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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

WAKEMAN WATKINS 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LIX. 
WAKEMAN WATKINS 




LONDON 

SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1899 

[All rights reserved] 



18 



LIST OF WRITERS 



IN THE FIFTY-NINTH VOLUME. 



G. A. A. . . G. A. AITKEN. 

J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGEB. 

W. A. J. A. W. A. J. AECHBOLD. 

W. A WALTER ARMSTRONG. 

R. B-L. . . . EICHARD BAGWELL. 

M. B Miss BATESON. 

R. B THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

C. R. B. . . C. RAYMOND BEAZLET. 
G. C. B. . . THE LATE G. C. BOASE. 
T. G. B. . . THE REV. PROFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.R.S. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 

E. C-D. . . . THE MASTER OF BALLIOL COL- 
LEGE, OXFORD. 

E. I. C. . . . E. IRVING CARLYLE. 
W. C-R. . . WILLIAM CARR. 
J. L. C. . . J. L. CAW. 
A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

T. C THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 

. C LIONEL COST, F.S.A. 

H. D HENRY DAVEY. 

A. D AUSTIN DOBSON. 

C. D CAMPBELL DODGSON. 

G. T. D. . . G. THORN DRURY. 
R. D ROBERT DUNLOP 



F. G. E. . . F. G. EDWARDS. 

C. L. F. . . C. LITTON EALKINER. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

J. G JAMES GAIRDNER, LL.D. 

R. G RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. 

A. G THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

H. R. G. . . H. R. GRENFELL. 

F. H. G. . . F. HINDES GROOME. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

C. A. H. . . C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 

P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

R. H LIEUTENANT-COLONEL R.HOLDEN, 

F.S.A. 

W. H THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

A. J THE REV. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, 

D.D. 

C. K CHARLES KENT. 

J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 
I. S. L. . . . I. S. LEADAM. 

E. L Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 

S. L SIDNEY LEE. 

E. L-W. . . EDWARD LEE-WARNER. 
R. H. L. . . ROBIN H. LEGGE. 
E. M. L. . . COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 
>.. . MICHAEL MACDONAGH. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



J. B. M. . 

m. M. . . 

E. C. M. . 

D. S. M. . 

E. H. M. . 
H. E. M. . 

A. H. M. . 
N. M. . . . 
J. B. M. . 
A. N. . . . 
G. LE G. N 
D. J. O'D. . 
F. M. O'D.. 

A. F. P. . . 

B. P 

D'A. P. . . . 

F. B 

W. E. B. . . 
J. M. E. . . 
T. S. . 



. J. B. MACDONALD. 

. SHERIFF MACKAY. 

. E. C. MARCHANT. 

. PROFESSOR D. S. MABGOLIOUTH. 

. E. H. MARSHALL. 

. THE BIGHT HON. SIR HERBERT 
MAXWELL, BART., M.P., F.B.S. 

. A. H. MILLAR. 
. NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 
. J. BASS MULLINGER. 
. ALBERT NICHOLSON. 
G. LE GBTS NOBGATE. 

D. J. O'DONOGHTJE. 

F. M. O'DoNOGHUE, F.S.A. 

A. F. POLLABD. 

Miss BEBTHA POSTER. 
D'ABCY POWER, F.B.C.S. 
FRASEB BAE. 
W. E. BHODES. 
J. M. BIGG. 
THOMAS SECCOMBE. 



C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

G. W. S. . . THE BEV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 

L. S LESLIE STEPHEN. 

G. S-H. . . . GEORGE STBONACH. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. BUTTON. 
! J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 
1 D. LL. T. . . D. LLEUFER THOMAS. 

J. B. T. . . J. B. THURSFIELD. 

M. T MRS. TOUT. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

B. H. V. . . COLONEL B. H. VETCH, B.E., 

C.B. 

S. W-E.. . . SIB SPENCEB WALPOLE, K.C.B. 

A. W. W. . A. W. WABD, LL.D., LiTT.D. 
P. W PAUL WATEBHOUSE. 

W. W. W. . CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB, M.D., 
F.S.A. 

C. W-H. . . CHABLES WELCH, F.S.A. 
W. B. W. . W. B. WILLIAMS. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWABD. 

W. W. . . . WABWICK WBOTH, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Wakeman 



Wakeman 



WAKEMAN, SIR GEORGE (/. 1668- 
1685), ' doctor of physic ' and physician, in 
ordinary to Queen Catherine of Braganza, 
was the son of Edward Wakeman (1592- 
1659) of the Inner Temple, by Mary (d. 
1676), daughter of Richard Cotton of Warb- 
lington, Sussex. The father was the grand- 
son of Richard Wakeman (d. 1597) of Beck- 
ford, Gloucestershire, nephew of JohnWake- 
man [q. v.], last abbot of Tewkesbury and 
first bishop of Gloucester (cf. DYDE, Hist, 
of Tewkesbury, 1803, p. 116). 

George Wakeman, who was a zealous Ro- 
man catholic, was educated abroad, probably 
in Paris, where he possibly graduated in 
medicine. Like his elder brother Richard 
(d. 1662), who raised a troop of horse for the 
king, he was a staunch royalist, and upon 
his return to England he became involved 
in a plot against the Protector, and was im- 
prisoned until the eve of the Restoration. 
On 13 Feb. 1661, as Wakeman of Beck- 
ford, he was created a baronet by Charles II, 
though it seems that the patent was never 
sealed (WOTTON, Baronetage, 1741, iv. 277). 
The first trace of Sir George's professional 
ictivity is in August 1668, when he appears 

have been attending Sir Joseph Williamson 
see Cal State Papers, Dom. 1668, p. 524). 
le seems to have owed his appointment 
Dme two years later as physician in ordinary 
:> Queen Catherine of Braganza mainly to 
le fact that he enjoyed the best repute of 
ly Roman catholic physician in England. 

1 their perjured 'Narrative' of the 'popish 
ot' Titus Oates and Israel Tonge declared 
at Wakeman had been offered 10,OOW. to 
lison Charles IPs 'posset.' It was pointed 
it that he could easily effect this through 
e agency of the queen. Wakeman, how- 
er, obstinately refused the task, and held out 
VOL. LIX. 



until 15,000^. was offered him. The tempta- 
tion then, according to the ' Narrative,' proved 
too strong ; he attended the Jesuit consult on 
30 Aug. 1678, received a large sum of money 
on account, and, the further reward of a post 
as physician-general in the army having been 
promised him, he definitely engaged to take 
off the king by poison. Wakeman was a 
man of very high reputation, and from the 
first the charge against him was repugnant 
to men of sense like John Evelyn. The 
government, too, were reluctant to allow 
any steps to be taken against him. But after 
their successes in the trials of the early part 
of 1679 the whig leaders were eager to fly 
at higher game, and in aiming at Wakeman 
their object was to strike the queen. The 
government was constrained to yield to the 
pressure. Both parties felt that the trial 
would be a test one, and it proved most im- 
portant in determining the future of the 
agitation of which the 'plot' was the in- 
strument. 

Wakeman was indicted for high treason 
at the Old Bailey on 18 July 1679, the case 
being tried by Lord-chief-justice Scroggs. 
The chief witnesses for the prosecution were 
Bedloe and Oates, who swore that he had 
seen the paper appointing Wakeman to the 
post of physician-general and also his receipt 
for S,000/. (on account of the 15,000/.), 
though it was elicited from him in the course 
of the proceedings that he \vas incapable at 
the time alluded to of identifying either 
Wakeman's person or his handwriting. 
Scroggs animadverted severely upon the cha- 
racter of the evidence, and the jury, after 
asking if they might find the prisoners guilty 
of misprision of treason, and being told they 
could not, found all the prisoners ' not guilty.' 
The effect of the acquittal was considerable 



Wakeman 

in dealing a direct blow at the plot and the 
credibility of its sponsors, and at the same 
time in freeing the queen from an odious 
suspicion. On the day following the trial the 
Portuguese ambassador called and thanked 
Scroggs. Five days later Wakeman enter- 
tained several of his friends at supper. The 
next day ' he went to Windsor to see her 
Majesty, and (they say) kissed the king's 
hand, but is now gone beyond sea to avoid 
being brought again into trouble' (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. i. 477). The 
verdict was supported in a pamphlet of 
' Some Observations on the late Trials by 
Tom Ticklefoot ; ' but this was answered in 
a similar production, entitled ' The Tickler 
Tickled,' and there is little doubt that the 
verdict was unpopular. It was openly said 
that Scroggs had been bribed, while Bedloe 
and Gates complained bitterly of the treat- 
ment they had received in the summing-up. 
Scroggs was ridiculed in ' A Letter from 
Paris from Sir George Wakeman to his 
Friend Sir W. S.' (1681). The jury was 
termed an ' ungodly ' one, and the people, 
says Luttrell,' murmur very much.' It is 
noteworthy that in the course of evidence 
given at subsequent trials Gates entirely 
ignored the verdict, and continued to speak 
of the bribe offered to and accepted by the 
queen's physician. Wakeman was back in 
London before 1685, when he was seen by 
Evelyn at Lady Tuke's; and he had the 
satisfaction of giving evidence against Titus 
Gates on 8 May 1685, on the occasion of his 
first trial for perjury. Nothing is known 
of his further career. 

A William Wakeman, who was most pro- 
bably a connection of the physician's family, 
was an active shipping and intelligence agent 
of the government at Barnstaple during 
Charles II's reign (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
passim). 

[The Tryals of Sir George Wakeman, "W. 

Marshall, W. Burnley! . .for High Treason, 

1678, fol.; Burnet's Own Times, 1823, ii. 221 ; 

Howell's State Trials, vii. 591-687 ; Willis 

Bund's Selections from State Trials, ii. 816-918; 

Luttrell's Brief Hist, Relation, i. 17, 29, 50, 74* 

42; Eachard's Hist, of England, 1718, iii. 459, 

561, 738; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1847, ii. 

484 ; Lingard's Hist, of England, 1849, ix. 441- 

42 ; Ranke's Hist, of England, iv. 88 ; Evelyn's 

Diary, ii. 221 ; Bramston's Autobiography (Camd. 

Soc.), p. 181 ; Twelve Bad Men, ed. Seccombe, pp. 

168-76 ; Strickland's Queens of England, v. 638, 

655; Irving's Life of Judge Jeffreys, 1898- 

Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. ' 

WAKEMAN alias WICHE, JOHN (d. 
1549), first bishop of Gloucester, was, accord- 
ing to a pedigree in the British Museum (Harl 



Wakeman 

MS. 6185), the second son of William Wake- 
man of Drayton, Worcestershire. Anthony 
Wood, in whose first edition he is con- 
founded with Robert Wakeman, fellow of 
All Souls' in 1516, says that he was ' a Wor- 
cestershire man born,' without citing any 
authority. It is certain that he became a 
Benedictine, and it is possibly from this 
datum that Anthony Wood infers that he 
was educated at Gloucester Hall, the Bene- 
dictine foundation at Oxford. If the iden- 
tification made in the entry, 'abbot of 
Tewkesbury,' be correct, he supplicated in 
the name of John Wyche, Benedictine, for 
the degree of B.D. on 3 Feb. 1511 (BoASE, 
Reg. Univ. Oxon. i. 174), and this is con- 
firmed by Wood's guarded statement, based 
upon a manuscript in the College of Arms, 
that when consecrated bishop he was of that 
degree. It is not improbable that he is the 
John Wiche of the Benedictine house of 
Evesham, who on 22 Dec. 1513 was a peti- 
tioner for a conge tfelire on the death of Tho- 
mas Newbold, abbot of Evesham (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, i. 4614). On this 
occasion Clement Lichfield, alias Wych, 
prior of Evesham, became abbot, being 
elected on 28 Dec. 1513 (DUGDALE, Monast. 
ii. 8). The name not only suggests relation- 
ship, probably on the maternal side, but 
strengthens the presumption of a Worcester- 
shire origin. Nothing further is known of 
Wiche for an interval of thirty-two years. 
On 19 March 1534 a cong6 cCelire issued for 
the election of an abbot of the Benedictine 
monastery of Tewkesbury in the room of 
Henry Beeley, deceased (Letters and Papers, 
vii. 419). On 27 April 1534 the royal assent 
was given to the election of John Wiche, 
late prior, as abbot (ib. 761). The tempo- 
ralities were restored on 10 June (ib. 922). 
Wiche had secured his own appointment by 
obtaining the interest of Sir William King- 
ston [q. v.] and of Cromwell, and by then 
persuading his brethren to refer the election 
to the king's pleasure. At the end of July 
1535 both Cromwell and the king were 
staying at the monastery, and in October 
Wiche sent Cromwell a gelding and 51. to 
buy him a saddle, conveying a hint of future 
gratifications. He himself supplied infor- 
mation to the government of the disaffection 
of one of his priors (ib. xiv. i. 942), and it is 
not surprising that on 9 Jan. 1539 he sur- 
rendered his monastery, receiving an annuity 
of four hundred marks, or 266Z. 13s. 4rf.(Due- 
DALE, Monast. ii. 57). He then seems to have 
taken the name Wakeman, by which he was 
afterwards known. Upon his nomination to 
the newly erected see of Gloucester in Sep- 
tember 1541 this pension was vacated. The 



Wakering 



Wakering 



date of the letters patent for the erection of 
the bishopric is 3 Sept. 1541. Wakeman was 
consecrated byCramner,Bonner, and Thirlby 
at Croydon on 20 or 25 Sept. 1541. In 1547 
he attended the funeral of Henry VIII 
(STKYPE, Eccl. Mem. n. ii. 291), and on 
19 Feb. of the same year assisted at the con- 
secration of Arthur Bulkeley as bishop of 
Bangor (STEYPE, Cranmer, p. 136). Wake- 
man must have had some pretensions to 
scholarship and theology. It is true that it 
was in his capacity of abbot of Tewkesbury 
that he signed the articles drawn up by con- 
vocation in 1536 ; but in 1542, when Cranmer 
was projecting a revision of the translation 
of the New Testament, he assigned the Re- 
velations to Wakeman, with Dr. John Cham- 
bers, bishop of Peterborough, as his colleague. 
Wakeman died early in December 1549, the 
spiritualities being taken into the hands of 
the archbishop on the sixth of that month. 
His place of burial is uncertain. While abbot 
of Tewkesbury, Wakeman constructed a 
splendid tomb for himself on the north-east 
side of the high altar, which is still to be 
seen. He does not appear to be entitled to 
any further epitaph than that of an intrigu- 
ing and servile ecclesiastic. 

In Bedford's ' Blazon of Episcopacy ' (2nd 
edit. 1897) two coats-of-arms are assigned 
him, the first on the authority of a British 
Museum manuscript (Addit. MS. 12443), 
being party per fess indented sable and argent 
three doves rising countercharged. This was 
presumably the coat granted to the bishop, for 
a reference to the College of Arms shows 
:hat the second coat, Vert a saltier, wavy 
irmine, was granted in 1586 to his nephew 
Richard, great-grandfather of Sir George 
\ r akeman [q. v.] 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. Hen. VIII ; Wood's 
.thense Oxon. ii. 756 ; Hearne's Eobert of 
loucester's Chronicle, pp. xx-xxi ; Le Neve's 
asti, i. 436 ; Bennett's Hist, of Tewkesbury, 
330 ; Burnet's Hist, of the ^Reformation ; 
ansd. MS. 980, f. 73; Harl. MS. 6185.] 

I. S. L. 

WAKERING, JOHN (d. 1425), bishop 

' Norwich, derived his name from Wake- 

ig, a village in Essex. On 21 Feb. 1389 

was instituted to St. Benet Sherehog in 

e city of London, which he resigned early 

1396 (NEWCOTTRT, Repertorium Eccle- 

sticum, i. 304). In 1395 he was already a 

,ster or clerk in chancery, acting as re- 

ver of petitions to parliament (Rot. Parl. 

337 b, 348 a, 416 a, 455 a, 486 a, &c.) On 

Oct. 1399 he was appointed chancellor of 

county palatine of Lancaster and keeper 

ts great seal ( WYLIE, Henry IV, iii. 301). 

did not hold this continuously, for on 



20 May 1400 the chancellor of the duchy 
was William Burgoyne ; but on 28 Jan. 1401 
Wakering was again chancellor, and again 
on 3 Sept. 1402 and 20 Feb. 1403 (WYLIE, 
iii. 301 .) 

On 2 March 1405 Wakering became mas- 
ter of the domus conversorum, and keeper of 
the chancery rolls, offices he held for more 
than ten years (NEWCOTTKT, i. 340 ; AVYLIE, 
iii. 301, from Issue Roll, 7 Hen. IV). On 
26 May 1408 he is called clerk of the chan- 
cery rolls and of the domus conversorum 
(WYLIE, iii. 301 n.) He also held the pre- 
bend of Thame till 1416 (Ls NEVE, Fasti, iii. 
221). On 10 March 1409 Wakering was 
appointed archdeacon of Canterbury (WYLIE, 
iii. 301 ; cf., however, LE NEVE, Fast i). He 
became canon of Wells on 30 July 1409 
(WHA.RTON, Anglia Sacra, i. 417). 

Wakering was probably the John who, 
with the bishops of Durham and London, 
treated in 1407 for the renewal of the Scot- 
tish truce (WYLIE, ii. 396). From 19 to 
31 Jan. 1410 he was keeper of the great seal, 
and while Sir Thomas Beaufort was absent 
from London from 7 May to 18 June 1411 
Wakering acted as deputy-chancellor (ib. iii. 
301, iv. 24 ; Fcedera, viii. 694). 

On 3 June 1415 Wakering resigned the 
mastership of the rolls on becoming keeper 
of the privy seal (Kal. and Inv. Exch. ii. 130, 
132). On 24 Nov. he was elected bishop of 
Norwich (CAPGRAVE, Chron. Engl. p. 311), 
and the same day the royal assent to the 
election was given. He was consecrated at 
St. Paul's on 31 May 1416 (SitrBBS, Reg. 
Sacr. Angl. p. 64 ; GODWIN, De Preesul. 
Angl. pp. 438, 439). On 27 May he received 
restitution of his temporalities (ib. ; Fcedera, 
ix. 354). 

On 20 July 1416 Wakering was nominated 
joint ambassador to the council of Constance 
(ib. ix. 370). Monstrelet says that, at the 
instance of Sigismund, Wakering was in 
1416 (cf. CREIGHTON, i. 368) sent as English 
ambassador to the king of France, and went 
first to Calais (probably in August) and 
thence to Beauvais, where he treated, but 
nothing was accomplished (MONSTRELET, iii. 
147, ed. Soci6t6 de 1'Histoire de France). 

Wakering had left England for Constance 
by 16 Dec. 1416 ( Fcedera, ix. 254, 371, 420), 
and was no doubt present in January 1417 
at the curious demonstration by the English 
bishops which accompanied the return of 
Sigismund to Constance as the close ally of 
England (Vosr DER HARDT, iv. 1088, 1089, 
1091). Wakering appears to have acted in 
absolute unanimity with Hallam, who since 
20 Oct. 1414 had led the English ' nation ' 
and directed its policy in the council. 



Wakering 

Together they urged that the reformation 
of the church should be immediately dealt 
with. Sigismund and the German nation 
emphasised the English demand. But the 
cardinals declared that the next work of the 
council should be the papal election. On 
4 Sept. Hallam died. The cardinals chose 
this moment to bring forward on 9 and 
11 Sept. protests urging a papal election (ib. 
i. 921). The English party, for some unex- 
plained reason, suddenly changed its front, 
deserted Sigismund, and appointed deputies 
to confer with the cardinals on the manner 
of election (ib. iv. 1426). Henry V him- 
self seems to have been content with the 
change of policy of September 1417, and to 
have consented to Henry Beaufort [q. v.] 
(afterwards cardinal) visiting Constance to 
strengthen the diplomatic compromise which 
Wakering and his allies had established. 
Wakering was one of the English deputies 
for the conclave (ib. iv. 1474) which on 
11 Nov. 1417, St. Martin's day, elected Oddo 
Colonna pope. Lassitude now settled down 
on the council, and some of its leading mem- 
bers returned home. Before leaving Con- 
stance, Wakering obtained from Martin that 
papal ratification to his appointment which 
had been so long delayed (Anglia Sacra, i. 
417). He was back in England before 
26 March 1418, when he held an ordination 
at Norwich. It was his first appearance in 
his diocese. 

Wakering mercilessly sought out lollards 
throughout his diocese, though in no case 
was a heretic actually put to death (FoxE, 
Actes and Monuments, ok. vi.) In the nine 
years of Wakering's episcopate 489 deacons 
and 504 priests were ordained in the diocese, 
most of them, however, by his suffragans, 
for Wakering was chiefly non-resident, being 
first in Constance and, after 1422, much in 
London. Appropriation of church property 
by the religious houses had been stopped by 
statutes of the previous reign, but that this 
had already been rife in the diocese of Nor- 
wich is clear from Wakering's report to the 
exchequer in 1424, which states that sixty- 
five benefices in his diocese had been de- 
spoiled for the benefit of ' poor nuns and 
hospitallers' alone. He put Wymondham 
under an interdict because the bells were 
not rung in his honour when he visited the 
town (WYLIE, iii. 301). He completed a 
fine cloister, paved with coloured tiles, lead- 
ing from his palace to the cathedral, and 
a chapter-house adjoining (GODWIN, De 
Prcesul. Angl. pp. 488, 439). Both are now 
destroyed. He presented his cathedral with 
many jewels, and was famous for generosity 
(cf. WHAKTON, Anglia Sacra, i. 417). 



Wakley 



Wakering, however, was soon summoned 
to matters outside his bishopric. On 3 Nov. 
1422 he accompanied the funeral cortege of 
Henry V from Dover to London (Proceedings 
and Ordinances of the Privy Council, iii. 5). 
On 5 Nov. he was present at a royal council 
on the day before the meeting of parliament 
(ib. iii. 6). In the parliament of 9 Nov. 
Wakering was appointed one of the seven- 
teen lords who were to undertake ' the 
maintenance of law and the keeping of the 
peace ' (ib.) During 1422 and 1423 he was 
frequently a trier of petitions (Rot. Parl. iv. 
170, 198 a). On 20 Oct. 1423 he was an 
assistant councillor of the protectorate and 
a member of the king's council (ib. 1756, p. 
201 a). His routine work as member of 
council kept him busily engaged in London 
(Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy 
CoM7za7,iii.69,74-7, 118, 137, 143,144, 146, 
147, 149-52, 165, 166). On 3 March 1425 
Wakering offered the king ' in his necessi- 
ties ' the sum of five hundred marks (ib. pp. 
167, 168). He died on 9 April 1425 at his 
manor of Thorpe (LE NEVE, Fasti, ii. 466). 
He was buried in his own cathedral on the 
south side of the steps before the altar of St. 
George. He established in the cathedral a 
perpetual chantry of one monk (WHAKTON, 
Anglia Sacra, i. 417 ; BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, 
ii. 376). The long stone seat, with a 
panelled seat and small figures, now at the ' 
back of the choir, opposite the Beauchamp 
chapel, was part of Wakering's monument, 
which was shattered during the civil war. 
His will, which was dated 29 March 1425, 
was proved on 28 April. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, vols. viii. ix. ; H. von der 
Hardt's Constantiensis Concilii Acta et Decreta, 
ed. 1698, bk. i. iv. v. ; Le Neve's Fasti, vols. i. 
ii. ; Newcourt's Repertorium Eccl. Lond. vol. i. ; 
Eolls of Parliament, vols. iii. iv. ; Monstrelet, 
ed. Societe de 1'flistoire de France, vol. iii. ; Pro- 
ceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, 
vol. iii. ; Godwin, De Prsesulibus Angliae, pp. 
438, 439; Continuatio B. Cotton, in Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, i. 417 ; Hasted' s Kent, vol. xii. ; 
Blomefield's Norfolk ; Wylie's Henry IV, vols. 
ii. iii. iv. ; Creighton's Papacy, vol. i. ; Foss's 
Biographia Juridica, p. 695 ; Jessopp's Diocesan 
Hist, of Norwich ; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York, i. 326 ; Foxe's Actes and Monuments, ed. 
Townsend.] M. T. 

WAKLEY, THOMAS (1795-1862), re- 
former, born at Membury in Devonshire on 
11 July 1795, was the youngest son of Henry 
Wakley (1750-1842) of Membury. He was 
educated at the grammar schools of Chard 
and Honiton, and at Wiveliscombe in Somer- 
set. When fifteen years of age he was ap- 
prenticed to aTaunton apothecary named In- 



Wakley 



Wakley 



cledon. He was afterwards transferred to his 
brother-in-law, Phelps, a surgeon of Beamin- 
ster, as a pupil, and from him passed to Coulson 
at Henley-on-Thames. In 1815 he proceeded 
to London to study at the united schools 
of St. Thomas's and Guy's, known as the 
Borough Hospitals. The greater part of his 
medical knowledge was gained, however, at 
theprivate school of anatomyin Webb Street, 
founded by Edward Grainger [q. v.], who was 
assisted by his brother, Richard Dugard 
Grainger [q. v.] In October 1817 he qualified 
for membership of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, and in the following year went into 
private practice in the city, taking up his re- 
sidence in Gerard's Hall. In 1819, with the 
assistance of Joseph Goodchild, a governor 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, to whose daughter 
he was engaged, he purchased a practice at 
the top of Regent Street. About six months 
after his marriage, on 27 Aug. 1820, he was 
murderously assaulted by several men and his 
house burnt to the ground. The authors of 
these outrages were never traced, but by some 
it was conjectured that they were members 
of Thistlewood's gang, an unfounded rumour 
having gone abroad that Wakley was the 
masked man in the disguise of a sailor who 
was present at the execution of Thistlewood 
and his companions on 1 May 1820, and who 
decapitated the dead bodies in accordance 
with the sentence. Wakley had furnished 
his house handsomely and insured his belong- 
ings, but the Hope Fire Assurance Company 
refused payment, alleging that he had de- 
stroyed his own house. The matter was 
brought before the king's bench on 21 June 
1821, when Wakley was awarded the full 
amount of his claim with costs. He found 
that his practice, however, had totally disap- 
peared during the nine or ten months of en- 
forced inaction that followed his wounds, and 
two years later he settled in practice at the 
north-east corner of Norfolk Street, Strand. 
Although the charge of incendiarism was im- 
possible, it was several times revived by un- 
generous opponents in the course of his con- 
troversies, and on 21 June 1826 Wakley 
obtained 100/. damages from James Johnson 
(1777-1845) [q. v.] for a libel in the ' Medico- 
Chirurgical Journal,' in which, with more 
malice than wit, he compared him to Lucifer. 
During this period of his life Wakley made 
the acquaintance of William Cobbett [q. v.J, 
who also believed himself destined to be a 
victim of the Thistlewood gang. Under 
Cobbett's radical influence he became more 
keenly alive to the nepotism and jobbery 
prevalent among leading surgeons. In 1823 
he founded the ' Lancet,' with the primary 
object of disseminating recent medical in- 



formation, hitherto too much regarded as 
the exclusive property of members of the 
London hospitals, and also with a view 
to exposing the family intrigues that in- 
fluenced the appointments in the metro- 
politan hospitals and medical corporations. 
For the first ten years of its existence the 
' Lancet ' provoked a succession of fierce en- 
counters between the editor and the mem- 
bers of the privileged classes in medicine. 
In the first number, which appeared on 
5 Oct., Wakley made a daring departure in 
commencing a series of shorthand reports of 
hospital lectures. These reports were ob- 
noxious to the lecturers, who feared that such 
publicity might diminish their gains and ex- 
pose their shortcomings. On 10 Dec. 1824 
John Abernethy (1764-1831) [q. v.], the 
senior surgeon of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, applied to the court of chancery for an 
injunction to restrain the ' Lancet ' from pub- 
lishing his lectures. The injunction was re- 
fused by Lord Eldon, on the ground that 
official lectures in a public placefor the public 
good had no copyright vested in them. On 
10 June 1825, however, a second application 
was granted, on the plea that lectures could 
not be published for profit by a pupil who paid 
only to hear them. The injunction was, how- 
ever, dissolved on 28 Nov., because hospital 
lectures were delivered in a public capacity 
and were therefore public property. After 
this decision the heads of the medical profes- 
sion decided to admit the right of the medical 
public to peruse their lectures, a right which 
the greatest of them, Sir Astley Paston 
Cooper [q. v.], had already tacitly allowed by 
promising to make no attempt to hinder the 
publication of his lectures, on condition that 
his name was omitted in the report. 

On 9 Nov. 1823 Wakley commenced in 
the ' Lancet ' a regular series of ' Hospital 
Reports,' containing particulars of notable 
operations in the London hospitals. The 
irritation produced by these reports, and by 
some remarks on nepotism at St. Thomas's, 
led to the order for his exclusion from the 
hospital on 22 May 1824, an order to which, 
however, he paid no regard. About 1825 he 
commenced making severe reflections on 
cases of malpraxis in the hospitals, which 
culminated on 29 March 1828 in a descrip- 
tion of a terribly bungling operation of litho- 
tomy by Bransby Blake Cooper, surgeon at 
Guy's Hospital, and nephew of Sir Astley 
Paston Cooper, in which it was plainly as- 
serted that Bransby Cooper was ' surgeon be- 
cause he was nephew.' Cooper sued Wakley 
for libel, and obtained a verdict, but with 
damages so small as practically to establish 
Wakley's main contention of malpraxis. 



Wakley 



Wakley 



Wakley's expenses -were defrayed by public 
subscription. 

These were not the only lawsuits in which 
Wakley was involved as editor of the 
' Lancet.' On 25 Feb. 1825 Frederick Tyr- 
rell [q. v.] obtained 501. damages in an action 
for libel arising out of the ' Lancet's ' review 
of his edition of Cooper's 'Lectures,' and 
somewhat later Roderick Macleod [q. v.] 
obtained 51. damages for reflections in the 
' Lancet ' on his conduct as editor of the 
' London Medical and Physical Journal.' 

In 1836 the ' Lancet/ which was at first 
published from Bolt Court by Gilbert Linney 
Hutchinson, was removed to offices in Essex 
Street, Strand, Wakley acting in reality as 
his own publisher. Six years later John 
Churchill undertook the responsibility from 
his own place of business in Prince's Street, 
Leicester Square. In 1847 Wakley again 
became his own publisher, and removed the 
' Lancet ' to its present offices at 423 Strand. 

While Wakley was attacking hospital 
administration he was also carrying on a 
campaign against the Royal College of Sur- 
geons. The contest arose out of the hospital 
controversy. In March 1824 the court of 
examiners issued a by-law making it com- 
pulsory for medical students to attend the 
lectures of the hospital surgeons, unless they 
obtained certificates from the professors of 
anatomy and surgery in the university of 
Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, or Aberdeen. 
Wakley, who remembered his own studies 
under Edward and Richard Grainger, cen- 
sured the regulation because it excluded 
many of the best anatomists from teaching 
to the evident disadvantage of the students. 
On inquiry he found that the court of exami- 
ners, which was self-elected, was entirely re- 
cruited from the hospital surgeons. Seeing 
the hopelessness of redress from such a body, 
he shifted his ground and boldly assailed the 
constitution of the college. The college had 
been reconstituted by royal charter in March 
1800 on an oligarchic basis, after an attempt 
to procure a similar constitution by act of 
parliament had been defeated in the House 
of Lords by a general petition of the ordi- 
nary members presented by Lord Thurlow. 
At the present crisis Wakley advised that the 
whole body of surgeons should again petition 
parliament, requesting it to abrogate the ex- 
isting charter and grant a new one, in which 
it should be a fundamental principle that any 
official vested with power to make by-laws 
should be appointed by the suffrage of all 
the members of the college. Supported by 
James Wardrop [q. v.], surgeon to George IV, 
Wakley commenced an agitation against the 
governing body of the college, which received 



large support, especially from country sur- 
geons. Vigorous protests against various 
abuses from correspondents in all parts of 
England appeared in the ' Lancet,' and on 
18 Feb. 1826 the first public meeting of mem- 
bers of the college was convened by Wakley 
at the Freemasons' Tavern. The meeting 
were about to draw up a remonstrance to the 
council of the college, when Wakley, telling 
them that they ' might as well remonstrate 
with the devil as with this constitutionally 
rotten concern,' prevailed on them in an im- 
passioned speech to petition parliament at 
once to abrogate the charter. The petition 
was presented in parliament by Henry War- 
burton [q. v.] on 20 June 1827, and the House 
of Commons ordered a return to be made of 
public money lent or granted to the college. 
The victory, however, proved barren, the in- 
fluence of the council being too strong with 
government to prevent further steps being 
taken. Wakley's own relations with the 
governing body did not improve, and early 
in 1831, while protesting against a slight put 
upon naval surgeons by an order of the ad- 
miralty, he was ejected from the college 
theatre by a detachment of Bow Street offi- 
cers, acting on the orders of the council. In 
1843 a partial reform in the constitution of 
the college was effected by the abolition of 
the self-electing council and the creation of 
fellows with no limit of number, to whom the 
electoral privileges were confided. Wakley, 
however, denounced this compromise as 
creating an invidious distinction within the 

j ranks of the profession, and his view is 
largely justified by the state of feeling at the 

| present day. 

Finding himself thwarted in his efforts by 

, the coldness of politicians, he resolved 
himself to enter parliament. He removed 

i from Norfolk Street about 1825 to Thistle 
Grove (now Drayton Gardens), South Ken- 
sington, and in 1828 to 35 Bedford Square. 
He first made himself known in Finsbury by 
supporting the reduction of the local rates. 

I In 1832 and 1834 he unsuccessfully contested 

i the borough, but on 10 Jan. 1835 he was re- 
turned. He made a gre,at impression in the 
House of Commons by a speech delivered on 
25 June 1835 on behalf of six Dorset labourers 

j sentenced to fourteen years' transportation 
under the law of conspiracy for combining to 
resist the reduction of their wages. The effect 
produced by his speech eventually led to 
their pardon. He soon gained the respect of 
the house as an authority on medical matters, 
and was able by his forcible eloquence to 

i command attention also on general topics. 

I In 1836 he successfully introduced the medi- 

j cal witnesses bill, providing for the proper 



Wakley 



Wakley 



remuneration of medical men called to assist 
at post-mortem examinations. In 1840 he 
succeeded in preventing the post of public 
vaccinators being confined to poor-law 
medical officers alone by obtaining a modifi- 
cation of the wording of Sir James Graham's 
vaccination bill. In 1841 he strongly sup- 
ported the extramural burial bill [see WAL- 
KEB, GEORGE ALFRED]. In 1846 he brought 
in a bill to establish a uniform system of re- 
gistration of qualified medical practitioners in 
Great Britain and Ireland. Though the bill did 
not pass, it led to the thorough sifting of the 
question before a select committee, whose 
deliberations resulted in the Medical Act of 
1858, in which Wakley' s registration clauses 
were adopted almost entire. Wakley did not, 
however, entirely approve of that act, hold- 
ing that there should be more direct repre- 
sentation of the body of the profession in 
the medical council instituted by the act. 
Among other important parliamentary work, 
he obtained the material reduction of the 
newspaper stamp duties in 1836. He was 
an ardent reformer with strong sympathies 
with the chartists, an advocate for the repeal 
of the Irish union, a strenuous opponent of 
the corn laws, and an enemy to lawyers. 
He retired from parliament in 1852, finding 
that the pressure of work left him no leisure 
for his duties. On the foundation of ' Punch' 
in 1841 Wakley's parliamentary action be- 
came a favourite theme of satire, and he was 
constantly represented in the pages of the 
newjournal. His assertion in speaking against 
the copyright act in 1842 that he could 
write ' respectable ' poetry by the mile was 
singled out for special ridicule, and received a 
genial reproof from Tom Hood in his ' Whim- 
sicalities ' (London, 1844). 

In 1851 he commenced in the ' Lancet ' a 
most useful movement by issuing the results 
of analyses of food-stuffs in general con- 
sumption by the nation. The inquiry, con- 
ducted under the title ' The " Lancet " Ana- 
lytical Sanitary Commission,' was an uncom- 
promising attack on the prevalent adultera- 
tion and sophistication of food. The investi- 
gation, commencing in London, was carried 
in 1857 into several of the great provincial 
towns. It immediately caused considerable 
diminution in adulteration, and in 1855 a 
parliamentary committee was appointed to 
consider the subject. The result of the inquiry 
was the adulteration act of 1860, known as 
Scholefield's Act [see SCHOLEFIELD, WIL- 
LIAM], which rendered penal adulterations 
which affected the health of consumers. 
Wakley was only moderately satisfied with 
the act, which did not deal with the fraudu- 
lent aspect of adulteration, and which left 



the appointment of analysts to the option of 
the local authorities. The former defect was 
amended in the Sale of Foods and Drugs 
Acts of 1875 and 1879. 

Wakley is perhaps better known to 
memory as coroner for West Middlesex than 
as radical politician or medical reformer. 
He held the opinion that the duties of coro- 
ner required a medical rather than legal 
education. He supported his views in the 
' Lancet ' by numerous examples drawn from 
contemporary inquests, and on 24 Aug. 1830 
presented himself to a meeting of freeholders 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, as 
the first medical candidate for the post of 
coroner of East Middlesex. He was nar- 
rowly defeated at the poll, but on 25 Feb. 
1839 he was elected coroner for West Middle- 
sex. His efforts to raise the status of coroner's 
juries and establish a decorous mode of proce- 
dure at inquests aroused considerable dislike, 
and he was accused of holding too frequent in- 
quests, especial objection being taken to his 
holding inquests on those who died in prisons, 
asylums, and almshouses. On 10 Oct. 1839 
the Middlesex magistrates refused to pass the 
coroner's accounts, but a committee from 
their body, appointed to investigate the 
charges, completely justified Wakley's pro- 
cedure. His position was finally established 
on 27 July 1840 by the favourable report of 
a parliamentary committee appointed to in- 
quire into these and subsequent points of 
dispute. The numerous instances of practical 
sagacity and of professional skill which 
W^akley gave in conducting inquests gra- 
dually won popular opinion completely to his 
side. His humanity gained enthusiastic praise 
from Dickens, who was summoned to serve 
on a jury in 1841. The most conspicuous 
example of his power was in 1846 in the 
case of Frederick John White. In the face 
of the testimony of army medical officers, 
the jury, instructed by independent medical 
witnesses, returned a verdict that the de- 
ceased, a private soldier, died from the effects 
of a flogging to which he had been sentenced. 
Their verdict produced such an impression 
that this method of military punishment 
fell almost at once into comparative disuse, 
and was almost unknown when formally 
abolished by the Army Act of 1881. 

Wakley acquired some fame as an exposer 
of charlatans. It was chiefly through his ac- 
tion that John St. John Long [q. v.] was 
brought to justice in 1830. In the same 
year, on 4 Feb., he discredited Chabert, 
the ' Fire King,' in the Argyll Rooms, and 
on 16 Aug. 1838 he conclusively showed 
at a seance held at his house in Bedford 
Square that John Elliotson [q.v.], the senior 



Wakley 



physician of University College Hospital, a 
believer in mesmerism, had been duped in his 
experiments by two hysterical girls. His 
remonstrances concerning the unfair treat- 
ment of medical referees by assurance com- 
panies led to the establishment in 1851 of 
the New Equitable Life Assurance Company, 
and to a great improvement in the conduct 
of assurance agencies in general. At the 
time of his death he projected an inquiry 
into the working of the Poor Law Amend- 
ment Act of 1834, which he thoroughly 
detested. The inquiry, however, did not 
take place until three years later. 

Wakley died at Madeira on 16 May 1862, 
and was buried on 14 June at Kensal Green 
cemetery. On 5 Feb. 1820 he married the 
youngest daughter of Joseph Goodchild, a 
merchant of Tooley Street, London. She 
died in 1857, leaving three sons. The two 
elder Thomas Henry, senior proprietor of 
the ' Lancet,' and Henry Membury, a barris- 
ter are living. The youngest, James Good- 
child, succeeded his father as editor of the 
' Lancet.' On his death in 1886 his brother 
Thomas Henry and his son Thomas became 
co-editors. 

The interests of Wakley's life were various, 
but the motives governing his action were 
always the same. He hated injustice, espe- 
cially when he found it in alliance with 
power. Athletic in bodily habit, he possessed 
a mind no less fitted for successful strife. 
Though he aroused strenuous opposition and 
bitter ill will among his contemporaries, 
time has proved his contentions in every 
instance of importance to be just. Some of 
the abuses he denounced are still in exis- 
tence, but their harmfulness is acknowledged ; 
the greater number have been swept away, 
chiefly through his vigorous action. He was 
not accustomed to handle an opponent 
gently, and many passages in his earlier dia- 
tribes are almost scurrilous. But no feeling 
of personal malice entered into his contro- 
versies ; he spoke or wrote solely with a view 
to portraying clearly injustice or wrong- 
doing, and never with the purpose of paining 
or humiliating an enemy. Many who op- 
posed him on particular questions became 
afterwards friends and supporters. A bust 
of Wakley by John Bell stands in the hall 
of the ' Lancet ' office. A portrait, painted 
by K. Meadows, has been engraved by 
W. H. Egleton. 

[Sprigge's Life of Wakley, 1897 (with por- 
traits) ; Report of the Trial of Cooper v. Wak- 
ley, 1829 ; Francis's Orators of the Age, 1847, 
pp. 301-21; Lancet, 1862, i. 609; Gent. Mag. 
1862, ii. 364 ; Corrected Report of the Speeches 
delivered by Mr. Lawrence at Two Meetings of 



8 Walbran 

Members of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
1826 ; Day's Brief Sketch of the Hounslow In- 
quest, 1849 ; Gardiner's Facts relative to the 
late Fire and Attempt to murder Mr. Wakley, 
1820 ; Wallas's Life of Francis Place, 1898.] 

E. I. C. 

WALBRAN, JOHN RICHARD (1817- 
1869), Yorkshire antiquary, son of John and 
Elizabeth Walbran, was born at Ripon, York- 
shire, on 24 Dec. 1817, and educated at 
Whixley in the same county. After leaving 
school lie became assistant to his father, an 
iron merchant, and afterwards engaged in 
commerce on his own account as a wine 
merchant. From his early years he had & 
marked taste for historical and antiquarian 
studies, and all the time that he could spare 
from his avocation was occupied with archaeo- 
logical investigations, especially with respect 
to the ecclesiastical and feudal history of his 
native county. His study of the records of 
Fountains Abbey led him to make a spe- 
ciality of the history of the whole Cistercian 
order. A paper by him ' On the Necessity 
of clearing out the Conventual Church of 
Fountains,' written in 1846, originated the 
excavations at Fountains Abbey, which 
were carried out under his personal direc- 
tion. The first edition of his ' Guide to 
Ripon' was printed in 1844, and was suc- 
ceeded by nine other editions in his life- 
time. His chief work, 'The Memorials of 
the Abbey of St. Mary of Fountains' (Surtees 
Soc. 1864-78, 2 vols.), was left unfinished. 
Another uncompleted work was his ' History 
of Gainford, Durham,' 1851. He also made 
some progress with a ' History of the Wapen- 
take of Claro and the Liberty of Ripon/ 
and a 'History of the Parish of Halifax.' 
Although he had great literary ability, he 
had a singular dislike to the mechanical part 
of authorship that connected with printing 
and had it not been for the encouragement 
and technical assistance of his friend Wil- 
liam Harrison, printer, of Ripon, few of his 
writings would have been printed. 

Walbran was elected F.S.A. on 12 Jan. 
1854, and in 1856 and 1857 filled the office 
of mayor of Ripon. In April 1868 he was 
struck with paralysis, and died on 7 April 
1869. He was buried in Holy Trinity 
churchyard, Ripon. 

He married, in September 1849, Jane, 
daughter of Richard Nicholson of Ripon, 
and left two sons, the elder of whom, Francis 
Marmaduke Walbran of Leeds, is the author 
of works on angling. Among Walbran's 
minor printed works are the following: 
1. 'Genealogical Account of the Lords of 
Studley Royal,' 1841 ; reprinted, with addi- 
tions, by Canon Raine in vol. ii. of ' Memo- 



Walburga 



rials of Fountains.' 2. ' A Summer's Day at 
Bolton Abbey,' 1847. 3. 'Visitors' Guide 
to Redcar,' 1848. 4. < On the Oath taken 
by Members of the Parliaments of Scotland 
from 1641,' 1854. 5. ' Notes on the Manu- 
scripts at Ripley Castle,' 1864. His manu- 
scripts were after his death purchased by 
Edward Akroyd of Halifax, and presented 
by him to York Cathedral Library. 

[Canon J. Raine's preface to Memorials of 
Fountains, 1878, vol. ii. ; Memoir by Edward 
Peacock, F.S.A.. in Walbran's Guide to Ripon, 
llth edit. 1875; Ripon Millenary Record, 1892, 
ii. 175; portraits are given in the last two 
works.] C. W. S. 

WALBURGA or WALPURGA (d. 

779 ?), saint, abbess of Heideuheim, was the 
sister of Willibald [q. v.] and Wynnebald. 
Their legend calls them the children of a 
certain Richard, but the name is an impossible 
one. Boniface (680-755) [q. v.] wrote from 
Germany, asking that the two nuns Lioba 
and Walburga might be sent to him (Mon. 
Mogunt. ed. Jaffe, p. 490), and it is therefore 
supposed that Waiburga was with Lioba at 
Wimborne, and that she went with her to 
Germany in 752. Legend, no doubt wrongly, 
makes Walburga accompany her brothers to 
Italy in 721. She was present at the death of 
her brother Wynnebald in 761 at Heiden- 
heim (HoLDER-EeeEE, Mon. Ger. Scriptt. xv. 
80), and was made abbess of that double 
monastery. She was living in or after 778, 
when an anonymous nun wrote lives of her 
brothers. These lives have been wrongly 
ascribed to Walburga herself, because the 
authoress was, like her, of English birth, a 
relative of the brothers, and a nun of Hei- 
denheim. The writer refers to Walburga as 
one of her sources of information. 

[Mon. Ger. Scriptores, xv. 80, 117, the best 
edition of the lives of Willibald and Wynnebald ; 
Life of St. Walburga by a Monk, Wolf hard of 
Herrieden, written at the request of Erchimbald, 
bishop of Eichstadt (882-912), who removed the 
relics of Walburga from Eichstadt (whither they 
had been moved in 870) to Monheim, in 893, in 
Acta SS. Boll. Feb. iii. 523. There is a long 
list of lives iii Chevalier's Repertoire. On the 
Walpurgis myth, see Rochholz, Drei Gau- 
gottinnen, Leipzig, 1870.] M. B. 

WALCHER (d. 1080), bishop of Dur- 
ham, was a native of Lorraine, of noble 
birth, who became a secular priest, and one 
of the clergy of the church of Liege. In 
1071 he was appointed by the Conqueror to 
succeed ^Ethelwine as bishop of Durham, 
and was consecrated at Winchester by 
Thomas, archbishop of York. As he was 
being led up the church for consecration, 
Queen Edith or Eadgyth (d. 1075) [q. v.], 



i Walcher 

the widow of the Confessor, thinking of 
the lawlessness of the people of the north, 
and struck by his aspect for he was very 
tall, and had snow-white hair and a ruddy 
complexion is said to have prophesied his 
martyrdom. By the king's command he 
was conducted by Gospatric, earl of North- 
umberland [q. v.], from York to Durham, 
where he was installed on 3 April. The 
Conqueror visited Durham in 1072, and, ac- 
cording to a legend, determined to ascertain 
whether St. Cuthbert's body really lay there ; 
but while Walcher was celebrating mass 
before him and his court on 1 Nov. a sudden 
heat fell upon him, and he left the church in 
haste. With Waltheof[q.v.], who succeeded 
Gospatric in that year, Walcher was on 
friendly terms, finding him ready to carry 
out every disciplinary measure that the 
bishop desired to have enforced in his diocese. 
His church was in the hands of secular clerks, 
who had little that was clerical about them 
either in dress or life ; they were fathers of 
families, and transmitted their positions in 
the church to their sons. One trace only 
existed of their connection with the earlier 
guardians of St. Cuthbert's relics : they used 
the Benedictine offices at the canonical 
hours. Walcher put an end to this, and, as 
they were seculars, made them use the same 
offices as other clerks. Nevertheless, secular 
as he was, he greatly preferred the monastic 
to the clerical life, is said to have thought 
of becoming a monk, designed to make the 
clergy of his church monastic, and laid the 
foundations of, and began to raise, monastic 
buildings adjacent to it, but was prevented 
by death from going further. He actively 
promoted the restoration of monasticism in 
the north which was set on foot by Eald- 
wine or Aldwin, prior of Winchcombe. 
Aldwin, moved by reading of the many 
monasteries that in old time existed in 
Northumbria, was eager to revive them, and, 
in company with two brethren from Evesham, 
settled first at Munecaceastre (Monkschester 
or Muncaster), the present Newcastle. Wal- 
cher invited them to come to him, and gave 
them the ruined monastery at Jarrow, where 
they repaired the church, and, being joined 
by others, raised monastic buildings. De- 
lighted with their work, Walcher gave the 
new convent the lordship of Jarrow and 
other possessions. He received Turgot [q.v.], 
and, approving of his wish to become a monk, 
sent him to Aldwin, and after a time invited 
Aldwin and Turgot to leave Melrose, where 
they had settled, and gave them the old 
monastery of Wearmouth. There, too, Ald- 
win restored the church and formed a con- 
vent, to which Walcher gave the lordship 



Walcher 



10 



Walcot 



of the place. The Conqueror approved of 
Walcher's work, and gave him the church 
of Waltham, which was served by canons, in 
accordance with its foundation [see under 
HAROLD, 1022 P-1066]. 

On the arrest of Earl Waltheof in that 
year the king committed his earldom to 
Walcher, who, it is said, paid 400/. for it 
(RoG. WEND. ii. 17). He was unfit for 
temporal government, for he allowed himself 
to be guided by unworthy favourites. He 
kept a large number of his fellow-country- 
men about him apparently as guards, com- 
mitted the administration of the earldom to 
his kinsman Gilbert, and put his private 
affairs into the hands of his chaplain, Leob- 
wine, on whose judgment he acted both in 
ecclesiastical and civil matters. These men 
were violent and unscrupulous, and were 
much hated by the people. Another of his 
evil counsellors was Leofwine, the dean of 
his church. At the same time Walcher 
greatly favoured a high-born thegn of his 
church named Ligulf, whose wife was a 
daughter of Earl Ealdred or Aldred, the 
son of Uhtred [q. v.], the sister-in-law of 
Earl Siward, and the aunt of Earl Wal- 
theof. Ligulf was an ardent votary of St. 
Cuthbert, and evidently upheld the rights 
of the people against the oppression of 
the bishop's officers, who were jealous of 
the favour shown him by their lord. Leob- 
wine, the chaplain, specially hated him, and 
insulted him even in the bishop's presence. 
On one occasion Ligulf was provoked to 
give him a fierce answer. Leobwine left the 
assembly in wrath, and begged Gilbert to 
rid him of his enemy. Gilbert accordingly 
formed a band of some of his own following, 
some of the bishop's, and some of Leob wine's, 
went by night to the house in which Ligulf 
was staying, and slew him and the greater 
part of his people. When Walcher heard 
of this he was much dismayed, retreated 
hastily into the castle, and at once sent 
messengers through all the country to de- 
clare that he was guiltless of the murder, 
that he had banished Gilbert, and that he 
was ready to prove his innocence by the 
legal process of compurgatory oath. It was 
arranged that the matter should be settled 
at an assembly of the earldom at Gates- 
head, and the bishop and the kinsfolk of 
Ligulf exchanged pledges of peace. The 
assembly was held on 14 May 1080, and to 
it came all the chief men of the land north 
of the Tyne and a vast number of lesser folk ; 
they had heard that the bishop still kept 
Ligulfs murderers with him, and showed 
them favour as beforetime, and so they came 
intent on mischief, for they were egged on 



by Ligulfs kinsmen, and specially by one 
Waltheof, and by Eadwulf Kus, the grand- 
son of Gospatric, the youngest son of Earl 
Uhtred. The bishop was afraid to meet the 
assembly in the open air, and sat in the church 
with his friends and followers, Gilbert, 
Leobwine, and Leofwine among them. Mes- 
sengers passed between the two parties with- 
out coming to any settlement. Suddenly, it 
is said, the chief man of the multitude out- 
side cried ' Short rede, good rede, slay ye the 
bishop.' The bishop's followers outside the 
church were nearly all slain. Walcher, 
when he knew the cause of the tumult, 
ordered Gilbert to go forth, hoping to save 
his own life by surrendering the actual mur- 
derer. Leofwine, the dean, and some clergy 
next left the church, and they also were 
slain by the multitude. Walcher bade Leob- 
wine go forth, but he refused. The bishop 
then went to the church-door and pleaded 
for his life ; the rioters would not hearken, 
and, wrapping his face in his mantle, he 
stepped forward and was slain. The church 
was set on fire, and Leobwine, forced by 
the flames to go forth, was also slain. The 
body of the dead bishop was despoiled and 
hacked about ; it was carried by the monks 
of Jarrow to Durham, and there hastily 
buried in the chapter-house. 

Walcher is described as learned, of honour- 
able life, amiable temper, and pleasant man- 
ners ; he was certainly weak, and at the 
least neglectful of his duty as a temporal 
ruler ; the St. Albans compiler charges him 
with a personal 'participation in the extor- 
tions of his officers, representing him as 
determined to compel his subjects to repay 
the amount that he had given for his earl- 
dom; other and earlier writers throw all 
the blame on his favourites. After his death 
he was accused of having despoiled Waltham 
of part of its lands (De Inventione Ci~ucis, 
pp. 53-4). He was regarded as a martyr. 

[Symeon of Durham i. 9-10, 58, 105-17, ii. 
195, 204, 208-11, Will, of Malmesbury's G-esta 
Regum iii. c. 271, Gesta Pontiff, c. 132, Eog. 
Hov. i. 135 n. 2 (all Rolls Series) ; A.-S. Chron. 
an. 1080, ed. Plummer; Flor. Wig. gives appa- 
rently the best account of Wiilcher's murder, 
an. 1080; Rog. Wend. ii. 17 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 479-80, 
663-73.] W. H. 

WALCOT, SIR THOMAS (1629-1685), 
judge, the scion of an ancient Shropshire 
family, was the second son of HUMPHREY 
WALCOT ( 1 586-1 650) , who was receiver of the 
county of Salop in 1625 and high sheriff in 
1631. He was greatly distinguished for his 
loyalty to Charles I, and made many sacri- 
fices in the royal cause. Many of the family 



Walcot 



Walcott 



papers preserved at Bitterley Court relate to 
him. He married Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Docwra of Poderich, Hertfordshire, and was 
buried at Lydbury on 8 June 1650. Por- 
traits of him and his wife are at Bitterley 
Court. His funeral sermon by Thomas Froy- 
sell, minister of the gospel at Clun in Shrop- 
shire, and entitled ' The Gale of Opportu- 
nity,' was printed in London in 1658. He 
left three sons John (1624-1702), his heir ; 
Thomas, the subject of this article ; and 
William, page of honour to Charles I, whom 
he attended on the scaftbld. The half of the 
blood-stained cloak worn by the king on 
that occasion is still preserved at Bitterley 
Court. 

Thomas was born at Lydbury on 6 Aug. 
1629, and, having entered himself a student 
of the Middle Temple on 12 Nov. 1647, was 
called to the bar on 25 Nov. 1653, chosen a 
bencher on 11 Nov. 1671, and served as Lent 
reader in 1677 (Registers). Walcot practised 
in the court of the marches of Wales, and 
on 15 Feb. 1662 was made king's attorney 
in the counties of Denbigh and Montgomery. 
He was recorder of Bewdley from 1671 until 
his death (NA.SH, Hist, of Worcestershire; 
BUKTON , Hist, of Bewdley). He was one of 
the royal commissioners appointed to collect 
the money levied in Shropshire in 1673. In 
April 1676 Walcot became puisne justice of 
the great sessions for the counties of Anglesea, 
Carnarvon, and Merioneth, at a salary of 501. 
a year, and was made one of the council of 
the marches of Wales. He became chief 
justice of the circuit on 21 Nov. 1681, and 
was knighted at Whitehall on the same day. 
His arms were placed in Ludlow Castle 
(CLIVE, Documents relating to the Marches). 
He represented Ludlow in parliament from 
September 1679 to January 1681. As the 
' Welsh judges ' were not prohibited from 
practising in the superior courts at West- 
minster, he followed his profession with such 
success, especially in the court of king's 
bench (cf. SHOWEK, Reports), that he attained 
the degree of serjeant-at-law on 12 May 1680. 
He was granted the king's license to act as 
a justice of assize in his native county 
of Salop non obstante statuto on 19 July 
1683. On 22 Oct. 1683 Walcot was pro- 
moted from the North Wales circuit to 
be one of the puisne justices of the king's 
bench, and as such sat upon the trials of 
Thomas Rosewell [q. v.] for treasonable 
words, and of Titus Oates [q. v.] for perjury 
in 1683 (State Trials, x. 151, 1198). His 
patent was renewed by James II on 7 Feb. 
1685. He died at Bitterley on 6 Sept. 1685, 
at the age of fifty-six, and was buried in the 
parish church on 8 Sept. (Register). 



From subsequent litigation it appeared 
that Walcot died intestate and insolvent. 
His insolvency, however, may be attributed 
to his benevolence of heart, for he and Sir Job 
Charlton being appointed trustees of the 
charitable will (dated 1674) of Thomas Lane, 
they repaired a house of Mr. Lane's (now 
Lane's Asylum), and converted it into a 
workhouse for employing the poor of Ludlow 
in making serges and woollen cloths, and 
spent large sums in carrying on the manu- 
facture (WEYMAN, Members for Ludlow). 

Walcot married at Bitterley, on 10 Dec. 
1663, Mary, daughter of Sir Adam Lyttelton, 
bart., of Stoke Milburgh (Parish Register), 
and had a son Humphrey, whose son sold 
Bitterley in 1765. 

[Bitterley papers, including letters from 
Charles I, Judge Jeffreys, and others, were in- 
dexed and reported on by Mr. (now Sir Henry) 
Maxwell-Lyte, and some are printed in Hist. 
MSS. Comrn. 10th Rep. App. iv. 418-20. See 
also Patent Rolls and Fines and Recoveries in 
the Record Office ; Official Ret. Memb. of Parl. ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Walcot Papers in British Museum, 
Addit. MS, 29743 ; private information supplied 
by Rev. J. R. Burton.] W. R. W. 

WALCOTT, MACKENZIE EDWARD 
CHARLES (1821-1880), ecclesiologist, 
born at Walcot, Bath, on 15 Dec. 1821, was 
the only son of Admiral John Edward Wal- 
cott (1790-1868), M.P. for Christchurch in 
the four parliaments from 1859 to 1868. His 
mother was Charlotte Anne (1796-1863), 
daughter of Colonel John Nelley. Entered 
at Winchester College in 1837, Walcott 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, 
on 18 June 1840. He graduated B.A. on 
25 May 1844, taking a third class in classics, 
and proceeded M.A. in 1847 and B.D. in 
1866. He was ordained deacon in 1844 and 
priest in 1845. His first curacy was at En- 
field, Middlesex (1845-7) ; he was then 
curate of St. Margaret's, Westminster, from 
1847 to 1850, and of St. James's, Westmin- 
ster, from 1850 to 1853. In 1861 he was 
domestic chaplain to his relative, Lord Lyons, 
and assistant minister of Berkeley Chapel, 
Mayfair, London, and from 1867 to 1870 he 
held the post of minister at that chapel. In 
1863 he was appointed precentor (with the 
prebend of Oving) of Chichester Cathedral, 
and held that preferment until his death. 
Always at work on antiquarian and eccle- 
siological subjects, he was elected F.S.A. on 
10 Jan. 1861. He died on 22 Dec. 1880 at 
58 Belgrave Road, London, and was buried 
in Brompton cemetery. He married at St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly, on 20 July 1852, 
Roseau ne Elizabeth, second daughter of 



Walcott 



12 



Waldby 



Major Frederick Brownlow and niece of the 
first Lord Lurgan. He left no issue. 

Walcott contributed articles on his favourite 
topics to numerous magazines and to the 
transactions of the learned societies, and he 
was one of the oldest contributors to ' Notes 
and Queries.' His separate works include : 
1. ' Parish Church of St. Margaret, West- 
minster,' 1847. '2. ' Handbook for Parish 
of St. James, Westminster,' 1850. 3. ' West- 
minster, Memorials of the City,' 1849 ; new 
ed. 1851. 4. ' The English Ordinal: its His- 
tory, Validity, and Catholicity,' 1851. 5. 'St. 
Paul at Athens : a Sacred Poem,' 1851. 
6. ' William of Wykeham and his Colleges,' 
1852; an 'early and long-cherished ambi- 
tion.' 7. 'Handbook for Winchester Cathe- 
dral,' 1854. 8. ' Dedication of the Temple : 
a Sacred Poem,' 1854. 9. 'The Death of 
Jacob: a Sacred Poem,' 1857. 10. 'The 
English Episcopate : Biographical Memoirs,' 
5 parts, 1858. 11. 'Guide to the Cathe- 
drals of England and Wales,' 1858 : new 
ed. much enlarged, 1860; the descriptions 
of the several cathedrals were also published 
in separate parts. 12. ' Guide to the South 
Coast of England,' 1859. 13. ' Guide to the 
Mountains, Lakes, and North-West Coast of 
England,' 1860. 14. 'Guide to the East 
Coast of England,' 1861 ; parts of these 
works were issued separately. 15. ' Minsters 
and Abbey Euins of the United Kingdom,' 
1860. 16. ' Church and Conventual Ar- 
rangement,' 1861. 17. 'Priory Church of 
Christchurch, Twyneham,' 1862. 18. ' The 
Double Choir historically and practically 
considered,' 1864. 19. ' Interior of a Gothic 
Minster,' 1864. 20. ' Precinct of a Gothic 
Minster,' 1865. 21. 'Cathedralia : a Constitu- 
tional History of Cathedrals of the Western 
Church,' 1865. 22. ' Memorials of Stamford,' 

1867. 23. ' Battle Abbey,' 2nd ed. 1867. 24. 
'Sacred Archaeology : a Popular Dictionary,' 

1868. 25. 'Leaflets [poems], by M.E.C.W.,' 
1872. 26. 'Traditions and Customs of 
Cathedrals,' 1872 ; 2nd ed. revised and en- 
larged, 1872. 27. ' Scoti-Monasticon, the 
Ancient Church of Scotland,' 1874. 28. 
' Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical of 
the Church of England,' 1874. 29. 'The 
Four Minsters round the Wrekin,' 1877. 
30. ' Early Statutes of the Cathedral Church 
of Chichester,' 1877. 31. ' Church Work and 
Life ya. English Minsters,' 1879. 

Walcott contributed to the Rev. Henry 
Thompson's collection of ' Original Ballads,' 
1850, and to the Rev. Orby Shipley's 
| Church and the World,' 1866. He edited 
in 1865, ' with large additions and copious 
notes,' Thomas Plume's ' Account of Bishop 
Hacket,' and published, in conjunction with 



Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson in 1872 and 
1874, two parts of ' Parish Church Goods in 
Kent.' Many of his papers on the inven- 
tories and registers of ecclesiastical founda- 
tions were also issued separately, and he 
presented to the British Museum the follow- 
ing Additional manuscripts : 22136-7, 
24632, 24966, 28831, 29534-6, 29539-42, 
29720-7,29741^6. 

[Boase's Exeter Coll. Commoners; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Men of the Time, 10th ed. ; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iii. 20 ; Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 29743, ff. 8, 66, 68.] W. P. C. 

WALDBY, ROBERT (d. 1398), arch- 
bishop of York, was a Yorkshireman. The 
village of Waldby is near Hull, but Godwin 
says he was born at York. John Waldby 
(d. 1393 ?), who was English provincial 
of the Austin friars, and wrote a number of 
expository works still preserved in manuscript 
in the Bodleian and other libraries (TAJTNTE, 

S746), is said to have been a brother of 
obert Waldby (Lives of the Archbishops of 
York, ii. 428; cf. art. NASSYNGTON, WILLIAM 
OF). As they were both doctors of theology 
and Austin friars, some confusion has re- 
sulted. Robert seems to have become a 
friar in the Austin convent at Tickhill in 
South Yorkshire ($.), unless his brother's 
retirement thither from the fria/y at York 
be the only basis of the statement (TANXEK). 
j The occurrence of his name (as archbishop) 
j in one of the old windows of the chapel of 
j University College, Oxford (WooD, p. 65), 
has been supposed to imply membership of 
that society, but he may only have been a 
benefactor. At any rate he received most 
of his education abroad, going out toGascony 
in the train of the Black Prince, and pur- 
suing his studies at the university of Tou- 
louse, where he devoted himself first to 
natural and moral philosophy, and then to 
theology, in which he became a doctor. 
Dean Stanley inferred (Memorials of West- 
minster, p. 196) from a passage in his 
epitaph that he was ' renowned at once as 
a physician and a divine : ' 

Sacrae scripturae doctor fuit, et geniturse 
Ingenuus, medicus, et plebis semper amicus. 
If ' medicus ' be not a misreading of ' modi- 
cus,' it must surely be used in a metaphori- 
cal sense. In an earlier line he is described 
as ' expertus in quovis jure.' 

Waldby took part in the ' earthquake 
council' which met at London in May 1382 
to repress Wyclifitism, sitting as one of the 
four learned representatives of the Austin 
order, and described in the official record as 
' Tholosanus ' (Fasciculi Zizaniorum, p. 
286). Richard II commissioned him on 
1 April following, with the bishop of Dax 



Waldby 



Waldegrave 



and others, to negotiate with the kings of 
Castile, Aragon, and Navarre (Fcedera, vii. 
386-90). In 1387 he was elected bishop of 
Aire in Gascony (GAMS, p. 481). The Eng- 
lish government was replacing Clementist 
prelates by supporters of Urban VI (TAUZIN, 
p. 330). An ignorant emendation of ' Sodo- 
rensis ' for ' Adurensis ' in his epitaph has 
led many writers to make him bishop of 
Sodor and Man (WEEVER, p. 481). Boni- 
face IX translated him to the archbishopric 
of Dublin on 14 Nov. 1390 or 1391 (CoxxoK, 
ii. 15 ; GAMS, p. 218). As his predecessor, 
Robert de Wikeford [q. v.], died in August 
1390, and a certain Guichard appears as 
bishop of Aire under 1390 (MAS-LATEIE, 
p. 1364), the earlier date, which is confirmed 
by the contemporary Irish chronicler Marle- 
burrough(p. 15), seems preferable. Waldby 
sat in the anti-Wyclifite council at Stamford 
in 1392. In the list of those present given in 
the 'Fasciculi Zizaniorum' (p. 356) he is 
called John, which misled Leland (p. 394), 
who concluded that his brother must have 
been archbishop of Dublin at that time, and 
attributed to him a book, ' Contra Wiclevis- 
tas,' which was, we cannot doubt, the work 
of Robert Waldby (TANNER, p. 746). He 
filled the onerous office of chancellor of 
Ireland, and exerted himself vigorously to 
protect the colonists against the septs of 
Leinster (GILBERT, p. 268; Roll of the 
King's Council, pp. 22, 256). In January 
1393 he complained to the king that, being 
minded, by the advice of the Anglo-Irish 
lords, and others, to go to England to lay the 
evils of the country before the sovereign, 
the Earl of Kildare quartered a hundred 
' kernemen ' on the lands of his seigniory 
of Ballymore in county Dublin (ib. pp. 130- 
132). Kildare received a royal order to 
withdraw them. On the translation of 
Richard Mitford from Chichesterto Salisbury 
in October 1395, Richard II, who had re- 
cently spent some months in Ireland, got 
Waldby translated to the former see, 'quia 
major pontificatus in secular! substantia 
minor erat ' (WALSINGHAM, ii. 218). He 
obtained the temporalities on 4 Feb. 1396, 
but a few months later (5 Oct.) the pope 
translated him to the archbishopric of York, 
the temporalities of which were handed 
over to him on 7 March 1397 (Ls NEVE, i. 
243, iii. 108). 

Waldby attended the parliaments which 
met in January and September in that year, 
but died on 6 Jan. 1398 (ib. ; his epitaph, 
however, gives 29 Dec. 1397 as the date). 
Richard, who three years before had excited 
adverse criticism by burying Bishop John de 
Waltham [q.v.] in Westminster Abbey ' inter 



reges,' had Waldby interred in the middle 
of the chapel of St. Edmund : ' the first 
representative of literature in the abbey as 
Waltham is of statesmanship,' says Dean 
Stanley, if his treatise against the Lollards 
and two or three scholastic manuals attri- 
buted to him can be called literature. His 
grave was marked by a large marble 
tombstone bearing his effigy, and a eulogis- 
tic epitaph in halting Latin verse on a plate 
of brass. The inscription long since became 
illegible, but is preserved in the 'Lives of the 
Archbishops of York' (ii. 427) and by 
Weever(p.481). His biographer gives also an 
unfriendly copy of verses in which he was ac- 
cused of simony. He ascribes them to some 
monk's jealousy of the elevation of a friar 
to the archbishopric. There is a third set 
of verses in Weever. 

[The short biography of Waldby in the Lives 
of the Archbishops of York, edited by Eaine in 
the Rolls Series, was probably written about 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, and has 
very little value except as supplying the oldest 
text of his epitaph ; other authorities referred 
to are Rymer's Fcedera, original edition; Fas- 
ciculi Zizaniorum and Walsingham's Historia 
Anglicana, in the Rolls Series ; Leland's Comm. 
DeScriptt.Britan. Oxford, 1709; Bale, De Scriptt. 
Maj. Brit. ed. 1559; Pits, De Illustr. Anglise 
Scriptt., Paris, 1619; Tanner's Bibl. Scri ptt. Brit.- 
Hib. ; Wood's Colleges and Halls of Oxford, ed. 
Peshall ; Henry de Marleburrough, ed. Dublin, 
1809 ; Godwin, De Praesulibus Angliae, ed. 1743 ; 
Tauzin's Les dioceses d'Aire et de Dax pendant 
le Schisme; Le Neve's Fasti EcclesiseAnglicanse, 
ed. Hardy ; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernise, 
1848 ; K. Babel's Die Provisiones Prselatorum; 
Gams's Series Episcoporum Ecclesise Catholicse, 
Ratisbon, 1873 ; Mas-Latrie's Tresor de Chrono- 
logic, Paris, 1889 ; J. T. Gilbert's Hist, of the 
Irish Viceroys ; Stanley's Memorials of West- 
minster Abbey ; Weever's Ancient Funeral 
Monuments, 1631.] J. T-T. 

WALDEGRAVE, SIR EDWARD 

(1517 P-1561), politician, born in 1516 or 
1517, was the second son of John Walde- 
grave (d. 1543) of Borley in Essex, by his 
wife, Lora, daughter of Sir John Rochester 
of Essex, and sister of Sir Robert Rochester 
[q. v.] He was a descendant of Sir Richard 
Waldegrave [q. v.], speaker of the House of 
Commons. On the death of his father, on 
6 Oct. 1543, Edward entered into possession 
of his estates at Borley. In 1 Edward VI 
(1547-8) he received a grant of the manor 
and rectory of West Haddon in Northamp- 
tonshire. He was attached to the Princess 
Mary's household, and on 29 Aug. 1551 was 
committed to the Fleet, with his uncle Sir 
Robert Rochester and Sir Francis Engle- 
field [q. v.], for refusing to enforce the order 



Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 



of the privy council by preventing the cele- 
bration of mass at Mary's residence at Copt 
Hall, near Epping. Two days later they 
were removed to the Tower, where Walde- 

frave fell sick, and received permission on 
7 Sept. to be attended by his wife. On 
24 Oct. he was permitted to leave the Tower, 
though still a prisoner, and to reside 'in 
some honest house where he might be better 
tended.' On 18 March 1551-2 he received 
permission to go to his own house, and on 
24 April he was set at liberty and had 
license to repair to Mary at her request. 

On the death of Edward VI Waldegrave, 
whom Mary much esteemed for his suffer- 
ings on her behalf, was sworn of the privy 
council, constituted master of the great 
wardrobe, and presented with the manors 
of Navestock in Essex, and of Chewton in 
Somerset. He was returned for Wiltshire 
in the parliament of October 1553, and for 
Somerset in that of April 1554. In the par- 
liament of January 1557-8 he represented 
Essex. On 2 Oct. 1553 he was knighted, 
on 4 Nov. was appointed joint receiver- 
general of the duchy of Cornwall (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 55), and on 
17 April 1554 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners at the trial of Sir Nicholas 
Throckmorton [q. v.] Waldegrave was a 
strenuous opponent of the queen's marriage 
with Philip of Spain, and, with Lord Derby 
and Sir Edward Hastings, threatened to 
leave her service if she persisted. A pension 
of five hundred crowns bestowed on him by 
Charles V early in 1554 quieted his opposi- 
tion, and he undertook the office of com- 
missioner for inquiry into heresies. In 1557 
he obtained a grant of the manor of Hever 
Cobham in Kent, and of the office of lieu- 
tenant of Waltham or Eppiug Forest. On 
the death of his uncle, Sir Robert Rochester, 
on 28 Nov. 1557, he succeeded him as chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In the 
following year he formed one of the com- 
mission appointed to dispose of the church 
lands vested in the crown. On the death of 
Mary he was deprived of his employments, 
and soon after was sent to the Tower with 
his wife, the priest, and the congregation, 
for permitting mass to be said in his house 
(ib. pp. 173, 176, 179, Addenda, 1547-65, 
pp. 509, 510). He died in the Tower on 
1 Sept. 1561, and was buried in the Tower 
chapel. A monument was erected to his 
memory and that of his wife at Borley. He 
married Frances (d. 1599), daughter of Sir 
Edward Neville (d. 1538) [q. v.] By her 
he had two sons : Charles, who succeeded 
him in his Norfolk and Somerset estates, 
and was ancestor of the Earls Waldegrave ; 



and Nicholas, ancestor to the Waldegraves 
of Borley in Essex. They had also three 
daughters: Mary, married to John Petre, 
first baron Petre [see under PETRE, SIR 
WILLIAM] ; Magdalen, married to Sir John 
Southcote of Witham in Essex ; and Catha- 
rine, married to Thomas Gawen of Wilt- 
shire. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1779, iv. 421-5; Strype's 
Ecclesiastical Memorials, 1822, u. i. 388, 454- 
459, in. i. 549 ; Strype's Annals of the Kefor- 
mation, i. i. 400, 404 ; Foxe's Actes and Momi- 
ments, 1846, vi. 22; Hasted's History of Kent, 
i. 396; Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1768, i. 182; 
Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent ; Machyn's 
Diary (Camden Soc.~) ; Ducatus Laneastriae, Ke- 
cord ed. ; Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 107 ; 
Froude's Hist, of England, 1870, v. 358, vi. 116, 
138, 193, 443, 513, vii. 338-9; Gent, Mag. 
1823, ii. 17; Notes and Queries, n. vii. 166; 
Miss Strickland's Queens of England, 1851, iii. 
410-14, 454.] E. I. C. 

WALDEGRAVE, FRANCES ELIZA- 
BETH ANNE, COUNTESS WALDEGRAVE 
(1821-1879), the daughter of John Braham 
[q. v.], the singer, was born in London on 
4 Jan. 1821. She married, on 25 May 1839, 
John James Waldegrave of Navestock, Essex, 
who died in the same yoar. She married 
secondly, on 28 Sept. 1840, George Edward, 
seventh earl Waldegrave. After the marriage 
her husband was sentenced to six months' 
imprisonment for assault. During his deten- 
tion she lived with him in the queen's bench 
prison, and on his release they retired into 
the country. On the death of Lord Walde- 
grave on 28 Sept. 1846, she found herself 
possessed of the whole of the Waldegrave 
estates (including residences at Strawberry 
Hill, Chewton, Somerset, and Dudbrook, 
Essex), but with little knowledge of the 
world to guide her conduct. In this position 
she entered for a third time into matrimony, 
marrying on 30 Sept. 1847 George Granville 
Harcourt of Nuneham and Stanton Har- 
court, Oxfordshire. Her third husband, who 
was a widower and her senior by thirty-six 
years (being sixty-two at the date of the 
marriage, while she was only twenty-six), 
was eldest son of Edward Harcourt [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, and a follower of Peel, 
whom he supported in parliament as mem- 
ber for Oxfordshire. 

As Harcourt's wife, Lady Waldegrave first 
exhibited her rare capacity as a leader and 
hostess of society. Of her conduct to Har- 
court, Sir William Gregory wrote in his 
' Autobiography : ' ' She was an excellent 
wife to him, and neither during her life with 
him nor previously was there ever a whisper 
of disparagement to her character. No great 



Waldegrave i 

lady held her head higher or more rigorously 
ruled her society. Her home was always 
gay, and her parties at Nuneham were the 
liveliest of the time ; but she never suffered 
the slightest indecorum, nor tolerated im- 
proprieties.' She delighted in private thea- 
tricals, and her favourite piece, which she 
acted over and over again both at Nuneham 
and Woburn, was the ' Honeymoon,' because 
it had some allusions to her own position. 
She always said she should have liked to 
act Lady Teazle, if it had not been that the 
references to the old husband were too 
pointed. The other pieces in which she per- 
formed were generally translations of French 
vaudevilles. 

Some years before Harcourt's death she 
determined to reopen Strawberry Hill, which 
had been left to her by her second husband, 
whose father had inherited it from Horace 
Walpole. The mansion had been completely 
dismantled by Lord Waldegrave and denuded 
of all its treasures in 1842. She preserved 
Horace Walpole's house exactly as it stood, 
and restored to it many of its dispersed trea- 
sures. The stable wing was turned into a set 
of sleeping-rooms for guests, and she joined 
it to the main building by two large rooms. 
These contained two collections, the one of 
eighteenth-century pictures of members of 
the families of Walpole and Waldegrave, 
the other of portraits of her own friends and 
contemporaries. Strawberry Hill, when 
finished, became a still more convenient ren- 
dezvous for the political and diplomatic 
society of London than Nuneham had been. 
Harcourt died on 19 Dec. 1861, and then 
Strawberry Hill became her principal resi- 
dence, although she occasionally resided at 
the Waldegrave mansions of Chewton in 
Somerset and Dudbrook in Essex, both of 
which places she restored and enlarged. On 
20 Jan. 1863 she married Chichester Samuel 
Parkinson Fortescue (afterwards Lord Car- 
lingford), and from that time until her death 
her abilities, as well as her fortune, were de- 
voted to the success of his political career 
and of the liberal party with which he was 
associated. Her salon at Strawberry Hill 
or at her residence in London, 7 Carlton 
Gardens, was from the date of her fourth 
marriage until her death, sixteen years later, 
one of the chief meeting-places of the liberal 
leaders. 

Lady Waldegrave may be described (in 
the words of La Bruyere) as ' a handsome 
woman with the virtues of an honest man, 
who united ' in her own person the best quali- 
ties of both sexes.' Her reward for the exer- 
cise of these virtues was the affectionate 
friendship with which she was regarded by 



Waldegrave 



all who knew her. In conversation she pre- 
ferred to listen rather than to shine. Flashes 
of wit occasionally came from her lips with- 
out effort or preparation, but she forgot her 
epigrams as soon as she uttered them ; indeed 
she was known on more than one occasion 
to repeat her own jests, forgetting their origin 
and attributing them to other people. Her 
friends among politicians and men of letters 
included the Due d'Aumale, the Duke of 
Newcastle, Lords Grey and Clarendon, M. 
Van de Weyer, Bishop Wilberforce, Abraham 
Hay ward, and Bernal Osborne. Among her 
associates who were nearer her own age, Sir 
William Harcourt (the nephew of her third 
husband), Lords Dufferin and Ampthill, 
Julian Fane, and Lord Alcester were per- 
haps the most noteworthy. 

Lady Waldegrave died without issue at 
her residence, 7 Carlton Gardens, London, 
on 5 July 1879, and was buried at Chewton, 
where Lord Carlingford erected a monument 
to her memory and placed on it a touching 
record of his love and gratitude. Portraits 
of Lady Waldegrave were painted by Dubufe, 
Tissot, James Rannie Swinton, and other 
artists, but none were very successful. A 
full-length marble statue was executed by 
Matthew Noble. 

[Gregory's Autobiography ; personal recol- 
lections.] H. E. G-. 

WALDEGRAVE, GEORGE GRAN- 
VILLE, second BAEOX RADSTOCK (1786- 
1857), vice-admiral, eldest son of William 
Waldegrave, first lord Radstock [q. v.], was 
born on 24 Sept. 1786. In 1794 his name 
was placed on the books of the Courageux, 
commanded by his father, but he seems to 
have first gone to sea in 1798 in the Agin- 
court, his father's flagship at Newfoundland. 
After eight years' service, on 16 Feb. 1807 
he was made a captain. From 1807 to 1811 
he commanded the Thames in the Mediter- 
ranean, and from 1811 to 1815 the Volon- 
taire in the Mediterranean, and afterwards 
on the north coast of Spain. During these 
eight years he was almost constantly en- 
gaged in preventing the enemy's coasting 
trade, in destroying coast batteries, or in 
cutting out and destroying armed vessels. 
After paying off the Volontaire, he had no 
further service. On 4 June 1815 he was 
nominated a C.B. On 20 Aug. 1825 he suc- 
ceeded his father as Lord Radstock, and on 
23 Nov. 1841 was made a rear-admiral. He 
became a vice-admiral on 1 July 1851, and 
died on 11 May 1857. He married, in 1823, 
Esther Caroline, youngest daughter of John 
Puget of Totteridge, a director of the bank 
of England, and left issue. His only son, 



Waldegrave 



16 



Waldegrave 



Granville Augustus William, succeeded as 
third Baron Radstock. 

During the last forty years of his life Rad- 
stock took an active part in the administra- 
tion of naval charities, and formed a curious 
and valuable collection of volumes and 
pamphlets relating to naval history. This 
was presented by his widow, Esther Lady 
Eadstock, to the library of the Royal United 
Service Institution, where it now is. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Foster's Peer- 
age.] " J.K.L. 

WALDEGRAVE, JAMES, first EARL 
WALDEGRA.VE (1685-1741), a descendant of 
Sir Edward Waldegrave [q.v.], was the eldest 
son of Sir Henry Waldegrave, bart., who 
on 20 Jan. 1685-6 shortly after the birth 
of his first-born was created by James II 
Baron Waldegrave of Chewton in Somerset, 
Next year the new peer was made comp- 
troller of the royal household and lord- 
lieutenant of Somerset (see ELLIS, Corresp. 
i. 338; cf. EVELYN, Diary, 1850, ii. 249). 
In November 1688 he went over to Paris, 
taking a large sum of money thither for the 
king, and he died either at Paris or St. Ger- 
main in the following year (cf. Stuart Papers, 
Roxb. Club, 1889, pp." 104 sq.) Apart from 
his being a Roman catholic, Waldegrave de- 
served well of James, for his great-grand- 
father, Sir Edward, had been created a baro- 
net by Charles I in 1643 for great and con- 
spicuous services to the royal cause. It was, 
however, to the fact that he had married in 
1684 Lady Henrietta Fitzj ames, eldest daugh- 
ter of James II by Arabella Churchill [q. v.], 
that he owed his elevation. Henrietta, lady 
Waldegrave, survived her husband many 
years, and lived to see her son following in 
the footsteps of her uncle, the Duke of Marl- 
borough, and effectively opposing the inte- 
rests of her brother Berwick and her half- 
brother, the Old Pretender. When she died, 
on 3 April 1730, at the age of sixty-three, 
the earl erected a monument to her in the 
chancel of Navestock church, Essex. An 
interesting little letter written to this lady 
when she was but fifteen by her father 
(dated ' Windsor, 23 April 1682') is at the 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 5015, f. 40) ; 
it is addressed to ' Mrs. Henriette Fitzjames 
of Maubuison.' 

James, so named after his royal grand- 
father, was educated in France. He married 
in 1714 a catholic lady, Mary, second daugh- 
ter of Sir John Webbe, bart., of Hatherop, 
Gloucestershire ; but upon her death in child- 
bed, on 22 Jan. 1718-19, he declared him- 
self a protestant, and not long afterwards 
he took the oaths and assumed his seat in 



the House of Lords (12 Feb. 1721-2). The 
scandal excited among the Jacobites by his 
abjuration, and the manner in which it was 
I resented by his uncle, the Duke of Berwick, 
I dispelled all suspicions as to the genuineness 
I of his loyalty to the protestant succession, 
and his personal qualities soon recommended 
him very strongly to the Walpoles. Never- 
theless it was thought singular that Sir 
Robert should advance him so promptly to 
diplomatic posts, and in 1741 one of the 
articles in the impeachment was that he had 
made so near a relative of the Pretender an 
ambassador (WALPOLE, Corresp. ed. Cun- 
ningham, i. 90). At first, however, Wal- 
degrave was only made a lord of the bed- 
chamber to George I (8 June 1723), and it 
was not until 1725 (11 Sept.) that he was 
sent as ambassador extraordinary to Paris, 
conveying congratulations from George I 
and the Prince of Wales to Louis XV upon 
his marriage- On 27 May 1727 he was ap- 
pointed to the more responsible post of 
ambassador and minister-plenipotentiary at 
Vienna. He set out next day, and a few 
days later, while in Paris, heard of the death 
of George I ; but he proceeded without delay, 
and reached Vienna on 26 June. The ap- 
pointment had been made with care, Walde- 
grave being deemed a diplomatist eminently 
fitted to soothe and conciliate the emperor. 
His amiable demeanour doubtless contri- 
buted to facilitate the execution of the ar- 
ticles agreed upon in thepreliminaries recently 
signed between England, France, and the 
emperor at Paris. He was at Paris in the 
summer of 1728 during the congress of 
Soissons, but he returned to Vienna, and was 
not recalled until June 1730. In the mean- 
time, on 13 Sept. 1729, he had been created 
Viscount Chewton of Chewton and Earl 
Waldegrave. On 7 Aug. 1730 he was ap- 
pointed ambassador and minister-plenipo- 
tentiary at Paris, in succession to Sir Horatio 
Walpole. His main business at the outset 
was to hint jealousy and suspicion at any 
closer rapprochement between France and 
Spain ; and he was urged by Newcastle to 
keep a vigilant eye upon Berwick and other 
Jacobites in the French capital, and not to 
spare expense in ' subsisting ' Gambarini and 
other effective spies (see Addit. MS. 32775, 
f. 283). The position developed into a very 
delicate one for a diplomatist, and the cross- 
fire to which Waldegrave was exposed was 
often perilous. Spain wanted to alienate 
the English government from France, while 
several of the French ministers actively 
sought to embroil England with Spain. The 
tendencies of Fleury were wholly pacific, 
but the chief secretary, Germain Louis de 



Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 



Chauvelin, left no stone unturned to exas- 
perate him against the English. Chauve- 
lin did not hesitate at intrigues with the 
Pretender, of which the secret was revealed 
by his own carelessness, for having on one 
occasion some papers to hand to the English 
ambassador, he added by mistake one of 
James's letters to himself. This Waldegrave 
promptly despatched by a special messenger 
to England (to the Duke of Newcastle, 11 Oct. 
1736). Walpole recommended the admini- 
stering of a bribe of o,000/. to 10,000 (the 
smaller sum, he observed, would make a 
good many French livres). Nothing came 
of this ; but a few months later Waldegrave 
had the satisfaction of seeing Chauvelin dis- 
missed (February 1737 ; FLASSAN, Diplom. 
Franqaise, 1811, v. 75). Nevertheless, as the 
tension increased between England and Spain, 
Waldegrave's position grew more difficult. 
He described it as that of a bird upon a perch, 
and wondered it could last in the way it did. 
Hisformer popularity reached vanishing point 
when he cracked a joke upon the French 
marine. Yet even after the declaration of war 
between England and Spain in October 1739 
he had to stay on at Versailles, for Fleury 
still hesitated to break with England, and 
talked vaguely of arbitration ; and matters 
continued in this unsettled state until the 
death of the emperor, Charles VI, on 20 Oct. 
1740, which made a great European war in- 
evitable. Shortly after this event, however, 
Waldegrave had to consult his health by 
returning to England. After his departure, 
until the rupture of diplomatic relations, busi- 
ness was carried on by his former chaplain, A n- 
tony Thompson, as charge d'affaires. Thomp- 
son remained at the French capital until 
March 1744; in the following September he 
was created dean of Raphoe, and held that 
preferment until his death on 9 Oct. 1756 
(COTTON, Fasti Eccl Hib. iii. 363, v. 265 ; 
Walpole Corresp. i. 261, 295). 

Waldegrave died of dropsy on 11 April 

1741 at Navestock. There is a catholic story, 

repeatedly heard from a gentleman of most 

etentive memory and unimpeachable vera- 

ity,' that on his deathbed he put his hand on 

is tongue and exclaimed, to the terror of the 

ystanders, ' This bit of red rag has been my 

amnation,' alluding to the oath of abjura- 

on(OLiVEE, Collections, pp. 69, 70). He was 

iried in the chancel of Navestock church, 

id a monument was afterwards erected to 

m there on the north side of the chancel 

r his daughter-in-law, who became Duchess 

Gloucester [see WILLIAM HENRY, DUKE 

1 GLOUCESTER]. The first earl left two 

ns James, second earl [q.v.], and John 

ccessively Earls Waldegrave, and a daugh- 

VOL. LIX. 



ter Henrietta, born on 2 Jan. 1716-17, who 
married on 7 July 1734 Edward Herbert, 
brother of the Marquis of Powys ; becoming 
a widow, she married, secondly, in 1738-9, 
John Beard, the leading singer at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, of which he was also for a time 
a patentee. Lord Nugent wrote of the ' foolish 
match 'that ' made so much ado, and ruined 
her and Beard' {New Foundling Hospital for 
Wit, 1784). Lady Henrietta died on 31 May 
1753. 

Waldegrave was highly esteemed by Wal- 
pole and by George II, who conferred the 
Garter upon him on 20 Feb. 1738 (cf. Castle 
Howard Papers, p. 193). Despite his lack of 
personal advantages, he was held to be most 
skilful in patiently foiling an adversary 'with- 
out disobliging him ;' and, far from suspect- 
ing him of any concealed Jacobitism, Wal- 
pole confided in him more than in any other 
foreign ambassador, with the exception of 
his brother. He conducted himself in his 
embassies, says Coxe, with consummate ad- 
dress, and ' particularly distinguished him- 
self by obtaining secret information in times 
of emergency. His letters do honour to his 
diplomatic talents, and prove sound sense, 
an insinuating address, and elegant manners.' 
Waldegrave built for himself the seat of 
Navestock Hall, near Romford, but this 
building was pulled down in 1811. 

Of the great mass of Waldegrave's diplo- 
matic correspondence now preserved among 
the Additional (Pelham) manuscripts at the 
British Museum, the more important part is 
thus distributed: Addit, MBS. 23627, 32687- 
32802 passim (correspondence with the Duke 
of Newcastle, 1731-9); Addit. 23780-4 
(with Sir Thomas Robinson, 1730-9) ; Addit. 
27732 (with Lord Essex, 1732-6) ; Addit. 
32754-801 (with Sir Benjamin Keene, 1728- 
1739) ; Addit. 32754, 32775 (with Cardinal 
Fleury, 1728-31) ; Addit. 32775-85 (with 
Lord Harrington, 1731-4) ; Addit. 32785- 
32792 (with Horatio Walpole, 1734-6). 

[Harl. MSS.381, 1154, and 581 6 (Waldegrave 
family pedigree, arms, monuments, &c.) ; Addit. 
MS. 19154; Collins's Peerage, iv. 244; Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; Gent. Mag. 1741, p. 221; Ed- 
mondson's Baronagium Genealogicum, iii. 233 ; 
Herald and Genealogist, iii. 424 ; Morant's 
Essex, ii. 232, 318, 592 ; Wright's Essex, ii. 735; 
Gibson's Lydiate Hall, 1876, p. 317 ; Foley's 
Records of the English College, v. 382 ; Walde- 
grave's Memoirs. 1821, pp. vi, vii ; Coxe's Memoirs 
of Walpole, i. 347 seq. ; Memoires du Marquis 
d'Argenson, 1857, vol. ii. ; Filon's Alliance 
Anglaise, Orleans, 1860; Dangeau's Journal, ed. 
1854, ii. 234, 390, iii. 58, v. 134, 172, 303; 
Wolseley's Life of Marlborough, i. 37; Arm- 
strong's Elisabeth Farnese, 1892, p. 357; Bau- 
drillart's Philippe V et la Cour de France, 1889 ; 





Waldegrave 



18 



Waldegrave 



Walpole Correspondence, ed. Cunningham; 
Stanhope's Hist, of England, 1851, ii. 189, 279 ; 
Quarterly Keview, xxr. 392 ; Notes and Queries, 
2ndser. ix. 182. vii. 165, 6th ser. x. 344.] 

T. S. 

WALDEGRAVE, JAMES, second EARL 
WAU>EGRAVE(1715-1763), born on 14March 
1715 (N. S.), was the eldest son of James 
Waldegrave, first earl [q. v.], by his wife 
Mary, second daughter of Sir John Webbe 
of Hatherop, Gloucestershire. He was edu- 
cated at Eton. He succeeded to the peerage 
on the death of his father in 1741. Two 
years later, on 17 Dec. 1743, he was named 
a lord of the bedchamber to George II. 
Henceforth till the king's death he became 
his most intimate friend and adviser. But 
he took no open part in public business, and 
Henry Pelham described him to Newcastle 
in 1751 as ' totally surrendered to his plea- 
sures' (Bedford Correspondence, ii. 84). In 
December 1752 he was induced by the king, 
much against his own will, to accept the office 
of governor and keeper of the privy purse 
to George, prince of Wales, and was made a 
privy councillor. He tried to give his royal 
pupil notions of common things, instructing 
him by conversation rather than books, and 
always stood his friend with the king. But 
in 1755 Leicester House resumed its former 
attitude of hostility to the court, and the 
princess and her friends made it their aim to 
get rid of Waldegrave and replace him by 
Bute. When, early next year, the matter was 
discussed in a cabinet council, Waldegrave 
rather favoured the concession of the de- 
mand. In October 1756 the king consented 
to the change, and Waldegrave was relieved 
from what he terms ' the most painful servi- 
tude.' He refused a pension on the Irish 
establishment in reward for his services, but 
accepted a tellership of the exchequer. He 
at the same time resigned the place of lord 
warden of the stannaries, which had been 
granted him in 1751. During the last five 
years of the reign of George H he played 
an important though not a conspicuous part. 
In 1755 he was employed to disunite Pitt 
and Fox, who were harassing the govern- 
ment, of which they were nominally subordi- 
nate members. As the result of his negotia- 
tions, Fox was admitted to the cabinet. 
Waldegrave smoothed the way by terrifying 
Newcastle with 'a melancholy representa- 
tion ' of the dire consequences of an avowed 
combination between Pitt and Fox. Early 
in 1757, after the resignation of Newcastle, 
the king, who could not endure the new 
ministers, Devonshire and Pitt, called in 
Waldegrave's aid to bring him back. Several 
conferences took place, and both Waldegrave 



and Newcastle advised delay. But the king 
was determined, and instructed his favourite 
to confer with Cumberland and Fox should 
Newcastle fail him. After some weeks' ne- 
gotiations Fox was authorised to form a plan 
of administration in concert with Cumber- 
land. Waldegrave approved it, and talked 
over the king's objections, though he antici- 
pated its failure. He thought that George II 
should have negotiated in person with each 
candidate for office. The plan failed ; but in 
March 1757 the Devonshire-Pitt ministry 
was dismissed. Thereupon Waldegrave was 
employed to notify to Sir Thomas Robinson 
and Lord Dupplin the king's intention of ap- 
pointing them secretary of state and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. As both refused 
office, Newcastle was again applied to. The 
latter showed Waldegrave a letter from 
Chesterfield, advising him to effect a junc- 
tion with Pitt. Waldegrave admitted the 
soundness of the reasons given, adding that 
he himself, even when nominally acting 
against them, had always advised George II 
to reconcile himself with Pitt and Leicester 
House. But the king, as he had anticipated, 
refused to take Pitt as minister, and the 
interministerium continued. At length 
George II insisted on Waldegrave himself 
accepting the treasury. Waldegrave in vain 
pleaded that, though he might be useful as 
an independent man known to possess the 
royal confidence, as a minister he would be 
helpless owing to his entire want of parlia- 
mentary connections. He was premier for 
only five days, 8-12 June 1757. Fox's diffi- 
dence and Newcastle's intrigues shattered 
the embryo administration ; and the crisis 
ended in Mansfield receiving powers to treat 
with the former and Pitt. On giving in his 
resignation, he openly admitted to George II 
that he considered the place of a minister 
as the greatest misfortune which could here- 
after befall him ; and in his ' Memoirs ' he 
recorded his conviction that as a minister 
he must soon have lost the king's confidence 
and favour on account of their disagree- 
ment on German questions. 

On 30 June 1757 Waldegrave was invested 
alone with the Garter, this single investiture 
being a very rare honour. He had been 
created LL.D of Cambridge and elected 
F.R.S. in 1749. 

Once again, in the next reign, Walde- 
grave became involved in political affairs. 
When in 1763 Henry Fox meditated joining 
Bute, he went to Waldegrave and ' endea- 
voured to enclose the earl in his treaty with 
the court,' sounding him as to his willing- 
ness to accept cabinet office. Waldegrave 
desired time, and went to Windsor to con- 



Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 



suit the Duke of Cumberland. The duke 
would give no advice, and Waldegrave wrote 
to Fox to cut short the negotiation. He 
would not, says his relative, Horace Wai- 
pole, quit his friend in order to join a court 
lie despised and hated. But he was not to 
be left at peace. Fox next made use of him 
to reconcile Cumberland and Devonshire; 
and shortly afterwards Rigby endeavoured to 
elicit from him an undertaking to accept the 
treasury. Waldegrave told Walpole (who 
was in his house at the time) of the overture 
* with an expressive smile, which in him, 
who never uttered a bitter word, conveyed 
the essence of sense and satire.' A short 
time afterwards he ' peremptorily declined ' 
the choice offered him of the French em- 
bassy or the viceroyalty of Ireland. Yet 
after his death the court boasted that they 
had gained him. 

He died of small-pox on 28 April 1763. 
Had he lived longer, Walpole thinks he 
must have become the acknowledged head 
of the whigs, ' though he was much looked 
up to by very different sets,' and his ' pro- 
bity, abilities, and temper ' might have ac- 
complished a coalition of parties. Walpole 
had brought about the marriage of Walde- 
grave in 1759 with his own niece Maria, a 
natural daughter of Sir Edward Walpole 
and Maria Clements. He was then ' as old 
again as she, and of no agreeable figure ; but 
for character and credit the first match in 
England.' Lady Waldegrave was, since the 
death of Lady Coventry, ' allowed the hand- 
somest woman in England,' and her only 
fault was extravagance. Reynolds painted 
her portrait seven times. After Walde- 
grave's death she was courted by the Duke 
of Portland, but secretly married Prince 
William Henry, duke of Gloucester. The 
marriage was for a long time unrecognised 
by the royal family. She died at Brampton 
on 22 Aug. 1807. By Waldegrave she had 
three daughters, of whom Elizabeth married 
her cousin, the fourth earl Waldegrave; 
Charlotte was the wife of George, duke 
of Grafton ; and Anna Horatia, of Lord 
Hugh Seymour. Walpole gave Reynolds 
eight hundred guineas for a portrait of his 
three grand-nieces painted in 1780. 

A portrait of Waldegrave, painted by Rey- 
nolds, was engraved by Thomson, S. Rey- 
lolds, and McArdell. The first-named 
mgraving is prefixed to his ' Memoirs.' In 
^avestock church, Essex, there is a tablet to 
urn with a lengthy inscription. His ' Me- 
aoirs ' were not published till 1821, when 
hey were issued by Murray in a quarto 
olume, with an introduction and appen- 
ices probably by Lord Holland. They are 



admirable in style and temper, and their 
accuracy has never been impugned. Walde- 
grave admits at the outset that it is not in 
his power to be quite unprejudiced, but the 
impartiality shown in his character-sketch 
of his friend Cumberland may atone for the 
slight injustice he may have done to Pitt 
and the satirical strokes he allowed himself 
when dealing with the princess dowager 
and Lord Bute. The relations he details as 
subsisting between himself and George II 
redound to the credit of both. Waldegrave's 
insight is proved by the remarkable change 
he foresaw in the character of his royal 
pupil when he should become king ; and his 
comparison of the whig party to an alliance 
of different clans fighting in the same cause, 
but under different chieftains, is admirably 
just. The ' Memoirs ' were reviewed in the 
' Quarterly ' for July 1821, and the 'Edin- 
burgh ' for June 1822. The writer of the 
latter notice, probably John Allen, gave, 
from a manuscript copy discovered after the 
publication of the work, the passage relating 
to George III just referred to. 

Waldegrave having no male issue, the 
earldom passed to his brother. 

JOHN WALDEGRAVE, third EARL (^.1784), 
entered the army and attained the rank of 
lieutenant-general and governor of Ply- 
mouth. He commanded a brigade in the 
attack on St. Malo in 1758 (Grenville Corresp. 
i. 238). He greatly distinguished himself at 
the battle of Minden in the following year ; 
and Walpole ascribes the victory chiefly to 
a manoeuvre conducted by him. In the early 
years of George III he acted with the oppo- 
sition, but was in 1765 made master of the 
horse to Queen Charlotte. When in 1770 
Lord Barrington declared in parliament that 
no officer in England was fit to be com- 
mander- in-chief, he 'took up the affront 
warmly without doors' (WALPOLE). He 
was named lord-lieutenant of Essex in Oc- 
tober 1781. He died of apoplexy in his 
carriage near Reading on 15 Oct. 1784. 
He married, ' by the intrigues of Lord Sand- 
wich ' (SiR C. H. WILLIAMS, Works, i. 184, 
Walpole's note), Elizabeth, fifth daughter 
of John, earl Gower. She had two sons and 
two daughters : the second son, William, 
created Lord Radstock in 1800, is separately 
noticed; the eldest, George (1751-1789), 
succeeded as fourth Earl Waldegrave and 
married his first cousin, Elizabeth Laura 
Waldegrave, by whom he was father of the 
fifth, sixth, and eighth earls. 

[Walpole's Memoirs of George II, 2nd edit, 
i. 91, 92, 291, 418, iii. 26-30, 198, 199, Memoirs 
of George III, ed. Barker, i. 155, 156, 197, 212, 
213, ii. 74, 121, 129, iii. 268-71, iv. 62, 63, 

02 



Waldegrave 



68, 130, and Letters, ed. Cunningham, passim ; 
Coxe's Pelham Administration, ii. 130, 238, 
239; Waldegrave's Memoirs ; Gent. Mag. 1763 
p. 201, 1784 ii. 199, 875, 1835 ii. 316, 1859 ii. 
642,643; Evans's Cat. Engr. Portraits; Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; Burke's Peerage ; Knight's 
Engl. Cyclopaedia, vol. v. ; Stanhope's Hist, of 
Enerl. chap, xxxiv. ; authorities cited.] 

G. LE G. N. 

WALDEGRAVE or WALGRAVE, 
SIB RICHARD (d. 1402), speaker of the 
House of Commons, was the son of Sir Ri- 
chard Waldegrave by his wife, Agnes Dau- 
beney. He was descended from the North- 
amptonshire family dwelling at Walgrave. 
The earliest member of the family known, 
Warine de AValgrave, was father of John 
de Walgrave, sheriff of London in 1205. 
The elder Sir Richard, his great-grandson, 
crossed to France with Edward III in 1329 
(RYMEK, Foedera, 1821, ii. 764), was re- 
turned to parliament in 1335 for Lincolnshire, 
and in 1337 received letters from Edward per- 
mitting him to accompany Henry Burghersh 
[q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, to Flanders (ib. pp. 
967, 1027). In 1343 he received similar 
letters on the occasion of his accompanying 
Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, to 
France (ib. iii. 866). 

His son, Sir Richard, resided at Small- 
bridge in Suffolk, and was returned to par- 
liament as a knight of the shire in the 
parliament of February 1375-6. He was 
elected to the first and second parliaments 
of Richard II and to that of 1381. In 1381 
he was elected speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, and prayed the king to discharge 
him from the office ; the first instance, says 
Manning, of a speaker desiring to be excused. 
Richard II, however, insisted on his fulfilling 
his duties. During his speakership parlia- 
ment was chiefly occupied with the revoca- 
tion of the charters granted to the villeins 
by Richard during Tyler's rebellion. It was 
dissolved in February 1381-2. Waldegrave 
represented Suffolk in the two parliaments 
of 1382, in those of 1383, in that of 1386, 
in those of 1388, and in that of January 
1389-90. He died at Smallbridge on 2 May 
1402, and was buried on the north side of 
the parish church of St. Mary at Bures in 
Essex. He married Joan Silvester of Bures, 
by whom he had a son, Sir Richard Walde- 
grave (d. 1434), who took part in the French 
wars, assisting in 1402 in the capture of the 
town of Conquet and the island of Rh in 
Bretagne. He was ancestor of Sir Edward 
Waldegrave [q. v.] 

[Manning's Speakers of the House of Com- 
mons, 1850, p. 10; Collins's Peerage, 1779, iv. 
417 ; Rolls of Parliament, ii. 100, 166 Calendar 
of Patent Rolls, 1377-85 passim.] E. I. C. 



WALDEGRAVE, ROBERT (1554?- 
1604), puritan printer and publisher, born 
about 1554, son of Richard Waldegrave or 
Walgrave of Blacklay, Worcestershire, was 
bound apprentice to AVilliam Griffith, sta- 
tioner, of London, for eight years from 24 June 
1568 (AEBEE, Transcript, i. 372). Walde- 
grave doubtless took up the freedom of the 
Stationers' Company in the summer of 1576 
(the records for that year are lost). On 
17 June 1578 he obtained a license for his 
first publication (' A Castell for the Soule '), 
beginning business in premises near Somerset, 
House in the Strand . He removed for a short 
time in 1583 to a shop in Foster Lane, and 
in later years occasionally published books 
in St. Paul's Churchyard at the sign of the 
Crane, and in Cannon Lane at the sign of the 
White Horse. But during the greater part 
of his publishing career in London he occu- 
pied a shop in the Strand. 

Waldegrave was a puritan, and from the 
outset his publications largely consisted of 
controversial works in support of puritan theo- 
logy. His customers or friends soon included 
the puritan leaders in parliament, the church, 
and the press. 

In April 1588 he printed and published, 
without giving names of author and publisher 
or place or date, the ' Diotrephes ' of John 
Udall [q. v.] The anti-episcopal tract, which 
was not licensed by the Stationers' Company, 
was judged seditious by the Star-chamber. 
The puritanic temper of Waldegrave's publi- 
cations had already excited the suspicion of 
the authorities. On 16 April his press was 
seized, and Udall's tract was found in the 

Srinting office with other tracts of like temper, 
n 13 May the Stationers' Company ordered 
that, in obedience to directions issued by the 
Star-chamber, ' the said books shall be burnte, 
and the said presse, letters, and printing stuffe 
defaced and made unserviceable.' Walde- 
grave fled from London, and was protected by 
Udall and by John Penry [q. v.] At the 
latter's persuasion Waldegrave agreed to print 
in secret a new and extended series of attacks 
on episcopacy, which were to be issued under 
the pseudonym of Martin Mar-Prelate. Secur- 
ing, with Penry's aid, a new press and some 
founts of roman and italic type, he began 
operations at the house of a sympathiser, 
Mrs. Crane, at East Molesey, near Hampton 
Court. In June the officers of the Stationers' 
Company made a vain search for Waldegrave 
at Kingston. In July he put into type a 
second tract by Udall, and in November 
Penry's ' Epistle,' the earliest of the Martin 
Mar-Prelate publications. In this ' Epistle ' 
Penry called public attention to the perse- 
cution that Waldegrave, who had to support 



Waldegrave 



21 



Waldegrave 



a, wife and six children, suffered at the hands 
of the archbishop of Canterbury and bishop 
of London. 

In the following autumn Waldegrave was 
arrested and kept in prison for twenty 
weeks. But no conclusive evidence against 
him was forthcoming, and he was not 
brought to trial. On his release he resumed 
relations with his puritan friends, and in De- 
cember 1588 he removed his secret press, 
which had not been discovered, from East 
Molesey to the house of a patron of the puri- 
tan agitators, Sir Richard Knightley, at Fa ws- 
ley, Northamptonshire. There Waldegrave 
was known by the feigned name of Sheme 
or Shamuel, and represented himself as en- 
gaged in arranging Knightley's family papers. 
At Knightley's house Waldegrave printed 
' The Epitome ' of Martin Mar-Prelate. At 
the end of the year he removed his secret 
press to the house of another sympathising 
patron, John Hales, at Coventry, and there 
he printed three more Martin Mar-Prelate 
tracts, namely, ' Mineral Conclusions,' ' The 
Supplication,' and ' Ha' you any work for 
Cooper ? ' Of the first two publications 
Waldegrave printed no fewer than a thou- 
sand copies each, with the assistance appa- 
rently of only one compositor. Early in 
April 1589 he set out, it was said, for Devon- 
shire, where it was his intention to print the 
puritan Cart wright's ' New Testament against 
the Jesuits.' But he did no further work 
for the Mar-Prelate controversialists in Eng- 
land. His stay in Devonshire was brief, and 
he seems to have quickly crossed to France, 
making his way to Rochelle. There he 
printed in March 1590 Penry's ' Appellation ' 
and 'Some in his Collours' by Job Throck- 
morton [q. v.], Penry's friend and protector. 
In the summer of 1590 Waldegrave settled 
in Edinburgh. 

In Edinburgh Waldegrave pursued his 
calling for thirteen years with little moles- 
tation and with eminent success. James VI 
at once showed him much favour. Five 
volumes bearing his name as printer and 

Sublisher appeared in Edinburgh with the 
ate 1590. These included 'The Confession 
of Faith, subscribed by the Kingis Majestic 
and his Household ; ' and ' The Sea-Law of 
Scotland,' by William Welwood [q. v.] (the 
earliest treatise on maritime jurisprudence 
published in Britain) ; while two works by 
John Penry, which bore no printer's name, 
place, or date, certainly came from Walde- 
grave's Edinburgh press in the same year. 
In 1591 the king entrusted Waldegrave 
with the publication of ' His Majesties Poeti- 
call Exercises at vacant houres.' Soon 
afterwards Waldegrave was appointed, for 



himself and his heirs, ' the king's printer. 
The first book printed by him in which he 
gave himself that designation is ' Onomasti- 
con Poeticum ' (1591), by Thomas Jack, 
master of the grammar school of Glasgow. 
Early in 1597 Waldegrave was charged with 
treasonably printing as genuine a pretended 
act of parliament 'for the abolishing of the 
Actes concerning the Kirk,' but he was ac- 
quitted on the plea that he was the innocent 
victim of a deception. ' A Spirituall Propine 
of a Pastour to his People,' an early work of 
James Melville, which was printed by Walde- 
grave in Edinburgh, bears the date 1589 on 
the title-page in the only known copy (now 
in the British Museum) ; the year is clearly 
a misprint for 1598. Among the more inte- 
resting of Waldegrave's other publications at 
Edinburgh were : ' Acts of Parliament past 
since the coronation of the King's Majesty 
against the opponents of the True and Chris- 
tian Religion ' (1593) ; ' A Commentary on 
Revelations, by John Napier of Merchiston,' 
the inventor of logarithms (1593); 'The 
Problemes of Aristotle, with other Philoso- 
phers and Phisitions ' (1595 ; unique copy in 
the Bodleian Library) ; James VI's ' Dsemo- 
nologie ' (1597), his 'True Law of Free Mon- 
archies ' (1598), and his '"Basilikon Doron' 
(1603) ; Alexander Montgomerie's ' The 
Cherrie and the Sloe ' (1597, two editions) ; 
Alexander Hume's ' Hymnes or Sacred Songs ' 
(1599) ; Thomas Cartwright's ' Answere to 
the Preface of the Rhemish Testament' 
(1 602) ; and William Alexander's ' Tragedy of 
Darius' (1603). 

Waldegrave pirated many English publi- 
cations, among others the Countess of Pem- 
broke's ' Arcadia ' (1599), Tusser's ' Five 
Hundred Points of Good Husbandry ' (1599), 
and Robert Southwell's ' St. Peters Com- 
plaint ' (1600). 

Waldegrave seems to have followed 
James VI to England when he ascended the 
English throne. On 11 June 1603, after an 
interval of more than fifteen years, he ob- 
tained a license once again for a publication 
from the Stationers' Company in London. 
The work was ' The Ten Commandments with 
the kinges arms at large quartered as they 
are.' Waldegrave seems to have resumed re- 
sidence in the Strand, but he died within little 
more than a year of his re-settlement in Lon- 
don (AKBER, TVanscn/tf, ii. 282). At the close 
of 1604 his widow sold his patent, which had 
descended to his heirs, of printer to the king 
of Scotland. Robert Waldegrave, probably 
a younger son of the printer, born in Septem- 
ber 1596, entered Merchant Taylors' School 
in 1605 (ROBINSON, Merchant Taylors' School 
Register, i. 49). 



Waldegrave 



22 



Waldegrave 



[Arber's Transcript of the Registers of the Sta- 
tioners' Company ; Arber's Introductory Sketch 
to the Martin Mar-Prelate Controversy, 1879 ; 
Dicksonand Edmond's Annals of Scottish Print- 
ing, 1890, pp. 394-475.] 

WALDEGRAVE, SAMUEL (1817- 
1869), bishop of Carlisle, second son of 
William, eighth earl Waldegrave, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel A\ 7 hitbread 
[q. v.], was born at Cardington, Bedfordshire, 
on 13 Sept. 1817. He was educated at Cheam 
at a school kept by Charles Mayo (1 792-1 846) 
[q. v.], who taught his pupils on the Pesta- 
lozzian system. From here he went to Balliol 
College, Oxford, matriculating on 10 April j 
1835. His college tutor was Tait, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury, who remained his 
friend throughout his life. He graduated 
B.A. in 1839 with a first class in classics and 
mathematics, and M.A. in 1842. On 22 Nov. 
1860 he received the degree of D.D. by 
diploma. In 1839 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship at All Souls' College, which he retained ' 
till his marriage in 1845, and was also ap- 
pointed librarian. He served the office of 
public examiner in the school of mathematics 
from Michaelmas term 1842 to Easter term 
1844. Waldegrave was ordained deacon in 
1842, and was licensed to the curacy of St. 
Ebbe's, Oxford, having for his fellow curates 
Charles Thomas Baring [q. v.] and Edward 
Arthur Litton. While at St. Ebbe's he took 
a leading part in the building of the district 
church of Holy Trinity in that parish. In 
1844 he accepted the college living of Barford 
St. Martin, near Salisbury. In 1845 he was ap- 
pointed select preacher at Oxford, and in 1854 
was chosen Bampton lecturer. His selection 
of a subject was indicative of the narrow 
limits of his theological sympathies, and under 
the heading of 'New Testament Millena- 
rianism ' he elaborately refuted the views of 
those expositors who maintained the millen- 
nium theory. The ' Bampton Lectures ' were 
published in 1855, and a second edition was 
issued in 1866. 

When Robert Bickersteth [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed bishop of Ripon in 1857, Palmerston 
presented Waldegrave to the residentiary 
canonry at Salisbury vacated by his prefer- 
ment. Although differing widely from the 
bishop, Walter Kerr Hamilton [q. v.], Wal- 
degrave's relations with him were friendly, 
and he was elected proctor for the chapter in 
convocation. He generally took, in the de- 
bates of this body, the side of ' the liberal 
minority' {Illustrated London News, 17 Nov. 
1860). When Henry Montagu Villiers [q. v.] 
was translated to Durham, Palmerston nomi- 
nated Waldegrave for the vacant bishopric 
of Carlisle, and he was consecrated in York 



minster on 11 Nov. 1860. He was a zealous 
bishop, and made his presence felt in all parts 
of his diocese. His rule was on strictly 
' evangelical ' lines, and the clergy who dif- 
fered from him in opinions or practices were 
resolutely discountenanced. He greatly as- 
sisted church work in the poorer parishes 
of his diocese by founding in 1862 the Car- 
lisle Diocesan Church Extension Society. 
Waldegrave was not a frequent speaker in 
the House of Lords, but he supported Lord 
Shaftesbury in his efforts to legislate against 
extreme ritualism, and opposed vigorously 
all attempts to relax the law of Sunday ob- 
servance. One of his most elaborate speeches 
was in opposition to a clause in the offices 
and oaths bill permitting judicial and corpo- 
rate officials to wear their insignia of office 
in places of worship of any denomination 
(Hansard,c\xx?ivm. 1376). Although awing 
in politics, he was strongly against Mr. Glad- 
stone's proposals for the disestablishment of 
the Irish church. When the archbishopric 
of York became vacant in 1862, it is stated 
on good authority that Lord Palmerston was 
disposed to translate Waldegrave, but the 
offer was not made (LoKD HOUGHTON, Me- 
moirs ; GENERAL GREY, Memoirs). Walde- 
grave's long and fatal illness first made itself 
felt in 1868, and at the beginning of 1869 
he was compelled to give up active work. 
After much acute suffering, he died at Rose 
Castle on 1 Oct. 1869. His old friend Arch- 
bishop Tait visited him on the day of his 
death and said the commendatory prayer at 
his bedside. He was buried within the pre- 
cincts of Carlisle Cathedral, where, in the 
south aisle, is a recumbent effigy to his 
memory. In 1845 he married Jane Ann, 
daughter of Francis Pym of theHasells, Bed- 
fordshire. By her he had a son Samuel Ed- 
mund, and a daughter Elizabeth Janet, who 
was married to Richard Reginald Fawkes, 
vicar of Spondon, Derbyshire. 

Besides his ' Bampton Lectures,' Walde- 
grave published numerous sermons and 
charges, the most important of these being : 
' The Way of Peace.' university sermons, 
1848, 4th ed. 1866 ; Words of Eternal Life/ 
eighteen sermons, 1864 ; ' Christ the True 
Altar, and other Sermons,' with introduction 
by Rev. J. C. Ryle, 1870. 

[Memoir in Carlisle Diocesan Calendar, 1870 ; 
Ferguson's Diocesan History of Carlisle ; Han- 
sard's Parl. Debates, 1861-8; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886.] E. H. M. 

^ WALDEGRAVE, SIR WILLIAM 
(Jl. 1689), physician, was probably the second 
son of Philip Waldegrave of Borley in Essex 
(a cadet of the family of Waldegrave of 
Chewton), by his second wife, Margaret, 

^ /T>r 



1/e 



/u tnt 



Waldegrave 



Waldegrave 



daughter of John Eve of Easton in Essex, 
and, if so, was born in 1618. He received 
the degree of doctor of medicine of Padua 
on 12 March 1659, and was admitted an 
honorary fellow of the College of Physicians, 
London, in December 1664. He was created 
a fellow of the college, by the charter of 
James II, in 1686, but does not appear to 
have been admitted as such at the comitia 
majora extraordinaria of 12 April 1687, 
which was specially convened lor the re- 
ception of the charter and the admission of 
those who were thereby constituted fellows. 

On 1 July 1689 he was returned to the 
House of Lords by the college as a ' papist.' 
He was physician to the queen of James II, 
and, as Bishop Burnet tells us, was hastily 
summoned, along with Sir Charles Scar- 
burgh [q. v.], to her majesty in 1688, shortly 
before the birth of the Prince of Wales 
(the ' Old Pretender '), when she was in 
danger of miscarrying. In 1691 434/. 10s. 
was owing to him from the estate of Henry, 
first baron Waldegrave (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
13th Rep. App. v. 446). He is there 
styled Sir William, but his name does not 
appear in Townsend's ' Catalogue of Knights.' 
He is believed to have died a bachelor. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys.; Bin-net's History of 
his own Time, ii. 475-9; information from Earl 
Waldegrave.] W. W. W. 

WALDEGRAVE, WILLIAM, first 
BAROU RADSTOCK (1753-1825), admiral, se- 
cond son of John, third earl Waldegrave, 
and nephew of James Waldegrave, second 
earl [q. v.], was born on 9 July 1753. He 
entered the navy in 1766 on board the Jersey, 
bearing the broad pennant of Commodore 
(afterwards Sir) Richard Spry [q. v.], with 
whom he served for three years in the Medi- 
terranean . He then joined the Quebec, go ing 
to the West Indies under the command of 
Captain Francis Reynolds (afterwards Lord 
Ducie), and on 1 Aug. 1772 was promoted 
by Vice-admiral Parry to be lieutenant of 
the Montagu. In January 1773 he was ap- 
pointed to the Portland, in January 1774 to 
the Preston, and in March 1774 to the Med- 
way, going out to the Mediterranean as flag- 
ship of Vice-admiral Man, by whom, on 
23 June 1775, Waldegrave was promoted 
to the command of the Zephyr sloop. On 
30 May 1776 he was posted to the Ripon, 
which he took out to the East Indies as 
flag-captain to Sir Edward Vernon [q. v.] 
His health broke down in the Indian climate, 
and he was compelled to return to England. 
In September 1778 he was appointed to the 
Pomona of 28 guns, in which he went to 
the West Indies, where he captured the Cum- 



berland, a large and troublesome American 
privateer. From the Pomona he was moved 
to the Prudente, in which he returned to 
England, and was attached to the Channel 
fleet. On 4 July 1780, in company with the 
Licorne, she captured the French frigate 
Capricieuse, which, however, wasso shattered 
that Waldegrave ordered her to be burnt. 
In April 1781 she was with the fleet that 
relieved Gibraltar [see DARBY, GEORGE], and 
in December with the squadron under Rear- 
admiral Richard Kempenfelt [q. v.] that cap- 
tured a great part of the French convoy to 
the Bay of Biscay, in the immediate presence 
of a vastly superior French fleet. In March 
1782 he was appointed to the Phaeton, at- 
tached to the grand fleet under Lord Howe 
which in October relieved Gibraltar. 

After the peace Waldegrave travelled on 
the continent, visited the Grecian Isles and 
Smyrna, where, in 1785, he married Cornelia, 
daughter of David Van Lennep, chief of 
the Dutch factory. He returned to England 
in 1786, but had no employment till, in the 
Spanish armament of 1790, he was appointed 
to the Majestic of 74 guns. When the 
dispute with Spain was settled, he again 
went on half-pay ; but on the outbreak of 
war in 1793 was appointed to the Courageux, 
in which he went to the Mediterranean. 
After the occupation of Toulon he was sent 
home with despatches, landing at Barcelona 
and travelling across Spain. He returned to 
the fleet through Germany and the north of 
Italy, but again went home consequent on 
his promotion on 4 July 1794 to the rank of 
rear-admiral. In May 1795 he had com- 
mand of a small squadron cruising to the 
westward. On 1 June he was promoted to 
be vice-admiral, and in the end of the year 
was sent out to the Mediterranean, with his 
flag in the Barfleur. He continued with the 
fleet under Sir John Jervis (afterwards Earl 
St. Vincent) [q. v.], and, as third in com- 
mand, took part in the battle of St. Vincent 
on 14 Feb. 1797. In honour of this great 
victory, the second in command, Vice-admi- 
ral Charles Thompson [q. v.], and the fourth, 
Rear-admiral Parker, were made baronets. 
A similar honour was offered to Waldegrave, 
who refused it, as inferior to his actual rank 
as the son of an earl. On returning to Eng- 
land, he was appointed commander-in-chief 
on the Newfoundland station, and on 29 Dec. 
1800 was created a peer on the Irish esta- 
blishment, by the title of Baron Radstock. 
On 29 April 1802 he was made an admiral, 
but had no further employment. At the 
funeral of Lord Nelson he was one of the 
supporters of Sir Peter Parker, the chief 
mourner. On 2 Jan. 1815 he was nominated 



Walden 2 

a G.C.B. It was practically the institution 
of a new order, with a new etiquette ; for it 
had previously been the custom, if not the 
rule, not to confer the K.B. on men of 
higher rank in the table of precedence. He 
died on 20 Aug. 1825, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, George Granville Walde- 
grave, second baron Radstock [q. v.] 

[Ralfe's Nav. Biogr. ii. 27 ; Naval Chronicle 
(with a portrait), x. 265 ; Marshall's Koy. Nav. 
Biogr. i. 56 ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. p. 947; 
Commission and Warrant Books in the Public 
Kecord Office ; Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

WALDEN, LORDS HOWARD DE. [See 
GRIFFIN, JOHN GRIFFIN, 1719-1797 ; ELLIS, 
CHARLES AUGUSTUS, 1799-1868.] 

WALDEN, ROGER (d. 1406), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, is said to have been of 
humble birth, the son of a butcher at Saffron 
Walden in Essex (Annales, p. 417 ; USK, 
p. 37). But the statement comes from sources 
not free from prejudice, and cannot perhaps 
be entirely trusted. He had a brother John 
described as an esquire ' of St. Bartholomew's, 
Smithfield,' who, when he made his will in 
1417, was possessed of considerable property 
in Essex (WrLiE, iii. 127). Roger Walden's 
belle-mere (i.e. stepmother) was apparently 
living with John Walden at St. Bartholo- 
mew's in UQQ(Chronique dela Traison,p. 75). 
There was a contemporary, Sir Alexander 
Walden in Essex, but there is no evidence 
that they were in any way connected with 
him. Nothing is known of Walden's edu- 
cation and first advance in life. Two not 
very friendly chroniclers give somewhat con- 
tradictory accounts of his acquirements when 
made archbishop one describing him as a 
lettered layman, the other as almost illiterate 
(Eulogium, iii. 377 ; Annales, p. 213). His 
earliest recorded promotion, the first of an 
unusually numerous series of ecclesiastical 
appointments, was to the benefice of St. 
Heliers in Jersey on 6 Sept. 1371 (Fcedera, 
vi. 692; LE NEVE, iii. 123). The Percy 
family presented him, to the church of Kirk- 
by Overblow in Yorkshire in 1374 ; but he 
was living in Jersey in 1378-9, and four 
years later received custody of the estates of 
Reginald de Carteret in that island (HooK, 
iv. 529; Fcedera, vii. 349; Cal. Rot. Pat.i. 
269). He was ' locum tenens seu deputatus ' 
of the Channel Islands, but between what 
dates is uncertain (Fcedera, viii. 64). He 
held the living of Fenny Drayton, Leicester- 
shire, which he exchanged for that of Burton 
in Kendale in 1385, when he is described as 
king's clerk (ib. ii. 564 ; Fcedera, vii. 349). 
His rapid advancement from 1387 onwards 
shows that he had secured strong court 



\ Walden 

favour. In the July of that critical year he 
was made archdeacon of Winchester, a posi- 
tion which he held until 1395, but he was 
'better versed in things of the camp and 
the world than of the church and the study ' 
(UsK, p. 37 ; LE NEVE, iii. 26), and plenty of 
secular employment was found for him. Ap- . 
pointed captain of Mark, near Calais, in r 
October 1387, which he vacated for the high- \ 
bailiffship of Guisnes in 1391, he held also 
from December 1387 (if not earlier) to 1392 
the important position of treasurer of Calais, 
in which capacity he acted in various nego- 
tiations with the French and Flemings, and 
joined the captain of Calais on a cattle raid 
into French territory in 1388 (FROISSART, 
xxv. 72, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove ; Fcedera, 
vii. 565, 607, 669; WYLIE, iii. 125). 

From these employments Walden was re- 
called to become secretary to Richard II, and 
ultimately succeeded John de Waltham [q.v.], 
bishop of Salisbury, as treasurer of England 
in 1395 (UsK, p. 37 ; AVALSINGHAM, ii. 218). 
Meanwhile the stream of ecclesiastical pro- 
motion had not ceased to flow in his direc- 
tion. At Lincoln, after a brief tenure of one 
prebend in the last months of 1389, he held 
another from October 1393 to January 1398 
(LE NEVE, ii. 126, 220 ; Fcedera, viii. 23) ; 
at Salisbury he was given two prebends in 
1391 and 1392 (JONES, Fasti Ecclesia Sarts- 
beriensis, pp. 364, 394) ; he had others at 
Exeter (till 1396) and at Lichfield (May 
1394-May 1398 ; Stafford's Register, p. 168 ; 
LE NEVE, i. 618). The rectory of Fordham, 
near Colchester, conferred upon him early in 
1391, he at once exchanged for that of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn (NEWCOURT, i. 274, ii. 
270). With the treasurership of England 
he received the deanery of York, and in 
February 1397 the prebend of Willesden in 
St. Paul's (LE NEVE, ii. 451, iii. 124). 

On the banishment and translation of 
Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
autumn of 1397, Richard got Walden pro- 
vided to that see by papal bull, and invested 
him with the temporalities in January 1398 
(Annales, p. 213; LE NEVE, i. 21). John of 
Gaunt appointed him one of the surveyors 
of his will (NICHOLS, p. 165). He was pre- 
sent at the Coventry tournament, and took 
out a general pardon on 21 Nov. 1398 
for all debts incurred or offences committed 
(including ' insanum consilium ') in his secular 
offices (Traison, p. 19; Fcedera, viii. 63). 

When Arundel returned with Henry of 
Lancaster the pope quashed the bull he had 
executed in AValden's favour, on the ground 
that he had been deceived (Annales, p. 321). 
AV 7 alden's jewels, which he had removed 
from the palace at Canterbury, and six cart- 



Walden 



Walden 



loads of goods, which he sent to Salt- 
wood Castle, near Hythe, had been seized 
and were restored to Arundel (Eulogium, 
iii. 382 ; USK, p. 37). His arms gules, a 
bend azure, and a martlet d'or for which 
Arundel's had been erased on the hangings 
at Lambeth, were torn down and thrown 
out of window (ib.) His register was de- 
stroyed, and the records of his consecration 
and acts are lost (but cf. WILKINS, iii. 326). 
Before the pope restored Arundel, Walden, 
still de facto archbishop, appeared before 
the Duke of Lancaster and the archbishop 
de jure at the bishop of London's palace and 
besought their pardon ; his life was spared 
at Arundel's instance (UsK, p. 37 ; Eulogium, 
iii. 385). Adam of Usk, who witnessed the 
scene, compares the two archbishops to two 
heads on one body. 

W r alden was taken from the liberties of 
Westminster and committed to the Tower 
on 10 Jan. 1400 on suspicion of complicity 
in the Epiphany plot against Henry I V, but 
was acquitted (4 Feb.) and set at liberty 
(Fcedera, viii. 121; Annales,-p. 330; Traison, 
pp. 100-1). But according to the French 
authority (ib. p. 77) last mentioned, he had 
been a party to the conspiracy. This testi- 
mony, however, carries no decisive weight. 

Walden was not allowed to want, receiv- 
ing, for instance, in 1403 two barrels of wine 
from the king ; but he felt himself ' in the 
dust and under foot of man' (WYLIE, iii. 
125'; WILKINS, iii. 378, 380; GOUGH, iii. 
19). On the death of Robert Braybrooke, 
bishop of London, in August 1404, the for- 
giving Arundel used his influence in Wal- 
den's behalf, and induced Innocent VII 
to issue a bull providing him to that see on 
10 Dec. 1404. But the king, who had a 
candidate of his own, refused at first to give 
his consent to the appointment ; and it was 
only as a kind of consolation to Arundel for 
the failure of his attempt to save Archbishop 
Scrope in the early summer of 1405 that 
Henry at last gave way and allowed Walden, 
on making a declaration to safeguard the 
rights of the crown, to be consecrated on 
29 June at Lambeth ( WYLIE, iii. 126 ; LE 
NEVE, ii. 293 ; WHAETON, pp. 149-50). He 
was installed in St. Paul's on 30 June, the 
festival of the saint ; the canons in the pro- 
cession wearing garlands of red roses (ib.) 
But Walden did not live to enjoy his new 
dignity long. Before the end of the year 
he fell ill, made his will at his episcopal 
residence at Much Hadham in Hertfordshire 
on 31 Dec. and died there on 6 Jan. 1406 
(GoiJGH, iii. 19). An interesting account 
of his funeral by an eye-witness, John Pro- 
phete, the clerk of the privy seal, has been 



preserved (Harl. MS. 431108, f. 97 b, quoted 
by WYLIE, iii. 127). The body, after lying 
in state for a few days in the new chapel 
Walden had built in the priory church of 
St. Bartholomew's, with which his brother 
and executor was connected, was conveyed 
to St. Paul's and laid to rest in the chapel of 
All Saints in the presence of Clifford, bishop 
of Worcester, and many others. Before this 
was done, however, Prophete uncovered the 
face of the dead prelate, which seemed to 
them to look fairer than in life and like that 
of one sleeping. His epitaph is given by 
Weever (p. 434). It says much for Walden's 
character and amiable qualities that, in spite 
of his usurpation, every one spoke well of 
him. Prophete praises his moderation in 
prosperity and patience in adversity. Arun- 
del, whose see he had usurped, adds his 
testimony to his honest life and devotion to 
the priestly office ; even Adam of Usk, who 
reproaches him with the secular employments 
of his early life, bears witness to his amia- 
bility and popularity (ib. ; WILKINS, iii. 
282 ; USK, p. 37 ). 

John Drayton, citizen and goldsmith of 
London, by his will, made in 1456, founded 
chantries in St. Paul's and in the church of 
Tottenham for the souls of Walden and his 
brother and his wife Idonea, as well as those 
of John de Waltham, bishop of Salisbury, his 
predecessor as treasurer, and of Richard II 
and his queen (NEWCOUKT, i. 754). It is 
not known what connection had existed be- 
tween Drayton and the two prelates. By a 
curious coincidence, however, both Waltham 
and W r alden had been rectors of Fenny 
Drayton. 

A manuscript collection of chronological 
tables of patriarchs, popes, kings, and em- 
perors, misleadingly entitled ' Historia 
Mundi' (Cotton. MS. Julius B. xiii), has 
been attributed to Walden (WYLIE, iii. 125) 
on the strength of a note at the beginning of 
the manuscript. But this ascription is in a 
later hand, not earlier than the sixteenth 
century. The manuscript itself probably 
dates from the early part of the thirteenth 
century, which disposes of the alleged au- 
thorship of Walden, and is equally fatal to 
the attribution to Roger de Waltham (d. 
1336) [q. v.] found in another copy of the 
'Historia' (Harl. MS. 1312). 

[Rymer's Foedera, original ed. ; Cal. Patent 
Rolls of Richard II, vols. i. and ii. ; Wilkins's 
Concilia Magnae Britanniae ; Annales Ricardi II 
et Henrici IV (with Trokelowe), Walsingham's 
Historia Anglicana, and the Continuation of the 
Eulogium Historiarum (vol. iii.), all in Rolls 
Ser. ; Adam of Usk, ed. Maunde Thompson ; 
Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove ; Chronique 



Walden 



Waldie 



de la Trai'son et Mort de Eichart deux, ed. Engl. 
Hist. Soc. ; Nichols's Eoyal Wills ; Godwin, Be 
Prsesulibus Angliae, 1742; Wharton, De r Epi- 
scopis Londoniensibus et Assavensibus ; New- 
court's Kepertorium Parochiale Londoniense ; 
Hennessy's Novum Bep. Eccl. 1898 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse, ed. Hardy; Jones's 
Fasti Ecclesise Sarisberiensis ; Eegister of 
Bishop Stafford, ed. Hingeston - Randolph ; 
Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments ; Wylie's 
Hist, of Henry IV (where most of the facts of 
Walden's biography are brought together) ; 
Hook's Archbishops of Canterbury; Milman's 
Hist, of St. Paul's.] J. T-T. 

WALDEN, THOMAS (d. 1430), Car- 
melite. [See NETTEK.] 

WALDHERE or WALDHERI (fi. 705), 
bishop of London, succeeded Bishop Erken- 
wald [q. A r .], who died in 693, and about 695 
gave Sebbi [q. v.], king of the East-Saxons, 
the monastic habit, receiving from him a 
large sum for the poor. He was present at 
Sebbi's death. He received from Swaebraed, 
king of the East-Saxons, a grant dated 
13 June 704 (Codex Diplomaticus, No. 
52). In a letter written about the middle 
of 705 to Brihtwald [q. v.], archbishop 
of Canterbury, he speaks of a conference 
that was to be held in the following 
October at Brentford between Ine [q. v.], 
king of the West-Saxons, and his chief men, 
ecclesiastical and lay, and the rulers of the 
East-Saxons, to settle certain matters of 
dispute. He and Heddi [q.v.], bishop of the 
West-Saxons, had arranged that the meeting 
should be peaceful, and he was desirous of 
acting as a peacemaker at the conference ; 
but the archbishop had decreed that no one 
should hold communion with the West- 
Saxons so long as they abstained from obey- 
ing his order relating to the division of their 
bishopric. Waldhere therefore laid his desire 
before Bribtwald, deferring to his decision. 
He must have died before the council of 
Clovesho in 716, at which his successor, 
Ingwald, was present. The grant to Peter- 
borough attested by him and Archbishop 
Theodore [q.v.] is an obvious forgery (Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, an. 675, Peterborough). 

[Bede's Hist. Eccles. iv. 11 ; Haddan and 
Stubbs's Eccles. Doc. iii. 274-5, 301 ; Diet. 
Chr. Biogr., art. ' AY aldhere' by Bishop Stubbs.] 

W. H. 

WALDIE, CHARLOTTE ANN, after- 
wards MRS. EATON (1788-1859), author of 
'Waterloo Days,' born on 28 Sept. 1788, 
was second daughter of George Waldie of 
Hendersyde Park, Roxburghshire, by his 
wife Ann, eldest daughter of Jonathan 
Ormston of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In June 



1815 she was, with her brother John and 
sister Jane (see below), on a visit to Brus- 
sels. She wrote an account of her expe- 
riences which was published in 1817 under 
the title of ' Narrative of a Residence in 
Belgium, during the Campaign of 1815, and 
of a Visit to the Field of Waterloo. By an 
Englishwoman ' (London, 8vo). A second 
edition was published in 1853 as 'The Days 
of Battle, orQuatre Bras and Waterloo ; by 
an Englishwoman resident in Brussels in 
June 1815.' The latest edition, entitled 
' Waterloo Days,' is dated 1888 (London, 
8vo). The narrative is of great excellence, 
and takes a high place among contemporary 
accounts by other than military writers. In 
1820 Charlotte Waldie published anony- 
mously, in three volumes, ' Rome in the 
Nineteenth Century ' (Edinburgh, 12mo) ; 
second and third editions appeared respec- 
tively in 1822 and 1823. A fifth edition, 
in two volumes, was published in 1852, and 
a sixth in 1860. The book is largely quoted 
by Mr. A. J. C. Hare, and is still useful to 
travellers. 

On 22 Aug. 1822 Charlotte married Ste- 
phen Eaton, banker, of Stamford, of Ketton 
Hall, Rutland, who died on 25 Sept. 1834. 
She died in London, at Hanover Square, on 
28 April 1859, leaving two sons and two 
daughters. 

Thomson of Edinburgh painted a minia- 
ture of her at eighteen years of age. Yellow- 
lees painted an unsatisfactory portrait in 
1824, and Edmonstone a half-length in 
1828. These pictures were at Hendersyde 
Park in 1859. 

Other works by Mrs. Eaton are : 1. ' Con- 
tinental Adventures,' a story, London, 1826, 
3 vols. 8vo. 2. ' At Home and Abroad,' a 
novel, London, 1831, 3 vols. 8vo. 

Her youngest sister, JANE WALDIE, after- 
wards MRS. WATTS (1793-1826), author, 
born in 1793, showed a taste for painting at 
an early age, and studied under Nasmyth. 
She painted many pictures, mostly landscapes 
inspired by the beauty of the scenery sur- 
rounding her home. The figures in three or 
four of them are the work of Sir Robert Ker 
Porter [q.v.] As early as 1819 she exhibited 
at Somerset House a picture called 'The 
Temple at Psestum ' (Addit. MS. 18204). 
Twenty-eight of her pictures were at Hen- 
j dersyde Park in 1859, but many had been 
j removed at the time of her marriage, and 
; remained in the possession of her husband. 
! In September 1816 she accompanied her sister 
Charlotte, with whom she has often been con- 
fused, and her brother John abroad, return- 
' ing to England in August 1817. The result 
j was a book entitled ' Sketches descriptive 



Waldric 



Waldron 



of Italy in 1816-17 ; with a brief Account 
of Travels in various parts of France and 
Switzerland' (London, 1820, 4 vols. 8vo). 
On 20 Oct. of that year she married Captain 
(afterwards Rear- Admiral) George Augustus 
Watts of Langton Grange, Staindrop, Dar- 
lington (cf. O'BYKUD, Naval Biography, p. 
1260), where, after losing her only child ,she 
died on 6 July 1826. 

A miniature painted by M. Dupuis, a 
French prisoner at Kelso, when she was 
about twenty years of age, is a good like- 
ness ; after her death Edmonstone painted 
her portrait from two indifferent miniatures. 
These portraits were at Hendersyde Park in 
1859. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1868 s.v. 'Waldie,' 
1898 s.v. 'Eaton;' Gent. Mag. 1826 ii. 184, 
1859 i. 655 ; Catalogue of Pictures, &c., at Hen- 
dersyde Park, 1 859 ; Bell's Introduction to 
Waterloo Days, 1888.] E. L. 

WALDRIC (d. 1112), bishop of Laon. 
[See GALDKIC.] 

WALDRON, .FRANCIS GODOLPHIN 

(1744-1818), writer and actor, was born in 
1744. He became a member of Garrick's 
company at Drury Lane, and is first heard 
of on 21 Oct. 1769, when he played a part, 
probably Marrall, in 'A New Way to pay 
Old Debts.' On 12 March 1771 he was 
Dicky in the ' Constant Couple.' He made 
little progress as an actor, and his name 
rarely occurs in the bills. Garrick gave him, 
however, charge of the theatrical fund which 
he established in 1766, and he was at diffe- 
rent times manager of the Windsor, Rich- 
mond, and other country theatres. On 
25 April 1772 he was the original Sir Samuel 
Mortgage in Downing's ' Humours of the 
Turf.' On 17 May 1773 Waldron took 
a benefit, on which occasion he was the 
original Metre, a parish clerk, in his own 
' Maid of Kent,' 8vo, 1778, a comedy founded 
on a story in the 'Spectator' (No. 123). 
On 12 May 1775, for his benefit and that of 
a Mrs. Greville, he produced his ' Contrast, 
or the Jew and Married Courtezan,' played 
once only and not printed. Tribulation in 
the ' Alchemist ' followed, and on 22 or 23 
March 1776 he was the original Sir Veritas 
Vision in Heard's 'Valentine's Day.' His 
' Richmond Heiress,' a comedy altered from 
D'Urfey, unprinted, was acted at Richmond 
in 1777, probably during his management of 
the theatre. On 19 Feb. 1778 he was, at 
Drury Lane, the first Cacafatadri in Portal's 
1 Cady of Bagdad.' He also played Shallow 
in the 'Merry Wives of Windsor.' His 
* Imitation,' a comedy, unprinted, was brought 
out at Drury Lane for his benefit on 12 May 



1783 and coldly received. It is a species of re- 
versal of the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' with women 
substituted for men and men for women. 
On the occasion of its production Waldron 
played Justice Clack in the ' Ladies' Frolic.' 
The same year Waldron published, in 
octavo, ' An Attempt to continue and com- 
plete the justly admired Pastoral of the 
Sad Shepherd ' of Ben Jonson. The notes 
to this are not without interest. ' The King 
in the Country,' a two-act piece, 8vo, 1789, 
is an alteration of the underplot of Hey- 
wood's ' King Edward the Fourth.' It was 
played at Richmond and Windsor in 1788, 
after the return of George III from Chelten- 
ham, and is included by Waldron in his 
' Literary Museum.' ' Heigho for a Hus- 
band,' 8vo, 1794, is a rearrangement of 
' Imitation ' before mentioned. It was more 
successful than the previous piece, was 
played at the Hay market on 14 July 1794, 
and was revived at Drury Lane in 1802. Its 
appearance had been preceded on 2 Dec. 1793 
at the Haymarket by that of the ' Prodigal/ 
1794, 8vo, an alteration of the ' Fatal Ex- 
travagance,' which is provided with a happy 
conclusion. In the preface to this Waldron, 
who had become the prompter of the Hay- 
market under the younger Colman, says 
he made the alteration at Colman's desire. 
At the Haymarket Waldron was the first 
Sir Matthew Medley in Hoare's ' My Grand- 
mother ' on 16 Dec. 1793. He was still 
occasionally seen at Drury Lane, where he 
played Elbow in ' Measure for Measure,' and 
the Smuggler in the ' Constant Couple.' On 
9 June 1795 he was, at the Haymarket, the 
first Prompter in Colman's ' New Hay at the 
Old Market.' For his benefit on 21 Sept. 
were produced ' Love and Madness,' adapted 
by him from Fletcher's ' Two Noble Kins- 
men,' and ' Tis a wise Child knows its own 
Father,' a three-act comedy also by him. 
Neither piece is printed. The ' Virgin 
Queen,' in five acts, an attempted sequel to 
the ' Tempest,' was printed in octavo in 
1797, but unacted. It is a wretched piece 
which the ' Biographia Dramatica ' declares 
' very happily executed.' The ' Man with 
two Wives, or Wigs for Ever,' 8vo, 1798, 
was acted probably in the country. The 
' Miller's Maid,' a comic opera in two acts, 
songs only printed with the cast, was per- 
formed at the Haymarket on 25 Aug. 1804, 
with music by Davy. It is founded on a 
' Rural Tale ' by Robert Bloomfield [q. v.], 
was played for Mrs. Harlowe's benefit, and 
was a success. Until near the end of his 
life Waldron made an occasional appearance 
at the Haymarket, at which, as young Wal- 
dron, his son also appeared, his name being 



Waldron 



Wale 



found to Malevole, a servant, in Moultrie's 
' False and True,' Haymarket, 11 Aug. 1798. 

Waldron was not only actor and play- 
wright, but also editor and bookseller. In 
1789 he brought out an edition of Downes's 
* Roscius Anglicanus ' with some notes. 
From 54 Drury Lane he issued in octavo in 
1792 ' The Literary Museum, or Ancient and 
Modern Repository,' also published with 
another title-page as ' The Literary Museum, 
or a Selection of Scarce Old Tracts,' form- 
ing a work of considerable literary and 
antiquarian interest. He followed this up 
with the ' Shakspearean Miscellany ' (Lon- 
don, 1802, four parts, 4to), a second collection 
of scarce tracts, chiefly from manuscripts in 
his possession, with notes by himself and por- 
traits of actors, poems (then unpublished) by 
Donne and Corbet, and other curious works. 
Both of these heterogeneous collections are 
scarce. Waldron also wrote or compiled the 
lives in the ' Biographical Mirrour ' (3 vols. 
1795-8), ' Free Reflections on Miscellaneous 
Papers and Legal Instruments [purporting 
to be] under the hand and seal of W. Shake- 
speare in the possession of S. Ireland ' (1796, 
8vo), ' A Compendious History of the Eng- 
lish Stage ' (1800, 12mo), 'A Collection of 
Miscellaneous Poetry ' (1802, 4to), and ' The 
Celebrated Romance intituled Rosalynde. 
Euphues Golden Legacie ' (1802 s ), with 
notes forming a supplement to the ' Shak- 
spearean Miscellany.' He also contributed 
a notice of Thomas Davies, the actor and 
bookseller, to Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes.' 

Waldron died in March 1818, probably at 
his house in Drury Lane. His portrait as 
Sir Christopher Hatton in the ' Critic ' was 
painted by Harding and engraved by W. 
Gardiner in 1788 (BROMLEY, p. 415). His 
antiquarian compilations constitute his chief 
claim to recognition, and show a range of 
reading rare among actors. Such of his 
dramas as were printed are without ori- 
ginality or value (though Gifford praises 
Waldron's continuation of the ' Sad Shep- 
herd '), and as an actor he never got beyond 
what is known as ' utility.' 

[Works cited; Gent. Mag. 1818, i. 283-4; 
Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Biogra- 
phia Dramatica ; Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; 
Thespian Dictionary; Doran's Annals of the 
Stage, ed. Lowe; Young's Memoirs of Mrs. 
Crouch ; Secret History of the Green Room ; 
Allibone's Dictionary ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat-] J. K. 

WALDRON, GEORGE (1690-1730 ?), 
topographer and poet, born in 1690, was son 
of Francis Waldron of London, who was de- 
scended from an ancient family in Essex. 



He appears to have received his early edu- 
cation at Felsted school, and on 7 May 
1706 he was matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford. He resided in the Isle of Man, 
where he acted as commissioner from the 
British government to watch the trade of 
the island in the interests of the excise. He 
died in England prior to 1731, just after he 
had obtained a new deputation from the 
British government. 

Soon after his death his ' Compleat Works 
in Verse and Prose ' were ' printed for the 
widow and orphans,' London, 1731, fol. The 
dedication to William O'Brien, earl of Inchi- 
quin, is signed by Theodosia Waldron. The 
first contains ' Miscellany Poems,' and the 
second part consists of ' Tracts, Political and 
Historical,' including Waldron's principal 
work, ' A Description of the Isle of Man.' 
This work, written in 1726, was reprinted 
at London, 1744, 12mo ; another edition 
appeared in 1780 ; and it was edited, with 
an introductory notice and notes by William 
Harrison (1802-1884) [q. v.], for the publi- 
cations of the Manx Society (vol. xi. Douglas, 
1865, 8vo). Sir Walter Scott while writ- 
ing ' Peveril of the Peak ' made large use of 
this work, and transferred long extracts 
from it to his notes to that romance. Wal- 
dron's production he characterised as ' a huge 
mine, in which I have attempted to discover 
some specimens of spar, if I cannot find 
treasure.' Most of the writers on the Isle 
of Man have given Waldron's legends a 
prominent place in their works. 

Among his other works are : 1. ' A Per- 
swasive Oration to the People of Great 
Britain to stand up in defence of their Re- 
ligion and Liberty,' London, 1716, 8vo. 
2. ' A Speech made to the Loyal Society, at 
the Mug-House in Long- Acre; June the 7th, 
1716. Being the Day for the Public 
Thanksgiving, for putting an end to that 
most unnatural Rebellion,' London, 1716, 
4to. 3. ' A Poem, humbly inscrib'd to ... 
George, Prince of Wales,' London, 1717, 
fol. 4. ' The Regency and Return, a Poem 
humbly inscribed to ... Lord Newport, son 
and heir to ... Richard, Earl of Bradford ' 
[London, 1717 ?], fol. 5. ' An Ode on the 
28th of May, being the Anniversary of his 
Majesty's happy Nativity ' [London], 1723, 
8vo. 

[Harrison's Bibl. Monensis (1876), pp. 24, 
28, 48, 219 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 348 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] T. C. 

WALE, SIR CHARLES (1763-1845), 
general, born on 5 Aug. 1763, was second 
son of Thomas Wale of Shelford, Cambridge- 
shire, by Louisa Rudolphina, daughter of 



Wale 

Nicholas Rahten of Luneburg. The family 
was descended from Walter de Wahul, who 
occurs in Domesday Book as a landholder 
in Northamptonshire. Several members of 
the family acted as sheriff of that county. 
A Sir Thomas Wale was knight of the Garter 
in Edward Ill's reign, and another Thomas 
was killed at Agincourt in 1415. A branch 
of the family migrated to Ireland late in the 
twelfth century and founded Walestown. 
The branch to which Sir Charles belonged 
acquired Shelford in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. His father, Thomas Wale (1701- 
1796), a type of the eighteenth-century 
squire, kept a notebook, numerous extracts 
from which were printed by the Rev. H. J. 
Wale in ' My Grandfather's Pocket-book,' 
1883. Prefixed is a portrait of Thomas 
Wale, ait. 93. 

Charles was in 1778 sent up to London to 
learn arithmetic and fencing. In September 
1779, much against his father's wish, he 
accepted a commission in a regiment which 
was then being raised by Colonel Keating, 
the 88th foot. He went out with it to 
Jamaica, but on 13 April 1780 his father 
purchased him (' cost 150/.') a lieutenancy in 
the 97th. That regiment went to Gibraltar 
with Admiral Darby's fleet in April 1781, 
and served throughout the latter part of the 
defence. In a letter to his father on 16 Oct. 
1782, Wale described the great attack made 
on 13 Sept. by the floating batteries (WALE, 
p. 222). 

He obtained a company in the 12th foot 
on 25 June 1783, but was placed on half-pay 
soon afterwards. On 23 May 1786 he ex- 
changed to the 46th foot, and served with it 
in Ireland and the Channel Islands. He 
married in 1793 and retired on half-pay, be- 
coming adjutant of the Cambridgeshire 
militia on 4 Dec. in that year. On 1 March 
1794 he was made major, and on 1 Jan. 1798 
lieutenant-colonel in the army. He returned 
to full pay on 6 Aug. 1799 as captain in the 
20th. and served with that regiment in the 
expedition to the Helder in the autumn. 
On 16 Jan. 1800 he was promoted to a 
majority in the 85th, and on 9 Oct. in that 
year to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 67th. 
He joined that regiment in Jamaica, and 
brought it home at the end of 1801. In 
1805 he went out with it to Bengal, but he 
returned to England and exchanged to the 
66th foot on 16 June 1808. 

He did not serve long with that regiment. 
He had been made colonel on 25 April 1808, 
and in March 1809 he was appointed a bri- 
gadier-general in the West Indies. He 
commanded the reserve in the expedition 
under Sir George Beckwith [q. v.], which 



) Wale 

took Guadeloupe in February 1810. He 
was wounded in the action of 3 Feb., and re- 
ceived the medal. On 4 June 1811 he was 
promoted major-general, and on 21 Feb. 
1812 he was appointed governor of Marti- 
nique, and remained so till that island was 
restored to France in 1815. He was made 
K.C.B. on 2 Jan. 1815. He was promoted 
lieutenant-general on 19 July 1821, and 
general on 28 June 1838, and was made 
colonel of the 33rd foot on 25 Feb. 1831. 
He died at Shelford on 19 March 1845. His 
portrait, by Northcote, was lent by Mr. R. G. 
Wale to the third loan exhibition at South 
Kensington in 1868 (Cat. No. 38). 

He was three times married: (1) in 1793 
to Louisa, daughter of Rev. Castel Sherrard 
of Huntington; (2) in 1803 to Isabella, 
daughter of Rev. Thomas Johnson of Stock- 
ton-on-Tees ; (3) in 1815 to Henrietta, 
daughter of Rev. Thomas Brent of Cros- 
combe, Somerset. She survived him, and 
he left seven sons and five daughters. 

His eighth son, FREDERICK WALE (1822- 
1858), born in 1822, entered the East India 
Company's service in 1840, and was posted 
to the 48th Bengal native infantry on 9 Jan. 
1841. He became lieutenant on 23 Feb. 1842, 
and captain on 1 Oct. 1852. He was appointed 
brigade-major at Peshawar on 19 Aug. 1853, 
and was serving there when his regiment 
mutinied at Lucknow in May 1857. He 
took command of the 1st Sikh irregular 
cavalry (known as Wale's horse) and served 
in the relief of Lucknow, and in the subse- 
quent siege and capture of it in March 1858. 
His corps formed part of the second cavalry 
brigade, and the brigadier reported that Wale 
' showed on all occasions great zeal in com- 
mand of his regiment, and on 21 March led 
it most successfully in pursuit of the enemy 
till he was shot ' (London Gazette, 21 May 
1858; see also LORD ROBERTS, Forty-one 
Years in India, i. 408). He married Adelaide, 
daughter of Edward Prest of York, and he 
left two daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. 1845, i. -547; Burkes Landed 
Gentry ; Wale's My Grandfather's Pocket-book, 
1883.] E. M. L. 

WALE, SAMUEL (d. 1786), historical 
painter, is said to have been born at Yar- 
mouth, Norfolk. He was first instructed in 
the art of engraving on silver plate. He 
studied drawing under Francis Hayman 
[q. v.] at the St. Martin's Lane academy, 
j and his book illustrations show how much 
he owed to Hay man's example. He painted 
some decorative designs for ceilings at a 
time when the taste for that style of orna- 
mentation was on the wane, and he was 



Wale 



Waleden 



occasionally employed in painting trades- 
men's signs, till these were prohibited by 
act of parliament in 1762. A whole-length 
portrait of Shakespeare by Wale, which hung 
across the street outside a tavern near Drury 
Lane, obtained some notoriety owing to the 
splendour of the frame and the ironwork by 
which it was suspended. The whole was 
said to have cost 500/., but it had scarcely 
been erected when it had to be removed, and 
the painting was sold for a trifle to a broker. 
Wale acquired a thorough knowledge of 
perspective by assisting John Gwynn [q. v.] 
in his architectural drawings, especially in 
a transverse section of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which was engraved and published in their 
joint names in 1752. But his principal em- 
ployment was in designing vignettes and 
illustrations on a small scale for the book- 
sellers, a large number of which were en- 
graved by Charles Grignion (1717-1810) 
[q. v.] Among the chief of these were the 
illustrations to the ' History of England,' 
1746-7 ; 'The Compleat Angler,' 1759; ' Lon- 
don and its Environs described,' 1761 ; ' Ethic 
Tales and Fables,' Wilkie's 'Fables,' 1768 
(eighteen plates) ; Chamberlain's ' History 
of London,' 1770 ; Goldsmith's ' Traveller,' 
1774. He also published numerous plates 
in the ' Oxford Magazine' and other periodi- 
cals. He exhibited ' stained drawings,' i.e. 
designs outlined with the pen and washed 
with indian ink, and occasionally larger draw- 
ings in watercolours, at the exhibitions of the 
Society of Artists in Spring Gardens, 1760- 
1767, and designed the frontispiece to the 
catalogue in 1762. 

He became one of the original members of 
the Society of Artists of Great Britain in 
1765 and of the Royal Academy in 1768, 
and was the first professor of perspective to 
the academy. He exhibited drawings of 
scenes from English history, and occasion- 
ally scriptural subjects, described as designs 
for altar-pieces, from 1769 to 1778, when 
his health failed, and he was placed upon 
the Royal Academy pension fund, being the 
first member who benefited by it. He con- 
tinued to hold the professorship of per- 
spective, though he gave private instruc- 
tion at his own house instead of lecturing ; 
and in 1782, on the death of Richard Wilson, 
he became librarian. He held both offices 
till his death, which occurred on 6 Feb. 
1786 in Castle Street, Leicester Square. 
His portrait appears in Zoflany's picture of 
the Royal Academy in 1772, engraved by 
Earlom. 

[Sandby's Hist, of the Koyal Academy, i. 86 ; 
Edwards's Anecd. of Painters, p. 116; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists.] C. D. 



WALEDEN, HUMPHREYDE(rf. 1330?), 
judge, was a 'king's clerk ' on 8 Feb. 1290, 
when he was appointed to the custody of the 
lands of Simon de Montacute, first baron 
Mont acute [q. v.], in the counties of Somer- 
set, Devon, Dorset, Oxford, and Buckingham, 
and on 16 Jan. 1291 to the custody of the 
lands of the late Queen Eleanor (Pat. Rolls, 
pp. 341, 468). He was among the clergy 
who submitted to Edward early in the course 
of his struggle with Archbishop Robert 
Winchelsey [q. v.], receiving letters of pro- 
tection on 18 Feb. 1297 {ib. p. 236). On 
23 Sept. 1299 he received a commission of 
over and terminer (ib. p. 474), and on 1 April 
1300 was appointed with three others to 
summon the forest officers to carry out the 
perambulations of the forests in Somerset, 
Dorset, and Devonshire (ib. p. 506) ; but on 
14 Oct. others were appointed, as Humphrey 
and some of his colleagues were unable to 
attend to the business (ib. p. 607). Hum- 
phrey was appointed a baron of the exchequer 
on 19 Oct. 1306, but he only retained his 
office till the following July (MADOX, Hist . 
of the Exchequer, ii. 46, 325). In December 
1307 he is mentioned as going beyond seas with 
Queen Margaret (Pat. Rolls, p. 25). The 
temporalities of the archbishopric of Can- 
terbury were committed to him during Win- 
chelsey's absence in 1306 (8 June 1306 to 
26 March 1307 only ; see Close Rolls, Edw. II, 
1307-13, p. 85). He acted as justice in 
1309, 1310, 1311, and 1314 (Pat. Rolls, 
pp._ 239, 255, 329, 472 ; Parl. Writs, pt. ii. 
p. 79, No. 5), in this last year to try certain 
collectors and assessors of aids, and was 
summoned to do military service against 
the Scots on 30 June 1314. In 13 Ed- 
ward II (1319-20) he received a grant of 
the stewardship of various royal castles and 
manors in eleven counties, among which was 
the park of Windsor and the auditorship 
of the accounts. He is mentioned also as 
steward to the Earl of Hereford, and seems 
to have been appointed, at his desire, one 
of the justices to take an assize in which 
he was interested (Rot. Parl. i. 398 b). On 
31 March 1320 he was summoned to give the 
king counsel on certain matters within his 
knowledge (Close Rolls, p. 226), and on 
30 March 1322 received instructions to 
choose, with two others, suitable keepers of 
the castle of the ' king's contrariants ' in 
certain of the southern and eastern counties 
(ib. p. 435). On 18 June 1324 he was ap- 
pointed one of the barons of the exchequer 
(Parl. Writs, ii. 257, Nos. 138-9). He was 
summoned among the justices and others of 
the council to the parliament at Westminster 
by prorogation from 14 Dec. 1326 on 7 Jan. 



Walerand 



Walerand 



1327. He received a commission of oyer and 
terminer as late as 28 March 1330, but died 
before 26 June 1331 (Pat.Rolls,^. 558,146). 

[Authorities cited in text ; Abbr. Rot. Orig. 
pp. 50, 52 : Foss's Judges of England.] 

W. E. R. 

WALERAND, ROBERT (d. 1273), 
judge, was the son of William Walerand and 
Isabella, eldest daughter and coheiress of 
Hugh of Kilpeck (Excerpta e Hot. Fin. ii. 
252 ; Calendarium Genealogicum, p. 770). 
The family claimed descent from Walerand 
the Huntsman of Domesday Book (HoAKE, 
Modern Wiltshire, 'Hundred of Cawden,' 
iii. 24). Robert's brother John, rector of 
Clent in Worcestershire, was in 1265 made 
seneschal and given joint custody of the 
Tower of London. His sister Alice was 
mother of Alan Plugenet [q. v.] ; and another 
sister, also named Alice, was abbess of 
Romsey. 

Walerand was throughout Henry Ill's 
reign one of the king's ' familiares ' (Chron. 
Edw. I and Ediv. II, i. 68 ; RISHANGER, 
Chron. de Bella, p. 118, Camden Soc.) 
Among the knights of the royal household 
he stands in the same position as his friend 
John Mansel [q. v.] among the clerks. In 
1246 he received the custody of the Marshall 
estates, and in 1247 of those of John de 
Munchanes (Excerpta e Rot. Fin. i. 458, 
ii. 14). In Easter 1246 he was appointed 
sheriff of Gloucestershire (List of Sheriffs 
to 1831, p. 49; DUGDALE, Baronage, i. 670). 
In 1250 the castles of Carmarthen and 
Cardigan were granted to him, together 
with the lands of Meilgwn ap Meilgwn and 
the governorship of Lundy (Excerpta e Rot. 
Fin. ii. 87 ; MICHEL and BEMONT, Roles 
Gascons, vol. i. No. 2388). From June 
1251 till August 1258 he was a regular 
justiciar (Excerpta e Rot. Fin. ii. 107-286). 
As early as 1252 he is described as seneschal 
of Gascony (Royal Letters, Henry III, ii. 
95), and in 1253 he accompanied Henry III 
thither, sailing on 6 Aug. 1253 from Ports- 
mouth and reaching Bordeaux on 15 Aug. 
Walerand was present at the siege of Be- 
nauges (Roles Gascons, vol. i. No. 4222). 
The affairs of Bergerac seem to have been 
especially confided to him (ib. Nos. 3773, 
4301), and he was one of the deputation 
sent by Henry III to the men of Gensac on 
the death of Elie Rudel, lord of Bergerac 
and Gensac (ib. No. 4301). Throughout the 
Gascon campaign Walerand steadily rose in 
Henry's favour. He was one of the most 
important members of the king's council in 
Gascony. 
On Henry accepting for his second son 



Edmund the crown of Sicily from Inno- 
cent IV and Alexander IV, Walerand was 
in 1255 associated with Peter of Aigue- 
blanche [q. v.] as, king's envoy to carry out 
the negotiations with the pope ( Cal. of Papal 
Registers, Papal Letters, i. 312). Walerand 
was an accomplice of Peter's trick of per- 
suading the prelates to entrust them with 
blank charters, which they filled up at Rome, 
and so compelled the English church to pay 
nine thousand marks to certain firms of 
Sienese and Florentine bankers who had 
advanced money to Alexander on Henry's 
account ('Ann. Osney'inAnnalesMonastici, 
iv. 109, 110; OXENEDES, Chron. p. 203; 
COTTON, Hist. Angl. p. 135; MATT. PARIS, 
Chron. Majora, v. 511). At the parliament 
of Westminster on 13 Oct. 1255 Richard 
of Cornwall bitterly rebuked the bishop of 
Hereford and Walerand, because they had 
' so wickedly urged the king to subvert the 
kingdom ' (MATT. PABIS, Chron. Majora, 
v. 521). 

Walerand now resumed his work as judge. 
In 1256 he was the chief of the justices itine- 
rant at Winchester ('Ann. Winchester' in 
Ann. Monastici, ii. 96). He was one of a 
commission of three appointed to investigate 
the crimes of William de 1'Isle, sheriff of 
Northampton, in the famous case of 1256 
(MATT. PARIS, Chron. Majora, v. 577-80). 
On 12 June 1256 Walerand was associated 
with Richard, earl of Gloucester, in an em- 
bassy to the princes of Germany (Fcudera, i. 
342). About this time he was entrusted 
with the custody of St. Briavel's Castle 
and manor (DuGDALE, Baronage, i. 670), 
and a little later (1256-1257) he was made 
steward of all forests south of the Trent and 
governor of Rockingham Castle (ib.) On 
20 Feb. 1257 Simon de Montfort and Robert 
Walerand were empowered to negotiate a 
peace between France and England (Royal 
Letters, Henry III, ii. 121 ; MATT. PARIS, 
Chron. Majora, v. 649, 650, 659). 

At the beginning of the troubles between 
king and barons in 1258 Walerand, though 
supporting the king, took up a moderate at- 
titude. He witnessed on 2 May the king's 
consent to a project of reform (Select Charters, 
p. 381 ; Fcedera, 370, 371). He was so far 
trusted by the barons that he was appointed 
warden of Salisbury Castle under the pro- 
visions of Oxford (ib. p. 393). Other prefer- 
ments followed, some of which at least must 
have been given with the consent of the 
fifteen. In 1259 he became warden of Bristol 
Castle (DUGDALE, i. 670), while a little later 
he was again created-warden of St. Briavel's 
Castle, and on 9 July 1261 made sheriff of 
Kent, an office he held till 23 Sept. 1262, and 



Walerand 



at the same time he was made governor of the 
castles of Rochester and Canterbury (DuG- 
DALE, i.670; List of Sheriffs to 1831,p. 67). 
On 29 Jan. 1262 Walerand was elected one 
of a commission of six, of whom three were 
barons, to appoint sheriffs (Fcedera, i. 416). 
On 10 March he was made a member of the 
embassy appointed to negotiate peace with 
France (Royal Letters, ii. 138; cf. Flores Hist. 
ii. 423; MATT. PARIS, v. 741 ; Fcedera, i. 385, 
386). Walerand with his colleagues laid 
their report before the magnates in London 
a little later (Flores Hist. ii. 428), and peace 
was finally made with Louis (Fcedera, i. 383, 
389). 

Walerand's diplomatic skill was rewarded. 
In 1261 he was made warden of the Forest 
of Dean (Excerpta e Rot. Fin. ii. 358). In 

1262 Henry entrusted to him the castles of 
Dover, Marlborough, and Ludgershall (Risn- 
ANGER, Chron. eylwtt.,andTROKELOWE, Opus 
Chronicorum, p. 9, in both of which he is 
called ' Sir E. de Waleran ;' Flores Hist. ii. 
468 ; Red Book of Exchequer, ii. 706). He 
also became warden of the Cinque ports 
(Royal Letters, Henry III, ii. 244). During 
the chancellorship of Walter de Merton [q. v.] 
in 1262, the great seal was put into the hands 
of Walerand and Imbert of Munster. In 
1263, when Prince Edward committed his 
robbery of jewels and money upon the New 
Temple, Walerand was one of his chief helpers 
(' Ann. Dunstaple ' in Ann. Man. iii. 222). 

In 1261 discord between Henry and the 
barons was renewed. Walerand, together 
with John Mansel and Peter of Savoy, were 
regarded as the three chief advisers of Henry 
(' Ann. Osney ' in Ann. Mon. iv. 128). In 

1263 the barons seized Walerand's lands. 
Henry restored them, save the castle of 
Kilpeck (DUGDALE, i. 670). Walerand had 
rendered himself so indispensable that in 
February 1263 the king excused himself from 
sending Walerand and Mansel to France, and 
despatched other envoys instead (Royal 
Letters, ii. 239; misdated in Fcedera, i. 
394). When the barons went to war against 
Henry in 1264, Walerand exerted himself 
on the royalist side. After the battle of 
Lewes he and Warren of Bassingbourne still 
held Bristol Castle in the king's name. They 
marched to Wallingford, where Richard 
of Cornwall and Edward were confined, and 
vigorously attacked the castle in the hope of 
relieving them, but failed (RISHANGER, 
Chron. de Bello, Camden Soc. p. 40). After 
Evesham he was rewarded by large grants 
(DUGDALE, i. 670), including most of the 
lands of Hugh de Neville (Liber de Antiquis 
Legibus, pp. Ixvi, Ixvii). Walerand pro- 
nounced the sentence of disinheritance 



against all who had taken up arms against 
the king at Evesham (' Ann. Worcester ' 
in Ann. Mon. iv. 455). He and Roger 
Leybourne induced the Londoners to pay a 
fine of twenty thousand marks to the king 
for their transgressions (Liber de Antiquis 
Legibus, pp. 78, 80, 81). In 1266 Walerand 
was one of the original six who by the dictum 
of Kenil worth were elected to settle the go- 
vernment ('Ann. Waverley' and 'Ann. Dun- 
staple ' in Ann. Mon. ii. 372, iii. 243 ; Flores 
Hist. iii. 12). 

Walerand now devoted himself to affairs 
in Wales. Owning much land in and near 
the Welsh marches, he had necessarily been 
frequently employed in the Welsh wars, and 
was constantly consulted as to the treat- 
ment of the Welsh (Royal Letters, Henry 
III, ii. 219, 2 Oct. 1262; Fcedera, i. 339, 
340). On 21 Feb. 1267 a commission was 
issued, empowering him to make a truce for 
three years with Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, and 
with Edmund, the king's son, to make peace 
(Fcedera, i. 472, 473, 474). He now re- 
sumed his work as judge, and from April 
1268 till August 1271 we find many records 
of assizes to be held before him (Excerpta 
e Rot. Fin. ii. 441, 468-546; Abbreviatio 
Placitorum, pp. 181, 182). When Edward 
went to the Holy Land he placed, on 2 Aug. 
1270, the guardianship of his lands in the 
hands of four, of whom Walerand was one 
(Fcedera, i. 487). He died in 1273, before 
the king's return (Ann. Mon. iv. 254). 

The chronicler describes Walerand as ' vir 
strenuus.' He had throughout his career 
been hated as a royal favourite, though re- 
spected for his ability and strength. A 
curious political poem from Cottonian MS. 
Otho D, viii., quoted in the notes to Rish- 
anger's ' Chronicon de Bello ' (Camden So- 
ciety, p. 145), thus refers to him : 

Exhaeredati proceres sunt rege jubente 

Et male tractati Waleran K. dicta ferente. 

Walerand married in 1257 Matilda (d. 
1306-7), the eldest daughter and heiress of 
Ralph Russell, but left no issue (DUGDALE, 
i. 670; cf. Cal. Geneal. p. 194). His 
nephew and heir, Robert, was an idiot, and 
never received livery of his lands, some of 
which passed to his sister's son, Alan Plu- 
genet. 

Robert Walerand, the subject of this 
article, must be distinguished from Waleran 
Teutonicus, custodian of Berkhamstead in 
1241, to whom Henry gave the custody of 
several Welsh castles. 

[Calendarium Inquisitionum post mortem, 
vol. i. ; Calendarium Genealogicum ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, vol. i. ; Abbreviatio Placitorum ; Ex- 



Wales 



33 



Wales 



cerpta e Rotulis Finium, vols. i. ii. ; List of 
Sheriffs to 1831, Publ. Rec. Office Lists and In- 
dexes, No. ix ; Deputy-Keeper of Publ. Records' 
32nd Rep. App. i. 2.59-60 ; Annals of Osney, 
Winchester, Burton, Dunstaple, Worcester, and 
Wykes, in Annales Monastici, vols. ii. iii. iv. ; 
Red Book of the Exchequer, vols. i. ii. ; Chronica 
Johannis de Oxenedes; Rishanger's Chronicle; 
Flores Historiarum, vol. ii. ; Bart, de Cotton's 
Historia Anglicana ; Peckham's Letters, vol. ii. ; 
Royal Letters Henry III, vol. it. ; Chronicles of 
Edward I and Edward II, vol. i. ; Trokelowe's 
Opus Chronicorum.p. 9 ; Matthew Paris's Chro- 
nica Majora, vol. v., the last eleven being in 
the Rolls Series ; Rishanger's Chron. de Bello 
( Camden Soc. ); Liber de Antiquis Legibus ( Cam- 
den Soc.) ; Calendar of Patent Rolls ; Calendar 
of Close Rolls ; Calendar of Papal Registers, 
Papal Letters, vol. i. ; Michel and Bemont's 
Roles Gascons in Documents Inedits; Bemont's 
Simon de Montfort ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 670 ; 
Stubbs's Select Charters; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land, ii. 504, 505; Hoare's Modern Wiltshire, 
vols. ii. iii.] M. T. 

WALES, JAMES (1747-1795), portrait- 
painter and architectural draughtsman, born 
in 1747, was a native of Peterhead, Aber- 
deensbire. Early in life he went to Aber- 
deen, where he was educated at Marischal 
College, and soon drifted into art. Having 
painted a striking likeness of Francis Peacock, 
a local art amateur, he received a number of 
commissions for portraits, principally small 
in size, and painted upon tinplate, and occa- 
sionally sold a landscape ; but, being dis- 
satisfied with his prospects, he went to 
London. Practically self-taught, he had a 
faculty for profiting by what he saw, and 
painted landscape in the manner of Poussin ; 
but his exhibited works at the Royal Aca- 
demy and elsewhere between 1783 and 1791 
were portraits. In 1791 he went to India, 
where, although he painted numerous por- 
traits of native princes and others, and 
executed the sketches from which Thomas 
Daniell [q. v.] painted his picture of Poona 
Durbar, which is said to be ' unrivalled per- 
haps for oriental grouping, character, and 
costume,' his attention was mainly occupied 
in making drawings of the cave temples and 
other Indian architectural remains. He 
worked with Daniell at the Ellora excava- 
tions, and twenty-four drawings by him are 
engraved in Daniell's ' Oriental Scenery.' 
He was engaged upon a series of sketches 
of the sculptures of Elephanta, when he 
died, it is thought at Thana, in November 
1795. His wife Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
liam Wallace of Dundee, and his family 
accompanied him to India ; and his eldest 
daughter, Susanna, married Sir Charles Warre 
Malet [q.v.], the resident at Poona, in 1799. 

VOL. LIX. 



[Memorial Tablet in Bombay Cathedral ; 
Indian Antiquary, 1880; Scottish Notes and 
Queries, vols. iii. and iv. ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Thorn's Aberdeen ; Moor's Hindu Pantheon, 
1810 ; Bryan's and Redgrave's Diets.! 

J. L. C. 

WALES, OWEN OF (d. 1378), soldier. 
[See OWEN.] 

WALES, WILLIAM (1734 ?-l 798), 
mathematician, was born about 1734. He 
first distinguished himself as a contributor to 
the ' Ladies' Diary,' a magazine containing 
mathematical problems of an advanced na- 
ture [see TIPPER, JOHN]. In 1769 he was 
sent by the Royal Society to the Prince of 
Wales fort on the north-west coast of Hud- 
son's Bay to observe the transit of Venus. 
The results of his investigations were com- 
municated to the society ( Transactions, lix. 
467, 480, Ix. 100, 137), and were published 
in 1772 under the title ' General Observa- 
tions made at Hudson's Bay,' London, 4to. 
During his stay at Hudson's Bay he em- 
ployed his leisure in computing tables of the 
equations to equal altitudes for facilitating 
the determination of time. They appeared 
in the ' Nautical Almanac ' for 1773, and 
were republished in 1794 in his treatise on 
' The Method of finding the Longitude by 
Timekeepers,' London, 8vo. 

Wales returned to England in 1770, and 
in 1772 he published < The Two Books of 
Apollonius concerning Determinate Sec- 
tions,' London, 4to, an attempt to restore 
the fragmentary treatise of Apollonius of 
Perga. The task had been more successfully 
carried out by Robert Simson [q. v.] at an 
earlier date, but the results of his labours 
were not published until 1776 in his posthu- 
mous works. In 1772 Wales was engaged, 
with William Bayly [q. v.], by the board of 
longitude to accompany Cook in the Resolu- 
tion on his second voyage round the world, 
and to make astronomical observations. He 
returned to England in 1774, and on 7 Nov. 
1776 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society. In 1777 the astronomical observa- 
tions made during the voyage were pub- 
lished, with an introduction by Wales, at the 
expense of the board of longitude, in a quarto 
volume with charts and plates. In the same 
year appeared his 'Observations on a Voyage 
with Captain Cook ; ' and in 1778 his ' Re- 
marks on Mr. Forster's Account of Captain 
Cook's Last Voyage ' (London, 8vo) ; a reply 
to Johann Georg Adam Forster [q. v.], who, 
with his father, had accompanied the expe- 
dition as naturalist, and had published an 
unauthorised account of the voyage a few 
weeks before Cook's narrative appeared, in 

D 



Wales 



34 



which he made serious reflections on Cook 
and his officers. Wales's pamphlet satis- 
factorily refuted these aspersions, and drew 
from Forster in the same year a ' Reply to 
Mr. Wales's Remarks ' (London, 4to). 

In 1776 Wales sailed with Cook in the 
Resolution on his last voyage. They cleared 
the Channel on 14 July 1776. Cook was 
slain at Hawaii in 1779, and the expedition 
returned in 1780. On the death of Daniel 
Harris, Wales was appointed mathematical 
master at Christ's Hospital, a post which he 
retained till his death. At the commence- 
ment of his mastership he found discipline 
in a very bad state, but by a judicious seve- 
rity he soon brought affairs to a better pass. 
He was a man of a kindly disposition, and 
his pupils became much attached to him. 

Wales took great interest in questions of 
population, and instituted a series of in- 
quiries both in person and by letter into the 
condition of the country. He found, how- 
ever, that many people had a strong dislike 
to any ' numbering of the people ' from the 
belief that it was contrary to the injunctions 
of scripture, and he encountered so much 
opposition that he became convinced of the 
impossibility of carrying his researches very 
far. He published the result of his labours 
in 1781, under the title ' An Inquiry into 
the Present State of the Population in Eng- 
land and Wales ' (London, 8vo), in which 
he combated the belief then prevalent that 
population was decreasing. Wales died in 
London on 29 Dec. 1798. His daughter 
married Arthur William Trollope [q. v.J, 
who became headmaster of Christ's Hospital 
in 1799. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was 
author of an ' Ode to William Pitt,' London, 
1762, fol. ; edited ' Astronomical Observa- 
tions made during the Voyages of Byron, 
Wallis, Carteret, and Cook,' London, 1788, 
4to ; aided John Douglas (1721-1807) [q.v.] 
in editing Cook's ' Journals ' (Egerton MS. 
2180, passim) ; wrote a dissertation on the 
' Achronical Rising of the Pleiades,' appended 
to William Vincent's ' Voyage of Nearchus ; ' 
and assisted Constantine John Phipps, second 
baron Mulgrave [q. v.], in preparing his ac- 
count of ' A Voyage towards the North Pole,' 
London, 1774, 4to. 

[Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 1155; Trollope's Hist, 
of Christ's Hospital, 1834, pp. 95-6 ; Button's 
Philosophical and Mathematical Diet. 1815; 
English Cyclopaedia, 1857; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iv. 242; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Eoyal Soc. App. p. Ivi ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 90 ; Vincent's Periplus 
of the Erythraean Sea, 1800, i. 83 ; Watt's Biblio- 
theca Brit.] E I C 



WALEY, JACOB (1818-1873), legal 
writer, born in 1818, was elder son of 
Solomon Jacob Waley (d. 1864) of Stock- 
well, and afterwards of 22 Devonshire Place, 
London, by his wife, Rachel Hort. Simon 
Waley Waley [q.v.] was his younger brother. 
He was educated at Mr. Neumegen's school 
at Highgate, and University College, London, 
and he graduated B.A. at London University 
in 1839, taking the first place in both mathe- 
matics and classics. He was entered as a 
student at Lincoln's Inn on 3 Xov. 1837, and 
was called to the bar on 21 Nov. 1842. Only 
three Jews had been called to the bar pre- 
viously, (Sir) Francis Henry Goldsmid [q.v.] 
being the first. Waley practised as an equity 
draughtsman, and in time became recognised 
as one of the most learned conveyancers in 
the profession. Although conveyancers rarely 
appear before court, Waley was several times 
summoned in cases of particular difficulty re- 
lating to real property. He acted as con- 
veyancing counsel for the Bedford estates, 
and, in conjunction with Thomas Cooke 
Wright and C. D. Wright, edited ' David- 
son's Precedents and Forms in Conveyan- 
cing ' (London, 1855-65, 5 vols. 8vo). In 
1870 he was appointed one of the convey- 
ancing counsel of the court of chancery. In 
1867 he was nominated a member of the 
royal commission to consider the law on 
the transfer' of real property, and he had a 
large share in framing the report on which 
was based the lord chancellor's bill passed 
in 1874. 

Notwithstanding his mastery of his own 
subject, Waley had numerous other inte- 
rests. He was known as a political econo- 
mist, acting as examiner for the university 
of London, and in 1853-4 he was appointed 
professor of that subject at University Col- 
lege. He held the post until 1865-6, when 
the press of other work compelled his re- 
signation, and he received the title of emeri- 
tus professor. He was also, until his death, 
joint secretary of the Political Economy 
Club. 

Waley was a prominent member of the 
Jewish community. In conjunction with 
Lionel Louis Cohen he organised the London 
synagogues into a corporate congrega- 
tional alliance, known as the ' United Syna- 
gogue.' On the formation of the Anglo- 
Jewish Association he was chosen the first 
president, a post which lack of time com- 
pelled him later to resign. He was also 
president of the Jews' orphan asylum and 
a member of the council of the Jews' col- 
lege, where he occasionally lectured. He 
promoted the Hebrew Literary Society, and 
assisted to organise the Jewish board of 



Waley 



35 



Waleys 



guardians. He took much, interest in the 
treatment of Jews abroad, and in 1872 wrote 
a brief preface to Mr. Israel Davis's ' Jews 
in Roumania,' in which he remonstrated 
against the persecutions his countrymen were 
undergoing. He died in London on 19 June 
1873, and was buried in West Ham ceme- 
tery. Waley married, on 28 July 1847, Ma- 
tilda, third daughter of Joseph Salomons, 
by his wife Rebecca, sister of Sir Moses 
Haim Montefiore [q. v.] He left several 
children. 

[Jewish Chronicle, 27 June and 4 July 1873 ; 
Law Times, 12 July 1873; Lincoln's Inn Re- 
cords, ii. 179.] E. I. C. 

WALEY, SIMON WALEY (1827- 
1875), amateur musician, born at Stock- 
well, London, 23 Aug. 1827, was younger 
son of Solomon Jacob Waley (d. 1864) by 
his wife Rachel. He became a prominent 
member of the London Stock Exchange and 
a leading figure in the Jewish community 
during the critical period of the emancipation 
of the Jews from civil disabilities. He took 
much interest in the subject of international 
traffic. At the age of sixteen he wrote his 
first letter on the subject to the 'Railway 
Times ' (28 Nov. 1843, p. 1290), and subse- 
quently to 22 Mayl847 (p. 716) in the same 
journal. He contributed many letters to the 
' Times ' under the signature ' W. London.' 
To the ' Daily News ' of 14 Oct. 1858, et seq., 
he Wrote a series of sprightly letters on ' A 
Tour in Auvergne,' afterwards largely incor- 
porated into Murray's handbook to France. 

Waley was a highly gifted musician as 
well as a shrewd man of business. He began 
to compose before he was eleven years old, 
many of his childish compositions showing 
great promise. His first published work, 
* L' Arpeggio,' a pianoforte study, appeared 
in 1848. He was a pupil of Moscheles, (Sir) 
William Sterndale Bennett [q.v.], and George 
Alexander Osborne [q. v.] for the pianoforte, 
and of William Horsley [q.v.] and Molique 
for theory and composition. In addition to 
being a brilliant pianist, Waley became a 
prolific composer. His published composi- 
tions include a pianoforte concerto, two 
pianoforte trios in B flat and G minor (op. 
15 and 20), many piano pieces and songs ; 
some orchestral pieces, &c., still in manu- 
script. One of his finest works is a setting 
of Psalms cxvii. and cxviii. for the syna- 
gogue service. 

Waley died at 22 Devonshire Place. Lon- 
don, on 30 Dec. 1875, and was buried at the 
Jewish cemetery, Ball's Pond. He married 
Anna, daughter of P. J. Salomons, by whom 
he had eight children. 



[Jewish Chronicle, 7 and 21 Jan. 1876; 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, iv. 376 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private information.] 

F. G. E. 

WALEYS or WALENSIS. [See also 
WALLENSIS.] 

WALEYS, WALEIS, WALLEIS, or 
GALEYS, SIR HENRY LE (d. 1302 ?), mayor 
of London, was alderman of the ward of 
Bread Street, and afterwards of ' Cordewaner- 
strete' (Cal. of Ancient Deeds, v.2,250; City 
Records, Letter-book A, f. 116). He was 
elected sheriff with Gregory de Rokesley [q. v.] 
on Michaelmas day 1270, and the sheriffs at 
once had a new pillory made in ' Chepe ' for 
the punishment of bakers who made their 
loaves of deficient weight, these culprits 
having lately gone unpunished since the de- 
struction of the pillory in the previous year 
through the negligence of the bailiffs (RiLEY, 
Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs, 1863, 
pp. 127, 131). He entered upon his first 
mayoralty on 28 Oct. 1273, and was shortly 
afterwards admitted by the barons of the 
exchequer (ib. p. 167). At the end of 
November Peter Cusin, one of the sheriffs, 
was dismissed from his office by the court of 
husting for receiving a bribe from a baker, 
upon which the mayor, sheriffs, and all the 
aldermen were summoned before the council 
and the barons of the exchequer. The citi- 
zens answered that they were not bound to 
plead without the walls of the city, and that 
they were entitled to remove the sheriffs 
when necessary; their pleas succeeded, judg- 
ment being given for them within the city, 
at St. Martin's-le-Grand. 

Waleys followed up his proceedings against 
the bakers by ordering the butchers and fish- 
mongers to remove their stalls from West 
Cheap in order that that important thorough- 
fare might present a better appearance to 
the king on his return from abroad. Great 
were the complaints of the tradesmen, who 
alleged before the inquest that they had rented 
their standings by annual payments to the 
sheriffs (HERBERT, Hist, of St. Michael, 
Crooked Lane, pp. 39, 40). Walter Hervey, 
the popular leader and the predecessor of 
Waleys as mayor, championed their cause at 
Guildhall, where ' a wordy strife ' arose be- 
tween him and the mayor, with the result 
that Hervey's conduct was reported to the 
king's council. He was thereupon imprisoned, 
tried, and ultimately degraded from his office 
of alderman (SHARPS, London and the King- 
dom, i. 109-10). Waleys next arrested 
several persons who had been banished the 
city by the late king four years before, but 
had returned. These he imprisoned in 

D2 



Waleys 3 

Newgate, but afterwards released on their 
promise to abjure the city until the arrival of 
King Edward in England (RiLEY, Chronicle, 
p. 168). 

On 1 May a letter to the mayor, sheriffs, 
and commons from Edward I, who was 
absent abroad, summoned them to send four 
of their more discreet citizens to meet the 
king at Paris to confer with him, probably 
as to his approaching coronation (ib. p. 172). 
Waleys was the chief of the four citizens 
selected. Towards the close of his mayoralty 
he broke up the vessels employed as public 
and official standards 'of corn measure, and 
new ones strongly bound with brass hoops 
were made and sealed (ib. p. 173). Waleys 
had very close connection with France, and 
probably possessed private property or had 
great commercial interests in that country. 
This is evident from the fact that he was 
elected mayor of Bordeaux in 1275, the year 
following his London mayoralty (ib. p. 167). 
Waleys was high in the royal favour, and 
this no doubt procured him his appointment 
as mayor of London for the second time in 
1281, his second mayoralty lasting three 
years. On this occasion he appears to have 
been knighted by the king (Cal. of Ancient 
Deeds, ii. 258). His predecessor, Gregory de 
Rokesley, had held office for six years, and 
also succeeded him for a few months, when 
the king took the entire government of the 
city into his hands, and appointed a warden 
to fulfil the duties of mayor. In 1281 the 
king granted for the support of London 
Bridge three vacant plots of ground within 
the city ; on two of these plots, at the east 
side of Old Change and in Paternoster Row, 
Waleys built several houses, the profits of 
which were assigned to London Bridge 
(Slow, Survey, pp. 637, 664). Waleys 
again proved himself a good administrator. 
He kept a sharp eye on the millers and 
bakers, being the first to give orders for 
weighing the grain when going to the mill, 
and afterwards the flour; he also had a 
hurdle provided for drawing dishonest bakers 
(RiLEY, Chron. p. 240). During this year 
he assessed for the king certain plots of land 
and let them to the barons and good men of 
Winchelsea for building ( Calendar of Patent 
Rolls, 1281-92, p. 3). 

In 1282 Waleys and the aldermen drew 
up an important code of provisions for the 
safe keeping of the city gates and the river. 
These ordinances embraced the watching of 
hostelries, the posting of sergeants ' fluent of 
speech ' at the gates to question suspicious 
passengers, and the simultaneous ringing of 
curfew in all the parish churches, after which 
all gates and taverns must be closed (RiLEY, 



Waleys 



Memorials of London, p. 21). In the same 
year he made provision for the butchers and 
fishmongers whom he had displaced in 1274 
from West Cheap by erecting houses and 
stalls for them on a site near Wool Church 
Haw, where the stocks formerly stood, now 
the site of the Mansion House. In the fol- 
lowing year he built the Tun prison on 
Cornhill, so called from its round shape, as 
a prison for night-walkers. The building 
also served the purpose of ' a fair conduit of 
sweet waters ' which Waleys caused to be 
brought for the benefit of the city from Ty- 
burn (Slow, Survey, 1633, p. 207). 

He also appears as one of the six repre- 
sentatives of the city sent this year to the 
parliament at Shrewsbury, these being the 
first known members of parliament for the 
city of London (SHAKPE, London and the 
Kingdom, i. 18). A significant proof of his 
vigorous administration as mayor is afforded 
by the king's mandate to the justices on 
eyre at the Tower, and to all bailiffs, not to 
molest Waleys ' for having during the king's 
absence in Wales, for the preservation of 
the peace and castigation of malefactors 
roaming about the city night and day, 
introduced certain new punishments and 
new methods of trial (judicia), and for 
having caused persons to be punished by 
imprisonment and otherwise for the quiet of 
the said city' (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1281-92, 
p. 80). In 1284, the last year of his 
mayoralty, Waleys obtained from the king 
a renewed grant of customs for extensive 
repairs to the city wall, and for its extension 
beside the Blackfriars monastery (ib. p. 111). 

His wide dealings as a merchant brought 
him and Rokesley into conflict with the barons 
of the Cinque ports as to claims through 
the jettison of freights during tempests (ib. 
p. 168). On 17 June 1285 he was one of 
three justices appointed for the trial con- 
cerning concealed goods of condemned Jews, 
involving a large amount (ib. p. 176). On 
18 Sept. Waleys received a grant of land 
adjoining St. Paul's Churchyard, whereon 
he built some houses, but these, proving to 
be to the detriment of the dean and chapter, 
were ordered to be taken down, an enlarged 
site being granted to him for their re-erection 
(ib. pp. 193, 226). 

Waleys was much employed in the royal 
service : in January 1288 he was detained 
beyond seas on the king's special affairs (ib. 
p. 291), and in June 1291 he was again abroad 
with a special protection from the king for 
one year. On 5 Oct. following he was en- 
gaged for the king in Gascony with John de 
Havering, seneschal of Gascony (ib. p. 446). 
In April 1294 he had to return to England, 



Waleys 



37 



Walford 



and nominated William de Saunford as his 
attorney in Ireland for one year (ib. 1292- 
1301, p. 66). On 11 Oct. he rented the 
manor of Lydel for three years from John 
Wake (ib. p. 96). In November 1294 he 
demised rentals of 3(M. a year in value from 
properties in St. Lawrence Lane, Cordwaner- 
strete, and Dowgate, to Edmund, the king's 
brother (ib. p. 106). On 16 Sept. 1296 he 
received letters of protection for one year 
while in Scotland on the king's service 
(ib. p. 201). On 12 Jan. 1297 he was 
appointed at the head of a commission to 
determine the site and state of Berwick-on- 
Tweed and assess property there (ib. pp. 
226-7). Waleys was commissioned to levy 
a thousand men in Worcester for the king's 
service on 23 Oct. 1297 (ib. p. 393). 

In 1298 the aldermen and other citizens 
were summoned before the king at West- 
minster, when he restored to them their 
privileges, including that of electing a 
mayor. They accordingly elected Henry 
Waleys as mayor for the third time. He 
was presented to the king at Fulham, but 
shortly afterwards set out for Lincoln on 
urgentprivatebusiness,afterappointing depu- 
ties to act in his absence (RiLEY, Liber Albus, 
p. 16). He was soon afterwards summoned by 
the king into Scotland, and had to appoint 
a deputy (ib. p. 528). The safe conduct of 
the city had been a matter of concern to 
the king during the previous year, and the 
warden and aldermen had received a special 
ordinance on 14 Sept. 1297. This was 
followed by a further writ from the king 
addressed to Waleys as mayor on 28 May 
1298 requiring him to preserve the peace of 
the city which had been much disturbed by 
the night brawls of bakers, brewsters, and 
millers (RiLEY, Memorials of London, pp. 
36-7). 

Waleys through his loyalty to the king 
incurred much enmity from his fellow- 
citizens. There appears to have been during 
his last mayoralty an open feud between 
him and his sheriffs, Richard de Refham 
and Thomas Sely. These officials appeared 
at a court of aldermen on Friday in Pente- 
cost week 1299, and agreed to pay the large 
sum of 100/. if during the rest of the term 
of their shrievalty they should be convicted 
of having committed trespass, either by 
word or deed, against Waleys while mayor 
of London (RiLEY,Memon'a&,p.41). About 
the same time (18 April) W 7 aleys received 
from the king, as a reward for his long ser- 
vice, a grant of houses with a quay and other 
appurtenances in Berwick-on-Tweed, for- 
feited to the king by Ralph, son of Philip, 
and partly burnt and devastated by the 



king's foot soldiers, he being required to re- 
pair the premises and lay out upon them at 
least a hundred marks (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1292- 
1301, p. 408). 

On 26 Dec. 1298 Waleys and Ralph de 
Sandwich [q. v.] were constituted a commis- 
sion of over and terminer relative to a plot 
to counterfeit the king's great and privy seal, 
and to poison the king and his son (ib.p. 459). 
In March 1300, h& being absent from Eng- 
land on his own affairs, Stephen de Graves- 
ende was substituted for him on another 
commission concerning the theft of money, 
plate, and jewels from the house of Hugh de 
Jernemuth in ' the town of Suthwerk ' (ib. 
p. 547). Waleys possessed much property 
in the city, including houses near Ivy Lane, 
Newgate Street (ib. p. 98), a house called 'Le 
Hales,' and St. Botolph's wharf (RiLEY, Liber 
Albus, p. 478) ; but his place of business was 
probably in the ward of Cordwainer, which 
he represented as alderman. 

Waleys appears to have died in 1302, in 
which year his executors procured a grant 
for an exchange of property with the priory 
of Holy Trinity, under the provisions of his 
will. This was stated to have been enrolled 
in the court of husting, but no record of it 
can be found in the official calendar (Cal. of 
Ancient Deeds, ii. 47). 

[Orridge's Citizens of London and their Rulers ; 
Thomson's Chronicles of London Bridge ; 
Sharpe's Calendar of Wills in the Court of Hust- 
ing ; authorities above cited.] C. W-H. 

WALFORD, CORNELIUS (1827- 
1885), writer on insurance, born in Curtain 
Road, London, on 2 April 1827, was the 
eldest of five sons of Cornelius Walford 
(d. 1883) of Park House Farm, near Cogges- 
hall, Essex, who married Mary Amelia 
Osborn of Pentonville. He is said to have 
been for a short time at Felsted school. 
At the age of fifteen he became clerk to 
Mr. Pattisson, solicitor at Witham, where 
he acquired much experience in the tenure 
and rating of land. He was appointed 
assistant secretary of the Witham building 
society, and, having in early life acquired a 
knowledge of shorthand, he acted as local 
correspondent of the ' Essex Standard.' 
About 1848 he settled at Witham as insur- 
ance inspector and agent. 

Walford was in 1857 elected an associate, 
and on a later date a fellow, of the Institute 
of Actuaries. About 1857 he joined the 
Statistical Society, and was for some time 
on its council. lie published in parts, and 
anonymously, in 1857 his ' Insurance Guide 
and Handbook,' which was pirated and had 
a large sale in America (2nd edit. 1867, with 
his name on the title-page). In 1858 he was 



Walford 



Walford 



admitted a student of the Middle Temple, 
and was called to the bar in Michaelmas 
term 1860. It was his intention to practise 
at the parliamentary bar, and he joined 
Messrs. Chadwick and Adamson; but the 
connection was soon dissolved, though he 
continued to give legal opinions on insurance 
questions. 

About this time Walford became con- 
nected with the Accidental Death Insurance 
Company. Of its successor, the Accident 
Insurance Company, he was a director from 
1866 until his death, and for a year or two 
he acted as manager. About 1862 he was 
a director of the East London Bank. In 
that year he was made manager of the 
Unity Fire and Life Office, but could not 
succeed in resuscitating it, and in 1863 the 
business was taken over by the Briton office, 
Walford being appointed its liquidator. In 
1861 he paid the first of many visits to the 
United States of America. He brought out 
in 1870 an ' Insurance Year Book.' In the 
latter year he was appointed manager of the 
New York Insurance Company for Europe. 
His great literary labour was his ' Insur- 
ance Cyclopaedia,' a compilation of immense 
labour, expected to occupy ten large octavo 
volumes. The first volume is dated in 1871 ; 
the fifth, and last complete, volume came 
out in 1878, and each of them contained 
about six hundred pages (see Times, 2 Jan. 
1878). One further part only was issued, 
concluding with an essay on ' Hereditary 
Diseases ; ' but large materials were left for 
the remaining volumes. 

In 1875 Walford became a fellow of the 
Historical Society ; in 1881 he was elected 
a vice-president, and he was its vice-chair- 
man during the quarrels that all but led to 
its disruption. From 1877 to 1881 he read 
papers before it the most important of his 
contributions being an ' Outline History of 
the Hanseatic League,' reprinted from vo- 
lume ix. in 1881 for private circulation. 
He continued his addresses to the Institute 
of Actuaries and the Statistical Society, 
two of his papers on ' The Famines of the 
World Past and Present,' which he read 
before the last society, being reprinted in 
1879. The article on ' Famines ' in the new 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
was also from his pen. He was a member 
of the executive council of international 
law, and read papers to the members at 
their meeting in London in 1879. 

Walford had projected in 1877 ' A New 
General Catalogue' of English Literature,' 
and in that and succeeding years dangled 
the project before the Library Association. 
But the enterprise collapsed with the reprint 



of his paper on ' Some Practical Points in its 
Preparation.' An undertaking more feasible 
in scope was his proposed ' Cyclopaedia of 
Periodical Literature of Great Britain and 
Ireland from the Earliest Period,' which he 
purposed compiling in conjunction with 
Dr. Westby-Gibson. In 1883 he issued an 
outline of the scheme. But no part of the 
collections was published. 

In 1879 Walford issued a 'History of 
Gilds, 7 reprinted from volume v. of the 
'Insurance Cyclopaedia,' and in 1881 his 
paper before the Statistical Society on 
'Deaths from Accident, Negligence, &c/ 
was published separately. He printed for 
private circulation in 1882 a treatise on 
' Kings' Briefs : their Purposes and History/ 
and began in the same year in the ' Anti- 
quarian Magazine ' an expansion of his 
treatise on ' Gilds.' These papers were not 
finished at the time of his death, but the 
complete volume, entitled ' Gilds : their 
Origin, Constitution, Objects, and Later 
History,' was published by his widow in 
1888. In 1883 he brought out a book on 
' Fairs Past and Present,' and in 1884 ' A 
Statistical Chronology of Plagues and 
Pestilences.' 

Walford, who manifested a lifelong inte- 
rest in shorthand, became, at the close of 
1881, president of the newly founded Short- 
hand Society. In the autumn of 1884 he 
revisited, for his health's sake, the United 
States and Canada, and attended three short- 
hand conventions. In December 1884 he 
gained the Samuel Brown prize by his paper 
at the Institute of Actuaries on the ' History 
of Life Insurance.' He lived in London 
in two adjoining houses in Belsize Park 
Gardens, where he had gathered around 
him a large library, and he died there on 
28 Sept. 1885, leaving a widow (his third 
wife) and nine children, three sons and six. 
daughters, by his first and second wives. 
He was buried at Woking cemetery on 
3 Oct. A catalogue raisonne of a portion 
of his library was printed in May 1886 for 
circulation among his friends (Notes and 
Queries, 5 June 1886, p. 460). His collec- 
tions on insurance were purchased by the 
New York Equitable Life Insurance Com- 
pany. The rest of his library and the 
manuscripts for the completion of his ' Insur- 
ance Cyclopaedia ' perished in a fire from 
lightning at his widow's house near Seven- 
oaks (Standard, 4 Sept. 1889). 

[Memoir by Dr. Westby-Gibson in Shorthand, 
November 1885 ; In Memoriam, by his kinsman, 
Edward Walford [q. v.], in No. 15 of Opuscula 
of Sette of odd Volumes ; Western Antiquity, 
v. 162; Literary World, Boston, xv. 197-8; 



Walford 



39 



Walford 



Book-Lore, ii. 177; Notes and Queries, 3 Oct. 
1885, p. 280; Biograph, 1880, iii. 161-164; 
information from his brothers, Messrs. Wal- 
ford, of 320 Strand, W.C.] W. P. C. 

WALFORD, EDWARD (1823-1897), 
compiler, born on 3 Feb. 1823, at Hatfield 
Place, near Chelinsford, was the eldest son of 
William Walford (d. 1855) of Hatfield 
Peverell, rector of St. Runwald's, Colchester, 
by his wife Mary Anne, daughter of Henry 
I lutton, rector of Beaumont, Essex, and 
chaplain of Guy's Hospital, and grand- j 
daughter of Sir William Pepperell [q. v.], 
1 the hero of Louisburg.' 

Edward was educated first at Hackney 
church of England school, under Edward 
Churton [q. v.] (afterwards archdeacon of 
Cleveland), and afterwards at Charterhouse 
under Augustus Page Saunders (afterwards 
dean of Peterborough). He matriculated 
from Balliol College, Oxford, on 28 Nov. 
1840, and was elected to an open scholarship 
in 1841. In 1843 he gained the chancellor's 
prize for Latin verse, and in 1844 he was 
' proxime ' for the Ireland scholarship, John 
Conington [q. v.] being the successful can- 
didate. Walford graduated B.A. in 1845 and 
M.A. in 1847. He was ordained deacon 
in 1846 and priest in the year following. 
In 1847 and 1848 he gained the Denyer 
theological prizes. In 1846 he became 
assistant-master at Tonbridge school, and 
from 1847 to 1850 he employed himself in 
Clifton and London in preparing private 
pupils for Oxford. Before 1853 he joined the 
Roman catholic communion as a lay member, 
returned to the English church in 1860, and 
was again admitted to the church of Rome 
in 1871. He returned to the church of 
England about a year before his death. In 
June 1858 Walford became editor of the 
' Court Circular,' withdrawing in June 1859 
after losing 500/. in the venture. From 
1859 to 1865 he was connected with ' Once a 
Week,' first as sub-editor and afterwards as 
editor. He was editor of the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' from January 1866 till May 1868, 
when it passed under the management of 
Joseph Hatton with an entire change of 
character. From June to December 1869 
he edited the ' Register and Magazine of Bio- 
graphy,' a work which had been started at the 
commencement of the year with the view 
of supplying the place of the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine' as a biographical record. It was 
discontinued at the close of the year. 

During his editorial labours Walford was 
also engaged in the publication of a series 
of biographical and genealogical works of 
reference. In 1855 appeared ' Hardwicke's 
Shilling Baronetage and Knightage,' 'Hard- 



wicke's Shilling House of Commons,' and 
' Hardwicke's Shilling Peerage,' works which 
have since been issued annually. These were 
followed by other works of a similar character. 
The most notable were the ' County Families 
of Great Britain,' issued in 1860, and the 
'Windsor Peerage,' issued in 1890. He 
edited ' Men of the Time ' in 1862. 

Walford was an antiquary of some repu- 
tation. In 1880 he edited the ' Antiquary,' 
and in the following year, after relinquishing 
his appointment, he started a new periodical, 
entitled ' The Antiquarian Magazine and 
Bibliographer,' which he continued to edit 
till the close of 1886. From 1880 to 1881 
he was a member of the Archaeological As- 
sociation. He was also a member of the 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland. He was on the council 
of the Society for Preserving the Memorials 
of the Dead, was one of the founders of the 
' Salon,' and a frequent contributor to ' Notes 
and Queries.' He died at Ventnor in the Isle 
of Wight on 20 Nov. 1897. He married, 
first, on 3 Aug. 1847, Mary Holmes, daugh- 
ter of John Gray, at Clifton. By her he had 
one daughter, Mary Louisa, married to Colin 
Campbell Wyllie. He married, secondly, on 
3 Feb. 1852, Julia Mary Christina, daughter 
of Admiral Sir John Talbot [q. v.] By her 
he left three sons and two daughters. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Walford's chief publications were: 1. 'A 
Handbook of the Greek Drama,' London, 
1856, 8vo. 2. ' Records of the Great and 
Noble,' London, 1857, 16mo. 3. 'Life of 
the Prince Consort,' London, 1861, 12mo. 
4. With George Walter Thornbury [q. v.], 
' Old and New London,' London, 18728, 
6 vols. 8vo ; Walford's share being the last 
four volumes. 5. ' Louis Napoleon : a Bio- 
graphy,' London, 1873, 12mo. 6. ' Tales 
of our Great Families,' London, 1877, 2 vols. 
8vo; new edit. 1890. 7. 'Pleasant Days in 
Pleasant Places,' London, 1878, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1885. 8. ' Londouiana,' London, 1879, 
j 2 vols. 8vo. 9. ' Life of Beaconsfield,' Lon- 
! don, 1881, 12mo. 10. ' Greater London : a 
i Narrative of its History, its People, and its 
Places,' London, 1883-4, 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 
j ' The Pilgrim at Home,' London, 1886, 
| 12mo. 12. ' Chapters from Family Chests,' 
London, 1886, 8vo. 13. 'Edge Hill: the 
Battle and Battlefield,' Banbury, 1886, 8vo. 
14. 'The Jubilee Memoir of Queen Vic- 
toria,' London, 1887, 8vo. 15. ' William 
Pitt : a Biography,' London, 1890, 8vo. 
16. 'Patient Griselda, and other Poems,' 
London, 1894, 8vo. 

He also edited : 1. ' Butler's Analogy and 
Sermons ' (Bohn's Standard Libr.) 2. ' Poll- 



Walford 



Walkelin 



tics and Economics of Aristotle,' a new 
translation (Bonn's Classical Libr.) 3. ' Eccle- 
siastical History of Socrates,' revised trans- 
lation (Bonn's Eccles. Libr.) 4. ' Eccle- 
siastical History of Sozomen and the 
Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius,' re- 
vised translation (Bonn's Eccles. Libr.) 
5. ' Ecclesiastical History of Theodoret and 
Evagrius,' revised translation (Bonn's Eccles. 
Libr.) 6. ' Poetical Works of Robert Her- 
rick, with a Memoir,' London, 1859, 8vo. 
7. ' Juvenal ' ('Ancient Classics for English 
Readers '), London, 1870, 8vo. 7. ' Speeches 
of Lord Erskine, with Life,' London, 1870, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

[Biograph, 1879, i. 436; Camden Pratt's 
People of the Period ; Times, 22 and 23 Nov. 
1897; Daily Chronicle, 23 Nor. 1897; Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. xii. 440.] E. I. C. 

WALFORD, THOMAS (1752-1833), 
antiquary, born on 14 Sept. 1752, was the 
only son of Thomas Walford (d. 1756) of 
Whitley, near Birdbrook in Essex, by his 
wife, Elizabeth Spurgeon (d. 1789) of Lin- 
ton in Cambridgeshire. He was an officer 
in the Essex militia in 1777, and was ap- 
pointed deputy lieutenant of the county in 
1778. In March 1797 he was nominated 
captain in the provisional cavalry, and in 
May following was gazetted major. In Fe- 
bruary 1788 he was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, in October 1797 a 
fellow of the Linnean Society, in 1814 a 
member of the Geological Society, and in 
1825 a fellow. In 1818 he published The 
Scientific Tourist through England, Wales, 
and Scotland' (London, 2 vols. 12mo). In 
this work he noticed ' the principal objects 
of antiquity, art, science, and the picturesque ' 
in Great Britain, under the heads of the 
several counties. In an introductory essay 
he dealt with the study of antiquities and 
the elements of statistics, geology, mine- 
ralogy, and botany. The work is too com- 
prehensive to be exhaustive, and its value 
varies with Walford's personal knowledge 
of the places he describes. 

Walford died at Whitley on 6 Aug. 1833. 
He published several papers on antiquarian 
subjects in antiquarian periodicals (e.g. Ar- 
chaoloffia, xiv. 24, xvi. 145-50; Vetusta 
Monumenta, iii. pt. 39 ; Linnean Soc. Trans. 
lix. 156), and left several manuscripts, in- 
cluding a history of Birdbrook in Essex and 
another of Clare in Sussex. 

[Wright's Hist, of Essex, i. 611 ; Gent. Mag. 
1833, ii. 469.] E. I. C 

WALHOUSE, afterwards LITTLETON, 
EDWARD JOHN, first BAEON HATHEE- 
TON (1791-1863). [See LITTLETON.] 



WALKDEN, PETER (1684-1 769), pres- 
byterian minister and diarist, born at Flixton, 
near Manchester, on 16 Oct. 1684, was edu- 
cated at a village school, then at the academy 
of James Coningham, minister of the pres- 
byterian chapel at Manchester, and finally 
at some Scottish university, where he gra- 
duated M.A. He entered his first mini- 
sterial charge on 1 May 1709 at Garsdale, 
Yorkshire, which he quitted at the end of 
1711 to become minister of two small con- 
gregations at Newton-in-Bowland and Hes- 
keth Lane, near Chipping, in a poor and 
sparsely inhabited agricultural part of Lan- 
cashire. There he remained until 1738, 
when he removed to Holcombe, near Bury 
in the same county. In 1744 he was ap- 
pointed to the pastorate of the tabernacle, 
Stockport, Cheshire, and remained there 
until his death on 5 Nov. 1769. He was 
buried in his own chapel, and his son 
Henry wrote a Latin epitaph for his grave- 
stone. 

His diary for the years 1725, 1729, and 
1730, the only portion which has survived, 
was published in 1866 by William Dobson 
of Preston. It presents a vivid and curious 
picture of the hard life of a poor country 
minister of the period, and has suggested to 
Mr. Hall Caine some features of his charac- 
ter of Parson Christian in the ' Son of Hagar.' 
Passages from his correspondence and com- 
monplace books have also been printed by 
Mr. James Bromley in the ' Transactions ' 
of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire (vols. xxxii. xxxvi. xxxvii.) 

He was twice married : first, to Margaret 
Wood worth, who died in December 1715 ; 
his second wife's name is not known. He 
had eight children, of whom one, Henry, 
was a minister at Clitheroe, and died there 
on 2 April 1795. 

[Works cited above ; E. Kirk in Manchester 
Literary Club Papers, v. 56 ; Heginbotham's 
Stockport, ii. 300 ; Smith's History of Chip- 
ping. 1894; Nightingale's Lancashire Noncon- 
formity.] C. W. S. 

WALKELIN or WALCHELIN (d. 

1098), bishop of Winchester, was a Norman 
by birth, and is said to have been a kinsman 
of the Conqueror (Rudborne, in WHAETON'S 
Anglia Sacra, i. 255, who also says that he 
was a famous doctor of theology of Paris). 
He was probably one of the clergy of the 
cathedral church of Rouen, for Maurilius (d. 
1067) knew him well and spoke highly of 
him, and he was one of William's clerks. On 
the deposition of Archbishop Stigand [q. v.] 
in 1070 he was appointed by the king to the 
see of Winchester, which Stigand held in 



Walkelin 



Walkelin 



plurality, and was consecrated on 30 May 
by the legate Ermenfrid. The monks of St. 
Swithun's were at first displeased at having 
a foreign bishop set over them, and, as a secu- 
lar, Walkelin at the outset of his episcopate 
was by no means satisfied with his monastic 
chapter. He originated and headed a move- 
ment, that was joined by all the rest of the 
bishops belonging to the secular clergy, to 
displace the monks in the cathedral churches 
which had monastic chapters and put canons 
in their places, and he and his party hoped 
to carry out this change even in Christ 
Church, Canterbury; for they held that, as it 
Lad metropolitan jurisdiction, it was un- 
worthy of its dignity that it should be in the 
hands of monks, and that in all cathedral 
churches canons would generally be more 
useful than monks. He brought the king to 
agree to this change, and it only remained 
to gain the consent of Lan franc [q. v.], which, 
as he had obtained the king's approval, 
would, he thought, be an easy matter. 
Lanfranc, however, was strongly opposed 
to the contemplated change, and laid the 
matter before Alexander II (d. 1073), who 
wrote a decided condemnation of it as regards 
Canterbury, and also forbade it at Win- 
chester (EADMEK, Historia Novorum, col. 
357 ; LANFKANC, Ep. 6 ; Gesta Pontijftcum, 
c. 44). W T alkelin was present at the coun- 
cils held by Lanfranc in 1072 and 1075. 
In J079 he began to build an entirely 
new cathedral church on a vast scale ; the 
transepts of the present church are his 
work almost untouched. According to a 
local story, probably true at least in the 
main, he asked the king to give him for his 
building as much timber from Hempage 
wood, about three miles from Winchester, 
as the carpenters could cut down in three 
days and three nights. The king agreed, 
and he collected together such a large num- 
ber of carpenters that they cut down the 
whole wood within the prescribed time. 
Soon afterwards the king passed through 
Hempage, and, finding his wood gone, cried 
' Am I bewitched or gone crazy ? Surely 
I had a delightful wood here ? ' On being 
told of the bishop's trick, he fell into a rage. 
Walkelin, hearing of this, put on an old cape 
and went at once to the king's court at 
Winchester, and, falling at his feet, offered 
to resign his bishopric, asking only to be 
reappointed one of the king's clerks and 
restored to his favour. William was appeased, 
and replied, ' Indeed, W 7 alkelin, I am too 
prodigal a giver, and you too greedy a re- 
ceiver ' (Annalrs de Wintonia, an. 1086). 

Walkelin was employed by Rufus in 
November or December 1088 to carry a 



summons to W r illiam of St. Calais [see 
CARILEF], bishop of Durham, who was then 
at Southampton waiting for permission to 
leave the kingdom (Monatsticon, i. 249), and 
in 1089 the king sent him with Gundulf 
[q. v.], bishop of Rochester, to punish the 
refractory monks of St. Augustine's. His 
new church was ready for divine service 
in 1093, and on 8 April, in the presence 
of most of the bishops and abbots of the 
kingdom, the monks took possession of it. 
On the following St. Swithun's day the 
relics of the saint were moved into it, and 
the next day the demolition of the old minster, 
built by St. Ethelwold or ^Ethelwold, was 
begun. W T alkelin was present at the conse- 
cration of Battle Abbey on 11 Feb. 1094, in 
which year the king granted him St. Giles's 
fair and all the rents belonging to the king 
in Winchester. He attended the assembly 
held by the king at Windsor at Christmas 
1095, and while there visited William, bishop 
of Durham, on his deathbed. At the coun- 
cil held at Winchester on 15 Oct. 1097 he 
was on the king's side in the dispute with 
Archbishop Anselm [q. v.], whom he tried to 
dissuade from persisting in his demand for 
leave to go to Rome. When Rufus left 
England in November, he appointed Walke- 
lin and Ranulf Flambard [q. v.] joint 
regents. It is said that on Christmas day 
Walkelin received during the service of the 
mass an order from the king to send him 
200/. immediately, and that, knowing that he 
could not raise that sum without oppressing 
the poor and robbing the church, he prayed 
to be delivered from this troublesome world. 
Ten days later he died, 3 Jan. 1098 ; he 
was buried in his church, before the steps 
under the rood-loft. He was learned, wise, 
and pious, and so abstinent that he would 
eat neither fish nor flesh. The Winchester 
monks soon learnt to regard him with 
affection ; he added to the number of the 
convent and, besides raising a new and 
magnificent church, to the conventual build- 
ings; the western portal of his chapter-house 
still remains. The A\ T inchester annalist only 
records against him that he appropriated to 
the bishopric three hundred librates of land 
belonging to the convent, and says that he 
repented of so doing. 

Walkelin's brother Simeon, a monk of 
St. Ouen's, whom he appointed prior of 
St. Swithun's, ruled the monastery well ; he 
was appointed abbot of Ely in 1082, and 
died in 1093, it is said in his hundredth 
year (Annales de Wintonia, an. 1082 ; Liber 
Eliensis, ii. c. 137). Gerard or Girard 
(d. 1108) [q. v.], bishop of Hereford, and 
archbishop of York, was Walkelin's nephew. 



Walker 



[Ann. de Winton, ap. Ann. Monast. vol. ii., 
Will, of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontiff, (both Eolls 
Ser.) ; Eadmer, Hist. Nov. ed.Migne ; A.-S. Chron. 
App. ed. Phimmer ; Lanfranc's Epp. ed. Giles ; 
Freeman's Norman Conquest, and Will. Eufus ; 
Willis's Architect. Hist, of Winchester ( Archseol. 
Inst 1846); Kitchin's Winchester (Hist. Towns 
ser.)] W. H. 

WALKER, ADAM (1731 P-1821), author 
and inventor, born at Patterdale in West- 
moreland in 1730 or 1731, was the son of a 
woollen manufacturer. He was taken from 
school almost before he could read, but sup- 
plied lack of instruction by unremitting study. 
He borrowed books, built for himself a hut 
in a secluded spot, and occupied his leisure 
in constructing models of neighbouring corn 
mills, paper mills, and fulling mills. His 
reputation as a student at the age of fifteen 
procured him the post of usher at Ledsham 
school in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
Three years later he was appointed writing- 
master and accountant at the free school at 
Macclesfield, where he studied mathematics. 
He also made some ventures in trade which 
were unsuccessful, and lectured on astronomy 
at Manchester. The success of his lectures 
encouraged him, after four years at Maccles- 
field, to set up a seminary at Manchester on 
his own account. This, however, he gave 
up a little later for the purpose of travelling 
as a lecturer in natural philosophy, and, after 
visiting most of the great towns in Great 
Britain and Ireland, he met Joseph Priestley 
[q. v.], who induced him to lecture in the 
Haymarket in 1778. Meeting with success, 
he took a house in George Street, Hanover 
Square, and read lectures every winter to 
numerous audiences. He was engaged as 



well as heat a house without expense by 
means of a kitchen fire. His method, though 
economically fallacious, was not without in- 
genuity. 

Walker also constructed an ' eidouranion,' 
or transparent orrery, which he used to illus- 
trate his astronomical lectures. These were 
published in pamphlet form, under the title 
' An Epitome of Astronomy,' and reached a 
twenty-sixth edition in 1817. Walker died 
at Richmond in Surrey on 11 Feb. 1821. A 
medallion portrait by James Tassie is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

His chief works were: 1. 'Analysis of 
Course of Lectures on Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophv,' 2nd edit. [Manchester, 
1771 ?], 8vo ; 12th edit. London, 1802, 8vo. 
2. ' A Philosophical Estimate of the Causes, 
Effect, and Cure of Unwholesome Air in 
large Cities ' [London], 1777, 8vo. 3. ' Ideas 
suggested on the spot in a late Excursion 
through Flanders, Germany, France, and 
Italy,' London, 1790, 8vo. 4. ' Remarks 
made in a Tour from London to the Lakes 
of Westmoreland and Cumberland,' London, 
1792, 8vo. 5. ' A System of Familiar Phi- 
losophy,' London, 1799, 8vo ; new edit. Lon- 
don, 1802, 2 vols. 4to. He was the author of 
several articles in the ' Philosophical Maga- 
zine' and in Young's 'Annals of Agriculture.' 

Walker had three sons William ; Adam 
John, rector of Bedston in Shropshire ; and 
Deane Franklin and one daughter, Eliza 
(d. 1856), who was married to Benjamin 
Gibson of Gosport, Hampshire. 

His eldest son, WILLIAM WALKER (1767 ?- 
1816), born in 1766 or 1767, assisted his 
father in his astronomical lectures, and died 
before him, on 14 March 1816, at the manor- 



lecturer by the provost of Eton College, I house, Hayes, Middlesex, leaving a widow 



Edward Barnard, whose example was fol- 
lowed by the heads of Westminster, Win- 
chester, and other public schools. 

Walker amused his leisure by perfecting 
various mechanical inventions. Amongothers 
he devised engines for raising water, car- 
riages to go by wind and steam, a road mill, 
a machine for watering land, and a dibbling 
plough. He also planned the rotatory lights 
on the Scilly Isles, erected on St. Agnes' 
Island in 1790 under his personal superin- 
tendence. On 29 July 1772 he took out a 
patent (No. 1020) for an improved harpsi- 
chord, called the ' Coelestina,' which was 
capable of producing continuous tones. On 
21 Feb. 1786, by another patent (No. 1533), 
he introduced a method of thermo-ventila- 
tion, on lines formerly proposed by Samuel 
Sutton, on 16 March 1744 (patent No. 602), 
with whose ideas, however, Walker was un- 



and children (Gent. Mag. 1816, i. 374). 

His youngest son, DEANE FRANKLIN 
WALKER (1778-1865), born at York on 
24 March 1778, after the death of his brother 
William continued his father's lectures at 
Eton, Harrow, and Rugby, as well as his 
popular discourses in London. He died in 
Upper Tooting, Surrey, on 10 May 1865. 
By his wife, the daughter of Thomas Nor- 
mansell, he left three daughters (ib. 1865, 
ii. 113). 

[Gent. Mag. 1821, i. 182; Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit. ; Woodley's View of the Scilly Isles, 
1822, p. 319 ; Bernan's Hist, and Art of Warm- 
ing and Ventilating, 1845, ii. 14-16.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, ALEXANDER (1764- 
1831), brigadier-general, born on 12 May 
1764, was the eldest son of William Walker 
(1737-1771), minister of Collessie in Fife, 



acquainted. He proposed to ventilate as I by his wife Margaret (d. 1810), daughter of 



Walker 

Patrick Manderston,an Edinburgh merchant. 
He was appointed a cadet in the service of the 
East India Company in 1780. He went to 
India in the same ship as the physician 
Helenas Scott [q. v.], with whom he formed 
a lifelong friendship. On 21 Nov. 1782 he 
became an ensign, and in the same year took 
part in the campaign under Brigadier-general 
Richard Mathews directed against Hyder 
Ali's forts on the coast of Malabar. He was 
present with the 8th battalion at Mangalore 
during the siege by Tippoo, and offered him- 
self as a hostage on the surrender of the 
fortress on 30 Jan. 1784. In recompense for 
the danger he incurred he received the pay and 
allowance of captain from the Bombay go- 
vernment while in the enemy's hands. Some 
time afterwards he was appointed to the mili- 
tary command in an expedition undertaken by 
the Bombay government with a view to 
establishing a military and commercial port 
on the north-west coast of America, whence 
the Chinese were accustomed to obtain furs. 
After exploring as far north as 62, however, 
and remaining awhile at Nootka Sound, the 
enterprise was abandoned, and Walker re- 
joined the grenadier battalion in garrison at 
Bombay. On 9 Jan. 1788 he received a 
lieutenancy, and in 1790 served under Colo- 
nel James Hartley [q. v.] as adjutant of the 
line in the expedition sent to the relief of 
the rajah of Travancore. In 1791 he served 
under General Sir Robert Abercromby [q. v.] 
as adjutant of the 10th native infantry during 
the campaign against Tippoo. After the 
conclusion of the war a special commission 
was nominated to regulate the aft'airs of the 
province of Malabar, and Walker was ap- 
pointed an assistant. In this capacity he 
showed ability, became known to the Indian 
authorities, and received the thanks of the 
Marquis Wellesley. When the commander- 
in-chief of the Bombay army, General James 
Stuart [see under STCAKT, JAMES, d. 1793J, 
proceeded to Malabar, Walker became his 
military secretary with the brevet rank of 
captain. On 6 Sept. 1797 he attained the regi- 
mental rank of captain, and in the same year 
was appointed quartermaster-general of the 
Bombay army, which gave him the official 
rank of major. In 1798 he became deputy 
auditor-general. He took part in the last 
war against Tippoo, and was present at the 
battle of Seedaseer in 1799 and at the siege 
of Seringapatam. At the request of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, he was selected, on ac- 
count of his knowledge of the country, to at- 
tend the commanding officer in Mysore and 
Malabar. 

In 1800 Walker was despatched to Guze- 
rat by the Bombay government with a view 



43 



Walker 



to tranquillising the Mahratta states in that 
neighbourhood. His reforms were hotly 
opposed at Baroda by the native officials, 
who were interested in corruption. The dis- 
content culminated in 1801 in the insurrec- 
tion of Mulhar liao, the chief of Kurree. 
Walker took the field, but, being with- 
out sufficient force, could do little until rein- 
forced by Colonel Sir William Clarke, who 
on 30 April 1802 defeated Mulhar Rao 
under the walls of Kurree. In June Walker 
was appointed political resident at Baroda at 
the court of the guikwar, and in this capa- 
city succeeded in establishing an orderly ad- 
ministration. On IB Dec. 1803 he attained 
the regimental rank of major, and in 1805 

Sained the approbation of the East India 
ompany by negotiating a defensive alliance 
with the guikwar. In 1807 he restored 
order in the district of Kattywar, and with 
the support of Jonathan Duncan (1756- 
1811) [q. v.], governor of Bombay, suppressed 
the habit of infanticide which prevailed 
among the inhabitants. On 3 Sept. 1808 he 
attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
in 1809, after he had embarked for England, 
he was recalled to Guzerat to repel an in- 
vasion by Futtee Singh, the ruler of Cutch. 
Order was restored by his exertions, and in 
1810 he proceeded to England. In 1812 he 
retired from the service. In 1822 he was 
called from his retirement, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, to the government of St. 
Helena, then under the East India Company. 
He proved an active administrator. He im- 
proved the agriculture and horticulture of 
the island by establishing farming and gar- 
dening societies, founded schools and libra- 
ries, and introduced the culture of silk- 
worms. He died at Edinburgh on 5 March 
1831, soon after retiring from his govern- 
ment. On 12 July 1811 he married Barbara 
(d. 1831), daughter of Sir James Mont- 
gomery, bart., of Stanhope, Peeblesshire. By 
her he had two sons : Sir William Stuart 
Walker, K.C.B., who succeeded to the 
estate of Bowland in Edinburgh and Sel- 
kirk, which his father had purchased in 
1809 ; and James Scott Walker, captain in 
the 88th regiment. AVhile in India Alex- 
ander Walker formed a valuable collection 
of Arabic, Persian, and Sanscrit manuscripts, 
which was presented by his son Sir William 
in 1845 to the Bodleian Library, where it 
forms a distinct collection (MACRAT, Annals 
of the Bodleian Libr. pp. 347-8). 

[Annual Biogr. and Obituary, 1832, pp. 24- 
50 ; Gent. Mag. ] 831, i. 466 ; Grant Duff's His- 
tory of the Mahrattas, 1873, pp. 562, 563, 626; 
Dodwell and Miles's Indian Army List ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry.] E. I. C. 



Walker 



44 



Walker 



WALKER, SIR ANDREW BARCLAY 

(1824-1893), benefactor of Liverpool, second 
son of Peter Walker (d. 1879) and his wife 
Mary, eldest daughter of Arthur Carlaw of 
Ayr, was born at Ayr on 15 Dec. 1824. He 
was educated at Ayr Academy and at the 
Liverpool Institute. His father was a brewer 
at Liverpool and afterwards at Warrington, 
and in due time was joined in the business 
by his son, who acquired great wealth. An- 
drew entered the Liverpool town council in 
1867, served the office of mayor in 1873-4, 
in 1875-6, and in 1876-7, 'and was high 
sheriff of Lancashire in 1886. He built the 
Walker art gallery at a cost of upwards of 
40,000/., and presented it to the town. It 
was opened in 1877. He also provided, at 
the cost of 20,000/., the engineering labora- 
tories in connection with the Liverpool Uni- 
versity College, and spent other large sums 
in charity and in fostering art and literature. 
To the village of Gateacre, near Liverpool, 
he gave a village green and an institute, 
library, and reading-room. In recognition of 
his public services he was knighted on 
12 Dec. 1877, and created baronet on 12 Feb. 
1886. Liverpool made him her first honorary 
freeman in January 1890, and in December 
the same year he was presented with his ; 
portrait, painted by Mr. ~W. Q. Orchardson. ! 
He died at his residence, Gateacre Grange, j 
on 27 Feb. 1893. He was twice married : | 
first, in 1853, to Eliza, daughter of John Reid; 
and, secondly, to Maude, daughter of Charles [ 
Houghton Okeover of Okeover, Staffordshire. | 
She survived him. By his first wife he had 
six sons and two daughters, and was suc- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, 
Peter Carlaw. 

[Manchester Guardian, 28 Feb. 1893; Illus- 
trated London News, 4 March 1893, with por- 
trait (an earlier portrait is given in the same 
journal, 20 Dec. 1873); Biograph, iv. 461; 
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage.] C. W. S. 

WALKER, ANTHONY (1726-1765), 
draughtsman and engraver, was born at 
Thirsk in Yorkshire in 1726, the son of a 
tailor. Coming to London, he studied draw- 
ing at the St. Martin's Lane academy, and 

was instructed in engraving by John Tinney 

r i TT i 11 

[q. v.j le was a clever artist, and became 

well known by his small book-illustrations, 
which were neatly executed from his own 
designs. He also engraved for Boydell some 
large single plates, of which the best are ' The 
Angel departing from Tobit and his Family,' 
after Rembrandt ; ' The Country Attorney 
and his Clients,' from a picture attributed to 
Holbein; 'Dentatus refusing the Presents 
of the Samnites,' after P. da Cortona ; and 



'Law' and ' Medicine,' a pair, after A. van 
Ostade. These were exhibited with the In- 
corporated Society of Artists in 1763-5. 
Walker engraved the figures in Woollett's 
celebrated plate of 'Niobe.' He died at 
Kensington on 9 May 1765, and was buried 
in the parish churchyard. 

WILLIAM WALKER (1729-1793), brother 
of Anthony, was born at Thirsk in November 
1729, and apprenticed to a dyer. Subse- 
quently he followed his brother to London, 
and was taught engraving by him. He ex- 
celled in his book-illustrations, which are very 
numerous, and was employed upon Sandby's 
' Views in England and Wales,' Throsby's 
' Views in Leicestershire,' and Harrison's 
' Classics.' For Boydell he executed a few 
large plates which were less successful. 
These include ' Sir Balthasar Gerbier and his 
Family,' after Van Dyck, 1766 ; ' Diana and 
Calisto,' after Le Moine, 1767 ; ' The Power 
of Beauty,' after P. Lauri, 1767 ; and ' Lions 
at Play,' after Rubens, 1769. Walker de- 
vised the practice of re-biting, of which 
Woollett made great use. He died in Roso- 
man Street, Clerkenwell, on 18 Feb. 1793. 

JOHN WALKER (Jl. 1800), son of William, 
became a landscape-engraver, and assisted 
his father on many of his plates. He is 
known as the projector and editor of the 
' Copper Plate Magazine, or Monthly Cabinet 
of Picturesque Prints, consisting of Views 
in Great Britain and Ireland,' 1792-1802, 
most of the plates in which were executed 
by himself. A selection from the earlier 
volumes of this work was issued in a different 
form by Walker in 1799, with the title ' The 
Itinerant.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Dodd's manu- 
script Hist, of English Engravers in British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 33407) ; Gent. Mag. 1793, 
i. 279.] F. M. O'D. 

WALKER, SIR BALDWIN WAKE 

(1802-1876), admiral, son of John Walker 
of Whitehaven (d. 1822), by Frances, daugh- 
ter of Captain Drury Wake of the 17th 
dragoons, and niece of Sir William Wake, 
eighth baronet, was born on 6 Jan. 1802. 
He entered the navy in July 1812, was made 
a lieutenant on 6 April 1820, and served for 
two years on the Jamaica station, then for 
three years on the coast of South America 
and the west coast of Africa. In 1827 he 
went out to the Mediterranean in the Rattle- 
snake, and in 1828 was first lieutenant of 
the Etna bomb at the reduction of Kastro 
Morea [see LUSHINGTON, SIR STEPHEN]. For 
this service he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honour and of the Redeemer of 
Greece. He continued in the Mediterranean, 



Walker 



45 



Walker 



serving in the Asia, Britannia, and Barbara, 
and was made commander on 15 July 1834. 
In that rank he served in the Vanguard, in 
the Mediterranean, from September 1836 till 
his promotion to post rank on 24 Nov. 1838. 
By permission of the admiralty he then ac- 
cepted a command in the Turkish navy, in 
which he was known at first as Walker Bey, 
and afterwards as Yavir Pasha. In July 
1840 the Capitan Pasha took the fleet to 
Alexandria and delivered it over to Mehemet 
Ali, who then refused to let it go. Walker 
summoned the Turkish captains to a council 
of war, and proposed to them to land in the 
night, surround the palace, carry oft' Mehemet 
Ali, and send him to Constantinople. This 
would probably have been done had not 
Mehemet Ali meantime consented to let the 
ships go (Memoirs of Henry Reeve, i. 285- 
286). Walker afterwards commanded the 
Turkish squadron at the reduction of Acre 
[see STOPFOKD, SIB ROBERT], for which ser- 
vice he was nominated a K.C.B. on 12 Jan. 
1841 ; he also received from the allied sove- 
reigns the second class of the Iron Crown of 
Austria, of St. Anne of Russia, and of the 
Red Eagle of Prussia. 

Returning to England in 1845, he com- 
manded the Queen as flag-captain to Sir 
John West at Devonport, and in 1846-7 the 
Constance frigate in the Pacific. From 1848 
to 1860 he was surveyor of the navy; he 
was created a baronet on 19 July 1856 ; he 
became a rear-admiral in January 1858, and 
in February 1861 was appointed commander- 
in-chief at the Cape of Good Hope, whence 
he returned in 1864. He became vice-ad- 
miral on 10 Feb. 1865, and admiral on 27 Feb. 
1870. He died on 12 Feb. 1876. He married, 
on 9 Sept. 1834, Mary Catherine (d. 1889), 
only daughter of Captain John Worth, R.N., 
and had issue. His eldest son, Sir Baldwin 
Wake Walker, the present baronet, is a cap- 
tain in the navy, and at the present time 
(1899) assistant director of torpedoes ; his 
second son, Charles, was lost in the Captain 
on 7 Sept. 1870. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 15 Feb. 
1876 ; Navy Lists ; Burke's Peerage, 1895.] 

J. K. L. 

WALKER, SIK CHARLES PYNDAR 
BEAUCHAMP (1817-1894), general, born 
on 7 Oct. 1817, was eldest son of Charles Lud- 
low Walker, J.P. and D.L. of Gloucester- 
shire, of Redland, near Bristol, by Mary 
Anne, daughter of Rev. Reginald Pyndar of 
Hadsor, Worcestershire, and Kempley, 
Gloucestershire, cousin of the first Earl 
Beauchamp. He was a commoner at Win- 
chester College from 1831 to 1833 (HOLGATE, 



Winchester Commoners, p. 32). He was 
commissioned as ensign in the 33rd foot on 
27 Feb. 1836, became lieutenant on 21 June 
1839, and captain on 22 Dec. 1846. He 
served with that regiment at Gibraltar, in 
the West Indies, and in North America. 
On 16 Nov. 1849 he exchanged into the 7th 
dragoon guards. 

On 25 March 1 854 he was appointed aide- 
de-camp to Lord Lucan, who commanded 
the cavalry division in the army sent to the 
East. He was present at Alma, Balaclava, 
and Inkerman, and was mentioned in des- 
patches (London Gazette, 17 Nov. 1854). In 
the middle of October he was ordered on 
board ship for a change, and this enabled him 
to be present at the naval attack on Sebastopol 
on 17 Oct., where he acted as aide-de-camp 
to Lord George Paulet on board the Bellero- 
phon. He was given the medal for naval 
service, as well as the Crimean medal with 
four clasps, the Turkish medal, and the 
Medjidie (fifth class). 

On 8 Dec. 1854 he was promoted major 
in his regiment, and in anticipation of this 
he left the Crimea at the beginning of that 
month. He was appointed assistant quar- 
termaster-general in Ireland on 9 July 1855, 
and on 9 Nov. he was given an unattached 
lieutenant-colonelcy. On 7 Dec. 1858 he 
became lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd dra- 
goon guards. He joined that regiment in 
India, and took part in the later operations 
for the suppression of the mutiny. He com- 
manded a field force in Oudh, with which 
he defeated the rebels at Bangaon on 
27 April 1859, and a month afterwards 
shared in the action of the Jirwah Pass 
under Sir Hope Grant. He was mentioned 
in despatches (Lond. Gaz. 22 July and 2 Sept. 
1859), and received the medal. 

From India he went on to China, being 
appointed on 14 May 1860 assistant quarter- 
master-general of cavalry in Sir Hope Grant's 
expedition. He was present at the actions of 
Sinho, Chankiawan, andPalikao. In the ad- 
vance on Pekin it fell to him to go on ahead to 
select the camping-grounds, and on 16 Sept., 
when Sir Harry Smith Parkes [q. v.], and 
others were treacherously seized during the- 
truce, he narrowly escaped. While waiting 
for Parkes outside Tungchow he saw a 
French officer attacked by the Chinese and 
went to his assistance. His sword was 
snatched from him, and several men tried to 
pull him off his horse, but he shook them 
off", and galloped back to the British camp 
with his party of five men under a fire of 
small arms and artillery. He was men- 
tioned in despatches, received the medal 
with two clasps, and was made C.B. on 



Walker 



4 6 



Walker 



28 Feb. 1861. He had become colonel in 
the army on 14 Dec. 1860. 

Having returned to England, he went on 
half-pay on 11 June 1861, and on 1 July 
was appointed assistant quartermaster- 
general at Shorncliffe. He remained there 
till 31 March 1865. On 26 April he was 
made military attache to the embassy at 
Berlin, and he held that post for nearly 
twelve years. In the Austro-Prussian war 
of 1866 he was attached to the headquarters 
of the crown prince's army as British mili- 
tary commissioner ; he witnessed the battles 
of Nachod and Koniggratz, and received the 
medal. The order of the red eagle (second 
class) was offered him, but he was not able 
to accept it. He was again attached to the 
crown prince's army in the Franco-German 
war of 1870-1, and was present at Weissen- 
burg, Worth, Sedan, and throughout the 
siege of Paris. He was given the medal 
and the iron cross. The irritation of the 
Germans against England and the number 
of roving Englishmen made his duty not 
an easy one ; but he was well qualified for 
it by his tact and geniality, and his action 
met with the full approval of the govern- 
ment. 

He was promoted major-general on 
29 Dec. 1873, his rank being afterwards 
antedated to 6 March 1868. He resigned 
his post at Berlin on 31 March 1877, and 
became lieutenant-general on 1 Oct. On 
19 Jan. 1878 he was made inspector-general 
of military education, and he held that ap- 
pointment till 7 Oct. 1884, when he was 
placed on the retired list with the honorary 
rank of general. He had been made K.C.B. 
on 24 May 1881, and colonel of the 2nd 
dragoon guards on 22 Dec. in that year. He 
died in London on 19 Jan. 1894, and was 
buried in Brompton cemetery. 

He had married in 1845 Georgiana, 
daughter of Captain Richard Armstrong of 
the 100th foot. She survived him. 

He published: 1. 'The Organisation and 
Tactics of the Cavalry Division ' (52 pp.) 
2. A translation of Major-general von 
Schmidt's ' Instructions for Regiments tak- 
ing part in the Manoeuvres of a Cavalry 
Division ; ' both of them in 1876, London, 
8vo. Extracts from his letters and journals 
during active service were published after 
his death under the title < Days of a Soldier's 
Life' (London, 1894), and contain much 
that is of general as well as of personal in- 
terest, especially in regard to the German 
wars. 

[Days of a Soldier's Life; Standard, 22 Jan. 
1894 ; Official Army List, January 1884 ; private 
information.] E. M. L. 



WALKER, CHARLES VINCENT 

(1812-1882), electrical engineer, born in 
1812, was educated as an engineer. As 
early as 1838 he recognised the importance 
of the study of the science of electricity, and 
took an active part in the newly formed 
London Electrical Society, of which he was 
appointed secretary in 1843. He first ac- 
quired a reputation in 1841 by completing 
the second volume and editing the entire 
manuscript of Dionysius Lardner's ' Manual 
of Electricity, Magnetism, and Meteorology,' 
which formed part of his Cabinet Cyclopaedia. 
From 1845 to 1846 he acted as editor of the 
' Electric Magazine,' and in 1845 he was ap- 
pointed electrician to the South-Eastern 
Railway Company, a post which he held till 
his death. During his connection with the 
company he introduced many improvements 
in the railway system, among others an ap- 
paratus to enable passengers to communicate 
with the guard, for which he took out a 
patent (No. 347) on 5 Feb. 1866; and a 
' train describer,' for indicating trains on a 
distant dial, patented on 24 March 1876 
(No. 1026). 

Walker also interested himself in subma- 
rine telegraphy, and on 13 Oct. 1848 sent the 
first submarine message from a ship two 
miles off Folkestone to London Bridge, the 
shore end of the cable being connected with 
a land line. In 1849 he assisted James 
Glaisher and George Biddell Airy, the as- 
tronomer royal, to introduce a system of 
time signals, which were transmitted from 
the royal observatory at Greenwich to various 
local centres by means of telegraph wires, an 
improvement of considerable benefit to com- 
merce and navigation (Nature, xiv. 50, 110). 
On 7 June 1855 he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society ; on 8 Jan. 1858 a fellow 
of the Royal Astronomical Society ; in 1876 
he filled the office of president of the Society 
of Telegraph Engineers and of Electricians ; 
and in 1869 and 1870 he was president of 
the Meteorological Society, of which he had 
been elected a member on 4 June 1850. 
Walker died at his residence at Tunbridge 
WeUs on 24 Dec. 1882. 

He was the author of: 1. 'Electrotype 
Manipulation,' 2 parts, London, 1841, 8vo ; 
pt. i. 24th edit. 1850; pt. ii. 12th edit. 1849. 
2. ' Electric Telegraph Manipulation,' Lon- 
don, 1850, 8vo. These works were trans- 
lated into French and German. He edited 
Jeremiah Joyce's ' Scientific Dialogues ' (Lon- 
don, 1846, 8vo), and translated Ludwig 
Friedrich Kaemtz's ' Complete Course of 
Meteorology' (London, 1845, 12mo), and 
Auguste de La Rive's ' Treatise on Electri- 
city' (London, 1853-8, 3 vols. 8vo). 






Walker 



47 



Walker 



[Telegraph Journal and Electrical Review 
1883, xii. 16; Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astron. Soc. 1882-3, xliii. 182; Engineering, 
1883, xxxv. 18; Quarterly Journal of the Me- 
teorological Soc. 1883, ix. 99 ; Journal of Soc. of 
Telegraph Engineers, 1883, xii. 1.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, CLEMENT (d. 1651), author 
of the ' History of Independency,' was 
bom at Cliffe in Dorset, and is said to 
have been educated at Christ Church, ' 
Oxford, but his name does not appear in '.. 
the matriculation register (WooD, Athence \ 
Oxonienses, iii. 291). In 1611 he became a 
student of the Middle Temple, being de- 
scribed as son and heir of Thomas Walker, 
esq., of Westminster (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxonienses, i. 1556). Before the civil war 
began Walker was made usher of the 
exchequer, an office which he held till 
February 1650 (The Case between C. Walker, 
Esq., and Humphrey Edwards, 1650, fol. ; 
The Case of Mrs. Mary Walker, 1650, fol.) 
Walker had an estate at Charterhouse, near 
Wells, and was reputed to be an enemy to 
puritans ; but on the outbreak of the war 
lie espoused the parliamentary cause, and 
on 1 April 1643 became a member of 
the parliamentary committee for Somerset 
(HUSBAND, Ordinances, 1646, p. 20). He 
was advocate to the court-martial which 
condemned Yeomans and Bourchier for 
seeking to betray Bristol to Prince Rupert, 
and was at first a strong supporter of 
Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes as governor of 
that city (WooD, iii. 292; The two State 
Martyrs, 1643, p. 11 ; SEYER, Memoirs of 
Bristol, ii. 330, 348, 374-9). After the 
surrender of Bristol by Fiennes to Prince 
Rupert, Walker became his most bitter 
enemy, co-operated with Prynne in publish- 
ing pamphlets against him, and finally 
secured his condemnation by a court-martial. 
One of these pamphlets ('An Answer to 
Colonel N. Fiennes's Relation concerning his 
Surrender of Bristol ') was complained of by 
Lord Say to the House of Lords on the 
ground that it impugned his reputation. 
Walker was consequently arrested, brought 
before the house, fined 100/., and ordered to 
pay 5001. damages to Lord Say. He refused 
to make the submission that was also 
demanded, alleging that it was against the 
liberty of the subject, and that, as he was a 
commoner and a member of a committee 
appointed by the House of Commons, he 
ought not to be judged by the lords without 
being heard also by the lower house. For 
this contumacy he was sent to the Tower 
(7 Oct. 1643), but released on bail (2 Nov.) 
after he had petitioned the commons and 
caused his articles against Fiennes to be 



presented to them (Lords' Journals, vi. 232, 
240, 247, 260, 282, 362 ; Commons 1 Journals, 
iii. 274, 311 ; The true Causes of the Com- 
mitment of Mr. C. Walker to the Tower, 
1643, fol.) 

Walker was elected member for Wells 
about the close of 1645, and speedily made 
himself notorious by his hostility to the 
independents (Returns of Names of Members 
of Parliament, i. 493). After the triumph 
of the army over the presbyterians he was 
accused of being one of the instigators of 
the London riots of 26 July 1647. It was 
deposed to the committee of examination 
' that an elderly gentleman of low stature, 
in a grey suit, with a little stick in his 
hand, came forth of the house into the 
lobby when the tumult was at the parlia- 
ment door, and whispered some of the 
apprentices in the ear, and encouraged them.' 
Walker denied he was the man, asserting 
that he had lost his health and spent 7,000/. 
in the parliament's cause, and ought not to 
be suspected on so little evidence. He 
describes himself in his history as opposed 
to all factions, both presbyterians and inde- 
pendents, and never a member of any 
'juntos' or secret meetings (History of Inde- 
pendency, ed. 1661, i. 53-6). In his ' Mys- 
tery of the Two Juntos,' published in 1647, 
he attacked with great vigour and acrimony 
the corruption of parliamentary government 
which the Long parliament's assumption of 
all power had produced. 

In December 1648 Walker was one of 
the members who voted the king's conces- 
sions sufficient ground for an agreement 
with him, and was consequently expelled 
from the house by ' Pride's Purge ' (6 Dec. 
1648). He remained under arrest for about 
a month, which did not prevent him from 
publishing a protest against the king's trial 
( Old Parliamentary History, xviii. 468, 477). 
On the publication of the second part of 
his 'History of Independency' parliament 
ordered Walker's arrest and the seizure of 
his papers (24 Oct. 1649). A few days 
later (13 Nov.) he was committed to the 
Tower to be tried for high treason (Commons' 
Journals, vi. 312, 322; MASSON, Life of 
Milton, iv. 121, 147; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1649-50, p. 550). Walker was never 
brought to trial, but remained a prisoner in 
the Tower until his death in October 1651. 
He was buried in the church of All Hallows, 
Barking (Woor>, iii. 292 ; cf. AITBEET, Lives, 
ed. Clark, ii. 273). 

By his first wife, Frances, Walker had 
three sons Thomas (b. 1626), Anthony 
(b. 1629), Peter (b. 1631), born at Cliffe, 
Dorset (WOOD, iii. 295). Another son, 



Walker 



4 8 



Walker 



John, who matriculated at Lincoln College, 
Oxford, 8 Dec. 1658, gave Wood some 
particulars about his father (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxonienses, i. 1557). 

Walker was the author of: 1. 'The 
several Examinations and Confessions of 
the Treacherous Conspirators against the 
City of Bristol,' 1643, 4to (see SEYER, 
Memoirs of Bristol, ii. 297, 384, 388). 
2. 'The true Causes of the Commitment 
of Mr. C. Walker to the Tower.' 3. ' The 
Petition of Clement Walker and William 
Prynne.' These two are folio broadsides 
printed in 1643. 4. ' An answer to Colonel 
N. Fiennes's Relation concerning the Sur- 
render of Bristol,' 1643, 4to. 5. ' Articles 
of Impeachment exhibited to Parliament 
against Colonel N. Fiennes by C. Walker 
and W. Prynne,' 1643, 4to. 6. 'A true 
and full Relation of the Prosecution, Trial, 
and Condemnation of Colonel N. Fiennes,' 
1644, 4to (by Prynne and Walker together). 

7. ' The Mystery of the two Juntos, Presby- 
terian and Independent,' 1647, 4to (reprinted 
as a preface to the ' History of Independency '). 

8. ' The History of Independency, with the 
Rise, Growth, and Practices of that power- 
ful and restless Faction,' 1648, 4to (part i.) 

9. 'A List of the Names of the Members 
of the House of Commons, observing which 
are Officers of the Army contrary to the 
Self-denying Ordinance,' 1648, 4to ; sub- 
sequently incorporated in part i. of the 
' History of Independency.' 10. ' A De- 
claration and Protestation of W. Prynne 
and C. Walker against the Proceedings of 
the General and General Council of the 
Army,' 1649, fol. 11. ' Six serious Queries 
concerning the King's Trial ' (this and the 
preceding are both reprinted in the second 
part of the ' History of Independency '). 
12. ' Anarchia Anglicana, or the History 
of Independency, the second part,' 1649, 4to. 
Like the first, this was published under the 
pseudonym of Theodorus Verax. It was 
answered by George Wither in ' Respublica 
Anglicana,' who alleges that the author is 
Verax on the title-page but not in the 
others. 13. ' The Case between C. Walker, 
Esq., and Humphrey Edwards,' 1650, fol. 
14. ' The Case of Mrs. M. Walker, the wife 
of Clement Walker, Esq.' 15. ' The High 
Court of Justice,or Cromwell's New Slaughter 
House in England, being the third part of 
the " History of Independency," written by 
the same Author,' 1651, 4to. According to 
Aubrey, who derived his information from 
one of Walker's fellow prisoners, Walker 
wrote a continuation of his ' History ' giving 
an account of the king's coming to Worcester, 
which was unfortunately lost (Lives, ii. 273). 



A fourth part of the ' History ' was added by 
a certain T. M., who published it with the 
preceding three parts in one volume quarto 
in 1661. An abridgment in Latin of part i. 
of the ' History of Independency,' entitled 
' Historia Independentise,' is included in 
' Sylloge Variorum Tractatuum,' 1649, 4to, 
(No. 5). and in ' Metamorphosis Anglorum.' 
1653, 12mo, p. 427. 

[Wood's Athense Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, iii. 
291-4; Aubrey's Lives, ed. Clark, 1898; 
Hutchins's History of Dorset, ed. 1863, vol. ii.; 
History of Independency, ed. 1661.] 

C 1 TT "F 1 

WALKER, SIE EDWARD" (iei's- 

I 1677), Garter king-of-arms, born on 24 Jan. 
I 1611-12, was the second son of Edward 
Walker of Roobers in the parish of Nether 
i Stowey, Somerset, by Barbara, daughter of 
Edward Salkeld of Corby Castle in Cumber- 
land (WooD, Fasti, ii. 28 ; Catalogue of the 
Ashmolean MSS. p. 130). Walker entered 
the service of Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel, at the time of the king's visit to 
Scotland in 1633, and accompanied Arundel 
on his embassy to the emperor in 1636(.Hz',s- 
torical Discourses, p. 214 ; Cal. Clarendon 
Papers, i. 115). Arundel's influence as earl 
marshal opened the college of arms to 
Walker, and he was successively created 
Blanch Lion pursuivant-at-arms extra- 
ordinary (August 1635), Rouge Croix pur- 
suivant (5 June 1637), and Chester Herald 
(8 Feb. 1638) (NOBLE, College of Arms, pp. 
242, 249, 253; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1635, p. 355). Arundel was general of the 
royal army during the first Scottish war, and 
was pleased, says Walker, ' by his own elec- 
tion to make me his secretary-at-war for 
this expedition, in which I served him and 
the public with the best of my faculties ' 
(Discourse, pp. 217, 263). Walker took 
part officially in the negotiations with the 
Scottish commissioners at Berwick, of which 
he has left some notes (ib. p. 264 ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 15th Rep. ii. 295). On 23 April 
1640 he was appointed paymaster of the gar- 
rison of Carlisle (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1640 pp. 14, 63, 1641-3 p. 123). 

When the civil war broke out Walker 
followed the king to York and Oxford, and 
accompanied him in his campaigns. On 
24 April 1642 Charles sent Walker and 
another herald to demand the surrender of 
Hull, and to proclaim Sir John Hotham 
traitor in case of refusal (' Hist. MSS. Comm. 
15th Rep. ii. 95). About the end of Sep- 
tember 1642 the king constituted Walker 
his secretary-at-war, and on 13 April 1644 
he was sworn in as secretary-extraordinary 
to the privy council. He accompanied Charles 






Walker 



49 



Walker 



during the campaign of 1644, and was em- 
ployed to deliver the king's offer of pardon 
to Waller's army after the battle of Cropredy 
Bridge, and to the army of the Earl of Essex 
before its defeat in Cornwall (Discourses, 
pp. 34, 63; Hist. MSS. Comm. 15th Rep. 
li. 99-106). Walker was with the king at 
Naseby and through his wanderings after 
that battle, and at Oxford during the siege 
and surrender (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1645-7, p. 147 ; HAMPER, Life of Sir W. 
Dugdale, p. 90). In 1644 Walker was 
created Norroy king-of-arms, though the 
patent did not pass the signet till April 
1644, nor the great seal till 24 June (ib. p. 
21 ; NOBLE, p. 239 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1644, p. 140). When Sir Henry St. George 
[q. v.] died, Walker was appointed to suc- 
ceed him as Garter king-of-arms (24 Feb. 
1645), and was sworn into the chapter of 
the order on 2 March 1645 (ib. 1644-5, p. 
328 ; NOBLE, p. 235; HAMPER, p. 78). The 
king knighted him on 2 Feb. 1645. 

After the fall of Oxford Walker went to 
France, returning to England in the autumn 
of 1648, by permission of parliament (2 Sept.), 
to act as the king's chief secretary in the 
negotiations at Newport. In 1649 he was 
at The Hague with Charles II, by whom 
in February 1649 he was appointed clerk of the 
council in ordinary, and in September made 
receiver of the king's moneys (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 15th Rep. ii. 112). In June 1650 he 
accompanied Charles II to Scotland, but im- 
mediately after landing his name was in- 
cluded in the list of English royalists whom 
the Scottish parliament ordered to be 
banished from the country. Money was 
ordered for Walker's transportation, but as 
he got none he lingered on, and his stay 
was connived at. On 4 Oct. 1650 he was 
ordered to leave the court at once, and em- 
barked for Holland at the end of the month 
(Discourses, p. 205 ; Cal. Clarendon Papers, 
ii. 69; SIR JAMES BALFOTJR, Works, iv. 83). 

During the early part of this exile Walker 
was engaged in a constant struggle for the 
maintenance of his rights and privileges as 
Garter. Disputes arose over the method of 
admitting persons to the order of 1 he Garter 
(as, for instance, in 1650 over the investiture 
of the Marquis of Ormonde), in consequence 
of which Walker obtained a royal declara- 
tion (28 May 1650) affirming that it was his 
right always to be sent with the insignia on 
the election of foreign princes and others. 
Accordingly on 4 May 1653 Walker was 
employed to deliver the garter to the future 
William III, then only two years and a half 
old, and in 1654 he journeyed to Berlin to 
invest the great elector (23 March 1654). 

VOL. LIX. 



Speeches at the investiture of the Duke of 
Gloucester and the Prince of Tarentum, 
with letters to many other knights, are 
among his papers (CARTE, Original Letters, 
ii. 3f59 ; Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 175, 200, 
207, 339; AshmoleanMS. 1112). 

Walker received none of the annual fees 
due to him from the knights of the Garter, 
and it is evident that his office brought him 
very little profit. His constant grumbling 
about this and about the invasion of his rights 
gave great annoyance to Hyde and Nicholas, 
both of whom held the meanest opinion of his 
character and capacity. ' Sir Edward AValker,' 
wrote Nicholas in 1653, ' is a very importunate, 
ambitious, and foolish man, that studies no- 
thing but his own ends, and every day hath a 
project for his particular good ; and if you 
do him one kindness and fail him in another, 
you will lose him as much or more than 
if you had never done anything for him' 
(Nicholas Papers, ii. 11). Hyde replied that 
Walker was a correspondent not to be en- 
dured, always writing impertinent letters 
either of expostulation or request. ' Why 
shouldyou wonder,'he observes, ' that a herald, 
who is naturally made up of embroidery, 
should adorn all his own services and make 
them as important as he can ? I would you 
saw some letters he hath heretofore writ to 
me in discontent, by which a stranger would 
guess he had merited as much as any general 
could do, and was not enough rewarded' 
(Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 222, 346). 

In November 1655 Walker joined CharlesII 
at Cologne, and became once more secretary 
of the council (Nicholas Papers, iii. 116, 138). 
In the autumn of 1656 Charles got together 
a small army in the Netherlands, andWalker 
was again charged with the functions of 
secretary-at-war, a business which the want 
of money to pay the soldiers made particu- 
larly troublesome (Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 
186, 208, 226). His salary for the office con- 
sisted of four rations a day out of the pay 
allowed for reformados (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
15th Rep. ii. 109). 

At the Restoration Walker was made one of 
the clerks of the council, with John Nicholas 
and Sir George Lane as his colleagues. His 
remuneration, at first 50/. per annum, was 
raised in 1665 to 250/. (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1660-1 p. 139, 1664-5, p. 318). The 
Long parliament had made Edward Bysshe 
[q. v.] Garter king-of-arms (20 Oct. 1646), 
who was now obliged to quit that office 
in favour of Walker; but Walker could not 
prevent his being made Clarenceux (Addit. 
MS. 22883; WOOD, Athena, iii. 1218). 
Walker had the arrangement of the cere- 
monies of the coronation of Charles II, and 



Walker 



Walker 



acted as censor of the accounts published of 
the proceedings {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1660-1 pp. 323, 553, 606, 1661-2 p. 350 ; 
Ashmolean MS. 857). As head of the 
heralds' college he had schemes for the re- 
organisation of that body, the increase 
of his own authority, and the better re- 
gulation of the method of granting arms 
(ib. 1133; Historical Discourses, p. 312; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1 p. 399, 
1661-2 p. 563). These involved him in a 
long-continued quarrel with Clarenceux 
and Norroy, which ended in the temporary 
suspension of provincial visitations (ib. 
1663-4, pp. 201, 212 ; Ashmolean MS. 840, 
ff. 777, 797). From 1673 to 1676 he was 
engaged in a similar quarrel with the earl 
marshal, who, he complained, ' was prevailed 
upon to gratify the covetousness of Andrew 
Hay, his secretary, and the implacable and 
revengeful humour of Thomas Lee, Chester 
herald, and others,' by depriving Garter of 
several rights never questioned before (Ash- 
molean MS. 1133, f. 55). 

Walker died on 19 Feb. 1676-7, and was 
buried in the church of Stratford-on-Avon. 
His epitaph was written byDugdale (HAMPER, 
Life ofDugdale, p. 402). He married, about 
Easter 1644, Agneta, daughter of John 
Reeve, D.D., of ' Bookern ' (? Bookham) in 
Surrey. By her he had only one daughter, 
Barbara, who married Sir John Clopton of 
Clopton, near Stratford-on-Avon (L,E NEVE, 
Pedigrees of Knights, p. 159). 

It was for the benefit of her eldest 
son, Edward Clopton, that Walker in 1664 
collected his ' Historical Discourses,' which 
were finally published by her second son, 
Hugh Clopton, in 1705 (a later edition 
was published in 1707 with the title of 
' Historical Collections '). This contains a 
portrait of Charles I on horseback, and a 
picture of the king dictating his orders to 
Walker, who is represented as writing on 
the head of a drum. The most important 
of these is a narrative of the campaign of 
1644, entitled 'His Majesty's Happy Pro- 
gress and Success from the 30 March to the 
23 November 1644.' It was written at the 
king's request, based on notes taken by 
Walker officially during the campaign and 
corrected by the king, to whom it was pre- 
sented in April 1645. The original was 
captured by the parliamentarians at Naseby, 
restored to the king at Hampton Court in 
1647, and finally returned to Walker. It 
was then sent to Clarendon, who made great 
use of it in the eighth book of his ' History of 
the Rebellion.' A manuscript of it is in the 
library of Christ Church, Oxford, and another 
is Harleian MS. 4229 (Discourses, p. 228; 



SPEIGGE, Anglia Rediviva, ed. 1854, p. 50 ; 
Clarendon State Papers, iii. 317, 382 ; Re- 
bellion, x. 120 ; RANKE, History of England, 
vi. 16). 

The briefer narrative called 'Brief Me- 
morials of the Unfortunate Success of His 
Majesty's Army arid Affairs in the Year 
1645 ' was written at Paris, at the request 
of Lord Colepeper, about January 1647 (ib. 
p. 153 and table of contents). It was in- 
tended for the use of Clarendon (see LISTER, 
Life of Clarendon, iii. 39). 

The third paper is ' A Journal of several 
Actions performed in the Kingdom of Scot- 
land, etc., from 24 June 1650 to the end of 
October following ' (cf. Clarendon State 
Papers, ii. 85, and Nicholas Papers, i. 200). 
The others are (4) a life of Walker's patron, 
Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel, written 
in 1651 ; (5) an answer to William Lilley's 
pamphlet against Charles I ( ' Monarchy or 
No Monarchy in England ' ) ; (6) ' Observa- 
tions upon the Inconveniencies that have 
attended the frequent promotions to Titles 
of Honour since King James came to the 
Crown of England ' (see Rawlinson MS. C. 
557) ; (7) ' Observations on Hammond 
L'Estrange's " Annals of the Reign of 
Charles I," ' 1655 ; (8) ' Copies of the Letters, 
Proposals, etc., that passed in the Treaty at 
Newport ' (see Rawlinson MS. A. 114). This 
simply contains the official papers exchanged 
and the votes of parliament ; a fuller and more 
detailed account of the proceedings is con- 
tained in the notes of Walker's secretary, 
Nicholas Oudart, which are printed in Peck's 
' Desiderata Curiosa.' 

Walker was also the author of (9) 'A 
Circumstantial Account of the Preparations 
for the Coronation of Charles II, with a 
minute detail of that splendid ceremony,' 
1820, 8vo; (10) 'The Order of the Cere- 
monies used at the Celebration of St. 
George's Feast at Windsor, when the 
Sovereign of the most noble Order of the 
Garter is present,' 1671 and 1674, 4to. 

A number of Walker's unpublished manu- 
scripts on different ceremonial and heraldic 
questions are in different collections : ' On 
the Necessaries for the Installation of a 
Knight of the Garter,' Rawlinson MS. B. 
110, 3 ; ' Remarks on the Arms borne by 
Younger Sons of the Kings of England,' 
Cal. Clarendon MSS. ii. 85; 'The Acts of 
the Knights of the Garter during the Civil 
War,' Ashmolean MS. 1110, f. 155 (see ASH- 
MOLE'S Institution of the Order of the 
Garter, p. 200) ; 'A New Model of Statutes 
for the Order of the Garter,' Ashmolean MS. 
1112, f. 204. A large number ot papers con- 
cerning the history of the order of the Garter 



Walker 



Walker 



and different heraldic questions are among 
Ashmole's manuscripts in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. 

[Lives of Walker are contained in Wood's 
Fasti Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, ii 28, and Mark 
Noble's History of the College of Arras. Ash- 
molean MS. 423, if. 85-8, consists of Walker's 
'Nativity and Accidents,' with Ashmole's astro- 
logical calculations and comments thereon ; it 
supplies many facts about Walker's career. A 
number of papers relating to Walker are among 
the manuscripts of Mr. J. Eliot Hodgkin, and 
calendared in the 15th Keport of the Hist. MSS. 
Comm. pt. ii.] C. H. F 

WALKER, FREDERICK (1840-1875), 
painter, was born in London at 90 Great 
Titchfield Street on 26 May 1840. He was 
the fifth son and seventh child of William 
Henry Walker, and Ann (nee Powell) his 
wife. He was the elder of twins. His father 
was a working jeweller with a small busi- 
ness. Frederick Walker's grandfather, Wil- 
liam Walker, was an artist of some merit, 
and between 1782 and 1808 exhibited regu- 
larly with the Royal Academy and the British 
Institution. Two excellent portraits of him- 
self and his wife are still extant. Frederick 
Walker is also believed to have inherited 
artistic ability from his mother, who was a 
woman of fine sensibilities, and at one time 
supplemented the family income by her skill 
in embroidery. William Henry Walker died 
about 1847, leaving eight surviving children. 
Frederick was for a time at a school in 
Cleveland Street, but such education as he 
had was chiefly received at the North Lon- 
don collegiate school in Camden Town. 
Relics from his schooldays show that the 
passion for drawing sprang up in him very 
early. His earliest endeavours to train him- 
self in any systematic fashion seem to have 
consisted in copying prints in pen and ink. 

In 1855 Walker was placed in an archi- 
tect's office in Gower Street, where he re- 
mained until early in 1857. He then gave 
up architecture, became a student at the 
British Museum, and at James Mathews 
Leigh's academy in Newman Street. A few 
months later he began to think of the Royal 
Academy, to which he was admitted as a 
student in March 1858. In none of these 
schools, however, was he a very constant 
attendant. Late in 1858 he took a step 
which had a decisive influence on his career. 
He apprenticed himself to Josiah Wood 
Whymper, the wood engraver, whose atelier 
was at 20 Canterbury Place, Lambeth. 
There he worked steadily for two years, ac- 
quiring that knowledge of the wood- cutter's 
technique which afterwards enabled him 
profoundly to affect the progress of the art. 



st important friendship of his early years 
t with Thackeray. He was employed by 



He never confined himself to a single groove, 
however. During his apprenticeship to 
Whymper he devoted his spare time to paint- 
ing, both in watercolour and oil, but entirely 
as a student. He trained himself in a way 
which seemed desultory to his friends, but 
it probably suited his idiosyncrasy. 

In 1859 Walker joined the Artists' Society 
in Langham Chambers. From this time 
date the earliest attempts at original crea- 
tion to which we can now point. His 
Langham sketches are numerous ; they show 
a facility in composition and a felicity of 
accent not always to be discovered in his 
later work. By this time, too, he had be- 
come well known in professional circles as 
an illustrator and draughtsman for the wood 
engraver. Between the end of 1859 and the 
beginning of 1865 he did a mass of work 
of this kind, most of his drawings being 
' cut ' by Joseph Swain. These illustrations 
appeared in ' Good Words,' ' Once a Week,' 
' Everybody's Journal,' the ' Leisure Hour,' 
and the ' Cornhill Magazine,' and show a 
constantly increasing sense of what this 
method of illustration requires. Walker's 
connection with the 'Cornhill' led to the 
most 
that 

Swain to improve and adapt the novelist's 
own illustrations to his ' Adventures of 
Philip,' but, after a very few attempts in that 
direction, was asked by Thackeray to design 
the drawings ab initio, with nothing but the 
roughest of sketches to guide him. The re- 
sult was excellent. The 'Philip' series 
ended in August 1862. During its progress 
Walker also produced a certain number of 
independent drawings mostly done on com- 
mission from the brothers Dalziel, which ap- 
peared in ' Wayside Posies ' and ' A Round 
of Days,' published by Rout-ledge. The most 
important of these drawings were ' Charity,' 
< The Shower,' ' The Mystery of the Bellows/ 
' Winter/ ' Spring,' ' The Fishmonger,' 
' Summer,' ' The Village School/ ' Autumn/ 
and ' The Bouquet.' Six of them were after- 
wards repeated in colour. From the bro- 
thers Dalziel he also received his first com- 
mission of any importance, for a watercolour 
drawing 'Strange Faces' which dates 
from the end of 1862. After the conclusion 
of ' Philip/ Walker illustrated Miss Thacke- 
ray's ' Story of Elizabeth ' in the ' Cornhill/ 
and made drawings, continually decreasing 
in number, for other periodicals. Thacke- 
ray's unfinished ' Denis Duval ' was illus- 
trated by him, but about 1865-6 he practi- 
cally gave up illustration. 

In 1863 he exhibited his first oil picture, 
' The Lost Path/ at the Royal Academy. 



Walker 



Walker 



The same year he moved from Charles Street, 
Manchester Square, to No. 3 St. Petersburg!! 
Place, Bayswater, which he occupied for the 
rest of his life. In 1863 he painted one of 
his most famous watercolours, ' Philip in 
Church;' and among smaller things, the 
'Young Patient,' 'The Shower,' and 'The 
Village School.' He was greatly affected by 
Thackeray's death, which took place at Christ- 
mas. Six weeks later, on 8 Feb. 1864, he 
was unanimously elected an associate of the 
' Old Watercolour' Society, his trial pieces 
being ' Philip in Church,' ' Jane Eyre,' and 
' Refreshment.' At the ensuing exhibition 
he was represented by these three drawings 
and by ' Spring.' In 1864 he exhibited 
' Denis's Valet ' and ' My Front Garden ' 
(called 'Sketch' in the Catalogue); in 1865 
' Autumn,' and in 1866 ' The Bouquet,' send- 
ing also various less important things ' The 
Introduction,' ' The Sempstress,' ' The Spring 
of Life' to the winter exhibitions. During 
these years he was unrepresented at the 
Royal Academy, but in 1866 his ' Wayfarers' 
on the whole perhaps the most successful 
of his oil pictures was exhibited at Mr. 
Gambart's gallery. In 1867 he made his re- 
appearance at the Royal Academy with the 
large oil picture of ' Bathers,' now belonging 
to Sir Cuthbert Quilter. bart., which was 
followed in 1868 by ' Vagrants,' now in 
the National Gallery; in 1869 by 'The Old 
Gate,' now the property of Mr. A. E. Street ; 
and in 1870 by ' The Plough,' now owned 
by the Marquis de Misa. In 1871 the year 
of his election as an A.R.A. and as an ho- 
norary member of the Belgian Watercolour 
Society he sent ' At the Bar' to Burlington 
House; in 1872 -The Harbour of Refuge,' 
and in 1875, the year of his death, ' The Right 
of Way.' His contributions to the Royal 
Academy were only seven in number. 
Between 1868 and his death he was repre- 
sented by some twenty-two drawings at 
the 'Old Watercolour' Society's, including 
'Lilies,' ' The Gondola,' 'The First Swallow,' 
' In a Perthshire Garden,' ' The Ferry.' ' Girl 
at the Stile,' ' The Housewife,' ' The Rain- 
bow : ' watercolour versions of ' Wayfarers,' 
' The Harbour of Refuge,' and ' TheOld Gate,' 
and by the famous ' Fishmonger's Shop.' To 
the Dudley Gallery he sent a small sketch 
or replica, in oil, of ' At the Bar,' and the 
cartoon for a poster, ' The Woman in White,' 
which may be said to have started the fashion 
of artistic advertising in this country. Some 
of his better drawings ' The Wet Day,' for 
instance were never exhibited during his 
life. 

Apart from his art, Walker's life was un- 
eventful. He was never married, and lived 



with his brother John who died, however, 
in 1868 -his sister Fanny, and his mother. 
He twice visited Paris in 1863, with Philip 
Henry Calderon ; and in 1867, the exhibition 
year, with W. C. Phillips. In 1868 he tra- 
velled to Venice by sea, seeing Genoa by the 
way; two years later he paid a second visit, 
and spent a fortnight among the canals with 
his friend William Quiller Orchardson. On 
this occasion he reached Venice by way of 
Munich, Innsbruck, and Verona. But his 
imperfect ed ucation had left him unprepared 
to enjoy or appreciate foreign places, and his 
letters are strangely deficient in allusions to 
anything connected with art. In December 
1873 he visited Algiers to recruit his health. 
After his return his condition improved, and 
during the autumn and winter of 1874 and 
springof 1875 he finished the drawing known 
as ' The Rainbow,' worked on a picture of 
' Mushroom Gatherers,' which was never 
finished, and completed his last oil picture, 
' The Right of Way,' now in the gallery at 
Melbourne. He died at St. Fillans, Perth- 
shire, at the house of Mr. H. E. Watts, on 
4 June 1875. His mother had died in the 
previous November, and his sister Fanny 
followed him in September 1876. All three 
were buried at Cookham, where a medallion 
by H. II. Armstead has been put up in the 
church to the painter's memory. 

No record of Walker's life would be com- 
plete without a note on his friendships and 
on his curious love of certain sports. He 
was an enthusiastic fisherman, and at one 
time a bold rider to hounds. Among his 
close friends were Thackeray, Mrs. Rich- 
mond Ritchie, the Birket-Fosters, G. D. 
Leslie, Orchardson, Sir John Millais, Arthur 
Lewis, Sir W. Agnew, and especially J. W. 
North. 

As to his art, few painters have been so 
sincere and personal as Walker. From 
first to last his one aim was to realise his 
own ideas and express his own emotions. 
Here and there an outside influence can be 
traced in his work, but the modifications it 
causes are accidental rather than essential. 
Echoes of the Elgin marbles can be recog- 
nised in a few over-graceful rustics ; both 
Millais and Millet had an effect upon his 
manner ; but the passion which informs his 
work is entirely his own. His sympathies 
were rather deep than wide, so that he suc- 
ceeded better when he had but one thing to 
say than when he had two or three. His 
earlier designs, when both data and method 
were simple, have a unity, balance, and co- 
herence scarcely to be found in his later and 
more ambitious conceptions. Less perhaps 
than the works of any other artist of equal 



Walker 



53 



Walker 



importance do his pictures suggest theories 
and reasoned-out aesthetic preferences on the 
part of their creator. As a leader, his value 
lies in the emphasis with which he reasserts 
that sincerity is the antecedent condition for 
great art. He affords perhaps the most con- 
spicuous modern instance of an artist reaching 
beauty and unity through an almost blind 
obedience to his own instincts and emotions. 
His art was so new and attractive that it 
was sure to attract a following ; but its value 
was so personal that the school he founded 
could scarcely be more than a weakened re- 
flection of the master. 

Two of Walker's pictures are in the Na- 
tional Gallery, ' Vagrants ' and the ' Harbour 
of Refuge.' The best portraits of him are a 
watercolour drawing, done by himself at the 
age of twenty-five, which belongs to Mr. 
J. G. Marks, and Armstead's medallion in 
Cookhain church. 

[Life and Letters of Frederick Walker, by 
J. G. Marks ; Frederick Walker and his Works 
(Portfolio for June 1894), by Claude Phillips; 
An Artist's Holidays (Mag. of Art for September 
1889), by J. C. Hodgson, R.A. ; Essays on Art, 
by J. Cornyns-Carr ; Hist, of the Old Water- 
colour Soc. vol. ii., by J. L. Roget ; Cat. of the 
exhibition of works of the late F. Walker, A. R.A. 
(preface by Tom Taylor) ; Catalogues of Royal 
Academy ; private information.] W. A. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1581 P-1G51), 
divine, born about 1581 at Hawkshead in 
Furness, Lancashire, was educated at the 
Hawkshead grammar school, founded by his 
kinsman, Archbishop Edwin Sandys [q. v.] 
He was a near relative of John Walker 
(d. 1588) [q. v.] Fuller states that George 
Walker ' being visited when a child with 
the small-pox, and the standers-by expecting 
his dissolution, he started up out of a trance 
with this ejaculation, "Lord, take me not 
away till I have showed forth thy praise," 
which made his parents devote him to the 
ministry after his recovery.' He went to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1608 and M.A. in 1611. His 
former tutor, Christopher Foster, who held 
the rectory of St. John Evangelist, Watling 
Street, the smallest parish in London, re- 
signed that benefice in favour of Walker, 
who was inducted on 29 April 1614 on the 
presentation of the dean and chapter of 
Canterbury Cathedral (HENNESSY, Nov. He- 
pert. Eccl. p. 310). There he continued all 
his life, refusing higher preferment often 
proffered him. In 1614 he accused Anthony 
AVotton [q. v.] of Socinian heresy and blas- 
phemy. This led to a ' conference before 
eight learned divines,' which ended in a vin- 
dication of Wotton. On 2 March 1618-19 



he was appointed chaplain to Nicholas Fel- 
ton [q. v.J, bishop of Ely. He was already 
esteemed an excellent logician, hebraist, and 
divine, and readily engaged in disputes with 
' heretics ' and ' papists.' On 10 July 1621 
he was incorporated B.D. of Oxford. 

On 31 May 1623 he had a disputation on 
the authority of the church with Sylvester 
Norris, who called himself Smith. An 
account of this was published in the follow- 
ing year under the title of ' The Summe of a 
Disputation between Mr. Walker . . . and a 
Popish Priest, calling himselfe Mr. Smith.' 

About the same time Walker was associated 
with Dr. Daniel Featley [q. v.] in a dispu- 
tation with Father John Fisher (real name 
Percy), and afterwards published 'Fisher's 
Folly Unfolded ; or the Vaunting Jesuites 
Vanity discovered in a Challenge of his . . . 
undertaken and answered by G. W.,' 1624, 
4to. On 11 March 1633-4 he undertook to 
contribute 20s. yearly for five years towards 
the repair of St. Paul's (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1633-4, p. 498). His puritanism was 
displeasing to Laud, who in 1635 mentions 
him in his yearly report to Charles I as one 
' who had all his time been but a disorderly 
and peevish man, and now of late hath very 
frowardly preached against the Lord Bishop 
of Ely [White] his book concerning the 
Lord's Day, set out by authority ; but upon 
a canonical admonition given him to desist 
he hath recollected himself, and I hope will 
be advised ' (LAUD, Troubles and Tryal, 
1695, p. 535). In 1638 appeared his < Doc- 
trine of the Sabbath,' which bears the im- 
print of Amsterdam, and contains extreme 
and peculiar views of the sanctity of the 
Lord's day. A second edition, entitled ' The 
Holy AVeekly Sabbath,' was printed in 1641. 
His main hypothesis was refuted by H. AVit- 
sius in his ' De (Economia Foederum,' 1694. 

Walker was committed to prison on 
11 Nov. 1638 for some ' things tending to 
faction and disobedience to authority ' found 
in a sermon delivered by him on the 4th of 
the same month (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1638-9, p. 98). His case was introduced into 
the House of Commons on 20 May 1641, and 
his imprisonment declared illegal. He was 
afterwards restored to his parsonage, and 
received other compensation for his losses. 
At the trial of Laud in 1643 the imprison- 
ment of Walker was made one of the charges 
against the archbishop (LAUD, Troubles, p. 
237). When he was free again he became 
very busy as a preacher and author. Four 
of his works are dated 1641 : 1. ' God made 
visible in His Works, or a Treatise on the 
External Works of God.' 2. ' A Disputa- 
tion between Master Walker and a Jesuit 



Walker 



54 



in the House of one Thomas Bates, in 
Bishop's Court in the Old Bailey, concern- 
ing the Ecclesiastical Function.' 3. ' The 
Key of Saving Knowledge.' 4. ' Socinia- 
nisme in the Fundamentall Point of Justi- 
fication discovered and confuted.' In the 
last, which was directed against John Good- 
win [q. v.], he revived his coarse imputations 
against Wotton, who found a vindicator in 
Thomas Gataker, in his ' Mr. Anthony Wot- 
ton's Defence against Mr. George Walker's 
Charge,' Cambridge, 1641, 12mo. In the 
following year Walker replied in ' A True 
Relation of the Chiefe Passages betweene 
Mr. Anthony Wotton and Mr. George 
Walker.' Goodwin in his ' Treatise on 
Justification,' 1642, deals with the various 
doctrinal points raised by Walker. 

Walker joined the Westminster assembly 
of divines in 1643, in the records of which 
body his name often appears as that of an 
active and influential member. On 29 Jan. 
1644-5 he preached a fast-day sermon before 
the House of Commons, which was shortly 
afterwards published,with an ' Epistle ' giving 
some particulars of his imprisonment. In 
the same year (1645) he printed 'A Brotherly 
and Friendly Censure of the Errour of a 
Dead Friend and Brother in Christian Affec- 
tion.' This refers to some utterance of 
W. Prynne. On 26 Sept. 1645 parliament 
appointed him a ' trier ' of elders in the Lon- 
don classis. There is an interesting undated 
tract by him entitled 'An Exhortation to 
Dearely beloved countrimen, all the Na- 
tives of the Countie of Lancaster, inhabit- 
ing in and about the Citie of London, tend- 
ing to persuade and stirre them up to a 
yearely contribution for the erection of 
Lectures, and maintaining of some Godly 
and Painfull Preachers in such places of 
that Country as have most neede.' He 
himself did his share in the direction indi- 
cated, for, in addition to spending other sums 
in Lancashire, he allowed the minister of 
Hawkshead "201. a year, and the parsonage- 
house and glebe there were long called 
' Walker Ground,' from their being his gift. ! 
He was also a benefactor to Sion College ! 
library and a liberal supporter of the assem- 
bly of divines. 

Wood justly styles Walker a 'severe par- 
tisan/ but he was also, as Fuller said, ' a j 
man of an holy life, humble heart, and 
bountiful hand.' 

He died in his seventieth year in 1651, 
and was buried in his church in Watling 
Street, which was destroyed in the fire of 
1666. 

[Fuller's Worthies; Wood's Fasti, i. 399, ed. 
Bliss ; Xewcourt's Repertorium, i. 375 ; Ward's 



Gresham Professors, p. 40 ; Dodd's Church His- 
tory, 1739, pp. 394, 402 ; Neal's Puritans, 2nd 
edit. ii. 416 ; Brook's Puritans, ii. 347 ; House of 
Commons' Journals, ii. 151, 201, 209, iv. 288, 
348 ; House of Lords' Journals, iv. 214, 457, vi. 
469 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. p. 170; 
Jackson's Life of John Goodwin, 2nd edit. 1872, 
p. 38 ; GastrelPs Notitia Cestriensis (Chetham 
Soc.), ii. 519; Cox's Literature of the Sabbath 
Question, 1865; Mitchell and Struthers's Minutes 
of the Westminster Assembly, 1874; Mitchell's 
Westminster Assembly, 1883; Hennessy'sNovum 
Repertorium, p. 310.] C. W. S. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1618-1690), go- 
vernor of Londonderry, was the son of 
George Walker, a native of Yorkshire, who 
became chancellor of Armagh, by his wife, 
Ursula Stanhope. George Walker the 
younger was a native of Tyrone, according 
to Harris, but others say he was born at 
Stratford-on-Avon (WAKE, Irish Writers, 
ed. Harris ; WOOD, Life, ed. Clark, iii. 327). 
He was educated at Glasgow University, 
but his name does not occur in the ' Muni- 
menta Universitatis,' and little is known of 
him until his appointment in 1669 to the 
parishes of Lissan and Desertlyn in co. Lon- 
donderry and Armagh diocese. He was 
already married to Isabella Maxwell of Fin- 
nebrogue. In 1674 he was presented to 
Donaghmore parish, near Dungannon, and 
went to live and do duty in that town, but 
without resigning Lissan. Donaghmore 
church and parsonage were in ruins after the 
civil war, but the former was restored in 
1681, and in 1683 Walker built a substantial 
thatched house for himself. In the following 
year he built a corn-mill in the village of 
Donaghmore. Walker appears to have visited 
England in 1686. 

At the close of 1688 Londonderry stood 
on its defence, and Walker was advised by 
some man of rank, not named, to raise a 
regiment at Dungannon, and this he con- 
sidered ' not only excusable but necessary.' 
The famous John Leslie [q-v.], bishop of 
Clogher, in the same county, had had no 
scruple on account of his cloth. Early in 
1688-9 Walker rode to Londonderry to see 
the acting governor, Robert Lundy [q. v.], 
who sent drill-instructors and two troops of 
horse to Dungannon, but ordered its evacua- 
tion on 14 March. Walker went in com- 
mand of five companies to Strabane, whence 
he moved to Omagh by Lundy's orders. A 
fortnight later he was sent to Saint Johns- 
town, on the left bank of the Foyle. Cole- 
raine being abandoned, the Jacobites were 
masters of the open country, and on 13 April 
Walker went to Londonderry, but could not 
persuade Lundy that he was in danger. On 



Walker 



55 



Walker 



the 15th the passage of the Finn was forced 
at Cladyford, Lundy fled to Londonderry, 
and the gates were shut in Walker's face. 
The next day, he says, ' we got in with much 
difficulty, and some violence upon the sentry' 
{True Account). Walker certainly believed 
Lundy to be a traitor ; but this was hard to 
prove, and he had King William's commis- 
sion. His escape on 19 April was therefore 
connived at, Walker and Baker becoming 
joint-governors. The commissariat was 
Walker's special department, but he had the 
rank of colonel and a regiment of nine hun- 
dred men under him. ' There were,' he says, 
* eighteen clergymen in the town of the 
communion of the church who, in their 
turns, when they were not in action, had 
prayers and sermons every day ; the seven 
nonconforming ministers were equally careful 
of their people, and kept them very obedient 
and quiet ' (ib.) John Mackenzie (1648 ?- 
1696) [q. v.] acted as chaplain to the pres- 
byterians of Walker's own regiment. It was 
arranged that the church people should use 
the cathedral in the morning, and the non- 
conformists in the afternoon. 

In the sally of 21 April Walker relieved 
Murray, whom he saw surrounded by the 
' enemy, and with great courage laying about 
him ' (w.) A few days later he had himself 
a narrow escape, being treacherously fired on 
while going to meet a flag of truce. Baker, 
falling ill in June, made John Michelborne 
[q.v.] his deputy, and when he died the latter 
remained joint-governor with Walker to the 
end of the siege. His conduct met with 
some criticism. Mackenzie charges him with 
too great subservience to Kirke. It was 
known that the Jacobites were making great 
efforts to buy him, and some saluted him in 
the streets by the titles he was supposed to 
wish for ( True Account, 2 July). It was re- 
ported that he had secreted provisions, but 
his house was searched at his own suggestion 
and the calumny disproved. Mackenzie 
accuses him of having preached a dishearten- 
ing sermon just before the end of the siege, 
but his extant sermons and speeches are most 
inspiriting. The town was relieved by water 
on 28 July. Walker resigned his office into 
the hands of Kirke, who allowed him to name 
a new colonel for his regiment. He named 
Captain White, who had done good service 
during the siege. Michelborne was made 
sole governor by Kirke. 

The rescued garrison adopted a loyal ad- 
dress, which was entrusted to Walker, and 
he sailed from Lough Foyle on 9 Aug. (Asii, 
Diary). This mission to England is some 
proof of the estimation in which he was held. 
He landed in Scotland, and received the 



freedom of Glasgow and Edinburgh on 
13 and 14 Aug. (WiTHEKOW, p. 303). On 
his way south he halted at Chester, where 
Scravenmore received him with open arms 
(cf. DWYER, p. 133 n.) He was in London 
a few days later, some admirers going as far 
as Barnet to welcome him. On 20 Aug., 
before his arrival, the Irish Society appointed 
a deputation to wait on him with thanks for 
his services, and later he was entertained at 
dinner (Concise View of the Irish Society). On 
6 Sept. he attended the society to represent 
that most of the houses in Londonderry 
were down, and to ask for help ; 1,200/. 
was voted by the city companies for im- 
mediate relief of the houseless people (ib.) 
Walker presented the Londonderry address 
to the king in person at Hampton Court, 
and William gave him an order for 5,000/., 
remarking that this was no payment, and 
that he considered his claims undiminished 
(MACAFLAY, chap, xv.) The money was 
paid next day (LUTTRELL, Diary, 25 Aug.) 
' It seemed,' said a contemporary writer, ' as 
if London intended him a public Roman 
triumph, and the whole kingdom to be actors 
and spectators of the cavalcade' (DAWSOX, 
p. 270). Portraits of him were scattered 
broadcast. ' The king,' wrote Tillotson on 
19 Sept., 'besides his first bounty to Mr. 
Walker, whose modesty is equal to his merit, 
hath made him bishop of Londonderry (sic), 
one of the best bishoprics in Ireland ... it 
is incredible how everybody is pleased '(LADY 
RUSSELL, Letters, ed. 1801). Ezekiel Hop- 
kins [q. v.l was still bishop of Derry, but it 
was intended to translate him, and Walker 
was named as his successor (WboD, Life, iii. 
209). There were doubts about his willing- 
ness to accept a mitre (ib.) Hopkins died 
three weeks before Walker, who was thus 
actually bishop-designate only for that time. 
On 18 Nov. a petition from Walker was pre- 
sented to the House of Commons, setting 
forth the case of two thousand persons made 
widows and orphans by the siege. He asked 
nothing for himself. Next day he was called 
in and received the thanks of the house. 
Speaker Powle informed him that an address 
had been voted to the king for 10,OOOZ. to 
relieve the sufferers, and desired Walker to 
give the thanks of the house to those who 
had fought with him, ' when those to whose 
care it was committed did most shamefully 
if not perfidiously desert the place' ('Com- 
mons' Journal' in DWYER, p. 113 n.) On 
8 Oct. Walker was made D.D. at Cambridge, 
'juxta tenorem regii praecepti,' but it is un- 
certain whether he was present (WoOD, 
Life, iii. 312 ; DWYER, p. 113 n.) He visited 
Oxford on his way to Ireland, and the 



Walker 



Walker 



chancellor of the university, the second 
Duke of Ormonde, wrote to recommend him 
for the doctorate. On 26 Feb. 1689-90 
Vice-chancellor William Jane presented him 
to convocation as a divine of the church of 
Ireland, governor and preserver of Derry 
city, champion of liberty, ' utraque Pallade 
magnum ut a militia ad togam redeat ' (ib. 
p. 326). The diploma says that by saving 
Derry he saved Ireland (DAWSON, p. 272). 

Walker was at Belfast on 13 March 1689- 
1690 (contemporary account in BENN, Hist, 
of Belfast, p. 178), when Schomberg and 
the Duke of Wiirtemberg were there. Wil- 
liam landed at Carrickfergus on 14 June, 
and was met by Walker outside the north 
gate of Belfast (ib. p. 181 ; DEAN DAVIES, 
Diary, 31 May and 15 June). Walker was 
again presented to the king by Schomberg 
and Ormonde (ib.) He followed him to the 
Boyne, and fell at the passage of the river 
on 1 July. ' What took him there ? ' is said 
to have been the king's comment; but Story, 
the historian, who was himself present as a 
regimental chaplain, had heard that Walker 
was shot while going to look after the 
wounded Schomberg. If this was the case, 
William's sarcasm was unjust, and it is 
doubtful whether he ever uttered it. Walker 
was buried where he fell. Some years later 
his widow had the remains disinterred, as 
she believed, and buried on the south side 
of Castle Caulfield church with a suitable 
inscription, but it is not certain that the 
bones so transferred were really Walker's 
(WiTHEKOw ; DAWSON, p. 273). 

Walker had several sons, four of whom 
were in King William's service ( Vindica- 
tion : Pedigree in DWYER, p. 135 n.) 

While in London Walker was asked to 
write an account of the siege of London- 
derry, which he did in the form of a diary. 
It appeared as ' A true Account of the Siege 
of Londonderry' (London, 1689, 4to). Second 
and third editions were speedily called for 
in the same year ; and also in the same year 
a German translation was published at Ham- 
burg, and a Dutch version at Antwerp (Brit. 
Mus. Cat.) Mackenzie saw Walker's ' True 
Account ' in December, and his ' Narrative ' 
in answer to it was not long delayed (Lon- 
don, 1690, 4to). His object was to minimise 
Walker's share in the defence, and he even 
goes so far as to make the absurd statement 
that Walker was not governor of London- 
derry. A more serious accusation is that 
he claimed too much credit for himself, and 
gave too little to others, especially to the 
presbyterian ministers, whom he does not 
name. Walker in his ' Vindication ' (dated 
London, 1689, 4to, though Mackenzie's 



' Narrative' is dated 1690) is able to answer 
most of the charges brought against him. 
Perhaps he was not careful enough to give 
credit to others, and especially to the heroic 
Adam Murray [q. v.] ; but his book, which 
makes no pretence to completeness, was 
written in a hurry to meet a pressing de- 
mand, and the general tone of it is not 
egotistical. The whole facts of the siege can 
be arrived at only by a careful comparison 
of several narratives, but of these Walker's 
is by far the most vivid. The ' True Ac- 
count ' and ' Vindication ' should be read to- 
gether. 

In Burnet's manuscript there is much 
praise of Walker (printed byDwYER, p. 130 w.), 
and Macaulay, Swift, and others wondered 
why it failed to appear in his printed his- 
tory. 

While in London Walker sat to Kneller 
by the king's desire, and the engraved por- 
trait has been reproduced by Canon Dwyer, 
who mentions various relics (p. 135 n.) An- 
other print is given in the ' Journal of the 
Ulster Archaeological Society,' vol. ii. It 
was also engraved by Peter Vanderbank in 
1689, by Loggan, R. White, Schenck, and 
others (BROMLEY, p. 184). In 1828 a pillar 
was raised at Derry in memory of the long- 
buried governor, and his statue was placed 
on the top. 'In one hand,' says Macaulay, 
' he grasps a Bible. The other, pointing 
down the river, seems to direct the eyes of 
his famished audience to the English top- 
masts in the distant bay.' 

[Authorities as for MURRAY, ADAM; MICHEL- 
BORNE, JOHX ; and MACKENZIE, JOHN*. Siege of 
Londonderry in 1689, by the Rev. P Dwyer, 
London, 1893, contains a reprint of Walker's 
'True Account' and 'Vindication,' with ser- 
mons, speeches, letters, and valuable notes. 
There is a memoir by the Rev. A. Dawson in 
the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii. 
Everything that can be raked up against Walker 
is set forth in WitheroVs Derry and Innis- 
killen, 3rd ed. Belfast, 1885.] R. B-L. 

WALKER, GEORGE (d. 1777), pri- 
vateer, as a lad and a young man served in 
the Dutch navy, and was employed in the 
Levant apparently for the protection of trade 
against Turkish or Greek pirates. Later on 
he became the owner of a merchant ship and 
commanded her for some years. In 1739 he 
was principal owner and commander of the 
ship Duke William, trading from London to 
South Carolina, and, the better to prepare for 
defence, took out letters of marque. His ship 
mounted 20 guns, but had only thirty-two 
men. The coast of the Carolinas was in- 
fested by some Spanish privateers, and, in the 
absence of any English man-of-war, Walker 



Walker 



57 



Walker 



put the Duke William at the service of the 
colonial government. His offer was accepted ; 
he increased the number of his men to 130, 
and presently succeeded in driving the 
Spaniards off the coast. Towards the end of 
1742 he sailed for England with three mer- 
chantmen in convoy. But in a December 
gale, as they drew near the Channel, the 
ship's seams opened, planks started, and with 
the greatest difficulty she was kept afloat till 
Walker, with her crew, managed to get on 
board one of the merchantmen. This was 
in very little better state, and was only kept 
afloat by the additional hands at the pumps. 
When finally Walker arrived in town, he 
learned that his agents had allowed the in- 
surance to lapse, and that he was a ruined 
man. 

For the next year he was master of a 
vessel trading to the Baltic ; but in 1744, 
when war broke out with France, he was 
offered the command of the Mars, a private 
ship of war of 26 guns, to cruise in company 
with another, the Boscawen, somewhat 
larger and belonging to the same owner. 
They sailed from Dartmouth in November, 
and on one of the first days of January 
1744-5 fell in with two homeward-bound 
French ships of the line, which captured the 
Mars after the Boscawen had hurriedly de- 
serted her. Walker was sent as a prisoner 
on board the Fleuron. On 6 Jan. the two 
ships and their prize were sighted by an 
English squadron of four ships of the line, 
which separated and drew off without bring- 
ing them to action [see BRETT, JOHN ; G RIF- 
T-IN, THOMAS ; MOSTYN, SAVAGE], The 
Frenchmen, who were sickly, undermanned, 
and had a large amount of treasure on board, 
were jubilant and boastful ; but they treated 
Walker with civility, and he was landed at 
Brest as a prisoner at large. Only the very 
next day the Fleuron accidentally, or rather 
by gross carelessness, was blown up, and a 
letter of credit which Walker had was lost. 
He was, however, able to get this arranged, 
and within a month was exchanged. On 
returning to England he was put in com- 
mand of the Boscawen, and sent out in com- 
pany with the Mars, which had been recap- 
tured and bought by her former owners. 
The two cruised with but little success 
during the year, and, coming into the Chan- 
nel in December, the Boscawen, a weakly 
built ship, iron-fastened, almost fell to pieces ; 
and only by great exertions on the part of 
Walker was preserved to be run ashore on 
the coast of Cornwall. It was known in 
London that but for Walker's determined 
conduct the ship would have gone down in 
the open sea with all hands ; and he was 



almost immediately offered a much more 
important command. 

This was a squadron of four ships King 
George, Prince Frederick, Duke, and Prin- 
cess Amelia known collectively as the 
' Royal Family,' which carried in the aggre- 
gate 121 guns and 970 men. The prestige of 
this squadron was very high, for in the sum- 
mer of 1745, oft' Louisbourg [see WARREN, 
SIR PETER], it had made an enormously 
rich prize, which, after the owners' share of 
700,000/. was deducted, had yielded 850J. to 
each seaman, and to the officers in propor- 
tion. The result was that far more men 
than were wanted now offered themselves, and 
the ships were consequently better manned 
than usual. After cruising for nearly a 
year, and having made prizes considerably 
exceeding 200,000/., the Royal Family put 
into Lisbon ; and, sailing again in July 1747, 
had been watering in Lagos Bay, when on 
6 Oct. a large ship was sighted standing in 
towards Cape St. Vincent. This was the 
Spanish 70-gun ship Glorioso, lately come 
from the Spanish Main with an enormous 
amount of treasure on board. The treasure, 
however, had been landed at Ferrol, and she 
was now on her way to Cadiz. Walker took 
for granted that she had treasure, and boldly 
attacked her in the King George, a frigate- 
built ship of 32 guns. Had the other mem- 
bers of the Royal Family been up, they might 
amongthem have man aged the huge Spaniard ; 
as it was, it spoke volumes for Spanish in- 
competence that in an action of several 
hours' duration, in smooth water and fine 
weather, the King George was not destroyed. 
She was, however, nearly beaten ; but on the 
Prince Frederick's coming up, the Glorioso, 
catching the same breeze, fled to the west- 
ward, where she was met and engaged by 
the Dartmouth, a king's ship of 50 guns. 
The Dartmouth accidentally blew up, with 
the loss of every soul on board except one 
lieutenant; but some hours later the 80-gun 
ship Russell brought the Glorioso to action 
and succeeded in taking her. The Russell 
was only half manned, and was largely de- 
pendent on the privateers to take the prize 
into the Tagus. One of his owners, who had 
come to Lisbon, gave Walker ' a very uncouth 
welcome for venturing their ship against a 
man-of-war.' ' Had the treasure,' answered 
Walker, ' been aboard, as I expected, your 
compliment had been otherways ; or had we 
let her escape from us with that treasure on 
board, what had you then have said ? ' The 
Royal Family continued cruising, with but 
moderate success for the enemy's ships had 
been wiped off the sea till the end of the 
war. Altogether, the prizes taken by the 



Walker 



Walker 



Royal Family under Walker's command 
were valued at about 400,000. 

After the peace Walker commanded a ship 
in the North Sea trade, but either lost or 
squandered the money he had made in the 
Royal Family. He got involved, too, in 
some dispute with the owners about the ac- 
counts, and was by them imprisoned for 
debt shortly after the outbreak of the seven 
years' war. How long he was kept a pri- 
soner does not appear, but he had no active 
employment during the war. He died on 
20 Sept, 1777. 

[Voyages and Cruises of Commodore Walker 
during the late Spanish and French Wars 
(Dublin, 1762) ; Laughton's Studies in Naval 
History, p. 225.] J. K. L. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1734 p-1807), 
dissenting divine and mathematician, was 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne about 1734. At 
ten years of age he was placed in the care of 
an uncle at Durham, Thomas Walker (d. 
10 Nov. 1763), successively minister at 
Cockermouth,1732,Durham,1736, and Leeds, 
1748, where Priestley describes him as one 
of ' the most heretical ministers in the neigh- 
bourhood' (Run, Priestley, 1831, i. 11). 
He attended the Durham grammar school 
under Richard Dongworth. In the autumn 
of 1749, being then ' near fifteen,' he was 
admitted to the dissenting academy at Ken- 
dal under Caleb Rotherham [q. v.] ; here, 
among the lay students, he met with his 
lifelong friend, John Manning (1730-1806). 
On Rotherham's retirement (1751) he was for 
a short time under Hugh Moises [q. v.] at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. In November 1751 he 
entered at Edinburgh University with Man- 
ning, where he studied mathematics under 
Matthew Stewart [q. v.], who gave him his 
taste for that science. He removed to Glasgow 
in 1752 for the sake of the divinity lectures 
of William Leechman [q. v.], continued his 
mathematical studies under Robert Simson 

Eq.v.l, and heard the lectures of Adam Smith 
q. v.], but learned more from all three in 
their private conversation than their public 
prelections. Among his classmates were 
Newcome Cappe [q. v.], Nicholas Clayton 
[q. v.], and John Millar (1735-1801) [q. v.], 
members with him of a college debating 
society. Leaving Glasgow in 1754 with- 
out graduating, he did occasional preach- 
ing at Newcastle and Leeds, and injured his 
health by study. At Glasgow he had al- 
lowed himself only three hours' sleep. He 
was recovered by a course of sea bathing. 
In 1766 he declined an invitation to succeed 
Robert Andrews [q. v.] as minister of Platt 
Chapel, Manchester, but later in the year 



accepted a call (in succession to Joseph Wil- 
kinson) from his uncle's former flock at 
Durham, and was ordained there in 1757 as 
' spiritual consul' to a ' presbyterian tribe.' 

At Durham he finished, but did not yet 
publish, his ' Doctrine of the Sphere,' begun 
in Edinburgh. With the signature P.M.D. 
(presbyteriau minister, Durham) he contri- 
buted to the 'Ladies' Diary' [see TIPPEB, 
JOHN] , then edited by Thomas Simpson (1710- 
1761) [q. v.] He left Durham at the begin- 
ning of 1762 to become minister at Filby, 
Norfolk, and assistant to John Whiteside 
(d. 1784) at Great Yarmouth. Here he re- 
sumed his intimacy with Manning, now prac- 
tising as a physician at Norwich. He began 
his treatise on conic sections, suggested to 
him by Sir Isaac Newton's ' Arithmetica 
Universalis,' 1707. He took pupils in mathe- 
matics and navigation. Through Richard 
Price (1723-1791) [q.v.] he was elected fellow 
of the Royal Society, and recommended to 
William Petty, second earl of Shelburne 
(afterwards first Marquis of Lansdowne) 
[q.v.], for the post of his librarian, afterwards 
filled! by Joseph Priestley [q. v.], but de- 
clined it (1772) owing to his approaching 
marriage. He accepted in the same year the 
office of mathematical tutor at Warrington 
Academy, in succession to John Holt (d. 
1772 ; see under HORSLEY, JOHN). Here he 
prepared for the press his treatise on the 
sphere, himself cutting out all the illustrative 
figures (twenty thousand, for an edition of 
five hundred copies). It appeared in quarto 
in 1775, and was reissued in 1777. Joseph 
Johnson [q. v.] gave him for the copyright 
40/., remitted by Walker on finding the pub- 
lisher had lost money. The emoluments at 
Warrington did not answer his expectation. 
He resigned in two years, and in the autumn 
of 1774 became colleague to John Simpson 
(1746-1812) at High Pavement chapel, Not- 
tingham. 

Here he remained for twenty-four years, 
developing unsuspected powers of public 
work. He made his mark as a pulpit orator, 
reconciled a division in his congregation, 
founded a charity school (1788), and pub- 
lished a hymn-book. His colleagues after 
Simpson's retirement were (1778) Nathaniel 
Philipps (d. 20 Oct. 1842), the last dissent- 
ing minister who preached in a clerical wig 
(1785), Nicholas Clayton (1794), William 
Walters (d. 11 April 1806). In conjunction 
with Gilbert Wakefield [q. v.], who was in 
Nottingham 1784-90, he formed a literary 
! club, meeting weekly at the members' houses. 
Wakefield considered him as possessing ' the 
I greatest variety of knowledge, with the most 
j masculine understanding ' of any man he ever 



Walker 



59 



Walker 



knew (Memoirs of Wakefield, 1804, i. 227). 
Nottingham was a focus of political opinion, 
which Walker led both by special sermoiiH 
and by drafting petitions and addresses sent 
forward by the tOAvn in favour of the inde- 
pendence of the United States and the advo- 
cacy of parliamentary and other reforms. 
His ability and his constitutional spirit won 
the high commendation of Edmund Burke 
[q. v.] His reform speech at the county 
meeting at Mansfield, 28 Oct. 1782, was his 
greatest effort. William Henry Cavendish 
Bentinck, third duke of Portland [q. v.], com- 
pared him with Cicero, to the disadvantage 
of the latter. From 1787 he was chairman 
of the associated dissenters of Nottingham- 
shire, Derbyshire, and part of Yorkshire, 
whose object was to achieve the repeal of the 
Test Acts. His ' Dissenters' Plea,' Birming- 
ham [1790], 8vo, was reckoned by Charles 
James Fox [q. v.] the best publication on 
the subject. He was an early advocate of 
the abolition of the slave trade. The variety 
of his interests is shown by his publication 
(1794, 4to) of his treatise on conic sections, 
while he was agitating against measures for 
the suppression of public opinion, which cul- 
minated in the 'gagging act' of 1795. 

Towards the close of 1797, after a fruit- 
less application to Thomas Belsham [q. v.], 
Walker was invited to succeed Thomas 
Barnes [q. v.] as professor of theology in j 
Manchester College. He felt it a duty to 
comply, and resigned his Nottingham charge 
on 5 May 1798. There was one other tutor, \ 
but the funds were low, and Walker's appeal ] 
(19 April 1799) for increased subscriptions I 
met with scant response. From 1800 the 
entire burden of teaching, including classics 
and mathematics, fell on him, nor was his 
remuneration proportionally increased. In 
addition he took charge (1801-3) of the 
congregation at Dob Lane Chapel, Fails- 
worth. He resigned in 1803, and the col- 
lege was removed to York [see WELLBE- 
LOVED, CHARLES^]. 

Walker remained for two years in the 
neighbourhood of Manchester, and continued 
to take an active part in its Literary and 
Philosophical Society, of which he was elected 
president on the death of Thomas Percival 
(1740-1804) [q. vj In 1805 he removed to 
Wavertree, near Liverpool, still keeping up 
a connection with Manchester. In the spring 
of 1807 he went to London on a publishing 
errand. His powers suddenly failed. He 
died at Draper Hall, London, on 21 April 
1807, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
His portrait is in the possession of the Man- 
chester Literary and Philosophical Society, 
and has been twice engraved. He married 



in 1772, and left a widow. His only son, 
George Walker, his father's biographer and 
author of ' Letters to a Friend' (1843) on 
his reasons for nonconformity, became a re- 
sident in France. His only daughter, Sarah 
(d. 8 Dec. 1854), married, on 9 July 1795, 
Sir George Cayley, bart., of Brompton, near 
Scarborough. William Manning Walker 
(1784-1833), minister at Preston and Man- 
chester, was his nephew. 

Walker's theology, a ' tempered Arianism,' 
plays no part in his own compositions, but 
shows itself in omissions and alterations in 
his ' Collection of Psalms and Hymns,' War- 
rington, 1788, 8vo. He wrote a few hymns. 
Many of his speeches and political addresses 
will be found in his ' Life' and collected 
' Essays.' Besides the mathematical works 
already mentioned, he published: 1. 'Ser- 
mons,' 1790, 2 vols. 8vo. Posthumous were : 
2. 'Sermons,' 1808, 4 vols. 8vo (including re- 
print of No. 1). 3. ' Essays . . . prefixed . . . 
Life of the Author,' 1809, 2 vols. 8vo. 

[Obituary by Aikin, in Athenaeum, June 1807, 
p. 638 ; Life, by his Son, prefixed to Essays, also 
separately, 1809; Monthly Repository, 1807 p. 
217, 1810 pp. 264, 352, 475, 500, 504, 1811 
p. 18, 1813 p. 577 ; Wicksteed's Memory of the 
Just, 1849, p. 127; Bright's Historical Sketch 
of Warrington Academy, 1859, p. 16; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1861, ii. 183; Carpenter's Pres- 
byterianism in Nottingham [1862], p. 161 ; 
Halley's Lancashire, 1869, ii. 395, 409, 468; 
Roll of Students, Manchester Coll. 1868; 
Browne's Hist, of Congregationalism in Norfolk 
and Suffolk, 1877, p. 251 ; Nightingale's Lan- 
cashire Nonconformity, 1891 i. 17, 1893 v. 47; 
Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, pp. 12, 30.] 

A. G. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1772-1847), 
novelist, was born in Falcon Square, Cripple- 
gate, London, 24 Dec. 1772. At the age of 
fifteen he was apprenticed to a bookseller 
named Cuthell in Middle Row,Holborn, and 
two years afterwards started in the same 
business for himself with a capital of a few 
shillings. He remained in this business the 
whole of his life, and became prosperous. 
He first transferred his shop to Portland 
Street, where he added a musical publishing 
department, and finally, as a music publisher 
solely, he removed to Golden Square, and 
took his son George Walker (1803-1879) 
[q. v.] into partnership with him. He died 
on 8 Feb. 1847. 

He wrote numerous novels after the then 
popular style of Mrs. Radcliffe : 1. ' Romance 
of the Cavern,' London, 1792, 2 vols. 

2. ' Haunted Castle,' London, 1794, 2 vols. 

3. 'House of Tynian,' London, 1795, 4 vols. 

4. ' Theodore Cyphon,' London, 1796, 3 vols. 



Walker 



Walker 



5. ' Cinthelia/ London, 1797, 4 vols. ; French 
translation, Paris, 1798-9. 6. 'The Vaga- 
bond/ London, 1799, 2 vols.; French trans- 
lation, Paris, 1807. 7. 'The Three Spaniards,' 
London, 1800, 3 vols.; French translation, 
Paris, 1805. 8. 'Don Raphael/ London, 
1803, 3 vols. 9. 'Two Girls of Eighteen/ 
London, 1806, 2 vols. 10. ' Adventures of 
Timothy Thoughtless/ London, 1813. 
11. 'Travels of Sylvester Tramper/ London, 
1813. 12. 'The Midnight Bell/ London, 
1824, 3 vols. He also published a volume 
of poems, London, 1801, and 'The Battle of 
Waterloo : a poem/ London, 1815. 

[London Directory; Biogr. Universelle ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] J. K. M. 

WALKER, GEORGE (1803-1879), 
writer on chess, born in London in March 
1803, was the son of George Walker (1772- 
1847) [q. v.] After his father's death in 
1847, George Walker went on to the Stock 
Exchange, where he practised until a few 
years before his death on 23 April 1879. He 
was buried at Kensal Green. 

As a chess-player AValker was bright with- 
out being extremely brilliant. His recorded 
games with masters show that he was an 
adept in developing his men and making ex- 
changes, but he admits that players of the 
force of Morphy or Macdonnell could always 
give him the odds of the pawn and move. 
He himself was a great laudator temporis 
acti in chess matters, and contended that a 
match between Philidor and Ponziani would 
surpass the play of any of his contemporaries. 
Among the latter his hero was Labourdon- 
nais, whom he tended in his last illness, and 
buried at his own expense in Kensal Green 
cemetery [December 1840 ; see MACDONNELL, 
ALEXANDER]. AValker wrote a memoir of 
the ' roi d'echecs ' for ' Bell's Life/ which 
was translated for the Parisian ' Palamede ' 
(15 Dec. 1841) as ' Derniers Moments de 
Labourdonnais.' Other players celebrated 
by Walker are St. Amant, Mouret (the 
' Automaton '), John Cochrane, George 
Perigal, and Selous and Popert, the joint 
' primates of chess ' along with Walker 
himself between the death of Macdonnell 
and the rise of Staunton. From 1840 to 
1847, when he ceased playing first-rate chess, 
he was inferior only to Buckle and Staunton 
among English players. 

As a writer on the game, George Walker's 
reputation was European. His first publica- 
tion, a pamphlet of twenty-four pages, on 
'New Variations in the Muzio Gambit' 
(1831, 12mo), was followed in less than 
a year by his ' New Treatise/ which 
gradually supplanted the chess ' Studies ' of 



Peter Pratt (1803, &c.) and the far from 
thorough 'Treatise ' by J. H. Sarratt (1808) 
as amended by William Lewis in 1821 ; 
of the ' New Treatise ' a German version 
went through several editions. Walker's 
style was bright and often witty. To later 
editions was appended an excellent biblio- 
graphy; but this has been almost entirely 
superseded by the ' Schachlitteratur ' of A. 
Van der Linde (Berlin, 1880; cf. however, 
Chess Monthly, iii. 43). Walker's fine chess 
library was dispersed by Sotheby on 14 May 
1874 {Westminster Papers, 1 May 1874). 
He was also a benefactor to the cause of 
chess as a founder and promoter of clubs, 
notably the Westminster Chess Club (1832- 
1843), famous as the battle-ground of Mac- 
donnell and Labourdonnais, and of Popert 
and Staunton, and its successor in reputation, 
the St. George's Club, which still flourishes. 
A good black-and-white portrait of 
Walker is given in the ' Westminster Papers/ 
1 Dec. 1876. 

Walker's works comprise: 1. 'A New 
Treatise on Chess: containing the rudiments 
of the science . . . and a selection of fifty 
chess problems/ London, 1832, 8vo ; 3rd ed. 
1841 (Era, 4 April) ; 4th ed. ' The Art of 
Chess Play/ 1846. 2. 'A Selection of 
Games at Chess, actually played by Philidor 
and his contemporaries . . . with notes and 
additions/ London, 1835, 12mo. 3. ' Chess 
made Easy/ London, 1836, 12mo; 1850; 
Baltimore, 1837 and 1839. 4. 'ThePhili- 
dorian : a Magazine of Domestic Games/ 
London, 1838 (chess, draughts, whist, &c.) 
5. ' On Moving the Knight/ London, 1840, 
8vo. 6. ' Chess Studies : comprising one 
thousand games actually played during the 
last half-century/ London, 1844, 8vo ; new 
edition, with introduction by E. Free- 
borough, 1893. 7. ' Chess and Chess Players : 
consisting of Original Stories and Sketches/ 
London, 1850, 8vo. Among these papers 
(some of which had been contributed to 
' Fraser/ the ' Chess Player's Chronicle/ and 
other magazines) are interesting sketches of 
the ' Automaton/ Ruy Lopez, the Caf6 de la 
Regence, and stories of Deschapelles, La- 
bourdonnais, and Macdonnell. AValker 
edited Philidor's well-known 'Analysis of 
the Game of Chess . . . with notes and addi- 
tions/ in 1832 (London, 12mo) ; and three 
years later he thoroughly revised the 'Guide 
to the Game of Drafts/ originally published 
by Joshua Sturges in 1800 (another edition 
1845). In 1847 he translated from the 
French the ' Chess Preceptor ' of C. F. de 
Jaenisch. He managed the chess column 
for ' Bell's Life ' from 1834 to 1873. He is 
to be distinguished from AA 7 illiam Green- 



Walker 



61 



Walker 



wood "Walker who published ' A Selection 
of Games at Chess ' in 1836. 

[ChessPlayer's Chronicle, 1 June 1879 (notice 
by the Rev. W. Wayte) ; Bilguer's Handbuch 
des Schachspiels, Leipzig, 1891, p. 54 ; Westmin- 
ster Papers, 1 Dec. 1876 ; Walker's Chess 
Studies, ed. Freeborough, 1893; Bird's Chess 
History, p. xii ; Polytechnic Journal, May and 
September 1841 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; notes kindly 
given by the Rev. W. Wayte.] T. S. 

WALKER, GEORGE ALFRED (1807- 
1884), philanthropist and sanitary reformer, 
born at Nottingham on 27 Feb. 1807, was 
second son of William Walker, a plumber 
of that city, by his wife, Elizabeth William- 
son of Barton-under-Needwood in Stafford- 
shire. Hisearliest schoolmaster, Henry Wild, 
was a quaker of Not ten. As a younger son 
in a middle-class family of nine children, 
George Alfred had to choose betimes his craft 
or profession. Bent upon going up to Lon- 
don to walk the hospitals, he began his pre- 
liminary studies before quitting Nottingham. 
On reaching the metropolis he pursued them 
at the Aldersgate Street school. In 1829 
he was admitted a licentiate of the Society 
of Apothecaries, becoming in 1831 a mem- 
ber of the Royal College of Surgeons. In 
1835 he attended St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, and next year studied in Paris in the 
wards of the Hotel Dieu. There he visited 
the great cemeteries on the outskirts of Paris, 
and continued his study of that great social 
evil of intramural interment to which his 
attention had been first directed in boyhood 
when sauntering through the densely packed 
graveyards of his native place. 

During the autumn of 1853 Walker re- 
turned to London, and entered upon medi- 
cal practice at 101 Drury Lane. His sur- 
gery was surrounded by intramural church- 
yards. At great risk to his health he 
collected evidence on the subject, and by 
his writings forced his conclusions upon the 
public. His first book, which appeared in 
1839, was grimly entitled ' Gatherings from 
Graveyards.' Early in the following year 
he gave important evidence orally before 
a select committee of the House of Com- 
mons. This evidence formed the appendix 
to Walker's next work, called ' The Grave- 
yards of London,' published in 1841. ' Grave- 
yard Walker,' as he was thenceforth dubbed, 
drew up a petition to the House of Com- 
mons in 1842 which led to the appointment 
of a select committee, the labours of which 
finally insured the removal of the remains 
of those buried within populous localities. 
Nine letters from Walker to the ' Morning 
Herald ' were collectively reprinted in 1843 
as ' Interment and Disinterment : a further 



Exposition of the Practices pursued in the 
Metropolitan Places of Sepulture, and the 
Results affecting the Health of the Liv- 
ing.' Walker's subsequent publications were 
'Burial-ground Incendiarism,' 1846, and a 
series of lectures on the ' Actual Condition 
of the Metropolitan Graveyards,' delivered 
in the Mechanics' Institution in Chancery 
Lane (1847), ' by order of the Metropoli- 
tan Society for the Abolition of Burials in 
Town.' In 1847 Walker himself obtained 
possession of the foulest grave-pit to be 
found in London, and removed its contents 
at his own expense to Norwood cemetery. 
This loathsome death-trap, in which ten 
thousand bodies were interred, was in the 
immediate neighbourhood of his surgery. 
It was a cellar (fifty-nine feet by twenty- 
nine feet) underneath a baptist conventicle, 
midway on the west side of St. Clement's 
Lane, and known as Enon Chapel. In 1849 
he issued 'Practical Suggestions for the 
Establishment of Metropolitan Cemeteries;' 
his last work on that theme, published in 
1851, was ' On the Past and Present State 
of Intramural Burying Places,' which in 
1852 ran into a second edition. It was 
largely owing to Walker's efforts that the 
act of 1850, which placed intramural inter- 
ments under severe restrictions, was passed. 

All through his career in London, Walker, 
in addition to his surgery in Drury Lane, 
had another house further west, at 11 St. 
James's Place, in its way almost as remark- 
able. At the back of it he built warm 
vapour baths long before David Urquhart 
[q. v.] brought to the knowledge of Lon- 
doners the luxury of the Turkish bath ; but 
11 St. James's Place was burnt down, baths 
and all. 

Towards the close of his life Walker 
withdrew from London to an estate he 
purchased, Ynysfaig House, near Dolgelly 
m Carmarthenshire. He spent his leisure 
in preparing for publication ' Grave Re- 
miniscences, or Experiences of a Sanitary 
Reformer ; ' but that work was not com- 
pleted. Walker died suddenly at Ynysfaig 
House on 6 July 1884. 

[Personal Recollections ; obituary notice in 
Athenseum, 12 July 1884 ; Men of the Time, 
1884, p. 1083 ; Times, 7 July 1884, and holo- 
graph manuscript papers and original correspon- 
dence.] C. K. 

WALKER, SIE GEORGE TOWNS- 
HEND (1764-1842), general,born on 25 May 
1764, was the eldest son of Major Nathaniel 
Walker, who served in a corps of rangers 
during the American war, and died in 1780, 
by Henrietta, only daughter and heiress of 
Captain John Bagster, R.N.,of West Cowes, 



Walker 



Walker 



Isle of Wight. His great-great-grandfather, 
Sir Walter Walker, of Bushey Hall, Hert- 
fordshire, was advocate to Catherine of 
Braganza [q. v.], the wife of Charles II. 

By Queen Charlotte's desire, he received 
a commission as ensign in the 9oth foot on 
4 March 1782. He became lieutenant on 
13 March 1783, and on 22 June was trans- 
ferred to the 71st, the 95th being disbanded. 
The 71st was also disbanded soon after- 
wards, and on 15 March 1784 he was trans- 
ferred to the 36th. He joined that regiment 
in India, and served with General (after- 
wards Sir Henry) Cosby's force in the ope- 
rations against the Poligars in the neighbour- 
hood of Tinnevelli in February 1786, being 
placed in charge of the quartermaster-gene- 
ral's department. He was invalided home in 
1787, and exchanged on 25 July to the 35th 
foot. In 1788 he was employed on the staff in 
Ireland as aide-de-camp to General Bruce. 
On 13 March 1789 he was made captain- 
lieutenant in the 14th foot, but, instead of 
joining that regiment in Jamaica, he obtained 
leave to go to Germany to study tactics and 
German. 

On 4 May 1791 Walker obtained a company 
in the 60th, all the battalions of which were 
in America ; but he seems to have remained 
at the depot, and in 1793 he went to Flan- 
ders with a body of recruits who had volun- 
teered for active service. He was present at 
the action of 10 May 1794 near Tournay, 
and served in the quartermaster-general's de- 
partment during the retreat of the Duke 
of York's army, being employed on various 
missions. When the army embarked for 
England he was made an inspector of foreign 
corps, and was sent to the Black Forest and 
Switzerland to superintend the raising of 
Baron de Roll's regiment. He made arrange- 
ments for the passage of the men through 
Italy and their embarkation at CivitaVecchia, 
and returned to England in August 1796. 

Walker was promoted major in the 60th 
on 27 Aug. In March 1797 he went to Por- 
tugal, and was aide-de-camp first to General 
Simon Fraser (d. 1777) [q.v.], and afterwards 
to the Prince of Waldeck, who commanded 
the Angle-Portuguese army ; but ill-health 
obliged him to go home in June. He was 
inspecting field-officer of recruiting at Man- 
chester from February 1798 till March 1799. 
He then joined the 50th in Portugal, having 
become lieutenant-colonel in that regiment 
on 6 Sept. 1798 ; but in October he was 
summoned to Holland to act as British 
commissioner with the Russian troops under 
the Duke of York. He afterwards accom- 
panied them to the Channel Islands, and so 
missed the campaign in Egypt, in which his 



regiment had a share. He took over the" 
command of the 50th at Malta in October 
1801, returned with it to Ireland in 1802, 
and served with it in the expedition to 
Copenhagen in 1807, being in Spencer's 
brigade of Baird's division. 

In January 1808 he went with it to the 
Peninsula, as part of Spencer's force. It 
was one of the regiments particularly men- 
tioned by Sir Arthur Wellesley in his re- 
port of the battle of Vimiero. It formed 
part of Fane's brigade, which, with An- 
struther's brigade and Robe's guns, occupied 
a hill in front of Vimiero, and was attacked 
by a strong column under Laborde. The 
French had nearly reached the guns when 
Walker wheeled his right wing round to the 
left by companies, poured a volley into the 
flank of the column, charged it both in front 
and flank, and drove it in confusion down 
the hillside (see FTLER, pp. 105-7, where 
his own account of the charge is quoted). 

In the autumn he went to England, and 
the 50th was commanded by Major (after- 
wards Sir Charles James) Napier during 
Moore's campaign. He returned with des- 
patches for Moore, but reached Coruna two 
days after the battle. He was made colonel 
in the army on 25 Sept. 1808. In 1809 
he served in the Walcheren expedition, at 
first in command of his regiment, and after- 
wards as brigadier. 

In August 1810 he went back to the 
Peninsula with the rank of brigadier-general. 
He was employed for a year in the north of 
Spain, aiding and stimulating the authori- 
ties of Gallicia and the Asturias to raise 
troops and take a more active part in the 
war (see his letters to Lord Liverpool in 
War Office Original Correspondence, No. 142, 
at Public Record Office). He had per- 
suaded Lord Liverpool to let him take three 
thousand British troops to Santona, but 
Lord Wellesley interposed, and the men 
were sent to Wellington (Despatches, Suppl. 
Ser. vii. 268). Finding that he could do no 
good with the Spaniards, and having become 
major-general on 4 June 1811, he applied to 
join the army in Portugal, and in October he 
was given command of a brigade in the 5th 
(Leith's) division. 

At the storming of Badajoz, on the night 
of 6 April 1812, Walker's brigade was ordered 
to make a false attack on the San Vincente 
bastion, to be turned into a real attack if 
circumstances should prove favourable. The 
ladder party missed its way and delayed 
this attack for an hour. Meanwhile the 
breaches, which were on the opposite side of 
the fortress, had been assaulted in vain by 
the fourth and light division ; and the third 



Walker 



Walker 



division, which had escaladed the castle, 
found itself unable to push through into the 
town. Walker's brigade (4th, 30th, and 
44th regiments) reached the glacis undis- 
covered, but was met by a heavy fire as it 
descended by ladders into the ditch and 
placed them against the escarp. The ladders 
proved too short, for the wall was more than 
thirty feet. high. Fortunately, it was un- 
finished at the salient, and there the men 
mounted, by four ladders only. "While some 
of them entered the town, Walker with the 
main body forced his way along the ram- 
parts, and made himself master of three bas- i 
tions. Then a sudden scare (the fear of a j 
mine, according to Napier) made the men 
turn, and they were chased back to the San 
Vincente bastion, where they rallied on a 
battalion in reserve. 

Walker was shot while trying to over- 
come this panic and carry the men onward. 
The ball, fired by a man not two yards dis- 
tant, struck the edge of a watch which he 
was wearing in his breast, turned down- 
wards and passed out between his ribs, splin- 
tering one of them. He also received four 
bayonet wounds. He was taken care of for 
a time by a French soldier, whom he was 
afterwards able to repay. He was so much 
weakened by loss of blood and by subsequent 
haemorrhage that his life was for some time in 
danger, and he had to remain three months 
at Badajoz before he could be sent home. 
His brigade had lost about half its effective 
strength, but its success had decided the fall 
of Badajoz. Wellington in his despatch spoke 
of his conspicuous gallantry and conduct. 
On 24 Oct. he was given the colonelcy of 
De Meuron's regiment. 

He was still suffering from his wounds 
when he returned to the Peninsula in June 
1813. The army was in the Pyrenees, cover- 
ing the blockade of Pamplona, when he 
joined it on 4 Aug. at Ariscun, and was 
placed in command of the first brigade 
(50th, 71st, and 92nd regiments) of the se- 
cond (Stewart's) division. Stewart had been 
wounded in the action of Maya ten days 
before, and in his absence the division was 
commanded by Walker for a month. He 
was present at the battle of the Nivelle on 

110 Nov., but his brigade, which had suffered 
very severely at Maya, was not actively 



Shortly afterwards he was given 
temporary command of the seventh (Lord 
Dalhousie's) division, which formed part of 
Beresford's corps. At the passage of the 
Nive and the actions near Bayonne (10-13 
Dec.) this division was in second line. It 
helped to drive the French out of their 
works at Hastingues and Oeyergave on 



23 Feb. 1814. At Orthes, four days later, it 
was at first behind the fourth division, but it 
had a prominent share in the latter part of 
the battle, and in the pursuit. Walker was 
wounded while leading on one of his bri- 
gades. He was mentioned in Wellington's 
despatch, and was included in the thanks of 
parliament (see Despatches, Suppl. Ser. viii. 
612, for his report to Beresford). 

In March he reverted to his former brigade, 
but in the middle of that month his own 
wound and the death of his wife caused him 
to leave the army and return to England. 
He received the gold medal with two clasps 
for his services in the Peninsula, was made 
K.C.B. in January 1815, and knight-com- 
mander of the Portuguese order of the 
Tower and Sword in May. 

He was governor of Grenada from 7 April 
1815 to 17 Feb. 1816. On 21 April 1817 
he received the G.C.B. He was made a 
member of the consolidated board of general 
officers, and groom of the chamber to the 
Duke of Sussex. On 19 July 1821 he was 
promoted lieutenant-general, and on 11 May 
1825 he was appointed commandcr-in-chief 
at Madras. He took over that command on 
3 March 1826, and held it till May 1831. 
On 28 March 1835 he was made a baronet, 
and received a grant of arms commemorating 
Vimiero, Badajoz, and Orthes. 

On 24 May 1837 he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Chelsea Hospital, and on 
28 June 1838 he was promoted general. He 
had been made a colonel-commandant of the 
rifle brigade on 21 May 1816, De Meuron's 
regiment being disbanded in that year. He 
was subsequently transferred to the ,84th 
regiment on 13 May 1820, to the 52nd on 
19 Sept. 1822, and, 'finally, to the 50th on 
23 Dec. 1839. He died at Chelsea Hospital 
on 14 Nov. 1842. He married, first, in July 
1789, Anna, only daughter of Richard Allen 
of Bury, Lancashire, by whom he had two 
daughters; and, secondly, in August 1820, 
Helen, youngest daughter of Alexander 
Caldcleugh of Croydon, Surrey, by whom he 
had four sons and two daughters. 

Walker was a very handsome soldierly 
man ; his likeness is to be found in Thomas 
Heaphy's picture of the Peninsula heroes. 

[United Service Magazine, December 1842; 
Gent. Mag. 1843, i. 88 ; Fyler's History of the 
50th Regiment ; Wellington Despatchos ; Na- 
pier's War in the Peninsula ; Jones's Sieges in 
Spain ; Royal Military Calendar, iii. 177 ; pri- 
vate information.] E. M. L. 

WALKER, GEORGE WASHINGTON 
(1800-1859), missionary, was born in Lon- 
don on 19 March 1800. His mother dying 



Walker 



6 4 



Walker 



early and his father removing to Paris, he 
was brought up by a grandmother at New- 
castle-on-Tyne as a Unitarian. He was con- 
firmed by a bishop, and placed at a Wesleyan 
school at Barnard Castle. Apprenticed to a 
quaker draper of Newcastle, he attended 
Friends' meetings, and in 1827 joined the 
society. An attachment to his master's 
daughter, who soon after became blind and 
died on 3 Nov. 1828, much influenced his 
character at this time. In 1831, in obedience 
to a 'call,' he accompanied James Back- 
house, a minister of York, on a missionary 
visit to the Southern Hemisphere. They 
landed at Hobart Town (now Hobart) on 
8 Feb. 1832, after a five months' voyage ; 
Van Diemen's Land, as it was then called, 
was a dependency of New South Wales, and 
chiefly known in England for its penal set- 
tlements. The governor, Sir George Arthur 
[q. v.], afforded the Friends every oppor- 
tunity of visiting the convicts, and at his 
request they furnished him with reports on 
penal discipline. They also visited the 
aborigines on Flinders Island. 

In Launceston they gathered a body of 
quakers who held their first yearly meeting 
in 1834, and who have since founded an 
excellent college in Hobart Town for the 
instruction of their young. By that first 
yearly meeting Walker was acknowledged a 
minister. 

After three years in Tasmania they passed 
to Sydney, where they made the acquain- 
tance of Samuel Marsden [q. v.], the oldest 
colonial chaplain, to whose labours they pay 
a high tribute in their journals. On return- 
ing to Hobart they were solicited by the 
new governor, Sir John Franklin [q. v.], to 
give information to his secretary, Captain 
Maconochie, for the report he was preparing 
for the House of Commons (Parl. Accounts 
and Papers, 1837-8, xlii. 21, note g). In 
1838, having visited all the Australian colo- 
nies and having founded numerous tem- 
perance societies (for the drinking of spirits 
they considered the greatest evil of the 
land), Backhouse and Walker set sail for 
Cape Town, calling at Mauritius on the way. 
They visited all the mission stations (num- 
bering eighty) in South Africa, of whatever 
denomination, wrote addresses and had them 
translated into Dutch, and travelled over six 
thousand miles in a wagon or on horseback. 
They parted in September 1840, after nine 
years' united labours ; Walker returned to 
Hobart and set up business as a draper, 
but, having established a savings bank and 
a depot of the Bible Society, both in his 
shop, he soon became engaged entirely in 
these and other philanthropic works. He 



was a member of the board of education and 
on the council of the high school. 

Walker died at Hobart Town on 1 Feb. 
1859, and was buried on the 4th. On 15 Dec. 
1840 he married at Hobart Sarah Benson 
Mather, a quaker minister. 

In conjunction with Backhouse, Walker 
wrote several treatises of a religious charac- 
ter addressed to the inhabitants of the 
countries he visited and to the convicts of 
New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. 

[Backhouse and Tylor's Life and Labours of 
Walker, 1862, 8vo ; Backhouse's Visit to Aus- 
tral. Colonies, 1838-41, 8vo, Visit to Mauritius, 
&c. 1844, and Extracts from Letters, 1838, 3rd 
edit.; Smith's Catalogue; Friends' Biogr. Cat. 
p. 681.] C. F. S. 

WALKER, SiKHOVEXDEN (d. 1728), 
rear-admiral, second son of Colonel William 
Walker of Tankardstown, Queen's County, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Peter Cham- 
berlen (1601-1683) [q. v.], is said to have 
been born about 1656. It would seem more 
probable that he was quite ten years younger. 
Sir Chamberlen Walker, described as ' the 
celebrated man midwife,' was his younger 
brother. His grandfather, John Walker, 
married Mary, daughter of Thomas Hovenden 
of Tankardstown, apparently the grandson of 
Giles Hovenden, who came to Ireland in 
the train of Sir Anthony St. Leger [q. v.] 
Hovenden Walker's early service in the 
navy cannot now be traced. The first mention 
of him is as captain of the Vulture fireship 
on 17 Feb. 1691-2, from which date he took 
post. In the Vulture he was present in 
the battle of Barfleur, but had no actual 
share in it, nor yet in the destruction of the 
French ships at La Hogue. He was shortly 
afterwards appointed to the Sapphire frigate 
on the Irish station ; and, apparently in 
1694, to the Friends' Adventure armed 
ship. In 1695 he commanded the Foresight 
of 50 guns, in which, when off the Lizard, 
in charge of convoy, with the Sheerness 
frigate in company, he is said to have fought 
a gallant action with two French ships of 
sixty and seventy guns, on 29 April 1696, 
and to have beaten them off (CHARNOCK). 
In June 1697 he was appointed to the 
Content Prize ; in September to the Royal 
Oak, and in February 1697-8 to the Boyne 
as flag-captain to Vice-admiral Matthew 
Aylmer [q. v.], going out to the Mediter- 
ranean as commander-in-chief, with local 
rank of admiral a condition that led 
Walker afterwards to raise the question 
whether he ought not to be paid as captain 
to an admiral. The navy board, he com- 
plained, would only pay him as captain to 



Walker 



Walker 



a vice-admiral. On the return of the 
Boyne to England in November 1699 the 
ship was ordered to pay oft', and Walker 
asked for leave of absence to go to Ireland, 
where, he explained, he had a cause pend- 
ing in the court of chancery, in which his 
interests were involved to the extent of a 
thousand pounds. As the admiralty refused 
him leave till the ship was safe in Hamoaze 
and her powder discharged, he begged to 
' lay down ' the command. 

In December 1701 he was appointed to 
the Burford, one of the fleet oft" Cadiz under 
Sir George Eooke [q. v.] in 1702; and 
afterwards of a squadron detached to the 
West Indies with Walker as commodore 
(BrRCHBTT, pp. 599, 603). After calling 
at the Cape Verd Islands and at Barbados, 
he arrived at Antigua in the middle of 
February, and was desired by Colonel 
Christopher Codrington [q. v.] to co-operate 
in an attack on Guadeloupe. The first 
part of the co-operation was to provide the 
land forces with ammunition, which was 
done by making up cartridges with large- 
grained cannon powder and bullets taken 
from the case-shot. Of flints there was no 
store, nor yet of mortars, bombs, pickaxes, 
spades, and such like, necessary for a siege. 
With officers who had allowed their troops 
to be in this state of destitution, it was 
scarcely likely that a warm-tempered man 
such as Walker could act cordially ; and it 
is very possible that this want of agree- 
ment was in a measure answerable for the 
failure, though the account of the campaign 
seems to attribute it mainly to the inefficiency 
of the land forces. The ships certainly took 
the men over to Guadeloupe, put them 
safely on shore, cleared the enemy out of 
such batteries as were within reach of the 
sea, and kept open the communications. 
When the French, driven out of the towns 
and forts, were permitted to retire to the 
mountains, the English were incapable of 
pursuing them, and finally withdrew after 
destroying the town, forts, and plantations. 
' Never did any troops enterprise a thing of 
this nature with more uncertainty and 
under so many difficulties ; for they had 
neither guides nor anything else which was 
necessary ' (BtracHETT, pp. 603-4 ; Walker's 
letters to Burchett, Captains' Letters, W. 
vol. vii.) In the end of May the squadron 
returned to Nevis, where, a few weeks 
later, it was joined by Vice-admiral John 
Graydon [q. v.], with whom it went to 
Jamaica, and later on to Newfoundland and 
England. 

From 1705 to 1707 Walker commanded 
the Cumberland, in which, in the summer of 

VOL. LIX. 



1706, he took out a reinforcement to Sir John 
Leake [q.v.] in the Mediterranean, and had 
part in the relief of Barcelona. In Decem- 
ber 1707 he was appointed to the Royal 
Oak ; in January 1707-8 to the Ramillies, 
and in June, under a recent order in council 
(18 Jan.), to be captain resident at Ply- 
mouth, to superintend and hasten the work 
of the port, and to be commander-in-chief 
in the absence of a flag-officer. On 
15 March 1710-11 he was promoted to be 
rear-admiral of the white; about the same 
time he was knighted ; and on 3 April he was 
appointed commander-in-chief 'of a secret 
expedition,' with an order to wear the union 
flag at the main when clear of the Channel. 
The ' expedition ' intended against Quebec, 
consisting of ten ships of the line, with 
several smaller vessels and some thirty trans- 
ports, carrying upwards of five thousand 
soldiers, commanded by Brigadier-general 
John Hill [q. v.], sailed from Plymouth in 
the beginning of May, and arrived in New 
England on 24 June. The supplies and 
reinforcements which were expected to be 
waiting for it were not ready, and the fleet 
did not sail for the St. Lawrence till 
30 July. As they entered the river it 
began to blow hard, and on 21 Aug. a dense 
fog and an easterly gale compelled them, on 
the advice of the pilots, to lie to for the 
night. By the next morning they had 
drifted on to the north shore, among rocks 
and islands, where eight transports were 
cast away with the loss of nearly nine 
hundred men, and the rest of the fleet was 
saved with the greatest difficulty. 

The stormy weather continuing, the pilots, 
' who had been forced on board the men-of- 
war by the government of New England, all 
judged it impracticable to get up to Quebec 
with a fleet.' The ships, too, were short of 
provisions ; the design of the expedition 
had been ' industriously hid ' from the ad- 
miralty till the last moment ; ' a certain 
person probably the Earl of Oxford is 
meant seemed to value himself very much 
that a design of this nature was kept a 
secret from the admiralty ' (BURCHETT, 
p. 778), and the ships were neither victualled 
nor fitted for what was then a very ex- 
ceptional voyage. A council of war was of 
opinion that if they had been higher up 
the river when the gale came on, they must 
all have been lost ; and that now, being left, 
by the loss of one of the victuallers, with 
only ten weeks' provisions on short allow- 
ance, nothing could be done but to return to 
England as soon as possible. They arrived 
at St. Helen's on 9 Oct., ' and thus ended an 
expedition so chargeable to the nation and 



Walker 



66 



Walker 



from which no advantage could reasonably 
be expected, considering how unadvisedly 
it was set on foot by those who nursed it up 
upon false suggestions and representations ; 
besides, it occasioned the drawing from 
our army in Flanders, under command of 
the Duke of Marlborough, at least six 
thousand men, where, instead of beating up 
and down at sea, they might have done 
their country service. There may be added 
to the misfortunes abroad an unlucky acci- 
dent which happened at their return ; for 
a ship of the squadron, the Edgar of 70 
guns Walker's flagship had not been 
many days at anchor at Spithead ere, by 
what cause is unknown, she blew up and all 
the men which were on board her perished ' 
(ib. p. 781). When the Edgar blew up, 
Walker was happily on shore ; but among 
other things all his papers were still on 
board and were lost, a circumstance which 
afterwards caused him much trouble. On 
14 March 1711-12 he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief at Jamaica, and sailed finally 
from Plymouth on 30 April with the small 
squadron and a convoy of a hundred mer- 
chant ships. The command was uneventful, 
and is mainly important as showing that 
nothing in the conduct of the expedition to 
the St. Lawrence was considered by the ad- 
miralty as prejudicial to Walker's character 
as an officer. On the peace he was ordered 
to England, and arrived off Dover on 26 May 
1713. 

Shortly after the accession of George I 
Walker was called on by the admiralty to 
furnish them with an account of the Canada 
expedition. He replied that they had his 
official letters written at the time, that 
all his journals and other papers had been 
lost in the Edgar, and that any account he 
could write would be necessarily less per- 
fect than what they already had. He was 
told that he must make out the best account 
he could, and was occupied with this when, 
apparently in April 1715, he received 
notice from his attorney that his half- 
pay had been stopped. His name had, 
in fact, been removed from the list of ad- 
mirals ; not probably, as he then and many 
others since have believed, for imputed mis- 
conduct in the Canada expedition, but as 
happened also to many others [cf. HARDY, 
SIR THOMAS; HOSIER, FRANCIS] on sus- 
picion of Jacobitism ; the more so as the 
Canada expedition was certainly intended 
at the time as a blow to the Marlborough 
power. Walker, in disgust, left the country 
and settled in South Carolina as a planter. 
In a few years, however, he returned to 
England, and in 1720 published ' A Journal, 



or Full Account of the late Expedition to 
Canada ' (London, 8vo), as a justification of 
himself against the statements that had been 
busily circulated. 

After this he seems to have resided 
abroad and in Ireland. In or about 1725 
Thomas Lediard [q. v.] was well acquainted 
with him in Hamburg and Hanover. 'I 
found him,' he says, ' a gentleman of letters, 
good understanding, ready wit, and agree- 
able conversation; and withal the most 
abstemious man living ; for I never saw or 
heard that he drank anything but water, or 
eat anything but vegetables ' (LEDIARD, 
p. 855). He died in Dublin, of apoplexy, 
in 1728. He was twice married, and left 
issue, by the second wife, one daughter, 
Margaret, who died unmarried about 1777. 

[The Memoir in Charnock's Biogr. Nav. ii. 
455, is very imperfect, and in many respects 
inaccurate. The account of his official career 
here given is taken from the List Books, the Com- 
mission and Warrant Books, his own Letters (Cap- 
tains' Letters, W.),in the Public Keeord Office, from 
Burchett's Transactions at Sea, Lediard's Naval 
Hist., and his own journal of the expedition to 
Canada. The history of his family is given in 
Gent. Mag. 1824, ii. 38; a note in Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. ii. 373, which differs from this 
in some details, seems less to be depended on; 
as, among other things, the writer did not know 
the correct spelling of the maiden name of 
Walker's mother. In the British Museum Cata- 
logue a translation from the Latin of Cornelius 
Gallus called ' Elegies of Old Age ' (London, 
1688, 8vo) is doubtfully attributed to Walker 
(cf. Watt's Bibl. Brit.); the attribution seems 
highly improbable.] J. K. L. 

WALKER, JAMES (1748-1808 ?), mezzo- 
tint engraver, son of a captain in the mer- 
chant service, was born in 1748. He became 
a pupil of Valentine Green [q. v.], but not 
in his fifteenth year, as has been alleged, 
for in 1763 Green himself had not begun to 
engrave in mezzotint. Walker's earliest 
published plate bears the date 2 July 1780. 
During the following three years he pub- 
lished a number of good portraits after 
Romney and others, some domestic scenes, 
< The Spell,' and ' The Village Doctress,' after 
Northcote ; a scene from ' Cymbeline,' after 
Penny. In 1784 he went to St. Peters- 
burg, being appointed engraver to the 
Empress Catharine II. He remained in 
Russia till 1802, engraving numerous por- 
traits of the imperial family and of the 
Russian aristocracy, as well as pictures by 
the old masters in the imperial collection. 
Walker's appointment as court engraver was 
renewed by the Emperor Alexander I, and 
he was a member of the Imperial Academy 



Walker 



6 7 



Walker 



of Art at St. Petersburg. He returned to 
England with a pension in 1802, when many 
of his plates were lost by shipwreck off Yar- 
mouth. A list of these is given in the 
catalogue of a sale of his remaining plates 
and of impressions from the lost plates, at 
Sotheby's, on 29 Nov. 1822. A portrait of 
Alexander I was published after his return, 
on 1 May 1803. Walker is said to have 
died about 1808, and this is not necessarily 
inconsistent with the fact that a number 
of his mezzotints were published for the 
first time in 1819, and one, ' The Triumph 
of Cupid,' after Parmegiano, in 1822, 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits, iv. 1429.] C. D. 

WALKER, JAMES (1764-1831), rear- 
admiral, born in 1764, was son of James 
Walker of ' Innerdovat ' in Fife, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Alexander Melville, fifth 
earl of Leven and fourth earl of Melville. He 
entered the navy in 1776 on board the South- 
ampton frigate, in which he served for five 
years, at first in the West Indies, and after- 
wards in the Channel. He was then appointed 
to the Princess Royal, the flagship of Sir 
Peter Parker (1721-1811) [q. v.], by whom, 
on 18 June 1781, he was promoted to be 
lieutenant of the Torbay, one of the squadron 
which accompanied Sir Samuel (afterwards 
Viscount) Hood [q. v.] to North America, 
and took part in the action off the Chesapeake 
on 5 Sept., as also in the operations at St. 
Christopher in January 1782, and in the 
battle of Dominica on 12 April, when she 
sustained a loss of ten killed and twenty-five 
wounded. Walker, whose father was an inti- 
mate friend of Rodney, was on the point of 
being promoted, when Rodney was superseded 
by Admiral Pigot, and the chance was gone; 
he was still in the Torbay when, on 17 Oct. 
1782, in company with the London, she 
engaged and drove ashore in Samana Bay, in 
the island of Hayti, the French 74-gun ship 
Scipion. After the peace, Walker spent 
some years on the continent, in France, Italy, 
and Germany. While in Vienna in 1787 he 
had news of the Dutch armament, and im- 
mediately started for England. Oh the way, 
near Aschaffenburg, the diligence, which 
was carrying a considerable sum of money, 
was attacked by a party of robbers. Walker 
jumped out and rushed at them ; but as he 
received no support from his fellow travellers 
he was knocked on the head, stripped, and 
thrown into the ditch. When the robbers 
had retired, he was picked up and carried 
into Aschaffenburg, where his wounds were 
dressed ; but the delay at Aschaffenburg, and 
ifterwards Frankfort, prevented his reach- 



ing England till after the dispute with 
Holland had been arranged ; so he returned 
to Germany. In the following year he was 
offered the command of a Russian ship, 
but the admiralty refused him permission to 
accept it [cf. TREVENEX, JAMES]. In 1789 
he was appointed to the Champion, a small 
frigate employed on the coast of Scotland ; 
from her he was moved to the Winchelsea ; 
and in 1793 to the Boyne, intended for the 
flag of Rear-admiral AtHeck. As this ar- 
rangement was altered, and Sir John Jervis 
hoisted his flag in the Boyne, Walker was 
moved into the Niger frigate, attached to the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe, and one of 
the repeating ships in the battle of 1 June 
1794. 

On 6 July he was promoted to the 
rank of commander. After a short time as 
acting-captain of the Gibraltar, and again as 
commander of the Terror bomb, he was ap- 
pointed in June 1795 acting-captain of the 
Trusty of 50 guns, ordered to escort five 
East Indiamen to a latitude named, and, ' after 
having seen them in safety,' to return to 
Spithead. The spirit of his orders took 
Walker some distance beyond the prescribed 
latitude, and then, learning that some forty 
English merchant ships were at Cadiz wait- 
ing for^convoy, he went thither and brought 
them home, with property, as represented by 
the merchants in London, of the value of 
upwards of a million, ' which but for his 
active exertions would have been left in 
great danger at a most critical time, when 
the Spaniards were negotiating a peace with 
France.' It was probably this very circum- 
stance that made the government pay more 
attention to the complaint of the Spanish 
government that money had been smuggled 
on board the Trusty on account of the mer- 
chants. Walker was accordingly tried by 
court-martial for disobedience of orders and 
dismissed the service. When the war had 
broken out, and it was no longer necessary 
to humour the caprices of the Spaniards, he 
was reinstated in March 1797. Shortly 
after, he was appointed to a gunboat in- 
tended to act against the mutineers at the 
Nore ; and, when that was no longer wanted, 
as acting-captain of the Garland, to convoy the 
Baltic trade as far as Elsinore. Returning 
from that service, he was appointed, still as 
acting-captain, to the Monmouth, which he 
commanded in the battle of Camperdown, on 
11 Oct. As they were bearing down on the 
enemy, Walker turned the hands up and 
addressed them: 'My lads, you see your 
enemy ; I shall lay you close aboard and give 
you an opportunity of washing the stain off 
your characters [alluding to the recent 

F2 



Walker 



68 



Walker 



mutiny] in the blood of your foes. Now, 
go to your quarters and do your duty.' In 
the battle, two of the Dutch ships struck to 
the Monmouth. 

On 17 Oct. Walker's promotion as captain 
was confirmed. During the years imme- 
diately following, he had temporary command 
of various ships in the North Sea, and in 
1801 commanded the Isis of 50 guns, in 
the fleet sent to the Baltic, and detached 
under the immediate orders of Lord 
Nelson for the battle of Copenhagen, in 
which Walker's conduct called forth the 
very especial approval of Nelson himself. 
The loss sustained by the Isis was very 
great, amounting to 112 killed and wounded 
out of a complement of 350. In command 
of the Tartar frigate, Walker was shortly 
afterwards sent in charge of a convoy to the 
West Indies, where he was appointed to the 
74-gun ship Vanguard, and on the renewal 
of the war took an active part in the 
blockade of San Domingo, in the capture of 
the French 74-gun ship Duquesne on 
25 July 1803 (TROTJDE, Batailles Navales de 
la France, iii. 291-3), and in the reduction 
of Saint-Marc, whose garrison of eleven 
hundred men, on the verge of starvation, he 
received on board the Vanguard, as the only 
way of securing them from the sanguinary 
vengeance of the negroes. A few months 
later Walker returned to England in the 
Duquesne, and was then appointed to the 
Thalia frigate, in which he made a voyage 
to the East Indies with treasure and convoy. 
He afterwards took a convoy out to Quebec, 
commanded a small squadron on the Guern- 
sey station, and in October 1807 was ap- 
pointed to the Bedford, one of the ships 
which went to Lisbon and to Rio Janeiro 
with Sir William Sidney Smith q. v.] For 
the next two years Walker remained at Rio, 
where he was admitted to the friendship of 
the prince regent of Portugal, who on 30 April 
1816 conferred on him the order of the Tower 
and Sword, and, when recalled to England, 
presented him with his portrait set with 
diamonds and a valuable diamond ring. The 
Bedford was afterwards employed in the 
North Sea and in the Channel, and in Sep- 
tember 1814 went out to the Gulf of Mexico, 
where, during the absence of the flag-officers 
at New Orleans, Walker was left as senior 
officer in command of the large ships. On 
4 June 1815 he was nominated a C.B. 
After the peace he commanded the Albion, 
Queen, and Northumberland, which last was 
paid off on 10 Sept, 1818. This was the end of 
his long service afloat. He was promoted to 
be rear-admiral on 19 July 1821. He died 
after a few days' illness, on 13 July 1831, at 



Blachington, near Seaford. He was twice 
married, and left issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. ii. (vol. i. pt. ii.) 
848, 882 ; Ralfe's Nav. Biogr. iv. 144 ; O'Byrne's 
Nav. Biogr. Diet. p. 1239 ; Gent. Mag. 1831, ii. 
270.] J. K. L. 

WALKER, JAMES (1770 P-1841), 
bishop of Edinburgh and primus of Scotland, 
born at Fraserburgh about 1770, was edu- 
cated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, whence 
he proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1793, M.A. in 1796, and 
D.D. in 1826. In 1793 he was ordained a 
deacon of the Scottish episcopal church. 
After his return to Scotland he became sub- 
editor of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' the 
third edition of which was then being pre- 
pared by George Gleig [q. v.], bishop of 
Brechin. About the close of the century he 
became tutor to Sir John Hope, bart., of 
Craighall, and travelled with him for two or 
three years. In Germany he made the ac- 
quaintance of some of the foremost philoso- 
phers and men of letters, and devoted 
especial attention to metaphysical inquiry. 
The article on Kant's system in the supple- 
ment to the ' Encyclopaedia ' was the result 
of his researches at Weimar. On his return 
he was ordained deacon and received the 
charge of St. Peter's Chapel, Edinburgh. On 
30 Nov. 1819, during a visit to Rome, he 
conducted the first regular protestant ser- 
vice held in the city. In 1729 he resigned 
his charge of St. Peter's to his colleague 
Charles Hughes Terrott, and on 7 March 
1830 he was consecrated bishop of Edin- 
burgh, and about the same time was appointed 
first Pantonian professor at the Scottish 
Episcopal Theological College, an office 
which he retained until his death. On 
24 May 1837, on the resignation of George 
Gleig, Walker was elected primus of the 
Scottish episcopal church. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 5 March 1841, and was buried in 
the burying-ground of St. John's episcopal 
chapel. He was succeeded as bishop of 
Edinburgh by Charles Hughes Terrott, and as 
primus by William Skinner (1778-1857)[q.v.] 

In 1829 Walker published ' Sermons on 
various Occasions' (London, 8vo). He was 
also the author of several single sermons, 
and translated Jean Joseph Mounier's treatise 
' On the Influence attributed to Philosophers, 
Freemasons, and to the Illuminati on the 
Revolution of France' (London, 1801, 8vo). 

[Edinburgh Evening Courant, 12 March 1841 ; 
W. Walker's Life of Bishop Jolly, 1878, p. 152 ; 
Lawson's Scottish Episcopal Church, 1843, p. 
419 ; Stephen's Hist, of the Church of Scotland, 
1841, iv. passim (with portrait) ; Gent. Mag. 
1841, i. 351.] E. I. C. 



Walker 



6 9 



Walker 



WALKER, SIR JAMES (1809-1885), 
colonial governor, son of Andrew Walker of 
Edinburgh, was born at Edinburgh on 
9 April 1809, and educated at the High 
school and at the university in that city. 
Entering the colonial office as a j unior clerk 
in 1825, he served with credit under several 
secretaries of state, and on 11 Feb. 1837 he 
became registrar of British Honduras, whence 
he was transferred on 18 Feb. 1839 to be 
treasurer of Trinidad ; here he acted as colo- 
nial secretary from June 1839 to September 
1840. In January 1841 he accompanied, as 
his secretary, Sir Henry Macleod, special 
commissioner to British Guiana, for the pur- 
pose of settling the difficulties with the legis- 
lature over the civil list. He became in 
1842 colonial secretary of Barbados. This 
colony was at that time the seat of the go- 
vernment in chief for the Windward group, 
and during his service there Walker was 
sent in September 1856 to act as lieutenant- 
governor of Grenada, and in 1857 to fill a 
similar position at St. Vincent. He acted 
as governor of Barbados and the Windward 
Islands from 13 March to 25 Dec. 1859, and as 
lieutenant-governor of Trinidad from 20 April 
1860 to 25 March 1862, when he was ap- 
pointed governor in chief of the Barbados and 
the Windward Islands. No special event 
marked his period of government. On 4 Jan. 
1869 he was transferred to the Bahamas, 
which were then going through a time of 
severe financial depression ; he retired on a 
pension in May 1871, and lived a quiet 
country life, first at Uplands, near Taunton, 
and later at Southerton, Ottery St. Mary, 
Devonshire, where he died on 28 Aug. 1885. 
He was a careful official rather than an able 
administrator, became a C.B. in 1860, and 
K.C.M.G. in 1869. 

Walker married, on 15 Oct. 1839, Anne, 
daughter of George Bland of Trinidad, and 
had one son and two daughters. His eon is 
now Sir Edward Noel Walker, lieutenant- 
governor and colonial secretary of Ceylon. 

[Colonial Office List, 1884; Times, 31 Aug. 
1885 ; Dod's Peerage, &c., 1884 ; Colonial Office 
Records.! C. A. H. 

WALKER, JAMES ROBERTSON- 

(1783-1858), captain in the royal navy, born 
on 22 June 1783, was eldest son of James Ro- 
bertson, deputy-lieutenant of Ross-shire, and 
for many years collector of the customs at the 
port of Stornoway. His mother was Anna- 
bella, daughter of John Mackenzie of Ross. 
He probably served for some few years in 
merchant ships ; he entered the navy in April 
1801 as able seaman on board the Inspector 
sloop at Leith, but was moved into the Prin- 



cess Charlotte frigate, in which, as midship- 
man and master's mate, he served for two 
years on the Irish station. In May 1803 he 
joined the Canopus, the flagship of Rear- 
admiral George Campbell off Toulon in 1804. 
From her in March 1805 he was moved to 
the Victory, in which he was present in the 
battle of Trafalgar. When the Victory was 
paid off in January 1806, Robertson was 
sent, at the request of Captain Hardy, to the 
Thames frigate, in which he went out to the 
West Indies; there in April 1807 he was 
moved to the Northumberland, the flagship 
of Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane 
[q. v.], with whom in December he went to 
the Belle-Isle. In April 1808 he was ap- 
pointed acting-lieutenant of the Fawn, in 
which, and afterwards in the Hazard sloop, 
he was repeatedly engaged in boat actions 
with the batteries round the coast of Guade- 
loupe. On 21 July 1809 his rank of lieu- 
tenant was confirmed. He continued in the 
Hazard till October 1812, and was over and 
over again engaged with the enemy's batteries, 
either in the boats or in the ship herself. 
Several times he won the approval of the 
admiral, but it did not take the form of pro- 
motion ; and in October 1812 he was ap- 
pointed to the Antelope, the flagship of Sir 
John Thomas Duckworth. In her in 1813 
he was in the Baltic, and in November was 
moved to the Vigo, the flagship of Rear- 
admiral Graham Moore. A few weeks later 
the Vigo was ordered to be paid off, and in 
February 1814 Robertson was sent out to 
North America for service on the lakes. 

In September he joined the Confiance, a 
ship newly launched on Lake Champlain, 
and being fitted out by Captain George 
Downie. The English army of eleven thou- 
sand men, under the command of Sir George 
Prevost (1767-1816) [q.v.], had advanced 
against Plattsburg on the Saranac, then held 
by an American force estimated at two thou- 
sand men, but supported by a strong and 
heavily armed flotilla. Prevost sent repeated 
messages urging Downie to co-operate with 
him in the reduction of this place, and in 
language which, coming from an officer of 
Prevost's rank, admitted of no delay. The 
Confiance was not ready for service, her 
guns not fitted, her men made up of drafts of 
bad characters from the fleet, and only just 
got together when she weighed anchor on 
11 Sept., and, in company with three smaller 
vessels and ten gunboats, crossed over to 
Plattsburg Bay. The American squadron 
was of nearly double the force ; but Downie, 
relying on the promised co-operation of 
Prevost, closed with the enemy and engaged. 
But Prevost did not move ; the gunboats 



Walker 



Walker 



shamefully ran away ; one of the small 
vessels struck on a reef; Downie was billed ; 
and Robertson, left in command, was obliged 
to surrenderafter the Confiance had sustained 
a loss of forty-one killed and eighty-three 
wounded, out of a complement of 270, and 
was herself sinking. Sir James Lucas Yeo 
[q. v.], the naval commander-in-chief, pre- 
ferred charges of gross misconduct against 
Prevost, who, however, died before he could 
be brought to trial. At the peace Robertson 
returned to England, was tried for the loss 
of the Confiance, and honourably acquitted. 
The next day, 29 Aug. 1815, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of commander. He had 
no further service ; on 28 July 1851 he was 
promoted to be captain on the retired list, 
and died on 26 Oct. 1858. On 24 June 1824 
he married, first, Ann, only daughter and 
heiress of William Walker of Gilgarran, near 
Whitehaven, and thereupon assumed the 
name of Walker. He married, secondly, 
Catherine (d. 1892), daughter of John Mac- 
kenzie of Ross. He left no issue. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; James's Naval 
History, vi. 214-22 ; Roosevelt's Naval War of 
1812, pp. 375-99 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1868, 
s.v. ' Eobertson-Walker.'] J. K. L. 

WALKER, JAMES THOMAS (1826- 

1896), general royal engineers, surveyor- 
general of India, eldest son of John Walker 
of the Madras civil service, sometime judge at 
Cannanore, and of his wife, Margaret Allan 
(d. 1830) of Edinburgh, was born at Canna- 
nore, India, on 1 Dec. 1826. Educated by 
a private tutor in Wales, and at the military 
college of the East India Company at 
Addiscombe, he received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the Bombay engineers 
on 9 Dec. 1844, and, after the usual pro- 
fessional instruction at Chatham, went to 
India, arriving at Bombay on 10 May 1846. 
The following year he was employed in Sind 
to officiate as executive engineer at Sakkar. 

In October 1848 he was appointed an as- 
sistant field engineer in the Bombay column, 
under Sir H. Dundas, of the force assembled 
for the Punjab campaign. At the battle of 
Gujrat on 21 Feb. ha was in command of a 
detachment of sappers attached to the Bom- 
bay horse artillery, and he took part under 
Sir Walter Gilbert in the pursuit of the 
Sikhs and Afghans. He was favourably 
mentioned in despatches (London Gazette, 
7 March and 3 May 1849), and received for 
his services the medal with two clasps. 

After the annexation of the Punjab, 
Walker was employed from 1849 to 1853 in 
making a military reconnaissance of the 
northern Trans-Indus frontier from Peshawar 



to Dehra Ismail Khan. He took part at 
the end of 1849 in the attacks on Suggao, 
Pali, and Zarmandi under Colonel Brad- 
shaw, by whom he was mentioned in his 
despatch of 21 Dec. for the skill and ability 
with which he had bridged the rapid Kabul 
river. In 1850 he served under Sir Charles 
Napier in the expedition against the Afridis 
of the Kohat pass, and in 1852 under Sir 
Colin Campbell in the operation against the 
Utman Khels ; he was thanked by Camp- 
bell in field-force orders of 10 May 1852 
for his ingenuity and resource in bridging 
the swift Swat river. In 1853 he served 
under Colonel Boileau in his expedition 
against the Bori Afridis, and was mentioned 
in despatches. 

But his active service in these frontier 
campaigns was but incidental in the work 
of the survey, which he vigorously prose- 
cuted. It was attended with much danger, 
and in the country between the Khaibar 
and Kohat passes Walker was fired at on 
several occasions. With the aid of a khan 
of Shir Ali, who collected a considerable 
force, he reconnoitred the approaches to 
the Ambeyla pass, which ten years later was 
the scene of protracted fighting between 
the British, under Sir Neville Chamberlain, 
and the hillsmen. On the completion of the 
military survey of the Peshawar frontier, 
Walker received the thanks of the govern- 
ment of India, the despatch, 16 Nov. 1853, 
commending his ' cool judgment and ready 
resource, united with great intrepidity, 
energy, and professional ability.' Walker 
was promoted to be lieutenant on 2 July 
1853, and, in recognition of his survey services 
on the frontier, was appointed on 1 Dec. 
second assistant on the great trigonometrical 
survey of India under Sir Andrew Scott 
Waugh [q. v.] He was promoted to be first 
assistant on 24 March 1854. Walker's first 
work in his new employment was the mea- 
surement of the Chach base, near Atak, and 
he had charge of the northern section of the 
Indus series of triangulation connecting the 
Chach and the Karachi bases. 

On the outbreak of the Indian mutiny in 
1857, Walker was attached to the staff of 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Neville 
Chamberlain, who commanded the Punjab 
movable column, and accompanied Cham- 
berlain to Delhi, where he was appointed a 
field-engineer. On 14 July he was directed 
to blow in the gate of a serai occupied in force 
by the enemy, but could only obtain powder 
by applying to the nearest field-battery for 
cartridges. Carrying the cartridges himself, 
exposed to the enemy's fire, he succeeded in 
lodging them against the gate, lit the match, 



Walker 



Walker 



and retired. The port-fire burned out, and 
he again advanced and relit it. It again 
failed, and, procuring a musket, Walker 
went to the vicinity of the gate and fired into 
the powder, exploding it at once and blow- 
ing in the gate. The attacking party rushed 
in and slew the enemy within. Walker was 
severely wounded by a bullet in the left 
thigh, and, before he completely recovered 
from the wound, was nearly carried oil' by 
cholera. He was promoted to be captain on 
4 Dec. 1857, and for his services in the 
mutiny received the medal, with clasp for 
Delhi, and the brevet rank of major on 
19 Jan. 1858, with a gratuity of one year's 
pay on account of his wound. 

Returning to his survey duties, he re- 
sumed work on the Indus series, which was 
completed in 1860, and he was afterwards em- 
ployed in the Jogi Tila meridional series. 
In 1860 he again served under Sir Xeville 
Chamberlain in the expedition against the 
Mahsud Waziris, and was present at the 
attack of the Barara Tanai. His services 
were noticed by the general in command and 
by the Punjab government, and he received 
the medal and clasp. Here again he made 
every effort to extend the survey, and sent a 
map which he had made of the country to 
the surveyor-general. 

In September 1860 Walker was appointed 
astronomical assistant, and on 12 March 
1861 superintendent of the great trigonome- 
trical survey of India. In the next two 
years the three last meridional series in the 
north of India were completed, and Walker's 
first independent work was the measurement 
of the Vizagapatam base-line, which was 
completed in 1862. The accuracy achieved 
was such that the difference between the 
measured length and the length computed 
from triangles, commencing 480 miles away 
at the Calcutta base-line and passing through 
dense jungles, was but halt an inch. He 
next undertook a revision of Lambton's tri- 
angulation in the south of India, with re- 
measurements of the base-lines. 

On 27 Feb. 1864 Walker was promoted to 
be lieutenant-colonel, and went home on 
furlough by way of Russia, establishing very 
friendly relations with the geodesists of the 
Russian survey, which led to the supply of 
geographical information from St. Peters- 
burgh and to a cordial co-operation between 
the survey officers of the two countries. On 
27 Feb. 1869 he was promoted to be brevet 
colonel. About this time it was decided to 
undertake the great work entitled ' Account 
of the Operations of the Great Trigonome- 
trical Survey of India,' to consist of twenty 
volumes. The first nine were published under 



the supervision of Walker, and the first ap- 
peared in 1871. It contains his introductory 
history of the early operations of the survey, 
and his account of the standards of measure 
and of the base-lines. The second volume, 
also mainly written by Walker, consists of 
an historical account of the triangulation, 
with descriptions of the method of procedure 
and of the instruments employed. The 
fifth volume is an account of the pendulum 
observations by Walker. In 1871-2, when 
at home on leave from India, he fixed, in 
conjunction with Sir Oliver Beauchamp 
Coventry St. John J~q. v.], the difference of 
longitude between Tehran and London. He 
was retained at home to make a thorough 
investigation of the condition of the plates 
of the Indian atlas, and wrote an im- 
portant memorandum on the projection and 
scale of the atlas. In 1873 he began to de- 
vote his attention to the dispersion of un- 
avoidable minute errors in the triangulation, 
with the result that no trigonometrical sur- 
vey is superior to that of India in accuracy. 

Walker's work as superintendent of the 
great trigonometrical survey was as much 
that of a geographer as of a geodesist. At 
his office at Dehra Dun explorers were 
trained, survey parties for every military ex- 
pedition organised, and native surveyors des- 
patched to make discoveries, while their 
work was reduced and utilised. Many valu- 
able maps were published, and Walker's map 
of Turkistan went through many editions. 
To Walker also was due the initiation of a 
scheme of tidal observations at different 
ports on the Indian coast. He elaborated 
the system and devised the method of ana- 
lysing the observations. In connection with 
these tidal observations, he further arranged 
an extensive scheme of spirit levelling, con- 
necting the tidal stations by lines of levels 
sometimes extending across the continent. 

On 2 June 1877 Walker was made a com- 
panion of the Bath, military division. On 
1 Jan. 1878 he was appointed surveyor-gene- 
ral of India, retaining the office of superin- 
tendent of the great trigonometrical survey ; 
on 31 Dec. of the same year he was promoted 
to be major-general, and on 10 May 1881 to 
be lieutenant-general. He retired from the 
service on 12 Feb. 1883, and received the 
honorary rank of general on 12 Jan. 1884. 

Walker became a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1859, and in 1885 
was elected a member of its council. In 1885 
also he was president of the geographical sec- 
tion of the British Association at Aberdeen. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1865, was made a member of the Russian 
geographical society in 1868, and of the French 



Walker 

in 1887. In June 1883 he was made an 
honorary LL.D. of Cambridge University. 
In 1895 he took charge of the geodetic work 
of the international geographical congress 
at the Imperial Institute in London. In 
May of that year he contributed a valuable 
paper to the ' Philosophical Transactions ' of 
the Royal Society (vol. clxxxvi.) entitled 
' India's Contribution to Geodesy.' Walker 
contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
(9th edit.) articles on the Oxus, Persia, Pon- 
toons, and Surveying. He also contributed 
to the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal,' the 'Transactions of the Royal 
Society,' and the Royal Geographical Society's 
'Journal.' 

Walker died at his residence, 13 Cromwell 
Road, London, on 16 Feb. 1896, and was 
buried in Brompton cemetery. He married 
in India, on 27 April 1854, Alicia, daughter 
of General Sir John Scott, K.C.B., by Alicia, 
granddaughter of Dr. William Markham 
[q. v.], archbishop of York. His wife sur- 
vived him and four children of the marriage 
a son Herbert, lieutenant in the royal 
engineer, and three daughters. 

[India Office Records ; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords ; Despatches ; obituary notices in the Lon- 
don Times, Standard, and other daily news- 
papers, February 1896, in L'Etoile Beige, in 
Nature, March 1896, in Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, vol. lix., in the Geographical Jour- 
nal, vol. vii., in the Scottish Geographical Maga- 
zine, vol. xiii., and in the Royal Engineers' Jour- 
nal, vol. xxvi. ; Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Porter's History of the Corps 
of Royal Engineers ; Kaye's Hist, of the Sepoy 
War ; private sources.] R. H. V. 

WALKER, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1588), arch- 
deacon of Essex, graduated from Cambridge, 
B.A.in 1547, B.D. in 1563, and D.D. in 1569. 
He was presented to the small living of 
Alderton, Suffolk, and at some time was a 
noted preacher at Ipswich. In February 
1562 he attended convocation as proctor for 
the clergy of Suffolk. In this capacity he 
voted in favour of the six articles for reform- 
ing rites and ceremonies, and signed the 
petition of the lower house for improved 
discipline. In 1564 he was licensed to be 
parish chaplain in St. Peter's, Norwich. 
Here his gift of preaching was so much ad- 
mired that Matthew Parker, finding in 1568 
that Walker was about to return to Alderton 
to avoid an information for non-residence, 
suggested that one of the prebendaries named 
Smythe, ' a mere lay body,' should resign in 
Walker's favour, who else 'might go and 
leave the city desolate.' Parker also ap- 
pealed to Lord-chancellor Bacon, as did the 
Duke of Norfolk, with the result that, after 



2 Walker 

some delay, Walker was installed a canon of 
Norwich on 20 Dec. 1569. In September 
of the following year Walker and some 
other puritan prebendaries protested against 
the ornaments in Norwich Cathedral. He 
was cited, it appears, to Lambeth in 1571 
in consequence of his puritanism, but was 
collated to the archdeaconry of Essex on 
10 July 1571, to the rectory of Laindon- 
cum-Basildon, Essex, on 12 Nov. 1573, and 
on 14 Aug. 1575 was installed prebendary 
of Mora in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Bishop Aylmer summoned Walker in 1578 
to elect sixty of the clergy to be visitors 
during the prevalence of the plague. In 
1581 he was prominent in the conviction of 
Robert Wright, Lord Rich's chaplain, who 
because of his ordination at Antwerp was 
refused a license by the bishop ; and on 
27 Sept. of the same year he assisted Wil- 
liam Charke at a conference in the Tower 
with Edmund Campion [q. v.], the Jesuit. 
The fourth day's dispute was chiefly in 
Walker's hards (cf. A Remembrance of the 
Conference had in the Tower betwixt M. D. 
Walker [sic] and M. William Charke, Op- 
ponents, and Edmund Campion, 1583, 4to). 
Bishop Aylmer also employed him to collect 
materials for a work in refutation of Cam- 
pion's 'Decem Rationes,' and in 1582 ap- 
pointed him to confer with captured catholic 
priests. He preached at Aylmer 's visitation 
on 21 June 1583, but resigned the arch- 
deaconry about August 1585, and died before 
12 Dec. 1588, on which date the prebend in 
St. Paul's was declared vacant by his death. 

Walker wrote a dedicatory epistle to ' Cer- 
taine Godlie Homilies or Sermons,' trans- 
lated by Robert Norton from Rodolph Gual- 
ter, London, 1573, 8vo. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 37 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 336, 412, 498; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. p. 748; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 645; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 665, 
iv. 187; Parker Correspondence, pp. 312, 313, 
382; Newcourt's Repert. Eccles. i. 73, ii. 357; 
Strype's Works (General Index).] C. F. S. 

WALKER, JOHN (1674-1747), ecclesi- 
astical historian, son of Endymion Walker, 
was baptised at St. Kerrian's, Exeter, 21 Jan. 
1673-4. His father was mayor of Exeter in 
1682. On 19 Nov. 1691 he matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, was admitted fellow 
on 3 July 1695, and became full fellow on 
4 July 1696 (vacated 1700). On 16 Jan. 
1697-8 he was ordained deacon by Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny [q. v.], then bishop of 
Exeter; he graduated B.A. on 4 July, and 
was instituted to the rectory of St. Mary 
Major, Exeter, on 22 Aug. 1698. On 13 Oct. 



Walker 



73 



Walker 



1699 he graduated M.A. (apparently incor- 
porated at Cambridge, 1702). 

The publication of Calamy's 'Account' 
(1702-1713) of nonconformist ministers 
silenced and ejected after the .Restoration 
[see CALAMT, EDMUND] suggested simulta- 
neously to Charles Goodall [q. v.] and to 
Walker the idea of rendering a similar ser- 
vice to the memory of the deprived and se- 
questered clergy. Goodall advertised for 
information in the ' London Gazette ; ' find- 
ing that Walker was engaged on a similar 
task, he gave him the materials he had col- 
lected. Walker collected particulars by help 
of query sheets, circulated in various dioceses ; 
those for Exeter (very minute) and Canter- 
bury are printed by Calamy ( Church and Dis- 
senters Compar'd, 1719, pp. 4, 10). Among 
his helpers was Mary Astell [q.v.J His dili- 
gence in amassing materials may be estimated 
from the detailed account given in his pre- 
face, and still more from examination of his 
large and valuable manuscript collections, 
presented to the Bodleian Library in 1754 by 
Walker's son William, a druggist in Exeter, 
and rebound in 1869 in twelve folio and 
eleven quarto volumes ; the lost ' Minutes of 
the Bury Presbyterian Classis ' (Chetham 
Society, 1896) have been edited from the 
transcript in the Walker manuscripts. 

Walker'sbook appeared in 1714,folio, with 
title 'An Attempt towards recovering an 
Account of the Numbers and Sufferings of 
the Clergy of the Church of England, Heads 
of Colleges, Fellows, Scholars, &c., who were 
Sequester'd, Harrass'd, &c. in the late Times 
of the Grand Rebellion : Occasion'd by the 
Ninth Chapter (now the second volume) of 
Dr. Calamy's Abridgment of the Life of Mr. 
Baxter. Together with an Examination of 
That Chapter.' A remarkable subscription 
list contains over thirteen hundred names. 
The work consists of two parts: (1) a history 
of ecclesiastical affairs from 1640 to 1660, 
the object being to show that the ejection of 
the puritans at the Restoration was a just 
reprisal for their actions when in power ; (2) 
a catalogue, well arranged and fairly well 
indexed, of the deprived clergy with par- 
ticulars of their sufferings. The plan falls 
short of Calamy's, as it does not profess to 
give biographies ; the list of names adds up 
to 3,334 (Calamy's ejected add up to 2,465), 
but if all the names of the suffering clergy 
could be recovered, Walker thinks they 
might reach ten thousand (i. 200). A third 
part, announced in the title-page as an ex- 
amination of Calamy's work, was deferred 
(pref. p. li), and never appeared, though 
Calamy is plentifully attacked in the preface. 

The work was hailed by Thomas Bisse 



[q. v.] in a sermon before the sons of the 
clergy (6 Dec. 1716) as a 'book of mar- 
tyrolpgy ' and ' a record which ought to be 
kept in every sanctuary.' John Lewis [q-v.], 
whom Calamy calls a ' chumm ' of Walker's, 
and who had formed high expectations of 
the book, disparages it, in ' Remarks ' on 
Bisse, as 'a farrago of false and senseless 
legends.' It was criticised, from the non- 
conformist side, by John Withers (d. 1729) 
of Exeter, in an appendix to his 'Reply,' 
1714, 8vo, to two pamphlets by John Agate, 
an Exeter clergyman; and by Calamy in 
' The Church and the Dissenters Compar'd as 
to Persecution,' 1719, 8vo. With all deduc- 
tions, the value of Walker's work is great ; 
he writes with virulence and without dignity, 
but he is careful to distinguish doubtful 
from authenticated matter, and he does not 
suppress the charges brought against some 
of his sufferers. His tone, however, has done 
much to foster the impression (on the whole 
unjust) that the legislative treatment of 
nonconformity after the Restoration was 
vindictive. An ' Epitome ' of the ' Attempt ' 
was published at Oxford, 1862, 8vo. A 
small abridgment of the ' Attempt,' with 
biographical additions and an introduction by 
Robert Whit taker, was published under the 
title ' The Sufferings of the Clergy,' 1863, 
8vo. 

By diploma of 7 Dec. 1714 Walker was 
made D.D. at Oxford, and on 20 Dec. he was 
appointed to a prebend at Exeter. On 17 Oct. 
1720 he was instituted to the rectory of 
Upton Pyne, Devonshire, on the presenta- 
tion of Hugh Stafford, and here he ended his 
days. He died in June 1747, and was 
buried (20 June) in his churchyard, near the 
east end of the north aisle of the church. 
His tombstone bears only this inscription : 
' Underneath was buried a late Rector of this 
Parish, 1747.' He married at Exeter Cathe- 
dral, on 17 Nov. 1704, Martha Brooking, 
who died on 12 Sept. 1748, aged 67 (tomb- 
stone). In 1874 the north aisle of the church 
was extended, and the gravestones of Walker 
and his wife are now in the floor of the new 
portion, called the ' organ aisle.' 

[No life of Walker exists ; some particulars 
contributed by George Oliver (1781-1861) [q.v.] 
to Trewman's Exeter Flying Post were reproduced 
with additions (partly from Boase's Register of 
Exeter College, 1879) by Mr. Winslow Jones in 
a letter to the Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette, 
19 Feb. 1887; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 
435, 4th ser. iii. 566; Macray's Annals of the 
Bodleian Libr. 1868, p. 167; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Boase's Register of Exeter 
College (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 1894, pp. 127, 27ft] 



Walker 



74 



Walker 



WALKER, JOHN (1731-1803), pro- 
fessor of natural history at Edinburgh, was 
born in 1731 in the Canongate, Edinburgh, 
where his father was rector of the grammar 
school. He himself writes, 'I have been 
from my cradle fond of vegetable life,' and 
it is recorded of him that he enjoyed Homer 
when he was ten years old. At this age also 
he read Sutherland's 'Hortus Edinburgensis,' 
his first botanical book. From his father's 
grammar school he went to the university of 
Edinburgh in preparation for the ministry, 
and about 1750 his attention was attracted 
by the neglected remains of the museum left 
by Sir Andrew Balfour [q. v.] He was 
licensed to preach on 3 April 1754, and on 
13 Sept. 1758 was ordained minister of Glen- 
cross, among the Pentland Hills, seven miles 
south of Edinburgh, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Henry Home, lord Kames. a 
member of the board of annexed estates, with 
whose wishes for the improvement of the 
highlands and islands he was in hearty sym- 
pathy. On 8 June 1762 Walker was trans- 
ferred to Moffat , and in 1 764 he was appointed, 
by the interest of Lord Kames, to make a 
survey of the Hebrides, being at the same 
time commissioned to make a report to the 
Society for the Propagation of Christian 
Knowledge. On this occasion he travelled 
three thousand miles in seven months ; and 
his report, which was found among his papers 
after his death and printed by his friend 
Charles Stewart under the title ' An Econo- 
mical History of the Hebrides ' (Edinburgh, 
1808, 2 vols. 8vo ; reissued in London in 
1812), is of a most comprehensive and prac- 
tical character. Robert Kaye Greville re- 
cords in his ' Algse Britannicse ' (p. iii) that 
in manuscript notes by Walker, dated 1771, 
it is suggested that the Linnsean genus Alga 
may be divided into fourteen genera, among 
which he included Fucus almost with the 
limits now adopted, and Phasgonon, precisely 
equalling Agardh's Laminaria a somewhat 
remarkable anticipation. 

Walker was appointed regius professor of 
natural history at Edinburgh on 15 June 
1779, while retaining his clerical post at 
Moffat. His lectures proved attractive by 
their clearness, although distinctly dry and 
formal in character ; and the only works 
separately printed by him during his lifetime 
were a series of syllabuses for the use of 
his students, stated in the most categorical 
form of Linnaean classifications and defini- 
tions. These included : ' Schediasma Fossi- 
lium,' 1781 ; ' Delineatio Fossilium,' 1782 ; 
' Classes Fossilium,' 1787 ; and ' Institutes of 
Natural History,' 1792. 

On 7 Jan. 1783 he was transferred from 



Moffat to Colinton, near Edinburgh, where 
he devoted much attention to his garden, 
cultivating willows and other trees. On 
the incorporation of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh in this year, Walker was one 
of the earliest fellows, and one of his most 
valuable papers, ' Experiments on the Motion 
of the Sap in Trees,' was contributed to its 
' Transactions,' but the last papers which he 
published during his lifetime on kelp, peat, 
the herring, and the salmon, appeared in 
those of the Highland Society (vols. i. ii.) 
On 20 May 1790 he was elected moderator 
of the general assembly of the Scottish 
church. During the last years of his life 
Walker was blind. He died on 31 Dec. 
1803. On 24 Nov. 1789 he married Jane 
Wallace Wauchope of Niddry, who died on 
4 May 1827. On 28 Feb. 1765 he received 
the honorary degree of M.D. from Glasgow 
University, and on 22 March 1765 that of 
D.D. from Edinburgh University. 

Walker's chief works were the two issued 
by his friend Charles Stewart after his 
death. The first has been already men- 
tioned; the other was 'Essays on Natural 
History and Rural Economy ' (London and 
Edinburgh, 1812, 8vo). 

[Memoir in Sir William Jardine's Birds of 
Great Britain, London, 1876; Scott's Fasti 
Eccl. Scot, i. i. 149, 282, ii. 657.] G. S. B. 

WALKER, JOHN (1732-1807), actor, 
philologist, ancl lexicographer, was born at 
Colney Hatch, a hamlet in the parish of 
Friern Barnet, Middlesex, on 18 March 1732. 
Of his father, who died when he was a child, 
little is known. His mother came from 
Nottingham, and was sister to the Rev. 
James Morley, a dissenting minister at Pains- 
wick, Gloucestershire. He was .early taken 
from school to be instructed in a trade, and 
after his mother's death he went on the stage, 
and obtained several engagements with pro- 
vincial companies. Subsequently he per- 
formed at Drury Lane under the manage- 
ment of Garrick. There he usually filled the 
second parts in tragedy, and those of a grave, 
sententious cast in comedy. In May 1758 
he married Miss Myners, a well-known comic 
actress, and immediately afterwards he joined 
the company which was formed by Barry and 
Woodward for the opening of Crow Street 
Theatre, Dublin. He was there advanced to 
a higher rank in the profession, and, upon 
the desertion of Mossop to Smock Alley, he 
succeeded to many of that actor's characters, 
among which his Cato and his Brutus were 
spoken of in terms of very high commendation. 

In June 1762 Walker returned to Lon- 
don, and he and his wife were engaged at 



Walker 



75 



Walker 



Covent Garden Theatre. He returned to 
Dublin in 1767, but remained there only a 
short time ; and, after performing at Bristol 
in the summer of 1768, he finally quitted the 
stage. 

In January 1769 he joined James Usher 
q. v.] in establishing a school at Kensington 

ravel-pits, but the partnership lasted only 
about two years. Walker than began to 
give those lectures on elocution which hence- 
forth formed his principal employment. Dur- 
ing a professional tour in Scotland and Ire- 
land he met with great success, and at Ox- 
ford the heads of houses invited him to give 
private lectures in the university. He en- 
joyed the patronage and friendship of Dr. 
Johnson, Edmund Burke, and other distin- 
guished men (BoswELL, Life of Johnson, ed. 
Hill, iv. 206, 421). Through the arguments 
of Usher he was induced to join the Roman 
catholic church, and this brought about an 
intimacy between him and John Milner 
(1752-1826) [q. v.], bishop of Castabala 
(HUSENBETH, Life of Milner, p. 14). He 
was generally held in the highest esteem in 
consequence of his philological attainments 
and the amiability of his character, but, ac- 
cording to Madame d'Arblay,' though modest 
in science, he was vulgar in conversation ' 
(Diary, ii. 237). By his lectures and his 
literary productions he amassed a competent 
fortune. He lost his wife in April 1802 ; and 
he himself died in Tottenham Court Road, 
London, on 1 Aug. 1807. His remains were 
interred in the burial-ground of St. Pancras 
(CANSICK, St. Pancras Epitaphs, 1869, p. 145). 

His principal work is: 1. 'A Critical 
Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of 
the English Language,' London, 1791, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1797 ; 3rd edit. 1802 ; 4th edit. 
1806; 5th edit. 1810; 28th edit. 1826. 
Many other editions and abridgments of this 
work, which was long regarded as the 
statute-book of English orthoepy, have 
been published in various forms. One of 
these, ' critically revised, enlarged, and 
amended '[by P. A. Nuttall], appeared in 
London in 1855. 

His other works are : 2. 'A General Idea 
of a Pronouncing Dictionary of the English 
Language on a plan entirely new. With 
observations on several words that are 
variously pronounced as a specimen of the 
work,' London, 1774, 4to. 3. ' A Dictionary 
of the English Language, answering at once 
the purposes of Rhyming, Spelling, and 
Pronouncing, on a plan not hitherto at- 
tempted,' London, 1775, 8vo. The third 
edition, entitled 'A Rhyming Dictionary,' 
appeared at London, 1819, 12mo ; and there 
is in the British Museum a copy with all 



the words, written by Alexander Fraser, in 
Mason's system of shorthand. The work 
was reprinted in 1824, 1837, 1851, 1865, 
and 1888. 4. ' Exercises for Improvement 
in Elocution ; being select Extracts from 
the best Authors for the use of those who 
study the Art of Reading and Speaking in 
Public,' London, 1777, 12mo. 5. ' Elements 
of Elocution ; being the Substance of a Course 
of Lectures on the Art of Reading, delivered 
at several Colleges ... in Oxford,' London, 
1781, 2 vols. 8vo; 2nd edit., with altera- 
tions and additions, London, 1799, 8vo ; 
reprinted, London, 1802, Boston (Massa- 
chusetts), 1810; 4th edit. London, 1810; 
6th edit, London, 1820; other editions 1824 
and 1838. 6. 'Hints for Improvement in 
the Art of Reading,' London, 1783, 8vo. 

7. ' A Rhetorical Grammar, or Course of 
Lessons in Elocution,' dedicated to Dr. 
Johnson, London, 1785, 8vo ; 7th edit. 1823. 

8. 'The Melody of Speaking delineated ; or 
Elocution taught like Music ; by Visible 
Signs, adapted to the Tones, Inflexions, and 
Variation of the Voice in Reading and 
Speaking,' London, 1789, 8vo [see STEELE, 
JOSHUA]. 9. ' A Key to the Classical Pro- 
nunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names 
... To which is added a complete Vocabu- 
lary of Scripture Proper Names,' London, 
1798, 8vo ; 7th edit. 1822, reprinted 1832 ; 
and another edition, prepared by William 
Trollope, 1833 [see under TROLLOPE, ARTHUR 
WILLIAM]. Prefixed to the original edition 
is a fine portrait of Walker, engraved by 
Heath from a miniature by Barry. 10. 'The 
Academic Speaker, or a Selection of Parlia- 
mentary Debates, Orations, Odes, Scenes, 
and Speeches ... to which is prefixed Ele- 
ments of Gesture,' 4th edit. London, 1801, 
12mo ; 6th edit. 1806. 11. ' The Teacher's 
Assistant in English Composition, or Easy 
Rules for Writing Themes and Composing 
Exercises,' London, 1801 and 1802, 12mo ; 
reprinted under the title of ' English Themes 
and Essays,' 10th edit., 1842 ; llth edit., 1853. 
13. ' Outlines of English Grammar,' London, 
1805, 8vo ; reprinted 1810. 

[Addit. MS. 27488, ff. 241 b, 242; Athe- 
naeum, 1808, iii. 77; Edinburgh Catholic Maga- 
zine, new ser. (London, 1837) i. 617 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1807, ii. 786, 1121 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
ed. Bonn ; Lysons's Environs, Suppl. p. 270 ; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 146, 252, x. 447, 
xi. 36.] T. C. 

WALKER, JOHN (1759-1830), man of 
science, born at Cockermouth in Cumber- 
land on 31 July 1759, was the son of a smith 
and ironmonger in that town. He was 
educated at the grammar school, and after- 
wards engaged in his father's occupation of 



Walker 



7 6 



Walker 



blacksmith. In 1779 he went to Dublin 
with the intention of joining a privateer. 
The vessel had, however, been taken by the 
French, and Walker, who had already studied 
the art of engraving at Cockermouth, placed 
himself under an artist named Esdale. He 
made rapid progress, and between 1780 and 
1783 contributed several plates to Walker's 
' Hibernian Magazine.' Under the influence 
of the quakers, however, he was seized with 
scruples in regard to his art, and, abandoning 
it, set up a school, which was fairly prospe- 
rous. He laid much emphasis on a kindly 
method of treating his pupils, and deprecated 
corporal punishment as subversive of dis- 
cipline. Although he afterwards assumed 
the garb and style of a quaker, he was never 
admitted into the fellowship of the Friends 
on account of a suspicion that his faith was 
unsound. In 1788 he published in London 
a treatise on the ' Elements of Geography 
and of Natural and Civil History,' which 
reached a third edition in 1 800. With a view 
to improving the second edition, which ap- 
peared in 1793, and of preparing a ' Universal 
Gazetteer,' he undertook a journey through 
the greater part of England and Ireland in 
1793, returning to Dublin in the following 
year. The protective duty imposed in Dub- 
lin was so high that he was obliged to go to 
London to print his books. He made over 
his school to his friend, John Foster (1770- 
1843) [q. v.], the essayist, and removed to 
the English capital. His ' Universal Gazet- 
teer ' (London, 8vo) appeared in 1795, reach- 
ing a sixth edition in 1815. 

Soon after settling in London Walker 
turned his attention to medicine, entering 
himself as a pupil at Guy's Hospital. In 
1797 he visited Paris, where he gained 
notoriety by refusing to take off his hat in 
the conseil des anciens or to wear the tri- 
colour. He was on terms of friendship with 
James Napper Tandy [q. v.], Thomas Paine 
[q. v.], and Thomas Muir [q. v.], and esteemed 
Paine a great practical genius. From Paris 
he proceeded to Leyden, and graduated M.D. 
in 1799. He passed the winter in Edin- 
burgh, and in 1800 settled at Stonehouse in 
Gloucestershire. Shortly after, however, at 
the request of Dr. Marshall, he consented to 
accompany him to Naples to introduce vacci- 
nation. He left England in June 1800, and, 
after visiting Malta and Naples, accompanied 
Sir Ralph Abercromby [q. v.] on his Egyptian 
expedition. Returning to London in 1802, 
Walker on 12 Aug. recommenced a course of 
public vaccination. The Jennerian Society 
was formed at the close of the year, and early 
in 1803 he was elected resident inoculator at 
the central house of the society in Salisbury 



Square. Dissensions, however, arose, occa- 
sioned in part by some differences in method 
between Walker and Jenner, and Walker in 
consequence resigned the post on 8 Aug. 1806. 
On 25 Aug. a new society, the London Vac- 
cine Institution, was formed, in which 
Walker was appointed to an office similar to 
that which he had resigned, and continued 
to practise in Salisbury Court. After the 
establishment of the national vaccine board 
by the government, the Jennerian Society, 
which had fallen into bad circumstances, 
was amalgamated with the London Vaccine 
Institution in 1813, and Jenner was elected 
president of the new society, with Walker 
as director, an office which he held until his 
death. He was admitted a licentiate of the 
College of Physicians on 30 Sept. 1812. 
During the latter part of his life he laboured 
unceasingly in behalf of vaccination. He 
practised six days a week at the various 
stations of the society. Towards the end of 
his life he boasted that he had vaccinated 
more than a hundred thousand persons. 
He died in London on 23 June 1830. He 
was a man of great simplicity of character 
and directness of thought. He was a strong 
opponent of the slave trade, and made 
several attempts to call public attention to 
the abuses connected with suttee. He mar- 
ried at Glasgow on 23 Oct. 1799. 

Besides the works mentioned, Walker was 
the author of: 1. 'On the Necessity for 
contracting Cavities between the Venous 
Trunks and the Ventricles of the Heart,' 
Edinburgh, 1799, 8vo. 2. 'Fragments of 
Letters and other Papers written in different 
parts of Europe and in the Mediterranean,' 
London, 1802, 8vo. He also translated from 
the French the ' Manual of the Theophilan- 
thropes, or Adorers of God and Friends of 
Man,' London, 1797, 12mo, and compiled a 
small volume of ' Selections from Lucian,' 
7th ed. Dublin, 1839, 12mo. 

[Epps's Life of Walker, 1832 ; Hunk's Coll. 

of Phys. iii. 106 ; Smith's Friends' Books.] 

-p T rt 

WALKER, JOHN (1770-1831), anti- 
quary, son of John W 7 alker of London, w r as 
baptised at the church of St. Katherine Cree 
on 18 Feb. 1770, and was elected scholar at 
Winchester in 1783. He matriculated from 
Brasenose College on 14 Jan. 1788, gra- 
duating B.C.L. in 1797. In the same year 
he was elected fellow of New College, re- 
taining his fellowship till 1820. He also 
filled the posts of librarian and of dean of 
canon law. In 1809 he published a ' Selec- 
tion of Curious Articles from the " Gentle- 
man's Magazine " ' (London, 8vo) in three 
volumes. This undertaking had been sug- 



Walker 



77 



Walker 



gested by Gibbon to the editor, John Nichols, 
some time before, but Nichols could not find 
leisure for the task (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
viii. 557 ; Lit. Illustr. vol. viii. p. xi). Walker 
accomplished it with great judgment, and 
was rewarded by the sale of a thousand 
copies in a few months. A second edition, 
with an additional volume, appeared in 1811 ; 
and a third, also in four volumes, in 1814. 

Walker made valuable researches in the 
archives of the Bodleian Library and of j 
other university collections. In 1809 he j 
brought out ' Oxoniana ' (London, 4 vols. j 
12mo), consisting of selections from books 
and manuscripts in the Bodleian relating to 
university matters. This was followed in 
1813 by ' Letters written by Eminent Per- 
sons, from the Originals in the Bodleian 
Library and Ashmolean Museum ' (London, 
2 vols. 8vo). Both are works of value, and 
have been largely used by succeeding writers. 
Walker was one of the original proprietors 
of the ' Oxford Herald,' and for several years 
assisted in the editorial work. 

In 1819 Walker was presented by the 
warden and fellows of New College to the 
vicarage of Hornchurch in Essex, and re- 
sided there during the rest of his life. He 
died at the vicarage on 5 April 1831. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the 
author of ' Curia Oxoniensis ; or Observa- 
tions on the Statutes which relate to the 
University Court ' (3rd edit. Oxford, 1826, 
8vo). He was the first editor of the ' Ox- 
ford University Calendar,' first published in 
1810. An ' auction catalogue of his library ' 
was published in 1831 (London, 8vo). 

[Gent. Mag. 1831, i. 474 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Allibone's Diet, of English 
Lit. ; Macray's Annals of the Bodleian Library, 
1890.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, JOHN (1768-1833), founder 
of the ' Church of God,' born in Roscommon 
in January 1768, was the son of Matthew 
Walker, a clergyman of the established 
church of Ireland. He entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, on 18 Jan. 1785, was chosen 
a scholar in 1788, graduated B.A. in 1790, 
was elected a fellow in 1791, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1796, and B.D. in 1800. 

Walker was ordained a priest of the esta- 
blished church of Ireland. About 1803 he 
began to study the principles of Christian 
fellowship prevailing among the earliest 
Christians. Convinced that later departures 
were erroneous, he joined with a few others 
in an attempt to return to apostolic practices. 
Their doctrinal beliefs were those of the more 
extreme Calvinists, and they entirely rejected 
the idea of a clerical order. On 8 Oct. 1804 
Walker, convinced that he could no longer 



exercise the functions of a clergyman of the 
Irish church, informed the provost of Trinity 
College, and offered to resign his fellowship. 
He was expelled on the day following. He 
was connected with a congregation of fellow- 
believers in Stafford Street, Dublin, and 
supported himself by lecturing on subjects of 
university study. After paying 'several 
visits to Scotland, he removed to London in 
1819. 

Walker was no mean scholar, and pub- 
lished several useful educational works. In 
1833 the university of Dublin granted him 
a pension of 600/. as some amends for their 
former treatment of him. He returned to 
Dublin, and died on 25 Oct. of the same 
year. His followers styled themselves ' the 
Church of God,' but were more usually 
known as ' Separatists,' and occasionally as 
' Walkerites.' 

Among Walker's publications were : 1 . ' Let- 
ters to Alexander Knox,' Dublin, 1803, 8vo. 
2. ' An Expostulatory Address to Members 
of the Methodist Society in Ireland,' 3rd ed. 
Dublin, 1804, 12mo. 3. 'A Full and Plain 
Account of the Horatian Metres,' Glasgow, 
1822, 8vo. 4. ' Essays and Correspondence,' 
ed. W. Burton, London, 1838, 8vo. 5. ' The 
Sabbath a Type of the Lord Jesus Christ,' 
London,! 866, 8vo. He also edited : 1. Livy's 
' Historiarum Libri qui supersunt,' Dublin, 
1797-1813, 7 vols. 8vo ; Dublin, 1862, 8vo. 
2. ' The First, Second, and Sixth Books of 
Euclid's Elements,' Dublin, 1808, 8vo ; first 
six books with a treatise on trigonometry, 
London, 1827, 8vo. 3. ' Selections from 
Lucian,' Glasgow, 1816, 8vo ; 9th ed. Dub- 
lin, 1856, 12mo. For the opening of the 
Bethesda Chapel, Dorset Street, Dublin, on 
22 June 1794, he wrote two hymns, one of 
which, ' Thou God of Power and God of 
Love,' has been included in several collections. 

[Walker's Essays and Corresp. (with portrait), 
1838; Madden's Memoir of Peter Roe, 1842; 
Wills's Irish Nation, iv. 452; Gent. Mag. 1833, 
ii. 540; Remains of Alexander Knox, 1835; 
Millennial Harbinger, September 1835; A Brief 
Account of the People called Separatists, Dub- 
lin, 1821 ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892.] 

E. I. C. 

WALKER, JOHN (1781P-1859), in- 
ventor of friction matches, was born at 
Stockton-on-Tees in 1780 or 1781. He was 
articled to Watson Alcock, the principal 
surgeon of the town, and served him as 
assistant-surgeon. He had, however, an in- 
surmountable aversion from surgical opera- 
tions, and in consequence turned his atten- 
tion to chemistry. After studying at Dur- 
ham and York, he set up a small business 
as chemist and druggist at 59 High Street, 



Walker 



Walker 



Stockton, about 1818. He was a tolerable 
chemist, and was especially interested in 
searching for a means of obtaining fire easily. 
Several chemical mixtures were known which 
would ignite by a sudden explosion, but it 
had not been found possible to transmit the 
flame to a slow-burning substance like wood. 
While Walker was preparing a lighting 
mixture on one occasion, a match which had 
been dipped in it tgok fire by an accidental 
friction upon the hearth. He at once ap- 
preciated the practical value of the discovery, 
and commenced making friction matches. 
They consisted of wooden splints or sticks 
of cardboard coated with sulphur and tipped 
with a mixture of sulphide of antimony, 
chlorate of potash, and gum, the sulphur 
serving to communicate the flame to the 
wood. The price of a box containing fifty 
was one shilling. With each box was sup- 
plied a piece of sandpaper, folded double, 
through which the match had to be drawn 
to ignite it. Two and a half years after 
Walker's invention was made public Isaac 
Holden arrived, independently, at the same 
idea of coating wooden splinters with sulphur. 
The exact date of his discovery, according to 
his own statement, was October 1829. Pre- 
viously to this date Walker's sales-book con- 
tains an account of no fewer than two 
hundred and fifty sales of friction matches, 
the first entry bearing the date 7 April 1827. 
He refused to patent his invention, con- 
sidering it too trivial. Notwithstanding, he 
made a sufficient fortune from it to enable 
him to retire from business. He died at 
Stockton on 1 May 1859. 

[Gent. Mag. 1859, i. 655 ; Encyclopaedia 
Brit. 9th ed. xv. 625; Heavisides's Annals of 
Stockton, 1865, p. 105 ; Andrews's Bygone Eng- 
land, 1892, pp. 212-15; Northern Echo, 6 May 
1871; Daily Chronicle, 19 Aug. 1897; Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 201.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, JOSEPH COOPER (1762?- 
1810), Irish antiquary, was born probably in 
Dublin in or about 1762, and was educated 
under Thomas Ball of that city. He suffered 
all his life from acute asthma, and in his 
earlier years travelled a great deal in the 
hope of improving his health. For many 
years he lived in Italy. Of a studious dis- 
position, he utilised his leisure in making re- 
searches into Italian literature and Irish an- 
tiquities, his two favourite studies. After 
his return to Ireland he settled down in a 
beautiful house called St. Valeri, Bray, co. 
Wlcklow, where he stored his various art 
treasures and his valuable library. Here the 
rest of his life was passed, and here he wrote 
the works by which he is best known. He 



I died on 12 April 1810, and was buried on 
j 14 April in St. Mary's Churchyard, Dublin. 
He was one of the original members of the 
Royal Irish Academy, in whose welfare 
j he took the warmest interest, and contri- 
buted various papers to its ' Transactions.' 
i Francis Hardy [q. v.], biographer of. the 
j Earl of Charlemont, undertook a biography 
j of Walker, which, however, when finished 
in 1812, showed such signs of the failure of 
Hardy's mental power that the family pru- 
dently withheld it. On Hardy's death the 
materials were handed to Edward Berwick 
[q. v.], who does not seem to have finished 
his task. Many of Walker's letters are 
printed in Nichols's ' Literary Illustrations ' 
(vii. 696-758). 

The following is a list of his works : 1. ' His- 
torical Memoirs of the Irish Bards,' London, 
1786, 4to; new edit. 1818, 8vo. 2. 'His- 
torical Essay on the Dress of the Ancient 
and Modern Irish, to which is subjoined a 
Memoir on the Armour and Weapons of the 
Irish,' Dublin, 1 1788, 4tp : new edit. London, 
1818, 8vo. 3. ' Historical Memoir on Italian 
Tragedy,' 1799. 5. ' Historical and Critical 
Essay on the Revival of the Drama in Italy,' 
Edinburgh, 1805, 8vo. Also 'Anecdotes on 
Chess in Ireland,' a paper contributed to 
Charles Vallancey's ' Collectanea de Rebus 
Hibernicis' [see VALLANCEY, CHAELES]. His 
' Memoirs of Alessandro Tassoni ' were pub- 
lished posthumously in 1815, with a lengthy 
preface by his brother, Samuel Walker. It 
contains also poems to Walker's memory 
by Eyles Irwin [q. v.], Henry Boyd [q. v.J, 
William Hayley fq. v.], and Robert Ander- 
son (1770-1833) [q. v.] Walker left behind 
him several works in manuscript, including 
a journal of his travels and materials for 
' Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and En- 
gravers of Ireland.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1787 i. 34, 1788 ii. 998, 1810 
i. 487 ; Wills's Irish Nation, iv. 655 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; preface to Memoirs of Alessandro Tassoni, 
ed. Samuel Walker.] D. J. O'D. 

WALKER, OBADIAH (1616-1699), 
master of University College, Oxford, was 
the son of William Walker of Worsborodale, 
Yorkshire. He was born at Darfield, near 
Barnsley (HJEABNE, Collect, ed. Doble, i. 81), 
and was baptised on 17 Sept. 1616. He 
matriculated at Oxford, 5 April 1633, at the 
age of sixteen, and entered University Col- 
lege, where he passed under the care of 
Abraham Woodhead [q. v.] as tutor. He 
became fellow of his college in August fol- 
lowing, graduated B.A. 4 July 1635, and 
M. A. 23 April 1638. He soon became a tutor 
of note in his college and a man of mark in 



Walker 



79 



Walker 



the university. During the civil war he was 
elected one of the standing extraordinary 
delegates of the university for public busi- 
ness. He preached several times before the 
court, was favourably regarded by the king, 
and in 1646 was offered, but appears to have 
refused, his grace of bachelor of divinity. 
Through a part of this period he acted as 
college bursar (cf. SMITH, manuscript Tran- 
scripts, x. 210). In July 1648 the master 
and fellows were ejected by the parlia- 
mentary commissioners. Walker appears 
to have now gone abroad and to have re- 
sided for some time in Rome, 'improving 
himself in all kinds of polite literature ' 
(SMITH, Annals of University College). On 
the recommendation of John Evelyn about 
1650, he became tutor to a son of Mr. 
Hildyard of Horsley in Surrey (EVELYN, 
Diary, ed. Bray, iii. 22), and the early per- 
version of his pupil to the church of Rome 
may probably be regarded as one of the re- 
sults of his tuition. On the Restoration he 
was reinstated as fellow of his college ; ' after 
having been,' as he afterwards wrote to a 
friend in 1678 (SMITH, manuscript Tran- 
scripts, x. 192), 'heaved out of my place 
and wandred a long time up and down, I 
am at last, by the good providence of God, 
set down just as I was.' Soon, however, he 
again left Oxford, and again travelled to 
Rome, acting as tutor to a young gentle- 
man. By the college register he appears to 
have been granted leave of absence in August 
1661 for the next four terms, and again 
similar permissions on 31 Jan. 1663 and 
23 March 1664, and for two terms on 14 Jan. 
1665 (Univ. Coll. Reg. pp. 79-82). 

On the death of the master, Dr. Thomas 
Walker, in 1665, Obadiah declined to con- 
test Clayton's election to the vacant office. 
He now, however, resided again in the 
college as senior fellow and tutor. He was 
a delegate of the university press in 1667, 
and through his influence an offer was made 
to Anthony a Wood (whose acquaintance 
about this time he had accidentally made 
in the coach on the way to Oxford) for the 
printing of the ' History and Antiquities of 
Oxford' (WOOD, Life and Times, ii. 173). 
The mastership became again vacant by the 
death of Dr. Clayton on 14 June 1676, and 
Obadiah Walker was elected on 22 June 
1676 by the unanimous consent of the fellows 
{Univ. Coll.Iteff.Tp.99). Though, when writin 
to a friend on 20 Nov. 1675, he complaine 
of old age (SMITH, manuscript Transcripts, x. 
199), he soon proved himself an active head 
of the college. With energy he canvassed 
old members of the college for subscriptions 
towards the rebuilding of the big quadrangle, 



which was completed in April 1677. The 
same year the college, under the auspices of 
their new master, undertook an edition in 
Latin of Sir John Spelman's ' Life of Alfred ; ' 
this they did ' that the world should know 
that their benefactions are not bestowed on 
mere drones' (letter from O. W. 19 April 
1677, ib. p. 192). This publication, though 
often attributed to Walker alone, was a 
joint production, 'divers of the society assist- 
ing with their pains and learning ' (ib.) ; it 
was dedicated to Charles II with a fulsome 
comparison of that monarch to Alfred. The 
character of some of the notes in the volume, 
and Walker's connection with Abraham 
Woodhead's 'popish seminary' at Hoxton 
(Woodhead, who died in May 1678, left by 
will the priory at Hoxton to Walker), caused 
the master's conduct to be noted in the House 
of Commons towards the latter end of 
October 1678, when ' several things were 
given in against him by the archdeacon of 
Middlesex' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. vii. 150). He was ' much sus- 
pected at this time to be a papist ' (ib.), and, 
says Wood, ' had not Mr. Walker had a 
friend in the house who stood up for him, 
he would have had a messenger sent for 
him ' (WOOD, Life and Times, ed. Clark, ii. 
421) ; the same authority gives it that two 
of the fellows of the college made friends 
in the parliament-house to have the master 
turned out that one of them might succeed. 
Whatever inclination Walker entertained 
at this time towards the Roman church, 
on the heads of houses being called on 
17 Feb. 1679 to make returns to the vice- 
chancellor of all persons in their societies 
suspected to be papists, he categorically 
denied that he knew of any such in his 
college. But in April of the same year 
his name was mentioned in Sir Harbottle 
Grimston's speech calling the attention of 
the house to the printing of popish books 
at the theatre at Oxford (ib. p. 449) ; and 
in June 1680 complaint was made to the 
vice-chancellor of the popish character of 
a sermon preached by one of his pupils at 
St. Mary's, and the booksellers in Oxford 
were forbidden to sell his book, ' The 
Benefits of our Saviour Jesus Christ to Man- 
kind,' because of the passages savouring of 
popery (ib. p. 488). The course he was steer- 
ing began to render him unpopular both in 
the town and university, where his main 
friends and supporters were Leybourne and 
Massey, and among the fellows Nathaniel 
Boys and Thomas Deane. 

On the accession of James II Walker's 
attitude soon became clear, for on 5 Jan. 1686 
he went to London, being sent for by the 



Walker 



Walker 



king to be consulted as to changes in the 
university ( Univ. Coll. Register). On this 
errand he remained away till nearly the end 
of the month, and on his recommendation his 
friend Massey is said to have been appointed 
dean of Christ Church. After Walker's return 
he did not go to prayers or receive the sacra- 
ment in the college chapel (WooD, Life, iii. 
177). One result of his interviews with the 
king soon became apparent, for by a letter 
from James, dated 28 Jan. 1686, it was 
ordered that the revenue of the fellowship 
set free by the death of Edward Hinchcliffe 
should be sequestered into the hands of the 
master and applied ' to such uses as we shall 
appoint, any custom or constitution of our 
said college to the contrary' (ib. p. 110). 
In April in this year mass was held in the 
master's lodging, and on 3 May 1686 the 
master and three others were granted a royal 
license and dispensation ' to absent them- 
selves from church, common prayer, and 
from taking the oaths of supremacy and 
allegiance,' and under the same authority 
were empowered to travel to London and 
Westminster, and to come and remain in 
the presence of the queen consort and queen 
dowager. This curious dispensation was 
effected by immediate warrant signed by the 
solicitor-general, as it could not have been 
safely passed under the privy seal (EVELYN, 
Diary, ed. Bray, iii. 21). In the same month 
Walker was also granted a license to print 
for twenty-one years a list of thirty-seven 
Roman catholic works, the only restriction 
being that the sale in any one year was not 
to exceed twenty thousand, and a private 
press for this purpose was erected in the 
college in the following year. He was also 
able at this time to exercise influence over 
the printing operations of the university ; for 
under the will of Dr. Fell, who died on | 
10 July 1 686, the patent of printing granted by 
Charles II was made over to Walker and two 
others {Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. p. 
692). A chapel for public use was opened in 
the college on 15 Aug. 1686, rooms on the 
ground floor of the east side of the quadrangle, 
' in the entry leading from the quad on the 
right hand,' being appropriated for the pur- 
pose ; and the sequestered fellowship was 
applied for the maintenance of a priest, a 
Jesuit named Wakeman (SMITH, Annals of 
University College). On the occasion of the 
king's visit to Oxford in September 1687, 
Walker (who had been created a J.P. for 
the county of Oxford, 7 July 1687) gave a 
public entertainment in the college, and 
James was present at vespers in the new 
chapel. Walker was consulted by the king 
as to the appointment of a new president of 



Magdalen ; his sympathy was entirely with 
the sovereign, nothing, in his view, being 
plainer ' than yt he who makes us corpora- 
tions hath power also to unmake us ' (BLOXAM, 
Magdalen College and James II, pp. 94, 237). 
By this expression of opinion and his gene- 
ral conduct his unpopularity was greatly in- 
creased, ' popery being the aversion of town 
and university' (ib.) In January 1688 the 
traders in the town complained of ' the 
scholars being frighted away because of 
popery,' and, says Wood, ' Obadiah Walker 
has the curses of all both great and small' 
(WooD, Life, iii. 209). The master, how- 
ever, boldly pursued his course, and in Fe- 
bruary 1688 erected the king's statue over 
the inside of the college gate (ib. iii. 194). 
By means of correspondence he attempted 
this year to convert his old friend and pupil, 
Dr. John Radclift'e [q. v.] In a final letter 
(written 22 May 1688) to the doctor, whom 
he was quite unable to convince, Walker de- 
clared that he had only been confirmed in 
his profession of faith by reading Tillotson's 
book on the real presence, in deference to 
Radcliffe's wishes, and in the same letter he 
speaks of ' that faith which, after many years 
of adhering to a contrary persuasion, I have 
through God's mercy embraced' (PiTTis, 
Memoirs of Dr. Radcliffe, ed. 1715, p. 18). 
The young wits of Christ Church were the 
authors of the following doggerel catch, 
which by their order was sung by ' a poor 
natural' at the master's door: 

Oh, old Obadiah, 

Sing Ave Maria, 

But so will not I a 

for why a 

I had rather be a fool than a knave a 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. vii. 200). 
Four days after the arrival of the Prince 
of Orange, Walker left Oxford, and before 
leaving moved his books and ' bar'd up his 
door next the street ' ( WOOD, Life and Times, 
vol. iii. 9 Nov. 1688). His intention was to 
follow the king abroad, but on 11 Dec. he 
was stopped and arrested at Sittingbourne, 
in the company of Gifford, bishop of Madura, 
and Poulton, master of the school in the 
Savoy. The refugees were first committed 
to Maidstone gaol, and then conveyed to 
London and imprisoned in the Tower. On 
this event a somewhat scurrilous pamphlet 
was published in Oxford, entitled ' A Dia- 
logue between Father Gifford, the Popish. 
President of Maudlin, and Obadiah Walker, 
on their new college preferment in Newgate.' 
Meantime the vice-chancellor and the visitors 
of University College, having received a 
complaint from the fellows, met on 27 Jan. 
1688-9, and agreed to summon the fellows 



Walker 



81 



Walker 



and the absent master to appear before them, 
and on 4 Feb. 1689 the office of master was 
declared vacant, and filled by the election 
of the senior fellow. 

On the first day of term, 23 Oct. 1689, 
a writ of habeas corpus was moved for 
Walker, and the House of Commons ordered 
that he should be brought to the bar. He 
was there charged, first, with changing his 
religion ; secondly, for seducing others to it ; 
thirdly, for keeping a mass house in the 
university of Oxford. To these charges he 
made answer that he could not say that he 
ever altered his religion, or that his prin- 
ciples were now wholly in agreement with 
the church of Rome. He denied that he had 
ever seduced others to the Romish religion, 
and declared that the chapel was no more 
his gift than that of the fellows, and that 
King James had requested it of them, and 
they had given a part of the college to his 
use. Having heard these answers, the com- 
mons ordered that he should be charged in 
the Tower by warrant for high treason in 
being reconciled to the church of Rome and 
other high crimes and misdemeanours ( Com- 
mons 1 Journals, x. 275). 

Walker remained in the Tower till 31 Jan. 
1689-90, when, having come to the court of 
king's bench by habeas corpus, he was after 
some difficulty admitted to his liberty on 
very good bail (LUTTKELL, Brief Relation, 
ii. 10). On 12 Feb. he was continued in his 
recognisances till the next term, but was 
eventually discharged with his bail on 2 June 
1690 (ib. ii. 50). He was, however, excepted 
from William and Mary's act of pardon in 
May 1690. Walker now again lived for a 
period on the continent, and after his return 
resided in London. Being in poor circum- 
stances, he was supported by his old scholar, 
Dr. Radcliffe, ' who sent him once a year a 
new suit of clothes, with ten broad pieces 
and twelve bottles of richest canary to sup- 
port his drooping spirits' (Wooo, Life and 
Times, i. 81). On his infirmities increasing, 
lie eventually found an asylum in Radcliffe's 
house. 

Walker died on 21 Jan. 1698-9, and was 
buried in St. Pancras churchyard, where a 
tombstone was erected to his memory by 
his staunch friend, with the short inscription : 

W 

per bonam famam 
et per infamiam. 

His works are : 1. ' Some Instruction con- 
cerning the Art of Oratory,' London, 1659, 
8vo. 2. ' Of Education, especially of young 
Gentlemen,' Oxford, 1673. This work was 
deservedly popular, and reached a sixth 
edition in 1699. It shows its author to 

VOL. LIX. 



have been a man of the world, with a shrewd 
understanding of the weaknesses of youth. 
3. ' Artis Rationis ad mentem Nominalium 
libri tres,' Oxford, 1673, 8vo. 4. ' A Para- 
phrase and Annotations upon the Epistle of 
St. Paul,' written by O. W., edited by Dr. 
Fell, Oxford, 1675, 8vo. A new edition of 
this work appeared in 1852, with an intro- 
duction by Dr. Jacobson, D.D., in which he 
concludes that the book was first written 
by Walker, and afterwards possibly cor- 
rected and improved by Fell. 5. ' Versio 
Latina et Annotationes ad Alfredi Magni 
Vitam Joannis Spelman,' Oxford, 1678, fol. 
6. ' Propositions concerning Optic Glasses, 
with their natural Reasons drawn from Ex- 
periment,' Oxford Theatre, 1679, 4to. 7. ' The 
Benefits of our Saviour Jesus Christ to Man- 
kind,' Oxford Theatre, 1680, 4to. 8. 'A 
Description of Greenland ' in the first volume 
of the 'English Atlas,' Oxford, 1680. 
9. ' Animadversions upon the Reply of Dr. 
H. Aldrich to the Discourse of Abraham 
Woodhead concerning the Adoration of our 
Blessed Saviour in the Eucharist,' Oxford, 
1688, 4to. The printer is said to have sup- 
plied the sheets of Abraham Woodhead's 
discourses concerning the adoration, &c., 
which was edited by Walker in January 
1687, to Dr. Aldrich, whose answer to Wood- 
head's book appeared immediately. 10. 'Some 
Instruction in the Art of Grammar, writ to 
assist a young Gentleman in the speedy 
understanding of the Latin Tongue,' London, 
1691, 8vo. 11. 'The Greek and Roman 
History illustrated by Coins and Medals, 
representing their Religious Rites,' &c. Lon- 
don, 1692, 8vo. 

[Univ. Coll. Register and MSS. ; Wood's Life 
and Times; Gent. Mag. 1786, vol. i. ; Gutch's Col- 
lectanea Curiosa, i. 288 ; Pittis's Memoirs of Dr. 
Radcliffe ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 
439 ; Smith's Hist, of Univ. Coll. ; British Mu- 
seum and Bodleian Catalogues.] W. C-K. 

WALKER, RICHARD (1679-1764), 
professor of moral philosophy at Cambridge 
University, was born in 1679. He was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1706, M.A. in 1710, 
B.D. in 1724, and D.D. per regias literas 
in 1728. He was elected a fellow of Trinity 
College, but in 1708 left Cambridge to serve 
a curacy at Upwell in Norfolk. In 1717 
Richard Bentley, who had a difference with 
the junior bursar, John Myers, removed him, 
and recalled Walker to Cambridge to fill 
his place. From this time an intimacy began 
between Walker and Bentley which increased 
from year to year. He devoted his best 
energies to sustaining Bentley in his struggle 
with the fellows of the college, and rendered 



Walker 



him invaluable aid. On 27 April 1734 Bent- 
ley was sentenced by the college visitor, 
Thomas Green (1658-1738) [q. v.], bishop of 
Ely, to be deprived of the mastership of 
Trinity College. On the resignation of John 
Hacket, the vice-master, on 17 May 1734, 
Walker was appointed to his place, and reso- 
lutely refused to carry out the bishop's sen- 
tence. On 25 June 1735, at the instance of 
John Colbatch, a senior fellow, the court of 
king's bench granted a mandamus addressed 
to Walker, requiring him to execute the 
sentence or to show cause for not doing so. 
Walker, in reply, questioned the title of the 
bishop to the office of general visitor, and 
the affair dragged on until 1736, when 
Green's death put an end to the attempts of 
Bentley's opponents. Walker was the con- 
stant companion of Bentley's old age, and 
was introduced by Pope into the ' Dunciad ' 
with his patron (POPE, Works, ed. Elwin 
and Courthope, iv. 201-5). 

In 1744 Walker was appointed professor 
of moral philosophy at Cambridge, and in 
1745 he was nominated rector of Thorpland 
in Norfolk, a living which he exchanged in 
1757 for that of Upwell in the same county. 
He was devoted to horticulture, and had a 
small garden within the precincts of Trinity 
College which was famous for exotic plants, 
including the pineapple, banana, coffee shrub, 
logwood tree, and torch thistle, which, with 
the aid of a hothouse, he was able to bring 
to perfection. On 16 July 1760 he purchased 
the principal part of the land now forming 
the botanic garden at Cambridge from Richard 
Whish, a vintner, and on 25 Aug. 1762 con- 
veyed it to the university in trust for its pre- 
sent purpose. In 1763 he published anony- 
mously ' A Short Account of the late Dona- 
tion of a Botanic Garden to the University 
of Cambridge ' (Cambridge, 4to). He died 
at Cambridge, unmarried, on 15 Dec. 1764. 

[Monk's Life of Bentley, 1833, ii. 26, 81, 349- 
56, 379-84,400-6; Scots Mag. 1764, p. 687 ; 
Annual Reg. 1760, i. 103 ; Willis's Architectural 
Hist, of Cambridge, 1886, ii. 582-3, 646, iii. 145, 
151 ; Blomefield'sHist. of Norfolk, 1807, vii. 99, 
470.] E. I. C. 

WALKER, ROBERT (d. 1658?), por- 
trait-painter, was the chief painter of the 
parliamentary party during the Common- 
wealth. Nothing is known of his early life. 
His manner of painting, though strongly 
influenced by that of Van Dyck, is yet dis- 
tinctive enough to forbid his being ranked 
among Van Dyck's immediate pupils. Walker 
is chiefly known by his portraits of Oliver 
Cromwell, and, with the exception of the 
portraits by Samuel Cooper [q. v.], it is to 
Walker that posterity is mainly indebted 



for its knowledge of the Protector's features. 
The two best known types the earlier re- 
presenting him in armour with a page tying- 
on his sash ; the later, full face to the waist in 
armour have been frequently repeated and 
copied. The best example of the former is 
perhaps the painting now in the National 
Portrait Gallery, which was formerly in the 
possession of the Rich family. This likeness 
was considered by John Evelyn (1620-1706) 
[q. v.], the diarist, to be the truest represen- 
tation of Cromwell which he knew (see 
Numismata, p. 339). There are repetitions 
of this portrait at Al thorp, Hagley, and else- 
where. The most interesting example of 
the latter portrait is perhaps that in the Pitti 
Palace at Florence (under the name of Sir 
Peter Lely), which was acquired by the Grand 
Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany shortly after 
Cromwell's death. In another portrait by 
Walker, Cromwell wears a gold chain and 
decoration sent to him by Queen Christina 
of Sweden. Walker painted Ireton, Lam- 
bert (examples of these two in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery), Fleetwood, Serjeant 
Keeble, and other prominent members of 
the parliamentarygovernment. Evelyn him- 
self sat to him, as stated in his ' Diary ' for 
1 July 1648 : ' I sate for my picture, in 
which there is a death's head, to Mr. Walker, 
that excellent painter ; ' and again 6 July 
1650 : ' To Mr. Walker's, a good painter, who 
shew'd me an excellent copie of Titian.' 
This copy of Titian, however, does not ap- 
pear, as sometimes stated, to have been 
painted by Walker himself. One of AValker's 
most excellent paintings is the portrait of 
William Faithorne the elder [q. v.], now in 
the National Portrait Gallery. In 1652, on 
the death of the Earl of Arundel, Walker 
was allotted apartments in Arundel House, 
which had been seized by the parliament. 
He is stated to have died in 1658. He 
painted his own portrait three times. Two 
similar portraits are in the National Portrait 
Gallery and at Hampton Court ; and one 
of these portraits was finely engraved in his 
lifetime by Peter Lombart. A third example, 
with variations, is in the university galleries 
at Oxford. 

[ Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed.Wornum ; 
De Piles's Art of Painting (supplement) ; Noble's 
Hist, of the House of Cromwell ; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of England (manuscript notes by G. 
Scharf) ; Cat. of the National Portrait Gallery.] 

L. C. 

WALKER, ROBERT (1709-1802), 
' Wonderful Walker/ was born at Under- 
crag in Seathwaite, Borrowdale, Cumber- 
land, in 1709, being the youngest of twelve 
children ; his eldest brother was born about 



Walker 

1684, and was ninety-four when he died in 
1778. Robert was taught the rudiments in 
the little chapel of his native Seathwaite, 
and afterwards apparently by Henry Forest 
(1683-1741), the curate of Loweswater, at 
which place in course of time Walker acted 
as schoolmaster down to 1735, when he be- 
came curate of Seathwaite with a stipend 
of 51. a year and a cottage. In 1755 he 
computed his official income thus : 51. from 
the patron, 51. from the bounty of Queen 
Anne, 31. rent-charge upon some tenements 
at Loweswater, 4/. yearly value of house 
and garden, and 31. from fees in all 201. 
per annum. Nevertheless, by dressing and 
faring as a peasant, with strict frugality and 
with the aid of spinning, ' at which trade 
he was a great proficient,' he managed not 
only to support a family of eight, but even 
to save money, and when, in 1755-6, it was 
proposed by the bishop of Chester to join 
the curacy of Ulpha to that of Seathwaite, 
Walker refused the offer lest he should be 
suspected of cupidity. A few years later 
the curacy was slightly augmented; and 
as his children grew up and were appren- 
ticed his circumstances became easy. He 
was enabled to earn small sums as ' scrivener ' 
to the surrounding villages. He also acted 
as schoolmaster, but for his teaching he made 
no charge; 'such as could afford to pay 
gave him what they pleased.' ' His seat was 
within the rails of the altar, the communion 
table was his desk, and, like Shenstone's 
schoolmistress, the master employed himself 
at the spinning wheel while the children 
were repeating their lessons by his side.' 
The pastoral simplicity of his life is graphi- 
cally sketched by Wordsworth, who alludes 
to his grave in the ' Excursion ' (bk. vii. 
11. 351 sq.), and in the eighteenth of the 
' Duddon's Sonnets ' (' Seathwaite Chapel ') 
refers to Walker as the ' Gospel Teacher 
Whose good works formed an endless retinue, 
A pastor such as Chaucer's verse portrays, 
Such as the heaven-taught skill of Herbert drew 
And tender Goldsmith crowned with deathless 

praise.' 

Walker died on 25 June 1802, and was 
buried three days later in Seathwaite 
churchyard. His wife Anne, like himself, 
was ninety-three at the time of her death 
(January 1802). Walker's tombstone has 
recently been turned over and a new in- 
scription cut, while a brass has been erected 
to his memory in Seathwaite chapel. The 
latter, as well as the parsonage, has been re- 
built since Walker's day. His character 
may have been idealised to some extent by 
Wordsworth (as that of Kyrle by Pope), 
but there is confirmatory evidence as to the 



'3 Walker 

nobility of his life and the beneficent in- 
fluence that he exercised. The epithet of 
'Wonderful' attached to his name by the 
countryside can scarce be denied to a man 
who with his income left behind him no 
less a sum than 2,000/. 

[The chief authority for ' Wonderful Walker* 
is the finely touched memoir embodied by 
Wordsworth in his notes to the Duddcm Sonnets. 
See the Works of Wordsworth, 1888, pp. 825- 
833, and the Poems of Wordsworth, ed. Knight, 
1896, vi. 249, v. 298 ; see also Gent. Mag. 176') 
pp. 317-19, 1803 i. 17-19, 103; Christian Re- 
membrancer, October 1819; Rix's Notes on the 
Localities of the Duddon Sonnets (Wordsworth 
Society Trans, v. 61-78); Rawnsley's English 
Lakes, ii. 191-2 ; Parkinson's Old Church Clock 
1880, p. 99 ; Tutin's Wordsworth Dictionary, 
1891, p. 30 ; Sunday Mag. xi. 34.] T. S. 

WALKER, ROBERT FRANCIS (1789- 
1854), divine and author, son of Robert 
Walker of Oxford, was born there on 15 Jan. 
1789. He received his earlier education 
at Magdalen College school, and while a 
chorister at chapel is said to have so at- 
tracted Lord Nelson by his singing that he 
gave him half a guinea. He entered New 
College, Oxford, in 1806, and graduated 
B.A. in 1811, and M.A. in 1813. In 1812 
he was appointed chaplain to New College ; 
in 1815 he became curate at Taplow ; at the 
end of 1816 or the beginning of 1817 he re- 
moved to Henley-on-Thames ; and in 1819 
he went to Purleigh, Essex, where he was 
curate in charge to an absentee rector, the 
provost of Oriel College, Oxford. There he 
remained for thirty years, until failing health 
compelled him to give up his charge. In 
1848, struck with paralysis, he went to reside 
at Great Baddow, near Chelmsford, and there 
he died on 31 Jan. 1854. He was buried at 
Purleigh. 

He was twice married : first, to Frances 
Langton at Cookham, Berkshire, in 1814 (by 
her he had four sons and one daughter, and 
she died in 1824) ; and, secondly, to Elizabeth 
Palmer at Olney, on 30 Sept. 1830 (by her 
he had five sons, and she died in 1876). 

Walker took a keen interest in ecclesi- 
astical movements, his sympathies being with 
the evangelical party. He was specially 
interested in the German section of that 
party, and translated several of their works: 
1. Hofacker's ' Sermons,' 1835. 2. Krurn- 
macher's ' Elijah the Tishbite,' 1836. 
3. ' Glimpse of the Kingdom of Grace,' 
1837. 4. ' Elisha,' 1838. 5. Burk's ' Me- 
moirs of John Albert Bengel, D.D.,' 1837. 

6. Earth's ' History of the Church,' 1840. 

7. Blumhardt's ' Christian Missions,' 1844. 

8. Leipoldt's ' Memoir of II. E. Ruuschen- 

*G 2 



Walker 



8 4 



Walker 



busch ; ' and he left at his death in manu- 
script Beck's 'Psychology,' Bythner's 'Lyra 
Prophetica,' Lavater's 'Life and Prayers,' 
and grammars of Danish and Arabic. In a 
memoir written by his friend, Rev. T. Pyne, 
a number of extracts of verse by him are 
given. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Life by 
Eev. T. Pyne ; information kindly supplied by 
his son, Eev. S. J. Walker.] J. E. M. 

WALKER, SAMUEL (1714-1761), 
divine, born at Exeter on 16 Dec. 1714, was 
the fourth son of Robert Walker of Withy- 
combe Raleigh, Devonshire, by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Richard Hall, rector 
of St. Edmund and All Hallows, Exeter. 
Robert Walker (1699-1789),hiselderbrpther, 
made manuscript collections for the history 
of Cornwall and Devon, which at one time 
belonged to Sir Thomas Phillipps (Phillipps 
MSS. 13495, 13698-9). 

Samuel was educated at Exeter grammar 
school from 1722 to 1731. He matriculated 
from Exeter College, Oxford, on 4 Nov. 
1732, graduating B.A. on 25 June 1736. In 
1737 he was appointed curate of Doddis- 
combe Leigh, near Exeter, but resigned his 
position in August 1738 to accompany Lord 
Rolle's youngest brother to France as tutor. 
Returning early in 1740, he became curate 
of Lanlivery in Cornwall. On the death of 
the vicar, Nicolas Kendall, a few weeks 
later, he succeeded him on 3 March 1739- 
1740. In 1746 he resigned the vicarage, 
which he had only held in trust, and was 
appointed rector of Truro and vicar of 
Talland. Although Walker had always 
been a man of exemplary moral character, he 
had hitherto shown little religious conviction. 
About a year after settling in Truro, how- 
ever, he came under the influence of George 
Conon, the master of Truro grammar 
school, a man of saintly character. He 
gradually withdrew himself from the amuse- 
ments of his parishioners, and devoted him- 
self exclusively to the duties of his ministry. 
In his sermons he dwelt especially on the 
central facts of evangelical theology re- 
pentance, faith, and the new birth, which 
were generally associated at that time with 
Wesley and his followers. Such crowds 
attended his preaching that the town seemed 
deserted during the hours of service, and 
the playhouse and cock-pit were per- 
manently closed. In 1752 he resigned the 
vicarage of Talland on account of con- 
scientious scruples respecting pluralities. 
In 1754 he endeavoured to consolidate the 
results of his labours by uniting his con- 
verts in a religious society or guild, bound 



to observe certain rules of conduct. In 
1755 he also formed an association of the 
neighbouring clergy who met monthly ' to 
consult upon the business of their calling.' 
The methods by which he endeavoured to 
stimulate religious life resemble those 
employed by the Wesleys, who were much 
interested in the work accomplished by 
Walker, and frequently conferred with him 
on matters of doctrine and organisation. 
In 1755 and 1756, when the question of 
separation from the English church occupied 
their chief attention, John and Charles Wes- 
ley consulted Walker both personally and 
by letter. Walker failed to convince John 
Wesley of the unlawfulness of leaving the 
English church, but he helped to show him 
its inexpediency, and in 1758 persuaded him 
to suppress the larger part of a pamphlet 
which he had written, entitled ' Reasons 
against a Separation from the Church of 
England,' fearing that some of the reasons 
which convinced Wesley might have a con- 
trary effect on others. Walker strongly dis- 
approved of the influence exerted by the lay 
preachers in directing the course of the Wes- 
leyan movement. ' It has been a great fault 
all along,' he wrote to Charles Wesley, ' to 
have made the low people of your council.' 

Walker died unmarried on 19 July 1761 
at Blackheath, at the house of William Legge, 
second earl of Dartmouth [q. v.], who had a 
great affection for him. He was buried in 
Lewisham churchyard. 

Walker was the author of: 1. ' The Chris- 
tian : a Course of eleven practical Sermons,' 
London, 1755, 12mo ; 12th ed. 1879, 8vo. 

2. 'Fifty-two Sermons on the Baptismal 
Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Command- 
ments, and other important Subjects of 
Practical Religion,' London, 1763, 2 vols. 
8vo ; new edition by John Lawson, with a 
memoir by Edward Bickersteth [q. v.], 1836. 

3. ' Practical Christianity illustrated in Nine 
Tracts,' London, 1765, 12mo ; new edition, 
1812. 4. ' The Covenant of Grace, in Nine 
Sermons,' Hull, 1788, 12mo, reprinted from 
the ' Theological Miscellany ; ' new edition, 
Edinburgh, 1873, 12mo. 5. Ten sermons, 
entitled ' The Refiner, or God's Method of 
Purifying his People,' Hull, 1790, 12mo, 
reprinted from the ' Theological Miscellany ; ' 
reissued in a new arrangement as ' Christ 
the Purifier,' London, 1794, 12mo ; new 
edition, 1824, 12mo. 6. 'The Christian 
Armour : ten Sermons, now first published 
from the Author's Remains,' London, 1841, 
18mo ; new edition, Chichester, 1878, 8vo. 

[Sidney's Life and Ministry of Samuel 
Walker, 2nd ed. 1838 ; Samuel Walker of Truro 
(Eeligious Tract Soc.) ; Eyle's Christian 



Walker 



Walker 



Leaders of the Last Century, 1869, pp. 306-27 I 
Bennett's Risdon Darracott, 1815; Tyerman's 
Life of John Wesley, 1870, ii. 207, 211, 244, 
250, 279, 317, 414, 585; Polwhele's Biogr. 
Sketches, 1831, i. 75; Hervey's Letters, 183", 
p. 718 ; Life of Countess of Huntingdon, ii. 54, 
414-15 ; Penrose's Christian Sincerity, 1829, pp. 
179-81 ; Elizabeth Smith's Life Reviewed, 1780, 
pp. 17, 36 ; Middleton's Biogr. Evangelica, 1786, 
iv. 350-74; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 122; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornub. ii. 846, iii. 1358.] 

E. I. C. 

WALKER, SAYER (1748-1826), phy- 
sician, was born in London in 1748. After 
school education he became a presbyterian 
minister at Enfield, Middlesex, but after- 
wards studied medicine in London and 
Edinburgh, graduated M.D. at Aberdeen on 
31 Dec. 1791, and became a licentiate of 
the College of Physicians of London on 
25 June 1792. He was in June 1794 elected 
physician to the city of London Lying-in 
Hospital, and his chief practice was mid- 
wifery. He retired to Clifton, near Bristol, 
six months before his death on 9 Nov. 1826. 
He published in 1796 'A Treatise on Ner- 
vous Diseases,' and in 1803 'Observations on 
the Constitution of Women.' His writings 
contain nothing of permanent value. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 423 ; Gent. Mag. 
1826, ii. 470.] N. M. 

WALKER, SIDNEY (1795-1846), 
Shakespearean critic. [See WALKER, WIL- 
LIAM SIDNEY.] 

WALKER,THOMAS (1698-1 744), actor 
and dramatist, the son of Francis Walker i 
of the parish of St. Anne, Soho, was born 
in 1698, and educated at a school near his 
father's house, kept by a Mr. Medow or 
Midon. About 1714 he joined the company , 
of Shepherd, probably the Shepherd who was 
at Pinkethman's theatre, Greenwich, in 1710, ' 
and was subsequently, together with Walker, [ 
at Drury Lane. Barton Booth saw Walker 
playing Paris in a droll named ' The Siege 
of Troy,' and recommended him to the 
management of Drury Lane. In November 
1715 (probably 6 Nov.) he seems to have 
played Tyrrel in Gibber's ' Richard III.' 
On 12 Dec. 1715 he was Young Fashion in 
a revival of the ' Relapse.' On 3 Feb. 1716 
he was the first Squire Jolly in the ' Cobbler 
of Preston,' an alteration by Charles Johnson 
of the induction to the ' Taming of the Shrew.' 
On 21 May 'Cato,' with an unascertained 
cast, was given for his benefit. On 17 Dec. 
he was the first Cardono in Mrs. Centlivre's 
' Cruel Gift.' He also played during the 
season Axalla in ' Tamerlane ' and Portius in 



' Cato.' Beaupre, in the ' Little French Law- 
yer,' was given next season, and on 6 Dec. 
1717 he was the first Charles in Gibber's ' Non- 
juror.' Pisander in the ' Bondman,' Rameses 
an original part in Young's ' Busiris ' 
(7 March 1719), and Laertes followed, and 
he was (11 Nov.) the first Brutus in Dennis's 
' Invader of his Country,' an alteration of 
' Coriolanus,' and (17 Feb. 1720) the first 
Daran in Hughes's ' Siege of Damascus.' 
Cassio and Vernon in the ' First Part of 
King Henry IV,' Alcibiades in 'Timon of 
Athens,' Pharmaces in ' Mithridates,' Octa- 
vius in ' Julius Caesar,' Aaron in ' Titus An- 
dronicus,' are among the parts he played at 
Drury Lane. On 23 Sept. 1721 he appeared 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields as Edmund in 'Lear,' 
playingduring hisfirst season Carlos in ' Love 
makes a Man,' Polydore in the ' Orphan,' 
Bassanio, Hotspur, Don Sebastian, Oroonoko, 
Aimwell in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' Young 
Worthy in ' Love's Last Shift,' Bellmour in 
the ' Old Bachelor,' Paris in Massinger's 
' Roman Actor,' Lorenzo in the ' Spanish 
Friar,' and many other parts in tragedy and 
comedy. At Lincoln's Inn he remained until 
1733, playing, with other parts, Antony in 
' Julius Caesar,' Adrastus in ' CEdipus,' Con- 
stant in the ' Provoked Wife,' Leandro in 
the ' Spanish Curate,' Hephestion in ' Rival 
Queens,' Alexander the Great , Captain Plume, 
King in ' Hamlet,' Phocias an original part 
in the ' Fatal Legacy ' (23 April 1723), Roe- 
buck in Farquhar's ' Love and a Bottle,' Mas- 
saniello, Lovemore in the ' Amorous Widow,' 
Wellbred in ' Every Man in his Humour,' 
Harcourt in the ' Country Wife,' Younger 
Belford in the ' Squire of Alsatia,' Dick in 
the' Confederacy,' Cromwell in' Henry VIII,' 
Massinissa in ' Sophonisba,' Marsan an ori- 
ginal part in Southerne's ' Money the Mis- 
tress' (19 Feb. 1726), Don Lorenzo in the 
' Mistake,' Pierre in ' Venice Preserved,' and 
Young Valere in the ' Gamester.' 

On 29 Jan. 1728 Walker took his great ori- 
ginal part of Captain Macheath in the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera,' a role in which his reputation 
was established. He was an indifferent mu- 
sician ; but the gaiety and ease of his style, 
and his bold dissolute bearing, won general 
recognition. On 10 Feb. 1729 he was the 
first Xerxes in Madden's ' Themistocles,' and 
on 4 March the first Frederick in Mrs. Hay- 
wood's ' Frederick, Duke of Brunswick.' ' Ly- 
sippus in a revival of the ' Maid's Tragedy ' 
and Juba in ' Cato ' followed. On 4 Dec. 
1730 he was the original Ramble in Field- 
ing's' Coffee-house Politician.' He also played 
Myrtle in the ' Conscious Lovers,' Cosroe 
in the ' Prophetess,' Corvino in ' Volpone,' 
and Lord Wronglove in the ' Lady's Last 



Walker 



86 



Walker 



Stake,' and was, in the season 1730-1, the 
first Cassander in Frowde's ' Philotas,' Adras- 
tus in Jeffrey's ' Merope,' Pylades in Theo- 
bald's ' Orestes,' and Hypsenor in Tracy's 
' Periander.' 

On 10 Feb. 1733, at the new theatre in 
Covent Garden, Walker was the first Peri- 
phas in Gay's ' Achilles.' At this house he 
played Lothario, Banquo, Hector in Dryden's 
' Troilus and Cressida,' Angelo in ' Measure 
for Measure,' Sempronius in ' Cato,' Lord 
Morelove in ' Careless Husband,' Timon, 
Carlos in the ' Fatal Marriage,' the King in 
the ' Mourning Bride,' Ghost in ' Hamlet,' 
FainaU in the ' "Way of the World,' Colonel 
Briton, Bajazet, Henry VI in ' Richard III,' 
Young Rakish in the ' School Boy,' Falcon- 
bridge, Dolabella in ' All for Love,' Horatio 
in ' Fair Penitent,' Xorfolk in ' Richard II,' 
Marcian in ' Theodosius,' Kite in ' Recruit- 
ing Officer,' and Scandal in ' Love for Love.' 
The last part in which he can be traced at 
Covent Garden is Ambrosio in ' Don Quixote,' 
which he played on 17 May 1739. In 1739-40 
he appears to have been out of an engage- 
ment, but he played, 17 May 1740, Macheath 
for his benefit at Drury Lane. In 1740-41 
he was seen in many of his principal parts 
at Goodman's Fields. But after Garrick's 
arrival at Goodman's Fields in 1741, Walker's 
name was taken from the bills and did not 
reappear until 27 May 1742, when the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera ' and the ' Virgin Unmasked ' 
were given for his benefit. He seems to 
have played in Dublin in 1742 as Kite in 
the ' Recruiting Officer,' with Garrick as 
Plume. 

Walker's first dramatic effort was com- 
pressing into one the two parts of D'Urfey's 
' Massaniello.' This was produced at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, 31 July 1724, with Walker 
as Massaniello. John Leigh [q. v.] wrote 
concerning this 

Tom Walker his creditors meaning to chouse, 
Like an honest, good-natured young fellow, 

Eesolv'd all the summer to stay in the house 
And rehearse by himself Massaniello. 

The ' Quaker's Opera,' 8vo, 1728, a species 
of catchpenny imitation by Walker of the 
' Beggar's Opera,' was acted at Lee and 
Harper's booth in Bartholomew Fair. 
Whether Walker played in it is not known. 
The ' Fate of Villainy,' 8vo, 1730, probably 
an imitation of some older plav, was given 
at Goodman's Fields on 24 Feb." 1730 by Mr. 
and Mrs. Giffard with little success. It is 
unequal in merit, some parts being fairly, 
others poorly, written. In 1744 Walker 
went to Dublin, taking with him this play, 
which was acted there under the title of 



' Love and Loyalty.' The second night 

was to have been for his benefit. Not being 

able to furnish security for the expenses of 

' the house, he could not induce the managers 

J to reproduce it. He died three days later, 

j 5 June 1744, his death being accelerated 

i by poverty and disappointment. 

Walker was a good, though scarcely a 

first-class, actor in both comedy and tragedy, 

his forte being the latter. He played many 

leading parts in tragedies, most of them now 

| wholly forgotten. His best serious parts 

: were Bajazet, Hotspur, Edmund, and Fal- 

coubridge ; in comedy he was received with 

most favour as Worthy in the ' Recruiting 

Officer,' Bellmour in the ' Old Bachelor,' and 

Harcourt in the ' Country Girl.' Rich said 

concerning him that he was the only man 

who could turn a tune [sing] who could [also] 

speak. Davies says that his imitation as 

Massaniello of a well-known vendor of 

flounders was eminently popular, and that 

his Edmund in ' Lear ' was the best he had 

seen. After his success in Macheath, in con- 

, sequence of which Gay dubbed him a high- 

| wayman, he was much courted by young 

men of fashion, and gave way to habits of 

i constant intemperance, to which his decline 

; in his profession and premature death were 

attributed. 

Walker had a good face, figure, presence, 
and voice. His portrait as Macheath, painted 
by J. Ellys and engraved by Faber, jun., a 
companion to that of Lavinia Fenton as 
Polly, is described in the ' Catalogue of En- 
graved Portraits ' by Chaloner Smith, who 
says that four copies are known. 

[Works cited ; Genest's Account of the Eng- 
lish Stage ; Biographia Dramatics ; Hitchcock's 
Irish Stage ; Chetwood's General History of the 
Stage ; Doran's Annals of the Stage, ed. Lowe ; 
Davies's Dramatic Miscellanies ; Betterton's 
[Curll's] History of the English Stage; 
Georgian Era.] J. K. 

WALKER, THOMAS (1784-1836), 
police magistrate and author, son of Thomas 
Walker (1749-1817), was born at Barlow 
Hall, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, near Manchester, 
on 10 Oct. 1784. His father was a Man- 
chester cotton merchant and the head of the 
whig or reform party in the town. In 1784 
he led the successful opposition to Pitt's fus- 
tian tax, and in 1790, when he was borough- 
reeve, founded the Manchester Constitutional 
Society. His warehouse was attacked in 
1792 by a 'church and king' mob, and in 
that year he was prosecuted for treasonable 
conspiracy; but the evidence was so plainly 
perjured that the charge was abandoned. 
At the trial he was defended by Erskine, and 
among his friends and correspondents were 



Walker 



Walker 



Charles James Fox, Lord Derby, Thomas 
Paine, and many others. His portrait, after 
a picture by Romney, was engraved by Sharpe 
in 1795. 

The younger Thomas Walker went to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated 
B. A. in 1808 and M. A. in 1811. He was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple on8May!812, 
and, after the death of his father, lived for 
some years at Longford Hall, Stretford, en- 
gaging in township affairs, and dealing suc- 
cessfully with the problem of pauperism, 
which subject became his special study. In 
1826 he published 'Observations on the 
Nature, Extent, and Effects of Pauperism, 
and on the Means of reducing it' (2nd 
edit. 1831), and in 1834 ' Suggestions for a 
Constitutional and Efficient Reform in 
Parochial Government.' In 1829 he was 
appointed a police magistrate at the Lam- 
beth Street court. On 20 May 1835 he 
began the publication of ' The Original,' and 
continued it weekly until the following 
2 Dec. It is a collection of his thoughts on 
many subjects, intended to raise ' the na- 
tional tone in whatever concerns us socially 
or individually ; ' but his admirable papers 
on health and gastronomy form the chief 
attraction of the work. Many editions of 

* The Original ' were published : one, with 
memoirs of the two Walkers by William 
Blanchard Jerrold [q. v.], came out in 1874 ; 
another, edited by William Augustus Guy 

6\. v.], in 1875 ; one with an introduction 
y Henry Morley in 1887, and in the same 
year another ' arranged on a new plan.' A 
selection, entitled ' The Art of Dining and 
of attaining High Health,' was printed at 
Philadelphia in 1837 ; and another selection, 
by Felix Summerley (i.e. Sir Henry Cole), 
was published in 1881 under the title of 

* Aristology, or the Art of Dining.' 

Walker died unmarried at Brussels on 
20 Jan. 1836, and was buried in the cemetery 
there. A tablet to his memory was placed 
in St. Mary's, Whitechapel. 

[Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 324; Jerrold's Memoir, 
noticed above ; Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies ; 
Hay ward's Biogr. and Critical Essays, 1858, ii. 
396.] C. W. S. 

WALKER, THOMAS (1822-1898), 
journalist, was born on 5 Feb. 1822 in Mare- 
fair, Northampton. His parents sent him 
to an academy in the Horse Market at the 
age of six, where he remained till ten. The 
headmaster was James Harris. His father 
died when he was young, and his mother 
accepted the offer of relatives at Oxford to 
take charge of him. He was taught car- 
pentering there in the workshop of Mr. Smith. 
At the close of his apprenticeship he began 



business with Mr. Lee; but he retired at 
twenty-four because it was uncongenial, and 
also because he had determined to become a 
journalist. 

He gave his leisure hours to self-training, 
reading the best books, and reading them 
often. He perused Thomas Brown's 'Phi- 
losophy of the Human Mind ' five times in 
succession. He learned German in order 
to study Kant's works in the original. At 
a later period he was so much impressed by 
Coleridge as to read his ' Aids to Reflection ' 
and portions of the ' Friend ' once every five 
years. He equipped himself for the pursuit 
of journalism by becoming an adept at short- 
hand, and in September 1846 he advertised 
in the ' Times ' for an engagement. Before 
doing so he had formed three resolutions : 
' The first was to refuse no position, however 
humble, provided it could be honestly ac- 
cepted ; the second, to profess less than he 
could perform ; and the third, to perform 
more than he had promised.' T. P. Ilealey, 
proprietor of the ' Medical Times,' engaged 
Walker as reporter. Walker also contri- 
buted papers to ' Eliza Cook's Journal.' 
Having made the acquaintance of Frederick 
Knight Hunt [q. v.J, assistant-editor of the 
' Daily News,' he first wrote for that journal, 
and next obtained a subordinate post on the 
editorial staff, his duty being, to use his own 
words, ' to fag for the foreign sub-editor 
[J. A. Crowe], translate for him, and con- 
dense news from the European and South 
American journals.' In 1851 he became 
foreign and general sub-editor. On the death 
of W T illiam Weir [q. v.] in 1858 he was ap- 
pointed to the editorship. As editor he 
was distinguished for his support of the 
cause of Italian liberty, and by his confidence 
in the ultimate triumph of the federalists 
in the American civil war. Under the 
influence of Miss Martineau he advocated 
very strongly the justice of the action of 
the northern states, and refused to yield to 
the strong pressure brought to bear by friends 
of the confederates. He resigned the editor- 
ship in 1869 to accept the charge of the 
' London Gazette,' a less arduous post. He 
retired on 31 July 1889, when the office of 
editor was suppressed. He died on 16 Feb. 
1898 at his residence in Addison Road, 
Kensington, and was buried on 20 Feb. in 
Brompton cemetery. He was twice married, 
and a daughter survived him. His later years 
were devoted to philanthropic work in con- 
nection with the congregational church, in 
which he once held the honourable position 
of president of the London branch. He was 
a man of great strength of character. Dr. 
Strauss, one of his teachers, styles him ' a 



Walker 



88 



Walker 



very cormorant at learning, and one of those 
rare men who have the faculty of acquiring 
knowledge ' (Reminiscences of an Old Bohe- 
mian, i. 112). The principles of domestic, 
colonial, and foreign policy which he formu- 
lated and enforced on becoming editor of the 
' Daily News,' made that journal's fame ; and 
when he retired from conducting it, Mr. 
Frederick Greenwood wrote in the ' Pall 
Mall Gazette ' that Walker had been dis- 
tinguished as editor ' by a delicate sense of 
honour and great political candour. He 
always held aloof from partisan excesses, and 
has shown himself at all times anxious to 
do justice to opponents not common 
merits.' 

[Athenaeum, 26 Feb. 1898; privately printed 
Memoir; Times, 20 Feb. 1898 ; Daily Chronicle, 
19 Feb. 1898.] F. E. 

WALKER, THOMAS LARKINS 

(d. 1860), architect, son of Adam Walker, 
was a pupil of Augustus Charles Pugin [q. v.], 
and a co-executor of his will. He designed 
(1838-9) All Saints' Church, Spicer Street, 
Mile End; 1839, Camphill House, Warwick- 
shire, for J. Craddock ; 1839-40, church at 
Attleborough, Nuneaton, for Lord Harrowby ; 
1840-2, St. Philip's Church, Mount Street, 
Bethnal Green ; 1841, hospital at Bedworth, 
Warwickshire ; 1842, Hartshill church, War- 
wickshire ; and restored the church at 
Ilkeston, Derbyshire. 

During part of his practice he resided at 
Nuneaton, and subsequently at Leicester. 
Emigrating to China, he died at Hongkong 
on 10 Oct. 1860. 

He published various illustrated architec- 
tural works in the style of Augustus Pugin's 
productions, viz. : 1. ' Vicar's Close Wells,' 
1836, 4to. 2. ' Manor House and Church at 
Great Chalfield, Wilts,' 1 837, 4to. 3. 'Manor 
House of South Wraxhall, Wilts, and Church 
of St. Peter at Biddlestone,' 1838, 4to. These 
three volumes are in continuation of Pugin's 
' Examples of Gothic Architecture,' and the 
plates in the first-named are by Augustus 
Welby Northmore Pugin [q. v.] 4. ' The 
Church of Stoke Golding, Leicestershire,' 
1844, 4to, for Weale's 'Quarterly Papers on 
Architecture.' He also edited Davy's 'Archi- 
tectural Precedents,' 1841, 8vo, in which he 
included an article on architectural practice 
and the specification of his own hospital at 
Bedworth. 

[Architectural Publication Society's Diction- 
ary ; Gent. Mag. 1861, i. 337.] P. W. 

WALKER, WILLIAM (1623-1684), 
schoolmaster and author, was born in Lin- 
coln in 1623, and educated at the public 
school there. He proceeded to Trinity Col- 



lege, Cambridge, where he took his degree. 
He taught for some time at a private school 
at Fiskerton, Nottinghamshire, was head- 
master of Louth grammar school, and sub- 
sequently of Grantham grammar school, 
where he is erroneously said to have had 
Sir Isaac Newton as a pupil. Newton, how- 
ever, had left the Grantham grammar school 
while Walker's predecessor, Mr. Stokes, was 
still at its head, but there existed a friend- 
ship of some intimacy between the two- 
when Walker was vicar of Colsterworth, 
after he had left Grantham. Walker died 
on 1 Aug. 1684. 

Walker's works show his two chief in- 
terests, pedagogy and theology. As a peda- 
gogue he gained a considerable reputation 
in his time, and was known as ' Particles T 
Walker from his book on that subject. His 
chief works are: 1. 'A Dictionary of Eng- 
lish and Latin Idioms,' London, 1670. 
2. ' Phraseologia Anglo-Latina, to which is 
added Parcemiologia Anglo-Latina,' London, 
1672. 3. ' A Treatise of English Particles," 
London, 1673, which has gone through many 
editions and been the subject of a great num- 
ber of editorial comments. 4. ' The Royal 
(Lily's) Grammar explained,' London, 1674. 
5. 'A Modest Plea for Infants' Baptism,' 
Cambridge, 1677. 6. ' EaTrria-p.a>v AtSa^^, 
the Doctrine of Baptisms,' London, 1678. 
7. ' English Examples of Latin Syntaxis,* 
London, 1683. 8. ' Some Improvements to 
the Art of Teaching,' London, 1693. 

[Athense Oxen. iii. 407 ; Nichols's Literary 
Illustrations, iv. 28 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. K. M. 

WALKER, WILLIAM (1791-1867), 
engraver, son of Alexander Walker, by his 
wife, Margaret Somerville of Lauder, was 
born at Markton, Musselburgh, near Edin- 
burgh, on 1 Aug. 1791. His father was for 
some time a manufacturer of salt from sea 
water, but this business proving unprofitable, 
he removed to Edinburgh, and there appren- 
ticed his son to E. Mitchell, an engraver of 
repute. In 1815 young Walker came to 
London, and worked under James Stewart 
( 1791-1 863) [q. v.] and Thomas Woolnoth, 
later taking lessons in mezzotint from Thomas 
Lupton [q. v.] Obtaining, through the Earl 
of Kellie, an introduction to Sir Henry 
Raeburn [q. v.], he was employed to engrave 
a large plate of that artist's fine equestrian 
portrait of the Earl of Hopetoun, which 
established his reputation, and he subse- 
quently engraved a number of the same 
painter's portraits, including those of Sir 
Walter Scott and Raeburn himself; the last 
is perhaps the finest example of stipple work 
ever produced. In 1828 Walker commis- 



Walker 



8 9 



Walker 



sioned Sir Thomas Lawrence [q. v.] to paint 
a portrait of Lord Brougham, and of this he 
published an engraving, obtaining a cast of 
Brougham's face to insure accuracy. In 
1829, on his marriage, he settled at 64 Mar- 
garet Street, where he resided until his death. 
In 1830 he produced his well-known por- 
trait of Robert Burns (to whose widow he 
was introduced), from the picture by Alex- 
ander Nasmyth, executed in stipple and 
mezzotint with the assistance of Samuel 
Cousins [q. v.] Of this plate Nasmyth is 
said to have remarked that it was a better 
likeness of the poet than his own picture. 
Walker's subsequent work comprises about 
a hundred portraits of contemporary nota- 
bilities, after various painters, chiedy in 
mezzotint, and all published by himself, with 
some interesting subject-pieces, of which, the 
most important are ' The Reform Bill re- 
ceiving the Royal Assent in 1832,' after 
S. W. Reynolds : ' Luther and his Adherents 
at the Diet of Spires,' after G. Cattermole, 
1845 ; 'Caxton presenting his first Proof-sheet 
to the Abbot of Westminster,' after J. Doyle, 
1850 ; ' The Literary Party at Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's,' after J. Doyle ; ' The Aberdeen 
Cabinet deciding upon the Expedition to the 
Crimea,' after J. Gilbert ; and ' The Distin- 
guished Men of Science living 1807-8,' from 
a drawing by J. Gilbert, J. L. Skill, and him- 
self. Most of these compositions were of 
Walker's own conception, and great pains 
were taken over the likenesses and acces- 
sories. Upon the ' Men of Science,' which 
was his last work, he was occupied for six 
years. The original drawing of this is now, 
with an impression from the plate, in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London,which also 
possesses the drawing and print of the ' Aber- 
deen Cabinet.' Walker died at his house in 
Margaret Street, London, on 7 Sept. 1867, 
and was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

ELIZABETH WALKER (1800-1876), born in 
1800, wife of William Walker, was the 
second daughter of Samuel William Rey- 
nolds [q. v.], by whom she was taught 
in her childhood to engrave in mezzotint. 
At the age of fourteen she engraved a por- 
trait of herself, from a picture by Opie, and 
one of Thomas Adkin. She afterwards 
became an excellent miniature-painter and 
had many eminent sitters, including five 
prime ministers, Lord Melbourne, Lord John 
Russell, Lord Aberdeen, Lord Palmerston, 
and Mr. Gladstone. She also painted in 
oils, and her portrait of the Earl of Devon 
hangs in the hall of Christ Church, Oxford. 
She was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy between 1818 and 1850, and in 
1830 was appointed miniature-painter to 



William IV. After her marriage she greatly 
assisted her husband in his various works. 
She died on 9 Nov. 1876, and was buried 
with him. Opie's portrait of Mrs. Walker 
when a child was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1875, and at the Grosvenor 
Gallery in 1888. A small portrait of her, 
engraved by T. Woolnoth from a miniature 
by herself, was published in 1825. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet. 
of Artists, 1760-1893; private information.] 

F. M. O'D. 

WALKER, WILLIAM SIDNEY 
(1795-1846), Shakespearean critic, born at 
Pembroke, South Wales, on 4 Dec. 1795, 
was eldest child of John Walker, a naval 
officer, who died at Twickenham in 1811 
from the effects of wounds received in action. 
The boy was named after his godfather, Ad- 
miral Sir (William) Sidney Smith, under 
whom his father had served. His mother's 
maiden name was Falconer. William Sidney, 
who was always called by his second Chris- 
tian name, was a precocious child of weak 
physique. After spending some years suc- 
cessively at a school at Doncaster, kept by 
his mother's brother, and with a private 
tutor at Forest Hill, he entered Eton in 
1811. He had already developed a remark- 
able literary aptitude. At ten he translated 
many of Anacreon's odes into English verse. 
At eleven he planned an epic in heroic verse 
on the career of Gustavus Vasa, and in 1813, 
when he was seventeen, he managed to 
publish by subscription the first four books 
in a volume entitled ' Gustavus Vasa, and 
other Poems.' The immature work does no 
more than testify to the author's literary 
ambitions. At Eton he learnt the whole 
of Homer's two poems by heart, and wrote 
Greek verse with unusual correctness and 
facility. There, too, he began lifelong friend- 
ships with AVinthrop Mack worth Praed fq-v.] 
and John Moultrie [q. v.], and, after leav- 
ing school, made some interesting contribu- 
tions to the ' Etonian,' which Praed edited. 
Walker, who was through life of diminutive 
stature, of uncouth appearance and manner, 
and abnormally absent-minded, suffered 
much persecution at school from thoughtless 
companions. After winning many distinc- 
tions at Eton, he was entered as a sizar at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, on 16 Feb. 1814, 
but did not proceed to the university till the 
following year. There he fully maintained 
the promise of his schooldays. He read enor- 
mously in ancient and modern literature. 
In 1815 he published ' The Heroes of Water- 
loo : an Ode,' as well as translations of ' Poems 
from the Danish, selected by Andreas An- 
dersen Feldborg.' In 1816 appeared another 






Walker 9 

-,: r,v Wt r. -I:,- LffMJ rf MmV 

He won the Craven ebolarhip in I -.17. anrl 

.-.I'..". : . / :'..-',.- . '. :' in '.''.'.::.: 

be WM admitted scholar of Trinity on 
3 April of the latter year. .Although hi* 



:'., ...-.... :.;... \ : "I.- ', ,': ,\ V. \ 
:. .-. . :.. - . :.-.-::.. :.:'.. .. v. ':. 

wa elected on the neore of b da**ical at- 
tainment* to a JeBowfhip at hi* college in 
1820. Hi* manam and bearing did not 
lo*e at the amTerwty their boyi*h awkward- 
new, but he maintained close istotiont with 
Praed and MotOtrie, the friend* of h 
hood, and formed a helpful intimacy with 
Derwent Crferidfe fa,T,] In 1 S3* be 

,':r. ,.'. . .-: : .. ' :... . ri; : , : '..-'; , : 

feMonhip in the nnrremty , He 

/.I..: :::'.- . -:..- ; /-- .:. -: . : ,:..:. .'. 

While a fellow of Trinity he lired 

won in his 



Walkingame 



l Jonrnal,' and both rene and t>r 



work, which 
bore f tnee* of h digame, and he at 

:.. ; , , : . .. : :.-.. ... . . - . ,;.-.[ 
ettmrntm the dlntreaiijar tTBtptonu of hi* 
Mental decay. He died of the atone at hi* 
lodcinf. a atncie room on the top floor of 

;i - . .f:rr..- - nM^M U OM, I-!-;. IL: 

WM buried in Ktngel Green eeauftxr- 

. ' :.. , ' ' :.,<-: . . - , ' :::. :.. 



friend Moaltrie / poem, called 'The Dream 

Modlrie jrtLfceJ in iSg n cottect^Tof 
hi* letter* and poenw, which ahow IHerarf 

I':' . ' ,:. : --,:'.. '..:.: T ':. - 1-: of 

'He Poetical RenwtMof WiBjani gktoey 
Walker, former^ Fellow of Trinity Co0n f 

C-i ..-.- :/-. . ;..... ^ . . . 



Walk 



.. 



:...;:. . ' - .-/ .:.- 



ffnnareJ for ynbCcation Mifeon'* newly dis- 
covered treatise 'Dte Eccfenia. Christiana/ a 
volume of which Charie* BSchaH 



".. .'.-:. . .':' . . ; . .. ...... 

;r.. . - ::. ..- : . .-.-.- .;.'.; : , ' .,-., 



Knwht a neful Corpw Peeti 

r.rr. . .- . ... .-I- : r,: . - ' i 

AA an andercndncte Walker fcad been 
perplexed bj rtftpgnf Jeabtoy and had ap- 
for gniiifanre to WilBam WOberfofee 
J>mnj? I - 1 -.- 1 WabwfjfMi wrote 
letten in which he en4e*PMWlt#ev> 
firm hi* befefc. The JniBinii of Chrle 

' " '' 



.r. . '...:' 

. 
. :-. . 

.' rr. .'', - . <> <, .-..- 
,f '.- . - ' ' ..,: -: 
.r-.-. .. :. I, 

I - . :.. ;, :- \ -..- 

!'/.. 

','... ':.:. ::.: I.-.'': 

. .. : '..; 



. . 
-. 



cal v i^w regarding eterMkl ] 
lay under the 




in I>!2J>. Tlv> lorn of 
<-.d him of aQ 



an/ 



he WM ntroJ ved M ebt 

: -.<: . . .'.X >.;. . : ' 

. . ..:' .... . ' 
. . ,.- ..,,. - ' 



. , .. . . . ,. .. . . 

ff*nt f AnlmfMi 

Vwt they n**if th 
4 efe*e reading w J3 
I . - .,. ./.... 
Javi Am MI anaf 



-. 



. 

' 1 



with him grew 



..:,-. . - -...:- - . 



'. :-.-: 
. 



\Yulkinj; ton 



\Yalkinshaw 



ton,' was author of 'The Tut V- -tant; 
being a Compendium of Arithmetic and a 
Complete Question-Book in five parts,' Lon- 
don, 1751, ISmo. The author hi. 
brought out a twenty-first edition in 
and the work has pissed through countless 
editions since that date, remaining the most 
popular " Arithmetic ' both in England and 
America down to the time of Colenso. A 
so-called seventy-first edition appeared in 
1831 (London, limo), and a so-called fifty- 
first in I $43 (Derby, 12mo). Except the 
section dealing with the rule of three which 
needed modification, the work remained 
little altervxl down to 1854, when an im- 
proved edition* was issued under the care of 
Professor J. K, Young. A comic* TV. 
\- - v .th cuts by Crowquill, was 

pub&hed in 1S43 (London, limo> 

rWalktafaafttfs Tttor s As&taat, 1751, with 
a tot of s*Wrib*rs ; D Megan's Aridnwtwal 
Books, pp. 8ft, 9; Notes awl <te*ri*s 1st s*r. 
T. 441. * A:. dL ft taint, iv. 2S5; Qeat 
MAC - SI ; Atteawua,, 1SS2. i. 
AHitac*'* JDfct, of EafU Lit. ; Brit. M& Gat. 
NHUNttMtiag *vr thirty iU*oa$ betvwe* 1751 
e*d !*&] T. S, 

WALKING-TON, NICHOLAS ME (JL 

UdSfX ntedueval wriu - N 



March. T. W.' ^no copy of this issue is in the 
British Museum). An undated edition, which 
cannot be dated earlier than 1631, was 
printed by WjlUiam] T[urner] at Oxford. 
Th:# issue, which has the same dedication 
as its predecessor, has an elaborately engraved 
title-page on steel, in which two graduates 
in cap and gown, representing respectively 
the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, 
hold between them an optic glass or touch- 
stone (MADix, Early Oiford Prat, pp. 160- 
161). Mr. W. C. Haditt describes a frag- 
ment of an edition printed at Oxford with a 
different dedication addressed to die autkorts 
* friend, M. Carye' {Ooilectio**, 1st ser.) Later 
editions., with the engraved title-page, ap- 
peared in London in 1639 and 1663. Dr. 
Farmer, in his Essay on die Learning of 
Shakespeare* (1789, p. 46 .), credited <T. 
WombwelT with the authorship of Walk- 



> :r:-s:-.>-. :~ :it -.: : .:'z 

l to a passage (traceable to Scaliger) 
by way of ilhastnting Shyiock's resaarkz am 
irrational antipathies ( Mmknt tf Vtmoe, 
rr.i.49X 

Walkuwton was afeo anthor of -An Ex- 
nosrtxna of tine two first venes of the ifc 
daapter to the Hebrews, in ferat of a Dia- 

by T. W., Minister of the Word.' 




: :-.. : .:-. ::..':-. -.- . :: 
to gtate as in the Uwfta 
tiee of Hohr Serintnes 
Sacra, HOT" 

. 



-".>: "-"--;_- -. 



vs -.-.. : *---:- - 

. v ..... y , ;.: - 



ItNLa^ltfcfcTONM* f 

w^wdS^ylttf H*t 

Ox of dttt Wr 



ia 

S.L. 



WALKIN^BAW, d-EMEXUXJL 

a <i^*-l<KHV anBiwmt f Ainee 

EAwat^tfcje j am^mA rf<teten< 
th# JkaWalkiasnawf] 
If 



YV Ht 

s... .., .,-,;.,,.., 







-- 



Walkinshaw 



Walkinshaw 



xii. 191-211), but could not possibly be by 
St. Simon, as Von Reumont and others as- 
sume, for it relates to events five to ten years 
after his death. 

Clementina and Prince Charles Edward 
seem to have met first either at her father's 
house, Shawfield, in Glasgow, or at Ban- 
nockburn House, the seat of her Jacobite 
uncle, Sir Hugh Paterson, bart., where the 
prince spent most of January 1746. He is 
said to have ' obtained from her a promise to 
follow him wherever Providence might lead, 
if he failed in his attempt ; ' and, having 
through an uncle, ' General Gram ' (probably 
Sir John Graeme), procured a nomination 
to a noble chapter of canonesses in Belgium 
(Memoire), she rejoined him at Avignon in 
1749 (EwALD), at Ghent in 1750 (PICHOT), 
or more probably at Paris in the summer 
of 1752 (LANG). For several years she 
shared his wandering fortunes, passing for 
his wife under such aliases as Johnson and 
Thompson, and moving about to Ghent, 
Liege, Basel, Bouillon, and other places. 
The connection was viewed by Jacobites with 
disfavour and mistrust, for Clementina had 
a sister Catherine, who was bedchamber- 
woman and then housekeeper at Leicester 
House to George Ill's mother, the princess 
dowager of Wales, and to whom Clementina 
was thought to communicate the gravest 
secrets. Their feelings of suspicion and dis- 
like are vividly depicted by Scott in his novel 
' Redgauntlet.' Clementina's sister must 
have been twenty years the elder if the third 
Earl of Bute (1713-1792) 'first came up 
from Scotland to Lonnon, seated on her lap ' 
(SiR WALTER SCOTT, Letters, ii. 208-9). 
Remonstrances, however, by Macnamara and 
' Jemmy ' Dawkins proved unavailing. Cle- 
mentina perhaps bore Prince Charles a son, 
who is said to have been baptised by a non- 
juring clergyman (afterwards Bishop Gor- 
don), and who must have died in infancy. 
A daughter Charlotte was certainly baptised 
as a catholic at Liege on 29 Oct. 1753, not 
long before which date ' Pickle the Spy ' 
writes word to the English government that 
' Mrs. Walkingshaw is now at Paris big with 
child ; the Pretender keeps her well, and seems 
to be very fond of her.' According, however, 
to Lord Elcho's manuscript journal, she soon, 
like the prince, took to drink, and once in a 
low Paris restaurant to his ' Vous etes une 
coquine,' retorted with ' Your Royal Highness 
is unworthy to bear the name of a gentle- 
man.' As, indeed, he was, if, according to the 
same spiteful source, he really ' often gave her 
as many as fifty thrashings with a stick dur- 
ing the day.' Dr. King, who also was preju- 
diced, is much to the same effect : ' She had 



no elegance of manners ; and as they had 
both contracted an odious habit of drinking, 
so they exposed themselves very frequently, 
not only to their own family, but to all their 
neighbours. They often quarreled, and 
sometimes fought ; they were some of those 
drunken scenes which probably occasioned 
the report of his madness ' (Anecdotes, p. 
207). 

Anyhow, on 22 July 1760 Clementina 
fled with her daughter from Bouillon to 
Paris, at the instigation, says the ' Memoire,' 
of the prince's father, ' James III,' who 
allowed her ten thousand livres a year. On 
James's death in 1766 this allowance was 
first cut off, and then by Cardinal York re- 
duced to one half on her signing an affidavit 
that there had been no marriage between her 
and his brother. The Comtesse d'Albertroff, 
as she now styled herself, withdrew hereupon 
to a convent at Meaux. Of her last days 
little definite is known. She died at Frei- 
burg in Switzerland in November 1802, after 
ten years' sojourn there, and left 12/. sterling, 
six silver spoons, a geographical dictionary, 
and three books of piety, bequeathing a louis 
apiece to each of her relatives, ' should any 
of them still remain, as a means of discover- 
ing them.' Horace Walpole was certainly 
wrong in writing (26 Aug. 1784) that she 
died in a Paris convent ' a year or two ago ; ' 
in September 1799 she was still in receipt 
of three thousand crowns a year from the 
cardinal. A portrait by Allan Ramsay is 
in possession of Mr. James Maxtone-Graham 
of Cultoquhey. 

In July 1784 Miss Walkinshaw's daughter 
was living en pension in a Paris convent as 
Lady Charlotte Stuart, when Prince Charles, 
who had vainly attempted to recover her in 
1760, sent for his ' chere fille ' to come to 
him at Florence, and legitimated her as 
Duchess of Albany by a deed registered on 
6 Sept. by the Paris parliament. She reached 
Florence on 5 Oct., and on 2 Dec. moved 
with her father to Rome. Amiable and 
sensible, she soothed his last three years, and 
endeared herself also to her uncle, Cardinal 
York, who at first had denied her the title 
of duchess. She survived her father by only 
twenty months, dying at Bologna on 14 Nov. 
1789 of the results of a fall from her horse. 
The story of her marriage to a Swedish 
Count Rohenstart [see under STUART, JOHN 
SOBIESKI] seems an absolute fiction. 

[Lives of Prince Charles Edward by Pichot 
(4th edit. Paris, 1846), Klose (Leipzig, 1842, 
Engl. transl. 1845), and A. C. Ewald (2 vols. 
1875); Tales of the Century, Edinb. 1847, by 
John Sobieski and Charles Edward Stuart, pp. 
78-128, to be used with extreme caution; Me- 



Wall 



93 



Wall 



moirs of Sir K. Strange and A. Lumsden (2 vols. 
1855), by Dennistoun, i. 193, ii. 215, 319-25; 
Die Grafin von Albany (2 vols. Berlin, 1860), by 
Alfred von Reumont ; Dr. William King's Poli- 
tical and Literary Anecdotes, 1818; Scott's 
Eedgauntlet, ed. A. Lang, 1894 ; Burns's Bonie 
Lass of Albanie, 1787, and W. Wallace's notes 
thereon in his edition of Chambers's Life of 
Burns, 1896, ii. 178-80; Prof. W. Jack on 
Burns's Unpublished Commonplace Book in 
Macmillan's Mag. for May 1879, pp. 33-42 ; 
Wariston's Diary and Letters by Mrs. Grant of 
Laggan (Scot. Hist. Soc. 1896, p. 328); Horace 
Walpole's Letters, viii. 492, 496, 498, 501, 522, 
536 ; forty-four letters from Prince Charles 
Edward, the Duchess of Albany, and the 
Countess of Albany to Gustavus III of Sweden 
(Forty-third Annual Report of Deputy-Keeper 
of Public Records, 1882, App. ii. pp. 21-3); 
A. H. Millar's Castles and Mansions of Ren- 
frewshire, s.v. 'Walkinshaw' (Glasgow, 1889) ; 
his Quaint Bits of Old Glasgow (1887) ; Lang's 
Pickle the Spy, 1897, with a likeness of Miss 
Walkinshaw from a miniature, and Companions 
of Pickle, 1898.] F. H. G. 

WALL, JOHN (1588-1666), divine, was 
born in 1588 ' of genteel parents ' in the city 
of London and educated at Westminster 
school, whence he went to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1604, graduating B.A. in 1608, 
M.A. in 1611, and B.D. in 1618 (WELCH, 
Queen's Scholars, p. 72). In 1617 he was 
appointed vicar of St. Aldate's, Oxford, where 
he gained some fame as a preacher. In 1623 
he received the degree of D.D. ; in 1632 he 
was made canon of Christ Church, Oxford ; 
in 1637 he was appointed to the living of 
Chalgrove; and in 1644 to a canonry at 
Salisbury. He was also chaplain to Philip 
Stanhope, first earl of Chesterfield [q. v.] 
Wood (Athence Oxon.) describes him as a 
' quaint preacher in the age in which he 
lived.' He was deprived of his canonry at 
Christ Church by the parliamentary visitors 
in March 1648, but was restored on his sub- 
mission in the following September, and re- 
tained that and his canonry at Salisbury 
during the Commonwealth and Protectorate ; 
he was also subdean and moderator of 
Christ Church. He died unmarried at Christ 
Church on 20 Oct. 1666, and was buried in 
the cathedral. Archbishop Williams de- 
scribed Wall as ' the best read in the fathers 
that ever he knew.' He subscribed to the 
rebuilding of Christ Church in 1660, and 
gave some books to Pembroke College Li- 
brary. He was also a benefactor to the city 
of Oxford, and his portrait, ' drawn to the 
life in his doctoral habit and square cap,' 
was hung in the city's council chamber. 
Wood, however, condemns his neglect of 
Christ Church, to which he owed 'all his 



plentiful estate ' (Woon, Life and Times, ed. 
Clark, ii. 90). 

Many of Wall's sermons have been pub- 
lished in collections and separately, the most 
important being: 1. ' Watering of Apollo,' 
Oxford, 1625. 2. ' Jacob's Ladder,' Oxford, 
1626. 3. 'Alae Seraphic*,' London, 1627. 

4. 'Evangelical Spices,' London, 1627. 

5. ' Christian Reconcilement,' Oxford, 1658. 

6. ' Solomon in Solio,' Oxford, 1660. 
[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 

Athense Oxon. iii. 734, Fasti, i. 325, 342, 382, 
412, and Hist, et Antiq. iii. 447, 512 ; Walker's 
Sufferings, ii. 70, 105; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. R. M. 

WALL, JOHN (1708-1776), physician, 
born at Powick, Worcestershire, in 1708, 
was the son of John Wall, a tradesman of 
Worcester city. He was educated at Wor- 
cester grammar school, matriculated from 
Worcester College, Oxford, on 23 June 1726, 
graduated B.A. in 1730, and migrated to 
Merton College, where he was elected fellow 
in 1735, and whence he took the degrees of 
M.A. and M.B. in 1736, and of M.D. in 
1759. After taking his M.B. degree he 
began practice as a physician in Worcester, 
and there continued till his death. In 1744 
he wrote an essay (Philosophical Transac- 
tions, No. 474, p. 213) on the use of musk 
in the treatment of the hiccough, of fevers, 
and in some other cases of spasm. In 
1747 he sent a paper to the Royal Society 
on 'the Use of Bark in Smallpox' (ib. No. 
484, p. 583). When cinchona bark was first 
used its obvious and immediate effect in 
malarial fever led to the opinion that it had 
great and unknown powers, and must be 
used with extreme caution, and this essay is 
one of a long series extending from the time 
of Thomas Sydenham [q. v.] to the first half 
of the present century, when it was finally 
determined that the evils anticipated were 
imaginary, and that bark in moderate doses 
might be given whenever a general tonic was 
needed, and to children as well as to adults. 
He published in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
for December 1751 an essay on the cure 
of putrid sore throat, in which, like John 
Fothergill [q. v.], he records and does not 
distinguish cases of scarlet fever and of 
diphtheria. He was the first medical writer 
to point out the resemblance of the condition 
in man to epidemic foot-and-mouth disease 
in cattle, a suggestion of great importance. 
In 1756 he published in Worcester a pam- 
phlet of fourteen pages, 'Experiments and 
Observations on the Malvern Waters.' This 
reached a third edition in 1763, and was then 
enlarged to 158 pages. Like all works of 
the kind, it describes numerous cures obvi- 



94 



Wall 



ously due to other causes than the waters. 
He recommended olive oil for the treatment 
of round worms in children, in ' Observations 
on the Case of the Norfolk Boy' in 1758, and 
agreed with Sir George Baker (1722-1809) 
[q. v.] in a letter as to the effect of lead in 
cider (London Med. Trans, i. 202). In 1775 
he published a letter to William Heberden 
(1710-1801) [q. v.] on angina pectoris, which 
contains one of the earliest English reports 
of a post-mortem examination on a case of 
that disease. He had noticed calcification 
of the aortic valves and of the aorta itself. 
He died at Bath on 27 June 1776. He 
married Catherine, youngest daughter of 
Martin Sandys, a barrister, uncle of Samuel 
Sandys, first baron Sandys [q. v.] His son, 
Martin Wall [q. v.], collected his works into 
a volume entitled ' Medical Tracts,' which 
was published at Oxford in 1780. The 
preface mentions that ' an unremitting at- 
tachment to the art of painting engaged 
almost every moment of his leisure hours 
from his infancy to his death.' His portrait 
hangs in the board-room of the Worcester 
Infirmary. His picture of the head of 
Pompey brought to Caesar is at Hagley, 
Worcestershire, and there is another in the 
hall of Merton College, Oxford. 

[Nash's History of Worcestershire, ii. 126; 
Chambers's Biographical Illustr. of Worcester- 
shire, 1820; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; informa- 
tion from Dr. M. Read of Worcester.] N. M. 

WALL, JOSEPH (1737-1802), governor 
of Goree, born in Dublin in 1737, was a son 
of Garrett Wall of Derryknavin, near Abbey- 
leix in Queen's County, who is described as 
' a respectable farmer on Lord Knapton's 
estates.' At the age of fifteen Joseph Wall 
was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, but 
preferred an active career to the life of a 
student ; and about the beginning of 1760, 
having entered the army as a cadet, he 
volunteered for foreign service. He dis- 
tinguished himself at the capture of Havana 
in 1762, and at the peace returned with 
the rank of captain. He next obtained an 
appointment under the East India Com- 
pany, in whose service he spent some time 
at Bombay. In 1773 he was appointed 
secretary and clerk of the council in Sene- 
gambia, where he was imprisoned by Macna- 
mara, the lieutenant-governor, for a military 
offence, with circumstances of great cruelty. 
He afterwards obtained 1,000/. damages by 
a civil action. After his release he returned 
to Ireland ' to hunt for an heiress.' He 
found one in the person of a Miss Gregory 
whom he met at an inn on his father's estate. 
But he pressed his suit 'in a style so 



coercive ' that she prosecuted him for assault 
and defamation, and ' succeeded in his con- 
viction and penal chastisement.' Wall had 
some time previously killed an intimate 
friend in one of his frequent ' affairs of 
honour,' and he now transferred himself to 
England. He divided himself between Lon- 
don and the chief watering-places, spending 
his time in gaming and amorous intrigues. 
At length, finding himself in embarrassed 
circumstances, he in 1779 procured through 
interest the lieutenant-governorship of Sene- 
gal or Goree, as it was generally called, with 
the colonelcy of a corps stationed there. 
Goree was the emporium of West African 
trade; but the governorship was not coveted, 
not only because the climate was bad, but 
on account of the garrison being composed 
of mutinous troops sent thither for punish- 
ment, and recruited from the worst classes. 
On the voyage out Wall had a man named 
Paterson so severely flogged that he died 
from the effects. The occurrence is said to 
have so affected his brother, Ensign Patrick 
Wall, as to have hastened his death, which 
took place soon after he reached Goree. 

After having been governor and super- 
intendent of trade for rather more than 
two years, Wall's health gave way, and he 
prepared to leave the colony. On 10 July 
1782 a deputation of the African corps, 
who had been for some time on a short 
allowance, waited on the governor and the 
commissary to ask for a settlement. It 
was headed by a sergeant named Benjamin 
Armstrong. Wall, who appears to have 
been in liquor, caused the man to be arrested 
on a charge of mutiny, and a parade to be 
formed. He then, without holding a court- 
martial, ordered him to be flogged by black 
slaves, which was contrary to military 
practice. Armstrong received eight hun- 
dred lashes, and died from the effects some 
hours afterwards. On Wall's return to 
England several charges of cruelty were 
laid against him by a Captain Roberts, 
one of his officers, and he was brought 
before the privy council and a court-martial ; 
but the charges were for the time allowed 
to drop, as the ship in which the witnesses 
were returning was believed to have been 
lost. He then retired to Bath. After- 
wards, upon the arrival of the principal 
witnesses, two messengers were sent to 
bring him to London, but Wall escaped 
from them at Reading, and thence to 
the continent. A proclamation offering a 
reward of 200/. for his apprehension was 
issued on 8 March 1784. He spent the 
succeeding years in France and Italy, living 
under an assumed name. In France he 



Wall 



95 



Wall 



was received into the best society, and was 
' universal! y allowed an accomplished scholar 
and a man of great science.' He frequented 
especially the Scots and Irish colleges at 
Paris, and is even said to have served in 
the French army. He ventured one or two 
visits to England and Scotland, during one 
of which he was married. In 1797 he 
came to live in England, having apparently j 
a ' distant intention ' of surrendering him- I 
self. On 28 Oct. 1801 he wrote to the 
home secretary, Lord Pelham, offering to 
stand his trial, and was soon after arrested ' 
at a house in Upper Thornhaugh Street, . 
Bedford Square, where he was living with 
his wife under the name of Thompson. 

Wall was tried for the murder of Arm- i 
strong on 20 Jan. 1802 at the Old Bailey 
by a special commission, presided over by 
Chief-baron Sir Archibald Macdonald. Wall , 
himself addressed the court, but had the j 
assistance of Newman Knowlys, afterwards \ 
recorder of London, and John (subsequently 
Baron) Gurney, in examining and cross- 
examining witnesses. The chief evidence 
for the prosecution was given by the doctor 
and orderly-sergeant who were on duty 
during Armstrong's punishment. All the 
officers had died. The evidence was not 
shaken in any material point, and the 
charge of mutiny was not sustained. Wall 
declared that the prejudice against him in 
1784 had been too strong to afford him 
assurance at that time of a fair trial ; that 
the charges then made against him had 
been disproved, and that the one relating 
to Armstrong came as a surprise to him. 
The trial lasted from 9 A.M. till eleven at 
night, and resulted in a verdict of ' guilty.' 
After having been twice respited, he was 
ordered for execution on Thursday, 28 Jan. 
Great efforts to obtain a pardon were 
vainly made by his wife's relative, Charles 
Howard, tenth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], and 
the privy council held several deliberations 
on the case. His fate was probably decided 
by the apprehension that, in the temper of 
the public, it would be unwise to spare an 
officer condemned for brutality to his soldiers 
while almost contemporaneously sailors 
were being executed at Spithead for mutiny 
against their officers. At eight o'clock, 
when Wall appeared from his cell in New- 
gate, he was received with three shouts 
by an immense crowd who had assembled 
to witness the carrying out of the sentence. 
The event is said to have excited more 
public interest than any of a similar charac- 
ter since the death of Mrs. Brownrigg, and 
in case of a pardon a riot was even appre- 
hended. The body was only formally dis- 



sected, and, having been handed over to his 
family, was buried in St. Pancras Church. 
Wall left several children by his wife 
Frances, fifth daughter of Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie, lord Fortrose (afterwards Earl of 
Seaforth). He was six feet four inches in 
height, and of ' a genteel appearance.' Mr. 
F. Danby Palmer had in his possession a 
drinking-horn, bearing on one side a carved 
representation of the punishment of Arm- 
strong, in which a label issuing from Wall's 
mouth attributes to him a barbarous exhor- 
tation to the flogger, and on the reverse a 
descriptive inscription. Evans mentions a 
portrait by an unknown artist (Cat. Engr. 
Portraits, 22456). 

Wall had a brother Augustine, who 
served with him in the army till the peace 
of 1763, and afterwards went to the Irish 
bar. He died about 1780 in Ireland. He 
is described as ' a very polished gentleman 
of great literary acquirements,' whose pro- 
ductions in prose and verse were 'highly 
spoken of for their classical elegance and 
taste ; ' but his chief title to remembrance 
was the fact of his having been the first 
who published parliamentary reports with 
the full names of the speakers. 

[An Authentic Narrative of the Life of Joseph 
Wall, Esq., late Governor of Goree, to which is 
annexed a Faithful and Comprehensive Account 
of his Execution, 2nd edit. 1802, was written 
by ' a Military Officer,' who describes himself 
as an intimate of the family. See also State 
Trials, 1802-3, pp. 51-178 (from Gurney's 
shorthand notes) ; Trial of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Joseph Wall, 1802 (from shorthand notes of 
Messrs. Blanchard and Kamsey); Manual of 
Military Law, 1894, pp. 194-5, 206-8; Browne's 
Narratives of State Trials, 1882, i. 28-42 ; 
Trial of Governor Wall, published by Fred 
Farrall (1867?), described as 'the only edition 
extant,' with some additional preliminary in- 
formation; Gent. Mag. 1802, i. 81; European 
Mag. 1802, i. 74, 154; Ann. Reg. 1802, Append, 
to Chron. pp. 560-8; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. viii. 438, 6th ser. viii. 208, 9th ser. ii. 
129 ; Georgian Era, ii. 466.] G. LE G. N. 

WALL, MARTIN (1747-1824), physi- 
cian, son of John Wall (1708-1776) [q. V.], 
was baptised at Worcester on 24 June 1747. 
He was educated at Winchester school, and 
entered at New College, Oxford, on 21 Nov. 
1763. He graduated B. A. on 17 June 1707, 
M.A. on 2 July 1771, M.D. on 9 June 1773, 
and was a fellow of his college from 1763 
to 1778. He studied medicine at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, London, and in Edinburgh. 
He began practice at Oxford in 1774, and 
on 2 Nov. 1775 was elected physician to the 
Radcliffe infirmary. He was appointed reader 



Wall 



9 6 



in chemistry in 1781, and delivered an in- 
augural dissertation on the study of chemistry 
on 7 May 1781, which he printed in 1783, 
with an essay on the ' Antiquity and Use of 
Symbols in Astronomy and Chemistry,' and 
1 Observations on the Diseases prevalent in 
the South Sea Islands.' He drank tea with 
Dr. Samuel Johnson at Oxford in June 1784 
(BoswELL, Life, 1791, ii. 502), and his essay 
was obviously the origin of the conversation 
on the advantage of physicians travelling 
among barbarous nations. In 1785 he was 
elected Lichfield professor of clinical medi- 
cine, an office which he retained till his 
death. He edited his father's essays in 1780, 
and in 1786 published 'Clinical Observa- 
tions on the Use of Opium in Low Fevers, 
with Remarks on the Epidemic Fever at Ox- 
ford in 1785.' The epidemic was typhus. 
He was elected a fellow of the College of 
Physicians on 25 June 1787, Harveian orator 
in 1788, and in the same year F.R.S. He 
died on 21 June 1824. Boswell speaks of 
him as ' this learned, ingenious, and pleasing 
gentleman.' He left a son, Martin Sandys 
Wall (1785-1871), chaplain in ordinary to 
the prince regent and to the British embassy 
at Vienna. 

[Works ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; 
Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 372 ; Boswell's Life of 
Johnson, 1st edit.] N. M. 

WALL, RICHARD (1694-1778), states- 
man in the Spanish service, was born in 
Ireland in 1694, and belonged to the Water- 
ford branch of that family (DAI/TON, Army 
Lists). He is first heard of in 1718, when 
he served as a volunteer in the Spanish fleet 
which was defeated off Sicily by George 
Byng, viscount Torrington [q. v.] In 1727 
he was a captain of dragoons, and went as 
secretary with the Duke of Liria, Berwick's 
eldest son, appointed Spanish ambassador at 
St. Petersburg. They had an interview on 
their way with the Pretender at Bologna, 
and halted also at Vienna, Dresden, and 
Berlin. At St. Petersburg Wall had one of 
his chronic fits of melancholia, and entreated 
permission to return to Spain. ' I placed all 
my confidence in Wall,' says Liria, ' and un- 
bosomed myself to him in all my unplea- 
santnesses, which were numerous, and when 
he left I had to remain without any one 
whom I could really trust.' Rejoining the 
Spanish army, Wall served under Don Philip 
in Lombardy, and under Montemar in Naples, 
and was next despatched to the West Indies, 
where he conceived a plan for recovering 
Jamaica. In 1747 he was sent to Aix-la- 
Chapelle and London to negotiate peace, 
went back to Spain by way of France in 



Wall 

February 1748 (D'ARGENSON, Mem.} to re- 
port progress, and on the conclusion of the 
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 he was 
formally appointed to the London embassy^ 
In October 1752 he was recalled. He was 
reluctant to leave England (WALPOLE, Let- 
ters), -where he had made the acquaintance of 
the elder Pitt and was very popular, though 
Lord Bath, afterwards hearing of his heraldic 
device, ( Aut Caesar aut nihil,' said to Horace 
Walpole, ' The impudent fellow ! he should 
have taken munis aheneus.' He was re- 
called on account of his services being 
required at Madrid in settling commercial 
arrangements with the English ambassador, 
Sir Benjamin Keene [q.v.] Although he had 
occasional differences with Keene and his 
successor, Lord Bristol, Wall was regarded 
as the head of the English party, and the 
French intrigued against him ; but in 1752 
he received the grade of lieutenant-general, 
succeeded Carvajal as foreign minister, and 
in 1754, supplanting Ensenada, became se- 
cretary of state. He gave proof of unselfish- 
ness by detaching the Indies, a lucrative 
department, from the foreign office and an- 
nexing it to the marine. Though a favourite 
with Ferdinand VI and Charles III, the 
latter of whom he had helped to place on 
the throne of the Two Sicilies, and who had 
succeeded to the Spanish crown in 1759, 
Wall was disliked and thwarted by the 
queen-dowager, who sided with the French 
party. As early as 1757 he ineffectually 
tendered his resignation on the plea of ill- 
health. He was unable to prevent the pacte 
de famille and consequent rupture with 
England in 1761, and a feeling of jealousy 
towards foreigners weakened his influence at 
court. After repeatedly asking permission to 
retire, he pretended that his sight was im- 
paired, wore a shade over his eyes, and used 
an ointment to produce temporary inflamma- 
tion. By this device he obtained in 1764 
the acceptance of his resignation. Among 
his labours in office had been the restoration 
of the Alhambra, which he incongruously 
roofed with red tiles. He received a pension 
of a hundred thousand crowns, the full 
pay of a lieutenant-general, and the pos- 
session for life of the Soto di Roma, a royal 
hunting seat near Granada, destined to be 
presented to the Duke of Wellington. It 
being damp and unhealthy, he at first resided 
chiefly at Mirador, a villa adjoining Granada, 
but after a time he fitted up Soto di Roma 
with English furniture, drained the four 
thousand acres of fields and woods, made 
new drives, and rendered the peasants thrifty 
and prosperous. There he resided from Oc- 
tober to May, attending the court at Aran- 



Wall 



97 



Wallace 



juez for a month, and spending the summer 
at Mirador. Henry Swinburne (1743P-1803) 
[q. v.] visited him at Soto di Roma in 1776, 
and was delighted with his sprightly con- 
versation, for which he had always been 
noted. He died in 1778. 

[Liria's Journal in Coleccion de Documentos 
Hist. Espafia, vol. xciii. Madrid, 1889 ; summary 
of this journal in Quarterly Rev. January 1892 ; 
Coxe's Mem. Kings of Spain ; Ann. Reg. 1763, 
p. 113; Mem. de Luynes, v. 176; Corresp. of 
Chatham ; Villa's Marques de la Ensenada, 
Madrid, 1878; Ferrer del Rio's Hist. Carlos 
III ; Biisching's Magazin fur Geographic, ii. 68, 
Hamburg, 1769 ; Wai pole's Letters ; Temple 
Bar, March 1898.] J. G. A. 

WALL, WILLIAM (1647-1728), divine 
and biblical scholar, son of William Wall 
flebeius of Sevenoaks, Kent, was born at 
Maranto Court Farm in the parish of Cheven- 
ing in that county on 6 Jan. 1646-7. He 
matriculated from Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 1 April 1664, proceeded B.A. in 1667, and 
commenced M. A. in 1670, being incorporated 
in the latter degree at Cambridge in 1676. 
After taking orders he was admitted to the 
vicarage of Shoreham, Kent, in 1674. Sub- 
sequently he declined, from conscientious 
scruples, the living of Chelsfield, three miles 
from Shoreham, and worth 300J. a year. 
However, in 1708 he accepted the rectory of 
Milton-next-Gravesend, about one-fifth of 
the val ue and at twelve miles' distance. In the 
same year he was appointed chaplain to the 
bishop of Rochester. His writings in de- 
fence of the practice of infant baptism were 
widely appreciated, and, in recognition of 
their merit, the university of Oxford conferred 
upon him the degree of D.D. by diploma, 
31 Oct. 1720. His chief antagonist, John 
Gale [q. v.], held a friendly conference with 
him in 1719 on the subject of baptism, but 
it ended without any change of opinion on 
either side. Wall died on 13 Jan. 1727-8, 
and was buried in Shoreham church. 

Wall stands confessedly at the head of 
those Anglican divines who have supported 
the practice of infant baptism, and his ad- 
versaries, Gale and William Whiston, and 
the baptist historian Thomas Crosby, unite 
in praising his candour and piety. He was 
a great humorist, and several anecdotes of 
him, related by his daughter, Mrs. Catharine 
W T aring of Rochester, are printed in Bishop 
Atterbury's ' Epistolary Correspondence.' 
As a high-churchman he was extremely 
zealous in Atterbury's cause. 

Subjoined is a list of his writings : 1. 
' The History of Infant Baptism,' Lon- 
don, 1705, 2 pts. 8vo ; 2nd edit., with large 
additions, 1707, 4to ; 3rd edit., 1720 ; new 
VOL. LIX. 



editions, ' Together with Mr. Gale's Reflec- 
tions and Dr. Wall's Defence. Edited by 
the Rev. H. Cotton,' Oxford, 1836, 4 vols., 
and Oxford, 1862, 2 vols. ; reprinted in ' The 
Ancient and Modern Library of Theological 
Literature,' 1889, 2 vols. A Latin transla- 
tion appeared under the title of ' Historia 
Baptismi Infantum. Ex Anglico vertit, 
nonnullis etiam observationibus et vindiciis 
auxit J. L. Schlosser,' Bremen, 1748, 2 torn. ; 
Hamburg, 1753, 4to. An abridgment of 
Wall's ' History,' by W. II. Spencer ap- 
peared at London, 1848, 12mo. 2. 'A Con- 
ference between two Men that had Doubts 
about Infant Baptism,' London, 1706, 12mo; 
2nd edit, 1708 ; 5th edit. 1767 ; 6th edit. 
1795 ; 8th edit. 1807 ; 9th edit. 1809 ; 10th 
idit, 1812; new edit, 1835; again 1847. 
3. ' A Defence of the History of Infant Bap- 
tism against the reflections of Mr. Gale 
and others,' London, 1720, 8vo. 4. ' Brief 
Critical Notes, especially on the various 
Readings of the New Testament Books. 
With a preface concerning the Texts cited 
therein from the Old Testament, as also con- 
cerning the Use of the Septuagint Transla- 
tion,' London, 1730, 8vo. 5. ' Critical Notes 
on the Old Testament, wherein the present 
Hebrew Text is explained, and in many 
places amended from the ancient versions, 
more particularly from that of the LXX. 
To which is prefixed a large introduction, 
adjusting the authority of the Masoretic 
Bible, and vindicating it from the objections 
of Mr. Whiston and [Anthony Collins] the 
author of the Grounds and Reasons of the 
Christian Religion, 'London, 1734, 2 vols. 8vo. 
[Atterbury'sEpistolaryCorrespondence(1789), 
v. 302 ; Crosby's Hist, of the English Baptists, 
i. 6, Iffl, iii. 14, 42 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Gent, Mag. 1784, i. 434 ; Hook's 
Eccl. Biogr. viii. 642 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 
114; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 347.490, 
3rd ser. v. 22.] T. C. 

WALLACE, EGLANTINE, LADY WAL- 
LACE (d. 1803), authoress, was youngest 
daughter of Sir William Maxwell (d. 1771), 
of Monreith, Wigtonshire, third baronet, and 
sister of Jane Gordon, duchess of Gordon [q.v.] 
A boisterous hoyden in her youth, and a 
woman of violent temper in her maturer 
years, she was married on 4 Sept. 1770 ta 
Thomas Dunlop, son of John Dunlop of Dun- 
lop, by Frances Anna, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Thomas Wallace (1702-1770) of 
Craigie, fifth and last baronet. On his grand- 
father's death Dunlop, inheriting Craigie, 
took the name of Wallace and assumed the 
style of a baronet ; but the property was deeply 
involved, and in 1783 he was obliged to sell 
all that remained of Craigie. It would seem 



Wallace 



Wallace 



to have been shortly after this that his wife 
obtained a legal separation, on the ground, 
it is said, of her husband's cruelty. It is 
probable that the quarrel was due to pecu- 
niary embarrassment. A little later Lady 
Wallace was herself summoned for assault- 
ing a woman apparently a humble com- 
panion and was directed by the magistrate 
to compound the matter. Leaving Edin- 
burgh, she seems to have settled in London, 
but upon her play ' The Whim ' being pro- 
hibited the stage by the licenser, she left 
England in disgust. In October 1789 she 
was arrested at Paris as an English agent, 
and narrowly escaped with her life. In 
1792 she was in Brussels. There she con- 
tracted a friendship with General Charles 
Francois Dumouriez, whom in 1793 she en- 
tertained in London, where she seems to have 
been well received in society. She died at 
Munich on 28 March 1803, leaving two sons, 
the elder of whom was General [Sir] John 
Alexander Dunlop Agnew Wallace [q. v.] 
She was author of 1. 'Letter to a Friend, with 
a Poem called the Ghost of Werter,' 1787, 
4to. 2. ' Diamond cut Diamond, a Comedy ' 
[from the French], 1787, 8vo. 3. ' The Ton, 
a Comedy,' 8vo, 1788 ; it was produced at 
Covent Garden on 8 April 1788 with a good 
cast, but, says Genest, was ' very dull ' and a 
dead failure. 4. ' The Conduct of the King 
of Prussia and General Dumouriez,' 1793, 
8vo ; this was followed by a separately issued 
'Supplement.' 5. 'Cortes, a Tragedy '(?). 
6. ' The Whim, a Comedy,' 1795, 8vo. 7. ' An 
Address to the People on Peace and Reform.' 
1798, 8vo. 

[The Book of Wallace, ed. Rogers (Grampian 
Club), 1889, i. 87-8 ; Chambers's Traditions of 
Edinburgh, 1869, p. 229 ; Jones's continuation of 
Baker's Biographica Dramatica, p. 733, where 
she is said to have been the wife of Sir James 
Wallace [q. v.] ; Paterson's History of the 
Counties of Ayr and Wigton, i. i. 296 ; Pater- 
son's Lands and their Owners in Galloway, 
i. 285 ; Autobiogr. of Jane, Duchess of Gordon 
(Introduction, Gent. Mag. 1803, i. 386). There 
are several autobiographical notes in ' The 
Conduct of the King of Prussia and General 
Dumouriez,' named above.] J. K. L. 

WALLACE, GRACE, LADY WALLACE 
(d. 1878), author, was the eldest daughter 
of John Stein of Edinburgh. She became, 
on 19 Aug. 1824, the second wife of Sir 
Alexander Don, sixth baronet of Newton 
Don, and the intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott, She had two children : Sir William 
Henry Don [q. v.] seventh baronet, the cele- 
brated actor; and Alexina Harriet, who mar- 
ried Sir Frederick Acclom Milbank, bart., of 
Hart and Hartlepool. In his 'Familiar 



Letters ' (ii. 348) Sir Walter Scott writes to 
his son in 1825 : ' Mama and Anne are quite 
well ; they are with me on a visit to Sir 
Alex. Don and his new lady, who is a very 
pleasant woman, and plays on the harp 
delightfully.' Sir Alexander died in 1826; 
and in 1836 his widow married Sir James 
Maxwell Wallace, K.H., of Anderby Hall, 
near Northallerton, an officer who had served 
under Wellington at Quatre Bras and Water- 
loo, was afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
5th dragoon guards (when Prince Leopold, 
afterwards king of the Belgians, was colonel), 
and died on 3 Feb. 1867 as general and colonel 
of the 17th lancers. Robert Wallace (1773- 
1855) [q. v.] was his younger brother. Lady 
Wallace died on 12 March 1878 without 
issue by her second marriage. 

Lady Wallace long and actively pursued a 
career as a translator of German and Spanish 
works, among others : 1. ' The Princess Use,' 
1855. 2. ' Clara ; or Slave-life in Europe ' 
(by Hackiander), 1856. 3. ' Voices from the 
Greenwood,' 1856. 4. ' The Old Monastery ' 
(by Hackiander), 1857. 5. 'Frederick the 
Great and his Merchant,' 1859. 6. ' Schiller's 
Life and Works ' (byPalleske), 1859. 7. ' The 
Castle and the Cottage in Spain ' (from the 
Spanish of Caballero), 1861. 8. 'Joseph in 
the Snow' (by Auerbach), 1861. 9. ' Men- 
delssohn's Letters from Italy and Switzer- 
land,' 1862. 10. ' Will-o'-the-Wisp,' 1862. 
11. 'Letters of Mendelssohn from 1833 to 
1847,' 1863. 12. ' Letters of Mozart,' 1865. 

13. 'Beethoven's Letters, 1790-1826,' 1866. 

14. ' Letters of Distinguished Musicians,' 
1867. 15. ' Reminiscences of Mendelssohn ' 
(by Elise Polko), 1868. 16. 'Alexandra 
Feodorowna' (by Grimm), 1870. 17. 'A 
German Peasant Romance : Elsa and the 
Vulture ' (by Von Hillern), 1876. 18. ' Life 
of Mozart ' (by Nohl), 1877. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, vol. iv. ; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Record of 
the 5th Dragoon Guards; Times, 7 Feb. 1867; 
Rogers's Book of Wallace (Grampian Club), 
i. 110-12; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 
I860.] G. S-H. 

WALLACE, JAMES (d. 1678), cove- 
nanter, son of Matthew Wallace, succeeded 
about 1641 to his father's lands at Auchans, 
Ayrshire. Early in life he adopted the mili- 
tary profession, and became lieutenant- 
colonel in the parliamentary army. He went 
to Ireland in the Marquis of Argyll's regi- 
ment in 1642, and in 1645 was recalled to 
oppose the progress of Montrose. He joined 
the covenanters under General Baillie, and 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Kilsyth 
(MTTEDOCH and SIMPSON, Deeds of Montrose, 
1893, pp. 125, 329). Returning to Ireland 



Wallace 



99 



Wallace 



before 1647, he was appointed governor of 
Belfast in 1649, but was deprived of the 
office in June of that year. Soon afterwards 
he removed to Ked-hall, Ballycarry, near 
Carrickfergus, where he married. Removing 
to Scotland in 1650, when Charles II came 
to Scotland on the invitation of the Scots 
parliament, Wallace was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of a foot regiment under Lord 
Lome. At the battle of Dunbar Wallace 
was again made prisoner. On his colonel's 
petition, as a reward for his services, he was 
* referred to the committee of estates, that 
he may be assigned to some part of excise 
or maintenance forth of the shire of Ayr.' 
Wallace lived in retirement from the Resto- 
ration till the ' Pentland rising,' in which he 
took a very active part as leader of the insur- 
gents. One of Wallace's earliest prisoners 
was Sir James Turner [q.v.], who had been 
his companion in arms twenty-three years 
before. During his captivity Turner was con- 
stantly with Wallace, of whose character and 
rebellion he gives a detailed account (Me- 
moirs, Bannatyne Club, pp. 148, 163, 173, et 
sqq.) On 28 Nov. 1666 Wallace's forces and 
the king's, under the command of General 
Dalzell, came within sight of each other at 
Ingliston Bridge. Wallace was defeated, 
and, with his followers, took to flight (ib. 
pp. 181 sqq.) He escaped to Holland, where 
he took the name of Forbes. He was con- 
demned and forfeited in August 1667 by the 
Justice court at Edinburgh, and this sentence 
was ratified by parliament on 15 Dec. 1669. 
In Holland Wallace was obliged to move 
from place to place for several years to avoid 
his enemies, who were on the lookout for 
him. He afterwards lived in Rotterdam ; but 
on the complaint of Henry Wilkie, whom the 
king had placed at the head of the Scottish I 
factory at Campvere, Wallace was ordered ; 
from Holland. Wallace, however, returned 
some time afterwards, and died at Rotterdam 
in the end of 1678. In 1649 or 1650 he j 
married a daughter of Mr. Edmonstone of I 
Ballycarry, and left one son, William, who ' 
succeeded to his father's property, as the \ 
sentence of death and fugitation passed 
against him after the battle of the Pentland 
was rescinded at the revolution. 

[Spalding's Hist, of Troubles, i. 218, ii. 168, 
and Letters from Argyle (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Lament's Diary (Maitland Club), p. 195 ; Cham- 
bers'^ Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Book of Wal- 
lace, i. 140-5; Reid's Irish Presbyterian Church, 
1867, ii. 117, 545-8; Patrick Adairs's Narra- 
tive, 1866, p. 155; Steven's Scottish Church at t 
Rotterdam, passim ; Wodrow's History, i. 205, 
307, ii. passim ; Lord Strathallan's Hist, of the 
House of Drummond, p. 306.] G. S-H. 



WALLACE, JAMES (d. 1688), minister 
of Kirkwall, studied at the university of 
Aberdeen, where he graduated M.A. on 
27 April 1659. He was shortly afterwards 
appointed minister of Ladykirk in Orkney, 
from which parish he was translated to Kirk- 
wall on 4 Nov., and admitted on 16 Nov. 
1672. On 16 Oct. 1678 he was also collated 
by Bishop Mackenzie to the prebend of St. 
John in the cathedral church of St. Magnus- 
the-Martyr at Kirkwall. He was ' deprived 
by the council ' of his ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments for his adherence to the episcopal 
form of church government at the revolu- 
tion of 1688-9. He died of fever in Sep- 
tember 1688. He mortified the sum of a 
hundred merks for the use of the church of 
Kirkwall, which the kirk session received 
on 14 July 1689, and applied in purchasing 
two communion cups inscribed with Wal- 
lace's name. He married Elizabeth Cuth- 
bert, and had three sons and a daughter 
James (see below), Andrew, Alexander, and 
Jean. 

Wallace is known by his work ' A De- 
scription of the Isles of Orkney. By Master 
James Wallace, late Minister of Kirkwall. 
Published after his Death by his Son. To 
which is added, An Essay concerning the 
Thule of the Ancients,' Edinburgh, 1693, 
8vo. The work was dedicated to Sir Robert 
Sibbald [q. v.] In 1700 Wallace's son James 
published in his own name ' An Account of 
the Islands of Orkney,' which appeared in 
London under the auspices of Jacob Tonson 
[q.v.] This work, which makes no mention 
of his father's labours, consists of the ' De- 
scription' of 1693, with some omissions and 
additions, including a chapter on the plants 
and shells of the Orkneys. The younger 
Wallace also suppressed the dedication to 
Sibbald and the preface, which last gave an 
account of his father's writings, and coolly 
substituted an affected dedication from him- 
self to the Earl of Dorset. Both editions are 
very rare. The original, with illustrative 
notes, edited by John Small [q. v.], was 
reprinted at Edinburgh in 1883. ' An Ac- 
count from Orkney,' by James Wallace, 
larger than what was printed by his son, 
was sent to Sibbald, who was collecting 
statistical information regarding the coun- 
ties of Scotland (NICHOLSON, Scottish Histo- 
rical Library, 1702, pp. 20, 53). AVallace 
was described as ' a man remarkable for inge- 
nuity and veracity, and he left in manu- 
script, besides sermons and miscellaneous 
pieces, "A Harmony of the Evangelists," 
"Commonplaces," a treatise of the ancient 
and modern church discipline ; and when 
seized with his last illness was engaged 

H 2 



Wallace 



Wallace 



writing a refutation of the tenets of popery ' 
(Scon, Fasti, in. i. 375). 

JAMES WALLACE (Jl. 1684-1724), son of 
the preceding, was M.D. and F.R.S. 
(though he does not appear in Thomson's 
list of fellow*, and edited his father's ' De- 
scription' in 1693 and 1700. In 1700 he 
contributed to the 'Transactions' of the 
Royal Society ' A Part of a Journal kept 
from Scotland to New Caledonia in Darien, 
with a short Account of that Country ' (Phil. 
Trans. 1700, pp. 536-43). From a passage 
in this paper he seems to have been in the 
East India Company's service. He visited 
Darien, and gave plants from there to Petiver 
and Sloane. In the same number of the 
' Transactions ' (pp. 543-6) is given an abs- 
tract of the 1700 edition of his father's work. 
Wallace was also the author of a ' History 
of Scotland from Fergus I to the Com- 
mencement of the Union,' Dublin, 1724, 8vo. 
[Preface to original edition of Description ; 
introduction to reprint of Description ; Peter- 
kin 's Rentals ; Scott's Fasti ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. v. 89, vi. 533. For the son, see Notes 
and Queries, 30 Jan. 1858 ; introduction to re- 
print ; Phil. Trans. 1700 ; Britten and Boulger's 
British and Irish Botanists ; Pulteney's Sketches 
of Progress of Botany ; Pritzel's Thesaurus Lit. 
Botan. ; Jackson's Guide to Lit. of Botany.] 

G. S-H. 

WALLACE, SIR JAMES (1731-1803), 
admiral, born in 1731, entered the navy as a 
scholar in the Royal Academy at Portsmouth 
in 1746. He afterwards served in the Syren, 
Vigilant, and Intrepid, and passed his exa- 
mination on 3 Jan. 1753, when he was de- 
scribed on his certificate as ' appearing to be 
21.' As he had been a scholar in the aca- 
demy, the age was probably something like 
correct. On 11 March 1755 he was promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Greenwich (captured 
in the West Indies 16 March 1757), under 
Captain Robert Roddam [q. v.] In April 
1758 he was appointed to the Ripon, one of 
the squadron under Sir John Moore (1718- 
1779) [q. v.] at the reduction of Guadeloupe 
in April 1759. In January 1760 he was 
appointed to the Neptune, going out to the 
Mediterranean as flagship of Sir Charles 
Saunders [q. v.] On 3 Nov. 1762 he was 
promoted to the rank of commander, and in 
the following April was appointed to the 
Trial sloop for the North American station. 
He afterwards commanded the Dolphin in 
the East Indies and the Bonetta in the Chan- 
nel ; and on 10 Jan. 1771 was promoted to 
be captain of the Unicorn. In November he 
was appointed to the Rose, a 20-gun frigate, 
which in 1774 he took out to the North 
American station, where during 1775 and 



the first part of 1776 he was actively engaged 
in those desultory operations against the coast 
towns which were calculated to produce the 
greatest possible irritation with the least pos- 
sible advantage. In July 1776 he succeeded 
to the command of the 50-gun ship Experi- 
ment, in which in January 1777 he was sent 
to England with despatches a service for 
which he was knighted on 13 Feb. 

In July he returned to the North Ame- 
rican station, and after several months' active 
cruising was, in July 1778, one of the small 
squadron with Howe for the defence of the 
Channel past Sandy Hook against the im- 
posing fleet under D'Estaing [see Howe r 
RICHARD, EARL]. The Experiment con- 
tinued with the squadron when Howe fol- 
lowed the French to Rhode Island, and in 
the manoeuvres on 10-11 Aug. After that 
she was left cruising, and on the 20th was 
off' Newport when the French were stand- 
ing in towards it. Wallace drew back to 
the westward, ran down Long Island Sound, 
and reached New York by passing through 
Hell Gate, a piece of bold navigation pre- 
viously supposed to be impossible for a ship 
of that size. On the 2oth he joined Howe 
at Sandy Hook. In the following Decem- 
ber, while cruising on the coast of Virginia, 
the ship in a violent westerly gale was 
blown off the land; and Wallace, finding 
her in need of new masts and new rigging, 
for which there were no stores at New York, 
even if in her distressed condition it had 
been possible to get there, bore away for 
England. When the ship was refitted he 
joined the squadron which sailed from St. 
Helens under Arbuthnot on 1 May, and 
with him turned aside for the relief of 
Jersey, then threatened by the French under 
the prince of Nassau. Hearing, however, 
that Nassau had been repulsed and that 
some frigates had been sent from Ports- 
mouth, Arbuthnot pursued his voyage, leav- 
ing the Experiment to strengthen the force 
at Jersey. When he was joined by the 
frigates, Wallace concerted an attack on the 
French squadron which had gone over to the 
mainland ; and, finding them endeavouring 
to make St. Malo, he drove them into Can- 
cale Bay, followed them in, despite the pro- 
testations of the pilot, silenced a six-gun 
battery under which they had sheltered, and 
burnt two of the frigates and a small cutter 
that were fast on shore. The third frigate, 
the Danae of 34 guns, and two smaller 
vessels were brought oft' and sent to Eng- 
land. 

Wallace then rejoined Arbuthnot, who 
had been forced by foul winds to wait in 
Torbay, and sailed with him for New York. 



After ' fellows ' insert ' nor in 
the " Record of the Royal Society ".' 



Wallace 



101 



Wallace 



In September he was sent to the southward 
with a considerable sum of money for the 
payment of the troops in Georgia. On the 
24th he fell in with a detachment of 
D'Estaing's fleet, and was captured off 
Savannah. Being acquitted of all blame 
by the court-martial, he was appointed in 
March 1780 to the Nonsuch of 64 guns, 
and in July, when on a cruise on the coast 
of France, captured the corvette Hussard, 
and on the 14th the celebrated frigate Belle 
Poule, commanded by the same captain, the 
Chevalier de Kergariou Coatles, who had 
formerly commanded the Danae, and was 
now killed in the engagement. In the fol- 
lowing year the Nonsuch was one of the 
fleet which relieved Gibraltar in April [see 
DARBY, GEORGE] ; and on the homeward 
voyage, while looking out ahead, chased and 
brought to action the French 74-gun ship 
Actif, hoping to detain her till, some others 
of the fleet came up. The Nonsuch was, 
however, beaten off with heavy loss; but 
the Actif, judging it imprudent to pursue 
her advantage, held on her course to Brest. 
Wallace's bold attempt was considered as 
creditable to him as the not supporting him 
was damaging to the admiral ; and in Octo- 
ber he was appointed to the 74-gun ship 
Warrior, which in December sailed for the 
West Indies with Sir George Brydges Rod- 
ney (afterwards Lord Rodney) [q. v.], and 
took part in the battle of 12 April 1782. In 
1783 Wallace returned to England, and for 
the next seven years was on half-pay. In 
the Spanish armament of 1790 he commanded 
the Swiftsure for a few months, and in 1793 
the Monarch, in which he went to the West 
Indies, returning at the end of the year. 
On 12 April 1794 he was promoted to be 
rear-admiral and appointed commander-in- 
chief at Newfoundland, with his flag in the 
50-gun ship Romney. With this one ex- 
ception, his squadron was composed of fri- 
gates and smaller vessels, intended for the 
protection of trade from the enemy's pri- 
vateers ; so that when a powerful French 
squadron of seven ships of the line and three 
frigates, escaping from Cadiz in August 1796, 
came out to North America, he was unable 
to offer any serious resistance to it, or to 
prevent it doing much cruel damage to the 
fishermen, whose huts, stages, and boats 
were pitilessly destroyed (JAMES, i. 409). 
Wallace was bitterly mortified ; but the 
colonists and traders, sensible that he had 
done all that was possible under the circum- 
stances, passed a vote of thanks to him. He 
returned to England early the next year, 
and had no further service. He had been 
made a vice-admiral on 1 June 1795, and 



was further promoted to be admiral on 
1 Jan. 1801. He died in London on 6 Jan. 
1803. Wallace has been sometimes con- 
fused with Sir Thomas Dunlop Wallace of 
Craigie, to whom he was only very distantly 
if it all related ; and has been conse- 
quently described as the husband of Eglan- 
tine, lady Wallace [q. v.] It does not appear 
that Sir James Wallace was ever married. 

[The memoir in Ralfe's Naval Biogr. i. 413, 
is exceedingly imperfect ; the story of Wallace's 
services is here given from the passing certifi- 
cate, commission and -warrant-books, captains' 
letters and logs in the Public Record Office. 
See also Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs, 
James's Naval History, and Troude's Batailles 
Navales de la France. Gent. Mag. 1803, i. 290 ; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

WALLACE, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER 
DUNLOP AGNEW (1775P-1857), general, 
born about 1775, was the only son of Sir 
Thomas Dunlop Wallace, bart., of Craigie, 
Ayrshire, by his first wife, Eglantine, lady 
Wallace [q. v.] 

He was given a commission as ensign in 
the 75th (highland) regiment on 28 Dec. 
1787, his family having helped to raise it. 
He joined it in India in 1789, became lieu- 
tenant on 6 April 1790, and served in Corn- 
wallis's operations against Tippoo in 1791-2, 
including the siege of Seringapatam. He 
acted as aide-de-camp to Colonel Maxwell, 
who commanded the left wing of the army. 
He obtained a company in the 58th regiment 
on 8 June 1796, and returned to England to 
join it. He went with it to the Mediter- 
ranean in 1798, was present at the capture 
of Minorca, and in the campaign of 1801 in 
Egypt. It formed part of the reserve under 
Moore, and was very hotly engaged in the 
battle of Alexandria. It came home in 

1802. He was promoted major on 9 July 

1803, and obtained a lieutenant-colonelcy in 
the llth foot on 28 Aug. 1804. At the end 
of 1805 he was transferred to the 88th (Con- 
naught rangers) to command a newly raised 
second battalion. 

He went to the Peninsula with this batta- 
lion in 1809. With three hundred men of 
it he joined the first battalion at Campo 
Mayor, while the rest went on to Cadiz. 
The first battalion had suffered in the Tala- 
vera campaign ; he set himself vigorously 
to restore it, and made it one of the finest 
corps in the army. It greatly distinguished 
itself at Busaco. It was on the left of the 
third division, and when the French had 
gained the ridge, and seemed to have cut 
the army in two, a charge made by the 88th, 
with one wing of the 45th, drove them down 
headlong. Wellington, riding up, said, 



Wallace 



Wallace 



' Wallace, I never saw a more gallant charge 
than that just made by your regiment,' and 
made special reference to it in his despatch. 
Picton, who was with another part of his 
division at the time, gave Wallace the credit 
of ' that brilliant exploit.' 

He commanded the 88th at Fuentes de 
Onoro, and was again particularly mentioned 
in Wellington's despatch. He was also 
mentioned in the despatch after Salamanca, 
where he was in command of the right 
brigade of the third division (Pakenham's). 
During the retreat of the army from Burgos, 
he had a very severe attack of fever at Ma- 
drid. Conveyance in a cart to Santarem in 
very bad weather aggravated its effects, and 
he was dangerously ill for nearly eight 
months. He saw no further service in the 
Peninsula ; but he commanded a brigade in 
the army of occupation in France in the 
latter part of 1815. He received the gold 
medal with two clasps, and was made C.B. 
in 1815. 

He had become colonel in the army on 
4 June 1813, and on 12 Aug. 1819 he was 
promoted major-general. He was given the 
colonelcy of the 88th on 20 Oct. 1831, and 
was made K.C.B. on 16 Sept, 1833. He 
became lieutenant-general on 10 Aug. 1837, 
and general on 11 Nov. 1851. He died at 
Lochryan House, Stranraer, Wigtownshire, 
on 10 Feb. 1857, aged 82. On 23 June 1829 
he married Janette, daughter of William 
Rodger, by whom he had five sons and one 
daughter. 

[Gent. Mag. 1857, i. 497; Historical Records 
of the 88th Regiment ; Wellington Despatches ; 
Robinson's Life of Picton, i. 327, &c. ; Napier's 
Remarks on Robinson's ' Life of Picton ' in 
Peninsular War, 1851, vi. 419 sq.] E. M. L. 

WALLACE, SIR RICHARD (1818- 
1890), connoisseur and collector of works 
of art, was at one time reputed to be the 
natural son of Richard Seymour Conway, 
fourth marquis of Hertford, his senior by 
only eighteen years. But the truth in all 
probability is that he was the fourth Marquis 
of Hertford's half-brother and the natural 
son of that nobleman's mother, Maria, nee 
Fagnani, marchioness of Hertford, who had 
married, on 18 May 1798, Francis Charles 
Seymour Conway, third marquis [see under 
SEYMOUR, FRANCIS IXGRAM, second MARQUIS 
OF HERTFORD]. He was born in London on 
26 July 1818, and was in early youth known 
as Richard Jackson. He was educated en- 
tirely under the supervision of his mother, 
Maria, lady Hertford. The influences by 
which he was surrounded were on the whole 
more French than English, but he always in- 
sisted strongly on his English extraction. 



Most of his young days and early manhood 
were passed in Paris, where as ' Monsieur 
Richard ' he became a well-known figure in 
French society and among those who devoted 
themselves to matters of art. Before he was 
forty he had made a large collection of objets 
d'art bronzes, ivories, miniatures, &c. 
which was dispersed in Paris in 1857 at 
prices much above those he had paid. After 
the sale of his own collection he devoted 
most of his knowledge to the assistance of the 
fourth marquis (his reputed half-brother). 

On Lord Hertford's death, unmarried, in 
1870, Wallace found himself heir to such 
of his property as the deceased marquis 
could devise by will, including a house in 
Paris and Hertford House in London, the 
Irish estates about Lisburn, which then 
brought in some 50,000/. a year, and the finest 
collection of pictures and objets (fart in 
private hands in the world. 

During the war of 1870-1 Wallace equip- 
ped an ambulance which, under the name 
of the Hertford ambulance, was attached to 
the 13th corps d'armee ; he equipped two 
more in Paris itself, one being placed under 
French, the other under English doctors. 
He also founded and endowed the Hertford 
British Hospital, for the use of British sub- 
jects in Paris, and subscribed a hundred 
thousand francs to the fund in aid of those 
who had suffered by the bombardment. He 
was faithful to Paris during the siege, and 
is said, on excellent authority, to have spent 
at least two millions and a half of francs on 
aid to the besieged. On 24 Dec. 1871 he was 
created a baronet in recognition of his efforts 
during the siege. 

In 1873 Sir Richard was elected M.P. for 
Lisburn, which constituency he continued 
to represent until 1885. In 1878 he was 
nominated one of the commissioners to the 
Paris Exhibition, at the close of which his 
services were rewarded with a knight com- 
mandership of the Bath ; he was already a 
commander in the legion d'honneur. He 
was also a trustee of the National Gallery, 
and a governor of the National Gallery of 
| Ireland, to both of which he had presented 
I pictures. The last four years of his life 
were spent chiefly in Paris, and there he 
died on 20 July 1890, leaving no surviving 
children. He was buried in the cemetery of 
Pere-Lachaise. On 15 Feb. 1871 he was 
married to Julie Amelie Charlotte, the daugh- 
ter of Bernard Castelnau, a French officer, 
who had alreadv borne him a son. Lady 
Wallace died on"l6 Feb. 1897. She left by 
will the great Hertford-Wallace collection 
to the English nation. A commission was 
appointed by the government of 1897 to 



Wallace 



103 



Wallace 



determine the future home of the collection, 
and it was decided to acquire Hertford House, 
and to adapt it to the purposes of a public 
museum. Sir Richard Wallace disliked sit- 
ting to artists. Paul Baudry made a sketch 
of him which was etched by Jacquemart for 
the ' Gazette des Beaux- Arts,' and a portrait, 
with but slight pretensions as a work of art, 
belongs to the collection at Hertford House. 

[Foster's Baronetage, 1882; GazettedesBeaux- 
Arts ; Times, 22 July 1890; private information.] 

W. A. 

WALLACE, ROBERT (1697-1771), 
writer on population, was only son, by his wife 
Margaret Stewart, of Matthew Wallace, 
parish minister of Kincardine, Perthshire, 
where he was born 011 7 Jan. 1696-7. Edu- 
cated at Stirling grammar school, he entered 
Edinburgh University in 1711, and acted 
fora time (1720) as assistant to James Gre- 
gory, the Edinburgh professor of mathematics. 
He was one of the founders of the Rankenian 
Club in 1717. On 31 July 1722 he was 
licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of 
Dunblane, Perthshire, and he was presented 
by the Marquis of Annandale to the parish 
of Moffat, Dumfriesshire, in August 1723. 
In 1733 he became minister of New Grey- 
friars, Edinburgh. Here he offended the 
government of 1736 by declining to read from 
his pulpit the proclamation against the Por- 
teous rioters, holding that the church was 
spiritually independent in the celebration 
of public worship. He thereby rendered 
himself liable to severe penalties, but no 
attempt was made to recover them, and on 
30 Aug. 1738 he was translated to the New 
North Church. In 1742, on a change of 
ministry, he regained ecclesiastical influence, 
being entrusted forfive years with the manage- 
ment of church business and the distribution 
of ecclesiastical patronage. Utilising a sug- 
gestion of John Mathison of the High 
Church, Edinburgh, Wallace, with the aid 
of Alexander Webster [q. v.] of the Tolbooth 
church, Edinburgh, developed the important 
scheme of the ministers' widows' fund. On 
12 May 1743 Wallace was elected moderator 
of the general assembly which approved the 
scheme, and in the end of that year he sub- 
mitted it in London to the lord-advocate, 
who framed it into a legislative measure and 
superintended its safe progress into an act (see 
manuscripts in possession of trustees of the 
fund). In June 1744 Wallace was appointed 
a royal chaplain for Scotland and a dean of 
the Chapel Royal. He received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Edinburgh University 
on 13 March 1759, and died on 29 July 1771. 
He was married to Helen, daughter of 
George Turnbull, minister of Tyninghame 



in Haddingtonshire. She died on 9 Feb. 
1776, leaving two sons, Matthew and George, 
and a daughter, Elizabeth, all of whom died 
unmarried. Matthew became vicar of Ten- 
terden in Kent, and George is noticed below. 

Wallace published in 1753 a ' Disserta- 
tion on the Numbers of Mankind in Ancient 
and Modern Times,' an acute and suggestive 
contribution to economics. One of the 
points in the work was a vigorous criticism 
of the chapter on the ' Populousness of An- 
cient Nations ' in Hume's ' Political Dis- 
courses.' Hume's position, however, re- 
mained intact ; Wallace ' wholly failed to 
shake its foundations ' (McCuLLOCH, Litera- 
ture of Political Economy}. The work was 
translated into French under the super- 
vision of Montesquieu, and it was repub- 
lished in an English edition with prefatory 
memoir in 1809. In 1758 appeared his 
' Characteristics of the Present State of Great 
Britain,' a work indicative of insight and 
courage. In ' Various Prospects of Mankind, 
Nature, and Providence,' 1761, a meta- 
physical, economical, and theologically dog- 
matic treatise, he recurred to his population 
theories, and by one passage is believed to 
have stimulated Mai thus (see 'Mr. Malthus' 
in HAZLITT'S Spirit of the Age, and Talfourd 
in Retrospective Review, ii. 185). 

His son GEORGE WALLACE (d. 1805?), 
admitted a member of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, Edinburgh, on 16 Feb. 1754, was ap- 
pointed a commissary of Edinburgh in 1792, 
and died about 1805. Some writers credit 
him with the memoir prefixed to the 1809 
edition of his father's ' Dissertation ' (CUN- 
NINGHAM, Church History of Scotland, ii. 
467). George Wallace published : 1. ' Sys- 
tem of the Principles of the Law of Scot- 
land,' 1760. -2. ' Thoughts on the Origin of 
Feudal Tenures and the Descent of Ancient 
Peerages in Scotland,' 1783, 4to ; 2nd edit., 
' Nature and Descent of Ancient Peerages 
connected with the State of Scotland,' 1785, 
8vo. 3. 'Prospects from Hills in Fife,' 
1796; 2nd edit. 1800, a poem embodying 
respectable descriptive sketches with his- 
torical allusions, in blank verse modelled on 
that of Thomson's ' Seasons.' 

[Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scoticanse, i. i. 67, 70, 
ii. 656 ; Book cf Wallace, i. 198-200 ; Chambers's 
Biogr. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Autobio- 
graphy of Dr. Alexander Carlyle, chap. vi. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1849, i. 352 ; Hill Burton's Life and 
Correspondence of David Hume ; Alison's His- 
tory of Europe, chap. v. ; Gibbon's Decline and 
Fall of the Koman Empire, chap. xliv. nJ\ T. B. 

WALLACE, ROBERT (1791-1850), 
Unitarian divine, son of Robert Wallace 
(d. 17 June 1830) by his wife Phoebe (d. 



Wallace 



104 



Wallace 



11 March 1837), was born at Dudley, Wor- 
cestershire, on 26 Feb. 1791, and baptised on 
19 March by the name of Robert, to which 
in early life he sometimes added William. 
His father was a pawnbroker; his grandfather 
was a Dumfriesshire farmer. Two younger 
brothers joined the Unitarian ministry, viz. : 
James Cowdan Wallace (1793P-1841), uni- 
tarian minister at Totnes (1824-6), York j 
Street, London (1827-8), Brighton (1828-9), 
Preston (1829-31), Wareham (1831-41), 
who wrote numerous hymns, sixty-four of 
which are in J. R. Beard's ' Collection of 
Hymns,' 1837, 12mo ; and Charles Wallace 
(1796-1859), who was educated at Glasgow 
(M.A. 1817) and Manchester College, York 
(1817-19), and was minister at Altrincham 
and Hale, Cheshire (1829-56). 

Robert Wallace's schoolmaster (till 1807) 
was John Todd, curate of St. Kenelm, Shrop- 
shire. In 1808 he came under the influence 
of James Hews Bransby [q. v.], who prepared 
him for entrance (September 1810) at Man- 
chester College, then at York, under Charles 
Wellbeloved [q.v.J and John Kenrick [q. v.] 
Among his fellow students was Jacob Brettell 
[q. v.] Leaving York in 1815, he became 
(September) minister at Elder Yard, Chester- 
field. While here he conducted a private 
school for sixteen years. He distinguished 
himself in his denomination as a theological 
exponent, and as one of the best writers in 
the ' Monthly Repository ' and the ' Christian 
Reformer' on biblical and patristic topics. 
His review (1834) of Newman's ' Arians of 
the Fourth Century' brought him into friendly 
correspondence with Thomas Turton [q. v.] 
His essay (1835) ' On the Parenthetical and. 
Digressive Style of John's Gospel ' is a very 
able piece of criticism. In 1840 Manchester 
College was removed from York to Man- 
chester, and Wallace was appointed to suc- 
ceed Wellbeloved. He left Chesterfield on 
11 Aug., and delivered in October his in- 
augural lecture as professor of critical and 
exegetical theology. In 1842 he was made 
principal of the theological department. His 
theological position was conservative, but he 
was the first in his own denomination to 
bring to his classroom the processes and re- 
sults of German critical research. By his 
pupils he was ' not only respected but loved ; ' 
among them was Philip Pearsall Carpenter 

[4-jy 

The change to Manchester did not suit 
his health ; after six years he resigned, and 
in June 1846 became minister of Trim Street 
Chapel, Bath. He was made visitor of his 
college, became a fellow of the Geological 
Society, and worked hard at the completion 
of his antitrinitarian biography (published 



March 1850). He preached for the last time 
on 10 March, and died at Bath on 13 May 
1850. He was buried in the graveyard at 
Lyncomb, near Bath. His portrait was 
painted but has not been engraved ; a 
silhouette likeness of him is at the Memorial 
Hall, Manchester. He married (1825) Sophia 
(d. 31 May 1835), daughter of Michael 
Lakin of Birmingham, by whom he had a 
daughter, who survived him. 

His ' Antitrinitarian Biography,' 1850, 
3 vols. 8vo, was the result of nearly twenty- 
four years' labour. A few of the earlier 
biographies were published (anonymously) 
in the ' Monthly Repository,' 1831 ; part of 
the introduction in the 'Christian Reformer,' 
1845-6. In breadth of treatment and in 
depth of original research Wallace's work- 
manship is inferior to that of Thomas Rees 
(1777-1864) [q. v.], but he covers more 
ground than any previous writer, giving 
lives and biographies, continental and Eng- 
lish, extending from the Reformation to the 
opening of the eighteenth century. His in- 
troduct ion deals mainly with the development 
of opinion in England during that period. His 
careful array of authorities is especially use- 
ful. Among his other publications were, 
besides sermons : 1. 'An Account.of the Revo- 
lution House at Whittington,' Chesterfield, 
1818, 8vo. 2. 'A Plain Statement ... of 
Unitarianism . . . and . . . Review of the . . . 
Improved Version,' Chesterfield, 1819, 8vo. 
3. ' Dissertation on the Verb,' Chesterfield, 
1832, 8vo. 4. 'On the Ictis of Diodorus 
Siculus,' Manchester, 1845, 8vo. He edited 
a ' Selection of Hymns for Unitarian Wor- 
ship,' Chesterfield, 1822, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1826, 
8vo. 

[Memoir (by Charles Wallace), with list of 
publications, in Christian Reformer, 1850, p. 
549 ; Monthly Repository, 1827, p. 139 ; Chris- 
tian Reformer, 1835 p. 510, 1841 p. 262, 1850 
p. 388, 1859 p. 681; March's Hist. Preb. and 
Gen. Bapt. Churches in West of England, 1835, 
p. 285 ; Manchester New College, Introductory 
Lectures, 1841; Roll of Students, Manchester 
New College, 1868; Nightingale's Lancashire 
Nonconformity [1891], i. 18; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology, 1892, pp. 1162, 1197, 1231 ; tomb- 
stone at Inhedge Burying-ground, Dudley ; in- 
formation from the Rev. John Wright, Sutton 
Coldfield, and the Rev. A. H. Shelley, Dudley.] 

A. G. 

WALLACE, ROBERT (1773-1855), 
postal reformer, born in 1773, was the second 
son of John Wallace (1712-1805) of Cessnock 
and Kelly in Ayrshire, by his third wife, 
Janet, third daughter of Robert Colquhoun 
of the island of St. Christopher. His father 
was a AVest India merchant in Glasgow, who 



Wallace 



Wallace 



amassed a large fortune and became pro- 
prietor of several important estates. The 
eldest son was Sir James Maxwell Wallace 
[see WALLACE, GRACE, LADY WALLACE]. By 
the father's will Robert Wallace received 
the estate of Kelly and part of the West 
Indian property, and was known by the de- 
signation of Wallace of Kelly. He was a 
devoted whig, and, as he was a vigorous orator, 
his services were often in demand during the 
reform agitation before 1832. After the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill he was the first mem- 
ber of parliament for Greenock under the act, 
and held that seat continuously till 1846. 
In parliament his chief efforts were directed 
towards law reform, especially in the direc- 
tion of having cheaper and simpler methods 
for the transfer of heritable property ; and, 
though he did not carry through any mea- 
sure specially for this purpose, he gave an 
impetus to reforms of this kind, and sug- 
gested plans which have since been adopted. 
His name is most intimately associated with 
the reform of the postal service, and with 
the introduction of the penny post. After 
repeated applications to parliament he suc- 
ceeded in having a royal commission ap- 
pointed in 1836 to report on the state of the 
posting department. The numerous reports 
made by the commission fully supported the 
charges brought against this department, and 
prepared the way for many reforms. Wallace 
was chairman of the committee charged 
with the examination of Rowland Hill's 
penny postage scheme ; and it was by his 
casting vote that it was decided to recom- 
mend this scheme to parliament. He took 
an active interest in the realisation of cheap 
postage. In 1846 he became embarrassed 
financially through the depreciation in value 
of some of his West Indian estates, and 
deemed it prudent to resign his seat in par- 
liament. The estate of Kelly was sold, and 
Wallace lived in retirement at Seafield 
Cottage, Greenock. After his resignation a 
liberal public subscription was made for 
him, which enabled him to spend his later 
years in comfort. He died at Seafield on 
1 April 1855. He married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Forbes of Craigievar, but 
left no issue. His sister, Anne Wallace, died 
unmarried in 1873 in her hundred and second 
year. 

[Millar's Castles and Mansions of Ayrshire ; 
Foster's Members of Parliament of Scotland ; 
Glasgow Herald, 2 April 1855 ; Loyal Reformer's 
Gazette, 1832 ; Transactions of Glasgow Archaeo- 
logical Soc. new ser. i. 112.] A. H. M. 

WALLACE, THOMAS, BARON WAL- 
LACE (1768-1844), only son of James Wal- 
lace, barrister-at-law (afterwards solicitor 



and attorney-general to George III), and 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Simpson, Carleton Hall, Cumber- 
land, was born at Brampton, Cumberland, in 
1768. He was educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he was the contem- 
porary and associate of the Earl of Liverpool 
and of Canning. He graduated M.A. on 
18 March 1790, and D.C.L. on 5 July 1793. 
At the general election in 1790 he was 
elected M.P. for Grampound. His subse- 
quent elections were, for Penrhyn 1796, for 
Hindon 1802, for Shaftesbury 1807, for Wey- 
mouth 1812, for Cockermouth 1813, and for 
Weymouth 1818, 1820, and 1826. It was 
as a supporter of Pitt that he first appeared 
in public life, and he consistently upheld 
his policy, except in regard to Roman catholic 
emancipation, which he strenuously opposed. 
In July 1797 he was appointed to a seat at 
the admiralty, from which he was removed 
in May 1800 to become one of the commis- 
sioners for the, affairs of India. When Pitt 
retired in 1801, Wallace continued to hold 
office under his successor, Addington, and was 
made a privy councillor on 21 May 1801 . When 
Pitt resumed office in 1804, Wallace was in- 
cluded in the new government, which was 
dissolved by the death of Pitt in 1806. The 
colleagues of Pitt, after the death of Fox, 
were soon recalled, and remained in power 
till 1827. Wallace, in 1807 having returned 
to office, resigned it in 1816, and in 1818 be- 
came again a member of the government as 
vice-president of the privy council for the 
management of trade. In 1820 he was ap- 
pointed chairman of the committee to con- 
sider the state of our foreign trade, and the 
best means for maintaining and improving 
it. The proceedings were extended through 
several sessions, and an active and leading 
part fell upon Wallace, who laid the report 
on the table before the end of the session of 
1820, and afterwards introduced and carried 
through the legislature measures intended 
to give them effect. In 1823 he was suc- 
ceeded by William Huskisson [q.v.] at the 
board of trade, and received addresses from 
many of the principal trading towns in the 
kingdom, thanking him for his services to the 
commerce of the country. Wallace was soon 
appointed chairman of the committee selected 
to inquire into the irregularities and abuses 
existing in the collection and management of 
the Irish revenue. The recommendations of 
the committee were adopted. In May 1825 
Wallace submitted to the house a measure 
to effect the assimilation of the currencies of 
England and Ireland, which passed through 
both houses without any real opposition. In 
October 1823 he was appointed master of 



Wallace 



1 06 



Wallace 



the mint in Ireland, which he held till the 
change of administration in May 1827. Can- 
ning pressed him to join his government, but 
he refused. The death of Canning was fol- 
lowed by the ministry of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and on the same day as the publication 
of the ministerial appointments (2 Feb. 1828) 
it was announced that Wallace had been made 
a peer. The title he assumed was Baron 
Wallace of Knaresdale. Till his death, on 
23 Feb. 1844, Wallace resided at his seat, 
Featherstone Castle, Northumberland. Wal- 
lace married, 16 Feb. 1814, Jane, sixth daugh- 
ter of John Hope, second earl of Hopetoun, 
and second wife of Henry Dundas, first vis- 
count Melville [q. v.] This lady died without 
issue on 9 June 1829. The peerage became 
extinct. The male heir was his cousin, John 
Wallace of the Madras civil service ; but the 
estates were left to Colonel James Hope, 
next brother to the Earl of Hopetoun and 
nephew to Lord Wallace's deceased wife ; he 
assumed the name of Wallace. 

[Gent. Mag. 1844, i. 425-30; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Peerages.] G. S-H. 

WALLACE, VINCENT (1814-1865), 
musical composer. [See WALLACE, WIL- 
LIAM VINCENT.] 

WALLACE, SIE WILLIAM (1272 P- 
1305), Scottish general and patriot, came of 
a family which had in the twelfth century 
become landowners in Scotland. The name 
Walays or Wallensis which Wallace himself 
used, and various other forms, of which le 
Waleis or Waleys are the commonest in both 
English and Scottish records of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, meant originally a 
Welshman in the language of their English- 
speaking neighbours both in England and 
Scotland. It was a surname of families of 
Cymric blood living on or near the borders 
of Wales and the south-western districts of 
Scotland, originally inhabited by the Cymric 
race of Celts, like the surnames of Inglis 
and Scot in the English and Scottish de- 
batable and border land. The family from 
which William Wallace sprang probably 
came with the FitzAlans, the ancestors of 
the Stewarts, from Shropshire. To this con- 
nection Blind Harry refers in the somewhat 
obscure lines as to Malcolm, the father of 
William Wallace: 
The secund O [i.e. grandson] he was of great 

Wallace, 

The -which Wallas full worthily that wrought 
When Walter hyr of Waillis from Warrayn 

socht. 

(0 or Oye means grandson, but whether ' the 
second O ' can mean descendant in the 
fourth degree is not certain.) The mother 



of Walter, the first Stewart, was a Warenne 
of Shropshire, and he may have wooed, as 
has been conjectured, a Welsh cousin with 
the aid of .Richard Wallace, the great- 

I great-grandfather of Malcolm Wallace. 

j Ricardus Wallensis held lands in Kyle in 
Ayrshire under Walter, the first Steward, 
to whose charter in favour of the abbey of 
Paisley he was a witness in 1174. The lands 
still bear the name of Riccarton (Richard's 
town). A younger son of Richard held lands 
in Renfrewshire and Ayr under a second 
Walter the Steward early in the thirteenth 
century. He was succeeded by his son Adam, 
the father of Malcolm, the father of William 
Wallace. William Wallace's mother was 
Jean Crawford, daughter of Sir Reginald or 
Rainald Crawford of Corsbie, sheriff of Ayr. 
Malcolm Wallace towards the end of the 
thirteenth century held the five-pound land 
of Elderslie in the parish of Abbey in Ren- 
frewshire under the family of Riccarton, as 
well as the lands of Auchenbothie in Ayr- 
shire. Elderslie is about three miles from 
Paisley, and continued in the Wallace family 
down to 1789, though it reverted to the 
Riccarton branch owing to the failure of 
direct descendants of Malcolm Wallace. 

Probably at Elderslie William Wallace 
was born ; but there is little likelihood that 
an old yew in the garden, or the venerable 
oak which perished in the storm of February 
1856, or even the small castellated house now 
demolished, to all of which his name was 
attached by tradition, existed in his lifetime. 
His father is said to have been knighted. 
Whether this is true or not, the family be- 
longed to the class of small landed gentry 
which it is an exaggeration to call either of 
noble or of mean descent. William was the 
second son. His elder brother is called by 
Fordun Sir Andrew, but by others, including 
Blind Harry, Malcolm. Fordun says he was 
killed by fraud of the English. There is 
evidence that he was alive in 1299, so that 
his death cannot have been the cause, as has 
been suggested, of the rising of Wallace. 
Still it is evident that his family, as well as 
himself, were enemies of England. His 
younger brother John was executed in Lon- 
don in 1307, two years after Wallace met 
the same fate. Both William and a brother 
named Malcolm are described as knights in 
a letter of 1299 by Robert Hastings, sheriff 
of Roxburgh, to Edward I (Nat. MSS. of 
Scotland, ii. No. 8), which turns the balance 
in favour of Malcolm, and not Andrew, hav- 
ing been the name of the eldest brother. 

The date of the birth of Wallace is un- 
known. His biographer, Blind Harry, who 
collected, nearly two centuries after, the tra- 



Wallace 



107 



Wallace 



ditions of Scotland, but who had access to 
books now lost, unfortunately makes state- 
ments as to the age of Wallace which can- 
not be reconciled with one another. In the 
first book of his poem on Wallace Blind 
Harry represents him as a child when Scot- 
land was lost in 1290, when Edward I took 
possession of it as arbiter of the disputed 
succession (i. line 145), and as eighteen years 
old at the date of his first alleged adventure 
when he slew the son of Selby, constable of 
Dundee, about 1291. So the former state- 
ment would place his birth about 1278, unless 
' child ' means, as it sometimes did, a youth. 
The latter would carry the birth of Wallace to 
1272. But in the eleventh book Harry makes 
Wallace forty-five when he was sold to the 
English in 1305 ; his birth is thus thrown 
back to 1260. Nothing certain can be 
affirmed except that he was still young in 
1297 when he first took arms against the 
English, and began in the neighbourhood of 
Dundee and Lanark his career as the 
deadliest foe of Edward I. He was educated 
first with an uncle Wallace, a priest at 
Dunnipace in Stirlingshire, from whom he 
learnt the Latin distich : 

Dico tibi verum, libertas optima reruin ; 
Nunquam servili sub nexu vivito, fili. 

and afterwards, when he took refuge with 
his mother at Kilspindie in the Carse of 
Gowrie, with another uncle, probably her 
brother, at the monastic school of Dundee. 
It was at this school he met John Blair, who 
became his chaplain, and ' compiled in Dyte 
the Latin book of Wallace Life,' according 
to Blind Harry, who frequently refers to 
Blair as his authority. Education with such 
masters and companions must have included 
Latin, and we need not be surprised that the 
few documents preserved which were issued 
in his name are in that language. 

Apart from the copious narrative by Blind 
Harry of early adventures, consisting chiefly 
of the slaughter of Englishmen in single 
combat or against tremendous odds, by the 
almost superhuman strength with which 
Wallace is credited, his life can be traced 
only from 1297 to 1305. It was in the 
summer of the former year that Wallace 
first appeared on the historic scene. It was 
an opportune moment for a Scottish rising. 
Edward I had taken advantage of the dis- 
pute as to the succession to the Scottish 
throne to possess himself of the country. 
In 129G he ravaged the country and made 
prisoner John de Baliol, at the time the 
occupant of the Scottish throne. John de 
Warenne (1231 P-1304) [q.v.] was appointed 
guardian or ruler of Scotland as representa- 



tive of the English king, with Hugh Cressing- 
ham [q. v.] as treasurer, and English sheriffs 
were set up in the southern shires and in Ayr 
and Lanark. Next year the English barons 
and clergy were in open or veiled revolt against 
Edward I while the English king was ab- 
sorbed in preparations for the French war, 
to which he went in the end of August. 
The Scottish nobles were divided among them- 
selves by jealousies and were restrained from 
declaring against the English rule by fear 
of the forfeiture of their English fiefs. In 
May 1297 Wallace, at the head of a small 
band of thirty men, burnt Lanark and slew 
Hezelrig the sheriff. Scottish tradition 
affirmed the daring deed was in retaliation 
for the execution by the sheriff of Marion 
Bradfute, heiress of Lamington, whom Wal- 
lace loved, upon a charge of concealing her 
lover, for whom she had refused the hand of 
the sheriff's son. This seems more like a 
dramatic than an historical plot. The op- 
pressions and exactions of an officer who 
deemed Scotland a conquered country appear 
sufficient cause for Hezelrig's death. What- 
ever may have been the proximate cause, the 
boldness of its execution made Wallace's 
reputation. He is from this time a public 
robber and murderer in the eyes of the Eng- 
lish king and English chroniclers, and a 
heaven-born leader in those of the Scottish 
people and their historians. The killing of 
Hezelrig was the only specific charge in his 
indictment at Westminster. Its date is made 
by Fordun the commencement of Wallace's 
military career. It is possible that the death 
of Hezelrig was not Wallace's first exploit, 
and that he had already engaged in a guerilla 
warfare against the English officers whom 
Edward I had intruded into the kingdom. 
The commons of Scotland, who only waited 
for a signal and a leader, now flocked to his 
standard. The conversion of an undisciplined 
multitude into a regular army, as described 
by Fordun, bears witness at once to the small 
beginnings and the military talent of Wal- 
lace. He took four men as a unit and ap- 
pointed the fifth their officer ; the tenth man 
was officer to every nine, the twentieth to 
every nineteen, and so on to every thousand, 
and he enforced absolute obedience to those 
officers by the penalty of death. He was 
chosen by acclamation commander of the 
whole forces, and claimed to act in behalf 
of his king, John de Baliol, Edward I's 
prisoner. But he showed wisdom by asso- 
ciating with himself, whenever possible, re- 
presentatives of those barons who, encou- 
raged by his success, supported him at least 
for a time. His first associate was Wil- 
liam de Douglas ' the Hardy ' [q. v.], who 



Wallace 



108 



Wallace 



joined him in a, rapid march on Scone, where ! 
the court of William de Ormesby [q. v.], the j 
justiciar, was dispersed, much booty taken, 
and the justiciar saved his life only by flight. 
They then separated. Douglas recovered the 
strongholds of his native Annandale, where 
he took the castles of Sanquhar and Duris- 
deer, while Wallace overran the Lennox. It 
may have been at this time he expelled An- 
tony Bek [q. v.], the warlike bishop of Dur- 
ham, from the house of Wishart, the bishop 
of Glasgow, of which Bek had taken posses- \ 
sion. Wallace put in force with all the 
stringency in his power the ordinance of 
the Scottish parliament of 1296, by which > 
English clerks were banished from Scottish i 
benefices a necessary measure if Scotland 
was to be delivered from the English domi- 
nation, for English priests and friars minor 
took an active part as envoys and spies 
throughout the war. In July 1297 the 
troops of Wallace and Douglas were reunited 
in Ayrshire. This was not a moment too 
soon, for Edward I's governor, Warenne, had 
sent his nephew Sir Henry Percy and Sir 
Henry Clifford, with the levy of the nor- 
thern shires, to repress the Scottish rising. 
Collecting their forces in Cumberland in 
June, they had invaded Annandale, and, 
burning Lochmaben to save themselves from 
a night attack, advanced by Ayr to Irvine, 
where the Scots force was prepared to en- 
gage them. At Irvine Bruce, who had sud- 
denly transferred his arms to the side of the 
Scottish patriots, again changed sides, and 
on 9 July, by a deed still extant (Calendar, 
No. 909), placed himself at the will of Ed- 
ward. It is uncertain whether Wallace was 
present at Irvine ; a fortnight later he had 
retired ' with a great company ' into the 
forest of Selkirk, ' like one who holds him- 
self against your peace,' writes Cressingham 
to Edward on 23 July (t'6.), and neither 
Cressingham nor Percy dared follow him 
into the forest, whose natives were good 
archers and strenuous supporters of the Scot- 
tish cause. The absence of Warenne was 
made an excuse for the delay, which enabled 
Wallace to organise and increase his forces. 
Neither Warenne nor his deputies were 
capable generals, and they allowed Wallace to 
lay siege to Dundee, and to occupy a strong 
position on the north side of the Forth, near 
Cambuskenneth Abbey, in the beginning of 
September, threatening Stirling Castle, the 
key of the Highlands, before they advanced 
to meet him with fifty thousand foot and a 
thousand horse. 

Wallace took up his position at the base 
of the Abbey Craig, the bold rock where his 
monument now stands, which faces Stirling. 



It commands a retreat to the Ochils inac- 
cessible to cavalry, easily defensible by agile 
mountaineers against heavy-armed troops. 
On the plain below there is on the north 
side one of the many loops of the Forth as 
it winds through the carse land called the 
Links. The English lay between the river 
and the castle of Stirling. Attempts at 
mediation were made twice by the Steward 
and the Earl of Lennox, a third time by two 
friars minor. ' Carry back this answer,' said 
Wallace, according to Hemingburgh, who 
has left so clear an account of that memo- 
rable day : ' we have not come for peace, but 
ready to fight to liberate our kingdom. Let 
them come on when they wish, and they 
will find us ready to fight them to their 
beards.' He adds, ' Wallace's force was only 
forty thousand foot and 180 horse.' When 
this answer was reported, the opinions of 
the English leaders were divided. The 
wooden bridge over the Forth probably not 
far from the present stone one was so narrow 
that some who were there reported that if 
they had begun to cross at dawn and con- 
tinued till noon, the greater part of the army 
would still remain behind. But, provoked 
by Wallace's challenge, the English leaders 
mounted the bridge. Marmaduke de Thweng 
[see under THWEXG, ROBERT DE] and the 
bearers of the standards crossed first. Thweng, 
by a brilliant dash, cut through the Scots 
force, attempting the manoeuvre which, if 
Lundy's advice to cross by a neighbouring 
ford and take the Scots in the rear had been 
taken, might have succeeded. Thweng failed 
through want of support, and recrossed the 
bridge with his nephew. Few others had such 
good fortune. As they defiled two abreast 
over the bridge they were caught as in a net. 
Wallace's troops had descended from the 
Abbey Craig when he saw as many English 
as they could overcome had crossed. The 
defeat was signal and soon became general. 
No reinforcements could be sent over the 
I bridge, now choked with the dead and 
wounded. The story that Wallace had, by 
loosening the wooden bolts which held one 
of its piers, broken it down, appears less 
likely, though there is evidence in the Eng- 
lish accounts that the bridge had, soon after 
the battle, to be repaired. Some tried to 
swim the river and were drowned. A few 
Welsh foot escaped by swimming, but only 
a single knight. Five thousand foot and 
a hundred knights were slain. Among 
these was Cressingham the treasurer, whose 
skin was cut in strips, which the Scots 
divided as trophies. AVallace, says the 
' Chronicle of Lanercost,' made a sword-belt 
out of one of the strips. English writers 



Wallace 



109 



Wallace 



attribute the defeat to Cressingham's penu- soldiers to be sought for, but they were not 
riousness as treasurer and folly as a gene- to be found. He took the canons under his 
ral. Warenne was at least equally to blame. I own special care, and on 7 Nov. issued letters 
Nor is it fair to try to lessen the merit of ' of protection in his own name and that of 
Wallace. Where others had faltered or gone | Andrew Moray, as leaders of the army of 
over to the enemy, he had almost alone kept Scotland in the name of Baliol. Their terms 



alive the spirit of his countrymen. He selected 
the field of battle at the place and moment 
when a smaller force could engage a larger 
with best hopes of success, and had been in 
the thick of the fight. His colleague in 
the command was Andrew Moray, son of Sir 
Andrew Moray, then prisoner in the Tower 
[see under MURRAY or MORAY, SIR ANDREW, 
d. 1338]. 

Nothing succeeds like success. The Stew- 
ard and Lennox aided Wallace in the pursuit 
of Warenne, but Wallace himself was now 
sole leader. His army grew by volunteers, 
but also by forced levies of all able-bodied 
men between sixteen and sixty. Bower, 



refute the calumny so often repeated, that 
Wallace was an indiscriminate persecutor of 
the clergy. Against English clerks who 
accepted Scottish benefices he was beyond 
doubt severe, nor could he always restrain his 
followers. But the man who had a chaplain 
as one of his friends, and was countenanced 
by the chief bishops of Scotland, Robert 
Wishart [q. v.] and William de Lamberton 
fq. v.], was not an enemy of the church of 
Rome or of Scotland, but of the churchmen 
of England and of Edward. On St. Martin's 
day, 11 Nov., he appeared before Carlisle, 
which was summoned to surrender in the 
name of William the Conqueror. The bur- 



Fordun's continuator, probably a chaplain of ghers prepared to defend it, and Wallace, 



Aberdeen, relates that the burgesses of that 
town having refused to obey Wallace, he 
marched north and hanged some of them as 
an example ; and there is other evidence of 



declining a siege, wasted the forest of Ingle- 
wood, Cumberland, and ' Allerdale,' as far as 
Cockermouth. A snowstorm prevented him 
from ravaging the bishopric of Durham, 



his forcible methods, as in the petition for whose deliverance was attributed to the pro- 
reparation to Edward of Michael de Miggel, tection of its patron, St. Cuthbert. 
who was twice captured and forced to join ! Wallace returned to Scotland about 
the troops of Wallace {Calendar, ii. 456). Christmas 1297, and, apart from a casual 
The castle of Dundee, probably by the aid though possibly true reference to his being- 
of Scrymgeour, who was soon after made its again in the forest of Selkirk, the next cer- 
constable, at once surrendered. Edinburgh i tain fact in his life is that he was at Tor- 



and Roxburgh were taken. Henry de Hali- 
burton recovered Berwick, but the castles 
of these towns were still held by English 
captains {Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 190). 
There is no specific mention of the fall of 
Stirling, which Warenne before his flight had 
committed to the custody of Marmaduke de 
Thweng, but we know that it passed into the 
hands of the Scots. Roxburgh and Hadding- 
ton, and nearly all the great towns on the 
English side of the Forth, were burned (ib. 
p. 191). Scotland was free, and Wallace, 
still acting in the name of John de Baliol, 
crossed the border, and before 18 Oct. harried 
Northumberland, and afterwards marched 
through Westmoreland and Cumberland, 
wasting the country, but without taking any 
stronghold. At Hexham some Scottish 
lancers threatened to kill the few canons left 
in the convent unless they gave up their 
treasures. Wallace interposed, and asked one 
of them to celebrate mass. Before the host 
was elevated, he left the church to take off" 
his armour, as was the pious custom, but 
some Scots lancers carried oft' the holy vessels 
while the priest was washing his hands in 
the vestry, so that the service could not be 
completed . Wallace ordered the sacrilegious 



phichen in West Lothian on 29 March 
1298. A grant of that date by Wallace has- 
been preserved. He styles himself ' Wilel- 
mus Walays miles, Gustos regni Scotise et 
ductor exercituum ejusdem nomine principis 
domini JohannisDei gratia regis Scotire illus- 
tris de consensu communitatis ejusdem. . . . 
per consensum et assensum magnatum dicti 
regni,' and confers on Alexander Skirmisher 
(Scrymgeour) six marks value of land in the 
territory of Dundee and the office of constable 
of that town in return for his homage to 
Baliol and faithful service in the army of 
Scotland as bearer of the king's standard. 
This document refutes the assertion made 
at the trial of Wallace that he had claimed 
the kingdom for himself. It also proves that 
after the death of Moray he acted as sole 
guardian, and probably also that some of 
the nobles were still on his side, and that 
he had been elected guardian, though the 
remark of Lord Hailes appears just that 
how he obtained the office will for ever re- 
main problematical. John Major, who 
thinks he assumed it, states that there were 
families in his own time who held their 
lands by charters of Wallace, which indi- 
cates that his authority was recognised 



Wallace 



no 



Wallace 



both then and afterwards as conferring a 
legal title. It was about this time, accord- 
ing to one of the ' Political Songs,' which de- 
scribe so vividly the English popular view, 
that Wallace was knighted : 

De prsedone fit eques ut de corvo cignus ; 
Accipit indignus sedem cum non prope dignus 

(Political Songs, p. 174). 

Meanwhile Edward I, released from the 
war with France by a truce, returned to 
England on 11 March and pushed on the 
preparation for the renewal of war with 
Scotland which his son Prince Edward had 
alreadylbegun. Writs were issued for men 
and supplies, and a parliament was sum- 
moned to meet at York on 25 May. It sat 
till the 30th, but the Scots barons declined 
to attend, andjthe English estates, led by 
Bigod, demanded a confirmation of the char- 
ters. Edward promised to confirm them if 
he returned victorious from Scotland. It 
was about this time, accordingto some Scot- 
tish authorities, that Wallace next appeared 
in the forest of Black Irnside (the forest of 
the Alders), near Isewburgh, on the shore of 
the Firth of Tay, and defeated Sir Aymer de 
Valence [see AYMER] on 12 June. English 
writers ignore this, and it may have taken 
place during his later guerilla war after his re- 
turn from France. It would be, as Hailes 
observes, quite consistent with probability. 
It was a constant practice for the English in 
wars with Scotland to send ships with 
men and provisions to support their land 
forces, and Valence may have attempted a 
descent on Fife. Early in July Edward 
crossed the eastern Scottish border, and was 
at Roxburgh from 3 to 6 July, where he 
made a muster of his troops. They numbered 
three thousand armed horsemen, four thou- 
sand whose horses were not armed, and eighty 
thousand foot, almost all, says Hemingburgh, 
Irish and Welsh. A contingent from Gas- 
cony was sent to guard Berwick. Before the 
21st he had reached Temple Listen, near 
Linlithgow. The king's forces were in want 
of supplies, and his Welsh troops mutinied. 
It was said they were likely to join the Scots 
if they saw it was the winning side. At 
this crisis a spy, sent by the Earl of March, 
announced that the Scots were in the forest 
of Falkirk, only six leaguesoff, and threatened 
a night attack. To put spirit into his men, 
Edward at once boldly declared that he would 
not wait for an attack. Undiscouraged by his 
horse accidentally breaking two of his ribs, 
he rode through Linlithgow at break of day. 
As the sun rose the English saw Scots lan- 
cers on the brow of a small hill near Fal- 
kirk prepared to fight. The foot were 



drawn up in four circles, called in Scots 
' schiltrons ' (an Anglo-Saxon term for shield- 
bands), which answered to the squares of 
later warfare, the lancers sitting or kneeling, 
with lances held obliquely, facing outwards. 
Between the schiltrons stood the archers, 
and behind them the horsemen. It was 
the natural formation to receive cavalry, the 
arm in which the Scots were weakest and 
the English strongest, for most of the Scot- 
tish barons had stayed away, and those pre- 
sent were not to be counted on. Jealousy 
against Wallace, always latent, broke out 
at this critical moment among his supe- 
riors in rank. According to the Scottish 
traditions and the chronicle of Fordun, Sir 
John Comyn the younger, Sir John Ste- 
wart, and Wallace disputed on the field 
who was to hold the supreme command. 
After mass Edward proposed that while the 
tents were being fixed the men and horses 
should be fed, for they had tasted nothing 
since three o'clock of the previous afternoon. 
But on some of his captains representing 
that this was not safe, as there was only a 
small stream between them and the Scots, 
he ordered an immediate charge in the name 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The 
leaders of the first line, Bigod, Bohun, and 
the Earl of Lincoln, went straight at the 
enemy, but were obliged to turn to the west, 
as the ground was marshy. The second 
line, in which Robert Bruce is said to have 
fought, with the bishop of Durham at its 
head, avoided the marsh by going round to 
the east. The bishop, after the first blows, 
called a halt till the third line, commanded 
by the king, should come up, but was told 
by his impetuous followers that a mass and 
not a battle was a priest's business. They 
attacked at once the Scottish schiltrons, and 
the earls with the first line soon came to 
their aid. Edward's own line also advanced. 
There was a stout resistance by the Scottish 
lancers, but a flight of arrows and of stones, 
of which there were many on the hillside, 
broke the schiltrons, and the English cavalry, 
piercing the circles, made the victory com- 
plete. Sir John Stewart, who led the archers 
from Selkirk Forest, fell by accident from 
his horse, and was killed along with most 
of the archers. Although it has been denied 
that there was dissension on the Scottish 
side, there is sufficient evidence that Comyn 
would not fight. It is not quite so certain 
that Bruce fought for the English. The 
alleged conference across a stream between 
him and Wallace after the battle, related 
by Blind Harry, is very doubtful. There is 
clear proof, however, that Bruce at this point 
really sided with Edward. Hemingburgh's 



Wallace 



Wallace 



statement is that ' the Scottish knights 
(equestres), when the English came up, fled 
without a blow, except a few who remained 
to draw up the schiltrons.' Among these 
was Wallace, the real prompter and com- 
mander of the battle. His historic speech, j 
*I haf brocht you to the ring, hop if you can,' 
referring to a well-known dance (MATT. 
WEST. p. 451 ; HAILES, p. 259 n.), was pro- 
bably meant to glance at the desertion of the 
knights, and to appeal to the infantry to fight 
though the knights had fled. The formation 
of foot soldiers in circles, with lances facing 
outwards round the whole circumference, j 
though known before, had never been so 
complete in a Scottish army, and Bruce, if 
he fought that day with the English, learnt 
from Wallace a lesson he applied with better 
success at Bannockburn. The Scots were 
largely outnumbered. According to the 
most trustworthy accounts, they were only 
one-third of the English. But they had the 
advantage of the ground, and Edward had 
his own difficulties, if it be true, as stated 
by Robert de Brunne, that his Welsh troops 
declined to fight. His brilliant leadership 
and superior force in cavalry and archers 
won the day. The loss of upwards of a hun- 
dred horses shows that the victory was not 
bloodless, but only one knight of importance 
(homo valoris), Sir Brian de Jay, master of 
the Temple, lost his life. The slaughter of 
the Scots was by the lowest estimate ten 
thousand men, and of the leaders there fell 
Sir John Stewart, Sir John Graham of Dun- 
daff, the fidus Achates of Wallace, and 
Macdufl, the young earl of Fife, whose fol- 
lowers, like the men of Bute, the retainers 
of Stewart, perished to a man. Wallace 
retreated with the remnant of the army to 
Stirling, where he burnt both the town and 
the castle; but Edward followed on his 
steps and restored the castle. 

From this date authentic evidence as to 
the life of Wallace, never so full as we could 
wish, becomes slender, and it is difficult to 
pick up the threads. After Edward quitted 
the field of Falkirk, Wallace is said to have 
returned to bury Graham in Falkirk church- 
yard. It is disputed whether he was pre- 
sent at the burning of the barns of Ayr, and 
indeed whether the burning took place after 
the battle of Falkirk; but this is a point 
chiefly of local interest. Shortly after Fal- 
kirk he gave up the office of guardian ' at 
the water of Forth,' possibly Stirling, and 
Comyn succeeded to that office. The state- 
ment of Blind Harry, which had been 
doubted, that he went to France to the 
court of Philip le Bel, probably in the fol- 
lowing year, 1299, has been confirmed by 



documentary evidence ; but the minstrel has 
himself to blame for the doubt by duplicating 
it, and making the first visit prior to the 
battle of Falkirk, and apparently after that 
of Stirling, a point in Wallace's life when 
there was neither time nor occasion for such 
a visit. 

An important letter by Robert Hastings 
to Edward, dated 20 Aug. 1299, gives as of 
recent occurrence a spy's account of a dis- 
pute between the leading Scottish nobles in 
Selkirk Forest, caused by Sir David Graham's 
demand for Sir William Wall ace's lands and 
goods, as he was going abroad without leave 
of the guardians. His brother, Sir Malcolm, 
interposed, and said ' his brother's lands and 
goods could not be forfeited till it was found 
by a jury whether he went out of the king- 
dom for or against its profit.' Sir Malcolm and 
Graham gave each other the lie, and both 
drew knives. A compromise was made by 
which Comyn, Bruce, and Lamberton, the 
bishop of St. Andrews, were to be joint 
guardians of the realm, while the bishop, 
as principal, was to have custody of the 
castles. It is plain the contest lay between 
the party of Comyn and the party of Bruce, 
and it deserves notice that Malcolm Wallace 
sided with the latter and with the bishop, 
who probably had already entered into a 
secret league with Bruce. What was de- 
cided as to Wallace's lands is not mentioned. 
On 24 Aug., St. Bartholomew's day, 1299, 
there is a casual notice that Wallace cut oft' 
the supplies from Stirling, then in the hands 
of an English garrison (Calendar, ii. No. 
1949), but which surrendered in December 
to Sir John de Soulis [q. v.] 

The anonymous author of the Cotton 
manuscript (Claudius D. vi. Brit. Mus.), 
who, though prejudiced against Wallace, 
appears to have had special sources of in- 
formation, mentions in the same year (1299) 
that Wallace, with five soldiers, went to 
France to implore the aid of Philip le Bel 
against Edward, who had been released 
from his French difficulties by the treaty of 
Montreuil, and by his marriage, 10 Sept. 

1299, to Philip's sister, and was now pre- 
paring to renew the war on Scotland. The 
temporary friendship between England and 
France led Philip to imprison Wallace 
when he came to Amiens, and to write to 
Edward that he would send Wallace to 
him. Edward answered with thanks, and 
the request that he would keep Wallace in 
custody. But Philip changed his mind, and 
on Monday after All Saints, 1 Nov. 1299 or 

1300, probably the latter, there is a letter 
of introduction by him ' to his lieges de- 
stined for the Roman court ' requesting them 



Wallace 



112 



Wallace 



to get 'the pope's favour for his beloved 
William Wallace, knight, in the matter 
which he wishes to forward with his holi- 
ness ' (National MSS. Scotland, i. No. Ixxv.) 
Whether Wallace went to Rome in the year 
of the jubilee we do not know, but the inter- 
necine conflict between Edward and Wal- 
lace has left its reflection in the lines of 
Dante : 

. . . the pride that thirsts for gain, 
Which drives the Scot and Englishman so hard 
That neither can within his land remain 
(Paradiso, xix. 121). 

Meantime the Scots had sent an embassy 
to Rome to combat the claim of Edward to 
the supremacy of Scotland. A long memo- 
rial entitled 'Processus Baldredi Bisset, 
contra figmenta Regis Anglise,' has been 
preserved in Bower's continuation of Fordun. 
It can scarcely be doubted that the object of 
Wallace in wishing to visit Rome was to sup- 
port this memorial. He received also letters 
of safe conduct from Haco, king of Norway, 
and from Baliol. These were once in a hana- 
per in the English exchequer, but now un- 
fortunately lost ; the description of them in 
the 'Ancient Kalendar ' of Bishop Stapylton 
in 1323 is important, and has not been suffi- 
cientlynoted (PALGRAVE, Calendars, i. 134). 
Besides showing the support Wallace re- 
ceived, not only from Philip of France, but 
from the king of Norway, it appears from 
this brief entry that there had been both 
ordinances by and treaties between Wallace 
and certain of the Scottish nobles, now lost. 
Probably he never presented the letter at 
Rome, and deemed his presence in Scotland 
more important ; nor is there any trace of 
his going to Norway. The next record of his 
name is a grant to his 'chere valet,' Edward 
de Keth, by Edward I, ' of all goods he may 
gain from Monsieur Guillaume de Waleys, 
the king's enemy,' by undated letters patent 
issued in or prior to 1303. It is remarkable 
that we have no certain evidence of his 
having been in Scotland between 1299 and 
1303, so that it remains possible he may 
have gone to Rome or elsewhere. 

Meanwhile Boniface had claimed the do- 
minion of Scotland by a bull dated Anagni, 
27 June 1300, to which the English barons 
replied in their famous letter of 1301 repu- 
diating all interference by the pope in the 
temporal affairs of England. Boniface there- 
upon abandoned Scotland and the Scots, 
and on 13 Aug. 1302 wrote a letter to the 
Scottish bishops exhorting them to peace 
with Edward (THEINER, Nos. ccclxx. and 
ccclxxi.) Philip followed his example, and, 
securing terms for himself by the treaty of 
Amiens on 25 Nov. 1302, confirmed by that 



of Paris on 20 May 1303, made a separate 
and perpetual peace with England, in which 
Scotland was not included. 

The war, however, still went on, though 
what part Wallace took in it is not known. 
There is no proof that he was at the battle 
j of Roslin on 24 Feb. 1303, when Sir John 
Comyn defeated John de Segrave [q.v.],the 
English commander. Edward now resumed 
the war in person and with greater vigour. 
Bruce surrendered at Strathord on 9 Feb. 
1304 ; Comyn and the principal barons sub- 
mitted ; and on 24 July Stirling fell. At 
this date at least, and probably for some time 
before, Wallace had been in arms, though 
not in command. His name occurs, with 
those of Sir John de Soulis, who had been as- 
sumed as an additional guardian of the king- 
dom it is said at the instance of Baliol 
Wishart, bishop of Glasgow and the Steward 
of Scotland, as specially excepted from the 
capitulation. ' As for William Wallace, it 
is agreed,' it ran, ' that he shall render him- 
self up at the will and mercy of our sovereign 
lord the king e,s it shall seem good to him * 
(RYLEY, Placita Parliamentaria, p. 370 ; 
Calendar, ii. Nos. 1444-5 and 1463). In 
a parliament of Edward at St. Andrews in 
the middle of Lent, Simon Fraser and Wil- 
liam Wallace, and those who held the castle 
of Stirling against the king, were outlawed 
(TRIVET, p. 378), from which it would ap- 
pear that Wallace had not merely cutoff sup- 
plies to Edward's troops, but taken part in 
the subsequent defence of Stirling. 

The pursuit of Wallace proceeded with 
unremitting zeal, and has left many traces 
in the English records. A payment was. 
made on 15 March 1303 in reimbursement 
of sums expended on certain Scottish lads 
who by order of the king had laid an ambus- 
cade (ad insidiandum) for Wallace and 
Fraser, and other enemies of the king (Ca- 
lendar, iv. 482). A similar payment was 
made on 10 Sept. 1303 for the loss of two 
horses in a raid against Wallace and Fraser 
(ib. p. 477), and for other horses lost in a 
foray against him near Irnside Forest (ib.y 
On 12 March 1304 Nicholas Oysel, the valet 
of the Earl of Ulster, received 40s. for 
bringing the news that Sir William Latimer, 
Sir John Segrave, and Sir Robert Clifford 
had discomfited Fraser and Wallace at 
Hopperew (ib. p. 474), and three days after 
los. was paid to John of Musselburgh for 
guiding Segrave and Clifford in a foray 
against Fraser and Wallace in Lothian (ib. 
p. 475). It was provided on 25 July after 
the capitulation of Strathord that Sir John 
Comyn, Alexander de Lindesay, David de 
Graham, and Simon Fraser were to have 



Wallace 



Wallace 



their sentences of exile or otherwise remitted 
if they took Wallace before the twentieth 
day after Christmas, and that the Steward, 
Sir John deSoulis, and Sir Ingram de Umfra- 
ville were not to have letters of safe conduct 
to enable them to return to the king's court 
till Wallace was captured (Calendar, ii. No. 
1563; PALGRAVE, pp. cxxix, 276, 281). 
At last, on 28 Feb. 1305, the step seems 
to have been taken which led to his capture. 
Ralph de Haliburton, a Scottish prisoner in 
England, formerly a follower of Wallace, 
was released till three weeks after Easter 
day, 18 April, that he might be taken to 
Scotland to help the Scots employed to cap- 
ture William Wallace. He had already been 
there on the same errand, and Mowbray, a 
Scottish knight, became surety for his return 
to London (Calendar, iv. p. 373 ; RTLEY, 
Placita, p. 279). The actual captor, accord- 
ing to the English contemporary chroniclers 
Langtoft, Sir Thomas Gray in ' Scala Chro- 
nica,' and the ' Chronicle of Lanercost,' and 
the later but independent statements of 
Wyntoun and Bower, was Sir John de Men- 
teith [q. v.] Menteith took him, says Lang- 
toft, ' through treason of Jack Short his man.' 
Possibly Jack Short was a nickname for 
Ralph de Haliburton. Whether another 
statement, that he was surprised ' by night 
his leman by,' was scandal or fact, we have 
no means of knowing. Wyntoun, who wrote 
his ' Chronicle ' in 1418, is apparently the 
first writer who states Glasgow as the place 
of the capture, but is supported by tradi- 
tion. Hailes doubted if Menteith has been 
justly charged with being an accomplice in 
the treachery, for lie was then sheriff of 
Dumbarton under Edward. He was at least 
handsomely rewarded for his share in the 
capture [see MENTEITH, SIR JOHN DE]. The 
English chroniclers and records emphasise 
the fact that Wallace fell by the hands of 
his own countrymen. That some of them 
were always ready to thwart and even to 
betray him is a marked fact at various criti- 
cal points of his life. He never had the j 
willing support of the general body of the j 
nobles. But the tempter and the paymaster 
was Edward, and the evidence shows the 
share the English king, who, like all the 
greatest rulers, did not overlook details, had 
in every measure taken to secure the person 
of his chief antagonist. The independence 
of which Wallace was the champion had 
come into sharp conflict with the imperialist 
aims of the greatest Plantagenet. The latter 
prevailed for the time, but the Scottish 
people inherited and handed down the spirit 
of Wallace. His example animated Bruce. 
His traditions grew till every part of Scot- 
VOL. LIX. 



land claimed a share of them. His ' life ' by 
Blind Harry became the secular bible of 
his countrymen, and echoes through their 
later history. It was one of the first books 
printed in Scotland, was expanded after the 
union in modern Scots homely couplets by 
Hamilton of Gilbertfield, and was con- 
centrated in the poem of Burns, in which 
'Wallace' is a synonym for liberty, 'Ed- 
ward ' for slavery. 

Of the trial and execution of Wallace 
there is a contemporary account embodying 
the original commission for the trial and 
the sentence (Chronicles of Edward I and 
Edivard II, Rolls Ser. p. 137, Stubbs's note, 
pp. 139-42). On 22 Aug. 1305 Wallace was 
brought to London, where he was met by a 
mob of men and women, and lodged in the 
houses of William de Leyre in the parish 
of All Saints, Fenchurch Street. Leyre 
was a former sheriff, and these houses were 
probably used as a prison. He was in 
custody of John de Segrave, to whom he 
had been delivered by Sir John Menteith. 
On the following day, Monday the 23rd, he 
was taken on horseback by Sir John and his 
brother, Sir Geoffrey Segrave, the mayor, Sir 
John Blunt, the sheriffs and aldermen, to 
the great hall of Westminster. He was 
placed on a scaffold at the south end 
with a laurel crown on his head, in 
mockery of what was said to have been his 
boast that he would wear a crown in that 
hall. Peter Malory (the justiciar of Eng- 
land), Segrave, Blunt (the mayor), and two 
others had been appointed justices for his 
trial. Malory, when the court met, charged 
Wallace with being a traitor to King Edward 
and with other crimes. He answered that 
he had never been a traitor to the king of 
England, which was true, for, unlike so 
many Scottish nobles and bishops, he had 
never taken any oath of allegiance, but 
confessed the other charges. Sentence was 
given on the same day by Segrave, in terms 
of which the substance reflects light upon 
his life. It ran thus : ' William Wallace, 
a Scot and of Scottish descent, having 
been taken prisoner for sedition, homicides, 
depredations, fires, and felonies, and after 
our lord the king had conquered Scotland, 
forfeited Baliol, and subjugated all Scots- 
men to his dominion as their king, and 
had received the oath of homage and fealty 
of prelates, earls, barons, and others, and 
proclaimed his peace, and appointed his 
officers to keep it through all Scotland. 
You, the said William Wallace, oblivious 
of your fealty and allegiance, did, (1) along 
with an immense number of felons, rise in 
arms and attack the king's officers and slay 

I 



Wallace 



114 



Wallace 



Sir William Hezelrig, sheriff of Lanark, j 
when he was holding a court for the pleas 
of the king ; (2) did with your armed j 
adherents attack villages, towns, and castles, 
and issue brieves as if a superior through 
all Scotland, and hold parliaments and 
assemblies, and, not content with so great 
wickedness and sedition, did counsel all the 
prelates, earls, and barons of your party to 
submit to the dominion of the king of 
France, and to aid in the destruction of the 
realm of England; (3) did with your 
accomplices invade the counties of North- 
umberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, 
burning and killing " every one who used 
the English tongue," sparing neither age nor 
sex, monk nor nun ; and (4) when the king 
had invaded Scotland with his great army, 
restored peace, and defeated you, carrying 
your standard against him in mortal war, 
and offered you mercy if you surrendered, 
you did despise his offer, and were outlawed 
m his court as a thief and felon according 
to the laws of England and Scotland ; and 
considering that it is contrary to the laws 
of England that any outlaw should be 
allowed to answer in his defence, your sen- 
tence is that for your sedition and making 
war against the king, you shall be carried 
from Westminster to the Tower, and from 
the Tower to Aldgate, and so through the 
city to the Elms at Smithfield, and for your 
robberies, homicides, and felonies in Eng- 
land and Scotland you shall be there hanged 
and drawn, and as an outlaw beheaded, 
and afterwards for your burning churches 
and relics your heart, liver, lungs, and 
entrails from which your wicked thoughts 
came shall be burned, and finally, because 
your sedition, depredations, fires, and homi- 
cides were not only against the king, but 
against the people of England and Scotland, 
your head shall be placed on London Bridge 
in sight both of land and water travellers, 
and your quarters hung on gibbets at New 
Castle, Berwick, Stirling, and Perth, to the 
terror of all who pass by.' The ' Chronicle 
of Lanercost' varies the list by substituting 
Aberdeen for Stirling, but the official sen- 
tence is a preferable authority. It was the 
ordinary sentence for treason, and shows 
the character attributed to the life of Wal- 
lace as seen by Edward and his justices. 
Wallace was, as he said, an enemy, not a 
traitor. He had never taken an oath to 
Edward. He had never claimed royal 
authority for himself, but acted in the name 
of Baliol as his king, as was known to 
Segrave and the other justices by the docu- 
ments taken from his person. He had 
never recognised Ballot's deposition by 



Edward. He had never asked Scotland to 
acknowledge the lordship of Philip, but he 
had asked that king to aid Scotland. He 
had been cruel in war, but so far as we 
know he had shown more reverence to the 
church as the church than Edward. In 
another respect the sentence is remarkable 
in relation to a disputed point in English 
and Scottish history, and its bearing on the 
position of Wallace. Edward does not claim 
dominion over Scotland as of ancient right, 
or by the submission of the Scottish com- 
petitors and estates at Norham, but in plain 
words as a conqueror. It followed, though 
this flaw in their logic escaped Malory and 
the justices, that Wallace was not a rebel, 
but one who had fought against the con- 
queror of his country. The law of war had 
not perhaps advanced far in the fourteenth 
century, but the difference between a rebel 
and an enemy was known. The trial, one 
of the first in the great hall of Westmin- 
ster, is also proof that Wallace was treated 
as no ordinary enemy. In a sense, the 
view of Lingard, repudiated by Scottish his- 
torians, is true : the fame of Wallace has 
been increased by the circumstances of his 
trial and execution, for they wrote in in- 
delible characters in the annals of England 
and its capital what might otherwise have 
been deemed the exaggeration of the Scot- 
tish people. 

In the records of Scotland and England 
and the contemporary chronicles he stands 
out boldly as the chief champion of the 
Scottish nation in the struggle for indepen- 
dence, and the chief enemy of Edward in 
the premature attempt to unite Britain under 
one sceptre. His name has become one of 
the great names of history. He was a gene- 
ral who knew how to discipline men and to 
rouse their enthusiasm ; a statesman, if we 
may trust indications few but pregnant, 
who, had more time been granted and better 
support given him by the nobles, might 
have restored a nation and created a state. 
He lost his life, as he had taken the lives 
of many, in the stern game of war. The 
natural hatred of the English people and 
their king was the measure of the natural 
affection of his own people. The latter has 
been lasting. 

There is no authentic portrait. Blind 
Harry gives a description of his personal 
appearance, which he strangely says was sent 
to Scotland from France by a herald. It 
runs : 
His lymmys gret, with stalward paiss [pace] 

and sound, 

His braunys [muscles] hard, his armes gret and 
round ; 



Wallace 



Wallace 



His handis maid ryckt lik till a pawmer [pal- 
mer], 

Off manlik mak, with naless gret and cler ; 
Proportionyt lang and fayr was his wesage ; 
Kychb sad of spech, and abill in curage ; 
Braid breyst and heych, -with sturdy crag and 

gret; 

His lyppys round, his noys was squar and tret; 
Bowand bron haryt, on browis and breis lycht ; 
[i.e. Wavy brown hair on brows and eyebrows 

light] ; 

Cler aspre eyn, lik dyamondis brycht. 
Wndyr the chyn, on the left syd was seyn, 
Be hurt, a wain, ; his colour was sangweyn. 
Woundis he had in many diucrs place, 
Sot fair and weill kepyt was his face. 

[The sources of the life of Wallace are nume- 
rous but meagre. Of the contemporary Eng- 
lish chronicles, Hemingburgh, Langtoft, the 
Scala Chronica, the Flores Historiarum of 
Matthew of Westminster, and the Chronicle of 
Lanercost are the most important. The poli- 
tical poems of Edward I, edited by Wright for 
the Camden Society, show the popular as dis- 
tinguished from the ecclesiastical view, which 
agrees as to Wallace's, but differs widely as to Ed- 
ward I's, character. There is no contemporary 
Scottish chronicle, but Wyntoun's Chronicle was 
written before 1424, and book viii. chap. 20, which 
refers to the capture of Wallace by Sir John 
Menteith, is part of the portion of Wyntoun 
which he found written and adopted (book viii. 
chap. 19). It may not improbably be by a con- 
temporary. The addition by Bower to the Scoti- 
chronicon of Fordun was written before 1447. 
The records are to be found in Sir F. Palgrave's 
Documentsillustrative of the History of Scotland, 
and Kalendars and Inventories of His Majesty's 
Exchequer, vol. i. ; Joseph Stevenson's Wallace 
Papers (Maitland Club), 1842, and Documents 
illustrative of the History of Scotland (1286- 
]306); and the Calendar of Documents edited 
by Mr. Joseph Bain for the Lord Clerk Eegister, 
vols. ii. and iv. For Blind Harry's account of 
Wallace see HENRY THE MINSTREL. A Latin 
poem ' Valliados libris tribus opus inchoatum,' 
by Patrick Panter, professor of divinity at St. 
Andrews, was published in 1633. W. Hamilton 
of Gilbertfield's Wallace (1722) is a modernised 
edition of Blind Harry, and became a favourite 
chap-book. The best editions of Blind Harry 
are Dr. Jamieson's (1820) and that edited for 
the Scottish Text Society by Mr. James Moir of 
Aberdeen. There are several modern lives, of 
which the only ones deserving mention are the 
Life of Wallace by David Carrick (3rd ed. Lon- 
don, 1840), the Memoir by P. F. Tytler in the 
Scottish Worthies (2nd ed. London, 1845), a 
Memoir by Mr. James Moir (1886), and an 
instructive Life by A. W. Murison (Famous 
Scots Series, 1898), who has attempted the diffi- 
cult, and the present writer thinks impossible, 
task of weaving together the anecdotes of Blind 
Harry and authentic facts. Lord Bute has pub- 
lished two lectures (1) The Early Life of Wal- 



lace, 1876; (2) The Burning of theBarnsof Ayr, 
1878. English historians seldom write of him 
without prejudice, but Mr. C. H. Pearson's His- 
tory of England is an exception. Kobert Ben- 
ton Seeley [q. v.], author of the Greatest of the 
Plantagenets, compares him to Nana Sahib, rival- 
ling Matthew of Westminster, who compared 
him to ' Herod, Nero, and the accursed Ham.' 
Scottish historians can scarcely avoid partiality. 
The fairest account of Wallace's part in the 
war of independence is by R. Pauli in his 
Geschichte Englands. Tytler, in his History of 
Scotland, is fuller than Hill Burton as to Wal- 
lace, and in general trustworthy. Hailes's Annals 
is not so satisfactory as usual. The numerous 
poems and novels on Wallace do not aid history ; 
butMiss Porter's Scottish Chiefs (London. 1810), 
and Wallace, a Tragedy, by Professor Robert 
Buchanan (Glasgow, 1856), deserve notice for 
their spirit. There is a Bibliotheca Wallasiana 
appended to the anonymous Life of Wallace 
(Glasgow, 1858). The Life itself is mainly 
taken from Carrick's Memoir.] JE. M. 

WALLACE, WILLIAM (1768-1843), 
mathematician, son of a leather manufac- 
turer in Dysart, Fifeshire, was born there on 
23 Sept. 1768. On his fathers removal to 
Edinburgh, William was apprenticed to a 
bookbinder, and afterwards became a ware- 
houseman in a printing office. Here, by 
his own industry, he mastered Latin, French, 
and mathematics. After being for some 
time a bookseller's shopman, acting as a 
private teacher, and attending classes at the 
university, in 1794 he was appointed assis- 
tant mathematical teacher in Perth Academy. 
During this period he contributed to the 
' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh ' and- the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
In 1803 his patron, John Playfair [q.v.], ad- 
vised him to apply for the office of mathe- 
matical master in the Royal Military College 
at Great Marlow. This post he obtained as 
the result of competitive examination. He 
also lectured on astronomy to the students. 

In 1819 he succeeded (Sir) John Leslie 
[q. v.] as professor of mathematics in Edin- 
burgh University, and occupied the chair 
till 1838, when he retired owing to ill- 
health, and was accorded a civil-list pension 
of 300/. a year. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from the university on 17 Nov. 1838. 
He died at Edinburgh on 28 April 1843. 
His portrait, by Andrew Geddes, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

Wallace was mainly instrumental in the 
erection of the observatory on the Calton 
Hill, and of a monument to Napier, the in- 
ventor of logarithms. 

Wallace was the inventor of the eidograph 
for copying plans and other drawings, and 
of the chorograph, for describing on paper 

12 



Wallace 



116 



Wallace 



any triangle having one side and all its 
angles given. 

Besides many articles contributed to the 
' Transactions ' of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, the Royal Astronomical Society, and 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society, to 
Leybourne's ' Mathematical Repository,' 
' Gentleman's Mathematical Companion,' 
'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia,' and 'Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica,' Wallace wrote : 1. ' A 
New Book of Interest, containing Aliquot 
Tables, truly proportioned to any given rate,' 
London, 1794, 8vo. 2. ' Geometrical 
Theorems and Analytical Formulas,' Edin- 
burgh, 1839, 8vo. 

[Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation ; Transactions of Royvl Astro- 
nomical Society, 9 Feb. 1844 ; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. v. 279, 6th ser. x. 155.] G. S-H. 

WALLACE, WILLIAM (1844-1897), 
professor of moral philosophy at Oxford, 
born at Cupar-Fife on 11 May 1844, was son 
of James Cooper Wallace, housebuilder, by 
his wife, Jean Kelloch, both persons of con- 
siderable originality and force of character. 
After spending four years at the university 
of St. Andrews, Wallace gained an exhibition 
at Balliol College, Oxford, in 1864, and in 

1867 became fellow of Merton College. In 

1868 he was appointed tutor of Merton, and 
in 1871 was chosen librarian. He graduated 
B.A. in 1868 and M.A. in 1871. In 1882 
he was appointed Whyte professor of moral 
philosophy, and held that office, along with 
the Merton tutorship, till his death, fifteen 
years later. 

As a professor he had great influence upon 
many generations of students of philosophy 
at Oxford. In his lectures he aimed not so 
much at the detailed exposition of philoso- 
phical systems as at exciting thought in his 
hearers. He lectured without notes, and 
seemed to develop his subject as he spoke ; 
and the touches of humour with which his 
discourse was lighted up, the subtle beauty 
of expression which he often attained, com- 
bined with the gravity and earnestness of his 
manner, produced an impression of insight 
and sincerity which was unique of its kind. 

He was killed by a bicycle accident a few 
miles from Oxford on 18 Feb. 1897. In 
1872 he married Janet, daughter of Thomas 
Barclay, sheriff-clerk of Fife, by whom he 
had a daughter and two sons. 

Wallace's writings are almost all devoted 
to the exposition of German philosophy, par- 
ticularly of the philosophy of Hegel : but he 
was no mere reproducer of other men's 
thoughts. He absorbed the ideas of the 
writers with whom he dealt, and assimilated 



them to his own thought, so as to give to his 
exposition the effect of a fresh view of truth. 
Well read both in classical and modern 
literature, he was peculiarly successful in 
freeing philosophical conceptions from tech- 
nical terms and reclothing them in language 
of much literary force and beauty. With 
him the effort to grasp the essential mean- 
ing of his subject always went along with 
the endeavour to express it in words which 
should have at once imaginative and scien- 
tific truth. 

Besides many reviews and essays in ' Mind ' 
and other journals, Wallace's published 
works were : 1. ' The Logic of Hegel,' 1873 
(translated from Hegel's ' Encyclopaedia of 
Philosophical Sciences ' ), with an introduc- 
tion containing one of the earliest and most 
luminous expositions of the Hegelian point 
of view in the English language. In 1892 
a second edition of his ' Logic of Hegel ' 
appeared with notes, followed in the next 
year by a volume of ' Prolegomena,' based 
upon his earlier introduction, but contain- 
ing much new matter. 2. ' Epicureanism,' 
1880 (in the series of ' Chief Ancient Philo- 
sophies ' published by the Society for Promo- 
ting Christian Knowledge). 3. ' Kant,' 1882 
(in 'Blackwood's Philosophical Classics'). 

4. ' The Life of Arthur Schopenhauer,' 1890. 

5. ' Hegel's Philosophy of Mind ' (translated, 
like the ' Logic,' from the ' Encyclopaedia of 
Philosophical Sciences'), with five introduc- 
tory essays. 6. ' Lectures and Essays on 
Natural Theology and Ethics,' selected from 
his manuscripts, ' edited, with a biographical 
introduction,' by the present writer, Oxford, 
1898, 8vo. 

[Personal knowledge.] E. C-D. 

WALLACE, WILLIAM VINCENT 

(1814-1865), musical composer, was born at 
Waterford on 1 July 1813, his father, a 
Scot, being bandmaster of the 29th regi- 
ment and a bassoon-player in the orchestra 
of the Theatre Royal, Dublin, in which his 
sons Wellington and Vincent played the 
second flute and violin respectively. While 
still quite a lad Vincent Wallace was a 
masterly player on the pianoforte, clarinet, 
guitar, and violin. At sixteen years of age 
he was organist of Thurles Cathedral for a 
short time (Musical World, 1865, p. 656), 
and appeared as violinist in a public concert 
at Dublin in June 1829, and in 1831 at a 
musical festival there, where he heard Paga- 
nini. He was also leader of the Dublin 
concerts, and played a violin concerto of his 
own at a Dublin concert in May 1834. In 
' 1834 he began to weary of the limited musical 
j possibilities of the Irish capital, married a 



Wallace 



117 



Wallack 



daughter of Kelly of Blackrock, and in August 
1835 set out for Australia. There he went 
straight into the bush, devoted some atten- 
tion to sheep-farming, and practically aban- 
doned music. He also separated from his 
wife, whom he never saw again. Once when 
visiting Sydney he attended an evening 
party, took part casually in a performance 
of a quartette by Mozart, and so captivated 
his audience that the governor, Sir John 
Burke, induced him to give a concert, he 
himself contributing a present of a hundred 
sheep by way of payment for his seats. 

Then Wallace began his wanderings, an 
account of part of which Berlioz tells in the 
second epilogue of his ' Soirees de 1'Orchestre ' 
(Paris, 1884, p. 413). He visited Tasmania 
and New Zealand, where he narrowly escaped 
assassination at the hands of savages, from 
whom he was saved under romantic circum- 
stances by the chiefs daughter. "While on a 
whaling cruise in the South Seas on the 
Good Intent, the crew of semi-savage New 
Zealanders mutinied and murdered all the 
Europeans but three, of whom Wallace was 
one. Proceeding to India, Wallace was 
highly honoured by the begum of Oude, and, 
after wandering there some time and visit- 
ing Nepal and Kashmir, he went to Val- 
paraiso at a day's notice, crossed the Andes 
on a mule, and visited Buenos Ayres ; thence 
to Santiago, where among the receipts of a 
concert he gave were some gamecocks. For 
a concert at Lima he realised 1,000. In 
Mexico he wrote a ' Grand Mass ' for a musi- 
cal fete, which was many times repeated. He 
invested his considerable savings in piano- 
forte and tobacco factories in America, which 
became bankrupt. 

In 1845 he was back in London, where at 
the Hanover Square Rooms he made his Eng- 
lish debut as a pianist on 3 May (Musical 
World, 1845, p. 215). In London he renewed 
his acquaintance with Hey ward St. Leger, an 
old Dublin friend, who introduced him to 
Fitzball, the result being the opera ' Mari- 
tana,' produced with rare success at Drury 
Lane on 15 Nov. 1845. ' Matilda of Hungary ' 
followed in 1847 with one of the worst librettos 
in existence, by Alfred Bunn [q. v.] Wallace 
then went to Germany, with a keen desire to 
make his name known there, and there he 
wrote a great deal of pianoforte music. From 
overwork on a commission to write an opera 
for the Grand Opera at Paris , he became almost 
blind, and to obtain relief he went a voyage 
to the Americas, where he gave many con- 
certs with good success. 

In 1853 he returned to England, and on 
23 Feb. 1860 ' Lurline ' was produced under 
Pyne and Harrison at Covent Garden, with 



a success surpassing that of ' Maritana.' On 
28 Feb. 1861 his ' Amber Witch ' was brought 
out at Her Majesty's, an opera which Wal- 
lace deemed his best work, and was followed 
in 1862 and 1863 by 'Love's Triumph' 
(Covent Garden, 3 Nov.) and ' The Desert 
Flower ' (Covent Garden, 12 Oct.) His last 
work was an unfinished opera called ' Estrella.' 
He died at Chateau de Bagen, in the Pyrenees, 
on 12 Oct. 1865 (and was buried at Kensal 
Green on 23 Oct.), leaving a widow (nee 
Helene Stoepel, a pianist) and two children 
in indigent circumstances. 

W r allace was a good pianist, and a lin- 
guist of considerable attainments. The list 
of his compositions fills upwards of a hun- 
dred pages of the 'British Museum Cata- 
logue.' 

[Authorities quoted in the text ; American 
Cyclopaedia of Music and Musicians, the article 
in which is by a personal friend of. Wallace ; 
Pougin's William Vincent Wallace : Etude Bio- 
graphique et Critique, Paris, 1866 ; Athenaeum, 
1865, p. 542 ; Choir and Musical Record, 1865, 
p. 75, where Rimbault errs in most of his 
dates ; Musical World, 1865, p. 656, art. written 
by a fellow traveller of Wallace ; Musical 
Opinion, 1888, p. 64 (which quotes an article 
by Dr. Spark from the Yorkshire Post) ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music and Musicians ; manuscript Life 
of Wallace by W. H. Grattan Flood; a con- 
densed list of Wallace's compositions is given 
in Stratton and Brown's British Musical Bio- 
graphy.] R. H. L. 

WALLACK, JAMES WILLIAM 
(1791 p-1864), actor, second son of William 
Wallack (d. 6 March 1850, at Clarendon 
Square, London, aged 90), a member of 
Philip Astley's company, and of his wife, 
Elizabeth Field Granger, also an actress, was 
born at Hercules Buildings, Lambeth, most 
probably in 1791 (other accounts have it 
that he was born on 17 or 20 Aug. 1794). 
His youngest sister, Elizabeth, was mother 
of Mrs. Alfred Wigan [see WIGAN, ALFRED]. 

His brother, HENRY JOHN WALLACK 
(1790-1870), born in 1790, acted in America 
about 1821, and appeared at Drury Lane on 
26 Oct. 1829 as Julius Caesar to his brother's 
Mark Antony. Subsequently he was stage- 
manager at Covent Garden. He died in New 
York on 30 Aug. 1870. He played Pizarro, 
Lord Lo veil in ' A New Way to pay Old Debts,' 
O'Donnell in ' Henri Quatre,' Buckingham 
in ' Henry VIII,' and other parts, and was 
on 28 Nov. 1829 the first Major O'Simper in 
' Follies of Fashion,' by the Earl of Glengall. 
He married Miss Turpin, an actress at the 
Haymarket. In America he was received 
as Hamlet, Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Anthony 
Absolute, and many other parts. 



Wallack 



118 



Wallack 



As a child James William was on the 
stage with other members of his father's 
family, at the Royal Circus, now the Surrey 
Theatre, in 1798, in the pantomime, and in 
1804 he played as ' a young Roscius ' at 
the German Theatre in Leicester Square, 
subsequently known as Dibdin's Sans Souci. 
Sheridan is said to have recommended him 
to Drury Lane, where his name as Master 
James Wallack appears in 1807 to Negro 
Boy in the pantomime of ' Furibond, or Har- 
lequin Negro.' On 10 Nov. 1808 he was, as 
Master Wallack, the first Egbert in Hooks's j 
' Siege of St. Quintin.' He then went for 
three years to Dublin, and on 10 Oct. 1812 
he was, at the newly erected buildings at 
Drury Lane, Laertes to Elliston's Hamlet. 
His name appears the following season to 
Charles Stanley in ' A Cure for the Heart- 
ache,' Cleveland in the ' School for Authors,' 
Sidney in ' Man of the World,' Dorewky, a 
chief of robbers, an original part in Brown's 
' Narensky, or the Road to Yaroslaf,' and he 
was the first Kaunitz in Arnold's ' Wood- 
man's Hut.' As Edward Lacey in ' Riches,' 
he supported Kean in his first engagement. 
He was the first Theodore in Arnold's ' Jean 
de Paris' on 1 Nov. 1814, and Alwyn in 
Mrs. Wilmot's ' Ina' on 22 April 1815, and 
played Malcolm in ' Macbeth,' Altamont in 
the ' Fair Penitent,' Plastic in ' Town and 
Country,' Aumerle in ' Richard II,' Captain 
Woodville in the ' Wheel of Fortune,' Frede- 
rick in the ' Jew,' and Bertrand in the ' Found- 
ling of the Forest,' in many of these parts 
supporting Kean. He was on 20 May the 
original Maclean in Joanna Baillie's 'Family 
Legend,' and played other original parts of 
little interest. While remaining at Drury j 
Lane he was seen as Colonel Lambert in j 
the ' Hypocrite,' Anhalt in ' Lovers' Vows,' 
Axalla in ' Tamerlane,' Loveless in ' Trip 
to Scarborough,' Tiberio in the ' Duke of 
Milan,' Wellbred in ' Every Man in his 
Humour,' Joseph in' School for Scandal,' 
Captain Absolute, Norfolk in ' Richard III,' 
Alcibiades in ' Timon of Athens,' lago, 
Lovewell in ' Clandestine Marriage,' Rugan- 
tino, Young Clifford in ' Richard, Duke of 
York, or the Contention between York and 
Lancaster,' compiled from the three parts of 
' Henry VI,' Don Lodowick in Penley's 
alteration of Marlowe's 'Jew of Malta,' 
Faulconbridge, Lysimachus in 'Alexander 
the Great,' and other parts. During his 
engagement, which seems to have finished 
in 1818, he played, among many other origi- 
nal characters, "Sedgemore in Tobin's 'Guar- 
dians,' 5 Nov. 1816; Torrismond in Ma- 
turin's 'Manuel,' 8 March 1817; Richard 
in Soane's ' Innkeeper's Daughter,' founded 



on ' Mary, the Maid of the Inn,' 7 April, 
and Dougal in Soane's ' Rob Roy the Gre- 
garach,' 23 March 1818. His chief success 
was as Wilford in the ' Iron Chest.' He 
also gave imitations. 

Wallack's debut on the American stage 
was made on 7 Sept. 1818 at the Park 
Theatre, New York, as Macbeth. He was 
seen in many important parts, and returned 
to London, reopening at Drury Lane on 
20 Nov. 1820 as Hamlet. He played Brutus 
in Payne's ' Brutus, or the Fall of Tarquin,' 
and in ' Julius Csesar ; ' Rolla in ' Pizarro,' 
in which he established his reputation ; Corio- 
lanus Montalto, an original part in ' Mon- 
talto,' 8 Jan. 1821 ; Richard III ; Israel 
Bertuccio at the first production of Byron's 
< Marino Faliero,' 25 April ; Artaxerxes, and 
Shylock ' after the manner of Kean ' in the 
trial scene from the ' Merchant of Venice.' 
He was seen also in one or two original 
parts. In June 1821 he incurred some re- 
sentment on the part of the audience on 
account of alleged disrespect to Queen Caro- 
line. His reception, except as Rolla, was 
cold, and he returned to America. Through 
an accident to a stage-coach he sustained a 
compound fracture of the leg, which laid him 
up for eighteen months and impaired his 
figure. Reappearing in New York in 1822, 
he played on crutches Captain Bertram, an 
old sailor, in Dibdin's ' Birthday,' then, as 
Dick Dashall, dispensed with their aid. On 
14 July 1823 he was, at the English Opera 
House (Lyceum), Roderick Dhu in the 
' Knight of Snowdon ; ' on the 28th he was 
the Student in ' Presumption, or the Fate of 
Frankenstein.' As Falkland in the ' Rivals ' 
he reappeared at Drury Lane in the autumn 
of 1823 with the added duties of stage- 
manager, a post he retained for many years. 
He supported Macready and Kean in many 
parts, and played others, including Icilius, 
Ghost in ' Hamlet,' Macduff, Florizel, Hast- 
ings in ' Jane Shore,' Ford, Edgar, Charalois 
in Massinger's ' Fatal Dowry,' Henri Quatre, 
Valentine in ' Love for Love,' Romeo, Charles 
Surface, Rob Roy, Mortimer, Don Felix in 
the ' Wonder,' Young Norval, Petruchio, 
and Doricourt. He was the original Earl 
of Leicester in ' Kenilworth,' 5 Jan. 1824 ; 
Count Manfred in ' Massaniello,' 17 Feb. 1 825 ; 
Richard Coeur de Lion in ' Knights of the 
Cross,' an adaptation of the ' Talisman,' Ales- 
sandro Massaroni in the ' Brigand,' adapted 
by Planch from ' Scribe,' 18 Nov. 1829; and 
Martin Heywood in Jerrold's 'Rent Day,' 
25 Jan. 1832. 

In 1832 Wallack went once more to Ame- 
rica, and in 1837 was manager of the National 
Theatre, New York. On 31 Aug. 1840 he 



Wallack 



119 



Wallensis 



reappeared in London at the Haymarket, 
where he seems to have been stage-manager, 
as Don Felix in the ' Wonder,' and on 1 1 Sept. 
played Young Dornton in the ' Road to Ruin ' 
to the Dorntou of Phelps. He then went to 
Dublin, which place he had previously visited 
in or near 1826, and played Martin Hey- 
wood. In 1841 he was again at the Hay- 
market, then for the fifth time crossed to 
America, having suffered severe loss by the 
burning of the National Theatre. On 8 Oct. 
1844, in Don Caesar de Bazan, adapted by 
Gilbert a Beckett and Mark Lemon, he rose 
at the Princess's in London to the height of 
his popularity. In September 1845 he was 
back at the Park Theatre, New York. From 
this time he remained in America, acting in 
Philadelphia, New Orleans, and elsewhere, 
and spending much time at ' the Hut,' a 
prettily situated seat at Long Branch, where 
he exercised a liberal hospitality. In Sep- 
tember 18-52 he assumed control of Brougham's 
Lyceum on Broadway, which he renamed 
Wallack's Theatre, and in 1861 built the 
second Wallack's Theatre on Broadway at 
Thirteenth Street. He suffered severely from 
gout, and died on 25 Dec. 1864. He eloped 
with and married in 1817 a daughter of John 
Henry Johnstone [q. v.] ; she predeceased 
him, dying in London in 1851. 

Wallack belonged to the school of Kemble, 
whom, according to Talfourd, he imitated, 
copying much ' of his dignity of movement 
and majesty of action.' He had, however, 
little fervid enthusiasm or touching pathos. 
Joseph Jefterson praises his Alessandro, Mas- 
saroni, and Don Caesar de Bazan. Thackeray j 
when in New York on his last visit was j 
much taken with his Shy lock. The ' Drama- | 
tic and Musical Review ' speaks of him as the 
' king of melodrama,' and praises highly his 
Joseph Surface, Charles Surface, Captain Ab- j 
solute, Tom Shutfleton, Wilford, Martin Hey- 
wood, and Alessandro Massaroni. Macready 
praises his Charalois, and he delighted Fanny 
Kemble in the ' Rent Day.' Oxberry declares 
that he was indifferent in tragedy, admirable 
in melodrama, and always pleasing and de- 
lightful in light comedy, in which, however, 
the spectator was always sensible of a hidden 
want. 

Portraits of him in the Garrick Club, not 
forming part of the Mathews collection, show 
him a dark, handsome man. A portrait of 
him as Ford accompanies a memoir in the 
* Theatrical Times,' vol. i. ; one as Alessandro 
Massaroni, a second memoir in the ' Dra- 
matic Magazine ; ' and a third as Charalois 
is given in Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography.' 
Sketches of him in character by Millais are 
in existence in America, and are reproduced 



with other portraits in his son's ' Memories 
of Fifty Years ' (1889). 

His son, JOHN JOHNSTONE WALLACE (1819- 
1888), known to the public as LESTER WAL- 
LACE, was born in New York on 31 Dec. 1819, 
and played with his father in Bath and else- 
where. His first appearance was as Angelo 
in 'Tortesa the Usurer,' by N. P. Willis. 
He was for some time at the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, and played Benedick to the Rosa- 
lind of Helen Faucit in Manchester. His 
first appearance in London was at the Hay- 
market, in a piece called ' The Little Devil.' 
On 27 Sept. 1847, as Sir Charles Coldstream 
in 'Used up,' he opened at the Broadway 
Theatre, New York. His career belongs to 
America, where he played a great number of 
parts, principally in light comedy, including 
Doricourt, Rover, Claude Melnotte, Wild- 
rake, Bassanio, Captain Absolute, and Sir 
Benjamin Backbite. He married a sister of 
Sir John Everett Millais, and died near 
Stamford, Connecticut, on 6 Sept. 1888. A 
year later there was published posthumously 
in New York his ' Memories of Fifty Years,' 
which gives details of his American career. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; 
Dramatic Mag. ; Oxberry's Dramatic Biography ; 
Theatrical/Times; Era newspaper, 15 Jan. 1865; 
Dramatic and Musical Keview, vol. viii. ; Era 
Almanack, various years; Clark Russell's Re- 
presentative Actors ; Macready's Reminiscences ; 
Scott and Howard's Blanchard ; Thespian Mag. ; 
New Monthly Mag. various years ; Dibdin's 
Edinburgh Theatre; Forster and Lewis's Dra- 
matic Essays; Gent. Mag. 1865, i. 387; Lester 
Wallack's Memories of Fifty Years ; Autobio- 
graphy of Joseph Jefferson.] J. K. 

WALLENSIS, WALENSIS, or GA- 
LENSIS, JOHN (ft. 1215), canon lawyer, 
was of Welsh origin. He taught at Bologna, 
and wrote glosses, but no formal apparatus, 
on the ' Compilatio Prima' and 'Compilatio 
Secunda.' On the 'Compilatio Tertia' he 
made a formal apparatus, of which there are 
several manuscripts. The glosses fall be- 
tween 1212 and 1216, for they were used by 
Tancred. Owing to a misreading, John has 
been styled of Volterra, and he has been 
further confounded with John Wallensis 
(fi. 1283) [q.v.], the Minorite. 

[Schulte'sGeschichte des canonischen Rechts, 
p. 189.] M. B. 

WALLENSIS or WALEYS, JOHN (ft. 
1283), Franciscan, is described as 'of Wor- 
cester ' in a manuscript of his ' Summa 
Collectionum ' at Peterhouse, No. 18, 1. He 
was B.D. of Oxford before he entered the 
order. He became D.D. and regent master 
of the Franciscan schools of Oxford before 



Wallensis 



120 



Wallensis 



1260. Subsequently he taught in Paris, and 
is said to have been known there as ' Arbor 
Vitse.' In October 1282 he was again in 
England, and was sent by Archbishop 
Peckham as ambassador to the insurgent 
Welsh. He was one of the five doctors de- 
puted at Paris in 1283 to examine the 
doctrines of Peter John Olivi. He was 
buried at Paris. 

Wallensis was a theologian of high repute 
and a voluminous author ; his popularity is 
proved by the numerous extant copies of 
his writings, as well as by the frequency 
with which they were reprinted at the end 
of the fifteenth and beginning of the six- 
teenth centuries. A detailed bibliography 
is given in Mr. A. G. Little's ' Grey Friars 
in Oxford,' pp. 144-51. The following is a 
list of the works written by or attributed 
to him : 1. ' Summa de Penitentia,' found in 
four manuscripts. 2. ' Breviloquium de 
Quatuor Virtutibus Cardinalibus,' or 'De 
Virtutibus Antiquorum Principum et Philo- 
sophorum,' in four or five parts. It is found 
in many manuscripts and has been printed 
in four early editions. In one manuscript 
it is stated to have been composed at the 
request of the bishop of Maguelonne (Mon t- 
pellier). 3. ' Breviloquium de Sapientia 
Sanctorum,' in eight chapters, supplementary 
to and printed with the above. 4. ' Ordi- 
narium,' or ' Alphabetum Vitse Religiosse,' 
in three parts, (1) Dietarium, (2) Locarium, 
(3) Itinerarium, in seven manuscripts and 
three printed editions. 5. 'Communiloquium,' 
or ' Summa Collectionum ' or ' Collationum 
ad omne genus Hominum,' or ' De Yitae Regi- 
mine,' or ' Margarita Doctorum,' or ' Com- 
munes Loci ad omnium generum Argumenta,' 
a compendium for the use of young preachers. 
This is the ' Summa ' (' de Republica ' added 
in the table of contents) in the Cambridge 
University Library, Kk II, 11. There are 
six early printed editions. 6. ' Floriloquium 
Philosophorum,' or ' Floriloquium sive Com- 
pendium de Vita et Dictis illustrium Philo- 
sophorum,' or ' De Philosophorum Dictis, 
Exemplis, et Vitis,' ten parts, in six manu- 
scripts and three printed editions. 7. ' Moni- 
loquium vel Collectiloquium,' a work in four 
parts ' de Viciis et Virtutibus ' for young 
preachers, called also ' De Quatuor Predica- 
bilibus,' in five manuscripts ; not printed ; 
ascribed by Cave to Thomas Jorz [q. v.], 
who was also called Thomas Wallensis. 
8. ' Legiloquium sive liber de decem Precep- 
tis,' or ' Summa de Preceptis,' in seven manu- 
scripts, some extracts printed by Charma, 
'Notice sur un manuscrit de Falaise,' 
1851. 9. ' Summa lustitiae,' or'Tractatus 
de septem Vitiis ex [Gul. Alverno] Pari- 



siensi,' ten parts, in two manuscripts, and 
in another form in the Exeter College MS. 
7, 4. 10. ' Manipulus Florum,' begun by 
John Waleys, finished by Thomas Hiberni- 
cus [q. v.], consisting of extracts from the 
fathers in alphabetical order, found in 
numerous manuscripts, and twice printed. 
11. ' Commentaries on the Books of the Old 
Testament, Exodus to Ruth, and Eccle- 
siastes to Isaiah.' Leland saw these at 
Christ Church (Collect, iii. 10), and in Bod- 
leian Laud. Misc. 345 there is such a collec- 
tion ascribed to John. In the catalogue of 
Syon monastery they are ascribed to Waleys, 
with many of the works named above. 12. 'In 
Mythologicon Fulgentii.' This commentary 
was seen by Leland in the library of the 
Franciscans at Reading (Collect, iii. 57). It 
is found in two manuscripts bound with 
other works of Waleys, but it may be by 
John de Ridevall [q.v.] 13. The ' Expositio 
Wallensis super Valerium ad Rufinum de 
non ducenda LTxore,' seen by Leland in the 
Franciscans' Library, London, may be Ride- 
vall's. 14. Boston of Bury (T'ANXEB, p. 
xxxiii) and the Syon catalogue ascribe to 
him a work ' De Cura Pastorali.' The work 
was in Ilarleian MS. 632, f. 261, but is now 
missing. 15. Boston of Bury and the Syon 
catalogue ascribe to him a work ' De Oculo 
Morali.' This was printed as Peckham's 
(called Pithsanus) at Augsburg, 1475. It 
has been ascribed also to Grosseteste, and 
with more reason to Peter of Limoges (HATT- 
EKATJ, Noticeset Ext raits, vi. 134). 16. Fabri- 
cius ascribes to him without authority the 
' De Origine, Progressu et Fine Mahumeti r ' 
Strasburg, 1 550, of which no manuscript is 
known. 17. The work ' In Fabulas Ovidii,' 
or ' Expositiones seu Moralitates in lib. i. (?) 
Metamorphoseon sive Fabularum,' ascribed 
to J. Wallensis by Leland, and to Wallensis 
or Johannes Grammaticus by Tanner, and 
printed as the work of Thomas Wallensis (d. 
1350 ?) [q. v.], has been shown by M. Hau- 
reau to be by Peter Berchorius (Mem. de 
I'Acad. des Inscript. xxx. 45-55). 18. ' Ser- 
mones de Tempore et de Sanctis,' also an 
' Expositio super Pater Xoster,' are found in 
conjunction with his works, and may be by 
him. 19. The ' Postilla et Collationes super 
Johannem,' printed among Bonaventura's 
works, 1589, have been ascribed to Waleys, to 
Jorz (OTTDLN, vol. iii. col. 49), and to Thomas 
Wallensis. 20. Leland ascribes to him also 
a ' Summa Confessorum,' which is John of 
Freiburg's ; a ' De Visitatione Infirmorum,' 
probably Augustine's, and a part of the 
' Ordinarium,' described by him as a separate 
work. Other titles given by Boston of Bury 
may be derived from the ' Breviloquium.' 



Wallensis 



121 



Wallensis 



[Little's Grey Friars in Oxford, pp. 144-51 ; 
Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 434 ; Cat. Hoyal MSS. 
Brit. Mus. ; Bateson's Catalogue of Svon Monas- 
tery. Bale in his Notebook (Selden MS. 64 B) 
distinguishes John Gualensis, Minorite of Worces- 
ter and doctor of Paris, author of the De Cura 
Pastorali, as 'junior.'] M. B. 

WALLENSIS or GUALENSIS, THO- 
MAS (d. 1255), bishop of St. David's, was 
of Welsh origin. He was a canon of Lin- 
coln in 1235, when lie witnessed a charter 
of Grosseteste's to the hospital of St. John, 
Leicester (NICHOLS, Leicestershire, II. ii. 
324). He was a regent master in theology 
at Paris in 1238, when Grosseteste offered 
him the archdeaconry of Lincoln with a pre- 
bend, writing that he prefers his claims above 
all others although he is still young (Giios- 
SETESTE, Letters, p. li). In 1243 he took an 
active part in the dispute which arose be- 
tween Grosseteste and the abbot of Bardney. 
Matthew Paris ascribes the origin of the 
suit against the abbot to the archdeacon 
(Chron. Maj. iv. 246). He was elected to 
the poor bishopric of St. David's on 16 July 
1247, and accepted it at Grosseteste's urging, 
and out of love for his native land. He 
was consecrated on 26 July 1248 at Canter- 
bury. He was present at the parliament in 
London, Easter 1253, and joined in excom- 
municating all violators of Magna Carta. 
He died on 11 July 1255. 

[Grosseteste's Letters, pp. 64, 245, 283 ; Matt. 
Paris's Cbron. Maj. iv. 246, 647, v. 373, 535 ; 
Denifle's Cart. Univ. Paris, i. 170; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 292, ii. 43.] M. B. 

WALLENSIS, THOMAS (d. 1310), 
cardinal. [See JOKZ.] 

WALLENSIS or WALEYS, THOMAS 
(d. 1350 ?), Dominican, presumably a Welsh- 
man, was educated at Oxford and Paris, 
and took the degree of master of theology. 
On 4 Jan. 1333 he asserted before the cardi- 
nals at Avignon the doctrine of the saints' 
immediate vision of God, against which John 
XXII had recently pronounced. He was 
charged with heresy on 9 Jan. before Wil- 
liam de Monte Rotundo, on the evidence of 
Walter of Chatton, both Franciscans. He 
was sent to the inquisitors' prison by 14 Feb., 
and about 22 Oct. was moved to the prison 
of the papal lodging, where he was confined 
in all about seventeen months. A long 
correspondence took place between the pope 
and Philip VI and the university of Paris 
on the subject of his trial. He was ulti- 
mately released through French influence, 
and the pope accepted the doctrine of the 
immediate vision. There is a full account 
of the trial in the University Library, Cam- 



bridge, Ii. iii. 10, which contains a copy of 
Thomas's sermon. In the ' Calendar of Papal 
Petitions ' (ed. Bliss, i. 146) he describes 
himself in 1349 as old, paralysed, and de- 
stitute. His petition on behalf of his one 
friend, Lambert of Poulsholt, who will pro- 
vide him with necessaries, for the parish 
church of Bishopt on, Wiltshire, was granted. 
The following is a list of the works written 
by or attributed to him: 1. The epistle or 
tractate ' De Instantibus et Momentis ' (Ii. 
iii. if. 40-8) and ' Ilesponsiones ' to certain 
articles objected against him. 2. His 'De 
Modo Componendi Sermones,' or ' De Arte 
Predicandi,' of which there are many manu- 
scripts, is addressed to Theobald de Ursinis, 
or Cursinis, bishop of Palermo, 1338-50. 
3. His ' Campus Florum,' beginning ' Fulcite 
me floribus,' consisting of short tracts from 
the fathers and canonists, alphabetically ar- 
ranged, was sent by him to Theobald for 
correction. There is a copy at Peterhouse, 
No. 86. Leland ascribes to him a work of 
the same name, an English-Latin dictionary, 
which he saw at the Oxford public library, 
beginning ' Disciplina deditus apud Miram 
vallem.' There was probably a copy of the 
same, called ' Campeflour,' at Syon monas- 
tery, and Bale knew of one at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, now lost. The ' Prompto- 
rium Parvulorum ' (ed. Way) contains fre- 
quent references to this lost work. 4. Com- 
mentaries on the Books of the Old Testa- 
ment, Exodus to Ivuth, Avith Isaiah. Leland 
gives the incipits of those which he saw at 
Wardon Abbey, Bedfordshire (Collect, iii. 
12), and they are found in the Merton Col- 
lege MS. 196. A closely similar set of com- 
mentaries is ascribed to John Wallensis or 
Waleys [q. v.] 5. Bale also ascribes to 
Thomas ' De Natura Bestiarum,' a table of 
beasts or book of the natures of animals, 
Avhich precedes the 'Commentaries' in the 
Merton manuscript. 6. Quet if gives reasons 
for assigning to Waleys a Commentary on the 
first thirty-eight Psalms printed at Venice, 
1611, as the work of Thomas Jorz [q. v.] (a 
Dominican who is also called Thomas Angli- 
cus and Thomas Wallensis) ; Quetif also as- 
signs to him ' Super duosNocturnos Psalmos,' 
which Quetif saw dated 1346 in a Belgian 
manuscript. 7. The commentary on the'De 
Civitate Dei,' printed as the joint work of 
Trivet and Thomas Anglicus (i.e. Jorz) at 
Toulouse, 1488, and elsewhere, is probably 
by Waleys and not by Jorz. 8. Oudin (vol. 
iii. col. 687) ascribes to him ' Adversus Ico- 
noclastes, de formis Veterum Deorum,' and 
' Tract atus de Figuris Deorum,' in the Paris 
MS. 5224. 9. The < Super Boethium de Con- 
solatione Philosophic' and the 'De Concep- 



Waller 



122 



Waller 



tione Beate Virgiuis,' both printed among 
the works of Aquinas, cannot be definitely 
assigned to either Waleys or Jorz. 10. A 
commentary on St. Matthew, beginning 'Tria 
insinuantur,' which Leland saw at the Fran- 
ciscans' Library, London (Collect, iii. 50), 
and ascribed to Waleys. 

[Denifle's Cart. Univ. Paris, ii. 414-42, con- 
tains the papal correspondence on the subject of 
Waleys's heresy; Leland's Comm. de Script. 
Brit. pp. 307, 333 ; Bateson's Syon Catalogue. 
Quetif and Echard's Script. Ord. Predic. i. 597, 
attempts to distinguish the works of T. Waleys 
from those of the Dominican Thomas Jorz, called 
also Anglicus and Waleys. Oudin inclines to 
attribute all the Scripture commentaries found 
under the name of T. Waleys to Jorz.] M. B. 

WALLER, AUGUSTUS VOLNEY 
(1816-1870), physiologist, son of William 
Waller of Elverton Farm, near Faversham, 
Kent, was born on 21 Dec. 1816. His youth 
was spent at Nice, where his father died in 
1830. Waller was then sent back to Eng- 
land, where he lived, first with Dr. Lacon 
Lambe of Tewkesbury, and afterwards with 
William Lambe (1765-1847) [q. v.], the 
vegetarian. His father sharing Lambe's 
views, Augustus was brought up until the 
age of eighteen upon a purely vegetarian 
diet. Waller studied in Paris, where he 
obtained the degree of M.D. in 1840, and 
in the following year he was admitted a 
licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries 
in London. He then entered upon general 
medical practice at St. Mary Abbott's Ter- 
race, Kensington. He soon acquired a con- 
siderable practice, but he was irresistibly 
drawn to scientific investigation, and, after 
the publication of two papers in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' for 1849 and 1850, 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1851. He relinquished his practice in 
this year, and left England to live at Bonn 
to obtain more favourable opportunities for 
carrying out his scientific work. Here he 
became associated with Professor Budge, 
and published three important papers in the 
' Comptes Rendus ' for 1851 and 1852, upon 
subjects of physiological interest. For these 
papers he was awarded the Monthyon prize j 
of the French academy of sciences for 1852, 
and for further work this prize was given to 
him a second time in 185(5. The president 
and council of the Royal Society also 
awarded him one of their royal medals in 
1860 in recognition of the importance of his 
physiological methods and researches. 

Waller left Bonn in 1856, and went to 
Paris to continue his work in Flourens's 
laboratory at the Jardin des Plantes ; but he 
soon contracted some form of low fever, 



which left him an invalid for the next two 
years. He accordingly returned to England, 
and, his health improving, he accepted in 
1858 the appointment of professor of 
physiology in Queen's College, Birmingham, 
and the post of physician to the hospital. 
These appointments he did not long retain. 
Threatenings of the heart affection which 
eventually proved fatal led him to seek 
rest, and, after staying two years longer in 
England, he retired first to Bruges and after- 
wards to Switzerland. With renewed pro- 
mise of health and activity, he took up his 
abode at Geneva in 1868, with the purpose 
of practising as a physician, and he was 
almost immediately elected a member of the 
Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle 
in that town. He paid a short visit to Lon- 
don in the spring of 1879 to deliver the 
Croonian lecture before the Royal Society, 
and he afterwards returned to Geneva, 
where he died suddenly of angina pectoris 
on 18 Sept. 1870. He married, in 1842, 
Matilda, only daughter of John Walls of 
North End, Fulham, and by her had one 
son, Augustus Waller, M.D., F.R.S., the 
physiologist, and two daughters. 

Waller was endowed with a remarkable 
aptitude fororiginal investigation. Quick to 
perceive new and promising lines of research, 
and happy in devising processes for follow- 
ing them out, he possessed consummate 
skill and address in experimental work. His 
discoveries in connection with the nervous 
system constitute his most conspicuous 
claim to distinction, and the fields he first 
traversed have proA r ed fruitful beyond ima- 
gination, for they have led directly to nearly 
all that we know experimentally of the 
functions of the nervous system. His 
demonstration of the cilio-spinal centre in 
the spinal cord and of the vaso-constrictor 
action of the sympathetic has withstood 
the test of time, while his name will long 
be associated with the degeneration method 
of studying the paths of nerve impulses, 
for he invented it. He did not confine 
himself to a consideration of the nervous 
system, however, for he practically re- 
discovered the power which the white 
blood corpuscles possess of escaping from 
the smallest blood-vessels, while some of 
his earlier work was concerned with purely 
physical problems. 

Waller's papers are widely scattered, and 
have never been collected. The most im- 
portant are to be found in the 'Comptes 
Rendus,' in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' 
and in the 'Philosophical Transactions.' 
The ' Wallerian Degeneration ' is described 
in the ' Comptes Rendus,' 1 Dec. 1851. The 



Waller 



123 



Waller 



demonstration of the cilio-spinal centre was 
the result of work done jointly with 
Professor Budge, and is described in the 
' Comptes Rendus ' for October 1851. The 
function of the ganglion on the posterior 
root of each spinal nerve is published in the 
Comptes Rendus' (xxxv. 524). 'The 
Microscopic Observations on the Perfora- 
tion of the Capillaries by the Corpuscles of 
the Blood, and on the Origin of Mucus and 
Pus,' appeared in the ' Philosophical Maga- 
zine' for November 1846, while the 
' Microscopic Investigations on Hail ' were 
printed in the same journal for July and 
August 1846 and March 1847. 

[Obituary notices in the Proc. Eoyal Soc. 
1871, xx. 20, and in the Memoires de la Soc. de 
Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve, 
tome xxi., premiere partie, 1871 ; additional in- 
formation given by his son, Augustus Waller, 
M.D., F.R.S.] D'A. P. 

WALLER, EDMUND (1606-1687), 
poet, the eldest son of Robert Waller and 
Anne, daughter of Griffith Hampden, was 
born on 3 March 1606 at the Manor-house, 
Coleshill, since 1832 included in Bucking- 
hamshire, but then in Hertfordshire. Like 
his contemporaries, Sir Hardress Waller 
[q.v.] and Sir William Waller [q.v.], he was 
descended from Richard Waller [q. v.] He 
was baptised on 9 March 1606 at Amersham 
(Amersham Parish Register}, but his father 
seems early in his life to have sold his pro- 
perty at Coleshill, and to have gone to 
Beaconsfield, with which place the name of 
Waller will always be connected. ' He was 
bred under several ill, dull, and ignorant 
schoolmasters, till he went to Mr. Dobson 
at Wickham, who was a good schoolmaster, 
and had been an Eaton schollar ' (AUBREY, 
Brief Lives). His father died on 26 Aug. 
1616, leaving the care of the future poet's 
education to his mother, who sent him to 
Eton, and thence to Cambridge, where he 
was admitted a fellow-commoner of King's 
College, 22 March 1620. He had there for 
his tutor a relative who is said to have been 
a very learned man, but there is no record 
of Waller having taken a degree, and on 
3 July 1622 he was admitted a member 
of Lincoln's Inn (Lincoln's Inn Admission 
Register). 

He was, says Clarendon, ' nursed in par- 
liaments,' and, according to his own statement, 
he was but sixteen when he first sat in the 
house. The inscription on his monument 
mentions Agmondesham or Amersham as 
his first constituency ; but there is some 
difficulty with regard to this, as the right of 
Amersham to return members was in abey- 
ance till the last parliament of James I 



(12 Feb. 1624), and it has been suggested 
that Waller was permitted to sit for the 
borough in the parliament which met on 
16 Jan. 1621, without the privilege of taking 
part in the debates. In the parliament 
which was dissolved by the death of James I 
he sat for Ilchester, a seat which he obtained 
by the resignation of Nathaniel Tomkins, 
who had married his sister Cecilia ; he sat 
for Chipping Wycombe in the first parlia- 
ment of Charles I, and represented Amers- 
ham in the third and fourth. Waller ap- 
pears to have first attracted the attention of 
the court by securing the hand and fortune 
of Anne, the only daughter and heiress of 
one John Banks, a citizen and mercer, who 
died on 9 Sept. 1630. The marriage was 
celebrated at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
5 July 1631. The lady was at the time a 
ward of the court of aldermen, and it was 
only after some difficulty and the payment 
of a fine out of her portion that the direct 
influence of the king enabled the poet to 
purge his offence in having carried off the 
lady without the consent of her guardians. 
After his marriage Waller appears to have 
retired with his wife to his house at Beacons- 
field. His father left him a considerable 
fortune, and this together with the sum, said 
to have been about 8,000/., which he re- 
ceived with his wife, probably made him, 
with the exception of Rogers, the richest 
poet known to English literature. His eldest 
son, Robert, born at Beaconsfield on 18 May 
1633, had Thomas Hobbes for his tutor, and 
was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn, 
15 June 1648, but does not appear, however, 
to have reached manhood. Mrs. Waller 
died in giving birth to a daughter who was 
baptised on 23 Oct. 1634. After her death 
the poet is said to have taken George Morley 
[q. v.], afterwards bishop of Winchester, to 
live with him, and under his influence to 
have devoted himself more closely to letters. 
By him Waller is said by Clarendon to have 
been introduced to the ' Club ' which gathered 
round Lucius Carey, lord Falkland, and it is 
probable that it was from the members of 
this society that he received his first recog- 
nition as a poet. In or about the end of 
1635 his name first became connected with 
that of the lady whom he has immortalised 
as Sacharissa [see SPENCER, DOROTHY, COUN- 
TESS OF SUNDERLAND], a name formed, ' as 
he used to say pleasantly,' from saccharum, 
sugar. The lady appears to have treated his 
suit with indifference, and the very elabo- 
rate letter which he wrote upon the occa- 
sion of her marriage affords no evidence of 
passion on his side, in spite of Aubrey's 
village gossip to the contrary. 



Waller 



124 



Waller 



A cousin of John Hampden, and by mar- 
riage a connection of Cromwell, Waller's 
sympathies appear, in the early stages of the 
conflict between the king and the commons, 
to have been enlisted on the popular side. 
But he was at heart a courtier, and had in 
reality no very deep political convictions. 
He had a natural dislike to innovations, and, 
as he himself afterwards said, he looked 
upon things with ' a carnal eye,' and only 
desired to be allowed to enjoy his considera- 
ble wealth and popularity in peace. He 
was extremely vain, and he saw in the 
House of Commons a convenient theatre for 
the exercise of his remarkable eloquence. 
On 22 April 1640 he made his first great 
speech, on the question of supply. This has 
been characterised by Johnson as ' one of 
those noisy speeches which disaffection and 
discontent regularly dictate ; a speech filled 
with hyperbolical complaints of imaginary 
grievances.' He expressed throughout the 
utmost respect for the person and character 
of the king, and the complaints were no 
more hyperbolical than the grievances were 
imaginary. 

In the Long parliament which met on 
3 Nov. 1640 Waller was returned for St. 
Ives. In the attack on the Earl of Strafford 
he abandoned the party of Pym, and in the 
debate upon the ecclesiastical petitions, Fe- 
bruary 1641, he gave further evidence of his 
sympathy with the moderate party. He 
spoke against the abolition of episcopacy in 
terms which have been praised by Johnson 
as cool, firm, and reasonable ; though, in 
fact, the tone of his speech is absolutely con- 
sistent with that which he had delivered 
upon the question of supply. Both are cha- 
racterised by the same dislike of innovation 
which was, as far as circumstances allowed, 
the one permanent article of his political 
creed. 

Waller's relationship to Hampden pro- 
bably suggested him as a suitable person to 
carry up to the House of Lords the articles of 
impeachment against Sir Francis Crawley 
[q.v.] His speech in presenting the charge was 
delivered at a conference of both houses in 
the painted chamber on 6 July 1641 . It was 
filled with classical and biblical quotations, 
and can hardly be considered a success as a 
piece of oratory ; it was, however, immensely 
popular among the poet's contemporaries, 
and twenty thousand copies of it are said to 
have been sold in one day. There is no re- 
cord at length of Waller's speeches made 
during the remainder of the first half of his 
parliamentary career, but his occasional in- 
terferences in the debates were in the inte- 
rests of the king and his supporters. Cla- 



rendon's charge that he returned to the 
house after the raising of the royal standard 
in the character of a spy for the king is dis- 
tinctly contradicted by his own statement 
communicated by his son-in-law, Dr. Birch, 
to the writer of the ' Life ' prefixed to the 
edition of his poems of 1711 ; and in any case 
it cannot be correct as to date, for he was 
certainly in his place in the commons on 
9 July, when he opposed the proposition that 
parliament should raise an army of ten thou- 
sand men. He is said to have sent the king 
a thousand broad pieces. He was impatient, 
as he said, of the inconvenience of the war, 
and no doubt desired its termination by the 
success of the king rather than that of the 
other side. Failing this, he was in favour 
of negotiation ; and when, on 29 Oct. 1642, 
the lords made a proposition to this end, he 
urged the commons to join them. 

In February 1643 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat with the king. 
His gracious reception by Charles at Oxford 
is thought to have confirmed him in the 
royal interest, but it is probable that the 
king was merely acknowledging his open 
services in the House of Commons. There 
can, however, be little doubt that it was 
during the poet's stay at Oxford that the 
design afterwards known as ' Waller's plot ' 
was conceived. He was probably speaking 
the truth when he said of the enterprise 
that he ' made not this business but found 
it ; ' but on his return he became the channel 
through which the adherents of the king at 
Oxford communicated with those who were 
thought likely to be well disposed towards 
them in London. The object of the plot 
was to secure the city for the king; it was 
intended to seize upon the defences, the 
magazines, and the Tower, from which the 
Earl of Bath was to be liberated by the con- 
spirators and made their general. They pro- 
posed to secure the two children of the king 
and some of his principal opponents, while 
Charles himself, having been warned of the 
day, and, if possible, of the hour of the rising, 
was to be with a force of three thousand 
men within fifteen miles of the walls. 

An attempt has been made to distinguish 
Waller's plot from another design, said to 
have been set on foot about the same time 
by Sir Nicholas Crisp [q. v.] The latter is 
credited with having intended to capture 
London by force of arms, while the poet's 
idea was merely to render the continuance 
of the war impossible by raising up in the 
city a peace party strong enough to defy the 
house. Though Waller himself would no 
doubt have preferred that there should be 
no resort to arms, there was but one plot. 



Waller 



125 



Waller 



A commission of array, dated 16 March, and 
having attached to it the great seal, was 
brought to London by Lady d'Aubigny. She 
arrived on 19 May, having travelled from 
Oxford in company with Alexander Hamp- 
den, who came to demand from the parlia- 
ment an answer to the king's message of 
12 April. The commission was directed to 
Sir Nicholas Crisp and others, and even- 
tually reached the hands of Richard Cha- 
loner, a wealthy linendraper. Waller him- 
self was answerable for introducing to the 
plot this man Chaloner, and also his own 
brother-in-law, Nathaniel Tomkins. The 
poet at this time lived at the lower end of 
Holborn, near Hatton House, while Toin- 
kins's house was at the Holborn end of 
Fetter Lane. Meetings were held from 
time to time at one or other of these places, 
and reports made upon the disposition of the 
people of the various parishes in which the 
conspirators lived. One Hassell, a king's 
messenger, and Alexander Elampden were 
continually carrying messages between the 
conspirators and Falkland in Oxford; and on 
29 May matters were considered to be in 
such a satisfactory state that the first of 
these was sent off to Oxford and returned 
with a verbal answer begging the con- 
spirators to hasten the execution of their 
enterprise. 

The discovery of the plot has been 
assigned to various causes : a letter written 
by the Earl of Dover to his wife had fallen 
into the hands of the committee, and Lord 
Denbigh had also told them of hints he had 
received ; but it was probably upon the in- 
formation of one Roe, a clerk of Tomkins, 
who had been bribed by the Earl of Man- 
chester and Lord Saye, that Waller, Cha- 
loner, Tomkins, and others were on 31 May 
arrested. 

The character of W T aller has suffered 
severely by reason of his conduct immediately 
after his arrest. Promises were no doubt 
made to him, and, in the hope of saving his 
life, he disclosed all that he knew about the 
design. He charged the Earl of Northum- 
berland, the Earl of Portland, and Lord 
Conway with complicity in it ; the first of 
these made light of the charge, and upon 
being confronted with his accuser was im- 
mediately set at liberty. The two other 
peers, after being detained in custody until 
31 July, were then admitted to bail and 
heard no more of the matter, although no 
one who has read the letter which the poet 
wrote to Portland (SA.NDFORD, Illustrations, 
p. 563) can have any doubt of the latter's 

uilt. Chaloner and Tomkins were tried on 
July by a court presided over by the Earl 



of Manchester, and, having been convicted 
and sentenced to death, were two days after- 
wards hanged in front of their own doors. 
The trial of Waller was postponed, but this 
is to be attributed rather to the disinclina- 
tion of the house to proceed by martial law 
against one of its own members than to any 
consideration for the prisoner himself. Cla- 
rendon's suggestion that the delay was 
allowed ' out of Christian compassion that 
he might recover his understanding ' can 
have little weight in face of the fact that on 
4 July, on being brought to the bar of the 
house to say what he could for himself be- 
fore he was expelled from it, the poet was 
able to deliver a speech which, in the opinion 
even of Clarendon himself, was the means 
of saving his life. On 14 July he was by 
resolution declared incapable of ever sitting 
as a member of parliament again. In or 
about September he was removed to the 
Tower, where he lay until the beginning of 
November in the following year. On 15 May 
1644 a petition from him was read in the 
house this was probably a request that he 
might be permitted to put his affairs in 
order and on 23 Sept. came another, begging 
the house to hold his life precious and to 
accept a fine of 10,000/. out of his estate. 
Before his last petition was read an intima- 
tion had no doubt been given to Waller that 
his life was safe. Cromwell is said to have 
interested himself on his behalf, and large 
sums are reported to have been expended in 
bribery. There are, however, no traces 
among the papers in the possession of his 
family of any extensive dealing with his 
estate except for the purpose of raising the 
amount of his fine after his safety was 
assured. On 4 Nov. 'An Ordinance of Lords 
and Commons for the fining and banish- 
ment of Edmond Waller, Esquire,' was 
agreed to in the House of Lords. This de- 
clared that whereas it had been intended that 
Waller should be tried by court-martial, it 
had, upon further consideration, been 
' thought convenient ' that he should be 
fined 10,000/. and banished the realm. 
Twenty-eight days from 6 Nov. were 
allowed him within which to remove else- 
where. 

It seems likely that before his departure 
he married, as his second wife, Mary Bracey, 
of the family of that name, of Thame in 
Oxfordshire. He spent the time of his exile 
at various places in France, having among 
his companions or correspondents John 
Evelyn and Thomas Hobbes. His mother 
looked after his affairs in England and sent 
him supplies, which enabled him to be men- 
tioned with Lord Jermyn as the only per- 



Waller 



126 



Waller 



sons among the exiles able ' to keep a table ' 
in Paris. On 27 Nov. 1651 the House of 
Commons, after hearing a petition from 
him, revoked his sentence of banishment 
and ordered a pardon under the great seal to 
be prepared for him. Here, again, the in- 
fluence of Cromwell, moved by the interces- 
sion of Colonel Adrian Scrope [q. v.], who 
had married Waller's sister Mary, is said to 
have been at work. Nothing, beyond his 
appointment as one of the commissioners for 
trade in December 1655, is known of the 
poet's life between the date of his return 
and the Restoration, when, in spite of his 
previous vacillations, he resumed his political 
career. 

In May 1661 he was elected for Hastings, 
and remained a member of the house down 
to the time of his death. The only matter 
of importance in which he was directly en- 
gaged was the impeachment of Clarendon ; 
but, as far as his public utterances went, the 
second half of his parliamentary career was in 
every way creditable to him. He spoke with 
great courage against the dangers of a mili- 
tary despotism, and his voice was constantly 
raised in appeals for toleration for dissenters 
and more particularly for the quakers. 

In spite of his usually temperate habits 
he was a water-drinker Waller was a great 
favourite at the courts both of Charles II 
and James II. But after the death (April 
1677) of his second wife he seems to have 
spent most of his time upon his estate at 
Beaconsfield. He died at his house, Hall 
Barn, on 21 Oct. 1687, and was buried in 
the churchyard of the parish, where an ela- 
borate monument marks his resting-place. 
Verses to his memory by various hands ap- 
peared in the following year, and an obelisk, 
still in existence, was subsequently erected 
over his grave. Waller is described by Aubrey 
as having been of above middle height and 
of a dark complexion with prominent eyes. 
Numerous portraits of him are in existence, 
of which undoubtedly the best is that by 
Cornelis Janssens (in the possession of the 
family) ; that in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London, is by Riley, to whom Rymer 
addressed verses ' On painting Mr. Waller's 
Portrait.' The Duke of Buccleuch has a 
miniature of him by Cooper, and there is 
in the British Museum a chalk-and-pencil 
portrait of him by Sir Peter Lely. A full- 
length portrait by Van Dyck belonged in 
1868 to Sir Henry Bedingfield, bart. (Cat. 
Third Loan Exhib. No. 690). 

It is certain that the poems of Edmund 
Waller had been in circulation in manuscript 
some considerable time before their first pub- 
lication. His lines on the escape of Charles 



(then Prince of Wales) from drowning, near 
Santander, though subsequently retouched, 
were probably written in or about the time 
of the event which they celebrate ; but it was 
not until 1645 that the first edition of his 
poems was published. In spite of this, his 
reputation was already so well established 
that Denham wrote of him in ' Cooper's 
Hill ' (1642) as ' the best of poets,' and it 
is probable that no writer, in proportion to 
his merits, ever received such ample recog- 
nition from his contemporaries. Waller will 
always live as the author of ' Go, lovely 
rose,' the lines ' On a Girdle,' and ' Of the 
Last Verses in the Book ; ' but it is difficult 
at this distance of time to realise the justice 
of the description of him upon his monument 
as ' inter poetas sui temporis facile princeps.' 
He no doubt owed a very large portion of 
his popularity to his social position, his 
personal charm of manner, and his remark- 
able eloquence. His poems made no great 
demand upon the understanding of his audi- 
ence, who were no doubt struck by their 
appropriateness to the occasions which had 
called them forth. He had no spontaneity, 
and very little imagination, and if he has 
been highly praised for his 'smoothness' 
and his success in the use of the couplet, 
this was probably because his contempora- 
ries had lost sight of others who had pre- 
ceded and surpassed him. He was deficient 
in critical instinct, or designedly indifferent 
to the performances of any but those who 
were manifestly his inferiors. He wrote 
many complimentary verses, but praised no 
writer of the first class. He was a sub- 
scriber to the fourth edition of ' Paradise 
Lost/ but, according to the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, his opinion of that work was that 
it was distinguished only by its length. 

Waller's first published lines appeared in 
' Rex Redux ' in 1633. These were followed 
by verses before Sandys's ' Paraphrase of the 
Psalms,' and in ' lonsonus Virbius ' in 1638. 
In 1645 three editions of his collected poems 
were issued. That ' printed for Thomas 
Walkley ' (licensed on 30 Dec. 1644) is the 
first of these; the edition 'printed by I. N. 
for Hu. Mosley ,' the second ; and that ' printed 
by T. W. for Humphrey Mosley,' the third. 
The third edition consists merely of the sheets 
of the unsold copies of the first, bound up with 
the additional matter contained in the se- 
cond. No other edition appeared until that 
of 1664, which is declared to be the first 
published with the approbation of the au- 
thor; in spite of this statement, the next 
edition (1668) is called the third. Others 
followed in 1682 and 1686, and in 1690 there 
appeared ' The Second Part of Mr. Waller's 



Waller 



127 



Waller 



Poems/ c., with a preface by Francis Atter- 
bury. An edition containing a number of 
engraved portraits and a life of the poet 
was published in 1711, and in 1729 came 
Fenton's monumental quarto. 

The following are the principal of Waller's 
poems, which were separately published : 
1. ' A Panegyric to my Lord Protector,' 
1655, 4to and fol. 2. ' the Passion of Dido 
for ^Eneas,' by Waller and Sidney Godolphin, 

1658, 8vo ; reprinted, 1679. 3. ' Upon the 
Late Storme and of the Death of His High- 
nesse Ensuing the Same,' a small fol. broad- 
side ; these lines were reprinted (1659, 4to) 
with others by Dryden and Sprat on the 
same subject, and (1682, 4to) as 'Three 
Poems upon the Death of the Late Usurper, 
Oliver Cromwell.' 4. ' To the King upon 
His Majesty's Happy Return,' 1660, fol. 
5. ' To my Lady Morton,' &c., 1661, broad- 
side. 6. ' A Poem on St. James's Park,' 
1661, fol. ; with this were included the lines 
' Of a War with Spain,' &c., which had first 
appeared in Carrington's ' Life of Cromwell,' 

1659. 7. ' Upon Her Majesty's New Build- 
ings at Somerset House,' 1665, broadside. 

8. 'Instructions to a Painter,' 1666, fol. 

9. 'Of the Lady Mary,' 1677, broadside. 

10. ' Divine Poems,' 1685, 8vo. 

[Letters and papers in possession of the 
family : Life prefixed to Waller's Poems, ed. 
1711; Biographia Brit.; Aubrey's Brief Lives ; 
Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, 1826, iv. 57, 
61, 71, 74, 79, 205 ; Clarendon's Life, 1827, i. 42, 
53 ; Gardiner's Hist, of the Great Civil War ; 
Evelyn's Memoirs, 1818, i. 204-5, 230-8, 244-8, 
24, 3$7, ii. 280; Pepys's Diary, 13 May 1664, 
22 May 1665, 23 June, 14 Nov. 1666, 19 Nov. 
1667; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, vol.i.p.xix, 

11. 139, iii. 159, 161, 180-3, 199, 205, 599, 643; 
Life by Percival Stockdale, prefixed to Waller's 
Poems, ed. 1772; Notes to Fenton's edition, 
1729; Johnson's Lives of the Poets; Seward's 
Anecdotes, ii. 152; Letters from Orinda to 
Poliarchus, 1709; Grey's Debates, i. 13, 33, 37, 
354-5, vi. 143, 232; Masson's Life of Milton, 
passim ; Godwin's Commonwealth, iii. 333-9 ; 
Sandford's Studies and Illustrations of the 
Great Rebellion, pp. 560-3 ; Sir John North- 
cote's Notebook, p. 85 ; Cunningham's London 
Past and Present, ed. Wheatley, i. 229, ii. 303, 
468, iii. 4 ; Journals of the Houses of Lords 
and Commons ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
ii. 390, 567, iii. 46-7, 516, 808, 824, iv. 344, 
379, 381, 467, 552-9, 621, 727, 739 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 165, vi. 293, 374, 423, xii. 6, 
2nd ser. v. 2, vi. 164, ix. 421, xi. 163, 504, xii. 
201, 3rd ser. i. 366, vi. 289, vii. 435, viii. 106. 
410, ix. 192, xi. 334, 4th ser. iii. 1, 204, 222, 
312, 444, iv. 19, 5th ser. i. 405, iii. 49, ix. 
286, 333, xi. 186, 275, 7th ser. xi. 266, 338, 
8th ser. iii. 146, vi. 165, 271, 316, vii. 37, 178, 
xi. 287 ; MSS. in the British Museum Hunter's 



horus Vatum, Addit. 17018 f. 213, 18911 f. 
137, 22602 ff. 156, 16, 30262 f. 88, 33940 f. 182, 
Egerton, 669 ; in the Bodleian Montagu MS. 
d. 1, f. 47.] G. T. D. 

WALLER, SIR HARDRESS (1604?- 
1666 ?), regicide, son of George Waller of 
Grroombridge, Kent, by Mary, daughter of 
Richard Hardress, was descended from Ri- 
chard Waller [q. v.] Sir William Waller 
q. v.] was his first cousin. He was born 
about 1604, and was knighted by Charles I 
at Nonsuch on 6 July 1629 (BERRY, Kent 
Genealogies, p. 296 ; HASTED, Kent, i. 431 ; 
METCALFE, Book of Knights, p, 190). About 
1630 he settled in Ireland and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir John Dowdall of Kil- 
finny, acquiring by his marriage the estate 
of Castletown, co. Limerick (BuRKE, Landed 
Gentry, ii. 2119, ed. 1894 ; Trial of the Regi- 
cides, p. 18). When the Irish rebellion of 
1641 broke out he lost most of his property, 
and became a colonel in the army employed 
against the rebels in Munster under Lord 
Inchiquin (HiCKSOif, Irish Massacres of 1641, 
ii. 97, 98, 112). Inchiquin sent him to Eng- 
land to solicit supplies from the parliament, 
but he wrote back that they were too occu- 
pied with their own danger to do anything 
(CARTE, Ormonde, ed. 1851, ii. 305, 470). 
On 1 Dec. 1642 he and three other colonels 
presented to the king at Oxford a petition 
from the protestants of Ireland reciting the 
miseries of the country, and pressing him for 
timely relief. The king's answer threw the 
responsibility upon the parliament, and the 
petition is regarded by Clarendon as a device 
to discredit Charles (RtrsHWORTH, v. 533; 
Rebellion, vi. 308, vii. 401 n.) When Waller 
returned to Ireland he was described by Lord 
Digby to Ormonde as a person ' on whom 
there have been and are still great jealousies 
here' (CARTE, v. 474, 514). In 1644 WaUer 
was governor of Cork and chief commander 
of the Munster forces in Inchiquin's absence 
(ib. iii. 122 ; SELLINGS, History of the Irish 
Catholic Confederation and War in Ireland, 
iii. 134, 162), though still distrusted as a 
roundhead. In April 1645 Waller was back 
in England, and was given the command of 
a foot regiment in the new model army, and 
served under Fairfax till the war ended 
(Sr-RlGGE, Anglia Rediviva, pp. 116, 283). 
The parliament making Lord Lisle lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland [see SIDNEY, PHILIP, third 
EARL OF LEICESTER], Waller accompanied 
him to Munster, and was one of the four 
commissioners to whom the council proposed 
to entrust the control of the forces after 
Lisle's departure. Lord Inchiquin's oppo- 
sition frustrated this plan, and accordingly 
Waller returned to England and resumed 



'Waller 



128 



Waller 



his command in the English army (CARTE, 
iii. 324; BELLlNGS,iv. 19; Old Parliamentary 
History, xvi. 83). 

In the summer of 1647, when parliament 
and the army quarrelled, Waller followed the 
lead of Cromwell, was one of the officers ap- 
pointed to negotiate with the commissioners 
of the parliament, and helped to draw up 
the different manifestoes published by the 
army (Clarke Papers, i. 110, 148, 217. 279, 
363). He took no great part in the debates 
of the army council, but his few speeches 
show good sense, moderation, and a desire 
to conciliate (ib. i. 339, 344, ii. 87, 103, 180). 
When the second civil war broke out Waller's 
regiment was quartered at Exeter, and, though 
there were some local disturbances, he had 
no serious fighting to do (Lords 1 Journals, 
x. 269; RusHWORTH,vii. 1130, 1218, 1306). 
In December 1648 Waller acted as Colonel 
Pride's chief coadjutor in the seizure and 
exclusion of presbyterian members of par- 
liament, and personally laid hands on Prynne 
(Old Parliamentary History, xviii. 448 ; 
WALKER, History of Independency, ii. 30). 
He was appointed one of the king's judges, 
signed the death-warrant, and was absent 
from only one meeting of the high court 
of justice (NALSON, Trial of Charles I). In 
the reconquest of Ireland he took a promi- 
nent part, following Cromwell thither with 
his regiment in December 1649. As major- 
general of the foot, he commanded in the 
siege of Carlow in July 1650, took part in 
the two sieges of Limerick in 1650 and 1651, 
laid waste the barony of Burren and other 
places in the Irish quarters, and assisted 
Ludlow in the sub] ugation of Kerry (LuDLOW, 
Memoirs, ed. 1894, i. 275, 302,320; GIL- 
BERT, Aphorismical Discovery, iii. 180, 218, 
310, 324). When resistance ended he was 
actively engaged in the settlement of the 
country and the transplantation of the Irish 
to Connaught (PRENDERGAST, Cromwellian 
Settlement, pp. 123, 160, 270). The Long 
parliament granted him as a reward some 
lands he rented from the Marquis of Ormonde, 
and voted him an estate of the value of 
1,200. a year (Commons' Journals, vi. 433, 
vii. 270 ; Tanner MSS. liii. 139). 

Waller supported the elevation of Crom- 
well to the protectorate, and was the only 
important officer present at his proclamation 
in Dublin (LTJDLOW, i. 375). He received, 
however, no preferment from Cromwell, and 
it was not till June 1657 that lands in the 
county of Limerick were settled upon him 
in fulfilment of the parliament's promise 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 492, 516, 553). 
Ludlow represents him as jealous of Lord 
Broghill, and intriguing to prevent his re- 



! turn to Ireland (Memoirs, ii. 5). Henry 
Cromwell, on the other hand, thought Waller 
hardly used, and warmly recommended him 
to Thurloe and the Protector. ' I have ob- 
served him,' he wrote to the latter, ' to bear 
your highnesses pleasure so evenly, that I 
am more moved with that his quiet and 
decent carriage than I could by any clamour 
or importunity to give him this recommen- 
dation' (THURLOE, iv. 672, vi. 773). On the 
fall of Richard Cromwell, Waller hastened 
to make his peace with the parliament by 
getting possession of Dublin Castle for them, 
and by writing a long letter to express his 
affection for the good old cause (LuDLOW, 
Memoirs, ii. 101, 122). Yet he was not 
trusted, and Ludlow, when he was called to 
England in October 1659, left the govern- 
ment of the army to Colonel John Jones. 
Waller justified this mistrust by refusing, 
ostensibly in the interests of the parliament, 
to let Ludlow land in Ireland at the end of 
December 1659 (ib. ii. 123, 147, 449). His 
conduct at this period was extremely am- 
biguous, and evidently inspired only by the 
desire to preserve himself. When Monck 
recalled the secluded members he became 
alarmed, and endeavoured to stop the move- 
ment, but was besieged in Dublin Castle by 
Sir Charles Coote, and delivered up by his 
own troops (ib. pp. 186, 199, 229). Coote 
imprisoned him for a time in the castle of 
Athlone, but Sir William Waller (1597 ?- 
1668) [q.v.] obtained permission for him to 
come to England, and the council gave him 
his freedom on an engagement to live quietly 
(ib. p. 239). 

An impeachment had been drawn up 
against him by the officers of the Irish army 
for promoting the cause of Fleetwood and 
Lambert and opposing a free parliament, but 
it was not proceeded with; and Monck, though 
distrusting him as too favourable to the 
fanatics, had no animosity against him 
(Trinity College, Dublin, MS. F. 3. 18, 
p. 759; WARNER, Epistolary Curiosities, 1st 
ser. p. 55). But as a regicide the Restoration 
made Waller's punishment inevitable. He 
escaped to France ; but on the publication 
of the proclamation for the surrender of the 
regicides, he returned to England and gave 
himself up. At his trial, on 10 Oct. 1660, 
he at first refused to plead, but finally con- 
fessed the indictment. On 16 Oct., when 
sentence was delivered, he professed his peni- 
tence, adding that if he had sought to defend 
himself he could have made it evident that 
he ' did appear more to preserve the king 
upon trial and sentence than any other' 
(Trial f the Regicides, ed. 1660, pp. 17, 
272). His petition for pardon is among the 



129 



Waller 






Egerton manuscripts in the British Museum 
(Eg. 2549, f. 93). 

Waller's confession and the efforts of his 
relatives saved his life. After being sen- 
tenced and attainted, execution was sus- 
pended on the ground of his obedience to 
the proclamation, unless parliament should 
pass an act ordering the sentence to be 
carried out. At first he was imprisoned in 
the Tower, but on 21 Oct. 1661 a warrant 
was issued for his transportation to Mount 
Orgueil Castle, Jersey. He was still a pri- 
soner there in 1666, and reported to be very 
ill (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2 p. 118, 
1666-7 p. 192). His death probably took 
place in the autumn of that year (ib. 1668-9 
p. 229, Addenda 1660-70 p. 714). An 
anonymous portrait was N o. 648 in the Loan 
Exhibition of 1866. 

Waller left two sons, John and James, 
and several daughters. Of the latter, Eliza- 
beth, who married, first, Sir Maurice Fenton, 
and, secondly, Sir William Petty [q. v.], was 
created on 31 Dec. Baroness of Shelburne, 
and was the mother of Charles, first lord Shel- 
burne. Another, Bridget, married Henry 
Cadogan, and was the mother of William, 
first earl Cadogan (NOBLE, Lives of the Reqi- 
cides, p. 300; FITZMAURICE, Life of Sir Wil- 
liam Petty, p. 153). 

Waller published: 1. 'A Declaration to 
the Counties of Devon and Cornwall,' 1648 ; 
reprinted in Rushworth, vii. 1027. 2. ' A 
Declaration of Sir Hardress Waller, Major- 
general of the Parliament's Forces in Ire- 
land,' Dublin and London, 1659-60, fol. 
(KEITNET, Register, Ecclesiastical and Civil, 
p. 24). 3. ' A Letter from Sir Hardress 
Waller to Lieutenant-general Ludlow,' &c., 
1660, 4to ; reprinted in Ludlow's ' Memoirs,' 
ed. 1894, ii. 451. 

[A Life of Waller is contained in Noble's 
Lives of the Kegicides, and a short sketch in 
Wood's Fasti Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, ii. 130 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, ' Waller of Castle- 
town;' Ludlow's Memoirs, ed. 1894; other 
authorities mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

WALLER, HORACE (1833-1896), 
writer on Africa, was born in London in 1833, 
and educated under Dr. Wadham at Brook 
Green. He was for some time in business in 
London, acquiring habits which were of much 
use to him in after life. In connection with 
the universities mission to Central Africa 
he went out in 1861 to the regions recently 
opened up by David Livingstone [q. v.] and 
Sir John Kirk. For a period he worked with 
Charles Frederick Mackenzie [q. v.], bishop 
of Central Africa, and was associated with 
Livingstone in the Zambesi and Shir dis- 

VOL. LIX. 



tricts. Returning to England after the death 
of Mackenzie in 1862, he was in 1867 ordained 
by the bishop of Rochester to the curacy of 
St. John, Chatham ; in 1870 he removed to 
the vicarage of Leytonstone, Essex, and in 
1874 to the rectory of Twy well, near Thrap- 
ston, Northamptonshire, which he resigned 
in 1895. Opposition to the slave trade was 
one of the chief objects of his life. In 1867 
he attended the British and Foreign Anti- 
Slavery Society's conference in Paris, and in 
1870 he became a member of the committee 
of the Anti-Slavery Society. When in 1871 
the House of Commons appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate the East African slave 
trade, it was owing to the influence of Ed- 
mund Murge and Waller that the committee 
decided to recommend Sir John Kirk for 
the appointment of permanent political agent 
at Zanzibar. Ultimately a treaty between 
the sultan of Zanzibar and Great Britain 
declared the slave trade by sea to be illegal. 
He lived on terms of close intimacy with 
General Gordon, and Gordon was a frequent 
visitor at the rectory of Twywell. 

Waller was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1864, died at East 
Liss, Hampshire, on 22 Feb. 1896, and was 
buried at Milland church on 26 Feb. 

After Stanley succeeded in discovering 
Livingstone, Livingstone's journals were en- 
trusted to Waller for publication. They 
were issued in two large volumes in 1874, 
entitled ' The Last Journals of David 
Livingstone in Central Africa, from 1865 
until his death.' 

Waller wrote: 1. 'On some African 
Entanglements of Great Britain,' 1888. 
2. ' Nyassaland: Great Britain's Case against 
Portugal,' 1890. 3. ' Ivory, Apes, and Pea- 
cocks: an African Contemplation,' 1891. 
4. ' Heligoland for Zanzibar, or one Island 
full of Free Men to two full of Slaves,' 1893. 
5. ' Health Hints for Central Africa,' 1893, five 
editions. 6. ' Slaving and Slavery in our 
British Protectorates, Nyssaland and Zanzi- 
bar,' 1894. 7. ' The Case of our Zanzibar 
Slaves: why not liberate them?' 1896. 

[Guardian, 26 Feb. 1896 p. 317, 4 March 
p. 352; Times, 26 Feb. 1896; Black and White, 
i 7 March 1896, p. 292, with portrait; Geo- 
graphi:al Journal, May 1896, pp. 558-9.] 

G. C. B. 

WALLER, JOHN FRANCIS (1810- 
1894), author, born in Limerick in 1810, 
was the third son of Thomas Maunsell Waller 
of Finnoe House, co. Tipperary, by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of John Vereker. He 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1827, 
and graduated B.A. in 1831. He was called 
to the Irish bar in 1833, and while studying 

K 



Waller 



Waller 



in the chambers of Joseph Chitty [q. v.] 
he commenced his contributions to periodical 
literature. On returning to Ireland he went 
the Leinster circuit, but almost immediately 
joined the staff of the ' Dublin University 
'Magazine,' a periodical which had been 
founded a few months earlier. To this 
magazine Waller was a prolific contributor 
of both prose and verse for upwards of forty 
years, and he succeeded Charles James Lever 
[q. v.] as its editor. His most notable articles 
in it were the ' Slingsby Papers,' under the 
pseudonym of 'Jonathan Freke Slingsby,' 
which appeared in book form in 1852, a series 
of humorous reflections somewhat after the 
manner of Wilson's ' ^octes Ambrosianse ; ' 
but, although he possessed a graceful fancy, 
Waller had not Wilson's intellectual powers. 
He best deserves remembrance as a writer 
of verse, and especially as the author of 
songs, many of which, set to music by 
Stewart and other composers, attained a 
wide vogue. Some were translated into 
German. The best known are perhaps ' The 
Voices of the Dead,' 'Cushla ma Chree,' 
and ' The Song of the Glass.' Of the last- 
named, Richard Monckton Milnes (first Baron 
Houghton) [q. v.] said that it was one of 
the best drinking songs of the age. Waller 
also wrote the ' Imperial Ode ' for the Cork 
Exhibition, 1852, and an ode on the 'Erec- 
tion of the Campanile of Trinity College,' 
which, with other pieces of the same sort, 
were published in 1864 as ' Occasional Odes.' 
In 1852 he received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from Dublin University, in recognition 
of his eminent literary attainments. He 
was for many years honorary secretary of 
the Royal Dublin Society. He became in 
1864 a vice-president of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and was also the founder, in 1872, 
and vice-president of the Goldsmith Club. 
In 1867 he became registrar of the rolls 
court, and on his retirement removed to 
London, where his later years were spent 
in literary work for Cassell & Co. He died 
at Bishop Stortford on 19 Jan. 1894. He 
married, in 1835, Anna, daughter of William 
Hopkins. By her he had two sons and six 
daughters. 

The following is a list of Waller's published 
works not already mentioned : 1. 'Ravens- 
croft Hall and other Poems,' 1852. 2. The 
Dead Bridal,' 1856. 3. 'Occasional Odes,' 
1864. 4. ' Revelations of Pete Browne,' 1872. 
5. ' Festival Tales,' 1873. 6. ' Pictures from 
English Literature,' 1870. He was also the 
editor of the ' Imperial Dictionary of Uni- 
versal Biography,' London, 1857-63, 3 vols. 
(also issued in sixteen parts); new edit. 
1877-84, 3 vols. ; and of editions of Gold- 



smith's ' W T orks ' (1864-5), of Moore's ' Irish 
Melodies ' (1867), and of ' Gulliver's Travels' 
(1864), with memoirs of the authors prefixed. 
[Dublin University Magazine, vol. Ixxxiii. ; 
Athenaeum, 1894, i. 1 49 ;Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

ft T 17 

WALLER, RICHARD (1395 P-l 462 P), 

soldier and official, born probably about 
1395, was son of John Waller of Groom- 
bridge, Kent, by his wife, Margaret Lands- 
dale of Landsdale, Sussex. Groombridge 
had been purchased of William Clinton by 
Waller's grandfather, Thomas, who came 
originally from Lamberhurst in Sussex. 
Richard served in the French wars under 
Henry V, and was present at Agincourt in 
1415, where he is said to have captured 
Charles, duke of Orleans (Archceol. Journal, 
i. 386; Sussex Archceol. Coll. xvi. 271). The 
duke was entrusted to Waller's keeping at 
Groombridge as a reward for his valour, 
and Waller found his charge so profitable 
that he was enabled to rebuild his house 
there. On 17 Aug. 1424 Waller served 
under John, duke of Bedford, at the battle 
of Verneuil (Royal Letters of Henry VI, ii. 
394). In 1433-4 he was sheriff of the 
joint counties of Surrey and Sussex, and in 
1437-8 sheriff of Kent (Lists of Sheriffs, 

1898, pp. 68, 136). In 1437 Orleans's 
brother, the Count of Angouleme, was also 
entrusted to Waller's keeping (Acts of the 
Privy Council, v. 82 ; cf. WAUKIN, iii. 267). 
Waller was an adherent of Cardinal Beau- 
fort, and before 1439 became master of his 
household. In that year he accompanied 
the cardinal to France on his embassy to 
treat for peace. In his will, dated 20 Jan. 
1446, Beaufort appointed Waller one of his 
executors ( Testamenta Vetusta, p. 252 ; 
Epistolce Academicee, Oxford Hist. Soc., 

1899, i. 266; Letters of Margaret of Anjou, 
Camden Soc., p. 101). In March 1442-3 
Waller was serving with Sir John Fastolf 
[q. v.], who terms Waller his ' right well- 
beloved brother ' (Paston Letters, i. 307), as 
treasurer of Somerset's expedition to Guienne, 
and on 3 April he presented to the council 
a schedule of necessary purveyances for the 
army (Acts P. C. \. 256). He acted as re- 
ceiver and treasurer of a subsidy in 1450 
(Rot. Parl. v. 173), and seems also to have 
been joint-chamberlain of the exchequer 
with Sir Thomas Tyrrell. On 12 July of 
that year he was commissioned to arrest 
John Mortimer, one of the aliases of Jack 
Cade (PAIGRAVE, Antient Kalendars, ii. 
217, 218, 219, 220 ; Acts P. C. vi. 96 ; 
DEVON, Issues, p. 466). On 8 June 1456 he 
was summoned to attend an assize of oyer 
and terminer at Maidstone to punish rioters, 



Waller 



Waller 



and lie was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed on 31 July 1458 to make public in- 
quiry into Warwick's unjustifiable attack 
on a fleet of Lubeck merchantmen [see 
NEVILLE, RICHARD, EARL OP WARAVICK AND 
SALISBURY]. He seems, however, to have 
made his peace with the Yorkists after 
Edward IVs accession, and on 26 Feb. 
1460-1 was made receiver of the king's 
castles, lands, and manors in Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, and Hampshire (Cal. Patent Rolls, 
Edw. IV, i. Ill), while his eldest sou 
Richard (d. 21 Aug. 1474), who had repre- 
sented Hindon in the parliament of 1453, 
was on 10 May 1461 made commissioner of 
array for Kent (ib. i. 566). Waller appa- 
rently died soon afterwards. 

By his Avife Silvia, whose maiden name 
was Gulby, Waller had issue two sons 
Richard and John and a daughter Alice, 
who married Sir John Guildford. The second 
son, John (d. Iol7), was father of John (his 
second son), who was the ancestor of Ed- 
mund Waller the poet ; and he was also 
grandfather of Sir Walter Waller, whose 
eldest son, George, married Mary Hardress, 
and was father of Sir Hardress Waller [q. v.] ; 
Sir Walter's second son, Sir Thomas, was 
father of Sir William Waller [q. v.] 

[Authorities cited ; Philpot's Villare Cantia- 
num ; Berry's County Genealogies ' Kent,' p. 
296, 'Sussex' pp. 109, 358; Hasted's Kent, i. 
430-1; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 231; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1898, ii. 1532; H. A. 
Waller's Family Records, 1898 (of little value).] 

A. F. P. 

WALLER, SIR WILLIAM (1597?- 

1668), parliamentary general, son of Sir 
Thomas Waller, lieutenant of Dover, by Mar- 
garet, daughter of Henry Lennard, lord Dacre 
(HASTED, History of Kent, i. 430 ; BERRY, 
Kentish Genealogies, p. 296), was born 
about 1597. Sir Hardress Waller [q. v.] was 
his first cousin. William matriculated from 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 2 Dec. 1612, 
aged 15 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; 
WOOD, Athene?, iii. 812). On leaving the 
university he became a soldier, entered the 
Venetian service, fought in the Bohemian 
wars against the emperor, and took part in 
the English expedition for the defence of the 
Palatinate (WALLER, Recollections, p. 108; 
RUSHWORTH, i. 153). On 20 June 1622 he 
was knighted, and on 21 Nov. 1632 he was 
admitted to Gray's Inn (METCALFE, Book of 
Knights, p. 180 :" FOSTER, Gray's Inn Regi- 
ster, p. 197). 

Shortly after his return to England Wal- 
ler married Jane, daughter of Sir Richard 
Reynell of Ford House, Woolborough, 
Devonshire, a lady who was to inherit a good 



fortune in the Avest. A quarrel with a gen- 
tleman of the same family who happened to 
be one of the king's servants, in the course 
of which Waller struck his antagonist, led 
to a prosecution, which he was forced to 
compound by a heavy payment. This pro- 
duced in him ' so eager a spirit against the 
court that he was very open to any tempta- 
tion that might engage him against it' 
(CLARENDON, Rebellion, ed. Macray, A'ii. 100). 
As he was also a zealous puritan, Waller 
naturally joined the opposition, and was 
elected to the Long parliament in 1640 as 
member for Andover. At the outbreak of 
the civil war he became colonel of a regi- 
ment of horse in the parliamentary army, 
and commanded the forces detached by Essex 
to besiege Portsmouth. It surrendered to 
him in September 1642 (ib. v. 442, vi. 32 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. vi. 148; Re- 
port on the Duke of Portland's MSS. i. 50, 
61). At the close of the year Waller began 
the series of successes which earned him the 
popular title of 'William the Conqueror.' 
In December he captured Farnham Castle, 
Winchester, Arundel Castle, and Chichester 
( VICARS, Jehovah Jireh, pp. 223, 228, 231, 
235). Parliament thereupon made him ser- 
geant-major-general of the counties of Glou- 
cester, Wilts, Somerset, Salop, and the city 
of Bristol, with a commission from the Earl 
of Essex (Lords' Journals, v. 602, 606, 617). 
Five regiments of horse and as many of foot 
were to be raised to serve under him. In 
March 1643 Waller left his headquarters at 
Bristol, took Malmesbury by assault on 
21 March, and on 24 March surprised the 
Welsh army which was besieging Gloucester, 
capturing about sixteen hundred men. He 
then carried the war into Wales, forcing the 
royalists to evacuate Chepstow, Monmouth, 
and other garrisons, and evading by skilful 
marches the attempt of Prince Maurice to 
intercept his return to Gloucester. Imme- 
diately afterwards (25 April 1643) he also 
captured Hereford (contemporary narratives 
of these victories are reprinted in LUDLOW'S 
Memoirs, ed. 1894, i. 444; PHILLIPS, Civil 
War in Wales, ii. 03-71 ; Bibliotheca Glou- 
cestrensis, pp. 28, 193). 

In June 1643 Waller was summoned to 
the south-west to resist the advance of Sir 
Ralph Hopton and the Cornish army, and 
gained an indecisive battle on 5 July at 
Lansdown, near Bath. Hopton and his 
forces made for Oxford, closely pursued by 
Waller, Avho cooped them up in Devizes. 
One attempt to relieve them was repulsed, 
and it seemed probable that they Avould be 
forced to capitulate ; but General Wilmot 
and a body of horse from Oxford defeated 

K2 



Waller 



132 



Waller 



Waller on 13 July at Roundway Down. 
Waller's foot were cut in pieces or taken, 
and, with the few horse left him, he returned 
to Bristol : 

Great William the Con., 

jeered a royalist poet, 

So fast he did run, 
That he left half his name behind him 

(ib. p. 199 ; CLARENDON, Rebellion, vii. 
99-121 ; Portland MSS. iii. 112 ; DENHAM, 
Poems, ed. 1671, p. 107). 

Waller left Bristol just before the siege by 
Rupert began, and returned to London to 
raise fresh forces. In spite of his disaster 
his popularity had suffered no diminution, 
and the citizens at a meeting in the Guild- 
hall resolved to raise him a fresh army by 
subscription. On 4 Nov. 1643 parliament 
passed an ordinance associating the four 
counties of Hants, Sussex, Surrey, and 
Kent, and giving them power to raise troops 
to be commanded by Waller. The city was 
also authorised to send regiments of the 
trained bands and auxiliaries to serve under 
him (HUSBAND, Ordinances, 1646, pp. 281, 
310, 320, 379, 406, 475). The commission 
given Waller caused a dispute between him 
and Essex, which ended in October with a 
threat of resignation on the part of Essex 
and a vote placing Waller under the lord- 
general's command {Lords' Journals, vi. 172, 
247). In December 1643 Waller defeated 
Lord Crawford at Alton, taking a thou- 
sand prisoners, and Arundel Castle fell into 
his hands on 6 Jan. 1644. By these two 
successes the royalist attempt to penetrate 
into Sussex and Kent was definitely stopped. 
On 29 March 1644, in conjunction with Sir 
William Balfour, Waller defeated the Earl 
of Forth and Lord Hopton at Cheriton, near 
Alresford, thus regaining for the parliament 
the greater part of Hampshire and Wiltshire 
(GARDINER, Great Civil War, i. 254, 322; 
HILLIER, The Sieges of Arundel Castle, 
1854 ; Old Parliamentary History, xiii. 15). 
In May Essex and Waller simultaneously 
advanced upon Oxford, Essex blocking up 
the city on the north and AValler on the 
south. Charles slipped between their armies 
with about five thousand men, and, leaving 
Waller to pursue him, Essex marched to re- 
gain the west of England. Waller proved 
unable to bring the king to an action until 
Charles had rejoined the forces left in Oxford, 
and when he did attack him at Cropredy 
Bridge, near Banbury, on 29 June, he was 
defeated and lost his guns (WALKER, His- 
torical Discourses, pp. 14-33; Fairfax Corre- 
spondence, iii. 105). The disorganisation of 
Waller's heterogeneous,unpaid, undisciplined 



army which followed this defeat enabled 
Charles to march into Cornwall. In Sep- 
tember 1644 Waller was sent west with a 
body of horse to hinder the king's return 
march towards Oxford, but he was too weak 
to do it effectively. At the second battle 
of Newbury on 27 Oct. 1644 he was one of 
the joint commanders of the parliamentary 
forces, attacked in company with Cromwell 
and Skippon the left wing of the royalists, 
and joined Cromwell in urging a vigorous 
pursuit of the retreating king (GARDINER, 
ii. 36, 46 ; MONEY, The Battles of Newbury t 
ed. 1884, pp. 221-3). In February 1645 
Waller was ordered to march to the relief 
of Taunton, but his own men were mutinous 
for want of pay, Essex's horse refused to serve 
under him, and Cromwell's horse declined 
to go unless Cromwell went with them. 
Cromwell went under Waller's command. 
They captured a regiment of royalist cavalry 
near Devizes, and attained in part the pur- 
pose of the expedition. The self-denying 
ordinance passed during his absence put an 
end to Waller's career as a general, and he 
laid down his commission with great relief, 
laying that he would rather give his vote in 
the house than ' remain amongst his troops 
so slighted and disesteemed ' as he was (GAR- 
DINER, ii. 128, 183, 192). In December 1645, 
when it was proposed to appoint him to com- 
mand in Ireland, he rejected the offer, telling 
a friend ' that he had had so much discourage- 
ment heretofore when he was near at hand 
that he could not think of being again en- 
gaged in the like kind ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
7th Rep. p. 237). 

Waller now became one of the political 
leaders of the presbyterian party. Hostile 
on religious grounds to liberty of conscience, 
he was a firm supporter of the covenant and 
the league with the Scots. ' None so pant- 
ing for us as brave Waller,' wrote Baillie 
when the Scottish army was about to enter 
England ; and Waller's zeal for the imposi- 
tion of presbyterian ism on England was not 
abated by the growing strength of the in- 
dependents. He thought that the tolera- 
tion the army demanded meant that the 
church would come to be governed, like 
Friar John's college in ' Rabelais,' by one 
general statute, ' Do what you list' (BAILLIE, 
Letters, ii. 107, 115 ; Vindication of Sir W. 
Waller, pp. 25, 148). 

Waller had been a member of the com- 
mittee of both kingdoms from the time of 
its origin, and in 1647 he was one of the 
committee for Irish affairs to which parlia- 
ment delegated the disbanding of the new 
model and the formation from it of an army 
for the recovery of Ireland. In March and 



Waller 



133 



Waller 



April 1647 he was twice sent to the head- 
quarters at Saffron Walden to persuade the 
soldiers to engage for Irish service, and 
attributed his ill-success to the influence of 
the higher officers rather than any genuine 
grievances among their men (ib. pp. 42-94 ; 
Clarke Papers, i. 6 ; Lords 1 Journal*, ix. 
152). By his opposition to the petitions of 
the army he earned its hostility, and came 
to be regarded as one of its chief enemies. 
In July 1647, when eleven leading presby- 
terian members of parliament were im- 
peached by the army, Waller was accused 
not only of malicious enmity to the sol- 
diery, but also of encouraging the Scots to 
invade England and of intriguing with the 
queen and the royalists (the articles of im- 
peachment, together with the answer drawn 
up by Prynne on behalf of the accused 
members, are reprinted in the Old Parlia- 
mentary History, xvi. 70-116). At the end 
of July the London mob forced the parlia- 
ment to recall its concessions to the army, 
and Waller was accused of instigating and 
arranging the tumults which took place. 
From all these charges he elaborately, and to 
some extent successfully, clears himself in 
his posthumously published ' Vindication ' 
(pp. 44-106; cf. Recollections, p. 116). 
When the presbyterians determined to resist 
by arms, W r aller was made a member of the 
reconstituted committee of safety, and or- 
dered to attend the House of Commons, 
from which, with the other accused mem- 
bers, he had voluntarily withdrawn himself. 
On the collapse of the resistance of London 
he obtained a pass from the speaker and set 
out for France, was pursued, released by 
Vice-admiral Batten, and landed at Calais 
on 17 Aug. 1647 ( Vindication, pp. 186, 201 ; 
GARDIXER, History of the Great Civil War, 
iii. 349). On 27 Jan. 1648 Waller and his 
companions were disabled from sitting in 
the present parliament, but on 3 June fol- 
lowing these votes were annulled (RUSH- 
WORTH, vii. 977, 1130). Returning to Eng- 
land and supporting the proposed treaty 
with the king, Waller was one of the mem- 
bers arrested by the army on 6 Dec. 1648, 
and, on the charge of instigating the Scots 
to invade England, he was permanently re- 
tained in custody when the rest were re- 
leased (GARDINER, iv. 275 ; Old Parliamen- 
tary History, xviii. 458, 464, 466 ; WALKER, 
History of Independency, ii. 39). He de- 
scribes himself as ' seized upon by the army 
as I was going to discharge my duty in the 
House of Commons, and, contrary to privi- 
lege of parliament, made a prisoner in the 
queen's court ; from thence carried igno- 
miniously to a place under the exchequer 



called "Hell," and the next day to the 
King's Head in the Strand ; after singled 
out as a sheep to the slaughter and removed 
to St. James's ; thence sent to Windsor 
Castle and remanded to St. James's again ; 
lastly, tossed like a ball into a strange 
country to Denbigh Castle in North Wales 
(April 1651), remote from my friends and 
relations ' (Recollections, p. 104 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1651, p. 151). He remained 
three years in prison, untried and uncon- 
demned. During the Protectorate Waller 
was in a very necessitous condition. The 
2,500/. which parliament had promised to 
settle upon him he had never obtained. Win- 
chester Castle, which was his property, had 
been dismantled by the government to make 
it untenable, and his estates had suffered 
considerably during the war. He possessed 
by grant the prisage of wines imported into 
England, but legal disputes prevented him 
benefiting by it (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1652-3 p. 167, 1656-7 p. 269, 1657-8 pp. 
62, 109). On 22 March 1658 he was again 
arrested on suspicion and brought before the 
Protector. ' He did examine me/ writes 
Waller, ' as a stranger, not as one whom he 
had aforetime known and obeyed ; yet was 
he not discourteous, and it pleased the Lord 
to preserve me, that not one thing objected 
could be proved against me ; so I was de- 
livered' (Recollections, p. 116). These sus- 
picions were not unjust ; for Waller was 
already in communication with royalist 
agents, and in the spring of 1659 no one 
was more zealous in promoting a rising on 
behalf of Charles II. Charles expressed 
great confidence in his affection, and (11 March 
1659) ordered Waller's name to be inserted 
in all commissions. Waller received this 
mark of confidence with effusion, kissed the 
paper, and said, ' Let him be damned that 
serve not this prince with integrity and dili- 
gence.' Some presbyterian leaders wished 
to impose terms upon the king, and Waller 
was obliged to support them, though assur- 
ing Charles that the first free parliament 
called would remove them (Clarendon State 
Papers, iii. 429, 437, 444, 446). 

AVhen Sir George Booth's insurrection 
broke out, Waller was again arrested (5 Aug. 
1659), and, as he refused to take any en- 
gagement to remain peaceable, was sent to 
the Tower. He obtained a writ of habeas 
corpus, and was released on 31 Oct. follow- 
ing (Recollections, p. 105 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1659-60, pp. 107, 135). Waller joined 
Prynne and the other excluded members in 
their unsuccessful attempt to obtain admis- 
sion to their seats in parliament on 27 Dec. 
1659 (Old Parliamentary History, xxii. 30). 



Waller 



Waller 



On 21 Feb. 1660 Monck's influence opened 
the doors to them all, Waller returned to 
his place, and two days later he was elected 
a member of the last council of state of the 
Commonwealth. In that capacity he pro- 
moted the calling of a free parliament, and 
was useful to Monck in quieting the scruples 
of Prynne and other presbyterians (Claren- 
don State Papers, iii. 647, 657 ; LTJDLOW, 
ed. 1894, ii. 235, 249 ; KENNETT, Register, 
p. 66). 

At the Restoration Waller obtained 
nothing, and, what is more surprising, asked 
for nothing. He was elected to the Conven- 
tion as member for Westminster, but did 
not sit in the next parliament (Old Parlia- 
mentary History, xxii. 216). He died on 
19 Sept. 1668, and was buried with great 
pomp on 9 Oct. in the chapel in Tothill 
Street, Westminster. No monument, how- 
ever, was erected to him, and the armorial 
bearings and other funeral decorations were 
pulled down by the heralds on the ground 
of certain technical irregularities in them 
(WooD, Athena, iii. 817 ; cf. letter from 
Thomas Jekyll to Wood, Wood MS. F. 42, 
f. 303, and Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1668-9, 
p. 23). 

Of A\ aller as a general Dr. Gardiner 
justly observes : ' If he had not the highest 
qualities of a commander, he came short of 
them as much through want of character as 
through defect of military skill. As a 
master of defensive tactics he was probably 
unequalled on either side ' (Great Civil War, 
ii. 192). Clarendon mentions Waller's skill 
in choosing his positions, and terms him ' a 
right good chooser of vantages ' (Rebellion, vii . 
111). During his career as an independent 
commander he was perpetually hampered 
by want of money. ' I never received full 
100,000^.,' he complains, adding that the 
material of which his army was composed 
made it impossible for him ' to improve his 
successes' (Vindication, p. 17). He saw 
the conditions of success clearly, though he 
could not persuade the parliament to adopt 
them, and was the first to suggest the for- 
mation of the new model (GARDINER, ii. 5). 
Waller waged war, as he said in his letter 
to Hopton, ' without personal animosities,' 
and was humane and courteous in his treat- 
ment of opponents (cf. LTJDLOW, Memoirs, 
ed. 1894, i. 451 ; WEBB, Civil War in Here- 
fordshire, i. 263 ; Memoirs of Sir Richard 
Sulstrode, p. 120). He could not restrain 
his unpaid soldiers from plundering, and 
regrets in his ' Recollections ' his allowing 
them to plunder at Winchester, holding the 
demolition of his own house at that place 
by the parliament an appropriate punish- 



ment (p. 131). At Winchester, and also at 
Chichester, he allowed his men to desecrate 
and deface those cathedrals without any at- 
tempt to check them (Mercurius Rusticus, 
ed. 1 685, pp. 133-52). Probably he regarded 
iconoclasm as a service to religion. 

Waller married three times. By his first 
wife he had one son, who died in infancy 
(BERET, Kentish Genealogies, p. 296; Re- 
collections of Sir W. Waller, p. 127), and a 
daughter Margaret, who married Sir William 
Courtenay of Powderham Castle (Vindica- 
tion, p. ii ; COLLINS, Peerage, ed. Brydges, 
vi. 266) ; he married, secondly, Lady Anne 
Finch, daughter of the first Earl of Winchilsea 
(ib. iii. 383 ; Recollections, pp. 104, 106, 119, 
127) ; thirdly, Anne, daughter of William, 
lord Paget, and widow of Sir Simon Har- 
court (ib. p. 129 ; COLLINS, iv. 443). Copious 
extracts from this lady's diary are given in 
the 'Harcourt Papers '(i. 169), and an account 
of her character is contained in Edmund 
Calamy's sermon at her funeral ( The Hap- 
piness of those who sleep in Jesus, 4to, 1662). 
By his second wife Waller had two sons 
(Sir) William (d. 1699) [q.v.] and Thomas 
and a daughter Anne, who married Philip, 
eldest son of Sir Simon Harcourt, died 23 Aug. 
1664, and was the mother of Lord-chancellor 
Harcourt (COLLINS, iv. 443). 

A certain number of Waller's letters and 
despatches were published at the time in 
pamphlet form, but none of his literary or 
autobiographical productions appeared till 
after his death. They were three in num- 
ber : 1. ' Divine Meditations upon several 
Occasions, with a Daily Directory,' 1680; 
a portrait is prefixed. 2. ' Recollections by 
General Sir William Waller.' This is printed 
as an appendix to 'The Poetry of Anna 
Matilda,' 8vo, 1788, pp. 103-39. A manuscript 
of this work is in the library of Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford. 3. ' Vindication of the Cha- 
racter and Conduct of Sir William Waller/ 
1797. Prefixed to this is an engraved portrait 
of Waller from a painting by Robert Walker 
in the possession of the Earl of Harcourt. 
Waller also left, according to Wood, a 
' Military Discourse of the Ordering of Sol- 
diers,' which has never been printed. 

Engraved portraits of Waller are also 
contained in ' England's Worthies,' by John 
Vicars, and in Josiah Ricraft's ' Survey of 
England's Champions,' both published in 
1647. A portrait by Lely, in the possession 
of the Duke of Richmond, was No. 766 in 
the National Portrait Exhibition of 1866, 
and an anonymous portrait is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. 

[A life of Waller is given in Wood's Athenae 
Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, iii. 812. His two autobio- 



Waller 



135 



Wallich 






graphical -works give no consecutive account of 
his career. Other authorities mentioned in the 
article. A long list of pamphlets relating to 
his military career is given in the Catalogue of 
the British Museum Library.] C. H. F. 

WALLER, SIB WILLIAM (d. 1699), 
informer, son of Sir William Waller (1597 ?- 
1068) [q. v.] by his second wife, Anne Finch, 
distinguished himself during the period of 
the popish plot by his activity as a Middlesex 
justice in catching priests, burning Roman 
catholic books and vestments, and getting up 
evidence. He was the discoverer of the meal- 
tub plot and one of the witnesses against 
Fitzharris ( NORTH, Examen, pp. 262, 277, 
290 ; LUTT-RELL, Diary, i. 7, 29, 69). In April 
1680 the king put him out of the commission 
of the peace (ib. i. 39). Waller represented 
Westminster in the parliaments of 1679 and 
1681. During the reaction which followed he 
fled to Amsterdam, of which city he was 
admitted a burgher (CHRISTIE, LifeofShaftes- 
bury, ii. 452, 455). In 1683 and the following 
year he was at Bremen, of which place Lord 
Preston, the English ambassador at Paris, 
describes him as governor. Other political 
exiles gathered round him, and it became the 
nest of all the persons accused of the last 
conspiracy, i.e. the Rye House plot. ' They 
style Waller, by way of commendation, a 
second Cromwell,' adds Preston (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. pp. 296, 311, 347, 386). 
When the prince of Orange invaded England 
Waller accompanied him, and he was with 
the prince at Exeter (ib. pp. 417, 423 ; 
RERESBT, Diary, p. 410). William, however, 
would give him no employment (FoxCROFT, 
Life of Halifax, ii. 215, 224). He died in 
July 1699 (LuxiRELL, iv. 538). 

Waller is satirised as ' Industrious Arod ' 
in the second part of ' Absalom and Achi- 
tophel ' (11. 534-55) : 

The labours of this midnight magistrate 

Might vie with Corah's to preserve the State. 

He is very often introduced in the ballads 
and caricatures of the exclusion bill and 
popish plot times (see Catalogue of Satirical 
Prints in the British Museum, i. 609, 643, 
650 ; Roxburyhe Ballads, ed. Ballad Society, 
iv. 155, 177, 181 ; Loyal Poems collected by 
Nat Thompson, 1685, p. 117). Waller was 
the author of an anti-catholic pamphlet 
1 The Tragical History of Jetzer,' 1685, fol. ' 
[Wood's Athense, iii. 817; other authorities 
mentioned in the article.] C. H. F. 

WALLEYS. [See WALLENSIS.] 

WALLICH, NATHANIEL (1786- 
1854), botanist, was by birth a Dane, and 
was born at Copenhagen on 28 Jan. 1786. 



Having graduated M.D. in his native city, 
where he studied under Vahl, he entered 
the Danish medical service when still very 

:>ung, and in 1807 was surgeon to the 
anish settlement at Serampore. When 
this place fell into the hands of the East 
India Company in 1813, Wallich, with 
other officers, was allowed to enter the 
English service. Though at first attached 
to the medical staff, on the resignation of 
Dr. Francis Hamilton in 1815 he was 
made superintendent of the Calcutta botani- 
cal garden. He at once distinguished him- 
self by his great activity in collecting and 
describing new plants, causing them to be 
drawn, and distributing specimens to the 
chief English gardens and herbaria. In 
1820 he began, in conjunction with William 
Carey (1761-1834) [q. v.], to publish William 
Roxburgh's ' Flora lndica,'to which he added 
much original matter ; but his zeal as a col- 
lector of new plants was greater than his 
patience in working up existing materials, so 
that Carey was left to complete the work 
alone. Meanwhile Wallich was officially di- 
rected in this year to explore Nepal; and, 
besides sending many plants home to Banks, 
Smith, Lambert, Rudge, and Roscoe (Memoir 
and Correspondence of Sir James Edward 
Smith, ii. 246, 262), issued two fascicles of 
his ' Tentamen Flora3 Napalensis Illustrate, 
consisting of Botanical Descriptions and Li- 
thographic Figures of select Nipal Plants,' 
printed at the recently established Asiatic 
Lithographic Press, Serampore, 1824 and 
1826, folio. In 1825 he inspected the forests 
of Western Hindostan, and in 1826 and 1827 
those of Ava and Lower Burma. Invalided 
home in 1828, he brought with him some 
eight thousand specimens of plants, dupli- 
cates of which were widely distributed to 
both public and private collections. ' A 
Numerical List of Dried Specimens of Plants 
in the East India Company's Museum, col- 
lected under the Superintendence of Dr. 
Wallich' (London, 1828, folio), contains in 
all 9,148 species. The best set of these 
was presented bv the company to the 
Linnean Society. " In 1830, 1831, and 1832 
Wallich published his most important 
work, ' Plantse Asiatica3 Rariores ; or De- 
scriptions and Figures of a Select Number 
of unpublished East Indian Plants' (Lon- 
don, 3 vols. folio). He then returned to 
India, where, among other official duties, he 
made an extensive exploration of Assam 
with reference to the discovery of the wild 
tea shrub. He finally returned to Eng- 
land in 1847 ; and, on his resignation of his 
post in 1850, he was succeeded by John 
Scott, gardener to the Duke of Devonshire 



Wallingford 



136 



AVallingford 



at Chatsworth. As vice-president of the 
Linnean Society, of which he had been a 
fellow since 1818, Dr. Wallich frequently 
presided over its meetings in his later years. 
He died in London, in Gower Street, Blooms- 
bury, on 28 April 1854. 

Wallich was elected fellow of the Royal j 
Society in 1829, and was also a fellow of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. There is an oil por- 
trait of him, by Lucas, at the Linnean Society 's 
apartments, and there is a lithograph, pub- 
lished by Maguire, in the Ipswich series. An 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
East India Company in the botanical garden 
at Calcutta ; and, though his name was ap- 
plied by several botanists to various genera 
of plants, the admitted genus Wallichia is a 
group of palms so named by William Rox- 
burgh. In addition to the more important 
works already mentioned, Wallich is credited 
in the Royal Society's ' Catalogue ' (vi. 252) 
with twenty-one papers, mostly botanical, 
contributed by him between 1816 and 
1854 to the 'Asiatick Researches,' 'Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal,' ' Transactions 
of the Liunean Society,' of the 'Calcutta 
Medical and Physical Society,' and of the 
' Agricultural Society of India,' the ' Journal 
of Botany,' and the journals of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal and the Horticultural 
Society. 

His" son, GEORGE CHAKLES WALLICH 
(1815-1899), graduated M.D. from Edin- 
burgh in 1836, became a licentiate of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 
1837, and entered the Indian medical service 
in 1838. He received medals for his ser- 
vices in the Sutlej and Punjab campaigns of 
1842 and 1847, and was field-surgeon dur- 
ing the Sonthal rebellion in 1855-6. In 1860 
he was attached to the Bulldog on her sur- 
vey of the Atlantic bottom for the purposes 
of the proposed cable, and for more than 
twenty years he continued to study marine 
biology, publishing in 1860 ' Notes on the 
Presence of Animal Life at Vast Depths in 
the Ocean,' and in 1862 'The North Atlantic 
Sea-bed,' and receiving the gold medal of 
the Linnean Society for his researches. He 
died on 31 March 1899 (Lancet, 8 April 
1899). 

[Gardeners' Chronicle, 1854, p. 284; infor- 
mation furnished by the late Dr. G-. C. Wallich.] 

G. S. B. 

WALLINGFORD, VISCOUNT (1547- 
1632). [See KXOLLTS, WILLIAM, EARL OF 
BAXBURY.] 

WALLINGFORD, JOHN OF (d. 1258), 
historical writer, gives his name to a chro- 
nicle of English history existing in Cottonian 



MS. Julius D. vii. 6, and printed by Gale in 
1691 in his ' Historise Britannicse Saxonicfe 
Anglo-Danicse Scriptores XV ' (called by 
him vol. i., though generally described as 
vol. iii. of Gale and Fell's collection). From 
internal evidence it appears that John of 
Wallingford became a monk of St. Albans 
in 1231, was in priest's orders, served the 
office of infirmarer, either composed or simply 
copied as a scribe (scriptor) the chronicle in 
question, and died at Wymondham, Norfolk, 
a cell of St. Albans, on 14 Aug. 1258. 

John of Wallingford is confused by Gale 
in his preface, and by Freeman (Norman 
Conquest, i. 344 .), with John, called de 
Cella, abbot of St. Albans, who studied at 
Paris, where he gained the reputation of 
being a ' Priscian in grammar, an Ovid in 
verse, and a Galen in medicine.' He was 
elected abbot of St. Albans on 20 July 
1195, rebuilt the west front of the abbey 
church, and died on 17 July 1214. 

The chronicle associated with John of 
Wallingford's name extends from 449 to 
1035, and, as published, takes up only 
pp. 525-50 ; but it is longer in manuscript, 
for Gale, as he says in his preface, omitted 
some things and abridged in other parts, 
specially those dealing with hagiology ; his 
omissions are more frequent than would be 
gathered from his text. The author evi- 
dently used several excellent authorities, 
such as Bede, the Saxon priest's ' Life of 
Dunstan,' Florence of Worcester, and the 
like ; but, though he makes some attempts 
at comparison and criticism, has inserted so 
many exaggerations and misconceptions ap- 
parently current in his own time, and has 
further so strangely confused the results of 
his reading, that his production is histori- 
cally worthless. More than once he speaks 
of his intention to write a larger chronicle. 

[Mon. Hist. Brit. Introd. p. 22, virtually re- 
peated in Hardy's Cat. Mat. i. 625-6.1 

W. H. 

WALLINGFORD, RICHARD OF 
(1292 P-1336), abbot of St. Albans. [See 
RICHARD.] 

WALLINGFORD, WILLIAM (d. 
1488?), abbot of St. Albans, was from youth 
up a monk of St. Albans. lie only left the 
house to study at the university, probably 
at Oxford (Eegistra Mon. S. Albani, i. 130). 
He was an administrator rather than a re- 
cluse, and at the time of the death of Abbot 
John Stoke, on 14 Dec. 1451, was already 
archdeacon, cellarer, bursar, forester, and sub- 
cellarer of the abbey of St. Albans (ib. i. 5). 
He was a candidate for the succession when 
John Whethamstede [q. v.] was unanimously 



Wallingford 



137 



Wallingford 



elected on 16 Jan. 1452. Throughout the 
abbacy of Whethamstede Wallingford held 
office 'as ' official general,' archdeacon, and 
also as chamberlain (ib. i. 5, 173). Faction 
raged high among the monks, and grave 
charges were then or later brought against 
Wallingford, which are detailed at great 
length in Whethamstede's ' Register ' (ib. i. 
102-35). They are, however, evidently an 
interpolation, probably by a monk jealous of 
Wallingford, and Whethamstede not only 
took no notice of these accusations, but con- 
tinued W 7 allingford in all his offices. In 
1464 he was, as archdeacon, appointed by 
the abbot one of a commission for the exami- 
nation of heretics (ib. ii. 22). Ramridge, 
Wallingford's successor as abbot, says that 
he first became distinguished as archdeacon 
for his care of education, training ten young 
monks at his own expense, and for the lavish 
attention he bestowed upon the abbey build- 
ings and treasures. He built ' many fair 
new buildings ' for the abbey, ranging from 
the library to a stone bakehouse, while those 
buildings which were falling into a ruinous 
state he repaired. He also presented the 
abbey with many rich treasures, such as a 
gold chalice and precious gold-embroidered 
vestments. Their value was 980 marks. 

When, upon the death of Whethamstede 
on 20 Jan. 1465, William Albon, the prior, 
was on 25 Feb. elected his successor, Wal- 
lingford took a leading part in the election 
(ib. ii. 27, 30, 36, 37). On 18 March the 
new abbot, with the common consent of the 
monks, created Wallingford prior of the 
monastery. His previous office of arch- 
deacon he continued to exercise (ib. ii. 50, 
90). In 1473 he was granted, with others, 
a commission for the visitation of the curates 
and vicars of St. Peter's, St. Andrew's, St. 
Stephen's, and St. Michael's of the town of 
St. Albans (ib. ii. 109). As prior he kept up 
his interest in the maintenance of the monas- 
tic buildings, spending 360/. on the kitchen, 
and within eight years laying out a thou- 
sand marks on the repairs of farms and 
houses. He built a prior's hall, and added 
all that was necessary for it (DCGDALE, 
Monasticon, ii. 206 n.) 

After Abbot Albon's death on 1 July 1476, 
Wallingford was on 5 Aug. unanimously 
elected to succeed him. Wallingford's regis- 
ter covers the years from 1476 to August 
1488, though certain leaves are torn out from 
the end of it. Wallingford took little part 
in outside affairs. He resisted successfully 
certain claims of Archbishop Bourchier over 
the abbey, which were decided in the abbot's 
favour upon appeal to Rome (ib. ii. 206 n. ; 
NEWCOME, History of St. Albans, p. 398 ; 



CLUTTEUBTJCK, p. 35). In 1480 Wallingford 
was appointed by the general chapter of Bene- 
dictines at Northampton visitor of all Bene- 
dictine monasteries in the diocese of Lincoln, 
but he commissioned William Hardwyk and 
John Maynard to conduct the visitation in 
his place (Registra, ii. 219). His government 
of the abbey was marked by regard for strict 
discipline tempered with generosity. Thus, 
while he deposed John Langton, prior of 
Tynemouth, for disobedience to his 'visitors' 
(ib. 15 March 1478, ii. 186), he gave letters 
testimonial for the absolution of a priest who 
by misadventure had committed homicide 
(ib. 20 Aug. 1476, ii. 246, 247). He manu- 
mitted certain villeins and their children (ib. 
1480, ii. 208, 235). Wallingford sent in 1487 
John Rothebury, his archdeacon, to Rome 
in order to try to win certain concessions 
for the abbey, but the mission proved a failure 
(ib. ii. 288, 289). 

W r allingford's abbacy shows some of the 
weakpoints characteristic of fifteenth-century 
monasticism. There is a desire to make the 
best of both worlds. The lay offices of the 
abbey were turned to advantage. For exam- 
ple, in 1479 Wallingford conferred the office 
of seneschal or steward of the liberty of St. 
Albans, with all its emoluments, on William, 
lord Hastings (Registra, ii. 199, 200), not- 
withstanding the fact that Abbot Albon had 
already in 1474 conferred the same on John 
Forster for life. Three years afterwards Wal- 
lingford gave the office jointly to the same 
Lord Hastings and John Forster. However, 
Lord Hastings was put to death by Richard 
III soon after, and Forster, after being im- 
prisoned in the Tower for nearly nine months, 
' in hope of a mitigation of his punishment, 
did remit and release all his title and 
supreme interest that he had in his office of 
seneschal of St. Albans.' This is one in- 
stance of several (ib. ii. 267, 268) which 
show that the lay offices of the abbey were 
used for selfish ends. The attitude of Wal- 
lingford to the bishops was conciliatory as a 
rule, sometimes even obsequious. Thus, when 
he feared the loss of the priory at Pembroke, 
given by Duke Humphrey, through Edward's 
resumption of grants made by his three Lan- 
castrian predecessors, he applied humbly to 
the chancellor, George Neville, bishop of 
Exeter, for his good offices, and through him 
secured a re-grant. The bishop later, in re- 
turn, was granted the next presentation of 
the rectory of Stanmore Magna in Middlesex 
(ib. ii. 92). Mr. Riley, in his introduction 
to the second volume of Whethamstede's 
' Chronicle,' is, however, unduly severe in his 
interpretation of many of AVallingford's acts. 

From the golden opinions of his imme- 



Wallingford 



138 



Wallington 



diate successor in the abbacy, Thomas Ram- 
ridge, no less than from the simple entries 
in Wallingford's own register, it is clear that 
he was efficient and thoroughgoing, an excel- 
lent administrator, and a diligent defender of 
his abbey. He voluntarily paid 1,830/. of 
debts left by his predecessor. He built a 
noble altar-screen, long considered the finest 
piece of architecture in the abbey. Upon 
this he spent eleven hundred marks, and 
another thousand marks in finishing the 
chapter-house. He built also, at the cost of 
100, a small chantry near the altar on the 
south side, in which he built his tomb, with 
his effigy in marble. His tomb bears the 
inscription : 

Gulielmus quartus, opus hoc laudabile cuius 
Extitit, hie pau?at : Christus sibi prsemia 
reddat. 

(WEEVER, Funerall Mon. p. 556). Two fine 
windows, a precious mitre, and two rich pas- 
toral staves were other gifts the abbey owed 
to his munificence. When he died in or 
about 1488 he left the abbey entirely freed 
from debt. 

The main interest of Wallingford's abbacy 
lies in the fact that the art of printing, 
brought into England a few years before by 
Caxton, was then introduced into the town 
of St. Albans. The whole subject of the 
relation of the St. Albans press to other 
presses is obscure, and even the name of the 
St. Albans printer and his connection with 
the abbot unknown (AMES, Typoyr. Antiq. 
ed. Dibdin, vol. i. p. civ). All that is certain 
is that between 1480 and 1486 this unknown 
printer issued eight works, the first six in 
Latin, the last two in English. The most 
important and last of these was the famous 
' Boke of St. Albans ' [see BERNERS, JULIANA] . 
All that is clearly known of the St. Albans 
printer is that in Wynkyn de Worde's re- 
print of ' St. Albans Chronicle ' the colophon 
states : ' Here endith this present chronicle, 
compiled in a book and also emprinted by 
our sometime schoolmaster of St. Alban.' 
There is no clear proof of any closer relation 
between Wallingford and the ' schoolmaster 
of St. Alban ' than between John Esteney, 
abbot of Westminster, and William Caxton, 
who worked under the shadow of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. Yet the probabilities of close 
connection in a little place like St. Albans 
between the abbot, who was keenly interested 
in education, and the ' schoolmaster,' who 
was furthering education by the printing of 
books, are in themselves great, and are con- 
firmed by the fact that two of the eight books 
printed between 1480 and 1486 bear the 
arms of the abbey of St. Albans (see for the 



discussion of the subject Mr. W. Blades's 
introduction to his Facsimile Reprint of the 
Boke of St. Albans, London, 1881, pp. 17-18, 
and E. GORDON BUFF'S Early Printed Books, 
p. 140. Mr. Blades is of opinion that no 
connection between the schoolmaster and the 
abbey can be established). 

[Nearly all that is known of Wallingford is 
to be found in his Register, which, with that of 
his predecessors, Whethamstede and Albon, is 
printed in Mr. Riley's Registra Johannis Whet- 
hamstede, Willelmi Albon et Willelmi Waling- 
forde, in the Rolls Series ; Wullingford's Re- 
gister is printed in ii. 140-290.] M. T. 

WALLINGTON, NEHEMIAH (1598- 
1658), puritan, born on 12 May 1598, was 
the tenth child of John Wallington (d. 1641), 
a turner of St. Leonard's, Eastcheap, by 
his wife Elizabeth (d. 1603), daughter of 
Anthony Hall (d. 1597), a citizen and skinner 
of London. 

A little before 1620 Nehemiah entered 
into business on his own account as a turner, 
and took a house in Little Eastcheap, be- 
tween Pudding Lane and Fish-street Hill. 
In this abode he passed the remainder of 
an uneventful life. His puritan sympathies 
caused him occasional anxiety. In 1639 he 
and his brother John were summoned before 
the court of Star-chamber on the charge of 
possessing prohibited books. He acknow- 
ledged that he had possessed Prynne's ' Divine 
Tragedie,' Matthew White's ' Newes from 
Ipswich,' and Henry Burton's ' Apology of 
an Appeale,' but pleaded that he no longer 
owned them. For this misdemeanour he 
was kept under surveillance by the court for 
about two years, but suffered no further 
penalty. 

Wallington has been preserved from 
oblivion by three singular compilations of 
contemporary events. In 1630 he com- 
menced his ' Historical Notes and Medita- 
tions, 1583-1649,' a quarto manuscript 
volume, now in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 21935). It consists of classified extracts 
from contemporary journals and pamphlets, 
which he enlarged with hearsay knowledge 
and enriched with pious reflections. The 
work is chiefly occupied with political 
affairs. The latest event recorded is the 
execution of Charles I. In December 1630 
he commenced a record of his private affairs, 
under the title ' Wallington's Journals,' in 
a quarto volume, preserved in the Guildhall 
Library. It was formerly in the possession 
of William Upcott [q. v.], who indexed its 
contents. In 1632 he commenced a third 
quarto, now in the British Museum (Sloane 
MS. 1457), in which he recorded numerous 
strange portents which had occurred in various 



Wallis 



139 



Wallis 



parts of England, ' cheifly ' taking ' notice of 
Gods iudgments upon Sabbath breakers and 
on Drunkards.' It contains many extracts 
from his ; Historical Notes.' 

Wallington died in the summer or autumn 
of 1658. In 1619 or 1620 he was married 
to Grace, sister of Zachariah and Livewell 
Rampain. Zachariah, a man of good estate, 
was slain by the Irish in 1641. Livewell 
was minister at Burton, near Lincoln, and 
afterwards at Broxholme. By her Wal- 
lington had several children, of whom only 
a daughter, Sara, survived him. She was 
married to a puritan, named John Haughton, 
on 20 Nov. 1642. 

"Wellington's ' Historical Notes ' were 
published in 1869 (London, 2 vols. 8vo) under 
the editorship of Miss R. Webb, with the 
title ' Historical Notices of Events occurring 
chiefly in the Reign of Charles I.' 

[Miss Webb's Introduction to Historical 
Notices.] E. I. C. 

"WALLIS, Miss, afterwards MRS. CAMP- 
BELL (^Z. 1789-1814), actress, the daughter 
of a country actor, was born at Richmond 
in Yorkshire, and appeared in Dublin as a 
child under Richard Daly, whose manage- 
ment of Smock Alley Theatre began in 1781 
and ended in 1798. For her father's benefit, 
announced as her own, she caricatured the 
Fine Lady in ' Lethe.' She played with her 
father in many country theatres, and, after 
the death of her mother, obtained through 
the influence of Lord and Lady Roslyn (Earl 
and Countess of Rosslyn?) an engagement 
at Covent Garden, where she appeared on 
10 Jan. 1789 as Sigismunda in 'Tancred and 
Sigismunda.' Leading business appears at 
once to have been assigned her, and she played 
during the season Belvidera, Roxalana, and, 
for her benefit, Rosalind. In the character 
last named she made her first appearance 
(17 Oct. 1789) at Bath. Amanthis in the 
'Child of Nature ' followed on 21 Jan. 1790. 
She was subsequently seen as Lucile in 
'False Appearances,' Letitia Hardy, Indiana, 
Calista in the 'Fair Penitent,' Lady Emily 
Gayville, Maria in the ' Citizen,' and Beatrice 
in ' Much Ado about Nothing.' At Bath 
or Bristol she remained until 1794, playing 
a great round of characters, including Vio- 
lante in the ' Wonder,' Imogen, Widow 
Belmour, Julia de Roubigne (an original 
part) in Catharine Metcalfe's adaptation so 
named, on 23 Dec. 1790; Lady Townley, 
Portia, Monimia, Lady Amaranth in ' Wild 
Oats,' Juliet, Lady Teazle, Susan in ' Follies of 
a Day,' Isabella in ' Measure for Measure,' 
Cordelia, Jane Shore. Constance in ' King 
John,' Euphrasia, Lady Macbeth, Catharine 



in ' Catharine and Petruchio,' Mrs. Ford, 
Rosamond in ' Henry II,' Mrs. Beverley, 
Perdita, and very many other characters of 
primary importance. So great a favourite 
did she become that the pit was, for her 
benefit, converted into boxes (what is now 
known as dress circle). The benefit pro- 
duced 145/., in those days a large sum. She 
also gave an address stating her reasons for 
quitting the Bath Theatre. A second benefit 
in Bristol produced 163/. 

As ' Miss Wallis from Bath ' she reappeared 
at Covent Garden on 7 Oct. 1794, playing 
Imogen. She repeated many of the promi- 
nent characters in which she had been seen 
in Bath, including Juliet, Calista, Beatrice, 
and Cordelia, and played several original 
parts, of which the following are the most 
considerable : Georgina in Mrs. Cowley's 
'Town before you,' 6 Dec. 1794; Julia in 
Miles Peter Andrews's ' Mysteries of the 
Castle,' 31 Jan. 1795 ; Lady Surrey in Wat- 
son's ' England Preserved,' 21 Feb. ; Augusta 
Woodbine in O'KeefFe's ' Life's Vagaries,' 
19 March; Miss Russell in Macready's ' Bank 
Note,' 1 May, founded on Taverner's 'Art- 
ful Husband ; ' Joanna in Holcroft's ' De- 
serted Daughter,' 2 May ; Ida in Boaden's 
' Secret Tribunal,' 3 June ; Emmeline in 
Reynolds's ' Speculation,' 7 Nov. ; Julia in 
Morton's ' Way to get Married,' 23 Jan. 
1796; Lady Danvers in Reynolds's 'For- 
tune's Fool,' 29 Oct. ; Jessy in Morton's 
' Cure for the Heartache,' 10 Jan. 1797 ; and 
Miss Dorillon in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Wives as 
they were and Maids as they are,' 4 March. 
She had also been seen as Olivia in ' Bold 
Stroke for a Husband,' Cecilia in ' Chapter 
of Accidents,' Julia in the ' Rivals,' Perdita, 
Eliza Ratcliffe in the 'Jew,' Arethusa in 
' Philaster,' Lady Sadlife, Leonora in ' Lovers' 
Quarrels,' and Adrianain ' Comedy of Errors.' 
The last part in which her name as Miss 
Wallis is traced is Mrs. Belville in the 
1 School for Wives,' 22 May 1797. At the 
close of the season she performed in New- 
castle and other towns in the north. She had 
during the previous season, unless there is a 
mistake in the year, played on 2 July at 
Edinburgh Juliet to the Romeo of Henry 
Siddons. In June or July 1797, at Glads- 
muir, Haddingtonshire, she married James 
Campbell of the 3rd regiment of guards, and 
retired from the stage. 

On 20 Feb. 1813, as Mrs. Campbell late 
i Miss Wallis, she reappeared at Covent 
Garden, playing Isabella in Garrick's piece so 
named ; but she lost nerve and was a failure. 
She repeated the character once, but at- 
tempted nothing else. In April she reap- 
peared at Bath for six nights, acting as 



Wallis 



140 



Wallis 



Lady Townley and Hermione. The follow- 
ing season she was again engaged, and was 
seen in many characters, including Rutland 
in ' Earl of Essex,' Lady Gentle in ' Lady's 
Last Stake,' Zaphira in ' Barbarossa,' and 
Marchioness in ' Doubtful Son.' She never 
quite recovered her lost ground, however, 
and from this time disappears. 

Miss Wallis had a graceful figure and a 
pretty, dimpled face. She had capacity for 
the expression of sadness but not of deep 
passions. Her comedy was pretty, but arti- 
ficial and simpering. She had a voice pleas- 
ing but uncertain, deficient in range and 
imperfectly under control. She was charged 
with inattention and walking through her 
parts. Of these, Miss Dorillon, in ' Wives 
as they were and Maids as they are,' was 
perhaps the best. She was also successful 
as Joanna in the ' Deserted Daughter,' Julia 
in the ' Way to get Married,' and Jessy 
Oatland in the ' Cure for the Heartache.' 
She was unrivalled in parts which required 
simplicity, an unaffected deportment, mo- 
desty and sweetness. This seems to have 
been her own character, her purity and 
simplicity of life having won her a high 
character and many friends. 

A portrait as Juliet, by John Graham, 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1796, is 
in the possession of Robert Walters, esq., of 
Ware Priory, Hertfordshire. Romney painted 
her portrait in 1788, before she went on the 
Covent Garden stage, as ' Mirth and Melan- 
choly.' This picture, sold for 50/. at Rom- 
ney's sale, was engraved by Keating, and 
published 4 Jan. 1799. She seems to have 
been Romney's model at a later date. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; 
Monthly Mirror, various years, especially Sep- 
tember 1797; Theatrical Inquisitor, 1813; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Diet.; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. xii. 176, 294; 
Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 613.] J. K. 

WALLIS, GEORGE (1740-1802), phy- 
sician and author, was born at York in 1740. 
He studied medicine, and, after gaining 
the degree of M.D., obtained a large prac- 
tice at York. He was much attached to 
theatrical amusements, and besides other 
pieces composed a mock tragedy entitled 
' Alexander and Statira,' which was acted 
at York, Leeds, and Edinburgh. In 1775 
a dramatic satire by him, entitled ' The 
Mercantile Lovers,' was acted at York. The 
play possessed merit enough for success, 
but it sketched too plainly the foibles of 
prominent citizens of the town. Through 
their resentment Wallis lost his entire 
medical practice, and was obliged to remove 



to London, where an expurgated edition of 
the play appeared in the same year. In 
London he commenced as a lecturer on the 
theory and practice of physic, and in 1778 
published an ' Essay on the Evil Conse- 
quences attending Injudicious Bleeding in 
Pregnancy ' (London, 1781, 2nd edit. 8vo). 
He died in London, at Red Lion Square, on 
29 Jan. 1802. 

Besides the works mentioned, he was the 
author of: 1. 'The Juvenaliad,' a satire, 
1774, 4to. 2. ' Perjury,' a satire, 1774, 4to. 

3. ' Nosologia Methodica Oculorum, or a 
Treatise on the Diseases of the Eyes, trans- 
lated and selected from the Latin of Francis 
Bossier de Sauvages,' London, 1785, 8vo. 

4. ' The Art of preventing Diseases and 
restoring Health,' London, 1793 ; 2nd edit. 
1796; German translation, Berlin, 1800. 

5. ' An Essay on the Gout,' London, 1798, 
8vo. He edited the ' Works of Thomas 
Sydenham on Acute and Chronic Diseases,' 
London, 1789, 2 vols. 8vo, and the third 
edition of George Motherby's ' Medical 
Dictionary,' London, 1791, fol. 

[Gent. Mag. 1802, i. 186; Baker's Biogr. 
Dram. 1812; Watt's Bibliotheca Britan. ; Reuss's 
Register of Authors Living in Great Britain.] 

FIG 

WALLIS, GEORGE (1811-1891), 
keeper of South Kensington Museum, son 
of John W T allis (1783-1818) by his wife, 
Mary Price (1784-1864), was bornat Wolver- 
hampton on 8 June 1811, and educated at 
the grammar school from 1820 to 1827. He 
practised as an artist at Manchester from 
1832 to 1837, but, taking an interest in art 
education as applied to designs for art 
manufactures and decorations, he won one 
of the six exhibitions offered by the govern- 
ment in 1841 and joined the school of design at 
Somerset House, London. He became head- 
master of the Spitalfields schools in January 

1843, and was promoted to the headmaster- 
ship of the Manchester school on 15 Jan. 

1844, which position he resigned in 1846, as 
he could not agree with changes in the plan 
of instruction originated at Somerset House. 
In 1845 he organised at the Royal Institution, 
Manchester, the first exhibition of art manu- 
factures ever held in England, and in the 
same year he delivered the first systematic 
course of lectures on the principles of deco- 
rative art, illustrated with drawings on the 
blackboard. These lectures led Lord Claren- 
don, then president of the board of trade, to 
ask Wallis to draw up a chart of artistic and 
scientific instruction as applied to industrial 
art. This chart is said to have been the basis 
of the instruction afforded by the present 
science and art department (SPAKKES, Schools 



Wallis 



141 



Wallis 



of Art, p. 45). The royal commissioners for 
the Great Exhibition of 1851 appointed him 
a deputy commissioner, and he acted in 1850 
for several manufacturing districts and the 
whole of Ireland. During the exhibition of 
1851 he Avas superintendent of the British 
textile division, and a deputy commissioner 
of juries. After the close of the exhibition 
he accepted, at the request of the board of 
trade, the headmastership of the Birmingham 
school of design. In 1853 he was one of the 
six commissioners sent by the government to 
the United States of America to report on 
art and manufactures, and from his report 
and that of Sir Joseph Whitworth [q. v.J on 
machinery was compiled ' The Industry of 
the United States,' 1854. During the great 
International Exhibition of 1862 he acted 
in the same capacity as he had done in 1851. 
He was actively engaged in the British sec- 
tion of the Paris universal exhibitions of 1855 
and 1867. In 1858 he left Birmingham and 
joined the South Kensington Museum as 
senior keeper of the art collection, an appoint- 
ment which he relinquished just prior to his 
death. He fostered the system of circulating 
works of art in provincial museums. On 
7 March 1878 he was elected F.S.A. He 
wrote in all the leading art periodicals, and 
was one of the earliest contributors to the 
' Art Journal,' besides delivering a vast num- 
ber of lectures on design and kindred subjects. 
He died at 21 St. George's Road, Wimbledon, 
Surrey, on 24 Oct. 1891, and was buried in 
Highgate cemetery on 28 Oct. He married, 
on 30 June 1842, Matilda, daughter of Wil- 
liam Cundall of Camberwell, and left issue. 
Besides prefaces to artistic works he wrote : 
1. ' On the Cultivation of a Popular Taste in 
the Fine Arts,' 1839. 2. ' The Principles of 
Art as applied to Design,' 1844. 3. ' Intro- 
ductory Address delivered to the Students 
of the Manchester School of Design,' 1844. 

4. ' The Industry of the United States in 
Machinery and Ornamental Art,' 1844. 

5. ' The Artistic and Commercial Results of 
the Paris Exhibition,' 1855. 6. 'Recent Pro- 
gress of Design,' 1856. 7. ' Schools of Art, 
their Constitution and Management,' 1857. 
8. ' Wallis's Drawing Book, Elementary 
Series,' 1859. 9. < The Manufactures of Bir- 
mingham,' 1863. 10. ' The Royal House of 
Tudor,' 1866. 11. ' Technical Instruction,' 
1868. 12. 'Language by Touch,' 1873. 13. 'De- 
corative Art in Britain, Past, Present, and 
Future,' 1877. 14. ' British Art, Pictorial, 
Decorative, and Industrial: a Fifty Years' 
Retrospect,' 1882. He edited Benjamin 
Waterhouse Hawkins's ' Comparative Ana- 
tomy as applied to the Purposes of the 
Artist,' 1883. 



[Art Journal, December 1891, p. 384. with por- 
trait; Daily Graphic, 28 Oct. 1891, with portrait; 
Illustrated London News, 1 7 Oct. 1891, with por- 
trait ; London Figaro, 1 4 Oct. 1 89 1, with portrait ; 
Magazine of Art, December 1891, with portrait ; 
Biograph, 1879, ii. 177; Simms's Bibliotheca 
Staffordiensis, pp. 484-6.] G. C. B. 

WALLIS, JOHN (1616-1703), mathe- 
matician, was born at Ashford in Kent on 
23 Nov. 1616. His father, the Rev. John 
Wallis (1567-1622), son of Robert Wallis 
of Finedon, Northamptonshire, graduated 
B.A. and M.A. from Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and was minister at Ashford from 
1602 until his death on 30 Nov. 1622. He 
married in 1612, as his second wife, Joanna, 
daughter of Henry and Mary Chapman of 
Godmersham, Kent, and had by her three 
daughters and two sons, John and Henry. 

Wallis's education was begun at Ashford ; 
but, on an outbreak there of the plague, he 
was removed in 1625 to a private school at 
Ley Green, near Tenterden, kept by James 
Mouat, a Scot. When it broke up in 1630 
Wallis ' was as ripe for the university,' by 
his own account, ' as some that have been 
sent thither.' 'It was always my affecta- 
tion even from a child,' he wrote, ' not only 
to learn by rote, but to know the grounds 
or reasons of what I learn ; to inform my 
judgment as well as furnish my memory.' 
When placed in 1630 at Felsted school, 
Essex, he wrote and spoke Latin with fa- 
cility, knew Greek, Hebrew, French, logic, 
and music. During the Christmas vacation 
of 1631 his brother taught him the rules of 
arithmetic, and the study ' suited my humour 
so well that I did thenceforth prosecute it, 
not as a formal study, but as a pleasing 
diversion at spare hours,' when works on the 
subject ' fell occasionally in my way. For I 
had none to direct me what books to read, 
or what to seek, or in what method to 
proceed. For mathematics, at that time 
with us, were scarce looked on as academical 
studies, but rather mechanical as the 
business of traders, merchants, seamen, car- 
penters, surveyors of lands, and the like.' He 
was admitted to Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, at Christmas 1632, gained a scholar- 
ship on the foundation, and became noted as 
a dialectician. His course of study embraced 
ethics, physics, and metaphysics, besides 
medicine and anatomy; he being the first 
pupil of Francis Glisson [q. v.] to maintain 
publicly the circulation of the blood. He 
graduated B.A. and M.A. in 1637 and 1640 
respectively, was ordained in the latter year, 
and became chaplain, first to Sir Richard 
Darley at Buttercrambe, Yorkshire, then 
(1642-4) to the widow of Horatio, lord Vere, 



Wallis 



142 



Wallis 



alternately at Castle Hedingham, Essex, 
and in London. Here, one evening at supper, 
a letter in cipher was brought in, relating 
to the capture of Chichester on 27 Dec. 1642, 
-which Wallis within two hours succeeded 
in deciphering. The feat made his fortune. 
He became an adept in the cryptologic art, 
until then almost unknown, and exercised it 
on behalf of the parliamentary party. He 
was rewarded in 1643 with the sequestrated 
living of St. Gabriel, Fenchurch Street, which 
he exchanged in 1647 for that of St. Martin 
in Ironmonger Lane. In 1644 he acted as 
secretary to the assembly of divines at West- 
minster, and obtained by parliamentary 
decree a fellowship in Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. This, however, he speedily vacated 
by his marriage, on 14 March 1645, with 
Susanna, daughter of John and Rachel Glyde 
of Northiam, Sussex. He now came to live 
in London. Already zealous for the ' new ' 
or experimental philosophy, he associated 
there with Robert Boyle [q. v.] and other re- 
formers of scientific method, whose weekly 
meetings, divided after 1649 between Oxford 
and London, led to the incorporation, in 
1663, of the Royal Society (for Wallis's ac- 
count of its origin, see WELD'S History of 
the Royal Society, i. 30, 36). Having con- 
tributed effectively to found it, he long 
helped to sustain its reputation by impart- 
ing his own inventions and expounding those 
of others. 

He was well off, his mother at her death 
in 1643 having left him a substantial estate 
in Kent, and the course pursued by him in 
politics, although devious, does not appear 
to have been dishonest. He gave evidence 
against Archbishop Laud in 1644 (PRYNNE, 
Canterburies Doome, 1646, p. 73), but in 
1648 signed the remonstrance against the 
king's execution, and in 1649 the ' Serious 
and Faithful Representation.' ' Oliver had a 
great respect for him,' according to Anthony 
Wood, and he showed it by appointing him 
in 1649 Savilian professor of geometry in the 
university of Oxford, of which he was in- 
corporated M.A. from Exeter College in the 
same year. He further took a degree of 
D.D. on 31 May 1653, confirmed by diploma 
on 25 June 1662. His succession in 1658 
to Gerard Langbaine the elder [q. v.] as 
keeper of the university archives, elicited 
Henry Stubbe's hostile protest, ' The Savilian 
Professor's Case stated' [see STTTBBS or 
STITBBES, HENRY, 1632-1676]. In 1653 
Wallis deposited in the Bodleian Library a 
partial collection of the letters deciphered by 
him, with an historical preface, published by 
John Davys in 1737 in his ' Essay on the 
Art of Decyphering.' Wallis was afterwards 



accused by Prynne and Wood of having in- 
terpreted the correspondence of Charles I 
captured at Naseby; but ' he had this in him 
of a good subject, that at this time, in 1645, 
he discovered nothing to the rebels which 
much concerned the public safety, though he 
satisfied some of the king's friends that he 
could have discovered a great deal ' (Life of 
Dr. John Barwick, p. 251). That this was his 
plan of action he himself expressly states in 
a letter to Dr. John Fell [q. v.], dated 8 April 
1685 ; and the details of the services ren- 
dered by him in this line to the royal cause 
during some years before the Restoration 
were doubtless authentically known to 
Charles II. He was accordingly confirmed 
in his posts in 1660, was nominated a royal 
chaplain, and obtained an appointment among 
the divines commissioned in 1661 to revise 
the prayer-book. 

Wama published, in 1643, < Truth Tried ; 
or Animadversions on the Lord Brooke's 
; Treatise on the Nature of Truth.' The 
| perusal in 1647 of Oughtred's ' Clavis Ma- 
thematicae' may be said to have started his 
mathematical career, and his genius took its 
special bent from Torricelli's writings on the 
method of indivisibles. Applying to it the 
Cartesian analysis, Wallis arrived at the 
new and suggestive results embodied in his 
' Arithmetica Infinitorum' (Oxford, 1655), 
the most stimulating mathematical work so 
far published in England. Newton read it 
with delight when an undergraduate, and 
derived immediately from it his binomial 
theorem. It contained the germs of the 
differential calculus, and gave, 'in every- 
thing but form, advanced specimens of the 
integral calculus' (DE MORGAN, in the Penny 
Cyclopedia). The famous value for IT, here 
made known, was arrived at by the interpo- 
lation (the word was of his invention) of 
terms in infinite series. In the matter of 
quadratures, first by him investigated ana- 
lytically, Wallis generalised with consum- 
mate skill what Descartes and Cavalieri had 
already done. The book promptly became 
famous, and raised its author to a leading 
position in the scientific world. 

He prefixed to the 'Arithmetica Infini- 
torum' a treatise in which analysis was first 
applied to conic sections as curves of the 
second degree. In a long-drawn controversy, 
begun in 1655, he exposed the geometrical 
imbecility of Thomas Hobbes [q. v.] It ex- 
cited much public interest ; but after the 
death of his adversary, Wallis declined to 
reprint the scathing pamphlets he had di- 
rected against him while alive (cf. HOBBES'S 
Works, ed. Molesworth, 1839-45, passim). 
A numerical problem sent to him by the 



Wall is 



143 



Wallis 



French matliematician Fermat led to a corre- 
spondence, in which Lord Brouncker, Sir 
Kenelm Digby, Frenicle, and Schooten took 
part, published under the title ' Commercium 1 
Epistolicum' (Oxford, 1658). In a tract, ' De I 
Cycloide,' issued in 1659, Wallis gave correct 
answers to two questions proposed by Pascal, 
and treated incidentally of the rectification I 
of curves. His ' Mathesis Universalis' (Ox- I 
ford, 1657) embodied the substance of his j 
professorial lectures. 

In 1655 Christian Huygens sent to the 
Royal Society a cryptographic announce- 
ment of his discovery of Titan. Wallis re- 
torted with an ingenious pseudo-anagram, 
capable of interpretation in many senses, 
which eventually enabled him to claim for 
Sir Paul Neile and Sir Christopher Wren 
anticipatory observations of the new Sa- 
turnian satellite. Huygens surrendered his 
priority in all good faith, but was irritated 
to find that he had been taken in by a prac- 
tical joke. ' Decepisse me puto si potuisset,' 
was his private note on Wallis's letter to 
him of 17 April 1656. One dated 1 Jan. 
1659 gave at last the requisite explanation 
((Euvres Completes de Christiaan Huygens, i. 
335, 396, 401, ii. 306). Wallis was partial 
to his countrymen. In his ' History of Al- 
gebra ' he attributed to Thomas Harriot [q. v.] 
much that belonged to Vieta. This narra- 
tion, the first of its kind, made part of his 
' Treatise on Algebra' (London, 1685). Roger 
Cotes [q. v.] said of the volume : ' In my 
mind there are many pretty things in that 
book worth looking into' (Correspondence of 
Newton and Cotes, ed. Edleston, p. 191). 

Wallis's ' Grammatica Linguae Angli- 
canse ' (Oxford, November 1652) has been 
tacitly commended by many imitators, and 
often reprinted. To it was appended a re- 
markable tract, ' De Loquela,' describing in 
detail the various modes of production of 
articulate sounds. The study led him to the 
invention of a method for imparting to deaf- 
mutes the art of speech. ' I am now upon 
another work,' he wrote to Robert Boyle on 
30 Dec. 1661, 'as hard almost as to make 
Mr. Hobbes understand a demonstration. It 
is to teach a person deaf and dumb to speak ' 
(BoYLE, Works, vi. 453). His patient was 
a youth named Daniel Whalley, exhibited 
in 1663 as a triumph of the novel curative 
process before Charles II, Prince Rupert, 
and the Royal Society. His next success 
was with Alexander, son of Admiral Edward 
Popham [q. v.], previously experimented 
upon by Dr. William Holder [q. v.] Their 
respective shares in his instruction occa- 
sioned some dispute. 

On 26 Nov. 1668 Wallis laid before the 



Royal Society a correct theory of the im- 
pacts of inelastic bodies, based upon the 
principle of the conservation of momentum 
(Phil. Trans, iii. 864). It was more fully 
expounded in his ' Mechanica,' issued in three 
parts, 1669-71, the most comprehensive work 
on the subject then existing. Wallis's ' De 
/Estu Maris Hypothesis Nova,' appeared in 
1668. The essential part of the tract had 
been communicated to the Royal Society on 
6 Aug. 1666 (ib. ii. 263, see also iii. 652, v. 
2061, 2068). It is worth remembering chiefly 
for the sagacious assumption made in it that 
the earth and moon may, for purposes of 
calculation, be regarded as a single body 
concentrated at their common centre of 
gravity. 

After the Revolution, Wallis was em- 
ployed as decipherer, on behalf of William 
III, by Daniel Finch, second earl of Not- 
tingham [q. v.] Some of the correspondence 
submitted to him related to the alleged sup- 
posititious birth of the Prince of Wales 
(James III). On one of these letters he 
toiled for three months, on another for ten 
weeks ; and he wrote piteously to Notting- 
ham asking for ' some better recompense 
than a few good words ; for really, my lord, 
it is a hard service, requiring much labour 
as well as skill ' (Monthly Magazine, 1802, 
vols. xiii. xiv.) Consulted in 1692 about 
the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, he 
strongly discountenanced the step, mainly 
on the ground that it would imply sub- 
serviency to Rome ; and his authority pre- 
vailed. 

At Sir Paul Neile's on 16 Dec. 1666, 
Samuel Pepys met ' Dr. Wallis, the famous 
scholar and mathematician ; but he promises 
little.' The acquaintance, however, con- 
tinued, and Wallis wrote to Pepys, after 
the lapse of thirty-five years : ' Till I was 
past fourscore years of age, I could pretty 
well bear up under the weight of those 
years ; but since that time, it hath been too 
late to dissemble my being an old man. My 
sight, my hearing, my strength, are not as 
they were wont to be ' (PEPYS, Diary, ed. 
Braybrooke, v. 399). He died at Oxford on 
28 Oct. 1703, aged 86, and was buried in St. 
Mary's Church, where his son placed a mural 
monument in his honour. 

A full-length portrait of him in his robes 
was painted in 1701 by Kneller, who was 
sent to Oxford by Pepys for the purpose. 
Designed as a gift to the university, it was 
hung in the gallery of the schools, where it 
remains. Kneller declared to Pepys: 'I 
never did a better picture, nor so good an 
one in my life, which is the opinion of all as 
has seen it.' Wallis expressed his gratitude 



Wallis 



144 



Wallis 



' for the honour done me in placing so noble 
a picture of me in so eminent a place ' (tb. 

Ep. 401, 411). Kneller also drew a half- 
mgth of his venerable sitter, whom he repre- 
sented holding a letter in his hand, with the 
adjuncts of a gold chain and medal given to 
him by the king of Prussia for deciphering it. 
Both pictures were engraved by Faber, the 
former by David Loggan [q. v.] and William 
Faithorne, junior [q. v.], as well. His por- 
trait, by Zoest, belongs to the Royal Society. 
Portraits of him by Loggan (1678) and by 
Sonmans (1698) were engraved by Michael 
Burghers [q. v.] to form the frontispieces 
of the first and third volumes of his ' Opera 
Mathematical A portrait after Kneller is 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
and a sixth portrait is in the Uffizi Gallery, 
Florence. 

Wallis lost his wife on 17 March 1687. 
His only son, John Wallis, born on 26 Dec. 
1650, graduated B.A. from Trinity College, 
Oxford, on 9 Nov. 1669, was called to the 
bar in 1676, and married, on 1 Feb. 1682, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Harris of 
Soundess House, Oxfordshire. By the death 
of her brother, Taverner Harris, she in- 
herited a fine estate, and she died in 1693, 
leaving three children. Wallis had two 
daughters, ' handsome young gentlewomen,' 
according to John Aubrey (Lives of Eminent 
Men, p. 568), of whom the younger mar- 
ried William Benson of Towcester, and 
died childless in 1700 ; the elder, born in 
1656, married in 1675 Sir John Blencowe 
[q.v.] 

Wallis was endowed with ' a hale and vigo- 
rous constitution of body, and a mind that 
was strong, serene, calm, and not soon ruffled 
and discomposed ' (Life of Wallis, by John 
Lewis, Add. MS. 32601). ' It hath been my 
lot,' he wrote in 1697, ' to live in a time 
wherein have been many and great changes 
and alterations. It hath been my endeavour 
all along to act by moderate principles, be- 
tween the extremities on either hand, in a 
moderate compliance with the powers in 
being.' ' Hereby,' he added, ' I have been 
able to live easy and useful, though not 
great.' He was indeed thoroughly acceptable 
to neither royalists nor republicans, but 
compelled respect by his mastery of a dan- I 
gerous art. He steadily refused Leibnitz's 
requests for information as to his mode of 
deciphering. In mathematical history Wallis 
ranks as the greatest of Newton's English j 
precursors. He was as laborious as he was 
original; and, by the judicious use of his 
powers of generalisation, he prepared all the 
subsequent discoveries of that age. The 
principles of analogy and continuity were 



i introduced by him into mathematical science. 
j His interpretation of negative exponents and 
j unrestricted employment of fractional ex- 
ponents greatly widened the range of the 
higher algebra. Finally, he invented the 
symbol for infinity, oc . His memory for 
| figures was prodigious. He often w'hiled 
away sleepless nights with exercises in mental 
' arithmetic. On one occasion he extracted 
the square root of a number expressed by 
fifty-three figures, and dictated the result to 
twenty-seven places next morning to a 
stranger. It proved exact. He made use of 
no special technique in performing such feats, 
working merely by common rules on the 
blackboard of his own tenacious mind {Phil. 
Trans, xv. 1269). 'Dr. Wallis,' Hearne 
wrote (Collections, ed. Doble, 1885, i. 46), 
' was a man of most admirable fine parts, and 
great industry, whereby in some years he 
became so noted for his profound skill in 
mathematics that he was deservedly ac- 
counted the greatest person in that profes- 
sion of any in his time. He was withal a 
good divine, and no mean critic in the Greek 
and Latin tongues.' 'An extraordinary knack 
of sophistical evasion ' was unjustly at- 
tributed to him by those to whom his trim- 
ming politics were obnoxious. 

Wallis's collected mathematical works 
were published, with a dedication to Wil- 
liam III, in three folio volumes at the Shel- 
donian Theatre, Oxford, in 1693-9. The 
second (1696) contained Sir Isaac Newton's 
first published account of his invention of 
the fiuxional calculus. In the third was 
inserted a statement by John Flamsteed 
[q. v.] regarding an ostensible parallax for 
the pole-star 'a noble observation if you 
make it out,' Wallis wrote to him on 9 May 
1695. He fully believed that the astronomer 
royal had ' made it out,' thereby showing 
complete ignorance of technical astronomy. 
His learned and laborious editions of ancient 
authors were reprinted in the same volume. 
He began with Archimedes, whose ' Arena- 
rius ' and ' Dimensio Circuli ' he corrected 
from manuscript copies, and published in 
1676. Ptolemy's ' Harmonicon,' until then 
inedited, followed in 1680. In 1688 he un- 
earthed and sent to the press a fragment of 
Pappus's second book, together with Aris- 
tarchus's ' De Magnitudinibus et Distantiis 
Soils et Lunte.' 

Wallis edited in 1673 the posthumous 
works of Jeremiah Horrocks [q. v.] In 1687 
he published his celebrated 'Institutio 
Logicae,' reprinted for the fifth time in 1729. 
His various theological writings were 

gathered into a single volume in 1691, and 
harles Edward de Coetlogon [q. v.] pub- 



Wallis 



145 



Wallis 



lished his ' Sermons ' from the original 
manuscripts in 1791. 

[Wallis's Account of some Passages in his 
own Life, in a letter to Dr. Thomas Smith, 
appended to Hearne's preface to Peter Lang- 
toft's Chronicle ; Hearne's Works, vol. iii. p. cxl ; 
Biogr. Brit. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 
124, 184, 264 ; Wood's Hist, of the University 
of Oxford (Gutch), ii. 866, 962 ; General Diet. ; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Roy. Society, p. 271 ; 
Rigaud's Correspondence of Scientific Men, pas- 
sim ; Mayor in Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 95; 
Sargeaunt's Hist, of Felsted School, pp. 37-40 ; 
Foster's Alumni ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of Eng- 
land, iii. 285 ; Brewster's Life of Newton, ii. 
202; Europ. Mag. xxxiv. 308, xxxvi. 91, xlix. 
345, 427, 429 ; (Euvres de C. Huygens, passim ; 
Edleston's Corr. of Newton and Cotes, p. 300 ; 
Calamy's Own Times, i. 272 ; Neal's Puritans 
(Toulmin), iv. 389 ; Life of Dr. J. Barwick, pp. 
61, 251 ; Cajori's Hist, of Mathematics, p. 192; 
Rouse Ball's Hist, of Mathematics, p. 256 ; 
Montucla's Hist, des Mathematiques, ii. 68, 348, 
iii. 301 ; Gerhardt's Geschichte der hoheren 
Analyse, pp. 34, 76; Marie's Hist, des Sciences, 
iv. 149; Evelyn's Diary (Bray), i. 352, 461; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Literature; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Morel's De J. Wallisii Grammatica 
Linguae Anglican*, Paris, 1895; Bromley's Cat. 
of Engraved Portraits, p. 228 ; Evans's Por- 
traits, i. 364; Le Neve's Monumenta Anglicana, 
iv. 58; Lansdowne MSS. 987 ff. 91, 251, 258, 
1181 contains an analysis of Wallis's writings, 
763, f. 124, a letter by him on ancient music; 
Addit. MS. 32449 includes his correspondence 
with Nottingham, 1691-2. In Dunton's Life and 
Errors (Nichols), ii. 658, is a copy of verses on 
Wallis's funeral, beginning : 
' I'll have the solemn pomp and stately show 

In geometrical progression go.' ] 

A. M. C. 

WALLIS, JOHN (1714-1793), county 
historian, the son of John Wallace or Wallis 
of Croglin, Cumberland, was born at Castle- 
nook, South Tindale, in the parish of Kirk- 
haugh, Northumberland, in 1714. He ma- 
triculated from Queen's College, Oxford, on 
3 Feb. 1732-3. He graduated B.A. in 1737, 
and proceeded M. A. in 1740. Having taken 
orders, he held a curacy for a few years 
apparently in the neighbourhood of Ports- 
mouth. He afterwards became curate of 
Simonburn, Northumberland, where he in- 
dulged his taste for botany, and collected 
during more than twenty years materials 
for his history of his native county. In 
1748 he published, by subscription, 'The 
Occasional Miscellany, in Prose and Verse ' 
(Xewcastle-on-Tyne, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo). It 
contained several sermons and two poems, 
'The Royal Penitent: or Human Frailty 
delineated in the Person of David,' in about 
four hundred rhyming couplets, and 'The 

VOL. LIX. 



Exhortation of the Royal Penitent,' a para- 
phrase of Psalm cvii. Wallis's chief work, 
however, was ' The Natural History and 
Antiquities of Northumberland, and so much 
of the County of Durham as lies between the 
Rivers Tyne and Tweed, commonly called 
North Bishoprick' (London, 1769, 2 vols. 
4to). The first volume, which is the more 
complete, deals with the minerals, fossils, 
plants, and animals of the county, the plants 
being named according to Ray, and including 
cryptogams. ' Unfortunately for his repu- 
tation as a correct man of science,' says 
Mr. N. J. Winch (Transactions Natural 
History Society of Northumberland, ii. 145), 
' two or three of the most remarkable plants 
which he supposed he had discovered growing 
with us were not the species he took them 
for.' The second volume deals with the an- 
tiquities, arranged in three tours through the 
county. On the death of the rector of Si- 
mondburn in 1771, the living was given to 
James Scott (1733-1813) [q. v.], the once 
celebrated Anti-Sejanus, for political ser- 
vices, who proved ' a proud and overbearing 
superior, who had more regard for his spaniels 
than his curate ' (HODGSON, op. cit. p. 73). 
Wallis, being compelled to leave his curacy, 
was received into the family of his college 
friend Edward Wilson, vicar of Haltwhistle. 
In 1775 he acted as temporary curate at 
Haughton-le-Skerne, and in the same year 
was appointed to Billingham, near Stock- 
ton, where he remained till midsummer 
1792, when increasing infirmities obliged him 
to resign. In 1779 Thomas Pennant [q. v.] 
had tried in vain to secure some preferment 
for his brother antiquary from the bishop of 
Durham (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. viii. 745) ; but 
throughout his life Wallis never had anything 
better than a curacy of 30/.a year (ib.p. 743). 
About two years before his death a small 
estate fell to him by the death of a brother, 
and Bishop Shute Barrington [q. v.] allowed 
him an annual pension from the time of his 
resigning the curacy of Billingham. Wallis 
then removed to the neighbouring village of 
Norton, where he died on 19 July 1793. He 
left a small but valuable collection of books, 
mainly on natural history. His wife Eliza- 
beth, whose fifty-six years of married happi- 
ness is said to have become almost proverbial 
in their neighbourhood, survived until 1801 
(WiNCH, op. cit. p. 145). Some of Wallis's 
letters to George Allan [q. v.] are printed in 
Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes (viii. 759-60). 

[Gent. Mag. 1793, ii. 769; Hutchinson's His- 
tory of Cumberland, ii. 367 ; Brewster's History 
of Stockton, 2nd edit. 1829; James Raine's 
Memoir of the Rev. John Hodgson, i. 140, ii. 
197 ; works cited above.] G-. S. B. 



Wallis 



146 



Wallis 



WALLIS, JOHN (1789-1866), topo- 
grapher, born in Fore Street, Bodmin, on 
11 April 1789, was the son of John Wallis 
(1759-1842), attorney and town clerk of 
Bodmin, by his wife Isabella Mary, daughter 
of Henry Slogget, purser in the royal navy. 
He was educated at Tiverton grammar 
school, and afterwards articled to his father, i 
After being admitted a solicitor and proctor 
he matriculated from Exeter College, Ox- 
ford, on 17 Dec. 1813, graduating B.A. on 
7 July 1820, and M.A. on 20 March 1821. 
On completing his residence at Oxford he 
was ordained in 1817, and was appointed 
vicar of Bodmin on 17 Nov. of the same 
year. He was a capital burgess of the 
borough, and served the office of mayor in 
1822, In 1840 he became an official of the 
archdeacon of Cornwall, a post which he 
retained till his death. 

Wallis was an ardent topographer, and 
executed several maps and plans of Bodmin 
and the surrounding districts. His first 
publication was a reprint of the index to 
Thomas Martyn's ' Map of the County of 
Cornwall,' to which he appended a short 
account of the archdeaconry of Cornwall 
(London, 1816, 8vo). In 1825 he published 
thirteen outline maps of the archdeaconry 
and county of Cornwall, on the scale of 
four miles to the inch. Between 1831 and 
183-4 he published several reports and tables 
dealing with Bodmin borough, and between 
1827 and 1838 he published in twenty parts 
' The Bodmin Register,' containing elaborate 
collections relating to the past and present 
state of the borough, besides particulars 
concerning the county, archdeaconry, parlia- 
mentary districts, and poor-law unions of 
Cornwall. He projected also an ' Exeter 
Register,' to comprise the rest of the see. 
The first part was published in 1831, but 
no more appeared. In 1847 and 1848 he 
brought out the ' Cornwall Register,' in 
twelve parts, which contained particulars 
concerning the Cornish parishes, and was 
accompanied by a map of Cornwall on the 
scale of four miles to an inch. 

Wallis died at Bodmin vicarage, unmar- 
ried, on 6 Dec. 1866, and was buried at 
Berry cemetery on 11 Dec. Besides the 
works mentioned he was the author of a 
'Family Register' (1827, 12mo), and of 
several small pamphlets, chiefly on topo- 
graphical subjects. 

[Wallis's Works; Gent. Mag. 1867, i. 124; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Foster's Index 
Eccles.; West Briton, 14 Dec. 1866; Boase's 
Account of the Families of Boase, 1876, p. 56.] 

E. I. C. 



WALLIS, SIR PROVO WILLIAM 
PARRY (1791-1892), admiral of the fleet 
and centenarian, only son of Provo Feather- 
stone Wallis, chief clerk to the naval com- 
missioner at Halifax, Nova Scotia, was born 
at Halifax on 12 April 1791. His mother 
was a daughter of William Lawlor, major 
in the 1st battalion of the Halifax regiment. 
It has been suggested that he was related 
to Captain Samuel Wallis [q. v.], which is 
not improbable. It is more certain that he 
was the grandson of Provo Wallis, a carpenter 
in the navy, who, after serving through the 
seven years' war, was in 1776 carpenter of 
the Eagle, the flagship of Lord Howe in 
North America, and appointed by him on 3 
March 1778 to be master-shipwright of the 
naval yard established at New York. After 
the peace he was transferred to Halifax. 

At an early age young Wallis was sent to 
England, and while there at school his name 
was borne on the books of several different 
ships on the Halifax station. He actually 
entered the navy in October 1804 on board 
i the Cleopatra, a 32-gun frigate, commanded 
I by Sir Robert Laurie. On her way out to 
i the West Indies on 16 Feb. 1805 the Cleo- 
; patra, after a gallant action, was captured 
j by the French 40-gun frigate Ville de Milan, 
i which was herself so much damaged that a 
week later, 23 Feb., she surrendered without 
resistance to the 50-gun ship Leander. The 
Cleopatra was recaptured at the same time 
(JAMES, Naval History, iv. 26), and Laurie 
was reinstated in the command. Shortly 
j afterwards Laurie was appointed to the Ville 
j de Milan, commissioned as the Milan, and 
j Wallis went out with him. In November 
: 1806 he was appointed acting-lieutenant of 
! the Triumph, with Sir Thomas Masterman 
Hardy [q. v.], and on 30 Nov. 1808 was 
officially promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Curieux brig, which a year later, 3 Nov. 
1809, was wrecked on the coast of Guade- 
loupe. He was then appointed to the Gloire, 
and, after one or two other changes, was 
appointed in January 1812 to the Shannon, 
commanded by Captain (afterwards Sir) 
Philip Bowes Vere Broke [q.v.] He was 
second lieutenant of her in the brilliant 
capture of the Chesapeake on 1 June 1813, 
and, being left by the death of the first lieu- 
tenant and Broke's dangerous wound com- 
manding officer, took the Shannon and her 
prize to Halifax. The prisoners, being con- 
siderably more numerous than the crew of 
the Shannon, were secured in handcuffs, 
which they themselves had provided. On 
9 July Wallis was promoted to the rank of 
commander, and, returning to England in the 
Shannon in October, was appointed in Ja- 



Wallis 



147 



Wallis 



nuary 1814 to the Snipe sloop. On 12 Aug. 
1819 he was advanced to post rank. 

From 1824 to 1826 he commanded the 
Niemen on the Halifax station ; in 1838-9 
the Madagascar in the West Indies and off 
Vera Cruz ; and from 1843 to 1846 the War- 
spite in the Mediterranean. On 27 Aug. 
1851 he was promoted to the rank of rear- 
admiral, and in 1857 was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief on the south-east coast of 
South America, from which he was recalled 
on his promotion to be vice-admiral, 10 Sept. 
1857. He had no further service, but was 
nominated a K.C.B. on 18 May 1860, pro- 
moted to be admiral on 2 March 1863 ; rear- 
admiral of the United Kingdom, 1869-70 ; 
vice-admiral of the United Kingdom, 1870- 
1876; G.C.B. 24 May 1873; admiral of the 
fleet, 11 Dec. 1877. By a special clause in 
Childers's retirement scheme of 1870 it was 
provided that the names of those old officers 
who had commanded a ship during the French 
war should be retained on the active list, and 
the few days that Wallis was in command of 
the Shannon brought him within this rule. 
His name was thus retained on the active 
list of the navy till his death. During the 
latter part of his life he resided mainly at 
Funtington. near Chichester, in full enjoy- 
ment of his faculties, and reading or writing 
with ease till a few months before the end. 
On his hundredth birthday (12 April 1891) 
he received congratulations by letter or tele- 
gram from very many, including one from 
the queen, from the Prince of Wales, the 
Duke of Edinburgh, the mayor and corpora- 
tion of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the cap- 
tain and officers of the Shannon, then lying 
at Falmouth. He died on 13 Feb. 1892, and 
was buried with military honours at Funt- 
ington on 18 Feb. Wallis married first, 
on 19 Oct. 1817, Juliana, daughter of Arch- 
deacon Roger Massey, by whom he had two 
daughters. He married, secondly, on 21 July 
1849, Jemima Mary Gwyne, a daughter of 
General Sir Robert Thomas Wilson [q. v.], 
governor of Gibraltar. 

['Admiral of the Fleet Sir Provo W. P. Wallis : 
a Memoir,' by Dr. J. G. Briahton, 1892 (with 
portraits) ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Royal 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

WALLIS, RALPH (d. 1669), noncon- 
formist pamphleteer, known as * the Cobler 
of Gloucester,' was, according to the minutes 
of the Gloucester corporation, admitted on 
8 June 1648 ' to keepe an English schoole 
at Trinity church ' (since demolished). On 
5 Aug. 1651 the corporation paid the 
charges of his journey ' to London about the 
city business.' On 24 Sept. 1658 he was 



made a burgess and freeman of the city on 
the ground of his ' many services.' At the 
Restoration he appears as a pamphleteer of 
the Mar-Prelate type, attacking with rude 
jocular virulence the teaching and character 
of the conforming clergy. Adopting the 
sobriquet ' Sil Awl ' (an anagram on Wallis), 
he called himself ' the Cobler of Gloucester,' 
and his pamphlets take the form of dialogues 
between 'the Cobler' and his wife. His 
earliest pamphlets appear to have borne the 
titles ' Magna Charta ' and ' Good News from 
Rome.' On 18 Jan. 1664 he is reported as 
' lurking in London,' under the alias of 
Gardiner ; he lodged in the house of Thomas 
Rawson, journeyman shoemaker, in Little 
Britain, and employed himself in dispersing 
his pamphlets. Money for printing them 
was collected by James Forbes (1629?- 
1712) [q. v.], the independent. Corre- 
spondence between Wallis and his wife 
Elizabeth was intercepted. Two warrants 
(12 May and 20 June) were issued for his 
apprehension. In September his house at 
Gloucester and the houses of Toby Jordan, 
bookseller at Gloucester, and others, were 
searched for seditious books. On 28 Sept. 
(Sir) Roger L'Estrange [q.v.] wrote to Henry 
Bennet (afterwards Earl of Arlington) [q.v. J 
that he had Wallis in custody. On 1 Oct. 
Rawson, Wallis, and Forbes were examined 
by the privy council. Wallis admitted his 
authorship, and declared himself to be in 
religion ' a Christian.' He obtained his re- 
lease, Sir Richard Browne (d. 1669) [q. v.] 
being his bail. In a petition to Arlington, 
Wallis affirmed that he ' only touched the 
priests that they may learn better manners, 
and will scribble as much against fanatics, 
when the worm gets into his cracked pate, 
as it did when he wrote those books.' In 
April 1665 he was examined before the privy 
council for a new pamphlet, ' Magna Charta, 
or More News from Rome ' (the British Mu- 
seum has a copy with title ' Or Magna 
Charta; More News from Rome,' 1666, 4to). 
On 15 April 1665 William Nicholson (1591- 
1672) fq. v.], bishop of Gloucester, wrote to 
Sheldon that, ' though much favour had been 
shown him ' (he had specially attacked Nichol- 
son), ' he sells the books publicly in the town 
and elsewhere, and glories in them.' In his 
last known pamphlet, ' Room for the Cobler 
of Gloucester ' (1668, 4to), which L'Estrange 
calls (24 April 1668) ' the damnedest thing 
has come out yet,' he tells a story which is 
commonly regarded as the property of Maria 
Edgeworth [q. v.] 'The Lord Bishop is 
much like that Hog, that, when some Chil- 
dren were eating Milk out of a Dish that 
stood upon a Stool, thrust his Snowt into 

L2 



Wallis 



148 



Wallis 



the Dish, and drank up all ; not regarding 
the Children, who cryed, "Take a Poon, 
Pig, take a Poon" ' (p. 39 ; cf. Simple Susan). 
Wallis's anecdotes, often brutally coarse, 
are not always without foundation (see 
URWICK, Nonconformity in Hertfordshire, 
1884, p. 538). He died in 1668-9; the 
burial register of St. Mary de Crypt, Glou- 
cester, has the entry ' Randulphus Wallis 
fanaticse memorise sepult. Feb y 9.' In 1670 
appeared a tract entitled ' The Life and Death 
of Ralph Wallis, the Cobler of Gloucester, 
together with some inquiry into the Mystery 
of Conventicleism ;' it gives, however, no bio- 
graphical particulars. A later tract, ' The 
Cobler of Gloucester Revived' (1704), 4to, 
contains nothing about Wallis. 

[Wallis's pamphlets above noted ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dora. 1664, 1665, and 1668; Glouces- 
tershire Notes and Queries, 1887, iii. 433 ; Ex- 
tracts from Gloucester Corporation records and 
parish register, per the Rev. W. Lloyd.] A. G. 

WALLIS, ROBERT (1794-1878), line- 
engraver, born in London on 7 Nov. 1794', 
was son of Thomas Wallis, who was an assis- I 
tant of Charles Heath (1785-1848) [q. v.] 
and died in 1839. He was taught by his 
father, and became one of the ablest of the j 
group of supremely skilful landscape-en- ' 
gravers who flourished during the second j 
quarter of the present century, particularly 
excelling in the interpretation of the work 
of Joseph Mallord William Turner [q. v.] 
He was employed upon the illustrations to 
CookeV Southern Coast of England/Turner's 

* England and Wales ' and ' Rivers of France,' 
Heath's ' Picturesque Annual,' Jennings's 
' Landscape Annual,' the fine editions of the 
works of Scott, Campbell, and Rogers, the 

* Keepsake,' the 'Amulet,' the ' Literary Sou- 
venir,' and many other beautiful publications. 
On a larger scale he engraved various plates 
forthe' Art Journal' from pictures by Turner, 
Callcott, Stanfield, Fripp, and others, and 
many for the 'Turner Gallery.' Wallis's 
finest productions are the large plates after 
Turner, 'Lake of Nemi' and 'Approach to 
Venice ;' a proof of the latter was exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1859, and on its 
completion he retired from the profession. 
The remainder of his life was passed at Brigh- 
ton, where he died on 23 Nov. 1878. 

HENRY WALLIS (1805 P-1890), brother of 
Robert, practised for some years as an en- 
grayer of small book-illustrations, but early 
in life was compelled by attacks of paralysis 
to seek another occupation. He then turned 
to picture-dealing, and eventually became 
the proprietor of the French Gallery in Pall | 
Mall, which he conducted successfully until I 



shortly before his death, which occurred on 
15 Oct. 1890. 

Another brother, William Wallis, born 
in 1796, is known by a few choice plates exe- 
cuted for Jennings's ' Landscape Annual,' 
Heath's ' Picturesque Annual,' the ' Keep- 
sake,' &c. 

[Athenseum, 1 878, ii. 695 ; Art Journal, 1879 ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Times, 24 Oct. 1890 ; 
list of members of the Artists' Annuity Fund.] 

F. M. O'D. 

WALLIS, SAMUEL (1728-1795), cap- 
tain in the navy, born at Fentonwoon, near 
Camelford, Cornwall, and baptised at Lante- 
glos on 23 April 1728, was the third son of 
John Wallis of Fentonwoon (1680-1 768) by 
Sarah (d. 1731), daughter of John Barrett. 
After serving through the war in a subordinate 
grade, Wallis was promoted to be lieutenant 
in the navy on 19 Oct. 1748. In January 
1753 he was appointed to the Anson, with 
Captain Charles Holmes [q. v.], and in April 
175o to the Torbay, the flagship of Yice- 
admiralEdwardBoscawen[q.v.]InFebruary 
1756 he joined the Invincible, and on 30 June 
was promoted to command the Swan sloop. 
On 8 April 1757 he was posted to the Port 
Mahon, a 20-gun frigate attached to the 
fleet which went out to North America 
with Admiral Francis Holburne [q. v.] In 
September 1758 he was appointed by Bos- 
cawen to the Prince of Orange of 60 guns, 
one of the fleet, in the following year, with 
Sir Charles Saunders [q. v.] in the St. Law- 
rence. On the North American station in 
1760 and in the Channel fleet in 1761-2 he 
commanded the Prince of Orange till the 
peace. In June 1766 he was appointed to the 
Dolphin, then refitting for another voyage 
similar to that which she had just made 
under the command of Commodore John 
Byron (1723-1786) [q. v.] In the Dolphin, 
and having in company the Swallow sloop, 
commanded by Philip Carteret [q.v.], Wallis 
sailed from Plymouth on 22 Aug. After 
touching at Madeira, Porto Praya in the 
Cape Verd Islands, and Port Famine, where 
they cleared out and dismissed their victual- 
ler, the two ships passed through the Straits 
of Magellan and came into the Pacific on 
12 April 1767. Then they separated, nor 
did they again meet. Wallis, in the Dol- 
phin, at once kept away to the north-west, 
taking a course totally different from that 
followed by all his predecessors, none of 
whom, in fact, except Magellan and Byron, 
had primarily aimed at discovery. The 
others, whether Spaniards or Englishmen 
looking out for Spaniards, had stuck close 
to the track of the Spanish trade. The result 
was that Wallis opened out a part of the ocean 



Wallmoden 



149 



Wallmoden 



till then unknown, and first brought to 
European knowledge the numerous islands 
of the Low Archipelago and of the Society 
Islands, including Tahiti, which he called 
King George the Third's Island. Thence he 
made for Tinian, which he reached on 
19 Aug., having discovered many new 
islands on the way. After staying a month 
at Tinian, he went to Batavia, and thence 
home by the Cape of Good Hope, arriving in 
the Downs on 18 May 1768. Without 
having displayed any particular genius as a 
navigator or discoverer, Wallis is fully en- 
titled to the credit of having so well carried 
out his instructions as to add largely to our 
knowledge of the Pacific ; and still more to 
that of having kept his ship's company in 
fairly good health. During the whole voyage, 
though thrown entirely on their own re- 
sources, there was no serious outbreak of 
scurvy, and when the ship arrived at 
Batavia there was one man sick. Batavia 
was then and always a pestilential hole, and 
while there many men died of fever and 
dysentery ; but on leaving Batavia the sick- 
ness at once abated, and a month in Table 
Bay did away with much of the remaining 
evil. In November 1770 Wallis was ap- 
pointed to the Torbay, commissioned on ac- 
count of the dispute with Spain about the 
Falkland Islands ; and in 1780 he for a j 
short time commanded the Queen. In 1782 ' 
he was appointed an extra commissioner of 
the navy; the office was abolished in 1783, 
but was reinstituted in 1787, when Wallis 
was again appointed to it, and remained in 
it till his death at Devonshire Street, Port- 
land Place, London, on 21 Jan. 1795. His 
widow Betty, daughter of John Hearle of 
Penryn, died at Mount's Bay on 13 Nov. 
1804, leaving no issue. 

Wallis's account of his voyage, first printed 
in Hawkesworth (1733), was repeated in 
Hamilton Moore's ' Collection of Voyages ' 
(1785), in Robert Wilson's Voyages ' (1806), 
inKerr's 'General History of Voyages '(1814), 
and in Joachim Heinrich Campe's collection 
(Brunswick, 1831). Some of the charts and 
maps made by Wallis are in Addit. MS. 
21593. 

[Gent. Mag. 1804, ii. 1080; Maclean's Trigg 
Minor, ii. 370 sq. ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornubiensis, p. 850 ; Charnock's Biogr. Nav. vi. 
277; Naval Chronicle, xxxiii. 89; Hawkes- 
worth's Voyages of Discovery, vol. i. ; Com- 
mission and Warrant books in the Public Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

WALLMODEN, AMALIE SOPHIE 
MARIANNE, COUNTESS OF YARMOUTH 
(1704-1765), born on 1 April 1704, was 
daughter of Johann Franz Dietrich von 



Wendt, general in the Hanoverian service, 
by his wife Friderike Charlotte, born von 
dem Busche, widow of General Welk, also 
in the Hanoverian service. In 1727 she was 
married to Gottlieb Adam von Wallmoden, 
' Oberhauptmann ' of Calenberg, Hanover. 
Blonde, sprightly, amiable, niece of Lady 
Darlington, and great-niece of the elder 
Countess Platen, Frau von Wallmoden at- 
tracted in 1735 the attention of George II 
during his summer sojourn in the electorate. 
She received from him without hauteur 
gallantries which he frankly communicated 
to the queen, by whom they were as frankly 
encouraged. Caroline's complaisance was 
probably dictated rather by policy than by 
indifference, for a touch of bitterness is ap- 
parent in the ' Ah, mon Dieu ! cela n'empeche 
pas,' with which on her deathbed she re- 
joined to the ' Non, j'aurai des maitresses ' 
with which the king met her suggestion 
that he should marry again. The king kept 
his word, and when the time of mourning had 
elapsed Frau von Wallmoden was brought 
over from Hanover and installed in St. 
James's Palace. In 1739 she was divorced 
from her husband, and in the following year 
(24 March) she was created Countess of 
Yarmouth. Her advent was hailed by Wai- 
pole in the hope that her influence might be 
politically serviceable. Lady Yarmouth, 
however, proved entirely unfit for the role of 
a Pompadour, and had the good sense to 
abstain as a rule from meddling in court 
intrigues. On the death of the king, whose 
affection she never lost, she returned to 
Hanover, where she died on 19 Oct. 1765. 
She left issue two sons, Franz Ernst and 
Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden. The 
latter, born on 27 April 1736, was brought 
up at the English court and reputed the 
fruit of her intimacy with the king. As, 
however, he was born before the divorce, his 
paternity is doubtful. He entered the 
Hanoverian service, and bore high command 
with no great distinction in the war with 
the French (1793-1801). He died at Han- 
over on 10 Oct. 1811. 

Some of Lady Yarmouth's letters are pre- 
served in Additional MSS. 6856, 23814 
f. 578, 32710-969, and Egerton MS. 1722 
ff. 35, 132. 

[Duerre's Regesten des Geschlechtes von Wall- 
moden, pp. 248, 255 : Malortie's Beitrage zur 
Gesch. des Braunschweig-Liineburgischen Hauses 
u. Hofes, v. 149 ; Vehse's Gesch. der Hofe des 
Hanses Braunschweig, i. 273; Siebenfach. Konigl. 
Gross.-Britannisch. u. Churf iirstl. Braunsclvweig- 
Liineburgisch. Staats-Calendar, 1740 p. 72 ; Lord 
Hervey's Mem. i. 499 ; Lord Chesterfield's Let- 
ters, ed. Mahon, iii. 274 ; Bielfeld's Friedrich 



Wallop ii 

der Grosse u. sein Hof, i. 101 ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, ix. 413 ; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, 
ed. Courthope; Gent. Mag. 1765, p. 492; Al'lg. 
Deutsche Biographic, ' Wallmoden.'l 

J. M. E. 

WALLOP, SIR HENRY (1540 P-1599), 
lord justice of Ireland, eldest son and heir 
of Sir Oliver Wallop of Farleigh-AVallop 
in the county of Southampton, and nephew 
and heir of Sir John AA 7 allop [q. v.], gover- 
nor of Calais, was born apparently about 
1540. He was J.P. for Hampshire in 1569, 
and, being in that year knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth at Basing, he was appointed, along 
with Sir William Kingsmill, to take a 
view of the defences of Portsmouth, and 
to provide the county of Southampton 
with arms and armour (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80, pp. 368, 384). He was 
returned M.P. for the town of Southampton 
to the parliament which met on 8 May 
1572, and established a reputation for use- 
fulness. In 1575 he was placed on a com- 
mittee of the house appointed to consider 
the nature of the petition to be made to the 
queen on the motions touching the reforma- 
tion of discipline in the church, his o\vn 
views tending in the direction of puritanism. 
In the same session he was appointed, with 
other members of the house, to confer with 
the lords in regard to private bills (D'EwES, 
Journal, p. 277). Being a commissioner ' for 
restraining the transport of grain out of the 
county of Surrey,' he dissented from the 
view of his fellow-commissioners that they 
should regard their county as their family 
and send from it nothing that it Avants, 
holding on the contrary 'that markets 
shoulde be free for alle men to bye . . . 
and yt ys most reasonable that one contrye 
shoulde helpe an other with soche comodytes 
as they are able to spare.' But being a 
' grete corn man ' his views on free trade 
were regarded as interested (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. p. 629). He suffered much 
at this time from ague (ib. p. 631), and from 
AValsingham he received a friendly warning 
against a spare diet and too free indulgence 
in mineral Avaters (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 502). 

In consequence of the death of Sir Ed\vard 
Fitton [q. v.] AVallop was in July 1579 
offered the post of A'ice-treasurer to the 
Earl of Ormonde in Ireland. He accepted 
with great reluctance, and receiA'ed his 
commission on 10 Aug., but retained his 
seat in parliament (D'EwES, Journal, p. 277). 
He landed at AVaterford on 12 Sept., but 
his health was so bad that on reaching 
Dublin he AA-as obliged for several weeks 
to keep to his chamber. His appointment 



Wallop 



coincided with the outbreak of the Desmond 
rebellion, and Wallop, taking a pessimistic 
view of the situation, was sharply repri- 
manded by Burghley for his unconscionable 
demands on the queen's purse. He apolo- 
gised. Nevertheless, he was right in think- 
ing the situation critical, especially after 
the death of Sir William Drury [q. v.] in 
October. To Drury succeeded Sir William 
Pelham [q. v.], and towards the latter end 
of February 1580 Wallop moved to Limerick 
in order to be near the seat of the war. He 
speedily detected the possibility of turning 
the rebellion to the benefit of the state by 
erecting an English plantation in Munster, 
and on 22 April he expounded his views 
on the subject to Walsingham (Cal. State 
Papers, Irel. ii, 219). After a severe illness 
he went, towards the end of July, to Askea- 
ton, where he made discovery of a feoffment 
of his estate by the Earl of Desmond before 
entering into rebellion, of which he subse- 
quently made capital use. 

In August Arthur Grey, fourteenth lord 
Grey de Wilton [q. v.], came over as viceroy, 
and Wallop, accompanying Pelham to Dub- 
lin, was present when the latter resigned 
the sword of state to Grey on 7 Sept. 
Himself an advocate of strong measures, 
he was utterly dissatisfied with Elizabeth's 
temporising government, especially at the 
practice of filling up the regiments with 
native Irish, and on 14 March 1581 he 
expressed a desire to be allowed to with- 
draw from his post. He was appointed a 
commissioner for ecclesiastical causes on 
10 April. In July he accompanied Grey on 
an expedition against Sir Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill [q. v.] But Elizabeth's parsimonious 
government and his own ill-health filled 
him with despair. He had, he declared, 
since his appointment as vice-treasurer 
spent '2,0001. of his own money, and his 
inability to fulfil his obligations to the mer- 
chants of Dublin prevented him raising any 
fresh loans. He renewed his request to be 
allowed to retire ; but Elizabeth knew too 
well the value of an honest servant to 
accede, and, in prospect of Grey's recall, she 
appointed Wallop and Adam Loftus [q. v.], 
archbishop of Dublin, lords justices on 
14 July 1582 (Cal. Fiants, Eliz. 3975). 

With his colleague he was on good terms, 

and Loftus urged his appointment as lord 

deputy on the grounds of his ' sufficiency, 

carefulness, and perfect sincerity.' Eliza- 

i beth expressed herself satisfied with their 

[ ' good husbandry of extraordinary charges.' 

j The renewal of the treaty with Turlough 

j Luineach in August 1582, whereby he con- 

! sented to submit his claims to the considera- 



Wallop i; 

tion of commissioners appointed by the crown ; ' 
the prosecution by Ormonde of the Earl of 
Desmond ending in the capture and death 
of the latter in November 1583; the capture, 
torture, and execution on 21 June 1584 of 
Dermot O'Hurley [q. v.], titular archbishop 
of Cashel, are the chief events marking their 
tenure of office. But the whole period was 
one of universal distress, when, as it was 
graphically said, ' the wolf and the best rebel 
lodged in one inn, with one diet and one 
kind of bedding,' and it was with a feeling of 
relief that Wallop and Loftus surrendered 
the sword of state to Sir John Perrot [q.v.] 
on 21 June 1584. 

Immediately after the death of Sir Nicholas 
Malby [q. v.] Wallop had passed to himself 
on 10 March 1584 a patent of the castle of 
Athlone; but this he was obliged to surrender 
to Perrot on a pretext by the latter that he 
wanted to make it the seat of his govern- 
ment. Being appointed a commissioner for 
surveying the lands -confiscated by the re- 
bellion of the Earl of Desmond, Wallop pro- 
ceeded to Limerick in September, and, having 
with much discomfort and some personal risk 
travelled through the counties of Limerick 
and Kerry, he returned to Dublin towards 
the latter end of November. During his 
' survey ' he had been much struck with the 
fertility of the soil in county Limerick, and 
at once put in a claim for the manor of Any 
(Knockainy) and Lough Gur. In March 1585 
he purchased a lease of the abbey lands of | 
Enniscorthy, estimated to contain about | 
12,464 acres. Here he established a flourish- j 
ing colony composed of Englishmen and ' the | 
more honest sort of Irish,' and started an ! 
export trade in ship planks and pipe-staves \ 
to the Madeiras and other wine-producing 
countries, ' being the first beginner of that 
trade in the kingdom.' In July the same 
year he obtained a lease for twenty-one years, 
at an annual rent of 22/. 17*. 8d. and the 
maintenance of two English horsemen, of the 
abbey lands of Adare in county Limerick. 

Notwithstanding his disapproval of Per- 
rot's expedition against the Antrim Scots, 
Wallop had at first regarded the deputy 
with favour, but, perceiving after a time that 
* under pretence of dutifulness ' he ' carried 
an unfaithful heart,' he joined the ranks of 
Perrot 's enemies. His opposition led to an 
open breach between them at the council 
board, and, being violently reproached by the 
deputy, Wallop retaliated by actively collect- 
ing information against Perrot. His pro- 
duction of the Desmond feoffment in the 
second session of ' Perrot's parliament ' frus- 
trated an attempt on the part of the earl's 
friends to prevent his attainder, and obtained 



i Wallop 

for him the queen's thanks. Lameness pre- 
vented him serving on the commission for 
the admeasurement of the forfeited lands 
in Munster; but on 26 April 1587 he was 
appointed a commissioner for passing lands 
to the undertakers in the plantation. At 
Michaelmas he again obtained possession of 
Athlone Castle, but was almost immediately 
obliged to surrender it to Sir Richard Bing- 
ham [q. v.] He received permission to visit 
England in November; but the treason of 
Sir William Stanley and the danger that 
suddenly presented itself of an invasion hin- 
dered him taking advantage of it, not, how- 
ever, before he had so far prepared for his 
departure as to place his goods and plate 
on shipboard. The vessel to which they 
were entrusted was wrecked, and Wallop 
estimated his loss at 1,100/. On 2 July 1588 
he was appointed a commissioner for exami- 
ning and compounding the claims of the Irish 
in Munster, and on 12 Oct. was instructed 
to examine certain Spanish prisoners at Drog- 
heda. Ill-health caused him to be exempted 
from attending the lord deputy, Sir William 
Fitzwilliam (1526-1599) [q.v.], into Con- 
naught that autumn, and he spoke somewhat 
slightingly of the necessity of it. He sailed 
for England early in April 1589, and remained 
there for rather more than six years, admi- 
nistering his office by deputy. On 22 May 

1595 he was granted the abbey, castle, and 
lands of Enniscelly (formerly in the posses- 
sion of Edmund Spenser), to be held for ever 
by service of a twentieth part of a knight's 
fee, and the abbey and lands of A dare in free 
and common socage, ' in consideration of his 
great expense in building on the premises for 
the defence of those parts.' The latter estate 
he subsequently, on 1 Feb. 1597, obtained 
license to alien to SirJThomas Norris [q. v.] 
In September 1591 he entertained Elizabeth 
with great magnificence at Farleigh-Wallop 
(IxYMEK, Fccdera, xvi. 120) ; but ill-health 
prevented him setting sail for Ireland till 
June 1595, and, being driven back by stormy 
weather to Holyhead, it was not until the 
middle of July that he landed at Waterford 
with treasure for the soldiers, whose wants 
he declared were extreme. 

Owing to the doubtful attitude of Hugh 
O'Neill, earl of Tyrone [q.v.], the situation 
of the kingdom was even more critical than 
when he first came to Ireland, and it was, 
in his opinion, no time to spare money. But 
Elizabeth was bent on trying less costly 
methods than an attempt to suppress Tyrone 
by force would have entailed, and on 8 Jan. 

1596 Wallop and Sir Robert Gardiner were 
deputed to proceed to Dundalk to confer with 
him. Tyrone, though he professed to regard 



Wallop 



152 



Wallop as favourably inclined towards him, 
absolutely refused to enter Dundalk, and tlie 
commissioners were fain to treat with him in 
the open fields. The negotiat ionslasted eleven 
days. Tyrone pitched his demands high, re- 
quiring liberty of conscience, the control of 
hisurraghsorsub-chieftains,and the acknow- 
ledgment of O'Donnell's claims over Con- 
naught. Wallop and Gardiner promised to 
submit his demands to the state, and on these 
terms they obtained a prolongation of the 
peace for three months. But the familiar 
style in which they had addressed him, as 
' our very good lord,' signingthemselves 'your 
loving friends,' drew down on them Eliza- 
beth's wrath for having ' kept no manner of 
greatness with the rebel.' Wallop, although 
he was wounded to the quick by her repri- 
mand, defended himself; but unfortunately 
he shortly afterwards gave occasion to Burgh- 
ley to take him sharply to task for suggesting 
the desirability of providing the soldiers with 
frieze mantles after the manner of the native 
Irish. The suggestion appears reasonable 
enough, but Burghley, who apparently 
thought Wallop inclined to make a profit out 
of the business, told him it was ' an apparel 
unfit for a soldier that shall use his weapon 
in the field.' His rebuke and the insinuation 
it implied cut Wallop to the heart, and, con- 
scious of his infirmities, he desired to relin- 
quish his office. But Burghley, if he spoke 
sharply officially, did his best to console him 
in private. 

Another year passed away. At first, not- 
withstanding the trouble created by Fiagh 
MacHugh O'Byrne [q. v.], his plantation at 
Enniscorthy flourished apace, and in January 
1598 he supplied fifty thousand pipe-staves 
and the like number of hoop-heads to govern- 
ment. Then misfortune followed fast on mis- 
fortune. In May Brian Reagh attacked En- 
niscorthy, killed his lieutenant and forty 
soldiers, and made great havoc of his property. 
In June his second son, Oliver, was shot by 
a party of Irish rebels in the woods. In 
August he had to announce the defeat of 
Bagenal at the Blackwater. Xever since he 
had known Ireland had the outlook been 
more hopeless. For himself, he had already 
one foot in the grave, and begged piteously 
to be relieved of his office before death over- 
took him. At last the welcome intelligence 
arrived, in March 1599, that the queen had 
yielded to his entreaties, and appointed Sir 
George Carew (afterwards Baron Carew and 
Earl of Totnes) [q. v.] his successor. But as 
the situation demanded ' the continuance of 
such persons as he is, whose long service 
there hath given him so good knowledge and 
experience in that kingdom,' he was required 



to remain some time longer in Ireland, and 
to receive 20s. allowance daily for his extra 
services. The order for his release arrived 
too late to be of service to him. The day 
before his successor arrived he died in office, 
on 14 April 1599. 

By his last will, dated 31 March that year, 
he directed that his funeral should be as 
simple as possible. But he was accorded a 
burial in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 
being interred near the middle of the choir, 
on "the left side under the gallery, formerly 
called the lord-lieutenant's gallerv. A brass 
plate (Addit. MS. 32485. Q. 3) recording his 
services was fixed to the wall by his son 
Henry in 1008, and a fair monument erected 
to him in Basingstoke church. His portrait, 
by ^Nicholas Hilliard, belongs to the Earl of 
Portsmouth. His wife Katherine, daughter 
of Richard Gifford of Somborne in the county 
of Southampton, survived him only a few 
weeks, dying on 16 July. She was interred 
beside him, as was also their son Oliver. 
Another son died in military service abroad. 
AVallop was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Henry (1568-1642), some time his deputy, 
and father of Robert Wallop [q. v.] the 
regicide. 

All private documents and memorials con- 
nected with Wallop perished in the fire that 
destroyed the manor-house of Farleigh-Wal- 
lop in"l667. 

[Collins's Peerage, iv. 305-17; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1517-80 pp. 368, 384, 413, 602, 
524, 630, 1581-90 pp. 576, 6G2, 1598-1601 
pp. 165, 283 ; Cal. State Papers. Ireland, 1579- 
1599, passim; Cal. Carew MSS. ; Cal. Fiants, 
Eliz. 3608, 3975, 4048, 4335, 4514, 4757, 4758, 
5109, 5115, 5251, 5963, 5964,6027,6043, 6218; 
Cotton MSS. Titus B. xiii, ff. 319, 344, 352, 
355, 389, 439, Titus C. vii. f. 153 ; Harl. 
MSS. 1323 f. 30, 7042 f. 3; Lansdowne MS. 
ccxxxviii. f. 9; Sloane MSS. 1533 f. 20, 4115- 
f. 15, 4117 ff. 3, 7, 10, 4786 f. 31 : Addit. MS. 
17520; Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 137; 
Monck Mason's St. Patrick's, App. p. xlix ; 
Warner's Hist, of Hampshire, iii. 116-27.] 

R. D. 

WALLOP, SIK JOHN (d. 1551), soldier 
and diplomatist, was son of Stephen Wallop 
by the daughter of Hugh Ashley. The 
family of Wallop had, according to a pedi- 
gree drawn up by Augustine Vincent [q. v.], 
been very long settled in Hampshire. They 
held various manors there, but John Wallop, 
who lived in the time of Henry VI and Ed- 
ward IV, having inherited Farleigh, or, as it 
was afterwards called, Farleigh-Wallop, from 
his mother, made that the chief residence of 
his family. A son of this John W T allop, 
Richard Wallop, was sheriff of Hampshire 



Wallop 



153 



Wallop 



in 1502, and seems to have died just after 
holding that office. By his wife, Elizabeth 
Hampton, he left no children, and therefore 
was succeeded by his brother, Sir Robert 
Wallop, and he, also dying without issue in 
1535, was succeeded by Sir John Wallop, 
his nephew. Thus it will be evident thai 
Sir John Wallop had at first mainly his own 
exertions to depend on. He is supposed to 
have taken part in Poynings's expedition to 
the Low Countries in 1511, and to have been 
knighted there [see POYNINGS, SIR EDWARD]. 
He certainly was knighted before 1513, 
when he accompanied Sir Edward Howard 
on his unfortunate but glorious journey to 
Brest (The French War of 1512-13, Navy 
Records Soc., 1897, passim). In July 1513 
he was captain of the Sancho de Gara, a 
hiredship (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
Nos. 4377 and 5761), and in May 1514 (ib. 
No. 5112) he was captain of the Gret Bar- 
bara. In these years he did a great deal of 
damage to French shipping. On 12 Aug. 
1515 (ib. n. i. 798) he was sent with letters 
for Margaret of Savoy, regent of the Nether- 
lands, and this may really be the journey 
which Strype (Memorials, I. i. 7), who has 
been followed by Collins (Pest-aye, ed. 
Brydges, iv. 297), places in 1513. 

In 1516 he left England on a more honor- 
able errand. Armed with a letter from 
Henry VIII (Letters and Papers, n. i. 2360), 
dated 14 Sept. 1516, to Emmanuel, king of 
Portugal, he sailed to that country and 
offered his services at his own expense against 
the Moors. He remained fighting at or near 
Tangier, and then came back to England 
having been made a knight of the order of 
Christ. In September 1518 his name occurs 
as one of the king's pensioners, and for the 
next three years he was serving tinder 
Surrey in Ireland, frequently being the 
means of communication between the lord- 
deputy and Henry VIII (State Papers, ii. 
40-2, 51, 54, 62, G4). Wallop took a 
prominent part in the fighting in France in 
1522 and 1523 (COLLINS, Peerage, iv. 298; 
Letters and Papers, n. ii. 2614 ; Chron. of 
Calais, pp. 32, 33). Doubtless as a reward 
he was on 31 March 1524 appointed high 
marshal of Calais. 

In September 1526 he was sent on an 
embassy. He first went to Margaret of 
Savoy, then to the archduke, reaching 
Cologne on 30 Sept. He remained there 
till well on in November, writing to Wolsey 
as to the progress of the Turkish war. 
On 30 Nov. he was back in Brussels with 
Hacket, thence he returned again early in 
December to Cologne, and went on to 
Mainz. On 12 Jan. 1526-7 he was at 



Augsburg. On 1 Feb. he was at Prague, 
and saw the entry of Ferdinand, king of 
the Romans. It was doubtless at this time 
that he received the two great gilt cups 
that he mentions in his will as having been 
given him by Ferdinand. On 26 April he 
was at Olmiitz. On 20 May he was at 
Breslau in Silesia, visiting the king of 
Poland, who made vague but pleasant 
promises of hostility against ' the ungraciose 
sect of Lutere' (State Papers, vi. 572). 
King Ferdinand would not let him go to 
Hungary, where he wished to communicate 
with the waiwode. On 11 July he was 
at Vienna, and probably returned to Eng- 
land in the autumn. He seems to have 
paid a hasty visit to Paris in January 1528 
(Letters and Papers, iv. ii. 3829). On 
29 Jan. 1528 he received an annuity of 
fifty marks. About 17 Feb. he left England 
on a formal embassy to France, and wrote 
from Poissy on 29 Feb. that he had seen 
Francis and congratulated him on his re- 
covery from illness. On 2 April 1528 he 
was at St. Maur ' sore vexed withe the 
coughe and murre.' He was made, with 
Richard Paget, surveyor of the subsidies on 
kerseys on 17 March 1528 at a joint salary 
of 100/. He remained in Paris for some 
time, but was at Calais on 2 June. 

Wallop rapidly received valuable rewards 
for his services. He had long been a gentle- 
man of the privy chamber. On 1 March 
1522 he had received the constableship of 
Trim in Ireland, but had surrendered it 
before 1524. On 6 April 1529 he became 
keeper of the lordship and park of Dytton, 
Buckinghamshire. On 23 June 1530 he 
received a formal grant of the lieutenancy 
of Calais as ' from 6 October last.' This was 
a promotion, as the lieutenant of Calais 
who commanded the citadel was next in 
rank to the deputy. He was at Calais 
during the great repairs of 1531. 

In April 1532 Wallop was sent as am- 
bassador to Paris, which he visited at fre- 
quent intervals as the English resident for 
the next eight or nine years. He went 
into the south of France with Gardiner and 
Bryan in 1533, and was at Marseilles on 
5 Oct. at the meeting of Francis and the 
pope. The Venetian Marin Giustinian, 
writing from Paris on 15 April 1533, spoke 
of Wallop as one who did not approve of 
the divorce. He was probably in London 
in the middle of 1534, but was certainly 
back in Paris in December, and remained 
there for the first half of 1535, taking part 
in the attempt to persuade Melanchthon to 
come to England. In October he was at 
Dijon, and remained for some time in the 



Wallop 



154 



Wallop 



south. He was at Lyons from the beginning 
of 1536 till June. In July there was a 
rumour that he was going to Spain. A 
curious letter to him from Henry, dated 
12 Sept. 1536, directs him to investigate 
the strength of the French fortresses. On 
2 Oct. 1536 he was at Valence, but back in 
Paris in December. He left Paris on 
1 March 1537 {Letters and Papers, xil. 
i. 525), and was in London in May. 

Wallop \vas now rich, as his uncle had 
been some time dead. In 1538 he was 
granted the lands of the dissolved monastery 
of Barlinch, Somerset, and some manors in 
Somerset and Devonshire. In May 1539 
he was in the Pale of Calais, where there 
were troubles as to religion (ib. xiv. i. 1008, 
1042). 

In February 1540-1 Wallop succeeded 
Bonner as ambassador resident at Paris ; at 
Abbeville he was presented to the king of 
France and had an interview with the queen 
of Navarre (State Papers, viii. 289, cf. p. 318). 
He had reached Paris by June 1540, and was 
soon joined there by Carne. For the rest of 
this year he followed the court, sometimes 
going as far as Rouen or Caudebec. 

AVilliam, lord Sandys of the Vyne [q. v.], 
captain of Guisnes, died on 4 Dec. 1540, 
and Wallop's friends made a successful 
application in his favour. It is strange that 
the captaincy of Guisnes should have been 
considered a more advantageous post than 
that which he already held, particularly as 
we know that Francis liked him (ib. viii. 
415). Chapuys, indeed, says that many 
thought he had been retired for fear he 
should withdraw himself (ib. Spanish, 1538- 
1542, p. 307). On 18 Jan. 1541 he was re- 
voked in favour of Lord William Howard 
(ib. Hen. VIII, viii. 514). Suddenly he fell 
into disgrace. He was accused of ' sundry 
notable offences and treasons done towards 
us' (cf. ib. Spanish, 1538-42, p. 314), but 
in consideration of his long service he was 
allowed to explain his conduct (Letters and 
Papers,x.vi. 541). Brought before the coun- 
cil (some time earlier than 26 March 1541), 
' at his first examination he stood very stiffly 
to his truth and circumspection, neither 
calling to remembrance what he had written 
with his own hand. . . . Whereupon the 
king's majesty of his goodness caused his 
own sundry letters written to Pate, that 
traitor, and others to be laid before him ; 
which when he once saw and read he cried 
for mercy, acknowledging his offences with 
the danger he was in by the same, and 
refusing all shifts and trials, for indeed 
the things were most manifest. Never- 
theless, he made most earnest and hearty 



protestation, that the same never passed 
him upon any evil mind or malicious pur- 
pose, but only upon wilfulness . . . which 
he confessed had been in him, whereby he 
had not only in the things of treason but 
also [in] other ways . . . meddled above 
his capacity and whereof he had no com- 
mission, far otherwise than became a good 
subject. . . . Whereupon his majesty con- 
ceiving that the man did not at the first 
deny his transgressions upon any purpose 
to cloak and cover the same but only by 
j " slippernes of memory," being a man un- 
i learned, and taking his submission pardoned 
j him ' (ib. Hen. VIII, viii. 546). The queen, 
it seems, had made intercession, and Henry 
himself, who was fond of men of Wallop's 
type, would not need much persuading. 
Thus he became captain of Guisnes in March 
1541 (Letters and Papers, xvi. 678). 

At Guisnes he remained, no doubt taking 
an active part in the engineering operations 
in the Pale of this time, and attending the 
meetings of the deputy's council, of which, 
as captain of Guisnes, he was a member. 
In 1543, when Henry and Charles were in 
alliance and an English force was ordered 
to co-operate with the imperialists in the 
north of France, the Earl of Surrey supposed 
he should have the command; but, to his 
disappointment, it was given to Wallop, with 
Sir Thomas Seymour [q. v.] as his marshal ; 
Surrey had to accept a subordinate post. 
The expedition effected little, though the 
soldiers were long in the field (Chron. of 
Calais, p. 211 ; State Papers, ix. 460 sq.) 
Wallop was ill during part of the operations, 
but gained great glory, and Charles V com- 
mended his conduct to Henry VIII (Cat. 
State Papers, Spanish, 1542-3, p. 504). 

On Christmas eve 1543 Wallop was 
elected K.G., the king providing him with 
robes from his own wardrobe. He was 
installed on 18 May 1544. The war of that 
year kept him busily occupied, as he had to 
keep a large number of men at Guisnes. 
During the next few years there are many 
notes of his activity in the ' Acts of the Privy 
Council.' On 19 June 1545 he was specially 
thanked by the council for his courage. In 
1540 he was placed on the second commis- 
sion for the delimitation of the frontier of the 
Boulonnais, and in March following he was 
appointed on the third commission for the same 
purpose. As relations between France and 
England grew strained, Wallop was involved 
in various frontier conflicts which were the 
subject of prolonged recriminations between 
the English and French courts (ODET I)E 
| SELVE, Con: Pol. passim). He retained his 
I post during the ensuing war, 1549-50, and 



Wallop 



155 



Wallop 



after the conclusion of peace was on 29 Nov. 
1550 once more made a commissioner for 
the delimitation of the English and French 
boundaries. 

Wallop died of the sweating sickness at 
Guisnes on 13 July 1551 ; he was buried 
with some state there, presumably in the 
churchyard. He had had a good deal to do 
with the restoration of the church (Archceo- 
loffta, LIII. ii. 384). His will, dated 22 May 
1551, is printed in Collins's ' Peerage' and in 
' Testamenta Vetusta ' (p. 732). He left a 
large annuity to Nicholas Alexander, who 
had been his secretary, and was afterwards 
hanged at Tyburn for cowardice. 

Wallop married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Oliver St. John, and widow of Gerald 
Fitzgerald, eighth earl of Kildare ; secondly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Clement Harles- 
ton of Ockendon in the county of Essex. 
She survived him. By neither wife did he 
leave any issue, and his estates passed 
therefore to his brother, Sir Oliver Wallop, 
and, he dying in 1566, his son Henry, who 
is separately noticed, succeeded. Machyn, in 
speaking of the death of Wallop, calls him 
' a noble captain as ever was.' Chapuys 
on 21 June 1532 spoke of him as being better 
trained to war than to the management of 
political affairs. His portrait, by Holbein, 
belongs to the Earl of Portsmouth. 

[A life of Wallop, very full and accurate, is in 
Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iv. 297 sqq. It 
must be supplemented by the Letters and 
Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII up to 1541, 
also by the State Papers, Henry VIII, the 
Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, 1527-43. 
The Acts of the Privy Council, vol. vii. and the 
new series down to his death, have many entries 
as to his work at Guisnes. See also Calendar 
of State Papers, Venetian, 1527-33, pp. 61, 313 ; 
Calendar of State Papers, Irish, 1 509-73, pp. 3, 
4 ; Carew MSS. (Book of Howth, &c.), pp. 228, 
231 ; Carew MSS. 1515-1574, pp. 13, &c. ; 
Calendar of State Papers, Foreign, 1547-53, pp. 
293-329 ; Holinshed's Chron. iii. 602, vi. 305 ; 
Bapst's Deux Gentilshommes poetes a la Cour 
de Henri VIII, pp. 68, 81, 112, 184-5, 274, 286; 
Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors, i. 219 ; 
Dixon's Hist, of the Church of England, ii. 243 ; 
Clowes's Eoyal Navy, i. 456 sqq. ; Chronicle of 
Calais, passim, Services of Lord Grey cle Wilton, 
p. 2, Trevelyan Papers ii. 146, &c., Narratives 
of the Reformation p. 148, Machyn's Diary pp. 
8, 318 (these five published by Camdcn Soc.) ; 
Strype's Memorials, i. i. 7, 235, 347, n. i. 6, &c., 
ii. 492; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 387 ; Collin- 
son's Somerset, iii. 503.] W. A. J. A. 

WALLOP, JOHN, first EARL OF PORTS- 
MOUTH (1690-1762), born in 1690, was the 
third son of John Wallop of Far leigh- Wallop, 
Hampshire, by his wife Alicia, daughter 



and coheiress of AVilliam Borlase of Great 
Marlow, Buckinghamshire. Robert Wallop 
[q. v.] was his great-grandfather. John left 
Eton in his nineteenth year to complete his 
education by continental travel. While on 
his way to Geneva he served as a volunteer 
at the battle of Oudenarde. Subsequently, 
having passed a year of ' academical exercita- 
tions ' at Geneva, and another in ' visitation 
of the most eminent personages, and recon- 
noitring the most celebrated curiosities of 
Italy,' he proceeded to Germany. At Hanover 
he was ' admitted to the most confidential 
familiarity ' with the elector (afterwards 
George I). Meanwhile he had succeeded, in 
October 1707, to the family estates on the 
death of his elder brother. On his return to 
England he was elected M.P. for Hampshire, 
which he represented from 1715 to 1720. On 
13 April 1717 he was named a lord of the 
treasury ' by the particular nomination ' of 
George I. Three years later, on 11 June 
1720, he was created Baron Wallop and 
Viscount Lymington. He took no prominent 
part in public affairs, but, judging from the 
dates of the appointments he subsequently 
received, must have been a supporter of Wai- 
pole. These included the chief-justiceship in 
eyre of the royal forests north of the Trent 
(5 Dec. 1732), the lord-lieutenancy of Hamp- 
shire (7 Aug. 1733), the lord-wardenship of 
the New Forest (2 Nov. 1733), and the 
governorship of the Isle of Wight (18 June 
1734). All these terminated in 1742. But 
on 11 April 1743 Wallop was advanced to 
the earldom of Portsmouth, and in February 
1746 was re-named governor of the Isle of 
Wight. He was created D.C.L. of Oxford 
on 1 Oct. 1 755, and had been a governor of 
the Foundling Hospital since 1739. He 
died on 23 Nov. 1762. In the church of 
Farleigh-Wallop, on the south wall, is a 
marble monument to him with a lengthy 
inscription, which has been quoted. Ports- 
mouth was twice married : first, in May 1716, 
to Bridget, eldest daughter of Charles Bennet, 
first [earl of Tankerville ; secondly, in June 
1741, to Elizabeth, daughter of James, second 
lord Griffin, and widow of Henry Grey, by 
whom he had no issue. 

By his first wife he had John, viscount 
Lymington (1718-1749), who was M.P. for 
Andover from 1741 till his death, and mar- 
ried Catherine, daughter and heir of John 
Conduitt [q. v.], Sir Isaac Newton's succes- 
sor as master of the mint. She was New- 
ton's niece and coheiress, and his papers and 
scientific collections came into the possession 
of her eldest son, John Wallop (1742-1797), 
who was, in succession to his grandfather, 
second Earl of Portsmouth. 



Wallop 



156 



Wallop 



[Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, viii. 
380-7; Doyle's Official Baronage; G. E. C[o- 
kaynejs and Burke's Peerages; Gent. Mag. 
1762 p. 553, 1854 i. 190-1; Martin Doyle's 
Notes relating to the County of Wexford, pp. 
117-18 ; Brayley and Britton's Beauties of Eng- 
land, vi. 234 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. 
60-92.] G. LE G. N. 

WALLOP, RICHARD (1616-1697), 
judge, born in 1616, and baptised at Bug- 
brooke on 10 June, was son of Richard 
Wallop of Bugbrooke, Northamptonshire, 
and of Mary his wife, sister and coheiress 
of William Spencer of Everton in the same 
county. His father was the third son of 
Sir Oliver Wallop of Farleigh- Wallop, and 
younger brother of Sir Henry Wallop (1 540 ?- 
1599) [q. v.] Richard the younger matricu- 
lated from^ Pembroke College, Oxford, on 
10 Oct. 1634, and graduated B.A. on 2 June 
1635. He was called to the bar by the 
Middle Temple in February 1646, and be- 
came a bencher in 1666. In 1673 he was 
treasurer of the Middle Temple. His poli- 
tical views were anti-royalist, and he was 
frequently retained against the government 
in state trials during the reigns of Charles II 
and James II. He was counsel for Lord Petre 
when the articles of impeachment were 
brought up against the five lords concerned 
in the popish plot in April 1679. In October 
1680 he acted for Sir Oliver Butler in his case 
against the king, and in March 1681 for the 
Duke of York, indicted for recusancy. On 
this occasion he moved that the trial might 
be put oft' till Easter, alleging that the ac- 
cused might then have a plea of conformity. 
This was granted. He was leading counsel 
for William, viscount Stafford, when brought 
to trial on 4 Dec. 1680. As counsel for the 
prisoner, he spoke (7 May 1681) in support 
of the plea in abatement in the case of 
Edward Fitzharris [q. v.] He was one of 
the counsel for the Earl of Danby when 
brought to the court of king's bench from 
the Tower on 4 Feb. 1684. He defended 
Laurence Braddon [q. v.] and Hugh Speke ! 
[q. v.] in February 1684, and argued for arrest 
of judgment, in the case of Thomas Rose- j 
well [q. v.] on 27 Nov. 1684. He was counsel 
for Baxter at his trial in February 1685, and 
in the same month was assigned counsel for 
Titus Gates, when pleading 'not guilty 'to 
the two indictments against him for perjury. ! 
He also acted as counsel for the plaintiff in j 
the case of Arthur Godden v. Sir Edward j 
Hales [q. v.], in an action for debt upon the , 
test act in June 1686. He was constantly | 
incurring the displeasure of Judge Jeffreys, 
who never lost an opportunity of browbeat- 
ing him. 



Wallop was made cursitor baron of the 
exchequer on 16 March 1696, and died on 
22 Aug. 1697. He was buried in the Temple 
church on the 26th. In his will, proved on 
28 Aug. 1697, he left all his property to his 
widow Marie, with the care of his daughter 
and her children. 

[Edmundson's Baronagium Genealogicum, iii. 
247 ; Foster's Alumni ; Foss's Biogr. Diet, of 
the Judges ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1 1th Rep. ii. 
26, 156; Cobbett's State Trials, vii. cols. 1525- 
1526, viii. cols. 303-7, ix. cols. 1165-6, x. 
cols. 269-75, xi. cols. 498-9 ; Luttrell's Brief 
Relation, i. 69, 79, 195, 297, 322, 327-8, 380; 
ii. 32, 267 ; Woolrych's Memoirs of Judge 
Jeffreys, pp. 129-31, 144-5, 179-80; P.C.C. 
171 Pyne; Bugbrooke Parish Register per the 
Rev. A. 0. James.] B. P. 

WALLOP, ROBERT (1601-1667), re- 
gicide, born on 20 July 1601, was only son 
of Sir Henry Wallop of Farleigh- Wall op in 
Hampshire, and of his wife Elizabeth (<?. 
1624), daughter and heir of Robert Corbet 
of Morton Corbet in Shropshire. Sir Henry 
(1568-1642), who was the eldest son of Sir 
Henry Wallop (1540 P-1599) [q. v.], fre- 
quently sat in parliament between 1601 and 
1642, acted as his father's deputy at Dublin, 
where he was knighted in August 1599, was 
sheriff of Hampshire in 1602 and in 1603, and 
of Shropshire in 1605, and was one of the 
council for the marches of Wales in 1617. 

Robert matriculated from Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 5 May 1615. He entered parlia- 
ment before he was of full age, and sat in 
the House of Commons for nearly forty 
years. He was a zealous supporter of par- 
liament in its struggle with the king. He 
represented Andover borough in the parlia- 
ments of 1621-2 and 1623-4. In those of 
1625 and 1625-6 he sat for Hampshire. He 
was returned for Andover borough in 1627, 
and retained his seat for that constituency 
during the Short parliament of the spring 
of 1640, and through the Long parliament, 
which first met in October 1640. 

Wallop signed the protestation in the 
House of Commons on 4 May 1641, was a 
member of the committee for Irish affairs in 
1642, and of the committee of both king- 
doms in 1644, when he acted on various sub- 
committees. He was included in the com- 
mission of 6 Nov. 1643 for the collection 
of the Hampshire contingent towards the 
defence of the associated counties. Wallop 
was one of the judges at the trial of Charles II, 
but sat only three times (on 15, 22, and 
23 Jan. 1648-9). He was not present when 
sentence was pronounced, and did not sign 
the warrant. On 14 Sept. 1049 he was 
granted 10,000/.out of the confiscated estates 



Wallop 



'57 



Walmesley 



of the Marquis of Winchester as compensa- 
tion for his losses during the war. 

Wallop was a member of the first council 
of state of June 1649, and took the 'engage- 
ment' at the meeting on the 19th; he was 
also on the second council, 17 Feb. 1650 to 
17 Feb. 1651. He was probably not a mem- 
ber of the third, 17 Feb. to 29 Nov. 1651, 
but was elected on the fourth, December 
1651 to November 1652, as member of which 
he took the oath of secrecy on 2 Dec. 1651 ; 
he was on the fifth council, December 1652 
to March 1653, but was absent from the 
sixth. He sat for Hampshire in Richard 
Cromwell's parliament of 1658-9. Wallop 
was a republican at heart, and showed his 
anti-Cromwellian tendencies in February 
1659 by furthering the election of Sir Henry 
Vane the younger [q. v.] to represent the 
borough of Whitchurch in parliament. He 
was chosen a member of the council of state 
of the restored Rump parliament in May 
1659, and of the new council at the second 
restoration of the Rump to hold office from 
1 Jan. till 1 April 1660. On 23 April 1660 
he was elected M.P. for W T hitchurch. 

At the Restoration Wallop was in treaty 
for his pardon, and the warrant was signed ; 
but matters had not been sufficiently pro- 
ceeded with before the passing of the Act of 
Oblivion, when he was discharged from the 
House of Commons and ' made incapable of 
bearing any office or place of public trust ' 
(Commons' Journals, viii. 61), excepted 
from the act with pains and penalties not 
extending to life, and placed in the custody 
of the sergeant-at-arms (11 June 1660). On 
1 July 1661 he appeared at the bar of the 
house, when evidence against him was 
heard, and when it was resolved to prepare 
a bill for the confiscation of his estates and 
of those of others included in the former act 
of attainder. The bill was to provide for 
the imprisonment for life of those then in 
custody, with the degradation of being 
' drawn from the Tower of London upon 
sledges and hurdles, through the streets and 
highways, to and under the gallows at Ty- 
burn, with ropes about their necks,' on 
27 Jan. of each year, being the anniversary 
of the king's sentence of death. On 23 Aug. 
a grant was made to Thomas Wriothesley, 
fourth earl of Southampton [q. v.], lord trea- 
surer, Wallop's brother-in-law, of Wallop's 
forfeited estates, permitting but not com- 
pelling him to dispose of them for the benefit 
of his sister Lady Anne Wallop and her 
family. In January 1662 Wallop petitioned 
in vain for the remission of the penalty to 
be inflicted on the 27th, and enclosed a cer- 
tificate from his physician declaring him unfit 



to be ' exposed to the air at this season of the 
year.' In his petition he professed to have sat 
at the king's trial ' only at the request of his 
majesty's friends, in order to try to moderate 
the furious proceedings.' 

Wallop remained in the Tower till 19 Nov. 
1667, when he died. He was buried at Far- 

I leigh on 7 Jan. 1668. An anonymous por- 
trait of him belongs to the Earl of Ports- 
mouth. 

Wallop married, first, Anne, daughter of 
Henry Wriothesley, third earl of Southamp- 
ton [q. v.] ; by her he had one son, Henry. 
Lady Anne died early in 1662, and was 
buried at Farleigh on 6 March. AVallop 
married a second time, and at his death his 
widow petitioned for the enjoyment of her 
late husband's estates. By May 1669 she 
was remarried and petitioning under the 
name of Elizabeth Needham. 

The son Henry AVallop, commonly called 
Colonel Wallop, was enabled, through his 
uncle's influence, to enjoy the family estates. 
To his extravagance his father considered 
that he owed some of his misfortunes. He 
married Dorothy (d. 1704), daughter and co- 
heir of John Bluet of Holcombe Regis in 
Devonshire, and became the grandfather of 
John AVallop, first earl of Portsmouth [q. v.] 
He died in 1673, and was buried at Far- 
leigh. 

[Edmund son's Baronagium Genealogicum, iii. 
247; Collins's Peerage (Brydges), iv. 317; 
Foster's Alumni ; Official Lists of M.P.'s ; Raw- 
don Papers, p. 409 ; Woodward's Hampshire, 
iii. 146; Ludlow's Memoirs (Firth), ii. 51; 

1 Commons' Journals, vi. 141, 269, 290, 296, vii. 

; 220, 659, 800, viii. 59, 60 61,286; Lords' Jour- 

j nals, xi. 320 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. vi. 4 ; 
Masson's Milton, passim ; Cal. State Papers, 

| Dom. 1625-70 passim ; Noble's Lives of the 
Regicides ; Extracts from registers of Farleigh- 
Wallop, kindly supplied by the Rev. J. Seymour 
Allen.] B. P. 

WALMESLEY, CHARLES (1722- 
1797), Roman catholic prelate and mathe- 
matician, seventh son of John Walmesley 
of Westwood House, near AVigan, Lancashire, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of AVilliam 
Greaves, was born at Westwood on 13 Jan. 
1722 (BURKE, Commoners, i. 278). He was 
educated in the English Benedictine college 
of St. Gregory at Douay, and in the English 
monastery of St. Edmund at Paris, where he 
made his profession as a monk of the Benedic- 
tine order in 1739. Subsequently he took the 
degree of D.D. at the Sorbonne. In the 
course of a tour through Europe he explored 
the summit of Mount Etna, where he made 
scientific observations. His scientific attain- 
ments soon brought him into public notice, 



Walmesley 



158 



Walmesley 



and some of his astronomical papers were 
inserted in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
of 1745. In 1747 he entered into the dis- 
cussions to which the celebrated problem of 
the three bodies at that time gave rise; and 
his investigations, though scarcely known in 
his native country, were thought on the 
continent to be on a level with those of 
Clairault, d'Alembert, and Euler (BUTLER, 
Hist. Memoirs, 1822, iv. 434). He produced 
in 1749 an analytical investigation of the 
motion of the lunar apsides, in which he at- 
tained approximately correct results. He 
extended and completed his theorem in 1758, 
and in 1761 his conclusions were confirmed 
by Matthew Stewart (1717-1785) [q.v.], who 
reached nearly the same results by purely 
geometric methods of investigation. Walmes- 
lev was also consulted by the British govern- 
ment on the reform of the calendar and the 
introduction of the 'new style.' He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society of j 
London on 1 Nov. 1750, and he was also a | 
fellow of the Royal Society of Berlin (TiiOM- ' 
sojf, Hist, of the Royal Soc. Appendix No. 4, 
p. xlvi). 

From 1749 to 1753 he held the office of 
prior of the monastery of St. Edmund at j 
Paris, and in 1754 he was sent to Rome as , 
procurator-general of his order (Sxow, Ne- \ 
crology, p. 129). His election as coadjutor, 
cum jure successions, to Bishop Laurence 
York [q. v.], vicar-apostolic of the western 
district of England, was made by propaganda 
on 6 April 1756, and was approved by the 
pope on 2 May. It was decreed that he should 
retain the Benedictine priory of St. Mar- 
cellus in the diocese of Chalon. He was 
consecrated at Rome with the title of bishop 
of Rama, in partibus, on 21 Dec. 1756. He 
administered the vicariate after the retire- 
ment of Bishop York in 1763, and succeeded 
to the vicariate on the death of his pre- 
decessor in 1770. 

During the ' no popery ' riots in London 
in June 1780 a post-chaise conveying four 
of the rioters, and bearing the insignia of 
the mob, hurried to Bath, where Walmesley 
resided. These delegates from Lord George 
Gordon's association so inflamed the populace 
that the newly erected catholic chapel in St. 
James's Parade was gutted and demolished, 
as well as the presbytery in Bell-tree Lane ; 
and the registers, diocesan archives, and 
Walmesley's library and manuscripts perished 
in the flames. 

In conjunction with his episcopal brethren 
and a large proportion of the laity, Walmes- 
ley consented in 1789 to sign the ' protesta- 
tion ' of the ' catholic committee.' But he 
subsequently withdrew his signature, and 



when this protestation was reduced into the 
form of an oath, he called a synod of his 
colleagues, and a decree was issued that 
' they unanimously condemned the new 
form of an oath intended for the catholics, 
and declared it unlawful to be taken.' 
AValmesley gave no sanction to the schisma- 
tical proceedings of the ' Cisalpine ' party 
(AMHERST, Hist, of Catholic Emancipation, 
i. 164-71). 

He died at Bath on 25 Nov. 1797, and 
was buried in St. Joseph's Chapel, Bristol, 
where there is a monument to his memory 
with a Latin epitaph written by Father 
Charles Plowden [q. v.] 

Portraits of Walmesley are preserved at 
Downside and Lullworth, the latter being 
painted by Iveenan. There is an engraved 
portrait in the ' Laity's Directory ' for 1802. 

His principal theological work is : 1 . ' The 
General History of the Christian Church, 
from her Birth to her Final Triumphant State 
in Heaven, chiefly deduced from the Apoca- 
lypse of St. John the Apostle, by Signer 
Pastorini [a pseudonvm],' sine loco, 1771, 8vo ; 
Dublin, 1790, 8vo ; London, 1798, 8vo ; Dub- 
lin, 1806, 1812, and 1815, 8vo ; Belfast, 1816, 
8vo ; Cork, 1820 and 1821, 8vo ; and five 
editions published in America, one of which 
appeared at New York, 1851, 12mo. The 
work was published in a French translation 
at Rouen in 1777 (reprinted at St. Malo, 
1790, 3 vols.) ; in Latin, shortly afterwards, 
at Paris ; in German, by Abbe Goldhagen, 
in 1785 ; and in Italian in 2 vols. at Rome 
in 1798. A mischievous use was made of 
some portions of this work in Ireland in 
1825, when many of the people were under 
great political excitement. Certain passages 
extracted from it were printed on a broad- 
side sheet, and circulated gratuitously 
among the catholics of the northern coun- 
ties. This was done with great secrecy 
(COTTON, Rhemes and Doway, p. 53). 

His other works are : 2. ' Analyse des 
Mesures, des Rapports, et des Angles ; ou 
Reduction des Integrales aux Logarithmes 
et aux Arcs de Cercle,' Paris, 1749, 4to. 
This is an extension and explanation of Cotes's 
' Harmonia Mensurarum.' 3. ' The Theory of 
the Motion of the Apsides in general, and of 
Apsides of the Moon's Orbit in particular, 
written in French by Dom C. Walmesley, 
and now translated into English ' [by J. 
Brown], London, 1754, 8vo. 4. ' De Inse- 
qualitatibus Motuum Lunarium,' Florence, 
1758, 4to. 5. ' On the Irregularities in the 
Motion of a Satellite, arising from the 
Spheroidal Figure of its Primary Planet,' in 
the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 1758. 6. ' Of 
the Irregularities in the Planetary Motions, 



Walmesley 



159 



Walmesley 



caused by the Mutual Attraction of the 
Planets,' in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1761. 7. 'Ezekiel's Vision Explained/ 
London, 1778, 8vo. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, pp. 223, 224, 
297-302; Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 1071; Button's 
Philosophical and Mathematical Diet. (1815); 
Le Glay's Notice sur C. Walmesley, Lille (1858), 
8vo ; Oliver's Cornwall, pp. 429, 527 ; Pan- 
zani's Memoirs, pp. 433 ., 437, 443, 449 ; 
Eambler (1851), vii. 59, 430.] T. C. 

WALMESLEY, SIR THOMAS (1537- 
1612), judge, eldest son of Thomas Walmesley 
of Showley-in-Clayton and Cunliffe-in-Rish- 
ton, Lancashire, hy his wife Margaret (born 
Livesey), was born in 1537. His father was 
of sufficient substance to be rated in the 
general levy of arms of 1574 at a coat of 
plate, a long-bow, a sheaf of arrows, a caliver, 
a scull and a bill ; and of sufficient rank to 
be joined with Sir Richard Sherborne as 
assessor of the Trawden forest bridge 
reparation rate in 1576. He died on 16 April 
1584 (Ducat. Lane. i. 54). The future judge 
was admitted on 9 May 1559 student at 
Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the 
bar on 15 June 1567, and elected bencher in 
1574, autumn reader in 1576, Lent reader in 
1577, and autumn reader again in 1580, in 
anticipation of his call to the degree of the 
coif, which, notwithstanding that he was 
somewhat suspect of papistry, took place 
about Michaelmas. In 1583 he made before 
the court of common pleas a stout but 
-ineffectual attempt to sustain the validity 
of papal dispensations and other faculties 
issued during the reign of Queen Mary 
(STRYPE, Ann. (fol.) in. i. 194). He repre- 
sented his native county in the parliament 
of 1588-9, served on several committees, and 
contributed 2ol. to the loan raised on privy 
seal in January of that year (TOWNSHEND, 
Hist. Coll. 1680, pp. 18-20; Harl. MS. 2219, 
f. 16). On 10 May 1589 he was created 
justice of the common pleas. 

His reputation for learning was great, 
and he early evinced his independence by 
allowing bail in a murder case, contrary to 
the express injunctions of the queen con- 
veyed through the lord chancellor. His 
temerity provoked a reprimand (February 
1592), but had apparently no more serious 
consequence ( Cal. State Papers,Dom. 1591-4, 
p. 188). His vigour gained him respect, and 
Southampton voted him its freedom on 
6 Feb. 1594-5. In 1597 he was assistant 
to the House of Lords in committee on 
certain bills. He was placed on the 
ecclesiastical commission for Chester on 
31 Jan. 1597-8. He was also a member of 
the special commission before which Essex 



was arraigned at York House on 5 June 
1600, and assisted the peers on his trial in 
Westminster Hall, 19-25 Feb. 1600-1. He 
was continued in office on the accession of 
James I, and was knighted at Whitehall on 
23 July 1 603. He was a member of the special 
commission that tried on 15 Nov. following 
the ' Bye ' conspirators. In regard to the impor- 
tant constitutional question raised by Calvin's 
case (COBBETT, State Trials, ii. 559), whether 
natives of Scotland born since the accession 
of James I to the English throne were thereby 
naturalised in England, Walmesley evinced 
uncommon independence and also a certain 
narrowness of mind. The matter was dis- 
cussed by a committee of the House of Lords, 
with the help of the common-law bench, 
Bacon, and other eminent counsel, in the 
painted chamber on 23 Feb. 1606-7, and on 
the following day was decided in the affirma- 
tive by ten out of the twelve judges. Of the 
other two, one Sir David Williams [q. v.] 
was absent ; Walmesley alone dissented 
(Lords' Journals, ii. 470). He adhered to his 
opinion on the subsequent argument in the 
exchequer chamber (Hilary term, 1608), and 
induced Sir Thomas Foster to concur in it. 

During his long judicial career Walmesley 
rode every circuit in England, except that of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. His account-book for 
the years 1596-1601, printed in ' Camden Mis- 
cellany' (vol. iv.), records in minute and 
curious detail his expenses on the western 
circuit and on the Oxford circuit during 
the autumn of 1601. By fair, and also, 
it was whispered, foul means, he amassed a 
large fortune, which he invested in broad 
acres in his native county. His principal 
seat was the manor of Dunkenhalgh, near 
Blackburn, to which he retired on a pension 
towards the end of 1611 (Court and Times 
of James I, i. 154). He died on 26 Nov. 
1612. His remains were interred in the 
chantry of our Lady, appendant to Dunken- 
halgh manor, in the south aisle of Black- 
burn parish church. His monument, which 
was copied from that of Anne Seymour, 
duchess of Somerset, in St. Nicholas's Chapel, 
Westminster Abbey, was ruthlessly de- 
molished by the insurgents on the outbreak 
of the civil war (see the inscription in prose 
and verse in WHITAKER'S Whalley, 4th 
edit. ii. 281). The present monument was 
erected in 1862. A full-length portrait of 
the judge and his lady is preserved in Dun- 
kenhalgh House. 

In right of his wife (d. 19 April 1635), 
Anne, daughter and heiress of Robert Shuttle- 
worth of Hacking, Lancashire, Walmesley 
held the Hacking estates, which, with his 
own, passed to his only son, Thomas, who 



Walmisley 



1 60 



Walmisley 



thus became one of the magnates of Lanca- 
shire. Bred in, he adhered to, the principles 
and practices of the Roman catholic church. 
He subscribed at Oxford, 1 July 1613, but 
did not graduate. He was entered student 
at Gray's Inn on 11 Nov. 1614, was knighted 
on 11 Aug. 1617, represented the Lan- 
cashire borough of Clitheroe in the parlia- 
ment of 1621-2, and Lancashire itself in 
that of 1623-4. He died at Dunkenhalgh 
on 12 March 1641-2, having married twice 
and leaving issue by both wives. His pos- 
terity died out in the male line in 1711, but 
through the marriage of the last male de- 
scendant's youngest sister, Catherine Wal- 
mesley, first with Robert, seventh baron 
Petre, and secondly with Charles, fifteenth 
baron Stourton, is in the female line doubly 
represented in the peerage at the present 
day. (For other branches of the family see 
BFRKE, Landed Gentry.) 

[Shuttle worth Accounts (Chetham Soc.), pp. 
91, 265, 1077; St. George's Visitation of Lan- 
caster (Chetham Soc.), p. 67 ; Hist, of the 
Chantries within the County Palatine of Lanca- 
shire (Chetham Soc.) i. 155; Lancashire and 
Cheshire Wills and Inventories (Chetham Soc.), 
iii. 193 ; Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and 
Inventories (Chetham Soc. n.s.), vol. ii. ; Lanca- 
shire Lieutenancy under the Tudors (Chetham 
Soc.) ; Dr. Farmer Chetham MS. (Chetham Soc.), 
Lane, and Chesh. Eec. Soc., i. 234; Dugdale's 
Visitation of Yorkshire (Surtees Soc.), p. 14; 
Genealogist, new ser. ed. Murray, x. 243 ; Chet- 
ham Misc. i. art. iii. 26, iii. art. iii. 8. vi. p. 
xxviii ; Lincoln's Inn Records ; Inner Temple 
Records, i. 473 ; Addit. MS. 12507, f. 78 ; Met- 
calfe's Book of Knights ; Wynne's Serjeant-at- 
Law; Dugdale's Orig. pp. 48, 253, 261, 313, 378; 
Chron. Ser. pp. 97-100 ; Manning's Serviens ad 
Legem, p. 240 ; Dr. Dee's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; 
Manningham's Diary (Camden Soc.), p. 59 ; 
D'Ewes's Journal of the Parliaments (1682), pp. 
439, 440, 458, 527, 529; Spedding's Life of 
Bacon, ii. 173, 283; Hutton Corresp. (Surtees 
Soc.), p. 157; Cobbett's State Trials, i. 1334, ii. 
62 ; Members of Parl. (Official Lists) ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1581-1615; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 8th Rep. App. i. 272-3, llth Rep. App. 
iii. 21, 12th Rep. App. iv. 183, 229, 362, 14th 
Rep. App. iv. 583 ; Cal. Cecil MSS. v. 469, vi. 
76, 210, 224; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gray's 
Inn Adm. Reg. ; Baines's Lancashire, ed. Harland ; 
G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, 'Stourton;' 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

WALMISLEY or WALMSLEY, GIL- 
BERT (1680-1751), friend of Dr. Johnson, 
was descended from an ancient family in 
Lancashire [see WALMISLEY, SIR THOMAS]. 
He was born in 1680, and was the son of 
William Walmisley of the city of Lichfield, 
chancellor of that diocese from 1698 to 1713, 
and M.P. for the city in 1701, who married 



in Lichfield Cathedral on 22 April 1675 
Dorothy Gilbert, and was buried in the 
cathedral on 18 July 1713. He matricu- 
lated as commoner from Trinity College, 
Oxford, on 14 April 1698, but did not take 
a degree. In 1707 he was called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple, and became registrar 
of the ecclesiastical court of Lichfield. He 
was probably a near relative of William 
Walmisley, prebendary of Lichfield from 
1718 to 1720, and dean from 1720 to 1730. 

Walmisley, ' the most able scholar and 
the finest gentleman ' in the city according 
to Miss Seward, lived in the bishop's palace 
at Lichfield for thirty years ; and Johnson, 
then a stripling at school, spent there, with 
David Garrick, ' many cheerful and instruc- 
tive hours, with companions such as are not 
often found.' He was ' a whig with all the 
virulence and malevolence of his party,' 
but polite and learned, so that Johnson could 
not name ' a man of equal knowledge,' and 
the benefit of this intercourse remained to 
him throughout life. He endeavoured in 
1735 to procure for Johnson the mastership 
of a school at Solihull, near Warwick, but 
without success. An abiding tribute to his 
memory was paid by Johnson in his ' Life ' of 
Edmund Smith (Lives of the Poets, ed. Cun- 
ningham, ii. 57-8). 

In April 1736 Walmisley, 'being tired 
since the death of my brother of living quite 
alone,' married Magdalen, commonly called 
Margaret or Margery, Aston, fourth of the 
eight daughters of Sir Thomas Aston, bart., 
of Aston, Cheshire. His marriage was said to 
have extinguished certain expectations enter- 
tained by Garrick of a ' settlement ' from his 
friend. Walmisley died at Lichfield on 
3 Aug. 1751, and his widow died on 11 Nov. 
1786, aged 77. Both are buried in a vault 
near the south side of the west door in Lich- 
field Cathedral. A poetical epitaph by 
Thomas Seward [q. v.] was inscribed on a 
temporary monument ' which stood over the 
grave during a twelvemonth after his decease :' 
it is printed in the 'Gentleman's Magazine ' 
(1785, i. 166). It is said that Johnson pro- 
mised to write an epitaph for him, but pro- 
crastinated until it was too late ; he may be 
acquitted of any share in the composition 
printed as his in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
(1 797, ii. 726). A prose inscription to Wal- 
misley's memory is on the south side of the 
west door of Lichfield Cathedral. Johnson's 
eulogy from his ' Life ' of Smith was also 
inscribed on an adjoining monument. 

Walmisley's library was sold by Thomas 
Osborne of Gray's Inn in 1756. The Latin 
translation of Byrom's verses, beginning ' My 
time, O ye muses,' printed in the ' Gentle- 



Walmisley 



161 



Walmisley 



man's Magazine ' (1745, pp. 102-3) as by G. 
Walmsley of ' Sid. Coll. Carub./ and some- 
times attributed to Gilbert Walmisley, is no 
doubt by Galfridus Walmsley, B.A. from 
that college in 1746. Some correspondence 
between Garrick and Johnson and Walmis- 
ley is printed in Garrick's ' Private Corre- 
spondence ' (i. 9-12, 44-5), and in Johnson's 
' Letters,' ed. Hill (i. 83 sq.) 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 315, iii. 650, viii. 467 ; Bos well's Johnson, 
ed. Hill, i. 81-3, 101-2, ii. 467 ; Johnson's Let- 
ters, ed. Hill, ii. 49 ; Johnsonian Miscell., ed. 
Hill, ii. 416; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Croker, 
1848 edit., pp. 19, 24, 27-8; Gent. Mag. 1751 
p. 380, 1797 ii. 811 ; Harwood's Lichfield, pp. 
78-9, 298 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, i. 
725-6 ; Shaw's Staffordshire, i. 289, 300, 308 ; 
Miss Sevvard's Poems and Letters, 1810, vol. i. 
pp. Ixix-lxxiii.] W. P. C. 

WALMISLEY, THOMAS ATTWOOD 

(1814-1856), musician, bom at Westminster 
on 21 Jan. 1814, was the son of Thomas 
Forbes Walmisley [q. v.] He showed early 
aptitude for music under his father's guid- 
ance, and studied the higher branches under 
his godfather, Thomas Attwood [q. v.], or- 
ganist to St. Paul's Cathedral. In his seven- 
teenth year Walmisley became organist to 
St. John the Baptist Church at Croydon, 
which was destroyed by fire in 1871 ; and in 
1832 he was approached by Monck Mason to 
write English opera. But as Walmisley had 
arranged to go up to Cambridge, he declined 
Mason's offer, and on 1 Feb. 1833 was elected 
organist to Trinity and St. John's colleges, 
Cambridge. At the former he effected some 
improvements in the organ which ' were not 
only innovations, but were so unique as to 
constitute our organ an object of curiosity for 
many years to come ' (cf. ' Hist, of the Organ 
in the Chapel of Trinity College,' by Mr. G. F. 
Cobb in Trident, 1890). Walmisley himself 
wrote an article on some of the Cambridge 
organs in the ' Portfolio.' 

A short time after settling in Cambridge 
Walmisley graduated Mus. Bac., his exercise 
being a psalm, ' Let God arise; ' and, wishing 
to graduate also in arts, he entered at Corpus 
Christi College, but migrated to Jesus before 
taking the degree of B.A. in 1838, and pro- 
ceeding M.A. in 1841. In 1834 he wrote a 
fine anthem, ' O give thanks,' for the com- 
memoration at Trinity, in which year he 
also composed his great service in B flat. In 
the following year he composed the ode for 
the installation of the Marquis of Camden as 
chancellor of the University, Malibran being 
one of the solo singers on the occasion, and 
Sir George Thomas Smart [q. v.] the con- 
ductor. In 1836, on the death of John 

VOL. LIX. 



Clarke- Whitfeld [q.v.], Walmisley succeeded 
to the professorial chair of music, the office 
then being practically a sinecure. Walmis- 
ley instituted a system of lectures, in one of 
which he prophesied the ultimate supremacy 
of Bach's music, then almost unknown in 
England. Between 1838 and 1854 Walmis- 
ley wrote several anthems and services, in- 
cluding ' If the Lord Himself/ one of his 
finest works, 1840; 'Ponder my words,' 
written for the reopening of Jesus College 
chapel in 1849 ; ' Blessed is he,' in five parts, 
for the choir benevolent fund, 1854; the ser- 
vice in D (1843) ; that in B flat for double 
choir. Nearly all Walmisley's compositions 
were unpublished till after his death, when 
they were edited by his father, who survived 
him. In 1844 Walmisley compiled and pub- 
lished a book of words of anthems in use at 
various Cambridge colleges and a collection 
of chants (1845). In July 1847 he composed 
music for Wordsworth's ode, ' For thirst of 
power/ for the installation of the prince con- 
sort as chancellor of the university, and in 
1853 he published his edition of Attwood's 
' Cathedral Music/ and at one time or another 
he edited some works by Mendelssohn and 
Hummel for English use. 

In 1848 Walmisley took his degree of 
Mus. Doc. He was a prodigious worker, 
his services as organist occupying him on 
Sundays at one time from 7.15 a.m. to 6.15. 
He died at Hastings on 17 Jan. 1856, and is 
buried at Fairlight, a neighbouring village. 

Walmisley's secular compositions, in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned, are few in 
number, and include a symphony of which 
Mendelssohn is said to have spoken disparag- 
ingly ; a couple of beautiful madrigals, ' Slow, 
fresh fount/ and ' Sweet flowers ; ' a number 
of duets for oboe and pianoforte, only one of 
which appears to have been published, and 
some organ pieces. Walmisley was a dis- 
tinguished church-music composer and 
magnificent organist. A brass tablet to his 
memory is in the ante-chapel, Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

[A biographical sketch of T. A. Walmisley, 
by J. S. Bumpus, appeared in Musical News, 
24 Feb. and 3 March 1894; authorities quoted 
in the text ; British Museum Catalogue of Music ; 
Cambridge University Calendar ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, passim.] E. H. L. 

WALMISLEY, THOMAS FORBES 

(1783-1866), glee composer and organist, 
third son of William Walmisley, clerk of 
the papers to the House of Lords, was born 
in Union (now St. Margaret's) Street, West- 
minster, 22 May 1783. He, like all his 
brothers, was a chorister in Westminster 
Abbey, and he was a scholar at Westminster 

H 



Wai mod en 



162 



Walmsley 



school from 1793 to 1798. He studied music 
under the Hon. John Spencer and Thomas 
Attwood [q. v.], the pupil of Mozart, and 
was assistant organist to the Female Orphan 
Asylum from 1810 to 1814. In 1814 he 
succeeded Robert Cooke (f. 1793-1814) 
[q. v.] as organist of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, which post he resigned, on a pension, 
in March 1854. He was secretary of the 
re-established Concentores Sodales, which 
was dissolved in 1847, the wine becoming 
his property, and was elected a professional 
member of the Catch Club in 1827. Wal- 
misley died on 23 July 1866, and was buried 
in the family grave at Brompton cemetery. 
In 1810 he married the eldest daughter of 
William Capon (1757-1 827) [q.v.], draughts- 
man to the Duke of York. His eldest son, 
Thomas Attwood Walmisley [q. v.~\, whose 
' Cathedral Music ' he edited in 1857, pre- 
deceased him. 

Walmisley composed fifty-nine glees, four 
of which gained prizes (see Spectator, %& Aug. 
1830). He also composed ' six anthems and 
a short morning and evening service ' (n.d.), 
and ' Sacred Songs,' London, 1841. As a 
teacher he was well known ; his most dis- 
tinguished pupil is perhaps Dr. Edward J. 
Hopkins. A portrait of him, painted by 
MacCaul, is in the possession of his son, Mr. 
Arthur Walmisley. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians ; David 
Baptie's Sketches of the English Glee' Composers ; 
Barker and Stenning's Westminster School Re?. ; 
private information supplied by his son, Mr. 
Arthur Walmisley.] F. G. E. 

WALMODEN, AMALIE SOPHIE 
MARIANNE, COUNTESS OF YARMOUTH 
(1704-1765). [See WALLMODEX.] 

WALMSLEY, SIB JOSHUA (1794- 
1871), politician, son of John Walmsley, 
builder, was born at Liverpool on 29 Sept. 
1794, and educated at Knowsley, Lanca- 
shire, and Eden Hall, Westmoreland. On 
the death of his father in 1807 he became a 
teacher in Eden Hall school, and on return- 
ing to Liverpool in 1811 took a similar 
situation in Mr. Knowles's school. He 
entered the service of a corn merchant in 
1814, and at the end of his engagement 
went into the same business himself, and 
ultimately acquired a competency. He was 
an early advocate of the repeal of the duty 
on corn, and was afterwards an active 
worker with Cobden, Bright, and others in 
the Anti-Cornlaw League. In 1826 he 
took the presidency of the Liverpool Me- 
chanics' Institution, and about the same 
time there began his intimacy with George 
Stephenson, in whose railway schemes he 



was much interested, and with whom he 
joined in purchasing the Snibstone estate, 
near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, where rich seams 
of coal were found. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Liverpool town council in 1835, 
and did excellent work in improving the 
j police, sanitary, and educational affairs of 
the borough ; was appointed mayor in No- 
I vember 1838, and knighted on the occasion 
! of the queen's marriage. With Lord Pal- 
I merston he unsuccessfully contested Liver- 
pool in the liberal interest in June 1841. 
i He retired to Ranton Abbey, Staffordshire, 
in 1843, and at the general election of 1847 
was elected M.P. for Leicester, but was 
unseated on petition. He started the Na- 
tional Reform Association about this time, 
and was its president and chief organiser for 
many years. In 1849 he was returned as 
M.P. for Bolton, Lancashire, but in 1852 
exchanged that seat for Leicester, where his 
efforts on behalf of the framework knitters 
had made him popular. He lost this seat in 
1857, when he practically retired from 
public life, although he retained the presi- 
dency of the National Sunday League from 
1856 to 1869. 

He died on 17 Nov. 1871 at his residence 
at Bournemouth, leaving issue. His wife, 
whom he married in 1815, and whose maiden 
name was Madeline Mulleneux, survived him 
two years. 

[Life, by his son, Hugh Mulleneux Walmsley, 
1879, with portrait ; Dod's Parliamentary Com- 
panion, 1 850 ; Free Sunday Advocate, December 
1871.] C. W. S. 

WALMSLEY, THOMAS (1763-1805), 
landscape-painter, was descended from a 
family of good position at Rochdale, Lan- 
cashire, but was born in Ireland in 1763, 
his father, Thomas Walmsley, captain-lieu- 
tenant of the 18th dragoons, being quartered 
there with his regiment at the time. He 
quarrelled with his family, and came to 
London to earn his living. He studied scene- 
painting under Columba at the opera-house, 
and was himself employed there and at Covent 
Garden Theatre, and at the Crow Street 
Theatre, Dublin. In 1790 he began to ex- 
hibit landscapes in London, where he resided 
until 1795, when he retired to Bath. He sent 
many pictures to the Royal Academy, chiefly 
views in Wales ; but in 1796, the last year 
in which he exhibited, three views of Kil- 
larney. He painted chiefly in body-colour. 
His trees were heavy and conventional, and 
he had no capacity for drawing figures, but 
he was skilful in painting skies, especially 
with a warm evening glow, which was well 
reproduced in the coloured aquatints by 



Walpole 



163 



Walpole 



Francis Jukes and others, through which he 
is best known at the present day. Of these 
several series were published both before and 
after his death : views of the Dee and North 
"Wales, 1792-4 : larger views of North Wales, 
1800; views of Killarney and Kenmare, 
1800-2 ; miscellaneous British scenery, 1801 ; 
views in Bohemia, 1801 ; views of the Isle of 
Wight, 1802-3; miscellaneous Irish scenery, 
1806 ; views in Scotland, 1810. Walmsley 
died at Bath in 1805. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers.] C. D. 

WALPOLE, EDWARD (1560-1637), 
Jesuit, son and heir of John Walpole of 
'Houghton, Norfolk, by Catherine Calibut 
of Coxford in the same county, was born on 
28 Jan. 1559-60, matriculated as a fellow 
commoner at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
in May 1576, the year after his cousin Henry 
Walpole [q.v.] had entered at the same college 
as a pensioner. Here he was so powerfully 
influenced by his cousin that he embraced 
the Roman creed, and, making no secret of 
it. incurred the stern displeasure of both 
parents, insomuch that in 1585 he was turned 
out of his home at Houghton, and adopted 
the name of Poor to indicate his want of 
means. Another cousin, William Walpole, 
of the same way of thinking with himself, 
offered him an asylum at North Tuddenham 
in Norfolk. He repaid this service by re- 
conciling William to his wife, from whom 
he had been for 'some years estranged. In 
October 1587 William Walpole died, leaving 
the great bulk of his large property to his 
cousin Edward, subject to the life interest 
of his widow. Just about this time John 
Gerard (1564-1637) [q. v.] was going about 
Norfolk among the recusant gentry, and suc- 
ceeding to a wonderful extent as a prosely- 
tiser. Among the first to be won over was 
Edward Walpole, whom he received into the 
Roman church ; at the same time Gerard in- 
duced him to sell the reversion of the manor 
of Tuddenham for a thousand marks. In 
April 1588 Walpole's father, John of Hough- 
ton, died, leaving all he could leave to his 
second son, Calibut, and not even naming his 
elder son and heir in his will. Five months 
later Robert, earl of Leicester, died. The earl 
had a life interest in the estates of Amy 
Robsart, which lay contiguous to those of the 
Walpoles, and these now descended to Ed- 
ward Walpole as heir-at-law to Sir. John 
Robsart, Amy's father. Edward Walpole 
at once surrendered by deed all claim and 
title on the Robsart and the Houghton 
estates to his brother Calibut, and, having 
thus denuded himself of his large possessions, 



he slipped away to the continent, determined 
to ofi'er himself to the Society of Jesus, as 
his cousin had done before. He was in Bel- 
gium in 1590, apparently on his way to Rome, 
where he was admitted to the English Col- 
lege on 23 Oct. 1590, and remained two 
years studying theology. He was ordained 
priest on Ascension day 1592, and shortly 
afterwards was admitted into the society, 
and next month was summoned to Tournai 
to go through his period of probation. The 
news of his receiving priest's orders at Rome 
was before long carried home by the spies 
who were watching him, and in 1597 he was 
outlawed 'for a supposed treason done at 
Rome.' Undeterred by this proclamation, 
Walpole returned to England the next year, 
and began to exercise his functions as a 
Roman priest and Jesuit missioner, though 
hunted about from place to place, not seldom 
in great peril of his life. After his return to 
England he passed under the name of Rich 
as an alias. In 1605 he was granted a pardon, 
which would have put him in possession of 
the family estates on the death of his mother. 
She survived till 1612 ; but, instead of avail- 
ing himself of his legal ability, he renewed 
his deed of surrender to his brother, and the 
estates accordingly descended through him 
to Sir Robert Walpole and the earls of Or- 
ford. He had the reputation of being a 
preacher of no ordinary gifts. He died in 
London on 3 Nov. 1637, in his seventy- 
eighth year. 

[Jessop's One G-eneration of a Norfolk House, 
1878, and the authorities there given ; cf. Foley's 
Eecords of the English College S.J., 1879.] 

WALPOLE, GEORGE (1758-1835), 
major-general, born on 20 June 1758, was 
the third son of Horatio, second lord Wal- 
pole of Wolterton, who in 1797 succeeded 
his cousin Horatio Walpole, fourth earl of 
Orford [q. v.], as fourth Lord Walpole of 
Walpole, was created Earl of Orford in 1806, 
and died on 24 Feb. 1809, aged 86. Horatio 
Walpole, first lord Walpole [q. v.], was his 
grandfather. His mother was Lady Rachel 
Cavendish (d. 1805), third daughter of Wil- 
liam, third duke of Devonshire. He was 
commissioned as cornet in the 12th light dra- 
goons on 12 May 1777, and became lieutenant 
in the 9th dragoons on 17 April 1780. He 
returned to the 12th light dragoons as cap- 
tain-lieutenant on 10 Dec. 1781, and ex- 
changed to the 8th light dragoons on 13 Aug. 
1782. On 25 June 1785 he obtained a 
majority in the 13th light dragoons, and be- 
came lieutenant-colonel of that regiment on 
31 Oct. 1792. 

In 1795 he went with it to the West 

M 2 



Walpole 



164 



Walpole 



Indies, and took a leading part in the sup- 
pression of the maroon insurrection in \ 
Jamaica. The Trelawney maroons, who had j 
risen, numbered fewer than seven hundred, 
but they had been joined by about four 
hundred runaway slaves, and the insurrec- 
tion threatened to spread. The country was 
extremely difficult for regular troops, and 
two of the detachments sent against the 
maroons fell into ambushes, and their com- 
manders (Colonels Sandford and Fitch) were 
killed. At the beginning of October Wal- 
pole was charged with the general conduct 
of the operations, and the governor Alex- 
ander Lindsay, sixth earl of Balcarres [q. v.] 
gave him the local and temporary rank of 
major-general. By skilful dispositions he 
captured several of the maroon ' cockpits ' 
or stockades. On 24 Oct. the governor 
wrote to the secretary of state : ' General 
Walpole is going on vastly well. His figure 
and talents are well adapted for the service 
he is upon, and he has got the confidence of 
the militia and the country.' By 22 Dec. 
he had come to terms with the insurgents. 
They were to ask pardon, to leave their 
fastnesses and settle in any district assigned 
to them, and to give up the runaway slaves. 
On these conditions he promised that they 
should not be sent out of the island ; and the 
terms were ratified by the governor. 

Only a few of the insurgents came in, and 
in the middle of January Walpole moved 
against them with a strong column, accom- 
panied by dogs which had been brought 
from Cuba. They then surrendered, and were 
sent down to Montego Bay ; and in March 
the assembly and the governor decided to 
ship them to Nova Scotia. Walpole strongly 
remonstrated against what he regarded as a 
breach of faith. He argued that the treaty 
might have been cancelled when the maroons 
failed to fulfil its terms, but that the gover- 
nor had deliberately abstained from can- 
celling it. He declined a gift of five hun- 
dred guineas which the assembly voted for 
the purchase of a sword, and obtained leave 
to return to England. His letter declining 
the sword was expunged from the minutes 
of the house (cf. DALLAS, Hist, of the Ma- 
roons, 1803 ; GARDNER, Hist, of Jamaica, 
1873, pp. 232-6). 

He was made colonel in the army on 
3 May 1796, but he retired from the service 
before 1799. In January 1797 he was re- 
turned to parliament for Derby, which he 
represented till 1806. He was a follower of 
Fox, and voted for reform. He was Tierney's 
second in his duel with Pitt on Putney 
heath on 27 May 1798. When Fox came 
into office as foreign secretary, Walpole was 



appointed under-secretary (20 Feb. 1806) ; 
but he did not retain this office long after 
Fox's death. He was made comptroller of 
cash in the excise office for the rest of his 
life. He was M.P. for Dungarvan from 1807 
till 1820, when he resigned his seat. He 
died in May 1835, unmarried. 

[Gent. Mag. 1835, ii. 547; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, v. 674 ; Lord Lindsay's Lives of 
the Lindsays, iii. 1-146 (for the maroon war) ; 
Lord Holland's Memoirs of the Whig Party, i. 
142 ; Burke's Peerage.] E. M. L. 

WALPOLE, HENRY (1558-1 595),jesuit r 
eldest son of Christopher Walpole of Dock- 
ing and of Anmer Hall, Norfolk, by Margery, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Beckham 
of Narford in the same county, was born at 
Docking, and baptised there in October 1558. 
Michael Walpole [q. v.] and Richard Wal- 
pole [q.v.] were his younger brothers. Henry 
was sent to Norwich school in 1566 or 1567, 
where his master was Stephen Limbert, a 
Cambridge scholar of some repute in his day. 
He entered at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
on 15 Jan. 1575, but he left the university 
without taking a degree, and in 1578 he be- 
came a student at Gray's Inn, intending to 
follow in the footsteps of his father, who 
appears for some time to have practised as a 
consulting barrister, and of his uncle, John 
Walpole, a serjeant-at-law who would cer- 
tainly have been promoted to a judgeship but 
for his early death in 1568. While Henry 
Walpole was at Gray's Inn he appears to 
have brought himself under the notice of the 
government spies by habitually consorting 
with the recusant gentry and the Roman 
partisans ; and when Edmund Campion [q. v.] 
came over to advocate a return to the papal 
obedience, Walpole was a conspicuous sup- 
porter of the Jesuit and his friends. Campion 
was hanged at Tyburn on 1 Dec. 1581, and 
Walpole stood near to the scaftbld when the 
usual barbarities were perpetrated upon the 
mangled corpse. The blood splashed into the 
faces of the crowd that pressed round, and 
some of it spurted upon young Walpole's 
clothes. He accepted this as a call to him- 
self to take up the work which Campion had 
begun ; and under the inspiration which the 
dreadful scene had aroused he sought relief 
for this feeling in writing a poem of thirty 
stanzas, which he entitled ' An Epitaph of 
the Life and Death of the most famous Clerk 
and virtuous Priest, Edmund Campion, a 
Reverend Father of the meek Society of the 
blessed name of Jesus.' The poem, which 
contains many passages of much beauty and 
sweetness, and indicates the possession of 
great poetic gifts on the part of the writer, 



Wai pole 



165 



Walpole 






was immediately printed by one of the author's 
friends, Yalenger by name, apparently at his 
own private press. It was widely circulated, 
and attracted much attention. The govern- 
ment made great efforts to discover the 
author. Valenger was brought before the 
council, was fined heavily, and condemned 
to lose his ears ; but he did not betray his 
friend. Walpole, however, was under grave 
suspicion, and thought it advisable to slip 
away to his father's house in Norfolk, where 
he was for some time in hiding, till an oppor- 
tunity came for passing over to the continent. 
He arrived at Rheims on 7 July 1582, and 
at the college there he enrolled himself as a 
student of theology. Next year he made his 
way to Rome, was received into the English 
College on 28 April 1583, and in the follow- 
ing October was admitted to minor orders. 
Three months later he offered himself to the 
Society of Jesus, and on 2 Feb. 1584 was ad- 
mitted among the probationers. A year 
later he was sent to France, where, at 
Verdun, he passed two years of probation, 
acting as ' prefect of the convictors.' On 
17 Dec. 1588 he was admitted to priest's 
orders at Paris. 

About 1586 a staff of army chaplains had 
been organised by Belgian Jesuits, whose 
business it was to minister to the Spanish 
forces serving under the prince of Parma. 
Among these were soldiers of almost every 
European nationality, and it was important 
that the Jesuit chaplains should be good 
linguists. Walpole was master of many 
languages, and was exactly the man for 
this work, which was now laid upon him. 
He was eminently successful, and he did 
not spare himself; but on one occasion in 
the autumn of 1589 he fell inio the hands of 
the PJnglish garrison at Flushing, and was 
thrown into prison among common thieves 
and cut-throats, and had to endure great 
sufferings, till his brother, Michael Walpole, 
managed to cross over to Flushing and pay 
the ransom demanded for his release. In 
January 1590 he was set free and was still 
in Belgium, apparently exercising his func- 
tions as a catholic priest among the soldiery, 
when in October 1591 he was removed to 
Tournai to complete his third year as proba- 
tioner. 

In July 1592 he was summoned to the 
Jesuit college at Bruges. Parsons's famous 
' Responsio ad Edictum,' written under the 
name of Philopater [see PARSONS, ROBERT, 
1540-1010], was published in the summer 
of 1592, and it was deemed advisable that 
an English translation of the book should 
be circulated coincidently with the appear- 
ance of the Latin version. This translation 



was entrusted to Walpole, and while he 
was engaged upon it he received orders from 
Claudius Aquaviva, general of the society, 
to join Parsons in Spain. He was present 
at the opening of the chapel of the lately 
founded Jesuit college in Seville on 29 Dec. 
1592, and there he met his brother Richard, 
whom he had not seen for ten years. 
Richard had already volunteered to engage 
in the English mission, but Parsons could 
not spare so able a coadjutor, and Richard 
had to wait his time. Henry, however, 
was possessed by the longing to return to 
England and emulate John Gerard's success 
as a proselytiser in Norfolk [see GERARD, 
JOHN, 1564-1637]. In June 1593 Parsons 
told him that it was decided he should be 
sent to England. Next month he was pre- 
sented to Philip II at the Escurial,' and was 
very graciously received as a Jesuit father 
about to start on the English mission. It was 
not, however, till late in November that he 
actually set sail from Dunkirk on one of the 
semi-piratical vessels which at that time 
infested the Channel, having bargained that 
he should be put ashore on the coast of 
Essex, Suffolk, or Norfolk, where he was 
sure to find friends or kinsfolk. With him 
went two soldiers of fortune who had been 
serving under the king of Spain and were 
tired of it. One of these was Thomas, a 
younger brother of Henry Walpole, now in 
his twenty-sixth year. The voyage was 
disastrous from the first ; the wind was 
boisterous and adverse, the vessel could not 
touch at any point near the East-Anglian 
coast, and was unable to stand inshore till 
they had got as far as Bridlington in York- 
shire, where at last the three travellers were 
landed on 6 Dec. and left to shift for them- 
selves. The little party had scarcely been 
twenty-four hours on English soil before 
they were all arrested and committed to 
the castle at York. Henry Walpole at 
once confessed himself a Jesuit father. The 
other two allowed that they had served in 
Sir William Stanley's regiment in Flanders. 
This, it seems, was no offence in law, and 
the only charge which could be made against 
them was that they had connived at the 
landing of a Jesuit in England, which was 
a much more serious matter. The two 
made no difficulty of telling all they knew. 
Thomas Walpole even pointed out the place 
where his brother had hidden some letters 
and other incriminating documents on his 
first landing. But Henry exhibited unusual 
stubbornness when under examination, and, 
following the example of his hero Campion 
twelve years before, declared himself ready 
to defend his religious convictions against a 



Walpole 



166 



Walpole 



member of the Yorkshire clergy in a public 
discussion, in which he acquitted himself 
with only too great success and cleverness. 
In February he was committed to the care 
of the notorious Richard Topcliffe [q. v.], 
under whose charge he was carried to Lon- 
don and placed a close prisoner in the Tower. 
It was not till 27 April that he was sub- 
jected to his first examination upon the in- 
formation which the government had been 
collecting against him. This was a preli- 
minary to a long succession of similar attempts 
to extort from the prisoner particulars which 
it was supposed he only was qualified to 
furnish on the movements of the catholics 
abroad and the plots which were assumed 
to be hatching at home. Minute reports of 
these examinations were drawn up at the 
time which have come down to us. Wal- 
pole was put upon the rack again and again, 
and Topclifle seems to have used his utmost 
license in torturing his victim. In July 
1594 he was still able to write, but after 
this he was handed over to Topcliffe to treat 
as he pleased. There is some reason for 
thinking that there was a motive for keeping 
him alive. Henry Walpole was his father's 
eldest son and heir. His father was at this 
time in failing health, and in the event of 
his son surviving him a considerable estate 
would have escheated to the crown. In the 
spring of 1595, however, he was sent back to 
York for trial on the capital charges : (1) that 
he had abjured the realm without license ; 
(2) that he had received holy orders beyond 
the seas; and (3) that he had returned to 
England as a Jesuit father and priest of the 
Roman church to exercise his priestly func- 
tions. Of course he was found guilty, though 
during the trial he acquitted himself with 
great ability, and he was condemned to death. 
The sentence was carried out on 17 April 
1595. The long and minute accounts which 
have reached us of his conduct during the 
last few days of his life prove the great 
interest that was felt in his case, and though 
the judicial murder of Henry Walpole and 
of Robert Southwell [q. v.j by no means 
brought to an end the massacre of the Jesuits 
and seminary priests in the queen's reign, 
yet after this year (1595) the rack was much 
more sparingly used than heretofore, and 
something like hesitation was shown in 
sending the Roman proselytisers to the 
gallows. 

A portrait of Henry Walpole, stated to 
be contemporary, was preserved in the Eng- 
lish College at Rome till the general spolia- 
tion of the religious houses. A copy of this 
was made for the late Hon. Frederick Wal- 
pole of Mannington Hall, Norfolk. A col- 



lection of nineteen ' Letters of Henry AVal- 
pole, S. J., from the original manuscripts at 
Stonyhurst College, edited with notes by 
Aug. Jessopp, D.D.,' was printed for private 
circulation in 1873, 4to. Only fifty copies 
were struck off. Twenty-five of these were 
presented to the fathers at Stonyhurst. 

[The career of Henry Walpole has been traced 
in detail by the writer of this article in 'One 
Generation of a Norfolk House,' 1878. The 
authorities on -which the statements there made 
are based will be found in the notes. A short 
life of Henry Walpole was published by Father 
Cresswell at Madrid eight months after the 
execution of his friend. A French translation 
of this Spanish original was issued at Arras in 
September 1596, and it has been asserted that 
an English version was also printed. This, 
however, is very doubtful. There is a full 
account of Walpole's career, with some of his 
letters and details of his trial, in Diego de 
Yepes's Historia Particular de la Persecucion de 
Inglaterra, published in qxiarto at Madrid in 
1599 (only four years after Walpole's death), 
and in our own times much valuable informa- 
tion has been brought together in Foley's Re- 
cords of the English Province S. J. ; Mor- 
ris's Life of John Gerard ; and in the Re- 
cords of the English Catholics under the Penal 
Laws, edited by the London Oratorians, 1878, 
vol. i. The Official Reports of Walpole's ex- 
aminations in the Tower are abstracted in Cal. 
Dom. Eliz. 1591-4 ; the originals are in the 
Record Office. The reports of the disputations 
at York, of the trial, and of the incidents at the 
execution must have been widely circulated. We 
find them quoted in unexpected places. Of 
course they -were known to More (Hist. Prov. 
Angl.), but one is surprised to find extracts 
from them in the Kerkelyke Historie of Corn. 
Hazart S. J., folio, Antwerp, 1668, iii. 375. A 
devotional life of Henry Walpole, taken almost 
exclusively from Cresswell's biography, was 
published by Father Alexis Possoz, S. J., at 
Tournai in 1869.] A. J. 

WALPOLE, HORATIO, first BAEOK 
WALPOLE OF WOLTERTON ( 1 678 -1 757), diplo- 
matist and politician, was the fifth son of 
Robert Walpole, and the younger brother of 
Sir Robert Walpole, first earl of Orford [q.v.] 
He was born at Houghton on 8 Dec. 1078, 
and educated at Eton and King's College, 
Cambridge. A copy of Latin verses by him 
was included in the ' Luctus Cantabri- 
gienses' published on the death of Wil- 
liam III in 1702. In the same year Horatio, 
or, as he was more usually called, Horace 
Walpole, was elected a fellow of his college. 
After some hesitation as to the choice of a 
profession, and a brief residence as a law 
student at Lincoln's Inn, where he was ad- 
mitted on 2 Oct. 1700, Walpole entered 



AYalpole 



167 



Walpole 



parliament. A consistent whig, and a mem- 
ber of the Hanover Club, he remained a 
member of the House of Commons for fifty- 
four years. On 24 July 1 702 he was returned 
for Castle Rising, and he was re-elected by 
that constituency in May 1705, May 1708, 
December 1710, and April and September 
1713. On 2 Feb. 1714-15 he was returned 
for Beeralston, Devonshire, and on 2 Dec. 
1718 for East Looe, Cornwall. In the 
spring of 1722 he was returned for both 
East Looe and for Great Yarmouth, and 
chose to sit for the latter constituency. He 
was again elected for Great Yarmouth on 
22 Aug. 1727 and 14 May 1730. Subse- 
quently, from 15 May 1734 till his summons 
to the upper house in June 1756, he sat for 
Norwich. 

While still a young member of the House 
of Commons, Walpole took office in the 
diplomatic service. In 1 706 he was appointed 
secretary under General James Stanhope 
(afterwards first Earl Stanhope) [q.v.], envoy 
and minister-plenipotentiary to the titular 
king Charles III of Spain, and accompanied 
his chief to Spain in the expedition which re- 
lieved Barcelona (May). From 1707 to 1709 
he acted as chief secretary to Henry Boyle, 
lord Carleton [q.v.], who during part of this 
time was secretary of state. In 1709 he 
was attached to The Hague embassy, and 
in the following year accompanied the 
ambassador, Lord Townshend, as secretary 
to the abortive peace conferences at Gertruy- 
denberg. He seems already at this time to 
have gained Townshend's full confidence (see 
Townshend's letters in Manuscripts of the 
Marquess Townshend, Hist. MSS. Comm.; 
cf. Horatio Walpole's letters to his brother 
in Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, vol. i. 
App.) When on the advent of the whigs to 
power, at the accession of George I, Towns- 
tend became one of the principal secretaries 
of state, he appointed Walpole under-secre- 
tary. In 1715 he was made secretary of the 
treasury on his brother's becoming first lord 
and chancellor of the exchequer. In the 
same year he was sent to The Hague in 
order to support Lord Cadogan [see CADO- 
GAN, WILLIAM, first EARL CADOGAN] in his 
application for armed help against the ex- 
pected invasion of the Pretender, and in 
1716 he was associated with the same mili- 
tary diplomatist as joint plenipotentiary for 
obtaining from the States-General a fleet 
intended, under the pretext of protecting the 
Baltic trade, to further the Hanoverian de- 
signs on the Bremen and Verden territories. 
Furthermore, the Dutch government was to 
be induced to enter into a defensive alliance 
with Great Britain and France (afterwards 



known as the triple alliance). Walpole 
strongly objected to the pressure exercised 
by the Hanoverian interest, then much 
alarmed by the recent entry of Russian troops 
into Mecklenburg, and as a matter of good 
faith he warmly deprecated asking the Dutch 
to assent to a separate treaty, which, contrary 
to assurances previously given by him, had 
been concluded by Great Britain and France. 
In the end he obtained permission to quit 
The Hague, leaving the signing of the alli- 
ance treaty to his colleague (Memoirs of Sir 
Robert Walpole, i. 180). Hardly had he 
arrived in England, when he was sent to 
George II, then at the Gb'hrde (November), 
as the bearer of a despatch to Stanhope, which 
proved the beginning of Townshend's down- 
fall [see CHARLES TOWNSHEND, second VIS- 
COUNT TOWNSHEND]. Intent upon diverting 
from the secretary of state to himself the 
blame for the delay about the French treaty, 
Horace remained ignorant and unobservant 
of the king's suspicion of cabals with the 
Prince of Wales on the part of Townshend 
and Robert Walpole (STANHOPE, i. 241 seq.) 
When, however, the former was finally dis- 
missed, and the latter resigned (April 1717), 
Horace Walpole likewise went out of office. 
Shortly before this he had secured for life 
the appointment of surveyor and auditor 
general of the plantation (American) revenues 
of the crown ( Calendar of Treasury Papers, 
1717-19, ccxiii. 8 et al.) On the return of 
his brother and Townshend to power in 1 720, 
he was named secretary to the lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, and in 1721 was reappointed secre- 
tary jto the treasury, on his brother once more 
becoming first lord. About 1720 Lady Cow- 
per describes Horace's lodgings as a useful 
place for the settlement of confidential court 
business (Diary, p. 144). 

In 1722 (May-June) he negotiated at The 
Hague the grant of an auxiliary force, at 
the highly critical time of the discovery of 
' Atterbury's plot,' and in October 1723 he 
proceeded to Paris on what proved the most 
important diplomatic employment of his 
career. The nominal purpose of his mission 
was to arrange for the accession of Portugal 
to the quadruple alliance ; but he was really 
sent to uproot Sir Luke Schaub [q. v.], who 
was in Carteret's interest, and who had 
gained much influence during the ascen- 
dency of Dubois. Walpole, without suc- 
ceeding better than Schaub in forwarding 
King George's wishes in the intrigue con- 
cerning the La Vrilliere dukedom [see 
GEORGE I], contrived to supplant Schaub, 
and was appointed envoy-extraordinary and 
minister-plenipotentiary in his place (March 
1724). He had shown considerable judg- 



Walpole 



168 



Walpole 



ment when after the death of the regent 
Orleans (December 1723) power had tem- 
porarily passed into the hands of the Duke 
of Bourbon and Madame de Prie, by keeping 
more or less at a distance Bolingbroke, who, 
foreseeingthe eclipse of Carteret, was anxious 
to conciliate the Townshend- Walpole in- 
terest. And, forecasting in his turn the 
course of ministerial changes in France, 
Horace Walpole gradually placed himself on 
a footing of thorough confidence with Fleury, 
bishop of Frej us (afterwards Cardinal Fleury), 
who in June 1726 was definitively established 
in power. Fleury never forgot a visit which 
Walpole had paid him at Issy, when in 
December 1725 persons not so well informed 
supposed him to have been banished from 
court (see ST. SIMON, Memoires, ed. 1863, 
x. 278 seq., where Sir Robert and Horace 
Walpole are said to have persuaded Fleury 
that their policy was directed by his counsels, 
and where that policy is very caustically 
characterised). The preliminaries of Paris, 
signed 31 May 1727, which averted what 
seemed the inevitable expansion of the exist- 
ing state of war into a general European con- 
flict, exhibit at its height the co-operation of 
the French and English prime ministers, be- 
tween whom Horace was the chief inter- 
mediary agent. On the accession of George II 
(June) Walpole proceeded at once to Eng- 
land, armed with a letter from Fleury, pro- 
mising adherence to the ' system ' of the Anglo- 
French entente, if the new king would uphold 
it, and, though at first coldly received, was 
sent back by him to Paris with a gracious an- 
swer. Soon afterwards the reconciliation 
between France and Spain, which Walpole 
had laboured so persistently to obstruct, was 
brought about, and Germain Louis Chau- 
velin, a friend of the Bourbon entente, became 
secretary of state ; but the continuance of an 
excellent understanding between Fleury and 
Walpole found expression in the settlement 
of the claims of Spain, satisfactory to Great 
Britain, arranged at the congress of Soissons 
(June 1728), where Walpole was one of the 
plenipotentiaries, and in the treaty of Seville 
(November 1729), which established a de- 
fensive alliance between Great Britain, 
France, and Spain (the Townshend manu- 
scripts comprise four volumes of Walpole's 
Paris correspondence, of which extracts are 
given by COXE, vol. i. ; cf. as to the latter 
part of his French embassy, passages from 
his Apology). 

On the resignation of Townshend (May 
1730) Sir Robert Walpole offered the vacant 
secretaryship of state to his brother, who, 
however, declined it, chiefly from an honour- 
able unwillingness to justify the suspicion 



that he had fomented the quarrel with Towns- 
hend with a view to succeeding him. While 
still in France he was appointed to the 
office of cofferer of the household, which gave 
him a ready access to the king, and, having 
thereupon resigned his embassy, he was in 
November 1730 sworn of the privy council. 
He remained in England till October 1733, 
when he was sent to The Hague on a confi- 
dential mission, which led to his appoint- 
ment as envoy and minister-plenipotentiary 
there in the following year. He held this 
post till 1740, though paying occasional 
visits to England, where he attended in par- 
liament. In the course of these years he 
was, together with his friend the grand 
pensionary Slingelandt, and his successor 
at Paris, James, lord Waldegrave [q. v.], 
largely instrumental in promoting the policy 
which, against the wish of George II, kept 
Great Britain out of the iniquitous war of 
the Polish succession, and in 1735 led to the 
peace of Vienna (to this period belongs the 
earlier part of his interesting correspondence 
with Robert Trevor [q. v.], afterwards vis- 
count Hampden, who, after acting as his 
secretary of legation at The Hague, in 1741 
succeeded him there as minister. See Manu- 
scripts of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, Hist. 
MSS. Comm. Many of these letters had 
already been printed by COXE, but very in- 
accurately. See also, for letters exchanged 
between the brothers in these years, Appendix 
to vol. iii. of the Memoirs of Sir Kobert 
Walpole). 

Horace Walpole's free and frequent com- 
munications of his political views to the 
king and queen were not always palatable, 
and she is said to have told him : ' Sir Robert 
would have gone into the war' of the Polish 
succession, ' but you would not let him.' 
Before her death, however, he received many 
friendly communications from her, and in 
1736, by her wish, resided at Hanover as 
minister of state during a long visit of the 
king to his electoral dominions (cf. HEEVET, 
Memoirs, ii. 297). Yet already in 1738 he 
was strongly in favour of a Prussian alliance, 
of all things the most detestable to George II. 
In this year he warmly advocated the main- 
tenance of peace with Spain, and in March 
1739, in a speech of two hours, moved the 
address in the House of Commons thanking 
the king for the convention by which it was 
vainly hoped that war might be averted 
(STANHOPE, ii. 275). In 1740 he strenuously 
exerted himself in support of his brother's 
policy of bringing about an understanding 
between Austria and Prussia, and his fore- 
sight in protesting against the obstinacy of 
Maria Theresa and her advisers and urging 



Walpole 



169 



Walpole 



the use of every opportunity of securing the 
good will of Prussia is attested by numerous 
passages in his correspondence. 

On the downfall of Sir Robert Walpole in 
1742 (February), Horace thought it prudent 
to burn a large part of their private corre- 
spondence. He rendered a conspicuous ser- 
vice both to the late prime minister and to 
the existing government by defending in the 
House of Commons (December), doubtless 
much against the grain, his brother's very 
doubtful step of taking sixteen thousand 
Hanoverians into British pay. When among 
the pamphlets published on the subject one by 
Lord Chesterfield and Waller, entitled ' The 
Case of the Hanover Tories,' had created 
much attention, he was prevailed upon to 
write an answer to it under the title of ' The 
Interest of Great Britain steadily pursued' 
(April 1743), which ran through three edi- 
tions, but which, according to his own 
account, met with so little encouragement 
from ministers that he abandoned his in- 
tention of following it up with a second part 
(see his amusing letter to Trevor in Buck- 
inghamshire MSS. p. 87). During the en- 
suing years, while taking no part in the 
contests for power and place, he remained a 
close observer of events and men, displaying 
his usual courage by a letter to the king in 
which he urged the appointment of Pitt as 
secretary at war (January or February 1746), 
and by a series of letters to the Duke of Cum- 
berland, as well as by an interview (20 Dec. 
1747), in which he sought to impress upon 
the duke, and through him upon the king, 
that nothing but an alliance with Prussia 
could insure the conclusion of a satisfactory 
peace (CoxE, ii. 185 seq.) The peace of Aix- 
la-Chapelle (1748) left the Prussian alliance 
apparently still out of the question. Walpole 
printed some comments on it, under the title 
of 'A Rhapsody of Foreign Politics,' in which 
he advocated the exchange of Gibraltar for 
Porto Rico or St. Augustin. In 1749 (March) 
he delivered an able speech, concurring, with 
the reverse of enthusiasm, in the grant to the 
Empress Maria Theresa, and subsequently he 
repeated its substance in a paper entitled ' A 
Letter to a Friend,' which remained unpub- 
lished. His ' Observations on the System of 
Affairs in 1751,' which dwell with rhetorical 
bitterness upon the impolicy of ' subsidiary 
treaties in time of peace to German princes/ 
he had the boldness to lay before the king 
(printed ap. COXE, ii. 307 seq.) In 1752 he, 
according to his nephew, excited the ridicule 
of the House of Commons by voting for the 
subsidy treaty with Saxony, against which 
he had delivered a convincing harangue 
(Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of George II, 



i. 241 sqq.) Although Walpole's long in- 
timacy with Henry Pelham had ended in a 
suspension of their political connection, he 
was eagerly courted by the Duke of New- 
castle on his succeeding as head of the 
government (1754), and early in 1755 read 
to some of the chief members of the duke's 
cabinet a remarkable expression of his opinion 
on the inexpediency of the king's going 
abroad, and of the desirability, in the case of 
his absence, of appointing the Duke of Cum- 
berland regent (CoxE, ii. 372 seq.) His advice 
was only partially followed, and later in the 
year he failed in his efforts to effect a recon- 
ciliation between Newcastle and Pitt. 

On 1 June 1756 Walpole, who chiefly on 
account of the recent marriage of his eldest 
son to a daughter of the Duke of Devonshire 
had solicited this rise in rank, was created a 
peer by the title of Baron Walpole of Wol- 
terton (his seat near Aylsham in Norfolk). 
He survived the grant of this honour for less 
than a twelvemonth. In former years he had 
been much afflicted by the stone, but he had 
thought himself cured by a remedy of which 
he sent an account to the Royal Society. 
The return of the disease early in 1757 proved 
fatal. He died on 5 Feb. of that year, and 
was buried in the chancel of the parish church 
of Wickmere, near Wolterton. 

Horace Walpole has been far from kindly 
dealt with by historical writers, partly perhaps 
in consequence of the dicta of his amiable 
nephew and namesake, who described him as 
' a dead-weight' in his brother's ministry, and 
' one who knew something of everything but 
how to hold his tongue or how to apply his 
knowledge,' besides adding further amenities 
as to the homely style of his language and 
oratory (Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of 
George II, i. 140). But the younger Horace 
had in 1756 been involved in a violent per- 
sonal quarrel with his uncle, in which the 
right seems to have been on the younger 
man's side. It concerned the establishment, 
against Lord Orford's will, of a so-called 
mutual entail of the Houghton and Wol- 
terton estates, and the consequent exclusion 
from the former estate of his grandchil- 
dren and daughter (see HOKACE WALPOLE, 
Letters, ed. Cunningham, ix. 485). Cardinal 
Fleury qualified a compliment to his effec- 
tive eloquence by allowingthat it was clothed 
in bad French. His English speeches are 
described as delivered with a Norfolk accent, 
and he himself jested in parliament on the 
slovenliness of his dress. The engraving of 
Van Loo's portrait of him, formerly at Straw- 
berry Hill, suggests a gross and unpleasing 
presence. Moreover, it is easy to perceive 
that at court and elsewhere the outspoken- 



Wai pole 



170 



Walpole 



ness which formed part of his nature must 
frequently have been out of season. Yet his 
mind was of no ordinary calibre, and his 
moral courage was, like his intellectual 
capacity, fully worthy of Walpole's brother. 
In domestic politics he was consistent, save 
when under the pressure of exceptional con- 
siderations affecting his party and its chief. 
In foreign affairs, which were the main 
business of his life, he was alike far- and clear- 
sighted, and may without hesitation be held 
to have been one of the most experienced 
and sure-footed as well as sagacious diplo- 
matists of his times, not a few of whom were 
trained under his eye. Moreover, both at 
Versailles and at The Hague he understood 
how to win complete confidence in the most 
important quarters. He seems to have been 
an effective but the reverse of a fastidious 
speaker in the House of Commons. His 
writings have the merit of unmistakable 
lucidity, and often of argumentative strength. 
In addition to the pamphlets by him already 
mentioned, two on the question of war with 
Spain, and on the Spanish convention (1738) 
evidently from his pen, were discovered 
at Wolterton by his biographer. He also 
printed in 1763 an 'Answer to the Latter 
Part of Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the 
Study of History.' His ' Apology,' written 
towards the close of his life, and dealing 
with his transactions from 1715 to 1739, the 
'Rhapsody of Foreign Politics ' occasioned by 
the pacifications of 1748 and 1750, and two 
manuscripts on his favourite project of a good 
understanding with Prussia (1740), remained 
unpublished ; but of the first named of these 
the greater part is reproduced by his bio- 
grapher. 

Horace Walpole the elder married, in 
1720, Mary, daughter of Peter Lombard 
the ' Pug ' of Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams's 
elegant satire (HANBURY- WILLIAMS, Works, 
ed. Horace Walpole, 1822, i. 48, and note). 
By her he had four sons and three daughters. 
The eldest son, Horatio (1723-1809), suc- 
ceeded as second Baron Walpole of Wolter- 
ton, and was created Earl of Orford on 
10 April 1806. His third son, George, is 
separately noticed. 

[Coxe's Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole, 
2 vols. 2nd edit. 1808, here cited as ' Coxe,' and 
Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Orford, 
4 vols. ed. 1816, here cited as Memoirs of Sir 
Eobert Walpole ; Earl Stanhope's (Lord Mahon) 
Hist, of England from the Peace of Utrecht, 
oth edit. 1858; Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. 
App. pt. iv. (MSS. of the Marquis Townshend, 
1887), 14th Rep. App.pt. ix. (MSS. of the Earl 
of Buckinghamshire, 1895); Robethon Corresp. 
Hanover Papers, vol. viii., Sto-we MSS., British 



i Mus. ; Collins's Peerage of England, 5th edit. 

i 1779, vol. vii. ; other authorities cited in this 
article and in that on WALPOLE, SIR ROBEHT, 
first EARL of ORFORD.] A. W. W. 

WALPOLE, HORATIO or HORACE, 
fourth EARL OF ORFORD (1717-1797), author, 
wit, and letter- writer, was born in Arling- 
ton Street (No. 17) on 24 Sept. 1717 (O.S.), 
being the fourth son of Sir Robert Walpole, 
first earl of Orford [q. v.]. by his first wife, 
Catherine Shorter, eldest daughter of John 
Shorter of Bybrook, near Ashford in Kent. 
He was eleven years younger than the rest 
of his father's children, a circumstance which, 
taken in connection with his dissimilarity, 
both personally and mentally, to the other 
members of the family, has been held to lend 
some countenance to the contemporary sug- 
gestion, first revived by Lady Louisa Stuart 
(Introduction to Lord Wharncliffe's edition 
of the Works of Lady Mary Wort ley Mont- 
agu), that he was the son, not of Sir Robert 
Walpole, but of Carr, lord Hervey, the elder 
brother of John, lord Hervey, the ' Sporus ' 
of Pope. His attachment to his mother 
and his lifelong reverence for Sir Robert 
Walpole, of whom he was invariably the 
strenuous defender, added to the fact that 
there is nowhere the slightest hint in his 
writings of any suspicion on his own part 
as to his parentage, must be held to discredit 
this ancient scandal. His godmother, he 
tells us (Corresp. ed. Cunningham, 1857-9, 
vol. i. p. Ixi), was his aunt, Dorothy Wal- 
pole, lady Townshend ; his godfathers the 
Duke of Grafton and Sir Robert's younger 
brother, Horatio (afterwards Baron Walpole 
of Wolterton) [q. v.] It was probably in 
compliment to his uncle that he was chris- 
tened Horatio ; but, as he told Pinkerton 
( Walpoliana, i. 62), he disliked the name, 
and wrote himself ' Horace ' ' an English 
name for an Englishman.' He received the 
first elements of his education at Bexley in 
Kent, where he was placed under the charge 
of a son of Stephen Weston (1665-1 742 ) [q.v.], 
bishop of Exeter. But he spent much of his 
boyhood in his father's house ' next the col- 
lege ' at Chelsea, a building now merged in 
the hospital. One of the salient events of 
his youthful days was his being taken, at 
his own request, to kiss the hand of George I, 
then (1 June 1727) preparing to set out on 
that last journey to Hanover on which he 
died. Of this Walpole gives an account in 
his 'Reminiscences of the Courts of George I 
and George II' (Corresp. vol. i. pp. xciii, 
xciv ; see also Walpoliana, p. 25). 

On 26 April 1727 he went to Eton, where 
his tutor was Henry Bland, the headmaster's 



Walpole 



171 



Walpole 



eldest son. From liis own account his abilities 
were not remarkable. ' I was a blockhead, 
and pushed up above my parts,' he wrote to 
Conway (Corresp. i. 307). But there are 
other evidences that his powers were by no 
means contemptible. Among his school- 
mates were his cousins, the two Conways 
Henry Seymour (afterwards Marshal Con- 
way) [q. v.], and his elder brother Francis 
Seymour Conway, lord Hertford [q. v.] 
Charles Hanbury-Williams [q. v.], and George 
Augustus Selwyn (1719-1791) [q. v.] An- 
other contemporary and associate was Wil- 
liam Cole (1714-1782) [q. v.],the antiquary. 
But his closest allies were George and Charles 
Montagu, the sons of Brigadier-general Ed- 
ward Montagu, and these formed with Wal- 
pole what was known as the 'Triumvirate.' 
A still more important group, which con- 
sisted of Walpole, Thomas Gray (afterwards 
the poet), Richard West, and Thomas Ash- 
ton (1716-1775) [q. v.], was styled the 
' Quadruple Alliance ; ' and this, which was 
a combination of a more literary and poeti- 
cal character than the other, had not a little 
to do with Walpole's future character. The 
influence of Gray in particular, both upon 
his point of view and his method of expres- 
sion, has never yet been sufficiently traced 
out. While at Eton (27 May 1731) he was 
entered at Lincoln's Inn, but he never went 
thither. He left Eton on 23 Sept. 1734, pro- 
ceeding, after an interval of residence in 
London, to his father's college at Cambridge 
(King's), where he began in March 1735. At 
Cambridge he found several of the Eton set, 
including Cole and the . Conways. West 
had gone to Oxford, but Gray and Ashton 
were at Cambridge, the one as a fellow- 
commoner at Peterhouse, the other at King's. 
Of Walpole's university studies we know 
little but the names of his tutors. In civil 
law and anatomy he attended the lectures 
of Francis Dickins and William Battie [q.v.] 
respectively ; his drawing-master was Ber- 
nard Lens [q.v.], and his mathematical pro- 
fessor the blind Professor Saunderson [q.v.], 
who appears to have told him frankly that 
he could never learn what he was trying 
to teach him (Corresp. ix. 467). In the 
classics his success was greater, but not re- 
markable, and he confessed to Pinkerton 
( Walpoliana, i. 105) that he never was a 
good Greek scholar. In French and Italian 
he was, how ever, fairly proficient, and already 
at Cambridge had made some literary essays, 
one being a copy of verses in the ' Gratulatio 
Academi;e Cantabrigiensis ' of 1736 addressed 
to Frederick, prince of Wales, on his marriage 
with Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. 
On 20 Aug. 1737 Lady Walpole died, and 



was buried in Westminster Abbey under a 
eulogistic epitaph composed by her youngest 
son. Soon after this his father appointed 
him inspector of imports and exports in the 
custom-house, a post which he subsequently 
resigned, in January 1738, on receiving that 
of usher of the exchequer. Later in the 
year he came into ' two other little patent- 
places,' a comptrollership of the pipe and 
clerkship of the estreats, which had been 
held for him by a substitute. These three 
offices must have then been worth about 
1,200/. a year, and were due of course to his 
father's interest as prime minister. He quitted 
King's College in 1739, and at the end of 
March fa. that year left England in company 
with Gray on the regulation grand tour. 
Walpole was to be paymaster, but Gray was 
to be independent. They made a short stay 
in Paris and then went to liheims, where 
they remained three months to improve 
themselves in the language. From Rheims 
they went to Dijon and Lyons, where, after 
an excursion to Geneva, Walpole found 
letters from his father telling him to go on 
to Italy. Accordingly they crossed the Alps, 
travelling from Turin to Genoa, and ulti- 
mately, in the Christmas of 1739, entered 
Florence. Here they were welcomed by the 
English residents, and particularly by Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Horace) Mann [q. v.], the 
British minister-plenipotentiary, a distant 
relative of Walpole, and subsequently one of 
his most favoured correspondents. With a 
brief interval they resided in the Casa Am- 
brosio, Mann's villa on the Arno, for fifteen 
months. AValpole, when his first passion for 
antiquities had cooled, gave himself up to 
the pleasures of the place ; Gray continued 
to take notes of statues and galleries and 
to copy music. They paid a flying visit to 
Rome, but they remained at Florence until 
May 1741, when they began their homeward 
journey. At Reggio a misunderstanding 
arose, of which the cause is obscure, and 
they separated. On Gray's side this was 
never explained ; but after his death Wal- 
pole took all the blame on himself (Corresp. 
\. 441 ; Walpoliana, i. 95). Shortly after- 
wards he fell ill of quinsy, which might 
have ended seriously but for the timely ad- 
vent of Joseph Spence [q. v.], who sum- 
moned a doctor from Florence. Upon his 
recovery Walpole returned to England, 
reaching Dover on 12 Sept. 1741 (O.S.) In 
his absence he had been returned member for 
Callington in Cornwall (14 May 1741). 

During his stay in Italy he had addressed 
to his friend Ashton, now tutor to the Earl 
of Plymouth, an ' Epistle from Florence ' in 
Dryden's manner ; and he soon began to 



Wai pole 



172 



Walpole 



correspond regularly with Mann, to whom 
he had written a first letter on his return 
journey. He took up his residence at first 
with his father in Downing Street, and sub- 
sequently at No. 5 Arlington Street, to 
which house Sir Robert Walpole removed 
after his resignation and elevation to the 
peerage as Earl of Orford in 1742. No. 5 Ar- 
lington Street, now marked by a Society of 
Arts tablet, long continued to be his resi- 
dence after his father's death, and here, with 
intervals of residence at Houghton, the 
family seat in Norfolk, he continued to live. 
He hated Norfolk and the Norfolk scenery 
and products. But there were some com- 
pensations for endless doing the honours to 
uncongenial guests in Lord Orford's great 
mansion in the fens. The house had a won- 
derful gallery of pictures, brought together 
by years of judicious foraging in Italy and 
England, and far too distinctive in character 
to be allowed to pass, as it eventually did, 
into the hands of Catherine of Russia. This 
collection was to Walpole not only an object 
of enduring interest, but a prolongation of 
that education as a connoisseur which the 
grand tour had begun. One of his cleverest 
jeux d'esprit, the ' Sermon on Painting,' was 
prompted by the Houghton gallery, and he 
occupied much of his time about 1742-3 in 
preparing, upon the model of the ' JEdes 
Barberini ' and ' Giustinianse,' an ' ^Edes 
Walpolianae,' which, besides being something 
more than a mere catalogue, includes an ex- 
cellent introduction. It was afterwards 
published in 1747, and is included in vol. ii. 
of the ' Works ' of 1798 (pp. 221-78). 

Lord Orford died in March 1744-5, leaving 
his youngest son ' the house in Arlington 
Street . . . 5,000 1. in money, and 1,0001. a year 
from the collector's place in the custom 
house' (Corresp. vol. i. p. Ixiv). Any sur- 
plus of the last item was to be divided with 
his brother, Sir Edward Walpole. After 
this, the next notable thing in his uneventful 
career seems to have been the composition in 
1746 of a prologue for Rowe's ' Tamerlane,' 
which it was the custom to play on 4 and 
5 Nov., being the anniversaries of King 
William's birth and landing at Torbay. The 
subject, as may be guessed, was the 'sup- 
pression of the late rebellion' (1745). In the 
same year (1746) he contributed two papers 
to Nos. 2 and 5 of the ' Museum,' and wrote a 
bright little poem on some court ladies, en- 
titled ' The Beauties.' In August he took a 
country residence at Windsor, and resumed 
his interrupted intercourse with Gray, who 
had just completed his ' Ode on a Distant 
Prospect of Eton College.' In 1747, how- 
ever, came what must be regarded as the 



great event of his life his removal to the 
neighbourhood of Twickenham. He took 
the remainder of the lease of a little house 
which stood on the left bank of the Thames 
at the corner of the upper road to Tedding- 
ton. Even then it was not without a his- 
tory. Originally the ' country box ' of a re- 
tired coachman of the Earl of Bradford, it 
had been subsequently occupied by Colley 
Cibber, by Dr. Talbot, bishop of Durham, by 
a son of the Duke of Chandos, and lastly by 
Mrs. Chenevix, the toywoman of Suffolk 
Street, sister to Pope's Mrs. Bertrand of 
Bath, who sublet it to Lord John Sackville. 
Walpole took the remainder of Mrs. Chene- 
vix's lease, and by 1748 had grown so at- 
tached to the place that he obtained a special 
act to purchase the fee simple, for which he 
paid 1.356/. 10s. In some old deeds he found 
the site described as Strawberry-Hill-Shot, 
and he accordingly gave the house its now 
historic name of Strawberry Hill. 

Strawberry Hill and its development 
thenceforth remained for many years his 
chief occupation in life. Standing originally 
in some five acres, he speedily extended his 
territory by fresh purchases to fourteen acres, 
which he assiduously planted and cultivated, 
until it ' sprouted away like any chaste nymph 
in the Metamorphoses.' Then he began gra- 
dually to enlarge and alter the structure itself. 
' I am going to build a little Gothic castle at 
Strawberry Hill,' he says in January 1750 
(Corresp. ii. 190). Accordingly, in 1753-4, 
he constructed a grand parlour or refectory 
with a library above it, and to these in 1760- 
1761 he added a picture gallery and cloister, 
a round-tower and a cabinet or tribune. A 
great north bedchamber followed in 1770, 
and other minor additions succeeded these. 
Having gothicised the place to his heart's 
content with battlements and arches and 
painted glass (' lean windows fattened with 
rich saints '), he proceeded, or rather con- 
tinued, to stock it with all the objects most 
dear to the connoisseur and virtuoso, pictures 
and statues, books and engravings, enamels 
by Petitot and Zincke, miniatures by Cooper 
and the Olivers, old china, snuff-boxes, 
gems, coins, seal-rings, filigree, cut-paper, 
and nicknacks of all sorts, which gave it the 
aspect partly of a museum and partly of a 
curiosity shop. Finally, after making a ten- 
tative catalogue in 1760 of the drawings and 
pictures in one of the rooms (the Holbein 
chamber), he printed in 1774 a quarto ' De- 
scription of the Villa of Horace Walpole . . . 
at Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, with 
an Inventory of the Furniture, Pictures, 
Curiosities, &c.' Fresh acquisitions obliged 
him to add several appendices to this, which 



Walpole 



173 



Walpole 



was reprinted definitively in 1784, accom- 
panied by engravings. In this form it was 
reproduced in his posthumous ' Works ' (ii. 
393-516). 

The catalogues of 1774 and 1784 were 
printed at his own Officina Arbuteana or 
private press at Strawberry. This he set on 
foot in July 1757, in a cottage near his house, 
taking for his sole manager and operator an 
Irish printer named William Robinson. His 
first issue was the ' Odes ' of Gray, which he 
set up for the Dodsleys in 1 757. These in 
due course were followed by a number of 
works of varying importance. Of those from 
his own pen, the chief (in addition to the 
catalogues above mentioned) were 'A Cata- 
logue of the Royal and Noble Authors of 
England,' 2 vols. 1758; 'Fugitive Pieces in 
Verse and Prose,' 1758 ; 'Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing in England ' (from Vertue's MSS.), 4 
vols. 1762-1771 [1780]; 'A Catalogue of 
Engravers who have been born or resided in 
England,' 1763 ; 'The Mysterious Mother, a 
Tragedy,' 1768; ' Miscellaneous Antiquities,' 
Nos. 1 and 2, 1772 ; ' A Letter to the Editor 
of the Miscellanies of Thomas Chatterton,' 
1779 ; 'Hieroglyphic Tales,' 1785; ' Essay on 
Modern Gardening ' (with a French version 
by the Due de Nivernais), 1785 ; and a 
translation of Voiture's ' Histoire d'Alcidalis 
et de Zelide,' 1789. Besides these, he printed 
Hentzer's ' Journey into England,' 1757 ; 
Whitworth's ' Account of Russia in 1710,' 
1758 ; Spence's ' Parallel ' (between Hill the 
tailor and the librarian Magliabecchi), 1758; 
Lord Cornbury's comedy of ' The Mistakes,' 
1758 ; Lucan's ' Pharsalia,' with Bentley's 
notes, 1760 ; Countess Temple's ' Poems,' 
1764 ; ' The Life of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury,' 1764; Renault's ' Cornelie,' 1768; 
Hoyland's 'Poems,' 1769; 'Seven Original 
Letters of Edward VI,' 1772; Grammont's 
'Memoirs,' 1772; Fitzpatriok's 'Dorinda, a 
Town Eclogue,' 1775 ; Lady Craven's comedy 
of ' The Sleep-walker,' 1778 ; Hannah More's 
' Bishop Bonner's Ghost,' 1789, and a number 
of minor pieces, single sheets, labels, and so 
forth. All the earlier of these books were 
printed by his first printer, Robinson. But 
Robinson was dismissed in 1759, and, after 
an interval of occasional hands, was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Kirgate, who continued 
to perform his duties until VValpole's death. 

Apart from the history of Strawberry 
and its press, Walpole's life from 1747, when 
he came to Twickenham, has little incident. 
In 1747-9 his zeal for his father's memory 
involved him in some party pamphleteering, 
the interest of which has now evaporated. 
In the November of the last-mentioned year 
he was robbed in Hyde Park by the ' gentle- 



man highwayman,' James Maclaine [q. v.], 
and narrowly escaped being shot through 
the head ( World, No. 103; Corresp. ii. 218- 
230). In 1753 he contributed a number of 
papers to the ' World ' of the fabulist Ed- 
ward Moore (1712-1757) [q.v.],one of which 
was a futile plea for that bankrupt Beli- 
sarius, Theodore of Corsica, to whom he 
subsequently erected a memorial tablet in 
St. Anne's churchyard, Soho; and in the 
same year he was instrumental in putting 
forth the famous edition of Gray's 'Poems,' 
with the designs of the younger Bentley, 
the originals of which were long preserved 
at Strawberry. In 1754 he became member 
for Castle Rising in Norfolk, a seat which he 
vacated three years later for that of Lynn. 
About the same time he interested himself, 
but vainly, to save the unfortunate Admiral 
Byng. But his chief distraction, in addition 
to his house and press, was authorship. Most 
of his productions have been enumerated 
above. But a few either preceded the esta- 
blishment of the press or were independent 
of it. One of the former class was a clever 
little skit, on the model of Montesquieu, en- 
titled ' A Letter from Xo Ho, a Chinese Philo- 
sopher at London, to his Friend Lien Chi, at 
Peking,' 1757, an effort which to some extent 
anticipated the famous 'Citizen of the World' 
of Goldsmith. Another jew cCesprit, three 
years later, was ' The Parish Register of 
Twickenham,' a list in octosyllabics of the 
local notables, afterwards included in vol. 
i v. of his ' Works.' To 1761 belongs ' The Gar- 
land,' a complimentary poem on George III, 
first published in the ' Quarterly ' for 1852 
(No. clxxx). But his most important effort 
was issued in December 1764. This was 
the ' Gothic romance ' of ' The Castle of 
Otranto,' further described on its title-page 
as ' Translated by William Marshal, Gent., 
from the original Italian of Onuphrio 
Muralto, Canon of the church of St. Nicholas 
at Otranto.' The introduction gave a critical 
account of the supposed black-letter original, 
the existence of which at first seems to have 
been taken for granted, even by Gray at 
Cambridge. Its success was considerable. 
In a second edition, which was speedily 
called for, Walpole dropped the mask and 
disclosed his intention in a clever preface. 
He had sought to blend the ancient and 
modern romance ; to combine supernatural 
machinery and every-day characters. His 
account of the inception and progress of the 
idea as given to his friend Cole ( Corresp. iv. 
328) is extremely interesting ; but his book 
is more interesting still, for he had hit upon 
a new vein in romance, a vein which was to 
be worked by a crowd of writers from Clara 



Wai pole 



174 



Walpole 



Reeve [q.v.] to Sir Walter and after. With 
the ' Castle of Otranto ' tentatively and inex- 
pertly, but unmistakably, began the modern 
romantic revival. 

By the time the ' Castle of Otranto ' was 
in its second edition, Walpole had carried 
out a long-cherished project and started for 
Paris. This he did in September 1765. He 
saw much of cultivated French society, es- 
pecially its great ladies, of whom his letters 
contain vivacious accounts (cf. Corresp. iv. 
465-73). But the most notable incident oi 
this visit to France, and the pretext of later 
ones, was the friendship he formed with the 
blind and brilliant Madame du Deffand, then 
nearing seventy, whose attraction to the 
mixture of independence, effeminacy, and 
real genius which made up Walpole's character 
speedily grew into a species of infatuation. 
He had no sooner quitted Paris than she 
wrote to him, and thenceforward until her 
death her letters, dictated to her faithful 
secretary, Wiart, continued, except when 
Walpole was actually visiting her (and she 
sometimes wrote to him even then), to reach 
him regularly. He went to Paris to see her 
in 1767, and again in 1775. Her attachment 
lasted five years later, until 1780, when she 
died painlessly at eighty-four. She left 
Walpole her manuscripts and her books. 
Many of her letters are included in the selec- 
tion published in 1810, and eight hundred of 
the originals were sold at the Strawberry 
Hill sale of 1842. Walpole's own letters, 
which he had prevailed upon her to return 
to him, though extant in 1810, have not 
been printed; and those received subsequently 
to 1774, a few belonging to 1780 excepted, 
were burnt by her at Walpole's desire. Good 
Frenchman though he was, he no doubt felt 
apprehensive lest his compositions in a foreign 
tongue should, in a foreign land, fall into 
unsympathetic keeping. 

One of his jeux tf esprit while at Paris in 
1765 had been a mock letter from Frederick 
the Great to the self-tormentor Rousseau, 
offering him an asylum in his dominions. 
Touched up by Helvetius and others, this 
missive gave great delight to the anti- 
Rousseau party, and, passing to England, 
helped to embitter the well-known quarrel 
between Rousseau and David Hume (1711- 
1776) [q. v.] Three years later Walpole was 
himself the victim of spurious documents. 
In March 1769 Thomas Chatterton [q. v.], 
then at Bristol, sent to him, as author of 
the 'Anecdotes of Painting,' some frag- 
ments of prose and verse, hinting that he 
could supply others bearing on the subject 
of art in England. Walpole was drawn, 
and replied encouragingly. Chatterton re- 



joined by partly revealing his condition, 
and Walpole, consulting Gray and Mason, 
was advised that he was being imposed 
upon. Private inquiries at Bath brought 
no satisfactory account of Chatterton, and 
he accordingly wrote him a fatherly letter 
of counsel, in which he added that doubts 
had been thrown upon the genuineness of 
the documents. He appears to have neg- 
lected or forgotten Chatterton's subsequent 
communications, until upon receipt of one 
more imperative than the rest (24 July), 
demanding the return of the papers, he 
snapped up both letters and poems in a pet, 
enclosed them in a cover without comment, 
and thought no more of the matter until 
Goldsmith told him at the Royal Academy 
dinner, a year and a half later, that Chatter- 
ton had destroyed himself an announcement 
which seems to have filled him with genuine 
concern. He might no doubt have acted 
more benevolently or more considerately. 
But he had been misled at the outset, and 
it is idle to make him responsible for 
Chatterton's untimely end because he failed 
to show himself an ideal patron. His own 
account of the circumstances, printed, as 
already stated, at his private press, is to be 
found in vol. iv. pp. 205-45 of his ' Works ' 
(see also WILSON'S Chatterton, 1869). 

In May 1767 he had resigned his seat in 
parliament, and in the following year pro- 
duced two of his most ambitious works the 
' Historic Doubts on Richard the Third,' and 
the sombre and powerful but unpleasant 
tragedy of the ' Mysterious Mother,' already 
mentioned as one of the issues from the 
Strawberry Hill press. From 1769, how- 
ever, the year of his last communication to 
Chatterton, until his death some eight-and- 
twenty years later, his life is comparatively 
barren of incident. It was passed pleasantly 
enough between his books and prints and 
correspondence, but, as he says himself, 
will not do to relate.' ' Loo at Princess 
Amelie's [at Gunnersbury House], loo at 
Lady Hertford's, are the capital events of 
my history, and a Sunday alone, at Straw- 
berry, my chief entertainment ' ( Corresp. 
vi. 287). With being an author, he de- 
clared, he had done. Nevertheless, in 1773 
he wrote a little fairy comedy called ' Nature 
will prevail,' which five years later was 
acted at the Haymarket with considerable 
success. He also printed various occasional 
pieces at the Strawberry Hill press, the 
more important of which have been enume- 
rated ; and he added to Strawberry itself in 
1776-8 a special closet to contain a series 
of drawings in soot-water which his neigh- 
jour at Little Marble Hill, Lady Di Beau- 



Wai pole 



175 



Walpole 



clerk, had made to illustrate the ' Mysterious 
Mother.' But the more notable events of 
his history between 1769 and 1797 are his 
succession in 1791 to the earldom of Orford 
at the death of the third earl, his elder 
brother's son, and his friendship with two 
charming sisters, Agnes and Mary Berry 
[q. v.], whose acquaintance he first made 
formally in 1789, nine years after the death 
of Madame du Deffand. Travelled, accom- 
plished, extremely amiable, and a little 
French, their companionship became almost 
a necessity of his existence. In 1791 they 
established themselves with their father 
close to him in a house called Little Straw- 
berry, which had formerly been occupied by 
an earlier friend, the actress Kitty Clive. 
It was even reported that rather than risk 
losing the solace of their society he would, 
at one time, have married the elder sister, 
Mary. But this was probably no more than a 
passing thought, begotten of vexation at some 
temporary separation. His ' two Straw- 
Berries,' his 'Amours,' his 'dear Both,' as he 
playfully called them, continued to delight 
him with their company until his death, which 
took place on 2 March 1797 at 40 (now 11) 
Berkeley Square, to which he had moved in 
October 1779 from Arlington Street. He 
left the sisters each 4,OOOZ. for their lives, 
together with Little Strawberry and its 
furniture. Strawberry Hill itself passed to 
Mrs. Darner, the daughter of his friend 
General Conway, together with 2,000/. a 
year to keep it in repair. After living in it 
for some time she resigned it to the Countess 
Dowager of Waldegrave, in whom the j 
remainder in fee was vested. It subse- 
quently passed to George, seventh earl of 
Waldegrave, who sold its contents by auction 
in 1842. When he died four years later he 
left it to Frances, Countess of Waldegrave j 
[q. v.] 

Walpole was, above all, a wit, a virtuoso, 
and a man of quality. As a politician he 
scarcely counts, and it is difficult to believe 
that, apart from the fortunes of his father 
and friends, he took any genuine interest in 
public affairs. His critical taste was good, j 
and as a connoisseur he would be rated far 
higher now than he was in those early Vic- i 
torian days when the treasures of Strawberry ' 
were brought to the hammer, and the mirth i 
of the Philistine was excited by the odd 
mingling of articles of real value with a 
good many trivial curiosities which, it is 
only fair to add, were often rather presents \ 
he had accepted than objects of art he had 
chosen himself. As a literary man he was 
always, and professed to be, an amateur, 
but the ' Castle of Otranto,' the ' Mysterious 



Mother,' the ' World ' essays, the ' Historic 
Doubts,' and the ' Anecdotes of Painting ' 
all show a literary capacity which only 
required some stronger stimulus than dilet- 
tantism to produce enduring results. If 
his more serious efforts, however, generally 
stopped short at elegant facility, his personal 
qualities secured him exceptional excellence 
as a chroniqueur and letter- writer. The pos- 
thumous ' Memoirs' of the reigns of George II 
and George III, published by Lord Holland 
and Sir Denis le Marchant in 1822 and 1845 
respectively, the 'Journal of the Reign of 
George III (1771-83),' published by Dr. 
Doran in 1859, and the ' Reminiscences ' 
written in 1788 for the Misses Berry, and 
first published in folio in 1805, in spite of 
some prejudice and bias, are not only im- 
portant contributions to history, but contri- 
butions which contain many graphic por- 
traits of his contemporaries. It is as a 
letter-writer, however, that he attains his 
highest point. In the vast and still incom- 
plete correspondence which occupies Mr. 
Peter Cunningham's nine volumes (1857- 
1859), it is not too much to say that there 
is scarcely a dull page. In these epistles to 
Mann, to Montagu, to Mason, to Conway, to 
Lady Hervey, to Lady Ossory, to Hannah 
More, to the Misses Berry, and a host of others 
(see list in Corresp. vol. ix. p. xlvi), almost 
every element of wit and humour, variety 
and charm, is present. For gossip, anecdote, 
epigram, description, illustration, play fulness, 
pungency, novelty, surprise, there is nothing 
quite like them in English, and Byron did 
not overpraise them when he called them 
' incomparable.' 

Of Walpole's person and character a good 
contemporary account is given in Pinkerton's 
'Walpoliana' (vol. i. pp. xl-xlv) and the 
' Anecdotes,' &c., of L. M. Hawkins (1822, 
pp. 105-6). There are many portraits of 
him, the most interesting of which are by 
J. G. Eckhardt and Sir Thomas Lawrence. 
The former, which hung in the blue bed- 
chamber at Strawberry, represents him in 
manhood ; the other in old age. There are 
also likenesses by Miintz, Hone (National 
Portrait Gallery, London), Zincke, Hogarth 
(at ten), Reynolds (1757), Rosalba, Falconet, 
Dance, and others. 

Walpole's ' Works,' edited by Mary Berry, 
under the name of her father, Robert Berry, 
were published in 1798 in 5 vols. 4to, with 
150 illustrations. Of the ' Royal and Noble 
Authors ' an enlarged edition was prepared 
by Thomas Park, in 5 vols. (London, 1806, 
8vo). The standard edition of Walpole's 
' Anecdotes of Painting ' was edited by Ralph 
N. Wornum in 1849 (3 vols.) The ' Memoirs 



Wai pole 



176 



Wai pole 



of the Reign of George III ' were re-edited 
by Mr. G. F. Russell Barker in 1894 (4 vols.) 
Peter Cunningham's collected edition of 
WalpoleV Letters' (1857-9, 9 vols.) em- 
bodied many separately published volumes of 
his correspondence with respectively George 
Montagu (London, 1818, 8vo), William Cole 
(1818, 4to), Sir Horace Mann (1833, 8vo,and 
1843-4, 8vo), with the Misses Berry (1840), 
with the Countess of Ossory (1848), and with 
William Mason (1850), besides his ' Private 
Correspondence' (1820, 4 vols.) 

[The authorities for his life are his own Short 
Notes (Corresp. vol. i. pp. Ixi-lxxvii) and Remi- 
niscences (ib. vol. i. pp. xci-cxiv); Warburton's j 
Memoirs of Horace Walpole, 1851, 2 vols.; 
Seeley's Horace Walpole and his World, 1884 ; 
and Horace Walpole, by the present -writer, 2nd ! 
edit. 1893, which last contains an Appendix of 
Books printed at the Strawberry Hill press. 
There is also an article on the press by Mr. H. B. 
Wheatley in Bibliographica, May 1896. See j 
also Robins's Catalogue of the Classic Contents 
of Strawberry Hill, 1842; Cobbett's Memorials 
of Twickenham, 1872, pp. 294-327 ; Macaulay's 
Essay, Edinburgh Review, October 1833 ; Hay- 
ward's Strawberry Hill, Quarterly, October 1876; 
Heneage Jesse's Memoirs of George III, 1867 ; 
Miss Berry's Journals, &c., 1865; Lady Mary . 
Coke's Letters and Journals, 1889-92 ; and Notes i 
and Queries (especially the contributions of Mrs. i 
Paget Toynbee).] A. D. 

WALPOLE, MICHAEL (1570-1624?), j 
Jesuit and controversialist, youngest of the | 
four brothers of Henry W T alpole [q. v.], was 
baptised at Docking, Norfolk, on 1 Oct. 1570. 
When John Gerard [q. v.] landed in Norfolk 
in 1588 he soon made the acquaintance of 
the Docking household, and young Michael 
attached himself to the Jesuit father with a 
romantic devotion. When Henry Walpole 
was taken prisoner at Flushing, Michael 
went to his assistance and procured his ran- 
som. He entered the Society of Jesus on 
7 Sept. 1593. We hear no more of him till 
Dona Luisa de Carvajal came to England in j 
1606, after which time he appears to have \ 
been her confessor or spiritual adviser. In 
1610, while in attendance on this lady, he was 
arrested and thrown into prison ; but on the 
intervention of the Spanish ambassador he 
was released, though compelled to leave the 
country. In 1613 he returned to England 
in company with Gondomar, when Dona 
Luisa's house was broken into and the lady 
imprisoned. Walpole very narrowly escaped 
arrest. W T hen Dona Luisa died in 1614, 
Walpole was with her, and he accompanied 
her body on its removal to Spain next year, 
and died some time after 12 A.ug. 1624. 

Walpole exhibited more literary activity 
than any of the brothers of this family. His 



! published works were : 1 . ' A Treatise on 
j the Subjection of Princes to God and the 
Church/ St. Omer, 1608, 4to. 2. -'Five Books 
of Philosophical Comfort, with Marginal 
Notes, translated from the Latin of Boethius/ 
London, 1609, 8vo. 3. ' Admonition to the 
English Catholics concerning the Edict of 
King James,' St. Omer, 1610, 4to. 4. ' Anti- 
Christ Extant, against George Downham,' 
St. Omer, 1613-14, 2 vols. 4to ; 2nd edit. 
1632. 5. ' Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola,' 
St. Omer, 1616, 12mo. This is a translation 
of Ribadeneyra's life of the saint ; the little 
book went through several editions. 

[The sources of Walpole's biography are re- 
ferred to or quoted at large in ' One Generation 
of a Norfolk House,' by the present writer, Nor- 
wich, 1878, 4to. Some few unimportant additions 
to the information there collected will be found 
in Foley's Records of the English Province, and 
in his Collectanea.] A. J. 

WALPOLE, RALPH DE (d. 1302), bishop 
of Norwich and afterwards of Ely, was pro- 
bably a member of the family of the Walpoles 
of Houghton, which since the early part of 
the twelfth century had possessed a com- 
petent landed estate in the fen country of 
West Norfolk and Northern Cambridgeshire. 
The family name comes from the village of 
Walpole, in the extreme west of Norfolk, a 
few miles north of Wisbech. Ely, where the 
family possessed a town house, was another 
centre of its estates. The future bishop can 
without much hesitation be identified with 
Ralph de Walpole, clerk, of Houghton, and 
son of John de Walpole, who in an undated 
deed gave a piece of land in Houghton to 
Thomas of Clenchwardetoun (COLLINS, Peer- 
age,*?. 30, ed. 1779 ; RYE, Norfolk Antiquarian 
Miscellany, i. 274). In that case he was the 
son of Sir John de Walpole and his wife 
Lucy. John was alive in 1254, and seems to 
have been succeeded by his son, Henry de 
Walpole, who fought with the younger Simon 
de Montfort against Edward in the Isle of Ely 
in 1267 (ib. i. 273), and died before 1305. 

The younger brother Ralph adopted an 
ecclesiastical career. He became a doctor of 
divinity, possibly at Cambridge, where he 
possessed a messuage, which, on 21 June 
1290, he obtained license to alienate in mort- 
main to Hugh de Balsham's new foundation 
of Peterhouse (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, 
p. 371). He became rector of Somersham, 
Huntingdonshire, and in 1268 appears as 
archdeacon of Ely, holding this preferment 
for at least twenty years. In March 1287 
Archbishop Peckham addressed him a letter, 
ordering him to make personal investigation 
at Cambridge of certain slanders on Peck- 
ham and other bishops alleged to have been 



Walpole 



'77 



Walpole 



uttered by & ' religious ' person at Cambridge 
(Peckham's Letters, iii. 943, Rolls Ser.) 

At the death of William de Middleton, 
Walpole became bishop of Norwich. Edward 
I's license to elect having been obtained, the 
'via compromissi' was adopted, and a com- 
mittee of seven monks unanimously chose 
Walpole on 11 Nov. 1288. The election 
caused great dissatisfaction in the diocese, 
and everybody cursed the convent of Nor- 
wich, and in particular the seven electors 
(COTTON, pp. 169-170, who gives very full 
details ofthewholeelection). Amore friendly 
critic only praises Walpole for his industry 
(WzKE in Ann. Monastics, iv. 315). The 
bishop-elect at once proceeded to Gascony to 
present himself for approval by the king. 
He found Edward at Bonnegarde 'in in- 
gressu Aragonise,' and obtained from him a 
cheerful consent to his election. On 25 Jan. 
1289 Walpole was back in England, and on 
1 Feb. visited Archbishop Peckham at South 
Mailing, where his temporalities were re- 
stored and arrangements made for his coro- 
nation. Before confirming Walpole the 
scrupulous archbishop insisted that he should 
relinquish the grant of first-fruits which 
Bishop Pandulf [q. v.] had obtained from the 
pope to supplement the wasted revenue of 
his bishopric (WILKINS, Concilia, ii. 404 ; 
WHAKTON, Anglia Sacra, i. 412). On 7 Feb. 
his temporalities were restored (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1281-92, p. 312). He was consecrated 
bishop by Peckham on Mid-Lent Sunday, 
20 March, at Canterbury (OXENEDES, p. 272). 
As bishop, Walpole took little part in 
politics, though his sympathies with the 
strong ecclesiastical and papalist party ulti- 
mately brought him into collision with the 
crown. He energetically supported Arch- 
bishop Winchelsea in his resistance to Ed- 
ward I's excessive taxation of the clergy, 
and was one of the deputation headed by 
Richard de Swinfield [q. v.], bishop of Here- 
ford, appointed on 20 Jan. 1297 to explain 
to Edward the clerical position (WILKINS, 
Concilia, ii. 220). Walpole was one of the 
three bishops who persisted in refusing the 
king's demands after Winchelsea had allowed 
individual clerks to make a personal submis- 
sion to the king's will (RISHANGER, Chron. 
p. 475, Rolls Ser.) 

Within his diocese Walpole showed great 
activity and energy. In the very first year 
of his bishopric he conducted a visitation 
(COTTON, p. 172). In 1291 he took some part 
in the movement for a crusade. He kept his 
promise to Peckham as to the levying of 
first-fruits fairly well, but not completely. 
It was almost set down as a merit to him 
that he did not take on this pretext a quarter 
VOL. LIX. 



of the sums that he might have exacted 
( WILKINS, Concilia, ii. 404). In his time 
the building of the cloisters of Norwich 
Cathedral was begun, and the eastern and 
the southern sides still remain of his work. 
A stone on the south side bears an in~ 
scription to that effect (Genealogical Mag. 
October 1898, p. 242). He was tenacious 
of his rights, and had a long quarrel with the 
burgesses of his town of Lynn (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1292-1301, pp. 163, 441, 458). 

In 1299 Walpole was translated to Ely. 
The election had been disputed between John 
Salmon [q. v.] and John de Langton [q. v.], 
who was supported by Edward I ('Historia 
Eliensis ' in Anglia Sacra, i. 639-40, gives a 
detailed account of the conflict; cf. 'Ann. 
Wigorn.'in^4wz. Monastici, iv. 542-3; Flores 
Hist. iii. 105-6). Ultimately Boniface VIII, 
who had been appealed to, induced both 
Salmon and Langton to resign, and directed 
the monks attending his court to proceed to 
a fresh election. But they could not agree 
even now, whereupon the pope, irritated at 
their conduct, took the appointment into his 
own hands. On 5 June 1299 he issued at 
Anagni a bull, translating the bishop of 
Norwich to Ely (Cal. Papal Letters, 1198- 
1304, p. 582 ; Flores Hist. iii. 105-6 ; LE 
NEVE, Fasti Eccl. Anqlicance, i. 332, erro- 
neously dates the translation 15 July). This 
was doubtless the reward of Walpole's ob- 
stinate adherence to the principle of clerids 
laicos, and is likely to have been displeasing 
to Edward I. However, Boniface smoothed 
the way for his nominee by dealing liberally 
with the vanquished claimants. Langton 
was allowed to hold the rich archdeaconry 
of Canterbury in addition to his existing pre- 
ferments. On 29 June Salmon was appointed 
by provision to Norwich, and allowed to 
impoverish Walpole's old see by charging it 
with the loan of thirteen thousand florins 
which he had raised to ' meet his expenses 
at Rome' (Cal. Papal Letters, pp. 582, 583). 
It is significant that Walpole's proctor at 
Rome, Master Bartholomew of Ferentino, 
canon of London, had also to contract loans 
of fifteen hundred marks and 2001. in his 
principal's name (ib. p. 590). These were 
also to ' meet his expenses at Rome.' 

On 10 Oct. 1299 Walpole received the 
temporalities of his new see (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1292-1301, p. 441 ; LE NEVE, i. 332, 
is a year wrong). Walpole ruled Ely for 
less than three years. His chief endeavour 
was to reform the disordered discipline of 
the chapter, with which object he compiled 
and enforced a new body of statutes (BENT- 
HAM, Hist, of Ely, p. 154). He died on 
20 March 1302, the anniversary of his con- 

H 



Wai pole 



178 



Walpole 



secration as bishop (COTTON, p. 395). He was 
buried on 1 April in his cathedral, under the 
pavement of the presbytery before the high 
altar. Hervey de Staunton [q. v.], the jus- 
tice, was one of his executors (Cal. Close 
Rolls, 1313-18, p. 20). 

[Bart. Cotton, Annales Monastici, Oxenedes, 
Rishanffer, Flores Historiarum, all in Rolls 
Ser. ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 412, 638, 639 ; 
Cals. of Patent Rolls, 1281-91, 1292-1301 ; 
Bliss'sCal. of Papal Letters, 1198-1304, pp. 582, 
583; Wilkins's Concilia, ii. 220, 271, 404; Le 
Neve's Fasti Eccles. Anglic, i. 332-3, 350, ii. 
462 (ed. Hardy); Godwin, De Praesulibus Anglise, 
pp. 259, 433, 1743; Stubbs's Registrum Sacrum 
Anglicanum, p. 48 ; Jessopp's Diocesan Hist, of 
Norwich, pp. 105-9 ; Bentham's Hist, and Anti- 
quities of the Cathedral Church of Ely, pp. 
153-4; Rye's Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany, 
i. 267-84, collects nearly all that is known 
of the early history of the Walpole family; cf. 
Notes on the Walpoles in Genealogical Mag. 
October 1898.] T. F. T. 

WALPOLE, RICHARD (1564-1607). 
Jesuit and controversialist, was the second of 
the four brothers of Henry Walpole [q. v.], 
and was baptised at Docking, Norfolk, on 
8 Oct. 15G4. Another brother was Michael 
Walpole [q. v.] Richard entered at St. 
Peter's College, Cambridge, on 1 April 1579, 
a fortnight before his brother Henry left the 
university. He was elected to one of the 
scholarships lately founded at his college 
by Edward, lord North [q. v.l, but took no 
degree at Cambridge. In the summer of 
1584 he left England and at once became an 
alumnus of the seminary at Rheims. Here 
he continued only a few months, and on 
25 April 1585 he entered himself at the 
English College at Rome. His ability and 
scholarship were at once recognised, and, 
after remaining there for the next four years, 
he was admitted to priest's orders on 3 Dec. 
1589, and was then sent to Spain, where 
Father Parsons was busily engaged in found- 
ing the Spanish colleges for which Philip II 
provided the larger part of the funds. Par- 
sons at once recognised that in Richard Wal- 
pole he would have a very able coadjutor. 
He became accordingly the first rector of 
the college of Valladolid (1592), and in the 
ceremonials at the opening of the college of 
Seville in February 1593 he took a promi- 
nent part, and became rector there also. 
At this time he was admitted to the Society 
of Jesus. Though he had signified a strong 
wish to accompany his brother Henry on his 
disastrous mission to'England, Parsons over- 
ruled him, and kept the younger brother at his 
own side, while Henry "Walpole was allowed 
to go on his way. When, after Henry Wai- 



pole's execution at York, Father Cresswell 
wrote his friend's ' Life ' (1596), the little 
book produced a profound impression upon 
Dofia Luisa de Carvajal, who thereupon be- 
came consumed by a fanatical desire to set 
out for the conversion of England. This 
she did in 1606, and, after going through a 
great deal, she died in London in January 
1G14 (GARDINER, Hist, of the Spanish Mar- 
riage, i. 11 et seq.) In the meantime 
Richard Walpole became her spiritual ad- 
viser, and in the will which Dona Luisa 
made previous to her departure from Spain 
he appears as the lady's executor. 

In 1598 Walpole wasdenounced by Edward 
Squire [q. v.] as having suggested the ' fan- 
tastic plot ' ' whereby it was said to have been 
contrived to poison Queen Elizabeth by 
rubbing a fatal salve upon her saddle. Squire 
was hanged, but no man of sense believed in 
the plot' (GOODMAN, Court of James 1, 1839, i. 
156). Richard remained in almost constant 
attendance on Father Parsons till his death 
at Valladolid in 1607. 

He published: 1. 'The Discoverie and 
Confutation of a Tragical Fiction devysed 
and played by Ed. Squyer, yeoman, sol- 
diar, hanged at Tyburn on the 23rd of No- 
vember 1598 MDCXIX.' 2. ' Answere to 
Matthew Sutcliffe's Challenge,' Antwerp, 
1605, 8vo. 

His younger brother, Christopher (1569- 
1606 ?), born in October 1569, was one of 
John Gerard's early con verts when that busy 
proselytiser was at work in Norfolk. He 
was admitted as a Jesuit at Rome on 27 Sept. 
1592. During the last few years of his life 
he seems to have been associated with his 
brother Richard in the management of the 
college at Vallalolid. He appears to have 
died in 1606. 

[In addition to the authorities given above, 
see Authentic Memoirs of that exquisitely 
villanous Jesuit Father Richard Walpole. . . . 
j Illustrated with a very pertinent Appendix, 
Lond. 1733. This pamphlet, in 16mo, was 
printed from a manuscript much fuller than 
that which was printed in quarto in 1599 in 
eight pages. It is exceedingly scarce. For 
Richard and Michael Walpole's connection with 
Doiia Luisa, see Vida y Virtudes de la Venerable 
Virgen Dona Luisa de Carvaial y Mendoqa. . . . 
Por el Licenciado Luis Munoz, Madrid, 1632, 
4to, pp. 100, 181, &c. See also Foley's Records; 
Jessopp's One Generation of a Norfolk House ; 
and T. G. Law's Archpriest Controversy (Cam- 
den Soc.)] A. J. 

/ WALPOLE, SIR ROBERT, first EARL 
OF ORFORD (1676-1745), statesman, was" 
born in 1676 at Houghton, Norfolk. His 
great-great-grandfather, Calibut Walpole, 



Walpole 



179 



Walpole 



was a younger brother of Edward Walpole 
[q. v.], the Jesuit. Calibut's eldest son and 
heir, Robert Walpole (the statesman's great- 
grandfather), was father of Edward Wal- 
pole of Houghton. This Edward (the states- 
man's grandfather) was forward in promot- 
ing the restoration of Charles II, for which 
service he was created knight of the Bath 
on 19 April 1661. He was elected to par- 
liament for the borough of King's Lynn in 
1660, and again in 1661, and is said to have 
been an active and eloquent member of the 
House of Commons, and to have commanded 
the respect of all parties (COLLINS, Peemr/e, 
v. 560). He died on 18 March 1667, having 
been the father of thirteen children. Of these 
the eldest, Robert, born on 18 Nov. 1650, 
was the father of the statesman. Robert 
Walpole, the father, was first returned for 
the borough of Castle Rising as a whig on 
12 Jan. 1689, and again in 1695 and 1698. 
Coxe represents him to have been an illiterate 
boor of the type of Squire Western. But 
according to Dean Prideaux, a somewhat 
censorious contemporary, he was the most 
influential whig leader in Norfolk. He had 
been guardian to Lord Townshend, who 
was candidate in 1700 for the reversion 
of the lord-lieutenancy of the county [see 
TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, second VISCOUNT]. 
Upon him depended the goodwill of the 
important personages of the county in favour 
of his former ward. ' Beside him [Wal- 
pole] there is not a man of any parts or in- 
terest in all that party ' (Letters to John 
Ellis, Camden Soc. 1875, p. 195). He was 
a deputy lieutenant for Norfolk and colonel 
of militia. He died on 18 Nov. 1700, aged 
50. His wife was Mary, only daughter and 
heiress of Sir Geoffrey Burwell of Rougham, 
Sutfolk, knight. She died on 14 March 
1711, aged 58. By her he had nineteen 
children. Sir Robert was the fifth child and 
the third son. Horatio, lord Walpole [q. v.], 
was the fifth son. 

Sir Robert Walpole is stated by Coxe to 
have been born at Houghton, but no record 
of his birth or baptism appears in the parish 
register. A scurrilous mock creed composed 
during his ministry represents his real 
father to have been ' Burrell the attorney.' 
At the time of Sir Robert's death, on 
18 March 1745, a variety of statements 
were current as to his age. In a letter to 
General Churchill, dated 24 June 1743, he 
reckons himself as having turned sixty-seven. 
As his birthday was without question on 
26 Aug., this would make 1675 the year of 
his birth. His son Horace confirmed this to 
Coxe. But the register at Houghton states 
his age at death in 1745 to have been 



sixty-eight, not sixty-nine. According to a 
manuscript in his mother's hand, headed 
' Age of my Children,' Robert, the fifth child, 
was born on 26 Aug. 1676 (CoxE). That Mrs. 
Walpole's entry was correct is apparent from 
the fact that her sixth child, John, who died 
young, was born on 3 Sept. 1677, and her 
seventh, Horatio, on 8 Dec. 1678. The Eton 
College register, which Coxe had not seen, 
erroneously records his age as twelve on 
4 Sept. 1690, the day of his admission ; and 
his birthday, according to a convention com- 
mon in the register, is there set down as 
St. Bartholomew's day (24 Aug.), that being 
the nearest saint's day to the actual date. 
On 5 Aug. 1695 the register records his 
election to King's College, Cambridge, at 
the age of seventeen. Thus these two entries 
falsely assign 1678 as the year of his birth. 
The falsification was deliberate. Walpole 
was really close upon nineteen years of age 
at the beginning of August 1695. Accord- 
ing to the statutes of Eton and of King's 
College, he would be superannuated and 
lose his chance of a King's scholarship un- 
less a vacancy occurred before his twentieth 
birthday ; and he was not captain of the 
school, but only third on the list. The false 
entries gave him a margin of two years 
within which he could avail himself of a 
vacancy at King's. 

Before Walpole's admission to Eton he 
was, according to Coxe, at a private school 
at Massingham, Norfolk. Little and Great 
Massingham are villages a few miles from 
Houghton. Coxe states that he left Eton 
' an excellent scholar.' The headmaster, 
John Newborough, a scholar of repute, took 
a particular interest in him. Upon being 
told of the success of another pupil, the 
brilliant St. John, in the House of Com- 
mons, Newborough replied, ' But I am im- 
patient to hear that Robert Walpole has 
spoken, for I am convinced^ that he will be a 
gQQcLorator.' Walpole left Eton on 2 April 
1696, and was admitted at King's on 22 April. -- 
While in residence at Cambridge he suffered 
from a severe attack of small-pox. Later 
in life he recounted a saying of Dr. Robert 
Brady [q. v.], the physician who attended f 
him, that ' his singular escape seemed a sure 
indication that he was reserved for impor^l 
tant purposes.' 

On 25 May 1698 Walpole resigned his 
scholarship and left Cambridge, owing to 
the death in that year of his eldest brother, 
Edward. His second brother, Burwell, had 
already been killed in the battle of Beachy 
Head [see MITCHELL, SIR DAVID] on 30 June 
1690. Robert therefore became heir to the 
estate. Although his connection with Cam- 

N2 



Walpole 



180 



Walpole 



bridge was thus prematurely terminated, he 
never forgot the associations of his early 
life. His ' consistent patronage of King's men 
and Etonians -was a source of annoyance to 
many persons' (Cole MS. xvi. f. 133 ; LYTE, 
Hist, of Eton, p. 303). When in 1723 he 
was applied to for a contribution to the 
new buildings at King's he subscribed 500/., 
and, in reply to the thanks of the provost 
and fellows, said ' I deserve no thanks : I 
have only paid for my board.' His intimate 
friends at King's were Francis Hare [q . v.], his 
tutor, whom he afterwards appointed bishop 
of Chichester ; and Henry Bland, his school- 
fellow at Eton, whom he made chaplain of 
Chelsea Hospital in 1716, and dean of Dur- 
ham in 1727. Eland's son-in-law, William 
George [q. v.], was elected provost of King's 
in 1743 through Walpole's personal interest 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ix. 702). 

Walpole had been originally intended for 
the church. His father now assigned to him 
the active management of his estates, and 
from this time he abandoned literary pur- 
suits. On 30 July 1700 he married, at 
Knightsbridge chapel, Catherine Shorter, 
whom Coxe describes as ' a woman of ex- 
quisite beauty and accomplished manners,' 
but whom he erroneously states to have been 
the daughter of Sir John Shorter, lord may or 
of London in 1688. She was, in fact, 
daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook in 
Kent, a Baltic timber merchant, and a son of 
the lord mayor (Horace Walpole to Mason, 
13 April 1782, Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
xii. 14). There seems to have been some 
haste or secrecy about the marriage, for 
Hare, writing to Walpole on 8 Aug. follow- 
ing, mentions that Walpole's brother Horatio 
had only heard of it the day before. His 
wife brought him a dowry of 20,000/., but 
she was an extravagant woman of fashion 
and 'wasted large sums.' According to 
Horace Walpole, her dowry was ' spent on 
the wedding and christening . . . including 
her jewels ' (Letters, viii. 423). 

Walpole had already recommended him- 
self to influential friends. He was inti- 
mately acquainted with Charles Townshend 
(afterwards second Viscount Townshend) 
[q. v.], his father's ward, Ins schoolfellow at 
Eton, and afterwards his brother-in-law. 
Still more important was the patronage of 
Sarah, then Countess of Maryborough [see 
CHURCHILL, JOHX, first DUKE OP MARL- 
BOROUGH], which perhaps arose out of a friend- 
ship with her son Charles, lord Churchill, 
also a pupil both of Newborough and Hare, 
though a few years Walpole's junior. Lady 
Marlborough had a ' difference ' with Walpole 
upon his marriage (Corresp. ii. 469, written 



in 1726), which was, however, afterwards 
settled. 

In November 1700 Walpole's father died, 
and he succeeded to the estates. These had 
been considerably diminished since the time 
of Elizabeth, probably by the necessity of 
making provision for a succession of large 
families. A paper in the handwriting of his 
father, dated 9 June 1700, shows their ex- 
tent at this time in Norfolk and Suffolk to 
have been nine manors in Norfolk and one 
in Suffolk, besides outlying lands, with a 
total rent-roll of 2,169/. a year. On 1 1 Jan. 
following Walpole was returned for the 
borough of Castle Rising, and a second time 
on 1 Dec. 1701. This seat he transferred to 
his brother Horatio upon the election of the 
first parliament of Queen Anne in July 1702. 
He himself was returned on 23 July 1702 
for the borough of King's Lynn, for which ' 
he sat during the rest of his career in the 
House of Commons. 

AValpole's name first appears upon the 
journals of the House of Commons as 
serving upon a committee for privileges and 
elections on 13 Feb. 1701, three days after 
the opening of the parliament in which he 
first sat. He early familiarised himself with I 
the forms of the house. He was the author 
in his first session of a report from a com- 
mittee on a bill for erecting hospitals and 
workhouses in the borough of Lynn, and for 
the better employment and maintenance of 
the poor, on which, however, no legislative 
action took place. His first speech in the 
House of Commons is traditionally recorded 
to have been a failure, arising from embar- 
rassment, but no record remains of its sub- 
stance or occasion. Nor was he at once 
successful, though, after a subsequent com- 
parative failure, Arthur Mainwaring, one of 
Lady Marlborough's circle, prophesied to de- 
tractors that he would ' in time become an 
excellent speaker.' He first drew public at- 
tention to himself by a speech delivered in 
February 1702 in favour of compelling all 
heads and fellows of colleges to take the 
oath of abjuration. This was carried with- 
out a division. Walpole is described by a 
member present as haA'ing ' vehemently in- 
veighed ' against the academical nonjurors, 
thereby exciting fierce resentment at Cam- 
bridge (Horatio Walpole to Robert Wal- 
pole, 28 Feb. 1702). His name now con- 
stantly recurs as teller upon divisions. The 
first occasion of this deserves to be noted, in 
view of his subsequent policy in ecclesiastical 
questions. On 19 Feb. 1702 he acted as 
teller against ' a clause Fo be added to a bill 
for the further security of his majesty's per- 
son and government, that persons who take 



Wai pole 



181 



Walpole 



upon them offices shall not depart from the 
communion of the church of England ' 
(Commons' Journals, xiii. 750). He is said 
by Coxe to have frequently practised himself 
in speaking during this session. On 23 Dec. 
1702, by way of retaliation upon Sir Edward 
Seymour's motions for the resumption of 
King William's grants, Walpole moved a 
resolution for a resumption of those of 
James II. His motion was negatived. On 
25 Jan. 1704 he moved an amendment to the 
resolution of Sir Simon Harcourt [q. v.] that 
the House of Commons was the sole judge 
both as to elections and as to the qualifica- 
tions of electors, a question raised by the 
leading case of Ashby v. White, 
amendment to omit the words 
qualifications of electors ' was seconded by 
his staunch supporter the Marquis of Har- 
tington, but rejected (Parl. Hist. vi. 298- 
300). This debate was of the first impor- 
tance (HALLAM, Constitutional History, iii. 
365, &c.) It involved a constitutional issue 
in which the law courts and the two houses 
of parliament were concerned. Walpole's 
amendment was dexterously contrived to 
assert the privileges of the House of Com- 
mons as against the lords, but to vindicate at 
the same time the rights of electors to seek 
redress in the courts of law against arbitrary 
interference by the returning officers. Ac- 
cording to Coxe it was defeated by only 
eighteen votes, but the ' Parliamentary His- 
tory ' gives the numbers at 215 against and 97 
for the amendment (vi. 300). In this con- 
troversy public opinion was with the whigs. 
From this debate may be dated Walpole's 
reputation outside the House of Commons. 
The whig leaders in the lords, especially 
Halifax and Sunderland, began to admit him 
into their counsels (James Stanhope to Ro- 
bert Walpole, 28 Oct. 1703). In the autumn 
of 1703 and 1704 he appears to have been 
disposed to linger at Houghton. On 28 Oct. 
1 703 the leaders of the opposition sent him 
a pressing message to attend, the interme- 






mediary being James Stanhope (afterwards 
first Earl Stanhope) [q. v.] On 12 Oct. 1704 
the language of a letter to the same effect, 
penned by Spencer Compton [q. v.], shows 
the advance Walpole had made in the esti- 
mation of the party. ' If Mr. Walpole should 
be absent, the poor whigs must lose any ad- 
vantage that may offer itself for want of a 
leader' (Coxs, ii. 5). On 14 Nov. Walpole 
was back in his place, and for a second time 
gave proof of his spirit of religious toleration 
by opposing leave to bring in a bill for pre- 
venting occasional conformity. The bill was, 
however, pushed by the high-church tories, 
and in order to prevent its rejection by the 



House of Lords, where the whigs were in 
the ascendant, a proposal was made to tack 
it to a money bill. Against this Walpole 
voted with the majority (28 Nov.), and the 
bill, as had been foreseen, was lost in the 
upper house. 

The foundation of the first government of 
Anne was the Churchill interest, repre- 
sented by Marlborough and his duchess and 
Godolphin, whose . son Francis had married 
their daughter. When they had alienated the 
tories, it became necessary to reinforce the 
composite administration from the whig party. 
Walpole had three recommendations : his in- 
timacy with the family group, his industry 
Walpole's* J and talent, and the disposal of three pocket- 
as to the borough seats two at Castle Rising and one 
for King's Lynn. In 1705 the administration 
was re-formed, and on 28 June Walpole was 
appointed one of the council to Prince George 
of Denmark, lord high admiral of England. < 
His position was a difficult one. Godolphin, 
the head of the government, was distrustful 
of the whigs, and the whigs of Godolphin. 
An attack was made upon the admiralty, 
and Walpole was put up to extenuate its 
shortcomings. On being reproached for 
speaking against his party, he rejoined, ' I 
never can be so mean to sit at a board when 
I cannot utter a word in its defence.' It 
was probably his experience of the difficul- 
ties attendant upon a government which was 
nothing but a formal association of antago- 
nistic personalities that led him in after life to j 
insist upon political homogeneousness in his ! 
administrations. So far as this was feasible 
he made efforts to secure it forthwith. He 
became the intermediary for reconciling Go- 
dolphin to the whig leaders. With Devon- 
shire and Townshend Walpole was already 
intimate. His friend Lord Sunderland [see 
SPENCER, CHARLES, third EARL], another of 
the Churchill group, was appointed a secre- 
tary of state on 3 Dec. 1706, through the 
influence of Godolphin and the Duchess of 
Marlborough. Sunderland, like Walpole, was 



for a policy of thorough. After a year of 
bickering and distrust, Harley was forced 
from office by the threatened resignation of 
Marlborough and Godolphin (11 Feb. 1708). 

In this struggle Walpole inspired the 
cautious mind of Godolphin with the resolu- 
tion to extrude the tory element. His services 
were recognised by his promotion. On 
25 Feb. 1708 Marlborough appointed him 
secretary at war, in place of his rival, St. 
John. His brother Horatio was made pri- 
vate secretary to Harley's successor, Henry 
Boyle. 

The arts of management, which were 
Walpole's peculiar gift, were now put to a 



Walpole 



182 



Walpole 



severe test. Marlborough left for Holland at 
the end of March, and it fell to Walpole to 
transact his business with the queen. Anne's 
distrust of the whigs would in itself have 
involved him in some difficulty, for appoint- 
ments in the army were considered to be the 
sovereign's special prerogative, and the re- 
commendations of Walpole's chief were fre- 
quently disregarded for those of Mrs. Abigail 
Masham [q. v.J, notwithstanding the indigna- 
tion of the duchess. The inevitable antagonism 
between Walpole and the favourite naturally 
enhanced his interest with the duchess. On 
21 Jan. 1710 he was appointed to the more 
profitable place of treasurer of the navy, but 
he seems to have held his post at the war 
office till the following September. His new 
appointment was, as the duchess puts it, 
1 by my interest wholly ' ( Correspondence of 
Duchess of Marlborough, i. 288). It was 
while Walpole was at the war office that 
Marlborough successfully carried through 
the campaigns rendered memorable by Oude- 
narde and Malplaquet, and the general's 
despatches from abroad show the reliance 
placed by him upon Walpole's business capa- 
city and personal loyalty. But, notwith- 
standing his victories, the Marlborough in- 
terest at court was on the wane. The in- 
trigues of Harley and Mrs. Masham had 
prevailed. The whigs began to be dismissed 
one by one. In April 1710 the lord chamber- 
lain, the Marquis of Kent, was replaced by 
the Duke of Shrewsbury, known to be friendly 
to Harley. Sunderland was dismissed on 
13 June, and Godolphin on 8 Aug. On 
28 Sept. George Gran ville, a tory, succeeded 
Walpole at the war office. Marlborough, 
writing to Walpole from his camp on 20 Oct., 
after expressing his vexation at this news, 
adds, ' I am expecting to hear by every post 
of a new treasurer of the navy.' But party 
government was not yet an established prin- 
ciple, and for the time Walpole retained that 
place. 

I While at the war office Walpole was en- 
trusted by Godolphin with the management 
of the House of Commons. He had a whig 
majority at his back, the trial of strength 
having been the contest for the speakership 
of John Smith ( 1 655-1 723) [q.v.] against Wil- 
liam Bromley (1664-1732) [q. v.] on 24 Oct. 
1705, in which Smith was successful by forty- 
three votes (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. v. 183). Godolphin, as Walpole after- 
wards told Etough, reposed so much confi- 
dence in him that he even entrusted him with 
the composition of the speeches from the 
throne. On 13 Dec. 1709 John Dolben [q.v.], 
at the instance of Godolphin, called the atten- 
tion of the House of Commons to Sacheverell's 



sermons [see SACHEVEEELL, HEXBY]. Godol- 
phin had been irritated by a personal allusion 
to himself as Volpone (SWIFT'S Works, iii. 
1 73), and Sunderland was strong for impeach- 
ment. Walpole, with that moderation which , 
marked his character, opposed, but, yielding ! 
to Godolphin's pressure, eventually consented ' 
to act as one of the managers for the com- 
mons (Commons' Journals, 14 Dec. 1709). 
Walpole's speech was delivered on 28 Feb., 
and may be read in the ' State Trials ' (xv. 
112). He confined himself for the most 
part to the doctrine of non-resistance. His 
argument on this point is quoted by Burke 
for its constitutional principle in his ' Appeal 
from the Xew to the Old Whigs ' ( Works, 
iv. 437). 

In the early summer of 1710 Walpole 
suddenly fell seriously ill. His complaint 
was described by his clerk, James Taylor, in 
a letter of 16 June to Walpole's brother 
Horatio as ' collero morbus,' ' which put all 
about him under dreadfull apprehensions for 
four hours ' ( Toimshend Papers, p. 67). In 
the autumn the consequences of Sacheverell's 
trial justified his prescience (see SWIFT, 
Works, iii. 189). The tories had boasted 
that none of the managers of the impeach- 
ment should be returned, and had taken 
care ever since the judgment delivered in 
March to keep alive the popular enthusiasm 
for the culprit. At the general election the 
whigs sustained an unparalleled defeat. 
Walpole himself contested the county of 
Norfolk for the first and the last time (cf. 
Onslow MSS. p. 518). On 11 Oct. he was 
declared at the bottom of the poll with 
3,297 votes, eight hundred behind the two 
winning candidates (H. S. SMITH, Parlia- 
ments of England, 1844, i. 220). He had, 
however, secured himself against exclusion 
from parliament, having been returned for 
King's Lynn on 7 Oct. Harley, being de- 
sirous of strengthening himself against the 
Jacobites by the inclusion of a few whigs in 
his administration, made flattering overtures 
to Walpole. He was worth, he told him, 
half his party. When flattery proved in- 
effective, he tried threats. He sent him word 
that he had in his possession a note for a 
contract of forage endorsed by Walpole. 
The message had a significance which Wal- 
pole could not have failed to appreciate. 
Walpole remained firm and still held to his 
post. On 2 Jan. 1711 he wrote officially 
acknowledging the receipt of his dismissal 
(Dartmouth MSS. p. 303). 

Walpole was now the leader of the oppo-/ 
sition in the House of Commons. Harley's/ 
first object was to make peace. On 29 XovJ 
Walpole moved an amendment to the 



Walpole 



183 



Walpole 



address ' that no peace can be safe or honour- 
able if Spain and the West Indies are to be 
allotted to any branch of the house of Bour- 
bon ' (SWIFT, ' Last Four Years,' Work*, v. 
39). This, says Swift, ' was rejected with 
contempt by a very great majority' (z'6.) 
The same amendment having been carried 
by two votes in the House of Lords, mini- 
sters now parried the blow by an attack 
upon their predecessors in office. A packed 
committee of tories reported that 35,302,1077. 
of public money was unaccounted for. The 
deficit was laid at the door of Godolphiu, 
the leader of the whigs in the lords, and of 
Walpole. Walpole promptly produced two 
pamphlets : ' The Debts of the Nation stated 
and considered,' and ' The Thirty-five Mil- 
lions accounted for.' He conclusively esta- 
blished that 31, 000,0007. had already been 
accounted for, and that the debt of the navy, 
his particular province, estimated at 
5,130,5397, , did not exceed 574,000^. His 
explanations not only produced a sensible 
revulsion in public opinion they acquired 
him the credit of being, as Arthur Main- 
waring said, ' the best master of figures of 
any man of his time.' 

Walpole, the ministerialists felt, must be 
crushed. His expulsion from the house was, 
said Bromley, the tory speaker, the ' unum 
necessarium.' Harley's veiled threat was 
forthwith given effect. The commissioners 
of public accounts reported on 21 Dec. 1711 
that Walpole, as secretary at war, had been 
guilty of venality and corruption in the 
matter of two forage contracts for Scotland. 
In giving out the forage contracts he had 
stipulated with the two contractors that 
one-fifth share in the contracts should be 
reserved for one Robert Mann [see MANN, 
SIR HORACE], his relative and rent-receiver . 
{Commons' Journals, xvii. 29). The con- 
tractors, desirous of redeeming Mann's share, 
had drawn two notes of hand for 500 guineas 
and 5007. respectively. The first had been 
paid. Walpole's name appeared on the 
receipt. The explanation was that the con- 
tractor who had conducted the negotiation 
dying, the other, who was ignorant of the 
name of Walpole's friend, handed to Wal- 
pole a note payable to his order. Walpole 
endorsed it and transmitted it to Mann. It 
was proved that none of the money had been 
retained by himself. Judged by the stan- 
dard of the times, Walpole's share in the 
transaction was as regular as a minister's 
grant of a pension to a supporter. But the 
*unum necessarium' was effected. Walpole, 
after being heard, was pronounced ' guilty 
of a high breach of trust and notorious cor- 
ruption.' This was carried by a majority of 



fifty-seven, his expulsion from the house 
by twenty-two, and his committal to the 
Tower by twelve (ib. 17 Jan. 1711-12). The 
dwindling majorities showed the real feeling 
of the house as to the justice of the proceed- 
ings. He was taken to the Tower (BAYLET, 
Hist, of the Tower, ii. 644). A new writ 
was issued. On 11 Feb. 1712 he was again 
returned for Lynn. A petition was lodged, 
and on 6 March the house declared him to be 
ineligible for the existing parliament and the 
election void (Commons' Journals, xvii. 128). 
He remained in the Tower till 8 July. He 
left as a memorial his name written on a 
window (II. WALPOLE, ' Noble Authors,' 
Works, 1798, i. 442). While in the Tower 
he was regarded as a political martyr, and 
visited by all the whig leaders. He occupied 
his time in composing a pamphlet in his de- 
fence : ' The Case of Mr. Walpole, in a Letter 
from a Tory Member of Parliament to his 
Friend in the Country.' Remaining excluded 
from the house after his release, he diligently 
cultivated his political connections. He as- 
sisted Steele [see STEELE, SIR RICHARD] in 
several political pamphlets. In September 
he visited Godolphin on his deathbed, and 
was by him commended in touching terms 
to the Duchess of Marlborough's continued 
patronage. At the dissolution of parliament 
(8 Aug. 1713) he was again returned for Lynn 
(31 Aug. 1713). On the eve of the general 
election he published an anonymous pamphlet 
under the title of ' A Short History of the 
Parliament.' It was an attack on the mini- 
sterial party. Pulteney [see PTJLTENEY, 
WILLIAM] was courageous enough to Avrite 
the preface, but no printer could be found to 
undertake the risk of printing it. A printing 
press was carried to Walpole's house and the 
copies printed there. 

One of the earliest steps of the new parlia- 
ment, which met on 12 Nov. 1713, was the 
expulsion of Steele from the House of Com- 
mons for attacking the ministry in his pam- 
phlets ' The Englishman ' and ' The Crisis.' 
Walpole had the credit of having co-operated 
in ' The Crisis.' He was deputed by the 
Kit-Cat Club to make a speech ' in cold 
blood,' the argument of which was to be 
noted by Addison to form the basis of a 
defence which Addison was to compose 
and Steele recite (Life of Bishop Newton, 
p. 130). Walpole himself delivered in the 
House of Commons a constitutional argu- 
ment against the proceedings (see HALLAM, 
Const. Hist. iii. 357). Steele shortly after- 
wards published a defence entitled ' Mr. 
Steele's Apology.' which he dedicated to 
Walpole (Parl. Hist. vi. 1275). The last 
six months of Anne's reign were to the 



Walpole 



184 



Walpole 



whigs a period of apprehension, aroused by 
the queen's visible leaning to the Pretender 
and the suspected intrigues of Bolingbroke 
[see ST. JOHN, HENRY]. On 15 April 1714 
the whigs raised a debate upon the question 
' whether the protestant succession in the 
house of Hanover be in danger under her 
majesty's government.' W T alpole replied 
with much spirit to the defence made by 
Bromley, then secretary of state. With that 
strong sense of constitutional propriety 
which distinguished him, he insisted that 
the responsibility was not, as the tories en- 
deavoured to put it, upon the queen, but on 
the queen's ministers (Parl. Hist. vi. 1346). 
Swift, writing on 18 Dec. 1711. prophesied 
of Walpole, ' He is to be secretary of state 
if the ministry changes.' Nevertheless it is 
remarkable that when George I formed his 
first ministry, Walpole was not only without 
a seat in the cabinet, but was forced to con- 
tent himself with the lucrative post of pay* 
master of the forces and treasurer of Chelsea 
Hospital. The fact is that Bothmar, George's 
agent in London, by whose advice he was 
guided, disliked Walpole (see COXE, ii. 119, 
125), and suggested no better place for him 
than a junior lordship of the treasury (Both- 
mar to Bernstorff, 6 Aug. (O.S.) 1714, Mac- 
pherson Papers, ii. 640). He was sworn a 
privy councillor on 1 Oct. 1714. The new 
parliament was summoned for 17 March 
1715. ' Before the opening of the session 
Mr. Walpole was in full power,' wrote Lady 
Mary Wortley-Montagu [q.v.] His brother- 
in-law, Lord Townshend, was nominally at 
the head of the government, but the same 
acute observer writes, ' Walpole is already 
looked upon as chief minister.' He was cer- 
tainly recognised as leader of the House of 
Commons, and moved the address attacking 
the late government. To a house now con- 
sisting of a large majority of whigs he an- 
nounced the intention of the ministers ' to 
bring to condign punishment ' those respon- 
sible for recent intrigues for the restoration 
of the Pretender. A committee of secrecy 
was appointed, and Walpole was chosen 
chairman on 6 April. On the following day 
he was taken ill, and on 3 May was ' in a 
very bad way ' (anon, letter in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 8th Rep. p. 59 a). Despite his illness, 
he received full information of the commit- 
tee's proceedings, and on 9 June was suffi- 
ciently recovered to present to the House of 
Commons a report which he had himself 
prepared with indefatigable industry 'a mas- 
terpiece of party strategy' (RANKE, Hist. 
Engl. v. 368). It consisted of ten articles (see 
TINDAI, iv. 426) charging the late ministry 
with treasonable misconduct in the negotia- 



tions for the peace of Utrecht. It was so 
voluminous and detailed that its first and 
second reading occupied from one to half- 
past eight o'clock on 9 June, and from 
eleven to four o'clock on 10 June. At the 
conclusion of the reading Walpole impeached 
Bolingbroke of high treason (Parl. Hist.vu. 
66). The conduct of the impeachment, as 
well as of that of the Duke of Ormonde and 
the Earl of Strafford, was entrusted to Wal- 
pole. On 4 Aug. 1715 he laid the articles 
of the impeachment of Bolingbroke before 
the House of Commons (State Trials, xv. 
993), on the following day those against the 
Duke of Ormonde, and on 31 Aug. those C 
against the Earl of Stafford. A doubt had 
arisen whether the conduct of Harley, earl of 
Oxford, amounted to treason. Walpole, who 
had prepared the articles against him, vigo- 
rously maintained the affirmative, and the 
continuance of proceedings against him was 
consequently resolved upon (7 July). 

It has been said that these proceedings 
were unjust because the conduct of the late 
ministers could only be brought within the 
law of treason by a strained interpretation 
(STANHOPE, Hut. i. 191). What Boling- 
broke and Ormonde thought of the justice)of 
the case was shown by their flight. Oxford 
had no apprehension that a fair trial would 
be denied him, and remained. It is true 
that Walpole pushed these measures with 
determination. But malice bore no part in 
his action. By the universal consent of 
friend and foe he was, as Burke said, ' of the 
greatest possible lenity in his character and 
in his politics ' (' Appeal from the New to 
the Old Whigs,' Works, iv. 437). Lord 
Chesterfield, a political opponent whom he 
had disgraced, admitted that he was ' very 
placable to those who had injured him most ' 
(Letters, iii. 1418). Bolingbroke could 
never have returned to England without his 
consent, and, when he returned, Walpole in- 
vited him to dine with him at Chelsea. 
Walpole's justification lies in the events 
which followed. In the following autumn 
the rising of 1715 broke out. He knew that 
if the protestant succession, which he had 
at heart, was to be preserved, the time had 
come to strike. 

In recognition of these services W 7 alpolo 
was on 11 Oct. 1715 appointed by Towns- 
hend first lord of the treasury and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. The suppression of 
the rebellion was accompanied by unprece- 
dented clemency so far as the rank and file 
were concerned, but of the rebel lords he de- 
j termined to make an example. Efforts were . 
made to bribe him. Sixty thousand pounds, 
he told the House of Commons, had been 



Wai pole 



185 



Walpole 






offered him for the life of the Earl of Der- 
wentwater [see HADCLIFFE, JAMES, third 
EARL]. Walpole's answer discloses not only 
the reasons which necessitated severity, but 
the secret information upon which he had 
acted in the matter of the impeachments. 
Derwentwater, he told the house, had to his 
knowledge been preparing for the rebellion 
1 six months before he appeared in arms.' 
Not even the remonstrances of Steele and a 
considerable section of his party could pre- 
vail on him to spare the earl. 

The extraordinary fatigues and anxieties 
of 1715, arising at a time when Walpole was 
already in bad health, brought on an illness 
in the spring of 1716 in which ' his life 
was despaired of (Townshend to Stanhope, 
COXE, ii. 116). During his absence from the 
house the septennial bill, of which he had 
already approved, was passed. Walpole re- 
tired for convalescence to a house he occu- 
pied at Chelsea, perhaps upon the site of the 
present W T alpole Street. From here he 
wrote on 11 May to his brother Horatio 
that he ' gathered strength daily . . . from 
the lowest and weakest condition that ever 
poor mortal was alive in.' On 9 July George 
I, accompanied by Stanhope, left for Han- 
over. 

A series of court intrigues now began 
against Walpole and Townshend, set on 
foot by the king's German favourites, headed 
by Bothmar, who desired titles and pensions 
for themselves and continental aggrandise- 
ment for their master. Sunderland's rest- 
less ambition discerned an opportunity for 
his own advancement, and he gathered 
round him a cabal of disappointed whigs. 
He was now lord privy seal with a seat in 
the cabinet. In the autumn of 1716 he 
made his way over to Germany, ostensibly 
to drink the waters at Aachen, really to 
gain the ear of George I a design which 
Walpole shrewdly foresaw (CoxE, ii. 59). 
Walpole had so far met the king^s views 
as to foreign policy that he supported the 
proposed acquisition of Bremen and Verden 
from Sweden, but only because they offered 
increased facilities to a British fleet operat- 
ing upon the German coasts. But he abso- 
lutely declined to find money either for a 
war with Russia or for the payment of a 
force of German troops who had been taken 
into the king's service at the time of the 
pretender's invasion of Scotland. The king 
asserted that Walpole had promised to re- 
pay him the advance which had been made 
out of the privy purse for this purpose ; 
Walpole protested ' before God that I cannot 
recollect that ever the king mentioned one 
syllable of this to me or I to him.' Sun- 



derland found the king incensed against 
Walpole on this account. He inflamed the 
king's resentment by suggesting that Wal- 
pole and Townshend were intriguing with 
the personal friends of the prince regent, the 
Duke of Argyll, and his brother the Earl 
of Islay, with ' designs against the king's 

authority.' 

In October the king was anxious for the 
signature of a treaty with France by which 
France was to discard the pretender and 
England should guarantee the succession to 
the regent in the event of the death of the 
king (Louis XV) childless. This treaty 
Horatio Walpole, then envoy extraordinary 
to Paris, flatly refused to sign on the ground 
that it would be a betrayal of his promises to 
the Dutch. This accumulation of grievances 
led to the dismissal of Townshend by ap- 
pointment to the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland 
in December 1716. Walpole would naturally 
have been dismissed with Townshend, but 
Townshend was the acting foreign minister, 
and the presence of Walpole in the cabinet in- 
spired confidence in the city whigs (Thomas 
Brereton to Charles Stanhope, December 
1716, COXE. ii. 149). Walpole determined 
to throw in his lot with his chief. The ani- 
mosities of the king disappeared before the 
apprehension of losing the minister whose 
reputation as a financier was one of the props 
of his throne. Stanhope, whom vacillation 
or treachery had led to take sides with Sun- 
derland, wrote to W r alpole imploring him to 
persuade Townshend to accept the lord- 
lieutenancy and to remain in the cabinet 
(3 Jan. 1717). Townshend's acceptance im- 
plied the continuance of Walpole in office. 
Upon this basis a truce was established be- 
tween the contending factions. But so long 
as the king gave his confidence to Sunder- 
land and Stanhope, Townshend and Walpole 
did little beyond formally defend ministerial 
measures. The resulting friction became in- 
supportable. On 9 April 1717 Stanhope an- 
nounced to Townshend his dismissal from 
the lord-lieutenancy. On 10 April Wal- 
pole sought an audience and resigned the 
seals. Ten times did the king replace them 
in his hat (CoxE, ii. 169). Walpole, though 
touched by this confidence and with tears 
in his eyes, persisted in his resignation. He 
did so upon the constitutional ground, on 
which he always insisted, of the indivisible 
responsibility of an administration which he 
declined to share. On the same day he 
announced his resignation to the House of 
Commons by introducing a bill, ' as a country 
gentleman,' which as first lord of the trea- 
sury he had been instructed to prepare 
(5 March). He had for some time past con- 



Walpole 



186 



Walpole 



templated reducing the interest on the na- 
tional debt. With a view to this he had 
endeavoured to raise a loan of 600,000/. for 
the government at four per cent. But the 
moneyed interests took alarm. They abs- 
tained from subscribing, and after three 
days no more than 45,000/. had been raised 
(Parl. Hist. vii. 425, 8 March 1717). The 
new measure was for redeeming the debt, so 
far as it did not consist of irredeemable 
annuities, and reducing the interest from 
seven and eight to five per cent. The sur- 
plus arising out of the taxes appropriated to 
the interest at its existing rate would then 
constitute a fund for the discharge of the 
capital of the debt. This was the first 
general sinking fund (TiNDAL, iv. 534-6). 
A concurrent agreement was made with the 
bank of England and the South Sea Com- 
pany by which the interest due to them 
from government was reduced from six to 
five per cent., and they agreed to advance 
2,500,OOW. and 2,000,OOOA respectively for 
the purpose of paying off such fundholders 
as should decline to accept the reduction of 
their interest. ' I believe,' wrote Steele on 
19 March, ' the scheme will take place, and, 
if it does, Walpole must be a very great 
man ' (Corresp. ii. 423). While the measure 
was passing through the house a violent 
altercation arose between Stanhope and 
Walpole. Stanhope had long been smarting 
under the reproaches with which Walpole 
had visited his defection to Sunderland. 
Irritated at the necessity of confessing his 
incapacity to deal with the financial ques- 
tion, Stanhope attacked Walpole for bestow- 
ing a reversion to an office upon his son. 
Walpole retorted to the effect that it was 
better so disposed than on one of the king's 
foreign favourites to whom Sunderland and 
Stanhope had truckled. ' One of the chief 
reasons,' he added, referring to this, ' that 
made me resign was because I could not 
connive at some things that were carrying 
on' (Parl. Hist. vii. 460; 9 May 1717). 
Walpole entered into opposition with the 
declaration that he did not intend ' to make 
the king uneasy or to embarrass his affairs ' 
(ib. vii. 449, 16 April 1717). This pledge 
he regarded as compatible with a harassing 
opposition to the king's ministers, between 
Avhom and his majesty he distinguished (ib. 
vii. 565). ' The parties of Walpole and 
Stanhope,' wrote Pope in June 1717, ' are 
as violent as whig and tory ' ( Works, ix. 
383). So often did Walpole find himself in 
the same division lobby with Shippen [see 
SHIPPEN, WILLIAM], the leader of the ex- 
treme tories, that Shippen caustically re- 
marked that 'he (Walpole) was no more 



afraid than himself of being called a Jaco- 
bite.' 

In 1717 Walpole supported the tories in an 
unsuccessful attack upon Lord Cadogan [see 
CADOGAN, WILLIAM], commander-in-chief, 
one of the allies of Sunderland and Stan- 
hope, who had been accused of embezzle- 
ment in connection with the transport of 
some Dutch auxiliaries. He echoed the 
tory outcry against a standing army, de- 
clared twelve thousand men an adequate 
force, and opposed, though he finally voted 
for, the mutiny bill of 1718. His tolerance 
upon religious matters has already been 
seen. In 1711 and 1714 he had warmly 
opposed the occasional conformity bill and 
the schism bill ; yet in 1719 he resisted the 
repeal of this last act. He denounced 
(11 Nov. 1718) the quadruple alliance con- 
cluded on the previous 2 Aug. between the 
emperor, France, England, and subsequently 
the United Provinces, of which he was him- 
self afterwards the advocate. He disap- 
proved the attack by Byng upon the Spanish 
fleet, though this must be acknowledged 
to have been consistent with his own pacific 
temper. It was also characteristic of his 
incapacity to maintain resentment that he 
withdrew from the prosecution of the im- 
peachment of Oxford. However factious 
his opposition may have seemed, the vigour 
of his attacks and the feebleness of ministers 
increased his influence in the House of 
Commons. His crowning opportunity came 
with the introduction of the peerage bill on 
2 March 1718. The object of this measure 
was to limit the number of peers to 216, 
191 from England and 25 from Scotland. It 
was really aimed at the Prince of Wales 
(George II), whom it would prevent from 
flooding the House of Lords with tory peers 
upon his father's death. It would, of course, 
have rendered the lords the dominant mem- 
ber of the constitution. Walpole found the 
whig peers not indisposed to the measure. 
He wrote a pamphlet against it with the 
title of ' The Thoughts of a Member of the 
Lower House,' &c. He stirred up the oppo- 
sition of the more ambitious country gentle- 
men. He addressed a meeting o^\whig peers 
at Devonshire House in a speeSvwhich pro- 
duced a complete revulsion of feelrng. With 
them he made arrangements for an opposi- 
tion to the bill when it reached the com- 
mons. On 8 Dec. in the House of Commons 
he demolished the proposal in ' a very mas- 
terly speech,' and secured its rejection by 
269 to 177 votes. 

In January 1720 the government began 
to entertain a scheme for the reduction of 
the irredeemable annuities which amounted 



Wai pole 



187 



Wai pole 



to 800,000/. & year. An offer was made by 
the South Sea Company to take them over 
and to pay 7,567 ,000/. for the privilege. The 
scheme was warmly opposed by Walpole as 
financially and constitutionally unsound; 
nevertheless it was accepted by the house. 
"Walpole published a pamphlet condemning 
it by the title of ' The South Sea Scheme 
Considered.' But speculation in South Sea 
stock spread like a fever. The Princess of 
Wales (Caroline) took to gambling in stocks, 
and, Walpole having the reputation of ex- 
traordinary financial ability, she sought his 
advice. To Walpole's career this association 
proved of momentous importance. It was 
cemented, scandal said, by an intrigue be- 
tween the prince and Mrs. Walpole, ' which 
both he and the princess knew ' (LADY Cow- 
PER, Diary, p. 134). On 20 May 1720 Lady 
Cowper wrote, ' Mr. Walpole so possessed her 
[the princess's] mind that there was not room 
for the least truth ; ' and again, ' The prince 
is guided by the princess as she is by Wal- 
pole ' (10 May 1720). He himself took ad- 
vantage of the public mania, bought largely 
in South Sea stock, and sold out at the top 
] of the market at 1,000 per cent, profit. AVith 
"^the fortune thus acquired he rebuilt Houghton 
and began his famous collection of pictures. 
His association with the prince through the 
princess led to his becoming an intermediary 
for the reconciliation of the prince to the 
king. Sunderland felt the ground slipping 
under his feet. He made overtures to Wal- 
pole, who at first refused to take service 
under him (ib. 15 April 1720). As Walpole 
afterwards explained to Lord Holland, ' his 
[Sunderland's] temper was so violent that he 
would have done his best to throw me out 
of window ' (SHELBTJRNE, Autobiogr. i. 35). 
This probably explains why Walpole was 
content to accept the inferior but lucrative 
position of paymaster of the forces instead 
of desiring to sit in the cabinet. Sunderland 
was deeply involved in the South Sea busi- 
ness, and, as Walpole had predicted the 
collapse (LADY COWPER, Diary, p. 136), he 
probably foresaw Sunderland's speedy and 
compulsory retirement. His personal dislike 
of Sunderland perhaps led him, contrary to 
his custom, to spend the summer of 1720 in 
the country. 

Meanwhile South Sea stock was declining. 
By September panic had set in. Walpole 
was called up from the country to assist the 
Bank of England with his advice. He 
drew what was afterwards known as ' the 
bank contract,' by which the bank agreed 
to take the bonds of the company at 400 per 
cent, premium for a sum of 3,700,000/. due to 
it. But the fall still continued. Prompted 



by Sunderland, the king, who used to say 
of Waipole that he could convert stones to 
gold (CoxE, ii. 520), now called upon him 
to produce a scheme for the restoration of 
public credit. In Lord Hervey's belief the"" 
commission was given him by Sunderland 
with the expectation that he would fail, and 
that the odium attaching to the cabinet 
would be transferred to him. Walpole 
undertook the task. On 21 Dec. he pre- 
sented to the House of Commons a plan 
suggested by Jacombe, under-secretary at 
war, the substance of which was to engraft 
nine millions of South Sea stock into Bank 
and East India stock respectively. This 
proposal became law in 1720 (7 Geo. I, st. 1, 
c. 5), but before taking effect it was partly 
superseded by another act of 1721 (7 Geo. I, 
c. 2), also framed by Walpole, remitting 
more than 5,000,000/. of the 7,500,OOOA 
which the South Sea directors had agreed 
to pay the public. The 2,000,000/. was 
remitted in December 1723 (Parl. Hist. viii. 
53) and other measures taken to lighten 
the disaster to the sufferers. While the 
tide of indignation was flowing in full force 
against the South Sea promoters, Walpole 
behaved with consummate tact and judg- 
ment. He pleaded extenuating circum- 
stances for Aislabie [see AISLABIE, JOHN], 
who had been compelled to resign the 
chancellorship of the exchequer (23 Jan. 
1721). He successfully defended Sunder- 
land (15 March), not for love of the man, 
but to avert the danger of a tory ministry. 
He insisted that the accused directors should 
be allowed counsel. His fairness drew 
obloquy upon himself. In the squibs and 
caricatures of the day he was nicknamed 
' The Screen ' (CoXE, ii. 216). On 4 Feb. 
1721 Stanhope, on 16 Feb. James Craggs 
the younger [q. v.], and on 16 March James 
Craggs the elder [q. v.l died. Sunderland 
was compelled by public opprobrium to re- 
tire, and on 3 April Walpole was appointed 
chancellor of the exchequer and first lord of 
the treasury. On 10 Feb. his brother-in-law 
Townshend had taken Stanhope's post as 
secretary of state. An extraordinary con- 
juncture of circumstances had thus restored 
the two ministers to power and annihilated 
the opposing faction. 

In the administration that followed Wal- 
pole began by affecting a comparative indif- 
ference to foreign policy. As Palm wrote 
to the emperor on 13 Dec. 1726, 'Sir K. 
Walpole . . . does not meddle in foreign 
affairs, but receives accounts of them in 
general, leaving for the rest the direction of 
them entirely to Lord Townshend.' Walpole 
in return was left absolute master of home 



AYalpole 



188 



policy. He now proved himself the first 
great commercial minister since the days of 
Thomas Cromwell. On 19 Oct. 1721 the 
speech from the throne announced his pro- 
posals. He recommended the removal of 
export duties from 106 articles of British 
manufacture, and of import duties from 38 
articles of raw material. He also relieved 
the colonies from export duties upon naval 
stores, hoping to encourage supplies for the 
navy from that source, and thereby to 
render the country independent of political 
contingencies in the Baltic. He thus re- 
versed the traditional attitude of statesmen's 
minds towards imports. They were to be 
treated, so far as possible, as raw materials 
for our manufactures rather than as intrusive 
foreign products. Encouragement to imports 
would, he saw, facilitate exportation, which 
up to that time had exclusively monopolised 
attention. It is not unlikely that Arthur 
Moore [q.v.], who had been the real author 
of Bolingbroke's commercial treaty with 
France in 1713, was Walpole's adviser in this 
policy (HARROP, Bolinybroke, pp. 149, 245). 
The restless Sunderland now began to coquet 
with the tories. With the hope of getting 
rid of AValpole, he suggested to the king his 
appointment for life to the lucrative office 
of postmaster-general. This would have 
excluded him from parliament. The proposal 
elicited from the king the reply, ' I will 
never part with him again.' On 19 April 
1722 Sunderland died. Early in May 1722 
the regent Orleans disclosed to AValpole 
the Atterbury conspiracy [see ATTERBURY, 
FRANCIS]. It was accompanied by a plot 
to assassinate Walpole himself (H. WALPOLE, 
Reminiscences, p. cxiv). Walpole with charac- 
teristic vigour ' took the chief part in un- 
ravelling this dark mystery ' (Onslow MSS. 
p. 462). His usual moderation towards 
political opponents showed itself in pro- 
ceeding against the bishop by a bill of pains 
and penalties instead of by attainder. He 
appeared as a witness against the bishop in 
the House of Lords, where a memorable 
duel of wits took place, ' but he was too 
hard for the bishop upon every turn ' (ib. 
p. 463). In the following October (17th) 
he took the unprecedented step of suspending 
the habeas corpus act for a year ' too long,' 
Hallam not unjustly says. On 31 Oct. he 
intimated to the House of Commons his 
intention to introduce a bill for raising 
100,000/. by a special tax on the estates of 
Roman catholics and nonjurors. This bill 
when brought into the house on 23 Nov. 
1722 proved to refer to Roman catholics 
only. AValpole justified it, against the 
objection that it savoured of persecution, 



upon purely political grounds that the 
recent plot had been hatched in Rome, and 
that the Roman catholics were unanimously 
favourable to the restoration of the pre- 
tender. Upon this reasoning the house 
revived his original intention and extended 
the bill to all nonjurors (10 May 1723). 
The consequence was ' a ridiculous sight to 
see, people crowding to give a testimony of 
their allegiance to a government, and cursing 
it at the same time for giving them the 
trouble' (Onslow MSS. p. 463). This act 
(9 Geo. I, c. 24) was one of Walpole's least 
judicious measures, the disaffection it excited 
more than compensating for the aid it 
brought to the treasury. 

On 10 June 1723 the king rewarded Wal- 
pole's services by creating his eldest son 
Robert a peer, by the title of Lord Walpole 
of AValpole. For himself the minister had 
refused the honour, a significant indication 
that he regarded the House of Commons as 
the seat of power. About this time the ele- 
ments of a new whig opposition began to 
crystallise. The centre was John, lord Car- 
teret [q. v.], who had been nominated by 
Sunderland to succeed James Craggs, jun., 
on 5 March 1721. He followed Sunder- 
land's example and intrigued with the Ger- 
man dependents of the king. Daniel Pul- 
teney [q. v.] and Sir John Barnard [q. v.], 
Walpole's principal opponents on matters of 
finance, were at first the leaders of this fac- 
tion in the commons: in 1726 the Earl of 
Chesterfield [see STANHOPE, PHILIP DOR- 
MER] became the chief ally of Carteret in 
the lords. 

In the summer of 1723 Townshend and 
Carteret, the two secretaries of state, accom- 
panied the king to Hanover, leaving AVal- 
pole in undisputed possession of power in 
England. So tranquil were public affairs 
that on 30 Aug. 1723 AA 7 alpole boasted to 
Townshend that money could be raised at 
31. 12s. 6d. per cent. Meanwhile Carteret 
was attempting to play again the part 
enacted by Sunderland in 1716. A struggle 
took place at the Hanoverian court between 
Townshend, supported by the Duchess of 
Kendal, and Carteret in alliance with Bern- 
storff and Bothmar, the Hanoverian mini- 
sters. The immediate question at issue, the 
Platen marriage [see GEORGE I], ended in 
the victory of Townshend and the substitu- 
tion (12 Oct. 1723) of Horatio AValpole 
fq. v.] for Carteret's agent, Sir Luke Schaub 
[q.v.j, as envoy to Paris. Carteret had in 
the meantime been casting about for sup- 
porters in parliament, and projected a coali- 
tion with the tories to oust AValpole. This 
intrigue was betrayed to AValpole in July 



Wai pole 



189 



Walpole 



1723 by Bolingbroke, who had received a 
pardon in the previous May. Bolingbroke 
suggested that Walpole should accept his 
aid in forming such a coalition in his own 
interest. But Walpole was no lover of in- 
trigue. When Sunderland made a similar 
proposal, ' Mr. Walpole took the other point 
of standing or falling with the whigs' (Carlisle 
MSS. p. 38). He now as firmly rejected 
Bolingbroke's overtures. It was at this period 
that he detected Pulteney [see PTTLTENET, 
WILLIAM] in secret correspondence with Car- 
teret, and never put confidence in him again 
(HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 12). Townshend's suc- 
cess over Carteret was marked by the dis- 
missal of Carteret from the secretaryship of 
state and his appointment as lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland (3 April 1724). From this time 
may be dated a resolution apparent in Wal- 
i pole to keep men of brilliant talent out of 
his administrations. He nominated as Car- 
teret's successor the Duke of Newcastle 
*[see PELHAM-HOLLES, THOMAS], ' having ex- 
perienced how troublesome a man of parts 
was in that office ' (H . WALPOLE, Mem. i. 163). 
The natural consequence was that the whig 
opposition was constantly recruited by the 
men of promise whose numbers and abilities 
eventually proved equal to the overthrow of 
Walpole's administration. 

Carteret arrived in Ireland (23 Oct. 1724) 
in the midst of the excitement aroused over 
* Wood's halfpence.' This grant had been 
made by Sunderland to gratify the Duchess 
of Kendal [see SCHULENBTTRG, COUNTESS 
EHRENGARD MELTJSINA VON DER], who had 
sold it to Wood [see WOOD, WILLIAM, d. 
1730], Walpole had, in fact, opposed it 
(Lord Midletonto Thomas Brodrick, 15 Aug. 
1725, COXE, ii. 427), but it was his duty as 
first lord of the treasury to sign the treasury 
warrant of 23 Aug. 1722 authorising ' Wil- 
liam AVood of Wolverhampton to establish 
at or near Bristol his office for carrying out 
the affairs of his patent giving him sole power 
and authority to coin copper farthings and 
halfpence for the service of Ireland ' (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. p. 79 a). The 
value was limited to 108,000^. Walpole 
made diligent inquiry into the justification of 
' the outcry raised . In a letter to Townshend 
on 12 Oct. 1723 he showed in detail that it 
was utterly baseless, and proved it by the 
verdict of a practical assayer (January 1724, 
COXE, ii. 410). He was for resolute measures. 
On 24 Sept. and 3 Oct. 1723 he wrote angry 
letters to Grafton, Carteret's predecessor as 
lord lieutenant, for his weakness in face of the 
opposition to the patent in the Irish parlia- 
ment (MSS. Record Office). Carteret, whom 
Walpole had, perhaps on insufficient grounds, 



suspected of inciting his friends the Brod- 
ricks [see BRODRICK, ALAN], who led the 
Irish party, to resistance, had originally been 
nominated lord lieutenant, as Sir W. Scott, 
in his ' Life of Swift,' says, by a ' refined re- 
venge,' that he might carry the matter 
through with a high hand. Wood was said 
to have indiscreetly boasted, ' Mr. Walpole 
will cram his brass down their throats' 
('Fourth Drapier Letter,' SWIFT'S Works, 
vi. 428). But it Avas never Walpole's policy 
to fly in the face of popular passion. He 
bowed to the storm by recommending to the 
king to substitute 40,000/. for the 100,000^. 
as the limit of value of the coin to be imported 
into Ireland (see the report of the privy coun- 
cil, dated 24 July 1724, in SWIFT'S Works, 
vi. 366-76). Primate Hugh Boulter [q. v.] 
had warned the ministry on 19 Jan. 1724 
that not even a reduction to 20,OOOZ. would 
be accepted. He was right. On 4 Aug. 
appeared the second ' Drapier Letter,' assail- 
ing Walpole's concession as savagely as the 
original grant. Walpole then felt that no , 
safe course was left but to withdraw the / 
patent altogether, and wrote to that effect 
to Newcastle on 1 Sept. 1724. But Towns- ^ 
hend and the king were still for strong 
measures, and Carteret, whose private opi- 
nion was known to be adverse to the patent 
(St. John Brodrick to Midleton, 10 May 
1724), went to Ireland determined to regain 
the royal favour by his zeal in enforcing it. 
By December Carteret had come round to 
Walpole's opinion, and in May 1725 the I 
king, 011 Walpole's advice, consented that j 
the patent should be cancelled. So tranquil 
was England during 1724that only onepublic 
division took place in the House of Com- 
mons, where Walpole was now all-powerful. 
The year 1725 \vas marked by disturbances 
in Scotland. In February 1724 the English 
country gentlemen in parliament had ex- 
pressed a grievance at the evasion by the 
Scots of their share of the malt tax. Wal- 
pole, apprehensive of exciting the latent 
disaffection of Scotland, at first resisted the 
proposal to enforce its levy ; but in Decem- 
cember 1724 a motion was carried to substi- 
tute a duty of sixpence a barrel on beer in 
Scotland instead of the malt tax. In July 
1725 this led to a riot in Glasgow and a 
combination among the brewers of Edin- 
burgh to discontinue brewing, which it was 
expected would lead to fresh disturbances. 
Walpole had reason to believe that the riots 
were being fomented for political purposes 
by the Duke of Roxburghe [see KER, JOHN], 
one of the Carteret faction, secretary of 
state for Scotland, who was persuaded that 
they would lead to Walpole's overthrow. On 




Walpole 



190 



Walpole 



25 Aug. 1725 the duke was dismissed. Wal- 
pole put in his place his trusted friend the 
Earl of Islay [see CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, 
third DUKE OF ARGYLL]. In obedience to 
Walpole's instructions the earl levied the 
tax and put down the brewers' combination. 
From this time he continued to be Walpole's 
representative in the government of Scot- 
land. The session in parliament of 1725 was 
made memorable by the impeachment for 
corruption of the Earl of Macclesfield [see 
PARKER, THOMAS], lord chancellor. It is 
said that Walpole was jealous of the chan- 
cellor's personal influence with the king and 
the German ministers. He himself took the 
decisive measure of appointing a committee 
of the privy council to investigate the 
rumours against Macclesfield (CAMPBELL, 
Lives of the Chancellors, iv. 518), and his 
friend Sir George Oxenden moved the im- 
peachment in the commons. On the other 
hand, William Pulteney, now in open oppo- 
sition, and Sir William Wyndham [q. v.], the 
leader of the tories, were the chancellor's 
defenders. After George I's death Walpole 
refused to make Macclesfield any further 
payments from the treasury in discharge of 
the fine of 30,0007. which the king had pro- 
mised to defray (ib. p. 539). 

On 20 April 1725 Walpole seconded a 
motion made by Lord Finch in the House 
of Commons for removing so much of Boling- 
broke's attainder as to enable him to succeed 
upon his father's death to the family estates. 
Walpole, who knew his restless temper, had 
always opposed his return, and in 1733 
spoke of his yielding to it as ' a much re- 
pented fault ' (HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 224). He 
was induced to support this motion only by 
the peremptory insistence of the king, 
prompted by the Duchess of Kendal, who 
pocketed a bribe of 11,0007. His reluctance, 
and still more his insertion of a clause in 
the act restoringBolingbroke's estates, which 
prevented Bolingbroke from exercising a 
free disposition over them, excited keen re- 
sentment (Onslow MSS. p. 515). Boling- 
broke at once set to work to unite the scat- 
tered factions which had hitherto offered 
but a desultory and feeble opposition to 
Walpole's administration. 

In 1725 Walpole persuaded the king to 
revive the order of the Bath, ' an artful 
bank of thirty-six ribands to supply a fund 
of favours' "(HORACE WALPOLE, Remini- 
scences, p. cxiv). He was himself on 27 May 
invested with the order, which he quitted 
on 26 June 1726 for the Garter. This pro- 
motion of a commoner, for the first time since 
1660, caused much jealousy among the nobi- 
lity, and suggested the nickname ' Sir Blue- 






string ' by which he was commonly assailed 
in the pasquinades of the time. 

Foreign affairs now first began to press J 
upon Walpole's attention. The treaty of! 
Vienna, signed on 30 April 1725, had effected! 
a coalition between Philip V of Spain and/ 
the emperor Charles VI of Austria. It was 
suspected to include, and in fact did so, 
secret articles for the wresting of Gibraltar 
from the English, of Hanover from the king, 
for the restoration of the pretender, and for 
the suppression of protestantism. As a 
counter move to this, Townshend, then with 
the king, devised the treaty of Hanover. 
This established an alliance between Eng-~) 
land, France, and Prussia. In England an 
outcry at once arose that the country was to 
be sacrificed to the king's German dominions. 
Walpole, who had not been consulted, 
blamed Townshend as ' too precipitate.' He 
dreaded a war which, he wrote to Townshend 
on 13 Oct., was only to be justified by the 
imminence of an invasion. As evidences of 
a projected invasion multiplied (Walpole to 
Townshend, 21 Oct. 1725, COXE, ii. 488), his 
dislike of the treaty abated, and on 19 Feb. 
1726 he carried in the House of Commons 
an address expressing approval of it. Never- 
theless, he still resented Townshend's con- 
duct, and henceforth insisted upon being 
made acquainted with the progress of foreign 
affairs (HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 23). It is 
not without significance that we find him 
on 19 June 1726 addressing a complimen- 
tary letter to Fleury. Townshend, on the 
other hand, resented this new departure. 
On 23 May 1726 Pozobueno wrote to Rip- 1 
perda, ' The misunderstanding between j 
Townshend and Walpole daily increases ' 
(CoxE, ii. 501). 

While this rift was widening in the mini- 
stry, Pulteney, as leader of the opposition, 
was adding to his following in the House 
of Commons. In a letter to the emperor on 
17 Dec. 1726, Palm estimated his supporters 
as nearly a third of the house, and outside 
the house as consisting ' in the richest and 
most considerable persons of this nation.' 
His policy was an alliance with the emperor, 
Walpole's for the maintenance of frieiidship "> v 
with France. Upon the assembling of par- 
liament, on 17 Jan. 1727, Walpole dex- 
terously turned the popular feeling against 
Pulteney's policy by the king's speech which 
revealed the terms of the treaty of Vienna. 
So intense was the public indignation that 
ministers carried the address by 251 to 81. 

In December 1726 the opposition had 
started the ' Craftsman,' a paper chiefly in- 
spired by Bolingbroke. It contained scur- 
rilous invectives against the Walpoles and 



Walpole 



191 



Walpole 



much declamation against corruption. It 
produced a great effect upon the public 
mind, so much so that the tories confidently 
anticipated that, with the assistance of the 
king's German chamberlain Fabrice and 
the Duchess of Kendal, Bolingbroke would 
supplant Walpole in the king's confidence 
(' Anecdote of Mr. Pelham ' in COXE, ii. 572 ; 
cf. Onslow MSS. p. 516). Bolinghroke, 
anxious to produce an impression on the 
king, induced the duchess to lay before him 
a memorandum against Walpole in the style 
of the ' Craftsman.' Walpole, hearing of 
this and shrewdly anticipating George I's 
distaste for declamation, insisted that the ' 
duchess should procure Bolingbroke an 
audience. On Walpole's inquiry as to the 
substance of Bolingbroke's indictment, the 
king replied ' Bagatelles ! Bagatelles ! ' j 
Nevertheless, so shaken did Walpole feel his 
position to be by the defection of the duchess 
that, if we are to believe a statement made 
by Pelham to Onslow (OnsloivMSS. p. 516), 
he was only dissuaded by the Duke of Devon- 
shire and the Princess of Wales from re- 
tiring with a peerage in the summer of 
George I's last visit to Hanover. This in- 
clination was strengthened by a serious ill- 
ness which attacked him on 26 April 1727 
(Hist . MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. p. 401 b\ | 
and was thought to endanger his life (Pri- ' 
mate Boulter to Lord Townshend, 9 May 
1727). He was so weakened that in June, 
when anticipating dismissal by George II, 
he burst into tears at a visit from Onslow, j 
and ' declared he would never leave the 
court if he could have any office there, and 
would be content even with the comptroller's 
staff' (Onslow MSS. p. 517). 

The news of the sudden death of George I 
on 12 June 1727 reached Walpole at Chelsea i 
on the 14th. Aware of the importance of a 
first audience, he 'killed two horses in 
carrying the tidings ' to the new king at 
Richmond ( Walpoliana, i. 86). The king, 
/ who when he quarrelled with his father had 
' called Walpole ' rogue and rascal,' received 
him coldly and nominated his treasurer 
Compton [see COMPTON, SIR SPENCER] to 
draw up the declaration to the privy council. 
Compton, unequal to the task, requested 
Walpole to draft it for him. Walpole 
eagerly seized the opportunity to put Comp- 
ton under an obligation. He anticipated a 
possible impeachment, and promised Compton 
his support in parliament in return for pro- 
tection (HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 32-3). The 
courtiers at once began to trim their sails. 
' Sir Robert's presence, that used to make a 
crowd wherever he appeared, now emptied 
every corner he turned to ' (ib. p. 37). But 



the queen hated Compton, who had in- 
judiciously paid court to Mrs. Howard [see 
HOWARD, HENRIETTA], the king's mistress. 
Compton himself became sensible that he 
could neither form a ministry with the 
tories nor without them. The king was 
anxious for the maintenance of the French 
alliance ; Horatio Walpole had Fleury's ear, 
and Fleury dismissed him to London to ex- 
hort George to adhere to his father's policy. 
Lastly, Walpole appealed to the king's 
strongest passion avarice. The civil list of 
his father had been fixed at 700,0007. Wal- 
pole offered to make it 800,000/. [see 
PULTENEY, WILLIAM]. Compton had pro- 
posed that the queen's jointure should be 
60,000/. a year ; Walpole undertook to ask 
for 100,000/. Compton had neither the 
courage nor the following to carry the 
larger proposals. The king greedily swal- 
lowed the bait. 'It is for my life,' he said 
to Walpole, ' it is to be fixed, and it is for 
your life.' On 24 June 1727 Walpole wasf 
reappointed first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer, and Townshend 
secretary of state. 

The new parliament met on 23 Jan. 1728 
with a considerable majority in favour of 
the ministry. Pulteney, who in 1725 and 
1727 had assumed the part of financial critic 
on behalf of the opposition, attacked Wal- 
pole on the ground of an improper applica- 
tion of the sinking fund. Walpole success- 
fully defended his version as to the state of 
the national debt and the rate of its dis- 
charge, and carried the division by the de- 
cisive vote of 250 to 97 (4 March). But as 
public feeling had been aroused, especially 
by Pulteney's pamphlet ' On the State of 
the National Debt,' he deemed it prudent to 
draw up an elaborate report (Parl. Hist. viii. 
654), which was accepted by the House of 
Commons by 243 to 77 (8 April) and pre- 
sented to the king (1 1 April). In this session 
Walpole was placed in a critical position by 
the avarice of the king, which he once de- 
clared one of his two principal difficulties, 
Hanover being the other (KiNG, Anecdotes, 
p. 41). The king complained that 115,0001. 
was deficient on the civil list. The claim 
was more than doubtful, and Walpole refused 
to endorse it. The tories thereupon made 
overtures to the king, offering to add another 
100,000/., and George intimated plainly to 
Walpole that he must either undertake to 
press the claim through parliament or resign 
(HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 124). Walpole with 
much reluctance yielded, but the opposition 
in parliament was strong, and fourteen peers 
signed a protest (10 May 1729). The failure 
of the opposition to displace Walpole was 



Walpole 



192 



Walpole 



due to the attacks on the expenditure of the 
secret-service fund, with regard to which 
George II was particularly sensitive. These 
were led byShippen (3 July 1727) and Pul- 
teney (21 Feb. 1727 and 29 Feb. 1728). The 
result was that Atterbury's son-in-law Morice 
wrote to him on 24 June 1728, ' Walpole 
gains ground and governs more absolutely 
than in the latter reign. Mr. Pulteney's re- 
moval from the lieutenancy of one of the 
Yorkshire Ridings is one instance of his 
power.' The influence of the ministry with 
the king was strengthened by the success of 
the negotiations for the treaty of Seville [see 
STAXHOPE, WILLIAM, 1690P-1756], signed 
on 9 Nov. 1729, which for the time deprived 
the Jacobites of their last hope of aid from 
a foreign power. 

The opposition now conceived the project 
of undermining Walpole's power by depriv- 
ing him of the customary means of securing 
it in the House of Commons. On 16 Feb. 
1730 Sandys [see SANDYS, SAMUEL] intro- 
duced the pension bill to disable persons in 
receipt of pensions from sitting in parlia- 
ment. The king ordered Walpole to oppose 
it in the House of Commons, but he refused, 
leaving it on this occasion, and in 1734 and 
1740, to be thrown out by the lords (HALLAM, 
Const. Hist. iii. 352). Meanwhile his rela- 
tions with Townshend increased in difficulty. 
In 1729 an altercation between them ended 
in a scuffle and drawn swords. In December 
there were rumours of Townshend's retire- 
ment (Lady Mary Howard to Lord Car- 
lisle, Carlisle MSS. p. 62). The tories, 
sensible that the direction of foreign policy 
was passing into Walpole's hands, now 
violently attacked him on the score of the 
French alliance, of which he was known to 
be a warm advocate. They inflamed the 
public mind with pretences that the W r al- 
poles were betraying the interests of England 
by neglecting to insist on the provision of 
the treaty of Utrecht, and of that of 1717 
for the demolition of the fortifications of 
Dunkirk. At the instance of Bolingbroke, 
Sir W. Wyndham brought on a debate with 
the object of proving that Dunkirk was be- 
coming an increasing menace to the south 
coast, and indirectly of breaking the French 
alliance by insisting on its complete dis- 
mantlement. In the debate which followed 
(27 Feb. 1729-30) Walpole made a vigorous 
attack on Bolingbroke, and carried an address 
approving the action of the ministry by 274 
to 149. So brilliant was Walpole's defence 
that the debate was currently spoken of as 
* the Dunkirk day ' (see COXE, ii. 676, 687), 
'the greatest day,' said Horatio Walpole, 
' that ever I knew.' In the course of this 



session Walpole broke with the accepted 
policy of controlling the commercial interests 
of the colonies by exclusive reference to the 
advantage of the mother country. He passed 
an act (the Rice Act, 3 Geo. II, c. 28) the 
preamble of which affirms the then novel 
principle that the prosperity of the mother 
country is aided by care for the prosperity of 
the colony. By this act Carolina was no 
longer compelled to export rice exclusively 
to England. In 1735 he extended the same 
privilege to Georgia (8 Geo. II, c. 19). On 
the other hand, he renewed the charter of 
the East India Company till 1766, despite 
the protests of the opposition, for the pay- 
ment of 200,000/. and the reduction by one 
per cent, of the interest due on account of 
its loans to government. 

On 15 May 1730 Townshend resigned. i 
His ' irascible and domineering and jealous ' 
i temper (HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 108) had long 
i rendered him distasteful to the queen. The 
j death of Walpole's sister Dorothy, lady 
i Townshend, on 29 March 1726, had weakened 
the link that bound the two ministers 
together. But it was the queen who, as 
i Horace Walpole said, ' blew into a flame 
| the ill-blood' between the two by her exclu- 
j sive reliance upon Walpole. ' As long,' said 
Walpole, ' as the firm was Townshend and 
Walpole, the utmost harmony prevailed ; but 
it no sooner became Walpole and Townshend 
, than things went wrong and a separation 
ensued.' Walpole, alive to the growth of 
the opposition and of the dangers attending 
a monopoly of power, now made overtures to 
some of its leaders. Wilmington [see 
COMPTOX, SPEXCER], the king's favourite, he 
succeeded in detaching and made him lord 
privy seal. To Pulteney he offered Towns- 
hend's place with a peerage. The inter- 
mediary was the queen. But Pulteney re- 
i fused all advances. Chesterfield, who had 
I earned encouragement by betraying the 
plans of the opposition to the queen, was 
made lord steward . Foreign affairs, nominally 
in the hands of Newcastle and Harrington, 
i iwere entirely controlled by Walpole. 
r* The strength of W T alpole's position and 
his well-known toleration gave the dissenters 
hope that their claims as steady supporters 
of his government might at last be recognised. 
In 1727 he had passed the first (1 Geo. II, I 
st. 2, c. 23) of a series of indemnity acts I. 
exempting from the test those who had not i( 
duly qualified themselves for the offices' 
they held. They now agitated for a repeal 
of the Test and Corporation Acts. The 
Sacheverell affair had taught Walpole caution 
in ecclesiastical matters. He did not think 
their request ' unreasonable,' but for a 



Wai pole 



193 



Walpole 



minister confronted by a mixed opposition 
which the proposal would unite he thought 
it ' unseasonable '(HERVEY, Memoirs,!. 154). 
On the other hand, both in 1731 and again 
in 1733 he promoted a measure in favour of 
the dissenters in Ireland which he was 
obliged to abandon as impracticable. 

The popularity which now fell to Walpole 
from his extraordinary success at home and 
abroad provoked the opposition to scandalous 
personal attacks. The ' Craftsman ' of 7 Nov. 
1730 affirmed that the housekeeping bills at 
Houghton amounted to 1,500/. a week. In 
ballads and broadsides he was represented as 
plundering the treasury and as selling the 
country to France. Walpole himself was 
serenely indifferent, but on 7 July 1731 the 
grand jury of Middlesex presented ' Robin's 
Reign ' and others of the libels circulated in 
the streets, together with some numbers of 
the ' Craftsman.' This was followed by a 
number of successful prosecutions. Pulteney 
having published a pamphlet styled 'An 
Answer to one Part of an Infamous Libel,' 
&c., in which he disclosed a conversation 
with Walpole on the reconciliation of the 
Prince of Wales with his father, so incensed 
the king that he struck him off the roll of 
the privy council with his own hand. The 
year 1733 witnessed the introduction by 
Walpole of two important financial measures. 
Of these the first was his proposal to take 
500,0002. from the sinking fundkV,The ob- 
jections to such a precedent wWe obvious, 
out Walpole's reasons deserve examination. 
The alternative, he told the country gentle- 
men, was raising the land tax, which in the 
previous session he had cut down by a 
shilling, once more to two shillings in the 

pound. "Rnt-. aprinAipnl pnjnt-. nf hia policy 

was the reconciliation of the^fip""ry gentle- 
men to thii whig government. Had lie to 
make choice between them and 'the moneyed 
interest,' he would certainly have sacrificed 
the country gentry. ' A minister,' he once 
remarked, ' might shear the country gentle- 
men when he would, and the landed interest 
would always produce him a rich fleece in 
silence ; but the trading interest resembled 
a hog, whom if you attempted to touch . . . 
he would certainly cry out loud enough to 
alarm all the neighbourhood ' (D. Pulteney 
to the Duke of Rutland, Rutland MSS. p. 
202). In this_case the 



proved because, as Walpole explained, the 
credit of the government had now risen to 
such a height that they ' apprehended 
nothing more than being obliged to receive 
their principals too- fast.' This combination 
of interests triumphed over" the opposition, 
and the proposal was carried by 245 to 135 
VOL. LIX. 



votes (23 Feb. 1733). 
political exigency 
" 



It jtas a triumph of 
principle. 



Ke" conciliation of the country gentry by 
the reduction of the land tax was preparatory 
to another financial change which, had it 
been effected, would have anticipated the* 
great reforms of the present century. This 
was the famous excise scheme of the same | 
session. Walpole's attention had been drawn 
to the state of the customs' revenue. Since 
1723 he had checked the smuggling of tea 
and coffee by applying to them a compulsory 
warehousing system under government super- 
vision (see ADAM SMITH, Wealth of Nations, 
bk. v. ch. ii.), thereby increasing the revenue 
derived from them by 120,000^. in seven 
years. No change was made in the name of 
the duty, and the reform passed unnoticed. 
He had (14 March 1733) projected the ap- 
plication of the same system to tobacco and 
wine. By so doing there would not merely 
be a check put upon smuggling. Under the 
existing complicated system of discounts, 
drawbacks, and allowances, with the aid of 
false weights and false entries, vast frauds, 
as he pointed out, had been detected, espe- 
cially upon re-exportation. His proposal was 
to-levy tVift f"^] tax on tobacco and wine im- 

ported Qn]y when thay warn remnvpfT from 

Og1 Where imported 



for rerfixportation no tax was to be levied at 
alL The former of these two measures 
would, it was thought, check smuggling, 
because the importer ' would never run any 
risk, or be at any expense to evade the custom- 
house officers at the first gate, when at so 
many more afterwards he would be equally 
exposed to be catched by the excise officer' 
(HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 184). The second 
would, as Walpole explained, ' tend to make 
London a free port, and by consequence the 
market of the world.' The change was, in 
technical terms, a transfer of customs to 
' excise,' and therein the opposition saw their 
opportunity. Excise had at various times 
been levied with vexatious incidents upon 
most of the necessaries of life. ItJLvery name 
wss-edious. The '.Craftsman.' and the pam- 
phleteers discerned in the proposals the first 
approach to an excise upon all articles of 
food and clothing. Walpole had himself 
given some colour to the suggestion by re- 
imposing in 1732 (5 Geo. II, c. 6) the salt 
tax, which he had repealed in 1730 (3 Geo. II, 
c. 20). Even then, Sir William Wyndham 
had argued, ' it is one step towards a general 
excise' (9 Feb. 1732), and Walpole had in- 
dignantly repudiated the suggestion (Part. 
Hist. viii. 960). But the course of events 
strengthened the public suspicion. Petitions 
against the scheme poured into the House 



(A 



Wai pole 



194 



Walpole 



of Commons. The house itself was besieged 
bv ' a most extraordinary concourse ofpeople.' 
The city of London prayed to be heard by 
counsel against the bill, and its petition was 
escorted by a train of coaches that extended 
from Temple Bar to Westminster. Discon- 
tent began to pass into disaffection. The 
army, it was said, could not be relied on 
because the soldiers believed that tobacco 
would be raised in price. Inside the House of 
Commons the ministerial majorities dwindled 
from sixty-one, on the introduction of the 
scheme on 14 March 1733, to seventeen on 
10 April. On that night Walpole gave a 
supper to a dozen friends. ' This dance it 
will no further go,' he said, with tears in his 
eyes (Chatham Speeches, i. 69). On the next 
day he moved ' that the bill be read a second 
time on 12 June ' (the recess). Frantic mani- 
festations of delight throughout the country 
followed his capitulation. Walpole was burnt 
in effigy in the city (Carlisle MSS. p. Ill), 
where he had incurred unpopularity by de- 
signating the formidable band of petitioners 
'sturdy beggars' (14 March 1733). The 
king had taken the strongest personal in- 
terest in the bill. Its abandonment was fol- 
lowed by the summary dismissal of Lord 
Chesterfield, the lord steward, and of a group 
of peers in public employment who had co- 
operated with him in opposing it. The Duke 
of Bolton and Lord Cobham, both colonels 
of household cavalry, were cashiered. The 
opposition thereupon moved for leave to bring 
in a bill ' for securing the constitution by 
preventing officers, not above the rank of 
colonels of regiments, from being deprived 
of their commissions otherwise than by judg- 
ment of a court-martial to be held for that 
purpose, or by address of either house of par- 
liament' (13 Feb. 1734). Walpole in reply 
warned the house of the constitutional danger 
of 'stratocracy' involved in the proposal. 
' Any minister,' he afterwards added to Lord 
Hervey, ' must be a pitiful fellow who would 
not show military officers that their employ- 
ments were not held on a surer tenure than 
those of civil officers' (HERVEY, Memoirs, 
iii. 101). The motion was negatived with- 
out a division. 

Nevertheless, Walpole's power had been 
shaken. It is true that he could probably 
hare-carried the excise bill through the House 
of Commons. The reason of its abandonment 
was, as he truly said, that ' the act could not 
be carried into execution without an armed 
force-, and that there would be an end of the 
liberties of England if supplies were to be 
raised by the sword.' The reinforcements in 
' number and vindictiveness which the recent 
dismissals brought about renewed the activity 



of the opposition. Scotland had been one of 
Walpole's strongholds. Its representative 
peers had been nothing more than the nomi- 
nees of Lord Islay, Walpole's Scottish secre- 
tary of state. Lord Stair, one of the great 
officers dismissed, headed a revolt of the Scots 
peers against this system at the general elec- 
tion of 1734 (Stair Annals, ii. 195 ; cf. Parl. 
Hist. ix. 608). The government, it is true, 
carried its list, but the allegiance of Scot- 
land had begun to wane. Outside parlia- 
ment the opposition still fanned the excite- 
ment of the populace by attributing to Wal- 
pole a design of fresh proposals for a general 
excise. But he knew that the opportunity 
even for partial reform was past. ' I can 
assure this house,' he said, ' I am not so mad 
as ever again to engage in anything that 
looks like an excise' (4 Feb. 1734). 

A general election was now approaching. 
The tories proposed in the last session of 
the expiring parliament the repeal of the 
Septennial- At--a4 -*be- substitution of tri- 
ennial parliaments. Walpole opposed the 
motion in a speech pronounced to be one of 
the best he ever made, full of brilliant 
though covert invective against Bolingbroke, 
the real inspirer of the proposal. It was 
not warmly supported by the opposition 
whigs, and was defeated by 247 to 184 votes 
(13 March 1734). Distrust forthwith began 
to set in among the opposition, Pulteney 
resenting Sir W. Wyndham's reliance upon 
Bolingbroke, whose ' very name and presence 
in England did hurt ' (Bolingbroke to Wynd- 
ham, 23 July 1739). Early in 1735 Boling- 
broke returned in disgust to France. The 
opposition whigs had thrown away the 
weapon which had won them their recent 
victory. 

Meanwhile the vacancy of the crown of 
Poland had plunged the continent into a 
war, in which the emperor was rapidly 
succumbing before the combined forces of 
France, Spain, and Sardinia. His appeals 
for help enlisted the German sympathies of 
the queen at the same time that they aroused 
the martial ardour of the king. Walpole 
! gratified the king so far as to press upon the 
: expiring parliament of 1734, despite an 
influential protest of peers, an unconstitu- 
tional measure empowering the crown to 
I raise sea and land forces without limit 
I during the interval between the parliaments 
| (28 March 1734). But he was resolute for 
, non-intervention, except in the quality of 
mediator. The emperor, furious with ' the 
Walpoles' (the emperor to Count Kinski, 
31 July 1734), despatched Strickland [see 
j STRICKLAND, THOMAS JOHN FRANCIS], bishop 
of Namur, to London to intrigue against 



Walpole 



'95 



Walpole 



' 



them at court. Strickland began by tam- 
pering Avith Harrington, the secretary of 
state, with whom he had a long and secret 
conference. He was graciously received by 
the king and queen. Rumour predicted 
Walpolas approaching fall. The queen 
argued her case with the minister week 
after week (HERVEY, Memoirs, ii. 61). 'I told 
the queen this morning.' he said to Hervey, 
' Madam, there are fifty thousand men slain 
this year in Europe and not one English- 
man. Alive to the intrigues around him, 
Walpole kept in his hand every thread of 
the negotiations. When in October 1734 
Fleury made overtures for a peace, he suc- 
ceeded in persuading the queen to support 
him in giving the cardinal a favourable 
response. He put a stop upon Harrington's 
attempt, made at the instance of the king 
himself, to involve England by guaranteeing, 
in conjunction with the emperor, the defence 
of Holland against the French. ' My politics,' 
he had written to Townshend on 3 Aug. 
1723, ' are to keep clear of all engagements.' 
The plan of pacification, which was sub- 
stantially that accepted by the belligerents, 
was the work of the two Walpoles, Sir 
Robert inspiring the foreign office of England, 
and Horatio having the ear of Fleury. Boling- 
broke's comment on the peace was that ' if 
the English ministers had any hand in it, 
they were wiser than he thought them ; and 
if they had not. they were much luckier than 
they deserved to be.' 

The general election had taken place in 
the spring of 1734, before the brilliant 
success of Walpole's foreign policy had 
operated to retrieve his defeat upon the 
excise bill. Despite a large expenditure on 
the elections, he lost some six or seven seats 
in Norfolk, and returned to parliament on 
14 Jan. 1735 with a diminished following. 
The gratifying issue of his policy of peace 
announced in the king's speech of 15 Jan. 
1736 furnished a compensating triumph. 
The address of congratulation was voted 
without the smallest opposition (17 Jan.), 
and the thanks of parliament, rendered by 
convention to the king, for ' saving this 
nation from the calamities of war,' were 
recognised on all hands as due to Walpole. 

The dissenters judged this a favourable 
opportunity to solicit from Walpole a further 
indication of his friendly disposition to 
them. It was probably, as Stanhope con- 
jectures, at this time that Dr. Chandler [see 
CHANDLER, SAMUEL], at the head of a 
deputation of dissenters, inquired of him 
when the moment would come for fulfilling 
the hopes he had held out to them. He 
replied that it had not yet arrived. Being 



pressed for a specific answer, he said, ' I will 
give it you in a word Never.' The dis- 
senters thereupon entrusted their case to the 
opposition whigs. On 12JNIarch 1736 Wil- 
liam Plumer moved the repeal of the Test 
Act. Walpole was pluri'd in n position of 
great difficulty. With many considerate ex- 
pressions towards the dissenters he opposed 
the motion, which was defeated by 2~>1 to 
123 votes. The motion for repeal was again 
pressed in 1739, but was again opposed by 
Walpole and was rejected in the House of 
Lords by 1 88 to 89 votes on 6 April. On the 
other hand, he zealously forwarded a bill for 
the jeligf ef^makers. His interest was per- 
haps quickenedby the circumstance that there 
were many quakers, his supporters, in his 
constituency. The bill was lost in the 
House of Lords chiefly through the opposi- 
tion of the bishop of London [see GIBSON, 
EDMUND]. Walpole had regarded the bishop 
as his ' first and sole minister in church 
matters,' and intended him to succeed Wake 
[see \VAKE, WILLIAM] at Canterbury. This 
following upon another difference between 
them [see Run OLE, THOMAS], he henceforth 
withdrew his confidence from Gibson and 
appointed Potter [see POTTER, JOHN] to 
Canterbury instead (1737). 
"/August and September 1736 were marked 
by anti-Irish riots in London and by the 
Porteous riot at Edinburgh [see PORTEOUS, 
JOHN]. The London riots were fomented 
by the Jacobites (HERVEY, Memoirs, ii. 309), 
and associated__\yith discontent on account 
of the Gin Act which had been passed in 
the previous session [see JEKYLL, SIR JOSEPH]. 
Although Walpole had taken no further 
interest in this measure than to insure the 
civil list against consequent, losses, it was 
popularly ascribed to him in concert with 
Jekyll, its real author (see Sir R. Walpole 
to Horatio Walpole, 11 Oct. 1736, COXE, iii. 
359). The Porteous riots were seized upon 
by the opposition in the lords, headed by 
Carteret, to embarrass Walpole by insistence 
on extreme measures, which, Lord Islay 
warned him, would provoke a rebellion in 
Scotland (HERVEY, Memoirs, iii. 103). The 
growing weakness of Walpole's position now 
became apparent. He was adverse both to 
the violent proposals of the opposition, and 
even to any inquiry upon which a j ustifica- 
tion of them might be found (ib. iii. 40). 
But two of his own cabinet, Hardwicke and 
Newcastle, were caballing against him with 
Sherlock and Carteret (ib. p. 102). He told 
Newcastle to his face ' Your grace must take 
your choice between me and him [Carteret] ' 
(ib. p. 136). Signs of defection showed them- 
selves in the commons, and the queen her- 

o2 



Walpole 



196 



Walpole 



self was inclined to side with the dissentients 
(STANHOPE, ii. 295). The situation was 
further complicated by the attitude of the 
tones, who secretly encouraged the disaffec- 
tion in Scotland and opposed any bill what- 
ever. In these difficult circumstances Wal- 
pole had no choice but to accept the principle 
of the bills of penalties and to mitigate 
these as far as possible (10 Geo. II, cc. 34, 
35). The opposition, however, took care to 
identify his name with these measures, 
which seriously impaired his former popu- 
larity in Scotland^ The position of Walpole 
was made the more difficult by the attitude 
of the Prince of Wales, whose house had 
for some time past been the rendezvous of 

fthe young whigs of the opposition, 'the 
boys,' as Walpole nicknamed them. The 
prince had long been dissatisfied with his 
allowance of 50,000/. a year. In 1737 he 
originated a proposal that it should be in- 
creased by an additional 50,000/. from the 
civil list. The suggestion was warmly 
embraced by the whole opposition (DoDixo- 
TON, Diary, p. 395 ; HERVEY, Memoirs, iii. 
418), who foresaw that it would irrevocably 
alienate the prince from the minister, since 
it was certain to be opposed by the king. 
On 22 Feb. 1737 a motion to this effect was 
made by Pulteney and seconded by Sir John 
Barnard [q. v.], the two most formidable 
members of the whig opposition in the 
House of Commons. Walpole first made 
secret overtures to the prince to persuade 
him to desist (ib. iii. 48). He next adroitly 
offered as a compromise a settlement of the 
allowance of 50,000/. and a jointure on the 
princess in addition. The prince rejected 
the proposal, as Walpole had indeed fore- 
seen. ' He had proposed,' he told the king, 
' to bring the House of Commons to reason 
with it, not the prince' (ib. iii. 60). He 
carried the house by a majority of thirty, j 
' If ever any man in any cause,' he said to 
Lord Hervey, ' fought dagger out of sheath, 
I did so in the House of Commons the day 
his royal highness's affair was debated there ' j 
(ib. p. 92). After his fall two members of , 
this majority were found to have been bribed 
by him in two sums of 500/. and 400/. apiece 
the only instance of parliamentary corrup- 
tion ever proved against him. His own 
mention of the fact on two separate occa- 
sions to Lord Hervey and the queen (ib. iii. j 
80, 93) is some indication that this expedient 
for securing a majority was exceptional. The 
majority was really assured by the abstention 
of forty-five tories of Jacobite sympathies. 
From this time the Prince of Wales openly 
enrolled himself in the opposition to Wal- 
pole. Whereas Walpole's policy had always 



been, as Onslow says, one ' of having every- J/ 
body to be deemed a Jacobite who was not// 
a professed whig' (Onslow MSS. p. 463), the-/ 
prince now courted the adhesion of tha 
Hanoverian tories, led by Sir W. Wyndham/ 
He thereby became the mainspring of an 
opposition which divisions had hitherto ren- 
dered ineffective. 

The next move of the opposition again 
came from the whigs. On 24 March 1737 
Barnard moved a resolution for redeeming 
the 24,000,000/. of the South Sea annuities 
at four per cent., and converting them into 
annuities at three per cent. Considered 
as a piece of parliamentary tactics, this 
was a dexterous move. It rallied in its/ 
support the country gentlemen, the concilia-] 
tion of whom was the foundation of Wal-l 
pole's financial policy ; while it was opposeq 
to the interest of the capitalists, upon whom 
Walpole's power really rested. On principle 
he could not venture to oppose it. His own, 
brother Horatio, the Pelhams, and others of 
his most confidential friends were favourable 
to it. He apparently contented himself with 
the dilatory plea that the time was unsuit- 
able. But while the bill was being pre- 
pared in conformity with the resolution, he 
found time ' to go about, to talk to people, to 
solicit, to intimidate, to argue, to persua.de, 
and perhaps to bribe ' (HERVEY, Memoirs, iii. 
130) against the proposal. When the bill came 
on he put up his friend Winnington [see I 
WIXNINGTON, THOMAS], a lord of the trea-l 
sury, to extend the proposal to all the re- (I 
deemable debts, i.e. from 24,000,OOOJ. to/I 
44,000,000^. This change not only increased 
the general hostility to the bill, but made it 
impracticable. Walpole then voted with 
the minority against the proposal, thereby 
re-establishing his credit with the city 
(30 March). When the new bill was intro- 
duced (22 April) he opposed it with a 
number of plausible financial arguments,, 
and the bill was rejected by 249 to 134 
votes. His conduct is ascribed by his friend 
Lord Hervey to jealousy of Barnard and 
the fear of alienating the moneyed men 
(Memoirs, iii. 126). It is possible, however, 
that the danger of war with Spain, and the 
prospective necessity of raising a loan on 
that account, coupled with the fact that the 
bill would have locked up the greatest part 
of the sinking fund for several years and 
compelled him to levy fresh taxes, were ad- 
ditional and justifiable grounds for his oppo- 
sition. At the close of the session of 1737 
Walpole introduced with general approval 
' the playhouse bill,' conferring on the lord 
chamberlain a statutory power of licensing 
plays (10 Geo. II, c. 28). The occasion waa 



Walpole 



197 



Walpole 



the increasing tendency of the stage to pro- 
fane and political plays. Of these the mis- 
chief, indeed, immediately affected Walpole, 
of all men the mosl indifferent to attack ; but 
the need of a restraining authority was felt 
by the opposition, who were already count- 
ing upon office, and had been the first to 
propose legislation upon the subject [see 
BARNARD, SIR JOHN]. In April 1738 Wal- 
pole supported the unanimous resolution of 
the House of Commons against the publica- 
tion of its debates, upon the reasonable ground 
of the gross dishonesty of the reports (Parl. 
Hist. x. 800-11). 

The sessions of 1736 and 1737 had both 
disclosed the growing weakness of Walpole 
in parliament. His influence at court had 
been sensibly lowered by the compromise he 
proposed to the Prince of Wales (HERVET, 
Memoirs, iii. 91, 181). The king and 
queen, who vied with each other in a re- 
sentment against the prince which Walpole 
was incapable of sharing, discussed his dis- 
missal (ib. p. 184), affronted by his in- 
sistence that the terms ottered should be ob- 
served (ib. p. 183). Hardwicke, in collusion 
with Newcastle and Carteret, was urging a 
reconciliation which it was impossible to 
undertake, while the prince, on the other 
hand, credited Walpole with every move 
made against him. It was a position so im- 
possible to maintain that Walpole seriously 
entertained thoughts of resignation (ib. p. 
185). At this juncture the queen died 
(20 Nov. 1737). Her transient resentments 
disappeared at her deathbed. Sending for 
Walpole, she said : ' I recommend the king, 
my children, and the kingdom to your care ' 
(ib. p. 322). But he foresaw as clearly as 
the rest of the world (Correspondence of 
Duchess of Marlborougk, iii. 221) the decline 
of his influence with the king, whose irri- 
table vanity could only be managed by a 
woman. The dukes of Grafton and New- 
castle pressed him to pay court to the Prin- 
cess Emily. ' I'll bring Madame Walmoden 
over,' he answered ; ' I was for the wife 
against the mistress, but I will be for the 
mistress against the daughters.' 

Public attention now began to turn to 
England's relations with Spain. A deputa- 
tion of merchants petitioned the king in the 
autumn of 1737, complaining of depredations 
by Spanish officials upon English traders to 
{lie West Indies. In March 1738 the coun- 
try was ablaze with the story of Jenkins's 
ear [see JENKINS, ROBERT]. Walpole stood 
almost alone for peace. His own colleagues 
in the lords passed resolutions (2 May 1738) 
against the Spanish claim to search vessels 
for contraband, which he had succeeded in 



excluding from the resolutions of the House 
of Commons. During the autumn of 1738 
the war fever, stimulated by the opposition, 
was steadily rising. Walpole, through Sir 
Benjamin Keene [q. v.], the minister at 
Madrid, effected a convention with Spain in 
time for the meeting of parliament, which 
had been prorogued for this purpose till 
1 Feb. 1739. The convention provided for 
a settlement of disputes within eight months 
between plenipotentiaries to be appointed. 
But ' No search ' was the popular cry, and 
upon this the convention was silent. Pitt 
thundered against it as ' an insecure, un- 
satisfactory, dishonourable convention.' Wal- 
pole himself spoke ' in a more masterly, 
dexterous, and able manner than I ever 
heard him, to the satisfaction and applause of 
the whole house, and even of his enemies ' 
{Trevor MSS. p. 26, Horatio Walpole to 
R. Trevor, 27 March 1739). Nevertheless 
the address of approval was only carried by 
a majority of twenty-eight (8 March 1739). 
' The patriots,' as the opposition styled them- 
selves, now took the rash resolve to secede 
from the House of Commons (9 March). 
Walpole's answer to the declaration of this 
intention by Sir W. Wyndham was, said 
Chatham, one of the finest speeches he had 
ever heard (see Parl. Hist. x. 1323). This 
decision was highly advantageous to Wal- 
pole. He had been seriously ill in the pre- 
vious September with some form of fever, 
and had never recovered his strength 
(Hare MSS. pp. 245, 248). He now enjoyed 
an interval of three months' freedom from 
harassing attack (ib.) The opportunity 
was utilised by him in pushing through, 
bills appealing to commercial interests. He 
carried his colonial policy a step further 
by extending to molasses and sugar from 
the West Indian colonies the principle of 
free exportation already accorded to rice 
(12 Geo. II, c. 30). He also gratified the 
manufacturers of cloth by taking off the 
duties from wool and woollen yarn imported 
from Ireland, and preventing their exporta- 
tion elsewhere than to Great Britain 
(12 Geo. II, c. 21). This was pursuant to 
the principle of commercial policy formulated 
by him in the king's speech of 1721, ' to 
make the exportation of our own manufac- 
tures and the importation of the commodities 
used in the manufacturing of them as prac- 
ticable and as easy as may be.' 

In May 1739 the English and Spanish pleni- 
potentiaries met for the ratification of the 
convention. Walpole had foreseen that the 
stumbling-block to peace was the Spanish 
claim of search for contraband. But the 
king was eager for war. So were Walpole's 



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Walpole 



colleagues, Newcastle and Hardwicke, and 
indeed the entire Nation. He consented to 
a despatch instructing Keene, the English 
plenipotentiary, to demand the surrender of 
the right of search. Spain refused ; and on 
19 Oct., amid a burst of popular enthusiasm, 
war was declared. ' They now ring the 
bells,' said Walpole bitterly ; ' they will soon 
wring their hands.' It has been observed by 
Burke that Walpole's conduct was stamped 
with weakness, that ' he temporised, he 
managed, and, adopting very nearly the sen- 
timents of his adversaries, he opposed their 
inferences ' (' First Letter on a Regicide 
Peace,' Works, v. 288). But Walpole was 
the prey of two harassing diseases, gout and 
the stone, which left him but intermittent 
vigour and disturbed the balance of his 
naturally placid temper. ' And all agree Sir 
Robert cannot live,' wrote Pope in 1740 
(Works, iii. 497). He might, it is said, have 
resigned. As a matter of fact he did twice 
tender his resignation, but was appealed to 
by the king ' not to deser