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G. A. A. . . G. A. AITKEN. 

J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 








G. C. B. . . THE LATE G. C. BOASE. 



G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 
T. B. B. . . T. B. BROWNING. 
A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLEKKE. 


J. S. C. . . . J. S. COTTON. 
W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 




E. G. D. 

E. D. . . 

F. G. E. 
C. L. F. 
C. H. F. 
W. G. D. 
M. F. . 



. . F. G. EDWARDS. 


. . C. H. FIRTH. 


T. F. 

E. G. . . 
A. G. . . 
E. E. G. 
A. H-N.. 
C. A. H. 
T. F. H. 
W. A. S. 
W. H. . 
C. L. K. 
J. K. L. 
T. G. L. 
E. L. . . 
S. L. . . 
E. M. L. 
J. E. L. 
M. MAcD 
M. M. 





. . E. E. GRAVES. 








. . T. G. LAW. 




. . J. E. LLOYD. 




List of Writers. 

E. C. M. . . E. C. MARCHANT. 




G. H. M. . . G. H. MURRAY, C.B. 


E. T. N. . . E. T. NICOLLE. 


D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DONOGHUE, F.S.A. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 



D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 

E. L. E. . . MRS. EADFORD. 


W. E. E. . . W. E. ERODES. 

J. M. E. . . J. M. EIGG. 


C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

G. W. S. . . THE EEV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 


C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 


E. F. T. . . E. F. TURNER. 
J. A. T. . . J. A. TWEMLOW. 
L. C. T. . . MRS. TYNDALL. 

A. E. U. . . A. E. URQUHART, M.D. 

E. H. V. . . COLONEL E. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 

W. W. W. . CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB, M.D., 


B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 








(1799-1838), impostor and madman, was 
baptised on lONov. 1799 at St. Columb Major 
in Cornwall. His father, William Tom, kept 
an inn called the Joiner's Arms, and was 
also a small farmer. His mother, Charity, 
whose maiden name was Bray, died in the 
county lunatic asylum. John was educated 
at Bellevue House academy, Penryn, and at 
Launceston under Richard Cope [q. v.] From 
1817 to 1820 he was clerk to F. C. Paynter, 
a solicitor at St. Columb. and, after acting 
as innkeeper at Wadebridge for a few months, 
he became clerk to Lubbock & Co., wine 
merchants, Truro, in whose employ he re- 
mained until 1826. In that year, with the 
assistance of his wife, Catherine Fisher, 
daughter of William Fulpitt of Truro, to 
whom he was married in February 1821, and 
who brought him a handsome fortune, he set 
up in Truro on his own account as a maltster 
and hop-dealer, and built himself a house 
in Pydar Street. From an early age he showed 
a tendency to political and religious enthu- 
siasm. When on a visit to London in 1821 
he joined the Spencean Society, founded by 
Thomas Spence [q. v.] About the beginning 
of 1832 he is said to have had an epileptic fit, 
and was regarded by his family as of unsound 
mind. He disappeared from Cornwall, and is 
next heard of at Canterbury in August 1832. 
His own story of intermediate travels in the 
Holy Land is purely fictitious. He now as- 
sumed the name of SirWilliam Percy Honey- 
wood Courtenay, by which he was after- 
wards known, and claimed to be heir to the 
earldom of Devon, a title which had been 
restored to the third Viscount Courtenay 
in the previous year. He also (inconsis- 
tently) claimed the Kentish estates of Sir 
Edward Hales, sixth baronet, who had died 
VOL. LVII. ** * 

without issue in 1829. Other names under 
which he passed were the Hon. Sydney 
Percy, Count Moses Rothschild, and Squire 
Thompson. He persistently styled himself 
knight of Malta, and sometimes king of 
Jerusalem, but during this period he seems 
to have made no assertion of a divine mis- 
sion. The Canterbury people of all classes 
were at once won over by his handsome face 
and figure, his strange oriental garb, and 
his apparent generosity, which was really 
derived from loans raised out of his credulous 
followers. At the general election of De- 
cember 1832 he was nominated for Canter- 
bury, and actually polled 375 votes ; but 
when standing for East Kent a few days 
later he obtained only four supporters. In 
March 1833 he started a paper at Canter- 
bury, called ' The Lion,' of which eight 
numbers in all appeared. The contents, 
written by himself, are commonplace ap- 
peals to political and religious ignorance, 
with some fictitious autobiographical details. 
In February of that year he had given 
evidence in defence of some smugglers at 
Rochester, on which he was subsequently 
indicted for perjury. He swore that he had 
witnessed the fight between the revenue 
officers and smugglers off the Goodwin Sands 
on a certain Sunday, when he was proved 
to have been present at church near Canter- 
bury. At the Maidstone assizes, held in 
July, he was convicted and sentenced to 
three months' imprisonment and seven years' 
transportation. However, under medical 
certificate he was presently placed in the 
county lunatic asylum at Banning Heath. 
Here he remained for four years, conducting 
himself with propriety. He was even 
allowed to issue a wild address to the citi- 
zens of Canterbury in November 1835, re- 



commending a list of candidates for the 
town council, and, what is yet more strange, 
these candidates (including a doctor and 
two ministers) adopted this address as their 
own. In August 1837 his father, who had 
at last learnt what had become of him, peti- 
tioned the home secretary (Lord John Rus- 
sell) for his release, backed by a letter from 
his former employer, Edward Turner (a 
partner in the firm of Lubbock & Co.), 
M.P. for Truro. A free pardon was granted 
in October, with an order that he should 
be delivered to his father. Unfortunately 
he was handed over to one of his former 
supporters, George Francis of Fairbrook, 
near Canterbury, who shared his religious 
delusions, and is believed to have lent him 
large sums of money. The circumstances 
of his release subsequently gave rise to a 
debate in parliament. For some three 
months he lived with Francis, and then 
moved to a neighbouring farmhouse on the 
high road between Canterbury and Favers- 
ham. Here he began to preach commu- 
nistic doctrines, and to assert that he was 
the Messiah. He showed the stigmata on 
his hands and feet, and professed to work 
miracles. Disciples gathered round him to 
the number of more than a hundred, He 
armed them with cudgels and led them about 
the country side, mounted on a white horse, 
with a flag bearing the emblem of a lion. 

No breach of the peace, however, oc- 
curred until a warrant was issued against 
him on the charge of enticing away the 
labourers of a farmer. When constables 
came to serve the warrant, Tom shot one of 
the party and cruelly mangled the dying 
man. This was in the early morning of 
31 May 1838. That afternoon two com- 
panies of the 45th regiment were marched 
out from Canterbury to arrest him. They 
found him, with his followers, lurking in 
Blean Wood, near Hern Hill. He rushed 
forward with a pistol and shot an officer, 
Lieutenant Henry Boswell Bennett. Im- 
mediately after wards Bennett received a fatal 
wound from another hand. The soldiers were 
ordered to return the fire and charge with 
the bayonet. The affair was quickly over. 
Tom, with eight of the rioters, was killed on 
the spot, and of seven who were wounded 
three died a few days after. Of those taken 
three were subsequently sentenced to trans- 
portation and six to a year's hard labour ; 
not one was hanged. Tom was buried in 
the churchyard of Hern Hill with maimed 
rites, and his grave was guarded that his fol- 
lowers might not assert he had risen on the 
third day. The spot where he fell is marked 
on the ordnance map as ' Mad Tom's Corner,' 

and a gate close by is still called Courtenay's 
Gate. Tom was a tall man, of fine presence, 
with a full beard, and is said to have borne 
a striking resemblance to the traditional 
representations of Christ. A portrait of him, 
painted in watercolours by H. Hitchcock, a 
Canterbury artist, shows him in eastern 
dress and scimitar, looking something like 
Henry VIII. His earlier imposture forms 
the subject of a ballad entitled l The Knight 
of Malta ' in Harrison Ainsworth's ' Rook- 

[Contemporary newspapers, particularly the 
Times and the Lion, ut supra ; Essay on the 
Character of Sir "W. Courtenay, Canterbury, 
1838 ; Life and Adventures of Sir W. Courtenay, 
by Canterburiensis, with portrait and illustra- 
tions, containing much material supplied by 
Tom himself, Canterbury, 1838 ; History of the 
Canterbury Eiots, by the Rev. J. F. Thorpe, 
1888 ; A Canterbury Tale of Fifty Years Ago,' 
reprinted from the Canterbury Press, containing 
narratives by survivors of the tragedy (1888); 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 724-7 ; 
personal inquiries.] J. S. C. 

TOMBES, JOHN (1603 P-1676), baptist 
divine, was born of humble parentage at 
Bewdley, Worcestershire, in 1602 or 1603. 
He matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 23 Jan. 1617-18, aged 15. His 
tutor was William Pemble [q.v.] Among his 
college friends was John Geree [q. v.] He 
graduated B.A. on 12 June 1621. After 
Pemble's death he succeeded him in 1623 as 
catechism lecturer. His reputation as a 
tutor was considerable; among his pupils 
was John Wilkins [q. v.] He graduated 
M.A. on 16 April 1624, took orders, and 
quickly came into note as a preacher. From 
about 1624 to 1630 he was one of the lec- 
turers of St. Martin Carfax. As early as 
1627 he began to have doubts on the subject 
of infant baptism. Leaving the university 
in 1630, he was for a short time preacher at 
Worcester, but in November was instituted 
vicar of Leominster, Herefordshire, where 
his preaching was exceedingly popular, and 
won the admiration of so high an Anglican 
as John Scudamore, first viscount Scudamore 
[q. v.], who augmented the small income of 
his living. In June 1631 he commenced B.D. 
He left Leominster in 1643 (after February), 
having been appointed by Nathaniel Fiennes 
[q. v.] to supersede George Williamson as 
vicar of All Saints, Bristol. On the sur- 
render of Bristol to the royalists (26 July), 
he removed to London (22 Sept.), where he 
became rector of St. Gabriel, Fenchurch, 
vacant by the sequestration of Ralph Cook, 
B.D. In church government his views were 



He laid his scruples on infant baptism 
before the Westminster assembly of divines, 
but got no satisfaction. Declining to baptise 
infants, he was removed from St. Gabriel's 
early in 1645, but appointed (before May) 
master of the Temple, on condition of not 
preaching on baptism. He published on this 
topic ; for licensing one of his tracts, the 
parliamentary censor, John Bachiler, was 
attacked in the Westminster assembly 
(25 Dec. 1645) by William Gouge, D.D. 
[q. v.], and Stephen Marshall [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed to answer the tract. As preacher at 
the Temple, Tombes directed his polemic 
against antinomianism. In 1646 he had an 
interview with Cromwell and gave him his 
books. His fellow-townsmen chose him to 
the perpetual curacy of Bewdley, then a 
chapelry in the parish of Ribbesford ; his 
successor at the Temple, Richard Johnson, 
was approved by the Westminster assembly 
on 13 Oct. 1647. 

At Bewdley Tombes organised a baptist 
church, which never exceeded twenty-two 
members (BAXTEE), of whom three became 
baptist preachers. He regularly attended 
Baxter's Thursday lecture at Kidderminster, 
and tried to draw Baxter, as he had already 
drawn Thomas Blake [q. v.], into a written 
discussion. Baxter would engage with him 
only in an oral debate, which took place be- 
fore a crowded audience at Bewdley chapel on 
1 Jan. 1649-50, and lasted from nine in the 
morning till five at night. Wood affirms 
that ' Tombes got the better of Baxter by 
far ; ' Baxter himself says, ' How mean soever 
my own abilities were, yet I had still the 
advantage of a good cause.' The debate had 
the effect of causing Tombes to leave Bewd- 
ley, where he was succeeded in 1650 by 
Henry Oasland [q. v.] With Bewdley he 
had held for a time the rectory of Ross, 
Herefordshire ; this he resigned on being ap- 
pointed to the mastership of St. Catherine's 
Hospital, Ledbiiry, Herefordshire. 

After his encounter with Baxter, Tombes's 
oral debates were numerous. In July 1652 
he went to Oxford to dispute on baptism 
with Henry Savage, D.D. [q. v.] On the same 
topic he disputed at Abergavenny, on 5 Sept. 
1653, with Henry Vaughan (1616 P-1661 ?) 
and John Cragge. His pen was active against 
all opponents of his cause. He had not given 
up his claim to the vicarage of Leominster, 
and returned to it apparently in 1654, when 
he was appointed (20 March) one of Crom- 
well's ' triers.' Preaching at Leominster 
against quakers (26 Dec. 1656), one of his 
parishioners, Blashfield, a bookseller, re- 
torted, ' If there were no anabaptist, there 
would be no quaker.' Against quakerism 

and popery he wrote tracts (1660), to which 
Baxter prefixed friendly letters. 

At the Restoration Tombes came up to 
London, and wrote in favour of the royal 
supremacy in matters ecclesiastical as well 
as civil. Clarendon stood his friend. He 
conformed in a lay capacity, resigning his 
preferments and declining offers of promo- 
tion. After 1661 he lived chiefly at Salis- 
bury, where his wife had property. Robert 
Sanderson (1587-1663) [q. v.], bishop of Lin- 
coln, held him in esteem, as did a later 
occupant of the same see, Thomas Barlow 
[q. v.] Clarendon, in 1664, introduced him to 
Charles II, who accepted a copy of Tombes's 
' Saints no Smiters.' In July 1664 he was 
at Oxford, and offered to dispute in favour 
of his baptist views, but the challenge was 
not taken up. With Seth Ward [q. v.], 
bishop of Salisbury, he was on friendly terms. 
He communicated as an Anglican. Firmly 
holding his special tenet, he was always 
a courteous disputant, and a man of excep- 
tional capacity and attainments. 

He died at Salisbury on 22 May 1676, 
and was buried on 25 May in St. Edmund's 
churchyard. He was a dapper little man, 
with a keen glance. By his first wife he had 
a son John, born at Leominster on 26 Nov. 
1636. His second wife, whom he married 
about 1658, was Elizabeth, widow of Wol- 
stan Abbot of Salisbury. 

He published : 1. ' Vae Scandalizantium ; 
or a Treatise of Scandalizing/ Oxford, 1641, 
8vo; with title ( Christ's Commination 
against Scandalizers,' 1641, 8vo (dedicated 
to Viscount Scudamore). 2. 'lehovahlireh 
. . . two Sermons in the Citie of Bristoll 
. , . March 14, 1642, with a short Narration 
of that . . . Plot/ 1643, 4to (8 May, dedi- 
cated to Fiennes). 3. 'Fermentum Phari- 
sseorvm, or ... Wil- Worship/ 1643, 4to 
(1 July). 4. ' Anthropolatria/ 1645, 4to 
(9 May). 5. ' Two Treatises and an Ap- 
pendix . . . concerning Infant Baptisme/ 
1645, 4to (16 Dec. ; includes an ' Examen' 
of Marshall's sermon on baptism). 6. ' An 
Apology ... for the Two Treatises/ 1646, 
4to; 'Addition/ 1652, 4to. 7. An Anti- 
dote against the Venome of ... Richard 
Baxter/ 1650, 4to (31 May). 8. ' Precursor 
. . . to a large view of ... Infant Baptism/ 
1652, 4to. 9. ' Joannis Tombes Beudleiensis 
Refutatio positionis Dris. Henrici Savage/ 
1652, 4to. 10. ' Antipsedobaptism/ 1652, 
4to (28 Nov., dedicated to Cromwell) ; 2nd 
pt. 1654, 4to; 3rd pt. 1657, 4to (replies to 
twenty-three contemporary writers). 11. 'A 
Publick Dispute . . . J. Cragge and H. 
Vaughan/ 1654, 8vo. 12. 'A Plea for 
Anti-Pjedobaptists,' 1654, 4to (26 May). 

B 2 



13. ' Felo de Se. Or, Mr. Richard Baxter's 
Self-destroying,' 1659, 4to. 14. <A Short 
Catechism about Baptism,' 1659, 8vo 
(14 May). 15. < True Old Light exalted 
above pretended New Light,' 1660, 4to 
(against quakers ; preface by Baxter). 16. ' 
Serious Consideration of the Oath of . . .Supre- 
macy ' [1660], 4to (22 Oct.) 17. ' Romanism 
Discussed, or, An Answer to ... H. T.,' 1660 
4to (30 Nov. ; preface by Baxter ; replies to 
Henry Turbervile's 'Manual of Controver- 
sies,' Douay, 1654, 8vo). 18. ' A Supplement 
to the Serious Consideration' [1661], 4to 
(2 March). 19. ' Sepher Sheba ; or, The Oath 
Book,' 1662, 4to. 20. ' Saints no Smiters ; 
or ... the Doctrine ... of ... Fifth-Mon- 
archy-Men . . . damnable/ 1664, 4to (dedi- 
cated to Clarendon). 21. ' Theodulia, or . 
Defence of Hearing . . . the present Mini- 
sters of England,' 1667, 8vo (dedicated to 
Clarendon ; licensed by the bishop of Lon- 
don's chaplain). 22. 'Emmanuel; or, God- 
Man/ 1669, 8vo (against Socinians ; licensed 
by the archbishop of Canterbury's chap- 
lain). 23. ' A Reply to ... Wills and ... 
Blinman/ 1675, 8vo. 24. ' Animadversiones 
in librum Georgii Bullii,' 1676, 8vo. 

[Tombes's Works ; Anabaptists Anotamized 
(sic), 1654; Wood's Athense Oxon., ed. Bliss, 
iii. 1062 sq. ; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 397, 
415, 461 ; Keliquiae Baxterianse, 1696, i. 88,96; 
Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 353 sq. ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 4, 36 ; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, i. 521 sq. ; Crosby's Hist, 
of English Baptists, 1738, i. 278 sq. ; Palmer's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, 1802, ii. 293 sq. ; 
Ivimey's Hist, of English Baptists, 1814, ii. 588 
sq. ; Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, ed. Toulmin, 
1822, iv. 440 sq. ; Smith's Bibliotheca Anti- 
quakeriana, 1873, pp. 427 sq. ; Mitchell and 
Struthers's Minutes of Westminster Assembly, 
1874, pp. 172,216; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1892, 
iv. 1492; information from the Rev. J. H. 
Charles, vicar of Leominster.] A. GK 

TOMBS, SIR HENRY (1824-1874), 
major-general, son of Major-general Tombs, 
Bengal cavalry, came of an old family settled 
since the fifteenth century at Long Marston, 
Gloucestershire, and was born at sea on 
10 Nov. 1824. His mother's name was 
Remington. He entered the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe in 1839, and received a commission 
as second lieutenant in the Bengal artillery 
on 11 June 1841. He arrived at Calcutta 
on 18 Nov. the same year, and was posted to 
the foot artillery at Dum Dum. In August 
1842 he proceeded with a detachment to the 
upper provinces. On 1 March 1843 he was 
posted to the 3rd company 5th battalion of 
artillery at Saugor; on 23 Nov. he went to 

do duty with the 6th company 6th battalion 
at Jansi, and took part in the Gwalior cam- 
paign [see GOUGH, SIB HUGH]. He arrived 
with the force called ' the left wing ' under 
Major-general Sir John Grey (1780 P-1856) 
[q. v.] at Bar-ke-Serai on 28 Dec. 1843, and 
next morning marched to Paniar, where a 
general action ensued and the Marathas were 
defeated. Tombs was mentioned in des- 
patches by Sir John Grey (London Gazette, 
8 March 1844), and he received the bronze 
star for the Gwalior campaign. 

On 15 Jan. 1844 Tombs was promoted to 
be first lieutenant, and on 1 March was ap- 
pointed to the horse artillery at Ludiana. 
He served in the first Sikh war (1845-6) in 
the 1st troop of the 1st brigade of the horse 
artillery. This troop had suffered so severely 
from fever, prevalent at Ludiana, that it 
was at first contemplated leaving the whole 
troop behind, but on the evening of 13 Dec. 
1845 Tombs brought the good news to the 
barracks that four guns were to march at 
daybreak next day, leaving the other two 
and the sick troopers behind. They first 
marched to Bassian (twenty-eight miles), 
then to Wadni on the 16th, where the go- 
vernor shut the gates and refused supplies 
until the British forces were got into posi- 
tion, when he submitted. After a short 
march on the 17th, and a long and tedious 
one of twenty-one miles on the 18th, Mudki 
was reached, and, while the camp was being 
formed, the alarm was given and the battle 
commenced. Tombs's troop was hotly en- 
gaged, and its captain Dashwood died of 
his wounds. At the battle of Firozshah, on 
the 21st, Tombs was with his troop at head- 
quarters, and engaged in the attack on the 
southern face of the Sikh entrenchment. 

In the operations of January 1846, includ- 
ing the action of Badhowal (21 Jan.), and 
culminating in the battle of Aliwal on 28 Jan., 
Tombs was acting aide-de-camp to Sir Harry 
George Wakelyn Smith [q. v.], and was men- 
tioned in his despatch of 30 Jan. (London 
Gazette, 27 March 1846). He received the 
medal and two clasps for the Satlaj cam- 
paign. He served in the second Sikh or 
Punjab campaign as deputy assistant quar- 
termaster-general of the artillery division, 
and was present at the action of Ramnagar 
on 22 Nov. 1848, at the battle of Chilian wala 
on 13 Jan. 1849, and at the crowning victory 
of Gujerat on 21 Feb. He was mentioned in 
despatches (ib. 3 March and 19 April 1849), 
received the medal and two clasps, and was 
recommended for a brevet majority so soon 
as he should attain the rank of captain. 

Tombs was employed on special duty in 
L849, and again the following year. On 



12 March 1850 he was appointed a member 
of the special committee of artillery officers 
at Ambala. On 30 Oct of this year he was 
appointed adjutant and quartermaster of the 
second brigade, horse artillery, and on 13 Nov. 
adjutant of the Ambala division of artillery. 
On 30 Nov. 1853 he was removed to the 
foot artillery. He was promoted to be cap- 
tain in the Bengal artillery on 25 July 1854, 
and to be brevet major for his services in 
the field on 1 Aug. On 27 Nov. 1855 he 
returned to the horse artillery. 

On the outbreak of the mutiny, in 1857, 
Tombs was at Mirat, commanding the 2nd 
troop of the 1st brigade of the horse artil- 
lery, and on 27 May moved with the column 
of Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Arch- 
dale Wilson [q. v.] to co-operate with a force 
which the commander-in-chief was bringing 
down from Ambala. On approaching Ghazi- 
ud-din-Nagar, on the left of the river Hin- 
dun, on the afternoon of 30 May, the heat 
being very great, the column was attacked 
by the rebels. The iron bridge spanning the 
river Hindun was held, and Tombs dashed 
across it with his guns and successfully 
turned the right flank of the enemy, who 
were repulsed. Tombs's horse was shot under 
him during this action, and again in that of 
the following day, when the village of Ghazi 
was cleared (ib. 3 Oct. 1857). He marched 
with Brigadier-general Archdale Wilson on 
5 June to Baghpat, crossed the Jamna, and 
joined the Ambala force under Sir H. Ber- 
nard at Paniput on 7 June. 

The combined forces marched from Alipur 
on 8 June, and Tombs, with his troop, was 
detached to the right with a force under 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Hope 
Grant to cross the Jamna canal, and so get 
in rear of the enemy at Badli-ke-Serai. The 
rebels fought with desperation, but the Bri- 
tish bayonet carried the day, and the cavalry 
and horse artillery converted the enemy's 
retreat into a rout.' Tombs had two horses 
shot under him (ib. 3 Oct. 1857). 

Tombs served all through the siege of 
Delhi. On 17 June he commanded a column 
which captured the Id-gah battery of the 
rebels and took a 9-pounder gun. This 
battery was on the south west of Paharipur, 
opposite the curtain between the Lahore 
gate and Garstin bastion; it was enclosed in 
a fort, and threatened to enfilade the British 
position. Tombs had two horses shot under 
him, and was slightly wounded. Sir Henry 
Bernard, the same evening at the staff mess, 
personally thanked Tombs for the gallantry 
which he had displayed, and proposed his 
health. ' The hero of the day was Harry 
Tombs ... an unusually handsome man and 

a thorough soldier' (LORD ROBERTS, Forty- 
one Tears in India, 1898, i. 175). Tombs 
also commanded a column in the action of 
19 June under Hope Grant. 

On 9 July 1857 Tombs went to the aid of 
Lieutenant James Hills (now Sir J. Hills- 
Johnes) of Tombs's troop, who was attacked 
by some rebel horse while he was posted 
with two guns on picquet duty at 'the 
mound ' to the right of the camp. Tombs ran 
through the body with his sword a sowar 
who was on the point of killing Hills. Both 
Tombs and his subaltern received the Vic- 
toria Orossfor their gallantry on this occasion. 

Tombs commanded the artillery of the 
force under Brigadier-general John Nicholson 
[q. v.] at the battle of Najafgarh on 25 Aug. 
1857, when the enemy endeavoured to inter- 
cept the siege-train coming from Firozpur, 
and were signally defeated. He commanded 
No. 4 (mortar) battery during the Delhi 
siege operations in September, and he com- 
manded the horse artillery at the assault of 
that city on 14 Sept., when he was wounded 
(London Gazette, 13 Oct., 14 and 24 Nov., 
15 Dec. 1857, and 16 Jan. 1858). He was 
promoted to be brevet lieutenant-colonel on 
19 Jan., and was made a companion of the 
Bath, military division, on 22 Jan. 1858 for 
his services at the siege of Delhi. 

In March 1858 Tombs, in command of the 
2nd troop of the 1st brigade of Bengal 
horse artillery, joined the artillery division, 
under Sir Archdale Wilson, of Sir Colin 
Campbell's army assembled at the Alam- 
Bagh for the attack on Lucknow. He took 
part in the siege and capture of the city, 
and was honourably mentioned in general 
orders for his services. Tombs commanded 
his troop in the operations for the subjuga- 
tion of Rohilkhand with the force under 
Brigadier-general Walpole. He left Luck- 
now on 7 April for Malaon, and, after the 
unsuccessful attack on Ruilja, took part on 
the 22nd in the action at Alaganj, when the 
enemy were driven across the river and four 
guns were captured. On the 27th Tombs, 
with this force, joined that of the com- 
mander-in-chief and marched on Shahja- 
hanpur,which was found evacuated ; on 3 May 
united with the troops commanded by Major- 
general R. Penny at Miranpur Katra ; on 
the 4th arrived at Faridpur, a day's march 
from Bareli, and on the 5th took part in the 
battle of Bareli. 

On 15 May Tombs and his troop marched 
with the commander-in-chief 's force to the 
relief of Shahjahanpur, and took part in the 
action of 18 May. On 24 May he commanded 
the artillery in a force under Brigadier- 
general Jones against Mohamdi, out of which 




the rebels were driven, and the force returned 
to Shahjahanpur on the 29th. He took part 
also in an expedition against Shakabad on the 
night of 31 May, returning to Shahjahanpur 
on 4 June, when, the rebels having been 
driven out of Rohilkhand, the field force to 
which Tombs was attached was broken up. 
Tombs was promoted on 20 July 1858 to be 
brevet colonel for his services, received the 
Indian mutiny medal with two clasps, and 
was referred to by name and in terms of 
great eulogy by Lord Panmure, the secretary 
of state for war, in the House of Lords in 
proposing a vote of thanks to the army. 

Tombs was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel in the royal artillery on 29 April 
1861, and was appointed to the 2nd brigade. 
From 16 May 1863 he was appointed a briga- 
dier-general to command the artillery brigade 
at G walior. In 1 865 he received a good-service 
pension. In 1864 he commanded the force 
which recaptured Dewangiri in Bhutan, for 
which campaign he received the medal and 
clasp and the thanks of government, and was 
on 14 March 1868 made a knight commander 
of the Bath. After the Bhutan expedition 
he returned to his duties as brigadier-general 
commanding the artillery at Gwalior. He 
was promoted to be major-general on 11 March 
1867. On 30 Aug. 1871 he was appointed 
to the command of the Allahabad division 
of the army, and was transferred to the 
Oude division on 24 Oct. of the same year. 
He became a regimental colonel of artillery 
on 1 Aug. 1872. He was obliged to resign 
his command on account of ill health, and 
returned to England on sick leave. He 
died at Newport, Isle of Wight, on 2 Aug. 
1874. Tombs married, in 1869, Georgina 
Janet, the youngest daughter of Admiral Sir 
James Stirling [q. v.] ; she married (19 Dec. 
1877), as her second husband, Captain (after- 
wards Sir) Herbert Stewart [q. v.] 

On the news of Tombs' s death reaching 
India, Lord Napier of Magdala,commander- 
in-chief in India, issued a general order ex- 
pressing the regret of the army of India at 
the loss of so distinguished an officer, iden- 
tified for thirty years with the military his- 
tory of the country. 

A portrait is reproduced in the third 
volume of Stubbs's ' History of the Bengal 
Artillery ; ' another, reproduced from a pho- 
tograph, is given in Lord Roberts's ' Forty- 
one Years in India.' 

[India Office Eecords; War Office Records; 
Despatches ; London Gazf-ttes ; Vibart's Addis- 
combe, its Heroes and Men of Note; Stubbs's 
History of the Bengal Artillery ; Malleson's 
History of the Indian Mutiny ; Hayes's History 
of the Sepoy War ; Thornton's History of India ; 

Calcutta Review, vol. vi., ' Sikh Invasion of 
India;' Thackwell's Second Sikh War; Sand- 
ford's Journal of a Subaltern ; Lawrence Archer's 
Commentaries on the Punjab Campaign ; Times, 
6, 7, and 12 Aug. 1874; Rotton's Narrative of 
the Siege of Delhi ; Shad well's Life of Lord 
Clyde ; Bosworth Smith's Life of Lord Law- 
rence ; Cane Brown's Punjaub and Delhi ; Grant's 
History of the Sepoy War ; Dewe White's His- 
tory of the Indian Mutiny ; Russell's My 
Diary in India ; Lord Roberts's Forty-one Years 
in India, 1898, vol. i. passim; United Service 
Journal, September 1874.] R. H. V. 

TOMES, SIR JOHN (1815-1895), dental 
surgeon, eldest son of John Tomes and of 
Sarah, his wife, daughter of William Baylies 
of Welford in Gloucestershire, was born 
at Weston-on-Avon in Gloucestershire on 
21 March 1815. His father's family had 
lived at Marston Sicca or Long Marston in 
the same county since the reign of Richard II 
in a house mentioned in the ' Boscobel Tracts r 
as having sheltered Charles II after the battle 
of Worcester, when Jane Lane [q. v.], a 
relative of the Tomes family, assisted in his 

Tomes was articled in 1831 to Thomas 
Farley Smith, a medical practitioner in Eves- 
ham, and in 1836 he entered the medical 
schools of King's College and of the Middle- 
sex Hospital, then temporarily united. He 
was house surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital 
during 1839-40, and while holding this office- 
he invented the tooth-forceps with jaws ac- 
curately adapted to the forms of the necks 
of the various teeth. These were the first 
exemplars of the modern type of forceps 
which supplanted the old ' key ' instrument. 
His attention was turned during the same 
period to the histology of bone and teeth, 
for he fed a nest of young sparrows and a 
sucking-pig upon madder and examined their 
bones with a microscope bought of Powell. 
This work brought him under the notice of 
Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882) [q. v.] and 
of James Moncrieff Arnott, who advised him 
to adopt dental surgery as his profession. 
He was admitted a member of the College 
of Surgeons of England on 21 March 1839, 
and in 1840 he commenced practice at 
41 Mortimer Street (now Cavendish Place). 
On 3 March 1845 he took out a patent 
(No. 10538) for a machine for copying in 
ivory irregular curved surfaces, for which he 
was awarded the gold medal of the Society 
of Arts. In 1845 he delivered a course of 
lectures at the Middlesex Hospital which 
marked a new era in dentistry. He was also 
much occupied with the question of general 
anaesthesia, shortly after the introduction of 
ether into surgical practice by William 



Thomas Green Morton of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, and in 1847 he administered it at 
the Middlesex Hospital for the 'extraction of 
teeth as well as for operations in general 

He contributed an important series of 
papers on * Bone ' and on dental tissues to 
the ' Philosophical Transactions ' between 
1849 and 1856. The most valuable of these 
is perhaps that upon the structure of den- 
tine, in which he demonstrated the presence 
of those protoplasmic processes from the 
odontoblasts to which the name of ' Tomes's 
fibrils ' was long given. He was admitted 
a fellow of the Royal Society on 6 June 

He early took a deep interest in the wel- 
fare of the dental profession, and was one of 
those who in 1843, and again in 1855, unsuc- 
cessfully approached the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England with the view of more 
closely allying English dentists with English 
surgeons. His interest in the subject never 
waned, and in 1858 he was successful in 
inducing the Royal College of Surgeons to 
grant a license in dental surgery. He was 
also one of the chief founders in 1856 of the 
Odontological Society and in 1858 of the 
Dental Hospital, where he was the first to 
give systematic clinical demonstrations. 
After the dental licentiateship had been 
established about twenty years, Tomes, ably 
assisted by James Smith Turner, was instru- 
mental in obtaining the Dentists Act of 1878 
to insure the registration and render com- 
pulsory the education of those who proposed 
to enter the dental profession. 

After carrying on a large and lucrative 
practice for many years, Tomes retired in 
1876 to Upwood Gorse, Caterham, in Surrey, 
where he remained until his death. He was 
elected on 12 April 1883 an honorary fellow 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land, and on 28 May 1886 he was knighted. 
He was twice president of the Odontological 
Society, and in 1877 he was elected chair- 
man of the dental reform committee. On 
the occasion of his golden wedding he was 
presented by his professional brethren with 
an inkstand, and the rest of the money sub- j 
scribed was devoted to the endowment of j 
a triennial prize bearing his name. It is ! 
awarded by the Royal College of Surgeons | 
of England for researches in the field of | 
dental science in its widest acceptation. 

Tomes died on 29 July 1895, and was 
buried at St. Mary's, Upper Caterham. On 
15 Feb. 1844 he married Jane, daughter of 
Robert Sibley of Great Ormond Street, Lon- 
don, architect. By her he had one surviving 
son Charles Sissmore Tomes. 

Tomes began to practise dentistry when it 
was a trade, and he left it a well-equipped 
profession. The change was in great part 
due to his personal exertions ; but he did 
even more than this, for he showed that a 
dentist was capable of the highest kind of 
scientific work that of original observation. 
His mind was at the same time eminently 
practical, and he was possessed of no small 
share of mechanical ingenuity. 

Tomes published : 1. A Course of Lec- 
tures on Dental Physiology and Surgery,' 
8vo, London, 1848. These lectures have be- 
come classic; they were delivered at the 
Middlesex Hospital, but in regard to them 
Tomes made the significant entry in his 
diary, < I am resolved never to deliver any 
more lectures unless I have a class of at least 
six.' 2. ' A System of Dental Surgery,' 12mo, 
London, 1859 ; 3rd edit., revised and enlarged 
by his son C. S. Tomes, 12mo, London, 1887; 
translated into French, Paris, 1873. This is 
still a standard work. 

There is a good portrait of Tomes at the 
Odontological Society. It was painted by 
Carlisle Macartney in 1884. 

[Obituary notices in Journal of the British 
Dental Association, 1895, xvi. 462; British 
Medical Journal, 1895, ii. 396; Nature, 1895, 
lii. 396 ; additional information kindly given to 
the writer by his son, Mr. C. S. Tomes, M.A., 
and by his brother, Mr. Robert F. Tomes, F.S.A., 
of Littleton, near Evesham ; The Pedigree of 
the Tomes Family, prefaced by Dr. Howard, in 
Misc. Geneal. et Herald, new ser. iii. 273-9.] 

D'A. P. 

TOMKINS, JOHN (1663?-1706),quaker 
annalist, born about 1663, commenced in 
1701 the first attempt at quaker biography 
in ' Piety Promoted, in a Collection of Dying 
Sayings'of many of the People called Quakers. 
With a Brief Account of some of their Labours 
in the Gospel and Sufferings for the same ; ' 
it was reprinted in 1703, 1723, 1759, and 
followed in 1702 by the second part, which 
also was reprinted in 1711 and 1765. In 
1706 he issued a third volume, with a pre- 
face by Christopher Meidel [q. v.J The five 
parts were reissued, Dublin, 1721, 8vo, and 
were revised by John Kendall (1726-1815) 
[q. v.l in 1789. The work was continued by 
other hands until 1829. Tomkins died at 
Maryland Point, Stratford, Essex, on 12 Sept. 

Tomkins also published : 1. ' The Harmony 
of the Old and New Testament,' London, 
1694, 12mo ; reprinted in 1697, with a * Brief 
Concordance of the Names,' 3rd edit. 1701, 
12rno. 2. < A Brief Testimony to the Great 
Duty 'of Prayer,' London, 1695, 12mo; re- 
printed, with additions,1700. 3/A Trumpet 




Sounded: a Warning to the Unfaithful/ 
1703, 12mo. 

[Whiting's Cat. 1708, p. 195; Smith's Cat. 
ii. 747 ; Registers, Devonshire House.] 

C. F. S. 

TOMKINS, MARTIN (d. 1755?), Arian 
divine, is said to have been a brother or 
near relative of Harding Tomkins (it. 1758), 
attorney and clerk of the Company of Fish- 
mongers. He may have been connected 
with Abingdon, where there was a noncon- 
formist family of his name. In 1699 Martin 
went to Utrecht with Nathaniel Lardner 
[q. v.], where they found Daniel Neal [q. v.], 
the author of ' The History of the Puritans.' 
After studying at the university of Utrecht 
for three years, the three removed to Ley den, 
where Tomkins matriculated on 8 Sept. 1702 
(PEACOCK, Index of English-speaking Students 
at Ley den University, Index Soc. 1883). In 
1707 he was appointed minister of the dis- 
senting congregation in Church Street, Stoke 
Newington, but in 1718 he was obliged to 
resign his charge in consequence of his Arian 
sympathies. In the following year, to jus- 
tify himself, he published ' The Case of 'Mr. 
Martin Tomkins. Being an Account of the 
Proceedings of the Dissenting Congregation 
at Stoke Newington' (London, 4to). He 
did not again settle as pastor of a congrega- 
tion, but, in addition to preaching occasion- 
ally, he wrote several theological treatises. 
The first of these, published anonymously, 
was entitled ' A Sober Appeal to a Turk or an 
Indian concerning the plain Sense of Scrip- 
ture relating to the Trinity ' (London, 1723, 
4to; 2nd ed. with additions, 1748). It was 
an answer to Dr. Isaac Watts's ' Christian 
Doctrine of the Trinity, or Father, Son, and 
Spirit, Three Persons and One God, asserted 
and proved' (London, 1722, 12mo). In 
1732 he published, also without his name, a 
work which gained some reputation, entitled 
' Jesus Christ the Mediator between God 
and Men ' (London, 4to ; new ed. 1761). In 
3738 appeared 'A Calm Enquiry whether 
we have any Warrant from Scripture for 
addressing ourselves directly to the Holy 
Spirit' (London, 4to). In 1738 Tomkins 
was settled at Hackney. It is believed he 
died in 1755. After his death there appeared 
in 1771 in the ' Theological Repository ' 
(iii. 257) 'A Letter from Mr. Tomkins to Dr. 
Lardner in reply to his Letter on the Logos.' 
Although Lardner's letter was not published 
until 1759, it was written in 1730, and it ap- 
pears from Tomkins's reply that Lardner had 
lent him the manuscript to peruse. Tomkins's 
criticism was answered by Caleb Fleming 
[q. v.] in an appendix to a ' Discourse on 

Three Essential Properties of the Gospel 
Revelation' (London, 1772, 8vo). 

[Gent. Mag. 1807, ii. 823, 999, 1014; Me- 
moirs of Daniel Neal, prefixed to the History of 
the Puritans, 1822, p. xvii; editorial notice pre- 
fixed to vol. ii. of the same work, pp. iv, v; 
Johnson's Life of Watts, 1785, p. 53; Life of 
Lardner by Kippis, prefixed to his "Works, ed. 
1838, p. ii ; Robinson's History of Stoke New- 
ington, 1820, p. 216; Wilson's History of the 
Dissenting Churches, 1808, i. 89, ii. 44, 45, 539 ; 
Memoirs of the Life of William Whiston, 1749, 
p. 294.] E. I. C. 

1840), engraver and draughtsman, was born 
in London in 1759 (baptised 15 Oct.) He 
was younger son of WILLIAM TOMZINS 
(1730 P-1792), landscape-painter, by his wife 
Susanna Callard. 

In 1763 the father gained the second pre- 
mium of the Society of Arts for a landscape, 
and subsequently, through the patronage of 
Edward Walter of Stalbridge, obtained con- 
siderable employment in painting views, 
chiefly of scenery in the north and west of 
England. He imitated the manner of Claude, 
many of whose works, as well as those of 
some of the Dutch painters, he also copied. 
He exhibited with the Free Society of 
Artists from 1761 to 1764, with the Incor- 
porated Society from 1764 to 1768, and at 
the Royal Academy annually from 1769 to 
1790. He was elected an associate of the 
academy in 1771. Some of Tomkins's works 
were engraved in Angus's and Watts's sets of 
views of seats of the nobility. He died at 
his house in Queen Anne Street, London, on 
1 Jan. 1792. 

The younger son, Peltro, became one of 
the ablest pupils of Francesco Bartolozzi 
[q. v.], working entirely in the dot and stipple 
style, and produced many fine plates, of 
which the most attractive are 'A Dressing 
Room a 1'Anglaise,' and 'A Dressing Room 
a la Fran9aise,' a pair after Charles Ansell ; 
1 English Fireside ' and ' French Fireside,' a 
pair after C. Ansell ; * Cottage Girl shelling 
Peas ' and l Village Girl gathering Nuts,' a 
pair after William Redmore Bigg ; l Amyntor 
and Theodora,' after Thomas Stothard ; ' The 
Vestal,' after Reynolds ; ' Sylvia and Daphne,' 
after Angelica Kauffmann ; { Louisa,' after 
James Nixon ; ' Birth of the Thames,' after 
Maria Cosway ; ' Madonna della Tenda,' after 
Raphael; portrait of Mrs. Siddons, after 
John Downman ; and portrait of the Duchess 
of Norfolk, after L. da Heere. He was also 
largely employed upon the illustrations to 
Sharpe's 'British Poets,' 'British Classics,' 
and ' British Theatre.' Tomkins was a clever 
original artist, and engraved from his own 



designs some pleasing fancy subjects as 
well as a few portraits, including those of 
George III and his daughter, the Princess of 
Wiirtemberg. He was engaged as drawing- 
master to the princesses, and spent much 
time at court, receiving the appointment 
of historical engraver to the queen. He 
executed a set of illustrations to Sir J. Bland 
Burgess's poem, l The Birth and Triumph of 
Love,' from designs by Princess Elizabeth, 
and two sets of plates from papers cut by 
Lady Templetown. For some years Tomkins 
carried on business as a print publisher in 
Bond Street, and in 1797 he produced a 
sumptuous edition of Thomson's ' Seasons,' 
with plates by himself and Bartolozzi from 
designs by William Hamilton. He also pro- 
jected two magnificent works, ' The British 
Gallery of Art,' with text by Tresham and 
Ottley, and * The Gallery of the Marquess 
of Stafford,' with text by Ottley, which both 
appeared in 1818. These involved him in 
heavy financial loss, and he was compelled 
to obtain an act of parliament authorising 
him to dispose by lottery of the collection 
of watercolour drawings from which his 
engravings were executed, together with 
the unsold impressions of the plates, the 
whole valued at 150,000/. Many of the sets 
of prints were exquisitely printed in colours. 
Tomkins's latest work was a series of three 
plates from copies by Harriet Whitshed 
of paintings discovered at Hampton Court, 
1834-40. He died at his house in Osnaburgh 
Street, London, on 22 April 1840. By his 
wife, Lucy Jones, he had a large family, 
including a daughter Emma, who practised 
as an artist and married Samuel Smith the 
engraver. The frontispiece to his edition of 
Thomson's ' Seasons ' contains a medallion 
portrait of himself with others of Bartolozzi 
and Hamilton. 

CHARLES TOMKINS (fl. 1779), elder brother 
of Peltro William, was born in London on 
7 July 1757. In 1776 he gained a premium 
from the Society of Arts for a view of Mil- 
bank, and subsequently practised as a topo- 
graphical and antiquarian draughtsman and 
aquatint engraver. In 1791 he published 
' Eight Views of Reading Abbey,' with text 
by himself (reissued in 1805 with twenty- 
three additional views of churches originally 
connected with the abbey) ; in 1796 ' Tour 
in the Isle of Wight,' with eighty plates ; and 
in 1805 a set of illustrations to Petrarch's 
sonnets, which he dedicated to the Duchess 
of Devonshire. In conjunction with Francis 
Jukes he engraved Cleveley's two pictures of 
the advance and defeat of a floating battery 
at Gibraltar, 1782 ; he also drew and en- 
graved the plates to the ' British Volunteer,' 

1/99, and a plan view of the sham fight of 
the St. George's Volunteers in Hyde Park in 
that year. Tomkins was an exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy from 1773 to 1779. Many 
of his watercolour drawings are in the 
Orowle copy of Pennant's 'London' in the 
print-room of the British Museum. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painting ; Sandby's 
Hist, of the Eoyal Academy ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists ; Nagler's Kunstler-Lexikon ; Dodd's 
manuscript Hist, of Engravers in Brit. Museum 
(Addit. MS. 33406) ; private information.] 

F. M. <m 

TOMKINS, THOMAS (ft. 1614), dra- 
matist. [See TOMKIS.] 

TOMKINS, THOMAS (d. 1656), mu- 
sician, was of a family which produced more 
musicians than any other family in England 
(Woop). His father, also named Thomas 
Tomkins, was in holy orders and precentor 
of Gloucester Cathedral ; he was descended 
from the Tomkinses of Lostwithiel. One of 
the madrigals in Morley's 'Triumphs of 
Oriana' (1601) was composed by the Rev. 
Thomas Tomkins ; and he wrote an account 
of the bishops of Gloucester Cathedral. Of 
his six sons Peregrine, Nathanael, Nicho- 
las, Thomas, John (see below), and Giles (see 
below) the most distinguished was Thomas, 
who states in the dedication of his madrigals 
that he was born in Pembrokeshire. He 
studied under William Byrd [q. v.] at the 
chapel royal in London, and graduated Mus. 
Bac. Oxon. on 11 July 1607. 

Thomas's first known appointment as orga- 
nist was to Worcester Cathedral, where an 
organ was built in 1613 at unusual expense 
(GREEN, History of Worcester, App.) In 
Myriell's ' Tristitise Remedium,' dated 1616, 
and now in the British Museum as Addi- 
tional MSS. 29372-7, six of his compositions 
are copied. On 2 Aug. 1621 he was sworn 
in as one of the organists of the chapel 
royal, in succession to . Edmund Hooper. 
This post did not necessitate his resigning 
the appointment at Worcester, as arrange- 
ments had been made in 1615 for the orga- 
nists and singers of the chapel royal to 
attend in rotation. In 1625 forty shillings 
was paid him ' for composing of many songes 
against the coronation of Kinge Charles.' On 
the death of Alfonso Ferrabosco [q. v.], the 
bishop of Bath and Wells directed that 
Tomkins should be appointed ' composer for 
the voices and wind instruments ; ' but the 
order was revoked by the king, who had 
promised the place to Ferrabosco's son (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 15 March 1628 ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. i. 341). What became 
of Tomkins after the suppression of the chapel 




royal and choral services is unknown. He 
was buried at Martin Hassingtree, near Wor- 
cester, 9 June 1656. His wife Alicia died 
on 29 Jan. 1641-2, and was buried in the 
cathedral (ABISTGDON, Antiquities of Wor- 
cester, 1717, p. 77). Her funeral sermon by 
John Toy [q. v.] was published in quarto. 

Two important collections of Thomas 
Tomkins's music were published. His 
' Songs of three, four, and five, and six 
parts ' are without date ; but the mention of 
' Dr.' Heather and the dedication to William 
Herbert, earl of Pembroke, show that the 
work was printed between 1622 and 1629. 
Each number has also a separate dedication, 
one of which is to Phineas Fletcher [q. v.], 
the others mostly to well-known musicians. 
The collection includes twenty-eight tine 
anthems and madrigals. Long after Tom- 
kins's death appeared a much larger collec- 
tion, ' Musica Deo Sacra et Ecclesiae Angli- 
canae ; or, Musick dedicated to the Honor 
and Service of God, and to the Use of 
Cathedral and other Churches of England, 
especially to the Chapel Royal of King 
Charles 'the First,' 1668. Burney inaccu- 
rately stated the date as 1664, which has 
caused a supposition that there were two 
editions. The collection contains five ser- 
vices and ninety-eight anthems. The organ 
copy has directions for counting time by the 
pulse and for the pitch to which organs 
should be tuned. Both publications are very 
rare. Complete copies are preserved at the 
Royal College of Music, and in Dean Aid- 
rich's library at Christ Church. The British 
Museum has one part-book of the ' Songs/ 
and the vocal portion of ' Musica Deo Sacra.' 

Many manuscripts at the British Museum, 
Ely and Durham cathedrals, the Royal Col- 
lege of Music, Lambeth Palace, Tenbury, 
and Peterhouse, Cambridge, contain anthems 
and services by Tomkins. There are In 
Nomines, fantasies, and pavans in British 
Museum Additional MSS. 17792-6 ; pavans 
and galliards in Additional MSS. 30826-8 ; 
and five pieces for the virginals in the manu- 
script at the Fitzwilliam Museum, now 
edited. Additional MS. 29996, which was 
apparently begun by John Redford, and per- 
haps continued by Tallis and Byrd, was 
completed and annotated by Tomkins, who 
has inserted pieces of his own, and some by 
his brother John, also some satirical verses 
against the puritans. Another volume of 
his instrumental music was in the posses- 
sion of Farrenc (FETis, Biographic Univer- 
selle). At St. John's College, Oxford, is a 
choir-book partly written by him, partly by 
Michael Este. His works are included in 
' Divine Services and Anthems,' a word-book 

published in 1663 by James Clifford of St. 
Paul's ; and Wood says there was a manu- 
script volume of his sacred music at Magda- 
len College. The most remarkable of Tom- 
kins's works are the anthems ' O praise the 
Lord, all ye heathen,' which is for twelve 
voices, and ' Glory be to God,' for ten voices. 
These and others were scored by Thomas Tud- 
way [q. v.] from the choir-books at Ely, and 
he justly described them as 'very elaborate 
and artful pieces, and the most deserving to 
be recorded and had in everlasting remem- 
brance.' One was scored by Purcell in a 
volume now at the Fitzwilliam Museum, 

Modern editors have reprinted very few of 
Tomkins's works. A psalm-tune is in Turle 
and Taylor's ' People's Singing Book,' 1844. 
Joseph Warren, in his ' Chorister's Hand- 
book ' and enlarged edition of Boyce's ' Cathe- 
dral Music,' inserted a service in C and some 
anthems ; and Ouseley's ' Cathedral Music/ 
1853, contains a service in D, with a Venite. 
Three anthems are in Cope's collection. The 
preces from ( Musica Deo Sacra/ and preces, 
responses, and litanies from the choir-books 
at Peterhouse, Cambridge, with some chants, 
were published in Jebb's ' Choral Responses 
and Litanies/ 1847-57. One madrigal has 
been reprinted. 

His son, NATHANAEL TOMKINS (d. 1681), 
graduated B.D. from Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, on 31 March 1628-9. He was made 
prebendary of Worcester Cathedral in 1629. 
He had allowed some of the worn-out copes 
and vestments to be used as ' players' caps 
and coats/ but upon the appointment of 
Roger Man waring [q.v.] as dean in 1633 all 
such were burned. Subsequently Nathanael 
Tomkins appears as one of the high-church 
party, siding with the dean against the bishop 
and townsmen ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635- 
1641). He was ejected from his appointment 
and his various benefices by the puritans, but 
survived to the Restoration, and died, still 
prebendary of the cathedral, on 21 Oct. 1681 
(WALKER, Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 81 ; 
FOSTER, Alumni Oxon.} 

Of the brothers of Thomas Tomkins, the 
most distinguished was JOHN TOMKISTS (1586- 
1638), who in 1606 succeeded Orlando Gib- 
bons as organist of King's College, Cam- 
bridge. Having studied music ten years, he 
received the degree of Mus. Bac. on 6 June 
1608, on condition of composing a piece for 
performance at the commencement. He was 
to be presented in the dress of a bachelor 
of arts. John Tomkins was intimate with 
Phineas Fletcher, who has made him, under 
the name of Thomalin, an interlocutor in 
three of his eclogues. About 1619 he left 



Cambridge, and became organist of St. Paul's 
Fletcher, then in Norfolk, addressed a poem 
to him on the occasion. In 1625 Tomkin 
was sworn for the next place that should fal 
vacant in the chapel royal. He was appointee 
epistler,3 Nov. 1626, and gospeller on 30 Jan 
1626-7. It is probable that he excelled 
rather as an executant than as a composer 
Anthems by him exist in most manuscripts 
with his brother Thomas's, but they are few 
in number, and none have been printed. He 
composed a clever set of sixteen variations 
on ' John, come kiss me now,' which his 
brother copied in Additional MS. 29996 
Joseph Butler, in his ' Principles of Musick, 
1636, calls Thomas and John Tomkins aureus 
par musicorum. Both helped in harmonising 
Ravenscroft's 'Psalter,' 1621. John died on 
27 Sept. 1638, and was buried in St. Paul's, 
his epitaph calling him the most celebrated 
organist of his time. William Lawes [q. v." 
composed an elegy on his death, printed by 
Henry Lawes [q. v.] at the end of ' Choice 
Psalms,' 1648. His youthful pupil, Albertus 
Bryne [q. v.], succeeded him at St. Paul's, 
Richard Portman at the chapel royal. His son 
Thomas (1637 p-1675), chancellor and canon 
of Exeter Cathedral, is separately noticed. 

GILES TOMKINS (d. 1668 ?) succeeded John 
at King's College. He followed his brothers 
to court, and won the favour of Charles I, 
who in 1629 ordered that he should be elected 
to a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral, vacant 
by the death of John Holmes the organist, 
whose widow claimed it for her son. The 
latter was supported by the bishop and three 
canons, the other three and the dean voting 
for Tomkins. The matter was referred to a 
committee consisting of Archbishop Abbot, 
the bishops of Ely, Winchester, Norwich, 
end Llandaff, with the dean of St. Paul's, 
the poet Donne. On 22 June they reported 
that they had not succeeded in arranging the 
dispute, and in their opinion Tomkins was 
lawfully elected. King Charles then ordered 
that he should be admitted provisionally 
while the case was tried by law. The de- 
cision of the court of arches was apparently 
in favour of Holmes. In 1634 Tomkins was 
instructor of the boys of the cathedral, a post 
held by one of the seven choirmen, another 
being organist. In the meantime Tomkins 
had been appointed, on the death of Richard 
Dering in 1630, household musician to the 
king, with a pension of 40/. per annum and 
livery. At Laud's visitation of Salisbury 
Cathedral it was reported that Giles Tom- 
kins left the choir-boys untaught when he 
went to attend at court. Anthony a Wood, 
who calls him organist of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, says that he died there about 1668. 

[q. v.] succeeded him as court 
15 Jan. 1668-9 (The Musician. 

John Blow 

musician on 15 Jan. 1668-9 (The Musician, 
18 Aug. 1897). Anthems by Giles Tomkins 
are mentioned by Clifford, and in the choir- 
book written by his brother and Este (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Charles I, vols. cxlvii 
chv. clxix. clxxxvii. dxxx. ; Hist. M&S. 
Comm. 4th Rep. p. 129). 

[Thomas Tomkins's published works; Cheque- 
book of the Chapel Koyal in Camden Society's 
publications, 1872, pp. 10-12,47,58; Wood's 
Fasti, col. 799, ed. Bliss, ii. 319; Kirabault's 
Bibliotheca Madrigaliana; Grove's Diet, of 
Music and Musicians, iv. 134, 309, 763 ; Haw- 
kins's Hist, of Music, c. 103; Burney's General 
Hist, of Music, iii. 127, 365; Tudway's Letters 
and Scores, in Harl. MSS. 3782, 7339 ; Bloxam's 
Eegisters of Magdalen College, i. 27, corrected 
in ii. 47, iii. 141, and the index; Catalogue of 
the Manuscripts at Peterhouse, in Ecclesiologist 
for August 1859; Weale's Catalogue of the 
Loan Exhibition of 1885, p. 158; Coxe's Cata- 
logue of the manuscripts in the Colleges at Ox- 
ford ; Dickson's Catalogue of the Manuscripts 
at Ely; Dugdale's St. Paul's, p. 101 ; Ouseley's 
contributions to Naumann'slllustrirteGeschichte 
der Musik, English edit. p. 743 ; Davey's Hist, 
of English Music, pp. 132, 199, 216, 234-7, 
354 ; manuscripts and works quoted. Natha- 
nael Tomkins, son of a gentleman of Northamp- 
tonshire, who was successively chorister, clerk, 
and usher of the school at Magdalen College 
from 1596 to 1610, has been confused with Thomas 
Tomkins. The mistake first appears in Wood's 
Fasti, col. 799. It was copied in Foster's Alumni 
Oxonienses, in Eimbault's Cheque-book of the 
Chapel Eoyal, and in C. F. Abdy Williams's 
Degrees in Music. It may even be found in the 
first volume of Bloxam's Kegisters of Magdalen 
College, but was subsequently corrected.] 

II. D. 

TOMKINS, THOMAS (1637P-1675), 
divine, born about 1637 in Aldersgate Street, 
London, was the son of John Tomkins, or- 
ganist of St. Paul's, London [see under TOM- 
KINS, THOMAS, d. 1656]. Thomas was edu- 
cated by his cousin, Nathanael Tomkins (d. 
[681 ), prebendary of Worcester, and matri- 
culated from Balliol College on 12 May 1651, 
graduating B.A. on 13 Feb. 1654-5, and 
\1.A . on 6 July 1658. He was elected fellow 
of All Souls' in 1657. was proctor in 1663, 
vas incorporated at Cambridge in 1664, and 
proceeded B.D. in 1665, and D.D. on 15 May 
.673. Although Tomkins had not suffered 
mder the Commonwealth and protectorate, 
m the Restoration he distinguished himself 

a zealous royalist and churchman. In 
1660 he published 'The Rebel's Plea, or 
\lr. Baxter's Judgement concerning the late 
Wars' (London, 4to), in which he criticised 
with considerable force Baxter's theory of 
he constitution, as well as his defence of 




particular actions of parliament. This was 
followed next year by ' Short Strictures, or 
Animadversions on so much of Mr. Crof ton's 
"Fastning St. Peters Bonds" as concern the 
reasons of the University of Oxford concern- 
ing the Covenant' (London, 8vo), a pamphlet 
which Hugh Griffith in ' Mr. Crofton's Case 
soberly considered' termed ' frivolous, scurril- 
lous, and invective.' On 11 April 1665 he 
was admitted rector of St. Mary Aldermary, 
London, and about the same time was ap- 
pointed chaplain to Gilbert Sheldon [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury, and employed as 
an assistant licenser of books. In this capa- 
city he nearly refused to license ' Paradise 
Lost' because he thought treasonable the 
lines : 

As when the Sun, new risen, 
Looks through the horizontal, misty air 
Shorn of his beams, or from behind the moon, 
In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds 
On half the nations, and with fear of change 
Perplexes monarchs 

(ToLAND, Life of Milton, 1761, p. 121). 
On 18 July 1667 he was appointed rector 
of Great Chart in Kent, and in the same 
year published a pamphlet entitled 'The 
Inconveniences of Toleration.' On 8 Nov 
1669 he was installed chancellor and pre- 
bendary of the see of Exeter, and on 30 Nov 
1669 was instituted rector of Lambeth, al 
of which preferments he held till his death 
resigning his two former livings. On 2 July 
following he licensed 'Paradise Regained 
and ' Samson Agonistes,' and in 1672 wa 
instituted rector of Monks Eisborough,Buck 
inghamshire. In 1675 he published 'Th 
Modern Pleas for Comprehension, Tolera 
tion, and the taking away the Obligation t 
the Renouncing of the Covenant considerec 
and discussed ' (London, 8vo) ; another edi 
tion appeared in 1680 entitled 'The New 
Distemper, or the Dissenter's usual Pleas fo 
Comprehension, &c., considered and dis 
cussed;' the first edition was answered b 
Baxter in his 'Apology for the Noncon 
formist's Ministry.' Tomkins died at Exete 
on 20 Aug. 1675, aged 37, and was buriec 
in the chancel of the parish church at Marton 
near Droitwich in Worcestershire. Beside 
writing the works mentioned, he compose 
some commendatory verses prefixed to Elys 
' Dia Poemata ' (1665), and is said to ha\ 
edited ' Musica Deo Sacra et Ecclesi 
Anglicanse' (1668), composed by his uncl 
Thomas Tomkins (d. 1656) [q. v.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1046 ; 
Masson's Life of Milton, vi. 506, 514, 515, 616, 
651 ; Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, iii. 
519; Newcourt's Kepertorium, i. 436; Hasted's 

history of Kent, iii. 251 ; Notes and Queries, 
i. ix. 259; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] 


TOMKINS, THOMAS (1743-1816), 
alligrapher, born in 1743, kept for many 
years a writing school in Foster Lane, Lon- 
on. For boldness of design, inexhaustible 
variety, and elegant freedom, he was justly 
onsidered to have attained the highest 
minence in his art. Among the produc- 
ions of his pen are : A transcript of the 
charter granted by Charles II to the Irish 
Society, containing 150 folio pages ; orna- 
mental titles to many splendid editions of 
valuable books, particularly Macklin's Bible 
8 vols. 1800-16, fol.), Thomson's ' Seasons/ 
and the Houghton Collection of Prints ; a 
:ranscript of Lord Nelson's letter announcing 
lis victory at the battle of the Nile this 
was engraved and published ; titles to three 
volumes of manuscript music presented to the 
king by Thomas Linley the elder [q.v.]; hono- 
rary freedoms presented to celebrated generals 
and admirals for their victories (1776-1816) 
framed duplicates of these are preserved 
among the city archives ; and addresses to 
their majesties on many public occasions, 
particularly from the Royal Academy, dupli- 
cates of which documents were placed in the 
library of the academy as choice specimens 
of ornamental penmanship. Tomkins was 
intimate with Johnson, Reynolds, and other 
celebrities, whom he used to astonish by the 
facility with which he could strike a perfect 
circle with the pen. He died in Sermon Lane, 
Doctors' Commons, in September 1816. His 
partner in the writing academy, John Red- 
dall, survived till 17 Aug. 1834. Besides 
being the finest penman of his time, Tomkins 
was a most amiable man, and certainly did 
not deserve the ridicule which was cast upon 
him by Isaac D'Israeli. 

He 'bequeathed to the city of London his 
portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, from which 
there is a fine mezzotinto by Charles Turner. 
Another good portrait, painted by George 
Engleheart and engraved by Lewis Schiavo- 
netti, is prefixed to Tomkins's 'Rays of 

He published : 1. 'The Beauties of Writ- 
ing, exemplified in a variety of plain and 
ornamental penmanship. Designed to excite 
Emulation in this valuable Art,' London, 
1777, oblong 4to ; again London, 1808-9, 
oblong 4to, and 1844^ fol. 2. ' Alphabets 
written for the improvement of youth in 
Round, Text, and Small Hands,' 1779. 
3. ' Rays of Genius, collected to enlighten 
the rising generation,' 2 vols., London, 1806, 
12mo. 4. ' Poems on various Subjects ; 
selected to enforce the Practice of Virtue ; 



and with a view to comprise . . .the Beauties 
of English Poetry,' London, 1807, 12mo. 

[Athenseum, 1888, pt. i. p. 259; Disraeli's 
Curiosities of Literature (1841), p. 436; Evans's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 10440; Gent. 
Mag. 1816, ii. 77, 280, 292; Monthly Mag. 
(1816), xlii. 274.] T. C. 

TOMKINSON, THOMAS (1631-1710?), 
Muggletonian, son of Richard and Ann Tom- 
kinson of Sladehouse, parish of Ham, Staf- 
fordshire, was born there in 1631. He came 
of a substantial family of tenant-farmers 
long settled in the parishes of Ham and 
Blore Ray. His mother was a zealous puritan. 
He had not much education, but was a great 
reader from his youth, and especially fond 
of church history. His namesake, Thomas 
Thomkinson (buried at Blore Ray on 25 Dec. 
1640), was locally reckoned a great scholar; 
it was probably from his representatives that 
Tomkinson 'procured a library of presby- 
terian books.' Other theological works he 
borrowed from his landlord, Thomas Crom- 
well, earl of Ardglass, at Throwley Hall. 
On his mother's death his father made over 
his affairs to him, boarding with him as a 

In 1661 he fell in with a tract written as 
a Muggletonian by Laurence Claxton or 
Clarkson [q. v.], probably his ' Look about 
you,' 1659. Just before his marriage he went 
up to London to see Lodowicke Muggleton 
[q. v.], arriving on May day 1662. His family 
did not favour his new views. Till 1674 he 
went occasionally to church ' to please an 
old father and a young wife,' but he made 
over twenty converts, who met at each other's 
houses. After 1674 he was harassed for 
recusancy, and at length excommunicated. 
By the good offices of Archdeacon Cook, who 
had heard him confute a quaker at the Dog 
Inn, Lichfield, he was absolved on payment 
of a fine, and thought it ' cheap enough to 
escape their hell and to gain their heaven 
for twenty shillings.' He made frequent 
visits to London, and finally settled there 
some time after 1680. He was the ablest of 
Muggleton's adherents and their best writer. 
Imperfect education shows itself in some ex- 
travagant literary blunders, and his ortho- 
graphy is a system by itself, yet he often 
writes with power. His ' no whither else 
will we go, if we perish, we perish' (Truth's 
Triumph, 1823, p. 76) anticipates a well- 
known phrase of John Stuart Mill. He 
seems to have brought under Muggleton's 
notice (in 1674) the 'Testaments of the 
Twelve Patriarchs,' which is one of the sacred 
books in the Muggletonian canon. He was 
living in 1704, and probably died about 1710. 
He had a son Thomas and a daughter Anne. 

He published: 1. 'The Muggletonians 
Principles Prevailing,' 1695, 4to ; reprinted, 
Deal 1822, 4to (by T. T, wrongly assigned 
to Thomas Taylor m Bodleian and British 
Museum Catalogues ; in reply to ' True Repre- 
sentation of the ... Muggletonians,' 1694 
4to, by John Williams (1634-1709) Tq v ]' 
bishop of Chichester). Posthumous were : 
2. ' Truth's Triumph . . . pt. viii.' 1721, 4to 
pt. vii. 1724, 4to ; the whole (8 parts), 1823 
4to (written 1676, revised 1690). 3. 'A 
System of Religion,' 1729, 8vo ; reprinted 
1857, 4to. 4. ' The Harmony of the Three 
Commissions,' 1757, 8vo (written 1692). 
5. ' A Practical Discourse upon . . . Jude/ 
1823, 8vo (written 1704). Still in manu- 
script among the Muggletonian archives in 
New Street, Bishopsgate Street Without, 
are: 6. <A Brief Concordance of . . . all 
the Writings of John Reeve and some of 
. . . Muggleton,' 1664-5 (copy by William 
Cheir). 7. 'Zion's Sonnes,' 1679 (autograph). 
8. 'The Soul's Struggle,' 1681 (copy by 
Arden Bonell). 9. ' The Christian Convarte, 
or Christianytie Revived,' 1692 (copy by 
Arden Bonell; this is an unfinished auto- 
biography). 10. 'The White Diuel un- 
cased/ 1704 (autograph; two recensions). 
11. ' Joyful Newes . . . the Jews are called/ 
n. d. (in verse ; copy by Arden Bonell). 

[Tomkinson's works, printed and in the Mug- 
gletonian archives; Reeve and Muggleton's 
Volume of Spiritual Epistles, 1755 (letters from 
Muggleton to Tomkinson); Smith's Bibliotheca 
Antiquakeriana, 1873, pp. 322 seq. (bibliography 
revised by the present writer) ; Ancient and 
Modern Muggletonians, in Transactions of Liver- 
pool Literary and Philosophical Soc. 1870.1 

A. G. 


1614), dramatist, entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1597, was admitted scholar in 
1599, graduated B.A. in 1600, was elected 
minor fellow in 1602, proceeded M.A. in 1604, 
and became a major fellow during the same 
year. When James I visited the university 
of Cambridge in March 1615, Tomkis wrote a 
comedy called ' Albumazar ' for performance 
by members of his college. In the senior 
bursar's account-book under the head of ' ex- 
traordinaries ' for the year 1615 is the item : 
' Given Mr. Tomkis for his paines in penning 
and ordering the Englishe Commedie at o r 
M rs Appoyntm* xx 11 ' (Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. xii. 155). The piece was published 
in London without delay. The title-page 
ran : ' Albumazar : a Comedy presented be- 
fore the Kings Maiestie at Cambridge the 
ninth of March 1614 by the Gentlemen of 
Trinitie Colledge. London, printed by 
Nicholas Okes for Walter Burre/ 1615, 4to 



(newly revised and corrected by a special 
hand, London, 1634, 4to ; and another edi- 
tion, London, 1668, 4to). John Chamber- 
lain, the letter-writer, described this ' Eng- 
lish comedy ... of Trinitie Colledges 
action and invention as having no great 
matter in it more than one good clown's 
part ' (i.e. the part of Trincalo). It was 
assigned to ' Mr. Tomkis, Trinit.,' in a con- 
temporary account of the king's visit to 
Cambridge among the manuscripts of Sir 
Edward Dering. 

The piece, which ridiculed the pretensions 
of astrologers, was adapted from an Italian 
comedy, ' L' Astrologo/ by a Neapolitan, 
Gian Battista della Porta, which was 
printed at Venice in 1606. ( Albuma/ar ' 
was revived after the Restoration at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre on 2 Feb. 1668, 
when Dryden wrote a prologue in which he 
erroneously identified the author with Ben 
Jonson (GENEST, i. 85). James Ralph [q. v.] 
based on it a comedy called ' The Astrologer,' 
which was acted for a single night at Drury 
Lane Theatre in 1744. Garrick revived 
Tomkis's piece at Drury Lane on 3 Oct. 1747, 
where it ran for five nights, and again on 
13 March 1748. Dryden's prologue was 
spoken by Garrick, and Macklin and Mrs. 
Woffington were in the cast (ib. iv. 232,242). 
Subsequently Garrick altered the piece and 
produced his new version (which was pub- 
lished) at Drury Lane on 19 Oct. 1773, when 
the role of Albumazar was undertaken by 
Palmer, andthat of Sulpitia by Mrs. Abington 
(ib. v. 394). The piece was reprinted in 
Dodsley's 'Collection of Old Plays' (ed. 
W. C. Hazlitt, xi. 292-421). 

According to a manuscript list of books and 
papers made by Sir John Harington early 
in the seventeenth century (now in Addit. 
MS. 27632), a second piece, 'The Combat 
of Lingua/ was from the pen of ' Thomas 
Tomkis of Trinity Colledge in Cambridge ' 
(leaf 30 ; see note by Dr. Furnivall in Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. ix. 382-3). This play, 
which is a farcical presentation of a struggle 
among personifications of the tongue and the 
five senses, was published anonymously in 
1607 with the title, * Lingua, or The Combat 
of the Tongue and the five Senses for Supe- 
riority : a pleasant Comoedie,' London, printed 
by G. Eld for Simon Waterson, 1607 (other 
editions are dated 1610 [?], 1617, 1622, 1632, 
1657). The piece has been assigned, on 
Winstanley's authority, to Antony Brewer, 
but there is little reason to doubt Haring- 
ton's ascription of it to Tomkis. It seems 
to be founded on an Italian model, and is in 
style and phraseology closely akin to 'Albu- 
mazar.' It was doubtless prepared for a 

performance at the university in 1607, but 
there is no evidence to prove that it was the 
unspecified comedy the production of which 
at King's College in February 1606-7 ex- 
cited a disturbance among the auditors 
(COOPER, Annals, iii. 24). Simon Miller, 
when advertising in 1663 the edition of 
' Lingua ' of 1657, reported the tradition that 
Oliver Cromwell, the protector, played a 
part on the first production of the piece. 
Winstanley embellished Miller's statement, 
and declared that Cromwell assumed the role 
of Tactus, ' and this mock ambition for the 
Crown is said to have swollen his ambition 
so high that afterwards he contended for it 
in earnest. . . .' ' Lingua ' was reprinted in 
Dodsley's 'Old Plays' (ix. 331-463). 

Tomkis has been confused with Thomas 
Tomkins (d. 1656) [q. v.], the musician, and 
with his son, John Tomkins (1586-1638). 
There is no ground for connecting him in 
any way with either. 

[Fleay's Biographical Chronicle ; Baker's 
Biographia Dramatica; Introductions to Lingua 
and Albumazar in Dodsley's Old Plays; "Win- 
stanley's English Poets, s.v. ' Brewer ' and 
' Tomkis ; ' information kindly supplied by Dr. 
Aldis Wright,] S. L. 

MAN (1750-1827), tutor of the younger 
Pitt, and bishop of Winchester, was the son 
of George Pretyman of Bury St. Edmunds,by 
his wife Susan, daughter of John Hubbard. 
His father represented an ancient and re- 
spectable Suffolk family which had held land 
at Bacton in Suffolk from the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Tomline (who until 1803 bore the 
name of Pretyman) was born at Bury St. 
Edmunds on 9 Oct. 1750, and educated at 
the grammar school at that town and at Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, where he distin- 
guished himself in mathematics, being senior 
wrangler and Smith's prizeman in 1772. He 
graduated B.A. in 1772, and was appointed 
fellow and shortly afterwards tutor of his 
college in 1773. 

On William Pitt being sent to the uni- 
versity at the early age of fourteen, Tomline 
was appointed his tutor, probably on the 
recommendation of the master of Pembroke 
Hall. Pitt early developed a close friend- 
ship with his tutor (letter of Pitt to Prety- 
man, 7 Oct. 1774, Orwell Collection), which 
he maintained till his death, and which 
established Tomline's fortune. In 1775 Tom- 
line proceeded M.A., and was appointed 
moderator of the university in 1781. He 
took an active part in the Cambridge elec- 
tion in September 1780, when Pitt failed to 
win the university seat (Cambridge Poll 
Books, Orwell Collection), and went to Lon- 



don with Pitt and Pitt's elder brother, Lord 
Chatham, after the loss of the election. On 
Pitt's appointment in December 1783 as first 
lord of the treasury, Tomline became his pri- 
vate secretary, but did not at first bear the 
name of secretary, as the minister thought 
it might be detrimental to him in his pro- 
fession. He continued in this position until 
1787. In 1782 he was collated to the sine- 
cure rectory of Corwen, Merionethshire ; in 
1784 was appointed to a prebendal stall at 
Westminster, and the same year was created 
D.D. In 1785 he was presented by George III 
to the rectory of Sudbourn-cum-Offord, and 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
Tomliiie's mathematical abilities enabled him 
to be of great service to Pitt during the con- 
duct of the latter's financial proposals. He 
formulated the objections to Richard Price's 
scheme for the reduction of the national debt, 
and performed most of the calculation in- 
volved in Pitt's plan for the same purpose. 
In January 1787 Tomline succeeded Thurlow 
as bishop of Lincoln and dean of St. Paul's. 
It is said that on Pitt's application on be- 
half of his friend the king remarked, ' Too 
young, too young ; can't have it ! ' but 
that on the minister replying that had it 
not been for Tomline he would not have been 
in office, the king answered, ' He shall have 
it, Pitt; he shall have it, Pitt!' Though 
Tomline ceased to act as secretary on taking 
up his episcopal residence at Buckden Palace, 
his very close intimacy with the prime 
minister was not relaxed, and he frequently 
visited him in London for the purpose of 
conferring with him and doing secretarial 
work for him. From 1787 to 1806 the bulk 
of the ecclesiastical patronage was exercised 
according to his advice, and his opinion on 
the general conduct of political affairs was 
generally sought and not infrequently fol- 
lowed by Pitt (RosE, Diary and Corre- 
spondence, i. 323). 

In 1799 Tomline justified his episcopal 
appointment by his publication of the ( Ele- 
ments of Christian Theology ' (London, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 12th edit. 1818). This work, which was 
dedicated to Pitt, was composed for the use 
of candidates for ordination, the idea being 
suggested to the bishop owing to the ignorance 
displayed by most of the candidates who pre- 
sented themselves to him. Though l without 
pretensions to depth or originality ' (STEB- 
BING, preface to ed. Elements of Christian 
Theology), the work became very popular and 
went through many editions. It was revised 
by Henry Stebbing (1799-1883) [q.v.] in 
1843. Several abridgments appeared, and 
the first volume was published alone in 1801 
and 1875 under the title l An Introduction 

to the Study of the Bible.' On the ques- 
tion o catholic emancipation Tomline took 
up so strong an attitude that he was pre- 
pared to oppose the measure even if brought 
m by his patron (letter, Mrs. Tomline to 
Tomline, 8 Feb. 1801, Orwell Collection), but 
on his urging his arguments on Pitt < did 
not seem to make much impression on this 
point' (RosE, Diary and Correspondence, i. 

44:0 ), 

Tomline was much opposed to Pitt's nego- 
tiations and intimate relationship with Ad- 
dington in 1801 (letter to Rose, 19 Nov. 
1801, Orwell Collection). Addington he 
appears to have despised and distrusted, and 
he did all in his power, eventually with 
success, to induce Pitt to withdraw his sup- 
port from the ministry. He was especially 
anxious that all matters in doubt between 
the king and Pitt at this period should be 
cleared up, and suggested the wording of 
Pitt's guarantee to the king never during 
his majesty's life to bring forward the catholic 
question (RosE, Correspondence, i. 407). 
When in 1801 the question arose among his 
most intimate friends as to how provision 
should be made to meet Pitt's most pressing 
debts, Tomline undertook the task, and 
somewhat nervously broached the subject at 
a tete-a-tete dinner with the ex-minister. 
He successfully arranged this delicate matter, 
and himself contributed 1,000/. 

In June 1803 the bishop of Lincoln took 
the name of Tomline on a considerable estate 
at Riby in Lincolnshire being left him by 
the will of Marmaduke Tomline. Between 
the testator and legatee there was no rela- 
tionship, and but very slight acquaintance, 
the bishop not having seen Tomline more 
than five or six times in his life (letter to 
Mrs. Tomline, 23 June 1803, Orwell Collec- 

On the approaching death of John Moore 
(1730-1 805) [q.v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
Pitt was anxious that Tomline should be 
appointed, but clearly anticipated a struggle 
with the king (letter to Mrs. Tomline, 
21 Jan. 1805). There are numerous stories 
as to what was said at the final interview 
between sovereign and minister on this sub- 
ject. According to Lord Malmesbury, the 
king remarked that if a private secretary of 
a first minister was to be put at the head of 
the church, he should have all his bishops 
party men (LoED MALMESBTJKY, Diaries, 
iv. 383). Lord Sidmouth told Dean Milman 
that such strong language had rarely ever 
passed between a sovereign and his minister. 
Tomline's account of what happened, written 
to his wife immediately after seeing Pitt on . 
his return from Windsor (23 Jan. 1804), 




was that the king said he should not feel 
himself to be king if he could not appoint 
the archbishop, and that he considered it 
his duty to appoint the person he thought 
fittest. The king secured his own way, and 
Charles Manners-Sutton (1755-1828) [q. 
was appointed. 

Tomline was with Pitt for the last two days 
of his life and attended him on his deathbed ; 
the dying statesman's last instructions,- under 
which the bishop was left literary executor, 
were taken down by Tomline and signed by 
Pitt (original document in the Orwell Col- 
lection), and his last words to the bishop, ' I 
cannot sufficiently thank you for all your 
kindness to me throughout life,' exhibit 
the deep and lasting character of their friend- 
ship. Though by Pitt's death Tomline's in- 
timate connection with politics came to an 
end, his advice and assistance were sought by 
Lord Grenville, with whom he continued in 
confidential communication. 

In 1811 he continued the campaign against 
Calvinistic doctrines, which he had begun in 
his episcopal charge in 1803, by the publica- 
tion of ' A Refutation of Calvinism.' The 
work was widely read, and reached an eighth 
edition in 1823 ; it drew its author into con- 
troversy with Thomas Scott (1747-1821) 
[q. v.], Edward Williams (1750-1813), and 
anonymous writers. In his episcopal charge 
in 1812 Tomline still showed himself strongly 
opposed to Roman catholic emancipation, 
upholding the view that Roman catholic 
opinions were incompatible with the safety 
of the constitution, and he wrote to Lord 
Liverpool desiring to set on foot petitions 
against the measure, which action the govern- 
ment deprecated. On the death of John 
Randolph (1749-1813) [q.v.] in 1813 Tom- 
line was offered the see of London by Lord 
Liverpool, but refused it, as he felt the need 
of relief from episcopal work which the 
bishopric of London could not afford. In 
1820 he was appointed bishop of Winchester, 
and at the same time vacated the deanery of 
St. Paul's. 

The memoir of Pitt by Tomline, extending 
only to 1793, in two quarto volumes, ap- 
peared in 1821 ; a second edition, in three 
octavo volumes, appeared in 1822. In the 
preface the author speaks of his qualifications 
for his task from his long intimacy with 
Pitt. Much was expected of the work owing 
to Tomline's unique opportunities of know- 
ledge, and the fact that Pitt's correspondence 
was in his possession; but Tomline altogether 
disappointed public expectation by the scanty 
use he made of Pitt's letters (Quart. Rev. 


xvi. 286). In the opinion of the Edinburgh 
viewer the work was ' composed, not by 



means of his lordship's memory, but of his 
scissors.' Another volume promised in the 
preface, and which was to deal mainly with 
Pitt's private life, never appeared, but the 
bulk of the manuscript for this final volume 
is among the other Pitt papers at Orwell 
Park. Tomline's extreme caution made him 
unwilling to print the work. Writing to 
his son on 4 Sept. 1822, he says he had made 
sufficient progress to show him that he must 
either not tell the whole truth of 1802 or not 
have the work published till Lord Sidmouth's 
death ; the same, he was sure, would be the 
case with respect to Lord Grenville in 1803. 
Though not as interesting as it might have 
been, the memoir was accurate, and went 
through four editions. In his account of 
Pitt's policy in 1791 and of the negotiations 
between Great Britain and Russia with re- 
gard to the conditions of peace between 
Russia and Turkey, Tomline repeated the 
severe attack made on Fox by Burke in his 
observations on the conduct of a minority 
(published 1793), declaring that the truth of 
Burke's assertions was proved by authentic 
documents among Pitt's papers (Memoir of 
Pitt, ii. 445). This statement was challenged 
by Robert (afterwards Sir Robert) Adair on 
23 May 1821, who denied that he had acted 
in 1791 as Fox's emissary at the court of 
St. Petersburg. As Tomline, in the contro- 
versy which ensued, fell back upon Burke's 
authority and Pitt's speeches without quoting 
the ' authentic documents,' Adair's defence 
of Fox and himself gained credence (LECKY, 
History of the Eighteenth Century, vol. v. ; 
STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, ii. 120). Copies, 
however, of letters, partially in cipher, from 
Adair at St. Petersburg to Fox and others, of 
such a character as to justify, if not conclu- 
sively to prove, Tomline's statements and 
inferences, were at the time when he wrote 
in his possession, and possibly were nob 
published owing to some pledge having been 
given to the person through whose agency 
they were secured (copies of these letters 
are among the Pitt papers at Orwell Park). 

In 1823 Tomline established his claim to 
be regarded as heir to a Nova Scotia baro- 
netcy which, on the death of Sir Thomas 
Pretyman in 1749, had been allowed to lapse 
(Genealogist, iv. 373), and was served heir 
male in general on 22 March 1823. Hence- 
forward to the end of his life he was known 
as Sir George Pretyman Tomline ; his eldest 
son, however, on succeeding to the estates, 
laid no claim to this honour. 

Tomline died on 14 Nov. 1827 at Kingston 
Hall, Wimborne, the house of his friend 
Henry Bankes. He was buried in Winchester 
Cathedral, near the western end of the south 



aisle. He married in 1784 Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter and coheir of Thomas Maltby of 
Germans, Buckinghamshire, a woman of con- 
siderable ability and character, who was 
informed and consulted by her husband on 
all important political matters in which he 
was engaged. By her the bishop had three 
sons : William Edward Tomline, M.P. for 
Truro ; George Thomas Pretyman, chancellor 
of Lincoln and prebendary of "Winchester; 
and Richard Pretyman, precentor of Lincoln. 
There is a portrait of Tomline, by J. Jackson, 
now in the possession of Captain Pretyman 
at Riby Hall, Lincolnshire ; an engraving of 
this by II. Meyer appears in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' and as a frontispiece to Cassan's 
' Bishops of Winchester.' 

Tomline's political views are fairly defined 
by one of his biographers, who described 
him ' as a supporter of the prerogative and 
an uncompromising friend to the existing 
order of things ' (CASSAN, Lives of Bishops of 
Winchester). His judgment and prudence 
were fully recognised by Pitt, who admitted 
him to his confidence more unreservedly than 
any other friend. 

[Gent. Mag. 1828, i. 202 (with portrait); 
Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Winchester ; Lord 
Malmesbury's Diaries ; Stanhope's Life of Pitt ; 
Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth; Pitt Papers and 
private papers at Orwell Park, to which access 
was kindly given the writer of this article by 
Captain Pretyman.] W. C-B. 


(1804-1867), journalist, was born in August 
1804. He was originally in the employment 
of Whittaker & Co., publishers, London, as 
publishing clerk and literary assistant to 
George Byrom Whittaker [q. v.] Soon after 
Whittaker's death in 1847, he commenced 
business as a publisher in Southampton 
Street, Strand, London, and there issued a 
publication called ' The Self-Educator.' He 
next opened a shop for new and secondhand 
books in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 
near the British Museum ; but after a while 
he abandoned business for literary pursuits. 
In 1831 he was a contributor to Henry 
Hetherington's 'Poor Man's Guardian,' and 
afterwards to the ' Weekly Times,' in which 
he published the series of articles signed 
' Littlejohn.' He was for some time sub- 
editor of ' Douglas Jerrold's Weekly News- 
paper,' and was editorially connected with 
the ' Weekly Times ' and with the ' Leader.' 

Tomlins was well acquainted with Shake- 
speare and Shakespearean literature, and he 
was the founder of the Shakespeare Society 
in 1840, and acted as the society's secretary. 
From 1850 to his death he was the dramatic 


and fine-art critic of the ' Morning Adver- 
tiser/ On the death of his uncle, in 1864 
he succeeded him as clerk of the Painter-' 
Stainers' Company, an office which had been 
held by his grandfather. His tragedy, Gar- 
cia, or the Noble Error,' was produced at 
Sadler's Wells on 12 Dec. 1849 (Sunday 
Times,lQ Dec. 1849). He died at the Painter- 
Stainers' Hall, Little Trinity Lane, London, 
on 21 Sept. 1867, and was buried at St. Peter's 
Church, Croydon, on 27 Sept. 

He was the author of: 1. 'A Universal 
Gazetteer, Ancient and Modern,' 1836, 2 vols. 
2. 'The Past and Present State of Dra- 
matic Art and Literature,' 1839. 3. <A 
History of England from the Invasion of 
the Romans,' 1839, 3 vols. ; another edit. 
1857, 3 vols. 4. 'A Brief View of the 
English Drama, with suggestions for elevat- 
ing the present condition of the art,' 1840. 
5. 'The Nature and State of the English 
Drama,' 1841. 6. 'The Relative Value of 
the Acted and Unacted Drama/ 1841. 

[Bookseller, 30 Sept. 1867 ; Era, 29 Sept. 1 867 ; 
Men of the Time, 1865.] G-. C. B. 


(1762-1841), legal writer, born in London 
on 4 Jan. 1762, was the eldest son of Thomas 
Tomlins (d. 1815), solicitor and clerk to the 
Company of Painter-Stainers, descended from 
the family of Tomlins in the neighbourhood 
of Ledbury in Shropshire and of Hereford. 
Thomas Edlyne was admitted a scholar at St. 
Paul's school on 21 Sept. 1769. He matricu- 
lated from Queen's College, Oxford, on 27 Oct. 
1778, and was called to the bar by the society 
of the Inner Temple in the Hilary term of 
1783. For some years he was editor of the 
' St. James's Chronicle,' a daily newspaper, 
and on 30 May 1801 he was appointed 
counsel to the chief secretary for Ireland. 
In the same year he became parliamentary 
counsel to the chancollor of the exchequer 
for Ireland, a post which he retained until 
the union of the British and Irish treasuries 
in 1816. He was knighted at Wanstead 
House on 29 June 1814, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Duke of Wellington, and in 1818 
was appointed assistant counsel to the trea- 
sury. In Hilary term 1823 he was elected 
a bencher of the Inner Temple, and in 1827 
he filled the office of treasurer to the society. 
In January 1831, on the whigs coming into 
office, he retired from his post in the treasury. 
He died on 1 July 1841 at St. Mary Castle- 
gate, York. 

Tomlins was the author of: 1. 'A Familiar 
Explanation of the Law of Wills and Codi- 
cils/ London, 1785, 8vo ; new edition, 1810. 
2. ' Repertorium Juridicum: a General Index 




of all Cases and Pleadings in Law and Equity 
hitherto published,' London, 1786-7, fol. 
(only the first part was published). 3. ' Cases 
explanatory of the Rules of Evidence before 
Committees of Elections in the House of 
Commons/ London, 1796, 8vo. 4. ' A Di- 
gested Index of the first Seven Volumes of 
Durnford and East's Term Reports in the 
Court of King's Bench from 1785 to 1798,' 
London, 1799, 8vo; 4th edit, carried down 
to 1810, published in 1812. 5. ' Statutes at 
Large, 41 to 49 George III,' being vols. i. ii. 
and iii. of the ' Statutes of the United King- 
dom,' London, 1804-10, 4to. 6. t Proceed- 
ings of the Court of Enquiry upon the Con- 
duct of Sir Hew Dalrymple/ London, 1809, 
8vo. 7. ' Index to Acts relating to Ireland 
passed between 1801 and 1825,' London, 
1825, 8vo ; new edit, carried down to 1829, 
published in 1829. 8. ' Plain Directions for 
proceeding under the Act for the Abolition 
of Imprisonment for Debt,' 2nd edit., Lon- 
don, 1838, 8vo. 

He also superintended several editions of 
Jacob's * Law Dictionary,' edited Brown's 
1 Reports of Cases on Appeals and Writs of 
Error determined in the High Court of Par- 
liament' (London, 1803, 8vo), and, as sub- 
commissioner of the records, took a chief 
part in editing the ' Statutes of the Realm ' 
(9 vols. 1810-24). 

(1763-1828), was born in 1763. In 1797 
her brother published ' Tributes of Affection 
by' a Lady and her Brother' (London, 8vo), 
a collection of short poems, most of them by 
her. Besides contributing several pieces to 
various periodical publications, she was the 
author of several novels, of which the most 
popular was ' The Victim of Fancy,' an 
imitation of Goethe's ' Werther.' Others 
were l The Baroness d'Alunton,' and f Rosa- 
lind de Tracy,' 1798, 12mo. She also trans- 
lated the ' History of Napoleon Bonaparte ' 
from one of the works of Louis Pierre 
Anquetil. Miss Tomlins died at The Firs, 
Cheltenham, on 8 Aug. 1828 (Gent. Mag. 
1828, ii. 471). 

Sir Thomas's nephew, THOMAS EDLTNB 
TOMLINS (1804-1872), legal writer, born in 
1804, was son of Alfred Tomlins, a clerk in 
the Irish exchequer office, Paradise Row, 
Lambeth. He entered St. Paul's school on 
6 Feb. 1811, and was admitted to practice in 
London as an attorney in the Michaelmas 
term of 1827. He died"in 1872. He was the 
author of: 1. 'A Popular Law Dictionary,' 
London, 1838, 8vo. 2. < Yseldon, a Perambu- 
lation of Islington and its Environs,' pt. i. 
London, 1844, 8vo ; complete work, London, 
1858, 4to. 3. 'The New Bankruptcy Act 

complete, with Analysis of its Enactments/ 
London, 1861, 12mo. He also edited Sir 
Thomas Littleton's ' Treatise of Tenures ' 
(1841, 8vo), revised Tytler's 'Elements of 
General History '(1844, 8vo), translated the 
'Chronicles' of Jocelin of Brakelond (1844, 
8vo) for the ' Popular Library of Modern 
Authors,' and contributed to" the Shake- 
speare Society ' A New Document regarding 
the Authority of the Master of the Revels r 
which had been discovered on the patent 
roll (Shakespeare Society Papers, 1847, iii. 

[Gent. Mag. 1841, ii. 321; Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Gardiner's Register of St. Paul's 
School, p. 145.] E. I. C. 

TOMLINSON, CHARLES (1808-1897), 
scientific writer, younger son of Charles 
Tomlinson, was born in North London on 
27 Nov. 1808. His father, who belonged to 
a Shropshire family, finding himself in poor 
circumstances, enlisted, and, after serving in 
Holland, died on the way to India. He left 
a widow and two sons, Lewis and Charles, 
who from an early age had to depend for 
support on their own exertions. Charles 
studied science, chiefly at the London Me- 
chanics' Institute, under George Birkbeck 
[q. v.], while his elder brother was able to 
maintain himself as a clerk at Wadham 
College, Oxford. After graduating B.A. in 
1829 Lewis obtained a curacy, and in the fol- 
lowing year sent for Charles to assist him 
in scholastic work. A few years later Lewis 
obtained a curacy near Salisbury, and with 
his brother founded a day-school in the 

Daring the vacations Charles improved 
his knowledge of science by attending lec- 
tures at University College, London, and else- 
where. He made some attempts at original 
research, and published papers in Thomson's 
' Records of Science ' and also in ' The 
Magazine of Popular Science.' In 1838 he 
published the substance of some of these 
papers under the title ' The Student's Manual 
of Natural Philosophy,' London, 8vo. He 
also contributed largely to the ' Saturday 
Magazine,' then published by Parker, who 
found him so useful that he invited him to 
settle in London. This connection brought 
him into contact with various scientific 
men, among others with Sir William Snow 

Harris [q. v.], William Thomas Brande 

[q. v. 
illiam Allen Miller [q. v.] On the sudden 

arrs q. v 

. v.], John 

[q. v. 

Frederick Daniell 

.], and 

death of Daniell in 1845 Miller and Tom- 
linson collaborated in completing a new 
edition of Daniell's ' Meteorology,' which had 
been interrupted by the author's death. 



Tomlinson was soon after appointed lecturer 
on experimental science in King's College 

To Tomlinson was due the perception 
of several important scientific phenomena. 
Early in his career his attention was at- 
tracted by the singular rotation of fragments 
of camphor on the surface of water. By 
investigation he ascertained that many other 
bodies also possess that property, and that 
liquids, such as creosote, carbolic acid, ether, 
alcohol, and essential and fused oils, assume 
definite figures on the surface of oil and 
other liquids in a state of chemical purity 
in chemically clean vessels. These re- 
searches obtained for Tomlinson the friend- 
ship of Professor Van der Mensbrugghe of 
the university of Ghent, who found Tom- 
linson's conclusions of much importance in 
establishing the theory of the surface ten- 
sion of liquids. 

In 1864 Tomlinson was elected on the 
council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, in 1867 he became 
a fellow of the Chemical Society, and in 
1872 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society. He was also one of the founders 
of the Physical Society in 1874. Some time 
before his death he retired from his post at 
King's College, and the later years of his life 
were devoted more to literature, and espe- 
cially to the study of poetry. From 1878 to 
1880 he held the Dante lectureship at Uni- 
versity College, London. He died at High- 
gate on 15 Feb. 1897. Before leaving Salis- 
bury he married Miss Sarah Windsor, author 
of several small manuals and stories. 

Besides the works mentioned, Tomlinson 
was author of: 1. ' Amusements in Chess,' 
London, 1845, 8vo. 2. ' Introduction to the 
Study of Natural Philosophy/ London, 1848, 
12mo. 3. 'Pneumatics for the Use of Be- 
ginners,' London, 1848, 12mo; 4th edit. 1887, 
8vo. 4. { Rudimentary Mechanics,' London, 
1849, 12mo ; 9th edit. 1867. 5. ' A Rudi- 
mentary Treatise on Warming and Venti- 
lating,' London, 1850, 12mo ; App. 1858. 
6. ' The Natural History of Common Salt,' 
London, 1850, 16mo. '7. 'Objects in Art 
Manufacture,' London, 1854, 8vo. 8. ' Illus- 
trations of the Useful Arts,' London, 1855-64, 
12mo. 9. ' Illustrations of Trades,' London, 
1860, 4to. 10. 'The Useful Arts and Manufac- 
tures of Great Britain,' London, 1861, 12mo. 
11. ' On the Motion of Camphor towards the 
Light,' London, 1862, 8vo. 12. ' Experimental 
Essays,' London, 1863, 8vo. 13. 'On the 
Motions of Eugenic Acid on the Surface of 
Water,' London, 1864, 8vo. 14. ' On the 
Invention of Printing/ London, 1865, 8vo. 
15. ' Illustrations of Science/ London, 1867, 

8vo. 16. 'The Sonnet: its Origin, Struc- 
ture, and place in Poetry/ London, 1874, 
8vo. 17. 'Experiments on a Lump of 
Camphor/ London, 1876, 16mo. 18. ' The 
Literary History of the Divine Comedy/ 
London, 1879, 8vo. 19. ' Sonnets/ London, 
1881, 16mo. 20. 'Essays, Old and New/ 
London, 1887, 8vo. 21. 'A Critical Exa- 
mination of Goethe's Sonnets/ London, 
1890, 8vo. 22. 'Dante, Beatrice, and the 
Divine Comedy/ London, 1894, 8vo. 

He also edited several scientific works, 
including a 'Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts.' 
1852-4, 8vo ; new edit. 1866 ; translated 
Dante's ' Inferno/ London, 1877, 8vo ; and 
contributed to the eighth edition of the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica.' 

[Tomlinson's Works; Biograph, 1881, vi. 
265-70; Times, 16 Feb. 1897.] E. I. C. 


1681), regicide. [See THOMLINSON.] 

1847), vice-admiral, born in 1765, third son 
of Captain Robert Tomlinson of the navy, 
was from March 1772 borne on the books of 
the Resolution, guardship at Chatham, of 
which his father was first lieutenant. He is 
said to have afterwards made two voyages to 
St. Helena in the Thetis, and in her to have 
been also on the North American station. 
In March 1779 he joined the Charon, with 
Captain John Luttrell (afterwards Olmius), 
third earl of Carhampton [see under LUT- 
TEELL, JAMES] ; served as Luttrell's aide- 
de-camp in the reduction of Omoa ; and, 
continuing in her with Captain Thomas 
Symonds, was present at the capture of the 
French privateer Comte d'Artois, and the 
defence and capitulation of Yorktown. He 
returned to England in a cartel in December 
1781, and on 23 March 1782 was made lieu- 
tenant into the Bristol, which went out with 
convoy to the East Indies. In April 1783, 
shortly after the Bristol's arrival at Madras, 
Tomlinson was in command of a working 
party on board the Duke of Athol, India- 
man, when she was blown up and upwards 
of two hundred men and officers killed. Tom- 
linson escaped with his life, but was severely 
injured. In the Bristol he was present in 
the fifth action between Suffren and Sir 
Edward Hughes [q. v.] ; in September 1784 
he was appointed to the Juno, and in her 
returned to England in 1785. From 1786 
to 1789 he served in the Savage sloop on the 
coast of Scotland. He is said to hare been 
then, for a few years, in the Russian navy, 
and to have had command of a Russian ship 
of the line, which he resigned on the immi- 




nence of the war between England and 
France in the beginning of 1793. In July 
he was appointed to the Regains, which ill- 
health compelled him to leave after a few 
months. In July 1794 he was appointed to 
command the Pelter gunboat, in which he 
' performed a variety of dashing exploits,' 
capturing or destroying numerous vessels 
along the French coast, even under the pro- 
tection of batteries. In July 1795 he was 
publicly thanked by Sir John Borlase War- 
ren [q. v.] on the quarterdeck of the Pomone 
for his service in rescuing a party of French 
royalists after the failure of the attempt at 

On 30 Nov. 1795 he was promoted to the 
command of the Suffisante sloop, in which, 
in the following May, he captured the 
French national brig Revanche ; and through 
the summer took or destroyed several priva- 
teers, armed vessels, storeships, and traders 
a season of remarkable activity and 
success. The t Committee for Encouraging 
the Capture of French Privateers ' voted him 
a piece of plate value 50/. ; so also did the 
' Court of Directors of the Royal Exchange 
Assurance ; ' and on 12 Dec. 1796 he was 
advanced to post rank. In the following 
year, being unable to get employment from 
the admiralty, he fitted out a privateer, in 
which he made several rich prizes ; but being 
reported to the admiralty as having used the 
private signals to avoid being overhauled by 
ships of war, his name was summarily struck 
off the list on 20 Nov. 1798. In 1801 he 
was permitted to serve as a volunteer in the 
fleet going to the Baltic with Sir Hyde 
Parker, and, being favourably reported on by 
him, was restored to his rank in the navy, 
with seniority, 22 Sept. 1801. 

From July 1803 to June 1809 he com- 
manded the Sea Fencibles on the coast of 
Essex ; in the summer of 1809 he fitted out 
and commanded a division of fireships for 
the operations in the Scheldt. On returning 
to England he resumed the command of the 
Fencibles till they were broken up early in 
1810. He had no further employment, but 
was put on the retired list of rear-admirals 
on 22 July 1830. He was transferred to 
the active list on 17 Aug. 1840, and was 
promoted to be vice-admiral on 23 Nov. 1841. 
He died at his house near Lewes on 6 March 
1847. He married, in 1794, Elizabeth, second 
daughter and coheiress of Ralph Ward of 
Forburrows, near Colchester, and had a large 

Two of Tomlinson's brothers also served 
in the navy, and retired with the rank of 
commander after the war. Philip died in 
1839; Robert, at the age of eighty-five, in 

1844. Each of the three brothers attained 
the grade of lieutenant in 1782. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.) 437; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Navy Lists.] 

J. K. L. 

TOMLINSON, RICHARD (1827-1871), 

TOMOS, GLYN COTHI (1766-1833), 
Welsh poet. [See EVANS, THOMAS.] 

TOMPION, THOMAS (1639-17 13), 'the 
father of English watchmaking,' is said to 
have been born at Northhill, Bedfordshire, 
in 1639, but the statement cannot be authen- 
ticated, as the registers of Northhill go back 
only to 1672. Tompion, at his death, owned 
land at Ickwell in this parish. E. J. Wood 
(Curiosities of Clocks and Watches, 1866, 
p. 293) quotes from Prior's ' Essay on Learn- 
ing ' a work that cannot be identified the 
statement that 'Tompion, who earned a 
well-deserved reputation for his admirable 
improvements in the art of clock and watch 
making but particularly in the latter, ori- 
ginally was a farrier, and began his great 
knowledge in the equation of time by regu- 
lating the wheels of a jack to roast meat.' 

Tompion was apprenticed in 1664 to a 
London clockmaker, and was made free of 
the Clockmakers' Company on 4 Sept. 1671. 
The statutes of the Clockmakers' Company 
compelled every member to work as a jour- 
neyman for two years after completing his 
apprenticeship. But within three years of 
his setting up in business for himself Tom- 
pion had attained so high a reputation that 
when the Royal Observatory was established 
in 1676 he was chosen to make the clocks, 
on whose accuracy important calculations 
depended. One of these clocks was pre- 
sented to the Royal Society in 1736 ; it bears 
this inscription : * Sir Jonas Moore caused 
this movement to be made with great care 
Anno Domini 1676 by Thomas Tompion.' 
It is a year-going clock. Under the direction 
of Robert Hooke [q. v.] he made in 1675 one 
of the first English watches with a balance 
spring. It was presented to Charles II, in- 
scribed, 'Robert Hooke inven. 1658. T. 
Tompion fecit 1675.' When Edward Bar- 
low, alias Booth [q. v.], applied for a patent 
for repeating watches, the watch produced 
in court in March 1687 was made by Tom- 
pion for Barlow. Britten says : ' The theories 
of Dr. Hooke and Barlow would have re- 
mained in abeyance but for Tompion's skilful 
materialisation of them. When he entered 
the arena the performance of timekeepers 
was very indifferent. The principles upon 
which they were constructed were defective, 




and the mechanism was not well propoi 
tioned. The movements were regarded g 
quite subsidiary to the exterior cases, an. 
English specimens of the art had no distinc 
tive individuality. After years of applica 
tion he, by adopting the invention of Hook 
and Barlow, and by skilful proportion o 
parts, left English watches and clocks th 
finest in the world, and the admiration o 
his brother artists.' 

In November 1690 Tompion was esta 
blished in business at the corner of Wate 
Lane in Fleet Street (No. 67), where he re 
mained until his death. Besides watch anc 
clock making, he made barometers and sun 
dials. A fine ' wheel ' barometer still hang, 
in King William's bedchamber at Hamptor 
Court bearing the royal monogram. An 
elaborate and complicated sundial made by 
him for the king after Queen Mary's death 
in 1694 is still in its place in the Privy 
Garden at the same palace. The prices paic 
to Tompion for these royal commands are 
not extant, but in 1695 he received 2351. for 
three ' horariis ' of gold and silver sent with 
the mission to the regent of Algiers, and 
three others to be sent to Tripoli. 

In this year (1695) Tompion, in conjunc- 
tion with William Houghton and Edward 
Barlow, patented the cylinder escapement, 
the invention of Barlow (patent dated 7 Will. 
Ill, pars. 18 I. No. 1). 'This invention, 
although not brought into use immediately, 
had the most remarkable effect on the con- 
struction of watches, for by dispensing with 
the vertical crown wheel, it admitted of 
their being made of a flat and compact form 
and size instead of the cumbrous and pon- 
derous bulk of the earlier period ' (OcTAVius 

In 1703 the ' Master of the Clockmakers' 
Company and Mr. [Daniel] Quare [q. v.] 
produced letters from Patrick Cadell of 
Amsterdam stating that Cabriere Lambe and 
others at Amsterdam had set the names of 
Tompion, Windmills, and Quare on their 
work, and called it English ' (Journal of the 
Clockmakers' Company}. The following year 
(1704) Tompion became master of the com- 

lii the ' Affairs of the W^orld ' (October 
1700) Tompion was stated to be making a 
clock for St. Paul's to go for a hundred years 
without rewinding, to cost 3,000/. or 4,000/., 
' and be far finer than the famous clock at 
Strasburg.' If such a project was entertained, 
it was never carried out. 

In his old age Tompion visited Bath, and 
a memorial of this visit, and possibly of his 
gratitude to the healing waters, exists in the 
fine long-case clock in the Pump-room in- 

scribed, 'The Watch and Sundial was given 
by Mr. Thos. Tompion, of London, Clock- 
maker, Anno Dom. 1709.' It is nine feet 
nigh, wound once a month, and is still in 
going order. 

It has been stated that Tompion was a 
fellow of the Royal Society, but his name 
does not appear in any of the annual lists of 
the society. 

Tompion died on 20 Nov. 1713, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the 
same grave, thirty-eight years later, George 
Graham, Tompion's favourite pupil and 
nephew by marriage, was laid. By his will, 
dated 21 Oct. and proved 27 Nov. 1713, 
Tompion, who was apparently a bachelor, 
left his houses, land, &c., at Ickwell in the 
parish of Northhill to his nephew Thomas, 
son of his brother James. There are lega- 
cies to a niece, wife of Edward Banger (who 
carried on business as a watchmaker with 
the younger Thomas Tompion), and a great- 
niece, but the bulk of the property was left 
to George Graham and his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Tompion's brother James. 

The inscribed stone over Tompion's grave, 
which was removed early in the present cen- 
tury, was replaced by order of Dean Stanley 
in 1866. 

Tompion's portrait was painted by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller ; it is now in the Horolo- 
gical Institute. He is represented in a plain 
coat and cravat, with a watch movement, in- 
scribed with his name, in his hand. J. Smith 
made a mezzotint from it in 1697, inscribed 
" Tho. Tompion Automatopceus.' 

[Royal Wardrobe Accounts (Record Office); 
Atkins and Overall's Account of the Clock- 
makers' Company ; Britten's Former Clock and 
Watch Makers ; Noble's Memorials of Temple 
3ar ; Octavius Morgan's Art of Watchmaking ; 
Coble's Continuation of Granger ; Chester's 
Westminster Abbey Register ; Stanley's Memo- 
^ials of Westminster Abbey ; Weld's History of 
he Royal Society.] E. L. R. 

TOMPSON, RICHARD (d. 1693 ?), print- 
eller, carried on business in London during 
he reign of Charles II, and was associated 

with Alexander Browne [q. v.] in the publi- 
ation of the latter's <Ars Pictoria.' Like 
Browne he issued a series of mezzotint por- 
raits of royal and other notable persons of 

nis time, none of which bear the engraver's 
ame. It has been conjectured that these 
/ere scraped by Tompson himself, but it is 
Lear that more than one hand was employed 
pon them ; some are entirely in the manner 
f Paul van Somer [q. v.], while others much 
esemble that of G. Valck and J.Vandervaart. 
'ompson is stated to have died in 1693. 
'here is a mezzotint portrait of him en- 




graved by F. Place from a picture by G. 
Zoest, and this has been copied by W. Bond 
as an illustration to Walpole's ' Anecdotes of 

[J. Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto 
Portraits ; Walpole's Anecdotes (Dallaway and 
Wornuro) : Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] 

F. M. O'D. 

TOMS, PETER (d. 1777), painter, herald, 
and royal academician, was son of William 
Henry Toms, an engraver of note early in 
the eighteenth century, from whom John 
Boydell [q. v.], alderman and engraver, took 
lessons. Toms was a pupil of Thomas Hud- 
son (1701-1779) [q. v.], and practised as a 
portrait-painter. He met, however, with 
little success except as a painter of drapery, 
in which he succeeded so well that about 
1753 he was engaged by Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds to paint draperies in his pictures. Sub- 
sequently he did similar work for Benjamin 
West and Francis Cotes. He had in 1746 
been appointed Portcullis Pursuivant in the 
Heralds' College, a post which he held until 
his death. In 1763 he accompanied the 
Duke of Northumberland to Ireland as 
painter to the viceroy, but did not succeed 
in that country. In 1768 he was elected 
one of the foundation members of the Royal 
Academy, an honour due probably to his 
relations with Reynolds and West. After 
the death of Cotes, his principal employer, 
Toms became depressed in spirits, intempe- 
rate, and finally committed suicide on 1 Jan. 
1777. He had but seldom contributed to 
the Royal Academy exhibitions. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Edwards's Anec 
dotes of Painters ; Leslie and Taylor's Life and 
Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds; Art Journal 
1890, p. 114; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760- 
1880.] L. C. 

TOMSON, LAURENCE (1539-1608) 
politician, author, and translator, born in 
Northamptonshire in 1539, was admitted a 
demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1553 
' and soon after became a great proficient in 
logic and philosophy.' He graduated B. A. in 
1559, was elected a fellow of his college 
and commenced M.A. in 1564. He accom- 
panied Sir Thomas Hoby [q. v.] on his em- 
bassy to France in 1566; and in 1569 he 
resigned his fellowship. Between 1575 anc 
1587 he represented Wey mouth and Mel- 
combe Regis in the House of Commons, anc 
he was member for Downton in 1588-9. In 
1582 he was in attendance at court at 
Windsor (Cat. Hatfield MSS. ii. 529). Ac- 
cording to his epitaph he travelled in Sweden 
Russia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, anc 
France; was conversant with twelve lan- 

guages; and at one period gave public lectures 
on the Hebrew language at Geneva. He was 
much employed in political affairs by Sir 
Francis Walsingham, after whose death 
le retired into private life. He died on 
29 March 1608, and was buried in the chancel 
of the church at Chertsey, Surrey, where a 
jlack marble was erected to his memory with 
curious Latin inscription which is printed 

His works are : 1 . ' An Answere to cer- 
vine Assertions and Objections of M. Feck- 
nam,' London [1570], 8vo. 2. 'Statement 
of Advantages to be obtained by the esta- 
blishment of a Mart Town in England,' 
1572, manuscript in the Public Record Office. 
3. ' The New Testament . . . translated out 
of Greeke by T. Beza. Whereunto are 
adjoyned brief summaries of doctrine ... by 
the said T. Beza : and also short expositions 
. . . taken out of the large annotations of 
the foresaid authour and J. Camerarius. By 
P. Loseler, Villerius. Englished by L. Tom- 
son/ London, 1576, 8vo, dedicated to Sir 
Francis Walsingham ; again 1580, 1587,1596. 
Several other editions of Tomson's revi- 
sion of the Genevan version of the New 
Testament Avere published in the whole 
Bible. 4. ' A Treatise of the Excellence of 
a Christian Man, and how he may be knowen. 
Written in French. . . . Whereunto is ad- 
ioyned a briefe description of the life and 
death of the said authour (set forth by P. 
de Farnace). . . . Translated into English,' 
London, 1576, 1577, 1585, 8vo, dedicated to 
Mrs. Ursula Walsingham. 5. ' Sermons of 
J. Calvin on the Epistles of S. Paule to 
Timothie and Titus . . . Translated,' Lon- 
don,' 1579, 4to. 6. ' Propositions taught 
and mayntained by Mr. R[ichard] Hooker. 
The same briefly confuted by L. T. in a 
private letter' (Harleian MS. 291, f. 183). 
7. 'Treatise on the matters in controversy 
between the Merchants of the Hanze Towns 
and the Merchants Adventurers,' 1590, a 
Latin manuscript in the Public Record 
Office. 8. ' Mary, the Mother of Christ : her 
tears,' London, '1596, 8vo. 9. Brief Re- 
marks on the State of the Low Countries ' 
(Cottonian MS., Galba D vii. f. 163). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii.44; Bloxam's 
Magdalen College Register, iv. 138 ; Cal. State 
Papers (Dom. Eliz.); Ames's Typogr. Antiq. 
(Herbert), pp. 991, 1057, 1077, 1200 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] T. C. 

TOMSON, RICHARD (jft. 1588), mariner, 
may presumably be identified with the Ri- 
chard Tomson of Yarmouth (July 1570 ; State 
Papers, Dom. Eliz., Ixxiii. 151), nephew of 
John Tomson of Sherringham. The mother 



of this Richard Tomson was an Antwerp 
woman, and one of her Flemish nephews, 
James Fesser, was a shipowner at Beeston. 
These Fessers, again, were cousins of John 
Fisher of Cley. Richard Tomson was for 
some years engaged in the Mediterranean 
trade, and in 1582 was involved in litigation 
with the Turkey company. He was also 
part owner of the Jesus of London, which 
was captured and taken to Algiers (ib. 
clxxviii. 83-4), to which in 1583 Tomson 
made a voyage to ransom the prisoners. In 
January 1588 he was in Flanders, and was 
there solicited by some Spaniards to under- 
take the delivery of a great quantity of iron 
ordnance, for which he would be hand- 
somely paid. He refused their offer, and, 
knowing that the ordnance was for furnish- 
ing the Armada, informed Walsingham of 
it, so that he might prevent the export. He 
appears to have corresponded confidentially 
with Walsingham, and may have been a 
kinsman of Laurence Tomson [q.v.],Walsing- 
ham's secretary. In the summer of 1588 
he was lieutenant of the Margaret and John, 
a merchant ship commanded by Captain 
John Fisher against the Armada, and men- 
tioned as closely engaged with the galleon 
of D. Pedro de Valdes during the night 
after the first battle, in the battle of 23 July, 
in the capture of the galleass at Calais, and 
in the battle of Gravelines, of which he 
wrote an interesting account to Walsing- 
ham (Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Navy 
Records Society, freq.) Afterwards he was 
employed to negotiate with Don Pedro and 
other prisoners as to the terms of their ran- 
som. On 3 April 1593 he wrote to Lord 
Burghley as to a permission lately given for 
the export of ordnance. This, he suspected, 
was for the Spaniards, and might cause 
trouble (State Papers, Dom. Eliz., ccxliv. 
116). Towards the end of the century he 
was living in London, corresponding occa- 
sionally with Robert Cecil. It is possible 
that he was the Captain Tomson with the 
notorious pirate Peter Eston in 1611-12 (ib. 
James I, Ix. 16 ; Docquet, 6 Feb. 1612) ; but 
the name is too common to render any iden- 
tification certain. 

[Authorities in text. The writer is under 
particular obligations to Mr. F. 0. Fisher for 
valuable notes and references.] J. K. L. 

1798), United Irishman, eldest son of Peter 
Tone (d. 1805) and Margaret (d. 1818), 
daughter of Captain Lamport of the West 
India merchant service, was born in Stafford 
Street, Dublin, on 20 June 1763. His grand- 
father, a small farmer near Naas, was formerly 

in the service of the family of Wolfe of 
Castle Warden, co. Kildare (afterwards en- 
nobled by the title of Kilwarden in the 
person of Arthur Wolfe, viscount Kilwarden 
[q. v.]) Hence Theobald derived his addi- 
tional Christian name of Wolfe. Upon the 
grandfather's death in 1766, his property, 
consisting of freehold leases, descended to 
his eldest son, Peter, at that time engaged 
in successful business as a coachmaker in 
Dublin; he subsequently was involved in 
litigation, and became insolvent, but towards 
the end of his life held'a situation under the 
Dublin corporation. 

The intelligence manifested by Tone as a 
boy led to his removal in 1775 from a ' com- 
mercial ' to a ' Latin ' school, but soon after 
this his father met with a serious accident 
and had to abandon business and retire to 
his farm at Bodenstown. Left to his own 
devices, Tone shirked his lessons, and an- 
nounced his desire to become a soldier. Very 
much against his will he entered Trinity- 
College, Dublin, as a pensioner in February 
1781. At college he was incorrigibly idle, 
and, becoming mixed up as second to one 
of his companions in a duel, in which. the 
opposing party was killed, came near to being 
expelled the university. 

Meanwhile he fell in love with Matilda 
Witherington, who at the time was living 
with her grandfather, a rich old clergyman of 
the name of Fanning, in Grafton Street. 
He persuaded her to elope, married her, and 
went for the honeymoon to Maynooth. The 
girl was barely sixteen, he barely twenty- 
two. But, though much sorrow and priva- 
tion awaited them, the union proved a happy 
one. The marriage being irreparable, Tone 
was forgiven, took lodgings near his wife's 
grandfather, and in February 1786 graduated 
13.A. But a fresh disagreement with his 
wife's family followed, and, having no re- 
sources of his own, he went for a time to live 
with his father. Here a daughter was born 
to him. With a view to providing for his 
family, he repaired alone to London in 
January 1787, entered himself a student-at- 
law in the Middle Temple, and took cham- 
bers on the first floor of No. 4 Hare Court. 
But this, he confesses, was about all the 
progress he made in his profession ; for after 
the first month he never opened a law book, 
nor was he more than three times in his life 
in Westminster Hall. In 1 788 he was joined 
by his younger brother, William Henry, who, 
having run away from home at sixteen and 
entered the East India service, found himself 
without employment, after he had spent six 
years in garrison duty at St. Helena. \\ ith 
him Tone generously shared his lodgings 


and ill-filled purse. They spent some of their 
evenings in devising a scheme for the esta- 
blishment of a military colony on one of the 
South Sea islands, the object of which was 
1 to put a bridle on Spain in time of peace 
and to annoy her grievously in that quarter 
in time of war.' The scheme, drawn up in 
the form of a regular memorial, was delivered 
by Tone at Pitt's official residence, but failed 
to elicit any notice. Tone's indignation was 
not mollified by a mild rebuke from his 
father on the misuse of his time, and in a 
transport of rage he offered to enlist in the 
East India service. His offer was declined 
by the company. His brother, William Henry 
Tone, however, re-entered the company's ser- 
vice in 1792. Subsequently, in 1796, William 
went to Poona and entered the Mahratta 
service. He wrote a pamphlet upon * Some 
Institutions of the Mahratta People/ which 
has been praised by Grant Duff and other 
historians. He was killed in 1802 in an 
action near Choli Maheswur, while serving 
with Holkar (see COMPTON, Military Adven- 
turers of Hindustan, 1892, p. 417X 

Meanwhile a reconciliation was effected 
between Wolfe Tone and his wife's family 
on condition of his immediate return to Ire- 
land. He reached Dublin on Christmas 
day 1788, and, taking lodgings in Clarendon 
Street, purchased about 100/. worth of law 
books. In February 1789 he took his degree 
of LL.B., and, being called to the Irish bar 
in Trinity term following, joined the Leinster 
circuit. Despite his ignorance of law, he 
managed nearly to clear his expenses ; but 
the distaste he had for his profession was 
insurmountable, and, following the example 
of some of his friends, he turned his atten- 
tion to politics. Taking advantage of the 
general election, he early in 1790 published 
1 A Review of the Conduct of Administra- 
tion, addressed to the Electors and Free People 
of Ireland.' The pamphlet, a defence of the 
opposition in arraigning the administration 
of the Marquis of Buckingham, attracted the 
attention of the leaders of the Whig Club. 
Tone, though holding even at this time views 
much in advance of theirs, listened to their 
overtures and was immediately retained in 
the petition for the borough of Dungarvan, 
on the part of James Carigee Ponsonby, with 
a fee of a hundred guineas. But, perceiving 
that his expectations of obtaining a seat in 
parliament through the whigs were not likely 
to be realised, he soon severed his connection 
with them. 

Coming to the conclusion l that the in- 
fluence of England was the radical vice of 
the Irish government, he seized the opportu- 
nity of a prospect of war between England 



and Spain in the matter of Nootka Sound to 
enunciate his views in a pamphlet signed 
' Hibernicus,' arguing that Ireland was not 
bound by any declaration of war on the 
part of England, but might and ought as 
an independent nation to stipulate for a 
neutrality. The pamphlet attracted no 

About this time, while listening to the de- 
bates in the Irish House of Commons, Tone 
made the acquaintance of Thomas Russell 
(1767-1803) [q. v.], who perhaps more than 
himself deserves to be regarded as the founder 
of the United Irish Society. The acquain- 
tance speedily ripened into friendship, and 
the influence of Russell, who held a com- 
mission in the army, led to a revival of Tone's- 
plan for establishing a military colony in 
the South Seas. The memorial, when re- 
vised, was forwarded to the Duke of Rich- 
mond, master of the ordnance, who returned 
a polite acknowledgment and suggested that 
it should be sent to the foreign secretary,, 
Lord Grenville. A civil intimation from the 
latter to the effect that the scheme would 
not be forgotten convinced Tone that ha 
had nothing to hope for in that direction, 
and satisfied him that it only remained for 
him to make Pitt regret the day he ignored 
his merits. During the winter of 1790-91 
Tone started at Dublin a political club con- 
sisting of himself, Whitley Stokes [q. v.] r 
William Drennan [q. v.], Peter Burrowes- 
[q.v.l, Joseph Pollock, Thomas Addis Emmet 
[q.vj, and several others. But the club, after 
three or four months' sickly existence, col- 
lapsed, leaving behind it a puny offspring of 
about a dozen essays on different subjects 
a convincing proof, in Tone's opinion, ' that 
men of genius to be of use must not be col- 
lected together in numbers.' 

Meanwhile the principles of the French, 
revolution were making great progress, espe- 
cially among the Scottish presbyterians in 
the north of Ireland. On 14 July 1791 the 
anniversary of the capture of the Bastile was- 
celebrated with great enthusiasm at Belfast, 
and Tone, who was becoming an ardent re- 
publican, watched the progress of events with 
intense interest. He had recently convinced 
himself that, if Ireland was ever to become 
free and independent, the first step must be 
the laying aside of religious dissensions be- 
tween the protestants and Roman catholics. 
1 To subvert the tyranny of our execrable go- 
vernment, to break the connection with Eng- 
land, the never-failing source of all our poli- 
tical evils, and to assert the independence of 
my country these were my objects. To 
unite the whole people of Ireland, to abolish 
the memory of all past dissensions, and to 


2 5 


substitute the common name of Irishman in 
place of the denominations of protestants, 
catholics, and dissenters these were my 
means.' He had little hope that the protes- 
tants of the established church could be in- 
duced to surrender their privileges in the 
interest of the nation at large ; but that the 
protestant dissenters could be persuaded to 
unite with the Roman catholics seemed to 
him not only feasible, but, in the light of the 
Belfast resolutions, not very difficult to effect. 
To promote this object he in September pub- 
lished a well-written pamphlet, under the 
signature of a ' Northern Whig,' entitled * An 
Argument on behalf of the Catholics of Ire- 
land.' It was addressed to the dissenters, 
and its main object was to prove that no 
serious danger would attend the enfranchise- 
ment of the catholics. It is said that ten 
thousand copies were sold. Besides bringing 
him into personal contact with the leaders of 
the catholic party, it obtained for him the 
honour an honour he shared with Henry 
Flood [q. v.] alone of being elected an hono- 
rary member of the first or green company of 
Belfast volunteers. 

Tone, at the suggestion of Russell, paid a 
visit to Belfast early in October to assist 
at the formation of ( a union of Irishmen 
of every religious persuasion in order to 
obtain a complete reform of the legislature, 
founded on the principles of civil, political, 
andreligious liberty.' This was accomplished 
during a stay of three weeks, ' perhaps the 
pleasantest in my life,' in Belfast. He re- 
turned to Dublin ' with instructions to culti- 
vate the leaders in the popular interest, being 
protestants, and, if possible, to form in the 
capital a club of United Irishmen.' He met 
with an ardent ally in James Napper Tandy 
[q. v. J, who, like himself, had strong leanings 
towards republicanism, out was content for 
the present to limit his object to a reform 
of parliament. With Tandy's assistance a 
club was started in Dublin; but Tone was 
surprised, and not a little mortified, to find 
that he speedily lost all influence in its pro- 
ceedings. After a little time he drifted out 
of contact with it. Nevertheless, the rapid 
growth of the society gratified him, and 
his firmness, in conjunction with Archibald 
Hamilton Rowan [q.v.], in supporting Tandy 
in his quarrel with the House of Commons, 
during which time he acted as pro-secretary 
of the society, strengthened its position. 

But an intimacy with John Keogh [q. v.], [ 
the actual leader at the time of the catholic 
party and himself a prominent United Irish- 
man, had given a new turn to his thoughts, I 
and, in consequence of the mismanagement 
of the catholic affairs by Richard Burke, 

he was early in 1792 offered the post of assis- 
tant secretary to the general committee at an 
annual salary of 200/. The offer was accepted, 
and his discreet behaviour won him the 
general respect of the whole body. After 
the concession of Langrishe's relief bill (Fe- 
bruary 1792), and the rejection of their peti- 
tion praying for ' some share of the elec- 
tive franchise/ the catholics set about re- 
organising their committee with a view to 
making it more thoroughly representative. 
A circular letter was prepared inviting the 
catholics in every county to choose delegates 
to the general committee sitting in Dublin, 
who were, however, only to be summoned on 
extraordinary occasions, leaving the common 
routine of business to the original members. 
The publication of this plan alarmed the 
government, and at the ensuing assizes the 
grand juries were prompted to pass strong 
resolutions condemning it as illegal. Tone, 
at the request of the committee, drew up a 
statement of the case for the catholics, and 
submitted it to two eminent lawyers, who 
pronounced in its favour. Defeated on this 
point, the government, as Grattan said, ' took 
the lead in fomenting a religious war . . . 
in the mongrel capacity of country gentlemen 
and ministers.' The catholics themselves 
were not united on the propriety of the step 
they were taking. In itself, indeed, the seces- 
sion of the aristocracy, headed by Lord Ken- 
mare, had strengthened rather than weakened 
the body. But the seceders had found sym- 
pathisers among the higher clergy, and of 
the episcopate there were several exercising 
considerable influence in the west of Ireland 
who regarded the present plan with disap- 
proval. Tone paid several visits to the west 
of Ireland and to Ulster with a view to 
restoring harmony to the divergent parties 
that were concerned in the agitation. Dur- 
ing the autumn of 1792 he was busily pre- 
paring for the great catholic convention which 
assembled in Tailors' Hall in Back Lane on 
3 Dec. Of the proceedings of this convention 
he left a very valuable account, and as secre- 
tary he accompanied the delegation appointed 
to present the catholic.petition to the king in 
London. Hitherto he had managed to work 
in harmony with Keogh. But in 1793 Keogh 
(who had ' a sneaking kindness for catholic 
bishops ') allowed himself to be outmanoeuvred 
by secretary Hobart [see HOBAKT, ROBERT, 
instead of insisting on < complete restitution,' 
acquiesced in a bill giving the catholics merely 
the elective franchise, and consented to a 
suspension of the agitation. Before termi- 
natino- its existence, the catholic convention 
voted Tone 1,500J. and a gold medal in recog- 



nition of his services. But he was bitterly 
disappointed, and more than ever inclined 
to look for the accomplishment of his plans 
to the co-operation of France. 

Hitherto, notwithstanding his position as 
founder of the United Irish Society, he had 
avoided compromising himself in any openly 
unconstitutional proceedings. It was an 
accident that drew him within the meshes 
spread for him by government. Early in 
1794 William Jackson (1737 P-1795) [q. v.l 
visited Dublin with the object of procuring 
information for the French government re- 
lative to the position of affairs in Ireland. 
Hearing of Jackson's arrival from Leonard 
MacNally [q. v.J, with whom (unsuspecting 
his real character) he was on intimate terms, 
Tone obtained an interview with Jackson 
and consented to draw up the memorial he 
wanted, tending to show that circumstances 
in Ireland were favourable to a French inva- 
sion. This document he handed over to 
Jackson, but, fearing that he had committed 
an indiscretion in confiding it to one who, 
for all he knew, might be a spy, he transferred 
it to MacNally, by whom it was betrayed to 
government. The arrest of Jackson (24 April 
1794), followed by the flight of Hamilton 
Rowan, alarmed him so effectually that he 
revealed his position to a gentleman, probably 
Marcus Beresford, 'high in confidence with 
the then administration.' He admitted that 
it was in the power of government to ruin 
him, and offered, if he were allowed and could 
possibly effect it, to go to America. The only 
stipulation he made was that he should not 
be required to give evidence against either 
Rowan or Jackson. The government acceded 
to his terms. But the prospect which just 
then presented itself of a radical change in 
the system of administration, in consequence 
of the appointment of Earl Fitzwilliam, in- 
duced him to delay his departure, and it was 
only after the collapse of Fitz william's govern- 
ment in March 1795 that he began seriously 
to prepare to leave the country. That he 
might not be charged with slinking away, 
he exhibited himself publicly in Dublin on 
the day of Jackson's trial, and, having deli- 
berately completed his arrangements, he 
sailed, with his wife, children, and sister, on 
board the Cincinnatus from Belfast on 
13 June, just a month after the United Irish 
Society had been reorganised on a professedly 
rebellious basis. Prior to his departure he 
had an interview with Emmet and Russell 
at Rathfarnham, in which he unfolded his 
projects for the future. His compact with 
government he regarded as extending no 
further than to the banks of the Delaware. 
Arrived in America, he was, in his opinion, 

perfectly free ' to begin again on a fresh 
score.' His intention was immediately on 
reaching Philadelphia to set oft' for Paris, 
' and apply in the name of my country for 
the assistance of France to enable us to assert 
our independence.' His plan was warmly 
approved by Emmet and Russell, and the 
assent of Simms, Neilson, and Teeling having 
been obtained, he regarded himself as com- 
petent to speak for the catholics, the dissen- 
ters, and the defenders. 

After a wearisome voyage, during which 
he narrowly escaped being pressed on board 
an English man-of-war, he and his family 
landed safely at Wilmington on the Dela- 
ware on 1 Aug. Proceeding at once to 
Philadelphia, he waited on the French mini- 
ster, Adet, and at his request drew up a 
memorial on the state of Ireland for trans- 
mission to France. Having little expectation 
that the French government would pay any 
attention to it, but satisfied with having 
discharged his duty, he began to think of 
settling down as a farmer, and was actually 
in negotiation for the purchase of a small 
property near Princeton in New Jersey when 
letters reached him from Keogh, Russell, and 
Simms, the last with a draft for 200/., advis- 
ing him of the progress Ireland was making 
towards republicanism, and imploring him 
' to move heaven and earth to force his 
way to the French government in order to 
supplicate their assistance.' Repairing to 
Philadelphia, and meeting with every en- 
couragement from Adet, who had received 
instructions to send him over, Tone sailed 
from New York on 1 Jan. 1796 on board 
the Jersey, and, after a rough winter passage, 
landed at Havre a month later. With no 
other credentials than a letter in cipher from 
Adet to the Committee of Public Safety, with 
only a small sum of money necessary for his 
own personal expenses, without a single ac- 
quaintance in France, and with hardly any 
knowledge of the language, Tone, alias citizen 
James Smith, arrived at Paris on 12 Feb. 
and took up his residence at the Hotel des 
Etrangers in the Rue Vivienne. Within a 
fortnight after his arrival he had discussed 
the question of an invasion of Ireland with 
the minister of foreign affairs, De la Croix, 
and been admitted to an interview with 
Carnot. He was soon at work preparing 
fresh memorials on the subject. His state- 
ments as to the strength of the revolu- 
tionary party in Ireland were doubtless 
exaggerated, but in the main he tried to 
delude neither himself nor the French go- 

Every encouragement was given him to 
believe that an expedition on a considerable 



scale would be undertaken; but weeks 
lengthened out into months, and, seeing no- 
thing done, he found it at times hard to 
believe in the sincerity of the government. 
Although his loneliness and his scanty re- 
sources depressed him, he liked Paris and 
the French people, and looked forward, if 
nothing came of the expedition, to settling 
down therewith his wife. Money, for which 
he reluctantly applied, was not forthcoming, 
but a commission in the army, which he 
trusted would save him in the event of being 
captured from a traitor's death, was readily 
granted, and on 19 June he was breveted 
chef de brigade. With the appointment 
about the same time of Hoche to the com- 
mand of the projected expedition matters 
assumed a brighter aspect. For Hoche, 
whom he inspired with a genuine interest in 
Ireland, Tone conceived an intense admira- 
tion, and on his side Hoche felt a kindly 
regard for Tone, whom he created adjutant- 
general. But even Hoche's enthusiasm was 
unable to bring order into the French marine 
department, and it was not until 15 Dec. that 
the expedition, consisting of seventeen ships 
of the line, -thirteen frigates, and a number 
of corvettes and transports, making in all 
forty-three sail, and carrying about fifteen 
thousand soldiers, together with a large supply 
of arms and ammunition for distribution, 
weighed anchor from Brest harbour. Dis- 
aster, for which bad seamanship and bad 
weather were responsible, attended the fleet 
from the beginning. Four times it parted 
company, and when the Indomptable, with 
Tone on board, arrived off the coast of Kerry, 
the Fraternit6, carrying Hoche, was nowhere 
to be seen. Grouchy, upon whom the com- 
mand devolved, had still between six and 
seven thousand men, and in spite of the 
absence of money and supplies (for the 
troops had nothing but the arms in their 
hands), he would have risked an invasion. 
But before a landing could be effected a 
storm sprang up, and, after a vain attempt 
to weather it out at anchor, the ships were 
compelled to seek the open sea. 

On New Year's day 1797 Tone, after a 
perilous voyage, found himself back again at 
Brest, whence he bore Grouchy's despatches 
to the directory and the minister of war. 
Reaching Paris on the 12th, he heard of his 
wife's arrival at Hamburg, but being ordered 
to join the army of the Sambre and Meuse 
under Hoche, it was not till 7 May that he 
obtained a short leave of absence, and joined 
his family at Groningen. 

Meanwhile another expedition against Ire- 
land was planning, in which the Dutch fleet 
was to play an important part. Tone was 

allowed by Hoche to accompany the expedi- 
tion. He received a friendly reception from 
General Daendels, and on 8 July embarked on 
board the admiral's ship, the Vryheid, of 74 
guns. But the wind, which up to the point 
of embarkation had stood favourable to them, 
veered round and kept them pent up in the 
Texel till the expedition, owing to shortness 
of provisions and the overwhelming strength 
of the British fleet under Admiral Duncan, 
had to be abandoned. Other plans were 
formed, and at the beginning of September 
Tone was despatched to Wetzlar to consult 
H oche . Here a fresh disappointment awaited 
him. Five days after his arrival Hoche 

Hoche's death broke Tone's connection 
with the army of the Sambre and Meuse, 
and he proceeded to Paris. He had lost 
much of his old enthusiasm, while the in- 
trigues of Tandy and Thomas Muir [q. v.l 
against him and Edward John Lewins |_q. v. ] 
gave him a disgust for the agitation which it 
required a strong sense of duty to overcome. 
On 25 March 1798 he received letters of 
service as adjutant-general in the Armee 
d'Angleterre, and, having settled his family 
in Paris, he set out for headquarters at Rouen 
on 4 April. But as the spring wore on his 
scepticism as to Bonaparte's interest in Ire- 
land increased. His doubts were justified, for 
when the news of the rebellion in Ireland 
reached France, Bonaparte was on his way 
to Egypt. He himself, when he heard of the 
rising in Wexford, hastened to Paris to urge 
the directory to equip an expedition before 
it was too late. His efforts were warmly 
supported by Lewins, but, owing to the dis- 
organised state of the French navy, an expedi- 
tion on a large scale was out of the question, 
and all that could be done was to arrange that 
a number of small expeditions should be di- 
rected simultaneously to different points on 
the Irish coast. Inadequate as this might 
seem to accomplish the object in hand, Tone 
had no doubt as to his own course of con- 
duct. He had all along protested that if only 
a corporal's guard was sent he would accom- 
pany it. The first French officer to sail, on 
6 Aug., was General Humbert, with a thou- 
sand men and several Irishmen, including 
Tone's brother Matthew. On 16 Sept. Napper 
Tandy, with the bulk of the Irish refugees, 
effected a landing on Rutland Island. Tone 
joined General Hardy's division, consisting 
of the Hoche and eight small frigates and a 
fast sailing schooner, La Biche. Three thou- 
sand men were on board, and they set sail 
from Brest on 20 Sept. Making a^ large 
sweep to the west with the intention of 
bearing down on Ireland from the north, 



but encountering contrary winds, Admiral 
Bompard arrived off the entrance to Lough 
Swilly on 10 Oct. Before he could land the 
troops a powerful English squadron, under 
Sir John Borlase, hove in sight. The brunt 
of the action was borne T)y the Hoche, 
and Tone, who had refused to escape in 
La Biche, commanded one of the batteries. 
After a determined resistance of four hours 
the Hoche struck, and two days later Tone 
and the rest of the prisoners were landed 
and marched to Letterkenny. On landing 
he was recognised by Sir George Hill, and, 
being placed in irons, was sent to Dublin, 
where he was confined in the provost's 
prison. On 10 Nov. he was brought before 
a court-martial, presided over by General 
Loftus. He made no attempt to deny the 
charge of treason preferred against him, but 
he pleaded his rights as a French officer. He 
had prepared a statement setting forth his 
object in trying to subvert the government of 
Ireland ; but the court, deeming it calculated 
to inflame the public mind, allowed him to 
read only portions of it. He requested that 
he might be awarded a soldier's death and 
spared the ignominy of the gallows. To this 
end he put in his brevet of chef de brigade 
in the French army. His bearing during the 
trial was modest and manly. He was con- 
demned to be executed within forty-eight 
hours, and, being taken back to prison, he 
wrote to the directory, commending his wife 
and family to the care of the republic ; to 
his wife, bidding her a tender farewell ; and 
to his father, declining a visit from him. 
His request to be shot was refused by Lord 
Cornwallis. Strenuous efforts were made by 
Curran to remove his cause to the civil courts. 
On the morning of the day appointed for the 
execution application was made in his behalf 
for an immediate writ of habeas corpus, and 
his application was granted by Lord Kilwar- 
den. But the military officials, pleading the 
orders of Lord Cornwallis, refused to obey 
the writ, and the chief justice at once 
ordered them into custody. It was then 
that it was discovered that Tone had taken 
his fate in his own hands, having on the 
previous evening cut his throat with a pen- 
knife he had secreted about him. All that 
it remained for the chief justice to do was 
to issue an order for the suspension of .the 
execution. The wound, though dangerous, 
had not proved immediately fatal. It had 
been dressed, but only, it is asserted, to pro- 
long life till the hour appointed for the exe- 
cution. After lingering for more than a 
week in great agony, Tone expired on 19 Nov. 
His remains, together with his sword and 
uniform, were given up to his relatives, and 

two days afterwards he was quietly buried 
in Bodenstown churchyard. A monument, 
erected by Thomas Osborne Davis [q. v.] in 
1843, was chipped away by his admirers, and 
had to be replaced by a more substantial 
one, surrounded by ironwork. 

His brother Matthew was taken prisoner 
at Ballinamuck and hanged at Arbour Hill, 
Dublin, 29 Sept. 1798. 

Tone's widow survived him many years. On 
the motion of Lucien Bonaparte, the conseil 
des cinq-cents made her a small grant, and 
she continued to live at Chaillot, near Paris, 
till the downfall of the first empire. In 
September 1816 she married a Mr, Wilson, 
an old and highly esteemed friend of Tone, 
and, after a visit to Scotland, emigrated to 
America. She survived her second husband 
twenty-two years, dying at Georgetown on 
18 March 1849, aged 81. 

Wolfe Tone's ' Journals ' (which begin 
properly in October 1791, but are of most 
interest during the period of his residence in 
France) supply us with a vivid picture of 
the man. At the same time it must not be 
forgotten that these journals were written 
expressly for the amusement of his wife and 
his friend Thomas Russell, neither of whom 
was likely to be misled into treating them 
too seriously. For Tone was a humourist as 
well as a rebel. Otherwise one might easily 
be induced, like the Duke of Argyll (see a very 
able but extremely hostile criticism in the 
Nineteenth Century, May and June 1890), 
into regarding him as an unprincipled adven- 
turer of a very common type, whose only 
redeeming quality was that he was devoid of 
cant. That he had a weakness for good liquor 
and bad language is patent ; but at bottom he 
was a sober, modest, brave man, whose proper 
sphere of action was the army, and whom cir- 
cumstances rather than predilection turned 
into a rebel. He has no claim to rank as a 
statesman. His object was the complete 
separation of Ireland from England with 
the assistance of France, and the establish- 
ment of Ireland as an independent kingdom 
or republic. ' I, for one,' he wrote in the 
thick of the preparations for the invasion, 
1 will never be accessory to subjugating my 
country to the control of France merely to 
get rid of that of England.' After the sup- 
pression of the rebellion and the rise of 
O'Connell and constitutional agitation, his 
schemes as well as himself fell into disre- 
pute ; but \vhen later on the ideas of the 
Young Ireland party gained the upper hand, 
he was elevated into the position of a national 
hero and his methods applauded as the only 
ones likely to succeed. 

There are two portraits of Tone. One, 



drawn on stone by C. Hullmandel from 
portrait by Catherine Sampson Tone, repre- 
sents him in French uniform (published in 
1827, reproduced in ' Autobiography,' 1893 
vol. ii.) The other, some years earlier in 
date, ' from an original portrait representing 
him in volunteer uniform,' forms the fronti- 
spiece to the ' Autobiography ' and to the 
second series of Madden's ' United Irishmen, 
which also has a portrait of Tone's son, Wil- 
liam Theobald Wolfe Tone, from a draw- 
ing by his wife. 

Of Tone's three children, only one attained 
TONE (1791-1828),bornin Dublin on 29 April 
1791. After his father's death he was de- 
clared an adopted child of the French re- 
public, and educated at the national expense 
in the Prytaneum and Lyceum. He was ap- 
pointed a cadet in the imperial school of 
cavalry on 3 Nov. 1810, and in January 
1813 promoted sub-lieutenant in the 8th 
regiment of chasseurs. He took an active 
part in the campaigns of that year at Gross 
Gorschen, Bautzen, and Leipzig, where he 
was severely wounded. Being made lieu- 
tenant on the staff, aide-de-camp to General 
Bagneres, and a member of the legion of 
honour, he retired from military service on 
the abdication of Napoleon, but returned to 
his standard after his escape from Elba, and 
was entrusted with the organisation of a de- 
fensive force on the Ehine and the Spanish 
frontiers. He quitted France after the battle 
of Waterloo, and in 1816 settled down in 
New York, where for some time he studied 
law. On 12 July 1820 he was appointed 
second lieutenant of light artillery, and was 
transferred to the 1st artillery on 1 June 1821, 
but resigned on 31 Dec. 1826. He married 
Catherine, daughter of his father's friend, 
William Sampson [q. v.], in 1825, but died of 
consumption on 10 Oct. 1828, and was buried 
on Long Island. Besides a juvenile work, 
entitled ' L'Etat civil et politique de ITtalie 
sous la domination des Goths ' (Paris, 1813), 
he was the author of ' School of Cavalry, or 
a System for Instruction . . ., proposed for 
the Cavalry of the United States ' (George- 
town, 1824). Shortly before his death he 
published his father's journals and political 
writings, to which he appended an account 
of Tone's last days under the title l Life of 
Theobald Wolfe Tone ' (2 vols. Washington, 

[Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone, Washington, 
1826 ; the only complete edition containing both 
the ' Journals ' and Tone's political writings. An 
edition rearranged with useful notes by Mr. 
Barry O'Brien, under the title ' The Auto- 
biography of Wolfe Tone ' (with two mezzotint 

portraits), was published in 1893; Madden's 
United Irishmen ; Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 1084- 
Cat. of Graduates Trinity Coll. Dublin; Howell's 
State Trials, xxvii. 613-26 ; Cornwallis Corresp 
11. 341, 362, 415, 434-5 ; Biographical Anecdotes 
S- SS Bounders of the late Irish Rebellion 
Webb s Compendium of Irish Biography ; Bio-' 
graphic Nouvelle des Coritemporains ; Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography.] R. D. 

TONG, WILLIAM (1662-1727), presby- 
tenan divine, was born on 24 June 1662 
probably at Eccles, near Manchester, where 
his father (a relative of Robert Mort of 
Warton Hall) was buried. His mother, 
early left a widow with three children, was 
aided by Mort. Tong began his education 
with a view to the law. Jeremy erroneously 
says he entered at Gray's Inn with Matthew 
Henry [q. v.] His mother's influence turned 
him to the ministry. He entered the academy 
of Richard Frankland [q. v.], then at Nat- 
land, on 2 March 1681, and was Frankland's 
most distinguished student. Early in 1685 
he was licensed to preach. For two years 
he acted as chaplain in Shropshire to Thomas 
Corbet of Stanwardine and Rowland Hunt 
of Boreatton, thus becoming acquainted with 
Philip Henry [q. v.] Till threatened with 
a prosecution, he preached occasionally at 
the chapel of Cockshut, parish of Ellesmere, 
Shropshire, using ' a small part ' of the common 
prayer. At the beginning of March 1687 he 
took a three months' engagement at Chester, 
pending the settlement of Matthew Henry. 
His services were conducted, noon and night, 
in the house of Anthony Henthorn, and were 
so successful that they were transferred to 
' a large outbuilding, part of the Friary.' 
The dean of Chester urged him to conform. 
From Chester he was called to be the first 
pastor of a newly formed dissenting congrega- 
tion at Knutsford, Cheshire. He was or- 
dained on 4 Nov. 1687 (EVANS'S List, manu- 
script in Dr. Williams's Library), and pro- 
cured the building of the existing meeting- 
house in Brook Street (opened 1688-9). On 
the death (22 Oct. 1689) of Obadiah Grew, 
D.D. [q. v.], and Jarvis Bryan (27 Dec. 1689) 
"see under BRYAN, JOHN, D.D.], he was called 
to be co-pastor with Thomas Shewell (d. 
19 Jan. 1693) at the Great Meeting-house, 
oventry. Here he ministered with great 
success for ' almost thirteen years' from 
1690. He had as colleagues, after Shewell, 
Joshua Oldfield, D.D. [q. v.], and John Warren 
(d. 15 Sept. 1742). He escaped the pro- 
secutions which fell upon Oldfield, though- 
le assisted him in academy teaching, and 
the bursaries from the presbyterian fund 
were paid through him. His forte was 
preaching; he thus laid the foundation of 


several dissenting congregations in the dis- 

On the death of Nathaniel Taylor (April 
1702), after overtures had been made to 
Josiah Chorley [q. v.] and Matthew Henry, 
Tong was elected pastor of the presbyterian 
congregation in Salters' Hall Court, Cannon 
Street, London, John Newman (1677 P-1741) 
[q.v.] being retained as his assistant. The 
congregation was large, and the most wealthy 
among London dissenters. The central posi- 
tion of its meeting-house made it convenient 
for lectures and for joint meetings of dis- 
senters. Tong was soon elected to succeed 
John Howe (1630-1705) [q. v.] as one of the 
four preachers of the ' merchants' lecture ' on 
Tuesday mornings at Salters' Hall. He took 
a prominent part in the controversy arising 
out of the alleged heresies of James Peirce 
[q. v.] of Exeter. His steps were cautious. 
An undated letter of March or April 1718 
by Thomas Seeker [q. v.] mentions that on a 
proposal in the presbyterian fund to increase 
the grant to Hubert Stogdon [q. v.], Tong 
'was silent for some time and then went 
out' (Monthly Repository, 1821, p. 634). On 
25 Aug. 1718 a conference of twenty-five 
presbyterian and independent ministers, with 
Benjamin Robinson [q. v.] as moderator, was 
held at Salters' Hall. They endorsed a letter 
(drafted by Tong) to John Walrond (d. 1755), 
minister of Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, 
affirming that they would not ordain any 
candidates unsound on the Trinity (Plain 
and Faithful Narrative of the Differences . . . 
at Exeter, 1719, pp. 10 seq.) In the con- 
ferences of the following year, issuing in a 
rupture, Tong was a leader of the subscribing 
party [see BKADBUKY, THOMAS]. His intro- 
duction to * The Doctrine of the . . . Trinity 
stated and defended ... by four subscribing 
Ministers,' 1719, 4to, is plain and suasive. 
As one of the original trustees of the founda- 
tions of Daniel Williams, D.D. [q. v.], Tong 
had, from 1721, a share in the intricate task 
of carrying these benefactions into effect. 
He was also one of the first distributors 
(1723) of the English regium donum, and a 
trustee (1726) of the Barnes bequest. He 
was a man of unselfish purpose, free from 
sectarian feeling, courted in society for his 
attainments and his character, and always 
openhanded to the needy. In his last years 
his powers declined. His end was rather 
sudden. He died on 21 March 1727. His 
portrait, by Wollaston, was engraved by 

His most important works are his contri- 
butions to nonconformist history, viz. : 1. ' A 
Brief Historical Account of Nonconformity,' 
appended to his ' Defence,' 1693, 4to, of Mat- 

> Tonge 

thew Henry on Schism (1689). 2. < An Ac- 
count of the Life ... of ... Matthew Henry/ 
1716, 8vo. 3. ' Memoirs of John Showe'r,' 
1716, 8vo. 4. ' Dedication,' containing a 
sketch of nonconformist history in Coventry, 
prefixed to John Warren's funeral sermon 
for Joshua Merrell, 1716, 8vo. His other 
publications are chiefly sermons, including 
funeral sermons for Samuel Slater [q. v.] and 
Elizabeth Bury [q. v.] He revised Matthew 
Henry's 'Memoirs' of Philip Henry, 1698, 
and prepared the expositions of Hebrews and 
Revelation for the posthumous volume of 
Matthew Henry's ' Commentary.' 

[Funeral Sermon by John Newman, 1727 ; 
Noble's Continuation of Granger, 1806, ii. 159 ; 
Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, 
ii. 20 seq. ; Williams's Life of Philip Henry, 
1825, p. 462 ; Williams's Life of Matthew Henry, 
1828, p. 173; Calamy's Own Life, 1830, ii. 41, 
465, 486 ; Sibree and Caston's Independency in 
Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 3 seq., 33 seq. ; Green's 
Knutsford, 1859, pp. 63 seq.; Urwick's Non- 
conformity in Cheshire, 1864, pp. 29 seq., 443 
seq. ; Pike's Ancient Meeting Houses, 1870, pp. 
382 seq. ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, 
pp. 13, 33, 105 seq.] A. G. 

EZEREL [EZREEL] (1621-1680), divine 
and ally of Titus Gates in the fabrication of 
the ' popish plot,' son of Henry Tongue, 
minister of Holtby, Yorkshire, was born at 
Tickhill, near Doncaster, on 11 Nov. 1621. 
After attending school at Doncaster, he ma- 
triculated from University College, Oxford, 
on 3 May 1639, and graduated B.A. early in 
1643. Being t puritanically inclined ' he 
preferred to leave Oxford rather than bear 
arms for the king. He retired, therefore, to 
the small parish of Churchill, near Chipping 
Norton, where he taught a school. He re- 
turned to Oxford early in 1648, took his 
M. A. degree, settled once more in University 
College, and, submitting to the authority of 
the parliamentary visitors, was constituted a 
fellow in place of Henry Watkins. Next 
year, having married Jane Simpson, he suc- 
ceeded his father-in-law, Dr. Edward Simp- 
son or Simson [q. v.], as rector of Pluckley 
in Kent. He graduated D.D. in July 1656, 
and in the following spring, being much vexed 
with factious parishioners and quakers, he de- 
cided to leave Pluckley upon his appointment 
to a fellowship in the newly erected college 
at Durham. There, having been selected 
to teach grammar, he ' followed precisely the 
Jesuits' method,' When Durham College 
was dissolved at the close of 1659, he moved 
to Islington, near London, where for a short 
while he taught a grammar class with con- 
spicuous success in a large gallery of Sir 


Thomas Fisher's house. He had also there, 
says Wood, a little academy for girls to be 
taught Latin and Greek, one of whom at 
fourteen could construe a Greek gospel. The 
experiment was short-lived, for Tonge, having 
t a restless and freakish head,' accompanied 
Colonel Sir Edward Harley [q. v.] to Dun- 
kirk as chaplain to the English garrison in 
1660. His stay there was cut short by 
the sale of Dunkirk to the French in 1661, 
whereupon Tonge obtained from Harley the 
small vicarage of Leintwardine in Hereford- 
shire. On 26 June 1666, upon the presenta- 
tion of Bishop Henchman, he was admitted 
to the rectory of St. Mary Stayning, and had 
to nee three months later before the great 
fire, which burned both his church and 
parish to the ground. In his homeless con- 
dition he gladly accepted a chaplaincy at 
Tangier. He stayed there about two years, 
when he became rector of St. Michael's, 
Wood Street (demolished 1898), to which 
the parish of St. Mary Stayning was hence- 
forth united. Subsequently, from 1672 to 
1677, he held with this the rectory of Aston, 
in Herefordshire. 

Having studied the lucubrations of An- 
thony Munday, Habernfeld, Prynne, and 
other plot-mongers and writers against the 
Jesuits, from the time of his return from 
Tangier, Tonge seems to have definitely 
formed the design of ekeing out his meagre 
income by compilations of a like tendency. 
He commenced upon some translations of 
polemics against the Society of Jesus by 
Port Royalists and others, but the market 
was already overstocked with wares of this 
kind. What seems to have given Tonge the 
necessary stimulus to proceed with his in- 
vestigations was a rumour of a popish plot 
to murder the king and set up the Duke of 
York in his place, which he heard from one 
Richard Greene while he was in Hereford- 
shire in 1675. Tonge was convinced of the 
genuineness of Greene's allegations ' because ' 
the alleged plot was hatched in 1675 during 
the ' illegal prorogation ' of parliament ( The 
Popish Massacre .... being part of Dr. 
Tonge's Collections on that Subject . . . pub- 
lished for his Vindication, 1679). During 
the winter of 1676, while residing in the 
Barbican at the house of Sir Richard Barker, 
one of the patrons whom he managed to 
infect with his own abnormal credulity upon 
the subject of catholic intrigues, Tonge came 
into contact with Titus Oates, who professed 
enthusiasm for his great aims. Having al- 
ready convinced himself by his literary, as- 
trological, and other occult researches that a 
vast Jesuit plot was impending over Eng- 
land, Tonge became the willing dupe of 


Oates's perjuries [see GATES, TITUS]. During 
July and the early part of August 1678 
Ipnge incorporated Oates's inventions with 
his own exaggerated suspicions into the fic- 
titious narrative of the ' popish plot.' The 
narrative was drawn up in documentary 
form, with forty-three clauses or heads of 
indictment, and, copies having been made 
Tonge handed the scroll to Danby in the 
middle of August. A few days later he 
called on Burnet and gave him orally the 
details of the alleged designs of the papists. 
Burnet wrote of his strange visitor: 'He 
was a gardener and a chymist, and was full 
of projects and notions. He had got some 
credit in Cromwell's time, and that kept him 
poor. He was a very mean divine, and 
seemed credulous and simple, but I looked 
on him as a sincere man.' 

The affair was at first regarded as a device 
of Danby's to obtain an augmentation of the 
king's guards. At this period Tonge and 
Oates were living at a bell-founder's at 
Vauxhall, afterwards known as the 'plot- 
house,' and Tonge was busily occupied there 
during the remainder of August in commu- 
nicating additional details of the conspiracy 
to Danby at Wimbledon. He had several 
interviews with the king himself both at 
Whitehall, upon the first announcement of 
the plot (13 Aug.), and afterwards at Wind- 
sor ; but Charles was thoroughly sceptical 
as to the genuineness of his revelations. On 
6 Sept., as an alternative means of giving 
publicity to the matter, Tonge applied to Sir 
Edmund Berry Godfrey [q. v.], a well-known 
justice of the peace, and prevailed upon him 
to take down Oates's depositions upon oath. 
This created some stir, and on 27 Sept. 
Tonge was summoned to appear with Oates 
before the privy council. The alarmist view 
which they took of the narrative combined 
with the discovery of Coleman's correspon- 
dence [see COLEMAN, EDWAED] and the 
murder of Godfrey in the middle of October 
to provoke an acute panic among the loyal 
and bigoted protestants, who formed the 
bulk of the population of London. Tonge 
appears to have been bewildered by the 
reign of terror which his weak credulity 
had done so much to precipitate. From 
the close of September 1678 he was 
assigned rooms in Whitehall along with 
Oates, but after a few months he preferred 
to withdraw from all association with his 
quondam ally. He had, however, upon the 
motion of Sir Thomas Clarges, to appear 
with Oates at the bar of the House of Com- 
mons on 21 March 1678-9. He then gave 
a long account of his observations of the 
papists before the discovery of the plot, and 



of his writings upon the subject (see below). 
These works, so Gates informed him, ' so 
gaul'd the Jesuits at St. Omer ' that they 
despatched Titus to murder the author, but 
the intended murderer took the opportunity 
to escape from their clutches and to save 
his king and his country. This probably 
represented Tonge's genuine belief in the 

In September 1630 Simpson Tonge, the 
divine's eldest son, was committed to New- 
gate for aspersions against his father and 
Gates to the effect that they had concocted 
the plot between them. A few days later 
the young man withdrew this charge, and 
accused Sir Roger L'Estrange [q. v.] of 
suborning him to the perjury. No weight 
whatever can be attached to his evidence, as 
he seems to have acted as the tool of Titus 
Gates with a view to ' trepanning ' L'Estrange, 
the mortal enemy of the plot. Oates's idea 
was evidently to involve L'Estrange in a 
colourable charge of tampering with young 
Tonge to invalidate the ' protestant ' evi- 
dence. The device was exposed by L'Estrange 
in The Shammer Shamm'd ' (1681, 4to ; cf. 
FITZGERAJQD, Narration, 1680, fol.) ; but it 
had the effect of driving L'Estrange tem- 
porarily from London. 

The affair led Israel Tonge to commence 
an elaborate vindication of his conduct in 
connection with the plot. Having narrowly 
escaped censure by the House of Commons 
for imputing to a member (Sir Edward 
Dering) a feeling of kindness towards the 
pope's nuncio (GKEY, Debates, viii. 1 sq.), 
Tonge seems to have proceeded to Oxford 
in November 1680. He had a design on foot 
for turning Obadiah Walker [q. v.] out of 
his fellowship and succeeding to the place. 
At Oxford, too, he took part in the burning 
of a huge effigy of the pope, in the body of 
which, to represent devils, a number of cats 
and rats were imprisoned. He returned to 
London before the close of the month, and he 
died in the house of Stephen College [q. v.] 
on 18 Dec. 1680. His funeral procession 
from Blackfriars to St. Michael's, Wood 
Street, was followed on 23 Dec. by ' many 
of the godly party.' The sermon preached 
by Thomas Jones of Oswestry was printed 
with a dedication to the Duke of Mon- 
mouth. A committee of the privy council 
was appointed to examine his papers, but 
nothing seems to have resulted from their 

An inventory of Tonge's books is in the 
Record Office (State Papers, Dom. Car. II, 
p. 409). The same volume contains a very 
copious and elaborate diary of the events of 
1678-9, subscribed ' Simson Tonge's Journall 

of the Plot written all with his own hands 
as he had excerped it out of his father Dr. 
Tonge's papers a little before he fell into 
the suborners' hands.' 

According to Wood, Tonge excelled in 
Latin, Greek, poetry, and chronology, but 
above all in alchymy, on which he spent 
much time and money. ' He was a person 
cynical and hirsute, shiftless in the world, 
yet absolutely free from covetousness and I 
dare say from pride.' He showed great in- 
genuity in his grammar teaching and also in 
his botanical studies, and contributed three 
papers on the 'Action of Sap ' to the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions' (Nos. 57, 58, 68). 
A vivid description of the learned ' gown- 
man ' with his head stuffed full of plots and 
Marian persecutions, patching up the depo- 
sitions, with Gates and Bedloe on one side 
and Shaftesbury on the other, is given in 
the 'Ballad upon the Popish Plot' (see 
Bayford Ballads, ed. Ebsworth, p. 690). 
His diatribes against the Jesuits, for many 
years unsaleable, derived a tremendous im- 
petus from the ' discovery of the plot.' The 
chief of them were: 1. ' Jesuitical Apho- 
rismes ; or, a Summary Account of the Doc- 
trines of the Jesuites, and some other Popish 
Doctors. By Ezerel Tonge, D.D., who first 
discovered the horrid Popish Plot to his 
Majesty,' London, 1679, 4to. 2. < The New 
Design of the Papists detected ; or, an 
Answer to the last Speeches of the Five 
Jesuites lately executed : viz. Tho. White 
alias Whitebread, William Harcourt alias 
Harison, John Gavan alias Gawen, Anthony 
Turner, and John Fen wick. By Ezrael 
Tongue, D.D.,' London, 1679, fol. ; an appa- 
rently sincere protest against the * damnable 
impiety ' of the victims of the popish plot, 
on account of their dying declarations of 
innocence. 3. ' An Account of the Romish 
Doctrine in case of Conspiracy and Rebel- 
lion/ London, 1679, 4to. 4. ' Popish Mercy 
and Justice : being an account, not of those 
massacred in France by the Papists formerly, 
but of some later persecutions of the French 
Protestants,' London, 1679, 4to. 5. 'The 
Northern Star : The British Monarchy : or 
the Northern the Fourth Universal Mo- 
narchy .... Being a Collection of many 
choice Ancient and Modern Prophecies,' 
London, 1680, fol. ; dedicated to Charles II 
1 by his majesty's sometime commissionated 
chaplain, E. T.' 6. ' Jesuits Assassins ; or, 
the Popish Plot further declared and demon- 
strated in their murderous Practices and 
Principles,' containing a catalogue of the 
' English Popish Assassins swarming in all 
places, especially in the city of London/ 
proposals for the ' extirpation of this Bloody 




Order/ and similar reflections and observa- 
tions, all ' extracted out of Dr. Tong's Papers, 
written at his first discovery of this plot to 
his Majesty and since augmented for public 
satisfaction,' London, 1680, 4to. As an 
appendix to this appeared ' An A nswer to 
certain Scandalous Papers scattered abroad 
under colour of a Catholick Admonition.' 
In this he draws up a drastic code of twenty 
measures to be aimed against the catholics. 
A list is given of the names of the intended 
protestant victims, that of Tonge himself 
being prominent. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1262; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Life and Times, ed. Clark, ii. passim ; Evelyn's 
Diary, ii. 125; Thomas Jones's Funeral Ser- 
mon, 1681, 4to; Burnet's Own Time, i. 424, 
510; G-rey's Debates, 1 769, vols. vii-x. ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 14th Rep. App. iv. passim; Smith's 
Intrigues of the Popish Plot, 1685; Eachard's 
Hist, of England ; Care's Hist, of the Papists' 
Plots ; Luttrell's Brief Historical Relation, i. 56, 
128 ; North's Examen ; Tonge's Works ; see au- 
thorities under L'ESTBANUE, ROGER, and OATES, 
TITUS.] T. S. 

TONKIN, THOMAS (1678-1742), Cor- 
nish historian, born at Trevaunance, St. 
Agnes, Cornwall, and baptised in its parish 
church on 26 Sept. 1678, was the eldest son 
of Hugh Tonkin (1652-1711), vice-warden 
of the Stannaries 1701, and sheriff of Corn- 
wall 1702, by his first wife, Frances (1662- 
1691), daughter of Walter Vincent of Tre- 
levan, near Tregony. 

Tonkin matriculated from Queen's College, 
Oxford, on 12 March 1693-4, and was en- 
tered as a student at Lincoln's Inn on 
20 Feb. 1694-5. At Oxford he associated 
with his fellow-collegian, Edmund Gibson, 
afterwards bishop of London, and with 
Edward Lhuyd, who between 1700 and 1708 
addressed several letters to him in Cornwall 
(PRYCE, ArchaoL Cornub. 1790 ; POLWHELE, 
Cornwall, v. 8-14) ; and he was friendly with 
Bishop Thomas Tanner [q. v.] 

Tonkin withdrew in to Cornwall and settled 
on the family estate. From about 1700 to 
the end of his days he prosecuted without 
cessation his inquiries into the topography 
and genealogy of Cornwall, and he soon made 
'great proficiency in studying the Welsh 
and Cornish languages ' (DE DUNSTANVILLE, 
Careiv) ; but he quickly became involved in 
pecuniary trouble. To improve his property 
he obtained in 1706 the queen's sign-manual 
to a patent for a weekly market and two 
fairs at St. Agnes, but through the opposition 
of the inhabitants of Truro the grant was 
revoked. His progenitors had spent large 
sums from 1632 onwards in endeavouring to 


erect a quay at Trevaunance-porth. By 
1710 he had expended 6,000/. upon it, but 
the estate afterwards fell < into the hands of 
a merciless creditor,' and in 1730 the pier 
was totally destroyed < for want of a very 
small timely repair and looking after' (ib 
pp. 353-4). 

Tonkin's wife was Elizabeth, daughter of 
James Kempe of the Barn, near Penryn. 
Thomas Worth, jun., of that town, and 
Samuel Kempe of Carclew, an adjoining 
mansion, were his brothers-in-law. He had 
by these connections much interest in the 
district, and from 12 April 1714 at a by- 
election, to the dissolution on 5 Jan. 1714-15, 
he represented in parliament the borough 
of Helston. Alexander Pendarves, whose 
widow afterwards became Mrs. Delany, was 
his colleague in parliament and his chief 
friend ; they were ' Cornish squires of high 
tory repute' (COURTNEY, Parl. Rep. of Corn- 
wall, p. 48; MRS. DELANY, Autobiography, i. 

On the death of the last of the Vincents, 
Tonkin dwelt at Trelevan for a time; but 
the property was too much encumbered 
for him to retain the freehold. The latter 
part of his life was passed at Polgorran, 
in Gorran parish, another of his estates. 
He died there, and was buried at Gorran 
on 4 Jan. 1741-2. His wife predeceased 
him on 24 June 1739. They had several 
children, but the male line became extinct 
on the death of Thomas Tonkin, their third 

Tonkin put forth in 1737 proposals for 
printing a history of Cornwall, in three 
volumes of imperial quarto at three guineas ; 
and on 19 July 1736 he prefixed to a collec- 
tion of modern Cornish pieces and a Cornish 
vocabulary, which he had drawn up for 
printing, a dedication to William Gwavas of 
Gwavas, his chief assistant (this dedication 
was sent by Prince L. L. Bonaparte on 
30 Nov. 1861 to the ' Cambrian Journal,' and 
there reprinted to show the indebtedness to 
Tonkin's labours of William Pryce [q. v.]) 
Neither of these contemplated works saw the 
light. On 25 Feb. 1761 Dr. Borlase obtained 
from Tonkin's representative the loan of his 
manuscripts, consisting 'of nine volumes, five 
folios, and four quartos, partly written upon, 
a list of which is printed in the ' Journal 
of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall,' vi. 
(No. xxi.) 167-75. On the death of Tonkin's 
niece, Miss Foss, in 1780, the manuscripts of 
the proposed history of Cornwall became the 
property of Lord de Dunstanville, who 
allowed Davies Gilbert [q. v.] to edit and to 
embody them in his history of the county 
'founded on the manuscript histories oi 





Mr. Hals and Mr. Tonkin ' (1838, 4 yols.) 
Dunstanville published in 1811 an edition of 
Carew's ' Survey of Cornwall, with Notes 
illustrative of its History and Antiqui- 
ties by Thomas Tonkin.' Those on the 
first book of the 'Survey' were evidently 
prepared for publication by Tonkin, and 
the other notes were selected from the 
manuscripts. His journal of the convoca- 
tion of Stannators in 1710 was added to 
it. Tonkin's manuscript history passed from 
Lord de Dunstanville to Sir Thomas Phil- 
lipps [q. v.], and was sold by Messrs. Sothe- 
by & Co. for 51 /. to Mr. Quaritch on 7 June 

Two volumes of Tonkin's ' Alphabetical 
Account of all the Parishes in Cornwall,' 
down to the letter O, passed to William 
Sandys [q. v.], and then to W. C. Borlase, 
from whom they went into the museum of 
the Royal Institution of Cornwall at Truro. 
Four of the later parts were presented to the 
same body by the Rev. F. W. Pye, and 
another page by Sir John Maclean. Several 
manuscripts transcribed by Tonkin are in 
Addit. MS. 33420 at the British Museum, 
and numerous letters by him, in print and 
in manuscript, are mentioned in the i Biblio- 
theca Cornubiensis.' Tonkin gave much 
aid to Browne Willis in his 'Parochiale 
Anglicanum.' Polwhele called Tonkin ' one 
of the most enlightened antiquaries of his 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 31, 35, 
318, ii. 536, 727-8, 888, 897, iii. 1190, 1195, 
1346; Boase's Collect. Cornub. p. 1008 ; Journ. 
E. I. of Cornwall, May 1877 p. liii, December 
1877pp. 116,120, 143-4; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; 
Polwhele's Cornwall, i. 182, 203-6; Lysons's 
Cornwall, pp. cliii, 2-4, 8-11 ; D. Gilbert's Corn- 
wall, iii. 193.] W. P. C. 


(1790-1846), miscellaneous writer, was the 
daughter of Michael Browne, rector of St. 
Giles's Church and minor canon of the 
Cathedral at Norwich, where she was born 
on 1 Oct. 1790. She married in early life a 
Captain Phelan of the 60th regiment, and 
spent two years with him while serving with 
his regiment in Nova Scotia. They then re- 
turned to Ireland, where Phelan owned a 
small estate near Kilkenny. The marriage 
was not a happy one, and they separated 
about 1824. Mrs. Phelan subsequently re- 
sided with her brother, Captain John Browne, 
at Clifton, where she made the acquaintance 
of Hannah More [q. v.] ; later on she re- 
moved to Sandhurst, and then to London. 
In 1837 Captain Phelan died in Dublin, 
and in 1841 his widow married Lewis Hip- 

polytus Joseph Tonna [q. v.] She died at 
Ramsgate on 12 July 1846, and was buried 

While in Ireland Mrs. Tonna began to 
write, under her Christian names, ' Charlotte 
Elizabeth,' tracts for various religious socie- 
ties. She was very hostile to the church of 
Rome, and some of her publications are said 
to have been placed on the f Index Expurga- 
torius' (Gent. Mag. 1846, ii. 434). In 1837 
she published an abridgment of Foxe's 
' Book of Martyrs' (2 vols. 8vo). She edited 
'The Protestant Annual,' 1840, and 'The 
Christian Lady's Magazine ' from 1836, and 
' The Protestant Magazine ' from 1841 until 
her death. She also wrote poems, two of 
which, entitled respectively ' The Maiden City ' 
and 'No Surrender,' were written specially 
for the Orange cause, and are extremely 
vigorous and popular. They are quite the 
best Orange songs that have been written. 

Mrs. Tonna's other works include : 1. 'Za- 
doc, the Outcast of Israel/ 12mo, London, 

1825. 2. 'Perseverance: a Tale/ London, 

1826. 3. ' Rachel : a Tale/ 12mo, London, 
1826. 4. 'Consistency: a Tale/ 12mo, London, 
1826. 5. 'Osric: a Missionary Tale, and other 
Poems/ 8vo, Dublin, 1826 (?). 6. ' Izram : 
a Mexican Tale, and other Poems/ 12mo, 
London, 1826. 7. 'The System: a Tale/ 
12mo, London, 1827. 8. ' The Rockite : an 
Irish Story/ 12mo, London, 1829. 9. ' The 
Museum/ 12mo, Dublin, 1832. 10. 'The 
Mole/ 12mo, Dublin, 1835. 11. ' Alice Ben- 
den, or the Bowed Shilling/ 12mo, London, 
1838. 12. 'Letters from Ireland, 1837,' 8vo, 
London, 1838. 13. ' Derriana.' 14. ' Deny,' 
1833 ; 10th ed. 1847. 15. ' Chapters on 
Flowers/ 8vo, London, 1836. 16. ' Confor- 
mity: a Tale/ 8vo, London, 1841. 17. ' Helen 
Fleetwood/ 8vo, London, 1841. 18. 'False- 
hood and Truth/ 8vo, Liverpool, 1841. 
19. ' Personal Recollections/ 8vo, London, 
1841. 20. 'Dangers and Duties/ 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1841. 21. 'Judah's Lion/ 8vo, London, 
1843. 22. ' The Wrongs of Woman , in four 
parts/ London, 1843-4. 23. 'The Church 
Visible in all Ages/ 8vo, London, 1844. 
24. 'Judea Capta: an Historical Sketch of 
the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans/ 
16mo, London, 1845. 25. ' Works of Charlotte 
Elizabeth/ with introduction by Mrs. H. B. 
Stowe, 3 vols. ; 2nd edit. New York, 1845 ; 7th 
edit. 8vo, New York, 1849. 26. ' Bible Cha- 
racteristics/ 8vo, London, 1851. 27. ' Short 
Stories for Children/ 1st and 2nd ser. 12mo, 
Dublin, 1854. 28. 'Tales and Illustrations/ 
8vo, Dublin, 1854. 29. ' Stories from the 
Bible/ 12mo, London, 1861. 30. 'Charlotte 
Elizabeth's Stories ' (collected), 8 vols. 16mo, 
New York, 1868. 




[Sketch of Charlotte Elizabeth by Mrs. Bal- 
four ; G-ent. Mag. 1846, ii. 433-4; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology ; O'Donoghue's 
Poets of Ireland; Memoir of Charlotte Eliza- 
beth, 1852.] D. J. O'D. 

JOSEPH (1812-1857), author, was born on 
3 Sept. 1812 at Liverpool, where his father 
was vice-consul for Spain and the Two 
Sicilies. His mother was the daughter of 
Major H. S. Blanckley, consul-general in the 
Balearic Islands. In 1828 he was at Corfu, 
a student, when the death of his father 
threw him on his own resources, and he 
entered as interpreter, with the rating of 
' acting schoolmaster,' on board the Hydra, 
then employed in the Gulf of Patras. In 
January 1831 he was transferred to the 
Rainbow with Sir John Franklin [q. v.], 
and in October 1833 to the Britannia, flag- 
ship of Sir Pulteney Malcolm [q.v.] On 
returning to England in 1835 he obtained 
apparently through Malcolm's influence the 
post of assistant-director and afterwards of 
secretary of the Royal United Service Insti- 
tution. This he held till his death on 2 April 
1857, rendering to the institution ( zealous 
and effective' service. He was twice mar- 
ried : first, in 1841, to Mrs. Phelan [see 
in 1848, to Mary Anne, daughter of Charles 
Dibdin the younger [see under DIBDIN, 
HENRY EDWARD], who survived him. There 
was no issue by either marriage. 

Tonna was the author of numerous small 
books and pamphlets, almost all on religious 
and controversial subjects, written from the 
ultra-protestant point of view. Among 
these may be named : 1. f Erchomena, or 
Things to Come,' 1847, 16mo. 2. 'Nuns 
and Nunneries : Sketches compiled entirely 
from Romish Authorities/ 1852, 12mo. 

3. 'The Real Dr. Achilli: a few more 
words with Cardinal Wiseman,' 1850, 8vo. 

4. 'The Lord is at Hand.' 5. ' Privileged 

[G-ent. Mag. r !857, ii. 95; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Ships' Pay books &c. in the Public Kecord Office.] 

J. K. L. 

JOHN (d. 1510?), grammarian, was perhaps 
a native of Tony, Norfolk, and was educated 
from childhood at the Austin Friary, Nor- 
wich. He became a friar and was sent to 
Cambridge. He proceeded D.D. in 1502, 
and became prior of the Norwich house and 
provincial of his order in England. He 
studied Greek, and Bale told Leland that he 
had seen a Greek letter by him. He wrote 
1 Rudimenta Grammatices,' said to have been 

printed by Pynson (8vo), of which no copy 
is known. Leland saw many copies of his 
books on grammar in the Augustinian Library, 
London. Bale ascribes to him nine works, 
sermons, letters, lectures, collectanea, and 
rhymes, of which nothing further is known. 
He died about 1510, and was buried in Lon- 
don. A < Master Toneys ' appears to have 
been in Wolsey's service in 1514, and a 
Robert Toneys attested Princess Mary's 
marriage to Louis XII of France in the same 
year, and was afterwards canon of Lincoln and 
of York (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vols. i. and ii.) 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr.; Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, iv. 91; Ossinger's Bibl. August, p. 896; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert,!. 286; 
Baker's Chronicle, p. 292 ; Bale's Scriptt. Brit, 
viii. 55 ; Leland's Collectanea, ix. 54.] M. B. 

TONSON, JACOB (1656 P-1736), pub- 
lisher, born about 1656, was the second son 
of Jacob Tonson, chirurgeon and citizen of 
London, who died in 1668. He is believed 
to have been related to Major Richard Ton- 
son, who obtained a grant of land in co. 
Cork from Charles II, and whose descendants 
became Barons Riversdale (BuRKE, Extinct 
Peerage}. By his father's will (P. C. C. 
Hene 147) he and his elder brother Richard, 
as well as three sisters, were each entitled 
to 100/., to be paid when they came of age 
(M ALONE, Life of Dry den, p. 522). On 
5 June 1670 Jacob was apprenticed to Tho- 
mas Basset, a stationer, for eight years (ib. 
p. 536). Having been admitted a freeman 
of the Company of Stationers on 20 Dec. 
1677, he began business on his own account, 
following his brother Richard, who had com- 
menced in 1676, and had published, among 
other things, Otway's * Don Carlos.' Richard 
Tonson had a shop within Gray's Inn Gate ; 
Jacob Tonson's shop was for many years 
at the Judge's Head in Chancery Lane, near 
Fleet Street, 

It has been said that when Tonson bought 
the copy of ' Troilus and Cressida ' (1679), 
the first play of Dryden's that he published, 
he was obliged to borrow the purchase 
money (20/.) from Abel Swalle, another 
bookseller. However this may be, the names 
of both booksellers appear on the title-page, 
as was often the case at that time. Tonson 
was sufficiently well off to purchase play? 
by Otway and Tate. In 1681 the brothers 
Richard and Jacob joined in publishing 
Dryden's ' Spanish Friar,' and in 1683 Jacob 
Tonson obtained a valuable property by pur- 
chasing from Barbazon Ailmer, the assignee 
of Samuel Simmons, one half of his right 
in ' Paradise Lost.' The other half was pur- 
chased at an advance in 1690. Tonson 



afterwards said he had made more by l Para- 
dise Lost ' than by any other poem (SrENCE, 
Anecdotes, 1858, p. 261). 

In the earlier part of his life Tonson was 
much associated with Dryden [see also DKY- 
DEN", JOHN]. A step which did much to 
establish his position was the publication in 
1684 of a volume of ' Miscellany Poems/ 
under Dryden's editorship. Other volumes 
followed in 1685, 1693, 1694, 1703, and 
1708, and the collection, which was several 
times reprinted, is known indifferently as 
Dryden's or Tonson's ' Miscellany.' During 
the ensuing year Tonson continued to bring 
out pieces by Dryden, and on 6 Oct. 1691 
paid thirty guineas for all the author's 
rights in the printing of the tragedy of 
' Cleomenes.' Addison's 'Poem to his Ma- 
jesty ' was published by Tonson in 1695, and 
there was some correspondence respecting 
a proposed joint translation of Herodotus 
by Boyle, Blackmore, Addison, and others 
(ADDISON, Works, v. 318-21). 

Dryden's translation of Virgil, executed 
between 1693 and 1696, was published by 
Tonson in July 1697 by subscription. Serious 
financial differences arose between the poet 
and his publisher, and Dryden's letters to 
Tonson (1695-7) are full of complaints of 
meanness and sharp practice and of refusals 
to accept clipped or bad money. Tonson 
would pay nothing for notes ; Dryden re- 
torted, ' The notes and prefaces shall be short, 
because you shall get the more by saving 
paper.' He added that all the trade were 
sharpers, Tonson not more than others. Dry- 
den described Tonson thus, in lines written 
under his portrait, and afterwards printed in 
' Faction Displayed ' (1705) : 

"With leering looks, bull-faced, and freckled 

With two left legs, and Judas-coloured 

And frowzy pores, that taint the ambient 


(Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 193). Sub- 
sequently the letters became more friendly, 
and on the publication of 'Alexander's 
Feast/ in November 1707, Dryden wrote to 
Tonson, ' I hope it has done you service, and 
will do more.' 

Dryden's collection of translations from 
Boccaccio, Chaucer, and others, known as 
' The Fables/ was published by Tonson in 
November 1699 ; a second edition did not ap- 
pear until 1713. There is an undated letter 
from Mrs. Aphra Behn [q. v.] to Tonson at 
Bayfordbury, thanking him warmly for what 
he had said on her behalf to Dryden. She 
begged hard for five pounds more than Ton- 

son offered for some of her verses. In con- 
nection with Jeremy Collier's attack on the 
stage, the Middlesex justices presented the 
playhouses in May 1698, and also Congreve 
for writing the ' Double Dealer/ D'Urfey 
for 'Don Quixote/ and Tonson and Brisco, 
booksellers, for printing them (LUTTKELL, 
Brief Relation of State Affairs, iv. 379). 
Tonson published Congreve's reply to Col- 
lier, and at a later date 'The Faithful 
Friend' and 'The Confederacy' by his friend, 
Sir John Vanbrugh. 

Before the end of the century Tonson had 
moved from the Judge's Head to a shop in 
Gray's Inn Gate, probably the one previously 
occupied by his brother Richard. It is not 
unlikely that Richard was dead, and that 
Jacob, who had no children, and seemingly 
never married, now took into partnership his 
nephew Jacob, whose son was afterwards to 
be his heir. It is not always easy to dis- 
tinguish the uncle from the nephew in later 
years ; the latter will be referred to in future 
as Tonson junior. 

By 1700 Tonson's position was well esta- 
blished, and about that time the Kit-Cat 
Club was founded, with Tonson as secretary. 
The meetings were first held at a mutton- 
pie shop in Shire Lane, kept by Christopher 
Cat [q. v.], and may have begun with sup- 
pers given by Tonson to his literary friends. 
About 1703 Tonson purchased a house at 
Barn Elms, and built a room there for the 
club. In a poem on the club, attributed to 
Sir Richard Blackmore [q. v.], we find 

One night in seven at this convenient seat 
Indulgent Bocaj [Jacob] did the Muses 

Tonson was satirised in several skits, and it 
was falsely alleged that he had been ex- 
pelled the club, or had withdrawn from the 
society in scorn of being their jest any 
longer ('Advertisement' in Brit. Mus. Libr. 
816. m. 19/34). 

In 1703 Tonson went to Holland to ob- 
tain paper and engravings for the fine edi- 
tion of Caesar's ' Commentaries/ which was 
ultimately published under Samuel Clarke's 
care in 1712. At Amsterdam and Rotter- 
dam he met Addison, and assisted in some 
abortive negotiations for Addison's employ- 
ment as travelling companion to Lord Hert- 
ford, son of the Duke of Somerset (AiKiN, 
Life of Addison, i. 148-55). In 1705 Tonson 
published Addison's 'Remarks on several 
Parts of Italy.' 

Verses by young Pope were circulating 
among the critics in 1705, and in April 1706 
Tonson wrote to Pope proposing to publish 
a pastoral poem of his. Pope's pastorals 




ultimately appeared in Tonson's sixth ' Mis- 
cellany ' (May 1709). Wycherley wrote that 
Tonson had long been gentleman-usher to 
the Muses : * you will make Jacob's ladder 
raise you to immortality' (Pops, Works, 
vi. 37, 40, 72, ix. 545). 

Howe's edition of Shakespeare, in six 
volumes, was published early in 1709 by 
Tonson, who had previously advertised for 
materials (TiMPEKLEY, Encyclopedia, p. 593). 
Steele dined at Tonson's in 1708-9, sometimes 
to get a bill discounted, sometimes to hear 
manuscripts read and advise upon them 
(AiTKEN, Life of Steele, i. 204, 235). There 
is a tradition that in earlier days Steele had 
had a daughter by a daughter of Tonson's ; if 
this is true, it must apparently have been a 
daughter of Richard Tonson, Jacob's brother. 
In the autumn of 1710 Tonson moved to the 
Shakespeare's Head, opposite Catherine 
Street in the Strand; his former shop at 
Gray's Inn Gate was announced for sale in 
the 'Tatler'for 14 Oct. (No. 237); and it 
seems to have been taken by Thomas Osborne, 
stationer, the father of the afterwards well- 
known publisher, Thomas Osborne (d. 1767) 
[q. v.] On 26 July 1711, after a long interval, 
Swift met Addison and Steele * at young 
Jacob Tonson's.' ' The two Jacobs/ says 
Swift to Esther Johnson, ' think it I who 
have made the secretary take from them the 
printing of the Gazette, which they are going 
to lose. . .. . Jacob came to me t'other day to 
make his court ; but I told him it was too 
late, and that it was not my doing.' Accounts 
furnished to Steele by Tonson of the sale of 
the collective editions of the ' Tatler ' and 

* Spectator' have been preserved (AITKEN, 
Life of Steele, i. 329-31) ; from October 1712 
Tonson's name was joined with Samuel Buck- 
ley's as publisher of the ' Spectator.' In No- 
vember 1712 Addison and Steele sold all 
their right and title in one half of the copies 
of the first seven volumes of the ' Spectator ' 
to Tonson, jun., for 575/., and all rights in 
the other half for a similar sum to Buckley. 
Buckley in October 1714 reassigned his half- 
share in the ' Spectator ' to Tonson junior for 
5001. (ib. i. 354; Hist.MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 
ii. 471). 

Tonson published Addison's tragedy, 

* Cato,' in April 1713 ; and, according to a 
concocted letter of Pope's, the true reason 
why Steele brought the ' Guardian ' to an 
end in October was a quarrel with Tonson, 
its publisher; 'he stood engaged to his 
bookseller in articles of penalty for all the 
" Guardians," and by desisting two days, 
and altering the title of the paper to that of 
the " Englishman," was quit of the obliga- 
tion, those papers being printed by Buckley.' 

There are various reasons why this story is 
improbable; the truth seems to be that 
Steele was anxious to write on politics 
with a freer hand than was practicable 
in the 'Guardian.' In the summer of 
1714 we hear of Steele writing political 
pamphlets at Tonson's, where there were 
three bottles of wine of Steele's (AiTKEN, 
Life of Steele, ii. 25, 30), and in October 
Tonson printed Steele's 'Ladies' Library.' 
Tonson appears in Rowe's ' Dialogue between 
Tonson and Congreve, in imitation of Horace,' 

Thou, Jacob Tonson, were, to my conceiving, 
The cheerfullest, best, honest fellow living. 

In the same year Tonson, with Barnaby 
Bernard Lintot [q. v.] and William Taylor, 
was appointed one of the printers of the 
parliamentary votes. Next year he paid 
fifty guineas for the copyright of Addi- 
son's comedy, ' The Drummer,' and published 
Tickell's translation of the first book of the 
'Iliad,' which gave offence to Pope. On 
6 Feb. 1718 Lintot entered into a partnership 
agreement with Tonson for the purchase of 
plays during eighteen months following that 

In one of several amusing letters from 
Vanbrugh, now at Bayfordbury, Tonson, 
who was then in Paris, was congratulated 
upon his luck in South Sea stock, and there 
is other evidence that he made a large sum 
in connection with Law's Mississippi scheme. 
' He has got 40,000/.,' wrote Robert Arbuth- 
not ; ' riches will make people forget their 
trade.' In January 1720 Tonson obtained a 
grant to himself and his nephew of the office 
of stationer, bookseller, and printer to some of 
the principal public offices (Pat. 6 George I) ; 
and on 12 Oct. 1722 he assigned the whole 
benefit of the grant to his nephew. The grant 
was afterwards renewed by Walpole, in 1733, 
for a second term of forty years (Pat. 6 
George II). The elder Tonson seems to 
have given up business about 1720. He had 
bought the Hazells estate at Ledbury, Here- 
fordshire (DuNCUMB and COOKE, Hereford- 
shire, iii. 100-1), and in 1721 he was sending 
presents of cider to the Dukes of Grafton and 
Newcastle, the latter of whom called Tonson 
<my dear old friend,' and asked him to give 
him his company in Sussex (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 2nd Rep. pp. 70, 71). Henceforth we 
ma y suppose, in the absence of evidence 
to the contrary, that 'Tonson' in contem- 
porary allusions means the nephew. 

Steele's 'Conscious Lovers' appeared in 
1722, and Tonson assigned to Lintot halt 
the copyright for 70/. He had to apply to 
the court of chancery for an injunction to 



stop Robert Tooke and others printing a 
pirated edition of the play ; the sum paid for 
the copyright was 40/. (Athenceum, 5 Dec. 
1891). In the same year Tonson published 
the Duke of Buckingham's ' Works/ and in 
1725 Pope's edition of Shakespeare. 

Proposals were issued by Tonson in 
January 1729 for completing the subscription 
to the new edition of Rymer's ' Fcedera,' in 
seventeen folio volumes (of which fifteen 
were then printed), at fifty guineas the set 
(Hist.MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 692 ; NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. i. 478-80). The work was 
finished in 1735. Tonson published a quarto 
edition of Waller's works, edited by Fenton, 
in 1729, and an edition of Lord Lansdowne's 
works in 1732. Pope was annoyed to find 
in 1731 that Tonson was to be one of the 
publishers of Theobald's proposed edition of 
Shakespeare, in which he feared an attack 
on his own editorial work, but he professed 
to be satisfied with the assurances he re- 
ceived (Gent. Mag. January 1836). In 
writing to the elder Tonson on this subject, 
Pope asked for any available information 
respecting the ' Man of Ross/ and, in thanking 
him for the particulars received, explained his 
intention in singling out this man as the 
centre of a poem (PoPE, Works, iii. 528). 
Earlier in the year the elder Tonson was in 
town, and Pope, writing to Lord Oxford, 
said that if he would come to see him he 
would show him a phenomenon worth seeing, 
' old Jacob Tonson, who is the perfect image 
and likeness of Bayle's " Dictionary ; " so 
full of matter, secret history, and wit and 
spirit, at almost fourscore' (id. viii. 279). 
On 19 March Lord Oxford, Lord Bathurst, 
Pope, and Gay dined with old Tonson at 
Barnes and drank Swift's health (Gay to 
Swift, 20 March 1731). In 1734 Samuel 
Gibbons was appointed stationer to the 
Prince of Wales in place of Jacob Tonson 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. viii. 399). 

Jacob Tonson junior predeceased his 
uncle, dying on 25 Nov. 1735, worth 100,000/. 
(Gent. Mag. 1735, p. 6S2). His will, of 
great length (P. 0. C. 257 Ducie), was written 
on 16 Aug. and proved on 6 Dec. 1235. 

The elder Tonson's death at Ledbury fol- 
lowed that of his nephew on 2 April 1736, 
when he was described as worth 40,000/. 
(Gent. Mag. 1736, p. 168). His will was 
made on 2 Nov. 1735 (P. C. C. 91 Derby). 

A painting of the elder Tonson by Knell er 
is among the Kit-Cat portraits ; it is best 
known through Faber's engraving. Pope says 
that Tonson obtained portraits from Kneller 
without payment by flattering him and send- 
ing him presentsof venison and wine (SPENCE, 
Anecdotes, 1858, p. 136). Dryden's satirical 

account of his appearance has been quoted ; 
Pope calls him ' left-legged Jacob ' and ' genial 
Jacob ' (Dunciad, i. 57, ii. 68). Dunton 
(Life and Errors, i. 216) describes Tonson. 
as 'a very good judge of persons and 
authors ; and as there is nobody more com- 
petently qualified to give their opinion of 
another, so there is none who does it with a 
more severe exactness or with less partiality ; 
for, to do Mr. Tonson justice, he speaks his 
mind upon all occasions, and will flatter 
nobody.' No doubt this roughness of manner 
wore off as Tonson grew in prosperity. 

JACOB TONSON (d. 1767), great-nephew of 
the above, and son of Jacob Tonson junior, 
carried on the publishing business in the 
Strand. In 1747 he paid Warburton 500/. 
for editing Shakespeare (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
v. 595), and he was eulogised by Steevens in 
the advertisement prefixed to his edition of 
Shakespeare 1778 : ' he never learned to con- 
sider the author as an under-agent to the 
bookseller . . . His manners were soft and 
his conversation delicate/ but he reserved his 
acquaintance for a small number. Johnson 
spoke of him as 'the late amiable Mr. Ton- 
son.' In 1750 he was high sheriff' for Surrey, 
and in 1759 he paid the fine for being ex- 
cused serving the same office for the city of 
London and county of Middlesex. There is 
a story of his having twice helped Fielding 
when that writer was unable to pay his 
taxes (Gent. Mag. Ivi. 659). Tonson died 
on 31 March 1767 (ib. p. 192), without 
issue, in a house on the north side of the 
Strand, near Catherine Street, whither he 
had removed the business some years earlier. 
His will (P. C. C. 155 Legard ) was made in 
1763. In 1775 letters of administration of 
the goods of Jacob Tonson, left unadmini- 
stered by Richard Tonson, were granted to 
William Baker, esq. (M.P. for Hertford- 
shire), and in 1823, Baker having failed to 
administer, letters of administration were 
granted to Joseph Rogers. 

RICHARD TONSON (d. 1772), the third Jacob 
Tonson's brother, who took little part in the 
concerns of the business, lived at Water 
Oakley, near Windsor, where he built a 
room for the Kit-Cat portraits. His benevo- 
lence and hospitality made him popular, and 
in 1747 he was elected M.P. for Walling- 
ford, and in 1768 M.P. for New Windsor. 
In some correspondence with the Duke of 
Newcastle in 1767, the duke spoke of his old 
friendship with Richard Tonson, ' the heir of 
one I honoured and loved, and have passed 
many most agreeable hours with ' (Addit. 
MS. 32986 y if. 116, 128, 361, 393, 407). 
Richard Tonson died on 9 Oct. 1772 (Gent. 
Mag. xlii. 496). 




Besides the papers at Bayfordbury, there 
is a considerable collection of Tonson papers 
in the British Museum, some relating to 
business and some to private matters ; but 
many of them are damaged or fragmentary 
(Addit. MSS. 28275-6). Single letters and 
papers will be found in Addit. MSS. 21110, 
28887 f. 187, 28893 f. 443, 32626 f.2, 32690 
f. 36, 32986, 32992 f. 340 ; Egerton MS. 1951, 
and Stowe MSS. 755 f. 35, 155 f. 976. 

[Malone's Life of Dryden, pp. 522-40 ; 
Dryden's Works, ed. Scott, i. 387-91, viii. 5. 
xv. 194, xviii. 103-38, 191 ; Swift's Works, ed. 
Scott, ii. 319, v. 460, xvi. 326, 330, xvii. 158, 
348 ; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope ; 
Gent. Mag. Ixxv. 911, Ixxvii. 738; Spence's 
Anecdotes ; Aitken's Life of Steele ; Walpole's 
Letters, ii. 216, iii. 89, iv. 179 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
3rd Kep. p. 193, 2nd Eep. pp. 69-71, 7th Rep. p. 
692, 8th Rep. iii. 8, 10, 15th Rep. ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. and Lit. Illustr. ; Knight's Shadows 
of the Old Booksellers ; Dublin University Mag. 
Ixxix. 703.] G. A. A. 

TONSTALL, CUTHBERT (1474-1559), 
bishop successively of London and Durham. 

TOOKE. [See also TUKE.] 

TOOKE, ANDREW (1673-1732), master 
of the Charterhouse, second son of Benjamin 
Tooke, citizen and stationer of London, was 
born in .1673, and received his education in 
the Charterhouse school. He was admitted 
a scholar of Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1690, 
took the degree of B.A. in 1693, and com- 
menced M.A. in 1697. In 1695 he had be- 
come usher in the Charterhouse school, and 
on 5 July 1704 he was elected professor of 
geometry in Gresham College in succession 
to Dr. Robert Hooke [q. v.] On 30 Nov. 1704 
he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, 
whose members held their meetings in his 
chambers until they left the college in 1710 
(THOMSON, List of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, p. xxxi). He was chosen master of 
the Charterhouse on 17 July 1728 in the 
room of Dr. Thomas Walker. He had taken 
deacon's orders and sometimes preached, but 
devoted himself principally to the instruc- 
tion of youth. On 26 June 1729 following 
he resigned his professorship in Gresham 
College. He died on 20 Jan. 1731-2, and 
was buried in the chapel of the Charterhouse, 
where a monument was erected to his memory 
( Gent. Mag. 1732, p. 586 ; Publications of the 
Harleian Soc., Registers, xviii. 85). In May 
1729 he married the widow of Henry Levett 
[q. v.], physician to the Charterhouse. 

His works are: 1. 'The Pantheon, re- 
presenting the Fabulous Histories of the 
Heathen Gods and most Illustrious Heroes/ 

translated from the ' Pantheum Mithicum' 
of the Jesuit father Fra^ois Antoine Pomey 
and illustrated with copperplates, London 
1698, 8vo ; 7th edit., ' in which the whole 
translation is revised/ London, 1717, 8vo- 
35th edit. London, 1824, 8vo. 2. ' Synopsis 
Graecae Linguae/ London, 1711, 4to. 3. 'The 
Whole Duty of Man, according to the Law 
of Nature/ translated from the Latin of Baron 
Samuel von Pufiendorf, 4th edit. London, 
1716, 8vo. 4. ' Institutions Christianaa/ 
London, 1718, 8vo, being a translation of the 
* Christian Institutes/ by Francis Gastrell 
[q. v.], bishop of Chester. 5. An edition of 
Ovid's 'Fasti/ London, 1720, 8vo. 6. An 
edition of William Walker's 'Treatise of Eng- 
lish Particles/ London, 1720, 8vo. 7. ' Copy 
of the last Will and Testament of Sir Thomas 
Gresham . . . with some Accounts concern- 
ing Gresham College, taken from the last 
Edition of Stow's "Survey of London"' 
(anon.), London, 1724 (some of these accounts 
were originally written by him). 8. Some 
epistles distinguished by the letters A. Z. 
in the English edition of Pliny's ' Epistles/ 
11 vols. London, 1724, 8vo. 

[Addit, MS. 5882, f. 52 ; Biogr. Brit., Suppl. 
p. 173 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 627, v. 242, ix. 
167 ; Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 193.] 

T. C. 

TOOKE, GEORGE (1595-1675), soldier 
and writer, born in 1595, was the fifth son 
of Walter Tooke, by his wife Angelet (d. 
1598), second daughter and coheiress of 
William Woodclitfe, a citizen and mercer 
of London. In 1625 George took part in 
the unsuccessful expedition under Sir Ed- 
ward Cecil [q. v.] against Cadiz. He com- 
manded a company of volunteers, and after- 
wards wrote an account of the undertaking, 
entitled ' The History of Gales Passion ; or 
as some will by-name it, the Miss-taking of 
Gales presented in Vindication of the Suf- 
ferers, and to forewarne the future. By 
G. T. Esq./ London, 1652, 4to. The work, 
which is in prose and verse, is dedicated to 
' his much honoured cousin Mr John Greaves' 
[q. v.] Another edition was published in 
1654 with a print by Wenceslaus Hollar 
[q. v.] ; and a third in 1659. After the 
return of the expedition to Plymouth a 
severe mortality broke out on board the 
ships, and Tooke's health was so much im- 
paired that he was eventually compelled to 
retire from military service. He took up his 
residence on his paternal estate of Popes, 
near Hatfield in Hertfordshire, to which he 
succeeded on the death of his eldest brother 
Ralph on 22 Dec. 1635. There he enjoyed 
the intimacy of John Selden [q. v.] the jurist, 
of the ' ever-memorable ' John Hales (1584 


1656) [q. v.], and of his cousin, John 
Greaves, who dedicated to him in 1650 his 
'Description of the Grand Signiors Seraglio/ 
Tooke died at Popes without issue in 1675. 
He was twice married : first, to Anne, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Tooke of Bere Court, 
near Dover. She died on 9 Dec. 1642, and 
he married, secondly, Margery, daughter of 
Thomas Coningsbury of North Mimms, Hert- 

Besides the work mentioned, George Tooke 
was the author of: 1. ' The Legend of Brita- 
mart, or a Paraphrase upon our provisionall 
British Discipline Inditing it of many seve- 
rall distempers, and prescribing to the Cure/ 
London, 1646, 4to ; dedicated to 'William, 
Earle of Salisbury.' The book consists of 
an acute criticism of the constitution of the 
English infantry in the form of a dialogue 
between ' Mickle- Worth the Patriot, Peny- 
Wise the Worldling, and Mille-Toyle the 
Souldier/ The copy of this work in the 
British Museum Library is probably unique. 

2. ' A Chronological Revise of these three 
successive Princes of Holland, Zeland, and 
Freisland, Floris the fourth, his Sonne, 
William, King of the Romans, and Floris 
the fift/ London, 1647, 4to (Brit. Mus. Libr.) 

This edition, which is without the printer's 
name, is of extreme rarity. It- is divided 
into three parts : (a) l The deplorable Tra- 
gedie of Floris the Fift, Earle of Holland/ 
(0) ' The Chronicle Historie of William, 
the 28th Earle ; ' (y) ' The Chronicle His- 
torie of Floris, the Fourth of that name.' It 
is dedicated to l My honourable friend Mr. 
Charles Fairefax.' The third part was sepa- 
rately republished in 1659 (London, 4to); 
an undated copy also exists in the British 
Museum Librarv, with a portrait of Floris. 

3. ' The Belides/ London, 1647, 4to, with a 
frontispiece in compartments, by William 
Marshall (fl. 1630-1650) [q. v.], in two 
parts (a) ' The Belides, or Eulogie and Elegie 
of that truly Honourable John, Lord Har- 
rington, Baron of Exton, who was elevated 
hence, the 27th of Febr. 1613;' (0) 'The 
Beiides or Eulogie of that noble Martialist 
Major William Fairefax, slain at Franen- 
thall in the Palatinate . . . in the year 1621 / 
(a) was published separately in 1659 (Lon- 
don, 4to), and (0) in 1660 (London, 4to), 
with a portrait of Fairfax by R. Gaywood. 

4. 'The Eagle Trussers Elegie or briefe 
presented Eulogie of that Incomparable 
Generalissimo Gustavus Adolphus,the Great 
King of Sweden/ London, 1647, 4to, with 
a frontispiece by William Marshall. ' Dedi- 
cated to Ferdinando, Lord Fairefax, Baron of 
Camerone / another edition was published in 
1660, London, 4to. 5. ' Annse-dicata, or a 


Miscelaine of some different cansonets, dedi- 
cated to the memory of my deceased very 
Deere wife, Anna Tooke of Beere/ London, 
1647, with a frontispiece by William Mar- 
shall ; another edition was published in 
1654 (London, 4to), and the library of the 
British Museum contains an undated copy 
with manuscript notes, by John Mitford 
(1781-1859) [q. v.] Copies of the 1647 edition 
of 3, 4, and o, bound in one volume, are to 
be found in the British Museum Library. 
The volume is probably unique. In his pre- 
face to 'The Eagle Trussers Elegy' in 1647 
Tooke indicates an earlier edition of some of 
his works when he says ' the Presse being 
now to rectifie some peices of mine formerly 
mis-recorded I have likewise added this old 
Elegie.' Tooke has been unduly disparaged 
as a writer. Both his prose and his poetry 
are undoubtedly impaired by a love of far- 
fetched metaphor and obscured by a pain- 
fully involved style. But his writings attest 
that he possessed ability, and the * Legend 
of Brita-mart ' shows considerable military 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. 1816; Clutter- 
buck's Hertfordshire, ii. 352; Gent. Mag. 1839, 
ii. 455, 484, 602 (by William Mitford) ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix.172, 808 ; Notes and Queries, n. 
vii. 404 ; Birch's Anecdotes of John Greaves in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 4243, f. 35 b ; Hunter's 
Chorus Vatum in Addit. MS. 24489 if. 522-3.] 

E. I. C. 

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE (1736-1812), 
politician and philologist, born in Newport 
Street, Westminster, on 25 June 1736, was 
third of the seven children of John Home, 
poulterer. Two brothers, both his elders, 
became tradesmen. Of his four sisters, one 
married Thomas Wildman, a friend of Wilkes, 
and another was second wife of Stephen 
Charles Triboudet Demainbray [q. v.], once 
tutor to George III and afterwards astro- 
nomer at Kew. The elder Home had a 
lawsuit with Frederick, prince of Wales, 
whose servants had made a passage from 
Leicester House through his premises. After 
establishing his legal rights Home gave leave 
for the use of the passage. Frederick showed 
his sense of this handsome conduct by ap- 
pointing Home poulterer to his household. 
The result was that the prince, at his death, 
owed several thousand pounds to the poul- 
terer, who never recovered the money. The 
younger Home, according to his own notes 
(STEPHENS, ii. 505), was sent in 1736 to the 
' Soho Square Academy/ in 1744 to West- 
minster, in 1746 to Eton, and afterwards to 
private tutors at Sevenoaks (1753) and at 
Ravenstone, Northamptonshire (1754). He 
was from the first an ' original.' He cared 



nothing for games, and yet did not distin- 
guish himself in lessons. He lost the sight 
of his right eye in a fight with a schoolfellow 
who had a knife in his hand, and ran away 
from his tutor in Kent, defending himself to 
his father on the ground of the tutor's igno- 
rance of grammar. ' He never was a boy/ 
said an old lady who had known him as a 
child. In 1754 he entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and was 'senior optime' in the 
tripos of 1758, graduating B.A. in that year. 
He had a strong natural inclination for a 
legal career, and in 1756 he entered the 
Inner Temple. He kept some terms, and 
was intimate with Dunning (afterwards Lord 
Ashburton) and Kenyon. His father, how- 
ever, insisted upon his taking orders, and 
bought for him the right of presentation to 
the chapel of ease at New Brentford, worth 
2001. or 300/. a year. After graduating 
Home was for a time usher in a school at 
Blackheath, and while there was ordained 
deacon. He was ordained priest on 23 Nov. 
1760, and began his clerical duties at Brent- 
ford. He is said to have delivered good prac- 
tical sermons, and to have been often asked 
to preach for charities in London. He also 
studied medicine, and established a dispensary 
for the good of his parishioners. He was, 
however, accused of being too fond of cards 
and society. His creed, if he had one, was 
of the vaguest, and he was no doubt glad of 
a reason for leaving his duties to a curate. 
In 1763 he became travelling tutor to the 
son of John Elwes [q. v,], the famous miser, 
and made a year's tour in France. Through 
tlia influence of his brother-in-law, Demain- 
bray, Elwes, and other friends, he had a 
promise of a chaplaincy to the king and some 
hopes of preferment. On his return to Eng- 
land, however, he threw himself into the 
political excitement of the time. He pub- 
lished an anonymous pamphlet, called ' The 
Petition of an Englishman' (1765), defend- 
ing Wilkes in violent language and chal- 
lenging prosecution. He promised the pub- 
lisher to give up his name if a prosecution 
took place. The authorities, however, re- 
frained, because, as his biographer surmises, 
they did not wish to attract attention to 
Home's insinuations about Bute's relations 
to the king's mother ingeniously conveyed 
by a plan of their houses at Kew. In any 
case Home escaped, and in 1765 made another 
tour with the son of a Mr. Taylor. On land- 
ing in France he dropped his clerical dress. 
At Calais he made the acquaintance of 
Thomas Sheridan (1719-1788) and his wife, 
and at Paris was first introduced to Wilkes. 
Wilkes welcomed him as the author of the 
pamphlet just mentioned and the brother- 

in-law of Wildman. They became intimate 
and agreed to correspond. Home visited 
Voltaire at Ferney, met Sterne at Lyons, 
travelled m Italy, and afterwards went to 
Montpelher. Thence, on 3 Jan. 1766, he 
wrote an unlucky letter to Wilkes, apolo- 
gising for having had the < infectious hand 
of a bishop waved over him,' but declaring 
that the usual results had not followed, for 
the devil of hypocrisy had not entered his 
heart. He was afterwards in Paris, and did 
not return to England till May 1767, when 
he left with Wilkes five very unclerical suits 
of clothes, intending to return and use them 
in a few months. He resumed his functions at 
Brentford until the return of Wilkes and the 
famous Middlesex election of 1768. Home 
then took up Wilkes's cause with enthu- 
siasm. He pledged himself to the full value 
of his means in order to secure the two best 
inns at Brentford for Wilkes's supporters. 
He made speeches, in one of which he was 
reported to have said that in such a cause 
he would ' dye his black coat red.' He ad- 
dressed a series of fierce letters to one of the 
ministerial candidates, Sir W. B. Proctor, 
which again escaped prosecution, and he 
took an active part in the subsequent agita- 
tion. He made himself conspicuous by his 
efforts to obtain the conviction for murder 
of a soldier who during the St. George's 
Fields riots (10 May 1768) had by mistake 
shot an innocent spectator. He promoted 
the prosecution of one M'Quirk. who, during 
the next election at Brentford (8 Dec. 1768), 
when Serjeant Glynn became Wilkes's col- 
league, had killed a man by a blow on 
the head with a bludgeon. In 1769 he 
successfully opposed (4 Sept.) the Duke of 
Bedford in the election of the mayor and 
bailiffs of the town of Bedford, where Home 
happened to have an interest. 'Junius' 
taunted the duke upon his defeat (Letter of 
19 Sept. 1769). Home also attacked George 
Onslow (1731-1792) [q. v.], who, after de- 
fending Wilkes, had become a lord of the 
treasury (11 July 1769). Home accused 
him in the ' Public Advertiser' of selling an 
office at his disposal. He repeated the charge 
in answer to an indignant reply from Onslow, 
who then brought an action, which was tried 
at Kingston before Blackstone. The pro- 
secutor was nonsuited upon a technical point. 
Another trial, however, took place before 
Lord Mansfield at the next assizes. Home 
was then indicted for words applied to Ons- 
low at a meeting of Surrey freeholders. A 
verdict was given against him, with 4007. 
damages. Home appealed against this judg- 
ment on the ground that the words used 
were not actionable, and the verdict was 



finally set aside in the court of common pleas 
(17 April 1771). Home's accusation was 
apparently unfounded; but the lawsuit is 
said to have cost Onslow 1,500/., while 
Home spent only 200/. (see STEPHENS, i. 
137-43. The proceedings before Blackstone 
were published in 1770. The later proceed- 
ings are reported in G. Wilson's ' Reports/ 
1799, iii. 177, and W. Blackstone's 'Reports,' 
1828, ii. 750). As Home was known to 
have himself suggested the successful line of 
argument to his counsel, his triumph over 
Mansfield brought him great reputation (see 
letters upon this case in Junius's Letters, 
1812, i. *186-*196). The repeated ex- 
pulsions of Wilkes in 1769 led to the forma- 
tion of the ' Society for supporting the Bill 
of Rights.' Subscriptions had already been 
proposed for the payment of Wilkes's debts ; 
but as the sums raised were insufficient, the 
society was formed (upon Home's suggestion, 
according to Stephens, i. 163) on 20 Feb. 
1769. It met at the London Tavern, in- 
cluded all the prominent city agitators, and 
raised considerable sums to discharge Wilkes's 
liabilities and to provide for election ex- 
penses. Home was also supposed to be author, 
in part at least, of the address presented to 
the king by the city on 14 March 1770, and 
the sole author of the address on 23 May. 
He is credited by his biographer Stephens 
(STEPHENS, i. 157) with having composed 
the so-called impromptu reply made by Beck- 
ford to the king's answer to the last address. 
This claim, however, is very doubtful ; it 
was made by Home long afterwards, and 
his memory may well have been treacherous 
[see under BECKFORD, WILLIAM, 1709-1770]. 
In an account given to the newspapers 
Home said that on the first address the king 
' burst out laughing,' and added that ' Nero 
fiddled while liome was burning.' On de- 
scribing the second, he apologised ironically 
by admitting that ' Nero did not fiddle while 
Rome was burning.' 

Before long Home fell out with his asso- 
ciates. According to his own account he 
had supported Wilkes purely on public 
grounds, and had long since ceased to respect 
his private character. He now thought that 
the society was being carried on to support 
Wilkes personally, instead of being used in 
defence of the political cause. A printer 
named Bingley, concerned in reprinting the 
1 North Briton/ had refused to answer cer- 
tain interrogatories, and had been committed 
by Lord Mansfield for contempt of court 
on 7 Nov. 1768. He was still in prison in 
1771, when (22 Jan.) the society voted that 
its funds should be first applied to the pay- 
ment of Wilkes's debt. On 12 Feb. Home 

carried a motion that 500/. should be raised 
for the benefit of Bingley, who had, he said, 
suffered and deserved nearly as much as 
Wilkes. On 26 Feb. another meeting was 
held, at which it was carried by a small 
majority that no new subscriptions should 
be opened until all Wilkes's debts should 
have been discharged. Home and Wilkes 
had afterwards a violent altercation, when 
Home moved that the society should be 
dissolved. The motion was rejected by a 
majority of twenty-six to twenty-four (An- 
nual Register, 1771, p. 94). The minority 
immediately withdrew and formed the Con- 
stitutional Society, which was to carry on 
the agitation without regard to Wilkes's 
private interests. The dispute produced a 
correspondence between Home and Wilkes 
in the ' Public Advertiser.' Home had 
already replied (14 Jan. 1771) in that paper 
to some charges of misapplying the funds of 
the society made against him by Wilkes's 
friends, and probably with Wilkes's ap- 
proval. A long and angry controversy now 
followed. Wilkes had shown to his friends 
the letter addressed to him by Home from 
Mont-pel Her. Home retorted by a story 
insinuating that the smart suits which he 
had left with Wilkes at Paris had been 
pawned by his friend. He went into a 
number of details to show that Wilkes had 
been extravagant, and incurred new debts as 
fast as the old ones had been paid off by his 
supporters. He also gave the history of the 
proceedings of the supporters of the Bill of 
Rights ; but the petty personalities, to which 
Wilkes made more or less satisfactory an- 
swers, injured his case (the letters are quoted 
at great length in STEPHENS, i. 179-319). 
He was thought to be moved by personal 
malignity, and to be deserting the popular 
cause. In the following election of sheriffs 
for the city Home supported Richard Oliver 
[q. v.J, who had seceded from the society with 
him against Wilkes. Home was hereupon 
accused by ' Junius ' of having gone over to 
the government. He replied with spirit, 
and was the most successful antagonist of 
his formidable enemy. He lost all his popu- 
larity, however. Oliver, on the poll (1 July), 
was hopelessly beaten both by Wilkes and 
the government candidates. Home was 
burnt in effigy by the mob (Annual Register, 
1771, p. 122*), and was for the time equally 
unpleasing to the patriots and to the tories. 
In 1771 Home applied for the degree of 
M.A. at Cambridge, and, though Paley ob- 
jected on account of the remarks upon bishops 
in the letter to Wilkes, the grace for the de- 
gree was passed by a large majority (CopPEE, 
Annals of Cambridge, iv. 363). According to 




his biographers, Stephens and W. H. Reed, 
Home both suggested the publication of 
the debates which led to the famous struggle 
between the House of Commons and the 
city authorities [see under CROSBY, BRASS] 
and prompted the course of action adopted 
by Wilkes, Crosby, and Oliver. Whether 
Home was really at the bottom of this 
affair may be doubtful. In any case, the 
credit went to the more conspicuous actors. 
By this time he had sufficiently destroyed 
any chances of church preferment, and had 
lost his popularity as a politician. He had, 
however, shown his abilities in legal war- 
fare, and resolved to be called to the bar. 
Some of his city friends guaranteed him an 
annuity of 400/. until he should be called : 
but, though he accepted their promise, he 
never took the money. In 1773 he resigned 
his living, but continued to live in the 
neighbourhood of Brentford, and, besides 
continuing his legal studies, began to take 
up philology. 

One of his political supporters, William 
Tooke, had bought an estate at Purley, near 
Croydon. In 1774 an enclosure bill had 
been brought into the House of Commons 
which affected Tooke's interests at this place. 
Finding that it would probably be passed, 
he applied to Home for help. Home thought 
that a direct opposition was too late to suc- 
ceed,- but suggested another scheme. He 
wrote a violent attack in the ' Public Ad- 
vertiser ' upon the speaker (Sir Fletcher 
Norton), attributing to him the grossest 
partiality in regard to the treatment of peti- 
tions in this case, and charging him with 
' wilful falsehood and premeditated trick.' 
The house summoned the printer, Woodfall, 
to the bar, and, upon his giving up Home's 
name, summoned Home himself. Home de- 
clined to inculpate himself, and the evidence 
of his authorship was held to be insufficient. 
After some sharp debates both printer and 
author escaped. Home was discharged from 
custody, and Woodfall set free after a few 
days' imprisonment. Meanwhile sufficient 
notice had been attracted to the * obnoxious 
clauses ' of the enclosure bill, and they 
were withdrawn (Parl. Hist. xvii. 1006-50, 
where Home's letter against the speaker is 
printed). Fox in these debates took a 
strong part against Home, and is said to 
have incurred his lasting dislike. 

The Wilkes agitation was dying out, but 
the Constitutional Society had continued its 
meetings and found a new opportunity. On 
7 June 1775 some of the members passed a 
resolution which was published in the news- 
papers. It directed that a subscription should 
be raised on behalf of ' our beloved American 

fellow subjects ' who had preferred death 
to slavery, and ' were for that reason only 
inhumanly murdered by the king's troops ' 
at the Lexington skirmish (19 April 1775). 
Home was to pay the money to Franklin. 
No notice was immediately taken, but in 
1776 some of the printers of the newspapers 
were fined, and in the next year Home was 
himself tried before Lord Mansfield (4 July 
1777). Home defended himself, as usual,, 
with immense vigour and pertinacity, dis- 
puting points of law, referring to his former 
victory over Mansfield, and justifying the 
assertions in the advertisement. He was, 
however, convicted, and afterwards sentenced 
to a fine of 200/. and imprisonment for a 
year. In 1778 he brought a writ of error 
in parliament, but the judgment was finally 

Home was now confined in the king's 
bench prison. He was allowed to occupy a 
house ' within the rules,' was visited by his 
political friends, and had a weekly dinner 
with them at the < Dog and Duck.' While 
imprisoned he published a 'Letter to Dun- 
ning ' (dated 21 April 1778), which had a 
curious relation to his studies. The ques- 
tion had arisen during his trial whether the 
words ' She, knowing that Crooke had been 
indicted, did so and so,' must be taken as an 
averment that Crooke had been indicted. 
Home argued that the phrase was equivalent 
to the two propositions, < Crooke had been 
indicted,' 'She knowing that, did so and 
so.' The argument led to theories about the 
grammar of conjunctions and prepositions, 
afterwards expounded at greater length in 
his chief work. ' All that is worth anything 
in the " Diversions of Purley,'" said Coleridge 
(Table Talk, 7 May 1830), ' is contained in' 
this pamphlet. It certainly gives Tooke's 
characteristic doctrine. 

Tooke attributed the gout, from which he 
suffered ever afterwards, to the claret which 
he drank in the prison, and which had, on 
the other hand, cured him of the 'jail-dis- 
temper.' He hoped after his discharge to be 
called to the bar, and had many promises 
of briefs. He applied in Trinity term 1779, 
but was rejected on the ground of his being 
still in orders by a vote of eight against three 
benchers of the Inner Temple. The benchers 
of the other inns expressed their approval of 
his exclusion. He renewed the attempt in 
1782, when the influence of Lord Shelburne, 
then prime minister, was supposed to be 
favourable. Shelburne appears to have taken 
the other side, and, in any case, the applica- 
tion was rejected by a majority of one. In 
1794 his name was again among the candi- 
dates, but no bencher moved for his call 




(State Trials, xx. 687 w. ; Par/. Hist . xxxv. 
1330, 1380). The failure, according to Ste- 
phens, soured and embittered the remainder 
of his life. 

Tooke had now inherited some fortune 
from his father. He bought a small estate 
at Witton, near Huntingdon, and tried agri- 
cultural experiments. He suffered from 
ague, and soon sold the estate to the pre- 
vious owner and returned to London. He 
lived in Dean Street, Soho, with two girls, 
Mary and Charlotte Hart, his illegitimate 
daughters. He was well known in London 
society, gave suppers which became famous, 
was eager in political discussions, and fre- 
quently spent a month or two with his 
friend Tooke at Purley. In 1782 he added 
the name of Tooke to his own, at the re- 
quest, as it appears, of his friend. The 
change was naturally supposed to indicate 
that he was to be Tooke's heir. The friend- 
ship was also commemorated by the title of 
his book, <V EHEA HTEPOENTA, or the Diver- 
sions of Purley/ the first volume of which 
was published in 1786. It -was received 
with considerable favour and established his 
literary reputation. He did not, however, 
withdraw from political agitation. When the 
demand for parliamentary and financial reform 
was stimulated by the failure of the American 
contest, Home took part in the new societies 
which sprang into activity. He joined the 
* Society for Constitutional Information,' 
founded in April 1780 (WTVILL, Political 
Papers, ii. 462), of which Major John Cart- 
wright (1740-1824) was called the ' father.' 
This took the place of the old l Constitutional 
Society ' founded by Home in 1771, which 
had apparently expired. Horne Tooke sup- 
ported Pitt's* early proposals for parlia- 
mentary reform, and in 1782 went at the 
head of some Westminster delegates to 
thank Pitt for his first motion on the sub- 
ject. He was bitterly opposed to the coali- 
tion ministry ; and in 1788 joined a * consti- 
tutional club,' of which Pitt and others were 
members, formed to support Admiral Hood, 
the government candidate, during the West- 
minster election, at which, however, Fox 
secured the return of Lord John Towns- 
hend. (There has been some confusion be- 
tween Horne Tooke's old 'Constitutional 
Club,' the ' Society for Constitutional Infor- 
mation,' and this ' Constitutional Club.') On 
this occasion Horne Tooke published a pam- 
phlet called 'Two Pair of Portraits,' con- 
trasting the two Pitts very much to their 
advantage with the two Foxes. Horne 
Tooke was indifferent in the Warren Hastings 
impeachment, but in 1790 he came forward 
himself to oppose Fox in the election for 

Westminster. He denounced his rival 
vigorously, and spoke effectively on the 
hustings. He received 1,679 votes, and spent, 
it is said, only 281., but was defeated by a 
large majority. His petition to the House 
of Commons on the ground of the riotous 
conduct of the electors was declared by a 
vote of the house (7 Feb. 1791) to be ' fri- 
volous and vexatious.' By an act passed in 
1789 this made him responsible for the costs 
incurred. Fox accordingly brought an action 
against him for 198/. 2s. 2d. The case was 
triend before Kenyon on 30 April 1792, and 
a verdict found for the plaintiff. Horne 
Tooke's health was suffering, and he now re- 
tired to a house at Wimbledon, where he 
amused himself with gardening and cow- 
keeping, and received his friends on Sundays. ^ 
He continued to attend meetings of the * So- * 
ciety for Constitutional Information.' They 
sympathised with the French revolution, and 
Home attended a meeting in 1790 to com- 
memorate the taking of the Bastille. When, 
however, a resolution expressing sympathy 
with the French was proposed by Sheridan, 
Home Tooke brought forward and carried 
an amendment to the effect that the British 
constitution required no violent measures of 
reform. In spite of this, Horne Tooke soon 
became an object of suspicion. He thought 
that he could make a point against the 
government by entrapping them into a futile 
prosecution. He amused himself by the 
rather dangerous experiment of making 
sham confessions to a spy. A letter from 
one of his friends, Jeremiah Joyce[q.v.],was 
seized, stating that ' Citizen Hardy ' had been 
arrested, and asking ' Is it possible to get 
ready by Thursday r* ' The reference was, 
as Horne Tooke afterwards proved, to a pro- 
posed publication of a list of sinecure places. 
The authorities, as he had calculated, took 
it to refer to a rising, and he was at once 
arrested (16 May 1794). 

The government had been alarmed by the 
rapid growth of the ' corresponding societies' 
founded by Thomas Hardy (1752-1832) 
[q. v.] These societies had circulated Paine's 
writings, had been in communication with 
the French revolutionary leaders, and had 
organised the ' convention ' which met in 
Edinburgh in 1793. Horne Tooke's ' Society 
for Constitutional Information' had co- 
operated to some extent with them ; while 
the whig society called the * Friends of the 
People ' endeavoured to keep the agitation 
within safe limits. Joseph Gerrald [q. v.] 
and others had been most severely punished 
for their proceedings in Scotland, and Horne 
Tooke was likely to find that his playing at 
treason would turn out awkwardly. Other 




arrests were made, and the proceedings began 
by the trial of Hardy. Hardy's trial, how- 
ever, resulted in an acquittal (5 Nov. 1794). 
The government foolishly persisted, and 
Home Tooke was placed at the bar on 17 Nov. 
charged with high treason. He was defended 
by Erskine and Vicary Gibbs, but took an 
active part himself in examining witnesses 
and arguing various points of law. The 
letter from Joyce was explained, and the 
only ground for suspicion was the prisoners 
relations with the corresponding societies. 
Chief-justice Eyre tried the case with con- 
spicuous fairness, and the jury almost 
instantly returned a verdict of ' not guilty ' 
on 22 Nov. Home Tooke returned thanks 
in a short speech which seems to express the 
truth. His politics were those of the old- 
fashioned city patriots, who disliked the 
whig aristocracy, but would have been the 
first to shrink from a violent revolution. 
Major Cart wright quoted at the trial 
Home's familiar remark that he might 
accompany Paine and his followers for part 
of their journey. They might go on to 
Windsor, but he would get out at Houns- 
low (State Trials, xxv. 330). He always 
disliked Paine and ridiculed his theories 
(STEPHENS, ii. 332). He enjoyed taking 
the chair at the Crown and Anchor and 
elsewhere to denounce the aristocracy and 
approve vigorous manifestoes, but he was 
always cautious and struck out dangerous 
phrases. He was too infirm and too fond 
of his books and his Wimbledon garden to 
be a real conspirator. The chief justice ad- 
mitted, in his summing up, that Home was 
apparently * the last man in England ' to be 
open to such a suspicion, and only regretted 
that his association with Hardy had given 
some grounds for hesitation. Home from 
this time became more cautious, and was 
accused of timidity by the zealous. He re- 
turned to Wimbledon to be welcomed after 
months of absence by his family, and es- 
pecially by a favourite tomcat. He was, 
however, poor, and thought of retiring to a 
cottage. His friends thereupon raised a 
subscription and bought for him from Sir 
Francis Burdett an annuity of 600/. This, 
with a legacy from his eldest brother, put 
him at ease. 

At the general election of 1796 Home 
Tooke again stood for Westminster, against 
Fox and Admiral Sir Alan Gardner [q. v.], 
the ministerial candidate. He spoke fre- 
quently, and claimed support as a political 
martyr and the candidate 'most hated by 
Pitt.' The poll lasted fifteen days, and he 
received 2,819 votes, 5,160 being given for 
Fox, and 4,814 for Gardner. The election 

cost 1,000/., which was, however, advanced 
to him by a ' man of rank.' His old enemy 
Wilkes spoke in his favour, and plumped for 
him on the first day of the poll. Home 
looke now made the acquaintance of Sir 
.brancis Burdett, who became his political 
disciple, and of other men of similar opinions 
Among them was Thomas Pitt, second lord 
Camelford [q. v.], the duellist, who at the 
general election of 1801 brought him in for 
Old Sarum. He made two or three speeches 
m opposition to the ministry, but a protest 
was at once made by Lord Temple against 
the eligibility of a person in holy orders. 
After examining precedents, a bill was intro- 
duced by Addington, declaring the ineligi- 
bility of the clergy. Home Tooke proposed 
as a compromise that clergymen elected to 
the house should be incapable of holding 
preferment or accepting offices. The bill, 
however, passed; though opposed in the 
House of Commons by Fox, Home Tooke's 
old enemy, and in the lords by Thurlow, 
who had prosecuted him in the libel case of 
1777, but had since become his friend at 
Wimbledon. Home Tooke retained his seat 
for the short remainder of the parliament. 
Thenceforward he lived quietly at Wimble- 
don. William Tooke, with whom he had 
had some difficulties, died on 25 Nov. 1802, 
and, instead of making Home Tooke his 
heir, left him only 500/., besides cancelling 
certain obligations due from him. Home 
Tooke, it is said by Stephens, had insisted 
that half the property should be left to a 
Colonel Harwood, William Tooke's nephew, 
and had further agreed with Harwood to 
divide the property equally. William Tooke 
now left the bulk of his fortune to a great- 
nephew; but Home Tooke, in virtue of this 
agreement, claimed 4,000/. from Harwood. 
A violent dispute and a suit in chancery 
followed ; and Lord Eldon declared that one 
or other of the disputants must be lying. 
Apparently Home Tooke invested the money 
in buying annuities from Burdett for his 
daughters and their mother. 

In 1805 Home Tooke published the second 
part of the ' Diversions of Purley/ by which 
he made a considerable sum. According to 
Stephens (ii. 497), he received between four 
and five thousand pounds on the whole, 
partly by subscriptions. He had written, 
it seems, as much as would make another 
volume, but in his last illness he burnt all 
his papers, including this and a voluminous 

Tooke's house at Wimbledon still remains, 
though altered since his time. It is the 
southernmost in the line of houses which 
bounds the common on the west, extending 


4 6 


towards the so-called ' Caesar's Camp.' Here 
he entertained select parties on weekdays, 

and kept open house for guests of every 
variety on Sunday. His four-o'clock dinners 
were very substantial, and followed by a 

dessert from the fruit which he raised with 
great skill, and by ample supplies of port 
and madeira. Among the guests were 
Thurlow, Erskine, and Lord Camelford. 
Other visitors were Bentham (BENTHAM, 

Works, x. 404); Coleridge (Table Talk, 
8 May 1830, and 16 Aug. 1833) ; Mackintosh 
who had become known to him as his sup- 
porter in the Westminster election of 1790 
(MACKINTOSH, Life, i. 71) ; Godwin (see PAUL, 

Godwin, i. 71) and Paine, both of whom he 
ridiculed ; Gilbert Wakefield ; Alexander 
Geddes [q. v.], the freethinking catholic priest, 
and William Bosville [q. v.] Home Tooke, 
though he became abstemious in later years, 
often drank freely, and Stephens records 
disputes with Porson and Boswell, both 
settled by drinking matches. In both cases 
Home Tooke left his antagonists under the 
table (STEPHENS, ii. 319, 439). Sir Francis 
Burdett, his neighbour at Wimbledon, intro- 
duced James Paull [q. v.], who became a 
regular guest for a time ; but on the duel 
between Burdett and Paull in 1807, Home 
Tooke published a pamphlet ( f A Warning 
to the Electors of Westminster ') denounc- 
ing Paull with great severity (see STEPHENS, 
ii. 291-334, for an account of the Wimbledon 
society). Home Tooke suffered from a local 
affection from early youth, and became a 
martyr to gout and other diseases in his 
later years. He bore his sufferings with 
much courage, and his mind remained active 
to the last. He still read voraciously when 
in tolerable health, and talked calmly of his 
approaching death. He prepared a tomb to 
be placed in his garden. It was to be covered 
by a large block of black Irish marble which 
Chantrey had procured for him. He died at 
Wimbledon on 18 March 1812, and desired 
to be buried under this tomb, over which 
Burdett was to pronounce a classical oration. 
The inscription gave simply his name with 
the dates of birth and death, and added 
* content and grateful.' It was decided, how- 
ever, that the tomb would ' deteriorate the 
value of his estate,' and he was therefore 
buried at Baling with the usual ceremony. 
His will bequeaths all his property to his 
daughter Mary Hart. She and her sister 
were, it is said, * eminently respectable and 
correct,' and the omission from his will of 
the name of the younger implied no resent- 
ment. Home Tooke had also a son named 
Montague, who was in the East India Com- 
pany's service. 

Home Tooke is described as a sturdy and 
muscular man, 5 feet 8^ inches in height. 
He was 'comely,' with a keen eye, and 
dressed like a substantial merchant. A por- 
trait by Richard Brompton [q. v.], painted 
during his imprisonment in 1777, is now in 
the possession of the Rev. Benjamin Gibbons. 
A bust of him was executed by the elder 
Bacon for Sir F. Burdett. Another was 
made during his last illness by Chantrey, 
and is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum at 
Cambridge. A portrait by Mr. S. Percy was 
in the exhibition of 1803 (STEPHENS, ii. 503). 
A portrait in the National Portrait Gallery 
is attributed to Thomas Hardy, though his 
fellow-prisoner of that name can hardly have 
been the painter. 

Home Tooke has suffered in reputation 
from the hard fate which forced into holy 
orders a man eminently qualified for a 
career at the bar. His boundless pugnacity 
and his shrewdness in legal warfare would 
have made him a dangerous rival of Dunning 
and Kenyon. He seems to have been far 
the shrewdest of the agitators made con- 
spicuous by the Wilkes controversies. He 
was apparently quite honest, though his 
public spirit was stimulated by his litigious 
propensities and love of notoriety. His 
politics were rather cynical than sentimental. 
He was a type of the old-fashioned British 
radical, who represented the solid trades- 
man's jealousy of the aristocratic patron 
rather than any democratic principle. He 
appealed to Magna Charta and the revolu- 
tion of 1688 ; ridiculed the ' rights of man ' 
theorists ; and boasted with some plausibility 
that he was in favour of anything established. 
He was even, according to Stephens (ii. 
477), a 'great stickler for the church of 
England,' on the ground, that is, of practical 
utility, and its doctrine correctly interpreted 
by Hoadley or Paley, not by the orthodox 

As a philologist, Home Tooke deserves 
credit for seeing the necessity of studying 
Gothic and Anglo-Saxon, and learnt enough 
to be much in advance of Johnson in that 
direction ; although his views were inevitably 
crude as judged by a later standard. His 
philology was meant to subserve a charac- 
teristic philosophy. Locke, he said, had 
made a happy mistake when he called his 
book an essay upon human understanding, 
instead of an essay upon grammar. Home 
Tooke, in fact, was a thorough nominalist 
after the fashion of Hobbes ; he especially 
ridiculed the ' Hermes ' of Harris, and Mon- 
boddo, who had tried to revive Aristotelean 
logic ; held that every word meant simply 

thing; and that reasoning was the art 




of putting words together. Some of his 
definitions on this principle became famous ; 
as that truth means simply what a man 
' troweth/ and that right means simply what 
is ruled, whence it follows that right and 
wrong are as arbitrary as right and left, and 
may change places according to the legis- 
lator's point of view. This and other con- 
clusions are criticised at some length by 
Dugald Stewart in his essays ( Works, v. 
149-88), who speaks respectfully of the 
author, though thinking that the doctrine 
tends to materialism ; and by John Fearn 
[q. v.] in his ' Anti-Tooke ' (1824). In this 
respect Home Tooke had a great influence 
upon James Mill, who constantly accepts 
Tooke's philological doctrines in order to 
confirm his own philosophy. In the last edi- 
tion of Mill's ' Analysis,' one of the editors, 
Andrew Findlater [q. v.], points out many 
of the misunderstandings into which Mill 
was thus led. 

Home Tooke had many disciples. Haz- 
litt in 1810 published a grammar in which 
the * discoveries ' of Home Tooke were ' for 
the first time incorporated.' Charles Richard- 
son [q. v.] was a warm disciple who defended 
him against Dugald Stewart, and who, in 
his dictionary (1837), accepted the doctrines 
of the ' immortal ' Home Tooke, the ' philo- 
sophical grammarian who alone was entitled 
to the name of discoverer.' 

' "EHE A HTEPOENTA, or the Diversions of 
Purley, Part I,' appeared in 1786, 8vo. An- 
other edition, with a new second part, was 
issued in 1798, and again in 1805. An edi- 
tion in 2 vols. 8vo by Richard Taylor, with 
additions from the author's copy and the 
letter to Dunning, appeared in 1829, and 
has been reprinted. Besides the pamphlets 
mentioned above, Home Tooke published a 
sermon in 1769 ; an ' Oration . . . at a Meet- 
ing of the Freeholders of Middlesex,' in 1770 ; 
and a ' Letter on the reported Marriage of ... 
the Prince of Wales ' in 1787 ; and he co- 
operated with Dr. Price in writing ' Facts 
addressed to Landowners,' &c., 1780 (MoK- 
GAN, Life of Price, p. 83). 

[The life by Alexander Stephens [q. v.], in 
2 vols. 8vo, is the best authority. Stephens knew 
Home Tooke in later years, and had some pri- 
vate information. A life by W. Hamilton Reid 
(1812) is of little value. The so-called 'Me- 
moirs, &c.,' by John A. Graham, published at 
New York, 1828, is an absurd attempt to identify 
Home Tooke with Junius. Much information is 
contained in the reports of the trial for libel in 
1777, and of the trial for high treason in 1794, 
in State Trials, vols. xx. and xxv. The proceed- 
ings in the action by Onslow against Home 
before Blackstone were published in 1770 ; and 

the proceedings in the action by Fox in 1 772 The 
debates in the Parliamentary History, vol. xxxv 
upon Home Tooke's eligibility to the House of 
Commons, include a few references to his personal 
history ; cf. Brit. Mus. Cat. s.v. < Home.'] L. S. 

TOOKE, THOMAS (1774-1858), econo- 
mist, born at Cronstadt on 29 Feb. 1774 
was the eldest son of William Tooke (1744-^ 
1820) [q. v.], at that time chaplain to the 
British factory at Cronstadt. Thomas began 
life at the age of fifteen in a house of busi- 
ness at St. Petersburg, and subsequently be- 
came a partner in the London firms of Ste- 
phen Thornton & Co., and Astell, Tooke, & 
Thornton. He took no important part in 
any public discussion of economic questions 
until 1819, in which year he gave evidence 
before committees of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment on the resumption of cash payments 
by the Bank of England. 

As a follower of Ricardo, Homer, and 
Huskisson, he was a strenuous supporter of 
the principles embodied in the report of 
the bullion committee of 1810. The three 
years which followed the Resumption Act 
of 1819 were marked by a great fall in the 
prices of nearly all commodities, and the 
opinion rapidly gained ground that the fall 
was due to a contraction of the currency 
which was assumed to result from the re- 
turn to cash payments. 

To combat this view was the task to 
which Tooke applied himself in his earliest 
work, ' Thoughts and Details on the High 
and Low Prices of the last Thirty Years,' 
published in 1823, and the same line of 
argument is pursued in his ' Considerations 
on the State of the Currency ' (1826) and 
in a < Letter to Lord Grenville ' (1829). His 
object was to ' negative the alleged influence 
of the bank restriction and resumption in 
raising or depressing general prices beyond 
the difference between gold and paper/ and 
to show that the act of 1819 was practically 
inoperative so far as any contraction of the 
currency was concerned. For this purpose 
he entered upon a detailed examination of 
the causes which might affect prices, and 
claimed to establish the conclusion that the 
variations, both during the period of restric- 
tion and after the resumption, were due to 
circumstances directly connected with the 
commodities themselves, and not to altera- 
tions in the quantity of money. 

The same views are developed at greater 
length in the ' History of Prices/ of which 
the first two volumes, dealing with the 
period from 1793 to 1837, were published in 
1838. His conclusions as regards that 
period were that the high prices which, speak- 
ing generally ruled between 1793 and 1 


4 8 


were due to a relatively large number of 
unfavourable seasons, coupled with the ob- 
structions to trade which were created by 
the war ; while the lower range of prices in 
the subsequent years was attributable to a 
series of more prolific seasons, the removal 
of the adverse influences arising out of a 
state of war, and the consequent improve- 
ment in the processes of manufacture and 

The '"History of Prices ' was completed in 
six volumes ; the third, dealing with the 
years 1838-9, was published in 1840, the 
fourth in 1848, and the fifth and sixth, in 
the compilation of which he was assisted 
by William Newmarch [q. v.], in 1857, the 
year before Tooke's death. 

The whole work is an admirable analysis 
of the financial and commercial history of 
the period which it covers ; and the subject 
was one with which Tooke was peculiarly 
well fitted to deal, possessing as he did the 
rather rare combination of a wide practical 
knowledge of mercantile affairs with con- 
siderable powers of reflection and reasoning. 
Whatever may be thought of his conclusions, 
the value of his methods of investigation is 
beyond dispute. 

The chief interest of the later volumes 
lies in their record of the steps by which he 
gradually severed himself from the sup- 
porters of the ' currency theory,' who may 
be regarded as the direct heirs of the bul- 
lionists of 1810 and 1819. 

The act passed in the latter year was a 
practical recognition of the evils insepa- 
rable from an inconvertible paper currency. 
But it did not take long to convince the 
wiser heads in the commercial world that 
the measure was incomplete. The expe- 
rience of the great crisis of 1825, followed 
by those of 1836-9, showed that it was not 
enough to impose on the Bank of England 
the liability of payment in gold unless there 
was also security that the bank had the 
means of discharging the liability. Both in 
1825 and in 1839 the danger of another 
suspension of cash payments was imminent. 
But while all were agreed that the manage- 
ment of the currency, so far as it rested 
with the bank, was unsatisfactory, there 
was great difference of opinion as to the 
remedy which should be applied. 

Out of the controversy emerged the act of 
1844, the main object of which was to pre- 
vent the over-issue of notes, and so to regu- 
late their quantity that the volume of the 
currency should at all times conform in 
amount to what it would have been under a 
purely metallic system. 

Tooke was resolutely opposed to the pro- 

visions of the act, holding them to be either 
superfluous or mischievous. He did not dis- 
pute that the affairs of the bank had been 
gravely mismanaged ; but he attributed this 
less to the system than to want of prudence 
in administering it. He thought that by 
some changes in the management of the 
bank, coupled with the compulsory mainte- 
nance of a much larger reserve of bullion, 
more satisfactory results would be achieved 
than under the inelastic system prescribed 
by the act. 

The supporters of the * currency theory,' 
whose principles were adopted by Peel and 
embodied in the act, were represented by 
Samuel Jones Loyd, baron Overstone [q.v.], 
Robert Torrens [q. v.], and 'George Warde 
Norman [q.v.] They contended that banks 
of issue, by the arbitrary extension of their 
circulation, could produce a direct effect upon 
prices, and thus stimulate speculation, with 
the consequent fluctuations and revulsions 
of credit ; that the mere enactment of con- 
vertibility on demand was not a sufficient 
safeguard against these evils ; and that the 
only adequate remedy was to separate the 
business of issue from that of banking in such 
a way that the former should regulate itself 
automatically, and that the discretion of the 
directors should be confined to the latter 

Tooke, on the other hand, reinforced later 
on by Fullerton and James Wilson (1805- 
1860) [q. v.], maintained that a paper cur- 
rency which was readily convertible on de- 
mand must necessarily conform, so far as its 
permanent value was concerned, to the value 
of a purely metallic currency ; that for this 
purpose no other regulation was required 
beyond ready and immediate convertibility ; 
that under these conditions banks had no- 
power of arbitrarily increasing their issues ; 
and that the level of prices was not directly 
affected by such issues. Before the com- 
mittee of 1832 Tooke went so far as to state 
that, according to his experience, a rise or 
fall of prices had invariably preceded, and 
could not therefore be caused by, an enlarge- 
ment or contraction of the circulation. 

This brief summary of Tooke's views re- 
presents his matured opinions as they took 
shape between 1840 and 1844, and were de- 
fined in his 'Enquiry into the Currency 
Principle ' (1844), and as they remained to 
the end of his life. But in his earlier writ- 
ings there are many passages inconsistent 
with his later opinions ; and the process of 
development was very gradual (see FULLER- 
TOX, Regulation of Currencies, 2nd edit. p. 
18). Overstone also observed before the 
committee of 1857 that ' Mr. Tooke is upon 




this subject of science very like our great 
artist Mr. Turner upon the subject of art : 
he has his later manner as well as his middle 

Tooke was one of the earliest supporters 
of the free-trade movement, which first 
assumed a definite form in the petition of the 
merchants of the city of London presented 
to the House of Commons by Alexander 
Baring (afterwards Baron Ashburton) [q. v.] 
on 8 May 1820. This document, which con- 
tains an admirable statement of the principles 
of free trade, was drawn up by To'oke ; and 
the circumstances which led to its prepara- 
tion are described in the sixth volume of the 
' History of Prices.' The substantial advances 
in the direction of free trade made by Lord 
Liverpool's government, especially after the 
accession of William Huskisson [q. v.] in 
1828, were no doubt largely due to the effect 
produced by the petition ; and it may'fairly 
be claimed for it that it gave the first im- 
pulse towards that revision of our commer- 
cial policy which was the work of the next 

It was to support the principles of the 
merchants' petition that Tooke, with Ricardo, 
Malthus, James Mill, and others, founded the 
Political Economy Club in April 1821. From 
the beginning he took a prominent part in 
its discussions, and continued to attend its 
meetings till within a few weeks of his 
death,- his last recorded attendance being on 
3 Dec. 1857. 

Besides giving evidence on economic ques- 
tions before several parliamentary com- 
mittees, such as those of 1821 on agricultural 
depression and on foreign trade, of 1832, 
1840, and 1848 on the Bank Acts, Tooke was 
a prominent member of the factories inquiry 
commission of 1833. He retired from active 
business on his own account in 1836, but 
was governor of the Royal Exchange Assu- 
rance Corporation from 1840 to 1852, and 
was also chairman of the St. Katharine's 
Dock Company. 

He was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety in March 1821, and correspondant de 
Tlnstitut de France (Academic des Sciences 
Morales et Politiques) in February 1853. 
He resided in London at 12 Russell Square, 
afterwards in Richmond Terrace, and at 
31 Spring Gardens, where he died on 26 Feb. 
1858. He married, in 1802, Priscilla Combe, 
by whom he had three sons. 

In the year after Tooke's death the Tooke 
professorship of economic science and statis- 
tics at King's College, London, was founded 
in his memory, the endowment being raised 
by public subscription. There is a water- 
colour sketch of Tooke in the office of the 


Royal Exchange Assurance Corporation, and 
a portrait by Sir Martin Archer Shee is in 
the possession of his granddaughter, Mrs. 
Pad wick, of the Manor House, Horsham. 

[Tooke's writings; Parliamentary Papers, 
1819-48; Proceedings of Political Economy 
Club, vol. iv. ; Economist, March 1858 ; Athe- 
naeum, 1858, i. 306, 595.] G-. H. M. 

TOOKE, WILLIAM (1744-1820), his- 
torian of Russia, born on 29 or 30 Jan. 1744 
(old style 18 Jan. 1743), was the second son 
of Thomas Tooke (1705-1773) of St. John's, 
Clerkenwell, by his wife Hannah, only 
daughter of Thomas Mann of St. James's, 
Clerkenwell, whom he married in 1738. The 
family claimed connection with Sir Bryan 
Tuke [q. v.] and George Tooke [q. v.] (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 164 et seq.) 

William was educated at an academy at 
Islington kept by one John Shield. He soon 
turned his attention to literature, and in 1767 
published an edition of Weever's ' Funeral 
Monuments' [see WEE VER, JOHN]. In 1769 
he issued in two volumes 'The Loves of 
Othniel and Achsah, translated from the 
Chaldee.' The ' translation ' was merely a 
blind, and Tooke's object appears to have been 
to give an account of Chaldee philosophy and 
religion ; he evinces an acquaintance with 
Hebrew. This was followed in 1772 by an 
edition of ' Mary Magdalen's Funeral Tears ' 
by Robert Southwell [q.v.] In 1771 Tooke 
obtained letters of ordination both as deacon 
and priest from Bishop Terrick of London, 
and received from John Duncombe [q. v.] 
the offer of the living of West Thurrock, 
Essex, in the same year. This he declined 
on being appointed chaplain to the English 
church at Cronstadt. Three years later, 
on the resignation of Dr. John Glen King 
[q. v.], Tooke was invited by the English 
merchants at St. Petersburg to succeed him 
as chaplain there. In this position he made 
the acquaintance of many members of the 
Russian nobility and episcopacy, and also of 
the numerous men of letters and scientists 
of all nationalities whom Catherine II sum- 
moned to her court (cf.WALiszEWSKi,^wfc>wr 
d'un Trone : Catherine II, 1894, pp. 235 et 
seq.) He was a regular attendant at the 
annual diner de tolerance which the empress 
gave to the clergy of all denominations, and 
at which Gabriel, the metropolitan of Russia, 
used to preside (ToozE, Life of Catharine //, 
iii 119). Among those whose acquaintance 
Tooke made was the French sculptor Fal- 
conet, then engaged on the statue of Pete 
the Great, and in 1777 he published Pieces 
written by Mons. Falconet and Mons. Dide- 
rot on Sculpture. . .translated from the 





French by William Tooke, with several addi- 
tions/ London, 4to. On 5 June 1783 he was 
elected F.R.S. (THOMSON, Hist. Royal So- 
ciety, App. p. lix), and on 14 May 1784 was 
admitted sizar of Jesus College, Cambridge, 
but neither resided nor graduated (note from 
Mr. E. Abbott of Jesus College). Shortly 
afterwards he became member of the im- 
perial academy of sciences at St. Petersburg 
and of the free economical society of St. 
Petersburg. While chaplain at St. Peters- 
burg Tooke made frequent visits to Poland 
and Germany, some details of which are 
printedfrom his letters in Nichols's t Literary 
Anecdotes' (ix. 168 et seq.) AtKonigsberg 
he made the acquaintance of Kant, the author 
of the ' Critique of Pure Reason.' 

In 1792 Tooke was left a fortune by a 
maternal uncle, and returned to England to 
enjoy it and devote himself to literary pro- 
duction. His long residence at St. Peters- 
burg, freedom of access to the imperial 
library there, and intimacy with Russian 
men of letters had given him exceptional 
facilities for the study of Russian history, 
and he now set to work to publish the results 
of his researches. He had already translated 
from the German ' Russia, or a compleat His- 
torical Account of all the Nations which 
compose that Empire,' London, 4 vols. 1780- 
1783, 8vo. In 1798 appeared * The Life of 
Catharine II, Empress of Russia; an en- 
larged translation from the French,' 3 vols. 
8vo. More than half the work consisted of 
Tooke's additions. It was followed in 1799 
by ' A View of the Russian Empire during 
the Reign of Catharine II and to the close 
of the present Century,' 3 vols. 8 vo ; a second 
edition appeared in 1800, and was translated 
into French in six volumes (Paris, 1801). 
In 1800 Tooke published a < History of Russia 
from the Foundation of the Monarchy by 
Rurik to the Accession of Catharine the 
Second,' London, 2 vols. 8vo. 

These works did not exhaust Tooke's 
literary activity. In 1795 he produced two 
volumes of 'Varieties of Literature,' and, 
encouraged by their success, followed it up 
in 1798 by a similar venture, i Selections 
from Foreign Literary Journals.' He was 
principal editor, assisted by William Beloe 
[q. v.] and Robert Nares [q. v.], of the < New 
and General Biographical Dictionary,' pub- 
lished in fifteen volumes in 1798 ; and in the 
same year he wrote ' Observations on the 
Expedition of General Bonaparte to the 
East,' 8vo. A few years later he began a 
translation in ten volumes of the sermons of 
the Swiss divine, George Joachim Zollikofer. 
The first two appeared in 1804 (2nd edit. 
1807), two in 1806, two in 1807, and two in 

1812 ; they were followed in 1815 by a trans- 
lation of the same divine's ' Devotional Exer- 
cises and Prayers.' In 1814 Tooke served as 
chaplain to the lord mayor of London, Sir 
William Domville, and preached in that 
capacity several sermons, which were pub- 
lished separately (see Brit. Mus. Cat.) He 
contributed largely to the l Monthly Review ' 
and the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ and is cre- 
dited with the authorship of the memoir of 
Sir Hans Sloane, written in French, and 
extant in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 30066 (Cat. 
Addit. MSS. 1882, p. 30). His last work 
was * Lucian of Samosata, from the Greek, 
with the Comments and Illustrations of Wie- 
land and others/ London, 1820, 2 vols. 4to. 

Tooke resided during his latter years in 
Great Ormond Street, Bloomsbury, but re- 
moved to Guilford Street just before his 
death, which took place on 17 Nov. 1820. 
He was buried on the 23rd in St. Pancras 
new burial-ground. An engraving by J. 
Collyer, after a portrait by (Sir) Martin 
Archer Shee, is prefixed to the ' Lucian/ 
Tooke married, in 1771, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Eyton of Llanganhafal, Denbigh- 
shire, by whom he had issue two sons, 
Thomas [q. v.] and William [q. v.], and a 
daughter Elizabeth. 

[An elaborate account of Tooke is given by 
his friend, John Nichols [q. v.], in his Literary 
Anecdotes, ix. 160-80. See also Tooke's Works 
in the British Museum Library; Gent. Mag. 
1814 i. 257, 363, ii. 47, 563, 564, 1816 i. 433, 
1820 ii, 466-8, 1839 ii. 605; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1894, ii. 2020.] A. F. P. 

TOOKE, WILLIAM (1777-1863), presi- 
dent of the Society of Arts, was the younger 
son of W 7 illiam Tooke (1744-1820) [q. v.], 
chaplain to the factory of the Russia Com- 
pany at St. Petersburg. Thomas Tooke [q. v.] 
was his elder brother. Born at St. Peters- 
burg on 22 Nov. 1777, William came to 
England in 1792, and was articled to William 
Devon, solicitor, in Gray's Inn, with whom 
he entered into partnership in 1798. Subse- 
quently he was for many years at 39 Bedford 
Row, in partnership with Charles Parker, 
and latterly in the firm of Tooke, Son, & 
Hallowes. In 1825 he took a prominent part 
in the formation of the St. Katharine's Docks, 
and was the London agent of George Barker 
[q. v.], the solicitor of the London and Bir- 
mingham railway. He shared in the foun- 
dation of the London University (afterwards 
called University College) in Gower Street, 
was one of the first council (19 Dec. 1823), 
and continued his services as treasurer until 
March 1841. In procuring the charter for the 
Royal Society of Literature he showed his 
liberality by refusing any remuneration for 



his professional services. For many years 
he was an active member of the council of the 
society, and one of the chief promoters of 
Thomas Wright's ( Biographia Britaunica 
Literaria.' In 1826, in conj unction with Lord 
Brougham, Dr. Birkbeck, George Grote, and 
others, he took part in the formation of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge ; but in 1846, like many others, he dis- 
approved of the publication of the society's 
' Biographical Dictionary ' (Gen t. Mag. 1846, 
i. 511). 

Tooke was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 12 March 1818. He was present 
at the first annual meeting of the Law In- 
stitution on 5 June 1827, and was mainly 
instrumental in obtaining a royal charter of 
incorporation for that society in January 
1832. For some years he was the usual chair- 
man of the meetings and dinners, and when 
Lord Brougham was meditating a measure 
for the establishment of local courts, he ad- 
dressed to him a letter in defence of the pro- 
fession of an attorney (ib. 1831, i. 74). From 
an earlier period he was a leading member 
of the Society of Arts ; in 1814 he was the 
chairman of the committee of correspondence 
and editor of the * Transactions/ and in 1862 
he was elected president of the society. For 
services rendered to the Institution of Civil 
Engineers he was elected an honorary mem- 
ber of that corporation. From 1824 he was 
honorary secretary and from 1840 one of the 
three treasurers of the Royal Literary Fund 

At the general election of 1830, in con- 
junction with his friend Sir John William 
Lubbock [q. v.], Tooke unsuccessfully con- 
tested the close borough of Truro. After 
the passing of the Reform Bill, however, 
he on 15 Dec. 1832 was elected, and re- 
presented the borough until July 1837 
(COURTNEY, Parliamentary Representation 
of Cornwall, 1889, p. 14). He was after- 
wards a candidate for Finsbury, but did not 
proceed to a poll, and on 30 June 1841 he un- 
successfully contested Reading. During the 
five sessions that he sat in parliament he 
supported reform, and gave his vote for 
measures for the promotion of education and 
for the abolition of slavery ; but in later life 
his views became more conservative. He 
died at 12 Russell Square, London, on 20 Sept. 
1863, and was buried in Kensal Green ceme- 
tery. In 1807 he married Amelia (d. 1848), 
youngest daughter of Samuel Shaen of Crix, 
Essex, and by her he left a son Arthur Wil- 
liam Tooke of Pinner, Middlesex and two 

Though assiduous in business, Tooke had 
an hereditary taste for literature. In 1804 

he pubhshed anonymously, in two volumes, 
'The Poetical Works of C. Churchill, with 
Explanatory Notes and an Authentic Ac- 
count of his Life ' (Annual Review, 1804, 
pp. 580-5 j Critical Review, May 1804, pp' 
17-23). This was republished in three 
volumes in 1844 under his own name in 
Pickering's 'Aldine Poets' (Gent. May. 
1844, ii. 161-4), and was reprinted in two 
volumes in the same series in 1892. In 1855 
he compiled ' The Monarchy of France, its 
Rise, Progress, and Fall,' 2 vols. 8vo (Gent. 
Mag. 1855, ii. 47). More recently he pri- 
vately printed verses written by himself and 
some of his friends, under the title of ' Verses 
edited by M.M.M.,' 1860. These initials re- 
presented his family motto, 'Militia Mea 
Multiplex.' He also wrote a pamphlet, signed 
W.T., entitled ' University of London: State- 
ment of Facts as to Charter,' 1835. He was 
a contributor to the ' New Monthly Maga- 
zine/ the ' Annual Register/ and the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine.' 

His portrait was painted by J. White for 
the board-room of the governors and directors 
of the poor of the parishes of St. Andrew, 
Holborn, and St. George's, Bloomsbury, and 
engraved in mezzotint by Charles Turner. 

[Gent. Mag. 1863, ii. 656-9; Illustr. London 
News, October 1863, p. 373, with portrait; Men 
of the Time, 1862, p. 753.] G. C. B. 


(1558 P-1621), divine, born at Exeter in 
1557 or 1558, was the third son of William 
Tooker of that town by his wife Honora, 
daughter of James Erisey of Erisey in 
Cornwall (WESTCOTE, Devonshire, 1845, p. 
526). He was admitted to Winchester 
College in 1572, and became a scholar at 
New College, Oxford, in 1575, graduating 
B.A. on 16 Oct. 1579 and M.A. on 1 June 
1583, and proceeding B.D. and D.D. on 
4 July 1594. In 1577 he was elected to a 
perpetual fellowship, and in 1580 was ap- 
pointed a canon of Exeter. In 1584 he was 
presented to the rectory of Kilkhampton in 
Cornwall, and in the following year resigned 
his fellowship on being collated archdeacon 
of Barnstaple on 24 April. In 1588 he was 
appointed chaplain to the queen and rector 
of West Dean in Wiltshire. In 1590 he 
became rector of Clovelly in Devonshire, 
but resigned the charge in 1601. In 1597 he 
published ' Charisma sive Donum Sanationis' 
(London, 4to), an historical vindication of 
the power inherent in the English sovereign 
of curing the king's evil. This work won 
him especial regard from Elizabeth, whose 
possession of the power was a proof of the 
validity of her succession. Tooker was a 



skilful courtier, and in 1604 published a 
treatise entitled ' Of the Fabrique of the 
Church and Churchmens Livings ' (London, 
8vo), dedicated to James I, whose chaplain 
he was, in which he attacked the tendency 
of puritanism towards ecclesiastical demo- 
cracy, on the ground that it paved the way 
for spiritual anarchy. On 16 Feb. 1604-5 
he was installed dean of Lichfield, resigning 
his archdeaconry. According to Fuller, James 
designed the bishopric of Gloucester for him, 
and actually issued the conge d'elire, but after- 
wards revoked it. Tooker died at Salisbury 
on 19 March 1620-1, and was buried in the 
cathedral. He left a son Robert, who in 
1625 became rector of Vange in Essex. 

William was a good scholar, and, accord- 
ing to Fuller, 'the purity of his Latin pen 
procured his preferment.' Its flexibility may 
also have favoured him. Besides the works 
mentioned, he was the author of ' Duellum 
sive Singulare Certamen cum Martino Becano 
Jesuita ' (London, 1611, 8vo), written against 
Becanus in defence of the ecclesiastical autho- 
rity of the English king, to which Becanus 
replied in 'Duellum Martini Becani Societatis 
Jesu Theologi cum Gulielmo Tooker de Pri- 
matu Regis Angliee,' Mayence, 1612, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 288; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Kirby's Win- 
chester Scholars, p. 145 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Anglic.; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. 1816, s.v. 
' Tucker ; ' Strype's Annals of the Reformation, 
1824, iv. 438-41, 555; Fuller's Worthies of 
England, 1662, 'Devonshire,' p. 275 ; Simms's 
Bibliotheca Staffordiensis; Shaw's Hist, and 
Antiq. of Staffordshire, 1798, i. 287.] E. I. C. 

TOOTEL, HUGH (1672-1743), catholic 
divine. [See DODD, CHARLES.] 

TOPCLIFFE, RICHARD (1532-1604), 
persecutor of Roman catholics, born, accord- 
ing to his own account, in 1532, was the 
eldest son of Robert Topcliffe of Somerby, 
near Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, by Mar- 
garet, daughter of Thomas, lord Borough 
(Harl MS. 6998, art. 19). He was probably 
the Richard Topcliffe who was admitted stu- 
dent of Gray's Inn in 1548 (Reg. col. 20). It 
has been assumed that he was the Richard 
Topcliffe who, after being matriculated as a 
pensioner of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
in November 1565, proceeded B.A. in 1568-9, 
and commenced M.A. in 1575 (COOPER, 
AihencB Cantabr. ii. 386). He represented 
Beverley in the parliament which met on 
8 May 1572, and was returned for Old Sarum 
to the parliament of 20 Oct. 1586. After 
the collapse of the northern rebellion he 
was a suitor for the lands of Richard Nor- 
ton (1488 P-1588) [q.v.] of Norton Conyers, 

Yorkshire. In 1584 a dispute began between 
him and the lord chief justice, Sir Christo- 
pher Wray [q. v.], about his claim to the 
lay impropriation of the prebend of Corring- 
ham and Stowe in Lincoln Cathedral. Subse- 
quently he was regularly employed by Lord 
Burghley, but in what capacity does not 
appear. In 1586 he was described as one of 
her majesty's servants, and in the same year 
was commissioned to try an admiralty case. 
He held some office about the court, and for 
twenty-five years or more he was most 
actively engaged in hunting out popish recu- 
sants, Jesuits, and seminary priests. This 
employment procured for him so much noto- 
riety that ' a Topcliffian custom ' became a 
euphuism for putting to the rack, and, in the 
quaint language of the court, t topcliffizare ' 
signified to hunt a recusant. 

The writer of an account of the apprehen- 
sion of the Jesuit Robert Southwell [q. v.], 
preserved among the bishop of Southwark's 
manuscripts, asserts that ' because the often 
exercise of the rack in the Tower was so 
odious, and so much spoken of by the people, 
Topcliffe had authority to torment priests 
in his own house in such sort as he shall 
think good.' In fact he himself boasted 
that he had a machine at home, of his own 
invention, compared with which the common 
racks in use were mere child's play (Rambler, 
February 1857, pp. 108-18 ; DODD, Church 
Hist. ed. Tierney, vol. iii. Append, p. 197). 
The account of his cruel treatment of South- 
well would be incredible if it were not con- 
firmed by admissions in his own handwriting 
(Lansdowne MS. 73, art. 47 ; TANNER, So- 
cietas Jesu usque ad sanguinis et vitce profu- 
sionem militans, p. 35). Great indignation 
was excited, even among the protestants, and 
so loud and severe were the complaints to 
the privy council that Cecil, in order to miti- 
gate the popular feeling, caused Topcliffe to 
be arrested and imprisoned upon pretence 
of having exceeded the powers given to him 
by the warrant; but the imprisonment was 
of short duration. At a later period Nicholas 
Owen [q. v.] and Henry Garnett [q. v.] were 
put to the test of the * Topcliffe ' rack. 

Topcliffe's name appears in the special 
commission against Jesuits which was issued 
on 26 March 1593. In November 1594 he 
sued one of his accomplices, Thomas Fitz- 
herbert, who had promised, under bond, to 
give 5,0007. to Topcliffe if he would perse- 
cute Fitzherbert's father and uncle to death, 
together with Mr. Bassett. Fitzherbert 
pleaded that the conditions had not been 
fulfilled, as his relatives died naturally, and 
Bassett was in prosperity. This being rather 
too disgraceful a business to be discussed in 




open court, 'the matter was put over for 
secret hearing,' when Topcliffe used some 
expressions which reflected upon the lord- 
keeper and some members of the privy 
council. Thereupon he was committed to 
the Marshalsea for contempt of court, and 
detained there for some months. Daring 
his incarceration he addressed two letters to 
the queen, and, in Dr. Jessopp's opinion, ' two 
more detestable compositions it would be 
difficult to find.' Topcliffe was out of prison 
again in October 1595. In 1596 he was en- 
gaged in racking certain gipsies or Egyptians 
who had been captured in Northampton- 
shire, and in 1597 he applied the torture of 
the manacles to Thomas Travers, who was in 
Bridewell for stealing the queen's standish 
(JARDINE, Reading on the Use of Torture in 
England, pp. 41, 99, 101). In 1598 he was 
present at the execution of John Jones, the 
Franciscan, whom he had hunted to death. 
He got possession of the old family house of 
the Fitzherberts at Padley, Derbyshire, and 
was living there in February 1603-4. He 
died before 3 Dec. 1604, when a grant of 
administration was made in the prerogative 
court of Canterbury to his daughter Margaret. 

He married Jane, daughter of Sir Edward 
Willoughby of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire, 
and by her had issue Charles, his heir; 
three other sons named John who probably 
died in infancy ; and two daughters, Susannah 
and Margaret. 

Dr. 1 Jessopp describes Topcliffe as ' a mon- 
ster of iniquity,' and Father Gerard in his 
narrative of the gunpowder plot speaks of 
1 the cruellest Tyrant of all England, Topcliffe, 
a man most infamous and hateful to all the 
realm for his bloody and butcherly mind' 
(MORRIS, Condition of Catholics, p. 18). A 
facsimile of a curious pedigree of the Fitz- 
herbert family compiled by him for the infor- 
mation of the privy council is given in Foley's 
< Records,' ii. 198. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dora. 1580-1604; Cal. 
Hatfield Manuscripts ; Acts of the Privy Coun- 
cil, 1580-1589 ; Bibl. Anglo-Poetica, pp. 64, 212 ; 
Birch's Elizabeth, i. 160 ; Cal. of Chancery Proc. 
temp. Eliz. i. 320 ; Croke's Reports, temp. Eliz. 
pp. 72, 644 ; Hallam's Constitutional Hist. i. 139, 
140; Hunter's Sheffield, p. 87; Jessopp's One 
Generation of a Norfolk House ; Lodge's Illus- 
trations, ii. 119-25, 143, 164, 428 ; Mora's Hist. 
Prov. Anglicanse Soc. Jesu, p. 192; Nichols's 
Progr. Eliz. (1823), ii. 215, 219; Notes and 
Queries. 5th ser. vii. 207, 270, 331, 357, 417, 
Sthser.'x. 133, 198, xi. 51, xii. 434; Oldys's 
British Librarian, p. 280 ; Poulson's Beverlac, 
p. 390 ; Bymer's Fcedera, xvi. 201 ; Sadler State 
Papers, ii. 206 ; Strype's Works (general index) ; 
Turnbull's Memoirs of Southwell (1856), p. 
xxiv; Wright's Elizabeth, ii. 169, 244.] T. C. 

. TOPHAM, EDWARD (1751-1820), 
journalist and play-writer, born in 1751, was 
the son of Francis Topham, LL.D. (d. 15 Oct. 
1770), master of faculties and judge of the 
prerogative court at York. This official ob- 
tained from Archbishop Hutton the promise 
of the reversion for his son, but, in conse- 
quence of the action of Dean Fountayne, the 
pledge was withdrawn. There was open war 
between Topham and the dean, and the 
former was lampooned by Laurence Sterne 
in 'A Political Romance, addressed to 
, Esq., of York,' printed (perhaps pri- 
vately) in 1759, and reissued in 1769 ; it was 
frequently reprinted as < The History of a 
Warm Watch Coat ' (DAVIES, York Press, 
pp. 256-60 ; see STEKNE, LAURENCE). 

The boy was educated at Eton under Dr. 
Foster, and remained there for eleven years. 
W T hile at school he dabbled in poetry and 
was one of the leaders in the rebellion 
against Foster's rule. He was admitted at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, as pensioner on 

22 April 1767, and as fellow-commoner on 

23 Oct. 1769, but he left without taking a 
degree. Possibly he was the Topham men- 
tioned as having drawn a caricature of the 
under-porter of Trinity (WORDSWORTH, So- 
cial Life at the Univ. p. 409). 

On leaving the university, Topham tra- 
velled on the continent for eighteen months, 
and then, in company with his old school- 
fellow Sir Paul Jodrell, spent six months in 
Scotland, publishing upon his return in 
1776 a sprightly volume of 'Letters from 
Edinburgh, 1774 and 1775, containing some 
Observations on the Diversions, Customs, 
Manners, and Laws of the Scotch Nation.' 
He next came to London and purchased a 
commission in the first regiment of life- 
guards. In 1777 he was 'cornet of his 
majesty's second troop of horse-guards,' and 
for about seven years he was the adjutant. 
He brought his regiment to a high state of 
efficiency, for which he received the thanks 
of the king and figured in print-shops as ' the 
tip-top adjutant.' In 1777 he published a 
tory ' Address to Edmund Burke on Affairs 
in America.' 

Topham soon became conspicuous in the 
fashionable world of London for his original 
style of dress and for the ease and elegance 
of his manners. His sartorial and other 
peculiarities were subsequently introduced 
to enliven the comedies of Frederic Reynolds 

[q. v.], who was Topham's guest in Suffolk 
in 1789 (cf. REYNOLDS, Memoirs, ii. 25-46). 
Meanwhile Topham associated with Wilkes, 
Home Tooke, the elder Colman, and Sheri- 
dan ; his talent as a writer of prologues 
and epilogues introduced him to the leading 




actors of the day, and led to his appearance 
as a play- writer. An epilogue, spoken by 
Charles Lee Lewes [q. v.] in the character of 
Moliere's old woman, filled Drury Lane for 
several nights ; and another, spoken by Miss 
Farren, on an unlucky tragedy recently 
brought out at that theatre, was equally 
popular. He wrote an epilogue for the 
benefit of Mary Wells [q. v.], and their 
friendship soon ripened into the closest inti- 
macy. They lived together for several years, 
and four children resulted from the union 
(MBS. SFMBEL, Memoirs, i. 56, &c.) The 
plays produced by Topham during this period 
of his life were: 1. 'Deaf Indeed/ acted 
at Drury Lane in December 1780, but not 
printed ; a f stupid and indecent ' farce. 
2. ' The Fool,' a farce in two acts, performed 
at Covent Garden, and printed in 1786, with 
a dedication to Mrs. Wells, owing to whose 
admirable impersonation of Laura it was 
well received. 3. ' Small Talk, or the West- 
minster Boy,' a farce, acted at Covent Gar- 
den for the benefit of Mrs. Wells on 11 May 
1786, but not printed. The Westminster 
boys effectually resented this production by 
coming to the theatre in force and preventing 
it being heard. 4. ' Bonds without Judg- 
ment, or the Loves of Bengal,' acted for four 
nights at Covent Garden in May 1787, but 
not printed. 

The daily paper called < The World ' was 
started by Topham, partly with the object of 
puffing Mrs. Wells, on 1 Jan. 1787. Two of 
his principal colleagues in its direction were 
Miles Peter Andrews [q. v.] and the Rev. 
Charles Este; and John Bell (1745-1831) 
[q. v.], the publisher, had a share in the 
management (Hist. MSS. Comm. 14th Rep. 
i. 368, 378). Its ' unqualified and audacious 
attacks on all private characters ' were at the 
start ' smiled at for their quaintness, then 
tolerated for their absurdity,' and ultimately 
repudiated with disgust (GiFFORD, Baviad 
and Mceviad, p. xi). In it appeared accounts 
of* elopements, divorces, and suicides, tricked 
out in all the elegancies of Mr. Topham's 
phraseology ' (HANNAH MORE, Memoirs, ii. 
77). It was in this paper that the fantastic 
productions of the Delia Cruscans, a small 
set of English poetasters dwelling for the 
most part at Florence, made their appear- 
ance [see MERRY, ROBERT]. Topham con- 
tributed to his paper articles under the title 
of ' The Schools,' in which he gave remini- 
scences of many of his companions at Eton, 
and his ' Life of the late John Elwes ' (1790) 
made its first appearance in its columns. 
This memoir of the miser (whom Topham, 
much to his credit, had persuaded to make 
a sensible will in the interest of his two 

illegitimate sons) passed through six editions 
during 1790, and in 1805 reached a twelfth 
edition, l corrected and enlarged, and with a 
new appendix.' A German translation was 
published at Danzig in 1791, and it was in- 
cluded in the ' Pamphleteer ' (xxv. 341 et 
seq.) Horace Walpole considered it 'one 
of the most amusing anecdotal books in the 
English language.' It is said to have raised 
the sale of the ' World ' by a thousand copies 
a day ; but an even better hit was made by 
the correspondence on the affairs of the 
prize ring between the pugilists Humphries 
and Mendoza. 

When George Nassau Clavering, third 
earl of Cowper, died at Florence on 22 Dec. 
1789, his character was assailed with viru- 
lence in the ' World.' Topham was indicted 
for libel, and the case was tried before Buller, 
who pronounced the articles to have been 
published with intent to throw scandal on 
the peer's family and as tending to a breach 
of the peace. The proprietor was found 
guilty, but counsel moved for an arrest of 
judgment on the ground of the misdirection 
of the judge to the jury. It was argued at 
great length before the court of king's bench, 
and after a protracted delay Kenyon deli- 
vered on 29 Jan. 1791 the judgment of the 
court in favour of Topham (DURNFORD and 
EAST, Reports, iv. 126-30). By the autumn 
of 1790 he and Este had separated in anger. 
The latter had acquired a fourth share in the 
paper, but had surrendered it from 25 Dec. 
1788 conditionally on the payment of an 
annuity to him. Topham claimed that its 
payment was dependent on the existence of 
the paper, and Este thereupon l opened a 
literary battery against him in the " Oracle." ' 
The printed letters are appended to a copy of 
Este's ' My own Life ' at the British Museum. 

After five years Topham disposed of his 
paper, abandoned Mrs. Wells for another 
beauty, and retired with his three surviving 
daughters to Wold Cottage, about two miles 
from Thwing in the East Riding of York- 
shire. It was rumoured that he intended to 
spend the rest of his days in farming some 
hundreds of acres of land and in writing the 
history of his own life. His kennels were con- 
sidered the best in England, and his greyhound 
Snowball was praised as l one of the best 
and fleetest greyhounds that ever ran,' and 
' his breed all most excellent ' (MACKINTOSH, 
Driffield Angler, Ode to Heath}. His ' Me- 
moirs ' did not appear, but he published in 
1804 an edition of SomervilleV Chase,' with 
a sketch of the author's life, preface, and 

While Topham was living at Wold Cot- 
tage a meteoric stone fell about three o'clock 




on the afternoon of Sunday, 13 Dec. 1795, 
within two fields of his house. Part of it 
was exhibited at the museum of James 
Sowerby, London, and this piece is now in 
the natural history department, South 
Kensington Museum. Topham published 

* An Account ' of it in 1798, and in 1799 
erected a column on the spot. The stone 
was 'in breadth 28 inches, in length 36 inches, 
and its weight was 56 pounds ' (KiNG, Sky- 
fallen Stones, pp. 21-22 ; SOWEEBY, British 
Mineralogy, ii. 3*-7*, 18*-19* ; Beauties of 
England, Yorkshire, pp. 398-405). Topham 
died at Doncaster on 26 April 1820, aged 68. 
He had three daughters, who were reckoned 

* the best horsewomen in Yorkshire.' 

Topham's portrait, with a pen in his hand, 
was painted by John Russell (1745-1806) 

\. v.] and engraved by Peltro William Tom- 
ins [q. v.] That of ' Mrs. Topham and her 
three children ' (1791) was also painted by 
Russell. They were the property of Rear- 
admiral Trollope (WILLIAMSON, Life of Rus- 
sell, pp. 40, 74, 167-8; BOADEN, Mrs. Inch- 
bald, i. 271). 

The costume, the plays, and the newspaper 
of Topham alike exposed him to the satire 
of the caricaturist. He is depicted in the 
Thunderer ' of Gillray (20 Aug. 1782) as a 
windmill, together with the Prince of Wales 
and Mrs. ' Perdita ' Robinson, who is said to 
have found refuge in his rooms when de- 
serted by her royal lover. In another car- 
toon (14 Aug. 1788) he is bringing to Pitt 
for payment his account for puft's and squibs 
against the whigs in the Westminster elec- 
tion. Rowlandson introduced Topham into 
his print of Vauxhall Gardens (28 June 1785). 
This was afterwards aquatinted by F. Jukes 
and etched by R. Pollard ( MILLER, Biogr. 
Sketches, i. 29-30). In other cartoons of 

to extinguish the genius of Holman. 

[Baker's Biogr. Dratnatica ; Nichols's Illustr. 
of Lit. History, vii. 484 ; Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1816 ; Gent. Mag. 1820, i. 469 ; Ross's 
Celebrities of Yorkshire Wolds, pp. 163-6; 
Public Characters, vii. 198-212 ; Annual Biogr. 
1821.. pp. 269-79 ; Bedding's Fifty Years' Re- 
collections, i. 80-2 ; John Taylor's Records of 
my Life, ii. 292-6 ; Grego's Rowlandson, i. 158, 
166-7, 183, 320 ; Wright and Evans's Gillray's 
Caricatures, pp. 26, 378, 382-4 ; Memoirs of 
Mrs. Sumbel, late Wells, passim ; information 
from Mr. W. Aldis Wright of Trin. Coll. 
Cambr.] W. P. C. 

1877), watercolour-painter, was born at 
Leeds, Yorkshire, on 15 April 1808. Early 

in life he was articled to an uncle who was 
a writing engraver, but about 1830 he came 
to London, and at first found employment 
in engraving coats-of-arms. He afterwards 
entered the service of Messrs. Fenner & 
Sears, engravers and publishers, and while 
in their employ he became acquainted with 
Henry Beckwith, the engraver, whose sister 
he married. He next found employment 
with James Sprent Virtue [q.v.], the publisher, 
for whom he engraved some landscapes after 
W. H. Bartlett and Thomas Allom. He also 
made designs for Fisher's edition of the 
* Waverley Novels,' some of which he him- 
self engraved, and he drew on the wood illus- 
trations for * Pictures and Poems/ 1846, 
Mrs. S. C. Hall's ' Midsummer Eve/ 1848, 
Burns's ' Poems/ Moore's ' Melodies and 
Poems/ Dickens's ' Child's History of Eng- 
land/ and other works. 

Topham's training as a watercolour-painter 
appears to have been the outcome of his own 
study of nature, aided by practice at the 
meetings of the Artists' Society in Clipstone 
Street. His earliest exhibited work was 
' The Rustic's Meal/ which appeared at the 
Royal Academy in 1832, and was followed 
in 1838, 1840, and 1841 by three paintings 
in oil-colours. In 1842 he was elected an 
associate of the New Society of Painters in 
Watercolours, of which he became a full 
member in 1843. He retired, however, in 
1847, and in 1848 was elected a member of 
the 'Old' Society of Painters in Water- 
colours, to which he contributed a Welsh 
view near Capel Curig, and a subject from 
the Irish ballad of 'Rory O'More.' His 
earlier works consist chiefly of representa- 
tions of Irish peasant life and studies of 
Wales and her people. These were diversi- 
fied in 1850 by a scene from ' Barnaby Rudge.' 
Topham possessed considerable histrionic 
talent, and was in that year one of Dickens's 
company of ' splendid strollers ' who acted 
'The Rent Day' of Douglas Jerrold and 
Bulwer Lytton's ' Not so bad as we seem.' 
Towards the end of 1852 he went for a few 
months to Spain to study the picturesque 
aspects of that country and its people. The 
earliest of his Spanish subjects appeared in 
1854, when he exhibited ' Fortune Telling- 
Andalusia/ and 'Spanish Gipsies.' These 
drawings were followed by ' The Andalusian 
Letter- Writer' and 'The Posada' in 1855, 
' Spanish Card-players ' and ' Village Mu- 
sician sin Brittany ''in 1857.' Spanish Gossip' 
in 1859, and others, chiefly Spanish. _ In 
the autumn of 1860 he paid a second visit to 
Ireland, and in 1861 exhibited ' The Angel's 
Whisper' and 'Irish Peasants at the Holy 
Well.' In 1864 he began to exhibit Italian 



drawings, sending 'Italian Peasants' and 
'The Fountain at Capri,' and in 1870 'A 
Venetian Well.' In the winter of 1876 he 
again went to Spain, and, although taken ill 
at Madrid, pushed on to Cordova, where he 
died on 31 March 1877, and was buried in 
the protestant cemetery. 

Four of his drawings, ( Galway Peasants/ 
' Irish Peasant Girl at the foot of a Cross/ 
1 Peasants at a Fountain, Basses-Pyrenees,' 
and ' South Weald Church, Essex/ are in the 
South Kensington Museum. Several of his 
drawings have been engraved : ' The Spinning 
Wheel' and 'The Sisters at the Holy Well/ 
by Francis Holl, A.R.A. ; 'Irish Courtship/ 
by F. W. Bromley; ' Making Nets/ by T. O. 
Barlow, R. A. ; ' The Mother's Blessing/ by 
W. H. Simmons ; and ' The Angel's Whisper/ 
for the 'Art Journal' of 1871, by C. W. 

His son, Frank William Warwick Top- 
ham, is well known as a painter of figure 

[Roget's Hist, of the 'Old Water-colour' So- 
ciety, 1891, ii. 316-26; Art Journal, 1877, 
p. 176 ; Eoyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 
1832-58; Exhibition Catalogues of the New 
Society of Painters in Watercolours, 1842-7; 
Exhibition Catalogues of the Society of Painters 
in Watercolours, 1848-77.] "E. E. G. 

TOPHAM, JOHN (1746-1803), anti- 
quary, born on 6 Jan. 1746 at Elmly, near 
Huddersfield, was the third son of Matthew 
Topham (d. 1773), vicar of Withernwick 
and Mapleton in Yorkshire, and of his wife 
Ann, daughter of Henry Willcock of Thorn- 
ton in Craven. Matthew was the fifth son 
of Christopher Topham of Caldbergh and 
Withernwick. John early showed an incli- 
nation for antiquarian study. He proceeded 
to London while young to fill a small ap- 
pointment under Philip Carteret W T ebb [q. v.], 
solicitor to the treasury. By his influence 
he obtained a place in the state paper office 
with Sir Joseph Ayloffe [q. v.] and Thomas 
Astle [q. v.] On 5 Feb. 1771 he was ad- 
mitted to Lincoln's Inn, and on 5 April 1779 
he was elected a member of the Royal So- 
ciety. In May 1781 he was appointed a 
deputy-keeper of the state papers, and in 
April 1783 a commissioner in bankruptcy 
(Gent. Mag. 1781 p. 244, 1783 i. 367). On 
19 March 1787 he became a bencher of 
Gray's Inn, and on 29 Nov. was elected 
treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, to 
which he had been admitted a fellow in 
1767 (FOSTER, Reg. of Admissions to Gray's 
Inn, p. 393; Gent. Mag. 1787, ii. 1119). 
About 1790 he became librarian to the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in succession to Michael 
Lort [q. v.] He also filled the offices of 

registrar to the charity for the relief of poor 
widows and children of clergymen and of 
treasurer to the orphan charity school. He 
died without issue at Cheltenham on 19 Aug. 
1803, and was buried in Gloucester Cathe- 
dral, where a marble monument was erected 
to him in the nave (FOSBROKE, History of 
Gloucester City, 1819, p. 141). On 20 Aug. 
1794 he married Mary, daughter and co- 
heiress of Mr. Swinden of Greenwich, Kent. 

Besides making numerous contributions 
to the ' Archseologia ' of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, Topham rendered important services 
to historians by his work among the state 
papers. Together with Philip Morant [q. v.], 
Richard Blyke [q. v.], and Thomas Astle he 
collected and arranged the ' Rotuli Parlia- 
mentorum' from 1278 to 1503, published 
for the record commission, to which he was 
secretary, in six volumes between 1767 and 
1777. In 1775 he edited Francis Gregor's 
translation of Sir John Fortescue's ' De 
Laudibus Legum Anglise ' and (in collabo- 
ration with Richard Blyke) Sir John Glan- 
vill's ' Reports of certain Cases . . . de- 
termined ... in Parliament in the twenty- 
first and twenty-second years of James I/ 
to w r hich he prefixed ' an historical account 
of the ancient right of determining cases 
upon controverted elections.' In 1781 the 
Society of Antiquaries published a tract by 
him entitled ' A Description of an Antient 
Picture in Windsor Castle representing the 
Embarkation of King Henry VIII at Dover, 
May 31, 1520 ' (London, 8vo), and in 1787 
he contributed ' Observations on the Ward- 
robe Accounts of the twenty-eighth year of 
King Edward I' [1299-1300] to the ' Liber 
Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobae/ 
published by the same society under his direc- 

Topham's library was sold in 1804, and 
several of his manuscripts were purchased by 
the British Museum. Among these may be 
mentioned the Topham charters, in fifty-six 
volumes, relating to lands granted to various 
religious houses in England (SiMS, Hand- 
book, p. 150). 

[Poulson's History of Holderness, i. 474 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1794 ii. 765, 18G3 ii. 794; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. x. 366, 415 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecdotes, iii. 202, 206, 250, viii. 134; Nichols's 
Lit. Illustr. vol. vi. passim.] E. I. C. 

TOPHAM, THOMAS (1710P-1749), 
known as ' the strong man/ was born in 
London about 1710, and was the son of a 
carpenter who apprenticed him to his own 
trade. In early life he was landlord of the 
Red Lion Inn, near old St. Luke's Hos- 
pital, and, though he there failed in busi- 
ness, soon gained profit and notoriety by his 




feats of strength. His first public exhibition 
consisted in pulling- against a horse while 
lying on his back with his feet against the 
dwarf wall that divided Upper and Lower 
Moorfields. On 10 July 1734, a concert at 
Stationers' Hall, given for his benefit, was 
diversified by his herculean performances, 
and the woodcut on an extant programme 
(Burney Coll., Brit. Mus.) shows the strong 
man lying extended between two chairs, 
with a glass of wine in his right hand, and 
five gentlemen standing on his body. About 
this time, or later, he became landlord of 
the Duke's Head, a public-house in Cadd's 
Row (afterwards St. Alban's Place), near 
Islington Green. 

Topham exhibited in Ireland (April 1737) 
and Scotland, and at Macclesfield in Cheshire 
so impressed the corporation by his feats 
that they gave him a purse of gold and made 
him a free burgess. At Derby he rolled up 
a pewter dish of seven pounds 'as a man 
rolls up a sheet of j>aper ;' twisted a kitchen 
spit round the neck of a local ostler who had 
insulted him, and lifted the portly vicar of 
All Saints with one hand, he himself lying 
on two chairs with four people standing on 
his body, which (we are told) he ' heaved at 
pleasure.' He further entertained the com- 
pany with the song of < Mad Tom,' though in 
a voice l more terrible than sweet. ' 

On 28 May 1741, to celebrate the taking 
of Portobello by Admiral Vernon, he per- 
formed at the Apple Tree Inn, formerly op- 
posite Coldbath Fields prison, London, in 
the presence of the admiral and numerous 
spectators. Here, standing on a wooden 
stage, he raised several inches from the 
ground three hogsheads of water weighing 
1,836 pounds, using for the purpose a strong 
rope and tackle passing over his shoulders. 
This performance is represented in an etching 
published by W. H. Toms in July 1741, from 
a drawing by C. Leigh (cf. woodcut in 
PIKKS'S Clerkenwell, p. 78). One night he 
is said to have carried a watchman in his 
box from Chiswell Street till he finally 
dropped his sleeping burden over the wall 
of Bunhill Fields burying-ground. Once, in 
the Hackney Road, he held back a horse and 
cart in spite of the driver's efforts to proceed. 
Dr. Desaguliers records, among other feats of 
Topham's witnessed by him, the bending of 
a large iron poker nearly to a right angle 
by striking it upon his bare left arm. 

In 1745, having left Islington, he was 
established as master of the Bell and Dragon, 
an inn in Hog Lane, St. Leonard's, Shore- 
ditch. Here he exhibited for his usual 
charge of a shilling a head. 

Topham was about five feet ten inches in 

height, muscular and well made, but he 
walked with a slight limp. He is said to 
have been usually of a mild disposition ; but, 
excited to frenzy by the infidelity of his 
wife, he stabbed her and then wounded 
himself so severely that he died a few days 
afterwards at the Bell and Dragon on 
10 Aug. 1749. He was buried in the church 
of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. 

Topham was a freemason and a member 
of the Strong Man Lodge (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. vi. 194). A dish of hard pewter, 
rolled up by Topham on 3 April 1737, is 
preserved in the British Museum, and is 
marked with the names of Dr. Desaguliers 
and others who witnessed the performance 
(cf. CEOMWELL, Islington, p. 245). 

[Nelson's Islington; contemporary newspaper 
advertisements, reprinted by J. H. Burn in 
1841, and inserted in the Brit. Mus. copy of 
Nelson's book ; Coutt's Hist, and Traditions of 
Islington, 1861 ; Button's Hist, of Derby ; Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 193, 194; Pinks's 
Clerkenwell, 1881, pp. 77-8 ; Cromwell's Isling- 
ton, pp. 243-7 ; Kirby's Wonderful Museum, 
1 803 ; Wilson's Eccentric Mirror, vol. iii. (1 807) ; 
Fairholt's Remarkable and Eccentric Characters, 
1849, pp. 47-57.] W. W. 


(1740-1778), divine, was the son of Richard 
Toplady, a major in the army, by Catherine, 
daughter of Dr. Bate of Canterbury. His 
mother's brother Julius, rector of St. Paul's, 
Deptford, was a well-known Hutchinsonian. 
Augustus Montague was born at Farnham, 
Surrey, on 4 Nov. 1740. His father dying 
at the siege of Carthagena (1741), he grew 
up under his mother's care, and was a short 
time at Westminster school. There is a 
delightful journal by the boy describing his 
mother's fondness, his uncle's cross speeches, 
and containing some boyish prayers and ser- 
mons (Christian Observer, September 1830). 
On his mother's removal to Ireland in 1755 
he was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and graduated there in 1760. One August 
evening in 1755 or 1756 (he gives both years 
at different times ; see Works, vi. 199, 207) 
he was converted by a sermon from James 
Morris, a follower of Wesley, in a barn at 
Cody main. His views then were those of 
Wesley, to whom he wrote a humble letter, 
criticising some of Hervey's opinions, in 
1758 (TYEKMAN, Life of Wesley, ii. 315). 
But this same year came his change to 
the extreme Calvinism of which he was the 
fiercest defender. He was ordained deacon 
by the bishop of Bath and Wells on 5 June 
1762, and licensed to the curacy of Blagdon. 
After his ordination as priest on 16 June 
1764, he became curate of Farleigh, Hunger- 





ford. Either by purchase or some practice 
which afterwards troubled his conscience, 
the benefice of Harpford with Venn-Ottery 
was obtained for him in 1766. He exchanged 
it in 1768 for Broad Hembury, which he held 
till his death. 

Outside the circle of his immediate friends 
Ambrose Serle, Sir Richard Hill, Berridge, | 
and Romaine Toplady mixed freely with j 
men of all denominations and even general 
society. He corresponded with Mrs. Catha- 
rine Macaulay [q. v.], and was acquainted 
with Johnson. One of his letters contains an 
anecdote of an evening with them, in which 
Johnson, in order to tease Mrs. Macaulay 
about her republican views, invited her foot- 
man to sit down with them. ' Your mis- 
tress will not be angry. We are all on a 
level ; sit down, Henry.' Toplady was the 
author of the fine hymn, ' Rock of ages cleft | 
for me/ which was published in the ' Gospel | 
Magazine ' in October 1775, probably soon 
after it was written, although a local tradi- j 
tion associates its symbolism with a rocky j 
gorge in the parish of Blagdon, his first curacy 
(JULIAN, Diet, of Hymnoloyy, p. 970). It 
does not appear in his early volume, ( Poems 
on Sacred Subjects/ 1759. It was translated 
into Latin by Mr. Gladstone in!839. Mont- 
gomery puts Toplady's hymns on a level with 
those of Charles Wesley, but that is too high 
an estimate. The best, after l Rock of Ages,' 
is i Deathless Principle, arise/ a soliloquy to 
the soul of the type of Pope's ' Vital Spark.' 

Of the contemporary Calvinist writers 
Toplady was the keenest, raciest, and best 
equipped philosophically. His best book 
is * The Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Cal- 
vinism of the Church of England' (1774), 
a presentation of the subject from the times 
of the apostolic fathers to those of the 
Caroline divines, full of quotations, acute, 
incisive, and brilliant. But it is the brief 
of a controversialist. The unpardonable blot 
in all his writings is his controversial venom 
against Wesley and his followers. The 
wrangle began after Toplady had published 
a translation of a Latin treatise by Jerorn 
Zanchius on Calvinism, 1769. Wesley pub- 
lished an abridgment of this piece for the 
use of the methodist societies, summarising 
it in conclusion with contemptuous coarse- 
ness : l The sum of all this : one in twenty 
(suppose) of mankind are elected : nineteen 
in twenty are reprobated. The elect shall 
be saved, do what they will : the reprobate 
shall be damned, do what they can. Wit- 
ness my hand, A T .' Toplady replied in 
'A Letter to Mr. Wesley' (1770), charging 
him with clandestine printing, coarseness, 
evasiveness, unfairness, and raking together 

stories against Wesley's general conduct. 
Wesley reiterated his estimate in ' The Con- 
sequence proved ' (1771). Toplady replied in 
< More Work for Mr. Wesley ' (1772). He had, 
he said, kept the manuscript by him ' some 
weeks, with a view to striking out what 
might savour of undue asperity,' but it con- 
tains sentences like these : Wesley's tract is 
' a known, wilful, palpable lie to the public.' 
' The satanic guilt ... is only equalled by 
the satanic shamelessness.' After this Wesley 
declined to * fight with chimney-sweepers,' 
and left the ' exquisite coxcomb,' as he terms 
Toplady, to Walter Sellon, against whom 
Toplady raged in l The Historic Proof.' Until 
disease stopped him Toplady never ceased to 
hound Wesley in the ' Gospel Magazine,' of 
which he was editor from December 1775 to 
June 1776 ; and in l An old Fox tarred and 
feathered' he brackets with malicious delight 
the passages from Johnson's ' Taxation no 
Tyranny,' which Wesley has transferred with- 
out acknowledgment to his l Calm Address 
to the American People ' (1775). There was 
venom among Wesley's followers also. 

In 1775 signs of consumption necessitated 
Toplady's removal from his living at Broad 
Hembury, under leave of non-residence, to 
London. There he ministered in the French 
Calvinist reformed church in Orange Street. 
When he was in the last stage of consump- 
tion a story reached him that he was reported 
to have changed some of his sentiments, and 
to wish to see Wesley and revoke them. 
He appeared suddenly 'in the Orange Street 
pulpit on 14 June 1778, and preached a ser- 
mon published the following week as ' The 
Rev. Mr. Toplady's dying avowal of his Re- 
ligious Sentiments,' in which he affirmed his 
belief, and declares that of all his religious 
and controversial writings (especially those 
relating to Wesley) he would not strike out 
a single line. Toplady died of consumption 
on 14 Aug. 1778. Subsequently Sir Richard 
Hill appealed to Wesley about a story, said 
to emanate from a curate of Fletcher, that 
his old enemy had died in black despair, 
uttering the most horrible blasphemies. 
Hill enclosed a solemn denial of the calumny, 
signed by thirteen witnesses of his last hours. 
Toplady was buried in Tottenham Court 
Chapel, where a marble tablet, with the motto 
Eock of Ages cleft for me, 
Let me hide myself in Thee, 
was erected to his memory. Rowland Hill, 
apparently unsolicited, pronounced a eulogy 
on him at the funeral. 

Toplady's other works include : 1. l The 
Church of England vindicated from the 
Charge of Arminianism,' 1769. 2. 'The 
Scheme of Christian and Philosophical Ne- 




cessity asserted,' 1775. 3. ' A Collection of 
Hymns for Public and Private Worship/ 
1776. 4. 'A Course of Prayer/ 1790? (sixteen 
later editions). 

[Memoirs, 1778; Works, with Memoir by W. 
Kow, 1794, 2nd edit. 1825; Memoir, by W. 
Winters, 1872; Gent. Mag. 1778 p. 335, 1814 
ii. 433 ; Smith's Hist, of Farnham.] H. L. B. 

TOPLEY, WILLIAM (184 1-1 894), geo- 
logist, the son of William Topley of Wool- 
wich by his wife Carolina Georgina Jeans, 
was born at Greenwich on 13 March 1841. 
After receiving an education at private 
schools the son became a student at the i 
royal school of mines from 1858 to 1862, 
and in the following year was appointed an 
assistant geologist on the geological survey. 
He began his work in the field under the 
direction of Dr. Le Neve Foster, with whom 
and other helpers he was for some time en- 
gaged on the survey of the Weald. When 
this interesting but difficult task was com- 
pleted, Topley was entrusted with the pre- 
paration of the memoir in which their labours 
were embodied. The book was published in 
1875, and its value as a work of reference 
was at once recognised. But prior to this, 
in 1865, he and Foster had published in the 
1 Quarterly Journal of the Geological So- 
ciety' (xxi. 443) a paper on the * Valley of 
the Medway and the Denudation of the 
Weald.' Its clear statement of facts and 
lucid reasoning closed a long controversy, 
and proved the physical structure of the 
Weald to be the result of subaerial denuda- 
tion' in other words, due to the action of 
rain and rivers. 

On the conclusion of his field work in the 
south, Topley, who in 1868 was promoted to 
the rank of geologist, was sent to the north 
of England, and employed in surveying the 
carboniferous rocks and the glacial drifts 
around Alnwick and Morpeth. While thus 
engaged he studied, in conjunction with Pro- 
fessor Lebour, the great sheet of intrusive 
basalt called the Whin Sill, the result being 
another important communication to the Geo- 
logical Society (Quarterly Journal, xxxiii. 
406). From time to time Topley revisited 
the scene of his former labours in the south 
of England. He was consulted about 1872 
on the project of boring in search of the 
palaeozoic rocks at Battle in Sussex, and 
occasionally visited the locality to report 
progress, 'in 1880 he was recalled from 
Northumberland to the survey office in Lon- 
don to superintend the publication of maps 
and memoirs, and in 1893 was placed in full 
charge of that office. Besides this he was 
secretary from 1872 to 1888 of the geological 
section at the meetings of the British Asso- 

ciation, and in 1888 of the international 
geological congress on occasion of its meet- 
ing in London. From 1887 to 1889 he was 
editor of the < Geological Record/ and from 
1885 to 1887 was president of the Geologists' 
Association, besides serving on the councils 
and committees of many societies. He also 
took the chief part in preparing the British 
section for the geological map of Europe, 
now being published as a result of the in- 
ternational congress, and aided in making 
the small map of that continent which ap- 
peared in the 'Geology' written by Sir 
Joseph Prestwich. 

Topley had always paid attention to the 
practical as well as to the scientific aspect 
of geology, so that his advice was often 
sought in questions of water supply, the 
search for coal or petroleum, hygiene, the 
erosion of coasts, geological topography, and 
the agricultural value of soils questions on 
which he wrote from time to time. But he 
was not only a geologist, for he was also 
much interested in botany, and had a good 
knowledge of English literature. Besides 
being a member of various foreign societies, 
he was elected in 1862 a fellow of the Geo- 
logical Society, in 1874 an associate of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, and became 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888. He 
was also an examiner in geology at the New- 
castle college of science and for the science 
and art department. 

In the early autumn of 1894 he attended 
the meeting of the international geological 
congress at Zurich, from which he went on to 
Algiers. He died at his residence at Croydon 
on 30 Sept. 1894. In 1867 he married Ruth 
Whiteman, who, with one son, survived him. 

[Obituary notice (with portrait) by H. B. 
Woodward in Geological Mag. 1894, p. 570 (pri- 
vately reprinted in enlarged form); also (by 
Professor A. H. Green) Proc. Koyal Soe. LIX. 
p. Ixix, and (by W. Whitaker) Proc. Inst. Civil 
Eng. cxix. pt. i. ; information from Mrs. Topley 
and personal knowledge.] T. G. B. 

TOPSELL, EDWARD (d. 1638?), 
divine and author, although he designated 
himself M.A. on the title-pages of his publi- 
cations, does not figure in the official lists of 
graduates of Oxford or Cambridge Uni- 
versity. He took holy orders, and was in- 
ducted into the rectory of East Hoathly, 
Sussex, in June 1596. In the same year 
he first appeared in print as author of ' The 
Reward of Religion. Delivered in sundrie 
Lectures upon the Booke of Ruth/ 1596 
(London, by John Windell, 8vo). This 
work Topsell dedicated to Margaret, lady 
Dacres of the South, and there are prefatory 
verses by William Attersoll. It proved sum- 



ciently popular for a second edition to appear 
in 1601, and a third in 1613. Topsell held 
the living of East Hoathly for two years, 
and afterwards secured much influential 
patronage. In 1599 he issued ( Time's La- 
mentation, or an exposition of the prophet 
Joel in sundry [427] sermons or medita- 
tions' (London, by E. Bollifant for G. 
Potter, 4to). He dedicated the book to 
Charles Blount, lord Mountjoy, whom he 
described ' as the meane of his preferment.' 
Many passages in the volume denounce 
fashionable vices and frivolities. On 7 April 
1604 he was licensed to the perpetual 
curacy of St. Botolph, Aldersgate (NEW- 
COURT, Rcpertorium, i. 916; HENNESSY, 
Novum Repertorium, p. 105), and seems to 
have retained that benefice till his death. 
But he accepted other preferment during 
the period. For one year, 1605-6, he was 
vicar of Mayfield, Sussex ; from May 1610 
to May 1615 he was vicar of East Grinstead, 
on the presentation of Richard Sackville, 
earl of Dorset (Sussex Archaeological Collec- 
tions, xx. 147, cf. xxvi. 69; STENNING, 
Notes on East Grinstead, 1885). He de- 
scribed himself in 1610 as ' chaplain ' of 
Hartfield in his book entitled ' The House- 
holder, or Perfect Man. Preached in three 
sermons' (London, by Henry Rockyt, 1610, 
16mo). Topsell dedicated the volume to the 
Earl of Dorset and his wife Anne, as well 
as to four neighbouring ' householders/ 
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague of 
Cowdray, Sampson Lennard of Hurstmon- 
ceaux, Thomas Pelham of Halland, and 
Richard Blount of Dedham. 

Topsell's chief title to fame is as the com- 
piler of two elaborate manuals of zoology, 
which were drawn mainly from the works of 
Conrad Gesner. Topsell reflected the cre- 
dulity of his age, but his exhaustive account 
of the prevailing zoological traditions and 
beliefs gives his work historical value. The 
quaint and grotesque illustrations which form 
attractive features of Topsell's volumes are 
exact reproductions of those which adorned 
Gesner's volumes. Topsell's first and chief 
zoological publication was entitled ' The His- 
toric of Foure-footed Beastes, describing the 
true and lively Figure of every Beast . . . 
collected out of all the Volumes of C. Gesner 
and all other Writers of the Present Day,' 
London, by W. Jaggard, 1607, fol. ; this was 
dedicated to Richard Neile, dean of West- 
minster. On some title-pages a hyena is 
figured, on others a gorgon. A very long 
list of classical authorities is prefixed, but 
the English writer Blundeville is quoted in 
the exhaustive section on the horse. Top- 
sell's second zoological work was ' The His- 

toric of Serpents. Or the Seconde Booke of 
living Creatures,' London, by W. Jaggard, 
1608, fol. : this was also dedicated to Richard 
Neile, dean of Westminster. Topsell's two 
volumes, his histories of Foure-footed Beasts ' 
and ' Serpents,' were edited for reissue in 
1658 by John Rowland, M.D. ' The Theatre 
of Insects,' by Thomas Moffett [q. v.], was 

Topsell seems to have died in 1638, when 
a successor was appointed to him as curate 
of St. Botolph, Aldersgate. A license was 
granted him on 12 Aug. 1612 to marry Mary 
Seaton of St. Ann and Agnes, Aldersgate, 
widow of Gregory Seaton, a stationer (CHES- 
TER, Marriage Licenses, 1351). 

[Topsell's "Works Brydges's British Biblio- 
grapher, i. 560 ; authorities cited.] S. L. 


(jtf. 1517), English priest and pilgrim, was 
presented in 1511 to the rectory of Mulberton 
in Norfolk by Sir Thomas Boleyn (afterwards 
Earl of Wiltshire), father of Anne Boleyn. 
In 1517 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land, and of his journey he has left an 
account. He started from Rye in Sussex 
on 20 March 1517, passed through Dieppe, 
Paris, Lyons, and St. Jean de Maurienne, 
crossed the Mont Cenis into Italy, and, 
after some stay in Turin, Milan, and Pavia, 
reached Venice on 29 April. Here he em- 
barked for Syria on 14 June, after witnessing 
the 'marriage of the Adriatic ' and observing 
the activity of the Venetian arsenal in the 
building of new ships. Twenty-three new 
galleys were then being constructed; more 
than a thousand workmen were employed 
upon these, and a hundred hands were busy 
at ropemaking alone. The Venetian artil- 
lery, both naval and military, Torkington de- 
scribes as formidable. Torkington's voyage 
from Venice to Jaffa was by way of Corfu, 
Zante, Cerigo, and Crete. He sighted Pales- 
tine on 11 July, and landed (at Jaffa) on the 
15th ; reached Jerusalem on the 19th, and 
stayed there till the 27th. He was lodged 
in the Hospital of St. James on Mount Sion, 
and visited all the places of Christian interest 
in or near the holy city, including Bethle- 
hem. His return to England was more 
troubled than his outward passage. He was 
detained a month in Cyprus ; was left behind 
ill at Rhodes, where he had to stay six 
weeks ; had a stormy voyage from Rhodes to 
South Italy, and, though he left Jaffa on 
31 July 1517, did not reach Dover till 
17 April 1518. He considered his pilgrimage 
ended at the shrine of St. Thomas in Can- 
terbury, and reckoned that it took him a 
year, five weeks, and three days. While sick 




in Rhodes (September-October 1517) he was 
under the care of the knights of St. John, 
who were soon after driven out by the Turks 
(1522). In Corfu (February 1517) he wit- 
nessed a Jewish wedding, which he describes; 
and in Lower Italy he visited Messina, 
Reggio, Salerno, Naples, and Rome, making 
his way back to his own country by Calais 
and the Straits of Dover. He complains 
much of Turkish misrule and annoyance in 
Palestine. His credulity is well up to the 
average in the matter of relics and sacred 
sites ; thus his book ends with a reference 
to the ' Dome of the Rock ' as the veritable 
Temple of Herod. In Pavia he saw the tomb 
of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of 
Edward III, whose remains were afterwards 
moved to England. 

His account remained in manuscript till 
1883. There are two extant transcripts of 
the original in the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 28561 and 28562) ; the former is of 
the sixteenth century, the latter was made 
late in the eighteenth century by Robert 
Bell Wheler [q. v.] of Stratford-on-Avon, 
who also described the text in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for October 1812. Tork- 
ington's diary was printed in 1883 by 
W. J. Loftie, with the title of the ' Oldest 
Diary of English Travel' (see also Infor- 
mation for Pilgrims, ed. E. G. Dun ). From 
the ' Information for Pilgrims ' published 
in 1498, 1515, and 1524, Torkington appa- 
rently copies his description of Crete, in- 
cluding the wrong reference to * Acts ' in- 
stead of ' Titus ' for St. Paul's condemna- 
tion of the Cretans. His account of the 
wonders of the Holy Land, of Venice, and 
the various things seen between Venice and 
Jaffa agrees almost verbatim with Pynson's 
edition of Sir Richard Guildforde's 'Pilgrim 
Narrative ' (1506-7, printed in 1511), written 
by Guildforde's chaplain. 

[Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 28561, 28562 ; 
Loftie's edit, of the Oldest Diary of English 
Travel, 1883.] C. E. B. 

LANDS, JAMES, first lord, d. 1579 ; SANDI- 
LANDS, JAMES, seventh lord, d. 1753.] 

1632), mathematician, was born in Shrop- 
shire in 1564, probably at Shrewsbury, as 
he was admitted to Shrewsbury free gram- 
mar school as an ' oppidan' in 1571 (CAL- 
TERT, Shrewsbury School Eegestum Scho- 
larium, p. 41). He matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, 17 Nov. 1581, as a ' plebeian/ 
and graduated B.A. on 5 Feb. 1583-4, and 
proceeded M.A. from Brasenose College (so 
WOOD) on 8 July 1591. Entering into holy 

orders, he was appointed rector of Salwarpe 
in Worcestershire on 14 June 1608, which 
living he held until 1622 (NASH, Worcester- 
Jtei 338 ~ 9 )- H e also occurs as rector 
ot Liddmgton, Wiltshire, in 1611, though 
he seems to have resided chiefly at Sion Col- 
lege, London. 

Torporley acquired a singular knowledge 
of mathematics and astronomy, and attracted 
the notice of that ' generous favourer of all 
good learning,' Henry Percy, ninth earl of 
Northumberland [q. v.], who for several 
years gave him an annual pension from his 
own purse. On 27 Nov. 1605, just after the 
discovery of the gunpowder plot, Torporley 
was examined by the council for having cast 
the king's nativity (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1603-1610, p. 263). For two or more years 
he resided in France, and was amanuensis 
to the celebrated mathematician Francis 
Viete of Fontenay, against whom he pub- 
lished a pamphlet under the name of Poul- 
terey. He died in Sion College, London, and 
was buried in St. Alphege's Church on 17 April 
1632. He left a nuncupative will, dated 
14 April 1632, by which he bequeathed to 
the library of Sion College all his mathema- 
tical books, astronomical instruments, notes, 
maps, and a brass clock. Among these books 
were some manuscripts which still remain 
in Sion College. These include ' Congestor : 
Opus Mathematicum/ ' Philosophia,' <Ato- 
morum Atopia demonstrata,' 'Corrector 
Analyticus Artis posthunc.' Administration 
with the will was granted on 6 Jan. 1633 
to his sister, Susanna Tasker (65 Awdley). 

He published ' Diclides Ccelometricse ; seu 
Valuae Astronomicae universales, omnia artis 
totius munera Psephophoretica in sat modicis 
Finibus Duarum Tabularum methodo Nova, 
generali et facillima continentes,' London, 
1602, 4to. With this was presented a preface, 
entitled ' Directionis accuratse consummata 
Doctrina, Astrologis hactenus plurimum 
desiderata ; ' and ' Tabula praemissilis ad De- 
clinationes et ccelimeditationes/in five parts. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. 1815, ii. 524; 
Wood's Fasti, i. 223 ; Oxford Historical Society, 
xii. 118; Foster's Alumni Oxon. early ser. iv. 
1497.] W.G.D.F. 

TORR, WILLIAM (1808-1874), agri- 
culturist, came of a family of yeomen which 
had been settled for several generations at 
Riby in North Lincolnshire. There he was 
born on 22 Dec. 1808. His education was 
interfered with by a severe strain affecting 
the spine while pole-jumping. After leaving 
school he travelled through various parts of 
Great Britain and the continent, laying the 
foundation of that thorough knowledge of 
farming and stock-breeding which distin- 



guished him through life. Torr began farming 
in his native parish of Riby in his twenty- 
fifth year (1833) ; in 1848 he moved to the 
Aylesby Manor Farm, which during the pre- 
ceding eighty years had been celebrated for 
its breed of Leicester sheep. Its reputation 
was successfully maintained and increased 
under Torr's management. From the Aylesby 
flocks and herds animals were largely pur- 
chased for transmission to all parts of the 
United Kingdom, to the continent, the colo- 
nies, and even Japan. In 1854 he also took 
a farm of 420 acres at Rothwell. In 1856 he 
succeeded his uncle in the occupation of the 
Riby Grove Farm. The total area of these 
three farms was over 2,400 acres, the manage- 
ment of the whole of which he himself per- 
sonally conducted. An exhaustive account 
of Torr's farming, written by H. M. Jenkins, 
secretary of the society, was published in the 
' Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society,' 
1869 (2nd ser. v. 415). It dealt with his 
farm management in all its bearings, fences, 
drainage, arable land, cattle, sheep, pigs, cart 
horses, manures, labour, steam cultivation, 
mechanical work, and farm accounts. 

The principal feature of Torr's farm con- 
sisted in his magnificent breeds of live stock. 
He was especially proud of his flock of Lei- 
cester sheep. He had also a stud of thorough- 
bred ponies, largely partaking of Arab blood, 
which had been bred at Riby since 1804. 
But what gives Torr's name its importance 
in the history of agriculture is, above all, 
his famous breed of shorthorn cattle. 'It 
takes any man thirty years to make a herd 
and bring it to one's notions of perfection,' 
is said to have been one of his maxims, and 
almost exactly that space of time elapsed 
between 1844-5, when Torr began to lay the 
foundations of his herd by hiring bulls from 
Richard Booth of Warlaby, another famous 
shorthorn breeder of the time [see under 
BOOTH, THOMAS, d. 1835], and September 
1875, when eighty-four animals, all bred (for 
several generations) on his farm, were sold, 
in the presence of a company of something 
like three thousand persons, for the remark- 
able price of 42,919/. 16s. This sale resulted 
in the scattering of Torr's herd over the 
whole of the United Kingdom. 

His reputation as an agriculturist was 
throughout life widespread. He acted as 
judge of live stock in the principal agricul- 
tural shows of the three kingdoms, and even 
in those held at Paris under the patronage 
of Napoleon III. 

He became a member of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society in 1839, the year after its 
foundation, and continued through life to be 
closely connected with it. In May 1857 he 

was elected on the council. He was a fre- 
quent member of the inspection committee 
appointed to visit the sites offered for the 
annual country meetings, and was one of 
the judges of farms in the first competition 
carried out under the auspices of the society 
in connection with the Oxford meeting of 
187*0. Besides his labours in connection 
with the Royal Agricultural Society, Torr 
was an active member and trustee of the 
Smithfield Club, as well as honorary director 
of the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society. 
His experience as a producer of beef and 
mutton caused him to be summoned before 
several of the select committees of the House 
of Commons on the subjects of the various 
means of transport of live cattle and dead 
meat which have been appointed since the 
cattle plague of 1865. He was the inventor 
of many improvements in the details of farm 
management, of one of the first convex mould- 
board ploughs, of a farm gate (to which was 
awarded a prize at the Warwick meeting of 
the Royal Agricultural Society in 1859), of 
a spring wagon, and of a pig-trough. 

Torr entertained 'strong objections to 
everything in the shape of paper farming/ 
This expression he himself used in intro- 
ducing a lecture on ' Sheep versus Cattle,' 
delivered at a meeting of the weekly council 
of the Royal Agricultural Society on 20 June 
1866. A full report of this address, given 
in the ' Journal of the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety,' 2nd ser. ii. 549, is almost the only one 
of his utterances which has been preserved. 
He was, however, a brilliant talker. ' As he 
rode he lectured ; one question was sufficient 
to bring out an essay.' He died at Aylesby 
Manor on 12 Dec. 1874, and was buried in 
Riby churchyard. 

After the Gainsborough show of the North 
Lincolnshire Society in 1864 a life-size 
painting by Knight was presented to him by 
his Lincolnshire friends in recognition of his 
eminent services in the advancement of agri- 
culture. This picture is in the possession of 
his nephew, the successor to the property. 

[Journal of the Royal Agricultural Soc. 2nd 
ser. ii. 541, 549, iii. 351, v. 415, xi. 303 (memoir), 
345; Agricultural Gazette, 19 Dec. 1874, p. 
1627; Saddle and Sirloin, p. 474; The Aylesby 
Herd of Shorthorn Cattle, 1875 ; C. J. Bates's 
Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns, 
1897; private information.] E. C-E. 

TORRE, JAMES (1649-1699), antiquary 
and genealogist, was the son of Gregory 
Torre by his wife Anne, daughter and heir 
of John Farr of Hepworth ; he was baptised 
at Haxey in Lincolnshire on 30 April 1649. 
Torre's family came originally from War- 
wickshire, but since the time of Henry IV 


had lived in or about the Isle of Axholm in 
Lincolnshire (preface to DRAKE, Eboracum). 
His father bore arms for the king in the 
civil war, and was obliged to compound for 
his sequestered estate at Goldsmiths' Hall. 
Torre was educated at Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, where he spent two and a half 
years, graduating B.A. in 1669. He entered 
the Inner Temple as a student, but appears 
never to have been called to the bar. His 
inclination led him to the study of ecclesi- 
astical antiquities and genealogies. 'The 
former he followed with that prodigious 
application and exactness as perhaps never 
any man before or since could equal ' (ib.} 
Settling at York, he practically devoted his 
life to research into the ecclesiastical anti- 
quities of Yorkshire. His collections relat- 
ing thereto, in five folio volumes, the result 
of most minute and laborious effort, are in 
the possession of the dean and chapter of 
York. The first volume bears the title 
* Antiquities Ecclesiastical of the City of 
York concerning Churches, Parochial Con- 
ventual Chapels, Hospitals, and Gilds, and 
in them Chantries and Interments, also 
Churches Parochial and Conventual within 
the Archdeaconry of the West Riding, col- 
lected out of Publick Records and Registers, 
A.D, 1691.' The other archdeaconries are 
treated in similar fashion in two more 
volumes ; the fourth volume consists of pecu- 
liars belonging to the church or fee. All 
are indexed. ' These collections serve as an 
index or key to all the records of the arch- 
bishops, deans, and chapters, and all other 
offices belonging to the church or see of 
York ' (preface to DRAKE, Ebor.) They were 
presented to the chapter library by Arch- 
bishop Sharp's executors (SHARP, Life of 
Sharp, ed. T. Newcome, i. 137). Torre's 
method with regard to parochial churches 
was to notice briefly in whom the lay inte- 
rest was vested at an early period, following 
Kirby's ' Inquest ' for the most part ; next in 
whom the patronage of the church vested. 
He also went through the wills proved at 
York, extracting from them all clauses re- 
lating to the interments of the testators, and 
appended the same to the accounts given of 
the churches in which such interments were 
to take place. The number of records to 
which Torre's manuscripts form a kind of 
index is absolutely startling (preface to BTJR- 
TON, Monasticon Eboraceme, 1758). These 
collections have proved of the greatest service 
to Yorkshire topographers, Hunter speaking 
of them ' as a vast treasure of information,' 
and Drake owning that his work is * but a 
key to some part of Torre's collections' (pre- 
face to DRAKE, Ebor.} 

3 Torrens 

Torre also wrote five volumes in folio, en- 
titled < English Nobility and Gentry, or sup- 
plemental Collections to Sir William Dug- 
dale's " Baronage," ' wherein Dugdale's work 
is transcribed and corrected, and genealogies 
of many families of lesser note inserted- 
these volumes (1898) are in the possession 
of the Rev. Henry Torre, rector of Norton 
Curlieu, Warwick. 

Torre died on 31 July 1699 of ' a con- 
tagious disorder then prevalent ' (THORESBY, 
Diary) at Snydall, Yorkshire, shortly after 
his purchase of the Snydall estate ; he was 
buried in the parish church, Normanton, 
where there is a brass to his memory. Tho- 
resby speaks of Torre as ' the famous anti- 
quary . . . a comely proper gentleman ' (ib.) 

He married, first, Elizabeth, youngest 
daughter of the Rev. William Lincolne, 
D.D., of Bottesford (Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. v. 507) ; secondly, Anna, daughter of 
Nicholas Lister of Rigton, by whom he left 
a son Nicholas and a daughter. 

A portrait of Torre, painted in oils, is in 
the possession of the Rev. H. J. Torre, rec- 
tor of Norton Curlieu. 

A small octavo volume published and 
printed in York in 1719, and entitled ' The 
Antiquities of York, collected from the Papers 
of C. Hildyard,with Notes and Observations 
by J. T.,' is nothing more than a transcript 
of ' a lean catalogue ' (NICHOLSON, Engl. Hist. 
Lib. fol. p. 27) of the mayors and sheriffs 
of York, which was published in 1664 by 
C. Hildyard, and ' which is crept into the 
world again under the title of u The Anti- 
quities of York City," with the name of 
James Torre, gent., as author prefixed to it ' 
(preface to DRAKE, Ebor.) 

[Ston chouse's History of the Isle of Axholme, 
and authorities quoted in text.] W. C-R. 

LESLEY (1809-1855), major-general, se- 
cond son of Major-general Sir Henry Torrens 
[q.v.] and of Sarah, daughter of Colonel Robert 
Patton, governor of St. Helena, was born on 
18 Aug. 1809, and was a godson of the Duke 
of Wellington. In 1819 he was appointed 
a page of honour to the prince regent. He 
passed through the Royal Military College 
of Sandhurst, and obtained a commission as 
ensign in the grenadier guards and lieutenant 
on 14 April 1825. He was appointed adju- 
tant of the second battalion with the tem- 
porary rank of captain on 11 June 1829. 
He was promoted to be lieutenant in the 
grenadier guards, and captain on 12 June 
1830. He continued to serve as adjutant of 
his battalion until 1838, when he was ap- 
pointed brigade-major at Quebec on the staff 


6 4 


of Major-general Sir James Macdonell, com- 
manding a brigade in Canada, and took part 
in the operations against the rebels at the 
close of that year. He was promoted to 
be captain in the grenadier guards and lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 11 Sept. 1840, when he 
returned to England. 

Torrens exchanged into the 23rd royal 
Welsh fusiliers, and obtained the command 
on 15 Oct. 1841. On the augmentation of 
the army in April 1842 a second battalion 
was given to the regiment. The depot was 
moved from Carlisle to Chichester, where, 
with two new companies, it was organised 
for foreign service under Torrens, who em- 
barked with it at Portsmouth for Canada on 
13 May, arriving at Montreal on 30 June. 
In September 1843 he proceeded, in com- 
mand of the first battalion, from Quebec to 
the West Indies, arriving at Barbados in 
October 1843. The battalion was moved 
from time to time from one island to another, 
but for two years and a half Torrens com- 
manded the troops in St. Lucia and ad- 
ministered the civil government of that 
island. The sanitary measures adopted by 
Torrens for the preservation of the health 
of the troops met with unprecedented success, 
and were considered so admirable that cor- 
respondence on the subject was published in 
November 1847 by order of the Duke of 
Wellington, commander-in-chief, for the in- 
formation and guidance of officers command- 
ing at foreign stations. Torrens declined 
the offer of the lieutenant-governorship of 
St. Lucia as a permanent appointment, pre- 
ferring to continue his service in the royal 
Welsh fusiliers. 

Torrens sailed with his battalion from 
Barbados in March 1847, arriving at Halifax 
(Nova Scotia) in the following month. The 
battalion returned to England in September 
1848, and was stationed at Winchester, 
where, on 12 July 1849. Prince Albert pre- 
sented it with new colours, which Torrens 
duly accepted on behalf of the regiment. In 
April 1850 Torrens moved with the battalion 
to Plymouth, and in the following year re- 
linquished the command. On 1 Jan. 1853 
he was appointed an assistant quartermaster- 
general at the Horse Guards, and became a 
member of a commission which in the spring 
of the year investigated the military eco- 
nomy of the armies of France, Austria, and 

On his return Torrens was nominated a 
brigadier-general to command an infantry 
brigade in the British army in Turkey in the 
war with Eussia. He joined the fourth 
division under Sir George Cathcart at Varna 
just before its embarkation for the Crimea. 

He was at the head of his brigade both at the 
battle of Alma and at the battle of Balaklava, 
where he was engaged in support of the 
cavalry and lost some men in recapturing 
two redoubts. On the morning of 5 Nov. 
1854 he had just returned from the trenches 
when he was apprised of the enemy's attack 
from the valley of Inkerman, and, under the 
direction of Cathcart, he attacked with suc- 
cess the left flank of the Russians, his horse 
falling under him, pierced by five bullets. 
Just before Cathcart was struck down by 
his mortal wound he loudly applauded the 
daring courage and bravery of Torrens, call- 
ing out l Nobly done, Torrens ! ' Torrens was 
still in front, cheering on his men, when he 
was struck by a bullet, which passed through 
his body, injured a lung, splintered a rib, and 
was found lodged in his greatcoat. He was 
invalided home. He received the medal and 
clasp, the thanks of parliament, was promoted 
to be a major-general for distinguished ser- 
vice in the field on 12 Dec. 1854, and was 
made a knight commander of the Bath, mili- 
tary division. 

On 2 April 1855 Torrens was appointed de- 
puty quartermaster-general at headquarters, 
and on 25 June the same year was sent as a 
major-general on the staff to Paris as British 
military commissioner ; but his health, en- 
feebled by his wound, broke down, and he 
died in Paris on 24 Aug. 1855. He was 
buried in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, a 
number of French officers, including Marshals 
Vaillant and Magnan, attending the funeral, 
when an oration was delivered by the Comte 
de Noe. 

His widow, Maria Jane, youngest daughter 
of General John Murray, whom he married 
in 1832, erected a monument to him in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

Torrens published ' Notes on French In- 
fantry and Memoranda on the Review of 
the Army in Paris at the Feast of Eagles in 
May 1852 ' (London, 1852, 8vo). 

[War Office Kecords ; Despatches ; Kinglake's 
Crimea; Gent. Mag. 1855; Conolly's Fifiana, 
1 869 ; Kepertoire Historique des Contemporains, 
Paris, 1860; Cannon's Kecords of the 23rd 
Eoyal Welsh Fusiliers ; Allibone's Diet, of Eng- 
lish Literature ; Kussell's Diary in the Crimea.] 

R H. V. 

TORRENS, Sm HENRY (1779-1828), 
major-general, colonel of the 2nd (Queen's) 
foot, adjutant-general of the forces, is said 
to be descended from a Swedish Count 
Torrens, a captain of cavalry in the army of 
William III, who established himself in 
Ireland after the battle of the Boyne in 
1690. Sir Henry's great-grandfather, Thomas 
Torrens, was settled at Dungwen, co. Derry, 



early in the eighteenth century. His third 
son, Dr. John Torrens (d. 1785), Sir Henry's 
grandfather, was prebendary of Derry, head- 
master of Derry diocesan school, and rector 
of Ballynascreen. Sir Henry's father, the 
Rev. Thomas Torrens, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Curry of Londonderry. 
The eldest son, John (1761-1851), was arch- 
deacon of Dublin ; the second, Samuel, cap- 
tain of the 52nd regiment, died of wounds 
received in action at Ferrol in 1800. The 
third son, Robert (1776-1856), was a jus- 
tice of the court of common pleas in Ire- 

Henry, the fourth son, was born at Lon- 
donderry in 1779. Both his parents died in 
his infancy. He was brought up at the 
rectory of Ballynascreen by the rector, the 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Torrens, his father's first 
cousin and husband of his father's sister. 
He received a commission as ensign in the 
52nd foot on 2 Nov. 1793. He was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant in the 92nd foot on 
14 June 1794, and transferred to the 63rd 
foot on 11 Dec. 1795. He accompanied his 
regiment to the West Indies and took part 
in the expedition under Abercromby against 
St. Lucia, was present at the attack of 
Morne Chabot on 29 April 1796, at the siege 
of Morne Fortune and its capture in May, 
when he was severely wounded in the right 
thigh. The island surrendered on 26 May. 
Notwithstanding his wound, Torrens joined 
his regiment in time for the attack of St. 
Vincent, and on 8 June took a prominent 
part in the assault of three French redoubts, 
when the French were driven out and took 
refuge in the New Vigie, capitulating on the 
following day. He was employed for seven 
months in command of an outpost in the 
forests of St. Vincent against the Charib 
Indians of the island, and, on their reduc- 
tion, was rewarded on 28 March 1797 by the 
commander of the forces by promotion to a 
company, with which he served in Jamaica 
as captain and paymaster until June 1798, 
when he returned to England. 

In August 1798 Torrens was appointed 
aide-de-camp to Major-general John White- 
locke, second in command under the Earl of 
Moira and lieutenant-governor of Ports- 
mouth. In November he went to Portugal 
as aide-de-camp to Major-general Cornelius 
Cuyler, who commanded the auxiliary troops 
sent by the British government to repel the 
threatened invasion by the Spaniards. On 
8 Aug. 1799 he was transferred to the 20th 
foot, then forming part of the force under 
the Duke of York for the expedition to the 
Helder. He served with his regiment 
throughout the campaign ; landing on 


28 Aug., he took part in the repulse of the 
-b rench attack at Crabbendam/under General 
Daendels, on 10 Sept., when' the regiment 
was complimented by Sir Ralph Abercromby 
[q. v.] for its gallantry ; he was also engaged 
in the battle of Hoorne on 19 Sept., and in 
the two battles of Egmont-op-Zee on 2 and 
6 Oct. At the latter Torrens was wounded 
by a bullet which passed through his right 
thigh and lodged in his left thigh, whence 
it was never extracted. 

Torrens returned to England in November, 
and was promoted from the 3rd of that 
month to a majority in the Surrey rangers, 
a fencible regiment then being raised. Its 
formation devolved upon Torrens, who sub- 
sequently embarked with it for North 
America. He commanded it for a year in 
Nova Scotia, and returned to England in the 
autumn of 1801. 

On 4 Feb. 1802 Torrens exchanged into 
the 86th foot, then forming part of the 
Indian force in Egypt under Sir David 
Baird [q. v.] He accompanied it in its 
march across the desert to the Red Sea, and 
embarked with it on the return to India of 
Baird's expedition in the summer. On 
arrival at Bombay Torrens was so ill from a 
sunstroke that he was obliged to sail at 
once for Europe. The ship touched at St. 
Helena; he remained there, recovered his 
health, married the governor's daughter, and 
rejoined his regiment in India in the follow- 
ing year, when he commanded in the field 
during the Maratha war. He was promoted 
to be brevet lieutenant-colonel on 1 Jan. 
1805, and returned to England. 

Torrens was made assistant adjutant-gene- 
ral on 17 Oct. 1805, and was employed on 
the staff of the Kent military district. He 
was transferred as regimental major to the 
89th foot on 19 Feb. 1807. On 11 May he 
was appointed military secretary to Major- 
general John Whitelocke [q.v.], who had been 
nominated to the command of the army in 
South America. He arrived at Monte Video 
in June, and took part in the disastrous at- 
tack on Buenos Ay res on 5 July, when he 
received a contusion from a bullet which 
shattered his sabretache. Torrens returned 
to England with Whitelocke. He was reap- 
pointed on 27 Nov. an assistant adjutant- 
general on the staff in Great Britain, and in 
December became assistant military secretary 
to the commander-in-chief, the Duke of 
York. He gave evidence at Whitelocke's 
trial by a general court-martial in January, 
February, and March 1808. His position as 
a member of Whitelocke's personal stall 
was a delicate one, but he acquitted himself 
with credit. 




In June 1808 Torrens was appointed 
military secretary to Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
and accompanied him to Portugal. He was 
present at the action of Rolica on 17 Aug. 
and at the battle of Vimiero on 21 Aug. 
He received the gold medal for these vic- 
tories, and was made a knight of the order of 
the Tower and Sword by the Portuguese re- 
gency. He returned to England in October 
with Wellesley on the latter's supersession, 
and resumed his duties as assistant mili- 
tary secretary at headquarters. 

Torrens was promoted to be military se- 
cretary to the commander-in-chief on 2 Oct. 
1809. On 13 June 1811 he was transferred 
from major of the 89th foot to a company in 
the 3rd foot-guards. On 20 Feb. 1812 he 
was appointed aide-de-camp to the prince 
regent, and promoted to be colonel in the 
army. On 4 June 1814 he was promoted 
to be major-general. On 3 Jan. 1815 he was 
made a knight- commander of the order of 
the Bath, military division. On 5 April he 
was appointed to the colonelcy of the second 
garrison battalion, and removed on 27 Nov. 
of the same vear to that of the royal African 
colonial corps. On 21 Sept. 1818 Torrens 
was transferred to the colonelcy of the 2nd 
West India regiment. On 25 March 1820 
he was appointed adjutant-general of the 
forces. The emoluments of that office being 
less than those which he had enjoyed as 
military secretary, a civil-list pension of 
800/. a year was bestowed upon his wife to 
compensate him for the loss. 

During his tenure of the appointment he 
made a complete revision of the ' Regula- 
tions for the Exercise and Field Movements 
of the Infantry of the Army.' They were 
much in need of it, and he accomplished the 
task in a manner which gave general satis- 
faction, embodying the improvements which 
had been introduced and practised by diffe- 
rent commanders in recent wars. On 26 July 
1822 Torrens was transferred to the colonelcy 
of the 2nd or queen's royal regiment of foot. 
On 23 Aug. 1828 he died suddenly while on 
a visit to a friend at Danesbury, Hertford- 
shire. He was buried in Welwyn church, 
Hertfordshire. Torrens married at St. He- 
lena, in 1803, Sarah, daughter of Colonel 
Robert Patton, the governor of the island, 
by whom he left a numerous family, in- 
cluding Sir Arthur Wellesley Torrens [q. v.J 

A portrait, painted by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, was engraved by T. A. Dunn. 

[Memoir privately printed; War Office Re- 
cords ; Despatches ; Memoirs in Royal Military 
Calendar, 1820, in Gent. Mag. 1828, in Annual 
Register, 1828, in Naval and Military Mag. 
1828 vol. iv., and in Jordan's National Portrait 

Gallery of Illustrious and Eminent Personages 
of the Nineteenth Century, 1830, vol. i.; Cust's 
Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries; Conolly's Fifiana, 1869; 
Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits.] 

R. H. V. 

TORRENS, ROBERT (1780-1864), 
political economist, born in Ireland in 1780, 
was son of Robert Torrens of Hervey Hill in 
Ireland, by Elizabeth Bristow, daughter of 
the rector of a neighbouring parish, Reshar- 
kin. His grandfather, Robert Torrens, rec- 
tor of Hervey Hill, was fourth son of 
Thomas Torrens of Dungwen, co. Derry, 
whose third son, John, was grandfather of 
Sir Henry Torrens [q.v.] 

Appointed first lieutenant in the royal 
marines in 1797, and captain in 1806, Torrens 
was in March 1811 in command of a body 
of marines which successfully defended the 
Isle of Anholt against a superior Dutch force 
during the Walcheren expedition. He was 
severely wounded, and for his services re- 
ceived the brevet rank of major. He after- 
wards served in the Peninsula, where he 
was appointed colonel of a Spanish legion. 
He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in 1819, and to that of colonel in 
1837. He retired on half-pay in 1835. 

In 1815 Torrens published { An Essay on 
the External Corn Trade ' (London, 8vo ; 4th 
edit. 1827, 8vo ; new edit. 1829, 8vo), the 
arguments of which Ricardo considered 
' unanswered and unanswerable ' (RlCAEDO, 
Works, ed. McCulloch, 1886, p. 164). In 
1 An Essay on the Production of Wealth, 
with an appendix in which the principles of 
political economy are applied to the actual 
circumstances of this country' (London, 
1821, 8vo; Italian edition, < Biblioteca dell' 
Economista,' i. serie, vol. ii. 1850, &c., 8vo), 
Torrens was one of the first economists to 
attribute the production of wealth to the 
joint action of three ' instruments of pro- 
duction,' viz. land, labour, and capital, to 
show how the productiveness of industry is 
increased by the 'territorial division of 
labour,' and to state the law of diminishing 

In 1818 Torrens was parliamentary candi- 
date for Rochester in the liberal interest. 
He failed to obtain a majority, and presented 
a petition against the return of Lord Bin- 
ning, on the ground of want of qualification, 
but the petition was voted frivolous and 
vexatious (15 March 1819). Torrens was 
returned, with W, Haldimand, for the par- 
liamentary borough of Ipswich in 1826, but 
was unseated. In 1831 he was returned for 
Ashburton, when he supported the Reform 
Bill, on the passing of which he was elected 



for Bolton, Lancashire. He retired from the 
House of Commons in 1835. 

In the same year Torrens published a 
volume advocating the colonisation of South 
Australia. He had been an original member 
of the South Australian Land Company, 
which was formed in 1831, and was reor- 
ganised in 1834 as the South Australian 
Association. In May 1835 Torrens was ap- 
pointed chairman of the commissioners se- 
lected by the crown to establish provinces 
in South Australian territory. In 1836 he 
gave evidence before a select committee of the 
House of Commons on the disposal of lands 
in the British colonies. Lake Torrens in 
South Australia, and the river Torrens on 
which Adelaide stands, were named after 
him (J. E. T. WOODS, Hist. Discovery and 
Explor. of Australia, 1865 ; WORSSTOP, Hist. 
of Adelaide, 187 8; THOMAS GILL, Bibliogr. 
of South Australia, 1886; KFSDEST, Hist. 
Australia, ii. 81 et seq.) 

Torrens was one of the proprietors of the 
' Traveller ' newspaper and at one time editor 
of the 'Globe,' with which the ' Traveller ' 
was ultimately amalgamated. He was an 
original member of the Political Economy 
Club, and on 17 Dec. 1818 was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. He died at 
16 Craven Hill, London, on 27 May 1864. 
He married Charity, daughter of Richard 
Chute of Roxburgh, co. Kerry. Sir Robert 
Richard Torrens [q. v.] was his son. 

Torrens's economic writings are of much 
importance in the development of economic 
theory, and exercised no little influence on 
Sir Robert Peel's legislation. Ricardo thought 
that Torrens ' adhered too firmly to [his] old 
associations to make a very decided pro- 
gress in the science ' (HOLLANDER, Letters of 
Ricardo to McCulloch, p. 25), but praised 
highly his views on the natural price of 
labour and other subjects (ib. p. 52 ; RI- 
CARDO, Works, ed. McCulloch, 1886, pp. 52, 
164), and made additions to his own work 
to meet Torrens's objections to his theory 
of value (HOLLANDER, Letters, &c., p. 14). 
Torrens anticipated Mill's theory of inter- 
national trade, and is said to have suggested 
the division of the Bank of England into a 
banking and an issue department. He advo- 
cated the repeal of the corn laws, but was 
not in favour of absolute free trade. 

In addition to the books mentioned above, 
and a number of pamphlets and printed let- 
ters on political and economic topics, Torrens 
published: 1. 'Celebia choosing a Husband: 
a Modern Novel/ 2 vols. London, 1809, 12mo. 
2. 'An Essay on Money and Paper Currency,' 
London, 1812, 12mo. 3. 'The Victim of 
Intolerance, or the Hermit of Killarney: 

a Catholic Tale/ 3 vols. London, 1814, 8vo. 

4. ' A Comparative Estimate of the Effects 
which a Continuance and a Removal of the 
Restriction of Cash Payments are respectively 
calculated to produce; with Strictures on 
Mr. Ricardo's Proposal for obtaining a Se- 
cure and Economical Currency/ 1819, 8vo. 

5. ' Letters on Commercial Policy/ London, 
1833, 8vo. 6. ' On Wages and Combina- 
tions/ London, 1834, 8vo. 7. ' On the Colo- 
nisation of South Australia/ London, 1835, 
8vo. 8. 'An Enquiry into the Practical 
Working of the Proposed Arrangements for 
the Renewal of the Charter of the Bank of 
England and the Regulation of the Cur- 
rency, with a Refutation of the Fallacies 
advanced by Mr. Tooke/ London, 1844, 8vo. 
9. 'The Budget, or a Commercial and Colo- 
nial Policy/ London, 1844, 8vo. 10. ' Self- 
Supporting Colonisation/ London, 1847, 8vo ; 
another edition 'Systematic Colonisation/ 
London, 1849, 8 vo. 11. ' The Principles and 
Practical Operation of Sir Robert Peel's Act 
of 1844 Explained and Defended/ London, 
1848, 8vo ; 2nd edit, with additional chap- 
ters, London, 1857, 8vo; 3rd edit, revised 
and enlarged, London, 1858, 8vo. 12. 'Tracts 
on Finance and Trade/ London, 1852, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840 ii. ,541, 1864 ii. 122, 385; 
Ann. Reg. 1864, p. 205 ; Spectator, 1864, i. 641 ; 
McCullas:h Torrens's Memoirs of Viscount Mel- 
bourne, ii. 242; Sandelin's Repertoire General 
d'Economie Politique, vi. 236-7; Coquelin et 
Guillaumin's Dictionnaire de 1'Economie Poli- 
tique, ii. 749 ; Conrad's Handworterbuch der 
Staatswissenschaften, vi. 234. Criticisms of 
Torrens are to be found also in Hollander's 
Letters of David Ricardo to J. R. McCulloch, 
pp.xxi, 14, 15, 16, 25, 47, 49, 52, 88, 103, 128, 
148; Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, ed. 
Wakefield, 1835, ii. 225; Carey's Principles of 
Political Economy, pt. i. 20, 218-23 ; Blanqui's 
Histoire de 1'Economie Politique, 4th edit.,^ ii. 
201, 395; McCulloch's Principles of Political 
Economy, 4th edit., 1849, pp. 131, 373, 510 ; 
Roscher's Principles of Political Economy (transl. 
by Lalor), i. 71, 191, 320, 379, 391, ii. 33, 50, 
368, 375 ; Karl Marx's Capital (English transl.), 
i. 139, 150, 154, ii. 403; Wagner's Geld- und 
Kredittheorie der Peelschen Bankakte, pp. 11, 
12 Wolowski'sLe Colonel Robert Torrens (Jour- 
nal' des Economistes, 1864, p. 281); Questions 
des Banques, pp. 324, 325 ; Macleod's Theory and 
Practice of Banking, ii. 146, 322-4; Walkers 
Political Economy, 1885, pp. 179-80 ; Money, pp. 
397 425-50; Thorold Rogers's Economic Inter- 
pretation of History, p. 224 ; Ingram's History of 
Political Economy, pp. 140-6; Bonars Malthus 
and his Work, pp. 265-6 ; Cossa's Introduction to 
the Study of Political Economy (transl. by Dyer), 
pp. 307, 327, 340 ; Bohn-Bawerk's Capital and 
Interest (trans, by Smart), pp. 96, 151 274, 408 ; 
Cannan's History of the Theories of Production 




and Distribution, pp. 8, 35, 39, 41, 49, 112, 123, 
167-9, 208, 243-6, 320; Sidney and Beatrice 
Webb's Industrial Democracy, ii. 696 ; "Wallas's 
Life of Francis Place, pp. 178 sq.] W. A. S. H. 

(1814-1884), first premier of South Austra- 
lia and author of the * Torrens Act,' was son 
of Lieutenant-colonel Robert Torrens [q. v.] 
He was born at Cork in 1814, and educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1840 he went 
out to South Australia, and on 1 Jan. 1841 
became collector of customs, with a seat in 
the legislative council. On 3 Jan. 1852 he 
became colonial treasurer and registrar-gene- 
ral. On the introduction of responsible go- 
vernment in 1855 he took his seat in the 
house of assembly for Adelaide, and was 
during September 1857 premier and colonial 

On 27 Jan. 1858 Torrens's great measure 
for the reform of the land laws, known as 
the Torrens Act, became the law of South 
Australia. The intention of the act was to 
substitute title by public registration for the 
cumbrous system of the old conveyancing. 
In June 1858, in order that he might assure 
himself of the act having a fair trial, Torrens 
resigned his seat in the house and became 
the head of the department charged with 
carrying it out. About 1860, by request, he 
visited Victoria and New South Wales in 
order to explain the new system of land 
transfer. By 1862 it was adopted practically 
throughout Australia. 

In 1863 Torrens retired on a pension, and, 
after being entertained at a series of ban- 
quets to celebrate his great work, returned 
to England. In 1865 and 1866 at by-elec- 
tions he unsuccessfully contested Cambridge 
in the liberal interest. He was returned for 
that borough in 1868, and sat through that 
parliament without finding much opportu- 
nity of advocating the land-law reform which 
he had at heart. In 1874 he failed to secure 
re-election. He was created K.C.M.G. on 
1 Aug. 1872, and G.C.M.G. on 24 May 1884. 

Torrens resided latterly at Hannaford, 
Ashburton, Devonshire ; he was a magistrate 
of the county, and a lieutenant-colonel of 
volunteer artillery. He died at Falmouth 
on 31 Aug. 1884. 

He married, in 1839, Barbara, daughter of 
Alexander Park of Selkirk, writer to the 
signet; she was the widow of Augustus 
George Ansor, and a niece of Mungo Park 
[q. v.J 

Torrens was the author of several pam- 
phlets dealing chiefly with the principle of 
the act which bears his name. They in- 
clude: 1. 'Speeches,' Adelaide, 1858, 8vo. 
2. ' The South Australian System of Con- 

veyancing,' Adelaide, 1859, 8vo. 3. ' Handy 
Book on the Real Property Act of South 
Australia/ Adelaide, 1862, 8vo ; a paper read 
before the Society for the Amendment of 
the Law. 4. ' Transfer of Land by " Regi- 
stration of Title" as now in operation in 
Australia under the " Torrens System," ' 
Dublin, 1863, fol. 5. ' Transportation con- 
sidered as a Punishment,' London, 1863, 
12mo; read before the British Association. 
6. f An Essay on the Transfer of Land by 
Registration ' (Cobden Club publ.), London, 
1882, 8vo. In 1895 Dr. W. A. Hunter pub- 
lished a volume of ' Torrens Title Cases . . . 
to which is prefixed a summary of Torrens 
Title Legislation,' London, 8vo. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biography; 
Times, 3 Sept. 1884 ; Burke's Peerage, 1884 ; 
South Australian Register, 11 Sept. 1884; Men 
of the Time, 1884 ; Rusden's Hist, of Australia, 
iii. 621-3.] C. A. H. 

McCULLAGH (1813-1894), politician and 
author, born on 13 Oct. 1813, was eldest son 
of James McCullagh of Delville a famous 
house, with interesting literary associations 
of Mrs. Mary Delany, Dean Swift, and Par- 
nell the poet just outside Dublin. His 
mother, Jane, was daughter of Andrew Tor- 
rens of Dublin, who seems to have been 
brother of Robert Torrens [q. v.] Torrens 
McCullagh as he was known until 1863 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
graduated B.A. in 1833, andLL.B. in 1842. 
On 31 Oct. 1832 he was admitted a member 
of Lincoln's Inn ; in 1836 he was called to 
the Irish bar at King's Inns, Dublin, and on 
6 June 1855 to the English bar. In 1835 he 
obtained the post of assistant commissioner 
on the special commission appointed by par- 
liament to inquire as to the best system of 
poor relief for Ireland, which was then with- 
out any legal provision for destitution, sick- 
ness, orphanage, and old age. He travelled 
through Ireland, examined all sorts and de- 
scriptions of persons, and presented some very 
interesting and valuable reports on the de- 
plorable condition of the destitute poor. The 
result of the special commission was the ex- 
tension to Ireland in 1838 of the new work- 
house system established in England in 
1834. In 1842 he assisted Sir Robert John 
Kane [q. v.] in founding the Mechanics' In- 
stitute of Dublin the first institute of the 
kind in Ireland and on its opening delivered 
a course of lectures on the use and study of 
history, which were printed in 1842. . During 
the agitation for the repeal of the corn laws 
he joined the Anti-Cornlaw League, and 
published, at the suggestion of Cobden, in 


6 9 


1846, ' The Industrial History of Free Na- 
tions/ showing that a number of countries 
had already found the advantage of free 
trade. He entered the House of Commons 
in 1847 as the representative of the borough 
of Dundalk, and sat for that constituency 
until the dissolution in 1852, when he and 
Sir Charles Napier stood as liberals for Great 
Yarmouth, but were defeated. In 1857 he 
was returned for Yarmouth, and in 1865 for 
the old and undivided borough of Finsbury, 
and continued its representative for twenty 
years and iti four consecutive parliaments. 
He was now known as McCullagh Torrens, 
having in 1863 assumed his mother's name. 
In parliament he was an independent liberal, 
but he gave his attention more to social than 
to political questions: the need for work- 
men's dwellings fit for habitation, for a better 
and more abundant water supply, for open 
spaces, for more numerous primary schools, 
and for a kindlier system of relieving the 
sick in their own homes. He supported 
Disraeli's proposal for household suffrage in 
1867, and in committee on the bill moved 
and carried an amendment establishing the 
lodger franchise. In 1868 he introduced the 
artisans' dwellings bill, enabling local autho- 
rities to clear away overcrowded slums and 
erect decent dwellings for the working 
classes, which was passed despite a power- 
ful opposition. In 1869 he obtained for 
London boards of guardians the power to 
board out pauper children. The Extradition 
Act, in 1870, to prevent prisoners being ex- 
tradited on one plea and tried on another, 
was based on the report of a select com- 
mittee which had been appointed at his sug- 
gestion to inquire into the matter. During 
the discussion sin committee of William Ed- 
ward Forster's Education Act of 1870, he 
proposed and carried an amendment esta- 
blishing a school board for London, and in 
1885 he carried an act making the charge 
for water rates in the metropolis leviable 
only on the amount of the public assess- 

In 1885 McCullagh Torrens withdrew 
from parliament. On 25 April 1894 he was 
knocked down by a hansom cab in London, 
and was severely injured. He died the next 
day at 23 Bryanston Square, the residence of 
his daughter. He was twice married : first, 
in 1836, to Margaret Henrietta, daughter of 
John Gray of Claremorris, co. Mayo ; and, 
secondly, in 1878, to Emily, widow of Thomas 
Russell of Leamington, and third daughter 
of William Harrison of the same town. 

In addition to the works already referred 
to McCullagh Torrens wrote : 1. ' Memoirs of 
the Right Hon. R. Lalor Sheil,' 2 vols. 1855. 

2. Ljfe and Times of Sir James Graham,' 
2 vols. 1863. 3. ' Our Empire in Asia : how 
we came by it,' 1872. 4. < Memoirs of Vis- 
count Melbourne,' 2 vols. 1878 (his best known 
work). 5. < Life of Lord Wellesley,' 1880. 
6. 'Reform of Parliamentary Procedure' 
1881. 7. 'Twenty Years in Parliament,' 
1893. 8. < History of Cabinets,' 2 vols. 1894. 
The latter work, on which McCullagh Tor- 
rens was engaged on and off for twenty 
years, and to which he devoted the last 
seven years of his life, was published a few 
weeks after his death. 

[Memoirs of Viscount Melbourne, with bio- 
graphical Sketch of Torrens (the Minerva Library 
of Famous Books); Twenty Years in Parlia- 
ment; Foster's Men at the Bar; personal infor- 
mation.] M. MAcD. 

TORRIGIANO, PIETRO (1472-1522), 
sculptor and draughtsman, was born at Flo- 
rence on 24 Nov. 1472, and early devoted 
himself to the practice of art. He was one 
of the band of young artists protected by 
Lorenzo de' Medici. The studies of these 
youths were carried on chiefly in the Bran- 
cacci Chapel, at the Carmine, where they 
copied Masaccio's famous frescoes, and in the 
Medici gardens at San Marco, where they 
drew from the antiques under the super- 
vision of Donatello's disciple, the aged Ber- 
toldo. It was under these conditions that 
Torrigiano came in contact with Michel- 
angelo, and that the famous quarrel took 
place in which Buonarroti was disfigured for 
life. Torrigiano's own account of the ad- 
venture is thus handed down to us by Ben- 
venuto Cellini : ' This Buonarroti and I 
used when we were boys to go into the 
church of the Carmine to learn drawing 
from the chapel of Masaccio. It was Buo- 
narotti's habit to banter (uccellare) all who 
were drawing there, and one day, when he 
was annoying me, I got more angry than usual, 
and, clenching my fist, I gave him such a 
blow on the nose that I felt bone and carti- 
lage go down like biscuit (cialdone) under 
my knuckles ; and this mark of mine he 
will carry with him to the grave.' Stunned 
by the blow, Michelangelo was carried home 
' like one dead,' and the aggressor, banished 
for his violence from Florence, took service 
as a soldier, served in the papal army under 
Ceesar Borgia, became ' Ancient ' to Pietro 
de' Medici, and fought at the battle of 
Garigliano (1503). His term of exile over, 
he came back to Florence, and resumed the 
practice of his art with such success that he 
became one of the best sculptors of his 
native city. Vasari says that he made several 
statues in marble and in brass for the town- 
hall of Florence, and he is known to have 



partly executed a statue of St. Francis for 
the Piccolomini chapel in Siena Cathedral. 
The figure is said to have been finished by 
Michelangelo, and to have been included by 
him in the series of fifteen saints, commis- 
sioned by Cardinal Piccolomini in 1501, for 
the decoration of the chapel. 

In 1503 Henry VII had begun the build- 
ing of his magnificent chapel at Westmin- 
ster. While it was in progress some Flo- 
rentine merchants trading to London per- 
suaded Torrigiano to travel with them to 
England, in hope of employment from the 
king. He took up his residence in ' the 
precinct of St. Peter's, Westminster.' The 
execution of the royal shrine was entrusted 
to him, and a sum of 1,500/. was set apart 
for materials and labour. The tomb, says 
Stow, was unfinished at Henry's death in 
1509, and was not completed till ten years 
after his son's accession. The work, adds 
the chronicler, was carried out by ' one Peter, 
a painter of Florence.' Among the Harleian 
manuscripts there is an account of expenses, 
in which the names of the various native 
craftsmen who worked under Torrigiano are 
recorded. A book of decrees and records of 
the court of requests, printed in 1592, bears 
incidental testimony to his presence in Eng- 
land in 1518, mentioning ' Master Peter 
Torisano, a Florentine sculptor/ as one of 
the witnesses in a suit between two Flo- 
rentine merchants tried by the council at 
Greenwich. He executed another important 
monument in Henry VII's chapel, that of 
Henry VII's mother, Margaret, countess of 
Richmond, who died three months after her 
son ; and to his skilful hand was also due the 
'matchless altar ' erected at the head of the 
king's tomb, and destroyed by the puritans 
under Sir Robert Harlow's command in 1641 
(see an engraving in SANDFORD'S Genealogical 
History, reproduced in DEAN STANLEY'S Me- 
morials of Westminster Abbey], A greater 
work on which Torrigiano was to be em- 
ployed was never carried out. In the be- 
ginning of his reign Henry VIII projected 
the building of a chapel for himself and 
Catherine of Arragon, which was to exceed 
that of his father in splendour, and ' Peter 
Torrisany, of the city of Florence, graver,' 
was to prolong his stay to carve the effigies 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, iii. 7). 
The tomb was to cost not more than 2,000/. 
He was the sculptor of the monument to 
Dr. John Yong [q. v.], master of the rolls, 
in the rolls chapel, Chancery Lane; and 
Walpole further ascribes to him a model in 
stone of the head of Henry VII in the 
agony of death, now in the possession of 
the Duke of Northumberland, and a painted 

portrait of the king, both formerly in the 
Strawberry Hill collection; also a plaster 
roundel of the head of Henry VIII at Hamp- 
ton Court. 

In the passage already quoted from his 
autobiography Cellini relates that, when he 
was a lad of about seventeen, Torrigiano came 
to Florence to engage assistants for a great 
work in bronze he was about to execute for 
the king of England. He promised to make 
the fortune of his young compatriot if he 
would return with him to London. But 
Benvenuto refused ; for, though he had a 
great wish to go, he would not serve the 
man who had defaced that divine work of 
the Creator, the great Michelangelo. He 
speaks admiringly, however, of Torrigiano's 
noble presence and commanding manners 
('rather those of a great soldier than of a 
sculptor'), and of the discourses he held 
' every day ' of his prowess in dealing with 
' those beasts, the English.' Torrigiano's 
attack on Michelangelo seems to have been 
no solitary instance of violence. Condivi 
describes him as ' a brutal and overbearing 
man ' (' uomo bestiale e superbo '), and Vasari 
tells us that, in spite of the rich rewards he 
received for his works, he neither lived in 
happiness nor died in peace, owing to his 
turbulent and ungovernable temper. He 
is absurdly said to have adopted the reformed 
faith to please Henry VIII, who published 
his book against Luther in the year of Tor- 
rigiano's death ; but it is probable that 
he was not always able or willing to bend 
to a temperament stormy as his own, for he 
finally quitted the king's service and settled 
at Seville. It is suggested that he hoped to 
secure the commission for the projected 
tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella, but in this 
he was unsuccessful. Among the works 
executed by him in Seville were a terra- 
cotta group of the Virgin and Child for the 
Jeronymite church, and a coloured terra- 
cotta statue of St. Jerome, now in the Seville 
Museum. There are casts of the latter at 
the Crystal Palace and in the Louvre. He 
was commissioned by the Duke d'Arcas to 
reproduce his group of the Madonna and 
Child in marble, and, eager to secure other 
commissions, he bestowed such pains on the 
work that the result was a masterpiece. 
The duke expressed his delight with the 
image, and sent two servants to fetch it, 
whom he ostentatiously loaded with money- 
bags in payment. When, however, Tor- 
rigiano turned out the bags and found them 
stuffed with maravedi, the value of which 
amounted only to thirty ducats in all, he 
was so enraged at his patron's meanness that 
! he seized a mallet and dashed the statue to 



atoms. The duke promptly denounced him 
to the inquisition for sacrilege, which, taken 
perhaps in conjunction with his known here- 
tical lapses, was sufficient to insure a decree 
of death with torture. He was respited, 
but detained in prison at Seville, where, 
falling 1 a victim to melancholy mania, he is 
said to have starved himself to death in 

[Vasari's Vite de' piu eccellenti Pittori, Scul- 
tori ed Architetti, vol. iv. ed. Milanesi ; Vasari's 
Vita del gran Michelangelo Buonarroti; Con- 
divi'sVitadi Michelangelo Buonarroti ;Symonds's 
Life of Michael Angelo, 1893, i. 31, 84; Vita di 
Benvenuto, scritta da lui stesso, and J. A. 
Symonds's Memoirs of Cellini ; Stow's Survey of 
London ; Kyves's Anglise Euina ; Sandford's 
Genealogical History of the Kings and Queens 
of England ; Cumberland's Anecdotes of Spanish 
Painters ; Duppa's Life of Michelangelo Buo- 
narroti; Wafpole's Anecdotes of Painting in 
England; Stanley's Memorials of Westminster 
Abbey ; Brayley and Neale's History and Anti- 
quities of the Abbey Church of Westminster; 
Dart's Westmonasterium ; Gilbert Scott's Glean- 
ings from Westminster Abbey ; Bacon's History 
of the Reign of Henry VII ; Carter's Specimens 
of Ancient Sculpture and Painting ; Perkins's 
Historical Handbook of Italian Sculpture.] 

W. A. 

BEET, AETHUE, 1647-1716.] 

GEOEGE, 1663-1733.] 


(1604-1650), puritan divine, was probably 
identical with Samuel Torshell, born on 
4 July 1604, the son of Richard Torshell, a 
London merchant taylor, who entered Mer- 
chant Taylors' school in 1617 (ROBINSON, 
Merchant Taylors' School Reg. i. 92). Accord- 
ing to Richard Smyth, his mother was a 
midwife. Cole conjectures that he studied 
at Cambridge University (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 5882, f. 62). Torshell seems first to 
have preached in London, but before 1632 
he was appointed by the Haberdashers' 
Company rector of Bunbury in Cheshire. 
Though always inclined to puritan views, he 
states that he was finally convinced of the 
inexpediency of episcopacy when he ' met 
with Mr. White's learned and serious speech 
against it in parliament.' When the cus- 
tody of the two youngest children of 
Charles I was committed to Algernon Percy, 
tenth earl of Northumberland [q. v.], on 
18 March 1643-4, Torshell was appointed 
their tutor. He afterwards became preacher 
at Cripplegate, London, and died on 
22 March 1649-50. 

He was author of: 1. < The Three Ques- 
tions of Free Justification, Christian Liberty, 
the Use of the Law, explicated in a briefe 
Comment on St. Paul to the Galatians ' 
London, 1632, 12mo. 2. 'The Saints 
Humiliation,' London, 1633, 4to. 3. 'A 
Helpe to Christian Fellowship,' London, 
1644, 4to. 4. < The Hypocrite discovered 
and cured,' London, 1644, 4to. 5. 'The 
Womans Glorie : a Treatise asserting the 
due Honour of that Sexe. Dedicated to the 
young Princesse Elizabethe her Highenesse,' 
London, 1645, 12mo ; 2nd ed. 1650. 6. 'The 
Palace of Justice opened and set to Veiw ' 
\_sic~], London, 1646, 4to. 7. ' A Designe 
about disponing the Bible into an Harmony,' 
London, 1647, 4to; reprinted in the 
'Phenix,' 1707, i. 96-113. Torshell also 
published * A learned and very usefull 
Commentary upon the whole Prophesie of 
Malachy, by Richard Stock. Whereunto is 
added an Exercitation upon the same 
Prophesie of Malachy, by Samuel Torshell,' 
London, 1641, 12mo ; reprinted by Dr. A. B. 

[Smyth's Obituary (Camden Soe.), p. 20; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 271 ; Torshell's 
Works.] E. I. C. 


1066), earl of the Northumbrians, was son 
of Earl Godwin [q. v.], probably coming third 
in order of birth among his sons, next after 
Harold ( Vita JEdwardi, p. 409 ; FEEEMAN, 
Norman Conquest, ii. 554). In 1051 he married 
Judith, daughter of Baldwin IV, called the 
Bearded, count of Flanders, by his second 
wife, a daughter of Richard II, duke of Nor- 
mandy, and sister of Baldwin V (FLOEESTCE, 
an. 1051, and OEDEEIC, pp. 492, 638, make her 
a daughter of Baldwin V, but comp. Vita, 
u.s. pp. 404, 428 ; Norman Conquest, iii. 663). 
Just at that time King Edward quarrelled 
with Earl Godwin. Tostig shared in his 
father's banishment, and with him took re- 
fuge in Flanders at the court of his brother- 
in-law. He returned to England with his 
father in 1052. Edward was much attached 
to him, and, on the death of Earl Siward 
[q. v.] in 1055, made him earl of Northum- 
bria, Northamptonshire, and Huntingdon- 
shire, passing over Siward's son Waltheof 
[q. v.], who was then young. At the time 
of his appointment Northumbria was in a 
wild state, and men were forced to travel 
in parties of twenty or thirty to guard their 
lives and goods from the attacks of robbers. 
Tostig ruled with vigour and severity, and 
by punishing all robbers, even those of the 
highest rank, with mutilation or death, 
brought the country into a state of complete 




order ( Vita, u.s. pp. 421-2). He continued 
the alliance that Siward had formed with 
Malcolm III [q. v.] of Scotland, became his 
sworn brother, and gave him help against 
Macbeth (ib. ; SYM. DIJNELM. Historia Eegum, 
c. 143). In common with his wife he paid 
much reverence to St. Cuthbert [q. v.], and 
was a liberal benefactor to the church of 
Durham. Judith, being grieved that as a 
woman she was not allowed to worship at 
the saint's shrine, sent one of her maids to 
the church by night to try whether the pro- 
hibition placed on her sex might be set at 
nought with impunity. As soon, however, 
as the girl set foot in the burying-ground, 
she was blown down by a sudden gust of wind 
and much hurt. On this Tostig and his wife 
appeased the saint by presenting to the 
church a crucifix with figures clad in gold 
and silver and other gifts (ib. Historia 
Dunelmensis Ecclesite, i. 94-5). In 1061 he 
and his wife went as pilgrims to Rome, in 
company with his younger brother Gyrth 
[q. v.], Aldred [q. v.], archbishop of York, 
and several nobles of the north. They passed 
along the Rhine, and were received at Rome 
by Nicholas II, who is said to have shown 
honour to Tostig, and to have placed him 
next to him at a synod. He sent his wife 
and most of his company back to England 
before him, and stayed for a while at Rome 
to urge the cause of Aldred, to whom the 
pope had refused the pall. Failing to per- 
suade the pope, he set out with the arch- 
bishop on his homeward journey. On the 
way he was attacked by robbers, who sought 
to seize him, apparently for the sake of ran- 
som. A young noble of his company named 
Gospatric declared himself to be the earl 
to save his lord, was carried off in his place, 
and afterwards freely released. The robbers 
despoiled the party of everything. Tostig 
and Aldred returned to Rome, and Nicholas 
granted Aldred the pall out of pity for their 
misfortune (Vita, pp. 411-12), though it is 
also said that he was moved to do so by the 
reproaches of Tostig, who is represented as 
complaining angrily of the treatment he had 
received, and threatening the pope that if he 
did not keep better order the English king 
would send him no more Peter's pence (Gesta 
Pontificum, p. 252). The pope made good his 
losses, and he returned to England. During 
his absence Malcolm, in spite of the alliance 
between them, made a fierce raid on the 
north. In the spring of 1063, in obedience 
to the king's order, he joined his brother 
Harold in invading Wales, being in com- 
mand of the cavalry (FLOE. WIG. sub an.) 

His government was unpopular in the 
north ; he was violent and tyrannical, and 

was constantly absent from his province, for 
Edward kept him at his court and employed 
him there (Vita, p. 421). In his absence 
the government was carried on by his deputy, 
Copsi or Copsige [q. v.] The discontent of 
the north seems to have been brought to a 
head by two special acts of lawless violence. 
In 1064 Tostig caused two thegns, named 
Gamel and Ulf, who had come to him with 
an assurance of peace, to be slain in his court 
at York, and he instigated the treacherous 
murder of a noble named Gospatric, who 
was slain on 28 Dec. of that year in the 
king's court by order of the earl's sister, 
Queen Edith or Eadgyth (d. 1075) [q. v.] 
(FLOE. WIG.) On 3 Oct. 1065 three of the 
chief thegns of the province and two hun- 
dred others met at York, and, on the ground 
that the earl had robbed God, deprived those 
over whom he ruled of life and lands, 
especially in the cases of Gamel, Ulf, and 
Gospatric, and had unjustly levied a heavy 
tax on his province (ib.; Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, ' Abingdon '), declared him an 
outlaw, and chose Morcar [q. v.] as earl in 
his stead. Their doings were generally ap- 
proved in the north, and many joined them. 
They slew two of Tostig's Danish house- 
carls, and the next day plundered his trea- 
sury at York and slew more than two 
hundred of his followers. Morcar accepted 
the offer of the insurgents, and placed the 
country north of the Tyne under Osulf, the 
son of Eadulf of the line of the ancient earls 
[see under SIWAED]. Meanwhile Tostig was 
hunting with the king in a forest near 
Britford in Wiltshire. Morcar advanced 
southwards with a large force, and was 
joined by his brother Edwin, the rebels 
doing much mischief about Northampton, 
where perhaps the inhabitants were not 
hostile to the earl (Norman Conquest, ii. 
490). When, after repeated messages from 
the king, the rebels refused to lay down 
their arms and insisted on the banishment of 
Tostig, Edward gathered an assembly of 
nobles at Britford, at which some blamed 
Tostig, declaring that his desire for wealth 
had made him unduly severe, while others 
maintained that the revolt against him had 
been caused by the machinations of his 
brother Harold, Tostig himself swearing 
that this was so (Vita, p. 422). Though 
the king was anxious to subdue the rebel- 
lion by force, he was overruled by Harold, 
who met the rebels at Oxford on the 28th, 
and yielded to their demands ; the deposi- 
tion and banishment of Tostig and the elec- 
tion of Morcar were therefore confirmed 
[see under HAEOLD]. Later writers assert 
that there was an unfriendly feeling of old 




standing between the brothers. Ailred 
(col. 394) relates how as boys they fought 
together in the presence of the king and 
their father, and how the king prophesied 
of their future quarrel in manhood and of 
the deaths of both, and the story is repeated 
in the French versified life of the king 
founded on Ailred's work (Lives of Edward 
the Confessor, pp. 113-14). Henry of Hun- 
tingdon, evidently representing a popular 
tradition wholly opposed to facts, says under 
the year 1064 that Tostig, whom he de- 
scribes as older than Harold, was jealous of 
the king's affection for his brother, that one 
day while Harold was acting as the king's 
cupbearer at Windsor Tostig kept pulling 
his brother's hair, and the king thereupon 
uttered his prophecy ; that the quarrel went 
on, each brother committing acts of rapine 
and murder, until at last Tostig, hearing that 
Harold was about to entertain the king at 
Hereford, went thither, cut his brother's 
men to pieces, mixed all the viands prepared 
for the feast together, and threw into them 
the limbs of those whom he had slaughtered, 
and that this was the cause of his banish- 
ment (see Norman Conquest, ii. 623 sqq.) 

To the great grief of the king, Tostig was 
forced to go into exile, and on 1 Nov. left 
England with his wife and children, took 
refuge with his brother-in-law in Flanders, 
and spent the winter at St. Omer (Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, u.s.) In 1066, when Harold 
succeeded to the throne, Tostig went to 
Normandy to Duke William, his wife's kins- 
man, who had married Judith's niece Matilda 
(d. 1083) [q. v.], offered to help him against 
his brother, and with his consent sailed from 
the Cotentin in May (ORDEEIC, pp. 492-3), 
landed in the Isle of Wight, compelled the 
inhabitants to give him money and provi- 
sions, sailed eastwards doing damage along 
the coast till he reached Sandwich, whence 
he sailed before Harold could catch him, 
taking with him some seamen of the place, 
some with and some without their goodwill. 
He sailed northwards with sixty ships, 
entered the H umber, ravaged in Lindesey 
until he was driven away by Edwin and 
Morcar, many of his followers deserting him, 
so that when he reached Scotland, where 
he took refuge, he had only twelve ships. 
Malcolm received him, and he abode with 
him during the summer (Anglo-Saxon Chro- 
nicle, l Abingdori and Peterborough ; ' FLOE. 

It is said that Tostig went to Denmark and 
asked his cousin, King Sweyn, to help him 
against his brother, that Sweyn offered him 
an earldom in Denmark, but said that he 
had enough to do to keep his own kingdom, 

and could not undertake a war with Eng- 
land (Saga of Harold Hardrada, cc. 81-2) 
and that he then went to Harold Hardrada, 
king of Norway, who promised to join him 
in an invasion of England (ib.} It is, how- 
ever, doubtful whether Tostig went either 
to Denmark or Norway during the summer 
of 1066, though if the invasion that he had 
made in the spring may be supposed to have 
been undertaken with the consent of Harold 
Hardrada, he may have gone to Norway 
earlier in the year. In any case it is probable 
that the Norwegian invasion was planned 
independently of him, though his application 
to the king, which may well have been 
made by messengers during the summer 
while Tostig was in Scotland, no doubt 
encouraged the Northmen (Norman Con- 
quest, iii. 720-5). Their vast fleet sailed 
to Orkney, and while Harold Hardrada was 
in Scotland, Tostig met him and did homage 
to him. He joined his fleet in the Tyne, 
bringing with him such forces as he had. 
The invaders sailed along the coast of York- 
shire, did some plundering, burnt Scar- 
borough, entered the Humber, and disem- 
barked near Biccall. They were met at Gate 
Fulford, close to York, by an army under 
Edwin and Morcar, which they routed on 
20 Sept., and on the 24th were received 
into York, where the inhabitants promised 
to join them in their march to the south. 
They then encamped at or near Stamford 
Bridge, where on the 25th Harold of England 
met them. The saga of Harold Hardrada 
relates that when the English army first 
came in sight Tostig suggested to his ally 
that it might contain some of his party 
who would be willing to join them, that 
as the army advanced he advised Harold 
Hardrada to lead his men back to their 
ships, and that, when his advice was rejected, 
declared that he was not anxious for the 
fight (c. 91). It is said that he commanded 
his own men, who were drawn up together 
under his banner, and that before the battle 
began his brother Harold sent a messenger 
to him offering him peace and restitution to 
his earldom, but that he refused to desert 
his ally, with whom the English king would 
make no terms (cc. 92, 94). When Harold 
Hardrada fell and the battle stayed for a 
little while, Tostig, we are told, took his 
place under the dead king's banner, and re- 
ceived an offer of peace for himself and such 
of the invaders as were left, but the North- 
men rejected the offer (c. 96). All this is 
legendary. The invading army was defeated, 
the larger part of it falling in the battle, 
and among the slain were Tostig and, it 
is said, some Flemings probably of his com- 




pany. According to a doubtful authority 
his head was brought to Harold (Liber de 
Hyda, p. 292) ; his body was identified by a 
mark between the shoulders, and was buried 
at York (WiLL. MALM. Gesta Regum, iii. 
c. 252). Skuli and Ketil, his sons, had 
been left with the ships ; they returned to 
Norway, were highly favoured by King Olaf, 
received lands from him, and left children. 
Tostig's widow, Judith, married for her 
second husband Welf, duke of Bavaria (His- 
toria Welforum, ed. Pertz, c. 13; Recueil 
des Historiens, xi. 644). 

[All that is known about Tostig will be found 
in Freeman's Norman Conquest, vols. ii. iii. ; 
Vita ^Edwardi ap. Lives of Edward the Con- 
fessor, Will. Malm., G-esta Regum and Gesta 
Pontiff., Sym. Dunelm., Hen. Hunt, (all Eolls 
Ser.) ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. ed. Plummer ; 
Flor. Wig. (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Orderic, ed. 
Duchesne; Ailred, ed.Twisden ; Saga of Harold 
Hardrada, ap. Heimskringla (Saga Library, 
vol. v.)] W. H. 

SONDE (1135-1211), abbot of St. Edmund's 
and judge. [See SAMSON.] 

GEORGE, 1555-1629.] 

TOTO, ANTHONY (ft. 1518-1551), 
painter, was a native of Florence, where his 
father, Toto del Nunziata, was an artist and 
image-maker of some note. Toto was a 
pupil of the painter Ghirlandajo, a friend of 
his father, at the same time as the cele- 
brated painter Perino del Vaga. In 1519 
Toto was engaged at Florence by the sculp- 
tor Pietro Torrigiano [q. v.] to come to 
England and work on a projected tomb for 
Henry VIII and his queen. The tomb was 
never executed, but Toto entered the service 
of the king as painter, and his name usually 
appears in conjunction with that of Bar- 
tolommeo Penni, another Florentine painter. 
Their names frequently occur together among 
the payments recorded in the account-books 
of the royal household. It is stated by 
Vasari that Toto executed numerous works 
for the king of England, some of which 
were in architecture, more especially the 
principal palace of that monarch, by whom 
he was largely remunerated. It is probable 
that this ' principal palace' was Nonesuch 
Palace, near Cheam in Surrey, erected by 
Henry VIII about this time, which is known 
to have been adorned on the outside with 
statues and paintings. Toto received letters 
of naturalisation and free denization in June 
1538, in which year he and Helen, his wife, 
received a grant of two cottages at Mickle- 
ham in Surrey, and in 1543 he succeeded An- 

drew Wright as the king's serjeant-painter. 
Payments for various services occur in the 
accounts of the royal household to Toto, in- 
cluding in 1540 a payment 'to Anthony 
Tote's servant that brought the king a table 
of the story of King Alexander,' and another 
to the same servant, who brought to the 
king at Hampton Court l a depicted table 
of Calomia.' Toto lived in the parish of St. 
Bridget, London, as is shown by a summons 
issued to him for disobeying the orders of 
the Painters' Company in 1546. His name 
occurs in the household of Edward VI as 
late as 1551. He is perhaps the 'Mr. An- 
thony, the kynge's servaunte of Grenwiche,' 
mentioned in the will of Hans Holbein [q.v.l 
in 1543. 

[Nichols's Notices of the Contemporaries and 
Successors of Holbein (Archseologia, vol. xxxix.); 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum ; 
Kymer'sFcedera; HouseholdBooks of Henry VIII 
and Edward VI ; Vasari's Lives of the Painters, 
ed. Milanesi ; Blomfield's Hist, of Eenaissance 
Architecture in England ; Archseol. Journal, 
September 1894.] L. C. 

TOTTEL, RICHARD (d. 1594), pub- 
lisher, was a citizen of London who set up 
in business as a stationer and printer in the 
reign of Edward VI. From 1553 until his 
death forty-one years later, he occupied a 
house and shop known as The Hand and 
Star, between the gates of the Temples in 
Fleet Street within Temple Bar. On 12 April 
1553 he was granted a patent to print for 
seven years all 'duly authorised books on 
common law ' (DUGDALE, Orig. Jurid. pp. 
59, 60). In 1556 this patent was renewed 
for a further term of seven years. When 
the Stationers' Company of London was 
created in 1557, Tottel was nominated a 
member in the charter (ARBEK, Stationers' 
Registers, vol. i. pp. xxvii-xxix). The 
company entered in the early pages of their 
register a note of his patent for law books 
(ib. i. 95). On 12 Jan. 1559 the patent was 
granted anew to Tottel for life. Another 
patent was also drawn up in his favour giving 
him the exclusive right of publishing for seven 
years all books on cosmography, geography, 
and topography, but it seems doubtful 
whether this grant was ratified. Tottel 
' won a high position in the Stationers' 
, Company, and filled in succession its chief 
offices. He was renter or collector of the 
, quarterages in 1559-60, was under warden 
in 1561, and upper warden in 1567, 1568, 
i and 1574. He served as master in 1578 
: and 1584. A few years later he practically 
\ retired from business, owing to failing health. 
I His last publication was Sir James Dyer's 
j ' Collection of Cases,' which was licensed on 




11 Jan. 1586 (AKBEK, ii. 445). On 30 Sept. 
1589 the court of assistants of the company 
excluded him from their body on the ground 
of ; his continual absence/ but, in considera- 
tion of the fact that he had always been ' a 
loving and orderly brother/ they resolved 
that he was at liberty to attend their meet- 
ings whenever he was in London. On 
7 Aug. 1593 'young Master Tottell' was 
described in the company's register as 
'dealer for his father.' Tottel died next 
year. On 20 March 1594 his patent for 
law books was granted for a term of thirty 
years to Charles, son of Nicolas Yetsweirt, 
who also succeeded to Tottel's place of 
business in Fleet Street (AKBER, ii. 16). 
That house passed in 1598 to the printer and 
publisher John Jaggard. Tottel's daughter 
Anne married, on 18 Dec. 1594, William 
Pennyman (Marriage Licences of the Bishop 
of London, 1520-1610, Harl. Soc. p. 220). 

Tottel's business was mainly confined 
throughout his career to the printing and 
publishing of law books, but his literary pub- 
lications, although few, were of sufficient in- 
terest to give him a place in literary history. 
At the outset he published More's ' Dialogue 
of Comfort' (1553), Lydgate's 'Fall of 
Princes' (1554), and Stephen Hawes's 
'Pastime of Pleasure' (1555). It was 
Tottel who gave to the public Surrey's 
translation of the second and fourth books 
of Virgil's ' ^Eneid/ the earliest known 
specimen of blank verse in English, which 
was issued in a volume bearing the date 
21 June 1557. He also printed the first 
.edition of the translation of Cicero's ' De 
Officiis ' by Nicholas Grimald in 1556 (2nd 
ed. 1558), and Arthur Broke's 'Romeus and 
Juliet ' in 1562. 

The poetical anthology commonly known 
as Tottel's ' Miscellany ' was the most impor- 
tant of his ventures in pure literature. The 
first edition appeared, according to the colo- 
phon, on 5 June 1557, with the title ' Songs 
and Sonettes written by the Ryght Honor- 
able Lord Henry Haward, late Earle of 
Surrey, and other. Apud Ricardum Tottel. 
1557, Cum privilegio/ Tottel, in an address 
to the reader, suggests that this publication 
was undertaken ' to the honor of the Eng- 
lishe tong and for profit of the studious of 
Englishe eloquence.' The volume consisted 
of 271 poems, none of which had been printed 
before ; forty were by Henry Howard, earl 
of Surrey [q. v.], ninety-six by Sir Thomas 
Wyatt [q.v.], forty by Nicholas Grimald [q.v.], 
and ninety-five by ' uncertain authors/ among 
whom Thomas, lord Vaux, John Heywood, 
and William Forrest have since been iden- 
tified. All the original verse of Wyatt and 

Surrey that is known to be extant is pre- 
served solely in Tottel's anthology. Of the 
first edition, Malone's copy in the Bodleian 
Library is the only one known to be extant ; 
a reprint, limited to sixty copies, was edited 
by John Payne Collier in his ' Seven English 
Poetical Miscellanies' in 1867. A second 
edition followed on 31 July 1557, and, while 
thirty of Grimald's poems were withdrawn, 
thirty-nine new poems appear in the section 
devoted to ' uncertain authors.' This volume 
contains two hundred and eighty poems in 
all. Two copies are known, one in the 
Grenville collection at the British Museum, 
and the other in the Capell collection at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. A third edi- 
tion was issued by Tottel in 1558 (unique 
copy in British Museum imperfect); a 
fourth in 1565 (Bodleian) ; a fifth in 1567 
(John Rylands Library, Manchester), and a 
sixth in 1574. These were all produced by 
Tottel. A seventh edition in 1588 and an 
eighth in 1589 were published respectively 
by T. Windet and R. Robinson. An incor- 
rect and imperfect reprint was edited by 
Thomas Sewell in 1717, and Wyatt's and 
Surrey's poems have often been reprinted in 
the present century. A scholarly edition of 
all the contents of both the first and second 
editions of Tottel's ' Miscellany ' was in- 
cluded in Arber's 'English Reprints' in 

Tottel's ' Miscellany' inaugurated the long 
series of poetic anthologies which were popu- 
lar in England throughout Elizabeth's reign. 
The most interesting of them, Richard Ed- 
wardes's ' The Paradise of Dainty Devices ' 
(1576), 'The Phoenix Nest' (1593), 'Eng- 
land's Helicon ' (1600), and Davison's 'Poeti- 
cal Rapsody ' (1602), are all modelled more 
or less directly on Tottel's venture. 

[Ames's Typog. Antiq. ed. Herbert, ii. 806 et 
seq. ; Arber's Registers of Stationers' Company ; 
Arber's introduction to the reprint of Tottel's 
Miscellany, 1890; Collier's Bibliographical Cata- 
logue, ii. 402-3.] S. L. 


1758), Irish politician, son of Edward Tot- 
tenham of Tottenham Green, co. Wexford, 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel 
Hayman of Youghal, was born in 1685. 
He sat for New Ross in the Irish House of 
Commons from 1727 until shortly before his 
death, and was sheriff of co. Wexford m 
1737, his local influence being great. In 
1731 a great opposition was set on foot to a 
proposal that an Irish surplus of 60,OOOZ. 
should be made over to the British govern- 
ment. Having heard that the question was 
likely to come on earlier than he expected, 


7 6 


Tottenham, who was in the country, mounted 
his horse at Ballycarny, set off in the night 
upon a sixty-mile ride, and rushed into the 
parliament-house, Dublin, where the ser- 
geant-at-arms endeavoured to bar his en- 
trance on the ground that he was ' undressed, 
in dirty boots, and splashed up to his 
shoulders.' The speaker decided that he 
had no power to exclude him, and Totten- 
ham strode into the house in jack-boots * to 
vote for the country.' The division was 
just about to be taken, and his casting vote 
gave a majority of one against the unpopu- 
lar measure. Thenceforth he was known 
and toasted by Irish patriots as ( Totten- 
ham in his boots.' He died on 20 Sept. 
1758. A character-portrait by Pope Stevens, 
dated 1749, was engraved in mezzotint by 
Andrew Miller, and bore the legend, ' Tot- 
tenham in his Boots.' 

By his first wife, Ellinor (d. 1745), daugh- 
ter of John Cliffe of Mulrancan, co. Wex- 
ford, he had, with other issue, John, M.P. 
for New Ross in 1758, and for Fethard, co. 
Wexford, in 1761 and 1769, and sheriff for 
his county in 1749, who was created Sir 
John Tottenham, bart., of Tottenham Green, 
on 2 Dec. 1780, and died 29 Dec. 1786 ; and 
Charles, the ancestor of the Tottenhams 
of Ballycurry, co. Wicklow. 

By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Nicho- 
las, and sister and coheir of Henry Loftus, 
earl of Ely, Sir John, the first baronet, had 
issue Charles Tottenham (afterwards Loftus) 
(1738-1806), who in connection with the 
negotiations preceding the Act of Union was 
on 29 Dec. 1800 created Marquis of Ely, 
having previously been made Baron (1785) 
and Viscount (1789) Loftus and Earl of Ely 
(1794). He assumed the name of Loftus in 
1783, and on 19 Jan. 1801 he was created 
Baron Loftus of Long Loftus in the United 
Kingdom, having thus obtained no fewer 
than five separate peerage creations within 
fifteen years. ' Prends-moi tel que je suis ' 
was the marquis's motto (G. E. C[OKAYNE], 
Peerage, iii. 263 n.) 

[Lodge's Peerage, 1789, vii. 269 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 1894, p. 2022 ; Members of Par- 
liament, Official Returns; Webb's Compendium of 
Irish Biography; Barrington's Personal Sketches, 
i. 105-6; Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits, 
p. 937; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. vi. 41 ; 
Hardy's Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont, 
1812, i. 76; Warburton's Annals of Dublin.] 

T. S. 

TOUCHET, GEORGE (d. 1689 ?), Bene- 
dictine monk, born at Stalbridge, Dorset, 
was second son of Mervyn Touchet, twelfth 
lord Audley and second earl of Castlehaven, 
and younger brother of James A udley, third 

earl of Castlehaven [q. v.] He made his 
solemn profession in the chapel of the Eng- 
lish Benedictine monastery of St. Gregory 
at Douay on 22 Nov. 1643, taking in religion 
the name of Anselm (COLLINS, Peerage of 
England, ed. Brydges, vi. 555; WELDON, 
Chronicle, App. p, 10). He was sent to the 
mission in the southern province of Eng- 
land, and was appointed chaplain to Queen 
Catherine of Braganza about 1671 with a 
salary of 100Z. a year and apartments in 
Somerset House. He was banished in 1675, 
and, by act of parliament in 1678, was ex- 
pressly excluded from the succession to the 
earldom of Castlehaven. He probably died 
about 1689. 

He was the author of 'Historical Col- 
lections out of several grave Protestant 
Historians concerning the Changes in Reli- 
gion, and the strange confusions following 
from thence ; in the reigns of King Henry 
the Eighth, Edward the Sixth, Queen Mary 
and Elizabeth' (anon.), sine loco, 1674, 8vo; 
with an addition of l several remarkable pas- 
sages taken out of Sir Will. Dugdale's " An- 
tiquities of Warwickshire," relating to the 
Abbies and their Institution,' London, 1686, 
8vo ; and ' with an appendix, setting forth 
the Abbies, Priories, and other Religious 
Houses dissolved in Ireland, and an histo- 
rical account of each/ Dublin, 1758, 12mo. 
The authorship of this work has been erro- 
neously ascribed to Dr. George Hickes [q. v.] 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 493 ; Jones's Popery 
Tracts, pp. 271, 485 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. 
Bonn, p. 1074; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 
388 ; Oliver's Cornwall, p. 524 ; Eambler, 1850, 
vii. 428 ; Snow's Necrology, p. 74.] T. C. 

AUDLEY (1465 P-1497), was descended from 
Adam de Aldithley or Audley, who lived in 
the reign of Henry I, and is considered the 
first Baron Audley or Aldithley (of Heleigh) 
by tenure. There were nine barons of the 
family by tenure, the first baron by writ 
being Nicholas Audley (d. 1317). His great- 
great-grandson, John Touchet, fourth baron 
by writ (d. 1408), served under Henry IV 
in the wars against Glendower and the 
French (WYLIE, Henry IV}. John's son 
James, fifth baron, was slain by the Yorkists 
at the battle of Blore Heath, 23 Sept. 1458, 
leaving a son John, sixth baron (d. 1491), 
who had livery of his lands in 1459-60, 
joined Edward IV, was summoned to par- 
liament from 1461 to 1483, and was sworn 
of the privy council in 1471. He was em- 
ployed in Brittany in 1475, and was present 
at the coronation of Richard III, who ap- 
pointed him lord treasurer in 1484. He 

v,; Q 




died 26 Sept. 1491, having married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Itchingham, After 
her first husband's death, she married John 
Rogers, by whom she had a son Henry. 
She died between 11 Nov. 1497, when her 
will was made, and 24 June 1498, when it 
was proved, outliving her second husband 
(Testamenta Vetusta, p. 436). 

James, the son and heir of the sixth baron, 
born about 1465, was made K.B. at the crea- 
tion of Prince Edward as Prince of Wales 
in 1475. He succeeded his father in the 
barony on 26 Sept. 1491, and was summoned 
to parliament from 12 Aug. 1492 to 16 Jan. 
1496-7. He was in France with Henry VII 
on the expedition of 1492, and possibly may 
have there got into debt, and consequently 
became dissatisfied. One account makes him 
a petitioner for peace, but that was but a 
device of Henry to have an excuse for the 
peace of Staples. In consequence of the 
Scottish war occasioned by Perkin War- 
beck fresh taxation was necessary, and 
though it ought not to have pressed hardly 
on the poor, they seem to have been 
roused by agitators to resistance. The out- 
break began in the early part of 1497 in 
Cornwall. The rebels, marching towards 
London, reached Well, and there were 
joined by Lord Audley, who at once as- 
sumed the leadership. On 16 June 1497 
Blackheath was reached, and on 17 June 
the rebels were decisively defeated by the 
Earl of Oxford and Lord Daubeny. Audley 
was taken prisoner, brought before the king 
and council on 19 June and condemned. On 
the 28th he was led, clothed in a paper coat, 
from Newgate to Tower Hill, and there be- 
headed. His head was stuck on London 
Bridge. His body was buried at the Black- 
friars Church. He married, first, Joan, daugh- 
ter of Fulk, lord Fitzwarine, by whom he 
had a son John, who was restored in blood 
in 1512, and was ancestor of James Touchet, 
baron Audley and earl of Castlehaven [q.v.] ; 
secondly, Margaret, daughter of Richard 
Dayrell of Lillingston Dayrell, Buckingham- 
shire, who long survived him. 

[Busch's England under the Tudors, pp. 110- 
12 ; Rot. Parl. vi. 458, 544 ; Collinson's Somer- 
set, iii. 552 ; G-. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, i. 200 ; 
Polydore Vergil's Angl. Hist. p. 200; Letters 
and Papers of Kichard III and Henry VII, ii. 
292 ; Calendar of Inquisitions, Henry VII, i. 
passim.] W. A. J. A. 

Hely or Heleigh, third EARL OF CASTLE- 
HAVEN (1617 P-1684), the eldest son and 
heir of Mervyn, lord Audley, second earl of 
Castlehaven, by his first wife, Elizabeth, 

daughter and heiress of Benedict Barnham 
alderman of London, was born about 1617 
His father (1592 P-1631), a man of the most 
profligate life, who married for his second 
wife Lady Anne, daughter of Ferdinando 
Stanley, fifth earl of Derby [q. Y.I and 
widow of Grey Brydges, fifth baron Chandos 
[q. v.], was executed for unnatural offences, 
after a trial by his peers, on 14 May 1631 
(COBBETT, State Trials, iii. 401-26; The 
Arraignment and Conviction of Mervin 
Touchet, Earl of Castlehaven, with rough 
portrait as frontispiece, London, 1642; ac- 
counts of arraignment and trial, letters 
before his death, confession of faith, and 
dying speech and execution in HarL MSS 
2194 ff. 26-30, 738 f. 25, 791 f. 34, 2067 f 5 
6865 f. 17, 7043 f. 31). He was the only son 
and heir of George Touchet, baron Audley 
(1550 P-1617), sometime governor of Utrecht, 
who was wounded at the siege of Kinsale on 
24 Dec. 1601, was an undertaker in the plan- 
tation of Ulster, was summoned by writ to 
the Irish House of Lords on 11 March 
1613-14, was created a peer of Ireland as 
Baron Audley of Orier, co. Armagh, and 
Earl of Castlehaven, co. Cork, on 6 Sept. 
1616, and died in March 1617 (HiLL, Plan- 
tation of Ulster, pp. 134, 335 ; CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 449). 

When a mere boy of thirteen or fourteen, 
James, earl of Castlehaven, was married to 
Elizabeth Brydges (daughter of his father's 
second wife, Anne, by her first husband, 
Grey Brydges, fifth baron Chandos of 
Sudeley). When scarcely twelve years of 
age, the girl had been forced by her step- 
father into criminal intercourse with her 
mother's paramour, one Skipwith. She died 
in 1679, and was buried on 16 March at St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields. Utterly neglected 
as to his education, and disgusted at the 
scenes of bestiality he was compelled to wit- 
ness, but preserving his natural sense of 
decency intact, ' he appealed for protection 
from the earl, his natural father, to the father 
of his country, the king's majesty,' and was 
instrumental in bringing his father to justice 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1629-31 p. 371, 
1631-3 p. 20). His conduct, though a severe 
strain on his filial duty, was regarded with 
approval, and on 3 June 1633 he was created 
Baron Audley of Hely, with remainder ' to 
his heirs for ever,' and with the place and 
precedency of George, his grandfather ; but 
in the meanwhile most of his father's estates 
in England had passed into the possession of 
Lord Cottington and others. In so far as the 
creation was virtually a restoration to an 
ancient dignity it lay outside the power of 
the crown alone to make it, but the necessary 



confirmation was obtained by act of parlia- 
ment in 1678. As for the Irish peerage, it 
was held to be protected by the statute de 
donis, preserving all entailed honours against 
forfeiture for felony (cf. COZA.YNE, Peerage, 
and legal authorities quoted). 

Feeling attracted to a soldier's life, Castle- 
haven obtained permission to visit the theatre 
of war on the continent, and was at Rome 
in 1638 when, in consequence of the prospect 
of war between England and Scotland, he 
was commanded to return home. Setting 
out immediately, he reached England early 
in the following year ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1638-9 p. 629, 1639 p. 273). He attended 
Charles I to Berwick, but after the first 
pacification he returned to the continent and 
witnessed the capitulation of Arras by Owen 
Roe O'Neill [q. v.] to the French. Repairing 
to England to put his affairs there in order, 
he afterwards proceeded for the same purpose 
to Ireland, and was on the point of leaving 
the latter country when the rebellion broke 
out on 23 Oct. 1641. Hastening to Dublin, 
he offered his services to the government ; 
but the lords justices, Sir William Parsons 
[q. v.] and Sir John Borlase [q. v.], suspecting 
his motives as a Roman catholic, declined 
his offer, as likewise they did his request to 
be permitted to repair to England, requiring 
him, on the contrary, to retire to his house 
at Maddenstown in co. Kildare, and if need 
were ' to make fair weather ' with the rebels. 
Obeying their commands, he at once proceeded 
thither, and was instrumental in relieving the 
distressed English in those parts. But his 
hesitating conduct in not joining the Earl of 
Ormonde at the battle of Kilrush on 15 April 
1642 and his undertaking to mediate between 
the lords of the Pale and the government 
affording plausible grounds for doubting his 
loyalty, he was, towards the latter end of 
May, indicted of high treason at Dublin. 
' Amazed at this sad and unexpected news,' 
he posted to Dublin, presented himself before 
the council, and after some debate was com- 
mitted to the custody of one of the sheriffs 
of the city. Several months passed away, 
and, learning that it was intended to remove 
him into stricter confinement in the castle, 
he resolved, ' with God's help, not tamely 
to die butchered,' and, having managed to 
elude the vigilance of his keeper, he escaped 
on 27 Sept. into the Wicklow mountains. 
His intention was 'to gain a passage by 
Wexford into France, and from thence into 
England;' but coming to Kilkenny, the 
headquarters of the confederate catholics, he 
was persuaded to accept a command in the 
army, and was appointed general of horse 
under Sir Thomas Preston (afterwards 

Viscount Tara) [q. v.] Such is his own ac- 
count in the ' Memoirs ' and ' Remonstrance ' 
(Desid. Cur. Hib. ii. 119, 135) ; but it was 
believed among the northern Irish that his 
escape was a contrivance on the part of the 
Earl of Ormonde ' to work an understanding ' 
between him and his kindred in rebellion, 
Castlehaven being related to him through 
the marriage of his sister with Edmund Roe 
Butler (Contemp. Hist. i. 40). 

Castlehaven served with Preston at the 
capture of Burros Castle on 30 Dec., and of 
Birr on 19 Jan. following (1643), and, being 
entrusted with the execution of the articles 
of capitulation of the latter, he conveyed 
the garrison safely to Athy. He commanded 
the horse at the battle of Ross on 18 March, 
where the confederates were defeated by 
the Marquis of Ormonde, and when Preston, 
having rallied his forces, sat down before 
Ballynekill, he intercepted and routed a 
strong detachment sent to raise the siege 
under Colonel Crawford near Athy on 
13 April. His main business was to cover 
Kilkenny, but, in consequence of the pro- 
gress Inchiquin [see O'BRIEN, MTJRKOUGH, 
first EARL OF INCHIQTTIN] was making in 
Munster, he was sent with what forces he 
could collect into that province. On 4 June 
he overtook Sir C. Vavasour near Castle 
Lyons, and defeated him with heavy loss, 
killing some six hundred men on the spot, 
taking Sir Charles himself and several of 
his officers prisoners, and capturing all his 
cannon and baggage, with little or no injury 
to himself. Returning to Kilkenny, he was 
afterwards employed in reducing the out- 
standing fortresses in co. Kildare between 
the Barrow and the Liffey, when his further 
progress was stopped by the conclusion of 
the cessation, in promoting which he had 
taken an active part, on 15 Sept. He was 
very useful in providing shipping at Wexford 
to transport the Irish soldiers furnished by 
Ormonde for the king's service into England 
(CAKTE, Ormonde, i. 469), and, the Scottish 
forces under Major-general Robert Monro 
[q. v.] in Ulster refusing to be bound by the 
cessation, he was appointed to the command 
of six thousand foot and six hundred horse 
to be sent to the aid of Owen Roe O'Neill in 
the following year (1644). But before he 
could proceed thither he was ordered to sup- 
press a local insurrection in co. Mayo. This 
done, he effected a junction with O'Neill at 
Portlester, and towards the end of July both 
armies marched towards Tanderagee. But 
Monro avoided giving battle, and Castle- 
haven, after lying intrenched near Charle- 
mont for two months, and exhausting his 
provisions, retired, 'taking a great round' 




to Ballyhaise in co. Cavan, much, to the 
dissatisfaction of the northern Irish, who 
charged him with cowardice (Contemp. 
Affairs, i. 84-8 ; Journal of Owen O'Neill 
in Desid. Cur. Hid. ii. 500-2). Having 
seen his army into winter quarters, and 
coming to Kilkenny, he found the supreme 
council in a state of consternation owing to 
the defection of Lord Inchiquin and the 
surrender of Duncannon fort by Sir Laurence 
(afterwards Lord) Esmonde [q.v.] He served 
as a volunteer under Preston at the siege 
of Duncannon, and was present at its rendi- 
tion on 18 March 1645. But the truce with 
Inchiquin drawing near its expiration, he 
was sent with five thousand foot and one 
thousand horse into Munster, and speedily 
reduced all the castles in the baronies of 
Imokilly and Barrimore, and, having wasted 
the country up to the walls of Cork, he sat 
down before Youghal, ( thinking to distress 
the place ' into a surrender ; but the town 
being relieved he marched off, and, having 
1 trifled out the remains of the campaign in 
destroying the harvest,' put his army into 
winter quarters and returned to Kilkenny 
towards the latter end of November. He 
was one of the signatories to the contract 
with Giovanni Battista Rinuccini [q. v.] on 
19 Feb. 1646 not to conclude a peace till 
provision had been made for the full exer- 
cise of the catholic religion (GILBERT, Con- 
federation, vi. 419) ; but, after the publica- 
tion of the peace between the confederates 
and Ormonde on 30 July, he was deputed 
by the latter to proceed to Waterford for 
the purpose of persuading the nuncio's ac- 
ceptance of it. Failing in this, he threw 
himself unreservedly on Ormonde's side, and 
when the latter, in consequence of O'Neill's 
determination to support the nuncio with 
his army, was compelled to fall back on 
Dublin, he accompanied him thither, bear- 
ing the sword of state before him on his 
entrance into the city on 13 Sept. After- 
wards, when the question arose whether 
terms should be made with the parliament 
or with the supreme council, he gave his 
opinion in favour of the former 'For giving 
up to the parliament, when the king should 
have England he would have Ireland with 
it ; but to the nuncio and his party it might 
prove far other ways, and the two kingdoms 
remain separate.' 

He quitted Ireland apparently before the 
parliamentary commissioners arrived, and, 
repairing to France, was present at the battle 
of Landrecies, fighting in Prince Kupert's 
troop, commanded by Captain Somerset Fox. 
Afterwards going to St. Germain, he re- 
mained there in attendance on the queen 

and Prince of Wales till the latter end of 
September 1648, when he returned with the 
Marquis of Ormonde to Ireland. A peace 
having been concluded with the confederates 
in January 1649, he was appointed general 
of the horse, and, with five thousand foot 
and one thousand horse, employed in re- 
ducing the fortresses holding out for O'Neill 
in Queen's County. But his half-starved 
soldiers deserted in shoals, and after the 
capture of Athy on 21 May he complained 
that the fifteen hundred foot that remained 
with him were only kept alive by stealing 
cows. Worn out with fatigue and dissatis- 
fied at the preference shown by some of the 
general assembly for Lord Taaffe, his com- 
petitor for the generalship of the horse, he 
obtained permission to retire to Kilkenny, 
where he was instrumental in suppressing a 
revolt of the friars. But the difficulties 
connected with his command being shortly 
afterwards removed, he joined the army 
under Ormonde at Rathmines, and shared 
his defeat by Jones on 2 Aug. He signed 
the order for the defence of Drogheda, and, 
having been entrusted by Ormonde with a 
special command over the forces destined 
for the relief of the southern towns, he suc- 
ceeded on 6 Oct. in throwing fifteen hundred 
men into Wexford, thereby enabling Synnot 
to break off his correspondence with Crom- 
well. A few days later he forced Ireton to 
raise the siege of Duncannon; but, being 
appointed governor of Waterford, with one 
thousand men to reinforce the garrison, he 
was refused admittance by the citizens, and 
' after several days' dispute marched away.' 
During the winter he amused himself in his 
favourite pastime, fox-hunting. He was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the Lein- 
ster forces by Ormonde, whom the exigencies 
of the situation drove to Limerick early in 
the following year for the purpose of raising 
reinforcements 'to attend Cromwell's mo- 
tions,' and in March 1650 Castlehaven took 
the field with some four thousand men. 
Finding himself too weak to assume the 
offensive, he contented himself with watching 
Hewson's movements, and indeed managed 
to wrest Athy out of his hands. But after 
the surrender of Kilkenny to Cromwell on 
28 March 1650, he withdrew to the borders 
of King's County, and in June made an un- 
successful attempt to relieve Tecroghan, 
which * was by the confession of all parties, 
even of the enemy, allowed to be the gal- 
lantest action that had been performed since 
the beginning of the war' (CARTE, Ormonde, 
ii. 117). Afterwards finding it impossible 
to keep an army together, he granted com- 
missions for horse and foot to all that applied 



for them, whereby, although managing to 
keep up an appearance of war, he gave to it 
the character of a freebooting campaign, 
which caused as much harm to his own 
party as to the enemy. Meanwhile, the 
lord-lieutenant, having been foiled in his 
efforts to recruit his army through the ob- 
stinacy of the citizens of Limerick refusing 
to receive a garrison, and seeing no hope of 
effecting a compromise with the extreme 
Irish, had come to the determination to quit 
the kingdom. Castlehaven did his utmost 
to combat his resolution, urging him to 
' make friendship with the bishops and the 
nation.' But his overtures were treated 
with disdain ; ' the bishops and the nation ' 
were bent on managing their affairs in their 
own way, and so, having appointed Clan- 
ricarde his lord-deputy and Castlehaven 
commander-in-chief in the province of Mun- 
ster and county of Clare, Ormonde sailed 
from Galway Bay for France in December. 
The approach of Ireton, however, causing the 
citizens of Limerick somewhat to relax their 
opposition, they admitted Castlehaven him- 
self ' with the matter of one troupe of horse ' 
(Contemporary Affairs, ii. 113). The con- 
cession enabled him to transport two thou- 
sand men into Kerry and clear that county 
almost entirely of the enemy (GILBERT, 
Confederation, vii. 364). Returning for 
Christmas to Portumna, he early in the fol- 
lowing year (1651) crossed the Shannon into 
co. Tipperary ; but the object of the expedi- 
tion was frustrated by the plundering pro- 
pensities of his officers, and, being compelled 
to retreat before Ireton and Broghill, he 
recrossed the Shannon at Athlone. Failing 
to prevent Ireton sitting down before Lime- 
rick, the capitulation of that city on 27 Oct., 
followed by the loss of co. Clare, forced him 
and Clanricarde into lar Connaught. But, 
the situation growing daily more desperate, 
he was on 10 April despatched by Clan- 
ricarde to France for the purpose of soliciting 
aid to enable the latter to maintain ' a 
mountain war.' 

Reaching Brest after a sharp encounter 
with an English vessel in the Channel, he 
posted to St. Germain, but, failing to obtain 
the supplies required, he was granted per- 
mission to enter the service of the Prince of 
Cond6 in the war of the Fronde. Being 
appointed to the command of a regiment of 
horse, he was present at the fight in the 
Faubourg St.-Antoine on 2 July, and, quitting 
Paris with Conde, he was taken prisoner by 
Turenne at Comercy. Owing to the inter- 
vention of the Duke of York he was shortly 
afterwards exchanged, and being placed at 
the head of the Irish regiments in the 

Spanish service with the rank of marechal- 
de-camp or major-general, he was present at 
the siege of Rocroy (1653), of Arras (1654), 
the relief of Valenciennes and the capture of 
Cond6 (1656), the siege of St. Guislain and 
the relief of Cambrai (1657), and the battle 
of the Dunes on 14 June 1658. The peace 
of the Pyrenees putting an end to the war 
in the following year (7 Nov. 1659), and 
Charles II being shortly afterwards re- 
stored, he returned to England. But the 
confiscation of his property by the Common- 
wealth rendering it impossible to support 
his dignity, he obtained a grant in Septem- 
ber 1660 of all wastes and encroached lands 
to be discovered by him in the counties of 
Surrey, Berks, Stafford, Devon, and Corn- 
wall ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 289), 
and either then or subsequently received a 
pension out of the Irish establishment 
(Dartmouth MSS. i. 121). On the out- 
break of the war with Holland (1665-7) he 
served as a volunteer in several naval 
actions, and in June 1667 landed at Ostend 
with 2,400 recruits for the old English regi- 
ment of which he was appointed colonel. 
His men were used to strengthen the garri- 
sons at Nieuport, Lille, Courtrai, Oude- 
narde, and other places; but, the peace of Aix- 
la-Chapelle (2 May 1668) putting ' an end 
to our trouble, for it cannot be called a war/ 
he shortly afterwards returned to England. 
Peace being concluded between Holland and 
England in 1674, he again repaired abroad, 
and was present at the battle of Senef on 
11 Aug. He commanded the Spanish foot 
in 1676, and served in the trenches at 
Maastricht, 'by much the bloodiest siege 
that I ever saw.' The following year he 
was at the siege of Charleroi, and on 14 Aug. 
1678 at the battle before Mons ; but return- 
ing to England after the peace of Nimeguen, 
he published in 1680 his l Memoirs,' ' from 
the year 1642 to the year 1651.' 

The book, a small octavo volume with a 
dedication to Charles II, is, on the whole, 
what it claims to be, a trustworthy account of 
the war in Ireland from a catholic-royalist 
standpoint. But, being written from memory, 
it is not wholly free from accidental in- 
accuracies, while the very biassed view 
taken of the conduct of the lords justices 
Parsons and Borlase at the beginning of the 
rebellion, and of the peace of 1643, renders a 
circumspect use of it necessary. Appearing 
as it did during the heat of the * popish plot,' 
' a very unseasonable time,' remarks Carte 
(Ormonde, ii. 521), 'for reviving or canvas- 
ing such a subject,' it was attacked by Arthur 
Annesley, earl of Anglesey [q.v.], at that 
time lord privy seal, in l A Letter from a 




Person of Honour in the Country,' London, 
1681 . At Charles II's request .Ormonde re- 
plied to Annesley in 'A Letter ... in 
answer to the . . . Earl of Anglesey . . . 
His Observations and Reflections upon the 
Earl of Castlehaven's Memoirs,' 12 Nov. 
1681. Anglesey retorted in another ' Letter,' 
7 Dec. 1681, whereupon Ormonde appealed 
to the privy council on 17 June 1682 to 
appoint a committee to examine Anglesey's 
' Letter.' The matter ended, as it was pro- 
bably intended it should do, in the dismissal 
of Anglesey and the transfer of the privy seal 
to Lord Halifax (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. 
p. 213). The charges preferred by Anglesey 
were repeated in ' Brief Reflections on the 
Earl of Castlehaven's Memoirs,' by E[dmund] 
B[orlase], London, 1682. In the spring of 
1683 it was rumoured that Castlehaven, 
Lansdowne, and other noblemen intended 
'to go as volunteers to the holy war in 
Hungary' (id. 7th Rep. p. 363)! But he 
seems to have occupied himself preparing a 
fresh edition of his ' Memoirs,' published in 
1685, bringing the narrative down to the 
peace of Nimeguen. An edition, with an 
anonymous preface by Charles O'Conor 
(1720-1791) [q.v.], was published at Water- 
ford in 1753, and another at Dublin in 1815. 
Castlehaven died at Kilcash, co. Tipperary, 
his sister Butler's house, on 11 Oct. 1684, 
and was succeeded by his youngest brother 
Mervyn (the second son, George, a Benedic- 
tine monk, being expressly passed over in 
the act of 1678). Of his three sisters, 
Frances became the wife of Richard Butler 
of Kilcash, brother of the Duke of Ormonde ; 
Dorothy, the wife of Edmund Butler, son 
and heir of Lord Mountgarret ; and Lucy, 
the wife of Gerald Fitzmaurice, son of Lord 

[Collins's Peerage, vi. 554-5; G. E. C[o- 
kaynejs Peerage, s. v. 'Audley ' and ' Castlehaven ; ' 
Castlehaven's Memoirs; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. ; Contemporary Hist, of Affairs in Ireland 
(Irish Archaeol. Soc.) ; Gilbert's Hist, of the 
Confederation ; Carte's Life of Ormonde ; 
Eimiccini's Embassy in Ireland, transl. Hutton ; 
Meehan's Confederation of Kilkenny ; Ludlow's 
Memoirs, ed. Firth; Clanricarde's Memoirs; 
Clarendon's Kebellion ; Gardiner's Civil War 
and Commonwealth; Murphy's Cromwell in 
Ireland; Evelyn's Diary, 1682 (25 Oct.), 1683 
(17 Jan.); Addit. MSS. 15856 f. 72 b, 18982 f. 
169, 22548 f. 96, 34345 (letters to SirE. South- 
well, 1672-4), 33589 if. 112, 114 (to Earl of 
Ormonde, 1673); Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
pp.31, 52, 54, 55, 5th Rep. pp. 42, 192, 333, 
357, 7th Rep. pp. 236, 354, 372, 405, 448, 8th 
Rep. p. 140; Russell and Prendergast's Report 
on the Carte MSS. in 32nd Rep. of Deputy- 
Keeper of Public Records.] R. D. 


afterwards Mrs. NEWTON CROSLAND (1812- 
1895), miscellaneous writer, was born on 
9 June 1812 at Aldermanbury, London 
where her father, William Toulmin, prac- 
tised as a solicitor. Her grandfather, Dr. 
William Toulmin, was a physician of repute, 
while her mother was descended from the 
Berrys of Birmingham, and was related to 
the Misses Berry, the friends of Horace Wai- 
pole. She evinced exceptional precocity, 
being able to read at the age of three years. 
Her father, the victim of financial misfor- 
tune, died when Camilla was eight, leaving 
his widow and daughter unprovided for. The 
girl's limited education was supplemented 
by persevering private study. Devoting her- 
self to literature from 1838, she contributed 
numerous poems, stories illustrating the suf- 
ferings of the poor, essays, biographical and 
historical sketches to periodicals like the 
' People's Journal,' the ' London Journal,' 
'Bentley's Miscellany,' the 'Old Monthly 
Magazine,' the * Illustrated London News,' 
' Douglas Jerrold's Magazine,' * Ainsworth's 
Magazine,' and the annuals. For more than 
fifty years she was a regular contributor to 
< Chambers's Journal,' and at the time of her 
death she was the oldest of its band of 
writers. On 22 July 1848 Miss Toulmin mar- 
ried Newton Crosland, a London wine mer- 
chant with literary and scientific tastes, the 
author of several treatises and essays on mis- 
cellaneous subjects. In 1854 Mrs. Crosland 
commenced an investigation of the alleged 
phenomena of spiritualism, in which she be- 
came a thoroughgoing believer. She pub- 
lished her conclusions in ' Light in the Valley : 
My Experiences of Spiritualism ' (1857), a 
credulous record, which was received with 
much scorn by the public. It is now scarce. 
In 1865 she published a three-volume novel, 
' Mrs. Blake ; ' in 1871 the ' Diamond Wed- 
ding, and other Poems;' and in 1873 a 
second novel, ' Hubert Freeth's Prosperity.' 
Among her later productions were faithful 
and spirited translations of Victor Hugo's 
plays, ' Hernani ' and < Ruy Bias,' with some 
of his poems, which appeared in ' Bonn's 
Library.' In 1893 there was issued her 
last and most interesting work, ' Landmarks 
of a Literary Life,' a book full of charm, 
which was written when the author was 
past eighty years of age. The frontispiece is 
an engraving of the authoress from a minia- 
ture painted in 1848. After residing for 
nearly thirty-eight years at Blackheath, Mrs. 
Croslandremoved in 1886 to 290ndme Road, 
East Dulwich, where she died on 16 leb. 
1895. A memorial window has been placed 
to her memory in St. Alban's Cathedral. 



Besides the works mentioned above she 
wrote : 1. ' Lays and Legends illustrative of 
English Life' (illustrated with numerous 
fine engravings), 1845. 2. 'Poems,' 1846. 
3. ' Partners for Life : a Christmas Story,' 
1847. 4. ' Stratagems : a Story for Young 
People,' 1849. 5. ' Toil and Trial : a Story 
of London Life,' 1849. 6. 'Lydia: a 
Woman's Book,' 1852. 7. ' Stray Leaves 
from Shady Places,' 1852. 8. 'English 
Tales and Sketches ' (published in America 
in 1853). 9. 'Memorable Women,' 1854. 
10. ' Hildred, the Daughter,' 1855. 11. ' The 
Island of the Rainbow,' 1865. 12. ' Stories 
of the City of London, retold for Youthful 
Readers,' 1880. 

[Mrs. Crosland's Landmarks of a Literary 
Life, 1893 ; Crosland's Eambles round my Life, 
1896 ; private information.] E. T. N. 

1815), dissenting historian and biographer, 
son of Caleb Toulmin of Aldersgate Street, 
was born in London on 11 May 1740. He 
was at St. Paul's school for seven years (ad- 
mitted 11 Nov. 1748), and in 1756 began his 
five years' course of study for the ministry 
at the independent academy supported by 
the Coward trust, and then under David 
Jennings [q. v.], assisted by Samuel Mor- 
ton Savage [q. v.], Toulmin's relative. To 
the grief of his parents and the l displeasure ' 
of Jennings, his views became inconsistent 
with the strict Calvinism of the academy ; 
two elder students (Thomas and John 
Wright) were expelled for heterodoxy ; 
Toulmin did not share their fate, but 
eventually he much outran their views. 

In 1761 he succeeded an Arian, Samuel 
Slater, as minister of the presbyterian congre- 
gation of Coly ton, Devonshire. His ministry 
was much esteemed, till his adoption of bap- 
tist opinions made it impossible for him to 
administer infant baptism. At the end of 
1764 Richard Harrison (d. December 1781), 
minister of Mary Street general baptist 
chapel, Taunton, resigned in his favour. 
Toulmin removed to Taunton in March 1765, 
and remained there over thirty-eight years. 
The congregation was small and declining ; 
to make a living he kept a school, while his 
wife carried on a bookseller's shop. John 
Towill Rutt [q.v.] was among his pupils. In 
1769 he received the diploma of M. A. from 
Brown University, Rhode Island, a baptist 
foundation. He probably adopted Socinian 
views about 1770 ; his life of Socinus was pro- 
jected in 1771. His theological views and 
his liberal politics (though he was little of a 
public man) combined to bring odium upon 
him in the exciting period of 1791. Paine 

was burned in effigy before his door; his 
windows were broken ; his house was saved 
by being closely guarded, but the school 
and bookselling business had to be given up. 
Yet his friends were staunch, and he refused 
calls to Gloucester and Great Yarmouth. 
He was one of the founders of the Western 
Unitarian Society, and preached at its first 
annual meeting at Crediton (2 Sept. 1792). 
In 1794 he received the diploma of D.D. from 
Harvard, on the recommendation of Priest- 
ley, with whom, except on the question of 
determinism, he was in very complete agree- 
ment. It was a recognition also of his ser- 
vices as the editor of Daniel Neal [q. v.] 

Towards the close of 1803 he accepted 
a call to the New Meeting, Birmingham, 
as colleague to John Kentish [q. v.], and 
began his ministry there on 8 Jan. 1804. 
Though no longer young, he rendered good 
service for more than a decade, and his 
reputation grew with advancing years. His 
intention of resigning at the end of 1815 
was deprecated by his flock. He died on 
23 July 1815. On 1 Aug. he was buried 
in the Old Meeting graveyard ; at his request 
the pall was borne by six ministers of dif- 
ferent denominations, including John Angell 
James [q.v.] and John Kennedy, an Anglican 
divine. His tombstone was removed in 1886 
to the borough cemetery at Witton. He 
married (1764) Jane (d. 5 July 1824, aged 
81), youngest daughter of Samuel Smith of 
Taunton, and had twelve children, of whom 
five survived him. His eldest son, Harry 
Toulmin, born at Taunton in 1766, and 
educated at Hoxton academy, was minister at 
Monton, Lancashire (1786-8), and Chow- 
bent, Lancashire (1788-92), emigrated (1793) 
to America, and became successively presi- 
dent of the Transylvania College, Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, secretary to the state of Ken- 
tucky, judge of the Mississippi territory, 
and member of the state assembly of Ala- 
bama ; he died on 11 Nov. 1823, having 
been twice married. 

Toulmin was a voluminous writer. Kentish 
enumerates forty-nine separate pieces, not 
including his biographical articles in maga- 
zines or his posthumous volume of sermons 
(1825). His other works are ephemeral, 
but as annalist and biographer his indus- 
trious accuracy is of permanent service. 

He published : 1. 'Memoirs of the Life 
. . . and Writings of Faustus Socinus,' 1777, 
8vo; the list of subscribers includes the 
'Nabob of Arcot 'and 'Rajah of Tanjour;' 
the book does not profess critical research, 
but is fairly compiled from the ' Bibliotheca 
Fratrum Polonorum,' 1665-9. 2. 'A Review 
of the Life . . . and Writings of ... John 

Toulmin Smith 


Biddle' [q. V.I, 1789, 12mo ; 1791, 12mo ; 
1805, 8vo, still the best book on the subject. 
3. ' The History of ... Taunton, 1791, 4to 
(plates) ; enlarged by James Savage [q. v.], 
1822, 8vo. 4. Neal's 'History of the Puri- 
tans,' new edition, 1793-7, 8vo, 5 vols. ; with 
1 Memoirs of Neal,' notes, and much new 
matter on baptists (from Crosby), and on 
Friends (from Gough); the reprint, 1822, 8vo, 
5 vols., is rearranged. 5. ' Life ' of Samuel 
Morton Savage [q. v.], prefixed to ' Sermons/ 
1796, 8vo. 6. 'Biographical Preface' to 
'Sermons' by Thomas Twining [q. v.], 1801, 
8vo. 7. f Memoirs ' of Charles Bulkley [q.v.], 
prefixed to vol. iii. of ' Notes on the Bible,' 
1802, 8vo. 8. ' Memoirs of ... Samuel 
Bourn,' 1808, 8vo ; a storehouse of minor 
biographies. 9. 'Memoir of ... Edward 
Elwall ' [q.v.], Bilston, 1808, 12mo. 10. ' An 
Historical View of ... Protestant Dissenters 
from the Revolution to the Accession of 
Queen Anne,' 1814, 8vo ; a good sequel to 
Neal; a second volume, to the death of 
George II, was projected, but left unfinished. 
He contributed numerous biographies to 
the ' Protestant Dissenter's Magazine ' and 
to the ' Monthly Repository,' published 
funeral sermons, and contributed to the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' and the ' Monthly 
Magazine.' Letters by him are in ' Memoir 
of Robert Aspland,' 1850. His portrait was 
three times engraved. 

[Funeral Sermons by* 1 Kentish and Israel 
Worsley, 1815 ; Memoir by Kentish in Monthly 
Repository, 1815, pp. 665 sq. ; see also 1806 
p. 670, 1815p. 523, 1816 p. 653, 1819 p. 81, 1824 
p. 179; Protestant Dissenter's Mag. 1798, p. 
127 ; Wreford's Nonconformity in Birmingham, 
1832, pp. 59, 89 sq. ; Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 
1832, i. 152,303, 358, 386; Murch's Hist, of 
Presb. and Gren. Bapt. Churches in West of 
England, 1835, pp. 196, 203, 335; Merridew's 
Catalogue of Engraved Warwickshire Portraits, 
1848, p. 65; Beale's Old Meeting House, Bir- 
mingham, 1882; Gardiner's Admission Re- 
gisters of St. Paul's School, 1884, p. 88.] A. G. 

1869), publicist and constitutional lawyer. 
[See SMITH.] 


TOUP, JONATHAN (1713-1785)-in 
later years he latinised his name as Joannes 
philologer and classical editor, came from 
a family resident for several generations in 
Dorset. His father, Jonathan Toup, exhibi- 
tioner of Wadham College, Oxford, 1703-4, 
afterwards curate and lecturer of St. Ives, 
Cornwall (bur. at St. Ives on 4 July 1721), 
married Prudence (1691-1773), daughter 

of John Busvargus of St. Just in Pen- 
with, Cornwall. After Toup's death Pru- 
dence married as her second husband John 
Keigwin, vicar of Landrake and St. Erney 
who died in 1761, and left his widow sole 
executrix. They had two daughters, Pru- 
dence and Anne. Charles Worth, attorney 
of St. Ives, married, first, Mary, full sister 
of Toup; secondly, Prudence (b. 1727), his 
half-sister. The other half-sister, Ann (who 
died on 28 March 1814, aged 83), married 
John Blake. It was an imprudent marriage, 
and after his death in 1763 the widow and 
her three daughters lived with Toup. All 
the three daughters married into the family 
of Nicolas, and the eldest son of the youngest 
sister, who alone had issue, was John Toup 
Nicolas [q.v.], to whom came Toup's pro- 

Toup was born at St. Ives in December 
1713, and baptised on 5 Jan. 1713-14. On 
the mother's second marriage her brother, 
William Busvargus, last male of that family, 
adopted the child as his own. Jonathan was 
educated at St. Ives grammar school, and 
afterwards by the Rev. John Gurney, who 
kept a private school at St. Merryn in Corn- 
wall. From 15 March 1732-3 to 13 Nov. 
1739 he was battellar of Exeter College, Ox- 
ford (BoASE, Ex. Coll. Commoners, p. 323), 
where John Upton was his tutor during his 
complete course (Gent. Mag. 1790, ii. 792). 
He graduated B.A. on 14 Oct. 1736, but did 
not proceed to the degree of M.A. until 1756, 
when he took it from Pembroke College, 
Cambridge. He was ordained deacon on 
6 March 1736, and three days later was li- 
censed to the curacy of Philleigh in his native 
county. This he served for little more than 
two years, and on 29 May 1738 he was 
licensed as curate of Buryan, also in Corn- 
wall, having proceeded to priest's orders on 
the previous day. Through the influence or 
purchase of his uncle Busvargus, he was pre- 
sented on 28 July 1750 to the rectory of St. 
Martin's-by-Looe, and held it until his death. 
This uncle died without issue in June 1751, 
and Toup's mother came into possession of 
all his property, which passed at her death 
to Toup. 

In his remote parish Toup pursued severe 
classical studies without interruption. The 
first part of his great work, the ' Emenda- 
tiones in Suidam,' came out in 1760, the 
second in 1764, and the third in 1766. They 
were followed by an 'Epistola Critica' to 
Bishop Warburton, in which Toup indulged 
in some sneers at Bishop Lowth, and flattered 
Warburton for his assimilation of learning, 
both sacred and profane. This was published 
in 1767, and a volume of ' Curae novissimse 


8 4 


sive appendicula notarum et emendationum 
in Suidam ' was dated 1775. Copies of these 
volumes at the British Museum have manu- 
script notes by Charles Burney and Jeremiah 
Markland. A second edition of the com- 
plete set was published, with F. H. Starcke 
as editor, at Leipzig, in four volumes (1780-1), 
and another issue, partly edited by Thomas 
Burgess, D.D.,came from the Clarendon press 
at Oxford in 1790 (4 vols. 8vo). This edition 
was due to the rarity of the previous im- 
pressions, and to the gift to the university 
by Toup's niece and heiress of his ' adver- 
saria,' containing his criticisms on Suidas. 
The'notge breves' (1790 edit. iv. 419-29) 
were by Thomas Tyrwhitt [q. v.] ; others (ib. 
iv. 433-506) were by Person, and, though his 
name is hidden under the initials 'A.R. 
P.C.S.S.T.C.S.,' these notes first gave the 
world full proof of Porson's powers. The 
first draft of Porson's preface, expressing 
' the highest respect for Toup's abilities and 
learning,' is printed in Beloe's ' Sexagenarian ' 
(2nd edit.), ii. 298-9 ; an English translation 
is in Watson's 'Porson,' pp. 89-91 (cf. also 
PORSON, Tracts, ed. Kidd,pp. 184-9). Toup's 
labours are embodied in Gaisford's ' Suidas.' 

These volumes obtained an immense re- 
putation at home and abroad. Hurd wrote 
to Warburton (24 Feb. 1764, and 29 June 
1766) in their praise, and lauded Toup's 
critical power and skill in the niceties of 
Greek, though he called him ' a piece of a 
coxcomb,' and condemned his ' superior airs.' 
Warburton admitted that learning had been 
much neglected by the church grandees, but 
pointed out that he had recommended Toup 
for higher preferment (Letters from a late 
Prelate, pp. 257-8, 279-80). Schweighauser 
dilated on his wonderful and felicitous saga- 
city (Emendationes in Suidam, pref. p. 2), 
and in the notes to Dalzel's ' Collectanea 
GraBca majora' his acuteness is the constant 
subject of remark (ii. 137, 202, 208, 242, 263). 
Most scholars condemned his immoderate 
language and his boorish conduct ; but a 
writer, probably the Rev. John Mitford, in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1841, i. 349), tries 
to remove the reproach by quoting Toup's 
favourable epithets on other scholars. 

Warburton, whose patronage was in the 
first instance unsought by Toup, recom- 
mended the scholar to various divines, in- 
cluding Keppel, his diocesan, and Seeker, 
the archbishop of the province. Another 
prelate urged him to settle in London or 
Oxford for improved means of study, and 
also for better chances of preferment. In 
1767 Seeker desired him to assist in bringing 
out a new edition of Polybius, but forgot 
to help him with a better benefice. It is 

said that Warburton one day asked Keppel 
very abruptly whether he had taken care of 
Toup. * Toup, who is Toup ? ' was the reply. 
' A poor curate in your diocese,' said War- 
burton, ' but the first Greek scholar in Europe,' 
and he extorted from Keppel a promise of 
preferment. A letter from Toup to War- 
burton (27 June 1767) is in Kilvert's < Se- 
lection' (WARBTTRTON, Works, xiv. 247-8). 

When Thomas Warton brought out in 
1770 an edition of < Theocritus ' in two quarto 
volumes, it included (ii. 327-44) an epistle 
from Toup to him 'de Syracusiis' and (ii. 
389-410) many notes, which were dedicated 
to Dr. Heberden. Several letters from Toup 
to Warton on this work, and one on the sub- 
sequent edition of Longinus, are printed in 
WoollV Memoir of Joseph Warton ' (pp. 318- 
320, 364-5, 377-8). A prurient note by Toup 
on Idyll xiv. 37 gave such offence to some 
people, among whom was Lowth, that the 
vice-chancellor of the university prevailed 
on the editor to cancel the leaf and substitute 
another in its place. In 1772 Toup pub- 
lished, with a dedication to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, a volume of ' C urge Posteriores,' 
or further notes and emendations on Theo- 
critus. In this work he refers to the can- 
celled note, and has at least three sneering 
references to the ' Hebreeculi,' Lowth and 
Kennicott, of Oxford (BARKER, Parriana, ii. 
260-1). Reiske, in a letter to Thomas 
Warton, disparages Toup as l homo trucu- 
lentus et maledicus,' who had heaped injuries 
and atrocities on him without any provoca- 
tion (MANT, Warton, pp. xlvi-vii). He also 
complained to Askew of Toup's conduct, and 
in his ' Oratores Greeci,' iii. 608 (^Eschines 
against Ctesiphon), retorted with an angry 

After a preparation of thirty-five years 
Toup's admirable edition of Longinus, in 
Greek and Latin, came out in 1778. When 
Ruhnken heard that it was in contemplation, 
he hastened to send him his notes, and his 
assistance was mentioned on the title-page. 
A second edition was issued in 1778, a third 
in 1806, and their notes were included in 
the edition of Benjamin Weiske (Leipzig 
1809, and Oxford 1820). Ruhnken after- 
wards regretted that he had given this assis- 
tance, for Toup sometimes appropriated to 
himself the merit of others, and had not 
even sent him a presentation copy of the 
work, but he gloried in Toup's ingenious and 
facile corrections (Life, by Wyttenbach, pp. 
168-9, 172-3, 218-20; Letters of Ruhnken 
to Wyttenbach, 1834 edit. pp. 5, 7, 8, 19, 45). 
The edition was reviewed in Wyttenbach's 
1 Bibliotheca Critica ' (i. pt. iii. 30-52) with 
great admiration for the perfervid ingenuity 



of the conjectures. It was the gift of a copy 
of Toup's Longinus that first inclined Person 
to classical research. 

Toup's talents were employed without ces- 
sation. Notes by him appeared in Sammet's 
edition of the * Epistolse' of ^Eschines (1771), 
in the second edition of John Shaw's Apol- 
lonius Rhodius (1779), in William Bowyer's 
edition of Bentley on the Epistles of Phalaris 
(1777), in the Oxford edition of Cicero ' de 
officiis' (1821), and in the edition by J. C. 
Orelliusof the ' Anecdota of Procopius Caesa- 
riensis.' He had long meditated an issue of 
Polybius, and had made extensive annota- 
tions for that purpose. 

The admonition of Warburton to the bishop 
of Exeter bore fruit. "When Toup was more 
than sixty years old he was appointed by 
Bishop Keppel on 14 May 1774 to a pre- 
bendal stall at Exeter, and, on the bishop's 
nomination, was admitted on 29 July 1776 
to the vicarage of St. Merry n, the parish in 
which he had been partly educated. These 

Sreferments he held, with his rectory, to his 
eath, and on 20 July 1776 he was compli- 
mented by his appointment as chaplain to 
his old friend, Bishop Hurd of Lichfield. 
His protracted labours weakened his intel- 
lectual powers, and for some years before his 
death he was imbecile (DR. PAKE, Works, i. 
534). He was unmarried, and after his 
mother's death he was cared for by his half- 
sister, Mrs. Blake, and her three daughters, 
the eldest of whom was Phillis Blake. He 
died at St. Martin's rectory on 19 Jan. 1785, 
and was buried under the communion table 
of the church. A small marble tablet was 
erected to his memory on the south wall of 
the church by Miss Phillis Blake, and the 
inscription on a round brass plate beneath 
records that the cost was defrayed by the 
delegates of the University Press, Oxford. 

Toup's library was sold, with the Spanish 
books of Dr. Robertson, on 10 May 1786 and 
five following days. Many of the books con- 
tained manuscript notes by him, and some 
of them are now at the British Museum. 
His copy of Kiister's * Suidas,' full of his 
notes, was acquired by the university of Ox- 
ford. Toup bequeathed to the Clarendon 
Press his manuscript notes on Polybius, and 
Phillis Blake gave the rest of his papers. 
They are now at the Bodleian Library. She 
presented to Warton the copy of his edition 
of Theocritus which belonged to Toup. Sir 
N. H. Nicolas, in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
1823, ii. 326-8, promised to print the letters 
in his possession which had been written to 
Toup by some of the most learned scholars 
of the day, and Edward Richard Poole, 
.B.A., F.S. A., issued in 1828 proposals for 

_ a volume of similar letters, but 
th promises were broken. Toup's corre- 
spondence from 1747 to 1770 formed lot 1949 
in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
manuscripts which were sold by Sotheby & 
Wilkinson in June 1896. Transcripts of and 
extracts from letters addressed to him by 
Dr. Askew and others, and copies of a few 
letters by Toup himself, are in Addit. MS. 
32565 at the British Museum, which for- 
merly belonged to the Rev. John Mitford. 
His letters to Jean d'Orville are in MS. 17363 
at the Bodleian Library (MADAN, Western 
MSS. iv. 128). The unpublished sermon by 
Toup, which was formerly in Dawson Tur- 
ner's collection, is now in the Dyce Library 
at South Kensington Museum, where is also 
a copy, with manuscript notes by him, of the 
1614 edit, of the dissertations of Maximus 
Tyrius (DYCE, Cat. i. 8, ii. 69). A letter 
by him is in Harford's ' Thomas Burg-ess.' 
pp. 29-30. 

A harsh and in some respects inaccurate 
account of Toup was contributed to the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,' 1786, ii. 652-4, but it 
allows that he was very charitable to the 
poor of his parish. He lived apart, without 
sufficient personal intercourse with other 
scholars, and this isolation led to excessive 
self-confidence. He possessed an 'uncom- 
promising independence of mind and a hatred 
of servility,' and censure of others was with 
him more frequent than praise. His name 
appears among the seven great classical 
scholars in England during the eighteenth 
century that were lauded by Burney, and he 
is said to have enjoyed a ' peculiar felicity 
in discovering allusions and quotations' 
(European Mag. vii. 410-11). Latin lines 
on him by the Rev. Stephen Weston are in 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' ix. 496 ; but 
an article by that critic in the ' Archseologia,' 
xiv. 244-8, on the Ogmian Hercules of 
Lucian, deals severely with an emendation 
suggested by him. Parr spoke of the faulty 
Latin of Toup and some other great scholars 
in England (PARR, Works, vii. 385-403 ; 
WORDSWORTH, Scholte Academics, pp. 93- 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Boase's Ex. Coll. 
Commoners; Gent. Mag. 1785, i. 79, 185-7 (by 
Rev. Benjamin Forster), 340-1, 1786 i. 525-6 
ii 652-4 860-1, 1030-1, 1787 i. 216-17, 1793 
ii] 811, 1078-80, 1193, 1823 ii. 37, 326-8 (both 
by Sir N H. Nicolas) ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 
339-46, 427-8, iii. 37, 58, 251, iv. 289, 489, 
viii. 248, ix. 648-9 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 
447, 558-62 ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. xii. 
185, 7th ser. viii. 58 ; Watson's Warburton, pp. 
461 597-8; C.S. Gilbert's Corn wall, ii. 46, 170- 
171 ; D. Gilbert's Cornwall, ii. 265-6, iii. 123; 




Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, ii. 264-5, 296, iii. 
267-70; Bond's Looe, pp. 18-20; Polwhele's 
Biogr. Sketches, ii. 132-46; Vivian's Visit, of 
Cornwall, pp. 64, 588, 601 ; Polwhele's Kemi- 
niscences, ii. 183-4; information from Mr. 
Arthur Burch, F.S.A., Diocesan Kegistry, Exe- 
ter, and from Mr. Madan. Bodleian Library.] 

W. P. C. 

ARCHIBALD, first duke, 1369 P-1424 ; DOU- 
GLAS, ARCHIBALD, second duke, 1391 P-1439; 
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, third duke, 1423?- 

TOURNAY, SIMON OF (ft. 1184-1200), 
schoolman, was thought, says Bale, to have 
been a native of Cornwall (De III. Scriptt. 
1548, fol. 99 6), and Fuller and Boase and 
Courtney include him among the natives of 
that county. Matthew Paris styles him ' na- 
tione Francus nomine Simon, cognomento de 
Thurnai ; ' Poly dore Vergil (Hist. Angl. 1546, 
p. 288) prints the name Thurnaius ; Bale has 
the same spelling, but Tanner and other 
bibliographers have misprinted it Thurvay. 
' Thurnai ' is really Tournay, and in his ex- 
tant works and in contemporary references 
Simon is styled 'Simon Tornacensis' or 
' Simon de Tornseo.' Whether he received 
that name because he was a native of Tour- 
nay, or because he subsequently held a 
canonry in the cathedral there, is uncertain. 
According to Wood (Hist, et Antiq. i. 54, 
208-9), Simon was educated at Oxford, and 
then went abroad. In a letter written be- 
tween 1176 and 1192 Stephen, bishop of 
Tournay, recommends to the archbishop of 
Reims the cause of ' magistri Simonis, viri 
inter scholares cathedra egregii ' (MS. Cat. 
2923, f. 1116 in Bibliotheque Nationale, 
printed in MIGNE, Patrologia, ccxi. 353). 
He is said to have been canon of Tournay, 
but at what date is uncertain. He seems to 
have been established at Paris at least as 
early as 1180, as * magister Symon de Tornseo ' 
appears as witness to an undated document 
along with Gerard, who was elected bishop 
of Coventry in 1183, and died in January 
1 183-4 (DENIFLE, Chartularium Univ. Pans. 
i. 45 n.} At Paris he was for ten years 
regent of arts ' in trivio et quadrivio, id est 
in septem liberalibus artibus ' (MATT. PARIS, 
Chron. Majora, ii. 476). He then turned his 
attention to theology, in which he made so 
much proficiency in a few years that he was 
called * ad cathedram magistralem.' His 
tenacity of memory, natural abilities, and 
the brilliancy with which he solved disputed 
theological questions, brought to his lectures 
audiences which more than filled the largest 
buildings in the university. He was ac- 
quainted with the works of Boethius, St. 

Augustine, St. Hilary, and John Scotus or 
Erigena [q. v.], all of whom he quotes, and 
his criticism of Plato's views of the creation 
is still extant (Summa Theologiee in Biblio- 
theque Nationale MSS. Lat. 3114 A and 
14886). His favourite master, however, 
seems to have been Aristotle, and his ad- 
herence to Aristotle's views led to accusa- 
tions of heresy against him (HAUREAU, Hist, 
de la Phil. Scolastique, ii. 58-62, where there 
is an excellent account of Simon's philosophy ; 
cf. BRUCKER, Hist. Critique de la Phil. iii. 
829-34 ; Hist. Litteraire de France,. 388- 
396 ; LECOY DE LA MARCHE, La Chaire 
Frangaise au Moyen Age, 1886, pp. 77-8). 
These suspicions of Simon's orthodoxy were 
probably the origin of the curious story told 
of him by Matthew Paris, on the authority 
of Nicholas de Farnham [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Durham. According to this story 
Simon, while lecturing one day, was so much 
elated at the applause/which greeted his de- 
monstration of scriptural truth that he ex- 
claimed that he could prove the reverse with 
equal facility if he pleased. Whereupon he 
was suddenly struck dumb and bereft of his 
mental faculties, so that he was reduced, 
like an illiterate boy of seven, to learn his 
paternoster from his son (MATT. PARIS, 
Chron. Majora, ii. 477 ; RASHDALL, Univer- 
sities of Europe, i. 355). Possibly the sub- 
stratum of truth was that in his old age 
Ivsis, in which 

Simon had a stroke of 

condition he was seen by Nicholas de Farn- 
ham, the rest of the story being due to the 
suspicion with which schoolmen were viewed 
by the monastic writers. 

Three volumes of Simon's lectures are 
extant at Oxford. 1. l Disputationes centum 
duge,' in Balliol College MS. Ixv. 2. < Qujes- 
tiones centum una,' in Balliol College MS. 
ccx. if. 79 et seq. 3. * Institutiones in sacram 
paginam,' in Merton College MS. cxxxii. 
ff. 105 et seq. Coxe suggests that Simon 
was also author of the first part of the Merton 
manuscript, an ' Expositio super sententiarum 
libros quatuor,' usually attributed to Anselm. 
Haureau states that the 'Institutiones in 
sacram paginam' is identical with Simon's 
' Summa Theologiae,' of which two copies 
(MS. Lat. 3114 A and 14886) are extant in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. The 
former manuscript is incomplete ; a portion 
of it, 'Sermo de Deo et divinis,' is often 
cited as a separate work. 

[Authorities cited ; Bulseus, Hist. Univ. Paris, 
ii. 775 ; Fuller's Worthies, i. 216; Trithemius, 
De Scriptt. Eccl. 1718, p. 89 a; Oudin's Scriptt. 
1722, iii. 26-9; Foppens's Bibl. Belgica, 1739, 
ii. 1102 ; Cave's Scriptt. Eccl. Hist. Lit. 1741-5, 
ii. 288; Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. Medii JEvi, 1746, 



vi. 487 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 1748, p. 713 ; 
Cramer's Frisinga Sacra, 1775, p. 224 ; Budinz- 
sky's Universitat Paris, 1876, p. 177; Coxe's 
Cat. MSS. in Coll. Aulisque Oxon. ; Cat. MSS. 
Bibl. Nationale. Diderot has an inaccurate ac- 
count of Simon in his CEuvres, xix. 361.] 

A. F. P. 

NER, CYRIL (1575P-1626), dramatist, 
born about 1575, was probably a near rela- 
tive and possibly the son of Captain Richard 
Turner or Turner. Richard Tumor had been 
in the service of the Cecils, and when, in 
compliance with Queen Elizabeth's agree- 
ment with the Dutch, Brill and Flushing 
were taken over by the English as ' cautionary 
towns' in 1585, Turner was made water 
bailiff of Brill, a post of considerable re- 
sponsibility, under the governor, Sir Thomas 
Cecil (afterwards first Earl of Exeter) [q. v.], 
eldest son of the great Lord Burghley. His 
salary was 8s. a day, and he is spoken of from 
time to time in the Cecil correspondence as 
a trustworthy man. In addition to the 
Cecils he cultivated the patronage of Essex, 
and there is extant an interesting letter from 
him to Essex, written in 1595, and express- 
ing a wish that Essex were with the English 
troops, who only needed a dashing leader. 
By July 1596 Richard Turner had risen to 
be lieutenant-governor, and in the following 
August he is mentioned as ' Turner, lieu- 
tenant of Brill.' The post of acting-governor 
was given in September 1598 to Sir Francis 
Vere, who had been a captain of horse at 
Brill at the commencement of the English 
occupation. Turner is not mentioned in the 
list of Vere's officers or lieutenants, and, as 
his claims can hardly have been overlooked, 
it is plausible to assume that he either died or 
was superannuated between 1596 and 1598. 

Cyril Tourneur's literary work shows him 
to have possessed practical information about 
soldiering in the Low Countries, and to have 
counted upon some interest with Essex, with 
the Vere family, and with the Cecils. Sub- 
sequently he obtained employment in the 
Low Countries. All this confirms the con- 
jecture that he was nearly akin to Richard 
Turner, lieutenant of the Brill. 

Tourneur's early life was mainly spent in 
literary work, but it was only as a dramatist 
that he showed distinct fitness for the literary 
vocation. In 1600 appeared his obscure 
satirical allegory, ' The Transformed Meta- 
morphosis ' (printed by Valentine Sims, at 
the White Swan, London, 4to) ; it is dedi- 
cated to Sir Christopher Heydon [q. v.], a 
soldier who had served under Essex and 
in company with Sir Francis Vere at the 
sacking of Cadiz in 1596. The only plausible 

explanation of its enigmatic drift (the gro- 
tesq^e style of which seems to be alluded 
to in John Taylor's 'Mad Fashions, Odd 
Fashions, All Out of Fashions, or the Em- 
blems of these distracted Times,' 1(342, line 4) 
is that 'Mavortio' is intended for Essex, 
whose , Irish exploits are indicated by the 
hero's achievements on behalf of 'Delta.' 
Tourneur's next non-dramatic work (licensed 
on 14 Oct. 1609) was ' A Funerall Poeme. 
Vpon the Death of the Most Worthie and 
True Sovldier Sir Francis Vere Knight, 
Captain of Portsmouth and Lt. Governour 
of his Majesties Cautionarie Towne of Briell 
in Holland ' (for Eleazar Edgar, London, 4to). 
The panegyric, which shows a practised 
literary hand, consists of twenty-two pages, 
signed at the end 'Cyril Tourneur.' He 
emphasises Vere's exploits at Nieuport and 
Ostend (some details of the famous siege of 
1601-4 are given in l The Atheist's Tragedie,' 
act ii. sc. i.), quotes from Roger Williams's 
'Briefe Discourse of Warre' (p. 58), and 
refers to Vere's manuscript ' Commentaries ' 
(not published until 1657). 

About the same time there is good reason 
to believe that Tourneur was responsible for 
another panegyric, which, if brought home 
to him, would serve to confirm the theory of 
his connection with the Cecil family. In a 
catalogue of Lord Mostyn's manuscripts at 
Mostyn Hall (No. 262 folio, second treatise), 
appears ' The Character of Robert, Earle of 
Salisburye, Lord High Treasurer of England 
. . . written by Mr. Sevill Turneur and 
dedicated to the most understandinge and 
most worthie Ladie, the Ladie Theodosia 
Cecill . . . [wife of her first cousin, Sir Ed- 
ward Cecil] ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
App. p. 361). This treatise, probably written 
on Lord Salisbury's death in 1612, has not 
hitherto been ascribed to the dramatist ; but 
as the three letters Cir and Sev are almost 
indistinguishable in the script of the period, 
the presumption that the (most uncommon) 
name ' Sevill ' is a misreading for Cirill is 
exceptionally strong. 

Less distinctive than his previous efforts 
of like kind is ' A Griefe on the Death of 
Prince Henrie. Expressed in a Broken. 
Elegie, according to the nature of such a sor- 
row. By Cyril Tourneur' (London, printed 
for William Welbie, 1613). Tourneur's is 
the first of ' Three Elegies,' the other two 
being by John Webster and Thomas Hey- 
wood (cf. NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, ii. 
507 ; BRTDGES, Re.stituta, iv. 173). 

But Cyril Tourneur is only really memo- 
rable on account of two plays. The first to 
be published (in 1607) was 'The Revenger's 
Tragsedie. As it hath been sundry times 




acted by the King's Majesties Servants.' 
Four years later was published ' The Atheists 
Tragedie : or the Honest Mans Revenge. As 
in diuers places it hath often beene Acted, 
Written by Cyril Tourneur.' The order of 
publication is probably the inverse of that 
in which the plays were composed. The 
'Atheists Tragedie' must have been written 
after 1600, as there is a reference to Dekker's 
'Fortune's Tennis ' of that date, but not much 
later than 1603-4, while the siege of Ostend 
was still in men's minds. 

A third drama by Tourneur, ' The Noble- 
man,' licensed to Edward Blount [q. v.] on 
15 Feb. 1612, and acted at the court by the 
king's men on 23 Feb. 1611-12, is said to 
have been destroyed by Warburton's cook 
(see, however, HAZLITT'S Collections, i. 424; 
cf. FLEAY ; and Gent. Mag. 1815, ii. 220). 

On 5 June 1613 Robert Daborne [q. v.] 
wrote to Henslowe that he had given Tour- 
neur a commission to write an act of an un- 
published play, ' The Arraignement of Lon- 
don,' a performance of which had been pro- 
mised by i La. Eliz. men.' Positive evidence 
there is none, but upon internal grounds Mr. 
Robert Boyle would assign to Tourneur most 
of the last three acts of 'The Second Maiden's 
Tragedy,' 1611 [see under FLETCHEE, JOHN, 
and MASSINGEK, PHILIP], and some part in 
' The Knight of Malta' (1617 ?) 

Meanwhile Tourneur obtained employment 
in the Low Countries. On 23 Dec. 1613 
he was granted forty-one shillings upon a 
warrant signed by the lord chamberlain at 
Whitehall ' for his charges and paines in 
carrying letters for his Majestie's service to 
Brussells.' He probably remained in the 
Low Countries for many years after this. 
Sir Horace Vere had succeeded his brother, 
Sir Francis Vere, as governor of Brill, and 
it is likely that Tourneur made some interest 
with him. He seems at any rate to have 
obtained an annuity of 60/. from the govern- 
ment of the United Provinces, and it is most 
probable that he was granted this allow- 
ance in compensation for some post vacated 
when Brill was handed over to the States 
in May 1616. In whatever manner Tour- 
neur came by his pension from the States, 
his hopes of preferment must have been 
greatly stimulated in the summer of 1624 
by the arrival in Holland with his regiment 
of Sir Edward Cecil, the son of Sir Thomas 
Cecil, the former governor of Brill. Sir Ed- 
ward Cecil had served at Ostend and else- 
where under Sir Francis Vere, whom Tour- 
neur had panegyrised, and doubtless he had 
known Tourneur's kinsman, Captain Richard 
Turner. When Buckingham wrote to Cecil 
at the Hague in May 1625, and asked him to 

undertake the command of a projected expe- 
dition to Cadiz, Cecil provisionally appointed 
Tourneur secretary to the council of war 
with a good salary. The nomination was 
subsequently cancelled by Buckingham, as 
the post was required for Sir John Glanville 
(1586-1661) [q. v.] Tourneur nevertheless 
accompanied the Cadiz expedition as ' secre- 
tary to the lord marshall' (i.e. to Cecil him- 
self), a nominal post at a nominal salary. 
He sailed for Cadiz in Cecil's flagship, the 
Royal Anne, and when, after the miserable 
failure of the expedition, the Royal Anne 
put into Kinsale on 11 Dec 1625, Tourneur 
was put on land among the 160 sick who 
were disembarked before the vessel pro- 
ceeded to England. He died in Ireland on 
28 Feb. 1625-6, leaving his widow Mary de- 
stitute (see CaL State Papers, Dom. 1631-3, 
pp. 309 and 430, containing Mary Tumour's 
petition to the council of war, to which is 
appended Cecil's certificate l that Cyril Tur- 
nour served as secretary to the council of 
war until Mr. Glanville was sent down to 
execute that place ; ' and cf. art. CECIL, ED- 

Tourneur's reputation mainly rests on his 
1 Revenger's Tragaedie.' The ' Atheists Tra- 
gedie,' of which the crude plot owes some- 
thing to the ' Decameron '(vii. 6), is childishly 
grotesque, and, in spite of some descriptive 
passages of a certain grandeur, notably the 
picture of the hungry sea lapping at the body 
of a drowned soldier, is so markedly inferior 
to ' The Revenger's Tragaedie ' as to have 
given rise to some fanciful doubts as to a 
common authorship. ' The Revenger's Tra- 
gaedie' displays a lurid tragic power that 
Hazlitt was the first to compare with that 
of Webster. ' I never read it,' wrote Lamb, 
' but my ears tingle.' Mr. Swinburne, in an 
unmeasured eulogy on the play, pronounces 
Tourneur to be as ' passionate in his satire 
as Juvenal or Swift, but with a finer faith 
in goodness.' In his character of Vendice 
Tourneur, according to the same critic, ex- 
presses ' such poetry as finds vent in the 
utterances of Hamlet or Timon ; ' while as 
to the workmanship it is ' so magnificent, so 
simple, impeccable, and sublime, that the 
finest passages can be compared only with 
the noblest examples of tragic dialogue or 
monologue now extant in English or in 
Greek.' Finally, Mr. Swinburne insists ' that 
the only poet to whose manner and style the 
style and manner of Cyril Tourneur can 
reasonably be said to bear any considerable 
resemblance is William Shakespeare' (Nine- 
teenth Century, March 1887 ; cf. Mr. Swin- 
burne's art. in Encycl. Britannica, 9th edit.) 
Mr. Swinburne's estimate of Tourneur's 



genius is unduly enthusiastic. Great as is 
his tragic intensity, Tourneur luxuriates in 
hideous forms of vice to an extent which 
almost suggests moral aberration, and sets 
his work in a category of dramatic art far 
below the highest. Whether his choice of 
topics was due to a morbid mental develop- 
ment, or merely to a spirit of literary emu- 
lation in the genre of Ford and Webster, a 
more extended knowledge of Tourneur's life 
might possibly enable us to ascertain. 

' The Revengers Tragaedie ' first appeared 
in quarto, London, 1607 (licensed to Geo. 
Eld on 7 Oct. '1607; the British Museum 
has three copies, one containing some seven- 
teenth century emendations) ; some remain- 
der copies are dated 1608. It has not been 
reprinted separately, but appears in Dods- 
ley's ' Old Plays,' 1744, 1780, and 1825, vol. 
iv., and 1874, vol. x., and in the ' Ancient 
British Drama/ 1810, vol. ii. < The Atheists 
Tragedie ' (licensed to John Stepneth on 
14 Sept.) appeared in quarto, London, 1611 ; 
some unsold copies were dated 1612. It was 
reprinted 1792, 8vo, and 1794, 8vo (Brit. 
Mus. Cat.} 

An edition of the ' Plays and Poems of 
Cyril Tourneur, edited, with Critical In- 
troduction and Notes, by John Churton 
Collins,' appeared in 1878 (London, 2 vols. 
8vo). The two plays were edited along 
with 'The White Devil' and the 'Duchess 
of Malfi' of John Webster, and an ' introduc- 
tion ' by John Addington Symonds in 1888 
(London, 8vo, the Mermaid Series). 

[Nothing whatever was known of the life of 
Cyril Tourneur until, in a communication to the 
Academy, 9 May 1891, Mr. Gordon Goodwin 
gave the references to Tourneur in the Calendar 
of State Papers, forming a clue which has here 
been followed up. For criticism and biblio- 
graphy see Plays and Poems of Tourneur, 1878 ; 
Langbaine's Lives of the English Dramatists, 
1691 ; Baker's Biogr. Dram.; Fleay's Chron. of 
the English Drama, ii. 263-4 ; Genest's Hist, of 
English Stage, x. 19-21 ; Ward's Engl. Drama, 
ii. 263-4; Hunter's Chorus Vatum (Addit. MS. 
24491, f. 56); Cunningham's Kevels, p. xliii ; 
Hazlitt's Handbook, p. 612 ; Ruth's Libr. Cat. : 
Hallam's Lit. of Europe, vol. ii. ; Hazlitt's Eliza- 
bethan Literature, 1884, p. 104; Lamb's Dra- 
matic Writers, 1884, p. 251; Minto's English 
Poets, 1874, pp. 466-70; Lee's Euphorion, i. 
72-9; Monthly Mag. new ser. v. 135; Eetro- 
spective Eeview, vii. 331-52; see also Hatfi eld 
Papers (Hist. MSS. Comm.), iii. 292, 299, iv. 
293, 567, vi. 307, 311 ; Dalton's Life and Times 
of General Sir Edward Cecil, Viscount Wimble- 
don ; Glanville's Journal of the Voyage to Cadiz 
(CamdenSoc.); Markham's Fighting Veres, 1888; 
Academy, 31 March 1894 ; Lowndes'sBibl. Man. 
(Bohn), p. 2701 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

TOURS, BERTHOLD (1838-1897) 
musician and musical editor, whose bap- 
tismal name was Bartolomeus, was son of 
Bartolomeus Tours, organist of the church of 
St. Lawrence, Rotterdam, and was born in 
that city on 17 Dec. 1838. He was a pupil 
of, and assistant to, his father, and he also 
studied under Verhulst. He subsequently 
became a student at the Brussels and (in 
1857) Leipzig conservatoires. From January 
1859 to April 1861 Tours lived in Russia in 
the service of the music-loving Prince 
Galitzin, and then migrated to London, 
where he remained till his death, though he 
retained his nationality. He played the 
violin in the orchestra at the Adelphi'Theatre 
and in Alfred Mellon's band, and joined the 
Italian opera orchestra in 1862. He also 
played in the orchestra at various provincial 
festivals. He held the post of organist at 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate Street (1864-5), St. 
Peter's, Stepney (1865-7), and Eglise Suisse, 
Bloomsbury (1867-79). In 1872 he joined 
the editorial staff of the music publishing 
house of Novello, Ewer, & Co., and in 1877 
became chief editor, a post in which he turned 
to advantage his critical acumen, judgment, 
and perseverance. Tours died at his resi- 
dence at Hammersmith, on 11 March 1897, 
and is buried in Highgate cemetery. He 
married, June 1868, Susan Elizabeth Taylor, 
and by her had a daughter and five sons. 

Tours was a prolific composer of services, 
anthems, songs, &c., of which his 'Service 
in F ' is well known. He also composed an 
excellent primer for the violin, which at- 
tained wide popularity. 

[Musical Times, April 1897; private infor- 
mation.] F. G. E. 

TOURS, STEPHEN DE (d. 1215), jus- 
ticiar. [See TUKNHAM.] 

TOVEY, DE BLOSSIERS (1692-1745), 
author of 'Anglia Judaica,' son of John 
Tovey, a citizen and apothecary of London, 
was born in the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields on 1 March 1691-2. He matriculated 
from Queen's College, Oxford, on 12 March 
1708-9, and graduated B.A. in 1712. He 
was elected fellow of Merton College in the 
same year, and proceeded M.A. in 1715. He 
was called to the bar of the Inner Temple 
in 1717, and took the degree of D.C.L. at 
Oxford in 1721. He was ordained soon after- 
wards. From 1723 to 1727 he was rector of 
Farley, Surrey, and from 1727 to 1732 vicar 
of Embleton, 'Northumberland. In 1732 he 
returned to Oxford on his election as prin- 
cipal of New Inn Hall, and he held that office 
until his death in 1745. 

Tovey was interested in history and 



archaeology, and devoted much time to a 
history of the Jews in mediaeval England. 
He freely utilised the numerous documents 
which Prynne had first published in his 
' Short Demurrer to the Jews' long-discon- 
tinued Remitter into England ' (1655), but 
he supplied additional information, and his 
treatise remains a standard contribution to 
an interesting byway of English history. 
The title runs : ' Anglia Judaica ; or the 
History and Antiquities of the Jews in 
England, collected from all our historians, 
both printed and manuscript, as also from 
the records in the Tower and other publick 
repositories/ Oxford, 1738, 4to ; it was de- 
dicated to George Holmes [q. v.], deputy- 
keeper of the records in the Tower. A letter 
from Tovey to Rawlinson, dated 1744, ' con- 
cerning a Roman brick found in Market Lane,' 
was printed in l Archseologia ' (1770), i. 139. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Rawlin- 
son MSS. in Bodleian Library.] S. L. 


(1782-1866), soldier, born at Garrigheugh, 
Comrie, Perthshire, on 20 Aug. 1782, was the 
second son of John Tovey of Stirling, by 
his wife Hamilton, daughter of Sir James 
D unbar of Mochrum and Woodside, third 
"baronet, and judge-advocate of Scotland. 
He was educated at Stirling, and on 28 Dec. 
1798 received the commission of lieutenant 
in the Bombay military service. In 1801 
lie was posted to the 24th regular native in- 
fantry at Goa, and was employed on active 
service against the Mahrattas. In 1805, 
while serving under Lord Lake at the siege 
of Bhurtpore, he was severely wounded in 
an assault on the town. On 17 Jan. 1811 
he received the commission of captain. In 
1813 he was placed in command of Ahmed- 
nuggar, and appointed brigade major at 
Poona. After more service against the Mah- 
rattas, he was appointed in 1819 private 
secretary to Mountstuart Elphinstone [q.v.], 
governor of Bombay. He was promoted to 
the rank of major on 19 Jan. 1820, and ac- 
companied Elphinstone on his tour through 
the province till November 1821, when he 
was compelled by the effect of his wounds to 
return to England. He retired from the 
service on 24 April 1824, being promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1832 he 
succeeded to the estates of his cousin, James 
Tennent of Pynnacles, Stanmore, Middlesex, 
and of Overton, Shropshire, and assumed his 
surname and arms. He died without issue, 
at Pynnacles, on 4 March 1866. In 1836 
he married Helen, only daughter of Gene- 
ral Samuel Graham, lieutenant-governor of 
Stirling Castle. Tovey-Tennent was a large 

contributor to charitable objects. Among 
other gifts he presented a site for a new 
church at Stanmore in 1854, and contributed 
1,000/. to erect a school at Stirling. He was 
succeeded in his estates by his nephew, 
James Tovey-Tennent. 

[Gent. Mag. 1866 i. 608, ii. 693; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 1871 ; Dodwell and Miles's 
Indian Army List, Bombay Pres. p. 82; Cole- 
brooke's Life of Mountstuart Elphinstone, 1884, 
ii. 11.] E. I. C. 

TOWERS, JOHN (d. 1649), bishop of 
Peterborough, was born in Norfolk; In 1598 
he entered Queens' College, Cambridge, as a 
scholar, graduating 1601-2 and M.A. 
in 1606. On 15 March 1607-8 he was elected 
a fellow, and on 9 July 1611 he was incor- 
porated at Oxford. He graduated B.D. in 
1615, and obtained that of D.D. per regias 
literas on 13 Dec. 1624. Previously he was 
appointed chaplain to William Compton, 
first earl of Northampton, and by him was 
presented to the rectory of Castle Ashby, 
Northamptonshire, on 11 April 1617. On 
11 Oct. 1623 he was instituted rector of 
Yardley-Hastings in the same county, and 
on 4 July 1628, being then one of the king's 
chaplains, he was presented to the vicarage 
of Halifax in Yorkshire (Cal State Papers, 
Dom. 1628-9, pp. 190, 192). On 14 Nov. 
1630 he was instituted dean of Peterborough, 
and on 3 April 1634 was installed a pre- 
bendary of Westminster. He was an ardent 
supporter of the royal prerogative, and on 
11 Sept. 1637 wrote requesting that the col- 
lection of ship-money in Peterborough might 
be entrusted to him instead of to the sheriff 
(ib. 1637, p. 416). On 1 Oct. 1638 he was 
instituted rector of Castor in Northampton- 
shire, and on 8 March 1638-9 he was en- 
throned bishop of Peterborough, after nume- 
rous solicitations on his own behalf (ib. 
1633-4 p. 338, 1638-9 pp. 79, 80, 87, 137, 
149, 335, 405). 

In his episcopal office Towers showed him- 
self a staunch high-churchman, and zealously 
supported Laud in his changes in ritual. On 
4 Aug. 1641 he was included in the list of 
thirteen bishops formally impeached by the 
House of Commons on account of their co- 
operation with Laud in enactment of illegal 
canons in convocation, in consequence of 
which they were prevented from voting while 
their cause was pending. On 28 Dec., in 
company with John Williams (1582-1650) 
[q. v.], archbishop of York, and ten other 
bishops, of whom nine were among those 
impeached, Towers signed the well-known 
protest declaring the actions of parliament 
in their absence null and void. On Pym's 



motion, those who had signed were im- 
peached as guilty of high treason by en- 
deavouring to subvert the fundamental laws 
of the kingdom and the very being of par- 
liament, and on the last day of the year 
Towers and nine others were lodged in the 
Tower. After about four months he was 
released, retired to Peterborough, and thence 
to Oxford, where he remained till its sur- 
render in 1646. He then returned to Peter- 
borough, where he died in obscurity on 
10 Jan. 1648-9. He was buried in the cathe- 
dral. Besides a daughter Spencer, who 
married Eobert Pykarell, rector of Burgate 
in Suffolk, and died on 16 Feb. 1657-8, he 
had a son William, noticed below. 

Towers was the author of ' Four Sermons,' 
London, 1660, 8vo, edited by his son. 

His son, WILLIAM TOWEES (1617 P-1666), 
prebendary of Peterborough, born in 1616 
or 1617, was educated at Westminster school 
as a king's scholar. He matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 1 Sept. 1634, gra- 
duating B.A. on 11 April 1638, M.A. on 
22 May 1641, and B.I), on 17 June 1646. 
He was installed a prebendary of Peter- 
borough on 20 April 1641, and in 1644 was 
presented to the rectory of Barnack in North- 
amptonshire. The successes of the parlia- 
mentary troops drove him to take refuge in 
Oxford, and on the capitulation of the city 
he was driven to serve a curacy at Upton, 
near Northampton. In 1660, through the 
friendship of Mountjoy Blount, earl of New- 
port [q. v.], he was reinstated in his prefer- 
ments, and appointed rector of Fiskerton, 
near Lincoln. He died on 20 Oct. 1666, 
while on a visit to Uffington in Lincolnshire, 
and was buried in the chancel of the church 

He was the author of: 1. ' Atheismus 
Vapulans,' London, 1654, 8vo. 2. 'Poly- 
theismus Vapulans,' London, 1654, 8vo. 
3. ' A Sermon against Murder, by occasion 
of the Romanists putting the Protestants to 
Death in the Dukedome of Savoy,' London, 
1655, 4to. 4. ' Obedience perpetually due to 
Kings/ London, 1660, 4to (WooD, Athena 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 736 ; WILLIS, Cathedral 
Survey, ii. 521 ; WALKER, Sufferings of the 
Clergy, ii. 61 ; WELCH, Alumni Westmon. 
p. 107 ; FOSTEE, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714). 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 344; Fuller's 
Worthies, ed. Nichols, 1811, ii. 127; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. xii. 233; Britton's Hist, and 
Antiquities of Peterborough Cathedral, p. 35 ; 
Lloyd's Memoires, 1668, p. 601 ; Lansdowne 
MS. 985, ff. 127-30; British Museum Addit. 
MSS. 5882, f. 89; Bridges's Hist, of North- 
amptonshire, ed. Whalley, i. 346, 398, ii. 502, 
560, 563 ; Laud's Works, passim.] E. I. C. 

TOWEES, JOSEPH (1737-1799), bio- 
grapher, was born in Southwark on 
31 March 1737. His father was a second- 
hand bookseller, and at twelve years old he 
was employed as a stationer's errand boy. 
In 1754 he was apprenticed to Robert 
Goadby [q. v.] at Sherborne, Dorset. Here 
he learned Latin and Greek. Goadby made 
him an Arian. Coming to London in 1764, 
he worked as a journeyman printer, began 
to write political pamphlets, and set up a 
bookseller's shop in Fore Street about 1765. 
Goadby employed him as editor of the 
' British Biography ' (from the date of Wy- 
cliffe), and the first seven volumes, 1766- 
1772, 8vo, were compiled by him, on the 
basis of the ' Biographia Britannica,' 1747- 
1766, fol., but containing much original 
work, the fruit of research at the British 

In 1774 he gave up business, was or- 
dained as a dissenting minister, and became 
pastor of the presbyterian congregation in 
Southwood Lane, Highgate. He became 
associated with Andrew Kippis [q. v.] in 
the new edition of the 'Biographia Bri- 
tannica,' 1778-93, fol., where his contribu- 
tions are signed ' T.' The opening of a rival 
meeting-house in Southwood Lane (1778) 
had drawn away many of his hearers. 
Towers left Highgate to become (1778) fore- 
noon preacher at Stoke Newington Green, 
as coadjutor to Richard Price (1723-1791) 
[q. v.] On 19 Nov. 1779 he received the 
diploma"of LL.D. from Edinburgh Univer- 
sity. He continued to write pamphlets, of 
which a collection was published by sub- 
scription, 1796, 8vo, 3 vols. His chief 
separate work was ' Memoirs ... of Frederick 
the Third ... of Prussia,' 1788, 8vo, 2 
vols. He was a trustee of Dr. Williams's 
foundations, 1790-99. He died on 20 May 
1799. He was married to a relative of Caleb 
Fleming [q. v.] His portrait, painted by 
Samuel Drummond [q. v.], was engraved by 

JOSEPH LOMAS TOWEES (1767 P-1831), his 
only son, born about 1767, was educated at 
St. Paul's school and New College, Hackney 
(entered September 1768) ; he preached as 
a Unitarian minister without charge, and in 
1792 succeeded Roger Flexman [q. v.] as 
librarian of Dr. Williams's library ; resign- 
ing this post in 1804, he led an eccentric 
life, busy with literary schemes, and collect- 
ing books and prints. He became insane 
in 1830, and died on 4 Oct. 1831, at the 
White House, Befchnal Green; he was 
buried in a vault at Elim Chapel, Fetter 
Lane. He published : 1. ' Illustrations of 
Prophecy/ 1796, 8vo, 2 vols. (anon.) 2. < The 



Expediency ... of Cash-Payments by the 
Bank of England/ 1811, 8vo. 

JOHN TOWEES (1747P-1804), younger 
brother of Joseph Towers, born about 1747, 
went to sea as a lad, and was afterwards 
apprenticed to a London packer. He taught 
himself Greek and Hebrew, and began to 
preach as an independent. A secession 
from Jewin Street independent congregation 
chose him as pastor, and leased the presby- 
terian meeting-house in Bartholomew Close, 
where he was ordained in 1769. For some 
years he conducted a day school. A new 
meeting-house was built for him in the 
Barbican in 1784, and his ministry was 
successful. He died on 9 July 1804, and 
was buried on 17 July in Bunhill Fields. 
He was twice married. He published 
' Polygamy Unscriptural,' 1780, 8vo (against 
Martin Madan [q. v.]), and several sermons. 

[Funeral Sermon by James Lindsay, 1799 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1799; Wilson's Dissenting Churches 
of London, 1810, iii. 223 sq. ; Chalmers's General 
Biographical Diet. 1816, xxix. 489 sq.; Christian 
Keformer, 1832, pp. 131 sq.; Kutt's Memoirs of 
Priestley, 1832, i. 53, ii. 384; Jones's Bunhill 
Memorials, 1849, pp. 280 sq.; Cat. of Edinburgh 
Graduates, 1858, p. 257 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian 
Fund, 1885, pp. 173 sq.] A. G. 

captain and agent for the East India Com- 
pany, may have been the son of William 
Towerson, an influential member of the 
Muscovy company in 1576, and an adven- 
turer in Fenton's voyage in 1582, who seems 
to be distinct from William Towerson, the 
merchant and navigator [q.v.] His brother 
William is repeatedly mentioned in the East 
India papers. Gabriel appears to have gone 
out in the Company's second voyage in 
1604 [see MIDDLETON, SIE HENEJT] and to 
have been left as factor at Bantam, together 
with John Saris [q. v.] In 1609 he and Saris 
returned to England ; and in 1611 he went 
out again as captain of the Hector, under the 
command of Saris. On 15 Jan. 1612-13, 
still in the Hector, he sailed from Bantam in 
company with Nicholas Downton [q. v.] and 
William Hawkins (Jl. 1595) [q. v.] He 
arrived at Waterford in September. In the 
following January he applied for a ' gratifi- 
cation ' for good service in bringing home the 
Hector. In considering the matter, the 
court found charges of private trading made 
against him, rendering him liable to the for- 
feiture of his bond for 1 ,000/. They resolved 
to remit the punishment, but to make him 
pay freight for the goods, 18 Jan. 1613-14. 
In 1617 he was again in India, apparently 
with some mission; Sir Thomas Roe [q. v.j, 
from Ahmedabad, complained that Tower- 

son had arrived with * many servants, a 
trumpet, and more show ' than he himself 

In 1618 Towerson returned to England, 
leaving his wife at Agra. On 24 Jan. 1619- 
1620 he was ordered to go out as principal 
factor in the Moluccas, with pay of 10/. per 
month, the same as when he was captain of 
the Hector. He applied to go out in com- 
mand of one of the company's ships ; but 
this was refused, and, together with some 
other factors, he was ordered a passage ' in 
the great cabin of the Anne, of which Swan- 
ley is commander.' The sailing of the Anne 
appears to have been delayed ; for she was 
still on the way out on 30 May 1621, when 
a consultation of the principal officers of the 
fleet was held on board her. The committee 
of officers appointed Towerson to command 
the Lesser James, on account of the differ- 
ences between her pilot and master ever since 
they left England. In November he was at 
Batavia, whence he and the other factors 
wrote on the 6th that, ' seeing the Nether- 
landers are so contentious, false, and impu- 
dent in all their proceedings, not shaming to 
affirm or write anything that makes for their 
purposes, we have thought fit not to answer 
their protest fraught with untruths.' Such 
a declaration seems to have a very direct 
bearing on the tragedy which followed. In 
May he went to Amboyna, to succeed the 
agent who was going home. 

On 11 Feb. folio wing (1622-3) a Japanese 
soldier in the Dutch service was apprehended 
on suspicion of treachery, and forced by 
torture to confess that he had been bribed 
by the English to take part in a plot to seize 
the fort. On the 15th Price, a drunken 
surgeon, was arrested, tortured, and made 
to admit the conspiracy. Then Towerson 
was arrested and all the other Englishmen. 
Many of them including Towerson (A True 
Relation, 1624, p. 23; India Office MSS.) 
were subjected to the most diabolical tor- 
tures, and compelled to admit the existence 
of the plot and their own and Towerson's 
complicity in it. Towerson himself, together 
with nine Englishmen, one Portuguese, and 
nine Japanese, was put to death on 27 Feb. 
All died declaring their innocence ; and 
considering that there were only twenty 
Englishmen all told on the island, and they 
unarmed civilians, while of the Dutch there 
were from four to five hundred, and half 
of them soldiers in garrison, besides eight 
large ships in the roadstead, their truth may 
be considered established. l It is true,' says 
the official narration, f that stories do record 
sundry valiant and hardy enterprises of the 
English nation, and Holland is witness of 




some of them ; yet no story nor legend re- 
porteth any such hardiness either of the 
English or others that so few persons, so 
naked of all provisions and supplies, should 
undertake such an adventure upon such a 
counter party so well and abundantly fitted 
at all points/ On the other hand, it must 
be remembered that torture was then and for 
many years later, in England as on the con- 
tinent, considered a good and useful means of 
compelling an unwilling witness to give evi- 
dence, and the evidence was considered none 
the worse for being so obtained. The idea 
in England was that the Dutch were aim ing 
at a monopoly of the trade, and prepared to 
stick at no measures which might secure it 
for them. It is perhaps more probable that 
on this occasion they were the victims of a 
blind panic, which rendered them incapable 
of reason or reflection. 

It does not appear whether Towerson's 
Armenian wife was at Amboyna or not. 
She was probably with her own people at 
Agra. A son Robert is mentioned, but 
whether by the Armenian or an earlier mar- 
riage is doubtful. 

[Cal. State Papers, East Indies. The volume 
1622-4 is largely devoted to the detailed history 
of the Amboyna Massacre ; see Index, s.n. 
4 Towerson ' and ' Amboyna.' Note supplied by 
Sir William W. Hunter.] J. K. L. 

TOWERSON, GABRIEL (1635 P-1697), 
divine and theological writer, was the son of 
William Towerson, and probably born in 
London in or about 1635. He was educated 
first at St. Paul's school, proceeding thence 
to Queen's College, Oxford, where he was 
Pauline exhibitioner from 1650 to 1659. He 
matriculated on 27 Feb. 1650-1, graduating 
B.A. on 17 June 1654 and M.A. on 21 April 
1657. In 1657 his father petitioned Richard 
Cromwell, then chancellor of the university 
of Oxford, to use his influence with the 
warden and fellows of All Souls' College to 
admit his son, who had studied for some 
years and devoted himself to the ministry, to 
one of the vacant fellowships. Towerson 
obtained his fellowship in 1660, and received 
the college rectory of Welwyn in Hertford- 
fordshire on the deprivation of Nicholas 
Greaves by the Act of Uniformity. He was 
admitted on 31 Oct. 1662, and retained the 
living until his death. He was created D.D. 
by Archbishop Sancroft on 1 Feb. 1678, 
and was presented to the rectory of St. 
Andrew Undershaft, London, on 20 April 
1692. He died on 14 Oct. 1697, and was 
buried at Welwyn. 

Towerson left his property to be equally 
divided among his seven children. His will, 

which was neither dated nor witnessed, was 
proved on 27 Oct. 1697. 

Towerson published: 1. 'A brief Account 
of some Expressions in the Creed of Saint 
Athanasius ' (anon.), Oxford, 1663. 2. 'Ex- 
plication of the Decalogue,' London, 1676, 
reissued 1680, 1681, 1685. 3. ' Explication 
of the Apostle's Creed,' London, 1678, 1685. 
4. < Explication of the Lord's Prayer,' Lon- 
don, 1680, 1685. 5. ' Of the Sacraments in 
General,' London, 1686, 1687, 1688. 6. < Of 
the Sacrament of Baptism,' London, 1687. 
7. i Of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper,' 
London, 1688. 8. ' A Sermon concerning 
Vocal and Instrumental Music in the 
Church,' London, 1696. 9. 'The Relative 
Duties of Husbands and Wives,' and ' The 
Relative Duties of Masters and Servants,' 
in vol. iv. of ' Tracts of Anglican Fathers,' 
London, 1841-2. ' An Explication of the 
Catechism of the Church of England ' (con- 
sisting of the forenamed explications and 
remarks on the sacraments) was published in 
1678, fec., and again in 1685, &c. He contri- 
buted English verses to 'Britannia Rediviva/ 
Oxford, 1660, and to ' Epicedia Academic 
Oxoniensis in Obitum Serenissima3 Marine 
Principis Aurasionensis,' Oxford, 1661. 

[Funeral sermon by G-eorge Stanhope [q. v.] ; 
Foster's Alumni, 1500-1714; Registers of St. 
Paul's School, p. 44 ; Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, 
vol. iv. cols. 582-3 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1657-8, p. 86; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 
498, 500; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 268; 
P.C.C. 214, Pyne.] B. P. 

TOWERSON, WILLIAM (1555-1577), 
merchant and navigator, made three voyages 
to the Guinea coast in 1555, 1556, and 1577. 
He started on the first venture from Newport 
in the Isle of Wight, on 30 Sept. 1555, with 
two ships, the Hart and Hind (masters, John 
Ralph and William Carter). On 22 Nov. he 
reached Cape Verde, on 12 Dec. began trading 
on the Guinea coast, and while engaged in 
this was attacked near St. George La Mina by 
the Portuguese (January 1556), but escaped 
destruction. He set sail for home on 4 Feb. 
1556, and on 7 May sighted Ireland. 

Towerson's second voyage was made in 
1556 with the Tiger (120 tons), the Hart 
(60 tons), and a pinnace of 16 tons. He left 
Barwich on 14 Sept.; on 19 Dec. he was off 
Sierra Leone. On the Guinea coast he met 
ive French ships, with which he entered 
nto a trade agreement, on the basis of a 
common opposition to the Portuguese. The 
lilies fought an indecisive action with the 
atter, traded with several native tribes, and 
eft for home in March 1557. passing Cape 
Verde on 18 April. Near the mouth of the 




s first 

Channel Towerson was attacked by a French 
'pirate,' but beat off his assailant. 

His third voyage, in 1577 to West Africa, 
was made with four ships the Minion, Chris- 
topher, Tiger, and a pinnace called the Uni- 
corn. He started from Plymouth on 30 Jan. ; 
next day fell in with two French ships, 
which he took and despoiled ; he traded off 
the Guinea coast from April to June, fight- 
ing both with French and Portuguese. On 
15 April Towerson tried to persuade his men 
to go on to Benin, but they refused, pre- 
ferring to stay on the Mina coast, where 
they destroyed two native shore-towns of 
hostile negroes. On 25 June they set out 
for home ; on 8 Sept. in 25 N. lat. they were 
obliged to abandon the Tiger as unseaworthy ; 
and on 20 Oct. reached the Isle of Wight. 
The crew were reduced to great straits by 
sickness, and but for fear of a bad reception 
Towerson would have put into a Spanish 
port on his return. 

[Hakluyt's Principal Navigations (edition of 
1598-1600), vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 23-52.] C. K. B. 

1792), dissenting minister, second son of 
Michaijah Towgood, M.D. (d. 1715), was born 
at Axminster, Devonshire, on 17 Dec. 1700. 
His father was the younger son of Mat- 
thew Towgood (d. 1669 ?), schoolmaster at 
Shaftesbury (originally, according to Walker, 
a tailor and parish clerk), who held the 
sequestered rectory of Hilperton, Wiltshire, 
from 1647 to 1660, when he obtained the 
rectory of Semley, Wiltshire, from which he 
was ejected (1662) by the uniformity act. 
Matthew was a presbyterian ; his elder son, 
Stephen (d. 1722), was an independent. Tow- 
good was at school with Thomas Amory 
(1701-1774) [q. v.], and with him entered 
(25 March 1717) the Taunton academy under 
Stephen James and Henry Grove [q. v.] On 
leaving he was called to succeed Angel Spark 
(d. October 1721) as minister of the presby- 
terian congregation at Moreton Hampstead, 
Devonshire,where he was ordained on 22 Aug. 
1722. He had six hundred hearers, including 
sixty county voters, and devoted himself 
systematically to pastoral work. Accepting 
at Christmas 1736 a call to Crediton, Devon- 
shire, in succession to Josiah Eveleigh (d. 
9 Sept. 1736), he removed thither in January 
1737. Here he began that series of contro- 
versial publications which culminated in his 
' Dissenting Gentleman's Letters ' (1746-8) 
in reply to John White, perpetual curate of 
Nayland, Suffolk. This work made his re- 
putation, and was long a classic compendium 
of nonconformist argument. 

On the death of James Green (1749), Tow- 

good became colleague (1750) to his first 
cousin, Stephen Towgood (son of Stephen 
Towgood, his father's elder brother), as pastor 
of James's meeting, Exeter. The position was 
influential, and the duties were light ; Bow 
meeting had its two pastors, John Lavington 
[q. v.] and John Walrond ; the four preached 
in rotation at the two places. James's meet- 
ing had been purged of heresy in 1719 by the 
exclusion of Joseph Hallett (1656-1722) [q.v.] 
and James Peirce [q. v.] Towgood, originally 
orthodox, had always been for doctrinal tole- 
rance ; he was now a high Arian, of the type 
of Thomas Emlyn [q.v.], and, like Emlyn, he 
rendered worship to our Lord. He got the 
terms of membership relaxed ; and in May 
1753 the Exeter assembly quashed its resolu- 
tion of September 1718 requiring adhesion 
to a trinitarian formulary. 

In 1760 Towgood's congregation left 
James's meeting for the newly built George's 
meeting (still standing) in South Street. In 
the same year he took part in the establish- 
ment of the new Exeter academy for uni- 
versity teaching. A building for the purpose 
was given by William Mackworth Praed ; 
the library of the Taunton academy (closed 
October 1759) was removed to it. Towgood 
took the department of biblical exegesis. 
The institution lasted till the death (De- 
cember 1771) of its divinity tutor, Samuel 
Merivale [see under MEEIVALE, JOHN HEE- 
MAN]. On the death (1777) of his cousin, 
Towgood had as colleague James Manning 
(1754-1831), father of James Manning [q.v.] 
serjeant-at-law. He resigned his charge 
in 1782, and was succeeded after an interval 
by Timothy Kenrick [q. v.] He died on 1 Feb. 
1792. He married (about 1730) a daughter of 
James Hawker of Luppitt, Devonshire, and 
had four children, of whom a daughter sur- 
vived him ; his wife died in 1759. His son 
Matthew (1732-1791) was educated at 
Bridg water under John Moore (d. 31 Dec. 
1748), was minister at Bridgwater (1747- 
1755), afterwards merchant, and ultimately 
(1773) a banker in London, where he died 
in January 1791, leaving issue. 

Towgood published, besides single ser- 
mons: 1. 'High-flown Episcopal and 
Priestly Claims Examined,' 1737, 8vo, re- 
printed in Baron's ' Cordial for Low Spirits,' 
1763, 12mo, vol. iii. 2. 'The Dissenter's 
Apology,' 1739, 8vo (against John Warren, 
D.D.) 3. 'Spanish Cruelty and Injustice/ 

1741, 8vo. 4. ' Recovery from Sickness,' 

1742, 8vo, often reprinted. 5. ' Afflictions 
Improved,' 1743, 8vo ; prefixed is a graphic 
account of a fire which destroyed West 
Crediton. 6. ' The Dissenting Gentleman's 
Answer,' 1746, 8vo ; second letter, 1747, 




8vo; third letter, 1738 [i.e. 1748], 8vo ; 
postscript, 1750, 8vo (all anon.) ; collected 
with author's name and title : ' A Dissent 
from the Church of England fully justified/ 
15th edit., Newry, 1816, 12mo, has impor- 
tant appendices by William Bruce (1757- 
1841) [q. v.] and Andrew George Malcom, 
D.D. [q. v.] ; abridged by author, with title, 
'A Calm Answer,' 1772, 8vo. 7. 'An 
Essay ... of the Character and Reign of 
King Charles the First,' 1748, 8vo; 1780, 
8vo; 1811, 12mo. 8. 'The Baptism of In- 
fants,' 1750, 8vo ; supplement, 1751, 8vo. 
9. ' Serious and Free Thoughts on ... the 
Church,' 1755, 8vo. 10. 'The Grounds of 
Faith in Jesus Christ,' 1784, 8vo. Three 
papers by him signed ' Paulus ' are in ' The 
Old Whig,' 1739, vol. ii. Nos. 83, 90, 91. His 
portrait, by John Opie, has been engraved. 
He had a slight impediment in speech, which 
he never entirely overcame, though he was 
an effective preacher. 

MATTHEW TOWGOOD (ft. 1710-1746), first 
cousin of the above (elder son of Stephen), 
was schoolmaster at Colyton (1710 ?-l 6), 
minister at Shepton Mallet (1716-29) and 
at Poole (1729-35), but left the ministry 
and became a brewer. He published a few 
pamphlets, but is remembered only for his 
' Remarks on the Profane and Absurd Use 
of the Monosyllable Damn/ 1746, 8vo. 

[Manning's Sketch of Life, 1792 (abridged in 
* Protestant Dissenter's Magazine/ 1794, pp. 
385, 425) ; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 
1714, ii. 384; Calamy's Continuation, 1727, ii. 
833 ; Protestant Dissenter's Magazine, 1798, p. 
241 ; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, 1803, 
iii. 374; Butt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, i. 
321; Murch's Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. 
Churches in "West of England, 1835, passim; 
Turner's Lives of Eminent Unitarians, 1840, i. 
391 sq. ; Axminster Ecclesiastica, 1874; Clay- 
den's Samuel Sharpe, 1883, p. 20; Jeremy's 
Presbyterian Fund, 1885, pp. 170, 175, 206.] 

A. G. 

TO WGOpD, RICHARD (1595P-1683), 
dean of Bristol, was born near Bruton, 
Somerset, about 1595. The family name 
is spelled also Toogood, Twogood, and 
Towgard. He entered Oriel College, Ox- 
ford, as a servitor in 1610; matriculated 
19 April 1611, at the age of sixteen ; gra- 
duated B.A. 1 Feb. 1614-15, M.A. 4 Feb. 
1617-18, B.D. 7 Nov. 1633. Having taken 
orders about 1615, he preached in the neigh- 
bourhood of Oxford, till he was appointed 
master of the grammar school in College 
Green, Bristol. In 1619 he was instituted 
vicar of All Saints', Bristol, and preferred 
in 1626 to the vicarage of St. Nicholas, 
Bristol. He was made a chaplain to 

Charles I about 1633. On 20 Feb. 1645 he 
was sequestered from his vicarage for his 
great disaffection to the parliament.' He 
was several times imprisoned, under un- 
usually severe conditions, was ordered 
to be shot, and with difficulty reprieved. 
Gaming his liberty, he retired to Wotton- 
under-Edge, Gloucestershire. After some 
years, through the mediation of Archbishop 
Ussher, he began to preach at Kingswood 
Chapel, near Wotton, and was soon after 
presented to the neighbouring rectory of 
Tortworth. On the Restoration he returned 
to St. Nicholas, Bristol, at the earnest re- 
quest of the parishioners. He was installed, 
25 Aug. 1660, in the sixth prebend in Bristol 
Cathedral, to which he had been nominated 
before the civil war ; and was sworn chap- 
lain to Charles II. In 1664 he was presented 
to the vicarage of Weare, Somerset. On 
1 May 1667 he succeeded Henry Glemham 
as dean of Bristol, and in October 1671 he 
was offered the bishopric, vacant by the 
death of Gilbert Ironside the elder [q. v.], 
but declined it. He died on 21 April 1683, 
in his eighty-ninth year, and was buried in 
the north aisle of the choir of the cathedral. 
He published two sermons in 1643, another 
in 1676. By^ his wife Elizabeth he had sons 
Richard and William ; his grandson Richard 
(son of Richard) was prebendary of Bristol 
(30 July 1685) and vicar of Bitton (1685), 
Olveston (1697), and Winterbourne (1698), 
all in Gloucestershire. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 86; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, pp. 4 sq.; 
Leversage's History of Bristol Cathedral, 1853, 
pp. 68, 71, 87; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714.] A. G. 

TOWNE, CHARLES (d. 1850?), artist, 
son of Richard Town, portrait-painter of 
Liverpool, worked there originally as an 
heraldic or coach painter. In 1787 a small 
landscape by him appeared in an exhibition 
held in that town. His first appearance in 
London exhibitions was at the Royal 
Academy in 1799, when he had added a 
final ' e ' to his name. Between that year 
and 1823 he exhibited twelve works at the 
academy, and four at the British Institute. 
From 1800 to 1805 he resided in Manchester, 
and is said to have then removed to London ; 
but he had returned to Liverpool in 1810, 
where his name appears as a member of the 
Liverpool Academy in their first exhibition 
in that year. He was a vice-president in 
1813, and resided in Liverpool until 1837, 
when he apparently returned to London. 
He died there about 1850. Towne painted 
landscapes and animals, and obtained great 
celebrity in Lancashire and Cheshire by his 


9 6 


portraits of horses, dogs, and cattle. Many 
of his pictures were small, but occasionally 
he ventured on compositions of landscapes 
with cattle introduced of larger size. There 
is a picture of Everton village by him in 
the Liverpool Corporation gallery. He also 
painted in watercolour, and was a candi- 
date for admission to the Watercolour 
Society in 1809. His work, though carefully 
drawn, is wanting in spirit and originality. 

[Bryan's Diet, of Artists (Graves) ; Mayer's 
Early Art in Liverpool ; Manchester and Liver- 
pool Art Exhibition Cat.] A. N. 

TOWNE, FRANCIS (1740-1816), land- 
scape-painter, was born in 1740, apparently 
in London. He studied under William 
Pars, and gained a prize at the Society of 
Arts in 1759. In 1762 he was a member of 
the Free Society of Artists. He exhibited 
drawings in watercolour at the Royal 
Academy in 1775, and in 1779 'View on 
the Exe ' and some others, his residence then 
being in Exeter. About this time he went 
to Italy, and exhibited views taken there 
and in Switzerland until 1794, but he seems 
to have been resident in London, where he 
died at his house in Devonshire Street on 
7 July 1816. He exhibited in London 
twenty-seven works at the Royal Academy, 
sixteen at the Society of Artists, three at 
the Free Society, and ten at the British In- 
stitute. He enjoyed a considerable reputa- 
tion as a landscape-painter. 

[Bryan's Diet, of Artists (Graves); Graves's 
Diet, of Artists; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of 
English School; Gent. Mag. 1816; Royal 
Academy Cat.] A. N. 

TOWNE, JOHN (1711P-1791), contro- 
versialist, born about 1711, was educated at 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, whence he graduated 
B. A. in 1732 and M.A. in 1736. He became 
vicar of Thorpe-Ernald, Leicestershire, on 
22 June 1740, archdeacon of Stowe in 1765, 
a prebendary of Lincoln, and rector of Little 
Paunton, Lincolnshire. He died on 15 March 
1791 at Little Paunton, where he was buried, 
a mural tablet being erected to his memory 
in the church. Towne was a friend of Bishop 
Warburton, who held him in high esteem. 
By his wife Anne, who died on 31 Jan. 
1754, he left three daughters and one son, 
who became a painter and died young. 

His works are: 1. 'A Critical Inquiry 
into the Opinions and Practice of the An- 
cient Philosophers, concerning the nature of 
the Soul and a Future State, and their method 
of teaching by the double doctrine. . . . With 
a Preface by the Author of the Divine Lega- 
tion ' [William Warburton, bishop of Glouces- 
ter] (anon.), London, 1747, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 

London, 1748, 8vo. 2. ' The Argument of 
the Divine Legation [by Bishop Warbur- 
ton], fairly stated and returned to the Deists, 
to whom it was originally addressed,' Lon- 
don, 1751, 8vo. 3. <A Free and Candid 
Examination of the Principles advanced in 
the . . . Bishop of London's [i.e. Dr. Sher- 
lock's] . . . Sermons, lately published ; and 
in his ... Discourses on Prophecy ' (anon.), 
London, 1756, 8vo. 4. * Dissertation on the 
Antient Mysteries,' London, 1766. 5. ' Re- 
marks on Dr. Lowth's Letter to the Bishop 
of Gloucester [William Warburton]. With 
the Bishop's Appendix, and the second Epi- 
stolary Correspondence between his Lordship 
and the Doctor annexed ' (anon.), 2 pts. Lon- 
don, 1766, 8vo. 5. < Exposition of the Ortho- 
dox System of Civil Rights, and Church 
Power ; addressed to Dr. Stebbing.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1791, i. 286; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 283; Kurd's Life of Bishop Warbur- 
ton, 1788, p. 134; Martin's Privately Printed 
Books, 2nd edit. p. 62; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, ii. 81 ; Nichols's Hist, of Leicestershire, 
ii. 371.] T. C. 

TOWNE, JOSEPH (1808-1879), model- 
ler, third son of Thomas Towne, a dissenting 
minister, was born at Royston, near Cam- 
bridge, on 25 Nov. 1808. As a child his 
great amusement was modelling animals in 
clay. His first work of any importance was 
the model of a human skeleton, measuring 
thirty-three inches in height, which now 
stands in the museum of Guy's Hospital. 
This he made secretly and by night when he 
was seventeen from such drawings and bones 
as could be found in a village. His father 
saw the work only when it was nearly com- 
plete, and then sent him to Cambridge with 
a letter of introduction to William Clark 
(1788-1869) [q.v.], the professor of anatomy. 
Towne was so favourably impressed with his 
reception at Cambridge that he determined 
to come to London. He arrived by coach at 
one of the old inns in Bishopgate Street in 
February 1826, and called, without introduc- 
tion, upon Sir Astley Paston Cooper [q. v.], 
then the leading surgeon in London. Cooper, 
recognising the boy's capacity, gave him a 
letter to Benjamin Harrison (1771-1856) 
[q. v.], the great treasurer of Guy's Hospital, 
by whom he was immediately retained in the 
service of that charity. The skeleton which 
he had brought with him from Royston was 
offered in competition at the Society of Arts, 
where it obtained the second prize in 1826, 
but in the following year Towne executed 
some models of the brain in wax, which 
gained him the gold medal of the society. 
From 1826 until 1877 Towne occupied rooms 




in Guy's Hospital, where he was engaged 
continuously in the practice of the art which 
he originated and brought to perfection, 
though it died with him. He constructed 
during this period more than a thousand 
models of anatomical preparations, from dis- 
sections made by John Hilton (1804-1878) 
{q.v.J, and of cases of skin disease selected 
by Thomas Addison [q. v.] Most of these 
models are preserved in the museum of Guy's 
Hospital, but many fine specimens of his 
work are to be seen at Calcutta, Madras, 
Bombay, New York, as well as in the various 
towns of Alabama, New South Wales, and 
Russia. Towne was awarded a prize for his 
work at the first International Exhibition of 
London in 1851. 

Towne was a sculptor as well as a mo- 
deller, and executed the marble busts of 
Sir Astley Cooper and Dr. Addison which 
now adorn the museum of Guy's Hospital. 
In. 1827 he made an equestrian statue of the 
Duke of Kent, the queen's father, which 
was afterwards deposited in the private 
apartments of Buckingham Palace, and a 
little later he made a statuette of the great 
Duke of Wellington, while an excellent bust 
of Bishop Otter, first principal of King's 
College, London, came from his hands, and 
was placed in Chichester Cathedral in 1844. 
He died on 25 June 1879. Towne married, 
20 Sept. 1832, Mary Butterfield, and by her 
liad several children. 

Mr. Bryant says of his work : l There can 
fee no question that as models, whether ana- 
tomical, pathological, or cutaneous, they are 
not only lifelike representations of what 
they are intended to show, but that as works 
of art they are as remarkable as they are 
perfect. Not only are they accurate copies 
of different parts of the body, but they are 
among the very first attempts which have 
'been made in this country to represent the 
different parts of the human body by wax 
models, and they are the more remarkable 
when it is borne in mind they are the out- 
come of an entirely self-taught genius.' 

In 1858 Towne delivered at Guy's Hos- 
pital a short course of lectures on the brain 
and the organs of the senses and of the in- 
tellect. These lectures were elaborated into 
a series of suggestive papers * On the Stereo- 
scopic Theory of Vision, with Observations 
on the Experiments of Professor Wheat- 
stone,' which commenced in the Guy's Hos- 
pital ' Reports ' for 1862, and ended with one 
on 'Binocular Vision' in the volume for 

[Obituary notice by Mr. Bryant in the Guy's 
Hospital Reports, 1883, xli. 1 ; biographical 
notice in the History of Guy's Hospital, by 


Wilks and Bettany, 1892 ; additional parti- 
culars kindly given to the writer by Thomas 
Bryant, esq.] D' A< P> 

CHARLES (1737-1805), collector of classi- 
cal antiquities, was the eldest son of Wil- 
liam Towneley (1714-1741) of Towneley 
Hall, by his wife Cecilia, daughter of Ralph 
Standish of Standish, Lancashire, and grand- 
daughter of Henry, sixth duke of Norfolk. 
He was born on 1 Oct. 1737 at Towneley, 
the family seat, near Burnley, in the parish 
of Whalley, Lancashire. He succeeded to 
the estate on his father's death in 1742, and 
about this time was sent to the college of 
Douay, being afterwards under the care of 
John Turberville Needham [q. v.] About 
1758 he took possession of Towneley Hall;(see 
views in WHITAKEK'S Whalley, ii. 186, 187). 
He planted and improved the estate, and 
lived for a time the life of the country gen- 
tleman of his day. 

A visit to Rome and Florence in 1765 led 
him to study ancient art. He travelled in 
southern Italy and Sicily, but made Rome 
his headquarters till 1772. In 1768 he 
bought from the Dowager Princess Barberini 
the marble group of the Astragalizontes, and 
began to form a collection of antiquities. In 
spite of the^ competition of the Vatican 
Museum he rapidly increased his collection, 
chiefly by entering into an alliance with 
Gavin Hamilton (1730-1797) [q. y.], and 
more cautiously with Thomas Jenkins, the 
banker at Rome. He shared in their risks 
and successes in making excavations in Italy. 

In 1772 he came to live in London, and 
after a time purchased No. 7 Park Street, 
Westminster (now, with Queen Square, re- 
named Queen Anne's Gate). He complained 
of his noisy neighbours in the Royal Cockpit, 
but, having purchased the house as a ' shell,' 
he was able to fit it up suitably for the re- 
ception of his statues and library. He still 
occasionally visited Rome, and continued to 
receive fresh acquisitions for his collection 
till about 1780, partly from Italy, through 
his agents Hamilton and Jenkins, and partly 
by purchases in England from Lyde Brown 
and others. In addition to marbles, Townley 's 
collection contained terra-cotta reliefs (many 
of which were procured by Nollekens), bronze 
utensils, some fine gems, and a series of 
Roman ' large brass' coins purchased for more 
than 3,000/. Townley, like his friend, Sir 
William Hamilton, imbibed with eagerness 
thefanciful theories of P.F.Hugues ('D'Han- 
carville'), most of whose 'Recherches sur 
1'Origine des Arts de la Grece' was written 
at Townley's Park Street house. Townley 
himself published nothing beyond a disserta- 


9 8 


tion in the 'Vetusta Monumenta' on an 
ancient helmet found at Ribchester. His 
delight in his collections remained keen. In 
1780, when his house, as that of a Roman 
catholic, was threatened by the Gordon 
rioters, he hurriedly secured his cabinet of 
gems, and conveyed to his carriage the famous 
bust known as Clytie, which, being an un- 
married man, he used to call his wife. He 
had his favourite busts of Clytie, Pericles, 
and Homer engraved for an occasional visit- 
ing card. 

In 1786 Townley became a member of the 
Society of Dilettanti, and in 1791 a trustee 
of the British Museum. About 1803 his 
health began to decline, but he amused him- 
self by designing a statue gallery and library 
for Towneley Hall. He died at 7 Park Street 
on 3 Jan. 1805, in his sixty-eighth year, and 
was buried in the family chapel at Burnley 
in Lancashire. His estates passed to his 
surviving brother, Edward Towneley Stan- 
dish, and afterwards to his uncle, John 
Towneley of Chiswick (d. 1813). The male 
line failed on the death of Colonel John 
Towneley in 1878, when the property was 
divided among seven coheiresses, the daugh- 
ters of Colonel John's elder brother Charles 
(1803-1876) and of himself. 

The Towneley marbles and terra-cottas 
were purchased in 1805 from Townley's exe- 
cutors by the British Museum for 20,000/. 
Edward Towneley Standish was then ap- 
pointed the first Towneley trustee, and a new 
gallery built at the museum for the collection 
was opened to the public in 1808. Town- 
ley's bronzes, coins, gems, and drawings were 
acquired by the museum in 1814 for 8,2001. 
Townley's manuscript catalogues are pre- 
served in the department of Greek and Roman 
antiquities, British Museum, and his collec- 
tions, as deposited in the museum, are de- 
scribed and illustrated in Ellis's 'Townley 
Gallery.' A portion of Townley's collection 
of drawings from the antique passed into the 
hands of Sir A. \V. Franks. John Thomas 
Smith (1766-1833) [q.v.] and many young 
students of the Royal Academy had been em- 
ployed by Townley to make drawings for his 

Townley is described as a man of graceful 
person and polished address, with a kind of 
1 Attic irony' in his conversation. He was 
liberal in admitting strangers to view his 
collections (Picture of London for 1802, p. 
216), and on Sunday used to give pleasant 
dinner parties in his spacious dining-room 
overlooking St. James's Park. In this room 
his largest statues were ranged against the 
walls and columns which were wrought in 
-scagliola in imitation of porphyry, with lamps 

gracefully interspersed. Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, Nollekens, Zoffany, and the Abbe 
Devay, whom Townley called his ' walking- 
library,' were among his guests. A picture 
formerly at Towneley Hall, painted by Zof- 
fany about 1782, and engraved by Cardon, 
shows Townley in his library, surrounded 
by books and statues, conversing with his 
friends D'Hancarville, Charles Greville, and 
Thomas Astle. 

There are the following portraits of 
Townley: 1. A bust by Nollekens, in the 
British Museum, from a death-mask ; this 
is considered by J. T. Smith a good likeness, 
though the lower part of the face is too full. 
2. A less successful bust by Nollekens, be- 
queathed to the British Museum by R. Payne 
Knight. 3. A bust from life by P. Turnerelli, 
exhibited at Somerset House in 1805. 4. A 
stipple print engraved by James Godby from 
a Tassie medallion, 1780 (GRAY, Tassie, p. 
152). 5. A profile, as on a Greek coin, pre- 
fixed to D'Hancarville's ' Recherches/ p. 25. 

[Nichols's Literary Illustrations, iii. 721-47; 
Ellis's Townley Gallery; Michaelis's Ancient 
Marbles in Great Britain ; Whitaker's Whalley; 
Edwards's Lives of the Founders of the British 
Museum ; Smith's Nollekens, pp. 257-66 ; Guide 
to the Exhibition Galleries of the Brit. Museum, 
Introduction ; Burke's Hist, of the Commoners, 
ii. 265 f.] W. W. 

1674), antiquary, called ' the Transcriber/ 
son of Richard Towneley of Towneley Hall, 
Lancashire, was born there on 9 Jan. 1603- 
1604. He was an attorney, but probably 
did not long follow his profession (he was 
indeed disabled by being a recusant), the 
greater part of his long and leisured life 
being occupied in scientific and antiquarian 
pursuits. Among his friends and corre- 
spondents were Jeremiah Horrox, William 
Crabtree, William Gascoyne, Sir Jonas 
Moore, Jeremiah Shakerley, and Flamsteed, 
astronomers and mathematicians ; Roger 
Dodsworth, Sir William Dugdale, and Hop- 
kinson, antiquaries, and Sir Edward Sher~ 
burne, poet. In conjunction with Dr. Ri- 
chard Kuerden [q.v.] he projected, but never 
finished, a history of Lancashire. Many 
years were spent by him in transcribing l in 
a fair but singular hand ' public records, 
chartularies, and other evidences relating 
chiefly to Lancashire and Yorkshire. These 
transcripts were drawn upon by friends 
during his lifetime, and have since proved a 
valuable storehouse of materials for county 
historians and genealogists. The best de- 
scription of them is given in the fourth re- 
port of the historical manuscripts commission 
(1874, pp. 406, 613). The collections, after 




remaining at Towneley for over two centu- 
ries, were dispersed by auction at Sotheby's 
on 18-28 June 1883. 

Towneley married, in 1640, Alice, daughter 
of John Braddyll of Portfield, near Whalley, 
and widow of Richard Towneley of Carr 
Hall, near Burnley. He had previously lived 
at Hapton Tower, near Burnley, now de- 
stroyed. On his marriage he removed to Carr, 
and on his wife's death in 1657 he changed 
his residence to Moorhiles in Pendle Forest, 
near Colne. He died in August 1674, and 
was buried at Burnley. In the inventory of 
his goods, taken after his death, his manu- 
scripts, the labour of a life, were valued at 
11s. Towneley Hall contains a good portrait 
of Towneley. Of this portrait a small wood- 
cut appears in the ' Transactions of the Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society' 
(x. 86). 

[Sherburne's Sphere of M. Manilius, 1674 ; 
Whitaker's Whalley, 4th edit. ; Eaines's Notes 
in N. Assheton's Journal (Chetham Soc.), p. 26 ; 
St. George's Visitation of Lancashire (Chetham 
Soc.); Dugdale's Visitation of Lancashire (Chet- 
ham Soc.); Palatine Notebook, iii. 188, iv. 
136 ; Correspondence of Scientific Men(Rigaud), 
1841, vol. ii. ; Cat. of Ashmolean MSS. ; com- 
munications from Mr. William Waddington of 
Burnley.] C. W. S. 

TOWNELEY, FRANCIS (1709-1746), 
Jacobite, born in 1709, was the fifth son of 
Charles Towneley of Towneley Hall, 
Lancashire, by his wife Ursula, daughter of 
Richard Fermor of Tusmore, Oxfordshire. 
His uncle, Richard Towneley of Towneley, 
joined the rebel army under Thomas Forster 
(1675 P-1738) at Preston in 1715, and was 
taken prisoner at the surrender of that town. 
Richard was tried, but the jury found him 
not guilty, a piece of good fortune he owed 
to the horror and disgust felt by the jury at 
the barbarous manner of the execution at 
Tyburn on the previous day of Colonel Henry 
Oxburgh [q. v.], and the exposure of his head 
on Temple Bar. 

Owing to some misfortunes of his family, 
Francis went over to France in 1728, and 
being, like all his kinsmen, an ardent Roman 
catholic and Jacobite, he found powerful 
friends there, who quickly obtained for him 
a commission in the service of the French 
king. At the siege of Phillipsburg in 1733, 
under the Duke of Berwick, he distinguished 
himself by his daring, and in subsequent 
campaigns showed himself an accomplished 
soldier. A few years before the breaking 
out of the rebellion in 1745 he came to 
England, and lived upon a small income in 
Wales. Shortly before the rebellion broke 
out the French king, imagining Towneley 

might be of service m promoting the invasion 
01 England which he meditated, sent him 
a colonel s commission to enable him to raise 
forces, and to assist his ally the Pretender 
m his expedition to Scotland. Towneley 
came to Manchester, and for some months 
was a welcome guest among the Jacobites of 
the town and district. His popularity among 
the adherents of the exiled royal family was 
great, but his fashion of hard swearing called 
forth an impromptu rebuke from one of the 
townsmen, John Byrom [q. v.l 

Towneley joined Prince Charles and his 
highland army a few days before they reached 
Manchester, and he entered the town with 
the prince. A colonel's commission was at 
once given him, and all who joined the prince's 
standard in England were to serve under 
him as the Manchester regiment. A few 
gentlemen of the town volunteered, and 
were made officers, but most of the rest, 
about three hundred in all, received money 
on enlistment. With this small body of 
ill-armed men Towneley accompanied the 
prince to Derby, and in the retreat from that 
place as far as Carlisle. Here he was made 
commandant under Hamilton, the governor 
of the town, and was ordered to remain there 
to defend it with his regiment, now only 
114 in all, and with about twice the number 
of Scottish troops, while the prince and his 
army continued their retreat into Scotland. 
It has never been satisfactorily explained 
why these brave men were left in a per- 
fectly untenable place. Much against the 
wish of Towneley, who preferred to take 
his chance of cutting his way out, Hamilton 
surrendered to the Duke of Cumberland on 
30 Dec., on the only terms the duke would 
grant them, ' that they should not be put to 
the sword, but be reserved for the king's 
pleasure.' On his trial, which took place in 
London on 13 July 1746, Towneley's plea 
that he had a right as a French officer to 
the cartel was disallowed ; he was found 
guilty, condemned to death, and executed 
on Kennington Common on 30 July, his head 
being placed on a pike on Temple Bar. This 
was afterwards secretly removed, and has 
since been in possession of the Towneley 
family, and is now preserved in the chapel 
at Towneley Hall. Towneley's body was 
buried on 31 July either in the church or 
churchyard of St. Pancras, London (Reg.) 
Towneley preserved his dignity of demeanour 
even under the ordeal of a public execution 
for treason. There seems no reason from 
any statement of his or evidence at the trials 
For the accusation so freely made by the Jaco- 
bites against the Duke of Cumberland to sully 
liis honour, that he had promised Towne- 

H 2 




ley and the others their lives. 'Towneley's 
Ghost ' and the other Jacobite ballads make 
much of this charge. 

[Towneley's Trial, 1746; Manchester Mag. 
1745-6 ; Grosart's English Jacobite Ballads, 
1877; paper by writer in Lancashire and 
Cheshire Antiquarian Society's Transactions, 
vol. iii. (1885) ; Foster's Lancashire Pedi- 
grees.] A. N. 

TOWNELEY, JOHN (1697-1782), 
translator of ' Hudibras ' into French, was 
the second son of Charles Towneley of 
Towneley Hall, Lancashire, by Ursula, 
daughter of Richard Fermor of Tusmore, 
Oxfordshire, and was brother of Francis 
Towneley [q. v.] Born in 16^7, in 1715 he 
entered Gray's Inn (FOSTER, Gray's Inn 
Admissions), and studied law under William 
Salkeld [q. v.], serjeant-at-law. Having an 
allowance of only 60/. a year under his 
father's will of 1711 (EsxcouRT, English 
Catholic Non- Jurors}, he went about 1728 
to Paris, where since 1683 female members 
of his family had been pupils or nuns. He 
is represented by some as having been tutor 
to the old, and by others to the young, Pre- 
tender ; but the former was his senior, and 
there is no evidence of Towneley having 
visited Italy, where Charles Edward resided 
till 1744. In 1731 he entered Rothes's 
Franco-Irish infantry regiment as lieutenant ; 
he distinguished himself at the siege of 
Phillipsburg in 1734, and became a captain 
in 1735. In 1745 his regiment, or a detach- 
ment of it, was sent to Scotland to assist 
the young Pretender, and Towneley was 
doubtless present at the battle of Falkirk. 
The Marquis d'Eguilles, the French envoy, 
in a despatch to Argenson, wrote from Blair 
Atholon20 Feb. 1746: < M. Towneley, who 
will have the honour of delivering my des- 
patches to you, is the man of most intelli- 
gence and prudence amongst those here with 
the prince. You may question him on all sub- 
jects.' Towneley reached Paris on 22 March, 
and Argenson, replying to Eguilles on 
6 April, mentions that Towneley had given 
him information on x the prospects of the 
rising (Annales de VEcole Libre des Sciences 
Politiques, January 1888). In the autumn 
of 1746 Towneley, with forty-two other 
Jacobite officers, received a grant of money 
from Louis XV, his share being 1,200 livres 
(MICHEL, Les Ecossais en France), and in De- 
cember he received the order of St. Louis. 
He must have been charged by Eguilles 
with messages to Madame Doublet de 
Breuilpont, of whose salon or so-called 
' parish ' in Paris Eguilles was a member, 
and must himself have then been admitted 
a 'parishioner,' for his grand-nephew Charles 

states that he frequented ' Madame DublayV 

Towneley was a great admirer of ' Hudi- 
bras,' and, piqued by Voltaire's description of 
it as untranslatable except in the fashion in 
which he himself compressed four hundred 
lines into eighty, he began translating pas- 
sages from it for the amusement of his fellow 
' parishioners.' He was probably aware that 
' Hudibras ' had been turned into German 
verse in 1737, and in 1755 Jacques Fleury 
published the first canto in French prose, 
offering to issue the remainder if the public 
wished for it. John Turberville Needham 
[q. v.], his grand-nephew's tutor, ultimately 
induced Towneley to complete the transla- 
tion, and it was published anonymously in 
1757, ostensibly at London to avoid the cen- 
sorship, but really at Paris. The English ori- 
ginal was given on parallel pages, Hogarth's 
engravings being reproduced, and Towneley 
writing a preface, while Needham appended 
explanatory notes. The translation has been 
extravagantly praised by Horace Walpole, 
and more recently by Dean Milman; but 
Towneley himself disclaimed ability to give 
the spirit and humour of the original, and 
the ' Nouvelle Bibliotheque d'un Homme de 
Gout' (1777) taxed it with bad rhymes and 
faulty French; while Suard, in the *Bio- 
graphie Universelle' (art. 'Butler'), though 
acknowledging its fidelity, pronounces the 
diction poor and the verses unpoetical, ( the 
work of a foreigner familiar with French 
but unable to write it with elegance.' It 
certainly lacks the swing and the burlesque 
rhymes of the original. Rousseau would seem 
to have read it, for in ' L'Ami des Muses ' 
(1759) are verses by him entitled ' L'A116e 
de Sylvie,' which borrow the couplet on 
compounding for sins, but apparently from 
Towneley's English text, for his French 
rendering is here very feeble : 

' Ce qui leur plait est legitime, 
Et ce qui leur deplalt un crime,' 

whereas Rousseau writes : 

' Et souvent blaraer par envie 
Les plaisirs que je n'aurai plus.' 

Charles Towneley presented the British Mu- 
seum with a copy of it containing Skelton's 
portrait of the translator, dated in 1797. 
This, which was reproduced in Baldwyn's 
English edition of ' Hudibras/ may have 
been engraved from the portrait which must 
have been possessed by Madame Doublet, for 
at her daily gathering of wits and quidnuncs 
in an annexe of the Filles St.-Thomas convent, 
each guest sat under his own portrait, the 
hostess herself having painted some of them. 
Another portrait of Towneley, painted by 




Peronneau, belonged in 1868 to Mr. Charles 
Towneley. Towneley died at Chiswick, at 
the residence of his nephew and namesake, 
early in 1782, and was buried in Chiswick 

A second edition of his translation of 
< Hudibras/ with the English text revised by 
Sir John Byerly and the French spelling 
modernised, was printed by Firmin-Didot at 
Paris in 1819. Some fragmentary manu- 
scripts in his handwriting were included in 
the sale of the Towneley library in 1883. A 
catalogue of the library was printed in 
181 4-15 under the title ' Bibliotheca Towne- 
leiana ' (2 parts, London, 8vo). He possessed 
a considerable collection of Wenceslaus Hol- 
lar's prints, which were sold by auction on 
26-29 May 1818 (cf. Cat. Towneley Collec- 
tion of Hollars, 1818). 

[Gent. Mag. April 1782; European Mag. 
1802, i. 22; Whitaker's Hist, of Whalley ; 
Cottin's Protege de Bacliaumont (this and other 
French authorities confuse John with Francis 
Towneley) ; Palatine Notebook, 1881-3 ; Grimm's 
Correspondance Litteraire; Revue Retrospective, 
1885.] J. G. A. 

1774), Garter king-of-arms, eldest son of 
Charles Townley of Clapham, Surrey, de- 
scended from a younger branch of the ancient 
family of Towneley Hall, near Burnley, 
Lancashire, was born on Tower Hill, London, 
on 7 May 1713. James Townley [q. v.] was 
his younger brother. He was sent to Mer- 
chant Taylors' school in 1727. Entering the 
College of Arms, he was appointed York 
herald in July 1735, Norroy king-of-arms on 
2 Nov. 1751, Clarenceux" king-of-arms on 
11 Jan. 1754-5, and Garter principal king-of- 
arms on 27 April 1773. He was knighted 
at George Ill's coronation in 1761. He died 
in Camden Street, Islington, on 7 June 1774, 
and was buried in the church of St. Dunstan- 
in-the-East. His portrait was painted by 
Thomas Frye. 

He married Mary, daughter of George 
Eastwood of Thornhill, Yorkshire. A son, 
Charles Townley, born on 31 Oct. 1749, 
became Bluemantle pursuivant on 31 Dec. 
1774, Lancaster herald on 24 Dec. 1781, and 
died on 25 Nov. 1800. 

[Noble's College of Arms, pp. 383, 386, 388, 
414,418, 439, 441; Gent. Mag. 1774, p. 287; 
Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' School, 
i. 70.] T. C. 

TOWNLEY, JAMES (1714-1778), 
author of ' High Life below Stairs,' the 
second son of Charles Townley, merchant, of 
Tower Hill, and of Clapham, Surrey, was 
born in the parish of All Hallows, Barking, 

on 6 May 1714. Sir Charles Townley [q. v.] 
was his elder brother. He was admitted at 
Merchant Taylors' school on 7 Feb. 1727, and 
matriculated as a commoner from St. John's 
College, Oxford, on 15 May 1732, graduating 
B.A. 14 Jan. 1735 and M.A. 23 Nov. 1738. 
He took deacon's orders at Grosvenor Chapel, 
Westminster, from Bishop Hoadly of Win- 
chester on 6 March 1736, and priest's orders 
on 28 May 1738. On 12 Oct. in the same 
year he was chosen lecturer of St. Dunstan's- 
in-the-East, and three years later he became 
chaplain to Daniel Lambert, lord mayor. 
He was third under-master at Merchant Tay- 
lors' from 22 Dec. 1748 until July 1753, when 
he left his old school to become grammar- 
master at Christ's Hospital. In 1759 he was 
chosen morning preacher at Lincoln's Inn, 
and on 8 Aug. 1760 he returned to Merchant 
Taylors' as headmaster. Under his prede- 
cessor, John Criche, an avowed Jacobite, the 
school had lost ground in the favour of the 
magnates of the city, which Townley set him- 
self speedily to recover. In this he was in 
the main successful ; but his endeavours to 
modernise the curriculum were thwarted by 
the Merchant Taylors' board. In 1762 and 
1763 dramatic performances were revived at 
the school at the wish and under the direc- 
tion of Townley, whose friend David Gar- 
rick took an active interest in the arrange- 
ments. In 1762 the l Eunuchus ' of Terence 
was played in the schoolroom, Dr. Thomas, 
bishop of Salisbury, and other distinguished 
alumni being present. In 1763 were played 
six times to large audiences ' Senecae Troades 
et Ignoramus Abbreviatus, in Schola Merca- 
torum Scissorum ' (both programmes are pre- 
served at St. John's College, Oxford), but the 
trustees intervened to prevent any further re- 

Townley's interest in the drama was not 
confined to these schoolboy performances. 
In 1759 he had written (the authorship was 
for several years carefully concealed) the 
laughable farce, in two acts, ' High Life be- 
low Stairs,' first acted at Drury Lane on 
31 Oct. 1759, with O'Brien, Yates, and Mrs. 
Clive in the leading roles. ' This is a very 
good farce,' says Genest.' George Selwyn 
expressed his satisfaction with it as a relief 
from ' low life above stairs.' At the time it 
was attributed to Garrick ; the vein is rather 
that of Samuel Foote. The plot is rudimen- 
tarythat of a long-suffering master disguis- 
ing himself in order to detect the rogueries 
of his servants ; but the presumption and 
insolence of flunkeydom are hit ott in a suc- 
cession of ludicrous touches, and the iun 
never flags. Nor was the satire without its 
sting. At Edinburgh the servants m then 




gallery created an uproar, and the privileges 
hitherto accorded to livery had to be with- 

First published by Newbery at the Bible 
and Sun as ' High Life below Stairs, a Farce 
of Two Acts, as it is performed at the Theatre 
Royal in Drury Lane, " O imitatores servum 
pecus!"' (with an advertisement dated 
5 Nov. 1759), it went through many editions, 
was translated into German and French, 
and has been frequently produced upon the 
stage in all parts of the world. 

Townley's two other farces, ' False Con- 
cord ' given at Covent Garden on 20 March 
1764 for the benefit of Woodward and ' The 
Tutor' seen at Drury Lane on 4 Feb. 1765 
were not successful. It is to be remarked, 
however, says a writer (probably his son-in- 
law, Roberdeau) in the * Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' (1805, i. 110), ' that " False Concord " 
contains three characters, Lord Lavender, 
Mr. Suds, an enriched soap-boiler, and a 
pert valet, who are not only the exact Lord 
Ogleby, Mr. Sterling, and Brush of the 
" Clandestine Marriage," brought out in 1767 
by Colrnan and Garrick conjointly, but that 
part of the dialogue is nearly verbatim.' As 
' False Concord ' was never printed, there is 
no means of verifying this statement ; but 
it is broadly 'supposed that many of Mr. 
Garrick's best productions and revisals par- 
took of Mr. Townley's assisting hand.' It 
is known that Townley materially assisted 
another friend, William Hogarth, in his 
' Analysis of Beauty.' He was known among 
his friends for his neat gift of impromptu 
epigram. In the pulpit he was admired for 
his impressive delivery and skill in adapting 
his remarks to his auditory. His later pre- 
ferments were the rectory of St. Benet's, 
Gracechurch Street (27 July 1749), and 
St. Leonard's, Eastcheap, 1749, and the 
vicarage of Hendon in Middlesex (patron, 
David Garrick), which he held from 3 Nov. 
1772 until the close of 1777. His curate 
was Henry Bate, ' the fighting parson ' [see 
DUDLEY, SIR HENRY BATE]. Townley died 
on 15 July 1778. A tablet was erected to his 
memory in St. Benet's, Gracechurch Street. 

He married, in 1740, Jane Bonnin of 
Windsor, a descendant from the Poyntz 
family and related to Lady Spencer, through 
whose influence came some of his preferments. 
Townley's daughter Elizabeth (d. 1809) mar- 
ried John Peter Roberdeau [q. v.] His son 
James, who was entered at Merchant Taylors' 
in 1756, became a proctor in Doctors' Com- 

A portrait of James Townley was engraved 
by Charles Townley in 1794 ; a second was 
drawn and engraved by II. D. Thielcke. 

[Gent. Mag. 1805 i. 110, 1801 i. 389; Wilson's 
Hist, of Merchant Taylors' School, 1814, ii. 
1119; Kobinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors', 
vol. i. p. xv ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1 715-1886 ; 
Hennessy's Novum Repertorium, 1898 ; Notes 
and Queries, 8th ser. ix. 271 ; Genest's Hist, of 
the Stage, iv. 576 ; Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, 
i. 717; Knight's David Garrick, pp. 176,228; 
Dobson's Hogarth, pp. 113, 142; Selwyn and 
his Contemporaries, 1882, i. 20 ; Wheatley and 
Cunningham's London, i. 158.] T. S. 

TOWNLEY, JAMES (1774-1833), 
Wesleyan divine, son of Thomas Townley, a 
Manchester tradesman, was born at that 
town on 11 May 1774, and educated by the 
Rev. David Simpson [q. v.] of Macclesfield. 
He became a member of the Wesleyan 
methodist body in 1790, and a minister in 
1796. In 1822 he received the degree of 
D.D. from the college of Princeton, New 
Jersey, in recognition of his literary work. 
From 1827 to 1832 he acted as general secre- 
tary of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 
Society, and in 1829 was elected president 
of the Wesleyan conference, and presided at 
the Dublin and Leeds conferences. While 
in Manchester he was a member of a philo- 
logical society founded by Dr. Adam Clarke. 
He died at Ramsgate on 12 Dec. 1833. He 
was twice married to Mary Marsden and 
Dinah Ball, both of London and had seven 
children by his first wife. A portrait by John 
Jackson, R.A., was engraved in 1829. 

Townley, a good preacher and an accom- 
plished linguist, wrote: 1. 'Biblical Anec- 
dotes,' 1813, 12mo. 2. 'Illustrations of 
Biblical Literature, exhibiting the History 
and Fate of the Sacred Writings from the 
Earliest Times to the Present Century,' 1821, 
3 vols. 8vo. 3. * Essays on various Subjects 
of Ecclesiastical History and Antiquity,' 
1824, 8vo. 4. ' The Reasons of the Laws of 
Moses, from the " More Nevochim " of Mai- 
monides, with Notes, Dissertations, and a 
Life of the Author,' 1827, 8vo. 5. < An In- 
troduction to the Literary History of the 
Bible,' 1828, 8vo. Among his contributions 
to the ' Methodist Magazine,' besides those 
included in his volume of ' Essays,' are 

(1) 'On the Character of Popery,' 1826; 

(2) ' Claims of the Church of Rome Ex- 
amined,' 1827 ; (3) t Ancient and Foreign 
Missions,' four articles, 1834. 

[Minutes of Methodist Conference 1834, "Wes- 
leyan Methodist Mag. 1834, p. 78; Everett's 
Wesleyan Takings, i. 344; Osborn's Wesleyan 
Bibliography; information kindly supplied by 
Rev. R. Green of Didsbury College, and by- 
Mr. F. M. Jackson.] C. W. S. 





1643), poet, according to Wood belonged to 
the Townshend family of Rainham (Athence 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 658). He was at one 
time steward to Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards 
first earl of Salisbury, and several letters 
from him to Cecil, written in 1601 and 1602, 
are preserved among Lord Salisbury's manu- 
scripts (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th and 7th Reps.) 
From an early age he had a reputation as a 
writer of graceful verse, which gained him 
many friends among courtiers who shared his 
literary tastes, as well as among professional 
men of letters. Ben Jonson was long on 
terms of very close intimacy. In 1602 Sir 
Thomas Overbury told Manningham the 
diarist: ' Ben Jonson the poet nowe lives 
upon one Townesend and scornes the world ' 
(MANNINGHAM, Diary, p. 130). In 1608 
Townsend was invited by Edward Herbert 
(afterwards first Lord Herbert of Cherbury) 
[q. v.] to accompany him on a continental 
tour. Pie was useful to Herbert from his per- 
fect colloquial knowledge of French, Italian, 
and Spanish. With Herbert he was the 
guest of the Due de Montmorenci, governor 
and . virtual sovereign of Languedoc, and 
visited the court of Henri IV. 

At Charles I's court Townsend enjoyed, 
with his friends Walter Montagu [q. v.] and 
Thomas Carew [q. v.], a high literary repu- 
tation, and became apparently a gentleman 
of the privy chamber. In 1631, when Ben 
Jonson was driven from court through the 
influence of Inigo Jones, Townsend succeeded 
him as composer of court masques. On 
8 Jan. 1631-2 one entitled ' Albion's Triumph ' 
was presented by the king and his lords at 
Whitehall. The masque contained an alle- 
gorical representation of the English capital 
and court. It was afterwards printed with 
the names of the performers for Robert 
Allot, with the date 1631 (London, 4to). 
Some copies have the author's name, while 
others are anonymous. On 13 Feb. 1631-2, 
Shrove Tuesday, a second masque by Towns- 
end, ' Tempe Restored,' was presented be- 
fore Charles and his court at Whitehall by 
the queen and fourteen of her ladies. The 
story relates to Circe and her lovers. The 
work was printed with the date 1631 (Lon- 
don, 4to). Both these masques were de- 
signed and planned by Inigo Jones, Town- 
send being merely employed to supply the 

At least as early as 1622 Townsend was 
married and settled as a 'housekeeper' in 
Barbican, London, near the Earl of Bridg- 
water's residence. On 3 June 1629, on peti- 
tion to the king, he was granted the custody 
of the widow of Thomas Ivatt, a searcher of 

London. She was a lunatic, and Townsend 
obtained the administration of her estate 
(Ottl. State Papers, Dom. 1628-9, pp. 560 
567). In 1643 Townsend presented a peti-' 
tion to the House of Lords setting forth that 
he was threatened with arrest for 600/. at 
the suit of one Tulley, a silkman, for com- 
modities ordered for Lewis Boyle, lord 
Kinalmeakey, the son of Richard Boyle, first 
earl of Cork. He pleaded that he was the 
king's ordinary servant, and that he himself 
owed Tulley nothing, and asked for pro- 
tection. On 3 March 1642-3 the House of 
Lords decided to grant him their protection, 
and bestowed on him the freedom of privi- 
lege of parliament (Lords' Journals, v. 632- 
636). In the confusion of the civil war 
Townsend disappears. The baptism of five 
of his children George, Mary, James, Her- 
bert, and Frances is recorded in the re- 
gister of St. Giles, Cripplegate, between 
1622 and 1632. Herbert died in infancy. 
According to Collier (Shakespeare, 1858, i. 
72), the Earl of Pembroke, in a manuscript 
note in a copy of Roper's 'Life of Sir 
Thomas More ' (edit. 1642), which was sold 
among Horace Walpole's books, states that 
Townsend was living in Barbican in poor 
circumstances, and had ' a fine fair daughter,' 
mistress first to the Palsgrave, and afterwards 
to the Earl of Dorset. He may have been 4, 
alive in 1651, as among other complimentary r 
verses prefixed to the ' Nympha Libethris, 
or the Cotswold Muse,' of Clement Barks- 
dale [q. v.], printed at Worcester in 1651, 
are some signed ' Tounsend,' which were 
possibly written by Aurelian. 

Townsend has been undeservedly neg- 
lected as a poet. Many of his lyrics, which 
possess much charm and grace, are scattered 
through manuscript miscellanies. His reply 
to 'The Enquiry' (a poem attributed to 
Carew or Herrick), entitled ' His Mistress 
Found,' is printed in Carew's 'Poems and 
Masque ' (ed. Ebsworth, 1893). Beloe in- 
cluded it and another poem by Townsend, 
entitled ' Youth and Beauty,' in his ' Anec- 
dotes of Literature' (1812, vi. 195, 198). 
Mr. A. H. Bullen in ' Speculum Amantis ' 
(1889) printed Townsend's poem 'To the 
Lady May ' from the Malone MS. 13, f. 53. 
The ' Speculum ' also contains a song ' Upon 
Kind and True Love,' which appeared L in 
' Wits Interpreter ' in 1640 (entitled 'What 
is most to be liked in a Mistress? ), and 
was reprinted in 'Choice Drollery' (16 >6). 
This poem, with another in ' Choice Drollery 
' Upon his Constant Mistress, 7 is anonymous, 
but both are attributed to Townsend. Two 
poems by Townsend were set to music m 
Henry La wes's 'Ay res and Dialogue s (16. >5), 

^ For further proof of this view that Townsend 
was alive after 1643866 Times Lit. Supp. 23 
October 1924, p. 667. 




and two others in Lawes's * Second Book of 
Ayres' (1655). Commendatory verses by him 
were prefixed to Henry Carey, earl of Mon- 
mouth's ' Romulus and Tarquin ' (translated 
from the Italian of Malvezzi), 1638, and to 
Lawes's ' Choice Psalmes set to Music for 
Three Voices,' 1648. 

Townsend probably edited the first and 
best edition of Carew's * Poems/ which ap- 
peared in 1640. Carew addressed him with 
much affection in a poem ' In Answer to an 
Elegiacal Letter (from Aurelian Townsend) 
upon the Death of the King of Sweden.' 
There Carew apparently attributes to Towns- 
end a share in the ' Shepherd's Paradise ' by 
Walter Montagu [q.v.] Townsend is alluded 
to disparagingly in Suckling's ' Session of 
the Poets ' in company with George Sandys 
[q. v.] 

[Carew's Poems and Masque, ed. Ebsworth, 
pp. 227-9, 242-3, 260 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum ; 
Herbert's Autobiography, ed. Lee, 1886, pp. 
90, 93, 100 ; Collier's Memoirs of Shakespearean 
Actors, 1846, p. xxiv ; Fleay's Chronicle of the 
English Drama ; Cunningham's Life of Inigo 
Jones, p. 27 ; Gilford's Memoir of Ben Jonson, 
prefixed to Works, 1846, p. 47.] E. I. C. 

TOWNSEND, GEORGE (1788-1857), 
author, born at Ramsgate, Kent, in 1788, 
was the son of George Townsend, independent 
minister in that town, a man of some note 
and the author of numerous published ser- 
mons. He was educated at Ramsgate, and 
attracted the attention of Richard Cumber- 
land (1732-1811) [q. v.], the dramatist, by 
whose aid he was able to proceed to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1812 and M.A.' in 1816. He was 
ordained deacon in 1813 and priest in the 
year following, and in 1813 became curate 
of Littleport, Cambridgeshire, whence he re- 
moved to Hackney as curate to John James 
Watson, archdeacon of Colchester. In 1816 
he was appointed professor at Sandhurst, and 
at the same time undertook the curacy of 
Farnborough, Hampshire. In 1811 appeared 
his first published work, a reply to Sir Wil- 
liam Drummond (1770P-1828) [q. v.], who 
in l QEdipus Judaicus ' alleged that the greater 
part of the Old Testament was a solar alle- 
gory, and that the twelve patriarchs sym- 
bolised the signs of the zodiac. Townsend 
rejoined with ' (Edipus Romanus,' in which 
by similar reasoning he showed that the signs 
of the zodiac were represented by the twelve 
Caesars. In 1821 appeared the first part of 
his great work, ' The Old Testament arranged 
in historical and chronological order,' Lon- 
don, 8vo ; 5th edit. 1860. This work obtained 
the notice of several eminent men, among 
others of Shute Barrington [q. v.], bishop of 

Durham, who appointed him his domestic 
chaplain in 1822. In this position he had 
sufficient leisure to bring out the second part 
of his work, ' The New Testament arranged 
in historical and chronological order,' Lon- 
don, 1826, 8vo; 5th edit. 1860. 

At that period the question of catholic 
emancipation produced much polemical lite- 
rature, and, at the request of Barrington, 
Townsend in 1825 contributed to the con- 
troversy ' The Accusations of History against 
the Church of Rome,' 8vo ; new edit 1845, 
18mo. The work was intended as a reply to 
Charles Butler's ' Historical Memoirs of the 
English, Scottish, and Irish Catholics since 
the Reformation,' 1822, and Townsend on 
25 Aug. 1825 received in reward the tenth 
prebendal stall in the see of Durham, which 
he retained until his death. He also ob- 
tained, on 26 April 1826 the chapter living- 
of Northallerton, which he exchanged on 
22 Feb. 1839 for the perpetual curacy of St. 
Margaret, Durham. In 1836 he compiled a 
'Life and Vindication of John Foxe,' the 
martyrologist, which was prefixed to the 
first volume of the edition of his ' Acts and 
Monuments,' edited by S. R. Cattley (8 vols. 
1837-41). In 1850 he undertook a journey 
to Italy with the intention of converting Pio 
Nono, an enterprise for which his ironical 
' Life and Defence of the Principles of Bishop 
Bonner' (London, 1842, 8vo) was hardly 
likely to smooth the way. On his return he 
published an account of his journey, under 
the title ' Journal of a Tour in Italy in 1850, 
with an Account of an Interview with the 
Pope in the Vatican,' London, 1850, 8vo. 
He died at the college, Durham, on 23 Nov. 
1857. He was twice married, and by his 
first wife left a son, George Fyler Townsend,. 
who was afterwards perpetual curate of St. 
Michael's, Burleigh Street, Westminster. 

Besides the works mentioned, Townsend 
was the author of : 1. 'Poems,' London, 1810, 
8vo. 2. ' Armageddon, a Poem/ London, 
1816, 4to. 3. ' Thirty Sermons on some of 
the most interesting Subjects in Theology,' 
London, 1830, 8vo. 4. ' Plan for abolishing 
Pluralities and Non-residence/ London, 1833, 
8vo. 5. l Spiritual Communion with God ; 
or the Pentateuch and the Book of Job- 
arranged,' 2 vols. London, 1845-9, 8vo. 

6. ' Historical Researches : Ecclesiastical 
and Civil History from the Ascension of our 
Lord to the Death of Wycliffe, philosophi- 
cally considered with reference to a future 
Reunion of Christians,' London, 1847, 8vo. 

7. ' Twenty-seven Sermons on Miscellaneous 
Subjects,' London, 1849, 8vo. Townsend 
also wrote a series of sonnets to accompany 
Thomas Stothard's illustrations of the ' Pil- 


I0 5 


grim's Progress;' and edited in 1828 the 
'Theological Works' of John Shute Bar- 
rington, first viscount Barrington [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. 1858, i. 101 ; Ward's Men of th 
Beign ; Allibone's JDict. of Engl. Lit. ; Foster's 
Index Eccles.] E. I. C. 


1869), compiler, nephew of George Townsenc 
[q. v.] He was chiefly known as a literary 
compiler and journalist. A conservative in 
politics, he made himself conspicuous in the 
general election of 1868 by his exertions for 
his party, and in consequence received a pro- 
mise of preferment. Unfortunately Disraeli's 
government resigned before this pledge was 
fulfilled, and Townsend felt the disappoint- 
ment deeply. He committed suicide at Ken- 
nington on 23 Feb. 1869. 

He was the author of: 1. ' Russell's His- 
tory of Modern Europe epitomised,' London, 
1857, 8vo. 2. ' Shakespeare not an Im- 
postor,' London, 1857, 8vo. 3. ' The Manual 
of Dates,' London, 1862, 8vo ; 5th edit, by 
Frederick Martin [q. v.], 1877. 4. ' The 
Handbook of the Year 1868,' London, 1869, 
8vo, 5. ' The Every-day Book of Modern 
Literature,' London, 1870, 8vo. He also 
edited, among other works, ' Men of the 
Time,' 7th edit. London, 1868, 8vo. 

Besides these works, Townsend between 
1860 and 1866 wrote several pamphlets con- 
taining selections of madrigals and glees for 
John Green, the proprietor of Evans's music 
and supper rooms, 43 Covent Garden. As 
these pamphlets purport to be compiled by 
John Green, some confusion has arisen, and 
Green has been regarded as a pseudonym of 
Townsend. The two are, however, entirely 
distinct. John or ' Paddy' Green (1801- 
1874), born in 1801, was an actor at the Old 
English Opera House, London, and at Covent 
Garden. He became manager of the Cider 
Cellars in Maiden Lane, Strand, and took 
part, as a singer, in the entertainments there. 
In 1842 he became chairman and conductor 
of music at Evans's Hall, and in 1845 suc- 
ceeded W. C. Evans (d. 1855) as proprietor. 
In 1865 he sold the concern to a joint-stock 
company for 30,000/. In 1866 he gave evi- 
dence before a parliamentary committee on 
theatrical licenses. He died in London at 
6 Farm Street, Mayfair, on 12 Dec. 1874. 
His collection of theatrical portraits was sold 
at Christie's on 22 July 1871. The Cider 
Cellars and Evans's Hall were the originals 
of Thackeray's ' Cave of Harmony ' (BoASE, 
Modern Biogr.} 

[Register and Mag. of Biogr. 1869, i. 317; 
London Review, 27 Feb. 1869 ; Allibone's Diet, 
of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

TOWNSEND, ISAAC (d. 1765), ad- 
miral nephew of Sir Isaac Townsend (d 
17dl), captain in the navy,andfor many years 
resident commissioner at Portsmouth, seems 
to have entered the navy about 1698 or 1699 
as servant to his uncle, then captain of the 
Ipswich. He was afterwards in the Lincoln 
with Captain Wakelin, and again in the 
Ipswich. Several other ships are also men- 
tioned in his passing certificate, dated 15 Jan. 
1705-6, but without any exact indications. 
It is possible that he was at Vigo in 1702 
it is probable that he was in the action off 
Malaga in 1704 [see ROOKE, SIK GEOKGE], 
but there is no certainty. On 24 Sept. 1707 
he was appointed lieutenant of the Hastings 
with Captain John Paul, employed on the 
Irish station, apparently till the peace. On 
30 June 1719 he was appointed commander 
of the Poole fireship, and on 9 Feb. 1719-20 
was posted to the Success of 20 guns, which 
he commanded on the Irish station for the 
next ten years. From 1734 to 1738 he com- 
manded the Plymouth on the home station ; 
in 1739 he commanded the Berwick, one of 
the fleet under Nicholas Haddock [q. v.] off 
Cadiz, whence he was sent home in March 
1739-40 in charge of convoy. He, with his 
ship's company, was then turned over to the 
Shrewsbury, one of the fleet in the Channel, 
with Sir John Norris [q. v.], and for some 
time the flagship of Sir Chaloner Ogle [q. v.], 
with whom, in the end of the year, she went 
out to the West Indies. In the operations 
against Cartagena in March- April 1741, the 
Shrewsbury, with the Norfolk and Russell, 
all 80-gun ships, reduced the forts of St. 
lago and St. Philip, and after the raising of 
the siege the Shrewsbury returned to Eng- 
land with Commodore Lestock. 

On 19 June 1744 Townsend was promoted 
to be rear-admiral of the red, and on 23 April 
1745 to be vice-admiral of the blue. Early 
in the year he went out to the Mediterranean 
as third in command, with his flag in the 
Dorsetshire, and a few months later was de- 
tached with a considerable squadron to the 
W r est Indies, whence, early in 1746, he was 
sent to Louisbourg, and so to England. On 
15 July 1747 he was promoted to be admiral 
of the blue, and in 1754 was appointed 
rovernor of Greenwich Hospital. In this 
Sositioii he had to undertake the custody of 
Admiral John Byng [q. v.], a duty which, ifc 
was said by Byng's friends, he performed 
with needless, * and even brutal, severity 
BARKOW, Life of Lord Anson, p. 256 n.\ but 
.he charge appears to be as ill-founded as 
most of the other statements put in circula- 
ion about that miserable business. In Fe- 
iruary 1757 Townsend was advanced to be 




admiral of the white, and by the promotion 
following the death of Anson in 1762 he 
became the senior admiral on the list. He 
was still governor of the hospital at his death 
on 21 Nov. 1765. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Larcum, surgeon of 
Richmond, and, on the mother's side, half- 
sister of Elizabeth, daughter of Anthony 
Storey, apothecary of London, and wife of 
Sir Isaac Townsend, Townsend's uncle. The 
similarity of names has caused frequent con- 
fusion between the uncle and nephew, which 
this curious marriage with sisters of the 
same Christian name may easily intensify. 
Townsend has also been often confused with 
George Townshend (1715-1769) [q. v.], a 
contemporary in rank, though a much 
younger man. 

[Charnock/s Biogr. Nav. iv. 85 ; Beatson's 
Naval and Military Memoirs, vols. i-iii. ; Cap- 
tains' letters T, vols. ix-xii. in the Public 
Record Office; genealogical notes kindly com- 
municated by Mr. J. Challenor Smith.] 

J. K. L. 

TOWNSEND, JOHN (1757-1826), 
founder of the London asylum for the deaf 
and dumb, born in Whitechapel on 24 March 
1757, was the son of Benjamin Townsend, 
' citizen and pewterer,' by his wife Margaret 
(Christ's Hospital Register}. His father was 
disinherited for his attachment to White- 
field. On 6 March 1766 John was admitted 
to Christ's Hospital on the presentation of 
William Brockett. He was ' discharged by 
his father' on 8 April 1771, and was ap- 
prenticed to him for seven years at Swallow's 
Gardens. In 1774 he was ' converted,' and 
turned his attention to preaching, and on 
1 June 1781 was ordained pastor of the in- 
dependent church at Kingston, Surrey. Find- 
ing that William Huntington [q. v.], who 
resided thare, was influencing his congrega- 
tion by his antinomian views, he resigned 
his charge, and on 28 Oct. 1784 became 
minister of the independent church at Ber- 
mondsey. In 1792 his attention was called 
to the neglected condition of deaf and dumb 
children, and with the assistance of Henry 
Cox Mason, rector of Bermondsey, of Henry 
Thornton [q. v.] and others, he founded the 
asylum for the deaf and dumb in the parish 
of Bermondsey. The institution rapidly 
grew in public esteem, and became a great 
national charity. On 11 July 1807 the first 
stone of the present asylum was laid by the 
Duke of Gloucester. It stands in the Old 
Kent Road, and recently a subordinate 
asylum has been established at Margate. 

On 25 Sept. 1810 Townsend was moved by 
the poverty of his fellow-ministers and the 
insufficient education of their families to 

address a letter on the subject ' To the 
Ministers, Officers, and all other Members 
and Friends of the Congregational Churches 
in England.' In 1811 a school was esta- 
blished for the free education of the sons of 
poor independent ministers, and in 1815 a 
house was taken at Lewisham to accom- 
modate the children. The school, after con- 
tinuing long at Lewisham, was removed in 
recent years to Caterham Valley in Surrey, 
where it now stands. It contains accom- 
modation for 150 scholars. 

Townsend was also concerned in founding 
the London Missionary Society in 1794, and 
the British and Foreign Bible Society in 
1802, suggesting the name of the latter in- 
stitution. He died at Bermondsey on 7 Feb. 
1826. In June 1781 he married Cordelia 
Cahusac, by whom he had issue. 

Besides single sermons, Townsend was the 
author of: 1. ' Three Sermons addressed to 
Old, Middle-aged, and Young People,' Lon- 
don, 1797, 8vo. 2. ' Nine Sermons on 
Prayer,' London, 1799, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1799. 
3. ' Hints on Sunday-schools and Itinerant 
Preaching,' London, 1801, 8vo. He also 
published an abridgment of Bunyan's ' Pil- 
grim's Progress,' London, 1806, 8vo, and a 
life of Jean Claude, prefixed to a translation 
of his i Defence of the Reformation,' London, 
1815, 8vo. 

[Memoirs of the Rev. John Townsend, 1828 ; 
Congregational Magazine, 1826, pp. 225-32; 
Funeral Sermon by George Clayton, 1826 ; 
Spirit of the Pilgrims, Boston, 1832, pp. 22-33 ; 
information kindly supplied by Mr. William 
Lempriere of Christ's Hospital.] E. I. C. 

TOWNSEND, JOSEPH (1739-1816), 
geologist, born 4 April 1739, was fourth son 
of Chauncy Townsend (d. 1770), a merchant 
in Austin Friars, London, by his wife Bridget 
(d. 1762), daughter of James Phipps, governor 
of Cape Coast Castle. He was educated 
at Clare Hall, Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
in 1762 and M.A. in 1765. He was elected 
a fellow, and subsequently studied medicine 
in Edinburgh. He took orders, and for a 
time showed sympathy with the Calvinistic 
methodists, occasionally preaching in Lady 
Huntingdon's chapel at Bath [see HASTINGS, 
SELINA]. In 1769 he travelled in Ireland, 
and in the following year in France, Holland, 
and Flanders. After that he went to Spain, 
publishing an account of his journey, and 
to Switzerland, taking the opportunities 
afforded by his travels to make the acquaint- 
ance of distinguished men of science on the 
continent. Also, as he states, he frequently 
visited Cornwall in the winter season to study 
mineralogy. After acting as chaplain to the 
Duke of Atholl he became rector of Pewsey, 




Wiltshire, where he died on 9 Nov. 1816. 
He was twice married : first, on 27 Sept. 1773, 
to Joyce, daughter of Thomas Nankivell of 
Truro. She died on 8 Nov. 1785, and on 
26 March 1790 he was married to Lydia 
Hammond, widow of Sir John Clerke. She 
died in 1812. By his first wife Townsend 
left four sons Thomas, Charles, James, and 
Henry and two daughters Charlotte and 

Townsend was the author of the following 
works : 1. ' Every True Christian a New 
Creature,' 1765. 2. < Free Thoughts on Des- 
potic and Free Governments,' 1781. 3. The 
Physician's Vade Mecum,' 1781 ; 10th edit. 
1807. 4. < A Dissertation on the Poor Laws,' 
1785. 5. ' Observations on various Plans for 
the Eelief of the Poor,' 1788. 6. ' Journey 
through Spain,' 1791 ; 3rd ed. 1814 ; French 
translation, Paris, 1800. 7. < A Guide to 
Health,' 1795-6 ; 3rd ed. 1801. 8. < Ser- 
mons on various Subjects,' 1805. 9. 'The Cha- 
racter of Moses established,' 2 vols., 1812-15 ; 
reissued 1824. This work shows him to have 
had a good knowledge of mineralogy and 
geology, and some of his criticisms ofHutton's 
uniformitarian views are acute, but he was 
so firmly persuaded of the literal accuracy 
of the Mosaic record as to expose himself also 
to attack [see HUTTON, JAMES, 1715-1795]. 
His works, however, show that he was a 
thoughtful, well-read man, of considerable 
literary power. A work by him on ' Etymo- 
logical Researches ' appeared after his death 
in 1824. A correspondent in the 'Gentle- 
man's Magazine' (1816, ii. 606) states that 
he possessed a fine collection of minerals and 
fossils at the time of his death. 

[Gent. Mag. 1815 ii. 304, 1816 ii. 477 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry; Mitchell's Notes on Early 
Geologists of Bath.] T. G. B. 

RICHARD (1618P-1692), parliamentary 
colonel, born in 1618 or 1619, was descended, 
according to tradition, from the Townshends 
of Rainham, Norfolk. He bore the arms of 
the presby terian Sir Roger To wnshend (1 588- 
1637), the head of that family. On account 
of similarity in age, he has been doubtfully 
identified with Richard Townesend, son of 
John Townsend of Dichford in Warwick- 
shire, who matriculated from Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 16 May 1634, aged 19. In 1643 
Townsend received the commission of captain 
in a regiment of ten companies raised to 
garrison Lyme Regis, Dorset, which was 
threatened by Prince Maurice [q. v.], then 
in the midst of his triumphant western cam- 
paign. On 3 March 1643-4 he surprised and 
routed a hundred and fifty royalist horse at 

Bndport. The siege of Lyme Regis com- 
menced on 20 April, and was raised on 
13 June. Blake was in command of the 
town, and Townsend, distinguishing himself 
in the defence, was promoted to the rank of 
major. In the same year he accompanied 
his colonel, Thomas Ceely, in an expedition 
against the 'clubmen 'of Dorset. The ' club- 
men ' were routed at Lyme, and the rising 
suppressed. In 1645 Ceely was returned to 
parliament for Bridport, and Townsend suc- 
ceeded him in command of the regiment with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1646 he 
assisted in the siege of Pendennis Castle, 
near Falmouth, and in August in the nego- 
tiations for the surrender of the castle. A 
letter from him to Ceely, apprising him of 
the capitulation, is preserved in the Bodleian 
Library (Tanner MS. 59, f. 481). 

On 15 June 1647 parliament ordered 
Townsend and his regiment to proceed to 
Munster to the assistance of Murrough 
O'Brien, first earl of Inchiquin [q. v.], the 
parliamentary commander (Journals of the 
House of Commons, v. 211). He joined him 
in September, and on 13 Nov., when In- 
chiquin defeated Lord TaafFe, the royalist 
leader, near Mallow, Townsend commanded 
the English centre [see TAAFFE, THEOBALD, 
EARL OF CARLINGFOED], Dissatisfied with 
the treatment accorded to the soldiers in Ire- 
land by the predominant independent party, 
he joined early in 1648 in presenting a strong 
remonstrance to the English parliament 
against their neglect of the welfare of the 
troops. Failing to obtain redress, he soon 
afterwards joined Inchiquin, who disliked the 
independents, in deserting the parliamentary 
cause, and in coming to an understanding 
with Lord Taaflfe. In a short time, how- 
ever, his new associates became distasteful 
to him, and he entered into communications 
with parliament. In December 1648, in 
consequence of his endeavour to negotiate 
the surrender of Munster with parliamen- 
tary commissioners, he was compelled to 
take refuge in England. On the execution 
of Charles I he returned to Ireland, pro- 
fessing that resentment at the king's death 
had finally determined him to loyalty. In 
reality, however, according to Carte, he was 
sent by Cromwell as a secret agent to 
corrupt* the Minister army. In October 
1649 he was arrested and thrown into 
prison for being concerned in a plot to 
seize the person of 'Inchiquin and take pos- 
session of Youghal. He was exchanged for 
an Irish officer, but was no sooner liberated 
than he engaged in a similar plot, was again 
taken prisoner, and conveyed to Cork. In- 
hiquin intended to shoot him as an example, 




and lie was saved only by a timely mutiny 
of the garrison of Cork, who rose on the 
night of 16 Oct. and drove the Irish out of 
the town. Townsend received special praise 
from Cromwell in a letter to the speaker, 
William Lenthall [q. v.], as an ' active in- 
strument for the return of both Cork and 
Youghal to their obedience ' (CARLTLE, 
Works, 1882, xv. 213). Weary of political 
and military intrigue, he retired from ser- 
vice shortly 'after, and before 1654 settled at 
Castletownshend, near West Carbery,co.Cork. 
At the Restoration he escaped the forfeitures 
which overtook many of the Cromwellian 
soldiers, and had his lands confirmed to 
him by royal patents in 1666, 1668, and 
1680. His good fortune was perhaps owing 
to a connection with Clarendon through his 
wife. Townsend sat in the Irish parliament 
of 1661 as member for Baltimore. In 1666 
the apprehension of a French invasion 
caused the lord lieutenant, Roger Boyle, 
first earl of Orrery [q. v.], to form the Eng- 
lish in Ireland into companies of militia. 
Townsend was appointed a captain of foot, 
and in 1671 was appointed high sheriff of 
the county (BoYLE, State Letters, 1742, p. 

The accession of James II ushered in a 
time of anxiety for the protestants of 
southern Ireland. Many took refuge in the 
north or crossed the Channel to England. 
Townsend, however, stood his ground, and 
organised the protestant defence in the 
county of Cork. On 18 Oct. 1685 he was 
appointed * sovereign ' or mayor of Clona- 
kilty, in spite of the efforts of James to 
prevent the election of protestants. In No- 
vember 1690 Townsend's mansion house of 
Castletownshend was unsuccessfully besieged 
by five hundred Irish under Colonel Driscoll, 
but a little later it was compelled to surrender 
to MacFineen O'Driscoll. In compensation 
for his sacrifices and services Townsend re- 
ceived from government a grant of 40,000/. 

Townsend died in the latter part of 1692, 
and was buried in the graveyard of Castle- 
haven. He w^as twice married : first, to 
Hildegardis Hyde, who was not improbably 
related to Lord Clarendon ; and secondly, to 
Mary, whose parentage is unknown. He had 
issue by both marriages, leaving seven sons 
and four daughters. The eldest surviving son, 
Bryan, who served with the English army at 
the battle of the Boyne, was ancestor of the 
family of Townshend of Castletownshend. 

[Richard and Dorothea Townshend's Account 
of Bichard Townesend, 1892 ; Murphy's Crom- 
well in Ireland, 1883, pp. 196, 197, 398: Pren- 
dergast's Cromwellian Settlement in Ireland, 
1870, p. 192.] E. I. C. 

TOWNSEND, RICHARD (1821-1884), 
mathematician, born at Baltimore, co. Cork, 
on 3 April 1821, was the eldest son of Thomas 
Townsend (d. 1848) of Smith ville, a commo- 
dore in the royal navy, by his wife Helena, 
daughter of John Freke of Baltimore, deputy 
governor of co. Cork. Richard was edu- 
cated at local schools at Castletownsend and 
Skibbereen. He proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in October 1837, graduating 
B.A. in 1842 and M.A. in 1852. Distinguish- 
ing himself in mathematics, he was elected a 
fellow in May 1845, and in October 1847 he 
succeeded to a college tutorship. On 7 June 
1866 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and on 25 June 1870 he was ap- 
pointed professor of natural philosophy at 
Dublin, after acting as assistant from October 
1862. Between 1863 and 1865 he published 
' Chapters on the Modern Geometry of the 
Point, Line, and Circle ' (Dublin, 8vo), which 
contained the substance of lectures given by 
him in Dublin University, and was a treatise 
of great importance in the history of pure 
geometry. While Townsend ranked among 
the most distinguished mathematicians of 
his day, his most valuable work was probably 
accomplished as a teacher, a capacity in 
which he was unrivalled. To him is owing 
no small part of the modern mathematical 
reputation of Trinity College. He showed 
singular kindness to his pupils, and ' counted 
thousands of personal friends throughout the 
world who had passed officially through his 
hands.' After the disestablishment of the 
Irish church, by an appeal to former students 
he raised about 2,500/. to endow his native 

Townsend died on 16 Oct. 1884 at his 
house, 54 Upper Leeson Street, Dublin, and 
was buried at Mount Jerome cemetery. He 
married his first cousin, Mary Jane Barrett, 
who died on 28 Aug. 1881. He left no issue. 
A mathematical exhibition was founded in 
his memory at Trinity College, Dublin. 

Besides his book on geometry, he wrote 
numerous mathematical articles to the ' Cam- 
bridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal.' 

[Richard and Dorothea Townshend's Account 
of Richard Townesend, 1892, p. 218; Athenaeum, 
1884, ii. 532; Irish Times, 21 Oct. 1884; Times, 
18 Oct. 1884 ; Biograph, 1881, vi. 164-7 ; Calen- 
dar of Dublin University; Catalogue of Gra- 
duates of Dublin University.] E. I. C. 

(1803-1850), historical and legal writer, 
born in 1803, was the second son of William 
Townsend of Walton, Lancashire. He 
matriculated from Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 4 July 1820, graduating B.A. in 1824 
and M.A. in 1827, and on 2o Nov. 1828 he 




was called to the bar by the society of 
Lincoln's Inn. He first attached himself to 
the northern circuit, and afterwards prac- 
tised at the Cheshire and Manchester assizes. 
Later he obtained a large practice on the 
North Wales circuit. In 1833 he was elected 
recorder of Macclesfield. In March 1850 he 
was appointed a queen's counsel, and in the 
same year became a bencher of Lincoln's 
Inn. He survived these preferments only a 
few weeks, dying 1 without issue on 8 May at 
Burntwood Lodge, Wandsworth Common, 
the house of his elder brother, Richard Late- 
ward Townsend, vicar of All Saints', Wands- 
worth, Surrey. He was buried in the vaults 
of Lincoln's Inn. In 1834 he married 
Frances, second daughter of Richard Wood 
of Macclesfield, who survived him. 

As an author Townsend was unequal. 
His works embody great historical and legal 
knowledge, but their value is impaired by a 
want of proportion. While the ordinary 
reader is fatigued by detail, the student often 
finds necessary information lacking. He was 
the author of: 1. 'The Paean of Orford, a 
poem,' London, 1826, 8vo. 2. < The History 
and Memoirs of the House of Commons,' 
London, 1843-4. 3. ' The Lives of Twelve 
Eminent Judges of the Last and of the Present 
Century/ London, 1846, 8vo. 4. ' Modern 
State Trials revised and illustrated,' Lon- 
don, 1850, 8vo. He also contributed poems 
to Fisher's ' Imperial Magazine ' as early as 

[Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 218; Blackwood's 
Mag. 1850, ii. 373 ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. ; Chester Courant, 15 May 1850.] E. I. C. 


VISCOTJNT TOWNSHEND (1674-1738), states- 
man, eldest son of Horatio, first viscount 
Townshend [q. v.], of Rainham, Norfolk, by 
his second wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Joseph 
Ashe, bart., of Twickenham, born in 1674. 
Both Charles II and the Duke of York were 
Ms godfathers, and he was bred in the 
strictest tory principles. He succeeded to 
the peerage in December 1687. With Sir 
Robert Walpole, his junior by two years, he 
was educated at Eton and King's College, 

Though he took no degree, he left the uni- 
versity with a reputation for learning, which 
he improved by a foreign tour with Dr. 
"William Sherard [q. v.] (NiCHOLS, Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 652 n.} He took his seat in the 
House of Lords on 3 Dec. 1697 (Lords 1 Jour- 
nals, xvi. 174). He early seceded to the 
whigs, and on the impeachment of the mini- 
sters implicated in the negotiation of the 

partition treaty he signed the protest depre- 
cating their premature censure by the king, 
which was entered on the journal of the 
House of Lords on 16 April 1701 [see 

In the early years of the reign of Queen 
Anne Townshend was one of the junto who 
maintained the cause of religious liberty in 
the struggle against the occasional confor- 
mity bill, the rights of the electorate in the 
conflict between the two Houses of Parlia- 
ment on the Ay lesbury election case, defeated 
(1706) the factious proposal of the Jacobites 
to invite the Princess Sophia to England, 
and carried the Regency Act. He took an 
active part in arranging the terms of alliance 
between the junto and Godolphin in 1705, 
was one of the negotiators of the treaty of 
union with Scotland in 1706, and was sworn 
of the privy council on 20 Nov. 1707. He 
was a member of the committee chosen on 
9 Feb. 1707-8 to investigate the charges 
against William Gregg (Ho WELL, State Trials, 
xiv. 1374). On 18 Aug. following he was 
sworn of the privy council on its reconstitu- 
tion under the Act of Union, and on 14 Nov. 
the same year he was appointed captain of the 
yeomen of the guard. Accredited ambassa- 
dor extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the 
States-General on 2 May 1709, he arrived at 
The Hague with Marlborough on 18 May 
(N.S.) (London Gazette-, Tatler, No. 18). 
He was one of the signatories of the pre- 
liminaries to the abortive treaty with France, 
on the negotiation of which the greater 
part of the summer was spent. On the re- 
jection of its mercilessly hard terms by 
Louis XIV, Townshend concluded with the 
States-General (29 Oct. N.S.) a separate 
treaty by which the Hanoverian succession 
was guaranteed (Egerton MS. 892). Marl- 
borough, however, declined to sign it, because 
its terms, aggrandising Holland at the ex- 
pense of Austria, were calculated to sow 
division among the allies, and it was only 
after considerable delay that it was ratified. 

Leaving the conferences at Gertruyden- 
berg to the management of the Dutch and 
French plenipotentiaries, Townshend occu- 
pied himself during the spring and summer 
of 1710 in the negotiation of the conven- 
tions of 31 March (N. S.) and 4 Aug. (N. S.), 
by which, to avert the peril occasioned by 
the retreat of the Swedish army under 
Crassau from Poland into Pomerania, the 
allies guaranteed the peace not only of the 
empire but of Poland and the duchies of 
Schleswig and Jutland (Egerton MSS. 893- 
894) On the change of administration he 
was recalled (27 Feb. 1710-11) (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. llth Rep. App. iv. 79), and dismissed 




from the place of captain of the yeomen 
of the guard (13 June 1711). On 14 Feb. 
1711-12 he was charged in the House of 
Commons with having exceeded his instruc- 
tionsinthe negotiation of the barrier treaty. 
With characteristic frankness he admitted 
the substantial justice of the accusation (see 
the instructions in Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Rep. App. i. 36), and, the treaty being con- 
demned as prejudicial to British commerce, 
he was voted an enemy to his country. At 
Utrecht (1713) the treaty was revised in a 
sense much less advantageous to Holland 
FORD, 1672-1739]. In opposition Towns- 
hend did not scruple to countenance the 
movement for the repeal of the union with 
Scotland elicited by the introduction of the 
malt tax into that country (24 May 1713). 
He also sought to harass the government by 
raising a debate (8 April 1714) on the prac- 
tice of pensioning the highland clans, which, 
though designed only to keep them quiet, it 
was then convenient to represent as a covert 
fostering of Jacobitism. He signed the pro- 
tests against the restraining order under 
which Ormonde had suspended operations 
in Flanders, opposed the schism bill, and, in 
concert with the other leading whig lords, 
lent his aid in committee to the remodelling 
of Bolingbroke's bill declaring enlisting and 
recruiting for the pretender to be high trea- 
son (28 May, 4 and 24 June 1714). Through 
John Robethon [q. v.], whose acquaintance 
he had made at The Hague, he was in touch 
with Hanoverian politics, and was thus able 
to act as intermediary between the electoral 
court and the whig junto. He was one of 
the regents nominated by the elector, and 
took an important though not a prominent 
part in concerting the arrangements pre- 
liminary to his accession. On that event 
he was appointed secretary of state for the 
northern department (17 Sept. 1714), and 
sworn of the privy council (1 Oct.) (Addit. 
MS. 22207, f. 325). At the coronation he 
was offered but declined an earldom. The 
support of the Hanoverians Bernstorff and 
Bothmer gave him the start of Halifax and 
Marlborough in the race for power; and in 
Sir Robert Walpole, for whom he procured 
the place of paymaster-general, he had a 
staunch ally in the House of Commons. 
Though, with a wisdom which the event 
justified, he advised the abandonment of the 
charge of high treason for that of misde- 
meanour in the case of Oxford, he concurred 
in the main in the proceedings against the 
negotiators of the peace of Utrecht, and was 
responsible for the attachment (11 Jan. 
1714-15) of Strafford's papers, a violation of 

ambassadorial privilege which he justified 
on 1 Sept. by the plea of necessity. On the 
outbreak of the Jacobite rebellion his vigi- 
lance suggested the arrest (21 Sept.) of Sir 
William Wyndham [q. v.] To his firmness 
was due the subsequent dismissal of the Duke 
of Somerset [see SEYMOUR, CHARLES, sixth 
DUKE OF SOMERSET]. His energy was un- 
flagging (Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. 
iv. 155-87) ; and the ruthless proscription 
which followed the suppression of the insur- 
rection was prompted by the same relent- 
less spirit which he had previously mani- 
fested (1 June) in the decisive rejection of 
a petition for the discharge of the unfor- 
tunate persons, whom he described as ' exe- 
crable wretches/ still detained in prison on 
suspicion of complicity in the plot of 1696 
for the assassination of William III [see 

Of the Septennial Act he heartily approved, 
both as 'the greatest support possible to the 
liberty of the country/ and as a means of 
enabling the government ' to speak in a more 
peremptory manner to France ' (CoxE, Wal- 
pole, i. 76-7, ii. 62). 

In the duchies of Bremen and Verden, 
part of the dismembered Swedish empire 
purchased from Denmark by George I in his 
electoral capacity in 1715, Townshend hoped 
to find an accession of strength not only to 
Hanover, but to Holland and even England. 
The subsequent intervention of England in 
the naval war between Denmark and Sweden 
he therefore deplored and restricted, and 
was reconciled to it only by the discovery 
of the Jacobite intrigues of the Swedish 
ambassador, Gyllenborg (October 1716) [see 
NORRIS, SIR JOHN, 1660 P-1749]. Recog- 
nising the establishment of Austrian ascen- 
dency in the catholic Netherlands as a 
political necessity, he co-operated with Stan- 
hope in the difficult negotiations which re- 
sulted in the definitive barrier treaty (1715) 
HOPE]. So wedded indeed was he at this 
time to the traditional whig foreign policy 
as to ignore the fact that the minority of 
Louis XV, and the consequent possibility of 
a schism between the two branches of the 
house of Bourbon, rendered it politic to come 
to an understanding with the regent Orleans. 
Hence, while he pressed forward the nego- 
tiations for the defensive alliance with the 
emperor which was the natural sequel of 
the barrier treaty, he was somewhat slow 
to approve, though eventually he did ap- 
prove, the concurrent negotiation with the 
regent, the supervision of which fell to 
Stanhope (CoxE, Walpole, ii. 50). The 
States-General were willing to accede to both 



treaties at the same time, but not to either 
severally. The alliance with the emperor 
was signed without their accession at West- 
minster on 25 May 1716. The treaty with 
the regent a reciprocal dynastic guarantee 
with engagements for the permanent exclu- 
sion of the pretender from France and the 
partial demolition of Mardyck harbour was 
signed at The Hague, also without the acces- 
sion of the States-General, on 28 Nov. (N. S.) 
It was not until 4 Jan. 1717 (N. S.) that the 
treaty, then re-signed at The Hague, re- 
ceived the accession of the States-General. 
The delay in the signing of the separate 
treaty with France was caused partly by 
the unreasonable insistence of George I on 
the immediate banishment of the pretender 
beyond the Alps, partly by the chicanery of 
the French plenipotentiary Dubois, partly by 
the official pedantry of his English confrere, 
Horatio (afterwards Lord) Walpole [q_. v.], 

who declined to sign without the Dutch, an 
left the completion of the business to 
Cadogan [see CADOG AN, WILLIAM, first EARL 
OF CADOGAN] (WIESENER, Le Regent, I' Abbe 
Dubois et les Anglais, i. 219-387). Towns- 
hend had not shared Walpole's scruples. 
He had furnished him with ample powers for 
signing either a joint or a separate treaty ; he 
had enjoined him to sign the separate treaty ; 
he had refused him the leave of absence 
which he sought as a means of evading the 
responsibility. Nevertheless, by his close 
connection with Walpole, Townshend was 
exposed to the suspicion of secretly inspiring 
his conduct, and of this Sunderland [see 
LAND] made abundant and unscrupulous use 
in order to damage his credit with the king, 
who attached immense importance to the 
French alliance, and was proportionately 
vexed by the delay in its completion. This 
charge Townshend rebutted only to find 
himself the object of graver imputations 
(CoxE, Walpole, ii. 101-34). He had com- 
mitted the tactical error of remaining in 
England when the king, attended by Stan- 
hope, went to Hanover (7 July 1716), and 
paying assiduous court to the Prince of 
Wales, whose confidence he speedily gained. 
By the help of the prince he defeated the 
wild project entertained by Bernstorff and 
the king of kidnapping the czar by way 
of security for the evacuation of Denmark 
and Mecklenburg by his troops. He had 
failed apparently had as yet not even at- 
tempted to conciliate the Maypole, who 
thought her Irish title, Duchess of Munster, 
far below her dignity [see SCHULENBURG, 
DUCHESS OF KENDAL], and was accordingly 

ripe for any intrigue which might turn 
out the principal minister. His strict in- 
tegrity had arrayed against him the entire 
j gang of greedy Hanoverian courtiers with 
whom Cadogan and Sunderland made com- 
mon cause (CoxE, Walpole, ii. 58-64, 75-8 
84-92, 103-13). Hence the charge of ob- 
structing the completion of the French 
alliance was soon followed by an insinuation 
of complicity in the supposed intrigues of 
Argyll to place the prince upon the throne. 
For this there was no more colour than an 
incautious suggestion in one of Townshend's 
letters that, in the event of the king win- 
tering abroad, it would be politic to amplify 
the discretionary powers of the regent ; but 
the king believed, or affected to believe, in 
his guilt, and on 15 Dec. 1716 deprived him 
of the seals. To allay the consternation 
caused by his dismissal and to prevent his 
going into opposition, he was offered the 
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland, a post which 
did not then involve residence in that 
country, and was at length persuaded to 
accept it as a step to higher office (13 Feb. 
1716-17). The compromise failed. He 
proved but a languid supporter of the 
government, which in consequence carried 
the vote on account of the measures proposed 
against Sweden only by the narrow majority 
of four. Townshend was thereupon dismissed 
(9 April), and his dismissal was the signal 
for the resignation of Walpole and the re- 
construction of the cabinet under Stanhope 
(ib. ii. 150-70). 

Townshend signed the somewhat factious 
protests against the Mutiny Act of 1718, in 
which exception was taken to the delegation 
of the power of capital punishment to courts- 
martial and the exemption of the military 
from the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate 
(20 Feb.) On the whole, however, he abstained 
from overt political action during Stanhope's 
administration, but attached himself to the 
Prince of Wales, whose reconciliation with 
the king in April 1720 he, in concert with 
Walpole, materially contributed to effect. 
He was then permitted to kiss the king's 
hand, and on 11 June following was ap- 
pointed president of the council. He was 
also then, and thenceforth throughout the 
reign, on the eve of the king's departure for 
Hanover, named one of the lords justices or 
council of regency. On Stanhope's death he 
was reappointed secretary of state for the 
northern department (10 Feb. 1720-1). 

Townshend's integrity was unstained by 
the South Sea disclosures. His discernment 
in commercial matters is evinced by his 
opposition to the bill for prohibiting ship- 
building for the foreign market (11 Jan. 




1721-2). His patience and acumen were 
conspicuous in the investigation of the plots 
of Christopher Layer [q. v.] and Bishop 
Atterbury. His humanity prompted such 
lenity as was shown to the bishop in the 
Tower. To his generous exertions Boling- 
broke was principally beholden for his par- 
don and partial restitution (ib. ii. 312, 317) 
:BROKE]. Traces of his original toryism 
clung to him throughout life. During the 
agitation against Wood's patent for half- 
pence he wrote to the Duke of Grafton, 
then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, a letter so 
strongly worded in support of the preroga- 
tive that Walpole in his cooler judgment 
destroyed it (FROTJDE, English in Ireland, i. 
525). In the blind frenzy which followed 
the detection of Atterbury 's conspiracy he 
broke decisively with the whig tradition. 
He not only sanctioned the suspension for 
more than a year of the Habeas Corpus Act 
(12 Oct. 1722 ; Addit. MS. 15867, f. 167), 
but argued for a standing army in a tone 
which savoured rather of the Stuart than of 
the Hanoverian regime (16 March 1723-4). 
The support which in the same session he 
gave to the equally cruel and impolitic pro- 
scription of catholics by a special tax was 
only too easily reconcilable with whig 
principles and practice. 

By dint of always attending the king on 
the continent, and paying assiduous court to 
the Duchess of Kendal and the Countess 
of Walsingham, Townshend succeeded in 
thwarting the designs of his astute and 
brilliant rival Carteret [see CARTERET, JOHN, 
EARL GRANVILLE]. In the summer of 1723 
Carteret, at the suggestion of Baron Sparre, 
Swedish minister at Hanover, proposed an 
immediate supply of 10,000/. and the rein- 
forcement of the Danish fleet by a small 
British squadron for the purpose of defeating 
the supposed design of Peter the Great to 
seat the Duke of Holstein upon the throne of 
Sweden. Struck by the glaring inadequacy 
of means to end, Townshend suspected that 
the ships were only asked for as a blind, and 
the money was really required for the purpose 
of corrupting the diet. He therefore opposed 
both the pecuniary grant and the interven- 
tion by sea, and, though he had to contend 
with Bernstorff as well as Carteret, his argu- 
ments prevailed with the king. At the 
same time he favoured a substantial aid to 
Sweden, and persuaded Walpole to consent to 
a supply of 150,000/. for that purpose. The 
supposed Russian designs, however, proved 
to be entirely imaginary. In the autumn 
of the same year Townshend attended the 
king on his visit to Berlin, where (12 Oct. 

N.S.) he contributed to give definite shape 
to the ill-fated double marriage project (Sto we 
MS. 251, ff. 5-24 ; State Papers, For., Ger- 
many, 220, Record Office ; CARLYLE, Frederick 
the Great, ii. 91). As Townshend found his 
mainstay in the Duchess of Kendal, so Car- 
teret relied on the good offices of Lady Dar- 
lington (Sophie Charlotte, born countess of 
Platen-Hallermund, widow of Johann 
Adolf, baron Kielmansegg, master of the 
horse to George I). The rivalry of the mis- 
tresses gave occasion for the decisive struggle 
between the secretaries. Lady Darlington's 
niece, Amelia, daughter of Countess Platen, 
was to be married to Count St.-Florentin, 
son of the Marquis de la Vrilliere ; and 
Lady Darlington would not consent to the 
match without a dukedom for the marquis. 
Carteret accordingly instructed Sir Luke 
Schaub [q. v.] to make representations on the 
subject at Paris. The Duchess of Kendal 
and Townshend were equally interested in 
frustrating the negotiations, the one to spite 
Lady Darlington, the other to discredit 
Carteret. They therefore obtained the king's 
consent to the employment of Horatio Wal- 
pole at Paris, ostensibly to receive the acces- 
sion of Portugal to the quadruple alliance, 
but really to watch and thwart Schaub. The 
result was Schaub's discredit and recall and 
the dismissal of Carteret. Townshend was 
rewarded with the Garter (9 April; installed 
28 July 1724) (CoxB, Walpole, ii. 253-96). 
Newcastle, who had succeeded Carteret 
(2 April), at first worked in harmony with 
Townshend. On the other hand, Townshend 
gradually became involved in differences 
with Walpole. He was not satisfied with 
the quadruple alliance (2 Aug. 1718, N.S.) 
He thought the exchange of Sardinia (ceded 
to Savoy) for Sicily, with the suzerainty of 
the duchies of Tuscany, Parma, and Piacenza, 
unduly advantageous to the house of Habs- 
burg. His dissatisfaction was increased by 
the chicane of the court of Vienna. To 
redress the balance of power came therefore 
to be the capital object of his policy ; and 
commercial interests also contributed to 
incline him in favour of a Spanish alliance 
(ib. ii. 504). To secure this end he was even 
willing to surrender Gibraltar, and the per- 
sonal assurance on that head given by 
George I to Philip V (1 June 1721) was ap- 
proved if not prompted by him. So also 
were the secret articles of the defensive 
alliance of Madrid (13 June 1721, N.S.), 
by which England and France engaged to 
secure, if possible, that the article of the 
quadruple alliance which provided for the 
occupation, until the accession of Don Carlos, 
of the towns of Livorno, Porto Ferraio, 



Parma, and Piacenza by Swiss troops should 
remain, as it then was, a dead letter, and 
also to offer no opposition to the occupation 
of the towns by Spanish troops, and make 
common cause with Spain at the approach- 
ing congress of Cambray (State Papers, 
For., Spain, 167, Record Office). His jealousy 
of Austria was increased by the establish- 
ment by imperial letters patent (19 Dec. 
1722, N.S.) of the Ostend East India Com- 
pany, in which he saw not only a breach 
of the treaty of Miinster, but a serious 
menace to English and Dutch commercial 
interests (Addit. MS. 15867, ff. 145, 156, 190, 
206). As it became apparent that the con- 
gress of Cambray would accomplish nothing, 
he laboured to form an anti-Austrian con- 
federation of the northern powers. Russia 
rejected his overtures, but Prussia was con- 
ciliated by a pledge of the recognition of 
her doubtful claims on the duchies of 
Jiilich and Berg, and a defensive alliance 
between that power, England, and France 
was ^already in draft in December 1724 
(ib. 32738 ff. 203 et seq., 32741 ff. 337, 405). 
The negotiation languished, however, until 
fresh life was infused into it by the new turn 
given to affairs by the treaties of Vienna 
(30 April-1 May 1725, N.S.) Of these, two 
were published and one was kept secret. By 
the published treaties Spain, in return for 
the concession of investiture to Don Carlos, 
guaranteed the pragmatic sanction, and 
placed the empire on the same footing with 
England in matters commercial. The secret 
treaty contained nothing offensive to Eng- 
land, unless an engagement by the emperor to 
use his good offices and, if necessary, media- 
tion to secure the retrocession of Gibraltar 
and Minorca might be so deemed ; but rumours 
were current of an Austro-Spanish coalition 
against England of a most formidable cha- 
racter. Ripperda undoubtedly dreamed not 
only of the recovery of Gibraltar and Mi- 
norca by force of arms, but also of the esta- 
blishment, by means of the Ostend com- 
pany, of Austro-Spanish preponderance in 
the East Indies (Hist. MSS. Comm. llth 
Rep. App. iv. 196-7). The Duke of Wharton 
undertook to push the cause of the pre- 
tender at Vienna ; but there is no evidence 
that an invasion of England in his interest 
was seriously contemplated either there or 
at Madrid (State Papers, For., Germany, 231, 
Record Office, S. Saphorin to Townshend, 19, 
26, 30 May 1725, N.S. ; 'Addit. MS. 32744, 
ff. 17-23, 41). These rumours facilitated the 
completion of the negotiation for the northern 
confederacy, which took definitive shape in 
the defensive alliance between England and 
France and Prussia, concluded at Hanover 


on 3 Sept. 1725, N.S., and several subsidiary 
treaties by which the accession of Holland, 
Sweden, Denmark, and Hesse-Cassel was by 
degrees secured. The treaty of Hanover 
was extremely distasteful to George I by 
reason of the breach of fealty to the em- 
peror and consequent risk to Hanover which 
it involved, and to Walpole hardly less so for 
financial reasons (CoxE, Walpole, ii. 471 et 
seq.) Ripperda's reply to it was the negotia- 
tion of an Austro-Spanish matrimonial com- 
pact and defensive and offensive alliance 
(signed at Vienna, 5 No /. 1725, N.S.) In cha- 
racter it was exceedingly hostile to France 
and to England. The treaty was kept secret 
(see the text printed for the first time in 
SYVETOKT, Une Cour et un Aventurier au 
XVIII 6 Siecle, App. i., and cf. AEMSTKONG, 
Elisabeth Farnese, p. 186), but a summary 
of its contents, with three spurious separate 
articles, providing for the succession of Don 
Philip to the throne of France in the event 
of the death of Louis XIV without issue, 
for the extirpation of the protestant religion, 
and for the restoration of the pretender, 
was transmitted to Townshend from Madrid 
with rumours of a design on Gibraltar, in 
time to determine the bellicose tone of the 
king's speech on 20 Jan. 1726-7 (CoxE, Wal- 
pole, ii. 606 ; State Papers, For., Germany, 
232, 234, Record Office). Meanwhile the 
accession of the czarina to the earlier treaty 
of Vienna (6 Aug. 1726, N.S.) had been fol- 
lowed by that of the faithless king of Prussia, 
who had been detached from the Hanoverian 
league by a pledge of the imperial good 
offices for the perfecting of his still doubtful 
title to Jiilich and Berg. Neither power, 
however, could be relied on for any offensive 
purpose ; and when the Spaniards laid siege 
to Gibraltar the emperor, so far from co- 
operating, protested his pacific intentions 
through his chancellor, Count Sinzendorf 
(20 Feb.), his ambassador at London, Count 
Palm (2 March), who was forthwith dis- 
missed, and once more in a manifesto to the 
diet (17 March, N.S.) (Addit. MS. 15867, 
ff. 231-5). He ended by capitulating (not 
without the secret concurrence of Spain) to 
the Hanoverian league (Preliminaries of 
Paris, 31 May 1727, N.S.) The terms were 
peace for seven years, and meanwhile a total 
suspension of the business of the Ostend 
company, the abandonment of the treaties 
of Vienna of 30 April-1 May 1725 (N.S.) so 
far as repugnant to the prior treaty rights 
of England and France ; the submission of 
all matters at issue between the powers to 
the adjudication of a congress to be con- 
vened within four months of the signature 
of the preliminaries. A dispute about the 




British South. Sea ship Prince Frederick, 
seized by the Spaniards and claimed as 
lawful prize, served as a pretext to delay the 
ratification of the preliminaries at Madrid ; 
and the siege of Gibraltar was still unraised 
at the accession of George II (12 June 1727). 
To the new king Townshend was but ' a 
choleric blockhead,' but to Walpole he was 
still indispensable, and he was accordingly 
continued in office. Misled by a spurious 
version of the Austro-Spanish secret treaty 
of 5 Nov. 1725 (N.S.), in which the emperor 
was represented as pledged to aid a Spanish 
attack on Gibraltar by an invasion of Hano- 
ver (see this curious forgery and the rele- 
vant correspondence in Addit. MS. 32752 
ff. 38 et seq., and cf. WALPOLE, HOKATIO, 
LOKD WALPOLE), Townshend negotiated 
at Westminster (25 Nov. 1727) a sub- 
sidiary treaty with the Duke of Brunswick- 
Wolfenbiittel, for the common defence of 
the duchy and the electorate against a danger 
which was wholly imaginary. The emperor 
did not so much as offer his mediation be- 
tween the belligerents; and Spain, finding 
Gibraltar impregnable, accepted the prelimi- 
naries of Paris with some slight modifica- 
tions by the convention of the Pardo (6 March 
1727-8, N.S.) She entered the congress of 
Soissons (14 June 1728, N.S.) bent on ex- 
torting from the emperor the promised arch- 
duchess for Don Carlos, and, as security for 
his succession to the Italian duchies, the im- 
mediate occupation of the cautionary towns 
by Spanish troops. Townshend was willing 
that Don Carlos should have his bride, pro- 
vided security were taken against the union 
of the imperial and Spanish crowns. In re- 
regard to the duchies he was prepared to sup- 
port the Spanish claim, which England and 
France were already pledged not to oppose, 
as a means of embarrassing the emperor. He 
accordingly ranged the Hanoverian League 
on the side of Spain, and, in concert with 
Fleury, attempted to detach the four Rhenish 
electors Mainz, Koln, Baiern, and Pfalz 
from the imperial cause. The result of his 
policy was that by June 1729 the emperor, 
who was equally averse from the Spanish 
match and the Spanish occupation of the 
duchies, had become completely estranged 
from Spain, and England had the option of 
an alliance with either power. The majority 
of the cabinet inclined to an imperial alli- 
ance ; and it was only after a sharp contest 
that Townshend's Spanish policy gained the 
day (CoxE, Walpole, ii. 641 et seq.) The pro- 
ceedings at Soissons had long fallen into 
abeyance, and Paris now became the centre 
of a negotiation which terminated in the 
treaty of Seville (9 Nov. 1729, N.S.), con- 

certed at Versailles by Horatio Walpole [q.v.] 
and Fleury on the basis of a draft by Wil- 
liam Stanhope (afterwards Lord Harring- 
ton) [q. v.J (Addit. MSS. 32755 ff. 247-30 L, 
32756 f. 228, 32757 f. 28, 32758 f. 102, 32761 
ff. 208 et seq.) By this curious piece of 
statecraft, in return for a mere confirmation 
of treaties prior to those of Vienna of 1725, 
and a guarantee of their possessions (a tacit 
waiver of the Spanish claim to Gibraltar), 
Spain obtained from England and France a 
guarantee of the succession of Don Carlos to 
the Italian duchies, with the mesne right of 
garrisoning the cautionary towns with her 
own troops. The accession of Holland to 
the treaty was secured (21 Nov., N.S.) by a 
pledge of renewed efforts on the part of Eng- 
land and France to procure the abolition of 
the Ostend company, and a satisfactory settle- 
ment of the affairs of East Friesland. The 
treaty served to flatter Spanish and humble 
imperial pride, to bring France and Spain 
into closer accord and so to prepare the way 
for the family compact of 1733, besides jeo- 
pardising the peace not only of Italy but 
of Europe, while the so-called concessions to 
England were merely a restitutio in integrum. 
Even the retrocession of Gibraltar was pre- 
vented only by the loudly expressed will of 
the English people. No provision was made 
against the dreaded contingency of the union 
of the Spanish and imperial crowns by means 
of a matrimonial alliance. In England the 
treaty was justly denounced by tories and 
malcontent whigs as a flagrant infringement 
of the quadruple alliance, and twenty-four 
peers recorded their protest against it in the 
journal of their house (27 Jan. 1729-30). 
Townshend's zeal for its enforcement when 
the emperor mustered his forces in Italy to 
oppose thelandingof the Spanish troops knew 
no bounds, and had for its ulterior object the 
partition of the Austrian dominions. Spain, 
recoiling from a single-handed contest with 
the emperor, called on her allies for aid, and 
discovered that they were by no means at 
one. The English cabinet was determined 
to enforce the treaty, but was not prepared 
to precipitate a war. Fleury was minded to 
keep out of the imbroglio altogether. The 
emperor's solicitude for the pragmatic sanc- 
tion afforded prospect of a compromise, and 
on that basis negotiations began. The em- 
peror was willing to let the Spaniard into 
his fiefs in return for a joint guarantee of 
the pragmatic sanction by the allies. Fleury 
and Townshend were both indisposed to 
enter upon the question of the guarantee at 
all, and certainly not until the Spaniard had 
been let into possession and the grievances 
of the allies redressed (Addit. MS. 32764, 



ff. 242, 309, 434). They therefore did their 
utmost to push forward the negotiation with 
the four electors. This had hitherto made 
but little way ; and Townshend had been 
equally baffled in the persistent efforts which 
during the spring and summer of 1729 he 
had made through Lord Chesterfield to ani- 
mate the Dutch (Kisra, Life of Locke, ii. 
notes, pp. 67 et seq. ; COXE, Walpole, ii. 524 
et seq., 659 et seq.) Meanwhile the king of 
Prussia's relations with George II, strained 
by his practice of recruiting on Hanoverian 
soil and disputes arising out of his recent in- 
trusion, as it was generally deemed, into the 
conservatorship of Mecklenburg (May 1728) 
under imperial letters patent, had been 
brought to the verge of rupture by a fron- 
tier fracas at Clamei (near Magdeburg) on 
28 June 1729. Townshend had succeeded in 
averting war the dispute was referred to 
arbitration (September ; CARLYLE, Frederick 
the Great, ii. 266 et seq.) but in the follow- 
ing spring his Prussian majesty declared 
unequivocally for the emperor. Towns- 
hend then became urgent for immediate 
mobilisation for a campaign in the em- 
pire, as well as in Italy, upon a large and 
well-concerted plan. Fleury, however, 
remained obstinately pacific, and Walpole, 
whose lead Newcastle followed, was de- 
termined that the resources of diplomacy 
should be exhausted before the adoption of 
a bellicose attitude. Townshend, already 
offended with Newcastle on other grounds 
(CoxE, Walpole, ii. 623), now exerted all his 
influence with the king to procure his dis- 
missal, designing, if possible, to replace him 
by Lord Chesterfield, who shared his views, 
or Sir Paul Methuen, whom he hoped to 
find pliant. This scheme, however, was frus- 
trated by Walpole and the queen, and the 
defeat was followed by Townshend's re- 
signation (15 May 1730) (ib. pp. 693 et seq.) 
Retiring to his Norfolk estate, Townshend 
devoted himself to the improvement of agri- 
culture (KENT, General View of the Agricul- 
ture of the County of Norfolk, 1794, p. 17). 
At^Rainham he carried on that series of 
agricultural experiments and improvements 
which gained him the nickname of ' Turnip ' 
Townshend. He had long been interested 
in agriculture; in 1728 we find him, accord- 
ing to the journal of a contemporary agri- 
cultural peer, Lord Cathcart, listening with 
much attention to an account of the Scot- 
tish ' improvers.' Pope refers to Townshend's 
turnips (Imitations of Horace, bk. ii. ep. ii. 
273), and in a footnote he informs us that 
' that kind of rural improvement which arises 
from turnips ' was ' the favourite subject of 
Townshend's conversation.' Of all Towns- 

hend's improvements, this introduction of 
turnip culture on a large scale (turnips had 
long been known in England as a garden 
vegetable) is most important, as without it 
the subsequent developments in the breed- 
ing of stock by Bakewell of Dishley, Curwen 
of Workmgton, and others would have been 
impossible. Yet the introduction of turnips, 
though the most important, was apparently 
not the only innovation of Townshend's. He 
is said to have introduced the practice of 
marling, to have advocated enclosures, and 
to have demonstrated the value of clover as 
well as of turnips as one of the pivots of ari- 
cultural progress. 

Townshend died at Rainham on 21 June 
1738 (Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, 1738, p. 24). 
He was custos rotulorum and lord-lieutenant 
of Norfolk 1701-13 and 1714-30, and a go- 
vernor of the Charterhouse (appointed 31 Oct. 

Townshend was a handsome burly man, 
of brusque manners and hot temper, but a 
loyal friend, and with his friends a genial 
companion. In parliament he always spoke 
to the point, but without eloquence (CHES- 
TERFIELD, Letters, ed. Mahon, i. 368), and 
his haughty disposition rendered him inapt 
in the delicate art of managing men. An 
attempt which he made towards the close 
of his career to establish a party of his 
own entirely failed, and his differences with 
Walpole were aggravated by frequent ebul- 
litions of ill-humour. A tradition of a 
fracas between the two statesmen arising 
out of a dispute on some point of policy is 
vague and ill authenticated, but may have 
some basis of fact (CoxE, Walpole, i. 335). 
Well versed in European politics, not with- 
out address as a diplomatist, a competent 
French scholar, and master of a style admi- 
rably adapted by its precision and perspi- 
cuity for correspondence on affairs of state, 
he was unfitted for their consummate con- 
duct by a singular union of discordant quali- 
ties. With only moderate abilities, he had 
boundless confidence in his own capacity 
to play a principal part in the continental 
drama, and revelled in complicated combi- 
nations and what he supposed to be adroit 
strokes of policy. He was slow in making 
up his mind, but, once it was made up, he 
gave ready credence to whatever agreed with 
it,"brooked neither contradiction nor demur, 
and was as precipitate in action as he had 
been cunctative in deliberation. These cha- 
racteristics are apparent in the audacity 
which outran his instructions in the negotia- 
tion of the barrier treaty, in the credulity 
which accepted almost without inquiry the 
spurious secret treaty of Vienna, in the levity 

i 2 




which formed an elaborate combination 
against the emperor without first soberly 
estimating his offensive strength, and in 
the perversity which sought in a dispute 
about the occupation of four Italian towns 
a pretext for plunging Europe into war in 
order to shatter the only continental power 
which could then hold its own against a 
united house of Bourbon. Lord Hervey 
(Memoirs, ed. Croker, i. 108) charges him 
with faithlessness. As a statesman, how- 
ever, he had no more of that quality than 
was then deemed part of the indispensable 
equipment of a foreign minister. i Never 
minister had cleaner hands than he had' 
(CHESTERFIELD, Letters, ed. Mahon, ii. 442), 
nor is there reason to suppose that in private 
life his integrity was less exemplary. His 
only passion was business (cf. Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu's estimate of him in the 
1 Account of the Court of George I ' prefixed 
to her 'Letters and Works/ ed. Wharn- 
cliffe). A portrait byKnellerwas engraved 
by J. Simon and J. Smith. 

Townshend married twice : first, Eliza- 
beth (m. 3 July 1698 ; d. 11 May 1711), 
second daughter of Thomas Pelham, first 
baron Pelham [q. v.] ; secondly, Dorothy (m. 
shortly before 25 July 1713; d. 29 March 
1726), sixth daughter of Robert Walpole of 
Houghton Hall, Norfolk, and sister of Sir 
Robert Walpole. By his first wife Towns- 
hend had issue four sons and a daughter 
Elizabeth, who married, on 28 Nov. 1722, 
Charles, fifth baron (afterwards Earl) Corn- 
wallis of Eye, and died in February 1729 

ToAvnshend's heir, CHARLES TOWNSHEND, 
third VISCOUNT TOWNSHEND (1 700-1 764),was 
returned to parliament on 22 March 1721-2 
for Great Yarmouth, which seat he vacated 
on 24 May 1723, on taking his seat in the 
House of Lords among the barons, pursuant 
to writ of 22 May, in which he is described 
as ' de Lynn Regis/ In the lords' journals 
(xxii. 213) he is called Lord Lynn. His 
proper title would seem to have been Baron 
Townshend de Lynn Regis. He was ap- 
pointed at the same time lord of the bed- 
chamber, and held that office during the rest 
of the reign of George I. He was appointee 
on 15 June 1730 custos rotulorum and lord- 
lieutenant of Norfolk, and master of the 
jewel office, but resigned these offices on suc- 
ceeding his father as third Viscount Towns- 
hend. He died on 12 March 1764. By his 
wife Etheldreda or Audrey (m. 29 May 1723 
d. 9 March 1788), daughter of Edward Har- 
rison of Balls Park, Hertfordshire, governor 
of Madras (1711-20), he left issue two sons 
George, first marquis Townshend [q. v.] 

nd Charles Townshend (1725-1767) [q.v.], 
hancellor of the exchequer in Lord Chat- 
lam's administration and a daughter, Ethel- 
dreda (m. the Rev. Robert Orme ; d. in Fe- 
bruary 1781). 

Townshend's second son, by his first wife, 
THOMAS TOWNSHEND (1701-1780), born on 
2 June 1701, was educated at Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, of which he was 
M. A. (1727). He was M.P. for Winchelsea 
1722-7, and for Cambridge University 1727- 
1774. He acted for some years as his father's 
private secretary, and was a man of scholarly 
accomplishments and great social charm. 
He was teller of the exchequer from 12 Aug. 
1727 until his death in May 1780 (Hist. 
Reg. Chron. Diary, 1727, p. 31; Ann. Reg. 
1780, p. 250). By his wife Albinia (m. 
2 May 1730 ; d. 7 Sept. 1739), daughter of 
John Selwyn of Matson, Gloucestershire, 
and Chislehurst, Kent, he had, with other 
issue, a son Thomas (first Viscount Sydney), 
who is separately noticed. 

Charles Townshend's third son, born about 
1702, was returned to parliament for Great 
Yarmouth on 11 June 1723, and retained 
the seat until his death on 29 Jan. 1737-8 
(Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, 1738, p. 7). By 
his wife Henrietta (m. 29 May 1725 ; d. in 
January 1755), only daughter of Lord Wil- 
liam Paulet or Powlett, he had, with other 
issue [see CORNWALLIS, FREDERICK], a son 
Charles Townshend, baron Bayning [q.v.] 
(Lords' Journals, xli. 451). 

ROGER TOWNSHEND (1708-1760), the 
youngest son by the first marriage, born on 
15 June 1708, cavalry officer, M.P. for 
Great Yarmouth 1737-8-1747, and for Eye, 
Suffolk, 1747-8, present as aide-de-camp to 
George II at the battle of Dettingen on 
27 June 1743 (N.S.), was governor of North 
Yarmouth garrison from 5 Jan. 1744-5, and 
receiver of customs from 28 Feb. 1747-8 
until his death (unmarried) on 7 Aug. 1760 
(Gent. Mag. 1760, p. 394; Court and City 
Reg. 1759, p. 173). 

By his second wife Townshend had four 
sons and two daughters : (1) George Towns- 
hend (1715-1769) [q- v -]; (2) Augustus 
Townshend (baptised on 24 Oct. 1716; d. 
captain of an East Indiaman at Batavia in 
1746) ; (3) Horatio Townshend, commis- 
sioner of the victualling office (d. unmarried 
at Lisbon in February 1764) ; (4) Edward 
Townshend. The last-named was of Trinity 
College, Cambridge (M. A. 1742, D.D. 1761), 
took holy orders, was collated to the rectory 
of Pulham, Norfolk, on the death, 16 Nov. 
1745, of William Broome [q. v.], appointed 
on 27 Nov. and installed on 9 Dec. 1749 pre- 




bendary of Westminster, and preferred to 
the deanery of Norwich in August 1760 
(when he resigned the Westminster stall). 
He died on 27 Jan. 1765, leaving issue by 
his wife Mary (ra. 4 May 1747), daughter 
of Brigadier-general Price, (1) Dorothy, 
who married in 1743 Spencer Oowper [q. v. J, 
dean of Durham, and died without issue on 
19 May 1779 (Gent. Mag. 1779, p. 271); and 
(2) Mary, who married on 17 March 1753 
Colonel (afterwards Lieutenant-general) Ed- 
ward Cornwallis, governor of Nova Scotia, 
1749-52, and of Gibraltar, 1762-76, and 
died without issue on 29 Dec. 1776 (St. 
George's, Hanover Square, Marriage Keg. 
Harl. Soc. p. 49; Ann. Reg. 1776, pp. 222, 

[Information kindly supplied by Sir Ernest 
Clarke, F.S.A. ; Macpherson's Orig. Papers, ii. 
270, 475, 489, 596; Burnet's Own Time; 
Prior's Own Time; Boyer's Annals of Queen 
Anne, 1707 pp. 305, 3/3, 1709 pp. 4 et seq., 
1710 pp. 39, 40, 1711 pp. 7-8, 348 ; Wentworth 
Papers., 1705-39, ed. Cartwright; Defoe's Hist, 
of the Union, p. 110; Miscellaneous State 
Papers, 1501-1726, ii. 556; Coxe's Horatio, Lord 
Walpole ; Coxe's Memoirs of Maryborough, ed. 
Wade ; Marlborough's Letters and Despatches, 
ed. Murray; Private Corresp. of the Duchess of 
Marlborough, 1 838 ; Memoires de Torcy, Petitot, 
2 me . serie, Ixvii-lxviii ; Memoires de Villars et 
De Vogue, 1892 ; Lord Cowper's Private Diary 
(Roxburghe Club) ; Lady Cowper's Diary; Let- 
ters of Humphrey Prideaux to John Ellis (Cam- 
den Soc.); Memoirs of Thomas, Earl of Ailes- 
bury (Roxburghe Club) ; Marchmont Papers, 
ed. Rose ; Baillon's Lord "Walpole a la Cour 
de Prance ; Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs ; 
Eeport from the Committee appointed by order 
of the House of Commons to examine Christo- 
pher Layer and others, 1722 ; Parl. Hist. vi. 
et seq. ; Rogers's Protests of the House of 
Lords ; Atterbury's Memoirs, ed. Williams, i. 
437 et seq. ; Stair Annals and Corresp. ed. 
Graham, i. 242 ; Elliott's Life of Godolphin ; 
Ballantyne's Life of Lord Carteret; Ernst's Life 
of Lord Chesterfield ; Suffolk Corresp. i, 346 ; 
Sundon Memoirs, i. 255; Macky's Memoirs 
{Roxburghe Club) ; Noble's Continuation of 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, iii. 15; 
Addit. MS. 28153, if. 144, 195, 247, 297, 301 ; 
Stowe MSS. 224 f. 103, 226 ff. 413, 416, 242 
ff. 212-13, 246 ff. 69-71, 248 f. 24, 256 ff. 18- 
67 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. App. pp. 64, 
79, 188, 3rd Rep. App. pp. 218, 222, 248, 368, 
382-3, 4th Rep. App. p. 513, 8th Rep. App. i. 
16-21, 39-40, 10th Rep. App. i. 239-43, ii. 
427-33, llth Rep. App. iv. 48 et seq.; Der 
Congress von Soissons, ed. Hofler, Oesterreich. 
Gesch.-Quell. Abth. ii. Bde. xxxi. xxxviii. ; 
De Garden, Hist, des Traites de Paix, ii-iii.; 
Dumont, Corps Dipl. viii., and Suppl. ii. pt. ii. 
pp. 169-82; Stanhope's Hist, of England; 
JLecky's Hist, of England in the Eighteenth 

Century; Eanke, Engl. Gesch.; Klopp, Fall 
des Hauses Stuart; Michael, Engl. Gesch im 
achtzehnten Jahrhundert, 1896; Brosch, Engl 
Gesch. im achtzehnten Jahrhundert, ' 1897 ; 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage; Collins's Peerage, ii. 464, vi. 319, 
viii. 551 ; Misc. Gen. et Herald, new ser. ed' 
Howard, i. 372 ; Genealogist, ed. Murray, vi. 
210 ; Gent. Mag. 1745 p. 52, 1760 p. 394, 1781 
p. 94; Chamberlayne's Mag. Brit. Not. 1748, pt. 
ii. bk. iii., General List, p. 259 ; Members of 
Parl. (official lists) ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 
ed. Ockerby; Grad. Cant.; Clutterbuck's Hert- 
fordshire, ii. 316 ; Blomefi eld's Norfolk, v. 392, 
vii. 136; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ii. 477, 
iii- 366.] J. M. R. 

1767), chancellor of the exchequer, born 
on 29 Aug. 1725, was the second son of 
Charles, third viscount Townshend [see under 
by his wife Etheldreda or Audrey (d. 1788), 
daughter of Edward Harrison of Balls Park, 
Hertfordshire. His mother was ' celebrated 
for her gallantries, eccentricities, and wit ' 
(JESSE, George Selwyn, i. 160-1 ). One of her 
witticisms, a reply to the question whether 
George Whitefield had recanted by the re- 
mark ' he has only been canting/ was con- 
sidered by Gladstone to be Lord John Rus- 
sell's most brilliant retort when repeated in 
another form. Charles Townshend's elder 
brother was George, fourth viscount and first 
marquis Townshend [q. v.] 

Charles was educated with Wilkes and 
Dowdeswell at Leyden, where he was ad- 
mitted on 27 Oct. 1745 (PEACOCK, Index of 
Leyden Students, p. 99). Alexander Car- 
lyle [q. v.] met him there in that year, and 
gives an amusing account of Townshend's 
being challenged by an irate Scot, (Sir) 
James Johnstone of Westerhall, in revenge 
for Townshend's jokes at his expense. Car- 
lyle attributes to Townshend wit, humour, 
a turn for mimicry, and above all ' a talent 
of translating other men's thoughts . . . 
into the most charming language \Autobiogr. 
ed. Burton, p. 170). On his return from 
Leyden he is said to have been sent to 
Oxford (FITZGEEALD, Charles Townshend), 
but his name does not occur in Foster's 
' Alumni.' On 30 June 1747 he was returned 
to parliament for Great Yarmouth. He at- 
tached himself to George Montagu Dunk, 
second earl of Halifax [q. v.], and, when Hali- 
fax was placed at the head of the board of 
trade late in 1748, he gave Townshend a post in 
that office. Townshend soon * distinguished 
himself on affairs of trade and in drawing up 
plans and papers for that province. . . . His 
figure was tall and advantageous, his action 

Townshend i 



vehement, his voice loud, his laugh louder ' 
(WALPOLE, Mem. of the Reign of George II, 
ed. Holland, i. 340). He first made his 
mark in debate by his speech on 21 May 
1753 in opposition to Hardwicke's proposed 
changes in the marriage law [see YOKKE, 
PHILIP, first EARL OF HARDWICKE]. In the re- 
distribution of offices which followed Henry 
Pelham's death in March 1754, Townshend 
sought appointment as a lord of th& treasury, 
but at length with some reluctance accepted 
a lordship of the admiralty (WALPOLE, i. 
451). He was re-elected for Great Yar- 
mouth at the general election in April, and 
on 11 Dec. following made some stir by his 
attack on Lord Egmont [see PEKCEVAL, 
JOHN, second EARL of EGMONT], the 'warmth, 
insolence, and eloquence ' of which deterred 
Egmont from accepting office. Some time 
in 1755 Townshend seems to have resigned, 
and in December he vigorously attacked 
Newcastle for his employment of German 
mercenaries. When Devonshire became 
prime minister, with Pitt secretary of state, 
in November 1756, Townshend was appointed 
treasurer of the chamber, being re-elected 
for Yarmouth on 13 Dec., and in April 1757 
he was sworn of the privy council. The 
vacillation of his attitude towards the exe- 
cution of Admiral Byng brought upon him 
the contempt of Pitt, but he retained his 
office throughout Pitt's great administration 

On 15 Aug. 1755 Townshend married at 
Adderbury Caroline, eldest daughter and 
coheir of John Campbell, second duke of 
Argyll [q. v.], and widow of Francis Scott, 
earl of Dalkeith. In 1758 he visited Dal- 
keith, and was presented with the freedom 
of the city of Edinburgh ; he thought of 
standing for that city at the next general 
election, but was dissuaded by Alexander 
Carlyle, who was ' considered as chaplain-in- 
ordinary to the family/ and told Townshend 
that even the countess would oppose' him. 
The ' Select Society ' of Edinburgh broke its 
rules and elected Townshend a member in 
order to hear him talk one night (CAELTLE, 
Autobiogr. pp. 386-90). On 18 March 1761 
he succeeded Barrington as secretary-at- 
war, and in that capacity took an active 
part in the conduct of government business 
in the House of Commons. At the general 
election in May he gave up his seat at Great 
Yarmouth to his cousin, Charles Townshend 
(afterwards Lord Bayning) [q. v.], with whom 
he has been frequently confused, and was 
elected for Harwich on 30 May. He was 
apparently opposed to the war with Spain, 
and in 1762, soon after Bute became prime 
minister, Townshend was succeeded as secre- 

tary-at-war by Welbore Ellis. He seems to 
have resigned in the expectation that Pitt 
would lead a vigorous opposition and soon 
return to power ; but when he saw the weak- 
ness of the opposition and Pitt's disinclina- 
tion to lead it, he repented, and at the end 
of February 1763 accepted the presidency of 
the board of trade. Grenville succeeded 
Bute in April, and offered Townshend the 
post of first lord of the admiralty ; he refused 
to kiss hands unless his nominee (Sir) Wil- 
liam Burrell [q. v.] were also appointed to 
the board. This was refused, and it was in- 
timated to Townshend that the king no 
longer required his services. 

Townshend now became a frequent and un- 
sparing critic of Grenville's administration. 
The death of Egremont and the necessity of 
strengthening his cabinet led Grenville" to 
offer Townshend Egremont's secretaryship 
of state in August ; but Townshend refused 
to take office without Pitt, and continued 
his attacks on Grenville's ministry. On 
17 Feb. 1764 he ' made a most capital speech, 
replete with argument, history, and law/ 
against the legality of general warrants and 
the outlawry of John Wilkes, whom, how- 
ever, in spite of his former acquaintance, he 
said he abhorred. A few weeks later he 
issued a pamphlet, ' Defence of the Minority 
in the House of Commons on the Question 
relating to General Warrants.' Almon says 
it was ' universally read and highly esteemed r 
(Anecdotes, 1797, i. 78-82) ; but Horace Wai- 
pole, who wrote a rival pamphlet on the 
same side, describes it as quite ineffective 
(Mem. of the Reign of George III, ii. 6). 
Nevertheless, in May 1765, when Henry Fox 
was dismissed, Townshend accepted from 
Grenville his office of paymaster-general 
(Cal. Home Office Papers, 1760-5, p. 553), 
and retained it throughout Rockingham's 
ministry, which succeeded Grenville in July, 
and fell twelve months later. That result 
was not a little due to Tow nsh end's con- 
duct. He ' treated his colleagues with un- 
disguised contempt, described the govern- 
ment of which he was a member as a " lute- 
string administration fit only for summer 
wear," and ostentatiously abstained from 
defending its measures ' (LECET, ed. 1892, 
iii. 273). 

Pitt was now prevailed upon to form a 
second ministry, and on 2 Aug. 1766 Towns- 
hend was appointed chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. The cabinet was a piece of patch- 
work, including politicians of every shade of 
opinion. Pitt weakened his own authority 
by retiring to the House of Lords, and ill- 
health soon prevented him from exercising 
any control over his colleagues. 'In the 




scene of anarchy which ensued it was left 
for the strongest man to seize the helm. 
Unfortunately in the absence of Chatham 
that man was unquestionably the chancellor 
of the exchequer, Charles Townshend ' (ib. iv. 
105). In November he openly flouted Chat- 
ham's authority by declaring that the East 
India Company ' had a right to territorial 
revenue,' of which Chatham was then pro- 
moting a measure to deprive it. At the 
same time he afforded a glaring example of 
the prevalent political corruption by using 
his position as chancellor of the exchequer 
to secure for himself a large share in a public 
loan (EKSKINE MAY, Const. Hist. i. 383-4). 
But the most disastrous results of Towns- 
hend's predominance were seen in America. 

Parliament met on 16 Jan. 1767, and 
Townshend presented his first budget, It 
included the usual land tax of four shillings 
in the pound; but his rivals, Grenville and 
Dowdeswell, combined to defeat it and re- 
duce the tax to three shillings. Their motion 
was -carried by 204 to 188 votes, and, ac- 
cording to long-standing precedent, a mini- 
stry defeated on a money bill should have 
resigned. Instead, Townshend set to work 
to devise means for meeting the deficiency 
of half a million thus created. On 26 Jan. 
he declared himself a firm advocate of the 
principle of the Stamp Act repealed a few 
months before by Rockingham's ministry, of 
which he had himself been a member ; and, 
to the astonishment of his colleagues, ' pledged 
himself to find a revenue in America nearly 
sufficient for the purposes that were re- 
quired.' This pledge was perfectly un- 
authorised, 'but, as the Duke of Grafton 
afterwards wrote, no one in the ministry 
had sufficient authority in the absence of 
Chatham to advise the dismissal of Towns- 
hend, and this measure alone could have 
arrested his policy ' (LECKY, iv. 108 ; Chatham 
Corresp. iii. 178-9, 188-9, 193: Grenville 
Papers, iv. 211, 222). 

Meanwhile the East India Company's 
affairs again came before the house, and on 
8 May Townshend made his famous ' cham- 
pagne speech,' which, to judge from the 
accounts of contemporaries, must have been 
one of the most brilliant speeches ever de- 
livered in the House of Commons. It had 
little relevance to the question at issue, but 
its wit and satire produced an extraordinary 
effect on those who heard it ; even so critical 
an observer as Horace Walpole said ' it was 
Garrick writing and acting extempore scenes 
of Congreve' (Memoirs of George III, iii. 17- 
19). After its delivery Townshend went to 
supper at Con way's, where 'he kept the table 
in a roar till two o'clock in the morning ' 

(ib.} Five days later Townshend introduced 
his measures for dealing with America. The 
legislative functions of the New York as- 
sembly were to be suspended; commis- 
sioners of customs were to be established in 
America to superintend the execution of the 
laws relating to trade ; and a port duty was 
imposed on glass, red and white lead, 
painters' colours, paper, and tea. The 
Americans received the news of these pro- 
posals with a burst of fury; anti-importation 
associations were formed, riots broke out, 
and the loyalist officials were reduced to 
impotence. Townshend did not live to see 
these developments. In July the city of 
London conferred its freedom upon him for 
his behaviour on the East India bill, and on 
4 Sept. he died, at the premature age of forty- 
two, ' of a neglected fever.' 

Townshend was one of those statesmen 
whose abilities are the misfortune of the 
country they serve. He impressed his con- 
temporaries as a man of unrivalled brilliance, 
yet to obtain a paltry revenue of 40,000/. he 
entered a path which led -to the dismember- 
ment of the empire. Burke lavished upon'him 
a splendid panegyric (Select Works, ed. Payne, 
i. 147-9), and ' the most gorgeous image in 
modern oratory,' when he said (Speech on 
American Taxation, 19 April 1774) ' even 
before this splendid orb [Chatham] was 
entirely set, and while the western horizon 
was in a blaze with his descending glory, on 
the opposite quarter of the heavens arose 
another luminary [Townshend], and, for his 
hour, became lord of the ascendant.' He 
was, declared Burke, ' the delight and orna- 
ment of this house, and the charm of every 
private society which he honoured with his 
presence.' According to' Walpole 'he had 
almost every great talent and every little 
quality . . . with such a capacity he must 
have been the greatest man of this age, and 
perhaps inferior to no man in any age, had 
his faults been only in a moderate propor- 
tion' (Memoirs of George III, iii. 72). 
These faults are set forth in Smollett's 
character of him in Humphrey Clinker : ' 
1 He would be a really great man if he had 
any consistency or stability of character. . . . 
There's no faith to be given to his assertions, 
and no trust to be put in his promises. . . . 
As for principle, that's out of the question.' 
'Nothing,' says Mr. Lecky, ' remains _ of an 
eloquence which some of the best judges 
placed above that of Burke and only second 
to that of Chatham, and the two or three 
pamphlets which are ascribed to his pen 
hardly surpass the average of the political 
literature of the time. Exuberant animal 
smrits, a brilliant and ever ready wit, bound- 




less facility of repartee, a clear, rapid, and 
spontaneous eloquence, a gift of mimicry 
which is said to have been not inferior to 
that of Garrick and Foote, great charm of 
manner, and an unrivalled skill in adapting 
himself to the moods and tempers of those 
who were about him, had made him the de- 
light of every circle in which he moved, the 
spoilt child of the House of Commons ' (His- 
tory of England, ed. 1892, iv. 115-16). 
Townshend's portrait was painted by Rey- 
nolds and engraved by Dixon and J. Miller. 

Townshend's widow, who had been created 
Baroness of Greenwich on 28 Aug. 1767, died 
atSudbrooke, Surrey, on 11 Jan. 1794. She 
had issue by Townshend two sons Charles 
(1758-1782), a captain of the 45th foot, 
who died unmarried on 28 Oct. 1782 ; and 
"William John (1761-1789), a captain, first in 
the 59th and then in the 44th foot, who died 
unmarried on 12 May 1789 and a daughter 
Anne, born 29 June 1756, who married, first, 
Richard Wilson, M.P. for Barnstaple, from 
whom she was divorced in 1798 ; and secondly, 
John Tempest. 

[A. memoir of Townshend, entitled Charles 
Townshend, Wit and Statesman, was published 
by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald in 1866. See also Addit. 
MSS. 32720 et seq. ; Home Office Papers ; Off. 
Ret. of Members of Parl. ; Parl. Hist. esp. vol. 
xvi.; Cavendish's Parl. Debates ; Walpole's Me- 
moirs of the Eeign of George If, ed. Lord Hol- 
land ; Mem. of the Eeign of George III, ed. 
Barker, and Letters, ed. Cunningham ; Alexander 
Carlyle's Autobiogr. ed. Burton; Chatham Cor- 
respondence, 4 vols. ; Almon's Anecdotes, 1797, 
vol.i.; Grenville Papers ; Sir George Colebrooke's 
Memoirs; Burke's Speeches on American Taxa- 
tion; Macknight's Life of Burke, i. 272-3, 283 ; 
John Nicholls's George III, 1822; Fitzmaurice's 
Life of Shelburne; Wilkes's Correspondence; 
Jesse's Selwyn,i. 124-5 etsqq. ; Stanhope's Hist, 
of England; Forster's Life of Goldsmith; Lecky's 
History; Wood's Douglas, i. 113, 256; Burke's 
Peerage.] A. F. P. 

BAYNING (1728-1810) of Honingham, Nor- 
folk, and Foxley, Berkshire, born on 27 Aug. 
1728, was the only son of William Townshend 
(third surviving son of Charles, second vis- 
count Townshend |~q. v.]), by Henrietta, 
daughter of Lord William Paulet or Pow- 
lett, second son of Charles Paulet, first duke 
of Bolton [q. v.] He was educated at Eton 
and Clare Hall, Cambridge, and graduated 
M.A. in 1749. He was appointed secretary 
to the British embassy at Madrid on 17 Sept. 
1751, and remained in Spain for five years. 
Henceforth he became known as * Spanish 
Charles,' in contradistinction to his brilliant 
namesake and cousin, Charles Townshend 

(1726-1767) [q. v.] He returned to Eng- 
land in 1756 f and at the general election of 
1761 succeeded his cousin Charles as member 
for Great Yarmouth, which he continued to 
represent until 1784. He acted generally 
with the Rockingham whigs, but was not 
prominent as a speaker. He was present 
at the great gathering of whigs held at 
Claremont (Newcastle's house at Esher) on 
30 June 1765, and was one of the minority 
who thought it unadvisable to take office 
without Pitt. When, however, Rockingham 
became premier, Townshend was made a lord 
of the admiralty on 30 April 1765. In Fe- 
bruary 1770 he exchanged this office for a 
commissionership of the treasury in Lord 
North's administration, and on 17 Sept. 1777 
was appointed joint vice-treasurer of Ire- 
land. In the coalition ministry of 1783 he 
held the office of vice-treasurer of the navy, 
and was sworn of the privy council. He 
was created a peer on 20 Oct. 1797, with the 
title of Baron Bayning of Foxley. In 1807 
he was elected high steward of Yarmouth in 
succession to George, first marquis Towns- 
hend [q. v.] He died on 19 May 1810. 
There is a portrait of him at Honingham, 
which has been engraved among the Norfolk 
portraits (EVANS, No. 12545 ; MANSHIP, Hist. 
of Yarmouth, ed. Palmer, ii. 333). 

Bayning married, in August 1777, Anna- 
bella, daughter of the Rev. Richard Smith, 
by Annabella, granddaughter of Lord Wil- 
liam Powlett. She became heir of her 
brother, Powlett Smith-Powlett of Som- 
bourne, Hampshire, and died on 3 Jan. 1825. 
By her he had two sons, Charles Frederick 
Powlett Townshend (1785-1823) and Henry 
Powlett (1797-1 866), who assumed by royal 
license the name of his maternal great- 
grandfather, William Powlett. Both sons 
died without surviving issue, and on the 
death of the younger in 1866 the peerage be- 
came extinct. 

[G. E. C [okay ne]'s Peerage; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage; Gent. Mag. 1810 i. 594, 1866 ii. 405- 
406 ; Walpole's Memoirs of George III (Barker), 
ii. 134^., 137, iv. 58, and Last Journals ii. 616 ; 
Albemarle's Memoir of Rockingham, i. 220; 
Wraxall's Memoirs (Wheatley), iii. 55.] 

G. LE G. N. 

(1795-1817), founder of the Eton Society, 
born at Balls Park, Hertfordshire, on 
28 June 1795, was the eldest son of John 
Townshend (1757-1833), member of parlia- 
ment successively for Cambridge University, 
Westminster, and Knaresborough, by his 
wife Georgiana Anne, daughter of William 
Poyntz of Midgham [see under POYNTZ, 
STEPHEN]. George Townshend, second 




marquis [q. v.], was his uncle, and John, the 
fourth marquis, was his younger brother. 
Charles Fox was educated at Eton (1807- 
1812) under Keate. In 1811 he founded the 
'Eton Society.' Its members were origi- 
nally known as the ' Literati,' but afterwards 
the society was called 'Pop,' from 'Popina,' 
an eating-house, because its meetings were 
held in a room over the shop of Mrs. 
Hatton. a confectioner. In 1846 this house 
was pulled down and the club removed to 
the ' Christopher.' Keate approved the ob- 
jects of the society, and the translation 
docti sumus, ' I belong to the Literati,' be- 
came one of his stock jokes. 

The original number of members was 
twenty ; it . was increased to thirty, but by 

1816 had sunk to four, and but for the pro- 
test of the founder would have probably 
become extinct. * Pop ' has included among 
its orators G. A. Selwyn, A. H. Hallam, Sir 
Francis Boyle, Gerald Wellesley, Sir E. S. 
Creasy, Sir John Wickens, the Earls of 
Derby and Granville, and W. E. Gladstone 
(elected 1825, set. 15). The club, which at 
present numbers twenty-eight, possesses a 
bust of its founder. Townshend proceeded 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, and gra- 
duated M.A. in 1816. He died unmarried 
on 2 April 1817, while a candidate for the 
representation in parliament of Cambridge 
University, being then only in his twenty- 
second year. 

[Stapylton's Eton Lists, 1864; G. E. 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Eton Loan Col- 
lection Cat. 1891, pp. 41, 76; Wilkinson's Re- 
miniscences of Eton in Keate's Time, chap. xix. ; 
Collins's Etoniana ; Lyte's Hist, of Eton College, 
1887 ; Luard's Alumni Cantabr.] T. S. 


(1798-1868), poet, born on 20 April 1798, 
was the only son of Henry Hare Townshend 
(d. 1827) of Downhills, Tottenham, Bus- 
bridge Hall, Godalming, and Walpole, Nor- 
folk, by his wife Charlotte (d. 1831), daugh- 
ter of Sir James Winter Lake of Edmonton, 
baronet. He was educated at Eton Col- 
lege, whence he proceeded to Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, as a fellow-commoner, graduat- 
ing B.A. in 1821 and M.A. in 1824. In 

1817 he obtained the chancellor's English 
medal for a poem on the subject i Jerusalem.' 
He took holy orders, but was early disabled 
by illness from the active duties of his pro- 
fession. Early in life he made the ac- 
quaintance of .Robert Southey, and received 
an invitation to Greta Hall/Southey's resi- 
dence in the vale of Keswick. Encouraged 
by the laureate's approbation, he published 
a volume of Poems ' in 1821 (London, 8vo) 

which were generally praised. Notwith- 
standing the recognition he received, Towns- 
hend showed no anxiety for fame, and suf- 
fered thirty years to elapse before he produced 
his next volume of poetry, entitled ' Sermons 
in Sonnets, with other Poems '(London, 
1851, 8vo), followed in 1859 by ' The Three 
Gates ' (London, 8vo). Townshend was by 
no means deficient in poetic insight, but his 
verse was too often commonplace. His poems 
were frequently tinged by metaphysical 
speculation. His best known poem is the 
ballad of the l Burning of the Amazon.' 
He drew and painted with some skill, and 
interested himself in collecting pictures and 
jewels. Much of his time was spent in travel, 
and the greater part of his later life was 
passed at his villa, Monloisir, at Lausanne. 
He died on 25 Feb. 1868 at his residence 
in Norfolk Street, Park Lane, London. On 
2 May 1826 he married Eliza Frances, 
daughter of Sir Amos Godsill Robert Nor- 
cott, but left no issue. He bequeathed his 
collections of precious stones, coins, and 
cameos, and such of his pictures, water- 
colours, and drawings as might be selected, 
to the South Kensington Museum. 

Besides the works mentioned, Townshend 
was the author of: 1. 'A Descriptive Tour 
in Scotland by T. H. C.,' Brussels, 1840, 
8vo ; new edit. London, 1846. This work 
must not be confused with 'Journal of a 
Tour through part of the Western High- 
lands of Scotland by T. H. C.,' which is by 
a different author. 2. ' Facts in Mesmerism,' 
London, 1840, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1844. 3. 'The 
Burning of the Amazon : a Ballad Poem,' 
London, 1852, 12mo. 4. ' Mesmerism proved 
True,' London, 1854, 12mo. He also added 
a supplement to Lang's ' Animal Magnetism/ 
1844. Some writings intended to elucidate 
his ' Religious Opinions ' were published by 
his friend Charles Dickens, whom he made 
his literary executor (London, 1869, 8vo). 
He was a contributor to Knight's ' Quarterly 
Magazine,' 1823-4. 

[Townsh end's Works ; Men of the Time, 1868, 
p. 787 ; Burke 's Landed Gentry, 7th edit. ; 
Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1791-1850, pp. 
71, 78; Boddington's Pedigree of the Family 
of Townsend, 1881 ; Life and Letters of Kobert 
Southey, 1850, iv. 150; Forster's Life of Charles 
Dickens, 1874, iii. 227, 410 ; Gent. Mag. 1868, 
i. 545 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. viii. 415, 534; 
Church's Precious Stones, 1883, pp. 96-111.] 

E. I. C. 

TOWNSHEND, GEORGE (1715-1769), 
admiral, born in 1715, was eldest son of 
Charles, second viscount Townshend [q. v.], 
by his second wife, Dorothy (d. 1726), sister 
of Sir Robert Walpole, first earl of Orford 




of that creation. He entered the navy in 
1729 on board the Kose of 20 guns, with 
Captain Weller, apparently on the Carolina 
station. After two years and a half in her, 
he served for four and a half in the West 
Indies, in the Scarborough, also a 20-gun 
frigate, with Captain Thomas Durell, and 
for the first part of the time with Lieutenant 
Edward Hawke (afterwards Lord Hawke) 
[q.v.] He passed his examination on 23 Oct. 
1736, being then, according to his certifi- 
cate, near twenty-one, which appears to be 
fairly correct. On 30 Jan. 1738-9 he was 
promoted to be captain of the Tartar, which 
he commanded on the Carolina station till 
November 1741. In December he was ap- 
pointed to the Chatham, and two years later 
to the Bedford of 70 guns, in which he went 
out to the Mediterranean, took part in the 
action off Toulon on 11 Feb. 1743-4 [see 
tinued there under Vice-admiral William 
Rowley [q. v.], and in the summer of 1745 
was appointed by him to command a detached 
squadron on the coast of Italy, with the rank 
of commodore. 

His first duty was to co-operate with the 
insurgent Corsicans, and, hearing from them 
that they had three thousand men under 
arms, he posted his ships and bombs before 
Bastia, and on the night of 6-7 Nov. de- 
stroyed the batteries and reduced the town 
to ashes. It then appeared that the three 
thousand men had yet to be raised, and it 
was not till the 18th that the insurgents 
were able to take possession of the town. 
Towards the end of the month he reduced 
the forts of Mortella and San Fiorenzo ; but 
the Corsican patriots were so busy fighting 
among themselves ' alternately dining to- 
gether and squabbling ' that nothing could 
be effectively done. This unsatisfactory 
state of things continued for some months. 
On 7 April Townshend wrote to the admiralty 
that the dissensions were so violent that 
nothing could be done without a number of 
regular troops ; and on 8 May that as his 
whole force was imperatively needed to main- 
tain the blockade of the Genoese coast, he 
was of opinion that, for the time, the revolt 
in Corsica should be left to itself. To the 
difficulty of disunion among the patriots 
was added that of the presence in the neigh- 
bourhood of a French squadron reported as 
fully equal in force to that with Townshend. 
In March he had stretched across to Carta- 
gena, and, having watered at Mahon, was on 
his way to Cagliari to consult with the Sar- 
dinian viceroy, when he 'saw four large ships 
and two smaller ones, which he made out to 
be French men-of-war.' Having with him 

only one ship, the Essex, besides the Bed- 
ford, and two bombs, Townshend judged that 
the ' disproportion of force put his engaging 
them out of the question till he could pick 
up the rest of his squadron.' But with this 
French squadron on the coast, he added, 
'nothing can be attempted against Corsica.' 

After considering this letter and one in 
similar terms to Vice-admiral Henry Medley 
fq.v.], the commander-in-chief, the admiralty 
sent out an order for a court-martial to inquire 
into Townshend's conduct and behaviour. 
This was done on 9 Feb. 1746-7, with the 
result that the court was convinced that 
Townshend 'did not meet with a squadron 
of the enemy's ships, nor see or chase any 
ships so as to discover them to be enemies.' 
They concluded, moreover, that Townshend's 
report upon the vicinity of the French squa- 
dron was based upon purely hearsay evidence. 
The court was therefore of opinion that 
Townshend's letters were written l with great 
carelessness and negligence,' and ' contained 
very false and erroneous accounts of Captain 
Townshend's proceedings.' The court ad- 
judged the captain to write letters to the 
admiralty and to Medley 'acknowledging and 
begging pardon for his fault and neglect,' and 
to be severely reprimanded by the president. 
Horace Mann, who had formed a very poor 
opinion of Townshend's capacity and educa- 
tion (I)oRKN,Mann and Manners at the Court 
of Florence , i. 227), wrote to Walpole that if 
he had been capable of writing an intelligible 
letter in his own language he would not 
have found himself suspected of cowardice ; 
and that he had omitted to state that he had 
only one ship besides his own (ib. p. 156). 
But Mann wrote in ignorance and prejudice; 
for Townshend's letters are perfectly intel- 
ligible, and the fact of his having with him 
only one ship besides his own is clearly stated, 
and the ship named. 

After this Townshend -continued in the 
Mediterranean till towards the end of the 
year, when he returned to England, and 
paid the Bedford oft' in December. During 
the spring and early summer of 1748 he 
commanded the vessels on the coast of the 
Netherlands and in the Scheldt, with a broad 
pennant in the Folkestone ; and from No- 
vember 1748 to November 1752 was com- 
modore and commander-in-chief at Jamaica, 
with his broad pennant in the Gloucester. On 
4 Feb. 1755 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral of the white, and again sent out to 
Jamaica as commander-in-chief, with his 
flag in the Dreadnought. He returned to 
England in 1757 and had no further service, 
but became vice-admiral in 1758, admiral in 
1765, and died in August 1769. 




[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 434 ; Official 
letters, &c., in the Public Eecord Office, espe- 
cially Captains' Letters, T, vols. xii-xviii. ; 
Admiralty, Home Office, vol. cix. ; and Minutes 
of Courts-Martial, vol. xxx.] J. K. L. 

1807), born on 28 Feb. 1723-4, was eldest 
son of Charles, third viscount (1700-1764), 
by his wife Etheldreda or Audrey, daughter 
and sole heiress of Edward Harrison of Balls 
Park, Hertfordshire, formerly governor of 
Fort St. George in the East Indies. Charles 
Townshend (1725-1767) was his younger 
brother. George had George I as one of his 
sponsors at his baptism. He matriculated 
from St. John's College, Cambridge, gra- 
duating M.A. on 3 July 1749, and com- 
pleted his education by travelling on the 
continent. Happening to be at The Hague 
in January 1744-5, just when the quadruple 
alliance was concluded, he was, according to 
Walpole (Letters, i. 339), offered the com- 
mand of a regiment in the States service 
with the power of naming all his officers, 
and he was actually appointed captain in 
the 7th (Cope's) regiment of dragoons in 
April, joining the army under the Duke of 
Cumberland as a volunteer, though too late 
to take part in the battle of Fontenoy on 
11 May (ib. i. 364). In order to remove him 
from the influence of his mother, who had 
become a Jacobite, he was placed by his re- 
lations, the Pelhams, in the family 6T~the 
Duke of Cumberland, and served under him 
at Culloden on 16 April 1746. The follow- 
ing year, 1 Feb., he was appointed aide-de- 
camp to the duke, being at the same time 
transferred to the 20th (Sackville's) regiment 
of foot, and fought at the battle of Laufeld 
on 2 July. He was transferred captain, after- 
wards promoted lieutenant-colonel, in the 
1st regiment of foot guards on 8 March 1748. 
Differences with the Duke of Cumberland, 
however, brought about his retirement from 
the service in 1750. Townshend, who pos- 
sessed ability as a caricaturist, and who was, 
according to Walpole (George II, ii. 68, 
199 W.), the inventor of the first political cari- 
catura card with portraits of Newcastle and 
[Henry] Fox, incurred the resentment of his 
royal highness by an indiscreet use of his 
art (Grenmlle Papers, iv. 232 n. ; WALJOLE, 
George III, i. 20, with Le Marchant's note). 
The breach was widened in 1751 by the 
belief that Townshend had inspired a pam- 
phlet entitled 'A Brief Narrative of the 
late Campaigns in Germany and Flanders,' 
severely criticising the military capacity of 
the Duke of Cumberland. In 1755 he made 
a strenuous effort to draw his brother Charles 

into opposition to the Duke of Newcastle, 
chiefly on the ground of the connection of 
the latter with Fox, whom he personally 
hated (WALPOLE, George II, ii. 64). 

His hostility to the Duke of Cumberland, 
coupled with a dread of standing armies, 
made him a strong advocate of the militia 
system, and he was the author of the bill 
which became law in 1757 for establishing 
it on a national basis. The measure en- 
countered great opposition, none being more 
bitter against it than his own father, who, 
' attended by a parson, a barber, and his own 
servants, and in his own long hair, which he ' 
haslet grow, raised a mob against the exe- 
cution of the bill, and has written a paper 
against it which he has pasted upon the door 
of four churches near him '( WALPOLE, Letters, 
iii. 106). Meanwhile Townshend's propen- 
sity for caricaturing had raised up a host of 
enemies, and in 1757 produced a most bitter 
pamphlet against him called 'The Art of 
Political Lying' (WALPOLE, Letters, iii. 71). 
But the retirement of the Duke of Cumber- 
land affording him the opportunity to return 
to the army, he was on 6 May 1758 pro- 
moted colonel and appointed aide-de-camp 
to George II. On 27 Aug. he applied to 
Pitt to be remembered if any service was in- 
tended against France (Pitt Corresp. i. 345), 
and in February 1759 he was appointed bri- 
gadier-general in America under Major- 
general James Wolfe [q. v.] in the expedition 
against Quebec. He sailed that month with 
Wolfe, reaching Louisbourg harbour after a 
wearisome voyage early in May. From Louis- 
bourg the expedition steered next month 
directly towards Quebec. He took his share 
in the "dangerous attack on Montcalm's camp 
at Montmorenci towards the latter end of 
July ; but as the summer wore to a close, 
and Quebec seemed as far as ever out of 
Wolfe's power, he grew very dissatisfied at 
the plan of operations. ' General Wolf's 
health,' he wrote to his wife on 6 Sept. from 
Camp Levi, ' is but very bad. His general- 
ship, in my poor opinion, is not a bit better: 
this only between us. He never consulted 
any of us till the latter end of August, so 
that we have nothing to answer for, I hope, as 
to the success of this campaign '" (Townshend 
MSS. p. 309). The consultation to which 
he refers was in consequence of a letter from 
Wolfe, written from his sick-bed on 29 Aug., 
begging the three brigadiers, Robert Monck- 
ton [q. v.], Townshend, and James Murray 
(1725P-1794) [q.v.], to meet together to 
' consider of the best method to attack the 
enemy.' The brigadiers advised that an at- 
tempt should be made to land on the north 
side of the St. Lawrence above Quebec, and, 




by cutting off Montcalm from his base of 
supply, force him either to fight or surrender. 
The credit of suggesting this plan, which 
being adopted by Wolfe led to the capture 
of Quebec, is ascribed by Warburton (Con- 
quest of Canada, p. 249) to Townshend, 
though in the ' Letter to a Brigadier-Gene- 
ral ' it is expressly stated that he protested 
against it as too hazardous (cf. STANHOPE, 
Hist, of Engl. iv. 243). At the battle on 
the heights of Abraham on 13 Sept. he com- 
manded the left wing, and, in consequence of 
the death of Wolfe in the moment of victory 
and the disablement of Monckton, the direc- 
tion of the army devolved upon him. Fear- 
ing an attack on the part of Bougainville, he 
recalled his men from the pursuit, and, form- 
ing them into line of battle, set to work to 
entrench himself. The inactivity of the 
French generals affording him breathing 
space, he pushed his trenches up to the city, 
which, seeing no prospect of relief, capitulated 
on easy terms at midnight on 17 Sept. 

On the 20th Townshend sent an account 
of the battle and his success to the secretary 
of state so stilted in comparison with the 
famous despatch of Wolfe on 2 Sept. an- 
nouncing his plan of operations, of which 
the authorship had been claimed for him by 
his brother Charles, that George Augustus 
Selwyn (1719-1791) [q. v.], happening to 
meet the latter at the treasury, facetiously 
inquired, ' Charles, if your brother wrote 
Wolfe's despatch, who the devil wrote your 
brother George's ? ' (WRIGHT, Life of Wolfe, 
p. 554). Monckton recovering sufficiently 
to enable him to take command (Townshend 
MSS. p. 327), and Murray being appointed 
governor of Quebec, Townshend seized the 
opportunity to return home with the fleet 
tinder Admiral Sir Charles Satkiders [q. v.] 
in October, there ' to parade his laurels and 
claim more than his share of the honours 
of the victory' (PARKMAN, Montcalm and 
Wolfe, ii. 317). His conduct was severely 
criticised in an anonymous pamphlet entitled 
'A Letter to an Hon. Brigadier-General,' 
London, 1760, in which, among other in- 
dictments, he was charged with enmity and 
ingratitude towards Wolfe. The ' Letter,' 
ascribed by some to Charles Lee (WiNSOR, 
Hist, of America, v. 607), by others to Junius 
(Letter, ed. Simons, 1841), but stated by 
Walpole ( George 111} to have been inspired 
by Henry Fox, drew forth a number of replies 
(see Imperial Mag. 1760), and among them 
'A Refutation of the " Letter to an Hon. Bri- 
gadier-General,"' London, 1760, described by 
Parkman as ' angry, but not conclusive,' 
attributing the authorship of the ' Letter ' 
to the Earl of Albemarle [see KEPPEL, 

GEORGE, third EARL] and his patron, the Duke 
of Cumberland. So incensed, indeed, was 
Townshend that he challenged Albemarle. 
A meeting was happily prevented ; but, feel- 
ing the necessity of vindicating himself, he 
published, or caused to be published, a letter 
said to have been written by him soon after 
the victory at Quebec to a friend in England 
expressive of his warm admiration of Wolfe ; 
but the letter was considered by many to 
have been a clever afterthought on the part of 
his brother Charles (WRIGHT, Life of Wolfe, 
p. 612 n.) On 2 Dec. 1660 he was sworn a 
privy councillor, and, with the rank of major- 
general (6 March 1761), appointed lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance on 14 May 1763, 
holding the post till 20 Aug. 1767. He lent 
a cordial if rather erratic support to the 
ministry of George Grenville (1763-5), but re- 
fused to ' disgrace himself ' ( Grenville Papers, 
iii. 207-9) by joining the old whigs under 
Rockingham. He succeeded his father as 
fourth Viscount Townshend on 12 March 
1764, and on 12 Aug. 1767 he was appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 

His appointment, the work of his brother 
Charles, chancellor of the exchequer and the 
ruling spirit in the Chatham administration, 
marks anew epoch in the history of Ireland. 
Hitherto, owing largely to the non-residence 
of the viceroy, the government had slipped 
almost entirely into the hands of a small 
knot of large landowners and borough pro- 
prietors, known as the * undertakers.' Their 
government, though notoriously corrupt, pos- 
sessed certain negative merits which,'by con- 
trast with what followed, rendered it popu- 
lar ; for the undertakers were at any rate 
Irishmen, and next to the interests of their 
own families had those of their country at 
heart. But the analogy between the situa- 
tion in Ireland and that in the American 
colonies had not escaped the notice of English 
politicians, and there was at least a danger 
that Ireland, under the rule of the under- 
takers, might grow bold enough to imitate 
the example of the latter. So indeed it 
seemed to Charles Townshend, and he deter- 
mined to prevent such a possibility by break- 
ing down the power of the undertakers. To 
this end it was necessary to form a party in 
parliament wholly dependent on the crown. 
The task was difficult, and also for him dis- 
agreeable, as it implied constant residence in 
Ireland. But in his elder brother the chan- 
cellor of the exchequer found a congenial ally, 
whose frank, social, and popular manners 
seemed formed to charm the Irish, though, as 
the event proved, Walpole, with a keener 
insight into his character, came nearer the 
mark when he predicted that he would im- 




pose upon them at first as lie had on the 
world, please them by his joviality, and then 
grow sullen and quarrel with them (Letters, 
v. 61). The sudden death of Charles Towns- 
hend on 4 Sept., only a week or two after the 
appointment, and the anarchy that there- 
upon ensued in the cabinet ( Grenville Papers, 
iv. 169, 171 ; JUNITJS, Grand Council upon 
the Affairs of Ireland after Eleven Adjourn- 
ments], rendered his task even more diffi- 
cult than he had expected ; but he possessed 
the confidence of the kino 1 , and in October 
he set out for the seat of his government. 
The boons he was authorised to grant in- 
cluded a restriction of the pension list, a 
limitation of the duration of parliaments, a 
habeas corpus act, and a national militia. 
Never had an administration opened under 
more promising conditions ; but the indis- 
creet announcement in his opening speech 
to parliament on 20 Oct. of a bill to secure 
the judges in their offices, as in England, 
quamdiu se bene gesserint, elicited a sharp 
rebuke from Shelburne (LECZY, England, iv. 
374 n.), and when it was found that the bill, 
on being returned from England, contained 
a clause rendering Irish judges removable 
upon an address of the two houses of the 
British parliament, it was indignantly re- 
jected and the promise regarded as decep- 
tive. Neither for this result nor for the ap- 
pointment of James Hewitt (afterwards Vis- 
count Lifford) [q.v.] to the chancellorship (cf. 
WALPOLE, George III, iii. 78, with Le Mar- 
chant's note, from which it appears that 
Townshend supported Tisdall's claim) was 
he wholly responsible, and there was much 
force in the ridiculous pictures he drew of 
himself with his hands tied behind his back 
and his mouth open; but it wrecked his 
popularity, and rendered the task of obtaining 
an augmentation of the army, on which the 
administration had set its heart, extremely 
difficult. The project was indeed most dis- 
tasteful to the Irish, and,Townshend, who had 
a keen as well as a sympathetic eye for the 
sufferings of the peasantry (cf. his Medita- 
tions upon a late Excursion in Ireland, espe- 
cially the verses beginning l Ill-fated king- 
dom with a fertile soil, Whose factors mock 
the naked peasants' toil'), was obliged to 
confess that the state of the revenue did not 
justify the proposed additional expenditure. 
But his remonstrances were disregarded. A 
bill shortening the duration of parliaments 
to eight years was returned in February 
1768, and it was hoped that the general 
satisfaction with which it was received would 
secure the passing of the augmentation. But 
the hope proved fallacious, and, having dis- 
solved parliament on 28 May, Townshend 

at once threw himself with characteristic 
vehemence into the task of breaking the 
power of the undertakers. To this end seve- 
ral new peerages were created, places extra- 
vagantly multiplied, and, despite the royal 
promise, new pensions granted. Parliament 
met on 17 Oct. 1769, and the indignation 
which his proceedings had aroused showed 
itself in the rejection by the House of 
Commons of the customary privy council 
money bill, expressly on the ground that it 
had not taken its rise with them. But 
having, as they thought, sufficiently asserted 
their privileges, the commons not only voted 
liberal supplies of their own, but also con- 
ceded the desired augmentation in the army. 
Townshend, who had silently acquiesced in 
their proceedings, now that he had obtained 
all that he wanted and more than he ex- 
pected, protested against their conduct over 
the rejected money bill as an infringe- 
ment of Poynings' law, ordered his protest 
to be entered on the journals of both houses, 
and prorogued parliament. His action drew 
down upon him a storm of abuse far exceed- 
ing in violence anything meted out to Henry 
Sidney, viscount Sidney (afterwards earl of 
Romney) [q. v.], on a similar occasion. The 
public press teemed with lampoons in which 
neither his person, his character, nor his habits 
were spared. His administration was ridi- 
culed and himself held up to scorn as a second 
Sancho Panza in a series of powerful letters, 
after the style of Junius, by Sir Hercules 
Langrishe [q. v.J, Flood, and Grattan, after- 
wards collected in a little volume under the 
title of ' Baratariana,' with a frontispiece 
exhibiting Townshend with his tongue tied 
and underneath the words: ' In Coelum 
jusseris, ibit ' ' And bid him go to Hell, to 
Hell he goes.' Angry but not discouraged 
at this display of hostility towards him, 
Townshend held resolutely to his determi- 
nation to break the power of the under- 
takers by the purchase of a majority in the 
House of Commons. Parliament was pro- 
rogued from three months to three months, 
and in the meanwhile public credit and the 
trade of the country suffered from the sus- 
pension of the legislature. When it again met 
on 26 Feb. 1 771, Townshend had accomplished 
his purpose. An address, thanking the king 
for maintaining him in office, was carried by 
132 votes to 107 ; but the speaker, John 
Ponsonby [q. v.], rather than present it, pre- 
ferred to resign. The majority Townshend 
had thus obtained by corruption of the most 
flagrant description he managed to maintain 
by the same means to the end of his admini- 
stration, though more than once defeated and 
mortified by seeing a money bill altered by 




his advice in council rejected without a divi- 
sion. But the process told on his temper. 
He waxed, as Walpole predicted, angry and 
sullen ; the popularity for which he thirsted, 
and to promote which he always wore Irish 
cloth, was denied him, and he sought relief 
for his disappointment in the lowest haunts 
of dissipation (WALPOLE, George J//,ix. 231). 
. At last, when public indignation had reached 
fever heat, he was recalled in September 1772, 
having done more to corrupt and lower the 
tone of political life in Ireland than any 
, previous governor. ' Lord Townshend,' says 
Mr. Lecky (Hist, of Enyland, iv. 401), ' is 
one of the very small number of Irish vice- 
roys who have been personally disliked . . . 
his abilities were superior to those of many of 
his predecessors and successors ; but he was 
utterly destitute of tact and judgment. . . . 
He sought for popularity by sacrificing the 
dignity and decorum of 'his position, and he 
brought both his person and his office into 

Returning to his post as master-general 
of the ordnance, he was on 15 July 1773 
appointed colonel of the 2nd (queen's) regi- 
ment of dragoons, promoted general in the 
army on 20 Nov. 1782, and on 31 Oct. 1786 
created Marquis Townshend of Rainham. 
In addition to other offices held by him, he 
was made lord-lieutenant and custos rotu- 
lorum for the county of Norfolk on 15 Feb. 
1792, vice-admiral of that county on 16 June 
the same year, general on the staff (eastern 
district) from 1793 to 1796, governor of Hull 
on 19 July 1794, governor of Chelsea Hos- 
pital on 16 July 1795, governor of Jersey on 
22 July 1796, field-marshal on 30 July 1796, 
and high steward of Tamworth on 20 Jan. 
1797. But his life after quitting Ireland 
was uneventful. He died at Rainham on 
14 Sept. 1807, and was buried in the family 
vault there on the 28th. 

By his first wife, Lady Charlotte, only 
surviving issue of James Compton, earl of 
Northampton, in her own right Baroness 
de Ferrars, whom he married in December 
1751, and who died at Leixlip Castle in Ire- 
land on 14 Sept. 1770, he had four sons and 
four daughters, of whom the eldest, George, 
second marquis Townshend [q.v.], succeeded 
him. He married, secondly, on 19 May 1773, 
Anne, daughter of Sir William Montgomery, 
M.P. for Ballynekill, who died on 29 March 
1819, and by her had also issue six children. 
A full-length portrait, painted by Reynolds, 
was engraved in mezzotint by C. Turner and 
by R. Jose. Another portrait, by Thomas 
Hudson, was engraved by J. McArdell. 
He is said to have been a very handsome 

[Collins's Peerage, ii. 478-80; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, iii. 543 ; Gent. Mag. 1807, ii. 894, 
974; Pitt Corresp. i. 222, 345, 452, ii. 412, iii. 
279, 435, iv. 340 ; Grenville Papers, ii. 277, iii. 
207, 209, iv. 92, 130, 169, 171, 232 ; Walpole's 
Letters, ed. Cunningham, Last Ten Years of 
George II, Journal of the Eeign of George III, ed. 
Doran, and Memoirs of George III, ed. Barker ; 
An Essay on the Character and Conduct of His 
Excellency Lord Viscount Townshend, 1771 ; 
Flood's Memoirs of H. Flood, pp. 75-81 ; Grat- 
tan's Life of Grattan, i. 95, 98, 101, 102, 172, 
173, 174 ; Observations on a Speech delivered the 
26th Day of December 1769 (attributed to Ro- 
bert Helleri) ; Almon's Biographical Anecdotes, 
i. 101-9; Fitzmaurice's Life of Shelburne; Ba- 
ratariana ; Plowden's Hist. Review; Lecky's 
England in the Eighteenth Century, vol. iv. ; 
Froude's English in Ireland, vol. ii. fHist. MSS. 
Comm. 5th Rep. p. 234, 6th Rep. p. 236, 8th 
Rep. pp. 193, 195-6, 9th Rep. iii. 28-9 ; Towns- 
hend MSS. ; Dartmouth MSS. vol. ii. ; Charle- 
mont MSS. vols. i. andii.; Addit. MSS. (Brit. 
Mus.) 20733 f. 25, 21709, 23635 f. 245, 23654 
f. 62, 23669 f. 63, 23670 f. 261, 24137 (contain- 
ing interesting personal details, cf. Lecky, iv. 
372-3), 30873 f. 77 (to J. Wilkes) ; Corresp. with 
the Duke of Newcastle, 1751-67, 32725 et seq. 
and 33118 ff. 1-24 (despatch on the defence of 
Ireland) ; Egerton MS. 2136, f. 119.] R. D. 

BARON DE FERRARS of Chartley (1755-1811), 
born on 18 April 1755, was the eldest son of 
George Townshend, first marquis [q. v.], by 
his first wife, Lady Charlotte Compton, baro- 
ness de Ferrars. He was educated at Eton 
and St. John's College, Cambridge, and was 
created M. A. on 6 July 1773. On his mother's 
death in 1774 he succeeded to the barony of 
De Ferrars. He served in the army for a 
few years, being gazetted cornet in the 9th 
dragoons on 29 Sept. 1770, lieutenant in the 
4th regiment of horse on 1 Oct. 1771, and 
captain in the 18th light dragoons on 23 Jan. 
1773, and in the 15th (king's) light dragoons 
on 31 Dec. of the same year. In speaking 
in the debate on the address on 26 Oct. 1775 
De Ferrars declared he should oppose all the 
measures of the court, though, out of respect 
to his father, he would not begin that day 
(WALPOLE, Last Journals, i. 512). He did 
not, however, take any prominent part in 
politics. On the return of the whigs to office 
he was made a privy councillor (24 April 
1782), and was nominated captain of the 
band of gentlemen pensioners. To that post- 
he was reappointed by Pitt on 31 Dec. 1783, 
and on 5 March 1784 was named a member 
of the committee of the privy council which 
managed colonial commerce until the con- 
stitution of the board of trade. On 18 May 




of the same year De Ferrars was created 
Earl of Leicester of the county of Leicester. 
When he asked his father's permission to 
assume it, he replied he might take any title 
but that of Viscount Townshend. The earl- 
dom of Leicester had been extinct since 1759, 
and Fox wished to have given it to his friend 
Coke, whose family had possessed it after 
the Sidneys, and to whom it reverted in 
1837 [see COKE, THOMAS WILLIAM of Hoik- 

In February 1788 Leicester signed a pro- 
test against Thurlow's proposal that the 
commons should produce evidence in sup- 
port of Hastings's impeachment before call- 
ing on the defendant. He held the office of 
master of the mint from 20 Jan. 1790 to July 
1794, and that of joint postmaster-general 
from the latter date till February 1799. He 
was named lord steward of the household on 
20 Feb. 1799, and held office till August 
1802.' On the death of his father in 1807 he 
succeeded as second Marquis Townshend. 
Before his death he had sold much of his 
Norfolk property to the Marquis Cornwallis 
and to Edmund Wodehouse. He was much 
interested in archaeology, having the reputa- 
tion of being the best amateur antiquary of his 
time. Walpole writes of his violent passion 
for ancestry, and makes many bantering 
allusions to his taste-for heraldry. In 1784 
Leicester ousted Edward King (1735 P-1807) 
[q. v.] from the presidency of the Society of 
Antiquaries ' in an unprecedented contest 
for the chair ' (NICHOLS). Throsby addressed 
to him his ' Letter on the Roman Cloaca at 
Leicester, 1793;' and four years before he 
obtained from George III "permission for 
Gough to dedicate to him his new edition of 
Camden's ' Britannia.' Leicester was also a 
fellow of the Royal Society and a trustee of 
the British Museum. He died suddenly at 
Richmond on 27 July 1811. A portrait of 
him was engraved by M'Kenzie after a paint- 
ing by J. S. Copley. 

Townshend married, in December 1777, 
Charlotte, second daughter and coheir of 
Mainwaring Ellerker, esq., of Risby Park, 
Yorkshire. She died in 1802. By her he 
had two sons, George Ferrars and Charles 
Vere Ferrars, who died without issue. 

1855), was disinherited by his father, who 
also gave his library and pictures to Charles, 
his second son. He lived chiefly abroad. 
On his death at Genoa on 31 Dec. 1855, 
the earldom of Leicester became extinct. 
He was succeeded in the marquisate by his 
cousin, John Townshend (1798-1863), son of 
Lord John Townshend of Balls Park, Hert- 

fordshire. George Ferrars Townshend's wife 
fcarah, daughter of John Dunn-Gardner of 
Ghattens, left him a year after marriage and 
on 24 Oct. 1809 went through a ceremony at 
Gretna Green with John Margetts. Their son 
John was baptised at St. George's, Blooms- 
bury, m December 1823, under the name of 
Townshend, and afterwards assumed the title 
of Earl of Leicester. He represented Bodmin 
for several years. All the children of the 
Gretna Green marriage having been declared 
illegitimate by an act of parliament of 1842 
he assumed his mother's maiden name. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage; G.E. C[okayne]'s 
Peerage; Gent. Mag. 1811, ii. 93; Walpole's 
Letters (Cunningham), vii. 159, 192, 204, 372, 
viii. 556, ix. 156-7; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vi! 
279-80, viii. 58, 338, ix. 87 n.; Neale's Views 
of Seats, vol. iii. with view of Kainham Hall, en- 
graved by J. F. Hay ; Eogers's Protests of the 
Lords, Nos. 103, 114, 115; Evans's Cat. Engr. 
Portraits ; Carthew's Hundred of Launditch, iii. 
296; Wraxall's Memoirs (Wheatley), iii. 356; 
Diary of Mme. D'Arblay, 1890, i. 243.] 

G LE G. N. 

author of ' Historical Collections,' was son 
and heir of Sir Henry Townshend, knight, 
of Cound, Shropshire, second justice of Ches- 
ter, one of the council of the marches of 
Wales, and M.P. for Ludlow, 1614, by his 
first wife Susan, daughter of Sir Rowland 
Hayward, knight, of London. He was born 
in 1577, entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 
as a gentleman-commoner in 1590, and 
graduated B.A. on 22 Feb. 1594-5, and be- 
came a barrister-at-law of Lincoln's Inn in 
1601. On 16 Oct. 1597, and again on 3 Oct. 
1601, he was elected member of parliament 
for Bishops Castle, his colleague in the 
earlier parliament being Sir Edmund Bayn- 
ham, one of the gunpowder plot con- 
spirators. He was the youngest member of 
the House of Commons. In 1601 he made a 
motion to restrain the number of common 
solicitors, and to prevent perjury, also in 
committee to abolish monopolies. Sir 
Francis Bacon referred to one of his speeches 
as ' the wise and discreet speech made by 
the young gentleman, even the youngest in 
this assembly.' He died without issue before 

Townshend's fame rests upon his parlia- 
mentary report, published posthumously in 
1680, entitled ' Historical Collections; or, 
An exact Account of the Proceedings of the 
Four last Parliaments of Q. Elizabeth of 
Famous Memory. Wherein is contained The 
Compleat Journals both of the Lords and 
Commons, Taken from the Original Records 
of their Houses, &c., Faithfully and Labori- 




ously Collected By Hey wood Townshend, 
esq., a Member in those Parliaments.' This 
book contains a journal of the proceedings 
of parliament from 4 Feb. 1588 to 19 Dec. 
160*1. Part of the original is in Rawl. MS. 
A 100 (in Bodleian Library), and a seven- 
teenth century transcript is in Stowe MSS. 
362-3 (at the British Museum). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. i. 72+, ii. 3 ; Wood's 
Fasti, i. 266 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. early ser. 
iv. 1500; Shropshire Archieological Transac- 
tions, 2nd ser. x. 38 ; Nash's Worcestershire, i. 
378.] W. G. D. F. 

VISCOUNT TOWNSHEND (1630 P-1687), born 
about 1630, was the second son of Sir 
Roger, the first baronet, by Mary, daughter 
and coheiress of Horatio de Vere, baron. 
Vere of Tilbury [see under TOWNSHEND, 
SIE ROGER, 1543 P-1590]. On the death of 
his elder brother Roger in 1648 he became 
heir to the Townshend baronetcy and estates. 
Three years before, on 27 Nov. 1645, he had 
been created M. A. of Cambridge. 

Townshend was returned as one of the 
members for Norfolk on 10 Jan. 1658-9, and 
in the ensuing May was named a member of 
the council of state which was to hold office 
till December (WHITELOCKE, Memorials, p. 
678). In the following month, however, 
Clarendon speaks of him as using his in- 
fluence in Norfolk and borrowing money for 
the royalist cause; and in September Nicholas 
writes of him to Ormonde as one ready to at- 
tempt anything for the king if five thousand 
men could be sent from France or Flanders. 
Together with Lord "Willoughby of Parham 
he planned the seizure of King's Lynn, but 
both were arrested before the attempt could 
be made. On 28 Jan. 1660 Townshend, with 
Lord Richardson and Sir John Hobart, de- 
livered to Speaker Lenthall a declaration of 
three hundred gentry of Norfolk praying for 
the recall of the members secluded in 1648, 
and for the filling up of vacant places with- 
out oath or engagement (ib. p. 694; KENNET, 
Meg. Chron. p. 35). In the same month he 
delivered a letter from Charles II to Fairfax, 
causing him to assemble his old soldiers and 
march on York (CLARENDON). On 14 May 
Townshend arrived at The Hague as one of 
the deputation sent to invite Charles II to 
return (ib. ; cf. KENNET, p. 133). In Septem- 
ber he received a letter from Charles ap- 
pointing him governor of King's Lynn. In 
reward for his services in forwarding the 
Restoration he was created on 20 April 1661 
Baron Townshend of Lynn Regis. In the 
ensuing August he was appointed lord-lieu- 
tenant, and a year later vice-admiral of 

Norfolk. In September 1664 he and Lord 
Cornbury went to Norwich to compose the 
differences between the city and the cathe- 
dral chapter. In March 1665 Townshend 
was granted two-thirds of ' certain marsh 
lands in or near Walton and other places in 
the counties of Cambridge, Lincoln, and 
Norfolk, as settled upon the late king when 
he undertook to drain the same ... on con- 
dition of his prosecuting his Majesty's right 
and title to the same at his own expense and 
paying certain fee-farm rents.' 

In September 1666 Townshend was re- 
ported to Secretary Williamson as very active 
in sending fanatics to prison and in settling 
the militia ; and five years later is spoken of 
as having purged ' the House ' at Great Yar- 
mouth of all the independents and most of the 
presbyterians. In June 1667 he received 
the command of a regiment of foot which he 
had raised, and on 14 Aug. Charles II wrote 
to thank him for his zeal in his service, espe- 
cially during the late alarm from the Dutch 
fleet. In 1671 the king and queen paid him 
a visit at Rainham. In the same year Towns- 
hend was awarded 5,000/. damages in an 
action for scandalum magnatum at the Nor- 
wich assizes. In November 1675 he was 
one of the large minority who supported the 
address to the king for the dissolution of 
the parliament, and he signed the protest 
against its rejection (ROGERS, Protests of 
the Lords, No. 47). He was advanced to the 
dignity of Viscount Townshend of Rainham 
on 2 Dec. 1682. 

Townshend died in December 1687. He 
married, in 1658, Mary, daughter arid heiress 
of Edward Lewknor of Denham, Suffolk ; 
and, after her death without issue in 1673, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Joseph Ashe, bart., of 
Twickenham. She died in December 1685, 
leaving three sons, of whom the eldest, 
Charles, second viscount Townshend, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

A portrait of Townshend was engraved 
by Edwards, and a fine original drawing in 
colours was made by Gardiner. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; G-. E. C[okayne]'s 
Peerage ; Eet. Memb. Parl ; Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, iii. 410, v. 510, vii. 136 ; Manship's Yar- 
mouth, ed. Palmer, ii. 215 n. ; Clarendon's Hist, 
of the Rebellion, xvi. 24, 38, 117 ; Gal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1658-71 ; Evans's Catalogue of 
Engr. Portraits; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Eep. 
p. 370, 10th Rep. vi. 196-9; the Townshend 
papers at Rainham (llth Eep. pt. iv.) contain- 
ing the first viscount's correspondence.] 

G-. LB G-. N. 

1837), Irish writer, son of Philip Townshend 
of Ross, co. Cork, was born there in 1750, 




and entered Trinity College, Dublin, about 
1768. He graduated B.A. in 1770, and 
M.A. in 1776. He was incorporated at 
Magdalen College, Oxford, on 15 April 1776. 
He took orders, and was given the living of 
Rosscarbery, co. Cork, where he resided for 
the rest of his life. His most important work 
is a ' Statistical Survey of the County of 
Cork,' which was first published in one volume 
in Dublin in 1810. A second edition of the 
work, in two volumes, was published in Cork 
in 1815. Another work by Townshend was 
4 A Tour through Ireland and the Northern 
Parts of Great Britain,' 8vo, London, 1821. 
He also wrote a good deal of local and 

'Kelly [q, j 
articles for ' Blackwood's Magazine ' under the 
signature of ' Senex,' and to ' Bolster's Cork 
Magazine,' 1828-31. He died on 26 March 

[Windale's Cork and Killarney; O'Doiioghue's 
Poets of Ireland; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, 
1715-1886; Todd's List, of Dublin Graduates.] 

D. J. O'D. 

TOWNSHEND, JOHN (1789-1845), 
colonel, was the eldest surviving son of 
Richard Boyle Townshend, high sheriff for 
co. Cork and M.P. in the Irish House of 
Commons, by his wife, Henrietta, daughter 
of John Newenham of Maryborough. He 
was born at Castletownshend on 11 June 
1789, and on 24 Jan. 1805 was appointed 
cornet in the 14th light dragoons. He be- 
came lieutenant on 8 March 1806, by pur- 
chase, and captain on 6 June, without pur- 
chase. On 16 Dec. 1808 he sailed from Fal- 
inouth with his regiment for Portugal. He 
was first engaged on the plains of Vogo on 
10 May 1809, was in close pursuit of the 
enemy on the llth, and was present at the 
crossing of the Douro and capture of Oporto 
on the 12th under Sir Arthur Wellesley. 
He took part in several skirmishes with 
the French rear-guard during their retreat 
into Spain, in the engagements of 27 and 
28 July 1809 at Talavera, and in an affair 
with the enemy's advanced post on 11 July 
1810 in front 'of Ciudad Rodrigo. He was 
engaged with the enemy on 24 July 1810 at 
the passage of the Coa, near Almeida, under 
the command of Major-general Craufurd, and 
in several skirmishes of the rear-guard from 
Almeida to Busaco. He was present with 
the army on the march from Busaco to 
Coimbra, and to the lines of Torres Vedras, 
where the army arrived in October 1810. 
From 6 March to 14 April 1811 he was 
engaged in the several affairs and skirmishes 
on the enemy's retreat from Santarem to the 


frontiers of Spain. In the engagements of 
3 and 5 May 1811 at Fuentes d'Onor he 
was employed as aide-de-camp to Sir Staple- 
ton Cotton [q.v.] He was present at the 
affair with the enemy's lancers at Espega on 
25 Sept. 1811. He was employed on duty 
at the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in December 
1811 and January 1812; at the siege of 
Badajoz in March and April 1812 ; at the 
battles of Salamanca on 22 July following, 
and of Vittoria on 21 June 1813, when the 
whole of the enemy's baggage was taken or 
destroyed. On 24 June 1813 he took part in 
the taking of the enemy's last gun near Pam- 
peluna, under the command of Major Brother- 
ton of the same regiment, and was constantly 
engaged with the enemy until the battle of 
Orthes on 27 Feb. 1814. On 8 March fol- 
lowing he was made prisoner of war in an 
affair with the enemy near the city of Pau, 
but was quickly released. 

Townshend was subsequently present at 
New Orleans in America on 8 Jan. 1815. He 
was made brevet major on 21 Jan. 1819, as a 
reward for his services during the Peninsular 
war; major in the regiment, by purchase, on 
13 Sept. 1821 ; lieutenant-colonel, by pur- 
chase, on 16 April 1829 ; and aide-de-camp 
to the queen and colonel in the army on 
23 Nov. 1841. In 1827, on the death of his 
father, he succeeded to the family estates at 
Castletownshend. In 1831 he was one of 
the board of officers appointed by the general 
commanding in chief, under Lord Edward 
Somerset, for revising the formations and 
movements of cavalry. He served with his 
regiment in India for some years, but em- 
barked at Bombay for England in November 

1844. He landed in England in January 

1845, and died unmarried at Castletowns- 
hend on 22 April of the same year. A 
monument was erected to his memory in the 
church of Castletownshend by the officers 
of his regiment. He was succeeded in his 
estates by his brother, the Rev. Maurice 
Fitzgerald Stephens-Townshend. 

[An account of Colonel Ki chard TWnesend 
and his family, by Richard and Dorothea Towns- 
hend, 1892; Eecord of Colonel Townshend's 
services.] W. W. W. 

judge and founder of the Townshend family, 
was son and heir of John Townshend (d. 
1465) of Rainham, Norfolk, by his wife 
Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Robert Lun- 
ford of Romford in Essex and Battle in 
Sussex. The family had long been settled 
in Norfolk, and in ancient charters the name 
was latinised as 'ad Exitum Villae' ('at 
town's end'). Roger was in September 1454 
admitted student at Lincoln's Inn, of which 




he was governor in 1461, and again in 1463, 
1465, and 1466. His name occurs in the 
year-books from Hilary term 1465 onwards. 
On 24 July 1466 he was placed on the com- 
mission of the peace in Norfolk (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, Edw. IV, p. 568), and in April 1467 he 
was returned, probably through the in- 
fluence of his mother's family, to parliament 
for Bramber, Sussex. His legal practice 
was evidently considerable, and on 9 Nov. 
1469 he bought from Sir John Paston (1442- 
1479) [q. v.], for 66/. 13s. 4^., his manor of 
East Beckham, with all his lands in West 
Beckham, Bodham, Sheringham, Beeston 
Regis, Runton, Shipden, Felbrigg, Aylmerton, 
Sustead, and Gresham, all near Cromer in 
Norfolk (Paston Letters, ii. 391). He seems 
to have acted as legal adviser to the Paston 
family; in June 1470 he was counsel for 
John Paston who was tried on a charge of 
felony at the Norwich sessions for shooting 
two men. Sir John borrowed money of 
Townshend, and by 1477 owed him four 
hundred marks (ib. ii. 397-9, iii. 199, 255). 
On 15 Sept. 1472 Townshend was returned 
to parliament for Calne in Wiltshire. He 
was double reader at Lincoln's Inn in 1468, 
and again in 1474, and in October 1477 was 
made serjeant-at-law, becoming king's ser- 
jeant in 1483 (RYMER, xii. 186). Richard III 
appointed him justice of the common pleas 
about January 1484, and Henry VII not 
only retained him in this position, but 
knighted him on Whitsunday 1486. On 
14 July following he was placed on the 
commission of oyer and terminer for London 
and its suburbs, and on 7 April 1487 was 
made commissioner of array for Norfolk. 
In 1489 he was appointed on the commis- 
sions for the peace in Sussex, Essex, and 
Hertfordshire, and on commissions for gaol 
delivery at Hertford, Colchester, and Guild- 
ford (CAMPBELL, Materials, i. 428, ii. 135, 
325, 477-83). According to Dugdale, the 
last fine acknowledged before him was at 
midsummer 1493. He died on 9 Nov. fol- 
lowing, his will being dated 14 Aug. (Cal. 
Inquis. post mortem, 1898, vol. i. Nos. 1028, 
1136, 1143 ; BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk,vu. 131). 
Eoss erroneously states that Townshend 
continued sitting in court until Michaelmas 

Townshend's first wife was Anne, daugh- 
ter and heir of Sir William Brews or 
Braose, who brought him the manor of 
Stinton, Norfolk. By her, who died on 
31 Oct. 1489, he had six sons and six 
daughters ; the eldest son, Sir Roger (1477- 
1551), was thrice sheriff of Norfolk, which he 
also represented in parliament in 1529 and 
1541-2. Dying without issue, on 30 Nov. 

1551, he was succeeded by his great-nephew, 
Sir Roger (1543 P-1590) [q. v.] The judge's 
second wife's name was Eleanor, who was 
his executrix, and died in 1500. 

[Authorities cited ; Dugdale's Orig. Jurid. and 
Chronica Ser. ; Visitation of Norfolk (Harleian 
Soc.); Lincoln's Inn Records, i. 12 ; Rye's Nor- 
folk Records ; Collins's Peerage, vi. 36-9 ; Off. 
Return of Members of Parliament ; Blomefield's 
Norfolk, passim ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

A. F. P. 

1590), courtier, of East Rainham, Norfolk, 
born about 1543, was son and heir of Ri- 
chard Townshend, of Brampton, Norfolk, by- 
Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Humphrey Browne, justice of the common 
pleas [see under TOWNSHEND, SIR ROGER, 
d. 1493]. He was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, but did not graduate. Both 
he and his wife held court offices under Eliza- 
beth, and they and the queen exchanged 
presents on New Year's day of various years 
between 1576 and 1581. In the latter year 
Philip, earl of Arundel, made a deed of gift 
to Townshend and William Dyx of all his 
goods, jewels, and other property, in con- 
sideration of the payment of certain sums 
of money (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80 
p. 469, 1581-90, p. 117). Besides his Norfolk 
property Townshend purchased from Thomas 
Sutton (1532-1611) [q. v.] an estate at Stoke 
Newington, Middlesex, and also acquired 
property in Essex. He served with the fleet 
against the Spanish armada, and on 26 July 
1588 was knighted at sea by Lord Howard 
of Effingham. His portrait was to be seen 
on the margin of the tapestry in the House 
of Lords (destroyed by fire in 1834) depict- 
ing the defeat of the Armada [see PINE, 
JOHN]. He died two years later, in June 
1590, at Stoke Newington, and was buried on 
the 30th in the church of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate. He married, about 1564, Jane, youngest 
daughter of Sir Michael Stanhope [q. v.] of 
Shelford, Nottinghamshire, who in 1597 was 
remarried to Henry, lord Berkeley. 

His eldest ' son, SIR JOHN TOWNSHEND 
(1564-1603), sat in parliament from 1593 to 
1601, served in the Low Countries under 
Sir Francis Vere in 1592, and four years 
later accompanied Essex in his expedition 
against Cadiz, and was knighted for his 
services. He was mortally wounded in 
1603 in a duel on Hounslow Heath with 
Sir Matthew Browne, who was killed on 
the spot. Townshend died of his wounds 
on 2 Aug. His son, Sir Roger (1588-1637), 
who was created a baronet on 16 April 
1617, was father of Horatio, first viscount 
Townshend [q. v.] 



[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 93, 355, where 
are full lists of authorities ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Carthew's Hundred of Launditch, vols. 
ii. iii. passim ; Playfair's Brit. Families of An- 
tiquity, i. 181-2 ; Fuller's Worthies of England, 
ii. 152-3; Kennet's Register and Chronicle, p. 
409 n. ; Kichards's Hist, of King's Lynn, i. 168.1 

GK LE a. N. 

COUNT SYDNEY (1733-1800), born on 24 Feb. 
1733, was the only son of Thomas Towns- 
hend (1701-1780) [see under TOWNSHEND, 
CHARLES, second VISCOUNT], by his wife 
Albinia, daughter of John Selwynof Matson, 
Gloucestershire, and Chislehurst, Kent. 
Charles Townshend [q. v.], the chancellor of 
the exchequer, and George Townshend, first 
marquis Townshend [q. v.], were his first 
cousins, and George Augustus Selwyn (1719- j 
1791) [q.v.], the wit, was his maternal uncle. 
Thomas was educated, like many members of 
the family, at Clare College, Cambridge, 
whence he graduated M.A. in 1753 (Grad. 
Cantabr. p. 476). On 17 April 1754, when 
barely of age, he was returned to parliament for 
Whitchurcli, Hampshire, which he repre- 
sented without interruption until his eleva- 
tion to the peerage in 1783. Townshend was 
from his family connections inevitably a 
whig, and about 1755 he was appointed clerk 
of the household to George, prince of Wales, 
afterwards George III. In 1760 the elder 
Pitt made him clerk of the board of green 
cloth ; but his conduct did not satisfy the 
1 king's friends,' and in 1762 he was sum- 
marily dismissed, with others of Pitt's ad- 
herents (WALPOLE, Memoirs of George III, 
ed. Barker, i. 185). He continued in op- 
position during Grenville's ministry, and in 
April 1765, when Grenville justified his 
American mutiny bill by quoting Scots law, 
Townshend ' spoke well and warmly against 
making Scotch law our precedent' (id. ii. 
65). In the same session he took an active 
part in the discussion of the regency bill. 
Rockingham's advent to power in July 
brought Townshend into office as a lord of 
the treasury, and in January 1766 he moved 
the address to the throne in the House of 
Commons. He continued in that office when 
Pitt formed a government under the nominal 
headship of the Duke of Grafton in August 
1766; and on 23 Dec. 1767, when the 
ministry was remodelled on Chatham's re- 
tirement, Townshend became joint-paymaster 
of the forces and was sworn of the privy 
council. In June 1768 Grafton wished to 
gratify Richard Rigby [q. v.] with this post, 
and offered Townshend the vice-treasurership 
of Ireland. Townshend refused ' to be turned 
backwards and forwards every six months/ 

and resigned office in disgust (ib. iii. 152; 
Rigby to Bedford in Bedford Corresp. iii. 
401). He remained in opposition throughout 
the remainder of Grafton's and the whole of 
Lord North's administrations, making steady 
progress in the opinion of the house and 
country. He possessed, says Wraxall, 'a 
very independent fortune and considerable 
parliamentary interest two circumstances 
which greatly contributed to his personal, 
no less than to his political, elevation ; for his 
abilities, though respectable, scarcely rose 
above mediocrity. Yet, as he always spoke 
with facility, sometimes with energy, and 
was never embarrassed by any degree of 
timidity, he maintained a conspicuous place 
in the front ranks of the opposition' (Me- 
moirs of the Reign of George III, ii. 45). In 
February 1769, according to Walpole, he 
strongly opposed the unseating of Wilkes 
by the House of Commons, and threatened 
' that the freeholders of Middlesex would in 
a body petition the king to dissolve parlia- 
ment,' a threat which Lord North as ' the 
most punishable ' breach of privilege re- 
corded in the history of the house (WAL- 
POLE, Memoirs, iii. 224 ; Parliamentary 
Debates, i. 229, where, however, Cavendish 
attributes the speech to James Townshend). 
In 1770 Townshend was proposed as speaker 
in opposition to Sir Fletcher Norton [q. v.], 
but declined to stand for election and himself 
voted for Norton. On 11 April 1771 he 
made a speech, which Walpole says was 
much admired, against the ' king's friends,' 
declaring that they had no right to that 
title, but should rather be called les serviteurs 
des evenemens. Later on he denounced Lord 
North for the levity of his conduct amid the 
disasters of the American war ; ' happen 
what will/ he said, ' the noble lord is ready 
with his joke ' (WRAXALL, i. 365). 

When at length North was forced to re- 
sign, Townshend reaped the reward of his 
persistent opposition, and on 27 March 1782 
became secretary at war in Rockingham's 
second administration. The fleath of Rock- 
ingham four months later led to the schism 
of his followers into two sections, one 
headed by Shelburne and the other by 
Fox. Townshend threw in his lot with the 
former, succeeding Shelburne at the home 
office when Shelburne became prime mini- 
ster. In this capacity he was nominally 
leader of the House of Commons from July 
1782 to April 1783, but the real burden of 
the defence of the ministry fell upon the 
vounger Pitt (STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, i. 51, 
80). On 17 Feb., however, Townshend 
made an excellent defence of the peace con- 
cluded with the American colonies, and 




' may really be said to have in some measure 
earned on that night the peerage which he 
soon afterwards obtained ' (W RAX ALL, ii. 
424). It failed to save the government, 
which a few hours later was defeated by the 
combined votes of the followers of Fox and 
North. The king recognised Townshend's 
services by creating him Baron Sydney of 
Chislehurst on 6 March following. 

While in opposition Sydney on 30 June 
1783 protested in the lords against the re- 
jection of a bill which Pitt had carried 
through the commons to check abuses in 
public offices (ROGERS, Lords' Protests, ii. 
213) ; and when in December George III 
entrusted Pitt with the task of ridding him 
of the hated coalition, Sydney became Pitt's 
secretary of state for the home department 
(23 Dec.) In the House of Lords, however, 
Sydney lost much of his vigour and reputa- 
tion, and ' seemed to have sunk into an 
ordinary man.' Wraxall suggests that he 
owed his continuance in office to the fact 
that his daughter had married Pitt's elder 
brother, Lord Chatham ; and Lord Rosebery 
says that he is * now chiefly remembered by 
Goldsmith's famous line ' (Pitt, p. 46), 
where in the l Retaliation ' he speaks of 
Burke : ' Though fraught with all learning, 
yet straining his throat To persuade Tommy 
Townshend to lend him a vote.' Sydney's 
tenure of the home department, with which 
the colonies were then united, was, however, 
marked by an episode that has given his 
name wider celebrity than Goldsmith's line. 
As early as 1785 a proposal had been under 
consideration for forming a settlement in 
New South Wales (SiB G. YOUNG, Fac- 
simile of a Proposal for a Settlement on the 
Coast of New South Wales in 1785, Sydney, 
1888). The object was mainly to provide 
an outlet for the convicts who had pre- 
viously been sent to America, and then after 
the war to the west coast of Africa, until it 
was found that that was almost always 
equivalent to a sentence of death. But a 
hope was also entertained from the first that 
the convict element when reformed would 
become the nucleus of a colony (LANG, 
Hist, of New South Wales, 4th edit. i. 12). 
Active preparations were begun in 1786, and 
the organisation and command of the ex- 
pedition were entrusted to Arthur Phillip 
[q. v.] He sailed in May 1787, and on 
26 Jan. 1788 founded a town in Port Jack- 
son which was named Sydney in honour of 
the secretary of state (cf. Gent. Mag. 1791, 
i. 276 ; Geographical, Commercial, and 
Political Essays, 1813, pp. 193-5 et seqq. ; 
THERRY, New South Wales ; BARTON, New 
South Wales, 1892; RTJSDEN, History of 

Australia ; ' The Making of Sydney ' in 
United Service Mag. viii. 336). 

A year later Sydney ceased to be secretary 
of state. He had disagreed with Pitt's India 
bill of 1784 ; in 1787 he spoke, but did not 
vote, against his slave regulation bill, and 
Pitt was said to be anxious for more sub- 
servient colleagues. On 5 June 1789 he was 
succeeded as secretary by Grenville ; his 
retirement was, however, solaced by his 
creation as Viscount Sydney and the grant 
of the chief-justiceship in eyre of forests 
north of the Trent, worth 2,600/. a year 
(STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, ii. 33 ; Cornwallis 
Corresp. ii. 5). He was a governor of the 
Charterhouse, and from 1793 deputy- lieute- 
nant of Kent, but henceforth took little part 
in politics. He died of apoplexy at Chisle- 
hurst on 13 June 1800. A portrait, engraved 
after G. Stuart, is given in Doyle. 

Sydney married, on 19 May 1760, Eliza- 
beth (d. 1 May 1826), eldest daughter and 
coheir of Richard Powys ; by her he had 
issue two sons and four daughters, of whom 
the second, Mary Elizabeth, married in 1783 
John Pitt, second Earl of Chatham ; and the 
fourth, Harriet Katherine, married in 1795 
Charles William Scott, fourth duke of Buc- 
cleuch [see under SCOTT, HENRY, third DTJKE]. 
The eldest son, John Thomas Townshend 
(1764-1831), was under- secretary of state 
for the home department under his father 
from 1783 to 1789 ; was a lord of the admiralty 
from 1789 to May 1793 ; and a lord of the 
treasury from 1793 to June 1800, when he 
succeeded his father as second Viscount 
Sydney. He was lord of the bedchamber 
to George III from 1800 to 1810, and died 
on 30 Jan. 1831. He was succeeded as third 
viscount by his son, John Robert Townshend 
(1805-1 890), who was lord of the bedchamber 
to William IV in 1835, lord-in-waiting to 
Queen Victoria from 1841 to 1846, lord cham- 
berlain of the household in Gladstone's first 
administration from 1868 to 1874, and was 
created Earl Sydney of Seadbury on 27 Feb. 
1874. He was lord steward of the house- 
hold in Gladstone's second and third ad- 
ministrations (1880-5 and 1886), and died 
without issue on 14 Feb. 1890, when the 
title became extinct. 

[Burke, Doyle, and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peer- 
ages ; Walpole's Memoirs of the Eeign of 
George III, ed. Barker, and Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham ; Wraxall's Posthumous Memoirs, ed. 
Wheatley; Bedford Correspondence, ed. Russell, 
iii. 401 ; Jesse's George Selwyn and his Contem- 
poraries, passim ; Jesse's Mem. of the Life and 
Reign of George III, i. 407 ; Forster's Gold- 
smith ; Cavendish's Parliamentary Debates ; 
Annual Reg. 1800, p. 62; Gent. Mag. 1800, ii. 




695 ; Stanhope's Hist, of England, and Life of 
Pitt ; Lecky's History of England, 1892, v. 169. 
240, 303.] A. F. P. 

ROBERT (1575-1621), bishop of Salisbury, 
son of 'Renold Toulnesonn,' and uncle of 
Thomas Fuller (1608-1661) [q. v.],was bap- 
tised on 8 Jan. 1575-6 in the parish of St. 
Botolph, Cambridge. He was admitted a 
sizar of Queens' College, Cambridge, on 

28 Dec. 1587. He graduated M.A. in 1595, 
was elected a fellow on 2 Sept. 1597, and 
was incorporated at Oxford on 10 July 1599, 
proceeding B.D. in 1602, and D.D. in 1613. 
On 13 April 1604 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Wellingborough in Northamp- 
tonshire, and on 16 Feb. 1606-7 by William 
Tate to the rectory of Old in the same county, 
which he retained till 1620. He was also 
appointed a royal chaplain, and on 16 Dec. 
1617 was installed dean of Westminster. In 
this capacity he attended Sir Walter Ralegh 
both in prison and on the scaffold, and de- 
scribed his ' last behaviour ' in a letter to Sir 
John Isham ( Walteri Hemingford Historia 
de rebus gestis Edwardi /, &c., ed. Hearne, 
1731, vol. i. p. clxxxiv). On 9 July 1620 he 
was consecrated bishop of Salisbury, died 
' in a mean condition ' on 15 May 1621, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. On 17 June 
1604 he married Margaret, daughter of John 
Davenant, citizen and merchant of London, 
sister of John Davenant [q. v.], who suc- 
ceeded him as bishop of Salisbury, and widow 
of William Townley. By her, who died on 

29 Oct. 1634 and was buried in Salisbury 
Cathedral, he had a large family. Two sons, 
Robert and John, afterwards received pre- 
ferment in their uncle Davenant's diocese. 
His daughter Gertrude married James Harris 
(1605-1679) of Salisbury, ancestor of the 
earls of Malmesbury. 

[Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 247, 860; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 283 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 17; Chester's 
Registers of Westminster Abbey, pp. 64, 117; 
Bridges's Hist, of Northamptonshire, ed.Whalley, 
1791, ii. 151 ; Fuller's Worthies of England, fd. 
Nichols, 1811, i. 159 ; Cassan's Bishops of Salis- 
bury, ii. 107-11.] E. I. C. 

TOWNSON, ROBERT (ft. 1792-1799), 
traveller and mineralogist, was probably a 
native of Yorkshire. In 1793 he made a 
journey through Hungary, an account of 
which he published in 1797 under the title 
'Travels in Hungary' (London, 8vo). In 
1795 he graduated M.D. at Gottingen Uni- 
versity. He was a member of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. 

Besides the work mentioned, he wrote : 

1. ' Observationes physiologicae de Amphi- 
biis,' Gottingen, 1794, 4to. 2. < The Philo- 
sophy of Mineralogy,' London, 1798, 8vo. 
3. ' Tracts and Observations in Natural 
History and Physiology,' London, 1799, 8vo. 
He also contributed a paper on the ' Per- 
ceptivity of Plants ' to the < Transactions ' 
of the Linnean Society (ii. 267). 

[Townson's Works; Britten and Boulger's 
British and Irish Botanists ; Lit. Memoirs of 
Living Authors of Great Britain, 1798.] 

E. I. C. 

TOWNSON, THOMAS (1715-1792), 
divine, born at Much Lees, Essex, in 1715, 
was the eldest son of John Townson, rector 
of that parish, by his wife Lucretia, daughter 
of Edward Wiltshire, rector of Kirk Andrews, 
Cumberland. He was educated first under 
the care of Henry Nott, vicar of Terling, and 
next in the grammar school at Felsted. He 
matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, 
on 13 March 1732-3, and was elected a 
demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1733, 
and probationary fellow in 1737. He gradu- 
ated B.A. on 20 Oct. 1736, M.A. on 20 June 
1739, B.D. on 13 June 1750, and D.D., by 
diploma, on 23 Feb. 1779. He was ordained 
priest in 1742, and, after making a tour on 
the continent, resumed tutorial work at Ox- 

In 1746 he was instituted to the vicarage 
of Hatfield Peverel, Essex, and in 1749 he 
was senior proctor of the university. Re- 
signing Hatfield in the latter year, he was 
presented to the rectory of Blithfield, Staf- 
fordshire, and on 2 Jan. 1751-2 he was 
instituted to the lower mediety of Malpas, 
Cheshire, where he thenceforth resided. In 
1758, when he received a bequest of 8,000/. 
from William Barcroft, rector of Fairstead 
and vicar of Kelvedon in Essex, he resigned 
Blithefield and applied himself more espe- 
cially to literary pursuits. On 30 Oct. 1781 
he was collated to the archdeaconry of Rich- 
mond, and in 1783 was offered by Lord North 
the regius professorship of divinity at Ox- 
ford, which he declined on account of his 
advanced age. He died at Malpas on 15 April 

His works are: 1. 'Doubts concerning 
the Authenticity of the last Publication of 
" The Confessional "' . . . [by Francis Black- 
burne, q.v.J, London, 1767, *8vo; and also a 
' Defence ' of these ' Doubts,' London, 1768, 
8vo. 2. ' A Dialogue between Isaac Walton 
and Homologistes, concerning Bishop San- 
derson,' London, 1768. 3. 'Discourses on the 
Four Gospels,' Oxford, 1778, 4to ; 2nd edit. 
1788, 8vo : two parts of a German transla- 
tion by D. J. S. Semler were published at 
Leipzig, 1783-4, 8vo. 4. < A Discourse on the 




Evangelical History, from the Interment to 
the Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ/ 
Oxford, 1793, 8vo. The editor of this work 
was the Rev. Thomas Bagshaw, M.A. (Bos- 
WELL, Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, ii. 259). 
5. * Babylon in the Revelation of St. John, 
as signifying the City of Rome ' [edited by 
Ralph Churton], Oxford, 1797, 8vo. 

There subsequently appeared ' The Works 
of Thomas Townson ; to which is prefixed 
an Account of the Author,' by R. Churton,' 
2 vols. London, 1810, 8vo ; and 'Practical 
Discourses : a Selection from the unpublished 
manuscripts of the late Venerable Thomas 
Townson, D.D.,' privately printed, London, 
1828, 8vo, with the biographical memoir by 
Churton. These * Discourses' were edited 
by John Jebb, D.D., bishop of Limerick ; they 
were reprinted in 1830. 

[Life by Churton prefixed to Works; Bloxam's 
Magdalen College Register, vi. 233 ; Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, iv. 302 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. modern ser. iv. 1432; Simms's 
Biblioth. Stafford. ; Sargeaunt's History of 
Felstead School, pp. 5] -3; Gent. Mag. 1810 
ii. 48, 1830 i. 239 ; Martin's Privately Printed 
Books, 1854, p. 360 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] T. 0. 

1809), captain in the navy, born on 4 March 
1767, one of a family which for several 
generations had served in or been connected 
with the navy, was the son of George Philipps 
Towry, for many years a commissioner of 
victualling. His grandfather, Henry John 
Philipps Towry (d. 1762), a captain in the 
navy, was the nephew of Captain John 
Towry (d. 1757), sometime commissioner 
of the navy at Port Mahon, and took the 
name of Towry on succeeding to his uncle's 
property in 1760. George Henry Towry was 
for some time at Eton, while his name was 
borne on the books of various ships. In 
June 1782 he joined the Alexander as cap- 
tain's servant with Lord Longford, and was 
present at the relief of Gibraltar under Lord 
Howe, and the rencounter with the allied 
fleet off Cape Spartel [see HOWE, RICHARD, 
EARL]. He afterwards served in the Car- 
natic with Captain Molloy, in the Royal 
Charlotte yacht with Captain (afterwards 
Sir William) Cornwallis [q.v.], and in the 
Europa : from October 1784 to March 1786 
in the Hebe with Captain (afterwards Sir 
Edward) Thornbrough [q. v.], in which ship 
Prince William Henry (afterwards King 
William IV) was one of the lieutenants ; and 
from March 1786 to December 1787 in the 
Pegasus with Prince William as captain. 
On 6 Feb. 1788 he passed his examination, 
and on 23 Oct. 1790 was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant. Early in 1793, by Lord 

Hood's desire, he was appointed to theVictory , 
in which he went out to the Mediterranean, 
where in the spring of 1794 he was made 
commander, and on 18 June 1794 was posted 
to the Dido, a 28-gun frigate [see HOOD, 

On 24 June 1795, being in company with 
the Lowestoft of 32 guns, on her way from 
Minorca to look into Toulon, the Dido fell 
in with two French frigates, the Minerve 
of 40 guns and the Artemise of 36, both of 
them larger, heavier, and more heavily armed 
than the English ships. In fact the com- 
parison of the tonnage and the armament as 
given by James (Naval History, i. 323) and 
Troude (Batailles Navales, ii. 449) fully 
bears out James's statement that * the 
Minerve alone was superior in broadside 
weight of shot to the Dido and Lowestoft 
together.' Seeing this great apparent su- 
periority, the French ships stood towards 
the English, the Minerve leading. Of the 
English ships, the Dido led and brought the 
Minerve to close action. The Minerve, being 
twice the weight of the Dido, attempted to 
run her down, but the Dido, swerving at 
the critical moment, received the blow ob- 
liquely and caught the Minerve 's bowsprit 
in her mizen rigging. The heavy swell broke 
off the Minerve's bowsprit and the Dido's 
mizenmast, and the two ships lay by to clear 
away the wreck, when the Lowestoft, coming 
to the Dido's support, completely dismasted 
the Minerve. On this the Artemise, which 
had been firing distant broadsides at the 
English ships, turned and fled. Towry, seeing 
that the Minerve could not escape, made the 
signal for the Lowestoft to chase, but recalled 
her an hour and a half later, seeing that pur- 
suit was hopeless. When the Lowestoft again 
closed with the Minerve, and the Dido having 
repaired her damages came up, the French- 
man, whose colours had been shot away, 
hailed that the ship surrendered. It is very 
evident that the success of the English was 
largely due to the misconduct of the captain 
of the Artemise ; but the capture of such a 
ship as the Minerve was in itself a brilliant 
achievement. 'It was a very handsome done 
thing in the captains,' Nelson wrote to his 
wife, 'and much credit must be done to 
these officers and their ships' company. 
Thank God the superiority of the British 
navy remains, and I hope ever will : I feel 
quite delighted at the event' (NICOLAS, ii.48). 

The Minerve was brought into the service 
and Towry appointed to command her : but 
in April 1796 he was moved by Sir John 
Jervis (afterwards Earl St. Vincent) [q. v.] 
to the 64-gun ship Diadem. During the year 
he was detached in the Diadem under the 



orders of Commodore Nelson, who for part 
of the time hoisted his broad pennant on 
board her, notably at the evacuation of Cor- 
sica in October (id. ii. 300-2). Off Cape St. 
Vincent on 14 Feb. 1797 the Diadem, still 
commanded by Towry, closed the line, but 
had no very prominent part in the battle. 
Towards the end of the year she was sent 
to England. In December 1798 Towry was 
appointed to the command of the 38-gun 
frigate Uranie, in which, and afterwards in 
the Cambrian, he continued till the peace. 
In July 1803 he was appointed to the 
Tribune, which he commanded in the Chan- 
nel during the early months of the winter. 
Under the severity of the work his health 
gave way, and in January 1804 he was 
obliged to invalid. From May 1804 to June 
1806 he commanded the Royal Charlotte 
yacht, and was afterwards one of the com- 
missioners for the transport service. He 
died in his father's house in Somerset Place, 
London, on 9 A^pril 1809, and was buried on 
17 April at St. Marylebone. He married 
in 1802, and left issue. 

[Gent. Mag. 1809, i. 475; Nicolas's Despatches 
and Letters of Lord Nelson, freq. (see index) ; 
Passing Certificate, Full Pay Ledgers, and other 
official documents in the Public Record Office ; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

1881), scientific writer, son of John Gay 
Towson and his wife, Elizabeth Thomas, was 
born at Fore Street, Devonport, on 8 April 
1804, and educated at Stoke classical school. 
He followed his father's trade of a chrono- 
meter and watch maker. When the daguer- 
reotype process was introduced in 1839 he 
and Kobert Hunt (1807-1887) [q.v.] devoted 
considerable attention to it, and in the ' Philo- 
sophical Magazine' for November 1839 he 
published a paper ' On the Proper Focus for 
the Daguerrotype/ in which he demonstrated 
the fact that the luminous and chemical rays 
did not focus at the same distance from the 
object (cf. HARRISON, History of Photo- 
graphy, 1888, p. 42). Towson was also the 
first to devise the means of taking a photo- 
graphic picture on glass and of using the 
reflecting camera ; and, with his colleague 
Hunt, produced highly sensitive photo- 
graphic papers, for the sale of which they 
appointed agents in London and elsewhere. 
About 1846 he turned his attention to navi- 
gation, and gave lessons in that subject to 
young men in the naval yard. His investi- 
gations led to the suggestion that the quickest 
route across the Atlantic would be by sailing 
on the great circle. Sir John Herschel drew 
the attention of the admiralty to Towson's 
discovery, and that department subsequently 

published Towson's < Tables for facilitating 
the Practice of Great Circle Sailing,' and his 
1 Tables for the Reduction of Ex-Meridian 
Altitudes ' (1849), the copyrights of which 
works he presented to the admiralty. In 
1850 he removed to Liverpool on being ap- 
pointed scientific examiner of masters and 
mates in that port, which post he held until 
1873, when he retired, still holding an appoint- 
ment as chief examiner in compasses. In 
1853 he brought before the Liverpool Literary 
and Philosophical Society the subject of the 
deviation of the compass on board iron ships, 
and in 1854 he aided Dr. William Scoresby 
(1789-1857) [q.v.] in directing the attention 
of the British Association to the matter. The 
result of the discussion was the formation of 
the Liverpool compass committee, and three 
reports were subsequently presented to both 
houses of parliament, these being in the main 
the result of Towson's labours. In recogni- 
tion of his services to navigation he was on 
9 Jan. 1857 presented by the shipowners of 
Liverpool with a dock bond for 1,000/. and 
an additional gratuity of more than 100/. 
In 1863 he was instructed by the board of 
trade to prepare a manual which was after- 
wards published under the title of * Practical 
Information on the Deviation of the Com- 
pass, for the Use of Masters and Mates of 
Iron Ships.' In 1870 he prepared a syllabus, 
adopted by the board of trade, for examina- 
tions in compass deviations. Towson died 
at his residence, Upper Parliament Street, 
Liverpool, on 3 Jan. 1881. He married 
Margaret Braddon on 19 Nov. 1840 at Stoke- 
Damerel church, Devonport. 

Besides the papers mentioned he wrote 
' A Lecture to the Officers, Seamen, and Ap- 
prentices of Mercantile Marine,' 1854, and 
twelve or more communications to the 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
(vols. ix-xxvi.), the Liverpool Literary and 
Philosophical Society (vols. vii-viii.), the 
Liverpool Polytechnic Society (1872), and 
the British Association (1859) ; the subjects 
including (1) ' The Goldfields of Australia/ 
(2) l History of Photography,' (3) ' Icebergs 
in the Southern Ocean,' (4) ' Mythology of 
Aerostation,' (5) ' Solar Eclipse of 15 March 
1858,' (6) ' Visit to the Tomb of Theodora 

[Men of the Time, 10th edit. ; Times, 4 Jan. 
1881; Athenaeum, 1881, i. 59; Koyal Society 
Cat. of Scientific Papers; Appleton's Diet. 
American Biogr. sub nom. Draper; Hunt's 
Manual of Photography, 1853, pp. 106, 134; 
Lecky's Wrinkles in Practical Navigation, 1894, 
pp. 391, 497 ; information kindly supplied by 
Mr. W. H. K. Wright, Plymouth, and Mr. T. 
Formby, Liverpool.] C. W. S. 




TOY, HUMPHREY (1540? -1577), 
printer, born probably in London about 1540, 
was son of Robert Toy, printer, and his wife 
Elizabeth. ROBEKT TOT (d. 1556) possibly 
came originally from Wales (cf. DWNN, Heral- 
dic Visitation of Wales, i. 137), but before 
1541 had set up a printing press at the sign 
of the Bell in St. Paul's Churchyard. From 
it he issued a l Prymar of Salisbury Use ' 
in 1541, Three Godly Sermons ' by William 
Peryn [q. v.] in 1546, Matthew's folio Bible 
in 1551, 'Commonplaces of Scripture' by 
Richard Taverner [q. v.] in 1553, Skelton's 
' Why come ye not to Court ? ' and a re- 
print of Thynne's edition of Chaucer's works 
in 1555. He died in February 1555-6, and 
on the 12th of that month the Stationers' 
Company attended his funeral, for which his 
widow Elizabeth paid them 20s. He left 
several bequests to the company, and his 
name is still commemorated in the list of 
its benefactors. His widow carried on the 
business until 1558, and died in 1568, be- 
queathing 4:1. to the company. 

The son, Humphrey, was made free of the 
Stationers' Company ' by his father's copy 
on 11 March 1557-8, and came on the livery 
at the first reviving thereof in 1561 ' (AMES, 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, p. 933 ; ARBER, 
Transcript, i. 130). He was a ' renter ' in 
1561 and 1562, and served as warden from 
1571 to 1573. But he seems occasionally 
to have got into trouble with the company. 
In 1564 he was fined for keeping his shop 
open on St. Luke's day (18 Oct.), and more 
than once for stitching his books, which was 
contrary to the company's rules. In 1568 
he took a prominent part in the dispute 
between the company and Richard Jugge 

tq. v.], the queen's printer, about the privi- 
ege of printing bibles and testaments (AR- 
BER, vol. v. p. xlviii). He removed his press 
to the sign of the Helmet in St. Paul's 
Churchyard, and issued from it in 1567 a 
second edition of Salisbury's ' Playne and 
Familiar Introduction, teaching how to 
pronounce the Letters in the Brytishe 
Tongue, now commonly called Welshe ' [see 
SALISBURY, WILLIAM, 1520P-1600?]. Salis- 
bury in that year took up his residence in 
Toy's house in order to see through the press 
his Welsh translation of the New Testa- 
ment, which was printed at Toy's l costs and 
charges,' and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. 
In 1569 Toy printed Grafton's ' Chronicle,' 
and in 1571 John Pryse's ' Historise Britan- 
nicse Defensio,' which was dedicated to 
Burghley, with some verses to William 
Herbert, first earl of Pembroke, and in 1576 
' The Fourth Part of the Commentaries of 
the Civill Warres in France ' by Thomas 

] Tymme [q. v.] He died, apparently at Bris- 
' tol, on 16 Oct. 1577, and was buried there in 
All Saints' Church, where a handsome monu- 
ment was erected by his widow Margery, 
with the following inscription, 'Humfridus 
Toius, Londinensis, jacet in hoc tumulo, qui 
obiit 16 Oct. 1577.' His widow carried on 
the business, but the ' Stationers' Register' is 
defective for the following years. Arber 
confuses the printer with Humphrey Toy, a 
merchant tailor in 1583; another Hum- 
phrey Toy was made free of the Stationers' 
Company on 5 June 1637. 

[Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Regi- 
ster, passim ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert 
andDibdin; Timperley'sEncyclopsedia; Corser's 
Collectanea, ii. 323 ; Barrett's Bristol, 1789, 
pp. 442-3.] A. F. P. 

TOY, JOHN (1611-1663), author, son of 
John Toy of Worcester, was born in that 
city in 1611. He matriculated from Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, on 23 May 1628, 
graduating B. A. on 27 Jan. 1630-1 and M.A. 
on 2 July 1634. After filling the office of 
chaplain to the bishop of Hereford, he be- 
came headmaster of the free school at Wor- 
cester, whence he was transferred about 
1643 to the king's school. On 22 Oct. 1641 
he was presented to the vicarage of Stoke 
Prior, Worcestershire. These two offices he 
retained until his death on 28 Dec. 1663. 
He was buried in the cathedral of Worcester. 
His wife, Martha Toy, survived him, dying 
on 10 April 1677. 

He wrote : 1. ' Worcesters Elegie and 
Eulogie,' London, 1638, 8vo: a poem de- 
scribing the plague which assailed the city 
in 1637-8, and commemorating those who 
assisted- the inhabitants in their distress ; it 
was dedicated to Thomas Coventry, with com- 
mendatory verses in Latin by William Row- 
lands [q. v.], and others in English signed 
' T. N.' 2. ' Quisquilise Poeticae, Tyrunculis 
in re metrica non inutiles,' London, 1662, 
12mo : dedicated to John Persehouse. Wood 
conjectures that he may also be the author 
of 'Grammatices Graecae Enchiridion in 
Usum Scholse Collegialis Wigornise ' (Lon- 
don, 1650, 8vo). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed Bliss, iii. 649 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Nash'sHist. 
and Antiq. of Worcestershire, ii. 381, 382 ; 
Chambers' s Biogr. Illustrations of Worcester- 
shire, 1820, p. 163 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24489, f. 188.1 

E. I. C. 

TOYNBEE, ARNOLD (1852-1883), so- 
cial philosopher and economist, second son 
of Joseph Toynbee [q. v.], was born in Savile 
Row, London, on 23 Aug. 1852. Toynbee 
owed much in his early years to the in- 




fluence of his father, who, though he died 
when his son was only fourteen, had yet 
inspired the latter with a love of literature 
and with the germs of those social ideals 
which were afterwards the main interest 
of his life. Toynbee was originally intended 
for the army, and, after some years spent at 
a preparatory school at Blackheath, he went 
to the Rev. J. M. Brackenbury's at Wimble- 
don to read for Woolwich. But his increas- 
ing taste for poetry, history, and philosophy 
gradually turned his thoughts from a military 
career. He accordingly left Mr. Bracken- 
bury's, and began attending lectures as a 
day student at King's College, London. 
But he did not long continue this course, 
and for some years before going to the uni- 
versity he practically took his education into 
his own hands. Endowed with a keen 
intellect and strongly marked character, he 
thus acquired an amount of knowledge in 
certain fields of study, and developed a 
strength and originality of opinion, very 
unusual at so early an age. 

In January 1873 Toynbee matriculated as 
a commoner at Pembroke College, Oxford. 
In November of that year he competed for 
the Brackenbury (history) scholarship at 
Balliol. Though he was not successful, his 
work made a great impression on the exami- 
ners, and the authorities of Balliol offered 
him rooms at that college. Toynbee was 
anxious to accept this offer, but the master 
of Pembroke raised objections. Toynbee 
accordingly left Pembroke and ceased to be 
a member of the university, though still 
residing at Oxford. In January 1875 he 
matriculated afresh, this time as a commoner 
at Balliol. Here he continued to devote him- 
self to history and philosophy, and while still 
an undergraduate exercised a considerable 
influence among his contemporaries at Balliol 
as an ardent disciple of Professor Thomas 
Hill Green [q. v.] But philosophy and 
religion were in Toyiibee's mind, as in Green's, 
inseparable from active philanthropy. The 
desire to assist in raising the material and 
moral condition of the mass of the population 
grew more and more to be the absorbing pas- 
sion of his life, and it was in order to direct his 
own and others' efforts in this direction that 
he threw himself with great energy into the 
study of economics, and especially of 
economic history. In spite of his delicate 
health, which caused frequent and serious 
interruption to his studies, and of the 
necessity of devoting a certain amount of 
time to the classical books prescribed for a 
pass degree in literce humaniores (which he 
took at midsummer 1878), Toynbee obtained 
such a mastery of economics that immediately 

after taking his degree he was appointed a 
tutor at Balliol. In that capacity he had 
charge of the studies of the men who were 
preparing for the Indian civil service. His 
lectures, primarily intended for them, but 
soon attracting a wider circle of hearers, 
dealt with the principles of economics and 
the economic history of recent times. But 
his activity was not confined to the uni- 
versity. In the four and a half years be- 
tween his appointment as tutor of Balliol 
and his death, his influence rapidly spread, 
not only in Oxford, but among persons in- 
terested in social and industrial questions 
throughout the country. As a student of 
economics his principal attention was di- 
rected to the history of the great changes 
which came over the industrial system of 
Great Britain between the middle of the 
eighteenth century and the present time. 
As a practical reformer he was active in the 
work of charity organisation, of co-operation, 
and of church reform; and he delivered 
from time to time popular lectures on the 
industrial problems of the day, which were 
attended by large audiences of the working 
class in Bradford, Newcastle, Bolton, Leices- 
ter, and London. The volume of his works 
entitled ; The Industrial Revolution,' which 
was published after his death by his widow, 
with a memoir by Professor Jowett, bears 
witness to his activity in both these direc- 
tions. The first part of it, l The Industrial 
Revolution ' proper, consists of the notes of 
his lectures delivered at Balliol on the in- 
dustrial history of Great Britain from 1760, 
a subject on which he was collecting mate- 
rials for a comprehensive volume at the time 
of his death. Despite its fragmentary cha- 
racter, the ' Industrial Revolution ' is full of 
valuable research and acute observation, and 
has exercised a considerable influence on 
students of economics, both in Great Britain 
and abroad. The popular addresses, ' Wages 
and Natural Law,' < Industry and Demo- 
cracy,' &c., which compose the second half 
of the volume, are chiefly of interest as illus- 
trating Toynbee's character and aims as a 
social missionary. The eloquence, the reli- 
gious fervour, the intense zeal for the better 
organisation of industrial society, the genuine 
but not uncritical sympathy with the aspi- 
rations of the working class, which were 
characteristic of him, are traceable even in 
the imperfect remains of these lectures, which 
were largely extempore, and could in some 
instances only be pieced together, after his 
death, from notes or from the reports of pro- 
vincial newspapers. But the chief source of 
Toynbee's influence lay in the charm of his 
personality. His striking appearance, win- 




ning manners, and great power of expres- 
sion, above all his transparent sincerity and 
high-mindedness, won the respect and affec- 
tion of all with whom he came into contact, 
whether as pupil, teacher, or fellow worker 
in social causes. His intellectual and moral 
gifts made themselves equally felt in the 
academic world of Oxford and among the 
manufacturers and workmen of the great in- 
dustrial centres where he delivered his popu- 
lar addresses. 

As an undergraduate Toynbee attracted 
the notice of Professor Jowett, master of 
Balliol, and became one of his intimate 
friends. He was also closely associated at 
Oxford with Professor T. II. Green and 
Richard Lewis Nettleship [q. v.], and, in 
his work among the poor of East London, 
with Canon Barnett, vicar of St. Jude's, 
Whitechapel, and founder of the first uni- 
versity settlement, Toynbee Hall, which was 
called into existence soon after Toynbee's 
death and bears his name. Toynbee has often 
been called a socialist ; but he was not a 
socialist of the revolutionary type, nor did 
he ever adopt the doctrines of collectivism. 
But he was opposed to the extreme indi- 
vidualism of some of the earlier English 
economists, and believed earnestly in the 
power of free corporate effort, such as that 
of co-operative and friendly societies and of 
trade unions, to raise the standard of life 
among the mass of the people, and in the 
duty of the state to assist such effort by 
free education, by the regulation of the 
conditions of labour, and by contributing to 
voluntary insurance funds intended to pro- 
vide for the labourer in sickness and old 
age. Toynbee's economic views never took 
the shape of a fully developed system of 
economic philosophy. This was perhaps 
owing to his early death ; but even if he 
had lived longer, it is likely that he would 
have devoted himself rather to the history 
of industrial development, and its bearing 
on the questions of the day, than to the 
more theoretical side of political economy. 
In the last year of his life he was deeply 
interested in the agitation which arose out 
of Henry George's book on ' Progress and 
Poverty ' (New York, 1880; London, 1881). 
Convinced of the onesidedness of that re- 
markable work, and alarmed by what he con- 
sidered the bad and misleading influence 
which it was exercising upon the leaders of 
working-class opinion, he did his best to com- 
bat the doctrine of land nationalisation by 
speech and writing. Two lectures which 
he delivered on the subject, first in Oxford 
and then at St. Andrew's Hall, Newman 
Street, London, were his last efforts as a 

teacher on social questions. For some time 
he had been greatly overworked, and the 
physical and mental strain attending the 
delivery of these lectures hastened the com- 
plete breakdown of his health. He died at 
Wimbledon on 9 March 1883. At the time 
of his death Toynbee, who had been made 
bursar of Balliol in 1881, was just about to 
be appointed a fellow of that college. Shortly 
after his death his friends established in his 
memory, under the guidance of Canon Bar- 
nett, Toynbee Hall (in Commercial Street, 
Whitechapel), an institution designed to en- 
courage closer relations between the work- 
ing classes and those educated at the uni- 
versities. This ' university settlement ' was 
the first of its kind, and has formed the 
model of similar institutions in other districts. 

Toynbee married, in June 1879, Miss 
Charlotte Atwood, who survived him. He 
had no children. 

The l Industrial Revolution 'was first pub- 
lished in 1884. The second edition appeared 
in 1887, the third and fourth in 1890 and 
1894 respectively. To the fourth edition are 
added the two lectures on Henry George, de- 
livered in St. Andrew's Hall in Eebruarv 

[An excellent life by Professor F. C. Monta- 
gue, published in the Johns Hopkins Historical 
Series, 1889 ; and 'Arnold Toynbee : a Eemini- 
scence,' by the present writer, 1895.] A. M-E. 

TOYNBEE, JOSEPH (1815-1866), 
aural surgeon, second son of George Toynbee, 
a landowner and a large tenant-farmer in 
Lincolnshire, was born at Heckington in that 
county on 30 Dec. 1815. He was educated 
at King's Lynn grammar school, and at the 
age of seventeen he was apprenticed to Wil- 
liam Wade of the Westminster general dis- 
pensary in Gerrard Street, Soho. He studied 
anatomy under George Derby Dermott at 
the Little Windmill Street school of medi- 
cine, and from him he learnt to be an enthu- 
siastic dissector. He then attended the 
practice of St. George's and University Col- 
lege Hospitals, and was admitted a member 
of the College of Surgeons of England in 
1838. Aural studies powerfully attracted 
him even during his student life, for as early 
as 1836 several of his letters, under the 
initials ' J. T.,' appeared in the ' Lancet.' In 
1838 he assisted (Sir) Richard Owen (1804- 
1892) [q. v.], who was then conservator of 
the Hunterian Museum at the College of 
Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and he was 
soon afterwards elected one of the surgeons to 
the St. James's and St. George's Dispensary, 
where he established a most useful Sama- 
ritan fund. He was admitted a fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1842 for his researches 



demonstrating the non-vascularity of arti- 
cular cartilage and of certain other tissues 
in the body, and in 1843 he was nominated 
among the first of the newly established 
order of fellows of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England. 

Toynbee lived in Argyll Place during the 
time that he was surgeon to the St. James's 
and St. George's Dispensary, and he there 
began the practice of his speciality as an 
aural surgeon. His practice soon became 
very large, and he afterwards moved into 
Savile Row. Upon the establishment of St. 
Mary's Hospital in 1852 he was elected aural 
surgeon to the charity and lecturer on dis- 
eases of the ear in its medical school, ap- 
pointments which he resigned in 1864. 

Toynbee raised aural surgery from 
neglected condition of quackery to a recog- 
nised position as a legitimate branch of sur- 
gery. 'As a philanthropist the English public 
owe him a debt of gratitude, for he ardently 
advocated the improvement of working men's 
dwellings and surroundings at a time when 
the duties of the government in regard to 
public health were hardly beginning to be 
appreciated. His benevolent efforts centred 
in Wimbledon, where he took a country 
house in 1854. Here he was indefatigable 
in forming a village club as well as a local 
museum. He published valuable * Hints on 
the Formation of Local Museums ' (1863) as 
well as ' Wimbledon Museum Notes,' and 
his enthusiastic advocacy was of great value 
in furthering the establishment of similar 
clubs and museums in various parts of the 

Toynbee died on 7 July 1866 from, the 
accidental inhalation of chloroform, with 
which he was making experiments to dis- 
cover a means for mitigating the intense suf- 
fering attendant upon certain inflammatory 
conditions of the middle ear. He was at the 
time of his death aural surgeon to the Earls- 
wood Asylum for Idiots, consulting aural 
surgeon to the Asylum for the Deaf and 
Dumb, president of the Quekett Microscopical 
Society, and treasurer of the Medical Benevo- 
lent Fund, an office which he had filled since 
1857. He was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Mary's, Wimbledon. 

The Toynbee collection, illustrating various 
diseases of the ear, is the property of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, and it is at pre- 
sent exhibited in the gallery of the western 
museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. This col- 
lection was the result of minute dissection 
extending over twenty years, during which 
time he is said to have dissected about two 
thousand human ears. Many of these were 
derived from his patients in the Asylum for 

the Deaf and Dumb, whose condition he had 
examined previously to their death. 

He married, in August 1846, Harriet, 
daughter of Nathaniel Holmes, esq., and by 
her had nine children. His second son, 
Arnold Toynbee, is separately noticed. 

Toynbee published: 1. < the Diseases of 
the Ear : their Nature, Diagnosis, and Treat- 
ment,' London, 8vo, 1860; 8vo, Philadelphia, 
1860, and translated into German, Wiirzburg, 
1863 ; a 'new edition with a supplement by 
James Hinton, 8vo, London, 1868. This is 
Toynbee's chief work. It placed the subject 
of aural surgery upon a firm basis, and will 
always remain of interest by reason of the 
details of cases and the methods of treat- 
ment which it contains. 2. ' On the Use 
of Artificial Membrana Tympani in Cases of 
Deafness,' London, 8vo, 1853 ; 6th edit. 1857. 
3. ' A Descriptive Catalogue of Preparations 
illustrative of the Diseases of the Ear in the 
Museum of Joseph Toynbee,' 8vo, London, 

[An appreciative notice by Professor Von 
Troltsch in the Archiv f. Ohrenheilkunde, 1867, 
iii. 230 ; Memoir by GK T. Bettany in Eminent 
Doctors, 2nd edit. ii. 272 ; farther information 
kindly contributed to the writer by William 
Toynbee, esq., his eldest son.] D'A. P. 

TOZER, AARON (1788-1854), captain 
in the navy, born in 1788, entered the navy 
in June 1801 on board the Phoebe, with Cap- 
tain Thomas Baker, on the Irish station. 
He afterwards served in the East Indies and 
on the home station, and, again with Baker, 
in the Phoenix, in which on 10 Aug. 1805 he 
was present at the capture of the French fri- 
gate Didon (JAMES, Naval History, iv. 66-74 ; 
TROUDE, Batailles Navales, iii. 425-6; 
CHEVALIEK, Hist, de la Marine Franqaise, 
iii. 179), then carrying important despatches 
from Villeneuve at Ferrol to Rochefort. 
Tozer was dangerously wounded in the 
shoulder, and, after passing his examination, 
was specially promoted to be lieutenant on 
11 Aug. 1807. After serving in the York 
of 74 guns at the reduction of Madeira and 
in the West Indies, he was appointed, in 
December 1808, to the Victorious, in which 
he took part in the Walcheren expedition 
in July and August 1809; and afterwards 
in the Mediterranean, in the defence of 
Sicily, June to September 1810, during 
which time he was repeatedly engaged in 
actions between the boats and the vessels of 
Murat's flotilla; and on 22 Feb. 1812 at the 
capture of the Rivoli [see TALBOT, SIK JOHN]. 
In February 1813 he was appointed to the 
Undaunted [see USSHEE, SIR THOMAS], and 
during the following months repeatedly 
commanded her boats in storming the 




enemy's batteries or cutting out trading and 
armed vessels from under their protection. 
On 18 Aug. 1813 in an attack, in force, on 
the batteries of Cassis, when the citadel 
battery was carried by escalade and three 
gunboats and twenty-four merchant vessels 
were brought out, Tozer was severely 
wounded by a canister shot in the groin 
and by a musket shot in the left hand. In 
consequence of these wounds he was in- 
valided; on 15 July 1814 was promoted 
to be commander, and in December 1815 
awarded a pension of 150. a year. From 
1818 to 1822 he commanded the Gyrene in 
the West Indies ; in 1829 the William and 
Mary yacht. On 14 Jan. 1830 he was pro- 
moted to post rank, but had no further 
employment, and died at Plymouth on 
21 Feb. 1854, He married, in June 1827, 
Mary, eldest daughter of Henry Hutton of 
Lincoln, and left issue one son, the Rev. 
Henry Fanshawe Tozer, fellow of Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Marshall's Eoy. 
Nav. Biogr. x. (vol. ii.) 110; Gent. Mag. 
1854, ii. 77; James's Naval History; Navy 
Lists.] J. K. L. 

TOZER, HENRY (1602-1650), puritan 
royalist, born in 1602 at North Tawton, 
Devonshire, matriculated from Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 3 May 1621, and graduated 
B. A. on 18 June 1623, and M. A. on 28 April 
1626. He took holy orders, was appointed 
lecturer at St. Martin's Church (Carfax, Ox- 
ford) on 21 Oct. 1632, and proceeded B.D. 
on 28 July 1636. Of puritan views, he was 
elected in 1643 to the Westminster assembly, 
but refused to sit, nor would he accept the 
degree of D.D. when nominated for it on 
6 June 1646. Tozer was appointed vicar of 
Yarnton in 1644. He probably served the 
parish from Oxford, as he never lived there. 

As bursar and sub -rector of Exeter Col- 
lege, Tozer managed the college in the ab- 
sence of George Hakewill [q. v.], the rector. 
In March 1647 he was cited before the parlia- 
mentary visitors for continuing the common 
prayer, and for his known disfavour to parlia- 
mentarians. In November he was summoned 
to Westminster before the parliamentary 
commission, and the following year was 
imprisoned for some days on refusing to give 
up the college books. He was expelled from 
his fellowship on 26 May 1648, and on 
4 June turned out of St. Martin's Church 
by soldiers because he prayed for the king, 
and 'breathed out pestilent air of unsound 
doctrine.' The decree, however, was revoked 
on 2 Nov., and Tozer was allowed to travel 
for three years, retaining his room in Exeter 

Tozer then went to Holland, and became 
minister to the English merchants at Rotter- 
dam, where he died on 11 Sept. 1650; he 
was buried in the English church there. 

He was author of the following works, all 
published at Oxford: 1. { Directions for a 
Godly Life, dedicated to his pupil Lorenzo 
Cary, son of Viscount Falkland,' 1628, 16mo, 
5th ed. 1640, 8th 1671, 10th 1680, llth 
1690, 13th 1706 12mo. 2. 'A Christian 
Amendment,' 1633. 3. 'Christus: sive 
Dicta Facta Christ!/ 1634. 4. 'Christian 
Wisdome/ 1639, 12mo. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense, ed. Bliss, iii. 273, and Hist, and Antiq. 
Univ. Oxford, vol. ii, pp. 508, 531, 552-4, 
574, 588, 590, 593, 594 ; Wood's Life and Times, 
i. 444, and Hist, of Kidlington, pp. 220, 222, 
223, &c., both published by Oxford Hist. Soc. ; 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, p. 574 ; Hist. MSS. 
Cornm. 2nd Eep. App. p. 127 ; Gal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1629-31, p. 260; Boase's Register of 
Exeter Coll. pp. cix, cxvii-cxx, 99 ; Conant's 
Life, p. 9 ; Madan's Early Oxford Press ; 
Walker's Sufferings, ii. 115; Brook's Lives of 
the Puritans, iii. 112; Journals of the House 
of Commons, ii. 541.] C. F. S. 

TRACY, RICHARD (d. 1569), protes- 
tant reformer, was descended from a family 
which had been settled at Toddington, Glou- 
cestershire, since the twelfth century (A 
Short Memoir of the Noble Families of Tracy 
and Courtenay, 1798). William de Tracy 
[q. v.],the murderer of Thomas a Becket, is 
said to have belonged to it, and many of its 
members acted as sheriffs and representa- 
tives of Gloucestershire in parliament. 

Richard's father, WILLIAM TKACY (d. 
1530), was justice of the peace in the reigns 
of Henry VII and Henry VIII, and was 
made sheriff in 1513 (Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII. vols. i-iv.) He adopted 
Luther's religious views, and shortly before 
his death in 1530 he made a will in which 
he expressed his belief in justification by 
faith and refused to make any bequests 
to the clergy. Objection was taken to the 
will as an heretical document when it came 
to be proved in the ecclesiastical courts, and 
eventually it was brought before convoca- 
tion. After prolonged discussions, the will 
was pronounced heretical on 27 Feb. 1531-2 
by Archbishop Warham, Tracy was declared 
unworthy of Christian burial, and Warham 
directed Dr. Thomas Parker, vicar-general 
of the bishop of Worcester, to exhume Tracy's 
body (WILKINS, Concilia, iii. 724). Parker 
exceeded his instructions, and had Tracy's 
remains burnt at the stake. The incident 
created some sensation ; Richard Tracy, who, 
with his mother, was executor to the will, 




induced Thomas Cromwell to take the matter 
up, and Parker had eventually to pay a fine 
of 300/. Tracy's will became a sort of sacred 
text to the reformers ; possessing copies of it 
was frequently made a charge against them. 
In 1535 was published ' The Testament of 
Master Wylliam Tracie, esquier, expounded 
both by William Tindall ' (Tyndale [q. v.], 
who knew Tracy well) ' and Jho Frith ;' 
other editions appeared in 1546 and 1548, 
both 16mo, and 1550 (?) 8vo, and it is re- 
printed in the ' Works of Tyndale ' (Parker 
Soc.), iii. 268-83 (the will is also printed 
in HALL'S Chronicle, pp. 796-7 ; FOXE, Actes 
and Mon. ; ATKYNS, Gloucestershire, pp. 
410-11 ; and RUDDER, Gloucestershire, pp. 
771-2). Latimer, Bale, and Pilkington all 
used the incident to illustrate the temper of 
the Romanist clergy (LATIMEK, Works, i. 
46, ii. 407 ; BALE, Works, p. 395 ; PILKIN- 
TONj Works, p. 653). 

By his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Throckmorton, William Tracy had 
issue two sons. William, the elder, inhe- 
rited the Toddington estates, and was great- 
grandfather of Sir John Tracy, who on 
12 Jan. 1642-3 was created Baron and Vis- 
count Tracy of Rathcoole in the peerage of 
Ireland. Robert Tracy [q. v.], the judge, was 
younger son of the first viscount. The peer- 
age became extinct on the death of Henry 
Leigh Tracy, eighth viscount, 29 April 1797 
(BuRKE, Extinct Peerage, p. 537 ; G. E. C[o- 
KAYNE], Complete Peerage, vii. 419-21). 

Richard, the younger son of William 
Tracy, graduated B.A. at Oxford on 27 June 
1515, and was admitted student of the Inner 
Temple in 1519 (Reg. Univ. Oxon. i. 94; 
FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714). In 
1529 he was elected to the ' reformation ' 
parliament as member for Wotton Basset, 
Wiltshire (Letters and Papers, iv. 2692). 
For the next few years he was engaged in 
the struggle over his father's will (ib. vi. 
17 et seq.) In February 1532-3 he was 
granted Stanway, a manor belonging to 
Tewkesbury Abbey, which he made the 
home of his family. He adopted his father's 
religious views, and appears to have written 
a short treatise as early as 1533 (ib. vi. 18). 
In 1535 Tracy's works were classed as 
' dangerous' with those of Luther, Me- 
lanchthon, Tyndale, and Frith, and probably 
his ' Profe and Declaration of thys Propo- 
sition: Fayth only iustifieth ' (Brit. Mus.), 
dedicated to Henry VIII, but with no date, 
place, or printer s name, was Tracy's earliest 
work. It was followed in 1544 by ' A Sup- 
plycation to our most Soueraigne Lorde, 
Kynge Henry the Eyght,' 8vo (Grenville and 
Lambeth libraries). In 1543 Bartholomew 

Traheron [q. v.], who had been educated at 
Tracy's expense and was called his 'son' 
(Zurich Letters, ii. 613), dedicated to him his 
translation of Vigo's ' Surgery.' 

Meanwhile in 1537 Tracy had been placed 
on the commission of the peace for Glou- 
cestershire, and employed in work connected 
with the visitation of the monasteries in his 
shire. In 1538 he was nominated for the 
shrievalty, but Henry VIII preferred Robert 
Acton, and in December 1539 he was ap- 
pointed one of the squires to attend at the 
reception of Anne of Cleves. His reforming 
zeal led his friend and neighbour Latimer 
to express a wish that there were ' many more 
like Tracy' (Letters and Papers, 18 Jan. 
1538-9). With Cromwell's fall Tracy lost 
favour at court, and on 7 July 1546 his 
books were ordered to be burnt ( WRIOTHES- 
LEY, Chron. i. 169). In November 1548, 
during the discussions in convocation and 
parliament which preceded the issue of Ed- 
ward VI's first Book of Common Prayer, 
Tracy published 'A Bryef and short De- 
claracyon made wherebye euery Chrysten 
Man may knowe what is a Sacrament,' Lon- 
don, 8vo. He quotes largely from St. Augus- 
tine, whose works he is said to have known 
better than Tyndale. In the same year he 
was appointed, under the act for the aboli- 
tion of chantries, one of the commissioners 
of inquiry for Gloucestershire (LEACH, Eng- 
lish Schools at the Reformation, ii. 79). In 
May 1551 he was imprisoned in the Tower 
for ' a lewd letter,' probably an attack on 
Warwick's government. He was released 
on 17 Nov. 1552. On 9 June 1555 his reli- 
gious views brought him under the notice of 
Queen Mary's council, but he l did not only 
clere himself thereof, but shewed a verie 
earnest desire to be a conformable man from 
hensfurthe ' (Acts P. C. v. 145). On 19 Sept. 
following, however, he again appeared on 
a charge of having ' behaved himself verye 
stubburnely towards his Ordinairie which is 
the Bisshopp of Gloucestre,' and in January 
1556-7 he was in trouble for refusing to pay 
a forced loan. After Elizabeth's accession 
Tracy served as high sheriff for Gloucester- 
shire in 1560-1, and in 1565 wrote a 
strenuous protest to Cecil against the queen's 
retaining a crucifix in her chapel. He died 
in 1569. 

By his wife Barbara, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Lucy (d.1525), Tracy had issue three 
sons and three daughters. The eldest sur- 
viving son, Paul Tracy of Stanway, was 
created a baronet in 1626. 

Besides the works mentioned, Tracy is said 
to have written 'The Preparation to the 
Crosse and to Death . , . , in two bookes/ 




1540. This treatise, bound up with two 
by John Frith [q.v.], was found in a cod's 
belly in Cambridge market in 1626, and 
was reprinted in that year by Boler and Mil- 
bourne. Thomas Fuller (1608-1661) [q. v.], 
who was at Cambridge at the time, de- 
scribes the excitement caused by the incident 
(Worthies, 1840, i. 562; USSHEK, Letters, 
Nos. 100, 101 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. 
ii. 106-7). 

[Besides authorities quoted see Harl. MS. 
1041 ; Lansd. MS. 979, f. 96; Visitation of Glou- 
cestershire, 1623, pp. 165-7; Lists of Sheriffs, 
1898; Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, ii. 
388-9 ; Britton's Toddington, 1840; Strype's 
Works (general index); Gough's Index to Parker 
Society's Publications ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. i. 
245; Burnet's Reformation, ed. Pocock; Foxe's 
Actes and Mon. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; 
Dixon's Hist, of the Church of England, i. 115, 
403 ; Official Returns of Members of Parl.] 

A. F. P. 

TRACY, ROBERT (1655-1735), judge, 
born in 1655 at Toddington in Gloucester- 
shire, was the eldest son of Robert Tracy, 
second viscount and baron Tracy of Rath- 
coole, by his second wife, Dorothy, daughter 
of Thomas Cocks of Castleditch, Hereford- 
shire [see under TRACT, RICHARD]. Robert's 
paternal grandmother, Anne, was daughter 
of Sir Thomas Shirley [q.v.] of Wiston, Sus- 
sex. He matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 29 Oct. 1672, and entered at the 
Middle Temple in the following year. He 
was called to the bar in 1680, and in July 
1699 was appointed a judge of the king's 
bench in Ireland (LUTTRELL, Brief Hist. 
Relation, 1857, iv. 536). In the following 
year he was transferred to England on 14 Nov. 
as a baron of the exchequer (ib. iv. 702, 707, 
709, v. 49, 183, 184), and in Trinity term 
1702 he was removed to the court of common 
pleas. He was appointed a commissioner of 
the great seal while the lord-chancellor's 
office was vacant from 14 Sept. to 19 Oct. 
1710 and from 15 April to 12 May 1718 (ib. 
vi. 633). In 1716 he took part in trying 
the Jacobites at Carlisle after the rising 
under James Edward in the previous year. 
On 26 Oct. 1726 he retired from the bench 
with a pension of 1,500/., and died at his 
seat at Coscomb in Gloucestershire on 1 1 Sept. 
1735. By his wife Anne, daughter of Wil- 
liam Dowdeswell of Pull Court, Worcester- 
shire, he left three sons Robert, Richard, 
and William and two daughters Anne 
and Dorothy. Dorothy married John Pratt, 
fourth son of Sir John Pratt (1657-1725) 
[q. v.], chief justice of the king's bench. 

Tracy is described as ' a complete gentle- 
man and a good lawyer, of a clear head and 

an honest heart,' and as delivering his 
opinion with such ' genteel affability and in- 
tegrity that even those who lost a cause 
were charmed with his behaviour.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Shad- 
well's Registrum Orielense, p. 338 ; Foss's Judges 
of England, viii. 62-3 ; Gent. Mag. 1835, p. 
559 ; Britton's Toddington, 1 840, App. pp. iii, v; 
Stowe MS. 750, ff. 226, 230.] E. I. C. 

TRACY, WILLIAM DE (d. 1173), 

murderer of Thomas (Becket) [q. v.], belonged 
to a family which in the twelfth century 
held considerable property in Devonshire and 
Gloucestershire ; but his place in the pedi- 
gree has never been ascertained. The version 
given in Britton's ' Toddington,' and gene- 
rally accepted by later writers, has no evi- 
dence to support it ; Dugdale is more wisely 
content to leave the matter undetermined. 
1 William de Tracy ' witnessed an agree- 
ment between Henry II and the Count 
of Flanders in 1163 (RYMER, i. 23; Liber 
Niger, i. 35), and figures also in the ' Liber 
Niger' (pp. 115, 121, 168; cf. Red Book, pp. 
248, 254, 295) and in the pipe rolls of 
1165, 1168, 1169, 1172, and 1173 (Pipe 
Roll, 11 Hen. II p. 80, 14 Hen. II p. 128, 
15 Hen. II p. 53, 18 Hen. II p. 102, 
19 Hen. II p. 148) ; but there were evi- 
dently living during this period at least two 
men who bore the name, and it is impossible 
to distinguish with certainty between them, 
or to decide which of them is to be identified 
with the subject of this article. 

This last is described by a contemporary 
as ' one who, though he had borne himself 
bravely in many a fight, yet in his manner 
of life was such that his sins must needs 
drag him down in the end to the lowest 
depths of crime ' (Materials for Hist, of 
Becket, i. 129). He had been the ' man ' of 
Thomas when the latter was chancellor (ib. 
iii. 135), and was one of the four conspirators 
who, on Christmas-eve 1170, vowed to slay 
him. When they entered the archbishop's 
chamber on the afternoon of Tuesday, 29 Dec., 
Tracy was the only one whom Thomas greeted 
by name (ib. iv. 70). When they came to the 
church an hour later to slay him, Tracy first, 
according to the Thomas Saga (i. 539), 
( strideth forward to the archbishop, saying, 
"Flee! thou art death's man;"' then, as 
Thomas refused to flee, ' the knight seizeth 
the mantle with one hand, and with the 
other smiteth the mitre from the archbishop's 
head, saying, " Go hence, thou art a prisoner ; 
it is not to be endured that thou shouldest 
live any longer." ' William of Canterbury, 
however, who is probably a better authority, 
ascribes this action to Reginald Fitzurse 




[q. v.] (Materials, i. 133). After some fur- 
ther altercation the knights determined to 
drag Thomas out of the church. Tracy was 
the first to approach him for that purpose, 
but Thomas seized him by the hauberk and 
shook him with such force that, as he him- 
self owned afterwards, he fell nearly prostrate 
on the pavement (ib. iii. 492-3), whereupon 
he threw off his hauberk, ' to be lighter ' 
(GARNIER, p. 194). According to William 
of Canterbury (Materials, i. 133), Fitz- 
Stephen (ib. iii. 141), Garnier (I. c.), and the 
Saga (i. 543), it was Tracy who struck the 
first blow which wounded the archbishop, 
and which nearly cut off the arm of Edward 
Grirn [q. v.] ; but there is some confusion on 
this point, for Grim himself (Materials, ii. 
437) seems to imply that the blow was struck 
by Fitzurse, as is actually stated by another 
contemporary (ib. iv. 77) ; while Garnier 
adds that Tracy, by his own account after- 
wards, thought it was John of Salisbury 
whose arm he had cut off. Tracy certainly 
struck the archbishop twice, and his last 
blow cleft the crown of Thomas's head 
(GARNIER, /. c.) 

After the murder Tracy went and con- 
fessed himself to his diocesan bishop, Bar- 
tholomew (d. 1184) [q. v.J of Exeter 
(Materials, iii. 512-13 ; GIK. CAMBR., Vita 
S. Eemigii, c. xxviii). Gerald of Wales 
says his confession included a statement that 
he and his three comrades had been com- 
pelled by the king to bind themselves by an 
oath sworn in Henry's presence to slay the 
primate. The story, however, is doubtful. 
Tracy shared the adventures of his fellow- 
murderers in Scotland and at Knaresborough 
HUGH DE, d. 1204]. He was first of the 
four to surrender himself to the pope's 
mercy (Materials, iv. 162), but last to set 
out for Holy Land (ib. iii. 536; Thomas 
Saga, ii. 39), where Alexander III bade them 
serve under the Templars for fourteen years, 
in addition to a lifelong penance of fasting 
and prayer. The last dated notice of him as 
living is in 1172, when he was at the papal 
court (Materials, vii. 511). The statement 
which some modern writers have adopted 
from Dugdale, that he was steward or sene- 
schal of Normandy from 1174 to 1176, is 
founded on two passages of the so-called 
Bromton (TWYSDEN, cols. 1105 and 1116), 
where 'Tracy' is a scribe's blunder for 
< Courcy ' (Gesta Hen. i. 99, 124, 125 ; ROG. 
Hov. ii. 82). Equally baseless are the 
legends which tell either that Tracy never 
started on his pilgrimage at all, or that he 
returned secretly and lived for many years 
hidden in some lonely spot on the Devon- 

shire coast. A letter written between 1205 
and 1230 relates the history of a grant made 
to Christ Church, Canterbury, by one Wil- 
liam de Thaun, ' when he was setting out 
for Holy Land with his lord, William 
de Tracy ' (STANLEY, Memorials of Canter- 
bury, App., note F). Tracy, however, got 
no further than Cosenza in Sicily. There 
he was smitten with a horrible disease, his 
flesh decaying while he was yet alive, so 
that he could not refrain from tearing it off 
with his own hands, and he died in agony, 
praying incessantly to St. Thomas. Herbert 
of Bosham [q. v.] relates thi's on the authority 
of the bishop of Cosenza, who had been 
Tracy's confessor during his sickness (Mate- 
rials,'^. 536-7; cf. Thomas Saga, ii. 39-41). 
By a charter without date of place or time, 
William de Tracy granted the manor of 
Doccombe (Devon) to the chapter of Canter- 
bury ' for the love of God, the salvation of 
his own soul and his ancestors' souls, and for 
love of the blessed Thomas, archbishop and 
martyr, of venerable memory.' The first 
witness is the abbot of ' Eufemia/ i.e. doubt- 
less Santa Eufemia, a monastery some 
eighteen miles from Cosenza ; and the grant 
was confirmed by Henry II in a charter 
whose date must lie between July and 
October 1174 (STANLEY, note F). Evidently 
Tracy's charter was drawn up at or near 
Cosenza during his fatal illness, and brought 
home by his followers after his death, which 
a comparison of dates thus shows to have 
occurred, as Herbert says (Materials, iii. 537), 
within three years of his crime, i.e. in 1173. 

[Authorities cited; cf. Dr. E. A. Abbott's 
Death and Miracles of Thomas a Beckett, 1898.] 


TRADESCANT, JOHN (d. 1637?), 
traveller, naturalist, and gardener, is said by 
Anthony a Wood to have been a Fleming or 
a Dutchman, but this is doubtful. The name 
is neither Flemish nor Dutch, but probably 
English (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 391 ; 
Sir J. E. Smith in REES'S Cyclopedia, s.v. 
' Tradescant '). It occurs as Tradeskin or Tre- 
deskin at Walberswick, Suffolk, in 1661 (Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. v. 367), at Wenhastone 
in the same county in 1664 (ib. vi. 198), and at 
Harleston, Norfolk, from 1682 to 1721 (ib. v. 
474). Tradescant himself had a lease of pro- 
perty at Woodham Walter, Essex ; and he 
has been somewhat dubiously identified by 
Dr. Joseph von Hamel with a certain John 
Coplie, described in a manuscript now at the 
Bodleian Library (Ashmole MS. No. 824, 
xvi.) as a ' Wustersher ' man (HAMEL, Eng- 
land and Russia, translated by J. S. Leigh, 
London, 1854). 




The statement that Tradescant was gar- 
dener to Queen Elizabeth has no foundation 
except a misunderstanding of the line in the 
epitaph on the tomb in Lambeth churchyard, 
in which he and his son are described as 

Both gardeners to the rose and lily queen. 

The reference here is to Henrietta Maria. Tra- 
descant is spoken of by John Parkinson (Pam- 
disus Terrestns, ed. 1629, p. 152) as ' that 
painfull industrious searcher and louer of all 
natures varieties . . . sometime belonging to 
the right Honourable Lord Robert Earle of 
Salisbury, Lord Treasurer of England in his 
time, and then vnto the right Honourable the 
Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, and 
lastly onto the late Duke of Buckingham.' In 
a manuscript without title-page at the Bod- 
leian Library, traditionally known as ' Trade- 
scant's Orchard' (Ashmole MS. No. 1461), 
which contains coloured drawings of sixty-four 
fruits, one is named ' The Tradescant Cherry,' 
and another is stated to be ' grown by J. T. at 
Hatfield.' The Earl of Salisbury, who died 
in 1612, was also lord of the manor of Shorne, 
Kent, and in 1607 and 1608 Tradescant was 
living at Meopham, Kent. In June 1607 he 
was married at Meopham church, his wife's 
name being Elizabeth, and on 4 Aug. 1608 
their son John was baptised (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 266, 4th ser.^vii. 284). 
Tradescant may then have been in the ser- 
vice of Robert, lord Wotton of Boughton* 
Malherbe, who died in 1608, or afterwards 
in that of Edward, who died in 1628. In 
February 1617 he paid 25. for the transport 
of one person to Virginia under Captain 
Argall (ALEXANDER BROWN, Genesis of the 
United States, p. 939), though from Parkin- 
son's * Paradisus ' (loc. cit.) it does not ap- 
pear that he visited Virginia himself. 

Tradescant was, however, almost certainly 
the author of Ashmole MS. 824. xvi, which 
begins ' A voiag of ambasad ondertaken by 
the Right honnorabl S r Dudlie Digges in the 
year 1618,' and is described by Mr. W. H. 
Black (Catalogue of the Ashmolean MSS. 
1845) as a ' curious narrative of the voyage 
round the North Cape to Archangel . . . 
written in a rude hand, and by a person un- 
skilled in composition ' [see DIGGES, SIR 
DUDLEY!. They sailed, in the Diana of New- 
castle, from Gravesend on 3 June 1618, reach- 
ing Tynemouth on the 16th, the North Cape 
on 6 July, the bar at the mouth of the Dvina 
on the 13th, and the harbour of Archangel 
or rather that of Nikolskoi, St. Nicholas's 
Monastery on the 16th. Immediately on 
landing the writer describes the finding of a 
berry, some of which he dried and sent part 
of the seed to * Robiens of Paris/ no doubt 

Vespasian Robin, who is known from other 
sources to have been a correspondent of Tra- 
descant. The writer also mentions that he 
found ' helebros albus enoug to load a ship/ 
which statement led to the identification of 
the writer as Tradescant by Dr. Joseph von 
Hamel. This manuscript, which is the earliest 
account extant of the plants of Russia, enu- 
merates from the writer's own observations 
about two dozen wild species. It is also note- 
worthy that the soil of Russia is compared to 
that of Norfolk, the ploughs to those of Essex, 
and the carts to those of Staffordshire ( JOSEPH 
VON HAMEL, Recueil des Actes Acad. Peters- 
bourg, December 1845 ; Tradescant der dltere 
in Russland, St. Petersburg, 1847, 4to ; Athe- 
n&um, 1846, p. 175 ; RUPRECHT, Symbolce 
Plantarum Rossicarum, St. Petersburg, 1846, 
p. 221 ; G. S. BOULGER, < The First Russian 
Botanist/ Journal of Botany, 1895, p. 33). 
Digges's expedition left Archangel on 5 Aug., 
passed the North Cape on the 16th, and 
reached St. Katherine's Docks on 22 Sept. 

In 1620 Tradescant joined the expedition 
of Mansell and Sir Samuel Argall [q. v.] 
against the Algerine corsairs as a gentleman 
volunteer (Ashmolean M S. 824, xv, pp. 167- 
168), and brought back, ( with many other 
sortes/ ' the Argier or Algier apricot ' (PAR- 
KINSON, Paradisus, p. 579). On this occasion 
he seems also to have visited Formentera in 
the Balearic Islands (PULTENEY, Sketches of 
the Progress of Botany, i. 176). In 1625 he 
writes to Edward Nicholas in Virginia that 
he is in the service of the Duke of Buckingham 
(George Villiers), and that it was the duke's 
pleasure for him ' to deal with all merchants 
from all places, but especially from Virginia, 
Bermudas, Newfoundland, Guinea, Binney, 
the Amazon, and the East Indies, for all 
manner of rare beasts, fowls and birds, shells 
and stones ' (BROWN, Genesis of the United 
States, p. 1032). In 1627 he appears to have 
accompanied Buckingham on the expedition 
to La Rochelle. 

On Buckingham's death, Tradescant seems 
to have entered the service of the king and 
queen as gardener, and probably it is to this 
date that the establishment of his physic gar- 
den and museum at South Lambeth belongs. 
They were situated on the east side of the 
South Lambeth Road, the road leading from 
Vauxhall to Stockwell, nearly opposite to 
what was formerly called Spring Lane. The 
house, which was called ' Tradescant's Ark/ 
was afterwards added to by Elias Ashmole, 
became two houses, known as Stamford 
House and Turret House, in one of which, 
from 1773 to his death in 1785, lived Dr. 
Andrew Coltee Ducarel [q.v.]the antiquary, 
and was finally demolished in 1881 (Notes 




and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 391 ; B. D. JACKSON, 
Guide to the Literature of Botany, p. 613). 
This physic garden was, as Lysons says 
(Environs of London, i. 330), ' one of the 
first established in this kingdom,' and Tra- 
descant was, as Pulteney says (op. cit. p. 
177), ' the first in this country who made 
any considerable collection of the subjects 
of natural history ; ' but this statement has 
been absurdly travestied (ALLEN, History 
of Lambeth, p. 142) into one that to him 

1 posterity is mainly indebted for the intro- 
duction of botany in this kingdom.' Tra- 
descant was at court in November 1632, 
making some inquiries about unicorns' horns, 
which proved to be merely ' the snout of a 
fish, yet very precious against poison ' ( Court 
and Times of Charles 1, 1848, ii. 189, 504). 

The exact date of Tradescant's death is un- 
known, some months being missing from the 
Lambeth registers after July 1637 ; but in 
the churchwardens' accounts of St. Mary's, 
Lambeth, is the entry ' 1637-8. Item, John 
Tradeskin ; ye gret "bell and black cloth, 
5s. &d.' (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 394). 
His will, dated 8 Jan. 1637, was proved 

2 May 1638 ; and from this it appears that 
he had one child, his son John [q. v.], and two 
grandchildren, John and Frances ; that he 
owned some houses in Long Acre and Covent 
Garden, and some leasehold property at 
Woodham Walter, Essex ; and that his son 
was residuary legatee, with the proviso that 
if he desired to part with the ' cabinet of 
rarities ' he should offer it to ' the Prince ' 
(ib. 1st ser. vii. 295). Tradescant was buried 
to the south-east of Lambeth church. 

There are three unsigned and undated 
portraits of the elder Tradescant in the Ash- 
molean collection at Oxford, all in oil. One 
is a three-quarter-length in a medallion 
surrounded by fruits, flowers, and roots; 
another is taken immediately after death; 
and the third, a miniature, may possibly be 
by Wenceslaus Hollar [q. v.] These por- 
traits, and those of the younger Tradescant, 
have been strangely inscribed ' S r John Tra- 
descant ' in gilt letters over their varnish, 
probably by Robert Plot [q. v.], first keeper 
of the Ashmolean Museum. The valuable 
engraved portrait by Hollar appeared in the 
younger Tradescant's 'Museum Tradescan- 
tianum ' in 1656. The original copper-plate is 
preserved in the Bodleian Library. It was 
copied by N. Smith in 1793, in a plate issued 
with Lysons's ' Surrey,' Ducarel's ' Appendix 
to the History of Lambeth,' and the third 
edition of Pennant's ' London.' ATI outline 
copy appears in Thomas Allen's ' History of 
Lambeth ' in 1827, and a fine lithograph by 
Malevsky in von Hamel's ' Tradescant der 


altere in Russland,' 1847. An escutcheon 
of Tradescant's arms, azure, on a bend or, 
three fleurs-de-lys, as engraved in the * Mu- 
seum,' is in the Ashmolean Collection. 

Linne adopted, from the ' Flora Jenensis ' 
of Ruppius (1718), the name Tradescantia 
for the ' Ephemerum virginianum ' or spider- 
wort, a garden favourite, which Tradescant 
introduced from Virginia. 

[Works cited above.] Gr. S. B. 

TRADESCANT, JOHN (1608-1662), 
traveller and gardener, son of John Trades- 
cant (d. 1637 ?) [q.v.], was born atMeopham, 
Kent, on 4 Aug. 1608 (Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. v. 266). In 1637 he was in Virginia 
* gathering all varieties of flowers, plants, 
shells, &c.,' for the collection at Lambeth 
(BKOWN, Genesis of the United States, p. 
1032). He appears from his epitaph to have 
succeeded his father as gardener to Queen 
Henrietta Maria. In 1650 he seems first to 
have made the acquaintance of Elias Ash- 
mole, who records in his 'Diary ' that in that 
year he, with his wife and Dr. Thomas Whar- 
ton [q. v.], visited Tradescant at South Lam- 
beth, and that in the summer of 1652 he 
and his wife ' tabled at Mr. Tredescants.' In 
1656 Tradescant published his 'Museum 
Tradescantianum : or a Collection of Rari- 
ties, preserved at South Lambeth, near Lon- 
don,' dedicated to the president and fellows 
of the College of Physicians. Probably the 
book had been printed some time before, since 
in the preface the writer says : ' About three 
years ago ... I was resolved to take a cata- 
logue of those rarities and curiosities which 
my father had sedulously collected. . . . Pre- 
sently thereupon my onely son died,' in 1652 
(ASHMOLE, Diary). He was assisted by two 
friends, Ashmole and Wharton. Among the 
donors to the museum, besides Ashmole and 
Wharton, figure ' Sir Dudly Diggs, Sir Natha- 
nael Bacon, Mr. William Curteene, Mr. 
Charleton, merchant ; and Mr. George Tho- 
masin;' and among the visitors those of 
Charles I and his queen, Robert and William 
Cecil, earls of Salisbury, George Villiers, 
duke of Buckingham, and Archbishop Laud. 
The frontispiece, consisting of the Tradescant 
arms, is followed by Hollar's portraits of the 
two Tradescants. The book, which comprises 
179 pages (12mo), contains lists of birds, 
quadrupeds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, 
fruits, war instruments, habits, utensils, 
coins, and medals, followed by a catalogue 
in English and Latin of the plants in the 
garden. ' The wonderful variety and incon- 
gruous juxtaposition of the objects,' says Sir 
William Flower (Essays on Museums, 1898, 
pp. 4, 5), 'make the catalogue very amusing 




reading.' ' Among " whole birds " is the 
famous "Dodar from the Island Mauritius ; 
it is not able to flie, being so big." This 
" stuffed Dodo," of which the head and foot 
are still preserved in the University Museum 
of Oxford, was seen by Willughby and Kay, 
as we learn from their " Ornithology " ' (1678). 
The collection naturally became famous. 
Herrick alludes to ' Tradescant's curious 
shells ' in an epigram upon Madame Ursly 
in his ' Hesperides ; ' and Thomas Flatman 
in some verses * To Mr. Sam. Austin of 
Wadham Col. Oxon. on his most unintel- 
ligible Poems,' writes : 
Thus John Tradeskin starves our greedy eyes 
By boxing up his new found Rarities 

(Poems, ed. 1674 p. 89, ed. 1682 p. 147). 
On 12 Dec. 1659 Ashmole notes in his 
1 Diary : ' * Mr. Tredescant and his wife told 
me they had been long considering upon 
whom to bestow their Closet of Curiosities 
when they died, and at last had resolved to 
give it unto me.' This is followed by the entry 
under date 14 Dec. : ' This Afternoon they 
gave their Scrivener Instructions to draw a 
Deed of Gift of the said Closet to me ; ' and, 
under the 16th, ' 5 Hor. 30 Minutes post 
merid. Mr. Tredescant and His Wife sealed 
and delivered to me the Deed of Gift of all his 
Rarities' (the entry on the subject in 
EVELYN'S Diary, under 17 Sept. 1657, is an 
erroneous interpolation by a later hand ; cf. 
BRAY, Advertisement to his edition of 
Evelyn, 1850). 

Tradescant died on 22 April 1662. He 
was twice married, his first wife, whose 
name was Jane, dying in May 1634 (Church- 
wardens' Account of St. Mary's, Lambeth}. 
She is erroneously described on the existing 
tomb in Lambeth churchyard as the wife of 
his father. By her he had two children 
Frances, who married Alexander Nor- 
man and at the date of her father's death 
was a widow; and John, born in 1633, died 
on 11 Sept. 1652, and / buried in Lambeth 
Church Yard by his Grandfather' ( ASHMOLE, 
Diary}. Tradescant married, secondly, in 
1638, Hester Pooks, described as of St. 
Bride's, London, maiden ' (' Register of St. 
Nicholas Cole-Abbey, London,' quoted in 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 513), by 
whom he had no issue. In his will, dated 
4 April 1661, and proved on 5 May 1662, he 
makes his wife sole executrix, requests to be 
' interred as neere as can be to my late de- 
ceased Father . . . and my sonne,' be- 
queaths 10/. to his daughter Frances Nor- 
man, 5s. each to his ' namesakes Robert 
Tredescant and Thomas Tredescant of Wal- 
berswick,' and adds, * Item, I giue, devize, 

and bequeath my Closet of Rarities to my 
dearly beloued wife Hester Tredescaut during 
her naturall Life, and after her decease I 
giue and bequeath the same to the Universities 
of Oxford or Cambridge, to which of them 
shee shall think fitt at her decease ' (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 367). 

Tradescant was buried at the south-east 
end of the chancel, in Lambeth churchyard, 
the original tomb being described in Au- 
brey's < Surrey' (1719, i. 11-12). The 
rhyming epitaph printed by Aubrey, though 
intended for the monument, was preserved 
at Oxford, and not placed upon it (DtrCAEEL, 
Letter to William Watson, M.D.,1773}. In 
1773 the tomb, being in a state of decay, 
was repaired by public subscription, and the 
epitaph was then added, the lines stating 
that the monument was erected by Hester 
Tradescant being omitted (NICHOLS, Appen- 
dix to DucareVs Hist, of Lambeth, 1785, p. 
68). The four sides of the tomb were en- 
graved by Basire from the original drawings, 
preserved in the Pepysian Library at Cam- 
bridge, for the paper by Dr. Ducarel in the 
' Philosophical Transactions' (1773, Ixiii. 
79-88), these engravings being reprinted 
in Nichols's 'History of Lambeth,' with 
another plate including copies of the two 
portraits by Hollar, published in 1793 by 
N. Smith, and issued also with Lysons's 
' Surrey ' (p. 289) and Pennant's ' London ' 
(3rd edit.) In 1853 the existing new tomb 
was erected by public subscription, from the 
drawings in the Pepysian Library (Gent. 
Mag. 1852 i. 377, 1853 i. 518). The top 
slab of the 1773 tomb was, after some 
changes of ownership, presented by Colonel 
North, M.P., to the Ashmolean Museum 
(Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iii. 512). 

In Easter term 1664 Ashmole ' preferred a 
Bill in Chancery against Mrs. Tredescant, for 
the Rarities her Husband had settled on me ' 
(Diary, 30 May 1662 ; cf. Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. v. 367). The cause was heard on 
18 May 1664 before Lord-chancellor Claren- 
don, who gave effect to the asserted terms 
of the deed of gift, adjudging Ashmole to 
' have and enjoy ' the Closett or Collection of 
Rarities as catalogued in the ' Museum 
Tradescantianum,' ' subject to the trust for 
the defendant during her life,' and appoint- 
ing Ashmole's two brother-heralds, Sir Ed- 
ward Bysshe and Sir William Dugdale, with 
Sir William Glascock, master in chancery, 
as commissioners to see that everything was 
forthcoming. Ashmole built a large brick 
house near Lambeth adjoining that which 
had been Tradescant's, 'and records in his 
diary on 26 Nov. 1674: 'Mrs. Tredescant 
being willing to deliver up the rarities to 




me, I carried several of them to -my liouse.' 
A few days later he removed the remainder, 
and about this date they seem to have been 
visited by Izaak Walton ( Universal Angler, 
5th edit., 1676, p. 31 ; cf. DUCAREL, History 
cf Lambeth, ed. Nichols, p. 97). In 1677 
Ashmole announced his intention of present- 
ing the collection to the university, pro- 
vided a suitable building were erected to 
receive it. On 4 April 1678 he enters in his 
diary: ' My wife told me that Mrs. Tredescant 
was found drowned in her pond. She was 
drowned the day before about noon, as ap- 
peared by some circumstance.' On the 6th 
he records : * She was buried in a vault in 
Lambeth Church Yard, where her Husband 
and his Son John had been formerly laid ;' and 
on the 22nd : ' I removed the pictures from 
Mrs. Tredescant's house to mine.' Mrs. 
Tradescant bequeathed 501. to the poor of 
Lambeth (LYSONS, Environs of London, i. 
307). The requisite building at Oxford was 
erected by Sir Christopher Wren, the collec- 
tion was transferred to it in 1683, and, as 
Pulteney says (Sketches of the Progress of 
Botany, i. 179), * the name of Tradescant 
was unjustly sunk in that of Ashmole' (cf. 
EVELYN, Diary, 23 July 1678). 

There is a fine portrait, by an unknown 
artist, of the younger Tradescant at the 
National Portrait Gallery, he being repre- 
sented with a skull by his side. In the 
Ashmolean collection at Oxford there are 
three original portraits of him : one a half- 
length in his garden, his hand resting on a 
spade, probably by William Dobson (1610- 
1645) [q. v.] ; another, with his friend 
Zythepsa, the fictitious name of a quaker 
brewer at Lambeth, in his cabinet at Lam- 
beth, with exquisitely painted shells in 
the foreground, probably the work of the 
same artist; and a third, much inferior, 
dated 1656, and therefore not by Dobson, with 
Tradescant's second wife, in his fiftieth and 
her forty-eighth year. There are also in the 
same collection four other pictures, all pro- 
bably by Dobson one, painted probably 
between 1640 and 1645, of Hester Trades- 
cant and her stepson and daughter; another, 
dated 13 Sept, 1645, of Hester in her thirty- 
seventh year and her stepson, aged 12, of 
which there is a proof engraving in the Pen- 
nant collection in the British Museum ; and 
separate portraits of the stepson and daugh- 
ter, both in orange-colouredVandyke dresses. 
In addition to Hollars engraving from the 
' Museum Tradescantianum ' already men- 
tioned, the copy published by N. Smith in 
1793, and the outline copy from Allen's 
' History of Lambeth ' (1827), there is in the 
Pennant collection an engraved medallion 

portrait of Hester Tradescant, taken from 
the 1656 portrait at Oxford. Another en- 
graving of the same portrait is inserted in a 
copy of Dr. Ducarel's ' Letter to Sir William 
Watson ' in the Grenville Library. 

Sir William Watson, with other fellows 
of the Royal Society, visited the site of 
Tradescant's garden in 1749, which he styles 
(Philosophical Transactions, xlvi. 160) ' ex- 
cept that of Mr. John Gerard, the author of 
the "Herbal," probably the first botanical 
garden in England;' and he enumerates- a 
few plants then surviving. Loudon gives a 
list (Arboretum Britannicum, pp. 49-50) of 
the trees and shrubs introduced by the two 
Tradescants, which includes the lilac, the 
acacia, the occidental plane, and many others 
less familiar. 

[Knight's English Cyclopaedia of Biography, 
vi. 149, the fullest and only accurate account 
hitherto published; the works cited above; and 
information kindly given by the officers of the 
Ashmolean Museum.^ Or. S. B. 

1081), Welsh prince, was, according to the 
heralds (LEWIS DWNN, i. 266 ; History of 
Powys Fadog, i. 72), the son of Caradog 
ap Gwyn ap Collwyn. Originally lord of 
Arwystli (the region around Llanidloes), he 
became in 1075, on the death of his cousin 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, ruler of the greater part 
of North Wales. His claim was at once 
contested by Gruffydd ab Cynau [q. v.], re- 
presenting the old line of Gwynedd, who de- 
feated Trahaearn at Gwaeterw in the region 
of Meirionydd, but was himself worsted at 
Bron yr Erw later in the year and forced 
to return to Ireland. In 1078 Trahaearn 
defeated at ' Pwllgudic' Rhys ab Owain (d. 
1078?) [q. v.] of South Wales, who was 
soon afterwards slain. His power brought 
about a coalition between Grufiydd ap Cynan 
and Rhys ap Tewdwr, who in 1081 led a 
joint expedition against him from St. David's, 
and defeated him and his allies in a battle 
fought at Mynydd Cam (in South Cardigan- 
shire), in which Trahaearn fell. The battle 
is commemorated in a poem by Meilyr 
Brydydd, printed in the i Myvyrian Archaio- 
logy' (2nd edit. p. 142). Robert of Rhud- 
dlan's epitaph attributed to him a victory 
over ' Trehellum ' (Oiu>. VIT. viii. 3). Tra- 
haearn left four sons, of whom Meurig and 
Griffri were slain in 1106. Llywarch be- 
came lord of Arwystli, and died about 1128, 
and Owain was grandfather of the Hywel 
ab leuaf who ruled over the district in the 
reign of Henry II. 

[Annales Cambriae ; BrutyTywysogion ; Brut 
y Saeson and Buchedd Gruffydd ap Cynan in 
the Myvyrian Archaiology.] .T. E. L. 





(1788-1860), antiquary, born on 5 Oct. 1788, 
was the eldest son of Llewelyn Traherne of 
Coedriglan, St. George's-super-Ely, Glamor- 
ganshire, by Charlotte, daughter of John 
Edmondes. The Trahernes traced descent 
on the female side, through the Herberts of 
Swansea (progenitors of the earls of Pem- 
broke and Powis), from Einion ap Collwyn. 

Traherne matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 11 Dec. 1806, proceeding B.A. in 
1810 and M.A. in 1813. He was ordained 
deacon in 1812 and priest in 1813, and on 
21 March 1844 was installed chancellor of 
Llandaff, an appointment which he retained 
until 1851. 

He was one of the chief authorities of his 
time on the genealogies and archaeology of 
Glamorganshire. In 1840 he edited ' The 
Stradling Correspondence : a Series of Let- 
ters written in the Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, with Notices of the Family of Stradling 
of St. Donat's Castle ' (London, 8vo). The 
bulk of the letters in this collection were 
addressed to Sir Edward Stradling [q. v.] 

Besides contributions to archaeological 
journals, Traherne's assistance was fre- 
quently acknowledged by other workers in the 
same field (cf. DILLWYIT, Swansea ; FRANCIS, 
Neath). He was elected a fellow of the 
Linnean Society on 21 Dec. 1813, of the 
Geological Society in 1817, of the Royal 
Society on 29 May 1823, and of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 15 Feb. 1838. He was 
also an honorary member of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and of 
the Society of Antiquaries, Copenhagen. 

Traherne died, without issue, on 5 Feb. 
1860 at Coedriglan, where he had resided 
throughout his life, and was buried at St. 
Hilary, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. 
He married, on 23 April 1830, Charlotte 
Louisa, third daughter of Thomas Mansel 
Talbot of Margam, who survived him. 

Besides the work mentioned, Traherne 
published: 1. f Lists of Knights of the Shire 
for Glamorgan and of Members for the 
Boroughs,' 1822, 12mo. 2. 'Abstract of 
Pamphlets relative to Cardiff Castle in the 
Reign of Charles I,' 1822, 12mo. 3. < His- 
torical Notices of Sir Matthew Cradock, 
Knt., of Swansea, in the Reigns of Henry VII 
and Henry VIII,' Llandovery, 1840, 8vo. 
Traherne's collections of manuscripts passed 
on his death to his friend Sir Thomas 
Phillipps [q. v.], and are now at the free 
library, Cardiff. 

[Pedigree in notices of Sir Matthew Cradock ; 
Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, p. 560 ; Nicho- 
las's County Families of Wales, 1872, ii. 643 ; 
Eurke's Landed Gentry, 8th edit. p. 2036 ; Fos- 

ter's Alumni Oxon. ; Arch. Cambr. 3rd ser. vi. 
140; Gent. Mag. 1860, i. 517; Cambrian 
(Swansea), 10 Feb. I860.] D. LL. T. 


(1510P-1558?), protestant writer, born 
about 1510, was descended from an ancient 
Cornish family, and is said to have been a, 
native of Cornwall. Possibly he was son of 
George Traheron who was placed on the 
commission of the peace for Herefordshire 
in 1523 and died soon afterwards. Bartho- 
lomew was early left an orphan, and was 
brought up under the care of Richard Tracy 
[q. v.] of Toddington, Gloucestershire, who, 
says Traheron, ' whan I was destitute of 
father and mother, conceaued a very fatherly 
affection towarde me and not onely brought 
me up in the universities of this and forayne 
realmes with your great costes and charges, 
but also most earnestly exhorted me to for- 
sake the puddels of sophisters.' Traheron 
became a friar minorite before 1527, when 
he is said to have been persecuted at Oxford 
for his religion by John London [q. v.], war- 
den of New College ; he is also said to have 
belonged to Exeter College or Hart Hall, 
but his name does not occur in the registers. 
Subsequently he removed to Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1533, being still 
a friar minorite (Lansd. MS. 981, f. 9). Soon 
afterwards relinquishing his habit, he went 
abroad, travelling in Italy and Germany. 
In September 1537 he joined Bullinger at 
Zurich (BuLLJNGEE, Decades, Parker Soc. 
v. p. xii), and in 1538 he was living at 
Strasburg. In that year he published an 
exhortation to his brother Thomas to embrace 
the reformed religion. 

Early in 1539 Cromwell took Traheron 
into his service, and Lord-chancellor Audley 
seems to have befriended him (Original Let- 
ters, Parker Soc. i. 316-17). After Crom- 
well's fall he escaped from court ' with much 
difficulty ' and retired into the country, where 
in May 1542 he was credited with an inten- 
tion f to marry a lady with 1 20 florins income* 
and keep a grammar school for boys ' (ib. 
i. 226). In 1543 he dedicated to Tracy his- 
translation of ' The moste Excellent Workes 
of Chirurgerye made and set forthe by maister 
John Vigon, heed chirurgien of our tyme 
in Italie,' London, 4to (other editions loSQ 
fol., 1571 fol., 1586 4to). Before the end 
of Henry VIII's reign Traheron found it 
advisable again to go abroad, and in 1546 
he was with Calvin at Geneva. Calvin 
exercised great influence over Traheron, who 
gradually abandoned his friend Bullinger's 
comparatively moderate views, and adopted 
Calvin's doctrine of predestination and anti- 


i 49 


sacramentarian dogmas. In the summer of 
1548 lie returned to England, and was found 
a seat in the parliament which met for its 
second session in November (his name does 
not occur in the Official Return). The 
main question before it was the doctrine of 
the eucharist to be adopted in the Book of 
Common Prayer, on which the Windsor com- 
mission was then sitting. Traheron 'en- 
deavoured as far as he could that there 
should be no ambiguity in the reformation 
of the Lord's Supper ; but it was not in his 
power to bring over his old fellow-citizens 
to his view' (Original Letters, Parker Soc. 
i. 266). Early in 1549 he had a controversy 
with Hooper on predestination (id. ii. 406, 
416, 426 ; HOOPEK, Works, ii. p. xi). On 
14 Dec. of that year he was on Cheke's 
recommendation appointed keeper of the 
king's library with a salary of twenty marks 
in . succession to Ascham, and in February 
1549-50 the council nominated him tutor to 
the young Duke of Suffolk at Cambridge. 

On Suffolk's death (16 July 1551) Tra- 
heron again retired into the country, and 
occupied himself with the study of Greek. 
He contributed to the ' Epigrammata Varia,' 
London, 1551, 4to, published on the death 
of Bucer, and in September Cecil suggested 
to him that he might be of use in the church, 
and proposed his election to the deanery of 
Chichester (Lansd. MS. 2, f. 9). Traheron, 
who is incorrectly said to have taken orders 
about 1539, was only a civilian, but on 
29 Sept. the council wrote to the chapter of 
Chichester urging his election as dean (Coun- 
cil Warrant-book in Royal MS. C. xxiv. 
f. 137). The chapter made some difficulty, 
and it was not till 8 Jan. 1551-2 that Tra- 
heron was elected (LE NEVE, i. 257). Mean- 
while, on 6 Oct. and again on 10 Feb. 1551-2, 
he had been nominated one of the civilians 
on the commission to reform the canon laws. 
His position at Chichester was not happy, 
and in 1552 he resigned the deanery, receiving 
instead a canonry at Windsor in September. 

On Mary's accession Traheron resigned 
his patent as keeper of the king's library 
(RYMER, Fcedera, xv. 351) and went abroad. 
In 1555 he was at Frankfort, taking part in 
the famous ( troubles ' there. He was one 
of the adherents of Richard Cox [q. v.], who, 
in opposition to Knox's party, wished to 
retain the English service-book; and when 
the congregation at Frankfort was remodelled 
after Knox's expulsion, Traheron was ap- 
pointed, l when he is stronge, to take the 
divinity lecture ' (WHITTINGHAM, ErieffDis- 
cours, 1575, pp. Ivii, Iviii, Ix). Soon after- 
wards he seems to have removed to Wesel, 
where he lectured on the New Testament. 

In 1557 he published ' An Exposition of a 
parte of S. lohannes Gospel made in sondrie 
readinges in the English congregation at 
Wesel by Bartho. Trahero, and now pub- 
lished against the wicked enterprises of new 
sterte up Arians in Englande,' Wesel ? 8vo ; 
another edition, ' beinge ouerseen againe, 
corrected and augmeted in manie places by 
the autor with additions of sondrie other 
lectures wherein the diuinitie of the holie 
gost ... is treated and the use of sacra- 
mentes,' was issued in 1558, sin. 8vo. In 
1557 Traheron also published ' An expositio 
of the 4 chap, of S. Joans Reuelation made 
by Bar. Traheron in sondrie readings before 
his contremen in Germaine,' Wesel ? 8vo ; 
other editions, London, 1573, 8vo, and Lon- 
don, 1577, 8vo. Two other works followed 
in 1558, an l Answere made by Bar. Tra- 
heron to a privie papiste which crepte in to 
the english congregation of Christian exiles 
. . .,' Wesel? 8vo (Lambeth Library; cf. 
MAITLAND, Essays on the Reformation, pp. 
75-85), and 'A Warning to England to 
repente and to turn to god from idolatrie 
and poperie by the terrible exemple of Calece 
given the 7 of March Anno C. 1558 by 
Benthalmai Outis [i.e. Bartholomew Tra- 
heron], . . .,' Wesel? 8vo. 

Traheron probably died at Wesel in 1558 
(HOLINSHED, iii. 1168 ; but cf. Lansd. MS. 
981, f. 9). His daughter Magdalen married 
Thomas Bowyer of Leytnorne, Sussex 
(ELWES, Castles of West Sussex). Besides 
the works mentioned above, he published 
' Ad Thomam fratrem Parsenesis,' Frankfurt, 
1538, 8vo, has verses in ' Johannis Parkhursti 
Ludicra sive Epigrammata,' 1573, wrote 
various letters to Bullinger which are printed 
in ' Original Letters ' (Parker Soc.), and is 
credited by Bale with the authorship of ' In 
mortem Henrici Dudlaei carmen i.,' ' In 
mortem senioris Viati [Wyatt] carmen i.,' 
' In testamentum G. Tracy [see under TEACY, 
RICHARD] lib. i./ and < Epistolarum et Car- 
minum lib. i.' 

[Lansd. MSS. 2 f. 135, 981 f. 9 ; Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Gairdner ; Lit. Re- 
mains of Edward VI (Koxburghe Club); Narr. 
of the Reformation (Camden Soc.); Bale's 
Scriptt. viii. 94 ; Wood's Athenae, ed. Bliss, 
i. 324; Fuller's Worthies; Strype's Works 
("general index) ; Gough's Index to Parker Soc. 
Publ. ; Berkenhout's Biogr. Lit. 1777, p. 177; 
Lewis's Translations of the Bible, 1818, pp. 203-4; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; Ascham's Epistolse ; 
Burnet's Hist, of the Eeformation, ed. Pocock ; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 180, 551 ; Haweis's 
Sketches of the Reformation ; Dixon's Hist, of 
the Church of England, iii. 220, 293, 351, 439 ; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; works in 
Brit. Mus. ; authorities cited.] A. F. P. 



TRAIL, ROBERT (1642-1716), presby- 
terian divine, was born at Elie in Fifeshire 
in 1642. His father, Robert (1603-1678), 
was son of Colonel James Trail of Killcleary 
in Ireland, and grandson of Trail of Blebo 
in Fifeshire. He became chaplain to Archi- 
bald Campbell, first marquis of Argyll [q.v.], 
and in 1639 was presented to Elie. He was 
translated to the Greyfriars church, Edin- 
burgh, in 1648, and became a zealous cove- 
nanter. In 1644 he was a chaplain with 
the Scottish army in England, and was pre- 
sent at the battle of Marston Moor. He 
was one of the ministers who visited the 
Marquis of Montrose in prison and attended 
him on the scaffold. He afterwards joined 
the protesters, and was one of the party who 
reminded Charles II at the Restoration of 
his obligation to keep the covenants, for 
which he was banished for life. He sailed 
for Holland in March 1662-3, but returned 
to Edinburgh, where he died on 12 July 
1678. A portrait of him is given in Smith's 
' Iconographia Scoticana' (!!EW SCOTT, Fasti, 
i. 40-1, and authorities there cited). He left 
an autobiography in manuscript. He mar- 
ried, on 23 Dec. 1639, Jean Annand, daugh- 
ter of the laird of Auctor-Ellon, Aberdeen- 
shire. She was imprisoned in June 1665 
for corresponding with her exiled husband. 

Robert Trail's early education was care- 
fully superintended by his father, and at the 
university of Edinburgh he distinguished 
himself both in the literary and theological 
classes. At the age of nineteen he stood 
beside James Guthrie, his father's friend, on 
the scaffold. He was for some time tutor or 
chaplain in the family of Scot of Scot star vet, 
and was afterwards much with John Welch, 
the minister of Irongray, who was the first 
to hold ' armed conventicles.' In a procla- 
mation of 1667 he was denounced as a 
' Pentland rebel ' and excepted from the act 
of indemnity. It is uncertain whether he 
was present at that engagement or not ; but 
he fled to Holland, where he joined his father 
and other Scottish exiles. There he con- 
tinued his theological studies, and assisted 
Xethenius, professor at Utrecht, in preparing 
for the press S. Rutherford's ' Examen Ar- 
minianismi.' In 1669 he was in London, 
and in 1670 was ordained to a presbyterian 
charge at Cranbrook in Kent. He visited 
Edinburgh in 1677, when he was arrested 
by the privy council and charged with break- 
ing the law. He admitted that he had 
preached in private houses, but, refusing to 
purge himself by oath from the charge of 
taking part in holding conventicles, he was 
sent as a prisoner to the Bass Rock in the 
Firth of Forth. Having given a promise which 

satisfied the government, he was liberated a 
few months afterwards and returned to his 
charge in Kent. He afterwards migrated 
to a Scots church in London, where he spent 
the rest of his life. 

In 1682 he published a sermon, ' By what 
means can ministers best win souls ? ' and in 
1692 a letter to a minister in the country 
supposed to be his eldest brother, William 
(1640-1714), minister of Borthwick, Mid- 
lothian entitled A Vindication of the Pro- 
testant Doctrine concerning Justification 
and of its Preachers and Professors from the 
unjust Charge of Antinomianism.' This 
' angry letter,' as Dr. Calamy calls it, was 
occasioned by the violent controversy which 
broke out among the dissenting ministers of 
London after the republication in 1690 of 
the works of Dr. Tobias Crisp. Charges 
of Antinomianism were made on the one 
side and of Arminianism on the other, and 
Trail was distinguished for his zeal against 
Arminianism. A somewhat similar contro- 
versy followed in Scotland, and as Boston 
of Ettrick and others took the same side as 
Trail, his works became very popular among- 
them and their adherents. He afterwards 
published i Sermons on the Throne of Grace 
from Heb. iv. 16' (3rd edit. 1731), and 
' Sermons on the Prayer of Our Saviour, 
John xvii. 24.' These works were devout, 
plain, and edifying, and were in great favour 
with those who were attached to evangelical 

Trail died unmarried on 16 May 1716 at 
the age of seventy-four. His brother Wil- 
liam, the minister of Borthwick, has had 
many clerical descendants of note, both in 
the church of Scotland and in the church 
of Ireland among the latter James, bishop 
of Down and Connor (HEW SCOTT, Fasti, 
i. 266). 

A collective edition of Trail's works was 
published in 1745 (Edinburgh, 4 vols.) ; 
other editions Glasgow, 1776 3 vols., 1795 
4 vols., 1806 4 vols. (which is the best 
edition), Edinburgh, 1810 4 vols. These 
included additional works from his manu- 
scripts: 'Steadfast Adherence to the Pro- 
fession of our Faith, from Hebrews x. 23 ; ' 
( Sermons from 1 Peter i. 1-4 ; ' ' Sermons on 
Galatians ii. 21.' Further sermons from 
manuscripts in the hands of his relatives 
were published in 1845 by the Free Church 
of Scotland. 

[Wodrow's History ; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation ; Agnew's Theology of Consolation ; 
Hist, of the Bass Rock ; Life prefixed to Select 
Writings of Trail by Free Church Publ. Com. ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. and authorities 
there cited.] G. W. S. 



TRAIL, WALTER (d. 1401), bishop of 
St. Andrews, belonged to the family of Trail 
of Blebo, Fifeshire. He was educated and gra- 
duated with distinction at the university of 
Paris, and afterwards became doctor of civil 
and of canon law. In the ' Calendar of Peti- 
tions to the Pope,' 1342-1419, he is referred 
to in 1365 as Walter Trayle of the diocese 
of Aberdeen, holding a benefice in the gift 
of the abbot and monastery of Aberbrothoc, 
and frequently afterwards as receiving 
church appointments in Scotland. He spent 
several years at Avignon as referendarius 
from Scotland at the court of Clement VII, 
and was there in 1385 when the see of 
St. Andrews fell vacant. He at once was 
appointed to the bishopric by the pope, who 
said that ' he was more worthy to be a pope 
than a bishop, and that the place was better 
provided for than the person.' In 1390 he 
assisted at the funeral of Robert II at Scone, 
and crowned Robert III, under whose feeble 
reign he exercised a great influence on the 
affairs of the country. In the following 
year he was sent as ambassador to France to 
effect a treaty between France, England, 
and Scotland, when a year was spent in 
fruitless negotiations. The 'Wolf of Ba- 
or BUCHAN], who had been excommunicated 
for destroying Elgin Cathedral in 1390, was 
absolved by Bishop Trail in the Black Friars' 
Church, Perth (Rec/istrum Moraviense, pp. 
353, 381). In 1398, when the king made 
his brother Robert Stewart Duke of Albany 
[q. v.] and his son David Stewart Duke of 
Rothsay [q. v.] the first dukedoms conferred 
in Scotland Trail preached and celebrated. 
He died in 1401 in the castle of St. An- 
drews, which he had built or repaired, and 
was buried in the cathedral in a tomb which 
he had erected for himself. On his monu- 
ment was the following inscription : 
Hie fuit ecclesise directa columna, fenestra 
Lucida, thuribulum redolens, campana sonora. 

Trail receives a high character from For- 
dun and Wynton, and ' was of such excel- 
lent worth that even Buchanan speaks in 
his praise.' 

[Fordun's Chron. ; Wynton's Chron. ; Cal. of 
Petitions to the Pope, 1342-1419; Cal. Doc. 
relating to Scotland ; Exchequer Rolls of Scot- 
land ; Book of Procurat. of English Nat, at the 
Univ. of Paris ; Keith's Scottish Bishops ; 
Lyon's St. Andrews.] G. W. S. 


1862), professor of medical jurisprudence, son 
of Thomas Traill (c?. 1782) and his wife Lucia, 
was born at Kirkwall in Orkney, of which 
place his father was minister, on 29 Oct. 

1781. He graduated in medicine in the 
university of Edinburgh in 1802, where he 
was a fellow student of Lord Brougham and 
Sir David Brewster. He settled in Liver- 
pool in 1803, and continued in practice there 
till 1832, when he was appointed to the 
chair of medical jurisprudence in the Edin- 
burgh University. He was admitted a fellow 
of the Royal College of Physicians in Edin- 
burgh on 7 May 1833, and became its pre- 
sident on 2 Dec. 1852. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 30 July 1862. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 

Traill took great pleasure in lecturing, 
and delivered many lectures in Liverpool, 
where he was prime mover in founding the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Liver- 
pool, of which he was the first secretary, 
and assisted in establishing the Royal Insti- 
tution and the Liverpool Mechanics' Insti- 
tution. He had a very tenacious memory, 
but trusted too much to it. He was editor 
of the eighth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' to which he contributed many 
articles, but much of the work, owing to his 
ill-health, was edited by Adam Black. He 
wrote: 1. 'De usu aquae frigidse in typho 
externo,' Edinburgh, 1802, 8vo. 2. 'Out- 
lines of a Course of Lectures on Medical Juris- 
prudence,' Edinburgh, 1836, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 
1840, and Philadelphia, 1841 ; 3rd edit. 1857. 
He contributed a ' List of Animals met 
with on the Eastern Coast of West Green- 
land' to Scoresby's 'Journal of a Voyage 
to the Northern Whale Fishery,' furnished 
an article on the ' Thermometer and Pyro- 
meter ' to the ' Library of Useful Know- 
ledge/ section ' Natural Philosophy ' (vol. ii. 
1832), and published a translation of Schle- 
gel's 'Essay on the Physiognomy of Ser- 
pents,' London, 1844, 8vo. He also contri- 
buted nearly seventy papers on various 
scientific subjects to different journals be- 
tween 1805 and 1862. 

[Gent. Mag. 1862, ii. 372;. Proc. Royal Soc. 
Edinburgh, v. 30 ; Proc. Liverpool Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. xvii.3 ; Hist. Sketch Royal Coll. Physicians, 
Edinburgh; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot.; 
British Museum Cat.; Index Cat. Surgeon- 
General United States Army; Royal Soc. Cat.] 

B. B. W. 

TRAIN, JOSEPH (1779-1852), Scottish 
antiquary and correspondent of Sir Walter 
Scott, was born on 6 Nov. 1779 at Gilmins- 
croft in the parish of Sorn, Ayrshire, where 
his father was grieve and land-steward. In 
1787 the father removed to the Townhead 
of Ayr, and became a day labourer. At an 
early age the boy was apprenticed to a 
weaver in Ayr; but, notwithstanding his 




circumstances and the slightness of his edu- 
cation, he early manifested a love of learn- 
ing, his special passion being antiquarian 
and traditional lore. From 1799 the mono- 
tony of his life was varied by service in the 
Ayrshire militia, until the regiment was 
disbanded at the peace of Amiens in 1802. 
While the regiment was stationed at Inver- 
ness he became a subscriber to Currie's edi- 
tion of the ' Works of Robert Burns,' pub- 
lished in 1800. This proved a turning point 
to his fortunes. The colonel of the regiment, 
Sir David Hunter-Blair, having seen the 
volumes in the bookseller's shop previous to 
their delivery, wished to purchase them, and, 
on being told that they had already been 
subscribed for by one of his own men, was 
so much pleased that he gave orders to have 
them handsomely rebound and sent to Train 
free of charge. Nor did his interest in Train 
cease with this. Some time after the regi- 
ment was disbanded he obtained for him an 
agency for a manufacturing house in Glas- 
gow, and in 1806-7 an appointment as super- 
numerary excise officer in the Ayr district. 

In 1806 Train published a volume of 
1 Poetical Reveries' (Glasgow, 12mo), of only 
average poetaster merit. In 1810 he was sent 
to Balnaguard in the Aberfeldy district to aid 
in the suppression of smuggling in Breadal- 
bane. But besides his official interest in the 
suppression of the traffic, he regarded the wel- 
fare of those engaged in it ; and, convinced that 
the excessive resort to the practice in the High- 
lands w T as in part due to erroneous legisla- 
tion, he prepared a ' Paper on Smuggling,' 
in which he argued against what was called 
the ( Highland Line,' and the refusal to 
license stills of a less capacity than five 
hundred gallons. His suggestions, having 
through Sir Walter Scott been placed before 
the board of excise in 1815, were finally 

In 1811 Train was appointed to the Largs 
side in the Ayr district, and while there and 
at Newton Stewart in New Galloway, to 
which he was transferred in 1813, he had 
special opportunity for the collection of 
south-western tales and traditions. Several 
of these he wove into ballad narratives, which 
he published in 1814 under the title of 
* Strains of the Mountain Muse ' (Edinburgh, 
8vo). While the work was passing through 
Ballantyne's press it attracted the attention 
of Sir Walter Scott, who was especially in- 
terested in the l notes illustrative of tradi- 
tions in Galloway and Ayrshire/ and imme- 
diately wrote to Train begging to be included 
in the list of subscribers for eleven copies. 
After perusing the volume on its publication 
he also expressed to Train his appreciation of 

it, and more especially of the notes on old tra- 
ditions ; and requested him to communicate 
to him any ' matters of that order ' which he 
did not himself think of using. Train had 
already, with Captain James Denniston, 
begun to collect materials for a ' History of 
Galloway/ but from this time ' he renounced 
every idea of authorship for himself/ and 
resolved that ' henceforth his chief pursuit 
should be collecting whatever he thought 
would be interesting ' to Scott. Scott's obli- 
gations to him, which were very great, are 
acknowledged in different prefaces and notes. 
When Train first corresponded with Scott, 
Scott was at work on ' The Lord of the 
Isles/ and at his request Train sent him a 
description of Turn berry Castle, and at the 
same time communicated the tradition of 
the ' wondrous light ' which was so effec- 
tively introduced by Scott in the fifth canto 
of the poem. In the interest of Scott, Train 
states that he became ' still more zealous in 
the pursuit of ancient lore/ and that his 
love of old traditions became so notorious 
that f even beggars, in the hope of reward, 
came from afar to Newton Stewart to recite 
old ballads and relate old stories ' to him. 
Much of the material could only be partially 
utilised by Scott, but there was an invaluable 
residuum. The romance of ' Redgauntlet' 
had its germ in certain notes to Train's 
volume of poems. ' Guy Mannering ' owed 
its birth to a legendary ballad which he 
supplied. The outline of even the marvellous 
1 Wandering Willie's Tale ' was derived from 
one of his traditionary stories, and he fur- 
nished Scott with the prototype of Wan- 
dering Willie himself. To him, according 
to Lockhart, we owe l the whole machinery 
of the " Tales of My Landlord," as well as 
the adoption of the Claverhouse period for 
the scene of one of his fictions ' (i.e. ' Old 
Mortality '). Old Mortality himself was 
mainly his discovery [see PATERSON, ROBERT] ; 
but for him the ' Antiquary ' would have been 
ungraced by the quaint figure of Edie Ochil- 
tree, and the bizarre apparition of Madge 
Wildfire would have been wanting from ' The 
Heart of Midlothian ' had he not told Scott 
the story of Feckless Fanny. The * Doom 
of Devorgoil ' was suggested by his tale of 
Plunton, and he supplied the story on which 
Scott founded his last novel, 'The Surgeon's 
Daughter.' All this is in addition to much 
and various antiquarian matter which en- 
riched in many ways the texture of Scott's 
romances. Train also sent to Scott numerous 
antique curiosities, including the spleuchan 
of Rob Roy, which Lockhart thinks probably 
led Scott to adopt the adventures of Rob as 
one of his themes. 



While Lockhart was writing his ' Life of 
Burns/ Train sent him some information 
which Lockhart acknowledged in a letter of 
20 Sept. 1827; but the portion of these 
notes now in the Laing collection in the 
library of Edinburgh University is of very 
slight value. Train also supplied to George 
Chalmers, author of * Caledonia/ the earliest 
knowledge of Roman remains in Ayrshire 
and Wigtownshire, it being previously sup- 
posed that the Romans had never penetrated 
into Wigtownshire, nor further into Ayr- 
shire than Loudoun Hill. This included 
notices of the Roman post on the Black- 
water of Dee, of the Roman camp at Rispain 
near Galloway, and of the Roman road from 
Dumfriesshire to Ayr. Train further suc- 
ceeded in tracing the wall, of very ancient 
but unknown origin, called the Deil's Dyke, 
from Lochryan in Wigtownshire to the farm 
of Hightae in the parish of Lochmaben, Dum- 
friesshire, a distance of eighty miles. 

While Agnes Strickland [q. v.] was collect- 
ing material for her life of Mary Queen of 
Scots, she applied to Train for information 
regarding the flight of Mary through eastern 
Galloway after the battle of Langside, but 
any lingering traditions of this occurrence 
must be regarded as compounded more 
largely of fiction than of fact. 

In 1820, through the representations of 
Scott to the lord advocate, Train was pro- 
moted supervisor, the station to which he 
was appointed being Cupar-Fife, whence in 
1822 he was removed to Queensferry, and 
in 1823 to Falkirk. Owing, however, to the 
then prevailing custom of reserving the 
highest offices of the excise mainly for Eng- 
lishmen, the efforts of Scott for the advance- 
ment of Train to the rank of general super- 
visor or collector were unsuccessful. Not 
only so, but owing to fictitious offences, 
manufactured it is said by an English official, 
Train was in 1824 t removed in censure' 
from Falkirk to be supervisor at Wigtown, 
and although afterwards he was appointed 
to Dumfries, he was, on account of a sup- 
posed negligence, reduced while at Dumfries 
from the rank of supervisor. After six 
months he was, however, on his own peti- 
tion, restored to his former rank, being 
appointed in November 1827 supervisor at 
Castle Douglas. While there he supplied 
Scott with a variety of information for his 
notes to the new edition of the * Waveriey 
Novels ' begun in 1829. In November of the 
same year he was admitted a member of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

The death of Scott, 21 Sept. 1832, made a 
great blank in the life of Train, but the ab- 
sence of the accustomed stimulus did not 

lessen his interest in his old studies. Al- 
though he had presented Scott with many 
antiquarian relics, he still retained a rare and 
valuable collection of his own. James Han- 
nay, editor of the Edinburgh ' Courant ' who 
records in ' Household Words ' of 10 July 
1853 a visit which he paid to Train, states 
that his 'little parlour was full of anti- 
quities/ and describes him as 'a tall old 
man, with an autumnal red in his face, hale- 
looking, and of simple quaint manners.' 
After his retirement from the excise in 1836, 
he took up his residence in a cottage near 
Castle Douglas, where he occupied his leisure 
in contributing to ' Chambers's Journal ' and 
other periodicals, in completing his 'His- 
torical and Statistical Account of the Isle 
of Man, from the earliest time to the present 
date, with a view of its peculiar customs and 
popular superstitions ' (Douglas, 1845, 2 vols. 
8vo), and in writing an account of the local 
religious sect known as the Buchanites, under 
the title, * The Buchanites from First to Last ' 
(Edinburgh, 1846, 8vo). He died on 1 Dec. 
1852. By Mary, daughter of Robert Wilson, 
gardener in Ayr, he had five children. 

[Paterson's Contemporaries of Burns, 1840; 
Memoir of Joseph Train by John Patterson. 
1857; Dumfries Courier, December 1852; 
Household Words, 16 July 1853; Glasgow 
Herald, 22 Feb. and 1 March 1896 ; information 
from Mr. K. W. Macfadzean.] T. F. H. 

TRANT, < SIR' NICHOLAS (1769-1839), 
brigadier-general in the Portuguese army, 
born in 1769, belonged to an Irish family 
originally of Danish origin. His grand- 
father, Dominick Trant of Dingle, co. Kerry, 
wrote a tract ' Considerations on the present 
Disturbance in Munster/ 1787 (3rd edit. 
1790). He was educated at a military col- 
lege in France, but in consequence of the 
French revolution he entered the British 
army, and was commissioned as lieutenant 
in the 84th foot on 31 May 1794. He served 
with that regiment at Flushing, and went 
with it to the Cape of Good Hope in 1795. 
Returning to England, he obtained a com- 
pany in one of the regiments of the Irish 
brigade, his commission bearing date 1 Oct. 
1794. His regiment was sent to Portugal, 
and he took part in the expedition under Sir 
Charles Stuart, which captured Minorca in 
November 1798. There Trant was appointed 
agent-general for prizes, and helped to orga- 
nise the Minorca regiment, in which he was 
made major on 17 Jan. 1799. He served in 
the expedition to Egypt, and his regiment 
was in support of the 42nd and 28th in the 
battle of Alexandria. It was disbanded 
after the peace of Amiens, and Trant left 


T 54 


the army : but he soon made a fresh start 
in it, being commissioned as ensign in the 
royal staff corps on '25 Dec. 1803. He was 
promoted lieutenant on 28 Nov. 1805, and 
was sent to Portugal as a military agent in 
1808. He was given the local rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. When Sir Arthur Wellesley 
advanced from the Mondego in August, the 
Portuguese general Freire remained behind, 
but he allowed Trant to accompany Welles- 
ley with a Portuguese corps of fifteen hun- 
dred foot and 250 horse. At Roli^a he was 
employed to turn the French left ; at Vimiero 
he was in reserve with Craufurd's British 

Having gone home, he was sent back to 
Portugal early in 1809 to arrange the de- 
tails of the evacuation which the British 
government contemplated. But these plans 
were changed, and Trant raised a corps from 
the students of Coimbra University. After 
the Portuguese defeat at Braga and the 
French capture of Oporto, fresh recruits 
flocked to him. With a force of about three 
thousand men he boldly maintained himself 
on the Vouga till May. He took part in the 
advance of Wellesley's army to the Douro, 
and was made governor of Oporto when it 
was recovered. 

He was promoted captain in the staff 
corps on 1 June 1809, but soon afterwards 
he was told that he would be removed from 
that corps unless he gave up his employment 
in Portugal. He was saved from this by Wel- 
lington's intervention, who wrote on 9 May 
1810 : * There is no officer the loss of whose 
services in this country would be more 
sensibly felt.' By this time he held the rank 
of brigadier-general. 

In the autumn of 1810, while Wellington 
was falling back on Torres Vedras, Trant 
twice showed his ' activity and prudent en- 
terprise/ as Beresford described it. On 
20 Sept., with a squadron of cavalry and two 
thousand militia, he surprised the French 
train of artillery in a defile. His men be- 
came alarmed, and he had to fall back ; but 
he took a hundred prisoners, and caused 
a loss of two days to Massena. On 7 Oct 
he marched suddenly upon Coimbra, where 
Mass6na had left his sick and wounded with 
only a small guard. He met with little or 
no resistance, and carried off five thousant 
prisoners to Oporto. It was ' the mosl 
daring and hardy enterprise executed by any 
partisan during the whole war ' (NAPIER) 
A letter of acknowledgment addressed to 
him by some of the French officers who were 
taken is printed in the appendix to Napi'er's 
third volume, and sufficiently refutes the 
charges made against him by some French 

writers on account of the misbehaviour of 
ome of his men. 

In October 1811 he was made a knight 
commander of the Portuguese order of the 
Cower and Sword. In April 1812. when two 
French divisions were about to storm Al- 
meida, he succeeded in imposing on them by 
a show of red uniforms and bivouac fires, 
and induced them to retire. On the 13th he 
was at Guarda with six thousand militia, and 
lad a plan for surprising Marmont in 
liis quarters at Sabugal ; but on that 
night he himself narrowly escaped being 
surprised by Marmont in Guarda. Wel- 
lington, while praising his action in the 
emergency, warned him not to be too ven- 
turesome with such troops as his. 

In 1813 fresh difficulties were raised about 
his drawing pay as an officer of the staff 
corps while in the Portuguese service. He 
obtained leave to go to England, and Wel- 
lington wrote strongly in support of his 
claim, expressing once more his sense of 
Trant's services and merits, and saying that 
he had been employed in a most important 
situation for the expenses of which his 
allowances were by no means adequate 
( Wellington Despatches, x. 417). He seems 
to have had no further part in the war. 
He had a bullet in his side, from which he 
suffered much for the rest of his life. He 
was transferred from the staff corps to the 
Portuguese service list on 25 Oct. 1814, and 
received a brevet majority on 6 June 1815. 
This was the scanty reward of the services 
so often praised. 

He was placed on half-pay on 25 Dec. 
1816, and he resigned his half-pay and left 
the army altogether in 1825. In May 1818, 
being in pecuniary difficulties, he had asked 
Wellington to write on his behalf to the 
king of Portugal ; but Wellington replied 
that such a step would be an indelicacy to 
Beresford (ib. Supnl. xii. 513). 

He died on 16 Oct. 1839 at Great Baddow, 
Essex, of which his son-in-law, John Bram- 
ston, was vicar. He had one son and one 

The son, Thomas Abercrombie Trant, was 
born in 1805, obtained a commission in the 
38th foot in 1820, and was captain in the 
28th foot when he died on 13 March 1832. 
He was the author of ' Two Years in Ava ' 
(1827), and of a 'Narrative of a Journey 
through Greece ' (1830). 

[Noticias Biograficas do Coronel Trant, by 
F. F. M. C. D. T. (a Portuguese monk), Lisbon, 
1811; "Wellington Despatches, vols. iv-x.; 
Napier's War in the Peninsu'a ; Royal Military 
Calendar, v. 316 ; Gent. Mag. 1832 i. 371, 
1839 ii. 653.] E. M. L. 




TRAPP, JOHN (1601-1669), divine, son 
of Nicholas Trapp of Kempsey in Worces- 
tershire, was born at Croome d'Abetot on 
5 June 1601. He received his first school 
teaching from Simon Trapp (probably his 
uncle), and was afterwards a king's scholar 
in the free school at Worcester. On 15 Oct. 
1619 he matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he remained several years as 
servitor. He graduated B.A. on 28 Feb. 
1622, and M.A. on 17 June 1624. In 1622 
he was made usher of the free school of 
Stratford-upon-Avon by the corporation of 
the town, and succeeded to the headmaster- 
ship on 2 April 1624. By Edward, first 
lord Conway, he was made preacher at Lud- 
dington, near Stratford. In 1636 he was 
presented to the vicarage of Weston-on- Avon 
in Gloucestershire, two miles distant from 
his school at Stratford. 

On the breaking out of the civil war Trapp 
sided with the parliament and took the 
covenant of 1643. He suffered much at 
the hands of royalist soldiers at Weston, 
and acted as chaplain to the parliamentary 
soldiers in the garrison at Stratford for two 
years. In 1646 the assembly of divines gave 
him the rectory of Welford in Gloucestershire 
and Warwickshire, where he encountered 
difficulty in obtaining the tithes due to him 
through the opposition of the ejected royalist 
divine, Dr. Bowen. From 27 June 1646 till 
14 Sept. 1647 their differences were periodi- 
cally brought before the committee for the 
relief of plundered ministers, and were finally 
referred to a committee of parliament for the 
county of Warwick. Trapp retained posses- 
sion of the rectory of Welford till 1660, 
when Dr. Bowen was reinstated. Trapp then 
returned to Weston-on- A von. During his 
residence at Welford he had appointed his 
son-in-law, Eobert Dale, to be his deputy in 
the school at Stratford. Trapp died on 
16 Oct. 1669, and was buried in the church 
at Weston-on- Avon, by the side of his wife, 
where his son John placed a stone over the 
remains of his parents. 

Trapp married, on 29 June 1624, at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon, Mary Gibbard, by whom he 
had eleven children, of whom Joseph Trapp 
(1638-1698) was father of Joseph Trapp 
[q. v.], professor of poetry at Oxford. 

A portrait of Trapp, engraved by R. Gay- 
wood, is prefixed to his ' Commentary upon 
the Minor Prophets ' (1654) ; another por- 
trait of him, at the age of fifty-nine, was 
published in 1660. Both are reproduced in 
the complete edition of his works of 1867-8. 

Trapp's industry was great. Not* only was 
he * one of the prime preachers of his time/ 
but throughout his life he assiduously worked 

at his copious commentaries on the Bible, 
which are characterised by quaint humour 
and profound scholarship. 

His works (all published in London) in- 
clude : 1. 'God's Love Tokens,' 1637. 
2. ' Theologia Theologies : the True Treasures,' 
1641. 3. ' Exposition of St. John the Evan- 
gelist/ 1646. 4. ' A Commentary upon the 
Four Evangelists/ 1647. 5. ' A Commentary 
on the Epistles and Revelation of St. John,' 
1647, 1649. 6. ' Commentaries upon the 
New Testament, with a Decade of Common 
Places/ 1647, 1656. The ' Decade ' alone, 
and entitled ' Mellificum Theologium, or the 
Marrow of Many Good Authors/ was also 
published in 1655. 7. 'A Clavis to the 
Bible/ 1650. 8. ' Commentary upon the 
Pentateuch/ 1650, 1654. 9. ' Commentaries 
upon Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of 
Songs/ 1650; republished in the volume of 
1 Proverbs to Daniel/ 1656, 1660. 10. < Com- 
mentary upon the Minor Prophets/ 1654. 

11. 'Commentary upon Ezra, Nehemiah, 
Esther, Job, and Psalms/ 1656, 1657. 

12. ' Commentary on Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, 
the Song of Songs, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamen- 
tations, Ezekiel, and Daniel/ 1656, 1660. 

The collected commentaries, under the 
title of ' Annotations upon the Old and New 
Testaments/ and consisting mostly of the 
second editions, appeared in 1662 and the 
following years. They were re-edited and 
published as ' Commentary on the Old and 
j New Testaments/ 1867-8, the New Testa- 
ment portion having appeared previously in 
1865. Two sermons on ' The Relative Duties 
of Husbands and Wives ' and ' The Relative 
! Duties of Masters and Servants ' are printed 
j in vol. iv. pp. 286 et seq. of ' Tracts of the 
Anglican Fathers/ London, 1842. 

[Foster's Alumni ; Wood's Athene (Bliss), iii. 
cols. 843-4 ; Keg. Univ. Oxon. (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.), ". . 376, iii. 406; Biogr. Notice by 
Alexander Grosart in vol. iii. of Trapp's Com- 
mentary, 1868; Dugdale's Warwickshire, p. 704 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1 631-3, p. 1 62 ; Whelan's 
Guide to Stratford-upon-Avon, p. 118; Spur- 
geon's Commenting and Commentaries, p. 7 ; 
Bromley's Cat, of Engraved Portraits, p. 138; 
Addit. MSS. 15670 f. 253, 15671 ff. 153, 183, 
211.] B - R 

TRAPP, JOSEPH (1679-1747), poet 
and pamphleteer, born at Cherrington, 
Gloucestershire, in November 1679, and 
baptised there on 18 Dec. 1679, was the 
second son of Joseph Trapp (1638-1698), 
rector of Cherrington from 1662, and grand- 
son of John Trapp [q. v.] After a training 
at home by his father and some time at New 
College school, Oxford, he matriculated 
from Wadham College on 11 July 1695. 




He was elected Goodridge exhibitioner in 
1695 and in subsequent years to 1700, and 
scholar in 1696. He graduated B. A. 22 April 
1699, and M.A. 19 May 1702, and either in 
1703 or 1704 he became a fellow of his col- 
lege. He was admitted as pro-proctor of the 
university on 4 May 1709, and in 1714 was 
incorporated M.A. of Cambridge. 

Early in his academic career Trapp began 
to versify. He wrote poems for the Oxford 
collections on the deaths of the young Duke 
of Gloucester, King William, Prince George 
of Denmark, and Queen Anne, and the lines 
on the decease of Prince George were re- 
printed in Nichols's * Collection of Poems ' 
(vii. 116-21). To the university set of poems 
in honour of Anne and peace (1713) he con- 
tributed both the proloquium and an English 
ode. His Latin hexameters, entitled ' Fraus 
Nummi Anglicani' (1696) appeared in the 
* Musse Anglicanse ' (ii. 211), and his unsigned 
poem of ' /Edes Badmintonianae ' came out 
in 1701 (HYETT and BAZELEY, Gloucester- 
shire Literature, ii. 13). The anonymous 
' Prologue to the University of Oxford. 
Spoke by Mr. Betterton ' at the act on 
5 July 1703, was his, and ' The Tragedy of 
King Saul. Written by a Deceas'd Person of 
Honour' (1703, again 1739), is sometimes 
attributed to him (BAKEB, Biogr. Dramatica, 
iii. 241). At this period of his life he wrote 
poetical paraphrases and translations which 
are included in the ' Miscellanies ' of Dry- 
den and Fenton. His play of ' Abramule : or 
Love and Empire. A Tragedy acted at the 
New Theatre in Little Lincoln's Inn Fields,' 
which was printed without the dramatist's 
name in 1704, and often reissued, brought 
him 'some reputation among the witts;' but 
when the author was presented to Bishop 
Robinson for ordination in the English 
church, the bishop rebuked him for its 
composition. These early productions caused 
his name to be inserted in the ironical Latin 
distich on the nine famous Oxford poets, viz. 
' Bubb, Stubb, Grubb, Crabb, Trapp, Young, 
Carey, Tickell, Evans ' (PEECY, Reliques, ed. 
Wheatley, iii. 307). They gave him also the 
post of first professor of poetry at Oxford, 
which he held from 14 July 1708 to 1718. 
Hearne called him upon his appointment ' a 
most ingenious honest gent, and every ways 
deserving of y e place (he being also in mean 
circumstances),' and added that he was 
elected 'to the great satisfaction of the whole 
university' (Collections, ed. Doble, ii. 120). 
But this good opinion did not last long. 
Trapp's first lecture concluded with a com- 
pliment to Dr. William Lancaster [q.v.], and 
he was condemned as ' somewhat given to 
cringing.' His lectures, which were de- 

livered in Latin, were well attended, and his 
criticisms are said to have been ' sound and 
clear,' showing thought of his own and not a 
compilation from others (Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. xi. 194). The first volume of these 
' Praelectiones Poeticse' came out in 1711, 
the second in 1715, and the third edition is 
dated 1736. An English translation by the 
Rev. William Clarke of Buxted and Wil- 
liam Bowyer was published ' with addi- 
tional notes ' in 1742. 

Trapp plunged into politics as a tory 
and a high churchman. He assisted Henry 
Sacheverell [q. v.] at his trial in 1709 and 
1710, and on Sacheverell's recommendation 
became in April 1710 his successor in the 
lectureship at Newington, Surrey. The 
preface to a tract called ' A Letter out of the 
Country to the Author of the Managers Pro 
and Con' on this trial was written by him, 
and in September 1710 he vindicated 
Sacheverell's noisy progress into exile in an 
anonymous pamphlet entitled ' An Ordinary 
Journey no Progress' (MADAN, Sacheverell 
Bibliogr. pp. 37, 53). Hearne pronounced 
the second of these productions ' a most silly 
ridiculous thing;' Swift wrote to Stella in 
March 1711-12, 'Trapp is a coxcomb; 
Sacheverell is not very deep ; and their 
judgment in things of wit and sense is 
miraculous ' ( Works, ed. 1883, iii. 11-12). 
Another anonymous pamphlet by Trapp was 
called ' The true genuine Tory Address and 
the true genuineWhig Address set one against 
another,' 1710. 

In January 1710-11 Sir Constantino 
Phipps, the tory lord chancellor of Ireland, 
carried over Trapp as his chaplain, ' a sort 
of pretender to wit, a second-rate pamphle- 
teer for the cause, whom they pay by sending 
him to Ireland' ( SWIFT, Works, ii. 140). 
On the following 14 May Swift took a pam- 
phlet in manuscript ' a very scurvy piece ' 
by Trapp to a printer's in the city. It was 
entitled 'The Character and Principles of 
the present Set of Whigs ' (anon.), 1711. 
His poem ' on the Duke of Ormond ' was 
printed in Dublin, and reprinted in London, 
where 'just eleven of them were sold. 'Tis 
a dull piece, not half so good as Stella's ; 
and she is very modest to compare herself 
with such a poetaster' (ib. ii. 326-7). The 
author's fortunes had not prospered to this 
date, and they were not improved by his 
marriage in 1712 to a daughter of Alder- 
man White of St. Mary's, Oxford. This 
event probably led to the manuscript note 
in the bursar's book at Wadham College, 
that he left the society in 1712, though his 
name appears in the accounts until 1715. 

Swift wrote on 17 July 1712, 'I have 



made Trap chaplain to Lord Bolingbroke, 
and he is mighty happy and thankful for it ' 
( Works, in. 41). Next November he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the lectureship at 
St. Clement Danes, London. On 1 April 
1713 Swift would not dine with Bolingbroke 
because he was expected to 'look over a dull 
poem of one parson Trap upon the peace ; ' 
afterwards he both read and corrected the 
poem, ' but it was good for nothing.' It was 
printed anonymously at Dublin, as 'Peace, a 
Poem,' inscribed to the Lord Viscount Boling- 
broke, 1713 ; it was praised by Gay as 'con- 
taining a great many good lines.' In February 
1713-1714 a case which had been several 
times before the courts was decided in his 
favour. He had contested with another 
clergyman the lectureship of the London 
parishes of St. Olave, Old Jewry, and St. 
Martin's, Ironmonger Lane, and through the 
votes of the parishioners that were dissenters 
had lost it. It was now decided that they 
had not the privilege of voting, and this 
decision gave him the post (MALCOLM, Lond. 
Eedivioum, iv. 562). From 1714 to 1722 he 
held by the gift of the Earl of Peterborough 
the rectory of Dauntsey in Wiltshire, and 
through the interest of his old friend Dr. 
Lancaster he obtained in 1715 the lecture- 
ship at the church of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, Westminster. He dedicated to his 
parishioners at Dauntsey a tract on the 
' Duties of Private, Domestic, and Public 

The governors of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital elected Trapp on 20 April 1722 as 
vicar of the united parishes of Christ Church, 
Newgate Street, and St. Leonard, Foster 
Lane, and in 1732-3 he was presented by 
Lord Bolingbroke to the rectory of Har- 
lington in Middlesex. These preferments 
he retained until his death, and with them 
he held lectureships in several London 
churches, the most important of them being 
St. Olave, Old Jewry, and St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields. George Whitefield went to 
Christ Church, Newgate Street, on 29 April 
1739, and heard Trapp preach against him 
one of four discourses on 'the nature, 
folly, sin, and danger of being righteous over- 
much.' They were printed in 1739, passed 
through four editions in that year, and were 
translated into German at Basle in 1769. 
Answers to them were published by White- 
field, Law, the Rev. Robert Seagrave, and 
others, and an anonymous reply bore the 
sarcastic title of 'Dr. Trapp vindicated from 
the Imputation of being a Christian' (cf. 
OVERTOX, John Law, pp. 293-308). He 
retorted with ' The True Spirit of the 
Methodists and their Allies : in Answer to 

six out of the seven Pamphlets against Dr 
Trapp's Sermons' (anon.), 1740. A long 
extract from Trapp's sermon was printed in 
the 'Gentleman's Magazine' (1739, pp. 288- 
292), and a continuation was promised, but 
not permitted to appear (a paper of 'Con- 
siderations ' on its non-appearance was printed 
in that periodical for 1787, ii. 557, as by Dr. 

In the space of a few weeks in 1726 
several persons living in London were 
received into the Roman church, and Trapp 
thereupon published a treatise of 'Popery 
truly stated and briefly confuted,' in three 
parts, which reached a third edition in 
1745. In 1727 he renewed the attack in 
' The Church of England defended against 
the Church of Rome, in Answer to a late 
Sophistical and Insolent Popish Book.' As 
a compliment for these labours he was created 
by the university of Oxford D.D. by diploma 
on 1 Feb. 1727-8. 

The second half of Trapp's life passed in 
affluence and dignity. While president of 
Sion College in 1743 he published a 'Concio 
ad clerum Londinensem, 26 April 1743.' He 
died of pleurisy at Harlington on 22 Nov. 
1747, and was buried on the north side of the 
entrance into the chancel, upon the north 
wall of which is a monument ; another, the 
cost of which was borne by the parishioners, 
' is on the east wall of the chancel of Newgate 
church. The books in Trapp's library at War- 
wick Lane, London, to which Sacheverell's 
library had been added, and those at Harling- 
ton, with his son's collections, were sold to 
Lowndes of London, and then passed to 
Governor Palk. 

Trapp's eldest son, Henry, so named after 
Henry St. John, lord Bolingbroke, died in 
infancy. The second son, Joseph, rector of 
Strathfieldsaye, died in 1769 ; a poem by him 
on ' Virgil's Tomb, Naples,' 1741, is in Dods- 
ley's ' Collection of Poems ' (iv. 110) ; in 1755 
he gave to the picture gallery of the Bodleian 
Library an admirable three-quarter-length 
portrait of his father. An engraving of it 
was prefixed to vol. i. of the father's sermons 
(1752), and a second engraving is in Harding's 
'Biographical Mirror' (ii. 84). A copy by 
Joseph Smith hangs in the hall of Wadham 

Trapp was a man of striking appearance, 
and he was effective in the pulpit as an in- 
culcator of plain morality. The assertion 
that he wasted his youthful energies in dis- 
sipation has to be accommodated to Bishop 
Pearce's statement that he studied harder 
than any man in England. 

The best remembered of Trapp's works is 
his translation into blank verse of Virgil, 




which was the amusement of his leisure 
hours for twenty-eight years., The first 
volume of the ' /Eneis ' came out in 1718, 
the second in 1720, and the translation of 
the complete works, ' with large explanatory 
notes and critical observations,' which have 
been much praised, was published in three 
volumes in 1731 and 1735. Freedom is 
sacrificed to closeness of rendering, a quality 
which, as Johnson said, * may continue its 
existence as long as it is the clandestine 
refuge of schoolboys ' (Lives of Poets, ed. 
Cunningham, i. 374-5). Several epigrams 
were made on it, the most familiar being 
that by Abel Evans [q. v.] on the publica- 
tion of the first volume : 

Keep the commandments, Trapp, and go no farther, 
For it is written, That thou shalt not murther. 

Trapp's other works comprised, in addition 
to single sermons : 1. ' Most Faults on one 
Side ' (anon.), 1710. In reply to the whig 
pamphlet, < Faults on both Sides.' 2. ' To 
Mr. Harley on his appearing in Publick 
after the Wound from Guiscard/ 1712. 
3. ' Her Majesty's Prerogative in Ireland ' 
(anon.), 1712. 4. * Preservative against un- 
settled Notions and Want of Principles in 
Religion/ 1715, vol. ii. 1722 ; 2nd ed. 1722, 
2 vols. 5. ' Real Nature of Church and 
Kingdom of Christ,' 1717, three editions. 
This reply to Hoadly was answered by 
Gilbert Burnet, second son of Bishop Bur- 
net, and by several other writers. 6. ' Doc- 
trine of the Trinity briefly stated and 
proved. Moyer Lectures, 1729 and 1730,' 1730. 
7. 'Thoughts upon the four last Things: 
Death, Judgment, Heaven, Hell. A Poem 
in four parts ' (anon.), 1734 and 1735 ; 3rd 
ed. 1749. He presented a copy to each of his 
parishioners. S.Milton's 'ParadisusArnissus 
Latine redditus,' vol. i. 1741, vol. ii. 1744. 
This was printed at his own cost, and he lost 
heavily by the venture. 9. ' Explanatory 
Notes upon the Four Gospels and the Acts 
of the Apostles,' 1747 and 1748, 2 vols. ; 
reprinted at Oxford, 1805. Two volumes of 
Trapp's ' Sermons on Moral and Practical Sub- 
jects ' were published by his surviving son in 

Trapp wrote several papers in the ' Exa- 
miner,' vols. i.and ii., and contributed several 
pieces to the ' Grub Street Journal,' 1726. 
Many anonymous pieces are assigned to 
him by a writer, apparently well informed, 
in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' (1786, ii. 
1661). The well-known tory epigram on 
the king sending a troop of horse to Oxford 
and books to Cambridge is usually attri- 
buted to him [see under BROWNE, SIK 
WILLIAM, and MOOBE, JOHN, 1640-1714]. 

[Gardiner's Wadham College, i. 387-8 ; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. ; Biogr. Brit. ; Gent. Mag. 
1741 p. 599, 1786 i. 381-4, 452, 660-3 ; Lysons's 
Parishes of Middlesex, pp. 129-32; Malcolm's 
Lond. Eedivivum, iii. 341, 350; Bos well's John- 
son, ed. Hill, i. 140, iv. 383 ; Wordsworth's 
Life in English Univ. pp. 5, 45 ; Wood's Hist, of 
Oxford, ed. Crutch, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 976 ; Jacob's 
Poet. Kegister, i. 259, ii. 213-14; Scott's Swift, 
ii. 143-4,263, iii. 43, 143-4; Hearne's Collec- 
tions, ed. Doble, i. 212, 265, ii. 120, 141, 192, 
384, iii. 56, 70, 480; Keliq. Hearnianse (ed. 1869), 
i. 311, ii. 140 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, i. 39, 
ii. 148-50, iii. 330, vi. 85 ; information through 
Mr. W. V. Morgan, alderman of London.] 

W. P. C. 

TRAQUAIR, first EARL OP. [See 
STEWART, SIR, JOHN, d. 1659.] 

TRAVERS, BENJAMIN (1783-1858), 
surgeon, was second of the ten children of 
Joseph Travers, sugar-baker in Queen 
Street, Cheapside, by his wife, a daughter 
of the Rev. Francis Spilsbury. He was 
born in April 1783, and after receiving a 
classical education at the grammar school 
of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, under the Rev. 
E. Cogan, he was taught privately until 
at the age of sixteen he was placed in his 
father's counting-house. He soon evinced 
a strong dislike to commercial pursuits, and, 
as his father was a frequent attendant on 
the lectures of Henry Cline [q. v.] and (Sir) 
Astley Paston Cooper [q. v.], Travers was 
articled to Cooper in August 1800 for a term 
of six years, and became a pupil resident in his 
house. During the last year of his appren- 
ticeship Travers gave occasional private 
demonstrations on anatomy to his fellow 
pupils, and established a clinical society, 
meeting weekly, of which he was the secre- 

He was admitted a member of the College 
of Surgeons in 1806, and spent the follow- 
ing session at Edinburgh. He returned to 
London at the end of 1807, and settled at 
New Court, St. Swithin's Lane. He was 
appointed demonstrator of anatomy at Guy's 
Hospital, and, his father's affairs having 
become embarrassed, he obtained the appoint- 
ment in 1809 of surgeon to the East India 
Company's warehouses and brigade, a corps 
afterwards disbanded. 

On the death of John Cunningham Saun- 
ders [q. v.] in 1810, Travers was appointed 
to succeed him as surgeon to the London 
Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye, now the 
Moorfields Ophthalmic Hospital. This post 
he held for four years single-handed, and 
so developed its resources as a teaching in- 
stitution that in 1814 (Sir) William Law- 
rence [q. v.] was appointed to assist him. 




Travers was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1813, and lie was also elected 
without opposition a surgeon to St. 
Thomas's Hospital upon the death of Mr. 
Birch in March 1815. In the following 
year he resigned his surgeoncy under the 
East India Company, though he retained 
the post of surgeon to the Eye Infirmary 
until 1816. He took possession of Astley 
Cooper's house at 3 New Broad Street 
in 1816, when that surgeon moved to 
Spring Gardens, and he soon acquired a 
fair share of practice. At this time he 
suffered so much from palpitation of the 
heart that he discontinued his clinical 
lectures, and in 1819 resigned his joint 
lectureship on surgery with Astley Cooper, 
though he again began to lecture upon sur- 
gery in 1834 in conjunction with Frederick 
Tyrell [q. v.], at St. Thomas's Hospital. He 
was chosen president of the Hunterian So- 
ciety in 1827, and in the same year he 
acted as president of the Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Society. 

He filled all the important offices at the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
He was elected a member of the council in 
1830; Hunterian orator in 1838 ; examiner 
in surgery, 1841-58 ; chairman of the board 
of midwifery examiners, 1855 ; vice-presi- 
dent in the years 1845, 1846, 1854, 1855, 
and president in 1847 and 1856. He was 
a member of the veterinary examining com- 
mittee in 1833, and on the formation of the 
queen's medical establishment he was ap- 
pointed one of her surgeons extraordinary, 
afterwards becoming surgeon in ordinary to 
the prince consort and serjeant-surgeon. 

Travers was the first hospital surgeon in 
England to devote himself to the surgery 
of the eye, and with his colleague (Sir) 
William Lawrence he did much to elevate 
this branch of surgery from the condition 
of quackery into which it had fallen. 
Travers was also a good pathologist, in- 
heriting the best traditions of the Hunterian 
school, for he worked upon an experimental 
basis. He died at his house in Green 
Street, Grosvenor Square, on 6 March 1858, 
and was buried at Hendon in Middlesex. 
He was thrice married: first, to Sarah, 
daughter of William Morgan (1750-1833) j 
[q. v.], in 1809; secondly, in 1813, to the 
daughter of G. Millet, an East India director; 
and thirdly, in 1831, to the youngest daugh- 
ter of Colonel Stevens. He had a large 
family, but the eldest son alone was edu- 
cated for the medical profession. 

There is a bust of Travers at the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
It was executed in 1858 by William Behnes 

(1794-1864). A portrait painted by C. R 
Leslie belongs to the family. 

Travers published : 1. 'An Inquiry into 
the Process of Nature in repairing Injuries 
of the Intestines,' London, 1812, 8vo. 2. ' A 
Synopsis of the Diseases of the Eye 'and 
their Treatment,' London, 1820, 8vo 
3rd ed. 1824, issued in New York, 1825. 
3. 'An Inquiry concerning . . Constitu- 
tional Irritation,' London, 8vo, 1826 ; this 
was followed by ' a Further Inquiry ' into 
the same subject, published in 1835. 4. 'The 
Physiology of Inflammation and the Healing 
Process,' London, 1844, 8vo. 

[Medical Times and Gazette, 1858, xvi. 270 
Lancet, 1851 i. 48, 1858 ii. 278; Gent. Mag! 
1858, i. 444 ; Pettigrew's Medical Portrait Gaf-' 
lery, vol. iii.] j)'A. P. 


(1782-1858), rear-admiral, born in 1782, was 
third son of John Travers of Hethyfield 
Grange, co. Cork. He entered the navy in 
September 1798 on board the Juno in the 
North Sea, where during the following year 
he was actively engaged in boat service along 
the coast of Holland. He was similarly em- 
ployed in the West Indies during 1800-1. 
In March 1802 he was moved to the Ele- 
phant, and in October 1803 to the Hercule, 
then carrying the flag of Sir John Thomas 
Duckworth. In November, Duckworth re- 
maining at Jamaica, the Hercule was attached 
to the squadron under Commodore Loring, 
blockading Cape Franfais. On 30 Nov., when 
the French ships agreed to surrender, Travers 
was with Lieutenant NisbetJosiah Willough- 
by [q.v.] in the launch which took possession 
of the Clorinde after she had got on shore, 
and claimed to have been the chief agent in 
saving the ship by swimming to the shore 
and so making fast a hawser, by which the 
frigate was hauled off the rocks. In January 
and February 1804 he was again with 
Willoughby in the advance battery at the 
siege of Cura^oa, and was afterwards 
publicly thanked by the admiral for his 
gallantry and good conduct. On 23 Sept. 1804 
he was promoted to be lieutenant and to 
command the schooner Ballahou ; but in 
February 1805, on her being ordered to 
Newfoundland, Travers was appointed to 
the Surveillante, in which again he saw 
some very active and sharp boat service on 
the Spanish Main. 

In 1806 the Hercule returned to England, 
and in December Travers was appointed to 
the Alcmene frigate, employed on the coast 
of France till she was wrecked off the mouth 
of the Loire on 29 April 1809. He was 
afterwards in the Imperieuse, in the Wai- 




cheren expedition, and in 1810 in the Medi- 
terranean, where for the next four years he 
was almost incessantly engaged in minor 
operations against the enemy's coasting 
vessels and coast batteries along the shores 
of France and Italy. By his captains and 
the commander-in-chief he was repeatedly 
recommended for his zeal, activity, and 
gallantry ; but it was not till 15 June 1814 
that he received the often-earned promotion 
to the rank of commander. He is said ' to 
have been upwards of 100 times engaged 
with the enemy ; to have been in command 
at the blowing up and destruction of eight 
batteries and three martello-towers ; and to 
have taken part in the capture of about 60 
vessels, 18 or 20 of them armed, and several 
cut out from under batteries.' 

The Impe>ieuse was paid off in September 
1814, and Travers was left unemployed till 
the summer of 1828, when he was appointed 
to command the Rose. From her he was ad- 
vanced to post rank on 19 Nov. 1829, mainly, 
it would seem, at the desire of the Duke of 
Clarence, who had been made acquainted 
with his long and peculiarly active war ser- 
vice, and who as William IV nominated him 
a K.H. on 4 Feb. 1834, and knighted him 
on 5 March. Travers had no further employ- 
ment afloat ; he became a rear-admiral on the 
retired list on 9 July 1855, and died at Great 
Yarmouth on 4 March 1858. He married, 
in April 1815, Anne, eldest daughter of 
William Steward of Yarmouth, and left 
issue five sons and two daughters. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Marshall's Roy. 
Nav. Biogr. x. (vol. iii. pt. ii.) p. 90 a memoir 
of unusual fulness, contributed, it would seem, as 
to the facts, by Travers himself; James's 
Naval History, freq. ; Gent. Mag. 1858, i. 441.] 

J. K. L. 

TRAVERS, JAMES (1820-1884), gene- 
ral, son of Major-general Sir Robert Travers, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., of the 10th foot, was born 
on 6 Oct. 1820. After passing through the 
military college of the East India Company 
at Addiscombe he received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the Bengal infantry on 
11 June 1838. He arrived at Fort William, 
Calcutta, on 12 Jan. 1839, and did duty with 
the 57th native infantry at Barrackpore until 
he was posted to the 2nd native infantry at 
Firozpur on 12 April 1839. 

He served with his regiment in the Afghan 
war, and took part on 3 Jan. 1841 in the 
successful action of Lundi, Nowah, near 
Shahrak, when Captain H. W. Farrington 
dispersed the forces of Aktar Khan in the 
Zamin-Dawar. He was promoted to be first 
lieutenant on 7 June 1841. He was parti- 

cularly mentioned in despatches (Calcutta 
Gazette, 22 Sept. 1841) for his services with 
the force in the Zamin-Dawar under Captain 
John Griffin on 17 Aug., when five thousand 
horse and foot under Akram Khan and Aktar 
Khan were totally defeated at Sikandarabad 
on the right bank of the Halmand. He took 
part in the action of 12 Jan. 1842, when 
Major-general (afterwards Sir) William Nott 
[q. v.] defeated a force of fifteen thousand 
men under Atta Muhammad and Suftar 
Jang at Killa Shuk, near Kandahar. On 
23 Feb. Travers was directed to do duty 
with the 1st irregular cavalry (Skinner's 
horse) under Captain Haldane. He was en- 
gaged in the operations under Nott on the 
rivers Tarnak and Argand-ab from 7 to 
12 March, and was slightly wounded on 
25 March at the action of Babawalli, when 
Lieutenant-colonel Wymer, afterwards sup- 
ported by Nott himself, defeated the enemy. 
Travers was mentioned in despatches (Lond. 
Gazette, 6 Sept. 1842). On the march to 
Ghazni with Nott, Travers was engaged in 
the cavalry fight under Captain Christie at 
Mukur on 28 Aug., and in the action under 
Nott at Ghoain on 30 Aug. He was at the 
capture of Ghazni on 6 Sept., and in the ac- 
tions fought by Nott at Beni-badain and 
Maidan on 14 and 15 Sept., and on the 17th 
arrived with the army at Kabul, where 
Nott's camp was established some five miles 
west of the city. 

Travers left Kabul on 12 Oct. with the 
united armies of Nott and Pollock, was en- 
gaged in the fight at the Haft Kotal on 

14 Oct., and arrived at Firozpur on 23 Dec. 
For his services in the war Travers received 
three medals, and was recommended for a 
brevet majority on attaining the rank of 

Travers returned to regimental duty in 
March 1843, and was appointed adjutant of 
the Bhopal contingent on the 15th of that 
month. He was promoted to be captain on 
7 Jan. ] 846, andtobe brevet major the follow- 
ing day. In the same month he joined the 
army of the Satlaj. He commanded a 
Masiri battalion of Gurkhas in Sir Harry 
Smith's division at the battle of Sobraoii on 
10 Feb. 1846, and was mentioned in Sir 
Hugh Gough's despatch of 13 Feb. (Lond. 
Gazette, 27 March and 1 April 1846). He 
received a medal for his services in this 
campaign. On 24 March 1846 he was ap- 
pointed second in command of the Bhopal 
contingent, on 13 Feb. 1850 postmaster at 
Sihor, on 20 June 1854 he was promoted to- 
be lieutenant-colonel, on 22 Aug. 1855 was 
appointed officiating commandant, and on 

15 Feb. 1856 commandant, of the Bhopal 




contingent. In this year he commanded a 
force in the field against Sankar Sing, and 
received the thanks of government for his 
services. On 6 Dec. 1856 he was promoted 
to be colonel. 

After the outbreak of the mutiny in 1857 
Travers moved in the middle of June from 
Bhopal to Iridur, where Colonel (afterwards 
Sir) Henry Marion Durand [q. v.] was the 
resident, and assumed command of the 
forces there. On 1 July some of Holkar's 
troops mutinied, and thirty-nine persons 
were massacred. Travers, uncertain of his 
own men, nevertheless no sooner heard the 
guns than he formed up the picket where 
they could most advantageously charge the 
guns of the mutineers, and at once ordered 
them to advance. Gallantly leading them, 
he drove away the gunners, wounded Saadat 
Khan, the inciter of the mutiny, and for a 
few moments had the guns in his possession. 
But he found only five men had followed him, 
and, as they were completely exposed to a 
galling infantry fire, he was obliged to retire. 
The charge, however, by creating a favourable 
diversion, not only enabled Durand to place 
the residency guns in position and to make 
some hurried arrangements for defence, but 
allowed many persons to escape to the resi- 
dency. Travers opened fire from the resi- 
dency guns, but his cavalry were leaving 
him, and his efforts to induce his infantry to 
charge were unavailing. The ladies and 
children were therefore placed on gun-car- 
riages, and, covered by the cavalry, which, 
though willing to follow Travers, would not 
fight for him, the little band moved out of 
the residency, and arrived at Sihor on 4 July. 
For his services he received the war medal, 
and for his special gallantry in charging the 
guns on 1 July, which Durand brought to 
notice in his despatches, Travers was awarded 
the Victoria Cross on 1 March 1861. 

Travers returned to duty with his old re- 
giment, the 2nd native infantry, in 1858. 
On 8 Sept. 1860 he was appointed comman- 
dant of the Central India horse, on 25 Oct. 
1861 brigadier-general commanding Saugor 
district, on 23 July 1865 he was promoted 
to be major-general, and the same year re- 
ceived a good-service pension. He was given 
the command of the Mirat division on 5 Aug. 
1869, was promoted to be lieutenant-general 
on 5 Feb. 1873, and was made a companion 
of the Bath, military division, on 24 May 
1873. Travers was permitted on 3 July 1874 
to reside out of India. Pie was promoted to 
be general on 1 Oct. 1877, and was placed 
on the unemployed supernumerary list on 
1 July 1881. He died at Pallanza, Italy, on 
1 April 1884. Travers published in 1876 


' The Evacuation of Indore,' to refute state- 
ments in Kaye's ' History of the Sepoy 
W Rr. 

[India Office Eecords ; Despatches ; Gent. 
Mag. 1884; Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Kaye's History of the War 
in Afghanistan, 1838-42 ; Kaye's History of the 
Sepoy War ; Malleson's History of the Indian 
Mutiny ; Stocqueler's Memorials of Afghanistan ; 
Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal En- 
gineers, Occasional Papers Series, vol. iii. 1879, 
Paper vii. ; Durand's First Afghan War; Last 
Counsels of an Unknown Counsellor, by Major 
Evans Bell.] R. H. V. 

TRAVERS, JOHN (1703 P-1758), 
musician, born about 1703, received his early 
musical education in the choir of St. George's 
Chape I, Windsor. By the generosity of Henry 
Godolphin [q. v.], dean of St. Paul's and 
provost of Eton College, he was apprenticed 
to Maurice Greene [q. v.] He afterwards 
studied with John Christopher Pepusch 
[q. v.], and copied, says Burney, ' the correct, 
dry, and fanciless style of his master.' On 
Pepusch's death Travers succeeded, by be- 
quest, to a portion of his fine musical library. 
About 1725 he became organist of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, and afterwards of Fulham 
church. On 10 May 1737 he succeeded 
Jonathan Martin (1715-1737) [q. v.] as 
organist of the Chapel Royal, a post which 
he held until his death in 1758. 

Travers wrote much church music, in- 
cluding 'The whole Book of Psalms for one, 
two, three, four, or five voices, with a 
thorough bass for the harpsichord' (1750?). 
His service inF and his anthem 'Ascribe unto 
the Lord ' are still in frequent use. Of his 
secular compositions the best known are his 
' Eighteen Canzonets,' the words being from 
the posthumous works of Matthew Prior, 
which enjoyed great popularity in their day. 

[Georgian Era,iv. 515 ; Burney's General His- 
tory of Music, iii. 619, iv. 639 ; Grove's Diet, of 
Music and Musicians, iv. 162.] R. N. 

TRAVERS, REBECCA (1609-1688), 
quakeress, born in 1609, was daughter of a 
baptist named Booth, and from the age of 
six devoutly studied the Bible. At an early 
age she married William Travers, a tobacco- 
nist at the Three Feathers, Watling Street, 
London. In 1654 curiosity led her to hear a 
dispute between James Naylor [q. v.] and the 
baptists. Soon afterwards she met Naylor 
privately, became a sound quaker, and his 
good friend. Her stability and discretion 
contrasted with the extravagances of the 
handful of quaker women who contributed 
to Naylor's fall. Rebecca Travers visited 
him in prison, and, upon his release in 





September 1659, lodged him for a time at 
her house. 

A fearless and powerful preacher, she 
attended at St. John the Evangelist's church 
in the same year and questioned the priest 
upon his doctrine. lie hurried away, leaving 
her to be jostled and abused. Gough says 
she was three times in Newgate in 1664, 
but these imprisonments are not recorded in 
Besse's ' Sufferings.' She early took a pro- 
minent part among the quaker women, being 
specially trusted with the care of the sick, 
poor, and prisoners. She visited the prisons 
at Ipswich and elsewhere. In 1671, a year 
before the representative yearly meeting, the 
1 six weeks' meeting ' was established as a 
court of appeal. It was composed of ' ancient 
Friends' i.e. in experience and quaker stand- 
ing, not age and Rebecca Travers was one 
of its first members. It still exists, as does 
also the ' box meeting ' for the relief of poor 
Friends, which was first started at her house. 

Rebecca Travers died on 15 June 1688, 
aged 79. A son, Matthew, and at least one 
daughter survived. She was author of ten 
small works, including a volume of religious 
verse, and prefaces to two of Naylor's books ; 
also (this is not given in Smith's 'Catalogue ') 
of 'The Work of God in a Dying Maid,' 
London, 1677, 12mo (two editions); re- 
printed Dublin, 1796, 12mo ; London, 1854, 
24mo. It is the account of the conversion 
to quakerism and subsequent death of Susan 
Whitrow, a modish young lady of fifteen. 

[Neal's Hist, of Puritans, v. 277; Gough's 
Hist, of Quakers, iii. 219-23; Barclay's Letters 
of Early Friends, p. 129; Sewel's Hist, of the 
Kise, ii. 352 ; Smith's Cat. ii. 820 ; Whitehead's 
Christian Progress, pp. 292, 294 ; Beck and 
Ball's London Friends' Meetings, pp. 92, 129, 
351; Besse's Sufferings, i. 484; Whitehead's 
Impartial Relation of Naylor, p. xxi ; Registers 
at Devonshire House, E.G. ; Swarthmore MSS., 
where are three original letters.] C. F. S. 

TRAVERS, WALTER (1548 P-1635), 
puritan divine, eldest son of Walter Travers, 
a goldsmith, of Brydelsmith Gate, Notting- 
ham, by his wife Anne, was born at Not- 
tingham about 1548. The father, a strong 
puritan, divided his lands among his three 
sons, Walter, John, and Humphrey, and his 
only daughter, Ann (see copy of his will, 
proved 18 Jan. 1575 at P. C. Nottingham 
in Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. v. 27). 

Travers matriculated as a student at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 11 July 
1560, graduated B.A. 1565, M.A. 1569, was 
elected a junior fellow of Trinity on 8 Sept 
1567, and senior fellow 25 March 1569 
(MuLLiNGER, Hist, of the Univ. Cambr 
p. G31). Whitgift was then master, anc 

>rofessed afterwards that had he not left 
Cambridge he would have expelled Travers 
'or nonconformity (SYRYPE, Life, i. 343). 
["ravers went to Geneva, formed a lifelong 
Viendship with Beza, then rector of the 
iniversity, and became strengthened in his 
desire for reform within the church of Eng- 
and. He there wrote the famous * Eccle- 
siastics Disciplines et Anglicanse Ecclesise 
ab ilia Aberrationis plena e verbo Dei & 
dilucida explicatio,' printed anonymously at 
La Rochelle, 1574, 8vo. This was at once 
ascribed to Travers's authorship. An Eng- 
lish translation by Thomas Cartwright [q.v.], 
was entitled ' A full and plaine declaration 
of Ecclesiasticall Discipline owt off the 
word off God, and off the declininge off the 
hurche off England from the same, 1574 ' 
"probably 1574-5], 4to; the Latin preface 
by Cartwright (cf. p. 7) is dated 2 Feb. 
In this work Travers discusses the proper 
calling, conduct, knowledge, apparel, and 
maintenance of a minister, the offices of 
doctors, bishops, pastors, and elders, and the 
functions of the consistory. He severely 
criticised the universities, calling them ' the 
haunts of drones . . . monasteries whose 
inmates yawn and snore, rather than col- 
leges of students.' 

Nevertheless, on his return to England, 
Travers proceeded B.D. at Cambridge, and 
was incorporated D.D. at Oxford 11 July 
1576. He declined to subscribe, and was 
unable to obtain a license to preach (cf. Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1566-79, p. 
528). Early in 1578, when Cartwright was 
settled in the Low Countries, it was sug- 
gested by Henry Killigrew to William Davi- 
son [~q. v.], the English ambassador there, 
that Travers should found an English service 
for the merchants at Antwerp (ib. pp. 532, 
534, 540, 542, 544, 549). After taking leave 
of his mother at Nottingham, he went over 
about April, and on 14 May was ordained by 
Cartwright, Villiers, and others at Ant- 
werp, preaching his ordination sermon the 
same day to a large congregation (FULLER, 
Church Hist. bk. ix. p. 214 ; NEAL, Hist . of 
Puritans, i. 289). 

In a year or two Travers was back in 
England, perhaps as pastor at Ringwood, 
Hampshire (FOSTER), and acting as domestic 
chaplain to Lord-treasurer Burghley, and 
tutor to his son Robert Cecil (afterwards 
Earl of Salisbury). In 1581, recommended 
by Burghley and by two letters from Bishop 
Aylmer of London, he was appointed after- 
noon lecturer at the Temple, Richard Alvey 
being master. At the Lambeth conference 
of distinguished laymen and clergy in Sep- 
tember 1584 Travers was the chief advocate 

Tr avers 



of the puritan party. He urged reformation 
of the rubric on the folio wing points, namely : 
the abolition of private baptism and baptism 
by women ; private communion ; the ves- 
tures ' which Bishop Ridley had condemned 
as too bad for a fool in a play ;' the reading 
of the apocrypha ; pluralities, and insuffi- 
cient ministry. Nothing definite resulted 
from the conference. Strype wrongly says 
* the ministers were convinced.' Travers 
remained a nonconformist until his death. 

Alvey, the master of the Temple, on his 
deathbed (10 May 1583) recommended Tra- 
vers as his successor. The benchers peti- 
tioned for him, and Burghley's opinion was 
sought by the queen (STRYPE, Life of Whit- 
gift, i. 342). The appointment of the master 
lay, however, with Whitgift, who insisted 
that Travers must be re-ordained accord- 
ing to the rites of the church of Eng- 
land. Travers refused on the ground that 
it would invalidate all ordinations of foreign 
churches, and would annul every marriage 
or baptism at which he had officiated (cf. 
Lansdowne MSS. xlii. 90, 1. 78, reasons why 
he will not be reordained, one paper appa- 
rently in Travers's hand, with marginal 
comments by Whitgift ; printed by Strype 
in ' Life of Whitgift,' App. bk. iii. No. xxx.) 
Richard Hooker [q. v.] was appointed on 
17 March 1585 ; but on 4 Nov. 1586 the 
benchers made an order that ' Mr. Travers's 
pension should be continued, and he remain 
in the parsonage-house' (Register of the 
Temple,' in MORRICE'S manuscript Chron. 
Ace. of Nonconformity). Thus Travers re- 
mained afternoon lecturer, and in the after- 
noon confuted ' in the language of Geneva ' 
what Hooker had said in the morning, and 
what he again vindicated on the following 
Sunday. l Some say the congregation 
ebbed in the morning and flowed in the 
afternoon ' (FULLER, bk. ix. p. 216). The 
church was crowded by lawyers, who were 
deeply interested in the controversy between 
the preachers. One half of Travers's auditors 
sided with him, and consequently it was 
said ' one half of the lawyers in England ' 
became ' counsel against the ecclesiastical 
government thereof (ib. p. 218). To bring 
the debate to a conclusion, a prohibition was 
served upon Travers as he was ascending the 
pulpit stairs on a Sunday afternoon in 1586, 
and he quietly dismissed the congregation. 
It is noticeable that the disputants, who were 
connected by marriage Travers's brother 
John having married, 25 July 1580, Hooker's 
sister Alice throughout esteemed each 
other l not as private enemies, but as public 
champions of their separate parties.' Hooker 
alludes in generous terms to Travers, and 

attributes to his criticism the reflection and 
study which resulted in the < Ecclesiastical 
Polity.' Travers's 'Supplication' to the 
council was privately printed and circulated. 
It and Hooker's ' Answer ' were both printed 
at Oxford in 1612, and are in all editions of 
Hooker's works. 

After his inhibition Travers remained in 
London, holding meetings, when he dared, 
at his own house (FULLER, Church Hist. bk. 
ix. p. 207). It was apparently in 1591 that 
Travers was invited by Andrew Melville 
[q.v.], the prefect, to occupy a chair of divinity 
at St. Andrews University (ib. p, 215). 

Soon afterwards Burghley procured him 
the appointment as provost of the newly 
founded Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
succeeded an old Cambridge friend, Adam 
Loftus [q.v.], the first holder of the office. 
He was sworn in on 5 Dec. 1595, receiving 
a salary of 40/. a year. He appealed to the 
queen through Michael Hicks, secretary to 
Lord Burghley, to supplement the poor en- 
dowment with a grant of 100. a year in 
concealed lands (Lansdowne MSS. cviii. 59, 
cxv. 46). 

Travers resigned on 10 Oct. 1598 because 
* he doth find he cannot have his health 
there ' (STTJBBS, Hist, of Univ. of Dublin, 
App. pp. 20 n., 372), and returned to Eng- 
land. Archbishop Ussher, whose name is 
erroneously said to have been entered as his 
first pupil at Dublin, frequently visited him 
in London, where he lived in great obscurity 
and, it is said, poverty. On 5 March 1624 
he was glad to receive 51. from a legacy for 
silenced ministers (ROGER MORRICE, Manu- 
scripts} ; but on his death in January 1634, 
unmarried, he appears to have been wealthy. 
By his will (P. C. C. 7 Sadler), dated 14 
(proved 24) Jan. 1634, he bequeathed, besides 
legacies to his nephews and nieces, 100/. 
each to Emmanuel and Trinity Colleges, 
Cambridge, and to Trinity College, Dublin, 
to educate students for the ministry; his 
gold plate, harps, globes, compasses, and 50/. 
for a Latin sermon passed to Sion College, 
1 London. 

Both the l Ecclesiasticse Discipline' and 
I the English translation (which was probably 
printed at Middelburg) are rare, especially 
with the folding table. The reprint, ' A 
Evl and Plaine Declaration of Ecclesiasti- 
cal Discipline ovt of the Word of God, and 
of the declining of the Church of England 
from the same. At Geneva MDLXXX.,' 8vo, 
! is also rare. It was again reprinted [Lon- 
1 don], 1617; 4to. This book has been con- 
founded by every writer since Strype and 
Neal with ' De Disciplina Ecclesise sacra, 
ex Dei verbo descripta,' a different work 

M 2 




by Travers, although apparently it is not 
extant, which was translated, probably also 
by Cartwright, as ' A Brief and Plaine De- 
claration concerning the desires of all those 
faithful ministers that have and do seeke 
for the discipline and reformation of the 
Church of England. At London, printed 
by Robert Walde-graue/ 1584, 8vo (Brit. 
Mus.) If this book were not written by 
Travers, it was at any rate referred to him 
for revision (BANCROFT, Dangerous Posi- 
tions, 1693, p. 76), and was being reprinted 
at Cambridge in 1585 when all the copies 
at the university press were seized by Whit- 
gift's order and burned. From one remain- 
ing in Cartwright's study a brief set of rules 
was compiled by a provincial synod (which 
Cartwright attended from Warwick) at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1589; these 
rules were subscribed in 1590 by five hun- 
dred ministers, and reprinted ' by authority ' 
of the Westminster assembly as ' A Direc- 
tory of Church Government,' London, 1644, 
and more recently in facsimile, with a valu- 
able introduction by Peter Lorimer, London, 
1872, 4to. It is the latter work which 
Soames (Elizabethan Relig. Hist.) and Dr. 
Dexter (Congregat. of Three Hundred Years) 
refer to as the ' text-book of presbyterianism.' 

JOHN TRAVERS (d. 1620), brother of the 
above, graduated at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, and was chosen fellow 1569. He died 
rector of Farringdon, Devonshire. 1620, 
leaving by his wife Alice Hooker four sons 
Elias, Samuel, John, and Walter who all 
took orders. The youngest, Walter Travers, 
chaplain to Charles I, rector of Steeple 
Ashton, Wiltshire, vicar of Wellington, 
Somerset, and rector of Pitminster, Devon- 
shire, died 7 April 1646, and was buried in 
Exeter Cathedral; his son Thomas, M.A. 
of Magdalen College, 1644, lecturer at St. 
Andrews, Plymouth, was ejected from St. 
Columb Major, Cornwall, in'l662 (PALMER, 
Noncon. Mem. i. 349). 

[Besides the authorities already given, see 
Wood's Fasti, i. 204 ; Nares's Life of Burghley, 
iii. 355 ; Heylyn's Hist, of Presbyterians, pp. 
314 seq. ; Strype's Annals, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 179, 
352-4, 413,632, 493-4, vol. i. p. 277, pt. ii. 
p. 174; Elrington's Life of Usher, i. 15, 16; 
Soames's Elizabethan Kelig. Hist. pp. 382, 395, 
443, 444-5, 456; Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, 
pp. 147-9 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors, 
p. 471 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1628-9, p. 542 ; 
Xillen's Eccl. Hist, of Ireland, i. 452 ; Urwick's 
Early Hist, of Trin. Coll. Dublin, p. 17 ; Hunt's 
Religious Thought in England, i. 61-73. A 
valuable account of the ' Disciplina ' is given in 
App. C. p. 631 of Mullinger's Hist, of Cam- 
bridge, but the edition of 1644 of the Director}' 
of Church Government is treated as a new 

translation of the earlier work. Roger Morrice's- 
manuscript Account of Nonconformity, in three 
folio volumes with index, in Dr. Williams's- 
Libr. ; cf. arts. CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS, and 

TRAVIS, GEORGE (1741-1797), arch- 
deacon of Chester, only son of John Travis- 
of Heyside, near Shaw, Lancashire, by 
Hannah his wife, was born in 1741, and 
educated by his uncle, the Rev. Benjamin 
Travis, incumbent of Royton, Lancashire,, 
and at the Manchester grammar school, 
which he entered in January 1756. He 
matriculated from St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, as a sizar in 1761, and graduated 
B.A. in 1765 and M.A. in 1768. He was 
fifth senior optime and chancellor's senior 
medallist in 1765. He was ordained in that 
year, was appointed vicar of Eastham^ 
Cheshire, in 1766, and rector of Handley 
in the same county in 1787, and he held 
both benefices till his death. In 1783 he 
was made a prebendary of Chester Cathedral, 
and in 1786 archdeacon of Chester. He is de- 
scribed as a ' gentleman and scholar,' and is 
said to have been ' familiarly acquainted with 
the law of tithes.' He came into prominence 
in 1784 by the publication of his * Letters to 
Edward Gibbon/ in defence of the genuine- 
ness of the disputed verse in St. John's 
First Epistle, v. 7, which speaks of the 
three heavenly witnesses. The first edition 
was printed at Chester, the second in Lon- 
don in 1785, and the third and enlarged 
edition in 1794. He is remembered chiefly 
by having called forth Person as an an- 
tagonist. The great critic's famous ' Letters 
to Archdeacon Travis in Answer to Defence 
of the Three Heavenly Witnesses ' appeared 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' in 1788-9, and 
were republished in 1790. An additional 
letter is given bv Kidd in his edition of 
Porson's ' Tracts, &c.' (1815). Gibbon him- 
self said t the brutal insolence of Mr. Travis's 
challenge can only be excused by the absence 
of learning, judgment, and humanity.' Por- 
son's answer to the ' wretched Travis ' is 
justly described by Gibbon as ' the most 
acute and accurate piece of criticism which 
has appeared since the days of Bentley.' 
Travis was also attacked by Herbert Marsh 
in his ' Letters to Mr. Archdeacon Travis/ 
1795 (cf. BAKER, St. John's College, ed. 
Mayor, 1869, ii. 757.) 

Travis married, in 1766, Ann, daughter of 
James Stringfellow of Whitfield, Derby- 
shire, and died without issue on 24 Feb. 
1797 at Hampstead. A monument, with a 
profile portrait, was erected to him in 
Chester Cathedral. Two miniature por- 
traits of Travis were in the possession of 





the late Rev. Thomas Corser of Stand in 

[Manchester School Register (Chetham Soc.) 
i. 67 ; Gent. Mag. 1797, i. 351, 433 ; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes, ix. 79 ; Gibbon's Auto- 
biographies, ed. Murray, 1896, p. 322 ; Watson'j 
Life of Porson, 1861, p. 57 ; Ormerod's Cheshire 
2nd edit. i. 292 ; Wirral Notes and Queries. 
1892, i. (with engraving of monument at Ches- 
ter) ; Kilvert's Memoirs of Bishop Hurd, 1860 
pp. 153, 318.] C. W. S. 

TREBY, SIR GEORGE (1644 P-1700), 
" j, son of Peter Treby of Plynipton St. 
[aurice, Devonshire, by his wife Joan, 
daughter of John Snellinge of Ohaddlewood 
in the same county, was born about 1644. 
He matriculated at Oxford from Exeter Col- 
lege on 13 July 1660, but, leaving without 
a degree, was admitted in 1663 a student at 
the Middle Temple, where he was called to 
the bar' in 1671, and elected a bencher in 
January 1680-1. He was returned to par- 
liament on 5 March 1676-7 for Plympton, 
which seat he retained, being then recorder 
of the borough, at the ensuing general elec- 
tion on 24 Feb. 1678-9 and throughout the 
reign of Charles II. Having proved his zeal 
for the protestant cause as chairman of the 
committee of secrecy for the investigation of 
the ' popish plot,' and as one of the managers 
of the impeachment of the five popish lords 
{April 1679-November 1680), he succeeded 
Jeffreys as recorder of London on 2 Dec., was 
knighted on 20 Jan. 1680-1, and placed on 
the commission of the peace for the city 
in February. He took the preliminary exa- 
mination of Edward Fitzharris [q. v.J, who 
afterwards, without apparent reason, accused 
him of subornation. He ably defended Sir 
Patience Ward [q. v.] on his prosecution for 
perjury by the Duke of York, and proved 
himself a stout champion of immemorial 
rights of the corporation of London during 
the proceedings on the quo warranto. He 
also pleaded for the defendant Sandys in the 
great case which established the monopoly 
of the East India Company (Trinity term 
1683). Dismissed from the recordership in 
consequence on 12 June 1683, he appeared in 
the high commission court on 17 Feb. 1685- 
1686 to justify the rejection by Exeter 
College of the proposed new Petrean fellow, 
and was one of the counsel for the seven 
bishops (29-30 June 1688) ; otherwise he 
took hardly any part in public affairs, de- 
clining even the reinstatement in the re- 
cordership proffered on the restoration of the 
city charter, 11 Oct. 1688, until the landing 
of the Prince of Orange, when he accepted 
it (16 Dec.) On the approach of the prince 
to London the recorder headed the proces- 

sion of city magnates who went out to meet 
him, and delivered a high-flown address of 
welcome (20 Dec. 1688). In the Convention 
parliament he sat for Plympton, which he 
continued to represent until his elevation to 
the bench. He supported the resolution 
declaring the throne vacant by abdication, 
but resisted the proposal to commute the 
hereditary revenues of the crown for an 
annual grant. 

Appointed solicitor-general in March 
1688-9, Treby took a prominent part in the 
discussions of the following month on the 
oaths bill. On 4 May he was made attorney- 
general, in which capacity he piloted the 
bill of rights through the House of Commons. 
Retaining the recordership, he was placed on 
the commissions appointed 1 and 9 March 
1689-90 to exercise the office of deputy- 
lieutenant and lieutenant of the city of Lon- 
don. In the parliamentary session of 1691 
he gave a qualified support to the treason 
procedure bill. On 16 Nov. the same year he 
conveyed to the king at Kensington the as- 
surances of the support of the corporation of 
London in the struggle with Louis XIV. 
On 3 May 1692, having first qualified 
(27 April) by taking the degree of serjeant- 
at-law, he was appointed chief justice of 
:he common pleas, upon which he resigned 
the recordership (7 June). He attended 
with his colleagues the trial of Lord Mohun 
n Westminster Hall (31 Jan.-4 Feb. 1692- 
1693), and concurred in advising the ac- 
uittal of the prisoner. His exchequer 
chamber judgment in the bankers' case, on 
4 June 1695, anticipated the principal argu- 
ments upon which Somers afterwards re- 
versed the decision of the court of exchequer. 
ETe was a member of the special commission 
before which Charnock, King, Keyes, and 
>ther members of the assassination plot were 
riedatthe Old Bailey (11-24 March 1695-6), 
jid presided (9-13 May) at the trial of Peter 
^ook, another of the conspirators, who was 
ound guilty but was afterwards pardoned. 
3y virtue of successive royal commissions 
["reby sat as speaker of the House of Lords 
during the frequent illnesses of Somers, 
31 Jan.-9 March, 16 June, 28 July, 1 Sept. 
23 Nov.-13 Dec. 1696, 3-18 and 25 Feb., 
8-19 May, 23 June 1698, 16-18 Jan., 
-18 April, 20 April-2 May, 13 July, 
'8 Sept. 1699, and 15-17 Jan. 1700. He was 
ilso one of the commissioners of the great 
eal in the interval (17 April-31 May 1700) 
>etween its surrender by Somers and its 
elivery to Sir Nathan Wright [q. v.] He 
led early in the following December at his 
ouse in Kensington Gravel-pits. His re- 
mains were interred in the Temple church. 




Engraved portraits of him are at Lincoln's 
Inn and in the National Portrait Gallery. 

Treby married four times. He had issue 
neither by his first wife (married by license 
dated 15 Nov. 1675), Anna Blount, a widow, 
born Grosvenor ; nor by his second, whose 
maiden name was Standish. His third and 
fourth wives were respectively Dorothy, 
daughter of Ralph Grainge of the Inner 
Temple (license dated 14 Dec. 1684), and 
Mary Brinley (license dated 6 Jan. 1692-3), 
who brought him 10,000/. By his third 
wife he had a son, who survived him, and a 
daughter who died in infancy. By his fourth 
wife he had a son. His son by his third wife, 
George Treby, M.P. for Plympton 1708-34, 
appointed secretary at war 24 Dec. 1718, 
and teller of the exchequer 25 April 1724, 
was father of George Treby, M.P. for Dart- 
mouth 1722-47, and lord of the treasury in 
1741. The last-mentioned George Treby 
purchased the estate of Goodamoor, Plymp- 
ton St. Mary, which remained in his pos- 
terity until the present century. 

Sir George Treby's 
Steady temper, condescending mind, 
Indulgent to distress, to merit kind, 
Knowledge sublime, sharp judgment, piety, 
From pride, from censure, from moroseness 


with other excellent qualities, are lauded to 
the skies by Nahum Tate, who had probably 
tasted of his bounty (Broadside in British 
Museum). He is also panegyrised in a ' Pin- 
daric ' ode printed in ' Poems on State Affairs ' 
(1707, iv. 365-8). Evelyn (Diary, 8 Dec. 
1700) mourned him as one of the few learned 
lawyers of his age, and this character is 
amply sustained by his arguments and deci- 
sions (see COBBETT, State Trials, vii. 1308, 
viii. 1099, ix. 312, x. 383, xii. 376, 1034-47, 
1248, 1379, xiii. 1, 64, 139, 386, 451, xiv. 
23 ; Modern Reports, iii-iv. ; Pleadings and 
Arguments of Mr. Heneage Finch, Sir Robert 
Sawyer, and Mr. Henry Pollexf en, &LC,., Lon- 
don, 1690, fol. ; and The Arguments of the 
Lord-keeper, the Lord Chief Justice, and Mr. 
Baron Powell, when they gave judgment for 
the Earl of Bath, London, 1693, fol.) He 
is understood to have contributed the notes 
to Dyer's ' Eeports ' [see DYEE, SIR JAMES]. 
Treby edited ' A Collection of Letters and 
other Writings relating to the horrid Popish 
Plot, printed from the Originals,' London, 
1681, 2 pts. fol. ; and he was reputed to be 
the author of ' Truth Vindicated ; or a De- 
tection of the Aspersions and Scandals cast 
upon Sir Robert Clayton and Sir George 
Treby, Justices, and Slingsby Bethell and 
Henry Cornish, Sheriffs, of the City of Lon- 
don, in a Paper published in the name of Dr. 

Francis Hawkins, Minister of the Tower, 
intituled " The Confession of Edward Fitz- 
harris, Esq.,'" London, 1681, 4to. 

His * Speech to the Prince of Orange, Dec. 
20th, 1688,' is among the political tracts in 
the British Museum, and in ' Fourth Collec- 
tion of Papers relating to the present Junc- 
ture of Affairs in England,' 1688. Two cer- 
tificates on petitions referred to him in 1689, 
and his learned opinion on the incidence of 
the cider tax, dated 30 March 1691, are in 
Addit. MSS. 6681 pp. 460-3 and 492, and 
6693 p. 463. 

[Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. Soc.), 
p. 343; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Boase's Hist, of Exeter Coll. (Oxford Hist. Soc.) 
p. cxxxi ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 
499 ; North's Lives, i. 211 ; Official List of Re- 
corders of the City of London, 1850; Evelyn's 
Diary, 30 Nov. 1680, 4 Oct. 1683, 4 July 1696; 
Luttrell's Brief Relation of State Affairs ; 
Clarendon and Rochester Corresp. ii. 296 ; 
Commons' Journals, ix. 582, 601, 663, 708; 
Official Returns of M.P.'s; Parl.Hist. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1689-90, pp. 11-12, 487 ; Burnet's 
Own Time, fol. pp. 497-8 ; Clarke's Life of James- 
II, ii. 299, Lords' Journals, xv. 656-98, 748-50, 
xvi. 172-9, 206-13, 218, 289-92, 326, 360, 430- 
441,443-61,470,473,493,495,531; Genealogist, 
ed. Selby, p. 84 ; Marriage Lie. Vic.-Gen. Cant. 
1660-79 (Harl. Soc.); Marriage Lie. Vic.-Gen. 
Cant. 1679-87 (Harl. Soc.) ; Marriage Lie. Fac. 
Offic. Cant. (Harl. Soc.); Noble's Continuation 
of Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 1806, i. 
166; Mackintosh's Hist, of the Revolution in 
1688, p. 555 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. App. 
p. 22, f>th Rep. App. p. 383, 7th Rep. App. p. 205, 
9th Rep. App. i. 282, 12th Rep. App. vii. 230; 
Polwhele's Devonshire, p. 452; Cotton's Ac- 
count of Plympton St. Maurice ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1863 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. R. 

TREDENHAM, JOHN (1668-1710), 
politician, was the elder surviving son of Sir 
Joseph Tredenham of Tregonan, St. Ewe, 
Cornwall (M.P. for St. Mawes in that county, 
and for Totnes), who died on 25 April 1707, 
and was buried in the south aisle of West- 
minster Abbey. Sir Joseph married, about 
9 May 1666, Elizabeth (d. 1731, aged 96), 
only daughter of Sir Edward Seymour, third 
baronet, of Berry Pomeroy, near Totnes, and 
sister of Sir Edward Seymour [q. v.], the 
speaker of the House of Commons. 

John was baptised on 28 March 1668, and 
admitted as student of the Inner Temple in 
1682. He matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 6 May 1684, and in the following 
year contributed a set of verses to the 
university's collection of poems on the ac- 
cession of James II, but he left Oxford 
without taking a degree. The family was 




attached to tory principles, controlled the 
Cornish borough of St. Mawes, and exercised 
great influence in the adjoining boroughs. 
John contested the constituency of Truro in 
1689, and petitioned the House of Commons 
against the return of the two whig members, 
but did not succeed in obtaining the seat. 
When his relative, Henry Seymour, elected 
to sit for their family borough of Totnes, the 
vacancy at St. Mawes was tilled by Treden- 
ham (9 April 1690), and he represented it 
until the dissolution in 1705. He was then 
out of parliament for a time, but on 21 Nov. 
1707 he succeeded his father at St. Mawes, 
and sat for it continuously until his death. 
The Cornish historian, Tonkin, describes him 
as an ornament to the lower house. 

The father had been displaced by Wil- 
liam III early in 1698 from, the governor- 
ship of the castle of St. Mawes, and the son 
declined to sign the voluntary association 
of loyalty to William III (1695-6). A 
story is told in the life of John Mottley that 
the officers of the Earl of Nottingham were 
on one occasion upon the look-out for Colonel 
John Mottley, father of the play- writer and 
a well-known Jacobite spy ; Mottley used 
frequently to dine with John Tredenham at 
the tavern of the Blue Posts, and when the 
officers made a raid upon that inn, Treden- 
ham got arrested instead of his friend. He 
was brought before Nottingham, and his 
papers, which he asserted to be the ground- 
work of a play, were examined. In a short 
time Tredenham was set at liberty by the 
earl, with the remark that he had 'perused 
the play and heard the statement/ but could 
find no trace of a plot in either. 

In 1701, after the death of James II and 
the recognition by Louis XIV of his son as 
the new king of England, orders were given 
that Poussin, the French agent, should be 
instructed to leave this country. He was 
not at home, but was found at supper (Tues- 
day, 23 Sept.) at the Blue Posts with Tre- 
denham, Anthony Hammond (1668-1738) 
[q. v.], and Charles Davenant [q. v.] This 
incident formed the subject of much dis- 
cussion, and cost the tory party dear. The 
Jacobites in parliament were called ' French 
pensioners ' and ' Poussineers,' and the two 
other culprits tried to put the blame on 
Tredenham. It was reckoned that at the fol- 
lowing general election this supper lost the 
tories thirty seats, and those of Hammond 
and Davenant among them (MACAUIAY, 
Hist, of England, v. 299, 303 ; Corresp. of 
Clarendon and Rochester, 1828 ed. ii. 398 ; 
Coke MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. ii. 428, 436). 

Tredenham died ' by a fall from his coach- 

box ' on 25 Dec. 1710. He married in 1689 
Anne, daughter and sole heiress of Sir John 
Lloyd, bart., of the Forest, Carmarthenshire. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 736-7 ; 
Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, i. 376-86; Le 
Neve's Knights (Harl. Soc. viii.), p. 99; Ches- 
ter's Westminster Abbey Keg. p. 259 ; Chauncy's 
Hertfordshire, p. 208; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Vivian's Visit, of Cornwall, p. 456 ; Luttrell's 
Hist. Relation, vi. 670; Doran's Annals of the 
Stage, i. 269 ; Courtney's Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, 
pp. 86-9 ; Cole MS. 5831, ff. 209, 210, and Ad- 
ditional MS. (Brit. Mus.) 18448, p. 74.1 

W. P. C. 

TREDGOLD, THOMAS (1788-1829), 
engineer, was born at Brandon, near the city 
of Durham, on 22 Aug. 1788. After re- 
ceiving a slight elementary education at the 
village school he was apprenticed at the age 
of fourteen to a cabinet-maker at Durham. 
He remained with him six years, devoting 
his leisure to the study of mathematics and 
architecture, and taking advantage of the 
holidays granted on race days to acquire a 
knowledge of perspective. In 1808, after 
his apprenticeship had expired, he proceeded 
to Scotland, where he laboured for five years 
as a joiner and journeyman carpenter. To 
gratify his desire for knowledge he denied 
himself sleep and relaxation, and thereby 
permanently impaired his health. On leaving 
Scotland he went to London, where he 
entered the office of his relative, William 
Atkinson, architect to the ordnance, with 
whom he lived for six years, and whom he 
served for a still longer period. At this 
time ' his studies combined all the subjects 
connected with architecture and engineering; 
and in order that he might be able to read 
the best scientific works on the latter sub- 
ject, he taught himself the French language. 
He also paid great attention to chemistry, 
mineralogy, and geology, and perfected his 
knowledge of the higher branches of mathe- 

In 1820 he published 'Elementary Prin- 
ciples of Carpentry ' (London, 4to), in which 
he considered the problems connected with 
the resistance of timber in relation to making 
floors, roofs, bridges, and other structures. 
He also appended an essay on the nature and 
properties of timber. With the exception 
of Barlow's < Essay on the Strength of 
Timber and other Materials' in 1817 [see 
BAELOW, PETER], Tredgold's work was the 
first serious attempt in England to deter- 
mine practically and scientifically the data 
of resistance. Before his time engineers re- 
lied chiefly on the formulae and results 
attained by Buffon and by Peter van Mus- 
schenbroek in his ' Physicae Experimentales 




et Geometricae ' (Leyden, 1729. 4to). Some 
of Tredgold's results were taken from Du- 
mont's ' Parallele ' (Paris, 1767, fol.) Several 
editions of Tredgold's work have been pub- 
lished, and it remains an authority on the 
subject. The latest edition, by Edward 
Wyndham Tarn, appeared in 1886 (London, 
4to). This work was followed in 1822 by 
* A Practical Essay on the Strength of Cast 
Iron and other Metals ' (London, 8vo ; 5th 
edit., by Eaton Hodgkinson [q.V.j, London, 
1860-1, 8vo), which is mainly founded on the 
works of Thomas Young (1773-1829) [q. v.] 
Though they were long the standard text- 
books of English engineers, the scientific value 
of both these works is seriously impaired by 
Tredgold's lack of sufficient mathematical 
training, and more particularly by his igno- 
rance of the theory of elasticity, which 
often leads him into error and always ren- 
ders his reasoning obscure. 

In 1823 the increase of business and the 
demands of literary labour led him to resign 
his position in Atkinson's office and to set 
up on his own account. In 1824 he pub- 
lished ' Principles of Warming and Venti- 
lating Public Buildings' (London, 8vo), 
which reached a second edition in the same 
year (3rd edit., with appendix by Bramah, 
1836). In 1825 appeared ' A Practical Trea- 
tise on Railroads and Carriages ' (London, 
8vo; 2nd edit. London, 1835), which was 
followed by a pamphlet addressed to Wil- 
liam Huskisson [q. v.], president of the 
board of trade, and entitled i Remarks on 
Steam Navigation and its Protection, Regu- 
lation, and Encouragement ' (London, 1825, 
8vo), which contained several suggestions 
for the prevention of accidents. His last 
important work, ( The Steam Engine/ ap- 
peared in 1827 (London, 8vo). A new edi- 
tion, greatly enlarged, by Westley Stoker 
Barker Woolhouse, was published in 1838 
(London, 4to) ; a third edition appeared in 
1850-3 (London, 4to), and a French transla- 
tion by F. N. Mellet in 1838 (Paris, 4to). 

Tredgold died, worn out by study, on 
28 Jan. 1829, and was buried in St. John's 
Wood chapel cemetery. He left in poor 
circumstances a widow, three daughters, and 
a son Thomas, who held the post of engineer 
in the office of stamps of the East India 
Company at Calcutta, where he died on 
4 May 1853. The elder Tredgold's portrait 
and autograph are prefixed to the later edi- 
tions of his ' Steam Engine.' 

Besides the works mentioned, Tredgold 
edited Smeaton's ' Hydraulic Tracts ' (1826, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1837), added notes and 
articles to Robertson Buchanan's l Practical 
Essays on Millwork ' (ed. Rennie, London, 

1841, 8vo), and revised Peter Nicholson's 
'New Practical Builder' (London, 1861, 
4to). He also contributed the articles on 
joinery and stone masonry to the supplement 
of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (ed. 1824), 
and contributed numerous technical articles 
to the ' Philosophical Magazine ' and to 
Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy.' 

[English Cyclopaedia, Biography, vi. 153; 
London and Edinburgh Philosophical Mag. 1834, 
p. 394 ; Architectural Mag. 1834, p. 208 ; Tod- 
hunter's History of the Theory of Elasticity, i. 
105-7, 454-6, 542, ii. 649; Artizan, 1859, xvii. 
289; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th edit. i. 876, 
xix. 402, xxi. 327; Dictionary of Architecture; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

1677), English abbess in Paris, was the 
daughter of Sir Walter Tredway of Beckley, 
Buckinghamshire, and afterwards of North- 
amptonshire, by Elizabeth Weyman. Born 
in 1593 at Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, 
and losing her father in 1604, she took the 
veil in 1615 at the Augustinian convent, 
Douai, which in 1624 was removed to the 
neighbouring village of Sin-le-Noble, and 
took the title of Notre-Dame de Beaulieu. 
At Douai she made the acquaintance of 
Thomas Carre [q. v.], and they conceived 
the idea of establishing an English scholastic 
nunnery in that town. Pending its erection 
English girls were to be received at Sin, and 
in 1632 two accordingly arrived, escaping 
from Dover, where they had been arrested. 
In the following year Carre returned from 
London with two others; but meanwhile 
George Leyburne [q. v.], president of Douai 
College, had persuaded Lady Tredway, as she 
was styled, to fix on Paris as the site. Carre 
consequently went thither to consult Richard 
Smith [q. v.], bishop of Chalcedon, who by 
his influence with Richelieu, and notwith- 
standing the opposition of Archbishop Gondi, 
obtained royal sanction for the scheme, letters 
patent being granted in 1633. A house was 
hired in the Rue d'Enfer, and was opened in 
1634 with five pupils. The numbers in- 
creased, and in 1635 the convent was trans- 
ferred to the Faubourg St.-Antoine ; but 
that site proved unhealthy, and in 1638 four 
houses were purchased in the Rue du Foss 
St.-Victor, one of which had been occupied by 
De Baif, whose musical and literary gather- 
ings were the nucleus of the French academy. 
The buildings were remodelled, and a chapel 
was erected, which was consecrated by Smith 
in 1639. The chief English catholic families 
began sending their daughters as pupils, and 
lady boarders, mostly French, were also 
admitted; but till 1655 the convent was 
debarred from taking French pupils. During 




the civil war, the nuns' dowries having been 
invested in England, the payment of interest 
was suspended, and the nunnery was in 
great straits, until the painter Le Brun, a 
neighbour, obtained pecuniary assistance 
from Chancellor Seguier. In 1653 Carre, 
who was resident chaplain, dedicated to 
Lady Tredway his English translation of 
Thomas a Kempis. In 1644 her religious 
jubilee was celebrated ; in 1674 she resigned, 
and in 1677 she died. She was buried in 
the chapel, which, with the rest of the 
building, was demolished in 1860. The con- 
vent was then removed to Neuilly, where her 
portrait is still preserved. 

Humphrey Tredway, rector of Little 
Offord, Buckinghamshire, and author of 
Latin verses on Sir Philip Sidney (CooPEE, 
Athence Cantabr. ii. 530), was of the same 

[Consent manuscripts ; Carre's Pietas Pari- 
siensi s ; Collectanea Topographica et Grenealogica ; 
Arehseologia, vol. xiii. ; Ann. Reg. 1800; Husen- 
beth's English Colleges on Continent; Cedoz's 
Couvent des Religieuses Anglaises, 1891 ; Na- 
tional Review (art. on George Sand), July 1889.] 

J. Gr. A. 

TREE, ANN MARIA (1801-1862), 
actress and vocalist. [See BRADSHAW.] 

TREE, ELLEN (1805-1880), actress. 


(1831-1894), miscellaneous writer, born at 
Truro, Cornwall, on 10 July 1831, was the 
eldest son of John Tabois Tregellas (1792- 
1863), merchant at Truro, purser of Cornish 
mines, and author of many stories written in 
the local dialect of the county; John Tabois 
Tregellas married at St. Mary's, Truro, on 
23 Oct. 1828, Anne (1801-1867), second 
daughter of Richard Hawken. Walter was 
educated under his uncle, John Hawken, at 
Trevarth school, Gwennap, from 1838 to 1845, 
and from 1845 to 1847 at the grammar school 
of Truro. 

Tregellas was from youth fond of drawing, 
and won prizes as an artist at the Royal 
Cornwall Polytechnic Society, Falmouth, 
from 1846 to 1848. He began his active life 
as a draughtsman in the war office on 
10 July 1855, was promoted to be second 
draughtsman on 28 Feb. 1860, rose to be 
chief draughtsman on 24 May 1866, and re- 
tained the post until 1 Aug. 1893. He died 
at Deal on 28 May 1894, and was buried in 
its cemetery on 30 May. He married at 
Holy Trinity Church, Brompton, on 2 Nov. 
1861, Zoe, third daughter of Charles Lucas 
(1808-1869) [q. v.] His wife survives him ; 
they had no issue. 

Tregellas was the author of an anonymous 
volume on ' China, the Country, History, 
and People/ published by the Religious 
Tract Society (1867). He compiled Stan- 
ford's 'Tourists' Guide to Cornwall' (1878; 
7th edit, revised by H. M. Whitley, 1895) ; 
two excellent volumes on 'Cornish Worthies' 
(London, 1884, 8vo) ; and 'A History of 
the Horse Guards,' 1880. A work on the 
history of the Tower of London is still in 
manuscript. He contributed papers to the 
'Archaeological Journal' (1864 -6), the 'Jour- 
nal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall' 
(1883, 1891), and to other periodicals. 

His ' Historical Sketch of the Defences of 
Malta ' was printed for the Royal Engineers' 
Institute at Chatham in 1879, and 'Histori- 
cal Sketch of the Coast Defences of England ' 
appeared in the ' occasional paper series ' of 
the engineers (xii. paper ii, 1886). A paper 
by him on ' County Characteristics, Cornwall,' 
came out in the ' Nineteenth Century/ No- 
vember 1887. The lives of many eminent 
Cornishmen were written by Tregellas in the 
first thirteen volumes of this dictionary. 

[Journ. Royal Inst. of Cornwall, xii. 115-16 
(by H. M. Whitley) ; Academy, 9 June 1894, p. 
475 (by W. P. Courtney) ; Athenaeum, 9 June 
1894, p. 741 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. ii. 751-2, 1347-8 ; Boase's Collect. 
Cornub. 1027, 1396; West Briton, 31 May 
1894 pp. 4, 5, and 7, June 1894 p. 6.] 

W. P. C. 

(1806-1886), civil engineer and quaker mini- 
ster, seventeenth and youngest child of 
Samuel Tregelles (1765-1831), by his wife 
Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Smith, a Lon- 
don banker, was born at Falmouth on 19 Oct. 
1806. Leaving school at thirteen, he went 
to learn engineering at the Neath Abbey 
ironworks of his uncle, Peter Price, in South 
Wales. For some years after his marriage, 
in 1832, he was employed in superintending 
the introduction of lighting by gas into many 
towns in the south of England. 

In 1835 Tregelles was appointed engineer 
of the Southampton and Salisbury railway, 
and was later engaged in surveying for the 
West Cornwall railway. He published in 
1849 reports on the water supply and sewer- 
age of Barnstaple and Bideford. He was 
elected a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers on 5 March 1850, and resigned 
in 1861. 

When only twenty-one Tregelles began 
to preach, and thenceforward in the inter- 
vals of professional engagements made seve- 
ral ministerial journeys. In 1844, during a 
long visit to the West Indies, he visited, in 
spite of a severe attack of yellow fever, 




every island but Cuba and Porto Rico. Not 
long after he went to Denmark, Sweden, and 
Norway to visit Friends there, and in April 
1855 was occupied in relieving distress in the 
Hebrides, concerning which he published a 
small volume at Newcastle in 1855. 

Tregelles lived at Torquay, Falmouth, 
Frenchay, and, after his second marriage 
in 1850 to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Richardson of Sunderland, at Derwent Hill, 
Shotley Bridge, Durham, where he acquired 
land, upon which he worked a colliery. His 
addresses to navvies and railway men, among 
whom his profession led him, were powerful 
and efficacious. He was a member of the 
council of the United Kingdom Alliance, 
and a warm supporter of local option. 

He died at his daughter's house at Ban- 
bury on 16 Sept. 1886. By his first wife, 
Jenepher Fisher, an Irishwoman, who died 
in 1844, Tregelies had a son Arthur, besides 
his two daughters. By his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, who died on 3 March 1878, he had no 

His f Diary ' for fifty-five years, edited by 
his daughter, Mrs. Hingston Fox, London, 
1892, throws abundant light on quaker 
society of the century. 

[Life, by his daughter, 1892 ; Boase and Court- 
ney's Bibl. Corn. ii. 753 ; Minutes of Proc. Inst. 
C. E. ix. 232, xxi. 148; Annual Monitor, 1887, 
pp. 183-9.] C. F. S. 


(1813-1875), biblical scholar, son of Samuel 
Tregelles (1789-1828), merchant, of Fal- 
mouth, by his wife Dorothy, daughter of 
George Prideaux of Kingsbridge, was born 
at Wodehouse Place, Falmouth, on 30 Jan. 
1813. Edwin Octavius Tregelles [q. v.] was 
his uncle. He possessed a powerful memory 
and showed remarkable precocity. What 
education he had was received at Falmouth 
classical school from 1825 to 1828. From 
1829 to 1835 Tregelles was engaged in iron- 
works at Neath Abbey, Glamorgan, and 
devoted his spare time to learning Greek. 
Hebrew, and Chaldee. He also mastered 
Welsh, and sometimes preached and even 
published in that language. Finding his 
work distasteful, he returned to Falmouth 
in 1835, and supported himself by taking 
pupils. Although both his parents were 
Friends, he now joined the Plymouth 
brethren, but later in life he became a pres- 

His first book was ' Passages in the Re- 
velation connected with the Old Testament/ 
1836. In 1837, having obtained work from 
publishers, he settled in London. He super- 
intended the publication of the ' English- 

man's Greek Concordance to the New Testa- 
ment,' 1839, and the ' Hebrew and Chaldee 
Concordance to the Old Testament,' 1843. In 
1841 he wrote for Bagster's ' English Hexapla r 
an ' Historical Account of the English Ver- 
sions of the Scriptures.' 

In 1838 Tregelles took up the critical study 
of the New Testament, and formed a design 
for a new Greek text. This plan was the 
result of finding, first, that the textus re- 
ceptus did not rest on ancient authority; 
secondly, that existing collations were incon- 
sistent and inaccurate. His design was to 
form a text on the authority of ancient copies 
only, witho ut allowing prescriptive preference 
to the received text ; to give to ancient ver- 
sions a determining voice as to the insertion 
of clauses, letting the order of words rest 
wholly on manuscripts ; and, lastly, to state 
clearly the authorities for the readings. Tre- 
gelles was for many years unaware that he 
was working on the same lines as Lachmann. 
Like Lachmann, he minimised the importance 
of cursive manuscripts, thereby differing from 

He first became generally known through 
' The Book of Revelation, edited from Ancient 
Authorities,' 1844; new edit. 1859. This 
contained the announcement of his intention 
to prepare a Greek testament. He began by 
collating the cod. Augiensis at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. In 1845 he went to Rome 
with the special intention of collating Codex 
B. in the Vatican, but, though he spent five 
months there, he was not allowed to copy 
the manuscript. He nevertheless contrived 
to note some important readings. From 
Rome he went to Florence, Modena, Venice, 
Munich, and Basle, reading and collating all 
manuscripts that came within the scope of 
his plan. He returned to England in No- 
vember 1846, and settled at Plymouth. In 
1849 he went to Paris, but an attack of 
cholera drove him home. In 1850 he re- 
turned and finished the laborious task of 
collating the damaged ' Cyprius ' (K). He 
went on to Hamburg, and thence to Berlin, 
where he met Lachmann. He also went to 
Leipzig, Dresden,Wolfenbiittel, and Utrecht, 
and returned home in 1851. Down to 1857 
he was employed collating manuscripts in 
England. In 1853 he restored and deciphered 
the uncial palimpsest Z of St. Matthew's 
Gospel at Dublin. 

In 1854 appeared his ' Account of the 
Printed Text/ which remains valuable even 
after Scrivener. In 1856 he rewrote for 
Home's l Introduction ' the section on 
' Textual Criticism ' contained in vol. iv. 

The first part of the Greek Testament, St. 
Matthew and St. Mark, was published to 




subscribers in 1857, but proved unremunera- 
tive. Tregelles then went abroad to re- 
cruit his health, and stayed at Geneva and 
Milan. At Milan he made a facsimile 
tracing of the Muratorian canon, but was 
unable to publish it until 1867. On the 
return journey he visited Bunsen at Heidel- 
berg. In 1860 he went on a tour through 
Spain, where he showed much interest in the 
protestants. The second part of the Greek 
testament St. Luke and St. John appeared 
in 1861. In 1862 he went to Leipzig to ex- 
amine the Codex Sinaiticus, then in Tischen- 
dorf s keeping ; thence to Halle, to Luther's 
country, and down the Danube. The Acts 
and catholic epistles were issued in 1865, 
and the Pauline epistles down to 2 Thessa- 
lonians in 1869. He was in the act of revis- 
ing the last chapters of Revelations in 1870 
when he had a stroke of paralysis, after which 
he never walked. He continued to work in 
bed. The remainder of the epistles were pub- 
lished in 1870, as he had prepared them, but 
the book of Revelatiorts)was edited from his 
papers by S. J. Bloxidge and B. W. Newton 
in 1872, and the edition lacked the long- 
expected prolegomena. In 1879 Dr. Hort 
published an appendix to the Greek Testa- 
ment, containing the materials for the prole- 
gomena that Tregelles's notes supplied, with 
supplementary corrections by Annesley Wil- 
liam Streane. 

Tregelles received the degree of LL.D. from 
St. Andrews in 1850, and in 1862 a civil list 
pension of 100/., which was doubled next 
year. He was on the New Testament revi- 
sion committee, but w T as unable to attend its 
meetings. He died without issue at 6 Port- 
land Square, Plymouth, on 24 April 1875, 
and was buried in Plymouth cemetery. In 
1839 he married his cousin, Sarah Anna, 
eldest daughter of Walter Prideaux, banker, 
of Plymouth. His wife survived him until 
1882, and half the pension was continued to 

The other works of Tregelles comprise, in 
addition to pamphlets : 1. * Hebrew Reading 
Lessons,' 1845. 2. ' Prophetic Visions of 
the Book of Daniel/ 1847; new editions, 
1855, 1864. 3. ' Gesenius, Hebrew and 
Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament, 
translated with Additions and Corrections/ 
1847. 4. * The Original Language of St. 
Matthew's Gospel/ 1850. 5. ' The Jansenists,' 
1851 : based on information obtained at 
Utrecht from their archbishop. 6. 'Hebrew 
Psalter/ 1852. 7. ' Defence of the Authen- 
ticity of the Book of Daniel/ 1852. 8. ' Hebrew 
Grammar/ 1852. 9. < Collation of the Texts 
of Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischen- 
dorf, with that in common use/ 1854. 

10. ' Codex Zacynthius, Fragments of St. 
Luke/ 1861. 11. < Hope of Christ's Second 
Coming/ 1864. He contributed many articles 
in Cassell's 'Dictionary/ Smith's 'Dictionary 
of the Bible/ Kitto's 'Journal of Sacred 
Literature/ and the 'Journal of Classical 
and Sacred Philology.' Rogers's 'Lyra 
Britannica' and Schaff's ' Christ in Song' 
contain hymns by Tregelles. He also edited 
Prisoners of Hope/ 1852 : letters from 
Florence on the persecution of F. and It. 

A portrait of Tregelles is in the possession 
of Mrs. F. C. Ball, Bromley, Kent, and copies 
have been placed in the Plymouth Athengeum 
and Falmouth Polytechnic. There is also 
an oil painting in the possession of Miss A. 
Prideaux of Plymouth. 

[Manuscript memoir by Miss Augusta Pri- 
deaux; communications from Or. F. Tregelles, esq., 
Barnstaple; Western Daily Mercury, 3 May 
1875; Professor E. Abbot in New York Indepen- 
dent, 1875 , S. E. Fox's Life of Edwin Octavius 
Tregelles, 1892; Academy, 1875, i. 475; Boase 
and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's Collec- 
tanea, 1027.] E. C. M. 

TREGIAN, FRANCIS (1548-1608), 
Roman catholic exile, son of Thomas Tre- 
gian, by his wife Catharine, eldest daughter 
of Sir John Arundell, was born in Cornwall 
in 1548. At an early age he married Mary, 
eldest daughter of Charles, seventh lord 
Stourton, by Anne, daughter of Edward, 
earl of Derby (Harl. MS. 1 10, f. 100 b}. He 
frequented the court of Elizabeth in the hope 
that he might render assistance to the perse- 
cuted catholics. According to his biographer, 
however, he lost the favour of the queen by 
rejecting her amatory advances. He was 
arrested at Wolvedon (now Golden) in Pro- 
bus, Cornwall, on 8 June 1577, for harbour- 
ing Cuthbert Mayne [q.v.], a catholic priest. 
On 16 Sept. he was indicted at Launceston, 
and by a sentence of prsemunire he was 
stripped of all his property and condemned 
to perpetual imprisonment. The value of 
his estate was estimated at 3,000/. per annum, 
which, with all his ready money, was seized 
by the queen (GILBERT, Parochial Hist, of 
Cornwall, iii. 360). He was imprisoned 
afterwards in Windsor Castle, the Mar- 
shalsea prison, London, the king's bench, 
and the Fleet. Recovering his freedom at 
the solicitation of the king of Spain after 
twenty-eight years' incarceration, but ruined 
in fortune and impaired in constitution, he 
retired to the continent, and in July 1606 
arrived at the English College, Douay, on 
his way to Spain. He was received at 
Madrid with honour and respect, and 
Philip III granted him a pension of sixty 




cruzados a month. He died at Lisbon on 
25 Sept. 1608. His remains were interred in 
a marble sepulchre in the Jesuit church of St. 
Roch. His grave was opened by Father 
Ignatius Stafford on 25 April 1625, and it is 
stated that the body was found perfect, and 
that many miracles were wrought by the 
relics ( Catholic Miscellany, June 1823, ii. 242). 

Some English verses by him are prefixed 
to Richard Verstegan's 'Restitution of 
Decayed Intelligence/ 1605. 

At St. Mary's College, Ascot, there is a 
manuscript entitled ' The Great and Long 
Sufferings for the Catholic Faith of Francis 
Tregian.' A summary is given in Polwhele's 
' Cornwall,' v. 156, and in Gilbert's 'Cornwall,' 
ii. 282 ; and the whole manuscript is printed, 
with some additional matter, in Father 
John Morris's 'Troubles of our Catholic 
Forefathers ' (1st ser. 1872, pp. 61-140). One 
of the rarest of printed books is ' Herovm 
Specvlvm De Vita DD. Francisci Tregeon, 
Cvivs Corpvs septendecim post annis in aede 
D. Rochi integrum inventum est. Edidit F. 
Franciscus Plunquetus Hibernus, Ordinis 
S. Bernardi, nepos ejus maternus. Olisi- 
pone [Lisbon], cvm Facvltate, Ex officina 
Craesbeeckiana, Anno 1655.' 

[Life by Francis Plunquet, Lisbon, 1655; 
Addit. MS. 24489, f. 296 ; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. ii. 757, iii. 1348; Butler's Hisf. 
Memoirs of English Catholics (1821), iii. 382; 
Camden's Hist, of the Princess Elizabeth (1688), 
p. 224 ; Challoner's Missionary Priests (1741), i. 
449 ; Collect. Topogr. et Geneal. iii. 109 ; Cotton. 
MS. Titus B. vii. 46 ; Dublin Eeview, xxiv. 69 ; 
Lingard's Hist, of England (1849), vi. 332; 
Madden's Hist, of the Penal Laws (1847), p. 
121; Oliver's Cornwall, pp. 2, 9, 203; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collections, p. 196.] T. C. 

civilian, born in Cornwall, probably at Tre- 
gonwell, was the second son of his family. He 
was educated at Oxford, at first at Broad- 
gates Hall. He proceeded B.C.L. on 30 June 
1515-16, and D.C.L. on 23 June 1522. He 
became, before he quitted Oxford, principal 
of Vine Hall, or, as it was sometimes called, 
Peck water Inn. 

L, Removing to London, Tregonwell began 
^ to practise in the court of admiralty, of 
which he became before 1535 principal judge 
or commissary-general. His name occurs in 
various commissions as to admiralty matters 
(cf. Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. 
Nicolas, vii. 115 &c.) Henry soon 'plucked 
him from the arches,' and employed him on 
government affairs. He had just the train- 
ing Henry looked for, and carried out his 
master's wishes smoothly and with a careful 
regard to the forms of law. He was a privy 

^ Tregonwell was appointed judge 
of the High Court of Admiralty about 1524, 
and was reappointed * principal officer and 
commissary-general ' on 1 6 Aug. 1 540 

councillor as early as 1532. He was a 
proctor for the king in the divorce case, and 
one of his letters, printed by Sir Henry 
Ellis, describes the passing of the sentence 
by Cranmer. He took part in diplomatic 
negotiations in the Netherlands in May 1532, 
Hacket and Knight being his companions, 
to settle commercial disputes. He signed 
the two treaties of peace of 1534 with Scot- 
land on behalf of England. He also took 
part in the proceedings against the Carthu- 
sians, against Sir Thomas More, and against 
Anne Boleyn. 

Tregonwell's great business was, however, 
his agency in the dissolution of the monas- 
teries. His main part lay in taking surren- 
ders. His correspondence, of which there is 
less than of some of the other visitors, gives 
a more favourable impression of him than of 
Legh or Layton, and he adopts a firmer tone 
in writing to Cromwell. He visited Oxford 
University in 1535, otherwise his work lay 
mainly in the south and west of England. 
He was also employed in the proceedings 
against the prisoners taken in the pilgrimage 
of grace, and he was important enough for 
Cromwell to talk about him as a possible 
master of the rolls. He became a master in. 
chancery in 1539, was chancellor of Wells 
Cathedral from 1541 to January 1542-3, a 
commissioner in chancery in 1544, and a 
commissioner of the great seal in 1550. 

He was knighted on 2 Oct. 1553, and seems 
to have been favoured by Mary in spite of 
his history. He was M.P. for Scarborough 
in the parliament of October 1553, and, 
though holding a prebend, there was no 
question of objecting to his return, doubtless 
because he was a layman. Alexander Nowell 
[q. v.] was ejected from parliament, and Tre- 
gonwell was one of the committee which 
sat to consider his case. In 1555 he was a 
commissioner on imprisoned preachers. He 
died on 8 or 13 Jan. 1564-5 at Milton 
Abbas, Dorset, for which, after the dissolu- 
tion, he had paid 1,000/., and was buried in 
the north aisle under an altar tomb ; a copy 
of the brass to his memory is in British 
Museum Additional MS. 32490, F.F. f. 54. 
He occasionally grumbled about the little 
reward which he had obtained for his ser- 
vices ; but he had doubtless made the most 
of opportunities which came during the visi- 
tation, as he died a rich man. 

He had married, first, a wife named Kella- 
way, by whom he had no children ; secondly, 
Elizabeth Bruce, who was buried on 17 Jan. 
1581-2, by whom he had, with other children, 
Thomas, who died during his father's life- 
time, and who was the father of J ohn Tregon- 
well, who succeeded to Sir John's property. 




[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. iv. 
sqq. ; Lansdowne MS. 918, .f. 29; Hutehins's 
Dorset, i. 161 ; Burke's Landed Gentry ; Dixon's 
Hist of the Church of England, i. 154, 161, 
285, 215, ii. 33, 113, 115, 212, iv. 57-8 ; 
Eoase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. and Boase's 
Collectanea Cornub. ; Maclean's Hist, of Trigg 
Minor, iii. 19-20 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
i. 60; Keg. Univ. Ox. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 99; 
Gasquet's Henry VIII and the Engl. Monas- 
teries, ii. 212, 229 ; Froude's Hist, of Engl. vi. 
110; Diary of a Eesident in London (Camd. 
Soc.), p. 334 ; Weaver's Somerset Incumbents, 
p. 419 ; Narratives of the Reformation (Camd. 
Soc.), p. 334 ; Visit, of Cornwall (Harl. Soc.), 
pp. 225, 254.] W. A. ,T. A. 

TREGOZ, BAEON (1559-1630). [See ST. 


(d. 1471), archbishop of Dublin, was born 
at St. Wenn in Cornwall, and was educated 
at Oxford, where he graduated M.A. and 
D.D. From 1422 to 1427 he was fellow of 
Exeter College, and in 1434 he was junior 
proctor (BoASE, Register Coll. Oxon. p. 33 ; 
WOOD, Hist, and Antiq. i. 562-3). He is 
said to have been chaplain to Henry V, 
and to have been one of the learned 
men whom that king established at Caen in 
1418 to replace the French professors who 
had fled on its capture by the English in 
1417. It was not, however, until 6 Jan. 
1431 that letters patent were issued by 
Henry VI founding the university at Caen, 
nor does it appear to have been in full 
working order until 1440, when Tregury 
was appointed first rector of the university 
(' L'Ancienne Univ. de Caen/ apud Memoires 
de la Societe des Antiquaires de la Norman- 
die, 3rd ser. ii. 474 et sqq. ; Chroniques 
Neustriejines, p. 322 ; Gallia Christiana, xi. 
427). The university of Paris wrote to 
Oxford protesting against the establishment 
at Caen of a university in rivalry of the 
mother university of Europe (LTTE, Oxford 
Univ. p. 333). The expulsion of the Eng- 
lish from Normandy soon deprived Tregury 
of this occupation ; he is is said to have been 
principal of various halls attached to Exeter 
College, and was appointed chaplain to 
Henry VI and Queen Margaret of Anjou 
(Harl. MS. 6963, f. 84). About 1447 the 
latter wrote recommending Tregury's ap- 
pointment to the vicarage of Corfe Castle or 
bishopric of Lisieux (Letters of Margaret of 
Anjou, p. 92). Neither suggestion seems to 
have been adopted (HuTCHiNS, Dorset, i. 297; 
Gallia Christiana, xi. 795) ; but on 16 June 
1445 Tregury was appointed archdeacon of 
Barnstaple, and soon afterwards dean of St. 
Michael's, Penkridge, Staffordshire. 

On the death of Richard Talbot [q. v.l 
archbishop of Dublin, in 1449, Tregury was 
papally provided to that see. He was at 
once sworn a member of the Irish privy 
council, in which capacity he received an 
annual salary of 20/. ; but he seems to have 
taken little part in politics, and his tenure 
of the archbishopric, which lasted twenty- 
two years, was marked by few incidents 
save the usual ecclesiastical visitations and 
disputes with the archbishop of Armagh 
over the claims to primacy. In 1453 he 
is said to have been taken prisoner by pirates 
in Dublin Bay, but was recaptured at 
Ardglass, and in 1462 he was violently as- 
saulted and imprisoned in Dublin by some 
miscreants, who were excommunicated for 
the offence. On the news of the capture of 
Constantinople in 1453, Tregury ordered a 
strict fast to be kept within his diocese. He 
died at his manor-house of Tallaght, near 
Dublin, on 21 Dec. 1471, and was buried 
near St. Stephen's altar in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral. The monument erected over his 
tomb was afterwards buried under the 
rubbish in St. Stephen's Chapel, where it 
was discovered by Dean Swift in 1730, and 
replaced, with a fresh inscription, on the 
wall to the left of the west gate. By his 
will, which is dated 10 Dec. 1471, and is ex- 
tant among the manuscripts in Trinity 
College, Dublin, Tregury bequeathed to St. 
Patrick's his ( pair of organs ' and two silver 
saltcellars; he also directed that oblations 
should be made on his behalf to St. Michael's 
Mount, Cornwall. 

Bale attributes to Tregury the authorship 
of three works, apparently lectures delivered 
at Caen: 1. ' Lectures in Sententias,' lib. 
iv. 2. i De Origine illius Studii [university 
of Caen ?].' 3. ' Ordinariae Qusestiones/ 
lib. i. None of them is known to have 
been printed or to be extant. His register 
of Dublin wills is preserved in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
4th Rep. App. p. 597). 

[Authorities cited; Eymer's Fcedera; Bekyn- 
ton's Corresp. and Cartularies of St. Mary's, 
Dublin (Rolls Ser.); CaL Rot.. Pat. Hibernise, 
pp. 266-7; Lascelles's Lib. Munerum Hib. pt. 
iv. pp. 95-7, pt. v. p. 35; Bale's Script. Illustr. 
Cat. i. 591; Pits, pp. 662-3; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.-Hib. s.v. ; Trevor, pp. 721-2 ; Ware's 
Ireland, i. 339-41 ; Monck Mason's St. 
Patrick's, pp. 132-7; D'Alton's Mem. of the 
Archbishops of Dublin, pp. 159-65; Cotton's 
Fasti Eccles. Hib. ii. 16; Gent. Mag. 1831, i. 
197-200; Davies Gilbert's Hist, of Cornwall, 
iv. 141-51; Anstey's Munimenta Academica, 
m)' 324 508 ;Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 
ii P 760.] A. F. P. 




TRELAWNY, CHARLES (1654-1731), 
major-general, was fourth son of Sir Jonathan 
Trelawny, second baronet, by Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir Edward Seymour of Berry Pome- 
roy, near Totnes. Sir Jonathan Trelawny 
[q. v.], bishop of Winchester, was his elder 
brother. He served in Monmouth's regiment 
with the French army during the invasion 
of Holland, and at the siege of Maestricht 
in 1673. He received a commission as cap- 
tain in Skelton's regiment (also in French 
pay) on 16 March 1674, and fought under 
Turenne on the Rhine. He became major 
in Monmouth's regiment on 1 Nov. 1678, and 
in the Earl of Plymouth's regiment, which 
he helped to raise, on 13 July 1680. 

The latter regiment (afterwards the 4th or 
king's own) was formed for service at Tan- 
gier, and Trelawny went thither with it in 
December. He succeeded Percy Kirke [q.v.] 
as lieutenant-colonel of it on 27 Nov., and as 
colonel on 23 April 1682. It returned to 
England in April 1684, and part of it was 
at Sedgemoor. 

At the end of November he was at Warmin- 
ster with Kirke when the latter was ar- 
rested for refusing to march against William's 
troops, and Trelawny thereupon deserted to 
William with his lieutenant-colonel, Charles 
Churchill, and thirty men. James deprived 
him of his regiment, but William reinstated 
him on 31 Dec. 

At the battle of the Boyne, 1 July 1690, 
he commanded the infantry brigade which 
passed the river at Slanebridge and turned 
the enemy's left. He was made governor of 
Dublin. In September he took part in the 
siege of Cork under Marlborough, and on 
2 Dec. he was promoted major-general. On 
1 Jan. 1692, at the time of the agitation 
against William's preference for foreign 
officers, he resigned his regiment, which was 
given to his brother Henry, afterwards briga- 
dier-general [see TRELAWNY, EDWAED, ad 
fin.] When Tollemache was killed in 1694, 
there was a report that Trelawny would suc- 
ceed him as colonel of the Coldstream guards ; 
but Shrewsbury wrote to William that such 
an appointment would be greatly disliked by 
the whigs, and the regiment was given to 
Cutts. In May 1696 Trelawny was made 
governor of Plymouth. 

He died at Hengar on 24 Sept. 1731, and 
was buried at Pelynt. He seems to have 
been twice married, but left no children. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. p. 762 ; 
Dalton's English Army Lists; Scott's British 
A rray ; Cannon's Records of 4th Foot ; Walton's 
English Standing Army ; Luttrell's Diary; Mac- 
aulay's Hist, of England, i.; cf. Trelawny Corre- 
spondence, letters between My rt ilia and Philander 

[i.e. the love-letters of his niece Letitia and bis 
nephew Harry], 1706-36, privately printed in 
1884.] E. M. L. 

TRELAWNY, EDWARD (1699-1754), 
governor of Jamaica, fourth son of Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny [q. v.], bishop of Win- 
chester, by his wife Rebecca, daughter of 
Thomas Hele of Bascombe, Devonshire, was 
born at Trelawne, Cornwall, in 1699, and 
educated at Westminster school from 1713 
to 1717, when he proceeded to Christ Church, 
Oxford, matriculating on 27 June. 

On 20 Jan. 1723-4 he was returned to 
parliament as member for West Looe, Corn- 
wall. He became on 21 Oct. 1725 a com- 
missioner for victualling the forces, and on 
2 Jan. 1732-3 a commissioner of customs, 
continuing to sit for West Looe through 
two parliaments till 26 Jan. 1732-3. From 
4 May 1734 to February 1735 he represented 
both East and West Looe. He was offered 
the government of Jamaica in August 1736, 
and assumed office in the colony on 30 April 

Trelawny's sixteen years' administration 
of Jamaica was, with one exception (that of 
Lieutenant-general Edward Morrison from 
1809 to 1828), the longest on record, and 
one of the most successful. The question 
of the maroon war demanded his attention 
on his arrival, and by 1 March 1739 peace 
had been established on a judicious basis 
which proved to be permanent : the maroons 
were located in their separate reserves, the 
chief capital of which is still known as Tre- 
lawny town. This internal pacification was 
soon followed by war with Spain, and Tre- 
lawny raised a regiment in Jamaica to sup- 
port Wentworth and Vernon in their cam- 
paign in the West Indies. In March 1741-2 
he left Jamaica to join the unfortunate ex- 
pedition against Cartagena, and returned 
about 15 April. During the expedition he 
had a bitter quarrel with Rear-admiral Ogle, 
which resulted in Ogle being tried for assault 
upon Trelawny before the chief justice of 
Jamaica [see OGLE, SIB CHALONEK]. Tre- 
lawny was appointed on 25 Dec. 1743 to be 
a colonel, and captain of a company, of the 
49th regiment of foot, which was augmented 
by the new companies in Jamaica. In 1745 
he was called on to place the colony for a 
time under martial law owing to the atti- 
tude of the French. In 1746 he had to deal 
with a serious insurrection of slaves. In 
February 1747-8, with 350 men of his regi- 
ment, he sailed with Admiral Sir Charles 
Knowles [q. v.] and joined in the capture of 
Port Louis in San Domingo. 

Trelawny seems to have acted at all times 
with rare tact, and the farewell address of 


r 75 


the legislature stated that he left behind him 
1 a monument of gratitude in the heart of 
every dispassionate man in this community.' 
Under his administration there was at length 
a cessation of the constant squabbles which 
hitherto seemed inevitable between the go- 
vernor and the assembly. 

Owing to failure of health, Trelawny 
applied to be relieved of the government in 
1751. In September 1752 Admiral Knowles, 
his successor, arrived, and on 25 Nov. Tre- 
lawny left the colony. He was wrecked on 
the Isle of Wight in the Assurance, and 
arrived in London on 28 April 1753. He 
died at Hungerford Park on 16 Jan. 1754. 

He married, first, on 8 Nov. 1737, Amo- 
retta, daughter of John Crawford, by whom 
he had one son who died in infancy, and 
was buried with his mother in St. Cathe- 
rine's Church, Jamaica, in November 1741 ; 
secondly, on 2 Feb. 1752, Catherine Penny, 
probably the sister of Robert Penny, some- 
time attorney-general of Jamaica. 

SIE WILLIAM TRELAWNY (d. 1772), sixth 
baronet, a cousin of Edward, was grandson 
of Brigadier-general Henry Trelawny [see 
TRELAWNY, CHARLES], who served'at Tangier 
and in Flanders, and died M.P.for Plymouth 
in 1702. Sir William sat for West Looe, 
Cornwall (1756-67) ; entered the navy, com- 
manded the Lyon at the attack on Guade- 
loupe in 1759, was governor of Jamaica from 
1768 to 1772, and died at Spanish Town on 
12 Dec. 1772, receiving a, public funeral 
(BOASE and COURTNEY, p. 775). It is after 
him that the parish of Trelawny is named. 

[Material supplied by Frank Cundall, esq., 
librarian of the Jamaica Institute ; Wotton's 
English Baronetage, 1741, ii. 98, and edit, of 
1761, i. 310; Betham's Baronetage of England, 
1 80 1 , i. 330 ; Welch's List of the Queen's Scholars 
of Westminster, 1852, pp. 259, 269 ; Official 'Re- 
turns of Members of Parliament ; Gent. Mag. 
1754, p. 47 ; Bridge's Annals of Jamaica, pp. 
30-1, 52, 68-2; Gardner's History of Jamaica, 
pp. 121-7.] C. A. H. 


(1792-1881), author and adventurer, born in 
London on 13 Nov. 1792, was the second 
son of Lieutenant-colonel Charles Trelawny 
(1757-1820) of Shotwick, who in 1798 as- 
sumed the additional name of Brereton, and 
died in Soho Square on 10 Sept. 1820) Gent. 
Mag. 1820, ii. 376). Trelawny-Brereton 
represented Mitchell in parliament in 1808-9 
and again in 1814. He married, on 1 July 
1786, Maria, sister of Sir Christopher Haw- 
kins, bart., of Trewithen; she died at Bromp- 
ton, aged 93, on 27 Sept. 1852. Edward's 
grandfather was General Henry Trelawny, 
who fought under Howe in America and was 

governor of Landguard Fort from 1793 until 
his death on 28 Jan. 1800. 

According to his own account, which there 
seems no reason to question, Edward suffered 
severely from the harshness of his father, and 
his education was neglected. In October 1805 
he entered the royal navy, and was sent out 
in Admiral Duckworth's ship, the Superb, for 
service in the fleet blockading Cadiz. He states 
in his ' Adventures of a Younger Son ' that 
he lost the opportunity of sharing in the battle 
of Trafalgar on account of Duckworth's delay- 
ing on the Cornish coast to take in provi- 
sions. As, however, the battle was fought on 
21 Oct., and Duckworth did not arrive oft* 
Cadiz until 15 Nov., his version of the circum- 
stance seems improbable. It is certain that 
instead of being transferred from the Superb a 
few days after Trafalgar, as would be inferred 
from his narrative, Trelawny was not ap- 
pointed to the Colossus until 20 Nov. The 
vessel was almost immediately ordered home 
to be paid off, and Trelawny quitted her on 
29 Dec. with a satisfactory certificate. He was 
then placed for a time at Dr. Burney's naval 
academy at Greenwich, and, if his account 
in the ' Adventures of a Younger Son ' can 
be accepted, went again to sea in a king's 
ship bound for the East Indies. This is 
prima facie probable, and his further state- 
ment that he deserted the ship at Bombay 
is corroborated by the absence of any re- 
cord of a regular discharge. However ima- 
ginative or highly coloured the ' Adventures 
of a Younger Son' may be, the main fact of 
his having found his way to the Eastern 
Archipelago is unquestionable, and the 
sole chronological indication he vouchsafes, 
when he speaks in a letter to Mrs. Shelley 
of having been off the coast of Java in 
1811, is confirmed by the existence among 
his papers of an official proclamation in 
Malay of the establishment of British autho- 
rity over the island, endorsed by Sir Thomas 
Stamford Raffles [q. v.], and dated 12 Sept. 
1811 ; as well as by a note of the same date 
in a manuscript of the Koran which belonged 
to him. How far the incidents in the' Younger 
Son' belong to romance, and how far to 
autobiography, it would be vain to investi- 
gate. The surpassing literary merit of the 
narrative is to some extent an argument for 
its veracity, since Trelawny, always strong 
in description, gave, apart from this book, 
if exception it be, no token of any particular 
gift for invention. The nautical details are 
frequently inaccurate, but their local colour- 
ing is generally as true as it is brilliant. 

According to the most natural interpre- 
tation of his own words, Trelawny would 
seem to have returned to England about 1813, 




and in the same year or the next to have be- 
come ' a shackled, care-worn, and spirit- broken 
married man of the civilised west.' His wife 
was a Miss Julia Addison. Details of his life 
are entirely wanting until, from his own ac- 
count in * The Last Days of Shelley and Byron/ 
we find him in the summer of 1820 in Switzer- 
land. While there he came across Thomas 
Medwin [q. v.], recently arrived from Italy, 
where he had resumed acquaintance with his 
cousin Shelley. Medwin's account of the poet 
induced Trelawny and a new friend, Edward 
Elliker Williams [q. v.], to resolve on seeking 
Shelley out. Williams proceeded to Italy in 
the spring of 1821 ; Trelawny, recalled to Eng- 
land by business (resulting apparently from 
the death of his father), delayed until the end 
of the year, when he went to Tuscany, pro- 
vided with dogs, guns, and nets, for hunting 
in the Maremma. His description of his first 
meetings with Shelley and Byron is one of the 
most vivid pieces of writing in the language. 
He remained for the most part in the society 
of one or both until 8 July, the day on which 
Shelley and Williams met their tragic end 
in a squall off Leghorn. Trelawny was to 
have accompanied them in Byron's yacht ; 
but an informality detained him in port at 
Leghorn, and he remained with furled sails, 
watching the doomed vessel through a spy- 
glass until a sea fog enveloped her and * we 
saw nothing more of her.' 

The twelvemonth ensuing is the brightest 
portion of Trelawny's life. Nothing could 
surpass his devotion to his dead friends and 
their widowed survivors ; he promoted the 
recovery of the bodies, superintended their 
cremation on shore, snatched Shelley's heart 
from the flames, prepared the tomb in the pro- 
testant cemetery at Rome, purchased the 
ground, added the proverbial lines from the 
* Tempest ' to Leigh Hunt's l Cor Cordium,' 
and crowned his services by providing Mary 
Shelley with funds for her journey to Eng- 

On 23 July 1823 Trelawny put to sea from 
Leghorn with Byron in the Hercules, bound 
for Greece, to aid in the Hellenic struggle for 
independence. They reached Cephalonia on 
3 Aug. Trelawny, dissatisfied with Byron's 
tardiness in taking action, crossed to the main- 
land, and joined the insurgent chief Odysseus, 
whose sister Tersitza he married as his second 
wife. While discharging a mission with which 
he had been entrusted by Colonel Leicester 
Fitzgerald Charles Stanhope (afterwards Earl 
of Harrington) [q. v.], who speaks of him with 
the warmest commendation, he heard of By- 
ron's fatal illness, and hurried to Missolonghi, 
but arrived too late. His gratification of his 
curiosity as to the cause of Byron's lameness, 

and his publication of particulars afterwards 
admitted to be inaccurate, exposed him to 
great and deserved censure; his letters to 
Stanhope on Byron's death, printed in Stan- 
hope's ' Greece ' in 1823 and 1824, are never- 
theless couched in fitting language, and 
should be read in justice both to himself 
and Byron. ' With all his faults,' he says, 
* I loved him truly ; if it gave me pain in 
witnessing his frailties, he only wanted a 
little excitement to awaken and put forth 
virtues that redeemed them all.' Returning 
to the camp of Odysseus, Trelawny inevi- 
tably became mixed up in the intrigues and 
dissensions of the Greek chieftains. Odys- 
seus, just before his own arrest and murder, 
entrusted him with the defence of his 
stronghold on Mount Parnassus, where, in 
May 1825, he was shot by two Englishmen 
Thomas Fenton, a deliberate assassin, and 
Whitcombe, his dupe. Fenton was killed 
on the spot. Trelawny, though in a desperate 
condition and suffering intense pain, mag- 
nanimously spared the life of Whitcombe. 
After long and cruel suffering, he was at 
length able to depart for Cephalonia, bring- 
ing, as would appear, his Greek bride with 
him ; his daughter Zella was born about 
June 1826. The frequent mention of this 
child in his subsequent correspondence with 
Mrs. Shelley, and even later, refutes the 
story of her death and the treatment of her 
remains told by J. G. Cooke (Life and 
Letters of Joseph Severn, p. 265). ' She has 
a soul of fire,' he says in 1831. She even- 
tually married happily. 

In April 1826 Trelawny was at Zante, 
whence he addressed a letter to the ' Ex- 
aminer,' describing the fall of Missolonghi. 
He remained in the Ionian Islands until the 
end of 1827, detained, as he informs Mrs. 
Shelley, by a succession of fevers and a ( vil- 
lainous lawsuit.' In 1828 he was in Eng- 
land, partly, as it would seem, in Cornwall 
with his mother. In 1829 he lived in Italy 
with Charles Armitage Brown [q. v.] and 
his infant daughter. He wished at this time 
to write the life of Shelley, and solicited 
Mrs. Shelley's assistance, but, besides Tre- 
lawny's special disqualifications and Mrs. 
Shelley's aversion to publicity, compliance 
with his request would have deprived her of 
the allowance from Sir Timothy Shelley. 
Disappointed and annoyed, Trelawny turned 
to another biography which none could pro- 
hibithis own. In March 1829 he tells 
Mrs. Shelley, 'I am actually writing my 
own life.' It was seen as it progressed, he 
adds, by Armitage Brown and Landor, the 
latter of whom had already introduced him 
and his Greek wife into one of his 'Ima- 




ginary Conversations.' By August 1830 the 
first part, forming the book now known 
as ' The Adventures of a Younger Son/ was 
nearly completed. The manuscript reached 
Mary Shelley in December, and, notwith- 
standing the perusal of Brown and Landor, 
the revision of diction and orthography gave 
her enough to do. Trelawny's spelling, 
though by no means so bad as stated by Fanny 
Kemble, was at no time of his life immacu- 
late. Mrs. Shelley also had to persuade him 
to omit some passages deemed objectionable 
on the ground of coarseness, in which, backed 
by Horace Smith, she ultimately succeeded. 
The book was published anonymously in the 
autumn of 1831, and, although the first edi- 
tion did not bring back the 400/. which Col- 
burn had given for the copyright, it speedily 
reappeared in a cheaper form, and took rank 
as a recognised classic (London, 3 vols. 8vo, 
and in 1 vol. among Bentley's Standard 
Novels, 1835; New York, 2 vols. 12mo, 
1834; German translation, Leipzig, 1832). 
The American and German issues were 
followed by a translation by or for Dumas 
(' Le Cadet de Famille ') in his journal ' Le 
Mousquetaire/ The book was to have been 
called l A Man's Life,' and owes its actual 
and more attractive title to the publisher. 

Trelawny came to England in 1832. In 
January 1833 he went to America, and re- 
mained there until June 1835. Among his 
achievements there were his holding Fanny 
Kemble in his arms to give her a view of 
Niagara; his swimming across the river 
between the rapid and the falls ; and his 
buying the freedom of a man slave, a cir- 
cumstance which remained unknown until 
after his death. After 1837 the principal 
authority for his life ceases with the discon- 
tinuance of his affectionate correspondence 
with Mary Shelley. He had half made her 
an offer of marriage in 1831 ; her refusal 
made no difference in their friendship, but 
she seems to have bitterly felt his strictures 
on the omission of portions of ' Queen Mab' 
from her edition of her husband's works. 

Trelawny was at this time a [conspicuous 
figure in English society. Handsome and 
picturesque, of great physical strength with 
the prestige of known achievements and the 
fascination of dimly conjectured mystery, nor 
wholly indisposed to maintain his reputation 
for romance by romancing, he combined all 
the qualifications of a London lion. His 
closest connection appears to have been with 
Leader, the popular member for Westminster ; 
but Brougham, Landor, Bulwer, D'Orsay, 
Mrs. Norton, and Mrs. Jameson were also 
among his intimate friends ; nor do any of 
them appear to have become estranged from 


him. A few years later, however, an un- 
fortunate affair which resulted in his con- 
tracting a third marriage induced him to lead 
a more secluded life than heretofore. A letter 
from Seymour Kirkup generously declining 
an unsolicited offer from Trelawny to advance 
him money shows that in 1840 Trelawny 
was living at Putney, and was thinking of 
buying landed property. It must have been 
very shortly afterwards that he settled at 
Usk in Monmouthshire (at first in a house 
now called Twyn Bell, and afterwards at 
Cefn Ha), where he abode for ten or eleven 
years, a great benefactor to the neighbourhood 
by his judicious employment of labour, and 
only relinquishing his own property when 
by building, planting, and good husbandry he 
had greatly increased its value. Unfortu- 
nately his domestic life was irregular, and re- 
sulted in a hopeless breach with his wife, 
who appears to have been a lady of distin- 
guished qualities, in addition to her special 
claim upon him. He was nevertheless atten- 
tive to his children, sending his two sons to 
Germany for the sake of a thoroughly prac- 
tical education, but he outlived them both. 
His youngest daughter Lsetitia married in 
1882 Lieutenant-colonel Call, RE. 

While at Usk, probably under the impulse 
of an invitation from Sir Percy Shelley to 
talk over old times prior to the appearance 
of Hogg's biography of Shelley (which Tre- 
lawny read for the first time nearly twenty 
years after its publication), he began to write 
the second part of his autobiography, which 
appeared in 1858 under the title of f Kecol- 
lections of the Last Days of Shelley and 
Byron,' subsequently altered to 'Records of 
Shelley, Byron, and the Author' (London, 
8vo ; Boston, 1858, 8vo ; with the altered 
title and other changes, London, 1878, 8vo, 
and 1887, 8vo). By this book Trelawny 
has indissolubly linked his name with those 
of the two great poets he has depicted. In 
his portrait of Shelley we have the real 
Shelley as we have it nowhere else; his 
portrait of Byron is not only less agreeable, 
but less truthful, but the fault is not so 
much in the artist as in the sitter, who pays 
the penalty of his incessant pose and per- 
petual mystification, ' le fanfaron des vices 
qu'il n'avait pas.' When Byron is natural, 
Trelawny is appreciative. His account of 
his own adventures in Greece is simple and 

Trelawny lived in London for the next few 
years. After a while he bought a town house, 
No. 7 Pelham Crescent, Brompton, and a 
country house at Sompting, near Worthing. 
In the country he devoted himself zealously 
to horticulture. ' Hard work in the open 





air/ he declared, ' is the best physician. A 
man who has once learned to handle his tools 
loses the relish for play.' He was abstemious 
in food and drink, and never wore a great 
coat. He rejoiced especially in his crops of 
figs, equal, he averred, to the growths of Italy. 
The younger generation sought the acquain- 
tance of a man who had consorted with 
Shelley and Byron, and who, as the years 
passed on with little apparent effect on his 
robust constitution, came little by little to 
be the sole distinguished survivor of the 
Byronic age. Miss Mathilde Blind, Mr. W. 
M. Rossetti and Mr. Edgcumbe have left 
accurate records of his brilliant, original, 
riveting, but most censorious conversation. 
In the main it was authentic as well as 
picturesque, but sometimes the tendency to 
romance crept in, not only as regarded his 
own exploits, but less excusably as regarded 
the deeds or frailties of others. Some of 
his statements are demonstrably incorrect, 
others highly improbable. A certain peevish- 
ness also grew upon him, painfully evinced 
in the second edition of his records of Shelley 
and Byron, enriched with new documents of 
importance, but where every alteration in 
the text is a change for the worse. It missed, 
in fact, the judicious counsel of Mrs. Tre- 
lawny, who had happily influenced the first 
edition. In loyalty to Shelley, however, he 
never wavered, and he showed freshness of 
mind by becoming an admiring reader of 
Blake and a student of Darwin. At length 
he took to his bed, and died at Sompting on 
13 Aug. 1881 of mere natural decay. In 
accordance with his wishes, Miss Taylor, 
who had faithfully watched over his closing 
years, transported his remains to Gotha, 
where they were cremated and removed to 
Rome for interment in the grave which he 
had long ago prepared for himself by the 
side of Shelley's. 

Trelawny's character presents many points 
of contact with Landor's. His main fault 
was an intense wilfulness, the exaggeration 
of a haughty spirit of independence, which 
rendered him careless of the rights and claims 
of others, and sometimes betrayed him into 
absolute brutality. He himself owned that 
his worst enemy was his determination ' to 
get what he wanted, if he had to go through 
heaven and hell for it.' His disposition to 
romance was a minor failing, which has pre- 
judiced him more in public opinion than it 
need have done; his embellishments rested 
upon a genuine basis of achievement. His 
want of regular education was probably of 
service to him as a writer, enabling him to 
set forth with forcible plainness of speech 
what more cultured persons would have dis- 

guised in polished verbiage. He is graphic 
in his descriptions both of men and things ; 
all his characters, real or fictitious, actually 
! live. 

Trelawny sat to Sir John Millais for the 

old seaman in * the North-West Passage/ 

| and this grand head, now hung in the Tate 

j Gallery, though disapproved by himself, is 

j a striking record of his appearance. Seymour 

| Kirkup's portrait, engraved in the ' Field ' 

for August 1881, is a good representation of 

him at an earlier period of life, and a fine 

photograph taken in old age is engraved as 

the frontispiece to Mr. Edward Garnett's 

edition of ' The Adventures of a Younger 

Son.' The portraits by Severn and D'Orsay 

(1886) are generally condemned. Mrs. 

Shelley speaks of his Moorish appearance 

' Oriental, not Asiatic ' and the remark is 

corroborated by Byron's having marked him 

out to enact Othello. 

[The principal authorities for Trelawny's life 
are his own writings, with an ample margin for 
scepticism in the case of ' The Adventures of a 
Younger Son,' and after these his letters to 
Mary Shelley in the biography of her by Mrs. 
Julian Marshall. Useful abridged lives have 
been written by Mr. Richard Edgcumbe (' Ed- 
ward Trelawny: a Biographical Sketch,' Ply-' 
mouth, 1882, 8vo)and by Mr. Edward Garnett, 
the latter prefixed to the edition of ' The Younger 
Son' (Adventure Series), 1890. All the bio- 
graphers of Shelley and Byron in their latter 
days have noticed him, and graphic records of 
his conversation have been preserved by W. M. 
Rossetti in the Athenaeum for 1882, R. Edg- 
cumbe in Temple Bar, May 1890, and Miss 
Mathilde Blind in the Whitehall Review of 
10 Jan. 1880. See also Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis and Boase's Collectanea 
Cornubiensia, col. 1036 (with details of Tre- 
lawny's will) ; Athenseum, 3 Aug. 1878, 20 Aug. 
1881 (obit, notice), and 21 Aug. 1897 (details of 
the household at Usk) ; Sharp's Life and Letters 
of Joseph Severn ; Millingen's Memoirs of the 
Affairs of Greece, pp. 150-53; Fanny Kemble's 
Records of a Girlhood and Last Records ; and R. 
Garnett's ' Shelley's Last Days' in the Fort- 
nightly Review for July 1878. Lines to the 
memory of Trelawny by Mr. Swinburne appeared 
in the Athenseum for 27 Aug. 1881, and were 
reprinted separately. The ' Songs of the Spring- 
tides ' had been dedicated to Trelawny in the 
previous year.] R. G. 

TRELAWNY, SIR JOHN (fi. 1422), 
knight, who claimed descent of a family set- 
tled at Trelawne in Cornwall before the Nor- 
man conquest, was son of Sir John Trelawny, 
knt., by Matilda, daughter of Robert Myn- 
wenick. The father held land in the vill of 
Trelawne by gift of his father, "William, in 
1366, was the first of the family to receive 




the honour of knighthood, and was alive in 
1406-7 (8 Henry IV). The son John suc- 
ceeded to the family estates in Cornwall and 
was elected M.P. for that county in 1413-14, 
and again in 1421. In the latter parliament 
another John Trelawny, possibly his son, sat 
for Liskeard. Sir John fought at Agincourt, 
and received from Henry V at Gisors a pen- 
sion of 201. a year, which was confirmed by 
Henry VI. He added to his arms three oak 
or laurel leaves. Under the figure of Henry V 
which was formerly over the great gate at 
Launceston was the inscription : 

He that will do ought for me, 

Let him love well Sir John Tirlawnee. 

Sir John was alive in 1423-4 (2 Henry VI). 
He married Agnes, daughter of Robert Tre- 
godeck, and left two sons, Richard and John. 
Richard was M.P. for Liskeard in 1421-2 
and 1423-4, and died in 1449, leaving daugh- 
ters only. Sir Hugh Courtenay, ancestor of 
Henry, marquis of Exeter, who was attainted 
under Henry VIII, made a grant of lands, 
6 Oct. 1437, to one John Trelawny and his 
heirs, at a yearly rent of twelve pence and 
suit to his court twice a year. The bene- 
ficiary seems to have been Sir John Tre- 
lawny's second son, John, who succeeded to 
the estates on the death of his elder brother 
without male issue ; he was M.P. for Truro 
in 1448-9, and was sheriff of Cornwall in 
1461-2. He was direct ancestor of Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny [q. v.] 

[Betham's Baronetage of England, i. 324-5 ; 
Official Return of Members of Parliament ; 
Burke's Peerage and Baronage ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, ii. 768; 
Thirtieth Report of the Deputy-keeper of the 
Records, 1868-9, App. p. 188.] J. A. T. 

1721), third baronet, bishop successively of 
Bristol, Exeter, and Winchester, third son 
of Sir Jonathan, second baronet, by Mary, 
daughter of Sir Edward Seymour, second 
baronet, of Berry Pomeroy, Devonshire, was 
born at Pelynt, Cornwall, on 24 March 1650 
(CASSAN, Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, 
ii. 196). His grandfather, Sir John Tre- 
lawny (1592-1665), first baronet, opposed 
the election of Sir John Eliot to parliament 
for Cornwall in 1627-8, and was, on that 
ground, committed to the Tower of London 
by order of the House of Commons on 13 May 
1628. He was released by the king on 
26 June, and created a baronet on 1 July. 
Sir Jonathan's father (1624-1685) was se- 
questered, imprisoned, and ruined for loyalty, 
during the civil war. The bishop's younger 
brother, Charles, is separately noticed. 

In 1663 Jonathan went to Westminster 
school, was elected to Oxford, and matricu- 
I lated from Christ Church on 11 Dec. 1668. 
! He became student the following year, gra- 
| duated B.A. on 22 June 1672, and M.A. on 
; 29 April 1675. Ordained deacon on 4 Sept. 
1673, he took priest's orders on 24 Dec. 1676, 
and obtained from his relatives the livings 
I of St. Ive (12 Dec. 1 677 to 1689) and Southill 
I (4 Oct. 1677). The death of his elder brother 
| in 1680 left him heir to the baronetcy, ' yet 
i he stuck to his holy orders and continued 
in his function' (Wooc). He was resident 
at Oxford during that autumn (1681), but 
the Cornish baronet there, who was described 
as likely to be soon in Bedlam, was apparently 
j Trelawny 's father, if 1685 be accepted as the 
! date at which Jonathan succeeded to the 
i baronetcy (PRIDEAFX, Letters, ed. Thompson, 
i Camd. Soc. p. 94 n. ; Bibliotheca Cornubiensis). 
| He was one of the benefactors by whom 
i Wren's Tom tower at Christ Church was 
mainly built (June 1681-November 1682), 
and his arms were carved among the rest 
on the stone roof of the gatehouse (Woor, 
History and Antiquities, 1786, pp. 449-51). 
On the discovery of the Rye House plot 
in 1683, Trelawny drew up an address in the 
name of the corporation of East Looe con- 
gratulating the king and the Duke of York 
on their escape ( Trelawne MSS. ; Trelawny 
Papers, Camd. Soc. ed. Cooper, 1853). 

In the expectation that Monmouth would 
land in the west, James, in June 1685, 
sent Sir Jonathan down to Cornwall, where 
he arrived after the duke had landed. Find- 
ing the deputy-lieutenants, with one ex- 
ception (Rashleigh), unwilling to call out 
the militia, he signed all commissions, and 
despatched Rashleigh to inspect each regi- 
ment and to station them at the most impor- 
tant points. He held himself ready to follow 
Monrnouth's march (Trelawny Papers, Camd. 
Soe. document No. 4). In the 'Tribe of 
Levi,' a doggerel against the seven bishops, 
Trelawny figures as fighting Joshua, the son 
of Nun : 

... a spiritual dragoon 
Glutted with blood, a really Christian Turk, 
Scarcely outdone by Jeffreys or by Kirke 

(London, 1691, in STRICKLAND'S Lives of the 
Seven Bishops}. 

1 Trelawny will be a bishop somewhere,' 
wrote his college friend, Humphrey Prideaux, 
from Oxford on 9 July 1685, three days after 
Sedgemoor,' it's supposed at Bristol' (Letters, 
p. 142). Trelawny begged Lord-treasurer 
Rochester to contrive the substitution of 
Exeter for Bristol, on the ground that the see 
of Bristol was too unremunerative to enable 


1 80 


him to meet his father's debts (Correspon- 
dence of Clarendon and Rochester, ed. Singer, 
1828, i. 146). Nevertheless Bristol was 
offered him. On 17 Oct. the intimation of 
the conge d'clire was conveyed to him by 
Sunderland; on the 26th his "university con- 
ferred the degree of D.D. ; and on 8 Nov. 
he was consecrated at Lambeth by both arch- 
bishops and six bishops. Three "days later, 
he and Ken took their seats in the lords. 

To the active loyalty inherited from his 
ancestors and from his cavalier father, 
Trelawny united as bishop the passive obe- 
dience of his order. He accepted the papistry 
of the king until it became aggressive. While 
at Dorchester, on his first visitation, he 
severely reprimanded a preacher who made 
insinuations in a sermon against the king's 
good faith. By 1 June 1686 Trelawny had 
finished his visitation, and laid before the 
archbishop the results which pointed to 
gross neglect by the clergy of their duties 
(Tanner MSS. xxx. 50). 

The appearance of the first declaration 
of indulgence on 4 April 1687 changed Tre- 
lawny's views of the king and converted 
him into a resolute foe ( Tanner MSS. xxix. 
42). Upon Sunderland's invitation to him 
to sign an address in favour of the declara- 
tion, and to obtain the signatures of his 
clergy, Trelawny, first letting it be known 
that he would not sign himself, called his 
clergy together and debated with them. 
They refused to sign to a man. Reporting 
his action to the archbishop, he asserted : ' I 
have given God thanks for this opportunity 
... of declaring . . . that I am firmly of the 
church of England, and not to be forced 
from her interest by the terrors of displeasure 
or death itself.' Pie did all he could in 1687 
for the French protestant refugees at Bristol, 
settled 20/. upon their two ministers, and drew 
up a form of subscription for their benefit 
(Tanner MSS. xxix. 147 or 149, xxx. 191, 
xxix. 32). When the king attempted to pack 
a parliament pledged to support his attack 
upon the church, the Earl of Bath under- 
took to manage the Cornish elections, but 
Trelawny successfully opposed him (Tanner 
MSS. xxviii. 139, in STRICKLAND'S Lives). 

On 27 April 1688 James issued his second 
declaration of indulgence, and on 12 May 
Sancroft summoned his suffragans to con- 
sider it. Trelawny arrived at Lambeth with 
his friend Ken on the evening of the 17th. 
On the folio wing morning he assisted in draw- 
ing up the bishops' petition against the de- 
claration, and in the evening repaired with 
the rest to Whitehall. When the king men- 
tioned the word ' rebellion,' Trelawny fell on 
his knees and warmly repudiated the sugges- 

tion that he and his brethren could be guilty 
of such an offence. ' We will do,' he con- 
cluded, 'our duty to your majesty to the 
utmost in everything that does not interfere 
with our duty to God' (OLIVER, Bishops of 
Exeter, p. 157 n. 2). After the interview 
Trelawny went down to his diocese, and was 
served at Bath on 30 May with a warrant 
from Sunderland, dated 27 May, to appear 
with the archbishop and five fellow bishops 
before the council on 8 June at five in the 
afternoon to answer a charge of seditious 
libel. Trelawny obeyed the summons, and 
on the same evening he, Sancroft, and five 
other bishops were sent to the Tower (8 June). 
Four lords Worcester, Devonshire, Scars- 
dale, and Lumley were ready to give bail 
for Trelawny. Released in a week on their 
own recognisances, the seven bishops came 
up on the 29th for trial with the rest on 
the charge of seditious libel. A verdict of 
1 not guilty ' was returned at ten o'clock of 
the morning of the next day. The anni- 
versary of 30 June 1688 was ever afterwards 
a festival with Trelawny. The Cornishmen 
meanwhile identified themselves with Tre- 
lawny in his struggle with the king, and, 
according to a local tradition reported by 
Robert Stephen Hawker [q. v.], they raised 
a song of which the refrain ran : 
And shall Trelawny die ? 

Then twenty thousand Cornishmen will know the 
reason why. 

Hawker's testimony is not quite conclusive. 
There is some ground for believing that the 
cry was first raised in 1628, owing to the 
fears of Cornishmen for the life of Sir John 
Trelawny. first baronet, at the hands of the 
House of Commons (cf. Bristol Journal, 
25 July 1772). /The Song of the Western 
Men,' a ballad said to have been suggested by 
the ancient refrain, was composed by Hawker 
in 1825, and long passed for an original song 
dating from 1688. While Bristol was still 
ablaze with bonfires, in celebration of the 
bishop's acquittal, the king by quo warranto 
struck Trelawny 's name from the burgess roll 
of Liskeard ( The Epistolary Correspondence 
4*c. of Francis Atterbury, ed. Nichols, 1789- 
1799 ; IAGO, Bishop Trelawny, 1882). 

Burnet states precisely that Trelawny 
joined Compton in signing the invita- 
tion to William (Own Time, Oxford, 1833, 
iii. 159). Burnet adds that the bishop's 
brother, Colonel Charles Trelawny, drew him 
into the plan of invasion (ib. iii. 279). Bur- 
net has been followed by Macaulay and Miss 
Strickland. But Trelawny steadily denied 
the allegation (Trelawne MSS. in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 1st Rep. p. 52). In a draft letter 




to the bishop of Worcester, Trelawny wrote : 
' I never put my hand to any letter, knew 
of or joined in any message ... to invite 
him [i.e. W T illiam] . . . and ... we had no 
other view by our petition than to shew our 
king . . . we could not distribute . . . his 
. . . declaration . . . which . . . was founded 
on such a dispensing power as ... would 
quickly set aside all laws . . . and leave 
our church on no other establishment than 
the will and pleasure of a prince who . . . 
to extirpate it ... seemed in haste' (Tre- 
lawny to the bishop of Worcester, 25 Jan. 
1716, Trelnwne MSS., transcribed by the 
present baronet). Trelawny throughout the 
crisis was a passive well-wisher of the Re- 
volution. Along with Compton of London, 
he failed to obey James II's summons des- 
patched on 24 Sept. to the archbishops and 
eight bishops to attend him on the 28th. But 
James's power was nearly exhausted, and Tre- 
lawny threw his influence into the scale of 
the Prince of Orange. William landed on 
5 Nov. Ten days later James sought to 
conciliate Trelawny by announcing his trans- 
lation to the see of Exeter, which had pre- 
viously been refused him (LUTTEELL, Brief 
Relation, i. 476). It was too late ; Trelawny 
welcomed to Bristol the prince's troops under 
Shrewsbury, and wrote thence to William, 
on 5 Dec., to express his satisfaction at 
having borne some part in the work for the 
preservation of the protestant religion, the 
laws and liberties of this kingdom (DAL- 
KYMPLE, Memoirs, ii. 252). 

After James II's abdication Trelawny and 
Compton were the only two bishops in the 
House of Lords (29 Jan. 1689) in the ma- 
jority of 51 against 49 by whom Sancroft's 
plan of a regency was rejected (BTJRNET, Own 
Time, iii. 399). Trelawny was one of the 
eleven bishops who drew up a form of prayers 
for the day of thanksgiving, 31 Jan., and he 
and Lloyd of St. Asaph alone of the seven 
bishops took the oaths to William and Mary. 
Immediately after William and Mary's coro- 
nation, Trelawny's nomination to Exeter was 
confirmed, 13 April 1689 ( GODWIN, DePrcesu- 
libus ; LUTTRELL, vi. 182 ; WOOD, Athence). 

Trelawny sat in October on the ecclesias- 
tical commission appointed to prepare a 
scheme of comprehension for the convocation 
of November-December. The following sum- 
mer (1690) he set out for his new diocese, 
halting at Oxford. Forcing his way into the 
hall of Exeter College, he deprived, as visitor, 
the rector, Dr.Bury,for contumacy in nailing 
up the gates and denying his power, for cor- 
ruption in selling the office of butler and others 
of the buttery, and for heresy as author of the 
' Naked Gospel.' Ten of the fellows he sus- 

pended for three months (26 July). An appeal 
by the rector to the king's bench went against 
the visitor. Upon the privy council taking 
up the matter, Trelawny told them plainly 
that they were no court of judicature, and 
that he would be determined only by West- 
minster Hall (Trelawny Papers, ed. Cooper). 
The judgment of the king's bench was re- 
versed in the lords on 7 Dec. 1694 (LuT- 
TRELL, iii. 409, 411). Thereby was ' fixed,' 
wrote Atterbury, ' the power of visitors (not 
till then acknowledged final) upon the secure 
foundation of a judgment in parliament.' 
By another parliamentary decision, obtained 
while still bishop of Exeter, in the case 
against Sampson Hele, Trelawny established 
a bishop's sole right to judge the qualifica- 
tions of persons applying for institution to a 
benefice (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 481, 
x. 202). 

In the late summer of 1691 he made his 
first visitation of his diocese ; he was at Ply- 
mouth in September ( JEWITT, Hist, of Ply- 
mouth, p. 269). He had already provided 
for the defence of Exeter against a landing 
from the French fleet which swept the Chan- 
nel in that year (STRICKLAND). Subsequently. 
Trelawny declared himself in sympathy with 
Anne and the Churchills in their open breach 
with the king in 1691 and 1692, and for the 
next ten years he held aloof from court. 
Visiting his diocese with vigour, he retired 
often to his seat at Trelawne, where he rebuilt 
and reconsecrated the family chapel on 
23 Nov. 1701. 

He emerged from his retirement in the 
same year to give active support to the move- 
ment led by Atterbury, whose friend and 
patron he was, for the revival of convocation 
and the execution of the Praemunientes clause. 
When the convocation met (10 Feb. 1701-2) 
and its proceedings resolved themselves into 
a struggle of the lower house against the 
right of the primate to prorogue them, 
Trelawny, ' the avowed patron and de- 
fender of the synodical rights of the clergy ' 
(ATTERBTJRY), entered his protest, along 
with Compton and Sprat, against the resolu- 
tions of the bishops (TiNDAL, Continuation of 
Rapin, iii. 529). From this point until his 
death Trelawny possessed in Atterbury an 
unwearied correspondent. Trelawny gave 
him in January 1701 the archdeaconry of 
Totnes, and much other preferment. On 
6 July 1704 he thanked his patron, to whom 
all the happiness of his life was due, for 
having obtained for him from the queen the 
deanery of Carlisle. 

After the accession of Anne, Trelawny, at 
the queen's desire, preached before her in St. 
Paul's the thanksgiving sermon for the sue- 




cesses in the Low Countries and at Vigo 
(Postman, 14 Nov. 1702). But he still re- 
sisted the royal wishes whenever he deemed 
the rights of his episcopal office impugned. 
When in 1703 George Hooper [q. v.] was 
translated from St. Asaph to Bath and Wells, 
the see of their common friend Ken, the 
queen expressed her willingness to allow 
Hooper to retain in commendam his chanter- 
ship of Exeter Cathedral and to assign its 
value (200/. a year) to Ken. But Trelawny 
objected and would not yield. In like manner 
he refused 7,000/. for the reversion of the 
manor of Cuddenbeck, as he thought it worth 
2,000/. more, and would not prejudice his 
successor (OLIVER, Bishops of Exeter, pp. 

In 1707 Trelawny was translated to Win- 
chester, one of his last official acts as bishop 
of Exeter being to furnish a return, pur- 
suant to an order in council dated 4 April 
1707, of papists and reputed papists in Devon. 
His promotion disgusted many, Burnet com- 
plained, he being considerable for nothing 
but his birth and his election interest in 
Cornwall (BTJRNET, Own Time, v. 337). 
He was consecrated at Bow Church on 
14 June, enthroned on the 21st, and on 
the 23rd invested prelate of the Garter at 
Windsor. In his charge to the clergy of the 
diocese of Winchester (privately printed), 
Trelawny announced his devotion to pro- 
testantism and his church, and declared equal 
hostility to papists and the { furious sorts of 
dissenters' (cf. Trelawne MSS. 12 Aug. 
1708). In Winchester Cathedral Trelawny 
erected an enormous throne in the taste of 
his age (GALE, Cathedral Church of Winches- 
ter, London, 1715; CASSAIST, Lives of the 
.Bishops of Winchester, i. 12). Since de- 
molished, parts of it survive at Trelawne. 
He finished the rebuilding of the palace of 
Wolvesey begun by Bishop Morley, residing 
there and in the other two palaces of the 
see, at Chelsea and at Farnham Castle. One 
of his last acts was to place a statue of 
Wolsey over the gateway leading to the hall 
of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1719 (WooD, 
History and Antiquities, 1786, pp. 452-3, 
gives the inscription). He was a governor 
of the Charterhouse, and Busby trustee of 
Westminster school. On 1 July 1720 he 
gave a handsome entertainment at Chelsea 
to commemorate his deliverance from the 
Tower (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 370) ; 
and there the next year, 19 July 1721, he 
died. He was buried in Pelynt church on 
10 Aug. (GODWIN). 

Trelawny married, in 1684, Rebecca, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Hele of 
Bascombe, Devonshire. Many letters to 

'Dear Bekkie' are preserved at Trelawne. 
She died on 11 Feb. 1710 (LUTTRELL, vi. 
545). Their six sons and six daughters were : 
John, fourth baronet (d. 1756) ; Henry, 
drowned with Sir Clowdisley Shovell ; 
Charles, prebendary of Winchester ; Edward 
[q. v.], governor of Jamaica ; Hele (d. 1740), 
rector of Southill and Landreath ; Jonathan, 
died in infancy ; Charlotte, Lsetitia, Re- 
becca, Elizabeth, Mary, Anne. 

Trelawny was through life of a convivial 
temper, and scandals were spread, notably 
by Burnet, that at times he drank wine too 
freely. He had a stiff temper (cf. LUTTRELL, 
Brief Relation, iii. 47), and was a stern parent 
(cf. NICHOLLS and TAYLOR, Bristol Past and 
Present, ii. 75). In the charming 'Love- 
letters of Myrtilla and Philander' is recounted 
the ten years' courtship of the bishop's fourth 
daughter, Laetitia, by her first cousin, Cap- 
,tain Harry Trelawny (d. 1762), afterwards 
fifth baronet, whom she ultimately married ; 
the bishop denounced his daughter's suitor 
as ' one pretending boldly and wickedly, too, 
to rob me of my daughter so dear to me . . . 
to be treated with the deepest and justest 
resentments ' (cf. Trelawny Correspondence, 
Letters between Myrtilla and Philander, 
1706-1736, privately printed, London, 1884). 

The best known portrait of Trelawny, by 
Kneller, in the hall of Christ Church, repre- 
sents him seated and wearing the robes of 
the Garter. Another portrait by Kneller is 
at Trelawne, where there is also a portrait 
of the bishop's wife by the same artist. In 
both portraits he is depicted with a strong, 
ruddy, clean-shaven face, and firm mouth. 
He was included with the rest of the seven 
bishops in the engraved group by D. Loggan. 

Trelawny's extant writings in the style 
of a 'spiritual dragoon' consist of a few 
sermons and many letters, for the most part 
unedited, at Trelawne. His sermon in 1702 
was printed by the queen's command. His 
charge to the clergy of the diocese of Win- 
chester was printed privately, with his ser- 
mon, in 1877. In Bishop Gibson's edition 
of Camden's < Britannia ' (1695) the additions 
for Cornwall and Devon were chiefly due to 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornub. 
1878 vol. ii., 1882 vol. iii. ; Boase's Collectanea 
Cornub. 1890; Trelawny Papers (Camden Soc.) ; 
Ellis Correspondence, 1686-8 (1829); Life by 
Elizabeth Strickland in Agnes Strickland's Lives 
of the Seven Bishops (1866); Oliver's Bishops 
of Exeter; Cassan's Bishops of Winchester; 
Plumptre's Life of Ken, 1890 ; Atterbury Corre- 
spondence, ed.Nichols, 1789-99; Trelawne MSS. 
in Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Eep. pp. 50-2.] 

J. A. T. 




GELO MALEVOLTI (1716-1802), fencing 
master, the son of a wealthy Italian mer- 
chant, was born at Leghorn in 1716. After 
travelling widely upon the continent he 
settled in Paris, and studied horsemanship 
and fencing under the great Teillagory, who 
was instructor at the Manege Royal, as well 
as at the Academie d'Armes. While still 
at Paris he was fascinated by the charms of 
Peg Woffington, and is said to have migrated 
to England in her company, probably about 
1755. His style of living was costly, and 
he became anxious to turn his handsome 
person and remarkable skill as a rider and 
swordsman to account. He was soon re- 
cognised as an authority on the manege. 
He became ecuyer to Henry Herbert, tenth 
earl of Pembroke [q. v.], settled at Wilton 
in 1758, and undertook to train the riding 
instructors of Eliott's famous light horse 
(now 15th hussars), of which Pembroke in 
1759 became lieutenant-colonel. One of 
those he trained was Philip Astley [q. v.], 
the founder of the well-known amphitheatre. 
While Pembroke patronised Tremamondo, 
Charles Douglas, third duke of Queensberry 
[q. v.], is said to have shown a partiality for 
his wife, for . he appears to have married in 
England within a few years of his arrival. 
The equestrian (whom his patrons persuaded 
to adopt the simpler patronymic of Angelo) 
was introduced to George II, who pronounced 
him the most elegant horseman of his day. 
George III was no less emphatic in his com- 
mendation, and at a later date Angelo sat on 
horseback as West's model for William III 
in his picture of the battle of the Boyne. 
In the meantime Angelo, as he was now 
called, seem s to have met with some pecuniary 
disappointment, and early in 1759 he re- 
solved to devote his energies to obtaining 
remunerative pupils as a fencing master. 
This change of plan was soon justified by 
results. Among his first pupils were the 
Duke of Devonshire and the Prince of Wales, 
while his ecole d'escrime in Soho became 
a crowded and fashionable haunt for young 
men of rank. His income was now large ; 
he set up a country house at Acton, and 
his hospitality was lavish in the extreme. 
Among his acquaintances were numbered 
Garrick, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Wilkes, 
Home Tooke, and many other distinguished 
persons. Encouraged by such a clientele, 
Angelo brought out in 1763 his superb 
< L'Ecole d'ArmesavecrExplication generale 
des Principales Attitudes et Positions con- 
cernant FEscrime,' dedicated to Princes Wil- 
liam Henry and Henry Frederic (London, 
1763, oblong fol. ; 2nd edit., with two columns 

of text, French and English, 1765 ; another, 
Paris, 1765 ; 3rd edit. 1767). The expense 
was covered by subscriptions among 236 
noblemen and gentlemen, Angelo's patrons 
and pupils. The work was adorned by forty- 
seven copperplates, drawn by Gwynn, and 
engraved by Ryland, Grignion, and Hall. 
It rapidly established its position as an 
authority, being embodied under the head- 
ing 'Eflcrime' in Diderot's ' Encyclopedie/ 
and it was certainly the most important 
book that had appeared on the subject in 
England since the treatise of Vincentio Sa- 
violo [q. v.] It appeared in a purely English 
guise in 1787 as 'The School of Fencing' 
(2nd edit. 1799). The Chevalier d'Eon re- 
sided for some years with Angelo in London, 
and it is understood that he assisted him in 
writing the letterpress [see D'EoN DE BEAU- 
MONT]. In 1770 Angelo purchased from Lord 
Delaval Carlisle House, at the end of Carlisle 
Street, overlooking Soho Square ; but as this 
district became less select he transferred his 
salle d'armes, first to Opera House Buildings 
in the Haymarket, and then to Old Bond 
Street. Eventually he retired to Eton, but he 
continued to give lessons in fencing until his 
death in that town on 11 July 1802. 

Domenico's younger brother, Anthony An- 
gelo Malevolti Tremamondo, proceeded to 
Scotland about 1768 and became ( Master of 
the Royal Riding Manege' at Edinburgh, 
where he resided in Nicolson Square, and 
was widely known as Ainslie. He died at 
Edinburgh on 16 April 1805, 'aged 84 ' 
(Scots Mag. 1805, p. 565). A large eques- 
trian portrait of him appears in ' Kay's Ori- 
ginal Portraits ' (Edinburgh, 1877, i. 69). 

Domenico's eldest son, known as HENRY 
ANGELO- (1760-1839?), was sent in 1766 to 
Dr. William Rose's academy at Chiswick, 
but was transferred in the same year to Eton, 
where his father had already begun to give 
fencing lessons, and he remained there until 
1774. He afterwards studied fencing in 
Paris under Motet, and became the virtual 
head of his father's academic from about 
1785. Sheridan and Fox were in the habit 
of dropping in at the school in a friendly 
way, and Henry Angelo had almost as dis- 
tinguished a circle of acquaintances as his 
father (for a list of his titled pupils see 
Reminiscences, ii. 406 ; cf. GEANTLEY BERKE- 
LEY, Recollections, 1866. iv. 159). He retired 
from the active conduct of the school about 
1817, in favour of his son, also named Henry 
(1780-1852), who moved the academy in 1830 
to St. James's Street, became in 1833 super- 
intendent of sword exercise to the army, and 
died at Brighton on 14 Oct. 1852 (Gent. 
May. 1852, ii. 543). 




The elder of the two Henry Angelos pub- 
lished two amusing anecdotal volumes, ' Re- 
miniscences of Henry Angelo, with Memoirs 
of his late Father and Friends' (2 vols. 1830, 
8vo), and ' Angelo's Pic-Nic or Table Talk' 
(1834, 8vo, with a frontispiece by Cruik- 
shank, and original contributions by Colman, 
Theodore Hook, Bulwer, Horace Smith, 
Boaden, and others). The stories range 
among all ranks of society, from the regent 
and William IV to Macklin and Kean, and 
from Byron to Lady Hamilton. Verisimili- 
tude is occasionally lacking, and the writer 
abstains throughout with a graceful ease from 
giving any dates. The Sophia Angelo who 
died on 7 April 1847, aged 88, ' the oldest and 
most celebrated dame at Eton,' was probably 
one of Domenico's daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. 1802 ii. 692, 1839 ii. 419, 1847 
i. 561, 1852 ii. 543; Cooper's Register and 
Mag. of Biogr. 1869, ii. 206; Egerton Castle's 
School sand Masters of Fence, 1892, pp. 299 seq. ; 
Thimm's Bibliography of Fencing, 1896; Me- 
ngnac's Histoire de f'Escrime, 1883-6, ii. 568; 
Pollock's Fencing, in Badminton Library ; Wheat- 
ley and Cunningham's London, i. 330.] T. S. 

TREMAYNE, EDMUND (d. 1582), 
clerk of the privy council, was second son of 
Thomas Tremayne of Collacombe, Lamerton, 
Devonshire, where the Devonshire branch of 
this old Cornish family had been established 
since 1366. His mother was Philippa, eldest 
daughter of Roger Grenville of Stow. Of this 
marriage were born sixteen children, of whom 
four Edmund, Richard (see below), and the 
twins Nicholas and Andrew acquired some 
reputation. The twins Andrew and Nicholas 
were strikingly alike, physically and men- 
tally. The elder, Andrew, fled with Sir 
Peter Carew [q. v.] on 25 Jan. 1553-4, and 
both were imprisoned on suspicion of piracy 
on 24 Feb. 1554-5, but escaped to France, 
where they were pensioned by the French 
king. They were also implicated in Sir 
Anthony Kingston's plot in 1556. After 
Elizabeth's accession they entered her ser- 
vice. Andrew led a brilliant cavalry charge 
against the French at Leith in April 1560, 
and was killed at Newhaven (Havre) on 
18 July 1562. Nicholas, who seems to have 
been a special favourite of Elizabeth, was 
frequently employed in carrying important 
despatches between France and England, 
and distinguished himself at the siege of 
Newhaven, where he was killed on 26 May 

Edmund entered the service of Edward 
Courtenay, earl of Devonshire [q. v.], in the 
autumn of 1553, but was committed to the 
Tower in February or March following, on 
suspicion of being concerned in Wyatt's re- 

bellion. He w r as racked during the time 
Elizabeth was a prisoner in the Tower (Fox), 
but would not implicate her or Courtenay, his 
master. On Friday, 18 Jan. 1554-5, he was 
released with Sir Gawen Carew, the three 
sons of the late Duke of Northumberland, 
and others. His fine (40/.) was the lowest 
enforced. Tremayne seems to have joined 
Courtenay in Italy. Courtenay wrote from 
Venice on 2 May 1556 : ' I am sorry for Tre- 
mayne's foolish departure, albeit satisfied and 
content therewith as he shall well perceive, 
but I trust the cause thereof will prove as 
you have written.' This probably means 
that the earl thought it foolish of Tremayne 
to leave England and lay himself open to a 
charge of treason. Courtenay died at Padua 
on 18 Sept. 1556, and it is possible that Tre- 
mayne afterwards entered the service of 
Francis, earl of Bedford, who was in Venice 
in 1557. The appointment he received in 
1561 of deputy butler for Devonshire must 
have been through the influence of the Earl 
of Bedford, then lord-lieutenant of Devon- 
shire. Tremayne spent some time at Eliza- 
beth's court, and Burghley thought so highly 
of him that in July 1569 he sent him on a 
special mission to Ireland, ' to examine into 
the truth and let him know quietly the real 
condition of the country.' Tremayne re- 
mained in Ireland until the close of 1569, 
writing frequently to Cecil on Irish affairs. 
On 3 May 1571 he was sworn clerk of the 
privy council at Westminster (Acts of the 
Privy Council}. He wrote in June a paper 
entitled ' Causes why Ireland is not Reformed,' 
which was endorsed by Burghley with the 
words ' a good advice.' Tremayne was re- 
turned M.P. for Plymouth (1572) with John 
Hawkyns. In June he drew up, with Lord 
Burghley, an important document, 'Mat- 
ters wherewith the Queen of Scots may be 
Charged,' from which Burghley's signature 
was afterwards erased. 

Tremayne succeeded to the family estates- 
on his elder brother's death on 13 March 
1571-2. He still maintained a special inte- 
rest in Irish affairs, and revisited the coun- 
try late in 1573 (cf. ' Instructions given to- 
Mr. E. Tremayne upon his being sent to the 
Lord Deputy of Ireland by the Lord Trea- 
surer,' 1573, in Lambeth MSS.) The city of 
Exeter granted Tremayne in 1574 a rever- 
sion to Sir Gawen Carew's pension of 40 
1 in reward of their good services done this 
city' (ISAACKE). Carew outlived Tremayne, 
so the latter never benefited by the grant. 
The family mansion of Collacombe was 
altered and enlarged by him ; the date 1574 
still appears with the family arms and those 
of his royal mistress in the great hall. 




Tremayne was in 1578 senior of the four 
clerks to the privy council, but he chiefly 
resided in Devonshire, where he acted as 
commissioner for the restraint of grain and 
held other local offices. On 24 Oct. 1580 
the queen wrote from Richmond command- 
ing him to assist Francis Drake in sending 
to London bullion brought into the realm by 
Drake, but to leave ten thousand pounds' 
worth in Drake's hands. This last instruction 
' to be kept most secret to himself alone.' 

Tremayne made his will, 17 Sept. 1582. 
The Earl of Bedford wrote to announce his 
death to Burghley a few days later. Burgh- 
ley, in reply, described Tremayne as ' a man 
worthy to be beloved for his honesty and 
virtues.' In September 1576 he married 
Eulalia, daughter of Sir John St. Leger of 
Annery. A son Francis, named after Tre- 
mayne's ' good lord ' Bedford, lived for only 
six weeks after his father, and at his death 
the estates passed to Degory, Edmund's third 
brother. Degory erected in 1588 a fine 
monument to his five brothers, Roger, Ed- 
mund, Richard, and the twins, with their 
effigies well modelled and lifelike. Edmund 
appears as an elderly man with a refined and 
thoughtful face. 

Tremayne's ' Discourses on Irish Affairs ' 
remain unprinted among the Cottonian 
manuscripts at the British Museum. 

RICHAED TREMAYNE (d. 1584), younger 
brother of Edmund, was fourth son (the 
younger of twins) of Thomas Tremayne. He 
was sent to Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B. A. in 1547-8, He was elected a 
fellow on 28 March 1553, and proceeded 
M.A. on 17 July. He vacated his fellow- 
ship by flying to Germany in the first year 
of Mary's reign (Ex. Coll. Reg. ed. Boase). 
On his epitaph he is stated to have ' fled for 
the gospel's sake.' He was at Louvain on 
16 Nov. 1555, acting as tutor to Sir Nicholas 
Arnold's son. He was reckoned among the 
conspirators against the queen, and on 4 April 
1556 was declared a traitor with his brother 
Nicholas and others who were concerned in 
Sir Anthony Kingston's plot. Tremayne 
returned to England very soon after Eliza- 
beth's accession, and was favourably regarded 
at court. He was made archdeacon of 
Chichester by Elizabeth on 7 April 1559. 
Cecil had some correspondence (17 July) 
with Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, ambassador 
in France, regarding Tremayne's employment 
in the diplomatic service, ' he having the 
high Dutch tongue very well.' But he stayed 
at home, and was ordained deacon by Grindal, 
bishop of London, on 25 Jan. 1559-60 
(STEYPE). He had been re-elected fellow 
of his college on 17 Oct. 1559, but vacated 

his fellowship by absence the ensuing May. 
He was also presented by the college to the 
vicarage of Menheniot (CAREW), and was 
installed treasurer of Exeter Cathedral on 
10 Feb. 1559-60. For reasons not stated in 
the ' Bishops' Register ' he was deprived of 
his treasurership, but reinstalled on 27 Oct. 
1561, and held the office until his death. 
He became rector of Doddiscombleigh on 
15 Jan. 1560-61, holding the living until 
1564, when he resigned. 

Tremayne was something of a puritan. He 
sat in convocation as proctor for the clergy of 
Exeter, and signed the canons establishing 
the Thirty-nine Articles. On 13 Feb. he 
spoke, and gave his two votes in favour of 
sweeping alterations in the Book of Common 
Prayer. He was elected fellow of Broad- 
gates Hall (afterwards Pembroke College), 
Oxford, on 20 Feb. 1564-5. On 15 Feb. 
1565-6 he took the degree of B.D., proceed- 
ing D.D. on 26 April. He became rector 
of Combe-Martin in 1569, and the Earl of 
Bedford vainly recommended him on 23 July 
1570 to Cecil for the vacant bishopric of 

Tremayne was buried on 30 Nov. 1584 at 
Lamerton, and his will was proved on 15 Dec. 
at Exeter. On 19 Sept. 1569 he married 
Joanna, daughter of Sir Piers Courtenay of 
Ugbrooke. His only child, Mary, married 
Thomas Henslowe. He gave to Exeter Col- 
lege a copy of the polyglot bible in eight 
volumes, printed by Christopher Plantin at 
Antwerp, 1569-72, at the command of 
Philip II. 

[State Papers, Dom., For., and Irish; Carew 
manuscripts ; Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation, 
ed. Pocock ; Strype's Life of Archbishop Grindal, 
Annals of the Reformation, and Ecclesiastical 
Memorials ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments, 1849 ; 
Reg. Univ. Oxon. ; Boase's Reg. Coll. Exon. ; 
Fronde's Hist. ; Prince's Worthies of Devon ; 
Carew's Survey of Cornwall ; Risdon's Devon ; 
Bibl. Cornub. ed. Boase and Courtney; Life 
of Sir Peter Carew, by Sir John Maclean; 
Antiquities of the City of Exeter, 1731, ed. R. 
Isaacke ; Visitations of Devon, edited by Vivian ; 
Burghley Papers, Hist. MSS. Comm. Report.] 

E. L. R. 

JOHN (d. 1694) ; lawyer, eldest son of 
Lewis Tremayne, lieutenant-governor of 
Pendennis Castle, who married Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of John Carew of 
Penwarne in Mevagissey, was born in the 
parish of St. Ewe, Cornwall. He was 
brought up to the study of the law. by 1678 
was a man to be consulted (Fitzherbert 
MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm. 13th Hep. App. 
vi. p. 8), and soon acquired considerable 




practice. His name frequently occurs in 
cases before the House of Lords from 1689 
to 1693 (Lords' MSS. ib. 12th, 13th, and 
14th Reps.) ; he was counsel for the crown 
against Sir Richard Graham, otherwise 
Lord Preston, and others for high treason, 
January 1690-1 (HowELL, State Trials, xii. 
646), was engaged for Sir John Germaine in 
the action brought against that adventurer 
by the Duke of Norfolk for adultery with 
the duchess (ib. xii. 883), and he acted for 
the crown on the trial of Lord Mohun, a 
brother Cornishman, for the murder of 
Mountford the actor, January 1692-3 (ib. 
xii. 950). 

Tremayne was called with others to be 
serjeant-at-law on 1 May 1689, was made 
king's serjeant, and next day took the oaths, 
when he and his colleagues entertained the 
' nobility, judges, Serjeants, and others with 
a dinner at Serjeants' Inn in Fleet Street,' 
London. He was knighted at Whitehall on 
31 Oct. 1689, and in 1690 was returned to 
parliament for the Cornish borough of Tre- 
gony. In June 1692 he was a candidate for 
the recordership of London, but was beaten 
at the poll. It is recorded by Luttrell on 
20 Feb. 1693-4 that Tremayne was dead. 
He died issueless : his brother's descendant 
now lives at Heligan,near Mevagissey (where 
the serjeant rebuilt the family mansion), and 
inherits the ample estates in Cornwall and 
Devon (COURTNEY, Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, 
p. 173). 

His useful volume, 'Placita Coronae, or 
Pleas of the Crown in matters Criminal and 
Civil,' was published in 1723, many years 
after his death, when it had been * digested 
and revised by the late Mr. John Rice of 
Furnival's Inn.' An English translation by 
Thomas Vickers came out in two volumes at 
Dublin in 1793. A collection by Tremayne 
of 'entries, declarations, and pleadings' in 
the reigns of Charles II and James II, num- 
bering in 'all 182 pages, is at the British 
Museum (Lansd. MS. 1142). 

[Woolrych's Serjeants-at-Law, i. 416-19; Le 
Neve's Knights (Harl. Soc.), p. 429 ; Luttrell's 
Hist. Kelation, i. 5'29, 598, ii. 476, iii. 272-3; 
Boaseand Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 777.] 

W. P. C. 

(1510-1580), Hebraist, son of a Jew of 
Ferrara, was born in that city in 1510. Be- 
tween 1530 and 1540 he pursued classical 
studies at the university of Padua, where he 
made the acquaintance of Alexander Far- 
nese, afterwards Paul III. He was con- 
verted to Christianity about 1540 chiefly 
through the persuasions of Cardinal Reginald 
Pole, who stood his godfather. In the fol- 

lowing year, while teacher of Hebrew at the 
monastic school at Lucca, the persuasions 
of the prior, Peter Martyr [see VERMIGLI, 
PIETRO MARTIEE], led him to embrace pro- 
testant opinions. On the publication of the 
papal bull of 21 July 1542 introducing the 
inquisition into Lucca, Tremellius left Italy 
in company with Martyr and proceeded to 
Strassburg, where, at the end of the year, he 
commenced to teach Hebrew in the school 
of Johann Sturm. At a later date he also 
obtained a prebend in Strassburg Cathedral 
(NASMITH, Catalogue of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege MSS. p. 112). The conclusion of the 
war of Schmalkald, disastrous to German 
protestantism, drove Tremellius to seek a 
refuge in England. In November 1547, on 
the invitation of Archbishop Cranmer, he 
and Peter Martyr took up their abode at 
Lambeth Palace. At the end of 1549 he 
succeeded Paul Fagius as ' king's reader of 
Hebrew' at the university of Cambridge, 
and on 24 Oct. 1552 he obtained a prebend 
in the diocese of Carlisle (STKYPE, Eccles. 
Memorials, 1822, n. i. 323, 324, ii. 53 ; cf. 
Lansdowne MS. ii. 70). He lived in much 
friendship with Matthew Parker and Cran- 
mer, and stood godfather to Parker's son 
(STKYPE, Life of Parker, 1821, i. 59). On 
the death of Edward VI he retired from 
England, and, after visiting Strassburg, 
Bern, Lausanne, and Geneva, at the end 
of 1555 he was appointed tutor to the 
young children of Wolfgang, duke of 
Zweibriicken or Deux-Ponts, a post which 
he exchanged on 1 Jan. 1559 for that of 
head of the gymnasium at Hornbach. In 
the following year Wolfgang, who had 
embraced Lutheranism, took umbrage at 
Tremellius's Calvinistic opinions, deprived 
him of his post, and sent him to prison. On 
his release in 1560 he proceeded to Metz, 
and during that and the beginning of the 
next year was employed in negotiations be- 
tween the French and German protestants. 
On 4 March 1561 he was appointed by 
Frederic III, count palatine, himself a Cal- 
vinist, professor of Old Testament studies at 
the university of Heidelberg. After receiv- 
ing the degree of doctor of theology he was 
enrolled a member of the senatus on 9 July. 
About 1565, while the university was closed 
on account of the plague, he paid a visit of 
some duration to England as an envoy of 
the elector, and resided with Parker for 
nearly six months (Cabala sive Scrinia Sacra, 
1591, p. 126 ; Corresp. of Matthew Parker, 
Parker Soc. pp. 332-3). The elector Frederic 
died in 1 576, and his successor, Louis VI, being 
a strong Lutheran, expelled Tremellius from 
Heidelberg, depriving him of his post in the 




university on 5 Dec. 1577. He sought an 
asylum in Metz, and ultimately was em- 
ployed by Henri La Tour d'Auvergne, due 
de Bouillon, to teach Hebrew at his newly 
founded college at Sedan. He died in that 
town on 9 Oct. 1580, his will being dated 
31 July of that year. In October 1554 he 
married a widow named Elizabeth, an in- 
habitant of Metz, by whom he had two 
daughters and a son. 

The great work of Tremellius was the 
translation of the Bible from Hebrew and 
Syriac into Latin, accomplished during his 
residence at Metz. Although his version was 
far from faultless, it evinced very thorough 
scholarship, and for long, both in England 
and on the continent, was adopted by the 
reformers as the most accurate Latin render- 
ing. With some alterations it even received 
the sanction of the universities of Douai and 
Louvain. Tremellius was assisted in his task 
by Franciscus Junius or Du Jon, but the 
latter's share in the work was limited to 
translating the Apocrypha. In 1569 Tre- 
mellius published a folio edition of the New 
Testament at Geneva, containing the Syriac 
text and a Latin translation in parallel 
columns. This was followed between 1575 
and 1579 by the issue at Frankfurt of a Latin 
translation of the Old Testament and the 
Apocrypha in five parts. They were re- 
printed in quarto at London in 1579-80 with 
the Latin rendering of the New Testament 
of 1569 as a sixth part. Numerous later 
editions appeared both in London and abroad. 
In London the Old Testament and Apo- 
crypha were published in quarto in 1581 
and in 1585 with Beza's version of the New 
Testament. A folio edition followed in 
1592-3 and a duodecimo in 1640. In 1585 
a quarto edition of the New Testament was 
issued containing the translations of Tre- 
mellius and Beza in parallel columns. A. 
separate edition of the Psalms was printed in 
1580, 16mo. 

Besides his translation of the Bible, Tre- 
mellius published : 1. ' Catechismus He- 
braice et Greece,' Paris, 1551, 8vo : a trans- 
lation into Hebrew of Calvin's Catechism ; 
this was reissued as 'Liber Institutionis 
Electorum Domini,' Paris, 1554, 8vo; and 
an edition was published at Leyden with 
the further title ' Catechesis sive Prima In- 
stitutio autRudimenta Religionis Christianas 
Hebr. Graece etLatine explicata,' 1591, 8vo. 

2. ' In Hoseam prophetam Interpretatio et 
Enarratio I. Tremellii,' Heidelberg, 1563, 4to. 

3. 'Grammatica Chaldsea et Syra,' Paris, 
1569 ; published both separately in octavo 
and with his New Testament in folio, and 
dedicated to Parker. On account of the 

dedication his name was included in the 
* Index Expurgatorius.' 4. < Immanuelis Tre- 
mellii Specularius,' Neustadt-an-der-Hart, 
1581, 4to. He also edited Bucer's ' Com- 
mentaria in Ephesios ' (Basle, 1562, fol.), and 
wrote a Hebrew letter prefixed to the ' Rudi- 
menta Hebraicae Linguae ' of Anthony Ro- 
dolph Chevallier [q. v.], Geneva, 1567, 4to. 
A manuscript copy of Tremellius's ' Epistolse 
D. Pauli ad Galatas et ad Ephesios ex 
Syriaca lingua in Latinam converses ' is pre- 
served at Caius College, Cambridge. 

[Becker's Immanuel Tremellius, 1890 (Berlin 
Institutum Judaicum, Schriften No. 8); F. But- 
ters's E. Tremellius, eine Lebenskizze, 1868; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 425-7 ; Tiraboschi's 
Storia della Letteratura Italiana, 1824, vii. 1583- 
1584; Adamus's Vitae Theol. Exterorum prin- 
cipum, 1618, p. 142; Tanner's Bibliotheca 
Britannico-Hibernica; Gerdes's Specimen Italise 
Reformats, 1765, pp. 341-3; Fuller's Abel Ke- 
devivus, ed. Nichols, 1867, ii. 45-6 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq., ed. Herbert, pp. 1058, '1059, 
1071 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iv. 22 ; Corresp. of 
Matthew Parker (Parker Soc.), p. 332; Junius's 
Opera Theol. 1593, ii. 1789-1806; Nouvelle 
Biogr. Grenerale, 1856; Historia Bibliothecae 
Fabricianse, 1719, iii. 323-34; Saxes Onomasti- 
con Literarium, 1780, iii. 326; Freher's Theatrum 
Virorum Eruditions Clarorum, i. 248; Blount's 
Censuracelebriorum Authorum, 1710,pp. 723-5; 
Niceron's Memoires pour servir a 1'Histoire des 
Hommes illustres, 1739, xl. 102-7.] E. I. C. 

MOUR (1804-1893), publicist and author, 
was born at Wootton House, Gloucester- 
shire, on 22 Jan. 1804. 

His father, WALTER TREMENHEEKE (1761- 
1855), colonel, a member of a very ancient 
Cornish family, was born at Penzance on 
10 Sept. 1761, and, entering the royal marines 
as second lieutenant in 1799, was present in 
the action off the Doggerbank on 5 Aug. 
1781 and at the capture of Martinique and 
Guadeloupe in 1794-5. He attained the 
rank of captain in 1796, and served as lieu- 
tenant-governor of the island of Curacoa 
from 1800 to 1802. He was in the action off 
Brest in 1805, from 1831 to 1837 was colonel 
commandant of the Chatham division of the 
marines, and served as aide-de-camp to 
William IV from 28 Dec. 1830 to some time 
in the following year. On 18 June 1832 he 
was gazetted a knight of Hanover. Some 
of the views in Polwhele's ' History of Corn- 
wall ' were engraved from his drawings. He 
died at 33 Somerset Street, Portman Square, 
London, on 7 Aug. 1855, having married in 
1802 Frances, third daughter of Thomas 
Apperley (BoASE and COURTNEY, BibL Cornub. 
1878, ii. 783). His fifth son, Charles Wil- 
liam Tremenheere (1813-1898), lieutenant- 




general, royal (late Bombay) engineers, 
served with distinction during the Indian 
mutiny ; was made C.B. in 1861, and retired 
on major-general's full pay in 1874 (Times, 
3 Nov. 1898). 

The eldest son, Hugh Seymour, was edu- 
cated at Winchester school from 1816, and 
matriculated as a scholar from New College, 
Oxford, on 30 Jan. 1824. He was a fellow 
of his college from 1824 to 1856, graduated 
B.A. 1827 and M.A. 1832, and was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple on 21 Nov. 
1834. After three years' practice he was 
made a revising barrister on the western 
circuit. Shortly afterwards he entered the 
public service, and was sent in 1839 to 
Newport to investigate the circumstances 
connected with John Frost's rebellion. He 
subsequently served on numerous royal com- 
missions, and was instrumental in bringing 
about fourteen acts of parliament, all having 
for their object the amelioration of the con- 
dition of the working classes. 

In January 1840 he was appointed an in- 
spector of schools and made nine reports to 
the committee of the council on education 
on the state of schools in England and Wales. 
In October 1842 he became an assistant poor- 
law commissioner, and in 1843 a commis- 
sioner for inquiring into the state of the 
population in the mining districts, on which 
he made fifteen reports between 1844 and 
1858. In 1855 and 1861 he made inquiries 
into the management of bleaching works and 
lace manufactories. Appointed one of the 
commissioners in 1861 for inquiring into the 
employment of children and young persons 
in trades and manufactures, he joined in 
making six exhaustive reports on this subject 
between 1863 and 1867. As one of the 
commissioners on the employment of young 
persons and women in agriculture, he took 
part in furnishing four reports to parliament 
between 1867 and 1870. He likewise re- 
ported on the grievances complained of by 
the journeymen bakers, on the operations of 
the bakehouse regulations, and on the tithe 
commutation acts. On his retirement on 
1 March 1871, after thirty-one years' public 
service, he was made a C.B. on 8 Aug. 

He succeeded his uncle, Henry Pendarves 
Tremenheere, in 1841 in the property of 
Tremenheere and Tolver, near Penzance. 
For three years, 1869-71, he was president 
of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 
He died at 43 Thurloe Square, London, on 
16 Sept. 1893. 

He married, on 2 April 1856, Lucy, third 
daughter of Ralph Bernal, M.P., and widow 
of Vicesimus Knox. She died on 7 Oct. 
1872, leaving two daughters, Florence Lucy 

Bernal who married Ernest Edward Leigh 
Bennett, and Evelyn Westfaling who married 
George Marcus Parker, barrister of the Inner 

Tremenheere was the author of : 1. ' Ob- 
servations on the proposed Breakwater in 
Mount's Bay and on its Connection with a 
Railway into Cornwall,' 1839. 2. * Notes on 
Public Subjects made during a Tour in the 
United States and in Canada,' 1852. 3. ( The 
Political Experience of the Ancients, in its 
bearing 1852, republished 
as ( A. Manual of the Principles of Govern- 
ment,' 1882 and 1883. 4. 'The Constitu- 
tion of the United States compared with 
our own,' 1854. 5. ' Translations from 
Pindar into English Blank Verse,' 1866. 

6. ' A New Lesson from the Old World : 
a summary of Aristotle's lately discovered 
work on the Constitution of Athens,' 1891. 

7. ' How Good Government grew up, and 
how to preserve it,' 1893. 

[Tremenheere's Memorials of my Life, 1885 ; 
Times, 1 9 Sept. 1 893 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. 1878-1882, pp. 781-3, 1351; Boase's 
Collect. Cornub. 1890, cols. 1058, 1060.1 

G. C. B. 

(1805-1886), divine and author, born in 1805, 
was the eldest son of Richard Trench (1774- 
1860), barrister-at-law, by his wife Mele- 
sina Trench [q.v.] Richard Chenevix Trench 
[q. v.] was his younger brother. 

Francis entered Harrow school early in 
1818, and matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 12 Nov. 1824, graduating B.A. in 
1834 and M.A. in 1859. On 4 June 1829 he 
entered Lincoln's Inn with the intention of 
studying law, but in 1834 he was ordained 
deacon and became curate of St. Giles, Read- 
ing. In the following year he was ordained 
priest, and on 13 Sept. 1837 he was appointed 
perpetual curate of St. John's, Reading. In 
1857 he was instituted to the rectory of 
Islip, Oxfordshire, which he held till 1875, 
when he retired from active work. He died 
in London on 3 April 1886. On 6 Dec. 1837 
he married Mary Caroline (d. 1886), daugh- 
ter of William Marsh [q.v.], honorary canon 
of Worcester. By her he had a son, Richard 
William Francis (1849-1860), and two 
daughters, Mary Melesina and Maria Marcia 

Trench's chief works were : 1. ' Remarks on 
the Advantages of Loan Funds for the Poor 
and Industrious,' London, 1833, 8vo. 2. l Ser- 
mons preached at Reading/ London, 1843, 
8vo. 3. 'Diary of Travels in France and 
Spain,' London, 1845, 12mo. 4. ' Scotland : 
its Faith and its Features,' London, 1846, 
12mo. 5. 'A Walk round Mont Blanc/ 




London, 1847, 12mo. 6. 'The Portrait of 
Charity,' London, 1847, IGmo. 7. ' The Life 
and Character of St. John the Evangelist,' 
London, 1850, 8vo. 8. ' G, Adey : his Life 
and Diary/ London, 1851, 8vo. 9. ( A Ride 
hi Sicily,' London, 1851, 12mo. 10. * Theo- 
logical Works,' London, 1857, 8vo. 11. A 
few Notes from Past Life,' Oxford, 1862, 
8vo. He also issued in 1869 and 1870 a 
series of miscellaneous papers, entitled 
' Islipiana.' He was a contributor to ' Mac- 
millan's Magazine ' and to ' Notes and 

[Trench's Works ; Men of the Time, 1884 ; 
Times, 2 April 1886 ; Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. i. 340; Welch's Harrow School Kegister, 
p. 51; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Re- 
cords of Lincoln's Inn, 1896, ii. 133; Letters 
and Memorials of Richard Chenevix Trench 
[q. v.] ; Burke' s Peerage, s.v. ' Ashtown.'] 

E. I. C. 

LIAM (1775-1859), general, born in 1775, 
was the only son of Frederick Trench of 
Heywood, Ballinakill, Queen's County. 
Richard Le Poer Trench, second earl of 
Clancarty [q. v.], was a distant relative. 
He obtained a commission as ensign and 
lieutenant in the 1st foot-guards on 12 Nov. 
1803, and became lieutenant and captain on 
12 Nov. 1807. He was employed on the 
quartermaster-general's staff in Sicily in 
1807, and in the Walcheren expedition in 
1809. He went to Cadiz with his company 
in June 1811 ; but on 1 Aug. he was ap- 
pointed assistant quartermaster-general, with 
the rank of major, in the Kent district, and 
returned to England. On 25 Nov. 1813 he 
was made deputy quartermaster-general, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, to the 
corps sent to Holland under Graham [see 
1814 he was placed on half-pay; and on 
27 May 1825 he was appointed aide-de-camp 
to the king, with the rank of colonel. He 
was storekeeper of the ordnance under the 
Wellington administration (1828-30). 

He sat in parliament nearly continuously 
for forty years, viz. for St. Michael, 1807- 
1812; Dundalk, 1812-18; Cambridge, 1819- 
1832; Scarborough, 1835-47. He was a 
conservative, but followed Peel in regard to 
the corn laws. A man of energy and of 
large ideas, he worked out (in conjunction 
with the Duke and Duchess of Rutland) 
several schemes for the embellishment of 
London. Of these the most important was 
the Thames Embankment from Charing 
Cross to Blackfriars. On 17 July 1824 a 
meeting was held, with the Duke of York 
in the chair, at which Trench explained his 

plans. It was estimated that the work 
might be done for less than half a million, 
and that it would yield an income of 5 per 
cent, on the expenditure. A committee of 
management was formed, and applications 
for shares were invited. On 15 March 1825 
he obtained leave to bring in a bill to give 
the necessary powers. But the scheme met 
with strong opposition and slack support, 
and the bill was dropped. In 1827 he pub- 
lished ' A Collection of Papers relating to 
the Thames Quay, with Hints for some 
further Improvements.' In 1841 he returned 
to the subject in a public letter to Lord 
Duncannon, first commissioner of woods and 
forests. An overhead railway was now 
added to the scheme, and the quay was to 
be extended to London Bridge. But it was 
not till nearly five years after his death that 
the first stone of the Embankment was laid 
(8 July 1864). 

Another project, which met with more 
immediate success but deserved it less, was 
for the colossal statue of Wellington placed 
on the arch opposite Hyde Park Corner. 
Trench took an active part in the promotion 
of it, and in the selection of Matthew Cotes 
Wyatt [q. v.] as sculptor. Wellington told 
Greville that it was ' the damnedest job from 
the beginning' (Journals, 29 June 1838), 
but once up he was unwilling that it should 
come down, and it remained there till 1883. 

Trench was secretary to the master-gene- 
ral of ordnance from 1842 to 1846. He 
was made K.C.H. in 1832. He was promoted 
major-general on 10 Jan. 1837, lieutenant- 
general on 9 Nov. 1846, and general on 
25 June 1854. He died at Brighton on 
6 Dec. 1859. 

[Gent. Mag. 1860, i. 195; Dod's Parliamen- 
tary Companion ; Royal Military Calendar; 
Croker Papers.] E. M. L. 

TRENCH, MELESINA (1768-1827), 
authoress, was the daughter of Philip Chene- 
vix, by his wife Mary Elizabeth, daughter 
of Archdeacon Gervais, and granddaughter 
of Richard Chenevix [q. v.], bishop of Water- 
ford, who owed his see to the cordial liking 
of the famous Lord Chesterfield, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland from 1745 to 1746. Born 
in Dublin on 22 March 1768, Melesina was 
brought up after the death of her parents by 
her grandfather, Bishop Chevenix, and her 
kinswoman, Lady Lifford, and after the death 
of the bishop in 1779 she went to live with 
her maternal grandfather, Archdeacon Ger- 
vais, through whose library she rambled at 
large, and, with precocious taste and intel- 
ligence, selected as her favourites Shake- 
speare, Moliere, and Sterne. She developed 




great personal beauty, and on 31 Oct. 1786 
she married Colonel Richard St. George of 
Carrick-on-Shannon and Hatley Manor, co. 
Leitrim, whose deathbed she attended in 
Portugal only two years after the marriage. 
For ten years she lived in great seclusion with 
her child, and it is not until 1798 that her 
deeply interesting journal commences. Dur- 
ing 1799 and 1800 she travelled in Germany, 
mixing in the very best society, and noting 
many items of historical interest. From Ber- 
lin and Dresden she proceeded to Vienna, of 
the society of which place she relates some 
curious anecdotes. At Dresden, on her return 
journey, she met Nelson and Lady Hamilton, 
of whose lack of refinement some unpleasant 
instances are afforded. * One is sorry for the 
account of Nelson, but one cannot doubt it' 
(FITZGERALD, Letters-, cf. MAHAN", Life of 
Nelson, i. 380, ii. 43-5). She also met while 
in Germany Rivarol, Lucien Bonaparte, and 
John Quincy Adams, the sixth president 
of the United States (an account of this 
'Tour' was privately issued by her son Ri- 
chard in 1861 ; it was then incorporated in 
the ' Remains' of 1862). In July 1802, aft