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J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 
P. J. A ... P. J. ANDERSON. 
W. A. J. A. W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 





G. C. B. . . THE LATE G. C. BOASE. 
G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 


A. A. B. . . A. A. BRODRIBB. 

T. B. B. . . T. B. BROWNING. 

E. I. C. . . . E. IRVING CARLYLE. 


R. C. C. . . R. C. CHRISTIE. 


A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

A. M. C-E. . Miss A. M. COOKE. 


W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 





J. A. D. . . JOHN A. DOYLE. 

F. G. E. . 
C. L. F. . 
J. F-N. . . 

C. H. F. . 
J. L. F. . 
E. F. . . . 
W. H. F.. 

S. R. G. . 
R. G. . . . 
A. G. . . . 
J. A. H. . 
C. A. H. . 
P. J. H. . 
T. F. H. . 
J. A. H-T. 
R. H. 

T. E. H. 

W. H.. . 
J. K. . . 
J. K. L. 
T. G. L. 
I. S. L. . 
E. L. . 
S. L. . 




. C. H. FIRTH. 




. S. R. GARDINER, D.C.L., LL.D. 





. P. J. HARTOG. 





. T. G. LAW. 
. I. S. LEADAM. 


List of Writers. 

E. M. L. . 
J. E. L. . 
J. H. L. . 
W. D. M. 

E. C. M. . 
D. S. M. . 
H. E. M. . 

L. M. M. . 
A. H. M.. 

C. M. . . . 

N. M 

J. B. M. . 
A. N. . . . 
G. LE G. N 
K. N. . . . , 

D. J. O'D. , 
F. M. O'D. . 
H. W. P. . , 

A. F. P. . . 

B. P 

F. Y. P. . . 
D'A. P. . . . 

E. L. E. . . 
W. E. R. . 


. J. E. LLOYD. 





. A. H. MILLAR. 



J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 
H. J. R. . . H. J. ROBINSON. 
J. H. R. . . J. H. ROUND. 


C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 



C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 






M. M. V. . . LADY VERNEY. 

R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E., 

R. A. W. . . ROBERT A. WARD. 



R. M. W.. . R. M. WENLEY. 

W. R. W. . W. R. WILLIAMS. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 







1600 ?), illuminator and scholar, born in 
Tuscany about 1524, was of the ancient Flo- 
rentine family Degli Ubaldini which gave a 
cardinal to the Ghibellines (cf. DANTE, In- 
ferno, x. 120), and an adherent, Fra Roberto 
Ubaldini da Gagliana, to Savonarola ( Giorn. 
Stor. degli Arch. Tosc. ii. 211). A thorough 
examination of the Laurentian manuscripts 
made for the purpose of this article by the 
chief librarian of the Mediceo-Laurentian 
Library has failed to remove the obscurity 
which rests on Ubaldini's parentage, nor is 
anything to be gathered from Giovamba- 
tista Ubaldini's ' Istoria della Casa degli 
Ubaldini/ Florence, 1588, 4to. He came to 
England in 1545, entered the service of the 
crown, and was employed on the continent j 
in some capacity which carried him back to 
his native land. He returned to England 
in the reign of Edward VI, and saw service 
in the Scottish war under Sir James Crofts, 
governor of Haddington (1549). The results 
of his experience of English manners, customs, 
and institutions he recorded in 1551, pro- 
bably for the behoof of the Venetian Signory, 
in a ' Relatione delle cose del Regno d' In- 
ghilterra,' now among the Foscarini MSS. 
(cod. 184, No. 6626c. 336-466) in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna. Some idea of its contents 
may be gained from Von Raumer's ' Briefe 
aus Paris zur Erlauterung der Geschichte 
des sechzehnten und siebzehnten Jahrhun- 
derts' (Leipzig, 1831, ii. 66 et seq. Von 
Raumer drew his materials from a transcript 
of the ' Relatione' preserved among the St. 
Germain des Pres MSS. vol. 740, in the 
Bibliotheque Royale Nationale. Other tran- 
scripts are Bodl. MS. 880, and Addit. MS. 
10169, ff. 1-125). 

In the Mediceo-Laurentian Library is pre- 


served (Plut. Ixxvi. cod. Ixxviii.) an anno- 
tated Italian version of the mV| of Cebes, 
completed by Ubaldini in September 1552, 
and dedicated to Cosimo I, grand duke of 
Tuscany. Ubaldini was then resident at. 
Venice, and it was not until ten years later 
that he settled in England, where he found 
a Maecenas in Henry Fitzalan, twelfth earl 
of Arundel [q. v.] Arundel presented him 
at court, where he speedily obtained other 
patrons. He taught Italian, transcribed and 
illuminated manuscripts, rhymed, and wrote 
or translated into Italian historical and other 
tracts. He also pretended to some skill in 
physic (see his letter to Sir William Cecil, 
dated 22 Nov. 1569, in Lansdowne MS. 11, 
art. 48, f. 111). His various accomplishments, 
however, yielded but a scanty subsistence, 
and on 20 May 1574 he craved Burghley's 
interest with the queen to procure him l a 
forfeiture of a hundred marks' to relieve 
his embarrassment (ib. 18, art. 82, f. 178). In 
1578-9, though in receipt of a pension, he 
was saved from arrest for debt only by the 
intervention of the privy council, and was 
compelled to compound with his creditors 
(Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, x. 
403, xi. 415). In 1586 he was resident in 
Shoreditch (Lansdowne MS. 143, art. 89, 
f. 349). On two occasions he appears in 
the list of those who exchanged new year's 
gifts with the queen once in 1578-9, as 
the donor of an illustrated ' Life and Meta- 
morphoses of Ovid,' and the recipient of a 
pair of gilt-plate spoons, weighing five and a 
quarter ounces ; and again in 1588-9, when 
'a book covered with vellum of Italian' 
elicited from Elizabeth five and a half ounces 
of gilt plate (NICHOLS, Progr. of Elizabeth, 
ii. 263, 272, iii. 24, 25). That in 1580 he 
visited Ireland may perhaps be inferred from 



the fact that he compiled an account (since 
lost) of the repulse of the Spanish-Italian in- 
vasion of Kerry in the autumn of that year. 
In 1581 appeared his ' Vita di Carlo Magno 
Imperadore,' London, 4to (later edit.), 1599, 
a work interesting to bibliophiles as the first 
Italian book printed in England. He appears 
to have left England in the autumn his 
passport is dated 31 Oct. or winter of 1586, 
and resided for a time in the Low Countries 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1586, p. 365). At 
any rate, it was at Antwerp that in 1588 
appeared his ' Descrittione del Regno di Scotia 
etdellelsole sue Adjacenti' (fol.), dedicated 
to Sir Christopher Hatton, the Earl of Lei- 
cester, and Sir Francis Walsingham ; it is a 
free translation of Hector Boece's Chronicle, 
a transcript of which, made by him in 1550 
and dedicated to Lord Arundel in 1576, is in 
the British Museum, Royal MS. 13 A. viii. 
The manuscript of the ' Descrittione ' is in 
the library of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
cod. ccxlvi. A handsome reprint appeared 
at Edinburgh (Bannatyne Club) in 1829, 4to. 
Ubaldini rendered into Italian in 1588 the 
narrative of the defeat of the Spanish Ar- 
mada compiled for Lord Howard of Effing- 
ham, and added in the following year an 
original memoir in the manner of Sallust on 
the same subject, inspired by Drake and dedi- 
cated to Sir Christopher Hatton. The manu- 
scripts of these works, entitled respectively 
'Commentario del successo dell' Armata 
Spagnola nell' assalir 1'Inghilterra 1'anno 
1588,' and 'Commentario della Impresafatta 
contra il regno d' Inghilterra dal lie Catholico 
T anno 1588,' are in the British Museum, 
Eoyal MS. 14 A. x-xi. A free translation of 
the former, entitled ' A Discourse concerning 
the Spanish Fleet/ was made by Augustine 
Ryther [q. v.], and formed the basis of Cam- 
den's narrative; it was reprinted in 1740, 
8vo. The English original, preserved in 
Cottonian MS. Jul. F. x. ff. 111-17, has been 
recently edited by Professor Laughton in 
' State Papers relating to the Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada' (NavyRec. Soc. i. 1-18). 

In 1591 appeared, with a dedication to the 
queen, to whom the manuscript had been pre- 
sented in 1576, Ubaldini's Vite delle Donne 

llustn del Regno d' Inghilterra et del Regno 
di bcotia (London, 4to, '2nd edit. 1601 ; cf 
WALPOLE, Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num, i. 169, and Macray's article on foreign 
authors dedications in BibKograpkica. 1897) 
In a small volume entitled ' Parte Prima delle 
brevi Dimostrationi et Precetti Utilissimi 
nei quah si trattano diversi propositi morali 
politic! et iconomici,' 1592, 4to, Ubaldini 
attempted the role of the sententious phi- 
losopher. In 1594 he laid before the queen 

a brief memoir on methods of taxation, which 
she graciously received and encouraged him 
to develop. It remains in Lansdowne MS. 
98, art. 22. The same year appeared his 
' Stato delle Tre Corti. Altrimenti : Rela- 
tioni di alcune Qualita Politiche con le loro 
dipendenze considerabili appresso di quei che 
dei governi delli stati si dilettano, ritrovate 
nelli stati della Corte Romana, nel Regno 
di Napoli, et nelli stati del Gran Duca di 
Thoscana ; cagioni secondolanaturadi quelle 
genti sicurissime della ferrnezza di quei 
governi,' 4to. ' Scelta di alcune Attioni et 
di varii Accidenti occorsi tra alcune Na- 
tioni Different! del Mondo; ca\ati della 
Selva dei casi diversi,' 1595, 4to (a mere 
scrap-book), and * Militia del Gran Duca di 
Thoscana. Capitoli, ordini, et privilegii della 
Militia et Bande di sua Altezza Serenissima 
prima cosi ordinati dalla buona et felice 
memoria di Cosimo Primo Gran Duca di 
Thoscana ; et di poi corroborati da i successor! 
suoi figliuoli,' 1597, 4to (a description of 
the military system of Tuscany) complete 
the tale of Ubaldini's prose works. 

His ' Rime,' printed in 1596, 4to, evince 
a mastery of the technique of the sonnet and 
the canzone, but they possess no great ori- 
ginality, and are by no means free from con- 
ceits. Two of Ubaldini's letters are preserved 
in the Advocates' Library (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
2nd Rep. App. p. 124) ; two others are in the 
Archivio Mediceo, 4185, at Florence. 

The date of Ubaldini's death is uncertain. 
By his wife, Anne Lawrence (m. 21 Jan. 
1565-6), he appears to have left issue a son 
Lodovico, who signed himself Lodovico Pe- 
trucci (Royal MS. 14 A. vii.), but must ap- 
parently be distinguished from Ludovico 
Petrucci [q.v.] 

A few specimens of Ubaldini's skill in 
illumination and caligraphy are preserved 


dell' eleggere et coronare in Imperadori' 
(dedicated, with two prefatory sonnets, to 
the queen) ; 17 A. xxiii. (mottoes from the 
gallery at Gorhauibury, a chef d'oeuvre given 
by Sir Nicholas Bacon to Lady Lumley) ; 
2 B. ix. (Psalter from the Vulgate dedicated 
to the Earl of Arundel in 1565) ; on paper 
14 A. xvi. ' Un Libro d'Essemplari scritto 
1' anno 1550 ' (fragments of correspondence 
and other scraps) ; 14 A. xix. 'LeVite et i 
Fatti di sei Donne Illustri,' dedicated to the 
queen in 1577 (a distinct work from the ' Vite 
delle Donne Illustre' printed in 1591) ; 17 A. 
xxiv. (sentences, chiefly metaphysical and 
moral, collected from various authors for the 
use of Edward VI). Stowe MS. 30, a poly- 



glot and polychrome vellum prayer-book pre- 
sented to the queen in 1578, may also be by 
[Jbaldini's hand, as certainly is a partially 
illuminated Latin prayer-book presented to 
her in 1580, now in the Huth Library 
(Cat. v. 1). 

[Ubaldini's works ; Baretti's Italian Library, 
p. 186; Fontanini'sBiblioteca, ed.ApostoloZeno, 
1804, ii. 289 ; Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. 
"Wornum, i. 169 ; Biogr. Unir. ; Bradley's Diet. 
of Miniaturists ; Italian Kelation of England 
(Camden Soc.),Introd.; Addit. MS. 24192, p. 70; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser.x. 28, 144 ; Athenaeum, 
17 April 1897. See also Eeg. St. Mich. Cornhill 
(Harl. Soc.) and St. Mich. Cornhill Marr. Lie. 
1520 (Harl. Soc.); Archiv. Stor. Ital. v. 381; 
Zouch's Life of Sidney, p. 332 ; Dugdale's Antiq. 
Warwickshire, ed. Thomas, i. 523 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, pp. 1 1 7 1 , 1 1 86, 1 805 ; 
Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. in Coll. Aulisque Oxon. 
ii. 102; Bandini, Cat. Cod. Lat. (Ital.) Bibl. 
Mediceae Laurent, v. 303.] J. M. R. 


UCHTRYD (the Welsh form of Uhtred) 
(d. 1148), bishop of Llandaff, was arch- 
deacon of Llandaff in the time of Bishop 
Urban (1107-1153), and in that character 
attests the agreement drawn up in 1126 be- 
tween the bishop and Earl Robert of Glouces- 
ter (Liber Landavensis, ed. 1893, p. 29). In 
1131 he was one of Urban's envoys in the 
matter of the dispute with the sees of 
Hereford and St. David's (ib. pp. 60, 64). 
He was clearly a Welshman (the name is 
not uncommon at this period), and pro- 
bably married, since ' Brut y Ty wysogion ' 
(Oxford 23 ruts, p. 328) mentions a daughter 
Angharad, who became the wife of lorwerth 
ab Owain, of the Welsh line of Caerllion. 
Upon Urban's death in 1134 lie was elected 
to the see of Llandaff, and in 1140 was con- 
secrated by Archbishop Theobald [q.v.] (Con- 
tinuator O/FLOK. WIG.) He did not continue 
the barren litigation as to the boundaries 
and privileges of the see which occupied so 
much of Urban's episcopate, and appears 
only in minor controversies with the priory 
of Goldcliff (HADDAN and STUBBS, Councils, 
i. 346-7) and the abbey of St. Peter's, 
Gloucester (Historia et Cartularium Sanct\ 
Petri, ed. Hart, ii. 14). He died in 1148 
a date given by the ' Annals of Tewkes- 
"bury,' and to be inferred from the notices in 
the ' Bruts ' and ' Amiales Cambriae.' Ac- 
cording to the Gwentian ' Brut ' (Myvyrian 
Archaiology, 2nd ed. p. 711), the famous 
Geoffrey of Monmouth [q. v.] was Uchtryd's 
nephew and adopted son, and Mr. Gwenog- 
fryn Evans believes (preface to edition o 
1893) that the ' Liber Landavensis ' in its 
original form was compiled by Geoffrey a' 

^landaff under his uncle's patronage. That 
Jchtryd had a nephew called Geoffrey is 
hown by the occurrence of ' Galfrido sacer- 
dote nepote episcopi ' among the witnesses 

a charter of his dated 1146 (Cartulary 
f St. Peter's, Gloucester, ii. 55), but the 

uthor of the 'History of the Kings of 
Britain ' is not supposed to have been or- 
lained priest until 1152 (HADDAN and 
STUBBS, Councils, i. 360). The chapter of 
St. David's, in a letter to Eugenius III of 
ibout 1145, accuse Uchtryd of illiteracy and 
mmorality ; it is possible, however, that the 
locument, the knowledge of which is due to 
he zeal of Giraldus Cambrensis on behalf of 
he claims of St. David's, may be spurious 
GIK. CAMBK., Works, iii. 56-8, 187-8). 

[Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Eeclesias- 
ical Documents; Annales Cambrise.] J. E. L. 

UDALL. [See also UVEDALE.] 

UDALL, EPHRAIM (d. 1647), royalist 
divine, wasson of John Udall [q.v.J (STKTPE, 
Life of Whitgift, p. 345, folio). He was 
admitted a pensioner of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, in July 1606, proceeded B.A. 
n 1609, and commenced M.A. in 1614. 
On 20 Sept. 1615 he was appointed perpetual 
curate of Teddington (HENNESSY, p. 426). 
On 27 Nov. 1634 he was presented to the 
rectory of St. Augustine's, Watling Street, 
London. For a long time he was regarded 
as one of the shining lights of the puritan 
party, but after the breaking out of the 
^reat rebellion in 1641 he declared himself 
to be in favour of episcopacy and the esta- 
blished liturgy. He was, in consequence of 
this, charged with being popishly affected, 
and the Long parliament, on 29 June 1643, 
made an order that he should be ejected 
from his rectory, and that the rents and 
profits should be sequestered for Francis 
Roberts [q.v.], a 'godly, learned, and ortho- 
dox divine ' (Commons' Journals, iii. 148). 
His house was plundered and his books and 
furniture were taken away. Afterwards his 
enemies sought to commit him to prison, and 
they carried his aged and decrepit wife out of 
doors by force and left her in the open street 
(RYVES, Mercurius Eusticus, 1646, pp. 131- 
133). Udall, who is described by Wood as 

1 a man of eminent piety, exemplary conver- 
sation, profound learning, and indefatigable 
industry,' died in London on 24 May 1647 
(SMITH^ Obituary, ed. Ellis, p. 24). Thomas 
Reeve (1594-1672) [q.v.] preached his funeral 
sermon, which was published under the title 
of ' Lazarus his Rest' (London, 1647, 4to). 

Udall was the author of: 1. ' To TrpeTtov 
fvxapurTKov, i.e. Communion Comlinesse. 
Wherein is discovered the conveniency of 




the peoples drawing neere to the Table in 
the sight thereof when they receive the 
Lords Supper. With the great unfitnesse 
of receiving it in Pewes in London for the 
Novelty of high and close Pewes/ London, 
1641, 4to. 2. <Good Workes, if they be 
well handled, or Certaine Projects about 
Maintenance for Parochiall Ministers' 
(anon.), London, 1641, 4to. 3. 'Noli me 
Tangere is a thinge to be thovght on, or Vox 
carnis sacree clamantis ab Altari ad Aquilam 
sacrilegam, Noli me tangere ne te perdam ' 
(anon.), London, 1642, 4to. 4. ' The Good 
of Peace and 111 of Warre,' London, 1642, 
4to. 5. ' Directions Propovnded, and humbly 
presented to ... Parliament, concerning 
the Booke of Common Prayer, and Episco- 
pall Government ' (anon.), Oxford, 1642, 4to. 
This was also published under the title of 
' The Bishop of Armaghes Direction, concern- 
ing the Lyturgy, and Episcopall Govern- 
ment,' London, 1642, 4to. The treatise was 
disavowed by Ussher, and the authorship is 
correctly attributed to Udall. 

[Addit. MSS. 5851 p. 40, 5884 f. 15 ; Fuller's 
Church Hist. (Brewer), v. 198; Heylyn's Hist, 
of the Presbyterians, 1670, p. 311 ; Newcourt's 
Keportorium, i. 288; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, 
vol. ii. lib. xiv. p. 21 ; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, ii. 179 ; White's First Century of Scan- 
dalous Malignant Priests, 1643, p. 9 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 458; Henness/s Nov. Kep. 
1898, pp. Ixv, 98, 426.] T. C. 

UDALL or UVEDALE, JOHN (1560 ?- 
1592), puritan, has been identified with the 
fourth and youngest son of Sir William 
Uvedale [q. v.] of More Crichel (HUTCHINS, 
Dorset, 1868, iii. 147). But as the reputed 
father died in 1542, probably some eighteen 
years before the son's birth, the alleged rela- 
tionship must be rejected. John Udall was 
doubtless akin to the Uvedale families of 
Wickham in Hampshire and of More Crichel, 
but the precise degree is undetermined (cf. 
Surrey Archeeological Collections, iii. 63 seq.) 
He matriculated as a sizar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, on 15 March 1577-8, but soon 
afterwards migrated to Trinity College, and 
graduated B. A. in 1580-1, and M.A. in 1584. 
He was a zealous reader of theology, and 
developed a strong tendency to puritanism, 
which was encouraged by his intimacy, while 
both were undergraduates, with John Penry 
[q.v.] Udall also obtained at the university 
a competent knowledge of Hebrew. 

Udall has been wrongly identified with 
John Uvedale, a trusted member of Sir 
Philip Sidney's household, who was with 
Sidney in October 1586 at Arnhem during 
his fatal illness, and witnessed Sidney's will. 
Uvedale received under its provisions 500/. 

in consideration of his long and very faith- 
ful service,' and of his voluntary surrender 
of ' Ford Place,' which Sidney had presented 
to him (COLLINS, Sydney Papers, i. Ill, 112). 
Before 1584 Udall took holy orders and 
was presented to the living of Kingston-upon- 
Thames. He was soon known in the neigh- 
bourhood as a convinced puritan who had 
stern suspicion of the scriptural justification 
of episcopacy. He preached with eloquence, 
and no fewer than three volumes of sermons 
delivered by him at Kingston were pub- 
lished in 1584. The first volume, called 
'Amendment of Life' (in three sermons), 
was dedicated to Charles, lord Howard of 
Effingham ; the second volume was entitled 
' Obedience to the Gospell' (two sermons); 
and the third was entitled ' Peter's Fall : 
two Sermons upon the Historic of Peter's 
denying Christ,' London, 8vo, 1584. A 
fourth collection of five sermons * preached 
in the time of the dearth in 1586 'was called 
' The true Remedie against Famine and 
Warres ' (London, 1586, 12mo). This was 
dedicated to Ambrose Dudley, earl of War- 
wick, who was a well-known protector of 
puritan ministers. Although he was thus 
influentially supported, Udall's insistence on 
a literal observance of scriptural precepts 
was held to infringe Anglican orthodoxy, and 
in 1586 he was summoned by the bishop of 
Winchester and the dean of Windsor to 
appear before the court of high commission 
at Lambeth. Through the influence of the 
Countess of Warwick and Sir Drue Drury 
[q.v.] he was restored to his ministry. This ex- 
perience of persecution redoubled his ardour. 
He strongly sympathised with the zealous 
efforts of his Cambridge friend Penry to stir 
in the bishops a keener sense of their spiri- 
tual duties ; and during 1587 Penry seems 
to have visited him at Kingston. In April 
1588 Udall induced Penry's friend, the puri- 
tan printer Robert Waldegrave [q. v.], to 
print at his office in London an anonymous 
tract in which he trenchantly denounced the 
church of England from the extreme puritan 
point of view. The work, which was issued 
surreptitiously without the license of the 
Stationers' Company, and bore no name of 
printer or place of publication on the title- 
page, was entitled ' The State of the Church 
of Englande, laide open in a conference be- 
tweene Diotrephes a Byshopp, Tertullus a 
Papiste, Demetrius an usurer, Pandochus an 
Inne-keeper, and Paule a preacher of the 
wprde of God.' Udall developed his argument 
with much satiric force, and the pamphlet 
arrested public attention. Archbishop Whit- 
gift and other members of the court of high 
commission deemed it seditious. Tt was soon 



known in London to have been printed by 
Waldegrave, and in April his press was 
seized. Udall, whose responsibility remained 
unknown to the authorities, invited Walde- 
grave to Kingston to discuss the situation. 
Penry joined the consultation, with the re- 
sult that schemes were laid for disseminating 
through the country further tracts of a like 
temper. Penry soon arranged to write a 
series of attacks on the bishops which should 
bear the pseudonym of Martin Mar-Prelate. 
Udall supplied him with some information 
that had come to his knowledge of the illegal 
practices of the bishop of London, and this 
information Penry embodied in the first of 
the Martin Mar-Prelate tracts, which was 
known as ' The Epistle.' But Udall made 
no other contribution to the series of pam- 
phlets which bore the pseudonym of Martin 
Mar-Prelate. He had no relation with any of 
the Martin Mar-Prelate controversialists ex- 
cepting Penry, and was associated with Penry 
only at the inception of the Mar-Prelate 

Udall preferred to pursue the bishops 
single-handed. In July Waldegrave secretly 
set up a press in the neighbourhood of 
Kingston, at the house of a widow, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Crane, at East Molesey. There 
he printed a second anonymous polemic of 
Udali which was called : ' A Demonstration 
of the trueth of that Discipline which Christe 
hath prescribed in his worde for the gouerne- 
ment of his Church, in all times and places, 
untill the ende of the worlde.' With great 
vehemence Udall denounced t the supposed 
governors of the church of England, the arch- 
bishops, lord-bishops, archdeacons, and the 
rest of that order.' The ' Demonstration ' 
was secretly distributed in November, at the 
same time as Penry's ' Epistle,' the first of 
the distinctive ' Martin Mar- Prelate ' tracts, 
which Waldegrave also put into type at the 
East Molesey press. A reply to Udall ap- 
peared in 1590 with the title, ' A Remon- 
strance, or plain detection of some of the 
faults . . . cobled together in a Booke en- 
tituled "A Demonstration."' Udall's ' Dia- 
logue ' and l Demonstration ' were both re- 
printed by Mr. Arber in 1880. 

Meanwhile, in July 1588, Udall, although 
his authorship of the 'Dialogue' was hardly 
suspected, and the ' Demonstration ' was as 
yet unpublished, again offended the court 
of high commission by his uncompromising 
sermons in the parish church of Kingston, 
and he was summarily deprived of his living. 
After resting ' about half a year,' with the 
intention of leading thenceforth a ' private 
life,' he was invited in December by the 
Earl of Huntingdon and the inhabitants 

of Newcastle-upon-Tyne to resume his 
ministry in that town. He accepted the 
call, and laboured there assiduously for a 
year. During the time the plague raged 
furiously in the district. While at New- 
castle Udall openly published in London, 
under his own name, a new volume of 
sermons entitled ' Combat between Christ 
and the Devil.' This was of non-contro- 
versial character. But meanwhile many 
Mar-Prelate tracts had been issued in rapid 
succession by Penry and his associates, and 
the bishops made every effort to discover 
their source. Udall was soon suspected of 
complicity, and on 29 Dec. 1589 he was 
summoned to London, * in the sorest weather,' 
to be examined by the privy council. He 
arrived on 9 Jan. 1589-90, and four days 
later appeared at a council meeting that was 
held at Lord Cobham's house in Blackfriars. 
He was asked whether his ministry at New- 
castle was authorised by the bishop of the 
diocese. He replied that both the bishopric 
of Durham and the archbishopric of York 
were vacant during the period of his mini- 
stry. He refused to say whether he was 
the author of the ' Demonstration' and ' Dia- 
logue.' He acknowledged that Penry had 
passed through Newcastle three months 
before, but had merely saluted him at his 
door (cf. ARBER'S Sketch of Mar-Prelate 
Controversy, pp. 88-93). The council 
ordered Udall's detention in the Gatehouse 
at Westminster. A second examination by 
the council followed on 13 July 1590, when 
similar questions were put to the prisoner 
and similar answers made by him (ib. pp. 

On 24 July 1590 he was placed on his 
trial at the Croydon assizes, before Justice 
Clarke and Serjeant Puckering, on a charge 
of having published ' a wicked, scandalous, 
and seditious libel ' entitled { A Demonstra- 
tion.' The indictment was laid under the 
statute 23 Eliz. cap. 3, which was aimed at 
attacks on the government made in print by 
Roman catholics. Udall was refused the 
aid of counsel, and the prosecution depended 
wholly on the written depositions previously 
obtained from witnesses in the high commis- 
sion court. The judges invited Udall to 
deny on oath that he was author of the in- 
criminated tract. This he refused to do. 
He was found guilty, but sentence was de- 
ferred, and he was ordered to be imprisoned 
in the White Lion prison in Southwark. 
Subsequently he was offered a pardon if he 
would sign a recantation, but he declined to 
accept the terms proposed. In February 
1590-91 he was brought to the bar of the 
Southwark assizes, and raised some argu- 



ments of doubtful relevance in arrest of 
judgment. Sentence of death was passed 
on him, and he was carried back to prison. 

No attempt was made to carry out the 
monstrous sentence, but Udall remained a 
prisoner, with small hope of life. The iniqui- 
tous procedure excited the resentment of 
many persons of influence, some of whom 
had shown sympathy with Udall's religious 
views in earlier days. Sir Walter Kalegh, 
the Earl of Essex, and Alexander Nowell, 
dean of St. Paul's, interested themselves on 
his behalf, and every effort was made to 
procure his release. At first the prospect 
was discouraging. He sued for liberty to 
go to church ; permission was refused him. 
But a little later a copy of the indictment 
under which he was convicted, but which 
he had never seen, was sent him. Acting 
on the advice of friends, he thereupon 
framed a form of pardon ' according to the 
indictment,' and his wife presented it with 
his petition to the council. The papers were 
referred to Archbishop Whitgift. For a 
time the archbishop was obdurate. But the 
agitation in Udall's favour grew, and in 
March 1592 the governors of the Turkey 
Company offered to send Udall to Syria as 
pastor of their agents there if he v/ere re- 
leased at once (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1591-4, Udall to Burghley, 3 March 1591-2, 
not 1592-3; STRYPE, Whitgift, ii. 101-2). 
The archbishop's scruples were at length 
overcome, and a pardon was signed by the 
queen early in June. On 15 June Udall, by 
the archbishop's direction, informed the lord 
keeper, Puckering, of that fact. But imme- 
diately afterwards Udall fell ill and died. 
His death was attributed to the cruel and 
illegal usage to which he had been subjected, 
and he was long remembered and honoured 
as a martyr by those who shared his reli- 
gious convictions. He was buried in the 
churchyard of St. George's, Southwark. He 
was survived by his wife and son Ephraim 
[q. v.] 

In the year following Udall's death there 
appeared at Leyden a valuable grammar and 
dictionary of the Hebrew tongue by him 
under the title : < Jjnpn fte^> nn?D that 
is, The Key of the tioly Tongue ' (Leyden, 
]2mo, 1593). The first part consists of a 
Hebrew grammar translated from the Latin 
of Peter Martinius; the second part supplies 
' a practize 'or exercises on Psalms xxv. and 
Ixv., and the third part is a short dictionary 
of the Hebrew words of the Bible. The 
work was prized by James VI of Scotland, 
who is reported to have inquired for the 
author on his arrival in England in 1603, 
and, on learning that he was dead, to have 

exclaimed, * By my soul, then, the greatest 
scholar of P]urope is dead.' 

In 1593 also appeared (anonymously in 
London) the first edition of Udall's ' Com- 
mentarie on the Lamentations of Jeremy ; ' 
other editions are dated in 1595, 1599, and 
1637. A Dutch translation by J. Lamstium 
is dated 1 660. Udall's ' Certaine Sermons, 
taken out of severall Places of Scripture,' 
which was issued in 1596, is a reprint of 
his volume on the 'Amendment of Life' 
and the 'Obedience to the Gospel.' There is 
also attributed to him an antipapal tract, 
'An Antiquodlibet, or an Advertisement 
to beware of Secular Priests,' Middelburg, 
12mo, 1602. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 148-50 ; A 
New Discovery of Old Pontificall Practices for 
the Maintenance of the Prelates Authority and 
Hierarchy, evinced by their Tyrannicall Perse- 
cution of that Eeverend, learned, Pious, and 
Worthy Minister of Jesus Christ, Master John 
Udall, in the Eaigne of Queen Elizabeth, London, 
1643; Maskell's Hist, of the Martin Mar-Pre- 
late Controversy, London, 1845 ; Arber's In- 
troductory Sketch to the Martin Mar-Prelate 
Controversy, London, 1879 ; Arber's prefaces to 
his reprints of Udall's Demonstration and Dia- 
logue, 1880; Strype's Life of Whitgift, and 
Annals; Howell's State Trials, i. 1271; Neal's 
Puritans, i. 330.] S. L. 


(1505-1556), dramatist and scholar, born in 
1505, was a native of Hampshire. His rela- 
tionship with the U vedale family of Wickham 
in Hampshire, one member of which, living 
in 1449, bore the Christian name of Nicholas, 
is undetermined (cf. Surrey Archaeological 
Collections, iii. 185). Nicholas was elected a 
scholar of Winchester College in 1517, when 
he was described as being twelve years old 
(KiRBT, Winchester Scholars, p. 108). Pro- 
ceeding to Oxford, he was admitted a scholar 
of Corpus Christi College on 1 8 June 1520. 
He graduated B.A. on 30 May 1524, and 
became a probationer-fellow of his college 
on 30 May 1524. He took some part in the 
college tuition (FowLER, #&. Corpus Christi 
Coll. Oxford, Oxf. Hist, Soc. pp. 86, 89, 
370-1). In 1526 and the following years 
he ^purchased books of a Lutheran tendency 
of Thomas Garret, an Oxford bookseller, who 
personally sympathised with Lutheran doc- 
trines. Udall thus gained the reputation of 
being one of the earliest adherents of the 
protestant movement among Oxford tutors 
(FoxE, Actes, ed. Townsend, v. 421 seq.) 
As a consequence, it is said, he was not per- 
mitted to take the degree of M.A. until 1534 
ten years after his graduation. Mean- 
while he made some reputation in the uni- 



versity as a writer of Latin verse. He 
became the intimate friend of John Leland 
[q.v.] the antiquary, and Leland acknow- 
ledged with enthusiasm Udall's liberality 
and attainments in two Latin epigrams 
(Collectanea, v. 89, 105). The friends com- 
bined in May 1533 to write verses in both 
Latin and English for the pageants with 
which the lord mayor and citizens of Lon- 
don celebrated the entry of Anne Boleyn into 
the city after her marriage to Henry VIII. 
Udall apostrophised Apollo and the* Muses 
in Latin verse, and offered extravagant adu- 
lation to the new queen in English poems 
of very varied metres, some of which imi- 
tated Skelton's. The whole collection is 
preserved in manuscript at the British Mu- 
seum among the Royal manuscripts (18. A. 
Ixiv.) It was printed in Nichols's ' Pro- 
gresses of Queen Elizabeth ' and in Dr. Fur- 
nivall's ' Ballads from Manuscripts ' (Ballad 
Society, 1870, i. 379-401). Most of the 
English poems by Udall appear in Arber's 
< English Garner ' (ii. 52-60). 

About 1534 Udall became headmaster of 
Eton College, and he held the office for 
nearly eight years. Before taking up the 
appointment he published for the use of his 
pupils a selection from Terence, which was 
entitled 'Flovres for Latine Spekynge 
selected and gathered oute of Terence and 
the same translated into Englysshe.' A Latin 
dedication addressed by Udall to his pupils 
was dated from the 'Augustiniau Monastery,' 
London, 28 Feb. Leland and Edmund 
Jonson contributed prefatory eulogies in 
Latin. The work was printed by Thomas 
Berthelet, and the first edition, which is of 
great rarity, is dated 1533. Other editions 
followed in 1538, 1544, and 1560 ; an edition 
of 1575, which was enlarged by John Hig- 
gins [q. v.], reappeared in 1581. 

According to an early Consuetudinary ' of 
Eton, plays of Terence and Plautus were 
acted annually by the boys under the head- 
master's direction ' about "the feast of St. An- 
drew,' i.e. 30 Nov., and occasionally English 
pieces were suffered to take the place of the 
Latin. It is possible that Udall's English 
comedy or interlude of 'Ralph Roister 
Doister' was first prepared by him to" be ' 
acted by his pupils at Eton. As a school- 
master Udall had the reputation of severely 
enforcing corporal punishment. Thom&s 
Tusser [q. v.] was one of his pupils, and 
he states in his autobiography, prefixed to 
his ' Five Hundreth Points of Good II us- 
bandrie ; (1575), that he received from Udall 
on one occasion fifty-three stripes for l fault 
but small or none at all.' Tusser exclaims, 
* See, Udall, see the mercy of thee to mee, 

poor lad ! ' Udall's connection with Eton 
was terminated under disgraceful and some- 
what mysterious circumstances. Early in 

1541 two of his scholars, Thomas Cheney and 
John Horde, were, along with his servant 
Gregory, charged with stealing silver images 
and other plate belonging to the college. 
Their statement not merely threw on Udall the 
suspicion that he was cognisant of the theft, 
but led to an accusation against him of un- 
natural crime. He was summoned before 
the privy council for examination on 14 March 
1540-1, and he then confessed that he was 
guilty of the second charge. He was com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea prison (Proceedings 
of the Privy Council, vii. 153). Dismissal 
from the head-mastership of Eton followed 
immediately, but Udall's imprisonment was 
of short duration, and his reputation was 
not permanently injured. On gaining his 
liberty he piteously petitioned an unnamed 
patron probably at court to procure his resti- 
tution to Eton, while he professed a wish to 
pay off his debts and to amend his way of life 
(printed from Cotton. MS. Titus B. viii. 371, 
in Letters of Eminent Literary Men, Camden 
Soc. pp. 1 sqq.). A year after his dismissal 
the bursars of Eton paid him the full arrears 
of his salary (LTTE, Hist, of Eton, p. 114). 

Other means of livelihood w r ere at his 
command. He had on 27 Sept. 1537 be- 
come vicar of Braintree, and that benefice 
he retained on his departure from Eton. He 
held it for nearly seven years, resigning 
it on 14 Sept. 1544. His increased leisure 
he devoted to literary work. In September 

1542 he published an English version of the 
third and fourth books of Erasmus's ' Apo- 
phthegms.' His literary capacity was noticed 
favourably by Henry VIII's new queen, 
Catherine" Parr, whose theological views in- 
clined, like his own, to Lutheranism. Under 
her patronage he assisted in translating into 
English the first volume of Erasmus's ' Para- 
phrase of the New Testament.' The work 
occupied him between 1543 and 1548. He 
himself translated the paraphrase of the gos- 
pel of St. Luke, which he finished in 1545, 
and he dedicated it to Queen Catherine. His 
rendering of the text of the gospel follows 
that of the Great Bible of 1539. He also 
superintended the publication of the work 
and wrote a general dedication addressed in. 
terms of extravagant eulogy to Edward VI, 
and another to the reader, besides prefacing 
the translations of the gospel of St. John and 
of the Acts with dedications to Queen Cathe- 
rine. The volume was first published in 
1548 ; the title-page of the second edition of 
1551 stated that Udall had ' conferred ' the 
text with the Latin and 'thoroughly cor- 




rected'it. The second volume came out in 
1549, but in that Udall had no hand. 

Edward VI showed Udall much favour. 
When Gardiner preached before the young 
king on 29 June 1548, and he was expected to 
deny the authority of the king to make reli- 
gious changes during his minority, Udall was 
directed to report the sermon by ' a noble 
personage of this realm ' (FoxE). The ' noble 
personage 'was doubtless Protector Somerset. 
Foxe printed Udall's report of Gardiner's ser- 
mon in his ' Acts and Monuments.' In 1549 
a more responsible task was entrusted to him. 
He was ordered to reply to the catholic rebels 
of the west, who had put forward ' certen 
artycles of us the comoners of Devonsheir 
and Cornwall in divers campes by Est and 
West of Exeter.' The insurgents demanded 
the restoration of the mass, of the abbey 
lands, and of the Six Articles, together with 
the recall of Cardinal Pole from exile. Udall's 
answer bears the title ' An answer to the 
articles of the comoners of Devonsheir and 
Cornewall, declaring to the same howe they 
haue been seduced by evell persons, and howe 
their consciences may be satysfyed and 
stayed, concerning the sayd artycles, sette 
forthe by a countryman of theirs, much ten- 
dering the welth, bothe of their bodyes and 
solles.' Udall reasoned with great force 
against the catholic arguments, and defended 
the royal authority in matters of religion. 
His tract, which runs to eighty closely written 
folio pages, is preserved at the British Mu- 
seum (Royal MS. 18, B. xi.) It was printed 
for the first time by the Camden Society in 
Troubles connected with the Prayer Book 
of 1549,' which was edited by Nicholas 
Pocock in 1884. 

Further literary work of similar tendency 
followed. About 1550 he issued an English 
translation (from the Latin) of Peter Mar- 
tyr's 'Discourse or Traictise . . . concernynge 
the Sacrament of the Lordes Supper' [see 
VERMIGLI]. Edward VI marked his ap- 
probation by issuing letters patent securing 
to Udall exclusive rights in the original 
Latin version of Peter Martyr's ' Treatise of 
the Eucharist,' as well as in the English 
translation; and at the same time gave 
Udall permission Ho preynt the Bible in 
Englyshe as well in the large volume for 
the use of the churches w th in this our Realme 
and other Dominions as allso in any other 
convenient volume.' Of this privilege Udall 
does not seem to have availed himself. He 
contributed Latin poems to the two collec- 
tions of elegies published in 1551, respec- 
tively on Henry and Charles Brandon, dukes 

Suffolk, and Martin Bucer. In 1552 he 
translated the l Compendiosatotius Anatomie 

delineatio ' of Thomas Gemini [q. v.], whose 
copperplate engravings give the work high 
artistic interest. The book was dedicated to. 
the king. 

Despite the circumstances attending Udall's- 
dismissal from Eton, scholastic employment 
was also found for Udall by the ministers 
of his royal patron, and he was appointed 
' schoolmaster ' of the young Edward Cour- 
tenay, then a prisoner in the Tower (Tre~ 
vely an Papers, Camden Soc. ii. 31 , 33). At the 
same time Edward VI bestowed new church 
preferment on Udall. In November 1551 
he was nominated to a prebend at Windsor, 
but he failed to take up his residence there, 
and continued to preach elsewhere. He was 
consequently held in the following year to 
have forfeited his rights to the emoluments 
of the prebend. But in September 1552 a 
royal letter directed the dean and chapter of 
Windsor to pay Udall the income of the 
preferment ' during the time of his absence/ 
On 26 March 1553 he was presented to the 
rectory of Calborne in the Isle of Wight. 

The accession of Queen Mary in no way 
injured his fortunes. She had taken part 
with him in the translation of Erasmus's 
paraphrase, and Udall knew how to adjust 
his sails to the passing breeze. In 1553 he 
endeavoured to extract from the protes- 
tant martyr Thomas Mountain [q. v.], while 
in prison, a recantation of protestantism 
(NICHOLS, Narratives of the Reformation, 
Camden Soc. p. 178). The lord chancellor, 
Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, en- 
couraged Udall's pusillanimity, and gave him 
the post of schoolmaster in his household, 
where several boys were brought up under 
the bishop's superintendence. Gardiner left 
forty marks to his ' schoolmaster,' Udall, in 
his will, dated 9 Nov. 1555 ( Wills from Doc- 
tors' Commons, Camden Soc. 43, 44). Udall's 
repute as a dramatic writer was not ex- 
hausted. In 1554 a warrant from Queen 
Mary directed Udall to prepare 'dialogues 
and interludes,' to be performed in the royal 
presence ; and ordered such dresses and ap- 
parel to be delivered to him from the office 
of the revels as from time to time he might 
require (Losely MSS. ed. Kempe, p. 63). 

At the close of his life Udall again filled 
the office of master of a great public school. 
He succeeded Alexander Nowell about 1554 
as headmaster of Westminster school, which 
Henry VIII had established in 1540 ; and 
he held that post until the school was ab- 
sorbed in the monastery of Westminster, 
which Queen Mary refounded in November 
1556. Udall died next month, and was buried 
in the church of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
on 23 Dec. 1556. Entries of the burial in 



the same place of ' Katherin Woodall ' and 
of ' Elizabeth Udall ' figure in the parish 
register under the respective dates 2 Dec. 
1556 and 8 July 1559 ; but there is no means 
of determining the relationship of either of 
these persons to Nicholas Udall. 

Udall owes his permanent fame to his 
work as a dramatist. Bale attributes to 
him not merely many comedies, but also a 
' Tragcedia de Papatu.' Of the last nothing 
is known. Bale says that Udall translated 
it for Queen Catherine [Parr]. It is possible 
that Bale made a confused reference to ' A 
Tragedie or Dialoge of the unjuste usurped 
Primacie of the Bishop of Rome' (London, 
1549, 8vo), which John Ponet translated 
from the Italian of Bernardino Ochino. Sub- 
sequent mention was made of another lost 
play by Udall. When Elizabeth visited Cam- 
bridge University in the autumn of 1564 
on the night of 8 Aug. there was performed 
in her presence ' an English play called 
" Ezekias," made by Mr. Udall, and handled 
by King's College men only.' 

The only extant play by Udall is ' Ealph 
Roister Doister,' a homely English comedy 
on the Latin model, which may have been 
originally written for performance by his 
pupils at Eton before 1541. A reference 
(act ii. sc. i.) to a ballad-monger, Jack Raker, 
who is more than once mentioned by Skelton 
and is noticed in Udall's play as a contem- 
porary, and Ralph Roister Doister's favourite 
form of oath, ' by the armes of Caleys,' sug- 
gest that the piece was originally composed 
in Henry YIII's reign. It is in rhymed 
doggerel and is divided into five acts, each 
with numbered scenes varying from four to 
eight. Besides songs which are interspersed 
through the text, four songs to be sung ' by 
those which shall use this comedy ' are col- 
lected in an appendix. The story, which is 
crudely developed, deals with the unsuccess- 
ful efforts of the swaggering hero, Ralph 
Roister Doister, to win the hand of a wealthy 
widow, Dame Christian Custance. It is 
doubtful if the piece were printed in Udall's 

A quotation of Ralph's letter to Dame 
Custance (Ralph Roister Doister, act iii. 
sc. iv.), which is shown to be capable of 
expressing two directly opposite significa- 
tions by changes of punctuation, appeared 
in the first edition of Dr. Thomas Wilson's 
* Rule of Reason,' 1550-1, with the note that 
the passage was quoted from * An Entrelude, 
made by Nicolas Vdal.' In 1566 Thomas 
Hackett obtained a license t for pryntinge 
of a play intituled Rauf Ruyster Duster.' 
The only early copy now known lacks a 
title-page ; it was accidentally acquired by 

the Rev. Thomas Briggs, an Etonian, in 1818, 
and may be the edition printed by Hackett, 
which probably represents a revised version 
of the piece. The concluding verses plainly 
refer to Queen Mary or Queen Elizabeth, and 
were doubtless interpolated at a date sub- 
sequent to the composition of the play. In 
1818 Briggs reprinted the comedy in Lon- 
don, in an edition of thirty copies, as an 
anonymous work, and at the same time pre- 
sented the unique original to Eton College 
Library, in ignorance of the fact that the 
play was from the pen of an Eton head- 
master. Another reprint followed in 1821 ; 
but the anonymous editor again had no in- 
formation to give respecting the authorship 
of the play. John Payne Collier, in a note 
in Dodsley's ' Old Plays ' (1825, ii. 3 ; cf. 
History of English Dramatic Poetry, 1831, 
ii. 445), was the first to recognise in ' Ralph 
Roister Doister ' the interlude which Wilson 
assigned to Udall in 1551. The work has subse- 
quently been four times reprinted in Thomas 
White's ' Old English Drama' (1830, 3 vols. 
18mo) ; in the publications of the Shakespeare 

ftrmiot'Tr 1 RA^T in A YViaT'a ^ TT*i/vlioV "RpT)!*! T\ "f" Q ' 

; in Arber's 

1869 ; and in Dodsley's ' Old Plays/ ed'. W. C. 
Hazlitt, 1874 (iii. 53-161). 'Ralph Roister 
Doister ' enjoys the distinction of being the 
earliest English comedy known, and, in the 
capacity of its author, Udall is universally 
recognised as one of the most notable pio- 
neers in the history of English dramatic lite- 
rature [cf. art. STILL, JOHN]. 

Collier, in his 'Bibliographical Catalogue' 
(ii. 176), attributes to Udall, the first and 
last letters of whose surname figure on the 
undated title-page, a curious doggerel poem 
in which an old man gives the author much 
moral counsel. The poem bears the title : 
'The pleasaunt playne and pythye Pathe- 
waye leadynge to a vertues and honest lyfe, 
no lesse profytable then delectable. U. L. 
Imprynted at London by Nicolas Hyll, for 
John Case,' 4to. 

[The fullest account of Udall is by William 
Durrant Cooper, and is prefixed to the Shake- 
speare Society's edition of ' Ralph Roister Doi- 
ster.' See also Troubles connected with the 
Prayer Book of 1549, ed. Nicholas Pocock (Cam- 
den Soc.), pp. xx-xxv; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 211 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Strype's 
Works ; Fleay's Biographical Chronicle of the 
English Drama; Collier's History of English 
Dramatic Poetry.] S. L. 

UFFORD, JOHN DE (d. 1349), chan- 
cellor. [See OFFOKD.] 

SUFFOLK of his house (1298-1369), was the 
second but eldest surviving son and heir of 




Robert de Utford (1279-1316), and of his 
wife, Cicely de Valognes. 

His grandfather, ROBERT BE UFFORD (d. 
1298), was the founder of the greatness of the 
family. A younger son of a Suffolk land- 
owner, John de Peyton, Kobert assumed his 
surname from his lordship of Ufford in Suf- 
folk, and attended Edward I on his crusade. 
Between 1276 and 1281 he acted as justice 
of Ireland. He was instructed by Ed- 
ward I to introduce English laws into Ire- 
land (Fcedera, i. 540), and practised skilfully 
but unscrupulously the policy of sowing dis- 
sension among the different Irish septs (GIL- 
BERT, Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 108-10). He 
also built the castle of Roscommon ' at 
countless cost ' (Cal. Documents, Ireland, 
1302-7, p. 137). On 21 Nov. 1281 Stephen 
de Fulburn, bishop of Waterford, was ap- 
pointed justice in his place, since Ufford * by 
reason of his infirmities could not perform 
his duties ' (Cal. Patent Jtolls, 1281-92, p. 1). 
He died in 1298. His son Robert, who was 
born on 11 June 1279, further increased the 
family possessions and importance by his 
marriage to the heiress Cicely de Valognes. 
He was summoned to parliament as a baron 
between 1308 and 1311, and died in 1316. 
Of his six sons, William, the eldest, died 
without issue before his father. The fifth 
son, SIR RALPH DE UFFORD (d. 1346), be- 
came justice of Ireland like his grandfather, 
having married Maud, daughter of Henry, 
earl of Lancaster [q. v.], and widow of Wil- 
liam de Burgh, earl of Ulster. Appointed 
justice in February 1344, Ralph held office 
until his death on Palm Sunday, 9 April 
1346. He had the reputation of a vigorous 
and energetic but not very popular ruler 
(GILBERT, pp. 197-204). The youngest son, 
Sir Edmund de Ufford, was also a man of 
some note. The suggestion sometimes made 
that John de Offord or Ufford [q. v.], arch- 
bishop-elect of Canterbury, and his brother, 
Andrew de Offord [q. v.J, were also sons of 
this Robert de Ufford, is highly improbable. 
In all probability these latter were of an 
entirely different family, which derived its ! 
name from Offord Darcy, Huntingdonshire. 
The second but eldest surviving son, Ro- 
bert, was born about 10 Aug. 1298, and , 
succeeded to his father's estates. On 19 May 
.8 he received livery of his father's Suffolk 
lands, which are enumerated in ' Calendarium 
Inquisitionum post mortem,' i. 146 (cf. Cal. 
Close Rolls, 1313-18,p. 542). He was knighted 
and received some subordinate employments, 
being occupied, for example, in 1326 in levy- 
"M? ships for the royal use in Suffolk (ib. 
323- 1 , p. 644), and serving in November 
1327 on a commission of the peace in the '' 

eastern counties under the statute of Wim- 
: Chester (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1327-30, p. 214). 
In May and June 1329 he attended the young 
Edward III on his journey to Amiens, re- 
ceiving letters of protection on 10 May (ib. 
p. 388). He was employed on state affairs 
down to the end of the rule of Isabella and 
: Mortimer, and on 1 May 1330 received ' for 
his better maintenance in the king's service ' 
; a grant for life of the royal castle and town 
\ of Orford, Suffolk, which had been previously 
held by his father (ib. p. 522 ; Cal, Inquis. 
post mortem, i. 146). He also obtained grants 
of other lands in special tail, including the 
manors of Gravesend, Kent, Costessy and 
! Burgh, Norfolk (DuGDALE,ii. 48). On 28 July 
i he was appointed to array and command the 
; levies of Norfolk and Suffolk summoned to 
| fight ' against the king's rebels.' Neverthe- 
less in October he associated himself with 
William de Montacute (afterwards first Earl 
of Salisbury) [q. v.] in the attack on Mor- 
timer at Nottingham. He took personal part 
' in the capture of Mortimer in Nottingham 
Castle, and was so far implicated in the 
deaths of Sir Hugh de Turplington and Ri- 
chard de Monmouth that occurred during 
the scuffle that on 12 Feb. 1331 he received 
a special pardon for the homicide (Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, 1330-4, p. 74). He was rewarded by 
the grant of the manors of Cawston and 
Fakenham in Norfolk, and also of some houses 
in Cripplegate that had belonged to Morti- 
mer's associate, John Maltravers" [q. v.] (ib. 
pp. 73, 106). He also succeeded Maltravers 
as keeper of the forests south of Trent and 
as justice in eyre of the forests in Wiltshire, 
receiving on 3 Feb. 1331 a similar appoint- 
ment for Hampshire (ib. pp. 66, 69). He 
was summoned as a baron to parliament on 
27 Jan. 1332. Henceforth he was one of the 
most trusted warriors, counsellors, and diplo- 
matists in Edward Ill's service. 

On 1 Nov. 1335 Ufford was appointed a 
member of an embassy empowered to treat 
with the Scots (Fcedera, ii. 925). He served 
against the Scots and was made warden of 
Bothwell Castle (Chron. de Lanercost, p. 
288). On 14 Jan. 1337 he was made ad- 
miral of the king's northern fleet jointly 
with Sir John Ros (Fcedera, ii. 956 ; Ufford 
ceased to hold this office after 11 Aug.) 
On 16 March he was created Earl of Suf- 
folk (cf. Lords' Reports on the Diqnity of 
a Peer, v. 31 ; Rot. Parl. ii. 56; Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, 1334-8, p. 418). On 18 March he re- 
ceived for the better support of his dignity ' 
letters patent conferring on him and his heirs 
male lands and rents worth a thousand 
marks a year (Cal. Rot. Pat. 1334-8, pp. 
418, 479, 496 ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1338-40, pp. 




14, 265). He also received a grant of 201. 
a year from the issues of his shire (Rot. ParL 
iii. 107). On 25 June he was released from 
all his debts to the crown (Cal. Pat, Rolls, 
1334-8, p. 461). During his absence in par- 
liament the Scots retook his charge, Both- 
well Castle (Chron. de Lanercost, p. 288). 

On 3 Oct. 1337 Suffolk was sent, with 
Henry Burghersh, bishop of Lincoln, the 
Earl of Northampton, and John Darcy, to 
treat for peace or truce with the French 
(Fcedera, ii. 998). Further powers were 
given them to treat with the Emperor 
Louis and Edward's other allies (ib. ii. 999), 
and on 7 Oct. they were also commissioned 
to treat with David Bruce, then staying in 
France (ib. ii. 1001), and were credited 
to the two cardinals sent by the pope to 
effect a reconciliation (ib. ii. 1002). On 
4 Oct. Suffolk had letters of attorney until 
Easter, and many of his followers received 
letters of protection ( Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1334- 
1338, pp. 527, 532, 535, 537). His occupa- 
tion on this embassy seems to confute Frois- 
sart's statement (FROISSART, ed. Kervyn de 
Lettenhove, ii. 430, 432, 434) that he took 
part in Sir Walter Manny's attack on Cad- 
sand on 10 Nov. [see MANNY]. Next year, 
on 1 July, Suffolk was associated with Arch- 
bishop Stratford and others on an embassy 
to France, and left England along with the 
two cardinals sent to treat for peace 
(Fcedera, ii. 1084; G. LE BAKER, p. 61). He 
either accompanied Edward III to Antwerp 
(FROISSART, ii. 443) or soon followed him, 
for on 10 Nov. he attested a charter at 
Antwerp (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1338-40, p. 193), 
and on 16 Dec. the same embassy was 
again empowered at the instance of the two 
cardinals (ib. p. 196). After this Suffolk 
remained in attendance on the king in 
Brabant, serving in September 1339 in the 
expedition that invaded the Cambresis and 
besieged Cambrai, and being in the army 
that prepared to fight a great battle at 
Buironfosse (FROISSART, iii. 10-53), where 
he and the Earl of Derby commanded the 
right wing of the second ' battle ' (HEMING- 
BURGII, ii. 347). On 15 Nov. of the same 
year he was appointed joint ambassador to 
Count Louis of Flanders and the Flemish 
estates, to treat of an alliance (Foedera, ii. 
1097 ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1338-40, p. 397). He 
several times became security for the king's 
loans (ib. pp. 372, 378, 391, 403). After 
Edward's return Suffolk stayed behind in the 
Low Countries with Salisbury. The two 
earls remained in garrison at Ypres (FROIS- 
SART, iii. 129). In Lent 1340 they attacked 
the French near Lille, a town which upheld 
Philip of Valois. Rendered rash by their 

easy success, they pursued the enemy 
through one of the gates into the town. 
But their retreat was cut off, and they were 
made prisoners and despatched to Paris, 
which they reached on Palm Sunday. The 
English chroniclers wax eloquent on the 
indignities to which they were exposed on 
the road (G. LE BAKER, p. 67). Philip VI, 
it was said, wished to kill them, and they 
were spared only through the entreaties of 
King John of Bohemia (ib. pp. 67-8 ; MURI- 
MUTH, pp. 104-5 ; WALSINGHAM, i. 226 ; 
Chron. Anglia, 1328-88, p. 10 ; Cont. G. de 
Nanyis, ii. 167, calls him * Comes Auxonias ; ' 
FROISSART, iii. 122-31, gives a very different 
account of the capture; DUGDALE, Baronage, 
ii. 48, and BARNES, Hist, of Edward III, pp. 
168-70, say that Robert Ufford, Suffolk's 
eldest son, and not Suffolk himself, was 
taken prisoner, but this is disproved by 
Fcedera, ii. 1170, and Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1338- 
1340, p. 531). 

The truce of 25 Sept. 1340 provided for 
the release of all prisoners, but it was only 
after a heavy ransom, to which Edward III 
contributed 500/., had been paid that Suffolk 
obtained his freedom. He took part in a 
famous tournament at Dunstable in the 
spring of 1342 and at great jousts in Lon- 
don (FROISSART, iv. 127-8). He was one of 
the members of Edward's ' Round Table ' at 
Windsor, which assembled in February 
1344 (MuRiMUTH, p. 232), and fought in a 
tournament at Hertford in September 1344 
(ib. p. 159). Though not a ' founder ' of the 
order of the Garter, he was one of the 
earliest members that afterwards joined it 
(BELTZ, Order of the Garter, cl., 98). 

Suffolk served through the Breton expe- 
dition of July 1342, and was conspicuous at 
the siege of Rennes (FROISSART, iv. 137, 168). 
In July 1343 he was joint ambassador to 
Clement VI at Avignon, receiving further 
powers to treat with France on 29 Aug. and 
29 Nov. On 8 May 1344 he was appointed 
captain and admiral of the northern fleet 
(Foedera, iii. 13 ; NICOLAS, Royal Navy, ii. 
83). He busied himself at once in collect- 
ing vessels for a new expedition, and on 
3 July accompanied Edward on a short 
expedition to Flanders. He continued ad- 
miral in person or deputy until March 1347> 
when he was succeeded by Sir John Howard 
(Foedera, iii. Ill; for his activity see ib. iii. 
57, 70). 

On 11 July 1346 Suffolk sailed with the 
king from Portsmouth on the famous in- 
vasion of France which resulted in the battle 
of Crecy. On the retreat northwards, a day 
after the passage of the Seine, Suffolk and 
Sir Hugh le Despenser defeated a consider- 




able French force (AVESBURY, p. 368). Suf- 
folk was one of those who advised Edward to 
select the field of Crecy as his battle-ground 
(FROISSART, v. 27). In the great victory he 
fought in the second * battle/ stationed on 
the left wing. Next morning, 27 Aug., he 
took part in Northampton's reconnaissance 
that resulted in a sharp fight with the un- 
broken remnant of the French army (NORTH- 
BURGH in AVESBURY, p. 369, speaks of the 
Earl of Norfolk, but there was no such earl 
at the time, and Suffolk is probably meant). 
Suffolk's diplomatic activity still con- 
tinued. He was one of the commissioners 
appointed to treat with France on 25 Sept. 

1348 (Fcedera, iii. 173), and with Flanders 
on 11 Oct. (ib. iii. 175). The negotiations 
were conducted at Calais. On 10 March 

1349 (ib. iii. 182), and again on 15 May 1350 
(ib. iii. 196), he had similar commissions. 
On 29 Aug. 1350 he fought in the famous 
naval victory over the Spaniards off Win- 
chelsea (FROISSART, v. 258, 266). In May 
1351 and in June 1352 he was chief com- 
missioner of array in Norfolk and Suffolk. 

In September 1355 Suffolk sailed with 
the Black Prince, Edward, prince of Wales 
(1330-1376) [q. v.], to Aquitaine. Between 
October and December he was engaged in 
the prince's raid through Languedoc to Nar- 
bonne, where he commanded the rear-guard, 
William de Montacute, second earl of Salis- 
bury [q. v.], son of his old companion in 
arms, serving with him. After his return he 
was quartered at Saint-Emilion, his followers 
being stationed round Libourne (CHANDOS 
HERALD, p. 44). Thence in January 1356 he 
led another foray, that lasted over twelve 
days, towards Rocamadour ('Notre-Dame de 
Rochemade/ WINGFIELD in AVESBURY, p. 
449). Suffolk also shared in the Black 
Prince's northern foray of 1356, and in the 
battle of Poitiers which resulted from it, 
where he commanded, jointly with Salisbury, 
the third 'battle' or the rearward (G. LE 
BAKER, p. 143). The reversal of the posi- 
tion of the host, caused by Edward's at- 
tempted retreat over the Miausson, threw 
the brunt of the first fighting upon Suffolk 
and Salisbury, who had singlehanded to 
withstand the French assault (OMAN, Art 
of War in the Middle Ages, pp. 623-5). 
Suffolk distinguished himself greatly, run- 
ning from line to line, checking the impru- 
dent ardour of the young soldiers, and 
posting the archers in the best positions (G. 
LE BAKER, p. 148; WALSINGHAM, i. 282). 
On the march back to Bordeaux he led the 
vanguard. He drew three thousand florins 
as his share of the ransom of the Count of 
Auxerre (DEVON, Issue JRolls of the Ex- 

chequer, p. 167). Poitiers was his last great 
exploit, and even there he was a little effaced 
by Salisbury. He was fifty-eight years old, 
and his hair was grey (CHANDOS HERALD, 
p. 57). He still, however, took part in 
the expedition into Champagne in 1359 
(FROISSART, vi. 224, 231). After that he 
was employed only in embassies, the last 
of those on which he served being that com- 
missioned on 8 Feb. 1362 to treat of the pro- 
posed marriage of Edmund of Langley to the 
daughter of the Count of Flanders (Fcedera, 
iii. 636). 

In his declining years Suffolk devoted 
himself to the removal of the abbey of 
Leiston, near Saxmundham, to a new site 
somewhat more inland. This convent was a 
house of Premonstratensian canons, founded 
in 1182 by Ranulf de Glanville [q. v.], and 
now become decayed. In 1363 it was trans- 
ferred to its new home, where its picturesque 
ruins still remain, though they are mostly of 
more recent date than the buildings which 
Suffolk set up. 

Suffolk died on 4 Nov. 1369. His will, 
dated 29 June 1368, is given in Nicolas's 
' Testamenta Vetusta' (i. 73-4 ; cf. G. E. C[o- 
KAYNE], Complete Peerage, vii. 302). In it 
he directed that his body should be buried 
at the priory of Campsey, or Ash, under 
the arch, between the chapel of St. Nicholas 
and the high altar. Campsey was a house 
of Austin canonesses, of which the Uffords 
were patrons, and where Suffolk's wife had 
been buried in 1368, and his brother, Sir 
Ralph de Ufford, the justice of Ireland, in 
1346 (Monasticon, vi. 584). To Ralph's 
widow, Maud, ' the lady of Ulster/ Suffolk 
left twenty marks towards the rebuilding at 
Bruisyard, Suffolk, of a chantry-college for 
five secular priests, which she had originally 
founded at Campsey, but which she now 
transferred to a new site (ib. vi. 1468), where 
it was afterwards handed over to Minorite 
nuns (ib. vi. 1555). A summary of Ufford's 
extensive fiefs in Suffolk, Norfolk, Lincoln- 
shire, and London is given in ' Calendarium 
Inquisitionum post mortem' (ii. 300). The 
possession of the castles of Framlingham, 
Eye, and Orford with extensive estates in 
Central Suffolk, gave him an exceptionally 
strong position in that county. 

It has generally been said that Suffolk 
lad two wives, but there is no evidence of 
he existence of his alleged first wife, Eleanor. 
Cn 1324 he married Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Walter de Norwich [q. v.] and widow 
of Thomas de Cailey (Cal. Close Rolls, 1323-7, 
pp. 147, 236, show that the date was between 
2 July and 13 Nov. 1324). Margaret had 
promised a fine of 20/. to the crown for license 



to marry at will, but five years afterwards 
she and Ufford obtained, on 21 Oct. 1329, a 
release from its payment (ib. 1327-30, p. 
497). Ufford and Margaret had two sons 
and three daughters. The eldest son, Ro- 
bert, was distinguished at the siege of Loch- 
maben in 1341, and took considerable part 
in the French wars, and, though commonly 
distinguished as ' Robert de Ufford le fitz/ 
is not seldom confused with his father. 
He married Elizabeth, widow of William 
de Latimer, without royal license, but on 
20 Aug. 1337 was pardoned for the offence 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1334-8, p. 495). He died 
before his father, so that titles and estates 
passed to the younger son, William de 
Ufford, second earl of Suffolk [q. v.] The 
five daughters were : (1) Joan, betrothed in 
1336 to John, son and heir of John de St. 
Philibert, an East-Anglian landowner. But 
he was a boy under six, of whose lands 
Suffolk had the custody (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
1330-4 p. 176, 1334-8 p. 176). The marriage 
was not carried out, and John at last wedded 
another lady (DuGDALE, ii. 150). (2) Cicely, 
married to William, lord Willoughby De 
Eresby. (3) Catharine, married to Robert, 
lord Scales. (4) Margaret, married to Wil- 
liam, lord Ferrers of Groby; and (5) Maud, 
a canoness at Campsey. 

[Rymer's Foedera, vols. ii. and iii. Record ed.; 
Rolls of Parliament ; Calendars of Patent and 
Close Rolls; Cal. of Documents relating to Ire- 
land ; Lords' Reports on the Dignity of a Peer ; 
Galfridus le Baker, ed. Thompson ; Walsingham's 
Historia Anglicana, Chron. Anglise 1328-88, 
Murimuth and Avesbury, and Knighton (these 
last four in Rolls Ser.); Chronicle of Lanercost 
(Bannatyne Club) ; Chandos Herald's Le Prince 
Noir, ed. F. Michel ; Froissart, ed. Kervyn de 
Lettenhove; Hemingburgh, vol. ii. (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.); Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 47-8; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, vi. 584, 1468, 1555; Beltz's Me- 
morials of the Garter, pp. 98-101; Nicolas 's 
Royal Navy, vol. ii. ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ire- 
land ; Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 431-2 ; Nico- 
ias's Hist. Peerage, ed. Courthope, pp. 459, 483 ; 
Barnes's Edward III. A very full and detailed 
summary is in G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peer- 
Age, vii. 301-2.] T. F. T. 

OF SUFFOLK of his house (1339 P-1382), was 
the second but eldest surviving son of Robert 
de Ufford, earl of Suffolk (1298-1369) [q. v.], 
,nd of his wife, Margaret Norwich. He 
was born about 1339. His elder brother 
Robert's death made him heir to estates and 
earldom, and his father's advanced age 
brought him prominently forward, even 
before he succeeded to the title. On 3 Dec. 
1364 he was summoned as a baron to the 

House of Lords during his father's lifetime. 
On 10 Feb. 1367 he was appointed joint 
commissioner of array in Suffolk, and in the 
same year received license to travel beyond 
sea. He was often engaged in local public 
work. On 4 Nov. 1369 he succeeded, on his 
father's death, to the earldom of Suffolk. 
He served in 1370 against the French along 
with the Earl of Warwick (Foedera, iii. 895). 
On 12 June 1371 he was put at the head of 
the surveyors of a subsidy for the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, and on 25 Oct. 1371 
he was appointed chief warden of the ports 
and coasts of the same shires (ib. iii. 925). 
His appointment was renewed when a dif- 
ferent commission for this purpose was made 
out on 10 May 1373 (ib. iii. 976). In August 
1372 he was summoned to serve in the 
abortive expedition which Edward III pro- 
posed to lead in person to the relief of 
Thouars (FROISSART, ed. Kervyn de Letten- 
hove, viii. 208). In the summer of 1373 
Suffolk accompanied John of Gaunt on his 
long and fruitless foray that started from 
Calais and finally reached Bordeaux, whence 
he returned next year in April to England 
along with the Duke of Lancaster (ib. viii. 
280-5, 321). A year later, in July 1375, he 
was made knight of the Garter. 

In the Good parliament, which met in 
April 1376, Suffolk, though so constantly 
associated with John of Gaunt abroad, at- 
tached himself strongly to the constitutional 
party headed by Bishop Courtenay and the 
Earl of March, and inspired by Edward, 
prince of Wales. He was one of the four 
earls added to the committee of barons and 
bishops which held conference with the 
commons before the houses joined in grant- 
ing a subsidy (Chronicon Anglice, 1328-88, 
pp. 69-70 ; cf. Rot. Parl. ii. 322). After the 
death of the Prince of Wales and the break 
up of the parliament it was still thought 
worth while to detach Suffolk from his asso- 
ciates, and on 16 July he received the im- 
portant appointment of admiral of the north 
(Foedera, iii. 1057). However, his depri- 
vation of that office so early as 24 Nov., 
in favour of the courtier Michael de la Pole 
[q. v.], suggests that he could not be relied 
upon by John of Gaunt and the ruling 
clique. Yet Suffolk was still enough in 
favour to be appointed on 29 April 1377, 
just before the old king's death, chief com- 
missioner of array for Norfolk and Suffolk 
(DOYLE, iii. 432). 

At the coronation of Richard II on 16 July 
1377 Suffolk acted as bearer of the sceptre 
and cross. The policy of forgetting the 
factions of the last reign insured him fre- 
quent employment during the next few 



years, and the patent rolls of the young 
King contain abundant evidence of his constant 
activity in local commissions and similar 
business in Norfolk and Suffolk. In 1377 
and in 1378 he was again fighting the French. 
On 18 June 1378 he received letters of 
attorney (Fcedera, iv. 4o), and followed Lan- 
caster to Brittany, taking part in the siege 
of Saint-Malo in November of that year 
(FROISSART, ix. 64), while a patent of 16 June 
1378 refers to his share in 'the late en- 
gagement at sea' (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1377-81, 
p. 4). He transferred himself to Scotland 
when Lancaster was made lieutenant of the 
Scottish march, and on 6 Sept. 1380 he was 
one of the commissioners appointed to com- 
pose differences and give satisfaction for 
injuries arising out of the breach of the truce 
(Fcedera, iv. 96). 

Suffolk played a prominent part with re- 
ference to the peasants' re volt of 1381. When 
Geoffrey (wrongly called John) Litster [see 
LITSTER, JOHN] rose in revolt at North 
Walsham, and marched on 17 June towards 
Norwich, Suffolk was staying at one of his 
Norfolk manors, probably Costessey, which 
is very near the line of march and about 
four miles from Norwich. He was so popular 
with the commons that they formed the 
design to seize him and put him at their 
head. Suffolk was at supper when he first 
learnt the sudden approach of the rebels. 
He rose at once from table and succeeded 
in effecting his escape. He disguised him- 
self as the squire of Sir Roger de Boys, a 
friend who was afterwards his executor, and, 
avoiding the highways, he rode as hard as 
he could to St. Albans, whence he joined the 
king in London (WALSINGHAM, ii. 5 ; Chron. 
Anylice, p. 305). The rebels at once turned 
towards Norwich, whereupon the affrighted 
citizens sent four of their number to Suffolk, 
asking for his advice and guidance. But 
the earl had already fled the county. 

In the troubles that followed Suffolk was 
not spared. On 21 June the rebels de- 
stroyed his title-deeds at his manor of Burgh 
(REVILLE, Le Soulevement des Travailleurs 
d'Anyleterre, p. 114), while on 28 June the 
Suffolk insurgents burnt his title-deeds and 
court rolls at his manors of Hollesley and 
Bawdsey, near Ipswich. Before this, how- 
ever, Suffolk was back in East Anglia. 
The king commissioned him, with Bishop 
Despenser and others, to suppress the eastern 
revolts. Suffolk lost no time, and as early 
as 23 June he was at Bury, attended by a 
force of five hundred lances. Suffolk's first 
work was to remove the heads of Chief- 
iustice Cavendish and the prior of Bury, 
which the rebels had set up over the pillory. 

But the revolt was already checked, and the 

trials of the rebels began at once. After 

; three days at Bury, Suffolk removed to Mil- 

| denhall, where he also held trials on 27 June. 

i In the days that followed he was occupied in 

, the same work at other Suffolk towns, and on 

9 July was holding inquests at Horning in 

Norfolk (POWELL, p. 131). On 29 July he was 

j again holding trials at Bury (ib, p. 127). In all 

| he held nineteen inquests, and at Bury alone 

i 104 rebels were accused. Suffolk and three 

others were commissioned on 22 July to array 

the king's lieges against the rebels (Cal. Pat. 

Rolls, 1381-5, p. 74). However, on 18 July 

Suffolk and his colleagues had already been 

ordered to suspend their processes (Fcedera, 

iv. 128), and on 19 Aug. the command was 

renewed in a more general and peremptory 

form (REVILLE, p. 158). On 14 Dec. he 

received a further commission to put down 

unlawful meetings and riots (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 

1381-5, p. 84). Sixteen rebels at least 

were executed in Suffolk, and still more in 


On the breaking out of a fierce quarrel 
between John of Gaunt [q. v.] and his former 
ally, Henry Percy, first earl of Northumber- 
land [q. v.j, Suffolk attended the council at 
Berkhampstead in which the duke brought 
his charges against the earl, and, on the latter 
being ordered under arrest, Suffolk joined 
with Warwick in acting as his surety ( WAL- 
SINGHAM, ii. 44; Chron. Anglia, p. 329). 
Northumberland now became the favourite 
of the London mob, and Suffolk won back 
his old popularity. In the parliament that 
met on 3 Nov. he was again strenuous on 
the popular side, and towards the end of its 
sittings he was chosen to express the opinions 
of the commons to the lords. On 13 Feb. 
1382 he died suddenly at Westminster Hall 
( WALSINGHAM, ii. 48 ; Chron. Anglia, p. 333 ; 
MONK OF EVESHAM, p. 35). He was buried 
at Campsey Priory, ' behind the tomb of my 
honourable father and mother.' His will, 
dated 12 June 1381, was proved at Lambeth 
on 24 Feb. 1382. It is summarised in 
Nicolas's 'Testamenta Vetusta' (pp. 114- 
115). To his father's estates he added in 
1380 those of the Norwiches from his mother, 
including Mettingharn Castle, near Bungay. 

Suffolk is praised by Walsingham for the 
amiability which he showed to all through- 
put his whole life (Hist. Angl. ii. 49). This 
is no conventional form of eulogy, for no 
one among his contemporaries made himself 
so universally beloved by different parties. 
Though the champion of the commons in 
1376 and 1382, he remained the friend and 
companion in arms of the unpopular John of 
Gaunt. The revolted villeins of Norfolk 



and the substantial citizens of Norwich alike 
looked up to him as their natural leader, and 
even his vigour in suppressing the revolt in 
Suffolk does not seem to have destroyed his 
popularity. His premature death was a real 
loss to England. 

Suffolk was twice married. His first wife 
was Joan, daughter and coheiress of Edward, 
lord Montacute, and of his wife Alice, the 
daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, earl of 
Norfolk [q. v.] They were married before 
July 1361, when Joan was twelve and Uftbrd 
twenty-two. By her Suffolk had four sons : 
Thomas, Robert, William, and Edmund. 
The eldest, Thomas Ufford, had license on 
28 Oct. 1371 to marry Eleanor, daughter of 
Richard Fitzalan (afterwards Earl of Arun- 
del) [see FITZALAN, RICHARD III]. He died, 
however, before 1374, when still a mere boy, 
and his three brothers, all then living, also 
died within a year of that time. Their 
mother, Joan, died in 1375, without sur- 
viving issue, and was buried at Campsey. 
About a year later Suffolk married Isabella, 
widow of John le Strange of Blackmere, and 
fifth daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, earl 
of Warwick (d. 1369), and sister therefore of 
his political associate, Thomas de Beauchamp, 
earl of Warwick [q. v.] By her he had no 
issue. His widow became a nun a few 
weeks after his death, and, surviving him 
twenty-five years, died in 1416, and was 
buried at Ca'mpsey (G. E. C[OKAYNE], Com- 
plete Peerage, vii. 302-3). The earldom of 
Suffolk thus became extinct, and the some- 
what hypothetical barony of Ufford fell into 
abeyance, according to the doctrine of later 
times. The coheirs were Suffolk's three 
nephews sons of his three sisters, who mar- 
ried and his surviving sister, Maud de 
Ufford, a canoness of Campsey. The large 
estates conferred on the male line of the 
Uffords to uphold the dignity of the earldom 
escheated to the crown, and were mostly 
re-granted in 1385 to Michael de la Pole 
[q. v.] on his creation in that year as Earl 
of Suffolk. 

[Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, Chronicon 
Anglise 1328-88, Knighton's Chronicon, vol. ii, 
(the above in Rolls Ser.); Monk of Evesham, 
ed. Hearne ; Froissart, ed Kervyn de Letten- 
hove; Nicolas's Testaraenta Vetusta; Rymer's 
Foedera, Record edit.; Cal. of Patent Rolls 
1377-81 and 1381-5; Rolls of Parliament; 
Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 48-9; Doyle's Officia' 
Baronage, iii. 432-3 ; G. E. C[okayne]'s Com' 
plete Peerage, vii. 302-3 ; Beltz's Memorials o: 
the Garter, pp. 210-12 ; Powell's East-Anglian 
Rising of 1381 (1896), pp. 18, 25, 126, 131 
and A. Reville's Soulevement des Travailleurs 
d'Angleterre en 1381, -with M. Petit-Dutaillis'i 
Introduction (Memoires et Documents publics 

>ar la Societe de 1'Ecole des Chartes, ii. 1898), 
>oth give valuable additions to our knowledge 
rom assize rolls and other unpublished docu- 
ments.] T. F. T. 

BAEON UGHTRED (1291 P-1365), eldest son 
and heir of Robert Ughtred, lord of the manor 
of Scarborough, Kilnwick Percy, Monkton 
Moor, and other places in Yorkshire, was 
born about 1291, being eighteen years of age 
at his father's death in 1309 (Cal. Close 
Rolls, 1307-13, p. 271 ; cf. ROBERTS, Cal. 
Genealogicum, ii. 551). On 8 June 1319 he 
was appointed commissioner of array for 
Yorkshire, an office which he frequently 
illed during Edward II's reign. In October 
1319 he served at the siege of Berwick in 
command of forty-four ' hobelars ' or light 
tiorse (Cal. Doc. relating to Scotland, 1307- 
1357, No. 668). On 6 Oct. 1320 he was 
returned to parliament as knight of the 
shire for his county. He sided with the 
king against Thomas of Lancaster [q. v.], 
and on 14 March 1321-2 was empowered 
to arrest any of the earl's adherents. In 
the same year he was made constable of 
Pickering Castle, seems to have been cap- 
tured by the Scots, and in the following 
March went to Scotland to release his hos- 
tages (ib. No. 806). In the same month he 
was granted the custody of the manor of 
Bentele, Yorkshire, during the minority of 
Payn de Tibetot or Tiptoft. He attended a 
great council held at Westminster in June 
1324, and was knighted in the same year. 
On 14 April 1328 he was placed on a com- 
mission of oyer and terminer, and in 1330 
and 1331-2 again represented Yorkshire in 

Edward III confirmed the grants made to 
Ughtred, and in 1331 placed him on the 
commissions of the peace between the Ouse 
and the Derwent and in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire. In 1332 he acquired a house and 
garden called ' Le Whitehalle ' in Berwick, 
and in the same year he accompanied Ed- 
ward Baliolonhis invasion of Scotland. The 
expedition landed at Kinghorn and defeated 
the Earl of Fife at Dupplin Moor on 12 Aug. 
Ughtred was apparently present at Baliol's 
coronation at Scone on 24 Sept., and sat in 
the Scottish parliament as Baron of Inner- 
wick. On 20 Oct. Baliol granted him the 
manor of Bonkill, which was confirmed by 
Edward III on 19 June 1334. In the summer 
of the latter year the Scots rose against 
Baliol, who sent Ughtred to Edward with a 
request for help. Baliol was, however,, 
driven out of Scotland, and during the re- 
treat Ughtred with great gallantry held the 
bridge at Roxburghe against the Scots and 




secured Baliol's retreat (Chron. de Melsa, ii. 
366; Chron. Edw. land Edw. II, ii. 109, 
120). In the same year he was made a 
knight-banneret. In 1338 Edward III, 
having no confidence in Baliol's military 
talents, required him to entrust the com- 
mand of Perth, then threatened with a siege 
by Robert the Steward, to Ughtred. He 
took over the command on 4 Aug., on condi- 
tion that he was given a garrison of 220 men 
in time of peace and eight hundred in time 
of war (Cal. Doc. rel. to Scotland, 1307-57, 
No. 1283). These conditions were not kept, 
and early in 1339 Ughtred petitioned the 
English government to be relieved of his 
charge. He was urged to remain until the 
arrival of reinforcements, but these were not 
despatched in time, and on 16 Aug. 1339 
Ughtred was compelled to surrender. This 
led to aspersions on his courage, and he com- 
plained to parliament at Westminster. His 
explanations were held sufficient, and in 
April 1340 the grant of Bonkill was con- 
firmed to him (Hot. Part. ii. 449 a ; RYMER, 
Fcedera, Record ed. n. ii. 1094, 1119; Cal. 
Doc. rel. to Scotland, 1307-57, Nos. 1299, 
1307, 1316, 1318, 1327). 

In the following year Ughtred was at- 
t ached to Robert of Artois's expedit ion against 
France. Siege was laid to St. Omer, and on 
26 July 1340 the French attacked the Fle- 
mings and would have raised the siege had 
not Ughtred with his archers restored the 
fortunes of the day (Chron. de Melsa, iii. 
46; ROBERT OP AVESBURY, p. 108). He 
was again summoned to serve against the 
French on 13 May 1347 ; on 14 June 1352 
he was appointed warden of the sea coast 
of Yorkshire, and on 16 April 1360 he 
again received protection on crossing the seas 
on the king's service. He is said to have 
received summonses to parliament from 
30 April 1343 to 4 Dec. 1364, and is accord- 
ingly generally reckoned a peer (BURKE; 
COURTHOPE). But in 1360 he was styled 
simply * chivaler ; ' none of his descendants 
were summoned to parliament, and it was 
probably he who represented Yorkshire in 
the House of Commons in 1344 and 1352 
(Official Return, i. 140, 152). He died in 
1365, being succeeded by his son Thomas, 
who was constable of Lochmaben Castle in 
1376-7, served against the French in 1377 
and 1379, and died in 1401 ; his will is 
printed in 'Testamenta Eboracensia' (Surtees 
Soc.), i. 241 sqq. 

SIR ANTHONY UGHTRED (d. 1534), a later 
member of the family, took a prominent 
part in the French and Scots wars of 
Ilenry VIII. During 1513-14 he was mar- 
shal of Tournay after its capture from the 

French, and from 1523 to 1528 he was 
captain of Berwick. He was subsequently 
appointed governor of Jersey, and held that 
office till his death in 1534. His widow, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Seymour 
and sister of Protector Somerset, married 
Gregory, lord Cromwell, eldest son of Thomas 
Cromwell (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vols. i-x. passim). 

[Rot-. Par], ii. 110, 449; Rymer's Fcedera, 
Record edit. vol. ii.; Cal. Patent Rolls, Edward 
II and Edward III ; Cal. Documents relating to 
Scotland; Parl. Writs, 1316-25 passim ; Chron. 
of Edward I and Edward II, ed. Stubbs ; Chron. 
de Melsa and Robeit of Avesbury (Rolls Ser.); 
Froissart's Chron. ed. Luce, vol. ii. ; Cal. Inq. 
post mortem ; Ridpath's Border History; Burlce's 
Extinct Peerage ] A. F. P. 

UHTRED or UCHTRED (d. 1016), 
Earl of Northumbria, was son of Waltheof 
the elder, earl of Northumbria, who had been 
deprived of the government of Deira (York- 
shire), the southern part of the earldom. 
Uhtred helped Ealdhun or Aldhun, bishop 
of Durham, when in 995 he moved his see 
from Chester-le-Street, to prepare the site 
for his new church. He married the bishop's 
daughter Ecgfrida, and received with her 
six estates belonging to the bishopric, on 
condition that as long as he lived he should 
keep her in honourable wedlock. When in 
1006 the Scots invaded Northumbria under 
their king, Malcolm II (d. 1034) [q. v.], and 
besieged Durham, Waltheof, who was old 
and unfit for war, shut himself up in Barn- 
borough ; but Uhtred, who was a valiant 
warrior, went to the relief of his father-in- 
law the bishop, defeated the Scots, and slew 
a great number of them. Ethelred II 
(968 P-1016) [q.v.], on hearing of Uhtred's 
success, gave him his father's earldom, add- 
ing to it the government of Deira. Uhtred 
then sent back the bishop's daughter, re- 
storing the estates of the church that he had 
received with her, and married Sigen, the 
daughter of a rich citizen, probably of York 
or Durham, named Styr Ulfson, receiving 
her on condition that he would slay her 
father's deadly enemy, Thurbrand. He did 
not fulfil this condition and seems to have 
parted with Sigen also ; for as he was of 
great service to the king in war, Ethelred 
gave him his daughter Elgiva or JElfgifu to 
wife. When Sweyn [q.v.], king of Den- 
mark, sailed into the Humber in 1013, 
Uhtred promptly submitted to him; but 
when Canute [q. v.] asked his aid in 1015 
he returned, it is said, a lofty refusal, de- 
claring that so long as he lived he would 
keep faithful to Ethelred, his lord and 
father-in-law. He joined forces with the 



king's son Edmund in 1016, and together 
they ravaged the shires that refused to help 
them against the Danes. Finding, however, 
that Canute was threatening York, Uhtred 
hastened northwards, and was forced to 
submit to the Danish king and give him 
hostages. Canute bade him come to him at 
a place called Wiheal (possibly Wighill, near 
Tadcaster), and instructed or allowed his 
enemy Thurbrand to slay him there. As 
Uhtred was entering into the presence of the 
king a body of armed men of Canute's 
retinue emerged from behind a curtain and 
slew him and forty thegns who accompanied 
him, and cut off their heads. He was suc- 
ceeded in his earldom by Canute's brother- 
in-law Eric, and on Eric's banishment the 
earldom came to Uhtred's brother, Eadwulf 
Cutel, who had probably ruled the northern 
part of it under Eric. 

By Ecgfrida, Uhtred had a son named Eal- 
dred (or Aldred), who succeeded his uncle, 
Eadwulf Cutel, in Bernicia, the northern part 
of Northumbria, slew his father's murderer, 
Thurband, and was himself slain by Thur- 
brand's son Carl ; he left five daughters, one 
of whom, named Elfleda, became the wife of 
Earl Siward [q. v.] and the mother of Earl 
Waltheof [q. v.] By Ethelred's daughter 
Elgiva, Uhtred had a daughter named Ald- 
gythor Eadgyth,who married Maldred, and 
became the mother of Gospatric (or Cos- 
patric), earl of Northumberland [q. v.] He 
also had two other sons Eadwulf, who suc- 
ceeded his brother Ealdred as earl in Ber- 
nicia and was slain by Siward, and Gos- 
patric. His wife, Ecgfrida, married again 
after he had repudiated her, and had a 
daughter named Sigrid, who had three hus- 
bands, one of them being this last-named 
Eadwulf, the son of her mother's husband. 
Ecgfrida was again repudiated, returned to 
her father, became a nun and died, and was 
buried at Durham (on these northern mar- 
riages see ROBERTSON'S Essays, p. 172). 

[De Obsid. Dunelm. ap. Sym. of Durham, i. 
215-20, also ii. 197, 383 ; Will, of Malmesbury's 
Gesta Eegum, ii. cc. 170, 180 (bothEolls Ser.) ; 
A.-S. Chron. ann. 1013, 1016; Flor. Wig. (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; Freeman's Norm. Conq. i. 358, 394, 
416.] W. H. 

(1315 P-1396), Benedictine theologian, some- 
times called John Utred, was born about 
1315 at Boldon, North Durham, whence he 
is also called Uhtred Boledunus, and erro- 
neously Uhtred Bolton. Apparently about 
1332 he entered the Benedictine order, being 
at Michaelmas 1333 attached to the cell at 
Boldon belonging to the Benedictine moii- 


astery at Durham. In February 1337 he 
was sent to London, and in March 1340 was 
one of the scholars regularly sent by the 
Benedictines of Durham to undergo the 
regular course of study at Oxford. In 1344 
he removed to Stamford, probably because 
the Benedictines had a cell there, and not 
owing to the secession thither from Oxford 
ten years before. In 1347 he was again at 
Oxford, and probably graduated in arts, 
having accomplished the requisite seven years' 
course of study. At Michaelmas 1352, after 
the further requisite four or five years' study, 
he was licensed ' ad opponendum,' i.e. to 
dispute with incipient graduates, a license 
which apparently conferred the degree of 
B.D. Two years later he was licensed to 
lecture on the Sentences, and in 1357 on the 
Bible, thus becoming ' sacrae theologize pro- 
fessor' or D.D. ( Vita Compendiosa apud Add. 
MS. 6162, f. 31 b ; cf. RASHBALL, Univer- 
sities, ii. 452-3). In these capacities he had 
some notable disputations at Oxford, mostly 
attacks on the friars (LITTLE, Greyfriars at 
Oxford, pp. 243, 253). One John Tryvyt- 
lian celebrated these performances in a poem 
on Uhtred, printed in Hearne's 'Vita Ri- 
cardi II' (App. p. 357), and again in Wood's. 
1 Historyand Antiquities' (ed. Gutch, i.491). 
Bale and other writers have described Uht- 
red as a supporter of Wyclif, but the only 
ground for the assertion is that both attacked 
the friars. Bale also states that the Domi- 
nicans at Oxford accused Uhtred of intro- 
ducing new opinions, and endeavoured to 
procure his expulsion from the church. In 
1367 Uhtred was appointed prior of Finchale 
Abbey, and in 1368 sub-prior of Durham.. 
He was reappointed prior of Finchale in 
1379, 1386, and 1392, and sub-prior of Dur- 
ham in 1381. 

In 1373 Uhtred was sent, with Wyclif 
and others, by Edward III to Rome to com- 
plain of various proceedings of the pope, such 
as keeping benefices vacant (HiGDEN, Poly- 
chron. viii. 379 ; WALSINGHAM, Hist. Anql. 
i. 316 ; RTMEE, Fcedera, Record ed. iii. 1007). 
In 1374, as proctor for Durham, lie attended 
a great council held at Westminster, under 
the presidency of the Black Prince, to de- 
termine the question of papal tribute. Ac- 
cording to the curious account given in the 
'Flores Historiarum/ Uhtred maintained the 
temporal suzerainty of the pope, which was. 
unanimously approved ; but on the follow- 
ing day an opposite decision was reached. 
Uhtred retracted his opinion, and answer 
was returned to the pope that King John's 
surrender was invalid as lacking the consent 
of the barons and the realm (Flores Hist. 
Rolls Ser. iii. 337-9). Uhtred was again 





resident at Oxford at Michaelmas 1383. He 
died on 24 Jan. 1396, and was buried before 
the entrance to the choir in the church at 

Bale and subsequent writers attribute to 
Uhtred a long list of works. Those of which 
the existence has been traced are: 1. ' De 
Substantialibus Regular Monachalis/ extant 
in Durham Cathedral Library (BERNARD, 
Cat. MSS. Anglia, iii. 12; RAINE, North 
Durham, p. 360). 2. l De Perfectione Vivendi,' 
extant in the Durham manuscript. The same 
manuscript contains some remarkable ' Medi- 
taciones,' extracts from which are printed by 
.Raine, who does not, however, think they 
are by Uhtred. 3. 'Contra Querelas Fra- 
trum,' a copy formerly in the abbey library 
at St. Albans, and now in British Museum 
Royal MS. 6. D. x, was written about 1390. 
4. * Meditacio edita ab Uthredo,' extant in 
Brasenose College MS. xv. f. 61 seq., in Cam- 
bridge Univ. MS. Gg. iv. 11, and also in the 
Bodleian (CoxE, Cat. MSS. in Coll. Aulis- 
que O.von.; NASMYTH, Cat. MSS. in Univ. 
Cantabr. iii. 151 ; BERNARD, Cat. MSS. i. 
142). 5. ' Numquid licitum sit Monachis 
secundum B. Benedict! regulam professis 
carnes edere, exceptis debilibus et infirmis,' 
formerly extant in Cotton. MS. Vitellius E. 
xii. 32 (THOMAS SMITH, Cat. 1696, p. 160), is 
now destroyed. A translation of Eusebius's 
'History' which Uhtred had made in 1381 
is extant in British Museum Burney MS. 

[The principal authority is the remarkably cir- 
cumstantial but brief Vita Compendiosa Utbredi 
monachi Dunelmensis, written early in the 
fifteenth century, probably by John Wessington 
[q. v.], prior of Durham, and extant in Brit. 
Mas, Addit. MS. 616'2, f. 31 b. See also, besides 
authorities cited, Bale, De III. Scriptt, vi. 53 ; 
Pits, p. 528 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, i. 220; Wood's Hist, et Antiq. 
ed. G-utch, i. 475, 491; information has also 
been kindly supplied by Mr. E. Bishop.] 

A. F. P. 

ULECOT, PHILIP DE (d. 1220), judge, 
was in 1204-5 constable of Chinon (Patent 
Rolls, p. 40 &). He seems to have been taken 
prisoner in France, and he stood so high in 
the royal favour that on 7 May 1207 King 
John gave him two hundred marks for his 
ransom (Close Rolls, p. 82 b). He witnessed 
charters at Rockingham and Carlisle in Julv 
and August 1208 (Charter Rolls, pp. 1816, 
52), and is mentioned by Roger of Wend- 
over (ii. 00) as among John's evil counsellors 
in 1211. On 11 May 1212 he was given the 
custody of the lands of Robert de Ros (Patent 
Rolls, p. 92 ft). In 1213 he became forester 
ot Northumberland, received several manors 

from the king, 12 Feb. 1213 (Charter Rolls, p. 
190), and became sheriff of that county and 
custos of the bishopric of Durham during its 
vacancy in conjunction with the archdeacon 
of Durham and Earl Warenne (Patent Rolls, 
p. 94 b}. On 3 Sept. 1212 he and Reiner de 
Clare seem to have been in charge of Richard, 
the king's son (ib. p. 104). He afterwards 
held the sheriffdom alone, and continued 
to hold it during the first four years of 
Henry III. 

In 1216 Ulecot and Hugh de Balliol were 
put by John in command of the country be- 
tween the River Tees and Scotland, and held 
the castles against the barons' ally, the king 
of Scots (WENDOVER. pp. 166,191). Thecus- 
tody of the lands of the bishopric of Durham 
between Tyne arid Tees had, however, been 
taken from him and given to Robert de Vieux- 
pont [q. v.] on 15 Aug. 1215 (Close Rolls, p. 
225 b). Early in the reign of Henry III Ule- 
cot had a quarrel with Roger Bertram, and 
was threatened with the seizure of his lands 
before he would restore Roger's castle of Mid- 
ford on 4 April 1213 (Close Rolls, p. 3576), 
while on 18 July he was ordered to destroy 
an adulterine castle he had built at Naffer- 
ton to the injury of the lands and castle of 
Prudhoe, belonging to Richard de Umfra- 
yille (ib. p. 379 6). He still held his offices 
in the north, though Pandulph had no confi- 
dence in him (ib. p, 434; RYMER, i. 162). In 
3 Henry III he was one of the justices itine- 
rant for the three northern counties, and 
on 16 Sept. 1220 Henry committed Gascony 
to his custody, in addition to his other com- 
mands. He died before 2 Nov. following 
( Close Rolls, p. 473 b). He married Johanna, 
sister of the wife of Sewel FitzHenry, and 
was fined 100/. and a complete horse for 
doing so. 

[Authorities cited in text ; Foss's Judges of 
England.] W. E. K. 

ULFCYTEL or ULFKETEL (d. 1016), 
earl of the East-Angles, probably, as his 
name suggests, of Danish descent, is perhaps 
the thegn Ulfcytel who witnesses a charter 
of 1004 (KEMBLE, Codex Dipl. No. 710) ; 
in that year he was earl of the East-Angles, 
and, Norwich having been taken and burnt 
by Sweyn [q. v.], king of Denmark, Ulfcytel 
gathered together the East- Anglian ' witan ' 
and made a peace with the invaders. Shortly 
afterwards the Danes broke the peace and 
marched against Thetford. On this Ulfcytel 
sent to men whom he trusted to destroy the 
ships of the Danes in their absence, but they 
did not carry out his orders. Then, having 
gathered such force as he could muster, he 
met the Danes near Thetford on the day after 



they bad burnt tbe town. The battle was fierce 
and the loss heavy on both sides, many of the 
chief men in the earl's army being slain. 
The result was indecisive, and it was said 
that, if the earl had had a larger force, the 
Danes would not have been able to return 
to their ships ; indeed, as it was, they declared 
that 'they had never met with a worse 
hand-play in England than Ulfcytel brought 
them.' When the Danes invaded East- 
Anglia in 1010, Ulfcytel met them with the 
force of his earldom on 18 May at Ringmere, 
near Ipswich, where another battle took 
place. In the thick of the fight a thegn of 
Danish race named Thurcytel in the English 
army set the example of night, and was fol- 
lowed by the army generally, though the 
men of Cambridgeshire stood their ground 
for some while longer. The Danes were 
completely victorious, and again slew many 
of the chief men of the earldom. After the 
battle they harried East-Anglia for three 
weeks. The earl was slain fighting against 
the Danes in the battle of Assandun in 
1016 [see under EDMUND or EADMUND, 
called ' IRONSIDE']. 

[A.-S. Chron. ann. 1004, 1010, 1016, ed. 
Plummer ; Flor. Wig. (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Henry 
of Huntingdon ; Will. Malm.'s Gesta Eegum, 
iii. c. 180 (both Rolls Ser.) ; Corpus Poet. 
Boreale, ii. 105, 107; Freeman's Norm. Conq. i. 
350-2, 378, 431.] W. H. 

NARD (1806-1889), Roman catholic bishop 
of Birmingham, afterwards archbishop of 
Cabasa, was born at Pocklington in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire on 7 May 1806. 
His father, who was a grocer, draper, and 
spirit merchant, belonged to the ancient 
catholic family of the Ullathornes, and his 
mother, a convert, was a distant relative of 
Sir John Franklin, the arctic navigator. 
When William was between nine and ten 
years old the family removed from Pockling- 
ton to Scarborough, and at the age of fifteen 
he became a sailor, and made several voyages 
to the Baltic and the Mediterranean. Touch- 
ing at Memel on one of these voyages, he 
landed on a Sunday in order to hear mass, 
and was powerfully affected by the solemnity 
of the celebration and the devotion of the 
people. Soon after his return home he was 
placed, in February 1823, at the Benedictine 
College of St. Gregory, Downside, near Bath. 

On 12 March 1824 he received the Bene- 
dictine habit, taking the name of Bernard, 
and on 5 April 1825 he made his profession 
as a religious. He next studied theology 
under Dr. Brown, afterwards bishop of New- 
port and Menevia, and in October 1828 he 

was made subdeacon. In September 1830 
he was raised to the diaconate at Prior Park 
by Bishop Peter Augustine Baines [q.v.J He 
was ordained priest at Ushaw College on 
24 Sept. 1831. 

In 1832 he accepted the invitation of 
Bishop Morris to assist him in the Austral- 
asian mission as vicar-general, and at the 
same time received from government the 
appointment of his majesty's catholic chap- 
lain in New South Wales. Embarking on 
12 Sept. 1832 at London, he reached Sydney 
on 19 Feb. 1833. A graphic account of his 
missionary labours in Australia is given in 
his 'Autobiography,' including a most in- 
teresting description of his intercourse with 
the convicts, who then formed a large portion 
of the Australian population. It was mainly 
through his representations to the Holy See as 
to the necessity of a bishop to carry on the work 
of the Roman church in Australia that the 
hierarchy was established by Gregory XVI, 
and Dr. John Bede Folding [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed to the newly erected see of Sydney. 
In the course of this first visit to Australia, 
Ullathorne displayed his skill in controversy 
by publishing * A Few Words to the Rev. 
Henry Fulton and his Readers,' Sydney, 
1833 ; i Observations on the Use and Abuse 
of the Sacred Scriptures, as exhibited in the 
Discipline and Practice of the Protestant 
and Catholic Communions/ Sydney, 1834, 
reprinted in London 1838 ; a < Sermon against 
Drunkenness,' Sydney, 1834, often reprinted; 
and ' A Reply to Judge Burton, of the Su- 
preme Court of New South Wales, on " The 
State of Religion in the Colony,' Sydney, 
1835, reprinted 1840 and 1841. 

Returning to England in 1836, he issued 
a pamphlet on the ' Catholic Mission in 
Australasia,' which passed through five edi- 
tions. He also lectured on the subject both 
in England and Ireland, and generous con- 
tributions flowed into his hands. He brought 
out another pamphlet on the ' Horrors of 
Transportation' (Dublin, 1836; reprinted 
1837 and 1838) at the request of Thomas 
Drummond (1797-1840) [q. v.], under-secre- 
tary for Ireland, and it was circulated at the 
expense of the Irish government. In 1837 
he was summoned to Rome at the instance 
of Cardinal Weld, in order to give an ac- 
count of the Australasian mission. His re- 
port to propaganda was translated into Italian, 
and published under the title of l Relazione 
sulla Missione o Vicariato Apostolico della 
Nuova Olanda' (Rome, 1837). The Roman 
authorities took a lively interest in the mis- 
sion, and the pope conferred upon Ullathorne 
the diploma of doctor of divinity. On coming 
back to England he was, at the suggestion of 





Dr. Lingard, examined before Sir William 
Molesworth's select committee of the House 
of Commons on ' Transportation ' (8 and 
12 Feb. 1838). On his return to Sydney 
shortly afterwards he found himself the ob- 
ject of universal indignation in the colony 
because he had made known throughout 
Europe the state of moral degradation pre- 
vailing in the colony, and had exposed the 
evils of the assignment system. 

In 1840 he returned to England, owing 
to ill-health, and in 1841 he was entrusted 
with the charge of the mission at Coventry. 
He had already declined the bishopric of 
Hobart Town ; he now received news that he 
had been nominated to the see of Adelaide. 
This he also refused, as he did subsequently 
the offer 'of the bishopric of Perth in Western 

On 16 Oct. 1845 Ullathorne was appointed 
by Gregory XVI to the western vicariate of 
England. He was accordingly consecratec 
at Coventry on 21 June 1846 to the see o 
Hetalona 'in partibus, sub archiepiscopc 
JBostrensi.' In 1848, at the request of the 
other English vicars-apostolic, he went to 
Rome to petition in their name for the restora- 
tion of the hierarchy, and to represent the 
English episcopate in the negotiations. The 
history of these transactions he afterwards 
minutely detailed in his ' History of the Re- 
storation of the Catholic Hierarchy in Eng- 
land ' (London, 1871, 8vo). By brief dated 

28 July 1848 he was transferred to the cen- 
tral district, and he was installed in St. 
Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, on 30 Aug. 
(BRADY, Episcopal Succession, iii. 333, 336). 
When the hierarchy was restored by Pius 
IX, Ullathorne was translated from the 
titular bishopric of Hetalona to the newly 
erected see of Birmingham by brief dated 

29 Sept. 1850. 

^ His tenure of the see extended over thirty- 
eight years, and during that time the cause 
Of Catholicism made great progress in the 
diocese of Birmingham. He was ever ready 
to promote both by writing and speech what 
he deemed to be the interests of his church. 
His speeches at public meetings in the town- 
hall, Birmingham, in opposition to the popu- 
lar tumult against the 'papal aggression,' 
had a marked effect in abating the agitation. 
Among his writings on questions of the day 
may be mentioned his pamphlets on popular 
education ; on the proposal to submit con- 
vents to government inspection ; letters on 

Certain Methods of the "Rambler" and 
Home and Foreign Review"' (1862- 
a3) ; ' Letter on the Association for the 
I romotion of the Unity of Christendom 
(.18o4); 'Lectures on the Conventual Life 

(1868); and a 'Pastoral Letter on Fenianism' 

Ullathorne was a prominent figure at the 
Vatican council of 1870, and he played an 
important part in the proceedings of that 
body. On his return to England he pub- 
lished a letter on ' The Council and Papal In- 
fallibility '(two editions, 1870). This was 
followed by 'The Dollingerites, Mr. Glad- 
stone, and Apostates from the Faith ' (1874) ; 
Mr. Gladstone's Expostulation Unravelled ' 
(three editions, 1875), a reply to the famous 
pamphlet on ' The Vatican Decrees ; ' and 
' The Prussian Persecution ' (1876). 

While he was at Birmingham the rela- 
tions between him and Cardinal Newman 
were uniformly characterised by mutual ad- 
miration and affection. In the ' Apologia ' 
Newman remarked that if he wished to point 
to a straightforward Englishman he should 
instance the bishop of Birmingham ; and 
Ullathorne, writing to the cardinal in 1882 r 
speaks of the 'forty years of friendship which 
have enriched my life.' In 1879 Dr. Ilsley 
was consecrated bishop of Fesse, in order to 
act as Ullathorne's auxiliary. In 1888 Ul- 
lathorne was allowed to retire from his 
diocese, and he withdrew to end his days at 
Oscott College, receiving from Leo XIII the 
honorary title of archbishop of Cabasa. He 
died in the college on 21 March 1889, and 
was buried at St. Dominic's Priory, Stone, 
Staffordshire. There are several portraits. 
One of them, drawn from life, by Edwin 
Cocking, has been lithographed (GLANCEY, 
Characteristics, p. xxxvi). Another was 
painted by John Pettie, 11. A. (Cat. Victorian 
Exhib. No. 228). 

Ullathorne's publications of a permanent 
character comprise : 1. 'The Holy Mountain 
of La Salette,' 1854; 6th edit. 1861. 2. ' The 
Immaculate Conception of the Mother of 
God: an Exposition/ 1855; translated into 
French and German. 3. ' A Pilgrimage to 
the Proto-Monastery of Subiaco and the 
Holy Grotto of St. Benedict,' 1856. 4. 'Ec- 
clesiastical Discourses delivered on special 
occasions,' 1876. 5. ' Church Music,' 1880. 
6. 'The Endowments of Man considered in 
their relations with his Final End,' 1880 ; 
reprinted 1882 and 1888. 7. ' The Ground- 
work of the Christian Virtues,' 1882; 2nd edit. 
1888. 8. ' Christian Patience, the Strength 
and Discipline of the Soul,' 1886 ; 2nd edit. 
1888 ; dedicated to Cardinal Newman. 9. ' Me- 
moir of Bishop Willson, first Bishop of Ho- 
bart, Tasmania,' 1887. 

' The Autobiography of Archbishop Ulla- 
horne, with Selections from his Letters/ 
appeared at London in 2 vols. [1891-2], 8vo. 
There is also a volume of ' Characteristics 




from the Writings of Archbishop Ullathorne 
..... arranged by the Rev. Michael F. 

Olancey,' London, 1889, 8vo. 

[Ullathorne's Autobiography; Birmingham 
Paces and Places, May 1888, i. 6 ; Brady's Epi- 
scopal Succession, iii. 333, 336, 400 ; Catholic 
Mag. 1841 v. 731, 1842 vi. 442 ; Downside Ee- 
view, v. 101, vi. 142, vii. 138 (portrait) ; Kenny's 
Hist, of Catholicity in Australia, 1 886 ; Newman's 
Apologia, 1890, p. 271; Oliver's Cornwall, pp. 
425, 525; Eambler, 1850, vii. 429; Tablet, 1889 
!. 464, 502, 542, 1893 i. 699 ; Times, 22 March 
1889 ; Bishop Ullathorne : the Story of his Life, 
in Oscotian, July 1886, "with portraits; Ward's 
Life of Cardinal Wiseman, ii. 650.] T. C. 

theological writer, was born in the Duchy of 
Lancaster. He was taught by his relative, 
Richard Courtenay [q. v.], and on 19 Dec. 
1383 he took orders. He took the degree of 
doctor of theology at Oxford. In 1407-8 he 
was chancellor of Oxford, and on 1 June 
1407 he was made rector of Beford, York- 
shire. Anthony a Wood calls him a fellow 
of Queen's and canon of York (cf. HENNESSY, 
Novum Repertorium, cxxxiv, 321). 

He wrote in 1408 at the request of Hal- 
lam [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, sixteen 
4 Petitiones pro Ecclesise Militantis Reforma- 
tione,' which have been printed in Von der 
Hardt's 'Concilium Constantiense ' (i. 1326). 
In 1409 he wrote a work on the creed which 
was reissued with commentaries by John 
Stanbridge [q. v.] in 1463. His commentary 
on the Psalms, written in 1415, was dedi- 
cated to Henry Chichele or Chicheley[q.v.]; 
it is extant among Lord Mostyn's manuscripts 
{Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. p. 349). 
His * De Officio Militari,' written at Cour- 
tenay's request to Henry, prince of Wales, is 
in the library of Corpus Christ! College, 
Cambridge (clxxvii. 26). In 1415 he wrote 
* Expositions on the Song of Songs/ based on 
Nicholas de Lyra, of which there is a copy 
in the Magdalen MS. cxv. A copy of hi's 
' Defensorium Dotationis Ecclesiastics ' (per 
Constantinum) is in Exeter Cathedral library 
(No. 46, according to Oudin) ; it was seen 
there by Leland (Comm. iii. 151). 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca; Wood's Hist. Antiq. 
Oxon. ii. 117 ; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 466.] M.B. 

DE, d. 1219?; LACY, HUGH DE, d. 1242?; 
BURGH, WALTER DE, called Earl of Ulster, 
d. 1271 ; BURGH, RICHARD DE, second earl 
of the Burgh family, 1259 ?-1326 ; BURGH, 
WILLIAM DE, third earl, 1312-1 332; LIONEL 
(VI) DE, 1374-1398; MORTIMER, EDMUND 
(IV) DE, 1391-1425.] 

ULTAN (d. 656), Irish saint, called of 
Ardbrecain to distinguish him from eighteen 
other saints of the same name in the Irish 
calendar, was the tribal bishop of his clan, 
the Dal Conchubhair, whose country lay 
round Ardbrecain in Meath. As his episco- 
pal jurisdiction in later times became part of 
that of Meath, he is considered an eccle- 
siastical predecessor of the bishops of that 
diocese. The mother of St. Brigit [q. v.], 
who was Broicsech of the Dal Conchubhair, 
was his kinswoman. In the * Tripartite Life 
of St. Patrick ' Ultan is said to have made 
collections for the ' life ' of St. Patrick, and 
Tirechan in the 'Book of Armagh' is made to 
say that Ultan told him, as an eye-witness, 
of Patrick's life. This error has led to the 
statement that Ultan was aged 189 when he 
died in 656. He is mentioned in later writ- 
ings as a biographer of Brigit, and the Irish 
hymn (Liber Hymnorum, i. 110), ' Brigit be 
bith-maith' 'Brigit, woman ever good' is 
attributed to him, as is the Latin hymn 
(ib. i. 14), ' Christus in nostra insola quae 
vocatur Hibernia,' but in each case other 
authors are possible. Besides his literary occu- 
pations, Ultan is always mentioned as feed- 
ing and teaching orphans, and as addicted, 
like St. Ere of Slane, to bathing in cold 
water. His well at Killinkere in Cavan, 
near the borders of Meath, was long a place 
of pilgrimage ; 4 Sept. is celebrated as the 
day of his death. A hymn in his honour is 
printed by Diimmler in his ' Poetse Latini 
^Evi Carolini.' 

[Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 1645; Liber 
Hymnorum, ed. Bernard 'and Atkinson (Brad- 
shaw Society), 1897 ; Whitley Stokes's Tripar- 
tite Life of St. Patrick (Rolls Ser.) 1887, and 
Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore, 1890 ; 
O'Dono van's Marty rology of Donegal, and Annala 
Rioghachta Eireann, vol. i.] N. M. 

ANGUS (1244 P-1307), was the son of Gilbert 
de Umfraville and Matilda, countess of Angus. 
The Umfravilles, a Norman house whose 
name is derived from Amfreville, between 
Brionne and Louviers in Normandy, had 
possessed since the Conquest the liberty of 
Redesdale in Northumberland (cf. Red Book 
of the Exchequer, ed. Hall, p. 563), and since 
Henry I's time the castle of Prudhoe, south 
of the Tyne, in the same county (ib. p. 563 ; 
MADOX, Baronia Anglica, p. 244). The elder 
Gilbert is described by Matthew Paris as a 
'prgeclarus baro, partium borealium custos 
et flos singularis ' (Hist. Major, iv. 415). 
Matilda, his wife, was daughter and heiress 
of Malcolm, earl of Angus, the last male 
representative of the old Celtic earldom of 
Angus, a dignity that had become feudalised 




like the other Scottish earldoms 
Celtic Scotland, iii. 289-90). Malcolm's pos- 
sessions and earldom passed to Matilda during 
the lifetime of her first husband, John Corny n, 
who was styled Earl of Angus. Comyn died 
in 1242, and in 1243 Matilda married the 
elder Umfraville, who died in April 1245. 

Gilbert the younger was therefore born 
about 1244. The wardship of the young 
heir was entrusted by Henry III to Simon 
de Montfort, earl of Leicester (MATT. PARIS, 
Hist. Major, iv. 415). Simon is said to have 
paid a thousand marks for it, and to have 
made no scruple in utilising its revenues for 
his own purposes (ib. v. 209-10). Umfraville's 
relation to the Earl of Leicester accounts 
for his taking the popular side during the 
barons' wars, but he did not come of age until 
towards their conclusion, and then his policy 
changed. Before Evesham he was lighting 
with John de Baliol's northern army against 
the barons. In a charter dated 1267 he is 
styled ' Earl of Angus, and not before/ adds 
Dugdale, 'that I have seen' (Baronage, i. 
505). In writs, especially in summonses to 
the host, from 1277 onwards he is generally 
called Earl of Angus (Par/. Writs, i. 876-7), 
and he was summoned to the Shrewsbury 
parliament of 1283 by that title. The peace- 
ful relations between England and Scotland 
before 1290 made it easy for Umfraville to 
enter into effective possession of the Angus 
dignity and estates, and he appears as actual 
possessor of Dundee, Forfar, and other chief 
places in Angus. 

In March 1290 Angus was at the Scottish 
parliament of Brigham, which agreed to 
ratify the treaty of Salisbury for the marriage 
of the Maid of Norway with Edward, the 
king's son (Hist. Doc. Scotl. i. 129). In May 
1291 he was at the council of magnates at 
Norham (Annales Regni Scotice in RISHAN- 
GEK, p. 253), where, though he accepted 
Edward's arbitration and overlordship, he 
scrupled to surrender the Angus castles of 
Dundee and Forfar into the English king's 
hands. However, on 10 June Edward and 
the chief competitors pledged themselves to 
indemnify him for their surrender (Fcedera, 
i. 756), and on 13 June Umfraville did 
homage to Edward as king of Scots. He 
was soon made governor of the surrendered 
castles and of all Angus. Next year (1292) 
Angus was at Berwick, and accepted the sen- 
tence that made John Baliol king of Scots 
(Annales Regni Scotice, pp. 263, 358). In 
1293 he witnessed Balliol's agreement with 
England as to his hereditary English lands 
(Rot. Parl. i. 115 b). In 1294 he was sent 
to Gascony against the French, and in 1295 
and 1296 was summoned to parliament as 

simple ' Gilbert of Umfraville.' When John 
Balliol broke with Edward, Angus adhered 
to the English side. He attended Edward 
during his victorious tour through Scotland 
in the summer of 1296, being at Montrose 
on 10 July, and in August at Berwick, at- 
tending a great council (Hist. Doc. Scotl. ii. 
62, 65). There, on 22 Aug., his son, Gilbert 
de Umfraville, laid violent hands upon the 
king's servant, Hugh de Lowther, and was 
saved from the king's wrath only by Angus 
and other magnates acting as his manu- 
captors, and by giving full satisfaction to the 
injured Hugh (ib. ii. 81). 

On 26 Jan. 1297 Umfraville was for the 
first time since 1283 summoned to parliament 
as Earl of Angus, a title given to him, his 
son, and grandson in all subsequent writs. 
It has been disputed in later times whether 
these summonses involved the creation of a 
new English earldom of Angus. That opi- 
nion is maintained by F. Townsend, Windsor 
herald, in ' Collectanea Topographica et 
Genealogica,' vii. 383 ; but the preponderance 
of opinion is rather towards the doctrine 
that, though allowed by courtesy the title of 
earl, the Umfravilles were really summoned 
as barons (Lords' Reports on the Dignity of a 
Peer, 1st Rep. p. 432, 3rd Rep. pp. 113-14; 
NICOLAS, Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope, 
pp. 24-5 ; G. E. C[OKAYNE], Complete Peer- 
age, i. 92-3, which quotes some remarks of 
Mr. J. 11. Round to the same effect). 

Angus continued to support Edward in 
Scotland. In 1297 he was ordered to go 
himself or send his son with at least three 
hundred infantry to the army of invasion 
(Hist. Doc. Scotl. ii. 180), and on 1 Nov. 
received the king's thanks for his services 
(ib. ii. 241). In 1298 he served personally 
through the Falkirk campaign, attending 
the Whitsuntide parliament at York, and 
receiving on 28 May letters of protection till 
Christmas (GoiiGH, Scotland in 1298, pp. 30, 
31, 96). On 21 July he was one of the two 
earls who announced to Edward the position 
of the Scots army in Selkirk forest, and 
thus enabled the king to make the disposi- 
tions which insured his victory (HEMING- 
BURGH, ii. 177). In April 1299 he received 
letters of protection before a new official 
visit to Scotland (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1292-1301, 
p. 402) ; but in July he was ordered to join 
a commission that met at York to deliberate 
as to the garrisoning of the Scottish fortresses 
(Cal. Doc. Scotl. ii. 379). The statements 
of the fifteenth-century chronicler John 
Hardyng, that he took Wallace prisoner, 
defeated Bruce in battle, and was regent of 
Scotland north of the Forth (Chron. pp. 301, 
303), are the fictions of an over-loyal servitor 



of the house of Umfraville. He received 
his last summons to the Carlisle parliament 
of August 1307 (Rot. Part. i. 115 b), and 
died the same year. He was buried with 
his wife in Ilexham Priory, where their 
effigies can, still be seen (figured in Hist, of 
Northumberland, ed. A. 13. Hinds, in. i. 
14:2). Angus's arms are given in the Falkirk 
roll of arms as gules, crusilly or, with a 
cinquefoil or (Gouaii, pp. 134-5). 

He was commemorated as a benefactor to 
the Cistercians of Newminster, though he 
only seems to have sold them a confirmation 
or extension of his predecessor's grants to 
that house (Monasticon, v. 400). He also 
made small gifts to Hexham Priory (Hist, 
of Northumberland, in. i. 140). His chief 
pious work was the assignment of some land 
in Prudhoe for the maintenance of a chaplain 
to celebrate divine service in St. Mary's 
Chapel within Prudhoe Castle, for which 
he had license on 13 April 1301 (Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, 1292-1301, p. 588). 

Angus married Elizabeth, the third daugh- 
ter of Alexander Comyn, second earl of 
Buchaii [q. v.], and of his wife, Elizabeth de 
Quincy ( WYNTOTJX, Cronykel of Scotland, 
bk. viii. lines 1141-8 ; Calendarium Genea- 
logicum, pp. GoO-1). This lady survived her 
husband, but died before November 1328 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1327-30, p. 330). Their 
eldest son, Gilbert, the Berwick delinquent, 
who took some part in the Scots wars, and 
married Margaret, daughter of Thomas de 
Clare, died in 1303 without issue. Robert 
de Umfraville, the eldest surviving son, is 
noticed below. A third son, Thomas, was 
in 1295 a scholar dwelling at Oxford (Cal. 
Doc. Scotl. ii. 5). In 1306 his father assigned 
him 20/. a year from his Redesdale estates. 
Thomas was then described as the king's 
yeoman (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1301-7, p. 414). 

GUS (1277-1325), was more than thirty years 
old at his father's death. He adhered to 
Edward II both against Scots and barons, 
and was regularly summoned to the English 
parliaments as Earl of Angus. He fought 
at Bannockburn, and was taken prisoner 
after the battle by Robert Bruce, but soon 
released. Though formerly in opposition to 
the Despensers,hesat in judgment on Thomas 
of Lancaster. Bruce deprived him of his 
Scottish estates and title, and before 1329 
the real earldom had been vested in the house 
of Stewart, from whom it passed in 1389 to 
a bastard branch of the Douglases [see 
1380P-1403]. Robert married twice. His 
first wife was Lucy, sister and heiress of 
William of Kyme, whose considerable estates 

in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, including the 
castle of Kyme, passed thus to the Umfra- 
villes. By her he had a son Gilbert (see 
below) and a daughter Elizabeth. By his 
second wife, Eleanor, he had two sons, Ro- 
bert and Thomas (see below). 

the son of Earl Robert and Lucy of Kyme, 
was summoned, like his father, to parliament 
as Earl of Angus. He made strenuous but 
unsuccessful attempts to win back his in- 
heritance, and was prominent among the 
disinherited who followed Edward Balliol 
in his attempt on the Scots crown, fighting 
in the battles of Dupplin Moor, Halidon 
Hill, and Neville's Cross. He married Ma- 
tilda de Lucy, who ultimately brought him 
the honour of Cockermouth and a share of 
Lucy estates in Cumberland, and who after 
his death became the second wife of Henry 
Percy, first earl of Northumberland [q. v.] 
There was no surviving issue to the marriage, 
so that his heir by law was his niece Eleanor, 
wife of Sir Henry Talboys (d. 1370), and 
daughter and heiress of Earl Gilbert's only 
sister of the full blood, Elizabeth, and her 
husband, Sir Gilbert Barradon. The great 
mass of the- Umfraville estates now passed 
to this lady. However, in 1378 Earl Gilbert 
had created a special entail which settled 
Redesdale, with Harbottle and Otterbourne, 
on his brothers of the half blood and their 
heirs male (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1377-81, p. 
134). Of these, the elder Robert de Umfra- 
ville died before his half-brother the earl, so 
that his half-brother SIR THOMAS DE UM- 
FRAVILLE (d. 1386) now inherited Redesdale 
under the entail. This Thomas was never 
summoned to parliament, either as earl or 
baron, a fact which his poor and scanty 
estates will sufficiently explain. It is thought, 
however, that he acquired the Kyme property 
(Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 330-31), 
though how this happened it is not easy to 
see. He married Joan, daughter of Adam 
de Rodom, and had by her two sons. The 
elder son, Sir Thomas de Umfraville (1362- 
1391), who actually sat in the commons in 
1388 as member for Northumberland, was 
the father of Gilbert de Umfraville (1390- 
1421) [q. v.], ' Earl of Kyme.' The younger 
son, Sir Robert de Umfraville (d. 1436), was 
knight of the Garter [see under UMFRA- 
VILLE, GILBERT DE, 1390-1421]. 

[Calendars of Patent Rolls ; Rymer's Fcedera ; 
Eotuli Hundredorum, Abbreviatio Placitorum ; 
Historical Documents relating to Scotland ; Cal. 
of Documents, Scotland; Rolls of Parl. vol. i. ; 
Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Kishanger 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Cartulary of Newminster (Sar- 
tees Soc.); Gough's Scotland in 1298; G. E. 



C[okaynejs Complete Peerage, i. 91-3 ; Nicolas's 
Hist. Peerage, ed. Courthope, pp. 24-5, 483-4 ; 
Lords' Keports on the Dignity of a Peer ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, i. 505-6 ; Jervise and Gram- 
mack's Memorials of Angus and the Mearns 
[18851; Hodgson's Northumberland, vol. i. pt. 
ii. pp. 1-48.] T. F. T. 

1421), popularly styled the 'Earl of Kyme,' 
was the son of Sir Thomas de Umfraville 
(1362-1391) [see under UMFRAVILLE, GIL- 
BERT DE, EARL OF ANGUS]. He was born 
about the end of July 1390, and was only 
twenty-eight weeks old when his father's 
death on 12 Feb. 1391 put him in possession 
of Harbottle and Redesdale, and such of the 
Umfraville estates as were included in the 
entail of 1378. He also appears, by some 
inexplicable process, to have inherited the 
Kyme estates in Kesteven, though he was 
not of the blood of the old lords of Kyme. 
He was a royal ward (HARDYNG, p. 365), and 
Ralph Neville (afterwards first Earl of West- 
morland) [q.v.] received from Richard II the 
governorship of Harbottle Castle during his 
minority. The chief care for the youth de- 
volved, however, upon his uncle, Robert Um- 
fraville, whose martial exploits against the 
Scots did much to restore the waning fortunes 
of the house of Umfraville. After the Lancas- 
trian revolution, to which Robert Umfraville 
early adhered, Henry Percy, called Hotspur, 
became guardian of young Gilbert's lands. 
The Umfravilles and the Percys were closely 
related, the Earl of Northumberland's second 
wife being the widow of the Earl Gilbert of 
Angus who died in 1381, who was Robert's 
uncle of the half-blood. Prudhoe Castle, an 
old Umfraville property, was already in 
Northumberland's hands. In 1400 Robert 
Umfraville was actually in command at 
Harbottle (Ord. Privy Council, i. 125), where 
on 29 Sept. he signally routed a Scottish 
force. In 1403 the wardship of the young 
heir was transferred, after the Percys' fall, 
to George Dunbar, earl of March (Fcedera, 
viii. 323) ; while in 1405 Warkworth was 
transferred from the rebel house to Robert 
Umfraville, who in 1408 became knight of the 
Garter (Bei/rz, Memorials of the Garter, 
p. clvii). Trained from infancy in the rude 
school of border warfare, Gilbert entered 
early on his career of arms. About 1409 he 
distinguished himself in a tournament at 
Arras (HARDYNG, p. 365), and on 10 Jan. 
1410 he had livery of his lands and was 
soon afterwards knighted. He now took an 
active share in his uncle's plundering forays 
against the Scots (HARDYNG, p. 367), though 
apparently not participating in Robert's 
destruction of Scottish shipping in the Forth 

early in 1411. In the autumn of 1411 Gilbert 
accompanied his uncle on the expedition sent 
under Thomas Fitzalan, earl of Arundel 
(1381-1415) [q.v.], to help Philip of B urgundy 
against the Armagnacs. Hardyng, the rhym- 
ing chronicler, who after 1403 transferred 
his services from the Percys to Robert Um- 
fraville, is careful in chronicling the exploits 
of his lord and lord's nephew, giving them 
perhaps a larger share of the glory of the 
expedition than is allowed by more sober 
historians. Both took part in the capture of 
Saint-Cloud on 8 Nov., and, according to 
Hardyng, gave voice to the English protest 
against the massacre and torture of the 
prisoners (p. 368; cf., however, WYLIE'S 
Henry IV, iv. 62-3). Hardyng also says 
that after the battle of Saint-Cloud Gilbert 
* proclaimed was Earl of Kyme' (p. 367). 
This certainly does not mean that he was 
formally created an English earl. Neither 
he nor his uncle after him received a sum- 
mons, even as a baron, to the House of 
Lords. The title may have been simply a 
mere popular recognition of his descent from 
earls, though he was not famous enough as a 
soldier to extort any special popular accla- 
mation. It is not quite impossible, as Sir 
James Ramsay suggests (Lancaster and York, 
i. 131), that he received a grant of this title 
from his French allies. Nevertheless all 
similar titles given in France were, like the 
Greys' county of Tancarville, derived from 
French places and represented existing French 
dignities. Hardyng's authority, moreover, 
is of little weight, and the French writers, 
who mainly use the title, are so ignorant as 
to confuse him with the Earl of Kent. His 
designation in English official documents is 
<G. de Umfraville miles' (Testamenta Ve- 
tusta, p. 20), or at most ' dominus de Kyme' 
(PTJISEUX, Siege de Rouen, p. 86 ; cf. Gesta 
Henrici V, p. 280). When asked his name 
by the Rouennais in 1412, he answered that 
he was a knight and named Umfraville 
(PuiSETix, p. 253). 

In 1412 Umfraville served at Calais under 
the Earl of Warwick, and wrought great 
devastation in the Boulonnais, burning 
Samer and taking Wissant by assault (J. LE 
FEVRE, pp. 69-70). 

Umfraville took a prominent part in 
Henry V's French wars, attended the cam- 
paign of 1415 at the head of twenty men-at- 
arms and ninety horse archers, and was, says 
Hardyng, joined at Harfleur by his uncle, 
with whom came his esquire, John Hardyng 
the chronicler (HARDYNG, pp. 573-5). On 
14 Aug. Gilbert was sent to reconnoitre Ilar- 
fleur. On 22 Sept., when the formal sur- 
render was made, he bore King Henry's hel- 



met (Gesta, p. 32). During the famous re- 
treat northwards he shared with Sir John 
Cornwall the command of the van, and on 
18 Oct. first effected the dangerous passage 
over the Somme (ib. p. 43). He fought well 
at Agincourt, where the ransom of two 
prisoners fell to his share (NICOLAS, Battle 
of Agincourt, p. Ixi, App.) In 1416 he was 
again fighting at Calais under Warwick 
(Gesta, p. 96). 

In the Norman campaign of 1417 Umfra- 
ville was captain of fifty-four lances (ib. 
p. 271), and one hundred and twenty-five 
archers. On 20 Aug. power was given to him 
and to Gilbert Talbot to take possession of 
all castles and towns in Normandy (Foedera, 
ix. 486), and on 30 Sept. he was made captain 
of Caen, and afterwards of Gournay. On 
25 March 1418 he was justice in the diocese 
of Bayeux. He received very liberal grants 
of forfeited Norman estates, which included, 
among other places, Amfreville, the cradle 
of his race. He was with Warwick at the 
siege of Neuilly 1'Eveque (WALSINGHAM, ii. 
328). He was at the siege of Rouen in 
1418-19, being stationed, under John Hol- 
land, earl of Huntingdon, on the left bank 
of the Seine (LE FEVEE, i. 344 ; PUISETJX, 
Siege de Rouen, p. 86). On the besieged 
opening negotiations, Umfraville was sent 
by Huntingdon to treat with them on 1 Jan. 
1419. The Rouennais welcomed him as of 
an ancient Norman stock, and persuaded him 
to intervene on their behalf through the 
Duke of Clarence with the king (details in 
REDMAN in Memorials of Henry V., pp. 53-6, 
but much more elaborate particulars in the 
English poem, ' The Sege of Roan,' printed 
inArcheeoloffia,vo}s. xxi. and xxii., and trans- 
lated by PTJISEUX, pp. 235-72, and pp. 162-3). 
Afterwards he was one of the commission 
of sixteen who drew up the terms of the 
capitulation of the city. In February 1419 
he was appointed in rapid succession captain 
of Pontoise, Eu, and Neufchatel. He also 
took part in the long siege of Chateau 
Gaillard (J. LE FEVEE, i. 368-9 ; MONSTEE- 
LET, iii. 338). 

On 28 March 1419 Umfraville was made 
member of an embassy accredited to the 
French king, and on 8 May was put on the 
commission empowered to negotiate for the 
marriage of Henry V with Catharine, and 
to arrange for an interview between the two 
kings (Fcedera, ix. 747-50). The negotia- 
tions at first were hollow, and on their way 
to Provins, where Charles VI was, the 
ambassadors were attacked by Tanneguy 
Duchatel, the Armagnac, at Chaumes in 
Brie (MONSTRELET, iii. 313 ; J. LE FEVEE, 
i. 359). After the murder of the Duke of 

Burgundy at Montereau, Umfraville helped 
to arrange the Anglo-Burgundian alliance. 
On 24 Oct. he was authorised to declare that 
Henry would accept the hand of Catharine 
with the reversion of the French crown as 
the price of his alliance. He accompanied 
Henry on his march to Troyes in the spring 
of 1420 (MONSTEELET, iii. 388 ; CHASTELLAIN, 
i. 130). He took a conspicuous part in the 
great tournaments with which Henry cele- 
brated Christmas in 1420 at Paris (ib. p. 380). 
On Henry's return to England Umfraville 
remained in France, being constituted cap- 
tain of Melun by the king (HARDYNG, p. 379 ; 
J. LE FEVEE, ii. 27, 379). In January 1421 
he was made marshal of France (ib. p. 383). 
He joined the expedition of Clarence to 
Anjou against his old enemies, the Scots, 
accompanied, if Hardyng can be trusted, 
with ten men only. Hardyng (pp. 384-5) 
tells a long story how Umfraville, seeing 
that the army was not ready, urged Clarence 
to delay fighting until holy week was over; 
and how Clarence, who envied his fame, re- 
proached him with cloaking cowardice under 
religious scruples. Against his advice Cla- 
rence fought at Bauge on 22 March (Easter 
Eve), but the Scotto-Armagnac host was 
two to one, and he suffered a complete de- 
feat. Umfraville, like Clarence, fell on the 
field. His body was recovered and taken to 
England to be buried (HAEDYNG, p. 385). 

Umfraville is described by his panegyrist, 
Hardyng, as of ' goodly port, full gentle,' while 
the Burgundian Chastellain calls him 'vail- 
lant chevalier et bien a douter' (i. 225). He 
married Anne Neville, seventh child of his 
old protector, Ralph Neville, first earl of 
Westmorland (SUETEES, Durham, iv. 159 ; 
G. E. C[OKATNE], Complete Peerage, i. 95, 
says that he died unmarried). He left no 
issue, so that while his uncle Robert suc- 
ceeded under the entail to Harbottle and 
Redesdale and also apparently to Kyme 
his personal representatives were his five 
sisters, between whose descendants the Um- 
fraville barony, according to later legal doc- 
trine, would still remain in abeyance. 

became lord of Redesdale and Kyme. Apart 
from his possible share in the 1415 cam- 
paign, he remained under Henry V, as under 
Henry IV, mainly occupied on Scottish 
affairs. The Scots called him Robin Mend- 
market, because of his burning Peebles on 
market day (HAEDYNG, p. 366). He was 
sheriff of Northumberland, vice-admiral of 
the north, chamberlain of Berwick, warden 
of Roxburgh Castle, and finally of Berwick ; 
and in 1417 helped in checking the Scots 
while Henry fought the French (cf. REDMAN, 



in Memorials of Henry V, p. 38). lie was 
one of the commissioners who concluded th 
seven years' truce of .Durham. In 1429 he 
founded a chantry at Farnacres in Durham 
(SuRTEES, Durham, iv. 243). His last ap- 
pointment was on a commission, dated 5 Feb 
1535, to negotiate a truce with the Scots 
(Fcedera, x. 629). He died on 29 Jan. 1436, 
and was buried at Newminster. Hardyng, 
who served him till his death as constable 
of Kyme Castle, has left a touching picture 
of his brave, simple, and honourable cha- 
racter (pp. ix-xi). He celebrates his valour, 
' sapience,' his gentleness that would not 
even reprove his servants before others, and 
his justice that made many of his Scots 
enemies go to Berwick to submit their dis- 
putes to his arbitration. When made knight 
of the Garter he was but a poor man, whose 
estate was worth only a hundred marks a 
year. He was the last male representative 
of the Umfravilles that held Redesdale under 
the entail of 1378. The estates thus settled 
now passed away from his nieces to the 
Talboys Sir Walter Talboys (d. 1444), the 
grandson of Sir Walter Talboys (d. 1418), 
who was the son of Eleanor Borrodon and 
Henry Talboys. Their son was Sir William 
Talboys (d. 1464) [q. v.], who was, with 
strange persistence, still styled Earl of 

[Hardyng's Chronicle, ed. Ellis; Gesta 
Henrici V (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Memorials of 
Henry V (Rolls Ser.) ; WaUingham (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Kymer's Feed era, vols. viii. and ix. ; Nicolas's 
Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council ; 
Monstrelet, ed. Douet d'Arcq ; J. Le Fevre, 
Seigneur de Saint- Remy (the last two in Soc. de 
1'Histoire de France) ; Chastellain, ed. Kervyn 
de Lettenhove ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 508 ; 
G-. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, i. 95, iv. 
425; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 303-4; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York, vol. i.; Wylie's 
Hist, of Henry IV; Sir H. Nicolas's Battle of 
Agincourt ; Puiseux's Siege de Rouen par les 
Anglais; Surtees's Durham; Hodgson's North- 
umberland, i. ii. 48-55 for Robert, 55-60 for 
Gilbert.] f. I\ T. 

UMMARCOTE, ROBERT (d. 1241), car- 
dinal. [See SOMEKCOTE.] 

UMPHELBY, FANNY (1788-1852), 
author of * The Child's Guide to Knowledge/ 
was born in Knowles's Court in the parish of 
St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street, Doctors' 
Commons, in 1788. She lived for many 
years at Leatherhead, and died at Bow on 
9 April 1852. In 1825 Miss Umphelby 
published 'The Child's Guide to Know- 
ledge, ... by a Lady.' The work became 
at once a standard book ; a second edition 

appeared in 1828, and it is now (1899) in its 
fifty-eighth edition. Miss Umphelby also 
wrote and published 'A Guide to Jewish 
History.' " The Child's Guide to Know- 
ledge," which came to teachers and pupils of 
the present century as a warmly welcomed 
novelty, was in truth on the plan of the 
' Elucidarium ' attributed to Lanfranc [q.v.], 
but differed from it in form, in so far as the 
information is extracted from the pupil, not 
from the teacher. . . . None of the new pro- 
ductions could rival in success "The Child's 
Guide to Knowledge." The old idea of the 
" colloquy," and the old plan of a book on 
the properties of things, were here revived 
and welcomed in the schoolroom' (FIELD, 
The Child and his Book}. The authorship 
of ' The Child's Guide ' has been frequently 
attributed to Miss Umphelby's sister, wife 
of Robert Ward ; but Miss Umphelby com- 
posed all of it. To later editions about eighty 
pages were added by her nephew, Mr. Robert 
A. Ward of Maidenhead, to keep the infor- 
mation up to date. 

[Private information.] R. A. W. 

1587), poet and translator, was the son of 
Stephen Underdown, to whom Sir Thomas 
Sackville, afterwards first earl of Dorset [q.v.] 
had shown kindness (epistle prefixed to 2 
below). Wood says that he spent some 
time at Oxford University, but left it with- 
out a degree. Cooper identifies him with 
Thomas Underdown of Clare Hall, Cam- 
bridge, B.A. 1564, M.A. 1568, and points 
out that a Thomas Underdown was ' parson 
of St. Mary's in Lewes ' in 1583, when he 
was in trouble for nonconformity. It is not 
probable that this was the translator. 

The earliest extant edition of Under- 
down's chief work, ' An ./Ethiopian His- 
toric, written in Greeke by Heliodorus, 
no lesse wittie than pleasaunt,' is undated : 
a copy is in the Bodleian. It doubtless 
appeared in 1569, when Francis Coldock 
was licensed to publish ' The ende of the x th 
book of Helioderus CEthiopium (sic} His- 
torye.' Another edition, ' newly corrected 
and augmented with divers and sundry 
newe additions by the said Authour,' 
appeared in London in 1587, 4to. The 
address ' to the gentle reader ' of the 1687 
edition says that the earlier issue was 
published by persuasion of ' my friend ' 
Francis Coldock, which now ' by riper years 
better advised' the writer regrets. A third 
edition appeared in 1606. In 1622 William 
Barrett, finding Underdown's style ' almost 
obsoleted,' revised and republished his trans- 
'ation 'cleared from the barbarisms of anti- 



quity.' The translation is an important ex- 
ample of Elizabethan prose, remarkable for 
rhythm and poetic vigour. Warton points 
out that it opened out a new field of ro- 
mance, and claims that it influenced and 
partly suggested Sir Philip Sidney's 'Ar- 
cadia.' Abraham Fraunce in ' The Countess 
of Pembroke's Yvy Church,' 1591, turned 
the beginning into six pages of clumsy hexa- 
meters. Underdo vvn's Greek scholarship was 
slight and his Latin faulty. His version 
follows the Latin of the Pole, Stanislao 
Warschewiczki, published at Basle, 1551. 
Underdown's translation (edit. 1587) was 
reprinted in 1895 as vol. v. of the ' Tudor 
Translations,' edited by Mr. W. E. Hen- 
lev, with an introduction by Mr. Charles 

Underdown's other works were : 1. ' The 
excellent historye of Theseus and Ariadne,' 
London, 1566, 8vo. In the ' Stationers' Regi- 
ster ' ( AKBER, i. 304, v. 57) this is entered to 
Richard Jones on 18 Jan. 1566. 2. ' Ovid 
his invective against Ibis. Translated into 
English meeter, whereunto is added by the 
Translator a short draught of all the stories 
and tales contayned therein, very pleasant to 
be read,' London, 1569, b.l. 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1577. The epistle dedicated to Sir Thomas 
Sack vile, lord Buckhurst, contains some auto- 
biographical details. The poem is in fourteen- 
syllable verse. The prose appendix is a clear 
and simple collection of classical stories which 
proved useful to dramatists and poets. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 430; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 490, where the state- 
ment that verses by Underdown are prefixed to 
John Studley's translation of Seneca's 'Agamem- 
non,' 1560, is a mistake; Tanner's BiMiotheca, 
p. 741 ; Warton's Hi.-t. of English Poetry, iv. 
299,300; Strype's Wliitgift, i. 255; Arber's 
Stationers' Register, v. 57, 69, 71, 103 ; Collier's 
Bibliogr. Account of Early Engl. Lit. ii. 459 ; 
Brydges's CensuraLit. ii. 187.] E. B. 

UNDERBILL, CAVE (1634-1710?), 
actor, the son of Nicholas Underbill, cloth- 
worker, was born in St. Andrew's parish, 
Holborn, on 17 March 1634, and was admitted 
to Merchant Taylors' school in January 1644- 
1645. He became a member of the com- 
pany which was collected by Rhodes [see 
BETTERTON, THOMAS], and was afterwards 
sworn by the lord chamberlain to serve 
(under Sir William D'Avenant [q. v.]) the 
Duke of York at the theatre in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. In 1663 a true bill was found 
against him, in conjunction with Betterton 
and James Noke or Nokes [q.v.],for having 
riotously assaulted Edward Thomas, and he 
was fined 3s. 4rf. In the following year, on 
17 Nov., he married at St. James's, Clerken- 

well, Elizabeth Robinson, widow of Thomas 
Robinson, a vintner in Cheapside; she died 
in October 1673, at which time the actor 
seems to have been living in Salisbury 
Court (SMYTH, Obituary, Camden Soc. p. 
100). On 15 June 1673 Underbill is de- 
scribed 'of St. Bride's, gent.,' and appears 
on a list of communicants at St. Dunstan's- 

The first character to which Underbill's 
name appears is Sir Morglay Thwack in 
D'Avenant's comedy, ' The Wits,' previously 
acted at the court by the ' king's men ' on 
28 Jan. 1634, and revived, with alterations, 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields on 15 Aug. 1661. In 
Cowley's * Cutter of Coleman Street' he was 
the same season the original Cutter, or 
swaggerer, and he also played the first 
Gravedigger in ' Hamlet,' a part he retained 
over forty years, and Gregory in ' Romeo 
and Juliet.' So successful was he in these 
and other characters that D'Avenant pub- 
licly styled him the 'truest comedian' at 
that time upon his stage. In 1662 he played 
before the king and queen at Whitehall the 
part of Ignoramus in a translation of Rug- 
gles's Latin comedy of that name. In 1663 
he was the clown in ' Twelfth Night;' was 
between 5 and 12 Jan. the original Diego in 
Tuke's 'Adventures of Five Hours;' on 
28 May the first Peralta in the < Slighted 
Maid,' by Sir R. Stapleton ; and subse- 
quently the first Tetrick in the ' Step- 
mother' of the same writer. In 1664 he 
' created' the parts of the Duke of Bedford 
in Lord Orrery's ' Henry V,' Palmer in 
Etherege's ' Comical Revenge,' Cunopes in 
the ' Rivals' (D'Avenant's alteration of ' Two 
Noble Kinsmen'), and he played Gardiner in 
' Henry VIII.' After the theatre had been 
closed for eighteen months through the plague 
and the fire, he was the first Moody in 
Dryden's 'Sir Martin Marrall' on 16 Aug. 
1667, second performance; and on 7 Nov. 
Trincalo in the 'Tempest,' as altered by 
Dry den and D'Avenant. On 26 March 
1668 he was the first Jodelet in D'Ave- 
nant's ' Man's the Master,' and in 1669 the 
first Timothy in Caryl's ' Sir Solomon.' 

On the opening in 1671 of the new theatre 
in Dorset Gardens, Underbill was the original 
Sir Simon Softhead in Ravenscroft's ' Citizen 
turned Gentleman' ('Monsieur de Pour- 
ceaugnac'), and Pedagog in Lord Orrery's 
' Mr. Anthony.' The year 1672 saw Under- 
bill as the first Justice Clodpate in Shad- 
well's 'Epsom Wells,' and Tutor in Arrow- 
smith's ' Reformation,' and in 1673 he was 
Fullam in Nevil Payne's ' Morning Ramble/ 
He was, presumably, in 1676, the first Jacomo 
in Shad well's ' Libertine' (' Don Juan'), and 



was certainly the first Sanco in Ravenscroft's 

* Wrangling Lovers' and Old Jollyman in 
D'Urfey's ' Madame Fickle.' During 1677 
he appears to have been confined in the 
Poultry Compter (apparently for debt, at the 
suit of William Allen). His liberty was 
demanded in April by Sir Allen Apsley, on 
the ground that he was one of the Duke 
of York's menial servants ; but the gaolers 
hesitated to comply with the request until 
the case was put before the House of Lords 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. ii. 94). 
The same year saw him as the original 
Blunt in Mrs. Behn's 'Hover/ In 1678 he 
was the first Ajax in Bankes's Destruction 
of Troy,' Sir Noble Clumsey in Otway's 

* Friendship in Fashion,' Pimpo in D'Urfey's 
' Squire Oldsapp/ Fabio in * Counterfeits ' 
(attributed to Leanard), and Phseax in Shad- 
well's ' Timon of Athens.' In 1679 he was 
Thersites in Dryden's alteration of ' Troilus 
and Cressida,' and Tickletext in Mrs. Behn's 
'Feigned Courtezans.' In Otway's 'History 
and Fall of Caius Marius,' taken from * Romeo 
and Juliet,' he was in 1680 the first Sulpitius 
(Mercutio). Mrs. Barry, in the epilogue to 
this, speaks of those who come here 

wrapt in cloaks, 
Only for love of Underbill and Nurse Nokes. 

In the same year Underh ill's name stands 
to Amble, a trifling part in D'Urfey's ' Vir- 
tuous Wife.' Genest thinks it should be 
Brainworm. Underhill was also the first 
Circumstantio in Maidwell's 'Loving Ene- 
mies.' In the second part of Mrs. Behn's 

* Rover,' 1681, as in the first part, he was 
the original Blunt. He was also Gomez in 
the first production of Dryden's ' Spanish 
Friar.' In D'Urfey's 'Royalist' in 1682 
he was Copyhold: in Mrs. Behn's 'False 
Count ' Guzman, and in Ravenscroft's ' Lon- 
don Cuckolds ' Wiseacre. 

On the union of the two companies Under- 
hill came out on 4 Dec. 1682 at the Theatre 
Royal as Curate Eustace in the production 
of Dryden's 'Duke of Guise.' On 6 Feb. 
1685, while 'Sir Courtly Nice' was being 
rehearsed, Underhill had to inform the author, 
Crowne, of the death of Charles II, by whose 
command the comedy had been written. 
When, however, the play was produced 
shortly afterwards, he achieved a great suc- 
cess as Hothead (cf. GENEST, i. 439). At 
the Theatre Royal he remained thirteen years, 
playing the following parts, all original : in 
1684 Daredevil in Otway's 'Atheist,' Turbu- 
lent in the ' Factious Citizen ; ' in 1685, Hot- 
head in 'Sir Courtly Nice;' in 1686, Don 
Diego in D'Urfey's ' Banditti ;' in 1687, Dr. 
Baliardo in Mrs. Behn's ' Emperor of the 

Moon ; ' in 1688, Lolpoop in Shadwell's 
' Squire of Alsatia/ a soldier in Mountfort's 
'Injured Lovers;' in 1689, Old Ranter in 
Crowne's ' English Friar/ Oldwit in Shad- 
well's 'Bury Fair;' in 1690, Bernardo in 
Shadwell's ' Amorous Bigot/ Mufti in Dry- 
den's 'Don Sebastian/ Guzman in Mount- 
fort's ' Successful Strangers/ Timerous in 
Mrs. Behn's posthumous ' Widow Ranter ; ' 
in 1691, Sassafras in Mountfort's ' Greenwich 
Park/ Sir Rowland Rakehell in D'Urfey's 
' Love for Money ; ' in 1692, Hiarbas in 
Crowne's ' Regulus/ Captain Dryrub in Sou- 
therne's 'Maid's Last Prayer;' in 1693, 
Setter in Congreve's ' Old Bachelor/ Stock- 
job in D'Urfey's ' Richmond Heiress/ Sir 
Maurice Meanwell in Weight's ' Female 
Vertuosoes ' (sic), Lopez in Dryden's ' Love 
Triumphant ; ' in 1694, Sancho in the second 
part of D'Urfey's 'Don Quixote' (Doggett 
was Sancho in the first part), Sampson in 
Southerne's ' Fatal Marriage/ Sir Barnaby 
B under in Ravenscroft's ' Canterbury Guests/ 
He also played a Plebeian in ' Julius Caesar ; ' 
the Cook in ' Rollo, Duke of Normandy / and, 
if J. P. Collier may be trusted, Smug in 
the ' Merry Devil of Edmonton/ 

At the theatre in Little Lincoln's Inn 
Fields he was in 1695 the original Sir Samp- 
son Legend in Congreve's ' Love for Love ' 
(a part in which, according to Gibber, he was 
unrivalled) ; in 1696 Sir Topewell Clownish 
in Motteux's ' Love's a Jest/ Sir Thomas 
Testie in Doggett's 'Country Wake/ Sir 
Toby Cusifle in Granville's ' She Gallants/ 
Alderman Whim in Dilke's ' Lover's Luck ;' 
in 1697 Bevis in Dilke's ' City Lady/ the 
Doctor in Ravenscroft's ' Anatomist, or the 
Sham Doctor/ Sir Blunder Bosse in 
D'Urfey's ' Intrigues at Versailles/ Fly wife 
in Mrs. Pix's ' Innocent Mistress ; and played 
Cacafogo in a revival of ' Rule a Wife and 
have a Wife/ The next year saw him as 
the original Sir Wealthy Plainder in Dilke's 
'Pretenders;' and in 1700 Sir Wilfull Wit- 
woud in Congreve's 'Way of the World/ 
In 1702 followed Merryman in Betterton's 
Amorous Widow/ His name now appeared 
less frequently. On 8 Feb. 1704 ' CEdipus' 
and ' Rover' were played for his benefit, 
and he played at court Timothy in a revival 
of ' Sir Solomon/ ' The Virtuoso ' was played 
for his benefit on 31 March 1705, the last 
night of playing that season at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. 

On 5 Dec. 1706 he played at the Hay- 
market Sir Joslin Jolley in a revival of 
' She would if she could/ a part in which 
in the following month he was replaced by 
Bullock; and on 20 Jan. 1707 he repeated 
Blunt in the 'Rover/ The 'Mourning 



Bride' was given for his benefit on 28 May. 
On 3 June 1709 a performance of ' Hamlet ' 
was given at Drury Lane ' for the benefit of 
Cave Underbill, the old comedian/ who 
played ones more the first Gravedigger. 
This character he repeated on 23 Feb. 1710. 
On 12 May he was, for his benefit, once 
more Trincalo in Dryden's ' Tempest.' This 
was his last performance at Drury Lane. 

He was seen once, on 26 Aug. 1710, at 
Pinkethman's booth at Greenwich, where, 
for the benefit of Pinkethman, the part in the 
'Rover' of Ned Blunt was acted 'by the 
famous true comedian, Cave Underbill, to 
oblige Pinkethman's friends.' This was 
Underbill's last appearance. His death is 
said to have taken place ' soon after.' He 
was in bis late years a pensioner of the 
theatre. In his advertisement in the ' Tatler ' 
he stated that he had acted under four reigns, 
was not now able to perform so often as 
heretofore, and bad had losses to the value 
of near 2,500. He was commonly called 
Trincalo Underbill ; and his name was some- 
times spelt Undril. 

Under the date 30 May 1709 Steele in 
the 'Tatler' (No. 22), dating from Will's 
coffee-house, speaks to his friends ' on behalf 
of honest Cave Underbill, who has been a 
comic for three generations : my father ad- 
mired him extremely when be was a boy. 
There is certainly nature excellently repre- 
sented in his manner of action, in which he 
ever avoided that general fault in players of 
doing too much.' Gibber speaks of Under- 
bill as being at the time he (Gibber) joined 
the company at the Theatre Royal one of 
the principal actors who ' were all original 
masters in their different stile, not mere 
auricular imitators of one another, which 
commonly is the highest merit of the middle 
rank, but self-judges of nature from whose 
various lights they only took their true in- 
struction ' (Apology, ed. Lowe, i. 99). In 
bis ' Brief Supplement ' Tony Aston dis- 
parages Underbill, saying that he knows 
Underbill was much cried up in bis time, 
but he (Aston) is so stupid as not to know 
why. Underbill was, be says, ' about fifty 
years of age the latter end of King William's 
reign, about six foot high, long and broad 
faced,' and something inclined to corpulence. 
' His face very like the Homo Sylvestris orf 
Champanza, for his nose was flattish and 
short, and his upper lip very long and thick, 
with a wide mouth and short chin, a churlish 
voice and awkward action' (ib. ii. 308). 
Gibber praises Underbill for the very gifts 
for which he is censured by Aston (i. 154). 
Gibber speaks of the want of proportion in 
bis features, which, ' when soberly composed, 

with an unwandering eye hanging over them, 
threw him into the most lumpish, moping 
mortal that ever made beholders merry/ 
Davies says that be was a jolly and droll 
companion, a tavern-haunter, dividing his 
time between Bacchus and Venus, a martyr 
to gout, acting till he was past eighty, and 
he adds (following Tom Brown) that he 
possessed an admirable vein of pleasantry, 
and told stories with a bewitching smile. In 
Brown's ' Letters from the Dead to the 
Living ' is a scurrilous epistle from * Tony r 
Lee or Leigh to Cave Underbill, and the 
reply. On this correspondence the charges of 
drunkenness and immorality against Under- 
bill seem to rest. 

An anonymous comedy, ' Win her and 
take her, or Old Fools will be Meddling/ 
4to, 1691, acted at the Theatre Royal the 
same year, was dedicated by Underbill to 
Lord Danby. It is supposed to have been 
given to Underbill by the anonymous author, 
who wrote the part of Dullbead expressly 
for him. 

A portrait by Robert Bing, engraved by 
John Faber, jun., of Underbill as Obadiah 
in the 'Committee/ published in 1712, and 
reproduced in Gibber's * Apology,' does not 
bear out Aston's unflattering description of 
him as an anthropoid ape. The original of 
this is in the Matbews collection in the 
Garrick Club. 

[Merchant Taylors' Eeg. i. 169 ; Masson's 
Milton, vi. 351; Gibber's Apology, ed. Lowe; 
Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Bio- 
graphia Dramatica ; Davies's Dramatic Mis- 
cellanies ; Tom Brown's Works, ed. 1707 ; British 
Essayists, ed. Chalmers; Doran's Annals of the 
English Stage, ed. Lowe; Betterton's English 
Stage ; Dibdin's English Stage ; Smith's Cat. ; 
Notes and Queries, 7th ser. x. 206, 276.1 

J. K. 

1561), the 'hot-gospeller/ came 'of a wor- 
shipful bouse in Worcestershire/ and was 
born probably about 1515 (Collectanea Top. 
et Gen. vi. 382). His grandfather, John 
Underbill, originally of Wolverhampton r 
acquired in 1509 a lease of Eatington, War- 
wickshire, and left two sons, Edward and 
Thomas. Edward inherited Eatington, and 
was father of Thomas Underbill (1518?- 
1603), a leading protestant, to commemorate 
whose memory an annual sermon was founded! 
in St. Mary's Church, Warwick ; a poetical 
epitaph on his son Anthony, who predeceased 
him on 16 July 1587, is said, on flimsy 
evidence, to have been composed by Shake- 
speare (COLVILE, Warwickshire Worthies, 
pp. 767-9). John Underbill's younger son, 
Thomas, possibly the Thomas Underbill who ? 



as l one of my lord mayor's sergeantes and 
carver,' was 'petty captain' of the city's 
contingent of a hundred men sent to the 
French war in 1543 (WRioTHESLEr, Chron. 
i. 142; he must be distinguished from Thomas 
Underhill, the leader of the Cornish rebellion 
in 1549, Troubles of 1549, Camden Soc. pp. 
49, 54, 188) ; he settled at Honingham, and 
married Anne, daughter of Robert Winter of 
Hudington, Worcestershire. 

His son Edward, the ' hot-gospeller,' was in 
December 1539 appointed one of the gentle- 
men pensioners when that body was revived 
by Henry VIII. In 1543 he served as man- 
at-arms under Sir Richard Cromwell at the 
siege of Landrecy in Hainault, and in 1544 
was one of the men-at-arms appointed to 
attend Henry VIII during his campaign in 
France. In 1545 he sold Honingham, ac- 
cording to his own account, to provide for 
his expenses as gentleman pensioner, which 
his salary of seventy marks (46/. 13s, 4d.) did 
not cover, but, according to his enemies, to 
satisfy his spendthrift propensities. During 
Edward VI's reign Underhill developed that 
religious zeal which earned him the sobriquet 
of 'hot-gospeller ; ' he caused great offence by 
his attention to concealed papists and his 
homilies to worldlings and dicers like Sir 
Thomas Palmer (d. 1553) [q.v.] and Sir Miles 
Partridge [q.v.] In the winter of 1549-50 
he was sent as controller of the ordnance 
under Lord Huntingdon to the defence of 
Boulogne. Soon afterwards he incurred the 
enmity of the London woodmongers by ex- 
posing the fraud ulence of their returns to the 
ordnance department. He seems to have 
been high in the confidence of Bishop Hooper 
and the Duke of Northumberland. At the 
time of the ' vestments ' controversy he 
nailed a defence of Hooper on the gate of 
St. Paul's (HoopEE, Works, Parker Soc. vol. ii. 
p. xi). In July 1553 Lady Jane Grey, then 
nominally queen, stood godmother to one of 
Underbill's daughters, and in the same month 
lie published a ballad attacking Queen Mary. 
For this offence he was arrested in his house 
in Limehouse on 4 Aug. and brought before 
the council, which committed him to New- 
gate. Through the influence of his ' kins- 
man,' John Throckmorton (cf. Cat. State 
Papers, Dom., Addenda, 1547-65, p. 439), 
and the Earl of Bedford, whose eldest son, 
Lord Russell, Underhill had saved from 
drowning in the Thames, he was released on 
account of his illness. The council's order 
is dated 21 Aug., but Underhill himself states 
that he was not released until 5 Sept. (Acts 
P. C. iv. 324). His interesting account of 
his examinations by the council and im- 
prisonment was partially printed by Strype 

! and in the ' Chronicle of Queen Jane and 

i Queen Mary' (Camden Soc.); it is printed 

in full in ' Narratives of the Reformation ' 

(Camden Soc.; with a ballad by Underhill 

from Harl. MS. 424, f. 9), in Arber's < Eng- 

! lish Garner ' (vol. iv.) ; it supplied some 

| details for Miss Strickland's f Queens of 

I England ' and Harrison Ainsworth's ' Tower 

of London.' 

In spite of the efforts of his enemies, 
Underhill retained his place among the 
gentlemen pensioners. In that capacity he 
defended Queen Mary during Wyatt's incur- 
sion into Southwark, 6-7 Feb. 1553-4, and 
attended her to Winchester in July 1555 to 
meet Philip of Spain. During the ensuing 
persecution he had his books walled up in 
his house, and escaped molestation. On 
12 May 1562 he seems to have been em- 
ployed as ' master of the common hunt ' to 
suppress a disturbance in the city (MACHYN, 
p. 282). He is said to have lived to a con- 
siderable age, but no reference to him after 
1562 has been traced. His wife Joan, whose 
maiden name is variously given as Perrins, 
Sperynes, Price, and Downes, was the daugh- 
ter of a London merchant ; they were licensed 
to marry at St. Antholin, Budge Row, on 
17 Nov. 1546 (Registers of St. Antholin,TL*x\. 
Soc. p. 5 ; CHESTER, London Marr. Licences, 
col. 1375). By her Underhill had issue five 
sons and seven daughters, the youngest being 
born on 6 Sept. 1561. His wife was buried 
in St. Botolph's, Aldgate, on 14 April 1562 

(MACHYN, p. 280). 

[Underbill's Narratives and authorities cited 
above ; Strype's Works (general index) ; Notes 
arid Queries, 4th ser. passim, 7th ser. iv. 367, 
v. 14.] A. F. P. 

UNDERHILL, JOHN (1545 P-1592), 
bishop of Oxford, was born about 1545 at 
the Cross Inn (now the Roebuck), Corn- 
market, Oxford. He entered Winchester 
College in 1556, and was elected a fellow of 
New College, Oxford, on 27 Oct. 1561, being 
admitted B.A. on 11 Dec. 1564 and M.A. on 
27 July 1563. He obtained the degrees of 
B.D. and D.D. on 7 July 1581. In 1570 he 
was appointed prselector of moral philosophy, 
and in 15-75 filled the office of proctor. In 
1576 he offered some opposition to Robert 
Home (1519P-1580) [q.v.], bishop of Win- 
chester, in his visitation of the college, and 
Home, who used his power very freely, re- 
moved him from his fellowship. Underhill. 
however, had recourse to the chancellor of 
the university, the Earl of Leicester, by 
whose advice he threatened Home with a 
lawsuit, and procured his reinstatement. In 
the following year, on 22 June, after much 



controversy, he was elected rector of Lincoln 
College. About 1581 he became chaplain in 
ordinary to the queen, and on 7 Sept. was 
instituted rector of Thornton-le-Moors, Che- 
shire. About 1586 he was appointed one of 
the vicars of Bampton, and on 15 March 
1586-7 was instituted rector of Witney in 
Oxfordshire. On 8 Dec. 1589 he was elected 
bishop of Oxford on the recommendation of 
Walsingham, succeeding Hugh Curwen [q.v.] 
after a long vacancy. He died in London 
on 12 May 1592, and was buried in Christ 
Church Cathedral towards the upper end of 
the choir. After his death the see remained 
vacant for eleven years, and ' was made a 
prey (for the most part) to Robert, earl of 
Essex.' On 12 Feb. 1603-4 John Bridges 
(d. 1618) [q. v.] was consecrated his suc- 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 830; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Harington's 
Briefe View of the State of the Church of Eng- 
land, 1653, p. 149 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of 
the Univ. of Oxford, ed. Gutoh, ii. 187 ; Kirby's 
Winchester Scholars, p. 134.] E. I. C. 

UNDERBILL, JOHN (d. 1672), 
colonist, came of a Warwickshire family, 
(probably of the Kenil worth branch), and 
may perhaps be identified with John Under- 
bill, the son of Thomas Underbill of Barton- 
on-the-Heath, a brot her of Sir Edward Under- 
bill (d. 1641) of Eatington, Warwickshire. 
He was trained to the profession- of arms, 
and, after service in the Netherlands and in 
the Cadiz expedition of 1625, he was taken 
over to New England in 1630 by Governor 
Winthrop to train the people in military dis- 
cipline. He soon acquired a good reputa- 
tion, and was chosen in 1634 to represent 
Boston in the Massachusetts assembly. In 
1637 he served with credit in the war 
against the Pequot Indians. He was ap- 
pointed captain in command of the New 
England detachment by Sir Henry Vane, 
and, after he had effected a junction with 
the New Hampshire forces under Captain 
John Mason (1600-1672) [q.v.], the Pequots 
were entirely crushed. Of this war Under* 
hill wrote an account, entitled ' Newes from 
America ; or a New and Experimentall Dis- 
covery of New England, containing a True 
Relation of their Warlike Proceedings these 
two years past . . .' (London, 1638, 4to; 
there are two copies in the British Mu- 
seum and one in Harvard College Library. 
It was reprinted by the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, ' Collections/ 1837, 3rd ser. 
vol. vi.) 

In November 1637 Underbill was dis- 
franchised for holding Antinomian opinions 

and for supporting Wheelwright, the leader 
of that party ; he was soon after found to have 
been guilty of adultery. In the meantime he 
had fled to the little colony at Piscataqua, 
called Dover, which was independent of Mas- 
sachusetts. This had just passed through a 
revolution, and now elected Underbill 
governor, a post which he managed to re- 
tain for nearly two years. After further 
disputes with the government of Massa- 
chusetts he moved to New Haven, where 
in 1643 he served in the assembly as re- 
presentative for Stamford. In the same 
year he removed to New Netherlands, and 
served the Dutch against the Indians. He 
married a Dutch wife, but in 1653 was 
expelled from New Netherlands as a sedi- 
tious character. He then went to Rhode 
Island, and received a commission from the 
government of that colony to make war 
against the Dutch by sea. 

After the conquest of New Netherlands 
by the English in 1664 he returned thither, 
and served as a delegate for Oyster Bay in 
the assembly called by Colonel Richard 
Nicolls [q. v.] at Hempstead in 1665. He 
was appointed by Nicolls under-sheriff of 
Yorkshire or Queen's County. 

In 1667 the Mantinenoc Indians gave him 
150 acres of land, which has remained in 
his family, the name of Underbill still 
existing in New Hampshire. In 1671 he 
was excused military service, and he died 
on his estate at Killingworth, Oyster Bay, 
in 1672, leaving a son John, who was*a 
magistrate and a man of influence. Under- 
bill is said to have been twice married : first, 
to Mary Mosley; and, secondly, to Eliza- 
beth Field of Long Island, who survived 
him. Several of Captain Underbill's letters 
are published in the ' Massachusetts Histo- 
rical Society Collections ' (4th ser. vol. vii.) 

[Wood's Sketch of the First Settlement of the 
several Towns on Long Island, 1828, p. 76; 
Belknap's Hist, of New Hampshire, 1831, i. 
23-7 ; Winthrop's Hist, of New England, ed. 
Savage, Boston, 1825 passim; Savage's Geneal. 
Hist, of New England ; Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 
1873 (a poem on Underbill by Whittier); Win- 
sor's Hist, of America, iii. 148; Brodhend's Hist, 
of New York ; Collectanea Topographica et Ge- 
nealogica, vi. 382; Hazlitt's Bibliogr. Collec- 
tions, 2nd ser. pp. 612-13.] J. A. D. 

L820), man-midwife, was born in Surrey in 
1736. He studied at St. George's Hospital 
under Sir Caesar Hawkins [q. v.] ( Ulcers of 
Legs}, and also saw something of the practice 
of John Freke [q.v.] ( Ulcers of Legs, p. 140) ; 
he became a member of the Company of 
Surgeons. He also studied for some time 


3 2 


in Paris. He practised for some years as 
surgeon in Great Maryborough Street, Lon 
don, and published in 1783 ' A Treatise upon 
Ulcers of the Legs.' In 1788 he publishe 
on the same subject ' Surgical Tracts on 
Ulcers of the Legs.' On 5 April 1784 h 
was admitted a licentiate in midwifery o 
the College of Physicians of London, anc 
was the last survivor of that kind of prac 
titioner. Thenceforward he practised as i 
man-midwife. He was attached to the 
British Lying-in Hospital, and attended th 
Princess of Wales at the birth of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte on 7 Jan. 1796. He pub- 
blished in 1784 * A Treatise on the Diseases 
of Children,' of which a fuller edition ap- 
peared in 1801, consisting of one volume on 
medical diseases, one on the surgery 
childhood, and one on the general manage- 
ment of infants ; a fifth edition appeared in 
1805. The work was edited in 1835 in 
ninth edition by Marshall Hall [q. v.], and 
a tenth in 1846 by Henry Davies [q. v.], and 
was translated into French by De Villebrune. 
It is based upon extensive clinical observa- 
tion, was the best treatise on the subject 
which had appeared in English, and may 
still be consulted with advantage. Under- 
wood died at Knightsbridge on 14 March 

[Works ; Munk's College of Physicians, ii. 
336.] N. M. 

(1557 P-1596), diplomatist and soldier, was 
second son of Sir Edward Unton or Umpton 
of Wadley, near Faringdon, Berkshire, by 
his wife Anne, eldest daughter of Edward 
Seymour, duke of Somerset, Edward VI's 
protector, and widow of John Dudley, com- 
monly called Earl of Warwick, eldest son of 
the Duke of Northumberland. The marriage 
of his parents was solemnised on 29 April 
1555 at Hatford in Berkshire, near the bride- 
groom's house at Wadley. The father, Sir 
Edward, belonged to a Berkshire family, 
which traced its pedigree to the time of 
Edward IV; he was knighted at Queen 
Elizabeth's coronation in January 1558-9, 
was sheriff of the county in 1567, and M.P. 
in 1572, and entertained Queen Elizabeth 
at his residence at Wadley in July 1574 
(NICHOLS, Progresses, i. 391). He died on 
16 Sept. 1583, and was buried in Faringdon 
church. An unpublished fragment of an 
itinerary of a journey made by Sir Edward 
in Italy in 1563 is in the British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 1813). His wife, who was 
always known as the Countess of Warwick, 
was 'in October 1582 declared of unsound 
mind. She survived till February 1587-8. 

The sermon preached at her burial at Faring- 
don church was printed (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1581-90, p. 74). The elder son, Ed- 
ward, was M.P. for Berkshire in 1555 and 
1586, and ' was slain in the Portugall voy- 
age ' in 1589. 

Henry, born about 1557 at Wadley, was 
educated, like his elder brother Edward, at 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he supplicated 
for the degree of B.A. in October 1573. He 
was created M.A. on 14 July 1590. He 
became a student of the Middle Temple in 
1575, and subsequently travelled in France 
and Italy. In 1584 he was elected M.P. for 
New Woodstock. On his return he was 
employed by Sir Christopher Hatton, lord 
chancellor, who commended him to the 

Unton, with his friend SirWilliam Hatton, 
nephew and heir of Sir Christopher Hatton, 
accompanied the Earl of Leicester's army to 
the Low Countries in 1585. On 22 Sept. 
1586, he and Hatton were engaged in the 
affair at Zutphen, in which Sir Philip Sid- 
ney received his fatal wound. Leicester 
wrote six days later to Walsingham, that 
Unton and Hatton ' a horseback or foote ' 
had shown a courage and eagerness for fight 
which none other in the army excelled (Ley- 
cester Correspondence, Camden Soc., pp. 416- 
417). Unton was knighted by Leicester on 
29 Sept. 

Unton made the acquaintance of the Earl 
of Essex in the Low Countries, and, apparently 
owing to the earl's influence with the queen, 
le was nominated in July 1591 to the office 
of ambassador to Henry IV of France. Henry 
was then engaged in his fierce struggle with 
the forces of the League, and Elizabeth had 
sent small armies to his aid. Essex was in 
command of one English detachment in 
Normandy, and Sir John Norris headed 
another in Brittany. Unton was directed to 
encourage Henry to hold out against his 
'oes, but he was warned against committing 
he queen to a long continuance of her active 
upport. On 11 Nov. 1591 Henry laid siege 
o Rouen, which was in the hands of the 
orces of the League. Unton accompanied 
lim, and remained with Henry until he was 
orced to raise the siege in April. Personally 
Inton recommended himself to the Frencn 
ing, and they were soon on terms of inti- 
nacy. In January 1592 Unton was at 
lenry's side at the skirmish of Aumale, 
when the king was severely wounded. In 
he spring there reached Unton's ears the 
eport that the young Duke of Guise had 
poken of Queen Elizabeth 'impudently, 
ightly, and overboldly.' He thereupon sent 
challenge to the duke, proposing to meet 




liim with whatever arms he should choose, 
on horseback or on foot. 'Nor would I 
have you to think,' he wrote, ' any inequality 
of person between us, I being issued of as 
great a race and noble house every way as 
yourself. ... If you consent not to meet 
me, I will hold you, and cause you to be 
generally held, for the errantest coward and 
most slanderous slave that lives in all 
France.' Nothing came of the challenge, 
although Unton is said to have thrice re- 
peated it (cf. MILLES, Catalogue of Honour, 
1610; FULLER, Worthies). In May 1592, 
after Henry had abandoned the siege of 
Rouen on the approach of the Duke of Parma 
and the French king's future looked desperate, 
Unton urged him to take the field in person 
in Brittany. There Henry IV's followers, 
despite the co-operation of an English army, 
had lately been worsted, but the situation 
appeared to Unton to be retrievable. Next 
month Unton was recalled at his own re- 
quest, owing to failing health. He parted 
with Henry on the best of terms. 

Unton continued to cultivate the favour 
of Essex, but his efforts to obtain official em- 
ployment provad for many years vain. He 
re-entered the House of Commons in 1592-3 
as M.P. for Berkshire, and there showed an 
independence which offended the queen. On 
5 March 1592-3 he, with Francis Bacon, 
opposed the grant of a subsidy in the form 
in which the proposal was presented to the 
house (D'E WES, Journal, pp. 487-90). Con- 
sequently when Unton next appeared at court 
the queen received him with 'bitter speeches/ 
and charged him with seeking a vain popu- 
larity (Cal. Hatfield MSS. iv. 68, where the 
date seems in error). Nevertheless in Decem- 
ber 1595, through Essex's influence, Unton 
was sent a second time to France as am- 
bassador. Essex gave him a paper of cir- 
cuitous instructions whereby Unton might 
maintain the earl's private influence with 
Henry IV. The main object of Unton's 
mission was to keep alive the enmity be- 
tween France and Spain and to dissuade 
Henry from making peace. 

Unton was received by the king with en- 
thusiasm, and had a long interview with 
him on 13 Feb. 1595-6 at Coucy-le-Chateau 
on the Flemish border, where the war with 
Spain was in progress. The king was in a 
frivolous mood, and mainly confined himself 
to expressing extravagant admiration for 
Queen Elizabeth's person (MOTLEY, United 
Netherlands, iii. 342). Finally he invited 
Unton to accompany him to the French 
camp outside the city of La Fere, on the 
upper Oise. The city was in the hands of 
the Spaniards, and Henry's forces were be- 


sieging it. Unton no sooner reached the 
camp before La Fere than he fell dangerously 
ill of what was suspected to be * a purple 
fever.' Despite the risk of contagion, Henry 
paid him a visit, and for some weeks it was 
anticipated that he would recover, but, to 
the French king's grief, he died on 23 March. 
On 1 April following Henry IV sent the 
queen a letter of condolence on her ambas- 
sador's death, and expressed admiration of 
his virtues, of which, the king wrote, he had 
had frequent experience (BIRCH, Memoirs of 
Elizabeth, i. 459). Unton's body was brought 
home to Wadley,and he was buried in Faring- 
don church on 8 July. A sumptuous monu- 
ment was erected to his memory by his 

Unton showed some literary taste. In 
1581 Charles Merbury acknowledged his 
aid in preparing his ' Briefe Discourse of 
Royall Monarchic.' To him was dedicated 
Robert Ashley's Latin translation (from the 
French) of Du Bartas's ' L'Vranie Ov Mvse 
Celeste par G. de Saluste Seigneur du Bartas. 
Vrania sive Mvsa . . .' (London, by John 
Wolfe, 1589, 4to ; Brit. Mus.) Ashley no- 
ticed Unton's close friendship with Sir Wil- 
liam Hatton. Matthew Gwinne [q. v.] went 
with him to France in the capacity of phy- 
sician. In Unton's memory there was pub- 
lished at Oxford a voluminous collection of 
Latin verse (with two elegies by Professor 
Thomas Holland in Greek and Hebrew re- 
spectively) under the title : ' Funebria nobi- 
lissimi ac praestantissimi Equitis, D. Henrici 
Vntoni, ad Gallos bis Legati Regii, ibiq : 
nuper Fato functi, charissimae Memorise, ac 
Desiderio, a Musis Oxoniensibus apparata,' 
Oxford, by Joseph Barnes, 1596. The volume 
was edited by Robert Wright, Unton's chap- 
lain, afterwards bishop of Lichfield and Co- 
ventry, who inaccurately points out in the 
preface that a like honour had been paid 
previously to Sir Philip Sidney, and to none 
besides (Brit. Mus.) 

Unton had no issue, and left an embar- 
rassed estate. His debts are said to have 
amounted to 23,000/. His personal property 
was valued at about 5,000/. His nieces 
the three daughters of his sister Anne, wife 
of Valentine Knightley, and his sister Cicely, 
wife of John Wentworth claimed his lands, 
which were extensive and valuable, and in 
December 1596 called upon Lord Burghley, 
as master of the court of wards, to stay the 
sale of his estates in the interest of his credi- 
tors (Cal. State Papers, Dom., Addenda, 
1580-1625). His widow seems to have en- 
joyed his Berkshire property for her life. 

Unton married Dorothy, eldest daughter 
and heiress of Sir Thomas Wroughton of 




Broad Hinton, Wiltshire. She married in 
December 1598 a second husband, George 
Shirley of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, 
who was created a baronet in 1611, died on 
27 April 1622, and was ancestor by a former 
wife of the earls Ferrers (CHA.MBEKLAIN, 
Letters, pp. 4, 33; cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1595-7, p. 265). She entertained the 
king and queen at Wadley on 7 and 8 Sept. 
1603 (NiCHOLS, Progresses of James I, i. 257), 
and died in 1634. 

Much of Unton's voluminous official corre- 
spondence during his first embassy to 
France (1591-2) is extant among the Cot- 
tonian manuscripts in the volume Caligula E. 
viii., some portions of which have been in- 
jured by fire. Others of Unton's papers of 
the same period are in the public record office, 
and there is an early transcript of a letter- 
book of his in the Bodleian Library (No. 
3498). From these sources a collection of 
Unton's correspondence was edited by Joseph 
Stevenson in 1847 for the Roxburghe Club ; 
255 letters were included, dating between 
24 July 1591 and 17 June 1592. Many of 
Unton's despatches d uring his second embassy 
to France (1595-6) are printed in Murdin's 
< Burghley Papers ' (pp. 701-34). Copies of 
others appear in Birch's manuscripts at the 
British Museum (Addit. MSS. 4114-7). A 
further collection of Unton's letters belonged 
to Sir Thomas Phillipps (cf. Gent. Mag. 1844, 
ii. 151). A few letters are at Hatfield. 

A portrait of Unton was painted by Marcus 
Gheeraerts the younger [q. v.] (cf. 'Cat. Na- 
tional Portraits at South Kensington, First 
Exhibition, 1866, p. 41). Another portrait 
by an unknown artist belongs to the Duke of 
Norfolk. There is in the National Portrait 
Gallery a curious picture painted on a long 
panel by an unknown artist (5 feet 2 inches 
by 2 feet 4 inches), which contains a portrait 
of Unton surrounded by representations of 
various scenes in his career. He is seated 
in the centre writing at a table, on which a 
cameo jewel shows the profile of the queen. 
In the top right-hand and left-hand corners 
appear respectively the sun and moon. On 
each side and above and below Unton's por- 
trait are depicted the chamber of his birth, 
Avith a portrait of his mother ; other rooms in 
the family residence at Wadley, in some of 
which a masque celebrating his marriage is 
portrayed as in progress ; foreign cities which 
he visited, and the main incidents of his 
death and burial, including his monument 
in Favingdon church. Numerous shields 
display armorial bearings with minute accu- 
racy. The picture, which was acquired by 
the National Portrait Gallery in 1884, was 
apparently painted for Unton's widow. At 

her death in 1634 she bequeathed it to her 
niece, Lady Unton Dering. It was sold by 
auction in Lor don in 1743, and afterwards 
came into the possession of John Thane [q.v.], 
the printseller. Strutt engraved the scene 
of the masque at Unton's marriage in his 
' Manners and Customs of the English,' 1776 
(vol. iii. plate xi.), and the head of Sir Henry 
was engraved for the ' Antiquarian Reper- 
tory ' in December 1779. 

[Unton Inventories, edited for the Berk- 
shire Ashmolean Society by John Grough Ni- 
chols (1841) ; Unton Correspondence (Roxburghe 
Club), 1847; Birch's Memoirs of Queen Eliza- 
beth, vol. i. ; Coningsby's Journal of the Siege 
of Rouen, in Camden Society's Miscellany (vol. 
i. 1847); Nichols's Progresses of Queen Eliza- 
beth, ii. 86 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon., ed. Bliss, 
i. 647 ; Shadwell's Registrum Orielense, i. 41 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Cat. of National Por- 
trait Gallery, 1897.] S. L. 

UNWIN, MARY (1724-1796), the friend 
of Cowper, the daughter of William Caw- 
thorne, a draper, of Ely, was born in that 
city in 1724. Hayley remembered her when 
comparatively young, a person of lively 
talents with a sweet serene countenance, and 
remarkably fond of reading. Cowper after- 
wards compared her manners to those of a 
duchess, and she certainly resembled many 
great ladies of her time by her addiction to 
snuff. Early in 1744 she married Morley 
Unwin (1703-1767), son of Thomas Unwin 
by his wife Martha, the daughter of a cloth 
manufacturer of Castle Hedingham, Essex. 
Thomas was a grandson of Thomas Unwin 
(1618-1689) of Castle Hedingham, and the 
family had then been established in Essex 
for several generations, so that the Flemish 
origin of the Unwins or Onwhynnes must be 
referred to a much earlier date than that 
suggested by Dr. Smiles (Huguenots in Eng- 
land). Morley Unwin graduated B.A. from 
Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1725. He 
was master of the free school at Hunting- 
don, and lecturer to the two churches in 
Huntingdon from 1729 until 1742, when he 
became rector of Grimston, near King's 
Lynn in Norfolk. There he resided appa- 
rently until 1748, when, upon his wife's re- 
quest, he left the duty in the charge of a 
curate, and moved back to Huntingdon, 
where he occupied a ' convenient house ' in 
the High Street, and prepared pupils for the 
university. He was also reappointed lec- 
turer of St. Mary's, and is said to have 
caused much dissatisfaction by the irregular 
performance of the duty. In the autumn of 
1765 William Cowper made the acquaintance 
of the Unwins' eldest son, William Caw- 
thorne Unwin, and he was so pleased with 




what he saw of the family that in October 
that year he became (as a paying boarder) 
a regular inmate of their house. Morley 
Unwin died on 2 July 1767, as the result 
of a fall from his horse, and was buried in 
the churchyard of St. Mary's, Huntingdon. 
Ten weeks later Cowper removed, with Mrs. 
Unwin and her daughter Susanna, to Olney, 
in order to be under the more direct influence 
of John Newton. The details of the home 
life which he shared with the Unwins at 
Olney are familiar to all readers of Cowper's 
' Correspondence.' 

In July 1769 Mrs. Unwin's son, William 
Cawthorne Unwin (1745 P-1786), who had 
been educated at Charterhouse school and 
at Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A. 1764, 
M.A. 1767), quitted Olney upon being in- 
stituted to the rectory of Stock, near Rams- 
den in Sussex. Like his father, he had at- 
tached himself to the evangelical party. His 
* spiritual and lively notions in religion ' had 
from their first meeting attracted Cowper, 
and from 1770 until his early death he be- 
came the poet's chief confidant and the 
recipient of many of the most delightful 
letters in the whole range of our literature. 
Conspicuous among them is that masterpiece 
of its kind, dated 31 Oct. 1779, in which 
Cowper accuses Johnson of plucking some of 
the most beautiful feathers from the wing of 
Milton's muse, and ' trampling them under his 
great foot.' After her son's departure and her 
daughter's engagement to Matthew Powley, 
vicar of Dewsbury, Mary Unwin seems at the 
close of 1772 to have become regularly engaged 
to Cowper (he being then forty-one and she 
forty-eight), but before the commencement 
of 1773 his mind had become once more 
grievously clouded, and the project of mar- 
riage was never to be realised. Upon his 
recovery she did all in her power to en- 
courage him to write, and when he became 
an author he paid her the highest respect 
as an instinctive critic, and called her his 
lord chamberlain, whose approbation was 
his sufficient license for publieatibn. The 
extraordinary ' fracas' which disturbed the 
quiet round of domesticity at Olney in April 
1784 was almost certainly due to Cowper's 
perception of a latent jealousy of Lady Austen 
in the mind of his older friend. Fortunately 
Mrs. Unwin entertained no jealousy of 
Cowper's attached kinswoman, Lady Hes- 
keth, with whom the poet resumed rela- 
tions in 1785. Lady Hesketh in turn fully 
appreciated Mrs. Unwin's quiet fund of 
gaiety and the anxiety she had undergone 
(during Cowper's attacks of hypochondria) 
' for one whom she certainly loves as well as 
one human being can love another.' 

Mrs. Unwin moved with Cowper, at Lady 
Hesketh's instance, from Olney to Weston in 
1786. In 1793 her health was beginning to 
fail, and the poet inscribed to her the exquisite 
lines 'To Mary,' which Tennyson classed, 
with those 'On Receipt of my Mother's 
Picture,' as too pathetic for reading aloud. 
In 1795 they visited Norfolk together, and 
on 17 Dec. 1796 Mrs. Unwin died at East 
Dereham at the age of seventy-two. She 
was buried in St. Edmund's Chapel (now 
called the Cowper Chapel) in Dereham 
church, where a tablet was erected with an 
inscription by Hayley. Cowper was buried 
near the same spot four years later. 

Mary Unwin's son, William Cawthorne, 
died at Winchester, aged 41, on 29 Nov. 
1786, and was buried in the cathedral ; he 
left a widow (her maiden name was Shuttle- 
worth, and she died at Croydon in 1825, aged 
75) and three young children. Unwin taught 
his children himself, and to him in his capa- 
city of tutor Cowper inscribed his 'Tiro- 
cinium,' 6 Nov. 1784. Cowper also wrote 
a Latin epitaph for his friend, but this 
was rejected in favour of an English one. 
His portrait, painted by Gainsborough in 
1764, was engraved by H. Robinson from a 
drawing by W. Harvey ( Cowper, ed. Southey, 
ii. 228). Another son, Henry, became ' an 
eminent stationer in Paternoster Row.' The 
daughter, Susanna Powley, died in 1835, 
aged 89. 

A portrait of Mary Unwin, by Arthur 
Devis [q. v.], painted in 1750, was engraved 
by Robinson from a drawing by W. Hayley 
(Cowper, ed. Southey, i. 219; cf. WEIGHT, 
Cowper, p. 139). 

[Cowper's Works, ed. Southey, passim; 
Thomas Wright's Life of William Cowper, 1892 ; 
Goldwin Smith's Cowper ; Cowper's Letters, ed. 
Benham, 1884, vol. xvi. ; Gent. Mag. 1786 ii. 
1094, 1116, 1787 i. 3, 1787 ii. 637, 1793 i.217; 
Morant's Essex, ii. 361 ; Beaumont's Coggeshall 
(1890) ; Luard's G-raduati Cantabrigienses ; Bos- 
well's Life of Johnson, ed. Hill; Thomson's 
Celebrated Friendships, 1861, i. 119-76 ; private 
information.] T. S. 

UNWONA (d. 800?), bishop of Leices- 
ter, described by Pits as ' Cambro-Britannus,' 
succeeded Eadbert as sixth bishop of that see 
some time after 781. He was present at a 
legatine council in 787, and was one of the 
witan of Offa [q. v.], king of Mercia, whose 
charters he attests during the remainder of 
his reign. His name also appears in two 
charters of Ecgfrith, Offa's son, but their 
genuineness is not above dispute. Unwona's 
name, however, reappears under Kenulf in 
798 and 799. Matthew Paris says he was 
skilled in many languages, and was employed 



by Eadmer in translating into Latin ancient 
manuscripts, of which Leland conjectured 
that the ' Life of St. Alban ' was one. He 
also represents Unwona as accompanying 
Offa at the invention and translation of St. 
Alban, but this, says Bishop Stubbs, ' is 
fable.' He died about 800, his successor, 
"Werenbert, being appointed in or before 

[Dugdale's Monasticon ; Wilkins's Concilia, 
i. 146; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ; Kemble's 
Codex Diplomaticus ; Petrie's Monumenta Hist 
Brit.; Bale, it. 33; Pits, p. 176; Tanner's 
Bibliotheca, p. 741 ; Haddan and Stubbs's Con 
cilia; Diet. Chr. Biogr., art. by Bishop Stubbs.] 

A. F. P. 

UPCOTT, WILLIAM (1779-1845) 
antiquary and autograph-collector, born in 
Oxfordshire in 1779, was the natural son of 
Ozias Humphry [q. v.] by Delly Wickens 
daughter of an Oxford shopkeeper, and was 
called Upcott after the maiden name of Hum- 
phry's mother. His father bequeathed to him 
his miniatures, pictures, drawings, and en- 
gravings, as well as a very extensive corre- 
spondence with many leading men, and from 
him Upcott derived his passion for collect- 

Upcott was bred up as a bookseller, being 
at first an assistant of R. H. Evans of Pall 
Mall, and then of John Wright of Piccadilly. 
While at the latter shop he attracted the 
attention of Dean Ireland, William Gifford, 
and the writers in the ' Anti-Jacobin ' who 
frequented that establishment, and he wit- 
nessed the affray there between Gifford and 
Dr. Wolcot, assisting afterwards to eject 
Wolcot (Gent. Mag. 1846, ii. 603). When 
Person was made librarian of the London 
Institution, Upcott was appointed as his 
assistant (23 April 1806), and he continued 
in the same position under William Maltby 
[q.v.] Every inch of the walls in his rooms, 
whether at the London Institution or in his 
subsequent residence, was ' covered with 
paintings, drawings, and prints, most of them 
by Gainsborough or Humphry ; ' all the 
drawers, shelves, boxes, and cupboards were 
crammed with his collections. In 1833, 
while at the London Institution, he was 
robbed of the whole of his collection of 
gold and silver coins and some other curio- 
sities, whereupon more than five hundred of 
the proprietors signed a memorial for his 
reimbursement from its funds, and 600J. was 
voted to him. On 30 May 1834 he resigned 
his office (Cat. of Lond. Instit. Libr. i. 
p. xxiv). 

Upcott spent the rest of his days at 102 
Upper Street, Islington. The house in his 
time was called ' Autograph Cottage/ and, 

i Upcott 

in imitation of the plan adopted by William 
Oldys, he fitted up a room with shelves and 
a hundred receptacles into which he dropped 
a quantity of cuttings on various subjects 
(Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 328). In 
1836 he privately printed a brief catalogue 
of the ( original letters, manuscripts, and 
state papers ' which he had been collecting 
for more than twenty-five years, in the hope 
that they might be bought for some public 
institution. One of his greatest finds was 
the original manuscript of Chatterton's ex- 
travaganza ' Amphitryon,' which he chanced 
upon in the shop of a city cheesemonger. 
This was purchased by the British Museum in 
1841 (see art. CHATTEKTON, THOMAS ; Addit. 
MS. 12050). 

Upcott died, unmarried, at Islington on 
23 Sept. 1845. His portrait was painted by 
AVilliam Behnes, and a private plate en- 
graved by Bragg in March 1818. Another 
portrait of him, drawn on stone by Miss 
H. S. Turner, daughter of Dawson Turner, 
was engraved by Netherclift ; it is inserted, 
with the addition of a facsimile of his signa- 
ture, in the sale catalogue of his effects at 
the British Museum; a third portrait, by 
G. P. Harding, was lithographed by Day and 
Haghe, and signed by Upcott on 27 March 

Upcott's library, books, manuscripts, prints f 
and drawings were sold by Sotheby at 
Evans's auction-rooms, 106 New Bond Street 
(15 June 1846 and following days), and are 
said to have realised 4,125Z. 17<s. Qd. ; a large- 
paper copy of the catalogue, formerly be- 
longing to Dawson Turner, priced, and con- 
taining the cancelled title-page, is at the 
British Museum. He owned about thirty- 
two thousand letters, illustrated by three 
thousand portraits, many of which were en- 
graved in C. J. Smith's l Historical and Lite- 
rary Curiosities.' Many of the autograph 
Letters were bought for the nation, and 
now form Additional MSS. 15841 to 15957 
at the British Museum. These volumes, 
116 in number, comprise 15841-54, albums 
mostly of foreign princes and scholars ; 
15856, papers of John Nicholas ; 15857-8 
and 15948-51, Browne and Evelyn papers; 
15859-64, Burton's diary (edited by J. T. 
Rutt); 15865, Curtius letters, 1643-7; 
15866-90, Dayrolles correspondence ; 15891, 
etters received by Sir Christopher Hatton : 
L5892-8, Hyde correspondence (edited by 
S. W. Singer); 15913, 'The Snuff-Box,' a 
poem by Shenstone ; 15918-19, catalogue 
raisonne of auction catalogues, 1676-1824; 
15920, catalogue of his own books ; 15921-9, 
iollections on topography of Great Britain 
n continuation of his printed volumes ; 




15930-2, Oxfordshire collections; 15936 
Worsley letters, 1714-22; 15937-46, letters 
of foreign princes and English statesmen 
15947, Prior's papers while at Paris ; 15952- 
15954, papers on the French army in Italy 
1799-1813; 15855 and 15955-7, Anson 
papers. The sketch-books of Ozias Hum- 
phry (Addit. MSS. 15958-69) were pur- 
chased by Thomas Rodd at the sale, but were 
at once resold to the British Museum. 

The chief of Upcott's collections which 
were not acquired by the British Museum 
consisted of the correspondence of Ralph 
Thoresby (which was edited by the Rev 
Joseph Hunter) and of Emanuel da Costa 
A large series of autograph letters from Up- 
cott's stores was purchased by Captain Mon- 
tagu Montagu, R.N., and left by him at his 
death on 3 July 1863 to the Bodleian Li- 
brary (MACEAT, Annals of Sodl. Libr. p. 
299). Many of Humphry's finest works 
passed at Upcott's death to his friend, C. H. 
Turner of Godstone, and still belong to his 
family [see HTTMPHKY, OZIAS]. 

Upcott published in 1818, in three volumes, 
a ' Bibliographical Account of the Principal 
Works relating to English Topography,' a 
Tvork of great labour and utility. Unfortu- 
nately the compiler's intention of embracing 
Scotland and Ireland in a future work was 
never fulfilled, and his book is now to a large 
extent superseded by the 'British Topo- 
graphy ' (1881) of Mr. John P. Anderson, 
who refers in his preface to Upcott's 'excel- 
lent catalogue.' Upcott revised for the press 
the first (quarto) edition of ' Evelyn's Diary,' 
brought out by William Bray in 1818, and 
for the (octavo) edition of 1827 he carefully 
collated the copy with the original manu- 
script at Wotton and made numerous cor- 
rections. In 1825 he further edited Evelyn's 
'* Miscellaneous Writings.' He reprinted in 
1814 Andrew Borde's ' Boke of the Intro- 
duction of Knowledge,' and in 1819 Edmund 
Carter's ' History of the County of Cam- 

Southey was indebted to Upcott for the 
transcript of Sir Thomas Malory's 'King 
Arthur ' (1817). Upcott corrected it for the 
press. He took an active part in the publi- 
cation of the ' Garrick Correspondence,' and 
in the preparation of the ' Catalogue of the 
London Institution,' and is believed to have 
aided in compiling the ' Biographical Dic- 
tionary ' of 1816. The Guildhall Library 
originated in a suggestion by him, and in 
1828 he superintended the arrangement of the 
books in it (WELCH, Modern London, p. 162). 
In a copy of the 1818 edition of Thomas 
Gray's ' Poems ' in two volumes, now in the 
British Museum, Upcott inserted a large 

number of additional illustrations and of 
suggestive notes very beautifully written in 
his own hand. 

[Gent. Mag. 1845 ii. 540-1, 1846 i. 473-6 
(by A. B. i.e. Dawson Turner); Memoirs of 
Dodd, Upcott, and Stubbs 1879 (reprinted from 
Temple Bar, xlvii. 89-104) ; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. viii. 47, x. 331, 334, xi. 34.] W. P. C. 

UPHAM, EDWARD (1776-1834), book- 
seller and orientalist, the third son of Charles 
Upham (1739-1807), mayor of Exeter in 
1796, was born at Exeter in 1776. He began 
life as a bookseller in Exeter; his brother 
John carried on a similar business in Bath. 
Upham became a member of the corporation, 
was sheriff in 1807, and mayor of Exeter in 
1809. He retired and published a couple of 
oriental romances of no great merit, besides 
two works on Buddhism of more permanent 
value. One laborious and useful task was 
the completion of the 'Index to the Rolls of 
Parliament, comprising the Petitions, Pleas, 
and Proceedings of Parliament (A.D. 1278- 
A.D. 1503),' commenced by John Strachey 
and John Pridden [q.v.J, and published Lon- 
don, 1832, folio. He was a member of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, and a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London. Towards 
the end of his life he resided at Dawlish, 
where he was one of the charity trustees. 
He died at Bath on 24 Jan. 1834. He mar- 
ried, 25 Aug. 1801, Mary (d. 19 Oct. 1829), 
daughter of John Hoblyn, vicar of Newton 
St. Cyres and Padstow. 

He wrote: 1. 'Rameses: an Egyptian 
Tale, with Historical Notes of the Era of the 
Pharaohs,' London, 1824, 3 vols. sm. 8vo 
(anonymous). 2. 'Karmath: an Arabian 
Tale,' London, 1827, sm. 8vo (anonymous). 

3. ' The History and Doctrine of Buddhism, 
popularly illustrated with Notices of the 
Kappooism or Demon Worship, and of the 
Bali, or Planetary Incantations of Ceylon, 
with 43 lithographic prints from original 
Singalese designs,' London, 1829, folio. 

4. ' History of the Ottoman Empire from 
its Establishment till the year 1828,' Edin- 
burgh, 1829, 2 vols. sm. 8vo (Constable's 
Misc. vols. xl. and xli.) 5. ' Historical and 
Descriptive Notices of China and its North- 

Western Dependencies,' London, 1832 (from 
Gent. Mag. October 1832). 6. 'The Maha- 
ransi, the Raja-Ratnacari, and the Raja-vali, 
brming the Sacred and Historical Books of 
Ceylon ; also a Collection of Tracts illustrative 
>f the Doctrines and Literature of Buddhism, 
ranslated from the Singhalese,' London, 
-833, 3 vols. 8vo (edited by Upham). 

[Information from Mr. VV. U. Reynell-Upham ; 
ee also Gent. Mag. 1834, i. 336.] H. E. T. 



1898), South African statesman, born in 
1845, was the son of Samuel Upington (d. 
1875) of Lisleigh House, co. Cork, by Mary 
(Tarrant). Though a Roman catholic, he 
was made welcome at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, where he was admitted on 11 Oct. 1861, 
and whence he graduated B.A. in 1865 and 
M.A. in 1868 (Cat. of Dublin Graduates). 
He was called to the Irish bar in 1867, and 
a few years later was made a queen's counsel, 
having in the interval been appointed secre- 
tary to the Irish chancellor, Thomas O'Hagan, 
baron O'Hagan [q. v.] In 1874 he settled in 
Cape Colony, was in 1878 elected to the re- 
presentative assembly, and in the same year, 
upon the fall of the Molteno ministry, became 
attorney-general in (Sir) Gordon Sprigg's ad- 
ministration, and one of the most prominent 
politicians of the colony, identifying himself 
to a large extent with Sir Bartle Frere's policy ; 
he resigned in 1881, and became leader of the 
opposition in the Cape parliament. In Au- 
gust 1883 he was chosen counsel for Patrick 
O'Donnell, the bricklayer who shot James 
Carey [q. v.], the informer, on his way to the 
Cape. He did all that he could to prevent 
O'Donnell's extradition, and was offered a 
big fee on condition of his returning to 
England to defend his client there ; but he 
returned the brief (Critic, 17 Dec. 1898). 
In 1884 Upington became premier, taking 
office as attorney-general, with Sir Gordon 
Sprigg as his treasurer. Vigorous retrench- 
ment had to be combined with such forward 
movement as the annexation of Walfisch 
Bay. Froude, who gives a personal descrip- 
tion of Upington and his wife, both of whom 
he liked, interviewed Upington (by the 
latter's desire) during the term of his mini- 
.stry, and was impressed by his opposition to 
Sir Charles Warren's expedition on the 
ground that it would widen the breach be- 
tween the English and the Dutch, who were, 
as a whole, ultimately loyal to British sove- 
reignty as knowing that it would be infinitely 
less irksome than any other (Oceana, 1886, 
pp. 65-7). In 1886 Upington resigned the 
premiership in favour of Sir Gordon Sprigg, 
but continued in the cabinet as attorney- 
general down to 1890. He was appointed 
puisne judge in the supreme court of the Cape 

was on the commission appointed to inquire 
into native laws and customs of the colony, 
and was a delegate at the colonial conference 
in 1887, when he was made a K.C.M.G. He 
died at Wyberg, near Capetown, on 10 Dec. 
1898. He married, in 1872, Mary, daughter 
of J. Guerin of Edenhill, co. Cork, and left 

issue. A village and district in Bechuana- 
land are named after Upington (South Afri- 
can Gazetteer). 

[Times, 12 Dec. 1898; Trinity Coll. Dubl. 
Matric. Book (per the registrar) ; Colonial Office 
List, 1898, p. 480 ; Walford's County Families,. 
1898, p. 1045 ; Wilmot's History of our own 
Times in South Africa, 1897 ; The [Cape] Argus 
Annual, 1896, p. 128.] T. S. 



UPTON, ARTHUR (1623-1706), Irish 
presbyterian leader, eldest son of Captain 
Henry Upton of Castle-Upton (formerly 
Castle-Norton), co. Antrim, by Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir Hugh Clotworthy and sister of 
Sir John Clotworthy [q. v.], was born at 
Castle-Upton on 31 May 1623. His father, 
a Devonshire man, had come into Ireland 
with Essex in 1599. Upton was a strong 
presbyterian [see O'QuiNtf, JEEEMIAH] and 
a strong royalist. He refused the ' engage- 
ment,' and by proclamation of 23 May 1653 
was ordered to remove to Munster with 
other presbyterian landholders. The order 
came to nothing, and Upton was made a 
magistrate by Henry Cromwell. After the 
Restoration he was elected (1661) M.P. for 
Carrickfergus, and sat in the Irish parlia- 
ment for forty years; on the disfranchise- 
ment of Carrickfergus by James II he was 
elected M.P. for co. Antrim. He took a very 
active part on the side of William III. In 
December 1688 he forwarded to Dublin 
Castle a copy of an anonymous letter seized 
at Comber, co. Down, and supposed to reveal 
a plot for the massacre of protestants. In. 
January 1689 he attended the meeting of 
protestant gentry at Antrim Castle under 
his relative, Lord Massereene, was placed on 
the council of the protestant association for 
co. Antrim, and appointed to represent 
it on the supreme council of Ulster. He 
raised a regiment of foot, and, as its colonel, 
took part in the disastrous * break of Dro- 
more ' (15 March 1689). He was attainted 
by James's Irish parliament in June 1689. 
With Patrick Adair [q. v.] and another he 
was sent to London (November 1689) with 
a loyal address from Ulster presbyterians to 
William III. His last public act was the 
promotion of a petition to the Irish House 
of Commons (14 March 1705) against the 
Test Act. He died late in 1706. An anony- 
mous ' elegy ' on him by James Kirkpatrick 
[q. v.] was printed at Belfast in 1707, 4to. 
His funeral sermon, also by Kirkpatrick, is 
said to have been published, but no copy is 
known. He married Dorothy, daughter of 
Michael Beresford of Coleraine, co. Derry, 




and had eight sons and ten daughters. He 
was succeeded in his estates by his fourth 
son, Clotworthy (b. 6 Jan. 1665, d. 6 June 
1725), also M.P. for co. Antrim, who, as a 
presbyterian elder representing the congre- 
gation of Templepatrick, took a leading part 
on the conservative side in the Ulster non- 
subscription controversy. His sixth son, 
John (b. 19 April 1671), was father of Clot- 
worthy Upton, first lord Templetown. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), 1789, 
vii. 157 ; Kirkpatrick's Loyalty of Presbyte- 
rians, 1713, pp. 405, 563; M'Skimin's Hist, of 
Carrickfergus, 1829, pp. 61, 320, 341 ; Reid's 
Hist. Presb. Church in Ireland (Killen), 1867, 
ii. 187, 515, 553; Disciple (Belfast), 1882, ii. 
110, 174, 238.] A. G-. 

UPTON, JAMES (1670-1749), school- 
master, was born at Winslow, Cheshire, on 
10 Dec. 1670. He was educated at Eton, 
and was elected a fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 
1697, M.A. in 1701. At the request of John 
Newborough, the headmaster, he returned 
to Eton as an assistant master (HARWOOD, 
Alumni Eton., p. 277). 

Before 1711 Upton received the rectory of 
Brimpton, near Yeovil, and in 1712 the rec- 
tory of Monksilver, near Taunton, both from 
the Sydenham family. In 1724, at the re- 
quest of Lord Powlett and other gentlemen, 
he removed from Eton to Ilminster, Somer- 
set, where he took pupils until 1730, when 
he was appointed headmaster of Taunton 
grammar school. All his pupils went with 
him, and he so greatly raised the reputation 
of the school that it became the largest pro- 
vincial school in England, having over two 
hundred boys. In 1731 he received the 
vicarage of Bishop's Hull, Somerset. He 
died at Taunton on 13 Aug. 1749. He married 
Mary, daughter of a Mr. Proctor of Eton, 
by whom he had issue six sons and two 
daughters. From his second daughter, Ann, 
is descended the present Tripp family of 
Huntspill and Sampford Brett, Somerset. 

Upton edited Theodore Goulston or Gul- 
ston's ' Poetics of Aristotle ' (1623), with 
selected notes, Cambridge, 1696 ; Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus, 1702 (reprinted 1728 and 
1747) ; and Ascham's < Scholemaster,' 1711 
(reprinted 1743 and 1761). He published 
'A Selection of Passages from Greek Authors,' 

His second son, JOHN (1707-1760), born 
at Taunton in 1707, was educated by his 
father and at Merton College, Oxford, where 
he matriculated in 1724. In 1728 he was 
elected fellow of Exeter, graduating B.A. 
1730, M.A. 1732. He resigned his fellow- 
ship in 1736 In 1732 Lord Powlett gave 

I him the rectory of Seavington with Donning- 
ton, Somerset ; afterwards Earl Talbot gave 
him the rectory of Great Rissington, Glou- 
cestershire ; on 19 Jan. 1636-7 he was ad- 
mitted prebendary of Rochester, and he also 
held the sinecure rectory of Landrillo, Den- 
bigh. He died unmarried at Taunton on 
2 Dec. 1760. Among his pupils at Oxford 
was the critic, Jonathan Toup [q. v.] Up- 
ton published: 1. An excellent edition of 
ArrianVEpictetus,' 1739-41, incorporated in 
full by Schweighauser in his edition of 1799. 
2. Edition of Spenser's ' Faerie Queen,' 1758 
(see T. WARTON'S Fifth Ode and The Ob- 
server Observed}. 3. ' Observations on Shake- 
speare,' London, 1746 (2nd edit. 1748). The 
British Museum possesses editions of Aratus's 
' Phenomena,' of the ' Greek Anthology,' and 
of the ' Iliad,' with many manuscript notes 
by John Upton. 

[Misc. Gen. et Her. 2nd ser. Hi. 167; Toul- 
min's Taunton, ed. Savage, p. 203 ; Boase's Reg. 
of Exeter Coll. p. 137.] E. C. M. 

UPTON, NICHOLAS (1400P-1457), 
precentor of Salisbury and writer on heraldry 
and the art of war, born about 1400, is stated 
(LODGE, Irish Peerage, vii. 153) to have 
been the second son of John Upton of Port- 
linch, Devonshire, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Barley of Chencombe in 
the same county. From a collateral branch 
of the family was descended Arthur Upton 
[q. v.] Nicholas was entered as scholar of 
Winchester in 1408 under the name 'Helyer 
alias Upton, Nicholas/ and was elected fellow 
of New College, Oxford, in 1415, graduating 
bachelor of civil law. He was ordained sub- 
deacon on 8 March 1420-1 (HENNESSY, Nov. 
Rep. p. xlix; TANNER, p. 73), but instead of 
proceeding to higher orders he seems to have 
entered the service of Thomas de Montacute, 
fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.], and fought 
against the French in Normandy. He also 
served under William de la Pole, earl of Suf- 
folk [q.v.], and John Talbot (afterwards Earl 
of Shrewsbury) [q. v.] He was with Salis- 
bury at Orleans in October-November 1428, 
when it was relieved by Joan of Arc and Salis- 
bury was killed. Upton was appointed one of 
the executors of his will (Letters and Papers 
illustrating the War in France, i. 415-17). 

Soon afterwards Humphrey, duke of 
Gloucester, ' observing the parts and vertues 
of Mr. Upton, who at that time was not 
meanly skilled in both the laws, perswaded 
him to lay aside the sword and to take up 
his books again and follow his studies.' On 
6 April 1431 he was admitted to the pre- 
bend of Dyme in Wells Cathedral, and 
before 2 Oct. 1434 was rector of Chedsey, 


which he exchanged on that date for the 
rectory of Stapylford ; he was also rector of 
Farleigh. In 1438 he graduated bachelor 
of canon law from Broadgates Hall (after- 
wards Pembroke College), Oxford, and on 
11 April 1443 was collated to the prebend 
of Wildland in St. Paul's Cathedral. He 
resigned his prebend on his election on 
14 May 1446 as precentor of Salisbury Ca- 
thedral. In 1452 he went on a mission to 
Rome to obtain the canonisation of Osmund 
[q. v.], the founder of Salisbury. He reached 
Rome on 27 June, returning in May 1453 
without accomplishing his object. He died in 
1457 before 15 July, and was buried in Salis- 
bury Cathedral. 

Upton was the author of an elaborate 
work entitled ' Libellus de Officio Militari ;' 
it was dedicated to Humphrey, duke of 
Gloucester, and was therefore written before 
1446. It consists of four parts : (1) ' De 
Coloribus in Armis et eorum Nobilitate ac 
Differentia;' (2) 'De Regulis et de Signis;' 
(3) ' De Animalibus et de Avibus in Armis 
portatis ;' (4) ' De Militia et eorum [sic] No- 
bilitate.' A fifteenth-century manuscript of 
the work, possibly the original, is Addit. 
MS. 30946 in the British Museum; a 
fifteenth-century copy is in Cottonian MS. 
Nero C. iii. ; and later copies are in Harleian 
MSS. 3504 and 6106, and in Trinity College, 
Oxford, MS. xxxvi.; extracts from it are 
contained in Stowe MS. 1047, f. 252, and 
in Rawlinson MSS. (Bodleian Library) 
B. 20 and B. 107. The book, largely used 
by Francis Thynne [q. v.], was edited by 
Sir Edward Bysshe [q. v.] from Sir Robert 
Cotton's manuscript, and another belonging 
to Matthew Hale, both procured for Bysshe 
by John Selden ; it was entitled f Nicholai 
Vptoni de Studio Militari' (London, 1654, 
fol. ; two copies are in the Brit. Mus. Libr.) 

A later SIR NICHOLAS UPTON (d. 1551), 
son of John Upton of Lupton, Devonshire, 
was turcopolier of the knights of St. John, 
and was killed by sunstroke in July 1551 
during a gallant defence of Malta at the head 
of thirty knights and four hundred volun- 
teers against Dragut, the Turkish admiral. 
The grandmaster, John d'Omedes, declared 
his death to be a national loss (LODGE, Irish 
Peerage, vii. 154-5 ; VERTOT, Hist, of Knights 
of St. John, iii. 261 ; SUTHERLAND, Knights 
of Malta, ii. 143 ; WHITWORTH PORTER, p. 
728; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 192, 
ix. 81, xi. 200, 4th ser. iv. 477, 6th ser. xii. 
passim, 7th ser. i. 118, 171). 

[Preface to Bysshe's ed. of De Studio Militari, 
1654, cf. Tanner MS. 21, f. 159; manuscript 
copies in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Bekynton Corresp. 
(Rolls Ser.), i. 265 ; Statutes of Lincoln Cathe- 


dral, ed. Bradslmw, i. 406 ; Newcourt's Repertor. 
Eccl. ; Hennessy's Novum Rep. pp. xlix, 55; 
Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 36 ; Prince's 
Worthies of Devon ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy; 
Fuller's Worthies; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; 
Wood's Life and Times, ed. CJark, iii. 467 n. ; 
Maclean's Pembroke College, p. 66.] A. F. P. 

URCHARD, SIR THOMAS (1611-1660), 
author and translator. [See URQUHART.] 

URE, ANDREW (1778-1857), chemist 
and scientific writer, was born at Glasgow 
on 18 May 1778. He studied at Glasgow 
and Edinburgh universities, and graduated 
M.D. at Glasgow in 1801. In 1804, on the 
resignation of Dr. George Birkbeck [q. v.], he 
was appointed professor of chemistry and 
natural philosophy in the Andersonian Uni- 
versity, later Anderson's College, Glasgow. 
In 1809 he took an active part in the founda- 
tion of the Glasgow Observatory, and in con- 
nection with this work visited London, 
where he made the acquaintance of Nevil 
Maskelyne [q. v.], Sir Humphry Davy 
[q. v.], William Hyde Wollaston [q. v.], and 
others. He resided at the observatory for 
some years. About this time he established 
a course of popular scientific lectures for 
working men in Glasgow, probably the first 
of its kind. An official report of M. (later 
Baron) Charles Dupin on Ure's lectures led 
to the establishment of similar courses at 
the Ecole des Arts et M6tiers in Paris. In 
1818 he published an important series of 
determinations on the specific gravity of 
solutions of sulphuric acid of varying 
strengths. On 10 Dec. 1818 he read a paper 
before the Glasgow Literary Society on elec- 
trical experiments he had made on the mur- 
derer Clydsdale after his execution. He 
suggested, following up the work of Alex- 
ander Philip Wilson Philip [q. v.], that by 
stimulating the phrenic nerve, the vagus, or 
the great sympathetic, life might be restored 
in cases of suffocation from noxious vapours, 
drowning, &c. His experiments created a 
considerable sensation. In 182t he published 
a ' Dictionary of Chemistry,' founded on that 
of William Nicholson (1753-1815) [q. v.] 
Ure, in his article on ' Equivalents/ shows 
excellent discernment in dealing with the 
important chemical theories of the time ; he 
follows the views of Wollaston and Davy 
rather than those of Dalton as put forward 
by their author, and adopts Berzelius's nota- 
tion for the elements, then only just pro- 
posed, but adopted universally later. This 
' Dictionary of Chemistry ' attained a fourth 
edition in 1835, and formed the basis of that 
of Henry Watts [q. v.] in 1863. It was 
translated into French by J. Riffault in 



1822-4, and into German by K. Karmarsch 
and F. Heeren in 1843. In 1822 Ure was 
elected F.R.S. In 1829 he published a 
' New System of Geology/ in which he 
points out the importance of chemistry and 
physics to the geologist, but which is chiefly 
devoted to a criticism of the Huttonian and 
Wernerian theories, and to the advocacy of 
the orthodox system of chronology. In 1830 
Ure resigned his professorship and went to 
London, where he practised as an analytical 
and commercial chemist until his death. In 
1834 he became unofficially attached to the 
board of customs as analytical chemist, re- 
ceiving two guineas for each analysis per- 
formed. He was also requested by the board 
to investigate methods of estimating the quan- 
tity of sugar in sugar-cane juice, and received 
800 1. for two years' work on this subject. 

In 1835 he published his ' Philosophy of 
Manufactures/ in which he deals with the 
condition of factory workers, and in 1836 
* The Cotton Manufactures of Great Britain 
. . .;' subsequent edit ions of both these books, 
edited by Peter Lund Simmonds, appeared 
in 1861. In 1839 he published a ' Dictionary 
of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines/ of which 
a fourth edition appeared in 1853. The book 
was re-edited by Robert Hunt (1807-1887) 
fq. v.] in 1860 and 1867, and by Hunt and 
F. W. Rudler in 1875-8. It was translated 
into German by K. Karmarsch and F. Heeren 
in 1843-4 (Prague, 3 vols. 8vo). 

In 1843 he published as a pamphlet 'The 
Revenue in Jeopardy from Spurious Che- 
mistry/ in which he attacks William 
Thomas Brande [q. v.] and Thomas Graham 
[q. v.] with regard to certain analyses. 

Besides the books mentioned, he published 
' A New Systematic Table of the Materia 
Medica' (Glasgow, 1813) (WATT, Bibl 
Brit.}, and a pamphlet on 'The General 
Malaria of London ' in 1850. He was an 
original member of the Royal Astronomical 
Society and an honorary member of the 
Geological Society. The Royal Society's 
' Catalogue ' gives a list of fifty-three papers 
by Ure dealing with physics, pure and 
applied chemistry. He will be remembered 
chiefly by his inauguration of popular scien- 
tific lectures, and by his popular scientific 
works, which, in spite of a somewhat inflated 
and diffuse style, are clear and interesting. 

Ure died on 2 Jan. 1857, and was buried 
in Highgate cemetery. There is a portrait 
of him by Sir Daniel Macnee [q. v.] in the 
South Kensington Museum. Ure's eldest 
son, Alexander Ure, F.R.C.S., was surgeon 
at St. Mary's Hospital, London, and died in 
June 1866 (O^TES, Diet, of Biogr. ; see also 
Roy. Soc. Cat,} 

[Obituaries in Gent. Mag. new ser. 1857, i. 
242 ; Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 
1857, vol. xiii. ; Proceedings of Glasgow Philo- 
sophical Society, iv. 103; Dr. Ure, a slight 
sketch reprinted from the Times and . . . other 
periodicals (privately printed, 1875); Ure's own 
books and scientific papers ; Addison's Roll "of 
Glasgow Graduates; Calendar of Anderson's Col- 
lege, 1878-9 ; Roy. Soc. Cat.; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Cat. of the National Gallery ... at South Ken- 
sington, 1884.] P. J. H. 

URE, DAVID (d. 1798), geologist, born 
at Glasgow, was the son of a weaver in that 
city. His father dying while he was still 
young, he was compelled to labour at his 
trade for the support of his mother. Re- 
solving to enter the ministry, he obtained 
an education at the city grammar school, and 
afterwards at the university of Glasgow, 
where he graduated M.A. in 1776. His 
industry was great ; he worked at his trade 
almost all night, studying his books while 
toiling at the loom. At the university he 
was a great favourite with the Greek pro- 
fessor, James Moor [q. v.] Dissuaded by 
him from wasting his energies on the first 
objects of his enthusiasm, perpetual motion 
and the philosopher's stone, he turned his 
attention to the undeveloped science of geo- 
logy. While a student in divinity he was for 
some time assistant schoolmaster at Stewar- 
ton, and afterwards he taught a subscrip- 
tion school in the neighbourhood of Dum- 
barton. On 11 June 1783 he was licensed 
to preach by the presbytery of Glasgow, and 
afterwards became assistant to David Connell, 
minister of East Kilbride in Lanarkshire. 
During his residence in the parish he made 
careful researches into its history, and de- 
voted himself more especially to the study 
of its mineral strata. He published the re- 
sults of his labours in a volume entitled 
' The History of Rutherglen and East Kil- 
bride ' (Glasgow, 1793, 4to), a work worthy 
especial notice as containing one of the first 
attempts to deal with the geological features 
of a small district in a scientific manner. 
On the death of Connell on 13 June 1790, 
Ure had some expectation of being appointed 
his successor, but, finding the parish not 
unanimous, he set off for Newcastle on foot, 
and acted for some time as assistant in the 
presbyterian church in the town. He re- 
mained there until he attracted the attention 
of Sir John Sinclair (1754-1835) [q.v.], who 
employed him in preparing the first sketches 
of the agricultural surveys of the counties of 
Roxburgh, Dumbarton, and Kinross for his 
'Statistical Account of Scotland.' Ure's 
treatises were published separately by the 
London board of agriculture, the first two in 



1794 and the last in 1797. He superin- 
tended the publication of several of the 
later volumes of the ' Statistical Account ' 
and drew up the general indices. In appre- 
ciation of his labours in December 1795 he 
was presented by David Stewart, earl of 
Buchan, to the parish of Uphall in Linlith- 
gow. He was ordained on 14 July 1796, 
and died unmarried on 28 March 1798 at 

[Scots Mag. 1808, pp. 903-5; Scott's Fasti 
Eccles. Scotican. i. i. 206; Chambers's Biogr. 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, 1870; Addison's 
Eoll of Glasgow Graduates, 1898.] E. I. C. 

URI, JOANNES (1726-1796), orientalist, 
born in 1726 atKorosin Hungary, studied the 
oriental languages under J. J. Schultens at 
Leyden, where he took the degrees of Ph.D. 
and D.D., and published in 1761 a short 
treatise on Hebrew etymology called * Prima 
decas originum Hebrsearum genuinarum,' 
and also (for the Leyden library) an edition 
of the Arabic poem in honour of the prophet 
Mohammed called the * Burda,' with a Latin 
translation and further notes on Hebrew 
etymology ; this work he strangely dedicated 
'Deo ter 0. M. atque amicis charissimis 
dilectissimis.' In 1766, when the university 
of Oxford thought the time had come for a 
catalogue to be made of the oriental manu- 
scripts which had been accumulating in the 
Bodleian Library for two hundred years, a 
savant was sought for in Holland to under- 
take this work, and by the advice of Sir 
Joseph Yorke (afterwards Baron Dever) 
[q. v.], then ambassador in the Netherlands, 
communicated to Archbishop Seeker, Uri 
received an invitation to Oxford, where he 
was provided with a stipend and set to com- 
pile the required catalogue. After twenty 
years' preparation this catalogue appeared in 
1787, bearing the title < BibiiothecEe Bod- 
leianse Codd. MStorum Orientalium videlicet 
Hebraeorum,Chaldaicorum, Syriacorum, &c., 
Catalogus.' Little praise, however, can be 
assigned it ; besides numerous mistakes (cor- 
rected for the most part in the second volume 
of the catalogue by Nicoll and Pusey, which 
appeared in 1835), the arrangement is very 
faulty, different volumes of the same work 
frequently being registered many pages 
apart. While at Oxford he published an 
edition of some Persian and Turkish letters 
(1771), and also a short commentary on 
Daniel's Weeks with some other cruces of 
Old Testament exegesis. He is said to have 
given instruction in the oriental languages 
at Oxford, Joseph White [q. v.] being his 
most distinguished pupil. In his old age he 
was discharged by the delegates of the press, 

but by the kindness of Henry Kett [q.v.J and 
other friends he obtained a provision for his 
last years. He died at his lodgings in Ox- 
ford on 18 Oct. 1796. 

[Gent. Mag. 1796 ii. 884, 1825 ii. 184; Life 
of Adam Clarke, 1833, vol. ii. ; Macray's Annals 
of the Bodleian Library.] D. S. M. 

URIEN (fl. 570), British prince, is first 
mentioned in the tract known as the 
' Saxon Genealogies ' which is appended to 
the 'Historia Britonum' of Nennius in 
four manuscripts of that work, and is be- 
lieved to have been written about 690. Ac- 
cording to this, * Urbgen ' (the old Welsh 
form of what still earlier was ' Urbigena ' 
see RHYS, Arthurian Legend, p. 242) was 
one of four British chieftains who fought 
(about 570 ?) against < Hussa,' king of the 
Angles of Northumbria. He and his sons 
also waged war, with varying fortune, 
against Theodric of the same region. At 
last he was slain during an expedition 
which had shut up the English host in the 
isle of ' Medcaut ' (probably Lindisfarne), at 
the instigation of a rival prince ' Morcant/ 
who was jealous of his military fame 
(NENNIUS, ed. Mommsen, p. 206). It is in 
favour of the trustworthiness of this account 
that the writer of the ' Genealogies ' appears 
to have had a special interest in the family 
of Urien. The tenth-century genealogist 
of Harl. MS. 3859 makes Urien, conformably 
to Welsh tradition, the son of Cynfarch ap 
Meirchion (Cymrodor, ix. 173). 

Like most of the men who took part in 
the early conflicts with the English, Urien 
became a hero of British tradition, and so 
shadowy is the part he and his family play 
in the mediaeval poems and romances that 
Professor Rhys inclines to the view that the 
historical ' Urbigena ' and a mythological 
' Urogenos ' have united to furnish the traits 
of the later ' Urien ' (Arthurian Legend, pp. 
242-3). In the ' Triads ' he appears as one of 
the three l battle bulls ' of the isle of Britain 
(Myvyrian Archaiology, 1st ser. No. 12 ; 
SKENE, Four Ancient Books, ii. 456); his 
death at the hands of Llofan Llaw Ddifro 
was one of the three atrocious killings of 
the islands (1st ser. No. 38 ; Four Ancient 
Books, ii. 462 ; Red Book of Hergest , i. 303). 
Of the poems printed by Skene in the ' Four 
Ancient Books of Wales,' eight from the 
'Book of Taliesin' (ii. 183-93, 195-6) and 
two from the ' Red Book of Hergest ' (ii. 
267-73, 291-3) deal with the fortunes of 
Urien, who is variously described as ' Lord 
of Rheged,' ' Lord of the evening '(echwydd), 
1 Ruler of Llwyfenydd ' (Lennox), ' Prince 
of Catraeth/ ' Golden ruler of the North/ 




and 'Plead of Scotland' (Prydain). The 
poems thus agree with the ' Saxon Genea- 
logies ' in making Urien a powerful chieftain 
of the Northern Britons, and the statement 
of one of them that he was killed at ' Aber 
Lieu' (SKENE, ii. 270) may be trustworthy, 
if the mouth of the river Low, opposite 
Lindisfarne, once bore that name (STUART 
GLENNIE, Arthurian Localities, 1869). 

The name ' Urbgen' was borrowed by 
Geoffrey of Monmouth for his ' Urbgennius 
de Badone' (x. 6, 9; cf. also ix. 12). But 
the real representative of Urien in his 
pages is ' Urianus rex Murefensium,' one of 
three brothers in the north to whom Arthur 
gave Scotia, the Lothians, and Moray re- 
spectively (ix. 9, 12). The latter district, 
which was Urien's share, is made in another 
passage to include Loch Lomond (ix. 6). 
From the narrative of Geoffrey, Urien 
passed into the realm of Arthurian romance, 
and finally appears in ' Malory ' as King 
Vryens of the land of Goire, who married 
Morgan le Fay, Arthur's sister, and narrowly 
escaped being murdered by his wife. ' Gla- 
morganshire antiquarians took ' Goire ' to be 
Gower, and accordingly represent Urien as 
the means of driving out the Irish from the 
region between the Towy and the Tawy, 
which he thereupon received as a gift 
(anrheg) under the name of Rheged (lolo 
MSS. 70-1, 78, 86). But the real situation 
of Rheged remains unknown. 

[Skene's Four Ancient "Books of Wales ; Khys's 
Arthurian Legend; Zimmer's Nennius; Vindica- 
tus, p. 95.] J. E. L. 

URQUHART, DAVID (1805-1877), 
diplomatist, born at Braelangwell, Crornarty, 
in 1805, was the second son of David Ur- 
quhart of Braelangwell, by his second wife, 
Miss Hunter. His father died while David 
was still a child, and he was brought up by his 
mother. In 1817 she took him to the conti- 
nent, where he received his early education. 
After a year at a French military school he 
studied at Geneva under Malin, and subse- 
quently travelled in Spain with a tutor. Re- 
turning to England in 1821, he spent six 
months in learning the rudiments of farming, 
and three or four more as an ordinary work- 
man at Woolwich arsenal, where he acquired 
some knowledge of gunnery. He matriculated 
from St. John's College, Oxford, on 31 Oct. 
] 822. Being prevented by ill-health from con- 
tinuing his studies there, he was encouraged 
by Jeremy Bentham, who had a high opinion 
of his capacity, to travel in the east. In the 
beginning of 1827 he sailed from Marseilles 
with Lord Dundonald to take part in the 
Greek war of independence. On board the 

brig Sauveur, in company with the steamer 
Perseverance, he shared in the attack on 
28 Sept. 1827 on a Turkish squadron in the 
bay of Salona. The squadron was destroyed 
by the two vessels, and their success pre- 
cipitated the decisive battle at Navarino. 
Urquhart was afterwards appointed lieu- 
tenant on board the frigate Hellas, and took 
part in the siege of Scio, where he was 
severely wounded. In November 1828 he 
left the Greek service, the war being prac- 
tically at an end. 

His elder half-brother, Charles Gordon 
Urquhart, had also joined the Greeks, and 
obtained the rank of colonel in the army ; 
he was accidentally killed on 3 March 1828, 
in the island of Karabusa, of which he had 
been appointed governor. 

In March 1830 David Urquhart was at 
Argos when the protocol arrived determin- 
ing the Greek territory. Urquhart decided 
to examine the frontier personally, and his 
reports were communicated by his mother 
to Sir Herbert Taylor, private secretary of 
William IV. Taylor, impressed by the ability 
they displayed, submitted them to the king, 
and transmitted them to the French and 
Russian governments. In consequence Ur- 
quhart was nominated, while he was still 
abroad, British commissioner to accompany 
Prince Leopold to Greece. The prince, how- 
ever, subsequently declined the Greek throne, 
and the appointment fell through. On his 
arrival in England Urquhart was immediately 
presented to the king. In November 1831 
he accompanied the ambassador extraordi- 
nary, Sir Stratford Canning (afterwards Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe) [q. v.], to Constanti- 
nople, and he returned with him in September 
1832. In 1833, on his own proposition, he 
was despatched on a secret mission to inquire 
into the openings for British trade in eastern 
countries, and to examine the restrictions 
under which it laboured. Arriving at Con- 
stantinople early in 1834, he succeeded in 
obtaining the implicit confidence of the 
Turkish government, who were at that time 
embarrassed by the aggressions of Mehemet 
Ali. England and France held aloof, and 
the Turks were obliged to seek help from 
Russia, who in turn demanded considerable 
concessions [see TEMPLE, HENKY JOHN, third 
VISCOUNT PALMEKSTON]. The Turkish offi- 
cials placed such reliance on Urquhart 
that they kept him immediately informed of 
all communications made to them by the 
Russian ambassador. Lord Palmerston, 
however, took alarm at Urquhart's intimacy 
with the Porte, and wrote to the ambassador, 
Lord Ponsonby, to remove him from Con- 
stantinople as a danger to the peace of 




Europe. Urquhart returned home to justify 
himself, and just before his arrival his pam- 
phlet, ' England, France. Russia, and Turkey,' 
appeared and greatly enhanced his reputa- 
tion. On his return Urquhart found that 
Melbourne's ministry had been succeeded by 
that of the Duke of Wellington. He was 
unable to persuade the duke to make active 
intervention against Russia. 

Lord Melbourne returned to office in 
April 1835, and on 23 Sept. Urquhart was 
appointed secretary of embassy at Constan- 
tinople. On his arrival in 1836 he found 
that since 1831 the Russians had prohibited 
foreigners from trading with Circassia, al- 
though their claim to sovereignty over the 
country was open to question, Urquhart had 
visited Circassia in 1834, and at his instiga- 
tion a British schooner, the Vixen, proceeded 
to Soudjauk Kale, where she was seized on 
26 Nov. 1836 by a Russian warship. The 
English government recoiled from pressing 
Russia to extremities on the question, and 
as an alternative recalled Urquhart on 
10 March 1837 on account of his share in 
promoting the enterprise. A motion in the 
House of Commons on 21 June 1838 to 
inquire into Palmerston's conduct was de- 
feated by a small majority ; but Palmerston 
himself admitted in the debate that Urquhart 
believed that he was acting in accordance 
with the secret wishes of the English mini- 
stry. In another measure in which he was 
keenly interested Urquhart was equally un- 
successful. Russia, by the treaty of Adria- 
nople, enjoyed considerable commercial ad- 
vantages over other nations trading with 
Turkey. With a view to remedying this 
state of things, Urquhart, before his de- 
parture from England in 1835, drew up a 
treaty with Turkey, which the government 
promised to transmit to him in Constanti- 
nople. This, however, they had failed to 
do at the time of his recall. The treaty was 
ratified in 1838, but in so altered a condition 
that Urquhart considered it valueless and 
indignantly repudiated the authorship. 

Deprived by the death of William IV of 
the countenance of the king, and of the 
support of his private secretary, Sir Herbert 
Taylor, Urquhart found himself unable any 
longer to promote directly his views on state 
policy. He continued, however, to labour 
with unwearied assiduity, and by his nume- 
rous writings powerfully influenced public 
opinion. Already in 1835 he had founded 
the ' Portfolio,' a periodical devoted to 
diplomatic aifairs. In the first number he 
published a collection of diplomatic papers 
and correspondence between the Russian 
government and its agents, which threw 

light on the secret policy of the imperial 
cabinet. They had fallen into the hands of 
the Polish insurgents in 1830, and had been 
brought to England by Prince Adam Czar- 
toryski, from whose custody they had passed 
into that of the foreign office. The publi- 
cation of these documents caused consider- 
able stir, and, although Palmerston in 1838 
disclaimed any responsibility, it would hardly 
have been possible without his tacit con- 
nivance. The ' Portfolio ' was discontinued 
in 1836, when Urquhart went to the east ; 
but it was revived in 1843, and continued to 
appear until 1845. 

In 1840 he protested against the exclu- 
sion of France from participation in the 

I pacification of the Levant' by publishing 
' The Crisis ; or France before the Four 
Powers ' (London, 8vo ; French edit. Paris, 
1840, 8vo). In 1843, in ' An Appeal against 
Faction } (London, 8vo), he censured the con- 
duct of the government in refusing an in- 
quiry into the causes of the Afghan war, 
and in the same year he took a chief part in 
drawing up the report of the Colonial 
Society, which charged the promoters of the 
Afghan and Chinese wars with conspiracy 
against England. The society refused to 
ratify the reports, which appeared in the 
name of the committee alone. In 1844 Ur- 
quhart published in the * Portfolio,' and sepa- 
rately in pamphlet form, a paper entitled 
'The Annexation of the Texas : a Case of 
War between England and the United States,' 
a strong censure of the conduct of the United 
States government towards Mexico. 

On 30 July 1847 Urquhart was returned 
to parliament for the borough of Stafford, 
for which he sat until July 1852. During 
1848, in conjunction with Thomas Chisholm 
Anstey [q. v.], he persistently urged upon 
parliament the necessity of an investiga- 
tion into Palmerston's conduct in the foreign 
office. The speeches on the subject were pub- 
lished under the title 'Debates on Motion for 
Papers with a view to the Impeachment of 
the Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 
Viscount Palmerston.' 

At the time of the Crimean war Urquhart 
strongly deprecated the principle on which 
English action was based the substitution 
of a European protectorate over the Chris- 
tian subjects of Turkey for that exercised by 
Russia. He remonstrated against such an 
interference in the internal aifairs of Turkey 
as contrary to the law of nations, and asserted 
that the Turks were able unaided to cope with 
Russia, a prediction verified by the Turkish 
victories at Oltenitza and Silistria (cf. Times, 

II March 1853). He traversed the country 
forming societies, under the name of foreign 




affairs committees, to inquire into the con- 
duct of the government. To ventilate their 
opinions a journal was founded in 1855 en- 
titled the ' Free Press,' a name changed in 
1866 to the ' Diplomatic Review,' which con- 
tained, among other contributions, most of 
Urquhart's own writings on the subject. 

In 1864 he was compelled by his health 
to leave England for the continent, where he 
resided partly at Montreux, and partly in a 
house he had built on a spur of Mont Blanc. 
Abroad he attempted with his usual energy 
to revive the study of international law, 
which he considered to be continually vio- 
lated by modern states in their dealings with 
each other. This undertaking brought him 
into close relations with a number of promi- 
nent men, such as Le Play and Bishop Du- 
panloup, and led to his presence at Rome 
during the Vatican council of 1869 and 
1870. In 1876 his health broke down com- 
pletely. He died at Naples on 16 May 1877, 
and was buried at Montreux in Switzerland. 
On 5 Sept. 1854 he married Harriet Ange- 
lina, second daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
and sister of Chichester Samuel Parkinson- 
Fortescue, first baron Carlingford and 
second baron Clermont. By her he had 
two sons and two daughters. She was a 
constant contributor to the ' Diplomatic Re- 
view ' under the name of ' Caritas,' and ren- 
dered Urquhart the most valuable assistance 
in his political and literary labours. She 
died at Brighton in October 1889. 

Urquhart was gifted with a rare enthu- 
siasm which often obscured his judgment, 
but he impressed men of all opinions and 
nationalities by his earnestness of purpose 
and the width of his interests. Although 
he was popularly known as an extravagant 
Turcophil, he had a thorough knowledge of 
the politics of Eastern Europe, which was 
recognised at home by Disraeli and abroad 
by statesmen like Thiers and Beust. To 
Urquhart belongs the distinction of promo- 
ting the naturalisation of the Turkish bath 
in the British Isles. He spoke enthusias- 
tically of the merits of the institution in 
his ' Pillars of Hercules ' (London, 1850, 2 
vols. 8vo), a narrative of travels in Spain and 
Morocco. The description arrested the atten- 
tion of the physician Richard Barter [q. v.], 
who added the Turkish bath to the system of 
water cure he had established at Blarney, 
near Cork. In 1856 Barter edited a pam- 
phlet containing extracts from the ' Pillars of 
Hercules,' under the title 'The Turkish 
Bath, with a View to its Introduction to 
the British Dominions,' and both he and Ur- 
quhart lectured on the subject. Urquhart 

subsequently superintended the erection of 
the baths in Jermyn Street, London. 

Urquhart was author of numerous trea- 
tises, chiefly relative to international policy. 
His style was admirably lucid. Besides the 
works already mentioned, the principal are : 
1. 'Turkey and its Resources,' London, 
1833, 8vo. 2. ' The Spirit of the East : a 
Journal of Travels through Roumeli,' Lon- 
don, 1838, 2 vols. 8vo; 2nd ed. 1839 ; trans- 
lated into German and published in Eduard 
Widenmann and Wilhelm Hanff 's ' Reisen 
und Landerbeschreibungen der alteren und 
neuesten Zeit,' 1855-60, lief. 17 and 18. 
3. ' An Exposition of the Boundary Diffe- 
rences between Great Britain and the United 
States,' Liverpool, 1839, 4to. 4. 'Diplo- 
matic Transactions in Central Asia,' Lon- 
don, 1841, 4to. 5. 'The Mystery of the 
Danube,' London, 1851, 8vo. 6. 'Reflections 
on Thoughts and Things,' London, 1844, 
8vo ; 2nd ser. 1845. 7. ' Wealth and Want ; 
or Taxation, as influencing Private Riches 
and Public Liberty,' London, 1845, 8vo. 
8. ' Statesmen of France and the English 
Alliance,' London, 1847, 8vo. 9. ' Europe 
at the Opening of the Session of 1847,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 8vo. 10. ' The Mystery of the 
Danube,' London, 1851, 8vo. 11. ' Progress 
of Russia in the West, North, and South,' 
London, 1853, 8vo ; 5th edit, in the same year. 
12. ' Recent Events in the East,' London, 
1854, 12mo. 13. 'The War of Ignorance and 
Collusion : its Progress and Results,' Lon- 
don, 1854, 8vo. 14. 'The Occupation of 
the Crimea,' London, 1854, 8vo. 15. ' The 
Home Face of the " Four Points," ' London, 
1855, 8vo. 16. ' Familiar Words as affect- 
ing the Character of Englishmen and the Fate 
of England,' London, 1855, 12mo. 17. ' The 
Lebanon : a History and a Diary,' London, 
1860, 2 vols. 8vo. 18. ' Materials for a True 
History of Lord Palmerston,' London, 1866, 
8vo. 19. l Appeal of a Protestant to the 
Pope to restore the Law of Nations,' Lon- 
don, 1868, 8vo ; Latin edit. 1869. 

[Urquhart's "Works ; Manuscript Life of 
Urquhart by Mr. L. D. Collet ; private informa- 
tion ; Griffin's Contemporary Biogr. in Brit.Mus. 
Addit. MS. 28512, ff. 208-12; Mrs. Bishop's 
Memoir of Mrs. Urquhart, 1897 ; Ashley's Life 
of Patmerston, 1879, ii. 61; Greville Papers, 
1888, iii. 334, 413, iv. 122, 123, 164 ; Doubleday's 
Political Life of Peel, 1856, ii. 246 ; Corresp. 
entre M. Urquhart et 1'Eveque d'Orleans [Du- 
panloup], 1870.] E. I. C. 

URQUHART, THOMAS (ft. 1650?), 
violin-maker, was distinguished among old 
London makers by the beauty of his style, and 
especially by the excellence of his varnish. 
Some of Urquhart's instruments are small in 


4 6 


size ; all are said to have been pure and 
silvery in tone. A violin with the Urquhart 
label, dated 1666, is in Mr. Hill's collection. 

There is in the possession of Mr. John 
Glen, Edinburgh, an old flute, stamped 
with Urquhart's name, and characteristically 
varnished, but it is not possible to decide 
that this instrument was made by the cele- 
brated Urquhart. 

[Grove's Diet. iv. 210, 283; Hart's The 
Violin, pp. 168, 202, 317; Pearce's Violin- 
makers, p. 85; Davidson's The Violin; Sandys 
and Forster's Hist, of the Violin, p. 249 ; 
Fleming's Old Violins ; Fiddle Fancier's Guide, 
p. 124; information kindly given by Mr. Arthur 
Hill, Mr. John Glen, and Mr. Alfred Moffat.] 

L. M. M. 

THOMAS (1611-1660), of Cromarty, author 
and translator, eldest son of Thomas Ur- 
quhart (1582-1642), of a family content to 
trace back their descent to Galleroch de Ur- 
chart, who nourished in the time of Alex- 
ander II (though they might, as Sir Thomas 
subsequently showed, have gone back very 
much further), was born in 1611, five years 
after the marriage of his parents (Aberdeen 
Sasine, Reg. House, Edinb. ; note from Rev. 
J. Willcock; previous memoirs have erro- 
neously assigned Urquhart's birth to 1605 
or 1606). 

The father (Sir) Thomas, the elder, suc- 
ceeded his father, Henry Urquhart, on 13 April 
1603, and his grandfather Walter on 11 May 
1607 ; and it is recorded that he received the 
patrimonial estate from the latter unburdened 
in any way. During the autumn of 1606 (the 
prenuptial contract is dated 15 July 1606) 
he married Christian (born 19 Dec. 1590), 
fourth daughter of Alexander Elphinstone, 
fourth lord Elphinstone [q. v.], by his wife 
Jean, daughter of William, sixth lord 
Livingstone. He appears to have been a 
favourite with James I, whose learning 
and views on genealogical and ecclesiastical 
matters he shared, and the king is said to 
have knighted him when he was at Edin- 
burgh in 1617. He had abandoned Roman 
Catholicism, but remained a devout episco- 
palian, and firmly refused to sign the cove- 
nant of 1638. In the meantime, owing to 
reckless expenditure, his affairs became 
hopelessly involved. He seems to have re- 
sided occasionally, during the winter, at 
Banff, of which place he is described as a 
' parochiner ' in 1630 (Annals of Banff, New 
Spalding Club, i. 62, ii. 28, 418). In June 
1636, in order to meet some of the more 
pressing demands, he alienated a portion 
of the family estates to one William Rig 
and others (cf. Registr. Magni Sigilli Scot. 

1634-51, pp. 534, 543, 546, 566, 739, 
1374); and in the following year a 'letter 
of protection ' from his creditors was granted 
him by Charles I under the great seal, dated 
from St. James's, 20 March 1637. Four months 
later (19 July) two of the old man's sons, 
Thomas and a younger brother, were indicted 
for laying violent hands on their father and 
detaining him in an upper chamber, called 
the ' Inner Dortour,' at Cromarty. The lords 
of the council appointed certain noblemen to 
investigate the affair, which was thereupon 
adjusted without further reference to the 
law. Sir Thomas, the elder, survived these 
events a little over five years, and, harassed 
to the last by creditors, died at Cromarty in 
August 1642. Although a devoted royalist 
and episcopalian, he was unmolested on that 
account, as he was known to be harmless 
and ' environed with covenanters as neigh- 
bours ' (GOKDON, Hist, of Scots Affairs, Spald- 
ing Club, i. 61). 

As 'Thomas Urquhardus de Cromartie,' 
the future author of the 'Jewel' was ad- 
mitted at King's College, Aberdeen, in 1622, 
during the regentship of Alexander Lunan 
(Fasti Aberdonenses, p. 457). Aberdeen was 
not only then pre-eminent in literature and 
learning, but a stronghold of loyalty and 
episcopacy (ib. p. 41 ; cf. Logopandecteision, 
p. 42). Among the members of his col- 
lege Urquhart extols William Lesly and 
his successor as principal, William Guild, 
his private tutor William Setoun (Fasti 
Aberd. p. 452), and many others. It is pro- 
bable that he owed much of the recondite and 
eccentric learning for which he was more 
specially noted to his great-uncle, John Ur- 
quhart, called the ' tutor of Cromarty ' (see 
below), who was ' known all over Britain,' 
his ward asseverates, ' for his deep reach of 
natural art.' Urquhart was an apt scholar. 
While others were in quest of game, the 
diversions of Urquhart were the study of 
' optical secrets, mysteries of natural philo- 
sophie, reasons for the varietie of colours, 
the finding out of the longitude, the squar- 
ing of a circle and wayes to accomplish 
all trigonometrical calculations by signes 
without tangents with the same comprehen- 
siveness of computation ' (Logopan.}*. 35). But 
before his ' braines were ripened for eminent 
undertakings,' he set off on ' the grand tour,' 
travelling through France, Spain, and Italy. 
According to his own account he soon spoke 
the languages of those countries with such a 
' liveliness of the country accent ' that he 
passed ^for a native/ and he seized every 
opportunity of demonstrating the superiority 
of Scotland in point of 'valour, learning, and 
honesty ' to any of the nations that he visited 




(Jewel, p. 224). He states (Logopan. p. 10), 
that he thrice entered the lists, like his 
favourite hero, the Admirable Crichton, 
against men of three several nations to vin- 
dicate his native country, and, having dis- 
armed his opponents, magnanimously spared 
their lives, though not until they had t in 
some sort acknowledged their error.' 

Shortly after his return from the conti- 
nent Urquhart appeared in arms among the 
northern confederates who opposed the 
* vulgar covenant.' The first skirmish of the 
Scottish war was occasioned by Urquhart's 
attempt to recover by force a store of arms 
deposited by him in Balquholly House (now 
Halton Castle), Turriff, which had been 
seized by the Barclays of Towie. Close upon 
this followed the Trott of Turriff (14 May 
1639), in which Urquhart shared, and the 
short-lived royalist occupation of Aberdeen. 
Ten days later, upon the anti-covenanter 
force dispersing, he sailed from Aberdeen for 
England, and entered the service of Charles I, 
by whom he was knighted in the gallery at 
Whitehall on 7 April 1641. While in Lon- 
don he seems to have resided in Clare Street. 
Before returning to Scotland in the autumn 
of the ensuing year to take upon him the 
burden of the ' crazed estate ' which he in- 
herited upon the death of his father, Sir 
Thomas saw through the press and dedi- 
cated to his then political leader, James 
Hamilton, third marquis of Hamilton [q. v.J, 
his three books of * Epigrams.' Each book 
contains forty-four epigrams or rather apho- 
risms; in metrical form they are sextains, 
and are sententious and sedate, not witty 
(cf. COLLIER, Bibl. Cat. ii. 461). At the 
close of 1642, after setting apart the bulk of 
the rents due from his estate for the pay- 
ment of creditors, he went abroad again for 
three years. But affairs seem to have been 
mismanaged in his absence, and he returned 
to find the creditors changed, not for the 
better, and the debt little, if at all, reduced. 
From the close of 1645 he took up his abode 
in the ancestral tower of Cromarty, a for- 
talice erected under a royal grant of 
James III to William Urquhart, dated 
6 April 1470. In 1648 he was appointed 
officer of horse and foot in the royal interest 
for putting the kingdom into a state of 

It speaks well for his power of detach- 
ment and his cheerfulness amid 'solicitu- 
dinary and luctiferous discouragements, fit 
to appall the most undaunted spirits,' that 
he was able to prepare for press in the very 
year of his return his abstruse work on 
trigonometry, entitled < Trissotetras.' This 
singular book was dedicated by Sir Thomas 

to his mother, who is addressed with every 
embellishment of adulatory extravagance as 
* Cynthia.' He found, moreover, a source of 
keen pleasure in his books at Cromarty 
' not three among them,' he says, ' were not 
of mine owne purchase, and all of them to- 
gether in the order wherein I had ranked them , 
compiled (like to a compleat nosegay) of 
flowers which in my travels I had gathered out 
of the gardens of above sixteen several king- 
doms ' (Logopan.} Most of these treasures 
were soon unhappily sequestrated and sold 
by the creditors, ' iron-handed,' he complains, 
' in the use of homings and apprizings.' The 
worst of this gang, in the debtor's eyes, were 
1 the caitiff' Robert Lesley, descendant, as 
he avers, though wrongly, from Norman 
Lesley, the murderer of Cardinal Beaton, and 
Sir James Eraser of Darkhouse, ' of whom 
no good can truly be spoken but that he is 
dead.' Among his enemies he naturally in- 
cludes the usurers, who 'blasted all his 
schemes for the benefit of mankind ; ' but 
with none of his foes did he quarrel more 
forcibly than with the neighbouring mini- 
sters of Kirkmichael, Cullicuden, and Cro- 
marty, and to the ( acconital bitterness ' of 
this last, one Gilbert Anderson, he fre- 
quently refers. 

His struggle with his creditors and his 
attempts at squaring the circle were inter- 
rupted by the news of the execution of the 
king. Early in 1649 he joined Thomas Mac- 
kenzie of Pluscardine, Colonel Hugh Eraser, 
John Munro of Lumlair, and others, who 
rose in arms and planted the standard of 
Charles II at Inverness. The rising proved 
abortive, and on 2 March 1649 the estates 
of parliament at Edinburgh declared Ur- 
quhart a rebel and a traitor. No active steps 
seem to have been taken against him until 
22 June 1650, when he was as a ' malig- 
nant ' examined by a commission of the 
general assembly, and charged with having 
taken part in the northern insurrection, 
and with having vented dangerous opinions. 
His political attitude was probably regarded 
by the commission as innocuous, for his case 
was merely referred to the discretion of John 
Annand, minister of Inverness (cf. General 
Assembly Records, Scot. Hist. Soc. 1896). 

On the coronation of Charles II at Scone 
Urquhart finally quitted the old castle of 
Cromarty and joined the Scottish army. The 
expeditionary force was very heterogeneously 
composed, and, according to Urquhart, who 
had abated none of his antipathies, it was 
spoiled by presbyterians, whom he accuses 
of deserting on the eve of the battle, ' lest 
they should seem to trust to the arm of 
flesh.' Prior to the battle of Worcester Sir 


4 8 


Thomas lodged in the town in the house of 
one Spilsbury, * a very honest sort of man/ in 
whose attic was stored his very extensive 
baggage. In addition to ' four large port- 
mantles ' full of scarlet cloaks, buff suits, 
and other ' precious commodity,' his effects 
comprised three large trunks filled with ' an 
hundred manuscripts' of his own com- 
position, to the amount of 642 ' quinter- 
nions,' of five sheets each. The royalist 
army having been routed and Urquhart 
captured, the Cromwellian soldiers ran- 
sacked Spilsbury's house. At first the precious 
manuscripts had wellnigh escaped, for ' the 
soldiers merely scattered them over the floor ; 
but reflecting after they had left the chamber 
on the many uses to which they might be ap- 
plied, they returned and bore them out into 
the street.' One quinternion only, containing 
part of the preface to the ' Universal Lan- 
guage,' was rescued from the kennel and 
restored' to Sir Thomas, while the portion of 
another containing the writer's marvellous 
genealogy was eventually spared 'the in- 
exorable rage of Vulcan ' and the tobacco- 
pipes of the musketeers. Urquhart himself 
was committed to the Tower of London 
with other Scottish gentlemen taken at 
Worcester. During the summer of 1651 his 
imprisonment was relaxed, and on 16 Sept. in 
that year Urquhart, who seems to have won 
the good graces of all his gaolers while in 
the Tower, was removed to Windsor Castle 
(CaL State Papers, Dom.) Early next 
month Cromwell ordered his release on 
parole de die in diem (ib.} The prisoner 
speaks highly of the Protector's indulgence, 
by means of which he was enabled to address 
himself to repair in some measure the loss of 
his hundred manuscripts. Hitherto his pro- 
jects had been devised for the good of man- 
kind and the glory of his country : hence- 
forth his ingenuity was to be exerted in the 
interests of himself. First, therefore, in 
1652, he issued the recovered fragment of 
his genealogy to convince Cromwell and 
the parliament that a ' family which Saturn's 
scythe had not been able to mow in the 
course of all former ages, ought not to be pre- 
maturely cut off.' In this he succinctly 
traces his pedigree back to the 'red earth 
from which God framed Adam, surnamed 
the protoplast.' The local origin of the 
name he ignores in order to derive it from 
Ourqhartos, i.e. 'the fortunate and well- 
beloved.' This Ourqhartos was fifth in 
descent from Noah, and married the queen 
of the Amazons. The genealogy showed 
clearly how Sir Thomas was the hundred 
and forty-third in direct line (hundred and 
fifty-third in succession) from Adam, and 

hundred and thirty-third from Japhet, ' anno 
mundi 5598 ; ' but it did not succeed in its 
avowed object of convincing Cromwell of 
its compiler's value to his country (cf. LOWER, 
On Family Names, 1860, p. 362; the pedigree, 
which is correct as far as verifiable that 
is, as far back as about 1300 was continued 
down to the close of the seventeenth century 
by David Herd, ap. Urquhart Tracts, Edinb. 

Urquhart next published his *EKOVCU- 
@d\avpov, better known as 'The Jewel' 
(eKo-KvpaXavpov = jewel out of the mireP) 
Author and printer shut themselves up to 
see whether head or hand could compose the 
quicker ; and their joint concern issued from 
the press in the short space of fourteen 
working days. Urquhart's aim was to con- 
vince the government of the signal and un- 
precedented services which he might be 
capable of rendering, and he puffed his work 
with unblushing effrontery. The ' Jewel r 
proper, as rescued from the ' kennel of Wor- 
cester,' comprised but two and a quarter 
sheets of small pica, ' as it lieth in an octavo 
size,' forming the introduction to a work of 
twelve hundred folio pages, irreparably lost, 
on a ' Universal Language ' (a kind of ances- 
tor of Volapiik). This ' introduction,' how- 
ever, was, in the author's opinion, the cream 
of the book. Among the numerous merits- 
of his language he remarks that ' three and 
sixtiethly, in matters of enthymens, syllo- 
gisms, and all manner of illative ratiocina- 
tion it is the most compendious in the world.' 
The main and by far the most interesting 
portion of the work (hastily composed as a 
supplement to the ' Jewel ' proper) is a rhap- 
sodical vindication of the Scots nation (be- 
fore the presbyterians had ' loaded it with 
so much disreputation for covetousness and 
hypocrisie'), interspersed with notices and 
characters of the most eminent Scots scholars 
and warriors who had flourished during the 
previous half-century. Despite its obvious 
extravagance, Urquhart's 'Jewel' has not 
only many graphic and humorous touches^ 
but much truth of observation; while its 
inimitable quaintness justifies its title in the 
eyes of lovers of recondite literature. 

During the May of 1652 Urquhart's papers 
were ordered to be seized, and their exami- 
nation by the government very probably con- 
tributed to his enlargement. On 14 July 
following he was allowed to return to 
Scotland for five months, on condition that 
be did nothing to the prejudice of the Com- 
monwealth. His three attendants William, 
Francis, and John Urquhart had received 
passes in the previous March. His leave 
was subsequently extended, but he does not 




seem to have utilised the time to advantage 
as far as his creditors were concerned, and 
he surrendered to his parole in 1653, when 
he published in London his * Logopandectei- 
sion,' being a continuation and expansion of 
his ideas on the subject of a universal lan- 
guage, interspersed with chapters of an auto- 
biographical and declamatory nature, while 
the volume concludes with a fanciful sum- 
mary of the author's demands or ' proquiri- 
tations ' from the state. 

The same year (1653) saw the appearance 
of Urquhart's admirable translation of the 
first book of Rabelais ' one of the most 
perfect transfusions of an author from one 
language into another that ever man accom- 
plished.' In point of style Urquhart was 
Rabelais incarnate, and in his employment 
of the verbal resources, whether of science 
and pseudo-science or slang, he almost sur- 
passed Rabelais himself.' As for his mis- 
takes, they as truly ' condoned by their mag- 
nificence.' He often met the difficulty of 
iinding the exact equivalent of a French 
word by emptying all the synonyms given 
fey Cotgrave into his version ; thus on one 
occasion a list of thirteen synonyms in 
Habelais is expanded by the inventive Ur- 
quhart into thirty-six. Some of the chap- 
ters are in this way almost doubled in 

After 1653 practically nothing is known 
of Urquhart, but it seems probable that he 
remained for some years longer in London, 
going on with his translation of Rabelais 
(a third book of which appeared after his 
death), a prisoner in name more than in 
reality. When he crossed the sea is not 
known, but tradition states that he died 
abroad on the eve of the Restoration. The 
mode of his death, as handed down appa- 
rently by family tradition, was that he died 
in an uncontrollable fit of laughter upon 
hearing of the Restoration. It is highly 
probable that he died in the early part of 
1660, as on 9 Aug. in that year his brother 
(Sir) Alexander of Cromarty petitioned the 
council for a commission to execute the office 
of sheriff of Cromarty, held for ages by his 
predecessors, and belonging to him as eldest 
surviving son of Sir Thomas Urquhart who 
died in 1642. In 1663 Sir Alexander claimed 
compensation to the amount of 20,203J. 
(Scots) for the losses incurred by his brother 
during 1650, and 39,203/. (Scots) for the 
losses of 1651-2 (one pound Scots = one 
shilling and eightpence sterling). Sir Alex- 
ander's ' pretty ' daughter, Christian, married 
before 1665 fPEPTS, Diary, 3 Oct.) Thomas 
Rutherford, Lord Rutherford, elder brother 
of the third lord, who has been identified with 


Scott's ' Master of Ravenswood.' On Alex- 
ander's death the honours of the family 
and what estates were left passed to Sir 
John Urquhart, son of John Urquhart of 
Craigfintray, Laithers, and Craigston, who 
was the son of John Urquhart, the ' Tutor 
of Cromarty/ by his first marriage. Sir 
John's son Jonathan sold Cromarty in 1685 
to Viscount Tarbat, first earl of Cromarty, 
and on the death of Jonathan's son James, 
in 1741, the 'Tutor's' descendant, William 
Urquhart of Meldrum, became the repre- 
sentative of the ancient house of Cromarty 
(see DAVIDSON, Inverurie, 1878, pp. 468-9 ; 
FEASEE MACKINTOSH, Antiquarian Notes 
1865, pp. 202-3). 

Urquhart was a Scottish euphuist, with a 
brain at least as fertile and inventive as that 
of the Marquis of Worcester (many of whose 
hundred projects he anticipated). His sketch 
of a universal language exhibits rare inge- 
nuity, learning, and critical acumen. Hugh 
Miller pointed- out that the modern chemical 
vocabulary, with all its philosophical inge- 
nuity, is constructed on principles exactly 
similar to those which Urquhart divulged 
more than a hundred years prior to its inven- 
tion in the preface to his ' Universal Lan- 
guage.' [His fantastic and eccentric diction, 
which accurately reflects his personality, 
obscures in much of his writing his learning 
and his alertness of intellect. Urquhart's 
singularities of mind and style found, how- 
ever, their affinity in Rabelais, and conspired 
to make his translation of the great French 
classic a universally acknowledged ' monu- 
ment of literary genius.' 

Two portraits of Urquhart by Glover, both 
representing a man with flowing locks, at- 
tired in the height of cavalier foppery, were 
finely engraved by Lizars for the Maitland 
Club's edition of Urquhart's 'Works' in 

Urquhart's works are : 1. ' Epigrams, 
Divine and Moral. By Sir Thomas Urchard, 
Knight, London. Printed by Barnard 
Alsop and Thomas Fawcet in the yeare 1641, 
4to, 34 leaves,' with an engraved portrait by 
G. Glover as frontispiece (Brit. Mus.) 
Another edition for William Leake, 1646, 4to 
(Brit. Mus., Bodl., Huth). 2. ' The Trisso- 
tetras : or a most Exquisite Table for Re- 
solving all manner of Triangles . . . with 
Grreater Facility than ever hitherto hath 
been Practised. ... By Sir Thomas Ur- 
juhart of Cromartie, knight. Published for 
the benefit of those that are mathematically 
affected/ London, printed by James Young, 
1645, 4to, with full-length portrait by Glover 
'HAZLITT ; Brit. Mus. copy has no portrait), 
[t was reissued in 1650 as ' The Most Easy 



and Exact Manner of Resolving all sorts of 
Triangles, whether Plain or Sphericall . 
by T. U. Student in the Mathematick, for 
William Hope/ London, 4to (Brit. Mus. 
3. ' navroxpovoxavov: or a peculiar Promp- 
tuary of Time ; wherein (not one instanl 
being omitted since the beginning of motion) 
is displayed A most exact Directory for 
all particular Chronologies in what family 
soever : arid that by deducing the true Pedi- 
gree and Lineal descent of the most ancient 
and honorable name of the VRQVHART" 
in the house of Cromartie since the Creation 
of the world until this present year of God, 
1652. London, printed for Richard Baddeley 
Middle Temple Gate, 1652, sm. 8vo (Brit. 
Mus. ; Douce). 4. ' 'EK<TKv3d\avpov : Or The 
Discovery of A most exquisite JEWEL, more 
precious than Diamonds enchased in Gold, 
the like whereof was never seen in any 
age; found in the kennel of Worcester- 
street, the day after the fight and six before 
the Autumnal Equinox, anno 1651. Serv- 
ing in this place to frontal a Vindication of 
the honour of SCOTLAND from that 
Infamy, whereinto the rigid Presbyterian 
party of that Nation out of their Covetous- 
ness and ambition most dissembledly hath 
involved it. . . .' London, printed by James 
Cottrel . . . for Richard Baddeley, 1652, 12mo 
(Brit. Mus. ; Bodl.) 5. ' Logopandecteision ; 
Or an Introdvction to the Vniversal Lan- 
gvage . . . digested into these Six several 
Books. Neaudethaumata, Chrestasebeia, Cle- 
ronomaporia, Chryseomystes, Neleodicastes 
& Philoponauxesis.' London, 1653, 4to, with 
an ' Epistle Dedicatorie to No-Body ' (Gren- 
ville Libr., Brit Mus.) 

Though an English version of ' Gargantua 
his Prophecie ' was licensed in 1592, and 
was probably then issued, no translation of 
Rabelais is extant prior to Urquhart's ' The 
First [and ' The Second Book '] Book of the 
Works of Mr. Francis Rabelais, Doctor in 
Physick . . . now faithfully translated into 
English by S. T. U. C.,' London, for Richard 
Baddeley, 1653 (2 vols. 8vo). Prefixed is 
a poem addressed 'to the honoured noble 
Translatour of Rabelais/ signed J. de la Salle 
(i.e. John Hall, 1627-1656, q. v.] The first 
two books, * written originally in French 
and translated into English by S r Thomas 
Urchard, knight/ reappeared in 1664, Lon- 
don, 8vo, and 'The Third Book . . . now 
faithfully translated by the unimitable pen 
of Sir Thomas Urwhart, Kt. and Bar. The 
Translator of the Two First Books. Never 
before printed/ in 1693, London, 12mo. A 
second edition of the first two books ap- 
peared in 1694, with introductory matter by 
Peter Anthony Motteux [q. v.J, who pub- 

lished a complete version in 1708 as ' by Sir 
Thomas Urchard, kt., Mr. Motteux, and 
others/ 2 vols. 8vo. Motteux's sequel bears 
the same relation to Urquhart's works as 
Cotton's completion of Walton's ' Angler ' 
does to the original. Subsequent editions, 
embodying the somewhat blundering f amend- 
ments ' of Ozell (see Notes and Queries, 5th 
ser.v.32-3), appeared in 1737, [Dublin] 1738, 
1750, 1784, and 1807. The Urquhart por- 
tion alone was edited by (Sir) Theodore 
Martin in 1838, and by Henry Morley in 
1883. The Urquhart and Motteux version 
has been reissued in 1846 (Bohn),1871 (illus- 
trated by Gustave Dore), 1882, 1892 (illus- 
trated by Chalon), 1896, and 1897. An- 
other edition is announced for publication 
in 1899 among the 'Tudor Translations/ 
Urquhart's ' Tracts/ including his genealogy 
and the ' Jewel/ were published at Edin- 
burgh in two parts duodecimo, in 1774, 
under the careful editorship of David Herd 
(some remainder copies dated 1782) ; and 
his miscellaneous ' Works/ exclusive of his 
translation of Rabelais, were edited by G. 
Maitland for the Maitland Club in 1834, 
Edinburgh, 4to. 

[Of the very scanty materials for Urquhart's 
Life the best use is made in the Introduction to 
the Works in the Maitland Club volume of 1834, 
and in the memoir in David Irving's Lives of 
Scottish Writers. These notices may be supple- 
mented in minor points by reference to the Fasti 
Aberdonenses, to the Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic. 1651-60, the Eegistr. Magni Sigilli 
Scot. 1634-51, and Scotland and the Common- 
wealth and General Assembly Records, both in 
the Scottish Hist. Society. See also Hugh Mil- 
ler's Scenes and Legends of North of Scotland, 
1850, pp. 86-104 ; Spalding's Memorials of the 
Trubles, 1851; Eraser's Earls of Cromartie; 
Tytler's Life of Crichton, 1819, pp. 238 sq. ; 
Burton's Scot Abroad, pp. 255 sq. ; Brace's Emi- 
nent Men of Aberdeen, p. 254; Davidson's 
Inverurie, 1878, passim; Fraser Mackintosh's 
Antiquarian Notes, Inverness, 1865, and Inver- 
nessiana. 1875; The New Eeview, July 1897 
(an excellent article by Mr. Charles Whibley) ; 
Notes kindly given by Rev. J. Willcock of Ler- 
wick, who has made a study of Urquhart ; Haz- 
Litt's Handbook and Collections and Notes ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn); Urquhart and 
Motteux's Rabelais, ed. Wallis, 1897; Eabelais, 
translated by W. F. Smith, 1893, i. pp. ix, xv, 
xvii ; Quarterly Keview, Ixxxvi. 415; Edinburgh 
Review, xcii. 334; Eetrospective Eeview, vi. 
177-206; Blackwood's Mag., vols. v. xxxii. and 
"xii.] T. S. 


L650), soldier, was the son of John Urry of 
Pitfichie in the parish of Monymusk, Aber- 
deenshire, by his wife, Mariora Cameraria 


(Marian Chamberlain), of Coullie in the same 
parish. His early life was spent in foreign 
service, probably in Germany, but he returned 
to Scotland about!641 and received the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel in the Scottish army. 
In October 1641 he was solicited to join in the 
mysterious plot against Hamilton and Argyll, 
usually known as the ' Incident ' [see LIND- 
and revealed all he knew of it to Alexander 
Leslie, first earl of Leven [q. v.] (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 137 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. pp. 163-70). On the out- 
break of the civil war he espoused the cause 
of parliament, and in June 1642 was nomi- 
nated lieutenant-colonel of the fourth troop 
of horse appointed for Ireland under Philip, 
lord Wharton. He took part in the battle 
of Edgehill, and at the combat at Brent- 
ford on 12 Nov. 1642 'for his stoutness and 
wisdom was much cryed up by the Lon- 
doners' (BAILLIE, Letters and Journals, Ban- 
natyne Club, 1841, ii. 56). At the beginning 
of 1643 he was nominated a major of cavalry 
under the Earl of Bedford ; but in June, on 
some personal pique, he deserted to the 
royalists, to whom his information was of 
great service. He had a large share in the 
royalist success at Chalgrove on 18 June, 
and was knighted at Oxford for his services 
on the same day (CLARENDON, Hist, of Re- 
bellion,^^, iii. 53-9). On 25 June he sacked 
WestWycombe, and on 1 Jan. 1643-4 he was 
reported dead at Oxford, of an old wound ; 
but on 18 Feb. he had gone northward with 
Rupert (BAILLIE, ii. 127, 141). He fought 
at Marston Moor in the cavalry of the royalist 
right wing. But in August 1644, judg- 
ing that the royalist cause was lost, he fled 
to the parliamentary army at Shaftesbury, 
under Sir William Waller, desiring leave to 
return to Scotland (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1644, p. 545 ; CLARENDON, iii. 432). Waller 
sent him to London, and the committee of 
both kingdoms ordered him into custody. 
On Waller vouching for his good faith, and 
on the representations of the army commit- 
tee that his knowledge would be useful, he 
was suffered to rejoin the army on 30 Oct. 
on parole (ib. 1644-5 passim). He held out 
hopes of bringing after him ' a greater sojour ' 
than himself, probably the Earl of Brent- 
ford, whom he unsuccessfully attempted to 
seduce in November after the second battle 
of Newbury (BAILLIE, ii. 238 ; CLARENDON, 
iii. 437). A little later he joined the Earl 
of Leven in the north of England, and on 
8 March 1644-5 was despatched to the high- 
lands to oppose Montrose, with the rank of 
maj or-general and the command of the cavalry 
under Lieutenant-general W T illiam Baillie 

i Urry 

(ft. 1648) [q. v.] In April they divided 
forces, Urry going north with twelve hun- 
dred foot and a hundred and sixty horse 
to act with Marischal, Seaforth, Sutherland, 
and other covenanters beyond the Gram- 
pians. On 9 May, after beguiling Montrose 
into a hostile country, he attempted to sur- 
prise him, but was completely defeated at 
Auldearn, near Nairn (Memoirs of Montrose, 
ed. 1893, pp. 88-103). He rejoined Baillie 
at Strathbogie with a hundred horse, the 
remnant of his army, but shortly afterwards 
withdrew from his command on the plea of 
ill-health, and returned to his allegiance to 
Charles. Baillie had a poor opinion of his 
ability (BAILLIE, ii. 417-19). In August 
1646 Middleton offered to permit him to 
leave Scotland, but, distrusting his faith, he 
escaped to Moray with Montrose. In 1648 
he returned, against the express desire of the 
Scottish committee of estates, in the train of 
the Prince of Wales, and, accompanying 
Hamilton's army to England, was wounded 
and taken prisoner on 18 Aug., after the 
battle of Preston. He escaped to the con- 
tinent, acted as major-general to Montrose 
in his last descent in 1650, commanded the 
van on 27 April at the fatal combat of Car- 
bisdale, and was taken prisoner. He was 
beheaded at Edinburgh on 29 May 1650, re- 
deeming to some extent the vacillations of 
his life by the intrepid constancy of his 
death. His frequent desertions were rather 
due to the indifference to political principle 
of a professional soldier than to deliberate 
treachery. He left five children, who, on 
31 Oct. 1658, received a certificate from 
Charles II testifying to the gentility of their 
birth (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 15856, f. 896). 

[Ruthven Corresp. (Roxburghe Club), 1868; 
Gardiner's Great Civil War, i. 150, 155, ii. 34, 
204, 216, 221-6, 277-8, iii. 143, iv. 189; Gar- 
diner's Hist, of the Commonwealth, i. 234, 242, 
260 ; Gardiner's Charles II in Scotland (Scottish 
Hist. Soc.), 1894, p. 68; Ludlovr's Memoirs, ed. 
Firth, i. 240 ; Firth's Account of Marston Moor 
in Trans. Royal Hist. Soc. 18 Nov. 1898; Hamil- 
ton Papers (Camden Soc.), p. 233 ; Miscellanea 
Aulica, 1702, p. 138; Sir James Turner's Me- 
moirs (Bannatyne Club), pp. 56, 65 ; Napier's 
Memoirs of Montrose, 1856, vol. ii. passim; 
Gordon's Short Abrigement of Britane's Dis- 
temper (Spalding Club), pp. Ill, 112, 114, 120, 
122, 127 ; Warburton's Memoirs of Prince Ru- 
pert, 1849, ii. 203; Spalding's Memorials of 
Trubles in Scotland and England (Spalding 
Club), vol. ii. passim ; Several Passages concern- 
ing the declared King of Scots both by Sea and 
Land, London, 1650, p. 2; A True Relation of 
Sir William Waller's Advance into the King's 
Quarters, and of his taking of Colonell Renegado 
Hurrey, 1644.] E. I. Q. 

E 2 

Urry a 

URRY, JOHN (1666-1715), editor of 
Chaucer, born in Dublin in 1666, was the 
son of William Urry, by his wife, Jane Scott. 
William Urry was appointed major of the 
royal guards in Scotland at the Restoration. 
He was of Scottish family, and his brother, 
Sir John Urry or Hurry [q.v.], was a promi- 
nent officer in the civil war. The younger 
John Urry matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 30 June 1682, was elected to a 
studentship, and graduated B.A. in 1686. 
He was a man of strong loyalist principles, 
and bore arms against Monmouth during 
the rising. On the accession of William III 
he refused the oath of supremacy and lost 
his studentship. About the end of 1711 a 
new edition of Chaucer was projected, and 
Urry, much against his inclination, was per- 
suaded to undertake it, chiefly through the 
urgency of the dean of Christ Church, Francis 
Atterbury [q.v.], afterwards bishop of Roches- 
ter. On 25 July 1714 he obtained a patent 
for the exclusive right of printing Chaucer's 
works for fourteen years, and on 17 Dec. 
assigned it to Barnaby Bernard Lintot [q.v.], 
who issued proposals for publishing the under- 
taking in January 1714-15 (cf. Gent. Mag. 
1779, p. 438). Before the work was com- 
pleted, Urry died unmarried on 18 March 
1714-15, and was buried in the cathedral at 
Oxford. After his death Thomas Ainsworth 
of Christ Church, who had already been em- 
ployed under Urry in transcribing part of 
the text of Chaucer, was thought the best 
qualified to proceed with the edition. He 
died in August 1719, and the work was 
finally revised by Timothy Thomas, another 
graduate of Christ Church, and appeared in 
1721 under the title ' The Works of Geoffrey 
Chaucer compared with the former editions 
and many valuable MSS.' (London, fol.) 
The life of Chaucer prefixed to the volume 
was the work of the Rev. John Dart, cor- 
rected and revised by Timothy Thomas. The 
glossary appended was also mainly compiled 
by Thomas. The text of the edition is pro- 
bably the worst ever prepared on account 
of Urry's unpardonable habit of lengthening 
and shortening Chaucer's words, and even 
introducing words of his own to suit his 
views of the metre. Urry was a friend of 
Thomas Hearne, who styles him a ' thorough 
pac'd scholar' and a 'truly worthy and 
virtuous, as well as ingenious, gentleman.' 
A portrait of Urry, engraved by N. Pign6, is 
prefixed to the work. 

[Pref. to Urry's Works of Chaucer ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. i. 196-9, viii. 304; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 
ii. 294; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 381, lii. 73; 

2 Urse 

Hearne's Collections (Oxford Hist. Soc.), passim ; 
Keliquise Hearnianae (Library of Old Authors), 
i. 314-18.] E. I. C. 

URSE D'ABETOT (Jl. 1086), sheriff of 
Worcestershire, derived his name from St. 
Jean d'Abbetot, near Tancarville (Seine In- 
ferieure). He appears in ' Domesday' as a 
tenant-in-chief in the counties of Gloucester, 
Worcester, Hereford, and Warwick, being 
also styled in it < Urso de Wirecestre ' (f. 169 b) 
from his office as sheriff of Worcestershire. 
William of Malmesbury, describing him as 
'Vicecomes Wigornise a rege constitutes,' 
tells the story of his encroaching on the 
cemetery of Worcester Abbey to make his 
castle ditch, and of his stern rebuke for it 
by Archbishop Ealdred : ' Hightest thou 
Urse, have thou God's curse' (Gesta Pon- 
tificum). He figures largely in Worcester- 
shire as a despoiler of the church, especially 
of the monks of Worcester (HEMING, Car- 
tulary, pp. 257, 261, 267, 269), in one case 
seizing on a manor as an endowment for his 
daughter (ib. p. 251). Evesham and Per- 
shore also suffered at his hands. On the 
other hand, he was traditionally the founder 
of Malvern Priory (Monasticon, iii. 477). 
On the revolt of the Earl of Hereford in 
1074 he joined the bishop of Worcester and 
the abbot of Evesham in defeating the earl's 
forces (FLOE. WIG.) Freeman states that 
he was sheriff of Gloucestershire as well as 
Worcestershire (Norm. Cong. iv. 173), but 
this seems to be an error. 

Throughout the reign of William Rufus, 
Urse is found as a witness to royal charters, 
and the charter of Henry I, for holding the 
local courts, issued between 1108 and 1112, 
is addressed to him as sheriff of Worcester- 
shire (Select Charters, p. 99). 

He was succeeded in this reign by his son 
Roger, who offended Henry I by slaying 
one of his officers (WiLL. MALM, ut supra). 
There can be little doubt (though the fact has 
escaped notice) that this was the Roger l Vice- 
comes de Wirecestria ' to whom is addressed 
a writ of Henry I (HALE, p. 30 ), and the 
Roger de Worcester whose lands were granted 
by Henry I to Walter de Beauchamp in a 
charter entered in the Warwick cartulary. 
With him Urse's male issue seems to have 
become extinct, though members of the house 
of Abetot continued in the county (Liber 
Rubeus, p. 266), giving name to Croome 
d'Abitot and Redmarley d'Abitot. The 
'Evesham Chronicle' speaks of them as 
' Ursini.' Freeman speaks, at the battle of 
Lincoln, of ' Richard, the son of Urse, a de- 
scendant, it would seem, of the old enemy, 
Urse of Abetott, whose exploits that day 
might be taken as some atonement for the 




crimes of his kindred' (Norm. Cong. v. 300). 
But there seems to have been no connection 
between the two. 

Walter de Beauchamp, who married Urse's 
daughter Emmeline (DUGDALE), obtained 
from Henry I a confirmation of the lands 
given him * by Adelisa, Urse's widow, to- 
gether with the shrievalty of Worcestershire 
and the office of constable. These grants, 
which are recorded in the Warwick car- 
tulary, founded the greatness of the Beau- 
champs, whose descendants, it is said, pre- 
served the memory of Urse in the well-known 
' bear ' cognisance of the earls of Warwick. 

It is well ascertained that Robert the 
Despencer, another tenant-in-chief, was 
brother to Urse (HEMING, Cartulary, p. 253 ; 
GEOFFREY DE MANDEVILLE, p. 314), and his 
office of despencer was obtained by W r alter 
de Beauchamp. It is usually stated that 
the Marmions were the heirs of Robert, but 
it is certain that much of his property passed 
to the Beauchamps (Ancient Charters, p. 2 ; 
dal England, pp. 170-76, 179-80, 194-5). 

[Domesday Book ; Will. Malmesbury's Eves- 
ham Chronicle and Red Book of the Exchequer 
(Kolls Ser.) ; Heming's Cartulary, ed. Hearne ; 
Dugdale's Baronage; Hale's Cartnlary of St. 
Mary's, Worcester (Camd. Soc.); Flor. Wig. 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.); Monasticon Anglicanum; 
Stubbs's Select Charters ; Bound's Ancient Char- 
ters (Pipe Eoll Soc.), Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
and Feudal England; Warwick Cartulary (Addit. 
MS. 28024).] J. H. R. 

URSULA, reputed saint and martyr of 
Cologne, whose date of death is variously 
given as 238, 283, and 451, was, according to 
the earliest form of the developed legend, a 
British maiden, the only daughter of the 
pious Christian king Deonotus. She was 
christened Ursula (a diminutive of ' Ursa,' a 
she bear), because she was to slay ' the 
bear ' i.e. the devil. She resolved to become 
a nun, but was sought in marriage by the 
heathen son of a * certain most ferocious 
tyrant/ who threatened to waste the land 
with fire and sword if she refused. As the 
result of a vision, in which was revealed her 
future martyrdom, Ursula consented on con- 
dition that she was allowed as companions 
ten noble virgins who, like Ursula, were to 
have each a thousand attendant virgins and 
a ship. The prince was, moreover, to be- 
come a Christian. The eleven ships, with 
Pinnosa, Ursula's chief companion, as ad- 
miral, after cruising for three years round 
the British coasts, sailed up the Rhine to 
Cologne and to Basel, whence Ursula and 
her companions went on foot to Rome. Re- 
turning to Cologne, which had meanwhile 

been seized by the Huns, they were mas- 
sacred in 238, Ursula being slain by an 
arrow. The inhabitants after the with- 
drawal of the Huns buried them with more 
than mortal honours, and built a church 
outside the walls, which was rebuilt on a 
grander scale long afterwards at the bidding 
of one Clematius, a wise man from the east. 

From an early period traces of this legend 
are found at Cologne. There existed in late 
Roman times a church outside the walls de- 
dicated to some unknown virgin martyrs 
which, on the authority of a fourth or fifth 
century inscription walled up in the modern 
church of St. Ursula, was restored by Cle- 
matius on the scene of their martyrdom. 
A charter of Lothair II (d. 869) and other 
charters dated 922, 927, and 941 refer to 
the ' monastery of the eleven thousand 
virgins ' at Cologne. The earliest details of 
the story of these martyrs occur in a ' Sermo 
in Natali SS. Virginum XI Millium,' dating 
from between 751 and 839, which declares 
that few names of these martyrs are known, 
and that they were driven from Britain by 
the persecution of Diocletian and Maximian. 
Soon afterwards allusions to the virgin mar- 
tyrs became common (see OSCAR SCHADE, 
Die Sage von der heiligen Ursula, pp. 11 sqq.) 
The metrical martyrology of Wandelbert of 
Priim, written about 850, already mentions 
1 thousands ' of virgin-martyrs. After this, 
numerous references to the number eleven 
thousand and the names of individual virgins 
begin to appear. An Essen calendar of the 
ninth or tenth century, however, gives eleven 
virgins and mentions their names. Another 
litany of the same century gives the same 
names in a different order, Martha and Saula 
heading the list, as they do in the martyrology 
of Usuardus (d. 877). 

The prominence of Ursula's name in con- 
nection with the story dates from the twelfth 
century. At Cologne, where Cathari and 
others had expressed some scepticism, the 
legend received fresh impetus by a series 
of discoveries beginning in 1106, when a 
large number of bones were found during 
the excavation required by the new walls 
for the city. These bones were given out 
to be the relics of the virgin martyrs, and 
the locality became known as the 'Ager 
Ursulinus.' St. Norbert of Premontre came 
to search for them, but the most enthusiastic 
investigator was the archbishop of Cologne, 
Rainald of Dassel,Barbarossa's chief minister, 
whose principal agent was Gerlach, abbot of 
Deutz. Gerlach discovered a body labelled 
' Ursula Regina/ and bones were found with 
inscriptions attached declaring them to be 
the bones of bishops, cardinals, and even 




of a, pope, Cyriacus, otherwise unknown to 
history. The scepticism aroused by these 
wholesale discoveries was silenced by the 
visions of Elizabeth of Schonau (d. 1165), 
which provided elaborate explanations of all 
difficulties and inconsistencies. Further and 
even more extravagant explanations were 
supplied after Elizabeth's death by two 
books written in 1183 and 1187, probably by 
the blessed Hermann, popularly called Her- 
mann Joseph. Geoffrey of Monmouth first 
interwove the legend with the general his- 
tory of the time, embellished it with many 
fanciful details and historical anachronisms, 
and gave universal currency to what was 
originally a purely local tradition (see his 
Hist. Brittonum, lib. v. chaps, ix.-xix.) By 
the end of the twelfth century the saint 
had become one of the most widely revered 
in Europe. At Cologne a famous church, 
served first by nuns and afterwards by 
canonesses, rose on the site of the dis- 
coveries, which by an extension of the city 
became included within its walls. This 
church still contains the tomb of St. Ursula 
and a wonderful collection of relics of the 
virgin-host (see VILL, Wegweiser zur Kirche 
der heiligen Ursula in Kolri). Relics were 
scattered throughout Europe with a lavish 
hand until Boniface IX (d. 1404) forbade 
further translations of them. Churches were 
dedicated to St. Ursula all over Europe, 
especially in North Germany, but also in 
Italy, Hungary, Spain, and Britain (for the 
hospital of St. Ursula at Leicester, see DTJG- 
DALE, Monasticon, vi. 765). Heligoland was 
often called the 'island of St. Ursula/ and 
the story grew that she stopped there on 
her way to the Rhine. She came to be 
looked on as the special patron of maidens ; 
gilds and societies were established under 
her patronage, especially in the Rhineland 
and Swabia ; the oldest was founded at Cra- 
cow in the fourteenth century, and they 
were generally called ' St. Ursula ships/ a 
symbol intimately associated with the saint 
(cf. BAKING GOULD, Lives of the Saints, Oct. 
ii., p. 544; Ein fast grosse lobliche Bruder- 
schaft genand Sandt Ursulas Schifflein, Nu- 
remberg? 1525; The Confraternity of St. 
Ursula at St. Lawrence Jewry, London, 
1550). The cult of Ursula was never more 
universal than in the fifteenth century, when 
she held almost a unique position as a favou- 
rite subject both of German and Italian 
painters. One of the earliest religious 
orders founded during the counter-reforma- 
tion was that of the Ursulines in 1537 (see 
Chronigue de VOrdre des Ursulines, Paris, 
1576, 2 vols.) ; and special devotion was 
shown to St. Ursula by the Jesuits, who in 

1588 organised a brilliant translation of 
Ursulan relics to Lisbon. 

A representation of St. Ursula painted 
before 1450 is preserved in one of the wings 
of the famous Dombild at Cologne, and in 
the Ursula church in the same city her 
story is told in a series of old but much re- 
stored pictures. In the Wallraf Richartz 
Museum, Cologne, are at least fourteen 
pictures, by early German masters, treating 
of her history. Of infinitely greater merit 
than these is the series of exquisitely finished 
small pictures painted by Hans Memling 
about 1486 to adorn the shrine of St. Ursula 
at Bruges, in which a portion of her relics 
is preserved. Her history is also delineated 
in the series of nine pictures painted about 
1495 by Vittore Carpaccio, and now in the 
academy at Venice. An especially fine 
Moretto at Brescia has Ursula as its central 
subject (PATEE, Miscellaneous Studies, p. 97). 
Lorenzo di Credi, Palma Vecchio, and Mar- 
tino da Udine have also painted what was 
evidently a favourite subject with Venetian 
artists (cf. The Legend of St. Ursula, 1869 ; 
Mrs. JAMIESON, Sacred and Legendary Art, 
pp. 297-306; DFTRON, La Legende de Sainte 
Ursule d'apres les anciens tableaux de VEglise 
de Sainte-Ursule a Cologne, 1860; KEVER- 
BERG, Ursule dlapres les Peintures d'Hemling, 
Ghent, 1818; and for Carpaccio, RUSKIN, 
Fors Clavigera, 1872, No. xx. pp. 14-16, and 
1876, pp. 339-41,350-7, where he apparently 
follows late Italian versions of the legend). 

[The earliest form of the developed legend is 
taken from a Passio Sanctarum Undecim Mi Ilium 
Virgiimm, generally called, from its opening 
words, Eeguante Domino, which is printed in 
Crombach's Ursula Vindicata, pp. 1-18, the 
Bollandisfc Acta Sanctorum, Oct. ix. pp. 157-63, 
and, with a German translation, in Kessel's St. 
Ursula und ihre Gesellschaft, pp. 168-95; it is 
also summarised in Sigebert of Gremblours' 
Chronogvaphia in Mon. Germ. Hist. Scriptt. vi. 
310. The Sermo in Natal i is printed in Acta 
SS. pp. 154-5, and in Kessel, pp. 156-67. The 
books of Hermann, sometimes attributed to the 
Englishman, Kichard the Premonstratensian 
[q.v.], are printed in the Acta Sanctorum, pp. 1 73- 
202, which also contains a list of the names of the 
eleven thousand (pp. 202-7, 258-69). An 
attempt to reconcile the version in the Regnante 
Domino with the Schonau visions is made in a 
twelfth-century Prologus in Novam Editionem 
Passionis XI Millmm Virginum, first printed in 
Kessel, pp. 206-19. The sceptical view first 
maintained by J. de Montreuil, who died in 1418 
(see Martene and Durand's Vet. Script. Collect. 
Ampliss. ii. 1417-18), was naturally adopted by 
the reformed churches, and even Baronius toned 
the legend down to vague generalities. J. Sir- 
mond (d. 1561) suggested that 'undecim millia ' 




was a misreading of ' Undecimilla,' the name of 
one of Ursula's companions ; Leibnitz held that 
' Ursula et Ximillia ' was the correct expression, 
and Max Francis, the last elector of Cologne, 
ordered the clergy of his diocese to erase the 
4 eleven thousand ' from their service-books. In 
the present century F. W. Eettberg conjectured 
that XI. M. V., meaning ' eleven martyred vir- 
gins/ was misread ' eleven thousand virgins.' 
Most of these theories are conveniently collected 
in Gieseler's Kirchengeschichte, n., ii. 454-5. 
Parallel to the rationalistic tendency elaborate 
apologies for the whole legend were produced 
under the influence of the counter-reformation. 
In 1594 Fleien devoted a volume of bis Eegesta 
Martyrum to the history of Ursula and her com- 
panions. Still more elaborate was the Vita et 
Martyrium Sanctse Ursulse et Sociarum, pub- 
lished by the Jesuit Hermann Crombach at Co- 
logne in 1 647. The modern investigation begins 
with Die Sage von der heiligen Ursula Tind den 
elftausend Jungfrauen (Hanover, 1854) of Oscar 
Schade, who explains Ursula as a christianised 
representative of the heathen goddess Freya or 
Nebalennia, who in Thuringia was actually 
called Horsel, and reduces her ultimately to a 
nature myth ; he is on firmer ground when he 
points out the curious parallelisms between the 
legend of Ursula and that of St. G-ereon and 
the Theban legion, also localised at Cologne. 
Two replies to Schade have been published re- 
spectively by the Bollandist, De Buck, in the 
Acta Sanctorum (Oct. ix. pp. 73-303, Brussels, 
1858), and by ,T. H. Kessel in his St. Ursula und 
ihre Gesellschaft (Cologne, 1863). The general 
disposition of modern champions of the legend is 
to abandon Elizabeth of Schonau and Hermann, 
and uphold the historic basis of the Sermo 
in Natali and the Eegnante Domino. Baring 
Gould's Lives of the Saints, Oct. ii. pp. 535-56, 
gives a useful summary in English.] M. T. 

1522), diplomatist and dean of Windsor, 
son of John Urswick, was born at Furness 
in 1448. His father and mother were re- 
spectively lay brother and sister of Furness 
Abbey. He was educated probably at Cam- 
bridge, and graduated LL.D. there or at 
.some foreign university. Newcourt's state- 
ment, followed by Raines in ( The Fellows 
of the Collegiate Church of Manchester/ 
that Urswick was recorder of London be- 
fore 1483, is obviously a confusion with Chris- 
topher's relation, Sir Thomas Urswick [q. v.] 
About 1482 Christopher came under the 
notice of Margaret Beaufort [q. v.], who was 
then married to her third husband, Thomas 
Stanley, first earl of Derby [q. v.] Possibly 
it was through the Stanleys that Urswick 
became attached to Margaret, who made him 
her chaplain and confessor, and appointed 
Mm rector of Puttenham, Hertfordshire. In 
1483 Urswick was initiated into the secret 

schemes of Margaret and John (afterwards 
cardinal) Morton [q. v.], in favour of Mar- 
garet's sou Henry, earl of Richmond (after- 
wards Henry VII), who was then in 
Brittany. The chief object was the negotia- 
tion of a marriage between Henry and 
Elizabeth of York. Urswick is said to have 
made several journeys between England 
and Flanders in this capacity during 1484, 
and before the end of the year he was sent 
by Morton to warn Henry against the 
machinations of Pierre Landois, the Duke 
of Brittany's chief minister, which were 
instigated by Richard III. Urswick was 
appointed Henry's chaplain and confessor, 
and was one of the few attendants who ac- 
companied Henry in his secret flight from 
Vannes to the court of the French king, 
narrowly escaping capture by Landois's 
agents on the borders of Brittany. 

Urswick landed with Henry at Milford 
Haven on 7 Aug. 1485, and accompanied him 
to Shrewsbury, and thence to Bosworth (cf. 
SHAKESPEARE, Richard III, act iv. scene 5). 
He was liberally rewarded for his services ; 
on 21 Sept. he was granted a prebend in St. 
Stephen's, Westminster ; on the 23rd he be- 
came a notary in chancery ; on 25 Nov. he 
was appointed master of King's Hall, Cam- 
bridge (resigning the rectory of Puttenham 
on the 26th) ; on 20 Feb. 1485-6 he was given 
the prebend of Chiswick in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral; on 9 March 1486-7 he was presented to 
the rectory of All Hallows, London, and on 
18 April following to that of Chaddesley, 
near Kidderminster, which he resigned on 
11 Oct. 1488 (CAMPBELL, Materials, ii. 130, 
137). In April 1488 he relinquished the 
mastership of King's Hall, and on 22 May 
following was elected dean of York, re- 
ceiving in addition the living of Bradwell- 
juxta-Mare on 14 Nov. 

Meanwhile Urswick had been employed 
on various missions of importance. On 
4 Feb. 1485-6 he received letters of recom- 
mendation on being appointed envoy to the 
pope (ib. i. 275, 360 ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VII, ii. 118). He had returned before 
the following November, when he was sent to 
quiet some discontent in Lancashire (Mate- 
rials, ii. 99). In March 1487-8 he was sent 
on the important embassy to Ferdinand and 
Isabella which negotiated the marriage be- 
tween Prince Arthur and Catherine of Arra- 
gon (Cal State Papers, England and Spain, 
i. 3 sqq. ; Materials, ii. 273). In May fol- 
lowing Henry VII sent him to France to 
offer his negotiation between France and 
Brittany. The offer was refused, and Ed- 
ward lord Woodville's attack on France 
placed Urswick in some personal danger 



(BusCH, England under the Tudors, i. 43). 
In the autumn he was again sent to France 
to renew the offers of mediation (Materials, 
ii. 377 ; BTJSCH, i. 45). In March 1491-2 
he was despatched to receive ratification of 
the treaty of peace with James of Scotland, 
and on 30 Oct. following once more went as 
ambassador to France. His mission re- 
sulted in the signature of the treaty of 
Etaples on 3 Nov. On 5 March 1492-3 he 
was commissioned to invest Alfonso, eldest 
son of the king of Sicily, with the insignia 
of the Garter, of which order Urswick had 
recently been appointed registrar. Two 
months later he was again sent to negotiate 
an extension of the truce with Scotland, and 
in June was made commissioner to arrange 
border disputes. In April 1496 he was 
sent to Augsburg on a mission to the king 
of the Romans (Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 
i. 698-706; BUSCH, i. 126 sqq.) He re- 
turned towards the end of May, and was 
not again employed in a diplomatic capacity. 

He continued to accumulate ecclesiastical 
preferments. In 1490 he was appointed 
canon of Windsor and archdeacon of "Wilt- 
shire. On 21 March 1492-3 he was made 
prebendary of Buttevant in York Cathedral, 
and archdeacon of Richmond in the same 
year. In June 1494 he resigned the deanery 
of York, and on 20 Nov. 1495 was elected 
dean of Windsor. He refused the bishopric 
of Norwich vacated in 1498 by the death of 
James Goldwell, and in 1500 resigned the 
archdeaconry of Richmond. He was 
present in that year at the meeting between 
Henry VII and the Archduke Philip (Harl. 
MS. 1757, f. 361). On 5 Nov. 1502 he was 
inducted to the living of Hackney, where he 
mainly resided during the rest of his life ; 
and before 1505 he became fellow of the 
collegiate church of Manchester. He some- 
times officiated at court ceremonies, served 
on the commission of sewers for Middle- 
sex, Essex, and Hertfordshire, and in 1513 
acted as executor to Margaret Beaufort. 
During his later years he was a close 
friend of Erasmus and More. Erasmus 
is said to have made his acquaintance in 
1483 ; he paid Urswick a visit in 1503, and 
sent him a translation of Lucian's dialogue, 
' Somnium sive Gallus.' Urswick on his part 
gave Erasmus a horse which ' thrice carried 
him safely to and from Basle' (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, ii. 3339). When 
it died, Erasmus hoped ' to wheedle Urswick 
out of a new horse by sending him a New 
Testament' (ib. ii. 2290, 2323, 3659), an 
attempt which was not successful. 

Urswick died, aged 74, on 24 March 
1521-2, and was buried in St. Augustine's 

Church, Hackney, which he was engaged 
in rebuilding. Two brass plates were placed 
over his grave with an inscription recording 
his eleven embassies. St. Augustine's was 
demolished in 1798, when the plates on the 
altar, which Urswick had erected, were re- 
moved to the porch of the neighbouring 
church of St. John. By his will, dated 
10 Oct. 1521, and proved 11 April 1522, he 
made bequests to Cuthbert Tunstall [q. v.] 
and to the school of Lancaster. As dean of 
Windsor it was under his direction and 
that of Sir Reginald Bray [q. v.] that St. 
George's Chapel was rebuilt. A chapel in 
the north-west corner is still called the 
Urswick Chapel, though it was appropriated 
in 1818 for the cenotaph of the Princess 
Charlotte, and the stone screen bearing an 
inscription asking for prayers for Urswick, 
which is still legible, was removed to the 
south aisle. Urswick figures among the 
eminent persons connected with St George's- 
in the window over the door of the Albert 
Chapel, and his arms frequently occur with 
Bray's on the roof of St. George's. He also, 
rebuilt the deanery at Windsor. 

[A very detailed account of Urswick's career, 
with authorities, is given in Urwick's Records 
of the Family of Urwick or Urswick, 1893, pp. 
81-140. See also Lansd. MSS. 978 f. 244, 979 
f. 8; Addit. MS. 15673, f. 113; Campbell's- 
Materials for the Eeign of Henry VII, Gaird- 
ner's Letters and Papers of Henry VII, and An- 
drea's Historia (Rolls Ser.) ; Brewer's Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII ; Paston Letters, iiL 
468 ; Cal. State Papers, Venetian and Spanish ; 
Cal. Inq. post mortem, 1898, i. 1120, 1144; 
Erasmi Epistolse ; Knight's Erasmus ; Froude's 
Life and Letters of Erasmus ; Robinson's Hack- 
ney, i. 91, ii. 21 ; Busch's England under the 
Tudors, pp. 13, 15, 17, 23, 43, 45; Hennessy'& 
Novum Repertorium, 1898, pp. 22, 177, 456; 
Fellows of the Collegiate Church of Manchester 
(Chetham Soc.) new ser.xxi. 27-31.] A. F. P. 

URSWICK, SIB THOMAS (d. 1479) r 
judge, was apparently son of Thomas Urs- 
wick of Badsworth and Uprawcliff, and was- 
related to Christopher Urswick [q. v.] He- 
was educated in the study of law, but at 
what inn is not known. On 27 June 1453 
he was appointed common Serjeant of Lon- 
don, and on 3 Oct. 1455 became recorder. 
Like most London citizens, he sided with 
the Yorkists in the wars of the roses, and 
in July 1460, after the arrival of Warwick 
and Edward, earl of March (afterwards Ed- 
ward IV), in London, Urswick was placed 
on a commission to try Lancastrian partisans 
at the Guildhall (Rot. Parl. vi. 19). Simi- 
larly, when Margaret of Anjou had won the- 
second battle of St. Albans (17 Feb. 1460- 




1461), he was sent by the lord mayor to 
Barnet to excuse the delay of the citizens in 
sending her supplies. He was elected member 
for London to Edward IV's parliaments in 
1461 and 1467. On 14 June 1461 he was 
placed on a commission for gaol delivery, 
and on 8 June 1463 on a commission of oyer 
and terminer for London. He frequently 
sat on similar commissions in the succeeding 
years (Gal. Pat. Rolls, 1461-7 passim). In 
1471, on Edward IV's return after Warwick's 
rebellion, Urswick secretly admitted him to 
the city of London (WARKWORTH, pp. 15, 21), 
and after the battle of Tewkesbury (4 May) 
vigorously opposed Fauconberg's attack on 
the city (SHARPE, London and the Kingdom, 
i. 298, 313, 316, 317). As a reward he was 
knighted on 14 June following, and on 22 May 
1472 was appointed chief baron of the ex- 
chequer. The promotion was a recompense 
for political services, and Urswick's legal 
attainments appear to have been insignifi- 
cant. His name does not occur in the year- 
books before his elevation to the bench, and 
only appears in the judgments of the ex- 
chequer in four terms during the eight years 
he held the chief-justiceship. He died in 
1479, and was buried in the chancel of 
Dagenham church, Essex. By his first wife, 
whose maiden name was Needham, Urswick 
had issue one daughter, who became a nun. 
His second wife was Anne, daughter of 
Richard Rich (d. 1469), a rich merchant of 
London, and great-grandfather of Richard, 
first baron Rich [q. v.] By her Urswick had 
issue four sons and eight daughters, of whom 
all but five daughters predeceased him. His 
widow married in 1482 John Palmer of 
Otford, Kent. 

[A full memoir, with references to original 
authorities, is given in Urwick's Records of the 
Family of Urswick or Urwick, 1893; see also 
Foss's Lives of the Judges and authorities cited.] 

A. F. P. 

URWICK, THOMAS (1727-1807), inde- 
pendent divine, second son of Samuel Urwick 
of Shrewsbury, by his wife, Mary Wright, 
was born at Shelton, near Shrewsbury, on 
8 Dec. 1727. The family were lineal descen- 
dants of the Urwicks of Furness [see under 
URSWICZ, CHRISTOPHER]. Thomas was edu- 
cated in the Shrewsbury grammar school. 
He was also under the tuition of Job Orton 
[q. v.], whose ministry his parents attended, 
and, encouraged by him, Urwick entered in 
1747 the college at Northampton, under the 
direction of Philip Doddridge [q. v.] After 
the death of Doddridge in 1751 he went to 
the university of Glasgow, and finished his 
academic studies under William Leechman 
[q. v.] In 1754 he became assistant to Joseph 

Carpenter, minister of Angel Street, Wor- 
cester, and continued in that position dur- 
ing Dr. Allen's pastorate. In 1764 he was 
chosen sole pastor, and was ordained the 
following year. He filled the duties of the 
pastorate without an assistant for eleven 
years with much success. In 1775, to the 
regret of the congregation, he resigned, and 
undertook a small pastorate at Narborough, 
near Leicester. But in 1779 he was invited 
to succeed Dr. Philip Furneaux [q. v.] as 
pastor of the influential congregation at Clap- 
ham. He was chosen one of the trustees of 
William Coward (1657 P-1725) [q. v.] for 
the academy in which he had been educated, 
and was also elected a trustee of Dr. Wil- 
liams's library. When Joseph Lancaster 
[q. v.], the founder of the British or Lancas- 
ter ian system of education, secretly ran away 
from home as a boy to enlist in the navy, 
Urwick happened to learn of the escapade 
from the boy's mother, discovered his where- 
abouts, and restored him to his family. He 
was assisted in later years by James Philipps, 
who succeeded him. He died on 26 Feb. 
, 1 807 at Balham Hill. His wife, Mary Smith, 
whom he married at Worcester in 1767, died 
on 17 June 1791. The remains of both lie 
in a .tomb on the north side of Clapham 
churchyard. Besides some separately issued 
sermons, Urwick published ' The proper Im- 
provement of Divine Chastening recom- 
mended to National Attention' (1800). 
There is a portrait of Urwick in pastels in 
the Coward trustees' room, New College, 
Hampstead, a photograph of which (with 
memoir) is given in Urwick's ' Nonconformity 
in Worcester,' pp. 100-8. 

[Walter Wilson's MSS. M. 4, in Dr. Williams's 
Library, containing a memoir of Urwick by T. 
Taylor of Carter's Lane ; Monthly Repository, 
1807, ii. 161 ; Gent. Mag. 1807, i. 282, 371-3.] 

W. U. 

URWICK, WILLIAM (1791-1868), 
congregational divine, son of William Urwick 
by his wife, Elinor Eddowes, and a grand- 
nephew of Thomas Urwick [q. v.], was born 
in Shrewsbury on 8 Dec. 1791. He was 
educated at Worcester under Thomas Bel- 
sher, and subsequently, in 181 2, entered Hox- 
ton Academy to study for the congregational 
ministry under Robert Simpson. In 1815 he 
was invited to the pastorate of the church 
at Sligo, and was ordained there on 19 June 
1816. With great energy he threw himself 
into the work of converting the Roman 
catholics, took the lead in philanthropic move- 
ments, and gave his services as secretary of 
the famine committee in 1824-5. He more 
than once intervened to prevent duelling, 
which was rife in the district. 



In 1826 he was called to the pastorate of 
the church in York Street chapel, Dublin, 
built in 1808 by the Countess of Hunting- 
don's connexion. During Urwick's ministry 
the huge building, capable of seating sixteen 
hundred, soon was filled. Little of stature, 
although with a noble head and a clear bell- 
like voice, Urwick obtained the sobriquet 
among the students of Trinity College, many 
of whom attended his chapel, of multum in 
parvo, and on the Exchange he was known 
as ' the little giant.' With Henry Harvey 
[q. v.] he was the pioneer of the temperance 
movement before Father Mathew's time, and 
for years he was the only clergyman in 
Dublin who as an abstainer gave the pledge. 
In 1829 he published ' The Evils, Occasions, 
and Cure of Intemperance.' He published 
in 1831 ' The true Nature of Christ's Person 
and Atonement stated,' in reply to Edward 
Irving [q. v.], and in the following year ( One 
hundred Reasons from Scripture for believing 
in the Deity of Christ.' In this year (1832) 
he was called to the chair of dogmatics and 
pastoral theology in the Dublin Theological 
Institute, an office which he filled, together 
with his pastorate, for twenty years. The 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him (1832) 
by the trustees of Dartmouth College, Con- 
necticut. In 1835 he published ' The Value 
and Claims of the Sacred Scriptures, and 
Reasons of Separation from the Church of 
Rome.' Archbishop Whately having pub- 
lished a letter to his clergy forbidding the 
holding of meetings at which extempore 
prayers were offered, Urwick issued a reply 
entitled 'Extemporary Prayer in Public 
Worship considered,' 1836. 

Urwick's two chief works appeared in 
1839. ' The Saviour's Right to Divine Wor- 
ship ' took the form of letters upon the uni- 
tarian controversy addressed to James Arm- 
strong [q. v.], then William Hamilton Drum- 
mond's colleague in Strand Street. 'The 
Second Advent,' opposing the pre-millennial 
hypothesis, is still regarded as the best work 
from that point of view. With this literary 
activity he combined great energy in preach- 
ing throughout Ireland, and founded an Irish 
congregational home mission, of which he 
acted as honorary secretary for some years ; 
he fought a hard battle for home rule in 
church matters against the opposition of the 
Irish Evangelical Society of London with its 
paid officers. He was one of the founders of 
the Evangelical Alliance, inaugurated at 
Liverpool in 1845. He attended its meet- 
ings regularly, and spoke in Paris in 1855 
and at Geneva in 1862. On occasion of ' the 
papal aggression ' in 1852 he published * The 
Triple Crown,' giving a concise history of 

' the papacy, its power, course, and doom.' 
He also wrote a memoir of his friend Thomas 
Kelly the hymn-writer. In 1862, the bicen- 
tenary of the nonconformjst evictions of 1662, 
he wrote ' Independency in Dublin in the 
Olden Time,' giving the lives of Samuel Win- 
ter, provost of Trinity College, Dublin, from 
1650 to 1660 ; John Rogers of St. Bride's, 
John Murcot, and Samuel Mather. The 
jubilee of his residence and work in Ireland 
was celebrated in November 1865, when a 
cheque for 2,000/. was presented with illu- 
minated addresses from the Irish churches. 
Of this sum he at once gave away 600Z. to 
the city charities. In March 1866 he pub- 
lished ' Christ's World School,' essays in 
verse on Matt, xxviii. 18-20, and he left in 
manuscript two other poems, l The Inheri- 
tance of the Saints ' and * My Sligo Ministry.' 
He died in Dublin on 16 July 1868, aged 76. 
His last book, ' Biographic Sketches of James 
Digges La Touche,' the patron of Sunday 
schools in Ireland, appeared after his death. 
' A Father's Letters to his Son on coming of 
Age ' was published by the Religious Tract 
Society in 1874. On 16 June 1818 he mar- 
ried Sarah (d. 1852), daughter of Thomas 
and Mary Cooke of Shrewsbury. By her 
he had ten children, five of whom survived 

Besides the works above mentioned and 
some single sermons, Urwick wrote : 1. 'A 
Concise View of the Ordinance of Baptism,' 
1822. 2. ' A Collection of Hymns/ 1829. 
3. ' The Duty of Christians in regard to the 
use of Property,' 1836. 4. ' Thoughts sug- 
gested by the Ecclesiastical Movement in 
Scotland,' 1843. 5. 'Remarks on the Con- 
nection between Religion and the State,' 
1845. 6. 'Life of Howe,' prefixed to his 
' Works ' in the ' Library of Puritan Divines,' 
1847. 7. 'A Voice from an Outpost,' two 
discourses upon ' the papal aggression,' 1850. 
8. ' China,' two lectures, 1854. 9. ' Earth's 
Rulers Judged,' on the death of the Czar 
Nicholas, 1855. 10. ' History of Dublin/ for 
the Religious Tract Society. 

[Urwick's Urswick Family, 1893 ; Life and 
Letters of W. Urwick, D.D., by his son, 1868.] 

W. U. 

archbishop of York. [See OSKYTEL.] 

USHER,. [See also USSHER.] 

USHER,, JAMES (1720-1772), school- 
master, controversialist, and essayist, a de- 
scendant of Archbishop Henry Ussher [q.v.], 
was son of a gentleman farmer in the county 
of Dublin, where he was born in 1720. He 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (TAT- 
LOK, Hist, of 'the Univ. of Dublin, p. 480). He 




was brought up in the protestant religion, but 
a perusal of the controversial works of the 
Jesuit father Henry Fitzsimon [q.v.] led him. 
to join the Roman catholic church (HoGAN", 
Life of Fitzsimon, 1881, p. 224). He began 
life as a gentleman farmer, and, not meeting 
with success, he 'opened a linendraper's shop 
in Dublin, but failed in that business also. 
About this period his wife died, and, finding 
himself a widower with a family of four 
children three boys and a girl he took holy 
orders, it is said, in the church of Rome, 
sent his three sons for education to the col- 
lege of Lombard in Paris, and his daughter 
to a convent, where she soon afterwards died. 
The statement that he entered the priesthood 
is open to doubt. He now came to London, 
and Charles Molloy (d. 1767) [q. v.], who 
had been a political writer against Sir Robert 
Walpole, left him a legacy of 300/. This 
enabled him to open a school for catholic 
youth at Kensington Gravel Pits in partner- 
ship with John Walker (1732-1807) [q. v.], 
author of the l Pronouncing Dictionary,' who 
was also a convert. Walker subsequently 
withdrew from the undertaking, and Usher 
became sole master of the school, which he 
conducted until his death in 1772. 

His works are: 1. 'A New System of 
Philosophy, founded on the Universal Opera- 
tions of Nature/ London, 1764, 8vo. 2. ' A 
Free Examination of the common Methods 
employed to prevent the growth of Popery,' 
London, 1766. This work appeared origi- 
nally as a series of letters signed ' A Free 
Thinker ' in the ' Public Ledger.' It elicited 
replies from Benjamin Pye (1767) and 
D. Grant, vicar of Hutton Rudby, Yorkshire 
(1771). 3. ' Clio : or a Discourse on Taste, 
addressed to a Young Lady' (anon.), Lon- 
don, 1767, 8vo; 2nd edit., with large addi- 
tions, Dublin, 1770, 8vo ; 3rd edit., Dublin, 
1772, 8vo; new edition, with notes, anecdotes, 
and quotations by J. Mathew, London, 1803, 
reprinted 1809, 8vo. 4. ' An Introduction 
to the Theory of the Human Mind. By 
J. U., author of Clio,' London, 1771, 8vo ; 
2nd edit. 1773. 5. ' An Elegy ' (sine anno} ; 
privately reprinted 1860. 

[European Mag., March 1796, xxix. 151 ; 
Green's Diary of a Lover of Literature, 1810, 
p. 128; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; Milner's 
Life of Challoner, 1798, pp. 41-4.] T. C. 

USHER,RICHARD (1785-1843), clown, 
was born in 1785. His father, the proprie- 
tor of a mechanical exhibition, travelled in 
the north of England and in Ireland. The 
son at an early age took a share in the 
management of the exhibition, and inherited 
liis father's talent in the construction of 

curious contrivances. A spirit of adven- 
ture soon induced him to start on his own 
account, and with a friend he gave exhibi- 
tions in Newcastle, Manchester, Liverpool, 
and other large towns. At Christmas 1807 
he appeared as a clown at the Liverpool 
Amphitheatre under Mr. Banks's manage- 
ment. His success was immediate, his readi- 
ness in the circle supplied a fund of jokes, 
and no contrivance was too difficult for his 
inventive powers. In 1809, under John Ast- 
ley's rule, he came out at Astley's Amphi- 
theatre, London, where for many years he 
remained a great favourite. His annual 
benefit was an occasion on which extra- 
ordinary performances took place both in 
and out of the theatre. The most remarkable 
of these feats occurred in 1828, when in a 
washing-tub drawn by geese he sailed down 
the Thames from Westminster to Waterloo 
Bridge. He was then to have proceeded in 
a car drawn by eight -'cats to the Coburg 
Theatre, but the crowd in the Waterloo 
Road made this impossible, and he was 
carried to the theatre on the shoulders of 
several watermen. On boxing night 1828 
he was at Drury Lane in W. Barry more's 
pantomime, ' Harlequin Cock Robin, or the 
Babes in the Wood.' There were two clowns, 
Usher and Southby ; Barnes was pantaloon, 
Howell harlequin, and Miss Ryall columbine. 
There were six scenes in the opening bur- 
lesque, eleven in the harlequinade, and the 
performance lasted from half-past six until 

Usher was known in the profession as the 
John Kemble of his art, and in the ring was 
the counterpart of Grimaldi on the stage, 
never descending to coarseness or vulgarity; 
his manner was irresistibly comic, and his 
jokes remarkable for their point and origi- 
nality. He was the writer and inventor of 
several stock pantomimes. With increasing 
years he gave up clowning, and confined him- 
self to invention and design. When William 
Batty purchased Astley's and rebuilt the 
house in 1842, he refused to employ any 
architect, and the extensive buildings were 
constructed from Usher's plans and models. 
Usher died at Hercules Buildings, Lambeth, 
London, on 23 Sept. 1843. He married, first, 
Mrs. Pincott (the mother of Leonora Pincott, 
the wife of Alfred Sydney Wigan [q. v.]) ; 
and, secondly, a sister of James William 
Wallack [q. v.], who survived him with a 

[Gent. Mag. 1843, ii. 549-50; Stirling's Old 
Drury Lane, 1881, ii. 206-8.] G. C. B. 

USK, ADAM or (JZ. 1400), chronicler. 
[See ADAM.] 



USK, THOMAS (d. 1338), the author 
of 'The Testament of Love,' formerly as- 
cribed to Chaucer, was born in the city of 
London. His family resided in the neigh- 
bourhood of Newgate. The documents of 
the period mention several persons bearing 
the same surname, to whom he may possibly 
have been related; a Roger Usk and Agnes his 
wife, living in London, received a life inte- 
rest in property at Queenhithe by a will 
dated 1368 (SHAKPE, London Wills, ii. Ill) ; 
in 1377 a Roger Usk was commissioned at 
Westminster to arrest a runaway friar 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Richard II, i. 91) ; and a 
Nicholas Usk was treasurer of Calais in 1403 
(Issue Rolls of Exchequer, p. 287). The 
chronicler Adam of Usk (who mentions 
Thomas Usk's execution) does not come into 
consideration, as he was so called from his 
birthplace, his real surname being unknown 
[see ADAM]. 

The statement that Usk was a priest (Eng- 
lish Continuation of HIGDEN, Rolls ser. viii. 
467) is probably erroneous ; but he belonged 
to the clerical order, and his book gives evi- 
dence of considerable theological and philo- 
sophical reading. It appears from his own 
statements that he had at one time held 
lollard opinions, which he afterwards re- 
canted. He says further that in his youth he 
was induced by his zeal for the welfare of 
his native city to enter into certain conspi- 
racies professing to aim at bringing about a 
reform in the government of London, but 
that he discovered, to his great grief, that 
the leaders whom he had followed were 
actuated by base and self-interested motives. 
He admits, however, that desire for personal 
advancement had had too great a share in 
determining his own conduct. He professes 
to have made great sacrifices for the cause 
which he had espoused, paying for the main- 
tenance of some of his fellow-conspirators 
' till they were turned out of Zealand.' He 
also says that he had spent some time in 
exile, and had been treated with gross in- 
gratitude by those whom he had assisted. 

The meaning of these autobiographical 
allusions is in part elucidated by the facts 
that are known from other sources respect- 
ing Usk's life. He was private secretary to 
John de Northampton [q.v.],the leader of the 
democratic and Wyclifite party in the city of 
London ; and during Northampton's two 
years' mayoralty (1381-3) was the chief in- 
strument in carrying out his patron's designs 
against the power of the city companies. It 
appears from Usk's own language that he 
occupied a highly lucrative and influential 
position. At the end of 1383 Northampton 
was defeated in a contest for the mayoralty by 

Sir Nicholas Brembre [q.v.], and in February 
1384 the new lord mayor caused his rival to 
be arrested on a charge of sedition. Usk ap- 
pears from his own statements to have fled 
the country ; but, failing to receive the help 
in money which he expected from his friends 
in England, he was obliged to return, and 
early in August was committed to Newgate 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Richard II, ii. 500) as an 
accomplice in his master's crimes. On pro- 
mising to reveal all he knew he was set at 
liberty, and was entertained for a time in 
the house of the lord mayor. 

On 18 Aug. Northampton was brought 
before the king and his council at Reading, 
and Usk appeared as the principal witness 
against him, accusing his master of a long 
series of crimes, to which he confessed that 
he had himself been accessory. Northamp- 
ton angrily denied the charges, and chal- 
lenged his accuser to single combat. His 
contumacious behaviour exasperated the king, 
who ordered him to be hanged ; but, on the 
intercession of the queen, the sentence was 
commuted to imprisonment for life. In Sep- 
tember Richard, sensible of the illegality of 
his procedure, caused Northampton to be 
brought before the judges at the Tower. Usk 
was again the accuser, and (according to his 
own assertion, which is indirectly corrobo- 
rated by Walsingham) offered to prove the 
truth of his words by wager of battle. North- 
ampton was sentenced to death, but reprieved. 
On 24 Sept. Usk received the king's pardon 
(ib. ii. 467). It was generally believed that 
he had been suborned by Brembre to make 
false charges against his master. In 'The 
Testament of Love ' he shows himself deeply 
sensible of the odium which his treachery 
had brought upon him. He endeavours to 
justify himself for having revealed secrets 
which, as he admits, he had sworn to pre- 
serve. From some of his expressions it ap- 
pears that he had failed to gain the con- 
fidence of his new associates, and that his 
recantation of lollard heresies had proved 
unavailing to procure his reconciliation with 
the church. No further mention of him 
occurs until 7 Oct. 1387, when the king ad- 
dressed a letter to the lord mayor, thanking 
the citizens for having, at his request, ap- 
pointed Usk under-sheriff. The appointment 
appears to have been made with some reluc- 
tance, and the king promised that it should 
not be treated as a precedent (SHARPE, Lon- 
don and the Kingdom, i. 231). 

In the following month Usk's fortunes 
underwent a fatal reverse. The king was 
compelled by the rebellion headed by his 
uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, to consent 
to the impeachment of his five principal ad- 




visers, of whom Brembre was one, and it is 
probable that Usk was arrested about the 
same time. 

At the meeting of the f Merciless ' parlia- 
ment on 1 Feb. 1388 the indictment of the 
five ' evil counsellors ' of the king was pre- 
sented. One of its counts was that they had 
appointed as under-sheriff ' a false villain of 
their faction, named Thomas Usk,' for the 
purpose of bringing about the trial and con- 
demnation, on false charges of treason, of the 
Duke of Gloucester and others of the king's 
loyal subjects. Usk was brought before 
the parliament on 3 March, and accused of | 
having endeavoured to compass the death 
of Gloucester and his associates. His only 
defence was that he had acted in obe- 
dience to the commands of his liege lord. On 
4 March he was condemned to death, and 
the sentence was carried out the same even- 
ing. He made an edifying end. ' As he 
was being dragged from the Tower to Tyburn 
he devoutly repeated " Placebo," the seven 
penitential psalms, " Te Deum," " Quicunque 
vult," u Nunc dimittis," and the prayers ap- 
propriate to those in the article of death, and 
exhibited the profoundest contrition for his 
sins.' To the last, however, he maintained 
the truth of the accusations he had formerly 
made against John of Northampton. He 
was first hanged, then cut down while still 
alive, and finally beheaded * by nearly thirty j 
strokes of the sword.' His head was set up 
over Newgate 'to disgrace his kinsfolk, who 
lived in that part of the city ' (KNIGHTON". 
ii. 294). 

' The Testament of Love,' as Usk calls his j 
only known literary work, is a prose com- 
position in three books, and is a close imita- 
tion of Chaucer's translations of Boethius, 
many passages of which are almost literally 
copied. The author represents himself as 
visited in prison by the apparition of a beau- 
tiful lady, who makes herself known to him 
as Love. She listens to his vindication of 
his past conduct, consoles him for his un- 
merited sufferings, and instructs him how to 
gain the favour of an allegorical personage 
who is referred to as ' the Margaret Pearl,' 
and who at the end of the book is explained 
to represent 'holy church.' The initial 
letters of the chapters form an acrostic, 
which reads ' Margarete of virtw, have merci 
on thin [ = thine] Usk.' 

The precise date at which the book was 
written is uncertain. Usk speaks of his ' first 
imprisonment ' (in 1384) as a thing of the 
past, but implies that at the time when the 
earlier chapters, at least, were written he 
was again in prison. It is difficult to sup- 
pose that a piece containing nearly sixty 

thousand words can have been written be- 
tween Usk's arrest in November 1387 and 
his execution on 4 March 1388. Possibly it 
was composed during an unrecorded second 
imprisonment between the end of 1384 and 
the middle of 1387. It is unlikely that this 
second imprisonment was merely metaphori- 
cal, though, as the writer had evidently free 
access to books, his references to ' chains ' 
and ' dungeon ' cannot be interpreted lite- 

Apart from its historical and philological 
interest, ' The Testament of Love ' is worth- 
less. It was obviously written for the pur- 
pose of conciliating those on whom the 
author's fate might depend. While he endea- 
vours to justify his treachery towards John 
of Northampton, Usk's chief concern is to 
make it appear that he is now a pious and 
contrite soul, whose hopes are fixed in 
heaven, and from whom no further < meddling ' 
in political matters need be apprehended. 
Apparently he hoped to secure the good 
offices of Chaucer ; a passage containing a 
florid eulogy of ' Troilus and Creseide ' is 
introduced in an awkward manner which 
suggests that it was written for a special 
purpose; and the writer's display of fami- 
liarity with the translation of Boethius and 
with * The House of Fame ' (portions of which 
he paraphrases) may have been intended to 
gain the goodwill of the poet. It is very 
likely that Usk sent a copy of his work to 
Chaucer, and the discovery of the manu- 
script among Chaucer's papers may have 
been the circumstance that caused the book 
to be attributed to his authorship. The 
mistaken attribution received a seeming con- 
firmation from the passage in the first ver- 
sion of Gower's ' Confessio Amantis,' in 
which Chaucer is admonished to * do make 
his testament of love.' As it is now ascer- 
tained that the passage in question was writ- 
ten not before 1390, it may possibly contain 
a playful allusion to the title of Usk's work. 

No manuscript of ' The Testament of Love ' 
is known to exist. It was first printed in 
William Thynne's edition of Chaucer's works 
in 1532, and reprinted, with progressive de- 
terioration of the text, in the various editions 
of Chaucer down to that of John Urry [q. v.] 
in 1720, and again in the first volume of 
Chalmers's ' English Poets.' Thynne's own 
text abounds in blunders throughout, and the 
third book was reduced to nonsense by an 
extraordinary series of dislocations, evidently 
due to an accidental displacement of the 
leaves of the manuscript. The restoration of 
the true order of the text by the present 
writer (Athenceum, 6 Feb. 1897) rendered it 
possible to interpret the acrostic, the exis- 



tence of which had been discovered by Pro- 
fessor Skeat in 1893. A trustworthy edition 
of the book is contained in Professor Skeat's 
volume of 'Chaucerian and other Pieces,' 
published in 1897. 

Until 1844 < The Testament, of Love ' was 
universally regarded not only as a genuine 
work of Chaucer, but as an authority of the 
highest value for the biography of the poet. 
In that year Sir Harris Nicolas proved that 
the supposed autobiographical statements 
were irreconcilable with the known facts of 
Chaucer's life ; but he did not question the 
traditional view of the authorship, which 
was disproved by Wilhelm Hertzberg in 
1866. The evidence of the acrostic, com- 
bined with that of the autobiographical 
allusions, leaves no possibility of doubt that 
Usk was the real author. 

[John of Malvern in Higden's Polychronicon 
(Rolls ser.), ix. 45, 46, 134, 150, 169; English 
continuation of Higden (Rolls ser.), vol. viii. ; 
Chronicon Anglise (Rolls ser.), p. 360 ; Walsing- 
ham's Historia Anglican a ; Knighton's Chronicle ; 
Rolls of Parliament, vol. iii.; Skeat's Chaucerian 
and other Pieces, Introduction, pp. xviii-xxxi ; 
The Testament of Love (z&.), pp. 1-145.] H. B. 

USSHER, AMBROSE (1582 P-1629), 
scholar, born in Dublin about 1582, was 
third but second surviving son of Arland 
Ussher and his wife Margaret. James 
Ussher [q. v.], archbishop of Armagh, was 
his elder brother. Probably he was, like 
his brother, educated at the school in School- 
house Lane, Dublin; subsequently he is 
said to have been for a time at Cambridge. 
He, however, soon returned to Dublin, where 
he graduated M.A. and was elected fellow 
of the recently established university in 
1601. He devoted his life to unremitting 
study, and, in addition to more ordinary 
acquirements of scholarship, he became 
learned in Hebrew and Arabic. Among his 
correspondents was Henry Briggs [q. v.] the 
mathematician (Raiolinson MS. C. 849, f. 6). 
Before the completion of the authorised 
version of the Bible, Ussher prepared a 
translation from the original Hebrew, which 
lie dedicated to James I. It remains in 
manuscript in three volumes in the library 
of Trinity College, Dublin; a long extract 
from the ' Epistle Dedicatorie ' and Ussher's 
translation of Genesis, chap, i., are printed 
in the historical manuscripts commission's 
fourth report (App. pp. 598-9 ; cf. Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 102). Ussher died at 
Dublin, unmarried, and was buried on 4 March 
1628-9. The only work he published was a 
* Brief Cate'chism very well serving for the 
Instruction of Youth,' printed at Dublin 
without date. He left, however, thirty-four 

works in manuscript, now preserved in 
Trinity College, Dublin. They include seve- 
ral volumes of sermons, commentaries on 
various portions of scripture, and notes on 
classical authors. Besides the translation 
of the Bible above mentioned, the more im- 
portant are: 1. ' Disputationes contra Bel- 
larminum,' 4 vols. 2. ' An Arabian Dic- 
tionary and Grammar.' 3. * Laus Astrono- 
miae.' 4. ' De Usu Sphserae cum numero 
Constellationum.' 5. * Summaria Religionis 
Christianse Methodus.' 6. ' Of the King- 
dom of Great Britain, or a Discourse on the 

futatioErrorumEcclesiaeRomange.' 9. ' Pro- 
legomena Arabica.' 10. 'Collectanea Ara- 
bica et Hebraica.' 

[Hist. MSS. Coram. 4th Rep. App. pp. 588, 
589, 591, 592-3, 598-9; Rawlinson MS. C. 
849, ff. 5, 262 ; Ussher's Letters, ed.Parr, 1696 ; 
Elrington's Life and Works of Ussher, i. 95-7 ; 
Wright's Ussher Memoirs, 1889; Ware's Irish 
Writers, ed. Harris; Taylor's Univ. of Dublin, 
pp. 269, 366.] A. F. P. 

USSHER, HENRY (1550 P-1613), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, second of five sons of 
Thomas Ussher by Margaret (d. January 
1597), daughter of Henry Geydon, alderman 
of Dublin, was born in Dublin about 1550. 
Ambrose Ussher [q. v.] and James Ussher 
[q. v.], sons of his brother Arland, were his 
nephews. The family name is said to have 
been Neville, the first to settle in Ireland 
coming over as 'usher' to Prince John; 
but there is no evidence for this tradition. 
The first of the name known to history is 
John le Ussher, appointed constable of 
Dublin Castle in 1302. Henry Ussher 
entered at Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
matriculating on 2 May 1567, and graduating 
B. A. in the first quarter of 1570. His studies 
were continued at Paris and at Oxford, where 
he entered at University College, was incor- 
porated B.A. 1 July 1572, and graduated 
M.A. 11 July 1572. His first preferment 
was the treasurership of Christ Church, 
Dublin (1573) ; on 12 March 1580 he was 
made archdeacon of Dublin by Adam Loftus 
[q. v.], with whom he was connected by 

Ussher owes his place in history to the 
share which fell to him in the foundation of 
Dublin University. A ' university of Dub- 
lin' had been founded at St. Patrick's on 
10 Feb. 1320 by Alexander Bicknor or Byke- 
nore [q. v.] under a bull of Clement V 
(11 July 1311), confirmed by John XXII ; 
but evidence of its regular maintenance is 
wanting after 1358, though provision was 



made for lecturers as late as 1496 [see FITZ- 
project of converting St. Patrick's into a 
university was mooted as early as 1563 ; 
Adam Loftus, when made dean (28 Jan. 
1564-5), was put under a bond to resign the 
deanery when required for this purpose. In 
March 1570 James Stanyhurst [see under 
STANYHTIRST, RICHARD], speaker of the Irish 
House of Commons, moved the house for 
the foundation of a university at Dublin as 
part of a system of national education. He 
renewed the proposal in December 1573. It | 
met with no support in parliament. In January | 
1584 the lord deputy, Sir John Perrot [q. T.J, | 
received instructions to draw up proposals for 
the conversion of St. Patrick's into a college. 
He submitted a plan in August. Loftus, 
now archbishop of Dublin, sent Ussher in 
November to London to frustrate the scheme, j 
which was abandoned. The matter was next 
taken up by the Dublin corporation, who I 
offered (21 Jan. 1591) the site of the Augus- 
tinian priory of All Saints', with land worth 
20/. a year, ' for the ereccion of a collage.' 
Ussher was again sent to London, with letters I 
bearing date 4 Nov. 1591, to forward this 
new scheme. On 13 Jan. 1592 he received a 
warrant (dated 21 Dec.) granting the royal 
assent for the erection. On 3 March 1592 
the foundation charter passed the great seal. 
Ussher was named in it as one of the three 
fellows ; he never, however, acted as such, 
nor was he one of the original benefactors. 

On the death (2 March 1594-5) of John 
Garvey, D.D. [q. v.], his brother-in-law, 
Ussher was appointed archbishop of Armagh 
(patent 22 July), and was consecrated in 
August 1595. The see was not wealthy in 
his time, nor was his primacy remarkable. 
A story told by Henry Fitzsimon [q. v.], to 
the effect that Ussher had written against 
Bellarmine, and his wife had burned the 
manuscript, is improved by Bayle after his 
manner. Ussher died at Termonfechin on 
Easter-day, 2 April 1613, and was buried at 
St. Peter's, Drogheda. He married, first 
(about 1573), Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
Eliot of Balrisk, co. Meath, by whom he had 
eight sons and two daughters; secondly, 
Mary Smith (who survived him), by whom 
he had three daughters. His widow married 
(1614) William Fitz Williams of Dundrum. 

ROBERT USSHER (1592-1642), youngest 
son of the above, was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, being made fellow in 1611, 
and graduating B.A. 1612, M.A. 1614, vice- 
provost 1615 ; B.D. 1621. He was preben- 
dary of St. Audoen's, Dublin (1617) ; rec- 
tor of Ardstraw (1617) ; prebendary of Dro- 
maragh (1624); and rector of Lurgan (1629). 

On the death of Sir William Temple (d. 
1627) [q. v.], there was a disputed elec- 
tion to the provostship. The senior fellows 
elected Joseph Mead [q. v.], who declined ; 
the junior fellows elected Ussher (14 April 
1627), and he was sworn in the same day. 
He was set aside by royal letter in favour 
of William Bedell [q. v.], who was sworn 
in on 16 Aug. On Bedell's promotion to 
the see of Kilmore, Ussher was again 
elected (3 Oct. 1629), and sworn in 13 Jan. 
1630. He owed his appointment to a tem- 
perate letter in his favour by his cousin, 
James Ussher [q. v.], to whom appeal had 
been made. He did not, however, fulfil 
his cousin's expectation of him, being ' of 
too soft and gentle a disposition to rule 
so heady a company.' He was an able 
preacher, he promoted the study of the Irish 
language, and defended the charter rights of 
the college. On 11 Aug. 1634 he resigned 
the provostship on being appointed arch- 
deacon of Meath. On 25 Feb. 1635 he was 
consecrated bishop of Kildare. He died at 
Panta Birsley, near Ellesmere, Shropshire, 
on 7 Sept. 1642, and was buried at Doddles- 
ton Chapel, near Oswestry. He married 
Jane, eldest daughter of Francis Kynaston, 
of Panta Birsley, and left issue. 

[Ware's Works (Harris), 1739, i.; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss); Bayle's Dictionnaire, 1740, iv. 
480, art. ' Usserius, Henri ; ' Mant's Hist, of the 
Church of Ireland, 1840, i. 330; Elrington's 
Life of James Ussher, 1848, app. i. ; Brady's 
State Papers of the Irish Church, 1868, pp. 55, 
94 ; Stubbs's Hist. Univ. Dublin, 1889 ; Wright's 
Ussher Memoirs, 1889; Urwick's Early Hist. 
Trin. Coll. Dublin, 1892; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1892, iv. 1532.] A. G-. 

USSHER, HENRY (d. 1790), astrono- 
mer, a direct descendant of Arland Ussher, 
mayor of Dublin 1469-71, was fourth son of 
Samuel Ussher, rector of Dunganstown. co. 
Wicklow, by his wife Frances Walsh. His 
grandfather, John Ussher of Mount Ussher, 
third son of Sir William Ussher (d. 1671) of 
Portrane, co. Dublin, married, on 13 Oct. 
1681, Alice, daughter of Samuel Molyneux, 
became a master in chancery, and died in 
1745. Henry Ussher gained in 1759 a scholar- 
ship in Trinity College ; graduated B.A. in 
1761, M.A. in 1764, B.D. and D.D. in 1779 ; 
was elected to a fellowship in 1764, and co- 
opted senior fellow in 1781. Appointed, on 
22 Jan. 1783, the first Andrews professor of 
astronomy in the university of Dublin, he re- 
paired to London to order from Jesse Rams- 
den [q. v.] the instruments requisite for the 
designed new observatory. The chief of them 
were : a small achromatic telescope, mounted 
on a polar axis, and carried by a helipstatic 


6 4 


movement ; an equatoreal machine with 
circles five feet in diameter ; a transit of six 
feet focal length, and a ten- foot vertical 
circle executed, after interminable delays 
on a reduced scale [see BRINKLEY, JOHN, 
1763-1835]. Ussher chose a site for the 
observatory at Dunsink, co. Dublin, planned 
the building, and supervised its construction 
His stipend was fixed at 2501. per annum, 
out of which he undertook to defray all 
current official expenditure ; but the board 
(consisting of the provost and senior fellows 
of Trinity College) made him, on 19 Feb. 
1785, a special grant of 200/. His election 
as a fellow of the Royal Society of London 
on 24 Nov. 1785 followed close upon the 
incorporation of the Royal Irish Academy, 
of which body he was an original member. 
He died at his house in Harcourt Street, 
Dublin, on 8 May 1790, and was buried in 
the college chapel. His premature death, 
just as the initial difficulties of his career 
were overcome, was lamented as a calamity 
by men of science. The board allowed a 
pension to his widow, and promised grants 
of 50/. and 20/. respectively for the print- 
ing of his sermons and astronomical manu- 
scripts. They ordered besides that his bust 
should be placed in the observatory, and pro- 
posed his death as the subject of a prize 
poem. But no publications ensued, and he 
remained without commemoration either in 
verse or marble. 

Ussher married Mary Burne, and left three 
sons and five daughters. His eldest son was 
Admiral Sir Thomas Ussher [q. T.] 

The undermentioned are the most impor- 
tant of the papers contributed by Ussher to 
the first three volumes of the ' Transactions ' 
of the Royal Society : 1. 'An Account of 
the Observatory belonging to Trinity College, 
Dublin.' 2. ' A New Method of illuminating 
the Wires, and regulating the Position of the 
Transit.' 3. ' An Account of some Observa- 
tions made with a view to ascertain whether 
Magnifying Power or Aperture contributes 
most to the discerning small Stars in the Day,' 
translated in 'Journal der Physik,' 1 791 , iv. 54. 
4. l Observations on the Disappearance and 
Reappearance of Saturn's Rings in the Year 
1789.' From the compression of the globe 
he deduced a rotation-period for the planet 
of 10 h 12 m . 5. < An Account of an Aurora 
Borealis seen in full Sunshine.' This unique 
phenomenon occurred on 25 May 1788. 

[The Book of Trinity College, Dublin, 1591- 
1891 ; Taylor's History of the University of 
Dublin ; Burke's Landed Gentry ; Universal 
Magazine (Dublin), iii. 499 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Cat. Grad. University of Dublin; Gent. Mag 
1790, p. 479.] A.M. C. 

USSHER, JAMES (1581-1656), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, second but elder surviv- 
ing son of Arland (Arnoldus) Ussher (d. 
12 Aug. 1598), clerk of the Irish court ol 
chancery, by his wife Margaret (d. Novem- 
ber 1626), daughter of James Stanyhurst 
[see under STANYHURST, RICHARD], was born 
in Nicholas Street, parish of St. Nicholas 
Within, Dublin, on 4 Jan. 1580-1. Am- 
brose Ussher [q. v.] was his younger brother. 
Both parents were originally protestants. His 
mother became a Roman catholic before her 
death. Two blind aunts (probably Alice 
and Katherine Ussher, his father's sisters) 
taught him to read. At the age of eight he 
entered the free Latin school in Schoolhouse 
Lane, Dublin, conducted by (Sir) James 
Fullerton (d. 1630) and James Hamilton 
(Viscount Claneboye) [q. v.], two Scottish 
presbyterians, political agents of James VI. 
On the opening of Trinity College, Dublin 
[see USSHER, HENRY], on 9 Jan. 1593-4, 
Hamilton was one of the original fellows, 
and Ussher was entered under him, at the 
age of thirteen, as one of the earliest scholars 
on a foundation which owed its existence to 
the efforts of his family on both sides of the 
house. He was not, as Bernard affirms, the 
first scholar entered ; his name follows that 
of Abel Walsh, afterwards dean of Tuam. 
He had already shown a precocious taste for 
divinity and chronology, having read some- 
thing of William Perkins (in manuscript), 
the ' Meditations ' of St. Augustine, probably 
in the 'purified 'translation(1581) by Thomas 
Rogers (d. 1616) [q. v.], and Sleidan's ' De 
Quatuor Summis Imperils.' Greek and He- 
brew he began at Trinity College. Before 
graduating B.A. (probably in July 1597) he 
bad drawn up in Latin a biblical chronology 
(to the end of the Hebrew monarchy), which 
formed the basis of his 'Annales.' His 
father, intending him for the bar, had ar- 
ranged, much against Ussher's own will, for 
his legal studies in London. On his father's 
death (1598) he inherited a considerable but 
burdened estate. This, on coming of age, 
ae transferred to his uncle, George Ussher 
1558-1610), a Dublin merchant, in trust for 
lis brother and sisters, reserving a small 
sum for his college maintenance. 

Ussher first exhibited his powers at an 
academic disputation before Robert Deve- 
reux, second earl of Essex [q. v.], the new 
chancellor of Trinity College, in April 1599. 
His success led him to enter the lists in pub- 
ic discussion with Henry Fitzsimon [q. v.], 
;hen a prisoner for his religion in Dublin 
Castle. Both disputants have given some 
account of the encounter. Fitzsimon de- 
scribes Ussher as ' octodenarius prsecocis 



sapientise (non tamen malae, ut videtur, in- 
dolis) juvenis,' and says he refused to con- 
tinue the discussion unless Ussher's party 
would adopt him as their champion. Ussher 
affirms that Fitzsimon did not fulfil a promise 
to supply the points for controversy in writing. 
To meet the argument from antiquity pre- 
.sented in ' A Fortresse of the Faith ' (1565), by 
Thomas Stapleton [q. v.], Ussher now began 
& systematic reading of the fathers, a labour 
which it took him eighteen years to accom- 
plish. He was made fellow in 1599 (S 

p. 25), graduated M.A. on 24 Feb. 1600-1 
(ib. p. 17), was appointed catechist of his 
college and the first proctor, and in the same 
year was chosen one of three preachers at 
Christ Church. These three preachers were 
then all laymen; but Ussher, whose duty 
was to discourse on the Romish controversy 
-on Sunday afternoons, soon felt scruples 
-about his position, and by special dispensa- 
tion was ordained deacon and priest (in his 
twenty-first year) on 20 Dec. 1601 by Henry 
Ussher [q. v.], his uncle. On 24 Dec. he 
preached before the state on a day of suppli- 
cation for success against the Spaniards ; 
their defeat at Kinsale occurred on that 
.same day. Out of the booty then gained 
the officers of the English army gave ' about 
700/.' to buy books for Trinity College Li- 
brary. To select them, Ussher was sent on 
his first journey to England, in company 
with his connection, Luke Challoner, D.D. 
(1550-1613). At Chester he visited Christo- 
pher Goodman [q. v.], the puritan, who was 
then bedridden and died the next year 
(4 June 1603). In London he met Sir 
Thomas Bodley [q. v.], then collecting books 
for his munificent foundation at Oxford. 
On his return (1602) he was appointed to a 
catechetical lecture on the Roman contro- 
versy on Sunday afternoons at St. Cathe- 
rine's Church. This lecture was stopped in 
pursuance of the government order (February 
1603) for the free exercise of the Roman 
catholic religion. It was in consequence of 
this order that Ussher preached his famous 
sermon at Christ Church, predicting (Ezek. 
iv. 6) a judgment after forty years. This 
was thought to be fulfilled by the massacre 
of 1641. His biographers (before Elrington) 
have antedated the sermon to 1601, making 
the prediction more exact. 

The charter (1591) of Trinity College has 
no limitation of religion. Roman catholics 
contributed to the funds for its erection. 
It was treated, however, as a protestant 
stronghold. After the nominal provostship 
of Adam Loftus (1533P-1605) [q. v.], its 
early provosts were English puritans, whose 
opinions had interfered with their prefer- 


ment at home. They were men of learning 
and character rather than of administrative 
gifts. Ussher imbibed their theology, and 
respected without sharing their ceremonial 
scruples. Walter Travers [q. v.], provost 
till 1598, was strong in Oriental learning. 
Ussher never lost sight of him, and in later 
life offered him substantial proofs of his 
esteem. Travers was succeeded, after an in- 
terregnum, by Henry Alvey (d. 1627), under 
whom Ussher was made fellow. During 
Alvey's absences, from ill-health (March to 
October 1603) and from fear of the plague 
(June 1604 to June 1605), the management 
of the college was in the hands of Challoner 
and Ussher. Shortly before his death (1 April 
1605) Loftus preferred Ussher to the chan- 
cellorship of St. Patrick's and the rectory of 
Finglas, co. Dublin, held with it in com- 
mendam ; hence he resigned his fellowship 
(the presentation, owing to the commenda, 
had legally devolved to the crown ; the 
error was rectified by a crown presentation 
on 12 July 1611). In 1606 he again visited 
England in search of books, and made the 
acquaintance of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton 
[q. v.] and William Camden [q. v.], to whom 
he furnished information on Irish antiquities, 
acknowledged in the description of Dublin 
in the sixth edition (1607) of the 'Bri- 
tannia.' From this time he paid a triennial 
visit to Oxford, Cambridge, and London, 
staying a month at each place. He gra- 
duated B.D. in 1607, and was at once ap- 
pointed the first professor of divinity at 
Dublin on the foundation (worth 81. a year) 
of James Cottrell, who died at York in 1595. 
On Alvey's resignation (1609) the provost- 
ship was offered to Ussher, who declined it 
and promoted the appointment of Sir William 
Temple (d. 1627) [q. v.], a good organiser. 
The scope of Ussher's office was now defined 
as ' professor of theological controversies ' 
(the title ' regius professor of divinity ' dates 
from 1674). His acquaintance with Henry 
Briggs [q. v.], John Davenant [q. v.], Sir 
Henry Savile [q. v.], and John Selden [q. v.] 
began in a visit to London in 1609. He 
brought back with him to Dublin Thomas 
Lydiat [q.v.], who gave him aid in his chrono- 
logical studies. At this time he preached 
every Sunday at Finglas, where he endowed 
a vicarage as a separate benefice. From, 
about 1611 he held also the rectory of Assey, 
co. Meath. 

His first work, ' De . . . Ecclesiarum . . . 
Successione,' the publication of which took 
him to London in 1613, was designed to 
carry on the argument of Jewel's ' Apologia ' 
(1562). Jewel had vindicated Anglican 
doctrine as the doctrine of the first six cen- 




times ; Ussher undertook to show a con- 
tinuity of the same doctrine to 1513. The 
portion published reaches the year 1270; 
before completing his task Ussher awaited a 
reply by his uncle. Richard Stanyhurst [q.v.], 
of which only a ' Brevis Praemunitio ' (1615) 
appeared. With George Abbot [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who had been made 
chancellor of Trinity College in 1612, Ussher 
conferred respecting new statutes. Abbot 
complained of sundry arrangements as ' flat 
puritanical ; ' Ussher wrote (9 April 1613) to 
Challoner : ' I pray you be not too forward 
to have statutes sent you from hence/ On 
27 April Challoner died, his last wish being 
that his daughter and heiress should marry 
Ussher. The marriage took place within a 
year. Ussher proceeded D.D. on 18 Aug. 
1614, and was chosen vice-chancellor on 
2 March 1614-15 ; he was chosen vice-provost 
on 13 May 1616 (to act in Temple's absence) ; 
and on 3 July 1617 he was again chosen 

In 1615 was held at Dublin the first con- 
vocation of the Irish clergy on the English 
model. Hitherto the only ' articles of re- 
ligion' having authority in Ireland were the 
eleven articles drawn up by Matthew Parker 
[q. v.] in 1559, and authorised for Ireland in 
1566 (when they were numbered as twelve). 
Ussher was deputed to draft a new formu- 
lary. It extended to 104 articles under 
nineteen heads. Incorporating much from 
the articles of 1559, and more from the 
Anglican articles of 1562, the Irish articles 
take over the whole of the Lambeth articles 
of 1595 [see BAKO, PETEK, and OVERALL, 
JOHN] and even go beyond them in definition 
of the subjects of reprobation. Further, 
they declare the pope to be the ' man of 
sinne ; ' identify the ' Catholike ' with the ' In- 
uisible ' church ; reject ' the sacrifice of the 
Masse ' as ' most ungodly ; ' affirm ' the eat- 
ing of fish and forbearing of flesh ' to be not 
a religious but an economic provision ; de- 
clare religious ' images ' of every kind un- 
lawful ; and direct the Lord's day ' wholly 
to be dedicated' to divine service. The 
most striking omission is the absence of refe- 
rence to distinction of orders among the 
clergy or to any form of ordination. It does 
not appear that subscription to these articles 
was compulsory, but the decree of convoca- 
tion imposed silence and deprivation as the 
penalties for public teaching contrary to 

By letter of 30 Sept. 1619 from the Irish 
to the English privy council, Ussher was 
recommended for the next vacant bishopric. 
The document was intended 'to set him 
right in his majesties opinion ' in regard of 

his alleged ' unaptness to be conformable/ 
He had been passed over when Launcelot 
Bulkeley [q. v.] was appointed to Dublin 
(11 Aug.) He was presented (17 April 
1620) to the rectory of Trim, resigning Assey. 
On the death of George Montgomery (January 
1620-1) James I at once nominated Ussher 
to the see of Meath and Clonmacnoise. On 
18 Feb. he preached before the House of 
Commons at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
when the members received the communion as 
a test against popery. His patent was issued 
on 22 Feb., and he resigned his professorship. 
On his return to Ireland he was consecrated 
(the writ is dated 27 June) at St. Peter's, Drog- 
heda, by Christopher Hampton [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Armagh, and three suffragans, in- 
cluding Theophilus Buckworth (1561-1652), 
bishop of Dromore, who had married Ussher's 
sister Sarah. The yearly revenue of the see 
amounted to little over 400/. ; Ussher held 
Trim (worth 200/.) in commendam, perhaps 
also Finglas, where he was living in 1623. 
Ussher's ' certificate ' of the state of the dio- 
cese (28 May 1622) is a most minute and in- 
teresting document (ELRINGTOST, app. v.) 
There was no cathedral and no chapter ; the 
clergy met in synod, but the great majority 
of the parish churches were ruinous ; yet 
Elrington considers the diocese ' at that 
time the best arranged and most civilised 
part of Ireland.' Ussher made endeavours 
to win the Roman catholics by his sermons, 
preaching in the session-house when he could 
not induce them to enter the church. 
Rumours of his adopting less legitimate 
modes of propaganda (' clandestine christen- 
ings ') are mentioned in a letter (April 1622) 
by Sir Henry Bourgchier. His sermon 
(8 Sept. 1622) before the new lord deputy, 
Henry Gary, first viscount Falkland [q. v.], 
showed anxiety to curb corresponding efforts 
on the part of the Roman catholic priesthood. 
Archbishop Hampton wrote (17 Oct.) a wise 
remonstrance, advising Ussher to soften 
matters 'by a voluntary retraction and 
milder interpretation,' and to 'spend more 
time ' in his diocese. According to Cox 
(Hibernia Anglicana, 1690, ii. 39), Ussher 
preached an explanatory sermon ; he certainly 
wrote (16 Oct.) an explanatory letter, but it 
must be added that in his speech at the privy 
council (22 Nov.) enforcing the oath of 
supremacy, he distinctly recognises the death 
penalty for heresy as part of the civil govern- 
ment. This speech was published with a 
special letter of thanks by James I, who in 
the following year granted Ussher an in- 
definite leave of absence in England for the 
completion of his projected works on the 
antiquities of the British church. 


6 7 


Ussher reached London early in December 
1623, and remained in England till the 
beginning of 1626. He preached before 
James at Wanstead on 20 June 1624 ; in the 
same year he was admitted a member of 
Gray's Inn; at its close he published his 
{ Answer ' to William Malone [q. v.] On 
22 March 1624-5 he was appointed by 
patent archbishop of Armagh, in succession 
to Hampton. He was then living at Much 
Hadham, Hertfordshire, where his friend 
George Montaigne [q. v.], bishop of London, 
had a country house, now known as the 
Palace. In January 1624-5 he had preached 
a funeral sermon for Theophilus Aylmer, the 
late rector. Aylmer's successor, Peter 
Hausted [q. v.], is a link between Ussher 
and Jeremy Taylor [q. v.], being in charge 
of Uppingham on Taylor's appointment. 
Weekday preaching in Essex threw Ussher 
into a quartan ague ; he lay ill at Hadham 
several months. In November, still ailing, 
he became the guest at Drayton Lodge, 
Northamptonshire, of John Mordaunt (after- 
wards first Earl of Peterborough) [see under 
MOKDAUNT, HENRY, second EAEL]. Mor- 
daunt had become a Roman catholic, his 
wife Elizabeth, granddaughter of Charles 
Howard, earl of Nottingham [q. v.], remain- 
ing protestant ; on her motion Ussher was 
to dispute the points in controversy with 
Oswald Tesimond [q. v.], known as Philip 
Beaumont. After three days' discussion, 
Tesimond retired ; Mordaunt returned to the 
Anglican church. By 22 March 1626 
Ussher was at Drogheda, under treatment 
by Thomas Arthur, M.D. [q. v.], who took 
him to the island of Lambay, which he left 
for Dublin ' evicto morbo,' on 8 June. He 
must have journeyed to Oxford soon after 
14 June, if Wood is right in saying that he 
lodged in Jesus College at the time of his 
incorporation as D.D. (24 July). Parr says 
he returned to Ireland in August, but this 
is inconsistent with the statement that he 
was in England at the time of his mother's 

Ussher's name heads the list of twelve 
Irish prelates, who met in Dublin and signed 
(26 Nov. 1626) a protestation against tolera- 
tion of popery [see DOWNHAM or DOWNAME, 
GEORGE], S}me relief had been proposed 
for Roman catholics in return for their 
army contributions. Against this Ussher 
preached as a corrupt bargain; and in an 
elaborate speech (30 April 1627) he urged 
that it was to the interest of Roman catho- 
lics to support the army without relief. In 
the previous month he had expressed to 
Robert Blair (1593-1666) [q. v.] his desire 
for the removal of grievances felt by the 

nonconforming puritans. As vice-chancellor 
he took now a large share in the affairs of 
Trinity College. The appointment of Wil- 
liam Bedell [q. v.] as provost (16 Aug. 
1627) was mainly his work, on the failure 
of overtures to Richard Sibbes [q. v.] Their 
relations became strained soon after Bedell's 
elevation (1629) to the sees of Kilmore and 
Ardagh. Ussher disapproved of Bedell's 
leniency to Roman catholics, and was averse 
from the policy of encouraging the Irish lan- 
guage as a means of religious instruction. 

Ussher's correspondence with Laud began 
in 1628, and was maintained till 1640, with no 
lack of cordiality on either side. In love of 
learning, in reverence for antiquity, and in 
opposition to Rome, they had common 
ground, notwithstanding their adhesion to 
different theological schools ; and though 
Usshsr had none of Laud's passion for uni- 
formity, he fully recognised the duty of 
allegiance to constituted authority. In 
September 1631 he interceded with Robert 
Echlin [q. v.], his suffragan, for leniency 
towards the Scottish nonconformists in 
Down ; but in the following May, the crown 
having issued instructions, he declined to 
interfere. He carried out the king's order 
in regard to the sermon by George Downham 
against Arminianism (Elrington's suspicion 
of the authenticity of the letter, 8 Nov. 1631, 
is unfounded), though he had himself j ust pub- 
lished an extreme view of predestination in 
his ' Gotteschalci Historia.' On. Laud be- 
coming archbishop of Canterbury (1633), 
Ussher took immediate steps to procure his 
election (May 1634) as chancellor of Trinity 

It has been assumed that Strafford, in 
conjunction with Laud, took measures to 
lessen Ussher's influence. Urwick urges 
in support of this view the appointment of 
William Chappell [q. v.] as provost of 
Trinity, but the facts will not bear this 
construction. On 26 June 1634 the long- 
pending dispute between the sees of Armagh 
and Dublin, for the primacy of all Ireland, 
was decided by Strafford in favour of Armagh 
(Ussher's paper on the controversy is printed 
in ELRINGTON'S Life, App. vi.) Ussher 
preached at the opening of the Irish parlia- 
ment on 14 July. In the Irish convocation, 
which met simultaneously, the main question 
was that of the adoption of the Anglican 
articles and canons. Ussher had a plan for 
substituting the Anglican articles for the 
Irish 'without noise, as it were aliud agens.' 
Difficulties arose, and Strafford insisted on 
the adoption of the Anglican articles without 
discussion, which was done (November 1634), 
with one dissentient voice, in the lower house. 




The Irish articles were not repealed ; Ussher's 
own course (and that of some other bishops) 
was to require subscription to both sets of 
articles, a practice which fell into abeyance 
at the Restoration. The adoption of the 
Anglican canons of 1604 was proposed by 
John Bramhall [q. v.], bishop of Derry. 
Ussher strenuously resisted this, as incon- 
sistent with the independence of a national 
church ; ultimately a hundred canons, mainly 
drafted by Bramhall, but ' methodised ' by 
Ussher, were adopted. They exhibit no 
-concession to puritan scruples, and their en- 
forcement became the main grievance of the 
Scottish settlers in the north. It is curious 
-that when Stratford visited Ussher at 
Drogheda in 1638, he found no communion 
table in his private chapel. In 1638 may 
perhaps be placed Ussher's famous visit to 
Samuel Rutherford [q. v.], at Anwoth, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire ; no date will exactly fit the 
story as given by Wodrow. 

Ussher's relations with Bedell at this 
period are perplexing. The Irish canons 
had allowed the use of the Irish language 
(concurrently with English) in the service, 
and Ussher had recommended to Bedell, as 
translator of the Old Testament, Murtagh 
King, a convert from Roman Catholicism. 
But he certainly did not support Bedell in 
his difficulties about King's preferment, 
which led to what Burnet calls the ' unjust 
prosecution 'of Bedell in the prerogative 

In March 1640 Ussher preached at the j 
opening of the Irish parliament, and imme- 
diately left Ireland, finally as it turned out. 
He spent a short time at Oxford, lodging in 
Christ Church, and preaching at St. Mary's 
on 5 Nov., bub was called up to London 
to aid in composing the ecclesiastical revo- 
lution which began with the opening of the 
Long parliament (November 1640). He pre- 
pared the draft of a modified scheme of epi- 
scopacy, which was surreptitiously printed 
(1641 , 4to, and again 1642, 4to) with a mislead- 
ing title, implying that Ussher had issued 
' Directions ' affecting ' the Lyturgy ' as well 
as church government. Instead of putting 
forth his own edition, he obtained an order 
(9 Feb. 1640-1) of the House of Commons 
suppressing the pamphlet, a course which 
has thrown doubt on the authenticity of one 
of the most important ecclesiastical docu- 
ments of the time. The scheme was sub- 
mitted to the sub-committee of divines j 
appointed (12 March) by the lords' com- I 
mittee for accommodation. It was accepted j 
by the puritan leaders, then and subse- I 
quently ; Charles I fell back upon it in 1648 ; 
Charles II made it the basis of his ' declara- 

tion' in October 1660; Robert Leighton 
(1611-1684) [q. v.] took it as the model of 
his experiments in the dioceses of Dunblane 
and Glasgow. Another surreptitious edi- 
tion, with more correct title, having been 
issued in 1656 (after Ussher's death), the 
original was published from Ussher's auto- 
graph, with his ' last correction,' by Nicholas 
Bernard, D.D. [q. v.], as < The Reduction of 
Episcopacie unto the form of Synodical 
Government received in the Ancient Church,' 
1656, 4to. The text, as actually presented 
in 1641, is given in * Reliquiae Baxterianse,' 
1696, ii. 238 sq., with bracketed amendments 
suggested by Richard Holdsworth [q. v.] and 
afterwards adopted by Ussher. The margi- 
nalia, showing parallels with the Scottish 
system, were tFssher's own, but he had for- 
bidden Bernard to print them ; in fact, the 
parallels were not real, for Ussher's synods 
were purely clerical, except the meeting of 
parochial officers, which had no jurisdiction. 
The 1660 reprint has a careless title-page, but 
follows the original in every material par- 
ticular. A Latin version was edited by John 
Hoornbeek, Utrecht, 1661. 

Ussher was one of the five bishops con- 
sulted by Charles before passing the bill of 
attainder against Straffbrd. Not only did 
he warn the king against giving his assent 
unless he were satisfied of Stratford's trea- 
son, but after the assent he reproached 
Charles ' with tears in his eyes.' He was 
sent to Stratford with the last message from 
Charles, and to Laud with the last message 
from Straftbrd, attended him to the block, 
and brought the account of his last moments 
to the king. 

The rebellion of October 1641 made havoc 
of all Ussher's Irish property (except his 
library). He declined the offer of a chair 
at Leyden. On 22 Dec. he preached before 
the House of Lords, and obtained an order 
(11 Feb.) for the suppression of a surrepti- 
tious print of his sermon. On 16 Feb. 
1641-2 Charles made him a grant of the bi- 
shopric of Carlisle in commendam on the 
death of Barnaby Potter [q. v.] He admi- 
nistered the diocese by commission, and re- 
ceived the revenue till the autumn of 1643. 
On 21 Sept. 1643 parliament granted him a 
pension of 400. a year, but no payment was 
made till 10 Dec. 1647. In London he had 
preached regularly at St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden ; he removed in 1642 with parlia- 
mentary sanction to Oxford, occupying the 
house of John Prideaux (1578-1650) [q. v.], 
and frequently preaching at St. Aldate's or 
at All Saints'. His name was included in 
the ordinance (20 June 1643) summoning 
the Westminster assembly, not without de- 


6 9 


bate, in the course of which John Selden 
[q. v.] remarked, ' they had as good inquire 
whether they had best admit Inigo Jones, 
the king's architect, to the company of 
mouse-trap makers.' He responded to the 
summons by preaching boldly against the 
legality of the assembly; the commons 
promptly removed his name, substituting 
that of John Bond, LL.D. [q. v.], and con- 
fiscated his library, then deposited at Chelsea 
College. Daniel Featley or Fairclough 
[q. v.], with Selden's aid, redeemed the books 
for a nominal sum, but many of Ussher's 
papers and all his correspondence had disap- 
peared. He was again offered a seat in the 
assembly in 1647, but he never attended. 
The influence of his writings is very apparent 
in the work of the assembly. The chapters 
of the f Westminster Confession ' in the 
main follow the order and adopt the head- 
ings of the Irish articles, and introduce but 
two new topics (liberty of conscience and 

Ussher had found himself powerless to 
resist Charles's scheme (April 1644) for pur- 
chasing Irish support by proffering relief to 
Roman catholics. He left Oxford on 5 March 
1644-5, accompanying Prince Charles as far 
as Bristol. Thence he proceeded to Cardiff, 
where Tyrrell, his son-in-law, was governor. 
There he preached before Charles on 3 Aug. 
He had thoughts of migrating to the con- 
tinent, but accepted the hospitality of Mary, 
widow of Sir Edward Stradling [see under 
STRADLING, SIR JOHN"] at St. Donat's, Gla- 
morganshire. On his way thither with his 
daughter he fell into the hands of Welsh 
insurgents, and was stripped of his books 
and papers, most of which were afterwards 
recovered. At St. Donat's Castle there was 
a fine library, but Ussher's studies were in- 
terrupted by serious illness, leaving him so 
weak from haemorrhage that his death was 
reported. John Greaves [q. v.] wrote an 
epitaph for him. He again resolved to retire 
to the continent, and procured a passport 
from Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick 
[q. v.], the lord high admiral. He was 
putting to sea, when Molton, the vice- 
admiral, threatened him with arrest. At the 
invitation of his old friend, Elizabeth Mor- 
daunt, now Dowager Countess of Peter- 
borough, he removed to London, and re- 
mained her guest till his death. On his 
way through Gloucester (June 1646) he had 
an interview with John Biddle [q. v.], the 
antitrinitarian ; the interview was not fruit- 
less, as it led Biddle to examine the argu- 
ment from Christian antiquity. 

When parliament called upon Ussher to 
take the negative oath, he asked time for con- 

sideration, and the matter was not pressed. 
His appointment as preacher at Lincoln's 
Inn was sanctioned by parliament at the 
beginning of 1647, on his petition. He is 
said to have refused the sacrament to Ed- 
ward, first lord Herbert of Cherbury [q. v.],. 
on his deathbed (August 1648), in consequence 
of the dying man's remark, 'if there was 
good in anything it was in that ; or if it did 
no good, it could do no harm.' His preach- 
ing was fearless. In November 1648 he 
denounced at Lincoln's Inn the attitude of" 
parliament towards the king. On 19 Nov. 
(the king's birthday), in a sermon before 
Charles at Carisbrooke, he urged the doc- 
trine of divine right. It was then that 
Charles accepted his ' reduction ' scheme of 
1641, having previously refused it (this is 
Ussher's own testimony given to Baxter, 
Reliq. Baxt. i. 62). He saw the prelimi- 
naries of the execution of Charles from the 
leads of Lady Peterborough's house in St. 
Martin's Lane, 'just over against Charing 
Cross,' but fainted when l the villains in 
vizards began to put up his hair.' To a date 
subsequent to the execution of Charles must 
be referred the offer (to which he alludes, 
November 1651) of a pension with the free 
exercise of his religion, made through Riche- 
lieu by the queen regent of France. He had 
previously exchanged courtesies with Riche- 
lieu, after the publication of his ' Britanni- 
carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates ' (1639). 

Early in 1654 Roger Boyle, baron Brog- 
hill [q. v.], nominated L T ssher as one of four- 
teen divines to draw up l fundamentals ' as 
terms of toleration ; he declined to act, and 
suggested Baxter, who was put in his place 
(Monthly Repository, 1825, p. 287). Crom- 
well, according to Parr, consulted Ussher 
about advancing the protestant interest 
abroad, and promised him a twenty-one- 
years' lease of lands belonging to the see of 
Armagh ; the grant was not made ; after 
Ussher's death his daughter made fruitless 
application for it. In November 1654 Ussher 
was at Selden's deathbed, and is said to have 
given him absolution. He approached Crom- 
well in 1655, seeking liberty for episcopal 
clergy to minister in private ; some kind of 
promise was given, but retracted at a second 
interview, after Ussher had made a retort, 
ofted quoted. ' If this core were out,' said 
Cromwell (alluding to a boil), 1 1 should be 
soon well.' ' I doubt the core lies deeper,' 
said Ussher ; l there is a core in the heart.' 
His application to Cromwell had no personal 
reference, for he had resigned Lincoln's Inn,, 
as loss of teeth interfered with his preaching. 
His sight was also failing, and spectacles 
were of no service. He preached for the? 



last time at Hammersmith at Michaelmas 

On 13 Feb. 1655-6 he took leave of his Lon- 
don friends, and retired to Lady Peter- 
borough's house at Reigate. He was still 
intent on his studies, and thought of en- 
gaging an amanuensis. On 20 March he was 
seized with pleurisy at night, and quickly 
sank ; his last words referred to his ' sins of 
omission.' He died on 21 March 1656. His 
body was embalmed, and was to have been 
buried in the Peterborough vault at Reigate. 
Cromwell ordered a public funeral in West- 
minster Abbey, making for the purpose a 
treasury grant (2 April) of 200/. (a fourth of 
the actual cost). The interment took place 
on 17 April in St. Erasmus's Chapel, next to 
the tomb of Ussher's first master. Sir James 
Fullerton. Bernard preached the funeral 
sermon to an immense concourse ; the Angli- 
can service was used at the grave. Payne 
Fisher [q. v.], Cromwell's poet laureate, is 
said to have recited on the same day a worth- 
less Latin elegy in the hall of Christ Church, 
Oxford ; as published (1658, fol.) it purports 
to be a commemoration of the anniversary of 
the funeral. There is no monument to 
Ussher. The best likeness of him, according 
to Parr, was the portrait by Lely, at Shotover, 
engraved (1738) by Vertue ; the Bodleian has a 
portrait dated 1644 ; Trinity College, Dublin, 
has a portrait dated 1654 ; the National Por- 
trait Gallery has a portrait (in surplice) 
ascribed to Lely and dated about 1655 ; an 
anonymous portrait is at Armagh (Cat. Third 
Loan Exhib. No. 570). Engravings are very 
numerous: that by Vaughan (1647) was done 
at the expense of Oxford University. All 
represent him in plain skull-cap and large 
ruff. He was of middle height, erect and 
well made, of fresh complexion, and wore 
moustache and short beard. 

Ussher married in 1614 Phoebe (d. 1654), 
only daughter of Luke Challoner, D.D. (her 
portrait, formerly at Shotover, was exhibited 
in the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866), 
and had issue an only child, Elizabeth. She 
was baptised on 19 Sept. 1619 at St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-East, and married in 1641 Sir 
Timothy Tyrrell (d. 23 Oct. 1701, aged 83) 
of Oakley, Buckinghamshire, afterwards of 
Shotover, Oxfordshire. She died in 1693, 
and was buried at Oakley (Wright's copy 
of her epitaph is incorrect) ; James Tyrrell 
(1642-1718) [q. v.] was the eldest of her 
twelve children ; her sixth daughter, Elea- 
nor, was the wife of Charles Blount [q. v.], 
the deist. 

Burnet's eulogy of Ussher is warm and 
discriminating : ' No man had a better soul.' 
' Love of the world seemed not ... in his 

nature.' ' He had a way of gaining people's 
hearts and of touching their consciences that 
look'd like somewhat of the apostolical age 
reviv'd.' Burnet adds that ' he was not made 
for the governing part of his function,' having 
' too gentle a soul ' for the ; rough work of 
reforming abuses ; ' hence ' he left things as 
he found them.' He had nothing of Bram- 
hall's statesmanlike grasp of affairs, and his 
measures of ecclesiastical legislation were 
academic. The blunder of the Irish articles 
was not retrieved by the opposite blunder of 
the Irish canons. His reduction of episco- 
pacy took no account of the. real difficulty, 
the lay demand for a voice in church affairs. 
His Augustinian theology commended him 
to the puritans, his veneration for antiquity 
to the high churchmen ; no royalist sur- 
passed him in his deference to the divine 
right of kings. All parties had confidence 
in his character, and marvelled at his learn- 

Selden calls him ' learned to a miracle ' 
(' ad miraculum doctus '). To estimate his 
labours aright would be the work of a com- 
pany of experts. His learning was for use ; 
and his topics were suggested by the contro- 
versies of his age, which he was resolved to 
probe to their roots in the ground of history. 
He told Evelyn (21 Aug. 1655) < how great 
the loss of time was to study much the 
eastern languages ; that, excepting Hebrew, 
there was little fruit to be gathered of ex- 
ceeding labour . . . the Arabic itself had 
little considerable.' His genius as a scholar 
was shown in his eye for original sources, 
and this on all subjects that he touched. He" 
worked from manuscripts hitherto neglected, 
and brought to light the materials he needed 
by personal research, and by correspondence 
with continental scholars and with agents in 
the east. Younger scholars, like Francis 
Quarles [q. v.], were employed as his aids and 
amanuenses. As a writer, his passion for 
exactness (which made him extremely sensi- 
tive on the subject of unauthorised publica- 
tion) exhibits itself in his use of materials. 
He lets his sources tell their story in their 
own words, incorporating them into his text 
with clear but sparing comment. Few faults 
have been found with his accuracy ; his con- 
clusions have been mended by further appli- 
cation of his own methods. His merits as 
an investigator of early Irish history are 
acknowledged by his countrymen of all 
parties ; his' 7 contributions to the history of 
the creed and to the treatment of the Igna- 
tian problem are recognised by modern scho- 
lars as of primary value ; his chronology is 
still the standard adopted in editions of the 
English Bible. 



Ussher's library was offered for sale after 
his death. On 12 June 1656 Cromwell, by 
an order in council, referred it to John 
Owen, D.D., Joseph Caryl, and Peter Sterry, 
to certify what part was ' fitt to be bought 
by the state/ and meantime stopped the 
sale. The whole library was purchased for 
2,200/., raised in part by contributions 
from the army in Ireland. The library was 
sent, by way of Chester, to Dublin, and 
lodged in the castle, the intention being to 
place it in Cork House, as a library for the 
New College then projected. The statement 
that it was negligently kept appears to be 
groundless. In 1661 the library was de- 
posited in Trinity College, Dublin, as the 
gift of Charles II. 

Ussher's complete ' Works/ with 'life/ 
were published at Dublin, 1847-64, 8vo, 17 
vols., the first fourteen volumes edited by 
Charles Richard Elrington [q. v.], the re- 
mainder by James Henthorn Todd [q. v.], the 
index by William Reeves, D.D. [q. v.] Edi- 
tions of separate works ; many of them edited 
by foreign as well as by English scholars, 
are very numerous. The following is a list 
of original editions, omitting single sermons : 
1. * Gravissimse Qugestionis de Christianorum 
Ecclesiarum . . . Successione et Statu His- 
torica Explicatio/ 1613, 4to ; the edition 
1678, 4to, has additions by Ussher, though 
this is denied by Smith. 2. 'A Discourse 
of the Religion anciently professed by the 
Irish/ Dublin, 1623, 4to ; enlarged, London, 
1631, 4to. 3. ' An Answer to ... A lesu-ite 
in Ireland/ 1625, 4to (in reply to Malone's 
challenge). 4. ' Gotteschalci et Predestina- 
tianss Controversies . . . Historia/ Dublin, 
1631, 4to. 5. ' A Speech ... in the Castle- 
Chamber at Dublin/ 1631, 4to (delivered 
22 Nov. 1622). 6. 'Veterum Epistolarum 
Hibernicarum Sylloge/ Dublin, 1632, 4to. 
7. i Immanuel, or the Mysterie of the In- 
carnation/ Dublin, 1638, 4to. 8. ' Britan- 
nicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates . . . 
inserta est ... a Pelagio . . . inductse 
Hsereseos Historia/ Dublin, 1639, 4to ; en- 
larged, London, 1677, fol. 9. 'The Juge- 
ment of Doctor Rainoldes touching the 
Originall of Episcopacy . . . confirmed/ 
Oxford, 1641, 4to. 10. 'The Originall of 
Bishops/ Oxford, 1641, 4to. 11. 'A Geo- 
graphicall and Historicall Disquisition 
touching the Asia properly so called/ Ox- 
ford, 1641, 4to. 12. ' Polycarpi et Ignatii 
Epistolse,' Oxford, 1644, 4to. 13. 'The 
Principles of Christian Religion/ 1644, 12mo 
(apparently not published by Ussher). 
14. ' A Body of Divinitie/ 1645, fol. ; pub- 
lished by John Downham or Downame [q.v.] 
under Ussher's name, and often reprinted as 

his; it was part of a manuscript ' lent abroad 
to divers in scattered sheets/ and described 
by Ussher (letter of 13 May 1645) as ' a 
kinde of common place book ... in divers 
places dissonant from my own judgment;' 
subsequent editions have some corrections, 

15. ' Appendix Ignatiana/ 1647, 4to. 

16. ' De Romanss Ecclesiae Symbolo Apo- 
stolico . . . Diatriba/ 1647, 4to ; prefixed is a 
portrait of Ussher, engraved by order 
(10 March 1644-5) of the convocation of 
Oxford University, and meant to be pre- 
fixed to No. 12. 17. 'De Macedonum et 
Asianorum Anno Solari Dissertatio/ 1648, 
8vo. 18. ' Annalhim Pnro Prior/ 1650, fol.; 
oombiii&d with Jffoi DO ao ' Annales Veteris 
Testament!/ 1650, fol. 19. ' De Textus 
Hebraici . . . variantibus lectionibus ad 
Ludovicum Cappellum Epistola/ 1652, 4to. 
20. 'Annalium Pars Posterior/ 1654, foli|f 
Nos. 18 and 20 were translated, with addi- 
tions, as ' The Annals of the World ... to the 
beginning of the Emperor Vespasian's Reign/ 
1658, fol. 21 . ' De Grseca Septuaginta Inter- 
pretum Versione Syntagma/ 1655, 4to. Pos- 
thumous were : 22. 'The Judgement of the late 
Archbishop of Armagh ... i. Of the Ex- 
tent of Christ's Death. . . . ii. Of the Sabbath. 

. . . iii. Of the Ordination in other Reformed 
Churches/ 1658, 8vo. 23. ' The Judgement 
. . . of the present See of Rome/ 1659, 8vo 
(on Rev. xviii. 4) ; this and the preceding 
were edited by Bernard from early papers 
by Ussher. 24. ' Eighteen Sermons/ 1659, 
4to ; enlarged, ' Twenty Sermons/ 1677, fol. 
(from notes of his Oxford sermons in 1640). 
25. ' Chronologia Sacra/ Oxford, 1660, 4to ; 
edited by Thomas Barlow [q. v.] 26. ' The 
Power communicated by God to the Prince/ 
1661, 8vo ; edited by James Tyrrell. 
27. ' Historia Dogmatica Controversies inter 
Orthodoxos et Pontificios de Scripturis/ 
1690, 4to ; edited by Henry Wharton. 

Two speeches by Ussher, on the ' king's 
supremacy ' and on the ' duty of subjects to 
supply the king's necessities/ were printed 
in Bernard's ' Clavi Trabales/ 1661, 4to. An 
' Epistola ' by Ussher is in Buxtorf ' s ' Cata- 
lecta Philologico-theologica/ 1707, 8vo. 
Charles Vallancey [q. v.] in 'Collectanea 
de Rebus Hibernicis/ 1770, i., published 
Ussher's treatise (1609) on ' Corbes, Erenachs, 
and Termon Lands/ which had been used 
by Sir Henry Spelman [q. v.] in his ' Glos- 
sary.' In the ' Collectanea Curiosa/ 1781, i., 
John Gutch [q. v.] published two tracts by 
Ussher on ' the first establishment of Eng- 
lish laws and parliaments in Ireland/ and 
' when and how far the imperial laws were 
received by the old Irish.' A collection of 
Ussher's ' Strange and Remarkable Pro- 

$( After '1654, fol.' add 'a 
continuation of no. 18 to the capture of 
Jerusalem by the Romans ; the two parts 
together, with nos. 17 and 25, Paris, 1673 j 
the two parts, with the life by Thomas 
Smith, Geneva, 1722'. H. O. 



phecies and Predictions/ 1678, 4to, is a 
curious but untrustworthy production, often 

[The Life of Ussher, with Funeral Sermon, 
1656, by Bernard, his chaplain, who had known 
him from 1624, is reprinted with additions of 
his own by Clarke, in Lives of Thirty-Two Eng- 
lish Divines, 1677, pp. 277 sq. The Life, 1686, 
by Richard Parr, D.D. [q. v.], also his chaplain, 
who had known him from 1643, adds some 
particulars, but is chiefly valuable for its rich 
collection of Ussher's Correspondence. The 
Vita, 1700, by William Dillingham, the Vita, 
1707, by Thomas Smith, the article in the Bio- 
graphia Britannica, and the Life, 1812, by John 
Aikin, add little. Elrington's Life, 1848, and 
the enlarged collection of letters published by 
Elrington in the Works, supersede previous 
sources. Some further particulars are in 
W. Ball Wright's Ussher Memoirs, 1889. See 
also Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss); Harris's Ware, 
1739, vol. i. ; Bayle's Dictionnaire Historique et 
Critique, 1740, iv. 280 ; Granger's Biographical 
Hist, of England, 1779, ii. 162 ; Rawdon Papers 
(Berwick), 1819 ; Mant's Hist, of the Church of 
Ireland, 1840, vol. i. ; Keid's Hist. Presb. 
Church in Ireland (Killen), 1867, vol. i. ; Mit- 
chell and Struthers's Minutes of Westminster 
Assembly, 1874 ; Chester's Westminster Abbe}' 
Registers, 1876, p. 129; Urwick's Noncon- 
formity in Hertfordshire, 1884, p. 746; Stubbs's 
Hist. University of Dublin, 1889 ; Urwick's 
Early Hist. Trinity College, Dublin, 1892; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1892 iv. 1532.] A. Gr. 

USSHER, SIR THOMAS (1779-1848), 
rear-admiral, born in 1779, was eldest son of 
Dr. Henry Ussher [q. v.] by his wife Mary 
(Burne). He entered the navy in January 
1791 on board the Squirrel on the home 
station and on the west coast of Africa ; 
afterwards, in the Invincible, he was pre- 
sent in the action of 1 June 1794 ; and 
in 1795-6 was successively in the Prince 
George, Glory, and Thunderer, flagships of 
Sir Hugh Cloberry Christian [q. v.], by whom 
he was appointed acting lieutenant of the 
Minotaur. In that capacity he served on 
shore with a party of seamen at the reduction 
of St. Lucia in May 1796. He was after- 
wards acting lieutenant of the Pelican brig, 
was confirmed in the rank on 17 July 1797, 
was repeatedly engaged with the French or 
Spanish privateers, and on 5 April 1798, in 
attempting to cut out one lying in the Augus- 
tine River near Cumberland Harbour (Guata- 
namo) in Cuba, he was severely wounded in 
the right thigh. While in the Pelican he is 
said to have been in upwards of twenty boat 
engagements with the enemy. In May 1799 
he was appointed to the Trent, and in her 
returned to England in September 1800. 
The effect of his many wounds obliged him 

to remain on shore for some months ; but in 
June 1801 he was appointed to command 
the Nox cutter, stationed at Weymouth in 
attendance ontneking. In September 1803 
he commanded the Joseph cutter, and in 
April 1804 the Colpoys brig attached to the 
fleet off Brest under Admiral (Sir William) 
Cornwallis [q.v.] His vigilance and energy 
in quest of intelligence repeatedly obtained 
the admiral's approval. Later on the Coipoys- 
was employed in the Bay of Biscay and on 
the north coast of Spain, till on 18 Oct. 1806 
Ussher was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander and appointed to the Redwing 
sloop, in which he was chiefly employed in 
protecting the trade against the Spanish 
gunboats and privateers near Gibraltar. On 
this service he was repeatedly engaged with 
the gunboats or armed vessels, often against 
a great numerical superiority, and especially 
on 7 May 1808, near Cape Trafalgar, when 
he fell in with seven armed vessels convoy- 
ing twelve coasters. Of the nineteen, three- 
only escaped, eight of the others being sunk 
and eight taken ; the loss of men to the 
enemy in killed, drowned, and prisoners, 
was returned as 240. On Lord Colling- 
wood's report of this and other gallant ser- 
vices, Ussher was promoted to post rank by 
commission dated 24 May 1808. On hi& 
return home he was entertained at Dublin 
at a public dinner, and presented with the 
freedom of the city. 

In 1809 he commanded the Ley den in the 
operations in the Scheldt : and in 1811-12 
the 26-gun frigate Hyacinth in the Mediter- 
ranean, where, on 29 April 1812, he led a 
boat attack against several privateers moored 
in the port of Malaga, and, in face of a mur- 
derous musketry fire from the shore, which 
killed or wounded 68 out of 149, brought 
out two of the largest privateers, and did 
what damage he could to the others. Al- 
though the enterprise was not fully success- 
ful, the commander-in-chief and the ad- 
miralty signified their entire approval of 
Ussher's conduct, and in October he was 
moved to the Euryalus of thirty-six guns, 
from which, in February 1813, he was again- 
moved to the Undaunted. In both of these- 
he was employed in the blockade of Toulon 
and along the south coast of France. In 
April 1814, being in the Undaunted close 
to Marseilles, a deputation, consisting of 
the mayor and chief men of the city, came 
on board to acquaint him of Napoleon's 
abdication and of the formation of a pro- 
visional government. Almost immediately 
afterwards he received instructions to pre- 
pare to convey the ex-emperor to Elba, and' 
at Frejus on 28 April received him on board. 




On the 30th he anchored at Porto Ferrajo, 
and on 3 May Napoleon landed. The Un- 
daunted remained at Elba till the ex-em- 
peror's baggage had been landed from the 
transports, and then sailed for Genoa. In 
the end of June Ussher was moved into the 
Duncan of seventy-four guns, in which he 
shortly afterwards returned to England. On 
4 June 1815 he was nominated a C.B.; on 
2 Dec. 1815 was awarded a pension of 200/. 
a year for wounds ; on 24 July 1830 was 
appointed equerry to Queen Adelaide, and 
in 1831 was made a K.C.H. and was 
knighted. From 1831 to 1838 he was suc- 
cessively superintendent of the dockyards at 
Bermuda and Halifax ; he was promoted to 
be rear-admiral on 9 Nov. 1846, and in July 
1847 was appointed commander-in-chief at 
Queenstown, where he died on 6 Jan. 1848. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Foster of Grove House, Buckinghamshire, 
and left issue two daughters and three sons, 
of whom the eldest, Thomas Neville, charg6 
d'affaires at Hayti, died on 13 April 1885 ; 
the second, Sydney Henry, died a captain 
in the navy in 1863 ; the third, Edward Pel- 
lew Hammett, a lieutenant-colonel (retired) 
in the royal marines in 1878. 

Ussher wrote ' A Narrative of Events 
connected with the first Abdication of 
Napoleon, his Embarkation at Frejus and 
Voyage to Elba . . . and a Journal of his 
. . . March to Paris as narrated by Colonel 
Laborde' (Dublin, 1841, 8vo; reprinted with 
portrait and memoir in 'Napoleon's Last 
Voyages/ 1895). 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1894, p. 2081; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Marshall's Roy. 
Nav. Biogr. v. (suppl. pt. i.) 317 ; Gent. Mag. 
1848, i. 435.] J. K. L. 

UTENHOVE, JOHN (d. 1565), reformer, 
second son of Nicholas Utenhove by his 
second wife Elizabeth de Grutere, was a 
native of Ghent, where his family had for 
centuries held a high position. Becoming a 
protestant, he quitted Flanders in 1544. 
Through his half-brother, Charles Utenhove, 
an amanuensis of Erasmus, he became ac- 
quainted with John Laski or a Lasco [q. v.], 
with whom Charles had travelled to Italy 
from Basle in October 1525. In the summer 
of 1548 Utenhove came to England from 
Strasburg in advance of Laski, and co-ope- 
rated with him in the organisation of the 
1 strangers' churches ' in London and Canter- 
bury. It was on his recommendation that 
Val6rand Poullain, a gentleman of Lille, 
was brought over from Strasburg as pastor 
of the French-speaking protestant exiles at 
Canterbury. Poullain organised an offshoot 
from this community at Glastonbury, under 

the patronage of Lord-protector Somer- 
set. To Glastonbury Utenhove sent the 
Flemish and Walloon weavers, who intro- 
duced the manufacture of broadcloth and 
blankets in the west of England. John 
Hooper [q. v.], who employed Utenhove on 
a mission to Bullinger in April 1549, writes- 
of him in the highest terms. He left Eng- 
land with Laski in 1553, but returned at 
the accession of Elizabeth, and took a 
leading part in affairs as ' first elder ' of the 
Dutch church. He died in London in 1565, 
leaving a widow (Anna de Grutere de Lan- 
noy) and three children. 

Of his writings the most important is 
' Simplex et Fidelis Narratio de . . . Bel- 
garum aliorumque Peregrinorum in Anglia 
Ecclesia,' Basle, 1560, 8vo. His translations- 
of Psalms into Dutch verse appeared from 
time to time, the most complete edition 
being ' LXIIII Psalmen end ander Ghesan- 
ghen,' Emden, 1561, 8vo. Laski's London 
' Catechismus ' (distinct from the Emden- 
one) is known only in the Flemish version 
by Utenhove, printed at London in 1551. 

[Utenhove's Narratio, 1560 ; Pijper's Jan 
Utenhove, 1883 ; Strype's Eccles. Memorials, n. 
i. ; Strype's Grindal ; Original Letters (Parker 
Soc.), 1846 i. 55 sq., 1847 ii. 653 sq. ; Dalton's 
John a Lasco (Evans), 1886; Buisson's Sebastien 
Castellion, 1892.] A. G. 

King Arthur. [See under ARTHUR.] 

UTRED (1315 P-1396), Benedictine theo- 
logian. [See UHTRED.] 


(1776?-! 856), literary antiquary, born in 
1775 or 1776, was the eldest son of John 
Utterson of Fareham, Hampshire. He was 
educated at Eton and at Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he entered in 1794, was ad- 
mitted pensioner on 17 Feb. 1798, and 
graduated LL.B. in 1801. On 31 Oct. 1794 
he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, and on 
1 Feb. 1802 he was called to the bar. He 
practised in the court of chancery, and in 
1810 was described as of ' 1 Elm Court, 
Temple, home circuit, equity draughtsman ' 
(Law List, 1810). In 1815 he was appointed 
one of the six clerks in chancery ; he held 
the office until its abolition in 1842, being- 
allowed after his retirement to retain his full 
salary. He employed his leisure in collect- 
ing and editing rare early English works. 
In 1807 he was elected fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and was an original member 
of the Roxburghe Club, founded in 1812. 
From about '1835 he resided first at New- 
port and then at Beldornie Tower, Pelham 




Field, Hyde, Isle of Wight, where he set up 
the * Beldornie Press.' 

He died at Brighton, aged 80, on 14 July 
1856. In St. Thomas's Church, Ryde, are 
memorial tablets to him and his wife, Sarah 
Elizabeth Brown, who died, aged 69, on 
'22 Sept. 1851, leaving a family. 

Among the more important works edited 
by Utterson are : 1. ' Virgilius. This Boke 
treateth of the Lyfe of Virgilius, and of his 
Deth, and many Marvayles that he did in 
hys Lyfetyme, by Whychcrafte and Nygro- 
mancy, thorough the helpe of the Devyls of 
Hell,' London, 1812, 8vo. 2. * The History 
of the Valiant Knight Arthur of Little 
Britain. A Romance of Chivalry. Originally 
translated from the French by John Bour- 
chier, Lord Berners,' London, 1814, 4to. 
This superb edition is illustrated with a 
series of plates contained in a valuable 
manuscript of the original romance. 3. 
' Select Pieces of Early Popular Poetry : re- 
published principally from early printed 
copies in the Black Letter,' 2 vols. London, 
1817, 8vo. 4. 'A Little Book of Ballads,' 
Newport, I.W., 1836, 8vo, dedicated and 
presented to the Roxburghe Club. 5. ' Kyng 
Roberd of Cysylle,' a poem, London, 1839, 

His reprints at the Beldornie Press, 1840- 
1843, usually limited to a very small number 
of copies, are as follows: 6. Barnefielde's 
1 Cynthia,' 1593. 7. ' Zepheria,' an amatory 
poem, 1594. 8. ' Diella : Certaine Sonnets. 
By R. L.,' 1596. 9. Thomas Bastard's 
' Chrestoleros. Seuen Bookes of Epigrames,' 
1598. 10. ' Skialetheia, or A Shadowe of 
Truth in certaine Epigrams and Satyres,' 
by Edward Guilpin, 1599. 11. 'Micro- 
cynicon : Sixe Snarling Satyres,' 1599. 12. 
' Looke to it : for He Stabbe ye,' bv Samuel 
Rowlands, 1604. 13. ' The XII Wonders 
of the World,' by John Maynard, 1611. 
14. 'The Knave of Clubbs,' by Rowlands, 
1611. 15. ' Knave of Harts,' by Rowlands, 
1613. 16. 'The Melancholic Knight,' by 
Rowlands, 1615. 17. 'More Knaues yet? 
The Knaues of Spades and Diamonds,' by 
Rowlands, n.d. 18. 'Certain Elegies done 
by Sundrie Excellent Wits,' 1620. 19. ' The 
Night Raven, by Rowlands, 1620. 20. ' Good 
Newes and Bad Newes,' by Rowlands, 1622. 
21. ' Songs and Sonnets, by Pat ricke Hannay,' 

[Addit. MS.28654,ff. 180-2 ; Dibdin's Literary 
Keminiscences, pp. 278, 297, 316, 323, 374, 379, 
469, 626, 629; Law Lists, 1805-43; Lincoln's 
Inn Records, 1896, i. 551 ; Grent. Mag. 1856, ii. 
262 ; G-raduati Cantabr. (Romilly) ; Lovelace's 
Poems (Hazlitt), p. 168; Lowndes's Bibl. Brit. 
(Bohn); Martin's Privately Printed Books, 2nd 

edit. p. 199 ; Notes and Queries, 2ndser. i. 6, 37; 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. (1859), iv. 61, 62 ; Stapylton's 
Eton School Lists (1863), p. 13; information 
from Mr. A. W. W. Dale of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, and Mr. H. H. Pollard.] T. C. 

(d. 1549?), contractor and official, sprang, 
according to a sixteenth-century manuscript 
formerly preserved at his seat of Marrigg or 
Marrick Priory, Yorkshire, from the same 
parent stock as that of the family of Uvedale 
of Titsey, Surrey, and Wickham, Hampshire. 
The name of John's family, however, which 
had its origin in ' the northe countrie,' was at 
first Woddall or Wooddehall, and the affilia- 
tion of John W^oodhall or Woddall with the 
ancient family of Uvedale of Titsey and 
Wickham is ' purely legendary,' though John 
himself always signed his name Uvedale. On 
17 Aug. 1488, as ' John Uvedale,' he was 
commissioned to provide wagons, carts, 
horses, and oxen for the carriage of the royal 
household (CAMPBELL, Materials, ii. 345), 
and probably he was entrusted with the 
commissariat at Flodden (September 1513). 
His discharge of his duties in this capacity 
was sufficiently meritorious to recommend 
him to Henry VIII for promotion to the dig- 
nity of esquire and for an augmentation to 
the coat-of-arms of Uvedale, which he seems 
to have assumed with the consent of Sir 
William Uvedale [q. v.] That his claim to 
the name of Uvedale and to kinship with 
Sir William's family was already of some 
standing appears from the commission of 
1488, and he afterwards strengthened the 
connection by making himself useful to that 
family in a matter of business (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, iv. ii. 4313-6). 

In 1516 he obtained the place of clerk of 
the pells in the receipt of the exchequer, 
with a life pension of 17/. 10s. per annum, 
perhaps through the influence of Thomas 
Howard, first duke of Norfolk, to whose 
will, dated 31 May 1520, he was a witness 
(NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, 1826, ii.604). 
Probably while holding this post his atten- 
tion was directed to the profits to be derived 
from crown leases of .mines, speculations in 
which he afterwards engaged. In 1525 he 
was appointed secretary to Henry VIII's 
son, the Duke of Richmond (Henry Fitzroy 
[q.v.]), who at the age of six had been nomi- 
nated the king's lieutenant-general north of 
the Trent (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
iv. 392). In 1528 Uvedale seems to have 
been recalled by Wolsey, who employed him 
to represent his views on Irish policy to 
Henry VIII, at the time absent from London 
(ib. ii. 136). In September 1533 he was 
secretary to Queen Anne Boleyn (ib. 1176), 




his preferment being probably due to Crom- 
well. In January 1535 he received a grant 
of the suppressed hospital of Newton Garth, 
Yorkshire (ib. viii. 149, 30). It is probable 
that about this time he was retransferred 
to the office of secretary of the Duke of Rich- 
mond's council in the north (ib. xi. 164, 4). 
On Richmond's death in July 1536, Uvedale 
became secretary to the council in the north, 
and as such assisted in the examinations of 
the northern rebels and seditious persons 
in 1537-8 (ib. xii. i. 615, 870, 917, 991, 
ii. 316, 369, 1, 5, 422, 918, xm. i. 365, 
487, 533, 568, 1326, 1428 ; State Papers, 
Henry VIII, v. 86). In May 1537 he was 
placed upon the special commission for taking 
indictments for treason in Yorkshire (ib. xii. 
i. 1207). Perhaps byway of regularising his 
position he was put on the commission of 
the peace for the three Ridings of Yorkshire 
in 1538 (ib. 1519, 38, 39, 40) ; for the West 
and North Ridings in 1539 (ib. xiv. i. 1192, 
1354) ; and for the North Riding in 1540 
"(ib. xv. 942, cf. 612). While in the north 
the members of the council generally resided 
together in the deanery of York (ib. xm. ii. 
768). Here Uvedale became on terms of 
great intimacy with Thomas Howard, second 
duke of Norfolk [q. v.] (ib. xii. 291, 1192). 
The duke, in advising Henry as to the recon- 
stitution of the council of the north, wrote, 
* W T odall is fit to be secretary ' (State Papers, 
Hen. VIII, v. 108). He appears to have 
been a full councillor as well as secretary, 
but his signature always occupies the last 
place among those of the councillors. Mean- 
while Uvedale received marks of the favour 
of Cromwell, whose ' old, true, and steadfast 
friend ' he declared himself to be (Letters 
and Papers, xn. ii. 1192). 

Uvedale, however, disliked his position in 
the north as intensely as his friend the Duke 
of Norfolk himself (ib. xii. ii. 291, 1192), 
and on 10 Dec. 1537 vainly begged Crom- 
well to find him some place under the king 
or with the prince ; he < had rather serve 
there for 40/. a year than here for 100/.' (ib. 
p. 1192). On 15 Sept. 1539 he, together 
with Leonard Bekwyth, acted as royal com- 
missioner to take the surrender of the priory 
of Marrick (ib. 175), and he was' similarly 
employed in the same month at the priories 
of Swinhey and Nunkelyng (ib. 141, 147). 

On 30 Sept. 1539 Uvedale was despatched 
by the president of the council, Holgate, 
bishop of Llandaff, to inform Cromwell of 
the condition of affairs in the north (ib. 
249). Returning northwards at the close of 
the year, he was again employed to take 
surrenders of religious houses of Watton 
Priory on 9 Dec., and of Malton Priory on 

11 Dec. 1539. Uvedale was put in posses- 
sion of Marrick priory on 25 March 1541, 
though no formal lease was delivered till the 
following 6 June, and it was only after 
litigation with other claimants that his full 
ownership was acknowledged. 

In June 1540 Uvedale's patron, Cromwell, 
fell. In 1542 Uvedale was appointed one of 
a council of four to advise the Earl of Rut- 
land as to the Scottish borders. While there 
he was appointed treasurer of the garrisons 
of the north. In 1545, on the furtherrecon- 
stitution of the council of the north (State 
Papers, Henry VIII, v. 403), Uvedale was 
again appointed secretary and keeper of the 
signet (cf. Letters and Papers of 'Henry VIII, 
xn. ii. 915, 1016), and also sworn a master 
of chancery for taking recognisances. Late 
in 1545 Uvedale replaced Sir Ralph Sadleir 
as ' treasourer for payment of the garryson 
and other thinges in the northe.' 

Uvedale's will, dated 24 Oct. 1546, was 
proved by his son and executor, Alvered or 
Avery Uvedale, on 2 March 1549-50. He 
perhaps died early in the preceding January, 
the acts of the privy council for 28 Jan. 
1549-50 speaking of him as ' late Thresaurer 
in the North.' He married a lady named 
Brightman, and left, besides his son Avery, a 
daughter Ursula, married to Gilbert Cladon. 

[Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII; State Papers, Henry VIII, 
11 vols. ; Acts of the Privy Council, 1542-47, 
1547-50; Collectanea Topographica et Genea- 
logica, v. 239-53 ; Surrey Archaeological Collec- 
tions, iii. 66-9 ; Select Cases from the Court of 
! Eequests (Selden Soc. 1898).] I. S. L. 


(d. 1556), conspirator, was fourth son of Sir 
William Uvedale by Dorothy, daughter and 
coheiress of Thomas Troyes of Kilmeston, 
Hampshire. Sir William Uvedale (1455- 
1524) [q_.v.] was his grandfather. Under his 
father's will Richard received a provision of 
lands to the value of 20/. a year in Titsey, 
Chelsham, Chevellers, Tatesfield, Dowdales, 
Pekeham, and Camberwell. His three bro- 
thers, other than the eldest son, were simi- 
larly provided for, and on the deaths of two 
of them, John and Francis, before 1545 he 
became entitled to their shares. Towards 
the close of Henry VIII's reign Richard was 
appointed to the command of Yarmouth 
Castle in the Isle of Wight. He was closely 
allied to the party of the reformation, and 
in 1556 he became involved in Sir Henry 
Dudley's plot to seize the Spanish silver 
in the exchequer and to drive the Spaniards 
from Queen Mary's court. With Dudley, 
Uvedall, if we may trust his confession, ' had 
before that time had litle acquayntance ' 




(State Papers, Dom. Mary, vii. 32). The in- 
termediary by whom he was drawn into the 
plot was John Throckmorton, one of the 
family settled at Coughton, Warwickshire, 
with whom he appears to have had some 
earlier intimacy (ib. p. 30). According to 
Uvedall's first confession, Throckmorton' re- 
presented in January 1556 that Henry Dud- 
ley was anxious, on account of outlawry for 
debt, to leave the kingdom. Uvedall agreed 
to furnish him with a boat, in itself an offence 
against the law, since no subject might leave 
the kingdom without a royal license. At 
the moment of his embarkation Dudley dis- 
closed his plot to Uvedall. Uvedall promised 
to assist in the seizure of Portsmouth on 
Dudley's return, but, according to his con- 
fession, repented immediately, and took no 
steps to redeem his promise. The plot was 
betrayed by Thomas White, one of the con- 
spirators. Uvedall's arrest followed, and he 
was probably one of those ' divers odur gen- 
tyllmen ' who were carried to the Tower 
on 18 March, together with John Throck- 
morton, as recorded in Machyn's 'Diary.' 
His first examination took place on Monday, 
23 March, when he admitted having provided 
Dudley with a ferry-boat, but utterly denied 
all knowledge of the conspiracy. His confes- 
sion was made on 24 March, but, although 
minute in detail, it makes no disclosure of 
the main outlines of the plot. He made a 
fuller confession on the following day, and 
on 15, 18, and 24 April was further ex- 
amined, without giving much additional in- 

On 21 April Uvedall and Throckmorton 
were sent for trial at Southwark before a 
special commission, presided over by Sir 
Anthony Browne, viscount Montague, K.G. 
The indictment is set out in Appendix ii. of 
the fourth report of the deputy-keeper of the 
public records (p. 252). Uvedall pleaded 
not guilty, but was found guilty of high 
treason, and condemned to be executed at 
Tyburn. The sentence was carried out on 
28 April, and Uvedall's head was set up on 
London Bridge (MACHTN). His land in 
Hampshire had been already disposed of to 
John White, sheriff of the county of South- 
ampton (Acts of the Privy Council, 16 April 
1556). He does not appear to have been 
married. He invariably signed himself 
Richard Uvedall. 

[State Papers, Dom. Mary, vii. 26, 80, 31, 
32, viii. 10, 23, 24; Leveson- Grower's 'Notices 
of the Family of Uvedale,' Surrey Arch. Coll. iv. 
113. A general view of the conspiracy is given 
by J. A. Froude in Hist. Angl. vol. vi. ch. xxxiv. 
(Camden Soc. 56) ; Verney Papers, pp. 59-76 ; 
cf. art. KINGSTON, SIR ANTHONY.] I. S. L. 

UVEDALE, ROBERT (1642-1722), 
schoolmaster and horticulturist, son of 
Robert Uvedale of Westminster, a scion of 
the Dorset branch of the family (HrxcniNS, 
Hist, of Dorset, 3rd ed. iii. 144 et seq.), was 
born in the parish of St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, on 25 May 1642. He was educated 
at St. Peter's College, Westminster, under 
Dr. Busby, having probaV 1 -- - 1 - 

collaborated), and Leonard Plukenet [q. v.], 
who speaks of him (Phytographia, 1691, 
tab. xxxii., sub fig. 6) as his ' condiscipulus/ 
At the funeral of Oliver Cromwell in 1658 
Uvedale is said to have snatched one of the 
escutcheons from the bier of the Protector, 
which was long preserved in his family ( Gent. 
Mag. 1792 p. 114, 1794 p. 19). In April 
1659 Uvedale was elected queen's scholar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, his name being 
then registered as Udall( WELCH and PHILLI- 
MORE, Queen's Scholars at Westminster, 1852 r 
p. 152, where he is erroneously styled 'an 
eminent schoolmaster at Fulham '), though 
on his graduation in 1662 it was appa- 
rently entered as Uvedall (LuARD, Gra- 
duati Cantabrigienses, in which work his- 
sons and grandsons appear as Uvedale). He 
was elected fellow of Trinity College in 1664, 
and is said to have been first a divinity 
fellow, and afterwards a law fellow, having 
' the singular honour of carrying his point 
against a no less powerful competitor than 
Sir Isaac Newton' (Correspondence of Ri- 
chard Richardson, M.D., 1835, p. 15, note 
by Dawson Turner). Dawson Turner re- 
lates that ' the master, Dr. Barrow, de- 
clared in his favour, saying that, as they 
were equal in literary attainments, he must 
give the prize to the senior.' Newton was, 
however, elected fellow in October 1667, and 
Barrow did not become master until 1672. 

Between 1663 and 1665 Uvedale became 
master of the grammar school at Enfield, 
Middlesex, and took a lease of the manor- 
house commonly called Queen Elizabeth's 
Palace (now the Palace School), in order to 
take boarders. During the outbreak of the 
plague in 1665 the whole of Uvedale's house*- 
hold escaped the disease, owing, it was- 
thought, to their inhaling the vapour of 
vinegar poured over a red-hot brick. Tradi- 
tion assigns to 1670 or thereabouts the 
planting of the still flourishing Enfield cedar, 
which is said to have been brought to Uve- 
dale from Mount Lebanon by one of his for- 
mer pupils. In 1676 it was made a ground 
of complaint against Uvedale that he neg- 
lected the grammar school for his boarders, 
his opponents making the further curious 
charge against him of having obtained an 




appointment as an actor and comedian at 
the Theatre Royal from the lord chamber- 
lain to protect himself from the execution of 
a writ (LYSONS, Environs of London, ii. 285). 
Among his pupils were Henry, third lord 
Coleraine ; Francis, earl of Huntingdon ; 
Robert, viscount Kilmorey, who died at the 
school in 1717 ; Sir Jeremy Sambroke, Wil- 
liam Sloane, and another nephew of Sir 
Hans (Sloane MS. 4064). Uvedale, who 
had proceeded M.A. in 1666, became LL.D. 
of Cambridge in 1682, and was invited to 
contribute the life of Dion to the translation 
of Plutarch, edited by Dry den, Somers, and 
others, published between 1683 and 1686. 
Uvedale's portion appeared in 1684. 

As a horticulturist Uvedale earned a 
reputation for his skill in cultivating exotics, 
being one of the earliest possessors of hot- 
liouses in England. In an ' Account of seve- 
ral Gardens near London ' written by J. Gib- 
son in 1691 (Archaologia, 1794, xii. 188), the 
writer says : ' Dr. Uvedale of Enfield is a 
great lover of plants, and, having an extra- 
ordinary art in managing them, is become 
master of the greatest and choicest collection 
of exotic greens that is perhaps anywhere in 
this land. His greens take up six or seven 
houses or roomsteads. His orange-trees 
and largest myrtles fill up his biggest 
house, and . . . those more nice and curious 
plants that need closer keeping are in 
warmer rooms, and some of them stoved 
when he thinks fit. His flowers are choice, 
his stock numerous, and his culture of them 
very methodical and curious.' In 1606 his 
neighbour, Archbishop Tillotson, appointed 
Uvedale to thajrectoiy of Orpington, Kent, 
with the chapelry of St. Mary Cray, but he 
appears not to have resided. In JN ichols's 
4 Literary Illustrations ' (iii. 321-51) are 
sixty letters from Uvedale to Dr. Richard- 
son of North Bierley, bearing date between 
1695 and 1721, mainly referring to the ex- 
change of plants. In May 1699 he writes 
of seventeen of his household having had 
the small-pox within the preceding three 
months, eleven, including six of his own 
children, being down together ; and in Decem- 
ber 1721, when over seventy-nine, he speaks 
of being attacked for the first time by 
gout, so that his garden was neglected, all 
the exercise he could take being * rumbling 
about four or five miles every day before 
dinner in [his] chariot,' and his chief re- 
maining pleasure consisting ' in turning 
over' his ' Hortus Siccus.' He died at En- 
field on 17 Aug. 1722, and was buried in 
the parish church. 

Uvedale married Mary (1656-1740), second 
daughter of Edward Stephens of Charring- 

ton, Gloucestershire, granddaughter of Sir 
Matthew Hale. By her he had five daugh- 
ters and three sons : Robert Uvedale, D.D., 
fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, vicar 
of Enfield from 1721 till his death in 1731 ; 
James Uvedale, M.A., rector of Bishop's 
Cleeve, Gloucestershire ; and Samuel Uve- 
dale, B.A., rector of Barking, Suffolk, and 
father of Admiral Samuel Uvedale (d. 1808), 
who served with Rodney. 

After his death Uvedale's growing plants 
were mostly sold to Sir Robert Walpole for 
his collection at Houghton (LouDON", Arbo- 
retum^. 61 ), while his herbarium, in fourteen 
thick volumes, forms vols. 302-15 of the 
Sloane collection. It contains plants not 
only from Sherard, Richardson, Petiver, 
Plukenet, Robart, Rand, Dale, Doody, Sloane, 
and Du Bois, but also from Tournefort, Mag- 
nol, Vaillant, and other continental botanists, 
carefully labelled by Uvedale, who was ob- 
viously a botanist, and not, as Dawson Tur- 
ner suggests (loc. cit.), merely a florist. Peti- 
ver founded a genus Uvedalza in Uvedale's 
honour, which, however, became Polymnia 
Uvedalia of Linn6, and Robert Brown gave 
the same name to a group merged by De 
Candolle in the genus Mimulus, one species 
being unhappily named M . Uvedalice. 

THOMAS UVEDALE (jl. 1712), brother of 
the preceding, published in an English 
translation ' Memoirs of Philip de Comines,' 
London, 2 vols. 1712, 8vo (2nd ed. 1720; 
reissued in ' Military Classics,' 1817). He 
resided at Hampton Wick, and there are 
two letters from him to Sloane in the British 
Museum (Sloane MS. 4064), and some 
plants, endorsed as from ' Dr. Uvedale, 
Hampton Court,' in the twelfth volume of 
Sloane's ' Herbarium.' 

[Robinson's Hist, of Enfield, pp. 103-18; 
Journal of Botany, 1891, pp. 9-18, and other 
authorities there cited.] G. S. B. 

1524), soldier and courtier, of Wickham, 
Hampshire, was the son and heir of Sir 
Thomas Uvedale of Wickham, and of Titsey, 
Surrey, high sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 
1437 and 1464. The family name appears 
from the oldest deeds to have been D'Ovedale 
or D'Ouvedale. Other variations of the name 
are Uvedall, Uvedail, Vuedall, Udall, Wood- 
all, and Woodhall. A writer in a sixteenth- 
century manuscript [see UVEDALE, JOHN], 
desirous of identifying the Uvedale family 
with that of Wodehall, Cumberland, says, 
' Thei call the name Woddall, and some call 
it Udall, and some Wodhall.' 

William was born in 1455, and on 10 May 
1483 was appointed to the command of Por- 



Chester Castle and town. On 5 June of the 
same year he was summoned to receive knight- 
hood at the coronation of Richard III, which, 
though fixed for 22 June, was never solem- 
nised. In 1484 he was attainted of treason 
by Richard III. On 19 Jan. 1485 he obtained 
a pardon : but that he remained hostile to 
Richard Ill's government may perhaps be 
inferred from the fact that Henry VII, shortly 
after his accession, appointed him an esquire 
of the body. On 29 Nov. 1489 Uvedale was 
created knight of the Bath. He was high 
sheriff of Hampshire in 1480, 1487, and 1493. 
In 1488 he was a commissioner of musters 
for the county, doubtless for the war against 
France. He was frequently on the commis- 
sions of the peace for Hampshire, Shropshire, 
Worcestershire, the Welsh marches, Glou- 
cestershire, and Herefordshire, and on 7 March 
1510 was nominated a member of the council 
of Wales. On 3 July 1512 he was appointed 
one of a commission of six to inquire into 
insurrections in Wales. In 1517 he was 
nominated a commissioner to report the 
cases of inclosure in Herefordshire, Wor- 
cestershire, and Gloucestershire. Of the re- 
turns of this commission all that remains is 
a transcript of selected cases preserved among 
the Lansdowne manuscripts in the British 
Museum (i. pp. 173-4, 182-4), which were 
printed among the transactions of the Royal 
Historical Society for 1893. Sir William 
Uvedale received several marks of favour 
from Henry VIII (Rawlinson MSS. Bodl. 
Libr. B. 238). In 1522, when war was 
declared against France, he was again a com- 
missioner of musters for Hampshire, and in 
the following year he was appointed a com- 
missioner of subsidy for Gloucestershire. He 
died on 2 Jan. 1524, his wife Anne, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of William Sidney, having 
predeceased him in 1512. He had two sons, 
of whom the eldest was Sir William Uve- 
dale (1484 P-1528), whose widow Dorothy, 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Troyes, 
became the second wife of Lord Edmund 
Howard, father of Queen Catherine Howard 
[q. v.], and whose fourth son was Richard 
Uvedale [q. v.] 

(d. 1542) was son and heir of Sir Henry 
Uvedale of More Crichell (his family being 
an offshoot of the Uvedale family of Wick- 
ham) and high sheriff of Dorset in 1504, 
by Edith Pool of Gloucestershire. He was 
appointed customer of wools, hides, and 
fleeces in the port of London on 2 Jan. 
1522 (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, iv. 
5815), and was a commissioner for raising 
the subsidy in Dorset in 1523. He was, how- 
ever, careful, as the bishop of Winchester 

complained to Wolsey, to evade payment of 
his own share (ib. ii. 3492) ; nevertheless in 
1533 he again discharged the same office. It 
appears that he had succeeded his father in 
the office of comptroller and collector of cus- 
toms at Poole. He frequently appears in the 
commissions of the peace for Dorset. In 1527 
he procured a pardon for all malversations 
in his office as comptroller of the port of Poole 
since 3 Dec. 1515, a proceeding which recalls 
his conduct in connection with the subsidy 
of 1523. In 1527 he obtained a grant from 
the crown of land in East Purbeck, Dorset. 
At the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn in 
1533 he was created a knight of the Sword. 
On 8 July 1535 he surrendered the customer- 
ship of London, which he had enjoyed for 
thirteen years (MS. Record Office, S.B.), and 
it was granted to William Thynne [q. v.] as 
the result of a friendly transaction between 
the two. That Uvedale was a friend to the 
reforming party, and trusted by the king, is 
apparent from the occurrence of his name in 
1536 on a list of noblemen and gentlemen of 
the southern counties, to whom it was in con- 
templation to write for assistance in the sup- 
pression of the northern rebellion (Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII, xi. 234). Upon 
the dissolution of the abbey of Wilton he 
received a grant of the manor of Higher 
Bridmore, Wiltshire, and in 1539 of the 
manor and rectory of Kemeryge, Dorset, 
part of the property of the dissolved mona- 
stery of Cerne. He is stated by Hutchins 
(Dorset, ii. 487) to have been ' server ' to 
Henry VIII. He died in 1542, leaving by 
his wife Jane, daughter of John Dawson ot 
Norfolk, four sons and one daughter. 

[Grants of Edward V (Camd. Soc.) 60 ; Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII ; Hutchins's Hist, of 
Dorset, ii. 487 ; Hoare's Hist, of Wiltshire, Iv. 
29 ; Leveson-Gower's ' Notices of the Family of 
Uvedale of Titsey, Surrey, and Wickham, 
Hampshire,' in Surrey Archseol. Collections, iii. 
63-192. See also Woodward's Hist, of Hamp- 
shire, 3 vols. ; Berry's Hampshire Genealogies, 
1833, p. 74.] T, S.L. 

UWINS, DAVID (1780P-1837), medical 
writer, born in London about 1780, was the 
second son of Thomas Uwins (d. 1806), clerk 
in the bank of England, and the brother of 
Thomas Uwins [q. v.], the artist. After 
working in the London" hospitals he gra- 
duated M.D. at Edinburgh University on 
12 Sept, 1803. Returning to London, he 
held for a short time the post of assistant 
physician at the Finsbury dispensary, and 
then established himself at Aylesbury in 
Buckinghamshire. On 22 Dec. 1807 he was 
admitted a licentiate of the Royal College 
of Physicians, and in 1815 was elected phy- 




sician to the City dispensary, and afterwards 
to the new Finsbury and central dispensary. 

In 1828 he was appointed physician to the 
lunatic asylum at Peckham, and, as the result 
of his observations there, published in 1833 a 
work entitled ' ATreatise on those Disorders 
of the Brain and Nervous System which are 
usually considered and called Mental' (Lon- 
don, 8vo). It attained considerable circula- 
tion, and established his medical reputation. 
In later life, through his friend Frederic 
Hervey Foster Quin [q. v.], he became one 
of the first English converts to homoeopathy, 
and announced his convictions in a pamphlet 
entitled 'Homoeopathy and Allopathy, or 
Large, Small, and Atomic Doses' (London, 
8vo). He encountered much opposition from 
former friends, and the excitement of con- 
troversy broke down his nervous system. 
He died in London at his house in Bedford 
Row on 22 Sept. 1837, and was buried at 
Kensal Green cemetery. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the 
author of: 1. ' Modern Medicine/ London, 
1808, 8vo. 2. ' Cursory Observations on 
Fever,' London, 1810, 8vo. 3. Modern 
Maladies and the Present State of Medicine/ 
London, 1818, 8vo. 4. ' A Compendium of 
Theoretical and Practical Medicine/ London, 
1825, 12mo. 5. < A Treatise on those Dis- 
eases which are either directly or indirectly 
connected with Indigestion, comprising a 
Commentary on the Principal Ailments of 
Children/ London, 1827, 8vo. 6. < Nervous 
and Mental Disorders/ London, 1830, 8vo. 
He also contributed several medical articles 
to George Gregory's ' Dictionary of the Arts 
and Sciences/ 1806, as well as a series of 
papers (begun by John Reid, 1776-1822 
[q. v.]), entitled ' Reports' to the ' Monthly 
Magazine.' He wrote two articles in the 
' Quarterly Review/ the one on ' Insanity 
and Madness' in July 1816, and the other 
on 'Vaccination' in July 1818, and for a 
time edited the ' Medical Repository.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, ii. 542 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. vi. 371 ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 56 ; 
Georgian Era, ii. 586 ; Clarke's Autobiogra- 
phical Eecollections, 1874, pp. 234-5 ; Memoir 
of Thomas Uwins, 1858.] E. I. C. 

UWINS,THOMAS(1782-1857), painter, 
was born at Hermes Hill, Pentonville, on 
24 Feb. 1782, the youngest of the four chil- 
dren of Thomas Uwins, a clerk in the bank 
of England. David Uwins [q. v.] was his 
elder brother. Thomas early showed artistic 
tendencies, and had some instruction from 
the drawing-master at his sister's school. 
He was a day scholar at Mr. Crole's school 
in Queen's Head Lane, Islington, for six 

years, and in 1797 was apprenticed to the 
engraver Benjamin Smith [q.v.J While with 
Smith he engraved part of a plate for Boy- 
dell's ' Shakespeare,' but had an attack of 
jaundice said to have been caused by over- 
work and dislike of the drudgery of engraving, 
and he left Smith without completing his 
time. He now entered the schools of the 
Royal Academy, and joined Sir Charles Bell's 
anatomical class, supporting himself mainly 
by miniature portraits. He exhibited a por- 
trait of Mr. G. Meyers at the academy in 
1799. He also now or later gave lessons in 
drawing, and about 1808 began to design 
frontispieces and vignettes to * Sandford and 
Merton/ 'Robinson Crusoe/ &c., for J. 
Walker of Paternoster Row. He also de- 
signed for Thomas Tegg [q. v.], drew ' en- 
gravers' outlines ' for Charles Warren [q.v.], 
the engraver, and was much employed by Ru- 
dolph Ackermann [q. v.] designing fashions 
for his ' Repository/ for which he also wrote 
articles signed t Arbiter Elegantiarum. 7 One 
of his drawings exhibited at the academy 
in 1808 was a portrait of Charles War- 
ren's daughter (Mrs. Luke Clennell) as 
Belphoebe in Spenser's ' Faerie Queene.' In 
1809 he joined the 'Old Watercolour' 
Society as associate exhibitor, and in 1813 
became a full member. From 1809 to 1818 
he was a constant contributor to the so- 
ciety's exhibitions, sending illustrations of 
Fielding, Bunyan, Shakespeare, Sterne, and 
other authors, besides numerous pastoral 
scenes and figures. In 1811 he was at Farn- 
ham, Surrey, studying the hopfields, and in 
1815 visited the Lake country, where he met 
Wordsworth. In 1817 he went to France 
to paint vintage scenes. He made a short 
stay at Paris, and, well provided with 
letters of introduction, passed through the 
Burgundy country to Bordeaux, where he 
was well received by M. Cabareuss, and 
visited the chateaux of all the principal 
growers. The result was seen in two draw- 
ings only, sent to the ' Old Watercolour ' So- 
ciety's exhibition of 1818. In the same year 
he filled the office of secretary for the third 
time, and then withdrew altogether from the 
society in order to devote the whole of his 
time to meeting an obligation incurred in 
respect of a security given to the Society of 
Arts. Uwins took the whole burden on 
his shoulders, as his co-surety was a married 
man with a family. Continual work on 
miniatures seriously injured his eyesight, 
and in 1820 he went to Scotland to make 
topographical drawings to illustrate Scott, 
with whom he became well acquainted. 
He spent two years in Edinburgh painting 
and drawing portraits with much success, 



and on the occasion of the visit of George IV 
to Edinburgh in 1822 be executed two 
transparencies, one of which was twelve 
feet high. In 1824 he went to Italy, 
and during his absence of seven years he 
kept up a correspondence with his two 
brothers Zechariah and David, which was 
published with his memoir. In 1830 he ex- 
hibited ' Neapolitans dancing the Taran- 
tula,' and in 1832 (the year after his re- 
turn) ' The Saint-manufactory ' (the interior 
of a shop in Naples). These and other 
works of the kind soon made him a reputa- 
tion. He was elected an associate in 1833, 
a full academician in 1838. In 1839 he 
exhibited one of his best pictures, ' Le 
Chapeau de Brigand,' now in the National 
Gallery. The little girl depicted was a 
daughter of a friend named Joseph, with 
whom he lived for some time. In 1843 he 
painted a fresco of the lady in ' Comus ' for 

the Queen's Pavilion in Buckingham Palace 
Gardens. In 1844 he was made librarian of 
the Royal Academy, in 1845 surveyor of 
pictures to the queen, and in 1847 keeper of 
the National Gallery. In 1851 , being then 
sixty-nine years of age, he married for the 
first time, and the union proved a very 
happy one. In 1854 he had a serious ill- 
ness, and in 1855 he gave up his various 
offices and retired to Staines, a confirmed 
invalid. He went on painting, however, 
until his death on 26 Aug. 1857. There are 
several of his works in both oil and water- 
colour in the South Kensington Museum. 

[Memoir of Thomas Uwins, R.A., by Mrs. 
Uwins ; Eoget's ' Old Watercolour ' Society.] 

C. M. 

HENRY, first earl, d. 1743 ; PAGET, HENRY 
WILLIAM, first marquis of Anglesey, 1768- 


VACARIUS (1115P-1200?), civilian, 
doubtless of the school of Bologna, where 
he may even have listened to the teaching 
of Irnerius, was the first to introduce the 
study of the revived Roman law into Eng- 
land. It must have been early in life that he 
acquired a reputation which led to his being 
brought to England (perhaps by Becket on 
the occasion of his mission to Pope Celestine 
in 1143), together with a supply of books of 
the civil law, for the purpose of assisting 
Theobald [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
in his struggle to wrest the legateship from 
Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester. This 
was accomplished in 1146, and in 1149 we 
hear of Vacarius as lecturing on the laws of 
Justinian to crowds of rich and poor (R. BE 
MONTE) in the then rudimentary university 
of Oxford (GERV. CANT.), and as composing, 
for the use especially of his poorer hearers 
(R. DE MONTE), an abridgment, in nine 
books, of the Digest and Code of Justinian, 
not dissimilar in design to the ' Summa 
Codicis ' attributed to Irnerius. The work, 
which seems to have been popularly known 
as the * Summa Pauperum de Legibus,' or 
1 Liber Pauperum ' whence the nickname 
* pauperistse ' afterwards bestowed upon Ox- 
ford civilians evidently became a leading 
text-book at Oxford, where in 1190 the 
Prisian student Emo, afterwards abbot of 
Bloomkap, and his brother Ad do, spent 
sleepless nights in making a copy of it. 
Nearly complete manuscripts of this im- 
portant work are preserved at Worcester' 

Bruges, Prague, and Avranches. There is an 
imperfect manuscript of it at Kb'nigsberg, 
and fragments are in the Bodleian and in 
several of the college libraries at Oxford. 
The manuscript used by Wenck in 1820 has 
unfortunately disappeared. 

Towards the end of his reign Stephen de- 
stroyed all the books of ' Italian laws ' upon 
which he could lay his hands, and silenced 
the teaching of Vacarius. There is ample 
evidence that the check thus given to the 
study of Roman law was of short duration 
(' Deo faciente,' says John of Salisbury, ' eo 
magis virtus legis invaluit, quo earn amplius 
nitebatur impietas infirmare ') ; but Vacarius 
can hardly have resumed his lectures at 
Oxford, since from about this time his long 
life was devoted to the work of an ecclesias- 
tical lawyer in the northern province, and 
more especially to the service of Roger of 
Pont 1'Eveque (d. 1181) [q. v.], who, after 
having been previously archdeacon of Can- 
terbury, became in 1154 archbishop of York. 
' Magister Vacarius,' as he is always described, 
was rewarded some time before 1167 with 
the prebend of Northwell in the college of 
secular canons at Southwell. To this period 
of his life must doubtless be ascribed the 
composition of two tracts, the ' De assumpto 
Homine ' and the ' De Matrimonio,' which 
are preserved in manuscript in the library 
of the university of Cambridge. The former 
is of a theological and metaphysical charac- 
ter ; the latter is of a legal character, being 
written to maintain that the essential ele- 




ment in marriage is ' traditio ' rather than, 
as Gratian would say, ' copula carnalis,' or, 
as Peter Lombard, mere ' verba de presenti.' 
Both tracts have recently been described by 
Professor Maitland, who has printed the ' De 
Matrimonio' in extenso. Vacarius seems to 
have been at Paris on the business of Arch- 
bishop Roger in 1 164. Together with Richard 
(d. 1178) [q. v.], sixth abbot of Fountains, 
he was commissioned about 1166 by Alexan- 
der III to decide a matrimonial lawsuit. He 
accompanied Archbishop Roger when that 
prelate was summoned by the pope in 1171 to 
clear himself by oath of certain charges before 
the archbishop of Rouen and the bishop of 
Amiens at Aumale. In 1174 he witnessed 
an agreement between Archbishop Roger 
and Hugh de Puiset [q. v.], bishop of Dur- 
ham, and about the same time was judge- 
delegate in a controversy between the abbey 
of Rievaulx and Alan of Rydale. In 1175 
he acted in a similar capacity between the 
priories of St. Faith's and Coxford in Nor- 
folk. He occurs as witness to a charter of 
Gysebourne priory in 1181. Some time 
after 1191 he was allowed by the pope to cede 
half of his prebend to his nephew Reginald. 
The name of ' Magister Vacarius ' occurs for 
the last time in 1198, in which year he was 
commissioned, together with the prior of 
Thurgarten, by Innocent III to carry into 
execution in the north of England a letter 
touching the crusade. Vacarius is not to be 
identified with Vacella of Mantua, a con- 
temporary commentator upon Lombard law. 

[The texts of most of the original authorities 
for Vacarius are set out and annotated by the pre- 
sent writer in Oxf. Hist. Society's Collectanea, 
ii. 1890. See also Wenck, Magister Vacarius 
(Leipzig, 1820), and in Opusc. Acad. ed. Stieber, 
1834; Muhlenbruch, Obs. Juris Rom. i. 36; 
Hanel, in the Leipz. Lit. Zeitung, 1828, No. 42, 

L334 ; Savigny, Greschi elite, iv. 423 ; Stolzel, 
hre von der operis novi denuntiatio, 1865, 
pp. 592-620, and in the Zeitschrift fur Rechts- 
geschichte, vi. 234 ; Catal. gen. des MSS. des 
bibl. publ. de France : Departements, t. x. ; F. 
Liebermann, in English Historical Review, 
1896 pp. 305, 514 (cf. p. 747), 1898 p. 297; 
and Prof. F. W. Maitland, in Law Quarterly 
Review, 1897, pp. 133, 270.] T. E. H. 

VACHER, CHARLES (1818-1883), 
painter in watercolours, was the third son of 
the well-known stationer and bookseller, 
Thomas Vacher, of 29 Parliament Street, 
Westminster, where he was born on 22 June 
1818. He received his chief art education 
in the schools of the Royal Academy. In 
1839 he went to pursue hi's studies in Rome. 
Many tours followed, in which he visited 
Italy, Sicily, France, Germany, Algeria, and 


Egypt, making large numbers of clever 
sketches in all these countries, and these 
furnished him with materials for his 
numerous drawings, which were highly 
finished and had an excellence of composi- 
tion and an abundance of interesting details 
that gave his works a considerable popu- 
larity. He was a rapid worker, and, besides 
over two thousand sketches which he left 
at his death, he often executed twelve to 
sixteen finished works in one year, and 
between 1838 and 1881 he exhibited no 
fewer than 350 at the London exhibitions. 
His first exhibit at the Royal Academy 
was, in 1838, ' Well at Bacliarach on the 
Rhine,' but the majority of his pictures 
324 works in all were shown at the gal- 
lery of the New Watercolour Society, now 
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water- 
colours, which he joined in 1846, on the 
introduction of his friend Louis Hague. 
His name first appears at the Royal Man- 
chester Institution exhibition in 1842 as a 
contributor of six drawings, all of buildings 
in Italy. One of these, l Naples with Ve- 
suvius/ is probably that now in the South 
Kensington Museum. The British Museum 
possesses two fairly good examples of his work 
'View of City of Tombs, Cairo/ 1863, and 
* View in the Forum, Rome ' and many 
others are in the possession of his widow. 
He died on 21 July 1883 at his residence, 
4 The Boltons, West Brompton, leaving a 
widow, but no children. He was buried at 
Kensal Green cemetery. A portrait in water- 
colour, painted by himself, belongs to his 
widow, who also possesses a portrait painted 
in oil by Thomas Harwood (a watercolour 
painter) in Rome. Vacher's elder brother, 
George, owns a portrait of him in oil which 
was executed in 1850 by William Denholm 

[Bryan's Diet, of Painters (Graves); Graves's 
Diet, of Artists; Athenaeum, 4 Aug. 1883; 
private information.] A. N. 

VALENCE, AYMER BE (d. 1260), 

bishop of Winchester. [See AYMER.] 

PEMBROKE (d. 1324). [See AYMER.] 

PEMBROKE (d. 1296). [See WILLIAM.] 

VALENTIA, VISCOUNT (1585-1660). 


parliamentarian, was probably a native of 
Cheshire. He was elected on 3 March 1627- 
1628 to represent the borough of St. Germans 
in the parliament of 1628-9. He was in 
the House of Commons on 2 March 1628-9 



when Speaker Finch would have obeyed the 
king's direction for adjournment. Valentine, 
with Denzil Holies [q. v.], held the speaker 
down in his seat while Sir John Eliot [q. v/J 
read out resolutions questioning the king's 
proceedings respecting religion and taxa- 
tion. On 5 March, with Selden and Cory- 
ton, he was under examination at the coun- 
cil board, and was committed to the Tower. 
On 17 March he was examined before a 
committee of the council, when he refused 
to answer any questions respecting acts done 
in parliament. On 6 May he, with Selden, 
Holies, Strode, Hobart, and Long, consider- 
ing themselves legally entitled to bail, ap- 
plied to the court of king's bench for a writ 
of habeas corpus. Such stringent conditions 
were, however, imposed that Valentine ab- 
solutely declined to comply with them, and 
refused to accept bail (3 Oct. 1629). On 
7 May an information was filed against him 
and others by the attorney-general in the 
Star-chamber, but the prisoners were pro- 
ceeded against in the court of king's bench. 
Valentine's 'plea and demurrer 'to the infor- 
mation of Attorney-general Heath, prepared 
by his counsel, Robert Mason [q.v.] and Henry 
Calthorpe [q.v.], was issued on 22 May, and 
was followed by a further plea on 1 June in 
answer to the altered information of 29 May. 
With Selden he should have appeared before 
the judges of the king's bench on 24 June, 
had not the king reversed the order for fear 
that bail should be granted. On 13 Oct. 
Heath brought in his information against 
Eliot, Holies, and Valentine in the court of 
king's bench. On 29 Oct. the three prisoners 
were transferred from the Tower to the 
Marshalsea. They appeared in court on 
26 Jan. 1630, and again the following day, 
when Valentine's case was pleaded by Cal- 
thorpe. Judgment was pronounced on 
12 Feb., when Valentine was fined 500/. 

During the summer of 1630 Valentine, 
with Selden and Strode, was removed to the 
Gatehouse on account of the sickness in the 
town. Through the leniency of their keeper 
they were frequently released on short pa- 
roles. They visited Eliot in the Tower, and 
passed whole weeks m the country in their 
own houses or in those of their friends. Re- 
turning to the Gatehouse towards the end 
of September, they were put into closer con- 
finement, and their keeper fined 100/. and 
committed to the Marshalsea. Valentine 
continued a prisoner for eleven years, and 
was finally released in January 1640. He 
took the protestation on 5 May 1641, and 
the covenant on 25 Sept. 1643. He was 
elected to represent St. Germans in the Long 
parliament. Compensation for his losses was 

granted him by the parliament between 1643 
and 1648. Valentine died before 1653. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew 
Springham, by whom he had at least one 
son, Matthias, who died in the winter of 
1653-4, and is described in his will as of 
St. Clement Danes, Middlesex (P. C. C., 
Alchin, 319). 

[Gardiner's Hist, of England; Calendar of 
Lancashire and Cheshire Exchequer (Kecord 
Soc.), 1885, p. 123; Gal. State Papers, Dom. 
1628-9 ; Forster's Sir John Eliot, vol. ii. passim ; 
Official Ret. of M.P.'s, i. 474, 487 ; Lords' Jour- 
nals, vii. 17, 18, ix. 187, 205; Addit. MSS. 
20778 f. 11, 33924 f. 38; Familiae Minorum 
Gentium (Harl. Soc.), p. 1307 ; Calthorpe's 
Argument for Valentine is preserved among the 
manuscripts in the Library of Exeter College, 
Oxford ; information from Mr. W. Duncombe 
Pink.] B. P. 


1812), antiquary, whose name is spelt 
Valiancy in the army list, was born in 1721 
at Windsor, where his father, a French 
protestant, who ceased to call himself De 
Vallance on the general change of foreign 
names in the reign of Queen Anne, held a 
post in the royal service. He joined the 
engineers, and on 26 Jan. 1762 became engi- 
neer in ordinary in Ireland. In 1798 he be- 
came lieutenant-general, and in 1803 general. 
While on the Irish establishment he was em- 
ployed in a military survey, and became in- 
terested in the history, language, and anti- 
quities of Ireland. He never acquired the 
vernacular or a real knowledge of the Irish 
of old manuscripts, of which he says that he 
made himself ' master as far as his leisure 
would permit/ nor did he ever read any of 
the chronicles. In 1772 he published an 
' Essay on the Celtic Language,' accompanied 
by a grammar of the Irish language, dedicated 
to Jacob Bryant [q. v.] A fuller and better 
printed edition of the grammar, with a pre- 
face containing parts of the essay, was pub- 
lished in Dublin in 1773 as ' A Grammar of 
the Iberno-Celtic or Irish Language,' and 
dedicated to Sir Lucius Henry O'Brien [q.v/], 
who must indeed have been ignorant of his 
own language to suppose that Vallancey 
knew anything of it. The address in Irish 
to the learned of Ireland, the vocabulary, 
and the examples were written by a native 
whose name is not given, and the part com- 
posed by Vallancey is the assertion of the 
close resemblances between Punic, Kalmuck, 
the language of the Algonkin Indians of 
North America, and Irish. The statements 
made in some passages show that the asserted 
author was ignorant of what had been said 
in others. The first edition contains copies, 



probably printed from some Cavan manu- 
script, of the Plearaca naRuarcach, of which 
Swift wrote an English version, and of Caro- 
lan's poem, t Mas tinn no slan atharlaigheas 
fein,' and these are probably the first printed 
editions of the poems. They were replaced 
in the second edition by the hymn of St. Fiacc 
of Sletty, from Colgan's text (' Trias Thau- 
maturga '). The 'Collectanea de Rebus Hi- 
bernicis,' 1770-1804, in six volumes, ' Vindi- 
cation of the History of Ireland,' 1786, ' An- 
cient History of Ireland proved from the Sans- 
krit Books,' have the same defects. Their facts 
are never trustworthy and their theories are 
invariably extravagant. Vallancey may be 
regarded as the founder of a school of writers 
who theorise on Irish history, language, and 
literature, without having read the original 
chronicles, acquired the language, or studied 
the literature, and who have had some influ- 
ence in retarding real studies, but have added 
nothing to knowledge. His last work, * Pro- 
spectus of a Dictionary of the Language of 
the Aire Coti, or Ancient Irish/ appeared 
in 1802, and can only be compared to the 
writings of La Tour d'Auvergne on Breton. 
It dwells upon the likeness of Irish to 
Egyptian, Persian, and Hindustani. He was 
secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of 
Ireland in 1773, and in 1784 was elected 
F.R.S. He designed the plans of the Queen's 
Bridge in Dublin, and prepared a scheme for 
the defence of Dublin in 1798. He died in 
Dublin on 8 Aug. 1812. His portrait is in 
the Royal Irish Academy. 

Besides the works mentioned, Vallancey 
was the author of two translations from the 
French: 1. 'Essay on Fortification,' Dub- 
lin, 1757, 8vo. 2. < The Field Engineer,' by 
the Chevalier de Clairac, Dublin, 1760, 8vo. 

[Works; Webb's Compendium of Irish Bio- 
graphy, Dublin, 1878.] N. M. 

VALLANS, WILLIAM (Jl. 1578-1590), 
poet, son of John Vallans, was born near 
Ware in Hertfordshire, and afterwards car- 
ried on business as a salter. He was a 
friend of Camden and other antiquaries, and 
himself took an interest in antiquarian 
matters. In 1590 he published a poem in 
unrhymed hexameters entitled * A Tale of 
Two Swannes/ printed by Roger Ward for 
John Sheldrake (London, 4to). In the poem 
he announced his intention of leaving Eng- 
land, and likened his farewell verses to the 
swan's dying song. The poem is devoted 
to a description of the situation and anti- 
quities of several towns in Hertfordshire, 
and mention is made of many seats in the 
county belonging to the queen and nobility. 
Vallans probably carried out his intention 

of leaving England soon after. His poem is 
one of the earliest examples of the employ- 
ment of blank verse in English literature 
outside the drama, and he was perhaps in- 
duced to attempt this form of metre by his 
admiration for Abraham Fraunce [q.v.], from 
whose translation of Thomas Watson's Latin 
' Odes ' he quotes. His book is extremely 
rare. It was reprinted by Thomas Hearne 
(1678-1735) [q.v.] in 1711 in the fifth volume 
of his edition of Leland's ' Itinerary ' from a 
copy in the possession of Thomas Rawlinson 
(1681-1725) [q. v.] Another poem by Wil- 
liam Vallans, salter,' is preserved in the Har- 
leian manuscripts (No. 367, f. 129). It 
complains of the injustice of suffering John 
Stowe to go unrewarded after compiling his 
' Survey of London.' Vallans had some com- 
mendatory verses prefixed to ' Whartons 
Dreame,' published in 1578 ; and Hearne as- 
signs to him the authorship of ' The Honour- 
able Prentice ; or thys Tayler is a Man ; 
shewed in the Life and Death of Sir John 
Hawkewood,' by W. V., London, 1615 4to, 
1616 4to (Bodleian Library). 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum in Addit. MS. 
24488, pp. 186-7 ; Eitson's Bibl. Poet. ; 
Brydges's Kestituta, iv. 444-7 ; Warton's Hist, 
of Engl. Poetry, 1840, iii. 69-70.] E. I. C. 


DE (d. 1215), styled a baron and lord of 
Panmure, came of a family which took its 
name from Valognes in the Cotentin. Peter 
de Valognes, given in the peerages as Philip's 
grandfather, is said to have accompanied 
William I to England, to have received from 
him ' fifty- seven lordships in the counties of 
Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Hertford, Cambridge, 
and Lincoln/ and to have been high sheriff of 
Essex in 1087 (DOUGLAS, Peerage, ed. Wood, 
ii. 348; cf. BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, passim). 
His son Robert left, by his wife Agnes, six 
sons, of whom Robert was father of two 
daughters: Gunnor, who married Robert 
Fitzwalter [q. v.], and Isabella, who married 
William de Mandeville, third earl of Essex 
[q. v.] Another son, Geoffrey, was lord of the 
manor of Burton in Yorkshire, and died in 

Philip was the fifth son, and is said to 
have migrated to Scotland towards the end 
of the reign of Malcolm IV [q. v.], who died 
in 1165. He is said to have been a constant 
attendant on Malcolm's successor, William 
the Lion, and on 8 Dec. 1174, when William 
purchased his release from Henry II by 
acknowledging his feudal suzerainty and the 
superiority of the English church, Philip de 
Valognes 'was one of the hostages given into 
Henry's custody (Cal. Doc. relating to Scot- 



8 4 


land, i. 139 ; PALGKAVE, Doc. illustrating the 
Hist, of Scotl. pp. 64, 83 ; RYMEK, Foedera, 
Record ed.i. 30-1). As a recompense William 
granted Philip de Valognes the manors of Pan- 
mure and Ben vie in Forfarshire, and about 
1180 appointed him high chamberlain of Scot- 
land. After the death of his brother Geoffrey 
in 1190, Philip seems to have held the manor 
of Burton in Yorkshire, for the seisin of 
which he paid 300/. and ten palfreys in 1208 
(HAKDY, Rot. de Oblat. 1199-1216, p. 428). 
He also held other manors belonging to 
Geoffrey during the minority of his niece 
Gunnor (ib. p. 425). On 7 Aug. 1209 he 
was again a hostage for William the Lion. 
He was continued in the office of chamber- 
lain by Alexander II on his accession in 
1214, and died on 5 Nov. 1215. He was 
buried in the chapter-house of Melrose 
Abbey, to which he had confirmed a grant 
of lands in Ringwood, Roxburghshire; he 
also gave the monks of Cupar an acre of land 
in Stichindehaven. 

Philip left one son, William, who succeeded 
him as high chamberlain of Scotland, and, 
dying in 1219, left three daughters : Christian, 
who married Sir Peter de Maule, ancestor of 
the earls of Panmure ; Sibilla, who married 
Robert de Stuteville [q. v.] ; and Lora, who 
married Henry de Baliol, high chamberlain 
of Scotland and grand-uncle of John Baliol, 
king of Scotland (Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
v. 142; other accounts make Sibilla and 
Lora daughters of Philip de Valognes). 

[Authorities cited ; Harl. MSS. 1160 ff. 7 0-6, 
1233 f. 120, 1411 f. 55, 5804 f. 26 ; Addit. MS. 
5937, ff. 132, 186; Stowe MS. 854; Roberts's 
Excerpta e Rot. Fin. p.' 99 ; Eyton's Itinerary of 
Henry II ; Crawford's Officers of State ; Rymer's 
Foedera, i. 31, 103; Gal. Rot. Glaus, p. 85; 
Douglas's Peerage, ed. Wood; Nicolas's Hist. 
Peerage ; Red Book of the Exchequer (Rolls Ser.), 
passim ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. v. 61, 142, 
290, 389 ; Genealogist, 1882, pp. 1-6.] A. F. P. 

1854), editor and printer, was the second 
son of Richard Valpy [q. v.] by his second 
wife, Mary, daughter of Henry Benwell of 
Caversham, Oxfordshire. He was born in 
1787, and, after being trained under his 
father at the Reading grammar school, matri- 
culated from Pembroke College, Oxford, on 
25 April 1805. He was elected on 30 March 
1808 Bennet (Ossulston) scholar of his col- 
lege, graduated B.A. in 1809, M.A. in 1811, 
and for a short time from 7 June 1811 was 
fellow on the same foundation. In 1809 he 
printed for private circulation ' Poemata quge 
de praemio Oxoniensibus posito annis 1806, 
1807, et 1808 infeliciter contenderunt.' 

Valpy published at Reading in December 

1804, while still a schoolboy, and with a 
dedication to his fellow-pupils, a volume of 
' Epistolee M. T. Ciceronis excerptse,' which 
reached a fifth edition in 1829. He flat- 
tered himself with the hope of rivalling the 
fame of Aldus and Stephanus as a classical 
printer and editor, and with this object in 
view he was bound apprentice to a freeman 
of London, Humphrey Gregory Pridden. In 
1807 he was admitted a liveryman of the 
Stationers' Company. 

Valpy commenced business in Tooke's, 
Court, Chancery Lane. In 1822 he moved 
to Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, where 
William Bowyer, the English printer whom 
Valpy hoped to equal in reputation for 
learning, had ended in 1777 his career in 
business. For many years he published, 
either under his own editing or under the 
supervision of some classical scholar, nume- 
rous works, especially in ancient literature. 
The chief work edited by himself was an 
edition of Brotier's ( Tacitus,' which came 
out in 1812 in five volumes, and was after- 
wards more than once reissued. His princi- 
pal assistants in editing were E. H. Barker of 
Thetford, George Burges, George Dyer, and 
T. S. Hughes. Most of the volumes that he 
published bore on the title-page] the Greek 
digamma, which he adopted as a trade-mark 
and monogram. He is said to have placed 
it on his carriage (Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. vi. 51, 96, 135-6). About 1837 he sold 
his printing materials, parted with his large 
stock of books and copyrights, and retired 
into private life. From that date he applied 
his energies to the University Life Assu- 
rance Company and to other undertakings in 
which he was interested either as a director 
or a shareholder. He died without issue at 
St. John's Wood Road, London, on 19 Nov. 
1854. He married at Burrington, Somerset, 
on 25 Feb. 1813, Harriet, third daughter of 
Sydenham Teast Wylde, vicar of that parish. 
She survived him, dying at St. John's Wood 
Road on 19 June 1864. 

An oil painting of Valpy, three-quarter- 
length, belongs to Mr. G. C. B. yalpy of 
13 Portland Place, London, W. 

The ' Classical Journal ' was started by 
Valpy in 1810, and continued by him until 
December 1829, and from March 1813 to 
December 1828 he brought out the ' Pam- 
phleteer ' in fifty-eight quarterly parts. His 
first great work was the reissue of the ' The- 
saurus Greece Linguae ' of Henry Stephens 
the younger (cf. Classical Journal, No. xix. r 
1814). the ' Thesaurus,' which Valpy and 
Barker edited, came out between 1816 and. 
1828 in twelve volumes, and the last of them 
was in two parts, containing the l Glossaria 



Grseco-Latina ' of Labbe. This vast enter- 
prise suffered from a crushing article by 
Charles James Blomfield (afterwards bishop 
of London) in the ' Quarterly Review/ xxii. 
302-48 (1820). 

Between 1819 and 1830 Valpy reissued in 
141 volumes the well-known Delphin classics 
under the editorial care of George Dyer [q.v.], 
and from January 1822 to December 1825 
he was patron, printer, and publisher of a 
periodical called ' The Museum.' During the 
years 1830-4 he brought out ' The Family 
Classical Library; English translations of 
Greek and Latin classics,' in fifty-two vo- 
lumes, and in 1831 he started an ' Epitome 
of English Literature,' in the philosophical 
portion of which appeared a condensation of 
Paley's ' Moral Philosophy,' Paley's ( Evi- 
dences of Christianity,' and Locke's l Essay 
on the Human Understanding.' An edition 
of ' The Plays and Poems of Shakspere ' was 
published by him in fifteen volumes (1832-4), 
and in 1834 he began a serial work on the 
'National Gallery of Painting and Sculp- 
ture,' but only four half-crown parts saw 
the light. 

[Gent. Mag. 1813 i. 282, 1855 i. 204-5, 1864 
ii. 126; Burke's Family Becords, 1897, p. 612 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Lit. Anec- 
dotes, ix. 759 ; information from Mr. George 
Wood, bursar of Pembroke College.] 

W. P. C. 

VALPY, EDWARD (1764-1832), clas- 
sical scholar, fourth son of Richard Valpy 
of St. John's, Jersey, by his wife Catherine, 
daughter of John Chevalier, was born at 
Reading in 1764. He was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating B.D. 
in 1810. After leaving college he acted for 
many years as a master at Reading school 
tinder his brother, Richard Valpy [q. v.] In 
1810 he was elected high master of Norwich 
school, which greatly improved under his 
direction. In 1819 he became rector of 
All Saints, Thwaite, and vicar of St. Mary, 
South Walsham, both in Norfolk. These 
livings he held till his death at Yarmouth 
on 15 April 1832. Valpy married Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Western of Great Abing- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, and widow of Chaloner- 
Byng Baldock, vicar of Milton Abbey in 
Dorset. By her he had a son, the Rev. 
Edward John Western Valpy, who died in 

Valpy published : 1. ' Elegantiae Latinse ; 
or Rules and Exercises illustrative of Ele- 
gant Latin Style,' 1803, which went through 
ten editions in his lifetime. 2. ' The Greek 
Testament, with English notes, selected and 
original,' 3 vols. 1815, 8vo ; this work was 
well received and was much, improved in a 

new edition of 1826 (HAETWELL HOKNE, Com- 
pendious Introduction, 1827). 

[Gent. Mag. 1832, i. 373; General Hist. 
of Norfolk, 1829, ii. 977, 1051, 1351 ; Foster's 
Index Ecclesiasticus.] "W". W. 

VALPY, RICHARD (1754-1836), 
schoolmaster, was the eldest son of Richard 
and Catherine Valpy, on whose estate in 
St. John's parish, Jersey, he was born on 
7 Dec. 1754. Edward Valpy [q. v.] was 
his younger brother. The family is of great 
antiquity in the island (PAYNE, Armorial of 
Jersey}. In 1764 Valpy was sent to a school 
at Valognes, Normandy, and five years later 
to Southampton grammar school. He re- 
moved to Guildford grammar school, and 
while still a pupil there he published by 
subscription a volume of verses entitled 
'Poetical Blossoms.' On 1 April 1773 he 
entered Pembroke College, Oxford, as a 
Morley scholar. He graduated B.A. in 
1776, took orders in 1777, and was appointed 
second master of Bury St. Edmunds school. 
He proceeded M.A. in 1784 and B.D. and 
D.D. in 1792. In 1788 he was elected a 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 

In 1781 Valpy was appointed headmaster 
of Reading school, then in a depressed con- 
dition. Under his guidance, which con- 
tinued through fifty years, the school was 
raised to the highest standard it ever reached. 
In 1790 Valpy built a house, at his own 
expense, to receive pupils from a distance, 
who previously had been lodged in the 
town. He also added largely to the master's 
house. Among his pupils were Peter Paul 
Dobree [q. v.], Sir William Bolland [q. v.], 
Sir John Keane [q. v.], John Merewether 
[q. v.], Henry Alworth Merewether [q. v.], 
Bulkeley Bandinel [q. v.], John Jackson 
(1811-1885) [q.v.], Francis Jeurie [q.v.], and 
Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd [q.v.] (Registers 
of Reading School). 

Valpy inspired his pupils with an intense 
personal affection (see especially the notice 
prefixed to TALFOFKD'S Ion, 4th edit.), and 
had the reputation of being one of the 
hardest floggers of his day. His school- 
books, especially his grammars, achieved a 
wide popularity in England. He was an en- 
thusiastic lover of English and Latin poetry, 
and possessed considerable literary taste, 
combined with the faculty of inspiring his 
boys with admiration for English literature, 
at a time when such a taste was rare in 
schools. He adapted several English, Latin, 
and Greek plays for performance by his boys, 
and on the occasion of the triennial visita- 
tion of the school these were acted in the 
town-hall for the benefit of local charities 




(Star, London, 1818 and 1821 ; DARTEK, Me- 
moirs of an Octogenarian ; Reading School 
Poems, ed. Valpy, 1804). His adaptation of 
Shakespeare's ' King John ' was performed 
at Co vent Garden in 1803. 

In 1787 Valpy was collated to the rectory 
of Stradishall, Suffolk. He retired from the 
headmastership in 1830, his youngest son 
succeeding him ; but he still retained partial 
control, and took the upper sixth. He died 
at Earl's Terrace, Kensington, on 28 March 
1836, and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 
It is said that he twice refused a bishopric. 

Valpy married, first, in 1778, Martha, 
daughter of John Cornelius of Caunde, 
Guernsey ; secondly, in 1782, Mary, daugh- 
ter of Henry Benwell of Caversham, Oxford- 
shire. By his first wife he had one daughter, 
and by his second wife a family of ten chil- 
dren. His second son, Abraham John Valpy, 
is separately noticed. His publications, in 
addition to sermons, plays, and contributions 
to Young's ' Annals of Agriculture/ were : 
1. 'Poetical Blossoms/ 1772. 2. 'Greek 
Grammar/ 1809. 3. ' Latin Grammar/ 1809. 
4. 'Elements of Mythology/ 1815. 5. 'Greek 
Delectus/-1815. 6. ' Latin Delectus/ 1816. 
7. ' Poetical Chronology of History/ 1816 ; 
and several other school-books. There is a 
fine portrait of Valpy, painted by Opie and 
engraved by C. Turner, in the possession of 
Canon Valpy of Winchester ; and his pupils 
placed a bust of him in St. Lawrence's 
Church, Reading. 

Valpy's youngest son, FRANCIS EDWARD 
JACKSON VALPY (1797-1882), born at Read- 
ing on 22 Feb. 1797, was educated at Read- 
ing and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
was a Bell scholar, and graduated B.A. in 
1819, and M.A. in 1824. He succeeded his 
father in 1830 as headmaster of Reading 
school ; but under him the number of scholars 
sank in a few years from nearly two hun- 
dred to thirty. He inherited his father's 
scholarship and eloquence, but lacked his 
powers of organising and teaching. He re- 
signed, and was for a time master of Burton- 
on-Trent school. In 1854 he purchased the 
advowson of Garveston rectory, Norfolk. He 
died on 28 Nov. 1882, and is buried at Gar- 
veston. He married, first, in 1825, Eliza, 
daughter of John Pullen of Canoiibury ; and, 
secondly, in 1866, Mary, daughter of John 
Champion of Guernsey. He was a good 
Greek scholar, and published several school- 
books, etymological dictionaries of Greek and 
Latin, and editions of Sophocles's ' Aiax' and 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet.; information from 
the Eev. W. Charles Eppstein and others; 
G-ent. Mag. 1836, i. 553; Literary Gazette, 

1854, p. 254 ; Coates's Reading, p. 346 ; Times, 
5 April 1836; Macleane's Hist, of Pembroke 
College (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 1897, p. 387; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Baker's Biogr. Dram.] 

E. C. M. 

VANAKEN, JOSEPH (1699 ?-l 749), 
portrait-painter. [See VAN HAECKEN.] 

JOHN (1664-1726), dramatist and archi- 
tect, born in the parish of St. Nicolas Aeons, 
and christened 24 Jan. 1663-4, was the son 
of Giles Vanbrugh (1631-1689), who married 
in 1660 Elizabeth, fifth and youngest daugh- 
ter of Sir Dudley Carleton, nephew and heir 
of Sir Dudley Carleton, viscount Dorchester 
[q. v.] His grandfather, Gillis van Brugg 
of Ghent (who was probably related to Van 
den Bergh, the pupil of Rubens, born at 
Ypres in 1615), emigrated from West Flan- 
ders, obtained letters of denization from 
James I, resided as a merchant in the parish 
of St. Stephen's, Walbrook (Misc. Gen. et 
Herald, ii. 116), became a churchwarden, 
and was on 21 June 1646 buried in St. Ste- 
phen's Church. The dramatist'^ father, Giles, 
migrated from London to Chester in 1667, 
and set up as a sugar-baker. He was buried 
in Holy Trinity Church, Chester, on 19 July 
1689 (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 232). 
His will was proved on 24 July 1689 by the 
widow, who survived until 13 Aug. 1711 f 
and was buried at Thames Ditton (for an abs- 
tract of the will, see ib. 2nd ser. i. 117). Sir 
John's first cousin, "William Vanbrugh, was 
nominated by Evelyn for the secretaryship of 
the Greenwich Hospital commission, 31 May 
1695, subsequently became secretary and 
comptroller of the treasury chamber, and 
died on 20 Nov. 1716. ' Mr. George Van- 
brugh/ song-writer, who flourished 1710-25,. 
was probably the son of this William (cf. 
Brit. Mus. Cat, Music}. 

After education, in all probability at Ches- 
ter grammar school, John Vanbrugh was- 
sent in 1683 to France, where he received 
his architectural training. Yet his stay in 
France was brief, as he was back in London 
by the close of 1685, and early in the new 
year he received a commission in Owen Mac- 
carthy's company in the Earl of Hunting- 
don's regiment (commission dated White- 
hall, 30 Jan. 1685-6). The regiment was- 
originally formed by Huntingdon in June 
1685, and after his death in 1701 became 
known as the 13th foot, or East Somerset 
regiment. Vanbrugh subsequently became 
a captain in this regiment (Comm. to ' Jno. 
Van Brook ' dated 10 March 1702, see DAL- 
TON, Army Lists, iii. 409). In the summer 
of 1690 Vanbrugh was seized at Calais upon 


8 7 



information from a lady in Paris to the effect 
that he was travelling without a passport. 
His arrest was approved by the authorities, 
who held out hopes of an early exchange. 
In May 1691 he was transferred to Vincennes, 
where his treatment appears to have under- 
gone a change, for the worse. About the 
same time Sir Dudley North made a pro- 
posal to the effect that his brother Montagu 
and Vanbrugh, who were both prisoners in 
France, should be exchanged against M. Ber- 
telier, a French agent of some importance 
who was detained in Newgate, but nothing 
came of this suggestion. In January 1692, 
with a view of silencing complaints,Louis XIV 
ordered A r anbrugh to be transferred to the 
Bastille. He was put in the fourth chamber 
of the ' Tour de Liberte",' and was allowed to 
take exercise at will and to receive his 
friends. Many years afterwards he gave the 
name of Bastille to a house which he built 
for himself at Greenwich. Voltaire repeats 
a saying of his that he had not the slightest 
idea what gained him the distinction of de- 
tention in such a fortress (VOLTAIEB, Lettres 
sur les Anglais, No. xix.) It was not until 
22 Nov. 1692 that he was set at liberty, Lagny, fermieT gene" ral, standing surety 
for him to a large amount (' Corresp. of Pont- 
chartrain ' and ' Journal of Du Junca,' dep. 
governor, ap. RAVAISSON, Archives de la 
Bastille, ix. 338-46 ; cf. LFTTRBLE). Van- 
brugh is said to have employed some of his 
enforced leisure in drafting a comedy, the 
nucleus as it proved of his famous ' Provok'd 

For a time Vanbrugh seems to have re- 
sumed his military duties ; on 31 Jan. 1695-6 
he was, as ' John Brooke,' granted a captain's 
commission in Berkeley's marine regiment 
of foot, and henceforth until he was knighted 
was known to the town as ' Captain Van- 

The production of Gibber's ' Love's Last 
Shift' at the Theatre Royal in January 
1696-7 inspired Vanbrugh to give a comedy 
to the stage. He thought that it would be 
interesting to develop the situation upon 
which Gibber had rung down the curtain, 
and the result was the ' Relapse,' ' got, con- 
ceived, and born in six weeks' space ' (Pro- 
logue). It was not, however, until Boxing- 
day 1697 that the ' Relapse ' was given at 
the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane with 
Gibber as Lord Foppington. This was Van- 
brugh's inimitable enlargement of Gibber's 
original conception of a typical fop, known 
before his elevation to the peerage as Sir 
Novelty Fashion. Sir Fopling Flutter in 
Etherege's ' Man of Mode ' suggests a faint 
outline of the part, but Foppington is vastly 

superior. The performance was an unquali- 
fied success, and well within the normal 
limit of eight days was published the ' Re- 
lapse, or Vertue in Danger, being the sequel 
of the Fool in Fashion: a Comedy' (1697, 
4to ; a second quarto appeared in 1698 ; again 
1708; 1711, 12mo; 1735, 12mo ; 1770, 8vo). 

The play remained a prime favourite with 
the public throughout the eighteenth century, 
and has passed through several transforma- 
tions. A three-act farce, called * The Man 
of Quality,' was carved out of it by Lee and 
given at Covent Garden in 1776 ; and in the 
following year Sheridan, reflecting that it 
was ' a pity to exclude the productions of 
our best writers for want of a little whole- 
some pruning,' recast it as ' A Trip to Scar- 
borough.' The original play was seen at the 
Olympic in 1846, and at the Strand as late 
as 1850. A version by Mr. John Hollings- 
head, also called ' The Man of Quality,' was 
produced at the Gaiety on 7 May 1870 with 
Miss Nellie Farren as Miss Hoyden, apart in 
which Mrs. Jordan had excelled; and another, 
called Miss Tomboy,' by Mr. Robert Bu- 
chanan, at the Vaudeville on 20 March 1890 
(cf. Theatre, 1 May 1890). 

The ' Relapse ' was followed at a very short 
interval by ' ^Esop,' a free version of the 
first part of Edmond Boursault's f Les Fables 
d'Esope,' a favourite piece in Paris in 1690. 
Vanbrugh's superiority in wit and humour 
to his original is shown as decisively as 
his inferiority in the matter of sentiment. 
It seems to have been produced at Drury 
Lane about 15 Jan. 1697, and was published 
anonymously in quarto in the same month 
(the second part, forming a translation of 
' Esope a la Cour,' the best of Boursault's 
pieces produced in 1701, but then pro- 
hibited by Louis XIV does not appear to 
have been acted in England ; it was appended 
to a second quarto of 1697 ; again in 8vo 
1711, and Dublin 1725). 

' JEsop ' hardly sustained Vanbrugh's repu- 
tation, but by May 1697 he had another play 
ready. This was his well-known comedy, 
< The Provok'd Wife,' a piece the indecencies 
of which, according to Dr. Blair, ' ought to 
explode it out of all reputable society.' The 
same comedy, in the mind of Charles James 
Fox, entitled Vanbrugh to be called ' almost 
as great a genius as ever lived' (SAMUEL 
ROGEES, Recollections, 1859, p. 32). Origi- 
nally, it is said, planned in the Bastille, this 
pre-eminently strong play was produced by 
Betterton at Lincoln's Inn Fields about 
20 May 1697, the great actor himself play- 
ing Sir John Brute, while Lady Brute was 
sustained by Mrs. Barry, and Belinda by 
Bracegirdle (it was simultaneously published 




in quarto as * The Provok'd Wife : a Comedy 
as it is acted at the New Theatre in Little 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, by the Author of a 
New Comedy call'd the Relapse ; ' again 1709, 
1710, 1743, 1770 ; a French translation, ' La 
femme poussee a bout,' appeared in ' Melange 
curieux des meilleures pieces attributes a 
Mr. de Saint-Evremond, Amsterdam, 1726, 
i. 235). Sir John Brute was afterwards one 
of Garrick's great parts (cf. Zoffany's fine pic- 
ture of him in this role at the Garrick Club). 

Two such plays as the ' Relapse ' and the 
'Provok'd Wife supplied Jeremy Collier 
with unrivalled material for his philippic 
against the stage, and the ' Short View,' upon 
its appearance in March 1698, contained not 
only frequent allusions to Vanbrugh, but a 
detailed analysis of the contents of the 
' Relapse ' (chap, v.) On 8 June appeared 
Vanbrugh's ' Short Vindication of the Re- 
lapse and the Provok'd Wife from Immorality 
and Profaneness.' Though it contains a few 
strokes of wit, the rejoinder proved even 
more futile than Congreve's. 

An interval followed in Vanbrugh's dra- 
matic activity. His next contribution to 
the theatre was an alteration (from verse to 
prose, to suit the taste of the day) of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' Pilgrim,' which was 
produced at Drury Lane to celebrate the 
advent of ' a new century ' (25 March 1700). 
On the third night Dryden took his ' last 
benefit/ contributing a prologue and epi- 
logue which were spoken by Colley Gibber, 
and testify to the unfailing vigour of the 
veteran. The association would seem to 
point to a fraternal amity between Dryden 
and one of his most brilliant successors. 
The adaptation witnessed the triumph (in 
the role of Alinda) of Anne Oldfield [q.v.], 
who owed to Vanbrugh this first chance 
of recommending herself to the public (see 
Dryden, ed. Scott, viii. 439-64 ; CHETWOOD, 
Hist, of Stage, 1749, p. 201 : ROBINS, Nance 
Oldfield, 1899). Next of Vanbrugh's pieces 
appeared the ' False Friend,' produced at 
Drury Lane at the end of January 1702, and 
published in February without the author's 
name (London, 4to ; ' Friendship a la Mode : 
a Comedy of two acts altered from Sir John 
Vanbrugh,' appeared at Dublin, 1766, 8vo). 
The ' False Friend ' is a free rendering of 
Le Sage's ( Traitre puni,' which is itself a 
version of Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla's ' La 
Traicion busca el castigo.' The fact that 
Vanbrugh repairs some of the ' cuts ' made 
by Le Sage points to his knowledge of the 
original (perhaps in the literal translation 
into French published at the Hague in 1700). 
In the prologue the author speaks of gradu- 
ally abating the immorality which had been 

charged against contemporary plays, but he 
addresses himself to the task in the most 
cautious fashion. 

Vanbrugh had already laid two of the 
three best French playwrights of his time 
under contribution. In his ' Country House/ 
a farce produced at Drury Lane on 16 June 
1705 (and probably earlier), he levied a 
first tax upon a third, Carton Dancourt, the 
' Teniers of French comedy/ whose ' Mai- 
son de campagne ' had appeared on 27 Jan. 
1688 (Vanbrugh's farce was published anony- 
mously, London, 12mo, 1715; reprinted as 
' La Maison Rustique,' 1740 ; what is ap- 
parently an eighteenth-century adaptation 
forms Addit. MS. 25959). Again, in the 
' Confederacy/ the most vivacious of Van- 
brugh's pieces, and perhaps of English prose 
comedies before Sheridan, he closely followed 
Dancourt's ' Les Bourgeoises a la mode ' (1692). 
' The Confederacy' was given on 30 Oct. 1705 
at the new theatre built by Vanbrugh in the 
Haymarket, and printed as ' by the Author 
of the Relapse ' on 15 Nov. (< The Confede- 
racy. As it is acted at the Queen's Theatre 
in the Haymarket/ reprinted 1735). Richard 
Estcourt adapted the same piece of Dancourt 
in ' The Fair Example ' (first printed in 1706), 
but he managed to miss the characteristic 
excellencies of the original, whereas Van- 
brugh in his adaptation surpassed them in 
every direction (note especially the advan- 
tage of Brass over Dancourt's 'Front in'). 
That in spite of the strength of the cast, in- 
cluding Dogget, Booth, Barry, Porter, and 
Bracegirdle, the i Confederacy ' should have 
had a run of barely a week, must be attri- 
buted mainly to the notorious acoustic de- 
fects of the theatre. The public, too, may 
have been to some extent shocked by a play 
which has been described as the lowest in 
point of morality to which English comedy 
ever sank. 

In the meantime Vanbrugh had collabo- 
rated with Congreve and Walsh in the ver- 
sion of Moliere's ' Monsieur dePourceaugnac' 
produced at Lincoln's Inn Fields on 30 March 
1704 under the title of l Squire Trelooby ' 
(originally performed in 1670, Moliere's play 
had already been extensively ' borrowed 
from ' by Ravenscroft in his ' Careless Lovers' 
of 1673). The translation, printed at the 
end of April 1704, differed considerably from 
the acted play, and was disowned by the 
collaborators. It was modified again by 
John Ralph prior to its reproduction and 
republication as 'The Cornish Squire: a 
Comedy/ in 1734 (see GENEST, iii. 409; 
BOASE and COURTNEY, Bibl. Cornub. ii. 820 ; 
GOSSE, Congreve, p. 148). 

Before the close of 1705 Vanbrugh secured 


8 9 


the co-operation of Betterton in another 
adaptation from Moliere (the early ( Depit 
Amoureux' of 1653, which was in its turn de- 
rived from < L' Interesse ' of Nicolo Secchi) 
The English version, entitled ' The Mistake, 
was represented for the first time on 27 Dec. 

1705 at the Haymarket, and was played six 
times consecutively. It was published with- 
out the author's name by Tonson in January 

1706 ('The Mistake. A Comedy as it is acted 
at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket," 
London, 4to). A greatly abbreviated ver- 
sion, entitled ' Lovers' Q.uarrels ; or like 
Master, like Man,' was produced at Covent 
Garden on 11 Feb. 1790, and is attributed 
to the actor Thomas King [q. v.], who took 
the part of Sancho (printed in London Stage, 
1824, vol. iii. ; cf. GENEST, vi. 600). Van- 
brugh's version was printed in 1893 among 
the ' Plays from Moliere by English Drama- 
tists ' (Sir JOHN LUBBOCK'S Hundred Books, 
No. 61). 

There are signs of hasty workmanship in 
4 The Mistake ' (especially in the last two 
acts), and henceforth, as his architectural 
work became more and more engrossing, 
Vanbrugh's dramatic career was stifled. 
His sole remaining drama, ( The Journey to 
London,' which promised to be second to 
none of his comedies, was left (at his death 
in 1726) in a fragmentary condition. Colley 
Gibber undertook to complete and recast the 
fragment. The result was a comedy which 
long remained a great favourite with the 
playgoing public. It was first produced at 
Drury Lane on 10 Jan. 1728 (running twenty- 
eight nights) under Gibber's title, ' The Pro- 
vok'd Husband/ and was published at the 
end of the month. Simultaneously was 
published Vanbrugh's original fragment, ' A 
Journey to London. Being part of a Comedy 
written by the late Sir John Vanbrugh, 
Knight. And printed after his own copy. 
Which (since his Decease) has been made 
an Intire Play, By Mr. Cibber, And call'd 
The Provok'd Husband' (London, 1728, 8vo). 
The fragment and the entire play appeared 
side by side in the editions of 1735 and 1776. 
A French translation, ' Le mari pouss6 a 
bout,' was published at London and at Lau- 
sanne (1761 and 1783, 8vo). Joseph Hunter 
in his ' Chorus Vatum ' (Addit. MS. 24493, 
f. 194) records a tradition that in his delinea- 
tion of the Wronghead family Vanbrugh 
intended to ridicule some of his wife's north- 
country relatives. 

The early stages of Vanbrugh's architectural 
career are obscure. His first employer of 
note appears to have been the Earl of Car- 
lisle, for whom he commenced a mansion 
upon the site of the old castle of Henders- 

kelfe in 1701. The result was Castle Howard, 
which with its splendid south facade, 323 feet 
long, remains, in spite of incongruous addi- 
tions, one of the finest examples of the Corin- 
thian renaissance in England. The main 
building was not completed until 1714, but 
in the meantime, as a token of his approba- 
tion, Carlisle, who during the minority of 
the Duke of Norfolk was the acting earl- 
marshal of England, promised Vanbrugh the 
lucrative appointment of Clarenceux king- 
at-arms. As it was necessary by the rules 
of the college that a king-at-arms should 
have passed through the grade of herald, 
Vanbrugh on 21 June 1703 was appointed 
to the obsolete post of Carlisle herald ; he 
was promoted Clarenceux by patent dated 
29 March 1704. As Vanbrugh was not 
only a stranger, but was known to take a 
humorously sceptical view of the importance 
of heraldic functions (which he had publicly 
ridiculed in his comedy of l ^Esop '), his ap- 
pointment was not popular. More particu- 
larly Gregory King [q. v.], the senior pursui- 
vant, was the injured man, and he ' persuaded 
some other heralds to join with him in a 
petition against the Lord Marshalls power, 
but the Council unanimously supported ' Lord 
Carlisle (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep., App. 
ix. 97). Further, in 1710, when there was a 
rumour that Clarenceux was about to receive 
a reversionary grant of the office of Garter, 
King wrote in alarm to Harley to deprecate 
such an act of injustice (NICHOLS, Herald 
and Genealogist, vii. 113 ; Addit. MS. 9011, 
ff. 346 seq. ; Harl. MS. 7525, f. 40 ; NOBLE, 
Coll. of Arms, p. 204). Once appointed, 
however, Vanbrugh was a frequent attendant 
at the college, and in 1706 he carried out 
with credit Queen Anne's commission to con- 
vey the insignia of the order of the Garter 
to Prince George of Hanover (Instructions 
in Addit. MS. 6321, f. 59; cf. BELTZ, Me- 
morials, 1841, p. cxxiii). 

Meanwhile, in June 1702, Vanbrugh had 
succeeded William Talman [q. v.] in the 
comptrollership of the board of works at 
8s. 8d. a day. In 1703 he built a house at 
Whitton Hall, near Hounslow (still stand- 
ing, though much altered), for Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, who was, like himself, a member of 
the Kit-Cat Club. In the same year he wrote 
to his friend and correspondent Jacob Ton- 
son [q. v.] that he had negotiated the purchase 
of the site for a new theatre, to be called the 
Queen's in honour of Anne. ' The ground 
is the second stable yard going up the Hay- 
market; I give 2,000/. for it' (the present 
Her Majesty's is the fourth theatre on this 
site). While the building was going on, 
Vanbrugh was annoyed by a reverberation of 



the Collier crusade. On hearing that he 
was about to assume the management of a 
London theatre, the Society for the Keforma- 
tion of Manners addressed a letter of protest 
to Archbishop Tenison (dated 10 Dec. 1704) 
with the usual quotations and a description 
of 'Mr. Vanbrook' as 'a man who had de- 
bauch'd the stage beyond the looseness of 
all former times.' But nothing came of the 
protest, and Vanbrugh continued to allow 
himself the fullest license (witness the scenes 
between Flippanta and her mistress in the 
1 Confederacy'). 

The Queen's Theatre, or Italian Opera- 
house, of which Vanbrugh was not only 
builder but also lessee, manager, and author 
in chief, was opened on 9 April 1705, the 
corner-stone having been laid by Lady Sun- 
derland on 18 April 1704 (see FITZGEEALB, 
New Hist, of Stage, i. 238); a prologue 
written by Garth, and spoken by Mrs. Brace- 
girdle, referred to the edifice as ' By beauty 
founded and by wit designed.' The piece 
performed was Giacomo Greber's ' Loves of 
Ergasto,' a melodrama with Italian music 
(englished apparently by P. A. Motteux; 
cf. BTJENEY, Hist, of Music, iv. 200 ; HAW- 
KINS, iv. 810; CLEMENT and LAEOTJSSE, Diet, 
des Operas, p. 661 ; WILKINSON, Londina 
Illustrata, vol. ii. sig. E). This is believed 
to have been the second opera of the kind 
performed in England (Thomas Clayton's 
' Arsinoe ' being the first). Despite its want 
of success and the loud gibes of Addison and 
other wits, Vanbrugh (who had doubtless 
witnessed the triumphs of Quinault and of 
Lulli and Scarlatti in Paris) determined to 
persevere, and he varied the usual repertory of 
plays with several operas during his two sea- 
sons of management. He was probably the 
most enlightened of early patrons of opera in 
England, and he was the impresario who first 
introduced an Italian prima donna of distinc- 
tion into England in the person of Nicolini. 
Unfortunately the house had serious acoustic 
defects. Several of the 100/. shareholders 
(whig friends of the manager, of whom Con- 
greve was one) disposed of their interest in 
the concern at the close of the first season, 
and Vanbrugh himself was glad in 1707 to 
shift the bulk of the responsibility to the 
shoulders of Owen MacSwiney or Swinny 
[q. v.] ' I lost so much money by the opera 
this last winter,' he wrote to the Earl of 
Manchester on 27 July 1708, < that I was glad 
to get quit of it, and yet I do not doubt that 
operas will thrive and settle in London.' He 
appears to have eventually let the theatre to 
MacSwiney at a maximum rent of 7001. per 
annum (cf. GENEST, ii. 333 ; CIBBEE, Apo- 
logy, i. 330 n.} 

In the same month that the Haymarket 
Theatre was opened, by an instrument dated 
9 June 1705 and signed by Godolphin, Van- 
brugh, by the special request of the Duke of 
Marlborough, was appointed architect and 
surveyor of the palace it was proposed to 
erect at Woodstock in commemoration of 
the victory of Blenheim. Wren, as surveyor- 
general, was Vanbrugh's official superior at 
the board of works, but he was now over 
seventy, while the younger man was in the 
first flush of his admitted success at Castle 
Howard. Vanbrugh seems to have felt it 
incumbent upon him to amaze his patrons, 
and Blenheim is certainly deficient neither 
in originality nor in grandiose effect. The 
work was begun on 19 June 1705, when the 
architect laid the first stone. The first diffi- 
culty arose over the question of the retention 
of the old manor-house of Woodstock. The 
architect was anxious to preserve it in sub- 
ordination to his general scheme on account 
of its historical and archaeological interest. 
But the duchess suspected some sinister de- 
sign on the part of the comptroller. The 
breach was widened when the works were 
stopped by the cutting off of supplies in 
October 1710. Some 200,000/. had already 
been paid out of the civil list, and the duchess 
deprecated the extravagant scale of the work, 
still far from completion. 

A fresh instalment was obtained from the 
treasury, and work recommenced in the 
spring of 1711 ; but at the close of that year 
Marlborough was dismissed from all his ap- 
pointments, and in the summer of 1712 the 
building was abandoned by the queen's com- 
mand. The brunt of all the claims for 
arrears of payment fell upon the unfortu- 
nate architect. A letter of protest against 
the conduct of the treasury (addressed to the 
mayor of Woodstock on 25 Jan. 1712-13) 
led to Vanbrugh's dismissal from the comp- 
trollership of the board of works in the fol- 
lowing April. With the accession of George I 
the horizon appeared about to clear. Van- 
brugh was knighted at Greenwich House, 
upon Marlborough's introduction, on 19 Sept. 
1714, and it was decided that the Blenheim 
arrears, amounting to about 50,000/., should 
be considered as one of the late queen's debts, 
for the liquidation of which half a million 
had been allocated. Ultimately in January 
1715 the sum of 16,000/., or about a third of 
what was actually due, was paid to the 
creditors by the treasury, which also gave it 
clearly to be understood that no more money 
would be expended on account of Blenheim. 
When, in consequence of this proceeding, in 
Easter term 1718 two contractors brought 
a suit for 7,314/. due to them for work done 



since 1710, the duchess, acting during the 
duke's infirmity, tried her hardest to divert 
the responsibility upon Vanbrugh. For- 
tunately for him, Godolphin's warrant of 
1705 was held to exonerate him from such 
liability, and this judgment was confirmed 
upon appeal by House of Lords. Thereupon, 
with a view of defaming the architect's cha- 
racter, the duchess caused to be printed and 
privately circulated the l Case of the Duke 
of Marlborough and Sir John Vanbrugh,' 
' the only architect in the world who could 
have built such a house, and the only friend 
in the world capable of contriving to lay 
the debt upon one to whom he was so highly 
obliged.' In his l Justification of what he 
Deposed in the Duchess of Marlborough's 
late TryaT (London, 1718, folio) Vanbrugh 
retorts by reciting the court favour he had 
lost by espousing the duke's interest; while, 
instead of reward for his labours and his dif- 
ficulties with the treasury and the workmen, 
he complains that his authority was ridiculed 
and his just claims repudiated. In June 
1722, when the Duke of Marlborough died, 
Vanbrugh commented bitterly upon his vast 
properties ( ' greater even than was expected ') 
and his inability to pay either his workmen or 
his architect. 

Vanbrugh's own dues as an architect 
amounted to some 2,000/., and he had prac- 
tically resigned all hopes of recovering the 
sum, when in 1725 Walpole interfered in his 
behalf, and succeeded (by means to which 
no clue is afforded) in extorting the money 
from the duchess. In the meantime the long 
wrangle had told heavily upon his equa- 
nimity and even upon his health. The 
duchess succeeded in completing the build- 
ing in strict accordance with his plans, but 
without his aid, in 1724. When, shortly be- 
fore its completion, Vanbrugh took his wife 
to inspect his architectural chef d'ceuvre, the 
duchess sent special orders to her servants 
that Lady Vanbrugh was not to be admitted 
within the limits of the park (see The Secret 
History of the Building of Blenheim, ap. 
DTsKAELi, Lit. Curiosities, 1840, pp. 411- 
414 ; the Blenheim Castle building accounts 
are among the ' Marlborough Papers ' in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 19592-605). 

The verdict of Vanbrugh's literary rivals 
as 'to the architectural merit of Blenheim 
was wholly unfavourable. In the minds of 
less prejudiced critics there has been great 
divergence of opinion ; but it must be con- 
ceded that Vanbrugh hardly rose to his op- 
portunities. The general plan of a grand 
central edifice, connected by colonnades with 
two projecting quadrangular wings, and of the 
approaches (including the ' Titanic bridge '), 

is admirable in its way. The sky-line is broken 
in a picturesque fashion, and the light and 
shade are balanced and contrasted in a manner 
which evoked the enthusiastic eulogy of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Uvedale Price, Allan 
Cunningham, and other connoisseurs of 
scenic effect. On the other hand, the orna- 
ment, when not positively uncouth, is un- 
meaning, and there is a sensible coarseness 
in matters of detail throughout the work. 
Voltaire remarked upon Blenheim that if 
the rooms were as wide as the walls were 
thick, the chateau would be convenient 
enough. The last thing that Vanbrugh had 
in his mind was personal comfort of his 
clients. Provided he made his effect, he was 
satisfied (detailed elevations are given in 
CAMPBELL, Vitruvius Britannicus, and a good 
idea of the general effect can be gathered 
from the five engraved views in NEAL'S 
Seats, 1820, vol. iii. ; cf. Addit. MSS. 9123, 
19591, and 19618 ; FEEGTJSSON", Hist, of 
Architecture, 1862, iii. 282 ; GWILT, En- 
cyclopedia, 1867, pp. 216-17 ; NEAL, Hist, 
of Blenheim, 1823 ; MAESHALL, Woodstock, 
1873 ; BLOMPIELD, Renaissance Architect, 
in England, 1898). 

Vanbrugh's peculiar style was ill adapted 
to works less than the largest size of palace, 
yet from 1706 onwards, though preoccupied 
with Blenheim, he was busily employed upon 
a number of lesser houses. However small 
the commission, his endeavour was the same 
namely, to convey the majesty of stupendous 
size, and this aim fitted in well with the 
ideas of his clients. He wrote to his friend 
the Earl of Carlisle in 1721 that all the world 
was ' mad on building as far as they can 
reach ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. 
vi.) In 1707 he restored Kimbolton Castle 
for the Earl of Manchester, of whom, as of 
most noblemen with whom he came into con- 
tact, he made a steady friend (see MAN- 
CHESTEE, Court and Society from Elizabeth 
to Anne, ii. 224 seq.) In 1710 for the Earl 
of Clare (afterwards Duke of Newcastle) he 
built Old Claremont House at Esher, 'where 
nature borrows dress from Vanbrook's art ' 
(GAETH, Claremont, 1715, p. 5; cf. BEAYLET, 
1841, ii. 440 ; Stowe MS. 748, f. 9). Garth 
further compared the architect to Apollo, or 
rather Amphion, at the touch of whose lyre 
' stones mount in columns, palaces aspire/ 
In 1711, in conjunction with Nicholas Hawks- 
moor [q. v.], he built the ' Clarendon Print- 
ing Office,' that is, the old 'Clarendon Build- 
ing,' in Broad Street, Oxford (see ACKEE- 
MANST, Coll. of Oxford, 1814, ii. 238; BLOM- 
FIELD, ii. 206). In 1713 he erected the seat 
of King's Weston, near Bristol (Gloucester- 
shire Notes and Queries, 1884, ii. 359) ; in 



1716-18 Eastbury, Dorset, for Bubb Doding- 
ton (the old seat was pulled down by Earl 
Temple) ; and about the same time Oulton 
Hall in Cheshire (see OKMEROD, Cheshire, 
ii. 118). 

Vanbrugh was reappointed to the post of 
comptroller to the board of works by George I 
in January 1715, and about a year later the 
interest of his numerous friends at court 
procured him the post of architect to Green- 
wich Hospital at a salary of 200/. a year. 
Pressure had been applied to make Wren 
resign this post, on the ground that he could 
not give the palace his constant supervision ; 
but no increased rate of progress followed 
Vanbrugh's appointment, and the brick- 
work of the southern range of the west 
front, which is often assigned to Sir John, 
was for the most part the work of his co- 
adjutor, Hawksmoor (cf. Gent. Mag. 1815, 
ii. 494 ; L'ESTRANGE, Greenwich Chronicles, 
1886, ii. 85 sq.) The architect's chief me- 
morials in this neighbourhood are the two 
houses which he built for himself at Black- 
heath, and which are still standing. One, 
the ' Bastille ' on Maze Hill, known latterly 
as Vanbrugh Castle, passed from Lady Van- 
brugh to Lord Tyrawley, and has now been 
for many years a boarding school for girls ; 
the other, in l Vanbrugh Fields,' was called 
' Mince-pie House ' (HASTED, 1886, i. 78), but 
is now known as Vanbrugh House. 

In 1718 Vanbrugh built Floors, near Kelso, 
for the Duke of Roxburgh e ; but this ' severely 
plain building ' was transformed into a Tudor 
edifice in 1849 (HiNDES GEOOME, Gazett. 
of Scotland, ii. 32). In the following year, 
in strict accordance with the rococo taste of 
the day, he planned the famous gardens of 
Stowe in Buckinghamshire, where a pyramid 
sixty feet high was erected in his honour and 
inscribed 'Inter plurima hortorum horum 
sedificia a Johanne Vanbrugh equite de- 
signata hanc pyramidem ad illius memoriam 
sacram voluit Cobham ' (BICKHAM, Beauties 
of Stowe, 1769, p. 6). ' Immensity and Van 
Brugh appear in the whole and in every 
part,' wrote the Earl of Peterborough. The 
details of his next house, Seaton Delaval in 
Northumberland (1720-21), show a marked 
improvement upon his earlier design ; but his 
alterations at Audley End, where in 1721 he 
removed three sides of the old quadrangle 
and erected lodges at the north and south 
end of the west front, have not been deemed 
successful (LORD BRAYBROOKE, Hist, of 
Audley End, pp. 92, 99X The latest of his 
more important works was Grimsthorpe, 
Lincolnshire, built for the Duke of Ancaster 
(1722-4), and including the l biggest en- 
trance-hall in the kingdom ' (see Notes and 

Queries, 7th ser. iv. 47). Here, though 'he 
could not shake himself free of his gigantic 
rusticated columns, 3^ ft. in diameter, and 
of certain enormous key-blocks, the front 
is a fine, unaffected, and almost reasonable 
design. Had Vanbrugh lived longer, it 
seems that he might have become a really 
great architect' (BLOMFIELD, ii. 199). 

Simultaneously with the Brobdingnagian 
mansions in which he delighted, Vanbrugh 
was building for himself between Scotland 
Yard and the Banqueting House, ' out of 
the ruins of Whitehall,' a modest town house, 
which was also to be his official residence as 
comptroller (a drawing is at South Ken- 
sington ; cf. Gent. May. 1815, i. 423). The 
house was not remarkable in any way, but 
it elicited from Swift the clever satiric verses 
in which it was likened to a goose-pie. The 
' goose-pie ' survived for two hundred years, 
being known in its declining days as the 
' pill-box,' was occupied for some years by 
the United Service Institution, and was 
finally demolished on 1 Oct. 1898. To 
Swift, who disliked ' Brother Van ' for his 
whiggism, his popularity with the great, and 
his lack of veneration for the cloth, has 
often been attributed, but wrongly, the well- 
known epitaph, ' Lie heavy on him earth . . .' 
which appears to have emanated from Abel 
Evans [q. v.] (cf. NICHOLS, Select Collection 
of Poems, 1780, iii. 161). After Vanbrugh's 
death Swift joined with Pope (who had also 
had his fling at the architect) in expressing 
regret that their raillery, ' though ever so 
tender, had ever been indulged ' against Sir 
John, 'a man of wit and honour' (joint pre- 
face to ' Prose Miscellanies ' of 1727). 

In April 1718 John Anstis the younger 
[q. v.] had established his right (by a rever- 
sionary patent dated 2 April 1714) to the 
office of Garter, and Vanbrugh was disap- 
pointed of holding permanently the post 
which he had temporarily filled (1715-18). 
On 14 Jan. 1719 he married, at St. Law- 
rence's Church, York, Henrietta Maria, eldest 
child of James Yarburgh, colonel of the foot 
guards, of Snaith Hall, Yorkshire, by Ann, 
daughter and coheir of Thomas Hesketh of 
Heslington. Writing from Castle Howard 
on Christmas day 1718 to the Duke of New- 
castle, he had remarked, after cursing the 
coldness of the winter : f I have almost a 
mind to marry to keep myself warm.' Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu gives a vivacious, if 
somewhat spiteful, account of the wooing. 
Henceforth Vanbrugh spent an increasing 
portion of his time at Blackheath. Some of 
his later letters to Carlisle give a pleasant 
picture of his family life. On 9 Feb. 1726 
he disposed of his tabard for two thousand 




guineas to Knox Ward. He died of quinsy 
at his house in Whitehall on 26 March 1726 
(Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, p. 13), and was 
buried in the Vanbrugh vault in the north 
aisle of St. Stephen's, Walbrook. In his 
will, dated 25 Aug. 1725, he names his 
sisters Mary, Victoria, and Robina, his 
[half] sister Garencieres and her daughter 
Lucia; his brothers, Charles and Philip, and 
his son Charles. The will was proved on 
22 April 1726 by Dame Henrietta Maria 
Vanbrugh, executrix (P. C. C. 84, Plymouth). 

Lady Vanbrugh died at East Greenwich 
on 26 April 1776 (Gent. Mag. 1776, p. 240, 
1 aged 90 ; ' her real age was eighty-two), 
and was buried in the Vanbrugh vault on 
3 May following. By her will, dated 15 June 
1769, she leaves 200/. to her daughter, Mrs. 
Tulloh, and to ' Mr. Vanbrugh ' (probably a 
nephew), with other property, /the rooms 
and cellars that belong to me in the Opera 
House ... all the family pictures, and two 
small pictures set in gold one of Sir John 
Vanbrugh, and the other of Sir Dudley Carle- 
ton.' The will was proved on 22 May 1776 
(P.C.C. 250, Bellas; cf. FOSTEK, York- 
shire Pedigrees, 1874 ; ROBINSOX, Priory and 
Peculiar of Snaith, 1861, pp. 55 sq. ; Genea- 
logist, 1878, ii. 237). 

CHARLES VANBRUGH (d. 1745), their only 
surviving son, the idol of his parents and 
godson of the Earl of Carlisle, was educated 
privately until about 1736, when he went to 
finish his studies at Lausanne. There in 
April 1738 he became a member of the * Com- 
pagnie des Nobles Fusiliers,' and soon after- 
wards he returned to England and obtained 
an ensigncy in the Coldstream guards (2nd 
foot guards). He went with his regiment 
to Flanders in 1744. He died of wounds ' re- 
ceived at the late battle near Tournai ' (that 
is, Fontenoy) on 12 May 1745 (Gent. Mag. 
1745, p. 276). He was. twenty-six years 
old on the day of his death. He was buried 
at Ath on 13 May (Genealogist, ii. 239 ; cf. 
WALPOLE, Letters to Sir Horace M ann, 1833, 
ii. 94; Carlisle Papers-, Addit. MS. 32703). 

Apart from the Duchess of Marlborough 
(upon whom, in his correspondence with 
Tonson, Vanbrugh wasted many unparlia- 
mentary epithets) and Hearne, who disliked 
all whigs impartially, Vanbrugh had a good 
word from everybody as the best of good 
fellows. As an architect, although he had a 

nion for size amounting to megalomania, 
lad an original and powerful imagination 
and a just idea of subordination. His scenic 
talent was distinctive, and his ' passionate 
appreciation of the abstract qualities of archi- 
tecture gives him a place by himself (BiOM- 

In his plays he lacked originality and sen- 
timent, but excelled in wit and in all the re- 
finements of technique. He rarely attempts 
blank verse, and when he does (as in ' vEsop ') 
the result is atrocious, while his attempts at 
poetic utterance are the merest fustian. But 
the ' Relapse ' and the * Confederacy ' are full 
of sparkling dialogue and not deficient in 
character. Vanbrugh and Congreve copied 
nature, says Fielding (Tom Jones, pref. to 
bk. xiv.), while their successors do but copy 
them. Lord Foppington, * the best fop ever 
brought upon the stage ' (WARD), is as famous 
as Dundreary, and with more reason. Above 
all, Vanbrugh's comedies have the merit of 
facility. Contemporary actors liked them 
because the parts were so easy to learn ; 
nowadays he is the most readable of the 
Restoration dramatists. In like manner 
Voltaire praised him for being the gayest, 
as Congreve the wittiest and Wycherley the 
strongest, of the English playwrights. Wai- 
pole attributed his ease to the fact that he 
lived in the best society and wrote as they 
talked. Another good saying of Walpole's 
was that ' if Vanbrugh had adapted from 
Vitruvius as well as from Dancour, Inigo 
Jones would not have been the first archi- 
tect of Britain.' To which it may be added 
that if a few only among adapters had ap- 
proached Vanbrugh's excellence, adaptation 
need not have proved ' the bane of the Eng- 
lish drama.' 

The best portrait of Vanbrugh is the Kit- 
Cat by Kneller (36 x 28), painted when he 
was about forty, and still preserved at Bay- 
fordbury. It has been engraved by John 
Simon [q. v.], by T. Chalmers, by Cooper 
(for the 'Memoirs of the Kit-Cat Club,' 
1821), and by many others (Cat. Loan 
Portraits, 1867, No. 112). Another portrait, 
now preserved at the Heralds' College, was 
painted by J. Richardson in 1725. The 
Kneller portrait depicts him holding a pair of 
compasses ; in this he holds in his left hand 
a plan of Blenheim. The fine mezzotint 
executed by Faber in 1727 is reproduced as 
frontispiece to * Sir John Vanbrugh ' (1893). 
Collective editions of Vanbrugh's works 
were published in London, 1730, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
1735 and 1739, 2 vols. 12mo; Dublin, 1765, 
2 vols. 12mo ; London, 1776, 2 vols. 12mo. 
In 1840 appeared i The Dramatic Works of 
Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Far- 
quhar,' with excellent biographical and 
critical notices from the pen of Leigh Hunt, 
and this volume, dedicated to Thomas Moore, 
has been several times reprinted. In 1893 
appeared in two volumes (London, 8vo) ' Sir 
John Vanbrugh,' edited by W. C. Ward, 
and this edition, containing all Vanbrugh's 




known works, of which the chronological 
order is for the first time properly ascer- 
tained, will doubtless remain the standard 
one. Select ' Plays ' (including the ' Re- 
lapse/ ' Provok'd Wife,' ' Confederacy,' and 
part of the ' Provok'd Husband ' ), with in- 
troduction and notes by A. E. H. Swaen, 
and a reprint of Leigh Hunt's ' Essay,' was 
issued in the 'Mermaid Series' in 1896. 
Selections from Vanbrugh, with an interest- 
ing critical note, appear in ' English Comic 
Dramatists ' (ed. Crauford, 1884). The more 
popular plays, such as the ' Relapse,' ' Pro- 
vok'd Wife,' and ' Confederacy,' have been 
printed in Oxberry, Inchbald, Dibdin, Bell, 
and similar collections of plays. A German 
translation of select plays appeared at Basle 
and Frankfort in 1764. 

A considerable number of Vanbrugh's 
letters, many of them models of sprightliness 
and good humour, are scattered through the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' during 1836, 1837, 
and 1839 (those to Jacob Tonson being the 
most important). Of his letters to the Earl 
of Manchester, preserved at Kimbolton, ex- 
amples are given in the 'Athenaeum ' (1861, 
i. 84-6) and in the' Duke of Manchester's 
* Court and Society from Elizabeth to Anne,' 
and of those to the Earl of Carlisle extracts 
are given in the ' Carlisle Papers ' (Hist, 
MSS. Comm. 15th Rep. App. vi. passim). 
Others of his letters are in the British Museum, 
to the Duchess of Marlborough (Addit. MS. 
32670), to the Duke of Newcastle (ib. 32687 
and 33064), and to P. Mauduit (Egerton MS. 
2721). A selection of these letters was printed 
in the ' Athengeum ' (1890, ii. 289-91, 321-2). 
For a letter to Sir Robert Walpole respecting 
the building of a summerhouse at Chelsea, 
see Beaver's ' Memorials of Old Chelsea ' (p. 
285 ; cf. MAKTIN, Old Chelsea, 1889, p. 83). 

[In spite of the interest of the materials, no 
exhaustive ' life ' of Vanbrugh has yet been 
attempted. Short accounts were prefixed to the 
early editions, and these were summarised in 
Baker's 'Biographia Dramatica' (1812, i. 724) 
and elsewhere. Noble in his ' College of Arms ' 
(1804, pp. 355-6) supplied some new materials, 
and these were reproduced with a fresh criticism 
by Allan Cunningham in his 'Lives of British 
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects' (1829-33). 
Leigh Hunt furnished a good biographical account 
in his Introduction of 1840, embodying the ma- 
terials collected by D'Israeli in his ' Curiosities 
of Literature ' relative to the building of Blen- 
heim. This edition was favourably noticed by 
Macaulay in his well-known 'Essay on the Comic 
Dramatists,' in which he deals at length with 
Congreve and Wycherley to the exclusion of 
Vanbrugh and Farquhar. All these accounts 
were superseded by the memoir by Arthur 
Ashpitel [q. v.] in the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' 

(8th edition, 1860), which is based upon the 
most careful research. Wyatt Papworth added 
much information as to Vanbrugh's archi- 
tectural career in the ' Dictionary of Architec- 
ture,' and in 1893 appeared the valuable 'life' 
prefixed to the standard edition of Vanbrugh by 
W. C. Ward. The chief additional authorities 
are : Dalton's English Army Lists, iii. 409 ; the 
Carlisle Papers in Hist. MSS. Comm. loth Eep. 
App. vi. ; Le Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights, 
1873; Genealogist, ii. 237; Herald and Genea- 
logist (1873), vii. 112-14 ; Ravaisson's Archives 
de la Bastille, vol. ix. ; the Registers of St. 
Nicholas Aeons, ed. Brigg, 1890, pp. 31-3; 
Athenseum, 1890 ii. 289, 321, 1894 ii. 234, 299 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1802 ii. 1065, 1804 i. 411, ii. 737, 
1815 ii. 494, 1816 i. 37, 135, 1829 i. 42, 1831 
i. 330, 1836 i. 13, ii. 27, 374, 1837 i. 243, 479, 
1839 i. 149, 1857 ii. 420. See also Luttrell's 
Brief Hist. Relation of State Affairs, Oxford, 
1857 ; Coxe'sLife of Marlborough, passim ; Thom- 
son's Memoirs of the Duchess of Marlborough, 
vol. ii. passim; Gibber's Lives, iv. 99-111 ; "Wai- 
pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum, iii. 
297, and Correspondence, ed. Cunningham, pas- 
sim ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage ; Gildon's Com- 
parison between the Two Stages, 1702, p. 32; 
Knight's Garrick, 1894, p. 321 ; Pope's Works, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope, iii. 173-6, 366, vi. 112, x. 
106, 187 ; Dryden's Works, ed. Scott, viii. 440 ; 
Swift's Works, ed. Scott, ii. 71, xiii. 6,'xiv. 80; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 299, 341, viii. 594; 
Bingham's The Bastille, i. 444 ; Ward's English 
Dramat. Lit. ii. 589 ; Lowe's Bibl. Account of 
English Theatr. Lit. and Life of Betterton ; 
Gosse's Congreve, 1888, pp. 117 sq.; Aitken's 
Steele, i. 61, 70, 99, 146, ii. 58n. 274 ; Boswell's 
Johnson, ed. Hill, iv. 48, 55, 284-6; Hazlitt's 
Lectures on English Comic Writers, vol. iv. ; 
Hallam's Lit. Hist, of Europe, 1854, iii. 514, 
528 ; Beljame's Hommes de Lettres en Angle- 
terre, pp. 249, 499; Lemaitre's Theatre de Dan- 
court, 1882; De Grisy's La Comedie Anglaise, 
1672-1707, pp. 260-345 (where the plots are 
lucidly abridged); Lenient's La Comedie an 
xviii me Siecle, 1888, i. ch. v ; Moland's Moliere 
et la Comedie Italienne, 1867, p. 112; Gaet- 
schenberger's Geschichte der engl. Lit. iii. 209 
sq. ; Zinck's Congreve, Vanbrugh og Sheridan, 
1869, 8vo ; Querard's France Litteraire, x. 35 ; 
Roget's ' Old Watercolour ' Society, i. 9 ; Leigh 
Hunt's The Town, p. 377 ; Marshall's Woodstock, 
1873, p. 263; Davis's Memorials of Knights- 
bridge, 1859, p. 83; Times, 8 March 1888; 
Builder, 1 860, p. 460 ; Saturday Review, 1 1 March 
1893; Architect. Journal, 1850, ii. 430; Boase 
and Courtney's Biblioth. Cornub. ii. 820 ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Smith's Mezzotinto 
Portraits, p. 435 ; Evans's Cat. of Engr.Portr. i. 
356, ii. 396 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 499, 
7th ser. iv. 28, 113, 8th ser. vii. 166, 258, 509.] 

T. S. 

(1838 P-1888), actor, pantomimist, and comic 
singer, was born in London about 1838, and 

Van Ceulen 



was placed in the office of a solicitor in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields. His name was Alfred 
Peck Stevens. After some efforts in the 
country as an actor, he accepted an engage- 
ment of fifty shillings a week at the Preston 
theatre, under Edmund Falconer [q. v.], to 
play secondary parts, including harlequin. 
He then went on the Northampton circuit 
and elsewhere, and engaged under Copeland 
at Liverpool, where he opened a dancing 
academy. He is said also to have kept 
a dancing and fencing school in Carlisle. 
Vance then took on tour an entertainment 
after the manner of Samuel Houghton Cowell 
[q.v.], visiting most country towns. A mono- 
logue entertainment, entitled ' Touches of the 
Times,' in which he presented many different 
characters, obtained much popularity. On 
the suggestion of J. J. Poole, at one time 
manager of the South London Music-hall, 
Vance adopted the ' variety' stage, appearing 
at the Metropolitan and South London 
music-halls. He was a poor singer but a 
clever dancer, and his sketches of character 
took a firm hold upon the public. All Lon- 
don rang with the words and tune of his 
' Chickaleery Cove,' and other Cockney 
songs were only less popular. In 1864 he 
was at the London Pavilion Music-hall, 
and he was at various periods associated 
with the Strand Music-hall, on the spot now 
occupied by the Gaiety Theatre, and with 
the Canterbury Music-hall. For many years 
he travelled round the country with what 
was called Vance's Concert Company. He 
also played the clown at the St. James's 
Theatre, and under Chatterton's manage- 
ment appeared at other houses. Among the 
songs which obtained much public favour 
and secured him royal recognition were ' Jolly 
Dogs ' and < Walking in the Zoo.' He was 
known latterly as the ' Great Vance.' On 
Wednesday, 26 Dec. 1888, at the Sun Music- 
hall, Knightsbridge, when he had given two 
songs and had sung in the wig and robes of 
a judge three verses of a third, called < Are 
you Guilty ? ' Vance, who suffered from heart 
disease, fell down at the wing, and was found 
to be dead, the cause beingrupture of the aorta. 
Vance was buried at Nunhead cemetery. 

[Era newspaper, 29 Dec. 1888 ; Times, 28 Dec. 
1888; Stuart and Park's Variety Stage (1895), pp. 
104-5; Scott and Howard's Life of E. L. Blanchard, 
1891 : Era Almanack, various years.] J. K. 

SEN (1593-1664 ?), portrait-painter. [See 


1813), agriculturist, was an American by 
birth, though he can hardly have been, as is 

sometimes stated, ' Of Vancouver's Island,' 
as that island was named after George Van- 
couver [q. v.] in 1794. His first book, * A 
general Compendium of Chemical, Experi- 
mental, and Natural Philosophy, with a com- 
plete System of Commerce,' was published 
at Philadelphia in 1785 (see Catalogue of 
the Boston Athenaeum), and in 1786 he is 
described as 'Vancouver of Philadelphia' in 
Young's ' Annals of Agriculture,' to which he 
contributed an account of the farming of 
Kentucky. Kentucky was being settled at 
this time chiefly by emigrants from Virginia 
and Maryland, and Vancouver had taken up 
fifty-three thousand acres in that district. 
His letter to Young is practically an invita- 
tion to English settlers to come out to 
America and farm portions of this vast area 
{Annals of Agriculture, 1786, vi. 405). 

Between 1786 and 1793 he came to Eng- 
land, and, on the establishment of the board 
of agriculture, he was engaged by Sir John 
Sinclair [q. v.] to write reports on the state 
of agriculture in different English counties. 

The board published in 1794 an account 
of Vancouver's tour in Cambridgeshire, and 
in 1795 an account of a similar tour in Essex. 
He also visited Sussex for the purpose of a 
survey. Maria Josepha Holroyd, daughter 
of Lord Sheffield, speaks of him in July 1795 
as a sensible well-informed man, who had 
visited several countries and profited by his 
travels (Girlhood of Maria Josepha Holroyd. 
1896, p. 326). 

Apparently about the end of the century 
Vancouver returned to his American estates, 
and he says in 1807 that he has been long 
engaged in 'cutting down the woodland 
and clearing the forests in Kentucky.' In 
1806 he was again in England, and Arthur 
Young mentions that he was consulted by 
the secretary of the treasury, Nicholas Van- 
sittart (afterwards Baron Bexley) [q. v.] 
concerning his tour scheme, of which Van- 
couver did not approve (Autobiography of 
Arthur Young, 1898). 

Vancouver wrote two more county reports 
for the board of agriculture : on the county 
of Devon, 1808 (republished in 1813) ; and 
on Hampshire, 1813. William Marshall 
(1745-1818) [q. v.], who criticised most 
severely the majority of the board's reports, 
spoke of Vancouver's 'Cambridgeshire' with 
approval, but regarded his Essex report with 
less favour, and was yet more qualified in 
his praise of the Hampshire and Devonshire 
reports (Marshall, Review, vol. iii., Eastern 
Department, 1818, pp. 226-7, 473 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1818, i. 59). Vancouver also wrote, 
in 1794, a paper on the drainage of the fens 
of the Great Level, and especially of Cam- 


9 6 


bridgeshire. This remained imprinted for 
seventeen years, and was finally issued as 
an appendix to the octavo Huntingdon re- 
port. The date of Vancouver's death is un- 

[Vancouver's Keports ; authorities cited in 
the text.] E. C-E. 

VANCOUVER, GEORGE (1758-1798), 
captain in the navy, born in 1758, entered 
the navy as a boy of thirteen, with the rating 
of ' able seaman,' on board the Resolution, 
with Captain James Cook [q. v.], for Cook's 
second voyage. He continued with Cook as 
A.B., and afterwards midshipman of the Dis- 
covery in the last voyage, returning in her 
in October 1780. On 19 Oct. he passed his 
examination, and on 9 Dec. was made lieu- 
tenant into the Martin sloop. From her he 
was moved into the Fame, one of the ships 
that sailed with Rodney for the West Indies 
in December 1781, and took part in the battle 
of 12 April 1782 ; she returned to England 
in the summer of 1783, and in the following 
year Vancouver was appointed to the Europa, 
which, in 1786, went out to Jamaica with 
the broad pennant of Commodore Alan (after- 
wards Lord) Gardner [q. v.] From her he 
was paid off in September 1789, and he was 
then, at Gardner's suggestion, appointed to 
go out with Captain Roberts as second in 
command of an exploring expedition in the 
South Sea. For this purpose a ship, then 
building by Messrs. Randall, was bought, 
named the Discovery at her launch, and 
fitted out under Vancouver's superinten- 
dence. She was nearly ready, when the dis- 
pute about Nootka Sound [see MEA.EES, JOHN] 
caused the organisation of the fleet known 
as ' the Spanish armament ; ' the Discovery's 
men and officers were distributed in the 
fleet, and the exploring expedition was neces- 
sarily postponed. Vancouver himself was 
appointed to the Courageux, commanded by 
Gardner, and on her being paid off was pro- 
moted to the rank of commander on 15 Dec. 

It was then judged expedient that an 
officer should be sent out to Nootka Sound 
' to receive back in form the territory on 
which the Spaniards had seized,' and also to 
make an accurate survey of the coast north- 
wards from the 30th degree of north lati- 
tude. Vancouver was selected for this duty, 
and, as the Discovery was ready fitted, he 
was at once appointed to her. His instruc- 
tions were dated 8 March 1791, and the Dis- 
covery finally sailed from Falmouth on 
1 April, having in company the Chatham 
tender, commanded by Lieutenant William 
Robert Broughton [q. v.] As the route was 

left to his own judgment, he followed Cook's 
teaching and went westward, touching at 
the Cape of Good Hope, surveying the south- 
west coast of Australia, where he discovered 
and named King George's Sound, Mount 
Gardner, Cape Hood, and other points in 
that neighbourhood. Then passing on to 
New Zealand, he examined the recesses of 
Dusky Bay, and where Cook had marked on 
the chart ' Nobody knows what,' he substi- 
tuted a correct coast-line and the name 
* Somebody knows what.' He reached Tahiti 
on 30 Dec. 1791, and in the following year, 
after the necessary formalities at Nootka, he 
examined the strait of San Juan de Fuca, 
discovered the gulf of Georgia, and, passing 
on, circumnavigated the large island which 
has since borne his name. The two follow- 
ing years he continued his examination of 
the coast from San Francisco, northwards, 
which, for the first time he accurately de- 
lineated. In 1795 he returned to England 
by Valparaiso, Cape Horn, and St. Helena, 
falling in, off the Cape Verd Islands, with 
the Sceptre and the St. Helena convoy, and 
so being conducted home in safety for, 
contrary to international usage, no order to 
consider the scientific expedition as neutral 
had been issued by the French Directory on 
the outbreak of war between France and 
England. The Discovery arrived in the 
Thames on 20 Oct. 1795, and was paid off a 
few weeks later. Vancouver, who had been 
advanced to post rank on 28 Aug. 1794, now 
devoted himself to preparing his journals for 
publication. This occupied the whole of his 
time. He had corrected the proofs of all but 
the few last pages, when he died at Peters- 
ham, on 10 May 1798. The work was 
finished off by his brother John, assisted 
by Captain Puget, who had sailed from Eng- 
land as a lieutenant of the Discovery, and 
had succeeded Broughton in command of the 
Chatham. It was published a few months 
after the author's death, as 'A Voyage of 
Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and 
round the World in the Years 1790-1795 
in the Discovery Sloop of War and Armed 
Tender Chatham, under the Command of 
Captain George Vancouver ' (3 vols. 4to, 
1798, with atlas of plates, fol.) 

A portrait of Vancouver, * painted pro- 
bably by Lemuel F. Abbott,' was purchased 
in 1878 by the trustees of the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. 

It has been said, and recorded by Sir 
Joseph Banks on what he considered suffi- 
cient evidence, that Vancouver's discipline 
during his voyage was harsh in the extreme ; 
and Lord Camelford whom he flogged three 
times, put in the bilboes, and finally discharged 




to the shore bitterly resented the treatment 
FOKD]. But even according to the favourable 
statement given by Banks, Camelford's con- 
duct appears to have been irregular, insub- 
ordinate, and insolent ; and Vancouver, 
thrown entirely on his own resources, with- 
out possibility of support, may have honestly 
thought strong measures to be necessary, as 
in fact several of our most distinguished ex- 
plorers have done from Drake to McClure. 

[Passing Certificate, and Commission and War- 
rant Books in the Public Record Office ; \ r oyaffe 
of Discovery, especially the introduction and 
editor's advertisement; manuscript note by Sir 
Joseph Banks, by favour of Sir Clements Mark- 
ham ; Gent. Mag. 1798, i. 447.] J. K. L. 

(1763-1849), general, colonel of the 16th 
lancers, born in 1763, was grandson of John 
Vandeleur of Kilrush, and son of Captain 
Richard Vandeleur (d. 1772), 9th lancers, of 
Rutland, Queen's County, by Elinor, daugh- 
ter of John Firman of Firmount. He received 
a commission as ensign in the 5th foot in 
December 1781, and was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant in the 67th foot in 1783. He served 
with his regiment in the West Indies, and, 
-exchanging in 1788 into the 9th foot, was 
promoted on 9 March 1792 to be captain. 
In October of the same year he again ex- 
changed into the 8th light dragoons, and was 
promoted to be major on 1 March 1794. 

In April 1794 Vandeleur went with his 
regiment to Flanders to serve under the 
Duke of York, took part in the principal 
actions of the campaign, and accompanied 
the army in its retreat across Holland to 
Bremen. On the embarkation of the British 
army for England in April 1795 Vandeleur 
remained with a small corps under General 
Dundas until December. In August 1796 
he went to the Cape of. Good Hope, and 
served in the operations against the Dutch 
under Generals Craig and Dundas. On 1 Jan. 
1798 he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel in the 8th light dragoons. In Octo- 
ber 1802 Vandeleur went with his regiment to 
India, and served as lieutenant-colonel with 
local rank of colonel in command of a brigade 
of cavalry under Lord Lake in the Maratha 
campaigns of 1803-5. At the battle of Las- 
wari on 1 Nov. 1803 Vandeleur turned the 
enemy's left flank and took two thousand 
prisoners, receiving the thanks of Lord Lake. 
He was similarly distinguished in November 
1 804 for the cavalry affair at Fathghar, where 
the Maratha chief Ilolkar was surprised and 
defeated. Equally brilliant were his charge 
and recapture of artillery at AfzaMiar on 
2 March 1805. 


In 1806 Vandeleur returned to England. 
On 16 April 1807 he exchanged into the 
19th light dragoons, and on 25 April 1808 
was promoted to be brevet colonel. On 
4 June 1811 he was promoted to be major- 
general, and appointed to command an' in- 
fantry brigade of the light division in the 

Vandeleur led the division, after Craufurd 
received his mortal wound, to the assault of 
the breach of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 Jan. 
1812, when he was severely wounded. He 
nevertheless took part in the battle of Sala- 
manca on 22 June. In June of the following 
year he intercepted a French division and 
cut off one of its brigades, taking three hun- 
dred prisoners and forcing the remainder to 
disperse in the mountains. On 21 June 1813 
he was at the battle of Vittoria, and in the 
following month was appointed to command 
a brigade of light dragoons under Sir Thomas 
Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch) [q. v.], 
and later under Lord Niddry, and he was 
engaged in all the operations of that column, 
including the battle of the Isive. At the close 
of the Peninsular war he was selected to con- 
duct a division of British cavalry and artillery 
from Bordeaux to Calais. 

In October 1814 Vandeleur was appointed 
to the staff of the British army in Belgium. 
He was given the colonelcy of the 19th light 
dragoons on 12 Jan. 1815. He commanded 
the fourth cavalry brigade, consisting of the 
llth, 12th, and 16th light dragoons, at the 
battle of Waterloo, and from the time, that 
Lord Uxbridge was wounded and had to 
leave the field he commanded, as next senior, 
the whole of the British cavalry at Water- 
loo, and during the advance on Paris until 
Louis XVIII entered the capital. For his 
services in the Peninsula and Belgium he 
was made a knight-commander of the order 
of the Bath (military division) on 3 Jan. 
1815, and received the gold cross with clasps 
for Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, Vittoria, and 
the Nive, and the silver medal for Waterloo. 
He was also nominated a knight of the second 
class of the Russian order of St. Vladimir, 
and a commander of the Bavarian order of 
Maximilian Joseph. 

The 19th light dragoons were disbanded 
n 1820, and in 1823 Vandeleur was given 
the colonelcy of the 14th light dragoons, from 
which on 18 June 1830 he was transferred 
to the colonelcy of the 16th lancers. He 
was promoted to be lieutenant-general on 
19 July 1821, and general on 28 June 1838. 
He was made a grand cross of the Bath in 
1833. He died on 1 Nov. 1849 at his house 
n Merrion Square, Dublin. 

Vandeleur married, in 1829, a daughter 


9 8 


of the Rev. John Glasse, by whom he left a 
son and a daughter Ellen, wife of Colonel 
(afterwards General) Richard Greaves, for 
some twenty years assistant military secre- 
tary to the commander of the forces in 
Ireland, and afterwards colonel of the 40th 

Vandeleur's portrait (Kit-Cat size) is in 
possession of Captain Hector S. Vavasour 
of Kilrush House, co. Clare, and of 72 Cado- 
gan Square, London; it was engraved by 
Z. Belliard. 

[War Office Records; Despatches; Siborne's 
History of the Waterloo Campaign ; Napier's 
Peninsular War ; Thorn's Memoir of the War in 
India 1803-6 ; United Service Journal, 1849 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1850; Royal Military Calendar, 1820; 
private sources ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

R. fl. V. 

1861), actor, was born in Salisbury where 
his family, of Dutch extraction, coming 
over, it is said, in the train of William of 
Orange, appear to have been dyers on 
31 March 1790, and was educated at the 
Jesuits' college, Stonyhurst, with a view 
to the priesthood. For a year he taught 
classics in a school. His first appearance on 
the stage was at Salisbury, on 11 May 1808, 
as Osmond in the ' Castle Spectre.' After 
playing at Exeter, Weymouth, and elsewhere, 
with Edmund Kean, and at Swansea with 
John Cooper, he made his first appearance at 
Bath on 9 Oct. 1813 as Jaffier in Venice 
Preserved,' to the Pierre of Young and the 
Belvidera of Mrs. Campbell [see WALLIS, 
Miss]. During the season 1813-14 he played 
Alcanor in * Mahomet,' Freehold in ' Country 
Lasses,' Malvogli in the ' Doubtful Son,' 
and King Henry in the * First Part of 
Henry IV,' and was the first Fernando in 
' Zulieman, or Love and Penitence,' a two- 
act musical drama, on 12 March 1814, and 
Prince Palatine in Reynolds 's ' Orphan of 
the Castle ' on 17 March. In 1814 he was a 
member of the company at the English 
Opera House (Lyceum) under Arnold, where, 
on 4 Aug., he was the original Count d'Her- 
leim in 'Frederick the Great.' The same 
year he made, as Rolla, his first appearance 
in Liverpool, where he became a great 
favourite, playing also in Manchester, Dub- 
lin, and elsewhere. On 9 Dec. 1 820, as Van- 
denhoff from Liverpool, he made as Lear his 
first appearance at Covent Garden. He had 
got rid of an awkwardness that before had 
afflicted him, and made a good impression. 
During the season he was seen as Sir Giles 
Overreach, Coriolanus, Pizarro, and Rolla. 
Rob Roy, Gambia in the ' Slave,' and Mi- 
randola were played for Macready, who was 

ill. He was also the first Durard in ' Hen- 
riette, or the Farm of Senange,' on 23 Feb. 
1821, and Leicester in ' Kenil worth ' on 
8 March. He retired in some disgust at the 
treatment he received from his manager, and 
his name does not appear the following 
season. On 6 Jan. 1822 he appeared in 
Edinburgh as Coriolanus, returning on 2 Jan. 
1826 as Macbeth, and again in February 
1830, when he played Cassius and Othello. 
He was a favourite in Edinburgh, where his 
Coriolanus inspired great enthusiasm. He 
appears to have played there many consecu- 
tive years between January and March, his 
characters including, in addition to those 
named, Brutus, Cato, Creon, Adrastus, and 
Macheath. In 1834 he was seen at the 
Haymarket in Hamlet. In 1835-6 he played 
at both Drury Lane and Covent Garden, 
alternate nights being given to opera. On 
the transference of Talfourd's ' Ion ' from 
Covent Garden to the Haymarket, 8 Aug. 
1836, he played Adrastus on the whole, ac- 
cording to Macready, a ' very tiresome ' per- 
formance. Among his original characters 
were Eleazer in the ' Jewess ' in the season 
of 1835-6, LouisXIVin Bulwer's 'Duchesse 
de la Valliere ' (Covent Garden, 4 Jan. 1837), 
and Pym in Browning's ' StrafFord' on 1 May. 
Of his performance in the character last 
named John Forster in the ' Examiner ' said 
that ' he was positively nauseous with his 
whining, drawling, and slouching.' The 
same critic said, however, of Vandenhoff's 
Creon in ' Antigone ' that it was performed 
with ' solid dignity and picturesque effect/ 
Later in 1837 Vandenhoff fulfilled an en- 
gagement in America. 

When Macready opened Covent Garden on 
24 Sept. 1838, Vandenhoff was a member of 
the company. He played Penruddock, The 
Stranger, Virginius, Master Walter in the 
* Hunchback,' Richelieu, Falconbridge, Cas- 
sius, Hotspur, and many other parts. After 
1839, when Macready's management of 
Covent Garden closed, Vandenhoff played 
chiefly in the country, although he was seen 
occasionally at Drury Lane. 

In January 1857 \andenhoff, with his 
daughter, paid a starring visit to Edinburgh, 
bidding it farewell on 26 Feb. as Wolsey in 
1 Henry VIII,' Mr. (afterwards Sir Henry) 
Irving playing Surrey. On 29 Oct. of the 
next year (1858), at Liverpool, he took fare- 
| well of the stage as Brutus and Wolsey, and 
died on 4 Oct. 1861 at North Bank of paralysis. 

Upon Vandenhoff's first appearance in 
London the ' New Monthly Magazine ' de- 
scribed him as possessor of a tall figure, in- 
telligent but not strongly marked features, 
and a voice sufficiently powerful but rather 




of a, coarse quality.' His Overreach was 
said to be pitched in too low a key, but to 
display judgment. His Coriolanus and 
Holla were praised highly ; but he was de- 
clared to be an imitator of Kemble. The 
4 Literary Gazette ' l damns with faint praise ' 
his Richard III. Westland Marston credits 
him with great dignity, and with thinking 
out happily his characters, praising highly 
his Coriolanus and Creon, but speaking of 
his Othello and Macbeth as deficient in 
pathos and passion. His lago is said to 
have had a mask of impulsive light-hearted- 
ness and bonhomie, and a ' sort of detestable 
gaiety in in his soliloquies and asides.' The 
portraits in theatrical papers of the first half 
of the century convey no idea of Vanden- 
hoff's appearance. His face is said to have 
been fair and somewhat expressionless. 

Vandenhoff left several children, most of 
whom appeared sooner or later upon the 
stage. A son George, born on 18 Feb. 1820, 
acted at Covent Garden (1839-40), and in 
1853 he appeared for a short while as Hamlet 
at the Haymarket ; but he soon migrated to 
America, and obtained a reputation in New 
York as an actor and teacher of elocution, 
and as the writer of a volume of theatrical 
anecdotes, 'Dramatic Reminiscences' (Lon- 
don, 1860; New York, 1860, with the title 
' Leaves from an Actor's Note Book '). 

The only one of Vandenhoff 's children to 
obtain celebrity upon the English stage was 
DENHOFF (1818-1860), who made her first 
appearance at Drury Lane as Juliet on 
11 April 1836. She went thence to Covent 
Garden and the Haymarket, and succeeded 
in establishing herself as a capable actress in 
parts in which delicacy and feeling rather 
than strength or passion were required. She 
won acceptance as Imogen, Cordelia, Pauline 
in the * Lady of Lyons,' Julia in the ' Hunch- 
back,' and Margaret Elmar in Love's Sacri- 
fice;' was in 1837 at the Haymarket the first 
Lydia inKnowles's ' Love Chase,' had an ori- 
ginal part in Henry Spicer's ' Honesty,' and 
was in 1851 the original Parthenia in Mrs. 
Lovell's ' Ingomar.' Her chief triumph was 
as Antigone in a translation from Sophocles 
at Covent Garden on 2 Jan. 1845, in which 
her father played Creon. She was taxed with 
being stilted in the early scenes, but in the 
later made a creditable display of pathos. 
On 15 Jan. 1855 she was at the St. James's 
Alcestis in a translation by Spicer from Euri- 
pides. She was fair in hair and complexion, 
symmetrical, with gentle mobile features, and 
was taxed, perhaps unjustly, with imitating 
Helen Faucit. Miss Vandenhoff retained her 
maiden name to the last, though she married, 

on 7 July 1856 by license at St. Mary's Church, 
Hull, Thomas Swinbourne, an actor well 
known in the country, and not unknown in 
London. This marriage she sought within a 
month to repudiate. She was taken ill in 
Birmingham, and died on 26 July 1860. 
She was the author of * Woman's Heart,' 
produced in 1852 at the Haymarket, a comedy 
in which she herself played the heroine. 

[Tallis's Dramatic Mag. ; Vandenhoff 's Dra- 
matic Keminiscences : Scott and Howard's Blan- 
chard ; Macready's Reminiscences ; Mrs. Baron 
Wilson's Our Actresses ; Actors by Daylight ; 
Archer's Macready ; Westland Marston's Our 
Recent Actors ; Stirling's Old Drury Lane ; Era 
Newspaper, 13 Oct. 1861, 5 Aug. 1860; Dra- 
matical and Musical Review, various years ; 
Era Almanack, various years ; Clark Russell's 
Representative Actors ; Forster and Lewis's Dra- 
matic Essays; New Monthly Mag. 1820; Men 
of the Reign ; Dibdin's Edinburgh Stage ; The 
Players, 1860 ; Gent. Mag. 1861, pt. ii. p. 376 ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. xii. 147, 210, 270.] 

J. K. 

VANDEPUT, GEORGE (d. 1800), ad- 
miral, was illegitimate son of Sir George Van- 
deput, bart. (d. 1784) (BURKE, Extinct Baro- 
netcies). While servingasamidsbipman of the 
Neptune, flagship of Sir Charles Saunders 
in the St. Lawrence, he was on 24 Sept. 1759 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Shrews- 
burv, commanded by Captain (afterwards 
Sir) Hugh Palliser [q.v.] With Palliser in 
the Shrewsbury he continued till the peace 
in 1763. On 17 April 1764 he was promoted 
to the command of the Goree sloop, and on 
20 June 1765 was posted to the Surprize of 
20 guns. In August 1766 he was moved 
to the Boreas, and in June 1767 to the 28-gun 
frigate Gary sfort for the Mediterranean, where 
he was for the next three years. He was 
then for another three years in the Solebay, 
on the home station, and, after a couple of 
temporary commands, in December 1773 
commissioned the Asia for the North Ame- 
rican station. Here he remained for three 
years, for the most part at, or in the neigh- 
bourhood of, Boston and New York. It ap- 
pears to have been off New York in 1776 
the details are only vaguely given that a 
tender of the Asia captured a small vessel 
laden with gunpowder. Whether by acci- 
dent or caution, Vandeput ordered her to 
lie off for the night at some little distance ; 
and this led to one of the prisoners, in his 
terror, confessing that in one of the barrels 
was a musket-lock, which would be fired by 
clockwork at a given time. It had been 
hoped that the barrels of powder would be 
at once put into the Asia's magazine and the 
coasting vessel allowed to go free. In 1777 

ii 2 




the Asia returned to England, and having 
been refitted was sent to the East Indies. 
She came home with convoy in the beginning 
of 1781, and in the following year Vande- 
put, in the 98-gun ship Atlas, took part in 
the relief of Gibraltar and the desultory 
action oft' Cape Spartel on 20 Oct. He is 
said by Burke to have assumed the title of 
baronet after his father's death, 17 June 
1784. If so, it was not acknowledged by the 
admiralty, nor in his official position. After 
the peace, Vandeput commanded the Prin- 
cess Augusta yacht till, on 1 Feb. 1793, he 
was promoted to be rear-admiral. On 4 July 

1794 he was made vice-admiral, and through 

1795 had command of a small squadron in 
the North Sea. In 1796, with his flag in 
the St. Albans, he was employed on convoy 
service to Lisbon and the Mediterranean; 
and in 1797, still in the St. Albans, he com- 
manded the squadron on the coast of North 
America. Towards the end of the year he 
shifted his flag to the Resolution, and in 
1798 to the Asia. He was promoted to the 
rank of admiral on 14 Feb. 1799. He died 
suddenly, on board the Asia, at sea on 
14 March 1800. The body was sent, by the 
Cleopatra, to Providence, and there buried. 
He left an illegitimate son, George, who is 
also said to have called himself a baronet. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. vi. 572 ; Schomberg's 
Naval Chronology ; Commission and Warrant 
Books in the Public Kecord Office ; G-ent. Mag. 
1800, i. 488.] J. K. L. 

1739), portrait-painter, son of Peter Vander- 
bank [q. v.], was born in England about 
1694. He was a highly gifted painter, and 
for a short time during the reign of George I 
enjoyed a great reputation ; but his career 
was marred and his life shortened by vicious 
and extravagant habits. Soon after 1724 he 
opened a drawing academy in rivalry with 
that of Sir James Thornhill [q.v.], introducing 
a female model, but it proved a failure. In 
1729 he went to France to avoid his creditors, 
and on his return entered the liberties of 
the Fleet. He died of consumption in 
Holies Street, Cavendish Square, London, 
on 23 Dec. 1739, aged about 45, and was 
buried in Marylebone church. Vander- 
bank's portraits, among which are those of 
many eminent persons, are skilfully drawn 
and full of character, but slight and careless 
in execution. He had a great talent for 
historical composition, and Vertue speaks 
highly of some of his works of this class. 
He furnished a set of clever designs for the 
illustrations to the edition of the Spanish 
text of ; Don Quixote ' published in London 
under Lord Carteret's patronage in 1738 ; also 

those for ' Twenty-five Actions of the Manage 
Horse, engraved by Josephus Sympson,' 
1729. Vanderbank's portraits of Sir Isaac 
Newton and Samuel Clarke are in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, and that of Thomas 
Guy is at Guy's Hospital ; two others of 
Newton belong to the Royal Society. Many 
of his portraits were engraved by John Faber 
and George White. An album containing his 
original sketches and finished drawings for 
the t Don Quixote ' plates is in the print- 
room of the British Museum. His portrait 
occurs in the group of artists painted by 
Hogarth, now in the university galleries at 
Oxford, of which there is an engraving by 
R. Sawyer. 

[Wai pole's Anecdotes of Painting ; Vertue's 
Collections in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 
23076 f. 13, 23079 f. 11); Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Gent. Mag. 1739, p. 660.] 

F. M. O'D. 

PETER (1649-1697), engraver, was bora 
in Paris in 1649, and studied his art there 
under Nicolas Poilly. About 1674 he ac- 
companied Henri Gascar [q. v.] to England, 
and gained a reputation as an engraver 
of portraits, which he executed on a larger 
scale than any previously produced in this 
country. He worked with great mechanical 
skill, but his plates are deficient in the 
higher qualities of the art. They include 
portraits of Charles II, James II, Mary 
Beatrix, the Prince and Princess of Orange, 
Louis XIV, the Duke of Monmouth, Sir 
William Temple, Sir E. Berry Godfrey, and 
other prominent persons, chiefly from pic- 
tures by Lely, Kneller, and Gascar ; also a 
' Holy Family ' and ' Christ on the Mount 
of Olives,' after S. Bourdon, and three plates 
from Verrio's ceilings at Windsor. Vander- 
bank engraved, from drawings by Lutterell, 
the earlier portraits in Kennett's ' History 
of England.' On his prints his name is 
always spelt ' Vandrebanc.' He received very 
inadequate remuneration for his work, and 
at the end of i.. was in reduced circum- 
stances. He died in 1697 at Bradfield, Hert- 
fordshire, the residence of John Forester, 
whose sister he had married, and was buried 
on 4 Oct. in the church of Cottered-cum- 
Bradfield. After his death his widow sold 
his plates to a print-dealer named Brown, to 
whom they proved a source of great profit. 
A mezzotint by George White, inscribed 
' Peter Vanderbank, engraver,' has been as- 
sumed to be a portrait of him, and copied by 
A. W. Warren for the 1849 edition of Wai- 
pole's * Anecdotes ; ' but the costume is of a 
somewhat later date, and it may possibly 
represent one of his sons, who is said to have 

Van der Doort 


Van der Gucht 

practised engraving, though his works are 
not known. He appears to have had four 
other sons, one of whom, John Vanderbank, 
is separately noticed. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; Strutt's 
Diet, of Engravers; J. Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits; Vertue's Collections in 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 23073, f. 15); 
Cottered parish register.] F. M. O'D. 

HAM (d. 1640), medallist and keeper of 
Charles I's collections, was a native of Hol- 
land, and was at first employed as a modeller 
in the service of the emperor Rudolph II. 
It is uncertain when he came to England, 
but it must have been previous to 1612, 
when he appears to have been in the service 
of Henry Frederick, prince of Wales [q. v.] 
The prince having wished to possess ' an 
Imbost in coloured wax so big as the life, a 
woman's head laid in with silver and gold, 
made by Vanderdoort for the Emperor Rodol- 
phus,' had promised Van der Doort the post of 
keeper of the prince's cabinet and medals in 
the newly erected palace of Whitehall. Henry 
died before the promise could be carried out ; 
but his brother Charles appears to have re- 
tained Van der Doort's services. On Charles's 
accession to the crown in 1625 he appointed 
Van der Doort designer for his coinage with 
a salary, and three years later added the 
post for life of keeper of his majesty's cabi- 
net-room with an additional salary. The 
king took a great personal interest in his 
collections, and there are notes of his visits 
to Van der Doort and conversations about 
the medals, coins, and other rarities. In 
1638 and the following year Van der Doort 
compiled a catalogue of the royal collections 
of pictures, limnings, statues, bronzes, medals, 
and other curiosities. The original manu- 
script appears to be that among the Ashmo- 
lean manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford, comprising a first draft with correc- 
tions and additions by Van der Doort himself 
(Ashmol. MS. 1514) and afair copy (Ashmol. 
MS. 1513). This catalogue was transcribed 
and prepared for press, not very correctly, by 
George Vertue [q. v.], the engraver, and was 
finished and published by W. Bathoe in 
1757. A fair copy, made by Van der Doort 
for the king's own use, formerly in Horace 
Walpole's library, was acquired in 1874 for 
the royal library at Windsor Castle. Van 
der Doort's catalogue forms the most pre- 
cious record of Charles I's splendid collec- 
tion, which was dispersed by the Common- 
wealth a few years later. So keen was Van 
der Doort's interest, and so strong his sense 
of responsibility for the valuable collections 

under his charge, that in 1640, when the 
king asked for a miniature of the ' Lost 
Sheep' by Gibson, and it could not be found, 
Van der Doort committed suicide by hanging 
himself. After his death the miniature was 
found and restored by his executors. In No- 
vember 1628 Secretary Conway tried to 
negotiate a marriage between Van der Doort 
and Louisa, relict of James Cole, presumably 
an eligible widow. It is not recorded 
whether the result was successful. The 
poet George Rodolph Weckherlin [q.v.] wrote 
an epigram on Van der Doort's death. A 
portrait of Van der Doort, painted by W. 
Dobson, was formerly in the Houghton col- 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; Fine Arts Quarterly Review ; Sanderson's 
Graphics, 1658; Eve's England as seen by 
Foreigners; Catalogue of Charles I's Collection, 
ed. Bathoe, 1757.] L. C. 

1695), portrait-painter, a native of Brussels, 
came to England and was employed by Sir 
Peter Lely to paint the draperies in some of 
his portraits. On his marriage he settled in 
Northamptonshire, where he obtained much 
employment as a portrait-painter, especially 
from the Earls of Rutland and Gainsborough. 
He was also patronised by Lord Sherard of 
Stapleford, Leicestershire, at whose house 
he died in September 1695. The parish 
register for that year contains the entry 
' Mr. Jeremiah Vandroyden was buried 
Sept. ye 17.' Walpole gives the name as 

[Walpole's Anecdotes, ed. Wornum, ii. 455; 
parish register of Stapleford, Leicestershire.] 

172o), engraver, born in 1660, was a native 
of Antwerp. He studied engraving there 
under PhilibertBouttats, the leading member 
of a large family of engravers, and in 1673 
was admitted to the guild of St. Luke in 
that city. He came to London about 1690, 
and was largely employed in engraving title- 
pages, portraits, and other illustrations for 
the booksellers, all done with the burin. He 
engraved a large print of the royal navy 
from a pen drawing by T. Baston. Van der 
Gucht died at his house in Bloomsbury on 
16 Oct. 1725, aged 65, and was buried in 
St. Giles's Churchyard. Among his pupils 
were his two sons, Gerard and Jan Van der 
Gucht, and George Vertue [q.v.] 

GERARD VAN DER GUCHT (1696-1776), 
engraver, eldest son of the above, born in 
London in 1696, studied engraving with his 
father. He also studied drawing under 
Louis Cheron at the academy in St. Martin's 

Van der Gucht 


Van der Myn 

Lane. Obtaining thus a freer hand than 
his father, he chiefly practised etching. He 
was also very extensively employed by the 
booksellers on engravings of small size and 
little importance. Among his works were 
a set of engravings from the paintings in the 
cupola of St. Paul's Cathedral by Sir James 
Thornhill [q. v.] He also had a large busi- 
ness as a picture-dealer. Van der Gucht 
died at his house in Lower Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, on 18 March 1776, having 
had between thirty and forty children by 
his wife, who survived him. His younger 
brother, Jan Van der Gucht (1697-1728?), 
also practised engraving under his father's 
direction, and worked for some time in 
Germany. On returning to London he worked 
in rivalry to his brother in the same line of 
engraving. He is stated to have assisted 
Hogarth in some of his earlier plates. He 
died, however, about 1728, of gout and fever, 
when only about thirty-one years of age. 

painter and picture-dealer, was thirty-second 
child of Gerard Van der Gucht, and one of 
twins. He studied drawing in the academy 
at St. Martin's Lane, and on the foundation 
of the Royal Academy he became one of the 
first students in its schools. He painted 
several portraits of some excellence, the 
majority known being those of actors, such as 
Garrick, Johnstone, Moody, and Woodward, 
some of which were engraved. A portrait 
of the last-named is in the Lock Hospital. 
Van der Gucht, however, obtained more re- 
pute as a picture-restorer and picture-dealer, 
and as such was extensively patronised in 
the highest circles of society. He lived for 
some time in Pall Mall, on the site after- 
wards occupied by the Shakespeare Gallery 
and now by the Marlborough Club. When 
he inherited his father's house in Upper 
Brook Street he built a picture gallery on to 
his house, in which he stored the high-class 
pictures in which he dealt, charging one 
shilling to strangers for admission to view 
the collection. On 21 Sept. 1794, while re- 
turning from a visit on business to the Earl 
of Burlington at Chiswick House, the boat 
in which Van der Gucht was travelling was 
run down off Barnes Terrace, and Van der 
Gucht, though an expert swimmer, was 
drowned. His collection was sold by auction 
at Christie's in March 1796. Descendants 
of the family still remain. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; Vertue's Diaries (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 
23076, &c.); Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters ; 
Rombout and Lerius's Liggeren der S' Lukasgilde 
te Antwerpen ; J. Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits ] L. C. 

economic writer, was a timber merchant at 
Blackfriars, London. In 1734 he published 
an economic treatise of some value entitled 
1 Money Answers all Things ; or an Essay to 
make Money plentiful among all Hanks of 
People and increase our Foreign and Do- 
mestick Trade,' London, 8vo. In this work 
he laid down clearly several theories which 
have since been developed by later econo- 
mists, pointing out in particular the principle 
that nominal prices vary according to the 
abundance or scarcity of money. He proposed 
to improve the commercial condition of Eng- 
land by reducing the general rental twenty 
per cent., which he ingeniously endeavoured 
to prove would be of no detriment to the 
landlord on account of the general cheapen- 
ing of labour and commodities which would 
follow. His book is lucidly written, and is 
an interesting exposition of the principles 
which guided the commercial part of the 
nation, and of their points of difference 
with the landed class. Vanderlint died in 
February 1739-40. 

[McCulloch's Lit. of Pol. Econ. p. 162 ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.; London Mag. 1740, 
p. 102; Annals of Europe, 1740, p. 547.] 

E. I. C. 

MLJN, HERMAN (1684-1741), portrait- 
painter, born at Amsterdam in 1684, was 
the son of a Dutch minister. In 1718 he was 
at Paris, where he attracted the notice of the 
painter Coypel, who recommended him to the 
Duke of Orleans. He had not succeeded in 
finding employment in Paris, when he was 
patronised by an Englishman, named Bur- 
roughs, who brought him over to London. 
There Van der Myn was employed by the Duke 
of Chan dos, Lord Cadogan, Sir Gregory Page, 
and others. He obtained a great reputation 
for small portraits, in which the details were 
most laboriously and neatly executed, and 
found many sitters, including Queen Caro- 
line. Van der Myn lived in a large house 
in Soho Square ; but an imprudent marriage, 
leading to a large family, together with ex- 
travagance, involved him in debt, to avoid 
which he returned in 1736 to Amsterdam. 
He did not return to London until 1741, 
shortly after which date he died. By his wife, 
Susanna Bloemendael, he left six sons and 
one daughter. His sister, Agatha van der 
Myn (b. 1705 ?), who came over from Holland 
with him, was a painter of flowers and still 
life. Five of Van der Myn's sons Gerhardt, 
Andreas, Frans (1719-1783), Joris (1723- 
1763), and Robert and his daughter Cor- 
nelia also practised painting. Frans (of 
Frank) Van der Myn obtained some repute' 

Van der Vaart 


Van de Velde 

as a painter of portraits and humorous sub- 
jects in London and also in Norwich, where 
he resided for several years. In 1763 he be- 
came a member of the Free Society of Artists 
in London. His practice was ruined by his 
vulgar habits. He died at Moorfields on 
20 Aug. 1783. There are some mezzotint 
engravings by various members of the family. 
[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num; Vertue's manuscripts (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MSS. 23076, &c.); Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits; Bryan's Diet, of Painters, 
ed. Graves.] L. C. 

1721), painter and mezzotint-engraver, was 
born at Haarlem in Holland in 1647, and 
Avas a pupil of Thomas Wyck. He came to 
London in 1674, and first attracted notice 
as a painter of landscapes (in which he spe- 
cially excelled), small portraits, and espe- 
cially still life. Subsequently he was em- 
ployed by Willem Wissing [q. v.], the 
portrait-painter, then in fashion at court, to 
paint the draperies and landscapes in his 
portraits. Their names appear conjointly as 
painters on several engravings from portraits 
by them. Van der Vaart was one of the 
first artists to practise the art of mezzotint 
engraving, and is said to have instructed the 
great engraver, John Smith (1652 P-1742) 
[q. v.], in that art. He was employed by 
Richard Tompson [q. v.], whose name ap- 
pears as the publisher of many mezzotint 
engravings bearing Van der Vaart's name 
or without it, and also by Edward Cooper, 
a portrait of whom by Van der Vaart was 
engraved in mezzotint by P. Pelham. After 
Wissing's death Van der Vaart continued 
to paint portraits. Among his sitters were 
Queen Mary and the Princess Anne. From 
short sight, however, he abandoned portrait- 
painting, and in 1713, after selling off all 
his pictures, he settled in a house in Covent 
Garden, where he practised chiefly for the 
remainder of his life as a restorer of pictures, 
an art in which he attained great skill. He 
died a bachelor in his house at Covent 
Garden in 1721, and was buried in St. Paul's 
Church. He drew his own portrait twice, 
at the ages of thirty and sixty. A nephew, 
John Arnold, lived with him for thirty or 
forty years, and assisted him in his practice. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- i 
num ; Vertue's manuscripts (Brit. Mus. Addit. j 
MSS. 23076, &c.); Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

1693), painter, born at Ley den in 1610, was 
in boyhood a sailor, but before he was twenty 
he had already won a certain reputation as 

a painter of marine subjects. These he 
executed sometimes in bistre, heightened 
with white, sometimes in oil, in black and 
white. His skill won him the patronage of 
the Dutch states, who put at his disposal a 
small vessel, in which he could follow the 
fleets, and even come to very close quarters, 
during the numerous actions with the Eng- 
lish. In 1675 he received an invitation to 
the English court, in which he performed 
the same offices as for the states of the 
Netherlands. He seems to have never left 
this country again. He was buried in St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly, where his tomb- 
stone bears the following inscription : ' Mr. 
William van de Velde, senior, late painter of 
sea-fights to their Majesties King Charles II 
and King James II, died in 1693.' Many 
of his ' draughts ' seem to have been carried 
out in oil by his son, Willem van de Velde 
the younger [q. v.], but a certain number 
of effective but rather coarsely painted 
' marines ' are probably by himself. Of such 
are the twelve sea-battles at Hampton Court 
Palace and a large picture of ' Fleets at Sea ' 
in the National Gallery of Ireland. 

[Bryan's Dictionary ; Walpole's Anecdotes ; 
Nagler.] W. A. 


younger (1633-1707), painter, born at Am- 
sterdam in 1633, was the pupil of his father, 
Willem Van de Velde (1610-1693) [q. v.], 
but seems to have learnt the technique of oil 
painting from Simon de Vlieger. His occupa- 
tion during a large part of his life was pro- 
bably the painting of oil pictures from his 
father's drawings. He most likely accom- 
panied Willem senior to England in 1675, 
but there is no record of his presence there 
earlier than 1677. About 1686 he paid a 
short visit to Amsterdam. Both father and 
son were granted a pension of 100/. per 
annum by Charles II, the former 'for taking 
and making draughts of sea fights,' the latter 
' for putting the said draughts into colours.' 
Van de Velde the younger made an enormous 
number of drawings. It is said that between 
1778 and 1780 more than eight thousand 
were sold by auction. His pictures also are 
very numerous. Three hundred and twenty- 
nine are described in Smith's ' Catalogue Rai- 
sonne,' the great majority being in English 
private collections. Most of the great gal- 
leries are rich in his works, the Louvre being 
an exception. The National Gallery pos- 
sesses fourteen examples, most of them very 
good. Many of his larger pictures repre- 
sent actions between the English and Dutch 
fleets, and were painted presumably during 
his partnership with his father. On these 

Van Diest 


Van Dyck 

he sometimes wrote the names of the ships 
engaged, and even of their commanders, also 
noting the presence of * V. Velde's Galli- 
jodt' or ' mijn galligodt,' when the vessel 
supplied by the Dutch government had en- 
abled father and son to witness the actual 
meeting of the fleets. The charm of Van 
de Velde lies in his excellent sense of com- 
position, in his fine drawing, in his lightness 
of hand and transparency of colour, and, in 
his best pictures, in his wonderful sense of 
atmosphere and aerial perspective. His 
lightness of hand and transparency often 
desert him in his pictures of storms, which 
are apt to be opaque and inky, and are 
therefore less prized than his calms. Lord 
Northbrook possesses a full-length portrait, 
in small, of Willem van de Velde in his 
studio, by Michiel van Musscher. Van de 
Velde died at Greenwich on 6 April 1707. 

[Bryan's Dictionary ; Kugler ; Nagler; Wai- 
pole ; Smith's Catalogue ; Catalogue of The 
Hague Museum, 1895.] W. A. 

VAN DIEST, ADRIAEN (1656-1704), 
landscape-painter, born at The Hague in 
1656, was son of Willem Van Diest, a 
well-known painter of marine subjects. Van 
Diest received his principal instruction from 
his father, and came to England with him 
when about seventeen years of age. He 
was patronised by various members of the 
nobility, and gained some repute for his 
landscapes. It is probable that he was em- 
ployed by Sir Peter Lely for this purpose, 
for seven landscapes by Van Diest are enu- 
merated in the catalogue of Sir Peter Lely's 
collection. The landscapes were chiefly in 
the Italian manner, suitable for mantelpieces 
or to be placed over doors. That he visited 
Italy at one time is evident from a state- 
ment by Vertue that he had seen a portrait 
of Van Diest l from a drawing done at Rome 
when he was there by a painter in England ; 
he is represented with a sort of Raysed stuff 
about his head and a drawing in his hand 
partly enrolled representing part of a land- 
skip.' His works were carefully if some- 
what laboriously finished. Van Diest died 
of gout in 1704, aged 48, and was buried 
in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. He left a 
son, J. Van Diest, who painted portraits, 
some of which have been engraved. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; Vertue's Diaries (Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 
23068-9) ; Chaloner Smith's Mezzotinto Por- 
traits.] L. C. 

THONIS, ANTOON) (1599-1641), painter 
and etcher, was born in his father's house 
* den Berendans ' in the Grootmarkt at Ant- 

werp on 22 March 1599. His grandfather,. 
Antoon Van Dyck, was a prosperous and 
wealthy silk-mercer at Antwerp, who mar- 
ried Cornelia Pruystincx (of whom there is 
a portrait in the Estense Gallery at Modena), 
and left two sons and a daughter. The elder 
son, Frans Van Dyck, succeeded his father 
in his business, and was twice married. His- 
first wife died at the birth of a son, who did 
not survive ; but by his second wife, Maria, 
daughter of Dirk Cupers and Catharina 
Conincx, he had twelve children, of whom 
the seventh and elder surviving son was An- 
toon, the painter. Two sons and five daughters 
seem to have survived. The eldest daugh- 
ter married a notary at Antwerp, Adriaen 
Dierckx, but the other daughters and the 
younger son all entered the service of the 
church, one daughter, Anna, as a nun, three 
(Susanna, Cornelia, and Isabella or Elisa- 
beth) as ' beguines,' and the younger brother, 
Theodorus (Dirk) Waltmannus, as a pastor 
at Minderhout. Anthony Van Dyck was bap- 
tised in the cathedral church at Antwerp the 
day after his birth. In the same year his 
parents moved into a house, 'Let Kastel van 
Rijssel/ No. 42 Korte Nieuw Straat, at Ant- 
werp, changing rather more than a year later 
to No 46 in the same street,' de Stat Gent, r 
where Van Dyck's childhood was spent. In 
1607 he lost his mother, who died after 
the birth of her twelfth child. She appears 
to have been noted for her skill in em- 
broidery, and from her Van Dyck may have- 
received some early lessons in art. Through- 
out his life Van Dyck maintained an affec- 
tionate intercourse with his brother and 
sisters. His early education was probably 
such as befitted the son of a cultured and. 
wealthy burgher of Antwerp. 

As early as 1609, when only in his eleventh 
year, he had shown enough promise in art 
to be placed as a pupil in the studio of 
Hendrik Van Balen, a well-known painter 
of repute at Antwerp, a friend of Rubens, 
and the master of Snyders. By 1615 he had 
advanced sufficiently to be able to set up for 
himself in a house, ' den Dom van Keulen r 
in the Lange Minderbroeder Straat, which he 
seems to have shared with his friend, Jan 
Brueghel, the younger. Two lawsuits in 
1616 and 1617, respecting family affairs, 
show that he was living in a separate esta- 
blishment from his father. Here he painted 
a series of heads of Christ and the twelve 
apostles, and it is recorded that the en- 
graver, Pieter de Jode, the elder, uncle 
to Brueghel, sat for one of the apostles. 
Van Dyck even at this date had pupils, 
one of whom, Servaes, copied this set of 
' Apostles.' These thirteen paintings were? 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 


exhibited in the house of a picture-dealer at 
Antwerp, and attracted much notice, espe- 
cially from painters, including the grea! 
and, at the time, omnipotent Rubens. Two 
of the set are now in the Dresden Gallery 
with two of the copies, and others can be 
traced in the galleries at Schleissheim anc 
elsewhere. It does not appear that Van Dycls 
ever was actually a pupil of Rubens, although 
it would be impossible for a young painter 
at that date, especially for one working in 
Van Balen's studio, to avoid being educated 
in the all-prevailing methods and style oi 
Rubens, who had swept away all the pre- 
existing canons of art. Two portraits in the 
Dresden Gallery, dated 1618, by Van Dyck, 
have often been ascribed to Rubens. An- 
other in the Brussels Gallery, dated 1619, 
still bears the latter's name. In February 
of that year Van Dyck was admitted 
to the freedom of the guild of St. Luke 
at Antwerp, an unusual honour for so 
young an artist. His earliest historical work 
seems to have been a ' Christ bearing the 
Cross,' one of a long series of pictures illus- 
trating the ' Passion' in the Dominican (now 
St. Paul's) church at Antwerp. He painted 
some early portraits of himself, in which he 
appears beardless, with wavy chestnut hair 
falling about his forehead, and delicate 
rather feminine features. One of these is 
in the National Gallery. A portrait of a boy 
by Van Dyck in the academy at Vienna 
perhaps represents him at a stijl earlier age. 
In 1619 Van Dyck was working in close 
relations with Rubens, who practically mono- 
polised the whole patronage of art in the 
Netherlands at that date. The precision 
of his drawing is shown by his being spe- 
cially employed by Rubens to make the 
drawings from Rubens's paintings for re- 
production by the engravers, who were then 
working under Rubens's direction. A series 
of six cartoons by Rubens for tapestry, re- 
presenting the history of the consul, Decius 
Mus, was carried out in oils by Van Dyck, 
and is now in the Liechtenstein collection 
at Vienna. Early in 1620, when Rubens 
received a commission for thirty large paint- 
ings from the Jesuit order in Antwerp, it 
was stipulated that a large part of the pre- 
liminary work, usually done by Rubens's 
assistants, should be entrusted to Van 
Dyck, and one picture is wholly his work. 
A well-attested anecdote narrates that on 
one occasion, during the absence of Rubens, 
his pupils got access to his studio, when a 
painting, on which Rubens was then en- 
gaged, was accidentally damaged. In dis- 
may, they could not think of any one among 
them, except Van Dyck, who could venture 

to repair the damage. This he did, but did 
not deceive Rubens, who, however, thought 
so highly of Van Dyck's work that he 
allowed it to remain. From his earliest 
days his work shows a breadth and certainty, 
which he maintained throughout. That 
Van Dyck's reputation already stood very 
high is shown by a letter in July 16:20 from 
a correspondent in Antwerp to the art-col- 
lector, Thomas Howard, second earl of Arun- 
del [q. v.], in which it is said that Van Dyck 
is always with Rubens, and that, as he was 
the son of wealthy parents, it would be diffi- 
cult to persuade him to leave Antwerp. By 
November, however, in the same year, Van 
Dyck appears to have yielded to the persua- 
sion of the earl or perhaps the Countess of 
Arundel, for Sir Tobie Matthew [q. v.] writes 
to Sir Dudley Carleton [q. v.] that Van 
Dyck had gone into England, and that the 
king had given him a pension of 100/. per 
annum. On 26 Feb. 1620-1 payment of 
100/. was made to Van Dyck for special ser- 
vice performed for his majesty. It is uncer- 
tain what this service was. James I seems 
to have cared little for any form of art but 
portraiture, and it was probably for por- 
traits of the king and queen (then lately 
dead) and their children, including perhaps 
the deceased Prince Henry, that Van Dyck's 
services were required. A full-length por- 
trait of James I, now in St. George's Hall 
at Windsor Castle, has always been ascribed 
to Van Dyck, and has the appearance of 
having been executed by him. It does not, 
however, seem to have been taken from life, 
and from a note by George Vertue [q. v.] 
in one of his diaries it would appear that 
it was an enlarged copy from a limning. 
Two days after the date of this order for 
payment Van Dyck received, as his majesty's 
servant, a pass to travel for eight months, 
the permission being due apparently to his 
friend and patron, the Earl of Arundel. Van 
Dyck painted Arundel more than once, and 
it seems probable that one of these portraits 
at least (engraved by W. Hollar) was 
painted during this visit to England. That 
Van Dyck's absence from England and the 
royal service was intended to be temporary 
would appear from the wording of this pass, 
[t does not seem likely, however, that he re- 
turned. The journey to be made was probably 
that to Italy, the goal of all northern artists, 
with the wonders of which Arundel was well 
acquainted, and where Rubens himself had 
spent much time with great profit at Genoa, 
Vlantua, Rome, and elsewhere. Rubens, 
who seems always to have taken the most 
undly interest in Van Dyck's welfare, no 
doubt urged on him the importance of 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 

going to Italy. Van Dyck had had many 
opportunities of studying the fine collection 
pi Italian paintings and works of art stored 
in Rubens's house, and had already been 
deeply affected there by the works of Titian 
and other great artists of the Venetian 
school. He had, however, by this time de- 
veloped a style of his own, which, although 
based upon that of Rubens, was marked by 
a restraint and refinement, which, if it 
lacked the strength, was also wanting in the 
somewhat boisterous exuberance of his 
master. Rubens is, without any ground, 
said to have been jealous of Van Dyck, and 
to have advised him to confine his art to 
portraits and animals. This advice, if really 
given, would be nothing more than the ad- 
vice of a master, whose knowledge of his 
art was supreme, to a pupil, whose future 
was uncertain, and who seemed likely to 
devote himself to a. branch of art in which, 
if sure to succeed, he was not likely to excel, 
rather than follow out the true bent of his 
genius. In reality the two painters were 
the best of friends. Van Dyck presented 
Rubens with portraits of himself and his 
wife, Isabella Brant, and also with a fine 
picture of ' The Betrayal of Christ,' now 
in the Prado Gallery of Madrid. Rubens 
is said to have given Van Dyck the best 
horse in his stables for his journey. 

Van Dyck left Antwerp on 3 Oct. 1621, 
in company of Cavaliere Gian Battista Nani, 
an Italian friend of Rubens. He stopped on 
his way at Brussels, and on '20 Nov. 1621 
arrived at Genoa. The romantic legend of 
his delay at Saventhem has now been dis- 
proved. At Genoa a colony of Flemish ar- 
tists was settled, perhaps at the instigation of 
Rubens, who had spent some time in that 
city some years before. Among these were 
two brothers, Lucas and Oornelis De Wael, 
sons of Jacobus De Wael of Antwerp. One 
of Van Dyck's finest portrait groups is that 
of Jacobus De Wael and his wife at Munich, 
and one of the most interesting that of the 
brothers De Wael, now in the Capitol Gal- 
lery at Rome. Van Dyck was warmly re- 
ceived by the brothers, and took up his 
residence in Genoa for a considerable time. 
In the great palaces of the Genoese nobility, 
the Dorias, Spinolas, and others, there were 
many fine works of Titian, Paolo Veronese, 
and other Venetian painters, which con- 
tinued to be the object of Van Dyck's special 
study. It would seem probable that most 
of the mythological paintings by Van Dyck 
date from his first residence in Genoa, ' The 
Education of Bacchus ' (painted for the Gen- 
tili family), the ' Drunken Silenus ' of the 
Durazzo Gallery, and others, all showing 

the influence of Rubens, which at the time 
carried much weight in Genoa. It is, how- 
ever, to the period of his residence at Genoa 
that one portion, perhaps the finest, of Van 
Dyck's life-work belongs, the wonderful 
series of portraits of the Genoese nobility, 
equestrian full-length military knights and 
senators, noble ladies and children, many of 
which still adorn and make famous the great 
palaces of the Spinola, Balbi, Lommelini, 
Durazzo, Brignole-Sala, Adorno, Lercari, 
and other great families. A few of these 
have come to England, including the splendid 
' Lommelini Family ' at Edinburgh ; but the 
majority can be studied only in Genoa. In 
these portraits Van Dyck made full use of 
the rich and costly robes of the nobility, the 
velvets and jewels and heavy brocades, and 
added to the already italianised side of his 
art a rich glow of colour which is worthy 
of Titian himself. These paintings are all 
the more valuable as being in all probability 
entirely or for the greater part the work of 
Van Dyck's own hands. In February 1622 
he left Genoa for Rome, but, after a short 
stay, left again for Florence, where his friend 
and fellow-townsman, Justus Suttermans, 
was now employed in the service of the 
Medici family. There he may have met 
that strange genius, Sir Kenelm Digby [q. v.], 
who afterwards had a considerable influence 
in Van Dyck's career. From Florence he 
went by Bologna to Venice, where he made 
a special study of the paintings by Titian 
and Paolo Veronese. A painting of 'The 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence' is in the church 
of Sta. Maria dell' Orto at Venice. In 1623 
Van Dyck, after visiting Mantua, returned to 
Rome, where his refined and courtly manners 
and mode of life were in strong contrast to the 
rough and roystering habits of his fellow- 
countrymen. The 'pittore cavalleresco' they 
called him, and mocked him for his sensitive 
sobriety of demeanour. At Rome Van Dyck 
found a ready patron in Cardinal BentivogHo, 
who had been lately papal nuncio in the 
Netherlands, was acquainted with Rubens, 
and no doubt also with the growing fame of 
Van Dyck. The portrait of Bentivoglio, 
painted by Van Dyck, now in the Pitti Palace 
at Florence, is one of the most famous por- 
traits in the world. Van Dyck was em- 
ployed by the Colonna, Odescalchi, Bar- 
berini, and other great families in Rome, 
where several of his works still remain. He 
returned, however, to Genoa. His next visit 
was across the sea to Palermo, where he 
painted the portrait of the governor of Sicily, 
Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (at Turin). He 
was, however, forced to quit Palermo, through 
an outbreak of the plague, before completing 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 

any other commissions. The interesting 
sketch-book used by Van Dyck in Italy (in 
the possession of the Duke of Devonshire : 
some copies in the British Museum) con- 
tains many studies after Titian and others, 
noted as having been made in Genoa, 
Home, &c. One of the most interesting 
sketches in the volume is that of the 
nonagenarian and blind painter, Sofonisba 
Anguisciola, whom Van Dyck saw at Paler- 
mo, and who gave him most valuable ad- 
vice upon the art of painting. Returning 
to Genoa, he resumed his painting there, 
and produced several mythological and 
sacred pictures, besides portraits. It was 
here probably at this time that he met 
Nicholas Lanier [q. v.], who was then tra- 
velling in Italy in search of pictures for 
Charles I's collection. Van Dyck painted 
Lanier's portrait. In one of the diaries of 
Charles Beale, husband of Mary Beale [q. v.] 
the painter, there is an interesting note that 
Sir Peter Lely had been told by Lanier 
himself that he had sat for this portrait 
seven entire days, Van Dyck working both 
morning and afternoon, and that it was this 
portrait of Lanier which first caused Charles I 
to send for Van Dyck into England. During 
a visit to Turin Van Dyck painted some fine 
portraits of the house of Savoy. There also 
he met again his old friend the Countess of 
Arundel, who renewed her endeavours to 
persuade Van Dyck to go into England. 

In December 1625 Van Dyck was still 
absent from his home, but appears to have 
started on his journey back. His move- 
ments, however, during the next two years 
are uncertain. He seems to have returned 
by Aix, where he visited and painted the 
famous writer and savant Peiresc, and he 
probably also visited Paris, a well-known 
portrait of Fran 9013 Langlois (lit Ciartres, 
the art publisher, playing the bagpipes (in 
the possession of Mr. Garnett), being pro- 
bably due to this visit. The exact date of 
his return to Antwerp seems uncertain. 
There is no certain proof of his being there 
before March 1628, when he made his will; 
but it seems likely that he may have re- 
turned as early as January 1626. 

With Van Dyck's return to Antwerp 
commences the period of his career when he 
reached his highest point in the world of 
art. For the next five or six years he re- 
sided in Antwerp, the rival of Rubens in the 
painting of history, unapproachable in por- 
traiture, attached as court painter to the 
regents, Albert and Isabella of Austria, 
while his aristocratic appearance and refined 
habits made him, as it were, the preux 
chevalier of painting. His father had died 

on 1 Dec. 1622, during his absence in Italy, 
and one of Van Dyck's first duties on his re- 
turn was to paint a large picture of * Christ 
on the Cross between St. Catherine of Siena 
and St. Dominick ' as an epitaph for the tomb 
of his father in the church of the Domini- 
cans at Antwerp (1629). In this picture 
(now in the Antwerp Museum) Van Dyck 
shows a preference for sober blacks and 
greys, and for expressing sentiment by ex- 
pression rather than by action, which is in 
strong contrast to the vehemence and 
brilliant colouring of Rubens's later works. 
Many were the paintings, chiefly sacred, 
which Van Dyck painted during this period, 
and some of them are of the highest merit. 
The influence of Titian is frequently obvious, 
as in the ' Samson and Delilah ' and ' Venus 
at the Forge of Vulcan ' at Vienna. Some- 
times also his works reveal his study of the 
Bolognese school. He repeated the same 
subject many times with but slight variations, 
such as ' Christ on the Cross,' or the * Pieta,' 
or ' Lamentation over the Body of Christ,' a 
subject in which he particularly excelled. 
The finest examples are now to be seen in 
the galleries at Antwerp. Vienna, Munich, 
and elsewhere, while some isolated examples 
remain in their original places, such as the 
' St. Augustine ' at Antwerp, the ' Raising 
of the Cross ' at Courtrai, and the ' Cruci- 
fixion' at Termonde. In some cases Van 
Dyck seems to have deliberately used a 
sketch or design by Rubens, as in the case of 
the l Archbishop Ambrose and the Emperor 
Theodosius ' in the National Gallery, or that 
of the ' Pieta ' in the Liechtenstein collec- 
tion at Vienna, and made it into a painting 
of his own. This was probably with the 
full knowledge and approval of Rubens, 
who was most liberal to his brother artists. 
He employed the same school of engravers 
as Rubens, and many of his pictures were 
finely engraved by Paulus Pontius, Lucas 
Vorsterman, and other first-rate engravers. 
It is sometimes difficult to distinguish be- 
tween the works of Rubens and Van Dyck 
when Van Dyck was working after Rubens. 
This is noteworthy in the case of the ' St. 
Martin dividing his Cloak ' at Windsor, and 
the similar subject in the church of Savent- 
hem. These two pictures closely resemble 
each other, the former, long ascribed to 
Rubens, being an early work and obviously 
the prior in execution, while the latter has 
for centuries been the centre of the romance 
in Van Dyck's early life on his way to Italy. 
It is probable that both were painted by Van 
Dyck. The picture at Saventhem seems to 
have been executed about 1629 for Ferdinand 
de Boisschot, Comte d'Erps and Baron van 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 

Saventhem, whose portrait Van Dyck painted 
with that of his wife, Maria de Camudio (the 
latter is in the Aremberg Gallery at Brussels). 
Another noteworthy instance is the well- 
known 'Raising of the Brazen Serpent,' in 
the Prado Gallery at Madrid, to which the 
signature of Rubens has been affixed, and 
of which a fine variant belongs to Sir Francis 
Cook, bart. (at Richmond); both are the 
work of Van Dyck. Probably, like Rubens, 
Van Dyck kept a school of pupils, and super- 
intended the work after the fashion of his 
master. Some of Van Dyck's finest portraits 
were executed at this time, notably the 
equestrian portraits of the Marquis d'Aytona 
(in the Louvre) and the Due d' Aremberg 
(at Holkham). His portraits of this period 
are less rich and glowing than those of his 
Genoese period, but they have the dignity 
of pose, the courtliness of manner, the sober 
colouring, and exquisite rendering of the 
tints, especially the hands and the drapery, 
which are usually associated with the name 
of Van Dyck. If any fault is to be found 
with them, it might be said that he has 
invested the rather ordinary burghers and 
artists of his acquaintance with all the airs 
and attributes of the oldest nobility or the 
heroes of romance. Van Dyck no doubt 
profited greatly by the absence of Rubens 
on his diplomatic missions to Spain and 
England. On 18 May 1628 the Earl of 
Carlisle visited Van Dyck in his house at 
Antwerp, and met Rubens there. 

One of the most important sitters to Van 
Dyck, besides the Archduchess Isabella Clara 
Eugenia, was the exiled queen mother of 
France, Marie de Medicis, who, while in 
Antwerp, visited Van Dyck in his own house 
and was painted by him, as was her son 
Gaston, due d'0r!6ans (full-length, in the 
collection of the Earl of Radnor). Good 
examples of Van Dyck's portrait-painting at 
this period to be found in English collections 
are Philippe le Roy and his wife (Hertford 
House), Cornells van der Geest (National 
Gallery), the Burgomaster Triest (Earl 
Brownlow at Ashridge). the organist Liberti 
(Knole, Euston, and Munich), the Abbe" 
Scaglia, a noted political intriguer (Dor- 
chester House), and Frans Snyders, the 
painter (Castle Howard). On the continent 
attention may be drawn to the portraits of 
Snyders and his wife (Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg, and Cassel), the Prince of 
Pfalz-Neuburg and the Duke and Duchess 
of Croy (full-lengths, at Munich), Maria 
Luisa de Tassis (Liechtenstein collection, 
Vienna), Anna Wake (The Hague), and 
the president Richardot and his son (Louvre, 

During this period also Van Dyck, besides 
employing the fine engravers of the Rubens 
school^ tried his own hand at etching, with 
the result of producing a series of about 
twenty-two etchings, mostly portraits, in- 
cluding one of himself, which are ranked by 
all connoisseurs among the greatest treasures 
of the painter-etcher's art, the supreme gift 
of portraiture being linked with the most 
exquisite sense of the scope of that particular 
art. It would appear that during his voyage 
in Italy Van Dyck commenced a series of por- 
trait studies in grisaille of his friends, 
especially artists, and the various eminent 
personages with whom from time to time he 
was brought into contact. He continued to 
make these studies at Antwerp and else- 
where, whenever the opportunity presented 
itself. When they amounted to a considera- 
ble number, Van Dyck seems to have thought 
of publishing them in engraving, and to 
have intended commencing the engravings 
himself by etching the heads before handing 
them over to the engravers for completion. 
The plates on which he etched these heads 
do not seem to have left his possession dur- 
ing his lifetime. Some of the portrait 
studies were, however, engraved and pub- 
lished by an Antwerp print-dealer, Martin 
van der Enden. After Van Dyck's death the 
whole collection seems to have passed to 
another print-dealer, Gilles Hendricx of 
Antwerp, who had Van Dyck's etchings 
completed as engravings, and published the 
whole series, rather over a hundred plates, 
in 1641 under the title of * Icones Princi- 
pum, Virorum Doctorum, Pictorum, Chal- 
cographorum, Statuariorum, nee non Ama- 
torum pictoriaB artis numero centum ab 
Antonio Van Dyck pictore ad vivum expresses 
ejusque sumptibus seri incisse.' From this 
title it is evident that this series, which is 
known as the ' Centum Icones ' or ' Icono- 
graphise 'of Van Dyck, was actually projected 
by him. The original studies in grisaille 
are dispersed among the collections of 
Europe, but no fewer than thirty-seven are in 
that of the Duke of Buccleuch at Montague 
House, Whitehall. 

Meanwhile overtures were not wanting to 
induce Van Dyck to come back to England. 
Charles I had seen and acquired the portrait 
of Nicholas Lanier, brought home by that 
agent from Genoa. Arundel and Kenelm 
Digby added their attempts to persuade. It 
is possible that Van Dyck may have paid a 
short visit to England, and stayed at the 
house of his friend, George Geldorp [q. v.] 
in Drury Lane, but there is no proof of this 
other than the tradition of his having been 
Geldorp's guest. In 1629 Endymion Porter 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 

[q. v.], who was agent for Charles I in the 
Netherlands and became acquainted with j 
Van Dyck, purchased from the painter at j 
Antwerp a picture of ' Rinaldo and Armida,' j 
which he brought over and delivered to the , 
king. This is probably the picture now in j 
the possession of the Duke of Newcastle at 
Clumber. Van Dyck painted Porter's por- I 
trait in 1631. In May 1631 he was in j 
Antwerp, for he stood sponsor at the | 
christening of a daughter of Lucas Vorster- 
man. Before the end of 1631 the overtures 
to Van Dyck had been so far successful that 
he seems to have seriously contemplated re- 
moving to England. According to a tradi- 
tion handed down to Vertue from Eemigius 
Van Leemput [q. v.], the painter, this was 
due to the Duke of Buckingham, who saw 
Van Dyck at Antwerp, and had his portrait 
painted by him. This portrait he showed to 
Charles I, who ordered Van Dyck to be sent 
for. He came and drew the portrait of Queen 
Henrietta Maria. This the king showed 
to Daniel Mytens [q. v.], then court painter, 
who at once asked leave to withdraw to his 
native land, since the king had got a better 
painter. Van Dyck asked leave to return 
and settle his affairs before coming to 
reside in England. The negotiations were, 
however, delayed by the shifty conduct of 
another political agent and artist, Sir Bal- 
thasar Gerbier [q. v.],who in December 1631 
offered Lord-treasurer Weston for the king 
or queen a small painting by Van Dyck which 
he had bought in Brussels. Geldorp seems to 
have heard from Van Dyck that this picture 
was only a copy, and to have told the lord 
treasurer so. In consequence of this Van 
Dyck drew back and postponed his journey, 
which was ostensibly only to bring over the 
portraits of the Infanta and Marie de Medicis 
as presents to the king and queen. Instead 
of coming to England, Van Dyck seems to 
have gone into Holland and painted portraits 
at the court of Frederic Henry of Orange in 
the Hague. To this journey may be ascribed 
the famous visit to Frans Hals, with the 
picturesque exchange of portraits and com- 
pliments between the two painters, and also 
the full-length portrait of the young princes, 
Charles Louis and Rupert, sons of the exiled 
king and queen of Bohemia (at Vienna). 

By April 1632 Van Dyck had arrived 
in London, and lodged with Edward Norgate 
[q. v.] in the Blackfriars. Charles I took 
immediate steps to find him a suitable lodg- 
ing, consulted Inigo Jones upon the matter, 
paid Norgate's expenses, and finally assigned 
Van Dyck a house in the Blackfriars and 
apartments for the summer in the royal palace 
at Eltham in Kent. In the Blackfriars Van 

Dyck was the neighbour of Cornelius Janssen 
[q. v.] and other artists, who had selected 
that neighbourhood as being outside the 
jurisdiction of the guilds in the city of Lon- 
don. Charles I treated the painter with 
unusual honour. On 5 July 1632 Van Dyck 
was knighted at St. James's Palace, and is 
described as principal painter in ordinary to 
their majesties. The king bestowed on him 
a heavy gold chain, with the king's portrait 
set in brilliants, and this chain is conspicuous 
in Van Dyck's later portraits of himself. The 
king and queen were constant visitors to Van 
Dyck's studio, and a special landing-stage 
was erected at Blackfriars to allow of the 
royal party passing easily to the painter's 
house. Van Dyck now commenced a series 
of portraits of the royal family which in 
themselves would be sufficient to establish 
him in the front rank of painters. The 
earliest seems to have been the large group 
of the king and queen and their two children. 
This group is at Windsor Castle, where are 
also the great portrait of Charles I on horse- 
back, attended by an equerry, of which other 
versions exist, a full-length of the king in 
royal robes, and the famous painting of the 
king's head in three positions, which was 
sent to the sculptor Bernini at Rome for him 
to make a bust from. Among the portraits 
of Henrietta Maria at Windsor are two said 
to have been ordered from Van Dyck for the 
same purpose. Elsewhere the most note- 
worthy portraits of the king and queen are 
the great equestrian portrait of Charles, for- 
merly at Blenheim, and now in the National 
Gallery, the full-lengths of the king and 
queen, which have passed through the Whar- 
ton and Hough ton collections to the Hermi- 
tage at St. Petersburg, and, above all, the 
famous portrait, ' Le Roi a la Chasse,' in the 
Louvre at Paris, which may safely be ranked 
among the finest portraits in the world. The 
portraits of the queen are very numerous 
and of varying excellence, but special note 
may be made of those at Longford Castle 
and at Dresden. The queen extended her 
patronage of Van Dyck so far as to send for 
his pastor-brother from the Netherlands to 
be one of her chaplains. The king gave him 
in 1633 a pension of 200/. per annum. In 
March 1634 Van Dyck returned to Antwerp, 
probably to settle certain family affairs, for 
ho then gave his sister Susanna a deed of 
temporary power to administer his affairs, 
thus showing that he did not consider his 
stay in England to be a permanent one. At 
Antwerp he enjoyed the favour of the new 
regent, Don Ferdinand of Austria, whom he 
painted, and executed some other important 
works, such as the family of Count John of 

Van Dyck 


Van Dyck 

Nassau (at Panshanger), and the Prince of 
Carignan-Savoy (at Berlin). He remained 
more than a year in the Netherlands, and 
painted at Brussels, among other works, an 
immense picture of the magistrates of that 
city in session, which was unfortunately de- 
stroyed by fire at a later date. He did not 
return to England until the end of 1635, 
when he resumed his duties to the court and 
nobility untilt he middle of 1640. It was in 
these years that he executed the greater part 
of those works which are scattered among 
the mansions of the nobility in England and j 
in the royal palaces, including the well- 
known groups of the children of the king 
and queen, first the three children in 1635, 
and then the five in 1637. There is hardly 
any noble family of antiquity in England 
which does not boast of an ancestor painted 
by Van Dyck. Standing as they did on the 
brink of the civil wars, the gallant cavaliers 
and fair ladies of the court form a regiment 
of youth and beauty, of dignity and heroism, 
that has never been rivalled elsewhere, and are 
in themselves a history of their time, written 
from one point of view. Whether singly, 
a host too innumerable to deal with here, 
in pairs, such as the Lord John and Lord Ber- 
nard Stuart (at Cobham Hall),the Lords Digby 
and Bedford (at Althorp), the Strafford and 
his secretary (at Wentworth Woodhouso), 
the Carew and Killigrew (at Windsor), in 
family groups, such as the Herbert family (at 
Wilton), or great ladies, such as the famous 
Countesses of Carlisle, Bedford, and Leicester 
(atPetworth), the galaxy of Van Dyck's por- 
traits has continued to entrance the world. 
It is small wonder that the cause of the 
cavaliers has ever been dear to the lovers of 
beauty and romance, and that Charles I's 
faults and weaknesses have been redeemed in 
their sight by the fascinating melancholy of 
his face as portrayed by Van Dyck. 

Considering that Van Dyck's working resi- 
dence in England was only about six years 
and a half, and that a large part of this time 
was taken up by commissions for the court, 
it is obviously impossible that the immense 
number of portraits, with their innumerable 
repetitions, which are credited to him, should 
have been entirely the work of his own hand. 
Fortunately Jabach, an art amateur and 
dealer of Cologne, has left a record of Van 
Dyck's method : how he gave each sitter a 
fixed period for a sitting, and, after making 
notes of the costume and draperies, handed 
the portrait and his notes to his assistants 
to complete. When the portrait neared its 
finish he went over the whole himself, and 
it is therefore difficult, in the case of many 
versions of the same portrait of equal excel- 

lence, to declare that any one is actually the 
original. Many of Van Dyck's drawings of 
this kind are to be found in the British 
Museum, the Louvre, and other public col- 
lections. He is said always to have received 
his sitters richly dressed himself. Through- 
out his life in England Van Dyck lived a life 
of wealth and luxury. He was always super- 
sensitive to the charms of the fair sex, and 
while he resided at Blackfriars and Eltham 
he was never out of women's toils. One fair 
lady, Margaret Lemon by name, ruled his 
house, and he has left some most attractive 
portraits of her. Even his own wealth could 
not cope with the extravagance of his living, 
and save him from haggling with the king 
about his ill-paid pension, or driving hard bar- 
gains with his lady sitters. At last the king 
and queen found him a wife among the ladies 
of the court, Mary, daughter of Patrick Ruth- 
ven, granddaughter of the Earl of Gowrie, 
and related to some of the ruling families in 
the land. Van Dyck agreed willingly to the 
marriage, which took place in 1640, much 
to the anger of his mistress, who is said to 
have tried to mutilate his right hand, with 
which he painted. The cloud of civil war 
was, however, beginning to darken the 
horizon. The payments from the royal ex- 
chequer became more irregular. Van Dyck's 
health began to suffer from his life of com- 
bined pleasure and hard work. He is said 
also to have injured his health in the study 
of alchemy, probably in company with his 
friend, Sir Kenelm Digby [q. v.j He was 
disappointed in a scheme which he had drawn 
out for decorating the banqueting-hall at 
Whitehall with a procession of the knights 
of the Garter (his original sketch is at Bel- 
voir Castle). His portraits of himself in later 
years show the face of a delicate voluptuary. 
One well-known portrait, in which the 
painter points to a sunflower, probably in- 
dicates the vicissitudes of his fortunes. 

In June 1640 Rubens died at Antwerp, 
leaving his school of painters and engravers 
without a head, and numerous commissions, 
including a series of paintings for the king of 
Spain, unfinished. The only painter capable 
of filling his place was Van Dyck. In Sep- 
tember 1640 he left England'for Antwerp, 
where he was invited to complete the pictures 
for the king of Spain. This Van Dyck de- 
clined to do, though he offered to paint fresh 
ones himself. He fully intended to return 
permanently to Antwerp, but early in 1641 
he went to Paris, hearing that there was a 
project for the decoration of the Louvre, and 
hoping to obtain such a commission as Ru- 
bens had secured in the case of the Luxem- 
bourg palace. In this endeavour, however, 

Van Dyck 


he was frustrated by the work being entrusted 
to the native painters, Simon Vouet and Nico- 
las Poussin. In November 1641, broken in 
health and spirits, Van Dyck returned to Lon- 
don. On 1 Dec. his wife gave birth to a 
daughter at Blackfriars. On 4 Dec. Van 
Dyck made a fresh will. On the 9th, the 
same day that his daughter Justiniana was 
baptised, the great painter died in his house 
at Blackfriars, aged 42 years, eight months, 
and seventeen days. On the llth he was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, near the tomb 
of John of Gaunt, where a monument was 
erected to his memory; but both grave and 
monument were destroyed by the great fire 
in 1G66. In his will he provides for his 
newly born daughter, and also for an ille- 
gitimate daughter, Maria Theresa, born at 
Antwerp apparently before he went to Italy. 
His sister Susanna was appointed guardian 
to the infant. 

Van Dyck's widow married Sir Richard 
Pryse, bart., of Gogerddan in Wales, and 
died in 1645. Justiniana married, in 1653, 
when only twelve years old, Sir John Bap- 
tist Stepney, bart., of Pendergast, Pem- 
brokeshire. She appears to have inherited 
her father's art of painting, and is known to 
have painted a picture of the 'Crucifixion' 
which excited some attention. In 1660 she 
and her husband were received into the 
Roman catholic church at Antwerp, where 
her three daughters afterwards became be- 
ffuines, like their aunts. Her son, Sir Thomas 
Stepney, was the ancestor of the present Sir 
Arthur E. Cowell-Stepney, bart. At the 
Restoration Lady Stepney claimed the re- 
newal of her father's pension, and succeeded 
in her suit. Maria Theresa, the illegitimate 
daughter of Van Dyck, married, in 1641, the 
year of her father's death, Gabriel Essers 
Drossart van Bouchout of Antwerp, and her 
children assumed the name of Essers Van 

The whole course of painting in England 
was altered by the brilliant career and 
achievements of Van Dyck. He destroyed 
the somewhat hard and narrow traditions of 
portraiture which had obtained before, and 
established a principle by which nearly all 
his successors in England have been guided. 
His merits as an historical painter have re- 
ceived less recognition in England, and even 
at Antwerp and elsewhere on the continent 
they have been overshadowed by the over- 
whelming and colossal genius of Rubens. 
In many ways his sacred and mythological 
paintings are in strong contrast to his master's 
in their sober and refined key of colour, their 
freedom from violent or contorted action, 
and the delicate shrinking from the nude 

or the more fleshly aspect of his art. As a 
portrait-painter Van Dyck may lack the pre- 
cision of Holbein or tender intimacy of Cor- 
nelius Janssen, the directness and amazing 
technical skill of Velazquez or Frans Hals, 
the mysterious pathos of Rembrandt ; but 
in his own manner he reigns supreme, and 
his genius needs no interpreter. It is curious 
that in England, where his fame ranks so 
high, Van Dyck's works can be studied only 
with difficulty, since they are so widely dis- 
persed. Windsor, Petworth, and The Grove 
(the seat of the Earl of Clarendon), each 
have several fine examples. Better oppor- 
tunities are afforded by the superb collections 
at Antwerp, Paris, Madrid, Munich, Cassel, 
Vienna, and at St. Petersburg, where, in the 
Hermitage Gallery, is the series of full- 
lengths painted by Van Dyck for the Duke 
of Wharton, the finest works of his latest 
years. The National Gallery possesses but 
five pictures of importance, and the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery only one. 

[Carpenter's Pictorial Notices of Van Dyck, 
1844; Michiel's Rubens et 1'Ecole d'Anvers; 

F. van den Brandon's Geschiedenis der Ant- 
werpsche Schilderschool; Guiffrey's AntoineVan 
Dyck et son (Euvre ; Van Dyck by P. R. Head ; 
Smith's Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of Van 
Dyck; Hymans's' Van Dyck 'in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica (9th ed.) ; Cunningham's' Van Dyck in 
England' in the Builder, 1864 ; Woltmann and 
Woermann's Geschichte der Malerei ; Menotti's 
'Van Dyck in Genoa' in Archivio Storico dell' 
Arte, 1897; Neve's Notes surquelques Portraits 
de la Galerie d'Arenberg; Catalogues of the 
principal picture galleries in England and on 
the Continent; Cat. of the Van Dyck Exhibi- 
tion, Grosvenor Gallery, 1887; De Piles's Lives 
of the Painters : Max Rooses' Rubens et son 
(Euvre; Wibiral's Iconographie d'Antoine Van 
Dyck ; Rathgeber's Annalen der niederlandischen 
Malerei, &c. ; manuscript notes by the late Sir 

G. Scharf, K.C.B. ; information kindly supplied 
by Mons. Henri Hymans of Brussels.] L. C. 

VANDYKE, PETER (/. 1767), painter, 
born in Holland in 1729, came over to Eng- 
land at the invitation of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds to assist in painting draperies and 
similar work for him. He exhibited a few 
pictures at the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1762 and 1764, and six portraits 
at the Free Society of Artists in 1767. Sub- 
sequently he settled at Bristol and practised 
as -a portrait-painter there. He painted for 
Joseph Cottle [q. v.], the publisher, por- 
traits of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and 
Southey, which are now in the National 
Portrait Gallery. The portrait of Coleridge 
was engraved. The date of his death has 
not been ascertained. It has been stated, 




but apparently with little ground, that he 
was connected by family with Sir Anthony 
Van Dyck. He was possibly related to 
Philip Van Dyk, a well-known portrait- 
painter at Amsterdam, who died in 1752. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists (1760-1892); Cat. of National Por- 
trait Gallery, 1888.] L. C. 

VANE (1713-1788), daughter of Francis 
Hawes of Parley Hall, near Reading, one 
of the South Sea directors, was born at 
Purley in 1713. tier father's finances were 
disorganised in 1721 (when the estates of 
the South Sea directors were sold), and she 
had little or no dowry, but her striking 
beauty won her a titled suitor, and she mar- 
ried, when nineteen, Lord William, second 
son, by his second wife, of James Douglas, 
fourth duke of Hamilton and first duke of 
Brandon [q. v.] The bridegroom had no 
ostensible means of supporting his wife, and 
Queen Caroline named the pair the ' hand- 
some beggars.' Two years later, Lord Wil- 
liam, who had recently been appointed M.P. 
for Lanarkshire, died at his house in Pall 
Mall (11 July 1734). After an interval of 
ten months Lady Anne took as her second 
husband, in May 1735, William Vane, second 
Viscount Vane (1714-1789), for whom she 
always expressed an exaggerated abhor- 
rence. Lord Vane, who inherited a large 
fortune (largely out of the Newcastle es- 
tates), was the third but eldest surviving 
son of William Vane, created Viscount 
Vane by patent dated Dublin, 13 Oct. 1720. 
The second viscount, who upon his mar- 
riage had but recently succeeded to the title, 
was thus a great-grandson of Sir Henry Vane 
(1613-1662) [q. v.], the regicide. He was 
distinguished through life by his sensitive 
uprightness in politics, and by a doting fond- 
ness for his wife which led him to ignore her 
most flagrant peccadilloes. Lady Vane, or 
* Lady Fanny ' as she was now called, was 
the finest minuet dancer in England, and as 
extravagant as the most capricious of dan- 
seuses. As early as January 1737 his lord- 
ship had occasion to advertise in the papers 
for the recovery of his wife, and for the 
next thirty years her escapades were both 
frequent and costly. She entertained large 
parties at the family seat of Fairlawn in Kent, 
where she diverted her guests by ridiculing 
her husband. At Bath, where she fre- 
quently led the balls, at Tunbridge Wells, and 
at other resorts, she set up temporary estab- 
lishments, her tenure of which was generally 
terminated by the sale of the furniture to pay 
tier gambling debts. Her husband for a time, 

in order to escape from the importunity of 
her creditors, was compelled to reside within 
the rules of the king's bench. Her name 
had already become conspicuous in the annals 
of gallantry when in 1751 she caused a sen- 
sation by paying Smollett to insert, as 
chapter eighty-one, in his novel ' Peregrine 
Pickle,' her ' Memoirs of a Lady of Quality.' 
This most impudent and repulsive narrative, 
by the side of which Smollett's sins against 
good taste appear venial, was compiled by 
Lady Vane from materials afforded by her 
own experience with the aid, it is said, of Dr. 
John Shebbeare [q. v.] She is stated to have 
given the work to her husband to read. The 
viscount steadily refused to sue for a divorce. 
Fortunately for him the lady was incapa- 
citated by disease before his ruin was com- 
plete. She spent the last twenty years of 
her life in bed, studying the philosophy of 
Lord Chesterfield, died in Curzon Street, 
where she had an establishment for many 
years apart from her husband, on 31 March 
1788, and was buried in the family vault of 
the Vanes at Shipbourne in Kent. Her 
charms were best known, wrote an ac- 
quaintance, ' to a race of men departed long 
since ; the Duke of Leeds and Lord Kil- 
morey are almost the only survivors of her 
fame and beauty.' The testimony to her 
beauty is as strong as to the fact that she 
remained to the last a stranger to the veriest 
rudiments of good feeling. With the death 
of her husband, the second Lord Vane, in 
1789 the title became extinct. The British 
Museum print-room has a 'watch paper' 
portrait (one and three-quarter inches in 
diameter) of ' Lady Vane ' in winter dress, 
engraved in 1787. 

Dr. Johnson's verse (in the Vanity of 
Human Wishes), ' Yet Vane could tell what 
ills from beauty spring,' referred not to her, 
but to her distant connection, ANNE VANE 
(1705-1736), maid of honour to Queen Caro- 
line and mistress to Frederick, prince of 
Wales. Anne Vane, known as 'the Hon. 
Mrs. Vane,' was the eldest daughter of Gilbert 
Vane, second lord Barnard, and was sister of 
the Earl of Darlington. Her mother, Mary, 
daughter of Alderman Morgan Randyll, left 
a bad reputation upon her death, 4 Aug. 1728. 
In 1732 Anne Vane had a son, who was 
publicly christened Cornwell Fitz-Frederick 
Vane. She lay in with little mystery in St. 
James's Palace, yet it was doubted whether 
the prince was the parent, and Horace Wai- 
pole states that ' Fred,' Lord Hervey, and 
the first Lord Harrington each confided to 
Sir Robert Walpole that he was the father 
of the child. The infant died on 26 Feb. 
1735-6, and the unhappy mother, at Bath, a 



few weeks later, on 27 March (see, letter of 
Miss Vane to Mrs. Howard in Suffolk Cor- 
respondence, i. 407 sq., and CHOKER'S note] 
cf. Addit. MS. 22(529, f. 28; CHESTER, 
Westm. Abbey Reg. p. 345 ; HERVEY, Me- 
moirs, passim ; Gent. May. 1736, p. 168 ; 
and art. FREDERICK Louis). Some of her ex- 
periences are lightly touched in ' The Secret 
History of Vanella ' (1732). There is an 
engraving of Mrs. Vane by Faber after Van- 
derbank, and she was the model for Hogarth's 
Anne Boleyn in the picture of 1729. She 
seems to have answered Horace Walpole's 
description of ' My Lady Vane ' as a i living 
academy of lovelore ' almost as well as the 

[A Letter to the Rt. Hon. the Lady V ss 
V. Occasioned by the Publication of her Me- 
moirs in the Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, 
London, 1751, 8vo, a well-earned remonstrance; 
Gent. Mag. 1788 i. 368, 461, 1789 i. 575, 403 ; 
Burke's Extinct Peerage; Collins's Peerage, ed. 
Brydges, 1812, i. 547, iv. 524; Ohambers's Me- 
moir of Smollett, pp. 58 sq.; Boswell's Life of 
Johnson, ed.Hill, v. 49 ; Walpole's Corresp. ed. 
Cunningham, i. 91, 177, ii. 242. 391, v. 14, 15; 
Jesse's Court of Hanover; Warburton's Horace 
Walpole and his Contemporaries, 1851, i. 234; 
J. Chaloner Smith's Cat. of British Mezzotinto 
Portraits, p. 435.] T. S. 

VANE, SIR HENRY, the elder (1589- 
1655), secretary of state, born on 18 Feb. 
1589, was the eldest son of Henry Vane 
or Fane of Hadlow, Kent, by his second 
wife, Margaret, daughter of Roger Twysden 
of East Peckham, Kent (COLLINS, Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, iv. 502 ; cf. art. TWYSDEN, SIR 
ROGER). He matriculated from Brasenose 
College, Oxford, on 15 June 1604, was ad- 
mitted a student of Gray's Inn in 1606, and 
was knighted by James I on 3 March 1611. 
At the age of twenty-three he married 
Frances Darcy, daughter of Thomas Darcy of 
Tolleshurst Darcy, Essex (DALTON, History 
of the Family of Wray, ii. 113). Imme- 
diately after his marriage, writes Vane in 
an autobiographical sketch, 'I put myself 
into court, and bought a carver's place by 
means of the friendship of Sir Thomas Over- 
bury, which cost me 5,000/.' Next year he 
devoted the 3,000/. of his wife's portion to 
purchasing from Sir Edward Gorge a third 
part of the subpoena office in chancery, and 
later so ingratiated himself with the king 
that James gave him the reversion of the 
whole office for forty years (ib.} In 1617 
Sir David Foulis sold him the post of cofferer 
to the Prince of Wales, and he continued to 
hold this office after Charles had become 
king (Court and Times of James I, i. 462). 
About 1629 he became comptroller of the 


| king's household in place of John, first 
baron Savile [q. v.] (Court and Times cf 
Charles I, ii. 16 ; COLLINS, iv. 507). Finally, 
in September 1639 he was made treasurer 
of the household (ib. p. 513). 

Vane's career at court was interrupted by 
a quarrel with Buckingham, from whom he 
underwent ' some severe mortification' men- 
tioned by Clarendon, but he made his peace 
with the favourite, and after Buckingham's 
death was in high favour with Lord-treasurer 
Weston (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1625-6, 
p. 10; Rebellion, vi. 411). He represented 
Lostwithiel in the parliament of 1614, Car- 
lisle from 1621 to 1626, and Rctford in 1628, 
but took no important part in the debates 
of the house. In February and again in 
September 1629, and in 1630, Charles sent 
Vane to Holland in the hope of negotiating 
a peace between the United Provinces and 
Spain, and obtaining the restoration of the 
palatinate by Spanish means (GARDINER, 
History of 'England, vii. 101, 108, 370; 
cf. GREEN, Lives of the Princesses, v. 476-9). 
In September 1631 he was despatched to 
Germany to negotiate with Gustavus Adol- 
phus ; but as Charles merely offered the king 
of Sweden 10,000/. per month, and expected 
him to pledge himself to effect the restitu- 
tion of the palatinate, Gustavus rejected 
the proposed alliance. Vane's negotiations 
were also hindered by a personal quarrel 
with Gustavus, but he gave great satis- 
faction to his own master. ' Through your 
wise and dexterous carriage of that great 
business,' wrote Cottington to him, ' you 
have saved his majesty's money and his 
honour' (GREEN, v. 488-504; GARDINER, 
vii. 188-205 ; RUSHWORTH, ii. 107, 129, 166- 

A letter from Sir Tobie Matthew to Vane, 
written about the same time, adds further 
testimony of Vane's favour at court (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1631-3, p. 437). Cla- 
rendon, who is throughout very hostile to 
Vane, describes him as a man ' of very ordinary 
parts by nature, and he had not cultivated 
them at all by art, for he was very illiterate. 
But being of a stirring and boisterous dis- 
position, very industrious and very bold, he 
still wrought himself into some employment.' 
For the office of controller and similar court 
offices, continues Clarendon, he was very fit, 
1 and if he had never taken other preferment 
he might probably have continued a good 
subject, for he had no inclination to change, 
and in the judgment he had liked the govern- 
ment both of church and state, and only 
desired to raise his fortune, which was not 
great, and which he found many ways to 
improve' (Rebellion, vi. 411). Vane began 





life with a landed estate of 460/. per annum ; 
in 1640 he was the owner of lands worth 
3,000/. a year. He had sold his ancestral 
estate of Hadlow, arid bought in its place 
Fairlawn in Kent, at a cost of about 4,0001. 
He also purchased the seignories of Raby, 
Barnard Castle, and Long Newton in the 
county of Durham, at a cost of about 18,000/. 
(DALTON, History of the Wrays, ii. 113). 
In May 1633 he entertained the king at 
Raby (RusiiwoRTH, ii. 178), In 1635 he 
was granted the wardenship of all forests 
and chases within the dominion of Barnard 
Castle, and in the following year the custody 
of Teesdale Forest and Manwood Chase 
(COLLINS, iv. 511 ; DALTON, ii. 112). 

Vane's political importance dates from 

1630, when he became a member of the privy 
council. Sir Thomas Roe describes him 
about that time, in a letter to the queen of 
Bohemia, as being ' of the cabinet,' that is, 
one of those councillors in whom the king 
most confided (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1629- 

1631, p. 306). On 20 Nov. 1632 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of the 
admiralty, and on 10 April 1636 one of the 
commissioners for the colonies, and between 
1630 and 1640 he was continually employed 
on different administrative commissions 
(COLLINS, iv. 510). When the disturbances 
began in Scotland he was appointed one 
of the eight privy councillors to whom 
Scottish affairs were entrusted, and was 
one of the peace party in that committee 
(Stra/ord Letters, ii. 186). On 3 Feb. 
1640 the king, to the general surprise, 
appointed Vane secretary of state in place 
of Sir John Coke. This was effected, in spite 
of Stratford's opposition, ' by the dark con- 
trivance of the Marquis of Hamilton and 
by the open and visible power of the Queen ' 
(CLARENDON, Rebellion, ii. 48, 54; vi. 411 ; 
GARDINER, History of England, ix. 87 ; COL- 
LINS, Sidney Papers, ii. 631, 634). 

The intimacy between Vane and Hamilton 
dated from Vane's mission to Germany, and 
increased during the first Scottish war, when 
Vane was the intermediary between Hamil- 
ton and the king (BURNET, Lives of the 
Hamiltons, ed. 1852, pp. 24-30, 155, 165, 
175). With Strafford Vane had been for 
some time on apparently friendly terms, but 
the mismanagement of the war against the 
Scots, and differences as to the policy to be 
pursued towards them in the future, caused 
a breach (Strafford Letters, n. 325, 419-28). 
It became permanent when Strafford on his 
creation as an earl (12 Jan. 1640) selected 
Baron Raby as his second title, * a house,' 
says Clarendon, < belonging to Sir H. Vane, 
and an honour he made an account should 

belong to him too.' This, continues Cla- 
rendon, was an act ' of the most unnecessary 
provocation' on Strafford's part, 'though he 
contemned the man with marvellous scorn 
. . . and I believe was the loss of his head' 
(Rebellion, ii. 101 ; cf. WARWICK, Memoirs, 
p. 141). 

On the meeting of the Short parliament 
of April 1640, in which Vane sat for Wil- 
ton, he was charged to demand supplies for 
the war from the commons. On 4 May he 
informed the house that the king was will- 
ing to surrender ship-money, adding that 
his master would not be satisfied with less 
than twelve subsidies in return. The debate 
showed that the king's demand would be 
refused, and led to the dissolution of parlia- 
ment on 5 May. Clarendon, who attributes 
the breach entirely to Vane's mismanage- 
ment, charges him with misrepresenting 
the temper of parliament to the king, and 
even with * acting that part maliciously, 
and to bring all into confusion' in order to 
compass Strafford's ruin (Rebellion, ii. 76 ; 
WARWICK, Memoirs, p. 147). Another con- 
temporary rumour was that Vane brought 
about the dissolution in order to save him- 
self from prosecution as a monopolist (LiL- 
BURNE, Resolved Man's Resolution, pp. 13- 
18). But Vane was evidently acting by 
the king's instructions, and Clarendon omits 
to mention the dispute about the military 
charges and the intended vote against the 
Scottish war which complicated the question 
at issue (GARDINER, History of En y land, ix. 
113-17). The king did not regard Vane as 
going beyond his orders, and continued to 
employ him as secretary. Throughout the 
second Scottish war he was with the king, 
and his letters show that he was full of con- 
fidence even after the defeat at Newburn 
(Hardwicke Papers, ii. 174 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1640-1, p. 154). Vanetookpart as an 
assistant in the debates of the great council 
and in the negotiations with the Scots at 
Ripon (ib. ii. 224; Notes of the Treaty at 
Ripon, pp. 18,33). In the Long parliament, 
where, as in the Short parliament, Vane re- 
presented Wilton, he was fortunate enough 
to escape attack. This he owed partly to the 
fact that he had not been concerned in the 
most obnoxious acts of the government, partly 
to his son's connection with the opposition 

In Strafford's trial Vane's evidence as to 
the words used by him in the meeting of the 
privy council on 5 May 1640 was of para- 
mount importance. He asserted positively 
that Strafford had advised an offensive war 
with Scotland, telling the king, ' You have 
an army in Ireland ; you may employ it to 



reduce this kingdom.' In the theory of the 
prosecution ' this kingdom' meant England, 
not Scotland, and Vane declined to offer 
any explanation of the words, though much 
pressed by Strafford's friends ( RUSH WORTH, 
Trial of Stra/ord, pp. 545, 546). Other 
privy councillors present could not remember 
the words, but Vane persisted in his state- 
ment, relying doubtless on the notes of the 
discussion which he had taken at the time. 
The notes themselves had been seen by the 
king and burnt by his orders a short time be- 
fore the meeting of the parliament, but on 
10 April Pym produced a copy which he had 
obtained from the younger Vane, which cor- 
roborated the secretary's evidence. Vane 
owned the notes, but refused further expla- 
nations, and expressed great wrath with his 
son. Clarendon regards Vane's anger as a 
comedy played to deceive the public, but 
admits that for some time after ' there was in 
public a great distance observed between 
them.' There is no evidence, however, to 
justify either this theory of collusion, or 
the further statement that Vane had been 
throughout the trial the secret assistant of 
the prosecution (CLARENDON, Rebellion, iii. 
130-8 ; SANFORD, Studies and Illustrations of 
the Great Rebellion, pp. 327-35 ; GARDINER, 
History of England, ix. 229, 328. The origi- 
nal copy of the notes, now among the manu- 
scripts of the House of Lords, is printed in 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 3. It disap- 
peared mysteriously, and was found among 
the king's papers taken at Naseby; WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, i. 127 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1640-1, p. 559). 

Vane thought that Strafford's attainder 
would reconcile king and people. ' God 
send us now a happy end of our troubles 
and a good peace' was his comment on the 
passing of the bill (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1640-1, p. 571). He did not see that it put 
an end to his prospects of remaining in the 
king's service, as its effects were for a time 
delayed by the difficulty of finding a suitable 
successor. He was even appointed one of 
the five commissioners of the treasury when 
Juxon resigned in May 1641. 

In Augustl641 Vane accompanied Charles I 
to Scotland, and as no successor to Winde- 
bank, his former colleague in the secretary- 
ship, had yet been appointed, he was charged 
to correspond with (Sir) Edward Nicholas 
[q.v.], clerk of the council. His letters during 
this period are printed in the l Nicholas 
Papers' (i. 1-60). Although his post as trea- 
surer of the household had already been pro- 
mised to Thomas, second baron Savile (after- 
wards Earl of Sussex) [q. v.], he was confident 
that he should keep both it and the secretary- 

ship (ib. p. 46). Rut as soon as Charles re- 
turned to Londonfhe gave the treasurership 
to Savile, and a few days later dismissed 
Vane from the secretaryship and all other 
posts at courlf^r Nov. 1641). It was remarked 
at the time that Vane had * the very ill luck to 
be neither loved nor pitied of any man,' and 
the king was convinced of his treachery (ib. 
i. 283 ; CLARENDON, Rebellion, iv. 79, 100 n. ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, pp. 81, 189, 

Vane lost no time in joining the opposi- 
tion. On 13 Dec. 1641 Pym moved that 
Vane's name should be added to the com- 
mittee of thirty-two for Irish affairs (SAN- 
FORD, p. 449). Two months later, when the 
militia bill was drawn up, parliament nomi- 
nated him as lord lieutenant of Durham 
(10 Feb. 1642 ; Commons' Journals, ii. 424). 
When the civil war broke out the county, 
which was predominantly royalist in feeling, 
fell at once under the control of the royalists, 
and Vane exercised no real authority there till 
after its reconquest at the end of 1644. John 
Lilburne, bitterly hostile to all the Vanes, 
because Sir Henry had been one of his judges, 
accused him of causing the loss of Durham 
by negligence and treachery, but the charge 
met with no belief from parliament ( The Re- 
solved Man's Resolution, 1647, pp. 13-18 ; 
England's Birthright, 1649, p. 19 ; Legal Fun- 
damental Liberties, 1649, pp. 19, 45). 

Vane was a member of the committee of 
both kingdoms from its first establishment 
(7 Feb. 1644). In April 1645 he was employed 
as one of its representatives with the Scottish 
auxiliary army (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1644-5, p. 416. His letters during this mis- 
sion are printed in the Calendar and in Port- 
land Papers, vol. i.) At the Uxbridge treaty 
parliament asked the king to make Vane a 
baron, and ordinances for the payment of his 
losses during the war further show his favour 
with the parliament (Commons' Journals, iii. 
426, 690, iv. 361). These losses were very 
considerable, as Raby was three times occu- 
pied by the royalists, and after its recapture 
became a parliamentary garrison. He says, 
probably with truth, ' In my losses, plunder- 
ings, rents, and destructions of timber in my 
woods, I have been damnified to the amount 
of 16,000/. at least' (DALTON, ii. 114). 

Vane continued to sit in parliament after 
the king's execution, but a proposal to appoint 
him a member of the council of state in 
February 1650 was negatived by the house 
(GARDINER, History of the Commonwealth, 
i. 273; Commons' Journals, vi. 369). He 
represented Kent in the Protector's first par- 
liament (Old Parliamentary History, xx. 
300). He died about May 1655, and royalists 


^j E 2. After c London ' insert 4 , on 25 Nov 
'a/. S.P. Dom. y 1641-3, p. 189) ' 






reported that he had committed suicide, 
owing to remorse for his share in Stratford's 
death (Nicholas Papers, ii. 354, iii. 20). His 
widow, Frances, lady Vane, died on 2 Aug. 
1663, aged 72, and was buried at Shipborne, 
Kent (DALTON, ii. 123). Portraits of Vane 
and his wife by Vandyck are in the posses- 
sion of Sir Henry Vane of Hutton Hall, Cum- 
berland, and a portrait of Vane by Mirevelt 
is in the possession of Lord Barnard (see 
Cat. of the National Portrait Exhibition of 
1866, Nos. 601, 651, 673). 

Vane's eldest son, Sir Henry (1613-1662), 
is noticed separately. George, the second son, 
born in 1618, was knighted on 22 Nov. 1640. 
He was parliamentary high sheriff of Durham 
in September 1645, and apparently treasurer 
of the committee for the county. Many of 
his letters to his father on the affairs of the 
county are printed in the calendar of do- 
mestic state papers (1644 pp. 47, 96, 120, 
162, 174, 274, 288, 299, 310, ib. 1645 pp. 
124, 222; WHITELOCKE, Memorials, i. 222). 
He married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Lionel Maddison of Rogerly, Durham, 
and was buried at Long Newton in the same 
county on 1 May 1679 (COLLINS, Peerage, 
i v. 518 ; SURTEES, Durham, iii. 2 14). Charles, 
the fourth son, matriculated from Magdalen 
College, Oxford, on 17 March 1637. On 
16 Jan. 1650 the parliament appointed him 
agent of the Commonwealth at Lisbon, in 
which capacity he demanded Prince Rupert's 
expulsion from Portuguese ports, but was 
obliged to leave and take refuge on board 
Blake's fleet (GARDINER, History of the Com- 
monwealth, i. 202, 333 ; Report on the Duke 
of Portland's MSS.} 

Two other sons, William and Walter, 
were soldiers in the Dutch service (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1645-7 p. 45, 1644-5 p. 
310). Walter, who was knighted, seems to 
have been royalist in his sympathies, and a 
large number of intercepted letters from him 
to friends in England are printed in the 
' Thurloe Papers.' In 1665 Charles II em- 
ployed him as envoy to the elector of Bran- 
denburg (Stowe MS. 191, f. 6; Addit. MS. 
16272). Vane was colonel of a regiment of 
foot in the English service in 1667, and on 
12 Aug. 1668 was appointed colonel of what 
was known as the Holland regiment (DALTON, 
Army Lists, i. 83, 98, 107). He was killed 
serving under the Prince of Orange at the 
battle of Seneff in August 1 674 (SiR RICHARD 
BULSTRODE, Letters, 1712 pp. 47, 88, 97), 
and was buried at the Hague. 

Of Vane's daughters, Margaret married Sir 
Thomas Pelham, bart., of Holland, Sussex ; 
Frances married Sir Robert Honeywood, 
knight, of Pett in the county of Kent ; Anne 

married Sir Thomas Liddell of Ravensworth, 
Durham; Elizabeth married Sir Francis 
Vincent of Stoke Dabernon, Surrey (COLLINS, 
iv. 519). 

[A life of Vane is given by Collins under the 
title of Earl of Darlington, Peerage, ed. Brydges, 
iv r . 505. A n autobiographical fragment by Vane, 
extracts from the registers of Shipborne, and 
other particulars are contained in Dalton's Hist, 
of the Wrays of Glentworth, vol. ii.; Clarendon's 
Hist, of the Rebellion, ed. Macray ; other autho- 
rities mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

VANE, SIR HENRY, the younger (1613- 
1662), statesman and author, eldest son of Sir 
Henry Vane the elder [q.v.], was baptised on, 
26 May 1613 at the church of Debden, near 
Newport, Essex, and educated at Westminster 
school under Lambert Osbaldeston (Wooo^ 
Athence, iii. 578 ; private information). i I 
was born a gentleman,' he said in his speech 
on the scaffold, ' and had the education, tem- 
per, and spirit of a gentleman as well as 
others, being in my youthful days inclined 
to the vanities of the world, and to that 
which they call good fellowship, judging it 
to be the only means of accomplishing a 
gentleman.' About the age of fifteen he 
became converted to puritanism, and regarded 
his former course of life as sinful (Trial, p. 
87 ; cf. SIXES, Life of Vane, p. 8). At six- 
teen Vane was sent to Oxford, and became a 
gentleman commoner of Magdalen Hall, ' but 
when he was to be matriculated as a member 
of the university, and so consequently take 
the oath of allegiance and supremacy, he- 
quitted his gown, put on a cloak, and studied 
notwithstanding for some time in the said 
hall' (WooD, iii. 578). After leaving the 
university he spent some time at Geneva 
or Leyden (CLARENDON, Rebellion, iii. 34 ; 
STRAFFORD, Letters, i. 463). In 1631 his 
father sent him to Vienna in the train of the 
English ambassador, and a number of his 
letters are among the foreign state papers- 
in the record office (HosMER, Life of Vane, 
p. 6). 

On his return in February 1682 Sir Tobie 
Matthew [q. v.] found him extremely im- 
proved. ' His French is excellently good, his 
discourse discreet, and his fashion comely 
and fair ; and I dare venture to foretell that 
he will grow a very fit man for any such 
honour as his father's merits shall bespeak, 
or the king's goodness impart to him ' (ib. 
p. 8). A familiar story represents Vane's- 
later hostility towards the king as caused 
by an insult which Charles put upon him at 
court during his early life. He himself says,. 
however, that the king showed him great 
favour, and promised to make him one of 
the privy chamber in ordinary (Cal. Stats 




Papers, Dom. 1631-3, p. 278 ; cf. FORSTER, 
Life of Vane, p. 6). But no prospect of 
preferment could induce him to stifle bis 
conscientious scruples about tbe doctrines 
and ceremonies of tbe English church. He 
abstained, it was reported, two years from 
receiving the sacrament because he could 
get nobody to administer it to him standing. 
Conferences with bishops failed to remove 
his doubts or to induce him to conform. In 
1635 he resolved to go to New England in 
order to obtain freedom to worship accord- 
ing to his conscience (Mass. Hist. Soc. Pro- 
ceedings, xii. 246 ; HOSMER, p. 12). 

Vane arrived at Boston in the ship Abi- 
gail on 6 Oct. 1635 with the king's license 
to stay for three years in New England. He 
had also a commission, jointly with his fellow 
travellers, Hugh Peters [q. v.] and John 
Winthrop the younger, to treat with the 
recent emigrants from Massachusetts to 
Connecticut on behalf of the Connecticut 
patentees (WINTHROP, History of New Eng- 
land, ed. 1853, i. 203, 477). Massachusetts 
received him with open arms as ' a young 
gentleman of excellent parts,' and one who 
had forsaken the honours of the court ' to 
enjoy the ordinances of Christ in their purity.' 
On 1 Nov. 1635 he was admitted a member 
of the church at Boston, on 3 March 1636 
he became a freeman of the colony, and on 
25 March following was chosen its governor 
(ib. i. 203, 222, ii. 446). Even before his 
election Vane had begun to take part in ad- 
ministration and politics. On 30 Nov. 1635 
Boston passed an order that all persons wish- 
ing to sue each other at law should first 
submit their cases to the arbitration of Vane 
and two elders. Not content with these 
petty duties, he boldly undertook to reconcile 
Winthrop and Dudley, and procured a con- 
ference on the causes of the party divisions 
of the moment which produced a certain 
number of useful regulations as to the con- 
duct of magistrates (ib. i. 211). 

Vane signalised the first week of his go- 
vernment by effecting an agreement with 
the masters of the ships in harbour for the 
better government of sailors on shore (ib. i. 
222, 263 ; HTJTCHINSON, History of Massa- 
chusetts, ed. 1765, i. 53). The outbreak of 
war with the Pequot Indians and the danger 
of war with the Narragansetts were Vane's 
first difficulties, but by the help of Roger 
Williams a satisfactory treaty was concluded 
with Miantonomo, the Narragansett chief 
(WINTHROP, p. 237). Less success attended 
Vane's intervention in the ecclesiastical poli- 
tics of the colony. ' Mr. Vane,' says Win- 
throp, ' a wise and godly gentleman, held with 
Mr. Cotton and many others the indwelling 

of the Holy Ghost in a believer, and went so 
far beyond the rest as to maintain a personal 
union with the Holy Ghost.' Questions 
about ; sanctification' and ' justification,' of 
the difference between ' a covenant of works ' 
and ' a covenant of grace/ the doctrine of 
Anne Hutchinson and the preaching of John 
Wheelwright, roused a storm which divided 
Massachusetts into two hostile factions, of 
which Vane's was the smaller and less in- 
fluential. Vane, who had received letters re- 
calling him to England, asked the general 
court for leave to depart (December 1636), 
and when pressed to stay l brake forth into 
tears, and professed that howsoever the causes 
propounded for his departure were such as 
did concern the utter ruin of his outward 
estate, yet he would rather have hazarded 
all than have gone from them at this time 
if something else had not pressed him more 
viz. the inevitable danger he saw of God's 
judgments to come upon us for these diffe- 
rences and dissensions which he saw amongst 
us, and the scandalous imputations brought 
upon himself, as if he should be the cause of 
all ; and therefore he thought it best for him 
to give place for a time.' The court refused 
to accept these reasons for his resignation, 
but finally gave consent to his going on 
account of his private affairs. But a deputa- 
tion from the church at Boston urged Vane 
to stay, and, professing himself ' an obedient 
child of the church,' he withdrew his re- 
signation (WINTHROP, i. 247). 

This undignified scene, whether a simple 
exhibition of weakness or a comedy played 
to procure a vote of confidence, naturally 
damaged the governor's position. A few 
days later, Vane having expressed some dis- 
satisfaction about a conference of ministers 
which had taken place without his privity, 
Hugh Peters publicly rebuked him. He told 
Vane that ' it sadded the ministers' spirits 
that he should be jealous of their meetings 
or seek to restrain their liberty/ adding that 
before he came to Massachusetts the churches 
were at peace, and finally besought him 
'humbly to consider his youth and short 
experience of the thing s of God, and to beware 
of peremptory conclusions which he perceived 
him to be very apt unto ' (ib. i. 249). A little 
later the court, in spite of Vane's strenuous 
opposition, condemned a sermon by his friend 
Wheelwright as seditious. Twice also in 
meetings over which he presided he refused 
to put questions to the vote, and was obliged 
to see them put and carried by the opposition 
leaders. At the election of magistrates in 
March 1637 Vane and his supporters were 
all left out after a long and excited struggle 
(ib. i. 257-8, 260-2). Boston, however, still 




supported him, and returned the three ex- 
cluded magistrates as its deputies. Vane 
showed considerable irritation at his defeat, 
and some undignified resentment towards 
Winthrop, his successful opponent. A con- 
troversy with Winthrop over a new law 
enabling the magistrates to prevent the 
settlement in the colony of persons they 
thought dangerous was his last appearance 
in Massachusetts politics. On 3 Aug. 1637 
he set sail for England (ib. i. 263, 277, 281 ; 
Hutchinson Papers, i. 79). 

Vane's American career has been harshly 
judged by American historians. He made 
'many mistakes, but the greatest mistake 
was that made by the colonists themselves, 
when, out of deference to birth and rank, 
they set a young and inexperienced stranger 
to deal with problems which tasked the 
wisdom of their ablest heads. Subsequently, 
however, his connection with New Eng- 
land became an advantage to the colonies, 
and in 1645 Massachusetts merchants in 
difficulties with the English government 
found him a strong helper. ' Though he 
might have taken occasion against us,' writes 
Winthrop, ' for some dishonour which he 
apprehended to have been unjustly put upon 
him here, yet both now and at other times 
he showed himself a true friend to New 
England and a man of noble and generous 
mind ' (WINTHROP, ii. 305). 

In January 1639 his father obtained for 
Vane a grant of the joint treasurership of 
the navy. This office, of which the chief 
remuneration was a fee of threepence in the 
pound on money paid by the treasurer, was 
worth 800/. per annum, and would be worth 
as much more after the death of Vane's col- 
league, Sir William Russell (CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 1638-9, pp. 125, 307, 343, 485; 
DALTON, p. 103). Vane was consequently 
employed in the expenditure of the ship- 
money and the equipment of ships to be 
used for the Scottish war, while his con- 
nection with the admiralty led to his elec- 
tion as member for Hull in the Short parlia- 
ment (CaL State Papers, Dom. 1639-40, 
p. 568) . On 23 June 1 640 Vane was knighted. 
On 1 July he married at St. Mary's, Lam- 
beth, Frances, daughter of Sir Christopher 
Wray of Barlings, Lincolnshire, his father 
settling upon him, at the marriage, Raby, 
Fairlawn, and all his lands in England, 
which were of an estimated value of 3,000/. 
per annum (DALTON, pp. 101, 115). At 
this time Vane seemed, according to Cla- 
rendon, ' to be much reformed in his extra- 
vagances,' and appeared ' a man well satis- 
fied and composed to the government ' 
(Rebellion, iii. 34). But his religious views 

were unchanged, and an accidental dis- 
covery brought him into close connection 
with the parliamentary opposition. About 
September 1640 Vane was searching among 
his father's papers with the leave of the 
latter for a document required in connection 
with his marriage settlement, when he found 
his father's notes of the council meeting of 
5 May 1640. Impressed by its ' high concern- 
ment to the Common wealth,' he began to copy 
it. As he was transcribing it Pym came to 
visit him, and he showed Pym the original 
paper, and allowed him to make a copy of his 
own transcript. A distinction between his 
duty to his natural father and his duty as a 
' son of the Commonwealth,' and Pym's 
argument that ' a time might come when 
the discovery of this might be a sovereign 
means to preserve both church and state/ 
overcame his first reluctance to allow this 
breach of confidence. The original was 
subsequently burnt at the king's orders, 
Vane's own copy was destroyed by Pym at 
his request, and Pym's transcript alone re- 
mained to be used by the opposition leaders 
in case the oral testimony of the elder Vane 
and other councillors should prove insuffi- 
cient to convict Strafford of his design to 
employ the Irish army against the liberties 
of England. The production of this paper in 
the House of Commons on 10 April 1641, 
and at the trial in Westminster Hall three 
days later, sealed Stratford's fate (SANFORD, 
Studies and Illustrations of the Great Re- 
bellion, p. 328 ; VERNEY, Notes of the Long 
Parliament, p. 37; CLARENDON, Rebellion, 
iii. 132). The verdict of the puritan party 
was that ' an admirable providence had dis- 
covered this business ' which justified the 
younger Vane ' from all breach of duty,' be- 
cause ' this was an act of God himself (SiR 

In the first session of the Long parliament 
Vane, who was again returned for Hull, was, 
apart from his share in Stratford's trial, 
chiefly notable as a leader of the most 
advanced ecclesiastical party. On 9 Feb. 
1641 he was added to the committee on 
church affairs as a representative of the root- 
and-branch men (Commons' Journals, ii. 81 ; 
BAILLIE, Letters, i. 306). Vane, Cromwell, 
and St. John were the originators of the 
bill for the total abolition of episcopacy 
which Sir Edward Dering introduced on 
27 May 1641. Vane's first printed speech 
was one delivered on that bill, asserting that 
the whole fabric of episcopal government was 
' rotten and corrupt from the very founda- 
tion of it to the top,' and must be pulled 
down in the interest both of the civil state 
and of religion (Old Parliamentary History y 




ix. 291, 342 ; GARDINER, History of England, 
ix. 381). A few days later he proposed a 
scheme appointing a body of commissioners, 
lay and clerical, to exercise ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction in every shire in place of the 
bishops (SHAW, Minutes of the Manchester 
Presbyterian Classis,f)\). i, lii, Ivii, xci, xcix, 

In secular politics Vane came with equal 
rapidity to the front. When the king's 
attempt to seize the five members tempo- 
rarily removed Pym and Hampden from the 
house, Vane took the lead. He was one of 
the committee appointed to vindicate the 
privileges of parliament, and was the author 
of the judicious declaration that the house 
did not intend to protect the accused in any 
crime, but would be ready to bring them to 
punishment if they were proceeded against 
in a legal way (FORSTER, Arrest of the Five 
Members, p. 316). 

By this time Vane was no longer an 
official. His father's dismissal from the se- 
cretaryship had been followed by his own 
removal from the treasui-ership of the navy 
(December 1641). Parliament took it ill, 
and as soon as the breach with the king was 
completed, the two houses passed an ordi- 
nance (8 Aug. 1642) reappointing Vane to 
his old post (Commons 1 Journals, ii. 709; 
Lords Journals, v. 273). 

From the commencement of hostilities 
Vane was one of the leaders of the war 
party. On 8 Nov. 1642 he excited the city 
to fresh exertions, and recounted the king's 
rupture of negotiations (Old Parliamentary 
History, xii. 17). He opposed, on 20 Dec. j 
1642, the propositions drawn up by the lords j 
to be offered to the king, and the similar pro- ! 
posals put forward in February 1643 (GAR- 
DINER, Great Civil War, i. 79; SANFORD, 
pp. 541-3). Vane's sarcastic comments on I 
Essex's proposal for reopening negotiations ! 
with Charles (11 July 1643) produced a bitter j 
quarrel between them, and an ironical invi- j 
tation from Essex to Vane to go hand in ! 
hand with him to the walls of Oxford (ib. 
pp. 570-5). When parliament decided to 
ask the Scots for assistance, Vane was one 
of the four commissioners sent to Edinburgh 
to negotiate (Instructions in Old Parlia- 
mentary History, xii. 340 ; Lords' Journals, 
vi. 139). Clarendon, commenting on this 
choice, enlarges on the 'wonderful sagacity' 
with which Vane penetrated the designs of 
others, and the 'rare dissimulation' with 
which he concealed his own, and concludes : 
' There need no more be said of his ability 
than that he was chosen to cozen and deceive 
a whole nation which excelled in craft and 
dissembling' (Rebellion, ed. Macray, vii. 

267). This was written many years later. 
Baillie, writing at the time, characterises 
Vane briefly as ' one of the gravest and 
ablest ' of the English nation (Letters, ii. 
89). The commissioners found the Scots in- 
disposed to make ' a civil league' with Eng- 
land unless it were combined with ' a reli- 
gious covenant.' On 17 Aug. the ' solemn 
league and covenant' was adopted by the 
Scottish convention of estates, but not till 
Henderson's original draft had been amended 
by Vane's insertion of words which gave 
parliament greater freedom. The Scots would 
have pledged the parliament to the reforma- 
tion of religion in the church of England 
' according to the example of the best re- 
formed churches.' Vane's addition of the 
phrase 'according to the word of God' left 
the ' door open to Independency/ which the 
Scottish divines feared, and transferred the 
final decision of the question of the remodel- 
ling of the English church to parliament 
and the Westminster assembly. It is im- 
possible to suppose that the Scottish com- 
missioners were simply outwitted by Vane ; 
they accepted the amendment because they 
hoped to interpret it according to their own 
wishes, through the political and military 
influence the alliance gave them (BURNET, 
Life of Hamilton, 1852, p. 307; WARWICK, 
Memoirs, p. 265 ; RTJSHWORTH. v. 467 ; GAR- 
DINER, Great Civil War, i. 230; BAILLIE, 
Letters, ii. 88-95). What Vane himself under- 
stood by the covenant at the time his letters 
do not show. To the end of his life he pro- 
tested that he had kept it in the sense in 
which he took it, saying on the scaffold that 
1 the matter thereof and the holy ends con- 
tained therein I fully assent unto, and have 
been as desirous to observe; but the rigid 
way of prosecuting it, and the oppressing 
uniformity that hath been endeavoured by 
it, I never approved ' ( Trial, pp. 60, 91 ; 
Report on the Duke of Portland's MSS. i. 
129, 136). 

On Pym's death Vane practically suc- 
ceeded to his authority (GARDINER, i. 274). 
' He was that within the house which Crom- 
well was without,' says Baxter (Reliquice 
Baxteriante,}). 75). In" February 1644 Vane 
and St. John the joint leaders of the war 
party proposed and carried the establish- 
ment of the committee of both kingdoms. 
This was the first serious attempt to organise 
a government made by the Long parliament. 
The earlier committee of safety was set aside, 
and executive functions were entrusted to 
a body of twenty- five persons responsible 
to parliament for their conduct, but with 
authority to take independent action in every- 
thing connected with the conduct of the 




war (GARDINER, i. 304). The unscrupulous 
tactics by which the permanent establish- 
ment of the committee was effected help to 
explain the reputation for ' subtlety ' which 
Vane acquired (ib. i. 343 ; BAILLIE, Letters, 
ii. 141, 154, 178, 186). 

In the summer of 1644 the committee sent 
Vane to the camp before York to urge that 
Fairfax and Manchester should leave the 
siege to the Scots, and march into Lanca- 
shire against Prince Rupert (Vane's letters 
from the camp are of considerable interest : 
Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1644). There is 
ground for believing that, besides his osten- 
sible mission, Vane was charged to propose 
a plan for tho deposition of Charles I, and 
perhaps for the elevation of the elector pala- 
tine to the English throne. But the three 
generals were unanimous in rejecting the 
scheme, and it was one of the causes of the 
friction between the independent and the 
presbyterian leaders (GARDINER, i. 367, ii. 
27). Vane was one of the parliamentary 
commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge in 
January 1645, but took little part in their 
debates (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. iv. 
150 ; WHITELOCKE, Memorials, i. 375). He 
was more prominent as an advocate of the 
reorganisation of the army and the super- 
session of the Earl of Essex. When Zouch 
Tate proposed the self-denying ordinance, 
Vane seconded his motion (9 Dec. 1644). 
The speech which Clarendon attributes to 
Vane upon this occasion is probably fic- 
titious. On 21 Jan. 1645, in the vote ap- 
pointing Fairfax general, Vane and Crom- 
well were the two tellers for the majority. 
On 4 March Vatie, as the spokesman of the 
House of Commons, appealed to the city to 
provide the money necessary to enable the 
new army to take the field ( Commons' Jour- 
nals, iv. 26; HOSMER, p. 236; GARDINER, 
ii. 90; CLARENDON, viii. 193, 241, 260). 

This conduct completed the breach between 
Vane and the Scots which his advocacy of 
toleration had begun. On 13 Sept. 1644 
Cromwell, St. John, and Vane persuaded the 
House of Commons to pass what was called 
'the accommodation order/ appointing a 
committee to consider the differences on the 
question of church government, and, if agree- 
ment proved impossible, to devise some means 
of tolerating 'tender consciences.' 'Our 
greatest friends,' complained Baillie, 'Sir 
Henry Vane and the solicitor (i.e. St. John), 
are the main procurers of all this, and that 
without any regard to us, who have saved 
their nation, and brought these two persons 
to the height of the power they enjoy and 
use to our prejudice.' Vane, ' whom we 
trusted most/ expressed the view that the 

accommodation order did not go far enough, 
and even at the table of the Scottish mem- 
bers of the Westminster assembly had 'pro- 
lixly, earnestly, and passionately reasoned 
for a full liberty of conscience to all religions ' 
(BAILLIE, Letters, ii. 230, 235 ; GARDINER, 
ii. 30). Roger Williams, in the preface to 
his ' Bloody Tenent of Persecution/ quotes 
' a heavenly speech' which he heard uttered 
by one of the leaders of the parliament. 
' Why should the labours of any be sup- 
pressed, if sober, though never so different ? 
We now profess to seek God, we desire to 
seek light.' There can be little doubt that 
Vane was the speaker quoted. The two 
were old friends, and the charter for Pro- 
vidence Plantation which Williams ob- 
tained from the commissioners for the govern- 
ment of the colonies (14 March 1644), Vane's 
influence had helped him to procure (GAR- 
DINER, ii. 289 ; PALFREY, History of New 
England, i. 608, ii. 215). While thus help- 
ing to found a colony based on the widest 
toleration, Vane also endeavoured to per- 
suade the magistrates of Massachusetts to 
show more indulgence to religious dis- 
sentients. Writing to Winthrop in June 
1645, he expressed his fear ' lest while the 
congregational way among you is in its 
freedom and backed with power, it teach its 
oppugners here to extirpate it and root it 
out from its own principles and practice' 
(fo.ii. 175; HOSMER, p. 81). As the first 
civil war drew to its close, the king's last 
hope was to enlist Vane and the indepen- 
dents on his side by the promise of tolera- 
tion. An attempt to open negotiations 
for that purpose in January 1644, througli 
Lord Lovelace, had been frustrated by Vane's 
revelation of the intrigue (Camden Miscel- 
lany, vol. viii.) On 2 March 1646 John Ash- 
burnham, at the command of the king, ap- 
pealed to Vane to support the king's request 
for a personal treaty in London. ' If pres- 
bytery/ he added, ' shall be so strongly 
insisted upon as that there can be no peace 
without it, you shall certainly have all the 
power my master can make to join with you 
in rooting out of this kingdom that tyrannical 
government, with this condition, 'that my 
master may not have his conscience disturbed 
yours being free when that work is 
finished' (Clarendon State Papers, ii. 226). 
This second overture Vane also rejected. 

In 1046 the presbyterian party gained the 
upper hand in the Long parliament, and 
Vane's leadership ended. At the commence- 
ment of 1647 he was still in close alliance 
with Cromwell, and in March Lilburne com- 
plained that Cromwell was ' led by the nose 
by two unworthy covetous earthworms/ Vane 




and St. John (Jonatis Cry out of the Whales 
Belly, 1647, p. 3). In April, when the dis- 
pute between army and parliament began, 
Vane, like Cromwell, generally absented him- 
self from the debates of the house (GAR- 
DINER, iii. 241 ). On 7 June, when the army 
was marching on London, Vane was one of 
the six commissioners sent by the parliament 
to treat with it, and he took part in the treaty 
with the officers at Wy combe in July (Old 
Parliamentary History, xv. 407, 446 ; GARY, 
Memorials of the Civil War, i. 265-8, 275, 
286, 305-8, 315-19, 322). Both levellers and 
presbyterians distrusted him. In June he 
was 'threatened to be cut in pieces' by a 
mob outside the House of Commons, and in 
July Lilburne was reported to have said that 
i he had rather cut Sir Henry Vane's throat 
than HollisV (Clarke Papers, i. 136, 158). 
When Vane attempted to persuade parlia- 
ment to yield to the demands of the army, 
he was accused of threatening parliament 
with military intervention (GARDINER, iv. 
36 ; WALKER, History of Independency, i. 
47). When he used his influence with the 
officers to prevent violent measures, the 
levellers denounced him as a self-seeking 
' grandee' (WILDMAN, Putney Projects, 1647, 
p. 43). Backed by Cromwell and Ireton, he 
opposed Marten's motion that no further ap- 
plication should be made to the king (22 Sept. 
1647) ; and when the army leaders and the 
chiefs of the independents four months later 
adopted Marten's plan, and passed the vote 
that no addresses should be made to the 
king (3 Jan. 1648), he still persisted in his 
opposition (Clarke Papers , i. 231). His dis- 
satisfaction was notorious, and he said with 
truth in 1662, 'I had neither consent nor 
vote in the resolutions of the houses con- 
cerning the non-addresses to his late majesty' 
(Trial, p. 46; cf. Hamilton Papers, i.' 149, 

On 28 April 1648 the two houses passed a 
vote declaring that they would not alter 
* the fundamental government of the king- 
dom by king, lords, and commons.' Vane 
had helped to draw up a declaration to the 
same effect published in April 1646, and his 
opinion was unaltered. Accordingly he sup- 
ported this vote, awaking thereby great mis- 
trust among his friends in the army (Com- 
mons' Journals, iv. 513, v. 547; BCIRTON, 
Diary, iii. 173; Hamilton Papers, pp. 185, 
191). A vote for reopening negotiations 
with the king followed, which Vane also sup- 
ported, and on 1 Sept. he was appointed one 
of the commissioners of the two houses for 
the treaty at Newport (Clarke Papers, ii. 
17 ; Commons' Journals, v. 572, 697). Ac- 
cording to Burnet, Vane endeavoured to pro- 

long the treaty, beguiling the king's party by 
! offering toleration of episcopacy and the 
prayer-book ; his real object being only to 
delay matters till the army could be brought 
up to London (Own Time, ed. Airy, i. 74). 
; This view is unsupported by any evidence. 
I Vane and his friend Pierrepoint were really 
' anxious to come to an understanding with 
the king on the basis of ' moderate episcopacy ' 
and toleration, a solution of which Cromwell, 
as his messages to Vane show, strongly dis- 
approved ( Clarke Papers, ii. 51). It is also clear 
that while Cromwell regarded his victories as 
a providential justification of the policy of the 
army, Vane, as Cromwell complained, made 
'too little of outward dispensations,' and 
Cromwell expressed himself ' unsatisfied with 
his passive and suffering principles ' (CARLYLE, 
Cromwell Letters, Ixvii. ; Proceeds of the Pro- 
tector against Sir H. Vane, p. 6). In accord- 
ance with this principle, Vane, while de- 
nouncing the king's concessions during the 
treaty as unsatisfactory (3 Dec. 1648), was 
prepared to acquiesce in the decision of the 
House of Commons to continue the treaty 
rather than to use force to prevent its resump- 
tion (WALKER, History of Independency, ii. 
26 ; LUDLOW, i. 208). He held submission 
to that decision a moral duty (Trial, p. 106). 

For these reasons Vane absented himself 
from the house after ' Pride's Purge,' and re- 
mained away from 3 Dec. to 7 Feb. 1649. 
He took no part in the king's trial, and 
neither consented to nor approved his exe- 
cution. Yet he continued to act as com- 
missioner of the admiralty, and it was 
proved against him on his trial that he had 
issued orders in that capacity on the very- 
day of the king's death (BURTON, Diary, iii. 
174; Trial of Vane, pp. 27, 31, 46). Par- 
liament unanimously elected him a member 
of the council of state (14 Feb. 1649), but 
he refused the oath approving of the king's 
execution and the abolition of the monarchy, 
and would not take his seat till it had been 
exchanged for an engagement to be faithful 
to the new government (ib. p. 46 ; GARDINER, 
History of the Commonwealth, i. 7 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1649-50, pp. 5, 13). The 
people, he held, were the source of all just 
power, and ' the little remnant of the par- 
liament' was now the representative of the 
nation. It might legitimately establish a free 
state, and he, being a member of that parlia- 
ment entrusted with a public duty on behalf 
of the people, must obey and faithfully serve 
the new government (Trial, p. 46 ; BURTON, 
iii. 176). 

No man served the Commonwealth with 
more zeal. Vane was elected a member of 
every council of state chosen during the 




period, and his name is always high in the 
list of attendances. He was on every com- 
mittee of importance. When Cromwell in- 
vaded Scotland, the business of supplying his 
army with money, provisions, and reinforce- 
ments was specially trusted to Vane's care, 
and Vane also kept him informed of home 
and foreign politics. ' Let H. Vane know 
what I write,' is Cromwell's message when 
he was in his greatest extremity just before 
the battle of Dunbar (CARLYLE, Letters, 
cxxxix.) Their friendship was so close that 
they invented familiar names for each other ; 
Cromwell called Vane * brother Heron,' and 
Vane addressed Cromwell as ' brother Foun- 
tain.' In one of his letters Vane, after say- 
ing that his health and his private affairs 
had suffered through his constant attendance 
to public matters, complained of the factious 
opposition of other members of the council. 
' Brother Fountain,' he continued, ' can guess 
at his brother's meaning . . . many other things 
are reserved for your knowledge, whenever it 
please God we meet, and till then let me de- 
sire you upon the score of ancient friendship 
that hath been between us not to give ear to 
the mistakes, surmises, or jealousies of others, 
from what hand soever, concerning your 
brother Heron, but to be assured he answers 
your heart's desire in all things, except he be 
esteemed by you in principles too high to 
fathom, which one day I am persuaded will 
not be so thought by you' (NiCKOLLS,. Letters 
and Papers addressed to Cromwell, p. 79, cf. 
pp. 19, 40, 84). 

When the conquest of Scotland was com- 
pleted, Vane was one of the eight commis- 
sioners sent thither (December 1651) to 
settle the civil government and negotiate 
for the union of Scotland and England. On 
16 March 1652 Vane reported to the house 
the successful result of his mission, and re- 
ceived its thanks for his services (Commons' 
Journals, vii. 30, 105 ; Dianj of John Nicoll, 
pp. 80-7 ; Scotland and the Commonwealth, 
p. xxiii ; LTJDLOW, i. 298). His narrative 
has not been preserved, but his views on the 
later history of the question of the union, 
and on the measures taken by Cromwell to 
complete it, are contained in a speech deli- 
vered in 1659 (BURTON, Diary, iv. 178). 

In foreign and colonial affairs Vane also 
took a very active part (cf. CaL State Papers, 
Colonial America and West Indies 1574- 
1660, pp. 347, 372, 394). To him Roger 
Williams naturally applied in 1652 to secure 
Rhode Island against interference from the 
confederate colonies, and to reconcile its 
internal dissensions. 'Under God,' wrote 
Williams in April 1653, 'the great anchor 
of our ship is Sir Henry/ and when he re- 

turned home in 1654 he brought with him 
a letter from Vane, rebuking the Rhode 
islanders for their disorders and divisions 
(PALFREY, History of New England, ii. 356- 
360; MASSON, Life of Milton, iv. 395, 532; 
KNOWLES, Life of Roger Williams, p. 126). 

The council of state had appointed on 
13 March 1649 a committee to consider alli- 
ances and relations with European powers 
in general. Vane was one of its leading 
members, and Milton, as its secretary, learnt 
there to admire the skill with which he ex- 
plained ' the drift of hollow states hard to 
be spelled.' In all negotiations with foreign 
ministers he was from the first employed 
(cf. Commons' Journals, vi. 209, 315, 517, 
522). About the autumn of 1651 he under- 
took a secret mission to France to negotiate 
with Cardinal de Retz, who describes him 
as an intimate confidant of Cromwell, add- 
ing that he appeared to be a man of sur- 
prising capacity. But the exact date and 

[ the details of this mission are doubtful 
(GuizoT, Cromwell and the English Com- 
monwealth, i. 261 ; GARDINER, History of 
the Commonwealth, ii. 91). Vane is said to 
have opposed the war with Holland, and it 

i is certain that he was one of those most 
eager to reopen negotiations after the war 
began (ib. ii. 128, 183; GEDDES, John De 
Witt, i. 282). He was a strong believer in 
the feasibility of the proposed coalescence 

I of the two states, and blamed Cromwell for 

abandoning that project when he made peace 

with the Dutch (BURTON, Diary, iii. 4 seq.) 

In the management of the navy both 

| before and during the war Vane took a 

I principal part. Up to the end of 1650 he 

\ was treasurer of the navy. On 12 March 
1649 he was appointed one of the admiralty 

j committee in whom the powers lately exer- 
cised by the lord high admiral were vested. 
On 4 Dec. 1652 he was one of the extra- 
ordinary commissioners charged with the in- 
spection, direction, and equipment of the 
fleet (CaL State Papers, Dom. 1649-50, p. 
34 ; Commons' Journals, vi. 440, vii. 225, 
256). Contemporaries attributed the suc- 
cessful issue of the war largely to Vane's 
administrative skill, and Haslerig referred to 
him in the parliament of 1659 as 'the gen- 
tleman by whose providence it was so ex- 
cellently managed' (BURTON, Diary, iii. 443 ; 
LUDLOW, i. 337, ii. 340). Vane was certainly 
an energetic administrator, but eulogistic 
biographers have attributed to him and to 
the admiralty committee much of the credit 
really due to their subordinates, the com- 
missioners of the navy (English Historical 
Review, xi. 57, 62). Sikes, in his ' Life of Vane,' 
also exaggerates his pecuniary disinterested- 




ness (p. 97). As treasurer of the navy Vane 
received from 1642 to 1645 a salary of about 
3,000/. per annum in fees. After the passing 
of the ' self-denying ordinance' that sum was 
reduced by one half, in accordance with an 
order of parliament, and on 16 July 1650 
it was resolved to appoint a treasurer who 
should be paid a fixed salary of 1,000/. a 
year. As a compensation for the loss of his 
place, Vane was voted church lands to the 
value of 1,200/. a year (Commons' Journals, 
iv. 207, vi. 14, 440 ; cf. English Historical 
Review, ix. 487). 

In domestic politics religion and parlia- 
mentary reform were the two subjects with 
which Vane was most concerned. In 1652 
he wrote to the government of Massachu- 
setts urging them not to censure any per- 
sons for matters of a religious nature (Mas- 
sachusetts Hist. Coll. 3rd ser. i. 35). He 
saw good even in quakerism (Retired Maris 
Meditations, p. 184), and he opposed the 
party which wished to oblige Irish catholics 
to attend protestant worship (Commons' 
Journals, vi. 138). On the question whether 
the republic should have an established 
church or not, Vane and Cromwell took op- 
posite sides. The proposals of Owen and 
other independent ministers to the commit- 
tee for the propagation of the gospel, which 
Cromwell carried out in the ecclesiastical 
organisation of the protectorate, were abso- 
lutely contrary to Vane's principles. Of his 
utterances on the question no record has sur- 
vived, but his brother Charles was one of the 
petitioners against Owen's scheme, and the 
sonnet which Milton sent to Vane on 3 July 
1652 is a further proof that Vane was hostile 
to it. It expresses the satisfaction with which 
the poet hails a statesman who, like himself, 
was opposed on principle to a state church. 

To know 

Both spiritual power and civil, what each means, 
What severs each, thou hast learned, which few 

have done. 

The bounds of either sword to thee we owe : 
Therefore on thy firm hand Religion leans 
In peace, and reckons thee her eldest son 

(MASSON, Life of Milton, iv. 391-7, 442; 
SIKES, p. 97). 

Vane's action on the question of dissolv- 
ing the Long parliament produced a lasting 
breach between himself and Cromwell. 
Clarendon asserts, and Ludlow hints, that 
after the battle of Worcester Vane became 
suspicious of Cromwell's designs, and began 
to seek to diminish his power (Rebellion, 
xiv. 2; LUDLOW, Memoirs, i. 347). But 
there is no good evidence of this, and it is 
clear that as late as March 1653 they were 
still political allies (GARDINER, Common- 

wealth, ii. 182). On 15 May 1649 Vane had 
been appointed one of a committee to report 
on l the succession of future parliaments and 
the regulating of their elections,' and on the 
question of ' the time for putting a period to 
the sitting of this parliament.' On 9 Jan. 
1650 he produced their report, which pro- 
posed that the future parliament should con- 
sist of four hundred members, representing 
proportionately the different counties, and 
that the present members of the Long par- 
liament should retain their seats. Crom- 
well and the army in general wanted an 
entirely new parliament, and succeeded so 
far as to get the date of its calling fixed for 
November 1654. The Long parliament, how- 
ever, preferred Vane's scheme, and embodied 
it in the bill which it was about to pass in 
April 1653. At the last moment Cromwell 
obtained from Vane and some other parlia- 
mentary leaders a promise to suspend the 
passing of the bill in order to discuss a sug- 
gested compromise, but the house itself in- 
sisted on proceeding with the bill. To 
prevent its passing, Cromwell dissolved the 
house. How far Vane was responsible for 
this breach of faith there is not sufficient 
evidence to determine, but it is clear that 
Cromwell regarded him as the person most 
to blame. According to Ludlow, when 
Cromwell called on his musketeers to clear 
the house, ' Vane, observing it from his place, 
said aloud, " This is not honest ; yea, it is 
against morality and common honesty." On 
which Cromwell fell a-railing at him, crying 
out with a loud voice, " O Sir Henry Vane, 
Sir Henry Vane ; the Lord deliver me from 
Sir Henry Vane ! " ' ( Memoirs, i. 353). Another 
version is that, as the members were going 
out, ' the general said to young Sir Henry 
Vane, calling him by his name, that he might 
have prevented this extraordinary course, 
but he was a juggler, and had not so much as 
common honesty ' (BLENCOWE, Sydney Papers, 
p. 141 ; cf. CLARENDON, xiv. 9; GARDINER, 
History of the Commonwealth, ii. 209). 

After the expulsion of the Long parlia- 
ment Vane retired to his house at Belleau 
in Lincolnshire, which he had purchased 
from the Earl of Lindsey (Commons' Jour- 
nals, vi. 611). A seat in the ' Little Parlia- 
ment' was offered to him, but refused. Crom- 
well seems to have desired his participation 
in the new government, and Roger Williams 
describes him as * daily missed and courted 
for his assistance' (Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 
203, 213; MASSON, Life of Milton, iv. 549; 
THURLOE, i. 265). He lived in seclusion, 
devoting much of his time to speculations 
on religion, the first fruit of which was the 
publication of the ' Retired Man's Medita-r 




lions' (the introduction is dated 20 April 

On the death of his father Vane thought 
of removing to Raby, and the arrangements 
for the sale of the arms there and the with- 
drawal of the garrison brought him into 
relations with the government of the Pro- 
tector. Cromwell seized the opportunity to 
send him a courteous letter, which Vane 
answered by protesting (through Thurloe) 
that he was still the same both in true 
friendship to Cromwell's person and in un- 
shakable fidelity to the cause (THURLOE, iv. 
36, 329; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1655 p. 
315, ]655-6 pp.43, 56). Vane was not a 
member of the parliament of 1654, though 
there was a report that he stood for Lin- 
colnshire (id. 1654, p. 288; THUKLOE, ii. 
546). But, in spite of his inactivity, the dis- 
content among the anabaptists and fifth- 
monarchy men was attributed to his secret 
influence (ib. iv. 509). In 1656 he came 
into open collision with the government. 
" The Protector issued a proclamation for a 
general fast, in which the Lord was to be 
called upon to discover the Achan who had 
so long obstructed the settlement of the 
nation. Vane answered by publishing his 
1 Healing Question propounded and resolved' 
(LUDLOW, ii. 16 ; cf. Somers Tracts, vi. 315), 
which declared that the old cause was in 
danger because the general body of puritans 
was ' falling asunder into many dissenting 
parts.' The reason of this was that, instead 
of the freedom and self-government they had 
fought for, they saw a form of government 
rising up which suited only the selfish in- 
terest of a particular part (viz. the army), 
and did not promote the common good of 
the whole body engaged in the cause. The 
remedy was the adoption of a new constitu- 
tion in place of the one which the army had 
imposed on the nation. Let there be called 
' a general council or convention of faithful, 
honest, and discerning men, chosen by the 
free consent of the whole body of adherents 
to this cause.' The assembly thus chosen 
was * to agree upon the particulars that by 
way of fundamental constitutions shall be 
laid and inviolably observed,' and tender this 
constitution to those it represented for sub- 

On 29 July 1656 Vane was summoned to 
appear before the council. He appeared on 
21 Aug., was ordered to give a bond to the 
amount of 5,000/. that he would do nothing 
to the prejudice of the present government, 
and on refusing was sent a prisoner to the 
Isle of Wight (4 Sept.) Vane seized this 
opportunity to address a written reproof to 
the Protector. He told Cromwell that he 

was head of the army under the legislative 
authority of the people represented in par- 
liament, but nothing more. ' More than 
this I am not satisfied in my conscience is in 
truth and righteousness appertaining unto 
you.' When Cromwell made himself the 
head of the state by the unlawful use of the 
power which parliament had entrusted to 
him, and allowed parliament only a share in 
the legislative authority, he was denying 
the principle of popular sovereignty which 
he and the army had asserted by execu- 
ting the king. And just as he had denied 
his ; earthly head/ viz. ' the good people of 
this nation in Parliament assembled,' so he 
was denying Christ, his ' heavenly head/ by 
claiming authority in spiritual things and 
persecuting the saints ( The Proceeds of the 
Protector (so called) against Sir H. Vane, 
Knight, 1656, 4to; cf. THURLOE, v. 122, 317, 
328, 349 ; LTJDLOW, ii. 16). Vane's imprison- 
ment at Carisbrook Castle, which lasted till 
31 Dec. 1656, prevented his candidature for 
the parliament of that year. 

According to Ludlow, the Protector, in 
order to force Vane to compliance with the 
government, f privately encouraged some of 
the army to take possession of certain forest 
walks belonging to Sir H. Vane, near the 
castle of Raby, and also gave order to the 
attorney-general, on pretence of a flaw in 
his title to a great part of his estate, to 
present a bill against him in the exchequer' 
(Memoirs, ii. 30). There seems, however, to 
have been real ground for doubt whether 
Vane was not claiming more than the grant 
under which he held entitled him to, to the 
detriment alike of the state and of smaller 
holders (Regicides no Saints, 8vo, 1700, p. 
99 ; Carte MS. Ixxiv. 15 ; Rawlinson MS. 
A. Ixi. 102). 

When Richard Cromwell called a parlia- 
ment, Vane offered himself as a candidate at 
Hull and Bristol without success, but was re- 
turned for Whitchurch in Hampshire (LuD- 
LOW, ii. 50; THFRLOE, vii. 588, 590). In a 
very able speech, 9 Feb. 1659, he urged par- 
liament to define the Protector's authority 
before acknowledging Richard as Protector. 
The petition and advice, he argued, was but 
an attempt to revive monarchy, and would 
lead to the restoration of Charles II. * Shall 
we be underbuilders to supreme Stuart?' 
' If you be minded to resort to the old go- 
vernment, you are not many steps from the 
old family.' Let parliament therefore build 
upon the right of the people, which was l an 
unshaken foundation/ and instead of accept- 
ing the new Protector as the son of a con- 
queror, ' make him a son by adoption.' The 
Protector, he explained, must be simply a 




chief magistrate not an imitation of a king 
and must possess no power of vetoing the 
laws which the representatives of the people 
agreed upon (BUKTON, Diary, iii. 171, 318, 
337). On the same ground he opposed any 
concession of a negative voice in legislation 
to the ' other House,' or any recognition of 
the authority of the new lords (ib. iv. 70,292). 
Vane spoke with equal vigour against the 
admission of the members for Scotland and 
Ireland, allowing in the first case the validity 
of the act of union, but denying that of 
the arrangements for Scotland's representa- 
tion in parliament made by the Protector. 
Ireland, he argued, was still a province, and 
it was inequitable to give it a power not 
only to make laws for itself, but to give 
perhaps a casting vote in making laws for 
England (ib. iv. 178, 229). Vane also at- 
tacked the foreign policy of the protectorate 
as calculated to promote the personal in- 
terests of the Protector rather than those of 
the nation (ib. iii. 384, 401, 489), and de- 
manded the release of fifth-monarchy men 
and cavaliers arrested without legal warrant 
(ib. iii. 495, iv. 120, 262). 

These speeches, logical, acute, and at times 
eloquent, give a much higher idea of Vane's 
powers than the formal orations published 
in the early days of the Long parliament. 
But his faith in his cause blinded him to the 
risk that the overthrow of the protectorate 
might produce the restoration of the Stuarts. 
"When a supporter of the government talked 
of ' consequences,' he answered, ' God is 
Almighty : will you not trust Him with the 
consequences ? He is a wiser workman than 
to reject His own work' (ib. iv. 72). This 
* blind zeal,' as the royalists termed it, led 
him to sanction Ludlow's intrigues with the 
discontented officers of the army, and to ally 
himself with them to restore the Long 
parliament and set aside the Protector (ib. 
iv. 457 ; LUDLOW, ii. 65, 74). On the re- 
storation of the Long parliament, Vane was 
at once appointed a member of the com- 
mittee of safety (7 May) and of the council 
of state which succeeded it (14 May). He 
was also made a commissioner of the navy, 
a member of the committee of examination 
and secrecy, and one of a special committee 
appointed to examine into the case of pri- 
soners for conscience' sake (Commons' Jour- 
nals, vii. 646, 648, 654, 665; cf. Trial of 
Vane, p. 47). The management of foreign 
affairs was almost entirely in his hands, and 
to Bordeaux, the French ambassador, he 
seemed ' the principal minister in the present 
government.' Under his influence the foreign 
policy of the republic was prudent and mode- 
rate. * Vane at his last visit,' wrote Bor- 

deaux in July 1659, ' made no mystery with 
me ; he assured me that the sole desire of 
this government is to live on good terms 
with all neighbouring states, and to con- 
solidate their internal affairs ' (GuizoT, Ri- 
chard Cromwell and the Restoration, i. 381 f 
41 1, 424, 433, 437, 443, 483 ; Commons' Jour- 
nals, vii. 652, 670). In finance Vane was 
also active, having been added by a special 
vote to the treasury committee (ib. vii. 648, 
737; cf. GUIZOT, i.' 154). Hitherto he had 
had little to do with the management of the 
army, but on 13 May he was appointed one 
of the seven commissioners for the nomina- 
tion of officers, who were charged to replace 
Cromwellian officers by sound republicans. 
His position was that of a mediator between 
the army and the parliament. Like Ludlow, 
he opposed the restrictions which Haslerig 
and the majority of the parliament inserted 
in the commissions of the officers (LUDLOW, 
ii. 89, 103; THURLOE, vii. 704). He tried 
also to reconcile Haslerig and Lambert, and 
it was mainly owing to his efforts that Lam- 
bert was made commander of the army sent 
to suppress the rising under Sir George Booth 
(LUDLOW, ii. 112; cf. CARTE, Original Letters, 
ii. 200). On 10 Aug. 1659, during the excite- 
ment which that rising caused, Vane himself 
was chosen to command one of the regiments 
of volunteers raised in London, a circumstance 
which was one of the charges against him 
three years later (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1659-60, pp. 94, 563, 582 ; Trial, pp. 29, 33, 
49). Vane's endeavours to conciliate the 
army, his apparent alliance with Lambert, 
and his opposition to the proposed engage- 
ment against government by a single person, 
though each defensible enough on public 
grounds, exposed him to great suspicions. 
He was believed to be plotting either to 
establish the fifth monarchy and the reign of 
the saints, or to set up a government in which 
he and Lambert would divide the power (ib. 
iii. 505; GUIZOT, ii. 424, 426, 483, 490; CARTE, 
Original Letters, ii. 200, 216, 225). 

On 13 Oct. 1659 Lambert turned out the 
Long parliament. The officers in London, re- 
garding Vane as their friend, appointed him 
one of their committee of safety (26 Oct.) 
and one of the six commissioners for the 
nomination of officers. He refused to accept 
either post, but continued to act as a com- 
missioner of the admiralty under the govern- 
ment they set up. At his trial he defended 
himself by saying that though his position 
with regard to the navy brought him into con- 
tact with the members of the committee of 
safety, ' yet I kept myself disinterested from 
all those actings of the army, as to any con- 
sent or approbation of mine (however in 




many things by way of discourse I did not 
decline converse with them), holding it my 
duty to penetrate as far as I could into their 
true intentions and actions, but resolving 
within myself to hold true to my parlia- 
mentary trust' (Trial, p. 50 ; cf. GTJIZOT, ii. 
284; LUDLOW, ii. 157). This account un- 
duly minimises Vane's part, though it doubt- 
less represents his intentions. The army 
also appointed Vane on 21 Oct. one of a com- 
mittee of ten to consider of fit ways and 
means to carry on the affairs and govern- 
ment of the Commonwealth, and of a larger 
committee appointed on 1 Nov. to draw up 
a constitution. So much was his influence 
dreaded that it was said that agents of the 
lawyers and established clergy had offered 
to raise 100,000/. for the use of the army if 
the officers would hearken no longer to Vane's 
schemes against them (LTJDLOW, ii. 149, 159, 
161, 164, 172; Trial, p. 30; WHITELOCKE, 
iv. 367). He assisted the officers also by 
endeavouring to reconcile Ludlow and Lam- 
bert, and by preventing Fleetwood from ac- 
cepting the proposals made him on behalf of 
the royalists (LuDLOW, ii. 143, 154 ; WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, iv. 382). Finally, when 
the defection of the fleet gave the final blow 
to the domination of the army, Vane ac- 
cepted once more the post of mediator 
(17 Dec.), and went to negotiate with the 
officers of the navy on behalf of the army 
(LTJDLOW, ii. 181; PENN, Memorials of Sir 
William Penn, ii. 186). 

As soon as the Long parliament was again 
restored, Vane's compliance with the usurpa- 
tion of the army became a charge against 
him, and on 9 Jan. 1660 he was expelled from | 
the house and ordered to repair to Raby ! 
(Commons 1 Journals, vii. 806). A month j 
later, on Monck's complaint that he was 
still in London, he was sent to his house in 
Lincolnshire in charge of the sergeant-at- j 
arms (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 841 ; Old Parl. I 
Hist. xxii. 99 ; Clarendon State Papers, iii. ! 

Vane's fall was saluted with almost uni- 
versal rejoicing. ' People,' wrote Maidstone 
to Governor Winthrop, ' were pleased with 
the dishonour put upon him, he being un- 
happy in lying under the most catholic pre- j 
judice of any man I ever knew' (THURLOE, 
i. 767). Ballad-makers, satirists, and pam- 
phleteers were loud in their exultation (Sir 
Harry Vane's Last Sigh for the Committee of 
Safety, 4to, 1659 ; Vanity of Vanities: or Sir 
Harry Vane 1 sPicture,~\.6QQ,fol.; Rump Songs, 
ii. 25, 64, 100, 108 ; Catalogue of Caricatures 
in the British Museum, pp. 920, 952, 972). 
The most popular of these satires, and the 
only one with any wit in it, is Thomas Flat- 

man's ' Don Juan Lamberto, or a Comical 
History of the Late Times, by Montelion, 
the Knight of the Oracle,' which appeared 
in 1661, and went through three editions. 
'Sir Vane the Knight of the Mysterious 
Allegories ' is one of the principal charac- 
ters, and the proposed marriage between his 
son and Lambert's daughter one of the in- 
cidents (reprinted in Somers Tracts, vii. 
104, ed. Scott). Forged letters, stating that 
Vane was to head a rising of the anabap- 
tists to take place in April 1660, and stories 
that the fifth-monarchy men had elected him 
as their king, further increased his unpopu- 
larity (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 
409; Mass. Hist. Coll. 4th ser. vii. 515; 
A New King Anointed, 4to, 1659). 

When the Restoration took place, Vane 
was held too dangerous to be allowed to 
escape. On 1 1 June 1 660 the House of Com- 
mons voted his exclusion from the Act of 
Indemnity without a single dissentient voice. 
He was made one of a class of twenty cul- 
prits who were to be excepted from pardon 
in all particulars not extending to life. The 
House of Lords went further, and, omitting 
the reservation made by the commons, put 
Vane's name among those of persons to be 
wholly excepted. Over the amendment of 
the lords along discussion took place between 
the two houses. It was urged by Holies on 
Vane's behalf that he was not a regicide, to 
which an obscure member replied that it was 
expedient to have some one to die for the 
kingdom as well as for the king. A com- 
promise was at last agreed upon by which 
Vane and Lambert were capitally excepted as 
' being persons of mischievous activity,' but 
both houses petitioned the king ' that if they 
shall be attainted, execution as to their lives 
may be remitted ' (30 Aug. 1669). Charles, 
on his part, replied that he granted the peti- 
tion of the two houses (Trial of Sir H. Vane, 
pp. 48, 74; Commons 1 Journals, viii. 152; 
Lords 1 Journals, xi. 163; Old Parl. Hist. 
xxii. 438). 

Vane was imprisoned in the Tower and 
kept for some time in very close confine- 
ment. His property had been seized and his 
rents detained by his tenants without wait- 
ing for his indictment or condemnation. On 
25 Oct. 1661 orders were issued for his trans- 
portation from the Tower to the Scilly Isles 
(Trial, pp. 20, 70; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1661-2, pp. 51,118, 125, 141; DALTON, ii. 
120). The parliament elected in 1661, less 
merciful than the Convention, passed a vote 
that Vane and Lambert should be proceeded 
against capitally (1 July 1661 ), and addressed 
the king to send for them with a view 
to their trial (Commons 1 Journals, viii. 287, 




317). Vane was accordingly brought back 
to the Tower in April 1662, a true bill was 
found against him by the grand jury of 
Middlesex in Easter term 1662, and he was 
arraigned at the court of king's bench en 
2 June 1662. The charge was high treason 
for compassing the death of the king, the 
subversion of the ancient form of govern- 
ment, and the keeping out of the king from 
the exercise of his regal power. Vane de- 
fended himself with great skill and courage, 
boldly asserting the sovereign power of par- 
liament, and declaring that what was done 
by their authority ought not to be questioned 
in any other court. His bill of exceptions 
and other legal pleas were overruled, and, 
hav ing been found guilty by the j ury on 6 June, 
he was sentenced to death on 1 1 June. Vane's 
boldness sealed his fate, as he well knew 
it would (Trial, pp. 63, 80). The king re- 
garded himself as released from his promise. 
* Sir Henry Vane's carriage yesterday,' wrote 
Charles to Clarendon, ' was so insolent as to 
justify all he had done ; acknowledging no 
supreme power in England but a parliament, 
and many things to that purpose. If he has 
given new occasion to be hanged, certainly 
he is too dangerous a man to let live, if we 
can honestly put him out of the way ' (BuR- 
NET, Own Time, ed. Airy, i. 286 n. ; for 
comments on Vane's trial see State Trials ; 
WILLIS BUND, Select Cases from the State 
Trials, ii. 339 ; RANKE, Hist, of England, 
iii. 376 ; HALLAM, Const. Hist. p. 516). 

Vane was executed on Tower Hill on 
14 June 1662. Though reputed a timid man 
by nature, he bore himself with great com- 
posure and cheerfulness, and seemed, it was 
said, when he appeared on the scaffold, ' rather 
a looker-on than the person concerned in 
the execution.' Vane's dying speech, in 
which he justified the cause for which he 
suffered, was thrice interrupted by the sound- 
ing of trumpets and beating of drums, to 
hinder him from being heard by the people 
(Trial, p. 95; LTJDLOW, ii. 338). 'In all 
things/ was the verdict of Pepys, 'he 
appeared the most resolved man that ever 
died in that manner,' and four days later he 
noted that people everywhere talked of 
Vane's courage at his death as a miracle. 
Like Burnet, he thought that the king had 
lost more than he gained by his execution 
(PEPYS, ed. Wheatley, ii. 258, 260, 264; 
BTJRNET, i. 286). Charles permitted Vane's 
family to remove his remains for decent in- 
terment, and he was buried in Shipborne 
Church, Kent, on 15 June 1662 (DALTON, ii. 

Frances, lady Vane, died in 1679, anc 
was also buried in Shipborne Church. OJ 

lis family of seven sons and seven daugh- 
:ers, the eldest son, Henry Vane, died on 
2 Nov. 1660, aged 18; Christopher, the fifth 
son, inherited Raby, and was created by 
William III Baron Barnard of Barnard 
Castle (8 July 1699) ; Thomas, the next sur- 
viving son, was elected one of the first mem- 
bers for the county of Durham on 21 June 
1675, and died four days later. Of the 
daughters, Frances married Edward Keke- 
wich : Albinia, John Forth, alderman of 
London ; Dorothy, Thomas Crisp of Essex ; 
and Mary, Sir James Tillie of Pentillie 
astle, Cornwall. Of the rest of the family 
an account is given in Dalton's ' History 
of the Wrays'(ii. 125-36). 

Vane's abilities as a statesman were ad- 
mitted by the common consent of friends 
and foes. ' Extraordinary parts, a pleasant 
wit, a great understanding, a temper not to 
be moved,' and as an orator, ' a quick concep- 
tion and a very sharp and weighty expres- 
sion,' are qualifications which Clarendon at- 
tributes to him (Rebellion, iii. 106, vii. 267 ; 
cf. LUDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 339, ed. 1894). His 
industry* was enormous. During the Long 
parliament,' writes Sikes, ' he was usually so 
engaged for the public in the house and 
several committees from early in the morn- 
ing to very late at night, that he had scarce 
any leisure to eat his bread, converse with 
his nearest relations, or at all mind his family 
affairs ' (p. 105). ' He was all in any busi- 
ness where others were joined with him/ 
emphatically observes Clarendon (Rebellion, 
ed. Macray, vii. 266 n.) His devotion to the 
public service and freedom from corruption 
were as notorious as his abilities. But his 
mystical enthusiasm exposed him to the 
reproach of fanaticism ; while his practical 
astuteness and his subtlety in speculative 
matters gave colour to the belief that he was 
crafty and untrustworthy. 

Even Vane's contemporaries found it diffi- 
cult to understand his religious views. A mo- 
dern critic suggests that he was probably in- 
fluenced by the writings of Jacob Boehme 
(T. H. GREEN, Works, iii. 295). To Cla- 
rendon he appeared ' a perfect enthusiast,' 
who * could not be described by any charac- 
ter of religion,' but ' had swallowed some of 
the fancies and extravagancies of every sect/ 
and had become ' a man above ordinances.' 
Reading one of Vane's religious treatises, he 
found in it ' nothing of his usual clearness 
and ratiocination in discourse, in which he 
used much to excel the best of the company 
he kept/ but ' in a crowd of very easy words 
the sense was too hard to find out ' (Rebel- 
lion, xvi. 88; Animadversions on Cressy's 
Answer to Stillingjleet, 1673, 8vo, p. 59). 




' His doctrines,' echoes Baxter, ' were so 
cloudily formed and expressed that few could 
understand them, and therefore he had but 
few true disciples. This obscurity by some was 
attributed to his not understanding himself, 
by others to design, because he could speak 
plainly when he listed ' (Reliq. Baxteriance, 
p. 75). Burnet suggests that ' he hid some- 
what that was a necessary key to the rest,' 
adding, ' He set up a form of religion of his 
own, yet it consisted rather in a withdraw- 
ing from all other forms than in any new or 
particular opinions or forms ; from which he 
and his party were called " Seekers," and 
seemed to wait for some new and clearer 
manifestation ' (Own Time, ed. Airy, i. 285 ; 
cf. FORSTER, iv. 71). 'He ever refused to 
fix his foot or take up his in any form,' says 
his biographer, because 'the main bulk of 
professors ' fell short of what he held to be 
the truth, and bade his children quit all false 
churches (SiKES, pp. 9, 157). Baxter re- 
garded hostility to a settled ministry as one 
of the two practical principles which could 
be clearly deduced from his teaching, and 
Vane confessed himself ' a back friend to the 
black coats' (BAXTER, p. 75; NICKOLLS, 
Letters and Papers addressed to O. Cromwell, 
p. 84). The other principle was the prin- 
ciple of universal toleration based on the re- 
fusal to the civil magistrate of any authority 
in spiritual matters. * Magistracy,' wrote 
Vane, ' is not to intrude itself into the office 
and proper concerns of Christ's inward go- 
vernment and rule in the conscience, but it is 
to content itself with the outward man, and 
to intermeddle with the concerns thereof in 
reference to the converse which man ought 
to have with man, upon the grounds of 
natural, just, and right in things apper- 
taining to this life ' (Retired Man's Medita- 
tions, p. 388). 

As to civil government, Vane's creed is 
set forth with great clearness in ' The People's 
Case Stated ' (printed in Trial of Sir If. 
Vane, 1662, p. 97). ' Sovereign power comes 
from God as its proper root, but the restraint 
or enlargement of it, in its execution over 
such or such a body, is founded in 'the com- 
mon consent of that body.' ' All just exe- 
cutive power,' therefore, arose ' from the free 
will and gift of the people,' who might ' either 
keep the power in themselves or give up their 
subjection into the hands and will of another, 
if they shall judge that thereby they shall 
better answer the end of government, to wit, 
the welfare and safety of the whole.' Like 
Algernon Sidney and Locke, he regarded 
the state as based upon a compact. Both 
people and king were bound by ' the funda- 
mental constitution or compact, upon which 

the government was first built, containing 
the conditions upon which the king accepted 
of the royal office, and on which the people 
granted him the tribute of their obedience and 
due allegiance.' If the king failed to ob- 
serve the compact, the people might resume 
' their original right and freedom.' 

Democratic though Vane's doctrine was, 
j his republicanism has been much exaggerated. 
| ' It is not so much the form of the admini- 
stration,' said he, 'as the thing administered, 
wherein the good or evil of government 
doth consist.' This distinguishes him from 
writers such as Milton and Harrington, who 
held a republic the best possible form of 
government. It helps to explain his attitude 
in 1648 and 1659, and his assertion that 
in all the great changes of government he 
was ' never a first mover, but always a fol- 
lower' (Trial, p. 44). 

According to Clarendon, Vane ' had an 
unusual aspect which, though it might natu- 
rally proceed both from his father and 
mother, neither of which were beautiful 
persons, yet made men think there was 
somewhat in him of extraordinary ; and his- 
whole life made good that imagination ' (Re- 
bellion, iii. 34). A portrait of Vane, by Wil- 
liam Dobson, which was presented to the 
British Museum by Thomas Holies, is now 
in the National Portrait Gallery. A second 
portrait, by Vandyck, in the possession of 
Sir H. R. Vane, bart., was No. 655 in the Na- 
tional Portrait Exhibition of 1866. At Raby 
Castle there several portraits of him 
attributed to Lely. An engraved portrait, 
by Faithorne, is prefixed to the ' Life of 
Sir Henry Vane,' by Sikes (1662, 4to) 
(FAGAN, Cat. of Faithorne's Works, p. 64). 
An engraving from Lely's portrait of Vane 
is contained in Houbraken's ' Heads of Illus- 
trious Persons' (1743-52). 

Vane was the author of: 1. 'A Brief 
Answer to a certain Declaration.' This was 
an answer to John Winthrop's ' Defence of 
an Order of the Court made in the Year 
1637 . . . that none should be allowed to 
inhabit within the Jurisdiction but such as 
should be allowed by some Magistrate,' re- 
ferring to the Wheelwright controversy in- 
Massachusetts. Winthrop also wrote in re- 
sponse to Vane ' A Reply to an Answer,' &c. 
All three are printed in the 'Hutchinson 
Papers' (i. 79), published by the Prince 
Society in 1865. 2. 'The Retired Man's 
Meditations, or the Mystery and Power of 
Godliness ... in which the Old Light is 
restored and New Light justified,' 1655,. 
4to. This was answered by Martin Finch 
in ' Animadversions on Sir H. Vane's Book 
entitled " The Retired Man's Meditations,'* 




1656, 8vo. 3. ' A Healing Question pro- 
pounded and resolved upon Occasion of the 
late Public and Seasonable Call to Humilia- 
tion, in order to Love and Union amongst 
the Honest Party/ 165(3, 4to. Answered in 
* A Letter from a Person in the Country to 
his Friend in the City giving his Judgment 
upon Sir H. Vane's " Healing Question." ' 
Both are reprinted in the ' Somers Tracts,' ed. 
Scott, vol. vi. ' The Healing Question ' was 
also attacked by Richard Baxter in his ' Holy 
Commonwealth ' (1659, 8vo.) 4. < A Needful 
Corrective or Balance in Popular Govern- 
ment, expressed in a Letter to James Har- 
rington, Esq.' (in answer to 'Oceana'). 

5. ' Of Love of God and Union with God.' 

6. 'Two Treatises, viz. (1) An Epistle 
General to the Mystical Body of Christ 
on Earth, (2) The Face of the Times.' This 
contains at the end a letter to his wife dated 
7 March 1661. 7. < The Trial of Sir Henry 
Vane, Knight,' 1662, 4to. This contains his 
pleas, bill of exceptions, and other memo- 
randa relating to his trial, with his speech 
intended to have been spoken in arrest of 
judgment, the speech on the scaffold, and 
prayers on various occasions. It also contains 
1 The People's Case stated,' < The Valley of 
Jehoshaphat considered and opened,' and 
4 Meditations concerning Man's Life.' ' The 
People's Case ' is reprinted in Forster's l Life 
of Vane '(p. 381). 8. 'A Pilgrimage into 
the Land of Promise by the Light of the 
Vision of Jacob's Ladder and Faith,' 1664, 
4to. There are also attributed to Vane: 
9. * A Letter from a True and Lawful Mem- 
ber of Parliament to one of the Lords of his 
Highness's Council,' 1656, 4to. This was 
really written by Edward Hyde, earl of 
Clarendon (see Rebellion, ed. Macray, xiv. 
151). 10. ' Light shining out of Darkness, 
or Occasional Queries,' 1659, 4to. This was 
probably written by Henry Stubbe (1632- 
1676) [q. v.], as Wood supposes. Stubbe 
published in 1659 ' A Vindication of Sir 
Henry Vane from the Lies and Calumnies 
of Mr. Richard Baxter. By a True Friend 
and Servant of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land,' 4to. 

Vane also published a certain number of 
speeches : 1. < Speech in the House of Com- 
mons at a Committee for the Bill against 
Episcopal Government, 11 June 1641,' 4to; 
reprinted in the ' Old Parliamentary History' 
<ix. 342). 2. < Speech in the Guildhall, Lon- 
don, 8 Nov. 1642, concerning the King's 
Refusal of a Treaty,' 1642, 4to (ib. xii. 17). 

3. < Speech at a Common Hall, 27 Oct. 1643, 
wherein is showed the Readiness of the 
Scots to assist the Parliament of England.' 

4. ' Speech at a Common Hall, January 


1643-4;' printed in 'A Cunning Plot to 
divide the Parliament and the City of Lon- 
don,' 1643, 4to. 5. ' Two Speeches in the 
Guildhall, London, concerning the Treaty at 
Uxbridge, 4 March and 11 April 1644,' 4to (ib. 
xiii. 159). 6. ' The Substance of what Sir 
Henry Vane intended to have spoken upon 
the Scaffold at Tower Hill,' &c., 4to, 1662. 
7. ' The Speech against Richard Cromwell/ 
attributed to Vane by Forster and Hosmer 
on the authority of Oldmixon (Hist, of Eng- 
land under the House of Stuart, p. 430), is a 
composition by some pamphleteer of the 

[The earliest life of Vane is the Life and 
Death of Sir Henry Vane, or a Short Narrative 
of the Main Passages of his Earthly Pilgrimage, 
4 to, 1662, by George Sikes. It contains very 
few facts. ' I have writ his life after another 
fashion than mens lives use to be written, says 
the author, ' treating mostly of the principles 
and course of his hidden life' (p. 92). Of mo- 
dern biographies the chief are those by C. W. 
Upham (Spirks's American Biograph. 1st ser. 
vol. iv.), by John Forster (Eminent British 
Statesmen, vol. iv., Lardner's Cabinet Cyclo- 
paedia), published in 1838, and by Professor 
J. K. Hosmer (1888). Shorter memoirs are 
contained in Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 
578, and Biographia Britannicn, vi. 3989. The 
History of the Family of Wray, by C. Dalton, 
1881, ii. 93-137, contains memoirs of the two 
Vanes with important documents ; other autho- 
rities are mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

VANE, SIR RALPH (d. 1552), partisan 

of the protector Somerset. [See FANE.] 

VANE, THOMAS (Jl. 1652), divine and 
physician, received his education at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, where he proceeded to 
the degree of D.D. He became chaplain ex- 
traordinary to the king and rector of Cray- 
ford, but resigned those preferments in con- 
sequence of his conversion to the Roman 
catholic faith. According to ' Legenda Lig- 
nea ' (1653, p. 152) he carried a handsome 
wife with him to Paris, where he practised 
as a physician. He appears to have been 
created M.D. by some foreign university. 

His works are : 1. ' An Answer to a Libell, 
written by D. Cosens against the great 
Generall Councell of Laterane under Pope 
Innocent the Third,' Paris, 1646, 8vo, dedi- 
cated to Sir Kenelm Digby. 2. ' A Lost 
Sheep returned Home ; or, the Motives of the 
Conversion to the Catholike Faith of Thomas 
Vane;' 2nd edit., Paris, 1648, 12mo; 3rd 
edit., with additions, Paris, 1648, 12mo ; 
4th edit. 1649, 24mo. Dedicated to Queen 
Henrietta Maria. The ' approbation ' pre- 
fixed to the book is dated 2 April 1645. A 
reply to this book was published by Edward 




Chisenhale under the title of ' Catholike 
History,' 1653. 3. ' Wisdome and Inno- 
cence, or Prudence and Simplicity, in the 
examples of the Serpent and the Dove, pro- 
pounded to our Lord,' 1652, 12mo. 

[Addit. MS. 5881, p. 5 ; Birchley's Christian 
Moderator, 1652, ii. 20; Bramhall's Vin- 
dication of himself against Baxter, p. 25; 
Carier's Missive to King James, 1649, pref. pp 
7, 29 ; Dodd's Church Hibt. iii. 70 ; Foulis's 
Romish Treasons and Usurpations, pp. 78, Io5, 
106.1 T - C - 

OF CLEVELAND of the second creation and 
third EAKL OF DARLINGTON (1766-1842), 
was son of Henry Vane, second earl of 
Darlington, by Margaret, daughter of Robert 
Lowther, and sister of James Lowther, first 
earl of Lonsdale [q. v.] He was born on 
27 July 1766 in St. James's Square, London, 
and was educated by a private tutor, William 
Lipscomb [q. v.], and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, whence he matriculated on 25 April 
1783. He sat in the House of Commons for 
the borough of Totnes from 1788 to 1790, and 
from 1790 to 1792 for Winchelsea, being 
then styled Viscount Barnard. On the 
death of his father on 8 Sept. 1792 he suc- 
ceeded to the peerage as Earl of Darlington. 
In 1792 he became colonel of the Durham 
militia, and lord-lieutenant of Durham in 
the following year; and in 1794 he was ap- 
pointed colonel-commandant of the Durham 
regiment of fencible cavalry. In politics he 
was a whig, and from 1792 to 1827 was 
generally in opposition to government. He, 
however, voted for the seditious meetings 
prevention bill in December 1819, and gave 
independent support to Canning's admini- 
stration and, subsequently, to that of the 
Duke of Wellington (Hansard, vol. xii. 
App. 1832, p. 115). He was an advocate 
of political reform, presented in the House 
of Lords a petition from South Shields on 
the subject on 3 March 1829, and proved 
himself throughout an influential supporter 
of the bill, and willing enough to abandon 
his six borough seats. He spoke seldom in 
the house of lords, and when he rose his 
manner is said to have been better than his 
matter (GRANT, Random Recollections of the 
House of Lords). On 17 Sept. 1827 he was 
created Marquis of Cleveland, and on 15 Jan. 
1833 Duke of Cleveland. Through his grand- 
mother Grace, daughter of Charles Fitzroy, 
first duke of Southampton and Cleveland 
[q. v.], he represented the family for which 
in the first instance the dukedom was 

The duke was more notable as a sports- 
man than as a politician. Living at Raby 

I Castle for a considerable portion of every 
year, he proved himself an enthusiastic up- 
holder of every form of sport. He com- 
menced to hunt his father's hounds in 1787, 
and spared no expense on his kennel. His 
hounds were renowned for their speed, and 
were divided into two packs, one of large 
breed and one of small ; with these he hunted 
on alternate days. After each day's hunt- 
ing it was his habit to enter an account of 
the day's sport in a diary, portions of which 
were privately published at the close of every 
season. He paid considerable sums of money 
to his tenants for the preservation of foxes, 
and on their behalf he successfully opposed 
the first Stockton and Darlington railway in 
1820, because in its course it encroached on 
a favourite covert. In 1835 he divided his 
celebrated pack between his son-in-law, Mark 
Milbanke, and himself, and the old district 
of the hunt was at the same time appor- 
tioned. Almost equally enthusiastic in his 
patronage of the turf, he maintained a mag- 
nificent stud, and was rewarded by winning 
the St. Leger with his horse Chorister in 

The Duke of Cleveland died in St. James's 
Square on 29 Jan. 1842, and was buried in 
Staindrop church, where a magnificent 
monument was erected to his memory. Lord 
Brougham, whom he had introduced to the 
House of Commons as member for Winchel- 
sea and who was a lifelong friend, was 
named executor under his will. 

The duke married, first, on 17 Sept. 1787, 
Katherine Margaret, second daughter and 
coheir of Harry Paulet or Powlett, sixth 
duke of Bolton [q.v.], by whom lie left eight 
children; secondly, on 27 July 1813, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Robert Russell of Newton, 
Yorkshire. He was succeeded in the duke- 
dom by three of his sons in turn, each of 
whom died without male issue. The duke's 
lonours and dignities (except the barony of 
Barnard, which passed to a distant cousin, 
Henry de Vere Vane) became extinct in 
1891 on the death of the youngest son, Harry 
jreorge, whose widow, Catherine Lucy Wil- 
helmina, daughter of Philip Henry, fourth 
earl Stanhope, married, secondly, Archibald 
Primrose, styled Lord Dalmeny, and was 
mother of the present Earl of Rosebery. 

There are several portraits and miniatures 
of the first duke at Raby Castle ; and a 
3ortrait by Devis, in the possession of the 
Milbanke family at Barningham, has been 
engraved by Fry. 

[Times, 31 Jan. 1842 ; Morning Post, 31 Jan- 
1842; G-ent. Mag. 1842, i. 543, ii. 676; G. E- 
3[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Newton's Rura^ 
Sports, ed. 1867 ; Nimrod'sThe Chase, the Turf, 



.and the Koad, ed. 1837 ; and information kindly 
afforded by the present Lord Barnard.] 

W. C-R. 

(1778-1854). [See STEWART.] 

JOSEPH (1699 P-1749), painter, was born 
at Antwerp about 1699. He came over to 
England at about the age of twenty, and was 
a good painter of history and portraits. He 
found more profitable employment, however, 
as painter of drapery and other accessories 
for Thomas Hudson (1701-1779) [q. v.], 
Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) [q. v.], and other 

portrait-painters. In this branch of art he 
showed remarkable excellence. Van Haecken 
died on 4 July 1749, and was buried in St. 
Pancras Church, leaving a widow, but no 
children. Hudson and Ramsay were exe- 
cutors of his will. Hogarth is stated to have 
drawn a caricature of a mock-funeral pro- 
cession of Van Haecken, showing the dis- 
tress of the painters at the loss of their 
indispensable assistant. Ramsay painted Van 
Haecken's portrait. A few portraits by Van 
Haecken himself were engraved in mezzo- 
tint by his younger brother, Alexander van 
Haecken (b. 1701), who lived with him and 
shared his work. A number of portraits by 
Amiconi, Hudson, Ramsay, and others were 
engraved in mezzotint by the younger Van 
Haecken, who carried on his brother's prac- 
tice after his death. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. "Wor- 
num; Vertue's Manuscripts (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 23074, f. 9) ; Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

1723), 'Vanessa.' [See under SWIFT, JONA- 

(1687 P-1746), flower-painter, born at Am- 
sterdam about 1687, was brother of the cele- 
brated flower-painter, Jan Van Huysum, and 
son of Justus Van Huysum (1659-1716), a 
painter, of Amsterdam. He painted in the 
same manner and in as close an imitation 
of his brother's work as possible. Though 
he never attained the same excellence, his 
work, especially in England, has often been 
mistaken for his brother's. Van Huysum 
came to England about 1721, in which year 
he was living in the house of a patron, 
Mr. Lockyear of the South Sea House. 
Subsequently he was patronised by Sir Ro- 
bert Walpole, who received him as an in- 
mate of his house at Chelsea, and employed 
him to paint flower-pieces and copies from 

old masters for the decoration of the great 
house at Houghton in Norfolk. Through 
his drunken and dissolute habits he lost this 
and other patronage, and died in obscurity 
in 1746. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; Vertue's 
Diaries (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 23068); Des- 
camps's Vies des Peintres Flamands, 1764, iv. 
231 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, 
ed. Graves and Armstrong.] L. C. 

CHAEL SCOTT (1822-1869), chancellor of 
Upper Canada, born on 21 Jan. 1822 at Corn- 
wall, Ontario, was the eldest son of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Philip Vankoughnet by Har- 
riet Sophia, daughter of Matthew Scott of 
Carrick-on-Suir, co. Tipperary. The family, 
which was originally named Von Gochnat, 
emigrated from Colmar in Alsace in 1750, 
and settled on the site of what is now the 
town of Springfield, Massachusetts. 

Michael Vankoughnet (1751-1832),grand- 
father of Philip Michael, having been pro- 
scribed as a loyalist during the American 
revolution, took refuge in 1783 at Cornwall 
in Stormont County, Ontario. Here he died 
in October 1832. leaving three sons and a 
daughter, the issue of his marriage with 
Eve, daughter of John Bolton Empey. The 
eldest son, Philip Vankoughnet (1790-1873), 
born on 2 April 1790, served at the battle of 
Chrysler's Farm, 11 Nov. 1813, and com- 
manded the fifth battalion of the Canadian 
incorporated militia at the battle of the 
Windmill, Prescott, 13 Nov. 1837, during 
Riel's rebellion. He was also for thirty years 
a member of the legislature of Upper Canada, 
and upon its union with the Lower Province 
in 1840 became a member of the Legislative 
Council. At his death he was chairman of 
the board of arbitrators for the dominion. 
He died at Cornwall in Canada on 17 May 
1873, leaving eight sons and five daughters. 

The eldest son, Philip Michael, served 
under his father in 1837. He was called to 
the Canadian bar in 1843, and took silk six 
years later. He soon acquired the largest 
practice in Upper Canada, and his entrance 
on political life was made at a large pecu- 
niary sacrifice. In November 1856 he be- 
came the first member of the legislative 
I council for Rideau. In the previous May 
he had been appointed president of the exe- 
cutive council and minister of agriculture in 
! the Tache administration, on the resignation 
| of Sir Allan Napier Macnab [q. v.] Van- 
koughnet reorganised his department, made it 
thoroughly efficient, and, in particular, took 
effective measures to check the ravages of 
the Hessian fly and weevil. In September 
! 1858 he became chief commissioner of crown 

Van Laun 

132 Van Leemput 

lands in the Cartier-Macdonald admini- 
stration, and held office for four years. During 
this time he established the system of selling 
townships en bloc, and opened up some of 
the best colonial roads. He also acted as 
leader of the conservative government in 
the legislative council or upper house of 
Canada. In 1862 he was appointed chan- 
cellor of Ontario or Upper Canada, which 
office he held till his death, having declined 
the office of chief justice which Macdonald 
made him in 1868. Vankoughnet died at 
Toronto on 7 Nov. 1869. He was a close 
political and personal friend of Sir John 
Alexander Macdonald fq. v.], but made his 
way chiefly through his own abilities. He 
was a forcible and fluent speaker, and an 
able lawyer. Vankoughnet married, in No- 
vember 1845, Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel 
Barker Turner, by whom he had two sons. 

[Burke's Colonial Gentry, vol. ii. ; Morgan's 
Sketches of Celebrated Canadians, 1862, pp. 
615-17; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography; Times, 10 Nov. 1869; Pope's 
Memoirs of Sir J. A. Macdonald, i. 157, 201, 
203-4, 233, ii. 74-5. See also an article on 
S. J. Vankoughnet, founded upon family docu- 
ments, in Rose's Cyclopaedia of Canadian 
Biography, 1888.] G. LE G-. N. 

VAN LAUN, HENRI (1820-1896), 
author and translator, born in Holland in 
1820, was educated, in France. He settled 
permanently in England in 1848, and at 
first sought fortune as a journalist, but after 
a brief experience he preferred the less pre- 
carious business of teaching. He was suc- 
cessively French master at King William's 
College, Isle of Man, at Cheltenham College, 
and the Edinburgh Academy. Settling 
afterwards in London, he acted for twenty 
consecutive years as examiner in French for 
the civil service commission and for the 
war office. His first publication, * A Gram- 
mar of the French Language ' (3 vols. 1863- 
1864), was followed by ' Selections from 
Modern French Authors ' (3 vols. 1869-88). 
In 1871 appeared his translation of his 
friend Taine's ' History of English Litera- 
ture.' This work was first issued in Edin- 
burgh in two volumes. It ran through four 
or five editions, and was then issued in 
four volumes (London, 1886, 8vo). Van 
Laun's translation of the ' Dramatic Works' 
of Moliere was published in 6 vols. at Edin- 
burgh in 1875-6, 8vo, with illustrations by 
Lalauze. It embodies much curious in- 
formation, derived from Langbaine and 
other sources, concerning seventeenth and 
eighteenth century translations of, and 
plagiarisms from, separate plays, acknow- 
ledged or unacknowledged. Van Laun's 

own ' History of French Literature ' ap- 
peared in three volumes (London, 1876-7, 
8vo), and was reprinted in 1883. He next 
published his ' French Revolutionary Epoch/ 
(2 vols. London, 1878, 8vo), being a history 
of France from the beginning of the first 
Revolution to the end of the Second Em- 
pire. He contributed a ' Notice of the Life 
and Works of Motteux ' to Lockhart's re- 
vised edition of Pierre Antoine Motteux's 
English translation of Cervantes's ' Don 
Quixote' which appeared in four volumes 
(London, 1880-1, 8vo). Van Laun next 
published ' The Characters of La Bruyere, 
newly rendered into English' (London, 1885, 
8 vo). His last work was a translation of ' The 
Adventures of Gil Bias ' from the French of 
Le Sage (3 vols. London, 1886, 8vo). 

Van Laun was a competent translator, 
and was widely read in English dramatic 
literature, but his original essays in literary 
history were valueless compilations. He 
was for some years confidential adviser to 
Mr. John C. Nimmo, the publisher, of Lon- 
don. He died at his residence in Ladbroke 
Gardens, London, on 19 Jan. 1896. 

[Times, 21 and 22 Jan. 1896; Athenaeum, 
25 Jan. 1896, p. 120; Annual Register, 1896, 
ii. 136.] T. C. 

1675), painter, born at Antwerp about 1609, 
was received into the guild of St. Luke 
there in 1628-9. He came to England in 
Charles I's reign, and among other works for 
that king he made a small copy in oils of the 
famous painting by Holbein at Whitehall of 
Henry VII, Henry VIII, and their queens, 
which was afterwards destroyed by fire ; 
Van Leemput's copy is now 'at Hampton 
Court. He was one of the purchasers at the 
sale of King Charles's collection, and among 
his purchases was the great picture of 
Charles I on horseback, by Van Dyck (now 
at Windsor), which was recovered from him 
with some difficulty at the Restoration. 
M. Remy or Remee, as he was usually called 
by his contemporaries, was a well-known 
and skilful copyist of pictures. He copied 
many portraits by Van Dyck, and told Sir 
Peter Lely that he could copy his portraits 
better than Lely could himself. He copied 
Raphael's ' Galatea ' for the Earl of Pomfret 
at Easton Neston. Van Leemput died in 
1675, and on 9 Nov. was buried in St. Paul's, 
Co vent Garden, where a son of his, Charles 
Van Leemput, had been interred on 19 Sept. 
1651. His daughter also practised painting, 
and married Thomas Streater, a nephew of 
Robert Streater [q. v.] Van Leemput had 
a well-chosen collection of pictures and 

Van Lemens 


Van Mildert 

other works of art, which were advertised 
for sale at Somerset House on 14 May 1677 
(London Gazette). 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed.Wornum; 
Bathoe's Cat. of James IL's Collection ; Law's 
Cat. of the Pictures at Hampton Court ; Rom- 
bouts and Lerius's Liggeren der St. Lukas Gild 
te Antverpen ; Vertue's Diaries ^Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MSS. 23071, &c.)] L. C. 

1704), painter, born at Antwerp in 1637, 
came over to England, and had some slight 
success in painting small pieces of history. 
Meeting, however, with misfortunes, he was 
reduced to working for other people, drawing 
and making sketches to assist the work of 
both painters and engravers. Among the 
latter he was chiefly employed by Paul Van 
Somer [q. v.], the mezzotint-engraver. He 
also copied portraits by Van Dyck and others. 
He had a brother who practised in Brussels, 
and painted Balthasar's portrait. Van Lemens 
died in Westminster in 1704. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed.Wornum ; 
De Piles's Lives of the Painters (Suppl.) ; Cha- 
loner Smith's British Mezzotinio Portraits.! 

L. C. 

1836), the last bishop of Durham to exercise 
the palatine dignities, belonged to a family 
formerly resident at Mildert or Meldert in 
North Brabant, but the first of them to settle 
in England came from Amsterdam about 
1670. Some documents from the archives of 
the Dutch church in Austin Friars were com- 
municated to Strype by Daniel Van Mildert, 
one of its ' ancient elders' (Annals, ed. 1826, 
vol. ii. pt. i. p. 422 ; cf. also MOENS, Dutch 
Church Registers, pp. 51, 210, 212). The 
bishop's grandfather, Abraham Van Mildert 
(b. December 1680), a merchant first at 
Thames Street and then at Great St. Helen's, 
was a deacon of the Dutch church in 1711. 
His father was Cornelius Van Mildert, a dis- 
tiller, of St. Mary, Newington, Surrey (d. 
1799), who married Martha (1732-1818), 
daughter of William Hill of Vauxhall. 

William, their second son, was born in 
Blackman Street, London, on 6 Nov. 1765 
and baptised at Newington church on 8 Dec. 
by Samuel Horsley [q. v.] When about 
eight years old he was sent to St. Saviour's 
school, Southwark, and from 1779 to 1784 
he was at Merchant Taylors' school, where 
he was much influenced by Samuel Bishop 
[q. v.] His first wish was to be apprenticed 
to the trade of a chemist, but he soon deter- 
mined upon becoming a clergy man. At Mer- 
chant Taylors' he was friendly with (Sir) 
Albert Pell and Thomas Percy (1768-1808) 

q. v.], and he contributed to Percy's ' Poems 
i>y a Literary Society ' in 1784. He matricu- 
lated as a commoner from Queen's College, 
Oxford, on 21 Feb. 1784, graduating B. A. on 
23 Nov. 1787, M.A. on 17 July 1790, and 
B.D. and D.D. in 1813 (cf. NICHOLS, Illustr. 
of Lit. iv. 787-8). 

On Trinity Sunday 1788 Van Mildert was 
ordained deacon and licensed to the curacy 
of Lewknor, which he served from Oxford. 
Next year, when he was serving a curacy in 
Kent, he was ordained priest, and in 1790 he 
was appointed to the curacy of Witham in 
Essex. There he remained'until 1795, and 
during those years he travelled in Holland 
and Belgium. On 24 April 1795 he was 
instituted, on the nomination of Cornelius 
Ives, his cousin and brother-in-law, to the 
rectory of Bradden, near Towcester. He was 
chaplain to the Grocers' Company, and 
through the influence of his uncle, Mr. Hill, 
was instituted in October 1796 to the rectory 
of St. Mary-le-Bow, London, oil the nomi- 
nation of the company, which had the pre- 
sentation for that turn. As there was no par- 
sonage-house suitable for his habitation, he 
lived for the most part until 1812 at 14 Ely 
Place, Holborn. He had not long been in pos- 
session of the living before he was sued for 
non-residence ' by a qui tarn attorney,' or 
common informer, and his claim for exemp- 
tion, through the want of a parsonage-house, 
was not held to exempt him from penalty ; 
but he and several other city incumbents in 
similar circumstances were relieved from the 
consequences by an act of parliament. 

Van Mildert was appointed Lady Moyer's 
lecturer at St. Paul's about 1797, and from 
1802 to 1804 he preached the Boyle lectures. 
Their subject was ' An Historical View of 
Infidelity, with a Refutation' (London, 1806 r 
2 vols ; 5th edit. 1838). They were received 
with great favour, although their value now 
lies in the information contained in the notes. 
In 1807 he was one of the editors of ' The 
Churchman's Remembrancer,' a collection in 
two volumes of tracts in defence of the church 
of England. By the gi ft of Archbishop Man- 
ners-Sutton he was collated on 10 April 1807 
to the vicarage of Farningham in Kent ; this 
benefice he held until late in 1813, retaining- 
with it the rectory of St. Mary-le-Bow until 
August 1820. 

In 1812 Van Mildert was elected by a large 
majority of the benchers to the preachership 
at Lincoln's Inn, which he held until he was 
raised to the episcopal bench. One of his 
earliest sermons preached in this new situa- 
tion was * On the Assassination of Mr. Spen- 
cer Perceval,' and it was printed in 1812. 
Two volumes of his scholarly ' Sermons 

Van Mildert 



preached at Lincoln's Inn from 1812 to 1819 ' 
were printed in 1831 , and passed into a se- 
cond edition in 1832. In 1813 he was ap- 
pointed Bampton lecturer at Oxford. His 
discourses 'An Inquiry into the General 
Principles of Scripture Interpretation ' were 
printed in 1815 and reprinted in 1832. In 
October 1813 he became regius professor of 
divinity at Oxford ; to the professorship a 
canonry at Christ Church and the rectory of 
Ewelme were annexed. 

Van Mildert was consecrated at Lambeth 
on 31 May 1819 to the bishopric of 
Llandaff. In the following January he de- 
clined the offer of the archbishopric of 
Dublin, but on 20 Aug. 1820 he was nomi- 
nated to the deanery of St. Paul's. From 
midsummer 1821 he engaged Coldbrook 
House, near Abergavenny, and was the first 
prelate of Llandaflf for many years to reside 
within the diocese. In 1826 he was trans- 
lated to the rich see of Durham (confirmed 
24 April), and he was the last count (often 
styled 'prince') palatine of Durham. His 
income was princely, and his generosity was 
equal to it. In conjunction with the dean 
and chapter he founded the university of 
Durham in 1832 (the university was opened 
in October 1833). The main part of the en- 
dowment came from the capitular revenues ; 
but the bishop gave his Durham residence 
(The Castle), and 2,000/. a year until his 
death. He made very extensive alterations, 
not always in the best taste, in the chapel at 
Auckland Castle (RAINE, Auckland Castle, 
pp. 95-6). During the assize week he enter- 
tained at dinner at Durham Castle upwards 
of two hundred guests, and on his four public 
days at Auckland Castle he feasted nearly 
three hundred persons. He gave the Duke 
of Wellington a sumptuous banquet at Dur- 
ham Castle on 3 Oct. 1827, when Sir Walter 
Scott and Sir Thomas Lawrence were among 
the company. Scott gives a pleasant account 
of the entertainment, which exhibited ' a 
singular mixture of baronial pomp with the 
grave and more chastened dignity of prelacy,' 
and of the demeanour of the host, who 
showed 'scholarship without pedantry and 
dignity without ostentation' (LOCKHART, 
Memoirs of Scott, vii. 71-4). 

The bishop was an impressive preacher 
and speaker. ' The substance of his speech 
in the House of Lords on 17 May 1825' 
against Roman catholic claims was printed 
in that year, and he resisted them to the 
last. He assented, though with some hesita- 
tion, to the repeal of the Test Act, but he 
opposed the Reform Bill. He was seized 
with low fever on 11 Feb. 1836, and on 
21 Feb. he died at Auckland Castle. His 

funeral sermon, afterwards printed, was 
preached by the Rev. Canon Townsend in 
the cathedral on 28 Feb., and he was buried 
immediately in front of the high altar on 
1 March, the place being marked by a small 
slab with his initials. At the north end of 
the nine altars stands a full-sized statue by 
John Gibson, R.A., of the bishop, a litho- 
graph of which, by R. J. Lane, was printed 
subsequently. A portrait of Van Mildert 
by Sir Thomas Lawrence hangs in the 
j drawing-room at Auckland Castle ; it was 
engraved by Thomas Lupton (published by 
I M. Colnaghi, May 1831), and a replica is 
in the hall of Queen's College, Oxford ; an 
excellent miniature by Evans is in the com- 
mon-room of the college. He married at 
Witham, on 22 Dec. 1795, Jane, youngest; 
daughter of General Douglas. She died at 
I Harrogate on 19 Dec. 1837, and was buried 
I in the same vault with the bishop. An 
i auction catalogue of his library was printed 
| in 1836. He presented to Durham Univer- 
1 sity a fine set of the St. Maur Benedictine 
1 Fathers. 

The bishop was the author of many single 

sermons, a charge to Llandaff diocese (1821), 

i and charges to the diocese of Durham (1827 

I and 1831). A volume of his sermons and 

charges was edited, with a memoir of him, by 

, Cornelius Ives, rector of Bradden, in 1838. 

From 1823 to 1828 he was engaged in 

passing through the Clarendon press an 

elaborate edition of 'The Works of Daniel 

Waterland ' [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. 1836 i. 425-7, 1838 i. 221; 

Annual Biogr. and Obit. 1837, pp. 20-9 ; Biogr. 

Diet, of Living Authors (1816), p. 361 ; Foster's 

' Alumni Oxon.; Baker's Northamptonshire, ii. 

! 38 ; Robinson's Merchant Taylors' School, ii. 

i 146 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 257, 317, 526, iii. 298, 

511 ; Churton's Joshua Watson, passim; Nichols's 

; Literary Anecdotes, via. 148 ; information from 

' Dr. Kitchin, dean of Durham.] W. P. C. 

VANNES, PETER (d. 1562), dean of 

Salisbury, born at Lucca in Italy, was son 

1 of Stephen de Vannes of that city. In one 

of his letters Erasmus calls him Peter Am- 

monius, and Cooper in his ' Athense Canta- 

\ brigienses ' (i. 220) states that Vannes was 

j son of a sister of Andrea Ammonio [q. v.] 

Vannes, however, is styled by himself and 

his correspondents more vaguely as ' conso- 

\ brinus ' or kinsman of Ammonio. It was 

; through the influence of Ammonio, who was 

j Latin secretary to Henry VIII, that Vannes 

I was brought to England, and he became 

i assistant to Ammonio in 1513 (Letters and 

1 Papers, ii. 3602-3). In the following year 

he seems also to have become secretary to 

Cardinal Wolsey. Ammonio died on 17 Aug. 



1517, and Vannes immediately wrote to 
Wolsey begging 1 for some living left vacant 
by his kinsman's death. At the same time 
Ammonio's friend Erasmus wrote to Vannes 
desiring him to collect his correspondence 
with Ammonio and return it to him. Eras- 
mus was not satisfied with Vannes's efforts 
to do so, and complained that he could find 
in Vannes none of Ammonio's genius or 
temper (ib. ii. 4103, 4107). Silvestro Gigli 
[q. v.j, a native of Lucca and bishop of Wor- 
cester, strongly recommended Vannes to 
Wolsey, and Lorenzo (afterwards cardinal) 
Campeggio [q. v.] in 1521 sought Vannes's 
influence to secure his promotion to the see 
of Worcester. On 12 Nov. 1521 Vannes 
was presented to the living of Mottram in 
the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, and in 
1523 he was incorporated B.D. at Cambridge. 
He is termed 'frater' in the proctor's books, 
but it is not known to what order he be- 

A vast number of documents calendared 
by Brewer and Gairdner are in Vannes's 
handwriting, but they do not supply the 
exact date when Vannes added the Latin 
secretaryship to the king to his similar office 
under Wolsey. In 1526 an unsuccessful 
effort was made to secure for him the bishop- 
ric of Lucca, and in October-November of 
that year he was in Rome (ib. iv. 2158, 
2542). In July 1527 he accompanied Wolsey 
on his magnificent embassy to France, and 
in November 1528 was commissioned with 
Sir Francis Bryan [q. v.] ambassador to the 
pope. The main purpose of the mission was 
to induce the pope to declare Henry VIII's 
marriage with Catherine of Arragon void 
ab initio, and with this object Vannes was 
specially instructed to hire advocates of 
Henry's cause, to bribe the cardinals, and 
generally to secure support wherever he 
could (ib. iv. 4979 ; POOOCK, Records of the 
Reformation, i. 189). Other objects of the 
mission were to withdraw the pope from his 
alliance with the emperor, to discover the 
real causes of Campeggio's failure to proceed 
with the divorce question, and to make 
searching inquiry into the authenticity of 
the brief produced by Catherine removing 
all the disabilities found in the original dis- 
pensation for her marriage granted by Julius. 
If all other means failed, Vannes \vas ' to 
inquire whether the pope will dispense with 
the king to have two wives, making the 
children of the second marriage legitimate as 
well as those of the first, whereof some great 
reasons and precedents appear, especially in 
the Old Testament.' Vannes reached Flo- 
rence on 9 Jan. 1528-9, and was at Rome 
on the 28th ; the mission was, however, a 

complete failure, and in October following 
Vannes returned to England. 

Vannes maintained friendly relations with 
Wolsey after his fall (Letters and Papers, 
1 July 1530). That event did not interfere 
with his advancement; on 4 Dec. 1529 he 
was collated to the prebend of Bedwyn in 
Salisbury Cathedral, and on the 16th was 
instituted to the rectory of Wheathamstead, 
Hertfordshire. On 17 July 1533 he was 
appointed collector of papal taxes in Eng- 
land, an office soon to become a sinecure ; 
and in the same year he was sent on the 
king's business to Rome, Avignon, and Mar- 
seilles. On 12 May 1534 he was made arch- 
deacon of Worcester; on 22 Feb. 1534-5 
he was admitted prebendary of Bole in York 
Cathedral ; on 22 Sept. 1535 was con- 
stituted coadjutor to the dean of Salisbury, 
who was of unsound mind. He subscribed 
the articles of religion agreed upon in the 
convocation of 1536. In 1537 he held the 
prebend of Compton Dundon in Wells Cathe- 
dral, and on 3 Feb. 1539-40 succeeded to 
the deanery of Salisbury. In April 1542 he 
was admitted to the prebend of Cadington 
Major in St. Paul's Cathedral (HENNESSY, 
Nov. Rep. p. 18). He also received shortly 
afterwards the prebend of Shipton-Under- 
wood in Salisbury Cathedral, the rectory of 
Tredington, Worcestershire ; and in 1545 a 
pension of 26/. 13s. 4d. on the loss of his 
canonry by dissolution at St. Frideswide's, 

Vannes apparently gave up his deanery 
during Edward VI's reign, but retained his 
Latin secretaryship, the grant of which was 
confirmed to him, with a salary of forty 
marks, on 12 Dec. 1549. On 19 May 1550 
he was sent ambassador to Venice, where he 
arrived in August ; his salary was forty shil- 
lings a day. In September 1551 he urged the 
council of ten to restore to Sebastian Cabot 
[q. v.] the property claimed by him, and on 
16 Oct. was given credentials to the senators 
of his native city Lucca. Sir John Mason 
described Vannes's conduct as timid ; but he 
was retained in that post by Queen Mary, 
who also restored to him the deanery of 
Salisbury. Vannes was at Venice when 
Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, died 
there, and he sent the queen an account of 
that event (FROUDE, vi. 452-3). He was 
recalled in September 1556. He retained 
his preferments under Elizabeth and died 
early in 1563. By his will, dated 1 July 1562, 
and proved 1 May 1563, he left considerable 
property to his heir, Benedict Hudson alias 
Vannes. Leland commemorated his friend- 
ship in an ode (Encomia, p. 27 ; cf. ASCHAM, 
Epist. 278). 

Van Nost 



[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. i-xv., 
contain several hundred references to Vannes. 
See also Cal. State Papers, Dom., Spanish, 
Foreign, and Venetian Series ; State Papers of 
Henry VIII, 11 vols. passim ; Acts of the Privy 
Council, ed. Dasent, vol. iv. ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
fd. Hardy ; Cotton MSS. passim ; Lansdowne 
MSS. 611 f. 71, 982 f. 23; Lit. Rem. of Ed- 
ward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; Rymer's Foedera ; 
Fiddes's Life of Wolsey, pp. 460-5 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss ; Burnet's Hist. Refor- 
mation ; Strype's Works; Cooper's Athenae 
Cantabr. i. 220, and other authorities there 
cited.] A. F. P. 

VAN NOST, JOHN (d. 1780), sculptor, 
son of a maker of leaden figures for gardens 
(REDGRAVE, Diet, of British Artists), was 
born in Piccadilly, London, early in the eigh- 
teenth century. About 1750 he went to Dub- 
lin, and worked there for many years as a sc ulp- 
tor. Among his works were a statue of Lord 
William Blakeney, erected in Sackville Street, 
but now removed ; the equestrian statue of 
George II, now in Stephen's Green, and some 
minor sculpture. Redgrave erroneously say s 
that Van Nost executed the statue of King 
William in College Green. He also did 
much of the sculpture in Dublin Castle, 
besides half-length statues of Thomas Prior 
[q. v.] and Samuel Madden [q. v.], copies of 
which were engraved by Charles Spooner 
[q. v.] He executed the statue of ' Mr. Law- 
ton, ex-mayor of Cork,' in that city. He 
appears to have revisited England during 
1780, but he died in Mecklenburgh Street, 
Dublin, at the end of September 1780. 

[Pasquin's Artists of Ireland ; Whitelaw *nd 
Walsh's Hist, of Dublin, vol. ii. ; Gilbert's Hist, 
of Dublin; Dublin Directories, 1750-80.] 

D. J. O'D. 

VAN RYMSDYK, JAN (/. 1767- 
1778), painter and engraver, was a native of 
Holland, and at first practised as a portrait- 
painter. In 1767 he executed a mezzotint 
engraving of ' Frederick Henry and Emilia 
Van Solms, Prince and Princess of Orange,' 
from a painting by Jordaens at Devonshire 
House. Afterwards he settled at Bristol. 
His skill as a draughtsman and engraver 
brought him into the service of William 
Hunter (1718-1783) [q. v.], for whom he 
executed some of the admirable engravings 
which illustrate Hunter's 'AnatomiaHumani 
Gravidi Uteri,' published in 1774. In 1778, 
in conjunction with his son Andrew, he pub- 
lished a series of plates from antiquities and 
curiosities in the British Museum, entitled 
' Museum Britannicum ; ' a second and re- 
vised edition of this work was published in 

His son, ANDREW VAN R YMSDYK (d. 1780), 

gained a medal at the Society of Arts in 
1767, and in 1778 exhibited two enamels at 
the Royal Academy. He assisted his father 
in his works, and died at Bath in 1780. 
The name is sometimes anglicised erroneously 
as ' Remsdyke.' 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters ; Graves's- 
Dictionary of Arts, 1760-1892; Lowndes's Bi- 
bliographer's Manual.] L. C. 

VANS, SIB PATRICK (d. 1597), of 
Barnbarroch, lord of session and ambassa- 
dor, was the second son of Sir John Vans of 
Barnbarroch by Janet, only child of Sir 
Samuel MacCulloch of Myreton, keeper of 
the palace of Linlithgow. He was edu- 
cated for the church, and became rector of 
Wigton. In 1568 he succeeded to the family 
estates on the death of his elder brother, 
and on 1 Jan. 1576 he was appointed an 
ordinary lord of session on the spiritual 
side. On 21 Jan. 1587 he was admitted a 
member of the privy council (Reg. Privy 
Council, Scotl. iv. 162). In May of the 
same year he was sent, along with Peter 
Young, ambassador to Denmark, to arrange 
for a marriage between James VI and Anne, 
princess of Denmark (MOYSIE, Memoirs, p. 
64 ; SIR JAMES MELVILLE, Memoirs, p. 363),. 
and, having arrived home in August (MOYSIE, 
p. 65 ; MELVILLE, p. 364), he was on 1 Oct. 
exonerated for his proceedings in Denmark 
(Reg. Privy Council, Scotl. iv. 219). When 
the ships conveying the princess to Scot- 
land in October 1589 were driven back by 
storm, and the king resolved to send a 
special embassy to fetch her, Vans was 
named one of the principal ambassadors for 
that purpose (ib. iv. 421), and, when the 
king resolved himself to embark, was espe- 
cially chosen to accompany him (CALDER- 
WOOD, History, v. 67). After witnessing the 
marriage, he, on the king's resolving to 
remain in Denmark until the spring, returned 
to Scotland to report the marriage to the 
council, arriving in Scotland on 15 Dec. 
(MOYSIE, p. 81). In 1592 he was elected a 
lord of the articles, and in June of the same 
year received an annual pension of 200/. 
He was again chosen a lord of the articles 
on 16 July 1593, and at the same time was 
appointed to a commission for the provision 
of ministers and augmentation of stipends. 
He died on 22 July 1597, and was succeeded 
by his son, Sir John Vans, one of the 
gentlemen of the chamber to King James. 

Though the name of Sir Patrick Vans has 
not by any ballad editor been associated 
with the old ballad of ' Sir Patrick Spans/ 
the supposition that he is the hero of it is 
at least as probable as any other theory as to 




the origin of the ballad [cf. art. WAKDLAW, 

[Calderwood's History of the Church of Scot- 
laud; Moysie's Memoirs and Sir James Mel- 
ville's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club) ; Register of 
the Privy Council of Scotland, vols. iii-v. ; 
Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of 
Justice; Henderson's Scottish Vernacular Lite- 
rature, pp. 353-6.] T. F. H. 


(1768-1824), general, born on 16 July 1768, 
was the eldest son of George Vansittart, 
M.P., of Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, by Sarah, 
daughter of the Rev. Sir James Stonhouse, 
bart., of Radley, Berkshire. Henry Vansit- 
tart (1777-1843) [q. v.] was his younger 
brother. Henry Vansittart (1732-1770) 
[q. v.] and Robert Vansittart [q. v.] were 
his uncles. He was educated at Winchester, 
at a military academy at Strasbourg, and at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he matricu- 
lated 011 7 Nov. 1785. 

After obtaining a commission as ensign in 
the 19th foot on 18 Oct. 1786, he was 
allowed a year's leave to study military 
science at Brunswick and attend the Prus- 
sian mano3uvres. He became lieutenant on 
25 Dec. 1787, exchanged to the 38th foot on 
12 March 1788, and obtained a company in 
the 18th foot on 23 June 1790. He joined 
that regiment at Gibraltar, went with it to 
Toulon in 1793, took part in the defence, and 
was one of the last men to leave the place. 
He became major in the New South Wales 
corps on 20 Nov. 1793, and lieutenant- 
colonel of the 95th on 21 Feb. 1794. He 
took part with it in the expedition to the 
Cape under Sir Alured Clarke in 1795. He 
was made colonel in the army on 26 Jan. 
1797 ; but the 95th was broken up in the 
course of that year, and for the next three 
years he was on half-pay and in the Berk- 
shire militia, which his uncle, Colonel Arthur 
Vansittart, had previously commanded. 

On 10 April 1801 he became lieutenant- 
colonel of the 68th foot, went with it to the 
West Indies, and was present at the capture 
of St. Lucia in June 1803. On 25 Sept. he 
was promoted major-general, and served on 
the staff in England from 1804 to 1806, and 
in Ireland from 1806 to 1810, when he be- 
came lieutenant-general (25 July). While 
in command of the Oxford district he re- 
ceived the degree of D.C.L. on 26 June 1805. 
He had been given the colonelcy of the 12th 
reserve battalion on 9 July 1803, and was 
transferred to the 1st garrison battalion on 
25 Feb. 1805. The colours of this battalion 
were afterwards presented to him, and now 
hang in the great hall in Bisharn Abbey. 

He became general on 19 July 1821, and 
died on 4 Feb. 1824. 

On 29 Oct. 1818 he had married Anna 
Maria, daughter and coheiress of Thomas 
Copson of Sheppey Hall, Leicestershire. 
She survived him, with one son, George Henry 
(1823-1885), and a second son, Augustus 
Arthur(1824-1882), was born posthumously. 
There is a portrait of him in uniform, by 
Sir George Hayter, at Bisham Abbey. 

[Gent. Mag. 1824, i. 278 ; E. M. Calendar, ii. 
176; Burke's Landed Gentry ; private informa- 
tion.] E. M. L. 

VANSITTART, HENRY (1732-1770), 
governor of Bengal, born on 3 June 1732 at 
his father's house in Ormond Street, Lon- 
don, was the third son of Arthur van Sittart 
of Shottesbrook, Berkshire, by his wife 
Martha, eldest daughter and coheiress of 
Sir John Stonhouse, bart., of Radley, Berk- 
shire, comptroller to the household of Queen 
Anne. Robert Vansittart [q. v.] was his 
elder brother, and his younger brother, George, 
was father of General George Henry Van- 
sittart [q. v.] and Vice-admiral Henry Van- 
sittart [q. v.] 

The family is of Dutch origin and derive 
their name from the town of Sittart in Lim- 
burg. Henry's ancestors removed to Julich, 
and afterwards to Danzig, whence his grand- 
father, Peter van Sittart (1651-1705), re- 
moved to London about 1670. Peter, who 
was a merchant adventurer, gained a large 
fortune by trade with the Baltic, the East 
Indies, and the South Seas. He was a 
governor of the Russia Company, and a 
director of the East India Company. His 
fifth son, Arthur van Sittart (1691-1760) 
(father of the subject of the present notice), 
was also a director of the Russia Company, 
and a man of great wealth. He died at his 
residence near Reading on 16 Sept. 1760. 

Henry Vansittart was educated at Read- 
ing grammar school and at Winchester Col- 
lege. His youth was dissolute, and with 
his elder brothers, Arthur and Robert, he 
was a member of the graceless Society of the 
Franciscans of Medmenham, more usually 
known as the ' Hell-fire Club.' His father, 
alarmed at his extravagances, compelled him 
at the age of thirteen to enter the service of 
the East India Company on the Madras esta- 
blishment. In the summer of 1745 he sailed 
for Fort St. Davids, where he was employed 
as a writer. He was extremely assiduous in 
his duties, and early mastered the Persian 
language, the tongue then employed in Indian 
diplomacy. While at Fort St. Davids he 
made the acquaintance of Clive, and a close 
friendship sprang up between them. In 1750 




Vansittart was promoted to the grade of 
factor, and in the following year visited Eng- 
land. He had amassed a considerable for- 
tune, which he soon dissipated in gambling 
and riotous living. Returning to India, he 
was employed in 1754 and 1755 in embassies 
to the French East India Company, and for 
his services was promoted to the rank of 
junior merchant. In 1756 he was advanced 
to that of senior merchant, while filling the 
post of secretary and Persian translator to 
the secret committee. In the following year 
he took his seat in the council, and was ap- 
pointed searcher of the sea-gate. In February 
1 759 he took part in the defence of Madras 
against the French under Lally. 

On 8 Nov. 1759, on Olive's recommenda- 
tion, he was appointed president of the counci] 
and governor of Fort William and the com- 
pany's settlements in Bengal, Behar, and 
Orissa; but owing to the critical condition 
of affairs at Fort St. George, where he was 
acting as governor ad interim, he did not 
arrive in Bengal until July 1760. His pro- 
motion occasioned much discontent at Fort 
William, due, in part at least, to the fact 
that he was junior to any member of the 
council there, and a petition was drawn up 
by John Zephaniah Holwell [q. v.], the tem- 
porary governor, on 29 Dec. 1759, which 
was signed by the members of the council, 
remonstrating against his appointment. The 
directors, however, upheld Vansittart, and 
in a reply, dated 21 Jan. 1761, removed the 
petitioners from their official places. 

Vansittart arrived in Bengal at the end 
of July 1760. He found affairs embarrassed. 
Clive, by undertaking to assist the subadar 
in military matters, had entirely changed 
the position of the company in Bengal. By 
the treaty with the subadar, Mir Jafar, the 
company undertook to maintain a force under 
their own direction, but in the subadar's pay, 
to be at his service when he should require 
it. The sum for its maintenance was after- 
wards fixed at a lakh of rupees a month. 
The new governor found this subsidy unpaid, 
the treasury empty, and the income of the 
presidency scarcely sufficient for the current 
expenses of Calcutta. Nothing was to be 
expected from Mir Jafar, who was alienated 
from the English, and who besides had en- 
tirely lost control of the administration. The 
death of his son Miran on 2 July 1760 plunged 
matters into inextricable confusion by re- 
moving the only man able to control the 
subadar's troops. Under these circumstances 
Vansittart resolved to place the administra- 
tion in the hands of Mir Kasim, Mir Jafar's 
son-in-law, a man of undoubted ability and 
well affected to the English. On 2 Oct. 

1760 Vansittart proceeded to Kasimbazar, 
and, finding Mir Jafar resolutely opposed to 
his plan, deposed him, and at his own request- 
sent him to Calcutta. His successor, Mir 
Kasim, by a treaty previously concluded on 
17 Sept., assigned the revenues of the pro- 
vinces of Bard wan, Midnapur, and Chitta- 
gong for the maintenance of the company's 
troops, and placed them under English ad- 

In April 1761 a serious difference arose 
between the English military and civil autho- 
rities. Mir Kasim, on assuming authority, 
among others, summoned Ramnarain, the 
financial official of Patna and a protege" of 
the English, to give in a statement of his 
accounts. This, however, Ramnarain, sup- 
ported by the military officers at Patna, 
Lieutenant-colonel (Sir) Eyre Coote (1726- 
1783) [q. v.] and Major John Carnac [q. v.], 
steadily evaded doing. Vansittart at first was 
fully disposed to protect Ramnarain, and sent 
directions to Patna that if he made a state- 
ment of his accounts he was to be sheltered 
from attempts at extortion. Ramnarain, 
however, persistently evaded Mir Kasim's 
demand, and, relying on the connivance of 
the English, aspired to independence. He 
coined money in his own name, and Carnac, 
under pretence of protecting him, publicly, 
with an armed force, menaced and insulted 
Mir Kasim. Consequently Vansittart and 
the council recalled the two officers, leaving 
Ramnarain at the discretion of Mir Kasim, 
by whom he was imprisoned and afterwards 
put to death. 

Though harmony was thus established for 
the moment, the state of affairs in Bengal 
was such that fresh disputes were inevitable. 
The company's servants were at that time 
allowed to engage in private trade, and the 
result was unfathomable corruption. By 
unjustifiably extending the privilege of trad- 
ing free of duty to cover internal as well as 
foreign trade, by granting 'dustucks' or 
passports for their own and their servants' 
goods, as well as for those of the company, 
and by insisting that their native agents 
should be totally exempted from the suba- 
dar's jurisdiction, the English officials had 
engrossed the entire business of the country, 
and had established an independent govern- 
ment by the side of the nabob's. Vansittart 
set his face against these abuses, but the 
authority of the president was extremely 
limited. He was little more than chairman 
of the council, \vhich determined all admini- 
strative action by a bare majority. He had 
hardly begun to take remedial measures when 
a peremptory order from the directors dis- 
missed from their service three members of 




the council for joining in Olive's famous re- 
monstrance of 1759, and placed his party in 
a minority. In addition the change sent 
Ellis, Vansittart's strongest opponent, to 
Patna, the residence of the nabob. Under 
these circumstances matters took a serious | 
turn. The company's factors, annoyed at the 
restraint the nabob endeavoured to place on 
their exactions, retaliated by arresting his 
officers. Unable to afford redress, Vansittart , 
endeavoured to pursue a policy of concilia- j 
tion, and, while retaining the nabob's con- 
fidence, to soften the animosity of the coun- 
cil. After Warren Hastings, who had con- 
sistently supported Vansittart, had been des- 
patched in August 1762 on a preliminary 
mission of investigation, Vansittart, at the 
end of the year, taking Hastings as assistant, j 
visited the nabob at Mungir, whither he had 
removed to avoid Ellis. Vansittart came to an 
agreement with him whereby the goods of 
servants of the company should pay a duty 
of nine per cent., a rate far below that levied 
on native traders (Olive's speech in the House 
of Commons, 30 March 1772). This arrange- 
ment was immediately repudiated by the 
council on 1 March 1763, notwithstanding 
the protest of Vansittart and Warren Hast- 
ings, and the nabob, in exasperation, abolished 
the whole system of duties on internal trade. 
The council declared that his action was 
contrary to treaty obligations, and called on 
him to re-establish the customs. The suba- 
dar had long seen that a rupture was inevi- 
table and had made preparations for war. 
Hostilities were commenced by Ellis, who 
made an unjustifiable and unsuccessful attack 
on Patna, was taken prisoner, and put to 
death at Patna with other European captives. 
Mir Jafar, after some successes, was over- 
thrown by Major Thomas Adams (1730?- 
1764) [q. v.], and sought refuge with the 
nawab of Oudh. Vansittart, chagrined at 
the manner in which his policy had been 
thwarted, resigned the presidency on the 
conclusion of the war, and left Calcutta on 
28 Nov. 1764. 

He was assailed by his opponents in Eng- 
land with great vehemence both before and 
after his arrival. Clive, already aggrieved by 
the deposition of Mir Jafar, which he con- 
sidered a reversal of his policy, had been com- 
pletely alienated fromVansittart by a personal 
quarrel, and Vansittart was supported in 
the India House by Olive's opponent, Law- 
rence Sulivan. In 1764 Vansittart trans- 
mitted to London copies of the political 
correspondence during his administration, 
which, were published by his friends under 
the title ' Original Papers relative to the 
Disturbances in Bengal' (London, 1764, 

2 vols. 8vo). Finding on his arrival that 
the court of directors would not grant him 
an interview, he republished the papers with 
a connecting narrative under the title ( A 
Narrative of the Transactions in Bengal 
from 1760 to 1764 ' (London, 1766, 3 vols. 
8vo). The rough draft of the narrative, 
with corrections by Warren Hastings, is 
preserved in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 29211). 

On 16 March 1768 Vansittart was returned 
to parliament for the borough of Heading. 
The reports sent home by Clive, who had 
been despatched to Bengal with extra- 
ordinary powers, j ustified him in the eyes of 
the company by exposing the corruption 
existing among their servants in Bengal. 
Early in 1769 he was elected a director of 
the company. On 14 June 1769 he was ap- 
pointed, together with Luke Scrafton, a 
former official, and Francis Forde [q. v.], to 
proceed to India with the title of supervisor, 
and with authority to examine every depart- 
ment of administration. The three super- 
visors sailed from Portsmouth in September 
1769 in the Aurora frigate, left Cape Town 
on 27 Dec., and were never heard of again 
(Gent. Mag. 1771 p. 237, 1773 pp. 346, 403, 
1774 p. 85). William Falconer (1732-1769) 
[q. v.], the author of the ' Shipwreck,' who 
was on board in the capacity of purser, 
perished with them. 

In 1754 Vansittart was married to Amelia 
(d. 1819), daughter of Nicholas Morse, go- 
vernor of Madras. By her he left five sons 
Henry, Arthur, Robert, George, and 
Nicholas, created Baron Bexley [q. v.] and 
two daughters, Ann and Sophia. In 1765 Van- 
sittart purchased the manors of Great and 
Little Fawley, W T hatcornbe, and Foxley in 
Berkshire, as well as a house at Greenwich, 
which descended to his children. 

Owing chiefly to his quarrel with Clive, 
Vansittart has been unjustly treated by 
writers on Indian history. His conduct in 
Bengal was far-sighted, and his dealings 
with the subadar were distinguished by 
statesmanlike moderation. On every ques- 
tion that arose his proceedings were in accor- 
dance with the principles to whicti his suc- 
cessors were eventually obliged to conform. 
Had he been vested with sufficient autho- 
rity, his administration would have been 
brilliant, but, like Warren Hastings at a 
later time, he found himself at the mercy 
of a hostile majority in the council, and 
was able only to indicate the right policy, 
not to carry it out. He was a good scholar 
and linguist, and was the author of several 
oriental translations. His son Henry, like 
his father, afterwards transmitted several to 




the ' Asiatick Miscellany,' besides others of 
his own. 

A portrait of Vansittart, painted by Sir j 
Joshua Reynolds in 17G7, is at Kirklea- | 
tham Hall, Yorkshire. Another portrait | 
of him, painted by Reynolds in 1745, was j 
engraved by Cousins and W, Reynolds ; and 
a third, painted in 1769, was formerly in 
the India House. A portrait by Hogarth, 
painted in 1752-3, as a Franciscan of Med- ', 
menham, is at Shottesbrook; and a half- 
length by Dance, painted in 1768, is in the 
possession of Lord Haldon. 

[Vansittart Papers ; Vansittart's Narrative ; 
Facts relating to the Treaty of Commerce lately 
concluded by Governor Vansittart without the 
consent of his Council, 1764; A Letter from 
certain Gentlemen of the Council at Bengal to the 
Secret Committee, containing reasons against 
the Revolution in favour of Meir Cossim Aly 
Chan, 1764 ; An Address to the Proprietors of 
East India Stock, 1764; A Vindication of Mr. 
Holwell's Character by his Friends, 1764 ; A 
Defence of Mr. Vansittart's Conduct, in C'n- 
cluding a treaty of commerce with Meir Cossim 
Aly Chawn, 1764 ; Scrafton's Observations on 
Vansittart's Narrative ; A Letter from Vansittart 
to the Proprietors, 1767 ; Holwell's Address to 
Scrafton in Reply to his Observations on Van- 
sittart's Narrative, 1767; Gleig's Memoirs of 
Warren Hastings, 1841, vol. i. ; Malcolm's 
Life of Lord Clive, 1836 ; Transactions in India, 
175, pp. 39-50; Wilson's Clive, 1890, in Eng- 
lish Men of Action; Mill's History of British 
India, ed. Wilson, 1830, vol. iii.; Gent. Mag. 
1764, pp. 51-6; Malleson's Lord Clive. in Rulers 
of India ; Elphinstone's Rise of the British Power 
in India ; Cambridge's Account of the War in 
India, 1762, pp. 79, 81, 95 ; Broome's History 
of the Bengal Army, 1851; Orme's Military 
Transactions in Industau ; Verelst's View of the 
English Government in Bengal, 1772; Long's 
Selections from the Records of Bengal, 1869, 
pp. 291, 297 ; Walpole's Memoirs of George 111, 
ii. 445-6 ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, 
iii. 20-1 ; Johnsonian Miscellanies, ed Hill, ii. 
367.] E. I. C. 

VANSITTART, HENRY (1777-1843), 
vice-admiral, fifth son of George Vansittart 
(1745-1825) of Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, 
who married, 24 Oct. 1767, Sarah, daughter 
of the Rev. Sir James Stonhouse, bart., was 
born in George Street, Hanover Square, on 
17 April 1777. George Henry Vansittart 
[q.v.], was his elder brother. Henry Vansit- 
tart [q. v.], the governor of Bengal, was his 
uncle, and Nicholas, first baron Bexley [q.v.], 
his first cousin. Having been entered on the 
books of the Scipio, guardship in the Medway, 
in October 1788, he was afterwards nomi- 
nally in the Boyne, guardship in the Thames, 
and probably actually served in the Pegasus 

on the Newfoundland station in 1791. In 
1792 he was in the Hannibal, stationed at 
Plymouth, and in 1793 went out to the 
Mediterranean in ilie Princess Royal, flag- 
ship of Rear-admiral Goodall. During the 
siege of Toulon by the republican army he 
was severely wounded. After the evacua- 
tion of the place he was moved into L'Aigle, 
with Captain Samuel Hood, served at the 
siege of Calvi, and was in October 1794 
moved into the Victory, in which he re- 
turned to England. On 21 Feb. 1795 he 
was promoted to be lieutenant of the Stately, 
in which he was present at the capture of 
the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Dutch 
squadron in Saldanha Bay [see ELPIIIN- 
He was then moved into the Monarch, El- 
phinstone's flagship, and returned in her to 
England. He was next appointed to the 
Queen Charlotte, Keith's flagship in the 
Channel ; and on 30 May 1798 was pro- 
moted to be commander of the Hermes. 
From her he was moved to the Bonetta, 
which he took out to Jamaica ; and on 13 Feb. 
1801 he was posted to the Abergavenny 
stationed at Port Royal. In July he returned 
to England in the Thunderer, and, after a 
few months on half-pay, was appointed, in 
April 1802 to the Magicienne, from which, 
in January 1803, he was moved to the For- 
tuned of 36 guns. For upwards of nine 
years he commanded this ship in the North 
Sea, oft' Boulogne, in the Channel, in the 
West Indies, and in the Mediterranean, for 
the most part in active cruising and in con- 
voy service. In August 1812 he was moved 
into the 74-gun ship Clarence, till March 
1814. With the exception of a few months 
in 1801-2 he had served continuously from 
1791 . He became a rear-admiral on 22 July 
1830, vice-admiral on 23 Nov. 1841, and died 
on 21 March 1843 at his seat, Eastwood, 
Woodstock, Canada. He married, in 1809, 
Mary Charity (d. 1834), daughter of the 
Rev. John Pennefather, and left issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii. pt. i.) 
329 ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Service book 
in Public Record Office; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1898, ii. 1513; Geut, Mag. 1843, i. 110.] 

J. K. L. 

BAEON BEXLEY (1766-1851), chancellor of 
the exchequer, born on 29 April 1766 in Old 
Burlington Street, London, was the fifth 
son of Henry Vansittart (1732-1770) [q. v.], 
governor of Bengal, by Amelia, daughter of 
Nicholas Morse, governor of Madras. On 
his father being lost at sea in 1770, Nicho- 
las was placed under the guardianship of 
his uncles, Sir Robert Palk [q. v.] and Ar- 




thur Vansittart. He was educated at Mr. 
Gilpin's school at Cheam, and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he matriculated on 
29 March 1784, and graduated B. A. 1787 and 
M.A. 1791. On 16 June 1814 he received 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. Becoming 
a student of Lincoln's Inn on 21 April 
1788, he was called to the bar 26 May 1791, 
and went the northern circuit for about a 
year, but never devoted himself to his pro- 
fession, lie was elected a bencher of Lin- 
coln's Inn on 12 Nov. 1812. In London he 
at first associated with a somewhat gay set in 
fashionable society, but soon turned seriously 
to politics and proved himself a useful pam- 
phleteer in support of Pitt's government. In 
1793 he published ' Reflections on the Pro- 
priety of an Immediate Peace/ in which he 
maintained the necessity for the war, and 
the folly of trusting to an uncertain peace. 
In 1794 and 1795 he defended Pitt's finance 
in ' A Reply to the Letter addressed to Mr. 
Pitt by Jasper Wilson,' and in * Letters to 
Mr. Pitt on the Conduct of the Bank Direc- 
tors ; ' and in 1796 he published l An Inquiry 
into the State of the Finances of Great 
Britain, in Answer to Mr. Morgan's Facts 
respecting the State of the War and the 
Actual Debt.' Having thus shown himself 
likely to be useful to the government in the 
House of Commons, he was returned as M.P. 
for Hastings on 25 May 1796, and continued 
to sit in the house for the next twenty-six 
years, being returned for Old Sarum on 
12 July 1802, Helston on 3 Nov. 1806, East 
Grinstead on 8 June 1812, and for Harwich 
on 6 Oct. 1812, in possession of which seat 
he remained until he was made a peer. At 
almost the commencement of his parlia- 
mentary career he attached himself to Ad- 
dington, and throughout remained consis- 
tently his political friend. 

In February 1801, under the Addington 
administration, Vansittart was selected to 
conduct the special mission to Copenhagen ; 
his instructions from Lord Hawkesbury [see 
were to make clear the position of England, 
and to detach the court of Denmark from the 
northern alliance. His mission was unsuc- 
cessful, Denmark resenting too keenly the 
lengths to which the claim to search neutral 
vessels for contraband of war had been car- 
ried, and on 16 March Vansittart applied for 
his passports (cf. Addit. MS. 31233). In 
March, after his return, he was appointed 
joint secretary of the treasury, and held this 
office till the resignation of the ministry on 
26 April 1804; he proved himself a useful 
and competent secretary, confining himself 
in the debates in the house mainly to finan- 

cial subjects. He was fortunate in possess- 
ing a good friend in the Duke of Cumber- 
land, who warmly recommended him in July 
to both the king and Pitt as secretary for 
Ireland. Pitt objected to him at first as 
being likely to alarm the catholics, and as 
not being a sufficiently good debater in the 
house (Addit. MS. 31229, f. 130) ; but at 
the beginning of January 1805 he received 
the appointment, and was admitted member 
of the privy council on 14 Jan. His short 
term of Irish office was undistinguished, and 
he failed to find himself in complete accord 
with the lord lieutenant, Lord Hardwicke 
[see YORKE, PHILIP, third EARL] ($.31230, 
tf. 109, 119). Addington (now Lord Sid- 
mouth) left the administration in July 1805, 
and Vansittart followed his example in Sep- 
tember. On Grenville's administration fol- 
lowing the death of Pitt, Vansittart again 
took the secretaryship to the treasury, coming 
in as one of Sidmouth's friends, and during 
this period of his office was the first to 
summon Nathan Meyer Rothschild [q. v.] to 
the assistance of the treasury. In March 
1807 he resigned, with his chief, Sidmouth, 
just before the break-up of the administra- 
tion. In the session of 1809, during the 
debate on the resumption of cash payments, 
he proposed and carried without opposition 
thirty-eight resolutions relating to the total 
war expenditure, sinking fund, and the im- 
ports and exports of the United Kingdom, 
and declaring that the national resources 
were sufficient to provide for the defence, 
independence, and honour of the country 
(Hansard, xiv. 1147). He had now so esta- 
blished his reputation as a financier that in 
October 1809 Perceval, hoping to secure 
Sidmouth's followers without their leader, 
offered the chancellorship of the exchequer 
to Vansittart. He, however, refused to desert 
his chief (Life of Lord Sidmouth, iii. 8 ; 
WALPOLE, Life of Perceval, ii. 47), and was 
the first of five to whom the office was on 
this occasion ineffectually offered. Despite 
his refusal, he remained on very friendly 
terms with Perceval. 

On the report of the bullion committee in 
May 1811 Vansittart took the leading part 
in defeating Francis Horner's resolutions in 
favour of the resumption of cash payments, 
and proposed in their place, on 13 May, four- 
teen resolutions drawn up by the request 
of Perceval, to the effect that an immediate 
resumption was inexpedient, and that the 
restriction in cash payments had no connec- 
tion with the unfavourable state of the ex- 
changes. The third resolution, which affirmed 
that the promissory notes of the bank of 
England were held in public estimation to 




be equivalent to the legal coin of the realm, 
brought upon the author a good deal of 
ridicule. Notwithstanding Canning's de- 
claration that no assembly of reasonable men 
could be persuaded to give their concurrence, 
all the resolutions were passed. On Sidmouth 
eventually joining the Perceval administra- 
tion, Vansittart was at first suggested as lord 
treasurer and chancellor of the exchequer 
for Ireland (COLCHESTER, Diary, ii. 372) ; 
but the assassination of the prime minister 
on 1 1 May gave him a chance of higher office, 
and he was appointed chancellor of the 
exchequer on 20 May 1812. 

Vansittart came into office at one of the 
most embarrassing periods in the history of 
English finance. The plan of his first budget, 
which was presented on 17 June 1812, was 
due to his predecessor ; but Vansittart made 
new proposals for taxation, preferring addi- 
tions to the existing taxes on male servants, 
carriages, horses, dogs, agricultural and trade 
horses, to Perceval's proposed tax on private 
brewing establishments. On 3 March 1813 
he brought forward, in a number of resolu- 
tions in the House of Commons, a 'new plan 
of finance' (published 1813 under title 'The 
Outlines of a Plan of Finance'), dealing 
with the sinking fund. Under this plan, by 
repealing portions of the sinking fund bill, 
42 George III, c. 71, it was believed the great 
advantage could be secured of keeping in 
reserve in time of peace the means of fund- 
ing a large sum in case of renewed hostili- 
ties. The plan was adversely criticised by 
Huskisson, and Tierney said he was war- 
ranted in asserting that he had not met a 
single man who understood it ; but the re- 
solutions were agreed to seriatim on 26 March 
1813 (Hansard, xxv. 350). This scheme 
was the first specimen of similar contri- 
vances by Vansittart, all burdened with 
mysterious complications, which, after first 
winning from the public a puzzled admira- 
tion for the ability of their author, eventually 
brought him into disrepute. The main feature 
in the budget of 1813 was a general twenty- 
five per cent, increase of the customs to raise 
an extra 1,()00,000/. required by the < new 
plan of finance.' 

Hopes of relief to the burdened taxpayers 
which the peace excited were disappointed 
by the budget of 1814. The chancellor of 
the exchequer found himself obliged not only 
to maintain the war taxes, 20,500,000/. in 
amount, but also to raise immense loans for the 
sinking fund, which he insisted on main- 
taining. The difficulty of providing suffi- 
cient specie for the wants of the army and 
for the payment of foreign subsidies was 
successfully met by employing Rothschild 

to collect with great secrecy bullion for the 
continent (Addit. MS. 31231, f. 14). During 
Castlereagh's absence in Paris in 1815 the 
administration was represented by Vansittart 
in the commons. He somewhat prema- 
| turely on 23 Feb. 1815 explained what new 
i taxes were about to take the place of the 
I property tax (speech published in the Pam- 
'' phleteer, No.xi.); but the escape of Napoleon 
made provision necessary in the budget of 
j 14 June 1815 for the enormous expenditure 
of 79,893,300/., which was again met by a 
i renewal of the war taxes and the issue of 
further loans. In this year the taxation of 
this country reached an unprecedented total. 
On 12 Feb. 1816, in committee of supply, 
' the chancellor of the exchequer presented his 
| financial policy for a period of peace. This 
was to consist of a diminution of taxation 
and ' a system of measures for the support 
of public credit.' His proposal, however, 
to reduce instead of abolish the property tax 
was treated as a breach of good faith, the 
contention being that it was entirely a war 
tax. Numerous petitions strengthened dis- 
content existing in the house, and the mini- 
ster's motion for the continuance of the tax 
TV-IS rejected on 18 March (Hansard, pp. 33, 
481). Vansittart thus found himself de- 
prived of 7,000,000/. of revenue on which 
I he had calculated ; and on 20 March, owing 
j to the pressure of the country members, he an- 
' nounced the discontinuance of the war malt 
j tax. The loss of 2,700,000/. from this source, 
| and about 1,000,000/. from other duties re- 
pealed, he appears to have regarded as of 
little consequence, 'as recourse to the money 
market was now necessary.' To make up for 
| the loss of taxes producing some 18,000,000/., 
I he made additions to the post dues and excise, 
! and a considerable increase on the soap tax. 
For this last he was caricatured as ' Startling 
Betty' by appearing in the wash-tub. Pay- 
ment of debt by the sinking fund to the 
amount of more than 14,000,000/. was in 
| the budget provided for as usual by further 
i loans. 

In the debates on the consolidation of the 
British and Irish exchequers, Vansittart 
thought himself precluded from taking part 
as an interested party ; he was strongly in 
favour of the consolidation, which was agreed 
to on 20 May 1816. 

A new method of raising money was pro- 
pounded in his budget speech of 14 May 
1818. He proposed the issue of 27,000,000/. 
at three and a half in the place of a similar 
amount of three-per-cent. stock, and recom- 
mended this unusual process as not in- 
creasing the nominal capital of the debt, 
| and as affording facilities in the future for a 




reduction of the four and five per cents. 
The methods of the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer began now to be subjected to severe 
criticism. On the debate (2 Feb. 1819) on 
the continuance of the Bank Restriction 
Act, Tierney attacked the whole conduct of 
Vansittart's finance, asserting that the mini- 
ster added to the debt by exchequer bills as 
fast as he reduced it by the sinking fund. 

The budget of 1819 was framed on the 
principle enunciated in the regent's speech 
for the year, that a clear available surplus 
of 5,000,000/. ought to be applied annually 
to the reduction of the national debt. To 
effect this Vansittart proposed a consolida- 
tion of the customs and increased taxation 
to the extent of 3,190,000/., and to make up 
his deficiency availed himself of the simpler 
method of borrowing 12,000,0007. from the 
15,000,000/. applicable under the sinking 
fund to the reduction of the debt (Hansard, 
xl. 864, 912, 974). The same policy was 
continued in 1820 and 1821, the require- 
ments of the exchequer being provided for 
by borrowing from the sinking fund and 
issuing much smaller new loans, the chan- 
cellor clinging to some maintenance of the 
sinkingfund, first for the sake of public credit, 
and secondly to prevent undue fluctuations 
in the price of stock. The heavy increase, 
however, of taxation in times of peace began 
to make Vansittart universally unpopular 
in the country (BUCKINGHAM, Memoirs of 
the Court during the Regency, ii. 327), and 
on 14 June 1821 a motion for the repeal of 
the tax on horses employed in agriculture 
was carried against him in the house... 

The conversion of the navy five per cents 
to a four-per-cent. stock, the most successful 
piece of finance with which Vansittart can 
be credited in his long term of office, was 
carried into effect without much difficulty 
in 1822. By this operation IQoL of the 
new stock was given for each 100/. of the 
old, and an annual saving of 1,140,000/. was 
thus effected at the cost of an addition of 
7,000,000/. to the capital debt of this country. 
A similar arrangement for the conversion of 
the Irish five per cents was executed w T ith 
equal facility the same year. The financial 
plan which Vansittart produced the same year 
for relieving in some degree the immediate 
burden of military and naval pensions was, 
however, from the first doomed to complete 
failure. His proposition was to grant to 
contractors a fixed annuity for forty-five 
years, calculated at about 2,800,000/., while 
the contractors for the annuity were to pay 
sums sufficient to meet the pensions due 
during a term of forty-five years. In other 
words, the plan was simply the contracting 

for annual loans for the next fifteen years, 
which were to be repaid by a gradually in- 
creasing annuity continuing for thirty years 
after the expiration of the first fifteen years 
(Hansard, new ser. vii. 737-58). This 
scheme, ingenious only in its unnecessary 
complication, ' the most curious specimen of 
the most ruinous species of borrowing that 
the wit of man could devise' (Annual Rey. 
1822, p. 132), after being completely exposed 
by Ivicardo, Brougham, and Hume, but yet 
accepted by the house, happily could not be 
carried into effect, as no capitalists were 
ready to accept the risk. Subsequently 
(24 May 1822) very considerable modifica- 
tions were made in the plan, under which 
trustees were nominated to lend specified 
sums for fifteen years, to be raised by ex- 
chequer bills on the sale of annuities. Here, 
however, there was obvious waste in ap- 
pointing trustees to sell annuities and ex- 
chequer bills while the commissioners were 
being employed at the same time under the 
sinking fund. For this extravagance Van- 
sittart made some amends by the passing of 
an act under which the salaries of all civil 
servants were considerably reduced, and a 
provision for superannuation made by reserv- 
ing a percentage out of each salary (3 Geo.IV, 
c. 113). He attempted to conciliate public 
opinion by proposing, in his last budget, the 
immediate reduction of the tax on salt from 
fifteenpence to twopence per hundredweight. 
But the ' plan of finance ' had destroyed any 
remaining confidence placed in him, and his 
retirement from office (December 1822) was 
regarded with relief even by his own friends 
(BUCKINGHAM, Memoirs of the Court of 
George IV, i. 405). The spiteful story that 
he was dismissed by a letter from Lord 
Liverpool's secretary (COLCHESTER, Diary. 
vol. iii. 5 Feb. 1823) is, however, absolutely 
untrue. Lord Liverpool wrote to him (14 Dec. 
1822) explaining the proposed rearrangement 
of the cabinet in order to include Huskisson 
and Eobinson, and at the same time offered 
him the chancellorship of the duchy of Lan- 
caster and a seat in the cabinet (Addit. MS. 
31232, f. 294). Vansittart accepted this new 
arrangement without hesitation, and on 
1 March 1823 was created Baron Bexley of 
Bexley in Kent, and awarded a pension of 
3,000/. per annum. In the debates in the 
House of Lords he took an occasional but 
not important part. He moved the Spital- 
fields weavers bill on 16 July 1823, which 
had been framed by Huskisson to repeal the 
Spitalfields acts, and voted with Liverpool 
(24 May 1824) for the second reading of the 
English Roman catholic elections bill. He 
accepted Canning's invitation to retain his 




office in the new cabinet (January 1828), 
but was omitted from the Duke of Welling- 
ton's administration, and did not again secure 

During the remainder of his long life 
Bexley took an active part in aid of religious 
and charitable societies, being for many years 
president of the British and Foreign Bible 
Mission and a strong supporter of the Church 
Missionary and Prayer Book and Homily 
societies. He also materially assisted in the 
foundation and the promotion of the in- 
terests of King's College, London. He died 
on 8 Feb. 1851 at Foot's Cray in Kent, when 
his peerage became extinct. He married, 
22 July 1806, Catharine Isabella, second 
daughter of William Eden, first baron Auck- 
land [q. v.] She died without issue on 
10 Aug. 1810. 

The remarkable feature in Vansittart's po- 
litical career is that he held for twelve years 
the office of chancellor of the exchequer, 
though possessing no special qualifications, 
at perhaps the most difficult financial period 
in English history. Despite, however, his 
weak points as an economist and financier, 
he could justly boast that he left the coun- 
try in possession of a surplus revenue of 
2,000,000^. A mild-mannered man, most in- 
effective in debate, he yet had many friends, 
and his mediocre abilities with accommo- 
dating and moderate views probably account 
for his holding office from 1801 to 1828 with 
the exception of only two years. He took 
a keen interest in foreign politics, and main- 
tained a lengthy correspondence withD'Iver- 
nois and Generals Miranda and Dumourier, 
which is preserved among his papers in the 
British Museum. 

Vansittart was a high steward of Harwich, 
a director of Greenwich Hospital, a F.R.S. 
and F.S.A. ; and received the freedom of the 
city of Edinburgh on 2 March 1814. 

There are numerous portraits of Vansit- 
tart. Two by William Owen now hang re- 
spectively in the Guildhall, Harwich, and 
in the hall of Christchurch, Oxford. Of two 
portraits by Sir Thomas Lawrence, one (en- 
graved by Dean) is at Foot's Cray, and the 
other at Kirkleatham. A fifth portrait, by 
Stephanoff, was engraved by Scriven. A 
sixth, by Rand, now at Foot's Cray, was 
engraved by C. Turner. A crayon portrait 
by Lorentin is in the National Portrait Gal- 

[Hans-^d's Debates; Annual Register ; Times, 
10 Feb. 1851 ; Gent. Mag. ; Dowell's History of 
Taxation; Buxton's Finance and Politics, Mar- 
tineau's Hist, of Thirty Years' Peace ; Walpole's 
Hist, of England ; E. Herries's Memoir of J. C. 
Herries ; nine volumes of Vansittart Papers in 

British Museum (Addit. MSS. 31229-37), be- 
queathed by Lord Bexley; information supplied 
by C. N. Vansittart, esq.] \V. C-B. 

VANSITTAUT, ROBERT (1728-1789), 
regius professor of civil law at Oxford Uni- 
versity, born on 28 Dec. 1728 in London at 
Great Ormond Street, was the second son of 
Arthur van Sittart of Shottesbrook, Berk- 
shire, by his wife Martha, eldest daughter of 
Sir John Stonhouse, bart., of Radley, Berk- 
shire, comptroller of the household to Queen 
Anne. Henry Vansittart [q. v.], governor 
of Bengal, was his younger brother. 

Robert was educated at Reading and at 
Winchester. He matriculated from Trinity 
College, Oxford, on 3 April 1745, was elected 
a fellow of All Souls' College, and graduated 
B.C.L. in 1751 and D.C.L. in 1757. In 
1753 he was called to the bar by the society 
of the Inner Temple. On 17 May 1760 he 
was nominated recorder of Monmouth, in 
1763 recorder of Maidenhead, in 1764 re- 
corder of Newbury, in 1765 of Maidenhead, 
and in 1770 recorder of Windsor. In 1767 
he was appointed regius professor of civil 
law in the university, a post which he held 
till his death. For some years previous to 
his appointment he performed the duties of 
public orator for his predecessor, Robert 

Vansittart was on intimate terms with 
the painters George Knapton and Hogarth, 
as well as with the poets Paul Whitehead 
and Cowper. In Italy he met Goethe, who 
named a character in one of his comedies 
after him. He was a friend of Dr. John- 
son, who regarded him with much affection, 
and who. was invited to visit India with 
him by his brother Henry. In 1759, in a 
festive moment, Dr. Johnson, while on a 
visit to Oxford, proposed that they should 
scale the walls of All Souls' together. On 
another occasion, while Vansittart was 
edifying Boswell with a lengthy story of a 
flea, Johnson burst in with 'It is a pity, 
sir, that you have not seen a lion; for a 
flea has taken you such a time that a lion 
must have served you for a twelve-month.' 

Vansittart, who was elected a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries on 4 June 1767, 
amused his leisure with antiquarian studies. 
In the year of his election he edited ' Certain 
Ancient Tracts concerning the Management 
of Landed Property ' (London, 8vo), which 
consisted of reprints of Gentian Hervet's 
translation of ' Xenophon's Treatise of the 
Householde,' 1534 ; Sir Anthony Fitzher- 
bert's ' Boke of Husbandry,' 1534 ; and Sir 
Anthony Fitzherbert's ' Surveyinge,' 1539. 

Vansittart was a man of licentious and 
debauched habits, and, like his brother Henry, 

Van Somer 


Van Son 

was a member of the ' Franciscans of Med- 
menham,' otherwise known as the ' Hell-fire 
Club.' To this society he presented with 
great pomp a baboon sent from India by 
Henry, to which Sir Francis Dashwood was 
accustomed to administer the eucharist at 
their meetings. Vansittart died at Oxford, 
unmarried, on 31 Jan. 1789, and was buried 
in a vault in the chapel of All Souls' Col- 
lege. In person he was tall and very thin, 
and the members of the Oxford bar gave the 
name of * Counsellor Van ' to a sharp-pointed 
rock on the river Wye from a fancied re- 
semblance (see BLOOMFIELD, Banks of Wye, 
1823, p. 23). 

Two portraits of Vansittart exist : one by 
Hogarth representing him as a young man, 
with a kerchief in the colours of the ' Fran- 
ciscans,' wound in turban fashion over the 
head, embroidered with the motto ' Love 
and Friendship ; ' the other, painted by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, depicting him in later life. 
Both were formerly in the Shottesbrook col- 

[Manuscript memoir kindly furnished by Mr. 
C. N. Vansittart ; Vansittart Papers ; Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 348, ii. 194, v. 460; 
Piozzi Letters, i. 191, 197; Letters of Samuel 
Johnson, ed. OK B. Hill, i. 389 ; Hill's Johnsonian 
Miscellanies, ii. 380-1 ; St. James's Chronicle, 
17 Sept. 1768; Autobiography of Mrs. Piozzi, 
i. 143-4; Boswelliana, p. 270; Leslie and 
Taylor's Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
ii. 27, 28; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Gent. Mag. 1789, i. 182.] E. I. C. 

VAN SOMER, PAUL (1576-1621), 
portrait-painter, was born at Antwerp in 
1576. An elder brother, Bernard Van Somer, 
was entered in the guild of St. Luke at 
Antwerp in 1588 as the pupil of Philippe 
Lisart, but there is no trace of Paul Van 
Somer having become a member of the guild. 
The two brothers, according to the historian 
of art, Karel Van Mander, were in 1604 
residing at Amsterdam, both in good esteem 
for portrait-painting and other branches of 
the art. Paul was then a bachelor, but 
Bernard had married in Italy the daughter 
of Arnold Mytens, who was probably re- 
lated to Daniel Mytens [q. v.], for so many 
years Van Somer's rival as a portrait-painter 
in England. It is uncertain when he came 
over to England. A portrait of Christian IV, 
king of Denmark, at Hampton Court, is 
dated 1606, and it is possible that he came 
over | in that king's train, as he seems 
always to have been the favourite painter 
of James I's consort, Anne of Denmark, and 
her household. Van Somer is chiefly known 
by a number of full-length portraits, both 
male and female, which are of great interest 


historically from the carefully rendered de- 
tails of the costume, resembling very much 
the portraits by the great Spanish painter, 
Sanchez Coello. They are sometimes, when 
not signed, with difficulty distinguished 
from those by Mytens of a similar character. 
Speaking generally, those by Van Somer 
are more freely handled, and are richer in 
colour, showing a strong predilection for 
deep reds and browns. Van Somer also fre- 
quently introduced a piece of landscape or 
a view of a building into the background. 
A portrait of Anne of Denmark in hunting 
dress, with her dogs, painted in 1617, and 
now at Hampton Court, has a view of Oat- 
lands in the background, another of the 
same queen has a view of Inigo Jones's 
facade at St. Paul's Cathedral. A portrait 
of James I, painted in 1619-20, also at 
Hampton Court, has a view of the newly 
erected banqueting-house at Whitehall in 
the background. Two interesting portraits 
of the Earl and Countess of Arundel, in the 
possession of the Duke of Norfolk, painted 
in 1618, show views of the earl's picture 
gallery and collections of marbles. A fine 
portrait of Henry, prince of Wales, formerly 
at Blenheim Palace, is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. Among other important por- 
traits by Van Somer are those of Sir Simon 
Weston (1608); William Herbert, third earl 
of Pembroke (1617, engraved by Simon Van 
de Passe); Henry W T riothesley, earl of South- 
ampton (engraved by Simon Van de Passe) ; 
Francis Bacon, viscount St. Albans (at 
Gorhambury) ; Sir Thomas Lyttelton (1621, 
at Hagley) ; Robert Carr, earl of Ancrum 
(1619) ; and others. There is a fine series 
of paintings by Van Somer at Ditchley, the 
seat of Viscount Dillon, representing ladies 
of Anne of Denmark's court. Van Somer 
died in London, and was buried on 5 Jan. 
1621 in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. It has 
been stated that his descendants remained 
in London and established a carpet manu- 
factory. A portrait by Van Somer of him- 
self was formerly at Ham House. 

It is uncertain whether the mezzotint en- 
gravers Jan and Paul Van Somer belonged 
to this family. Jan Van Somer lived in 
Amsterdam, but his brother, Paul Van 
Somer, came to London in 1674, and lived in 
Newport Street, Soho, where he published 
many mezzotint engravings, and died in 1694. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. "Wor- 
num); Van Mander's Vies des Peintres, ed. 
Hymans ; De Piles's Lives of the Painters.] 

L. C. 

sometimes erroneously written VAN" ZOON" 
(1658-1718 ?), painter, born at Antwerp on 

Van Straubenzee 


Van Straubenzee 

16 Aug. 1658, was son of Joris Van Son 
(1623-1667), a well-known painter of flowers 
and still life in that city, whose paintings 
are frequently to be met with in collections. 
His mother's name was Cornelia Van Heu- 
lem. Van Son was a pupil of his father and 
a family friend, Jan Pauwel Gillemans. He 
practised in the same manner as his father, 
painting still life, flowers, fruit, and the 
like, but without attaining the same success. 
Van Son came therefore to London, and 
obtained a lucrative patronage through his 
marriage with a niece of the king's serjeant- 
painter, Robert Streater [q. v.] He was 
also patronised by Charles Robartes, earl of 
Radnor, who had a great number of Van 
Son's paintings in his house in St. James's 
Square. Some of Van Son's paintings were 
of considerable size. He lived for some time 
in Long Acre, but finally in St. Albans 
Street, St. James's, where he died about 
1718. He sometimes introduced his own 
portrait into his paintings. 

[Wai pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; De Piles's Lives of the Painters ; Van den 
Branden's Antwerpsche Schilderschool.] L. C. 


THOMAS (1812-1892), general, colonel of 
the 39th foot (Dorsetshire regiment j, second 
son of Major Thomas Van Straubenzee, royal 
artillery, and of his wife Maria, youngest 
daughter of Major Henry Bowen of the 2nd 
royal veteran battalion, was born in Malta 
on 17 Feb. 1812. His great-grandfather, 
Philip William Casimir Van Straubenzee, 
captain in the Dutch guards, came to Eng- 
land about 1745, was naturalised by act of 
parliament, married Jane, only daughter of 
Cholmely Turner of Kirkleatham, Yorkshire, 
by Jane, granddaughter and sole heir of Sir 
Henry Mar wood, bart., of Busby Hall, York- 
shire, and died in 1765. He had a younger 
brother, General A. Van Straubenzee, who 
was governor of Zutphen in 1798. His third 
son, Charles Spencer, married a granddaugh- 
ter of Sir George Vane of Raby, and had 
seven sons in the British army and navy ; of 
these, the eldest, Henry, succeeded a grand- 
uncle as head of the family and in the pro- 
perty of Spennithorne, North Riding of 
York ; and the seventh was the father of the 
subject of this memoir. 

Charles Thomas Van Straubenzee received 
a commission as ensign in the Ceylon rifles 
on 28 Aug. 1828, and arrived in Ceylon in 
June the following year. He was promoted 
to be lieutenant in the 39th foot on 22 Feb. 
1833. He joined his new regiment at Ban- 
galore in India (Mysore), and on 17 March 
1834 marched with it in the expedition under 

| Brigadier-general Patrick Lindesay against 
j Kurg (Coorg). Merkara, the capital, was 
found undefended, and occupied on 6 April, 
j the raja surrendering in person on the 10th, 
j when Van Straubenzee returned with his 
1 regiment to Bangalore. 

He was promoted to ,a company in the 
39th foot on 10 March 1837, and in Novem- 
I ber he went to England on furlough. In 
| November 1841 he married, and in June of 
I the following year he rejoined his regiment 
at Agra. In October 1842 he joined the 
army of reserve assembled at Firozpur on 
the return of the troops from Afghanistan. 
On 27 Aug. 1843 he was promoted to be 
regimental major, and in the autumn his regi- 
ment joined the army of exercise assembled 
at Agra in consequence of the state of affairs 
at Gwalior. Early in December he marched 
with it under Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) 
Gough [q. v.] against Sindia. He distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Maharajpur 
on 29 Dec., when the 39th foot, supported 
by the 56th native infantry, drove the enemy 
from their guns into the village, the scene 
of a sanguinary conflict ; later the regiment 
in a gallant charge carried the entrenched 
main position at Chouda, when the com- 
manding officer of the regiment was despe- 
rately wounded, and Van Straubenzee, suc- 
ceeding to the temporary command, brought 
it out of action after capturing two standards 
from the enemy. Van Straubenzee was men- 
tioned by Gough in despatches for his con- 
duct at Maharajpur, was specially brought 
to the notice of the commander-in-chief for 
services at Gwalior, and received the bronze 
star. He was promoted to be brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 30 April 1844. 

On 30 Aug. 1844 Van Straubenzee ex- 
changed into the 13th Prince Albert's light 
infantry, and, returning with it in July 1845, 
was quartered at Walmer. He took part in 
the ceremony of presentation of new colours 
to it by Prince Albert on 13 Aug. 1846 at 
Portsmouth. On 28 Aug. he exchanged into 
the 3rd ' buffs,' and accompanied his new 
regiment to Ireland in October. In April 
1851 he embarked with the battalion for 
Malta, and on 11 Nov. was promoted to be 
regimental lieutenant-colonel to command it. 
On 20 June 1854 he was promoted to be 
brevet colonel. 

On 12 Nov. Van Straubenzee took the regi- 
ment to the Piraeus in connection with the 
war with Russia. He was made a colonel 
on the staff on 15 Nov. to command the 
British contingent in Greece. He remained 
at the Piraeus until 23 March 1855, when 
the 'buffs' were relieved by the 91st foot, 
and he returned with them to Malta. The 

Van Straubenzee 


Van Voerst 

British minister at Athens wrote to Lord 
Clarendon on 4 April 1855, mentioning in 
the most complimentary terms the conduct 
of the ' buffs ' while at the Piraeus. 

On 14 April Van Straubenzee sailed with 
his battalion for the Crimea, and joined the 
division of Sir Colin Campbell. On 11 May 
he was made brigadier-general. His brigade, 
consisting of the ' buffs/ the 31st and the 
72nd regiments, was posted to the right at- 
tack, and he commanded it in the fight at 
the Quarries on 7 June. On 30 July he was 
appointed to command the first brigade of 
the light division, and took part in both 
assaults on the Redan, was wounded in that 
of 8 Sept., and was mentioned in despatches 
(London Gazette, 3 Oct. 1855). Van Strau- 
benzee returned home in July 1856. For 
his services he was made a companion of the 
order of the Bath, military division, and an 
officer of the legion of honour. He received 
the British war medal with clasp, the Sar- 
dinian and Turkish medals, the third class 
of the order of the Medjidie, and was pro- 
moted to be a temporary major-general on 
24 July 1856. On the 29th of the same 
month he was appointed to command the 
infantry brigade at Dublin. 

On 20 Sept. 1857 Van Straubenzee was 
gazetted to the command of a brigade in the 
expedition to China under Lieutenant-general 
Thomas Ashburnham, having already sailed 
in June for Hong Kong. Many of the troops 
destined for China were diverted to India on 
account of the mutiny, and in November 
Ashburnham and his staff also left Hong 
Kong for India, leaving Van Straubenzee in 
command of the British land forces in China. 
In December the available troops from the 
garrison of Hong Kong were conveyed by the 
fleet to the Canton river, and the Island of 
Hainan was occupied. Van Straubenzee ar- 
rived on 22 Dec., and the attack on Canton 
by the allied naval and military forces of 
England and France was commenced by a 
bombardment on 28 Dec., and on 5 Jan. 
1858 the city was taken. On 19 June Van 
Straubenzee was made a knight-commander 
of the Bath (military division) for his ser- 
vices. He was promoted to be major-general 
on the establishment on 11 Aug. 1859. He 
received the war medal and clasp. On 
15 April 1860 he was compelled by ill-health 
to resign his command, and returned to Eng- 

On 7 April 1862 Van Straubenzee took up 
the command of a division of the Bombay 
army at Ahmadabad. He was appointed 
colonel of the 47th foot on 31 May 1865. 
In this year he was temporarily in command 
of the Bombay army, pending the arrival 

of Sir Robert Cornells Napier (afterwards 
Lord Napier of Magdala) [q. v.] He re- 
turned to England on 16 Feb. 1866, was 
transferred to the colonelcy of the 39th foot 
on 8 Dec. 1867, and was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-general on 27 March 1868. 

On 3- June 1872 Van Straubenzee was 
appointed governor and commander-in-chief 
at Malta, and was promoted to be general on 
29 April 1875. He held the government of 
Malta for six years, was made a grand cross 
of the Bath (military division) on 29 May 
1875. He returned to England in June 
1878. He retired from the service on a 
pension on 1 July 1881, and settled at Bath. 
He died, without issue, on 10 Aug. 1892, and 
was buried in the Bathwick cemetery. Van 
Straubenzee married, on 18 Nov. 1841, Char- 
lotte Louisa, youngest daughter of General 
John Luther Richardson of the East India 
Company's service, and of the Cramond 
family ; she survived him. 

[War Office Eecords ; Despatches ; Cannon's 
Historical Kecords of the 1 39th or the Dorset- 
shire Kegiment of Foot, and of the 3rd Eegi- 
ment, 'The Buffs;' Eussell's War from the 
Death of Lord Eaglan to the Evacuation of the 
Crimea, 1856 ; Lane-Pool e's Life of Sir Harry 
Parkes ; private sources ; Burke's Landed Gen- 
try, ii.] E. H. V. 

VAN VOERST, ROBERT (1596-1636), 
engraver, was born in 1596 at Arnheim in 
Holland, and studied at Utrecht under Crispin 
de Passe the elder. Some small plates of 
animals by him, which appeared in Passe's 
' La Lumiere de la Peinture,' 1643, were pro- 
bably executed at this period. He came to 
England in 1628, and during the next few 
years engraved portraits of the queen of 
Bohemia, the Prince of Wales, Prince Ru- 
pert, and several English noblemen, from 
pictures by Honthorst, Dobson, Geldorp, 
Miereveldt, Mytens, and Janssen. Later he 
was employed by Vandyck, for whose ' Cen- 
tum Icones' he executed the portraits of 
Christian, duke of Brunswick, Ernest, count 
Mansfeldt, Philip, earl of Pembroke, Sir 
Kenelm Digby, Simon Vouet, Inigo Jones, 
and himself. Van Voerst's masterpiece is 
the plate of Charles I and Henrietta Maria 
holding a laurel wreath, from the picture by 
Vandyck. He held the appointment of en- 
graver to Charles I ; and Vanderdort, in his 
catalogue of the royal collection, mentions 
a drawing of the Holy Family by him which 
he had presented to the king. Van Voerst 
died of the plague in London in 1636. His 
prints number only about thirty, but they 
are of very fine quality, rivalling in bril- 
liancy those of his compatriot, Vorsterman. 
His portrait of himself has been copied by 





T. Chambars and B. P. Gibbon for the 1763 
and 1849 editions of Walpole's ' Anecdotes.' 

[Kramm's Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunst- 
schilders; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; 
Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; Redgrave's Diet. 
of Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

VARDY, JOHN (d. 1765), architect, 
published in 1744 the book of the ' Designs 
of Inigo Jones,' by William Kent [q. v.J He 
was a follower, if not a pupil, of Kent, and 
had a share after Kent's death in carrying 
out his design for the Horse Guards, a build- 
ing of which Vardy drew and published two 
prints with plans (1752 and 1751-3). His 
appointment at this building dates from 1751 
(TREGELLAS, Horse Guards Memoranda, 
1880) ; and, though he is assumed to have 
been in supreme charge of the operations, he 
was associated with another clerk of the 
works, William Robinson (1720 ?-1775)[q.v.], 
at an equal salary (100/.), throughout the 
period of building (1751-2 and 1756-60) ; 
and the same amount was paid to Isaac Ware 
[q. v.] as draughtsman (see original manu- 
script accounts in R.I.B.A. Library). Vardy 
probably held several like appointments con- 
currently, for he succeeded H. Joynes at 
Kensington Palace some time between 1748 
and 1754, and in 1748 was clerk of works 
both at St. James's Palace and Whitehall. 
At the time of his death, 17 May 1765, he 
held a similar post at Chelsea Hospital. At 
Westminster he not only acted as superin- 
tendent for Kent, but is said to have designed 

(1753) the court of king's bench (BLOMFIELD, 
Renaissance Arch, in England, p. 247). 

Vardy's principal work (1762) was Lord 
Spencer's house in St. James's Place, facing 
the Park, though the north front and part of 
the interior are attributed to ' Athenian ' 
Stuart [see STTJAKT, JAMES, 1713-1788]. It 
is a dignified palace in the Palladian manner 
(see Vitruvius Britannicus, ed. Wolfe and 
Gandon, plates 37-9), surmounted with 
statues by Michel Henry Spang. Vardy ex- 
hibited six drawings of the building at the 
Society of Artists of Great Britain, where 
he also showed a design (1751) for a build- 
ing for the Society of Dilettanti ; a design 

(1754) for the British Museum (by order of 
the trustees) ; designs (1748) for a palace at 
Whitehall and for a north front of St. 
James's Palace ; a design (1753) for the court 
of king's bench in St. Margaret's Lane, West- 
minster; a coloured view of the * Gothic 
hall' (Henry VIII's chapel) at Hampton 
Court (a print signed ' J. Vardy, 1749, re- 
presents the same subject, but the dedication 
on the plates implies that it is after Kent) ; 
a design for a nobleman's stable and terrace 

near Hyde Park ; an inside view of a bath 
for a gentleman in Suffolk ; and a plan and 
elevation of Colonel Wade's house at White- 
hall (see the Catalogue of the Society of Ar- 
tists of Great Britain, 1761-2-3-4). W T ith 
the exception of the court of king's bench, 
Lord Spencer's house, and possibly that of 
Colonel Wade, none of his designs are 
known to have been carried into execution. 
Uxbridge House in Burlington Gardens 
(now a branch office of the Bank of Eng- 
land), though attributed to Vardy, was 
built (1790-2) by another John Vardy, pos- 
sibly his son, in collaboration with J. Bonomi 
(BRITTON and PUGIX, Edifices of London, 
i. 80). Vardy engraved a print after Kent 
of the pulpit in York Minster, and another 
(original) of a vase in Hampton Court gardens 

[Architectural Publication Society's Diet. ; 
authorities mentioned in text.] P. W. 

VARLEY, CORNELIUS (1781-1873), 
watercolour-painter and inventor of optical 
apparatus, elder brother of William Fleet- 
wood Varley [q. v.] and younger brother of 
John Varley [q. v.], was born on 21 Nov. 1781 . 
In early life he went out sketching with his 
brother John, and after his father's death, 
when about ten years old, was taken charge of 
by his uncle Samuel, watchmaker, jeweller, 
and maker of philosophical instruments. He 
soon began to make lenses, and invented a 
composition for polishing them which is still 
in use. In 1794 his uncle commenced che- 
mical experiments at Hatton House, and 
founded the Chemical and Philosophical 
Society, the forerunner of the Royal Institu- 
tion (founded 1800). Among other works 
in whichVarley assisted were the construction 
of the first soda-water apparatus and a large- 
electrical machine with a conductor twelve 
feet long. Varley made a lens one hun- 
dredth of an inch in focus, which was at the 
time regarded as the most perfect in exist ence,, 
and he was awarded medals by the Society 
of Arts for communications on tools for 
making lenses, observations on the micro- 
scope, and investigations relating to animal 
and vegetable life. About 1800 he left his 
uncle, and returned to art studies with his 
brother John. They went together to Dr. 
Monro's [see MONKO, THOMAS, 1759-1833], 
and he was introduced by that gentleman to 
the Earl of Essex and Henry Lascelles (after- 
wards second Earl of Harewood) [q. v.] In 
1801 he accompanied John to G'illingham 
Hall, Norfolk, and afterwards proceeded to 
Suffolk. In 1802 and 1803 he went for 
sketching tours in Wales, and in the latter 
year commenced to exhibit at the Royal 
Academy with ' A Wood Scene : a Composi- 




tion.' In 1804 he went to St. Albans, where, 
according 1 to his own account, he conceived 
the idea of the Watercolour Society, of which 
he was one of the foundation members. He 
sent to their first exhibition ( 1 805) ' Coloured 
Sketches and Views' of St. Albans, &c. After 
the first three years his contributions to the 
society's exhibitions were constant, but not 
numerous (they were fifty-nine in all), and 
were chiefly of a classical character, like the 
' Vale of Tempe' and ' Ruins of Troy,' with 
architecture and groups of figures carefully 
finished. In 1815 he was appointed trea- 
surer to the society, and he received one of 
three premiums awarded to its members in 
1819. He left the society in 1821, and after- 
wards sent his principal works, seldom more 
than one a year, to the Royal Academy, 
where he exhibited for the last time in 1859. 
Between 1826 and 1844 he also sent draw- 
ings to Suffolk Street. Meanwhile he con- 
tinued his scientific pursuits with much 
success. He invented the Graphic tele- 
scope, patented on 5 April 1811 (No. 3430), 
which was used by T. Horner in laying down 
his great panorama of London for the 
Coliseum in Regent's Park, and the lever 
microscope for watching the movements of 
animalcula. For the latter he received the 
'Isis' gold medal of the Society of Arts. 
He became an active and useful member of 
this society in 1814. He was also a member 
of the Royal Institution, where he delivered 
the fourth Friday lecture in 1826. He was 
chairman of exhibitors, class 10, at the Great 
Exhibition of 1 85 1 , and received a prize medal 
for his Graphic telescope more than forty 
years after it was invented. He contributed 
a paper on atmospheric electricity to the 
1 Philosophical Magazine,' and several to the 
' Transactions of the Society of Arts ' and 
the l Journals of the Royal Microscopic So- 
ciety.' He published a ' Treatise on Optical 
Drawing Instruments ' and ' Etchings of Ship- 
ping, ^ Barges, Fishing Boats,' &c. (1809). 
He lived to be the oldest member of the 
Society of Arts, and the last survivor of the 
founders of the Watercolour Society. He 
enjoyed his faculties to the end, and died at 
19 South Grove West, Stoke Newington, on 
21 Oct. 1873, in his ninety-second year. In 
1821 he married Elizabeth Straker, and had 
a large family. One of his sons was Crom- 
well Fleet wood Varley [q. v.] 

[Tames Holmes and John Varley, by Alfred 
T. Story; Roget's ' Old Watercolour' Soc.; Red- 
grave's Diet.] C. M. 

WOOD (1828-1883), electrical engineer, son 
of Cornelius Varley [q. v.], watercolour- 

painter, and nephew of John Varley [q. v.], 
was born at Kentish Town, London, on 
6 April 1828, and was named after two of 
his ancestors, Oliver Cromwell and General 
Fleet wood. Andrew Pritchard [q. v.] was 
his first cousin. He was educated at St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, where he was a school- 
fellow of Sir Sydney Waterlow. After leav- 
ing school he studied telegraphy, and, through 
the influence of William Fothergill Cooke 
[q. v.], was engaged in 1846 by the Electric 
and International Telegraph Company, with 
whom he remained until the acquisition of 
the telegraphs by the government in 1868, 
when he retired into private life, spending 
his time in bringing out new inventions. 
During the early part of his business career 
he attended lectures at the London Mechanics' 
Institute, and, in connection with his brother 
Theophilus, he inaugurated the chemistry 
class there. 

The first improvement he introduced in 
telegraphy was the ' killing ' of the wire by 
giving it a slight permanent elongation, 
which breaks out the bad places and re- 
moves the objectionable springiness which 
results from the drawing process. Next 
he devised a method of localising the faults 
in submarine cables, so that they could 
be easily found and remedied. On 16 Feb. 
1854 he patented his double current key and 
relay (No. 371), by which it became pos- 
sible to telegraph from London to Edinburgh 
direct; then came his polarised relay, his 
English patent anticipating by two days the 
date of Siemens's German patent for a like 
invention. His next improvement was the 
translating system for use in connection 
with the cables of the Dutch lines, and 
by its means messages were sent direct from 
England to St. Petersburg with the aid of 
two intermediate relays. In 1870 he 
patented an instrument, which he. called a 
cymaphen, for the transmission of audible 
signals, and it is claimed for him that it 
contains the essentials of the modern tele- 
phone. However that may be, a year 
before the date of the Bell patent namely, 
in 1870 music was transmitted by this in- 
strument from the Canterbury Music-hall in 
Westminster Bridge Road to the Queen's 
Theatre in Long Acre over an ordinary 
telegraph wire with complete success. 

Varley's name is probably chiefly remem- 
bered in connection with the Atlantic cable. 
The first cable, laid in August 1858, was a 
failure. Before the project for the second cable 
was published, it was referred to a committee, 
consisting of Robert Stephenson, Sir Wil- 
liam Fairbairn. and Varley, to report as to its 
capabilities and the probability of its sue- 




cess. It was at this time that Varley con- 
ceived the idea of making an artificial line 
composed of resistances and condensers, 
which should exactly represent the working 
conditions of a submarine cable. The re- 
sistances corresponded to the copper conduc- 
tor, while the condensers reproduced the in- 
duction which takes place between the two 
sides of the dielectric, and thus by the aid of 
the artificial line it became possible to predi- 
cate the speed of signalling through any 
proposed cable, and a subject which up to 
that time had been much obscured was 
placed upon a scientific basis. As a result 
of his experiments he offered to guarantee 
that the proposed cable should transmit 
twelve words a minute, a rate of speed 
which in practice was soon exceeded. He 
afterwards, in 1867, read a paper at the 
Royal Institution (Proceedings, 1869, pp. 
4o-59) ' On the Atlantic Telegraph,' when 
his lucid explanations and practical demon- 
strations contributed greatly to the restora- 
tion of public confidence in Atlantic tele- 
graphy, and to the renewal of that most 
important enterprise. 

In 1865 he was elected a member of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and on 
8 June 1871 a fellow of the Royal Society. 
He likewise took a great interest in the 
establishment of the Society of Telegraph 
Engineers in 1871, and was a member of the 
council. His papers in the l Philosophical 
Transactions,' the ' Reports of the British 
Association,' and the 'Electrician' are all 
connected with the subjects of electricity 
and telegraphic communication. Like his 
uncle John, Varley was a rather credulous 
investigator of spiritualistic and other occult 
' phenomena.' He died at Cromwell House, 
Bexley Heath, Kent, on 2 Sept. 1883, and 
was buried at Christ Church, Bexley, on 

6 Sept. His second wife, whom he married 
on 11 Jan. 1877, was Jesse, daughter of Cap- 
tain Charles Smith of Forres, Scotland. By 
a former wife, from whom he was divorced, 
he left two sons and two daughters. His 
two brothers, Frederick Henry Varley and 
Samuel Alfred Varley, were also improvers 
and inventors in connection with telegraphy. 

[Times, 3 and 11 Sept. 1883; Engineering, 

7 Sept. 1883; Telegraphic Journal, 15 Sept. 
1883 ; Electrical Engineer, 1 Oct. ] 883 ; Eonald's 
Cat. of Books on Electricity, 1880. pp. 508-9; 
Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity, 1892.] 

G. C. B. 

VARLEY, JOHN (1778-1842), land- 
scape-painter, art- teacher, and astrologer, 
was born at Hackney on 17 Aug. 1778, the 
son of Richard Varley, who came to Hacknev 
from Epworth in Nottinghamshire. His 

mother was a descendant of the General 
Fleet wood who married Cromwell's daughter 
Bridget. His father's profession is uncer- 
tain, but according to Redgrave he was of 
scientific attainments and tutor to the son 
of Earl Stanhope. John was the eldest of 
five children, two of whom, Cornelius and 
William Fleetwood, are treated separately. 
One of his sisters (Elizabeth) married Wil- 
liam Mulready [q. v.] As a boy Varley was 
distinguished by his great muscular strength, 
his pugilistic propensities, and his love for 
sketching. His father, objecting to art as a 
profession, placed him at the age of thirteen 
with a silversmith ; but at the death of his 
father in 1791, after a short time with a 
law stationer, his mother allowed him to 
follow his bent. Poverty compelled the 
family to move from Hackney, and a few 
years after 1791 they were living in an 
obscure court off Old Street, City Road, 
opposite St. Luke's Hospital. Varley drew 
indefatigably, obtained some employment 
from a portrait-painter in Holborn, and when 
about fifteen or sixteen years of age became 
pupil and assistant of Joseph Charles Barrow, 
a landscape-painter and drawing-master of 
12 Furnival's Court, Holborn, where Fran- 
9013 Louis Thomas Francia [q. v.] was his 
fellow assistant. In 1796, when out sketch- 
ing, he made the acquaintance of John Preston 
Neale [q. v.], and formed a friendship which 
lasted for life. He agreed to help Neale 
with the landscapes to illustrate his 'Pic- 
turesque Cabinet of Nature,' the first and 
only part of which was published in Sep- 
tember 1796, and contains none of Varley's 
work. He also became acquainted with Dr. 
Monro. the celebrated encourager of young 
artists [see MONRO, THOMAS, 1759-1833]. 
Barrow took him on a professional visit to 
Peterborough, and he made his first success 
with a drawing of the cathedral, finely 
finished in pencil, which was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1798. He now, or 
soon after, started as a teacher on his own 
account, and prospered sufficiently to become 
the chief support of his family. During the 
years 1798-1802 he made three tours in 
Wales (during one of which he was tossed 
by a bull, an accident which thrice be- 
fell him), and in 1803 to Yorkshire, 
Northumberland, Devonshire, and other 
counties, laying in a store of sketches and 
studies which, with his earlier ones on the 
Thames and about London, formed the prin- 
cipal material for his exhibited drawings for 
nany years. From 1799 to 1804 he exhi- 
Dited at the Royal Academy three to six 
works yearly till 1804, when he assisted in 
he formation of the Watercolour Society 

Varley i 

(now the Royal Society of Painters in Water- 
colours), with which he afterwards identified 
himself almost exclusively. To their first 
exhibition in 1805 he sent forty-two subjects, 
nearly all Welsh, and contributed 344 draw- 
ings from 1805 to 1813 inclusive, or an ave- 
rage of over thirty-eight. 

He was now recognised as a fine and ori- 
ginal landscape-painter, and had earned, or 
was earning, an unrivalled position among 
art teachers. In 1800, according to his 
brother Cornelius, he was living with him 
in Charles Street, Covent Garden, but in 
the ' Academy Catalogue ' of that year his 
address is given as Craven Street, Hoxton. 
From 1801 to 1804 he lived at 2 Harris 
Place, near the Pantheon, in Oxford Street, 
and thence moved to 15 Broad Street, Golden 
Square. In 1800 and 1801 some topogra- 
phical plates (* Valle Crucis Abbey,' * Stilton/ 
' Monmouth/ &c.) were engraved by J. 
Walker, and another of * Chepstowe ' ap- 
peared in * Beauties of England and Wales.' 
In the latter year he, with his brother Cor- 
nelius, went to Gillingham, and gave lessons 
to Mrs. Bacon-Schutz and her daughters, 
and about this time also to the Earl of 
Essex's seat, Hampton Court in Hereford- 

With his pupils (who lived with him) and 
his growing family he had a large household. 
He also made a large income, for he found a 
ready sale for his drawings, and his pro- 
duction was extraordinary, he received pre- 
miums with his articled pupils (that paid by 
Finch was 200/.), and he charged a guinea 
for a lesson to others. He earned in his 
most prosperous time 3,0001. a year. He 
had a very large circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances. He was genial and amiable, his views 
were large and liberal, and his conversation 
striking and original. His house became 
' the resort of wits and men of talent and 
education in every branch of art and the 
professions, and he attracted and delighted 
all alike by the kindliness of his heart and 
the extent and variety of his knowledge.' 
One of his greatest attractions was his 
devoted study and practice of astrology. 
He kept his own horoscope up day by day, 
and he was always ready to draw those of 
others. When introduced to a stranger his 
first question was generally as to the day of 
his birth. Though he did not charge for his 
astrological services, he was conscious that 
many of his fashionable pupils were attracted 
to him rather by curiosity about their future 
than the love of art. Among his predictions 
which are said to have been verified were a 
fatal accident to Paul Mulready, the death 
of Collins the artist, the injury by fire of 

51 Varley 

William Vokins's daughter, and the burn- 
ing of his own house. He taught astrology 
to Sir Richard Burton the traveller and to 
the first Lord Lytton. With his pupils he 
was very popular, helping them in all ways, 
and seeking their advancement, even to his 
own prejudice. But he was a stern disci- 
plinarian., and if he heard a noise in their 
room he would rush in and thrash them all 
round without any discrimination. He had 
a cottage at Twickenham where they used 
to spend part of their time and draw, ac- 
cording to his precept, ' everything in nature 
and every mood.' Among the most cele- 
brated of these were William Mulready, his 
brother-in-law, W. H. Hunt, John Linnell, 
F. O. Finch, William Turner of Oxford, and 
Samuel Palmer. Three others of the greatest 
of English landscape-painters, Copley Field- 
ing, Peter De Wint, and David Cox, were 
greatly assisted by him in the formation ol 
their styles, so that his training was the 
very backbone of the English school of water- 
colour. No one, except Turner and Girtin, 
did so much for its development, and he was 
surpassed by none in his knowledge of its 
technique and the science of composition. 

His industry was extraordinary. For forty 
years (he said) he worked fourteen hours a 
day, but he loved play too, especially box- 
ing, and would often leave off work to have 
a bout with the gloves with one or other of 
his pupils. He was very strong, and weighed 
seventeen stone, so that he was more than a 
match for most of them except Mulready. 
Sometimes, it is said, when tired of boxing, 
he and his pupils would toss Mrs. Varley 
from one to the other across the table. 

But, though outwardly prosperous, Varley 
was always in difficulties from his careless- 
ness in money matters. Abstemious and 
spendinglittle on himself, he was the constant 
prey of his impecunious friends. 

In 1812 the first Watercolour Society 
came to an end, but the meeting which re- 
suscitated it as the Society of Painters in 
Oil and Watercolours was held at Varley's 
house in Broad Street. In 1813 he moved 
from 15 to 5 Broad Street, and in 1814 or 
1815 to 44 Conduit Street, and in 1817 to 
10 (afterwards 10) Great Titchfi eld Street, 
where he built a gallery to show his pictures, 
and during this time contributed regularly, 
but not so profusely, to the exhibitions of 
the society. In 1819 Varley was introduced 
by John Linnell to William Blake (1757- 
1827) [q. v.], and became his constant com- 
panion till the poet-painter's death in 1827. 
It was for Varley that Blake in 1819-20 
executed those strange drawings of visionary 
heads (see GILCHRIST, Life of Blake, pp. 




251-6), some fifty or more, including the 
' Ghost of a Fleaj' a copy of which was en- 
graved by John Linnell for Varley 's l Treatise 
on Zodiacal Physiognomy ' (pt. i. only, Lon- 
don, 1828, 8vo). In 1820 the Oil and Water- 
colour Society allotted to Varley one of their 
premiums of 30/. to incite the production 
of important works, and in 1821 Varley, in 
response, sent a large drawing of the * Bride 
of Abydos,' which was followed in 1822 by 
another elaborate composition, ( The De- 
struction of Tyre.' From 1823 to 1836 he 
sent on the average twenty-two works yearly, 
but afterwards about six only. In 1825 he 
was burnt out at his studio, but, though he 
was uninsured, he was not disconcerted, be- 
cause it agreed with a prediction he had made, 
of which he wrote an account while the fire 
was proceeding. In 1830 he was again burnt 
out, and this was his third fire, for one had 
occurred while he was living in Conduit 
Street. After a short stay at John Linnell's 
house in Porchester Terrace, he finally settled 
at 3 Elkins Road, Bayswater. His second 
wife did all she could to make his life com- 
fortable, but his last years were full of ever 
increasing difficulties. He had thirty writs 
served upon him in one year, most, if not 
all, for other persons' debts. He said he did 
not feel all was quite right unless he was 
arrested for debt at least once or twice a 
month. He generally freed himself very 
soon by drawings sold to Vokins and other 
dealers. It is not surprising that works pro- 
duced in his later life were often hasty and 
nearly always mannered, for he was in the 
hands of the dealers and the money-lenders, 
and had no time to study nature afresh. But 
his spirits and courage never broke down. 
He once said to Linnell, * All these troubles 
are necessary to me ; if it were not for my 
troubles I should burst with joy.' Nor did 
his interest in his profession decline. He 
constantly made experiments. At one time 
he tried painting in varnish over watercolour, 
and about 1837 commenced to paint on thin 
whitey-brown paper laid down upon white, 
which he scraped down upon for the lights. 
The drawings done by this method, with the 
darks enriched with gum, were almost as 
forcible as oil paintings, and produced quite a 
sensation among his brother artists. Shortly 
before his death he seemed to have a fresh 
access of energy. He exhibited thirty draw- 
ings in 1841, and forty-one in 1842. Nor 
were his energies confined to his art. He 
spent an immense amount of labour and a 
great deal of money, 1,OOOJ. of which was 
borrowed, in striving to perfect a carriage 
with eight wheels, which he thought would 
move much more easily than one with four, 

but it was a complete failure and perfected 
his ruin. A friendly clerk of his money- 
lender warned him of the issue of a writ, 
and provided him with a retreat in his humble 
lodging in Gray's Inn Lane. Here he was 
found by Vokins, who took him to his own 
house, 67 Margaret Street, Cavendish Square. 
But then or soon after he became dan- 
gerously ill from disease of the kidneys, 
brought on, it is said, by sitting on damp grass 
while sketching in the gardens of the Royal 
Pharmaceutical Society at Chelsea. At 
Vokins's he was visited by many distin- 
guished persons, ' not more,' said that gen- 
tleman, ' for his artistic celebrity than for 
his astrological knowledge and for the in- 
terest there was in the man himself, for his 
was a most genial spirit.' To his eldest son, 
Albert, Varley said, ' I shall not get better, 
my boy. All the aspects are too strong 
against me.' His astrological books were 
lying on his bed. He died at Vokins's 
house on 17 Nov. 1842. At the post-mortem 
examination all his organs, except the kidneys, 
were found in such perfect order that the 
surgeon said they looked i as though they had 
never been used.' 

As an artist Varley stands high among the 
early English watercolourists, although he 
produced a great deal of hasty and inferior 
work. He occasionally painted in oil. ' The 
Burial of Saul' (figures by Linnell) was in 
this medium. His early drawings, especially 
those of Welsh scenery, were full of fresh 
observation, and even his most conventional 
work has a fine style, caught perhaps from 
the Poussins and Claude, whom he greatly 
admired. He was a good colourist and a 
master of execution. Messrs. Redgrave say : 
' When he laid himself out to do his best, 
and when he studied his subjects on the 
spot, his pictures have qualities that we find 
in no other painters freshness, clearness, 
and a classical air, even in the most common 
and matter-of-fact subjects.' Ruskin once 
wrote that he was the only artist (except 
Turner) who knew how to draw a moun- 
tain. But he was greater as a teacher than 
an artist. 

As a man he was remarkable for vigour of 
body and mind, for courage and self-reliance, 
for industry, unselfishness, and generosity, 
and not least for credulity. He was said to 
have believed 'nearly all he heard all he 
read' (see Edinburgh Phrenological Journal 
for 1843. paper by Mr. Atkinson, F.S. A.) He 
believed in astrology and his own predictions ; 
he believed in the visions of Blake, even the 
ghost of a flea ; but in religion he was a 
sceptic, was indeed almost destitute of a 
sense of the supernatural, apart from ' the 




stars.' But, if not spiritual, lie was very 
humane, and spent his life mainly in en- 
deavours to benefit his fellow-creatures, with 
little regard to his own interest. 

In 1803 Varley married Esther Gisborne, 
sister of Shelley's friend John, and also of 
Mrs. Copley Fielding and Mrs. Clement! 
(wife of the famous musician). She died in 
1824, and in 1825 he married his second 
wife, Delvalle Lowry, the daughter of his 
old friend, Wilson Lowry [q.v.], the engraver. 
Varley had eight children, all bv his first 
wife. Two of them, Albert (d. 1876) and 
Charles Smith (d. 1888), followed his pro- 
fession. John Varley, the son of Albert, and 
the painter of Cairene subjects, is still alive 
(1899). Edgar John, the son of Charles 
Smith Varley, also a painter, died in the 
same year as his father. 

Varley was the author of : 1. 'A Treatise 
on the Principles of Landscape Design/ illus- 
trated by sixteen views on eight aquatint 
plates. It was issued in eight parts at 5s. 
between 20 Feb. 1816 and 1 May 1821. 
2. 'A Treatise on Zodiacal Physiognomy' 
(five illustrations), 1828. 3. ' A Practical 
Treatise on the Art of Drawing and Per- 
spective,' 1815. 4. ' Precepts of Landscape 
Drawing, exemplified in fifteen views,' 1818. 
5. l Varley's List of Colours' (a sheet used 
by Varley's pupils). 6. ' Studies for Draw- 
ing Trees.' Six aquatints, after Varley's 
landscapes, byF. C. and G. Lewis, were pub- 
lished in 1806. 

[Roget's ' Old Water-colour' Soc. (in which 
will be found references to earlier authorities) ; 
James Holmes and John Varley by Alfred T. 
Story; Gil Christ's Life of William Blake ; Red- 
graves' Century; Monkhouse's Earlier English 
Painters in Watercolours.] C. M. 


(1785-1 856), artist, younger brother of Corne- 
lius Varley [q. v.] and of John Varley [q. v.], 
was born in 1785. He received his first art 
instruction from his brother, and began to ex- 
hibit at the Royal Academy in 1804. About 
1810 he was teaching in Cornwall, and after- 
wards at Bath and Oxford. At the latter 
place, through the thoughtless frolics of some 
students, he was nearly burnt to death, and 
received a shock to his system from which 
he never recovered. He exhibited twenty- 
one landscapes at the Royal Academy be- 
tween 1804 and 1818. He died at Ramsgate 
on 2 Feb. 1856. He was married, and left 
seven daughters and one son. He was the 
author of ' Observations on Colouring and 
Sketching from Nature,' of which an enlarged 
edition was published by W. Mason of 
Chichester in 1820. 

[Roget's ' Old Watercolour ' Society ; Story's 
John Holmes and John Varley ; Redgrave's 
Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 1856, i. 656.] C. M. 

(1725 P-1795 ?), agriculturist, was born in 
Yorkshire about 1725. He visited Ireland 
in his twenty-first year, spending some 
time with Edward Synge [q. v.], bishop of 
Elphin. * At that period,' writes in 1796 the 
anonymous editor of Varlo's ' Floating Ideas/ 
' being fifty years back, farming in Ireland 
was in its infancy ; but flax-farming was 
yet less known, neither had the linen board 
been long instituted ; and as the author was 
bred in a district in Yorkshire renowned for 
flax-farming, and he being deemed a profi- 
cient in that science, he was fix'd upon by 
the linen board, and honourably rewarded 
for being a farmer general, that is, to direct 
their stewards in the art of farming in 
general, but flax-farming in particular.' He 
is said to have received from the linen board 
a premium of 100/. for the quality of flax 
raised under his management. 

In 1748 he would seem to have 
been farming on his own account in the 
county of Leitrim, and to have been also an 
early experimenter in the turnip husbandry, 
then coming more and more to the front 
(New System of Husbandry, i. 107). This 
agrees with the account given by his editor. 

' Being arrived at the twenty-seventh 
year of his age he married, and commenced 
farmer and grazier in Ireland on a large 
scale. . . . He also took over English farm- 
ing servants and implements of husbandry, 
particularly a plough of his own invention, 
which is now the most general of any in the 
kingdom , know n by the name of the Yorkshire 
or Rotherham plough.' The statement that 
Varlo was the inventor of the Rotherham 
plough is incorrect, as the implement had 
been patented in 1730, when Varlo was a 
child, by Stanyforth & Foljambe of Rother- 
ham (Journal Royal Agricultural Society, 
1892, 3rd ser. iii. 53). 

In 1760 the prohibition on the export of 
Irish cattle to England was removed. Varlo 
accordingly sold his land in Ireland, and pro- 
ceeded to bring his cattle over to this coun- 
try. The step was, however, very unpopular. 
Varlo's cattle were slaughtered by the mob in 
the streets of Dublin, and he himself had a 
very narrow escape. A small compensation 
was given to him by the government at the 
instance of the Duke of Bedford, then lord 
lieutenant, and he appears to have begun 
grazing in England, probably in his native 
county of Yorkshire. In 1764 he finished 
his machine ' that harrows, sows, and rolls at 
one time' (System of Husbandry, i. 292), for 




which he received a premium from the Dub- 
lin Society. Another invention, which, ac- 
cording to his editor, brought him into ' yet 
more vagations or wanderings/ was a win- 
nowing machine which he perfected in 1772. 
A third invention was ' a machine for taking 
off friction.' 

In 1784 he was living in Sloane Square. 
At this date occurred the strangest incident 
in his career. He had got possession of certain 
papers and charters purporting to have been 
granted by Charles I to Sir Edward Plow- 
den, and entitling him to colonise New Albion 
(i.e. New Jersey). This attempt at colonisa- 
tion proved abortive, and in Charles II' s reign 
the charter was superseded by a new grant 
to the Duke of York. Armed with his papers 
(which were probably forgeries), Varlo went 
out to the American colonies (the indepen- 
dence of which had just been recognised by 
Britain), expecting apparently to be acknow- 
ledged as governor of the province of New 
Jersey and as lessee of one-third of the 
territory. The case was tried before the 
colonial courts, and Varlo's claim was natu- 
rally scouted. Varlo printed his documents 
in America in a pamphlet of thirty pages, 
containing (1) ' The Grant of Charles I to 
Sir E. Plowden, Earl Palatine of Albion' 
(apparently a transcript with alterations of 
the grant to Lord Baltimore) ; (2) ' The 
Lease from the Earl Palatine to Sir T. Danby ; ' 
(3) ' The Release of the Co-Grantees to the 
Earl Palatine;' and (4) 'The Address of 
the Earl Palatine to the Public.' Only two 
copies of Varlo's original pamphlet are 
known to exist, one of which is in the Bos- 
ton (U.S.A.) Athenaeum. Hazard con- 
sidered the papers to be sufficiently authentic 
to be introduced into his collection of state 
papers (vol. i.) Varlo also took a twelve 
months' tour through the states of New 
England, Maryland, and Virginia (where he 
met Washington). On his return to Eng- 
land he petitioned the king and the Prince 
of Wales in the hope apparently of getting 
some of the money granted to American 
loyalists. He does not, however, seem to 
have met with much success. The last 
trace of him is 011 24 Feb. 1795, when he 
was living in Southampton Row, New 
Road, Paddington, to which address Sir 
John Sinclair sent a formal letter of thanks 
for certain suggestions made by Varlo to the 
board of agriculture relative to the offering of 
premiums for the cultivation of maize. Varlo 
must have been over seventy at this time. 

Varlo wrote : 1. ' The Yorkshire Farmer,' 
a work chiefly concerned with the cultiva- 
tion of corn and flax. Some of the opinions 
given in this book he renounced later (New 

System, i. 18). 2. <A New System of 
Husbandry, from Experiments never before 
made public,' York, 1770, 3 vols. Two 
further editions were published prior to 
1773, one of these at Winchester. In 1774 
a fourth edition was issued in London, and 
in 1785 a fifth in Boston, U.S.A. (Cata- 
logue of the Boston Athenaeum). This 
work of Varlo's evinces a wide acquaintance 
with different parts of the United Kingdom ; 
in fact Varlo appears, like Arthur Young 
(1741-1820) [q. v.], only in a less degree, to 
have conducted regular agricultural tours 
(New System, iii. 227, 300). Varlo is to 
some extent a disciple of Jethro Tull (iii. 97). 
3. ' Schemes offered for the Perusal and Con- 
sideration of the Legislature, Freeholders, 
and Public in General ... by 0. Varlo, Esq.,' 
1775. It is probably to this work that 
Varlo refers when he says that he published 
a book called * Political Schemes' in 1772. 
This covers to a large extent the same 
points as are mooted in the ' Husbandry,' 
and also enlarges on the advantages of a 
general enclosure act (for, though Varlo was 
one of the most spirited defenders of the 
open-field husbandry, he was in favour of a 
general act for the enclosure of waste and 
untilled land). 4. ' Nature Displayed : a New 
Work by different Gentlemen on several Sub- 
jects ; Lectures on Philosophy ; a Twelve 
Months' Tour of Observations through 
America, also Political Hints offered to the 
Legislature,' 3rd ed. 1793; new ed. 1796. 
5. ' Floating Ideas of Nature, suited to the 
Philosopher, Farmer, and Mechanic,' 1796, 
2 vols. These later works of Varlo are agri- 
cultural miscellanies, the greater part of the 
material for which is taken literally from his 
earlier writings. Whatever new matter 
there is chiefly relates to America, and espe- 
cially to American agriculture, an account 
of Varlo's travels, and proposals to introduce 
into England certain details of American 
farm management, such as the cultivation 
of maize or the stabling of horses without 

[Most of these particulars are derived from 
the second volume of Varlo's Floating Ideas 
of Nature, 1796, where his editor gives a bio- 
graphical sketch, with the text of his two petitions 
to the Prince of Wales. Varlo also drops some 
autobiographical hints in his New System. For 
his travels to and in America, see Memoirs of 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society, vol. iv. 
pt. i.; Collections of the New Jersey Historical 
Society, 1846, i. 8-10, and the Catalogue of the 
Boston Athenaeum.] E. C-E. 

VASHON, JAMES (1742-1827), admi- 
ral, son of James Volant Vashon, vicar of 
Eye in Herefordshire and lecturer of Lud- 




low, was born at Ludlow on 9 Aug. 1742 
He entered the navy in August 1755 on 
board the Revenge, with Captain Frederick 
Cornewall, a man of local property and in- 
fluence [see under CORNEWALL, JAMES, and 
In the Revenge Vashon was present at the 
battle of Minorca on 20 May 1756, and on 
Cornewall being sent to England as a witness 
on the trial of Admiral John Byng [q. v.], he 
was moved into the Lancaster, with Cap- 
tain George Edgcumbe (afterwards Earl of 
Mount-Edgcumbe) [q.v.], and took part in 
the reduction of Louisbourg in July 1758. 
The Lancaster went to the West Indies, as 
part of the force under Commodore John 
Moore (1718-1779) [q. v.] in the reduction 
of Guadeloupe. Vashon was then moved 
into the Cambridge, Moore's flagship, and 
continued in her, under Captain Goostrey 
and Rear-admiral Charles Holmes [q. v.], at 
Jamaica. While there he was frequently 
lent to the Boreas, a cruising frigate, and in 
her saw some sharp boat service, in cutting 
out the enemy's privateers. Holmes died in 
November 1761, and on 1 July 1762 Goos- 
trey was killed in the attack on the Morro 
Castle at Havana. In the summer of 1761 
Goostrey is said to have asked Holmes to 
make Vashon a lieutenant. Holmes de- 
murred, saying he looked such a boy, but 
he would make him one by and by. The 
death of Holmes and Goostrey deprived him 
of this patronage, and though he passed his 
examination on 7 Sept. 1763, and continued 
serving without interruption on the New- 
foundland station and the West Indies, he 
was not promoted till 1 June 1774, when 
Sir George Rodney made him a lieutenant 
of the Maidstone. In 1777 the Maidstone 
returned to England, and, after refitting, was 
sent out to the coast of North America, 
under the command of Captain Alan (after- 
wards Lord) Gardner [q. v.], and employed 
during the early months of 1778 in active 
cruising. In March Vashon commanded the 
boats in setting fire to a ship which they 
had driven on shore, where she was defended 
by several field-pieces. In July he was sent 
up to Lord Howe at New York with news 
of the French fleet; and, having rejoined the 
Maidstone, assisted in capturing the Lion, a 
large armed ship. Vashon, with four-and- 
twenty men, was put on board her, but the 
boisterous weather prevented further com- 
munication, and the situation of the prize 
crew with some two hundred prisoners was 
very critical. The ship, too, was in a sink- 
ing condition, but Vashon succeeded in 
keeping the Frenchmen at the pumps, and 
so bringing his charge safely to Antigua. 

For this service Vashon was promoted to 
the rank of commander on 5 Aug. 1779, 
ordered home, and appointed to the Alert, 
in which he was again sent to the West 
Indies. Early in 1781 he was sent home with 
despatches from Jamaica, was for some time 
attached to the fleet in the North Sea under 
Sir Hyde Parker, and in December went out 
to the West Indies with Rodney, where the 
Alert was stationed oft' Martinique as a look- 
out ship; he was with the fleet in the action 
off Dominica on 12 April 1782, when he took 
possession of the Glorieuse; was active in 
saving the people blown up in the C6sar, and 
was posted to the Prince William by a com- 
mission dated the same day. He was after- 
wards appointed by Rodney to the Formi- 
dable, as flag-captain ; and, on Rodney's being 
superseded, was moved into the Sibyl, which 
he commanded till the peace. From 1786 to 
1789 he was captain of the Europa, with 
Commodore Gardner's broad pennant on 
board ; in the Spanish armament of 1790 
commanded the Ardent, and in 1793 was 
appointed to the St. Albans, employed on 
convoy service to the Mediterranean and to 
Jamaica. He afterwards commanded the 
Pompee in the Channel fleet off Brest, and 
during the mutiny at Spithead. When the 
fleet had returned to its duty, a new and 
dangerous outbreak occurred in the Pompee, 
and, though this was promptly quelled and 
the ringleaders tried by court-martial and 
sentenced to death, Vashon applied to be re- 
lieved from the command. He commanded 
in turn the Neptune, the Dreadnought (1801- 
1802), and the Princess Royal from 1803 
till his promotion to the rank of rear-admiral 
on 23 April 1804. He then, for four years, 
commanded the ships at Leith and on the 
coast of Scotland ; was made a vice-admiral 
on 28 April 1808, and admiral on 4 June 
1814. He died at Ludlow on 20 Oct. 1827. 
He left one son, in holy orders. 

[Ralfe's Nav. Biogr. iii. 182 (a long memoir 
apparently contributed by Vashon himself) ; 
Marshall's Roy Nav. Biogr. i. 208 ; Gent. Mag. 
1827, ii. 465.] J. K. L. 

VASSALL, JOHN (d. 1625), colonial 
pioneer, who describes himself in his will as 
mariner,' was of French extraction. He was 
sent to England by his father, John Vassall, 
during the religious troubles in France from 
his home in Normandy. Vassall seems to 
lave been recognised as an authority in ques- 
tions of navigation, as we find him recom- 
mended to be examined by the judge of the 
admiralty as to ' the skill of the pilot ' in a 
suit respecting the wreck of a vessel on the 
Goodwin sands in 1577. In 1588 Vassall 

Vassal 1 



fitted out and commanded a vessel of 140 
tons to serve against the Spanish armada. In 
Harleian MS. 168, f. 177, his vessel is called 
the Samuell, while in the state papers in the 
record office (Eliz. vol. 215, f. 76) it appears 
as the Solomon. 

Vassall was a member of the Virginia 
Company of London, and his name is in- 
serted in its second charter of 23 May 1609 
as f John Vassall, gentleman.' In the fol- 
lowing year he subscribed 261. towards the 
adventure. From 1589 to 1602 he was ap- 
parently residing at * Ratcliffe hamlet,' in 
the parish of Stepney, but about the latter 
year seems to have left the parish and 
gone to live at Cockseyhurst, Eastwood, 
Essex, where he had property. He died, 
however, at Stepney of the plague in 1625, 
and was buried in the parish church on 
13 Sept. At Eastwood Vassall became ac- 
quainted with Samuel Purchas [q. v.], who 
mentions him in his ' Pilgrimage ' (edit. 
1617, p. 705) as l a friend and neighbour of 

Vassall married, first, at St. Dunstan's, 
Stepney, on 25 Sept. 1569, Anne Howes, by 
whom he had no issue ; and, secondly, on 
4 Sept. 1580, also at St. Dunstan's, Anna 
Russell (d. 1593) of Ratcliffe, by whom he 
had, besides other children, Samuel [q. v.] 
and William (see below). Vassall married, 
thirdly, on 27 March 1594, Judith (d. 1639), 
daughter of Stephen Borough of Stepney 
and Chatham, brother of William Borough 
[q. v.], and widow of Thomas Scott of Col- 
chester and London, by whom he had two 
sons and four daughters. 

WILLIAM VASSALL (1592-1655), fourth 
son of John by his second wife, was born at 
Stepney in 1592. He was named in the 
first charter of the Massachusetts Company 
of March 1629, and sailed for the colony in 
July of the following year. Not being able 
to agree with his colleagues, he returned to 
England after a stay of only a few months. 
He again went to America in June 1635, and, 
after a short stay at Roxbury, removed to 
Scituate in Plymouth colony, where, on 
28 Nov. 1636, he joined the church of John 
Lothrop. Already in 1637, when Scituate 
was petitioning for more land, Vassall had 
managed to quarrel with his surroundings, 
and a new tract of land was granted to the 
place on the condition that a township was 
founded and that the differences with Vassall 
were composed. In 1638 he took the oath of 
fidelity. Though a public-spirited man, his 
usefulness was much restricted by his in- 
ability to agree with those around him. He 
became one of the richest settlers in Ply- 
mouth colony. In 1646, with a few others 

as discontented as himself, he sailed for Eng- 
land to make his grievances known. Some 
account of the alleged grievances is given in 
a pamphlet "entitled ' New England's Jonas 
cast up in London' (London, 1647), with 
the name of John Child on the title-page, 
but it was probably the work of Vassall. 
It was answered in the same year by Edward 
Winslow in 'New England's Salamander 
Discovered,' in which the author's opinion 
of Vassall is openly expressed. 

In 1650 Vassall removed to Barbados, 
where he died in 1655, possessed of much 

(1764-1807), after serving at Gibraltar 
(1782) and in Flanders during the French 
revolutionary wars, and being nearly exe- 
cuted as a spy, purchased in 1801 the lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy of the 38th regiment, called 
under his command the ' crack regiment of 
Ireland.' He took part in the capture of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and was appointed go- 
vernor of the town. He died of wounds re- 
ceived during the capture of Monte Video 
on 3 Feb. 1807. His remains were removed 
to St. Paul's, Bristol, where a monument, 
designed by Flaxman, with verses by Mrs. 
Opie, was erected to his memory (cf. HAL- 
FORD, Poems, 1811, p. Ill ; BUDWORTH, 
Ramble to the Lakes, 1810, p. 353). 

[Unpublished pedigree by the late Rev. "W. 
Vassall; Visitation of London, 1633 (Harl. Soc. 
Publ.), xvii. 308 ; Murdin's State Papers in the 
Reign of Elizabeth, p. 617 ; Brown's Genesis of 
the United States, pp. 208, 223, 1036 ; Force's 
Tracts, iii. 36 ; Hill and Frere's Memorials of 
Stepney Parish, passim ; Newcourt's Reper- 
torium, i. 505, ii. 483 ; Chester's Marriage 
Licences (Foster) ; Brigg's Reg. Book of the 
Parish of St. Nicholas Aeons, pp. 66, 6 7; P.C.C. 
99 Clark; Hutchinson's Hist, of Massachusetts 
Bay, i. 10-14, 17; Massachusetts Hist. Soc. 
Collections, 2nd ser. iv. 240, 244, v. 121, 499- 
500, 517; Savage's Genealogical Diet, of First 
Settlers in New England, iv. 367 ; Anonymous 
Memoir of Lieut-col. Vassall, passim ; Gent. 
Mag. 1807, pp. 363, 481.] B. P. 

VASSALL, SAMUEL (1586-1667), 
parliamentarian, second son of John Vassall 
[q. v.] by his second wife, Anna Russell, 
was baptised at Stepney on 5 June 1586. 
He became a merchant in London, and 
traded to New England, the West Indies, 
and Guinea. He was one of the incorpo- 
rators of the first Massachusetts company 
in March 1628, and in 1630 was one of 
those who advanced 50/. in the enterprise. 
He and his brother William [see under 
VASSALL, JOHN] afterwards acquired by 
purchase, as original proprietors, two-twen- 




tieths of all Massachusetts in New England. 
In September 1628 Samuel refused to pay 
the tonnage and poundage demanded by 
the custom-house on a large quantity of 
currants which he was importing. An 
information in the exchequer was exhibited 
by the attorney-general against him, when 
Vassall himself pleaded his own cause and 
the illegality of the imposition. The barons 
of exchequer refused to hear Vassall's coun- 
sel in the case, asserting that it would 
fall under the same rule as the famous 
Bate case already adjudged (GARDINEK, 
ii. 5-6). Vassall was imprisoned and his 
goods retained. In June 1630 he was 
again contending against ' that pretended 
duty/ having brought up to Tilbury a 
vessel laden l with that drug called tobacco ' 
from Virginia. He had joined in April of 
the same year with George, lord Berkeley, 
and others, in an agreement to form a set- 
tlement in Virginia. In 1634 he was again 
in trouble, this time for breach of contract, 
having undertaken to convey certain settlers 
to the new colony of Carolina, and through 
some mismanagement having deposited 
them in October 1633 in Virginia, where 
they remained without further transport 
till the following May. Vassall was still 
imprisoned in the Fleet in 1636, proceedings 
against him continuing meanwhile. He 
appears to have been released at the end of 
the year. 

On 2 March 1639-40 Vassall was elected 
to represent the city of London in the short 
parliament that sat from 13 April to 5 May. 
In June of the same year he, with Richard 
Chambers [q. v.], was summoned by the 
council in order to be ' committed to some 
prisons in remote parts for seducing the king's 
people.' On 20 Oct. 1640 he was re-elected 
to represent the city of London in the Long 
parliament. At this time he was styled 
clothier or clothworker. On 2 Dec. Vassall 
1 delivered his grievances by word of mouth ' 
to the commons, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to consider them (RTTSHWOKTH, pt. 
iii. vol. i. p. 72). On 2 Feb. 1641 the House 
of Commons ordered the restitution to him 
by the farmers of the customs and imports 
of the tobacco which had been seized. In 
July the committee meeting in the Star- 
chamber was still considering ' of some fit 
way for reparation.' 

Vassall was one of the members of the 
House of Commons who took the ' protesta- 
tion ' on 3 May 1641. In 1642 he was one 
of the commissioners for plantations in the 
colonies, and as such in November took part 
in the appointment of Sir Thomas Warner 
[q. v.] as governor of the Caribbee Islands. 

He was one of the commissioners for the 
incorporation of Providence plantations in 
the Narraganset Bay in New England in 
1643. On 22 Sept. 1643 he took the cove- 
nant. On 20 Feb. 1645 he was one of the 
committee for the city of London for raising 
funds towards the maintenance of the Scot- 
tish army, and on 11 July 1646 he was named 
one of the commissioners for the kingdom of 
England for the conservation of peace be- 
tween the two kingdoms. Early in 1650, as 
a trader to Guinea, he was giving information 
to the house respecting some disputes be- 
tween various merchants and the Guinea 

Meanwhile, Vassall was endeavouring to 
secure compensation for his losses and im- 
prisonment for refusing to pay tonnage and 
poundage in 1628. The matter had on 
14 June 1644 been referred to the committee 
for the navy, and on 18 Jan. 1646-7 the 
commons voted him 10,445/. 12s. *2d. He 
had also advanced money to pay the parlia- 
mentary forces in Ireland, and on 6 May 
1647, 2,59U 17s. 6d., due to Vassall on this 
account, was ordered to be made chargeable 
on the grand excise, ' with interest on the 
same ' payable every six months. Vassall, 
however,received nothing. On 6 April 1654, 
in a petition presented to the Protector, he 
stated that in consequence of resisting ton- 
nage and poundage he lost money to the 
value of 15,000/., and begged leave to refund 
himself by means of privileges to import 
French wines, ship coals and lead, or receive 
forest land. The debt with interest now 
amounted to 20,202/. 7s. 3d. On 6 May 1656 
he was granted 150/. annually as interest on 
the debt formerly charged on the excise. On 
26 May on the taking of a ' Spanish prize ' 
a warrant was issued by the council for the 
payment to him of 1,000/. He was neverthe- 
less informed on 8 Sept. 1657 that he should 
make his application for payment to parlia- 
ment, ' as no revenue remains at his high- 
ness's disposal to satisfy the said debt.' On 
18 March 1658 the petition was again read 
to the council, and again on 3 June 1658, 
at which time Vassall was a ' prisoner in 
the upper bench.' On 1 April 1659 the 
commons recommended the Protector to 
grant a privy seal for the payment to him of 
500^. as part of the debt. A bill was ac- 
cordingly prepared for signature on 5 April. 
On 18 Aug. 1660 it was ordered that the 
remainder of the debt should again be made 
chargeable on the excise, and ' forthwith 
paid to Mr. Vassall.' In 1663 he was in 
Carolina occupied in making arrangements 
with the lords proprietors of the colony 
with respect to a claim laid by him for part 




of a term not yet expired. In all probability 
lie died in Massachusetts, but the exact time 
or place is not known. He may be identical 
with the Samuel Vassall of Bedale in York- 
shire, who was living in 1665 (will of his 
son John, P. C. C. 29 Hyde). But when 
letters of administration were granted in 
London to his son Francis on 24 Sept. 1667, 
it was stated that he died abroad. 

[Unpublished pedigree by the late Eev. 
William Vassall ; Hutchinson's Hist, of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, i. 10; Rushworth's Hist. Coll. 
pt. i. p. 641, pt. iii. vol. i. p. 246, pt. iv. vol. i. 
pp. 313, 619, pt. iv. vol. ii. p. 1099; Gal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1629 to 1659, passim ; Neill's 
Virginia Carolorum, pp. 75-6; Gal. State 
Papers Colonial, 1574-1660, passim; Offi- 
cial List of M.P.'s, i. 482, 491; Commons' 
Journals, vols. ii. iii. iv. v. vii. and viii. ; Lords' 
Journals, vii. 224; Massachusetts Hist. Soc. 
Coll. 2nd ser. v. 121-2 ; manuscript notes by 
late Rev. W. Vassall, kindly supplied by Douglas 
Sladen, esq.j B. P. 

yAUGHAN, BENJAMIN (1751-1835), 
politician and political economist, born in 
Jamaica on 19 April 1751, was eldest son of 
Samuel Vaughan, a West India merchant 
and planter, who settled in London, by his 
wife Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Hallo well 
of Boston. William Vaughan (1752-1830) 
[q. v.] was his younger brother. Benjamin 
was educated at Newcome's school in Hack- 
ney, at the nonconformist academy at War- 
rington, and at Cambridge University, but 
was prevented by the system of religious 
tests from graduating, being a Unitarian. 
He apparently became acquainted with Lord 
Shelburne through Benjamin Home, the 
elder brother of John Home Tooke [q. v.], 
and soon gained the confidence of that 
statesman, by whom he was occasionally 
employed in confidential political business 
and as private secretary. He also studied 
law at the Temple and medicine in Edin- 
burgh ; it is said because William Manning, 
whose daughter Sarah he married on 30 June 
1781, had at first refused his consent to the 
marriage on the ground that he had no pro- 
fession (Vaughan's wife was aunt of Cardinal 
Manning). He subsequently returned to 
mercantile pursuits, and entered into a 
partnership with his brother-in-law, W'illiam 
Manning. He made acquaintance with 
Benjamin Franklin, with whom he after- 
wards contracted a warm friendship and 
continued to correspond after the outbreak 
of the war with the colonies. Like all 
the followers of Lord Shelburne, he sided 
with the colonists in their struggle with 
the mother country, and his political as well 
as his religious sympathies brought him into 

intimate relations with Price, Priestley, 
Paine, and Home Tooke during the Ameri- 
can war and the French revolution. In June 
1782 he was sent to Paris to give private 
assurances to Franklin that the death of 
Lord Kockingham and the accession to power 
of Lord Shelburne had caused no change of 
policy in regard to the intention of recognising 
the independence of the United Colonies. In 
September of that year he took an active 
though unofficial part in the negotiations for 
peace at the secret request of Shelburne, who 
employed him on account of his intimate 
friendship with Franklin, and helped to per- 
suade the English ministers to admit the in- 
dependence of 'the United States of America ' 
as a preliminary, and ' not as depending upon 
the event of any other part of the treaty.' 
He also urged that so great a divergence of 
views existed between the American and 
French negotiators in Paris as to give the 
British government an opportunity of con- 
cluding a separate peace with the colonies if 
this concession to their views were made. 
Vaughan's activity was resented by the Eng- 
lish official negotiators, as appears by a letter 
of Richard Oswald [q. v.] to Lord Shelburne 
(Life of Shelburne, iii. 256, 321). 

In 1790 Vaughan was in Paris with Lord 
Wycombe, the eldest son of Lord Shelburne 
(then Lord Lansdowne), and was in frequent 
communication with the leaders of the party 
opposed to the French court. At the ' fete de 
la federation ' of 14 July 1790 in the Champ de 
Mars he was almost the only stranger, except 
those belonging to the corps diplomatique, 
who obtained a place in the covered seats near 
the royal box. He describes Marie-Antoi- 
nette as looking 'well, fat, and sulky' (to 
Lord Lansdowne 15 July 1790). His French 
sympathies were not abated by the violent 
turn taken by subsequent events. In Fe- 
bruary 1792 he became member for Calne. 
He was very active at this time with his pen 
on commercial and economic subjects, as well 
as on politics. A ' Treatise on International 
Trade,' which was translated into French in 
1789, and a series of letters to the * Morning 
Chronicle' condemning the attack of the 
northern powers on Poland and France in 1 792 
and 1793, are his principal performances. 
There is a record of a speech by him in Fe- 
bruary 1794 on the subject of the negro popu- 
lation in the West Indies. But his active par- 
liamentary career was now abruptly termi- 
nated, owing to the arrest of William Stone, 
brother of John Hurford Stone [q. v.], a well- 
known supporter of the French revolution and 
a notorious enemy to the policy of Pitt. J. H. 
Stone was at the time in Paris. On Wil- 
liam Stone a letter from Vaughan was found, 




apparently intended for J. H. Stone, and in 
consequence Vaughan was summoned before 
the privy council on 8 May 1794. Although 
the letter contained nothing that was in 
reality compromising, Vaughan, conscious 
probably that other and more dangerous 
documents might have fallen into the posses- 
sion of the government, and aware that he 
had been introduced to William Jackson 
(1737P-1795) [q. v.], the Irish conspirator, 
left the country, and took refuge in France, 
where he arrived at the commencement of 
the reign of terror. War had been declared 
against England, and Vaughan was liable to 
be seized at any moment as a ' moderate ' or as 
a ' foreigner.' He lived in hiding at Passy ; 
Hobespierre, at that time a member of the 
committee of public safety and at the height 
of his power, and Bishop Gregoire being 
among the few persons cognisant of the secret. 
In June his hiding-place was discovered, but 
he escaped with a month's imprisonment at 
the Carmelites, probably owing to the good- 
will of Robespierre, and then left for Geneva. 
Thence he wrote a long letter to Robespierre, 
which actually arrived on 9 Thermidor 
(27 July) at the very moment of the fall of 
the dictator. It advised him to keep France 
within her natural limits, and to surround 
her with a fringe of free and allied states, a 
sort of anticipation of the Confederation of 
the Rhine (Journal de la Montagne, August 
1794). This letter was alleged by Billaud- 
Varennes, in a speech on 28 July 1794, to be 
a proof that Vaughan was a spy of Pitt's. 
In 1796 he published a pamphlet at Strasburg 
in defence of the Directory, which he vaunted 
as a highly successful form of government, 
and one likely to be permanent. Subsequently 
he returned to Paris, and, though assured by 
Pitt, through his brother-in-law, William 
Manning, that he could safely return to Eng- 
land, he remained in France. 

There are numerous allusions to Vaughan 
and Stone in the despatches of Barthelemy, 
the French minister in Switzerland, and in 
one of them Barthelemy describes Vaughan 
as a man ' dont le patriotisme, la probit6, et 
les lumieres sont infiniment recommandables' 
(Papier 8 de Barihelemy, iv. 593). 

Vaughan preserved his good relations with 
Lord Lansdowne owing to the identity of 
their views in regard to France. About 1798 
he went to America, probably despairing, like 
Priestley, of the political outlook in England. 
He joined his brothers and his relatives on 
the side of his mother at Hallowell, where he 
lived in a peaceful retirement. His political 
opinions are said to have adopted a very con- 
servative hue in his later years. He died on 
8 Dec. 1835, leaving three sons and four 

daughters. His descendants still live at Hal- 

In 1779 Vaughan issued the first collective 
edition of Franklin's works in London, under 
the title ' Political, Philosophical, and Mis- 
cellaneous Pieces by Benjamin Franklin.' 
He also superintended the ' Complete Works 
of Benjamin Franklin,' issued in 1806 (Lon- 
don, 8vo), with a memoir. 

[The best account of Vaughan is to be found 
in Alger's Englishmen in the French Revolution. 
See also Lord E. Fitzmaurice's Life of Lord 
Shelburne, vol. iii. ; Papiers de Barthelemy, ed. 
M. Jean Kaulek, Paris, 1889; Appleton's Ameri- 
can Biography; Sheppard's Reminiscences of the 
Vaughan Family; Introductory Narrative to Wil- 
liam Vaughan's Tracts on Docks and Commerce, 
*n$35 ; Diplomatic and Revolutionary Correspon- 
dence, Washington, 1887 ; Archives Nationales, 
Paris, ii. 221 ; Doniol's Participation de la France 
a 1'etablissement des Etats-Unis, Paris 1886-92 
v. 100, 161.] E. F. 

1897), headmaster of Harrow, master of the 
Temple, and dean of Llandaff, born in 1816, 
was second son of Edward Thomas Vaughan, 
vicar of St. Martin's, Leicester, by his wife 
Agnes, daughter of Thomas Pares, manufac- 
turer and banker, of Leicester. Under the 
skilful tuition of his father, a man of ability 
and force of character, he early showed 
remarkable promise, and, after his father's 
untimely death in 1829, was sent to Rugby, 
then under the guidance of Dr. Arnold. Of 
the same year as Stanley, whose sister Cathe- 
rine he married many years later (1850), 
and slightly senior to Clough, he belonged to 
the generation which, under Arnold, made 
the name of the school. After dividing 
with Stanley the honours of Rugby, he en- 
tered Trinity College, Cambridge, and was 
bracketed with Lord Lyttelton as senior 
classic and chancellor's medallist in 1838. 
He graduated B. A. in 1838 and M. A. in 1841, 
proceeding D.D.joer regias literas in 1845. 
In 1839 he was elected fellow of his college, 
and proceeded to the study of the law. After 
a brief trial, however, he resolved to follow 
the calling of his father and elder brother. 
He was ordained in 1841, and almost imme- 
diately afterwards was appointed to the vicar- 
age of St. Martin's, Leicester, formerly his 
father's parish, and subsequently that of both 
his eldest and youngest brothers. Thischarge 
he held, with great profit to his flock, till 

In that year he was elected to the head- 
mastership of Harrow. The school was then 
in low water. Its numbers had dropped to 
little over sixty, and its discipline was out 
of joint. Within two years Vaughan had 


1 60 


raised the numbers to over two hundred, 
and poured fresh life into the studies and 
discipline of his pupils. During the last 
dozen years of his rule it is probable that no 
school stood higher than Harrow. In his deal- 
ings both with boys and masters he happily 
joined firmness with consideration, and 
no headmaster, Arnold excepted, gathered 
round him a more gifted band of scholars or 
colleagues. Among the former may be men- 
tioned Dr. Butler (his successor in the head- 
mastership), C. S. Calverley, and Sir George 
Trevelyan ; among the latter Dr. Westcott 
and Dr. Farrar. It is noticeable that, like 
Arnold, he refused to be lost in the more 
mechanical labour of organisation, and to the 
end, though far from indifferent to such minor 
details, found his chief work in teaching and 
preaching. As teacher, his main object was 
to impart to his pupils that strict accuracy of 
thought and expression, and to the more 
capable of them that keen sense of style and 
the subtle delicacies of language, in which his 
own delight peculiarly lay. As preacher 
though certainly the sermons of those days are 
not comparable either in religious depth or in 
beauty of expression to those of later years 
he already showed the instinctive grasp of his 
hearers' needs and the power of appealing 
directly to their hearts, which eventually 
made him 'one of the weightiest preachers of 
his generation. 

At the end of 1859 Vaughan resigned the 
headmastership of Harrow. A few months 
later Lord Palmerston, who as chairman of 
the governing body had formed the highest 
opinion of his capacity, offered him the 
bishopric of Rochester. He accepted it with- 
out hesitation. A day or two later, probably 
after a severe struggle with his ambition, the 
acceptance was withdrawn. It is commonly 
believed that offers of a like sort were re- 
newed more than once ; but even to his 
closest friends he never spoke of them ; his 
determination had been taken once for all. 
In the latter part of 1860 he was appointed 
to the important vicarage of Doncaster, and 
threw himself heart and soul into the ordinary 
work of a town parish. It was here that he 
perfected his powers as a preacher ; it was 
here also that he entered on what was 
destined to be the most distinctive work of 
his life, the preparation of young men for 
ordination. After deep consideration he 
took occasion, in a sermon preached before 
the university of Cambridge in 1861, to an- 
nounce his readiness to receive graduates of 
any university for this purpose. The offer 
was at once taken up by a few men. Before 
he left Doncaster over a hundred pupils 
had passed through his hands; before his 

death the number had gone beyond 450. 
Never probably has there been a deeper or 
more lasting bond between master and 
scholars than existed between him and suc- 
cessive generations of his pupils. 

In 1869 Vaughan accepted the mastership 
of the Temple, and entered his new field of 
work with a manly declaration that he stood 
on the old paths of Christian belief, and must 
not be expected to trim his course with a view 
to suiting the supposed wishes of a critical, or 
perhaps sceptical, audience. This at once 
established a firm understanding between 
him and the benchers, an understanding 
which remained unbroken to the end. In 
1879 he accepted the deanery of LlandafF. 
Henceforth he divided the year between the 
Temple and Llandaff, and found considerable 
advantage in the variety of pastoral work 
which the change offered to his pupils. His 
weight of character and freedom from secta- 
rian bias soon won him a unique influence 
among all parties in South Wales. He was 
thus enabled to take a leading part in the 
foundation of the University College at Cardiff 
(1883-4), of which, in recognition of his ser- 
vices, he was elected president in 1894. A 
severe illness which assailed him in that year 
prevented him from actively discharging his 
new duties, and led to his resignation of the 
mastership of the Temple. He still, however, 
continued his work as dean and with candi- 
dates for ordination until illness again at- 
tacked him in the summer of 1896. After 
lingering for more than a year he died on 
15 Oct. 1897. He left a strict injunction that 
no life of him should be published. 

Among the numerous works published by 
Vaughan altogether more than sixty may 
be mentioned: 1. l Memorials of Harrow Sun- 
days,' 1859; 5th edit. 1880. 2. < Notes for 
Lectures on Confirmation/ 1859 ; 9th edit. 
1876. 3. ' St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans' 
(Greek text, with notes), 1859; 5th edit, 
1880. 4. < Epiphany, Lent, and Easter,' 1860; 
3rd edit. 1868. 5. Lessons of Life and Godli- 
ness '(sermons preached at Doncaster), 1862 ; 
5th edit, (printed with ' Words from the Gos- 
pels '), 1891. 6. ' Lectures on St. Paul's- 
Epistle to the Philippians,' 1862 ; 4th edit. 


Lectures on the Revelation of St. 

John,' 2 vols. 1863; 5th edit. (1 vol.) 1882. 
8. ' Words from the Gospels,' 1863 ; 3rd edit. 
1875. 9. 'The Church of the First Days/ 
vol. i. 1864, 3rd edit. 1873; vol. ii. 1865, 
3rd edit. 1874 ; vol. iii. 1865, 3rd edit. 1875 ; 
in one vol. 1890. 10. ' The Young Life equip- 
ping itself for God's Service/ 1872; 7th 
edit. 1877. 11. 'St. Paul's Epistle to the 
Philippians' (Greek text, with notes, &c.), 
1885. 12. < The Epistle to the Hebrews r 




2nd edit. 

(Greek text, with notes), 1890; 

[Private information; Times, 16 and 18 Oct. 
1897.] C. E. V. 

CHARD (1774-1849), diplomatist, son of 
James Vaughan, physician, of Leicester, and 
Hester, daughter of John Smalley, who 
had married a daughter of Sir Richard Hal- 
ford, was born at Leicester on 20 Dec. 1774. 
His brothers were Sir Henry Halford [q. v.] 
(Vaughan), who dropped the latter name; 
Sir John Vaughan (1769-1839) [q. v.], 
baron of the exchequer ; and Peter Vaughan, 
warden of Merton. He was educated at 
Rugby, where he entered on 22 Jan. 1788, and 
at Merton College, Oxford, whence he ma- 
triculated on 26 Oct. 1791. He graduated 
B.A. in 1796, and MA. in 1798, in which year 
he was also elected a fellow of All Souls'. 
He intended to follow the medical profession, 
attending lectures both in Edinburgh and 
London, and took the degree of M.B. in 
1800. He was, however, elected Radcliffe 
travelling fellow on 4 Dec. 1800, and spent 
the next three years in Germany, France, 
and Spain. In 1804 he visited Constantinople, 
Asia Minor, and Syria. In 1805 he made his 
way from Aleppo to Bagdad, travelling with 
a pundit ; thence he went to Persia, fell ill 
near the Caspian, and was indebted perhaps 
for his life to the kindness of some Russian 
officers. With them he sailed for the Volga 
in November, was shut out by the ice, had 
to spend the winter on the desert island of 
Kulali, but eventually arrived at Astrakan 
in April 1806, reaching England by St. 
Petersburg on 11 Aug. 1806. 

In 1808, in a private capacity, Vaughan 
accompanied Charles Stuart (afterwards 
Lord Stuart de Rothesay) [q.v.] to Spain, and 
was present at the assembly of the northern 
juntas at Lugo ; thence he went to Madrid, 
and travelled to Saragossa with Colonel (Sir) 
Charles William Doyle [q. v.] On his return 
to Madrid he was sent with despatches relat- 
ing to the battle of Tudela to Sir John Moore 
at Salamanca, and returned to England in 
December 1808. In 1809 he published his 
' Narrative of the Siege of Saragossa ' (Lon- 
don, 8vo), which reached a fifth edition 
within the year. 

In 1809 Vaughan was appointed private 
secretary to Henry Bathurst, third 
Bathurst [q. v.], secretary for foreign affairs 
On 5 Jan. 1810 he became secretary of lega- 
tion (later of embassy) in Spain, whither he 
returned with the minister, Henry Wellesley 
He was sent to England in 1811 to giv 
information as to the state of politics in Spain 

He acted as minister-plenipotentiary during 
the absence of his chief from August 1815 
till December 1816. His correspondence 
during these years throws much light on 
Spanish politics. On 5 April 1820 he went 
to Paris as secretary of embassy under his 
old friend Sir Charles Stuart, and on 8 Feb. 
1823 became minister-plenipotentiary to the 
confederated states of Switzerland. In 1825 
he was appointed envoy-extraordinary and 
minister-plenipotentiary to the United States, 
and on 23 March 1825 he was made privy 
councillor. Between 11 July and 33 Aug. 
1826 he travelled nearly eighteen hundred 
miles in the States ; in 1829 he accomplished 
another long tour. From 1831 to 1833 he 
ras on leave of absence in England, and 
uring this time had a personal conference 
fiththe king on American affairs. In 1833 
e was created knight grand cross of the 
Juelphs of Hanover. In October 1835 he 
nally left Washington. His service in the 
United States covered one of the most in- 
eresting periods in American history. He 
was intimate with such men as Story and 
)lay, and he had to watch such burning 
luestions as that of the boundary with 
Canada, the position of the South American 
republics, the slave trade, and the tariff. 
In 1835 Vaughan made a protracted tour 
the continent. On 4 March 1837 he was 
sent on a special embassy to Constantinople, 
and proceeded by way of Malta, where he 
leard that the mission was no longer re- 
quired ; he therefore went to Venice, and 
thence travelled home through Italy and 
Switzerland. In such travel he spent most 
of the years that were left to him. He has 
Left minute itineraries of his later journeys. 
He died unmarried in Hertford Street, May- 
fair, on 15 June 1849. 

[Fester's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Gent. 
1849, ii. 204 ; minute details are contained 
in notes taken by Mr. J. A. Doyle from the 
papers of Sir Henry Halford, and particularly 
in a very careful summary of the events and 
dates of Vaughan's life found among those 


C. A. H. 

VAUGHAN, EDWARD (d. 1522), 
bishop of St. David's, was presumably of 
Welsh origin, being, according to some, a 
native of South Wales. He was born about 
the middle of the fifteenth century, and was 
educated at Cambridge, where he graduated 
LL.D. On 21 June 1487 he was instituted 
to the church of St. Matthew, Friday Street, 
London, and subsequently became vicar of 
Islington also. At St. Paul's he was suc- 
cessively promoted to the prebend of Re- 
culverland, 15 April 1493, that of Harleston, 
16Nov.l499, and was made treasurer lONov. 




1503, holding along with the latter the pre- 
bend of Bromesbury in the same church. 
He built a house near St. Paul's for his suc- 
cessors in the treasurership, and distributed 
live hundred marks to the poor in London 
in time of dearth (LELAND, Collectanea, 2nd 
ed. ii. 324). He was made archdeacon of 
Lewes in 1509, and on 22 July in the same 
year, vacating his London appointments, 
he was consecrated bishop of St. David's, to 
which he was promoted by the pope's bull 
of provision dated 13 Jan. 1508-9. 

To Vaughan has been assigned ' the most 
prominent place among the prelates who 
occupied the see of St. David's during the 
closing days of the ante-reformation era' 
( JONES and FKEEMAN). Excepting Gower, 
the see never had a more munificent bene- 
factor. In lieu of what had been, up to his 
time, a t vilissimus sive sordidissimus locus,' 
he erected at St. David's 'the beautiful 
chapel ' which still bears his name. On its 
walls he placed three coats-of-arms, namely, 
his own, those of Henry VII, and of Sir 
Rhys ap Thomas, ' who probably had been 
once his patron' ( WILLIS, pp. 77, 89), and 
who spent his latter days at Carew Castle, 
close to Lamphey, which was then an 
episcopal residence (LAWS, Little England, 
p. 235). He remodelled and roofed the lady- 
chapel and its ante-chapel, while the roof of 
the nave, and probably also the porch and 
the upper stage of the tower, belong to his 
period. He also built the chapel at Lamphey, 
and Leland (loc. cit.) ascribes to him the 
chapel of St. Justinian (now in ruins), the 
chapel at Llawhaden Castle, where Vaughan 
often resided, together with general repairs 
at the same place, and a great barn (now 
destroyed) at Lamphey. * The beautiful in- 
terior decoration' of Hodgeston church is 
supposed to be his (LAWS, p. 232). 

Vaughan died in November 1522, and was 
buried in the chapel which he built and 
which bears his name. Over him was placed 
1 a plain marble tomb, with his effigy in brass 
richly engraven,' and underneath an inscrip- 
tion, which is quoted by Browne Willis (p. 20). 
All that now remains of it is ' a large slab 
of shell marble, immediately in front of the 
altar.' His will, dated 20 May 1521, was 
proved on 27 Jan. 1522-3. 

[Godwin, De Prsesulibus Anglise, ed. Kichard- 
son, 1743, p. 585; Newcourt's Eepertorium, 
i. 106 (see also pp. 118, 153, 203, 475, and 
677); Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 1854, i. 300, ii. 355, 
364, 389, 430; Browne Willis's St. David's, 
pp. 15-22, 117-18; Fenton's Pembrokeshire, 
pp. 89, 313, 431; Cooper's Athense Canta- 
brigienses, i. 26 ; Bevan's Diocesan Hist, of St. 
David's (S.P.C.K.), p. 146 ; Newell's Welsh 

Church, p. 396. A full account of Vaughan's 
architectural work is given in Jones and Free- 
man's History and Antiquities of St. David's, 
pp. 69, 96, 124, 163-8, 308, and Arch. Cambr. 
2nd ser. xiii. 67, 5th ser. xv. 223-6.] 

D. LL. T. 

FITH (d. 1447), soldier, was son of Griffith 
ap leuan and his wife Maud. The father 
was implicated in Glendower's rebellion in 
1403 and defended Caus Castle for some time 
against Henry IV's forces ; his deeds of 
valour were celebrated in a poem by Lewys 
Glyn Cothi (Gwaith, 1837, pp. 423-5). The 
son, who in 1406 was styled Sir Griffith 
(Vaughan or Vychan, meaning simply ' the 
younger'), was apparently not involved in the 
rebellion ; he figured on the roll of burgesses 
in Welshpool in that year, and inherited 
lands in Burgedin, Treflydau, Garth, Maes- 
mawr, and elsewhere. He accompanied 
Henry V to France, and fought at Agincourt 
on 25 Oct. 1415, when he was made a knight- 
banneret (College of Arms MS8., Prothero, 
vii. 186, 195, and E. 6, 99). Towards the end 
of 1417 Sir Griffith and his brother, leuan 
ap Griffith, made themselves notorious by 
capturing on their ancestral estate at Bro- 
niarth Sir John Oldcastle the lollard, upon 
whose head a price had been set. Various 
privileges were granted them for this act 
by a charter from Edward de Charlton, lord 
of Powys [q. v.], dated 6 July 1419, and 
I still preserved at Garth (' A Powysian at 
Agincourt ' in Montgomery Collections, ii. 
139). No further notice of Sir Griffith 
occurs until 1447, when he seems to have 
given offence to the queen, Margaret of 
Anjou. He was denounced by proclamation 
as an open rebel, and five hundred marks 
were offered for his capture. This was 
effected by Henry de Grey, lord of Powys, 
who summoned Sir Griffith to the castle of 
Pool, and gave what Sir Griffith considered 
a * safe-conduct.' Immediately on his arrival 
within the court-yard he was beheaded ' with- 
out judge or jury.' This event, which took 
place about April 1447, was the occasion of 
poetical laments by Lewys Glyn Cothi and 
David Lloyd of Mathavarn ( Gwaith Lewys 
Glyn Cothi, Oxford, 1837, pp. 418-22 ; Mont- 
gomery Collections, i. 335-6, vi. 92-5). On 
20 July 1447 a treasury warrant was issued 
for the payment of the five hundred marks 
to Grey (Treoelyan Papers, Camden Soc. pp. 
32, 36). The deed has been attributed to 
jealousy on Grey's part because Sir Griffith 
was descended from the ancient princes of 
Powys. and had probably laid claim to some 
of Grey's lands. 

Sir Griffith married Margaret, daughter 




and coheir of Griffith ap Jenkin of Brough- 
ton, by whom he had issue three sons and 
three daughters. The eldest son was David 
Lloyd of Leighton, ancestor of the Lloyds 
of Harrington, Marton, and Stockton : the 
second, Cadwalader, was ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Maesmawr ; and the third, Regi- 
nald, was ancestor of the Wynnes of Garth 
and of the Lloyds of Broniarth and Gaervawr 
{Sheriffs of Mon tgomery, pp. 1-7, 376-425, 
528-9 ; Pedigrees of Montgomery Families, 
1888, pp. 16-18, 52, 126, 153). 

[Authorities cited ; College of Arms, Pro- 
thero, vii. 186, 195, and E. 6, 99 ; Visitation of 
England and Wales, iii. 1 ; Armorial Families, 
pp. 512-15; Dwnn's Visitations, i. 279, 328; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, s.v. ' Lloyd of Stock- 
ton Manor ; ' documents kindly lent by Henry 
Crampton Lloyd, esq., of Stockton Manor; 
Chirbury, Shropshire.] A. F. P. 

1659?), royalist soldier, born probably be- 
tween 1585 and 1590, was the sixth son 
of Walter Vaughan of Golden Grove, Car- 
marthenshire [see under VAUGiiAisr, RICHARD, 
second EARL OF CARBERY]. William Vaughan 
(1577-1641) was his brother. He settled 
at Derwydd, having married Sage, the 
daughter of the heiress of that house, who 
was the first wife of John Gwyn William 
(cf. DWNN, Heraldic Visit, i. 214, 232; 
Arch, Cambr. 4th ser. xii. 235, where 
Vaughan's brother, Walter Vaughan of 
Llanelly, is erroneously given as his father). 
He was sheriff for Carmarthenshire in 1620, 
and M.P. for Carmarthen from 1621 to 1629 
(except for a short term in 1625, when, 
after a double return, he was unseated). 
He was again elected for the county on 
26 March and 5 Nov. 1640, and was knighted 
at Oxford on 1 Jan. 1642-3 (METCALFE, 
Knights, p. 200). He appears to have been 
a member of the committee for examining 
scandalous ministers, but in 1644 a petition 
was presented to the House of Commons by 
Hugh Grundy, urging his removal therefrom 
on the ground that he had himself placed 
* six scandalous ministers, no preachers,' to 
serve 'six parish churches with several 
chapels ' in Carmarthenshire which he had 
obtained from Henry Percy, earl of North- 
umberland, at the rent of 750/. a year (Com- 
mons 1 Journals, iii. 389; Arch. Cambr. 4th 
ser. xii. 327). It seems to have been sug- 
gested that Vaughan had also harboured 
papists. He was disabled from retaining 
his seat in parliament on 5 Feb. 1644. 

When in 1642 his nephew, Richard 
Vaughan, second earl of Carbery [q. v.], 
was given the command of the royalist 
forces in the counties of Carmarthen, Cardi- 

gan, and Pembroke, Sir Henry, with the 
rank of major-general, seems to have been 
entrusted with plenary powers, and is said 
to have been ' the instrument of much mis- 
chief in those counties, treating his oppo- 
nents with brutality. His headquarters were 
at Haverfordwest, but, according to a poli- 
tical opponent, he precipitately abandoned 
that town in March 1643-4, owing to a panic 
caused by the stampede of a herd of frightened 
cattle, which were mistaken in the twilight 
for the parliamentary troops under Laugharne 
(PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales and the 
Marches, ii. 140-153; cf. LAWS, Little Eng- 
land beyond Wales, p. 326). Vaughan fled 
to Carmarthen, but that town also was 
taken a few weeks later. 

His next appearance was at the battle of 
Naseby on 14 June 1645, when he was taken 
prisoner ; on the 18th he was brought before 
the House of Commons and committed to the 
Tower, where he remained till his removal to 
the Fleet prison on 1 Oct. 1647 (Commons' 
Journal). There he still lay in July 1648, 
' like to be in a starvinge condicion ' (see his 
letter to his wife, dated 29 July, in HARRI- 
SON'S Notices of the Stepney Family, p. 12). 
On 27 April 1644 he had been ordered by 
the committee for compounding to pay 160/. 
(Cal. of Proceedings), and on 20 Aug. 1645 
he was assessed at 500 /., his estate being 
valued at 600/. a year. He was excluded 
from the general pardon, 13 Oct. 1648 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. s.a. p. 304 ; cf. RTTSH- 
WORTH, iv. i. 313). This treatment, so dif- 
ferent from that meted to the Earl of Car- 
bery and other members of the same family, 
supports the view that Sir Henry was by 
far the most active and irreconcilable royalist 
among them, on which account probably he 
was referred to by a parliamentary writer 
as '"Act-all," now prisoner in the Tower 
for all [the family?],' brother to ' the honest 
Richard (Tell-all), who hath been grievously 
prosecuted, imprisoned, and plundered by 
them all for his affection to the parliament ' 
(The Earle of Carbery es Pedegree, London, 
1646, 4to). Vaughan, who was generally 
known as ' Sir Harry,' is also described thus 
in a cavalier song of 1647 (WEBB, Civil War 
in Herefordshire, ii. 30) : 

Sir Harry Vaughau looks as grave 

As any beard can make him. 

Those [who] come poore prisoners to see 

Doe for our Patriarke take him. 

Old Harry is a right true blue, 

As valiant as Pendraggon, 

And would be loyall to his king 

Had King Charles ne'er a rag on. 

Vaughan probably survived till close 
upon the Restoration, his release having 

M 2 




perhaps been procured through the influence 
of Colonel Phillip Jones [q. v.] (Jones's 
Impeachment, in GRANT FRANCIS'S Charters 
of Swansea, p. 193). There is a portrait of 
him (dated 1644) preserved at Derwydd. 
His eldest son, John, apparently predeceased 
him, and his estate therefore devolved on 

SIR HENRY VAUGHAN the younger (1613- 
1676). He served in the royalist army, and 
when Tenby was captured by Cromwell in 
May 1648 he was taken prisoner and kept 
confined in Tenby Castle. He is described 
in a contemporary pamphlet as Sergeant- 
major Vaughan, though in his memorial 
inscription his rank is given as colonel 
(PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales, ii. 378 ; 
Stepney Notices, pp. 12, 84). After the 
Restoration , Vaughan was knighted at 
Whitehall on 9 Jan. 1661 (LB NEVE, 
.Knights, p. 149), and was sheriff for the 
borough of Carmarthen in 1661 and mayor 
in 1670. He was also elected M.P. for Car- 
marthen county in January 1667-8, but a 
question arose as to his eligibility to sit, as 
he f had been outlawed for a debt upon a 
bond of 1,000/.' (Commons' Journals under 
17 Feb. 1667-8). The decision was in his 
favour, and he retained the seat till his 
death on 26 Dec. 1676. He was buried at 
Llandebie church, where an elaborate monu- 
ment was erected to his memory by his 
widow Elizabeth, the eldest daughter and 
coheiress of William Herbert of Colebrook, 
Monmouthshire. On the death, without 
issue, of his only child, Margaretta, in 1704, 
the Derwydd estate devolved upon his 
nephew, Richard Vaughan of Derllys (1654- 
1724), who was recorder (1683-1722) and 
M.P. in fourteen parliaments (1685-1724) 
for Carmarthen borough, as well as chief 
justice for Carmarthen circuit (1715-24). 
From the recorder's brother the estate 
descended in the female line to its present 
possessor, Alan Stepney-Gulston, esq. 

Most writers have erroneously assumed the 
existence of only one Sir Henry Vaughan, 
while some (cf. WILLIAMS, Part. Hist, of 
Wales, pp. 45, 52-3) have still further con- 
founded them with a Henry Vaughan of Cil- 
cennin, Cardiganshire, who was sheriff of that 
county in 1642, and was described shortly 
afterwards as ' being anything for money, a 
proselyte, and favorite to all the changes of 
tymes . . . his motto, Qui nescit dissimulare, 
nescit vivere ' (Cambrian Register, i. 166 ; cf. 
PHILLIPS, Sheriffs of Cardiganshire, p. 16). 

[Authorities cited in text.] D. LL. T. 

(1622-1695), poet, was born at Newton-by- 
Usk in the parish of Llansaintffraed, Breck- 

nockshire (Anthony a Wood MSS. Ff. 39, 
f. 216). He and his twin-brother Thomas [q.v.] 
were born on 1? April 1622 (Shane MS.* 
1741). Their father, Thomas Vaughan (d. 
August 1658), was the representative of an 
ancient and honourable Welsh family, the 
Vaughans of Tretower Castle, descended 
from Sir Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine, 
who had fallen at Agincourt. Vaughan's 
mother was Denys Gwillims, heiress of New- 
ton. John Aubrey [q. v.] was his cousin. 
' Their grandmother,' Aubrey wrote of the 
twins, 'was an Aubrey ; their father a cox- 
combe, and no honester than he should be 
he cosened me of 50s. once.' Although the 
relationship cannot be precisely traced, Henry 
must indubitably have been akin in blood as 
well as in mental constitution to the * Mr. 
Vaughan' (born 1605) whose nativity appears 
in Gadbury's * Collectio Geniturarum ' (1663), 
and who ' was subject to believe that he 
conversed with angels and spirits many 
times in the likeness of scarabees, who in- 
formed him of unhappiness that attended 
either himself or his family.' 

The two brothers, Henry and Thomas, 
always affectionately united throughout life 
received their first regular education from 
Matthew Herbert, rector of Llangattock, 
and in 1638 proceeded to Jesus College, 
Oxford. Henry left Oxford without a 
degree, and spent some time in London 
studying law at the wish of his father, 
but ultimately turned his attention to 
medicine. When or where he obtained a 
medical diploma has not been ascertained, 
but about 1645 he began to practise as a 
physician in Brecknock, whence in or about 
1650 he removed to his native place, con- 
tinuing to practise. Writing to Aubrey 
towards the end of his life, he says : ' My 
profession allso is physic, which I have prac- 
tised now for many years with good successe 
(I thanke God) and a repute big enough for a 
person of greater parts than myselfe ' ( Wood 
MS. F. 39, f. 227). According to Antony 
a Wood he became eminent for his medical 
skill, ' and was esteemed by scholars an in- 
genious person, but proud and humorous 7 
[whimsical]. He suggests in his elegy on 
the death of l R. W.' that he was present at 
the battle of Rowton Heath, possibly as a 
surgeon with the king's army. 

Vaughan had published a small volume, 
entitled ' Poems, with the Tenth Satyre of 
Juvenal Englished ' (London, 8vo), in 1646 \ 
and another volume, ' Olor Iscanus : a Collec- 
tion of some select Poems and Translations' 
deriving its title from the principal poem, a 
eulogy on the River Usk, and accompanied 
with prose translations from Plutarch, Maxi- 

Delete 'April if (F. E. Hutchinson, 

Henry Vaughan (1947), pp. 245-6). See also 
under Parry, Sir Thomas (d. 1560). 




mus Tyrius, and Guevara was probably 
ready for the press in December 1647, the 
dedication to Lord Digby bearing that date. 
It did not appear, however, until 1651 (Lon- 
don, 8vo ; reissued 1079), when it was pub- 
lished by Thomas Yaughan, with an address 
to the reader hinting that it would, but for 
his intervention, have been destroyed by the 
author. There is nothing objectionable in 
the book, and it can only be concluded that 
a revolution had in the meantime occurred 
in the poet's mind, which had rendered his 
secular poetry distasteful to him. The nature 
of this revolution may be deduced from the 
book he had published in the meantime, ' Silex 
Scintillans : or Sacred Poems and private 
Ejaculations, by Henry Vaughan, Silurist ' 
(London, 1650, 8vo), which evinces deep traces 
of the influence of George Herbert, the effect 
rather than the cause of the spiritual visita- 
tion which he had clearly been experiencing. 
Some allusions in the poems seem to connect 
this with the death of a brother, which, 
being also alluded to in the preface to Thomas 
Vaughan's ' Anthroposophia Theomagica' 
(1650) as having occurred during the com- 
position of that book, must have taken place 
between 1647 (when Thomas, deprived of his 
living, removed to Oxford) and 1650. The 
composition of the whole of the first part of 
4 Silex Scintillans' may thus be fairly placed 
between 1647 and 1650, and the number, no 
less than the merit of the-poems, indicates the 
strength of the spiritual influence which had 
overpowered Vaughan and raised him to a 
far greater height as a poet than was pro- 
mised by his early compositions. The im- 
pulse continued some time, for in 1655 a 
second part of ' Silex Scintillans' appeared, 
appended to what professed to be a reprint 
of the first, but was in fact only a reissue. 
This second part, though in general scarcely 
<equal to the first, contains the crown of all 
Vaughan's poetry ' They are all gone into 
the world of light.' Vaughan had published, 
February 1652, a small volume of devotion, 
entitled ' The Mount of Olives . . . with an 
excellent discourse of the blessed state of 
Man in Glory, written by Father Anselm, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and now done 
into English,' and in 1654 * Flores Solitudi- 
nis,' three religious tracts two translated 
from the Jesuit Nierembergius, and another 
from St. Eucherius, with a life of St. Pauli- 
nus of Nola compiled by himself. The title- 
page speaks of a period of sickness, which 
seems to have been about 1652. In 1655 
Vaughan published * Hermetical Physick ' 
(London, 12mo), a collection of extracts 
translated from the 'Naturae Sanctuarium' 
of Henricus Nollius (Frankfort, 1619). 

Nothing more is heard of Henry Vaughan 
until 1678, when ' J. W.,' an Oxford M.A. 
who has not been identified, printed ' Thalia 
i Ilediviva : the pass-times and diversions of 
' a Countrey Muse ; ' here, along with poems 
by the ' Silurist,' are pieces by Vaughan's 
brother Thomas, who had died thirteen years 
previously. Some of Henry Vaughan's are 
apparently juvenile compositions; but others, 
by their subjects and the greater regularity 
of the versification, seem to be later than 
' Silex Scintillans.' The friend ' C. W.' who 
is celebrated in a fine poem in ' Thalia ' was 
Vaughan's cousin and neighbour, Charles 
Walbeoffe of Llanhamlach. The existence 
of three known copies (in the Brit. Mus., in 
Rowfant Library, and a private library at 
Brecon) has led to the conjecture that the pub- 
lication was unauthorised, and that Vaughan 
suppressed it ; but copies of the l Mount of 
Olives 'and ' Hermeticall Physick' are hardly 
less rare than ' Thalia Rediviva.' In truth, 
Vaughan's writings could afford little but 
waste paper for his own generation. He 
was a man of the past, as misplaced in the 
Restoration era as formerly among the puri- 
tans. He died, aged 73, according to his epi- 
taph, on 23 April 1695, and was interred in 
Llansaintffraed churchyard. His neglected 
gravestone has been recently restored (Janu- 
ary 1896). 

Vaughan was twice married. His first 
wife was Catherine, daughter of Charles 
,Wise, by whom he had three daughters 
Lucy, Catherine, and Frances and one son, 
Thomas. He married, secondly, his first 
wife's sister Elizabeth, who survived him 
and administered his estate. By her he had 
three daughters Grizel, Lucy, and Rachael 
and one son, Henry, rector of Penderyn 
(Vaughan of Newton pedigree in Harl. MS. 
2289). Having died intestate, administra- 
tion was granted on 29 May 1695 to his 
widow, 'Eliza' (Genealogist, lii. 33-6). 

Vaughan's position among English poets 
is not only high, but in some respects unique. 
The pervading atmosphere of mystic rap- 
ture, rather than isolated fine things, consti- 
tutes the main charm of his poems; yet two, 
' The Retreat' and 'They are all gone into the 
world of light,' rank among the finest in the 
language, and, except the poems on scripture 
history and church festivals, there is scarcely 
one without some memorable thought or 
expression, though frequently kindling, to use 
his own simile, like 'unanticipated sparks 
from a flinty ground.' He not unfrequently 
lapses into absurdity, misled by the affecta- 
tion of wit and ingenuity which beset the 
poetry of his time ; but his taste is on the 
whole better than Herbert's, and much better 




than Crashaw's. It is natural to compare 
Vaughan with Herbert, to whom he was so 
much indebted ; the resemblance is evident, 
but so is the dissimilarity. Perhaps this 
may be best expressed if we define Herbert 
as theistic, and Vaughan as pantheistic. Her- 
bert is devout according to recognised me- 
thods, Vaughan is a devout mystic. Herbert 
visits the spiritual world as a pious pilgrim, 
but Vaughan is never out of it. 

As a writer of prose, of which his ' Mount 
of Olives' is the most important instance, 
Vaughan commands a rich and melodious 
style, somewhat disfigured by the passion for 
antithesis habitual in his day. His trans- 
lations of Greek and Spanish authors are 
probably made from Latin versions. Gue- 
vara's 'Praise and Happinesse of theCountrie- 
Life' (ap. l Olor Iscanus') has dwindled 
to a mere abridgment in his hands, although 
reinforced by interpolations of his own. The 
fugitive pieces of verse and the translations 
scattered through his prose works have been 
brought together by Dr. Grosart, as an ap- 
pendix to his edition of Vaughan's writings 
in 1871, under the title ' Aurea Grana.' 

The title of ' Silurist ' Avhich Vaughan 
assumed had a topographical significance. 
' Silures,' Aubrey explains, l contayned Bre- 
conockshire, Herefordshire, &c.' ( AUBREY, 
Lives, ed. 1898). 

Vaughan's poems remained practically un- 
known until, towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, a copy came into the hands of 
Wordsworth, whose ' Ode on the Intimations 
of Immortality' and 'Happy Warrior' ex- 
hibit traces of his influence. Campbell names 
him only to disparage him. Some striking 
parallels between Tennyson and Vaughan's 
poetry have been noted, but Tennyson de- 
clared that he had read nothing of Vaughan's 
work but ' They are all gone into the world 
of light.' Dr. John Brown, F. T. Palgrave, 
Archbishop Trench, George Macdonald, Miss 
Guiney, and his editors have done much for 
him in various ways, and it may safely be 
said that there is now (after Milton) no poet 
of the Caroline period, except Herbert and 
Herrick, who is more widely known, and not 
one whose reputation is more solidly esta- 

Vaughan's ' Silex Scintillans ' was edited 
by the Rev. H. F. Lyte in 1847. The book 
was reprinted in 1858, and in a revised form 
in 1883 and 1891. In 1871 Dr. Grosart 
printed in the 'Fuller Worthies' Library 'in 
four volumes a complete edition of every- 
thing of Vaughan's recoverable, a large pro- 
portion from unique copies. A facsimile re- 
print of the first part of ' Silex Scintillans/ 
edited by the Rev. W. Clare, appeared in 

1885, and an edition of the complete poeti- 
cal works, in two volumes, was edited for 
the ' Muses Library ' in 189G by Mr. E. K. 
Chambers, with an introduction by the Rev. 
H. C. Beeching. Vaughan's secular poems, 
with some pieces by his brother Thomas, 
were edited in 1893 by J. R. Tutin. A selec- 
tion of the sacred poems, with decorations 
by Mr. C. S. Ricketts, appeared in 1897. 

[The memoirs in the modern editions cited 
above are the principal authorities for Vaughan's 
life; but see also Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. A. 
Clark, 1898, ii. 268-9; Julian's Dice, of Hymno- 
logy; Masson's Milton, vi. 312, 388; Jones's 
Hist, of Brecknockshire, 1805-9, ii. 54-4 sq.; 
Sloane MS. 1741, f. 89. The fullest critical 
estimates of Vaughan, apart from those in the 
standard editions, are that in Dr. John Brown's 
Horse Subsecivae, originally published in the 
North British Review, and that by Miss L. I. 
Guiney, in the Atlantic Monthly for May 1894 
(reprinted in her Little English Gallery, 1804)1 
For the restoration of Vaughan's grave, see the 
Athenaeum for 12 Oct. 1895 and 18 Jan. 1896; 
and the Daily Graphic, 8 Nov. 1895, with a re- 
duced facsimile of the inscription.] E. G. 

VAUGHAN, HENRY (1766-1844), 
physician. [See HALFOKD, SIR HENKY.] 


(1811-1885), professor of modern history, 
born in August 1811, was the son of Sir 
John Vaughan (1769-1839), by Augusta, 
daughter of Henry Beaucharnp, twelfth lord 
St. John of Bletsho. Sir Henry Halford 
(previously Vaughan) [q. v.] was his father's 
brother. He was sent to Rugby in 1822, 
and left in 1829 for Christ Church, Oxford. 
In 1833 he took a first class in literce huma- 
mores, along with Deans Scott and Liddell, 
and Robert Lowe (afterwards Lord Sher- 
brooke). In 1836 he was elected fellow of 
Oriel ; ' a very good election,' according to 
Pattison, who notes that Vaughan was said 
to have read nothing in the previous vacation 
except Bacon's 'Advancement of Learning/ 
In the same year he gained the chancellor's 
prize for an English essay upon the ' Effects 
of a National Taste for general and diffusive 
Reading.' In 1840 he was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, but never practised as a bar- 
rister. His taste was for philosophical and 
historical rather than professional studies. 
In 1841 he was appointed clerk of assize on 
the South Wales circuit. In 1843 he was 
appointed a temporary assistant to the poor- 
law commission to inquire into the employ- 
ment of women and children in agriculture. 
In 1848 he was appointed professor of modern 
history at Oxford. His inaugural lectures 
are said to have caused a ' thrill of excite- 




ment ' in the university. His later courses 
were upon the history of England down to 
the death of Stephen. Many distinguished 
hearers have continued to speak of the pro- 
found impression made upon them by 
Vaughao's eloquence. The inaugural lec- 
tures alone have been published, and are 
remarkable as expositions of a philosophical 
view of historical evolution very unusual in 
England at the time. Vaughan gave evidence 
before the university commission of 1850 
(noticed in Quarterly Review of June 1853), 
and afterwards defended part of their report 
in a pamphlet. His general aim was that of 
the liberals, who desired that the professorate 
element should be strengthened and have 
more opportunities for original research. 
Mark Pattison afterwards advocated similar 
views. A reference in a note to Pusey's 
evidence led to a correspondence, part of 
which was published by Vaughan in a 'Post- 
script ' (see Pusey's Life, iii. 386-90, includ- 
ing a slight reflection upon Vaughan, an- 
swered by anticipation in the ' Postscript '). 

Vaughan resigned his professorship in 
1858. He served on the public school com- 
mission of 1861. In 1867 he settled at Upton 
Castle, Pembrokeshire. Vaughan was long 
occupied in writing a philosophical treatise 
upon 'Man's Moral Nature,' of which his 
friends had formed the highest expectations. 
A good deal was written, when unexplained 
accidents happened to the manuscript ; and, 
for whatever reasons, it was never completed. 
Vaughan consoled himself by copying out 
and publishing some very elaborate annota- 
tions upon the text of Shakespeare, made 
during his residence in Wales. Vaughan 
died at Upton Castle on 19 April 1885. He 
married in 1856 Adeline Maria, daughter of 
John Jackson, M.D. She died in 1881. They 
were survived by one son and four daughters. 
Few men have had a higher reputation 
among their friends, and Vaughan's friends 
included many of the most eminent men of 
his day. Lord Selborne thought that he had 
more power of mind than any of his con- 
temporaries. Jowett in 1844 regarded him 
as the best possible candidate for the pro- 
fessorship of moral philosophy. Unfortu- 
nately, he did not leave materials for form- 
ing any adequate judgment of his powers. 

Vaughan's works (besides the prize-essay) 
are : 1. ' Two General Lectures on Modern 
History delivered on Inauguration,' 1849. 
2. ' Oxford Reform and Oxford Professors,' 
1854. 3. 'Postscript' to the same, 1854. 
4. ' New Readings and New Renderings of 
Shakespeare's Tragedies,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1878- 
1886. 5. 'British Reason in English 
Rhyme,' 1889 (Wei ".fa. proverbs with verse 

translations, edited by his son, W. W. 

[Information from W. W. Vaughan, of Clif- 
ton College, Vaughan's son ; Times, 22 and 
28 April 1885 ; Oxford Magazine, May 1885 ; 
Jowett's Life, i. 50, 92; Paltison's Memoirs, pp. 
159, 246; Selborne's Memorials, pp. 165, 201, 
225 ; Dean Boyle's Recollections, 1895, pp. 153, 
154; Dr. Stubbs's Seventeen Lectures, 1886, p. 

VAUGHAN, SIR JOHN (1603-1674), 
judge, eldest son of Edward Vaughan of 
Trawscoed, Cardiganshire, the family seat 
since the thirteenth century, by his wife 
Letitia, daughter of John Stedman of Strata 
Florida Abbey in the same county, was 
born at Trawscoed on 13 Sept. 1603. He 
was educated at the king's school, Wor- 
cester, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
resided between 1618 and 1623, but did 
not graduate. At the Inner Temple, where 
he was admitted in November 1620, called 
to the bar in 1630, and elected a bencher in 
1660, he was inducted into law by Selden, 
who made him his close friend to him is 
dedicated the ' Vindiciae Maris Clausi ' and 
eventually co-legatee with Sir Matthew 
Hale of his library, and co-executor of his 
will. According to Clarendon, also an early 
friend, his legal studies ' disposed him to 
least reverence to the crown and most to 
popular authority, yet without inclination 
to any change of government ' (Life, ed. 
1827, i. 37). His conduct was equally in- 
consistent. A Star-chamber practice brought 
him wealth and fame, and in the Long par- 
liament, to which, as to its two immediate 
predecessors, he was returned for the borough 
of Cardigan, he was supposed to sympathise 
with Stratford, but absented himself from 
the final division on his bill of attainder 
(22 April 1641). He subscribed the pro- 
testation of loyalty to the protestant re- 
ligion on 3 May following, but on the out- 
break of hostilities adhered to the king, and 
retired to Trawscoed, which was plundered 
by roundheads on 20 Jan. 1644-5. Though 
he does not appear to have given any very 
active support to the royal cause, the par- 
liament, after voting his discharge from at- 
tendance on 1 Sept. 1 645, assigned (22 Oct.) 
his library at the Inner Temple to John 
Glynne [q.v.], recorder of London, afterwards 
chief justice. He saved himself from seques- 
tration by rendering assistance to the parlia- 
mentary forces at the siege of Aberystwith 
Castle (November to December 1646), but 
his name was nevertheless inserted in the list 
of delinquents (29 June 1648). At the 
king's request he was assigned by parliament 
(29-31 Aug. 1648) as one of his advisers 




during the negotiations at Newport. He 
afterwards suffered a term of imprisonment 
cause and duration uncertain which was 
intermitted in 1650 for three months, during 
which he had leave (license of the council 
of state dated 22 July) to reside in London 
for the benefit of his health. On 18 Dec. 
1656 he was authorised to resume practice 
at the bar ; but, scrupling to recognise the 
government, he remained in retirement until 
the Restoration. 

Declining the seat on the bench then 
offered him by Clarendon, Vaughan was ap- 
pointed about July 1660 steward of Meven- 
nydd and other royal manors in Cardigan- 
shire. Returned for that county to the pen- 
sionary parliament, he early distinguished 
himself as a leader of the country party. He 
was the principal opponent of the transference 
of the three years' limit from the duration 
to the intermission of parliaments (31 March 
1664-5), and made an ingenious but unsuc- 
cessful attempt to enervate by amendment 
the new test imposed on dissenting ministers 
in the same year (BuKNET, Own Time, fol. i. 
225). In 1667 (October to December) he 
stood forth as one of the most zealous and 
determined of the promoters of the impeach- 
ment of his former friend Clarendon. He pre- 
sided in the spring of 1668 over the committee 
charged with the collection of precedents 
bearing on the constitutional questions raised 
by the cases of Alexander Fitton [q. v.] and 
Thomas Skinner (1629 P-1679) [q. v.], and 
took a leading part in the conferences with 
the lords and other proceedings. In the 
same year he was knighted, invested with the 
coif, and created chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas (19-20 May). As such he was ex 
officio a member of the court of summary 
jurisdiction charged with the determination 
of cases between owners and occupiers of 
tenements in the districts ravaged by the 
fire of London (19 Car. II, c. 3). In re- 
cognition of his services in this capacity, the 
corporation caused his portrait to be painted 
by Michael Wright, and placed in Guild- 
hall (1671). By virtue of a special commis- 
sion Vaughan sat as speaker of the House 
of Lords in the absence of Lord-keeper 
Bridgeman, 6-18 Nov. 1669, and 11 March 
to 4 April 1669-70. 

Vaughan died at Serjeants' Inn on 10 Dec. 
1674. His remains were interred in the 
Temple church, where there is a monument 
to his memory. The portrait of Vaughan 
mentioned by Evelyn (Corresp. ed. Bray, 
p. 301) as in the Clarendon gallery is now 
missing. Engraved portraits of him are at 
the British Museum, and one is prefixed to 
his ' Reports,' edited from his manuscripts 

by his son, Edward Vaughan, London, 1677, 
fol. ; 2nd ed. 1706. Three of Vaughan's 
letters, one dated 12 March 1643-4, the 
others only 10 and 11 April, are printed in 
' Archseologia Cambrensis,' new series, iv. 

Edward Vaughan (d.lQSS), son of the lord 
chief justice by his wife Jane, eldest daughter 
of John Stedman of Cilcennin, Cardigan- 
shire, M.P. for Cardigan 26 Feb. 1678-9 to 
28 March 1681, married Letitia, daughter of 
Sir William Hooker, and had a son John 
(b. about 1670, d. 1721), who was created 
by William III Baron of Fethard, co. Tip- 
perary, and Viscount Lisburne, co. Antrim, 
and was ancestor of the Earls of Lisburne. 

[Life by Edward Vaughan, prefixed to 
Vaughan's Eeports ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 1026; Whitelocke's Mem. p. 177; 
Commons' Journal, iv. 260, ix. 55 ; Lords' Journal, 
vii. 656, xii. 261-9, 305-38; Rushworth's Hist. 
Mem. in. i. 244, ii. 575; Gal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1650 p. 248, 1656-7 p. 203, 1660-1 p. 
141, 1664-5 p. 90, 1667 pp. 142, 406; Cal. 
Committee for Compounding, 1642-56, ii. 
894 ; Members of Parliament (Official Lists) ; 
Letters of Humphrey Prideaux to John Ellis 
(Camden Soc.), p. 27 ; Bishop Cosin's Corresp. 
(Surtees Soc.), ii. 276, 278; Harl. MS. 4931, 
f. 126 ; Addic. MSS. 21507, 22883, f. 97 ; Stowe 
MSS. 180 f. 84, 304 ff. 77, 84-6 ; Hatsell's Prec. 
(1818), iii. App. ii. ; Cobbett's State Trials, vi. 
1 26 ; Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. 
Soc.), p. 207; Phillips's Civil War in Wales, p. 
355; Cambrian Register, i. 164; Cambrian 
Quarterly Mag. i. 61 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of 
England, 4th ed. iii. 369 ; Brief Memoirs of the 
Judges whose portraits are preserved in Guild- 
hall (1791); Pepys's Diary, ed. Braybrooke ; 
Evelyn's Diary; Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, 
eil. Wornum, iii. 952 ; Yorke's Royal Tribes of 
Wales, p. 110: Foss's Lives of the Judges; 
Nicholas's Annals of the Counties and County 
Families of Wales; Peerage of Ireland, 1768; 
G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Williams's 
Parl. Hist, of Wales; Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen.] J. M. R. 

VAUGHAN, SIR JOHN (1748P-1795), 
lieutenant-general, born in 1747 or 1748, was 
a younger son of Wilmot Vaughan, third 
viscount Lisburne, by Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Watson of Berwick-on- 
Tweed. He entered the service in the old 
52nd regiment, or Colonel Pawlett's 9th regi- 
ment of marines, from which on 9 April 1748 
he was transferred to a cornetcy in the 10th 
dragoons. He became lieutenant in the regi- 
ment on 10 Dec. 1751, captain-lieutenant on 
5 Jan. 1754, and captain on 28 Jan. 1755. 
With the 10th dragoons he served in Eng- 
land and Scotland, and in Germany during 
part of the seven years' war. He left the 




regiment on 15 Oct. 1759, and obtained a 
majority in the army. He was at this time 
entrusted with the raising of a regiment of 
light infantry for service in North America, 
and was appointed lieutenant-colonel com- 
mandant of it on 12 Jan. 1760. This regi- 
ment, known as the 94th (or the royal 
Welsh volunteers), he accompanied to North 
America, and served with it until the fol- 
lowing year, when he accompanied the ex- 
pedition under Major-general Robert Monck- 
ton [q. v.], destined for the attack on the 
French West Indian islands. In command 
of a division of grenadiers he distinguished 
himself at the capture of Martinique, and 
was honourably mentioned in Monckton's 
despatch of 9 Feb. 1762. 

On 25 Nov. 1762 he was removed from the 
94th, which was about to be disbanded, to 
the command of the 46th foot, with which 
he served in North America. In 1767 the 
regiment returned home, and was quartered 
in Ireland. On 25 May 1772 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of colonel, and on 11 Slay | 
1775 obtained the colonelcy of the 46th foot. 
On the outbreak of the war with the Ameri- 
can colonists he proceeded to America with 
the reinforcements under the command of 
Lord Cornwallis, and was granted the local 
rank of major-general, dated 1 Jan. 1776. 
He led the grenadiers of the army at the 
battle of Brooklyn or Long Island; and was j 
present at the battle of White Plains, where j 
he was wounded in the thigh. At the end 
of the year he went home to England with 
Lord Cornwallis, but returned to America in 
1777, on 29 Aug. of which year he was pro- 
moted to the rank of major-general. He ac- 
companied Major-general Sir Henry Clin- ! 
ton's expedition up the North River, and j 
commanded the right column at the attack 
on Fort Montgomery in October 1777. His 
horse was killed by a cannon-shot when he 
was dismounting to lead the attack on foot, 
which he conducted with great gallantry. 
He was particularly mentioned in Sir 
Henry Clinton's orders on 9 Oct. 1777, 
in these words : ' Fort Montgomery is 
henceforth to be distinguished by the name 
of Fort Vaughan, in memory of the in- 
trepidity and noble perseverance which 
Major-general Vaughan showed in the 
assault of it.' He was present at the land- 
ing and burning of ^Esopus, and commanded 
the advance of the army at the reduction of 
Verplank's Neck and Stoney Point on the 
Hudson River. At the end of 1779 he re- 
turned to England, and was appointed gover- 
nor of Fort William, and in the following 
year governor of Berwick, an appointment 
worth 600/. a year, which he retained for life. 

In December 1779 he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the Leeward Islands, 
and in 1781, in that capacity, took part 
with Admiral Rodney in the attempt on the 
island of St. Vincent. The expedition, how- 
ever, was a failure. The reports as to the 
damage done by a hurricane turned out to 
have been grossly exaggerated. The fortifi- 
cations were found intact, and far too strong 
to be taken except by regular siege, for which 
the general had neither men nor battering 
train. After a few days' stay on shore the 
soldiers were re-embarked, and the squadron 
returned to Gros Islet Bay. 

Owing to a variety of causes, Holland had 
been drawn into the war, and orders, dated 
20 Dec., came to Rodney and Vaughan to 
seize the island of St. Eustatius. On 30 Jan. 
1782 Vaughan, with a force of about two 
thousand men, sailed in the fleet under Rod- 
ney from Gros Islet Bay. St. Eustatius 
was surrounded on 3 Feb., summoned, and 
taken at once. In connection with the cap- 
ture of the island, Rodney's and Vaughan's 
conduct was afterwards the subject of a 
severe attack in parliament, and they were 
charged with confiscating the goods and 
property of the inhabitants and with making 
a fortune out of them. Vaughan, who was 
M.P. for Berwick from 1774 until his death, 
defended himself from his place in the House 
of Commons. In the debate on a motion for 
an inquiry into the whole circumstances, he 
declared upon his honour, and expressed his 
anxiety to confirm it upon oath, that neither 
directly nor indirectly, by fair means or 
foul, had he made a single shilling by the 
business. The motion was lost by 163 votes 
to 84. Vaughan also sat in the Irish parlia- 
ment for St. Johnstown from 1776 till 1783. 

On 20 Nov. 1782, he was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-general, and was created 
a knight of the Bath in 1792. He died 
suddenly at Martinique on 3 June 1795, in 
the fifty-eighth year of his age, when serving 
as commander-in-chief of the Leeward 
Islands. He was unmarried. 

[Gent. Mag. 1782 and 1795; London Gazette 
and annual Army Lists ; Hannay's Life of 
Rodney ; Stedman's Hist, of the American War ; 
Historical Record of the 46th Regiment.] 

R. H. 

VAUGHAN, SIK JOHN (1769-1839), 
judge, third son of James Vanghan, M.D. of 
Leicester, by Hester, daughter of John 
Smalley, alderman of the same place, was 
born on 11 Feb. 1769. Sir Charles Richard 
Vaughan [q. v.] was his brother. He was 
educated at Rugby school and the univer- 
sity of Oxford, where he matriculated from 
Queen's College on 17 Oct. 1785, and was 




created D.C.L. on 10 June 1834. Admitted 
on 11 Feb. 1786, he was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn on 30 June 1791. He chose 
the common-law side, and went the mid- 
land circuit, where his address in managing- 
common juries early secured him a lead, 
and on 14 Feb. 1798 he was made recorder 
of Leicester. A strong supporter of Pitt, 
he threw himself with zeal into the move- 
ment for raising funds by public subscrip- 
tion to sustain the war with France. On 
14 Feb. 1799 he was made serjeant-at-law. 
To Queen Charlotte he was appointed solici- 
tor-general on 1 May 1814, and attorney- 
general in 1816 (Trinity vacation). In the 
latter year (Easter term) he was advanced 
to the rank of king's Serjeant. As such he 
conducted the case for the crown in the pro- 
secution of Sir Francis Burdett [q. v.] on 
23 March 1820. He also led for the crown 
in the prosecution at the Warwick assizes 
(3-4 Aug. 1821) of the Birmingham re- 
formers (Edmonds and others) for seditious 
conspiracy. On 24 Feb. 1827 he succeeded 
to the seat on the exchequer bench vacant 
by the resignation of Sir Robert Graham 
[q. v.] On 24 Nov. 1828 he was knighted, 
and on 30 June 1831 he was sworn of the 
privy council. On 27 April 1834 he was 
transferred to the court of common pleas. 
Vaughan was one of the judges to whom, in 
the case of Harding v. Pollock, on appeal to 
the House of Lords in 1829, was referred the 
moot point whether the right of appointing 
clerks of the peace for a county was vested 
in the custos rotulorum of the county or in 
the crown, and on 18 May gave his opinion 
in favour of the crown. He was also con- 
sulted by the committee of privileges in the 
Camoys peerage case in 1839 as to the rules 
regulating the determination of abeyances, 
and concurred in the judgment delivered by 
Chief-justice Tindal. He died at his seat, 
Eastbury Lodge, near Watford, Hertford- 
shire, on 25 Sept. 1839. His remains were 
interred in the burial-ground belonging to 
the parish of Wistow, Leicestershire. A 
mural tablet to his memory was placed in 
Wistow church by his brother, Sir Henry 
Halford [q. v.] His portrait, by Pickersgill, 
is in the Leicester town-hall ; another is at 
Wistow Hall. 

Vaughan married twice : first, on 20 Dec. 
1803, Augusta (d. 1813), second daughter of 
Henry Beauchamp, twelfth baron St. John 
of Bletsho : secondly, on 4 Aug. 1823, Louisa 
(d. 1860), 'eldest daughter of Sir Charles 
William Rouse-Boughton, bart., widow of 
St. Andrew, thirteenth baron St. John of 
Bletsho. By his first wife he was father of 
Henry Halford Vaughan [q. v.], of another 

son, and four daughters ; by his second wife 
a son and a daughter. 

[Foster's Baronetage, 'Halford,' and Alumni 
Oxon. ; Burke's Peerage, s.v. ' St. John ; ' Kugby 
School Reg. 1881, p. 46; Lincoln's Inn Reg. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1823 ii. 272, 1839 ii. 648; Legal 
Observer, xix. 33 ; Munk's Life of Sir Henry 
Halford, p. 8 ; Walton's Random Recollections of 
the Midland Circuit, pp. 12-14; Nichols's Leices- 
tershire, i. pt. ii. p. 453 ; Arnould's Memoir of 
Lord Dennian, i. 58, ii. 2 ; Royal Kalendar, 1815 
p. 137, 1817 p. 137 ; Greville Memoirs, Geo.1V- 
Will. IV, ii. 155 ; Macdonell's State Trials, i. 7, 
46, 788, ii. 346, iii. 12, 01; Foss's Lives of the 
Judges.] J. M. R. 

VAUGHAN, RICE (ft. 1650), legal 
writer, was the son and heir of Henry 
Vaughan of Machynlleth, Montgomery- 
shire. He was admitted to Gray's Inn on 
13 Aug. 1638 (FOSTER, Register of Admis- 
tions to Gray's Inn). In 1651 he published, 
with a dedication to parliament, ' A Plea 
for the Common Laws of England ' (London, 
16mo), a pamphlet in answer to 'A Good 
Work for a Good Magistrate,' published by 
Hugh Peters [q. v.] He died in or shortly 
before 1672, in which year his 'Practica 
Walliae,' a guide to the practice of an attor- 
ney in the Welsh courts, was published pos- 
thumously, London, 12mo. 

He was also the author of ' A Discourse 
of Coin and Coinage,' published in 1675 
(London, 12mo), and edited by his relative, 
Henry Vaughan, who is identified in the 
British Museum ' Catalogue ' with Henry 
Vaughan ' Silurist ' [q. v.] It is a brief but 
somewhat interesting treatise on the origin 
of money, the debasement of coinage, and 
the relations of the precious metals. 

[Vaughan's Works in Brit. Mus.] W. W. 

VAUGHAN, RICHARD (1550P-1607), 

bishop successively of Bangor, Chester, and 
London, born about 1550 at Nyffryn in 
Llyn, Carnarvonshire, was second son of 
Thomas ap Robert Vychan or Vaughan of 
that place, by his wife, a member of the 
Griffin family (DwNN, Heraldic Visitation, 
ii. 183). He was related to John Aylmer, 
bishop of London, and it was probably 
through his influence that Vaughan was 
sent to Cambridge. He matriculated as a 
sizar of St. John's College on 16 Nov. 1569, 
and had as tutor John Becon [q. v.] On 
6 Nov. 1573 he was admitted a scholar on 
the Lady Margaret's foundation ; he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1573-4, M.A. in 1577, B.D. 
before 1588, and was created D.D. in 1589 
(BAKER, St. John's College, ed. Mayor, i. 
254-5). Soon after graduating M.A 
Vaughan became chaplain to Bishop Aylmer, 




and on 22 April 1578 he was admitted to 
the living of Chipping Ongar, Essex (Lansd. 
MS. 983, f. 60). On 24 i\ov. 1580 he was 
presented to the rectory of Little Canfield, 
in the same county, and on 18 Nov. 1583 
was collated to the prebend of Holborn in 
St. Paul's Cathedral (ib. ; HENNESSY, Nov. 
Rep. JEccl. p. 2). In 1584 he was incor- 
porated M.A. at Oxford, and on 26 Oct. 
1588 was appointed archdeacon of Middle- 
sex. On 17 April 1591 Aylmer recommended 
Vaughan for a residentiary canonry in St. 
Paul's, which he does not appear to have 
secured (Lansd. MS. 68, art. 24) ; but on 
19 Feb. 1591-2 he was collated by Aylmer 
to the rectory of Great Dunmow ; on 29 
Aug. 1592 he was admitted to the rectory 
of Moreton, Essex (id. 983, f. 61) ; in 1593 
to the canonry of Combe in Wells Cathedral ; 
and in 1594 to the rectory of Stanford 
Rivers, Essex. He was also chaplain to the 
queen and to Lord-keeper Puckering. In the 
latter year he was mentioned for promotion 
to the see of Llandaff (Gal. Hat/kid MSS. 
iv. 561, v. 18), but on 22 Nov. 1595 was 
elected bishop of Bangor, and in the follow- 
ing year became archdeacon of Anglesey. 
Essex and his friends proposed his translation 
to Salisbury (Lansd. MS. 983, f. 61) on 
Bishop Cold well's death in 1596, but Henry 
Cotton [q. v.] was preferred, and in. 1597 
Vaughan was translated to the bishopric of 
Chester, being enthroned on 10 Nov. On 
31 Jan. following he was commissioned to 
determine ecclesiastical causes in his diocese, 
and the prevalence of recusancy gave him 
trouble (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601 
passim). In 1604 James I promoted Vaughan 
to the bishopric of London in succession to 
Bancroft ; he was enthroned on 26 Dec. In 
January following he was summoned to a 
conference to consider the scandal caused by 
the sale of church livings (ib. 1603-10, p. 
189): his tenure of the bishopric was marked 
by the deprivation and silencing of extreme 
puritans, but, according to John Chamber- 
lain, Vaughan's measures were taken with 
such wisdom and temperance as to earn 
him commendations ' even among that fac- 
tion,' and the reputation of being ' the most 
sufficient man of that coat.' 

Vaughan died of apoplexy on 30 March 
1607, and was buried in Bishop Kemp's 
chapel in St. Paul's Cathedral. An inscrip- 
tion to his memory was destroyed in the 
fire of 1666. A portrait of Vaughan is in 
the University galleries at Oxford (Cat. 
Pictures, 1796, p. 12), and another, ascribed 
to Cornelius Janssen, is in the library at 
Fulham Palace. Engraved portraits are 
given in Holland's ' Hercoologia ' and Fre- 

herus's Theatrum.' He had three sons and 
six daughters, of whom Elizabeth married 
Thomas Mallory, dean of Chester, and was 
mother of Thomas Mallory [q. v.] 

Vaughan is said to have drawn up the 
Lambeth articles for Archbishop Whitgift 
in 1594 (HEYLYN, Laud, p. 193), and to 
have published in 1573 two Latin poems on 
Sir John Pryse's * Histories Britannicas 
Defensio.' He assisted William Morgan 
(1540P-1604) [q. v.] in his translation of 
the Bible into Welsh ; a Latin letter to the 
University of Cambridge, dated 29 Dec. 
1604, is printed in Hey wood and Wright's 
Transactions,' ii. 217, and an answer to an 
address on behalf of the French and Dutch 
churches in London in Strype's ' Annals,' iv. 

[In Harl. MS. 6495, art. 6, is an account of 
Vaughan by his kinsman John Williams [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, entitled Vaughanus redi- 
vivus sive . . . Richardi Vaughani . . . vita 
atque obitus. See also Lansdowne MSS. 68 
art. 24, 445 f. 34, 983 if. 60-1 ; Gal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1595-1610 passim; Cal. Hatfield 
MSS. vols. iv-vi. ; Owen's Epigrams, ii. 23, 24, 
iv. 92; Strype's Works (general index); Fuller's 
Worthies; Wood's Athena? ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 
Hardy ; Newcourt's Repert. ; Hennessy's Novum 
Repert. pp. 2, 9, 30, 383 ; Baker's Hist. St. John's 
Coll. i. 204, 254-5, ii. 664-5 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Cooper's Athense, ii. 450-2, 
and other authorities there cited.] A. F. P. 

or CARBERY (1600?-! 686), was the eldest 
son of John Vaughan, first earl, of Golden 
Grove, Carmarthenshire, by his first wife, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Gelly Meyrick 
[q. v.] The family claimed descent from. 
Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, prince of Powys (cf. 
ROBERT VATJGHAN, Brit. Antiq. Revived, 
1662, pp. 40-3, correcting ENDERBIE'S Cam- 
bria Triwnphans, iii. 2). The first to settle 
at Golden Grove and to build the house there 
was John Vaughan, whose son Walter (d. 
1598) greatly strengthened the position of the 
family by marrying for his first wife Kathe- 
rine, 'second daughter of Griffith Rhys of 
Dynevor, who was the son of Rhys ap Griffith 
(ap Sir Rhys ap Thomas [q . v.] ), by Katherine, 
daughter of Thomas, duke of Norfolk. His 
second wife was Letitia, daughter of Sir 
John Perrot [q. v.], and afterwards wife of 
Arthur, lord Chichester [q. v.] He left, be- 
sides other issue, Sir Henry Vaughan (1587 ?- 
1659?) (q. v.] and William Vaughan (1577- 
1641) q. v.] He was succeeded by his eldest 
son John Vaughan (1572 ?-1634), after- 
wards first Earl of Carbery, who, along with 
his brother William, matriculated at Jesus 
College, Oxford, 4 Feb. 1591-2, served under 




the Earl of Essex in his Irish campaign in 

1599, and on 30 July was knighted by Essex ; 
but both honours were subsequently disal- 
lowed by Elizabeth. He entered at the 
Middle Temple November 1596, was M.P. 
for Carmarthenshire in 1601 and 1620-2, and 
was comptroller of the household to Charles I 
while Prince of Wales, in which capacity- he 
accompanied him to Spain in 1623 (Sir R. 
Wynn's ' Account of the Journey ' in 
HEARNE'S Vita Ricardi II; Epistola Ho- 
eliana, ed. Jacobs, p. 171). After the 
death of his first wife he married Jane, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Palmer [q. v.], the 
' Travailer/ of Wingham, Kent, by whom he 
had no issue. He was created Baron 
Vaughan of Mullingar on 29 July 1621, and 
Earl of Carbery (both in the peerage of 
Ireland) on 5 Aug. 1628. James Howel styles 
him, presumably by mistake, as * my lord of 
Carlingford " in a letter addressed to him on 
1 March 1625 (op. cit. p. 225). He died 
6 May 1634, and was buried at Llandeilo 

Richard Vaughan, his eldest and only 
surviving son, who succeeded him as second 
Earl of Carbery, must have been born about 

1600. He seems to have travelled abroad, 
for James Howel says that he and young 
Vaughan were ' comrades and bedfellows ' 
in Madrid * many months together,' pre- 
sumably in 1622 (op. cit. p. 171). He was 
knighted at the coronation of Charles I in 
February 1625-6, was M.P. for Carmarthen- 
shire 1624-9, was admitted a member of 
Gray's Inn 15 Feb. 1637-8 (FOSTER, Register, 
p. 216), and was nominated by the commons 
in February 1641-2 to be lord lieutenant 
in command of the proposed militia in 
the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan 
(PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales and the 
Marches, i. 96). On 25 Oct. 1643 he was 
created at Oxford an English peer as Baron 
Vaughan of Emlyn in Carmarthenshire, 
and was one of the royalist peers who at 
this time addressed a letter from Oxford to 
the council of Scotland dissuading that 
country from lending their support to the 
parliamentary party (CLARENDON, Hist. ed. 
Macray, vii. 288). 

On the outbreak of the civil war Carbery 
was appointed (before the end of 1642) 
lieutenant-general of the royal army in the 
counties of Carmarthen, Cardigan, and 
Pembroke (for his instructions, dated 
25 March 1642-3, see Harl MS. 6852; cf. 
CARTE, Ormonde, v. 503), to which was added 
on 17 Nov. 1643 the governorship of Milford 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. s. a. p. 499, cf. pp. 
478, 488, 498). Being popular in Pembroke- 
shire as a grandson of Sir Gelly Meyrick, he 

easily secured the adherence of the whole of 
his district, excepting the town of Pembroke 
(PHILLIPS, i. 173-6, ii. 82-5), but in March 
1643-4 he was defeated and driven out of 
Pembrokeshire by Major-general Rowland 
Laugharne [q. v.] Being blamed for his de- 
feat, which some attributed to 'a suspected 
natural cowardize, others to a designe to be 
overcome ' (manuscript circa 1660, printed in 
Cambrian Register, i. 164), though, accord- 
ing to another account, it was his uncle, Sir 
Henry Vaughan [q. v.], who was guilty of 
cowardice, Carbery resigned his command, 
was replaced by Gerard, and ceased to take 
any active part on the royalist side (PHILLIPS, 
ii. 157; cf. WEBB, Civil War in Hereford- 
shire, ii. 30-1). 

Meanwhile the House of Commons had, 
on 19 April 1643, resolved on his impeach- 
ment. On 27 April 1644 he was ordered 
to pay 160/. to the committee for com- 
pounding (Cal. of Proceedings}, and on 
17 Nov. 1645 he was assessed as a delinquent 
at 4,500/. Laugharne had, however, given 
him a promise of pardon, and on 18 Nov. 
wrote on his behalf to the speaker. The 
parliamentary committee for Pembrokeshire, 
on the other hand, sent from Carmarthen 
on 29 Nov. to the committee for com- 
pounding a series of charges against Car- 
bery, describing him as ' a merciless oppres- 
sor of the commons' in his district, and 
alleging that he had packed and intimidated 
the grand j ury at Carmarthen so as to get 
2,600/. of the country's money sequestered 
to himself, and had ' cherished the troubles 
to make commoditie thereof (the letter 
and articles are printed in an abusive 
pamphlet called The Earle of Carberyes 
Pedegree, 1646). Carbery himself appears 
to have proceeded to London with the view 
of ' making all the friends he could to get 
him oft'' (ib.\ and eventually the House of 
Commons agreed, on 16 Feb. 1645-6, to 
remit his delinquency, the formal ordinance 
to that effect being passed 26 Jan. 1646-7, 
and the discharge of his assessment being 
finally ordered on 9 April 1647. It is said 
that he alone of all the king's party in the 
western counties of South Wales escaped 
sequestration, and this exceptional treat- 
ment is explained by a contemporary (Cam- 
brian Register, loc. cit.) as due to ' the 
correspondence he kept with the then Earl 
of Essex, and manie great services done by 
him to the parliament during his general- 
ship, which was then evidenced to the 
parliament by Sir John Meyrick,' who was 
a cousin of Carbery's mother, 'and by 
certificate from several of the parliament's 
generalls in his behalfe ' (cf. also Cal. of 




Proc. of Comm. for Advance of Money, p. 637, 
and Commons' Journals, and PHILLIPS, i. 

In the spring of 1648, when Poyer 
refused to disband his troops in South 
Wales, Carbery not only declined to support 
him, but loyally cast his influence on the 
side of parliament (PHILLIPS, i. 398, ii. 353). 
There is, however, a local tradition (first 
given in CARLISLE'S Topoyr. Diet. 1811, s.v. 
' Llanfihaiigel Aberbythych ; ' cf. KEES, 
Beauties of S. Wales, 1815, p. 326; and 
Arch. Cambr. 5th ser. x. 170) that in May 
of that year Cromwell, on his way to 
besiege Pembroke Castle, 'came suddenly 
across the country with a troop of horse 
to Golden Grove/ with the view of seizing 
Carbery, who just succeeded in escaping 
before his arrival. Lady Carbery (whose 
great piety has been recorded by Jeremy 
Taylor) is then said to have influenced 
Cromwell so strongly as to produce in him 
a warm regard for her family, evidenced by 
his sending to the earl a few years later 
f several stagges to furnish his park at 
Golden Grove' (Cambrian Register, loc. cit.) 

Carbery is, however, less celebrated as a 
man of action than as the patron who for 
many years gave hospitable shelter to Jeremy 
Taylor at Golden Grove. Here Taylor wrote, 
among other works, ' The Great Exemplar,' 
the third part of which was, in the first 
edition (1649), dedicated to Frances, lady 
Carbery (on whose death in 1650 he preached 
a ' Funeral Sermon '), while in the third 
edition another dedication was added to her 
successor, Carbery's third wife. To Carbery 
himself he dedicated a course of fifty-two 
sermons delivered at Golden Grove, his 
1 Holy Living ' and ' Holy Dying ' (1650-1), 
and the ' Manual of Devotions,' to which, 
by way of further compliment to his patron, 
he gave the title of ' Golden Grove ' (1655). 

When the court of the marches was re- 
established at Ludlow at the Restoration, 
Carbery became its lord president, and in 
virtue of that office was lord lieutenant of 
all the counties in Wales. He appointed 
Samuel Butler ( 1612-1680) [q.v.] as his secre- 
tary, and made him also steward of Ludlow 
Castle, where Butler appears to have written 
the first part of ' Hudibras.' The court never 
regained its former administrative impor- 
tance, though Carbery seems to have paid 
close attention to its business (see Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1660 et seq. ; cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 2nd Rep. App. p. 88), and successfully 
asserted its jurisdiction in some matters over 
even the four English shires of the marches (ib. 
5th Rep. App. p. 338 ; cf. DINELEY, Beaufort 
Progress, ed. 1 888, introd. p. xviii). He con- 

tinued lord president till 1672, when he was 
removed from office, partly owing to his mal- 
treatment of his servants and tenants at Dry s- 
Iwyn, near Golden Grove, some of whom had 
' theyr eares cut of, and one his tongue cut 
out, and all dispossessd ' (Hatton Correspon- 
dence, i. 76 ; cf. SPUERELL, Carmarthen, p. 
118). A contemporary described him, pro- 
bably with much justice, as ' a fit person for 
the highest publique employment, if integrity 
and courage were not suspected to be often 
faylinge him ' (Cambr. Register, loc. cit.) He 
died on 3 Dec. 1686 (LTJTTRELL, Brief Rela- 
tion, i. 379, puts his death somewhat earlier 
in the year). 

Carbery was thrice married. His first wife 
was Bridget, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Lloyd of Llanllyr, Cardiganshire (MEYRICK, 
Cardiganshire, p. 243). His second wife, 
whose piety has been eulogised by Jeremy 
Taylor, was Frances, daughter and coheir 
of Sir John Altham [see ALTHAM, SIR JAMES] 
of Oxhey, Hertfordshire. She died on 9 Oct. 
1650, and in July 1652 Carbery married, for 
his third wife, Lady Alice Egerton, daughter 
of John, first earl of Bridgwater. She was 
a pupil of Henry Lawes [q. v.], Milton's 
friend, who in 1653 dedicated his * Ayres 
and Dialogues ' to her and her sister Mary, 
the wife of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. It 
has been popularly supposed that Milton's 
1 Comus ' was founded upon an incident 
which once befell her ; but the tradition 
probably arose from her having represented 
the Lady in the mask when it was performed 
at Ludlow (MASSON, Milton, ii. 227-33 ; cf. 
JOHNSON, Life of Milton). 

All Carbery's surviving issue was by his 
second wife. Francis, the eldest son, who was 
M.P. for Carmarthenshire from 1661 till his 
death, married in 1653 Rachel Wriothesley r 
afterwards wife of Lord William Russell 
[q. v.], but died in 1667 without issue, before 
his father, who was therefore succeeded by 
his second son, 

JOHN VAUGHAN, third and last EARL OP 
CARBERY (1640-1713). He was probably 
educated at home under Jeremy Taylor and 
William Wyatt [q.v.], and subsequently at 
Oxford, where he matriculated from Christ 
Church on 23 July 1656, proceeding thence to 
the Inner Temple, where he was admitted in 
1658. He was knighted in April 1661, sat 
as M.P. for the borough of Carmarthen 1661- 
1679,andfor thecounty 1679-81 and 1685-7. 
He was appointed governor of Jamaica, and 
sailed out thither early in December 1674, in 
company with Henry Morgan [q. v.] the buc- 
caneer, who had also received a commis- 
sion to be lieutenant-general of the island. 
Vaughan is said to have ' made haste to grow 




as rich as his government would let him,' and 
was charged with selling even his own ser- 
vants. He was superseded by the Earl of 
Carlisle in March 1678 (OLDMIXON, British 
Empire in America, 1708, ii. 278-81 ; cf. 
BKIDGES, Annals of 'Jamaica,!. 273-81. Papers 
relating to his administration are among the 
Marquis of Bath's manuscripts : see Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 190, 4th Rep. p. 237). 
He succeeded his brother in the courtesy title 
of Lord Vaughan in 1667, and his father as 
third Earl of Carbery in 1686. 

Like several other members of the family, 
he had a taste for literature. Besides being 
president of the Royal Society (1686-9), he 
was one of Dryden's earliest patrons, from as 
early as 1664, and wrote some commenda- 
tory verses which are prefixed to his { Con- 
quest of Granada' (1670-2). In August 
1678 the poet in turn dedicated to Vaughan 
who had then just returned from Jamaica, 
one of his coarsest poems, ' Limberham ' 
(ScoiT, Dryden, vi. 6). Pepys describes him 
as ' one of the lewdest fellows of the age, 
worse than Sir Charles Sedley ' [q. v.] (Diary, 
ed. 1848, iv. 265). He was also one of 
Charles II's most servile courtiers, and pressed 
savagely for Clarendon's impeachment in 1667 
(ib. p. 357 ; R^KV,Hist. of England, m. 451). 
In 1679 he took part in the debate on securing 
the protestant religion (ib. iv. 82). He lived 
chiefly at a house (since called Gough House) 
which he had built at Chelsea (LYSONS, En- 
virons of London, ii. 90). He was a member 
of the Kit-Cat Club, and a ( very fine' portrait 
of him by Sir Godfrey Kneller, which used 
to be hung up in the club, was engraved by 
Cooper (for ' Memoirs of the Kit-Cat Club,' p. 
124), and is now in the possession of W. R. 
Baker, esq., of Bayfordbury, Hertfordshire 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. App. p. 69). 

He was thrice married, but died on 12 Jan. 
1712-13 without male heir, when the barony 
of Vaughan and the Irish honours became 
extinct. By his second wife, Anne, daughter 
of George Savile, first marquis of Halifax 
[q. v.], who died in childbirth in 1689 (Lux- 
TRELL, i. 212, 560), he had an only daughter 
and heiress, Anne, who married, in 1713, 
Charles Paulet or Powlett, third duke of Bol- 
ton fq.v.], but died without issue on 20 Sept. 
1751, leaving the Vaughan estates, by this 
time the largest in West Wales, to her kins- 
man, John Vaughan of Torcoed (d. 1765), 
whose grandson in 1804 bequeathed them, out 
of personal affection, to his friend John Camp- 
bell, first baron Cawdor, in whose descendants 
they are still vested. 

There are numerous portraits of this family 
preserved at Derwydd, Carmarthenshire, in 
the possession of AlanStepney-Gulston, esq., 

who is descended from a younger brother ol 
the first Earl of Carbery. They include a por- 
trait of the third earl, painted by Guest in 
1703; a mezzotint engraving by Faber (1733), 
after Kneller ; and a painting, after the 
school of Mignard, of the last Lady Carbery. 
There are at Golden Grove over twenty other 
portraits of various members of the Vaughan 
family, including three of the second earl, 
while some other heirlooms are in the posses- 
sion of the representatives of the Duke of 

The present barony of Carbery is a new 
and independent creation, dating from 1715, 
and conferred on a family named Evans, ori- 
ginally sprung from Carmarthenshire ( JONES, 
Brecknockshire, ii. 669, and Corrigenda), and 
said to be t not very distantly related to the 
Vaughans ' (Kit-Cat Memoirs, loc. cit.) 

[In addition to the authorities cited see, as to 
the pedigree of the family, Burke's Extinct Peer- 
age (s.v. 'Vaughan'), p. 546, and Landed Gentry, 
ed. 1868 (sub nom. ' Watkins, Penoyre'), p. 1620, 
Golden Grove Book of Manuscript Pedigrees, 
deposited by Earl Cawdor at the Record Office ; 
Yorke's Royal Tribes of Wales, ed. 1887, pp. 
106-7; Nicholas's County Families of Wales, 
2nd edit. pp. 217, 259, 264, 936 ; Sir Thomas 
Phillipps's Carmarthenshire Pedigrees, p. 1 ; and 
cf. Archaeologia Cambrensis, 4th ser. xii. 201, 
220-38, and 273-88, and 5th ser. x. 168. Most 
of the contemporary papers relating to the part 
taken by Carbery in the civil war are printed in 
Phillips's Civil War in Wales and the Marches, 
vol. ii., and Fenton's Pembrokeshire, App. p. 7 
(cf. pp. 194, 443), and are summarised in Laws's 
Little England beyond Wales, pp. 320-32, cf. 
337. See also Commons' Journals, iii. 52, iv. 
365, 444, v. 64, 104 ; Lords' Journals, viii. 184, 
198-9, 706-7 ; Cambrian Journal (for 1861), viii. 
17 et seq. ; Webb's Civil War in Herefordshire, 
i. 377-9, ii. 30 ; dive's History of Ludlow, pp. 
184, 290 ; Some Notices of the Stepney Family, 
by Eobert Harrison (privately printed, 1870), pp. 
9-13 r 28, 30; Williams's Parliamentary Hist, of 
Wales, pp. 44-6 ; information kindly supplied by 
Alan Stepney-Gulston, esq., Derwydd, and Alcuin 
C. Evans, esq., Carmarthen.] D. LL. T. 

VAUGHAN, ROBERT (1592-1667), 
Welsh antiquary, was the only son of Howel 
Vychan ap Gruffydd ap Hywel of Gwen- 
graig, near Dolgelly, and his wife Margaret, 
second daughter of Edward Owen of Hen- 
gwrt, a son of i Baron' Lewis Owen (d. 1555) 
[q. v.] On Hy wel's acquisition of Hengwrt 
(by purchase, not by marriage see Byegones 
for 1872, p. 99), it became the seat of the 
family. Robert was born in 1592, and on 
4 Dec. 1612 matriculated at Oxford as a 
commoner of Oriel College. He left with- 
out taking a degree, and spent the rest of 
his life at Hengwrt in studious retirement, 




holding aloof from the political struggles of 
his day. By his marriage with Catherine, 
daughter of Gruffydd Nanney of Nannau, 
he had four sons : Hywel, who succeeded 
him at Ilengwrt and was sheriff of Merio- 
neth in 1671-2 (Kalendars of Gwynedd) ; 
Ynyr, Hugh, and Gruffydd. It was in a 
later generation that the estates of Hengwrt 
and Nannau became united. Vaughan died 
on 16 May 1667, and was buried at Dolgelly. 
He was a diligent collector of Welsh manu- 
scripts, and to his own collection at Hen- 
gwrt was added before his death that of 
John Jones of Gelli Lyfdy, near Caerwys, 
in virtue of an arrangement between the 
two that the survivor should become pos- 
sessed of the manuscripts of both. This 
joint collection, numbering many hundreds 
of manuscripts, has been preserved intact to 
the present day, passing in 1859, on the 
death of the last of the Vaughans, to the 
Wynnes of Peniarth, near Towyn, where 
it is now kept. It includes the ' Black 
Book of Carmarthen ' and the ' Book of 
Taliesin,' two of the ' four ancient books of 
Wales.' Among the manuscripts are tran- 
scripts and some original tracts by Vaughan, 
but the only work he printed was ' British 
Antiquities Revived' (Oxford, 1662), an 
attempt to establish, against South Welsh 
objectors, the view put forward by Powel 
in his * Historic of Cambria ' as to the 
supremacy enjoyed by the princes of North 
Wales over those of Powys and the south. 
A second edition of this, with an introduc- 
tory memoir of the author, appeared at Bala 
in 1834. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss; Dwnn's Heraldic 
Visitations, ii. 227,237; Hist, of Powys Fadog, 
vi. 22, 411, iv. 292-3 ; Archseologia Cambrensis, 
3rd ser. v. 234 (1859). Catalogues of the 
Hengwrt MSS. are to be found in the Cambrian 
Register, vol. iii., the Transactions of the 
Cymrodorion Society for 1843, and Archseologia 
Cambrensis for 1869, 1870, and 1871.] J. E. L. 

VAUGHAN, ROBERT (1795-1868), 
congregationalist divine, of Welsh descent, 
was born in the west of England on 14 Oct. 
1795. His parents belonged to the esta- 
blished church. He had no early advan- 
tages of education, but showed a taste for 
historical reading, one of his first purchases 
being a copy of Ralegh's ' History of the 
World.' He came under the influence of 
William Thorp (1771-1833), independent 
minister at Castle Green, Bristol, who trained 
him for the ministry. From Thorp he caught 
his early style of preaching, which was de- 
clamatory with much action. While still 
a student he was invited (1819) by the inde- 

pendent congregation, Angel Street, Wor- 
cester, accepted the call in April, and was 
ordained on 4 July, among his ordainers 
being William Jay [q. v.] and John Angell 
James [q. v.] He soon became popular, and 
in March 1825 accepted a call to Hornton 
Street, Kensington, in succession to John 
Leifchild [q. v.J By his ' Life and Opinions 
of John de Wycliffe, D.D., illustrated prin- 
cipally from his unpublished Manuscripts' 
(1828, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1831, 2 vols.), and his 
' Memorials of the Stuart Dynasty' (1831, 
8vo), he gained some repute as an historical 
writer. In IQOi he was appointed to the 
chair of history in University College, Lon- 
don (then known as the London University), 
and published his introductory lecture '* On 
the Study of General History,' 1834, 8vo. 
In the same year he delivered the ' congrega- 
tional lecture,' a series of disquisitions on 
the ' Causes of the Corruption of Chris- 
tianity/ 1834, 8vo. His connection with 
the London University brought him into 
relations with the whig leaders, and in- 
creased his influence as a preacher, drawing 
to his services persons of social position. 
In 1836 he received the diploma of D.D. 
from Glasgow University. He continued 
his historical labours on the * Protectorate 
of Oliver Cromwell,' 1838, 2 vols. 8vo, and 
' The History of England under the House 
of Stuart . . . 1603-88,' 1840, 8vo.' 

In 1843 he succeeded Gilbert Wardlaw as 
president and professor of theology in the 
Lancashire Independent College, removed 
(26 April) to new buildings at Whalley 
Range, Manchester. He published his in- 
augural discourse on ' Protestant Noncon- 
formity,' 1843, 8vo. Dissatisfied with the 
tone of the ' Eclectic Review,' which, under 
the editorship of Thomas Price, was fa- 
vouring the policy of Edward Miall [q. v.], 
he projected the * British Quarterly,' bring- 
ing out the first number in January 1845. 
During the twenty years of his editorship 
he kept it at a high level of intelligence, and 
while retaining its nonconformist character 
and its theological conservatism, admitted 
on other topics a wide range of writers of 
different schools. Some of his own contri- 
butions were collected in ( Essays on History, 
Philosophy, and Theology,' 1849, 2 vols. 

In 1846 Vaughan occupied the chair of the 
congregational union. Returning to the sub- 
ject of his first publication, he edited, for 
the-Wyclif Society, < Tracts and Treatises of 
John de Wycliffe . . . with . . . Memoir,' 1845, 
8vo, and published ' John de Wycliffe, D.D. : 
a Monograph,' 1853, 8vo. In August 1857 
the state of his health led him to resign his 




presidency of the Lancashire Independent 
College, when he was succeeded by Henry 
Rogers (1806-1877) [q. v.] After minister- 
ing for a short time to a small congregation 
at Uxbridge, Middlesex, he retired to St. 
John's Wood, and occupied himself with 
literary work, publishing l Revolutions in 
English History ' (1859-63, 3 vols. 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 1865, 8vo), and taking his part in the 
nonconformist publications occasioned by 
the bicentennial of the Uniformity Act of 
1662. His tract in reply to George Ven- 
ables's pamphlet questioning the right of the 
ejected ministers to a place in the English 
church bore the title Til tell you: an 
Answer to "How did they get there?"' 
(1862, 16mo). 

In 1867 he accepted a call to a newly 
formed congregation at Torquay. Scarcely 
had he removed thither when he was seized 
with congestion of the brain. He died at 
Torquay on 15 Junel 868, and wasburied there. 
He married (1822) Susanna Ryall of Mel- 
combe Regis, Dorset, and had several chil- 
dren. Robert Alfred Vaughan [q. v.] was 
his eldest son. His eldest daughter married 
Dr. Carl Buch, principal of the Govern- 
ment College at Bareilly, Upper India, who 
was murdered in 1857 at the outbreak of 
the Indian mutiny. 

Vaughan, whose portrait has been en- 
graved, was a man of striking presence and 
great platform power. Stoughton describes 
' the searching glance from under his knitted 
brow ' and ' his lordly bearing,' which ' cre- 
ated expectations rarely disappointed.' He 
valued nonconformity as a bulwark of evan- 
gelical religion, and did real service to his de- 
nomination by extending its literary culture. 
Besides works specified above and single 
sermons and speeches, he published : 1. ' The 
Christian Warfare,' 1832, 8vo. 2. < Thoughts 
on the . . . State of Religious Parties in Eng- 
land,' 1838, 12mo ; 1839, 8vo. 3. ' Congrega- 
tionalism ... in relation to ... Modern So- 
ciety,' 1842, 12mo ; two editions. 4. ' The 
Modern Persecutor Delineated,' 1842, 16mo 
(anon.) 5. ' The Modern Pulpit,' 1842, 12mo. 
0. ' The Age of Great Cities,' 1843, 12rno. 

7. ' Popular Education in England,' 1846, 
8vo (enlarged from the ' British Quarterly'). 

8. ' The Age of Christianity,' 1849, 12mo ; 
1853, 8vo. 9. ' The Credulities of Scepti- 
cism,' 1856, 8vo. 10. 'English Noncon- 
formity,' 1862, 12mo. 11. 'Ritualism in 
the English Church,' 1866, 8vo. 12. 'The 
Way to Rest,' 1866, 8vo. 13. < The Church 
and State Question' [1867], 8vo. 14. 'The 
Daily Prayer Book' [1868], 8vo. He edited 
in 1866 a folio edition of ' Paradise Lost,' 
with life of Milton. 

[Robert Vaughan, aMemorial, 1869 (portrait),* 
Congregational Year-book, 1869; Waddington's. 
Congregational Hist. (1800-50), 1878, pp. 318 
seq. ; Waddington's Congregational Hist. (1850- 
1880), 1880, pp. 8 seq. ; Stoughton's Religion in 
England (1800-50), 1884, ii. 278 ; Cal. of Asso- 
ciated Colleges, 1887, p. 116; Urwick's Noncon- 
formity in Worcester, 1897, pp. 120 seq., 205; 
Addison's Graduates of Univ. of Glasgow, 1898, 
p. 622.] A. G. 

(1823-1857), author of 'Hours with the 
Mystics,' eldest child of Robert Vaughan 
(1795-1868) [q. v.], was born at Worcester 
on 18 March 1823. He was a seven-months 
child, reared with difficulty, and never robust, 
though he reached a handsome manhood. 
His father began his education, and he 
entered University College school, London, 
in 1836 at the age of thirteen. Passing on 
to University College, he graduated at the 
age of nineteen (1842) B.A. with classical 
honours, in London University. He wrote 
verses, drew landscapes, and thought of tak- 
ing to art as a profession. But his prevailing* 
tastes were literary, and the life of the let- 
tered divine was congenial to his deeply re- 
ligious temperament. In 1843 he became a 
student in the Lancashire Independent Col- 
lege, under his father's presidency. Next 
year he put forth his first publication, ' The 
Witch of Endor, and other Poems,' 1844, 
12mo, his desire being ' to face criticism early.' 
His verse shows facility rather than promise. 
His father set him on reading Origen for an 
article for the ' British Quarterly ; ' when 
published (October 1845) it won the com- 
mendations of Sir James Stephen [q. v.] and 
Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd [q. v.] To the 
' London University Magazine ' he contri- 
buted in 1846 a dramatic piece, ' Edwin and 

Having finished his course in Manchester, 
and become engaged to be married, he spent 
a session (1846-7) at the university of 
Halle, coming under the influence of Julius 
Miiller and Tholuck. At this time his mind 
was somewhat morbidly introspective. The 
work of his life, he thought, was to be the 
production of a series of ecclesiastical dramas 
to illustrate the history of the church. 
Tholuck directed him to the study of philo- 
sophy, which gave tone to his mind. Be- 
tween June and October 1847 he travelled 
in Italy with his father. Early in 1848 he 
became assistant to William Jay [q. v.] at 
Argyle Chapel, Bath. His preaching was 
very acceptable to the bulk of the congre- 
gation. He expected to be ordained as 
colleague and successor to Jay, and resigned 
when difficulties were made about this ; his 




engagement ended on 24 March 1850. 
While at Bath he wrote articles for the 
' British Quarterly ' on Schleiermacher and 
Savonarola, and projected (March 1849) his 
work on the mystics. 

Accepting a call from Ebenezer Chapel, 
Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, he was or- 
dained there on 8 Sept. 1850. The chapel was 
too large for his physical powers ; he suffered 
from ill-health in the winter of 1851-2, and 
he overworked himself in his study. He was 
learning Spanish and Dutch (being already 
at home in French, German, and Italian) 
to gain access to the writings of mystics, 
and was contributing constantly to the 
* British Quarterly.' In the autumn of 

1854 he visited Glasgow, but declined a call 
to succeed Ralph Wardlaw [q. v.] He 
returned home ill, and was laid by for two 
months with pleurisy. In the spring of 

1855 symptoms of pulmonary disease were 
apparent ; he resigned his charge, preaching 
his last sermon on 24 June. In August he 
put to press his ' Hours with the Mystics/ 
published in March 1856, 2 vols. 8vo ; an 
enlarged edition appeared in 1860, edited by 
his father; a third edition in 1880, edited by 
his son, Wycliff'e Vaughan. 

As designed by himself, this series of 
dialogues, interspersed with studies in nar- 
rative form, was meant as a prelude to 
further work on the whole history of the 
church ; it has proved an introduction, of 
singular attractiveness and great permanent 
value, to a class of writers and thinkers 
never before presented to the English mind 
in such lifelike tints. The range of the 
survey is very wide, and the accuracy re- 
markable ; the power of selection and ease 
of compression exhibit equal grasp and skill, 
and the setting of the sketches is delightful. 

The brief remainder of his life was that of 
an invalid at Bournemouth, St. John's 
Wood, and Westbourne Park, London. 
Yet he was hard at work with his pen, con- 
tributing articles to 'Eraser's Magazine' 
(< Art and History,' October 1857) as well 
as to the ' British Quarterly.' He died at 
19 Alexander Street, Westbourne Park, on 
26 Oct. 1857. About 1848 he married the 
only child of James Finlay of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. The portrait prefixed to his ( Es- 
says and Remains/ 1858, 2 vols. 8vo, shows 
a noble forehead and a flowing mass of 
curly hair. As preacher his nearsighted- 
ness forbade him to use manuscript, nor 
could he commit to memory what he had 
written ; the quiet grace of his manner ac- 
corded with the ' rhythmical sweetness ' of 
his spoken discourse. His conversation was 
buoyant and full of a quaint humour. His 


sympathies were catholic ; in his essays on 
imaginative literature, and on phases of 
thought and action, he is less the critic than 
the communicator of his own keen enjoy- 
ment of his themes. Some of his letters will 
be found in ' Positive Religion/ 1857, 12mo, 
edited by Edward White. 

[Funeral Sermon, by Stallybrass, 1857; 
Memoir, by his father, prefixed to Essays and 
Remains, 1858, also separately, 1864 (en- 
larged); Biogr. Sketch by J. B. Paton in the 
Eclectic Review, September 1858; Sibree and 
Caston's Independency in Warwickshire, 1855, 
p. 185 ; Ur wick's Nonconformity in Worcester, 
1897, p. 205.] A. G. 

BEDE (1834-1883), catholic archbishop of 
Sydney, born at Courtfield, near Ross, Here- 
fordshire, on 9 Jan. 1834, was the younger 
brother of Cardinal Vaughan, being the 
second son of Colonel John Francis Vaughan 
of Courtfield, by his first wife, Elizabeth 
Louisa, daughter of John Rolls of the Hendre, 
Monmouthshire. At the age of six he was 
sent to a boarding-school at Monmouth, and 
in 1851 he entered the Benedictine College 
of St. Gregory at Downside, near Bath. 
There he received the Benedictine habit on 
12 Sept. 1853, and took the solemn vows of 
religion on 5 Oct. 1854. Afterwards he was 
sent to Rome to prosecute his theological 
studies in the abbey of St. Paul extra muros. 
He was ordained priest by Cardinal Patrizi 
on 9 April 1859. On his return to England 
he was placed in charge of the mission at 
Downside. In November 1861 he was nomi- 
nated to the professorship of metaphysics and 
moral philosophy at St. Michael's Priory, 
Belmont, near Hereford. In July 1862 he 
was appointed principal of the same priory 
of St. Michael under the title of cathedral 
prior of the diocesan chapter of Newport and 
Menevia. He held the office of prior until 
his appointment by Pius IX to the titular 
archbishopric of Nazianzus, as coadjutor, 
cum jure successionis, to John Bede Polding 

.v.], first archbishop of Sydney, New South 

"ales. He was consecrated at Liverpool 
on 9 March 1873 by Cardinal Manning. On 
the death of Dr. Polding on 16 March 1877 
he entered into full possession of the metro- 
politan see of Sydney, and he was solemnly 
invested with the pallium on 13 Jan. 1878. 
Leaving Australia for a visit to England in 
1883, he arrived at Liverpool on 16 Aug., 
proceeded on the following day to his uncle s 
at Ince Blundell Hall, Lancashire, where 
he died suddenly of disease of the heart on 
18 Aug. 1883. He was buried in the church 
at Ince Blundell Hall. 

Vaughan was an eloquent preacher and lee- 




turer, and acquired a high literary reputation 
by his elaborate work on : 1. ' The Life and 
Labours of St. Thomas of Aquin/ 2 vols. 
London, 1871-2, 8vo, an abridgment of 
which, by Dom Jerome Vaughan, was pub- 
lished at London, 1875, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1890. 
Among his other works are : 2. ' What does 
it profit a Man? University Education 
and the Memorialists. By the Son of a 
Catholic Country Squire/ 1865. In this he 
maintained the position that to send Catholic 
youths to Oxford and Cambridge was sure 
to result in the loss of the English catholic 
tradition. 3. ' English Catholic University 
Education,' in the ' Dublin Review/ October 
1867. 4. Introduction to an English trans- 
lation of Dom Prosper Gu6r anger's ' Defence 
of the Roman Church against Father Gratry/ 
London, 1870, 8vo. 5. 'Ecclesia Christi : 
Words at the opening of the Second Session 
of the Fourth Provincial Council of West- 
minster/ London, 1873, 8vo. 6. Oration on 
O'Connell, delivered on the occasion of his 
centenary in August 1875. 7. ' Hidden 
Springs ; or Perils of the Future, and how 
to meet them/ 1876. 8. ' Pius IX and the 
Revolution/ 1877. 9. ( Arguments for Chris- 
tianity/ a series of Lenten lectures, 1879. 
10. ' Pastorals and Speeches on Education/ 
Sydney, 1880. 11. 'Christ's Divinity/ a 
series of Lenten lectures, 1882. 

[Memoir by the Right Rev. J. C. Hedley, D.D., 
in the Downside Review, January 1884, iii. 
1-27 (with portrait), also published separately ; 
McCabe's Twelve Years in a Monastery, 1897, 
p. 201 ; Men of the Time, 1879, p. 981 ; Tablet, 
July to December 1883, pp. 283, 300, 301, 311.] 

T. C. 

VAUGHAN, ROWLAND (/. 1640), 
Welsh writer, was son and heir of John 
Vaughan of Caer Gai, Merionethshire, who 
was sheriff of that county in 1613-14 and 
1620-1, by his wife Ellen, daughter of Hugh 
Nanney of Nannau. The Vaughans of Caer 
Gai were a younger branch of the Vaughans 
of Llwydiarth, near Llanfyllin (DwNN, He- 
raldic Visitations, i. 227, ii. 291, 294; His- 
tory ofPowys Fadog, vi. 113-16). Born to- 
wards the end of the sixteenth century, he 
was for a short time at Oxford (preface to 
translation of tract by Despagne), probably, 
as Wood says (Athena O-row.), as an inmate 
of Jesus College, though the name does not 
seem to be in the matriculation register. By 
the death of his father he came, in December 
1629, into possession of Caer Gai, and in 
1642-3 was sheriff of Merioneth. On the 
outbreak of the civil war he actively espoused 
the king's cause, and fought as a captain at 
Naseby (Gwyliedydd, iv. 247). In August 
1645 his house at Caer Gai, which had been 

garrisoned for the king, was burnt by a par- 
liamentary force from Montgomeryshire, and 
the estate given to one of his kinsmen 
(Archceologia Cambrensis, 1st ser. i. 40 ; 
PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales, i. 342 ; ED- 
WARDS, Traethodau Llenyddol, p. 295). 
Vaughan himself was imprisoned in March 
1650, soon, however, to be released, for he 
was nominated on the grand jury of Me- 
rioneth in 1652, though he did not serve, 
owing to the objections of the parliamentary 
party (Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, i. 73; 
preface to translation of MAYNE'S Sermon). 
After living for many years in obscurity, he 
recovered his estates, though not without a 
protracted lawsuit, at the Restoration, and 
rebuilt Caer Gai, where he died early in the 
reign of Charles II. He married Jane, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Edward Price of Coed 
Prysg, an estate which adjoined Caer Gai, 
and had by her four sons John, Edward, 
Arthur, and Gabriel and four daughters, 
Ellen, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Mary. He 
was succeeded by his eldest son, John (born 
in 1616 or 1617), who was sheriff of Merio- 
neth in 1669-70. The estates of Caer Gai 
and Coed Prysg ultimately passed by sale 
to the Wynnstay family. 

Vaughan was a writer of Welsh verse, 
and the third edition of ( Carolau a Dyriau 
Duwiol ' (Shrewsbury, 1729) contains eight 
religious poems which are ascribed to him. 
In ' Blodeugerdd Cymru ' also (Shrewsbury, 
1759) a poem of his appears which deplores 
the evils of the civil war. He is, however, 
chiefly remembered as a translator into 
Welsh of manuals of devotion. In 1630 
appeared ' Yr Ymarfer o Dduwioldeb ' (Lon- 
don), a translation of Bishop Bayly's ' Prac- 
tice of Piety/ which became remarkably 
popular, and was reissued in 1656, 1675, 
1685, 1700, and 1710. During the Common- 
wealth period Vaughan was busy at several 
Welsh translations, all of which, it would 
seem, were published together in 1658. 
They were versions of: 1. 'A Catechism, 
by Archbishop Ussher.' 2. ' A Defence of 
the Use of the Lord's Prayer, by J. Des- 
pagne.' 3. ' A Sermon by Dr. Mayne 
against Schism/ preached in 1652. 4. 'A 
Book of Prayers, compiled by Dr. Brough ; r 
with two other works of which the originals 
are not easily to be identified. His earnest- 
ness and industry won for Vaughan the 
esteem of men of all parties in Wales, but 
he was not well equipped as a translator, 
and for the third edition the ' Ymarfer ' under- 
went extensive revision at the hands of 
Charles Edwards. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ; Edwards's Traetho- 
dau Llenyddol, pp. 292-309 ; Breese's Kalendars 




of G-wynedd; preface to Eos Ceiriog; Row- 
land's Cambrian Bibliography ; Ashton's Hanes 
Llenyddiaetk Gymreig.] J. E. L. 

VAUGHAN, STEPHEN (d. 1-549), 
diplomatist, was probably a native of 
London, and, as he speaks as though, he had 
known Dean Colet, may possibly have been 
educated at St. Paul's school. Probably 
his father, who was alive in 1535, was a 
member of the Mercers' Company, with 
which the school was connected, and Stephen 
himself became subsequently a merchant of 
London. About 1520 he made the ac- 
quaintance of Thomas Cromwell, possibly 
in the course of his mercantile pursuits, 
and at various times Cromwell seems to 
have lent him money. In March 1523-4 
he was in Cromwell's service, and he rose 
with the rise of his master. Through 
Cromwell's influence he was employed by 
Wolsey to l write the evidence ' for his 
college at Oxford (Letters and Papers, iv. 
2538, 5787). But he was mainly occupied 
with commercial pursuits ; he was a member 
of the company of merchant adventurers, 
and his business relations with Flanders 
necessitated frequent and prolonged visits 
to Antwerp. He was frequently entrusted 
with commissions on behalf of Cromwell 
and of Henry VIII, and about 1530 became 
royal agent or king's factor in the Nether- 
lands (BuEGON", Life and Times of Sir T. 
Gresham, i. 57). His principal duty was 
to negotiate loans with the Fuggers, and 
his salary seems to have consisted in the 
' fee penny,' or commission on the accounts 
he raised. 

Vaughan had already adopted the religious 
views of the English reformers, and in 
1529 he complains that John Hutton, the 
governor of the Merchant Adventurers' 
Company, actuated by jealousy, had insti- 
gated charges of heresy against him before 
the bishop of London and Sir Thomas 
More, and that More continually sought to 
obtain evidence against him (ib. iv. 5823). 
The influence of Cromwell, who in the will 
he made in 1529 left Vaughan a hundred 
marks, protected him, and on Button's 
death about 1534 Vaughan succeeded him 
as governor of the company. He also 
became, in succession to Sir John Hackett, 
president of the factory of English mer- 
chants at Antwerp, residing in what 
was called ' the English House.' In 1531 
he was charged by Henry VIII to persuade 
William Tyndale [q. y.J, the translator of 
the Bible, to retract his heretical opinions 
and return to England. He had various 
ineffectual interviews with Tyndale, fre- 

quently forwarded early copies of his books" 
to the king, and occasionally succeeded in 
delaying their publication. His efforts did 
not satisfy Henry VIII, who thought 
Vaughan ' bore too much affection towards 
Tyndale ; ' Vaughan had also interceded in 
Latimer's favour when he was cited before 
convocation in January 1531-2 ; and fresh 
charges of heresy were brought against him 
by one George Constantine in 1532. In 
reply to these Vaughan wrote an outspoken 
and courageous protest against Henry's 
persecution of the reformers. ' Instead of 
punishments, tortures, and death,' he de- 
clared, ' ridding the realm of erroneous 
opinions ... let the king be advertised 
from me that he will prove that it will 
cause the sect in the end to wax greater, 
and these errors to be more plenteously 
sowed in his realm ' (ib. v. 574). Neverthe- 
less, he was on 6 Aug. 1534 appointed ' to 
the office of writing the king's books lately 
held by Thomas Hall, deceased,' with a 
salary of 207. a year. 

In December 1532 Vaughan was sent on 
a mission to Paris and Lyons, and in August 
following accompanied Mont on his tour 
through Germany to report on the political 
situation in the various states [see MONT, 
CHEISTOPHEE]. His ignorance of German 
impaired his usefulness, and after visiting 
Nuremberg, Cologne, and Saxony, he re- 
turned to Antwerp in December, where he 
sought to effect the capture of William 
Peto [q. v.], the fugitive friar (cf. FEOTJDE, 
iv. 394). On 10 April 1534 he was appointed 
a clerk in chancery, an office which did not 
prevent his residence at Antwerp. In 
January 1535-6 he was in England, and 
was sent to watch over Chapuys during his 
interview with Catherine of Arragon, at 
Kimbolton, shortly before her death. In 
the following summer, when again at Ant- 
werp, he made strenuous efforts to save 
Tyndale from the flames. Soon afterwards 
he was given a position in the mint, of 
which he ultimately became under-treasurer 
(EuDiNG, Annals of the Coinage, i. 66). 
In 1538 he was sent with Wriothesley and 
Sir Edward Carne [q. v.] to negotiate 
respecting the intended marriage of Henry 
VIII with the Duchess of Milan (the stories 
in the Spanish CJiron. of Henry VIII, pp. 
89, 93, relative to a similar embassy regard- 
ing Anne of Cleves, seem to be fictitious). 
About the same time he became governor 
of the merchant adventurers of Bergen, 
and in 1541 he was sent with Carne to the 
regent of Flanders to procure the repeal of 
the restrictions on English commerce. In 
1544 he was granted the clerkship of drs- 

N 2 




pensations, and about the same time the 
priory of St. Mary Spital, Shoreditch 
(RYMEK, xv. 26 ; ELLIS, Shoreditch, p. 326). 
He retained his post as agent in the Nether- 
lands until September 1546, when he 
returned to England and occupied himself 
with his business as under-treasurer of the 
mint. On 26 Oct. 1547 he was returned to 
parliament for Lancaster. 

Vaughan died in London on 25 Dec. 
1549. He was twice married : first, to 
Margery Gwynneth or Guinet, whose brother, 
John Guinet, clerk, was his executor (Acts 
P. C. ii. 308) ; and, secondly, to Margery 
Brinclow, possibly a relative of Henry 
Brinkelow [q.v.] The second marriage was 
licensed on 27 April 1546, and apparently 
took place at Calais, in the chapel of the 
lord-deputy, Lord Cobham, who at Vaughan's 
request entertained the bride previous to 
the ceremony (Harleian MS. 283, f. 218). 
By his first wife Vaughan had three sur- 
viving children, two daughters and a son 
Stephen, who was twelve years old (cf. 
VENN, Biogr. Hist, of Gonville and Caius 
Coll. p. 37). Stephen inherited his father's 
property, consisting of twelve tenements in 
St. Mary Spital, Shoreditch, three in Watling 
Street, All Saints, one in St. Benedict's, 
and one in Westcheap ; he was father of 
Sir Rowland Vaughan, and grandfather of 
Elizabeth Vaughan, who married Paulet 
St. John, second son of Oliver St. John, 
first earl of Bolingbroke [q. v.] 

[Vaughan's correspondence is extant in the 
Record Office, and among the Cottonian and 
Harleian MSS., especially Nos. 283 and 284, in 
the British Museum ; a ' book ' which he wrote 
and sent to Cromwell, on commercial affairs in 
the Netherlands, does not seem to have been 
printed. See also Lansdowne MS. 109, f. 90; 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. ii-xv. ; 
State Papers, Henry VIII, 1 1 vols. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Spanish, vol. v. pt. i. pp. 2, 3, 17; 
Ellis's Orig. Letters, 3rd ser. ii. 141, 171, 200, 
206, 208, 215, 221, 281 ; Rymer's Fcedera, xv. 
26, 101 ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, 
vols. i. and ii. ; London Inquisitions post mortem 
(Index Library), i. 8.5-7 ; Chester's Lond. Marr. 
Licences; Visit, of London (Harl. Soc.), ii 
309 ; Official Return of Members of Parl. ; 
Ty ndale's Works (Parker Soc. ) , passim ; Demaus's 
Life of Tyndale, ed. 1886; Burgon's Life and 
Times of Gresham, i. 57-63, 73, 74, 91 ; Lit. 
Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club).] 

A. F. P. 

soldier, was probably youngest illegitimate 
son of Sir Roger Vaughan of Tretower, son 
of Sir Roger Vaughan (d. 1415), by an illegi- 
timate daughter of Prior Coch (the redheaded) 
of the monastery of Abergavenny (Meyrick in 

DWNN'S Heraldic Visitation of Wales, i. 42 ; 
JONES, Brecknockshire, iii. 506; NICHOLS, 
Grants of Edward V, p. xv; but cf. Poems 
of Lewis Glyn Cothi, ed. Jones, p. 44). He 
must be carefully distinguished from the 
Thomas Vaughan of the true line of Herast 
who was killed at the battle of Banbury, 
1469, and is celebrated by Glyn Cothi 
(Poems, p. 16) ; from the Sir Thomas 
Vaughan who distinguished himself at Bos- 
worth (cf. CAMPBELL, Materials for the 
History of Henry VII, ii. 126, 157, 252) ; 
and seemingly from a Thomas Vaughan who 
was master of the ordnance in 1450. 

Vaughan was a great warrior in the wars 
of the roses, taking the Yorkist side. Glyn 
Cothi (Poems, p. 47), writing in 1483, speaks 
of his having fought eighteen battles for 
Edward IV. In 1455 he was exempted from 
an act of resumption ; he had then two 
houses in London. He was attainted, like 
other Yorkists, in 1459. When Edward be- 
came king, Vaughan was made a yeoman of 
the crown, a squire of the king's body, and 
then treasurer of the king's chamber. He 
also held at some time the office of comp- 
troller of the coinage of tin in Cornwall and 
Devonshire. He was exempted from an act 
of resumption in 1464, and from an act of 
apparel in 1482. On 4 Feb. 1470 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to deliver 
the Garter to Charles the Bold. That Ed- 
ward trusted him entirely may be seen from 
his having appointed him in 1471 chamberlain 
and councillor to the young Prince Edward, 
and he carried the prince in September 1472 
at the ceremonial attending the reception of 
Lewis de Bruges Seigneur dela Gruthuyse at 
Windsor. He was knighted on Whitsunday 
1475. At the time of Edward IV's death, 
Vaughan was with the young prince at Lud- 
low, as were Rivers, Grey, Haute, and others. 
On the journey to London, by order of the 
council, they were met by Richard and 
Buckingham, who seized them at Stony Strat- 
ford, and hurried them off to the north of 
England. Vaughan was tried before the Earl 
of Northumberland and a court probably of 
northern peers, and executed at Pontefract 
about 23 June 1483. The matter was man- 
aged, doubtless roughly enough, by Sir Ri- 
chard Radcliffe [q. v.] Vaughan was buried 
in the chapel of St. John the Baptist, West- 
minster Abbey, where there is a monument 
to his memory. It is curious that Glyn 
Cothi, who wrote two odes to him in 1483, 
thought that he was about to support Ri- 
chard. But it may be that the words were 
really addressed to the Sir Thomas Vaughan 
of the right line, as Jones assumes, which 
we may accept without following Jones to 




the extent of regarding that Sir Thomas as 
the chamberlain of Edward V. 

Vaughan married Alianor or Eleanor, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir Thomas Arun- 
del of Betchworth, Surrey, and widow of 
Sir Thomas Browne, under-treasurer of the 
household to Henry VI. By her he had a 
daughter Anne, married to Sir John Wogan, 
and a son Henry, whose son, Sir Thomas, 
taking the name of Parry, is separately 

[Authorities quoted; More's Life of Eichard 
III, ed. Lumby, p. 18 ; Polydore Vergil's Hist. 
Engl. ed. 1557, p. 540; Acts of the Privy 
Council, vi. 94 ; Stanley's Memorials of West- 
minster Abbey, p. 180; Metcalfe's Knights, 
p. 5 ; Lodge's Illustrations of British Hist. i. 
302, iii. 388 ; Gal. of Inquisitions post mortem, 
Hen. VII, p. 256; Gardner's Richard III; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York, vol. ii. ; Markham 
in Engl. Hist. Rev. vi. 264 ; Rot. Parl. v. 316, 
349, 350, 369, 534, 587, 590, 592, vi. 93, 221.] 

W. A. J. A. 

VAUGHAN, THOMAS (1622-1666), 
alchemist and poet, was son of Thomas 
Vaughan (d. 1658) of Llansaintffraed, Bre- 
conshire, and was born at Newton or Scethrog 
in that parish on 17 April 1622. Thomas, 
with his elder twin-brother, Henry Vaughan 
' Silurist ' [q. v.], was educated in the first 
instance under Matthew Herbert, rector of 
Llangattock (1632-8). On 14 Dec. 1638 
Thomas matriculated from Jesus College, Ox- 
ford. He graduated B.A. on 18 Feb. 1642, 
and was made fellow of his college. In 1640 
he seems to have been presented to the living 
of St. Bridget's, Breconshire, by a distant 
relative, Sir George Vaughan of Fullerstone 
in Wiltshire. He adhered to the royal cause 
during the civil wars, retired to Oxford, and 
bore arms for the king. Consequently about 
1658 he was accused of ' drunkenness, swear- 
ing, and incontinency, being no preacher,' and 
was apparently deprived of St. Bridget's. 
He became a devoted student of chemistry, 
and pursued his researches both in Oxford 
and afterwards in London under the patron- 
age of Sir Robert Murray (d. 1673) [q. v.] 
He died on 27 Feb. 1665-6 while staying at 
the rectory of Albury, Oxfordshire. The 
cause of his death is thought to have been 
the inhalation of the fumes of mercury upon 
which he was experimenting. He was buried 
at Albury on 1 March following. Iti is appa*- 

<Jii Mai'tli 1665-6; He is there described 
as ' of Cropredy in Oxfordshire ; ' his son 
William was his sole executor. Vaughan 
married his wife, Rebecca, on 28 Sept. 1651. 

She died on 


April 1658atMftppc-^"" 

Bedfordshire, where she was buried on the 

Vaughan was an attached disciple of Cor- 
nelius Agrippa, ' to whom in matters of philo- 
sophy he acknowledged that, next to God, 
he owed all that he had ' (Wooo). In his 
' Anthroposophia Theomagica ' he speaks of 
him as 

Nature's apostle and her choice high priest, 
Her mystical and bright evangelist. 

With the philosophy of Aristotle he was 
entirely out of sympathy, and his attitude 
towards that of Descartes was hostile. 

Having made some disparaging remarks 
in his * Anima Magica Abscondita ' on the 
' Psychodia Platonica' of Henry More (1614- 
1687) [q. v.], a controversy between the two 
authors ensued. More (under the pseudonym 
of Alazonomastix Philalethes) published in 
1650 his ' Observations upon Anthropo- 
sophia Theomagica and Anima Magica Abs- 
condita,' in which he accused Vaughan of 
being a magician, cast a slur on his sense of 
morality, and resented his treatment of 
Aristotle and his followers. Vaughan vindi- 
cated himself in ' The Man-Mouse taken in 
a Trap' (1650), and was again answered by 
More in ' The Second Lash of Alazonomastix' 
(1651). Vaughan had the last word in 
'The Second Wash' (1651). The contro- 
versy was characterised by much virulence 
and petty acridities which accord little with 
the tone of the rest of Vaughan ? s writings. 
Elsewhere in both his prose and verse there 
is to be discerned a passionate craving for a 
solution of the mysteries of nature. He 
himself claimed to be a philosopher of nature 
and no mere student of alchemy, which in 
the * common acceptation ' of the term meant 
no more than 'a torture of metals.' On 
such mistaken lines he confesses to have 
wandered in his early efforts. Vaughan's 
mysticism finds quaint expression in some 
diurnal jottings which he set down at the 
back of a manuscript of his in the British 
Museum, entitled ' Aqua Vitse ; Non Vitis ; 
or the Radical Humiditie of Nature mechani- 
cally and magically dissected ' (Addit. MS. 
1741). In these jottings he relates strange 
dreams and premonitions that had befallen 
him, and frequently prays for forgiveness 
for the errors of his past life, especially in 
connection with ' a certain person with whom 
I had in former times revelled away many 
years in drinking.' Vaughan is frequently 
said to have been a Rosicrucian,but the state- 
ment would appear to have been founded on 
the fact of his having published a translation 
(by an unknown hand) of the ' Fama,' with 
a preface of his own (London, 1652). In 




his preface he distinctly states that he had 
no relations with the fraternity, neither did 
he much desire their acquaintance. 

His life and work have made varying 
impressions. Dibdin, in his notes to Sir 
Thomas More's 'Utopia' (1808, p. 441), 
though avoiding any statement of opinion 
as to the subject-matter of ' Magia Adamica,' 
considers the style and learning of the author 
to be admirable, and comments on his pre- 
dilection for forcible metaphor. Wotton, on 
the other hand, in his notes to Swift's ' Tale 
of a Tub' (1867, p. 153), pronounces ' Anthro- 
posophia Magica ' to be ' a piece of the most 
unintelligible fustian that perhaps was ever 
published in any language.' The first part of 
Samuel Butler's ' Character of an Hermetic 
Philosopher ' ( Genuine Remains, ed. Thyer, 
1759) is obviously drawn from Vaughan, 
as are some traits in the character of Ralph 
in ' Hudibras ' (edit. 1761, p. 19). Vaughan's 
verses, both English and Latin, are tinged 
with genuine poetic feeling. 

His published works appeared almost en- 
tirely under the pseudonym of Eugenius 
Philalethes. They include : 1 . ' Anthropo- 
sophia Theomagica,' with ' Anima Magica 
Abscondita,' London, 1650 ; Amsterdam, 
1704 (in German) ; Leipzig and Hof, 1749 
(in German) ; London, 1888, in Waite's 
' Magical Writings.' 2. ' Magia Adamica ; 
or the Antiquities of Magic,' London, 1650, 
1656 ; Amsterdam, 1704 (in German) ; 
Leipzig and Hof, 1749 (in German) ; 
London, 1888 (in 'Magical Writings'). 
3. ' The Man-Mouse taken in a Trap,' Lon- 
don, 1650. 4. < The Second Wash ; or the 
Moore scour'd once more,' London, 1651. 
5. ' Lumen de Lumine,' London, 1651 ; Hof, 
1750 (in German). 6. ' Aula Lucis; or the 
House of Light,' London, 1652 (under the 
pseudonym ' S. N., a Modern Speculator ') ; 
Hamburg and Frankfort, 1690 (in Lange's 
* Wunderliche Begebenheiten,' part ii., in 
German); Nuremberg, 1731 (in Scholtz's 
' Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum,' in Ger- 
man). 7. ' Euphrates ; or the Waters of 
the East,' London, 1655,1671; Stockholm 
and Hamburg, 1689 (in German) ; Nurem- 
burg, 1727 (in Scholtz's ' Deutsches Thea- 
trum Chemicum,' in German). 8. ' The 
Chy mists Key to shut, and to open ; or the 
True Doctrine of Corruption and Generation,' 
London, 1657. 

Langlet du Fresnoy assigns to Vaughan 
' Abyssus Alchymige Exploratus' (Hamburg, 
1705), which is a translation of ' The Open 
Entrance to the Closed Palace of the King,' 
by Eirenseus Philalethes (see below) ; and 
Halkett and Laing mention a work called 
' The Retort. By the Author,' London, 1761 . 

He wrote verses for Thomas Powell's 
' Elementa Opticae,' London, 1651, for the 
English translation of Cornelius Agrippa's 
' Three Books of Occult Philosophy,' London, 
1651, and for William Cartwright's Come- 
dies,' London, 1651. 

A collection of Thomas's Latin verses was 
printed at the end of Henry Vaughan's 
1 Thalia Rediviva/ London, 1678. Some of 
his English poems, which are scattered 
through his prose works, were included in 
Tutin's l Secular Poems of Henry Vaughan,' 
Hull, 1893, and a large (perhaps complete) 
collection of both English and Latin is 
printed in Grosari's ' Works of Henry 
Vaughan' in the ' Fuller Worthies' Library.' 

Vaughan must be carefully distinguished 
from the mystical writer who assumed the 
pseudonym of Eirenseus Philalethes, a list of 
whose works is given at the end of the 
notice of George Starkey [q. v.] (cf. Sloane 
MS. 646, if. 1-5). Vaughan's identity with 
this strange person has been pressed by an 
alleged descendant, calling herself Diana 
Vaughan, in ' Memoires d'une Ex-Palla- 
diste,' No. 4, October 1895, published in 
Paris, where wild assertions of morbid credu- 
lity are repeated, including the legendary 
pact between Satan and Thomas Vaughan, 
signed 25 March 1645. 

[Wood's Athense, iii. col. 722 ; Jones's Hist. 
of Brecknock, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 507, 540, 546; 
Kawl. MS. A. 11, 335; Thurloe State Papers, 
ii. 120 ; Foster's Alumni ; Aubrey's Brief Lives, 
ed. Clarke, 1898, ii. 268-9; Grosart's Edition 
of the Works of Henry Vaughan, vol. i. pp. xxv- 
xxviii, xxxv-xli, vol. ii. pp. 298-9, 301, 303, 
311-15 ; Saturday Eev. 22 Oct. 1887 ; Walker's 
Sufferings, pt. ii. p. 389 ; Waite's Magical Writ- 
ings of Thomas Vaughan, passim ; Langlet du 
Fresnoy's Histoire de la Philosophic Hermetique, 
iii. 266 ; biographical note by Mr. E. K. Cham- 
bers prefixed to vol. ii. of the ' Muses' Library' 
edition of the Poems of Henry Vaughan, pp. 
xxxiv et seq.] B. P. 

VAUGHAN, THOMAS (ft. 1772- 
1820), dramatist, son of a lawyer, was edu- 
cated in the same profession. He obtained 
the post of clerk to the commission of 
peace of the city of Westminster, and 
about 1782 became captain of a company of 
the Westminster volunteers. He had a 
great partiality for the stage, and devoted 
much of his leisure to dramatic literature. 
In 1772 he wrote a series of essays in the 
' Morning Post ' on the Richmond Theatre. 
In 1776 he produced a farce entitled ' Love's 
Metamorphoses,' which was acted for Mrs. 
Wrighten's benefit at Drury Lane on 
15 April. It was afterwards rejected by 
Kemble, manager of Drury Lane, in 1789, 




and by George Colman the younger, mana- 
ger of the Ilaymarket, in 1791. Vaughan 
published it in 1791, under the title * Love's 
Vagaries ' (London, 4to), with a dedication 
to the rejectors. In 1776 he published 
another farce, entitled ' The Hotel, or the 
Double Valet' (London, 4to), which ap- 
peared atDrury Lane on 21 Nov. His next 
dramatic venture was ' Deception,' a politi- 
cal comedy, which was acted at Drury 
Lane on 28 Sept. 1784. None of Vaughan's 
plays possessed much merit, and they met 
with no success. He was the author of a 
novel entitled ' Fashionable Follies ' (Lon- 
don, 1782), which had some vogue ; he 
republished it in 1810 with considerable 
additions, and with a dedication to Colman, 
with whom he had formerly quarrelled, and 
who bestowed on him the nickname of 
* Dapper.' < The Retort' (London, 1761, 
4to), a reply to Churchill's ' Rosciad,' which 
contained an allusion to Vaughan as ' Dap- 
per,' is also assigned to him (LoAVE, Engl. 
Theatrical Lit. ; Rosciad, ed. Lowe, 1891, 
p. 31). He was a friend of Sheridan, and 
is said to have been the original of Dangle 
in the ' Critic. The date of his death is not 

[European Mag. 1782, i. 30, 58; Baker's 
Biogr. Dram. ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage, v. 494, 
546, vi. 332.] E. I. C. 

VAUGHAN, THOMAS (1782-1843), 
vocalist, born in Norwich in 1782, was a 
chorister of the cathedral under John Christ- 
mas Beckwith [q. v.] His father died while 
Vaughan, still very young, was preparing 
to enter the musical profession, which he 
was enabled to do under the advice and 
patronage of Canon Charles Smith. In June 
1799 Vaughan was elected lay-clerk of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, where he attracted 
the notice of George III. On 28 May 1803 
he was admitted a gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, and about the same time became 
vicar-choral of St. Paul's and lay vicar of I 
Westminster Abbey. In 1811 he joined j 
Charles Knyvett [q. v.] in establishing vocal | 
subscription concerts, in opposition to the 
Vocal concerts ; but on the death of Samuel | 
Harrison [q. v.] in 1812 the two enterprises 
were merged, and Vaughan stepped into the 
position of principal tenor soloist at all the 
prominent concerts and festivals. He sang 
at the Three Choirs festivals from 1805 to j 
1836, and took part in the production of ! 
Beethoven's Choral Symphony in 1825. For 
twenty-five years the public recognised in 
him the typical faultless singer of the Eng- ; 
lish school, perfected by the study of oratorio ! 
music. With distinct enunciation, pure in- 

tonation, and severe elegance, Vaughan 
reigned supreme until a more versatile and 
energetic reading of classical as well as 
modern music was introduced by John Bra- 
ham [q. v.], who, however, was never ad- 
mitted to the frigid region of the Ancient 

Vaughan died at a friend's house near 
Birmingham, on 9 Jan. 1843, and was buried 
on the 17th in the west cloister of West- 
minster Abbey. He married in 1806 Miss 
| Tennant, a soprano singer well known from 
1797 in oratorio performances. After some 
nine or ten years of married life they sepa- 
rated, and Mrs. Vaughan was heard, as 
Mrs. Tennant, at Drury Lane Theatre. 

[Hist, of Norfolk, 1829, p. 1089; Phillips'* 
Memoirs, pp. 141, 149 ; Gent. Mag. 1843, i. 212; 
Athenaeum, 1843, p. 39; Musical World, 1843, 
p. 20 ; Quarterly Musical Mag. vols. ii. v. vi. ; 
Annals of the Three Choirs, pp. 82-8 ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music, iv. 233, 319.] L. M. M. 

VAUGHAN, WILLIAM (1577-1641), 
poet and colonial pioneer, born in 1577, 
was the second son of Walter Vaughan of 
Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire [see under 
BEET]. Sir Henry Vaughan (1587 P-1659 ?) 
[q. v.] was his brother. William matricu- 
lated, along with his brother John, from 
Jesus College, Oxford, on 4 Feb. 1591-2, and 
graduated BA. on 1 March 1594-5, and 
M.A. on 16 Nov. 1597. He supplicated for 
B.C.L. on 3 Dec. 1600, but before taking 
the degree he went abroad, travelled in France 
and Italy, and visited Vienna, where he pro- 
ceeded LL.D., being incorporated at Oxford 
on 23 June 1605. He was sheriff of Carmar- 
thenshire for 1616. 

Soon after his return he married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heiress of David ap 
Robert of Llangyndeyrn, where he there- 
upon settled at a house now called Torcoed, 
or, as he fancifully spelt it, Terra-Coed. By 
her he had one son, Francis, who appears to 
have died young. In January 1608 the 
house was struck by lightning and his wife 
killed, though Vaughan himself ' miracu- 
lously escaped.' As a result, spiritual 
thoughts so absorbed his mind that appa- 
rently he suffered for a time from religious 
mania, while most of his subsequent work 
bears evidence of strong religious feeling. 
' Disgracefull libelles ' were, however, * dis- 
persed farre and nigh ' about his wife's death. 
To refute these Vaughan wrote a strangely 
mystical work, which he entitled ' The Spirit 
of Detraction coniured and contacted in 
Seven Circles: a Work both Divine and 
Morall, fit to be perused by the Libertines 




of this Age, who endeavour by their detract- 
ing and derogatory Speeches to embezell the 
Glory of God and the Credit of their Neigh- 
bours ' (London, 1611, 4to). What appear 
to have been ' remainders ' of this work were 
reissued in 1630, but with the substituted 
title of ' The Arraignment of Slander, Per- 
iury, Blasphemy, and other Malicious 

Vaughan's attention was, however, soon 
directed to other matters of great public in- 
terest. In 1610 James I had granted to ' a 
company of adventurers,' consisting of the 
Earl of Northampton, Sir Francis Bacon, 
and forty-six other associates, considerable 
territory in Newfoundland for purposes of 
colonisation. In 1616 Vaughan purchased 
from the grantees a part of their land, and 
in the following year ' I transported thither,' 
he says, ' certayne colonies of men and 
women at my owne charge ; after which, 
finding the burthen too heavy for my weake 
shoulders, I assigned the Northerly propor- 
tion of my grant unto . . . Viscount Falk- 
land,' and a further portion somewhat later, 
probably in 1620, to Sir George Calvert 
(afterwards Lord Baltimore). In 1618 
Vaughan sent out a second batch of settlers 
under the command of R. Whitbourne, 
whom he appointed governor for life of the 
undertaking (cf. WHITBOURNE, A Discourse 
and Discovery of Newfoundland, 1620 ; OLD- 
MIXON, Brit. Empire in America, 1741, i. 8). 

In compliment to Wales, Vaughan had 
given his settlement the name of Cambriol, 
while its place-names included Vaughan's 
Cove, Golden Grove, and the names of all the 
counties of South Wales except Radnor (see 
MASON'S Map), all of which have since dis- 
appeared. The settlement was situated on 
the south coast at the head of Trepassey 
Bay, and had been ' expressly planned on 
such a scale as to make agricultural pur- 
suits and the fishing mutually depend on 
each other ' (BONNYCASTLE). 

Ill-health had prevented Vaughan from 
accompanying the earliest settlers, but he 
appears to have gone out himself' after the 
return of Whitbourne in 1622. He had, how- 
ever, returned to England by 1625, bringing 
with him two works ready for publication. 
One was a Latin poem, written under the 
pseudonym of ' Orpheus Junior,' in celebra- 
tion of the marriage of Charles I, under the 
title of ' Cambrensium Caroleia ' (London, 
1625, 8vo. This extremely rare book the 
only known copy being that at the British 
Museum also contains a map of Newfound- 
land by Captain John Mason (1586-1635) 
[q. v.] 

To the other work, which was published 

in 1626, Vaughan gave the title of 'The 
Golden Fleece . . . transported from Cam- 
brioll Colchios, By Orpheus Junior ' (Lon- 
don, 4to). This has been described as l a 
compound of truth and fiction, of quaint 
prose and quainter verse ' (RiCH, Cat. of 
Books relating principally to America, p. 
45), and is written after a fantastic plan, 
also used by Boccalini, according to which 
a succession of historical characters present, 
in the court of Apollo, bills of complaint 
against the evils of the age, and finally the 
Golden Fleece, which is to restore all worldly 
happiness, is discovered in Newfoundland, of 
which country much detailed information is 
therefore given. This work ranks among 
the earliest contributions to English litera- 
ture from America (see Encycl. Brit. 9th 
edit. i. 720, s.v. 'American Literature'). 
These works were chiefly intended to ad- 
vertise the colony, or, as the author states 
elsewhere, ' to stirre up our Ilanders Mindes 
to assist and support the Newfound Ile. r 
His efforts were warmly appreciated by his 
fellow-adventurers, and Robert Hayman in 
his ' Quodlibets . . . from Newfoundland ' 
(London, 1628) addressed two of his epi- 
grams to Vaughan. JIayman himself is in 
turn addressed in verse by ' poore Cambriol's 
lord,' who, according toWood(loc. cit.), must 
have been living out there at the time. 

He was, however, again in England in 
1630, settling his private affairs, which he 
would have ' chiefly to rely upon untill the 
Plantation be better strengthened.' His 
hopes for the future of the colony were 
doomed to disappointment, chiefly owing to 
its severe winters. He died at Torcoed io 
August 1641, and was buried in Llangyn- 
deyrn churchyard, l without vain pomp,' as 
enjoined in his will (which was dated 14 Aug., 
and was proved on 29 Aug. 1641). 

Vaughan married, for his second wife, 
Anne, only child of John Christmas of Col- 
chester. She died on 15 Aug. 1672, at the age 
of eighty-four, and was buried in St. Peter's 
Church, Carmarthenshire, close to the altar, 
where her monument and kneeling effigy are 
still to be seen (SPURRELL, Carmarthen, pp. 
187, 202). By her he had five daughters and 
one son, Edward, who was admitted a stu- 
dent of Gray's Inn on 19 March 1632-3, and 
was probably the person of that name knighted 
at Oxford on 24 Nov. 1643 (METCALFE, 
Kniyhts}. He took a leading part in negotia- 
ting with General Laugharne the cessation of 
hostilities in Carmarthenshire on the submis- 
sion of that county to parliament in October 
1645 (PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales, ii. 274- 
278). He married Jemima, daughter of Nicho- 
las Bacon of Shrubland Hall, near Ipswich. 




Fourth in direct descent from them was 
John Vaughan, the last male representative 
of the family, who in 1804 bequeathed the 
whole of the Vaughan estates, with the 
house at Golden Grove, to John Campbell, 
first baron Cawdor [see under VAUGHAN, 
RICHARD, second EARL OP CARBERY, ad Jin.] 

1 Though indifferently learned ' in law, in 
which faculty he had taken his degree, yet 
Vaughan ' went beyond most men of his 
time for Latin especially and English poetry ' 
(WOOD). He was also greatly attracted 
' ever since his childhood ' to the study of 
medicine, and wrote on the subject, whence, 
coupled with his degree of ' doctor,' he has 
often been erroneously described as a physi- 
cian (APPLETON, Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr. vi. 
268; DRAKE, Diet, of Amer. Biogr. p. 940). 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Vaughan was the author of the following : 
1. ( Epa>ro7rcu'yi/ioz> pium : Continens Canticum 
Canticorum Salomonis, et Psalmos aliquot 
selectiores,' part i., London, 1597, 16mo ; part 
ii. 1598, 8vo. 2. * Poematum Libellus ; ' 
containing (i) an ode to Robert, earl of 
Essex (to whom the book is also dedicated) ; 
(ii) ' De Sphserarum Ordine ; ' and (iii) ' Palae- 
monis Amoris Philosophici,' London, 1598, 
8vo. 3. ' Speculum humanse condicionis, in 
Memoriam patris sui . . . Gualteri Vaughanni,' 
London, 1598, 8vo. 4. ' The Golden Grove 
moralised, in three Bookes : a Work very 
necessary for all such as would know how to 
gouerne themselves, their houses, or their 
countrey,' London, 1600; 2nd edit, (en- 
larged), 1608, 8vo. This work, which is 
perhaps the most interesting of Vaughan's 
performances, throws much light on the 
manners and diversions of the age, which as 
a rule he criticises with severity. 5. i Na- 
turall and Artificiall Directions for Health 
derived from the best Philosophers, as well 
Moderne as Ancient,' London, 1600, 12mo; 
reprinted in black letter, 1602, 8vo; 3rd 
edit, (revised and enlarged), 1607, 16mo; 4th 
edit. 1613; 5th edit, (with dedication to Sir 
Francis Bacon), 1617 ; 6th edit, (dedicated 
to William, earl of Pembroke, and contain- 
ing two other treatises by other writers on 
diseases of the eyes), 1626, 4to ; 7th edit. 
1633, 4to. 6. 'The Newfound Politicke,' 
&c., London, 1626, 4to. This was a trans- 
lation from the Italian of Trajano Boccalini's 
'Ragguagli di Parnaso.' The book is in 
three parts, Vaughan, who was responsible 
for its publication, having himself translated 
the third part only, to which he also ap- 
pended a translation of ' The Duke of Hernia, 
his Speech in the Councill of Spaine.' The 
whole is intended as an earnest though in- 
direct warning by a protestant against con- 

cluding any alliance with Spain, and is de- 
dicated to the king, whom the author pro- 
phetically reminds of the verse, ' Tune tua 
res agitur paries cum proximus ardet.' 
7. 'The Newlanders Cure,' London, 1630, 
8vo. This is a medical work, treating of 
the complaints most prevalent in Newfound- 
land, with an autobiographical dedication to 
the author's brother, which was reprinted 
almost unabridged in the ' North American 
Review' for March 1817 (iv. 289-95). 8. 'The 
Church Militant, historically continued from 
the Yeare of our Saviours Incarnation 33 
untill this Present 1640,' London, 1640, 8vo. 
9. ' The Soules Exercise in the Daily Con- 
templation of our Saviours Birth, Life, Pas- 
sion, and Resurrection/ London, 1641, 8vo. 
The two last mentioned are bulky books, 
written in verse, the latter being dedicated 
to both the king and queen. 

There was another colonial pioneer named 
WILLIAM VAUGHAN (d. 1719), who also 
came much in contact, at a later date, with 
another Captain Mason. He was of Welsh 
extraction, but bred in London under Sir 
Josiah Child, who had a great regard for 
him. He emigrated to New England, and 
his name first appears in the records of Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, under date of 
8 March 1666-7. On the establishment of 
provincial government in that colony, 
Vaughan was nominated on 18 Sept. 1679 
to be one of the councillors of the province, 
which office he appears to have held till 
1716. From 1683 he bore the brunt of a 
most persistent attempt made by a Captain 
Mason to obtain possession of a large tract 
of land in Portsmouth. He died in 1719 
(' Memoir ' in New Hampshire Hist. Soc. Col- 
lections, viii. 318 et seq., with Vaughan's 
autograph at p. 325; BELKNAP, Hist, of New 
Hampshire, ch. vi-xi., CAPTAIN MASON, ut 
infra, pp. 122, 126, 354). 

[There is much autobiographical matter con- 
tained in Vaughan's Works, especially in the 
Grolden Fleece and the preface to the New- 
landers Cure. As to his settlement, see Whit- 
bourne's Discourse (cited in text), Purchas his 
Pilgrimes (iv. 1888), Bonnycastle's Newfound- 
land in 1842 (i. 73-4), and Memoirs of Captain 
John Mason, published by the Prince Society, 
Boston, 1887, pp. 138-42, 163-5. See also art. 
on JOHN MASON, (1586-1635). See also^Wpod's 
Athense Oxon. ii. 444 ; Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen, p. 514 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. vol. 
xxx. As to his genealogy, see the authorities 
cited for the article on VATJUHAN, RICHARD, second 


1649), royalist governor of Shrawardine 
Castle, probably belonged to one of the 


1 86 


Shropshire or Herefordshire families of that 
name. He appears to have been serving 
in the Irish campaign of 1643, for towards 
the end of the following January the Mar- 
quis of Ormonde despatched him (already 
described as Sir William) from Dublin at the 
head of some 160 horse, with which he landed 
early in February 1643-4 at Neston in 
Cheshire (PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales 
and the Marches, ii. 125, 137-8; CARTE, 
Life of Ormonde, iii. 44 ; SYMONDS, Diary, 
p. 255 ; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. 
p. 557). Having joined the royalist forces at 
Chester under Lord Byron, he probably 
took part in most of the engagements which 
occurred in that district during the en- 
suing summer. In September he accom- 
panied Byron to the relief of Montgomery, and 
' was the occasion of fighting the enemy in 
that place, but,' according to Byron himself, 
' contributed not much to the action,' the 
royalists being in fact completely routed on 
the 18th (PHILLIPS, ii. 209). 

About this time he was appointed 
governor of Shrawardine Castle in Shrop- 
shire, which he garrisoned on 28 Sept. ; but 
early next month he was surprised and taken 
prisoner by Mytton, while on his knees 
receiving the sacrament in Shrawardine 
church. He was allowed to re-enter the 
castle on the pretext of persuading a sur- 
render, but, breaking his parole, he caused 
the drawbridge to be raised and refused to 
come forth (' True Informer,' No. 51, quoted 
in PHILLIPS, i. 267 ; WEBB, Civil War in 
Herefordshire, ii. 133). During the follow- 
ing winter, being now general of Shrop- 
shire, he quartered his own regiment in the 
various garrisons of the county, and seems 
to have placed his brother James, * a parson,' 
in command of Shrawardine (SYMONDS, p. 
256). He continued to harass the parlia- 
mentarians in the district, and is said not to 
have been over-scrupulous as to the con- 
fiscation of their property (PHILLIPS, loc. cit. ; 
WEBB, ii. 265), on which account, perhaps, he 
was given the name of ' the Devil of Shra- 
wardine' (Mercurius Aulicus, 1 Feb. 1644). 
When the king in May 1645 marched from 
Oxford towards Chester, he was met on the 
17th at Newport, Shropshire (WEBB, ii. 186, 
says Evesham), by Vaughan, who had left 
Shrawardine ' with his coach and six horses, 
his wife and other weomen, all with their 
portmanteals furnished for a longe march' 
(loc. cit.), having on his way thither worsted 
some Shrewsbury horse near Wenlock 
(PHILLIPS, i. 294-5), though he was himself 
defeated by Cromwell on 27 April at Bamp- 
ton in Oxfordshire (GARDINER, Civil War, 
ii. 201). During the next four weeks he ac- 

companied the king (SYMONDS, p. 181), and 
at Naseby (14 June) he took part in the grand 
charge that pierced through the enemy's force 
(WARBURTON, Prince Rupert, iii. 127, cf. p. 
104, and plan, p. 88). After the day's defeat 
he fell back on Shropshire, where on 4 and 
5 July he won two victories of some impor- 
tance, resulting in the relief of High Ercall 
(WEBB, pp. 186, 266). Vaughan was shortly 
after directed by Maurice to join Rupert at 
Bristol (ib. p. 133), but this was probably 
countermanded, for during the next few 
months he again attended the king in his 
marches along the Welsh borders, accompany- 
ing him to Newark, where towards the end of 
October he was appointed general of the horse 
iu all Wales, and in Shropshire, Worcester- 
shire, Staffordshire, and Herefordshire (SY- 
MONDS, p. 256). He at once marched back to 
Denbighshire so as to organise the royalist 
troops there with the view of relieving Chester 
(then besieged by Brereton), but on 1 Nov. 
was attacked and defeated by Mytton and 
Colonel Michael Jones [q.v.],just outside the 
I town of Denbigh (PHILLIPS, ii. 282 ; cf. SY- 
| MONDS, op. cit. ; GARDINER, ii. 357, 377 ; Gal. 
\ State Papers, Dom. 1645-7, pp. 161,174, 220, 
223 ; WILLIAMS, Ancient and Modern Den- 
bigh, pp. 215-9). Vaughan's routed horse 
made their way to Knighton, Radnorshire, 
where on 13 Nov. the party broke up ; but 
many, with their commander, found tem- 
porary quarters at Leominster, but soon had 
to escape to Worcester (WEBB, ii. 243-4). 
Early in December he received orders to re- 
new the attempt to relieve Chester, where- 
upon he began the difficult task of reinforc- 
ing his troops, chiefly around Leominster 
andLudlow (SYMONDS, p. 276). In January 
1645-6 he joined his forces with those of 
Lord Astley, and they ' lay hovering about 
Bridgnorth,' waiting for Lord St. Paul with 
Welsh troops; but their junction with him 
being frustrated, Vaughan and Astley had to 
fall back once more on Worcester (PHILLIPS, 
i. 351-4, ii. 289, 292 ; WEBB, pp. 244, 257). 
On 22 March their joint forces were com- 
pletely broken up at Stow-in-the- Wolds, 
Gloucestershire, by Brereton,who had hurried 
in pursuit of them immediately after he had 
taken Chester (PHILLIPS, i. 360). 

The war being practically at an end, 
Vaughan appears to have gone over to 
The Hague. There in November 1648 
Rupert gave him the command of a ship 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. p.275), with 
which he probably crossed over to Ireland 
(ib. 8th Rep. App. p. 610 b ; CARTE, Life of 
Ormonde, iii. 441), where he became major- 
general of horse under Ormonde. When 
General Michael Jones, however, surprised 




the royalists at Rathmines, on 2 Aug. 1649, 
Vaughan led the charge in repulsing him, 
but was killed, dying ' bravely at the head 
of his men/ who were thereupon seized 
with panic, and could not be brought to 
rally (CAKTE, iii. 464-8, 471 ; cf. VEKNEY, 
Memoirs, ii. 343 ; cf. PEACOCK, Army List, 
pp. 11-12). 

On 8 Oct. 1651 Charles Vaughan, his 
administrator, applied for leave to com- 
pound for his estate, permission to which 
effect was granted (Cal. of Proceedings of 
Committee for Compounding, p. 2880). 

[Authorities cited.] D. LL. T. 


1780?), Jacobite soldier and Spanish officer, 
born about 1716, was the third son of John 
Vaughan (1675-1752) of Courtfield, near 
Ross, Herefordshire, by his second wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Jones of 
Llanarth, Monmouthshire. Both families 
have always been Roman catholic, and to the 
former belonged Thomas Vaughan who en- 
teredDouay in 1622, and. having taken orders, 
was sent upon the English mission on 27 Aug. 
1628, but ' fell a victim to the persecution 
commenced in 1641 ' (OHALLONEK, ii. 210). 
After the landing of Charles Edward in Scot- 
land in 1745, William Vaughan left Mon- 
mouthshire for the north, in the company of 
David Morgan (who was executed for high 
treason on 30 July 1746), and joined the 
prince's army at Preston on 27 Nov. (Cam- 
brian Journal, viii. 310-11 : Wales, January 
1895, pp. 20-3 ; cf. HOWELL, State Trials, 
xviii. 372). Vaughan was at first attached to 
the prince's life-guards, but subsequently 
served as lieutenant-colonel in the Manches- 
ter regiment. He was present at Culloden, 
but succeeded in effecting his escape into 
France. Early in 1747 he accompanied Prince 
Charles on his journey from Paris to Madrid 
(see Charles's letter to his father, dated 
12 March 1747, in LORD MAHON, Hist, of 
England,vQ\. iii. App. p. xxxviii, and EWALD, 
Life of Charles, ii. 147), and on Charles's 
recommendation was admitted into the 
Spanish service, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, in the regiment called Hibernia. In 
this he served over twenty-nine years, attain- 
ing in December 1773 the rank of brigadier- 
general. On 26 Oct. 1777 he was appointed 
major-general (mariscal de campo) of the 
royal armies, but towards the end of 1778 he 
joined the expedition to Buenos Ayres. He 
is last mentioned in the Spanish records under 
date of 29 March 1780 as being nominated 
to serve with the troops under the general 
command of Don Vittoria de Navia. He 
probably died soon after. 

His elder brother, Richard Vaughan (b. 
1708), the second son, also took part in the 
Jacobite rising, joined the Duke of Perth's 
division, and was likewise present at Cullo- 
den. He also subsequently entered the 
Spanish service, and died in that country, 
having married a Spanish lady, Donna 
Francesca, by whom he had a daughter 
Elizabeth (who was married to Colonel 
Count of Kilmallock, in the Spanish service), 
and a son William (1740-1796), who suc- 
ceeded to the Courtfield estate, and continued 
the line, Cardinal Vaughan and Roger Wil- 
liam Vaughan [q. v.] being his great-grand- 

[Extracts from the Archives of the Spanish 
War Office at Simancas, kindly communicated 
by His Eminence Cardinal Vaughan. See also 
Burke's Landed G-entry, s.v. ' Vaughan of Court- 
field ; ' Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, 
p. 267; Coxe's Monmouthshire, p. 346.] 

D. LL. T. 

VAUGHAN, WILLIAM (1752-1850), 
merchant and author, born on 22 Sept. 1752, 
was the second son of Samuel Vaughan, a 
London merchant, by his wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Hallowell of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Benjamin Vaughan fq. v.] was his 
elder brother.He was educated at Newcome's 
school at Hackney and at the academy at 
Warrington in Lancashire. His studies were 
much directed to geography, history, travels, 
and voyages of discovery. After leaving 
school he entered his father's business, and 
soon became prominent in mercantile and 
commercial questions. In 1783 he was 
elected a director of the Royal Exchange As- 
surance Corporation, and continued in it, as 
director, sub-governor, and governor, until 
1829. During the naval mutiny at the Nore 
in 1797 Vaughan formed one of the committee 
of London merchants convened to meet at the 
Royal Exchange to take prompt measures to 
restore tranquillity. He proved extremely 
active, and independently drew up a short 
address to the seamen which was put in 
circulation by the naval authorities. In 
1791 he had endeavoured to form a society 
for the promotion of English canals, and, 
with this end in view, made a collection, in 
three folio volumes, of plans and descrip- 
tions relating to the subject. Failing in 
his object, he turned his attention to docks, 
on which he became one of the first au- 
thorities. From 1793 to 1797 he published 
a series of pamphlets and tracts advocating 
the construction of docks for the port of 
London, and on 22 April 1796 he gave 
evidence before a parliamentary committee 
in favour of the bill for establishing wet 
docks. The great development of London. 




as a port must be regarded as partly due to 
his unceasing exertions. 

Vaughan was for many years a fellow of 
the Royal Society, a fellow of the Linnean 
Society, and a fellow of the Royal Astronomi- 
cal Society. He was a member of the New 
England Corporation, and filled the office of 
governor till 1829. He was also a member of 
the Society for Bettering the Condition of 
the Poor, which was instrumental in 1815 
in establishing the first savings bank in 
London, at Leicester Place, Westminster. 
Vaughan died in London on 5 May 1850, at 
his residence, 70 Fenchurch Street. He 
was a governor of Christ's Hospital and an 
honorary member of the Society of Civil 
Engineers. A bust of Vaughan was exe- 
cuted by Sir Francis Chantrey in 1811, and 
was reproduced from a drawing by the Rev. 
Daniel Alexander in Vaughan's ' Tracts on 
Docks and Commerce,' 1839. 

He was the author of: 1. ' On Wet Docks, 
Quays, and Warehouses for the Port of Lon- 
don,' London, 1793, 8vo. 2. ' Plan of the 
London Dock, with some Observations re- 
specting the River,' London, 1794, 8vo. 
3. ' Answers to Objections against the Lon- 
don Docks,' London, 1796, 8vo. 4. l A Letter 
to a Friend on Commerce and Free Ports and 
London Docks,' London, 1796, 8vo. 5. ' Exa- 
mination of William Vaughan in Committee 
of the House of Commons,' London, 1796, 
8vo. 6. ' Reasons in favour of London Docks,' 
London, 1797, 8vo. 7. 'A Comparative 
Statement of the Advantages and Disad- 
vantages of the Docks in Wapping and the 
Isle of Dogs,' 2nd ed. London, 1799, 8vo. 
Nos. 1 to 6 were published collectively 
in 1797 under the title, 'A Collection of 
Tracts on Wet Docks for the Port of Lon- 
don, with Hints on Trade and Commerce 
and on Free Ports.' They were republished 
in 1839, with the addition of No. 7, and of 
several small pieces under the title, ' Tracts 
on Docks and Commerce, printed between 
1793 and 1800.' 

[Memoir prefixed to Tracts on Docks and 
Commerce, 1839; Gent. Mag. 1850. i. 681; 
Pantheon of the Age, 1825.] E. I. C. 

VAUS or VASCUS, JOHN (1490?- 
1538?), latinist and the earliest Scottish 
writer on grammar, was born at Aberdeen 
about 1490. He appears to have studied at 
Paris (verses addressed by him to his fellow 
students in LOCKHART'S Materia Noticiarum, 
Paris, 1514), and to have returned to his na- 
tive town in 1515 or 1516, when he was ap- 
pointed humanist or professor of Latin in 
the college of St. Mary (afterwards King's 
College), succeeding in that post a namesake 

and probable relative, Alexander Vascus 
(BoECE, Episc. Aberd. Vita, ed. Moir, 1894. 
pp. 90, 96). 

Boece, the principal of the college, de- 
scribes him as 'in hoc genere discipline 
admodum eruditus, sermone elegans, sen- 
tentiis venustus, labore invictus.' By his 
pupil and colleague, Robert Gray, he is 
styled * clarissimus vir, optimis literis, 
amsenissimo ingenio, suavissimis moribus, 
singular! probitate, gravitate, fide et con- 
stantia prseditus' (letter to Aberdeen stu- 
dents) ; and by Ferrerius, i vir cum literis 
turn moribus ornatissimus et de juventute 
Scotica bene meritus ' (Acad. Dissertat.} 

In 1522 Vaus published, for the use of 
his students, a commentary on the first part 
of the * Doctrinale ' of Alexander de Villa 
Dei; combined with a more elementary 
original treatise ' Rudimenta puerorum in 
artem grammaticalem ' (Sale Catalogue of 
D. Laing's library). He revisited Paris to 
superintend the printing of these books at 
the Ascensian press; and the former (of 
which the only known copy is in the Uni- 
versity Library, Aberdeen) contains inte- 
resting letters to the Aberdeen students 
from Vaus and from his printer, Jodocus 
Badius, reprinted by M. L. Delisle in the 
1 Bibliotheque de 1'Ecole des Chartes ' (vol. 
Ivii.) Of the ' Rudimenta ' a second edition 
appeared in 1531 ; and a third, ' Rudimenta 
artis grammaticalis,' was issued posthu- 
mously in 1553, under the editorship of 
Theophilus Stewart, the successor of Vaus 
in the professorship of humanity. A fourth 
edition was printed at Edinburgh by Lek- 
preuik in 1566 (DiCKSON and EDMOND, 
Annals of Scottish Printing, p. 23). The 
work is valuable to the student of early 
Scots, a great part of the book being in 
that dialect, though devoted only to Latin 

Vaus was in office in 1538 (Off. and 
Grad. of King's Coll. p. 45), but probably 
died in that year, as on 17 April 1539 
Stewart had succeeded to his professorship. 

[Spalding Club's publications, especially 
Miscellany, vol. v. pref. p. 43 ; Aberdeen and 
Banff Collections, p. 65 ; Fasti Aberdonenses, 
pref. p. xxi ; Kuddiman's Bibliotheca Eomana ; 
Delisle's Josse Bade et Jean Vaus. Paris, 1896 ; 
Kellas Johnstone's Script. Aberd. Incunabula in 
Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. xii.] P. J. A. 

VAUTOR, THOMAS (Jl. 1616), musi- 
cian, was apparently a household musician 
in the family of Anthony Beaumont, of 
Glenfield, Leicestershire ; and filled the same 
post to Sir George Villiers after his mar- 
riage with Anne Beaumont in 1592. On 




11 May 1616 Vautor supplicated for the 
degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford, which was 
granted on condition of his composing a 
choral hymn for six voices ; he was admitted 
on 4 July. At this time George Villiers, the 
son of Vautor's patrons, was rising in the 
king's favour, and in 1619 he was created 
Marquis of Buckingham, upon which 
Vautor dedicated to him a collection of 
twenty-two madrigals, entitled ' The First 
Set; being Songs of diverse Ayres and 
Natures for Five and Sixe parts ; Apt for 
Vyols and Voices.' Among the pieces are 
two fa-las, a ' Farewell to Oriana ' (Queen 
Elizabeth), an elegy on Prince Henry, and 
another on Sir Thomas Beaumont of Stough- 
ton, Leicestershire. These had evidently 
been composed at an earlier period ; and 
Vautor mentions in the dedication that 
' some were composed in your tender yeares, 
and in your most worthy father's house/ 
Nothing further is recorded of Vautor, and 
no other compositions by him are known, 
either in print or manuscript. 

None of Vautor's music has been reprinted ; 
but two specimens of the verses, 'Blush 
not rude present ' and i Sweet Suffolk Owl,' 
are included in Mr. A. H. Bullen's ' Lyrics 
from the Songbooks of the Elizabethan Age.' 
His collection is very rare. Anthony Wood 
was not aware that he had published any- 
thing ; and Hawes, in reprinting Morley's 
'Triumphs of Oriana' (1814), did not include 
Vautor's ' Farewell to Oriana ' among the 
supplementary numbers. A list of the twenty- 
two pieces is given in Rimbault's ' Bibliotheca 

[Vautor's collection of madrigals in the British 
Museum ; Boase and Clark's Register of the 
University of Oxford, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 148, where 
he is inaccurately called John Vauler ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. p. 1539 ; Davey's History of 
English Music, pp. 215, 224.] II. D. 

printer, was a Huguenot of learning, who 
came to London from Paris or Rouen about 
the beginning of the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth. He was admitted a brother of the Sta- 
tioners' Company on 2 Oct. 1564, and pro- 
bably worked as a servant to some printer till 
1570, when he established a press in Black- 
friars. His first publication was ' A Booke 
containing divers Sortes of Hands/ 1570. 
In 1578 he printed 'Special and Chosen 
Sermons of D. Martin Luther,' without a 
license, and was fined 10s., and in the 
following year was fined for a similar offence. 
In the general assembly of the church of 
Scotland, 1580, a recommendation was made 
to the king and council that Vautrollier 

should receive a ' licence and priviledge ' as 
a printer in Scotland. The exact date of 
his arrival in Edinburgh is not known. He 
brought a large supply of books with him, 
and traded as a bookseller for several years 
before he started a press. This appears* from 
a complaint made against him by Charteris 
and others, so that in 1580 the town council 
demanded custom for the books he imported 
(Town Council Records). Vautrollier, when 
he came to Scotland, brought a letter of in- 
troduction from Dr. Daniel Rogers [q. v.],one 
of the clerks of the privy council, to George 
Buchanan (1506-1582) [q. v.] During his 
absence from London the press there was in 
full operation under the management of his 
wife. It appears that Vautrollier returned to 
London, and shortly afterwards had to leave 
for Edinburgh again, as it is supposed he had 
incurred the displeasure of the Star-chamber 
by the publication of Bruno's ' Last Tromp,' 
dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney. On his way 
to Scotland he was plundered by robbers. 
Having succeeded in establishing his press 
in Edinburgh in 1584, Vautrollier was patro- 
nised by James VI, and printed the first of 
the king's published works, ' The Essayes of 
a Prentise in the Divine Art of Poesie,' 1584, 
and, at the desire of the king, an English 
translation of Du Bartas's * History of Judith,' 
1584 both issued 'cum privilegio regali.' 

In 1584 Vautrollier printed six distinct 
works, and in the following year only two. 
In 1586 he returned to London, having ob- 
tained his pardon, taking with him a manu- 
script copy of John Knox's ' History of the 
Reformation,' which he ' put to press, but all 
the copies were seized [by the order of Arch- 
bishop Whitgift] before the work was com- 
pleted ' ( Works of John .Knar, vol. i.p. xxxii). 
No perfect copy of this edition is extant. 

After his return he dedicated to Thomas 
Randolph (1523-1590) [q. v.], master and 
comptroller of the queen's posts, a work which 
he translated and printed, titled ' An excel- 
lent and learned treatise of Apostasi . . . 
Translated out of French into English by 
Vautrollier the printer.' In this dedication, 
which is dated * from my poor house in the 
Black ffryers the 9th May 1587,' he acknow- 
ledges to Randolph l the great duty wherein 
I stand bound to your worship for your great 
favours and assistance in my distresses and 
afflictions.' Vautrollier remained in London 
till the time of his death, which took place 
some time before 4 March 1587-8, for on that 
day the Stationers' Company ordered 'that 
Mrs. Vautrollier, late wife of Tho. Vautrollier, 
deceased, shall not hereafter print anye man- 
ner of book or books whatsoever, as well by 
reason that her husband was noe printer at 




the tyme of his decease, as also for that by 
the decrees sette downe in the Starre 
Chamber she is debarred from the same.' In 
1588, however, she printed several works 
probably left by her husband in an unfinished 
state. Vautrollier had several privileges 
conferred upon him, among others one from 
James VI in 1580. He had also liberty to 
employ in his printing office ' six Frenche- 
men or Duchemen, or suche like ' (Stationers' 
Ren. B. fol. 487 b). 

Vautrollier had four devices, all of which 
have an anchor suspended by a right hand 
issuing from clouds, and two leafy boughs 
twined, with the motto ' Anchora Spei.' 

Vautrollier had a number of children, sons 
and daughters. The following appear in the 
register of Black Friars Simon, Thomas, 
Daniel, and Manassie. A daughter Jaklin 
was married in 1588 to Richard Field (fl. 
1579-1624), Shakespeare's friend and fellow- 
townsman, who succeeded Vautrollier in his 
house and business. On that ground Field 
has been reckoned among Vautrollier's ap- 
prentices, and the further fanciful theory has 
been educed that Shakespeare, like his friend 
Field, acquired a knowledge of printing in 
Vautrollier's workshop (Shakspere and Typo- 
graphy, 1872). 

[Dickson and Edmond's Annals of Scottish 
Printing (containing list of publications and a 
facsimile of device) ; Arber's Transcript of the 
Stationers' Company Registers; Harleian MS. 
5910; two manuscripts by George Chalmers in 
Advocates' Library, entitled 'Hist. Annals of 
Printing in Scotland ' and ' Printing in Scotland ; ' 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert.] G-. S-H. 

VAUX, ANNE (fl. 1605-1635), recu- 
sant, was the third daughter of William 
Vaux, third baron Vaux of Harrowden in 
Northamptonshire, by his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Beaumont (fl. 1550) 
[q. v.], master of the rolls. Thomas Vaux, 
second baron Vaux [q. v.], was Anne's grand- 

A zealous Roman catholic, like others of her 
family, Anne devoted her life to the service 
of her faith. She attached herself especially 
to Henry Garnett [q. v.] Styling herself Mrs. 
Perkins, to avoid the suspicion attaching to 
her family, she and her married sister, 
Eleanor Brooksby, at various times hired 
houses under Garnett's directions to serve as 
meeting-places for the Jesuits. The most 
famous of these was White Webbs, near En- 
field. In 1604 she and Garnett were re- 
siding at a house she had taken at Wands- 
worth, whither her cousin, Francis Tresham 
[q. v.], the conspirator, frequently resorted. 
After the Gunpowder plot had been set on 
foot by Thomas Winter (d. 1606) [q. v.], 

both Tresham and Robert Catesby [q. v.] 
continually visited her. Towards the time 
for the execution k of the plot, she took up her 
abode with Garnett at White Webbs, and 
the house became a rendezvous for the con- 
spirators. She and Garnett probably knew 
little or nothing of their plans. 

The theory has been advanced that Anne 
acted as an amanuensis to the writer of the 
famous letter to Lord Monteagle which 
frustrated the plot (Gent. Mag. 1835, i. 
251-5). She was the intimate friend of 
the wife of Thomas Habington [q. v.], to 
whom the letter is assigned by tradition, 
and was related to Francis Tresham, who 
is now regarded as the author. A com- 
parison of the anonymous letter, however, 
with one by Anne Vaux preserved in the 
state papers (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603- 
1610, p. 296) shows that the handwriting 
of the two, though bearing a superficial re- 
semblance, is different in essential details. 

After the discovery of the plot Anne was 
committed to the charge of Sir John Swy- 
nerton, but was soon discharged on Sir 
Lewis Pickering's bond (Addit. MS. 11402, 
f. 108). She proceeded with Garnett early 
in January 1605-6 to Hindlip, near Wor- 
cester, the house of Thomas Habington. 
There Garnett was arrested on 25 Jan., after 
a search lasting twelve days. During his 
concealment he was nourished by broths and 
warm drinks conveyed through a reed from 
the chamber of