- 
Russian alliance ; the necessity of a strongy 
Germany headed by Prussia ; and the ad- 
vance of Russia to Bokhara, whiqh led to 
the Persian seizure of Herat and the brief 
Persian war of the winter of 1856-7. 

On 3 March 1857 the government was de- 
feated by a majority of fourteen by a com- 
bination of conservatives, Peelites, liberals, 
and Irish, on Cobden's motion for a select 
committee to investigate the affair of the 
lorcha Arrow and the justification alleged 



I 



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for the second China war. It had already 
been censured in the lords by a majority of 
thirty-six. A technical flaw in the regi-r 
stration of the Arrow gave a handle for 
argument to those who, ignorant of our 
position in China and regardless of a long 
series of breaches of treaty and of humilia- 
tions, insults, and outrages upon British sub- 
jects, saw merely an opportunity for making 
party capital or airing a vapid philanthropy 
which was seldom less appropriate. Palmer- 
ston might have sheltered himself behind the 
Ifact that the war had been begun by Sir John 
Bowring in the urgency of the moment, 
without consulting the home government ; 
but he never deserted his officers in a just 
cause, and the case in dispute fitted closely 
with his own policy. His instructions to 
{Sir John Davis, on 9 Jan. 1847, which were 
familiar to Bowring and Parkes, fully 
covered the emergency : ' We shall lose,' he 
wrote, ' all the vantage-ground we have 
gained by our victories in China if we take 
a low tone. . . . Depend upon it, that the best 
way of keeping any men quiet is to let them 
see that you are able and determined to re- 
pel force by force ; and the Chinese are not 
in the least different, in this respect, from 
the rest of mankind' (Par/. Papers, 1847, 184, 
p. 2 ; LANE-Poo LE, Life of Sir Harry Parkes, 
/ i. 216-37). No foreign secretary was so 
keenly alive to the importance of British in- 
terests in China, so thoroughly conversant 
. with conditions of diplomacy in the Far East, 

*1 or so firm in carrying out a wise and consis- 
1 /^ent policy. He accepted his parliamentary 
1 defeat very calmly, and, after finishing neces- 
sary business, appealed to the country, No 
man could feel the popular pulse more ac- 
curately, and the result of the general elec- 
tion was never doubtful. It was essentially 
a personal election, and the country voted 
for old Pam ' with overwhelming en- 
thusiusm. That 'fortuitous concourse of 
atoms,' the opposition, was scattered to the 
winds ; Cobden, Bright, and Milner Gibson 
lost their seats, and the peace party was 
temporarily annihilated. In April the 
government returned to power with a largely ' 
increased majority (366 liberals, 287 con- 
servatives). 

Meanwhile the Indian mutiny had broken 
out. At first PalmeTston, like most of the 
authorities, "was disposed to underrate its 
seriousness, but his measures for the relief of 
the overmatched British garrison of India 
land the suppression of the rebellion were 

'M (prompt and energetic. He sent out Sir 
Colin Campbell at once, and by the end of 

.1 September eighty ships had sailed for India, 

^ carrying thirty thousand troops. Foreign 



powers proffered assistance, but Palmerston 
replied that England must show that she 
was able to put down her own rebellions 
'off her own bat' (ASHLEY, I.e. ii. 351). 
When this was accomplished, he brought in 
(12 Feb. 1858) the bill to transfer the 
dominions of the East India Company to\ 
the crown, and carried the first reading by ;t 
majority of 145. A week after this trium- 
phant majority the government was beaten 
by nineteen on the second reading of the 
conspiracy to murder bill (by which, in view 
of Orsini's attempt on the life of Napoleon 
III, conspiracy to murder was to be made a 
felony). The division was a complete sur- 
prise, chiefly due to bad management of the 
whips. Palmerston at once resigned, and 
was succeeded by Lord Derby. The new 
ministry was in a minority, and, being 
beaten on a reform bill early in 1859, dis- 
solved parliament. The election, however, 
left them still to the bad, and after Lord 
Derby had for the fourth time tried to in- 
duce the popular ex-premier to join him, 
he was defeated on 10 June, and resigned. 

Embarrassed by the difficulty of choosing 
between the two veterans, Palmerston and 
Russell, the queen sent for Lord Granville, 
who found it impossible to form a cabinet, 
though Palmerston generously consented 
to join his junior. The country looked to 
' Pam,' and him only, as its leader, and at 
the age of seventy-five he formed his second > 
administration (30 June 1859), with a very j 
strong cabinet, including Uussell, Gladstone, 
Cornewall Lewis, Granville, Card welI,Wo< 1, 
Sidney Herbert, and Miluer Gibson. His 
interval of leisure while out of office had 
enabled him to resume his old alliance with 
those who had opposed him on the Crimean 
and China wars. It was one of Palmerston's r 
finest traits of character that he never bore 
malice. When Guizot was banished from \f 
France in 1848 Palmerston had him to dinner 
at once, old foe as he was, and they nearly 
' shook their arms off' in their hearty recon- 
ciliation (GREVILLE, Journal, pt. ii. vol. iii. ! 
p. 157). ' He was always a very generous 
enemy,' said dying Cobden. When ( iraiivill- 
supplanted Palmerston at the foreign office in 
1851, he met with a cheery greeting and offers 
of help. When Ilussell threw him over, he 
called him laughingly ' a foolish fellow,' and 
bore him no personal grudge. So in 1859 
he brought them all together again. His six 
remaining years were marked by peaceful 
tranquillity both in home and foreign affairs. 
Italy and France indeed presented problems 
of some complexity, but these were met wit Ii 
prudence and skill. Palmerston and his 
foreign minister, Lord John Ilussell, now 



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completely under his leader's influence, 
declined to mediate in the Franco-Austrian 
quarrel, as the conditions were unacceptable 
' to Austria ; but they did not conceal their 
disapproval of the preliminary treaty of Villa- 
franca, which Palmerston declared drove 
Italy to despair and delivered her, tied hand 
and foot, into the power of Austria. ' L'ltalie 
rendue a elle-meme,' he said, had become 
' 1'Italie vendue a 1'Autriche.' That he main- 
tained strict neutrality in the later negotia- 
tions connected with the proposed congress 
of Zurich, and his suggested triple alliance 
of England, France, and Sardinia to prevent 
any forcible interference of foreign powers 
in the internal affairs of Italy (memorandum 
to cabinet, 5 Jan. I860), is scarcely to be 
\ argued. The result of the mere rumour of 
\\ such an alliance (which never came to pass) 
was the voluntary union of the Italian 
duchies to Sardinia and a long stride to- 
wards Italian unity. Palmerston resolutely 
refused to accede to the French desire that 
he should oppose Garibaldi, and hastened to 
, recognise with entire satisfaction the new 
I kingdom of Italy. An eloquent panegyric on 
the death of Cavour, delivered in the House 
of Commons on 6 June 1861, formed a worthy 
conclusion to the sympathy of many years. 

Palmerston's vigilant care of the national 
defences was never relaxed, and the increase 
of the French navy and the hostile language 
towards England which was becoming more 
general in France strengthened him in his 
jjolicv of fortifying the arsenals and dock- 
yards at Portsmouth, Plymouth, Chatham, 
and Cork, for which he obtained a vote of 
nine millions in 1860. In his memorable 
/I speech on this occasion (23 July) he said : 
' If your dockyards are destroyed, your navy 
> is cut up by the i^oots. If any naval action 
were to take place . . . you would have no 
means of refitting your navy and sending it 
out to battle. If ever we lose the command 
of the sea, what becomes of this country ? ' 
In spite of a personal liking, from 1859, when 
he visited him at Compiegne, onwards he had 
grown more and more distrustful of Louis 
Napoleon, whose mind, he said, was ' as full of 
schemes as a warren is full of rabbits,' and 
whose aggrandising theory of a ' natural 
, frontier,' involving the annexation of Nice 
i and Savoy, and even of Chablais and Fau- 
cigny, neutral districts of Switzerland, had 
sf produced a very unfavourable impression. 
/ A threat of sending the English fleet was 
f / necessary to prevent Genoa being added to 
i / the spoils of the disinterested champion of 
Italy. The interference of France in the 
Druse difficulty of 1860 also caused some 
anxiety. Palmerston was convinced that 



,0 Temple 

\ Louis Napoleon would yield to a national 
passion for paying oft' old scores against Eng- 
land, and he preached the strengthening of 
the army and navy and encouraged the new 
rifle volunteer movement. In this policy 
j he was opposed by Gladstone, the chan- 
; cellor of the exchequer, whose brilliant 
j budgets contributed notably to the reputa- 
| tion of the government. There was little 
j cordiality between the two men. ' He has 
never behaved to me as a colleague,' said 
Palmerston, and went on to prophesy that 
when Gladstone became prime minister 
' we shall have strange doings.' On the 
chancellor of the exchequer's pronounced 
hostility to the scheme of fortifications, 
Palmerston wrote to the queen that it was 
' better to lose Mr. Gladstone than to run 
the risk of losing Portsmouth.' With Lord 
John Russell's projects of electoral reform 
the prime minister was not in sympathy; 
but he quietly let his colleague introduce 
his bill, knowing very well that, in the total 
apathy of the country, it would die a natural 
death. It is significant of these differences 
and of the general confidence in Palmerston 
that for a temporary purpose, and in view 
of possible secessions from the cabinet, Dis- 
raeli promised the government the support 
of the conservative party. The ' consummate 
tact,' to use Greville's phrase, displayed by 
the premier in accommodating the dispute 
between the lords and commons over the 
paper bill, and the adoption of Cobden's 
commercial treaty with France, were among 
the events of the session of 1860, at the 
close of which Lord Westbury wrote to 
Palmerston to express his admiration of his 
' masterly leading during this most difficult 
session.' 

During the civil war in America Palmer- 
ston preserved strict neutrality of action, in 
spite of the pronounced sympathy of the; 
English upper classes, and even it was be- 
lieved of some of the cabinet, for the South, 
and the pressure in the same direction ex- 
erted by the emperor of the French. What 
friction there was with the North arose out 
of isolated cases^ for which the government 
r had no responsibility. The forcible seizure 
of two confederate passengers on board the 
British mail-steamer Trent in November 18Q1 
was an affront and a breach of the law of 
nations, especially inexcusable in a state 
which repudiated the ' right of search.' 
Palmerston's prompt despatch of the guards 
to Canada, even before receiving a reply t'> 
his protest, proved, as he prophesied, tin* 
shortest way to peace. Seward, the Ame- ' 
rican secretary of state, at once submitted, 
and restored the prisoners. The Alabama 



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dispute went far nearer to a serious rupture, 
though the hesitation to detain the vessel at 
Birkenhead in August 1862 was due not to 
Palinerston or liussell, but to the law offi- 
cers of the crown. Whatever the sym- 
pathies of England for the South, Palmer- 
ston actively stimulated the admiralty in its 
work of suppressing the slave trade. 

In 1862 the Ionian Islands were presented 
to Greece, on Mr. Gladstone's recommenda- 
tion, although Palmerston had formerly held 
the opinion that Corfu ought to be retained 
as an English military station. Apart from 
a fruitless attempt in 1863 to intercede 
again for the Poles, and a refusal to enter a" 
European congress suggested by Louis Na- 
poleon for the purpose of revising the treaties 
of 1815, and thereby opening, as Palmerston 
feared, a number of dangerous pretensions, 
the chief foreign question that occupied him 
during his concluding years was the Danish 
war. While condemning the king of Den- 
mark's policy towards the Schleswig- 
Holstein duchies, he thought the action of 
Prussia and Austria ungenerous and dis-, 
honest ; but the conference he managed to 
assemble for the settlement of the dispute 
broke up when it appeared that neither 
party could be induced to yield a point ; 
and, in presence of a lukewarm cabinet and 
the indifference of Franca and Russia, Pal- 

I merston could do little for the weaker side. 
TChallenged by Disraeli on his Danish policy, 

1 the premier, then eighty years of age, de- 
fended himself with his old vigour, and then 

.turning to the general, and especially the 
financial, work of the government, ' played 
to the score' by citing the growing prosperity 
of the country under his administration, 
with the result that he secured a majority 
of eighteen. His last important speech in 
the house was on Irish affairs, on which, as 
a liberal and active Irish landholder, he had 
a right to his opinions. He did not believe 
that legislative remedies or tenant-right 
could keep the people from emigrating : 
' nothing can do it except the influence of 
capital.' 

"' For several years before his death Lord Pal- 
merston had been a martyr to gout, which 
he did not improve by his assiduous atten- 
dance at the House of Commons. There, if 
he seldom made set speeches (his sight had 
become too weak to read his notes), his ready 
interposition, unfailing tact and good humour, 
practical management, and wide popularity 
on both sides, smoothed away difficxilties, 
kept up a dignified tone, and expedited the 
business of the house. He refused to give in 
to old age, kept up his shooting, rode to 
Harrow and back in the rain when nearly 



1 



Temple 

seventy-seven to lay the foundation-stone of 
the school library, and on his eight ieth birth- 
day was on horseback nearly nil day inspect- 
ing forts nt Anglesey, Gosport, and else- 
where. When parliament, having sat for 
over six years, was dissolved, 6 July 
he went down to his constituency and won a 
contested election. But he never met the 
new parliament, for a chill caught wh.-n driv- 
ing brought on complications, and he died 
at his wife's estate, Brocket Hall, Hertford- 
shire, 18 Oct., within two days of his eighty- 
first birthday. His official despatch-box and 
a half-finished letter showed that he died in 
harness. He had sat in sixteen parliaments,' 
had been a member of every administration, 
except Peel's and Derby's, from 1807 to 1 sr,.\ 
and had held office for all but half a cen- 
tury. He was buried on 27 Oct. with public 
honours in Westminster Abbey, where he 
lies near Pitt. Lady Palmerston was laid 
beside him on her death on 11 Sept. 1869, at 
the age of eighty-two. ^ 

Among the honours copferred upon him, 
besides the Garter, may be mentioned the 
grand cross of the Bath (1832), the lord- 
wardenship of the Cinque ports (1861), lord- 
rectorship of Glasgow University (1863), 
and honorary degrees of D.C.L., Oxford 
(1862), and of LL.D., Cambridge (1864). 
His title died with him, and his property de- 
scended to Lady Palmerston's second son by 
her first marriage, William Francis Cowper, 
who added the name of Temple, and was 
created Baron Mount Temple of Sligo in 
1880 ; and thence devolved to her grandson, 
the Right Hon. Evelyn Ashley. 

Lord Palmerston, as Mr. Ashley points 
out (ii. 458-9), was a great man rather by a 
combination of good qualities, paradoxically 
contrary, than by any special attribute of 
genius. 'He had great pluck, combined 
with remarkable tact ; unfailing good temper, 
associated with firmness almost amounting 
to obstinacy. He was a strict disciplinarian, 
and yet ready above most men to make 
allowance for the weakness and short- 
comings of others. He loved hard work in 
all its details, and yet took a keen delight in 
many kinds of sport and amusement. He 
belieVed in England as the best and greatest 
country in the world . . . but knew and 
cared more about foreign nations than any 
other public man. He had little or no 
vanity, and claimed but a modest value for 
his own abilities ; yet no man had a better 
opinion of his own judgment or was more 
full of self-confidence.' He never doubted 
for an instant, when he had once made up 
his mind on a subject, that he was right and 
those who differed from him were hopelessly 






Temple 

wrong. The result was a firmness and 
tenacity of purpose which brought him 
through many difficulties. He said himself, 

* A man of energy may make a wrong de- 
cision, but, like a strong horse that carries 
you rashly into a quagmire, he brings you 
by his sturdiness out on the other side.' 
M. Drouyn de Lhuys used the same simile 
when speaking of Palmerston's ' sagacity, 
courage, trustworthiness ' as a ' daring pilot 
in extremity.' Lord Shaftesbury, the man 
whom Palmerston loved and esteemed above 
all others, wrote of him, ' I admired, every 
day more, his patriotism, his simplicity of 
purpose, his indefatigable spirit, his unfailing 
good humour, his kindness of heart, his 
prompt, tender, and active consideration for 
others in the midst of his heaviest toils and 
anxieties.' His buoyant, vivacious, opti- 
mistic nature produced an erroneous impres- 
sion of levity, but this very lightness of heart 
carried him 'unscathed through many a dark 
crisis, and kept up the spirit of the nation, 
whose faults and whose virtues he so com- 
pletely represented. A thorough English 
gentleman, simple, manly, and detesting dis- 
play and insincerity, he brought into private 
life the same generous, kindly, happy spirit 
which he showed in his public career. An 
excellent landlord, he spent infinite pains and 
money over his Irish and English estates, and 
did his best to extirpate the middleman. He 
took a keen interest in all local amusements, 
sports, and meetings, and showed a real and 
genial sympathy with the welfare of farmers, 
labourers, and working men. A keen sports- 
man, he preserved game, hunted when he 
could, rode daily on his old grey, familiar to 
all Londoners, and made exercise, as he said, 

* a religion.' He bred and trained horses since 
1815, but seldom betted. His green and orange 
colours were especially well known at the 
smaller provincial race meetings. But he 
won the Cesarewitch with Ilione in 1841, and 
the Ascot Stakes with Buckthorn in 1852, 
and his Mainstone ran third favourite for the 
Derby in 1860, but was believed to have been 
< got at.' In 1845 he was elected an honorary 
member of the Jockey Club. Indoors he had 
a genius for ' fluking ' at his favourite game 
at billiards ; his opponents said it was typical 
of his statesmanship. He was nostudent, and, 
though he could quote Horace and Virgil and 
the English classics, he only once refers to a 
book in his published correspondence and 
that was ' Coningsby.' His conversation was 
agreeable but not striking ; but, as Greville 
acutely observed, ' when he takes his pen in 
his hand, his intellect seems to have full play.' 
His despatches are clear, bold, trenchant, 
logical ; there he spoke his mind with un- 



2 Temple 

sparing lucidity and frank bluntness. His 
letters, always written in a hurry, are simple, 
clear, honest, and humorous, and show a 
skilful delicacy both in reproof and praise. 
As a speaker, he had the great art of gauging 
the temper of his hearers and suiting his 
speech to their mood. He was ready in de- 
bate, and his set speeches, which were care- 
fully prepared, carried his audience with him, 
although they were neither brilliant nor philo- 
sophical, and he often resorted to somewhat 
flippant jokes and fustian rhetoric to help out 
an embarrassing brief. But what gave him his 
supreme influence with his countrymen in his 
later life, as orator, statesman, and leader, 
was his courage and confidence. ^ 

The chief portraits of Palmersfon are: 
(1) set. 15 or 16, by Heaphy at Broadlands, 
in the possession of the Right Hon. E. 
Ashley ; (2) set. circa 45, by Partridge, in 
the National Portrait Gallery ; (3) set. 51, 
a sketch by Hayter, for his picture of the 
reformed House of Commons, at Broadlands ; 
(4) aet. 66, a full-length by Partridge, pre- 
sented to Lady Palmerston by members of 
the House of Commons in 1850, at Broad- 
lands; (5) set. 71, a large equestrian portrait, 
on the favourite grey, by Barraud, at Broad- 
lands ; (6) set. 80, a remarkable sketch by 
Cruikshank, at Broadlands. Statues of him 
stand in Westminster Abbey (by Robert 
Jackson), Palace Yard (by Thomas Wool- 
ner, R.A.), and at Romsey market-place (by 
Matthew Noble). A bust by Noble and a 
portrait in oils by G. Lowes Dickenson are 
in the hall of the Reform Club. From 
6 Dec. 1851, when (Sir) John Tenniel's car- 
toon of Palmerston in the character of the 
'Judicious Bottle-Holder, or the Downing 
Street Pet ' appeared in 'Punch,' Palmerston 
was constantly represented in that periodi- 
cal ; a straw was invariably placed between 
the statesman's lips in allusion to his love 
of horses (SPlELMAira', History of Punch. 
pp. 203-4). 

[The Life of Lord Palmerston up to 1847 was 
written by his faithful adherent, Lord Balling 
(Sir H. Lytton Bulwer),vols. i. and ii. 1870, vol. 
iii. edited and partly written by the Hon. Evelyn 
Ashley, 1874, after the author's death. Mr. 
Ashley completed the biography in two more 
vols. 1876. The whole work was reissued in a 
revised and slightly abridged form by Mr. Ash- 
ley in 2 vols. 1879, with the title ' The Life and 
Correspondence of Henry John Temple, Viscount 
Palmerston ; ' the letters are judiciously cur- 
tailed, but unfortunately -without indicating 
where the excisions occur ; the appendices of the 
original work are omitted, but much fresh 
matter is added, and this edition is undoubtedly 
the standard biography, and has been freely used 
and quoted above. Palmerston wrote a brief and 



Temple 



33 



Temple 



not quite accurate autobiography up to 1830 for 
the information of Lady Cowper, afterwards his 
wife, which is printed in full at the end of Lord 
Calling's first volume, and is freely used in Mr. 
Ashley's revised edition. He also kept a journal 
from June 1806 to February 1808, extracts from 
which are printed in Mr. Ashley's first volume 
(1879), pp. 17 to 41. The best short biography 
is Mr. Llovd C. Sanders's ' Life of Viscount Pal- 
merston.' 1888. which has furnished useful data 
"for the present article. The Marquis of Lome 
lias also published a short biography, containing 
much previously unpublished material. Anthony 
Trollope's 'Lord Palmerston,' 1882, is an en- 
thusiastic eulogy, chiefly remarkable for a 
vigorous defence of Palmerston against the 
criticisms of the Prince Consort, but containing 
nothing new. A. Laugel in ' Lord Palmerston et 
Lord Kussell,' 1877, gives a French depreciation 
of ' un grand ennemi de la France.' Selections 
from his speeches were published, with a brief 
memoir by G. H. Francis, in 1852, with the title 
' Opinions and Policy of Viscount Palmerston.' 
Almost all the contemporary political and diplo- 
matic memoirs and histories supply information 
or criticism on Palmerston's policy and acts. 
Of these the most important is Greville's Journal, 
though its tone of personal malevolence detracts 
from the value of its evidence. 'Palmerston's 
Borough,' by F. J. Snell (1894), contains notes 
on the Tiverton elections. Other sources for 
this article are Fagan's History of the Keform 
Club; Parliamentary Papers; Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, 1878 ; Complete Peerage by 
G. E. C[okayne]; information from the Eight 
Hon. Evelyn Ashley ; B. P. Lascelles of Harrow ; 
J. Bass Mullinger, librarian, and R. F. Scott, 
bursar, of St. John's College, Cambridge, and J. W. 
Clark, registrary of that university.] S. L.-P. / 

TEMPLE, JAMES (fl. 1640-1668), re- 
gicide, was the only son of Sir Alexander 
Temple of Etchingham in Sussex by his first 
wife, Mary, daughter of John Somers and 
widow of Thomas Peniston. Sir Alexander 
(d. 1629) was younger brother of Sir Thomas 
Temple, first bart., of Stowe (d. 1625), and 
of Sir John Temple, knt., ancestor of the 
Temples of Frampton in Warwickshire. He 
was knighted at the Tower on 14 March 
1604, and represented the county of Sussex 
in the parliament of 1625-6. His second 
\vife was Mary, daughter of John Reve of 
Bury St. Edmunds, and widow of Robert 
Barkworth of London, and of John Bus- 
bridge of Etchingham in Sussex. 

James was captain of a troop of horse 
in the parliamentary army in 1642, serving 
under William Russell, earl of Bedford. In 
1643 he was made captain of the fort of 
West Tilbury, a post which his father had 
held before him (cf. Commons' Journals, iii. 
202, 205, 242, 284). He was appointed one 
of the commissioners for the sequestration 

VOL. LTI. 



of the estates of delinquents for the county 
of Sussex in 1643. In December 1643 he 
defended the fort of Bramber, of which he 
was governor, against an attack by the 
royalists. In February 1644-5 he was made 
one of the commissioners for the county of 
Sussex for raising supplies for the Scottish 
army. In September 1645 he was elected a 
| recruiter 'to the Long parliament, represent- 
ing the borough of Bramber, and in May 1649 
he was made governor of Tilbury fort. 

Temple was one of the king's judges, and 
attended nine sittings of the trial. He was 
present on the morning of 27 Jan. 1649 
when sentence was passed, and signed the 
warrant on 29 Jan. 

On 9 May 1650 he was added to the 
militia commission for the county of Kent, 
and hi September of the same year was re- 
placed in his post of governor of Tilbury 
fort by Colonel George Crompton. In 1653 
Temple's pecuniary difficulties led to a tem- 
porary imprisonment. He sat as a recruiter 
in the restored Rump of 1659, and was 
granted a residence in Whitehall in the 
same year. 

At the Restoration Temple was excepted 
from the act of oblivion on 9 June 1660, 
and attempted to make his way into Ireland. 
He was, however, taken prisoner at Coventry, 
where he ' confessed that he was a parlia- 
ment man and one of the late king's judges,' 
and was detained in the custody of the 
sheriff of Coventry. He surrendered him- 
self on 16 June in accordance with the king's 
proclamation of 4 June, and was received 
into the custody of the lieutenant of the 
Tower. He was excepted out of the in- 
demnity bill of 29 Aug. with the saving 
clause of suspension of execution until de- 
termined upon by act of parliament. < <n 
10 Oct. he was indicted at the sessions house, 
Old Bailey, when he pleaded 'not guilty.' 
On 16 Oct., when again called, he begged to 
see his signature on the warrant, adding ' If 
it be my hand I must confess all, the cir- 
cumstances must follow.' Acknowledging 
the hand to be his, he presented a petition to 
the court. He was pronounced 'guilty,' 
when he begged for the benefit of the king's 
proclamation. In his petition he stated that 
before 1648 he came under the influence of 
Dr. Stephen Goffe [q.v.] and Dr. Henry 
Hammond [q. v.], who ' came to him as from 
the said late king,' urging him to take part 
in the trial for the purpose of providing 
them with information as to the probable 
result. Accordingly he furnished them with 
an account from time to time. He was 
afterwards suspected by Cromwell of con- 
cealing royalist papers and fell out of favour, 



Temple 



34 



Temple 



losing the command of his fort at Tilbury 
and all his arrears. He produced certificates 
from various friends of the late king as to 
his constant willingness to serve them and 
preserve to them their liberties and estates. 

Temple was not executed, but remained 
in confinement in the Tower for some years, 
and was in the Old Castle in Jersey in 1668. 
It is not known where or when he died. By 
his wife Mary he had five sons and at least 
one daughter, Mary. 

Chillingworth (CnEYNELL, Chillingworthi 
Novissimd) speaks of Temple as ' a man that 
hath his head full of stratagems, his heart 
full of piety and valour, and his hand as full 
of success as it is of dexterity.' On the other 
hand, Winstanley (Loyal Martyrology, p. 
141) pronounces him ' not so much famous 
for his valour as his villainy, being remark- 
able for nothing but this horrible business of 
the king's murther, for which he came into 
the pack to have a share in the spoyle.' 

Letters from Temple to Sir Thomas Bar- 
rington on military matters, written in July 
and August 1643, have been printed by the 
historical manuscripts commission (App. 7th 
Rep. pp. 554, 461). 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, iv. 960; Lipscomb's 
Buckinghamshire, iii. 35 ; Berry's County Genea- 
logies (Sussex) ; Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 
152 ; Official Eeturn of M.P.s, i. 472, 494 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1623-60 passim; Nalson's 
Trial of Charles I ; Peacock's Army Lists, 
p. 50; Masson's Milton, ii. 445, v. 454, vi. 43; 
Trial of the Regicides, pp. 29, 266-7, 271, 276; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. pp. 101, 155-6; 
Sussex Archaeological Society's Coll. v. 54, 56, 
58, 154; Commons' Journals, v. 572, vi. 238, 
viii. 65, 139 ; Lords' Journals, vii. 226, xi. 52, 
66 ; Cal. of Comm. for Comp. pp. 1245. 2370-1 ; 
Kennett's Reg. pp. 179, 238 ; Addit. MS. 6356, 
f. 45 (par. reg. of Etchingham).] B. P. 

TEMPLE, SIR JOHN (1600-1677), 
master of the rolls in Ireland, eldest son of 
Sir William Temple (1555-1627) [q. v.j, 
provost of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
Martha, daughter of Robert Harrison of 
Derbyshire, was born in Ireland in 1600. 
After receiving his education at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, he spent some time travelling 
abroad, and on his return entered the per- 
sonal service of Charles I. He obtained 
livery of his inheritance on 5 Jan. 1628, and 
was shortly afterwards knighted. Returning 
to Ireland, he was on 31 Jan. 1640 created 
master of the rolls there (patent 20 Feb.) 
in succession to Sir Christopher Wandes- 
ford [q. v.] (SMYTH, Law Officers of Ireland, 
p. 67) and admitted a privy councillor. 
When the rebellion broke out in October 
1641 he was of the greatest service to govern- 



ment in provisioning the city (CARTE, Life of 
Ormond, i. 171). On 23 July 1642 he was 
returned M.P. forco. Meath, being described 
as of Ballycrath, co. Carlow (Official Return 
of M.P.s, Ireland, pt. ii. p. 627). In the 
struggle between the crown and the parlia- 
ment his inclinations drew him to the side 
of the latter, and, in consequence of the vehe- 
ment resistance he offered to the cessation, 
he was in August 1643 suspended from his 
office by the lords justices Borlase and Tich- 
borne, acting on instructions from Charles, 
and, with Sir W. Parsons, Sir A. Loftus, and 
Sir R. Meredith, committed a close prisoner 
to the castle. He was specially charged with 
having in May and June written two scan- 
dalous letters against the king, which had 
been used to asperse his majesty as favouring 
the rebels (CARTE, Life of Ormonde, i. 441- 
443). His imprisonment lasted nearly a 
year, when he was exchanged. In compensa- 
tion for what was regarded as his harsh treat- 
ment, he was provided in 1646 with a seat 
in the English House of Commons as a ' re- 
cruiter ' for Chichester, receiving at the same 
time its special thanks for the services he 
had rendered to the English interest in Ire- 
land at the beginning of the rebellion. 

That year Temple published his ' Irish Re- 
bellion ; or an history of the beginning and 
first progresse of the generall rebellion 
raised within the kingdom of Ireland upon 
the ... 23 Oct. 1641. Together with the bar- 
barous cruelties and bloody massacres which 
ensued thereupon,' in 2 pts. 4to. The book 
made an immediate and great sensation. As 
the production of a professed eye-witness 
and of one whose position entitled him to 
speak with authority, its statements were 
received with unquestioning confidence, 
and did much to inflame popular indigna- 
tion in England against the Irish, and to 
justify the severe treatment afterwards mea- 
sured out to them by Cromwell. But the 
calmer judgment of posterity has seen rea- 
son to doubt the veracity of many of its 
statements, and, though still occasionally ap- 
pealed to as an authority, its position is rather 
that of a partisan pamphlet than of an histori- 
cal treatise (LECKY, Hist, of Engl. ii. 148- 
150 ; HICKSON, Irish Massacres, vol. i. introd. 
p. 140). A new edition appeared in London 
in 1674, much to the annoyance of govern- 
ment, but, on being questioned by the lord- 
lieutenant (the Earl of Essex) on the sub- 
ject, Temple disclaimed having had any share 
in its reissue, saying that ' whoever printed 
it did it without his knowledge ' (EssEX, 
Letters, p. 2). So highly, indeed, were the 
Irish incensed against it that one of the first 
resolutions of the parliament of 1689 was to 



Temple 



35 



Temple 



order it to be burnt by the common hang- 
man (Egerton MS. 917, f. 108); but since 
then it has been frequently reprinted both 
in Dublin and in London. 

In 1647, after the conclusion of the peace 
between Ormonde and the parliament, I 
Temple was appointed a commissioner for 
the government of Munster, and on 16 Oct. I 
the following year was made joint commis- 
sioner with Sir W. Parsons for the admini- 
stration of the great seal of Ireland. But, 
having voted with the majority on 5 Dec. in 
favour of the proposed compromise with 
Charles, he was excluded from further at- 
tendance in the house ; and during the next 
four years he took no part in public affairs, 
residing the while quietly in London. His 
personal experience, however, of the cir- 
cumstances attending the outbreak of the 
rebellion led to his appointment on 21 Nov. 
1653 as a commissioner 'to consider and 
advise from time to time how the titles of 
the Irish and others to any estate in Ireland, 
and likewise their delinquency according to 
their respective qualifications, might be put 
in the most speedy and exact way of adjudi- 
cation consistent with justice.' His labours 
accomplished, he returned to England in the j 
following year, and, the government of Ire- | 
land having grown into a settled condition, j 
he expressed his willingness to resume the i 
regular execution of his old office of master 
of the rolls. He accordingly repaired thither 
in June 1655, bearing a highly recommen- 
datory letter from Cromwell to the lord- 
deputy Fleetwood and council of state in 
his favour (Commonwealth Papers, P.R.O. 
Dublin, A/28, 26, f. 60). In addition to an 
increased official salary he received from time 
to time several grants of money for special 
services rendered by him. In September 
that year he was joined with Sir R. King, 
Benjamin Worsley, and others in a commis- 
sion for letting and setting of houses and 
lands belonging to the state in the counties of 
Dublin, Kildare, and Carlow, and on 13 June 
1056 was appointed a commissioner for de- 
termining all differences among the adven- 
turers concerning lands, &c. (ib. A/ 26, 24, ff. 
115, 227). As a recompense for his services 
he received on 6 July 1658 a grant of two 
leases for twenty-one years, the one com- 
prising the town and lands of Moyle, Castle- 
town, Park, &c., adjoining the town of Car- 
low, amounting to about 1,490 acres, in part 
afterwards confirmed to him under the act 
of settlement on 18 June 1666; the other of 
certain lands in the barony of Balrothery 
West, co. Dublin, to which were added those 
of Lispoble in the same county on 30 March 
1659 for a similar term of years. He ob- 



tained license to go to England for a whole 
year or more on 21 April 1659 (SMYTH, Law 
Officers, p. 67). At the Restoration he was 
confirmed in his office of master of the rolls, 
sworn a member of the privy council, ap- 
pointed a trustee for the '49 officers, and 
on 4 May 1661 elected, with his eldest 
son William, to represent co. Carlow in par- 
liament (Official Return of M.P.s, Ireland, 
pt.ii. p. 607). On the 6th of the same month 
he obtained for the payment of a fine of 
540/. a reversionary lease from the queen 
mother Henrietta Maria of the park of 
Blandesby or Blansby in Yorkshire for a 
term of forty years. He received a confir- 
mation in perpetuity of his lands in co. 
Dublin, including those of Palmerstown, 
under the act of settlement on 29 July 1666; 
to which were added on 20 May 1669 others 
in counties Kilkenny, Meath, Westmeath, 
and Dublin. Other grants followed, viz. on 
3 May 1672 of 144 acres formerly belonging 
to the Phoenix Park, and on 16 Nov. 1675 
of certain lands, fishings, &c., in and near 
Chapelizod. He was appointed vice-treasurer 
of Ireland in 1673, but died in 1677, and was 
buried beside his father in Trinity College 
near the campanile, having that year made 
a benefaction of 100/. to the college to be laid 
out in certain buildings, entitling him and 
his heirs to bestow two handsome chambers 
upon such students as they desired. 

By his wife Mary, daughter of Dr. John 
Hammond [q. v.], of Chertsey. Surrey, who 
died at Penshurst in Kent in November 
1638. Temple had, besides two sons and a 
daughter who died young, Sir William, the 
statesman (1628-1699), noticed separately ; 
Sir John (see below); Martha [see under 
TEMPLE, SIB WILLIAM, 1628-16991; and 
Mary, who married (1) Abraham Yarner, 
and "(2), on 19 Dec. 1693, Hugh Eccles. 

SIR JOHN TEMPLE (1632-1704), having re- 
ceived an education in England qualifying 
him for the bar, was on 10 July 1660 created 
solicitor-general of Ireland (patent, 1 Feb. 
1661 ; SMYTH, Laic Officers, .p. 177), and in 
March followingappointedacommissioner for 
executing the king's ' Declaration 'of 30 Nov. 
1660 touching the settlement of the country. 
He was returned M.P. for Carlow borough 
on 8 May 1661, and was elected speaker on 
the first day (6 Sept.) of the second sessions 
of parliament in the place of Sir A. Mrrvyn 
(cf. CARTE, Life of Ormonde, App. pp. L|0-l >. 
being shortly afterwards knighted. His re- 
putation as "a lawyer stood very high, and 
there was some talk in October 1679 of 
making him attorney-general of England 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Ren. pt. i. p. 4', 
He was continued in his office of solicitor- 



Temple 



Temple 



general by James II till the violent measures 
of Tyrconnel compelled him to seek refuge 
in England [see TALBOT, RICHARD]. His 
name was included in the list of persons 
proscribed by the Irish parliament in 1689, 
and his estates to the value of 1,700/. per 
annum sequestered. But after the revolu- 
tion he was on 30 Oct. 1690 (patent, 21 March 
1691) appointed attorney-general of Ireland 
in the place of Sir Richard Nagle [q. v.], re- 
moved, and continued in that office till his 
resignation on 10 May 1695. Afterwards 
retiring to his estate at East Sheen in Surrey, 
he died there on 10 March 1704, and was 
buried in Mortlake church. By his wife 
Jane, daughter of Sir Abraham Yarner, of 
Dublin, whom he married on 4 Aug. 1663, 
he had several children, of whom his eldest 
surviving son Henry (1673P-1757) [q. v.], 
was created Viscount Palmerston. 

[Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, v. 235-42 ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Authors; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography; Gilbert's Contemporary 
Hist, of Affairs ; Clarendon State Papers, ii. 
13 4, and authorities quoted.] K. D. 

TEMPLE, PETER (1600-1663), regicide, 
was third son of Edmund Temple (d. 1616) 
of Temple Hall in the parish of Sibbesdon, 
near AVhellesburgh in Leicestershire, and of 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Bur- 
goine of Wroxhall in Warwickshire. Peter, 
who was born in 1600, was apprenticed to a 
linendraper in Friday Street, London, but, 
his elder brothers Paul and Jonathan dying, 
he inherited the family estate of Temple 
Hall. . 

In December 1642, when the association 
for the mutual defence and safety of the 
counties of Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, 
Rutland, Northampton, Buckingham, Bed- 
ford, and Huntingdon was formed, Temple 
was chosen one of the committee. He was 
at that time the captain of a troop of horse. 
He was an original member of the committee 
for the management of the militia for the 
county of Leicester, formed on 17 Jan. 1643. 
On 19 Jan. 1G44 he was elected high sheriff 
of Leicestershire (having been appointed to 
the post by the parliament on 30 Dec. pre- 
viously), and was deputed to settle the diffe- 
rences between Lord Grey and Richard 
Ludlam, mayor of Leicester. He was placed 
on the committee for raising supplies for the 
maintenance of the Scottish army in the 
town and county of Leicester, when it was 
formed in February 1645. His bravery as a 
soldier has been doubted, and he has been 
accused of attempting to dissuade Lord Grey 
from fortifying Leicester and of retiring with 
his troops to Rockingham on the intelligence 
of the enemy's advance on the town in May 



1645. Even his supporters Avere unable to 
advance an adequate reason for his departure 
for London just before the siege of Leicester 
(29 May 1645). On 17 Nov. 1645 he was 
chosen a freeman of the town of Leicester, 
and elected to represent the borough in parlia- 
ment, vice Thomas _Cooke, disabled to sit on 
30 Sept. previously. At about the same time 
he was military governor of Cole Orton in 
Leicestershire. 

Temple was one of the king's judges. He 
attended all the sittings of the court save 
two, was present on 27 Jan. 1648 when sen- 
tence was passed, and signed the death war- 
rant on the 29th. On 13 June 1649 he was 
added to the committee for compounding at 
Goldsmiths' Hall, and was elected to serve 
on a sub-committee of the same on 23 June. 
On 21 July he was petitioning parliament 
for redress for losses during the war, and was 
voted 1,500. out of the sequestrations in the 
county of Leicester. By 3 Jan. 1650 1,200/. 
had been paid, and further payment was 
ordered out of the Michaelmas rents. In De- 
cember 1650, being then in London, Temple 
was ordered by the council of state to return 
to his duties as militia commissioner for the 
county of Leicester. In July 1659 he was 
again in London, and was assigned lodgings 
in Whitehall. 

At the Restoration Temple was excepted 
from the act of oblivion. He surrendered 
himself on 12 June, in accordance with the 
king's proclamation of 4 June 1660, and was 
committed to the Tower. He was excepted 
from the indemnity bill of 29 Aug. with 
the saving clause of suspension of execution 
awaiting special act of parliament. He 
pleaded ' not guilty ' when brought to the 
bar of the sessions house, Old Bailey, on 
10 Oct., and when tried on the 16th was con- 
demned to be hanged. Temple then pleaded 
the benefit of the king's proclamation. He 
was respited, and remained in the Tower till 
20 Dec. 1663, when he died a prisoner. His 
estate of Temple Hall was confiscated by 
Charles II, who bestowed it on his brother 
James, duke of York. It had been in the 
possession of the Temples for many genera- 
tions. 

Temple married Phoebe, daughter of John 
Gayring of London, by whom he had three 
sons, Edmund, John, and Peter (b. 1635). 
Winstanley {Loyal Martyrology , pp. 141-2) 
gives a poor character of Temple, as one 
' easier to be led to act anything to which 
the hope of profit called him,' and considers 
him to have been ' fooled by Oliver into the 
snare.' 

The subject of this article has been con- 
fused alike with Sir Peter Temple, the con- 



Temple 



37 



Temple 



temporary baronet of Stowe [see TEMPLE, 
SIR RICHARD, 1634-1697], and with Sir 
Peter Temple of Stanton Bury, knt., nephew 
of the baronet. 

[Nichols's Herald and Genealogist, iii 389- 
391; Noble's Spanish Armada ; Official Lists of 
Members of Parliament, i. 490 ; Noble's Lives of 
the Regicides; Masson's Milton, iii. 402, vi. 43, 
54, 93, 115; Nichols's Leicestershire, i. 461, iii. 
App. 4, 33, iv. 959 ; Commons' Journals, iii. 
354, 576, 638, vi. 267, viii. 61, 63; Nalson's 
Trial of Charles I ; Calendar of Committee for 
Compounding, pp. 144, 165; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1650 p. 468, 1659-60 pp. 30, 96, 325, 
1663 p. 383; Thompson's Leicester, pp. 377, 
381, 386 ; Trial of the Regicides, pp. 29, 267, 
271, 276; Innes's An Examination of a Printed 
Pamphlet entituled A Narrative of the Siege of 
the Town of Leicester.'p. 5; An Examination 
Examined, p. 13.] B. P. 

^TEMPLE, SIB RICHARD (1634-1697), 
politician, born on 28 March 1634, was the 
son of Sir Peter Temple, second baronet of 
Stowe, by his second wife, Christian, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Sir John Leveson of 
Walling in Kent (Parish Register of Ken- 
svir/fun, Harl. Soc. p. 70). 

Although in the visitation of Leicester- 
shire in 1619 the family of Temple is traced 
back to the reign of Henry III, the first un- 
doubted figure in their pedigree is Robert 
Temple, who lived at Temple Hall in Leices- 
tershire in the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. He left three sons, of whom Robert 
carried on the elder line at Temple Hall, 
to which belonged Peter Temple [q. v.j the 
' regicide,' while Thomas settled at Witney in 
Oxfordshire. Thomas Temple's great-grand- 
son Peter became lessee of Stowe in Buck- 
inghamshire, and died on 28 May 1577. He 
had two sons John, who purchased Stowe 
on 27 Jan. 1589-90, and Anthony, father of 
Sir William Temple (1555-1627) [q.v.] John 
was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas, 
who was knighted in June 1603 and created 
a baronet on 24 Sept. 1611. He married 
Hester, daughter of Miles Sandys of Lati- 
mer, Buckinghamshire, by whom he had four 
sons. Of these the eldest was Sir Peter 
Temple, father of Sir Richard (NICHOLS, 
Hist, of Leicestershire, iv. 958-62 ; HANNAY, 
Three Hundred Years of a Norman House, 
1867, pp. 262-88; Herald and Genealogist, 
1st ser. iii. 385-97 ; Notes and Queries, in. 
viii. 506). 

SIR PETER TEMPLE (1592-1653), who was 
baptised at Stowe on 10 Oct. 1592, represented 
the borough of Buckingham in the last two 
parliaments of Charles I, and was knighted at 
Whitehall on 6 June 1641 (METCALFE, Book 
of Knights, p. 196 ; Official Returns of Mem- 



berg of Parliament, i. 480,485). He espoused 
the cause of the parliamentarians, and held 
the commission of colonel in their army. But 
on the execution of Charles he threw up his 
commission, and exhibited so much disgust 
that information was laid against him in 
parliament for seditious language (Journal* 
of the House of Commons, vii. 76, 79, 108). 
He died in 1653, and was buried at Stowe 
(Stowe MSS. 1077-9). 

In 1654 Sir Richard Temple, although 
not of age, was chosen to represent War- 
wickshire in Cromwell's first parliament, and 
on 7 Jan. 1658-9 he was returned for the 
town of Buckingham under Richard Crom- 
well. At that time he was a secret royal- 
ist, and delayed the proceedings of parlia- 
ment by proposing that the Scottish and 
Irish members should withdraw while the 
constitution and powers of the upper house 
were under discussion (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
5th Rep. pp. 171-2, 7th Rep. p. 483; Li.v- 
GARD, Hist, of England, 1849, viii. 560). 
After the Restoration he was again returned 
for Buckingham, and retained his seat for 
the rest of his life, except in the parliament 
which met in March 1678-9, when he was 
defeated by the influence of the Duke of 
Buckingham (Hist. MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. 
vi. 13, 20). On 19 April 1661 he was created 
a knight of the Bath. He became a promi- 
nent member of the country party, and in 
1663 the king complained of his conduct to 
the House of Commons, who succeeded in 
effecting an accommodation (Journals of the 
House of Commons, viii. 502, 503, 507, 511- 
515; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1663 4. p. 
190 ; PEPTS, Diary, ed. Braybrooke, pp. 1 ~~>, 
179, 182, 185). In 1671 a warrant was made 
out appointing him to the council for foreign 
plantations, and in the following year he was 
nominated senior commissioner of customs 
(ib. 1671 passim ; HAYDN, Book of Dii/ttitir*, 
pp. 273-4; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. ii. 
33). He distinguished himself by his zeal 
against those accused of participation in the 
popish plot, and on account of his anxiety to 
promote the exclusion bill was known to the 
adherents of the Duke of York as the ' Stoe 
monster.' In February 1682-3 Charles re- 
moved him from his place in the customs. 
He was reinstated in the following year, but 
was immediately dismissed on the accession 
of James II (LUTTRELL, lirief l!rlafin, 
1857, i. 251, 329). After the Revolution he 
regained his post on 5 April 1089, and lu-ld 
it until the place bill of 1094 compelled 
him to choose between his ottice and his 
seat in parliament (ib. i. 523, iii. 300, 353; 
Cul. Mate Papers, Dom. 1689-90, pp. 58, 
514, 516). 



Temple 3 

Temple was a prominent figure in the 
lower house in William's reign. In 1691 he 
was the foremost to assure the king of the 
resolution of the commons to support him 
in the war with France, and in the follow- 
ing year he opposed the triennial bill ; his 
speech is preserved among the manuscripts 
of the Earl of Egmont (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
7th Rep. pp. 204-5, 207, 245). He died in 
1697, and was buried at Stowe on 15 May. 

By his wife Mary, daughter of Henry 
Knapp of Rawlins, Oxfordshire, he had four 
sons: Richard [see TEMPLE, SIR RICHARD, 
VISCOUNT COB HAM], Purbeck, Henry, and 
Arthur, who all died without issue. By her 
he had also six daughters, of whom Hester 
married Richard Grenville of Wootton, 
Buckinghamshire, ancestor of the dukes of 
Buckingham and Chandos. She was created 
Countess Temple in her own right on 18 Oct. 
1749, and died at Bath on 6 Oct. 1752. 

Temple was the author of : 1 . ' An Essay 
on Taxes,' London, 1093, 4to, in which he 
opposed the land tax, and also the project of 
an excise on home commodities. 2. ' Some 
short Remarks upon Mr. Lock's Book, in 
answer to Mr. Launds[i. e. William Lowndes, 
q. v.], and several other books and pam- 
phlets concerning Coin,' London, 1696, 4to, 
in which he attacked the new coinage. The 
latter pamphlet called forth an anonymous 
answer entitled ' Decus and Tutamen ; or 
our New Money as now coined, in Full 
"Weight and Fineness, proved to be for the 
Honour, Safety, and Advantage of England,' 
London, 1696, 8vo. 

A folio volume containing collections from 
Temple's parliamentary papers, and another 
in his handwriting containing ' An Answer 
to a Book entitled the Case Stated of the 
Jurisdiction of the House of Lords on the 
Point of Impositions,' were formerly among 
the Earl of Ashburnham's manuscripts, and 
are now in the Stowe collection in the Bri- 
tish Museum. 

[Gibbs's Worthies of Buckinghamshire, p. 377; 
Collins's Peerage of England, ed. Brydges, ii. 
413 ; Prime's Account of the Temple Family, 
New York, 3rd ed. 1896; Clarendon's Life, 
1857, ii. 321 ; Stowe MSS. ; Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 28054, f. 186; Cal. State Papers, Dora. 
1689-90, pp. 53, 514, 516.] E. I. C. 

TEMPLE, SIR RICHARD, VISCOUNT 
COBHAM (1669?-! 749^ boi'ii about 1G69, 



Temple 



was the eldest son of Sir Richard Temple 
(1634-1697) [q. v.], by his wife Mary, daugh- 
ter of Henry Knapp of Rawlins, Oxfordshire. 
He received an ensigncy in Prince George's 
regiment of foot on 30 June 1685, and was 
appointed adjutant on 12 April 1687. On 



11 July 1689 he obtained a captaincy in 
Babington's regiment of foot. In May 1697 
he succeeded his father in the baronetcy and 
family estates, and on 17 Dec. he was re- 
turned to parliament for the town of Bucking- 
ham, his father's constituency, and retained 
it throughout William's reign. At the time 
of the general election for Anne's first parlia- 
ment he was absent from the kingdom, and 
later was defeated in his candidature for 
Aylesbury, but was elected for the county 
on 8 Nov. 1704 by a majority of two votes. 
He sat for Buckinghamshire in the parlia- 
ment of 1705, and for the town of Bucking- 
ham in those of 1708 and 1710 (Official Re- 
turns of Members of Parliament, i. 570, 579, 
586, 593, 600, ii. 1, 9, 18 ; LUTTRELL, Brief 
Relation, 1857, v. 250, 486). 

On 10 Feb. 1701-2 he was appointed 
colonel of one of the new regiments raised 
for the war with France, and was stationed 
in Ireland (ib. v. 140, 201, 214). He was 
afterwards transferred to the Netherlands, 
and served under Marlborough throughout 
his campaigns. He particularly distinguished 
himself at the siege of Lille in 1708, and 
was rewarded by being despatched to Lord 
Sunderland with the news of the capitula- 
tion (Marlborouyh Despatches, ed. Murray, 
1845, i. 224, 542. ii. 530, iv. 274). On 1 Jan. 
1705-6 he attained the rank of brigadier- 
general ; on 1 Jan. 1708-9 he was promoted 
to that of major-general; he was created 
lieutenant-general on 1 Jan. 1709-10, and 
in the same year he received the colonelcy 
of the 4th dragoons (LUTTRELL, vi. 548, 
686). Sir Richard's military career was in- 
terrupted by his political principles. Like his 
father, he was a staunch whig, and in con- 
sequence he was not included in the list of 
officers nominated to serve in Flanders under 
the Duke of Ormonde. In 1713 his regiment 
was given to Lieutenant-general William 
Evans. 

On the accession of George I Temple was 
at once taken into favour. On 19 Oct. 1714 
he was created Baron Cobham of Cobham 
in Kent, being descended through his grand- 
mother, Christian Leveson, from William 
Brooke, tenth lord Cobham (1527-1597). He 
was sent as envoy extraordinary and pleni- 
potentiary to the emperor Charles VI to an- 
nounce the accession of the new king. After 
his return he was made colonel of the 1st 
dragoons in June 1715, and on 6 July 1716 
he was appointed a privy councillor. In the 
same year he became constable of Windsor 
Castle, and on 23 May 1718 was created 
Viscount Cobham. On 21 Sept. 1719 he 
sailed from Spithead in command of an ex- 
pedition which was originally destined to 



'horn IA Oct. l67<;' CG.E.C. 



Temple 



39 



Temple 



attack Coruua. Finding that place too 
strong, however, he attacked Vigo instead, 
captured the town, and destroyed the military 
stores accumulated there (A.ddit. MS. 15936, 
f. 270). On 10 April 1721 he was appointed 
colonel of the 'king's own' horse, in 1722 
comptroller of the accounts of the army, and 
governor of Jersey for life in 1723 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. iv. 138). 

Until 1733 Cobharn, with the rest of the 
whigs, supported Walpole's ministry. In 
that year he strongly opposed Walpole's 
scheme of excise (ib. 8th Rep. i. 18). This 
difference led to others, and, in consequence 
of a strongly worded protest against the pro- 
tection of the South Sea Company's directors 
by the government, Lord Cobhain and Charles 
Paulet, third duke of Bolton [q. v.], were 
dismissed from their regiments. In the case 
of an old and tried soldier like Lord Cob- 
ham this proceeding caused a great sensa- 
tion. Bills were introduced in both houses 
to take from the crown the power of breaking 
officers, and motions were made to petition 
the king to inform them who had advised 
him to such a course. By breaking with 
Walpole Cobham forfeited the favour of the 
king; but by opposing the excise he gained 
the esteem of the Prince of Wales, and by 
assailing the South Sea Company he ob- 
tained the sympathy of the people. In asso- 
ciation with Lyttelton and George Gren- 
ville, he formed an independent whig section, 
known as the ' boy patriots,' which in 1735 
was joined by William Pitt (HERVEY, Me- 
moirs, i. 165, 215, 245, 250, 288, 291 ; COXE, 
Life of Walpole, 1798, pp. 406, 409 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1734, passim). 

On 27 Oct. 1735 Cobham attained the rank 
of general. During the rest of Walpole's 
ministry he maintained his attitude of opposi- 
tion, and in 1737 joined in a protest against 
the refusal of the upper house to request the 
king to settle 100,000/. a year on the Prince 
of Wales out of the civil list (HERVEY, 
Memoirs, iii. 89-90). After Walpole's down- 
fall a coalition was effected among Lord 
Wilmington, the Pelhams, and the prince's 
party, which Cobham joined. He wascreated 
a field-marshal on 28 March 1742, and on 
25 Dec. was appointed colonel of the first 
troop of horse-guards. On 9 Dec. following, 
however, he resigned his commission, owing 
to the strong objections he conceived to em- 
ploying British troops in support of Hano- 
verian interests on the continent (Addit. 
MS. 32701, f. 302). 

In 1744, on the expulsion from the cabinet 
of John Carteret, lord Granville, the chief 
supporter of the continental policy, the 
greater part of the whig opposition effected 



a coalition with the Pelhams, in which Lord 
Cobham joined on receiving a pledge from 
Newcastle that the interests of Hanover 
should be subordinated to those of Kng- 
land. On 5 Aug. he was appointed colonel 
of the 1st dragoons, which was exchanged 
in the following year for the 10th. 

Cobham died on 13 Sept. 1749, and was 
buried at Stowe. He married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Edmund Halsey of Stoke Pogis, 
Buckinghamshire, but had no issue. Ac- 
cording to the terms of the grant he was 
succeeded in the viscounty and barony by his 
sister Hester, wife of Richard Grenville of 
Wootton, Buckinghamshire. He was suc- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by his cousin, Wil- 
liam Temple, great-grandson of Sir John 
Temple of Stanton Bury, who was the second 
son of Sir Thomas Temple, the first baronet. 
Cobham rebuilt the house at Stowe and 
laid out the famous gardens. He was a 
friend and patron of literary men, whom he 
frequently entertained there. Both Pope and 
Congreve celebrated him in verse Pope in 
the first of his ' Moral Essays,' and Congreve 
in ' A Letter to Lord Cobham ' written in 
1729. Pope was a frequent visitor at Stowe, 
and Congreve -was honoured by a funeral 
monument there distinguished by its singular 
ugliness (SwiFT, Works, ed. Scott, index ; 
POPE, Works, ed. Elwin, index ; RCFFHEAD, 
Life of Pope, 1769, p. 212 ; Egtrtm MS. 
1949, if. 1, 3). 

Cobham was a member of the Kit-Cat 
Club, and his portrait was painted with those 
of the other members by Sir Godfrey Kneller 
[q. v.] It was engraved by Jean Simon, and 
in 1732 by John Faber the younger. Another 
portrait, painted by Jean Baptiste Van Loo, 
was purchased for the National Portrait 
Gallery in June 1869 ; it was engraved by 
George Bickham in 1751, and by Charles 
Knight in 1807 (SMITH, BritM .\f/'z:<>tint 
Portraits, pp. 380, 1120; BROMLEY, Cat. of 
British Portraits, p. 257). 

[Prime's Account of the Temple Family, New 
York, 3rd edit. 1896 ; G. E. C[okayne]'s Peer- 
age, ii. 324-5 ; Collins's Peerage of England, ed. 
Brydges, ii. 414-15; Whitmore's Account of the 
Temple Family, 1856, p. 6 ; Coxes Memoirs of 
the Pelham Administration, 1829, i. passim ; 
Eclye's Kecords of the Royal Marines, i. index ; 
Beatson's Political Index, ii. 115; Memoirs of 
the Kit-Cat Club, 1821, pp. 118-19; Glover's 
Memoirs, 1814, passim; Doyle's Official Baro- 
nnge, i. 419 ; Mnhon's Hist, of England, 1839, i. 
170, oll.ii. 256,262-4 ; Gent. Mag. 1718, p. 23 ; 



u. .. . ! 

2529, f. 86 ; Stowe MSS. 248 f. 24, 481 ff. 89- 




Temple 

TEMPLE, SIR THOMAS (1614-1674), 
baronet of Nova Scotia, governor of Acadia, 
second son of Sir John Temple of Stanton 
Bury, Buckinghamshire, who was knighted 
by James I at Royston on 21 March 1612-13 
(METCALFE, Knights, p. 164), by his first 
wife, Dorothy (d. 1625), daughter and co- 
heiress of Edmund Lee of Stanton Bury, 
was born at Stowe (his father's house being 
leased to Viscount Purbeck), and baptised 
there on 10 Jan. 1614. His grandfather was 
Sir Thomas Temple, first baronet of Stowe [see 
under TEMPLE, SIR RICHARD, 1634-1697]. 
On 20 Sept. 1656 Sir Charles St. Etienne 
made over to Thomas Temple and to William 
Crowne, father of the dramatist John Crowne 
[q. v.], all his interest in a grant of Nova 
Scotia, of which country the English had 
become masters in 1654. This grant was 
confirmed by Cromwell, who regarded the 
Temple family with favour, and the Protector 
further appointed ' Colonel Thomas Temple, 
esquire,' governor of Acadia. Temple set 
out for New England in 1657, occupied the 
forts of St. John and Pentagoet in Acadia 
or Nova Scotia, and resisted the rival claims 
of the French ' governor ' Le Borgne. At 
the Restoration Temple's claims to retain 
the governorship were disputed, but on 
his return to England they were finally 
upheld. He was created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia by Charles II on 7 July 1662, and 
three days later received a fresh commission 
as governor. Five years afterwards by the 
treaty of Breda (July 1667) Charles II ceded 
Nova Scotia to Louis XIV, and in December 
1667 Charles sent a despatch to Temple 
ordering him to cede the territory to the 
French governor Sr. Marillon du Bourg. The 
surrender was not completed until the fall 
of 1670. Temple was promised, but never 
received, a sum of 16,200/. as an indemnifica- 
tion for his loss of property. The ex-governor 
settled at Boston, Massachusetts, where he 
enjoyed a reputation for humanity and gene- 
rosity. In 1672 he subscribed 100/. towards 
the endowment of Harvard College (QuiNCY, 
Hist, of Harvard, 1840, vol. i. app.) He 
joined the church of Cotton Mather, but his 
morals were not quite rigid enough to please 
the puritans of New England. He moved to 
London shortly before his death on 27 March 
1674. He was buried at Baling, Middlesex, 
on 28 March (HuTCHiifsON, Massachusetts 
Collections, p. 445). He left no issue. 

[Notes supplied by Mr. J. A. Doyle ; Whit- 
more's Account of the Temple Family, 1856, 
p. 5; Prime's Temple Family, New York, 1896, 
p. 42 ; Murdoch's Hist, of Nova Scotia, 1865, i. 
134-9, 153; Maine Hist. Soc. Collections, i. 301 ; 
Williamson's Hist, of Maine, i. 363, 428 ; Me- 



Temple 



moires des Commissaires du Eoi etde ceuxdesa? 
Majeste Britannique, 1755 (containing the docu- 
ments relating to the surrender of Acadia by 
Temple) ; Kirke's First English Conquest of 
Canada, 1871; "Winsor's Hist, of America, iv. 
145; Cal. State Papers, Amer. and West Indies, 
1661-8, passim, esp. pp. 96, 597, 626.] 

TEMPLE, SIR WILLIAM (1555-1627),. 
fourth provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
was a younger son of Anthony Temple. The 
latter was a younger son of Peter Temple 
of Derset and Marston Boteler, Warwick- 
shire, whose elder son, John, founded the 
Temple family of Stowe (cf. LODGE, Peer- 
age, v. 233; Herald and Genealogist, 1st ser. 
iii. 398 ; LIPSCOMB, Buckinghamshire, iii. 85 ; 
and see art. TEMPLE, SIR RICHARD, 1634- 
1697). Sir William Temple's father is com- 
monly identified with Anthony Temple (d. 
1581) of Coughton, Warwickshire, whose 
wife was Jane Bargrave. But in this An- 
thony Temple's will, which was signed in 
December 1580 and has been printed in 
Prime's ' Temple Family ' (p. 105), Peter 
was the only son mentioned ; he was well 
under eighteen years of age, and was doubt- 
less the eldest son. There may possibly 
have been an unmentioned younger son, 
William, but he could not have been more 
than fifteen in 1580. On the other hand, 
the known facts of our Sir William's career 
show that before that date he was a graduate 
of Cambridge and in that year made a re- 
putation as a philosopher. Moreover he 
was stated to be in his seventy-third year at 
his death in 1627. The year of his birth 
cannot consequently be dated later than 
1 555, and when Anthony Temple of Coughton 
died in 1581, he must have been at least 
five-and-twenty. 

William was educated at Eton, whence he 
passed with a scholarship to King's College, 
Cambridge, in 1573 (HARWOOD, Alumni}. 
In 1576 he was elected a fellow of King's, 
and graduated B.A. in 1577-8 and M.A. 
in 1581. Though destined for the law, he 
became a tutor in logic at his college and a 
earnest student of philosophy. ' In his logic 
readings,' wrote a pupil, Anthony Wotton 
[q. v.], in his 'Runne from Rome' (1624),. 
' he always laboured to fit his pupils for the 
true use of that art rather than for vain and 
idle speculations.' He accepted with enthu- 
siasm the logical methods and philosophical 
views of the French philosopher Pierre de 
la Ramee, known as Ramus (1515-1572), 
whose vehement attacks on the logical sys- 
tem of Aristotle had divided the learned 
men of Europe into two opposing camps of 
Ramists and Aristotelians. Temple rapidly 
became the most active champion of the 



Temple 



Temple 



Ramists in England. In 1580 he replied in 
print to an impeachment of Kamus's position 
by Everard Digby (fl. 1590) [q. v.] Adopt- 
ing the pseudonym of Franciscus Milda- 
pettus of Navarre (Ramus had studied in 
youth at the Parisian College de Navarre), 
he issued a tract entitled ' Francisci Milda- 
petti Navarreni ad Everardum Digbeium 
Anglum admonitio de unica P. Kami 
methodo reiectis caeteris retinenda,' London 
(by Henry Middleton for Thomas Mann), 
1580. The work was dedicated to Philip 
Howard, first earl of Arundel, whose ac- 
quaintance Temple had made while the earl 
was studying at Cambridge. Digby replied 
with great heat next year, and Temple re- 
torted with a volume published under his 
own name. This he again dedicated to the 
Earl of Arundel, whom he described as his 
Maecenas, and he announced to him his iden- 
tity with the pseudonymous ' Mildapettus.' 
Temple's second tract bore the title, ' Pro 
Mildapetti de unica Methodo Defensione 
contra Diplodophilum [i.e. Digby] commen- 
tatio Gulielmi Tempelli e regio Collegio Can- 
tabrigiensi.' He appended to the volume an 
elaborate epistle addressed to another cham- 
pion of Aristotle and opponent of Ramus, 
Johannes Piscator of Strasburg, professor at 
Herborn. Temple's contributions to the 
controversy attracted notice abroad, and this 
volume was reissued at Frankfort in 1584 
(this reissue alone is in the British Mu- 
seum). Meanwhile in 1582 Temple had con- 
centrated his efforts on Piscator's writings, 
and he published in 1582 a second letter to 
Piscator with the latter's full reply. This 
volume was entitled ' Gulielmi Tempelli 
Philosophi Cantabrigiensis Epistola de Dia- 
lecticis P. Rami ad Joannem Piscatorem 
Argentinensem una cum Joannis Piscatoris 
ad illam epistolam responsione,' London (by 
Henry Middleton for John Harrison and 
George Bishop), 1582. 

Meanwhile, on 11 July 1581, Temple had 
supplicated for incorporation as M.A. at t 
Oxford (FOSTER, Alumni O.von.), and soon j 
afterwards he left Cambridge to take up the : 
office of master of the Lincoln grammar ' 
school. In 1584 he made his most valu- j 
able contribution to the dispute between the 
Ramists and Aristotelians by publishing an j 
annotated edition of Ramus's ' Dialectics.' 
It was published at Cambridge by Thomas 
Thomas, the university printer, and is said 
to have been the first book that issued from 
the university press (MuLLiNGER, Hist, of 
Cambridge University, ii. 405). The work 
bore the title, ' P. Rami Dialecticae libri duo 
scholiis G. Tempelli Cantabrigiensis illus- 
trati.' A further reply to Piscator was 



appended. The dedication was addressed by 
lemple from Lincoln under date 4 Feb. to 
Sir Philip Sidney. In the same year Tem- 
ple contributed a long preface, in which he 
renewed with spirit the war on Aristotle, to 
the ' Disputatio de prima simplicium et con- 
cretorum corporum generatione,' by a fellow 
Ramist, James Martin [q. v.] of Dunkeld, 
professor of philosophy at Turin. This also 
came from Thomas's press at Cambridu.-: it 
was republished at Frankfort in 158!t. In 
the same place there was issued in 1591 a 
severe criticism of both Martin's argument 
and Temple's preface by an Aristotelian, 
Andreas Libavius, in his ' Quiestionum 1'hv- 
sicarum controversarum inter Peripateticos 
et Rameos Tractatus' (Frankfort, 1591). 

Temple's philosophical writings attracted 
the attention of Sir Philip Sidney, to whom 
the edition of Kamus's ' Dialectics 'was dedi- 
cated in 1584, and Sidney marked his appre- 
ciation by inviting Temple to become his 
secretary in November 1585, when he was 
appointed governor of Flushing. He was 
with Sidney during his fatal illness in the 
autumn of the following year, and his master 
died in his arms (17 Oct. 1586). Sidney left 
him by will an annuity of 30/. Temple's ser- 
vices were next sought successively by Wil- 
liam Davison [q.v.], the queen's secretary, and 
Sir Thomas Smith [q. v.l, clerk of the privy 
council (Ri~RCii,Memoirsof Elizabethan. 106). 
But about 1594 he joined the household of 
Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and 
for many years performed secretarial duties for 
the earl in conjunction with Anthony Bacon 
[q. v.], Henry Cuff [q. v.], and Sir Henry 
Wotton [q. v.] In 1597 he was, by Essex's 
influence, returned to parliament as member 
for Tamworth in Staffordshire. He seems 
to have accompanied Essex to Ireland in 
1599, and to have returned with him lu-xt 
year. When Essex was engaged in organising 
his rebellion in London in the winter of 
1600-1, Temple was still in his service, to- 
gether with one Edward Temple, whose re- 
lationship to William, if any, has not been 
determined. Edward Temple knew far more 
of Essex's treasonable design tlian William, 
who protested in a letter to Sir Robert Cecil, 
written after Essex's arrest, that he was kept 
in complete ignorance of the plot (lirit. Mug. 
Addit. MS. 4160, No. 78; SPEDDINO, Bacon, 
ii. 364). No proceedings were taken against 
either of the Temples. 

William Temple's fortunes were prejudiced 
by Essex's fall. Sir Robert Cecil is said to 
have viewed him with marked disfavour. 
Consequently, despairing of success in poli- 
tical affairs, Temple turned anew to literary 
study. In 1605 he brought out, with a dedi- 



Temple 4 

cation to Henry, prince of Wales, ' A Logi- 
call Analysis of Twentye Select Psalmes 
performed by W. Temple ' (London, by Felix 
Ivyngston for Thomas Man, 1605). He is ap- 
parently the person named Temple for whom 
Bacon vainly endeavoured, through Thomas 
Murray of the privy chamber, to procure the 
honour of knighthood in 1607-8 (SPEEDING, 
iv. 2-3). But soon afterwards his friends 
succeeded in securing for him a position of 
profit and dignity. On 14 Nov. 1609 he was 
made provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, the chancel- 
lor of the university, was induced to assent 
to the nomination at the urgent request of 
James Ussher [q. v.] Temple was thence- 
forth a familiar figure in the Irish capital. 
] le was appointed a master in chancery at 
Dublin on 31 Jan. 1609-10, and he was re- 
turned to the Irish House of Commons as 
member for Dublin University in April 1613. 
He represented that constituency till his 
death. 

Temple proved himself an efficient admini- 
strator of both college and university, at- 
tempting to bring them into conformity at 
all points with the educational system in 
vogue at Cambridge. Many of his innova- 
tions became permanent features of the aca- 
demic organisation of Dublin. By careful 
manipulation of the revenues of the college 
he increased the number of fellows from four 
to sixteen, and the number of scholars from 
twenty-eight to seventy. The fellows he 
was the first to divide into two classes, 
making seven of them senior fellows, and 
nine of them junior. The general govern- 
ment of the institution he entrusted to the 
senior fellows. He instituted many other 
administrative offices, to each of which he 
allotted definite functions, and his scheme of 
college offices is still in the main unchanged. 
He drew up new statutes for both the col- 
lege and the university, and endeavoured to 
obtain from James I a new charter, extend- 
ing the privileges which Queen Elizabeth 
had granted in 1595. He was in London 
from May 1616 to May 1617 seeking to in- 
duce the government to accept his pro- 
posals, but his efforts failed. His tenure of 
the office of provost was not altogether free 
from controversy. He defied the order of 
Archbishop Abbot that he and his colleagues 
should w r ear surplices in chapel. He insisted 
that as a layman he was entitled to dispense 
with that formality. Privately he was often 
in pecuniary difficulties, from which he 
sought to extricate himself by alienating the 
college estates to his wife and other relatives 
(SxtrBBS, Hist, of the University of Dublin, 
1889, pp. 27 sq.) 



Temple 



Temple was knighted by the lord-deputy, 
Sir Oliver St. John (afterwards Lord Grandi- 
son), on 4 May 1622, and died at Trinity 
College, Dublin, on 15 Jan. 1626-7, being 
buried in the old college chapel (since pulled 
down). At the date of his death negotia- 
tions were begun for his resignation owing 
to ' his age and weakness.' His will, dated 
21 Dec. 1626, is preserved in the public 
record office at Dublin (printed in Temple 
Prime's ' Temple Family,' pp. 168-9). He was 
possessed of much land in Ireland. His 
wife Martha, daughter of Robert Harri- 
son, of a Derbyshire family, was sole execu- 
trix. By her Temple left two sons Sir 
John [q.v.], afterwards master of the rolls in 
Ireland, and Thomas with three daughters, 
Catharine, Mary, and Martha. The second 
son, Thomas, fellow of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, became rector of Old Ross, in the diocese 
of Ferns, on 6 March 1626-7. He subse- 
quently achieved a reputation as a puritan 
preacher in London, where he exercised his 
ministry at Battersea from 1641 onwards. 
He preached before the Long parliament, and 
was a member of the Westminster assembly. 
He purchased for 450/. an estate of 750 acres 
in co. Westmeath, and, dying before 1671, 
was buried in the church of St. Lawrence, 
Reading. By his wife Anne, who was of 
a Reading family, he left two daughters 
(TEMPLE PRIME, "pp. 24-5). 

[Authorities cited ; Cole's Manuscript His- 
tory of King's College, Cambridge, ii. 157 (in 
Addit. MS. 5815) ; Lodge's Peerage, s. v. 
' Temple, viscount Palmerston,' iii. 233-4 ; Temple 
Prime's Account of the Family of Temple, New 
York, 3rd edit. 1896, pp. 23 sq., 105 sq. ; Mind 
(new ser.), vol. i. ; Ware's Irish Writers ; Parr's 
Life of Ussher, pp. 374 et seq. ; Ebrington's 
Life and Works of Ussher, 1847, i. 32, xvi. 
329, 335.] S. L. 

TEMPLE, SIR WILLIAM (1628-1699), 
statesman and author, born at Blackfriars 
in London in 1628, was the grandson of Sir 
William Temple (1555-1627) [q. v.], provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and formerly 
secretary to Sir Philip Sidney. His father, 
Sir John Temple [q. v.], master of the rolls 
in Ireland, married, in 1627, Mary (d. 1638), 
daughter of John Hammond, M.D. [q-v.], and 
sister of Dr. Henry Hammond [q. v.], the 
divine. William was the eldest son. A sister 
Martha, who married, on 21 April 1662, Sir 
Thomas Giffard of Castle Jordan, co. Meath, 
was left a widow within a mouth of her wed- 
ding, and became a permanent and valued 
inmate of her eldest brother's household ; she 
died on 31 Dec. 1722, aged 84, and was buried 
in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey on 
5 Jan. 1723. 



Temple 



43 



Temple 



"William Temple was brought up by his 
uncle, Dr. Henry Hammond, at the latter's 
rectory of Penshurst in Kent. When Ham- 
mond was sequestered from his living in 1643, 
Temple was sent to Bishop Stortford school, 
where he learnt all the Latin and Greek he 
ever knew : the Latin he retained, but he 
often regretted the loss of his Greek. On 
13 Aug. 1644 he was entered as a fellow- 
commoner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he remained a pupil of Ralph Cud- 
worth for two years. Leaving Cambridge 
without taking any degree, in 1648 he set 
out for France. On his road he fell in with 
the son and daughter (Dorothy) of Sir Peter 
Osborne. Sir Peter held Guernsey for the 
king, and his family were ardent royalists. 
At an inn where they stopped in the Isle of 
Wight young Osborne amused himself by 
writing with a diamond on the window pane, 
'And Hamon was hanged on the gallows they 
had prepared for Mordecai.' For this act 
of malignancy the party were arrested and 
brought before the governor ; whereupon 
Dorothy, with ready wit and a singular con- 
fidence in the gallantry of a roundhead, took 
the offence upon herself, and was imme- 
diately set at liberty with her fellow-travel- 
lers. The incident made a deep impression 
upon Temple ; he was only twenty at the 
time, and the lady twenty-one. A courtship 
was commenced, though the father of the 
hero was sitting in the Long parliament, 
while the father of the heroine was holding 
a command for the king. Even when the 
war ended and Sir Peter Osborne returned 
to his seat of Chicksands in Bedfordshire, 
the prospects of the lovers seemed scarcely 
less gloomy. Sir John Temple had a more 
advantageous alliance in view for his son. 
Dorothy, on her side, was besieged by many 
suitors. Prominent among them were Sir 
Justinian Isham [q. v.], her distant cousin 
Thomas Osborne (afterwards Earl of Danby 
and Duke of Leeds) [q. v.], andllenry Crom- 
well [q. v.], the fourth son of the Protector, 
who made her the present of a fine Irish grey- 
hound. Even more hostile to the match than 
Temple's father were Dorothy's brothers, one 
of whom, Henry, was vehement in his re- 
proaches. At the close of seven years of 
courtship and correspondence, during which 
Temple was in Paris, Madrid, St. Malo, and 
Brussels (the city of his predilection), ac- 
quiring French and Spanish, Dorothy fell ill, 
and was cruelly pitted with the small-pox. 
Temple's constancy had now been proved 
enough, and on 31 Jan. 1654-5 the faithful 
pair were united before a justice of the peace 
in the parish of St. Giles's, Middlesex. At 
the close of 1655 they repaired to Ireland, 



Temple spending the next few years alter- 
nately at his father's house in Dublin and 
upon his own small estate in Carlow. During 
his seclusion he read a good deal, acquired a 
taste for horticulture, and ' to please his wife' 
penned some indifferent verses and transla- 
tions, which were afterwards included in his 
'Works.' A more distinctive composition 
of this period was a family prayer which was 
adapted ' for the fanatic times when our ser- 
vants were of so many different sects,' and 
was designed that ' all might join in it.' 

Upon the Restoration Temple was chosen a 
member of the Irish convention for Carlow, 
and in May 1661 he was elected for the 
county in the Irish parliament. During a 
visit to England in July 1661 he was coldly 
introduced at court by Ormonde, but sub- 
sequently he entirely overcame Ormonde's 
prejudices. In May 1663, upon the proro- 
gation of the Irish parliament, he removed 
to England, and settled at Sheen in a house 
which occupied the site of the old priory, in 
the neighbourhood of the Earl of Leicester's 
seat at Richmond (cf. CHANCELLOR, Hist, of 
Richmond, 1894, p. 73). His widowed sister, 
Lady Gift'ard,caine to live with the Temples 
during the summer, their united income 
amounting to between 500/. and 600/. a 
year. At Sheen, Temple planted an orangery 
and cultivated wall-fruit 'the most exquisiu- 
nailed and trained, far better than ever I 
noted it ' (EVELYN). 

Ormonde provided him with letters to 
Clarendon and Arlington, and Temple ap- 
prised Arlington of his desire to obtain a 
diplomatic post, subject to the condition that 
it should not be in Sweden or Denmark. In 
June 1665 he was accordingly nominated to 
a diplomatic mission of no little difficulty to 
Christopher Bernard von Ghalen, prince- 
bishop of Munster. The Anglo-Dutch war 
was in progress, and the bishop had under- 
taken, in consideration of a fat subsidy, to 
create a diversion in favour of Great Britain 
by invading Holland from the east. Templf 
was to remit the money by instalments and 
to expedite the bishop's performance of ki> 
part of the contract (many interesting drtuils 
of the mission are given in Temple's letters 
to his brother, to Arlington, and others, pub- 
lished by Swift from the copies made by the 
diplomatist's secretary, Thomas Downton). 
The bishop was more than a match for Temple 
in the subtleties of statecraft. He managed 
on various pretexts to postpone the raid into 
Holland (with the states of which he was 
nominally at peace) until he had secured 
several instalments of subsidy. In the 
meantime Louis XIV had got wind of the 
conspiracy and detached twenty thousand 



Temple 



44 



Temple 



troops, more than sufficient to watch and in- 
timidate the little army of Munster. The 
bishop was able to plead force majeure with 
much plausibility ; no step was ever taken on 
his part to carry out the scheme of invasion, 
and he made a separate peace with the Dutch 
at Cleves in April 1666. Temple was at 
Brussels when he heard that this step was 
impending, and he hurried to Minister in the 
hope of preventing it. Alter an adventurous 
journey by way of Diisseldorf and Dortmund 
(see his spirited letter to Sir J. Temple, 
dated Brussels, 10 May 1666), he was re- 
ceived with apparent cordiality and initiated 
into the episcopal mode of drinking out of a 
large bell with the clapper removed; but 
during these festivities he learned that the 
treaty had been irrevocably signed. Several 
bills of exchange from England were already 
on their way, and the bishop, on the pretext 
of the dangerous state of the country, en- 
treated Temple to seek his safety by a cir- 
cuitous retreat by way of Cologne. The young 
diplomat had formed a very erroneous judg- 
ment of Von Ghalen, but he saw through 
this artifice. He found means of getting out 
of the city unobserved, and, after fifty hours' 
most severe travelling amid considerable 
dangers, he succeeded in intercepting a little 
of the money. At the best the negotiation 
was not a conspicuous success, and Temple 
was much exercised in his mind as to ' how 
to speak of it so as to avoid misrepresenta- 
tion.' Happily, his employers in this ill- 
conceived scheme were not dissatisfied, and 
in October 1665 he was accredited envoy at 
the viceregal court at Brussels, a post which 
he had specially desired, receiving 500/. for 
equipage and 100/. a month salary ((?/. 
State Papers, Dom. 1606, p. 80). In January 
1665-5 he was further gratified by the un- 
expected honour of a baronetcy, and in the 
following April he moved his family to 
Brussels from Sheen (ii.) 

Temple's duties at Brussels were to watch 
over Spanish neutrality ; to promote a good 
understanding between England and Spain ; 
and, later on, to suggest any possible means 
of mediating between Spain and France. He 
got permission to go to Breda in July 1667, 
when peace was concluded between Eng- 
land and the United Provinces. In the 
meantime Louis and Turenne \vere taking 
town after town in Flanders. Brussels itself 
was threatened, and Temple had to send his 
family home, retaining only the favoured 
Lady Giffard. The professions of Louis to- 
wards the Dutch were friendly, but the alarm 
caused in Holland was great ; and Dutch 
suspicions were soon shared by Temple. He 
visited Amsterdam and The Hague in Sep- 



tember 1667, and had some intercourse with 
the grand pensionary, John de Witt, with 
whom his relations were to develop into a 
notable friendship. De Witt was acutely 
sensitive to the danger from the French gar- 
risons in Flanders, yet a policy of concilia- 
tion towards France seemed to be the only 
course open to him. Temple dwelt in his 
correspondence to Arlington upon the dan- 
gers of such an entente ; for a long time the 
English ministers appeared deaf to the tale 
of French aggrandisement, but on 25 Nov., 
1 in response to his representations, Temple 
received a most important despatch. He 
was instructed to ascertain from De Witt 
whether the states would really and effec- 
tively enter into a league with Great Britain 
for the protection of the Spanish Nether- 
lands. The matter was one of considerable 
delicacy, but De Witt was pleased by the 
Englishman's frank statement of the situa- 
tion, and finally signified his acquiescence 
in Temple's views as far as was compatible 
with a purely defensive alliance. 

Having hastened to England to report 
the matter in full, Temple was supported in 
the council by Arlington and Sir Orlando 
Bridgeman [q. v.], and his sanguine antici- 
pations were held to outweigh the objections 
of Clifford and the anti-Dutch councillors. 
He returned to The Hague with instructions 
on 2 Jan. 1668; and though De Witt was 
somewhat taken aback by the suddenness of 
the English monarch's conversion to his own 
specific (of a joint mediation, and a defen- 
sive league to enforce it), Temple managed 
to persuade him of its sincerity, and he 
undertook to procure the co-operation of the 
deputies of the various states. The same 
evening Temple visited the Swedish envoy 
Christopher Delfique, count Dhona, omitting 
the formal ceremony of introduction on the 
ground that ' ceremonies were made to facili- 
tate business, not to hinder it.' When the 
French ambassador D'Estrades heard a ru- 
mour of the negotiation, he observed slight- 
ingly, ' We will discuss it six weeks hence ; * 
but so favourable was the impression that 
Temple had made on the minds of the pen- 
sionary and the ministers that business which 
was estimated to last two or three months 
was despatched in five days (the commis- 
sioners from the seven provinces taking the 
unprecedented step of signing without pre- 
vious instruction from the states), and the 
treaty, named the triple alliance, as drafted 
by Temple and modified by De Witt, was 
actually sealed on 23 Jan. (the signature of 
the Swedish envoy was affixed three days 
later). Flassan attributes this triumph to 
Temple's adherence to the maxim that in 



Temple 



45 



Temple 



politics one must always speak the truth. 
Burke, in his ' Regicide Peace,' referred to it 
as a marvellous example of the way in which 
mutual interest and candour could overcome 
obstructive regulations and delays. 

The festivities at The Hague in honour of 
the treaty included a ball given by De Witt 
and opened by the Prince of Orange ; the 
English plenipotentiary was eclipsed on this 
occasion by the grand pensionary, but ob- 
tained his revenge next day at a tennis 
match. The rejoicings in England were less 
effusive, but Pepys characterised the treaty 
as the ' glory of the present reign,' while 
Dryden afterwards held Shaftesbury up to 
special execration for having loosed ' the 
triple bond.' 

Ostensibly the triple alliance aimed merely 
at the guarantee by neutral powers of terms 
which Louis had already ottered to Spain, 
but which it was apprehended that he meant 
to withdraw and replace by far more onerous 
ones. There were, however, four secret ar- 
ticles, by which England and the United 
Provinces pledged themselves to support 
Spain against France if that power deferred 
a just peace too long. Burnet though, like 
Pepys, he called the treaty the masterpiece 
of Charles II's reign was ignorant of the 
secret articles ; and contemporary critics 
were also ignorant of the fact that the day 
after the signature Charles wrote to his 
sister, Henriette d'Orleans, to excuse his 
action in the eyes of the French king on the 
plea of momentary necessity (DALRYMPLE, 
i. 68; BAILLOST, Henriette Anne, 1886, p. 
301). Clifford, in fact, when he remarked 
'For all this joy we must soon have another 
war with Holland,' accurately expressed the 
views of his master, who found in Temple's 
diplomacy a convenient and respectable 
cloak for his own very different designs, in- 
cluding at no distant date the signal humilia- 
tion of the Dutch. Having regard to the 
sequel, it is plain that Temple was rather 
more of a passive instrument in the hands 
of the thoroughly unsympathetic Charles 
than Macaulay and others, who have idealised 
his achievement, would lead us to suppose. 
It is true that he was for guiding our diplo- 
macy in the direction which it took with 
such success some twenty years later, and 
time and experience eventually approved his 
policy. But although the popular voice 
acclaimed his attempt to rehabilitate the 
balance of power in Europe, it is by no 
means so clear that in 1608 English in- 
terests lay in supporting Holland against 
France (cf. Mem. de Gourville, ap. MICHAUD, 
3rd ser. v. 544; MIGNET, ii. 495, iii. 50; 
SEELEY, Grou-th of British Policy, 1895). 



In February 1668, the treaty having been 
accomplished, Temple left The Hague to re- 
turn to Brussels. In view of a possible 
rupture with France some preliminary dis- 
cussion was entered upon as to a junction of 
the English, Spanish, and Dutch fleets, and 
some trouble was anticipated by Temple ia 
consequence of the English pretension to be 
saluted in the narrow seas, which Charles 
would not hear of abating one jot ; but 
mobilisat ion proved unnecessary. There was 
some talk of Temple being offered a secre- 
taryship, but to his great relief the offer was 
not made, and he was sent on as envoy ex- 
traordinary to Aix-la-Chapelle, where the 
provisions indicated by the triple alliance 
were embodied in the definitive treaty on 
8 May 1668. Whether or no the secret 
pact was the cause of Louis's disgorging 
Franche-Comt6, which his armies had over- 
run, there is no doubt that the credit of 
England abroad had been raised by Temple's 
energy, and on his way to and from Aix he 
was hailed by salutes and banquets. 

Having spent two months in England, 
Temple took leave of the king on 8 Aug. 
1668, and proceeded as English ambassador 
to The Hague, with a salary of 11. a day. 
By the king's desire he took special pains to 
combat the reserve of the Prince of Orange, 
and he soon wrote in glowing terms to his 
court of the prince's sense, honesty, and 
promise of pre-eminence. In August 1669, 
in his private capacity, he successfully me- 
diated in a pecuniary dispute between Hol- 
land and Portugal (Bulstnde Papers, p. 1 12). 
During 1670 was imposed upon him the un- 
grateful task of demanding the surrender of 
Cornet George Joyce [q. v.J The magistrates 
at Rotterdam did not openly refuse, but they 
evaded the request, and in the intervalJoyce 
escaped (LuDLOW, Memoirs, 1894, ii. IL'">). 
No less difficult were the negotiations in the 
direction of an equitable ' marine treaty,' and 
Temple had also on his hands a design for 
including Spain in a quadruple alliano-. 
But the simultaneous French intrigue on 
the part of Charles caused all Temple's zeal 
to be regarded with increasing suspicion and 
dislike at home, while his friends Bridgeman, 
Trevor, and Ormonde were frowned upon, and 
finally left unsummoned to the foreign com- 
mittee. When Louis overran Lorraine, and 
Charles made no sign, even Temple's friend 
De Witt could scarcely refrain from ex- 
pressing cynical views as to the stability of 
English policy. The position was becoming 
untenable for an avowed friend of Holland. 
The English ministers still hesitated to take 
so pronounced a step as to recall their mini- 
ster; but during this summer Temple re- 



Temple 



4 6 



Temple 



celved orders to return privately to England, 
and he landed at Yarmouth on 16 Sept. 1670. 
He promised the pensionary to return, and 
that speedily, but his going was sufficient 
indication to De Witt of the turn things 
were taking. The suspicions which Temple 
had kept to himself were confirmed on his 
arrival. Arlington was deliberately off- 
hand in his demeanour; the king, while 
professing the utmost solicitude about 
Temple's health and sea passage, obstinately 
refused to speak to him upon political mat- 
ters. It was not until, at a meeting of mi- 
nisters, Clifford blurted out a number of 
diatribes against the Dutch that Temple 
realised the full import of the situation. 
His resolution was instant and characteristic. 
' I apprehend,' he says, ' weather coming 
that I shall have no mind to be abroad in, 
and therefore decide to put a warm house 
over my head ' without a moment's delay. 
He withdrew to Sheen and enlarged his 
garden. Charles wrote to the states that 
Temple had come away at his own desire 
and upon urgent private affairs. In reality 
his recall had been demanded by Louis. It 
was not until June 1671 that he was allowed 
to write a farewell letter to the states, or 
that a royal yacht was sent to The Hague 
for Lady Temple and the ambassador's 
household. Though he wrote of the decla- 
ration of war upon the Dutch in 1672 as a 
thunderclap (Memoirs}, he must have seen 
its approach pretty clearly for some time. 

His enforced leisure was devoted by Temple 
to literature and philosophy. He had already 
composed (1667-8) and submitted to Arling- 
ton in manuscript his ' Essay upon the Pre- 
sent State and Settlement of Ireland,' a 
short but trenchant pamphlet, which was 
published, together with the ' Select Letters/ 
in 1701, but was not included in the collec- 
tive edition of Temple's works. In it he 
condemned the ' late settlement of Ireland ' 
as ' a mere scramble,' during which ' the 
golden shower fell without any well-directed 
order or design ; ' yet he recommended that 
the settlement, bad as it was, should be 
maintained not by balancing parties but by 
despotic severity ; ' for to think of governing 
that kingdom by a sweet and obliging temper 
is to think of putting four wild horses into 
a coach and driving them without whip or 
reins.' As was only habitual among liberal 
or enlightened statesmen of his century, he 
ignored the claims of the native Irish to 
any legislative or other consideration. Dur- 
ing 1671 he composed his ' Essay upon the 
Original and Nature of Government ' (first 
published in 1680), which is notable not only 
for some fine images and sensible definitions, 



but as anticipating the view expressed nine 
years later in Filmer's ' Patriarch* ' that the 
! state is the outcome of a patriarchal system 
i rather than of the ' social compact ' as con- 
! ceived by Hooker or Hobbes. At the same 
time he manages to avoid the worse extra- 
A'agances of Filmer (see HARRIOTT, Temple 
on Government, 1894 ; MIXTO, English Prose, 
1881, p. 316). In 1672 he penned his ' Ob- 
servations upon the United Provinces of the 
Netherlands ' (London, 1672, 8vo ; in Dutch, 
London, 1673 ; 3rd edit. 1676, 8th 1747 ; in 
French, The Hague 1685, Utrecht 1697), 
which was and deserved to be extremely 
popular, both at home and abroad. Temple 
used to declare that he was influenced in 
some points of style by the ' Europte Specu- 
lum ' of Sir Edwin Sandys [q. v.] If so, he 
was probably influenced no less by Sandys's 
large view of toleration. In the fourth 
chapter, upon the disposition of the Hol- 
landers, the author displays a limpid humour 
and much quiet penetration ; but it is curious 
that he never so much as mentions Dutch 
painting, then at its apogee. Jean le Clerc, 
while pointing out some errors (mostly tri- 
fling), praised the work as a whole as the best 
thing of its kind extant (English version by 
Theobald, 1718). His power as a rhetorical 
writer was displayed about the same time in 
his noble ' Letter to the Countess of Essex ' 
(cf. BLAIR, Lect. on Rhetoric, 1793, i. 260). 
When the necessity for a peace between 
England and Holland became apparent in 
1674, Temple was called from his retreat in 
order to assist in the negotiation of the 
treaty of Westminster (14 Feb.) He went 
out to The Hague for the purpose, and his 
influence again helped to expedite matters. 
His reputation was now very high, and on his 
return he had the refusal not only of a digni- 
fied embassy to Madrid but (for the conside- 
ration of 6,000/.) of Williamson's secretary- 
ship of state. He frequented the court, and 
became familiar with the new men who were 
rising into prominence, such as Halifax and 
his old acquaintance Danby. But his sojourn 
in England was not a long one, as in July 
1674 he was again despatched as ambassador 
to The Hague. This embassy was rendered 
memorable by the successful contrivance of 
a match between William of Orange and 
Charles's niece Mary [see MARY II], a match 
which was in reality of vastly greater im- 
port to England than the triple alliance. 
It seems to have been first hinted at in a 
letter from Temple to the prince dated 
22 Feb. 1674 ; but the early stages of the 
negotiation are involved in considerable ob- 
scurity. As soon as Temple found the 
prince interested, he spared no pains to bring 



Temple 



47 



Temple 



the matter to a successful issue. Lady 
Temple, who was on intimate terms with 
Lady Villiers, the princess's governess, Avas 
fortunately able to satisfy the prince's 
curiosity on a number of small points, and 
in 1676 she went over to England and inter- 
viewed Danby concerning the matter ( Temple 
Memoirs, ii. 345 ; RALPH, i. 336 ; STRICK- 
LAND, vii. 30 sq.) The negotiations, which 
were terminated by William's visit to Eng- 
land in September 1677 and his marriage 
a few weeks later, brought about a close 
rapprochement between Danby and Temple, 
and a gradual estrangement, due in part no 
doubt to jealousy, between Temple and 
Arlington. The strife between Danby and 
Arlington was already a source of vexation 
to the king; and when, during Temple's 
visit this summer, he pressed the secretary- 
ship once more upon him (even offering 
himself to defray half the fees), it was pro- 
bably in the hope that a man of Temple's 
character would be able to restore harmony 
as well as respectability to his council. He 
must have thought Temple's ultimate value 
great, or he would not have tolerated the 
portentous lectures which the statesman de- 
livered for his benefit (cf. Memoirs, ii. 267). 
Immediately after the wedding on 4 Nov., 
Temple hastened back to The Hague, his 
coming there being esteemed ' like that of the 
swallow which brought fair weather with it.' 
He was instructed to proceed without delay 
to the congress at Nimeguen, where Leoline 
Jenkins was acting as English plenipo- 
tentiary, but nervously craved for Temple's 
moral support. While there he heard of his 
father's death on 23 Nov. 1677, whereby the 
reversion of the Irish mastership of the 
rolls devolved upon him. A license to re- 
main away from Ireland for three years was 
prepared and renewed in September 1680 
and September 1685, when he appointed 
John Bennett of Dublin to be deputy clerk 
and keeper of the rolls ; he did not finally 
surrender the post until 29 May 1696 (LAS- 
CELLES, Liber Munerum Hibernia, 1824, 
ii. 20). In July 1678 Temple negotiated 
another treaty with the Dutch with the 
object of forcing France to evacuate the 
Spanish towns ; bu,t this separate under- 
standing was neutralised by the treaty rati- 
fied at Nimeguen, whither he travelled for 
the last time in January 1679. He con- 
gratulated himself that in consequence of a 
formal irregularity his name was not affixed 
to a treaty the terras of which he thoroughly 
disapproved as being much too favourable to 
, France. Extremely susceptible at all times 
to professional jealousy, Temple was greatly 
disconcerted during these negotiations by 



the activity of a diplomatic busybody called 
Du Cros, the political agent in London of 
the Duke of Holstein, but in the pay of 
Barillon. Temple subsequently referred 
slightingly in his 'Memoirs' to Du Cros, 
who rejoined in 'A Letter ... in answer 
to the impertinences of Sir W. Temple ' 
(1693). An anonymous 'Answer,' inspired, 
if not actually written, by Temple, appeared 
without delay, and two months later, in 
some interesting 'Reflections upon two Pam- 
phlets ' (the author of which professed to 
have been waiting in vain for Temple's own 
reply), the 'unreasonable slanders' of Du 
Cros were severely handled. 

Upon his return to England in February 
1679 the secretaryship of state was again 
pressed upon him, and he again refused it on 
the plea of waning health and the lack of a 
seat in parliament. He found that the per- 
sonnel of the court had greatly changed, and 
that influences adverse to him were more 
powerful than formerly. Shaftesbury and 
Buckingham, Barillon and Lady Portsmouth 
were bitterly hostile, but their confidence as 
well as that of the king seemed possessed bv 
Sunderland, upon whom the post seemed 
naturally to devolve. Under the circum- 
stances it is hardly fair to accuse Temple of 
pusillanimity in declining it. Temple was 
popular as the bulwark of the policy of pro- 
testant alliance, and he knew that what wa< 
wanted was his name rather than his advice. 
He refused to barter away his good name. 

The king, however, by adroit flattery 
managed in another way to obtain from 
Temple's reputation whatever fillip of popu- 
larity it was able to give to a thoroughly 
discredited administration. In April i<i7'.' 
was put forth, as the outcome of a number 
of private interviews between Temple and 
the king, a scheme under Temple's sponsor- 
ship for a revival of the privy council. Tli-- 
numbers were now to be fixed at thirty (the 
number actually nominated appears to be 
thirty-three), who were to represent as com- 
pletely as possible the conflicting interests of 
! office and opposition, but above all the landed 
wealth of the country; and it was thus by its 
representative character to provide a bridge 
between a headstrong and autocratic ex.cn- 
tive and a discontented and obstructive as- 
sembly. Such a council, after having 1 n 

nearly wrecked at the outset by the king's 
reluctance to admit Halifax, followed by \\\< 
determination to include ShalVslinry, was 
actually constituted on 21 April l f >7'.i. Th.- 
funds in Holland rose upon the receipt of the 
news that Temple's plan hid been carried 
into effect, and Barillon was correspondingly 
displeased, in spite of Lady Portsmouth s 



Temple 



4 8 



Temple 



assurance that it was only a device to get 
money out of parliament (HALLA.M, Constit. 
Hist. ch. xii.) Had the council been a success, 
it seems almost inevitable that it should have 
absorbed, as into a close oligarchy, much of 
the power that was divided between the 
executive and the parliament (thus Barillon 
said it was making ' des etats et non des 
conseils ') ; but it had not been in operation 
more than a fortnight when a kind of com- 
mittee of public safety was formed within 
it. This included, besides Temple, Halifax, 
Sunderland, and Essex. But Temple was 
almost from the first unable to reconcile the 
courtier and the public minister. On the 
one hand he objected to the king's arbitrary 
decision to prorogue parliament without 
previous deliberation in council ; on the other 
hand he would not consent to take measures 
of urgency against the papists as if the 
popish plot, which he knew to be a sham, 
were a reality. The issue was an estrange- 
ment which reached a climax in August 
1679, when Halifax brought the Duke of 
York, who had been in quasi-exile at Brus- 
sels, to the king's bedside without Temple's 
knowledge. Two months after this he was 
elected to represent Cambridge University 
in the new parliament, the only dissentient 
being the bishop of Ely (Gunning), who de- 
tected an exaggerated zeal for toleration in 
Temple's little book on the Netherlands ; 
but he found himself more and more ex- 
cluded from the innermost counsels of what 
was in reality no more than a fresh cabal 
under a new name. Temple was hardly 
more than a dilettante politician, and the 
satisfaction with which he appeared to re- 
turn to his ' nectarines ' at Sheen was pro- 
bably real. His visits to the already moribund 
council were infrequent, but he avoided an 
open breach, and in September 1680 he was 
nominated ambassador at Madrid, though at 
the last moment the king desired him to stay 
for the opening of parliament. Temple at- 
tempted the exercise of some diplomacy, and 
made some conciliatory speeches in the com- 
mons, but in vain. The parliament was dis- 
solved in January 1681, and in the same 
month Temple's name was struck off the list 
of privy councillors (LuiTRELL, i. 60). He 
had shown himself confidential with Sun- 
derland rather than with Halifax, who was 
now in the ascendant. Moreover he had not 
concealed his attachment to the Prince 
of Orange (Fox, 'Hist, of James II, p. 41). 
Finally he had been very irregular in his at- 
tendance, and, as he was well known to be 
on the side of conciliation, he would have 
been out of place in the Oxford parliament. 
For the purposes of a final retirement from 



politics Temple seems to have deemed the 
seclusion of Sheen insufficient. He pur- 
chased, therefore, in 1680, from the executors 
of the Clarke family the seat of Compton 
Hall, near Farnham. Here he constructed 
a canal and laid out gardens in the Dutch 
style, giving to his property when complete 
the title of Moor Park, in emulation of the 
Moor Park near Eickmansworth, where he 
had often admired the skill and taste of the 
Countess of Bedford's gardeners (cf. Essay of 
Gardening ; London Eneyclop. of Gardening, 
1850, p. 244 ; THOKXE, Environs, 1876, p. 
551). He was an enthusiastic fruit-grower, 
and especially fond of his cherries, ' Sheen 
plums,' and ' standard apricocks.' He was 
rarely seen now at Whitehall or Hampton 
Court, but he was on 14 March 1683 ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners for the 
remedy of defective titles in Ireland. Soon 
after his son's marriage in 1684 he divided 
his property with him, leaving him in un- 
disputed possession of the house at Sheen, 
which he held on a long lease from the 
crown. 

When James II succeeded to the throne, 
he made some polite speeches to Temple, but 
no more. Temple had promised him when 
Duke of York that he would remain loyal, 
and would never seek to divide the royal 
family. William was aware of this, and, 
knowing Temple's scrupulous disposition, he 
gave him no hint of the intended invasion in 
1688. Temple did in fact restrain his son 
from going to meet the prince, and it was not 
until after James's second flight that he pre- 
sented himself at Windsor. William urged 
him to take the chief-secretaryship, but he 
steadily refused. He was content, how- 
ever, that a high post (that of secretary for 
war) should be given to his son John [see 
below]. 

In 1689 came to Moor Park in the capa- 
city of amanuensis, at a salary of 20/. a 
year, Jonathan Swift [q. v.], who was then 
twenty-two years of age. Swift's mother 
was a connection of Lady Temple. He 
stayed under Temple's roof with a few short 
intervals until the statesman's death, for a 
period, that is, of nearly ten years, and 
there he met Esther Johnson (' Stella '), 
whose mother was an attendant upon Lady 
Giffard. Swift commenced his residence by 
writing some frigid Pindaric odes in Temple's 
honour, but gradually the relations between 
them grew more cordial. Temple procured 
Swift's admission to an ad eundem degree at 
Hart Hall, Oxford, offered him a post of 
120/. a year in the Irish rolls when Swift 
proposed to leave him, and in answer to a 
letter, in which Swift avowed that his con- 



Temple 



49 



Temple 



duct towards his patron had been less con- 
siderate tban petulant, sent bim a prompt 
certificate for ordination. After his second 
absence from, and return to, Moor Park in 
1696, Swift's position in the family seems to 
have been considerably improved. Temple 
can hardly have failed to perceive either the 
talents or the usefulness of the ' secretary,' 
as he was now called, who aided him in 
getting ready for the press the five volumes 
of his ' Letters ' and ' Memoirs.' It is known 
that William III paid several visits to 
Temple at Moor Park in order ' to consult 
him upon matters of high importance.' One 
of these visits had reference to the triennial 
bill of 1692-3, for which the king had con- 
ceived a strong dislike. Temple argued that 
the bill involved no danger to the monarchy, 
and he is said to have employed Swift to 
' draw up reasons for it taken from English 
history/ According to Deane Swift (Life of 
Swift, p. 60), Temple aided the young author 
to revise in manuscript his ' Tale of a Tub.' 
During the whole period of his retirement, 
since 1681, Temple had been elaborating 
those essays upon which his literary reputa- 
tion now chiefly rests. Six of these appeared 
in 1680 under the title of ' Miscellanea." 
The second and more noteworthy volume 
appeared in 1692 (the ' Miscellanea ' in two 
parts appeared united, 4th ed. 1693, 5th 
1697, revised Glasgow 1761, Utrecht 1693). 
Temple sent a copy in November, together 
with a Latin epistle, to the master and fel- 
lows of Emmanuel, his old college (Addit. 
MS. 58GO, f. 99). The second part included 
the essays of gardening, of heroic virtue, of 
poetrv, and the famous essay on ' Ancient 
and Modern Learning.' The vein of classical 
eulogy and reminiscence which Temple here 
affects was adopted merely as an elegant pro- 
lusion upon the passing controversy among 
the wits of France as to the relative merits of 
ancient and modern writers. First broached 
as a paradox (cf. Our Noble Selves) by Fon- 
tenelle, the thesis had been maintained in 
earnest by Perrault (Siecle de Louis le Grand, 
January 1687), and Temple now joined hands 
fraternally with Boileau in contesting some 
of Perrault's rash assertions. The essay was 
in fact light, suggestive, and purely literary; 
it scarcely aimed at being critical, so that 
much of the serious criticism which has been 
bestowed on it is quite inept. William 
Wotton was the first to enter the lists against 
Temple with his 'Reflections on Ancient 
and Modern Learning,' published in 1694. 
Charles Boyle (afterwards Earl of Orrery) 
[q. v.], by way of championing the polite 
essayist, set to work to edit the ' Epistles 
to Phalaris ' which Temple (whose opinion 

VOL. LVI. 



on such a matter was absolutely worthless) 
professed to regard as genuine, "it was when 
this conjecture had been ruthlessly demo- 
lished by the learned sarcasm of Bent ley 
that Swift came to the aid of his patron with 
the most enduring relic of the controversy, 
'The Battle of the Books.' Temple had 
begun a reply to Bentley, but he was now 
happily spared the risk of publication [for 
the Boyle and Bentley controversy, see 
BENTLEY, RICHARD, 1062-1742]. 

Temple's next literary venture was ' An 
Introduction to the History of England' 
(London, 1695 8vo, 1699, 1708 ; in French, 
Amsterdam, 1695, 12rno), which he intended 
as an incitement to the production of a 
general history of the nation, such as those 
of De Serres or Mezeray for France, Mariana 
for Spain, or De Mexia for the empire. The 
introduction concludes with an account of 
the Xorman conquest and a eulogy of 
William I, in which many saw intended a 
compliment to William III, the more so as 
the putting aside of Edgar the Atheling was 
carefully condoned. The presumption of 
this work, which abounds in historical errors, 
was perhaps not inferior to that which 
prompted the ' Essay on Ancient and Modern 
Learning.' Fortunately for Temple, no his- 
torical Bentleys were living to take excep- 
tion to his statements. Among the lighter 
productions of his years of retirement was a 
privately printed volume of ' Poems by Sir 
W. T.,' containing Virgil's last eclogue, a 
few odes and imitations of Horace, and 
Aristreus, a version of the 4th Georgic of 
Virgil most of the pieces written pro- 
fessedly by request of Lady Temple or Lady 
Giffard. (The Grenville Library, British Mu- 
seum, has a copy of this extremely rare 
volume, n.d., 12mo, with some manuscript 
notes in Temple's own hand ; it was bought 
by Grenville at Beloe's sale in 1803 for 
21. 3s.) 

Temple was attacked by a serious form of 
gout in 1676, and though he staved it off 
for a time, as he explains in one of the most 
entertaining of his essays (' Cure of Gout by 
Moxa'), he suffered a" good deal both with 
the gout and ' the spleen' during the wholr 
of Swift's sojourn at Moor Park. He passed 
through a severe illness in 1691, and he was 
much broken by the death of his wife in 
January 1695. 'Swift kept a sort of diary 
of the state of his patron's health, the last 
entry of which runs, ' He died at one o'clock 
this morning, the 27 January 1698-9, and 
with him all that was good and amiable 
among men.' He was buried on 1 Feb. by 
the side of his wife in the south aisle of 
Westminster Abbey. His heart, however, 



Temple 



Temple 



by his special direction was buried in a silver 
box under a sundial in the garden of Moor 
Park, opposite his favourite window seat. 
With his death the baronetcy became ex- 
tinct. 

By his will, dated 8 March 1694-5, and 
made ' as short as possible to avoid those 
cruel remembrances that have so often oc- 
casioned the changing of it,' Temple left a 
lease of some lands in Morristown to ' Esther 
Johnson, servant to my sister Giffard,' and, 
by a codicil dated 2 April 1697, 100/. to 
'William Dingley, my cousin, student at 
Oxford, and another 100/. to Mr. Jonathan 
Swift, now dwelling with me ' (will proved 
by Sir John Temple and Dame Martha Gif- 
fard, 29 March 1699, P.C.C. 50 Pett). To 
Swift also was left such profit as might 
accrue from the publication of a collective 
edition of Temple's ' Works.' Of this edition 
two volumes of letters appeared in 1700 
(London, 8vo), a third volume in 1703; the 
' Miscellanies ' or essays, in three parts, 
1705-8; the 'Introduction' in 1708; and 
the ' Memoirs ' in two volumes, 1709 (pt. ii., 
of which ' unauthorised ' editions had ap- 
peared in 1691-2, related to the period 
1672-9; pt. iii., of which the autograph 
manuscript is in the British Museum Addit. 
MS. 9804, written in a rapid script with 
scarcely a correction, dealt with 1679-80 ; 
part i. was thrown into the fire by Temple 
shortly before his death). Subsequent col- 
lective editions appeared in 1720, 2 vols. 
fol. ; 1723 ; 1731, with preliminary notice by 
Lady Giffard, who was profoundly dissatisfied 
with Swift's handling of her brother's 
literary legacy ; 1740 ; 1754, 4 vols. 8vo : 
1757, 1770, and 1814. 

Lady Temple, whom the statesman had 
married in 1655, was born at Chicksands in 
1627, and was one of the younger daughters 
of Sir Peter Osborne (1584-1 653), the royalist 
defender of Castle Cornet in Guernsey [see 
OSBORNE, PETER]. Francis Osborne [q. v.], 
the writer, was her uncle, and Admiral 
Henry Osborne [q. v.] her nephew. Her 
mother, Dorothy (1590-1650), was sister of 
Sir John Danvers [q. v.] and daughter of Sir 
John Danvers of Dauntsey, Wiltshire. The 
story of her deepening attachment to Temple, 
of the loss of her beauty by smallpox, of her 
wifely gentleness, and of the position of 
comparative inferiority that she occupied in 
the Temple household to her clever and 
managing sister-in-law, Lady Giffard, is well 
known to every reader of Macaulay's bril- 
liant essay. She was an active helpmeet to 
Temple in many of his schemes, showed 
dauntless courage upon her voyage to Eng- 
land in 1671, when an affray with the Dutch 



flagship seemed imminent (cf. Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1670-1), and enjoyed the cor- 
dial friendship of Queen Mary, whose death 
almost synchronised with her own. She 
died at Moor Park, aged 65, and was buried 
on 7 Feb. 1694-5 in Westminster Abbey. 
Extracts from forty-two of her letters to 
Temple were published by Courtenay in his 
'Life of Temple.' Macaulay was power- 
fully attracted by their charm, which is, 
however, personal rather than literary, and 
the complete series of seventy was published 
in 1888 (ed. E. A. Parry). The original 
letters, amounting in all to 135 folios, were 
purchased by the British Museum on 16 Feb. 
1891 from R. Bacon Longe, esq., and now 
form Addit. MS. 33975. 

Besides several children who died in in- 
fancy, the Temples had a daughter Diana, 
who died in 1679, aged 14, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey; and a son, John 
Temple (d. 1689), to whom they were both 
much devoted. lie was in Paris in 1684 
when an official diploma of nobility was 
granted to him under the common seal of 
the college of arms in order to insure his 
proper reception in foreign courts (this 
curious document, which is in Latin, is 
printed in the ' Herald and Genealogist,' iii. 
406-8). As a compliment to his father, 
John Temple was made paymaster-general, 
and, on 12 April 1689, secretary of state for 
w r ar in the room of Mr. Blaithwaite. A few 
days later, having filled his pockets with 
stones, he threw himself from a boat into 
the strong current beneath London Bridge, 
and was drowned (see THOMPSON, Chronicles 
of London Bridge, 1827, pp. 474-5). The 
suicide, which created the greatest sensation 
at the time, was probably due to official 
anxiety, aggravated by the treachery of a 
confidential agent whom he had recom- 
mended to the king (LAMBERTY, Mem. de la 
Revolution, ii. 290 ; RERESBY, Diary, 1875, 
p. 458 ; LUTTRELL, i. 524 ; BOYER, Life of 
Temple, p. 415). By his wife Mary Duplessis, 
daughter of M. Duplessis Rambouillet, of a 
good Huguenot family, he left two daugh- 
ters : Elizabeth of Moor Park, who married 
her cousin, John Temple (d. 1753), second 
son of Sir John [see under TEMPLE, SIR 
JOHN], the speaker of the Irish House of 
Commons, but left no issue ; and Dorothy, 
who married Nicholas Bacon of Shrubland 
Hall, Coddenham. 

Of public men who have left behind them 
any claim to a place near the front rank, 
Temple is one of the ' safest ' in our annals. 
Halifax may well have had his exemplary 
friend in mind when he wrote the maxim 
' He that leaveth nothing to chance will do 



Temple 



Temple 



few things ill, but he will do very few 
things.' During the ten years following his 
resignation, a period blackened by great poli- 
tical infamy, Temple lived fastidiously to 
himself, and practised unfashionable virtues. 
It is much to say of a statesman of that age 
that, although comparatively poor and not 
unworldly, he was untainted by corruption. 
The revolution, a crisis at which, with his 
peculiar qualifications, he might have played 
a part scarcely less prominent than that of 
Clarendon in 1660, found him still amid ' the 
gardens of Epicurus,' deploring the foibles 
(he was much too well bred to denounce 
the treacheries) of contemporary politicians. 

As a writer, apart from a weakness for 
gallicisms, which he admitted and tried to 
correct, his prose marked a development in 
the direction of refinement, rhythmical finish, 
and emancipation from the pedantry of long 
parentheses and superfluous quotations. He 
was also a pioneer in the judicious use of the 
paragraph. Hallam, ignoring Halifax, would 
assign him the second place, after Dryden, 
among the polite authors of his epoch. Swift 
gave expression to the belief that he had 
advanced our English tongue to as great a 
perfection as it could well bear; Chesterfield 
recommended him to his son ; Dr. Johnson 
spoke of him as the first writer to give 
cadence to the English language ; and Lamb 
praises him delightfully in his ' Essay on the 
Genteel Style.' During the eighteenth cen- 
tury his essays were used as exercises and 
models. But the progress made during the 
last half-century in the direction of the 
sovereign prose quality of limpidity has not 
been favourable to Temple's literary reputa- 
tion, and in the future it is probable that his 
' Letters ' and ' Memoirs ' will be valued 
chiefly by the historian, while his ' Essays ' 
will remain interesting primarily for the 
picture they afford of the cultured gentleman 
of the period. A few noble similes, how- 
ever, and those majestic words of consolation 
addressed to Lady Essex, deserve and will 
find a place among the consecrated passages 
of English prose. 

Of the portrait of Temple by Sir Peter 
Lely, painted in 1679 and now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, there are engrav- 
ings by P. Vanderbank, Houbraken (BiRCH, 
plate 67), George Vertue, Anker Smith, and 
others. That by Houbraken is the best 
rendering of this portrait, which depicts a 
very handsome man, with a resolute mouth, 
rather fleshy face, and small moustache, after 
the Dutch pattern. The British Museum 
possesses what appears to be a contempo- 
rary Dutch pencil sketch of the statesman. 
Another portrait is in the master's lodge at 



Emmanuel College. Two further portraits 
by Lely of Temple and his wife, belonging 
to Sir George Osborne, bart,, of Chicksands 
Priory, are reproduced in ' Letters of Dorothv 
Osborne ' (1888). 

[The Life, Works, and Correspondence of Sir 
William Temple, bart., by Thomas Peregrine 
Courtenay [q. v.], in two volumes, 1836, 8vo. is 
in many respects a pattern, although, it being 
the work of a tory pamphleteer, Macaulay vir- 
tually damned it with faint praise in his famous 
essay on Sir William Temple in the Edinburgh 
Review. Upon the few points in which the 
essay diverges from Courtenay's conclusions (as 
in the estimate of triple alliance) modern opinion 
would not side witli Macaulay. The chief ori- 
ginal authorities, besides Temple's works, with 
Swift's prefaces and his diplomatic papers in the 
British Museum (Addit. MSS. 9796-804 and 
Stowe MS. 198), are Boyer's Life of Sir William 
Temple, 17 14, and the life by Lady Giffard, pre- 
fixed to the 1731 edition of the Works. Eight 
of Temple's original letters are in the Morrison 
Collection of Autographs, catalogue, vi. 233-40. 
See also Letters of Arlington, 1701, 8vo(vol.ii. is 
almost wholly occupied by the letters to Temple 
fromJuly 1665 to September 1670); Lodge's Peer- 
age, ed. Archdall, v. 239 ; Prinsterer's Archives 
cle la Maison Orange-Nassau, 2 mc serie, 1861, v. 
passim ; Boyer's Life of William III, pp. 1 1, 36, 
41,60-2,67,83, 90, 92-3,96; Bulstrode Papers, 
1898, pp. 10, 17, 40, 45, 54, 59, 68, 74, 107, 112, 
123,195, 265,307; Clarendon's Life and Con- 
tinuation, 1827; Clarendon Corresp. ed. Singer, 
1814; Sidney's Diary, ed. Blencowe, p. Ixxxviii ; 
Burnet's Own Time, 1833; Wynne's Life of 
Jenkins, 1724; Letters addressed from London 
to Sir Joseph Williamson, 1874; Boyer's Wil- 
liam III ; Trevor's Life and Times of William I II, 
1834; Baillon's Henriette Anne d'Angleterre, 
p. 300; Pylades and Corinna, 1732, vol. ii. 
Letter V (containing an allegorical character of 
Temple) ; Strickland's Queens of England, vol. 
vii. ; Flassan's Hist, de Diplomatic Fr.u 
1811 ; St. Didier's Hist, des Neg. de Nim<V''n\ 
Ifi80 ; Dumont's Corps de Diplomatic; Mignet's 
Neg. relatives a la Succession ; Lettres de M. lo 
Comte d'Estrades, 1743; Campbell's Memoirs 
of De Witt, 1746; Lefevre Pontalis's Jean de 
Witt, Paris, 1884, i. 447 sq.; Luttrell's Brief 
Hist. Relation of State Affairs ; Ranke's Hist, of 
England; Seeley's Growth of British Policy, 
1895; Masson's Life of Milton, vi. 315, 569, 
601 ; Craik's Life of Swift; Forster's Life of 
Swift, vol. i. ; Memoires de Trevoux, November 
1707 and March 1708; Memoires of 1> 
and St. Simon ; Prime's Account of the Temple 
Family, New York, 1896; Lipscomb's Hist, of 
Buckinghamshire, iii. 85-6 ; Retrospective Re- 
view, vol. viii ; note kindly furnished by E 
Shuckburgh, esq., fellow of Emmanuel.] T. S. 

TEMPLE, WILLIAM JOHXSToNK 
or JOHNSON' (1739-1796), essayist, and 
friend of Gray and Boswell, was the son of 

E 2 



Temple 



Temple 



William Temple of Allerdean, near Berwick- 
on-Tweed, of which borough the father was 
mayor in 1750 and again in 1754 (SHEL- 
DOX, Berwick-upon-Tii-eed, p. 255). His 
mother was a Miss Stowe of Northum- 
berland, connected with the family of Sir 
Francis Blake of Twizel Castle, near Nor- 
ham, Northumberland, through Blake's aunt 
Anne, who married William Stowe of Ber- 
wick (BETHAM, Baronetage, iii. 439-40). 

Temple was baptised at Berwick as ' Wil- 
liam Johnson ' on 20 Dec. 1739. He was a 
fellow-student at the university of Edin- 
burgh with James Boswell, and they con- 
tracted in the class of Robert Hunter, the 
professor of Greek, an intimate friendship 
which was never interrupted. They differed, 
however, in politics and other respects, for 
Temple was a whig and a water-drinker 
"(LEASK, James Boswell, pp. 1417). Their 
correspondence is in print from 29 July 1758, 
by which time Temple had left Edinburgh. 
On 22 May in that year he was admitted 
pensioner at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and 
on 5 Feb. 1759 he became a scholar on that 
foundation. Temple's name was taken off 
the books on 20 Nov. 1761, and he proceeded 
to London, where the two friends met as 
law students at the end of 1762. Temple 
took chambers in Farrar's Buildings, at the 
bottom of Inner Temple Lane, and in July 
1763 he lent these rooms to Boswell. 

His father having become a bankrupt to- 
wards the close of 1763, Temple felt obliged 
to contribute towards his relief more than 
half of the proceeds of the small estate 
which he had inherited from his mother. 
He was consequently forced to earn an 
income for himself, and this was found in 
the church. To obtain his qualification he 
returned to Trinity Hall, where he was 
admitted fellow-commoner on 22 June 1763, 
and took the degree of LL.B. on 28 June 
1765, his name being taken off the books on 
13 June 1766. 

An amiable man of cultivated and literary 
tastes, Temple while at Cambridge was ad- 
mitted into close friendship with Gray, and 
during a visit to London in February 1766 
Boswell introduced him'at the Mitre tavern 
in Fleet Street to Dr. Johnson. Through his 
association with these three men his name 
is remembered. On Sunday, 14 Sept. 1766, 
as William Johnson Temple he was ordained 
deacon at a particular ordination held in the 
chapel of the palace at Exeter, by Bishop 
Keppel, and on the following Sunday he was 
ordained priest by that bishop at a general 
ordination in the cathedral. Next day, on 
the presentation of Wilmot Vaughan, fourth 
viscount Lisburne (whose family were closely 



connected with Berwick-on-Tweed), he was 
instituted to the pleasant rectory of Mam- 
head, adjoining Starcross, and about ten 
miles from Exeter. 

By August 1767 Temple was married in 
Northumberland to a lady with a fortune 
of 1,300/., but in the following year ' by the 
bankruptcy of Mr. Fenwick Stow,' and 
through the payment of an annuity to his 
father, he was again involved in pecuniary 
difficulty. He found time, however, to cor- 
rect his friend Boswell's ' Account of Cor- 
sica ' (1768). In May 1770 Temple con- 
templated separating from his wife, and by 
the following November he had sold part of 
his estate. After proceeding to Northum- 
berland on this business, he visited Boswell 
at Chessel's Buildings, Canongate, Edin- 
burgh (September 1770). In the spring of 
1771 he was in great distress ' through filial 
piety,' and desired a chaplaincy abroad. 

A character of Gray was written by Temple- 
in a letter to Boswell a short time after the 
poet's death (30 July 1771), and was pub- 
lished by the recipient without authority ill 
the 'London Magazine ' for 1772 (p. 140). 
Mason incorporated the ' character ' in his 
' Life ' of Gray, and Johnson deemed it 
worthy of insertion in his memoir of Gray in 
the ' Lives of the Poets ' (cf. GRAY'S Works, 
ed. Mitford, 1836, i. Ixx. sq. ; GOSSE, Life of 
Gray, p. 211). 

During a visit to London in May 1773 
Temple dined at the house of the brothers 
Dilly, the publishers in the Poultry, meeting 
Johnson, Goldsmith, Langton, Boswell, and 
others, and in April 1775 Boswell paid him 
a visit at Mamhead. In the meantime (1774) 
his essay on the clergy had revealed to his 
diocesan his literary skill. Bishop Keppel 
made him his chaplain, and by November 
1775 he had received the specific promise of 
' the best living in the diocese of Exeter, and 
the present incumbent 86.' This was the 
vicarage of Gluvias, with the chapelry of 
Budock, adjacent to the towns of Penryn 
and Falmouth in Cornwall, to which Temple- 
was collated on Keppel's nomination on 
9 Sept. 1776. As vicar of Gluvias, with an 
income from public and private sources of 
5001. a year, Temple spent the rest of his days. 
In September 1780 he travelled through 
part of England, and had two pleasant inter- 
views with Bishop Hurd. Boswell and his 
two eldest daughters visited him at Gluvias 
in September 1783, and Boswell came again 
in 1792. In that year the Cornwall Library 
and Literary Society was founded, mainly 
through Temple's energies, at Truro (PoL- 
WHELE, Cornwall, v. 98-105 ; WYVILL, Poli- 
tical Payers, ii. 216-18, iv. 265-71 ; COTTKT- 



Templeman 



53 



Templeman 



NET, Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, p. xxii). Upon 
his death in May 1795 Boswell left Temple 
a gold mourning ring, and Temple, under 
the signature ' Biographicus,' wrote apprecia- 
tively of his friend (Gent. Mag. 1795, ii. 
<334). 

Temple died at Gluvias on 13 Aug. 1796. 
A monument in the churchyard was erected 
to the memory of their parents by ' the seven 
remaining children.' His second name is 
there given as ' Johnstone.' His wife died on 
14 March 1793, aged 46; they had issue in 
all eleven children. One sou, Francis Temple 
{(?. 19 Jan. 1863), became vice-admiral ; 
another, Octavius Temple (d. 13 Aug. 1834), 
was governor of Sierra Leone, and father of 
the present archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. 
Frederick Temple). 

Temple's writings were : 1. 'An Essay on 
the Clergy, their Studies, Recreations, De- 
cline of Influence,' 1774 ; this was much 
admired by Bishop Home. 2. 'On the 
Abuse of Unrestrained Power' [anon.], 1778. 
3. ' Moral and Historical Memoirs ' [anon.], 
1779, in which was included the essay on 
4 Unrestrained Power.' These memoirs con- 
tended for less foreign travel, less luxury, 
and for less variety of reading. Polwhele 
said that these works were ' heavy from too 
much historic detail.' 4. A ' little pam- 
phlet on Jacobinism,' 1792? (POLWHELE, 
Traditions, i. 327-8). He left unfinished a 
work on ' The Rise and Decline of Modern 
Rome.' Some of his letters to Lord Lis- 
burne are in Egerton MS. 2136 (Brit. Mus.) 
The ' Letters of James Boswell, addressed 
to the Rev. AV. J. Temple,' appeared in 1857. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 524, 
709-10, ii. 1344; Boase's Collect. Cornub. 
p. 975; Gent. Mag. 1793 i. 479, 1796 ii. 791, 
963, 1797 ii. 1110, 1798 i. 188, 1827 i. 472; 
Letters of Boswell to Temple, 1857, passim; 
Oorresp. of Gray and Nicholls, pp. 62-165; 
Corresp. of Walpole and Mason, i. 195 ; Bisset's 
Sir A. Mitchell, ii. 356-8 ; Garrick Corresp. i. 
435; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 436-7, ii. 11, 
247, 371, iii. 301, ib., ed. Napier, i. 357-8; 
Boswelliana, ed. 1874, passim; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iii. 381-2; Fitzgerald's Boswell, i. 
285 ; Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, ii. 84 ; in- 
formation has been kindly furnished by Mr. 
Eobert Weddell of Berwick, Mr. C. E. S. Head- 
lam of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Mr. Arthur 
Burch, F.S.A., diocesan registry, Exeter, and 
Mr. J. D. Enys of Enys, Cornwall.] W. P. C. 

TEMPLEMAN, PETER, M.D. (1711- 
1769), physician, eldest son of Peter Temple- 
man (d. 1749), a solicitor at Dorchester, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of Robert Haynes, 
was born on 17 March 1711, and educated 
at the Charterhouse, though not on the 



foundation. Proceeding to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he graduated B.A. with distin- 
guished reputation in 1731 (Graduati Can- 
tabr. 1823, p. 463). He at first intended to 
take holy orders, but afterwards he applied 
himself to the study of medicine, and went 
in 1736 to the university of Leyden, where he 
attended the lectures of Dr. Herman Boer- 
haave, and was created M.D. on 10 Sept. 
1737 (Album Studiosorum Acad. Lugd. Bat. 
1875, p. 967). In 1739 he came to London 
with a view to enter on the practice of his 
profession, supported by a handsome allow- 
ance from his father. He was so fond, how- 
ever, of literary leisure and of the society of 
learned men that he never acquired a very 
extensive practice. 

In 1750 he was introduced to Dr. John 
Fothergill [q. v.] with a view to institute a 
medical society in order to procure the earliest 
intelligence of improvements in physic from 
every part of Europe, but the plan never 
took effect. When the British Museum was 
opened in 1758, for purposes of inspection 
and study, Templeman was appointed on 
22 Dec. to the office of keeper of the reading- 
room. Gray gives an amusing account of a 
visit to the reading-room while under his 
care ( Works, 1884, iii. 1-2). Templeman 
resigned the post on 18 Dec. 1760 on being 
chosen secretary to the recently instituted 
Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Com- 
merce. In 1762 he was elected a correspond- 
ing member of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
at Paris, and also of the Economical Society 
at Berne. He died on 23 Aug. 1769 (Cam- 
bridge Chronicle, 30 Aug. 1769). Bowyer 
says ' he was esteemed a person of great 
learning, particularly with respect to lan- 
guages, spoke French with great fluency, and 
Jeft the character of a humane, generous, and 
polite member of society.' A portrait by 
Cosway belongs to the Society of Arts, and 
was engraved by William Evans. 

His works are : 1. ' On a Polypus at the 
Heart, and a Scirrhous Tumour of the 
Uterus '(in the 'Philosophical Transactions,' 
1746). 2. ' Curious Remarks and Observa- 
tions in Physics, Anatomy, Chirurgery, 
Chemistry, Botany, and Medicine; selected 
from the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences at Paris,' 2 vols. London, \7 '>'' I, 
8vo. 3. Edition of Dr. John Woodward's 
' Select Cases and Consultations in Physic,' 
London, 1757, 8vo. 4. ' Travels in Egypt 
and Nubia: translated from the original 
Danish of Frederick Lewis Norden, and en- 
larged,' 2 vols. London, 1756-7, fol, with the 
fine engravings made by Tuscher for the ori- 
ginal edition. Templeman also published at 
the same time the entire translation and the 



Templeton 



54 



Templeton 



whole of his additions in one vol. 8vo, without 
plates. 5. ' Practical Observations on the 
Culture of Lucern, Turnips, Burnet, Timothy 
Grass, and Fowl Meadow Grass,' London, 
1766, 8vo. 6. ' Epitaph on Lady Lucy Mey- 
rick ' (in vol. viii. of the ' Select Collection 
of Miscellany Poems,' 1781). 

[Addit. MS. 5882, f. 105 ; Gent. Mag. 1762 
p. 294, 1709 p. 463; Georgian Era, ii. 561; 
London Chronicle, 26 Sept. 1769 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii. '299 ; Notes and Queries, 9th ser. i. 
125 ; Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset, 1868, iii. 58 ; 
List of Books of Reference in the Reading 
Room of the British Museum, preface; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

TEMPLETON, JOHN (1706-1825), 
Irish naturalist, was born in Belfast in 
1766. The family had been settled since 
the early part of the seventeenth century 
at Orange Grove, afterwards Cranmore, about 
two miles from Belfast, on the road to Malone. 
James Templeton, the father of the naturalist, 
was a Belfast merchant, who married Mary 
Eleanor, daughter of Benjamin Legg of Bel- 
fast and Malone. John Templeton was edu- 
cated at a private school, and before he was 
twenty became interested in the cultiva- 
tion of plants. After his father's death in 
1790 he began the scientific study of 
botany, at first, it is said, from a desire to 
find out how to extirpate weeds on his farm 
land at Cranmore. In 1793 he laid out an 
experimental garden according to a sugges- 
tion in Rousseau's ' Nouvelle Heloise,' and 
was very successful in cultivating many 
tender exotics out of doors. In 1794, on 
the occasion of his first visit to London, he 
made the acquaintance of Thomas Martyn 
(1735-1825) [q. v.], professor of botany at 
Cambridge, whom he afterwards supplied 
with many remarks on cultivation for his 
edition of Miller's ' Gardener's Dictionary.' 
Templeton also came to know Dr. George 
Shaw [q.v.], the zoologist, and James Dick- 
son [q. v.], the cryptogami.t, and he was 
chosen an associate of the Linnean Society. 
After his addition of Rosa hibernica to the 
list of Irish species in 1795, for which the 
Royal Irish Academy awarded him a prize 
of five guineas (not fifty, as stated by Sir 
James Edward Smith), he again visited Lon- 
don, where he met Dr. (afterwards Sir) J. E. 
Smith, Dr. Samuel Goodenough, Aylmer 
Bourke Lambert, James Sowerby, William 
Curtis, Sir Joseph Banks, and Robert 
Brown. Banks offered him three or four 
hundred pounds a year and a grant of land 
if he would go out to New Holland, as 
Australia was then called, presumably with 
Flinders's expedition, which Brown accom- 
panied ; but he declined the offer. Temple- 



ton also added Orobanche rubra to the list 
of the Irish flora, besides numerous crypto- 
gamic plants; and, while diligently employ- 
ing both pen and pencil in accumulating 
materials for a complete natural history of 
Ireland, made important contributions to 
the works of others, such as Sir J. E. 
Smith's ' English Botany ' and ' Flora 
Britannica/LewisWestonDillwyn's ' British 
Confervfe' (1802-7), Dawson Turner's 'Bri- 
tish Fuci ' (1802), and ' Muscologia Hibernica ' 
(1804). and Messrs. Dubourdieu and Samp- 
son's surveys of the counties of Down, An- 
trim, and Derry. The journals which he 
kept from 1805 to his last illness contain 
many references to zoophytes as well as to 
other branches of natural history, and many 
phrenological observations. The earlier vo- 
lumes are still in existence at the Belfast 
Museum. He studied birds extensively, as 
is shown by his marginal notes in a copy of 
Montagu's ' Ornithological Dictionary,' now 
in the possession of the Rev. C. H. Waddell 
(Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists 1 Field 
Club, 1891-2, p. 409). As to his collection of 
lichens, Dr. Thomas Taylor (d. 1848) [q.v.], 
writing in Mackay's ' Flora Hibernica' (1836), 
says (p. 156) : ' The foregoing account of 
the lichens of Ireland would have been still 
more incomplete but for the extensive col- 
lection of my lamented friend, the late Mr. 
John Templeton. ... I believe that thirty 
years ago his acquirements in the natural 
history of organised beings rivalled that of 
any individual in Europe.' He devoted 
special attention to mosses and liverworts, 
and, dissatisfied with many of the published 
drawings, made numerous careful pencil 
studies, shaded with ink or colour, which 
have been pronounced by experts to be un- 
rivalled in their lifelike effects. There was 
in fact no branch of natural history to which 
he did not contribute. Though urged by 
many of his botanical friends to complete 
the ' Hibernian Flora,' his diffidence and de- 
sire of rendering it perfect prevented its pub- 
lication. In 1808 the 'Belfast Magazine ' was 
started, and Templeton contributed monthly 
reports on natural history and meteorology. 
He was an early member of the Belfast 
Society for Promoting Knowledge, and he 
drew up the first two catalogues of the 
Linen Hall Library. On the foundation of 
the Belfast Natural History Society in 1821, 
he was chosen its first honorary member ; and 
on his death the society instituted a medal 
in his honour, which, however, seems to 
have been only once awarded. Though he 
visited Scotland and Wicklow, Templeton 
lived mainly in Ulster, and never visited 
the south or west of Ireland. He died at 



Templeton 



55 



Tench 



Cranmore on 15 Dec. 1825, and was buried 
in the new burying-ground, Clifton Street, 
Belfast, 

Templeton married in 1799 Katherine, 
daughter of Robert Johnston of Seymour- 
hill, near Belfast, by whom he left a son, 
Dr. Robert Templeton, deputy inspector- 
general of hospitals, an entomologist, who 
contributed numerous papers to the 'Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History ' between 
1832 and 1858, and died in 1894. 

Templeton contributed papers to the 
' Transactions ' of the Liniiean Society on 
the migrations of birds and on soils, and to 
those of the Geological Society in 1821 on 
peat-bogs (Itoyal Soc. Cat. v. 930). Several 
volumes of his manuscript ' Hibernian Flora,' 
with coloured drawings, are preserved in the 
Belfast Museum. Robert Brown dedicated 
to him the Australian leguminous genus 
Templetonia. 

[Mainly from material communicated by the 
Rev. C. H. Waddell, B.D. ; London's Mag. of 
Natural Hist. i. (1828) 403, ii. (1829) 305.] 

G. S. B. 

TEMPLETON, JOHN (1802-1886), 
tenor vocalist, son of Robert Templeton, was 
born at Riccarton, near Kilmarnock, Ayr- 
shire, on 30 July 1802. He had a fine voice 
as a boy, and, joining his eldest brother, a 
concert-singer and teacher in Edinburgh, he 
took part in concerts there. In 1822 he 
became precentor to the Rose Street secession 
church, then under John Brown (1784-1858) 
[q. v.] Resolving to adopt a professional 
career, he went to London and studied under 
Blewitt, Welsh, De Pinna, and Tom Cooke. 
In July 1828 he made his debut on the stage 
at Worthing, Sussex, and, after some wan- 
derings in the provinces, obtained an engage- 
ment at Drury Lane, where he appeared as 
Meadows in ' Love in a Village.' Soon 
afterwards he undertook, at the short notice 
of five days, the part of Don Ottavio in Mo- 
zart's 'Don Giovanni' at Covent Garden. 
In 1833 Malibran selected him as her tenor 
for ' La Sonnambula,' and he continued to 
be successfully associated with her until her 
death in 1836. Bellini was so pleased with 
his performance of the part of Elvino that 
he once embraced him and, 'with tears of 
exultation,' promised to write a part that 
would ' immortalise him.' After touring for 
some years in the provinces he visited 1 'aris 
in 1842, where he was entertained by Auber. 
In 1843 he started concert-lecture entertain- 
ments on national and chiefly Scottish music, 
and toured through the provinces as well as 
America. He retired to New Hampton, 
near London, in 1852, and died there on 
1 July 1886. He had four brothers, all 



more or less celebrated for their vocal abili- 
ties (cf. BEOWX and STRATTON). 

Templeton's voice was of very fine quality 
and exceptional compass. Cooke called him 
'the tenor with the additional keys.' Hi> 
chest voice ranged over two octaves, and he 
could sustain A and B flat in alt with ease. 
His weakness was an occasional tendency to 
sing flat. He had a repertoire of thirt y-'five 
operas, in many of which he created the 
chief parts. He wrote a few songs, one, 
Put off! put off ! ' on the subject of Queen 
Mary's escape from Lochleven. One of his 
concert lectures, 'A Musical Entertainment,' 
was published at Boston, United States, in 
1845. 

[Templeton and Malibran, l>y W. H. JI[usk"|. 
which contains two portraits of TVmpleton ; Kil- 
marnock Standard, 18 Feb. 1878; Brown and 
Stratton's British Musical Biography ; Baptie's 
Musical Scotland ; Grove's Dictionary of Mii-ic ] 

J. C. H. 

TEMPLO, RICHARD DE (/. 1 190- 1 22! > i, 
reputed author of the ' Itinerarium Regis 
Ricardi.' [See RICHARD.] 

TENCH, WATKIN (1759?-! 833), sol- 
dier and author, is conjectured to have been 
born about 1769 in Wales; in his 'Letters in 
France' (p. 140) he refers to the 'happier days 
passed in Wales,' and in the dedication of his 
'Account of Port Jackson ' (1793) he acknow- 
ledges the 'deepest obligations' from the 
family of Sir Watkin Williams- Wynn. lie 
became first lieutenant of marines in 1 77s 
and served in America, being a prisoner in 
Maryland in that year. In 1782 he wasraist-d 
to the rank of captain, and in 1 787 was sent to 
Australia as one of the captains of marines 
in the charge of convicts. The expedition 
left Portsmouth under the command of 
Arthur Phillip [q. v.] 13 May 1787, and 
arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788. 
AVith some other officers he explored during 
six days in August 1790 the country inland 
(COLLINS, New South Wale*, i. 131), and on 
18 Dec. 1791 he left Port Jackson for Kns:- 
land. He published in 17^i> 'A Narrative 
of the Expedition to Botany Bay, with an 
Account of New South Wales.' dated from 
Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 10 July 1788. 
Its conclusions were perhaps over sombre, 
but its value is shown by the issue in that 
year of two more editions in English as well 
as by the publication of a Dutch translation 
at Amsterdam and a French rendering by 
M. C. J. Pougens at Paris. 

Tench on his return seems to have fixed 
his residence at Plymouth. In 1793 he 
published 'A Complete Account of 
Settlement at Port Jackson in New South 



Tenison 



Tenison 



Wales,' with a dedication to Sir Watkin 
Wynn, and then entered upon active service 
again. He was on board the Alexandra 
with Captain Richard Rodney Bligh [q. v.] 
when, after a fight of two hours and a 
quarter, that vessel was captured and taken 
into Brest (6 Nov. 1794). On the announce- 
ment of Bligh's elevation to the rank of 
rear-admiral, Tench was selected by him as 
aide-de-camp and interpreter. From Brest 
they were sent to Quimper (17 Feb. 1795). 
Some time later he obtained permission to 
come to England, and he arrived at Ply- 
mouth 10 May 1795. Next year he brought 
out an interesting and trustworthy volume 
of ' Letters written in France to a Friend in 
London between November 1794 and May 
1795.' 

Tench was promoted to be major 1794, lieu- 
tenant-colonel 1798, lieutenant-colonel of 
marines 1804, and colonel 1808. He was ap- 
pointed colonel-commandant en second in 
marines 1809, and was created major-general 
in the army 4 June 1811 (Gent. Mag. 1811, 
i. 669). At this date he was in command of 
the division of marines stationed at Plymouth, 
where Cyrus Redding [q.v.] often heard him 
describe the life at Port Jackson and give his 
views on the future of the settlement (Per- 
sonal Reminiscences, iii. 259-78). His com- 
mission as lieutenant-general in the army 
was dated 19 July 1821 (Gent. May. 1821, ii. 
175). He died in Devonport at the house of 
Daniel Little, a brother-in-law, 7 May 1833. 
His widow, Anna Maria, daughter of Robert 
Sargent, surgeon at Devonport, died there 
1 Aug. 1847, aged 81. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 710; 
Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 64, 975 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1833, i. 476; 1847 ii. 331; Literary 
Memoirs (1798), ii. 300-301.] W. P. C. 

TENISON, EDWARD (1673-1735), 
bishop of Ossory, baptised at Norwich or 
3 April 1673, was the only surviving chile 
of Joseph Tenison of Norwich by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Edward Mileham of 
Burlingham in Norfolk. Philip Tenison 
archdeacon of Norfolk, was his grandfather 
and Thomas Tenison [q. v.], archbishop o 
Canterbury, his first cousin. After being 
educated at St. Paul's school under Dr. Gale 
he was admitted a scholar of Corpus Christ 
College, Cambridge, on 19 Feb. 1690-1. H< 
graduated B.A. in 1694, and proceedec 
LL.B. in 1697 and D.D. in 1731, the last 
two at Lambeth. He was at first intendec 
for the law, and was bound apprentice to 
his uncle, Charles Mileham, an attorney a 
Great Yarmouth. Abandoning the law for 
the church, he was ordained deacon anc 



>riest in 1697, and presented the same year 
o the rectory of Wittersham, Kent. This 
le resigned in 1698 on being presented to 
he rectory of Sundridge in the diocese of 
lochester, which he held conjointly with 
he adjacent rectory of Chiddingstone. On 
24 March 1704-5 he was made a prebendary 
f Lichfield, resigning in 1708 on being ap- 
>ointed archdeacon of Caermarthen. On 
9 March 1708-9 he became a prebendary 
of Canterbury. In 1714 he inherited con- 
siderable estates from his uncle, Edward 
Penison of Lambeth, but lost the greater 
>art of his wealth in 1720 by investing it 
n the South Sea Company. In 1715 he 
acted as executor to his cousin the arch- 
)ishop, and was in consequence involved in 
itigation on the question of dilapidations. 
A curious correspondence on the subject 
was published by him in 1716. In 1730 he 
jecame chaplain to the Duke of Dorset, lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, who in 1731 nominated 
liim to the bishopric of Ossory. 

He died in Dublin on 29 Nov. 1735, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Church in that 
ity, where a monument was erected to his 
memory by his wife. His will contained 
many charitable bequests, especially for the 
education of the poor and the promotion of 
agriculture in Ireland. It was published in 
' Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica ' (3rd 
ser. vol. ii.) in an article entitled ' Teni- 
soniana,' by C. M. Tenison of Hobart, Tas- 
mania. In a codicil, dated 23 Jan. 1735, he 
left a bequest of 200/. to his old college, 
Corpus Christi at Cambridge. By his wife, 
Ann Searle (d. 1750), who was related to 
Archbishop Tenison, he had one son and five 
daughters. His son Thomas (1702-1742) 
became a prebendary of Canterbury in 1739. 

Besides an edition of two books of Colu- 
mella's ' De Re Rustica' (Dublin, 1732, 8vo) 
and a paper on ' The Husbandry of Canary 
Seed,' published in 1713 in ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' Tenison's published writings 
are limited to occasional sermons and to 
pamphlets connected with the Bangorian 
controversy. His portrait^hvas painted by 
Kneller and engraved in 1720 by Vertue. 

[Information kindly given by Mr. C. M. Teni- 
son of Hobart, Tasmania ; Masters's History of 
the College of Corpus Christi, 1831, p. 231 ; 
Gardiner's Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School, p. 60; Gent. Mag. 1735, p. 737; Nichols's 
Literary Illustrations, iii. 667 ; Ware's History 
and Antiquities of Ireland, ed. Harris, i. 432; 
Biographia Britannica, 1763.] J. H. L. 

TENISON, RICHARD (1640 P-1705), 
bishop of Meath, born at Carrickfergus about 
1640, was son of Major Thomas Tenison, who 
served as sheriff of that town in 1645. He 



' , now hanging 



Tenison 



57 



Tenison 



was related to Archbishop Thomas Tenison 
[q. v.], who left by his will oOl. to each of 
llichard's sons, and described himself as their 
kinsman. Richard went to school, first at 
Carrickfergus and then at St. Bees, and en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1659. He 
left apparently without a degree, and was 
appointed master of the diocesan school at 
Trim. Having taken orders he became 
chaplain to Arthur Capel, earl of Essex 
[q. v.], soon after his appointment as lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland in 1672. Essex gave 
him the rectories of Laracor, Augher, Louth, 
the vicarages of St. Peter's, Drogheda, and 
Donoughmore, and secured his appointment 
on 29 April 1675 to the deanery of Clogher, 
to which he was instituted on 8 June fol- 
lowing. On 18 Feb. 1681-2, being then 
described as M.A., Tenison was presented by 
patent to the see of Killala, being consecrated 
on the following day in Christ Church, 
Dublin. In the same year he was created 
D.D. by Trinity College, Dublin. Tenison 
remained in Ireland as long as possible after 
Roman catholic influence had become supreme 
in 1688, and for a time he and his archbishop, 
John Vesey, were the only protestant pre- 
lates in Connaught. At length he fled to 
England and found occupation as lecturer at 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, of which Henry 
Hefcketh [q. v.] was then vicar (cf. Cox, 
Annals of St. Helens, p. 55). On 26 Feb. 
1690-1 Tenison was translated to the bishop- 
ric of Clogher, Hesketh being nominated 
about the same time to succeed him at Kil- 
lala. On his return to Ireland the parishioners 
of St. Helen's made Tenison a present of 
plate in acknowledgment of his services. 
On 25 June 1697 he was translated to the 
bishopric of Meath, and in the following 
year was appointed vice-chancellor of Dublin 
University. He died on 29 July 1705 
(COTTON, Fasti, iii. 120; cf. LUTTRELL, , Brief 
Relation, v. 580), and was buried in the 
chapel of Trinity College, Dublin. Tenison 
was noted ' for the constant exercise of 
preaching, by which he reduced many dis- 
senters to the church.' Five sermons by him 
were separately published (COTTON, iv. 120- 
121). He also ' in one year in one visitation 
confirmed about two thousand five hundred 
persons.' He repaired and beautified the 
episcopal palace at Clogher, and bequeathed 
200/. for the establishment of a fund for the 
maintenance of the widows and orphans of 
clergymen. 

By his wife Ann Tenison had five sons, 
of whom the eldest, Henry (d. 1709), gra- 
duated B.A. from Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1687, was admitted student at the Middle 
Temple on 17 Feb. 1690, and in 1695 was 



returned to the Irish parliament for both 
Clogher and Monaghan, electing to sit for 
the latter. He was appointed a commis- 
sioner of the revenue for Ireland on 15 Jan. 
1703-4, and died in 1709, leaving a son 
Thomas, who was admitted a student of the 
Middle Temple on 1 Nov. 1726, was appointed 
commissioner for revenue appeals m 1753, 
was made prime serjeant on 27 July 1769, 
and judge of the common pleas in 1761, and 
died in 1779. 

[Information from Mr. C. M. Tenison, Hobart, 
Tasmania ; Ware's Bishops of Ireland, ed. Harris ; 
Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hib. ; Lascelles's Liber Mu- 
nerum Publicorum Hiberniae ; Official Returns of 
Members of Parliament ; Stowe MS. 82, f. 327 ; 
Mant's Hist, of the Church in Ireland, i. 697-8, 
ii. 9, 90.] A. F. P. 

TENISON, THOMAS(1636-1715),arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was born, according to 
the parish register, on 29 Sept. 1636 at Cot- 
tenham, Cambridgeshire. His grandfather, 
John Tenison (d. 1644), divine, the son of 
Christopher Tenison by his wife Elizabeth, 
was a fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 
1596 he was presented to the rectory of 
Downham in Cambridgeshire, which he re- 
signed in 1640. He died in 1644, and was 
buried at Ely (MTJLLIXGEK, Hist, of Cam- 
bridge, ii. 290). His son, John Tenison (d. 
1671), rector cf Mundeslcy, Norfolk, was the 
father of Thomas by his wife Mercy, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Dowsing of Cottenham. 
From the free school at Norwich Thomas 
went to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
where he was admitted scholar on 22 April 
1653. He was matriculated 9 July 1653, 
graduated B.A. Lent term 1657, and after- 
wards ' studied physick upon the discourage- 
ment of the times, but about 1659 he was or- 
dained privately at Richmond by Dr. Duppa,' 
bishop of Salisbury ; ' his letters of orders 
were not given out'till after the Restoration, 
tho' at the time entered into a private book 
of the archbishop's ' (L,E NEVE). He took 
I the M.A. degree in 1660 (incorporated at Ox- 
1 ford on 28 June 1664), B.D. 1(367, D.D. 1080. 
He was ' pre-elected ' to a Norwich fellow- 
ship at his college on 29 Feb. 1659, and was 
admitted on the death of one AVilliani Smith 
(MASTERS, History of Corpus Christi &>/ /.;/>; 
Cambridge, p. 392) on 24 March 1662, be- 
coming tutor also, and in 1665 university 
reader. In the same year he became vicar 
of St. Andrew the Great, Cambridge, where 
he gained much credit for his continued resi- 
dence and ministrations during the plague, 
in consequence of which the parishioners 
gave him a handsome piece of plat.-. Alt. 
being preacher at St. Peter Mancroft, H 
wich, he was presented in 1607 to the r 



Tenison 



Tenison 



tory of Holy well and Needingworth, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, by the Earl of Manchester, 
whose chaplain, and whose son's tutor, he 
became. His first book, ' The Creed of 
Mr. Hobbes examined,' was published in 
1670. In 1674 he was chosen ' upper mini- 
ster' of St. Peter Mancroft. In 1678 he 
published ' Baconiana ' and a ' Discourse of 
Idolatry.' The latter was ' some part of it 
meditated and the whole revised in the castle 
of Kimbolton ' (preface), and directed chiefly 
against the church of Home. Already a 
chaplain in ordinary to the king, he was 
presented to the rectory of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields on 8 Oct. 1680. From 1686 to 1692 
he was also minister of St. James's, Picca- 
dilly (HEXNESSY, Novum Repertorium, 1898, 
p. 250). 

In the large parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields he came at once into prominence, and 
during the eleven years he was rector he 
made acquaintance with all the most emi- 
nent men of the day. Evelyn first heard 
him preach on 5 Nov. 1680, and in 1683 
notes that he is ' one of the most profitable 
preachers in the church of England, being 
also of a most holy conversation, very learned 
and ingenious. The pains he takes and care 
of his parish will, I fear, wear him out, 
which would be an inexpressible loss ' (Diary, 
21 March 1683). He ministered to the noto- 
rious Edward Turberville [q.v.] on his death- 
bed on 18 Dec. 1681 (Throckmorton manu- 
scripts, Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. App. 
iv. 174), to Sir Thomas Armstrong [q. v.] at 
Tyburn on 20 June 1084, and in 1685 to 
the Duke of Monmouth before his execution 
(details of the duke's statements to Tenison 
in EVELYN'S Diary, 15 July 1685 ; see also 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. v. 93). 

While still a parish priest Tenison won 
fame by his controversy with Andrew Pulton, 
then head of the Jesuits settled in the Savoy. 
He published a large number of pamphlets, 
the most important of which are : ' A True 
Account of a Conference held about Religion, 
September 29, 1687, between AndrewPulton, 
a Jesuit, and Tho. Tenison, D.D., as also of 
that which led to it and followed after it ' 
(1687), and 'Mr. Pulton considered in his 
Sincerity, Reasonings, and Authority' (1687). 
He states that when his father was ejected 
from his living during the Commonwealth, 
' a Roman catholic got in.' An acrimonious 
correspondence was long continued on both 
sides. Tenison's arguments are far from 
clear, but he appears to deny the ' corporal 
presence.' More or less connected with this 
controversy was his attack on the system of 
indulgences (in ' A Defence of Dr. Tenison's 
sermon of Discretion in giving Alms,' 1687), 



his ' Discourse concerning a Guide in Matters 
of Faith,' published anonymously in 1683, 
the ' Difference betwixt the Protestant and 
Socinian Methods ' (1687), and, in the ' Notes 
of the Church as laid down by Cardinal 
Bellarmin examined and confuted' (1088), 
the tenth note on ' Holiness of Life ' (manu- 
script note in Bodleian copy). Tenison was 
assisted in this controversy by Henry Whar- 
ton [q. v.], whose patron he remained during 
his life. 

Meanwhile Tenison engaged in political 
controversy. In 'An Argument for Union,' 
1683, he urged the dissenters to ' do as the 
ancient nonconformists did, who would not 
separate, tho' they feared to subscribe ' (p. 
42) ; and a sermon against self-love, preached 
before the House of Commons, 1689, in which 
he attacked Louis XIV. During James H's 
reign he had preached before the king (EvE- 
LYN, Diary, 14 Feb. 1685), but he was early 
in the confidence of those who planned the 
invasion of William III (ib. 10 Aug. 1688). 
It was chiefly by his interest that the sus- 
pension of Dr. John Sharp [q.v.] for preach- 
ing against popery was removed (1688 ; LB 
NEVE). He joined the seven bishops when 
they drew up the declaration which led to 
their imprisonment. 

Tenison's activity in general philanthropic 
works also extended his reputation. Simon 
Patrick [q. v.], bishop of Ely, 'blesses God 
for having placed so good a man in the post ' 
(Autobiography, p. 84). He erected for his 
parish, in Castle Street, Leicester Square, a 
library, on the design of Wren and after 
consultation with Evelyn. It was the first 
public library in London. The deed of 
settlement was dated 1695 [SiMS, Handbook 
to British Museum Library, 1854, p. 395). 
He also endowed a school, which he located 
under the same roof as the library. In June 
1861 the library, which included valuable 
manuscripts, was sold for the benefit of the 
school endowment for nearly 2,900/. This 
school was removed to a new building erected 
in Leicester Square in 1870, on the site of a 
house once tenanted by Hogarth. Tenison 
lihewise distributed large sums during times 
of public distress. Preaching a funeral ser- 
mon on the death of Nell Gwynne, whom 
he attended in her last illness, he repre- 
sented her as a penitent. When this was 
subsequently made the ground of exposing 
him to the reproof of Queen Mary, she re- 
marked that the good doctor no doubt had 
said nothing but what the facts authorised. 

Tenison was presented by the new king 
and queen to the archdeaconry of London, 
26 Oct. 1 689, and in the same year he was one 
of the commission appointed to prepare the 



Tenison 



59 



Tenison 



agenda for convocation. He became promi- 
nent for his ' moderation to wards dissenters' 
(see his Discourse concerning the Ecclesiastical 
Commission open' din the Jerusalem Chamber, 
October 10, 1689), having been already em- 
ployed by Sancroft to consider a possible 
revision of the Book of Common Prayer. He 
had long considered the differences between 
the church and the more moderate dissenters 
to be easy of reconciliation (cf. his Argument 
for Union, e.g. pp. 4-5. where he comments 
on the impossibility of the presbyterians 
agreeing with ' Arians, Socinians, Anabap- 
tists, Fifth Monarchy-men, Sensual Mille- 
naries, Behmenists, Familists, Seekers, Anti- 
nomians, Ranters, Sabbatarians, Quakers, 
Muggletonians, Sweet Singers: these may 
associate in a caravan, but cannot join in 
the communion of a church '). 

On 25 Nov. 1691, it is said on the direct 
suggestion of Queen Mary, he was nominated 
bishop of Lincoln. He was elected on 
11 Dec., consecrated at Lambeth on 10 Jan. 
1691-2. The writ of summons to the House 
of Lords is dated 25 Jan. 1692 (Hist. MSS. 
Comm., 14th Rep. App. vi. 53), and he 
took the oath and his seat the same day 
(Lords' Journals, xv. 56). He was offered 
the archbishopric of Dublin on the death of 
Francis Marsh [q.v.] in 1093, and then re- 
quested the king to secure the impropriations 
belonging to the forfeited estates to the pa- 
rish churches; but, the estates being granted 
to the king's Dutch favourites, the design 
was not carried out. On the death of Tillot- 
son he was made archbishop of Canterbury. 
White Kennet (Hist, of England, iii. 682) 
says that he had at Lincoln ' restored a 
neglected large diocese to some discipline 
and good order,' and that his elevation was 
most universally approved by the ministry, 
and the clergy and the people,' and Burnet 
endorses the approbation, though he says 
that Stillingfleet would have been more 
generally approved ; but the appointment was 
far from popular among the high-church 
clergy. He was nominated 8 Dec. 1694, 
elected 15 Jan., confirmed 16 Jan., and en- 
throned 16 May 1695. Immediately after 
his appointment, he revived the jurisdiction 
of the archbishop's court, which had not 
been exercised, and, summoning Thomas 
Watson (d. 1717) [q.v.] before it on the charge 
of simoniacal practices, he deprived him of 
his see of St. David's in 1697. He attended 
Queen Mary on her deathbed, and preached 
her funeral sermon, which was severely cen- 
sured by Ken. He made no answer to the 
attack, hia relations with the queen being 
tinder the seal of confession (WuiSTON, Me- 
moirs, 1757, p. 100); but he reproved the 



king for his adultery with Elizabeth Villiers, 
and, on his promise to break off the connec- 
tion, preached the sermon ' Concerning Holy 
Resolution ' before the king on 30 Dec. (pub- 
lished by his command, 1(594). He is said 
also to have been the means of reconciling 
the Princess Anne to the king (BoiER, lliet. 
of Queen Anne, introd. p. 7). 

He was from time to time given political 
duties, and was thoroughly trusted bv AVil- 
liam III. In 1696 his action in voting lor 
the attainder of Sir John Fenwick (1646 P- 
1697) [q. v.] was much commented on. He 
was placed at the head of the new eccle- 
siastical commission appointed in 1700. He 
ministered to the king on his deathbed. 

On 23 April 1702 he crowned Queen Anne 
in Westminster Abbey. From the beginning 
of the new reign his favour was at an end. 
He voted against the occasional conformity 
bill, corresponded with the Electress Sophia, 
urging her to come to England, and was 
regarded as a leading advocate of the Hano- 
verian succession. His negotiations with 
Frederick of Prussia (1<"06, 1709, and 1711) 
as to a project of introducing episcopacy 
into Prussia (see correspondence in Life <>f 
Archbishop Sharp, i. 410-49) aroused much 
unfavourable comment, as did his apparent 
favour to Whist on (HEARXE, Diary, ed. 
Doble, ii. 252). His visitation of All Sml-' 
College was not popular in Oxford (ib.), and 
he was severely criticised as of a 'mean 
spirit ' (ib. iii. 350). 

It was attributed to Anne's disfavour 
more than to his sufferings from the gout 
that he was replaced as president of the 
convocation of Canterbury by a commission 
(BuRNET, History of his own Time*, vol. ii. ; 
see also His Grace the Lord Archbifhop <>f 
Canterbury's Circular Letter to the Bifhops 
of his Province, 1707, for his relations to con- 
vocation, and An Account <>f J'ruceedini/.i in 
Convocation in a Cause of Contumacy, 17' T i. 
During the last years of the reign lio IU-MT 
appeared at court, but he took active mea- 
sures to secure the succession of George I, 
was the first of the justices appointed to 
serve at his arrival in England, and was 
very favourably received by that king, whom 
he crowned on 20 Oct. 1714. His last public 
act was the issue of a ' Declaration [signed 
also by thirteen of the bishops] testifying 
their abhorrence of the Rebellion ' (London, 
1715), in which the danger to the church 
which would ensue from the accession of a 
popish prince was pointed out. 

He died without issue at Lambeth on 
14 Dec. 1715, and was buried in the chancel 
of Lambeth parish church. In 16<i7 li.- 
majried Anne (1633-1714), daughter of 



Tennant 



Tennant 



Richard Love [q. v.], master of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, and dean of Ely. 

Probably his most important work as arch- 
bishop was the support he gave to the 
religious societies, especially the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel, of which he 
was the ardent and continued benefactor, and 
to a considerable extent the founder. He 
was also urgent in declaring the need of 
bishops in the American colonies, and gene- 
rous in support of the scheme suggested for 
founding an episcopate (cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 14th Rep. App. x. 2). He took great 
interest in the societies for the reformation 
of manners (1692), and issued a circular 
letter urging the clergy to support them. 
His character, in spite of the strong political 
opposition he aroused, has never been very 
unfavourably judged. James II spoke of 
him as ' that dull man,' and the epithet stuck. 
Swift spoke of him as ' a very dull man who 
had a horror of anything like levity in the 
clergy, especially of whist' (Works, x. 231). 
Calamy said that he 'was even more honoured 
and respected by the dissenters than by 
many of the established church ' (Life, ii. 
334). Evelyn, who was his intimate friend, 
wrote, ' I never knew a man of more universal 
and generous spirit, with so much modesty, 
prudence, and piety' (Diary, 19 July 1691). 
By high tories he was considered, apparently 
without much reason, too much of a parti- 
san, and his constant essays in controversy 
were not regarded as universally successful. 
A witticism attributed to Swift summed 
up his character in this regard : ' he was hot 
and heavy, like a tailor's goose.' Swift's 
acrimony was probably due to Tenison's op- 
position to his appointment as chaplain to 
Lord Wharton and to his success in hinder- 
ing his nomination to the bishopric of Water- 
ford (FosTEK, Life of Swift). 

Tenison's will (printed, London, 1716) con- 
tains a large number of charitable bequests. 
A portrait is at LambethT^and an engraving 
by Vertue is prefixed to his ' Memoirs.' 

[Memoirs of the Life of Archbishop Tenison ; 
C. M. Tenison's Tenisoniana in Misc. Geneal. et 
Herald. 3rd ser. vol. ii. ; private information ; 
Evelyn's Diary ; Abbey's English Church and 
its Bishops, 1700-1800; Burnet's History of his 
own Times; and the authorities quoted in the 
text.] W. H. H. 

TENNANT, CHAPtLES (1768-1838), 
manufacturing chemist, born on 3 May 1768 
at Ochiltree, Ayrshire, was son of John 
Tennant by his wife Margaret McLure. He 
received his early education at home and 
afterwards at the parish school of Ochiltree. 
He was then sent to Kilbachan to learn the 
manufacture of silk, and subsequently to the 



bleachfield at Wellmeadow, where he studied 
the processes employed for bleaching fabrics. 
After having learned this business he set up 
a bleachfield at Darnly in partnership with 
one Cochrane of Paisley. 

The old process of bleaching consisted in 
boiling or ' bucking ' the cloth in weak alkali, 
and finally ' crofting ' it or exposing it to the 
sun and air for eight to ten days on grass. 
At the close of the eighteenth century this 
second process was being gradually displaced 
by the use of chlorine, a substance which 
was discovered by the Swedish chemist 
Scheele, and was first applied to bleaching 
on the large scale by Berthollet in 1787. A 
solution of the gas in water was first em- 
ployed, but the water was afterwards re- 
placed by dilute potash ley, the resulting 
liquid being known as ' eau de Javelle.' 

In 1798 (23 Jan.) Tennant took out a 
patent (No. 2209) for the manufacture of a 
bleaching liquor by passing chlorine into a 
well-agitated mixture of lime and water, a 
strong bleaching liquor being thus obtained 
very cheaply. A number of Lancashire 
bleachers made use of the process without 
acknowledgment, and an action was brought 
against them by Tennant for infringement of 
patent rights (Tennant v. Slater). It was 
proved that the process had been secretly used 
near Nottingham by a bleacher who had com- 
municated it only to his partners and to the 
workmen actually employed upon it. Lord 
Ellenborough nonsuited the plaintiff ' on 
two grounds: 1. That the process had been 
used five or six years prior to the date of 
the patent. 2. That the plaintiff was not 
the inventor of the agitation of the lime- 
water, an indispensable part of the process ' 
(WEBSTER, Reports of Patent Cases, \. 125; 
HlGGiifS, Digest of Patent Cases, p. 87 ; cf. 
CARPMAEL, Reports on Patent Cases, i. 177). 

Tennant was subsequently presented with 
a service of plate by the bleachers of Lan- 
cashire in recognition of his services to the 
industry. In 1799 he took out a new patent 
(No. 2312) for the manufacture of solid 
bleaching powder by the action of chlorine 
on slaked lime, and in 1800 removed to St. 
Rollox, near Glasgow, where, in partnership 
with Charles Mackintosh, William Cowper, 
and James Know, he established the well- 
known chemical works for the manufacture 
of bleaching powder and the other products 
of the alkali industry. His time was mainly 
devoted to the development of this under- 
taking, but he also took an active interest 
in the railway movement, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow, and was present 
at the opening of the Liverpool and Man- 
chester railway. He died on 1 Oct. 1838 at 



Tennant 



61 



Tennant 



his house in Abercrombie Place, Glasgow. 
He was the father of John Tennant of St. 
Rollox, whose son, Charles Tennant, was 
created a baronet in 1885, and sat in parlia- 
ment for the city of Glasgow from 1879 to 
1880, and for Peebles and Selkirk from 1830 
to 1885. 

[Walker's Memoirs of Distinguished Men of 
Science of Great Britain living in 1807-1808 
(1862), p. 186 (a portrait is included in the en- 
graving accompanying this work, taken from a 
picture by A.Geddes); Roscoe and Schorlemmer's 
Treatise on Chemistry, 1897, ii. 426.] A. H-N. 

TENNANT, SIR JAMES (1789-1854), 
brigadier-general, colonel commandant 
Bengal artillery, second son of William Ten- 
nant, merchant of Ayr, and of his wife, the 
daughter of Charles Pattenson of the Bengal 
civil service, was born on 21 April 1789. He 
was educated at the military school at Great 
Marlow, and sailed as cadet of the East India 
Company on 31 Aug. 1805 in the East India 
fleet which accompanied the expedition of Sir 
David Baird and Sir Home Popham to the 
Cape of Good Hope, arriving there on 4 Jan. 
1806. The East India Company cadets and 
recruit? under Lieutenant-colonel Wellesley 
of the Bengal establishment took part in the 
operations by which Cape Town was cap- 
tured, and were usefully employed in different 
branches of the service (Despatch of Sir David 
Baird, 12 Jan. 1806). Tennant arrived in India 
on 21 Aug. 1806, and received a commission as 
lieutenant in the Bengal artillery antedated 
to 29 March for his service at the Cape. 

In 1810 Tennant commanded a detachment 
of artillery on service on the ' vizier's domi- 
nions.' On 1 Jan. 1812 he was appointed act- 
ing adjutant and quartermaster to Major G. 
Fuller's detachment of artillery, and on 15 Jan. 
marched from Bauda with the force under 
Colonel Gabriel Martindell to the attack oi 
Kalinjar, a formidable fort on a large isolated 
hill nine hundred feet above the surrounding 
level. Kalinjar was reached on 19 Jan. ; by 
the 28th the batteries opened, and on 2 Feb. 
the breaches being practicable, an unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to storm. On 3 Feb 
the place capitulated, and was taken posses- 
sion of on the 8th. The governor-general 
noticed in general orders the distinguished 
part taken by the artillery on 2 Feb. Ten- 
nant was employed throughout this and the 
following year in various minor operations in 
the districts bordering on Bandelkhand. 

On 27 Dec. 1814, with two 18-pounder 
guns and four mountain pieces of the 3rc 
division, he joined Sir David Ochterlony [q . v. 
at Nahr, on the north-north-east side of the 
Ramgarh ridge, to take part in the operations 
against Nipal. T ~ ^"-^ lft1 -" Tonnnnt- 



In March 1815 Tennant 



ascended the Ramgarh ridge, with the force 
under Lieutenant-colonel Cooper, and, bring- 
ing up his 18-pounders with incredible labour, 
opened upon Ramgarh, which soon surren- 
dered, Jorjori capitulating at the same time. 
Taragarh (11 March) and Chamha (16th) 
were reached and taken. All the posts on t his 
ridge having been successively reduced, the 
detachment took up the position assigned to 
it before Mai own on 1 April. Malown was 
captured by assault on 15 April before the 
18-pounders, which were dragged by hand 
over the hills at the rate of one or two miles a 
day, had arrived ; these guns were eventually 
left in the fort. 

Tennant was promoted to be second captain 
in the regiment and captain in the army on 
1 Oct. 1816, and first captain in the Bengal 
artillery on 1 Sept. 1818. His next active 
service was in the Pindari and Maratha 
war of 1817 to 1819. He joined the centre 
division under Major-general T. Brown of 
the Marquis of Hastings's grand army at 
Sikandra in the Cawnpore district, but moving 
forward to Mahewas on the river Sind iu No- 
vember 1817, it was attacked by cholera. He 
took part in some of the operations of this war, 
as captain and brigade-major of the second 
division of artillery, and received a share of 
the Dakhan prize-money for general captures. 
He held the appointment of brigade-major of 
artillery in the field in 1819 and 1820. He 
was selected to command the artillery at Agl* 
on 23 Dec. 1823, and on the 31st of the month 
he was nominated first assistant secretary to 
the military board. 

On 28 May 1824 Tennant was appointed 
assistant adjutant-general of artillery. In 
November 1825 he accompanied the com- 
mandant of artillery, Brigadier-general Alex- 
ander Macleod, to Agra, where and at Muttra 
the commander-in-chief, Lord Comberniero 
[see COTTOX, Sir STAPLETOX], assembled liis 
army for the siege of Bhartpur. The siege 
began in the middle of December; on the 
24th the batteries opened fire, breaches were 
found practicable on 18 Jan. 1826, and this 
formidable place was carried by assault. 
Tennant, who, as assistant adj ut ant-peneral of 
artillery, had the management of all details 
connected with the artillery gent-rally, was 
thanked by the commandant in regimental 
orders (21 Jan. 1826) for the assistance he 
had rendered. Tennant's ' methodical habits 
and mathematical talent rendered labour 
easy to him which would have been difficult 
to others.' In February he accompanied 
Combermere to Cawnpore and to the presi- 
dency. 

Tennant was promoted to be major or 
3 March 1831 . lie was appointed to officiate 



Tennant 



Tennant 



as agent for the manufacture of gunpowder 
at Ishapur on 28 April 1835, and being con- 
firmed in that appointment on 28 July, he 
caased to be assistant adjutant-general of 
artillery. On 11 April 1836 he became a 
member of the special committee of artillery 
officers (see STUBBS, Hist, of the Bengal Ar- 
tillery, iii. 579). The minutes drawn up on 
various subjects by members of the board, 
when there was any difference of opinion, 
are both interesting and valuable. One by 
Tennant on the calibre of guns for horse and 
field artillery, and on the substitution in the 
latter of horse for bullock draught, is par- 
ticularly so. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 18 Jan. 1837, and in con- 
sequence vacated the agency for gunpowder. 

For his services on the committee of ar- 
tillery officers he received the approbation 
and thanks of the government of India. On 
21 March 1837 he was posted to the com- 
mand of the 4th battalion of artillery. On 
28 Nov. 1842 he was given the command of 
the Cawnpore division of artillery, and in the 
following year was specially mentioned for 
the superior state of discipline and equipment 
of his command. On 17 Nov. 1843 he was 
appointed to command, with the rank of bri- 
gadier-general, the foot artillery attached 
to the army of exercise assembled at Agra 
under Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough 
[q. v.] This force left Agra for the Gwalior 
campaign on 16 Dec., crossing the river 
Chambal on the 21st. In spite of great exer- 
tions, Tennant and the heavy ordnance got 
considerably behind. Gough did not wait 
for his heavy guns, and the battle of Maha- 
rajpur (29 Dec.) was rather riskily fought 
without them (cf. Gough's despatch ap. Lon- 
don Gazette, 8 March 1844). 

On 10 Feb. 1844 Tennant was again ap- 
pointed to be commandant of the artillery at 
Cawnpore. On 3 July 1845 he was pro- 
moted to be colonel in the army, and was 
sent on special duty to inspect and report 
on field magazines of the upper provinces. 
He, however, resigned this appointment, to 
the regret of the government, and resumed 
his command at Cawnpore. In 1846-7 Ten- 
nant was associated with Colonel George 
Brooke of the Bengal artillery, on a com- 
mittee at Simla, on the equipment of moun- 
tain batteries. The experience of both, drawn 
from the Nipal war, 1814-16, produced valu- 
able minutes. On 2 Sept. 1848 Tennant was 
appointed brigadier-general to command the 
Maiwar field force. He was then attached to 
the army of the Punjab to command the ar- 
tillery with the rank of brigadier-general. He 
commanded this arm at the battle of Chilian- 
wala on 13 Jan. 1849, and was mentioned in 



despatches (London Gazette, 3 and 23 March 
1849). He also commanded it at the battle of 
Gujerat on 21 Feb. 1849, and was again men- 
tioned in despatches (ib. 19 April 1849). He 
received the thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment, of the government of India, and of the 
court of directors of the East India Company 
(general order, 7 June 1849). He was made 
a companion of the Bath on 5 June 1849, 
and received the war medal and clasp. 

On 13 March 1849 Tennant resumed his 
appointment at Cawnpore, and on 19 Dec. 
was transferred to Lahore as brigadier-gene- 
ral commanding. On 30 Jan. 1852 he was 
given the command of the Cis-Jhilam division 
of the army. He \vas made a knight com- 
mander of the Bath on 8 Oct. 1852. He 
died at Mian Mir on 6 March 1854. Lieu- 
tenant-general J. F. Tennant, C.I.E., F.R.S., 
of the royal engineers, is his son. Tennant's 
attainments were of a very high order, and 
' he was better acquainted with the details of 
his profession than perhaps any officer in the 
regiment ' (STTTBBS). 

[India Office Eecords ; Despatches ; Stubbs's 
Hist, of the Bengal Artillery, 1st and 2nd vols. 
1877, and 3rd vol. 1895; Life of Sir David 
Baird, 2 vols. 1832 ; Ross of Bladensburg's Mar- 
quess of Hastings (Rulers of India) ; East India 
Military Cal. ; Thornton's Hist, of India ; 
Prinsep's Hist, of the Political and Military 
Transactions in India during the Administra- 
tion of the Marquess of Hastinss, 2 vols. 1825; 
Grant Duff's Hist, of the Mahratas, 1826; 
Blacker's Memoir of the Operations of the British 
Army in India during the Mahrata War of 1817- 
1819-21; Journal of the Artillery Operations 
before Bhurtpore in East India United Service 
Journal, vol. ii. ; Creighton's Narrative of the 
Siege and Capture of Bhurtpore, 1830 ; Seaton's 
From Cadet to Colonel, 1866; Thackwell's 
Second Sikh War.] R. H. V. 

TENNANT, JAMES (1803-1 881), mine- 
ralogist, was born on 8 Feb. 1808 at Upton, 
near Southwell, Nottinghamshire, being the 
third child in a family of twelve. His father, 
John Tennant, was an officer in the excise ; 
his mother, Eleanor Kitchen, came from a 
family of yeomen resident at Upton for more 
than two centuries. His parents afterwards 
removed to Derby, and he was partly edu- 
cated at a school in Mansfield. In October 
1824 he was apprenticed to G. Mawe, dealer 
in minerals at 149 Strand, and after the death 
of the latter he managed, and afterwards 
purchased, the business, residing on the pre- 
mises. Industrious and eager to learn from 
the first, he attended classes at a mechanics' 
institute and the lectures of Michael Faraday 
[q.v.] at the Royal Institution. This gained 
him a friend, and he was also much helped 



Tennant ( 

by one of his master's customers. In 1838, 
on Faraday's recommendation, Tennant was 
appointed teacher of geological mineralogy 
at King's College, the title being afterwards 
changed to professor. In 1853 the professor- 
ship of geology was added, but he resigned 
that post in 1869, retaining the other till 
his death. He was also from 1850 to 1867 
lecturer on geology and mineralogy at Wool- 
wich. He had an excellent practical know- 
ledge of minerals, and, when diamonds were 
first found in South Africa, maintained the 
genuineness of the discovery, which at first 
was doubted. He was an earnest advocate 
of technical education, giving liberally from 
his own purse to help on the cause, and per- 
suading the Turners' Company, of which he 
was master in 1874, to offer prizes for excel- 
lence in their craft. The results of this pro- 
ceeding proved highly satisfactory. When 
the koh-i-nor was recut Tennant superin- 
tended the work, being appointed minera- 
logist to the queen in 1840, and he also had the 
oversight of Miss (now Baroness) Burdett- 
Coutts's collection of minerals. He was 
elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 
1 838, and president of the Geological Asso- 
ciation (1862-3). He died, unmarried, on 
23 Feb. 1881. A portrait, painted by Rogers, 
is in the collection of Lady Burdett-Coutts. 
A copy was placed in the Strand vestry in 
commemoration of services to the church 
schools and parish. 

Tennant wrote the following books or pam- 
phlets: 1. 'List of British Fossils,' 1847. 
2. 'Gems and Precious Stones,' 1852. 3. 'Cata- 
logue of British Fossils in the Author's Col- 
lection,' 1858. 4. 'Description of the Im- 
perial State Crown,' 1858. 5. 'Descriptive 
Catalogue of Gems, &c., bequeathed to the 
South Kensington Museum by the Rev. 
Chauncey Hare Townshend ' (1 870), with two 
or three scientific papers, one on the koh-i- 
nor. He also, in conjunction with David 
Thomas Ansted and Walter Mitchell, con- 
tributed ' Geology, Mineralogy, and Crystal- 
lography' to Orr's 'Circle of Sciences' in 
1855. 

[Obituary notices in Quarterly Journal of 
Geological Soc. 1882 (Proc. p. 48) and Geolo- 
pical Mag. 1881, p. 238 ; information from Pro- 
fessors T. Rupert Jones and T. Wiltshire, and 
from James Tennant, esq.] T. G. B. 

TENNANT, SMITHSON (1761-1815), 
chemist, born on 30 Nov. 1761 at Selby in 
Wensleydale, Yorkshire, was son of Calvert 
Tennant, vicar of Selby, by his wife Mary 
Daunt. After receiving his early education 
in the grammar schools at Tadcaster and 
Beverley, he studied medicine in 1781 at 
Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures 



j Tennant 

of Joseph Black fq. v.] In 1782 he became 
pensioner and then fellow commoner at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where he studied 
chemistry and botany, and satisfied himself 
of the truth of the antiphlogistic theory of 
combustion, which was not at that time gene- 
rally accepted in England. In 1784 he tra- 
velled in Denmark and Sweden, and visited 
the Swedish chemist Scheele. He was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1785, and 
in 1786 he removed from Christ's College 
to Emmanuel. He graduated M.H. in 1788. 
During the following years he travelled in 
Europe, and on his return took up his reai- 
dence in London in the Temple, and in 1796 
graduated M.D. at Cambridge. At this period 
he became interested in agricultural matters, 
and, after some preliminary trials in Lincoln- 
shire, purchased land in Somerset, near Ched- 
dar, which he farmed with some success, 
although resident for the greater part of the 
year in London. He lived a very retired life, 
occupied in literary and scientific studies. In 
1804 he was awarded the Copley medal of the 
Royal Society, in recognition of his investi- 
gations. In 1812 he delivered a course of in- 
formal lectures on mineralogy in his chambers 
to a number of friends. In 1813 he was ap- 
pointed professor of chemistry at Cambridge, 
and in 1814 delivered his first and only course 
of lectures, which met with a good reception. 
On 22 Feb. 1815 he accidentally met his death 
in France, near Boulogne, through the col- 
lapse of a bridge over which he was riding. 

Although Tennant's published work is 
small in volume, it includes several dis- 
coveries of capital importance. In his first 
paper (Phil. Trans. 1791, ii. 182) he demon- 
strated that when marble is heated with 
phosphorus, the carbon of the fixed air which 
it contains is liberated. This experiment 
affords the analytical proof of the composi- 
tion of fixed air (carbonic arid gas) which 
had been synthetically proved by Lavoisier. 
In his next paper, ' On the Nature of the 
Diamond' (ib. 1797, p. 123), Tennant proved 
that this precious stone consists of carbon, 
and yields the same weight of carbonic acid 
gas as had been previously obtained by La- 
voisier from an equal weight of charcoal. In 
1799 he showed (it>. 1799, ii. 305) that tin- 
lime from many parts of England contains 
magnesia, and that this substance and its 
carbonate are extremely injurious to v- 
tion. In 1804 he published his discovery >f 
two new metals, osmium and iridium. which 
occur in crude platinum and are left behind 
when the metal is dissolved in aqua regia (ib. 
1804, p. 411). 

Tennant was a man of wide culture and 
of severe taste in literature and arts. He 



Tennant 



6 4 



Tennant 



was a brilliant conversationalist, and ' in 
quick penetration united with soundness and 
accuracy of judgment he was perhaps with- 
out an equal.' In addition to the papers 
mentioned above he published the follow- 
ing: 'On the Action of Nitre upon Gold and 
Platina' (ib. 1797, ii. 219) ; ' On the Com- 
position of Emery ' (ib. 1802, p. 398); ' Notice 
respecting Native Concrete Boracic Acid' 
(Oeol. Soc. Trans. 1811, p. 389); 'On an 
Easier Mode of procuring Potassium ' (Phil. 
Trans. 1814, p. 578); 'On the Means of pro- 
curing a Double Distillation by the same 
Heat ' (ib. 1814, p. 587). 

[Memoir in Annals of Philosophy, 1815, vi. 
1,81. This was reprinted for private circula- 
tion with a few additions under the title ' Some 
Account of the late Smithson Tennant,' 1815. It 
is stated that it was drawn up by some of his 
friends, but the main portion of the work was 
due to Whishaw.] A. H-N. 

TENNANT, WILLIAM (1784-1848), 
linguist and poet, son of Alexander Tennant, 
merchant and farmer, and his wife, Ann 
Watson, was born in Austruther Easter, 
Fifeshire, on 15 May 1784. He lost the 
power of both feet in childhood, and used 
crutches through life. After receiving his 
elementary education in Anstruther burgh 
school, he studied at St. Andrews Univer- 
sity for two years (1799-1801.). On settling 
at home in 1801 Tennant steadily pursued 
his literary studies. For a time he acted as 
clerk to his brother, a corn factor, first in 
Glasgow and then at Anstruther. Owing to 
a crisis in business the brother disappeared, 
and Tennant suffered a short period of vi- 
carious incarceration at the instance of the 
creditors. He began the study of Hebrew 
about this time, while continuing to increase 
his classical attainments. His father's house 
had all along been a centre of literary activity 
visitors of the better class in town had 
met there on occasional evenings for mutual 
improvement and recreation and Tennant's 
literary aspirations had been early stirred. 
In 1813 he formed, along with Captain 
Charles Gray [q. v.] and others, the ' An- 
struther Musomanik Society,' the members 
of which, according to their code of admis- 
sion, assembled to enjoy ' the corruscations 
[sic] of their own festive minds.' Their main 
business was to spin rhymes, and some of 
them span merrily and well. Honorary mem- 
bers of proved poetic worth were admitted, 
Sir Walter Scott assuring the members, on 
receipt of his diploma in 1815, of his grati- 
fication at the incident, and his best wishes 
for their healthy indulgence in ' weel-timed 
daffing'(CoNOLLT, Life and Writings of Wil- 
liam Tennant, p. 213). 



In 1813 Tennant was appointed parish 
schoolmaster of Dunino, five miles from St. 
Andrews. Here he not only matured his 
Hebrew scholarship, but gained a know- 
ledge of Arabic, Syriac, and Persian. In 
1816, through the influence of Burns's friend 
George Thomson [q. v.] and others, Tennant 
became schoolmaster at Lasswade, Mid- 
lothian, where his literary note gained for 
him the intimate acquaintance of Lord Wood- 
houselee and Jeffrey. In 1819 he was elected 
teacher of classical and oriental languages 
in Dollar academy, Clackmannanshire, and 
held the post with distinction till 1834, 
when Jeffrey, then lord-advocate for Scot- 
land, appointed him professor of Hebrew 
and oriental languages in St. Mary's College, 
St. Andrews. He retired, owing to ill- 
health, in 1848. He died, unmarried, at 
Devon Grove on 14 Oct. 1848, and he was 
buried at Anstruther, where an obelisk monu- 
ment with Latin inscription was raised to 
his memory. 

While at the university Tennant made some 
respectable verse translations ; and a Scot- 
tish ballad, 'the Anster Concert,' 1811, is 
an early proof of uncommon observation and 
descriptive vigour. In ' Anster Fair,' pub- 
lished anonymously in 1812, Tennant in- 
stantly achieved greatness. Based on the 
diverting ballad of ' Maggie Lauder' (doubt- 
fully assigned to Francis Sempill), it is an 
exceedingly clever delineation of provincial 
merry-making. It is written in the octave 
stanza of Fairfax's 'Tasso,' 'shut,' as the 
author explains in his short preface, ' with 
the alexandrine of Spenser, that its close 
may be more full and sounding.' For this 
stanza, without Tennant's device of the 
alexandrine, Byron gained a name in his 
' Beppo,' and he gave it permanent distinc- 
tion in 'Don Juan.' A reissue in 1814 won 
from Jeffrey, in November of that year, an 
encomium in the ' Edinburgh Review.' Six 
editions of the poem appeared in the author's 
lifetime, and a ' people's edition ' was issued 
in 1849. In 1822 Tennant published the 
' Thane of Fife,' based on the Danish inva- 
sion of the ninth century. In 1823 appeared 
'Cardinal Beaton,' a tragedy in five acts, and 
in 1825 ' John Baliol,' an historical drama. 
Nowise dramatic, these works, except in occa- 
sional passages, have but little poetic dis- 
tinction. In 1827, in his ' Papistry Storm'd, 
orthedingin' doon o' the Cathedral' (i.e. the 
destruction of St. Andrews Cathedral at the 
time of the Reformation), Tennant affected, 
with fair success but too persistently, the 
method and style of Sir David Lyndsay. To 
the ' Scottish Christian Herald ' of 1836-37 he 
contributed five ' Hebrew Idylls.' In 1840 he 



Tennent 



Tennent 



published a ' Syriac and Chaldee Grammar,' 
a trustworthy and popular text-book. His 
'Hebrew Dramas,' founded on incidents in 
Bible history Jephthah's daughter, Esther, 
destruction of Sodom appeared in 184o. 
Not without a degree of freshness and vigour, 
these are somewhat lacking in sustained in- 
terest. About 1830 Tennant became a con- 
tributor to the ' Edinburgh Literary Journal,' 
furnishing prose translations from Greek and 
German, and discussing with Hogg, the 
Ettrick Shepherd, the propriety of issuing a 
new metrical version of the Psalms. This 
correspondence was subsequently issued in 
a heterogeneous bookseller's collection, en- 
titled ' Pamphlets,' 1830. Tennant edited 
in 1819 the ' Poems' of Allan Ramsay, with 
prefatory biography. 

[Conolly's Life of William Tennant, and the 
same writer's Eminent Men of Fife and Fifiana; 
Chamliers's edit, of Anster Fair, 1849; Cham- 
bers's Biogr. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Moir's 
Lectures on Poetical Lit. ; Blackwood's Mag. i. 
383, xii. 382, xiv. 421 ; Wilson's Noctes Am- 
brosianse, i. 101 ; Archibald Constable and his 
Literary Correspondents, vol. ii.chap. vii. : Notes 
and Queries, 6th ser. v. 232, 312, 357.] T. B. 

TENNENT, SIR JAMES EMERSOX 
(1804-1869), traveller, politician, and author, 
third son of William Emerson (d. 1821), 
merchant of Belfast, by Sarah, youngest 
daughter of William Arbuthnot, was born 
at Belfast on 7 April 1804 and was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, whence he 
received an honorary degree of LL.D. in 
1861. In 1824 he travelled abroad, and 
among other countries visited Greece ; he 
was enthusiastic in the cause of Greek free- 
dom, and while there made the acquaintance 
of Lord Byron. His impressions of the 
country appeared in 1826 in ' A Picture of 
Greece in 1825, as exhibited in the Personal 
Narratives of James Emerson, Count 
Pecchio, and W. K. Humphreys.' 

On 28 Jan. 1831 he was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, where he had entered him- 
self as a student by the advice of Jeremy 
Bentham, but it is doubtful if he ever prac- 
tised his profession. On 24 June 1831 he 
married Letitia, only daughter of William 
Tennent, a wealthy banker at Belfast, whose 
name and arms he assumed by royal license 
in addition to his own in 1832. 

He was elected member for Belfast on 
21 Dec. 1832, and was thought a man of 
promise on his first appearance in the House 
of Commons. He was a supporter of Earl 
Grey's government up to the time that 
Stanley and Sir James Graham retired from 
the administration in 1834, being among the 
very few Irish members who fell in with the 

VOL. LVI. 



| Derby dilly.' He made an energetic speech 
in favour of Thomas Spring-Rice's amend- 
ment against the repeal of the union, which 
was considered one of the ablest in the d. !,.,{. 
(Hansard, 24 April 1834, pp. 1287-J.';.',:. 1 1. 
Ever afterwards he followed Sir Robert Peelj 
and became a liberal-conservative. At the 
election in 1837 he was defeated at Belfast, 
but subsequently on petition was seated on 
8 March 1838. At the general election in 
1841 he was elected, but was unseated on 
petition. In 1842 he regained his seat, and 
during that year was the chief promoter of 
the copyright of designs bill, the passing of 
which gave such satisfaction to the mer- 
chants of Manchester that they presented 
him with a service of plate valued at 3.000/. 
He held the office of secretary to the India 
board from 8 Sept. 1841 to 5 Aug. 1843, 
and remained a member of the House of 
Commons until July 1845, when he was 
knighted. From 12 Aug. 1845 to December 
1850 he was civil secretary to the colonial 
government of Ceylon. On 31 Dec. 1850 
he was gazetted governor of St. Helena, but 
he never took up the appointment. After 
his return home he again sat in parliament 
as member for Lisburn from 10 Jan. to De- 
cember 1852. He was permanent secretary 
to the poor-law board from 4 March to 
30 Sept. 1852, and then secretary to the 
board of trade from November 1852. On 
his retirement on 2 Feb. 1867 he was created 
a baronet. 

Tennent took a constant interest in lite- 
rary matters. In October 1859 he published 
' Ceylon : an Account of the Island, Physi- 
cal, Historical, and Topographical,' 2 vols. 
8vo, a work which had a great sale and went 
through five editions in eight months. It 
contained a vast amount of information 
arranged with clearness and precision. In 
November IHOl he republished a part of 
the work under the title 'Sketches of the 
Natural History of Ceylon,' 8vo. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
5 June 1862. He died suddenly in London 
on 6 March 1869, and was buried in Kensul 
Green cemetery on 12 March. His widow 
died on 21 April 1883; by her he had two 
daughters, Eleanor and Edith Sarah, and 
a son, Sir William Emerson Tennent, who 
was born on 14 May 1835, was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple on 26 Jan. 
1859, became a clerk in the board of trad.- 
1855, accompanied Sir William Hutt ']. r.l 
to Vienna in 1865 to negotiate a treaty f 
commerce, and was secretary to Sir Stephen 
Cave [q. v.] in the mixed commission to 1'aris 
(1866-7) for revising the fishery comrenttOBi 
By his death at Tempo Manor, Fermanagh, 



Tennyson 



66 



Tennyson 



on 16 Nov. 1876, the baronetcy became 
extinct ( Times, 17 Nov. 1876). 

Besides the works mentioned, Sir James 
Tennent wrote : 1. ' Letters from the 
yEgean,' 1829, 2 vols., originally printed in 
the 'New Monthly Magazine.' 2. 'The 
History of Modern Greece,' 1830, 2 vols. 
3. ' A Treatise on the Copyright of Designs 
for Printed Fabrics and Notices of the state 
of Calico Printing in Belgium, Germany, 
and the States of the Prussian Commercial 
League,' 1841, 2 vols. 4. ' Christianity in 
Ceylon, with Sketch of the Brahmanical and 
Buddhist Superstition,' 1850. 5. ' Wine, its 
Use and Taxation : an Inquiry into the Wine 
Duties,' 1855. 6. The Story of Guns,' 1865. 
7. ' The Wild Elephant and the Method of 
Capturing and Taming it in Ceylon,' 1867. 
He was author of the articles Tarshish, 
Trincomalie, and Wine and Wine-making 
in the eighth edition of the 'Encyclopaedia 
Britannica.' 

[Belfast News-letter, 8, 9, 15 March 1869; 
Times, 8, 15 March 1869 ; Portraits of Eminent 
Conservatives, 1837, portrait No. xii. ; Kegister 
and Mag. of Biography, April 1869, pp. 291-2, 
where the date of his birth is wrong; Illustrated 
London News, 1843 iii. 293 with portrait, 1869 
liv. 299, 317.] G. C. B. 

TENNYSON, ALFRED, first BARON 
TENNYSON (1809-1892), poet, the fourth of 
twelve children of the Rev. Dr. George Clay- 
ton Tennyson, rector of Somersby, a village 
in North Lincolnshire, between Horncastle 
and Spilsby, was born at Somersby on 6 Aug. 
1809. His mother was Elizabeth, daughter 
of the Rev. Stephen Fytche, vicar of Louth 
in the same county. Of the twelve children 
of this marriage, eight were sons, and of 
these, two besides Alfred became poets of 
distinction, Frederick Tennyson [q. v.] and 
Charles, who in later life adopted the name 
of an uncle, and became Charles Tennyson- 
Turner [q. v.] All of the children seem to 
have shared the poetic faculty in greater or 
less degree. The rector of Somersby, owing 
to ' a caprice ' of his father, George Tenny- 
son (1750-1835) of Bayons Manor, had been 
disinherited in favour of his younger brother 
Charles (Tennyson D'Eyncourt), and the dis- 
appointment seems to have embittered the 
elder son to a degree that affected his whole 
subsequent life. 

Alfred was brought up at home until he 
was seven years old, when he was sent to 
live with his grandmother at Louth and 
attend the grammar school in that town. 
The master was one of the strict and pas- 
sionate type, and the poet preserved no 
happy memories of the four years passed 
there. At the end of that time, in 1820, 



the boy returned to Somersby to remain 
under his father's tuition until he went to 
college. The rector was an adequate scholar 
and a man of some poetic taste and faculty, 
and the boy had the run of a library more 
various and stimulating than the average of 
country rectories could boast. He became 
early an omnivorous reader, especially in 
the department of poetry, to which he was 
further drawn by the rural charm of 
Somersby and its surroundings, which he 
was to celebrate in one of his earliest descrip- 
tive poems, the ' Ode to Memory.' A letter 
from Alfred to his mother's sister when in 
his thirteenth year, containing a criticism of 
' Samson Agonistes,' illustrated by references 
to Horace, Dante, and other poets, exhibits 
a quite remarkable width of reading for so 
young a boy. Even before this date the 
child had begun to write verse. When only 
eight (so he told his son in later life) he had 
written ' Thomsonian blank verse in praise 
of flowers ; ' at the age of ten and eleven he 
had fallen under the spell of Pope's ' Homer/ 
and had written ' hundreds and hundreds of 
lines in the regular Popeian metre.' Some- 
what later he had composed an epic of six 
thousand lines after the pattern of Scott, 
and the boy's father hazarded the prediction 
that ' if Alfred die, one of our greatest poets 
will have gone.' 

In 1827 Tennyson's elder brother Frederick 
went up from Eton to Trinity, Cambridge ; 
and in March of the same year Charles Tenny- 
son and his brother Alfred published with 
J. & J. Jackson, booksellers of Louth, the 
' Poems by two Brothers,' Charles's share 
of the volume having been written between 
the ages of sixteen and seventeen, Alfred's 
between those of fifteen and seventeen. For 
this little volume the bookseller offered 20/., 
of which sum, however, half was to betaken 
out in books. The two young authors spent 
a portion of their profits in hiring a carriage 
and driving away fourteen miles to a fa- 
vourite bit of sea-coast at Mablethorpe. The 
little volume is strangely disappointing, in 
the main because Alfred was afraid to in- 
clude in it those boyish efforts in which real 
promise of poetic originality might have 
been discerned. The memoir by his son 
supplies specimens of such, which were ap- 
parently rejected as being ' too much out of 
the common for the public taste.' These 
include a quite remarkable dramatic frag- 
ment, the scene of which is laid in Spain, 
and display an equally astonishing command 
of metre and of music in the lines written 
' after reading the " Bride of Lammermoor." ' 
The little volume printed contains chiefly 
imitative verses, in which the key and the 



Tennyson 



Tennyson 



style are obviously borrowed from Byron, 
Moore, and other favourites of the hour ; and 
only here and there does it exhibit any dis- 
tinct element of promise. It seems to have 
attracted no notice either from the press or 
the public. 

In February 1828 Tennyson (as also his 
brother Charles) matriculated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Here he speedily be- 
came intimate with a remarkable group of 
young men, including J. R. Spedding, Monck- 
ton Milnes, R. C. Trench, Blakesley, J. Mit- 
chell Kemble, Merivale, Brookfield, Charles 
Buller, and Arthur Ilallam, youngest son of 
the historian this last destined to become his 
dearest friend, and profoundly to influence 
his character and genius during his whole 
life. ' He was as near perfection,' Tennyson 
used to say in after times, ' as mortal man 
could be.' The powers of Tennyson now 
developed apace ; for, besides enjoying the 
continual stimulus of society such as that 
just mentioned, he pursued faithfully the 
special studies of the place, improving him- 
self in the classics, as well as in history and 
natural science. He took a keen interest in 
political and social questions of the day, and 
also worked earnestly at poetic composition. 
To what purpose he had pursued this last 
study was soon to be proved by his winning 
the chancellor's medal for English verse on 
the subject of ' Timbuctoo ' in June 1829. 
His father had urged him to compete ; and 
having by him an old poem on the ' Battle 
of Armageddon,' he adapted it to the new 
theme, and so impressed the examiners that, 
in spite of the daring innovation of blank 
verse, they awarded him the prize. Monck- 
ton Milnes and Arthur Hallam were 
among his fellow-candidates. The latter, 
writing to his friend W.E. Gladstone, spoke 
with no less generosity than true critical in- 
sight of ' the splendid imaginative power 
that pervaded ' his friend's poem. It cer- 
tainly deserved this praise, and is as purely 
Tennysonian as anything its author ever 
produced. 

'Timbuctoo ' was speedily followed by the 
appearance of a slender volume of 150 pages 
entitled ' Poems chiefly Lyrical,' which ap- 
peared in 1830 from the publishing house 
of Effingham Wilson in the Royal Ex- 
change. The volume contained, among other 
pieces which the author did not eventually 
care to preserve, such now familiar poems as 
' Claribel,' the ' Ode to Memory,' ' Mariana 
in the Moated Grange ' (based upon a solitary 
phrase in ' Measure for Measure '), the ' Re- 
collections of the Arabian Nights,' the 
1 Poet in a golden clime was born,' the 
'Dying Swan: a Dirge,' the 'Ballad of 



Oriana,' and ' A Character.' If the uncon- 
scious influence of any poetic masters is to 
be traced in such poems, it is that of 
Keats and Coleridge; but the individuality 
is throughout as unmistakable and decisive 
as the indebtedness. If the poems exhibit 
here and there on their descriptive side a 
lush and florid word-painting unchastened 
by that perfect taste that was yet to cnn-, 
there is no less clearly discernible a width 
of outlook, a depth of spiritual feeling 
as well as a lyric versatility, which from 
the outset distinguished the new-comer from 
Keats. The poetry-loving readers <>f tin- 
day were not, however, at once attracted liv 
the book. The spell of Byron was still 
powerful with one public, and Wordsworth 
had already won tho hearts of another. The 
poets and thinkers of the day, however, 
promptly recognised a kindred spirit. In 
the ' Westminster Review' the poems were 
praised by Sir John Bowring. Leigh Hunt 
noticed them favourably in the 'Tatler;' 
and Arthur Hallam contributed a very r>- 
markable review (lately reprinted) to the 
' Englishman's Magazine ' a short-Iiv- <1 
venture of Edward Moxon. In the summer 
of this year Tennyson joined his friend 
Hallam in an expedition to the 1'y: 
Ilallam, with John Sterling, Trench, and 
others, had deeply interested himself in tin- 
ill-fated insurrection, headed by Genenil 
Torrijos, against the government of Ferdi- 
nand II. Tennyson returned from the ex- 
pedition stimulated by the beautiful scenery 
of the Pyrenees. Parts of ' (Enone ' 
then written in the valley of Cauterets. 

In February 1831 Tennyson left Cam- 
bridge without taking a degree. His father 
was in bad health, and his presence was 
much desired at Somersby. Although tin- 
two years and a half spent at Trinity had 
brought him, through the friends made 
there, some of the best blessings of his 
life, he left college on no good terms with 
the university as an Alma Mnti-r. In a 
sonnet penned in 1S30 he denounced 
their ' wax-lighted ' chapels and ' solemn 
organ-pipes,' because while the rulers of the 
university professed to teach, they ' taught 
him nothing, feeding not the In-art.' But 
his friends, and notably Arthur Hallam. hud 
supplied this defect in the Cambridge curri- 
culum ; andTennvson returned to his vilhiire 
home full of devotion to his mother, who 
was soon to be his single care, for his father 
died suddenly leaning back in his study 
chair within a month of his son's return. 
Meantime Arthur Hallam had become a 
frequent and intimate visitor to the house, 
and had formed an attachment to Tenny- 

F -' 



Tennyson 



68 



Tennyson 



son's sister Emily as early as 1829. Two 
years later this ripened into an engagement. 
The happy period during the courtship when 
Hallam ' read the Tuscan poets on the lawn/ 
and Tennyson's sister Mary brought her 
harp and flung ' a ballad to the listening 
moon,' will be familiar to readers of ' In 
Memoriam.' 

The living of Somersby being now vacant, 
an anxious question arose as to the future 
home of the Tennyson family ; but the in- 
coming rector (possibly non-resident) not 
intending to occupy the rectory, they con- 
tinued to reside there until 1837. Not long 
after his father's death Tennyson was 
troubled about his eyesight ; but a change 
of diet corrected whatever was amiss, and 
he continued to read and write as before. 
The sonnet beginning ' Check every out- 
flash ' was sent by Hallam (who apologises 
for so doing) to Moxon for his new maga- 
zine, and a few other trifles found their way 
into 'Keepsakes.' Tennyson visited the 
Hallams in Wimpole Street, where social 
problems as well as literary matters were 
ardently discussed. Tennyson was now, 
moreover, preparing to publish a new 
volume, and Hallam was full of enthusiasm 
about the ' Dream of Fair Women,' which 
was already written, and about the ' Lover's 
Tale,' as to which its author himself had 
misgivings. In these young days his poems, 
like Shakespeare's 'sugared sonnets,' were 
handed freely about among his private 
friends before being committed to print. In 
July 1832 Tennyson and Hallam went tour- 
ing on the Rhine. On their return Hallam 
acknowledges the receipt of the lines to 
J. S. (James Spedding) on the death of his 
brother, and announces that Moxon (who 
was to publish the forthcoming volume) was 
in ecstasies about the ' May Queen.' The 
volume ' Poems, by Alfred Tennyson,' ap- 
peared at the close of the year (though dated 
1833). It comprised poems still recognised 
as among the noblest and most imaginative of 
his works, although some of them afterwards 
underwent revision, amounting in some 
cases to reconstruction. Among them were 
'The Lady of Shalott,' 'The Miller's 
Daughter,' ' CEnone,' ' The Palace of Art,' 
' The Lotos-Eaters,' and ' A Dream of Fair 
Women.' 

Three hundred copies of the book were 
promptly sold (11Z. had been thus far his 
profit on the former volume), but the re- 
viewers did not coincide with this more 
generous recognition by the public. The 
'Quarterly' had an article (April 1833) 
silly and brutal, after the usual fashion in 
those days of treating new poets of any 



individuality ; and it is generally admitted 
that it was mainly the tone of this review 
which checked the publication of any fresh 
verse by the poet for nearly ten years. A 
great sorrow, moreover, was now to fall 
upon the poet, colouring and directing all 
his thoughts during that period and for long 
afterwards. On 15 Sept. 1833 Arthur 
Hallam died suddenly at Vienna, while 
travelling in company with his father. His 
remains were brought to England and in- 
terred in a transept of the old parish church 
of Clevedon, Somerset, overlooking the 
Bristol Channel. Arthur Hallam was the 
dearest friend of Tennyson, and was engaged 
to his sister Emily, and the whole family 
were plunged in deep distress by his death. 
From the first Tennyson's whole thoughts 
appear absorbed in memories of his friend, 
and fragmentary verses on the theme were 
continually written, some of them to form, 
seventeen years later, sections of a com- 
pleted ' In Memoriam.' Another poem, 
'The Two Voices,' or 'Thoughts of a 
Suicide,' was also an immediate outcome of 
this sorrow, which, as the poet in later life 
told his son, for a while ' blotted out all joy 
from his life, and made him long for death.' 
It is noticeable that when this poem was 
first published in the second volume of the 
1842 edition, to it alone of all the poems 
was appended the significant date ' 1833.' 
During the next few years Tennyson re- 
mained chiefly at home with his family 
at Somersby, reading widely in all litera- 
tures, polishing old poems and writing new 
ones, corresponding with Spedding, Kemble, 
Milnes, Tennant, and others, and all the 
while acting (his two elder brothers being 
away) as father and adviser to the family at 
home. In 1836, however, the calm current 
of home life was interrupted by an event 
fraught with important consequences to the 
future life and happiness of Tennyson. His 
brother Charles, by this time a clergyman, 
and curate of Tealby in Lincolnshire, mar- 
ried, in 1836, Louisa, the youngest daugh- 
ter of Henry Sellwood, a solicitor in Horn- 
castle. The elder sister, Emily, was on this 
occasion taken into church as a bridesmaid 
by Alfred. They had met some years before, 
but the idea of marriage seems first to have 
entered Tennyson's mind on this occasion. 
No formal engagement, however, was recog- 
nised until four or five years later, and the 
fortunes of the poet necessitated a still 
further delay of many years. The marriage 
did not take place until 1850. Meantime, in 
1837, the family had to leave the rectory at 
Somersby, and they removed to High Beech 
in Epping Forest, where they remained until 



Tennyson 



6 9 



Tennyson 



1840. They then tried Tunbridge Wells 
but, the air proving too strong for Tenny 
son's mother, they again removed in 1841 
after only a year's residence, to Boxley, nea 
Maidstone. 

Meantime Tennyson continued to worl 
earnestly and steadily at his art. As earb 
as 1835 we hear of much fresh material fo 
a new volume being complete, including 
the ' Morte d' Arthur,' the ' Day Dream,' anc 
the ' Gardener's Daughter.' In 1837 an 
invitation to contribute to a volume of the 
'keepsake order,' consisting of voluntary 
contributions from the principal verse 
writers of the day, resulted in Tennyson 
giving to the world, which probably took 
little notice of it, a poem that was later to 
rank with his most perfect lyrical efforts 
The volume, entitled ' The Tribute,' and 
edited by Lord Northampton, was for the 
benefit of the family of Edward Smedley 
[q. v.], a much respected literary man who 
had fallen on evil days, and to it Tennyson 
contributed the stanzas beginning : 

Oh ! that 'twere possible 
After long grief and pain, 
To find the arms of my true love 
Round me once again. 

In this same year Tennyson was first intro- 
duced to Mr. Gladstone, who became thence- 
forth his cordial admirer and friend. Mean- 
time, as late as 1840, the engagement with 
Emily Sellwood remained in force ; but 
after this date correspondence between the 
two was forbidden by the lady's family, the 
prospects of marriage seeming as remote as 
ever. At last, in 1842, the long-expected 
' Poems ' (in two vols.) were allowed to see 
the light. The date marks an epoch in 
Tennyson's life, for his fame as unquestion- 
ably the greatest living poet (Wordsworth's 
work being practically over) was now secure. 
In addition to the reissue of the chief poems 
from the volumes of 1830 and 1833, many 
of them rewritten, the second volume con- 
sisted of absolutely new material, and in- 
cluded 'Locksley Hall,' the ' Morte d'Arthur,' 
' Ulysses,' ' The" Two Voices,' ' Godiva,' ' Sir 
Galahad,' the ' Vision of Sin,' and such 
lyrics as ' Break, break, break,' and ' Move 
eastward, happy earth.' 

But, notwithstanding this new success 
and the growing recognition that followed, 
the fortunes of Tennyson did not improve. 
He and other members of the family had 
invested a considerable part of their small 
capital in a scheme for ' wood-carving by 
machinery,' which was to popularise and 
cheapen good art in furniture and other 
household decoration. A certain Dr. Allen 



was the originator, and to him the Tennyson 
family seem to have blindly entrusted fh.-ir 
little capital. The speculation, from what- 
ever cause, did not succeed, and the money 
invested was hopelessly lost. 'Then fol- 
lowed,' says his son, ' a season of real hard- 
ship, fdr marriage seemed further off than 
ever. So severe a hypochondria set in upon 
him that his friends despaired for his life.' 
It was doubtless this critical condition of 
his health and fortunes that led his friends 
to approach the prime minister of the day, 
Sir Kobert Peel; and in September iM.'i 
Henry Hallam was able to announce that, 
in reply to the appeal, the premier had 
placed Tennyson's name on the civil list for 
a pension of 2001. a year. It was Monckton 
Milnes who, according to his own account, 
succeeded in impressing on .Sir Kobert the 
claims of the poet, of whom the statesman 
had no previous knowledge. Milnes read 
him ' Ulysses,' and the day was won. 

By 1846 the 'Poems' had reached a 
fourth edition, and in the same year their 
author was violently assailed by Bulwer 
Lytton in his satire, ' The New Timon : a 
Poetical Romance of London.' Tennyson 
was dismissed in a few lines as ' School- 
miss Alfred,' and his claims to a pension 
rudely challenged. Tennyson replied in 
some stanzas of great power entitled 'The 
New Timon and the Poets,' signed ' Alci- 
biades.' They appeared in ' Punch ' (28 Feb. 
1846), having been sent thither, according to 
the poet's son, by John Forster, without 
their author's knowledge. A week later the 
poet recorded his regret and his recantation 
in two stanzas headed ' An Afterthought.' 
They still appear in his collected ' Poems ' 
under the head of ' Literary Squabbles,' but 
the previous poem was not included in any 
authorised collection of his works. Tenny- 
son's next appeal to the public was in the 
Princess,' which appeared in 1847. In its 
earliest shape it did not contain the six 
ncidental lyrics, which were first added in 
the third edition in 1850. The poem, duly 
appreciated by poets and thinkers, in *]>it'' 
of reaching five editions in six years, does 
not seem to have widely extended Tenny- 
son's popularity. 

But it was far otherwise with ' In Memo- 
riam,' which appeared anonymously in June 
850. The poem, written in a fear-lined 
tanza believed by the poet to have been 
n vented by himself, but which had been in 
act long before used by Sir Philip Sidney, ^ 
Jen Jonson, and notably by Lord Herbert^ , 
of Cherbury had grown to its final s !l l'j^ n 
luring a period of seventeen years followii ftn 
he death of Arthur Hallam. Issued W Q J. j t 



1 



Tennyson 



Tennyson 



no name upon the title-page, its authorship 
was never from the first moment in doubt. 
The public, to whose deepest and therefore 
commonest faiths and sorrows the poem 
appealed, welcomed it at once. The critics 
were not so prompt in their recognition. To 
some of them the poem seemed hopelessly 
obscure. Others regretted that so much good 
poetry and feeling should be wasted upon 
' an Amaryllis of the Chancery Bar ; ' while 
another divined that the writer was clearly 
' the widow of a military man.' The 
religious world, on the other hand, were 
perplexed and irritated for different reasons. 
Finding the poem intensely earnest and 
spiritual in thought and aim, and yet ex- 
hibiting no sympathy with any particular 
statements of religious truth popular at the 
time, the party theologians bitterly de- 
nounced it. To those, on the other hand, 
who were familiar with the deeper currents 
of religious inquiry working among thought- 
ful minds in that day, it was evident that 
the poem reflected largely the influence of 
-Frederick Denison Maurice. How early in 
his life Tennyson made the personal ac- 
quaintance of Maurice seems uncertain. But 
Tennyson had been from his Cambridge days 
the intimate friend of those who knew and 
honoured Maurice, and could not have escaped 
knowing well the general tendency of his 
teaching. As early as 1830 we find Arthur 
Hallam writing to W. E. Gladstone in these 
terms : ' I do not myself know Maurice, but 
I know well many whom he has known, and 
whom he has moulded like a second nature ; 
and those, too, men eminent for intellec- 
tual powers, to whom the presence of a com- 
manding spirit would in all other cases be a 
signal rather for rivalry than reverential ac- 
knowledgment.' Maurice, moreover, was 
closely allied with such men as the Hares, 
R. C. Trench, Charles Ivingsley, and others 
of Tennyson's early friends keenly interested 
in theological questions. And it may here be 
added that Tennyson invited Maurice to be 
godfather to his first child in 1851, and fol- 
lowed up the request with the well-known 
stanzas inviting Maurice to visit the family 
at their new home in the Isle of Wight in 
1853. 

The immediate reputation of ' In Me- 
moriam ' and the continued sale of the pre- 
vious volumes now enabled Moxon to insure 
Tennyson a certain income which would 
justify him in marrying. The wedding ac- 
cordingly took place on 13 June 1850 at 
Shiplake-on-the-Thames. The particular 
}?lace was chosen because, after ten years of 
'tuaration, the lovers had first met again at 
pil-plake, at the house of a cousin of the 

thOL 



Tennysons, Mrs. Rawnsley. In after life, 
his son tells us, his father was wont to say 
' The peace of God came into my life when 
I wedded her.' 

In April 1850 Wordsworth died, and the 
poet-laureateship became vacant. The post 
was in the first instance offered to Rogers, 
who declined it on the ground of age. The 
offer was then made to Tennyson, ' owing 
chiefly to Prince Albert's admiration of " In 
Memoriam.'" The honour was very acceptable, 
though it entailed the usual flood of poems 
and letters from aspiring or jealous bards. 
Meantime Tennyson wrote to Moxon in reply 
to a request for another volume of poems, 
' We are correcting all the volumes for new 
editions.' In 1851 he produced his fine son- 
net to Macready on occasion of the actor's 
retirement from the stage. On 20 April 
1851 his first child, a son, was born, but 
did not survive its birth. In July of the 
same year Tennyson and his wife travelled 
abroad, visiting Lucca, Florence, and the 
Italian lakes, returning by the Spliigen. The 
tour was afterwards celebrated in his poem 
' The Daisy.' After his return to Twicken- 
ham, where they were now living (Chapel 
House, Montpelier Row), the poet was busy 
with various national and patriotic poems, 
prompted by the doubtful attitude towards 
England of Louis Napoleon 'Britons, guard 
your own,' and ' Hands all round,' printed 
in the ' Examiner.' On 11 Aug. his second 
child, a son, was born, and was named Hal- 
lam, after his early friend. The baptism was 
at Twickenham, and the godfathers Henry 
Hallam and F. D. Maurice. 

In November of this year the Duke of 
Wellington died, and Tennyson's 'Ode' ap- 
peared on the morning of the funeral. It 
met at the moment with ' all but universal 
depreciation.' The form and the substance 
were alike unconventional, and its reception 
but one more instance of the great truth 
that a new poet has to create the taste by 
which he himself is to be enjoyed. No doubt 
it was added to and modified slightly to its 
advantage afterwards, and remains at this 
day among the most admired of Tennyson's 
poems. In 1853, while the poet was on 
a visit to the Isle of Wight, he heard of 
the house called Farringibrd at Freshwater 
as being vacant ; and a joint visit with his 
wife to inspect it resulted in their taking 
it on lease, with the option of subsequent 
purchase. Tennyson had become weary of 
the many intrusions upon his working hours 
while so near London, and the step now 
taken was final. The place was purchased 
by him some two years later out of the profits 
resulting from ' Maud,' and during the rest 



Tennyson 



Tennyson 



of his life Farringford, ' close to the ridge of 
a noble down,' remained Tennyson's home for 
the greater part of each year. 

In March 1854 another son was born to the 
Tennysons, and christened Lionel. This was 
the year of the Crimean war, the causes and 
progress of which deeply interested Tenny- 
son. In May of this year he was in London 
arranging with Moxon about the illustrated 
edition of his poems, in which Millais, Hoi- 
man Hunt, and Rossetti, the young pre- 
Raffaellite party, took so distinguished a 
part. Later he was visiting Glastonbury and 
other places associated with the Arthurian 
legend, which already he was preparing to 
treat in a consecutive form. But in the 
meantime he was busy with a different 
theme. He was engaged upon ' Maud.' His 
friend and neighbour in the Isle of Wight, 
Sir John Simeon, had suggested to him that 
the verses printed in Lord Northampton's 

* Tribute' of 1837 were, in that isolated shape, 
unintelligible, and might with advantage be 
preceded and followed by other verses so as 
to tell a story in something like dramatic 
shape. The hint was taken, and the work 
made progress through this year and was 
completed early in 1855. In December 1854 
he read in the ' Times ' of the disastrous 
charge of the light brigade at Balaclava, and 
he wrote at a sitting his memorable verses, 
based upon the newspaper description of the 

* Times ' correspondent, in which had oc- 
curred the expression ' some one had 
bl undered.' The poem was published in the 
' Examiner ' of 9 Dec. In June 1855 the 
university of Oxford conferred on Tennyson 
the degree of D.C.L. He met with an en- 
thusiastic reception from the undergraduates. 
' Maud ' appeared in the autumn of 1855. 

The poem, a dramatic monologue in con- 
secutive lyrics, was received for the most 
part both by the critics and the general public, 
even among those hitherto his ardent ad- 
mirers, with violent antagonism and even 
derision. There were many reasons for this. It 
was the first time Tennyson had told a story 
dramatically ; and the matter spoken being 
delivered throughout in the first person, a 
large number of readers attributed to the 
poet himself the sentiments of the speaker 
a person thrown oft' his mental balance (like 
Hamlet) by private wrong and a bitter sense 
of the festering evils of society, in this case 
(it being the time of the Crimean war) ' the 
cankers of a calm world and a long peace.' 
The rebuff thus experienced by the poet was 
keenly felt ; for he well knew, as did all the 
finer critics of the hour, that parts at least 
of the poem reached the highest water-mark 
of lyrical beauty to which he had yet at- 



tained. Although it may be doubted whether 
the general reader has ever yet quite re- 
covered from the shock, this remains still the 
opinion of the best judges. The little volume 
contained, besides the 'Ode on the Death of 
the Duke of Wellington,' ' The Daisy,' the 
stanzas addressed to the Rev. F. D. Maurice, 
' The Brook, an Idyll,' and the ' Charge of the 
Light Brigade.' This last-named poem was 
in a second edition restored to its original 
and far superior shape, containing the line 
' Some one had blundered,' which had been 
unwisely omitted by request of timid or 
fastidious friends. 

Not discouraged by adverse criticism, 
Tennyson continued to work at those 
Arthurian poems, the idea of which had 
never been allowed to sleep during the pro- 
gress of other work. ' Enid ' was ready in 
the autumn of 1856, and 'Guinevere' was 
completed early in 1858. In this year, more- 
over, he wrote the first of those single 
dramatic lyrics in monologue by which his 
popularity was to be greatly widened. 'The 
Grandmother ' appeared in ' Once a Week,' 
with a fine illustration by Millais, in July 
1859 ; and the mingled narrative and dra- 
matic story, 'Sea Dreams,' the villain in 
which reflected certain disastrous experi- 
ences of the poet himself, was published in 
' Macmillan's Magazine ' for 1800. The 
'Idylls of the King' appeared in the autumn 
of 1859, and received a welcome so instan- 
taneous as at once to restore its author to 
his lost place in the affections of the many. 
The public were fully prepared for, and full 
of curiosity as to, further treatment by 
Tennyson of the Arthurian legends. The 
fine fragment, first given to the world in 
1842, had whetted appetite for further blank- 
verse epic versions of the story ; and such 
lyrics as ' Sir Galahad ' and the ' Lady of 
Shalott ' had shown how deeply the poet had 
read and pondered on the subject. The Duke 
of Argyll had predicted that the 'Idylls' 
would be ' understood and admired by many 
who were incapable of understanding^ and 
appreciating many of his other works,' and 
the prediction has been verified. At the same 
time such poems as ' Elaine ' and ' Guinevere ' 
became at once the delight of the most fas- 
tidious, and the least. Men so different as 
Jowett, Macaulay, Dickens, Ruskin, and 
Walter of the ' Times ' swelled the chorus of 
enthusiastic praise. Meantime Tennyson's 
heart and thoughts were, as ever, with his 
country's interests and honour, and the verses 
'Riflemen, form!' published in the 'Times, 
May 1859, had their origin in the latest actu 
of Louis Napoleon, and the fresh dangers and 
complications in Europe arising out of it. 



Tennyson 



Tennyson 



A corresponding song for the navy ('Jack 
Tar'), first printed in the poet's ' Memoir' 
by his son, was composed under the same in- 
fluences. , 

From the publication of the first ' Idylls ' 
until the end of the poet's life his fame and 
popularity continued without a check. The 
next years were years of travel. In 1860 he 
visited Cornwall, Devonshire, and the Scilly 
Islands ; and in 1861 Auvergne and the 
Pyrenees, where he wrote the lyric ' All 
along the Valley' in memory of his visit 
there thirty years before with Arthur 
Hallam. In this same year the prince 
consort died, and the second edition of the 
' Idylls ' was prefaced by the dedication to 
his memory. Tennyson was now at work 
upon ' Enoch Arden ' (or the ' Fisherman,' 
as he at first called it), and in April 1862 
he. had his first interview with the queen. 
Later in the year Tennyson made a tour 
through Derbyshire and Yorkshire with 
F. T. Palgrave. In 1863 'Aylmer's Field' 
was completed, and the laureate wrote his 
' Welcome to Alexandra ' on occasion of the 
marriage of the Prince of Wales. The volume 



entitled 'Enoch Arden 'appeared in 1864, and 
was an instantaneous success, sixty thousand 
copies being rapidly sold. It contained, be- 
sides the title-poem and 'Aylmer's Field,' 
' Tithonus ' (already printed in the ' Corn- 
hill Magazine'), the 'Grandmother,' and 
' Sea Dreams, ' and a fresh revelation of power 
hardly before suspected the ' Northern 
Farmer : Old Style.' This was to be the 
first of a series of poems in the dialect of 
North Lincolnshire, exhibiting a gift of 
humorous dramatic characterisation which 
was to give Tennyson rank with the finest 
humourists of any age or country. The 
volume (mainly perhaps through ' Enoch 
Arden,' a legend already common in various 
forms to most European countries) became, 
in his son's judgment, the most popular of 
all his father's works, with the single ex- 
ception of ' In Memoriam.' Translations 
into Danish, German, Latin, Dutch, Italian, 
French, Hungarian, and Bohemian attest its 
widespread reputation. 

The years that followed were marked by 
no incident save travel, unremitting poetic 
labour and reading, the visits of friends, and 
converse with them. He printed a few 
short poems in magazines, but published no 
further volume until the ' Holy Grail ' in 
1869. The volume contained also ' Lu- 
cretius,' ' The Passing of Arthur,' ' Pelleas and 
Ettarre,' 'The Victim,' 'Wages," The Higher 
Pantheism,' and ' Northern Farmer : New 
Style.' In this same year Tennyson was made 
an honorary fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 



bridge. On 23 April (Shakespeare's birth- 
day) 1868 he had laid the foundation-stone 
of a new residence, named Aldworth, near 
Ilaslemere, and this now became a second 
home. In 1872 the Arthurian cycle received 
a further addition in ' Gareth and Lynette.' 
In 1873 the poet was offered a baronetcy by 
Gladstone, and declined it, though he would 
have accepted it for his son. The same dis- 
tinction was again offered by Disraeli in 1874, 
and again declined. In 1875 he gave to the 
world his first blank-verse drama, ' Queen 
Mary,' carefully built on the Shakespearean 
model. This new departure was not gene- 
rally welcomed by the public, the truth being 
that any imitation of the Elizabethan poetic- 
drama is necessarily an exotic. Moreover, 
Tennyson had never been in close touch with 
the stage. He used playfully to observe that 
' critics are so exacting nowadays that they 
not only expect a poet-playwright to be a 
first-rate author, but a first-rate manager, 
actor, and audience, all in one.' There is an 
element of truth in this jest. It was just 
because Shakespeare had filled all the situa- 
tions here mentioned that his plays have the- 
special quality which the purely literary 
drama lacks. Adapted to the stage by Henry 
Irving, ' Queen Mary' was produced at the 
Lyceum with success in April 1876. The 
drama ' Harold ' was published the same year. 
In 1879 Tennyson reprinted his very early 
poem, ' The Lover's Tale,' based upon a story 
in Boccaccio. It was written when its author 
was under twenty, and printed in 1833, but 
then distributed only among a few private 
friends. The ripening taste of the poet had 
judged it as too florid and redundant ; and 
he published it at this later date only 
because it was being ' extensively pirated.' 
In December of this year the Kendals pro- 
duced at the St. James's Theatre his little 
blank-verse drama ' The Falcon' (based upon 
a story in the 'Decameron'), which ran sixty- 
seven nights. Fanny Kemble rightly de- 
fined it as ' an exquisite little poem in 
action ; ' and, although the plot is perilously 
grotesque as a subject for dramatic treat- 
ment, as produced and played by the Kendals 
it was undoubtedly charming. The play was 
first published (in the same volume with 
' The Cup') in 1884. In March 1880 Tenny- 
son was invited by the students of Glasgow 
University to stand for the lord-rectorship ; 
but on learning that the contest was con- 
ducted on political lines, and that he had 
been asked to be the nominee of the conser- 
vative party, he [withdrew his acceptance. 
Ordered by Sir Andrew Clark to try change 
of climate, in consequence of illness from 
which he had suffered since the death of his 



Tennyson 



73 



Tennyson 



c 



brother Charles in the preceding year, Tenny- 
son and his son visited Venice, Bavaria, and 
Tyrol. The same year (1880) saw the pub- 
lication of the volume entitled ' Ballads and 
Poems.' Tennyson was now in his seventy- 
first year, but these poems distinctly added 
to his reputation, the range and variety of 
the subjects and their treatment being extra- 
ordinary. They included ' The Revenge,' 
' Rizpah,' ' The Children's Hospital,' ' The 
First Quarrel,' 'The Defence of Lucknow,' 
and ' The Northern Cobbler.' Many of these 
were based upon anecdotes heard in the poet's 
youth, or read in newspapers and magazines, 
and sent to him by friends. In 1881 (in the 
January of which year ' The Cup ' was suc- 
cessfully produced at the Lyceum) he sat 
to Millais for his portrait, and he lost one of 
the oldest and most valued of his friends 
in James Spedding [q. v.] On 11 Nov. 
1882 was produced at the Globe Theatre his 
drama ' The Promise of May,' written at the 
request of a friend who wished him to at- 
tempt a modern tragedy of village life. It 
was hardly a success, the character of Edgar, 
an agnostic and a libertine, being much re- 
sented by those of the former class, who 
found an unexpected champion one evening 
during the performance in the person of 
Lord Queensberry, who rose from his stall 
and protested against the character as a 
libel. The year 1883 brought him another 
sorrow in the death of his friend Edward 
Fitzgerald. In December of the same year 
a peerage was offered to him by the queen 
on the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone ; 
the proposal had been first submitted to 
him while Mr. Gladstone and the poet were 
on a cruise together in the previous Sep- 
tember in the Pembroke Castle, and was 
now (January 1884) accepted by him after 
much hesitation. In 1884 his son Hallam 
was married to Miss Audrey Boyle, and his 
son and daughter-in-law continued to make 
their home with him until the end of his life. 
' The Cup,' ' The Falcon,' and the tragedy of 
' Becket were published this year. Tiresias 
and other Poems' appeared in the year fol- 
lowing, containing a prologue to ' Tiresias,' 
dedicated to the memory of Fitzgerald. The 
volume contained the noble poem ' The 
Ancient Sage,' and the poem, in Irish dia- 
lect, ' To-morrow.' In 1886 the poet suffered 
the most grievous family bereavement that 
he had yet sustained in the death of his 
second son, Lionel, who contracted jungle 
fever while on a visit to Lord Dufterin in 
India, and died while on the voyage home, 
in the Red Sea, April 1886. In" December 
of this year the ' Promise of May' was first 
printed, in conjunction with ' Locksley Hall, 



sixty years after.' During 1887 the poet 
took a cruise in a friend's yacht, visiting 
Devonshire and Cornwall, and was in the 
meantime preparinganother volume of poems, 
writing 'Vastness' (published in ' Macmil- 
lan's Magazine' for March), and ' Owd Roa,' 
another Lincolnshire poem, based upon & 
story he had read in a newspaper. In 1888 he 
had a very serious illness rheumatic gout 
during which at one time his life was in 
great danger. In the spring of the year fol- 
lowing he was sufficiently recovered to enjoy 
another^ sea voyage in his friend Lord 
Brassey's yacht the Sunbeam. In December 
1889 the volume ' Demeter and other Poems ' 
appeared, containing, among other shorter 
poems, ' Merlin and the Gleam,' an allegory 
shadowingthe course of his own poetic career, 
and the memorable ' Crossing the Bar,' 
written one day while crossing the Solent 
on his annual journey from Aldworth to 
Farringford. During 1890-1 he suffered 
from influenza, and his strength was notice- 
ably decreasing. In 1891 he was able again 
to enjoy his favourite pastime of yachting, 
and completed for the American manager 
Mr. Daly an old and as yet unpublished 
drama on the subject of ' Robin Hood* (' The 
Foresters,' which was given in New York 
in 1891, and was revived at Daly's Theatre 
in London in October 1893). In 1892, 
the last year of his life, he wrote his ' Lines 
on the Death of the Duke of Clarence.' He 
was able yet once more to take a yacht- 
ing cruise to Jersey, and to pay a visit to 
London in July. As late as September he 
was able to enjoy the society of many visitors, 
to look over the proofs of an intended volume 
of poems ('The Death of OXnone '), and to 
take interest in the forthcoming production 
of 'Becket,' as abridged and arranged by 
Henry Irving, at the Lyceum (produced 
eventually in February 1893). During the 
last days of the month his health was so 
palpably failing that Sir Andrew Clark was 
summoned. The weakness rapidly increased, 
signs of fatal syncope appeared on V 
nesday, 5 Oct., and the poet passed away 
on the following day, Thursday, 6 Oct. 1892, 
at 1.35 A.M. 

On Wednesday, 12 Oct., he was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. The pall-bearers were 
the Duke of Argyll, Lord DiiflVrin, Lord 
Selborne, Lord Rosebery, Jowot t, Mr. L<-cky, 
James Anthony Froude, Lord Salisbury, Dr. 
Butler (master of Trinity, Cambridge), the 
United States minister (5lr. R. T. Lincoln), 
Sir James Paget, and Lord Kelvin. The 
nave was lined by men of the Balaclava light 
brigade, by some of the London rifle volun- 
teers, and by the boys of the Gordon Boys* 



Tennyson 



74 



Tennyson 



Home. The grave is next to that of Kobert 
Browning, and in front of the monument to 
Chaucer. The bust of the poet by Woolner 
was subsequently placed ' against the pillar, 
near the grave.' The Tennyson memorial 
beacon upon the summit of High Down 
above Freshwater was unveiled by the dean 
of Westminster on 6 Aug. 1897. Lady 
Tennyson died, at the age of eighty-three, on 
10 Aug. 1896, and was buried in the church- 
yard at Freshwater. A tablet in the church 
commemorates her and her husband. 

That brilliant, if wayward, genius Edward 
Fitzgerald persisted in maintaining that 
Tennyson never materially added to the 
reputation obtained by the two volumes of 
1842 ; and this may be so far true that had 
he died or ceased to w T rite at that date 
he would still have ranked, among all good 
critics, as a poet of absolute individuality, 
the rarest charm, the widest range of in- 
tellect and imagination, and an unsurpassed 
felicity and melody of diction. In all that 
constitutes a consummate lyrical artist, 
Tennyson could hardly give further proof 
of his quality. But he would never have 
reached the vast audience that he lived to 

father round him had it not been for ' In 
lemoriam,' the Arthurian idylls (notably 
the first instalment), and the many stirring 
odes and ballads commemorating the great- 
ness of England and the prowess and loyalty 
of her children. It is this many-sidedness 
and large-heartedness, the intensity with 
which Tennyson identified himself with his 
country's needs and interests, her joys and 
griefs, that, quite as much as his purely 
poetic genius, has made him beloved and 
popular with a far larger public than per- 
haps any poet of the century. The publica- 
tion of the biography by his son still further 
\videnedand heightened the world's estimate 
of Tennyson. It revealed, what was before 
known only to his intimate friends, that the 
poet who lived as a recluse, seldom for the 
last half of his life emerging from his do- 
mestic surroundings, used his retirement for 
the continuous acquisition of knowledge 
and perfecting of his art, while never losing 
touch with the pulse of the nation, or sym- 
pathy with whatever affected the honour and 
happiness of the people. This study of per- 
fection made of him one of the finest critics 
of others as well as of himself; and had 
he chosen to live in more social and public 
relations with the literature and thought of 
his time he would have taken his place 
with Ben Jonson, Dryden, and Samuel John- 
son, as among the leading and most salutary 
arbiters of literary opinion in the ages they 
respectively adorned. 



The chief portraits of Tennyson are : 1. The 
fine head painted by Samuel Laurence about 
1838, of which a reproduction is prefixed to 
the ' Memoir,' 1897. 2. A three-quarter 
length by Mr. G. F. Watts, painted in 1859, 
and now owned by Lady Henry Somerset 
(Memoir, i. 428). 3. A full face by Watts, 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
dated 1865. 4. A portrait by Professor Her- 
komer, painted in 1878. 5. Three-quarter 
figure in dark blue cloak, ' one of the finest 
portraits by Sir John Millais/ painted in 
1881, and owned by Mr. James Knowles. 
6. A three-quarter length by Watts, painted 
in 1891 for Trinity College, Cambridge (a 
replica of this was made by the painter for 
bequest to the nation). The admirable bust 
of Tennyson by Woolner, of which that in 
the abbey is a replica, was executed in 1857 
(a copy by Miss Grant is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London). Another bust by 
Woolner was done from life in 1873. 

The following is a list of Tennyson's pub- 
lications as first issued : 1. ' Poems by Two 
Brothers,' London and Louth, 1827, 8vo and 
12mo (the original manuscript was sold at 
Sotheby's in December 1892 for 480/. ; large- 
paper copies fetch 30/.) 2. ' Timbuctoo : a 
Poem which obtained the Chancellor's Medal 
at the Cambridge Commencement' (ap. 'Pro- 
lusiones Academicse '), Cambridge, 1829, 8vo 
(in blue wrapper valued at 71.) 3. ' Poems, 
chiefly Lyrical,' London, 1830, 8vo (Southey's 
copy is in the Dyce collection, South Ken- 
sington). 4. ' Poems by Alfred Tennyson,' 
London, 1833 [1832], 12mo. A selection 
from 3 and 4 was issued in Canada [1862], 
8vo, as ' Poems MDCCCXXX-MDCCCXXXIII/ and 
a few copies, now scarce, were circulated 
before the publication was prohibited by the 
court of chancery. 5. ' The Lover's Tale/ 
privately printed, London, 1833 (very rare, 
valued at 100/.) ; an unauthorised edition 
appeared in 1875; another edition 1879, 
6. ' Poems by Alfred Tennyson. In two 
volumes,' London, 1842, 12mo. 7. ' The 
Princess : a Medley,' London, 1847, 16mo ; 
3rd edit, with songs added, 1850, 12mo. 
8. 'In Memoriam (A. H. H.),' London, 
1850, 8vo (the manuscript was presented 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1897 by 
Lady Simeon, widow of Tennyson's friend 
Sir John Simeon, to whom Tennyson had 
given it). 9. ' Ode on the Death of the 
Duke of Wellington/ London, 1852, 8vo ; 
2nd edit, altered, 1853. 10. ' The Charge 
of the Light Brigade ' [London, 1855], s. sh. 
4to ; and a variant, 'In Honorem/ 1856, 
8vo. 11. ' Maud, and other Poems/ London, 
1855, 8vo ; 1850, enlarged ; Kelmscott edit. 
1893. 12. ' Idylls of the King/ London, 1859, 



Tennyson 



75 



Tennyson 



12mo ; new edit. 1862 (the four idylls 
' Enid,' ' Vivien,' Elaine/' Guinevere/issued 
separately, illustrated by G. Dore, folio, 
1867-8). A rough draft of -Vivien' had 
appeared in a trial copy ' Enid and Nimue : 
the True and the False,' London, 1857, 8vo 
(a copy, probably unique, with manuscript 
corrections by" the author, is in the British 
Museum Library). 13. ' Helen's Tower. 
Clandeboye,' privately printed [1861], 4to 
(rare, valued at 30/.) 14. ' A Welcome [to 
Alexandra],' London, 1863, 8vo ; and the 
variant, ' A Welcome to Her Royal High- 
ness the Princess of W T ales ' [London], 
1863, 4to, illuminated. 15. ' Idylls of the 
Hearth,' London, 1864 ; reissued as ' Enoch 
Arden ' (' Aylmer's Field,' ' Sea Dreams '), 
London, 1864, 12mo. 16. 'A Selection 
from the Works of Alfred Tennyson, D.C.L., 
Poet Laureate,' London, 1865, square 12mo, 
with six new poems. 17. ' The Window ; or, 
The Loves of the Wrens,' privately printed, 
Canford Manor, 1867, 4to ; with music by 
A. Sullivan, 1871, 4to. 18. 'The Victim,' 
Cauford Manor, 1867, 4to (the privately 
printed issues of this and ' The Window ' 
are valued at 30/. each). 19. 'The Holy 
Grail, and other Poems,' London, 1869 [con- 
taining ' The Coming of Arthur,' ' The Holy 
Grail,' 'Pelleas and Ettarre,' 'The Passing of 
Arthur']; the contents of 12 and 19 were 
published together as ' Idvlls of the King,' 
London, 1 869, 8vo. 20. ' Ga'reth and Lynette,' 
London, 1872, 8vo. The 'Idylls of the King,' 
in sequence complete, first appeared in ' Com- 
plete Works,' library edition, London, 1872, 
7 vols. 8vo, with ' Epilogue to the Queen ' 
(cf. Literary Anecdotes of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,ii. 219-72). 21. ' Queen Mary : a Drama,' 
London, 1875, 8vo. 22. ' Harold: a Drama,' 
London, 1877 [1876], 8vo. 23. ' Ballads and 
other Poems,' London, 1880, 8vo. 24. ' The 
Cup and the Falcon,' London, 1884, 12mo. 

25. 'Becket,' London, 1884, 8 vo (arranged 
by Sir Henry Irving for the stage, 1893, 8vo). 

26. 'Tiresias, and other Poems,' London, 
1885, 8vo. 27. ' Locksley Hall, sixty years 
after [and other Poems],' London, 1886, 8vo. 
28. ' Demeter and other Poems,' London, 
1889, 8vo. 29. ' The Foresters : Robin Hood 
and Maid Marian,' London, 1892, 8vo. 30. 
' The Death of GEnone ; Akbar's Dream ; and 
other Poems,' London, 1892, 8vo ; also a large- 
paper edition with five steel portraits. 31. 
' Works. Complete in one volume, with last 
alterations,' London, 1894, 8vo. (For a very 
detailed bibliography down to the respective 
dates see Tennysoniana [ed. R. H. Shepherd], 
1866 ; 2nd ed. 1879; revised as' The Biblio- 
graphy of Tennyson ' [1827-1894], London, 
1896, 4to; cf. ' Chronology ' in LORD TEXXV- 



80W ' 8 Jfc w >. which also contains a full list 
of the German translations, ii.330; SLATER, 
Early Editions, 1894; and Brit. Mut. Cat.) 
A ' Concordance ' to Tennyson's ' Works,' by 
D. B. Bright well, appeared in 1869. 

[The only complete and authoritative life of 
Tennyson is that by his son, in two volumes, 
published in October 1897. A provisional 
memoir, careful and appreciative, by Mr. Art hur 
H.Waugh, appeared in 1892, and Mrs. Ritchie's 
interesting Records of Tennyson, Raskin, and 
the Brownings in 1892. Various primers, hand- 
books, and bibliographies have also from time 
to time been published.] A. A. 

TENNYSON, CHARLES (1808-1879), 
poet. [See TUBXEB, CHABLES TEXNYBOX.J 

TENNYSON, FREDERICK (1807- 
1898), poet, secoud son of Dr. George Clay- 
ton Tennyson, rector of Somersby, Lincoln- 
shire, and elder brother of Alfred Tennyson, 
first baron Tennyson [q. v.], born at Louth on 
5 June 1807, was educated at Eton (leaving 
as captain of the school in 1827) and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1832. "While at college he gained 
the Browne medal for Greek verse and other 
distinctions. During his subsequent life he 
lived little in England. He spent much 
time in travel, and resided for twenty years 
at Florence, where he was intimate with the 
Brownings. He here met his future wife, 
Maria Giuliotti, daughter of the chief magi- 
strate of Siena, and was married to her in 
! 1839. Twenty years later he moved to St. 
Ewold's, Jersey, where he remained t i 1 
Later he resided with his only son, Captain 
Julius Tennyson, and his wife at Kensington. 
He died at their house on 26 Feb. 1898. 

Frederick Tennyson shared the notable 
poetic gift current in his family. As a young 
man he contributed four poems to the ' Poems 
by Two Brothers,' written by Alfred and 
Charles. In 1854 he published a volume en- 
titled ' Days and Hours,' concerning which 
some correspondence will be found in the 
' Letters of Edward Fitzgerald ; ' it was also 
praised by Charles Kingsley in 'The Critic.' 
Discouraged, however, by the general tenor 
of the criticism his poetry encountered, he 
published no more until 1890, when he 
printed an epic, ' The Isles of Greece,' based 
upon a few surviving fragments of Sappho 
and Alcreus. ' Daphne ' followed in l! 
and in 1895 ' Poems of the Day and > 
in which a portion of the volume of 1864, 
' Days and Hours,' was reproduced. 

No one of these volumes seems to have 
attracted any wide notice. Frederick Ten- 
nyson was from the first overshadowed by 
the greater genius of his brother Alfred. 



Tenterden 



Terill 



His lyric gift was considerable, his poetic 
workmanship choice and fine, and the atmo- 
sphere of his poetry always noble. But he 
has remained almost unknown to the modern 
student of poetry, and a selection of four 
lyrics in Palgrave's second ' Goldan Trea- 
sury ' has probably for the first time made 
Frederick Tennyson something more than a 
name to the readers of 1898. The poet was 
for some years under the influence of Swe- 
denborg and other mystical religionists, but 
returned in his last years to the more simple 
Christian faith of his childhood. 

[Life of Alfred Tennyson, by his son, passim ; 
Athenaeum, 5 March 1898 ; Times, 28 Feb. 1898; 
Edward Fitzgerald's Letters, 1889; private in- 
formation.] A. A. 

TENTERDEN, titular EARL OF. [See 
HALES, SIR EDWARD, d. 1695.] 

TENTERDEN, BARONS. [See ABBOTT, 
CHARLES, first lord, 1762-1832; ABBOTT, 
CHARLES STUART AUBREY, third lord, 1834- 
1882.] 

TEONGE, HENRY (1621-1690), chap- 
lain in the navy and diarist, born 18 March 
1621 (Diary, p. 145), belonged to a family 
settled at Spernall in Warwickshire, and 
previous to 1670 was rector of Alcester. 
On 7 June 1670 he was presented to the 
living of Spernall. In May 1675, being, it 
appears, in exceeding want, he obtained a 
warrant as chaplain on board the Assistance 
then in the Thames preparing for a voyage 
to the Mediterranean. She visited Malta, 
Zante, Cephalonia, different ports in the Le- 
vant, and took part in the operations against 
Tripoli under Sir John Narborough [q. v.l, 
returning to England in November 1676. 
In March 1678 Teonge, who, in the former 
voyage, had * gott a good sunim of monys,' 
and by this time 'spent greate part of it,' 
living also 'very uneasy, being daily dunnd 
by som or other, or else for feare of land 
pyrates, which I hated worse then Turkes,' 
joined the Bristol, again for the Mediterra- 
nean under Narborough. In January 1678-9 
he was moved, with his captain, to the Royal 
Oak, in which he returned to England in 
June. In October he returned to Spernall, 
where he died on 21 March 1690. He was 
twice married, and by his first wife, Jane, 
had three sons, one of whom, Henry Teonge, 
vicar of Coughton, Warwickshire (1675-83), 
took the duty at Spernall while his father 
was abroad. 

The interest of Teonge's life is concen- 
trated in the diary of the few years he spent 
at sea, which gives an amusing and precious 
picture of life in the navy at that time. 
This journal, from 20 May 1675 to 28 June 



1679, having lain in manuscript for over a 
century, was purchased from a Warwick- 
shire family by Charles Knight, who edited 
it in 1825 as ' The Diary of Henry Teonge,' 
with a facsimile of the first folio of the 
manuscript (London, 8vo). The narrative 
reveals the diarist as a pleasant, lively, 
easy-going man, not so strict as to prevent 
his falling in with the humours of his sur- 
roundings, and with a fine appreciation of 
punch, which he describes as ' a liquor very 
strange to me.' 

[The Diary of Henry Teonge . . . now first pub- 
lished from the original manuscript, with biogra- 
phical and historical notes, 1825.] J. K. L. 

TERILL verb BOVILLE or BONVILL, 
ANTHON Y (1621-1676), Jesuit, son of Hum- 
phrey Boville, was born at Canford, Dorset, 
in 1621. He was brought up there till his 
fifteenth year, when he passed over to the 
college of the English Jesuits at St. Omer, 
where he prosecuted his humanity studies for 
nearly three years. He entered the English 
College at Rome, as an alumnus, in the 
name of Terill, on 4 Dec. 1640, for his higher 
course. Having received minor orders in 
July 1642, and being unwilling to subscribe 
the usual college oath, he became a convictor 
and paid his own pension. He was ordained 
priest at St. John's Lateran on 16 March 
1647, and entered the Society of Jesus at St. 
Andrew's novitiate. Rome, on 30 June fol- 
io wing. He was professed of the four vows on 
25 March 1658. He was for some years peni- 
tentiary at Loreto, and afterwards professor 
of philosophy and theology at Florence, 
Parma, and Liege ; and ' was consulted far 
and wide as an oracle of learning ' (Florus 
Bavaricus, p. 50). From 1671 to 1674 he was 
rector of the college of the English Jesuits at 
Liege, where he died on 11 Oct. 1676. 

His works are: 1. ' Conclusiones Philo- 
sophicae Rationibus illustratre,' Parma, 1657, 
12mo. 2. ' Problema Mathematico-Philo- 
sophicum Tripartitum, de Termino Magni- 
tudinis, ac Virium in Animalibus,' Parma, 
1660, 12mo. 3. ' Fundamenturn totius 
Theologise Moralis, seu Tractatus de Con- 
scientia Probabili,' Liege, 1668, 4to, dedi- 
cated to Lord Castlernaine. 4. ' Regula 
Morum, sive Tractatus Bipartitus de Suffi- 
cienti ad Conscientiam rite formandam 
Regula in quo usus cujusvis Opinionis prac- 
tice probabilis convincitur esse licitus . . . 
Opus posthumum,' Liege, 1677, fol. 

[De Backer's Bibl. de la Compagnie de Jesus 
(1876), iii. 1079, and edit. 1854, ii. 631 ; Foley's 
Records, iii. 420, vi. 352, 379, vii. 75; Oliver's 
Collectanea S. J. p. 204 ; Southwell's Bibl. 
Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 86 ; Theux's Bibl. 
Liegeoise, p. 132.] T. C. 



Ternan 



77 



Terne 



TERNAN or TERRENAN (d. 431 ?), 
archbishop of the Picts, was according to 
John of Fordun, the earliest authority Avho 
mentions him, 'a disciple of the blessed 
Palladius [q. v.], who was his godfather and 
his fostering teacher and furtherer in all the 
rudiments of letters and of the faith.' The 
' Breviary of Aberdeen ' adds that he was 
born in the province of the Mearns and was 
baptised by Palladius (SKENE, Celtic Scot- 
land, ed. 1887, ii. 29-32). According to 
his legend he went to Rome, where he spent 
seven years under the care of the pope, was 
appointed archbishop of the Picts, and re- 
turned to Scotland with the usual accom- 
paniment of miraculous adventures. He 
died and was buried at Banchory on the 
river Dee, which was named from him Ban- 
chory Ternan. His day in the calendar is 
12 June, and the years given for his death 
vary from 431 to 455. Dempster character- 
istically assigns to Ternan the authorship of 
three books, ' Exhortationes ad Pictos,' ' Ex- 
hortationes contra Pelagianos,' and 'Homilise 
ex Sacra Scriptura.' At Banchory Ternan's 
head with the tonsured surface still un- 
corrupt, the bell which miraculously accom- 
panied him from Rome, and his copy of 
the gospel of St. Matthew, were said to be 
preserved as late as 1530. A missal called 
the 'Liber Ecclesise Beati Terrenani de 
Arbuthnott,' completed on 22 Feb. 1491-2 
by James Sibbald, vicar of Arbuthnott, 
was edited in 1864 by Bishop Forbes of 
Brechin from a unique manuscript belonging 
to Viscount Arbuthnott. It is the only 
complete missal of the Scottish use now 
known to be extant. 

Ternan has also been identified with an 
Irish saint, Torannan, abbot of Bangor, 
whose day in the Irish calendar (12 June) is 
the same as that of Ternan in the Scottish. 
yEngus, the Culdee, describes him as ' To- 
rannan the long-famed voyager over the 
broad shipful sea,' and a scholiast on this 
passage identifies Torannan with Palladius. 
Skene, who accepts the identity of Ternan 
and Torannan, explains the confusion of the 
latter with Palladius by suggesting that 
Torannan or Ternan was really a pupil of 
Palladius, brought his remains from Ireland 
into Scotland, and founded the church at 
Fordun in honour of Palladius, with whom 
he was accordingly confused. The identity 
of the Scottish and Irish saints is, however, 
purely conjectural. 

[The fullest account is given in Bishop 
Forbes's introduction to the Liber Eccl. Beati 
Terrenani, Burntisland, 1864, pp. Ixxv-lxxxv; 
see also Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum, 12 June 
iii. 30-2, and 1 July i. 50-3 ; Fordun's Scoti 



Scot. . 607; Spalding ClobMiscellany, vo 1. 
iv. pp. ii-Kiii ; Forbes's Calendars of Scottish 
Smnts pp^SO l.-Reeves'sKal. of Irish s2S 
Usshers Works, vi. 212-13; Proc. Soc. AnX 
Sco. n 264, v,. 128 . Skene - 8 ^ 9 

Diet, of Christian Biogr.] AFP 



FRANCES ELEANOR 
actress. [See JABMA*.] 

1 ' CHRI STOPHEK,M.D. (1620- 

1673), physician, whose name is also spent 
Tearne, was born in Cambridgeshire in 1620 
entered the university of Leyden on 22 July 

647, and there graduated "M.D. In Mav 
1650 he was incorporated first at Cambridge 
and then at Oxford. He was examined as a 
candidate at the College of Physician* on 
10 May 1650, and was elected a fellow on 
15 Nov. 1655. He was elected assistant 
physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital on 
13 May 1653 and held office till 1669 (Ori- 
ginal Journal of St. Bartholomew's Hospital). 
He was appointed lecturer on anatomy to the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company in 1650, and in 
1663 Pepys (Diary) heard "him lecture. His 
'Prselectio Prima ad Chirurgos' (No. 1917) 
and his other lectures (Nos. 1917 and 1921), 
written in a beautiful hand, are preserved in 
the Sloane collection in the British Museum. 
The lectures, which are dated 1656, begin 
with an account of the skin, going on to 
the deeper parts, and were delivered contem- 
poraneously with the dissection of a body 
on the table. Several volumes of notes of 
his extensive medical reading are preserved 
(Nos. 1887, 1890, and 1897) in the same col- 
lection, and an important essay entitled ' An 
respiratio inserviat nutrition! ? ' He de- 
livered the Harveian oration at the College 
of Physicians, in which, as in his lectures, Be 
speaks with the utmost reverence of Harvey. 
The oration exists in manuscript ( Sloane MS. 
1903), and the only writings of Terne which 
have been printed" are some Latin verse* on 
Christopher Bennet [q. v.] which are placed 
below his portrait in the ' Theatrum Tabi- 
dorum.' lie was one of the original fellows 
of the Royal Society. Terne died at his house 
in Lime Street, London, on 1 Dec. 1673, and 
was buried in St. Andrew's Undershaft. 

His daughter Henrietta married Dr. Ed- 
ward Browne [q. v.] His library was sold 
on 12 April 1686 with that of Dr. Thomas 
Allen. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 272 ; Sloane MBS. 
in Brit. Mus. ; original manuscript Annals of 
Coll. of Phys. vol. iv. ; Library Catalogue, printed 
1686; Thomson's Hist, of Royal Soc.; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, ii. 162.] N. M. 



Terrick 



78 



Terrick 



TERRICK, RICHARD (1710-1777), 
bishop successively of Peterborough and 
London, born at York and baptised in its 
minster 20 July 1710, was probably a de- 
scendant of the family of Terrick, whose 
pedigree is given in the ' Visitation of Lon- 
don,' 1633-5 (Harl. Soc. xvii. 279). He was 
the eldest son of Samuel Terrick, rector of 
Wheldrake and canon-residentiary of York, 
who married Ann (d. 31 May 1764), daugh- 
ter of John Gibson of Welburn, Yorkshire, 
and widow of Nathaniel Arlush of Kned- 
lington in that county. Admitted at Clare 
College as pensioner and pupil to Mr. Wilson 
on 30 May 1726, he graduated B.A. 1729, 
M.A. 1733, and D.D. 1747. On 7 May 1731 
he was elected a fellow on the Exeter foun- 
dation, was transferred to the Diggons foun- 
dation on 1 Feb. 1732-3, and elected a fellow 
on the old foundation on 30 Sept. 1736. He 
resigned this fellowship about the end of 
April 1738. Terrick soon obtained valuable 
preferment. He was preacher at the Rolls 
chapel, London, from 1736 to 1757, and per- 
formed the funeral service for two of the 
masters, Sir Joseph Jekyll (August 1738) and 
William Fortescue (December 1749). He 
held the post of chaplain to the speaker of 
the House of Commons to 1742, and from 
that year to 1749 was a canon of Windsor. 
By 1745 he had become a chaplain in ordinary 
to the king. He was installed as prebendary 
of Ealdlaud and canon-residentiary of St. 
Paul's Cathedral on 7 Oct. 1749, and was in- 
stituted as vicar of Twickenham on 30 June 
1749. 

Through the influence of the Duke of 
Devonshire he was appointed to the bishop- 
ric of Peterborough, being consecrated at 
Lambeth on 3 July 1757. This appointment 
forced him to vacate all his preferments, ex- 
cepting the vicarage of Twickenham, which 
he retained in commendam. Horace Walpole 
says that the new bishop, who was without 
parts or knowledge and had no characteristics 
but ' a sonorous delivery and an assiduity of 
backstairs address,' soon deserted the duke 
for the rising influence of Lord Bute, and, to 
ingratiate himself still more with that 
favourite, made out 'a distant affinity ' with 
one of his creatures, Thomas Worsley, sur- 
veyor of the board of works. In April 1764 
the claims of Terrick, Warburton, and New- 
ton for the see of London were severally 
pressed by their friends. Warburton applied 
to George Grenville for the reversion on o May 
1764, before the bishopric was vacant, but 
the answer was that the king considered him- 
self pledged to Terrick. Grenville would 
have preferred to translate Bishop Newton, 
but he was obliged to acquiesce in the ap- 



pointment of Terrick, who, on the same day 
that Warburton made his application, ad- 
dressed a letter of thanks to Grenville for 
his approval of the king's gracious disposi- 
tion (Grenville Papers, ii. 312-15). 

Terrick was confirmed as bishop of Lon- 
don at Bow Church, Cheapside, on 6 June 
1764, and the appointment carried with it 
the deanery of the chapels royal, but he was 
obliged to resign the vicarage of Twicken- 
ham. The anger of Warburton at the 
appointment was shown in his pointed ser- 
mon in the king's chapel, when he asserted 
that preferments were bestowed on unworthy 
objects, 'and in speaking turned himself 
about and stared directly at the bishop of 
London ' (GKA.Y, Works, ed. Gosse, iii. 202). 

Terrick was created a privy councillor on 
11 July 1764. At the close of 1765 he 
began ' to prosecute mass-houses,' and he re- 
fused his sanction to the proposal of the 
Royal Academy in 1773 for the introduction 
into St. Paul's Cathedral of paintings of 
sacred subjects on the ground that it 
savoured of popery. His interference on 
behalf of the tory candidates in the contested 
election for the university of Oxford in 176S 
provoked a severe letter of remonstrance 
(ALJiox's Political Reg. May 1768, pp. 323- 
326) ; but when Lord Denbigh clamoured 
against a sermon preached in 1776 by Keppel, 
the whig bishop of Exeter, on the vices of 
the age, the sermon in question was defended 
by Terrick. He declined the archbishopric 
of York in 1776 on the ground of ill-health, 
and died on Easter Monday, 31 March 1777. 
One of his last acts was to issue a circular 
letter for the better observance of Good 
Friday. 

The bishop was buried in Fulham church- 
yard on 8 April 1777. His wife was Tabitha, 
daughter of William Stainforth, rector 
of Simonburn, Northumberland (Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. vii. 104), and she died 
14 Feb. 1790, aged 77, and was also buried 
in Fulham churchyard. They had issue two 
daughters, coheiresses. The elder, Elizabeth, 
married, on 22 Jan. 1762, Nathaniel Ryder, 
first lord Harrowby, Avhose children inherited 
most of Mrs. Terrick's fortune ; the younger 
married Dr. Anthony Hamilton, then vicar 
of Fulham, and from her was descended 
Walter Kerr Hamilton [q.v.], bishop of Salis- 
bury. 

Alexander Carlyle thought Terrick ' a truly 
excellent man of a liberal mind and ex- 
cellent good temper,' and 'a famous good 
preacher and the best reader of prayers I 
ever heard ' (Autobiography, pp. 517-18) ; Dr. 
Goddard, master of Clare from 1762 to 1781, 
noticed in the admission book of the college 



Terrien 



79 



Terrien 



his ' goodness of heart, amiable temper and 
disposition, and the graceful and engaging 
manner in which he discharged the several 
duties of his function, particularly that of 
preaching.' Seven of his sermons were sepa- 
rately published. 

Terrick presented to Sion College a por- 
trait, now in its hall, of himself, represented 
as seated and holding a book in his left hand, 
and in 1773 he gave 201. to its library. The 
portrait was painted by Nathaniel Dance 
about 1761, and an engraving of it by 
Edward Fisher was published in April 1770. 
A copy of it by Stewart is at Fulhain Palace, 
where Terrick rebuilt the suite of apartments 
facing the river, and moved the position of 
the chapel. A second copy, by Freeman, 
hangs in the combination-room of Clare 
College. The bishop consecrated the exist- 
ing chapel at Clare College on 5 July 1769, 
and gave a large and handsome pair of silver- 
gilt candlesticks, which still stand upon the 
super-altar. 

[Gent. Mag. 1742 p. 331, 1764 p. 302, 1777 
p. 195, 1790 i. 186, 1793 ii. 1089, 1794 i. 208- 
209 ; Walpole's Letters, iv. 217, 238 ; Walpole's 
George III, ed. Barker,!. 331, ii. 60, 164; Wal- 
pole's Journal, 1771-83, ii. 28, 90, 106; Leslie 
and Taylor's Sir Joshua Reynolds, ii. 37-8; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 583-4 ; Faulkner's 
Fulhain, pp. 103, 179, 187, 247-8; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ii. 305, 384, 537, Hi. 408-9 ; Lysons's 
Environs, ii. 348-9, 391; Cobbett's Twicken- 
ham, p. 121 ; Sion College (by Wm. Scott), pp. 
62, 67; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. p. 
364; information from Rev. Doctor Atkinson, 
master of Clare College.] W. P. 0. 

TERRIEN DE LA COUPERIE, AL- 
BERT ETIENNE JEAN BAPTISTE (rf. 

1894), orientalist, born in Normandy, was 
a descendant of the Cornish family of Terrien, 
which emigrated to France in the seven- 
teenth century during the civil war, and 
acquired the property of La Couperie in 
Normandy. His father was a merchant, and 
he received a business education. In early 
life he settled at Hong Kong. There he 
soon turned his attention from commerce 
to the study of oriental languages, and he 
acquired an especially intimate knowledge 
of the Chinese language. In 1867 he pub- 
lished a philological work which attracted 
considerable attention, entitled 'Du Lan- 
gage, Essai sur la Nature et I'Etude des Mots 
et des Langues,' Paris, 8vo. Soon after his 
attention was attracted by the progress 
made in deciphering Babylonian inscri|>- 
tions, and by the resemblance between the 
Chinese characters and the early Akkadian 
hieroglyphics. The comparative philology 
of the two languages occupied most of his 



later life, and he was able to show an 
early affinity between them. In 1>7!> ! 
came to London, and in the same vear was 
elected a fellow of the lloyal Asiatic Society. 
In 1884 he became professor of comparative 
philology, as applied to the languages of 
bouth-eastern Asia, at University College, 
i London. His last years were largely oc- 
! cupied by a study of the ' YhKing,' or 'Book 
of Changes,' the oldest work in the Chinese 
language. Its meaning had long proved a 
puzzle both to native and to foreign scholars. 
Terrien demonstrated that the basis of the 
work consisted of fragmentary notes, chirMy 
lexical in character, and noticed that they 
bore a close resemblance to the syllabaries 
of Chaldaea. In 1892 he published the first 
part of an explanatory treatise entitled ' The 
Oldest Book of the Chinese,' London, 8vo, 
in which he stated his theory of the nature 
of the ' Yh King,' and gave translations of 
passages from it. The treatise, however, was 
not completed before his death. In recogni- 
tion of his services to oriental study he re- 
ceived the degree of Litt.D. from the uni- 
versity of Louvain. He also enjoyed for a 
time a small pension from the French go- 
vernment, and after that had been with- 
drawn an unsuccessful attempt was made 
by his friends to obtain him an equivalent 
from the English ministry. He was twice 
awarded the prix Julien ' by the Acad6mie 
des Inscriptions et Be lies- Lett res for his 
services to oriental philology. Terrien died 
at his residence, 130 Bishop's Road, Fulham, 
on 11 Oct. 1894, leaving a widow. 

Besides the works mentioned, Ttrrien was 
the author of: 1. ' Early Historv of Chinese 
Civilisation,' London, 1880, 8vo." 2. 'On the 
History of the Archaic Chinese "Writings 
and Text,' London, 1882, 8vo. 3. 'Paper 
Money of the Ninth Century and supposed 
Leather Coinage of China,' Londi i 
4. 'Cradle of the Shan Race,' London. l vv ~'. 
8vo. 5. 'Babylonia and China,' London, 1^7. 
4to. 6. ' Did Cyrus introduce Writing into 
India?' London", 1887, 8vo. 7. 'The Lan- 
guages of China before the Chinese,' I/mdon, 
1887,8vo: French edition, Paris, 1--S Bvo, 
8. ' The Miryeks or Stone Men of < 
Hertford, 1887, 8vo. 9. ' The Yueh-Ti and 
the early Buddhist Missionaries in China,' 
1887, 8vo. 10. 'The Old Babylonian Cha- 
racters and their Chinese Derivates,' London. 
1888,8vo. 11.' TheDjurtchenof Mnndsliuria,' 
1889, 8vo. 12. ' Le Non-MonovrUabMM 
du Chinois Antique,' Paris, !*-'.. M <>. 
13. 'The Onomastic Similarity of Nai 
Kwang-tiofChinaandNakliunteof Susinna.' 
London,! 890, 8vo. 14. 'L'Eredes.\r>a< i.l- > 
selon les Inscriptions cun6iformes,' Louvain, 



Terriss 



Terriss 



1891, 8vo. 15. ' How in 219 B.C. Buddhism 
entered China,' London [1891?], 8vo. 
16. 'Melanges: on the Ancient History of 
Glass and Coal and the Legend of Nii- 
Kwa's Coloured Stones in China' [1891?], 
8vo. 17. 'Sur deux Eres inconnus de 1'Asie 
Ante>ieure,' 330 et 251 B.C.,' 1891, 8vo. 
18. 'The Silk Goddess of China and her 
Legend,' London, 1891, 8vo. 19. 'Cata- 
logue of Chinese Coins from the VII th Cent. 
B.C. to A.D. 621,' ed. R. S. Poole, London, 
1892, 8vo. 20. 'Beginnings of Writing in 
Central and Eastern Asia,' London, 1894, 
8vo. 21. 'Western Origin of the Early 
Chinese Civilisation,' London, 1894, 8vo. 
Many of these works were treatises re- 
printed from the ' Journal ' of the Royal 
Asiatic Society and other publications. He 
also edited the 'Babylonian and Oriental 
Record ' from 1886. 

[Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc. 1895, p. 
214; Athenseum, 1894, ii. 531; Times, 15 Oct. 
1894.] E. I. C. 

TERRISS, WILLIAM (1847-1897), 
actor, who met his death by assassination, 
was son of George Herbert Lewin, barrister- 
at-law (a connection of Mrs. Grote, the wife 
of the historian, and a grandson of Thomas 
Lewin, private secretary to Warren Hast- 
ings). His true name was William Charles 
James Lewin. Born at 7 Circus Road, St. 
John's Wood, London, on 20 Feb. 1847, he 
was educated at Christ's Hospital, which he 
entered 4 April 1854 and quitted at Christ- 
mas 1856. Having attended other schools, 
he joined the merchant service, but ran away 
after a fortnight's experience as a sailor. On 
coming, by the death of his father, into a 
small patrimony, he studied medicine, went 
out as a partner in a large sheep farm in 
the Falkland Isles, and tried tea-planting at 
Chittagong and other commercial experi- 
ments, in the course of which he had expe- 
rience of a shipwreck. 

Terriss played as an amateur at the Gallery 
of Illustration, Regent Street ; but his first 
appearance on the regular stage took place 
in 1867 at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Birmingham. At the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, Tottenham Street, on 21 Sept. 
1868, under the Bancroft management, he 
was first seen in London as Lord Cloud- 
wrays in a revival of Robertson's ' Society.' 
In 1871 he was at Drury Lane, where he 
had a small part in Halliday's 'Rebecca,' 
produced on 23 Sept. On a revival of the 
same piece on 13 Feb. 1875 he played 
Wilfred of Ivanhoe. On 21 Sept. 1872 he 
was the original Malcolm Graeme in Halli- 
day's ' Lady of the Lake.' He also played 



Doricourt many consecutive nights in a ver- 
sion of the ' Belle's Stratagem,' reduced to 
three acts, and produced at the Strand at the 
close of 1873. At the Strand he was the 
first Julian Rothsay in Robert Reece's ' May 
or Dolly's Dilemma,' on 4 April 1874. Back 
again at Drury Lane, he was Tressilian in a 
revival of Halliday's ' Amy Robsart,' and on 
26 Sept. the first Sir Kenneth in Halliday's 
' Richard Coeur de Lion ' (the ' Talisman"'). 
He played Romeo to the Juliet of Miss 
Wallis, was at the Princess's on 3 Feb. 1875 
Ned Clayton in a revival of Byron's ' Lan- 
cashire Lass,' and returned the same month, 
to Drury Lane. In Boucicault's ' Shaugh- 
raun' he was the first Captain Molineux 
on 4 Sept. On 12 Aug. 1876 he was at the 
Adelphi as Beamish MacCoul in a revival of 
Boucicault's ' Arrah na Pogue.' On 18 Nov. 
he was the first Goldsworthy in ' Give a 
Dog a Bad Name ' by Leopold Lewis, and 
on 11 Aug. 1877 the first Rev. Martin 
Preston in Paul Merritt's ' Golden Plough 1 .' 
On 22 Sept. he was at Drury Lane Julian 
Peveril in W. G. Wills's adaptation from 
Scott's ' Peveril of the Peak ' (' England in 
the Days of Charles the Second '). He then 
played Leicester in a further revival of ' Amy 
Robsart.' At the Court on 30 March 1878 
he played what was perhaps his best part, 
Squire Thornhill in Wills's ' Olivia,' adapted 
from the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' and subse- 
quently reproduced, with Terriss in his ori- 
ginal part, at the Lyceum. At the Hay- 
market on 16 Sept. he was the first Sydney 
Sefton in Byron's ' Conscience Money,' and 
on 2 Dec. the first Fawley Denham in 
Albery's 'Crisis.' He also played Captain 
Absolute, and Romeo to the Juliet of Miss 
Neilson. On the opening of the St. James's 
under the management of Messrs. Hare and 
Kendal on 4 Oct. 1879 he was the first 
Comte de la Roque in Mr. Valentine Prin- 
sep's ' Monsieur le Due,' and Jack Gambier 
in the ' Queen's Shilling.' At the Crystal 
Palace, on 17 April 1879, he was Ruy Bias 
in an adaptation by himself of Victor Hugo's 
play so named. On 18 Sept. 1880 he ap- 
peared at the Lyceum in the 'Corsican 
Brothers ' as Chateau-Renaud to the bro- 
thers Dei Franchi of (Sir) Henry Irving, 
and on 3 Jan. 1881 was Sinnatus in Tenny- 
son's ' Cup.' In the subsequent performance 
of ' Othello ' by Irving, Booth, and Miss Ellen 
Terry, he was Cassio. Mercutio and Don 
Pedro in ' Much Ado about Nothing 'followed. 
In 1883-4 Terriss accompanied Sir Henry 
Irving to America. During Miss Mary An- 
derson's tenure of the Lyceum, 1884-5, he 
played Romeo to her Juliet, Claude Melnotte 
to her Pauline, and other parts. 



Terriss 



81 



Terrot 



At the close of 1885 Terriss quitted the 
Lyceum for the Adelphi, with which theatre 
henceforth his name was principally asso- 
ciated. He was the first David Kingsley 
in 'Harbour Lights ' by Sims and Pettitt, 
23 Dec. 1885 ; Frank Beresford in Pettitt and 
Grundy's 'Bells of Haslemere,' 25 July 1887; 
Jack Medway in the ' Union Jack ' by the 
same writers, 19 July 1888, and Eric Nor- 
manhurst in the 'Silver Falls' of Sims and 
Pettitt, 29 Dec. He accompanied in 1889 
Miss Millward, his constant associate at the 
Adelphi, to America, where he appeared in 
'A Man's Shadow' (Roger la Honte), and 
played in ' Othello,' ' Frou Frou,' the 
' Marble Heart,' the ' Lady of Lyons,' and 
other pieces. On 20 Sept. 1890 he reap- 
peared at the Lyceum as the first Hayston 
of Bucklaw in ' Ravenswood,' adapted from 
Scott's 'Bride of Lammermoor' by Her- 
man Merivale. At the Lyceum he played 
also the King in ' Henry VIII,' Faust, and 
on 6 Feb. 1893 King Henry in Tennyson's 
' Becket.' On the afternoon of 5 June 1894, 
at Daly's Theatre, he was the original Cap- 
tain Maramour in 'Journeys end in Lovers 
meeting,' a one-act proverb by John Oliver 
Hobbes and Mr. George Moore. In the 
'Fatal Card' of Messrs. Haddon Chambers 
and B. C. Stephenson, at the Adelphi, on 
6 Sept., he was the original Gerald Austen. 
On the first production in England of the 
American piece, ' The Girl I left behind me ' 
of Messrs. Tyler and Belasco, on 13 April 
1895, he was Lieutenant Hawkesworth. In 
the ' Swordsman's Daughter,' adapted by 
Messrs. Brandon Thomas and Clement Scott 
from 'Le Maitre d'Armes' of MM. Mary 
and Grisier, and given at the Adelphi on 
31 Aug., he was Vibrac, a fencing master. 
In ' One of the Best,' by Messrs. Seymour 
Hicks and George Edwardes, on 21 Dec., 
he was Dudley Keppel; and on 26 Aug. 
1896 in 'Boys Together,' by Messrs. Had- 
don Chambers and Comyns Carr, Frank 
Villars. On the revival of Jerrold's ' Black- 
eyed Susan' on 23 Dec. 1896 he was 
William. When, in August 1897, Mr. Gil- 
lette's play of ' Secret Service ' was trans- 
ferred from the American company by which 
it was first performed at the Adelphi to an 
English company, Terriss took the author's 
part of Lewis Dumont. He had previously 
(5 June) gone to the Haymarket to ' create' 
the part of the Comte de Candale in Mr. 
Sydney Grundy's adaptation of Dumas's 
' Un Mariage sous Louis XV.' On 9 Sept. 
he supported at the Adelphi the double role 
of Colonel Aylmer and Laurence Aylmer 
(father and son) in ' In the Days of the 
Duke,' by Messrs. Haddon Chambers and 

VOL. LVI. 



Comyns Carr. This was his last original 
part. On the withdrawal of this piece he 
resumed the part of Lewis Dumont in ' Se- 
cret Service, which he acted for the last 
time on 15 Dec. 1897. On the evening of 
the following day, as he was entering th 
Adelphi Theatre, he was stabbed thrice by a 
poverty-stricken actor named Richard Archer 
Prince, and died in a few minutes. His tragic 
death evoked much sympathy, and his funeral 
at Brompton cemetery on 21 Dec. had the 
character of a public demonstration. The 
murderer Prince was subsequently put on 
his trial, and, being pronounced insane, was 
committed to Broadmoor criminal lunatic 
asylum. 

Terriss married, in 1868, Miss Isabel Lewis, 
an actress known professionally as Miss Amy 
Fellowes, who survives him. He left issue 
two sons, one an actor, and a daughter, Ella- 
line (Mrs. Seymour Hicks), who is on the 
stage. By his will, dated 11 Nov. 1896, he 
left personalty amounting to upwards of 
18,000/. His last residence was at 2 Bedford 
Road, Bedford Park, Chiswick. 

Terriss had from the first great gallantry 
of bearing and what was popularly called 
breeziness of style. In two parts, Squire 
Thornhill and William in ' Black-eyed Susan,' 
he had in his time no superior, perhaps no 
equal. He kept till the close of life a young, 
lithe, and shapely figure. 

Portraits of Terriss, in private clothes 
or in character, chiefly from photographs, 
abound, 

[Arthur J. Smythe's Life of Terriss, 1 898 (wit h 
numerous portraits) ; Pascoe's Dramatic List ; A 
Few Memories, by Mary Anderson ; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard ; Archer's Dmmatic World, 
1893-6; Era Almanack, various years ; Era for 
18 and 25 Dec. 1897 ; private information.] 

J. K. 

TERROT, CHARLES (1758-1839), 
general royal artillery, was born at Berwick- 
upon-Tweed on 1 May 1758. He .entered 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich 
on 15 March 1771, and received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the royal 
artillery on 1 March 1774. He went to 
North America in 1776 and joined Sir Guy 
Carleton in May at Quebec, Canada. He 
served under Brigadier-peneral Frasor at 
the action of the Three Rivera on 7 June, 
when the American attack was repulsed, 
and the Americans, having been driven with 
great loss to their boats on Lake St. Francois, 
fell back on Ticonderog*. 

In June 1777 Terrot was with the army 
of General Burgoyne which pushed forward 
from Canada by Lake Champlain to effect 
a junction at Albany with Clinton's forces 



Terrot 



Terrot 



from New York. Burgoyne reached Ticon- 
deroga on 1 July, and invested the place. 
On 6 July the Americans evacuated it, and 
Terrot took part in the capture of Mount 
Independence and the other operations fol- 
lowing the American retreat. On the de- 
parture of Burgoyne for Still- water, Terrot 
was left under Brigadier-general Powel at 
Ticonderoga, where he commanded the 
artillery. This place and Mount Indepen- 
dence were attacked on 18 Sept. by the 
Americans under Colonel Brown, who had 
surprised a small sloop and the transport 
boats, and captured a detachment of the 
53rd regiment. The attack lasted four days, 
at the end of which the Americans were 
beaten off. 

After Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga, 
Terrot returned to Canada. On 7 July 
1779 he was promoted to be first lieutenant. 
In 1780 he went to Lake Ontario with two 
6-pounders in an expedition under Sir John 
Johnston ; but circumstances altered their 
destination when on the lake, and Terrot 
remained at Niagara for nearly four years, 
principally employed as an assistant military 
engineer. The works of defence at Niagara 
were completely repaired under his super- 
vision. In 1782 he surveyed the country 
between Lakes Erie and Ontario with a view 
to its purchase by the government from the 
Indians, and to mark out its boundaries, 
He afterwards conducted the negotiations 
with the Indians with complete satisfaction 
to them and with great advantage to the 
government. On 8 March 1784 he was pro- 
moted to be second captain when he returned 
to England, and served at various home 
stations with his company. 

In 1791 Terrot volunteered for service in 
the East Indies, and arrived on 10 Oct. at 
Madras with two companies of royal artillery, 
of which he was quartermaster. He joined 
the army of Lord Cornwallis at Savandrug 
on 12 Jan. 1792, and was attached to the 
artillery park. He took part on 6 Feb. in 
the night attack on, and capture of, Tipu 
Sultan's fortified camp, on the north side 
of the Kaveri river, covering Seringpatam, 
and in the siege of that city until terms of 
peace were agreed to. He marched on 
26 March with the army which reached 
Madras at the end of May. On the declara- 
tion of war by France against Great Britain, 
measures were taken to seize the different 
French factories in India. In August 1793 
Terrot was employed against Pondicherry, 
and when the governor, Colonel Prosper de 
Clermont, on being summoned, refused to 
submit, he took part in the bombardment 
of 20 Aug. and in the siege, which, however, 



lasted only till the 23rd of that month, 
when the place capitulated. Terrot was 
promoted to be first captain on 25 Sept. 1793, 
and returned to England. 

On 1 March 1794 Terrot was promoted 
to be brevet major for his services, and ap- 
pointed to a command of artillery at 
Portsmouth. On 1 Jan. 1798 he was pro- 
moted to be brevet lieutenant-colonel, and 
in the following year was employed in the 
expedition to the Helder. He accompanied 
the first division under Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby, landing on 27 Aug., and took part 
in the fighting on 10 Sept., in the battle of 
Bergen on 19 Sept. under the Duke of 
York, at the fight near Alkmaar on 2 Oct., 
and the affair of Beverwyk on 6 Oct. Terms 
having been settled with the French, Terrot 
returned in November to England ; he was 
shipwrecked near Yarmouth harbour, and, 
although all lives were saved by the boats 
of the fleet, he lost all his effects. 

On 12 Nov. 1800 Terrot was promoted to 
be regimental major, and on 14 Oct. 1801 
to be regimental lieutenant-colonel. After 
ordinary regimental duty for some years, he 
was promoted to be colonel in the royal artil- 
lery on 1 June 1806. In July 1809 he accom- 
panied the expedition to the Scheldt under 
the Earl of Chatham, and directed the artil- 
lery of the attack at the siege of Flushing, 
which place capitulated on 15 Aug. Terrot 
was thanked in orders for his services at 
Walcheren. 

Terrot was promoted to be major-general 
on 4 June 1811. In 1814 he was appointed 
as a major-general on the staff to command 
the royal artillery at Gibraltar, in succes- 
sion to Major-general Smith, but the latter, 
owing to the death of the governor, suc- 
ceeded to the command of the fortress, and 
refused to be relieved. After vainly wait- 
ing some months for the arrival of a new 
governor, Terrot obtained permission to re- 
turn to England, resigned his appointment, 
and retired on 2o June 1814 on full pay. He 
was promoted to be lieutenant-general on 
12 Aug. 1819, and general on 10 Jan. 1837. 
He died at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 23 Sept. 
1839. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Gent. Mag. 
1839; Duncan's Hist, of the Royal Artillery ; 
Stubbs's Hist, of the Bengal Artillery ; Squire's 
Campaign in Zeeland; Carmichael Smyth's 
Chronological Epitome of the Wars in the Low 
Countries; Stedman's American War of Indepen- 
dence; Dunn's Campaign in India, 1792; Minutes 
of Proceedings of the Roj'al Artillery Institution, 
vol. xvi. ; Jones's Sieges ; Gust's Annals of the 
Wars of the Eighteenth Century ; Kane's List of 
Officers of the Royal Artillery.] R. H. V. 



Terrot 



Terry 



TERROT, CHARLES HUGHES (1790- 
1872), bishop of Edinburgh, born at Cudda- 
lore on 19 Sept. 1790, was a descendant 
of a family which the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes drove from France. His 
father, Elias Terrot, a captain in the Indian 
army, was killed at the siege of Bangalore a 
few weeks after the child's birth. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Mary Fonteneau, 
returned to England and settled with her 
son at Berwick-on-Tweed. When nine years 
old he was placed for his education 'under 
the charge of the Rev. John Fawcett of 
Carlisle. In 1808 he entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was an associate 
of Whewell, Peacock, Rolfe, Amos, Mill, 
and Robinson. He graduated B.A. in 1812 
with mathematical honours, and was elected 
a fellow of his college. In 1813 he was 
ordained deacon, and in 1814 was instituted 
tolladdington, where the leisure of a country 
incumbency gave him opportunity of com- 
peting for university literary honours, and 
in 1816 he obtained the Seatonian prize 
for a poem entitled ' Hezekiah and Senna- 
cherib, or the Destruction of Sennacherib's 
Host.' In 1819 he followed this up with 
another poem, ' Common Sense,' in which 
the poets and politicians of the day were 
criticised in the style of the ' Dunciad ' and 
the ' Rolliad.' He then abandoned poetry for 
theology and mathematics. In 1817 he was 
promoted to the charge of St. Peter's, Edin- 
burgh, as colleague to James Walker (after- 
wards bishop of Edinburgh). In 1829 he 
succeeded Walker as sole pastor. In 1833 he 
became junior minister of St. Paul's, Edin- 
burgh. In 1836 he was appointed synod clerk 
of the diocese, in 1837 dean of Edinburgh 
and Fife, in 1839 rector of St. Paul's, and in 
1841 bishop of Edinburgh and Pantonian 
professor. In 1856 a church was built for 
him on the scene of his labours in the old 
town. On the death of William Skinner 
(1778-1857) [q. v.], bishop of Aberdeen, in 
1857, Terrot was chosen primus of Scotland, 
an office which he held till a stroke of 
paralysis compelled his resignation in 1862. 
He died on 2 April 1872, and was interred 
in the Calton burying-ground. 

Terrot was twice married: first, in 1818, 
to Sarah Ingram, daughter of Captain Samuel 
Wood of Minlands, near Berwick-on-Tweed. 
She died on 9 Sept. 1855. He married, se- 
condly, in 1859, a widow, Charlotte Madden, 
who died in February 1862. By his first wife 
he had fourteen children, six of whom prede- 
ceased him. His eldest daughter accompanied 
Miss Florence Nightingale to the Crimea, and 
was afterwards decorated with the royal red 
cross in recognition of her services. 



Terrot was an excellent mathematician, 
and was for fourteen years a fellow of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, to whose 
.transactions' he contributed numerous 
papers on mathematical subjects. He was 
also a member of the Architectural Society 
of Scotland, and delivered the annual intro- 
ductory address on 29 Nov. 1855. 

Besides separate charges and sermons, Ter- 
rot wrote: 1. ' Pastoral Letters,' Edinburgh, 
1834, 8vo. 2. ' Two Series of Discourses, on 
i. Christian Humiliation; ii. The City of God,' 
London, 1845, 8vo. 3. 'Sermons preached 
at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh,' 
Edinburgh, 1865, 8vo. He edited the Greek 
text of ' The Epistle to the Romans, with an 
Introduction, Paraphrase, and Notes' (Lon- 
don, 1828, 8vo), and translated Ernesti's ' In- 




[Three Churchmen, by W. Walker. 1893 (with 
portrait); Crombie's Mod. Athenians; Proc. of 
Royal Soc. of Edinb. viii. 9-14 (obit, notice by 
Professor Kelland); Scotsman, 3 and 4 April 
1872 ; Memoir by Dean Ramsay in Scot. Guar- 
dian, 15 May 1872; Cat. of Advoc. Libr. ; in- 
formation supplied by Miss Terrot, the bishop's 
daughter.] G. S-H. 

TERRY, DANIEL (1780P-1829), actor 
and playwright, was born in Bath about 
1780, and was educated at the Bath gram- 
mar school and subsequently at a private 
school at Wingfield (? Winkfield), Wiltshire, 
under the Rev. Edward Spencer. During 
five years he was a pupil of Samuel Wyatt, 
the architect [see under WYATT, JAMBS]; 
but, having first played at Bath Ileartwell 
in the ' Prize,' Terry left him to join in 1803 
or 1805 the company at Sheffield under the 
management of the elder Macready. His first 
appearance was as Tressel in ' Richard 1 1 1,' and 
was followed by other parts, as Cromwell in 
' Henry VIII ' and Edmund in ' Lear.' To- 
wards the close of 1805 he joined Stephen 
Kemble[q.v.]in the north of England. On the 
breaking up in 1806 of Kemble's company, he 
went to Liverpool and made a success which 
recommended him to Henry Siddmi.-. ( j. \. , 
who brought him out in Edinburgh, 2'.' 
1809, as Bertrand in Dimond's ' Foundling of 
the Forest.' At that period his figure is said 
to have been well formed and graceful, his 
countenance powerfully expressive, ami liis 
voice strong, full, and clear, though not 
melodious. He is also credited with stage 
knowledge, energy, and propriety of act inn, 
good judgment, and an active mind. On 
12 Dec. he was Antigonus in the ' Winter's 
Tale,' on 8 Jan. 1810 Prospero, and on the 
29th Argyle in Joanna Baillie's ' Family 



Terry 



8 4 



Terry 



Legend.' Scott, a propos of this impersona- 
tion, wrote: ' A Mr. Terry, who promises to 
be a fine performer, went through the part 
of the old earl with great taste and effect.' 
Scott also contributed a prologue which 
Terry spoke. On 22 Nov. Terry played 
Falstaff in ' Henry IV.' On 15 Jan. 1811 
he was the first Roderick Dhu in ' The Lady 
of the Lake,' adapted by Edmund John Eyre ; 
on 6 March he played Polonius ; on the 18th 
repeated Roderick Dhu in the ' Knight of 
Snowdoun,' a second version, by T. Morton, 
of the ' La<dy of the Lake,' not much more 
prosperous than the former; and was, for his 
benefit, on the 23rd, Falstaff in the ' Merry 
"Wives of Windsor.' He was Lord Ogleby 
in the ' Clandestine Marriage,' 18 Nov. 

In this part Terry made his first appearance 
in London at the Haymarket, 20 May 1812, 
playing during the season Shylock, Job Thorn- 
berry, Sir Anthony Absolute, Major Sturgeon 
in the ' Major of Garratt,' Dr. Pangloss in the 
* Heir at Law,' Don Caesar in 'A Bold Stroke 
for a Husband,' Megrim in 'Blue Devils,' Har- 
mony in ' Every one has his Fault/ Sir Edward 
Mortimer in the ' Iron Chest,' Leon in ' Rule 
a Wife and have a Wife,' Gradus in ' Who's 
the Dupe ? ' Romaldi in the ' Tale of Mystery,' 
Barford in ' Who wants a Guinea? ' Selico in 
the ' Africans,' Heartall in ' Soldier's Daugh- 
ter,' Bustleton in* Manager in Distress,' Octa- 
vian, and lago a remarkable list for a first 
season. He created some original characters 
in unimportant plays, the only part calling 
for notice being Count Salerno inEyre's' Look 
at Home,' 15 Aug. 1812, founded on Moore's 
' Zeluco.' He was announced to reopen, 
14 Nov., the Edinburgh theatre as Lord 
Ogleby, but was ill and did not appear until 
the 23rd, and on the 24th he played Shylock. 
He was, 23 Dec., the first Lord Archibald in 
' Caledonia, or the Thistle and the Rose.' 

On 8 Sept. 1813, as Leon in ' Rule a Wife 
and have a Wife,' Terry made his first appear- 
ance at Covent Garden, where, except for fre- 
quent migrations to Edinburgh and summer 
seasons at the Haymarket, he remained until 
1822. Among the parts he played in his first 
season were Sir Robert Bramble in the ' Poor 
Gentleman,' Dornton in the ' Road to Ruin,' 
Ford, Sir Adam Contest in the ' Wedding 
Day,' Ventidius in ' Antony and Cleopatra,' 
Shylock, Churlton, an original part in Ken- 
ney's ' Debtor and Creditor,' 26 April 1814, 
and Sir Oliver in ' School for Scandal.' Other 
characters in which he was early seen at 
Covent Garden included Marrall in ' A New 
Way to pay Old Debts,' Stukeley in the 
' Gamester,' Sir Solomon Cynic in the ' Will,' 
Philotas in ' Grecian Daughter,' and Angelo 
in ' Measure for Measure.' On 12 March 



1816 ' Guy Mannering,' a musical adapta- 
tion by Terry of Scott's novel, was seen for 
the first time. This appears to have been 
the first of Terry's adaptations from Scott. 
At the Haymarket he was seen as Periwinkle 
in ' Bold Stroke for a Wife,'Hardcastle, Hot- 
spur, Sir George Thunder, Sir Pertinax McSy- 
cophant, Sir Fretful Plagiary, Eustace de 
Saint-Pierre, Lord Scratch in the' Dramatist,' 
and very many other parts. In 1815, mean-" 
while, he had, by permission of the Covent 
Garden management, supported Mrs. Siddons 
in her farewell engagement in Edinburgh, 
where he played Macbeth, ' The Stranger ' 
[sic] in ' Douglas,' Wolsey, King John, and 
the Earl of Warwick. Back at Covent Gar- 
den, he was, 7 Oct. 1816, the original Colonel 
Rigolio in Dimond's 'Broken Sword,' and on 
12 Nov. the original Governor of Surinam 
in Morton's 'Slave.' On 2 Oct. 1817 his 
acting of Frederick William, king of Prussia, 
in Abbott's ' Youthful Days of Frederick 
the Great,' raised his reputation to the 
highest point it attained, and on 22 April 
1818 he was the first Salerno in Shiel's ' Bel- 
lamira.' In Jameson's ' Nine Points of the 
Law 'he was at the Haymarket, 17 July, 
Mr. Precise, and in the ' Green Man,' 
15 Aug., exhibited what was called a perfect 
piece of acting as Mr. Green. At Covent 
Garden he was, 17 April 1819, the first 
David Deans in his own adaptation, 'The 
Heart of Midlothian ; ' played Sir Sampson 
Legend in ' Love for Love,' Buckingham in 
' Richard III,' Prospero, Sir Amias Paulet 
in ' Mary Stuart ' (adapted from Schiller), 
14 Dec. 1819, Lord Glenallan, and after- 
wards was announced for Jonathan Oldbuck 
in his own and Pocock's adaptation, ' The 
Antiquary,' 25 Jan. 1820. Illness seems to 
have prevented his playing Oldbuck, which 
was assigned to Liston. On 17 May he was 
the first Dentatus in Sheridan Knowles's 
' Virginius.' At the Haymarket during the 
summer seasons Terry played a great round 
of comic characters, including Hardy in the 
' Belle's Stratagem,' Old Mirabel in ' Wine 
does Wonders ' (a compressed version of the 
' Inconstant '), Peachum in ' Beggar's Opera,' 
Falstaff in ' Henry IV,' pt. i., Old Hardcastle, 
Sir Peter Teazle, Dr. Pangloss, Polonius, Lear, 
Sir Anthony Absolute, Pierre in ' Venice Pre- 
served,' and Rob Roy. Among many original 
parts in pieces by Kenney, J. Dibdin, and 
others, Terry was Sir Christopher Cranberry 
in ' Exchange no Robbery,' by his friend 
Theodore Hook, 12 Aug. 1820 ; the Prince ia 
' Match Breaking,' 20 Aug. 1821 ; and Shark 
in ' Morning, Noon, and Night,' 9 Sept. 
1822. 
Having quarrelled with the management 



Terry 



Terry 



of Covent Garden on a question of terms, 
Terry made his first appearance at Drury Lane, 
16 Oct. 1822, speaking an occasional address 
by Colman and playing Sir Peter. He after- 
wards acted Crabtree, John Dory in ' Wild 
Oats,' Cassio, Belarius in ' Cymbeline,' 
Kent in ' Lear,' Dougal in ' Rob Roy,' Solo- 
mon in the ' Stranger,' and Grumio, and 
was, 4 Jan. 1823, the first Simpson in Poole's 

* Simpson & Co.' At the Haymarket, 7 July, 
he was the first Admiral Franklin in Kenney's 
' Sweethearts and Wives,' and on 27 Sept. 
the first Dr. Primrose in a new adaptation 
by T. Dibdin of the ' Vicar of Wakefield.' 
The season 1823-4 at Drury Lane saw him 
as Bartolo in ' Fazio,' Lord Sands, Menenius 
in ' Coriolanus,' and as the first Antony 
Foster in a version of ' Kenilworth,' 5 Jan. 

1824, and the following season as Orozembo 
in ' Pizarro,' Justice Woodcock in ' Love in 
n Village,' Adam in ' As you like it,' 
Moustache in 'Henri Quatre,' Hubert in 

* King John,' and Rochfort in an alteration 
of the ' Fatal Dowry.' Among his original 
roles were Zamet in ' Massaniello,' 17 Feb. 

1825, and Mephistopheles in ' Faustus,' 
16 May, the last one of his best parts. In 
1825, in association with his friend Frederick 
Henry Yates [q. v.], he became manager of 
the Adelphi, opening, 10 Oct., in a piece called 
'Killigrew.' On the 31st was produced Fitz- 
ball's successful adaptation, ' The Pilot,' in 
which Terry was the Pilot. He also appeared 
in other parts. 

Terry's financial affairs had meanwhile be- 
come so involved that he was obliged to re- 
tire from management. Under the strain of 
the collapse which followed, Terry's powers, 
mental and physical, gave way. After leav- 
ing the Adelphi he temporarily retired to the 
continent, and then re-engaged at Drury Lane 
and played Polonius and Simpson. Finding 
himself unable to act, and his memory quite 

fone, he threw up his engagement. On 
2 June 1829 he was struck with paralysis, 
and died during the month. Having pre- 
viously married in Liverpool, Terry espoused 
as his second wife Elizabeth Nasmyth, the 
daughter of Alexander Nasmyth [q. v.] the 
painter. Mrs. Terry who, after Terry's 
death, married Charles Richardson [q. v.] the 
lexicographer had great taste in design, and 
seems to have taken some share in the deco- 
ration of Abbotsford. Terry left by her a 
son named after Scott (Walter), after whose 
fortunes Scott promised to look, and a daugh- 
ter Jane. 

Terry, who was almost as well known in 
Edinburgh as in London, was highly respected 
in both places. SirWalterScott,whoextended 
to him a large amount of friendship, thought 



highlyof his actingin tragedy, comedy, panto- 
mime, and farce, and said that he could act 
everything except lovers, fine gentlemen, and 

I operatic heroes. His merit in tragedy, Scott 
declared, was seen in those characters which 

I exhibit the strong working of a powerful 
mind and the tortures of an agonised heart. 
While escaping from the charge of ranting, 
he was best in scenes of vehemence. ParU 
of tender emotion he was wise enough not 
to attempt. In comedy he excelled in old 
men, both those of real life and in ' the 
tottering caricatures of Centlivre, Vanbrugh, 
and Gibber.' In characters of amorous dotage, 
such as Sir Francis Gripe, Don Manuel, or Sir 
Adam Contest, he was excellent. His Fal- 
staff was good. Terry's chief fault was want 
of ease. Disapproving of the starring system, 
he was conscientious enough not to pose as 
a ' star.' 

Terry's idolatry of Scott led him to imitate 
both his manner and his calligraphy. Scott, 
who appreciated Terry's knowledge of old 
dramatic literature and his delight in articles 
of vertu, who recognised him as a gentleman 
and corresponded freely with him on most 
subjects, declares that, were he called upon 
to swear to any document, the most he could 
do was to attest it was his own writing or 
Terry's. Terry had caught, says Lockhart, 
the very trick of Scott's meditative frowii, 
and imitated his method of speech so as 
almost to pass for a Scotsman. Scott lent 
him money for his theatrical speculations, 
and gave him excellent advice. Being inti- 
mate with the Ballantynes, Terry had a 
financial stake in their business, and when 
the crash came Scott was saddled with his 
liability (1,750/.) Terry's architectural know- 
ledge was of great use to Scott, who consulted 
him while building Abbotsford. Scott also 
consul ted Terry upon many literary questions, 
especially as regards plays, and seems to 
have trusted him with the ' Doom of Devor- 
goil,' with a view to fitting it for the stage. 
On 8 Feb. 1818 Scott says, concerning some 
play : ' If any time should come when you 
might wish to disclose the secret, it will be 
in your power, and our correspondence will 
always serve to show that it was only at 
my earnest request, annexed as the condition 
of bringing the play forward, that you gave 
it your name, a circumstance which, with 
all the attending particulars, will prove 
plainly that there was no assumption on 
your part ' (LOCKHART, Memoir, iv. 125, ed. 
1837). In the same letter he suggests that 
a beautiful drama might be made on the 
concealment of the Scottish regalia during 
the troubles. How many of the numerous 
adaptations of Scott that saw the light be- 



Terry 



86 



Terry 



tween the appearance of ' Waverley ' and the 
death of the actor are by Terry cannot be 
said, many of these being anonymous and 
imprinted. In addition to these Terry is 
responsible for the ' British Theatrical Gal- 
lery,' a collection of whole-length portraits 
with biographical notes (London, 1825, fol.) 

A portrait of Terry by Knight, and one 
by De Wilde as Barford in ' Who wants a 
Guinea ? ' are in the Mathews Collection at 
the Garrick Club. One, as Leon in ' Rule a 
Wife and have a Wife,' is in the ' Theatrical 
Inquisitor ' (vol. i.) 

[Almost the only trustworthy authority con- 
cerning Terry is Lockhart's Life of Scott, from 
which the information as regards his intercourse 
with Scott is taken. His biographers contradict 
one another in numerous particulars, and the 
dates are not to be trusted. What purport to 
be memoirs are given in the Dramatic Magazine 
(1829, i. 189-90), the Theatrical Inquisitor (v. 
131), Oxberry's Dramatic Biography (vol. vii.), 
Cunningham's Lives of Eminent Englishmen, 
New Monthly Magazine for 1 829, Theatrical Bio- 
graphy (1824), and elsewhere. The list of his 
characters is derived principally Irom Genest's 
Account of the English Stage, and from Mr. 
Dibdin's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage. Other 
works which have been consulted are the Geor- 
gian Era, Life of Munden by his son, the 
Annual Eegister for 1809, Andrew Laug's Life 
of Lockhart, and Clark Eussell's Representative 
Actors.] J. K. 

TERRY, EDWARD (1590-1660), writer 
of travels, was born in 1590 at Leigh, near 
Penshurst, Kent. Educated at the free 
school, Rochester, and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, he matriculated on 1 July 1608, 
graduated B.A. on 26 Nov. 1611, and M.A. 
on 6 July 1614. In February 1615-16 Terry 
went out to India as chaplain with a fleet 
sent by the London East India Company, 
sailing in the Charles with Benjamin Joseph, 
commander of the expedition. In his account 
of the voyage Terry describes a fight with a 
Portugal carrack, in which Joseph was killed, 
on 6 Aug. 1616. The Charles anchored in 
Swally Road on 25 Sept. following. On 
20 Aug. Sir Thomas Roe [q.v.], ambassador 
at the moghul's court, whose chaplain, the 
Rev. John Hall, died the day before, had 
written to the company's agent at Surat, 
saying that he could not ' live the life of an 
atheist,' and begging that another chaplain 
might be sent to him. Accordingly Terry, 
shortly after his arrival, was appointed to 
succeed Hall, and, travelling up country 
with four other Englishmen who were taking 
presents for the moghul, joined the ambas- 
sador, who was with the Emperor Jehanghir's 
camp at Mandoa, about the end of February 
1617 (RoE, Journal), or, according to Terry, 



towards the end of March. On the way they 
were detained by the moghul's son (after- 
wards the Emperor Shah Jehan), who wished 
to see the presents meant for his father. 
Terry stayed at Mandoa till September 1617, 
and thence travelled with the moghul's 
camp in the ambassador's suite to Ahmeda- 
bad, and in the neighbourhood he remained 
till September 1618. At Ahmedabad he and 
others of the ambassador's suite were at- 
tacked by the plague, the outbreak of which 
is recorded in the memoirs of Jehanghir 
(ELLIOT, Hist, of India, vol. vi.) Terry 
also notes (November 1618) the comet men- 
tioned in the same memoirs (ib.) He re- 
turned with Roe to England in 1619, their 
ship reaching the Downs on 15 Sept. The 
court minutes of the East India Company 
record (22 Oct. 1619) that the freight on 
the goods of ' Terry the preacher ' was re- 
mitted, he ' being so much commended by 
Sir Thomas Roe for his sober, honest, and 
civil life.' On his arrival in England he 
went back for a while to Christ Church, and 
in 1622 wrote, and presented in manuscript 
to Prince Charles, an account of his life in 
India. On 26 Aug. 1629 he was appointed 
rector of Great Greenford, Middlesex, where 
he lived till his death on 8 Oct. 1660. < He 
was an ingenious and polite man of a pious 
and exemplary conversation, a good preacher, 
and much respected by the neighbourhood ' 
(WooD, Athena O.ron.) He was buried in 
the chancel of his church on 10 Oct. 1660. 

On 22 Aug. 1661 his widow Elizabeth 
was buried at Greenford. A son James 
(d. 1680) matriculated from Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 16 April 1641, took orders, 
and became rector of Mickelmarsh, Hamp- 
shire, being ejected from the living in 1662 
for nonconformity. 

Besides two sermons, printed in 1646 and 
1649, Terry published : 1. ' A Voyage to 
East India,' with portraits and a map, 
London, 1655 ; reprinted, London, 1777. 
2. ' Character of King Charles II, with a 
Short Apology before it, and Introduction to 
it, and Conclusion after it,' London, 1660, 
4to. 

A portrait of Terry, setat. 64 (1655), en- 
graved by R. Vaughan, is prefixed to his 
' Voyage.' A summary of his narrative is 
given in Purchas's ' Pilgrimes ' (ii. 1464 et seq.), 
and another epitomised version was pub- 
lished, with the English translation of P. 
della Valle's travels, in 1665. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ; Sir Thomas Roe's 
Journal; Purchas's Pilgrimes ; Cal. State Papers, 
East Indies, 1617-21 ; Sir H. M. Elliot's Hist, 
of India ; parish registers at Great Greenford.] 

S. W. ' 



Terry 



1 



Tesimond 



TERRY or TIRREYE, JOHN (1555? 
1625), divine, born about 1555 at LongSut 
ton, Hampshire, entered Winchester schoc 
in 1572. He matriculated from New Col- 
lege, Oxford, 10 Jan. 1574-5, aged 19, was 
elected a fellow in 1576, and graduated B. A. 
12 Nov. 1578, M.A. 15 June 1582. He re- 
signed his fellowship on being presented by 
Bishop Cooper of Winchester to the living 
of Stockton, Wilt shire, in 1590. There he 
died, aged 70, on 10 May 1625, as recorded 
upon a monument in the church. 

Terry's works show him to have held 
strong anti- Roman catholic opinions. They 
are : 1. ' The Triall of Trvth,' Oxford, 1600, 
4to ; the second part of this was issued in 
1602 ; ' Theologicall Logicke, or the third 

Sirt of the Tryall of Trvth,' appeared at 
xford, 1625, 4to. 2. ' The Reasonableness 
of Wise and Holy Trvth, and the Absurdity 
of Foolish and Wicked Error,' Oxford, 1617, 
small 4to ; dedicated to Arthur Lake, bishop 
of Bath and Wells. 3. ' A Defence of Pro- 
testancy' (Wooo). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 410; Kirby's 
Winchester Scholars, p. 144; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. early ser. ; Reg. Univ. Oxon. n. ii. 61, 
iii. 76: Wiltshire Arctseol. Mag. xii. 115 ; Ma- 
dan's Early Oxford Press, pp. 49, 54, 109, 128; 
Hoare's Hist, or Wilts (vol. i. Hundred of Hey- 
tesbury, p. 24?).] C. F. S. 

TESDALE, TEASDALE, or TIS- 
DALE, THOMAS (1547-1610), 'co- 
founder of Pembroke College, Oxford,' son 
of Thomas Tesdale (d. 1556), by his second 
wife, Joan (Knapp), was born at Stanford 
Dingley, Berkshire, and baptised on 13 Oct. 
1547. He was brought up by his uncle, 
Richard Tesdale, a sadler of Abingdon. and 
was in 1563 the first scholar of John 
Royse's free school in that town. He made 
a large fortune as a maltster, became master 
of Abingdon Hospital in 1579, and was 
elected mayor, but declined to serve, in 
1581, about which time he removed his 
residence to Glympton, near Woodstock, 
Oxfordshire. He died there on 13 June 
1610, aged 63, and was buried in Glympton 
church, under a fine alabaster tomb (re- 
paired in 1871), where was also laid his 
wife Maud (d. 1616). By his will, dated 
31 May 1610 (in addition to other benefac- 
tions to Abingdon), he left 5,000/. to main- 
tain seven fellows and six scholars from 
Abingdon free school at Balliol College, 
Oxford. The Society of Balliol, already 
hampered by their obligations to Tiverton 
school, seem to have tried hard to obtain a 
relaxation of the conditions attached to the 
bequest, but the negotiations were not com- 



pleted in 1623 when Richard Wightwick, 
B.D., formerly of Balliol, offered to augment 
Tesdale's foundation. ' It then fell under 
consideration,' says Fuller, 'that it was a 
pity so great a bounty (substantial enough 
to stand by itself) should be adjected to a 
former foundation.' 

The feoftees under Tesdale's will, headed 
by Archbishop George Abbot [q. v.l, ac- 
quiesced in the project of a new college ; 
the king was approached through the chan- 
cellor, William Herbert, third earl of Pem- 
broke [q. v.], and, James consenting, the 
existing foundation of Broadgates Hall 
'was erected by the name of Pembroke 
College '(29 June 1624). 

A portrait of Tesdale, dating from the 
middle of the seventeenth century, is pre- 
served in Pembroke Hall, and was engraved 
for Wood's ' Historia ' (1674). 

[Little's Monument of Christian Munificence, 
ed. Cobham, 1871 ; Macleane's Hist, of Pem- 
broke Coll. Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc.); Blun- 
dell's Brief Mem. of Abingdon School ; Fuller's 
Worthies, 1662, p. 341 ; Wood's Coll. and 
Halls, ed. Gutch, iii. 616; Henry Savage's 
Balliofergus, 1668, p. 87 (from which it is 
evident that the authorities at Balliul resented, 
as they well might, the diversion of the money 
from their ancient foundation).] T. S. 

TESIMOND, r?//rt*GKEEXWAY, OSWALD 
(1563-1635), Jesuit, also known as PHILIP 
BEAUMONT, born in Northumberland in 
1563, entered the English College at Rome 
for his higher studies on 9 Sept. 1580, and 
joined the Society of Jesus on 13 April 1-V4 
by leave of the cardinal protector Moroni. 
After teaching philosophy at Messina and 
Palermo, he was sent to the seminary at 
Madrid, which he left in November 1697, 
having been ordered to the English mission. 
He landed at Gravesend on 9 March 1597- 
1598, and assisted Father Edward Oldcorne 
for eight years in the Worcestershire and 
Warwickshire missions. In 1603 he was 
professed of the four vows. 

Tesimond was one of the three Jesuits who 
were charged with complicity in the 'gun- 
powder plot,' and a proclamation, containing 
a description of his personal appearance, was 
issued for his apprehension. It in certain that 
Tesimond knew of the secret in confession, 
but the government was unacquainted with 
this fact at the time of the proclama- 
tion. On 6 Nov. 1605 he rode to the con- 
spirators at Huddington, and administered 
the sacrament to them. In explanation h. 
afterwards stated that, having learned from 
a letter written by Sir Everard to Lady 
Diebv the danger to which the conspiratoi 
were exposed, he deemed it his duty to offer 



Teviot 



88 



Thackeray 



to them the aids of religion before they 
suffered that death which threatened them. 
Thomas Winter [q. v.] at his execution de- 
clared that, whereas certain fathers of the 
Society of Jesus were accused of counsel- 
ling and furthering the conspirators in this 
treason, he could clear them all, and par- 
ticularly Father Tesimond, from all fault and 
participation therein (MoRRis, Condition of 
Catholics under James I, p. 220). 

Tesimond, -after the appearance of the 
proclamation against the Jesuits, came in 
disguise to London. He was one day stand- 
ing in a crowd, reading the proclamation 
for his apprehension, when a man arrested 
him in the king's name. The Jesuit ac- 
companied his captor quietly until they 
came to a remote and unfrequented street, 
when Tesimond, being a powerful man, 
suddenly seized his companion, and after a 
violent struggle disengaged himself from 
him. He immediately quitted London, and, 
after remaining fora few days in some Roman 
catholic houses in Essex and Suffolk, he 
was safely conveyed to Calais in a small 
boat laden with dead pigs, of which cargo 
he passed as the owner. He stayed for 
some time at St. Omer. Then he went 
to Italy, and was prefect of studies at Rome 
and in Sicily. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed theologian in the seminary at Val- 
ladolid, and afterwards he resided in 
Florence and Naples. Sir Edwin Rich 
wrote from Naples on o Oct. 1610 to the 
king of England to say that a Jesuit, Philip 
Beaumont, alias Oswald Tesimond, had 
arrived there, and was plotting to send the 
king an embroidered satin doublet and hose 
which were poisoned, and would be death 
to the wearer. Tesimond died at Naples 
in 1635. 

The ' Autobiography of Father Tesimond,' 
translated from the Italian holograph original 
preserved at Stonyhurst College, is printed 
in Morris's ' Troubles of our Catholic Fore- 
fathers/ (1st ser. pp. 141-83). 

[Foley's Records, vi. 144, vii. 767; Gerard's 
What was the Gunpowder Plot ? p. 283 ; Jar- 
dine's Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot; 
More's Hist. Prov. Anglicanse Soc. Jesu, p. 336 ; 
Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 205 ; Tierney's 
Account of the Gunpowder Plot, pp. 67-72.] 

T. C. 

TEVIOT, EAEL OF. [See RUTHERFORD, 
ANDREW, d. 1664.] 

TEVIOT, VISCOCNT. [See LIVINGSTONE, 
SIR THOMAS, 1652P-171L] 

TEWKESBURY, JOHN (fi. 1350), 
musician. [See TUNSTED, SIMON.] 



THACKERAY, FRANCIS (1793-1842), 
author, born in 1793, was the sixth son of 
A'illiarn Makepeace Thackeray(1749-1813), 
)f the Bengal civil service, by his wife, 
Amelia (d. 1810), third daughter of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Richmond Webb. Francis, 
who was uncle of the novelist, graduated 
B.A. from Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 
1814 and M.A. in 1817. He became curate 
of Broxbourne in Hertfordshire. He died 
at Broxbourne on 18 Feb. 1842, leaving by 
his wife, Mary Ann Shakespear (d. 1851), 
two sons Francis St. John and Colonel 
Edward Talbot Thackeray, V.C. and one 
daughter, Mary. 

Thackeray, who was famous in the family 
for his invention and narration of fairy tales, 
was the author of: 1. 'A Defence of the 
Clergy of the Church of England,' London, 
1822, 8vo ; supplemented in the following 
year by a shorter treatise, entitled ' Some 
Observations upon a Pamphlet and upon an 
Attack in the " Edinburgh Review.'" 2. 'A 
History of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham,' 
London, 1827, 8vo. Macaulay, in reviewing 
the work in the ' Edinburgh Review ' for 
1834, justly censured Thackeray for his ex- 
travagant laudation of his hero. The life, 
however, was painstaking, and contained a 
good deal of fresh information from the state 
paper office. 3. ' Order against Anarchy,' 
London, 1831,8vo: a reply to PaineV Rights 
of Man.' 4. ' Researches into the Ecclesias- 
tical and Political State of Ancient Britain 
under the Roman Emperors,' London, 1 843, 
8vo. 

[Burke's Family Records, 1897; Herald and 
Genealogist, 1st ser. ii. 447-8; Cass's Monken 
Hadley, 1880, p. 74; Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 559; 
Hunter's Thackerays in India, 1897, pp. 112- 
113.] E. I. C. 

THACKERAY, FREDERICK REN- 
NELL (1775-1860), general, colonel com- 
mandant royal engineers, third son of Dr. 
Frederick Thackeray, physician of Windsor, 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Abel 
Aldridge of Uxbridge, was born at Windsor, 
Berkshire, in 1775, being baptised 16 Nov. 
His father's sister was wife of Major James 
Rennell [q. v.], of the Bengal engineers, the 
geographer. George Thackeray [q. v.] was 
his elder brother, and AVilliam Makepeace 
Thackeray [q. v.], the novelist, was his first 
cousin once removed (cf. HUNTER, The 
Thackerays in India, 1897, pp. 66 sq.) 

After passing through the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, Thackeray received 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
royal artillery on 18 Sept. 1793, and was 
transferred to the royal engineers on 1 Jan. 
1794. He served at Gibraltar from 1793 



Thackeray 



8 9 



Thackeray 



until 1797, when he went to the West 
Indies, having been promoted to be first 
lieutenant on 18 June 1796. He took part, 
on 20 Aug. 1799, in the capture of Suri- 
nam under Sir Thomas Trigge. In 1801 he 
was aide-de-camp to Trigge at the capture 
of the Swedish West India island of St. 
Bartholomew on 21 March, the Dutch island 
of St. Martin on 24 March, the Danish 
islands of St. Thomas and St. John on 
28 March, and of Santa Cruz on the 31st of 
that month. 

On 18 April 1801 Thackeray was pro- 
moted to be second captain. lie returned 
to England the following year, and in 1803 
proceeded again to Gibraltar. He was pro- 
moted to be first captain on 1 March 1805, 
and returned to England. In February 1807 
he was sent to Sicily, whence he proceeded 
with the expedition under Major-general 
McKenzie Eraser to Egypt, returning to 
Sicily in September. In 1809 Thackeray was 
commanding royal engineer with the force 
under Lieutenant-colonel Haviland Smith, 
detached by Sir John Stuart [q. v.] (when 
he made his expedition to the Bay of Naples) 
from Messina on 11 June to make a diver- 
sion by an attack on the castle of Scylla. 
The siege was directed by Thackeray with 
such skill that, although raised by a superior 
force of French, the castle was untenable, 
and had to be blown up. 

In March 1810 Thackeray was sent 
from Messina by Sir John Stuart with an 
ample supply of engineer and artillery stores 
to join Colonel (afterwards General Sir) 
John Oswald [q.v.J, in the Ionian Islands, to 
undertake the siege of the fortress of Santa 
Maura. Its position on a long narrow 
isthmus of sand rendered it difficult of ap- 
proach, and the fortress was not only well 
supplied, but contained casemated barracks 
sufficient for its garrison of eight hundred 
men under General Camus. Oswald effected 
a landing on 23 March. From the situation 
of the place no enfilading batteries could be 
erected ; but after the British direct bat- 
teries had opened fire the siege works were 
pushed gradually forward, until on 15 April 
Thackeray pointed out the necessity for 
carrying by assault an advanced entrench- 
ment held by the enemy which would enable 
him to reconnoitre the approach to, and the 
position for, the breaching battery, and he 
proposed to turn this entrenchment when 
taken into an advanced parallel of the at- 
tack. The operation was carried out suc- 
cessfully ; the enemy were driven out of the 
entrenchment at the point of the bayonet 
by Lieutenant-colonel Moore of the 35th 
regiment ; large working parties were at 



once sent in, and, by Thackeray's judicious 
and indefatigable exert ion, the entrenchment 
on the morning of the 16th was converted 
into a lodgment from which the attackers 
could not be driven by the fire of the enemy, 
while the British infantry and sharpshooters 
were able so greatly to distress the artillery 
of the place that in the course of the day, 
16 April 1810, it surrendered. Thackeray 
was mentioned in general orders and in des- 
patches. Oswald also wrote to thank him. 
Thackeray received on 19 May 1810a brevet 
majority in special recognition of his services 
on this occasion. 

Thackeray sailed in July 1812 with the 
Anglo-Sicilian army under Lieutenant- 
general Frederick Maitlaud, and landed at 
Alicante in August. He took part in the 
operations of this army, Avhich, after Mait- 
land's resignation in October, was suc- 
cessively commanded by Generals Mac- 
kenzie, William Clinton, Campbell, and Sir 
John Murray, who arrived in February 
1813. On 6 March Thackeray marched 
with the allied army from Alicante to at- 
tack Suchet, and was at the capture of 
Alcoy. He took part in the battle of Cas- 
talla on 13 April, when Suchet was de- 
feated. On 31 May he embarked with the 
army, fourteen thousand strong, with a 
powerful siege train and ample engineer 
stores, for Tarragona, where they disembarked 
on 3 June. Thackeray directed the siege 
operations, and on 8 June a practicable 
breach was made in Fort Royal, an out- 
work over four hundred yards in advance 
of the place. Thackeray objected to an 
assault on this work before everything was 
ready for the construction of a parallel and 
! advance from it. All was prepared on 
I 11 June, and instructions were given for an 
assault after a vigorous bombardment. But 
Murray having received intelligence of a 
French advance counter-ordered the assault 
and raised the siege. For this he was 
afterwards tried by court-martial at Win- 
chester, and found guilty of an error of 
judgment. Murray seems at the time of the 
i siege to have blam'ed Thackeray for delay, for 
on the arrival of Lieutenant-general Lord 
William Bentinck to take command on 
18 June, Thackeray wrote to him that an 
attempt had been made to attach blame 
to him on account of the termination of 
the siege of Tarragona, and requested Lord 
William as an act of justice to cause some 
investigation to be made into his conduct 
before Sir John Murray left, and while 
all the parties were present who c/>uld 
elucidate the matter. This letter was 
aent ' to Murray, who completely exone- 



Thackeray 



Thackeray 



rated Thackeray (reply of Murray, dated 
Alicante, 22 June). 

Thackeray was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel in the royal engineers on 21 July 
1813. He had moved, at the end of June, 
with Lord William Bentinck's army to 
Alicante, and was at the occupation of 
Valencia on 9 July, and at the investment 
of Tarragona on 30 July. He took part in 
the other operations of the army under 
Bentinck and his successor, Sir William Clin- 
ton. During October and November Thacke- 
ray was employed in rendering Tarragona 
once more defensible. In April 1814, by 
Wellington's orders, Clinton's army was 
broken up. and Thackeray returned to Eng- 
land in ill-health. 

At the beginning of 1815 Thackeray was 
appointed commanding royal engineer at 
Plymouth ; in May 1817 he was transferred 
1o 'iravesend, and thence to Edinburgh on 
26 Nov. 1824 as commanding royal engineer 
of North Britain. He was promoted to be 
colonel in the royal engineers on 2 June 
1825. He was made a companion of the 
Bath, military division, on 26 Sept. 1831. 
In 1833 he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer in Ireland. He was promoted to 
be major-general on 10 Jan. 1837, when he 
ceased to be employed. He was made a 
colonel-commandant of the corps of royal 
engineers on 29 April 1846, was promoted to 
be lieutenant-general on 9 Nov. of the same 
year, and to be general on 20 June 1854. He 
died at his residence, the Cedars, Wiudles- 
ham, Bagshot, Surrey, on 19 Sept. 1860, 
and was buried at York Town, Farnborough. 

Thackeray married at Rosehill, Hamp- 
shire, on 21 Nov. 1825, Lady Elizabeth 
Margaret Carnegie, third daughter of Wil- 
liam, seventh earl of Northesk [q. v.] Lady 
Elizabeth, three sons, and five daughters 
survived Thackeray. 

[Burke's Family Records, 1897; War Office 
Records ; Despatches ; Royal Engineers Records ; 
The Royal Military Calendar, 1820; Annual 
Register, 1860; Conolly's Hist, of the Royal 
Sappers and Miners ; Bunbury's Narrative of 
some Passages in the Great War with France 
from 1799 to 1810 ; Napier's History of the 
War in the Peninsula and the South of France ; 
The Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers, 1851, new ser. vol. i. (paper by 
Thackeray).] R. U. V. 

THACKERAY, GEORGE (1777-1850), 
provost of King's College, Cambridge, born 
at Windsor, and baptised at the parish church 
on 23 Nov. 1777, was the fourth and youngest 
son of Frederick Thackeray (1737-1782), a 
physician of Windsor, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Abel Aldridge of Uxbridge (d. 



1816). Frederick Rennell Thackeray [q. v.] 
was his younger brother. George became a 
king's scholar at Eton in 1792, and a scholar 
of King's College, Cambridge, in 1796. In 
1800 he was elected a fellow of King's Col- 
lege, and in the following year was appointed 
assistant master at Eton. He graduated 
B.A. in 1802, M.A. in 1805, and B.D. in 
1813. On 4 April 1814 he was elected pro- 
vost of King's College, and in the same year 
obtained the degree of D.D. by royal man- 
date. 

The death of his second wife in 1818 cast 
a gloom over Thackeray's subsequent life. 
He devoted much of his time to collecting 
rare books, and ' there was not a vendor of 
literary curiosities in London who had not 
some reason for knowing the provost of 
King's.' He directed the finances of the 
college with great ability. He held the 
appointment of chaplain in ordinary to 
George III and to the three succeeding 
sovereigns. 

Thackeray died in Wimpole Street on 
21 Oct. 1850, and was buried in a vault in 
the ante-chapel of King's College. He was 
twice married : on 9 Nov. 1803 to Miss Car- 
bonell, and in 1816 to Mary Ann, eldest 
daughter of Alexander Cottiii of Cheverells 
in Hertfordshire. She died on 18 Feb. 1818, 
leaving a daughter, Mary Ann Elizabeth. 

[Burke's Family Records; Gent. Mag. 1850, 
ii. 664 ; Herald and Genealogist, ii. 4-16 ; Luard's 
Gracl. Cantabr. p. 513 ; Registrum Regale, 1847, 
pp. 8, 51.] E. I. C. 

THACKERAY, AVILLIAM MAKE- 
PEACE (1811-1863), novelist, born at Cal- 
cutta on 18 July 1811, was the only child 
of Richmond and Anne Thackeray. The 
Thackerays descended from a family of yeo- 
men who had been settled for several genera- 
tions at Hampsthwaite, a hamlet on the 
Nidd in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
Thomas Thackeray (1693-1760) was ad- 
mitted a king's scholar at Eton in January 
1705-6. He was scholar (1712) and fellow 
(1715) of King's College, Cambridge, and 
soon afterwards was an assistant master at 
Eton. In 1746 he became headmaster of 
Harrow, where Dr. Parr was one of his 
pupils. In 1748 he was made chaplain to 
Frederick, prince of Wales, and in 1753 
archdeacon of Surrey. He died at Harrow 
in 1760. By his wife Anne, daughter of 
John Woodward, he had sixteen children. 
The fourth son, Thomas (1736-1806), be- 
came a surgeon at Cambridge, and had fif- 
teen children, of whom William Makepeace 
(1770-1849) was a well-known physician at 
Chester; Elias (1771-1854), mentioned in 



Thackeray 



Thackeray 



the ' Irish Sketchbook,' became vicar of Dun- 
dalk; and Jane Townley (1788-1871) mar- 
ried in 1813 George Pryme [q. v.], the poli- 
tical economist. The archdeacon's fifth son, 
Frederick (1737-1 782), a physician at Wind- 
sor, was father of General Frederick Rennell 
Thackeray [q. v.] and of George Thackeray 
[q. v.], provost of King's College, Cambridge. 
Tne archdeacon's youngest child, William 
Makepeace (1749-1813), entered the service 
of the East India Company in 1766. lie was 
patronised by Cartier, governor of Bengal ; he 
was made ' factor 'at Dacca in 1771, and first 
collector of Sylhet in 1772. There, besides 
reducing the province to order, he became 
known as a hunter of elephants, and made 
money by supplying them to the company. 
In 1774 he returned to Dacca, and on 31 Jan. 
1776 he married, at Calcutta, Amelia Rich- 
mond, third daughter of Colonel Richmond 
"Webb. Webb was related to General 
John Richmond Webb [q. v.], whose victory 
at Wynendael is described in ' Esmond.' 
"W. M. Thackeray had brought two sisters to 
India, one of whom, Jane, married James 
Rennell [q. v.] His sister-in-law, Miss 
Webb,married Peter Moore [q. v.], who was 
afterwards guardian of the novelist. W. M. 
Thackeray had made a fortune by his ele- 
phants and other trading speculations then 
allowed to the company's servants, when in 
1776 he returned to England. In 1786 he 
bought a property at Hadley, near Barnet, 
where Peter Moore had also settled. W. M. 
Thackeray had twelve children : Emily, third 
child ( 1 780-1824), married John Talbot Shak- 
spear, and was mother of Sir Richmond Camp- 
bell Shakspear [q. v.] ; Charlotte Sarah, the 
fourth child (1786-1854), married John 
Ritchie ; and Francis, tenth child and sixth 
son, author of the ' Life of Lord Chatham ' 
(1827), who is separately noticed. Four 
other sons were in the civil service in India, 
one in the Indian army, and a sixth at the 
Calcutta bar. William, the eldest (1778- 
1823), was intimate with Sir Thomas Munro 
and had an important part in the administra- 
tion and land settlements in Madras. Rich- 
mond, fourth child of William Makepeace 
and Amelia Thackeray, was born at South 
Mimms on 1 Sept. 1781, and in 1798 went 
to India in the company's service. In 1807 
he became secretary to the board of revenue 
at Calcutta, and on 13 Oct. 1810 married 
Anne, daughter of John Ilarman Becher, 
and a 'reigning beauty 'at Calcutta. William 
Makepeace, their only child, was named after 
his grandfather, the name ' Makepeace' being 
derived, according to a family tradition, from 
some ancestor who had been a protestant 
martyr in the days of Queen Mary. Rich- 



mond Thackeray was appointed to the col- 
lectorship of the 24 pergunnahs, then con- 
sidered to be < one of the prizes of the Ben- 
gal service,' at the end of 181 1 . He died at 
Calcutta on 13 Sept. 1816. He seems, like 
his son, to have been a man of artistic tastes 
and a collector of pictures, musical instru- 
ments, and horses (HUNTER, Thackerays in 
India, p. 158). A portrait in possession of 
his granddaughter, Mrs. Ritchie, shows a re- 
fined and handsome face. 

His son, AVilliam Makepeace Thackeray, 
was sent to England in 1817 in a ship which 
touched at St. Helena. There a black ser- 
vant took the child to look at Napoleon, 
who was then at Bowood, eating three sheep 
a day and all the little children he could 
catch (George III in Four Georges). The 
boy found all England in mourning for the 
Princess Charlotte (d. 6 Nov. 1817). He 
was placed under the care of his aunt, Mrs. 
Ritchie. She was alarmed by discovering 
that the child could wear his uncle's hat, till 
she was assured by a physician that the big 
head had a good deal in It. The child's pre- 
cocity appeared especially in an early taste 
for drawing. Thackeray was sent to a school 
in Hampshire, and then to one kept by Dr. 
Turner at Chiswick, in the neighbourhood 
of the imaginary Miss Pinkertonof ' Vanity 
Fair.' Thackeray's mother about 1818 mar- 
ried Major Henry WilliamCarmichael Smyth 
(d. 1861) of the Bengal engineers, author of 
a Hindoostanee dictionary (1820), a ' Hindoo- 
stanee Jest-book,' and a history of the royal 
family of Lahore (1847). The Smyths re- 
turned to England in 1821, and settled at 
Addiscombe, where Major Smyth was for a 
time superintendent of the company's military 
college. From 1 822 to 1 828 Thackeray was at 
the Charterhouse. Frequent references in his 
writings show that he was deeply impressed 
by the brutality of English public school 
life, although, as was natural, he came to 
look back with more tenderness, as the years 
went on, upon the scenes of his boyish life. 
The headmaster was John Russell (1787- 
1863) [q.v.], who for a time raised the num- 
bers of the School. Russell had been trying 
the then popular system of Dr. Bell, which, 
after attracting pupils, ended in failure. The 
number of boys in 1825 was 480, but after- 
wards fell off. A description of the school 
in Thackeray's time is in Mozley's 'Remi- 
niscences.' George Stovin Venables [q.v.] was 
a school fellow and a lifelong friend. A enables 
broke Thackeray's nose in a fight, causing 
permanent disfigurement. He remembered 
Thackeray as a ' pretty, gentle boy,' who did 
not distinguish himself either at lessons or 
in the playground, but was much liked by a 



Thackeray 



Thackeray 



few friends. He rose to the first class in 
time, and was a monitor, but showed no 
promise as a scholar ; and in the latter part 
of his time he became famous as a writer of 
humorous verses. Latterly he lived at a 
boarding-house in Charterhouse Square, and 
as a 'day boy' saw less of his schoolfellows. 
In February 1828 he wrote to his mother, 
saying that he had become ' terribly in- 
dustrious,' but ' could not get Russell to 
think so.' There were then 370 boys in the 
school, and he wishes that there were only 
369. Russell, as his letters show, had re- 
proached him pretty much as the master of 
'Greyfriars 'reproaches young Pendennis, and 
a year after leaving the school he says that 
as a child he had been ' licked into indolence,' 
and when older ' abused into sulkiness' and 
' bullied into despair.' He left school in May 
1828 (for many details of his school life, 
illustrated by childish drawings and poetry, 
see Cornhill Mag. for January 1865, and 
Greyfriars for April 1892). Thackeray now 
went to live with the Smyths, who had left 
Addiscombe, and about 1825 taken a house 
called Larkbeare, a mile and a half from 
Ottery St. Mary. The scenery is described 
in ' Pendennis,' where Clavering St. Mary, 
Chatteris, and Baymouth stand for Ottery 
St. Mary, Exeter, and Sidmouth. Dr. Cor- 
nish, then vicar of Ottery St. Mary, lent 
Thackeray books, among others Gary's version 
of the 'Birds' of Aristophanes, which the lad 
illustrated with three humorous watercolour 
drawings. Cornish reports that Thackeray, 
like Pendennis, contributed to the poet's 
corner of the county paper, and gives a 
parody of Moore's ' Minstrel Boy ' (cited in 
Thackeray Memorials) ridiculing an intended 
speech of Richard Lalor Shell [q. v.], which 
was probably the author's first appearance 
in print. Thackeray read, it seems, for a 
time with his stepfather, who was proud of 
the lad's cleverness, but probably an incom- 
petent ' coach.' Thackeray was entered at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. His college 
tutor was AVilliam Whewell [q. v.] He 
began residence in February 1829. He was 
thus a ' by-term man,' which, as the great 
majority of his year had a term's start of 
him, was perhaps some disadvantage. This, 
however, was really of little importance, 
especially as he had the option of ' degrading' 
that is, joining the junior year. Thackeray 
had no taste for mathematics; nor had he 
taken to the classical training of his school 
in such a way as to qualify himself for 
success in examinations. In the May exami- 
nation (1829) he was in the fourth class, 
where ' clever non-reading men were put as 
in a limbo.' He had expected to be in the 



fifth. He read some classical authors and 
elementary mathematics, but his main in- 
terests were of a different kind. He saw 
something of his Cambridge cousins, two of 
Avhoni were fellows of King's College ; and 
formed lasting friendships with some of his 
most promising contemporaries. He was 
very sociable ; he formed an ' Essay' club in 
his second term, and afterwards a small club 
of which John Allen (afterwards archdeacon), 
Robert Hindes Groome [q. v.], and William 
Hepworth Thompson [q. v.] (afterwards 
master of Trinity) were members. Other 
lifelong friendships were with "William 
Henry Brookfield [q.v.], Edward FitzGerald, 
John Mitchell Kemble, A. W. Kinglake, 
Monckton^Milnes, Spedding, Tennyson, and 
Venables. He was fond of literary talk, 
expatiated upon the merits of Fielding, read 
Shelley, and could sing a good song. He 
also contributed to the ' Snob : a literary 
and scientific journal not conducted by 
members of the University,' which lasted 
through the May term of 1829. 'Snob' 
appears to have been then used for towns- 
men as opposed to gownsmen. In this 
appeared ' Timbuctoo,' a mock poem upon the 
subject of that year, for which Tennyson won 
the prize ; 'Genevieve' (which he mentions 
in a letter), and other trifles. Thackeray- 
was bound to attend the lectures of Pryme, 
his cousin'shusband, upon political economy. 
He adorned the syllabus with pen-and-ink 
drawings, but his opinion of the lectures is not 
recorded. He spoke at the Union with little 
success, and was much interested by Shelley, 
who seems to have been then a frequent 
topic of discussion. Thackeray was attracted 
by the poetry but repelled by the principles. 
He was at this time an ardent opponent of 
catholic emancipation. "C. 

He found Cambridge more agreeable but 
not more profitable than the Charterhouse. 
He had learnt ' expensive habits,' and in his 
second year appears to have fallen into some 
of the errors of Pendennis. He spent part 
of the long vacation of 1829 in Paris studying 
French and German, and left at the end of 
the Easter term 1830. His rooms were on 
the ground floor of the staircase between the 
chapel and the gateway of the great court, 
where, as he remarks to his mother, it will 
be said hereafter that Newton and Thackeray 
both lived. He left, as he said at the time, 
because he felt that he was wasting time 
upon studies which, without more success 
than was possible to him, would be of no use 
in later life. He inherited a fortune which 
has been variously stated at 20,0007., or 500/. 
a year, from his father. His relations wished 
him to go to the bar ; but he disliked the pro- 



Thackeray 



93 



Thackeray 



fession from the first, and resolved to finish 
his education by travelling. He in 1830 
went by Godesberg and Cologne, where he 
made some stay, to Weimar. There he 
spent some months. He was delighted by 
the homely and friendly ways of the little 
German court, which afterwards suggested 
' Pumpernickel,' and was made welcome in 
all the socialities of the place. He had never 
been in a society ' more simple, charitable, 
courteous, gentlemanlike.' He was intro- 
duced to Goethe, whom he long afterwards 
described in a letter published in Lewes's 
'Life of Goethe' (reprinted in ' Works,' vol. 
xxv.) He delighted then, as afterwards, in 
drawing caricatures to amuse children, and 
was flattered by hearing that the great man 
had looked at them. He seems to have pre- 
ferred the poetry of Schiller, whose ' religion 
and morals,' as he observes, ' were unexcep- 
tionable,' and who was ' by far the favourite ' 
at Weimar. He translated some of Schiller's 
and other German poems, and thought of 
making a book about German manners and 
customs. He did not, however, become a 
profound student of the literature. His 
studies at Weimar had been carried on by 
' lying on a sofa, reading novels, and dream- 
ing ; ' but he began to think of the future, 
and, after some thoughts of diplomacy, re- 
solved to be called to the bar. He read a 
little civil law, which he did not find ' much 
to his taste.' He returned to England in 
1831, entered the Middle Temple, and in 
November was settled in chambers in Hare 
Court. 

The ' preparatory education ' of lawyers 
struck him as ' one of the most cold-blooded, 
prejudiced pieces of invention that ever a 
man was slave to.' He read with Mr. 
Taprell, studied his Chitty, and relieved 
himself by occasional visits to the theatres 
and a trip to his old friends at Cambridge. 
He became intimate with Charles Bullet 
[q. v.], who, though he had graduated a 
little before, was known to the later Cam- 
bridge set; and, after the passage of the 
Reform Bill, went to Liskeard to help in 
Bullet's canvass for the following election. 
He then spent some time in Paris ; and soon 
after his return finally gave up a profession 
which seems to have been always distasteful. 
He had formed an acquaintance with Maginn 
in 1832 (Diary, in Mrs. Ritchie's possession). 
F. S. Mahony (' Father Prout ') told Blan- 
chard Jerrold that he had given the intro- 
duction. This is irreconcilable with the 
dates of Mahony's life in London. Mahony 
further said that Thackeray paid 500/. to 
Maginn to edit a new magazine a statement 
which, though clearly erroneous, probably 



refers to some real transaction (B. Jerrold's 
'Father Prout ' in Belgravia for July 1868) 
In any case Thackeray was mixing in literary 
circles and trying to get publishers for his 
caricatures. A paper had been started on 
o Jan. 1833 called the 'National Standard 
and Journal of Literature, Science, Music, 
Theatricals, and the Fine Arts.' Thackeray 
is said (VizETELLY, i. 235) to have bought 
thifl from F. VV. X. Bayley [q. v.J At any 
rate, he became editor and proprietor. He 
went to Paris, whence he wrote letters to 
the 'Standard' (end of June to August) 
and collected materials for articles. He re- 
turned to look after the paper about Novem- 
ber, and at the end of the year reports that 
he has lost about '2001. upon it, and that at 
this rate he will be ruined before it has 
made a success. Thackeray tells his mother 
at the same time that he ought to ' thank 
heaven ' for making him a poor man, as he 
will be ' much happier ' presumably as 
having to work harder. The last number 
of the ' Standard' appeared on 1 Feb. 1834. 
The loss to Thackeray was clearly not suffi- 
cient to explain the change in his position, 
nor are the circumstances now ascertainable. 
A good deal of money was lost at one time 
by the failure of an Indian bank, and pro- 
bably by other investments for which his 
stepfather wos more or less responsible. 
Thackeray had spent too much at Cambridge, 
and was led into occasional gambling. He 
told Sir Theodore Martin that his story of 
Deuceace (in the ' Yellowplush Papers') re- 
presented an adventure of his own. ' I 
have not seen that man,' he said, pointing 
to a gambler at Spa, ' since he drove me 
down in his cabriolet to my bankers in the 
city, where I sold out my patrimony and 
handed it over to him.' He added that the 
sum was lost at 6cart6, and amounted to 
l,oOO/. (MERIVALE and MARZIALS, p. 236). 
This story, which is clearly authentic, must 
refer to this period. In any case, Thacke- 
ray had now to work for his bread. He 
made up his mind that he could draw better 
than he could do anything else, and deter- 
mined to qualify himself as an artist and 
to study in Paris. 'Three years' appren- 
ticeship would be necessary. He accord- 
ingly settled at Paris in 1834. His aunt 
(Mrs. Ritchie) was living there, and his 
maternal grandmother accompanied him 
thither in October and made a home for 
him. The Smyths about the same time 
left Devonshire for London (some con- 
fusion as to dates has been caused by the 
accidental fusion of two letters into one in 
the 'Memorials,' p. 361). He worked in 
an atelier (probably that of Gros ; Haunt* 



Thackeray 



94 



Thackeray 



and Homes, p. 9), and afterwards copied 
pictures industriously at the Louvre (see 
Hay ward's article in Edinburgh Review, Janu- 
ary 1848). He never acquired any great 
technical skill as a draughtsman, but he 
always delighted in the art. The effort of 
preparing his drawings for engraving wearied 
him, and partly accounts for the inferiority 
of his illustrations to the original sketches 
{Orphan of Pimlico, pref.) As it is, they 
have the rare interest of being interpreta- 
tions by an author of his own conceptions, 
though interpretations in an imperfectly 
known language. 

It is probable that Thackeray was at the 
same time making some literary experiments. 
In January 1835 he appears as one of the 
' Fraserians ' in the picture by Maclise issued 
with the ' Fraser ' of that month. The only 
article before that time which has been con- 
jecturally assigned to him is the story of 
' Elizabeth Brownrigge,' a burlesque of Bul- 
wer's ' Eugene Aram,' in the numbers for 
August and September 1832. If really by 
him, as is most probable, it shows that his 
skill in the art of burlesquing was as yet 
very imperfectly developed. He was for some 
years desirous of an artistic career, and in 
1836 he applied to Dickens (speech at the 
Academy dinner of 1858) to be employed in 
illustrating the ' Pickwick Papers,' as suc- 
cessor to Robert Seymour [q. v.], who died 
20 April 1836. Henry Reeve speaks of him 
in January 1836 as editing an English paper 
at Paris in opposition to ' Galignani's Mes- 
senger,' but of this nothing more is known. 
In the same year came out his first publica- 
tion, ' Flore et Zephyr,' a collection of eight 
satirical drawings, published at London and 
Paris. In 1836 a company was formed, of 
which Major Smyth was chairman, in order to 
start an ultra-liberal newspaper. The price 
of the stamp upon newspapers was lowered 
in the session of 1836, and the change was 
supposed to give a chance for the enterprise. 
All the radicals Grote, Molesworth, Buller, 
and their friends premised support. The 
old 'Public Ledger 'was bought, and, with 
the new title, ' The Constitutional,' prefixed, 
began to appear on 15 Sept. (the day on 
which the duty was lowered). Samuel Laman 
Blanchard [q. v.] was editor, and Thackeray 
the Paris correspondent. He writes that his 
stepfather had behaved ' nobly,' and refused 
to take any remuneration as ' director,' de- 
siring only this appointment for the stepson. 
Thackeray acted in that capacity for some 
time, and wrote letters strongly attacking 
Louis-Philippe as the representative of re- 
trograde tendencies. The ' Constitutional,' 
however, failed, and after 1 July 1837 the 



name disappeared and the ' Public Ledger ' re- 
vived in its place. The company had raised 
over 40,000/., and the loss is stated at 6,000/. 
or 7,000/. probably a low estimate (Fox 
BOTTRNE, English Newspapers, ii. 96-100 ; 
ANDREWS, British Journalism, p. 237). 

Meanwhile Thackeray had taken advan- 
tage of his temporary position. He married, 
as he told his friend Synge, ' with 400/.' (the 
exact sum seems to have been eight guineas 
a week), ' paid by a newspaper which failed 
six months afterwards,' referring presumably 
to his salary from the ' Constitutional.' He 
was engaged early in the year to Isabella 
Gethin Creagh Shawe of Doneraile, co. Cork. 
She was daughter of Colonel Shawe, who 
had been military secretary, it is said, to the 
Marquis of Wellesley in India. The mar- 
riage took place at the British embassy at 
Paris on 20 Aug. 1836 (see MARZIALS and 
MERIVALE, p. 107, for the official entry, first 
made known by Mr. Marzials in the Athe- 
nceum), 

The marriage was so timed that Thacke- 
ray could take up his duties as soon as the 
' Constitutional ' started. The failure of the 
paper left him to find support by his pen. 
He speaks in a later letter (Brookfield Cor- 
respondence, p. 36) of writing for ' Galignani ' 
at ten francs a day, apparently at this time. 
He returned, however, to England in 1837. 
The Smyths had left Larkbeare some time 
before, and were now living at 18 Albion 
Street, where Thackeray joined them, and 
where his first daughter was born. Major 
Smyth resembled Colonel Newcome in other 
qualities, and also in a weakness for absurd 
speculations. He wasted money in various 
directions, and the liabilities incurred by the 
' Constitutional ' were for a long time a source 
of anxiety. The Smyths now went to live 
at Paris, while Thackeray took a house at 
13 Great Coram Street, and laboured ener- 
getically at a variety of hackwork. He 
reviewed Carlyle's 'French Revolution' in 
the ' Times ' (3 Aug. 1837). The author, as 
Carlyle reports, ' is one Thackeray, a half- 
monstrous Cornish giant, kind of painter, 
Cambridge man, and Paris newspaper cor- 
respondent, who is now writing for his life 
in London. I have seen him at the Bullers' 
and at Sterling's ' {Life in London, i. 113). 

In 1838, and apparently for some time 
later, he worked for the ' Times.' He men- 
tions an article upon Fielding in 1 840 (Brook- 
Afield Correspondence, p. 125). He occasion- 
ally visited Paris upon journalistic business. 
He had some connection with the ' Morning 
Chronicle.' He contributed stories to the 
' New Monthly ' and to some of George 
Cruikshank's publications. He also illus- 



Thackeray 



95 



Thackeray 



trated Douglas Jerrold's' Men of Character' 
in 1838, and in 1840 was recommended by 
(Sir) Henry Cole [q. v.] for employment 
both as writer and artist by the anti-corn- 
law agitators. His drawings for this pur- 
pose are reproduced in Sir Henry Cole's 
'Fifty Years of Public Work' (ii. 143). 
His most important connection, however, 
was with 'Eraser's Magazine.' In 1838 he 
contributed to it the ' Yellowplush Corre- 
spondence,' containing the forcible incarna- 
tion of his old friend Deuceace, and in 1839- 
1840 the ' Catherine : by Ikey Solomons,' 
following apparently the precedent of his 
favourite Fielding's ' Jonathan Wild.' The ori- 
ginal was the real murderess Catherine Hayes 
(1690-1726) [q. v.], whose name was unfor- 
tunately identical with that of the popular 
Irish vocalist Catherine Hayes (1825-1861) 
[q. v.] A later reference to his old heroine 
in ' Pendennis ' (the passage is in vol. ii. 
chap. vii. of the serial form, afterwards 
suppressed) produced some indignant re- 
marks in Irish papers, which took it for an 
insult to the singer. Thackeray explained 
the facts on 12 April 1850 in a letter to the 
' Morning Chronicle ' on ' Capers and An- 
chovies ' (dated ' Garrick Club, 11 April 
1850'). A compatriot of Miss Hayes took 
lodgings about the same time opposite Thacke- 
ray's house in Young Street in order to in- 
flict vengeance. Thackeray first sent for a 
policeman ; but finally called upon the 
avenger, and succeeded in making him hear 
reason (see Haunts and Homes, p. 51). 

For some time Thackeray wrote annual 
articles upon the exhibitions, the first of which 
appeared in ' Fraser ' in 1838. According to 
FitzGerald (Remains, i. 154), they annoyed 
one at least of the persons criticised, a circum- 
stance not unparalleled, even when criticism, 
as this seems to have been, is both just and 
good-natured. In one respect, unfortunately, 
he conformed too much to a practice common 
to the literary class of the time. He ridi- 
culed the favourite butts of his allies with 
a personality which he afterwards regretted. 
In a preface to the ' Punch ' papers, pub- 
lished in America in 1853, he confesses to 
his sins against Bulwer, and afterwards 
apologised to Bulwer himself. ' I suppose 
we all begin by being too savage,' he wrote to 
Hannay in 1849; ' I know one who did.' A 
private letter of 1840 shows that he con- 
sidered his satire to be 'good-natured.' 

Three daughters were born about this 
time. The death of the second in infancy 
(1839) suggested a pathetic chapter in the 
' Hoggarty Diamond.' After the birth of the 
third (28 May 1840) Thackeray took a trip to 
Belgium, having arranged for the publication 



of a short book of travels. He had left his 
wife nearly well,' but returned to find her in 
a strange state of languor and mental inac- 
tivity which became gradually more pro- 
nounced. For a long time there were gleams 
of hope. Thackeray himself attended to h.-r 
exclusively for a time. He took her to her 
mother's in Ireland, and afterwards to Paris. 
There she had to be placed in a maion dt 
sante, Thackeray taking lodgings close by, 
and seeing her as frequently as he could! 
A year later, as he wrote to FitzGerald, then 
very intimate with him, he thought her ' all 
but well.' He was then with her at a hydro- 
pathic establishment in Germany, where she 
seemed to be improving for a short time. The 
case, however, had become almost hopeless 
when in 1842 he went to Ireland. Yet he 
continued to write letters to her as late as 
1844, hoping that she might understand 
them. She had finally to be placed with 
a trustworthy attendant. She was plucid 
and gentle, though unfitted for any active 
duty, and with little knowledge of anything 
around her, and survived till 1892." The 
children had to be sent to the grandparents 
at Paris ; the house at Great Coram Street 
was finally given up in 1843, and Thackeray 
for some time lived as a bachelor at 27 
Jermyn Street, 88 St. James's Street, and 
probably elsewhere. 

His short married life had been perfectly 
happy. ' Though my marriage was a wreck",' 
he wrote in 1852 to his friend Synge, ' I 
would do it over again, for behold love is 
the crown and completion of all earthly 
good.' In spite of the agony of suspense he 
regained cheerfulness, and could write plav- 
ful letters, although the frequent melancholy 
of this period may be traced in some of his 
works. Part of ' Vanity Fair ' was written 
in 1841 (see Orphan of Pimlico). He found 
relief from care in the society of his friends, 
and was a member of many clubs of various 
kinds. He had been a member of the Gar- 
rick Club from 1833, and in March 1840 was 
elected to the Reform Club. He was a fre- 
quenter of ' Evans's,' described in many of his 
works, and belonged at this and later periods 
to various sociable clubs of the old-fasti ioned 
style, such as the Shakespeare, the Fielding 
(of which he was a founder), and ' Our Chili.' 
There in the evenings he met literary com- 
rades, and gradually became known as an 
eminent member of the fraternity. Mean- 
while, as he said, although he could suit tin* 
magazines, he could not hit the public 
( CasselCs Magazine, new ser. i. 298). 

In 1840, just before his wife's illness, he 
had published the ' Paris Sketchbook,' using 
some of his old material ; and in 1841 he pub- 



Thackeray 



9 6 



Thackeray 



lished a collection called ' Comic Tales and 
Sketches,' which had previously appeared in 
' Fraser ' and elsewhere. It does not seem 
to have attracted much notice. In Sep- 
tember of the same year the ' History of 
Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty 
Diamond,' which had been refused by 'Black- 
wood,' began to appear in ' Fraser.' His friend 
Sterling read the first two numbers ' with 
extreme delight,' and asked what there was 
better in Fielding or Goldsmith. Thackeray, 
he added, with leisure might produce mas- 
terpieces. The opinion, however, remained 
esoteric, and the ' Hoggarty Diamond' was 
cut short at the editor's request. His next 
book records a tour made in Ireland in the 
later half of 1842. He there made Lever's 
acquaintance, and advised his new friend to 
try his fortunes in London. Lever declared 
Thackeray to be the ' most good-natured of 
men,' but,* 4 though grateful, could not take 
help offered by a man who was himself 
struggling to keep his head above water 
(FiTZPATRiCK, Lever, ii. 396). The ' Irish 
Sketchbook' (1843), in which his experiences 
are recorded, is a quiet narrative of some 
interest as giving a straightforward account 
of Ireland as it appeared to an intelligent 
traveller rust before the famine. A preface 
in which Thackeray pronounced himself de- 
cidedly against the English government of 
Ireland was suppressed, presumably in defe- 
rence to the fears of the publisher. Thackeray 
would no doubt have been a home-ruler. 
In 1 840 he tells his mother that he is ' not 
a chartist, only a republican,' and speaks 
strongly against aristocratic government. 
Cornh'ill to Cairo' (1846), which in a lite- 
rary sense is very superior, records a two 
months' tour made in the autumn of 1844, 
during which he visited Athens, Constanti- 
nople, Jerusalem, and Cairo. The directors 
of the ' Peninsular and Oriental Company,' 
as he gratefully records, gave him a free 
passage. During the same year the ' Luck 
of Barry Lyndon,' which probably owed 
something to his Irish experiences, was coming 
out in 'Fraser.' All later critics have re- 
cognised in this book one of his most power- 
ful performances. In directness and vigour 
he never surpassed it. At the time, how- 
ever, it was still unsuccessful, the popular 
reader of the day not liking the company of 
even an imaginary blackguard. Thackeray 
was to obtain his first recognition in a dif- 
ferent capacity. 

'Punch' had been started with compara- 
tively little success on 17 July 1841. Among 
the first contributors were Douglas Jerrold 
and Thackeray's schoolfellow John Leech, 
both his friends, and he naturally tried to turn 



the new opening to account. FitzGerald ap- 
parently feared that this would involve a 
lowering of his literary status ('22 May 1842). 
He began to contribute in June 1842, his 
first article being the ' Legend of Jawbrahim 
Heraudee' (Punch, iii. 254). His first series, 
' Miss Tickletoby's Lectures on English His- 
tory,' began in June 1842. They ran for ten 
numbers, but failed to attract notice or to 
give satisfaction to the proprietors (see letter 
in SPIELMANN, p. 310). Thackeray, however, 
persevered, and gradually became an accept- 
able contributor, having in particular the 
unique advantage of being skilful both with 
pen and pencil. In the course of his con- 
nection with ' Punch ' he contributed 380 
sketches. One of his drawings (Punch, xii. 
59) is famous because nobody has ever been 
able to see the point of it, though a rival 
paper ironically offered 5001. for an explana- 
tion. This, however, is a singular exception. 
His comic power was soon appreciated, and at 
Christmas 1843 he became an attendant at 
the regular dinner parties which formed 
' Punch's' cabinet council. The first marked 
success was 'Jeames's Diary,' which began in 
November 1845, and satirised the railway 
mania of the time. The 'Snobs of England, 
by One of Themselves,' succeeded, beginning 
on 28 Feb. 1846, and continued for a year; 
and after the completion of this series the 
'Prize Novelists,' inimitably playful bur- 
lesques, began in April and continued till 
October 1847. The ' Snob Papers ' were col- 
lected as the 'Book of Snobs' (issued from 
the ' Punch' office). Seven, chiefly political, 
were omitted, but have been added to the 
last volume of the collected works. 

The ' Snob Papers' had a very marked 
effect, and may be said to have made 
Thackeray famous. He had at last found out 
how to reach the public ear. The style was 
admirable, and the freshness and vigour of 
the portrait painting undeniable. It has been 
stated (SPIELMANN, p. 319) that Thackeray 
got leave to examine the complaint books of 
several clubs in order to obtain materials 
for his description of club snobs. He was 
speaking, in any case, upon a very familiar 
topic, and the vivacity of his sketches natu- 
rally suggested identification with particular 
individuals. These must be in any case 
doubtful, and the practice was against 
Thackeray's artietic principles. Several of 
his Indian relatives are mentioned as partly 
originals of Colonel Newcome (HUNTER, 
p. 168). He says himself that his Amelia 
represented his wife, his mother, and Mrs. 
Rrookfield^Brookfield Correspondence, p. 23). 
He describes to the same correspondent a 
self-styled Blanche Amory (ib. p. 49). Foker, 



Thackeray 



97 



Thackeray 



in ' Pendennis,' is said to have been in some 
degree a portrait according to Mr. Jeaffre- 
son, a flattering portrait of an acquaintance. 
The resemblances can only be taken as 

generic, but a good cap fits many particular 
eads. 

The success of the ' Snob Papers ' perhaps 
led Thackeray to insist a little too frequently 
upon a particular variety of social infirmity. 
He was occasionally accused of sharing the 
weakness which he satirised, and would play- 
fully admit that the charge was not alto- 
gether groundless. Jt is much easier to 
make such statements than to test their 
truth. They indicate, however, one point 
which requires notice. Thackeray was at 
this time, as he remarks in * Philip' (chap, 
v.), an inhabitant of 'Bohemia,' and enjoyed 
the humours and unconventional ways of 
the region. But he was a native of his 
own ' Tyburnia,' forced into 'Bohemia' by 
distress and there meeting many men of the 
Bludyer type who were his inferiors in re- 
finement and cultivation. Such people were 
apt to show their ' unconventionally' by 
real coarseness, and liked to detect ' snob- 
bishness ' in any taste for good society. To 
wear a dress-coat was to truckle to rank and 
fashion. Thackeray, an intellectual aristo- 
crat though politically a liberal, was natu- 
rally an object of some suspicion to the 
rougher among his companions. If he ap- 
preciated refinement too keenly, no accusa- 
tion of anything like meanness has ever 
been made against him. Meanwhile it was 
characteristic of his humour that he saw more 
strongly than any one the bad side of the 
society which held out to him the strongest 
temptations, and emphasised, possibly too 
much, its ' mean admiration of mean things' 
(Snob Papers, chap, ii.) 

Thackeray in 1848 received one proof of 
his growing fame by the presentation of a 
silver inkstand in the shape of ' Punch 'from 
eighty admirers at Edinburgh, headed by Dr. 
John'Brown (1810-1882) [q. v.], afterwards 
a warm friend and appreciative critic. His 
reputation was spreading by other works 
which distracted his energies from ' Punch.' 
He continued to contribute occasionally. 
The characteristic 'Bow Street Ballads' in 
1848 commemorate, among other things, his 
friendship for Matthew James Higgins [q. v.], 
one of whose articles, 'A Plea for Plush,' is 
erroneously included in the last volume of 
Thackeray s works (SPIELMANX, p. 321 n.) 
Some final contributions appeared in 1854, 
but his connection ceased after 1851, in 
which year he contributed forty-one articles 
and twelve cuts. Thackeray had by this 
time other occupations which made him un- 

YOL. LTI. 



willing to devote much time to journalism. 
He wrote a letter in 1855 to one of the pro- 
prietors, explaining the reasons of his re- 
tirement. He was annoyed by the political 
line taken by 'Punch' in 1851, especially by 
denunciations of Xapoleon 111, which seemed 
to him unpatriotic and dangerous to peace 
(SPIELMANK, pp. 323-4, and the review of 
John Leech). He remained, however, on 
good terms with his old colleagues, and occa- 
sionally attended their dinners. A sentence 
in his eulogy upon Leech (1854) appeared to 
disparage the relative merits of other con- 
tributors. Thackeray gave an 'atonement 
dinner' at his own house, and obtained full 
forgiveness (TBOLLOPE, p. 42; SPIELMAJJN, 
p. 87). The advantages had been reciprocal, 
and were cordially admitted on both sides. 
' It was a good day for himself, the journal, 
and the world when Thackeray joined 
"Punch,"' said Shirley Brooks, afterwards 
editor ; and Thackeray himself admitted that 
he ' owed the good chances which had lately 
befallen him to his connection with 'Punch' 
(ib. pp. 308, 326). 

From 1846 to 1850 he published yearly a 
'Christmas book,' the last of which, 'The 
Kickleburys on the Rhine,' was attacked in 
the ' Times.' Thackeray's reply to this in a 
preface to the second edition is characteristic 
of his own view of the common tone of 
criticism at the time. Thackeray's 'May 
Day Ode' on the opening of the exhibition of 
1851 appeared in the 'Times' of 30 April, 
and probably implied a reconciliation with 
the ' Thunderer.' 

Thackeray had meanwhile made his mark 
in a higher department of literature. His 
improving position had now enabled him to 
make a home for himself. In 1846 he took 
a house at 13 Young Street, whither he 
brought his daughters, and soon afterwards 
received long visits from the Smyths(/?rooA:- 
field Correspondence). There he wrote ' Vanity 
Fair.' Dickens's success had given popu- 
larity to the system of publishing novels 
in monthly numbers. The first number of 
' Vanity Fair ' appeared in January 1847, 
and the last (a double number) in July 1848. 
It has been said that ' Vanity Fair ' was re- 
fused by many publishers, but the state- 
ment has been disputed (cf. VIXKTKU.Y, i. 
281 &c.) He received fifty guineas a number, 
including the illustrations. The first num- 
bers were comparatively unsuccessful, and 
the book for a time brought more fame than 
profit. Gradually it became popular, and 
before it was ended his position as one of 
the first of English novelists was generally 
recognised. On 16 Sept. 1M7 Mr-. Carlyle 
wrote to her husband that the last four 



Thackeray 



Thackeray 



numbers were ' very good indeed' he ' beats 
Dickens out of the world.' 

Abraham Hayward [q. v.], an old friend, 
had recommended Thackeray to Macvey 
Napier in 18-45 as a promising ' Edinburgh 
Reviewer.' Thackeray had accordingly 
written an article upon N. P. Willis's 
' Dashes at Life/ which Napier mangled and 
Jeffrey condemned (Napier Correspondence, 
498, 506 ; Hayward Correspondence, i. 105). 
Hayward now reviewed the early numbers 
of ' Vanity Fair ' in the ' Edinburgh ' for 
January 1848. It is warmly praised as 
' immeasurably superior ' to all his known 
works. Edward FitzGerald speaks of its 
success a little later, and says that Thackeray 
has become a great man and goes to Holland 
House. Monckton Milnes writes (19 May) 
that Thackeray is ' winning great social 
success, dining at the Academy with Sir 
Robert Peel,' and so forth. Milnes was 
through life a very close friend ; he had been 
with Thackeray to see the second funeral of 
Napoleon, and had accompanied him ' to see 
a man hanged ' (an expedition described by 
Thackeray in Fraser's Mag, August 1840). 
He tried to obtain a London magistracy for 
Thackeray in 1849. It was probably with 
a view to such an appointment, in which he 
would have succeeded Fielding, that Thacke- 
ray was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple on 26 May 1848. As, however, a 
magistrate had to be a barrister of seven 
years' standing, the suggestion came to 
nothing ( WEMYSS EEED, Monckton Milnes, 
i. 427). Trollope says (p. 34) that in 1848 
Lord Clanricarde, then postmaster-general, 
proposed to make him assistant secretary at 
the post office, but had to withdraw an offer 
which would have been unjust to the regu- 
lar staff. Thackeray, in any case, had be- 
come famous outside of fashionable circles. 
In those days youthful critics divided 
themselves into two camps of Dickens and 
Thackeray worshippers. Both were popular 
authors of periodical publications, but other- 
wise a ' comparison ' was as absurd as most 
comparisons of disparate qualities. As a 
matter of fact, Dickens had an incomparably 
larger circulation, as was natural to one who 
appealed to a wider audience. Thackeray 
had as many or possibly more adherents 
among the more cultivated critics ; but for 
some years the two reigned supreme among 
novelists. Among Thackeray's warmest ad- 
mirers was Miss Bronte, who had pub- 
lished ' Jane Eyre ' anonymously. The 
second edition was dedicated in very enthu- 
siastic terms to the ' Satirist of Vanity Fair.' 
He was compared to a Hebrew prophet, and 
said to ' resemble Fielding as an eagle does 



a vulture.' An absurd story to the effect 
that Miss Bronte was represented by Becky 
Sharp and Thackeray by Mr. Rochester 
became current, and was mentioned seriously 
in a review of ' Vanity Fair ' in the ' Quar- 
terly ' for January 1849. Miss Bronte came 
to London in June 1850, and was intro- 
duced to her hero. She met him at her 
publisher's house, and dined at his house on 
12 June. Miss Bronte's genius did not in- 
clude a sense of humour, and she rebuked 
Thackeray for some 'errors of doctrine,' 
which he defended by ' worse excuses.' 
They were, however, on excellent terms, 
though the dinner to which he invited her 
turned out to be so oppressively dull that 
Thackeray sneaked off to his club prema- 
turely (MRS. RITCHIE, Chapters, &c., p. 62). 
She attended one of his lectures in 1851, and, 
though a little scandalised by some of his 
views, cordially admired his great qualities. 

' Vanity Fair ' was succeeded by ' Pen- 
dennis,' the first number of which appeared 
in November 1848. The book has more 
autobiography than any of the novels, and 
clearly embodies the experience of Thacke- 
ray's early life so fully that it must be also 
pointed out that no stress must be laid upon 
particular facts. Nor is it safe to identify 
any of the characters with originals, though 
Captain Shandon has been generally taken 
to represent Maginn; and Mrs. Carlyle 
gives a lively account in January 1851 of a 
young lady whom she supposed to be the 
original of Blanche Amory (Memorials, ii. 
143-7). When accused of ' fostering a bane- 
ful prejudice against literary men,' Thackeray 
defended himself in a letter to the ' Morning 
Chronicle' of 12 Jan. 1850, and stated that he 
had seen the bookseller from whom Bludyer 
robbed and had taken money ' from a noble 
brother man of letters to some one not unlike 
Captain Shandon in prison ' (Hannay says 
that it is ' certain ' that he gave Maginn 
500/.) The state of Thackeray's finances 
up to Maginn's death (1842) seems to make 
this impossible, though the statement (see 
above) made by Father Prout suggests that 
on some pretext Maginn may have obtained 
such a sum from Thackeray. Anyway the 
book is a transcript from real life, and shows 
perhaps as much power as ' Vanity Fair,' with 
less satirical intensity. A severe illness at 
the end of 1849 interrupted the appearance 
of ' Pendennis,' which was not concluded till 
December 1850. The book is dedicated to 
Dr. John Elliotson [q. v.l, who would ' take 
no other fee but thanks,' and to whose 
attendance he ascribed his recovery. 

On 25 Feb. 1851 Thackeray was elected 
member of the Athenoeum Club by the com- 



Thackeray 



99 



Thackeray 



mittee. An attempt to elect him in 1850 
had been defeated by the opposition of one 
member. Macaulay, Croker, Dean Milinan, 
and Lord Mahon had supported his claims 
(Hayward Correspondence, i. 120). He was 
never, as has been said, ' blackballed.' He 
was henceforward a familiar figure at the 
club. The illness of 1849 appears to have 
left permanent effects. He was afterwards 
liable to attacks which caused much suffer- 
ing. Meanwhile, although he was now 
making a good income, he was anxious to 
provide for his children and recover what 
he had lost in his youth. He resolved to 
try his hand at lecturing, following a pre- 
cedent already set by such predecessors as 
Coleridge, Hazlitt, and Carlyle. He gave a 
course of six lectures upon the ' English Hu- 
morists ' at Willis's Rooms from 22 May 
to 3 July 1851 . The first (on Swift), though 
attended by many friends, including Carlyle, 
Kinglake, Hallam, Macaulay, and Milman, 
seemed to him to be a failure ($. i. 119, where 
1847 must be a misprint for 1851 ; C. Fox, 
Memories, &c., 1882, ii. 171). The lectures 
soon became popular, as they deserved to be. 
Thackeray was not given to minute research, 
and his facts and dates require some correc- 
tion. But his delicate appreciation of the 
congenial writers and the finish of his style 
give the lectures a permanent place in cri- 
ticism. His ' light-in-hand manner,' as Mot- 
ley remarked of a later course, ' suits well 
the delicate hovering rather than super- 
ficial style of his composition.' Without the 
slightest attempt at rhetorical effect his deli- 
very did full justice to the peculiar merits of 
his own writing. The lectures had appa- 
rently been prepared with a view to an en- 
gagement in America (Brookfield Corre- 
spondence, p. 113, where the date should be 
early in 1851, not 1850). Before starting 
he published 'Esmond,' of which FitzGerald 
says (2 June 1852) that ' it was finished 
last Saturday.' The book shows even more 
than the lectures how thoroughly he had im- 
bibed the spirit of the Queen A'nne writers. 
His style had reached its highest perfection, 
and the tenderness of the feeling has won 
perhaps more admirers for this book than for 
the more powerful and sterner performances 
of the earlier period. The manuscript, now 
in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
shows that it was written with very few cor- 
rections, and in great part dictated to his 
eldest daughter and Mr. Crowe. Earlier 
manuscripts show much more alteration, and 
he clearly obtained a completer mastery of 
his tools by long practice. He took, how- 
ever, much pains to get correct statements 
of fact, and read for that purpose at the 



libraries of the British Museum and the 
Athenaeum ( With Thackeray in America, 
pp. 1-0). The book had a good sale from the' 
first, although the contrary has been stated. 
For the first edition of 'Esmond 'Thackeray 
received 1,200/. It was published by Messrs. 
Smith & Elder, and the arrangement was 
made with him by Mr. George Smith of that 
firm, who became a warm friend for the rest 
of his life (Mus. RITCHIE, Chapters, p. 30). 
On 30 Oct. 1852 Thackeray sailed for Bos- 
ton, U.S.A., in company with Clough and 
J. R. Lowell. He lectured at Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia (where he formed a 
friendship with W. B. Reed, who has de- 
scribed their intercourse), Baltimore, Rich- 
mond, Charleston, and Savannah. He was 
received with the characteristic hospitality 
of Americans, and was thoroughly pleased 
with the people, making many friends in the 
southern as well as in the northern states 
a circumstance which probably affected his 
sympathies during the subsequent civil war. 
He returned in the spring of 1853 with 
about 2,500/. Soon after his return he stayed 
three weeks in London, and, after spending 
a month with the Smyths, went with his 
children to Switzerland. There, as he says 
( The Newcomes, last chapter), he strayed into 
a wood near Berne, where the story of ' The 
Newcomes ' was ' revealed to him somehow.' 
The story, like those of his other longer 
novels, is rather a wide section of family 
history than a definite ' plot.' The rather 
complicated action gives room for a good 
deal of autobiographical matter ; and Colonel 
Newcome is undoubtedly drawn to a great 
degree from his stepfather. For ' The New- 
comes ' he apparently received 4,000/ It 
was again published in numbers, and was 
illustrated by his friend Richard Doyle [q. v.l, 
who had also illustrated ' Rebecca and 
Rowena ' (1850). Thackeray was now living 
at 36 Onslow Square, to which he had moved 
from Young Street in 1853. At Christmas 
1853 Thackeray went with his daughters to 
Rome. There, to amuse some children, he 
made the drawings which gradually ex- 
panded into the delightful burlesque of Tho 
' Rose and the Ring,' published with great 
success in 1854. lie suffered also from a 
Roman fever, from which, if not from the 
previous 'illness of 1849, dated a series of 
attacks causing much suffering and depres- 
sion. The last number of ' The Newcomes ' 
appeared in August 1855, and in October 
Thackeray started for a second lecturing 
tour in the United States. Sixty of his 
friends gave him a farewell dinner ^11 Oct.), 
at which Dickens took the chair. The sub- 
iect of this new series was 'The Four 

u "2 



Thackeray 



IOO 



Thackeray 



Georges.' Over-scrupulous Britons com- 
plained of him for laying bare the weaknesses 
of our monarchs to Americans, who were 
already not predisposed in their favour. 
The Georges, however, had been dead for 
some time. On this occasion his tour ex- 
tended as far as New Orleans. An attempt 
on his return journey to reproduce the ' Eng- 
lish Humorists ' in Philadelphia failed ow- 
ing to the lateness of the season. Thacke- 
ray said that he could not bear to see the 
' sad, pale-faced young man ' who had lost 
money by undertaking the speculation, and 
left behind him a sum to replace what had 
been lost. He returned to England in April 
1856. The lectures upon the Georges were 
repeated at various places in England and 
Scotland. He received from thirty to fifty 
guineas a lecture (POLLOCK, Reminiscences, 
ii. 57). Although they have hardly the 
charm of the more sympathetic accounts of 
the ' humorists,' they show the same quali- 
ties of style, and obtained general if not 
equal popularity. 

Thackeray's hard struggle, which had 
brought fame and social success, had also en- 
abled him to form a happier home. His chil- 
dren had lived with him from 1846 ; but 
while they were in infancy the house without 
a mistress was naturally grave and quiet. 
Thackeray had the strongest love of all 
children, and was a most affectionate father 
to his own. He did all that he could to 
make their lives bright. He took them to 
plays and concerts, or for long drives into 
the country, or children's parties at the 
Dickenses' and elsewhere. They became 
known to his friends, grew up to be on the 
most easy terms with him, and gave him a 
happy domestic circle. About 1853 he re- 
ceived as an inmate of his household Amy 
Crowe, the daughter of Eyre Evans Crowe 
[q.v.]. who had been a warm friend at Paris. 
She became a sister to his daughters, and in 
1862 married his cousin, now Colonel Ed- 
ward Talbot Thackeray, V.C. His old college 
friend Brookfield was now settled as a clergy- 
man in London, and had married a very 
charming wife. The published correspon- 
dence shows how much value Thackeray at- 
tached to this intimacy. Another dear friend 
was John Leech, to whom he was specially 
attached. He was also intimate with Richard 
Doyle and other distinguished artists, in- 
cluding Landseer and Mr. G. F. Watts. 
Another friend was Henry Thoby Prinsep 
[q. v.], who lived in later years at Little Hol- 
land House, which became the centre of a de- 
lightful social circle. Herman Merivale [q. v.] 
and his family, the Theodore Martins, the 
Coles and the Synges, were other friends 



of whose relation to him some notice is 
given in the last chapter of Mr. Merivale's 
memoir. Thackeray was specially kind to 
the younger members of his friends' families. 
He considered it to be a duty to ' tip ' 
schoolboys, and delighted in giving them 
holidays at the play. His old friendships 
with Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), 
Venables, Kinglake, and many other well- 
known men were kept up both at his clubs 
and at various social meetings. The Car- 
lyles were always friendly, in spite of Car- 
lyle's severe views of a novelist's vocation. 
Thackeray's time, however, was much taken 
up by lecturing and by frequent trips to the 
continent or various country places in search 
of relaxation. His health was far from 
strong. On 11 Nov. 1854 he wrote to Reed 
that he had been prevented from finishing 
' The Newcomes ' by a severe fit of ' spasms/ 
of which he had had about a dozen in the 
year. This decline of health is probably to 
be traced in the comparative want of vigour 
of his next writings. 

In July 1857 Thackeray stood for the city 
of Oxford, the member, Charles Neate (1806- 
1879) [q.v.],having been unseated on petition. 
Thackeray was always a decided liberal in 
politics, though never much interested in 
active agitation. He promised to vote for the 
ballot in extension of the suffrage, and was 
ready to accept triennial parliaments. His 
opponent was Mr. Edward (afterwards Vis- 
count) Card well [q.v.], who had lost the seat at 
the previous election for opposing Palmerston 
on the Chinese question. Thackeray seems to 
have done better as a speaker than might 
have been expected, and Card well only won 
(21 July) by a narrow majority 1,085 to 
1,018. Thackeray had fought thecontest with 
good temper and courtesy. ' I will retire,' he 
said in a farewell speech, 'and take my 
place at my desk, and leave to Mr. Cardwell 
a business which I am sure he understands 
better than I do.' ' The Virginians,' the 
firstfruits of this resolution, came out in 
monthly numbers from November 1857 to 
October 1859. It embodied a few of his 
American recollections (see REED'S Hand 
Immemor^), and continued with less than 
the old force the history of the Esmond 
family. A careful account of the genealo- 
logies in Thackeray's novels is given by Mr. 
E. C. K. Gonner in ' Time ' for 1889 (pp. 
501, 603). Thackeray told Motley that he 
contemplated a grand novel of the period of 
Henry V, in which the ancestors of all his 
imaginary families should be assembled, He 
mentions this scheme in a letter to Fitz- 
Gerald in 1841. He had read many of the 
chronicles of the period, though it may be 



Thackeray 



101 



Thackeray 



doubted whether he would have been as 
much at home with Henry as with Queen 
Anne. 

In June 1858 Edmund Yates [q. v.] pub- 
lished in a paper called ' Town Talk ' a per- 
sonal description of Thackeray, marked, as 
the author afterwards allowed, by ' silliness 
and bad taste.' Thackeray considered it to 
be also ' slanderous and untrue,' and wrote to 
Yates saying so in the plainest terms. Yates, in 
answer, refused to accept Thackeray's account 
of the article or to make any apology. Thacke- 
ray then laid the matter before the committee 
of the Garrick Club, of which both he and 
Yates were members, on the ground that 
Yates's knowledge was only derived from 
meetings at the club. A general meeting of 
the club in July passed resolutions calling 
upon Yates to apologise under penalty of 
further action. Dickens warmly took Yates's 
part. Yates afterwards disputed the legality 
of the club's action, and counsel's opinion was 
taken on both sides. In November Dickens 
offered to act as Yates's friend in a con- 
ference with a representative of Thackeray 
with a view to arranging ' some quiet ac- 
commodation.' Thackeray replied that he had 
left the matter in the hands of the com- 
mittee. Nothing came of this. Yates had 
to leave the club, and he afterwards dropped 
the legal proceedings on the ground of their 
costliness. 

Thackeray's disgust will be intelligible to 
every one who holds that journalism is de- 
graded by such personalities. He would 
have been fully justified in breaking off in- 
tercourse with a man who had violated the 
tacit code under which gentlemen associate. 
He was, however, stung by his excessive 
sensibility into injudicious action. Yates, in 
a letter suppressed by Dickens's advice, had 
at first retorted that Thackeray in his youth 
had been equally impertinent to Bulwer and 
Lardner, and had caricatured members of 
the club in some of his fictitious characters. 
Thackeray's regrettable freedoms did not 
really constitute a parallel offence. But a 
recollection of his own errors might have 
suggested less vehement action. There was 
clearly much ground for Dickens's argument 
that the club had properly no right to in- 
terfere in the matter. The most unfortu- 
nate result was an alienation between the 
two great novelists. Thackeray was no 
doubt irritated at Dickens's support of 
Yates, though it is impossible to accept Mr. 
Jeaffreson's view that jealousy of Dickens 
was at the bottom of this miserable affair. 
An alienation between the two lasted till 
they accidentally met at the Athenaeum a 
few days before Thackeray's death and spon- 



taneously shook hands. Though tLey had 
always been on terms of courtesy, they were 
never much attracted by each other perso- 
nally. Dickens did not care for Thackeray's 
later work. Thackeray, on the other hand, 
though making certain reserves, expressed 
the highest admiration of Dickens's work 
both in private and public, and recognised 
ungrudgingly the great merits which jus- 
tified Dickens's wider popularity (see e.g. 
the ' Christmas Carol ' in a ' Box'of Novels,' 
Works, xxv. 73, and Brookjield Corretpon- 
dence, p. 68). 

Thackeray's established reputation was 
soon afterwards recognised by a new posi- 
tion. Messrs. Smith & Elder started the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in January 1860. With 
' Macmillan's Magazine,' begun in the pre- 
vious month, it set the new fashion of shilling 
magazines. The ' Cornhill ' was illustrated, 
and attracted many of the rising artists of 
the day. Thackeray's editorship gave it pres- 
tige, and the first numbers had a sale of over 
a hundred thousand. His acquaintance with 
all men of literary mark enabled him to en- 
list some distinguished contributors ; Tenny- 
son among others, whose ' Tithonus ' first 
appeared in the second number. One of the 
first contributors was Anthony Trollope, to 
whom Thackeray had made early applica- 
tion. ' Justice compelled ' Trollope to say 
that Thackeray was ' not a good editor.' One 
reason was that, as he admitted in his 
'Thorns in a Cushion,' he was too tender- 
hearted. He was pained by the necessity of 
rejecting articles from poor authors who had 
no claim but poverty, and by having to re- 
fuse his friends such as Mrs. Browning and 
Trollope himself from deference to absurd 
public prejudices. An editor no doubt re- 
quires on occasion thickness of skin if not 
hardness of heart. Trollope, however, makes 
the more serious complaint that Thackeray 
was unmethodical and given to procrastina- 
tion. As a criticism of Thackeray's methods 
of writing, this of course tells chiefly against 
the critic. Trollope's amusing belief in the 
virtues of what he calls ' elbow-grease ' is 
characteristic of his own methods of pro- 
duction. But an editor is certainly bound 
to be businesslike, and Thackeray no doubt 
had shortcomings in that direction. Manu- 
scripts were not considered with all desirable 
punctuality and despatch. His health made 
the labour trying; and in April 1862 he re- 
tired from the editorship, though continuing 
to contribute up to the last. His last novels 
appeared in the magazine. ' Level the \\\- 
dower ' came out from January to June 1 00, 
and was a rewriting of a play called ' 
Wolves and the Lamb,' which had been 



Thackeray 



102 



Thackeray 



written in 1854 and refused at a theatre. 
The ' Adventures of Philip ' followed from 
January 1861 till August 1862, continuing 
the early ' Shabby-Genteel Story,' and again 
containing much autobiographical material. 
In these, as in the ' Virginians,' it is generally 
thought that the vigour shown in their pre- 
decessors has declined, and that the tendency 
to discursive moralising has been too much 
indulged. ' Denis Duval,' on the other hand, 
of which only a part had been written at his 
death, gave great promise of a return to 
the old standard. His most characteristic 
contributions, however, were the ' Hound- 
about Papers/ which began in the first num- 
ber, and are written with the ease of con- 
summate mastery of style. They are models 
of the essay which, without aiming at pro- 
fundity, gives the charm of playful and tender 
conversation of a great writer. 

In 1861 Thackeray built a house at 2 Palace 
Green, Kensington, upon which is now 
placed the commemorative tablet of the 
Society of Arts. It is a red-brick house in 
the style of the Queen Anne period, to which 
he was so much attached ; and was then, as 
he told an American friend, the ' only one of 
its kind ' in London (SxoDDARD, p. 100). 
The ' house-warming ' took place on 24 and 
25 Feb. 1862, when < The Wolves and the 
Lamb ' was performed by amateurs. Thackeray 
himself only appeared at the end as a clerical 
father to say in pantomime ' Bless you, my 
children ! ' ( Merivale in Temple Bar, June 
1888). His friends thought that the house 
was too large for his means ; but he explained 
that it would be, as in fact it turned out to 
be, a good investment for his children. His 
income from the ' Cornhill Magazine ' alone 
was about 4,000/. a year. Thackeray had ap- 
peared for some time to be older than he really 
was, an effect partly due perhaps to his hair, 
originally black, having become perfectly 
white. His friends, however, had seen a 
change, and various passages in his letters 
show that he thought of himself as an old 
man and considered his life to be precarious. 
In December 1 863 he was unwell, but attended 
the funeral of a relative, Lady Rodd, on the 
21st. Feeling ill on the 23rd with one of his 
old attacks, he retired at an early hour, and 
next morning was found dead, the final cause 
being an effusion into the brain. Few deaths 
were received with more general expressions 
of sorrow. He was buried at Kensal Green on 
30 Dec., where his mother, who died a year 
later, is also buried. A subscription, first 
suggested by Shirley Brooks, provided for a 
bust by Marochetti in Westminster Abbey. 
Thackeray left two daughters : Anne Isabella, 
now Mrs. Richmond Ritchie; and Harriet 



Marian, who in 1867 married Mr. Leslie 
Stephen, and died 28 Nov. 1875. 

^Nothing need be said here of Thackeray's 
place in English literature, which is dis- 
cussed by all the critics. In any case, he is 
one of the most characteristic writers of the 
first half of the Victorian period. His per- 
sonal character is indicated by his life. ' He 
had many fine qualities,' wrote Carlyle to 
Monckton Milnes upon his death ; ' no guile 
or malice against any mortal ; a big mass of a 
soul, but not strong in proportion ; a beauti- 
ful vein of genius lay struggling about him 
Poor Thackeray, adieu, adieu ! ' Thackeray's 
weakness meant the excess of sensibility of 
a strongly artistic temperament, which in his 
youth led him into extravagance and too 
easy compliance with the follies of young 
men of his class. In later years it produced 
some foibles, the more visible to his con- 
temporaries because he seems to have been 
at once singularly frank in revealing his 
feelings to congenial friends, and reticent 
or sarcastic to less congenial strangers. 
His constitutional indolence and the ironical 
view of life which made him a humorist 
disqualified him from being a prophet after 
the fashion of Carlyle. The author of ' a 
novel without a hero' was not a 'hero- 
worshipper.' But the estimate of his moral 
and intellectual force will be increased by 
a fair view of his life. If naturally in- 
dolent, he worked most energetically and 
under most trying conditions through many 
years full of sorrow and discouragement. 
The loss of his fortune and the ruin of his 
domestic happiness stimulated him to sus- 
tained and vigorous efibrts. He worked, as 
he was bound to work, for money, and took 
his place frankly as a literary drudge. He 
slowly forced his way to the front, helping 
his comrades liberally whenever occasion 
offered. Trollope only confirms the general 
testimony by a story of his ready generosity 
(TEOLLOPE, p. 60). He kept all his old 
friends ; he was most affectionate to his mother, 
and made a home for her in later years ; and 
he was the tenderest and most devoted of 
fathers. His ' social success ' never distracted 
him from his home duties, and he found his 
chief happiness in his domestic affections. 
The superficial weakness might appear in 
society, and a man with so keen an eye for 
the weaknesses of others naturally roused 
some resentment. But the moral upon which 
Thackeray loved to insist in his writings 
gives also the secret which ennobled his life. 
A contemplation of the ordinary ambitions 
led him to emphasise the 'vanity of vanities,' 
and his keen perception of human weaknesses 
showed him the seamy side of much that 



Thackeray 



103 



Thackeray 



passes for heroic. But to him the really 
valuable element of life was in the simple 
and tender affections which do not flourish 
in the world. During his gallant struggle 
against difficulties he emphasised the satiri- 
cal vein which is embodied with his greatest 
power in ' Barry Lyndon ' and ' Vanity Fair.' 
As success came he could give freer play 
to the gentler emotions which animate ' Es- 
mpnd,' ' The Newcomes,' and the ' Round- 
about Papers,' and in which he found the 
chief happiness of his own career. 

Thackeray was 6 feet 3 inches in height. 
His head was very massive, and it is stated 
that the brain weighed 58 ounces. His ap- 
pearance was made familiar by many carica- 
tures introduced by himself as illustrations 
of his own works and in ' Punch.' Portraits 
with names of proprietors are : plaster bust 
from a cast taken from life about 1825, by 
J. Devile (Mrs. Ritchie : replica in National 
Portrait Gallery). Two drawings by Maclise 
dated 1 832 and 1833 (Garrick Club) . Another 
drawing by Maclise of about 1840 was en- 
graved from a copy made by Thackeray him- 
self for the ' Orphan of Pimlico.' Painting 
by Frank Stone about 1836 (Mrs. Ritchie). 
Two chalk drawings by Samuel Laurence, 
the first in 1853, a full face, engraved in 
1854 by Francis Hall, and a profile, reading. 
Laurence made several replicas of the last 
after Thackeray's death, one of which is in 
the National Portrait Gallery. Laurence 
also painted a posthumous portrait for the 
Reform Club. Portrait of Thackeray, in his 
study at Onslow Square in 1854, by E. M. 
Ward (Mr. R. Hurst). Portrait by Sir John 
Gilbert, posthumous, of Thackeray in the 
smoking-room of the Garrick Club (Garrick 
Club ; this is engraved in ' Maclise's Por- 
trait Gallery '), where is also the portrait of 
Thackeray among the ' Frasereans.' A 
sketch from memory by Millais and a draw- 
ing by F. Walker a back view of Thackeray, 
done to show the capacity of the then un- 
known artist to illustrate for the ' Cornhill 
belong to Mrs. Ritchie. The bust by 
Marochetti in Westminster Abbey is not 
thought to be satisfactory as a likeness. A 
statuette by Edgar Boehm was begun in 
1860 from two short sittings. It was finished 
after Thackeray's death, and is considered to 
be an excellent likeness. Many copies were 
sold, and two were presented to the Garrick 
Club and the Athenaeum. A bust by Joseph 
Durham was presented to the Garrick Club 
by the artist in 1864 ; and a terra-cotta re- 
plica from the original plaster mould is in 
the National Portrait Gallery. A bust by 
J. B. Williamson was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1864 ; and another, by Nevill 



Northey Burnard [q. v.], is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. For further details see 
article by F. G. Kitton in the ' Magazine of 
Art 'for July 1891. 

Thackeray's works as independently pub- 
lished are: 1. 'Floreet Zephyr: Balh't M\- 
thologique par Th6ophile Wagstaff ' (eight 
plates lithographed by E. Morton from 
sketches by Thackeray), fol. 1836. 2. ' The 
Paris Sketchbook,' by Mr. Tit marsh, 2 vols. 
12mo, 1840, includes ' The Devil's Wager' 
from the ' National Standard,' ' Mary Ancel ' 
from the ' New Monthly ' (1838), the ' French 
Plutarch ' and ' French School of Painting ' 
from ' Fraser,' 1839, and three articles from 
the ' Corsair,' a New York paper, 1839. ' The 
Student's Quarter,' by J. C. Hotten, pro- 
fesses to be from 'papers not included in the 
collected writings, but is made up of this 
and one other letter in the ' Corsair ' (see 
Athenaum, 7, 14 Aug. 1886). 3. ' Essay on 
the Genius of George Cruikshank, with nu- 
merous illustrations of his works,' 1840 (re- 
printed from the ' Westminster Review '). 
4. Sketches by Spec. No. 1. ' Britannia pro- 
tecting the drama' [1840]. Facsimile by 
Autotype Company from unique copy be- 
longing to Mr. C. P. Johnson. 5. ' Comic 
Tales and Sketches, edited and illustrated 
by Mr. Michael Angelo Titmarsh,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
1841, contains the ' Yellowplush Papers ' 
from ' Fraser,' 1838 and 1840; ' Some Passages 
in the Life of Major Gahagan ' from ' New 
Monthly,' 1838-9; the 'Professor' from 
'Bentley's Miscellany,' 1837; the ' Bedford 
Row Conspiracy ' from the ' New Mont hi v,' 
1840; and the 'Fatal Boots' from Cruik- 
shank's ' Comic Almanack ' for 1839. 6. 'The 
Second Funeral of Napoleon, in three letters 
to Miss Smith of London' (reprinted in 
'Cornhill Magazine' for January 1866), and 
the ' Chronicleof the Drum,' 16mo, 1841. 7. 
'The Irish Sketchbook,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1848. 
8. ' Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Cairo 
by way of Lisbon, Athens, Constantinople, 
and Jerusalem, by Mr. M. A. Titmarsh,' 
12mo, 1846. 9. 'Mrs. Perkins's Ball, by 
M. A. Titmarsh,' 4to, 1847 (Christmas, 1846). 
10. ' Vanity Fair : a Novel without a Hero, 
with Illustrations by the Author,' 1 vol. 8vo, 
1848(monthly numbers from January 1847 to 
July 1848 ; last number double). 11. ' The 
Book of Snobs,' 8vo, 1848 ; reprinted from ' The 
Snobs of England, by One of Themselves,' 
in 'Punch,' 1846-7 (omitting 7 numbers). 
12. ' Our Street, by Mr. M. A. Titmarsh,' 
4to, 1848 (Christmas, 1847). 13. ' The His- 
tory of Pendennis, his Fortunes and Misfor- 
tunes, his Friends and his Greatest Enemy, 
with Illustrations by the Author,' 2 vols. 8>o, 
1849-50 (in monthly numbers from No- 



Thackeray 



104 



Thackeray 



vember 1848 to December 1850, last number 
double ; suspended, owing to illness, for the 
three months after September 1849). 14. 'Dr. 
Birch and his Young Friends, by Mr. M. A. 
Titmarsh,' 16mo, 1849 (Christmas, 1848). 
15. ' The History of Samuel Titmarsh and the 
Great Hoggarty Diamond ' (from ' Fraser's 
Magazine ' of 1841), 8vo, 1849. 16. ' Rebecca 
and Rowena: a Romance upon Romance,' 
illustrated by R. Doyle, 8vo, 1850 (Christ- 
mas, 1849) ; enlarged from ' Proposals for 
a continuation of " Ivanhoe " ' in ' Fraser,' 
August and September, 1846. 17. ' Sketches 
after English Landscape Painters, by S. 
Marvy, with short notices by W. M. Thacke- 
ray,' fol. 1850. 18. ' The Kickleburys on the 
Rhine, by Mr. M. A. Titmarsh,' 4to, 1850 ; 
2nd edit, with preface (5 Jan. 1851), being 
an ' Essay on Thunder and Small Beer,' 
1851. 19. ' The History of Henry Esmond, 
Fjsq., a Colonel in the Service of Her 
Majesty Queen Anne, written by himself,' 
3 vols. 8vo, 1852. 20. ' The English Hu- 
morists of the Eighteenth Century : a series 
of lectures delivered in England, Scotland, 
and the United States of America,' 8vo, 1853. 
The notes were written by James Hannay 
(see his Characters, &c. p. 55 n.) 21. ' Preface 
to a Collection of Papers from "Punch,"' 
printed at New York, 1852, 22. 'The New- 
comes : Memoirs of a most respectable Family, 
edited by Arthur Pendennis, Esq.,' 2 vols. 
8vo, 1854-5, illustrated by R.Doyle (twenty- 
four monthly numbers from October 1853 
to August 1855). 23. ' The Rose and the 
Ring, or the History of Prince Giglio and 
Prince Bulbo : a Fireside Pantomime for 
great and small Children, by Mr. M. A. Tit- 
marsh,' 8vo, 1855, illustrated by the author. 
24. ' Miscellanies in Prose and Verse,' 4 
vols. 8vo, 1855, contains all the ' Comic Tales 
and Sketches ' (except the ' Professor '), the 
'Book of Snobs ' (1848), the ' Hoggarty Dia- 
mond ' (1849), ' Rebecca and Rowena ' 
H.850) ; also ' Cox's Diary,' from the ' Comic 
Almanack ' of 1840 ; the ' Diary of Jeames 
de la Pluche,' from 'Punch,' 1845-6; 
1 Sketches and Travels in London,' from 
' Punch,' 1847, and 'Fraser' ('Going to see a 
man hanged'), 1840; 'Novels by Eminent 
Hands,' from ' Punch,' 1847 ; ' Character 
Sketches,' from ' Heads of the People,' drawn 
by Kenny! Meadows,' 1840-1 ; ' Barry Lyn- 
don,' from 'Eraser,' 1844 ; ' Legend of the 
Rhine,' from Cruikshank's 'Tablebook,' 
1845 ; ' A little Dinner at Timmins's,' from 
'Punch,' 1848 ; the ' Fitzboodle Papers,' from 
'Fraser,' 1842-3; 'Men's Wives,' from 'Era- 
ser,' 1843 ; and ' A Shabby-Genteel Story,' 
from 'Fraser,' 1840. 25. ' The Virginians : 
a Tale of the last Century ' (illustrated by 



the author), 2 vols. 8vo, 1858-9 (monthly 
numbers from November 1857 to October 
1859). 26. 'Lovel the Widower,' 8vo, 
1861, from the ' Cornhill Magazine,' 1860 
(illustrated by the author). 27. ' The Four 
Georges,' 1861, from 'Cornhill Magazine,* 
1860. 28. 'The Adventures of Philip on 
his way through the World ; showing who 
robbed him, who helped him, and who passed 
him by,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1862, from ' Cornhill 
Magazine,' 1861-2 (illustrated by F.Walker). 
29. ' Roundabout Papers,' 8vo, 1863, from 
'Cornhill Magazine,' 1860-3. 30. 'Denis 
Duval,' 8vo, 1867, from ' Cornhill Magazine,' 
1864. 31. 'The Orphan of Pimlico, and 
other Sketches, Fragments, and Drawings, 
by W. M. Thackeray, with some Notes by 
A. T. Thackeray,' 4to, 1876. 32. ' Etchings by 
the late W. M. Thackeray while at Cam- 
bridge,' 1878. 33. 'A Collection of Letters 
by W. M. Thackeray, 1847-1855 ' (with in- 
troduction by Mrs. Brookfield), 8vo, 1887 ; 
first published in 'Scribner's Magazine.' 
34. 'Sultan Stork' (from 'Ainsworth's Maga- 
zine,' 1842) and 'other stories now first col- 
lected ; to which is added the bibliography of 
Thackeray '[by R. H. Shepherd] 'revised and 
considerably enlarged,' 8vo, 1887. 35. 'Loose 
Sketches. An Eastern Adventure,' &c. (con- 
tributions to ' The Britannia 'in 1841, and 
to 'Punch's Pocket-Book' for 1847), London, 
1894. 

The first collective or ' library ' edition of 
the works appeared in 22 vols. 8vo, 1867-9 ; 
the ' popular ' edition in 12 vols. cr. 8vo, 
1871-2 ; the ' cheaper illustrated edition ' in 
24 vols. 8vo, 1877-9 ; the ' Edition de luxe ' 
in 24 vols. imp. 8vo, 1878-9 ; the ' standard ' 
edition in 26 vols. 8vo, 1883-5, and the ' bio- 
graphical' edition with an introduction to 
each volume by Mrs. Richmond Ritchie, 13 
vols. crown 8vo. All thecollective editions in- 
clude the works (Nos. 1-30) mentioned above, 
and add ' The History of the next French 
Revolution,' from ' Punch,' 1844 ; ' Catherine/ 
from ' Fraser,' 1839-40 ; ' ' Little Travels and 
Roadside Sketches,' from ' Fraser,' 1844-5 ; 
' John Leech,' from ' Quarterly Review,' 
December 1854 ; and ' The Wolves and the 
Lamb ' (first printed). < Little Billee ' first 
appeared as the ' Three Sailors ' in Bevan's 
' Sand and Canvas,' 1849. A facsimile from 
the autograph sent to Bevan is in the ' Au- 
tographic Mirror,' 1 Dec. 1864, and another 
from Shirley Brooks's album in the ' Editor's 
Box,' 1880. 

The last two volumes of the ' standard' edi- 
tion contain additional matter. Vol. xxv. 
supplies most of the previously uncollected 
' Fraser ' articles and a lecture upon ' Charity 
and Humour,' given at New Y'ork in 1852; 



Thackeray 



Thackeray 



the letter describing Goethe ; ' Timbuctoo ' 
from the ' Snob,' and a few trifles. Vol. 
xxvi. contains previously uncollected papers 
from ' Punch,' including the suppressed ' Snob ' 
papers, chiefly political. These additions are 
also contained in vols. xxv. and xxvi. added 
to the ' edition de luxe ' in 1886. Two vo- 
lumes, with the same contents, were added 
at the same time to the ' library ' and the 
' cheaper illustrated,' and one to the ' popu- 
lar' edition. The ' pocket' edition, 1886-8, 
has a few additions, including ' Sultan Stork' 
(see No. 34 above), and some omissions. 
Vol. xiii. of the ' biographical ' edition will 
contain, in addition to all these miscellanea, 
the contributions to the ' Britannia ' in 1841 
and ' Punch's Pocket-Book ' for 1847, first 
reprinted in 1894 (see No. 35 above). 

The ' Yellowplush Correspondence ' was 
reprinted from ' Fraser ' at Philadelphia in 
1838. Some other collections were also pub- 
lished in America in 1852 and 1853, one 
volume including for the first time the ' Prize 
Novelists,' the ' Fat Contributor,' and ' Travels 
in London/ and another, ' Mr. Brown's Let- 
ters,' &c., having a preface by Thackeray 
(see above). ' Early and late Papers ' (1867) 
is a collection by J. T. Fields. ' L'Abbaye 
de Penmarc'h ' has been erroneously attri- 
buted to W. M. Thackeray from confusion 
with a namesake. 

The above includes all such writings of 
Thackeray as he thought worth preserva- 
tion ; and the last two volumes, as the pub- 
lishers state, were intended to prevent the 
publication of more trifles. The ' Sultan Stork ' 
(1887) includes the doubtful ' Mrs. Brown- 
rigge' from 'Fraser' of 1832 and some others. 
A list of many others will be found in the 
bibliography appended to ' Sultan Stork.' 
See also the earlier bibliography by R. H. 
Shepherd (1880), the bibliography appended 
to Merivale and Marzials, and Mr. C. P. 
Johnson's ' Hints to Collectors of First Edi- 
tions of Thackeray's Works.' 

[Thackeray's children, in obedience to the 
wishes of their father, published no authorita- 
tive life. The introductions contributed by his 
eldest daughter, Mrs. Eitchie, to the forthcoming 
biographical edition of his works (1898-9) con- 
tain valuable materials. Mrs. Ritchie's Chapters 
from some Memoirs (1894) contain reminiscences 
of his later years ; and she has supplied infor- 
mation for this article. The Memorials of the 
Thackeray Family by Jane Townley Pryme 
(daughter of Thomas Thackeray), and her 
daughter, Mrs. Bayne, privately printed in 
1879, contain extracts from Thackeray's early 
letters. These are used in the life by Herman 
Merivale and Frank T. Marzials (Great Wri- 
ters Series), 1879. This is the fullest hitherto 



published. Mr. Marzials has kindly supplied 
many references and suggestions for this article 
The life by A. Trollope, in the Men of Letters 
Series, 1879, is meagre. Anecdote Biogra- 
phies of Thackeray and Dickens (New York 
1875), edited by R. H. Stoddard, reprint* some 
useful materials. Thackerayana, published by 
Chatto & Windus, 1875, is chiefly a reproduc- 
tion of early drawings from books bought at 
Thackeray's sale. The Thackerays in India 
by Sir W. W. Hunter (1897), gives interesting 
information as to Thackeray's relatives. With 
Thackeray in America, 1893, and Thackeray's 
Haunts and Homes, 1897, both by Eyre Crowe, 
A.R.A., contain some recollections by an old 
friend. See also Life in Chamters's Ency- 
clopaedia, by Mr. Richmond Thackeray Ritchie. 
The following is a list of the principal refe- 
rences to Thackeray in contemporary litera- 
ture: Serjeant Ballantyne's Barrister's Life, 
1882, i. 133 ; Sevan's Sand and Canvas, 1849, 
pp. 336-43 ; Brown's Hone Subsecivse, 3rd ser. 
1882, pp. 177-97, from North British Review 
for February 1864; Cassell's Magazine, new 
ser. vols. i. and ii. 1870 (recollections by R. 
Bedingfield) ; Church's Thackeray as an Artist 
and Art Critic, 1890; Cole's Fifty Years of 
Public Work, 1884, i. 58,82, ii. 143; Fields' 
Yesterdays with Authors, 1873, pp. 11-39; 
FitzGerald's Remains, 1889, i. 24, 5i, 65, 68, 
96, 100, 141, 154, 161, 188, 193, 198, 200, 21.1, 
217, 221, 275, 295 ; Fitzpatrick's Life of Lever, 
1879, i. 239, 335-40, ii. 396, 405, 421 ; Foreter's 
Life of Dickens, 1872, i. 94, ii. 162, 439, iii. 51, 
84, 104, 208, 267; Gaskell's Life of Charlotte 
Bronte, 1865, pp. 233, 282, 312, 316, 332, 3C5, 
380, 385, 401 ; James Hannay's Characters and 
Criticisms, 1865, pp. 42-59; Hayward's Corre- 
spondence, 1886, i. 105, 119, 120, 143-5; Hod- 
der's Memories of my Time, 1870, pp. 237-312 ; 
Hole's Memories of Dean Hole, 1893. pp. 69-76 ; 
Lord Houghton's Monographs, 1873, p. 233 ; 
Life by WemyssReed, 1890, i. 83,251, 263, 28:$, 
306, 356, 425-9, 432, ii. Ill, 118 ; Jeaffresons 
Book of Recollections, vol. i. passim ; Jerrold's 
A Day with Thackeray, in The Best of All Good 
Company, 1872; Kemble's Records of Later 
Life, 1882, iii. 359-63 ; Life of Lord Lytton, 
ii. 275; Knight's Passages of a Working Life, 
1873, iii. 35 ; Maclise Portrait Gallery, pp. 95, 
222 ; Mackay's Forty Years' Recollections, 1877, 
ii. 294-304; Locker-Lampson's My Confidences, 
1896, pp. 297-307; Macready's Reminiscences, 
ii. 30 ; Theodore Martin's Life of Aytoun, 1867, 
pp. 130-5; Motley's Letters, 1889, i. 226, 229, 
235, 261, 269; Napier's Correspondence, 1879, 
pp. 498, 506 ; Planche's Recollections and Reflec- 
tions, 1872, ii. 40; Sir F. Pollock's Personal 
Reminiscences, 1887, i. 177, 189,289, 292, ii.36, 
57 ; Reed's Hand Immemor, in Blackwood's Mag. 
for June, 1872 (privately printed in 1864) ; Skel- 
ton's Table Talk of Shirley, 1895, pp. 25-38; 
Spielmann's History of Punch, 1895, pp. 308-26, 
and many references ; Tennyson's Life of Tenny- 
son, 1897, i. 266, 444, ii. 371 ; Simpson's Many 



Thackwell 



106 



Thackwell 



Memories, &c., 1898, pp. 105-10 ; Bayard Tay- 
lor's Life and Letters, 1884, pp. 308, 315, 321, 333, 
andB. Taylor in AtlanticMonthly for March 1864; 
'Theodore Taylor's' (pseudonym of J. C. Hot- 
ten) Thackeray the Humorist, 1864; Vizetelly's 
Glances back through Seventy Years, 1893, i. 128, 
235, 249-52, 281-96, ii. 105-10; Lester Wai- 
lack's Memories of Fifty Years, 1889, pp. 162-6; 
Yates's Eecollections, chap, ix.] L. S. 

THACKWELL, SIR JOSEPH (1781- 
1859), lieutenant-general, born on 1 Feb. 
1781, was fourth son of John Thackwell, 
J.P., of Rye Court and Moreton Court, 
"Worcestershire, by Judith, daughter of J. 
Duffy. He was commissioned as cornet in 
the Worcester fencible cavalry on 16 June 
1798, became lieutenant in September 1799, 
and served with it in Ireland till it was 
disbanded in 1800. On 23 April 1800 he 
obtained a commission in the 15th light 
dragoons, and became lieutenant on 13 June 
1801. He was placed on half-p|y in 1802, 
but was brought back to the regiment on 
its augmentation in April 1804, and became 
captain on 9 April 1807. The 15th, con- 
verted into hussars in 1806, formed part of 
Lord Paget's hussar brigade in 1807, and 
was sent to the Peninsula in 1808. It played 
the principal part in the brilliant cavalry 
affair at Sahagun, and helped to cover the 
retreat to Coruna. After some years at home 
it went back to the Peninsula in 1813. It 
formed part of the hussar brigade attached 
to Graham's corps [see GRAHAM, THOMAS, 
LORD LYJSTEDOCH], and at the passage of the 
Esla, on 31 May, Thackwell commanded the 
leading squadron which surprised a French 
cavalry picket and took thirty prisoners. 
He took part in the battle of Vittoria and 
in the subsequent pursuit, in the battle of 
the Pyrenees at the end of July, and in the 
blockade of Pampeluna. He was also pre- 
sent at Orthes, Tarbes, and Toulouse. On 
1 March 1814, after passing the Adour, he 
was in command of the leading squadron of 
his regiment, and had a creditable encounter 
with the French light cavalry, on account of 
which he was recommended for a brevet 
majority by Sir Stapleton Cotton. He 
served with the 15th in the campaign of 
1815. It belonged to Grant's brigade [see 
GRANT, SIR COLQUHOTTN], which was on the 
right of the line at Waterloo. Its share in 
the battle has been described by Thackwell 
himself (SIBORNE, Waterloo Letter 's,pp. 124- 
128, 141-3). After several engagements with 
the French cavalry, it suffered severely in 
charging a square of infantry towards the 
end of the day. Thackwell had two horses 
shot under him and lost his left arm. He 
obtained his majority in the regiment on 



that day, and on 21 June 1817 he was made 
brevet lieutenant-colonel, as he had not 
benefited by Cotton's recommendation. He 
succeeded to the command of the 15th on 
15 June 1820, and after holding this com- 
mand for twelve years, and having served 
thirty-two years in the regiment, he was 
placed on half-pay on 16 March 1832. He 
was made K.H. in February 1834. 

On 10 Jan. 1837 he became colonel in the 
army, and on 19 May he obtained, by ex- 
change, command of the 3rd (king's own) 
light dragoons. He went with that regiment 
to India, but soon left it to assume command of 
the cavalry of the army of the Indus in the 
Afghan campaign of 1838-9. He was pre- 
sent at the siege and capture of Ghazni, and 
he commanded the second column of that 
part of the army which returned to India 
from Cabul in the autumn of 1839. He was 
madeC.B.inJulyl838,andK.C.B.on20Dec. 
1839. He commanded the cavalry division 
of Sir Hugh Gough's army in the short 
campaign against the Marathas of Gwalior 
at the end of 1843, and was mentioned in 
Gough's despatch after the battle of Maha- 
rajpur (London Gazette, 8 March 1844). In 
the first Sikh war he was again in command 
of the cavalry at Sobraon (10 Feb. 1846), 
and led it in file over the intrenchments on 
the right, doing work (as Gough said) usually 
left to infantry and artillery. He was pro- 
moted major-general on 9 Nov. 1846. 

When the second Sikh war began he was 
appointed to the command of the third divi- 
sion of infantry : but on the death of Briga- 
dier Cureton in the action at Ramnagar, on 
22 Nov. 1848, he was transferred to the 
cavalry division. After Ramnagar the 
Sikhs crossed to the right bank of the 
Chinab. To enable his own army to follow 
them, Gough sent a force of about eight 
thousand men under Thackwell to pass the 
river higher up, and help to dislodge the 
Sikhs from their position by moving on their 
left flank and rear. Thackwell found the 
nearer fords impracticable, but crossed at 
Vazirabad, and on the morning of 3 Dec. 
encamped near Sadulapur. He had orders 
not to attack till he was joined by an addi- 
tional brigade ; but he was himself attacked 
towards midday by about half the Sikh 
army. The Sikhs drove the British pickets 
out of three villages and some large planta- 
tions of sugar-cane, and so secured for them- 
selves a strong position. They kept up a 
heavy fire of artillery till sunset, and made 
some feeble attempts to turn the British 
flanks, but there was very little fighting at 
close quarters. In the course of the after- 
noon Thackwell received authority to attack 



Thackwell 



107 



Thayre 



if he thought proper ; but as the enemy was 
strongly posted, he deemed it safer to wait 
till next morning. By morning the Sikhs 
had disappeared, and it is doubtful whether 
they had any other object in their attack 
than that of gaining time for a retreat. 
Gough expressed his ' warm approval ' of 
Thackwell's conduct, but there are some 
signs of dissatisfaction in his despatch of 
5 Dec. An officer of fifty years' service is 
apt to be over-cautious. This was not the 
case with Gough himself, but Chilianwala, 
six weeks afterwards, went far to justify 
Thackwell. He was in command of the 
cavalry at Chilianwala, but actually directed 
only the left brigade. At Gujrat he was 
also on the left, and kept in check the 
enemy's cavalry when it tried to turn that 
flank. After the battle was Avon he led a 
vigorous pursuit till nightfall. In his des- 
patch of 26 Feb. 1849 Gough said: 'I am 
also greatly indebted to this tried and gal- 
lant officer for his valuable assistance and 
untiring exertions throughout the present 
and previous operations as second in com- 
mand with this force.' He received the 
thanks of parliament for the third time, and 
the G.C.B. (5 June 1849). In November 
1849 he was given the colonelcy of the 16th 
lancers. In 1854 he was appointed inspect- 
ing-general of cavalry, and on 20 June he 
was promoted lieutenant-general. He died 
on 8 April 1859 at Aghada Hall, co. Cork. 
He married, on 29 July 1825, Maria Andriah, 
eldest daughter of Francis Roche of Roche- 
mount, co. Cork, by whom he had four sons 
and three daughters. 

His third son, OSBEKT DABITOT (1837- 
1858),waslieutenantinthel5thBengalnative 
infantry when that regiment mutinied at 
Nasirabad on 28 May 1857. He had been 
commissioned as ensign on 25 June 1855, 
'and became lieutenant on 23 Nov. 1850. 
He was appointed interpreter to the 83rd 
foot, was in several engagements with the 
mutineers, and distinguished himself in the 
defence of Nimach. He was present at the 
siege of Lucknow, and, while walking in 
the streets after its capture, he was killed 
by some of the sepoys on 20 March 1858. 

[Gent. Mag. J859, i. 540; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Cannon's Historical Record of the 15th 
Hussars; Kauntze's Historical Record of the 3rd 
Light Dragoons ; Despatches of Lord Hardinge 
and Lord Gough, &c., relating to the first Sikh 
War ; Thackwell's Narrative of the Second Sikh 
war (this work was written by his eldest son, who 
was also his aide-de-camp); Lawrence-Archer's 
Commentaries on the Punjab Campaign of 1848- 
1849 ; Gloucestershire Chronicle, 8 and 29 May 
1897.] E. M. L. 



THANE, JOHN (1748-1818), print- 
seller and engraver, born in 1748, earned on 
business for many years in Soho, London, 
and became famous for his expert knowledge 
of pictures, coins, and every species of vfrtu. 
He was a friend of the antiquary Joseph 
Strutt, who at one period resided in his 
family. He collected the works of Thomas 
Snelling [q. v.], the medallic antiquary, and 
published them with an excellent portrait 
drawn and engraved by himself. On Dr. 
John Fothergill's death in 1780 his fine col- 
lection of engraved portraits were sold to 
Thane, who cut up the volumes and disposed 
of the contents to the principal collectors of 
British portraits at that time. Thane was 
the projector and editor of ' British Auto- 
graphy: a Collection of Facsimiles of the 
Handwriting of Royal and Illustrious Per- 
sonages, with their Authentic Portraits,' 
London (1793 &c.), 3 vols. 4to. A supple- 
ment to this work was published by Edward 
Daniell, London [1854], 4to, with a fine por- 
trait of Thane prefixed, engraved by John 
Ogborne, from a portrait by William Red- 
more Bigg. Thane died in 1818. His por- 
traits were sold in May 1819. 

[Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 
22033; Nichols's lllustr. of Lit. v. 436-7; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 160, iii. 620, 664, v. 
668, ix. 740.] T. C. 

THANET, EARL OF. [See Turxox, SACK- 
VILLE, ninth earl, 1767-1825.] 

THAUN, PHILIP DE (/. 1120), Anglo- 
Norman writer. [See PHILIP.] 

THAYRE, THOMAS (fl. 1603-1 OL'O), 
medical writer, describes himself as a ' chi- 
rurgian ' in July 1603 ; but as his name 
does not occur among the members of the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company, and as he uses 
no such description in 1625, he was probably 
one of the numerous irregular practitioners 
of the period, and no sworn surgeon. He 
published in London in 1603 a 'Treatise of 
the Pestilence,' dedicated to Sir Robert Lee, 
lord mayor 1602-3. The cause of the 
disease, the regimen, dnigs and diet proper 
for its treatment are discussed. Ten dia- 
gnostic symptoms are described, and some 
theology is intermixed. The general plan 
differs little from that of Thomas Phaer's 
' Treatise on the Plague,' and identical sen- 
tences occur in several places [see PH \ IK. 
THOMAS]. These passages have suggested 
the untenable view ( Catalogue of the Library 
of the Royal Medical and Chintrgical So- 
ciety of London, ii. 439) that the works are 
identical, and Thayre a misprint for Phayre. 
A similar resemblance of passages is to be 



Theakston 



108 



Theed 



detected in English, books of the sixteenth 
century on other medical subjects, and is 
usually to be traced to several writers in- 
dependently adopting and slightly altering 
some admired passage in a common source. 
Thayre published a second edition in 1625, 
dedicated to John Gore, lord mayor 1624-5. 
The work shows little medical knowledge, 
but preserves some interesting particulars of 
domestic life, and, though inferior in style 
to the writings of Christopher Langton 
[q. v.] and even of William Clowes (1540- 
1604) [q. v.], contains a few well-put and 
idiomatic expressions. 

[Works.] N. M. 

THEAKSTON, JOSEPH (1772-1842), 
sculptor, born in 1772 at York, was the son 
of respectable parents. In sculpture he was 
a pupil of John Bacon (1740-1799) [q. v.], 
and formed himself on his style. He also 
studied several years under John Flaxman 
[q. v.] and with Edward Hodges Baily 
[q. v.], but for the last twenty-four years of 
his life he was employed by Sir Francis 
Legatt Chantrey [q. v.] to carve the draperies 
and other accessories of that artist's statues 
and groups. Theakston was the ablest orna- 
mental carver of his time. Although he ap- 
peared to work slowly, he was so accurate 
that he seldom needed to retouch his figures. 
Besides aiding Chantry, he produced some 
busts and monumental work of his own, and 
exhibited occasionally at the Royal Aca- 
demy from 1817 to 1837. He died at Bel- 
grave Place on 14 April 1842, and was buried 
by the side of his wife at Kensal Green. 

[Times, 25 April 1842 ; Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 
672 ; Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878.] 

E. I. C. 

THEED, WILLIAM (1804-1891), sculp- 
tor, son of William Theed, was born at 
Trentham, Staffordshire, in 1804. 

WILLIAM THEED, the father (1764-1817), 
was born in 1764, and entered the schools 
of the Royal Academy in 1786. He began 
life as a painter of classical subjects and 
portraits, and exhibited first at the Royal 
Academy in 1789. He then went to Rome, 
where he became acquainted with John Flax- 
man and Henry Howard. In 1794 he returned 
through France to England. In 1797 he 
exhibited a picture of ' Venus and Cupids,' 
in 1799 'Nessus andDeianeira,' and in 1800 
' Cephalus and Aurora.' He then began to 
design and model pottery for Messrs.Wedg- 
wood, and continued in their employ until 
about 1803, when he transferred his services 
to Messrs. Rundell & Bridge, whose gold and 
silver plate he designed for fourteen years. 
During this time he continued to exhibit 



occasionally at the Royal Academy, of which 
he was elected an associate in 1811 and an 
academician in 1813, when he presented as 
his diploma work a ' Bacchanalian Group ' in 
bronze. In 1812 he exhibited a life-sized 
group in bronze of ' Thetis returning from 
Vulcan with Arms for Achilles,' now in the 
possession of the queen, and in 1813 a statue 
of ' Mercury.' His latest exhibited works 
were of a monumental character. He died 
in 1817. He married a French lady named 
Rougeot at Naples about 1794 (REDGRAVE, 
Diet, of Artists ; SANDBY, Hist, of the Royal 
Academy, 1862, i. 382 ; Royal Academy 
Exhib. Catalogues, 1789-1817). 

William Theed the younger, after receiv- 
ing a general education at Baling and some 
instruction in art from his father, entered the 
studio of Edward Hodges Baily [q. v.], the 
sculptor, and was also for some time a stu- 
dent in the Royal Academy. In 1824 and 
1825 he sent busts to the exhibition of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1826 went to Rome, 
where he studied under Thorvaldsen, Gib- 
son, Wyatt, and Tenerani. He sent over 
several busts to exhibitions of the Royal 
Academy, but his works did not attract much 
attention until, in 1844, the prince consort 
requested John Gibson to send designs by 
English sculptors in Rome for marble statues 
for the decoration of Osborne House. Among 
those selected were Theed's ' Narcissus at 
the Fountain ' and ' Psyche lamenting the 
loss of Cupid.' 

In 1847 he sent to the Royal Academy a 
marble group of ' The Prodigal Son/ He 
returned to London in 1848, when commis- 
sions began to flow in upon him. In 1850 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy a marble 
statue of ' Rebekah ' and another group of 
' The Prodigal Son,' and in 1851 a marble 
heroic statue of ' Prometheus.' These works 
were followed in 1853 by a statue in 
marble of Humphrey Chetham for Man- 
chester Cathedral ; in 1857 by ' The Bard,' 
for the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House, 
London ; in 1861 by a statue of Sir William. 
Peel, for Greenwich Hospital ; in 1866 by 
' Musidora,' now at Marlborough House ; 
and in 1868 by the group of the queen and 
the prince consort in early Saxon costume, 
which is now at Windsor Castle. His other 
works of importance include the bronze statue 
of Sir Isaac Newton which is at Grantham, 
the colossal statue of Sir William Peel at 
Calcutta, the statues of the prince consort 
for Balmoral Castle and Coburg, that of the 
Duchess of Kent at Frogmore, of the Earl 
of Derby at Liverpool, of Sir Robert Peel at 
Huddersfield, of William Ewart Gladstone 
in the town-hall, Manchester, of Henry 



Theinred 



109 



Thellusson 



Hallam in St. Paul's Cathedral, and that of 
Edmund Burke in St. Stephen's Hall in the 
houses of parliament. He executed also a 
series of twelve alto-relievos in bronze of 
subjects from English history for the decora- 
tion of the Prince's Chamber in the House 
of Lords. 

The most important and best known, 
however, of Theed's works is the colossal 
group representing ' Africa ' which adorns 
the north-east angle of the pedestal of the 
Albert Memorial in Hyde Park. Among 
his busts may be mentioned those of the 
queen and the prince consort, of John Gib- 
son, Lord Lawrence, the Earls of Derby and 
Dartmouth, Sir Henry Holland, bart., Sir 
William Tite, General Lord Sandhurst, John 
Bright, William Ewart Gladstone, Sir Fran- 
cis Goldsmid, bart., Sir James Mackintosh in 
Westminster Abbey, and that of the Marquis 
of Salisbury, his last exhibited work. His 
' Prodigal Son,' < Sappho,' < Ruth,' and 'Africa ' 
were engraved in the ' Art Journal.' 

Theed died at Campden Lodge, Kensing- 
ton, on 9 Sept. 1891. 

[Times, 11 Sept. 1891; Athenaeum, 1891, ii. 
393 ; Art Journal, 1891, p. 352 ; Royal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1824-85.] E. E. G. 

THEINRED (f,. 1371), musical theorist, 
at an early age entered the Benedictine 
order. He was afterwards made precentor 
of the monastery at Dover, where he died 
and was buried. In 1371 he wrote a treatise 
* De legitimis ordinibus Pentachordorum et 
Tetrachordorum,' which he addressed to 
Alured of Canterbury. The name Alured 
has been repeatedly transferred to Theinred 
himself, and Moreri has further corrupted 
his name into David Theinred. The trea- 
tise is an exhaustive disquisition in three 
books upon scales and intervals ; it employs 
the ancient letter-notation instead of the 
usual musical signs, which do not occur 
throughout. The copy in the Bodleian Li- 
brary is the only one known to be extant. 
Boston of Bury gave the title as ' De Musica 
et de legitimis ordinibus Pentacordorum 
et Tetracordorum lib. 3 ; ' Bale, probably 
misled by this statement, described two 
separate treatises, and was followed by Pits. 
Both writers bestowed the highest enco- 
miums on Theinred's learning, Bale calling 
him 'Musicorum suitemporis Phoenix,' which 
Pits extended into ' Vir morum probitate, 
multiplicique doctrina conspicuus,' although 
both apparently made these assertions only 
on the ground that the precentor of a monas- 
tery must have had such qualifications. Bale 
adds that Theinred was the reputed author 
of several other works whose titles he had 



not seen. Burney spoke slightingly of Thein- 
red's treatise, but Chappell shows that Burney 
had but cursorily examined it, and does not 
even correctly quote the opening words ' Quo- 
niam Musicorum de his cantibus frequens 
est dissensio.' It was announced for publi- 
cation in the fourth volume of Coussemaker's 
' Scriptores de Musica medii sevi,' but did not 
appear. 

[Bodleian MS. 842 ; Boston of Bury, in Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib., introd. p. xrxix ; Bale's 
Script, p. 479 ; Pitseus, Script, p. 510 ; Burnej's 
General Hist, of Music, ii. 396 ; Chappell's Hist. 
of Music, introd. p. xiii ; Ouseley's contributions 
to Naumann's Illustrirte Geschichte der Musik, 
English edit. p. 562 ; Nagel's Geschichte der 
Musik in England, p. 64 ; Weale's Cat. of the 
Historical Music Loan Exhibition, 1885, p. 
123.] H. D. 

THELLUSSpN, PETER (1737-1797), 
merchant, born in Paris on 27 June 1737, 
was the third son of Isaac de Thellusson 
(1690-1770), resident envoy of Geneva at the 
court of France, by his wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Abraham le Boullen. The family of 
Thellusson was of French origin, but took 
refuge at Geneva after the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew in 1572. Isaac's second son, 
George, founded a banking house in Paris, in 
which Xecker, the financier, commenced his 
career as a clerk, and in which he afterwards 
became junior partner. Peter Thellusson 
came to England in 1762, was naturalised 
by act of parliament in the same year, and 
established his head office in Philpot Lane, 
London. Originally he acted as agent for 
Messrs. Vandenyver et Cie, of Amsterdam 
and Paris, and other great commercial houses 
of Paris. Afterwards engaging in business 
on his own account, he traded chiefly with 
the West Indies, where he acquired large 
estates. He eventually amassed a consider- 
able fortune, and, among other landed pro- 
perty, purchased the estate of Brodsworth 
in Yorkshire. He died on 21 July 1797 at 
his seat at Plaistow, near Bromley in Kent. 
On 6 Jan. 1761 he married Ann, second 
daughter of Matthew Woodford of South- 
ampton, by whom he had three sons and 
three daughters. His eldest son, Peter Isaac 
Thellusson (1761-1 808), was on 1 Feb. 1806 
created Baron Kendlesham in the Irish 
peerage. 

By his will, dated 2 April 1790, Thellus- 
son left 100,000/. to his wife and children. 
The remainder of his fortune, valued at 
600.000/. or 800,000/., he assigned to trus- 
tees to accumulate during the lives of his 
sons and sons' sons, and of their issue exist- 
ing at the time of his death. On the death 
of the last survivor the estate was to be 



Thelwall 



no 



Thelwall 



divided equally among the ' eldest male 
lineal descendants of his three sons then 
living.' If there were no heir, the property 
was to go to the extinction of the national 
debt. At the time of Thellusson's death 
he had no great-grandchildren, and in con- 
sequence the trust was limited to the life 
of two generations. The will was gene- 
rally stigmatised as absurd, and the family 
endeavoured to get it set aside. On 20 April 
1799 the lord chancellor, Alexander Wed- 
derburn, lord Loughborough [q. v.], pro- 
nounced the will valid, and his decision was 
confirmed by the House of Lords on 25 June 
1805. As it was calculated that the accu- 
mulation might reach 140,000,000^., the will 
was regarded by some as a peril to the coun- 
try, and an act was passed in 1800 prohibit- 
ing similar schemes of bequest. A second 
lawsuit as to the actual heirs arose in 1856, 
when Charles Thellusson, the last grandson, 
died at Brighton on 25 Feb. It was decided 
in the House of Lords on 9 June 1859. As 
George Woodford, Peter's second son, had 
no issue, the estate was divided between 
Frederick William Brook Thellusson, lord 
Ilendlesham, and Charles Sabine Augustus 
Thellusson, grandson of Charles Thellusson, 
the third son of Peter. In consequence of 
mismanagement and the costs of litigation, 
they succeeded to only a comparatively mode- 
rate fortune. 

[Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, 1 886, 
ii. 381 ; Gent. Mag. 1797 ii. 624, 708, 747,1798, 
ii. 1082, 1832 ii. 176; Annual Eegister 1797, 
Chron. p. 148, 1859 Chron. p. 333; Hunter's 
Deanery of Doncaster, i. 317; Lodge's Genea- 
logy of Peerage and Baronage, 1859, p. 452 ; 
G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, vi. 337 ; Burke's 
Peerage, s. v. ' Kendlesham ; ' De Lolme's Gene- 
ral Observations occasioned by the last Will of 
Peter Thellusson, 1798; Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. xii. 183, 253, 489; Law Times, 1859, Re- 
ports, pp. 379-83 ; Observations upon the Will 
of Peter Thellusson ; Vesey's Case upon the Will 
of Peter Thellusson, 1800; Hargrave's Treatise 
upon the Thellusson Act, 1842.] E. I. C. 

THELWALL, EUBULE (1562-1630), 
principal of Jesus College, Oxford, fifth son 
of John Thelwall of Bathafarn, near Ruthin, 
and Jane, his wife, was born in 1562. He 
was educated inWestminster school, whence 
he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1572 (WELCH, Alumni Westmon. p. 50), 
graduating B. A. in 1576-7. On 14 July 1579 
he was incorporated at Oxford, where he gra- 
duated M.A. on 13 June 1580. He was ad- 
mitted student at Gray's Inn on 20 July 
1590 (FOSTER, .Rey. Gray's Inn, p. 75) ; he was 
called to the bar in 1 599, and became treasurer 
of the inn in 1625. He was appointed a 



master in chancery in 1617, was knighted on 
29 June 1619, and represented the county of 
Denbigh in the parliaments of 1624-5, 1626, 
and 1628-9. In 1621 he was elected prin- 
cipal of Jesus College, Oxford, an office 
he held until his death. So ample were his 
benefactions to the college that he has been 
styled its second founder: he spent upon the 
hall, the decoration of the chapel, and other 
buildings a sum of 5,000^. He also obtained 
a new charter for the college from James I 
in 1622. In 1624 the king employed him 
to assist in framing statutes for Pembroke 
College, Oxford (MACLEAXE, Hist. Pembroke 
Coll. 1897, pp. 183-5). He died unmarried 
on 8 Oct. 1630, and was buried in the col- 
lege chapel, where there is a monument to 
him, erected by his brother Sir Bevis Thel- 
wall. He gave to his nephew John the 
house he had built himself at Plas Coch 
in the parish of Llanychan, Denbighshire. 
There is a portrait of him as a child, in 
Jesus College. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Enwogion 
Cymru, Liverpool, 1870; Chalmers's History of 
the Colleges of Oxford, 1810 ; Clark's Colleges 
of Oxford; Dugdale's Orig. Jurid. andChronica 
Series ; Pennant's Tours.] J. E. L. 

THELWALL, JOHN (1764-1834), re- 
former and lecturer on elocution, son of 
Joseph Thelwall (1731-1772), a silk mercer, 
and grandson of Walter Thelwall, a naval 
surgeon, was born at Chandos Street, 
Covent Garden, on 27 July 1764. On his 
father's death in 1772 his mother decided 
to continue the business, but it was not 
until 1777 that John was removed from 
school at Highgate and put behind the 
counter. His duties were distasteful to him, 
and he devoted most of his time to indis- 
criminate reading, which he varied by mak- 
ing copies of engravings. Discord prevailed 
in the family, his eldest brother being 
addicted to heavy drinking, while the 
mother was constantly reproaching and 
castigating John for his fondness for books. 
To end this state of things he consented to 
be apprenticed to a tailor, but here again ex- 
ception was taken to his studious habits. 
Having parted from his master by mutual 
consent, he began studying divinity until his 
brother-in-law, who held a position at the 
chancery bar, caused him to be articled in 
1782 to John Impey [q. v.], attorney, of 
Inner Temple Lane. Here, again, his inde- 
pendent views precluded the pursuit of pro- 
fessional success. He studied the poets and 
philosophers in preference to his law-books, 
avowed his distaste for copying ' the trash 
of an office,' and refused to certify documents 
tie had not read. His moral exaltation was 



Thelwall 



Thelwall 



such that he conceived not only a dislike for 
oaths, but a rooted objection to commit him- 
self even to a promise. Impey formed an 
attachment for him in spite of his eccen- 
tricities, but he insisted on having his in- 
dentures cancelled on the score of the 
scruples which he entertained about prac- 
tising the profession. He was now for a 
time to become dependent wholly upon his 
pen. He had already written for the 
periodicals, and in 1787 he published 'Poems 
upon various Subjects ' (London, 2 vols. 
8vo) which was favourably noticed in the 
' Critical Review.' About the same time he 
became editor of the ' Biographical and Im- 
perial Magazine,' for which he received a 
salary of 50/. He made perhaps as much 
by contributions to other periodicals, and 
devoted half his income to the support of his 
mother, who had failed in her business. 

Thelwall commenced his political career 
by speaking at the meetings of the society 
for free debate at the Coachmakers' Hull. 
In the course of the discussions in which he 
took part a number of radical views became 
grafted upon his original high tory doctrines, 
and when the States-General met at Ver- 
sailles in 1789, he rapidly became ' intoxi- 
cated with the French doctrines of the day.' 
Though he suffered originally from a marked 
hesitation of speech and even a slight lisp, 
he gradually developed with the voice of a 
demagogue a genuine declamatory power. 
He made an impression at Coachmakers' 
Hall by an eloquent speech in which he 
opposed the compact formed by the rival 
parties to neutralise the voice of the West- 
minster electors in 1790. When it was de- 
termined to nominate an independent candi- 
date, he was asked to act as a poll clerk, and 
he soon won the friendship of the veteran 
Home Tooke when' the latter resolved to 
contest the seat. Tooke so appreciated his 
talents that he offered to send him to the 
university and to use his influence to obtain 
his subsequent advancement in the church. 
But Thelwall had formed other plans for his 
future. His income was steadily increasing, 
and during the summer of 1791 he married 
and settled down near the Borough hospi- 
tals in order that he might attend the ana- 
tomical and medical lectures of Henry Cline 
[q. v.], William Babington [q. v.], and others. 
He was also a frequent attendant at the lec- 
ture-room of John Hunter. He joined the 
Physical Society at Guy's Hospital, and read 
before it ' An Essay on Animal Vitality,' 
which was much applauded (London, 1793, 
8vo). 

In the meantime the advanced opinions 
which Thelwall shared were rapidly spread- 



ing in London, and 1791 saw the forma- 
tion of a number of Jacobin societies. Thel- 
wall joined the Society of the Friends of the 
People, and he became a prominent member 
of the Corresponding Society founded by 
Thomas Hardy ( 1752-1832) [q.v.] in January 
1792. One of Citizen Thelwall's ' sallies at 
the Capel Court Society, in which he likened 
a crowned despot to a bantam cock on a 
dunghill, caught the radical taste of the day. 
When this rodomontade was reproduced 
with some embellishments in ' Politics for the 
People, or Hogswash' (Xo. 8; the second title 
was in reference to a contemptuous remark 
of Burke's upon the ' swinish multitude '), 
the government precipitately caused the 
publisher, Daniel Isaac Eaton, to be indicted 
at the Old Bailey for a seditious libel ; but, 
in spite of an adverse summing-up, the jury 
found the prisoner not guilty (24 Feb. 1 ?. I i, 
and the prosecution was covered with ridi- 
cule owing to the grotesque manner in which 
the indictment was framed the phrase 
' meaning our lord the king ' being interpo- 
lated at each of the most ludicrous passages 
in Thelwall's description. The affair gave 
him a certain notoriety, and he was marked 
down by the government spies. One of 
these, named Gostling, declared that Thel- 
wall upon a public occasion cut the froth 
from a pot of porter and invoked a similar 
fate upon all kings. He was not finally 
arrested, however, until 13 May 1794, when 
he was charged upon the deposition of an- 
other spy, named Ward, with having moved 
a seditious resolution at a meeting at Chalk 
Farm. Six days later he was sent to the 
Tower along with Thomas Hardy and Home 
Tooke, who had been arrested upon similar 
charges. On 6 Oct. true bills were found 
against them, and on 24 Oct. they \vin- 
removed to Newgate. His trial was the 
last of the political trials of the year, being 
held on 1-5 Dec. at the Old Bailey before 
Chief-baron Macdonald. The testimony as 
to Thelwall's moral character was excep- 
tionally strong, and his acquittal was the 
signal for a great outburst of applause. At 
the beginning of the trial he handed a pen- 
cilled note to counsel, saying he wished to 
plead his own cause. ' If you do, you will 
be hanged,' was Erskine's comment, to which 
he at once rejoined, ' Then I'll be hanged if 
I do ' (BRITTON). Soon after his release he 
published ' Poems written in Close Confine- 
ment in the Tower and N.-wpite' (.London, 
1795, 4to). He was now living at Beaufort 
Buildings, Strand, and during 1795 his ac- 
tivity as a lecturer and political speaker was 
redoubled. When in December Pitt's act 
for more effectually preventing seditious 



Thelwall 



112 



Thelwall 



meetings and assemblies received the royal 
assent, he thought it wisest to leave London; 
and Mathias, in the ' Pursuits of Literature/ 
mentions how 

Thelwall for the season quits the Strand, 
To organise revolt by sea and land 

(Dial. iv. 1. 413). But he continued for 
nearly two years denouncing the government 
to the provinces, and commenting freely 
upon contemporary politics through the me- 
dium of ' Lectures upon Roman History.' 
He was warmly received in some of the 
large centres ; in the eastern counties, espe- 
cially at Yarmouth (where he narrowly 
escaped capture by a pressgang), King's 
Lynn, and Wisbech, mobs were hired which 
effectually prevented his being heard. 

About 1798 he withdrew altogether from 
his connection with politics and took a small 
farm near Brecon. There he spent two 
years, gaining in health, but suffering a great 
deal from the enforced silence ; and about 
1800 he resumed his career as a lecturer, 
discarding politics in favour of elocution. 
His illustrations were so good and his man- 
ner so animated that his lectures soon be- 
came highly popular. At Edinburgh during 
1804 he had a fierce paper war with Francis 
Jeffrey [q. v.], whom he suspected of inspiring 
some uncharitable remarks about him in the 
' Edinburgh Review.' Soon after this he 
settled down as a teacher of oratory in 
Upper Bedford Place, and had many bar 
students among his pupils. He made the 
acquaintance of Southey, Hazlitt, and Cole- 
ridge (who spoke of him as an honest man, 
with the additional rare distinction of having 
nearly been hanged), and also of Talfourd, 
Crabb Robinson, and Charles Lamb. From 
the ordinary groove of elocutionary teaching, 
Thelwall gradually concentrated his atten- 
tion upon the cure of stammering, and more 
generally upon the correction of defects 
arising from malformation of the organs of 
speech. In 1809 he took a large house in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields (No. 57) so that he 
might take the complete charge of patients, 
holding that the science of correcting im- 
pediments involved the correcting and regu- 
lating of the whole mental and moral habit 
of the pupil. His system had a remarkable 
success, some of his greatest triumphs being 
recorded in his ' Treatment of Cases of De- 
fective Utterance ' (1814) in the form of a 
letter to his old friend Cline. Crabb Robin- 
son visited his institution on 27 Dec. 1815, 
and was tickled by Thelwall's idea of having 
Milton's ' Comus ' recited by a troupe of 
stutterers, but was astonished at the results 
attained. Much as Charles Lamb disliked 



lectures and recitations, his esteem for Thel- 
wall made him an occasional visitor at these 
entertainments in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
Reports of some cases of special interest 
were contributed by him to the ' Medical 
and Physical Journal.' 

Thelwall prospered in his new vocation 
until 1818, when his constitutional restless- 
ness impelled him to throw himself once 
more prematurely into the struggle for par- 
liamentary reform. He purchased a journal, 
' The Champion,' to advocate this cause ; 
but his Dantonesque style of political oratory 
was entirely out of place in a periodical ad- 
dressed to the reflective classes, and he soon 
lost a great portion of his earnings. He 
subsequently resumed his elocution school 
at Brixton, and latterly spent much time as 
an itinerant lecturer, retaining his cheerful- 
ness and sanguine outlook to the last. He 
died at Bath on 17 Feb. 1834. 

He married, first, on 27 July 1791, Susan 
Vellum, a native of Rutland, who died in 1816, 
leaving him four children. She supported 
him greatly during his early trials, and was, 
in the words of Crabb Robinson, his ' good 
angel.' He married secondly, about 1819, 
Cecil Boyle, a lady many years younger than 
himself. A woman of great social charm 
and some literary ability, she wrote, in addi- 
tion to a ' Life ' of her husband, several 
little works for children. She died in 1863, 
leaving one son, Weymouth Birkbeck Thel- 
wall, a watercolour artist, who was acci- 
dentally killed in South Africa in 1873. 

Talfourd and Crabb Robinson testify 
strongly to Thelwall's integrity and domes- 
tic virtues. His judgment was not perhaps 
equal to his understanding; but, apart from a 
slight warp of vanity and self-complacency, 
due in part to his self-acquired knowledge, 
few men were truer to their convictions. In 
person he was small, compact, and muscular, 
with a head denoting indomitable resolution. 
A portrait engraved by J. C. Timbrell, from 
a bust by E. Davis, forms the frontispiece to 
the ' Life of John Thelwall by his AVidow,' 
London, 1837, 8vo. A portrait ascribed to 
William Hazlitt [q. v.] has also been repro- 
duced. The British Museum possesses two 
stipple engravings one by Richter. 

Apart from the works already mentioned 
and a large number of minor pamphlets 
and leaflets, Thelwall published: 1. ' The 
Peripatetic, or Sketches of the Heart of 
Nature and Society,' London, 1793, 3 vols. 
12mo. 2. ' Political Lectures : On the 
Moral Tendency of a System of Spies and 
Informers, and the Conduct to be observed 
by the Friends of Liberty during the Con- 
tinuance of such a System,' London, 1794, 



Thelvvall 



Theobald 



8vo. 3. ' The Natural and Constitutional 
Rights of Britons to Annual Parliaments, 
Universal Suffrage, and Freedom of Popular 
Association,' London, 1795, 8vo. 4. ' Peace- 
ful Discussion and not Tumultuary Violence 
the Means of redressing National Grievance,' 
London, 1795, 8vo. 5. ' The Rights of 
Nature against the Usurpation of Establish- 
ments : a Series of Letters on the recent 
Effusions of the Right Hon. Edmund 
Burke,' London, 8vo, 1796. 6. ' Sober Re- 
flections on the Seditious and Inflammatory 
Letter of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke to 
a Noble Lord,' London, 1796, 8vo. 7. ' Poems 
chiefly written in Retirement (including an 
epic, " Edwin of Northumbria "),' Hereford, 
1801, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1805. 8. 'Selections 
from Thelwall's Lectures on the Science and 
Practice of Elocution,' York, 1802, 8vo ; 
various editions. 9. ' A Letter to Francis 
Jeffrey on certain Calumnies in the " Edin- 
burgh Review,"' Edinburgh, 1804, 8vo. 

10. ' Monody on the Right Hon. Charles 
James Fox,' London, 1806, 8vo ; two editions. 

11. 'The Vestibule of Eloquence . .. Original 
Articles, Oratorical and Poetical, intended 
as Exercises in Recitation,' London, 1810, 
8vo. 12. ' Selections for the Illustration of 
a Course of Instructions on the Rhythmus 
and Utterance of the English Language,' 
London, 1812, 8vo. 13. ' Poetical Recrea- 
tions of the Champion and his Literary 
Correspondents ; with a Selection of Essays,' 
London, 1822, 8vo. 

Thelwall's eldest son, ALGERNON SYDNEY 
THELWALL (1795-1863), born at Cowes in 
1795, entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and graduated B.A. as eighteenth wrangler 
in 1818, and M.A. in 1826. Having taken 
orders, he served as English chaplain and 
missionary to the Jews at Amsterdam 
1819-26, became curate of Blackford, Somer- 
set, in 1828, and then successively minister 
of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury (1842-3), 
and curate of St. Matthew's, Pell Street 
(1848-50). He was one of the founders of 
the Trinitarian Bible Society. From 1850 
lie was well known as lecturer on public 
reading and elocution at King's College, Lon- 
don. He died at his house in Torrington 
Square on 30 Nov. 1863 (Gent. May. 1864, 

1. 128). 

Among his voluminous writings, the most 
important are: 1. 'A Scriptural Refutation 
of Mr. Irving's Heresy,' London, 1834, 12mo. 

2. 'The Iniquities of the Opium Trade with 
China,' London, 1839, 12mo. 3. ' Old 
Testament Gospel, or Tracts for the Jews,' 
London, 1847, 12mo. 4. ' The Importance 
of Elocution in connexion with Ministerial 
Usefulness,' London, 1850, 8vo. 5. 'The 

VOL. LVI, 



Reading Desk and the Pulpit,' London, 
1861, 8vo. He also compiled the ' Proceed- 
ings of the Anti-Maynooth Conference of 
1845 ' (London, 8vo). 

[Life of John Thelwall, 1837, vol. i. (no more 
published); Gent. Mag. 1834,ii.ot9; Talfourd'a 
Memoirs of Charles Lamb, ed, Fitzgerald ; 
Crabb Robinson's Diary, passim ; Smith's Story 
of the English Jacobins, 1881; Britton's Auto- 
biography, 1850, i. 180-6 (a warm eulogy from 
one who knew him well): Colaridge's Table 
Talk; Life of William Wilberforce, 1838, iii. 
499; Wallas's Life of Francis Piace, 1898; Trial 
of Tooke, Thelwall, and Hardv, 1"95, 8ro; 
Howell's State Trials, xxiii. 1013 ; Watt's Bibl.' 
Britannica; Penny Encyclopaedia; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; private information.] T. S. 

THEOBA.LD or TEDBALDUS (d. 
1161), archbishop of Canterbury, came of a 
Norman family of knightly rank, settled near 
Thierceville, in the neighbourhood of Bee 
Hellouin. He became a monk of Bee between 
1093 and 1124, was made prior in 1127, and 
elected abbot in 1137. Difficulties with re- 
spect to the rights of the archbishop of Rouen 
delayed his benediction for fourteen months ; 
they were finally settled through the media- 
tion of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, 
and Theodore received the benedict ion from 
the archbishop ( Vita Theobaldi). The see of 
Canterbury having been vacant since the deat h 
of William of Corbeil [q.v.J in 1 136, the prior 
of Christ Church and a deputation of monks 
were summoned before King Stephen [q. v.J 
and the legate Alberic, and on 24 Dec. 1138 
elected Theobald archbishop. Henry of 
Blois (d. 1171) [q.v.], bishop of Winchester, 
desired the primacy for himself, but Stephen 
and his queen Matilda (1103 P-1152J [q. v.] 
had arranged the election of Theobald, who 
was consecrated at Canterbury by the legate 
on 8 Jan. 1 139. Before the end of the month 
he left for Rome, received the pall from 
Innocent II, was present at the Lab-ran 
council in April, and then returned to Can- 
terbury (GERVASE, i. 107-9, ii. :5sj ; c,,nt. 
FLOR. WKJ. ii. 114-15). Innocent, how- 
ever, did not renew to him the legatine 
commission held by his predecessor, but 
gave it to the bishop of Winchester. Thia 
was a slight on the archbishop, and an 
injury to the see of Canterbury. Theobald 
did not press his rights at the time; he 
probably thought it best to wait; for a 
legation of this kind expired on the death 
of the pope who granted it. He attended 
the legatine council held by Bishop Henry 
at Winchester on 29 Aug., and joined witl 
him in entreating the king not to quarrel 
with the clergy (Hutoria Novella, ii. c. 477). 
Although he was inclined to the side of the 



Theobald 



114 



Theobald 



empress, he was not forgetful of the ties 
that bound him to the king. When Bishop 
Henry received the empress at Winchester in 
March 1141, he pressed the primate to acknow- 
ledge her. Theobald hesitated, and, when he 
met her by arrangement at Wilton, declined 
to do her homage until he had received the 
king's permission, on the ground that it was 
not lawful for him to withdraw his fealty 
from a king who had been acknowledged by 
the Roman church (Historia Pontificalis, 
c. 2; Cont. Flor. Wig. ii. 130; ROUND, 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp. 65, 260). He 
therefore proceeded to Bristol, where the 
king was imprisoned. On 7 April, however, 
he attended the council at Winchester at 
which Matilda was elected. Having avowedly 
joined the side of the empress, he was with 
her at Oxford on 25 July and at Winchester 
a few days later, and shared in her hasty 
flight from that city on 13 Sept., reaching a 
place of safety after considerable danger, and 
perhaps some loss (Gesta Stephani, p. 85). 
On Stephen's release on 1 Nov., Theobald 
returned to his allegiance. It is asserted 
that sentence of banishment was pronounced 
against him ('proscriptus') ; but if so, it did 
not come into effect (Historia Pontificalis, 
c. 15), and he was present at the council held 
by the legate on 7 Dec. at which Bishop 
Henry declared his brother king. At Christ- 
mas he received the king and queen at Can- 
terbury, and placed the crown on the king's 
head in his cathedral church (GERVASE, i. 123 ; 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp. 137-8). 

Theobald attached to his household many 
young men of legal and political talent, and 
made his palace the training college and 
home ' of anew generation of English scholars 
and English statesmen' (NoRGATE, Angerin 
Kings, i. 352). Chief among them were 
Roger of Pont 1'Eveque [q. v.], afterwards 
archbishop of York, John Belmeis [q. v.], 
afterwards archbishop of Lyons, and Thomas 
(Becket) [q. v.], his successor at Canterbury, 
who entered his service in 1143 or 1144. On 
all matters Theobald consulted with one or 
other of these three, and chiefly with Thomas 
(WILLIAM or CANTERBURY, ap. Becket Ma- 
terials, i. 4). It is interesting to find that the 
former abbot of Lanfranc's house established 
a law school at Canterbury, and was the first 
to introduce the study of civil law into Eng- 
land. Possibly before 1144 Theobald sent for 
a famous jurist, Vacarius of Mantua, to come 
and lecture on civil law at Canterbury [see 
VACARIUS]. Vacarius became the arch- 
bishop's advocate, and must have been of 
great use to him in his correspondence with 
the Roman court, which was of unusual im- 
portance, for the appointment of Bishop 



Henry as legate caused a division of 
authority in the church of England, and 
brought Theobald much trouble. Bishop 
Henry pushed his authority as legate to the 
utmost ; he tried to persuade Innocent to 
make his see an archbishopric, and it was 
believed that the pope had even sent him a 
pall (Annales Winton. ii. 53 ; DICETO, i. 255). 

Theobald opposed the wishes of the king 
and Bishop Henry with reference to the 
election of their nephew, William of Thwayt 
[see FITZHERBERT, WILLIAM] to the arch- 
bishopric of York, and steadily refused to 
consecrate him. Bishop Henry, however, 
consecrated him on 26 Sept. 1143, without 
the archbishop's sanction (GERVASE, i. 323). 
The supersession of the archbishop encouraged 
resistance to his authority. Hugh, abbot of 
St. Augustine's at Canterbury, claiming that 
his house was under the immediate jurisdic- 
tion of Rome, appealed to the pope against 
a citation from the archbishop. The pope 
took his side, and finally ordered that the 
matter should be heard before the legate. 
At a council held by the legate at Winches- 
ter a composition was arranged which did 
not satisfy the archbishop. Theobald was 
thwarted by the legate even in his own 
monastery. He found that Jeremiah, the 
prior of Christ Church, was setting aside his 
jurisdiction ; a quarrel ensued, and Jeremiah 
appealed to Rome, almost certainly with the 
legate's approval, and went thither himself. 
Theobald deposed him, and appointed another 
prior. Jeremiah, however, gained his cause, 
and on his return was reinstated by the 
legate. On this Theobald withdrew his 
favour from the convent, and vowed that he 
would never celebrate in the church so long 
as Jeremiah remained prior (ib. pp. 74, 127). 

The death of Innocent II on 24 Sept. 1143 
put an end to the legatine authority of 
Bishop Henry, and he was no longer able to 
supersede Theobald in his own province. In 
November, Theobald went to Rome accorn- 
I panied by Thomas of London ; Bishop Henry 
I also went thither, hoping for a renewal of his 
j commission, but the new pope, Celestine II, 
| deprived him of the legation, though he does 
not appear to have granted it to the arch- 
bishop (ib. ii. 384). Celestine was strongly 
j in favour of the Angevin cause, and is said 
to have ordered Theobald to allow no new 
I arrangement to be made as to the English 
! crown, as the matter was contentious, thereby 
] guarding against any settlement tothepreju- 
| dice of the Angevin claim (Hist. Pontif. c. 
41). Lucius II, who succeeded Celestine on 
12 March 1144, also refused the legation to 
Bishop Henry (JOHN OF HEXHAM, c. 17). 
While Theobald was in Rome Lucius heard 



Theobald 



Theobald 



the case between him and St. Augustine's, 
and the archbishop's claims were fully satisfied 
(on the whole case see THORN, cols. 1800-6 ; 
ELMHAM, pp. 369-81, 390-1). Theobald 
then left Rome, and on 11 June was present 
at the consecration of the new church of St. 
Denis in France (Recueil des Historians, xiv. 
316). He returned to England without a 
rival in his province, and Jeremiah con- 
sequently resigned the priorate of Christ 
Church. In this year a cardinal named 
Hicmar arrived in England as legate, but 
his coming does not appear to have affected 
Theobald ; he returned on the death of Lucius 
in February 1145. The new pope, Euge- 
nius III, was favourably inclined to Theo- 
bald through the influence of his great ad- 
viser, Bernard of Clairvaux, who described 
Theobald as a man of piety and acceptable 
opinions, and expressed a hope that the 
pope would reward him (S. BERNARD, 
Ep. 238). It might be expected that some 
notice should occur of a grant of a legatine 
commission by Eugenius to Theobald as 
a consequence of this letter, but, in default 
of finding him described as legate before 
1150, good modern authorities have given 
that year as the date of the grant (STXTBBS, 
Constitutional History, iii. 299 ; NORGATE, 
Angevin Kings, i. 364). Nevertheless, 
the historian of St. Augustine's Abbey 
speaks of him as papal legate in 1148 
(TuoRN, col. 1807). Against this must be 
set that he is not so called in any bull of 
Eugenius known to have been sent to him 
before 1150, and that the ' Historia Pontifi- 
calis ' is equally silent on the matter. Thorn, 
who was not earlier than the fourteenth 
century, may have merely been mistaken, or 
he may have been swayed by a desire to 
make an excuse for the monks of his house 
(see below). He says that when they dis- 
obeyed Theobald in 1148, they did not know 
that he had legatine authority ; and an 
eminent scholar suggests that this story and 
the position of affairs at the time being taken 
into consideration, ' it is possible, if not ac- 
tually probable,' that there was a secret com- 
mission to Theobald. A suit was instituted 
in the papal court against Theobald in 1147 
by Bernard, bishop of St. David's, who sought 
to obtain the recognition of his see as metro- 
political. The pope appointed a day for the 
hearing of the case ; but Bernard died before 
the date fixed, and the suit dropped (GiR. 
CAMBR. iii. 51, 168, 180). On 14 March 
1148 Theobald consecrated to the see of 
Rochester his brother Walter, whom he had 
previously made archdeacon of Canterbury. 

A summons having been sent to the Eng- 
lish prelates to attend the council that Euge- 



nius held at Rheims on the 21st, Stephen 
refused to allow Theobald or the prelates 
generally to leave the kingdom. Knowing 
that Theobald was determined to go, he 
ordered various seaports to be watched lest 
he should get away secretly, and declared 
that if he went he should be banished. Theo- 
bald, after obtaining leave to send some of 
his clerks to the council to make his excuses, 
secretly embarked in a crazy boat, crossed 
the Channel at great risk, and presented him- 
self at the council. He was received with 
much rejoicing, the pope welcoming him as 
one who, for the honour of St. Peter, had 
crossed the sea rather by swimming than sail- 
ing (GERVASE, i. 134, ii. 386 ; Hist . Pontif. 
c. 2 ; ST. THOMAS, Ep. 2oO ap. Materials, vi. 
57-8). When, on the last day of the coun- 
cil, Eugenius was about to excommunicate 
Stephen, Theobald earnestly begged him to 
forbear ; the pope granted the king a respite 
of three months, and on leaving Rheims com- 
mitted the case of the English bishops whom 
he had suspended to Theobald's management , 
On the archbishop's return to Canterbury 
the king ordered him to quit the kingdom ; 
his revenues were seized and he hastily re- 
turned to France. He sent messengers to 
acquaint the pope with his exile ; they over- 
took Eugenius at Brescia, and he wrote to 
the English bishops, ordering them to bid 
the king recall the archbishop and restore 
his possessions, threatening an interdict, and 
at Michaelmas to excommunicate Stephen. 
Theodore published the interdict ; but, as 
the bishops were generally on the king's 
side, it was not observed except in Kent, and 
a party among the monks of St. Augustine's, 
led by their prior Silvester and the sacristan, 
disregarded it. Queen Matilda, anxious for 
a reconciliation with Theobald, with the help 
of William of Ypres [q. v.] persuaded him 
to remove to St. Omer, where negotiations 
might be carried on more easily. Constant 
communication was carried on between the 
English clergy and laity and the archbishop, 
whose dignified behaviour, gentleness, and 
liberality to the poor excited much admira- 
tion (i*. i. 123; Hist. Pontif. c. 15). While 
at St.' Omer he, on 5 Sept., with the assist- 
ance of some French bishops, consecrated 
Gilbert Foliot [q. v.] to the see of Hereford, 
and when Henry [see HENRY II], duk- ..1 
Normandy, complained that the new bishop 
had broken his promise to him by swearing 
fealty to Stephen, he appeased him by repre- 
senting that it would have been schismatica! 
to withdraw obedience from a king that had 
been recognised bv the Roman church. 
Before long Theobald returned to England ; 
he sailed from Gravelines, landed at Gosford 

I 2 



Theobald 



116 



Theobald 



in the territories of Hugh Bigod (d. 1176 or 
1177)[q. v.], and was hospitably entertained 
by the earl at Framlingham in Suffolk, where 
three bishops and many nobles visited him. 
The king was reconciled to him, and he took 
off the interdict ; he received the submission 
of the bishops and removed the sentence of 
suspension, but had no power to deal with 
the case of Bishop Henry, though personally 
Theobald was reconciled to him (JoHK OP 
HEXHAM, c. 19). He was brought to Canter- 
bury with rejoicing. In the following spring 
the monks of St. Augustine's made submis- 
sion to him ; they had appealed to the pope, 
and it is alleged in their excuse that, though 
Theobald had published the interdict in 
virtue of his legatine authority, they did not 
know that he was legate, and thought that 
he was acting simply as ordinary (THOKX, 
u.s.) Eugenius decided against them. The 
prior and sacristan were absolved after re- 
ceiving a flogging, and the convent was also 
absolved by the archbishop after a period of 
suspension of divine service in their church. 
While Theobald was at Rheims he must 
have met with John of Salisbury [q. v.], 
who, in or about 1150, came to him with a 
letter of introduction from Bernard of 
Clairvaux (Ep. 361) ; he became the arch- 
bishop's secretary, and transacted his official 
business. As Ireland was without any real 
archiepiscopal authority, Irish bishops-elect 
sometimes sought consecration from the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, who claimed that 
Ireland was under their primatial jurisdic- 
tion, and in 1140 Theobald consecrated and 
received the profession of a bishop of Lime- 
rick. In 1152, however, Armagh was made 
the primatial see of Ireland a step which 
was held in England to be a diminution 
of the rights of Canterbury (JOHN OF HEX- 
HAM, c. 24; HovEDEJf, i. 212; Annals of 
Waverley, ii. 234 ; STOKES, Ireland and the 
Celtic Church, pp. 317, 319, 325, 345-7). In 
Lent 1151 Theobald, as papal legate, held a 
council in London, at which many appeals 
were made to Rome (HEN. HUNT. viii. c. 
31). A new attempt was made by the 
monks of St. Augustine's to shake off the 
archbishop's authority after the death of 
Abbot Hugh. The prior, Silvester, was 
chosen to succeed him. Theobald objected 
to the election, and refused Silvester's de- 
mand that the benediction should be given 
him in the church of his monastery as con- 
trary to the rights of Christ Church. Sil- 
vester went to Rome, and returned with an 
order for his benediction by the archbishop 
in St. Augustine's. Theobald, while going 
to the abbey as though to perform the cere- 
mony, was met, it is said by arrangement, 



by the prior of Christ Church, who forbad 
him to give the benediction except in Christ 
Church, and appealed to Rome. In July 
1152 Eugenius ordered that the archbishop 
should give the benediction in St. Augus- 
tine's without requiring a profession of obe- 
dience. Theobald complied with this order,, 
but made further appeals, and the matter 
was settled later (THORN, cols. 1810-14; 
ELMHAM, pp. 400-1, 404-6 : GERVASE, i. 76, 
147-8). Meanwhile he had a quarrel with 
the monks of Christ Church. As the con- 
vent was in pecuniary difficulties, he had at 
their request taken the administration of 
their revenues into his own hands. When, 
however, he began to insist on retrench- 
ments, the monks declared that he was using 
their revenues for the support of his own- 
household, and had broken the agreement 
made with them. The dispute waxed hot ; 
Theobald imprisoned two monks sent by the 
convent to appeal to the pope, suspended 
the performance of divine service in the 
convent church, and set guards to keep the 
gates of the house shut. Finally he deposed 
the prior, Walter the Little, and sent him 
under a guard to the abbey of Gloucester, 
bidding the abbot keep him safely; so he 
was kept there until Theobald's death, and 
a worthier prior was chosen in his place (ib. 
i. 143-6, ii. 386-8, must be read as a vio- 
lent exparte statement on the convent's side). 
In the spring of 1152 Stephen held a 
great council in London, at which, the earls, 
and barons having sworn fealty to his son 
Eustace, he called upon Theobald and the 
bishops to crown his son king. Theobald 
had procured a letter from Eugenius for- 
bidding the coronation, and thus repeating 
the prohibitions of his predecessors Celestine 
and Lucius. Theobald therefore refused the 
king's demand. Stephen and his son shut 
him arid his suffragans up in a house together, 
and tried to intimidate them. Theobald re- 
mained firm, though some of his suffragans 
with drew their support from him ; he escaped 
down the Thames in a boat, sailed to Dover, 
and thence crossed over to Flanders. The 
king seized the lands of the archbishopric. 
Eugenius ordered the English bishops to ex- 
communicate him and lay the kingdom 
under an interdict. On this Stephen re- 
called the archbishop, who returned to Can- 
terbury before 28 Sept. (ib. i. 151, ii. 76; 
BECKET, Ep. 250 ; HEN. HUNT. viii. c. 32 ; 
Vita Theobaldi, p. 338). When Henry, duke 
of Normandy, was in England in 1153, Theo- 
bald laboured to bring about a peace between 
him and the king. He was successful, and 
the treaty between the king and the duke was 
proclaimed at Westminster before Christmas 



Theobald 



117 



Theobald 



&t a great council which Theobald attended. 
In Lent 1154 he received the king and the 
duke at Canterbury. lie secured the elec- 
tion of Roger of Pont 1'Eveque, archdeacon 
of Canterbury, to the see of York, and in 
consecrating him on 10 Oct. acted as legate, 
so that Roger was not required to make a pro- 
fession of obedience (DiCETO, i. 298 ; WILL. 
NEWB. i. c. 32). He appointed Thomas of 
London to succeed Roger as archdeacon and 
sis provost of Beverley. On the death of 
Stephen on the 25th, Theobald, in conjunc- 
tion with the other magnates of the realm, 
sent to Henry, who was then in Normandy, 
to call him back to England, and during 
the six weeks that elapsed before his return 
maintained peace and order in the kingdom, 
in spite of the large number of Flemish 
mercenaries that were in the country (GER- 
VASE, i. 159). 

On Sunday, 19 Dec., Theobald crowned 
Henry and his queen at Westminster. The 
coronation seemed the sign of the fulfilment 
of his long-cherished hopes. The policy of 
the Roman see with respect to the crown 
that he had so faithfully and fearlessly carried 
out had been brought to a successful issue. 
Nevertheless he evidently felt no small 
anxiety as to the future. During the reign 
of Stephen the church had become far more 
powerful at home than it had been since the 
Conquest, and at the same time had been 
more strongly bound to the Roman see by ties 
of dependence ; Theobald was anxious that it 
should maintain its position, and knew that 
it was likely to be endangered by the acces- 
sion of a king of Henry's disposition and 
hereditary anti-clerical feelings. He hoped 
to insure the maintenance of his ecclesiastical 
policy by securing power for men whom he 
trusted, and shortly after Henry's accession 
recommended the Archdeacon Thomas to the 
king as chancellor (Auct. Anon. I. iv.ll, 12 ; 
JOHN OF SALISBURY, ii. 304 ap. Becket 
Materials; GERVASE, i. 160; RADFORD, 
Thomas of London, pp. 58-62). As chan- 
cellor, Thomas disappointed his hopes. 

The closingyears of Theobald's life were full 
of administrative activity exercised through 
John of Salisbury, for after Thomas had left 
him for the king's service John became his 
chief adviser and official (STUBBS, Lectures, 
p. 346). He appears to have disliked the 
tax levied under the name of scutage in 1156 
on the lands of prelates holding in chief of 
the crown (Joux OF SALISBURY, Ep. 128). 
Nor was he at one with the crown in the case 
of Battle Abbey [see under HILARY, d. 1169]. 
He attended the hearing of the case before 
the king at Colchester in May 1157, and 
vainly tried to persuade the king to allow him 



to deal with it according to ecclesiastical 
law (Chronicon Monasterii de Hello, pp. 72- 
104). In July he attended the council at 
Northampton, when the long dispute be- 
tween him and the abbot of St. Augustine's 
was terminated in his favour, and, in pur- 
suance of the decision of Hadrian IV, abbot 
Silvester made profession to him (GEHVASE, 
i- 76-7, 163-5). A disputed election having 
been made to the papacy in 1159, he wrote 
to the king requesting his direction as to 
which of the two rivals should be acknow- 
ledged by the church of England (JOHN OF 
SALISBURY, Ep. 44). Having received from 
Arnulf, bishop of Lisieux, a statement of 
the claim of Alexander HI, he wrote again 
to Henry recommending him to acknow- 
ledge Alexander. This Henry did, and ac- 
cordingly he was at the archbishop's bidding 
acknowledged by a council of bishops and 
clergy of the whole kingdom that Theobald 
called to meet in London (ib. Epp. 48, 59, 
04, 65 ; FOLIOT, Ep. 148). 

Theobald was then very ill, and his death 
was expected. He wrote to the chancellor, 
then absent with the king in Normandy. 
that he had determined to reform certain 
abuses in his diocese, and specially to abolish 
a payment called ' second aids ' made to the 
archdeacon, and instituted by his brother 
Walter, and he spoke of his sorrow at not 
being able to see the chancellor, who still 
retained the archdeaconry (Jonx OF SALIS- 
BURY, Ep.48). In 1161 he was present at the 
consecration of Richard Peche [a. v.] to the 
see of Lichfield, but could not officiate him- 
self (GERVASE, i. 168). During his illness he 
wrote several letters to the king, commend- 
ing his clerks, and, specially John of Salis- 
bury, to his favour, begging him to uphold 
the authority and welfare of the church, and 
praying that Henry might return to England 
so that he might behold his son, the Lord's 
anointed, before he died (Jonx OF SALISBURY, 
Epp. 54, 63, 64 ter). Very earnestly, too, 
but in vain, he begged that the king would 
spare Thomas, his archdeacon, to visit him 
(ib. Ep. 70, 71, 78). Theobald hoped that 
the chancellor would succeed him at Canter- 
bury (ib. v. 280). Theobald made a will leav- 
ing his goods to the poor (ib. Ep. 57), and took 
an affectionate farewell of John of Salisbury, 
who was with him to the end (Ep. 256) 
He died on 18 April 1161, and was buried 
in his cathedral church. Eighteen years 
afterwards, during the repairs of the church 
after the fire of 1174, his marble tomb was 
opened, and his body was found entire ; it 
was exhibited to the convent, and, the news 
being spread, many people spoke of him as 
Saint Theobald.' The body was translated 



Theobald 



118 



Theobald 



and buried before the altar of St. Mary in the 
nave, according to a desire which he is said 
to have expressed in his lifetime (GERVASE, 
i. 26). His coffin was opened in 1787, and 
his remains were identified by an inscription 
on a piece of lead (HooK). 

Theobald, as may be gathered from the 
letters he wrote during his illness, was a 
man of deep religious feeling. He was 
charitable to the poor and liberal in all 
things (Becket Materials, ii. 307 ; Monas- 
ticon, iv. 363). He loved learning, and took 
care to be surrounded by learned men. In 
manner he was gracious, and in temperament 
gentle, affectionate, and placable. While 
calm and patient, he was also firm and 
courageous. As a ruler he was wise and 
able ; he was highly respected by the leaders 
of the religious movement of which St. Ber- 
nard was the head, and by relying on the 
help of the Roman see, and taking advantage 
of the civil disorder of Stephen's reign, he 
succeeded in raising the church of England 
to a position of great power. In his ordinary 
administration he promoted worthy and 
capable men ; he may be said to have been 
the founder of canonical jurisprudence in 
England, and through John of Salisbury in- 
troduced system and regularity into the work- 
ing of the ecclesiastical courts. Though him- 
self a Benedictine, he wisely did all he could 
to check the efforts made by monasteries to 
rid themselves of episcopal control. In secu- 
lar matters he acted with loyalty and skill ; 
he remained faithful to Stephen as the king 
recognised by the Roman see, though he did 
not shrink from opposing him whenever he 
tried to override the will of the church or 
use it as a mere political instrument. At 
the same time he worked steadily to secure 
the succession for the house of Anjou. His 
character, the success of his work, and the 
means by which he accomplished it entitle 
him to a place among the best and ablest 
archbishops of Canterbury. 

[Gervase of Cant., Will, of Malmesbury, 
Hist. Nov., John of Hexham ap. Opp. Sym. 
Dunelra. II., Becket Materials, Hen. Hunt.,R. de 
Diceto, Ann. de Winton, ap. Ann. Monast;p. 11, 
Giraldus Cambr., Elmham (all Rolls Ser.) ; 
Hist. Pontif. ap. Eer. Germ. SS. ed. Pertz 
vol. xx. ; Vita Theobaldi ap. Opp. Lanfranci I, 
John of Salisbury's Polycraticus and Epp., 
G. Foliot's Epp. (all three ed. Giles) ; Cont. Flor. 
Wig., Gesta Stephani, Will. Newb. (all three 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Thorn, ed. Twisden ; Chron. 
Monast. de Bello (Angl. Christ. Soc.) ; Bishop 
Stubbs's Lectures and Const. Hist.; Round's 
Geoffrey de Mandeville ; Norgate's Angevin 
Kings : Radford's Thomas of London (Cambr. 
Hist. Essays, vii.) ; Hook's Archbishops of 
Canterbury.] W. H. 



THEOBALD, LEWIS (1688-1744), 
editor of Shakespeare, was the son of Peter 
Theobald, an attorney practising at Sitting- 
bourne in Kent. He was born in that town 
and was baptised at the parish church, as 
the register testifies, on 2 April 1688. He 
was placed under the tuition of an able 
schoolmaster, the Rev. M. Ellis of Isleworth 
(Baker MSS. extract in Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Ixi. 788). To Ellis he must have owed 
much, for Theobald's classical attainments 
were considerable, and it does not appear 
that he received any further instruction. 
It would seem from what he says in his 
dedication of the ' Happy Captive ' to Lady 
Monson that he had early been left an orphan 
in great poverty, that he had been protected 
and educated by Lady Monson's father, her 
brother, Lord Sondes, being his fellow-pupil, 
but that he had not made the best of what 
' might have accrued to him from so favour- 
able a situation in life.' Like his father, he 
became an attorney ; but the law was dis- 
tasteful to him, and he very soon aban- 
doned it for literature. His first publica- 
tion was a Pindaric ode on the union of 
England and Scotland, which appeared in 
1707. In his preface to his tragedy ' The 
Persian Princess,' printed in 1715, he tells us 
that that play was written and acted before 
he had completed his nineteenth year, which 
would be in 1707. In May 1713 he translated 
for Bernard Lintot the 'Phaedo' of Plato, 
and entered into a contract for a translation 
of the tragedies of zEschylus. Lintot's ac- 
count-books show that Theobald contracted 
for many translations which were either not- 
finished or not published, but between 1714 
and 1715 he published translations of the 
' Electra' (1714), of the 'Ajax' (1714), and 
of the ' (Edipus Rex ' (1715) of Sophocles, 
and of the ' Plutus ' and the ' Clouds ' (both 
in 1715) of Aristophanes. The translations 
from Sophocles are in free and spirited blank 
verse, the choruses in lyrics, and the tragedies 
are divided into acts and scenes; the versions 
of the ' Plutus ' and the ' Clouds ' are in 
vigorous and racy colloquial prose. 

Theobald had now settled down to the 
pursuits of the literary hack, being in all pro- 
bability dependent on his pen for his liveli- 
hood. In 1713 he hurried out a catchpenny 
'Life of Cato ' for the benefit of the spectators 
and readers of Addison's tragedy which then 
held the town. Next year he published two 
poems ' The Cave of Poverty,' which he calls 
an imitation of Shakespeare, presumably be- 
cause it is written in the measure and form 
of ' Venus and Adon is,' and ' The Mausoleum/ 
a funeral elegy in heroics on the death of 
Queen Anne. These poems, like all Theobald's 



Theobald 



119 



Theobald 



poems, are perfectly worthless. On 11 April 
1715 he began in ' Mist's Journal' ' TheCensor,' 
a series of short essays on the model of the 
' Spectator,' which appeared three times a 
week, ceasing with the thirtieth number on 
17 June. Eighteen months afterwards they 
were resumed (1 Jan. 1717)as an independent 
publicationrunningonto ninety-six numbers. 
When they were discontinued later in the 
same year, they were collected and published 
in three duodecimo volumes. By some re- 
marks (see vol. ii. No. xxxiii.) which he had 
made on John Dennis he brought himself 
into collision with that formidable critic, 
who afterwards described him as ' a notorious 
idiot, one hight Whachum, who, from an 
under spurleather to the law, is become an 
understrapper to the playhouse ' (DENNIS, 
Remarks on Popes Homer). 

Meanwhile Theobald had been engaged in 
other works. In 1715 appeared his tragedy, 
' The Perfidious Brother,' which became the 
subject of a scandal reflecting very seriously 
on Theobald's honesty. It seems that Henry 
Meystayer, a watchmaker in the city, had 
submitted to Theobald the rough material of 
this play, requesting him to adapt it for the 
stage. The needful alterations involved the 
complete recasting and rewriting of the piece, 
costing Theobald, according to his own ac- 
count, four months' labour. As he had 
' created it anew,' he thought he was entitled 
to bring it out as his own work and to take 
the credit of it ; and this he did. But as 
soon as the play was produced Meystayer 
claimed it as his own, and in the following 
year published what he asserted was his own 
version, with an ironical dedication to the 
alleged plagiarist. A comparison of the two 
shows that they are identical in plot and 
very often in expression. But as Meystayer's 
version succeeded Theobald's, it is of course 
impossible to settle the relative honesty or 
dishonesty of the one man or of the other. 
The fact that Theobald did not carry out his 
threat of publishing Meystayer's original 
manuscript is not a presumption in his favour. 

His next performances were a translation 
of the first book of the ' Odyssey,' with notes 
(1716); a prose romance founded on Corneille's 
tragi-comedy 'Antiochus/entitled ' The Loves 
of Antiochus and Stratonice ; ' and an opera 
in one act, ' Pan and Syrinx,' both of which 
appeared in 1717. These were succeeded in 
1718 by 'The Lady's Triumph,' a dramatic 
opera, and by ' Decius and Paulina,' a masque, 
both performed at Lincoln's Inn. In 1719 
he published a ' Memoir of Sir Walter 
Raleigh ' which is of no importance. . In 
1720 his adaptation of Shakespeare's 'Ri- 
chard II,' though it procured for him a bank- 



note for a hundred pounds ' enclosed in an 
Egyptian pebble snuffbox ' from Lord Orrery, 
proved that the most exquisite of verbal 
critics may be the most wretched of dramatic 
artists. Next year he led off a poetical mis- 
cellany, ' The Grove,' published by William 
Meres [see under MERES, JOUN], with a vapid 
and commonplace poetical version of the 
' Hero and Leander ' of the pseudo-Musfeus. 
Nor can anything be said in favour of his 
pantomimes, 'The Rape of Proserpine,' or 
his 'Harlequin a Sorcerer' (1725), or his 
'Vocal Parts of an Entertainment, Apolloand 
Daphne' (1726). He seems to have mate- 
rially aided his friend John Rich [q. v.] t the 
manager of Drury Lane, in establishing the 
popularity of his novel pantomimic enter- 
tainments. 

But Theobald was about to appear in a 
new character. In March 172."> Pope gave 
to the world his edition of Shakespeare a 
task for which he was ill qualified. But 
what Pope lacked Theobald possessed, and 
early in 1726 appeared in a substantial quarto 
volume ' Shakespeare Restored, or a Speci- 
men of the many errors as well Committed 
as Unamended by Mr. Pope in his late edition 
of this poet : designed not only to correct the 
said Edition, but to restore the true Heading 
of Shakespeare in all the Editions ever pub- 
lished. By Mr. Theobald.' It was dedicated 
to John Rich, the manager, who on the 24th 
of the following May gave Theobald a bene- 
fit (GENEST, Account of the English Stage, 
iii. 188). In the preface Pope is treated 
personally with the greatest respect. But 
Theobald asserted that his veneration for 
Shakespeare had induced him to assume a 
task which Pope 'seems purposely, I was 
going to say, with too nice a scruple to have 
declined.' In the body of the work he con- 
fines himself to animadversions on ' Hamlet,' 
but in an appendix of some forty-four closely 
printed pages in small type he deals similarly 
with portions of most of the other plays. 
This work not only exposed the incapacity 
of Pope as an editor, but gave conclusive 
proof of Theobald's competence for the task 
in wJiich Pope had failed. Many of Theo- 
bald's most felicitous corrections and emen- 
dations of Shakespeare's text are to be found 
in this, his first contribution to textual criti- 
cism. 

Pope's resentment expressed itself chanu 
teristically. ' From this time,' says Johnson, 
' Pope became an enemy to editors, collators, 
commentators, and verbal critics, and hoped 
to persuade the world that he miscarried n 
this undertaking only by having a mind too 
great for such minute employment. In 1 1TK 
Pope brought out a second edition of nw 



Theobald 



I2O 



Theobald 



Shakespeare, in which he incorporated, with- 
out a word to indicate them, the greater 
part of Theobald's best conjectures and re- 
gulations of the text, inserting in his last 
volume the following note : ' Since the pub- 
lication of our first edition, there having been 
some attempts upon Shakespeare published 
by Lewis Theobald which he would not 
communicate during the time wherein that 
edition was preparing for the press, when we 
by public advertisement did request the as- 
sistance of all lovers of this author, we have 
inserted in this impression as many of 'em 
as are judged of any the least importance to 
the poet the whole amounting to about 
twenty-five words ' (a gross misrepresenta- 
tion of his debt to Theobald) ; ' but to the 
end that every reader may judge for himself, 
we have annexed a complete list of the rest, 
which, if he shall think trivial or erroneous 
either in part or the whole, at worst it can 
but spoil half a sheet of paper that chances 
to be left vacant here ' (Appendix to vol. viii. 
of POPE'S Shakespeare). Nor was Pope con- 
tent with this. In March 1727-8 the third 
volume of the ' Miscellanies ' containing the 
'Treatise on the Bathos' was published, in 
which, in addition to three sarcastic quota- 
tions from Theobald's ' Double Falsehood,' 
L. T. figures among the swallows ' authors 
that are eternally skimming and fluttering up 
and down, but all their agility is employed to 
catch flies ' and the eels, ' obscure authors 
that wrap themselves up in their own mud, 
but are mighty nimble and pert.' Twomonths 
afterwards appeared the first edition of the 
'Dunciad/ of which poor Theobald was the 
hero (in 1 741 ' Tibbald,' as Pope contemp- 
tuously called him, was 'dethroned' and 
Colley Gibber elevated in his place). It is, 
however, due to Pope to say that since the 
publication of ' Shakespeare Restored,' Theo- 
bald had been continually irritating him by 
further remarks about his edition. These 
were inserted in ' Mist's Journal,' to which 
he was in the habit of communicating notes 
on Shakespeare. To this Pope refers in the 
couplet : 

Old puns restore, lost blunders nicely seek, 
And crucify poor Shakespeare once a week 

(Dunciad, i. 154-5, 1st edit.) 

Pope's satire is chiefly directed against 
Theobald's pedantry, dulness, poverty, and in- 
gratitude. Against the charge of ingratitude 
Theobald defended himself. In a publication 
called ' The Author,' dated 16 April 1729, 
from Wyan's Court, Great Russell Street, 
where Theobald continued to reside till his 
death, he says that he had asked Pope two 
favours : one was that he would assist him 



' in a few tickets towards my benefit,' and 
the other that he would subscribe to his in- 
tended translation of ^Eschylus ; that to each 
of these requests Pope had sent civil replies, 
but had granted neither. The charge of in- 
gratitude, he adds, had been circulated for 
the purpose of injuring him in a subscription 
he was getting up for some ' Remarks on 
Shakespeare,' and to prejudice the public 
against a play which was about to be acted 
at a benefit for him at Drury Lane. The 
work referred to as 'Remarks on Shake- 
speare ' he was induced to abandon for an 
edition of Shakespeare ; the play to which he 
refers was ' The Double Falsehood,' a tragedy, 
first acted at Drury Lane in 1727, and pub- 
lished in 1728. Theobald professed to believe 
that it was by Shakespeare, and a patent 
was granted him giving him the sole and ex- 
clusive right of printing and publishing the 
work for a term of fourteen years, on the 
ground that he had, at considerable cost, 
purchased the manuscript copy (for its history 
see Theobald's dedication of it to Bubb 
Dodington ; and for conjectures as to its real 
authorship, see FAKMEK'S Essay on the Learn- 
ing of Shakespeare, pp. 29-32, where it is 
assigned to Shirley. Malone was inclined to 
attribute it to Massinger. Reed thought it 
was in the main Theobald's own composition. 
To the present writer it seems all but certain 
that it was founded on some old play, the 
plot being borrowed from the story of Car- 
denio in ' Don Quixote/ but that it is for the 
mostpart from Theobald's own pen). Inl728 
Theobald edited the posthumous works of 
William Wycherley and contributed some 
notes to Cooke's translation of Hesiod. 

Meanwhile he was accumulating materials 
for his edition of Shakespeare, corresponding 
on the subject with Matthew Concanen, who 
appears to have been on the staff of the 
'London Journal,' with the learned Dr. 
Styan Thirlby [q. v.], then a fellow of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, and with Warburton, at 
that time an obscure country clergyman in 
Lincolnshire. His correspondence with War- 
burton, to whom he was introduced by 
Concanen, was regularly continued between 
March 1729 and October 1734, and is printed 
in Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature ' 
(ii. 204-654). In September 1730 the death 
of Eusden left the poet-laureateship open, and 
Theobald became a candidate. Lord Gage 
introduced him to Sir Robert Walpole, who 
recommended him to the Duke of Grafton, 
then lord chamberlain, and these recommen- 
dations being seconded by Frederick, prince 
of Wales, Theobald had every prospect of 
success. But ' after standing fair for the 
post at least three weeks/ he had ' the mor- 



Theobald 



121 



Theobald 



tification to be supplanted ' by Colley Gibber 
(Letter to Warburton, December 1730 ; 
NICHOLS, Illustr. ii. 617). In the following 
year (1731) he had an opportunity of proving 
his claims to Greek scholarship. Jortin, with 
the assistance of two of the most eminent 
scholars of that time Joseph Wasse [q. v.] 
and Zachary Pearce [q. v.J, the editor of 
Longinus published the first number of a 
periodical entitled ' Miscellaneous Observa- 
tions on Authors Ancient and Modern.' To 
this Theobald contributed some ingenious, 
and in one or two cases very felicitous, 
emendations of ^Eschylus, Anacreon, Athe- 
nseus, Hesychius, Suidas, and Eustathius ; 
and Jortin was so pleased with them that he 
not only inserted them, but asked Theobald 
for more. 

It seems that as early as 10 Nov. 1731 Theo- 
bald completed an arrangement with Tonson 
for bringing out his edition of Shakespeare, 
for which he was to receive eleven hundred 
guineas. But two laborious years passed 
before it was ready for the public. Mean- 
while a pantomime, 'Perseus and Andro- 
meda,' almost certainly from his pen, was 
produced (1730) at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and 
next year appeared at the same theatre 
' Orestes,' described as a dramatic opera, but 
really a tragedy. In 1733 Pope's attack was 
followed by one from the pen of Mallet in 
the form of an epistle to Pope, entitled ' Ver- 
bal Criticism.' ' Hang him, baboon ! ' ex- 
claimed Theobald, in the words of Falstaff; 
* his art is as thick as Tewkesbury mustard ; 
there is no more conceit in him than in a 
Mallet.' 

At last, in March 1733-4, the long-expected 
edition of Shakespeare was given to the 
world in seven volumes, dedicated to Lord 
Orrery. A long list of influential sub- 
scribers, including the Prince of Wales and 
the prime minister, Sir Robert Walpole, 
shows that no pains had been spared to in- 
sure its success. It would not be too much 
to say that the text of Shakespeare owes 
more to Theobald than to any other editor. 
Many desperate corruptions were rectified by 
him, and in the union of learning, critical 
acumen, tact, and good sense he has perhaps 
no equal among Shakespearean commenta- 
tors. (For the general character of Theo- 
bald's work as an editor, and for a detailed 
exposure of the shameful injustice done him 
by succeeding editors, see the present writer's 
essay, ' The Porson of Shakespearean Criti- 
cism,' in Essays and Studies, 1895, pp. 263- 
315; cf. introduction to the Cambridge Shake- 
speare). In spite of the incessant attacks of 
contemporaries and successors, Theobald's 
work was properly appreciated by the public. 



Between 1734 and 1757 it passed through 
three editions, while between 1757 and 1773 
it was reprinted four times, no less than 
12,860 copies being sold (NICHOLS, Illus- 
trations, ii. 714 n.) Theobald's net profits 
from his edition appear to have amounted 
to 652/. 10$., a large sum when compared 
with the receipts of other editors for similar 
work. 

But poverty still pursued Theobald, and 
he was driven back to his old drudgery for 
the stage. Between 1734 and 1741 he pro- 
duced a pantomime, ' Merlin, or the Devil at 
Stonehenge' (1734) ; 'The Fatal Secret,' a 
tragedy, which is an adaptation of Webster's 
' Duchess of Malfi ; ' two operas, ' Orpheus 
and Eurydice ' (1740) and ' The Happy Cap- 
tive ' (1741), founded on a story in the fourth 
book of the first part of ' Don Quixote,' and 
he also completed a tragedy, ' The Death of 
Hannibal,' which was neither acted nor 
printed. But misfortunes were now press- 
ing hard on him, and in the ' Daily Post/ 
13 May 1741, appears a letter from him 
announcing that the ' situation of his affairs 
from a loss and disappointment obliged him 
to embrace a benefit, and laid him under 
the necessity of throwing himself on the 
favour of the public and the assistance of 
his friends ; ' and from another part of the 
paper we leain that the play to be acted 
for his benefit was ' The Double Falsehood.' 
Next year he issued proposals for a critical 
edition of the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
' desiring the assistance of all gentlemen who 
had made any comments on them.' He was 
engaged on this when he died; and in 1750, 
six years after his death, appeared the well- 
known edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
plays in ten volumes, ' edited by the late Mr. 
Theobald, Mr. Seward of Eyam in Derby- 
shire, and Mr. Sympson of Gainsborough.' 
From the work itself we learn that Theobald 
had completed the editing and annotation of 
' The Maid's Tragedy,' ' Philaster,' ' A King 
and No King,' ' The Scornful Ladv,' ' The 
Custom of the Country,' ' The Elder Brother, 
the first three acts of ''The Spanish Curate, 
and part of ' The Humorous Lieutenant' (M8 
vol. i. pref.) 

Of Theobald's death an account has I 
preserved written by a Mr. Stede of Coyent 
Garden Theatre (printed in Nichols s 'Illus- 
trations,' ii. 745 n.): 'September isth, 1744, 
about 10 A.M., died Mr. Lewis Theobeld. 
He was of a generous spirit, too gene- 
rous for his circumstances ; and none knew 
how to do a handsome thing or confer a 
benefit when in his power with a bett< 
<rrace than himself. He was my ancient 
friend of near thirty years' acquaintance. 



Theodore 



122 



Theodore 



Interred at Pancras, the 20th, 6 o'clock P.M. 
I only attended him.' This date is corrobo- 
rated by a notice in the ' Daily Post ' for 
20 Sept. 1744 : ' Last Tuesday died Mr. 
Theobald, a gentleman well known for his 
poetical productions already printed, and for 
many more promised and subscribed for.' 
lie had a good private library, including 1 
two hundred and ninety-five old English 
plays in quarto, which was advertised to be 
sold by auction on 20 Oct. succeeding his 
death (Reed's note in Variorum Shakespeare, 
ed. 1803, i. 404). 

Theobald was married and left a son 
Lewis, who, by the patronage of Sir Edward 
Walpole,was appointed a clerk in the annuity 
pell office, and died young. 

It was suggested by George Steevens [q. v.l 
that Hogarth's plate, ' The Distressed Poet, 
as first published on 3 March 1736, was 
intended as a satire on the much-abused 
Theobald. The composition was doubtless 
inspired by Pope's vivid picture of the dunce- 
laureate-elect brooding over his sunken for- 
tunes (see POPE, ffbrA-s,ed.Courthope,iv.28). 

[The fullest account of Theobald will be found 
in Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, ii. 707- 
1748, but it contains several inaccuracies. Theo- 
bald's correspondence with Concanen and War- 
burton is of great interest, and embodies some 
biographical particulars, ib. pp. 189-653. There 
is a meagre memoir of him in Gibber's Lives of 
the Poets, v. 276-83, and brief notices in Giles 
Jacob's Historical Account of the Lives and 
Writings of English Poets, and in Baker's Bio- 
graphia Dramatica. His own preface to his 
Shakespeare and the Dedications and Prefaces 
to his several works yield a few details ; Mey- 
stayer's Dedication to his ' Perfidious Brother ; ' 
Dennis's Observations on Pope's Homer ; A Mis- 
cellany on Taste (1732) ; Mist's Journal and the 
Daily Post passim ; Genest's Account of the Eng- 
lish Stage ; notes to the various editions of the 
Dunciad; Warton's Essay on Pope; prefaces to 
the editions of Shakespeare by Pope, Warburton, 
Hanmer, Johnson, and Malone ; Capell's appen- 
dix to the Preface to the edition of Beaumont 
and Fletcher (1750). See, too, Johnson's Life 
of Pope ; Boswell's Life of Johnson ; Watson's 
Life of Warburtou. A few notes have been fur- 
nished by W. J. Lawrence, esq., of Belfast.] 

J. C. C. 

THEODORE (602 P-690), archbishop of 
Canterbury, a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, 
was born in or about 602 (BEDE, Historia 
Ecclesiastica, iv. 1). He studied at Athens 
(Monumenta Moguntina, ed. Jaffe, p. 185), 
had a scholarly knowledge of Greek and 
Latin, and was well versed in sacred and 
profane literature and in philosophy, which 
caused him to receive the surname ' Philo- 
sopher ' (Gesta Pontificum, p. 7). He was a 



monk, and had not taken subdeacon's orders 
when in 667 he was at Rome, having perhaps 
been led to come to Italy by the visit to that 
country of the Emperor Constans II in 663. 
AVhen Theodore was in Rome, Pope "Vitalian 
was anxious to find a primate for the English 
church in place of Wighard, who had died 
in Rome before consecration. He fixed on 
Hadrian, an African by birth and an abbot 
of a monastery not far from Naples, who 
was learned both in Greek and Latin, in the 
Scriptures, and in ecclesiastical discipline. 
Hadrian refused the pope's offer, and finally 
presented Theodore to him. Vitalian pro- 
mised to consecrate him, provided that Ha- 
drian, who had twice visited Gaul and would 
therefore be useful as a guide, would accom- 
pany him to England, and remain with him 
to assist him in doctrinal matters ; for the 
pope seems to have feared that Theodore 
might be affected by the monothelite heresy. 
Theodore was ordained subdeacon in Novem- 
ber, and as he was tonsured after the Eastern 
fashion his whole head being shaved he 
had to wait four months before receiving 
further orders, to allow his hair to-, ffrow 
sufficiently for him to be tonsured after1>h.e 
Roman fashion. At last, on Sunday, 26 March 
668, he was consecrated by Vitalian. He set 
out from Rome on 27 May, in company with 
Hadrian and Benedict Biscop [q. v.] At 
Aries he and his party were detained by 
John, the archbishop of the city, in accordance 
with the command of Ebroin, mayor of the 
palace in Neustria and Burgundy, who sus- 
pected them of being political emissaries sent. 
by the emperor Constans to the English king. 
When Ebroin gave them leave to proceed, 
Theodore went on to Paris, where he was 
received by Aligbert, the bishop, formerly 
bishop of the West-Saxons, and remained 
with him during the winter. At last Egbert, 
king of Kent, being informed that the arch- 
bishop was in the Frankish kingdom, sent 
his high reeve Raedfrith to conduct him to 
England. Ebroin gave Theodore leave to 
depart, but detained Hadrian, whom he still 
suspected of being an imperial envoy. Theo- 
dore was conducted by Raedfrith to Quen- 
tavic or Etaples, where he was delayed for 
some time by sickness. As soon as he began 
to get well he crossed the Channel, and was 
received at Canterbury on 27 May 669. 
Hadrian joined him soon afterwards. 

At the time of Theodore's arrival the Eng- 
lish church lacked order, administrative orga- 
nisation, discipline, and culture. The work of 
the Celtic missionaries had been carried on 
rather by individual effort than through an 
ordered ecclesiastical system. The Roman 
party had gained a decisive victory in 664, 



Theodore 



123 



Theodore 



but uniformity had not yet become universal, 
and the personal feelings aroused by the 
struggle were still strong. As diocesan ar- 
rangements followed the divisions of king- 
doms, the dioceses were for the most part of 
unmanageable size, and varied in extent with 
the fortunes of war. Soon after his arrival 
Theodore made a tour throughout all parts of 
the island in which the English were settled, 
taking Hadrian with him. He found only 
two or at most three bishoprics not vacant. 
He expounded ' the right rule of life,' pro- 
bably for clerks and monks, and the canoni- 
cal mode of celebrating Easter, and began to 
consecrate bishops, where there were vacant 
sees (Hist. Eccles. iv. c. 2). While in the 
rorth he accused Ceadda or Chad [q. v.] of 
having been consecrated irregularly, and re- 
consecrated him in the catholic manner. 
Though Wilfrid [q. v.] took possession of the 
see of York, which was rightfully his, Theo- 
dore was able to provide Ceadda with a see ; 
for Wulf here [q. v.] , the king of the Mercians, 
requested him to find a bishop for him, and he 
therefore appointed him bishop of Mercia and 
Lindsey. As Ceadda resisted the archbishop's 
kindly command that he should ride when 
taking long journeys, Theodore with his own 
hands lifted him on horseback (ib. c. 3). He 
also in 670, at the request of Cenwalh [q. v.], 
king of the West-Saxons, consecrated Lo- 
there, the nephew of Bishop Agilbert, to the 
vacant bishopric of theWest-Saxons. Every- 
where he was welcomed, and everywhere he 
required and received an acknowledgment of 
his authority, which was invested with 
special weight by the fact that he had ' been 
sent directly from Rome,' though his own 
ability and character contributed largely to 
his success (BRIGHT, Early English Church 
History, p. 258). He was, Bede says, the 
first archbishop to whom the whole English 
church agreed in submitting. 

On his return to Canterbury Theodore 
carried on the work, which he had perhaps 
already begun, of making that city a place 
whence learning might be spread throughout 
his province, and personally taught a crowd of 
scholars. In this work he was largely as- 
sisted by Hadrian, to whom Theodore gave 
the abbacy of St. Augustine's, in succession 
to Benedict Biscop, that he might remain 
near him. Equally well versed in both 
sacred and secular learning, the archbishop 
and abbot instructed their scholars in Latin 
and Greek, in the mode of computing the 
ecclesiastical seasons, music, astronomy, theo- 
logy, and ecclesiastical matters. Theodore 
also seems to have given instruction in medi- 
cine (Hist. Eccles. v. c. 3 ; Penitential, ii. c. 
11, sect. 5). Among his scholars were several 



future bishops, and men afterwards distin- 
guished by their learning, together with 
others from all parts of England, and some 
Irish scholars (ALDHELM, Opp. p. 94). Bede 
says that in his time there were many dis- 
ciples of Theodore and Hadrian who 'knew 
Latin and Greek as well as their mother- 
tongue, and that religious learning was so 
widely diffused that any one who desired in- 
struction in it found no lack of masters. 

Theodore in 673 took an important step in 
church organisation by holding a synod of 
his province at Hertford on 24 Sept. Of 
his six suffragans four were present in person, 
and Wilfrid sent representatives. Along 
with the bishops many church teachers 
learned in canonical matters attended the 
synod, not, however, as constituent members 
of it, for it consisted of bishops only (Hit. 
Eccles. iv. 5). Theodore propounded ten 
points based on a book of canons drawn up by 
Dionysius Exiguus as specially necessary for 
the English church. These were considered, 
and articles founded upon them were agreed 
upon. Among these it was decreed that a 
synod should be held every year on 1 Aug. 
at a place called Clovesho ; and it was pro- 
posed that the number of bishops should be 
increased. This proposal gave rise to much 
debate. Theodore was unable to obtain the 
consent of the synod to a subdivision of dio- 
ceses, and the point was deferred. In this 
synod the English church for the first time 
acted as a single body; and it has also 
rightly been regarded as the first of all 
national assemblies, the forerunner of the 
witenagemotes and parliaments of an indi- 
visible realm (BRIGHT, p. 284). In spite of 
the adjournment of the proposal relating to 
the subdivision of dioceses, Theodore was 
soon enabled, by the resignation of Bisi, 
bishop of the East-Angles, to take a step in 
that direction. While consecrating a suc- 
cessor to him at Dunwich, Theodore formed 
the northern part of the kingdom into a new 
diocese, with its see at Elmham. Not long 
after this, about 675, he deposed Winfrith, 
the bishop of the Mercians, for some dis- 
obedience, and consecrated to his see Saxull' 
[q. v.] Winfrith's offence was probably re- 
sistance to a plan formed by Theodore for the 
division of his diocese, which was carried 
out later. The archbishop seems to have 
acted simply on his own authority (i*. p. 256; 
Gesta Poniificum, p. 6). About that time, 
too, he consecrated Erkenwald [q. v.] to the 
see of London, and in 676 Hieddi to the 
West-Saxon see of Winchester. In that 
year Ethelred of Mercia invaded Kent and 
burnt Rochester [see under PITTA]. Canter- 
bury, however, escaped invasion. 



Theodore 



124 



Theodore 



The whole country north of the Humber 
was under a single bishop, Wilfrid. The 
Northumbrian lung Egfrid, who was dis- 
pleased with him, invited Theodore to come 
to his court, and the archbishop took ad- 
vantage of the king's dislike of the bishop 
to carry out his scheme for dividing the 
Northumbrian bishopric. The allegation that 
he received a bribe from the king (EDDius, 
c. 24) is absurd ; for, apart from Theodore's 
character, no bribe was needed to induce 
him to do that which he desired. Having 
summoned some bishops to consult with 
him, Theodore, without any reference to 
Wilfrid himself, declared the division of his 
diocese into four bishoprics, including one 
for Lindsey, lately conquered by Egfrid, and 
leaving Wilfrid the see of York (ib. and 
c. 30). Wilfrid appealed to Home and left 
the country, and Theodore, without the 
assistance of any other bishops, consecrated 
two bishops for Deira and Bernicia, and a 
third for Lindsey. He then probably went 
to Lindisfarne and dedicated in honour of 
St. Peter the church that Finan [q. v.] had 
built there (Hist. Eccles. iii. 25). In 679, 
when Egfrid and Ethelred of Mercia were 
at war, he acted as an arbiter between the 
contending kings, and by his exhortations 
put an end to a -war that seemed likely to 
be long and bitter (ib. iv. 21). At this time 
he carried out a division of the Mercian 
diocese made at the request of Ethelred, 
with whom he henceforth was on terms of 
affection. A bishop was settled at Worcester 
for the Hwiccians ; another at Leicester for 
the Middle- Angles : Saxulf retained the see 
of Lichfield ; a fourth Mercian diocese was 
formed with its see at Dorchester (in Ox- 
fordshire) ; and a fifth bishop was sent to 
Lindsey, with his see at Sidnacester or Stow, 
for Lindsey had become Mercian again. 
Florence of Worcester places the fivefold 
subdivision of the Mercian see under the 
one year, 679. No doubt the whole scheme 
was sanctioned at one time ; but the actual 
changes may have been effected by degrees, 
though at dates near together (FLOK. WIG. 
App. i. 240; Eccles. Doc. iii. 128-30; BKIGHT, 
Early English Church History, pp. 349-52 ; 
and PLTJMMEK, Bede, ii. 245-7). As the 
bishopric of Hereford appears soon after 
this, it may also be reckoned as forming 
part of Theodore's arrangements, though it 
was not perhaps formally instituted [see 
under PTJTTA]. A decree purporting to have 
been made by Theodore, that the West-Saxon 
diocese was not to be divided during the life- 
time of Haeddi, is almost certainly spurious. 
His regard for the bishop shows that he 
would probably have met with no opposition 



from him if he had proposed to divide his 
diocese. The reason why he did not do so 
may be found in the political condition of 
Wessex for some years after the death of 
Cenwalh (Eccles. Doc. iii. 126-7, 203 ; 
STTJBBS ; Hist. Eccles. iv. 12, see Mr. Plum- 
mer's note). 

A council is said to have been held at 
Rome by Pope Agatho in October 679 to 
remove dissension between Theodore and the 
bishops of his province. No mention is made 
of Wilfrid in the report of it, which ' suits 
neither the time before nor after Wilfrid's 
arrival;' the documentary evidence is unsatis- 
factory, and it seems safe to consider it 
spurious (BKIGHT, p. 330, n. 3 ; Eccles. Doc. 
iii. 131-6, where it is not so decisively con- 
demned). In that year the pope held a 
council to decide on Wilfrid's appeal. Theo- 
dore had sent a monk named Coenwald with 
letters to the pope to set forth his own side 
of the case. The decree of the council was 
that Wilfrid should be restored to his bi- 
shopric, that the irregularly intruded bishops 
should be turned out, and that he should 
with the help of a council himself select 
bishops to be his coadjutors who were to be 
consecrated by the archbishop (EDDius, cc. 
29-32). While then this decision implicitly 
condemned the irregular action of Theodore, 
it provided that his desire for the increase of 
the episcopate in Northumbria should be 
carried out in a regular manner. At another 
council held at Rome by Agatho on 27 March 
680 against the rnonothelite heresy Theodore 
was expected, but did not attend (Gesta 
Pontificum, p. 7). When in that year Wilfrid 
returned to England, carrying with him the 
Roman decree for his restoration, and was 
imprisoned by Egfrid, Theodore seems to 
have made no effort on his behalf, and to 
have paid no attention to the decree, of 
which he could scarcely have been ignorant. 
Meanwhile Benedict Biscop, during a visit to 
Rome, requested Agatho to send John the pre- 
centor to England with him. Agatho seized 
the opportunity of eliciting from the English 
church a declaration of its orthodoxy, spe- 
cially with reference to the rnonothelite ques- 
tion ; he sent John to Theodore for that 
purpose, bidding him carry with him the 
decrees of the Lateran council of 649. In 
obedience to the pope's desire, Theodore 
held a synod of the bishops of the English 
chui'ch, which was attended by other learned 
men, at Hatfield in Hertfordshire on 17 Sept. 
680, and John was given a copy of the pro- 
fession of the council to carry back to the 
pope (Hist. Eccles. iv. cc. 17, 18). 

Theodore still further increased the North- 
umbrian episcopate in 681 by dividing the 



Theodore 



I2 5 



Theodore 



Bernician diocese, adding a see at Hexham 
to that of Lindisfarne. He also founded a 
new diocese in the country of the Picts north 
of the Forth, then under English rule, and 
placed the see in the monastery of Abercorn 
(ib. cc. 12, 26). Three years later, in 684, 
he deposed Tunbert, it is said for disobedience 
(ib. c. 28 ; Miscellanea Biographica, Surtees 
Soc. p. 123), and journeyed to the north to 
preside over an assembly gathered by Egfrid 
at Twyford in Northumberland, at which 
Cuthbert [q. v.] was elected bishop. On 
the following Easter day, 26 March 685, 
Theodore consecrated Cuthbert at York to 
the see of Lindisfarne [see under CUTHBERT]. 
In 686 Theodore, who felt the infirmity of 
age increasing upon him, desired to be re- 
conciled to Wilfrid ; he invited him to meet 
him in London and bade Bishop Erkenwald 
also come to him. According to Wilfrid's 
biographer, he humbly acknowledged that 
he had done Wilfrid wrong, and expressed an 
earnest hope that he would succeed him as 
archbishop (EDBius, c. 43). However this 
may be, it is evident that he felt sorrow for 
Wilfrid's sufferings, highly esteemed him for 
his work among the heathen, and was anxious 
to take advantage of the accession of Aldfrith 
[q. v.] to the Northumbrian throne to procure 
nis restoration. He wrote to Aldfrith and 
to ^Elflfed, abbess of Whitby, urging them 
to be reconciled to Wilfrid, and to his friend 
Ethelred of Mercia, that he would take Wil- 
frid under his protection ; and speaking of 
his own age and weakness begged the king 
to come to him, that 'my eyes may behold 
thy pleasant face and my soul bless thee 
before I die ' (ib.) His injunctions were 
obeyed, and in a short time Wilfrid was re- 
stored to his see at York, though Theodore's 
subdivision of the diocese was not set aside. 
Theodore died at the age of eighty-eight on 
19 Sept. 690. He was buried in the church 
of St. Peter's monastery (St. Augustine's) 
at Canterbury, [and an epitaph, of which 
Bede has preserved the first and last four 
lines, was'placed upon his tomb. When his 
body was translated in 1091, it was found 
complete with his cowl and pall (GoCELiN, 
Hist. Translationis S. Aufjustini, vol. i. c. 24, 
vol. ii. c. 27, ap. MIGKE, Patrologia Lat. vol. 
civ.) 

Theodore's piety was not of the sort to 
excite the admiration of monastic writers; 
for no miracles are attributed to him, and he 
was not regarded as a saint (STTTBBS) ; this 
was probably due, in part at least, to his 
quarrel with Wilfrid, whose claim on monas- 
tic reverence was fully recognised. He was 
a man of grand conceptions, strong will, and 
an autocratic spirit, which led him, at least 



in his dealings with Wilfrid, into harsh and 
unfair action. Yet an excuse may be found 
tor him in the earnestness of his desire to do 
what he knew to be necessary to the well- 
being of the church, and the difficulties which 
he doubtless had to encounter. Apart from 
his public functions his character seems to 
have been gentle and affectionate. He had 
great power of organisation, his personal in- 
fluence was strong, and he was a skilful 
manager of men. His genius was versatile 
for he was excellent alike as a scholar, a 
teacher, and in the administration of affairs. 
During his primacy English monasticism 
rapidly advanced ; though the charters to 
monasteries to which his name is appended 
are of doubtful value, he protected the monas- 
teries from episcopal invasion, laid down the 
duties of bishops with regard to them, and 
legislated wisely for them (Penitential, ii. c. 
6). The debt which the English church owes 
to him cannot easily be overestimated. He 
secured its unity and gave it organisation, 
subdividing the vast bishoprics, coterminous 
with kingdoms, and basing its episcopate on 
tribal lines, on the means of legislating for it- 
self, and on the idea of obedience to lawfully 
constituted ecclesiastical authority. The be- 
lief that he was the founder of the parochial 
system (ELMHAM, pp. 285-6 ; HOOK) is mis- 
taken (STUBBS, Constitutional History, i. 
c. 8) ; but his legislation aided its develop- 
ment (BRIGHT, pp. 406-7). His educational 
work gave the church a culture that was not 
wholly lost until the period of the Danish 
invasions, and had far-reaching effects. Bede 
says that during his episcopate the churches 
of the English derived more spiritual profit 
than they could ever gain before (Hut. 
Eccles. v. c. 8). His work did not die with 
him : its fruits are to be discerned in the 
character and constitution of the church of 
England at all times to the present day. 

The only written work besides a few lines 
addressed to Hseddi and the letter to Ethel- 
red that can with any certainty be ascribed 
to Theodore is a 'Penitential.' Although 
Bede does not mention this work, there is 
abundant evidence that a ' Penitential ' of 
Theodore was known in very early times. 
(Eccles. Doc. iii. 173-4). Various attempts 
were made from Spelman's time onwards to 
identify and publish Theodore's 'Peniten- 
tial,' but that which is now accepted as the 
original work was first edited by Dr. Was- 
serschleben in 1851, and has since been re- 
edited by the editors of ' Councils and Eccle- 
siastical" Documents' (ib. pp. 173-213), their 
text being taken from a manuscript probably 
of the eighth century at Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Only in a certain sense can 



Theodore 

this ' Penitential ' be described as the work 
of Theodore. It consists of a number o 
answers given by him to various inquirers 
and chiefly to a priest named Eoda, and it 
was compiled by some one who calls himsel 
'Discipulus Umbrensium,' that is, probably 
a man born in the south of England who hac 
studied under northern scholars (z'5.) One 
manuscript states that it was written with 
Theodore's advice, but this may merely mean 
that he approved of such a compilation being 
made, for certainly on two points it differs 
from what Theodore thought (BRIGHT, p. 406). 
In more than twenty places reference is made 
to the customs of the Greek church. The 
character of the sentences is austere. More 
than once amid the dry enumeration of 
penances there appears some evidence of a 
lofty soul and of spirituality of mind (i. c. 
8 sec. 5, c. 12 sec. 7, ii. c. 12 sees. 16-21), 
and once a sentence full of poetic feeling 
(ii. c. 1 sec. 9). Certain other compilations 
erroneously edited as the ' Penitential ' of 
Theodore may contain some of those judg- 
ments of his which the compiler of the 
genuine work says in his epilogue were 
widely known and existed in a confused form. 
Theodore's ' Penitential/ though, in common 
with other works of same kind, not binding 
on the church, gave it a standard and rule 
of discipline much needed at the time, and 
holds an important place among the mate- 
rials on which was based the later canon law 
(STTTBBS, Lectures, No. xiii). He established 
in the English church the observance of the 
twelve days before Christmas as a period 
of repentance and good works in prepara- 
tion for the holy communion on Christmas 
day (Egbert's Dialogue ap. Eccles. Doc. iii. 
413). 

[All information concerning Archbishop Theo- 
dore may be found in Canon Bright' s Early Eng- 
lish Church History, passim, 3rd edit. 1897 ; 
Haddan and Stubbs's Eccles. Docs. iii. 114- 
213, which see for the Penitential, and Bishop 
Stubbs's art. ' Theodorus' (7) in Diet. Chr. Biogr. 
here referred to as ' Stubbs,' to all of which this 
art. is largely indebted. Little can be added 
except by way of comment to the account in 
Bede's Eccles. Hist, (see Plummer's edition of 
Bedae Opera Hist, with valuable notes in torn, ii.), 
and Eddi's Vita Wilfridi in Hist, of York, vol. i. 
(Rolls Ser.), for Theodore's dealings with Wilfrid, 
which must be used with caution as the work of 
a strong partisan ; see also Anglo-Saxon Chron. 
ann. 668- 90 ; Flor. Wig. vol. i. App. (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Will. Malmesbury's Gesta Pontiftcum, 
Gervase of Cant. i. 69, ii. 30, 338-43 ; Elm- 
ham's Hist. Mon. S. Augustini, passim (all 
three in Rolls Ser.) ; Green's Making of England, 
pp. 330-6, 375, 380 ; Hook's Archbishops of 
Canterbury, i. 145-75.] W. H. 



26 Therry 

THEODORE, ANTHONY (d. 1756), 
adventurer. [See under FREDERICK, COLONEL, 
1725 P-1797.] 

THERRY, JOHN JOSEPH (1791- 
1864), ' the patriarch of the Roman catholic 
church ' in New South Wales, was born at 
Cork in 1791 and entered Carlow College in 
1807 ; there he originated a society bound 
to devote itself if need be to foreign mission 
work. He was trained for the priesthood 
under Dr. Doyle, and ordained at Dublin in 
April 1815 to a curacy at Cork. 

Therry was one of the priests sent out by 
the government to New South Wales in 
December 1819. He reached Sydney in 
May 1820, and ministered at rirst in a 
temporary chapel in Pitt Street, and at Para- 
matta often in the open air. For several 
years he was the only Roman catholic priest 
in the colony ; but he was a devoted pastor, 
travelling great distances to his services. 
He came into collision with the governor, 
Sir Ralph Darling [q. v.], in 1827, and was 
for a time deprived of his salary as chaplain, 
but his work was continued with unabated 
vigour. On 29 Oct. 1829 he laid the founda- 
tion stone of St. Joseph's Chapel, which is 
now part of Sydney Roman catholic cathe- 
dral. ^ In 1833 he was made subordinate to 
William Bernard Ullathorne [q. v.] and then 
to John Bede Folding [q. v.], and was sent 
by the latter in 1838 to Tasmania, Having 
returned to Sydney, he became priest at St. 
Augustine's, Balmain, where he died rather 
suddenly on 25 May 1864. 

[Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates, &c. ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biogr. ; Sydney 
Morning Herald, 26 May 1864; Ullathorne's 
Catholic Mission in Australasia (pamphlet) 
London, 1838.] <J. A.H. 

THERRY, SIR ROGER (1800-1874), 
udge in New South Wales, born in Ireland 
on 22 April 1800, was third son of John 
Therry of Dublin, barrister-at-law. He was 
admitted student at Gray's Inn on 25 Nov. 
1822 (FOSTER, Reg. p. 426), was called to 
;he Irish bar in 1824, and to the English 
bar in 1827. He found his chief employ- 
ment in politics, actively connecting himself 
with the agitation for Roman catholic eman- 
cipation. At this time he made the 
acquaintance of George Canning, whose 
ipeeches he edited. 

Through Canning's influence Therry was 
appointed commissioner of the court of re- 
quests of New South Wales, and went out 
o the colony in July 1829, arriving in 
November. In April 1830 he became a 
magistrate; but his path was not smooth, 
partly because of his active intervention in 



Thesiger 



127 



Thesiger 



matters affecting the Roman catholic church 
(New South Wales Magazine, 1833, p. 300). 
In 1831 he was violently attacked in regard 
to his part in a deposition made by the wife 
of the attorney-general of the colony against 
her husband, and it was alleged that he had 
used undue influence to bring the children 
into the Roman catholic church. In 1833 
by his action respecting the treatment of ser- 
vants by one of the unpaid magistrates 
(Mudie) he brought upon himself a storm of 
opposition, and was violently attacked in 
print along with the governor, Sir Richard 
Bourke [q. v.], whose champion he was asserted 
to have made himself (MuDiE, Felonry of 
New South Wales, pp. 104 sqq.) At the close 
of 1835 the post of chairman of quarter ses- 
sions was added to his other appointments. 
In May 1841 he was promoted to be attorney- 
general. In 1843 he was elected to the legis- 
lative council for Camden amid some indigna- 
tion due to his close connection with the 
governor's projects (LANG). In January 1845 
he became resident judge at Port Phillip ; in 
February 1846 a puisne judge of the supreme 
court and primary judge in equity. 

On 22 Feb. 1859 Therry retired on a pen- 
sion and returned to England. In 1863 he 
published ' Reminiscences of Thirty Years' 
Residence in New South Wales,' the first 
edition of which was suppressed because of 
its personalities. Towards the close of his 
life he was much out of health, and resided 
chiefly at Bath, where he died on 17 May 1874. 

Therry was married and left children, one 
of whom was in the army. Besides the 
' Speeches of George Canning, with a memoir,' 
London, 1828, 6 vols., and a pamphlet en- 
titled ' Comparison of the Oratory of the 
House of Commons thirty years ago and at 
the present time' (Sydney, 1 856, 8vo), several 
of his public letters to ministers and others 
are extant. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biogr. ; Sydney 
Morning Herald, 25 July 1874; his own pam- 
phlets and book above cited ; Lang's History of 
New South Wales, i. 257 sqq. , Eusden's History 
of Australia, ii. 147-9 ; Allibone's Diet, of Lit. ; 
Official Blue-book returns.] C. A. H. 

THESIGER, ALFRED HENRY (1838- 
1880), lord justice of appeal, third and 
youngest son of Frederick Thesiger, first baron 
Chelmsford [q.v.], by his wife Anna Maria, 
youngest daughter of William Tinling of 
Southampton, was born on 15 July 1838. He 
was educated at Eton, and matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 15 May 1856, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1860 and M.A. in 1862. 
Both at school and at college he was dis- 
tinguished as a cricketer and as an oarsman. 
He was a student of the Inner Temple, and 



was called to the bar in 1862. He joined 
the home circuit, and rapidly obtained a 
large London practice. For a time he was 
' postman 'of the court of exchequer, and on 
3 July 1873 he became a queen's counsel. 
He was slight and youthful in appearance, 
extremely industrious, and extremely honour- 
able as an advocate. He was lucid in state- 
ment and sound in counsel. After he retired 
from parliamentary work his practice lay 
chiefly in commercial and compensation cases. 
In January 1874 he was elected a bencher of 
his innof court, and onlOSept. 1877 attorney- 
general to the Prince of Wales. In 1876 he 
was a member of the commission upon the 
fugitive slave circular, and in 1877, on the 
recommendation of Lord Cairns and to the 
surprise of the public, he was appointed to 
succeed Sir Richard Paul Amphlett [q.v.] 
as a lord justice of the court of appeal, though 
only thirty-nine years old, and was sworn of 
the privy council. During his brief tenure 
of a seat on the bench he showed great judi- 
cial ability. He died in London of blood- 
poisoning on 20 Oct. 1880. On 31 Dec. 1862 
he married Henrietta, second daughter of the 
Hon. George Hancock, fourth son of the se- 
cond Earl of Castlemaine, but left no issue. 

[Times, 21 Oct. 1880; Law Times, 23 Oct. 
1880.] J. A. H. 

THESIGER, SIB FREDERICK (d. 
1805), naval officer, was the elnest son of 
John Andrew Thesiger (d. 1783), by his 
wife, Miss Gibson (d. 1814) of Chester. He 
was the uncle of Frederick Thesiger, first 
baron Chelmsford [q. v.] He made several 
voyages in the marine service of the East 
India Company, but, growing tired of the 
monotony of trade, he entered the royal 
navy as a midshipman under Sir Samuel 
Marshall. At the beginning of 1782, when 
Rodney sailed for the West Indies, he was 
appointed acting-lieutenant on board the 
Formidable, and on the eve of the action 
with the French on 12 April, on the recom- 
mendation of Sir Charles Douglas, captain 
of the fleet, he was appointed aide-de-camp 
to Rodney. Thesiger continued in th> \\ 
Indies under Admiral Hugh Pigot ( I7:M ! 
1792) [q. v.], Rodney's successor, and after- 
wards accompanied Sir Charles Douglas to 
America. On the conclusion of peace in 
1783 he returned to England. 

In 1788, on the outbreak of war twtWMB 
Russia and Sweden, Thesiger obtained per- 
mission to enter the Russian service. He 
was warmly recommended to the Russian 
ambassador by Rodney, and in 1789 was 
appointed to the command of a 74-gun ship. 
He distinguished himself in the naval en- 



Thesiger 



128 



Thesiger 



gagement of 25 Aug., obliging the Swedish, 
admiral on board the Gustavus to strike to 
him. In June 1790 a desperate action was 
fought off the island of Bornholm. Victory 
declared for the Russians, but of six English 
captains engaged in their service Thesiger 
was the only survivor. In recognition of 
his services in this action he received from 
the Empress Catherine the insignia of the 
order of St. George. In 1796 Sir Frederick 
accompanied the Russian squadron which 
came to the Downs to co-operate with the 
English fleet in the blockade of the Texel. 

On the death of the Empress Catherine in 
1797 he grew discontented with her succes- 
sor, Paul, and, notwithstanding his solicita- 
tions, persisted in tendering his resignation. 
He was detained in St. Petersburg a year 
before receiving his passport, and finally de- 
parted without receiving his arrears of pay 
or his prize money. He arrived in England 
at a time when her maritime supremacy 
was threatened by the northern confederacy 
formed to resist her rigorous limitation of the 
commercial privileges of neutrals and her in- 
discriminate application of the right of search. 
On account of his peculiar knowledge of the 
Baltic and the Russian navy Thesiger was 
frequently consulted by Earl Spencer, the 
first lord of the admiralty. When war was 
decided on, he was promoted to the rank of 
commander, and at the battle of Copenhagen 
served Lord Nelson as an aide-de-camp. At 
the crisis of the battle he volunteered to 
proceed to the crown prince with the flag of 
truce, and, knowing that celerity was im- 
portant, he took his boat straight through the 
Danish fire, avoiding a safer but more tardy 
route. During the subsequent operations in 
the Baltic his knowledge of the coast and of 
the Russian language proved of great value. 
On his return to England bearing despatches 
from Sir Charles Morice Pole [q. v.] he re- 
ceived a flattering reception from Lord St. 
Vincent, and shortly after was raised to the 
rank of post-captain, obtaining at the same 
time permission to assume the rank of knight- 
hood and to wear the order of St. George. 
On the rupture of the treaty of Amiens he 
was appointed British agent for the prisoners 
of war at Portsmouth. He died, unmarried, 
at Elson, near Portsmouth, on 26 Aug. 1805. 

[Universal Mag. November 1805; Naval 
Chronicle, December 1 805 ; these memoirs were 
reprinted -with the title ' Short Sketch of the 
Life of Captain Sir F. Thesiger,' London, 1806, 
4to.] E. I. C. 

THESIGER, FREDERICK, first BAROTT 
CHELMSFORD (1794-1878), lord chancellor, 
was the third and youngest son of Charles 



Thesiger (d. 1831), comptroller and collector 
of customs in the island of St. Vincent, by 
his wife Mary Anne (d. 1796), daughter of 
Theophilus Williams of London. Frederick's 
grandfather, John Andrew Thesiger (d. 1783), 
was a native of Saxony, who settled in Eng- 
land about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and was employed as amanuensis to 
the Marquis of Rockingham. Frederick was 
born in London on 15 April 1794, and was at 
first placed at Dr. Charles Burney's school at 
Greenwich. He was destined for the navy, 
in which his uncle, Sir Frederick Thesiger, 
afterwards Nelson's aide-de-camp at Copen- 
hagen, was a distinguished officer, and was 
removed subsequently to a school at Gosport 
kept by another Dr. Burney specially to 
train boys for the navy. After a year at 
Gosport he joined the frigate Cambrian as 
a midshipman in 1807 and was present at 
the seizure of the fleet at Copenhagen ; but 
shortly afterwards he quitted the navy on 
becoming heir to his father's W T est Indian 
estates by the death of his last surviving 
brother, George. He was sent to school for 
two years more, and then in 1811 went out 
to join his father at St. Vincent. A vol- 
canic eruption on 30 April 1812 utterly 
destroyed his father's estate and considerably 
impoverished his family. It was then deter- 
mined that he should practise in the West 
Indies as a barrister. He entered at Gray's 
Inn on 5 Nov. 1813, and successively read 
in the chambers of a conveyancer, an equity 
draughtsman, and of Godfrey Sykes, a well- 
known special pleader. Sykes thought his 
talents would be thrown away in the West 
Indies, and on his advice, though friendless 
and without connections, Thesiger resolved 
to try his fortune in England. 

On 18 Nov. 1818 he was called to the bar. 
He joined the home circuit and Surrey ses- 
sions. In two or three years, by the re- 
moval of his chief competitors, Turton and 
Broderic, he attained the leadership of these 
sessions. He also became by purchase one 
of the four counsel of the palace court of 
Westminster. The experience thus gained 
in a constant succession of small cases, civil 
and criminal, was of great value to him. He 
attracted attention by his defence of Hunt, 
the accomplice of John Thurtell [q. v.], in 
1824, and he owed so much to his success in 
an action of ejectment,thrice tried at Chelms- 
ford in 1832, that, when he was raised to the 
peerage, he elected to take his title from that 
circuit town. He became a king's counsel 
in 1834, and was leader of his circuit for 
the next ten years. His name became very 
prominent in 1835 as counsel for the peti- 
tioners before the election committee which 



Thesiger 



129 



Thew 



inquired into the return of O'Connell and 
Ruthven for Dublin. After an unsuccessful 
contest in 1840 at Newark against Wilde, 
the solicitor-general, he was returned to 
parliament as conservative member for VVood- 
.stock on 20 March. In 1844, owing to dif- 
ferences of opinion with the Duke of Marl- 
borough, he ceased to represent Woodstock, 
and was elected for Abingdon, and at the 
general election of 1852 he was returned 
for Stamford by the influence of Lord Exeter. 

On 8 June 1842 Thesiger was created 
JJ.C.L. by the university of Oxford, and on 
19 June 1845 was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society. On 15 April 1844 he was 
appointed solicitor-general in succession to 
Sir W r illiam W r ebb Follett [q. v.] and was 
knighted. The breakdown of Follett's health 
threw upon him almost all the work of both 
law officers, and on Follett's death he be- 
came attorney-general on 29 June 1845. He 
retired on the fall of the Peel administra- 
tion, 3 July 1846. Had the ministry lasted 
another fortnight, he would have succeeded 
to the chief-justiceship of the common pleas, 
which became vacant on 6 July by the death 
of Sir Nicholas Tindal, and was given to 
Wilde. 

He returned to his private practice at the 
"bar, and in parliament acted with Lord 
George Bentinck. He obtained office again 
as attorney-general in Lord Derby's first ad- 
ministration from February to December 
1 852 ; and when Lord Derby for med his second 
administration, and Lord St. Leonards re- 
fused, owing to his great age, to return to 
active life, Thesiger received the great seal, 
26 Feb. 1858, and became Baron Chelms- 
ford and a privy councillor. His chancel- 
lorship was short, for the ministry fell in 
June 1859. His chief speech while in office 
was an eloquent opposition to the removal of 
Jewish disabilities, on which subject he had 
repeatedly been the principal speaker on 
the conservative side in the House of Com- 
mons. 

After his resignation he continued active 
in judicial work, both in the House of Lords 
and the privy council. He constantly found 
himself in collision with Westbury, for whom 
lie had a profound antipathy, and in par- 
ticular severely attacked him early in 1862 
with regard to the hardship inflicted under 
the new Bankruptcy Act upon the officials 
of the former insolvent court. Lord West- 
bury, on the whole, had the best of the en- 
counter (NASH, Life of Westbury, ii. 38). 
Chelmsford resumed office again under Lord 
Derby in 1866, but was somewhat summarily 
set aside in 1868 by Disraeli when Lord 
Derby ceased to be prime minister. He 

VOL. LVI. 



died on 5 Oct. 1878 at his house in Eaton 
Square, London. 

Thesiger married, in 1822, Anna Maria 
(d. 1875), youngest daughter of William Tin- 
ling of Southampton, and niece of Major 
Francis Peirson [q. v.], the defender of Jer- 
sey. By her he had seven surviving chil- 
dren, of whom Alfred Henry is noticed sepa- 
rately. 

Thesiger had a fine presence and hand- 
some features, a beautiful voice, a pleasant 
if too frequent wit, an imperturbable temper, 
and a gift of natural eloquence. He was, 
after the death of Follett, probably the most 
popular leading counsel of his day. As a 
lawyer he was ready and painstaking, and 
was a particularly sagacious cross-examiner ; 
but his general reputation was that he was 
deficient in learning (see Life of Lord Camp- 
bell, ii. 357). It was perhaps a misfortune 
that he was never appointed to a common- 
law judgeship ; but his judgments in the 
House of Lords show sound sense and grasp 
of principle. Throughout a laborious career, 
which politically was for long periods un- 
lucky, though professionally immensely suc- 
cessful, he preserved an unbroken good 
humour, patience, and freedom from acer- 
bity (see letter by Sir Laurence Peel in Law 
Journal, 12 Oct. 1878). 

His portrait, painted by E. U. Eddis, is in 
the possession of the present Lord Chelms- 
ford. It was mezzotinted by \V. Walker. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Law Journal 
and Law Times, 12 Oct. 1878; Times, 7 Oct. 
1878.] J- A. H. 

THEW, ROBERT (1758-1802), en- 
graver, was born in 1758 at Patrington, 
Holderness, Yorkshire, where his father 
kept an inn. He received but little educa- 
tion, and for a time followed the trade of a 
cooper; but, possessing great natural abilities, 
he invented an ingenious camera obscura, 
and later took up engraving, in which art, 
although entirely self-taught, he attained to 
a high degree of excellence. In 1783 he 
went to Hull, where he resided for a few 
years, engraving at first shop-bills and 
tradesmen's cards. His earliest work of a 
higher class was a portrait of Harry Rowe 
[q. v.l the famous puppet-show man, and in 
1786 he etched and published a pair of vi.-w- 
of the new dock at Hull, which were aqua- 
tinted by Francis Jukes [q. v.] Having exe- 
cuted a good plate of a woman's head after 
Gerard Dou, he obtained from the Marquis 
of Carmarthen an introduction to John Boy- 
dell [q. v.], for whose large edition of Shake- 
speare heengraved in the dot manner twenty- 
two plates after Northcote, Westall, Opie, 



Theyer 



130 



Thicknesse 



Peters, and others. Of these the finest is the 
entry of Cardinal Wolsey into Leicester 
Abbey, after "Westall. Thew also engraved 
a few excellent portraits, including Master 
Hare, after Reynolds, 1790; Sir Thomas 
Gresham, after Sir Anthony More, 1792 ; and 
Miss Turner, with the title ' Reflections on 
Werter,' after Richard Crosse. He held the 
appointment of historical engraver to the 
Prince of Wales, and died at or near Steven- 
age, Hertfordshire, shortly before August 
1802. 

[Gent. Mag. 1802 ii. 971, 1803 i. 475 ; Dodd's 
manuscript Hist, of English Engravers in Brit. 
Mus. (Addit. MS. 33406); Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

THEYER, JOHN (1597-1673), antiquary, 
son of John Theyer (d. 1631), and grandson 
of Thomas Theyer of Brockworth, Gloucester- 
shire, was born there in 1597. Richard 
Hart, the last prior of Lanthony Abbey, 
Gloucestershire, lord of the manor of Brock- 
worth, and the builder of Brockworth Court, 
was brother of his grandmother, Ann Hart 
{Trans. Bristol and Gloucester Arch&ological 
Soc. vii. 161, 164). Theyer inherited Ri- 
chard Hart's valuable library of manuscripts, 
which determined his bent in life. 

He entered Magdalen College, Oxford, 
when about sixteen, but did not graduate. 
On 6 July 1643 he was created M.A. by the 
king's command, ' ob merita sua in rempub. 
literariam et ecclesiam.' After three years 
at Magdalen he practised common law at 
Is ew Inn, London, whither Anthony Wood's 
mother proposed to send her son to qualify 
under Theyer for an attorney ( WOOD, Life and 
Times, Oxford Hist. Soc., i. 130). Although 
Wood did not go, he became a lifelong 
friend, and visited Theyer to make use of his 
library at Cooper's Hill, Brockworth, a small 
estate given him by his father on his marriage 
in 1628. He lived here chiefly (cf. State 
Papers, Dom. 1639-40 pp. 280, 285, and 1640 
pp. 383, 386, 388, 392), but in 1643 was in Ox- 
ford, serving in the king's army, and presented 
to Charles I, in Merton College garden, a copy 
of his ' Aerio Mastix, or a Vindication of the 
Apostolicall and generally received Govern- 
ment of the Church of Christ by Bishops,' 
Oxford, 1643, 4to. Wood says he became a 
catholic about this time, and began, but did 
not live to finish, ' A Friendly Debate between 
Protestants and Papists.' His estate was 
sequestrated by the parliament, who pro- 
nounced him one of the most ' inveterate' 
with whom they had to deal. His family 
were almost destitute until his discharge 
was obtained on 4 Nov. 1652. 

Theyer died at Cooper's Hil on 25 Aug. 



1673, and was buried in Brockworth church- 
yard on the 28th. 

By his wife Susan, Theyer had a son John ; 
the latter's son Charles (b. 1651) matricu- 
lated at University College, Oxford, on 
7 May 1668, and was probably the lecturer 
of Totteridge, Hertfordshire, who published 
' A Sermon on her Majesty's Happy Anni- 
versary,' London, 1707, 4to. To this grand- 
son Theyer bequeathed his collection of eight 
hundred manuscripts (catalogued in Hurl. 
MS. 460). Charles offered them to Oxford 
University, and the Bodleian Library des- 
patched Edward Bernard [q.v.] to see them, 
but no purchase was effected, and they passed 
into the hands of Robert Scott, a bookseller 
of London. A catalogue of 336 volumes, 
dated 29 July 1678, prepared by William 
Beveridge [q. v.], rector of St. Peter's, Corn- 
hill, and afterwards bishop of St. Asaph, and 
William Jane [q. v.], is in Royal MS. Ap- 
pendix, 70. Tbe collection, which in Ber- 
nard's ' Catalogus Manuscriptorum Angliae,' 
1697, had dwindled to 312, was bought by 
Charles II and passed with the Royal Library 
to the British Museum, where they are now 
numbered MS. Reg. 18 C. 13 et seq. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 996 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 59 ; Atkyn's Glouces- 
tershire, p. 158; Bigland's Gloucestershire, 
1791, i. 251 ; Life and Times of Wood (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.), i. 404, 474, ii. 143, 146, 268, 485, 
486, iv. 74, 109, 298; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. vii. 341, 4th ser. ii. 11, 6th ser. xi. 487, xii. 
31; Cal. of Comm. for Comp. pp. 2802, 2803; 
Cal. of Comm. for Adv. of Money, p. 1286.] 

C. F. S. 

THICKNESSE, formerly FORD, ANN 
(1737-1824), authoress and musician, wife 
of Philip Thicknesse [q. v.], was the only 
child of Thomas Ford (d. 1768), clerk of the 
arraigns. Her mother was a Miss Cham- 
pion. Ann Ford was born in a house near 
the Temple, London, on 22 Feb. 1737. As 
the niece of Dr. Ford, the queen's physician, 
and of Gilbert Ford, attorney-general of 
Jamaica, she was received in fashionable 
society and became a favourite on account 
of her beauty and talent. Before she was 
twenty she had been painted by Hone in the 
character of a muse, and celebrated for her 
dancing by the Earl of Chesterfield. The 
'town' frequented her Sunday concerts, 
where Dr. Arne, Tenducci, and other pro- 
fessors were heard, besides all the fashionable 
amateurs, the hostess playing the viol da 
gamba and singing to the guitar. ' She is 
excellent in music, loves solitude, and has 
unmeasurable affectations,' wrote one lord 
to another at Bath in 1758 (cf. A Letter from 



Thicknesse 



Thicknesse 



MissF . . d too. Person of Distinction, 1761). 
Her father's objections to her singing in 
public were so strong that, by a magistrate's 
warrant, he secured her capture at the house 
of a lady friend. Not until she had escaped 
the paternal roof a second time was she en- 
abled to make arrangements for the first of 
her five subscription concerts, on 18 March 
1760, at the little theatre in the Hay- 
market. Aristocratic patronage furnished 
1,500/. in subscriptions; but Miss Ford's 
troubles were not yet over, for at her father's 
instance the streets round the theatre were 
occupied by Bow Street runners, only dis- 
persed by Lord Tankerville's threats to send 
for a detachment of the guards. Such sen- 
sational incidents added to the success of 
the concerts. These generally included 
Handelian and Italian arias, sung by Miss 
Ford, and soli for her on the viol da gamba 
and guitar. The violinist Pinto and other 
instrumentalists contributed pieces. In 1761 
Miss Ford was announced to sing ' English 
airs, accompanying herself on the musical 
glasses,' performing daily from 24 to 30 Oct. 
in the large room, late Cocks's auction-room, 
Spring Gardens. At the close of the year 
Miss Ford published ' Instructions for Play- 
ing on the Musical Glasses ' [see POCKEICH, 
RICHABD], These glasses contained water, 
and it was not until the following year that 
the armonica was introduced by Marianne 
Davies [q. v.] With regard to Miss Ford's 
viol da gamba it may be surmised that she 
used a favourite instrument ' made in 1612, 
of exquisite workmanship and mellifluous 
tone ' (THICKNESSE, Gainsborough, p. 19). 

In November she left town with Philip 
Thicknesse [q. v.], the lieutenant-governor, 
and Lady Elizabeth Thicknesse for Land- 
guard Fort, where her friend gave birth to 
a son, dying a few months afterwards, on 
28 March 1762. The care of the young 
family devolved upon Miss Ford, and Thick- 
nesse after a short interval made her his 
(third) wife on 27 Sept. 1762. She proved 
a kind stepmother and a sympathetic wife. 
Their summer residence, Felixstowe Cottage, 
was the subject of enthusiastic description in 
the pages of ' The School for Fashion,' 1800 
(see Public Characters, 1806). A sketch <>f 
the cottage by Gainsborough was published 
in the' Gentleman's Magazine' (1816, ii. 106). 
Mrs. Thicknesse wrote, while living tempo- 
rarily at Bath, her anecdotal 'Sketches of the 
Lives and Writings of the Ladies of France ' 
(3 vols. 1778-81). A contemplated visit to 
Italy in 1792 was frustrated by the sudden 
death of Philip Thicknesse after they had 
left Boulogne. The widow, remaining in 
France, was arrested and confined in a con- 



vent. After the execution of Robespierre in 
July 1794, a decree was promulgated for 
the liberation of any prisoners who should 
be able to earn their livelihood. M:--. 
Thicknesse produced proofs of her accom- 
plishments and was set free. In 1800 she 
published her novel, 'The School for 
Fashion,' in which many well-known cha- 
racters appeared under fictitious names. In r- 
self as Euterpe. For fifteen or eighteen 
years before her death, Mrs. Thicknesse 
lived with a friend in the Edgware Hoad. 
She died at the age of eighty-six on 20 Jan. 
1824 (Annual Reyister). Her daughter mar- 
ried ; her son John died in 1846 (O'BvKXE, 
Naval Bioc/raphy). 

Mrs. Thickuesse's linguistic and other 
talents were considerable, but she shone 
with most genuine light in music. Rauzzini 
admired her singing, and many thought her 

I equal to Mrs. Billington in compass and 
sweetness of voice. Her portraits, by Ilmn- 

I and Gainsborough, have not been engraved. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 540; Lttter from 
Miss F . . d ; Letter to Miss F . . d ; Dia- 
logue, 1761 ; Horace Walpole's Correspondence, 
iii. 378; Kilvert's Ealph Allen, p. 20; Public 
Advertiser, March-April 1760, October 1761; 
Thicknesse's Gainsborough, p. 19, and other 
Works, passim ; Monkland's Literati of Bath ; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, ix. 251 ; Public 
Characters, 1806; Harwich Guide, 1808, p. 82 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1761 pp. 33, 79, 106, 1792 p. 1154; 
Registers of Wills, P. C. C. Erskine 118, Bogg 
160.] L. M. M. 

THICKNESSE, GEORGE (1714-1790), 
schoolmaster, third son of John Thicknesse, 
rector of Farthinghoe in Northamptonshire, 
was born in 1714. His mother, Joyce Blen- 
cowe, was niece of Sir John Blencowe [q. v.] 
Philip Thicknesse [q. v.], lieutenant-governor 
of Landguard Fort, was a younger brother. 
George Thicknesse entered Winchester Col- 
lege in 1726. In 1737 he was appointed 
chaplain (third master) of St. Paul's school, 
in 174') surmaster, and in 1748 high master. 
The school, which had been declining in 
his predecessor's time, flourished under his 
rule. Philip Francis, the reputed author ol 
' Junius,' was one of his scholars. In 1769 
he suffered for a time from mental derange- 
ment (Gent. May. 1814, ii. 629), but did not 
retire from his office till 176!>, when tht> 
governors of St. Paul's awarded him a pen- 
sion of 100/. a year, and requested him to 
name his successor. 

Thicknesse, on his retirement, resided 
with an old schoolfellow, William Hol- 
bech, at Arlescote, near Wanmngton, 
Northamptonshire, till the death of the 
latter in 1771. He himself died, unmarried, 



Thicknesse 



132 



Thicknesse 



on 18 Dee. 1790, and was buried on the 
north side of Warmington churchyard, in 
accordance with somewhat singular direc- 
tions which lie had given (ib. p. 412). A 
marble bust of him by John Hickey, with 
an inscription, the joint work of Sir Philip 
Francis and Edmund Burke, was placed in 
St. Paul's school by his pupils in 1792, but 
has since been removed (Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. ix. 148). 

[Kirby's Winchester Scholars, 1888, p. 233; 
Gardiner's Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School, p. 84 ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 
426 n., ix. 251-6; Gent. Mag. 1790 ii. 
1153, 1791 i. 30; Athenaeum, 29 Sept. 
1888; Pauline (St. Paul's School Magazine), 
xiv. 18-21 ; Memoirs and Anecdotes of Philip 
Thicknesse, 1788, i. 7, 8 ; Parkesand Merivale's 
Memoirs of Sir Philip Francis, 1867, i- 5.] 

J. H. L. 

THICKNESSE, PHILIP (1719-1792), 
lieutenant-governor of Landguard Fort, 
seventh son of John Thicknesse, rector of 
Farthinghoe, Northamptonshire, who was a 
younger son of Ralph Thicknesse of Bal- 
terley Hall, Staffordshire, was born at his 
father's rectory on 10 Aug. 1719. His 
mother, Joyce Blencowe, was niece of Sir 
John Blencowe [q. v.] George Thicknesse 
[q.v.] was his elder brother. Another brother, 
Ralph (d. 1742), was an assistant master at 
Eton College, and published an edition of 
' Phsedrus, with English Notes ' (1741). He 
died suddenly at Bath on 11 Oct. 1742, while 
performing a musical piece of his own com- 
position (cf. his epitaph in Gent. Mag. 1790, 
i. 521). 

Another Ralph Thicknesse (1719-1790), 
cousin to Philip, born at Barthomley, Che- 
shire, was M.A. of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, and M.D., and practised as a medical 
man at Wigan, where he died on 12 Feb. 
1790, aged 71. He wrote a 'Treatise on 
Foreign Vegetables ' (1749), chiefly taken 
from Geoffroy's ' Materia Medica ' (ib. 1790, 
i. 185, 272, 399 ; Journal of Botany, 1890, p. 
375). 

Philip, after going to Aynhoe school, was 
admitted a ' gratis ' scholar at Westminster 
school. He left that school in a short time 
to be placed with an apothecary named Mar- 
mad uke Tisdall : but he soon tired of that 
calling, and in 1735, when he was only six- 
teen, went out to Georgia with General 
Oglethorpe. Returning to England in 1737, 
he was employed by the trustees of the 
colony until he lost Oglethorpe's favour by 
speaking too plainly of the management of 
affairs in Georgia. He afterwards obtained 
a lieutenancy in an independent company 
at Jamaica, where for some time he was 



engaged in desultory warfare with the run- 
away negroes in the mountains. He re- 
turned home at the end of 1740 after a 
disagreement with his brother officers, and 
in the following January became captain- 
lieutenant in Brigadier Jeffries's regiment of 
marines. Early in 1744-5 he was sent to the 
Mediterranean under Admiral Medley, and 
passed through a terrible gale near Land's 
End on 27 Feb. In February 1753 he pro- 
cured by purchase the lieutenant-governor- 
ship of Landguard Fort, Suffolk, an appoint- 
ment which he held till 1766. He had a 
dispute in 1762 with Francis Vernon (after- 
wards Lord Orwell and Earl of Shipbrooke), 
then colonel of the Suffolk militia ; and, 
having sent the colonel the ludicrous present 
of a wooden gun, was involved in an action 
for libel, with the result that he was confined 
for three months in the king's bench prison 
and fined 3001. In 1754 he met with Thomas 
Gainsborough near Landguard Point, and for 
the next twenty years constituted himself 
the patron of the artist, of whose genius he 
considered himself the discoverer. He in- 
duced Gainsborough to move to Bath from 
Ipswich ; but in 1774 their friendship was 
broken by a wretched squabble. About 1766 
he settled at Welwyn, Hertfordshire, remov- 
ing thence to Monmouthshire, and in 1768 
to Bath, where he purchased a house in the 
Crescent, and built another house which he 
called St. Catherine's Hermitage. His long- 
cherished hopes of succeeding to 12,000^. 
from the family of his first wife were de- 
stroyed by a decree against him in chancery 
and by an unsuccessful appeal to the House 
of Lords. Three letters, in which this de- 
cision of the House of Lords was vehemently 
denounced, appeared in an opposition news- 
paper, ' The Crisis,' on 18 Feb., 25 March, 
and 12 Aug. 1775 respectively. The first 
two were signed ' Junius,' and appeared while 
Thicknesse was still in England. The last 
letter, which had been promised in the second, 
and was issued after Thicknesse had quitted 
the country, bore his own name. All were 
doubtless by Thicknesse, and the use of 
Junius's name was in all probability an in- 
tentional mystification. Thicknesse many 
years later (1789) issued a pamphlet, ' Junius 
Discovered,' in which he professed to discover 
Junius in Home Tooke ; but the identifica- 
tion cannot be seriously entertained (infor- 
mation kindly supplied by A. Hall, esq.) 

After the House of Lords finally pro- 
nounced against Thicknesse in 1775, he, re- 
garding himself as ' driven out of his own 
country,' fixed upon Spain as a place of resi- 
dence. He returned, however, to Bath at 
the end of 1776. In 1784 he erected in his 



Thicknesse 



133 



Thicknesse 



private grounds at the Hermitage the first 
monument raised in this country to Chatter- 
ton's memory. Five years later he purchased 
a barn at Sandgate, near Hythe, and con- 
verted it into a dwelling-house, whence he 
could contemplate the shores of France, into 
which country he made an excursion in 1791, 
and was in Paris during an early period of 
the revolution. In the following year he 
"was once more at Bath, which he finally left 
in the autumn for the continent, and on 
19 Nov. 1792 he suddenly died in a coach 
near Boulogne, while on his way to Paris 
with his wife. He was buried in the pro- 
testant cemetery at Boulogne, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory by his 
widow (Ipswich Journal, 30 March 1793). 

Thicknesse is described by John Nichols 
(Lit. Anecd. ix. 288) as ' a man of probity 
and honour, whose heart and purse were 
always open to the unfortunate.' Another 
writer (FuLCHER) says ' he had in a remark- 
able degree the faculty of lessening the 
number of his friends and increasing the 
number of his enemies. He was perpetually 
imagining insult, and would sniff an injury 
from afar.' It is thought that Graves pic- 
tured Thicknesse in the character of Graham 
in the ' Spiritual Quixote ; ' and he is one of 
the authors pilloried in Mathias's ' Pursuits 
of Literature' (8th edit. p. 71). 

He married thrice : first, in 1742, Maria, 
only daughter of John Lanove of South- 
ampton, a French refugee ; she died early in 
1749 ; and on 10 Xov. in the same year he 
married Elizabeth Touchet, eldest daughter 
of the Earl of Castlehaven. She died on 
28 March 1762, leaving three sons and three 
daughters. The eldest son succeeded to the 
barony of Audley. The terms on which 
Thicknesse lived with this son may be 
gathered from the title of his ' Memoirs ' 
(No. 24, below), and from a clause in his 
will, wherein he desires his right hand to be 
cut off and sent to Lord Audley, ' to remind 
him of his duty to God, after having so long 
abandoned the duty he owed to his father.' 
His third wife was Anne (1737-1824), 
daughter of Thomas Ford, whom he married 
on 27 Sept. 1762. She is separately noticed. 

As an author Thicknesse was voluminous 
and often interesting, especially in his no- 
tices of his experiences in Georgia and 
Jamaica, and on the continent of Europe. 
His first pieces were contributions to the 
' Museum Rusticum ' (1763). These were 
followed by : 1. ' A Letter to a Young Lady,' 
1764, 4to. 2. 'Man-Midwifery Analysed,' 
1764, 4to. 3. ' Proceedings of a Court Mar- 
tial,' 1765, 4to. 4. ' Narrative of what passed 
with Sir Harry Erskine/ 1766, 8vo. 5. ' Ob- 



servations on the Customs and Manners of 
the French Nation,' 1760, 8vo ; 2nd and :!nl 
edit. 1779 and 1789. 6. ' Useful Hints to 
those who make the Tour of France,' 1768, 
8vo. 7. ' Account of four Persons starved 
to Death at Detchworth, Herts,' 1769, 4to. 
8. 'Sketches and Characters of the most 
Eminent and most Singular Persons now 
living,' 1770, 12mo. 9. ' A Treatise on the 
Art of Deciphering and "Writing in Cypher, 
with an Harmonic Alphabet,' 1772, 8vo. 
10. ' A Year's Journey through France and 
Part of Spain,' 1777, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 2nd and 
3rd edit. 1778 and 1789 (cf. NICHOLS, Illustr. 
of Lit. v. 737). 11. ' New Prose Bath Guide 
for the Year 1778,' 8vo. 12. ' The Valetu- 
dinarian's Bath Guide ; or the Means of ob- 
taining Long Life and Health,' 1780, 8vo. 

13. 'Letters to Dr. Falconer of Bath,' 1782. 

14. ' Queries to Lord Audley,' 1782, 8vo. 

15. ' Pere Pascal, a Monk of Montserrat, 




Journey through the Pais Bas, and Austrian 
Netherlands,' 1784, 8vo ; 2nd edit., with ad- 
ditions; 1786. 18. ' An Extraordinary Case 
and Perfect Cure of the Gout ... as related 
by ... Abbe Man, from the French,' 1784. 
19. 'A farther Account of 1'Abbe Man's 
Case,' 1785. 2. 'A Letter to the Earl of 
Coventry,' 1785, 8vo. 21. 'Letter to Dr. 
James Makittrick Adair ' [q. v.], 1787, 8vo. 
22. ' A Sketch of the Life and Paintings of 
Thomas Gainsborough,' 1 788, 8vo. 23. 'Ju- 
nius Discovered ' (in the person of Horno 
Tooke), 1789, 8vo. 24. ' Memoirs and Anec- 
dotes of Philip Thicknesse, late Lieutenant- 
governor of Languard Fort, and unfortu- 
nately father to George Touchet, Baron 
Audley,' 1788-91, 3 vols. 8vo. The third 
volume contains a portrait. His old enemy 
Dr. Adair (see No. 21) published ' Curious 
Facts and Anecdotes not contained in the 
Memoirs of Philip Thicknesse,' 1790, with a 
caricature portrait by Gillray, who also 
satirised Thicknesse in a caricature entitled 
' Lieut.-governor Gall-stone, &c.' (cf. 
WRIGHT and GREGO, James Gillray, pp. 116, 
119). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 256 ; Gent. Mng. 
1809 ii. 1012, 1816 ii. 105 (view of Thick- 
nesse's house, Felixstowe Cottage); Monkland's 
Literature and Literati of Bath, 1854, p. 22; 
Cheshire Notes and Queries, 1885. v. 49; 
Fulcher's Life of Gainsborough. 1856, p. 42; 
Brock-Arnold's Gainsborough, 1881 ; Hinch- 
liffe's Barthomley, p. 174; G. E. C[oknyne]8 
Complete Peerage, i. 201 ; Brit. Mu. Addit. 
MSS 19166 ff. 409-13, 19170 ff. 207-9, 19174 
ff. 702-3.] 



Thierry 



134 



Thirlby 



THIERRY, CHARLES PHILIP IIIP- 

POLYTUS, BARON DE( 1793-1864), colonist, 
eldest son of Charles, baron de Thierry, a 
French refugee, was born in 1793, appa- 
rently at Bathampton in Somerset. After 
some military and diplomatic service he 
matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
on 26 May 1819, aged 25, and migrated 
to Queens' College, Cambridge, on 8 June 
1820, but did not graduate. At Cambridge 
he met in 1820 two Maori chiefs with one 
Kendall, and then conceived the idea of 
founding an empire in New Zealand. In 
1822 Kendall returned to New Zealand and 
bought two hundred acres near Hokianga 
for Thierry, who based on this purchase a 
claim to all the land from Auckland to the 
north cape of the north island. He applied 
to Earl Bathurst, then secretary of state, for 
confirmation of this grant, but was met with 
the plea that New Zealand was not a British 
possession. He then tried the French go- 
vernment without success. 

Proceeding to form a private company to 
carry out his plans, Thierry returned from 
France in 1826 and set up an office in Lon- 
don, where he slowly acquired some little 
support. About 1833 he went to the United 
States to enlarge his sphere of action, and 
thence by the West Indian islands and 
Panama he found his way to Tahiti, arriving 
there in 1835. Here he issued a procla- 
mation asserting his claims and intentions. 
But the British consul actively opposed his 
design. In 1837 he had got as far as New 
South Wales. Here he collected sixty per- 
sons of rough character to form the nucleus 
of a colony, and sailed in the Nimrod to the 
Bay of Islands. Having summoned a meet- 
ing of chiefs at Mangunga, he explained his 
schemes and his title to the land he claimed ; 
the chiefs refused to recognise his title, and 
showed alarm at his statement that he ex- 
pected his brother to follow him with five 
hundred persons. He also made a formal 
address to the white residents of New Zea- 
land, in the course of which he announced 
that he came to govern within the bounds of 
his own territories, that he came neither as 
invader nor despot, and proceeded to expound 
a scheme of settlement and administration 
which indicated leanings at once com- 
munistic and paternal. He stated that he 
had brought with him a surgeon to attend 
the poor, and a tutor and governess to 
educate the settlers' children with his own. 
But, despite this solemn bravado, Thierry 
and his party were destitute of supplies be- 
yond the needs of two or three weeks. 
Ultimately, through the intervention of a 
missionary, one of the chiefs agreed to sell 



Thierry some land near Hokianga for 200/. to 
be paid in kind, blankets, tobacco, fowling- 
pieces, &c. The rest of his party were 
drafted into the service of other settlers, and 
thus his grand scheme ended in his settling 
down as a humble colonist. New Zealand 
was proclaimed a British colony in 1840. 
Later Thierry found his way back to New 
South Wales, and tried to renew his projects 
fora larger colonisation scheme; but he had 
no success, and died 011 8 July 1864 at Auck- 
land, a poor man, but much respected as 
an old colonist. He was married and had a 
family. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biogr. ; Eusden's 
History of New Zealand, pp. 179-80; House of 
Commons Papers 1838, i. 53, 109, 110, &c. ; 
Blair's Cyclopaedia of Australasia, Melbourne, 
1891 ; The New Zealander, 4 July and 16 July 
1864.] C. A. H. 

THIMELBY, RICHARD (1614-1680), 
Jesuit. [See ASHBY.] 

THIRLBY, STYAN (1686 P-1753), 
critic and theologian, son of Thomas Thirl- 
by, vicar of St. Margaret's, Leicester, by 
his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Henry 
Styan of Kirby Frith, gentleman, was born 
about 1686 (NICHOLS, Leicestershire, iv. 239, 
614). He was educated at the free school, 
Leicester, under the tuition of the Rev. John 
Kilby, the chief usher, who afterwards 
said: 'He went through my school in three 
years ; and his self-conceit was censured as 
very offensive. He thought he knew more 
than all the school..' One of his pro- 
ductions while at school was a poem in 
Greek ' On the Queen of Sheba's Visit to 
Solomon.' From his mental abilities no 
small degree of future eminence was pre- 
saged, but the hopes of his friends were un- 
fortunately defeated by a temper which 
was naturally indolent and quarrelsome, 
and by an unhappy addiction to drinking. 
From Leicester he was sent to Jesus College, 
Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 
1704. lie contributed verses in 1708 to the 
university collection on the death of George, 
prince of Denmark. In 1710 he published 
anonymously an intemperate pamphlet on 
the occasion of the dismissal of the whig 
ministry. It was entitled ' The University 
of Cambridge vindicated from the Imputation 
of Disloyalty it lies under on account of not 
addressing ; as also from the malicious and 
foul Aspersions of Dr. Bentley, late Master 
of Trinity College, and of a certain Officer 
and pretended Reformer in the said Uni- 
versity,' London, 1710, 8vo (cf. MONK, Life 
ofEentley,2ud edit. i. 289). Thirlby obtained 
a fellowship of his college in 1712 by the in- 



Thirlby 



135 



Thirlby 



flnence of Dr. Charles Ashton, who said ' he 
had had the honour of studying with him 
when young,' though he afterwards spoke of 
him very contemptuously as the editor of 
Justin Martyr. 

Devoting himself to the study of divinity, 
he published ' S. Joannis Chrysostomi de 
Sacerdotio . . . editio altera. Accessit S. 
Gr. Nazianzeni . . . de eodem Argumento 
conscripta, Oratio Apologetica, opera S. 
Thirlby,' Greek and Latin, Cambridge, 1712, 
8vo ; ' An Answer to Mr. Whiston's Seven- 
teen Suspicions concerning Athanasius, in 
his Historical Preface,' Cambridge, 1712, 
8vo; ' Calumny no Conviction : or an 
Answer to Mr. Whiston's Letter to Mr. 
Thirlby, intituled Athanasius convicted of 
Forgery,' London, 1713, 8vo;and 'A De- 
fence of the Answer to Mr. Whiston's Sus- 
picions, and an Answer to his Charge of 
Forgery against St. Athanasius,' Cambridge, 
1713, 8vo. On 17 Jan. 1718-19 he was ap- 
pointed deputy registrary of the university 
of Cambridge, but he held this office for 
a very short time (Addit. MS. 5852, ff. 
31, 31 a). He took the degree of M.A. at 
Cambridge in 1720. Two years later he 
brought out his principal work a splendid 
edition of ' Justini Philosophi et Martyris 
Apologise dure, et Dialogus cum Tryphone 
Judseo cum notis et emendationibus,' Greek 
and Latin, London, 1722, fol. ; dedicated to 
William, lord Craven. Bishop Monk ob- 
serves that ' so violently had resentment 
got possession of him [Thirlby] that he 
gives the full reins to invective, and rails 
against classical studies and Bentley in so 
extravagant a style that he makes the reader, 
at the very outset of his work, doubt whether 
the editor was in a sane mind ' (Life of 
\ientley, ii. 167). He also treated Meric 
Coaubon, Isaac Vossius, and Dr. Grabe 
with contempt. 

Having discontinued the study of theology, 
his next pursuit was medicine, and for a 
while he was styled ' doctor.' While he 
was a nominal physician he lived for some 
time with the Duke of Chandos as librarian. 
He then studied the civil law, on which 
he occasionally lectured, Sir Edward Wai- 
pole being one of his pupils. The civil law 
displeasing him, though he is said to have 
become LL.D., he applied himself to the 
common law, and had chambers taken for 
him in the Temple with a view of being 
called to the bar; but of this scheme he 
likewise grew weary. He came, however, to 
London, to the house of his friend, Sir 
Edward Walpole, who procured for him in 
May 1741 the sinecure office of a king's 
waiter in the port of London, worth about 



100/. a year. The remainder of his days 
were passed in private lodgings, wl,. 
lived in a very retired manner, seeing only a 
few friends, and indulging occasionally in 
excessive drinking. He contributed some 
notes to Theobald's Shakespeare, and after- 
wards talked of bringing o'ut an edition of 
his own, but this design was abandon.-.!. II,- 
left, however, a copy of Shakespeare, with 
some abusive remarks on Warburton in th. 
margin of the first volume, and a few at- 
tempts at emendation. The copy became the 
property of Sir Edward Walpole, to whom 
Thirlby bequeathed all his books and papers. 
Walpole lent it to Dr. Johnson when he 
was preparing his edition of Shakespeare', in 
which the name of 'Thirlby' appears as a 
commentator. Thirlby died on 19 Dec. 1753 

[Addit. MS. 5882, f. 16; Boswell's Johnson 
(Hill), iv. 161 ; Bowes's Cat. of English Books ; 
Briiggemann's Engl. Editions of Greek iin.l 
Latin Authors, pp. 334, 424 ; Davies's Ath.-nne 
Britannicae, ii. 378; Gent. Mag. 1753 p. 690, 
1778 p. 597, 1780 p. 407, 1782 p. 242; Hi-:. 
Reg. 1738, Chron. Diary, p. 28; London .Ma-. 
July 1738, p. 361 ; Nichols's Lit. Aneoi. i. 1238, 
iv. 264; Nichols's Select Collection of Poems 
(1781), vi. 114; Winston's Memoir of hirn>tlf 
(1749),i. 204.] T. C. 

THIRLBY or THIRLEBY, THOMAS 
(1506P-1570), the first and only bishop of 
Westminster, and afterwards successively 
bishop of Norwich and Ely, son of John 
Thirleby, scrivener and town clerk of Cam- 
bridge, and Joan his wife, was born in the 
parish of St. Mary the Great, Cambri.l 
or about 1 506 (CoOPEB, Annals of Caml>ritl</c, 
ii. 262). He received his education at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, graduated bachelor of the 
civil law in 1521, was elected a fellow of his 
college, and proceeded doctor of the civil law 
in 1528, and doctor of the canon law in 
It is said that while at the univ.-r.-it y Ii,-. 
with otherlearned men who were the favourers 
of the gospel, though they afterwards relapsed, 
received an allowance from Queen Anne 
Boleyn, the Earl of Wiltshire, lu-r father, 
and Lord llochford, her brother (Sunn:, 
Eccl. Mem. n. i. 279). In 1532 he was oflieiiil 
to the archdeacon of Ely (Addit. .!/>. 
p. 36). lie appears to have taken a prominent 
part in the afluirs of the university between 
1528 and 1534, and is supposed to have h- 1.1 
the office of commissary. I n 1 ">34 he was ap- 
pointed provost of the collegiate church of 
St. Edmund at Salisbury (HATCH I:K. Ili.-t. / 
Sarum, p. 701 ). Archbishop Cranmer and 1 >r. 
Butts, physician to the king, -were his early 
patrons. Cranmer ' liked his learning and his 
qualities so well that he became his good lord 
towards the king's majesty, and commended 



Thirlby 



136 



Thirlby 



him to him, to be a man worthy to serve a 
prince, for such singular qualities as were in 
him. And indeed the king soon employed 
him in embassies in France and elsewhere : 
so that he grew in the king's favour by the 
means of the archbishop, who had a very 
extraordinary love for him, and thought 
nothing too much to give him or to do for 
him.' 

In 1533 he was one of the king's chaplains, 
and in May communicated to Cranmer ' the 
king's commands ' relative to the sentence of 
divorce from Catherine of Arragon. In 1534 
he was presented by the king to the arch- 
deaconry of Ely, and he was a member of 
the convocation which recognised the king's 
supremacy in ecclesiastical matters. Soon 
afterwards he was appointed dean of the 
chapel royal, and in 1536 one of the mem- 
bers of the council of the north. On 29 Sept. 
1537 the king granted to him a canonry and 
prebend in the collegiate church of St. 
Stephen, in the palace of Westminster (Let- 
ters and Papers of Henry VIII, xii. 350), 
and on the 15th of the following month he 
was present at the christening of Prince 
Edward (afterwards Edward VI) at Hamp- 
ton Court (ib. xii. 320, 350). On 2 May 1538 
a royal commission was issued to Stephen 
Gardiner, Sir Francis Brian, and Thirlby, as 
ambassadors, to treat with Francis I, king of 
France, not only for a league of friendship, 
but for the projected marriage of the Princess 
Mary to the Duke of Orleans (Harl. MS. 
7571, f. 35 ; Addit. MS. 25114, f. 297). The 
three ambassadors were recalled in August 
1538. Thirlby was one of the royal commis- 
sioners appointed on 1 Oct. 1538 to search for 
and examine anabaptists (WiLKixs, Concilia, 
iii. 836). On 23 Dec. 1539 he was presented 
to the mastership of the hospital of St. Thomas 
\ Becket in Southwark, and on 14 Jan. 1539- 
1540 he surrendered that house, with all its 
possessions, to the king. At this period he was 
prebendary of Yeatminster in the cathedral 
church of Salisbury, and rector of Pubchester, 
Lancashire. In 1540 he was prolocutor of the 
convocation of the province of Canterbury, and 
signed the decree declaring the nullity of the 
king's marriage with Anne of Cleves. In the 
same year he was one of the commissioners 
appointed by the king to deliberate upon 
sundry points of religion then in controversy, 
and especially upon the doctrine of the sacra- 
ments. 

By letters patent dated ]7 Dec. 1540 the 
king erected the abbey of Westminster into 
an episcopal see, and appointed Thirlby the 
first and, as it happened, the last bishop of 
the new diocese. He was consecrated on 
29 Dec. in St. Saviour's Chapel in the cathe- 



dral church of Westminster (SiRYPE, Cran- 
mer, p. 90). Soon afterwards he was ap- 
pointed by the convocation to revise the- 
translation of the epistles of St. James, St. 
John, and St. Jude. In January 1540-1 he in- 
terceded with the crown for the grant of the 
university of the house of Franciscan friars at 
Cambridge. In 1542 he appears as a member 
of the privy council, and was also despatched 
as ambassador to the emperor in Spain (Acts 
P. C. ed. Dasent, vol. i. passim) He returned 
the same year. In April 1543 he took part in 
the revision of the ' Institution of a Christian 
Man,' and on 17 June in that year he was one- 
of those empowered to treat with the Scots 
ambassador concerning the proposed marriage- 
of Prince Edward with Mary Queen of Scots. 
In May 1545 he was despatched on an em- 
bassy to the emperor, Charles V (State Papers, 
Hen. VIII, x. 428). He attended the diet of 
Bourbourg,and on 16 Jan. 1546-7 he was one 
of those who signed a treaty of peace at Utrecht 
(PtYMER, xv. 120-1). He was not named an 
executor by Henry VIII, and consequently- 
was excluded from Edward VI's privy coun- 
cil. He remained at the court of the emperor 
till June 1548, taking leave of Charles V at 
Augsburg on the llth (Cal. State Papers, 
For. i. 24). Thirlby took part in the impor- 
tant debates in the House of Lords in Decem- 
ber 1548 and January 1548-9 on the subject 
of the sacrament of the altar and the sacrifice- 
of the mass. He declared that ' he did never 
allow the doctrine ' laid down in the com- 
munion office of the^ proposed first Book of 
Common Prayer, stating that he mainly ob- 
jected to the book as it stood because it 
abolished the ' elevation ' and the ' adora- 
tion ' (GASQTJET and BISHOP, Edward VI and 
the Book of Common Prayer, pp. 162, 164, 
166, 167, 171, 256, 263, 403,404, 427). When 
Somerset expressed to Edward VI some dis- 
appointment at Thirlby's attitude, the young- 
king remarked, ' I expected nothing else but 
that he, who had been so long time with the 
emperor, should smell of the Interim ' (Origi- 
nal Letters, Parker Soc. ii. 645, 646). He 
voted against the third reading of the act of 
uniformity on 15 Jan. 1548-9, but enforced 
its provisions in his diocese after it had been 
passed. On 12 April 1549 he was in the com- 
mission for the suppression of heresy, and on 
10 Nov. in that year he was ambassador at 
Brussels with Sir Philip Hoby and Sir Thomas 
Cheyne. On 29 March 1550 Thirlby resigned 
the bishopric of Westminster into the hands- 
of the king, who thereupon dissolved it, and 
reannexed the county of Middlesex, which 
had been assigned for its diocese, to the see- 
of London (BENTHAM, Hist, of Ely, p. 191). 
While bishop of Westminster he is said tcx 



Thirlby 



'37 



Thirlby 



have ' impoverished the church ' (Slow, Sur- 
vey of London, ed. Thorns, p. 170). 

On 1 April, following his resignation of 
the see of Westminster, he was constituted 
bishop of Norwich (RYMER, Fcedera, xv. 221). 
Bishop Burnet intimates that Thirlby was re- 
moved from Westminster to Norwich, as it 
was thought he could do less mischief in the j 
latter see, ' for though he complied as soon as 
any change was made, yet he secretly opposed J 
everything while it was safe to do ' (Hist, of 
the Reformation,^. 1841, ii. 753). In January 
1550-1 he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners to correct and punish all anabap- 
tists, and such as did not duly administer 
the sacraments according to the Book of 
Common Prayer ; and on 15 April 1551 one 
of the commissioners to determine a contro- 
versy respecting the borders of England and 
Scotland. On 20 May following he was in 
a commission to treat for a marriage between 
the king and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 
II of France. He was in 1551 appointed 
one of the masters of requests, and he was 
also one of the numerous witnesses on the 
trial of Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, 
which took place in that year. In January 
and March 1551-2 his name was inserted 
in several commissions appointed to inquire 
what sums were due to the king or his 
father for sale of lands ; to raise money by 
the sale of crown lands to the yearly value 
of 1,000/. ; and to survey the state of all the 
courts erected for the custody of the king's 
lands. In April 1553 he was again appointed 
ambassador to the Emperor Charles V, at 
whose court he remained until April 1554 
(Acts P. C. iv. 246, 390). On his return from 
Germany he brought with him one Remegius, 
who established a paper mill in this country 
perhaps at Fen Ditton, near Cambridge 
(CooPER, Annals, ii. 132, 265). 

At heart a Roman catholic, Thirlby was 
soon high in Queen Mary's favour, and in 
July 1554 he was translated from Norwich 
to Ely, the temporalities of the latter see being 
delivered to him on 1 5 Sept. (RYMER, xv. 405). 
He was one of the prelates who presided at the 
trials of Bishop Hooper, John Rogers, Row- 
land Taylor, and others, for heresy ; and in 
February 1554-5 he was appointed, together 
with Anthony Browne, viscount Montague 
[q.v.], and Sir Edward Carne [q. v.l, a special 
ambassador to the pope, to make the queen's 
obedience, and to obtain a confirmation of 
all those graces which Cardinal Pole had j 
granted in his name. .He returned to London 
from Rome on 24 Aug. 1555 with a bull con- J 
firming the queen's title to Ireland, which ' 
document he delivered to the lord treasurer 
on 10 Dec. A curious journal of this embassy 



isprinted in Lord HardwickeV State Papers' 
(i. 62-102, from Harleian .MS. iT.i', a r 

After the death of the lord chancellor, 
Gardiner, on 12 Nov. 1555, Mary proposed 
to confer on Thirlby the vacant office, but 
Philip objected, and Archbishop Heath was 
appointed (Despatches of Mi<hicl, the Vene- 
tian Ambassador, 1554-7, ed. Paul Fried- 
mann, Venice, 1869). In January 155o-ft 
Thirlby took a part in the degradation of his 
old friend Archbishop Cranmer. ' He was 
observed to weep much all the while ; he 
protested to Cranmer that it was the most 
sorrowful action of his whole life, and ac- 
knowledged the great love and friendship that 
had been between them ; and that no earthly 
consideration but the queen's command could 
have induced him to come and do what they 
were then about' (BuBNET, i. 531). On 
22 March following he was one of the seven 
bishops who assisted at the consecration of 
Cardinal Pole as archbishop of Canterbury. 
In 1556 he was appointed to receive OMp 
Napea Gregoriwitch, ambassador from the 
emperor of Russia. Thirlby appears to have 
sanctioned the burning of John Hullier for 
heresy in 1556, but only two others suffered 
death in his diocese on account of their re- 
ligion, and it has been said that ' Thirleby 
was in no way interested therein ; but the 
guilt thereof must be shared between Dr. 
Fuller, the chancellor, and other commis- 
sioners ' (FULLER, Church Hist. ed. 1837, i. 
395). In April 1558 Thirlby was sent to 
the north to inquire the cause of the quarrel 
between the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland. He and Dr. Nicholas Wot - 
ton [q. v.] were Queen Mary's commissioners 
to treat with France respecting the restora- 
tion of Calais and the conclusion of peace. 
Queen Elizabeth sent a new commission to 
them at Cambray in January 1558-9, and 
instructed the Earl of Arundel to act in con- 
junction with them. The commissioner* 
succeeded in concluding peace, and returned 
home in April 1559. The queen is said to 
have cast upon Thirlby the entire blame of 
the eventual loss of Calais (STRYPE, Life of 
Whityift, i. 229). Queen Mary had appoint ed 
him one of her executors. 

On the assembling of Queen Elizabeth's 
first parliament Thirlby sent his pro\ 
being then absent on his embassy in France. 
On 17 April 1559 the bill for restoring eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction to the crown was com- 
mitted to him and other peers. He opposed 
this measure on the thiro reading. He also 
dissented from the bill for unifonnityof com- 
mon prayer (cf. T-urich Letters, i. 20). 1 ! 
refused to take the oath of supremacy, ami 
for this reason he and Archbishop Heath 



Thirlby 



138 



Thirlwall 



were deposed from their sees on 5 July 1559 
at the lord-treasurer's house in Broad Street. 

According to Bentham, Thirlby was a 
considerable benefactor to the see of Ely 
because by his interest he procured from the 
crown for himself and his successors the 
patronage of the prebends in the cathedral ; 
but Dr. Cox, his immediate successor, as- 
serted that although Thirlby received 500/. 
from Bishop Goodrich's executors for dilapi- 
dations, he left his houses, bridges, lodes, 
rivers, causeways, and banks, in great ruin 
and decay, and spoiled the see of a stock of 
one thousand marks, which his predecessors 
had enjoyed since the reign of Edward III. 
He also alleged that Thirlby never came into 
his diocese (STRYPE, Annals of the Reforma- 
tion, ii. 580). 

After his deprivation Thirlby had his 
liberty for some time, but in consequence of 
his persisting in preaching against the Re- 
formation, he was on 3 June 1560 committed 
to the Tower, and on 25 Feb. 1560-1 he was 
excommunicated (STKYPE, ib. i. 142). In 
September 1563 he was removed from the 
Tower on account of the plague to Arch- 
bishop Parker's house at Beaksbourne (Par- 
ker Correspondence, pp. 122, 192, 195, 203, 
215, 217). In June 1564 he was transferred 
to Lambeth Palace, and Parker, who is said 
to have treated Thirlby with great courtesy 
and respect, even permitted him to lodge 
for some time at the house of one Mrs. Black- 
well in Blackfriars. He died in Lambeth 
Palace on 26 Aug. 1570. He was buried 
on the 28th in the chancel of Lambeth 
church, under a stone with a brief Latin in- 
scription in brass (Siow, Survey of London, 
ed. Strype, App. p. 85). In making a grave 
for the burial of Archbishop Cornwallis in 
March 1783, the body of Bishop Thirlby 
was discovered in his coffin, in a great mea- 
sure undecayed, as was the clothing. The 
corpse had a cap on its head and a hat under 
its arm (LoDGE, Illustrations of British His- 
tory, ed. 1838, i. 73 n.) His portrait is in 
the print of the delivery of the charter of 
Bridewell. 

[Addit. MSS. 5498 f. 63, 5813 f. 108, 5828 if. 
1, 123, 5842 p. 368, 5882 f. 77, 5935 f. 95 ; 
Ascham's Epistola>, pp. 332, 339; Bedford's 
Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 41 ; Brady's Episcopal 
Succession, iii. 19 ; Camden's Kemains, 7th ed. 
p. 371 ; Machyn's Diary (Catnden Soc.) ; Dodd's 
Church Hist. i. 483 ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church 
of England, ii. 577, iii. 570, iv. 758 ; Downes's 
Lives of the Compilers of the Liturgy (1722), 
p. cv; Ducarel's Lambeth; Ellis's Letters of 
Eminent Literary Men, pp. 25, 23 ; Fiddes's 
"Wolsey, Collectanea, pp. 46, 203 ; Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments ; Froude's Hist, of England ; 



Lingard's Hist, of England ; Godwin, De Prsesu- 
libus (Richardson); Harbin's Hereditary Eight, 
pp. 191,192; Leonard Howard's Letters, p. 274; 
Lansdowne MSS ; Lee's Church under Queen 
Elizabeth, p. 147 ; Manning and Bray's Surrey, iii. 
507 ; Ambassades de Noailles, i. 189, ii. 223, iii. 
140, iv. 173, 183, 222, v. 194, 257, 275, 305, 306 ; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 258, 5th ser. ix. 
267, 374 ; Parker Society's Publications (general 
index) ; Calendars of State Papers ; Acts of the 
Privy Council, ed. Dasent ; Strype's Works 
(general index) ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 709 ; 
Tierney's Arundel, pp. 334-7 ; Ty tier's Ed- 
ward VT and Mary, i. 52, 82, 84, 88, 98, 100; 
Widmore's Westminster Abbey, pp. 129, 133.] 

T. C. 

THIRLESTANE, LORD MAITL AND OF. 
[See MAITLAXD, SIE JOHN, 1545 P-1595.] 

THIRLWALL, CONNOP (1797-1875), 
historian and bishop of St. David's, born 
in London on 11 Feb. 1797, was third son of 
the Rev. Thomas Thirl wall, by his wife, Mrs. 
Connop of Mile End, the widow of an 
apothecary. His full name was Newell 
Connop Thirlwall. 

The father, THOMAS THIRLWALL (d. 1827), 
was the son of Thomas Thirlwall (d. 1808), 
vicar of Cottingham, near Hull, who claimed 
descent from the barons of Thirlwall Castle, 
Northumberland. The younger Thomas, 
after holding some small benences in Lon- 
don, was presented in 1814 to the rectory of 
Bower's Gilford in Essex, where he died on 
17 March 1827. He was a man of fervent 
piety, and the author of several published 
works, including ' Diatessaron sen Integra 
Historia Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ex qua- 
tuor Evangeliis confecta,' London, 1802, 8vo 
(Gent. Mag. 1827, i. 568). 

Connop Thirlwall showed such precocity 
that when he was only eleven years of age 
his father published a volume of his compo- 
sitions called 'Primitiae,' a work in after 
years so odious to the author that he de- 
stroyed every copy that he could obtain. 
The preface tells us that ' at a very early 
period he read English so well that he was 
taught Latin at three years of age, and at 
four read Greek with an ease and fluency 
which astonished all who heard him. His 
talent for composition appeared at the age 
of seven.' From 1810 to 1813 he was a day 
scholar at the Charterhouse. After leaving 
school he seems to have worked alone (Let" 
ters, Sfc., p. 21) for a year, entering Trinity 
College, Cambridge, as a pensioner in Octo- 
ber 1814. 

While an undergraduate he found time to 
learn French and Italian, and, besides ac- 
quiring considerable reputation as a speaker 
at the union, was secretary of the society 



Thirl wall 



139 



Thirlwall 



when the debate was stopped by the entrance 
of the proctors (24 March 1817), who, by 
the vice-chancellor's command, bade the 
members disperse and on no account resume 
their discussions. A few years later, when 
Thirlwall spoke at a debating society in 
London, John Stuart Mill recorded that he 
was the best speaker he had heard up to that 
time, and that he had not subsequently 
heard any one whom he could place above 
him (Autobiography, p. 125). In 1815 he 
obtained the Bell and Craven scholarships, 
and in 1816 was elected scholar of his own 
college. In 1818 he graduated B.A. He 
was twenty-second senior optime in the 
mathematical tripos, and also obtained the 
first chancellor's medal for proficiency in 
classics. In October of the same year he 
was elected fellow of his college. 

Thirlwall was now able to realise what he 
called ' the most enchanting of my day- 
dreams ' (Letters, $c., p. 32), and spent 
several months on the continent. The 
winter of 1818-19 was passed in Rome, 
where he formed a close friendship with 
Bunsen, then secretary to the Prussian 
legation, at the head of which was N iebuhr ; 
but Thirlwall and the historian never met. 

Thirlwall had at this time conceived a 
dislike to the profession of a clergyman, and, 
yielding to the urgency of his family (ib. 
p. 60), he entered Lincoln's Inn in February 
1820. He was called to the bar in the sum- 
mer of 1825. Much of his success in after 
life may be traced to his legal training; 
but the work was always distasteful to him, 
though relieved by foreign tours, by intellec- 
tual society, and by a return to more con- 
genial studies whenever he had a moment 
to spare (ib. p. 67). In 1824 he translated 
two tales by Tieck, and began his work on 
Schleiermacher's ' Critical Essay on the Gos- 
pel of St. Luke.' Both these were published 
(anonymously) in the following year, the 
second with a critical introduction, remark- 
able not only for thoroughness, but for ac- 
quaintance with modern German theology, 
then a field of research untrodden by English 
students. In October 1827 Thirlwall aban- 
doned law and returned to Cambridge (ib. 
p. 54). The prospect of the loss of his fellow- 
ship at Trinity College, which would have 
expired in 1828, probably determined the 
precise moment for taking a step which he 
had long meditated (ib. pp. 69, 70, 86). He 
was ordained deacon before the end of 1827, 
and priest in 1828. 

At Cambridge Thirlwall at once under- 
took his full share of college and university 
work. Between 1827 and 1832 he held the 
college offices of junior bursar, junior dean, 



and head lecturer ; and in 1828, 1*29, 1832, 
and 1834 examined for the classical tripos. 
In 1828 the first volume of the translation of 
Niebuhr's 'History of Rome ' appeared, tin- 
joint work of himself and Julius Clmrl.-s 
Hare [q.v.] This was attacked in the ' Quar- 
terly Review,' and Thirlwall contributed to 
Hare's elaborate reply a brief postscript which 
is worthy of his best days as a controver- 
sialist. In 1831 the publication of 'The 
Philological Museum ' was commenced with 
the object of promoting ' the knowledge and 
the love of ancient literature.' Hare and 
Thirlwall were the editors, and the latter 
contributed to it several masterly essays (re- 
printed in Essays, $c., 1880, pp. 1-189). It 
ceased in 1833. In 1829 Thirlwall held for 
a short time the vicarage of Over, and in 
1832, when Hare left college, he was ap- 
pointed assistant tutor on the side of Wil- 
liam Whewell [q. v.] His lectures were as 
thorough and systematic as Hare's had been 
desultory. 

In 1834 his connection with the educa- 
tional staff of Trinity College was rudely 
severed under the following circumstances. 
A bill to admit dissenters to university de- 
grees had in that year passed the House of 
Commons by a majority of eighty-nine. The 
question caused great excitement at Cam- 
bridge, and several pamphlets were written 
to discuss particular aspects of it. The first 
of these, called ' Thoughts on the admission 
of Persons, without regard to their Religious 
Opinions, to certain Degrees in the Univer- 
sities of England,' by Dr. Thomas Turton 
[q. v.], was promptly answered by Thirl- 
wall in a ' Letter on the Admission of Dis- 
senters to Academical Degrees.' His oppo- 
nent tried to show the evils likely to arise 
from a mixture of students differing widely 
from each other in their religious opinions 
by tracing the history of the theological 
seminary for nonconformists at Davt-ntry. 
Thirlwall argued that at Cambridge 'our 
colleges are not theological seminaries. Wr 
have no theological colleges, no theological 
tutors, no theological students ; ' and, furt II.T, 
that the colleges at Cambridge were not 
even 'schools of religious instruction.' In 
the development of this part of his argument 
he condemned the collegiate lectures in 
divinity and the compulsory attendance at 
chapel, with ' the constant repetition of a 
heartless mechanical sen-ice.' This pamphlet 
is dated 21 May 1834, and five days later Dr. 
Christopher "Wordsworth [q.v.], master, wrote 
to the author, calling upon him to resign his 
appointment as assistant-tutor. Thirlwall 
obeyed without delay; and, as the master 
had added that he found ' some difficulty in 



Thirlwall 



140 



Thirlwall 



understanding how a person with such senti- 
ments can reconcile it to himself to con- 
tinue a member of a society founded and 
conducted on principles from which he 
differs so widely,' Thirlwall addressed a 
circular letter to the fellows, asking each of 
them to send him ' a private explicit and 
unreserved declaration ' on this point. All 
desired to retain him, but all did not acquit 
him of rashness ; and a few did not condemn 
the master's action. 

Not long after these events in November 
1834 Lord Brougham offered him the valu- 
able living of Kirby Underdale in Yorkshire. 
He accepted without hesitation, and went 
into residence in July 1835. He had had 
little experience of parochial work, but he 
proved himself both energetic and successful 
in this new field (Letters, &c., p. 133). 

It was at Kirby Underdale that Thirlwall 
completed his ' History of Greece,' originally 
published in the ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia ' of 
Dr. Dionysius Lardner [q. v.] This work 
entailed prodigious labour. At Cambridge, 
where the first volume was written, he used 
to work all day until half-past three o'clock, 
when he left his rooms for a rapid walk be- 
fore dinner, then served in hall at four ; and 
in Yorkshire he is said to have passed six- 
teen hours of the twenty-four in his study. 
The first volume appeared in 1835 and the 
eighth and last in 18-44. By a curious coin- 
cidence he and George Grote [q. v.], his friend 
and schoolfellow, were writing on the same 
subject at the same time unknown to each 
other. On the appearance of Grote's first 
two volumes in 1846 Thirlwall welcomed 
them with generous praise (Letters, p. 194), 
and when the publication of the fourth 
volume in 1847 enabled him to form a ma- 
turer judgment, he told the author that he 
rejoiced to think that his own performance 
would, ' for all highest purposes, be so super- 
seded' (Personal Life of Grote, p. 173), Grote 
in the preface to his work bore testimony to 
Thirlwall's learning, sagacity, and candour. 
Portions of Thirlwall's history were trans- 
lated into German by Leonhard Schmitz in 
1840, and into French by A. Joanne in 
1852. 

In 1840 Lord Melbourne offered the 
bishopric of St. David's to Thirlwall. He 
had read his translation of Schleiermacher, 
and formed so high an opinion of the author 
that he had tried, but without success, to 
send him to Norwich in 1837. He was 
anxious, however, that no bishop appointed 
by him should be suspected of heterodoxy, 
and had therefore consulted Archbishop 
Howley before making the offer, which 
was accepted at a personal interview. Not- 



withstanding Melbourne's precaution, the 
appointment caused some outcry (Letters, 
&c., p. xiii). 

Thirlwall brought to the larger sphere of 
work as a bishop the thoroughness which 
had made him successful as a parish clergy- 
man. Within a year he read prayers and 
preached in Welsh. He visited every part 
of his large and at that time little known 
diocese ; inspected the condition of schools 
and churches ; and by personal liberality 
augmented the income of small livings. It 
has been computed that he spent 40,000/. 
while bishop on charities of various kinds. 
After a quarter of a century of steady effort 
he could point to the restoration of 183 
churches ; to thirty parishes where new or 
restored churches were then in progress ; to 
many new parsonages, and to a large increase 
of education (Charges, ii. 90-100). Yet he 
was not personally popular. His clergy, 
while they acknowledged his merits, and felt 
his intellectual superiority, failed to under- 
stand him ; and though he did his best to 
receive them hospitably, and to enter into 
their wants and wishes, persisted in regarding 
him as a cold and critical alien. Gradually, 
therefore, his intercourse with them became 
limited to the archdeacons and to the few 
who knew how to value his friendship. 

The solitude of Abergwli the village 
near Carmarthen where the bishops of 
St. David's reside suited Thirlwall exactly. 
There he could enjoy the sights and sounds 
of the country; the society of his birds, 
horses, dogs, and cats ; and, above all, his 
books in all languages and on all subjects. 
The 'Letters to a Friend' (1881) show that in 
literature his taste was universal, his appetite 
insatiable. He rarely quitted ' Chaos,' as he 
called his library, unless compelled by 
business. 

But he took a lively interest in the events 
of the day, and in all questions affecting not 
merely his own diocese, but the church at 
large. On such he elaborated his decision 
unbiassed by considerations of party, of his 
own order, or of public opinion. His seclu- 
sion from such influences gives a special 
value to his eleven triennial charges, which 
are, in fact, an epitome of the history of the 
church of England during his episcopate, 
narrated by a man of judicial mind, without 
passion or prejudice, and fearless in the ex- 
pression of his views. At periods of great 
excitement he often took the unpopular side. 
He supported the grant to Maynooth (1845) ; 
the abolition of the civil disabilities of the 
Jews (1848); and the disestablishment of 
the Irish church (1869). On these occasions 
he spoke in the House of Lords, of which he 



Thirlwall 



141 



Thirning 



always had the ear when he chose to address 
it ; and in the case of the Irish church it is 
said that no speech had so great an effect in 
favour of the measure as his. He joined his 
brother bishops in their action against 
* Essays and Reviews ; ' but he declined to 
inhibit Bishop Colenso from preaching in his 
diocese, or to urge him to resign his bishopric. 

He was a regular attendant at convoca- 
tion, a member of the royal commission on 
ritual (1868), and chairman of the Old Tes- 
tament Revision Company. In May 1874 
Thirlwall resigned his bishopric and retired 
to Bath, blind and partially paralysed. He 
died unmarried at 59 Pulteney Street, Bath, 
on 27 July 1875. He was buried on 3 Aug. 
in Westminster Abbey, in the same grave 
with George Grote. His funeral sermon, 
which was preached by Dean Stanley, formed 
the preface of the posthumous volume of 
Thirlwall's < Letters to a Friend ' (1881). In 
1884 the Thirlwall prize was instituted at 
Cambridge in the bishop's memory ; by the 
conditions of the foundation a medal is 
awarded in alternate years for the best 
dissertation involving original historical re- 
search, together with a sum of money to 
defray the expenses of publication. 

Thirlwall's published works (excluding 
separately issued speeches and sermons) were : 
l.'Primitise; or Essays and Poems on various 
Subjects, Religious, Moral, and Entertaining. 
By Connop Thirlwall, eleven years of age ' 
(preface dated 23 Jan. 1809), London, 1809. 
2. ' The Pictures ; the Betrothing. Novels 
from the German of Lewis Tieck,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1825. 3. 'A Critical Essay on the 
Gospel of St. Luke, by Dr. F. Schleier- 
macher ; with an Introduction by the Trans- 
lator, containing an Account of the Con- 
troversy respecting the Origin of the first 
three Gospels since Bishop Marsh's Disserta- 
tion,' 8vo, London, 1825. 4. ' Niebuhr's His- 
tory of Rome, translated by J. C. Hare and 
Connop Thirlwall,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1828- 
1832. 5. ' Vindication of Niebuhr's " His- 
tory of Rome " from the Charges of the " Quar- 
terly Review,"' Hare and Thirlwall, 8vo, 
Cambridge, 1829. 6. 'Letter to the Rev. 
T. Turton, D.D., on the Admission of Dis- 
senters to Academical Degrees (21 May),' 
8vo, Cambridge, 1834. 'Second Letter '(to 
the same, 13 June), 1834. 7. ' History of 
Greece,' 8 vols. 8vo, London, 1835-44 ; 2nd 
dit. 1845-52. 8. ' Speech on Civil Disabili- 
ties of the Jews(25May),'8vo,London, 1848. 
9. ' Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
on Statements of Sir B. Hall with regard to 
the Collegiate Church of Brecon,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1851 ; 'Second Letter 'to same, 1851. 
10. ' Letter to the Rev. Rowland Williams,' 



8vo, London, 1800. 11. ' Letter to J. Bow- 
stead, Esq., on Education in South Wales,' 
8vo, London, 1861. 12. ' Reply to a Letter 
of Lord Bishop of Cape Town (29 April),' 
8vo, London, 1867. 

The Rev. J. J. S. Perowne (now bishop 
of Worcester) edited Thirlwall's ' Remains, 
Literary and Theological,' 8vo, London, 1877 
(vol i. Charges delivered between 1842 and 
1863, vol. ii. Charges delivered between 1863 
and 1872) ; and ' Essays, Speeches, and Ser- 
mons,' 8vo, London, 1880. The last volume 
contains Thirlwall's contributions to the 
Philological Museum, five speeches and eight 
sermons, the letter on diocesan 8ynods(1867), 
the letter to the archbishop of Canterbury 
on the episcopal meeting of 1867, and four 
miscellaneous publications. In 1881 Dean 
Stanley edited ' Letters to a Friend ' (Miss 
Johns), and in the same year Dr. Perowne 
and the Rev. Louis Stokes edited ' Letters, 
Literary and Theological,' with a memoir. 

[The materials for a life of Thirlwall are 
scattered and imperfect. A defective memoir 
was prefixed by Mr. Stokes to his edition of the 
bishop's ' Letters,' 1881. See also Quarterly Re- 
view, xxxix. 8 ; Memoirs of Bunsen, i. 339 ; Life 
of Rev. Rowland Williams, 1874, ch. xv. ; Tor- 
rens's Life of Lord Melbourne, ii. 332 ; Lord 
Houghton in Fortnightly Review, 1878, p. 226; 
Church Quarterly Review, April 1883 (by the 
present writer) ; Life of Bishop Gray, 1876, ii. 
41, 51 ; Life of Bishop Wilberforce, vol. iii. 
passim ; Life of Rev. F. D. Maurice, i. 454 ; Life, 
by John Morgan, in ' Four Biographical Sketches,' 
London, 1892.] J. W. C-K. 

THIRNING, WILLIAM (d. 1413), 
chief justice of the common pleas, probably 
came from Thirning in Huntingdonshire; 
his name occurs in connection with the 
manor of Hemiugford Grey in that county 
(CaL Inq.post mortejn, iii. 218). Thirning 
first appears as an advocate in the year-books 
in 1370. In 1377 he was on the commission 
of peace for the county of Northampton, and 
on 20 Dec. of that year was engaged on a 
commission of oyer and terminer in the 
county of Bedford (Cal. Pat. Roll*, Richard II, 
i. 48, 95). In June 1380 he was a justice of 
assize for the counties of York, Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, and Westmoreland (i*. i. 
516). Thirning was appointed a justice of 
the common pleas on 1 1 April 1388, and be- 
came chief justice of that court on 15 Jan. 
1396. In the parliament of January 1 
the judges were asked for their opinions on 
the answers for which their predecessors had 
been condemned in 1388. Thirning replied 
that ' the declaration of treason not yet de- 
clared belonged to the parliament, but that 
had he been a lord of parliament, if he had 



Thistlewood 



142 



Thistlewood 



been asked, lie should have replied in the 
same manner ' (Rolls of Parliament, iii. 358). 
On the strength of this opinion the proceed- 
ings of 1388 were reversed. Thirning's at- 
titude on this occasion did not prevent him 
from taking the chief part in the quasi- 
judicial proceedings of the opposition of 
Richard II. He was one of the persons ap- 
pointed to obtain Richard's renunciation of 
the throne on 29 Sept., and was one of the 
commissioners who on the following day 
pronounced the sentence of deposition in 
parliament. It is said to have been by 
Thirning's advice that Henry of Lancaster 
abandoned his idea of claiming the throne 
by right of conquest, the chief justice arguing 
that such a claim would have made all 
tenure of property insecure (Annales Henrici 
Quarti, p. 282). Thirning was the chief of 
the proctors sent to announce the deposition 
to Richard. After the reading of the formal 
commission, Richard refused to renounce the 
spiritual honour of king. Thirning then re- 
minded him of the terms in which on 29 Sept. 
he had confessed he was deposed on account 
of his demerits. Richard demurred, saying, 
' Not so, but because my governance pleased 
them not.' Thirning, however, insisted, and 
Richard yielded with a jest (ib. pp. 286-7 ; 
Rot. Parl. iii. 424). On 3 Nov. Thirning 
pronounced the decision of the king and 
peers against the accusers of Thomas of 
Gloucester (Annales Henrici Quarti, p. 315). 
This was his final interference in politics, 
but he continued to be chief justice through- 
out the reign of Henry IV, and on the acces- 
sion of Henry V received a new patent on 
2 May 1413. Thirning must have died very 
soon after, for his successor, Richard Norton 
(d. 1420) [q. v.], was appointed on 26 June of 
the same year, and in Trinity term of that 
year his widow Joan brought an action of 
debt. 

[Annales Henrici Quarti ap. Trokelowe, Blane- 
ford, &c. (Eolls Ser.); Rolls of Parliament; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York, i. 11 ; Wylie's 
Hist, of Henry IV, i. 16-17, 33 ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. iii. 13-14 ; Foss's Judges of England.] 

C. L. K. 

THISTLEWOOD, ARTHUR (1770- 
1820), Cato Street conspirator, born at Tup- 
holme, about twelve miles from Lincoln, 
in 1770, was the son of William Thistle- 
wood of Bardney, Lincolnshire, and is said 
to have been illegitimate. His father was 
a well-known breeder of stock and respect- 
able farmer under the Vyners of Gantby. 
Thistlewood appears to have been brought 
up as a land surveyor, but never followed 
that business ; his brother, with whom he 
has been confused, was apprenticed to a 



doctor. He is said to have become unsettled 
in mind through reading the works of Paine, 
and to have proceeded to America and from 
America to France shortly before the down- 
fall of Robespierre. In Paris he probably 
developed the opinions which marked him 
through life, and, according to Alison (Hist. 
Eur. ii. 424), returned to England in 1794 
' firmly persuaded that the first duty of a 
patriot was to massacre the government and 
overturn all existing institutions.' He was 
appointed ensign in the first regiment of 
West Riding militia on 1 July 1798 (Militia 
List, 1799), and on the raising of the supple- 
mentary militia he obtained a lieutenant's 
commission in the 3rd Lincolnshire regi- 
ment, commanded by Lord Buckingham- 
shire. 

He married, 24 Jan. 1804, Jane Worsley, 
a lady older than himself, living in Lincoln 
and possessed of a considerable fortune. After 
his marriage he resided first in Bawtry and 
then in Lincoln. On the early death of his 
wife her fortune reverted to her own family, 
by whom he was granted a small annuity. 
Being obliged to leave Lincoln owing to 
some gambling transaction which left him 
unable to meet his creditors, he drifted to 
London, and there, being thoroughly dis- 
contented with his own condition, he became 
an active member of the Spencean Society, 
which aimed at revolutionising all social in- 
stitutions in the interest of the poorer 
classes [see SPEITCE, THOMAS]. At the 
society's meetings he came in contact with 
the elder James Watson (1766-1838) [q. v.] 
and his son, the younger James, who were 
in hearty sympathy with his views. In 1814 
he resided for some time in Paris. Soon 
after his return to England, about the end 
of 1814, he came under the observation of 
the government as a dangerous character. 
Under the auspices of the Spencean and 
other revolutionary societies, the younger 
Watson and Thistlewood organised a great 
public meeting for 2 Dec. 1816 at Spa Fields, 
at which it was determined to inaugurate a 
revolution. At the outset the Tower and 
Bank were to be seized. For several months 
before the meeting Thistlewood constantly 
visited the various guardrooms and barracks, 
and he was so confident that his endea- 
vours to increase the existing dissatisfaction 
among the soldiery had proved successful, 
that he fully believed that the Tower guard 
would throw open the gates to the mob. 
The military arrangements under the new 
regime were to be committed to his charge. 
The government was, however, by means of 
informers, kept in touch with the crude 
plans of the conspirators, and was well 



Thistlewood 



Thistlewood 



prepared ; consequently the meeting was 
easily dispersed after the sacking of a few 
gunsmiths' shops. The cabinet was, how- 
ever, so impressed by the dangers of the 
situation that the suspension of the habeas 
corpus bill was moved in the lords on 24 Feb. 
1817, and the same day a bill for the preven- 
tion of seditious meetings was brought for- 
ward in the commons. Warrants had already 
been taken out against Thistlewood and the 
younger James Watson on the charge of high 
treason on 10 Feb. 1817, and a substantial 
reward offered for their apprehension. Both 
went into hiding, and, although the govern- 
ment appears soon to have been informed of 
their movements, it was not thought fit to 
effect Thistlewood's capture until May, when 
he was apprehended with his (second) wife, 
Susan, daughter of J. Wilkinson, a well-to- 
do butcher of Horncastle, and an illegitimate 
son Julian, on board a ship on the Thames on 
which he had taken his passage for America. 
The younger Watson succeeded in sailing for 
America at an earlier date. Thistlewood 
and the elder Watson were imprisoned in the 
Tower. It was arranged that the prisoners 
charged with high treason should be tried 
separately. Watson was acquitted, and in 
the case against Thistlewood and others, on 
17 June 1817, a verdict of not guilty was 
found by the direction of the judge on the 
determination of the attorney-general to call 
no evidence. This narrow escape had little 
effect on Thistlewood ; the weekly meetings 
of the Spenceans were immediately re- 
newed, and the violence of his language 
increased. A rising in Smithfield was pro- 
jected for 6 Sept., the night of St. Bartholo- 
mew's fair ; the bank was to be blown open, 
the post-office attacked, and artillery seized. 
This and a similar design for 12 Oct. 
were abandoned owing to the careful pre- 
paration of the authorities, in whose pos- 
session were minute accounts of every action 
of Thistlewood and his fellow-committee- 
men. 

The want of success attending these re- 
volutionary attempts seems to have driven 
Thistlewood towards the end of October 
1817 to active opposition to Henry Hunt 
[q. v.] and the constitutional reformers, and 
to considerable differences with the Watsons 
and other old associates, who, though ready 
to benefit by violent action, were not pre- 
pared to undertake the responsibility of 
assassination. About this period he appears 
for the first time to have considered plans 
for the murder of the Prince of Wales and 
privy council at a cabinet or public dinner, 
if sufficient numbers for ' a more noble 
and general enterprise ' could not be raised 



(Home, Office Papers, R. O.) Though 
naturally opposed to all ministers in au- 
thority, Thistlewood entertained a particular 
dislike to the home secretary, Lord Sidmoutb, 
to whom he wrote about this period a 
number of letters demanding in violent 
language the return of property taken from 
him on his arrest on board ship. Failing to 
secure either his property or the compensa- 
tion in money (180/.) which he demanded, 
he published the correspondence between 
Lord Sidmouth and himself (London, 1817, 
8vo), and sent a challenge to the minister. 
The result was his arrest on a charge of 
threatened breach of the peace. At his trial 
on this charge on 14 May 1818 he at first 
pleaded guilty but withdrew his plea, and 
was found guilty and sentenced to twelve 
months' imprisonment, and at the expiration 
of the term to find two sureties for 150/. and 
himself for 300/., failing which to remain in 
custody. A new trial was moved for on 
28 May, but refused. Thistlewood was con- 
fined m Horsham gaol. His sentence and 
treatment appear to have been exceptionally 
severe. On 29 June he applied to the home 
secretary for improved sleeping accommoda- 
tion, and described his cell as only 9 feet 
by 7 feet, while two and sometimes three 
men slept in the one bed. During his period 
of imprisonment his animosity towards Hunt 
appears to have increased, though Hunt wrote 
to him in friendly fashion of his attempts ' to 
overturn the horrid power of the Rump.' 

The full term of Thistlewood's imprison- 
ment expired on 28 May 1819, and after a 
little difficulty the sureties requisite for his 
liberation were secured. Directly after his 
release he commenced attending the weekly 
meetings of his old society at his friend 
Preston's lodgings ; a secret directory of 
thirteen were sworn, and more violent coun- 
sels immediately prevailed. In July 1819 
the state of the country, especially in the 
north, was critical; the lord lieutenants were 
ordered back to their counties, and the autho- 
rities in London were in a constant state 
of preparation against meetings which it was 
feared would develop into riots. For a short 
time Thistlewood worked once again in appa- 
rent harmony with the parliamentary re- 
formers, spoke on the same platform with 
Hunt, 21 July, and as late as 5 Sept. orga- 
nised the public reception of the same orator 
on his entry into London; but the new union 
society was formed, 1 Aug., with the inten- 
tion of taking the country correspondence 
out of the hands of Thistlewood and Preston, 
whose violence caused alarm to their friend*. 
Thistlewood and Watson organised public 
meetings at Kennington on 21 Aug. and 



Thistlewood 



144 



Thistlewood 



Smithfield on 30 Oct. which passed off with 
out disturbance, although attended by men 
in arms. Thistlewood designed simultaneou: 
public meetings in the disaffected parts o 
the country for 1 Nov., but this course was 
not approved by either Hunt or Thomas 
Jonathan Wooller [q. v.], from whom he 
appears now to have finally separated. The 
reformers were at this period so nervous 
about traitors in their midst that even 
Thistlewood was denounced as a spy (Notting- 
ham meeting, 29 Oct.) Despite, however, 
increased caution and endeavours to secure 
secrecy, the government was in receipt oj 
almost daily accounts of the doings of the 
secret directory of thirteen. In November 
Thistlewood and his friends grew hopeless 
as to their chances of successfully setting 
the revolution on foot in London. They 
now looked to the north for a commencement. 
Thistlewood was invited to Manchester at 
the beginning of December, but lack of funds 
prevented him from going. No effective 
support seemed coming from Lancashire; 
Thistlewood regarded a 'straightforward 
revolution ' as hopeless, and concentrated his 
efforts on his old plan of assassination. One 
informer not in the secret wrote on 1 Dec. : 
' There is great mystery in Thistlewood's con- 
duct ; he seems anxious to disguise his real 
intentions, and declaims against the more 
violent members of the party, but is con- 
tinually with them in private.' His exact 
intentions were being reported to the home 
office by George Edwards, who was one of 
the secret committee of thirteen, and espe- 
cially in Thistlewood's confidence. At first 
an attack on the Houses of Parliament was 
meditated, but, the number of conspirators 
being considered insufficient for the purpose, 
assassination at a cabinet dinner was pre- 
ferred. A special executive committee of 
five, of whom Edwards was one, was ap- 
pointed on 13 Dec. ; and the government 
permitted the plot to mature. From 20 Dec. 
1819 to 22 Feb. 1820 Thistlewood appears 
to have been waiting anxiously for an oppor- 
tunity ; his aim was to assassinate the mini- 
sters at dinner, attack Coutts's or Child's 
bank, set fire to public buildings, and seize 
the Tower and Mansion House, where a pro- 
visional government was to be set up with 
the cobbler Ings as secretary. About the 
end of January 1820, wearied with waiting, 
he took the management of the plot entirely 
into his own hands, Edwards alone being 
in his confidence. A proclamation was 
prepared and drawn up with the assistance 
of Dr. Watson, who at this time was, for- 
tunately for himself, in prison. In it the ap- 
pointment of a provisional government and 



the calling together of a convention of repre- 
sentatives were announced. The death of 
the king, George III, on 29 Jan. was regarded 
as especially favourable to the plot, and the 
announcement of a cabinet dinner at Lord 
Harrowby's house in Grosvenor Square in the 
new 'Times 'of 22 Feb., to which Thistle- 
wood's attention was called by Edwards, 
found Thistlewood ready to put his scheme 
into execution. The meeting-place which 
the conspirators had hitherto attended about 
twice a day had been at 4 Fox's Court, 
Gray's Inn Lane, but as a final rendezvous 
and centre to which arms, bombs, and hand 
grenades should be brought, a loft over a 
stable in Cato Street was taken on 21 Feb. 
Hither they repaired (about twenty-five in 
number) on the evening of 23 Feb., and, 
warrants having been issued the same day, 
the greater number of them were appre- 
hended about 8.30 P.M. They were found 
in the act of arming preparatory to their 
start for Lord Harrowby's house. Shots 
were fired. Thistlewood killed police-officer 
Smithers with a sword, and escaped imme- 
diate capture in the darkness and general 
confusion. Anonymous information was, 
however, given as to his whereabouts, 
and he was taken the next day at 8 White 
Street, Moorfields. He was again imprisoned 
in the Tower, and was the first of the gang 
to be tried before Charles Abbott (afterwards 
first lord Tenterden) [q. v.] and Sir Eobert 
Dallas [q. v.] and two other judges on the 
charge of high treason. After three days' 
trial, 17, 18, and 19 April, during which Ed- 
wards was not called as evidence, Thistle- 
wood was found guilty and sentenced to a 
traitor's death. He was hanged, with four 
other conspirators, in front of the debtor's 
door, Newgate, on 1 May 1820. The crimi- 
nals were publicly decapitated after death, 
jut the quartering of their bodies was not 
proceeded with. Thistlewood died de- 
iantly, showing the same spirit that he ex- 
libited at the end of his trial when he 
declaimed ' Albion is still in the chains of 
slavery. I quit it without regret. My only 
sorrow is that the soil should be a theatre 
or slaves, for cowards, for despots.' 

In appearance Thistlewood was about 5 ft. 

.0 in. high, of sallow complexion and long 

visage, dark hair and dark hazel eyes with 

arched eyebrows ; he was of slender build, 

with the appearance of a military man. A 

ithographed portrait of him is prefixed to 

he report of the ' Cato Street Conspiracy,' 

mblished by J. Fairburn, Ludgate Hill, 

1820. 

[State Trials ; Times, 2 May 1820; Annual 
leg. ; European Kev. ; Gent. Mag. ; Pellew's 



Thorn 



145 



Thorn 



Life of Lord Sidmouth ; Hansard's Purl. De- 
bates, May 1820; Home Office Papers, 1816- 
1820, at the Record Office.] W. C-K. 

THOM, ALEXANDER (1801-1879), 
founder of ' Thom's Almanac,' was born in 
1801 at Findhorn in Moray. 

His father, WALTER THOM (1770-1824), 
miscellaneous writer, was born in 1770 at 
Bervie, Kincardineshire, and afterwards re- 
moved to Aberdeen, where he established 
himself as a bookseller. In 1813 he pro- 
ceeded to Dublin as editor of the ' Dublin 
Journal.' He died in that city on 16 June 
1824. He was the author of a ' History of 
Aberdeen' (Aberdeen, 1811, 12mo) and of 
a treatise on ' Pedestrianism ' (Aberdeen, 
1813, 8vo). He also contributed to Brew- 
sterV Encyclopaedia,' to Sinclair's' Statistical 
Account of Scotland,' and to Mason's ' Sta- 
tistical Account of Ireland.' 

His son Alexander was educated at the 
High School, Edinburgh, and came to Dub- 
lin as a lad of twenty to assist his father 
in the management of the ' Dublin Jour- 
nal.' In this capacity he learned the busi- 
ness of printing, and on his father's death 
he obtained, through the influence of Sir 
Ilobert Peel, the contract for printing for 
the post office in Ireland. In 1838 he ob- 
tained the contract for the printing for all 
royal commissions in Ireland, and in 1876 
was appointed to the post of queen's printer 
for Ireland. In 1844 Thorn founded the 
work by which he has since been known, 
the ' Irish Almanac and Official Directory,' 
Avhich in a short time superseded all other 
publications of the kind in the Irish capital. 
Its superiority to its predecessors was due 
to the incorporation for the first time in a 
directory of a mass of valuable and skil- 
fully arranged statistics relating to Ireland, 
and the ' Almanac ' has ever since main- 
tained its position as by far the best periodi- 
cal of its kind in Ireland. Thorn continued 
personally to supervise its publication for 
thirty-seven years, and until within a few 
months of his death. In 1860 he published 
at his own expense for gratuitous distribu- 
tion ' A Collection of Tracts and Treatises 
illustrative of the Natural History, Antiqui- 
ties, and the Political and Social State of 
Ireland,' two volumes which contain reprints 
of the works of Ware, Spenser, Davis, Petty, 
Berkeley, and other writers on Irish affairs 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Thorn, who was twice married, died at his 
residence, Donnycarney House, near Dublin, 
on 22 Dec. 1879. 

[Obituary notice of the late Alexander Thorn, 
Queen's Printer in Ireland, by W. Neilson Han- 
cock, LL.D., in Journal of the Statistical Society 

VOL. LVI. 



of Ireland, April 1880; Historical and Biblio- 
graphical Account of Almanacks and Directories 
published in Ireland, by Edward Erans, 1897 1 

C. L. F. 

THOM, JAMES (1802-1850), sculptor, 
' son of James Thorn and Margaret Mori- 
son in Skeoch, was born 17th and baptised 
19th April \Wy(TarboltonParuh Register). 
His birthplace was about a mile from 
Lochlee, where Robert Burns lived for some 
time, and his relatives were engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. While Thorn was 
still very young his family removed to 
Meadowbank in the adjoining parish of 
Stair, where he attended a small school. 
With his younger brother Robert (1805- 
1895) he was apprenticed to Howie & 
Brown, builders, Kilmarnock, and, although 
he took little interest in the more ordinary 
part of his craft, he was fond of ornamental 
carving, in which he excelled. While en- 
gaged upon a monument in Crosbie church- 
yard, near Monkton, in 1827, he attracted 
the attention of David Auld, a hairdresser 
in Ayr, who was known locally as ' Barber 
Auld.' Encouraged by Auld, he carved a 
bust of Burns from a portrait a copy of 
the Nasymth which hung in the Monument 
at Alloway. It confirmed Auld's opinion 
of Thom's ability, and induced him to advise 
the sculptor to attempt something more 
ambitious. Statues of Tarn o' Shanter and 
Souter Johnnie were decided upon, and 
Thorn, who meanwhile resided with Auld, 
eet to work on the life-size figures, which 
were hewn direct from the stone without 
even a preliminary sketch. William Brown, 
tenant of Trabboch Mill, served as model for 
Tarn ; but no one could be induced to sit for 
the Souter, whose face and figure were sur- 
reptitiously studied from two cobblers in the 
neighbourhood of Ayr. 

The statues were secured for the Burns 
monument at Alloway, and when com- 
pleted were sent on tour by Auld. The 
profits, which were equally divided among 
the sculptor, Auld, and the trustees of the 
monument, amounted to nearly 2,000/. 
They reached London in April 1829, and at 
once attracted great notice, the crit ics hailing 
them as inaugurating a new era in sculp- 
ture. Replicas to the number of sixteen, 
it is said, were ordered by private patrons, 
and reproductions on a smaller scale, but 
also in stone, were carried out by Thorn and 
his brother. James Thorn also prodmvil 
statues of the landlord and landlady of the 
poem, which were grouped with the others, 
and several pieces of a similar class, such as 
' Old Mortality ' and his pony, which was 
conceived in 1830 while reading the novel 



Thorn 



146 



Thorn 



on board the packet-boat between Leith and 
London. A few years later a second ex- 
hibition of his work was organised in Lon- 
don by Jonathan Sparks, but proved a failure. 

Tarn and the Souter are now at Burns's 
Monument , Ayr, in which town Thorn's statue 
of Wallace has been placed in the tower 
named after the national hero. The ' Old 
Mortality ' group is at Maxwelltown, Dum- 
fries. 

About 1836 Thorn went to America in 
pursuit of a fraudulent agent. Recovering 
a portion of the money embezzled, he settled 
at Newark in New Jersey, where he executed 
replicas of his favourite groups, ' an imposing 
statue of Burns,' and various ornamental 
pieces for gardens. While exploring the 
vicinity of Newark for stone suitable for his 
purposes, he discovered the valuable freestone 
quarry at Little Falls, and the stonework 
and much of the architectural carving of 
Trinity Church, New York, were contracted 
for by him. Purchasing a farm near Ramapo 
on the Erie railway, he seems latterly to 
have abandoned his profession, and died in 
New York on 17 April 1850. He was mar- 
ried and had two sons, one of whom was 
trained as a painter. 

Thorn's work is principally interesting as 
that of a self-taught artist. His design was 
not distinguished in line or mass, but his 
conception and execution were vigorous, and 
his grasp of character great. His Tarn o' 
Shanter group has had, and is likely to re- 
tain, great popularity. It is an exceedingly 
clever and graphic embodiment of the poet's 
heroes. It has been reproduced by thousands 
in many materials ; photographs and prints 
abound. 

Another artist of the same name, JAMES 
THOM (fl. 1815), subject-painter, was born 
in Edinburgh about 1785. He studied art 
in his native city, and exhibited some thir- 
teen pictures, of which one or two were his- 
torical, three were portraits, and the rest of 
domestic incident (including two designs for 
vignette illustrations to Burns), at the Edin- 
burgh exhibitions between 1808 and 1816. 
In 1815 he sent two pictures to the British 
Institution, and about that time removed to 
London, where he met with encouragement 
and practised for some years. In 1825 his 
' Young Recruit ' was engraved by A. 
Duncan. 

[Edinburgh Literary Journal, 1828 ; The New 
Scots Mag. December 1828; New Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland, 1842; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation; Blackie'sDict. of Scotsmen ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Newark Advertiser, U.S.A., 
May 1850; Ayr Advertiser, 23 April 1896; 
private information.] J. L. C. 



THOM, JOHN HAMILTON (1808- 
1894), Unitarian divine, younger son of 
John Thorn (d. 1808), was born on 10 Jan. 
1808 at Newry, co. Down, where his father, 
a native of Lanarkshire, was presbyterian 
minister from 1800. His mother was Martha 
Anne (1779-1859), daughter of Isaac Glenny. 
In 1823 he was admitted at the Belfast Aca- 
demical Institution as a student under the 
care of the Armagh presbytery. He became 
assistant to Thomas Dix Hincks [q. v.] as a 
teacher of classics and Hebrew, while study- 
ing theology under Samuel Hanna [q. v.] 
The writings of William Ellery Channing 
made him a Unitarian ; he did not join the 
Irish remonstrants under Henry Montgomery 
[q. v.], but preached his first sermon in July 
1829 at Renshaw Street Chapel, Liverpool, 
and shortly afterwards was chosen minister 
of the Ancient Chapel, Toxteth Park, Liver- 
pool. On 10 May 1831 he was nominated 
as successor to John Hincks as minister of 
Renshaw Street Chapel, and entered on the 
pastoral office there on 7 Aug., having mean- 
while preached (17 July) the funeral sermon 
of William Roscoe [q. v.]. the historian ; this 
was his first publication. The settlement 
(1832) of James Martineau in Liverpool gave 
him a congenial associate; in 1833 his inte- 
rest in practical philanthropy was stimu- 
lated by the visit of Joseph Tuckerman from 
Boston, Massachusetts ; his personal connec- 
tion with Blanco White [q. v.] began in 
January 1835. At Christmas of that year 
he was a main founder of the Liverpool Do- 
mestic Mission. In July 1838 he succeeded 
John Relly Beard [q. v.] as editor of the 
' Christian Teacher,' a monthly which deve- 
loped (1845) into the ' Prospective Review ' 
[see TAYLER, JOHN JAMES]. From February 
to May 1839 h contributed four lectures, 
and a defensive ' letter,' to the Liverpool 
Unitarian controversy, conducted in conjunc- 
tion with Martineau and Henry Giles (1809- 
1882), in response to the challenge of thir- 
teen Anglican divines. Thorn's chief an- 
tagonist was Thomas Byrth [q. v.] 

On 25 June 1854 he resigned his charge, 
and went abroad for travel and study, his 
place at Renshaw Street being taken by Wil- 
liam Henry Channing (1810-1884), nephew 
of the Boston divine. He returned to Ren- 
shaw Street in November 1857, and mini- 
stered there till his final retirementon 31 Dec. 
1866. From 1866 to 1880 he acted as visitor 
to Manchester New College, London. His 
last public appearance was at the opening 
(16 Nov. 1892) of new buildings for the 
Liverpool Domestic Mission. Latterly his 
eyesight failed, and for a short time before 
his death he was quite blind. He died at his 



Thorn 



147 



Thorn 



residence, Oakfield, Greenbank, Liverpool, 
on 2 Sept. 1894, and was buried on 7 Sept. 
in the graveyard of the Ancient Chapel, Tox- 
teth Park. He married (2 Jan. 1838) Hannah 
Mary (1816-1872), second daughter of Wil- 
liam Rathbone (1787-1868) [see under RATH- 
BONE, WILLIAM, 1757-1809], but had no 
issue. 

In his ' Life of Blanco White,' 1845, his 
best known work, Thorn does little to suggest 
the quality of his own religious teaching. 
By his published discourses he presented 
himself to many minds as a master of rich 
and penetrating thought. In the pulpit his 
powers were obscured by a fastidious self- 
restraint. On the platform he was brilliant 
and convincing. 

The following are the most important of his 
publications : I. ' Memoir ' preh'xed to ' Ser- 
mons ' by John Hincks, 1832, 8vo. 2. ' St. 
Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians,' 1851, 8vo 
(expository sermons). 3. ' Letters, embracing 
his Life, by John James Tayler,' 1872, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 2nd ed. 1873, 8vo. 4. ' Laws of Life 
after the Mind of Christ,' 1883, 8vo (ser- 
mons) ; 2nd ser. 1886, 8vo. Posthumous 
were: 5. 'A Spiritual Faith,' 1895, 8vo 
(sermons ; with portrait and memorial pre- 
face by Dr. Martineau). 6. 'Special Ser- 
vices and Prayers,' 1895, 8vo (unpublished). 
His ' Hymns, Chants, and Anthems,' 1854, 
8vo, is perhaps the best, certainly the least 
sectarian, of Unitarian hymn-books. 

He has sometimes been confused with his 
Liverpool contemporary, David Thorn, D.D., 
a presbyterian, who became a universalist, 
published several theological treatises, and 
compiled a very valuable account of ' Liver- 
pool Churches and Chapels,' Liverpool, 
1854, 16mo. 

[In Memoriam, by V. D. Davis, in Liverpool 
Unitarian Annual, 1895, with complete list of 
Thorn's publications ; Martineau 's memorial 
preface to Spiritual Faith, 1895 ; Christian Re- 
former, 1857, p. 757 ; Evans's Hist, of Renshaw 
Street Chapel, 1887, pp, 33 sq. ; Christian Life, 
8 Sept. and 15 Sept. 1894; Spectator, 8 Sept. 
1894; Inquirer, 8 Sept. 1894; Liverpool Mer- 
cury, 9 Oct. 1894; Evans's Record of the Pro- 
vincial Assembly of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
1896; personal recollection.] A. G. 

THOM, JOHN NICHOLS (1799-1838), 
impostor and madman. [See TOM.] 

THOM, WILLIAM (1798P-1848), Scot- 
tish poet, was born in Aberdeen about 1798. 
His father, a business man, died young, and 
Thorn was left to the care of his mother, ' a 
widow unable to keep him at home idle' 
(TnoM, Recollections, p. 37). Run over in 
infancy by a nobleman's carriage, he was 



lamed for life, the nobleman sympathising 
to the extent of 5>. bestowed on the wi.L.w 
after the accident. Thorn was educated at 
a dame's school, which he realisticallv <!- 
scribes in a note to his poem Old Father 
Frost and his Family.' Apprenticed as a 
weaver in 1810, he joined in 1814 a weaving 
factory, where his talents and attainments 
as talker, singer, and flute-player secured 
him distinction among his fellows. 

About 1828 Thorn married, and in 1831 
he and his wife settled in Dundee; but 
his wife soon deserted him and returned to 
Aberdeen. Thorn afterwards worked in N. \\ - 
tyle, Forfarshire, where he took to his home 
the girl Jean whom he celebrated in his prose 
and verse. She bore him four children, and 
died in 1840. In 1837 great depression in 
the weaving trade caused Thorn much sufl'er- 
ing. He hawked the country with second- 
hand books, and even played the flute in the 
streets. He soon found fixed employment at 
the loom at Aberdeen, and subsequently at 
Inverurie, Aberdeenshire. In the beginning 
of 1841 he sent a lyric parti, of 'The Blind 
Boy's Pranks' to the 'Aberdeen Herald.' 
It was published with a eulogistic editorial 
note, and instantly secured generous atten- 
tion and patronage. Through the practical 
friendship of Gordon of KnokespocK, Aber- 
deenshire, the family had immediate comfort, 
and Thorn was enabled to spend four months 
of 1841 in London, mingling with literary 
people. 

On returning to his loom at Inverurie Thorn 
chafed against regular employment, and, 
having published his ' Rhymes and Recol- 
lections' in the autumn of 1844, he settled 
in London, at the suggestion of Gordon. In 
the metropolis he worked for a time as a 
weaver and composed poems y nultaneously. 
His friends included Eliz. Cook, Kichanl, 
William, and Mary Howitt, Samuel Carter 
Hall and his wife, and John Forster. Il>- 
is said to have been feted at Lady Blessing- 
ton's. He was entertained at dinner with 
William Johnson Fox in the chair, and work- 
ing men of London held a soiree in his 
honour. Scottish admirers in Calcutta >ent 
him an offering of 300/., and Margaret Fuller 
headed an American subscription list which 
rose to 400/. But Thorn was an incorrigible 
Bohemian. He procured a new consort from 
Inverurie, by whom he had several children, 
and he neglected business for unprofitable 
company. At length poor, comparatively 
neglected, and very ill, he, by the aid of a 
few staunch admirers, left London and set t led 
in Hawkhill, Dundee, where he died on 
29 Feb. 1848. He was honoured with a 
public funeral, and was buried in the ^ 



Thomas 



148 



Thomas 



cemetery, D undee. A monument was erected 
at his grave in 1857. 

Tkom was a keen observer, and both his 
prose and his verse evince intellectual grasp 
and power of graphic delineation. The 
stronger and more characteristic of his poems, 
such as ' The Mitherless Bairn,' ' The Maniac 
Mother's Dream,' ' The Overgate Orphan,' 
and the ' Extract from a Letter to J. Ro- 
bertson, Esq.,' reflect the author's rough 
and drastic experience. His various lyrics 
' The Blind Boy's Pranks,' ' Autumn Winds,' 
' Bonnie May,' ' Ythanside,' ' They speak 
o'Wyles,' 'Yon Bower,' 'The Wedded 
Waters,' and ' Jeanie's Grave' display quick 
fancy and considerable sense of natural 
beauty. Thorn contributed a short auto- 
biography to ' Chambers's Journal,' Decem- 
ber 1841. This was embodied in the sketch 
published in ' Rhymes and Recollections of 
a Handloom Weaver,' 1844 ; 2nd edit. 1845. 
A new edition, with biography by W. Skin- 
ner, appeared in 1880. 

[Editions of Ehymes and Eecollections of a 
Handloom Weaver ; Whistle Binkie ; article by 
Professor Masson in Macmillan's Magazine, 
vol. ix. ; Walker's Bards of Bon-Accord (1887).] 

T. B. 

THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER (1277 ?- 
1322), was the eldest son of Edmund, earl 
of Lancaster [see LANCASTER], a brother of 
Edward I, by Blanche of Artois, widow of 
Henry, count of Champagne and king of 
Navarre. Their marriage took place between 
18 Dec. 1275 and 18 Jan. 1276, so Thomas's 
birth cannot be placed earlier than the latter 
part of 1276. But he was old enough in 
1290 for abortive negotiations to be opened 
respecting his marriage with Beatrice of Bur- 
gundy (RTMER). In 1293 he frequently 
appears as one of the guests of his first cousin, 
afterwards Edward II (Extracts from the 
Issue Rolls of the Exchequer, Henry Ill- 
Henry VI, p. 109). His father died in June 
1296, and, though still a minor in the king's 
custody, Thomas was allowed on 9 July 1297 
to receive the homage of the tenants of the 
lands of his late father, and next year did 
homage and had livery of his lands in full 
(except his mother's dowry). He thus be- 
came earl of Lancaster and Leicester, and 
in February 1301 he was also styled ' earl of 
Ferrers or Derby ' (DOTLE). He took part 
in the expedition which ended in the battle 
of Falkirk on 22 July 1298. But though 
his name appears second in the list of barons 
who joined in the Lincoln letter of 1301 
addressed to the pope on the subject of Scot- 
land, it was not until the accession of Ed- 
ward II that he began to play a leading part 
in affairs. 



At the coronation he carried the sword 
called ' curtana,' and on 9 May 1308 received 
the grant of the stewardship of England as 
appendant to his earldom of Leicester. If 
Thomas was not already one of the enemies 
of the royal favourite Gaveston, he soon be- 
came one. Gaveston held a tournament at 
Wallingford in which he showed himself the 
earl's superior in skill in arms, thus adding 
gall to the bitterness with which the holder 
of three earldoms, cousin of one king and half- 
brother of another by marriage, must have 
regarded the foreign upstart's transformation 
into an earl of Cornwall (TROKELOWE, p. 65). 
Though Gaveston was banished, Thomas and 
the other earls still continued distrustful of 
the king, and on 24 May 1309 the king had 
to authorise Gilbert de Clare, earl of Glou- 
cester, and others to assure the safety of 
Thomas when coming to him at Kennington 
(RYMER, ii. 75). After Gaveston's return from 
banishment in the summer of 1309, he 
further offended Lancaster by causing one 
of his particular adherents to be turned out 
of his office in favour of one of his own crea- 
tures (MoNK OF MALHESBFRY, ii. 161-2). 
Thomas and four other earls refused to attend 
a council summoned for 18 Oct. at York 
(HEMINGBURGH, ii. 275). In spite of a pro- 
hibition issued by Edward on 7 Feb., he and 
others of the barons attended the parliament 
which met in March 1310 in arms, and by 
threats of withdrawing their allegiance forced 
the king to consent to the appointment of 
twenty-eight ' ordainers,' by whom his own 
authority was to be superseded until Michael- 
mas 1311, and who were to make ordinances 
for the redress of grievances and the good 
government of the kingdom. Lancaster was 
one of the six co-opted earls on this com- 
mission, his father-in-law, Henry de Lacy, 
earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, being one of 
the two co-opting earls. The latter died 
on 28 Feb. 1311 (Annales Londonienses, p. 
175), and Thomas added the earldoms of 
Lincoln and Salisbury to those of Lancaster, 
Derby, and Leicester, in right of his wife 
Alice. The story related by the annalist 
Trokelowe (pp. 72-3) of the old earl's last 
advice to his son-in-law to uphold the liber- 
ties of the church and Magna Charta and fol- 
low the advice of the Earl of Warwick is 
interesting as showing how the people after- 
\vards came to look on Lancaster. He nearly 
came to open war with the king shortly 
after, by refusing to do homage to Edward 1 
at Berwick for his new lands because it 
was outside the kingdom, though he had 1 
journeyed north on purpose. The king- 
yielded by meeting him a few miles within 
the English border at Haggerston ( Chron. de 



Thomas 



149 



Thomas 



Lanercost, p. 215) ; Gaveston was present, 
but Lancaster ignored his presence, much to 
the king's anger. The homage was repeated 
in London on 26 Aug. (Parl. Writs, li. 42). 
The ordinances which were published on 10 
and 11 Oct. contained a decree of banish- 
ment on Gaveston, to which Edward, after 
a humble entreaty that his ' brother Piers ' 
might be forgiven, had been obliged at 
length to consent. But Lancaster and others 
had to be forbidden to attend parliament 
in arms (Cal. Close Rolls, p. 442). Gaveston 
returned in January 1312, and the king 
countermanded the summons for a parlia- 
ment on the first Sunday in Lent (12 Feb.) 
Lancaster, acting for the others, demanded 
Gaveston's withdrawal, and sent a private 
message to the queen that he would not rest 
till he had rid her of his presence. Armed 
bands were collected under the pretext of 
tournament, and Lancaster stole north by 
night. He surprised Edward and Gaveston 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and captured the 
greater part of their baggage. They fled 
hastily to Scarborough by sea, where Edward 
left Gaveston, proceeding himself to York. 
Then the earls of Pembroke and Warenne 
besieged Gaveston in Scarborough, while 
Lancaster hovered between to cut off Peter 
from all chance of rejoining the king. On 
19 May Gaveston surrendered to Pembroke 
on condition of his safety being guaranteed 
vintil the parliament which was to meet on the 
first of August. If Edward and Gaveston 
could come to no agreement with the barons 
then, Gaveston was to be replaced in Scar- 
borough Castle, as he was at the time of his 
surrender. Pembroke proceeded southward 
with his prisoner, but the Earl of Warwick 
took advantage of Pembroke's over-confi- 
dence to kidnap Gaveston at Deddington, 
sixteen miles north of Oxford, and carry him 
off to Warwick. Here, with the full con- 
currence of the earls of Lancaster and Here- 
ford, Gaveston was condemned to death. Lan- 
caster assumed the chief responsibility for 
his death by having him conveyed to Black- 
low Hill in his lands to be beheaded (MoNK 
OF MALMESBURT, ii. 180). 

Neither the king nor Pembroke ever for- 
gave Lancaster for this act of violence, though 
Edward was too weak at the time to bring 
the offenders to justice. Lancaster thought 
it prudent to come to the parliament to which 
Edward summoned him on 20 Aug. at the 
head of a small army. The earls of Glou- 
cester and Richmond mediated, and after the 
earls had made a formal submission on 19Oct., 
the king timore ductus granted them a full 
pardon on 9 Nov. (Flor. Hist. iii. 337). This 
did not conclude matters, however, and 



negotiations still went on under safe-con- 
ducts. Lancaster restored the jewels and 
horses he had captured at Newcastle on 
27 Feb. and 29 March 1312, but it was not 
until IGOct. 1313 that a complete amnesty for 
all offences committed since the beginning 
of the reign was granted (MoxK OF A!ALMES- 
BUKY, ii. 195). Lancaster refused to be re- 
conciled with Hugh le Despenser. Edward 
summoned him to accompany him in an ex- 
pedition against the Scots as early as 23 Dec 
1313 (BZMBB, ii. 238). But Thomas and his 
party refused, alleging that the king had not 
carried out the ordinances, especially as re- 
gards the removal of evil counsellors. All 
they did was to send the strict legal contin- 
gents due from them (LAXERCOST,P. 224). Ed- 
ward's disaster at Bannockburn obliged him 
to seek a new reconciliation with Lancaster, 
who had assembled an army at Pontefract 
under the pretext that the king, if successful 
in Scotland, intended to turn his arms against 
him. This took place in a parliament held 
in the last three weeks of September. The 
ordinances were confirmed. Edward was 
Obliged to dismiss his chancellor, treasurer, 
and sheriffs, who were replaced by Lancaster's 
nominees. Hugh le Despenser went into 
hiding, though he still remained one of the 
king's counsellors (Chron. Edw. I and 
Edw. II, ii. 208; Flor. Hist. iii. 339). In 
the parliament which lasted from January 
to March 1315 he and Walter Langton were 
removed from the council, the king was put 
on an allowance of 10/. a day, and Thomas 
was made his principalis consiliariut (Chron. 
Edw. I and Edw. II, ii. 209). 

On 8 Aug. Thomas was appointed chief 
commander against the Scots, superseding his 
enemy, the Earl of Pembroke. In the autumn 
one of his own tenants, Adam de Banastre, 
rose against him, fearful of punishment for 
a murder he had committed. Banastre seems 
to have made use of the king's name, and is 
said to have borne his banner. But Lan- 
caster's lieutenants easily crushed him ( MONK 
OF MALMESBURY, ii. 214). The parliament 
which met on 28 Jan. 1316 was postponed 
till his arrival on 12 Feb., after which he 
was requested by the king in parliament to 
be president of the council, and accepted 
the office on certain conditions on 17 Feb. 
(Parl. Writs, i. 156-7). But neither had 
any confidence in the other. An assemblage 
at Newcastle was postponed from 24 June 
to 10 Aug., and then to Michaelmas. Thomas 
started towards Scotland, only to find that 
the king refused to follow him. Edward 
went only as far as York, and, if we are to 
believe the somewhat pro-Lancastrian ac- 
count of Robert of Reading (Flor. Ilitt. iii. 



Thomas 



Thomas 



176), he plundered the north of England 
and then returned south. Lancaster retired 
to his castle at Pontefract, while the royal 
party met at Clarendon on 9 Feb., probably 
to plot his overthrow. The Earl of Warenne 
was selected to surprise him, but was seized 
with a sudden panic on approaching Lan- 
caster's country. One of the knights of his 
household, however, succeeded in carrying 
off the countess at Canford in Dorset, very 
probably with her connivance, for she was 
accused of infidelity to her husband (ib. p. 1 78) . 
This led to a private war between the two 
earls. Thomas harried Warenne's lands, and 
some of his followers took Knaresborough 
Castle. Thomas received renewed sum- 
mons for an expedition to Scotland, but, as 
before, there were continual postponements. 
The efforts of the cardinal legates and Pem- 
broke issued in another abortive agreement 
between the king and the earl in July to 
reserve their differences for the parliament 
which was to meet on 27 Jan. 1318. This 
did not of course prevent Edward threaten- 
ing Thomas with the army he had gathered 
under the pretext of the Scottish war, and the 
private war still went on merrily as ever. 
On 3 Nov. the king intervened, ordering 
Lancaster to desist (Cal. Close Rolls, p. 575). 
The parliament summoned at Lincoln for 
27 Jan. was prorogued until 12 March, and 
then until 19 June, and finally revoked on 
account of the invasion of the Scots. But 
the capture of Berwick on 2 April 1318 by 
the latter was more potent than all the 
negotiations in bringing the parties to agree- 
ment. Thomas insisted on the punishment 
of the grantees of the royal grants made 
contrary to the ordinances, and the removal 
of his enemies from the king's councils. A 
solemn reconciliation took place near Lei- 
cester on 5 Aug. ; among the conditions were 
a confirmation of the ordinances and the 
establishment of a sort of council consisting 
of two bishops and a baron with a baron or 
banneret of the household of the Earl of 
Lancaster, who were always to accompany 
the king to execute and give counsel on all 
weighty matters (ib. p. 113). Edward and 
Thomas entered Scotland together about 
15 Aug. and laid siege to Berwick, but 
mutual distrust and the king's ill-concealed 
projects of vengeance led to the abandonment 
of the siege through Lancaster's departure. 
He was accused by the king's party of having 
been bribed by the Scots. He refused to 
attend the two councils of magnates held in 
January and October of the next year, but 
there was a lull for a time in the struggle. 

With the private war which arose early 
in 1321 between the younger Dcspenser and 



his rivals for the Gloucester inheritance, 
Hugh de Audley and Roger d'Amory began 
the last act. At a meeting summoned by 
Lancaster at Sherburn in Elmet, he and his 
party declared against Despenser, and on 
15 July Edward had to consent to the banish- 
ment of both father and son. But Lady 
Badlesmere's insult to the queen on 13 Oct. 
and the capture of Leeds Castle on 31 Oct. 
strengthened his hands. The conference 
which, in spite of Edward's formal prohibi- 
tion, Thomas summoned at Doncaster on 
29 Nov. (ib. p. 505) did nothing. Thomas's 
holding aloof when the king was besieging 
Leeds Castle can be explained by his enmity 
to Badlesmere, but his vacillation after its 
capture and the recall of the Despensers 
proved his incompetence as a leader. How- 
ever eS'ective his policy of sulky inaction had 
been on previous occasions, it was of no avail 
against the sudden burst of energy which 
Edward now put forth. Instead of marching 
to the assistance of his adherents in the south, 
the earl lingered in the north, and even on 
8 Feb. 1322 his attitude was still so undecided 
that Edward could write to him inhibiting 
him from adhering to the king's contrariauts 
(ib. p. 515). The royal levies assembled at 
Coventry on 28 Feb. Thomas tried with 
the small force at his disposal to check the 
king's advance at Burton-on-Trent. He was 
successful for three days, but the royal army 
crossed the river at another place, so that, 
after some show of offering battle, he and 
his followers set fire to Burton, and went 
north to Tutbury and thence to Pontefract. 
Robert de Holand deserted with five hun- 
dred men he had collected, if we are to 
believe a story in the chronicle of William 
de Packingtoii which has come down to us, 
epitomised in Leland's ' Collectanea' (ii. 464, 
ed. Hearne). Lancaster's followers held a 
council at this last place, and resolved to 
push on to his castle of Dunstanburgh in 
Northumberland ; but Lancaster refused, 
proposing to stay at Pontefract, until Robert 
de Clifford drew out his dagger and threatened 
to kill him. They left Pontefract, hoping to 
find refuge in the last resort with the Scots, 
with whom Thomas had already been in 
correspondence under the pseudonym of 
' King Arthur.' 

On 16 March they reached Boroughbridge, 
but found their passage over the Ure barred 
by Sir Andrew Barclay and a force which 
had been collected to act against the Scots. 
The Earl of Hereford fell in the attempt to 
force a passage, and, deserted by most of his 
followers during the night, Thomas had to 
surrender next morning. He was taken to 
York, and then to the king at Pontefract on 



Thomas 



Thomas 



21 March. The principal count in his indict- 
ment was his late rebellion, but it also raked 
up his attack on the king and Gaveston at 
Newcastle, and accused him of intimidating 
the parliaments of the reign by appearing at 
them with armed men, and of being in league 
with the Scots. Refused even a hearing, he 
was condemned to a traitor's death, the usual 
revolting details being commuted to behead- 
ing in consideration of his near relationship 
to the king. Seven earls are mentioned as 
present at his trial, presumably as members 
of the court (22 March). He was taken the 
next day on a sorry nag to a slight hill 
just outside the town and there beheaded 
(TROKELOWE, pp. 112-24; Chron. Edw. I and 
Edw. II, i. 303, ii. 77, 270 ; Flor. Hist. iii. 
206, 347). 

Despite his tragic end, it is difficult to say 
anything favourable of Thomas of Lancaster. 
Marked out by birth and by his position as 
holder of five earldoms for the role of leader 
of the barons in their revolt against the 
favouritism, extravagance, and misgovern- 
ment of Edward II, he signally failed to show 
either patriotism, farsightedness, or even the 
more common virtues of a good party leader. 
His only policy was a sort of passive resist- 
ance to the crown, which generally took the 
form of refusing to do anything whatever to 
aid his cousin so long as his personal enemies 
remained unbanished. In the invention of 
pretexts for this refusal he displayed an in- 
genuity in legal chicanery far surpassing that 
of his uncle, Edward I. Though it was ob- 
viously personal aims and personal grievances 
that influenced his action throughout, some of 
these pretexts are interesting illustrations of 
the growth of the idea of a full parliament. 
In 1317 he refused to violate his oath to the 
ordinances by attend! ng a council of magnates 
summoned by the king, because the matters 
there to be discussed ought to be debated in 
a full parliament (MURIMUTH, pp. 271-4). 
Yet if Lancaster had any political ideal at 
all, it was the revival of Simon de Montfort's 
abortive scheme for government by a council 
of magnates with himself, in the place of 
Simon, as the chief and most powerful mem- 
ber. The only thing in which he was con- 
sistent was the unrelenting hatred with 
which he pursued those who offended him. 
Popular idealism, however, made him into a 
saint and a martyr. All the misfortunes 
which befell the country were laid at Ed- 
ward's door, though Thomas's futile policy 
was quite as much to blame for them. While 
Edward personified misgovernment, disorder, 
misfortune abroad, Thomas was converted, 
though probably not till after his death, into 
a second Simon de Montfort. Miraculous 



cures were effected at his tomb at Pontefract, 
as also at an effigy of him in St. Paul's, to 
which crowds of worshippers came with 
offerings. Guards had to be placed to pre- 
vent people approaching the places of his 
execution and burial, and the king wrote an 
indignant letter to the bishop of London 
and the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, for- 
bidding them to countenance such proceed- 
ings (Flor. Hist. iii. 213 ; French Chronicle 
of London, Camden Soc., p. 54; RYMER, ii. 
528). Time brought further revenges. On 
28 Feb. 1327 Edward III wrote to Pope 
John XXI, requesting him to canonise 
Thomas (RtMER, ii. ii. 695). The request 
was repeated in 1330 and 1331 (ib. pp. 782, 
814). Edward III also on 8 June \:\-21 
authorised Robert de AVerynton, clerk, to 
collect alms for building a chapel on the .hill 
where Thomas of Lancaster was beheaded 
(ib. p. 707). This chapel, which was never 
finished, still existed in Leland's time. 

Thomas built and endowed in his castle 
of Kenilworth the chapel of St. Mary, to be 
served by thirteen regular canons (Buss, 
Papal Registers, ii. 184). 

lie married Alice, daughter and heiress of 
Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, 
but had no children. His relations with his 
wife were sufficiently strained to give rise 
to more than a suspicion of connivance wla-n 
the Earl of AVarenne carried her off in 1317. 
She was accused of adultery with a lame 
squire of the name of Ebulo Le Strange, who 
married her after Lancaster's death. 

[The chief narrative sources for Thomas's life 
are the Annales Londonienses ; AnnalesPaulini ; 
Gesta Edwardi auctore oanonico Bridlingto- 
niensi ; and the Monachi cuiusdam Malmes- 
beriensis Vita Edwardi II, all edited by Bishop 
Stubbs in Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I 
and Edward II (RollsSer.) ; the Chron. of Robert 
of Reading in vol. iii. of the FloresHistormrum, 
ed.Luard ; the Annals of Johode Trokelowt- ; the 
Chronicles of Adum do Murimuth (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Walter de Hemingburgh (English Hutotfad 
Soc.); Lanercost (Maitland Club); and Scala- 
chronica and Walsingham; the continuator of 
Trivet (ed. Hall, 1722): and the Chronicon 
Henrici de Knighton (Rolls Ser.) The Rolls 
of Parliament, the Parliamentary Writs, and 
Rymer's Fcedera (all published by the Record 
Comm.) ; and the Calendars of the Close Rolls 
(1307-1323, 3 vols.), and Patent Rolls 1292- 
1301, 1307-13 (2 vols.) (Rolls Ser.) form an 
invaluable supplement and corrective ^ to these 
sometimes partial narratives. Dngdale's Baron- 
age of England, though prolix, supplies many 
facts: Stubbs's Constitutional Hist. vol. ii. and 
Pauli's Geschichte von England give the best 
modern accounts cf Thomas and his times'.] 

W. E. R. 



Thomas 



152 



Thomas 



THOMAS OF BROTHER-TON, EARL op 
NORFOLK and MARSHAL OF ENGLAND (1300- 
1338), was the eldest child of Edward I by 
his second wife, Margaret, the sister of Philip 
the Fair. Edward II was his half-brother. 
lie was born on 1 June 1300 at Brother- 
ton, near Pontefract, where his parents 
were halting on their way to Scotland (Chron. 
Lanercost, p. 193). He was called Thomas 
because of the successful invocation of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury by his mother 
during the pains of labour. A story is told 
that the life of the child was despaired of in 
his infancy, but that his health was restored 
by the substitution of an English nurse for 
the Frenchwoman to whom his mother 
had entrusted him (Ann. Edwardi I in 
RISHANGER, pp. 438-9, Rolls Ser.) Ed- 
ward I destined for Thomas the earldom of 
Cornwall, which escheated to the crown on 
1 Oct. 1300, on the death, without heirs, of 
Earl Edmund, the son of Richard, king of 
the Romans (MoxK OF MALMESBTTRY, p. 169), 
and some of the chroniclers ( Worcester An- 
nals, p. 547 ; TROKELOWE, p. 74) say that the 
grant was actually made. Oil his deathbed 
Edward specially urged upon his eldest son 
the obligation of caring for his two half- 
brothers. Edward II, however, soon conferred 
Cornwall on his favourite, Piers Gaveston 
[q. v.J Nevertheless he made handsome pro- 
vision for Thomas. In September 1310 he 
granted to Thomas and his brother Edmund of 
Woodstock [q. v.] jointly the castle and honour 
of Strigul (Chepstow) for their maintenance 
(Cal. Close Rolls, 1307-13, p. 279), and in 
October 1311 lie granted Thomas seisin of 
the honour (Flores Hist. iii. 334). Larger 
provision followed. The earldom of Norfolk 
and the dignity of earl marshal, which Roger 
Bigod, fifth earl of Norfolk [q. v.], had sur- 
rendered to the crown and had received back 
entailed on the heirs of his body, had re- 
cently escheated to the king on Roger's 
death without children. On 16 Dec. 1312 
Edward II created Thomas Earl of Norfolk, 
with remainder to the heirs of his body, and 
on 18 March the boy of twelve received a 
summons to parliament, which was repeated 
in. January and May 1313 (Cal. Close Rolls, 
1307-13, pp. 564, 584). He also obtained 
the grant of all the lands in England, "Wales, 
and Ireland that had escheated on Roger 
Bigod's death, and on 10 Feb. 1316 he was 
further created marshal of England, thus 
being precisely invested with the dignities 
and estates of the previous earl. He got 
the last fragment of the estate in 1317, when 
Alice, the dowager countess, died (ib. 1313- 
1318, p. 504). On 20 May 1317 Thomas re- 
ceived his first summons to meet at New- 



castle in July to serve against ' Scotch rebels ' 
(ib. 1313-18, p. 473). 

In the early part of 1319 Thomas acted 
as warden of England during Edward H's 
absence in the field against the Scots, hold- 
ing on 24 March of that year a session along 
with the chief ministers in the chapter-house 
of St. Paul's, where they summoned before 
them J. de Wengrave, the mayor ; Wengrave 
was engaged in a controversy with the com- 
munity with regard to municipal elections, 
which was appeased at Thomas's interven- 
tion (Ann. Paulini, pp. 285-6). After being 
knighted, on 15 July, Thomas proceeded to 
Newcastle, where a great army was muster- 
ing against Scotland. He crossed the border 
on 29 Aug., but nothing resulted from the 
invasion save the vain siege of Berwick 
(MoNK OF MALMESBTJRY, pp. 241-2 ; Ann. 
Paulini, p. 286). 

In 1321 Thomas, being summoned with his 
brother Edmund to the siege of Leeds Castle 
in Kent (Flores Hist. iii. 199), adhered to the 
king's side, and is described as ' strenuous for 
his age ' (MONK OF MALMESBURY, p. 263). He 
took a prominent part in persuading Mortimer 
to submit (MTJRIMTJTH, p. 35). Yet in Sep- 
tember 1326 he was one of the first to join 
Queen Isabella [q. v.] on her landing at 
Orwell. The landing-place was within his 
estates (MURIMUTH, p. 46). On 27 Oct. he 
was one of the peers who condemned the 
elder Despenser at Bristol (Ann. Paulini, p. 
317). In May 1327 he was ordered to raise 
troops against the Scots. He was chief of a 
royal commission sent to Bury St. Edmunds 
to appease one of the constant quarrels be- 
tween the abbey and the townsmen (ib. p. 
334). He was bribed to accept the rule of 
Isabella and Mortimer by lavish grants of 
the forfeited estates of the Despensers and 
others, and was so closely attached to Mor- 
timer that he married his son Edward to 
Beatrice, Mortimer's daughter, and attended 
the solemn tournament at Hereford with 
which they celebrated the match (MFRI- 
MTJTH, p. 578 ; G. LE BAKER, p. 42). But he 
soon became discontented with the rule of 
Isabella and Mortimer, and joined the con- 
ference of magnates which met on 2 Jan. 1329 
at St. Paul's (cf. details in KNIGHTOX, and 
in the notes to G. LE BAKER, pp. 217-20, 
ed. Thompson, from MS. Brut Chron.) ; he 
acted with his brother Edmund, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and the bishop of 
London as envoys from the barons to the 
government ; but the defection of Henry 
of Lancaster broke up the combination 
(Ann. Paulini, p. 344). On 17 Feb. 1330 
Thomas and Edmund escorted the young 
queen Philippa on her solemn entry into 



Thomas 



153 



Thomas 



London the day before her coronation (ib. p. 
349). Luckier than Edmund, Thomas gave 
no opportunity to the jealousy of Mortimer, 
and survived to welcome Edward Ill's at- 
tainment of power. On 17-19 June 1331 he 
fought along with the king on the side of 
Sir Robert de Morley [q. v.] in a famous 
tournament at Stepney, riding, gorgeously 
attired, through London on 16 June, and 
making an offering at St. Paul's (ib. pp. 353- 
354). In 1337 he was employed in arraying 
Welsh soldiers for the king's wars (Fcedera, 
iii. 980). Knighton (ii. 4) says that he was 
one of the lords who accompanied Ed- 
ward III to Antwerp in July 1338, but the 
other chroniclers do not seem to substantiate 
this. Thomas died next month (August 
1338), and Avas buried in the choir of the 
abbey church, where a monument was erected 
to him that perished after the dissolution at 
Bury St. Edmunds. In September Edward, 
at Antwerp, appointed William de Monta- 
cute, first earl of Salisbury [q. v.], his suc- 
cessor as marshal (Fcedera, iii. 1060). 

Thomas married, first, Alice, daughter of 
Sir Roger Hales of Harwich ; and, secondly, 
Mary, daughter of William, lord Roos, and 
widow of Sir William de Braose. Mary 
Roos survived her husband, married Ralph, 
lord Cobham, and died in 1362. Thomas's 
only son, Edward, was born of his first wife, 
and married Beatrice, daughter of Roger 
Mortimer, first earl of March [q. v."], but died 
without issue in his father's lifetime. His 
widow, who subsequently married Thomas 
de Braose (d. 1361), died herself in 1384. 
She founded a fraternity of lay brothers 
within the Franciscan priory at Fisherton, 
Wiltshire, and also a chantry for six priests 
at the same place. 

Thomas's estates were divided between his 
two daughters, Margaret and Alice. Alice 
married Sir Edward de Montacute, brother 
of William, earl of Salisbury, and had by 
him a daughter Joan, who married William 
de Ufford, the last earl of Suffolk [q. v.] of 
his house. On the death of her niece Joan, 
countess of Suffolk, daughter of Alice, Mar- 
garet became in 1375 the sole heiress of her 
father's estates. On the accession of Richard II 
she petitioned to be allowed to act as marshal 
at the coronation, but the request was 
politely shelved (Munim. Gildhall. Lond. ii. 
458). She married, first, John Segrave, third 
lord Segrave [q. v.], by whom she had a 
daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married to 
John, lord Mowbray (d. 1368), to whose son, 
Thomas Mowbray, first duke of Norfolk [a. v.], 
the estates and titles ultimately went. Mar- 
garet married, secondly, Sir Walter Manny 
[q. v.], who died in 1372. She was created 



on 29 Sept. 1397 Duchess of Norfolk for life, 
on the same day that her grandson, Thomas 
Mowbray, was made Duke of Norfolk. She 
died on 24 March 1400, and was buried in 
the church of the London Franciscans at 
Newgate. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 63-4 ; NicoWs Hist. 
Peerage, ed. Courthope, p. 35J ; G. K.C[okayne ]* 
Complete Peerage, vi. 40-1 ; Sandford's Genea- 
logical History, pp. 205-6; Cals. of Patent 
Rolls, Edward I 1292-130", Edward II 1327- 
1338 ; Cal. Close Rolls, 1307-23 ; Rimer's 
Foedera; Annales Monastic!; Rishanper ; Flores 
Hist. ; Knighton ; Chron. Edward I, Edward II, 
and Murimutb, the last six in Rolls Ser. ; Chron. 
Geoffrey le Baker, ed. E. M. Thompson.] 

T. P. T. 

THOMAS of WOODSTOCK, EARL op 
BUCKINGHAM and DUKE OF GLOUCESTER 
(1355-1397), seventh and youngest son of 
Edward III and Philippa of Hamault, was 
born at Woodstock on 7 Jan. 1354-5 (WAI.- 
siifGHAM, i. 280). Edward provided for his 
youngest son in his usual manner by affian- 
cing him in 1374 to one of the richest heiresses 
of the time, Eleanor, the elder of the two 
daughters of the last Bohun, earl of Here- 
ford, Essex, and Northampton. The earls 
of Hereford having been hereditary con- 
stables of England, Thomas received a grant 
on 10 June 1376 of that office during pleasure, 
with a thousand marks a year to keep it up, 
and was summoned as constable to the par- 
liament of January 1377 (Rot. Parl. ii.363). 
He appears later at all events to have been 
styled Earl of Essex in right of his wife 
(Complete Peerage, iv. 43). Having been 
knighted by his father at Windsor on 
23 April 1377 he carried the sceptre and the 
dove at the coronation of his nephew, 
Richard II, and was created Earl of Buck- 
ingham (15 July), with a grant of a thousand 
pounds a year out of the alien priories (Cal. 
of Pat. Rolls, i. 372). A considerable part 
of the Bohun estates had already, in antici- 
pation of his wife's majority, been placed in 
his keeping, including Pleshoy Castle in 
Essex, which became his chief seat ; and in 
May 1380, his wife being now of age, he 
was also given custody of the share of her 
younger sister, Mary (if), pp. 66, 5m.' i. 

A French and Spanish fleet ravaging the 
southern coast in the summer, Buckingham 
and his brother Edmund averted a landing at 
Dover(FROissART,viii.237). In< >ctoberhewas 
sent against the Spaniards, who were wind- 
bound at Sluys, but hissquadron was scattered 
by a storm. Refitting and following the 
Spaniards down the Channel, he captured 
eight of their ships off Brest, returning aft>r 
Christmas (WALSIXGHAM, i. 3J3, 31). On 



Thomas 



154 



Thomas 



the Duke of Brittany handing over (April 
1378) Brest Castle to the English king for 
the rest of the war, Buckingham was one of 
those appointed to take it over (Fcedera, iv. 
36). But the duke's position soon began to 
grow untenable, and Buckingham was sent 
to his aid in June 1380, as lieutenant of the 
king, at the head of some five thousand men 
(Fcedera, iv. 92 ; FROISSART, ix. c.) His 
staff included some of his father's most dis- 
tinguished warriors Sir Hugh Calveley 
[q. v.], Sir Robert Knollys [q. v.J, Sir Thomas 
Percy (afterwards Earl of Worcester) [q. v.] 
and others. Avoiding the dangers of the 
Channel, the army landed at Calais (19 July) 
and plunged into the heart of northern France 
(ib. ix. 238 sqq. ; WALSINGHAM, i. 434). 
Penetrating as far south as Troyes (about 
24 Aug.), where the Duke of Burgundy had 
collected an army but did not venture to 
give battle, Buckingham struck westwards, 
through Beauce and Maine, for Brittany. 
The death of Charles V on 16 Sept. weakened 
the resistance opposed to his progress ; the 
passage of the Sarthe was forced, Brittany 
entered late in the autumn, and siege laid 
to Nantes. But the duke soon made his 
peace with Charles VI, and about the new 
year Buckingham raised the siege of Nantes 
and quartered his troops in the southern 
ports of Brittany, whence they were shipped 
home in the spring. The chagrin of failure 
was enhanced by a private mortification 
which awaited him. His relations with his 
ambitious elder brother, John of Gaunt, had 
never been cordial. At the close of the late 
reign Lancaster had inflicted a marked slight 
upon him by putting his own son Henry 
(afterwards Henry IV), a mere boy, into the 
order of the Garter in preference to his uncle, 
and Buckingham did not enter the order till 
April 1380. Since Richard's accession the 
younger brother had been as popular as the 
elder was generally hated. During Bucking- 
ham's absence in France Lancaster married 
his son to Mary Bohun, younger sister of 
Buckingham's wife (Complete Peerage, v. 9). 
This could not be agreeable to her brother- 
in-law, who had secured the custody of her 
estates, and, according to Froissart, hoped to 
persuade her to become a nun. 

In June 1381 Buckingham dispersed the 
insurgents in Essex, and in the following 
October held an ' oyer and terminer ' at 
Cambridge (WALSINGHAM, ii. 18; DOYLE, ii. 
19). By 1384 the young king's evident de- 
termination to rule through instruments of 
his own drew together Buckingham and 
Lancaster. They were associated in the ex- 
pedition into Scotland early in this year, and 
in the negotiations with France and Flanders. 



When Lancaster was accused of treason in 
the April parliament at Salisbury, Bucking- 
ham burst into the king's chamber and swore 
with great oaths to kill any one, no matter 
whom, who should bring such charges 
against his brother (WALSINGHAM, ii. 114). 
Richard for a time deferred more to his 
uncles, and during his Scottish expedition in 
the following year created Buckingham Duke 
of Gloucester (6 Aug. 1385), and granted him 
a thousand pounds a year from the exchequer 
by letters patent, dated at Hoselowelogh in 
Teviotdale (Rot. Parl. iii. 206). In the par- 
liament which met in October Richard 
formally confirmed this elevation, and in- 
vested his uncle with the dignity, girding 
him with a sword and placing a cap 
with a circlet of gold on his head (ib. ; 
SANDFORD, p. 231). To this parliament, 
curiously enough, he was summoned as Duke 
of Albemarle, though neither he nor his 
children ever again assumed that style, and 
he did not get possession of Holderness, 
which usually went with it, until 1388 
(DuGDALE, ii. 170). It has been suggested 
that this may be a case of a foreign title, 
i.e. a Norman dukedom (Complete Peerage, i. 
56). In elevating his two younger uncles, 
Gloucester and Edmund, duke of York [see 
LANGLEY, EDMTJNDDE], to the ducal dignity, 
Richard perhaps hoped to sow fresh dissen- 
sion between them and John of Gaunt, and to 
cover his promotion of his humbly born mini- 
ster, Michael de la Pole, to the earldom of 
Suffolk. If so, it did not serve its purpose, 
for Gloucester, on John of Gaunt's departure 
to Spain, placed himself openly at the head, 
of the opposition to the king, and was one 
of the judges who condemned Suffolk in 
1386, and a member of the commission for 
the reform of the household and realm. 
Richard is alleged to have plotted his 
murder at a dinner. Such charges were made 
too freely at the time to command implicit 
credence; but Gloucester, who forced Richard 
to dismiss Suffolk by threatening him 
with the fate of Edward II, had certainly 
given extreme provocation. When the king 
in August 1387 procured a declaration from 
the judges that the authors of the commis- 
sion were guilty of treason and began to 
raise forces, Gloucester and his friends sought 
to avert the storm by swearing a solemn oath 
on the gospels before the bishop of London 
that they had been actuated by no personal 
motives, but only by anxiety for Richard's 
own honour and interests. Gloucester, how- 
ever, refused to forego his revenge upon De 
Vere, whom the king had made duke of 
Ireland. De Vere had repudiated his niece for 
a Bohemian serving-woman. Failing to get 



Thomas i 

support from the Londoners against Glou- 
cester, who took up arms with the Earls of 
Arundel and Warwick, Richard spoke them 
fair, and affected to agree to the impeach- 
ment of his favourites in the parliament 
which was to meet in February 1388. But 
on his sending the Duke of Ireland to raise 
an army in Cheshire, and attempting to pack 
the parliament, the three lords met at Hunt- 
ingdon (12 Dec.) and talked of deposing 
the king. J oined by the Earls of Derby and 
Nottingham, they routed De Vere at Rad- 
cotbridge (20 Dec.), and, the Londoners 
opening their gates, they got admission to 
the Tower on the 27th, and entered the 
presence of the helpless king with linked 
arms. Gloucester showed him their forces 
on Tower Hill, and ' soothed his mind ' by 
assurances that ten times their number were 
ready to join in destroying the traitors to the 
king and the realm (KNIGHTOX, ii. 256). 
Had Gloucester not been overruled by Derby 
and Nottingham, Richard would have been 
deposed, and he was no doubt chiefly respon- 
sible for the vindictiveness of the Merciless 
parliament. His insistence on the execution 
of Sir Simon Burley [q. v.] involved him in 
a heated quarrel with the Earl of Derby 
(WALSINGHAM, ii. 174). 

Gloucester and his associates held the 
reins of power for more than twelve months, 
not without some attempt to justify their 
promises of reform, but they did not hesitate 
to obtain the enormous parliamentary grant 
of 20,000/. by way of reimbursing them for 
their patriotic sacrifices. Gloucester also 
secured the lordship of Holderness,the castle, 
town, and manor of Oakham, with the sherift- 
dom of Rutland (which had belonged to his 
wife's ancestors), and the office of chief 
justice of Chester and North Wales, which 
gave him a hold over a district attached to 
Richard by local loyalty (DtJGDALE, ii. 170; 
ORMEKOD, i. 63). The king resuming the 
government in May 1389, and promising his 
subjects better government, Gloucester was 
naturally in disgrace. But through the good 
offices of the Earl of Northumberland and 
of John of Gaunt, now returned from Spain, 
his peace was made. As early as 10 Dec. he 
once more appeared in the council, was given, 
with his brothers, some control over crown 
grants, and allowed to retain his chief- 
justiceship of Chester (Ord. Privy Council, 
'i. 17, 186). Grants of money were also 
made to him (DuGDALE, ii. 170). But he 
doubtless felt that he had no real influence 
with the king, and this, combined with 
emulation of his nephew Derby's recent 
achievements in Prussia [see HENRY IV], 
may have induced him to undertake in Sep- 



5 Thomas 

tember 1391 a mission to the master of the 
Teutonic order. But a storm drove him back 
along the coasts of Denmark, Norway, and 
Scotland ; and, narrowly escaping destruc- 
tion, he landed at Tynemouth, whence he 
returned home to Pleshey (Faedera, vii. 
705-6; WALSIXGHAJI, ii. 202). He must 
have been disquieted to find that the king 
during his absence had secured an admission 
from parliament that the proceedings of 
1386-8 had in no way curtailed his preroga- 
tive (Rot. Parl. iii. 286). 

Early in 1392 Richard appointed Glou- 
cester his lieutenant in Ireland only to super- 
sede him suddenly in favour of the young 
Earl of March in July, just as he was about 
to start, ' par certeyues causes qui a ce nous 
mouvent ' (King's Council in Ireland, pp. 
255, 258). Gloucester was then holding an 
inquiry into a London riot, but this may 
not have been the sole cause of his super- 
session (Rot. Parl. iii. 324). The king, it is 
worth noticing, was seeking the canonisation 
of Edward II, with whose fate he had been 
threatened by his uncle six years before 
(Issues, p. 247). 

The Cheshire men rose against Gloucester 
and Lancaster in the spring of 1393, while 
they were negotiating at Calais, in the belief 
that it was the king's wish, and Richard 
had to publish a disavowal (Annale*, ]>. I")!' ; 
Pcedera, vii. 746). There is some reason to 
think the Earl of Arundel was trying to 
force on a crisis. Gloucester had now to 
give up his post of chief justice of Chester 
to Richard's henchman Nottingham, but was 
consoled with a fresh grant of Ilolderness 
and Oakham, and certain estates that had 
belonged to De Vere (Pat. Rolls, 17-18 
Ric. II). Yet he cannot but have been ren- 
dered uneasy by the king's quiet attacks upon 
the work of the Merciless parliament and his 
serious breach with Arundel after the queen's 
death in June 1394 (Rot. Parl. iii. 302, 316 ; 
Annales, p. 424). Richard took him with 
him to Ireland in September, but sent him 
back in the spring of 1395 to obtain a grant 
from the new parliament. It is plain from 
Froissart's account of his visit to England in 
the ensuing summer that Gloucester's rela- 
tions with the court were getting strumr,i. 
The courtiers accused the duke of malice and 
cunning, and said that he had a good head, 
but was proud and wonderfully overbearing 
in his manners. His advocacy of coercion 
to make the Gascons receive John of Gaunt 
as their duke was put down to his desire to 
have the field to himself at home. He dis- 
approved too of the proposed French mar- 
riage and peace, and the negotiations were 
carried through by others, though he was 



Thomas 



156 



Thomas 



present, willingly or unwillingly, at the 
marriage festivities in October 1396 near 
Calais. In the early months of 1397 mutual 
provocations followed swiftly upon one 
another. Gloucester may have prompted 
Haxey's petition in the January parliament 
in which Richard saw an attempt to repeat the 
coercion of 1386 [see HAXEY, THOMAS]. It 
was afterwards alleged by French writers 
favourable to Richard that Gloucester, Arun- 
del, and Warwick engaged in a conspiracy 
which aimed at the perpetual imprisonment 
of the king and his two elder uncles ( Chro- 
nique de la Traison, pp. 3-7). But llichard 
himself did not attempt to bring home to 
them any such definite charge, and every- 
thing points to his having resolved upon 
their destruction, and taken them by sur- 
prise. He had at first intended to arrest 
them at a dinner, to which they were in- 
vited, but Gloucester, who was at Pleshey, 
excused himself on the plea of illness (An- 
nales, p. 201). On the evening of 10 July, 
after the arrest of Warwick and Arundel, 
Richard, accompanied by the London trained 
bands, set off for Pleshey, which was reached 
early the next morning. Gloucester, who was 
perhaps really ill, came out to meet him at the 
head of a solemn procession of the priests and 
clerks of his newly founded college ( EVE- 
SHAM, p. 130 ; HARDYNG, p. 345 ; Annales, pp. 
203 sqq.) As he bent in obeisance, llichard 
with his own hand arrested him, and, leading 
the procession to the chapel, assured his ' bel 
oncle ' that all would turn out for the best. 
According to another version, Gloucester 
begged for his life, and was told that he should 
have the same grace he had shown to Burley 
(Euloffium, iii. 372). After breakfast llichard 
set off with most of his followers, leaving 
Gloucester in charge of the Earl of Kent 
and Sir Thomas Percy, who conveyed him 
direct to Calais. The statement that he 
was first taken to the Tower sounds doubtful 
(HARDYNG, p. 345; FABYAN, p. 542 ; Traison, 
p. 8). At Calais Gloucester was in the keep- 
ing of its captain, the Earl of Nottingham, a 
prominent partisan of the king. About the 
beginning of September it was announced 
(' feust notifie,' which surely implies more 
than mere report) both in England and in 
Calais that he was dead ; the date given was 
25 or 26 Aug., and the former is the day of 
his death entered on the escheat roll (Rot. 
Parl. iii. 431 , 452; GREGORY, p. 96; DUG- 
DALE, ii. 172). It was therefore with intense 
surprise that Sir William Rickhill [q. v.], a 
justice of the common pleas, who by order 
of the king accompanied Nottingham to 
Calais on 7 Sept., heard on his arrival that 
he was to interview Gloucester and care fully 



report all that he should say to him. What 
made the matter more mysterious still, his 
instructions were dated three weeks before 
Aug.) There is no reason to doubt 
llickhill's account of his interview with 
Gloucester on 8 Sept. He took care to have 
witnesses, and his story was fully accepted 
by the first parliament of the next reign. It 
is obvious that Richard could not safely 
produce his uncle for trial in the forthcoming 
parliament, and there was only less danger 
in meeting the houses with a bare announce- 
ment of his death. Ilickhill was introduced to 
his presence in the castle early on the morn- 
ing of 8 Sept., and, in the presence of two 
witnesses, begged him to put what he had to 
say in writing and keep a copy. Late in the 
evening he returned, and Gloucester, before 
the same witnesses, read a written confession 
in nine articles, which he then handed to 
Rickhill. He admitted verbally that he had 
threatened the king with deposition in 1388 if 
the sentence on Sir Simon Burley were not 
carried out, and requested Rickhill to come 
back next day in case he should remember any 
omission. This he did, but was refused an 
audience of the duke by order of Notting- 
ham (Rot. Parl. iii. 431-2). Parliament met 
on 17 Sept., and on the 21st a writ was 
issued to the captain of Calais to bring up 
his prisoner. Three days later he briefly re- 
plied that he could not do this because the 
duke was dead. On the petition of the 
lords appellant and the commons, the peers 
declared him guilty of treason as having 
levied arms against the king in 1387, and 
his estates consequently forfeited. His con- 
fession, which is in English, was read in 
parliament next day, but omitting, as Ilick- 
hill afterwards declared, those articles which 
were ' contrary to the intent and purpose ' of 
the king. He admitted helping to put the 
king under restraint in 1386, entering his 
presence armed, opening his letters, speaking 
of him in slanderous wise in audience of 
other folk, discussing the possibility of giving 
up their homage to him, and of his deposi- 
tion. But he declared that they had only 
thought of deposing him for two days or 
three and then restoring him, and that if he 
had ' done evil and against his Regalie,' it 
had been in fear of his life, and ' to do the 
best for his person and estate.' Since re- 
newing his oath of allegiance on God's body 
at Langley he had never been guilty of fresh 
treason. He therefore besought the king 
' for the passion that God suffered for all 
mankind, and the compassion that he had of 
his mother on the cross and the pity that he 
had of Mary Magdalen,' to grant him his 
mercy and grace. The confession is printed 



Thomas 



Thomas 



in full in the ' Rolls of Parliament ' (iii. 
378-9) from an original sealed copy, but an 
examination of the roll of the actual pro- 
ceedings shows that the exculpatory clauses 
and the final appeal were omitted, and the 
date of Rickhill's interview carefully sup- 
pressed. All who were not in the secret 
would suppose it to have taken place be- 
tween 17 Aug., the date of his commission, 
and 25 Aug., which had been given out as 
the day of Gloucester's death. There were 
obvious reasons for not disclosing the fact 
that he had been alive little more than a 
week before parliament met. Why the 
murder for the hypothesis of a natural 
death is practically excluded was left to 
the eleventh hour we can only conjecture. 
Perhaps Nottingham shrank from the deed 
(Eulogium, iii. 373), perhaps Gloucester re- 
fused to make his confession earlier. The 
mutilated confession was published in every 
county in England. In the first parliament 
of Henry IV a certain John Halle, a former 
servant of Nottingham, swore that Glou- 
cester, under orders from the king, had been 
smothered beneath a feather-bed in a house 
at Calais, called the Prince's Inn, by Wil- 
liam Serle, a sen-ant of Richard's chamber, 
and several esquires and valets of the Earls of 
Nottingham and Rutland in the month of Sep- 
tember 1397 (Rot . Parl. iii. 452). Halle, who 
had kept the door, was executed, and, though 
he was not publicly examined, there seems 
no strong reason to doubt the main features of 
his story. Serle, on falling into Henry's 
hands in 1404, suffered the same fate. In 
France Gloucester was thought to have been 
strangled (ST. DENTS, ii. 552 ; FROISSART). 

Richard ordered Nottingham on 14 Oct. 
to deliver the body to Richard Maudeleyn, 
to be given by him to the widow for burial 
in Westminster Abbey (Faedera, viii. 20, 
21). But on the 31st of the same month he 
commanded her to take it to the priory of 
Bermondsey instead (ib. viii. 24). Froissart, 
who has been followed by Dugdale and later 
writers, says that he was buried in Pleshey 
church (which he had collegiated and en- 
dowed under a license obtained in 1393) ; 
but Adam of Usk (p. 38) expressly states 
that Richard buried him in Westminster 
Abbey, but in the south of the church (in 
the chapel of St. Edmund), quite away 
from the royal burial-place. It was removed 
to the chapel of the kings near the shrine of 
St. Edward, the spot he had selected in his 
lifetime, by Henry IV in 1399 (cf. NICHOLS'S 
Royal Wills, p. 177). His elaborate brass, in 
which there were some twenty figures, is 
engraved in Sandford (p. 227), but nothing 
save the matrices now remains. 



Gloucester's proud, fierce, and intolerant 
nature, which provoked the lasting and fatal 
resentment of his nephew, may be read in 
the portrait r(from Cott. MS. Nero, D vii) 
engraved in Doyle's ' Official Baronage.' It 
bears no resemblance to the alleged portrait 
engraved in Grose's 'Antiquarian Reper- 
tory' (ii. 209). He composed about 1390 
' L Ordonnance d'Angleterre pour le Camp i\ 
1'outrance, ou gaige de bataille ' (Chronir/ue 
de la Traison, p. 132n. ; Antiquarian Re- 
pertory, ii. 210-19). A finely illuminated 
vellum copy of Wyclif's earlier version of his 
translation of the Bible now in the British 
Museum was once Gloucester's property; 
his armorial shield appears in the border of 
the first page. 

By his wife Eleanor Bohun he had one 
son and three or four daughters. His only 
son, Humphrey, born about 1381, was taken to 
Ireland by Richard in 1399, and, on the news 
of Bolingbroke's landing, confined with his 
son (afterwards Henry V) in Trim Castle. 
Recalled by Henry IV immediately after, he 
died on the road, some said by shipwreck, 
others more probably of the plague in 
Anglesey (Usx, p. 28 ; LELAXD, Collectanea, 
iii. 384 ; cf. Archaologia, xx. 173). He was 
buried at Walden Abbey in Essex. Three 
of his sisters were named respectively Anne, 
Joan, and Isabel. A fourth, Philippa, who 
died young, is mentioned by Sandforu. Anne 
(1380 P-1438) married, first, in 1392, Thomas, 
third earl of Stafford, but he dying in that 
year, she became in 1398 the wife of his 
brother Edmund, fifth earl of Stafford, by 
whom she was mother of Humphrey Stafford, 
first duke of Buckingham [q. v.] ; on his 
death she took a third husband (1404), Wil- 
liam Bourchier, count of Eti, to whom she 
bore Henry, earl of Essex, Archbishop Bour- 
chier, and two other sons ; she died on 16 Oct. 
1438 (Royal Witt*, p. 278). Joan (d. 1400) 
was betrothed to Gilbert, lord Talbot, elder 
brother of the first Earl of Shrewsbury, but 
she died unmarried on 16 Aug. 1400 (Dco- 
DALE, i. 172 ; cf. SANDFORD, p. 234). Isabel 
(b. 1384) became a nun in the Minories out- 
side Aldgate, London. 

Gloucester's widow made her will at 
Pleshey on 9 Aug. 1399, and died of grief at 
the loss of her son, it is said, at the Minories 
on 3 Oct. following (Royal Will*, p. 177 ; 
Annales, p. 321). She lies buried close to 
the first resting-place of her husband in the 
abbey under a fine brass, which is engraved 
by Sandford (p. 230). He is no doubt mis- 
taken in asserting that she died in the abbey 
of Barking, where she became a nun. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Issues of the Ex- 
chequer, ed. Devon ; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 



Thomas 



158 



Thomas 



1895-7; Rymer's Fcedera, Kecord and original 
edits. ; Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. 
Nicolas; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, 
Annales Kicardi II (with Trokelowe), Knight on, 
the Eulogium Historiarum, and Roll of King's 
Council in Ireland, 1392-3 (in Rolls Series); 
Chronique de la Traison et Mort de Richard 
II, ed. Engl. Hist. Soc. ; Chron. of the Monk of 
Evesham, ed. Hearne; Adam of Usk, ed. Maunde 
Thompson ; Froissart, ed. Luce and Kerryn de 
Lettenhove ; . Chronique du Religieux de St. 
Denys, 'ed. Eellaguet ; Dugdale's Baronage; 
Sandford's Genealogical History of the Kings 
of England, ed. 1677; Cough's History of 
Fleshy ; Newcourt's Repertorium Ecclesiasticum 
Farochiale Londinense, ii. 469 (for his college) ; 
G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; Wallon's Richard II ; other 
authorities in the text.] J. T-T. 

THOMAS, DUKE OF CLARENCE (1388 ?- 
3421), second son of Henry IV, by his first 
wife, Mary de Bohun, was born in London 
before 30 Sept. 1388. On the whole it seems 
most likely that Henry of Monmouth was 
born in August 1387, and Thomas not quite 
a year later (but see WYLIE, iii. 324, where 
the autumn of 1387 is preferred as the date 
of Thomas's birth). There are various trifling 
notices of Thomas as a child in the ac- 
counts of the duchy of Lancaster (ib. iii. 
324-6). On his father's accession to the 
throne he was made seneschal of England 
on 5 Oct., and on the following Sunday 
(12 Oct.) was one of the knights created in 
preparation for the coronation next day. 
Liberal grants of land were made for his 
support in his office in November,' but this 
appointment was of course only nominal, the 
actual duties being discharged by Thomas 
Percy, earl of Worcester, who after a year's 
time was himself made seneschal, as the 
prince was too young to discharge the office 
(Annales Henrici Quarti, pp. 287, 337). 
Thomas was with his father at Windsor at 
Christmas 1399, and was removed in haste to 
London on the report of the plot to seize the 
king and his sons. In the summer of 1401 
he was made lieutenant of Ireland, Sir Tho- 
mas Erpingham and Sir Hugh Waterton 
being named his wardens. He crossed 
over in November, reaching Dublin on the 
13th. A council met at Christmas, and took 
Thomas for a journey down the coast to 
reassert his authority. The difficulties of 
the English government in Ireland were 
great, and the boy lieutenant added natu- 
rally to the cares of his guardians. On 
20 Aug. 1402 the archbishop of Dublin re- 
ported that Thomas had not a penny in the 
world, and was shut up at Naas with his 
council and a small retinue, who dared not 
leave him for fear harm might befall (Royal 



Letters^.Ql}. Eventually, on 1 Sept. 1403, it 
was decided that Thomas should come home, 
though nominally he remained lieutenant of 
Ireland, which was ruled by his deputy. In 
the autumn of 1404 he was with his brother 
Henry in South Wales, and took part in the 
attempted relief of Coyty Castle, Glamorgan- 
shire, in November. On 20 Feb. 1405 he was 
given command of the fleet (Feeder a, \ in. 388) 
which assembled at Sandwich, and on 22 May 
crossed to Sluys, where the English burnt 
some vessels in the harbour, but failed in an 
attack on the town. Thomas had a narrow 
escape in a fight with some Genoese caracks 
off Cadsand, and, after ravaging the coast of 
Normandy, the fleet returned to England by 
July (Annales Henrici Quarti,]). 401 : WTLIE, 
ii. 106-5). On 1 March 1406 Thomas was 
confirmed in his appointment as lieutenant 
of Ireland for twelve years (NICOLAS, Proc. 
Privy Council,!. 315-18). He did not, how- 
ever, go to Ireland, but was present at the 
parliament in June, when the succession to 
the throne was regulated. In July he went 
to Lynn to witness the departure of his 
sister Philippa for Denmark, and in August 
accompanied his father on a progress through 
Lincolnshire. At the close of the year he 
was made captain of Guines, where he pro- 
bably served through the greater part of 1407. 
On 8 March 1408, being then in London, 
Thomas agreed to accept a reduced payment 
for his office in Ireland. The affairs of that 
country required his presence, and in May it 
was arranged that he should cross over. He 
sailed accordingly on 2 Aug., and, landing at 
Carlingford, proceeded to Dublin. His first 
act was to arrest the Earl of Kildare and his 
sons, and in the autumn he made a raid into 
Leinster, in the course of which he was 
wounded at Kilmainham. In January 1409 
he held a parliament at Kilkenny, but in 
March was recalled to England by the news 
of his father's illness (WTLIE, iii. 166-9). 
The government was now passing into the 
hands of the Prince of Wales, who was sup- 
ported by the Beauforts. Thomas quarrelled 
with Henry Beaufort over the money due 
to him on his marriage with the widow of 
his uncle, John Beaufort, earl of Somerset 
(Chron. Giles,-pp. 61-2). This quarrel brought 
Thomas into opposition to his brother, whose 
policy rested on the support of the Beauforts. 
However, little is heard of Thomas during 
1410 and 1411, except for some notices of 
his riotous conduct at London, where in June 
1410 he and his brother John were involved 
in a fray with the men of the town at East- 
cheap ; in the following year the ' Lord 
Thomas men' were again concerned in a 
great debate in Bridge Street (Chron. Lond. 



Thomas 



159 



Thomas 



p. 93). At the beginning of 1412 the Beau- 
forts were displaced, and Thomas seems to 
have supplanted his elder brother in the direc- 
tion of the government. Under his influence 
a treaty of alliance was concluded with the 
Duke of Orleans in May. He was made Duke 
of Clarence on 9 July, and given the command 
of the intended expedition. Tn August he 
proceeded to France at the head of a force of 
eight thousand men to assist the Orleanists. 
He landed at Ilogue St. Vast in the Cotentin, 
and, after capturing various towns from the 
Burgundians, joined Orleans at Bourges. 
Eventually the French court arranged that 
Orleans should buy the English off, and, 
under an agreement concluded on 14 Nov., 
Clarence withdrew with his army to Guienne. 
He was intending to interfere in the affairs 
of Arragon had not his father's death (20March 
1413) compelled him to return to England 
(GOODAVIN, Histoi-y of Henry V, p. 9). 

Though Clarence was removed from his 
Irish command, and though in the royal 
council he continued to support an alliance 
with the Orleanists against the Burgundians, 
he was personally on good terms with his 
brother. He was confirmed as Duke of 
Clarence in the parliament of 1414, and was 
present in the council which considered the 
preparations for the war on 16-18 April 1415 
(NICOLAS, Proc. Privy Council, ii. 156). He 
was ordered to hold the muster of the king's 
retinue at Southampton on 20 July (Fcedera, 
ix. 287). AVhen the Cambridge plot was 
discovered, Clarence was appointed to pre- 
side over the court of peers summoned to 
consider the process against Richard of Cam- 
bridge and Lord Scrope. He sailed with the 
king from Portsmouth on 11 Aug., landing 
before Harfleur two days later. In the siege 
he held the command on the eastern side of 
the town. Like many others, he suffered 
much from illness, and after the fall of Har- 
fleur was appointed to command the portion 
of the host which returned direct to Eng- 
land. In May 1416 Clarence received the 
Emperor Sigismund at Dartford. Monstrelet 
incorrectly ascribes to Clarence the com- 
mand of the fleet which relieved Harfleur in 
August 1416 (Chron. p. 393). Clarence took 
part in the great expedition of 1417 which 
landed in Normandy on 1 Aug. He was 
appointed constable of the army, and, in 
command of the van, captured Touque on 
9 Aug., and led the advance on Caen. This 
town was carried by assault on 4 Sept., the 
troops under Clarence's command scaling a 
suburb on the north side. After the fall of 
Caen he was sent to besiege Alencon in 
October, and in December rejoined the king 
before Falaise. In the spring of 1418 he 



was employed in the reduction of central 
Normandy, capturing Courtonne, Harcourt, 
and Chambrais. In the summer he joined 
in the advance on Rouen, was present at the 
siege of Louviers in June and of Pont de 
1'Arche in July, and in August took up his 
post before Rouen at the Porte Cauchoise. 
Immediately after the fall of Rouen in 
January 1419 Clarence was sent to push on 
the English advance, and in February- took 
Vernon and Gaillon. The capture of Mantes 
and Beaumont followed, and after the failure 
of negotiations with the French court and 
the capture of Pontoise, Clarence com- 
manded a reconnaissance to the gates of 
Paris at the beginning of August. In May 
1420 he accompanied his brother to Troyes, 
and, after Henry's marriage, took part in the 
sieges of Montereau and Melun. He ac- 
companied the king at his triumphal entry 
into Paris on 1 Dec. After Christmas Cla- 
rence went with Henry to Rouen, and on 
his brother's departure for England at the 
end of January 1421 was appointed captain 
of Normandy and lieutenant of France in 
the king's absence. Shortly afterwards Cla- 
rence started on a raid through Maine and 
Anjou, and advanced as far as Beaufort-en- 
Vall6e, near the Loire. Meantime the 
dauphin had collected his forces, and, being 
joined by a strong force of Scottish knights, 
reached Beaug6 in the English rear on 
21 March. Clarence, on hearing the news 
next day, at once set out with his cavalry, 
not waiting for the main body of his army. 
He drove in the Scottish outposts, but was 
in his turn overwhelmed, and, together with 
many of the knights who accompanied him, 
was slain. His defeat was due to his own 
impatience and his anxiety to win a victory 
which might compare with Agincourt. At'trr 
his death the archers, under the Earl of 
Salisbury, came up and recovered the bodies of 
the slain (CW/o. J/S. Claud. A. viii.f. Hi. 
Clarence's body was carried back to England 
and buried at Canterbury. The Endi-h 
mourned him as a brave and valiant soldit-r 
who had no equal in military prowess i ' 
Henrici Quinti, p. 149^). 

Clarence had no children by his duchess 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas llolland. duke 
of Surrey and earl of Kent [q. v.], and widow 
of his uncle, John Beaufort, earl of Somrrsi-t . 
He had, however, a bastard son, Sir .lohn 
Clarence, who was old enough to bo with hU 
father at Beaug6, and who afterwards took 
part in the French wars in the reign of 
Henry VI. 

[Annales Henrici Quart! ap. Trokeluwv. Dlano- 
forde, &c. ; Royal and Historical Letters of 
Henry IV; Walsingham's Historia Anglicana 



Thomas 



160 



Thomas 



(Eolls Ser.) ; Gesta Henrici Quinti (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Elmham's Vita Henrici Quinti, ed. 
Hearne ; Monstrelet's Chroniques (Pantheon 
Litteraire) ; Chron. du Religieux de S. Denys 
(Documents Inedits stir 1'Hist. de France) ; 
Incerti auctoris Chronicon, ed. Giles ; Davies's 
English Chronicle (Camd. Soc.); Chronicle of 
London (1827) ; Page's Siege of Rouen in Col- 
lections of a London Citizen (Camd. Soc. 1876); 
Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordinances of Privy 
Council ; Rymer's Fcedera ; Wylie's History of 
England under Henrv IV ; Ramsay's Lancaster 
and York.] C. L. K. 

THOMAS OF BATETJX (d. 1100), arch- 
bishop of York, a native of Bayeux, was a 
son of Osbert, a priest (Gesta Pontificum, p. 
66) of noble family (RICHARD OF HEXHAM, 
col. 303), and Muriel (Liber Vitce Dunelm. 
pp. 139-40), and was a brother of Samson 
(d. 1112) [q. v.J, bishop of Worcester. He 
and Samson were two of the clerks that Odo 
(d. 1097) [q. v.], bishop of Bayeux, took into 
his household and sent to various cities for 
education, paying their expenses (ORDERIC, 
p. 665). Having acquired learning in France, 
Thomas went to Germany and studied in the 
schools there ; then, after returning to Nor- 
mandy, he went to Spain, where he acquired 
much that he could not have learnt else- 
where, evidently from Saracen teachers. On 
his return to Bayeux Odo was pleased with 
his character and attainments, treated him 
as a friend, and made him treasurer of his 
cathedral church. His reputation as a scholar 
was widespread. He accompanied Odo to 
England, and was made one of the Con- 
queror's chaplains, an office that implied 
much secretarial work. 

At a council held at "Windsor at Whit- 
suntide 1070 William appointed him to the 
see of York, vacant by the death of Arch- 
bishop Aldred [q. v.] In common with 
Walkelin [q. v.], his fellow-chaplain, ap- 
pointed at the same time to the see of Win- 
chester, he is described as wise, polished, 
gentle, and loving and fearing God from 
the bottom of his heart (ib. p. 516). His con- 
secration was delayed because, according 
to the York historian, Ethelwine, bishop of 
Durham, having fled, there were no suffra- 
gans of York to consecrate him, and the see 
of Canterbury had not yet been filled by the 
consecration of Lanfranc [q. v.] (T. STUBBS, 
apud Historians of York, ii. 357). He might, 
however, have received the rite, as Walkelin 
did, at once from the legate, Ermenfrid, who 
was then in England ; but it is probable that 
the king caused the delay, intending that 
he should be consecrated by Lanfranc 
(FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, iv. 344-5). 
After Lanfranc's consecration in August, 



Thomas applied to him. Lanfranc demanded 
a profession of obedience, and when Thomas, 
acting on the advice of others, refused to 
make it, Lanfranc declined to consecrate 
him. Thomas complained to the king, who 
thought that the claim to the profession 
was unreasonable. A few days later, how- 
ever, Laufranc went to court, and convinced 
the king that his demand was just [see under 
LANFRANC]. As a way out of the difficulty 
William ordered Thomas to return to Can- 
terbury and make a written profession to 
Lanfranc personally, not to his successors 
in the see, for he wished the question as to 
the right; of the see of Canterbury to be 
decided in a synod of bishops according to 
what had been the custom. Thomas was 
unwilling to give way, and, it is said, was 
only brought to do so by a threat of banish- 
ment. He finally did as he was bidden, 
though the Y 7 ork writer says that he made 
only a verbal profession, and received con- 
secration (Gesta Pontificum, pp. 39, 40 ; T. 
STUBBS). Both the archbishops went to 
Rome for their palls in 1071. Alexander II 
decided against the validity of the election 
to York, because Thomas was the son of a 
priest, and took away his ring and staff; 
but on Lanfranc's intercession relented, and 
it is said that Thomas received his ring and 
staff again from Lanfranc's hands. He laid 
the claims of his see before the pope, plead- 
ing that Gregory the Great had ordained 
that Canterbury and York should be of 
equal dignity, and that the bishops of Dor- 
chester, Worcester, and Lichfield were right- 
fully suffragans of York. Alexander ordered 
that the matter should be decided in Eng- 
land by the judgment of a council of bishops 
and abbots of the whole kingdom. The 
archbishops returned to England, visiting 
Gislebert, bishop of Evreux, on their way. 
According to the pope's command, the case 
was decided at Windsor [see under LAN- 
FRANC] at Whitsuntide 1072, in an assembly 
of prelates, in the presence of the king, the 
queen, and the legate. The perpetual 
superiority of the see of Canterbury was 
declared, the Humber was to be the boundary 
between the two provinces, all north of that 
river to the furthest part of Scotland being 
in the province of York, while south of it 
the archbishop of York was to have no juris- 
diction, being left, so far as England was con- 
cerned, with a single suffragan, the bishop 
of Durham. By the king's command, and 
in the presence of the court, Thomas made 
full profession of obedience to Lanfranc and 
his successors (LANFRANC, i. 23-6, 302-5; 
WILLIAM OF MALMESBTJRY, Gesta Regum, 
iii. ccc. 294, 302 ; GERVASE, ii. 306). 



Thomas 



161 



Thomas 



Thomas was also unsuccessful in a claim 
that he made to twelve estates anciently 
belonging to the bishopric of Worcester and 
appropriated by Aldred to the see of York. 
Wulstan [q. v. J, bishop of Worcester, refused 
to give them up, and Thomas, who before the 
boundary of his province was decided claimed 
Wulstan as his suffragan, accused him of 
insubordination, and later joined Lanfranc 
in desiring his deprivation. The estates were 
adjudged to the see of Worcester in a na- 
tional assembly presided over by the king. 
Thomas was afterwards on friendly terms 
with Wulstan, and commissioned him to 
discharge episcopal functions in parts of his 
province into which he could not go, because 
they were still unsubdued, and because he 
could not speak English (T. STTTBBS, ii. 362; 
FLOR. WIG. an. 1070 ; Gesta Pontificum, p. 
285). He was present at the council of 
London held by Lanfranc in 1075, and it was 
there settled that the place in council of the 
archbishop of York was on the right of the 
archbishop of Canterbury (ib. p. 68). In 
that year a Danish fleet sailed up the Hum- 
ber, and the invaders did damage to his 
cathedral church, St. Peter's, which he was 
then raising from its ruined state, and took 
away much plunder (Anglo-Saxon Ckron. 
sub an.) After the settlement of their dis- 
pute he was very friendly with Lanfranc, 
who, at his request, commissioned two of 
his suffragans to assist Thomas in conse- 
crating Ralph, bishop of Orkney, at York 
on 5 March 1077; and, when writing on that 
matter, Thomas assured Lanfranc that a sug- 
gestion made by Remigius [q.v.], bishop of 
Dorchester, that he would again put forward 
a claim to the obedience of the bishops of 
Dorchester and Worcester, was unfounded 
{LANFRANC, i. 34-6). He also received a 
profession of obedience from Fothad or 
Foderoch (d. 1093), bishop of St. Andrews, 
who was sent to him by Malcolm III [q. v.j 
and his queen Margaret (d. 1093) [q. v.], and 
employed him as his commissary to dedicate 
some churches (HUGH THE CHANTOR, T. 
STUBBS, ap. Historians of York, ii. 127, 363). 
When the Conqueror was in the Isle of 
Wight in 1086, both the archbishops being 
-with him, he was shown a charter that had 
been forged by the monks of Canterbury and 
widely distributed, to the effect that the 
archbishop of York was bound to make pro- 
fession to Canterbury with an oath, which 
had been remitted by Lanfranc without pre- 
judice to jhis successors. The king is said 
to have been angry, and to have promised 
to do justice to Thomas on his return from 
his expedition, but died in the course of it 
(HTJGH, u.s. 101-2). Thomas refused to give 

VOL. LVI. 



advice to his suffraganWilliam of St. Calais, 
bishop of Durham [see WILLIAM, d. 1096], 
wnen summoned before Rufus to answer to 
a charge of treason, and took part in the trial 
of the bishop in the king's court at Salisbury 
in November 1088 (Srir. DUNELH. Opera 
i. 175, 1 79, 183). He attended the funeral of 
Lanfranc at Canterbury in 1089, and during 
the vacancy of the see consecrated three 
bishops to dioceses in the southern province, 
they making profession to the future arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. In 1092, when 
Remigius [q. v.] had finished his church at 
Lincoln, Thomas declared that it was in his 
province, not as being in the old diocese of 
Dorchester, but because Lincoln and a great 
part of Lindesey anciently pertained to the 
province of York, and had unjustly been 
taken away, together with Stow, Louth, and 
Newark, formerly the property of his church; 
and he therefore refused to dedicate the 
church which was to be the head of a diocese 
subject to Canterbury. William Rufus, how- 
ever, ordered the bishops of the realm to 
dedicate it, and they assembled for the pur- 
pose, but the death of Remigius caused the 
ceremony to be put off (FLOR. WIG. sub an. ; 
GIR. CAMBR. vii. 19, 194). A letter from 
Urban II, who became pope in 1088, to 
Thomas, is given by a York historian; in 
it the pope blames Thomas for having made 
profession to Lanfranc, and orders him to 
answer for his conduct; it presents some 
difficulty, but cannot be rejected (HuGH, 
u.s. pp. 105, 135). 

On 4 Dec. 1093 Thomas and other bishops 
met at Canterbury to consecrate Anselm 
[q. v.] to that see, and before the rite began 
Bishop Walkelin, acting for the bishop of 
London, began to read out the instrument 
of election. When he came to the words 
' the church of Canterbury, the metropolitan 
church of all Britain,' Thomas interrupted 
him ; for though, as he said, he allowed the 
primacy of Canterbury, he could not admit 
that itwas the metropolitan see of all Britain, 
as that would mean that the church of York 
was not metropolitan. The justice of his 
remonstrance was acknowledged, the words 
of the instrument were changed to ' the 
primatial church of all Britain,' and Thomas 
officiated at the consecration ( KADMKR, Ili- 
toria Nocorum, col. 373). The York historian, 
however, states that Thomas objected to the 
title of primate of all Britain givi-n in tin- 
instrument; that he declared that as theiv 
were two metropolitans one could not be 
primate except over the other ; that he went 
back to the vestry and began to disrobe; 
that Anselm and Walkelin humbly begged 
him to come back ; that the word ' primate ' 



Thomas 



162 



Thomas 



was erased, and that Anselm was conse- 
crated simply as metropolitan (HUGH, u.s. 
104-5, 113, who, in spite of his solemn decla- 
ration as to the truth of his story, is scarcely 
to be trusted here). The next day Thomas, 
in pursuance of his claim to include Lincoln 
in his province, warned Anselm not to con- 
secrate Robert Bloet to that see ; as bishop 
of Dorchester he might consecrate him, but 
not of Lincoln, which, he said, was in his 
province. Rufus arranged the matter by 
granting the abbey of Selby and the monas- 
tery of St. Oswald at Gloucester to Thomas 
and his successors in exchange for his claim 
on Lincoln and Lindesey, and to the manors 
of Stow and Louth. Thomas is said to have 
accepted this arrangement unwillingly and 
without the consent of his chapter (ib. p. 106 ; 
MojfASTicoN, vi. 82, viii. 1177). As Anselm 
was not in England when Rufus was slain 
in 1100, Thomas, who heard the news at 
Ripon, hastened to London, intending to 
crown Henry king, as was his right. He 
found that he was too late, for Henry had 
been crowned by Maurice [q.v.], bishop of Lon- 
don. He complained of the wrong that had 
been done him, but was pacified by the king 
and his lords, who represented that it would 
have been dangerous to delay the coronation. 
He was easily satisfied, for he was of a gentle 
temper and was suffering greatly from the 
infirmities of age. After doing homage to 
Henry he returned to the north, and died at 
York, ' full of years, honour, and divine i 
grace,' on 18 Nov. He was buried in York ] 
minster, near his predecessor, Aldred ; his \ 
epitaph is preserved (HUGH ; T. STUBBS, who 
says that he died at Ripon ; Gesta Pontijkum, 
p. 257). 

Thomas was tall, handsome, and of a cheer- 
ful countenance ; in youth he was active and 
well proportioned, and in age ruddy and with 
hair as white 'as a swan.' He was liberal, 
courteous, and placable, and, though often 
engaged in disputes, they were of a kind that 
became him, for they were in defence of what 
he and his clergy believed to be the rights of his 
see, and he prosecuted them without personal 
bitterness. Beyond reproach in respect of 
purity, his life generally was singularly free 
from blame. He was eminent as a scholar, 
and especially as a philosopher ; he loved to 
read and hold discussions with his clerks, 
and his mental attainments did not make 
him vain. Church music was one of his 
chief pleasures ; his voice was good, and he 
understood the art of music ; he could make 
organs and teach others to play on them, and 
he composed many hymns. He was serious 
in disposition, and when he heard any one 
singing a merry song would set sacred words 



to the air; and he insisted on his clergy using 
solemn music in their services (ib.} He was 
active in church-building and in ecclesiastical 
organisation. When he received his see a 
large part of his diocese lay desolate, for the 
north had been harried by the Conqueror the 
year before, and from York to Durham the 
land was uncultivated, uninhabited, and 
given over to wild beasts. York itself had 
been ruined and burnt in the war ; the fire 
had spread to the minster, which was reduced 
to a ruin, and the other churches of the city 
probably shared its fate. He rebuilt his 
cathedral church, it is said, from the founda- 
tions, though the same author seems to speak 
of restoration and a new roof (HUGH, ii. 
107-8). Possibly he first repaired the old 
church and then built a new one ; possibly 
the words may mean that, though, as seems 
likely, the blackened walls were standing, 
he in some parts was forced to rebuild them 
altogether ; in any case, his work was ex- 
tensive, and amounted at least virtually to 
the building of a new church, a few frag- 
ments of which are said to remain in the 
crypt (WiLLis, Architectural History of 
York, pp. 13-16 ; FEEEMAN, Norman Con- 
quest, iv. 267, 295, 373). Of the seven 
canons he found only three at their post ; 
he recalled such of the others as were alive, 
and added to their number. At first he made 
them observe the Lotharingian discipline, re- 
built the dormitory and refectory, and caused 
them to live together on a common fund under 
the superintendence of a provost [see under 
ALDEED, d. 1069]. Later he introduced 
the system which became general in secular 
chapters ; he divided the property of the 
church, appointing a prebend to each canon, 
which gave him the means of increasing the 
number of canons, and gave each of them 
an incitement to build his prebendal church 
and improve its property (HUGH, u.s.) 
Further, he founded and endowed in like 
manner the dignities of dean, treasurer, and 
precentor, and revived the office of ' magister 
scholarum,' or chancellor, which had pre- 
viously existed in the church. He gave many 
books and ornaments for use in his church, 
and was always most anxious to choose the 
best men as its clergy. In order to carry out 
his reforms he gave up much property that 
he might have kept in his own hands, and 
his successors complained that he alienated 
episcopal land for the creation of prebends 
(Gesta Pontificum, u.s.) Some trouble hav- 
ing arisen at Beverley with reference to the 
estates of the church, Thomas instituted the 
office of provost there (RAINE), bestowing it 
on his nephew and namesake [see THOMAS, 
d. 1114]. In 1083 he granted a charter 



Thomas 



163 



Thomas 



freeing all the churches in his diocese be- 
longing to the convent of Durham from all 
dues payable to him and his successors, being 
moved thereto, he says, by gratitude to St. 
Cuthbert, to whose tomb he resorted after 
a sickness of two years, and there received 
healing ; and also by his pleasure at the sub- 
stitution of monks for canons in the church 
of Durham by Bishop William (Roc. Ilov. i. 
137-8). The epitaph, in elegiac verse, placed 
on the tomb of the Conqueror, was written 
by him, and has been preserved (ORDERIC, 
pp. 663-4). 

[Raine's Fasti Ebor. ; Hugh the Chantor and 
T. Stubbs, ap. Historians of York, vol. ii. ; Will, 
of Malmesbury's Getta Regum aud Q-esta 
Pontiff, Gervase of Cant., Sym. Dunelm., Gir. 
Cambr., Rog. Hov. (all seven in Rolls Ser.) ; 
Lanfranc's Epp. ed. Giles; Ric. of Hexham, ed. 
Twysden ; Liber Vitse Dunelm. (Surtees Soc.) ; 
Eadmer, ed. Migne ; Orderic, ed. Duehesne ; 
Freeman's Norm. Conq. vol. iv., and Will. 
Rufus.] W. H. 

THOMAS (d. 1114), archbishop of York, 
was the son of Samson (d. 1112) [q.v.J, after- 
wards bishop of Worcester, and the brother 
of Richard, bishop of Bayeux from 1108 to 
1133, and so the nephew of Thomas (d. 1100) 
[q.v.], archbishop of York, who brought him 
up at York, where he was generally popular 
(EADMER, Historia Novorum, col. 481 ; RI- 
CHARD OF HEXHAM, col. 303 ; Gallia Chris- 
tiana, xi. 360; HUGH THE CHANTOR apud 
Historians of York, ii. 112). His uncle Tho- 
mas appointed him as the first provost of 
Beverley in 1092, and he was one of the king's 
chaplains. At Whitsuntide 1108 Henry I 
was about to appoint him to the bishopric 
of London, vacant by the death of Maurice 
(d. 1107) [q. v.] The archbishopric of York 
was also vacant by the death of Gerard in 
May, and the dean and some of the canons 
of York had come to London to elect ; they 
persuaded the king to nominate Thomas to 
York instead of London ; he was elected, and 
as archbishop-elect was present at the coun- 
cil that Anselm held at that season at Lon- 
don (EADMER, col. 470 ; FLOR. WIG. sub an.) 

He then went to York, where he was 
heartily welcomed. He knew that Anselm 
would summon him to come to Canterbury 
to make his profession of obedience and re- 
ceive consecration ; and as his chapter urged 
him not to make the profession [see under 
THOMAS,/?. 1100], he set out to speak to the 
king on the matter (HUGH, pp. 112-14). At 
Winchester he was favourably received by 
the king, who appears to have told him not to 
make the profession at that time, but not 
to have spoken decidedly, intending probably 
to inquire further into the case. The asser- 



tion that Anselm sent Herbert de Losinga 
[q.v.], bishop of Norwich, to Thomas, offer- 
mg to give up the profession if Thomas 
would recognise him as primate, and that 
Thomas refused (#.), may be rejected so far 
as Anselm is concerned, though the bi>lmp 
may have made the proposal on his own re- 
sponsibility. Meanwhile Turgot [q.v.], bishop- 
elect of St. Andrews, was awaiti^" conse- 
cration, and Ranulf Flambard [q. v.j, anxious 
to uphold the rights of the church of York, 
proposed to perform the rite at York with 
the assistance of suffragan bishops of the 
province, in the presence of the archbishop- 
elect. This would have been an infringe- 
ment of the rights of Canterbury, and was 
forbidden by Anselm, who further wrote to 
Thomas requiring him to come to his ' mother 
church ' at Canterbury on 6 Sept., and de- 
claring that if he failed to do so he would 
himself perform episcopal functions in the 
province of York. Thomas wrote that he 
would have come but had spent all his money 
at Winchester; indeed, he said that he would 
have gone at once from Winchester to him, 
but the king had given him permission to send 
to Rome for his pall, and he was try ing to raise 
money for the purpose. He also disclaimed 
any intention of consecrating Turgot. An- 
selm granted him an extension of time till 
Sunday, 27 Sept., and told him that it was 
no use sending for the pall before he was 
consecrated, and forbade him to do so. He 
also wrote to Paschal II, requesting him 
not to grant Thomas the pall until he had 
made profession and had been consecratt'd. 
Thomas then wrote that his chapter had 
forbidden him to make the profession, that 
he could not disobey them, and asked An- 
selm's advice. His letter was followed by 
one from the York chapter declaring that 
if Thomas made the profession they would 
disown him. Anselm replied to Thomas, 
repeating his command, and fixing 8 Nov. 
as the day for the profession and conse- 
cration. Thomas again wrote, saying that 
he could not act against the will of his chap- 
ter. After consulting with his suffragans, 
Anselm sent the bishops of London and 
Rochester to him to advise him on behalf of 
the bishops generally, either to desist from 
his rebellious conduct, or at least to go to 
Canterbury and state his case, promising that 
if he proved it he should receive consecra- 
tion. They found him at Southwell. ]! 
told them that he had sent a messenger to 
the king, who was then in Normandy, and 
that he must wait for Henry's answer, and 
for further consultation with his clergy. Tic- 
king's reply was that the question of the pro- 
fession was to be put off until the following 

M '2 



Thomas 



164 



Thomas 



Easter, when, if he had then returned, he 
would settle it himself with the advice of his 
bishops and barons, and in any case would 
arrange it amicably. Anselm wrote to Tho- 
mas from his deathbed warning him not to 
perform any episcopal act before he had, like 
his predecessors Thomas and Gerard, made 
profession of obedience, and declaring ex- 
communicate any bishop of the realm that 
should consecrate him or acknowledge him 
if consecrated by foreign bishops, and Tho- 
mas himself if he should ever receive con- 
secration, unless he had made the profession. 
Anselm died on 21 April 1109. 

Meanwhile Henry had sent to Paschal for 
a legate to help him to settle the dispute. 
Paschal sent him a cardinal named Ulric, 
who landed in England shortly before the 
king's return. Ulric was dismayed at hear- 
ing of Anselm's death, for he brought a 
pall from Thomas, but was not to present 
it to him without Anselm's consent. When 
Henry held his court at London at Whit- 
suntide the matter was discussed. The 
bishops resolved to be faithful to what An- 
selm had commanded in his last letter to 
Thomas, which was read before the council, 
and sent to Bishop Samson, the father of 
Thomas, to know his mind. He declared 
himself strongly on the same side, and so 
they laid their determination before the king, 
who, in spite of the opposition of the Count of 
Meulan [see BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, d. 1118], 
decided against Thomas, and bade him either 
make profession to Canterbury or resign his 
archbishopric. The royal message was brought 
to him at York by the Count of Meulan. 
Thomas sent to the king, praying that the 
case might be tried before him and the legate 
and be decided canonically, but Henry would 
not consent. The father, brother, and other 
relatives of Thomas urged him to submit, 
and he accordingly went to London, and on 
Sunday, 11 June, the day fixed for his con- 
secration, appeared at St. Paul's, where the 
bishop of London and six other bishops were 
gathered for the rite, made a written pro- 
fession of obedience to the see of Canterbury, 
and was consecrated by them. During the 
ceremony the bishops of London and Dur- 
ham stated by the king's order that Thomas 
was acting by the king's command, not in 
consequence of a legal decision, so that, ac- 
cording to sealed letters from the king, his 
profession was not, in case of any future suit, 
to be held a legal precedent. The York 
clergy, while they did not blame him for 
yielding, were deeply grieved, and it was be- 
lieved that if he had not been so fat and con- 
sequently unfitted to bear exile and worry, 
he would never have given way (EADMER, 



cols. 474-82 ; HUGH, pp. 112-26). Thomas 
returned to York in company with the legate, 
who publicly invested him with the pall. 
He then, on 1 Aug., consecrated Turgot, who 
made profession to him, and accompanied the 
legate, after a visit of three days, on his 
southward journey as far as the Trent. The 
York historians assert that on taking leave 
of the archbishop, the legate summoned him 
to answer at Rome for having made the pro- 
fession, but withdrew the summons, as the 
archbishop declared that the king's command 
left him no choice. The York claim to 
equality was based on the decree of Gregory 
the Great: it was pre-eminently a matter 
to be decided by the Roman see, and Rome 
had not yet spoken authoritatively ; this 
summons, then, must be regarded as a form 
to safeguard the freedom of Rome to judge 
the question in the future. Thomas con- 
secrated and received the profession of three 
other bishops to the sees of Glasgow, Man, 
and Orkney. While provost of Beverley he 
had suffered from a painful disorder, and his 
physicians declared that he could not re- 
cover except by violating his chastity. He 
indignantly silenced the friends who would 
have had him take that course, increased his 
alms, and invoked the help of St. John of 
Beverley [q. v.] He recovered, but the dis- 
ease returned later, and he died at Beverley, 
while still young, on 24 Feb. 1114, and was 
buried in York Minster, near the grave of 
his uncle (RiCHAKD OFHEXHAM,CO!S. 303-4 ; 
WILL. NEWS. i. c. 1 ; HUGH). 

Thomas was enormously fat, probably a 
result of disease, and the inertness which the 
York historians blame in him arose no doubt 
from the same cause. Left to himself, he 
would never have carried on the strife about 
the profession ; it was forced on him by his 
clergy, and they would have preferred that 
he should go into exile rather than yield. 
He was religious, cheerful, benign, and libe- 
ral, well furnished with learning, eloquent, 
and generally liked. He founded two new 
prebends at York, and obtained from the 
king a grant of privileges for the canons of 
Southwell, whose lands and churches he freed 
from episcopal dues. At Hexham, where 
the church seems at that time to have be- 
longed to his see and was administered by a 
provost, he introduced Augustinian canons, 
whom he endowed by various grants, giving 
them also books and ornaments for their use 
in the church (ib. ; RICHARD OF HEXHAM, 
u.s.) It is said that he designed to remove 
the body of Bishop Eata [q. v.] from Hex- 
ham to York, but was deterred by a vision 
of the saint, who appeared to him when he 
was at Hexham, rebuked him, and gave him 



Thomas 



173 



Thomas 



by Aubroy de Vere, and of a drama (' Becket') 
by Tennyson. The writer of this article is in- 
debted to Mr. T. A. Archer for some valuable 
suggestions.] K. N. 

THOMAS, known as THOMAS BROWX 
(Jl. 1170), officer of the exchequer, was an 
Englishman by birth, who, like others of his 
countrymen, took service under the Norman 
kings of Sicily. He is probably the 'magister 
Thomas capellanus regis ' whose name occurs 
in Sicilian charters dated 25 Aug. and 
24 Nov. 1137. Richard FitzNigel, in the 
' Dialogus de Scaccario,' says that Thomas 
had held a high place in the councils of the 
king of Sicily, until a king arose who knew 
him not, when, in response to repeated 
invitations from Henry II, he returned 
to England. Thomas Brown is mentioned 
as ' Magister Thomas,' and styled ' familiaris 
regis ' in a number of charters of King 
Roger. In a Greek charter his name appears 
as ' Q<ana TOV Bpouvov.' He returned to 
England after 1154, but before 1159 (Pipe 
Jtoll, 5 Henry II, p. 49). He held an im- 
portant place in the English exchequer, and, 
owing to the confidence in his loyalty and 
discretion, kept a special roll in which were 
recorded the king's doings. He was almoner 
to Henry II in 1166, and still held that post 
in 1174 (t&. 12 Henry II, p. 83, and 20 
Henry II, p. 18].). His nephew, Ralph, had 
a pension of 51. from the king in 1159 (ib. 
5 Henry II, p. 49), and Thomas himself is 
mentioned as in receipt of a pension of 36/. 
in 1168 and 1176. Madox conjectured that 
the special duties assigned to Thomas were 
the basis of the later office of chancellor of 
the exchequer. 

[Dialogus de Scaccario, ap. Stubbs's Select 
Charters, pp. 178, 189-90; Document? per ser- 
vire alia storia di Sicilia, 1st ser. vol. i. fasc. i. 
pp. 12-13 (Soc. Siciliana per la Storia patria) ; 
Pirri's Sicilia Sacra ap. Gnevius' Thesaurus 
Antiq. et Hist. Siciliae, li. Eccl. Mess. Not. ii. 
i. 282 ; Pipe Rolls, 5 to 20 Henry II (Pipe Roll 
Society) ; Madox's Hist. Exchequer, ii. &lfi ; 
Reale Academia dei Lincei, 3rd ser. pf. ii. 
pp. 411-17, Rome, 1877-8; Freeman's His- 
torical Essays, 3rd ser. pp. 471-2; Stubbs's 
Lectures on Mediaeval and Modern History, 
133-4.] C. L. K. 

THOMAS, called OF BEVEBLET (fi. 1 174), 
hagiographer, probably born at Beverley, 
became a monk in the Cistercian abbey of 
Fresmont in Picardy. He wrote in prose and 
verse an extant life of St. Margaret of Jeru- 
salem, his sister. A large portion of this work 
is printed from a copy of a Clairvaux manu- 
script by Manriquez in his ' Annales Cis- 
tercienses ' under 1174 and following years. 



[Manriquez's Annales Cisterciensee, ad an. 
1174-92; Leyser's Hist. Poet, et Poem. med. 
aevi, pp. 435-6: Carolus de Visch's Biblioth. 
Script. Ord. Cist. pp. 311 seq., ed. Colon, 1658 ; 
Henriquez's Phoenix Reviviscens, pp. 168 wq. ; 
Wright's Biogr. Brit. Lit. ii. 313-U.j 

A. M. C-. 

THOMAS OF ELY ( ft. 1175), historian, 
was a monk of Ely. His principal work 
was a history of Ely in three books. The 
first book carries the history to the time of 
King Edgar, and the remaining two down 
to 1170. The first book has been printed 
three times (MABILLOX, Acta SS. ii. 738; 
BOLLANDISTS' Acta SS. Jun. iv. 493; D. J. 
STEWAKT, Liber Eliensis). The second book 
is printed in a shortened form by the Bol- 
landists from a Douay manuscript (Jun. iv. 
523-38), and by D. J. Stewart from an Ely 
manuscript with variants from the Trinity 
College, Cambridge, MSS. O. 2. 1, and O. 2. 
41. Stewart erroneously printed as part of 
book ii. a prologue with the title ' Libellus 
quorundam insignium operum B. yEdelwoldi 
Episcopi.' This ' libellus,' with what follows 
in 0. 2. 41, and Vesp. A. xix. (printed by 
Gale, Hist. Brit. i. 403), appears to be the 
work of an unknown monk, writing at the 
order of Hervey [q. v.l, bishop of Ely, whose 
work formed the basis of Thomas's book ii. 
Thomas used also the work of a monk 
Richard, then dead, for his account of Here- 
ward. This Richard must be distinguished 
from Richard (d. 1194?) [q. v.J, prior of 
Ely, whose work formed the basis of Tho- 
mas's book iii. The third book has been 
printed by Wharton (Anylia Sacra, i. 678) 
from late versions. An earlier and longer 
form, enlarged with many additional char- 
ters and miracles, is in the Trinity MS.O.2. 
1 ff. 107-76. In this manuscript, as in 
Vesp. A. xix, the history of the bishops ends 
with the death of Nigel [q.v.], 1169. In 
0. 2. 1, an account of the death of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury follows. Thomas app-;ir- 
(ch. xcvi. cf. 0. 2. 1) to have taken up tin- 
work left unfinished by Richard when ho 
went to Rome (1161), and he refers to 
Richard as ' dominus prior et monachut.' 

Thomas also wrote an account of the second 
translation of St. Etheldreda in six chajit, r-, 
which is interpolated between books i. and 
ii. of the history of Ely in Domitian A. xv. 
This appears as chapter vi. of book ii. in 
the Douay manuscript, and parts of it occur 
in chapters cxliii-cxliv. of the longt-r 
book ii. (D. J. STEWART). A third work bv 
Thomas, an account of St. Etheldreda s 
miracles, is interpolated after the account of 
her translation in Domitian A. xv., and fol- 
lows book ii. in the Douay manuscript (Acta 



Thomas 



174 



Thomas 



SS. Boll. Jun. iv. 539-76). The writer states 
that he, Thomas, was cured of a fever by 
the saint's intervention. The miracles are 
brought down to the time of Geoffrey Ridel 
(d. 1189) [q. v.] 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacra, pp. xxxix-xlv, 593, 
678. Wharton prints also, under the title 
Thomse Historia Eliensis, an epitome based 
upon the work of Thomas. Gale (Hist, Brit, et 
Angl. vol. i.) prints as book ii. some extracts 
from the longer form of this book.] M. B. 

THOMAS (fi. 1200 ?), romance-writer, 
is said by Wright to have lived in the 
reign of Richard I, but other authorities 
place him in the latter half of the thirteenth 
century. Nothing is known of him except 
that he produced versions of the romances 
of ' King Horn ' and ' Tristan.' M. Pauline 
Paris considers it certain that he was an 
Englishman, though he lived among French- 
speaking people and himself wrote in French, 
imitating the style of his contemporary 
romancist, Adenes le Roi (Hist. Lift, de 
France, xxii. 551-68). Thomas has some- 
times been credited with the original author- 
ship of the romance of King Horn. There 
is, however, little doubt that in its original 
form in which it is not now known to be 
extant Horn was written in English, and 
possibly the ' parchemin ' to which Thomas 
refers was written in that language. 
Thomas himself evidently expanded his 
original by inserting the long speeches of 
Rimel and 'many courtly details of feast 
and tournament' (WARD, Cat. Romances, 
i. 454), and by incorporating many purely 
French names. Thomas's version, in which 
his name frequently occurs, is extant in 
Douce MS. cxxxii. art. 1, HarleianMS. 527, 
and Cambridge Univ. MS. Ff. vi. 17. An 
analysis of the romance from the Cambridge 
manuscript was printed by Wright in the 
'Foreign Quarterly Review,' xvi. 133-41, 
and it was edited in 1845 for the Bannatyne 
Club by M. Francisque Michel. English ver- 
sions of the romance of ' King Horn,' ex- 
panded perhaps from the same original that 
Thomas followed, are extant in Cambridge 
Univ. MS. Gg. 4, xxvii. 2, in Bodleian MS. 
Laud 108, and in Harleian MS. 2253. The 
Harleian manuscript was very inaccurately 
printed by Ritson in vol. ii. of his ' Early 
English Romances,' 1802, and has been fully 
described in Ward's ' Catalogue of Romances,' 
i. 454 et sqq. The Cambridge manuscript 
was edited by J. R. Lumby for the Early 
English Text Society in 1866. 

Thomas's other work, a version of the 
romance of ' Tristan,' was printed by M. Fran- 
cisque Michel in 1835 from an imperfect 
manuscript belonging to Douce, which by a 



special clause in his will was not bequeathed 
to the Bodleian Library (MlCHEL, pref. 
p. Ivii). Wright (Biogr. Brit. Lit. ii. 342) 
says vaguely that a fragment of another 
manuscript from a private collection had 
been printed but not published. Like 
Thomas's version of ' King Horn/ his ' Tris- 
tan ' is written in French, but in ' different 
measure and style.' Thomas has been 
generally identified with the ' Thomas von 
Britanie,' whose French version of ' Tristan ' 
Gottfried of Strasburg (fl, 1310) professes 
to have translated into German. Thomas's 
version, which does not appear to have been of 
any great length, is said to have been the basis 
of most of the later ' Tristan ' romances (for 
the various English versions of ' Tristan,' 
which are not certainly known to have been 
connected with Thomas's works, see WARD, 
Cat. Romances, i. 356 et sqq. and KOLBING, 
Die nordische und die englische Version der 
Tristan-Sage, Heilbronn, 2 Theile, 1878-83, 
esp. vol. i. pp. cxlii et sqq.) 

[Authorities cited ; Catalogues of the Douce, 
Harleian, and Cambridge University Libraries ; 
Preface to Michel's Tristan Romances 1835, 
Warton's Hist, of English Poetry, 1840, i. 95- 
112 ; Wright's Biogr. Lit. ii. 340-4.] A. F. P. 

THOMAS WALLENSIS or OP WALES 
(d. 1255), bishop of St. Davids. [See AVAL- 
LETS.] 

THOMAS OF ERCELDOTJNE, or THOMAS 
THE RHYMER (/. 1220 P-1297 ?), seer and 
poet. [See ERCELDOTJNE.] 

THOMAS OF CORBRIDGE (d. 1304), arch- 
bishop of York. [See CORBRIDGE.] 

THOMAS THE ENGLISHMAN (d. 1310), 
cardinal. [See JORZ or JOYCE, THOMAS.] 

THOMAS HIBERNICUS or DE HIBER- 
NIA (jl. 1306-131G), known also as PALME- 
RANTJS or PALMERSTON, theological writer, 
was born at Palmerstown, near Naas, in 
Kildare (TANNER, Bibl. Brit.}, whence he is 
sometimes styled ' Palmeranus.' He studied 
at Paris, became a member of the Sorbonne, 
and took the degree of bachelor of theology 
about 1306. He was neither a Franciscan nor 
a Dominican, but has been called both. To the 
Sorbonne he bequeathed 16L, with copies of 
his own works and many other books. His 
name is mentioned seven times in the Sor- 
bonne ' Catalogue ' of 1338, and some of his 
books are now in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 
He was living in 1316. He wrote : 1. 'Ta- 
bula originalium sire Manipulus Florum,' 
extracts from more than thirty books of the 
fathers, arranged in alphabetical order, which 
he finished in 1306 (Bibl. Nat. Fonds Lat. 
MS. 16533). The work had been begun by 



Thomas 



175 



Thomas 



John Walleys or Wallensis [q. v.], and is 
sometimes found divided into two parts, 
' Flores Biblici ' and ' Flores Doctorum.' It 
was a favourite work in the middle ages, and 
copies exist in many English, French, and 
Italian libraries. It was printed at Piacenza 
in 1483, and at Venice in 1492, and many 
times in the sixteenth century. "2. ' Trac- 
tatus de tribus punct is Christian religionis,' 
beginning ' Incipit liber de regulis omnium 
Christianorum.' In the Sorbonne MS. 594 
it is dated 1316. Another manuscript 
(MoxxFATTCON, Bibliotheca, ii. 1260) calls the 
author Thomas Hibernicus, doctor. This 
work was printed at Liibeck in 1496 (HAix, 
Repertorium, iii. 5844). 3. 'Commendatio 
theologica,' beginning ' Sapient ia sedificavit 
sibi,' in the Sorbonne MSS. 694 and 1010. 
4. ' Tractatus de tribus hierarchiis tarn 
angelicisquamecclesiasticis,' in the Sorbonne 
MS. 1010. 5. ' De tribus sensibus sacrae scrip- 
turae.' 6. ' In primam et secundam sen- 
tentiarum,' beginning ' Circa primam dis- 
tinctionem,' a folio in the Sorbonne Library. 
Ware ascribed to him : 7. ' De illusionibus 
daemonum.' 8. ' De tentatione diaboli.' 
9. ' De remediis vitiorum.' 

THOMAS DE HIBERNIA (d. 1270), a learned 
Franciscan, must be distinguished from the 
subject of the preceding article. He went 
to Italy, and was taught by Peter de Hi- 
bernia [q. v.] (WADDIXG, Ann. Min. iv. 321). 
Thomas was a man of profound humility, 
and rather than become a priest he cut off 
his left thumb. He died in 1269-70, and 
was buried in the monastery of St. Bernard 
in Aquila. He wrote the ' Promptuarium 
Morale,' which "Wadding printed, together 
with the Concordances of St. Anthony, at 
Rome in 1624. 

[Wadding's Annales Minorum, iv. 302, 321 ; 
Sbaralea's Supplementum ad Scriptores a 
Waddingo descriptos, 1806, p. 679 ; Quetif and 
Echard's Scriptores Ordinis Predicatorum, i. 
744 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Ware, De Scriptori- 
bus Hiberniae, i. 60 ; Delisle's Cabinet de MSS. 
ii. 176.] M. B. 

THOMAS DE LA MORE (ft. 1327-1347), 
chronicler. [See MORE.] 

THOMAS OF HATFIELD (d. 1381), bishop 
of Durham. [See HATFIELD.] 

THOMAS OF ASHBORXE (ft. 1382), 
theological controversialist, was a native of 
Ashborne in Derbyshire, and became an 
Austin friar there. He went to Oxford and 
took the degree of master in theology. In 
1374, at the council of Westminster, he 
argued against paying tribute to Gregory XI. 
In 1382, at the council of London, he helped 



*? draft the twenty-four conclusions against 
Wyclifs doctrines on the sacrament. The 
titles of a number of his controversial 
writings are given by Bale, but they are not 
known to be extant. 

A contemporary THOMAS AsHKBfRXE ( ft. 
1384), poet, was a scholar of Corpus Christ i 
College, Cambridge, where his expenses for 
one year, III. 4s. Id., were paid by l^rd De 
La \V arr to Dr. John Kyme or Kynne, who 
was master from 1379 to 1389. Subsequently 
he became a Carmelite of Northampton, and 
wrote a long English theological poem for- 
merly in the Cottonian MS. Yitell. f. xiii. 1, 
which has been burnt. In Cott. A pp. vii! 
a version of Richard Rolle's 'Pricke of 
Conscience ' is ascribed in a later hand to 
Asheburne. It is preceded by a short alle- 
gorical English poem, beginning 

[Lyst you] all gret and smale 
I shall yow tell a lytell tale, 

which may be Asheburne's work (TAXXER, 
! Bibl. Brit. ; Sir F. Madden's and other notes 
in Cott. App. vii. ; Cambridge Antiq. Soc. 

Communications, xxxix. 401). 

[Eulog. Historiarum, iii. 337 sq.; Shirley's 

Fascic. Zizan. p. 286.] M. B. 

THOMAS OF NEWMARKET^//. 1410?), 

arithmetician, graduated M. A. at Cambridge, 

and wrote a ' Commentum in Computum 

Ecclesiasticum Dionysii ' (Exigui), which is 

in Digby MS. 81, f." 35, and in Peterhouse 

MS. 189. His 'Commentum in Carmen 

Alexandri de Villa Dei de Algorismo ' is in 

Digby MS. 81, f. 11. A copy was formerly 

at Corpus College, Cambridge (Misc. Com- 

\ municationt, pt. i. No. 3, Cambridge Antiq. 

Soc. publications, 4to ser.) The 'Compotus 

| Manualis' in Digby MS. 81, f. 8, is perhaps 

; also his, and the treatises ' deSphaera' and 

I ' de Quadrante ' in the Peterhouse manuscript 

i may be by him. Bale confuses his works 

j with those of Thomas Merke [q. v.], bishop 

of Carlisle. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Bale's Script. Brit. vii. 
60; Cat of Digby Manuscripts.] M. B. 

THOMAS NETTER or WALDEN (d. 1430), 
Carmelite. [See NETTER.] 

THOMAS THE BASTARD (d. 1471). [See 
FAUCONBERG, THOMAS.] 

THOMAS OF ST. GREGORY (1564-1644), 

Benedictine monk. [See HILL, THOMAS.] 

THOMAS AB IETAX AP l\\\\ ^ 
(d. 1617?), Welsh bard, was, according to 
the traditional account, the son of leuan ap 
Rhys Brydydd of Glamorgan. In a stanza 
popularly attributed to him he makes the 
incredible statement that in January 1604 he 



Thomas 



176 



Thomas 



-will be & hundred and thirty years old, which 
would place his birth in 1474 and his age at 
his death at a hundred and forty-three years. 
As a boy he was employed at Margam Abbey, 
but became a zealous protestant, and it was 
perhaps for his faith he was imprisoned by 
Sir Mathew Cradock (1468-1531) in Kenfig 
Castle. He lived as a small farmer at Llan- 
gynwyd, Tythegston, and elsewhere in Gla- 
morganshire, and died about 161 7. His poems 
were of the ballad order. The only one 
printed, that in the ' Cambrian Quarterly 
Magazine' (v. 96-7), is predictive, Thomas 
having a great reputation as a prophet. It 
was perhaps his prophecies which won him 
the title of ' Twm gelwydd teg,' i.e. Tom the 
plausible liar. 

[All that is known of Thomas comes from two 
notices from 'the book of Mr. Lewis of Penlline' 
and 'the book of John Bradford' (J. 1780), 
printed in the lolo MSS. pp. 200-3. The ac- 
counts in Malkin's South Wales (1807) and vol. 
v. (1833) of the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine 
are probably drawn from these or similar 
sources.] J. E. L. 

THOMAS, ARTHUR GORING (1850- 
1892), musical composer, born at Ratton 
Park, Sussex, on 20 Nov. 1850, was the 
youngest son of Freeman Thomas of Ratton 
Park, by his wife Amelia, eldest daughter 
of Colonel Thomas Frederick. After being 
educated at Haileybury College, he was 
destined for the civil service, but his health 
failed. In early life he showed musical 
proclivities; when about ten years old his 
power of extemporisation was remarkable. 
This power he lost after he began to study 
seriously. In 1873 he went to Paris, where, 
on Ambroise Thomas's advice, he studied for 
two years with Emile Durand. After return- 
ing to England in 1875, he began on 13 Sept. 
1877 a three years' course at the Royal Aca- 
demy of Music under Sullivan and Prout, 
and he twice won the Lucas medal for com- 
position. Later on he studied for a time or- 
chestration under Dr. Max Brach. While 
still a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music 
Thomas composed an opera, ' The Light of 
the Harem,' which was played at that insti- 
tution with such success as to induce Carl 
Rosa to commission him to write ' Esme- 
ralda.' That opera was produced at Drury 
Lane on 26 March 1883. It was also played 
at Cologne in the following November, and 
at Hamburg in 1885. In this latter year 
Carl Rosa produced his ' Nadeshda,' also at 
Drury Lane (16 April), Mme. Valleria play- 
ing the title role. It was given at Breslau 
in 1890. On 12 July 1890 ' Esmeralda' was 
performed at Covent Garden in French. 
Another opera, ' The Golden Web,' which 



was left unfinished so far as regards the 
scoring, was completed by Sydney P. Wad- 
dington, and was produced posthumously at 
the Court Theatre, Liverpool, on 15 Feb. 1893. 
In 1881 Thomas's choral ode, ' The Sun 
Worshippers,' was brought out at the Norwich 
festival. His unfinished cantata, ' The Swan 
and the Skylark,' which Professor Villiers 
Stanford completed, was given at the Bir- 
mingham festival in 1894. Thomas died 
prematurely on 20 March 1892. 

In addition to the works alreadymentioned 
Thomas composed a cantata, ' Out of the 
Deep ; ' a ' suite de ballet ' for orchestra, pro- 
duced at Cambridge on 9 June 1887 ; a violin 
sonata, several vocal scenas, and a very large 
number of songs, many of which enjoy a 
well-merited vogue. On 13 July 1892 a 
concert (in which most of the leading operatic 
singers of the day took part) was given at 
St. James's Hall, London, to help to found 
a scholarship in memory of Thomas at the 
Royal Academy of Music. The effort was 
successful, and the Goring Thomas scholar- 
ship is now competed for annually. 

Thomas was one of the most richly gifted 
of the British school of musical composers. 
His works, which show traces of their author's 
French training, are melodious and refined, 
while his orchestration is beautiful. 

[Times, 22 March 1892; Diet, of British 
Musical Biogr. ; The Overture, iii. 21 ; the pro- 
gramme-book of the concert mentioned in the 
text gives an authentic list of Thomas's works, 
published and unpublished; information from 
the composer's brother, Mr. Charles Thomas.] 

E. H. L. 

THOMAS, DAVID (1760?-! 822), Welsh 
poet, best known as ' Dafydd Ddu Eryri,' was 
born about 1760 at Pen y Bont in the parish 
of Llan Beblig, Carnarvonshire. His father, 
Thomas Griffith, was a weaver, and the son 
for a time followed that occupation, but in 
1781 abandoned it for that of schoolmaster, 
which he exercised almost without inter- 
mission until his death. He contrived to 
acquire some knowledge of Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, and also became, under the 
tuition of Robert Hughes (Robin Ddu o 
Fon), then schoolmaster at Carnarvon, pro- 
ficient in the Welsh ' strict ' metres. As a 
bard of promise he was elected in October 
1785 a member of the London 'Gwyned- 
digion ' Society. He competed unsuccess- 
fully for the society's medal at Bala in 1789, 
the subject being 'The Life of Man,' but 
was victorious at St. Asaph in 1790 on 
'Liberty,' and at Llanrwst in 1791 on 'Truth.' 
In consequence of his success he was sus- 
pended from competition for two years, a 
measure which induced him to give up com- 



Thomas 



177 



Thomas 



peting altogether. In 1791 the three 
' awdlau ' were printed in London. During 
this year and the next Thomas kept school at 
Llanystumdwy; in 1793 and 1794 he taught 
at Pentraeth, Anglesey, and was also en- 
gaged in arranging the valuable Panton manu- 
scripts at Plas Gwyn. He then took up the 
business of coal-meter at Amlwch, and after- 
wards at Red Wharf Bay, but ultimately 
returned to Carnarvonshire to teach, living 
for the most part at Waen Fawr, his native 
village. In 1810 he published at Dolgelly 
' Corph y Gainc,' a collection of Welsh 
poems, very many of them from his own 
pen; in 1817 a second edition of the 
' Diddanwch Teuluaidd ' appeared at Car- 
narvon under his editorship. He was the 
chief contributor to the ' Cylchgrawn 
Cymraeg,' of which five numbers were pub- 
lished at Trefecca and Carmarthen in 1793 
and 1794, and acted as adjudicator in the 
eisteddfodau of Tremadog (1811), and Car- 
narvon (1821). He was accidentally drowned 
in the river Cegin while returning from 
Bangor to his home on 30 March 1822, and 
was buried in Llanrug churchyard. Dafydd 
Ddu's work as a poet, facile and vigorous 
though it be, is less remarkable than the 
position he held as bardic mentor to the 
school of poets which sprang up in his day 
in Carnarvonshire. He did much to secure 
the continuity of the old bardic traditions 
which were threatened by the innovating 
tendencies of Dr. William Owen Pughe [q.v.J 
and his London supporters. Many of his 
letters are printed in ' Adgof uwch Anghof ' 
(Penygroes, 1883). 

[Memoir in Cambro-Briton (1822), iii. 426, 
433 ; Leathart's History of the Gwyneddigion, 
1831; Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry; Ashton's Hanes 
Llenyddiaeth Gymreig; letters in Adgof uwch 
Anghof.] J. E. L. 

THOMAS, DAVID (1813-1894), divine, 
son of William Thomas, a dissenting mini- 
ster of Vatson, near Tenby, was born in Pem- 
brokeshire in 1813. For some years he fol- 
lowed a mercantile career, giving his Sundays 
to preaching and school teaching. At the 
solicitation of his friends, Nun Morgan 
Harry [q. v.] and Caleb Morris, he gave up 
business to devote himself wholly to the 
ministry. He then entered Newport-Pagnell 
College, where, under the instruction of the 
Rev. T. B. Bull and the Rev. Josiah Bull, he 
Lad a successful career. His first charge was 
the congregational church at Chesham, where 
he laboured for three years. In 1844 he 
came to London as minister of the indepen- 
dent church at Stockwell, and remained there 
until 1877, when he retired from active ser- 
vice. During his ministry at Stockwell his 

VOL. LVI. 



teaching was much appreciated by an ever- 
widening circle of influential minds, who 
gathered from far and near, attracted by the 
originality of his thinking and the charm of 
his personality. For his congregation he 
compiled ' A Biblical Liturgy for the Use 
of Evangelical Churches and "Homes,' 1856, 
which was adopted by some other inde- 
pendent churches, and ran to twelve editions. 
A further contribution to public worship 
was ' The Augustine Hymn Book, a Hymnal 
for all Churches,' 1866, which contains some 
fine hymns from his own pen, especially 
that beginning 

Show pity, Lord, 

For we are frail and faint. 

In the formation of the character of Mrs. 
Catherine Booth, the ' mother of the Salva- 
tion Army,' he had a considerable share 
(BoOTH-TuCKEB, Life of Catherine Booth, 
1892, i. 83-6, 134) ; and among the members 
of the Stockwell church was the Rev.Wilson 
Carlile, rector of St. Mary-at-IIill, East- 
cheap, the founder of the Church Army. 

Thomas was the originator of the univer- 
sity of Wales at Aberystwith in 1872, and 
of the Working Men's Club and Institute in 
1862, of which Lord Brougham was presi- 
dent. He was the founder of 'ThejDial' 
newspaper, which was first issued on 7 Jan. 
1860, and after 4 June 1864 was incorporated 
with the ' Morning Star ; ' and it was under 
his impulse that the ' Cambrian Daily Leader ' 
was started at Swansea in 1861 by his second 
son, David Morgan Thomas, a barrister. 
He died at Ramsgate on 30 Dec. 1894, and 
was buried at Norwood cemetery. His wife, 
who died in 1873, was daughter of David 
Rees, a shipowner of Carmarthenshire. By 
her he had two sons Urijah Rees, mini- 
ster at Redland Park, Bristol ; David Mor- 
gan Thomas, previously mentioned, and two 
daughters. 

The literary undertaking with which hu 
name is most prominently associated is ' The 
Homilist, or Voice for the Truth,' which was 
commenced in March 1852, and, under the 
management of himself and his son, ran to 
upwards of fifty volumes, with an aggregate 
circulation of about, a hundred and twenty 
thousand copies. Through its influence he 
lessened in a great degree the differences 
opinion between the English and American 
pulpits. Other works by Thomas are : 1. The 
Crisis of Being: six lectures to young men 
on Religious Decision,' 1849; 4th edit .1864. 
2 The Core of Creeds, or St. Peter s Keys, 
1851. 3. ' The Progress of Being: six lectures 
on the True Progress of Man, 1 
edit. 1864. 4. ' The Genius of the Gospeli 



Thomas 



178 



Thomas 



bomiletical commentary on the Gospel of St. 
Matthew,' 1864; 2nd edit. 1873. 5. ' AHomi- 
letic Commentary on the Acts,' 1870 ; 2nd 
edit. 1889. 6. ' The Practical Philosopher: a 
Daily Monitor for the Business Men of Eng- 
land,' 1873, with portrait of the author. 
7. ' Problemata Mundi : the Book of Job 
exegetically considered,' 1878. His com- 
plete works were issued in nine volumes 
between 1882 and 1889 under the title ' The 
Homilistic Library.' 

In ' The Pulpit Commentary on the Ten 
Prophets ' and ' The Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon,' 
edited by Henry Donald Maurice Spence 
and Joseph Samuel Exell, 1887-93, many 
of the homilies are contributed by David 
Thomas, and signed ' D. T.' 

[Congregational Year Book, 1896, pp. 237-9; 
Times. 1 Jan. 1895; Bookseller, 9 Jan. 1895.1 

G-. C. B. 

THOMAS, EDWARD (1813-1886), 
Indian antiquary, born on 31 Dec. 1813, the 
son of Houoratus Leigh Thomas [q. v.], was 
educated at the East India College at Hailey- 
bury. He went to India in 1832 as a ' writer' 
in the Bengal service of the company. Ill- 
health interfered with his duties, and com- 
pelled several absences in England on sick 
leave ; and when Lord Dalhousie, struck by 
his abilities, offered him in 1852 the post of 
foreign secretary to the government of India, 
he was reluctantly obliged to decline it, feel- 
ing himself unequal to the strain. After 
acting for a short time as judge at Delhi, he 
was appointed superintending judge of the 
Saugor and Nerbudda territory. He retired 
on a pension in 1857, and spent the rest of 
his life in scholarly pursuits, attending the 
meetings of learned societies and writing 
numerous essays and articles on oriental 
archaeology. He died in Kensington on 
10 Feb. 1886. 

By breaking ground in a dozen obscure 
subjects such as Bactrian, Indo-Scythic, 
and Sassanian coins, Indian metrology, 
Persian gems and inscriptions Thomas 
rendered important services to science, which 
were recognised by his election as a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 8 June 1871, as cor- 
respondent of the Institute of France in 
January 1873, and as honorary member of the 
Russian Academy, and by his decoration as 
companion of the Indian Empire. His chief 
published volumes were his 'Chronicles of 
the Pathan Kings of Delhi' (1847; 2nd 
enlarged edit. 1871), and his edition of James 
Prinsep's 'Essays on Indian Antiquities 'and 
' Useful Tables ' (2 vols. 1858), which he en- 
riched with valuable notes, and rendered an 
indispensable work of reference for oriental 



archaeologists. Other noteworthy publica- 
tions were his 'Coins of the Kings of 
Ghazni' (1847, 1858), 'Initial Coinage of 
Bengal ' (1886, 1873), ' Early Sassanian In- 
scriptions' (1868), 'Ancient Indian Weights' 
(1874, being part i. of the new ' Numismata 
Orientalia ' which he edited for Nicholas Tr iib- 
ner [q. v.]), and ' The Revenue of the Mughal 
Empire' (1871,1882). His numerous short 
papers in the transactions of learned societies, 
albeit often avowedly premature and contain- 
ing tentative views which later study caused 
him to modify or abandon, not only bore the 
marks of a fine gift for palaeography, numis- 
matics, and a wide range of archaeology, but 
gave a fresh impetus to the science, and 
stimulated other students. Many of these 
papers appeared in the 'Numismatic Chro- 
nicle' between 1847 and 1883, but the greater 
number were contributed to the ' Journal ' of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, of which he was a 
member for forty years and treasurer for 
twenty-five, and in which his influence and 
advice were deeply felt and valued. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
obituary by the present writer in Athenaeum, 
21 and 28 Feb. 1886; Annual Eep. Eoyal 
Asiatic Soc. May 1886 ; Men of the Time, 1884.1 

S. L.-P. 

THOMAS, ELIZABETH (1677-1731), 
poetaster, known as ' Corinna,' the daughter 
of Emmanuel Thomas (d. 1677) of the Inner 
Temple, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Osborne of Sittingbourne, was born 
in 1677. During 1699 Elizabeth, who was 
a great celebrity hunter, managed to inveigle 
Dryden into a correspondence, and two of 
the poet's letters to the lady are still pre- 
served (Works, ed. Scott, xviii. 164 seq.) 
Dryden professed to detect in her manner 
much of the 'matchless Orinda' [see PHILIPS, 
KATHEKINE], and he conferred upon her (by 
request) the poetic name ' Corinna,' after the 
Theban poetess. ' I would,' says the gallant 
poet, ' have called you Sapho, but that I hear 
you are handsomer.' After Dryden's death 
she kept up a correspondence with Mrs. 
Creed and other members of the family. Dur- 
ing her early career she seems to have resided 
with her mother in Dyott Street, Bloomsbury . 
On 16 April 1717 there died Richard Gwin- 
net [q. v.], a gentleman of means, who had, 
she declares, repeatedly offered her marriage. 
Many years afterwards she published the 
letters (No. 4 infra) which had, she stated, 
passed between them during their long court- 
ship. In the correspondence she assumed the 
name of ' Corinna,' and Gwinnet that of ' Py- 
lades.' The latter bequeathed his ' Corinna' 
600/., of which sum she managed to obtain 
213/. from the lawyers and relatives. This 



Thomas 



179 



Thomas 



was rapidly absorbed by creditors after her 
mother s death in January 1718-19. Hitherto 
she declares that ' platonic love ' had been 
her ruling passion, and she published some 
'Poems' inspired by this sentiment in 1722. 
In the meantime, as Scott observes with 
more probability than politeness, it would 
seem that ' her person as well as her writings 
were dedicated to the service of the public.' 
While under the protection of Henry Crom- 
well, the correspondent of Pope, some letters 
of Pope came into her clutches. In 1726 
she sold twenty-five of these letters for ten 
guineas to Curll, by whom they were promptly 
published. They appeared on 12 Aug. 1726 
as ' Mr. Pope's familiar Letters . . . written 
to Henry Cromwell, Esq. between 1707 and 
1712, with original Poems by Mr. Pope, Mr. 
Cromwell, and Sappho' (cf. DILKE, Papers 
of a Critic, i. 289-90). The transaction led 
to the long series of manoeuvres by which 
Pope schemed to invest with an appearance 
of spontaneity and artless grace the publica- 
tion of his carefully revised correspondence 
[see CURLL, EDMUND, and POPE, ALEXANDER]. 
The original letters sold by Mrs. Thomas to 
Curll were bequeathed by Richard Rawlin- 
on [q. v.] to the Bodleian. Pope having pro- 
fessed to believe that the letters were stolen, 
the fact was expressly denied upon the title- 
page of the second edition in 1727. It seems 
probable that Mrs. Thomas attempted to ' 
subsist for a time upon the products of black- j 
mailing, but early in 1727 she became quite 
destitute, and was thrown into the Fleet 
prison, then under the wardenship of the 
infamous Thomas Bambridge. Under an act 
of insolvency a warrant was issued for her 
release in 1729 ; but in consequence of her 
extreme indigence and inability to pay the 
gaoler's fees, she was unable to regain her 
liberty. Probably about 1727, in order to raise 
a few shillings, she concocted a harrowing 
but almost entirely fictitious account of Dry- 
den's death and funeral [see DRYDEN, JOHN]. 
This she disposed of to Curll, who intro- 
duced it into his Grub Street 'Memoirs of 
Congreve' in 1730. ' Mrs.' Thomas also con- 
trived to extract some didactic letters from 
Henry Norris of Bemerton, which she pub- 
lished in a cheap duodecimo to relieve her 
necessities while in the Fleet. On 16 April 
1730 she addressed to Sir Joseph Jekyll from 
prison a pitiable appeal for some means of 
support and a ' few modest fig leaves ' to cover 
her. Two months later she was enabled to 
remove to lodgings in Fleet Street, where 
she died on 5 Feb. 1730-1 (Hist. Reg. 1731, 
Chron. Diary, p. 11). She was buried in 
the churchyard of St. Bride's, at the expense 
of Margaret, lady De La Warr. Swift's 'Co- 



rinna, a Ballad,' from the reference in the last 
stanza to the Atalantis,' would seem to 
have been aimed at Mrs. Manley; but the 
contents, as well as the title, make it more 
appropriate to Mrs. Thomas (Swirr, Wurkt, 
ed. Scott, 1824, xii. 300). 

The writings of 'Corinna' comprise: 
1. ' Poems on several Occasions. Bv a Lady ' 
1722, 8vo, 1726 and 1727. 2. 'Codrus; or 
the Dunciad dissected. To which is added 
Farmer Pope and his Son,' 1729, a small 
sixpenny octavo, written for, and perhaps in 
conjunction with, Edmund Curll. 3. ' The 
Metamorphoses of the Town ; or a View of 
the present Fashions. A Tale, after the 
manner of Fontaine,' 1730, 8vo: 2nd edit., 
to which is added Swift's 'Journal of a 
Modern Lady,' 1730, 1731 ; 1731 (4th edit.) 
'By the late celebrated Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thomas, who has so often obliged the town 
under the name of Corinna' (the British 
Museum has William Cowper's copy). 4. 'Py- 
lades and Corinna ; or Memoirs of the Lives, 
Amours, and Writings of Richard Gwinnet, 
Esquire, and Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, junior. 
. . . To which is prefixed the Life of Corinna, 
written by herself,' 1731, 2 vols. 8vo (dedi- 
cated to the Duchess of Somerset and Lord 
and Lady De LaWarr). The ' autobiography,' 
for the most part a tissue of absurdities, was 
abridged for Gibber's ' Lives of the Poets' 
(iv. 146 seq.) 

An engraving of ' Mrs. Eliz. Thomas, set. 
30,' by G. King, is prefixed to the first volume 
of ' Pylades and Corinna.' 

[Malone's Dryden.i. 354 seq. ; Dryden's Works, 
ed. Scott, xviii. 164 seq.; Pope's Works, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope, iv. 327, vi. 36. 61, 419, 
434; Steele's Tatler, 1823, vol. i.; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. xiix. 281 ; Allibone's Diet, of Eng- 
lish Lit. ; Noble's Continuation of Granger, vol. 
ii. ; Lowndes's Bibliogr. Man. (Bohn) ; Cibber's 
Lives of the Poets, iv. 146-54 ; Remarks on the 
Fleet Prison, 1733 ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anon, and Pseudon.Lit. pp. 1607, 1951.] 

T. S. 

THOMAS, ERNEST CHESTER (1850- 
1892), bibliographer, the eldest son of John 
Withiel Thomas, born on 28 Oct. 1850 at 
Birkenhead, was educated at Manchester 
grammar school, matriculated from Trinity 
College, Oxford, on 17 Oct. 1870, and gra- 
duated B.A. in June 1875. He became a 
student at Gray's Inn on 7 M;ty 1-71, and, 
having won the Bacon scholarship of the 
inn in May 187o, published the following 
year a volume on ' Leading Cases in ( ' 
tutional Law briefly stated' (2nd edit. 1 *>.". 
In 187o and 1876 Thomas studied in tin- 
universities of Jena and Bonn, and produced 
in 1877 the first volume of a translation of 



Thomas 



1 80 



Thomas 



Lange's ' Geschichte des Materialismus,' the 
second volume of which appeared in 1880, 
and the third in 1881. He issued in 1878 
' Leading Statutes summarised for the use 
of Students,' and in the same year became 
joint honorary secretary of the Library 
Association with Mr. H. R. Tedder, with 
whom he collaborated in writing the article 
' Libraries ' in the ninth edition of the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica ' (1882). He was 
called to the bar on 29 June 1881. He 
edited the ' Monthly Notes ' of the Library 
Association for 1882, and published in Janu- 
ary 1884 the first number of the ' Library 
Chronicle : a Journal of Librarianship and 
Bibliography,' which he carried on until 
1888. 

His chief claim to notice is his edition of 
the ' Philobiblon of Richard de Bury, bishop 
of Durham, treasurer and chancellor of Ed- 
ward III ' (London, 1888, sm. 8vo ; also large 
paper), of which he produced the first really 
critical text, based upon the early editions 
and a personal examination of twenty-eight 
manuscripts. The notes clear up most of 
the obscurities which have embarrassed suc- 
cessive editors and translators. The trans- 
lation is scholarly and the bibliography a 
model of careful research. It is an illustra- 
tion of Thomas's conscientious methods that, 
a later investigation having led him to doubt 
the real authorship of the ' Philobiblon,' he 
printed a pamphlet which questioned the fair 
literary fame of Richard de Bury. Thomas 
had at one time a small practice at the bar, 
but his life was chiefly devoted to literature 
and librarianship. He was a man of exten- 
sive reading, a brilliant talker, a keen de- 
bater, an excellent writer. He edited several 
volumes for the Library Association, and 
contributed many articles and papers to the 
proceedings and journals of that society, 
which owes much to his self-denying labours, 
and to which, with several colleagues, he 
acted as honorary secretary for twelve years. 
He died at Tunbridge Wells on 5 Feb. 1892. 

[Biography, with a complete bibliography, by 
the present writer, reprinted from the ' Library,' 
1893, iv. 73-80; personal knowledge.] 

H. E. T. 

THOMAS, FRANCIS SHEPPARD 

(1794P-1857), archivist, was born at Kings- 
ton in Herefordshire in 1793 or 1794. In 
1826 he entered the Public Record Office in 
Chancery Lane, where he rose to the posi- 
tion of secretary. In 1846 he privately 
printed a useful collection of passages from 
public records relating to the departments 
of state under the title ' Notes of Materials 
for the History of Public Departments/ with 



an account of the contents of the state paper 
office (London, fol.) This was followed in 
1848 by a more elaborate work on the ex- 
chequer, which comprised a sketch of the- 
entire central financial machinery of Eng- 
land and Ireland. It was entitled ' The An- 
cient Exchequer of England, the Treasury r 
and Origin of the Present Management cf 
the Exchequer and Treasury of Ireland' 
(London, 8vo). In the following year ap- 
peared ' A History of the State Paper Office*" 
(London, 8vo), elaborated from the sketch of 
the department which he had already given 
in ' Notes for the History of Public Depart- 
ments.' In 1852 he wrote an explanatory 
preface to ' Liber Munerum Publicorum 
Hibernise,' by Rowley Lascelles [q. v.], which 
was then first offered to the public. In 
1853 appeared his ' Handbook to Public- 
Records, and in 1856 ' Historical Notes r 
(3 vols.), which was perhaps his most impor- 
tant work. It consists of a collection of 
short notes, chiefly biographical, compiled 
while he was arranging the papers in the- 
state paper office, and afterwards supple- 
mented by further research. Thomas died 1 
at Croydon on 27 Aug. 1857. 

[Thomas's Works ; Gent. Mag. 1857, ii. 469; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

THOMAS, FREDERICK JENNINGS- 
(1786-1855), rear-admiral, younger son of 
Sir John Thomas (1749-1828) of Wenvoe- 
Castle, Glamorganshire, fifth baronet, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of John Parker of 
Hasfield Court, Gloucestershire, was born 
on 19 April 1786. He entered the navy in 
March 1799 on board the Boston on the 
North American station, and afterwards ii> 
the West Indies. In the autumn of 1803 
he joined the Prince of Wales, flagship of 
Sir Robert Calder [q. v.], and was present 
in the action of 22 July 1805. On 19 Sept. 
he was appointed acting lieutenant of the 
Spartiate, and in her was present in the- 
battle of Trafalgar. His commission as lieu- 
tenant was confirmed on 14 Feb. 1806. He 
continued in the Spartiate off Rochefort, and 
afterwards in the Mediterranean till Novem- 
ber 1809, when he was for a few months on 
board the Antelope, the flagship of Sir John 
Duckworth, and was then sent to Cadiz, 
where he was employed for the next three 
years in the defence of the town against the 
French flotilla ; was promoted to be com- 
mander on 4 March 1811, and second in 
command of the English flotilla. Towards 
the end of 1813 he was acting captain of the 
San Juan, the flagship of Rear-admiral 
Samuel Hood Linzee at Gibraltar. He was 
posted on 8 Dec. 1813, and returned to Eng- 



Thomas 



181 



Thomas 



land with Linzee in the Eurotas in 1814. 
He had no further employment afloat, but 
married on 7 Aug. 1816, Susannah, daughter 
of Arthur Atherley of Southampton, and 
seems to have settled down in that neigh- 
bourhood. He accepted the retired rank of 
rear-admiral on 1 Oct. 1846, and died at 
Hill, near Southampton, on 19 Dec. 1855, 
leaving three sons and a daughter. He was 
buried at Millbrook, near Southampton. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 
1856, i. 303 ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; 
Napier's Hist, of the War in the Peninsula, bk. 
xii. ch. ii.] J. K. L. 

THOMAS, GEORGE (1756 P-1802), 
adventurer in India, an Irishman, born about 
1756 at Koscrea, Tipperary, was a quarter- 
master, or, according to some accounts, a 
common sailor in the British navy. About 
the end of 1781 he deserted from a man-of- 
war at Madras, and took service under the 
Poligar chiefs of the Carnatic. Going to 
Delhi in 1787, he was employed by the 
Begum Sumru of Sirdhana, who made him 
commander of her army. In 1788, when the 
moghul emperor of Delhi, Shah Alum, with 
the assistance of the begum's troops, was 
laying siege to Gokalgarh, the stronghold 
of a rebellious vassal, Thomas repulsed a 
sortie of the garrison, saved the emperor 
from capture, and turned the fortunes of the 
day. Being degraded in 1792 for miscon- 
duct, or, more possibly, displaced in the 
begum's favour by the Frenchman, Le Vais- 
eau, his old enemy, Thomas transferred his 
services to Scindia's cousin, Appa Rao, the 
Mahratta governor of Meerut, for whom he 
raised troops, and drilled them, as far as he 
could, on the European system. As a 
reward the district of Jhajjar was assigned 
to him, and he was made warden of the 
Sikh marches. He now built the fort of 
Georgegarh, known to the natives as Jehaz- 
garh, and established a military post at 
Hansi, eighty-nine miles north-west of Delhi, 
as a bulwark against the Sikhs. In 1795 
he made his peace with the begum Sumru, ; 
whom he helped to suppress a mutiny and 
to recover possession or ner territory east of | 
the Jumna. Shortly after Appa Rao's death 
(1797) Thomas asserted his independence, , 
seized Ilissar and Hansi, and began to en- j 
croach on the neighbouring Sikh and Rajput 
states. By the end of 1799 his authority ex- 
tended over all Hissar, Hansi, and Sirsa, and 
a greater part of Rohtak ; and he was the 
most powerful ruler on the right bank of 
the Jumna, or, as he said himself, dictator of 
all the countries belonging to the Sikhs south 
of the Sutlej. His headquarters were at 
Hansi. His annual revenue was reckoned 



at 200,000/. He started a mint and gun 
factories, maintained a large military force, 
levied tribute from Sikh states, ' and would 
probably have been master of them all, in 
the room of Ranjit Singh, had not the jea- 
lousy of Perron and other French officers in 
the Mahratta army interposed ' (SLEEMAN). 
In 1797 he had invited the principal Sikh 
chieftains to join him in opposing the Mah- 
rattas and conquering northern India. He 
projected an expedition to the mouths of the 
Indus, intending to transport his army in 
boats from Ferozepore. Another scheme was 
the conquest of the Punjab, which he offered 
to carry out on behalf of the British govern- 
ment, hoping, he said, to have the honour 
of planting the standard of England on the 
banks of the Attock. But he had already 
reached the height of his power. The Sikh 
chieftains east of the Sutlej, driven to 
desperation by his frequent forays, sought 
help from Perron, Scindia's French general 
at Delhi, who sent a force under Captain 
Felix Smith, supported by Louis Bourquin, 
to besiege Georgegarh. Thomas faced his 
enemies with boldness and at first with suc- 
cess. He compelled Smith to raise thesiege 
of Georgegarh, and defeated Bourquin at 
Beri. But the Mahrattas were quickly rein- 
forced ; Jats and Rajputs gathered from the 
south, Sikhs from the north, and Georgegarh 
was threatened by an army of thirty thou- 
sand men, with 110 cannon. Some of his 
chief officers now deserted him, and he fled 
by night to Hansi. He was followed and 
again surrounded, and, with traitors in his 
camp, was compelled early in 1802 to sur- 
render. It was agreed that he should be 
escorted to the British frontier, where he 
arrived early in 1802 with a lakh and a 
half of rupees and property worth another 
lakh. Proceeding on his way to Calcutta, 
he died at Burhampore, Bengal, on 22 Aug. 
1802. 

Colonel James Skinner ( 1 778-1 841 ) [q. , v.] t 
who with Scindia's troops fought against 
Thomas at Georgegarh and Hansi, has de- 
scribed his tall martial figure, great strengt h, 
bold features, and erect carriage, adding that 
in disposition he was frank, generous, and 
humane, though liable to sudden out bursts of 
temper. Sir William Henry Sleeman [a. v.] 
says ' he was unquestionably a man of ex- 
traordinary military genius, and his ferocity 
and recklessness as to the means he^ used 
were quite in keeping with the times.' H.> 
is still spoken of with admiration by the 
natives of the Rohtak district, ' whose affec- 
tions he gained by his gallantry and kind- 
ness ; and he seems never to have tarnished 
the name of his country by the gross actions 



Thomas 



182 



Thomas 



that most military adventurers have been 
guilty of (Rohtak Gazetteer). 

There is a portrait of ' General George 
Thomas/ apparently by a native artist, in 
his ' Memoirs,' by Capt. William Francklin 
[q. v.] 

[Francklin's Military Memoirs of Mr. George 
Thomas, Calcutta, 1803; Compton's Military 
Adventurers of Hindustan, 1892, pp. 109-220, 
with portrait ; Asiatic Annual Register, 1 800 ; 
Calcutta Review, v. 362 ; Punjab District 
Gazetteers (Rohtak and Hissar).] S. W. 

THOMAS, GEORGE HOUSMAN 
(1824-1868), painter, was born in London 
on 17 Dec. 1824. After serving his appren- 
ticeship to the wood-engraver George Bon- 
ner in London, he began his professional career 
in Paris, first as an engraver, afterwards as a 
draughtsman on the wood. In 1846 he went to 
the United States to illustrate a New York 

Biper, and remained there about two years, 
uring this time he obtained a commission 
from the government of the United States to 
design bank-notes. His health compelled him 
to return to Europe, and he went to Italy. 
He was present, at the siege of Rome by the 
French in 1849, and sent many sketches of 
the siege to the ' Illustrated London News.' 
After spending two years in Italy he re- 
turned to England. About 1850 he produced 
a remarkable set of woodcuts for 'Uncle Tom's 
Cabin.' He also illustrated very many other 
books, including Longfellow's ' Hiawatha,' 
Foxe's ' Book of Martyrs,' and Trollope's 
' Last Chronicle of Barset.' He exhibited his 
first picture, ' St. Anthony's Day at Rome,' at 
the British Institution in 1851 ; ' Garibaldi 
at Rome,' painted from sketches made in 
1849, was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1854, and attracted much attention. His 
next picture was ' Ball at the Camp, Bou- 
logne,' 1856. He obtained the patronage of 
Queen Victoria, and painted the following 
pictures by her majesty's command: 'Dis- 
tribution of Crimean Medals, 18 May 1855,' 
1858 ; ' Review in the Champ de Mars in 
Honour of Queen Victoria,' 1859: 'Parade 
at Potsdam, 17 Aug. 1858,' I860; 'Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales,' ' Homage of 
the Princess Royal at the Coronation of the 
King of Prussia,' and Marriage of the Princess 
Alice,' 1863; 'The Queen and Prince Con- 
sort at Aldershot, 1859,' 1866 ; ' The Children 
of Princess Alice, 1866; 'The Queen investing 
theSultanwitli theOrder of the Garter,' 1868, 
painted from a sketch by Princess Louise. 
All these were exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy in the years named. Of his other exhi- 
bits, which were either military or domestic 
subjects, ' Rotten Row ' (1862) "was the most 
remarkable. His paintings were bright and 



animated and gained him considerable popu- 
larity, but had none of the higher qualities of 
art. " Thomas resided at Kingston and Sur- 
biton till illness caused his removal to Bou- 
logne, where he died on 21 July 1868. A 
collection of his works was exhibited in Bond 
Street in June 1869, and his sketches and 
studies were sold at Christie's in July 1872. 
[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Athenaeum, 
1 Aug. 1868; Art Journal, 1868, p. 181 (bio- 
graphy, 1869 (criticism).] C. D. 

THOMAS, HONORATUS LEIGH 

(1769-1846), surgeon, the son of John Thomas- 
of Hawarden, Flint, by his wife Maria, sister 
of John Boydell [q. v.], was born on 26 March 
1769. On coming to London as a very 
young man, he presented a letter of intro- 
duction to John Hunter, the great surgeon. 
Hunter at once made an appointment with 
Thomas for five o'clock the following morn- 
ing, and on his presenting himself at that 
hour he found Hunter busily engaged dis- 
secting insects. He was appointed dresser 
to Hunter at St. George's Hospital and a 
pupil of William Cumberland Cruikshank 
[q. v.], the anatomist . He obtained the diploma 
of the Corporation of Surgeons on 16 Oct. 
1794, was an original member of the College 
of Surgeons, and was elected to the fellow- 
ship on its foundation in 1843. Thomas's 
early professional work was in the army and 
navy. He passed as 1st mate, 3rd rate 
(navy), on 5 July 1792, and, on the recom- 
mendation of Hunter, was appointed assistant 
surgeon to Lord Macartney's embassy to-. 
China in the same year [see MACARTNEY, 
GEOKGE, EARL MACARTNEY]. In 1799 he 
volunteered for medical service with the Duke 
of York's army in Holland. On the capitula- 
tion of the forces to the French enemy Tho- 
mas wished to remain with the wounded, 
who could not be moved. He was told that 
he could only stay as a prisoner, and he de- 
cided to remain in that capacity. As soon, 
however, as his services could be dispensed 
with he was allowed to return home. 

Thomas married the elder daughter of 
Cruikshank, and in 1800 succeeded to his 
father-in-law's practice in Leicester Place, 
where he resided for nearly half a century. 
Notwithstanding his position at the College 
of Surgeons, Thomas seems rather to have 
avoided surgery, and was generally called 
in for consultation in medical cases. In this 
branch of his profession he was very successful. 

At the College of Surgeons Thomas was a 
member of the court of assistants from 1818 
to 1845, examiner from 1818 to 1845, vice- 
president in 1827, 1828, 1836, and 1837, and 
president in 1829 and 1838. In 1827 he 



Thomas 



183 



Thomas 



delivered the Hunterian oration. In this 
oration there are some interesting personal 
reminiscences of Hunter. Thomas was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on ] 6 Jan. 1806. 
He was also a member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy of St. Petersburg. He died at Bel- 
mont, Torquay, on 26 June 1846. Edward 
Thomas [q. v.] was his son. 

In addition tohis Hunterian oration,Thomas 
published: 1. 'Description of an Herma- 
phrodite Lamb' (London Medical and Phy- 
sical Journal, ii. 1799). 2. ' Anatomical De- 
scription of a Male Rhinoceros' (Phil. Trans. 
1801, p. 145). 3. 'Case of Artificial Dila- 
tation of the Female Urethra' (Med. Chir. 
Trans, i. 123). 4. ' Case of Obstruction in 
the Large Intestines occasioned by a Biliary 
Calculus of extraordinary size' (ib. vol. vi. 
1845). There is a portrait in oil of Thomas 
by James Green at the Royal College of 
Surgeons. 

[Lancet, 1846, ii. 26 ; Proc. Royal Soc. v. 640 ; 
Clarke's Autobiographical Recollections of the 
Medical Profession, p. 113; and private infor- 
mation kindly supplied by Mrs. Foss and F. L. 
Hutchins, esq., grandchildren of Thomas.] 

J. B. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1691-1766), succes- 
sively bishop of Lincoln and Salisbury, born 
on 23 June 1691, was the son of a drayman 
in Nicholson's brewery in the parish of All 
Hallows the Great in the city of London, 
and was sent to the parish school (note in 
LE NEVE'S Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 28). He was 
admitted to Merchant Taylors' school on 
11 March 1702-3. He graduated B.A. in 
1713 and M.A. in 1717 from Catharine Hall, 
Cambridge, was made D.D. in 1728, and in- 
corporated at Oxford on 11 July of the same 
year. He became chaplain of the English 
factory at Hamburg, where he was highly 
popular with the merchants, published a 
paper in German called the ' Patriot ' in imi- 
tation of the ' Spectator,' and attracted the 
notice of George II, who voluntarily offered 
him preferment in England if his ministers 
would leave him any patronage to bestow. 
In 1736 he was presented to the rectory of 
St. Vedast's, Foster Lane ; he accompanied 
the king to Hanover at his personal request, 
and succeeded Dr. Lockyer as dean of Peter- 
borough in 1740, in spite of the opposition of 
the Duke of Newcastle (NEWTON, Autobiogr. 
pp. 81-5). In 1743 he was nominated to the 
bishopric of St. Asaph, but was immediately 
transferred to Lincoln, to which he was con- 
secrated at Lambeth on 1 April 1744. He 
was translated to Salisbury in November 
1761, died there on 19 July 1766, and was 
buried in the cathedral, where a tablet erro- 
neously gives his age as eighty-five instead 



of seventy-five. His library was sold 'in 
1767. He left one daughter, married to 
John Taylor, chancellor of Salisbury. Of 
his four wives, the first was a niece of Bishop 
Sherlock. The famous wedding-ring ' posy,' 
' If I survive I'll make them five,' is attri- 
buted to him. 

Thomas seems to have been a worthy man, 
though weak in the disposal of patronage. 
His knowledge of German had commended 
him to George II, who liked him, and refused 
to quarrel with him for having dined at 
Clietden with Frederick, prince of Wales. 
He was often confused with his namesakes 
of Winchester and Rochester, especially with 
the former, who also had held a city living, 
was a royal chaplain, preached well, and 
squinted. Thomas was also very deaf. He 
was a man of some humour, perhaps occa- 
sionally a practical joker (WAKEFIELD, Life, 
i. 15 ; Gent. Mag. 1783 i. 463, ii. 1008, 1784 
i. 80). Thomas was the author of sermons 
published between 1739 and 1756. His por- 
trait is in the palace at Salisbury. 

[Cassan's Bishops of Salisbury, iii. 313-19 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. passim; Abbey's English 
Church and its Bishops, ii. 75-6 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Robinson's Merchant Taylors' Register, 
ii. 9.] H. E. D. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1696-1781), succes- 
sively bishop of Peterborough, Salisbury, and 
Winchester, was the son of Stremer Thomas, 
a colonel in the guards ; he was born on 
17 Aug. 1696 at Westminster, and educated 
at Charterhouse school (FOSTER, Alumni 
O.ron.) He matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 28 March 1713, and took the 
degrees of B.A. 1716, M.A. 1719, B.D. 1727, 
and D.D. 1731. In 1720 he was elected 
fellow of All Souls' College, and, having 
been disappointed of a living promised to 
him by a friend of his father, took a curacy 
in London. Here his preaching attracted 
attention ; in 1731 he was given a prebend 
in St. Paul's, and was presented by the dean 
and chapter in 1733 to the rectory of St. 
Bene't and St. Peter, Paul's Wharf, which 
he retained till 1757 ; in 1742 he succeeded 
to a canonry of St. Paul's, and held it till 
1748. In 1742 he had been made one of 
George II's chaplains, and preached the Boyle 
lectures, which he did not publish ; and, 
having secured the favour of the king when 
Prince of Wales, he was at last-' popped into ' 
the bishopric of Peterborough, and conse- 
crated at Lambeth on 4 Oct. 1747; 

In 1752 he was selected to succeed Thomas 
Hayter [q v.], bishop -of Norwich, as pre- 
ceptor to the young Prince of Wales, after- 
wards George III, Lord Waldegrave being 
governor ; these appointments were directed 



Thomas 



184 



Thomas 



against the influence of the princess dowager. 
In 1757 he followed John Gilbert [a. v.], as 
bishop of Salisbury and also as clerk of the 
closet, and in 1761 was translated to Win- 
chester in succession to Benjamin Hoadly 
(1676-1761) [q. v.] He seems to have been 
a useful bishop as well as a good preacher, 
though Hurd(KiLVERT,Zz/e(/jHMrd, p. 119) 
speaks rather contemptuously of ' Honest 
Tom's ' laxity about patronage. 

He died at Winchester House, Chelsea, on 
1 May 1781, and was buried in Winchester 
Cathedral. He married Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Mulso of Twywell, Northampton- 
shire ; her brother Thomas married the bishop's 
sister, and their daughter, Mrs. Hester Cha- 
pone [q. v.], spent much of her time after her 
husband's death with her uncle and aunt 
at Farnham Castle. Mrs. Thomas died on 
19 Nov. 1778, leaving three daughters, who 
married respectively Newton Ogle, dean of 
Winchester; William Buller, afterwards 
bishop of Exeter; and Rear-admiral Sir 
Chaloner Ogle. 

There are portraits of the bishop at 
the palaces of Salisbury and Lambeth, and 
a fine mezzotint engraving (three-quarter 
length in robes of the Garter) by R. Sayer 
from a picture by Benjamin Wilson, pub- 
lished on 24 Jan. 1771. Richardson the 
novelist, in a letter to Miss Mulso, alludes 
to ' the benign countenance of my good lord 
of Peterborough,' a phrase which is borne 
out by the portraits. 

John Thomas published ten or eleven sepa- 
rate discourses, chiefly spital, fast, or charity 
sermons. He is credited with some scholar- 
ship, and with taste in letter-writing. 

[Cassan's Bishops of Salisbury, iii. 281- 
283, and Bishops of Winchester, ii. 270-77 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy ; Abbey's English 
Church and its Bishops, ii. 75 ; Life and Works 
of Mrs. Chapone ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

H. E. D. B. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1712-1793), bishop 
of Rochester, born at Carlisle on 14 Oct. 
1712, was the eldest son of John Thomas 
(d. 1747), vicar of Brampton in Cumberland, 
by his wife Ann, daughter of Richard Kel- 
sick of Whitehaven, a captain in the mer- 
chant service. The younger Thomas was 
educated at the Carlisle grammar school, 
whence he proceeded to Oxford, matricula- 
ting from Queen's College on 17 Dec. 1730. 
Soon after his admission he received a clerk- 
ship from the provost, Joseph Smith (1670- 
1756) [q. v.] After completing his terms 
he became assistant master at an academy 
in Soho Square, and afterwards private tutor 
to the younger son of Sir William Clayton, 
bart., whose sister he afterwards married. 



On 27 March 1737 Thomas was ordained 
a deacon, and on 25 Sept. received priest's 
orders. On 27 Jan. 1737-8 he was in- 
stituted rector of Bletchingley in Surrey, a 
living in the gift of Sir William Clayton. 
He graduated B.C.L. on 6 March 1741-2, 
and D.C.L. on 25 May 1742, and on 18 Jan. 
1748-9 he was appointed chaplain in or- 
dinary to George II, a post which he also 
retained under George III. On 23 April 
1754 he was made a prebendary of West- 
minster, and in 1762 he was appointed sub- 
almoner to the archbishop of York. On 
7 Jan. 1766 he was instituted to the 
vicarage of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, London, 
and in 1768 he became dean of Westminster 
and of the order of the Bath. On 13 Nov. 
1774 he was consecrated bishop of Roches- 
ter. He signalised his episcopacy by repair- 
ing the deanery at Rochester and rebuilding 
the bishop's palace at Bromley, which was 
in* a ruinous state. He died at Bromley on 
22 Aug. 1793, and was buried in the vault 
of the parish church of Bletchingley. He 
was twice married : first, in 1742, to Anne, 
sister of Sir William Clayton, bart., and 
widow of Sir Charles Blackwell, bart. She 
died on 7 July 1772, and on 12 Jan. 1776 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Bald- 
win of Munslow in Shropshire, and widow 
of Sir Joseph Yates [q. v.], judge of the court 
of king's bench. He left no children. Among 
other bequests he founded two scholarships 
at Queen s College for sons of clergymen edu- 
cated at the grammar school at Carlisle, and 
during his lifetime he established two simi- 
lar scholarships from Westminster school. 

Thomas's ' Sermons and Charges ' were 
collected and edited after his death by his 
nephew, George Andrew Thomas, in 1796 
(London, 8vo, 3rd ed. 1803). Several of his 
sermons were published separately in his 
lifetime. His portrait in the robes of the 
Bath, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is in 
the library of Queen's College. An engrav- 
ing from it by Joseph Baker is prefixed to 
his ' Sermons and Charges.' 

[Life of Thomas, by G. A. Thomas, prefixed 
to Sermons and Charges ; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. 1816; Gent. Mag. 1793 ii. 780, 863. 955, 
1794 i. 275; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 1854, ii. 
575, iii. 349, 366 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852, p. 33 ; 
American Church Review, xix. 528 ; Manning's 
History of Surrey, ed. Bray, ii. 315; Stanley's 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey, 5th ed. p. 477; 
Chester's London Marriage Licences, col. 1330.] 

E. I. C. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1813-1862), sculptor 
and architectural draughtsman, born at Chal- 
ford in Gloucestershire in 1813, was of 



Thomas 



185 



Thomas 



Welsh descent. In 1825 he was appren- 
ticed to a neighbouring mason, and later 
assisted his brother William, an architect at 
Birmingham. A monument by him at 
Huntingdon attracted the attention of Sir 
Charles Barry [q. v.], who employed him on 
the schools at Birmingham. He first attracted 
public notice at the time of the rebuilding 
of the houses of parliament, when, coming 
to London, he was at once engaged by Barry 
on the sculptural decorations of the new 
structure. His quick intelligence, technical 
facility, and organising talent soon marked 
him out as a valuable collaborator for the 
architect, and the army of skilled carvers 
and masons employed upon the ornamenta- 
tion of the building were placed practically 
under his sole control. His labours in this 
connection and the many commissions of a 
like nature resulting therefrom naturally 
hindered the production of more individual 
work. His only noticeable achievements of 
a more fanciful kind were the ' Queen of the 
Eastern Britons rousing her Subjects to Re- 
venge," Musidora,' ' Lady Godiva,' and ' Una 
and the Lion.' Of the great mass of deco- 
rative work carried out by him the most 
characteristic examples, says the ' Builder,' 
are ' the colossal lions at the ends of the 
Britannia Bridge over the Menai Straits, the 
large bas-reliefs at the Euston Square Sta- 
tion, the pediment and figures in front of 
the Great Western Hotel, figures and vases 
of the new works at the Serpentine, the deco- 
rative sculpture on the entrance piers of Buck- 
ingham Palace. ... In Edinburgh there 
are specimens of his handiwork on the life 
assurance building, besides the group of 
figures at the Masonic Hall, and the fountain 
at Holyrood. In Windsor Castle he was 
much engaged for the late prince consort.' 

He had further a considerable practice as 
an architectural draughtsman, and prepared 
the designs for the national bank at Glasgow, 
Sir Samuel Morton Peto's house at Somerley- 
ton, the mausoleum of the Houldsworth 
family, and the royal dairy at Windsor. 

His design for a grand national monument 
to Shakespeare and a design for a great 
majolica fountain (executed by Messrs. Min- 
ton, and lately in the horticultural gardens) 
were at the International Exhibition of 1862. 
He died at his house in Blomfield Road, 
Maida Hill, on 9 April 1862, leaving a widow 
and a daughter. Among the unfinished works 
in his studio at his death were statues of 
Joseph Sturge [q. v.] for the city of Birming- 
ham and of Sir Hugh Myddelton [q. v.] for 
Islington. He was a frequent exhibitor of 
busts and decorative subjects at the Royal 
Academy from 1838 to 1862. 



[Scott's British School of Sculpture; Art 
Journal, 1862; The Builder, 1862; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Diet, of Architecture.] 

W. A. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1795-1871), musical 
composer and Welsh song writer, also known 
as leuan Ddu, was born at Pibwr Llwyd, 
near Carmarthen, in 1795. He was edu- 
cated at Carmarthen, where subsequently he 
also kept a school for a short time. He then 
removed to Glamorganshire to follow the 
same occupation, and, except for a short 
period when he was clerk to ZephaniaWilliams 
the chartist, at Blaenau, Monmouthshire, 
his whole life was spent in keeping a private 
school of his own, first at Merthyr Tydfil, 
and from 1850 on at Pontypridd and Tre- 
forest successively. He was twice married, 
and died at Treforest on 30 June 1871, being 
buried at Glyntaff cemetery, where a monu- 
ment was erected over his grave by his 
' friends and pupils.' 

Thomas was one of the chief pioneers of 
choral training in the mining district of 
Glamorganshire, and is justly described in 
his epitaph as ' the first to lay the founda- 
tion of that prevailing taste for music which 
attained its triumph in the Crystal Palace 
(choral competition) in the years 1872 and 
1873.' For many years he regularly held 
musical classes at Merthyr and Pontypridd. 
In 1845 he published a collection of Welsh 
airs entitled ' Y Caniedydd Cymreig : the 
Cambrian Minstrel,' Merthyr, 4to. This con- 
tained forty-three pieces of his own composi- 
tion and a hundred and four old Welsh airs, 
one half of which he had gathered from the 
lips of the peasantry of Carmarthenshire and 
Glamorganshire, and which had never been 
previously published. For almost all these 
airs he wrote both the Welsh and English 
songs, several of which have been adopted 
in subsequent collections of Welsh music 
(cf. BRINLEY RICHARDS, Songs of Wales, 
pp. Hi, 39, 62,68,70). In 18-49 he published 
a poem on ' The Vale of Taff' (Merthyr, 8vo), 
which was followed in 1867 by a volume of 
poetry entitled ' Cambria upon Two Sticks.' 
Thomas also contributed many papers to 
magazines, and a prize essay of his on the 
Welsh harp was published in the ' Cambrian 
Journal ' for 1855. 

[M. 0. Jones's Cerddorion Cymreig (Welsh 
Musicians), pp. 131-3, 160.] D. LL. T. 

THOMAS, JOHN (1821-1892), inde- 
pendent minister, son of Owen and Mary 
Thomas, was born in Thomas Street, Holy- 
head, on 3 Feb. 1821. Owen Thomas 
[q. v.] was an elder brother. At the age of 
seventeen he left the Calvinistic methodist 



Thomas 



186 



Thomas 



church in Bangor, with which his family 
was connected, and joined the independents, 
among whom he began in August 1839 to 
preach. After keeping school for some time 
at Penmorfa, Carnarvonshire, and Prestatyn, 
Flintshire, he entered the dissenting academy 
of Marton, Shropshire, and subsequently that 
of Froodvale, Carmarthenshire. In March 
1842 he accepted the pastorate of Bwlch 
Newydd in the latter county, where he was 
ordained on 15 June 1842. His next pas- 
torate was that of Glyn Nedd, Glamorgan- 
shire, whither he moved in February 1850. 
In March 1854 he became minister of the 
Tabernacle Welsh independent church, 
Liverpool, in which town he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. His vigorous intellect 
and energetic spirit made him for half a 
century a prominent figure in his denomi- 
nation and in Welsh public movements 
generally. While a successful pastor and 
powerful preacher, he was even better 
known as a journalist, lecturer, organiser, 
and political speaker. He edited the ' Gwe- 
rinwr,' a monthly periodical, in 1855 and 
1856; the 'Anibynnwr,' another monthly, 
from 1857 to 1861 ; and the ' Tyst,' a weekly 
newspaper of the independents, jointly with- 
William Rees [q. v.J until 1872, and there- 
after as sole editor until his death. He had 
a large share in the 1662 commemoration 
movement which led to the building of the 
Memorial College at Brecon ; and he twice 
visited the United States, in 1865 and in 
1876, in the interests of the Welsh indepen- 
dent churches established there. He took a 
keen interest in the total abstinence move- 
ment from its beginning in North Wales in 
1835, and was one of its best known advo- 
cates. In 1876 he received the degree of D.D. 
from Middlebury College, Vermont. He 
was chairman of the Union of Welsh Inde- 
pendents in 1878, and of the Congregational 
Union of England and Wales in 1885. 
He died on 14 July 1892 at Uwch y Don, 
Colwyn, and was buried in Anfield cemetery, 
Liverpool. On 23 Jan. 1843 he married 
Mrs. Eliza Owens, widow of his predeces- 
sor at Bwlch Newydd. 

The following is a list of his published 
works: 1. A volume of essays and sermons, 
Liverpool, 1864. 2. 'Memoir of Three 
Brothers,' viz., J., D., and N. Stephens, 
independent ministers, Liverpool, 1876. 
3. ' History of the Independent Churches 
of Wales,' written jointly by Thomas and 
Thomas Rees (1815-1886) [q. v.], 4 vols., 
Liverpool, 1871-6. 4. A second volume of 
sermons, Wrexham, 1882. 5. 'Life of the 
Rev. J. Davies, Cardiff,' Merthyr, 1883. 
6. ' History of the Temperance Movement in 



Wales,' Merthyr, 1885. 7. ' Life of the Rev. 
Thomas Rees, D.D.,' Dolgelly, 1888. 8. Fifth 
volume of the ' History of the Churches,' 
written by Thomas only, Dolgelly, 1891. A 
novel, 'Arthur Llwyd y Felin,' was pub- 
lished posthumously (Liverpool, 1893). 
There is a portrait in oils of Thomas in 
the Memorial College, Brecon. 

[Information kindly furnished by Mr. Josiah 
Thomas, Liverpool ; articles in the Geninen (Oc- 
tober 1892) and Cymru (October 1892).] 

J. E. L. 

THOMAS, JOHN EVAN (1809-1873), 
sculptor, born in Brecon in 1809, was the 
eldest son of John Thomas of Castle Street, 
Brecon. He came to London and studied 
under Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey [q. v.] 
From 1835 to 1857 he exhibited frequently 
at the Royal Academy. His works were 
chiefly busts, and for many years he laboured 
at nothing else. Later in life, however, he 
executed several statues in marble and 
bronze and several portrait statuettes. 
Among his statues was a colossal bronze 
figure of the Marquis of Bute at Cardiff. 
He also sculptured a statue of the Duke of 
Wellington at Brecon, of Prince Albert on 
the Castle Hill, Tenby, of James Henry 
Vivian at Swansea, of the Prince of Wales 
at the Welsh schools at Ashford, of Sir 
Charles Morgan at Newport, and of Sir 
Joseph Bailey at Glanusk Park. About 
1857 Thomas retired to Penisha'r Pentre in 
Brecknockshire, where he filled the office of 
sheriff'. He died at his London residence, 
58 Buckingham Palace Road, on 9 Oct. 
1873, and was buried in Brompton cemetery. 
He was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries on 3 Feb. 1842. 

[Brecon County Times, 18 Oct. 1873; Ked- 
grave's Diet, of Artists.] W. A. 

THOMAS, JOHN FRYER (1797-1877), 
Madras civil servant, born in 1797, entered 
the service in 1816, and after holding mini- 
sterial appointments in the court of Sadr 
Adalat and officiating in various revenue and 
judicial appointments, including those of prin- 
cipal collector and magistrate and of judge 
of the provincial court of appeal and circuit, 
was eventually in 1844 appointed secretary, 
and in the following year chief secretary to 
the government of Madras, in both of which 
positions he exercised considerable influence 
over the governor, the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale [see HAT, GEORGE, eighth MARQUIS OF 
TWEEDDALE]. In 1850 he became a member 
of the governor's council, and in 1855 he re- 
tired from the service. He was a man of 
marked ability. Some of his minutes, re- 



Thomas 



187 



Thomas 



corded in very incisive language, are among 
the ablest papers in the archives of the 
Madras Presidency. Among them perhaps 
the most remarkable are a review of Mac- 
aulay's draft of the Indian penal code, and 
a minute on native education, written in 
1850, shortly after he joined the Madras 
government. He considered the educational 
policy then in force unduly ambitious, and 
held that the funds available, very limited in 
amount, ought to be expended rather in 
educating the many through the medium of 
the vernacular languages than in instruct- 
ing the few in the higher branches of lite- 
rature and science through the medium of 
English. He also advocated the adoption 
of the grant-in-aid system and its applica- 
tion to missionary schools as well as to 
others. He strongly supported and libe- 
rally contributed to missionary efforts, and 
deprecated the continued exclusion of the 
Bible from the course of instruction in go- 
vernment schools, differing on this point 
from James Thomason [q. v.] He died in 
London on 7 April 1877. 

[India Office Records ; Selections from the 
Records of the Madras Government, No. 2, 
1855 ; personal knowledge.] A. J. A. 

THOMAS, JOHN WESLEY (1798- 
1872), translator of Dante, born on 4 Aug. 
1798 at Exeter, was the son of John Thomas, 
a tradesman and leading Wesleyan local 
preacher in that city. In 1820 he went to 
London, attaching himself to the Hinde 
Street circuit, and in 1822 entered the itine- 
rating ranks of the Wesleyan ministry. 
After fifty years of active ministerial effort 
he died at Dumfries on 7 Feb. 1872. 

Although for the most part self-educated, 
Thomas was a considerable linguist, a poet 
of some capacity, and an artist of ability. 
He contributed largely to the ' Wesleyan 
Methodist Magazine' and other periodicals. 
His most important published works are : 
1. ' An Apology for Don Juan,' cantos i. and 
ii. 1824 ; 3rd ed. with canto iii. 1850 ; new 
edition, 1855 ; this is a review and criticism 
of Lord Byron's poetry written in the ' Don 
Juan ' stanza. 2. ' Lyra Britannica, or Se- 
lect Beauties of Modern English Poetry,' 
1830. 3. ' The Trilogy of Dante : " Inferno," 
1859; " Purgatorio," 1862 ; " Paradiso," 
1866.' An able translation of Dante's poem 
in the metre of the original, with scholarly 
notes and appendices. Its merits have been 
generally admitted by English students of 
Dante. 4. ' The Lord's Day, or the Christian 
Sabbath: its History, Obligation, Import- 
ance, and Blessedness,' 1865. 5. ' Poems on 
Sacred, Classical, Mediaeval, and Modern Sub- 



jects,' 1867. 6. ' The War of the Surplice : 
a Poem in Three Cantos,' 2nd ed. 1871 ; the 
troubles in 1845 of Henry Phillpotts [q. v.], 
bishop of Exeter, are the subject of this 
poem. 7. ' The Tower, the Temple, and the 
Minster : the Historical and Biographical 
Associations of the Tower of London, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and Westminster Abbey,' 
1873. 8. ' William the Silent, Prince of 
Orange,' 1873. 

[Christopher's Poets of Methodism, 1875, 
pp. 344-66 ; Methodist Recorder, February 
1872, pp. 79, 91; Christian World, 16 Feb. 
1872; Athenaeum, 1872, i. 337; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub.] R. B. 

THOMAS, JOSHUA (1719-1797), Welsh 
writer, was the eldest son of Morgan Thomas 
of Tyhen in the parish of Caio, Carmarthen- 
shire, where he was born on 22 Feb. 1719. 
In 1739 he was apprenticed to his uncle, 
Simon Thomas, who was a mercer and in- 
dependent minister at Hereford, and was 
the author of numerous works both in Welsh 
and English, mostly printed at a private 
press of his own, one of which, a popu- 
lar summary of universal history, entitled 
' Hanes y Byd a'r Amseroedd,' ran through 
several editions (ASHTOX, p. 159). In 1746 
Joshua married and settled in business at 
Hay, Breconshire, where he preached occa- 
sionally at the baptist chapel of Maesyberllan, 
of which church he was appointed co-pastor 
in 1749. In 1754 he undertook the pastor- 
ship of the baptist church of Leominster, 
where he kept a day-school until his death. 

Thomas translated into Welsh several 
works dealing with the doctrines of the bap- 
tist denomination, including the following : 
1. ' Dr. Gill's Reply to the Arguments for 
Infant Baptism, advanced by Griffith Jones 
of Llanddowror,' with some additions by 
Thomas himself, 1751. 2. ' Tystiolaeth y 
Credadyn am ei hawl i'r Nefoedd,' 1757. 
3. ' Samuel Ewer's Reply to Edward Hitchin 
on Infant Baptism,' with additions by 
Thomas, Carmarthen, 1767, 12mo. 4. 'Ro- 
bert Hall's Doctrine of the Trinity,' Car- 
marthen, 1794. 

But Thomas's most important work was 
his history of the baptists in Wales, pub- 
lished in 1778 under the title 'Hanes y 
Bedyddwyr ymhlith y Cymry, o amser yr 
Apostolion hyd y flwyddyn hon,' Car- 
marthen, 8vo. A supplement of corrections 
and additions was also issued in 1780. The 
author's own manuscript translation into 
English of this work, with additions thereto, 
is preserved in the Baptists' Library at Bris- 
tol. Thomas subsequently wrote, in English, 
' A History of the Baptist Association in 
Wales,' which first appeared in the ' Baptist 



Thomas 



188 



Thomas 



Register ' between 1791 and 1795, and was 

Published in book form in the latter year 
London, 8vo). These two works still form 
the chief sources of information as to the early 
history of the baptist denomination in Wales. 
A new edition of the Welsh history, with 
additions, was brought out by B. Davies of 
Pontypridd in 1885. Thomas died at Leo- 
minster on 25 Aug. 1797. 

As many as eleven members of Thomas's 
family entered the baptist ministry. His 
son Timothy Thomas (1753-1827) was for 
forty-seven years pastor of the church at 
Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate. Two of 
Joshua's brothers, Timothy (1720-1768) and 
Zechariah (1727-1816), were successively 
pastors of Aberduar church, Carmarthenshire 
(Seren Gomer, 1820, p. 361 ; cf. DAVIES, Echoes 
from the Welsh Hills, p. 338). The former 
was the author or translator of several doc- 
trinal works in Welsh, the best-known being 
' Y Wisg wen Ddisglaer ' (1759), and a small 
volume of hymns (1764). 

There was another JOSHUA THOMAS (d. 
1759 ?), who was born early in the seven- 
teenth century at Penpes in the parish of 
Llanlleonfel, Breconshire. He became curate 
of Tir Abbot in the same county in 1739, 
vicar of Merthyr Cynog 1741, with which 
he also held, from 1746, the living of Llan- 
bister, Radnorshire, till 1758, when he be- 
came vicar of Kerry (D. R. THOMAS, St. 
Asaph, p. 324). In 1752 he published a 
Welsh translation of Dr. John Scott's 'Chris- 
tian Life,' under the title 'Y Fuchedd 
Gris'nogol,' London, 8vo. This has been de- 
scribed as ' in every respect one of the best 
Welsh books published in this period ' (ROW- 
LANDS, Cambr. Bibliography, pp. 431, 439-9). 
[J. T. Jones's Geiriadur Bywgraifyddol, pp. 
565, 571, 573, 575, 579, 591, 595; Ashton's 
Hanes Llcnyddiaeth Gymreig, pp. 289-95 ; 
Rowlands's Cambrian Bibliography, pp. 445-6, 
588;Williams's Eminent Welshmen, pp. 486-8; 
information from St. David's Diocesan Re- 
gistry.] D. LL. T. 

THOMAS, LEWIS (ft. 1587-1619), 
preacher, born in 1568, was a native of 
Glamorganshire, or, according to another 
account, of Radnorshire. He was educated 
at Oxford, where he matriculated, under the 
name of Lewis Evans, from Gloucester Hall, 
11 Dec. Io84, and graduated B. A. from Brase- 
nose College on 15 Feb. 1586-7, being then 
described as ' Lewis Evans alias Thomas.' 
He took orders soon after, and was eventually 
beneficed 'in his native county of Glamorgan 
and elsewhere' (Woor). It is supposed that 
he was alive in 1619, but the date of his 
death is unknown. 

He was the author of the following two 



volumes of sermons : 1. ' Seaven Sermons, 
or the Exercises of Seven Sabbaths ; together 
with a Short Treatise upon the Command- 
ments.' The first edition was issued in 1599 
CAREER, Transcript of the Stationers' Re- 
gister, iii. 140), but no copy of it is now 
known. A fourth edition appeared in 1602, 
and a seventh and tenth, printed in black 
letter, in 1610 and 1619 respectively (Brit. 
Mus. Cat.), while another edition is men- 
tioned as issued in 1630 (WOOD). 2. ' Deme- 
*oriai. Certaine Lectures upon Sundry Por- 
tions of Scripture,' London, 1600, 8vo (cf. 
ARBER, op. cit. iii. 175). This is dedicated 
to Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper of the 
great seal, who was one of Thomas's first 
patrons. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 277, Fasti ii. 236; 
Clark's Register of the University of Oxford, iii. 
139; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, s.v. 
Evans ' and ' Thomas ; ' Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen, p. 487.] !> LL T. 

THOMAS, MATTHEW EVAN (1788?- 
1830), architect, born in 1787 or 1788, was 
a student of the Royal Academy. In 1815 
he gained the academy's gold medal for a 
design for a palace. He went to Italy in 
the following year, remaining there till 
1819. During his stay he was elected a 
member of the academy at Florence, and of 
St. Luke at Rome. After his return he 
exhibited architectural drawings at the 
Royal Academy between 1820 and 1822. 
He died at Hackney on 12 July 1830, and 
was buried in St. John's Wood chapel. 

[Diet, of Architecture, 1887; Gent. Mag. 
1830, ii. 91.] W. A. 

THOMAS, SIR NOAH (1720-1792), phy- 
sician, son of Hophni Thomas, master of a 
merchant vessel, was born at Neath, Glamor- 
ganshire, in 1720. He was educated at Oak- 
ham school, when Mr. Adcock was its head- 
master, and was admitted as a pensioner at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, on 18 July 
1738, and there graduated B.A. in 1742, pro- 
ceeding M. A. 1746 and M.D. 1753. He settled 
in London, was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 1 Feb. 1753, was elected a fellow 
of the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1757, 
and delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 
1759. In 1761, 1766, 1767, and 1781 he was 
one of the censors. He became physician 
extraordinary to George III in 1763, and 
physician in ordinary 1775, and was knighted 
in that year. He was also physician to the 
Lock Hospital. He died at Bath on 17 May 
1792. His portrait was painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and hangs in the combination- 
room of St. John's College, Cambridge. In 
the College of Physicians he was esteemed 



Thomas 



189 



Thomas 



for his learning, but he never published any 
book. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 218 ; extract from 
original register of St. John's College kindly 
made by the bursar, Mr. K. F. Scott.] N. M. 

THOMAS, OWEN (1812-1891), Cal- 
vinistic methodist minister, son of Owen 
and Mary Thomas, was born in Edmund 
Street, Holyhead, on 16 Dec. 1812. John 
Thomas (1821-1892) [q. v.] was a younger 
brother. His father was a stonemason, and 
he followed the same occupation from the 
time of the removal of the family to Bangor 
in 1827 until he was twenty-two. In 1834 
he began to preach in connection with the 
Calvinistic methodists, among whom his 
father had been a lay officer until his death 
in 1831, and at once took high rank as a 
preacher. After keeping school in Bangor 
for some years, he entered in 1838 the Cal- 
vinistic methodist college at Bala,and thence 
proceeded in 1841 to the university of Edin- 
burgh. Lack of means, however, forced him 
to cut short his university course before he 
could graduate, and in January 1844 he be- 
came pastor of Penymount chapel, Pwllheli. 
In the following September he was ordained 
in the North Wales Association meeting at 
Bangor. Two years later he moved to New- 
town, Montgomeryshire, to take charge of 
the English Calvinistic methodist church in 
that town, and at the end of 1851 he accepted 
the pastorate of the Welsh church meeting in 
Jewin Crescent, London. In 1865 he moved 
again to Liverpool, where he spent the rest 
of his days as pastor, first, of the Netherfield 
Road, and then (from 1871) of the Princes 
Road church of the Calvinistic methodists. 
He was moderator of theNorthWales Associa- 
tion in 1863 and 1882, and of the general as- 
sembly of the denomination in 1868 and 1888. 
Throughout life he was a close student, and 
his literary work bears witness to his wide 
theological reading and talent for exposition. 
But it was as a preacher he won the com- 
manding position he occupied in Wales ; his 
native gifts of speech and intense earnest- 
ness enabled him to wield in the pulpit an 
influence which was said to recall that of 
John Elias [q. v.], and he never appeared to 
better advantage than in the great open-air 
sarvices held in connection with the meet- 
ings of the two associations. In 1877 the 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by 
Princeton College, New Jersey. He died 
on 2 Aug. 1891, and was buried in Anfield 
cemetery, Liverpool. 

The following is a list of his published 
works : 1. A Welsh translation of Watson's 
essay on ' Sanctification,' Llanrwst, 1839. 



2. ' Commentary on the New Testament' 
(1862-1885), embodied in additional notes 
to a Welsh version of Kitto's ' Commentary.' 
Editions of the commentaries on ' Hebrews ' 
(1889) and 'Galatians' (1892) were issued 
separately. 3. ' Life of the Rev. John Jones, 
Talsarn, with a Sketch of the History of 
Welsh Theology and Preaching ' (Welsh), 
2 vols. Wrexham, 1874. 4. ' Life of the Rev. 
Henry Rees' (Welsh), 2 vols. Wrexham, 
1890. Thomas was a contributor to the 
' Traethodydd' from its start, and for a time 
one of its two joint editors. Many of the 
articles in the first edition of the ' Gwyd- 
doniadur,' a Welsh encyclopaedia, in ten 
volumes (1857-77), were from his pen. 

On 24 Jan. 1860 he married Ellen (d. 1867), 
youngest daughter of the Rev. William 
Roberts, Amlwch. 

[Information kindly furnished by the Rev. 
Josiah Thomas, M.A. of Liverpool ; articles in 
the Geninen (January 1892), Dysgedydd (Sep- 
tember 1891); and Cymru (September 1891).] 

J. E. L. 

THOMAS, RICHARD (1777-1857), 
admiral, a native of Saltash in Cornwall; 
entered the navy in May 1790 on board the 
Cumberland with Captain John Macbride 
[q. v.] He was afterwards in the Blanche in 
the West Indies, and when she was paid off 
in June 1792 he joined the Nautilus sloop, 
in which he again went to the West Indies, 
and was present at the reduction of Tobago, 
Martinique, and St. Lucia. At Martinique 
he commanded a flat-bottomed boat in the 
brilliant attack upon Fort Royal. He re- 
turned to England in the Boyne, and was 
still on board her when she was burnt at 
Spithead on 1 May 1795. He was after- 
wards in the Glory and Commerce de Mar- 
seille in the Channel, and in the Barfleur 
and Victory in the Mediterranean, and on 
15 Jan. 1797 was promoted to be lieutenant 
of the Excellent, in which, on 14 Feb., he 
was present in the battle of Cape St. Vin- 
cent [see COLLINGWOOD, CUTHBERT, LORD]. 
He continued in the Excellent off Cadiz till 
June 1798, when he was moved to the 
Thalia ; in February 1799 to the Defence ; 
in December to the Triumph, and in October 
1801 to the Barfleur, then carrying Colling- 
wood's flag in the Channel. During the 
peace he was in the Leander on the Halifax 
station, and was promoted to the rank of 
commander on 18 Jan. 1803. The Lady 
Hobart packet, in which he took a passage 
for England, was wrecked on an iceberg. 
After seven days in a small boat he, with 
his companions, succeeded in reaching Cove 
Island, north of St. John's, Newfoundland. 
On his arrival in England he was appointed, 



Thomas 



190 



Thomas 



in December 1803, to the Etna bomb, which 
he took out to the Mediterranean. He was 
posted on 22 Oct. 1805 to the Bellerophon, 
from which he was moved to the Queen as 
flag-captain to Lord Collingwood, with 
whom, in the Ocean and the V ille de Paris, 
he continued till Collingwood's death in 
March 1810. He remained in the Ville de 
Paris, as a private ship, till December, and 
in February 1811 was appointed to the Un- 
daunted, in which he co-operated with and 
assisted the Spaniards along the coast of 
Catalonia. In February 1813, after nine 
years' continuous service in the Mediterra- 
nean, he was obliged by the bad state of his 
health to return to England. In 1822-5 he 
was captain of the ordinary at Portsmouth, 
and in the same capacity at Plymouth in 
1834-7. He became a rear-admiral on 
10 Jan. 1837, was commander-in-chief in 
the Pacific from 1841 to 1844 a time of 
much revolutionary trouble and excitement, 
was promoted to be vice-admiral on 8 Jan. 
1848, admiral on 11 Sept. 1854, and died at 
Stonehouse, Plymouth, on 21 Aug. 1857. 
He married, in October 1827, Gratina, 
daughter of Lieutenant-general Robert Wil- 
liams of the Eoyal Marines, and left issue. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; G ent. Mag. 
1857, ii. 468.] J. K. L. 

THOMAS, SAMUEL (1627-1693), non- 
juror, born in 1627 at Ubley, Somerset, was 
the son of William Thomas (1593-1667) 
[q. T.], rector of Ubley. He graduated B.A. 
from Peter house, Cambridge, in 1648-9, 
and was incorporated at Oxford on 20 Aug. 
1651. He became a fellow of St. John's 
College, and graduated M.A. on 17 Dec. 
1651, being incorporated at Cambridge in 
1663. In 1660 he was deprived of his fel- 
lowship by the royal commissioners, and was 
soon after made a chaplain or petty canon of 
Christ Church, where in 1672 he became a 
chantor. He was also vicar of St. Thomas's 
at Oxford, and afterwards curate of Holy 
well. In 1681 he became vicar of Chard in 
Somerset, and on 3 Aug. of the same year 
was appointed to the prebend of Compton 
Bishop in the see of Wells. On the acces- 
sion of William and Mary, Thomas was one 
of those who refused to take the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy, and he was in 
consequence deprived of his prebend in 1691, 
and in the following year of the vicarage 
of Chard. He died at Chard on 4 Nov. 1 693, 
and was buried in the chancel of the parish 
church. 

Thomas was the author of : 1. ' The Pres- 
byterians Unmask'd, or Animadversions 
upon a Nonconformist Book called the In- 



terest of England in the Matter of Religion,' 
London, 1676, 8vo ; republished in 1681 
under the title ' The Dissenters Disarmed,' 
without the preface, as a second part to the 
'New Distemper' of Thomas Tomkins (d. 
1675) [q. v.] The ' Interest of England iin 
the Matter of Religion' was written bv 
John Corbet (1620-1680) [q. v.] Baxter 
terms Thomas's reply ' a bloody invective' 
( Works, xviii. 188). 2. The Charge of 
Schism renewed against the Separatists,' 
London, 1680, 4to. A pamphlet written in 
reply to ' An Answer to Dr. Stillingfleet's 
Sermon on the Mischief of Separation ' by 
Stephen Lobb [q. v.] and John Humfrey 
[q. v.] 3. ' Remarks on the Preface to the 
Protestant Reconciler [by Daniel Whitby, 
q. v.] in a Letter to a Friend,' London, 1683, 
4to. Thomas also wrote a preface to Tom- 
kins's ' New Distemper,' in which he assailed 
Richard Baxter and other nonconformists. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 390 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 5882, 
f. 39.] E. I. C. 

THOMAS, SIDNEY GILCHRIST 

(1850-1885), metallurgist and inventor, born 
on 16 April 1850 at Canonbury, London, 
was son of William Thomas (1808-1867), 
a Welshman in the solicitors' department of 
the inland revenue office, and his wife 
Melicent (b. 1816), eldest daughter of the 
Rev. James Gilchrist, author of the ' Intel- 
lectual Patrimony ' (1817). Thomas, who 
was mainly educated at Dulwich College, 
early manifested a strong bent towards 
applied science. The death of his father 
when Thomas was still at school and not 
yet seventeen led him to resolve to earn at 
once a livelihood for himself. For a few 
months he was an assistant master in an 
Essex school. Later in the same year (1867) 
he obtained a clerkship at Marlborough 
Street police-court, whence in the summer 
of 1868 he was transferred to a similar 
post at the Thames court, Arbour Square, 
Stepney. Here, at a very modest salary, 
he remained until 1879. Meanwhile he had, 
after office hours, pursued the study of applied 
chemistry, and the solution of one special 
problem became, about 1870, the real pur- 
pose of his life. This problem was the de- 
phosphorisation of pig-iron in the Bessemer 
converter. A sentence used by Mr. Chaloner, 
teacher of chemistry at the Birkbeck Insti- 
tution, in the course of a lecture which 
Thomas heard, seems to have imprinted itself 
deeply on Thomas's mind : ' The man who 
eliminates phosphorus by means of the Bes- 
semer converter will make his fortune.' 



Thomas 



191 



Thomas 



Both the Bessemer and the Siemens- 
Martin processes, which were then, and 
still are, the most used methods of convert- 
ing pig-iron into steel, laboured under the 
serious drawback that in neither was the 
phosphorus, which is a very common im- 
purity of iron ores, removed. This was a 
matter of the highest practical importance ; 
for the retained phosphorus rendered steel 
made by these systems from phosphoric ores 
brittle and worthless. Consequently only 
non-phosphoric ores could be used, and the 
great mass of British, French, German, and 
Belgian iron became unavailable for steel- 
making. If phosphoric pig-iron could be 
cheaply dephosphorised in the course of 
these processes, the cost of the production 
of steel would be diminished and the supply 
of the raw material indefinitely increased. 
From 1860 onwards Sir Henry Bessemer and 
an army of experimentalists vainly grappled 
with the difficulty. 

Thomas devoted his whole leisure to these 
questions, experimentalising unceasingly in 
a little workshop at home, and attending 
systematically the laboratories of various 
chemical teachers. He submitted himself 
from time to time to the science examina- 
tions of the science and art department and 
of the Royal School of Mines, and he passed 
all the examinations qualifying him for the 
degree in metallurgy given by this latter 
institution, but was denied it because he 
was unable to attend the day-time lectures. 
Holidays from his police-court labours were 
mainly spent in visiting ironworks in this 
country and abroad. In 1873 he was offered 
the post of analytical chemist to a great 
brewery at Burton-on-Trent, but declined it 
from conscientious scruples about fostering, 
even indirectly, the use of alcohol. During 
1874 and subsequent years he contributed 
regularly to the technical journal 'Iron.' 

Towards the end of 1875 Thomas arrived 
at a theoretic and provisional solution of the 
problem of dephosporisation. He discovered 
that the non-elimination of phosphorus in 
the Bessemer converter was dependent upon 
the character, from a chemical standpoint, 
of its lining. This lining varied in mate- 
rial ; but it was always of silicious sort. The 
phosphorus in the pig-iron was rapidly oxi- 
dised during the process, or, in other words, 
formed phosphoric acid. This phosphoric 
acid, owing to the silicious character of the 
slag, was' again reduced to phosphorus and 
re-entered the metal. Thomas, therefore, saw 
clearly the necessity of a change in the chemi- 
cal constitution of the lining. A basic lining 
was essential, a ' base ' being a substance 
which would combine with the phosphoric 



acid formed by the oxidising of the phos- 
phorus. In this way the phosphorus would 
be hindered from re-entering the metal and 
would be deposited in the slag. The basic 
substance must be one able to endure the in- 
tense heat of the process, since the durability 
of the ' lining ' was essential to that cheap- 
ness which was the main requisite of com- 
mercial success. A long series of experiments 
led Thomas to the selection, for the material 
of the new lining, of lime, or its congeners 
magnesia or magnesian limestone. Thomas 
foresaw not only that by employing such a 
lining he was removing phosphorus from the 
pig-iron, but that in the phosphorus de- 
posited in the basic slag he was creating a 
material itself of immense commercial 
utility. 

To a cousin, Mr. Percy Gilchrist, M.R.S.M. 
(afterwards F.R.S.), who was chemist to 
large ironworks at Blaenavon, Thomas com- 
municated the ; basic theory,' and Gilchrist 
joined him in further experiments with vary- 
ing success ; but ultimately the two young 
men established their theory. Thomas took 
out his first patent hi November 1877. Mr. 
E. P. Martin, the manager of the works where 
Mr. Gilchristwas employed, was earlyin 1878 
admitted into the secret, and proved most 
helpful. In March 1878 Thomas first publicly 
announced, at a meeting of the Iron and 
Steel Institute of Great Britain, that he had 
successfully dephosphorised iron in the Bes- 
semer converter. The announcement, how- 
ever, was disregarded, but the complete speci- 
fication of his patent was filed in May 1878, 
and patent succeeded patent down to the 
premature death of the inventor. Thomas 
had meanwhile made an all-important convert 
in Mr. E. Windsor Richards, then manager 
of Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co.'s huge 
ironworks in Cleveland. On 4 April 1879 
most successful experiments on a large scale 
were carried out at that company's Middles- 
borough establishment. These experiments 
at once secured the practical commercial 
triumph both of the process and of the in- 
ventor. A paper, written earlier by Thomas 
in conjunction with Mr. Gilchrist for the 
Iron and Steel Institute on the ' Elimina- 
tion of Phosphorus in the Bessemer Con- 
verter,' was read in May 1879. There the 
problem to be solved and its solution, now 
experimentally demonstrated by the ' basic' 
process, were clearly and succinctly stated. 
Thomas proved that he had solved the pro- 
blem by substituting in the Bessemer con- 
verter a durable basic lining for the former 
silicious one, and he avoided ' waste of lining 
by making large basic additions, so as to 
secure a highly basic slag at an early stage of 



Thomas 



192 



Thomas 



the blow.' This last branch of the solution 
differentiated the successful Thomas-Gil- 
christ process from some other attempts on 
somewhat similar lines. The process could 
also be adapted to the 'Siemens Martin' 
system. It was immediately used both in 
Great Britain and abroad, and it spread 
rapidly. In 1884 864,700 tons of ' basic ' 
steel were produced in all parts of the 
world, and in 1889 2,274,552 tons. More- 
over in this last year there were also pro- 
duced, together with the steel, 700,000 tons 
of slag, most of which was used for land- 
fertilising purposes. In England and Ger- 
many alone no figures are now accessible for 
other countries the output in 1895 amounted 
to 2,898,476 tons. The production of basic 
slag in the same year may be estimated as 
about a third of the weight of the steel 
produced. 

Thomas, who was possessed of great finan- 
cial ability, as well as of a thorough know- 
ledge of British and continental patent law, 
had early secured his inventor's rights, not 
only in Great Britain but also on the con- 
tinent and in America. He thus secured 
the ' fortune ' predicted by Mr. Chaloner. 
But systematic overwork had ruined his 
health, and serious lung trouble soon mani- 
fested itself. In May 1879 he at length re- 
signed his junior clerkship at the Thames 
police-court. In the early part of 1881 
Thomas paid a triumphal visit to the United 
States, where he was enthusiastically wel- 
comed by the leading metallurgists and 
ironmasters. In 1882 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the council of the Iron and Steel 
Institute, succeeding Sir James Ramsden, 
and on 9 May 1883 he was voted the Besse- 
mer gold medal by the council of the institute. 
But the last few years of his short life were 
occupied in a vain search for health. After 
sojourns at Ventnor and Torquay, he made 
in 1883 a prolonged voyage round the world, 
by way of the Cape, India, and Australia, 
returning by the United States. The winter 
of 1883 and the spring and early summer of 

1884 were spent in Algiers. Here experi- 
ments were pursued on the utilisation of the 
' basic slag ' formed in the Thomas-Gilchrist 
process. New lines of research were also 
begun notably an endeavour to produce a 
new type-writer. In the summer of 1884 
Thomas came northward with his mother 
and sister to Paris, where he died on 1 Feb. 

1885 of ' emphysema.' He was buried in the 
Passy cemetery. He was unmarried. 

Thomas secured a large financial reward 
for his labours ; but from the first he held 
' advanced' political and social views, and 
had he lived he had intended to devote his 



fortune to the alleviation of the lives of the 
workers. He bequeathed this intention to 
his sister as a sacred trust. After a modest 
provision had been made for her and for his 
mother his money was spent on philanthropic 
objects. 

There is a portrait of Thomas in oils by 
Mr. Hubert Herkomer, R.A. (executed from 
photographs after death), now in the posses- 
sion of Mrs. Percy Thompson at Sevenoaks. 

[Jeans's Creators of the Age of Steel, 1884; 
Burnie's Memoir and Letters of Sidney Gil- 
christ Thomas, 1891 ; 'A Rare Young Man,' by 
the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, in Youth's 
Magazine (Boston, Mass.), 4 Aug. 1892; per- 
sonal knowledge.] R. W. B. 

THOMAS, THOMAS (1553-1588), 
printer and lexicographer, born in the city 
of London on 25 Dec. 1553, was educated 
at Eton school. He was admitted a scholar 
of King's College, Cambridge, on 24 Aug. 
1571, and a fellow on 24 Aug. 1574. 
He proceeded B.A. in 1575, commenced 
M.A. in 1579, and on 20 Jan. 1580- 
1581 was enjoined to divert to the study of 
theology. On 3 May 1582 he was con- 
stituted the first printer to the university 
of Cambridge, but nothing from his press 
appeared before 1584, when he issued the 
edition of Ramus's ' Dialectics ' by (Sir) 
William Temple (1555-1627) [q. v.] About 
1583 he had begun to print a book" by Wil- 
liam Whitaker [q. v.], and had other works 
in readiness for the press, when the Sta- 
tioners' Company of London, regarding the 
proceedings as an infringement of their privi- 
leges, seized his press and materials. The 
vice-chancellor and heads of colleges applied 
to their chancellor, Lord Burghley, request- 
ing his interposition on behalf of their an- 
cient privilege. Eventually Burghley wrote 
in reply, stating that he had consulted Sir 
Gilbert Gerrard, master of the rolls, to whom 
he had submitted their charter, and who 
concurred with him in opinion that it was- 
valid. 

Thomas, who was called by Martin Mar- 
Prelate the puritan Cambridge printer, 
laboured with such assiduity at the com- 
pilation of his Latin dictionary as to bring 
on a fatal disease. He was buried in the 
church of St. Mary the Great, Cambride-e, 
on 9 Aug. 1588. 

Ames enumerates seventeen works which 
came from his press. He was the author 
of: 'Thomae Thomasii Dictionarium summa 
ide ac diligentia accuratissime emendatum, 
magnaque insuper Rerum Scitu Dignarum, 
et Vocabulorum accessione, longe auctius 
.ocupletiusque redditum. Hinc etiam 
(prseter Dictionarium Historicum & Poeti- 



Thomas 



193 



Thomas 



cum, ad profanas historias, poetarumque 
fabulas intelligendas valde necessarium) 
novissime accessit utilissimus de Ponderum, 
Mensurarum, & Monetarum veterum reduc- 
tione ad ea, quse sunt Anglis iam in usu, 
Tractatus,' Cambridge, 1587, 8vo; 3rd ed. 
Cambridge, 1592, 4to ; 4th ed. Cambridge, 
1594, 4to ; ' quinta editio superioribus cum 
Grsecaruni dictionum, turn earundem primi- 
tivorum adiectione multo auctior,' Cam- 
bridge, 1596, 4to; 6th edit. Cambridge, 
1600, 8vo; 7th ed. Cambridge, 1606, 4to; 
10th ed. Cambridge, 1610, 4to; 'cum Sup- 
plemento Philemonis Hollandi,' London, 
1615, 4to, 1619, 8vo; 12th ed. London, 
1620, 4to ; 13th ed. 1631, 4to ; 14th ed. Lon- 
don, 1644, 4to. The dictionary is dedicated 
to Lord Burghley. It was largely used by 
John Rider (1562-1632) [q. v.] in his ' Dic- 
tionary ' published in 1589. In the subse- 
quent editions Rider was obliged to make 
numerous additions and alterations in con- 
sequence of an action brought against him by 
Thomas's executors. Francis Gouldman of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, afterwards 
brought out a new edition of Thomas's dic- 
tionary. 

The following work is also ascribed to 
Thomas : ' Fabularum Ovidii interpretatio 
ethica, physica, et historica, tradita in 
academia Regiomontana a Georgio Sabino ; 
in unum collecta et edita studio et industria 
T. T.,' Cambridge, 1584, 12mo. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert) ; Bowes' s 
Cat. of Cambridge Books ; Cooper's Annals of 
Cambridge, ii. 393 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. 
ii. 29, 543 ; Hartshorne's Book Rarities of Cam- 
bridge, p. 21 1 ; Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 185 ; 
Mullinger's Hist, of Cambridge Univ. vol. ii. ; 
Patent Roll, 4 James I, pt. vi. ; Strype's Annals, 
iii. 195, 442, Appendix p. 65, iv. 75 fol. ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit. ; Worthington's Diary, ii. 46.] 

T. C. 

THOMAS, VAUGHAN (1775-1858), 
antiquary, son of John Thomas of Kingston, 
Surrey, was born in 1775. He matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, on 17 Dec. 1792, 
and on 6 May 1794 was admitted a scholar 
of Corpus Christi College. He was after- 
wards elected to a fellowship, which he held 
till 1812. From Corpus he graduated B.A. 
in 1796, M.A. in 1800, and B.D. in 1809. 
On 12 Feb. 1803 he became vicar of Yarnton 
in Gloucestershire ; on 11 June 1804 he was 
appointed vicar of Stoneleigh in Warwick- 
shire, and on 25 March 1811 he received the 
rectory of Duntisborne Rouse in Gloucester- 
shire. These three livings he held during the 
remainder of his life. He died at Oxforc 
on 26 Oct. 1858, leaving a widow, but no 
children. 

VOL. LVI. 



Thomas was a voluminous author. His 
most important work was ' The Italian Bio- 
graphy of Sir Robert Dudley [q. v.", Knight,' 
Oxford, 1861, 8vo, for which he" began to 
collect materials in 1806. Among his other 
writings may be mentioned : 1. 'A Sermon 
on the Impropriety of conceding the Name 
of Catholic to the Church of Rome,' Oxford, 
1816, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1838. 2. ' The Le- 
gality of the present Academical System of 
he University of Oxford asserted,' Oxford, 
1831, 8vo; 2nd part, 1832; 2nd edit. 1853 
(Edinburgh Review, liii. 384, liv. 478). 3. ' The 
universal Profitableness of Scripture for Doc- 
trine,' Oxford, 1836, 8vo. 4. ' On the Authen- 
icity of the Designs of Raffaelle and Michael 
Angelo,' Oxford, 1842, 8vo. 5. ' Thoughts 
on the Cameos and Intaglios of Antiquity,' 
Oxford, 1847, 8vo. 6. ' Account of the Night 
March of King Charles the First from Ox- 
ford,' Oxford, 1850, 8vo. 7. ' Christian Phi- 
anthropy exemplified in a Memoir of the 
Elev. Samuel Wilson Warneford ' [q. v.], Ox- 
brd, 1855, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1858 ii. 645, 1859 i. 320 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Fowler's History of 
Corpus Christi College, p. 409 ; Foster's Index 
Ecclesiasticus, 1800-40, p. 172; Times, 28 Oct. 
1858.] E. I. C. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM (d. 1554), Italian 
scholar and clerk of the council to Ed- 
ward VI, was by birth or extraction a 
Welshman, being probably a native of Rad- 
norshire. He was presumably educated at 
Oxford, where a person of both his names 
was admitted bachelor of the canon law on 
2 Dec. 1529 (WOOD ; FOSTER). He may 
also have been the William Thomas who, 
along with two other commissioners, inquired 
into and reported to Cromwell from Lud- 
low, 27 Jan. 1533-4, on certain extortions in 
Radnorshire and the Welsh marches (Let- 
ters and Papers of Henry VIII, vi. 32), but 
he is not to be identified (as is done in \V ood's 
Athence Oxon.} with the witness of the same 
name who was examined in 1529 in the 
course of the proceedings against Catherine 
of Arragon (Brit. MILS. Cottonian M.SS. Vi- 
tellius B. xii. f. 109). 

In 1544 he was, according to his own 
account, ' constrained by misfortune to aban- 
don the place of his nativity,' perhaps (as 
Froude suggests) for his religious opinions. 
He spent the next five years abroad, chiefly 
in Italy, and is mentioned in 1545 as being 
commissioned to pay some money to Sir 
Anthony Browne (d. 1548) [q. v.] in Venice 
(Acts of the Privy Council,!. 176, ed. Dasent)_ 
In February 1546-7, when the news of the 
death of Henry VIII reached Italy, Thomas 
was at Bologna, where, in the course of a dis- 

o 



Thomas 



194 



Thomas 



cussion with some Italian gentlemen, he de- 
fended the personal character and public 
policy of the deceased king. He subsequently 
drew up a narrative of the discussion, and an 
Italian version was issued abroad in 1552. 
There is a copy in the British Museum 
bearing the title, ' II Pellegrino Inglese ne'l 
quale si defende 1' innocente & la sincera 
vita de'l pio & religioso re d' Inghilterra 
Henrico ottauo.' He also wrote, but did not 
publish, an English version, to which he added 
a dedication to Pietro Aretino, the Italian 
poet, and a copy of this, possibly in Thomas's 
own writing, is preserved among the Cotto- 
nian MSS. at the British Museum (Vespasian 
D. 18), a later transcript being also in the 
Harleian collection (vol. cccliii. if. 8-36), 
while there is a third copy at the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford (No. 53). Froude erroneously 
states that there is also a copy among the 
Lansdowne MSS. Presumably in ignorance 
of the existence of these texts, EdwardBrown 
made, about 1690, an independent transla- 
tion of the Italian version, which he in- 
tended incorporating in the third volume of 
his ' Fasciculus ' (WOOD, Athence Oxon. i. 
220), and which is still preserved at the Bod- 
leian Library (Tanner MS. No. 303). The 
Cottonian text was quoted by Strype (Eccles. 
Mem. I. i. 385) and more fully in the ' Mis- 
cellaneous Antiquities ' (No. ii. pp. 55-62), 
issued in 1772 from the Strawberry Hill 
press. Two years later the dialogue was pub- 
lished in its entirety by Abraham D'Aubant, 
together with Thomas's political discourses, 
also in the Cottonian collection, under the 
title of ' The Works of William Thomas ' 
(London, 8vo). A reprint of the dialogue, 
edited by Froude, was published in 1861, 
bearing the title 'The Pilgrim: a Dialogue of 
the Life and Actions of King Henry the 
Eighth,' 'London, 8vo. Thomas's work is 
specially valuable as representing the popular 
view of the character of Henry VIII current 
in England at the time of his death. It is 
not free from mistakes, but it ' has the ac- 
curacies and the inaccuracies ' which might 
be naturally expected ' in any account of a 
series of intricate events given by memory 
without the assistance of documents ' 
(FROUDE). 

From Bologna Thomas appears to have 
gone to Padua, whence on 3 Feb. 1548-9 
he forwarded to his ' verie good friende 
Maister [John] Tamwoorth at Venice ' an 
Italian primer which he had undertaken at 
his request. This Tamworth showed to 
Sir Walter Mildmay [q.v.], who, approving of 
it, ' caused it to be put in printe ' (cf. STRYPE, 
in. i. 279), under the title of ' Principal 
Rvles of the Jtalian Grammer, with a Dic- 



tionarie for the better vnderstandynge of 
Boccace, Petrarcha, and Dante, gathered 
into this tongue by William Thomas.' It 
was printed (in black letter, 4to) by Ber- 
thelet in 1550, subsequent editions being 
brought out by H. Wykes in 1560 and 1567, 
and by T. Powell in 1562. 

During the summer of 1549 Thomas ap- 
pears to have returned to England ' highlv 
fam'd for his travels through France and 
Italy,' and bringing home with him another 
work, the result of his Italian studies, which 
was also published by Berthelet under the 
title, ' The Historic of Italic . . . ' (1549, 4to, 
black letter). This work was dedicated, under 
the date of 20 Sept. 1549, to Lord Lisle, then 
Earl of Warwick. It is said to have been 
' suppressed and publicly burnt,' probably 
after Thomas's execution (Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. v. 361, viii. 48; Cat. of Huth Libr. 
p. 1466), but it was twice reprinted by Thomas 
Marshe, in 1561 and (with cuts) in 1562. 

On 19 April 1550, partly owing to his 
knowledge of modern languages, but chiefly 
perhaps for his defence of the late king, 
Thomas was appointed one of the clerks of the 
privy council, and was sworn in on the same 
day at Greenwich (Acts P. C. ii. 433, iii. 
3-4 ; cf. Lit. Remains of Edward VI, Roxb. 
Club, p. 258). Possibly a portion of the 
register of the council for the next year is 
in his autograph (Acts P. C. iii. pref. p. v). 
The new clerk had ' his fortunes to 
make ' (STRYPE), and, though not a spiritual 
person, he ' greedily affected a certain good 
prebend of St. Paul's,' which, doubtless at 
his instigation, the council on 23 June 
1550 agreed to settle on him (Acts P. C. 
iii. 53, 58). Ridley, who had intended this 
preferment for his chaplain Grindal, stigma- 
tised Thomas as ' an ungodly man,' and re- 
sisted the grant, but without success ; for 
when the prebend fell vacant, it was con- 
veyed to the king, ' for the furnishing of his 
stables,' and its emoluments granted to 
Thomas (RIDLEY, Works, Parker Soc., 1841, 
pp. 331-4, and STRYPE, Heel. Mem. in. ii. 
264 ; cf. ii. i. 95, Life of Grindal, p. 7). This 
' unreasonable piece of covetousness ' was, in 
Strype's opinion, 'the greatest blur sticking 
upon ' Thomas's character. 

Among many other grants which Thomas 
received was that of the tolls of Presteign, 
Builth, and 'Elvael' in Radnorshire on 
27 Dec. 1551 (STRYPE, Heel. Mem. ii. i. 522; 
cf. ii. ii. 221), and the parsonage of Presteign 
with the patronage of the vicarage on 26 Oct. 
1552 (Acts P. C. iv. 153). These were in 
addition to a sum of 248/. previously given 
him ' by waie of rewarde,' 7 Jan. 1550-1 
(ib. iii. 186). In April 1551 he was appointed 



Thomas 



195 



Thomas 



member of the embassy which, with the 
Marquis of Northampton at its head, pro- 
ceeded in June to the French king, to nego- 
tiate the marriage of Princess Elizabeth of 
France to Edward. To cover his expenses, 
he was granted imprests amounting to 300/. 
(id. iii. 269, 326) ; and on 26 June he was 
despatched to England with letters to the 
council asking for further instructions, with 
which he probably returned to France (Cal. 
State Papers, For. 1547-53, pp. 128, 133 ; 
STRTPE, n. i. 473, ii. 243). 

While clerk of the council Thomas be- 
came a sort of political instructor to the 
young king, who appears to have narrowly 
watched the proceedings of his council, and, 
without the knowledge of its members, 
sought Thomas's opinion on their policy and 
on the principles of government generally 
(see especially Thomas's ' Discourse on the 
Coinage 'in STRTPE, op. cit. n. ii. 389). The 
nature of this teaching may be gathered from 
a series of eighty-five questions drawn by 
Thomas for the king, and still preserved, 
along \vith a prefatory letter, in his own 
writing at the British Museum ( Cotton. MSS. 
Titus B. ii.); they were printed in Strype's 
' Ecclesiastical Memorials ' (ii. i. 156). 
Another autograph manuscript in the same 
collection (Vespasian, D. xviii. if. 2-46) 
contains six political discourses confidentially 
written for the king. These were published in 
their entirety (in STRTPE, op. cit. ii. ii. 365- 
393, and in D'Aubant's edition of Thomas's 
works, ut supra), while that treating of 
foreign affairs was summarised by Burnet 
{Hist of Reformation, ii. 233), and printed 
byFroude (Hist, of England, v. 308-10). 
Somefurther ' commonplaces of state ' drawn 
up by Thomas for the king's use are also 
printed in Strype (op. cit. n. ii. 315-27). 
Froude suggests that Thomas's teaching, if 
not his hand, is also perceptible intheking's 
journal (Preface to Pilgrim, vol. viii.; Hist. 
v. 349). He also dedicated to the king as 
' a poore newe yeres gift,' probably in 
January 1550-1, an English translation 
from the Italian of Josaphat Barbara's ac- 
count of his voyages to the east, which had 
been first published in Venice in 1543. 
Thomas's manuscript, which is still pre- 
served at the British Museum (Royal MSS. 
1 7 C. x.), was edited, with an introduction by 
Lord Stanley of Alderley, for the Hakluyt 
Society in 1873, in a volume of ' Travels to 
Tana and Persia' (London, 8vo). 

Influential as was Thomas's position at 
court, it was not free from danger, and, 
realising this, he vainly asked to be sent on 
government business to Venice (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 43). On the ac- 



cession of Mary, Thomas lost all his prefer- 
ments, including his employment at court, 
because ' he had (it is said) imbibed the 
principles of Christopher Goodman against 
the regimen of women, and too freely vented 
them' (Biographia Britannica, ii. 947; cf. 
WOOD, loc. cit. ; STRYPE, Eccles. Mem. in. i. 
278). He attached himself to the ultra- 
protestant party, and according to Bale 
(Script. Illustr. Brit. ed. 1557-9, ii. 110) 
designed the murder of Bishop Gardiner, 
but of this there is no evidence (but cf. 
STRTPE, in. i. 112). He took an active 
part in Sir Thomas Wyatt's conspiracy. 
On 27 Dec. 1553 he left London for Ottery 
Mohun in Devonshire, the residence of Sir 
Peter Carew, who was the leader of the 
disaffected in the west ; but when Carew 
failed to raise the west, Thomas on 2 Feb. 
1553-4 fled, going ' from county to county, 
in disguise, not knowing where to conceal 
himself; and yet he did not desist from send- 
ing seditious bills and letters to his friends 
declaring his treasonable intentions, in order 
that he might induce them to join him in 
his treasons ' (indictment against Thomas 
printed in Dep. Keeper of Records, 4th Rep. 
p. 248 ; Froude (Hist. vi. 174) erroneously 
mentions him as being with Wyatt when 
he made his entry into London on 7 Feb.) 
Probably his intention was to escape to 
Wales (Cal. State Papers, Dom. s.a. p. 59), 
but he went no further than Gloucestershire, 
with which county he had some previous 
connection (STRTPE, n. i. 522). He was 
arrested, and on 20 Feb. he was committed 
to the Tower along with Sir Nicholas 
Throckmorton [q. v.] (ib. p. 395; STOW, 
Annales, ed. 1615, p. 623). Conscious ' that 
he should suffer a shameful death,' he at- 
tempted on the 26th to commit suicide ' by 
thrusting a knife into his body under his 
paps, but the wound did not prove mortal ' 
(WOOD). He was put on the rack with the 
view of extracting some statement impli- 
cating the Princess Elizabeth, and it was 
probably to prevent this that he attempted 
suicide. The chief evidence against him, 
apart from his sojourn at Sir Peter Carew's 
house, was the confession of a fellow con- 
spirator, Sir Nicholas Arnold, who alleged 
that on the announcement of the proposed 
marriage between Mary and Philip of Spain, 
Thomas ' put various arguments against such 
marriage in writing,' and finally on 22 Dec. 
suggested that the difficulty might be solved 
by asking one John Fitzwilliams to kill the 
queen. This ' devyse ' was communicated 
to Sir Thomas Wyatt, who, when suing for 
pardon during his own trial, said that he had 
indignantly repudiated it. Throckmorton, 

o2 



Thomas 



196 



Thomas 



however, when his own trial came on, tra- 
versed the allegations of Arnold, who (he 
said) sought ' to discharge himself if he could 
so transfer the devise to William Thomas.' 
In support of his statement he asked that the 
court should examine Fitzwilliams, who was 
prepared to give evidence, but was denied 
audience, at the request of the attorney- 
general (cf. STRYPE, in. i. 297). When, 
however, Thomas's own trial came on at the 
Guildhall on 8 May, he was found guilty of 
treason ; and, on the 18th, was drawn upon 
a sled to Tyburn, where he was hanged, 
beheaded, and quartered, making 'a right 
godly end' (ib. p. 279), saying at his death 
that 'he died for his country' (Siow, 
Annales, p. 624). On the following day his 
head was set on London Bridge ' and iii. 
quarters set over Crepullgate ' (MACHYN, 
Diary, pp. 62-3), whereabouts he had per- 
haps previously lived (STRYPE, in. i. 192). 

In a private act of parliament, passed on 
the accession of Elizabeth, Thomas's name 
was included among those whose heirs and 
children were restored in blood after their 
attainder, but it is not known whether he 
was married or had a family (STRYPE, Annals 
of the Reform. I. i. 468). 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, Thomas wrote ' Of the Vanitee of this 
World,' 8vo, 1549^C Some authorities date 
it 1545, in which case it was the author's 
first work (STRYPE, in. i. 279; AMES, 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, i. 449 ; cf. ib. 
ed. Dibdin, iii. 331). But no copy is extant 
'citheii' of thio woh or of another work attri- 
buted to Thomas by Tanner and Wood, ' An 
Argument wherein the Apparel of Women 
is both Reproved and Defended : being a 
Translation of Gate's Speech and L. Valerius 
Answer out of the Fourth Decad of Livy ' 
(London, 1551, 12mo). He is also said by 
Bale to have translated from the Italian 
into English ' The Laws of Republicks ' 
and ' On the Roman Pontiffs,' and during 
his imprisonment he wrote ' many pious 
letters, exhortations, and sonnets ' (STRYPE, 
ill. i. 279), but none of these survive. 

Thomas was a shrewd observer of men 
and affairs, but, according to Wood, had a 
' hot fiery spirit,' which was probably the 
cause of most of his troubles. He was cer- 
tainly ' one of the most learned of his time ' 
(STRYPE). His Italian grammar and dic- 
tionary were the first works of the kind pub- 
lished in English, while his ' History of 
Italy' was formerly held in the highest 
esteem for its comprehensive account of the 
chief Italian states. All his works are re- 
markable for their methodical arrangement, 
his style is always lucid, and his English 

% 'While 



shows ' much better orthography than that 
current at a later period.' 

[Authorities cited ; Strype's works, especially 
his Ecclesiastical Memorials, which is always 
the work referred to in the text above when 
' Strype ' simply is quoted ; Wood's Athense 
Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, i. 218-21, and Biogra- 
phia Britannica (1747), ii. 947; Lansdowne 
MSS. {Brit. Mas.), vol. 980, folio 144 ; Burnet's 
Hist, of the Reformation, ed. Pocock, ii. 232-3 ; 
Anthony Harmer's Specimen of Errors (1693), 
p. 159; Richard Grafton's Chronicle (1569), p. 
1341 ; Foulis's History of Romish Treasons 
(1681), pp. 317-18; Froude's Preface to the 
Pilgrim, and his History of England, v. 308-10, 
349, vi. 145, 174, 189. Thomas's trial is briefly 
reported in Dyer's Reports, ed. 1688, p. 99 b, 
and its legal and constitutional aspects discussed 
in Willis Bund's Selection of Cases from the 
State Trials, i. 154-64. The indictment, to- 
gether with notices of some other papers, -was 
printed in the Deputy-Keeper of Records' 4th 
Rep. pp. 246-9, and in Lord Stanley of Alder- 
ley's Introduction to the Travels to Tana, while 
further particulars are given in the reports of 
the trials of Wyatt and Throckmorton in Cob- 
bett's State Trials, i. 862-902. There is an 
excellent Welsh account of Thomas in Y 
Traethodydd for 1862, pp. 369-76; see also 
Cymru, 1895, p. 151.] D. LL. T. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM (1593-1667), 
ejected minister, born at Whitchurch in 
Shropshire, was educated first in the high 
school there. On 1 Dec. 1609 he matricu- 
lated from Brasenose College, Oxford, gra- 
duating B.A. on 8 Feb. 1613 and M.A. on 
17 June 1615. On 4 Jan. 1616 he was 
presented to the rectory of Ubley, near 
Pensford in Somerset, where he worked for 
over forty years. He was an earnest puri- 
tan. In 1633 he refused to read ' The 
Book of Sports,' and on 23 June 1635 he 
was suspended ab officiis, and on 28 July 
a beneficiis. He was restored after three 
years' suspension, on the intercession of 
friends with Archbishop Laud. He took 
the 'covenant ' of August 1643, and the ' en- 
gagement' of October 1649. He was one 
of the subscribers to the ' Attestation of the 
Ministers of the County of Somerset, against 
the Errors, Heresies, and Blasphemies of the 
Times ' in 1648. In 1654 he was assistant 
to the committee for the ejection of scanda- 
lous ministers. 

Having addressed some letters of remon- 
strance to Thomas Speed, a merchant and 
quaker preacher at Bristol, Thomas was at- 
tacked by Speed in ' Christ's Innocency 
Pleaded ' (London, 1656). The question of 
the lawfulness of tithes was chiefly in dispute, 
and Thomas was accused by his adversiry 
of a readiness to preach ' rather at Wells i )r 



Thomas 



197 



Thomas 



tithes than at Ubley for souls' (p. 10). 
Thomas retorted in a work entitled ' Kay ling 
Rebuked,' with a second part, ' A Defence of 
the Ministers of this Nation ' (London, 1656). 
Thomas's controversial tone is more moderate 
than that of his antagonist. Speed, however, 
prepared another work, ' The Guilty-covered 
Clergyman Unveiled ' (London, 1657), to 
which Thomas replied in ' Vindication of 
Scripture and Ministry '(London, 1 657). The 
controversy then dropped. Both of Thomas's 
books were noticed by George Fox in his 
' Great Mistery of the Great Whore Un- 
folded ' (1659, pp. 104-10, 237-42). 

In 1662, on the passing of the act of uni- 
formity, Thomas declined to conform, and 
was ejected from his living. He continued' 
to reside at Ubley, and attended the esta- 
blished worship. He took the oath imposed 
by the Oxford Five Mile Act in 1666. He 
died on 15 Nov. 1667, and was buried in 
the chancel of the church at Ubley. His son 
Samuel [q. v.] erected a monument to his 
memory there. 

Thomas was a good scholar and a success- 
ful preacher. He kept copious manuscript 
volumes of ' Anniversaria,' in which he en- 
tered comments on memorable events, be- 
sides volumes on special subjects, his ' vEgro- 
torum Visitationes ' and ' Meditationes Ves- 
pertinse.' Bishop Bull, who resided in his 
house as pupil for two years (1652-4), states 
that he ' received little or no improvement 
or assistance from him in his study of theo- 
logy,' but adopted views opposed to those of 
Thomas, through the influence of his son 
Samuel, with whom he contracted an inti- 
mate acquaintance. 

In addition to the controversial tracts 
against Speed, and some ' Exhortations,' 
Thomas published : 1. ' The Protestant's 
Practice,' London, 1656. 2. ' Christian and 
Conjugal Counsall,' London, 1661. 3. 'A 
Preservation of Piety,' London, 1661, 1662. 

4. ' The Country's Sense of London's Suffer- 
ings in the Late Fire,' London, 1667. 

5. ' Scriptures opened and Sundry Cases of 
Conscience Resolved' (on Proverbs, Jere- 
miah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel), 
London, 1675, 1683. 

The subject of this article must be dis- 
tinguished from three other silenced mini- 
sters of both his names : William Thomas, 
a schoolmaster, who died in 1693 ; William 
Thomas, an itinerant baptist preacher about 
Caermarthen, who died on 26 July 1671 and 
was buried at Llantrissent in Monmouth- 
shire ; and William Thomas, M.A., of Jesus 
College, Oxford, who was ejected from the rec- 
tory of St. Mary's Church, Glamorganshire, 
and afterwards kept a school at Swansea. 



[Foster's Alumni ; Eeg. Univ. Oxon. (Oxford 
Bist. Soc.) n. ii. 307, iii. 317 ; Wood's Athena;, 
ed. Bliss, iii. cols. 798-9 ; Calamy's Cont. p. 745 ; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, iii. 171, 
212-15, 500, 503; Nelson's Life of Bull, pp. 
22-4; Sylvester's Reliquiae Baxterianae, iii. 13.] 

B. P. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM (1613-1689), 
bishop of St. David's and Worcester succes- 
sively, was born at Bristol on 2 Feb. 1613, 
being the son of John Thomas (a linen- 
draper of that town, but a native of Car- 
marthen) by his wife Elizabeth Blount, a 
niece of Thomas Blount, a wealthy Bristol 
lawyer, and a descendant of the Blounts of 
Eldersfield in Worcestershire. According 
to a pedigree which Thomas took out of the 
Herald's College in 1688 (cf. Harleian MS. 
No. 2300), with the view of establishing his 
claim to the Herbert arms, his father's family 
was descended from Henry Fitzherbert, 
chamberlain to Henry I, through Thomas ap 
William of Carmarthen, whose great-grand- 
son, William Thomas, having probably en- 
tered Gray's Inn on 2 June 1600 (FOSTER, 
Gray's Inn Register, p. 99), became recorder 
of Carmarthen in 1603, was elected M.P. for 
the borough in 1614, although the sheriff 
made no return (WILLIAMS, Parl. Hist, of 
Wales, p. 52), and was described by the 
Earl of Northampton, when lord president 
of Wales, as ' the wisest and most prudent 
person he ever knew member of a corpora- 
tion.' He was the bishop's grandfather, and 
it was with him that the bishop was brought 
up after his father's somewhat early death 
at Bristol. After attending the grammar 
school, Carmarthen, then kept by Morgan 
Owen [q. v.], he proceeded to Oxford, where 
he matriculated from St. John's College on 
13 Nov. 1629, but graduated B.A. 12 May 
1632 and M.A. 5 Feb. 1634-5 from Jesus 
College, of which he was also fellow and 
tutor. He was ordained deacon on 4 June 
1637 and priest in 1638 by Bancroft, the 
bishop of Oxford. He was appointed shortly 
afterwards vicar of Penbryn, Cardiganshire, 
and chaplain to the Earl of Northumberland 
(cf. Braybrooke manuscripts in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 8th Rep. p. 279 a), who presented 
him to the living of Laugharne with Llan- 
sadwrnen in Carmarthenshire, from which 
he was ejected in 1644. During the Com- 
monwealth he maintained his increasing 
family by keeping a private school at 
Laugharne, but in 1660 he was restored to 
his livings, and was also appointed precentor 
of St. David's (LE NEVE, Fasti, i. 316 ; cf. 
Cal. State Papers, Doni. 1660-1, p. 173), and 
on 2 Aug. created D.D. of Oxford by chan- 
cellor's letters. He subsequently held the 



Thomas 



198 



Thomas 



rectory of Lampeter Yelfrey, Pembrokeshire 
(1661-5), and in 1601 was made chaplain 
to the Duke of York, whom he attended in 
his voyage to Dunkirk and in one of his 
engagements with the Dutch. Through the 
duke's interest he was appointed dean of 
Worcester on 25 Nov. 1665, and, though 
a stranger, he is said to have ' gained the 
affections of all the gentlemen of that county, 
particularly the Duke of Beaufort, Lord 
Windsor (afterwards Earl of Plymouth), 
and Sir John Pakington ' (1620-1680), the 
last of whom presented him on 12 June 1670 
to the rectory of Hampton Lovett, Worces- 
tershire. 

In November 1677 he was appointed bishop 
of St. David's, but was allowed to hold the 
deanery of Worcester in commendam. His 
predecessor, William Lucy, had apparently 
regarded him as his most likely successor as 
early as 1670, when he enjoined Thomas to 
complete the private chapel commenced by 
Laud at Abergwili, ' if I finish it not in my 
life ' (HUTTON, Laud, p. 22). Excepting 
John Lloyd, who died (February 1686-7) 
within a few months of his consecration, 
Thomas was the only Welshman appointed 
to the see of St. David's in the seventeenth 
century, and he was ' the one bishop who, 
during the whole of that period, seems to 
have thoroughly identified himself with the 
interests of his diocese' (BEVAN, Diocesan 
History of St. David's, p. 196). He was 
popular with the gentry and clergy, whose 
sufferings he had shared during the Common- 
wealth. He was well acquainted with the 
Welsh language, in which he often preached 
in various parts of his diocese. It was 
through his instrumentality that Stephen 
Hughes, the puritan divine, obtained the 
necessary authority for publishing the third 
part of Vicar Prichard's Welsh songs in 1670, 
and he is also said to have supported Hughes 
and Thomas Gouge in bringing out an octavo 
edition of the Welsh Bible, either in 1671 
or 1677 (cf. ROWLANDS, Cambrian Biblio- 
graphy, pp. 197-8, 200, 213; Canwyll y 
'Cymry, ed. Rice Rees, 1867, p. 320). He 
began to repair the episcopal palaces at 
Brecon and Abergwili, and revived a scheme 
of Bishop Barlow's for removing the see 
from St. David's to Carmarthen (JONES and 
FREEMAN, St. David's, p. 333; cf. BEVAN, 
Diocesan History of St. David's, p. 188). 

In 1683 he was translated to the see of 
Worcester, his election thereto being con- 
firmed on 27 Aug. Here he indulged in 
such lavish, if not excessive, charity and 
hospitality as to considerably impoverish 
his family. ' The poor of the neighbourhood 
were daily fed at his door ; ' he contributed 



largely to the support of the French pro- 
testants; and during his visitations he 
entertained the clergy at his own charge, 
devoting the customary fees to the purchase 
of books for the cathedral library. In July 
1684 he entertained the Duke of Beaufort 
on his official progress through Wales and 
the marches (DINELEY, Beaufort Progress, 
p. 29), and on 23 Aug. 1687 James II also 
stayed at the palace, where the decorations 
caused him to say to the bishop, ' My lord, 
this looks like Whitehall.' He, however, 
staunchly adhered to the protestant cause, 
and is said to have been cited in June 1687 
before the ecclesiastical commission for re- 
fusing orders to several papists who declined 
to take the usual oaths (LTTTTRELL, Brief 
Relation, i. 405), He also refused to dis- 
tribute among his clergy the declaration of 
indulgence by James in May 1688. He 
was one of the bishops who absented them- 
selves from the convention called in the 
following January, after the landing of 
William, and he subsequently refused to 
take the oath of allegiance, whereupon he 
was suspended, and would have been de- 
prived but for his death on 25 June 1689. 
Two days before his death he sent for his 
dean, Dr. George Hickes [q. v.], and made 
to him a solemn declaration, which was 
afterwards much quoted by the nonjurors, 
saying, ' I think I could burn at a stake 
before I took this oath ' (Memoirs of the Life 
of George Kettlewell, 1718, pp. 198-203; 
CARTER, Life of Kettlewell, pp. 105, 126). 
He was buried, at his own request, at the 
north-east corner of the cloisters, near the 
foot of the choir steps. 

He married, about 1638, Blanche, daughter 
of Peter Samyne, a Dutch merchant, of 
Lime Street, London. She died on 3 Aug. 
1677, and was buried in Worcester Cathe- 
dral, having borne him four sons and four 
daughters. The eldest surviving son, John, 
was father of William Thomas (1670-1738) 
[q. v.], the antiquary. 

By his will the bishop made numerous 
charitable bequests, including 100/. to the 
poor of Worcester, but his whole estate 
amounted to only 800/. His portrait, en- 
graved by T. Sanders ' from an original 
picture,' is given in Nash's ' Worcestershire ' 
(vol. ii. App. p. 160). 

In December 1655, in reply to the friendly 
challenge of a dissenting minister, Thomas 
wrote, while still at Laugharne, ' An Apo- 
logy for the Church of England in point of 
separation from it,' but the work was not 
published till 1679 (London, 8vo). Three 
of his sermons were issued separately (in 
1657, 1678, and 1688). There were also 



Thomas 



i 99 



Thomas 



' printed, with many things expunged since 
his death' (Woon), 'A Pastoral Letter on 
the Catechising of Children ' (1689, London, 
4to), and an incomplete work entitled ' Ro- 
man Oracles Silenced ' (London, 1691, 4to), 
being a reply to the Romanist arguments 
advanced in Henry Turberville's ' Manual 
of Controversies.' Numerous letters from 
him to Sancroft and others are preserved 
in the Bodleian Library (see HACKMAN, 
Catalogue, s.v. ' Thomas '). 

[There is a detailed memoir of Thomas in 
Nash's Worcestershire (vol. ii. App. pp. 158-63), 
the materials for it having been communicated 
to the author by George Wingfield of Lippard, 
near Worcester, who was a grandson of William 
Thomas (1670-1738) [q. v.] the antiquary. In- 
formation as to the bishop's pedigree was kindly 
communicated by Alcwyn C. Evans, esq. of 
Carmarthen. See also Wood's Athenae Oxon. iv. 
262, and Fasti Oxon. ii. 240 ; Willis's Survey 
of St. David's, pp. 133-5, 149, and Survey of 
the Cathedrals, ii. 654, 660; Thomas's Survey 
of Worcester (1736), pp. 73-5, 106 (where a 
drawing of the bishop's monument, with the 
inscription thereon, as well as the inscriptions 
in memory of his wife and some members of his 
family, is given) ; Valentine Green's Hist, and 
Antiq. of Worcester, i. 212, ii. 103; Burnet's 
Hist, of his own Times, ed. 1823, iv. 10; Spur- 
rell'sHist. of Carmarthen, pp. 63, 179; Curtis's 
Hist, of Laugharne, 2nd ed. pp. 100-1 ; Jack- 
son's Curiosities of the Pulpit, p. 181 ; Wil- 
liaras's Eminent Welshmen, p. 489 ; Chalmers's 
General Biographical Diet. xxix. 286 ; Lans- 
downe MSS. (Brit. Mus.) No. 987, ff. 113-15; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon.] D. LL. T. 

^THOMAS, WILLIAM, D.D. (1670- 
1738), antiquary, was grandson of William 
Thomas (1613-1689) [q. v.J.bishop of Worces- 
ter, being the only child of John Thomas by 
his wife Mary, whose father, William Bagnal, 
assisted in the escape of Charles II after the 
battle of Worcester. William was admitted 
to Westminster school in 1685, and thence 
was elected on 25 June 1688 to a scholarship 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he 
became a fellow in 1691. He graduated 
B.A. in 1691, M.A. in 1695, B.D. in 1723, 
and D.D. in 1729. In 1700 he travelled in 
France and Italy, where he formed a close 
friendship with Sir John Pakington (1671- 
1727) [q. v.l Afterwards he obtained the 
living of Exhall, Warwickshire, through the 
interest of Lord Somers, to whom he was 
distantly related. He had a considerable 
estate at Atherstone in the same county, and 
another at the Grange, near Toddington, 
Gloucestershire. He removed to Worcester 
for the education of his numerous children in 
1721, and in 1723 he was presented by John 
Hough [q.v.], bishop of Worcester, to the 



rectory of St. Nicholas in that city. With 
a view to the publication of a history of 
Worcestershire he transcribed many docu- 
ments, besides visiting every church in the 
county, and his collections were of great 
service to Nash, who acknowledges his 
obligations to them. His industry was 
amazing, and he hardly allowed himself 
time for sleep, meals, and amusement. He 
died on 26 July 1738, and was buried in the 
cloisters of Worcester Cathedral. He married 
Elizabeth, only daughter of George Carter, 
esquire, of Brill, Buckinghamshire. 

His works are: 1. ' Antiquitates Prioratus 
Majoris Malverne in agro Wicciensi, cum 
Chartis originalibus easdem illustrantibus, 
ex Registris Sedis Episcopalis Wigornensis,' 
London, 1725, 8vo. 2. ' A Survey of the 
Cathedral Church of Worcester, with an 
account of the Bishops thereof from the 
foundation of the see to the year 1660 [a 
mistake for 1610], also an appendix of many 
original papers and records, never before 
printed,' London 1736, 4to ; also with a new 
title-page, dated 1737. Thomas is best 
known as the editor of the second edition, 
' revised, augmented, and continued,' of Sir 
William Dugdale's ' Antiquities of War- 
wickshire,' 2 vols. London, 1730, fol. His 
' Index of Places to Dugdale's " Warwick- 
shire," 2nd edit.' fol., was privately printed 
by Sir Thomas Phillips at Middle Hill about 
1844. Thomas contributed verses to the 
collection published by the University of 
Cambridge on the birth of the Prince of 
Wales, 1688. 

In Nash's ' Worcestershire' (i. 177) there 
is a portrait of Thomas engraved in mezzo- 
tint by Valentine Green. 

[Bromley's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, 
p. 281 ; Cooke's Preacher's Assistant, ii. 337 ; 
Gough's British Topography, ii. 299, 385, 388, 
391 ; Historical Kegister, vol. xxiii. Chron. 
Diary, p. 29 ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, i. 
114; Nash's Worcestershire, vol. ii. App. p. clxii; 
Upcott's English Topography, iii. 1259, 1342, 
1346; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (Phillimore), 
pp. 210, 212.] T. C. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM (ft. 1780-1794), 
architect, was from 1780 to 1794 an oc- 
casional exhibitor at the Royal Academy of 
Arts. He practised as an architect, chiefly, 
if not solely, in London. In 1783 he pub- 
lished ' Original Designs in Architecture ' 
(London, fol. ),with twenty-seven plates, com- 
prising villas, temples, grottoes, and tombs. 
Between 1786 and 1788 he designed Wil- 
lersley Castle, Derbyshire, for Richard Ark- 
wright. He was a member of the Artists' 
Club. The date of his death is unknown. 

[Diet, of Architecture, 1887.] W. A. 



Thomas 



200 



Thomason 



THOMAS, WILLIAM (IsLWTx) (1832- 
1878), Welsh poet, was born at Ynysddu, a 
small village on the banks of the Howy, in 
the parish of Mynyddislwyn in Monmouth- 
shire, on 3 April 1832. His father was a 
native of Ystradgynlais, and his mother of 
Blaengwawr. Both became members of the 
Calvinistic methodist church of Goitre. Wil- 
liam, the youngest of nine children, received 
the best education his parents could give. He 
attended schools at Tredegar, Newport, Cow- 
bridge, and Swansea, but his career at school 
was cut short by the sudden death of his 
father, and he began life as a land surveyor 
in Monmouthshire. 

Under the influence of Daniel Jenkins, who 
had married his eldest sister, and was pastor 
of the church of Y Babell (The Tabernacle), 
Thomas resolved to enter the Calvinistic 
methodist ministry. His first sermon was 
preached in 1854, but it was not till 1859 
that his ordination took place at Llangeitho. 
Thomas, who wrote verse from an early 
age, and adopted the bardic name of Islwyn, 
long devoted his leisure to a remarkable 
philosophical poem in Welsh called 'The 
Storm,' which was to extend to over nine 
thousand lines (cf. Wales, June 1896, p. 357). 
He published some extracts in a volume of 
poems which appeared at Wrexham in 1867 
with a dedication to Jenkins. Translated 
specimens of this and of others of Thomas's 
Welsh poems may be seen in 'Welsh Lyrics 
of the Nineteenth Century,' 1896. His 
Welsh poetry, although now acknowledged 
to be the finest of the century, was not widely 
recognised in his own lifetime. He edited 
the Welsh column of poetry in the periodi- 
cals entitled ' Cylchgrawn,' ' Ymgeisydd,' 
1 Star of Gwent,' ' Y Glorian,' ' Y Gwlad- 
garwr,' ' Cardiff Times,' and ' Baner Cymru.' 
Thomas's attempts in English poetry were 
failures, giving no indication of the high 
quality of his Welsh poetry. Some twenty 
specimens were published in ' Wales ' for 
1896 and in ' Young Wales,' 1896. 

Islwyn spent his life in Mynyddislwyn 
and its vicinity, the district of his birth. There 
he won a reputation as a preacher, and he 
died there on 20 Nov. 1878. He was buried 
in the churchyard of Y Babell, where a 
granite column was erected to his memory 
by public subscription. In 1864 he married 
Martha, daughter of William Davies of Swan- 
sea. There was no issue. 

His published works were : 1 . ' Bardd- 
oniaeth [Poetry] gan Islwyn,' Cardiff, 1854, 
12mo. 2. 'Caniadau [Songs of] Islwyn,' 
Wrexham, n.d. ; 1867, 16mo. 3. 'Ymweliad 
y Doethion a Bethlehem [Visit of the Wise 
Men to Bethlehem] gan Islwyn,' Aberdare, 



1871, 12mo. 4. ' Pregethau [Sermons] y 
Parch. William Thomas (Islwyn) yn nghyda 
Rhagdraethawd ar " Islwyn fel Pregethwr " 
[An Essay on Islwyn as a Preacher] gan y 
Parch. Edward Matthews,'Treherbert,1896 r 
8vo. 5. A complete collection of his Welsh 
poems, ' Gweithiau Islwyn,' edited by Mr. 
Owen M. Edwards in 1897, Wrexham, 8vo. 

[The Life, Character, and Genius of Islwyn, 
by Dyfed, 'Y Geninen,' lonawr, 1884; The- 
Genius of Jslwyn, by Dewi Wyn o Essyllt, 
' Ceninen Gwyl Dewi,' JVIawrtb, 1887 ; Islwyn, 
by John Owen Jones, B.A., 'Y Geuinen,' 
Hydref, 1892, Mawrth, 1893; Islwyn as a 
Preacher, by Edward Matthews, ' Cylchgrawn, r 
1879; Islwyu as a Preacher, by John Hughes, 
M.A., ' Y Mis ; : Bro [the land of] Islwyn in ' Y 
Tyst,' 7 Aug. 1896; Islwyn (a Criticism?) 
'Cymru,' by D. Davies, 1896; Islwyn's Pecu- 
liarities, ' Cymru,' by J. M. Howell, 1896; Ee- 
view of his Caniadau [Songs] in Llanelly 
Guardian by W. Thomas, M.A., all except thi& 
in Welsh.] K. J. J. 

THOMASON, SIB EDWARD (1769- 
1849), manufacturer and inventor, son of a. 
buckle manufacturer of Birmingham, was 
born in that place in 1769. At the age of 
sixteen he was apprenticed to Matthew 
Boulton (~q y.] of Soho, the engineer. In 
1793, his father having retired from business,. 
Edward commenced a manufactory of gilt 
and plated buttons, which was gradually 
extended to medals, tokens, works in bronze,, 
and silver and gold plate. In 1796 he sub- 
mitted to the admiralty the model of a fire- 
ship propelled by steam and steered automa- 
tically, with which he proposed to assail the 
French shipping in their own harbours. Ik 
met with considerable approbation, but was 
not adopted. On 25 Oct. 1796 and on 
22 Dec. 1798 he took out patents (Nos. 2142 
and 2282) for a carriage-step folding up 
automatically on the door of the vehicle 
being closed. At various times he patented 
improvements in gun-locks and corkscrews, 
and in the manufacture of hearth-brushes,, 
umbrellas, whips, medals, tokens, and coins. 
He also produced many works of great ar- 
tistic merit, among others a full-sized copy 
of the Warwick vase in metallic bronze. In 
1830 he completed a series of sixty large' 
medals on bible subjects from pictures by 
the old masters. He presented these medals 
to all the sovereigns in Europe, and in return 
received many marks of honour and magni- 
ficent gifts. He held on behalf of eight 
foreign governments the office of vice-consul 
for Birmingham, and was honoured with 
eight foreign orders of knighthood, including 
the Red Eagle of Prussia. In 1832 he was 
knighted by William IV. In 1844 he re- 



Thomason 



201 



Thomason 



tired from business, and settled at Ludlow, 
whence he removed to Bath and afterwards 
to Warwick. He died at Warwick on 
29 May 1849, and was buried in the family 
vault in St. Philip's, Birmingham. By his 
wife, Phillis Bown, daughter of Samuel 
Glover of Abercarne, he had one son, Henry 
Botfield, who died on 12 July 1843. 

Sir Edward published an autobiography 
entitled 'Memoirs during Half a Century' 
(London, 1845, 8vo), consisting chiefly of an 
elaborate account of the various honours he 
had received. His portrait is prefixed, en- 
graved by C. Freeman. 

[Thomason's Memoirs ; Colvile's Warwickshire 
Worthies, p. 743; Gent. Mag. 1849, ii. 430.1 

E. I. C. 

THOMASON, GEORGE (d. 1666), the 
collector of the remarkable series of books 
and tracts issued during the period of the 
civil war and the Commonwealth, formerly 
known as the ' King's Pamphlets,' but now 
more often referred to as the ' Thomason 
Collection,' was a bookseller who carried on 
business at the sign of the Rose and Crown 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, London. He took 
up his freedom as a member of the Stationers' 
Company in 1626 (ARBEK, Transcript of the 
Register, iii. 686), and his name first appears 
in the entries of books on 1 Nov. 1627, 
when there was assigned to him, James 
Boler, and Robert Young, Martyn's ' His- 
tory of the Kings of England,' of which a 
new edition, with portraits by R. Elstracke, 
was published by them in 1628. He does 
not appear to have published any books of 
much importance except the two narratives 
by Jean Puget de La Serre, the French his- 
toriographer, of the visits of Mary de' Medici 
to the Netherlands and to England ' His- 
toire de 1'Entree de la Reyne Mere du Roy 
tres-chrestien dans les Prouinces Vnies des 
Pays-Bas,' and ' Histoire de 1'Entree de la 
Reyne Mere du Roy tres-chrestien dans la 
Grande-Bretaigne ' both of which were 
published by John Raworth, George Thoma- 
son, and Octavian Pullen in 1639, and were 
illustrated with plates engraved by Hollar 
and others. 

In 1647 Thomason issued a trade catalogue 
bearing the title ' Catalogus Librorum 
diversis Italiae locis emptorum Anno Dom. 
1647, a Georgio Thomasono Bibliopola 
Londinensi, apud quern in Csemiterio D. 
Pauli ad insigne Rosse coronatse, prostant 
venales,' which included among other books 
a number of works in oriental languages, 
and in 1648 the parliament directed that a 
sum of 500/. ' out of the receipts at Goldsmiths' 
Hall should be paid to George Thomason for 



a collection of books in the Eastern lan- 
guages, late brought out of Italy,' that the 
same might be bestowed on the Public Li- 
brary in Cambridge. In 1651 Thomason 
was implicated in the royalist and presby- 
terian plot [see LOVE, CHRISTOPHER]. On 
confessing what he knew and giving bail for 
1,OOOJ. the council of state ordered his release 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651, pp. 21 8, 230 ; 
Report on the Duke of Portland's MSS. i. 
586, 590). 

Thomason's chief claim to notice rests on 
the important collection which he formed of 
the books, pamphlets, and single sheets 
which poured forth from the press on both 
sides during the civil war and afterwards 
until the Restoration. The idea of collecting 
these ephemeral productions appears to have 
occurred to him first in 1641, and he began 
his task by seeking to procure copies of all 
such tracts and broadsides printed in the 
years immediately preceding as were still 
to be obtained. His sympathies were with 
the king, but he nevertheless collected im- 
partially everything which appeared on both 
sides of the controversy, as well as many 
tracts from abroad which related to Eng- 
lish affairs. He then, to use his own words, 
' proceeded with that chargeable and heavy 
burthen, both to myself and my sen-ants 
that were employed in that business, which 
continued about the space of twenty years, in 
which time I buried three of them who took 
great pains both day and night with me in 
that tedious employment.' He pursued his 
object steadily until 1662, by which time he 
had gathered together nearly twenty-three 
thousand separate articles, and he himself 
records that 'exact care hath been taken 
that the very day is written upon most of 
them that they came out.' He obtained also 
transcripts of ' near one Hundred several 
MS. Pieces, that were never printed, all, or 
most of them on the King's behalf, which 
no man durst then venture to publish here 
without endangering his Ruine.' This enor- 
mous mass of historical materials he arranged 
in chronological order and caused to be 
bound in about 1983 volumes. A catalogue 
which he drew up still remains in manu- 
script in the British Museum. 

Some of the tracts have on them notes as 
to their authorship, or sarcastic comments if 
the opinions of their writers were not exactly 
those of their possessor; but he records with 
equal pride that one work had been ' given 
me by Mr. Milton,' and that another had 
been borrowed by the king and returned 
both speedily and safely. 

The collection underwent many vicis- 
situdes and caused much anxiety to its 



Thomason 



202 



Thomason 



owner. Early in the days of the civil war 
it was hastily packed up and sent into 
Surrey, but afterwards, through fear of the 
advance of the parliamentary army from the 
west, it was brought back to London. - It 
was next entrusted to the care of a friend 
in Essex, whence it returned again to Lon- 
don, and remained for a time hidden in tables 
with false tops in its owner's warehouse ; but 
at length Thomason decided to send his col- 
lection for safe custody to Oxford, and so it 
escaped destruction in the great fire of 1666. 
Bishop Barlow, then Bodley's librarian, tried 
in vain to secure the collection for Oxford, 
and eventually, about 1680, it was sold to 
Samuel Mearne, who was acting on behalf of 
the king. It was left, however, on Mearne's 
hands, and in 1684 his widow petitioned for 
and obtained leave to sell it. when it appears 
to have passed back to Thomason's descen- 
dants and to have remained in their hands 
until 1761, when, on the recommendation of 
Thomas Hollis, it was bought by George III 
for 300/., and presented to the British Mu- 
seum in 1762. 

Thomason died in Holborn, near Barnard's 
Inn, London, in April 1666, and was buried 
' out of Stationers' Hall (a poore man) ' on 
10 April (SMYTH, Obituary, Camden Soc. 
1849). 

[Thomason's Note prefixed to the manuscript 
catalogue of his collection, printed in Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 413 ; Edwards's Memoirs of 
Libraries, 1859, i. 455-60, 595 ; Madan's Notes 
on the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts, 
in Bibliographica, iii. 291-308 ; Masson's Life 
of Milton, 1859-94, iii. 44, 45 ., vi. 399-400, 
403.] R. E. G. 

THOMASON, JAMES (1804-1853), 
lieutenant-governor of the North- Western 
Provinces of India and governor-designate of 
Madras, was born at Great Shelford, near 
Cambridge, on 3 May 1804. In 1808 his 
father, Thomas Tr uebody Thomason , curate to 
Charles Simeon [q. v.], accepted a chaplaincy 
in Bengal. In India he became distinguished 
as a good preacher and a devoted clergyman. 
He was an intimate friend of David Brown 
(1763-1812) [q. v.], of Claudius Buchanan 
[q. v.l, and of Henry Martyn [q. v.], and 
for a time as chaplain to the governor-general, 
Lord Moira [see HASTINGS, FRANCIS RAWDON, 
first MARQUIS OF HASTINGS]. James was 
sent to England at the age of ten, and was 
consigned to the care of Simeon, who was 
residing at Cambridge with his grandmother, 
Mrs. Dornford. Shortly after his arrival he 
was sent to a school at Aspeden Hall, near 
Buntingford, where he had Macaulay as one 
of his fellow-pupils. Four years later he 
went to a school at Stansted in Sussex, 



where Samuel Wilberforce was his school- 
fellow. Thence, having obtained an appoint- 
ment to the Bengal civil service, he moved to 
Haileybury College, and arrived at Calcutta 
in September 1822, at the age of eighteen. 

He speedily acquired considerable profi- 
ciency in native languages. His earlier 
service was passed in the judicial department. 
Before he had been seven years in India he 
was appointed registrar to the court of Sadr 
Adalat at Calcutta, and he afterwards acted 
as judge in the Jungle Mahals. In 1830 he 
was appointed secretary to government, and 
held that office until 1832, when, at his own 
request, he Avas transferred to the post of 
magistrate and collector of Azamgarh, in 
order that he might acquire administrative 
experience and practical knowledge of dis- 
trict work in immediate contact with the 
people. In this work he was employed for 
five years. A survey and reassessment of 
the revenue for thirty years was at that 
time in progress. He was settlement officer, 
as well as magistrate and collector, and his 
settlement work brought him into the closest 
touch with agricultural affairs and with the 
landed interests. It may be said that the five 
years which Thomason spent in Azamgarh 
did more than any part of his official life to 
fit him for his later duties as governor of a 
province. Early in 1837 Thomason was ap- 
pointed secretary to the government of Agra, 
which had been constituted under the statute 
of 1833. In 1839 the state of his wife's 
health compelled him to return with her to 
England. He had only taken leave to the 
Cape of Good Hope, and his conduct, by the 
rules of the company, involved forfeiture of 
his membership of the civil service. The 
court of directors, however, knowing his 
value, restored him to the service, and the 
government of India kept his appointment 
open for him. 

Returning to Agra early in 1840, Thomason 
served on in the secretariat until the end of 
1841, when he succeeded Robert Merttins 
Bird [q. v.] as a member of the board of 
revenue. Early in the following year lie 
was appointed by Lord Ellenborough foreign 
secretary to the government of India, and in 
the latter part of 1843 was nominated lieu- 
tenant-governor of the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, which office he assumed on 12 Dec. of 
that year. This appointment Thomason held 
until his death in 1853. Throughout his 
long term of office his abilities and energies 
were devoted with unparalleled success to 
the well-being of the province under his 
charge. His directions to settlement officers 
and to collectors of land revenue are still, 
with but slight modifications, the guide of 



203 



Thomasson 



those important branches of the administra- 
tion. It was entirely owing to his strenuous 
advocacy that the construction of the Ganges 
Canal, which was seriously opposed by Lord 
Ellenborough, and was not opened until after 
Thomason's death, became an established fact. 
In developing the communications, in im- 
proving the police and gaols, in promoting 
popular education, and generally in carrying 
out improvements in every branch of the 
public service, few rulers have achieved more 
marked success. Thomason died at Bareilly 
on 27 Sept. 1853. On the same day the 
queen affixed her signature to his appoint- 
ment as governor of Madras. 

Thomason throughout his life was in- 
fluenced by strong religious sentiments and 
by the highest Christian principles, but he 
was not the less careful to abstain from any 
measures which might be regarded as inter- 
fering with the religious feelings or preju- 
dices of the natives. He married, in 1829, 
Maynard Eliza Grant, the daughter of a 
civil servant. 

[James Thomason, by Sir Richard Temple, 
Oxford, 1893; Directions for Revenue Officers 
in the North-Western Provinces in the Bengal 
Presidency, Agra, 1849.] A. J. A. 

THOMASSON, THOMAS (1808-1876), 
manufacturer and political economist, born 
at Turton, near Bolton, on 6 Dec. 1808, came 
of a quaker family which settled in West- 
moreland in 1672. His grandfather owned 
a small landed estate at Edgeworth, near 
Bolton, and built a house there known as 
' Thomasson's Fold.' He gave the site for the 
Frier/ds' meeting-house and burial-ground 
at Edgeworth. The father, John Thomas- 
eon (1776-1837), was manager and share- 
owner of the Old Mill, Eagley Bridge, 
Bolton, and subsequently became a cotton- 
spinner at Bolton on his own account. 

Thomas Thomasson at an early age joined 
his father's business, and, soon taking control 
of it, greatly extended it. In 1841, at a time 
of great depression in trade and distress in 
the town, he erected a new No. 1 mill in 
Bolton, and the prime minister (Sir R. Peel) 
called the attention of the House of Com- 
mons to Thomasson's action as proof that 
capital was still applied to the further ex- 
tension of the cotton trade, notwithstanding 
its depressed condition. With great business 
aptitude Thomasson combined a sagacious 
interest in municipal and public affairs and 
a practical philanthropy. Although he did 
not closely adhere to quaker customs, his 
political views were largely influenced by 
quaker principles, which were mainly iden- 
tical with the enlightened radicalism of the 
period. His aim in public life was, he said, 



to seek to 'extend to every man, rich or 
poor, whatever privilege, political or mental, 
he claimed for himself.' He was a good 
speaker, and rapidly gained a pre-eminent 
influence in the affairs of his native town. 
He actively supported the movement for 
securing the incorporation of Bolton, and 
was elected to the fir