Skip to main content

Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

See other formats














[All rights reserved\ 








ivr P 

M. B ..... Miss BATESOX. C - D ..... CAMPBELL DODGSON. 


T. B ..... THOMAS BAYXE. F. G. E. . . F. G. EDWARDS. 


H. E. D. B. THE REV. H. E. D. BLVKISTOX. C - H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 


F.R.S. M ' P - 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOCLGER. W - G - D - F - THE BEV - W. G. D. FLETCHER. 
F. B-L. . . . SIR FREDERICK BRAMWELL, BART., ! S - 1! - G - S - E - GARDINER, LL.D., D.C.L. 

F.R.S., D.C.L. R. G ..... RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. 


E. I. C. . . . E. IRVING CARLYLE. 
J. L. C. . J. L. CAW. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 


A. M. C-E. . Miss A. M. COOKE. 


J. S. C. . . . J. S. COTTOX. 
W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 



P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 




W. H. H. . THE REV. W. H. HUTTON, B.D. 


List of Writers. 

J. K. L. . . 
I. S. L. . . . 

E. L 

S. L 

E. M. L. . . 

F. M 

D. S. M. . . 
A. P. M. . . 
A. M-E.. . . 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

A. N 

G. LE G. N. 

D. J. O'D. . 
F. M. O'D. . 
J. H. 0. . . 

A. F. P. . . 

B. P 

D'A. P. . . . 
F. R. . 















J. M. R. . 
T. S. . . . 

C. F. S. . . 

L. S 

G. S-H. . . . 
C. W. S. . . 
H. R. T. . . 
S. P. T. 

M. T 

T. F. T. 
R. H. V. . . 
A. W. W. . 
P. W 

A. W 

C. C. J. W. 
W. W. W. . 

S. W 

H. T. W.. . 

B. B. W. . . 
W. W. . 

J. M. RIGG. 




A. W. WARD, LL.D., Lrrr.D. 











WATSON, ANTHONY (d. 1605), bishop 
of Chichester, was the son of Edward Wat- 
son of Thorpe Thewles in Durham. He 
matriculated at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
in October 1567, proceeded B.A. in 1571-2, 
was soon afterwards elected a fellow, and 
commenced M.A. in 1575. He was incor- 
porated at Oxford on 9 July 1577, graduated 
B.D. at Cambridge in 1582, and was created 
D.D. in July 1596. 

In 1581 he was instituted to the rectory 
of Cheam in Surrey on the presentation of 
John Lumley, first baron Lumley (of the 
second creation) [q. v.], and was licensed to 
preach by the university in the following 
year. On 16 April 1590 he was presented 
to the deanery of Bristol, and on 25 July 
1592 was installed chancellor of the church 
of Wells, receiving also the prebend of 
Wedmore Secunda in that see. In the same 
year he became rector of Storrington in 
Sussex on Lord Lumley's presentation. 
About 1595he was appointed queen's almoner 
in the place of Richard Fletcher (d. 1596) 
[q. v.], bishop of London, who had incurred 
Elizabeth's displeasure by a second marriage. 

On 15 Aug. 1596 he was consecrated 
bishop of Chichester, in succession to Thomas 
Bickley [q. v.] (STKYPE, Life of Whitgift, 
1822, ii. 351). He had license to hold in 
commendam, with his bishopric, his other 
preferments, but resigned his chancellorship 
of Wells in 1596, and his deanery of Bristol 
about the close of 1597. Watson attended 
the deathbed of Elizabeth (ib. ii. 466). He 
was continued in his office of lord almoner 
by James I, and took part in the conference 
with the puritans at Hampton Court in Janu- 
ary 1603-4 (STRYPE, Annals, 1824, iv. 552). 
On 5 Dec. 1603 Watson attended the con- 
spirator George Brooke [q. v.] on the scaffold 


(BiECH, Court and Times of James I, i. 27-8). 
He died, unmarried, at Cheam on 10 Sept. 
1605, and was buried in the parish church on 
19 Sept. By his will, dated 6 Sept. 1605, 
he made bequests to the library and sub- 
sizars of Christ's College. A letter from 
him to Sir Julius Caesar is preserved in the 
British Museum in Addit. MS. 12507, f. 191. 
[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 410; Wood's 
Athenfe Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 841; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccles. Anglicanse ; Lansdowne MS. 983, 
ff. 79, 85 ; Manningham's Diary (Camden Soc.), 
1868, p. 46; Chamberlain's Letters (Camden 
Soc.), 1861, p. 136; Nichols's Progresses of 
James I, vol. i. passim ; Cardwell's Hist, of 
Conferences, 1840, pp. 161, 169, 217.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, SIR BROOK (1735-1807), 
first baronet, merchant and official, born at 
Plymouth on 7 Feb. 1735, was only son of 
John Watson of Kingston-upon-Hull, by his 
second wife, Sarah Schofield. He was left 
an orphan in 1741. He went to sea, and had 
his leg taken off by a shark at Havana when 
he was fourteen. He served as a commissary 
under Colonel Robert Monckton [q.v.] at the 
siege of Beausejour in 1755, and under AVolfe 
at the siege of Louisbourg in 1758. In 1759 
he settled in London as a merchant. He 
took a leading part in 1779 in the formation 
of the corps of light-horse volunteers which 
helped to suppress the riots in the following 
year. In 1782 he was appointed commissary- 
general to the army in Canada, under Sir Guy 
Carleton [q.v.], but returned to England when 
peace was made in 1783. A pension of 500/. 
per annum was granted to his wife. He was 
elected M.P.for the city of London on 6 April 
1784, and held the seat till 1793. He was 
also chosen as a director of the Bank of Eng- 
land. In 1786 he became alderman of the 
Cordwainers' ward and sheriff. He was chair- 



man of the House of Commons' committee 
on the regency bill in 1788. 

On 2 March 1793 he was appointed com- 
missary-general to the Duke of York's army 
in Flanders, and resigned his seat in parlia- 
ment. He served with the army till it re- 
turned to England in 1795. Many of his 
letters are to be found in the war office 
papers (original correspondence) in the public 
record office. Lord Liverpool spoke of him 
as ' one of the most honourable men ever 
known' ( Wellington Despatches, Supple- 
mentary, ix. 428). 

Watson was elected lord mayor of London 
in November 1796. His year of office was a 
troubled one. At a common hall on 12 April 
1797 a resolution was brought forward ' to 
investigate the real cause of the awful and 
alarming state of public affairs.' He ruled 
this out of order, and closed a heated dis- 
cussion by having the mace taken up. At 
another hall, on 11 May, he was censured, 
and a resolution was passed denouncing the 
ministry for having plunged the country into 
an unnecessary and unjust war; but he had 
many supporters. 

On 24 March 1798 he was appointed 
commissary-general to the forces in Great 
Britain, and on 5 Dec. 1803 he was made 
a baronet, with remainder to his nephews. 
He died at East Sheen, Surrey, on 2 Oct. 
1807, and was buried at Mortlake. He mar- 
ried, in 1760, Helen, daughter of Colin 
Campbell, a goldsmith of Edinburgh, but he 
had no children, and was succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his great-nephew, William Kay. 

[Gent. Mag. 1807, ii. 987; Welch's Modern 
Hist, of the City of London; Betham's Baronet- 
age, 1805, v. 540.] E. M. L. 

WATSON, CHARLES (1714-1757), 
rear-admiral, born in 1714, was son of Dr. 
John Watson, prebendary of AVestrninster 
(d. 1724). His maternal grandfather was 
Alexander Parker [q.v.],whose wife Prudence 
was mother (by her first marriage) of Admi- 
ral Sir Charles Wager [q. v.], and daughter 
of William Goodson, presumably Goodsonn 
[q. v.], the parliamentary admiral. Watson 
entered the navy in 1728 as a volunteer per 
order on board the Romney, with Captain 
Charles Brown [q. v.]; in the end of 1730 
he joined the Bideford with Captain Curtis 
Barnett [q. v.], and passed his examination 
on 31 Jan. 1734-5. As the nephew of the 
first lord of the admiralty, he passed rapidly 
through the subordinate ranks, and on 14 Feb. 
1737-8 was posted to the Garland, a 20-gun 
frigate attached to the fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean under the command of Rear-admiral 
Nicholas Haddock [q. v.] In 1741 he was 

moved by Haddock into the Plymouth of 
60 guns, and in November 1742, by Mathews, 
into the Dragon, which he commanded, 
though without particular distinction, in the 
action off Toulon on 11 Feb. 1743-4 (Narra- 
tive of the Proceedings of his Majesty's Fleet 
in the Mediterranean . . . . by a Sea Officer, 
p. 60). On his return to England early in 
1746 he was appointed to the Advice, and 
from her to the Princess Louisa, which he 
commanded in the following year in the en- 
gagements off Cape Finisterre on 3 May, and 
in the Bay of Biscay on 14 Oct. [see ANSON, 
both of which, under a capable commander, 
he showed that he was quite ready to fight 
if only he understood what he was to do. In 
January 1747-8 he was appointed to the 
Lion, in which in March he was sent out as 
commander-in-chief on the Newfoundland 
and North American station, with a broad 
pennant as an established commodore. On 
12 May he was promoted to be rear-admiral 
of the blue, and in February 1754 was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief in the East 

He sailed shortly afterwards in the Kent, 
with three other ships of the line, and for 
the first year was on the Coromandel coast, 
keeping a watch on the French. In Novem- 
ber 1755 he went round to Bombay, whence 
in February 1756, in company with the 
vessels of the Bombay marine under Com- 
modore (Sir) William James [q.v.] and a body 
of troops commanded by Lieutenant-colonel 
Robert Clive (afterwards Lord Clive) [q. v.], 
he went to Gheriah, the stronghold of the 
pirate Angria. On the sea face the batteries 
were very formidable, but Watson, forcing 
his way into the harbour, was able to take 
them in the rear, while the troops cut off 
the retreat of the garrison, which surrendered 
after an obstinate but ineffective resistance 
for twenty-four hours. The power of the 
pirates was broken, and their accumulated 
stores and treasure fell into the hands of 
the captors. After refitting his ships at 
Bombay, Watson sailed for St. David's in 
the end of April, and at Madras had news 
of the tragedy of the black hole of Calcutta. 
In consultation with Clive, then governor 
of St. David's, it was determined to punish 
Suraj ud Dowlah. By the middle of October 
the preparations were completed, and Wat- 
son sailed for the Hvigli, carrying with him 
Clive and his small army. On 4 June he 
had been promoted to the rank of vice- 

After many delays he arrived in the river 
on 15 Dec. ; on the 29th the walls of Budge 
Budge were breached, and during the night 



the place was stormed by the soldiers in a 
mob, " following the lead of two or three 
drunken sailors. At Calcutta the fort was 
taken by a combined detachment of seamen 
and soldiers. Hiigli was taken a few days 
later, and some five hundred seamen were 
added to Olive's little army for the defence 
of Calcutta. On 9 Feb. 1757 the nawab 
concluded a treaty with the English, but 
shortly afterwards he was won by French 
intrigues to support them in the war of 
which the news had just arrived. Watson 
determined nevertheless to reduce Chander- 
nagore, which was done on 23 March after a 
destructive cannonade from the ships and the 
shore batteries. The nawab, trusting to the 
support of the French, became very insolent ; 
but his own servants conspired against him. 
His minister, Mir Jaffier, entered into nego- 
tiations with Clive and Watson, and it was 
agreed that Suraj ud Dowlah should be de- 
posed, and that Mir Jaffier should succeed 
him. The intermediary now made a very 
exaggerated claim for reward, and was quieted 
only by a clause in his favour introduced into 
a fictitious agreement. Watson refused to be 
a party to the fraud, and, though his name 
was written to it by Clive or by Olive's order, 
it does not appear that he ever knew anything 
about it. In the military operations which 
followed, Watson reinforced Olive's small 
force by a party of fifty sailors, who acted 
as artillerymen, and had an important share 
in the brilliant victory of Plassey on 22 June. 
In this Watson was not personally con- 
cerned. His health, severely tried by the 
climate, broke down, and he died on 16 Aug. 
1757. A monument to his memory was 
erected in Westminster Abbey, at the cost 
of the East India Company. He married, 
in 1741, Rebecca, eldest daughter of John 
Francis Buller of Morval, Cornwall, and had 
issue two daughters and one son, Charles, 
born in 1751, on whom in 1760 a baronetcy 
was conferred. 

His portrait, by Thomas Hudson, has been 
engraved by Edward Fisher. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 407 ; Beatson's 
Naval and Mil. Memoirs ; Ives's Historical 
.Narrative; Passing Certificate and Commission 
and Warrant Books in the Public Kecord Office ; 
English Cyclopaedia, 'Biography,' v. 551-2; 
Foster's Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

historian and translator, a native of Durham, 
was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he proceeded B.A. in 1565-6 
(COOPEE, Athence Cantabr. i. 434). For some 
time he resided with Thomas Gawdy (recorder 
of Norwich, afterwards a knight and a judge 
of the queen's bench) at his residence, G'awdy 

Hall, in Harleston, Norfolk. It was during 
this period that he appears to have composed 
his translation of Polybius, for the printing 
of which a license was granted by the Sta- 
tioners' Company to Thomas Hackett in 
1565; but no copy of an impression bearing 
that date is known to exist. He commenced 
M.A. in 1569, and his name occurs in the 
list of the opponents of the new statutes of 
the university in 1572 (LAJIB, Original Docu- 
ments, p. 359). It is supposed that he was in 
holy orders, and that he died before 12 June 
1581, when the Stationers' Company licensed 
to Henry Carre ' a lamentation for the death 
of Mr. Christofer Watson, mynister.' A 
Christopher Watson was appointed rector of 
Bircham Newton, Norfolk, in 1573, and also 
resigned the rectory of Beechamwell in the 
same county before 1583 (BLOMEFIELD, vii. 
294, x. 291). 

Watson published: 1. ' The Hysterics of 
the most famous and worthy Cronographer 
Polybius : Discoursing of the warres betwixt 
the Romanes and Carthaginienses, a riche and 
goodly Worke, conteining holsome counsels 
and wonderfull devises against the incom- 
brances of fickle Fortune. Englished by 
0. W. Whereunto is annexed an Abstracte, 
compendiously coarcted out of the life and 
worthy acts perpetrate by our puissant Prince 
King Henry the fift,' London, 1568, 8vo, 
dedicated to Thomas Gawdy. 2. ' Cate- 
chisme,' London, 1579, 8vo. A tract of four 
leaves, without title-page or pagination, en- 
titled ' Briefe Principles of Religion for the 
Exercise of Youth : done by C. W.' (London, 
1581, 8vo), is assigned to Watson in the 
British Museum Catalogue. He also made 
some valuable collections on the history of 
Durham, which are extant in Cottonian MS. 
Vitell. 0. ix. ff. 61 sqq. 

[Addit.MS. 5883, f. 81 ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. 
(Herbert), pp.742, 895, 1338; Briiggemann's 
English Editions of Greek and Latin Authors, 
p. 241 ; Arber's Registers of the Stationers' 
Company ; Cat. of Cottonian MSS. p. 425 ; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 755.] T. C. 

WATSON, DAVID (1710-1756), trans- 
lator of Horace, is believed to have been 
born in Brechin, Forfarshire, in 1710. He 
is said to have studied at St. Leonard's Col- 
lege, St. Andrews, and the title-pages of 
his books describe him as A.M. of that col- 
lege ; but the university records from 1720 
onwards do not contain his name either aa 
student or graduate. Nor is there any offi- 
cial evidence of the popular statements that 
Watson was ' professor of philosophy ' in 
St. Leonard's and lost his chair in 1747, 
when the colleges of St. Leonard's and 
St. Salvator's were united. The professors 




of both colleges in 1747 seem to be accounted 
for, and not one of them is named Watson. 
Whatever he was, and howsoever educated, 
there is no doubt ' of his scholarship, and a 
practically contemporary manuscript note, 
inscribed on the copy of his Horace in 
St. Andrews University library, seems to 
leave as little uncertainty regarding his re- 
puted dissipation. He ended his career in 
the neighbourhood of London in 1756, and 
his melancholy record closes with the tradi- 
tion that he was buried at the expense of 
the parish in which he died. 

Watson published in 1741, in two volumes 
octavo, the ' W r orks of Horace translated into 
English Prose, with the original Latin,' &c. ; 
2nd edit. 1747; 3rd edit. 1750. This is a 
monument of scholarship and literary skill, 
not only giving a critical text and a special! v 
attractive version, but embodying Douglas's 
catalogue of nearly five hundred editions of 
Horace, and Bentley's various readings. 
Its popularity was instantaneous, although 
scholars protested against the presentation of 
Horace in prose (NICHOLS, Literary Anec- 
dotes, i. 151 n.~) Revised editions were pre- 
pared by Samuel Patrick, 1760,. and William 
Crackelt, 1792. Watson also published in 
1752 ' A Clear and Compendious History of 
the Gods and Goddesses and their Contempo- 
raries,' which reached a second edition in 1753. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Irving's Emi- 
nent Scotsmen ; information from Mr. J. Mait- 
land Anderson, university librarian, St. An- 
drews ; Allibons's Diet, of English Authors ; 
Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, s.v. 'Hora- 
tins. 1 ] T. B. 

WATSON, DAVID (1713 P-1761), major- 
general, royal engineers, was born about 1713. 
His first commission cannot be traced. He 
was at Gibraltar in 1731, and on 22 June 1733 
was promoted tobe lieutenant in the 25thfoot, 
the regiment of John Leslie, tenth earl of 
Rothes. In the summer of 1742 he accom- 
panied his regiment to Flanders, and passed 
the winter at Ghent. On account of his 
knowledge of fortification and field engineer- 
ing, and of his skill as a draughtsman, he 
was given on 23 Dec. the local warrant of 
engineer in ordinary, and attached to the ord- 
nance train under Colonel Thomas Pattison. 
He took part in the battle of Dettingen on 
27 June 1743, and again wintered at Ghent. 

On 10 March 1744 W r atson was placed on 
the establishment of the engineers as a sub- 
engineer, and that year he lay with 'the 
ordnance train for the most part inactive at 
Ostend. He was actively employed in the 
campaign of 1745, took part in the battle of 
Fontenoy on 11 May, and was promoted 

on the 21st of that month to be captain in 
the 21st foot, the Earl of Panmure's regi- 
ment. He did good sendee at the siege of 
Ostend, which capitulated to the French on 
13 Aug. Under the terms of the capitu- 
lation he rejoined the Duke of Cumberland's 
army, but he was recalled to England in the 
autumn to aid in crushing the Stuart rebel- 
lion. \^ 

On 4 Xov. Watson went north and was 
present at the siege and recapture on 29 Dec. 
1745 of Carlisle, and at the battle of Fal- 
kirk on 17 Jan. 1746. For his services he 
was promoted on the next day to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the army. He took part 
in the battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746, 
and remained in the highlands to design 
and superintend the erection of some barracks 
at Inversnaid, between Loch Katrine and 
Loch Lomond. He designed in April 1747 
a new magazine for Edinburgh Castle. His- 
designs for all these works are in the British 
Museum. On 3 Jan. 1748 Watson was pro- 
moted to be engineer-extraordinary on the 

In 1747 Watson submitted a scheme 
for a survey of North Britain. The advan- 
tage of such an undertaking was particu- 
larly evident at that time, and the king- 
directed that it should be proceeded with at 
once. Watson was appointed superinten- 
dent, with the title of deputy-quartermaster- 
general in Scotland, and a brigade of 
engineers was sent to act under his orders. 
With the execution of this survey, or ex- 
tended military reconnaissance, was com- 
bined an enlargement of Marshal Wade's 
plan of connecting the highlands and low- 
lands, and opening up the country by means 
of good roads. Watson laid out the direc- 
tions of the different tracks, and paid special 
attention to the main roads. He formed a 
camp near Fort Augustus as a centre for 
the troops employed upon the works, who 
were despatched thence to outlying stations. 
He continued this work for several years, 
completing it with bridges, culverts, and 
channels ; and the troops employed, proud of 
their labour in so important a public work, 
erected memorials by the wayside bearing 
records of the dates and names of the regi- 
ments employed. 

Watson was assisted, both in this work and 
the survey, by two very able young men, his 
nephew David Dundas (1735-1820) [q. v.] 
and William Roy (1726-1790) [q. v.] Roy 
joined him in 1746, and Dundas six years 
later. Watson carried out in 1748, in addi- 
tion to his other work, improvements to the 
defences of the castles of Braemar and Cor- 
garff. Four plans by him of these castles 



{dated 25 April 1748) are among the war 
office records. On 31 Dec. 1752 Watson 
was promoted to be engineer in ordinary. 
In 175-4 he completed his great survey ; and 
the original protractions of the north part of 
it, in eighty-four rolls, and of the south part 
in ten rolls, with various copies of the sur- 
vey to a reduced scale, are in the British 
Museum. There also are preserved several 
mercator projections of North Britain, on 
which maps are indicated the posts in the 
highlands which were occupied or proposed 
for occupation by the regular troops. The 
revision and completion of the survey was 
contemplated in 1755, but prevented by the 
outbreak of war. The survey was eventually 
reduced by Watson and Roy, engraved in a 
single sheet, and published as ' The King's 

An alarm of invasion caused the recall of 
Watson and his assistants to England to 
make military reconnaissances of those parts 
of the Country most exposed to such attack. 
Watson made a reconnaissance of the coun- 
try between Guildford and Canterbury in 
December 1755, and early in 1756 of the 
country between Dorchester and Salisbury, 
and also between Gloucester and Pembroke. 
In March 1756, on an address of the House 
of Commons, Watson designed works for 
the defence of Milford Haven. He was ex- 
amined by a committee of the House of 
Commons, and his "projects were recom- 
mended to be put in hand to allay public 
alarm. Nothing, however, was done, and 
some years later other proposals by General 
William Skinner (1700-1780) [q. v.] were 
preferred. Watson's survey of Milford Haven, 
dated 3 March 1756, is in the British Museum 
(King's Library). 

On 23 May Watson was appointed quar- 
termaster-general of the forces for Scotland, 
with the rank of colonel of foot (Lond. Gaz. 
12 June 1756). On 14 May 1757, when the 
engineers were reorganised, he became a 
captain of royal engineers. 

On 21 April 1758 Watson was given the 
colonelcy of the 63rd foot, and was appointed 
q-uartermaster-general in the conjoint expe- 
dition, under the Duke of Marlborough, 
Lord Anson, and Admiral Howe, which 
sailed from Spithead for the French coasts 
on 1 June. He landed with the troops in 
Cancale Bay, near St. Malo, assisted on the 
following day in the destruction of shipping 
and magazines of naval stores in the suburbs, 
embarked again on the llth, and, after in- 
effective visits to Havre and Cherbourg, 
returned to Portsmouth. 

Watson then joined the allied army on the 
Rhine under Prince Ferdinand of Bruns- 

wick. He was appointed quartermaster- 
general on the staff of Lord George Sack- 
ville, commanding the British contingent, 
and in that capacity took part in all the 
operations of the campaigns of 1758 and 
1759 in which the British were engaged. 
On 31 July 1759 he reconnoitred the country 
between the allied camp and Minden Heath, 
extending his reconnaissance beyond the 
village of Halen. He distinguished himself 
at the battle of Minden on 1 Aug., and on 
the following day was thanked in general 
orders for his bravery and able service. He 
was promoted to be major-general on 25 June 
1759, but his promotion was not gazetted 
until 15 Sept. following. 

On 23 Oct. 1760 Watson was transferred 
from the colonelcy of the 63rd foot to that 
of the 38th foot. He died i n London on 7 Nov. 
1761, while holding the appointment of quar- 
termaster-general to the forces. His por- 
trait, painted by A. Soldi, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

[War Office Eecords; Eoyal Engineers Ee. 
cords ; Gent. Mag. 1761; Connolly Papers; 
Porter's History of the Corps of Eoyal En- 
gineers; Madden's Catalogue of manuscript maps 
and plans in the British Museum ; Gust's Annals 
of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century ; Wright's 
Life of General Wolfe.] E. H. V. 

WATSON, GEORGE (1723 P-1773), 
divine, born in 1723 or 1724, was the son of 
Humphrey Watson of London. He matricu- 
lated from University College, Oxford, on 
14 March 1739-40, graduating B.A. in 1743 
and M. A. in 1746. Hewaselected toascholar- 
ship on the Bennet foundation on 13Dec. 1744, 
and was chosen on 27 Oct. 1747 to a fellow- 
ship on the same foundation, which he re- 
signed on 20 March 1754. While at Uni- 
versity College he was the tutor and friend 
of George Home [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Norwich. Although little known to his 
contemporaries, he possessed solid learning 
and a sound judgment. Such eminent divines 
as Home and William Jones of Nayland, 
who also knew him at Oxford, speak of his 
attainments in high terms. He held the theo- 
logical opinions of John Hutchinson (1674- 
1737) [q. v.], to which he introduced Jones 
and Home. Watson died on 16 April 1773. 
He was the author of: 1. 'Christ the Light 
of the World,' Oxford, 1750, 8vo. 2. ' A Sea- 
sonable Admonition to the Church of Eng- 
land,' Oxford, 1755, 8vo. 3. ' Aaron's Inter- 
cession and Korah's Rebellion Considered,' 
Oxford [1756], 8vo. 4. 'The Doctrine of the 
Ever Blessed Trinity,' London, 1756, 8vo. 
These four sermons were reprinted by John 
Matthew Gutch [q. v.] in 1860, under the 
title 'Watson Redivivus' (Oxford, 8vo). 



[Jones's Life of Home, 1795, pp. 25-30; 
Home's Discourses, 1803, ii. 119, iv. 370 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. Tiii. 396, ix. 14, x. 154, xi. 
217, xii. 334; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica ; Gent. 
Mag. 1773 p. 203, 1861 ii. 685.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, GEORGE (1767-1837), por- 
trait-painter and first president of the (Royal) 
Scottish Academy, son of John Watson and 
Frances Veitch of Elliott, his wife, was born 
at his father's estate, Overmains, Berwick- 
shire, in 1767. He received his early edu- 
cation in Edinburgh, and got some instruc- 
tion in painting from Alexander Nasmyth 
[q. v.], but when eighteen years of age he 
went "to London with an introduction to 
Sir Joshua Reynolds [q. v.], who received 
him as a pupil. After two years spent in 
Sir Joshua's studio, he returned to Edin- 
burgh, and established himself as a portrait- 
painter. In 1808 he was associated with 
other painters in starting a society of artists, 
which, however, only lasted a few years. 
He exhibited frequently at the Royal Aca- 
demy and the British Institution, and about 
1815 was invited to London to paint a num- 
ber of portraits, including those of the dean 
of Canterbury and Benjamin West. In 1820, 
in spite of much opposition from the Royal 
Institution, the Scottish Academy was 
founded, and Watson, who had been presi- 
dent of the previous society, was elected 
to the same office in the new one, the ulti- 
mate success of which is largely due to his 
tact and ability. He continued president 
until his death, which took place in Edin- 
burgh on 24 Aug. 1837, a few months be- 
fore the academy received its royal charter. 

It is said that he ' long maintained an 
honourable rivalry with Raeburn ' [see RAE- 
BTJBN, SIR HENRY], but, although his grasp 
of character was decided, his executive power 
considerable, and his work belongs to a fine 
convention, his portraiture lacks the quali- 
ties which give that of the other enduring 
interest. He is represented in the National 
Gallery of Scotland by portraits of two 
brother artists, Benjamin West and Alex- 
ander Skirving ; and in the Scottish Portrait 
Gallery by a number of portraits, including 
one of himself, and one of William Smellie, 
which some consider his best piece of work. 
Shortly after his return from his first visit 
to London he married Rebecca, daughter 
of William Smellie, printer and naturalist, 
who, with five children, survived him. 

Their son, William Smellie Watson (1796- 
1874), was born in Edinburgh in 1796, and, 
like his father and his cousin, Sir John Wat- 
son Gordon [q. v.], became a portrait-painter. 
He was a pupil of his father's, studied at 

the Trustees' Academy, and from 1815, for 
five years, in the schools of the London Royal 
Academy, and worked for a year with Sir 
David Wilkie [q. v.], while that artist was 
painting 'The Penny Wedding' and other 
pictures. Returning to Edinburgh, he made 
a good connection as a portrait-painter, be- 
came one of the founders of the Scottish 
Academy, and for nearly fifty years exhibited 
with unfailing regularity. He solely confined 
himself to portraiture ; ' The Ornithologist ' 
is only one of a class of portraits fancifully 
named ; and while his pictures were esteemed 
admirable likenesses by his contemporaries, 
they have little attraction as works of art. 

He died in Edinburgh on 6 Nov. 1874. He 
was a devoted student of natural history, 
particularly ornithology, and formed an ex- 
tensive collection of specimens, which he be- 
queathed to Edinburgh University. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, 1876; Scots- 
man, 7 Nov. 1874 ; Redgrave's, Bryan's, and 
Graves' Diets. ; Cats, of Scottish National and 
Portrait Galleries ; Harvey's Notes on the 
Royal Scottish Academy.] J. L. C. 

WATSON, HENRY (1737 - 1786), 
colonel, chief engineer Bengal, son of a 
grazier at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, was born 
there in 1737. Educated at Messrs. Birks's 
school at Gosberton, near Spalding, he early 
displayed a genius for mathematics. This 
was brought to the notice of Thomas Which- 
cot of Harpeswell, one of the members of 
parliament for Lincolnshire, who had him 
examined by the master of Brigg school, and, 
on receiving a very favourable report, pro- 
cured a nomination for him to the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich, as well as 
an ensign's commission on 27 Dec. - 1755 
in the 52nd foot, Abercromby's regiment. 
Thence he was transferred as lieutenant on 
25 Sept. 1757 to the 50th foot, Studholm 
Hodgson's regiment. 

As early as 1753 Watson contributed ma- 
thematical papers to the ' Ladies Diary/ 
conducted by Professor Thomas Simpson 
[q. v.], who was not only his instructor at 
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, but 
his intimate friend. Simpson entertained so 
high an opinion of his abilities that on his 
death in 1760 he left his unfinished mathe- 
matical treatises to Watson, with a request 
that he would revise them for publication, 
making any alterations or additions which 
he might consider desirable. Watson subse- 
quently behaved generously to Simpson's 
widow, but he failed to carry out the pub- 
lication of his papers, and was in conse- 
quence attacked by Charles Hutton [q. v.] in 
his ' Life of Simpson/ prefixed to ' Select 
Exercises/ 1792. 



Watson received a commission as sub- 
engineer and lieutenant, after passing through 
Woolwich academy, on 17 March 1759. In 
1761 he went in the expedition to Belleisle 
under Commodore Keppel and General 
Hodgson. He arrived on 7 April, and took 
part in the siege and capture of the place, 
which capitulated on 7 June. On 23 Feb. of 
the following year he was transferred to the 
97th foot, James Forrester's regiment, and in 
March he went as sub-engineer with the ex- 
pedition under Admiral Sir George Pocock 
and the Earl of Albemarle to Havana, arrived 
on 5 June, and took part in the siege with 
some distinction ; the place capitulated on 
14 Aug., and Watson was thanked by the 
commander of the forces, and afterwards by 
the king. On 4 Feb. 1763 he was promoted 
to a company in the 104th foot, and the same 
year he was recommended by Lord Clive to 
go to India. 

He went to Calcutta in 1764, and on 1 May 
was appointed field-engineer with the rank 
of captain and commander of the troops in 
Bengal. He was sworn into the East India 
Company's service on 9 May. Lord Clive 
returned to India in May 1765, and ap- 
pointed W^atson chief engineer of Bengal, 
to which were added Behar and Orissa. 
Watson was employed upon the Fort Wil- 
liam defences, and constructed works at 
Budge Budge and Melancholy Point. He was 
impressed with the necessity of dock accom- 
modation at Calcutta, and obtained a grant 
of land upon which to build wet and dry 
docks, and lay out a marine yard for fitting 
out ships of war and merchantmen. The 
designs were approved, and the works were 
carried on for some years with vigour ; but 
the board of directors stopped them for 
want of funds before they were finished. 
Watson laid out a very large amount of 
his own money on them, but was unable to 
obtain any compensation, although he sent 
Mr. Creassey, the superintendent of the 
works, expressly to England to represent 
the case. He then constructed two ships, 
the Nonsuch, thirty-six guns, and Surprise, 
thirty-two. They were built by George 
Louch with native shipwrights under his 
personal direction, and were intended to prey 
upon the Spanish commerce off the Philip- 
pine Islands; but he shared the ill-favour 
into which his patron Clive had fallen : the 
application made by his agent for letters of 
marque was refused, and Watson employed 
the ships in commerce. 

Watson was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel on 19 Jan. 1775, after his return to 
England. In 1776 he published a transla- 
tion of Euler's ' Compleat Theory of the Con- 

struction and Properties of Vessels ' (Lon- 
don, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1790). He enriched it 
with many additions of his own, and the 
English edition has this superiority over the 
French that it contains a supplement 
which Euler sent the translator in manu- 
script just as he had finished the translation 
of the published French work. Watson 
applied the principles laid down in the con- 
struction of the vessels he built in India, 
which proved the fastest vessels then built. 

In 1780 Watson was recalled to India, 
and took with him the mathematician lieu- 
ben Barrow, who had been assistant to Mas- 
kelyne at the royal observatory, and to 
whose care had been committed the cele- 
brated Schiehallion experiments and obser- 

Finding his health impaired by climate 
and hard service, Watson resigned the ser- 
vice on 16 Jan. 1786, and embarked in the 
spring; but his health failed, and he landed 
at Dover, only to die on 17 Sept. 1786. 
He was buried in a vault of St. Mary's 
Church, Dover, on the 22nd. An engraved 
portrait is mentioned by Evans (Cat. i. 

Watson married in India, and his wife 
accompanied him to England. Having 
omitted to alter a will made before mar- 
riage, his considerable fortune went to a 
natural daughter living under the care of 
Mrs. Richardson of Holbeach. She married 
Charles Schreiber. 

[India Office Kecords; War Office Eecords; 
Royal Engineers' Records; European Magazine, 
1787, which contains a portrait of Watson; 
Gent. Mag. 1786, 1810, and 1833; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. and iii.] R. H. V. 


(1804-1881), botanist, was born on 9 May 
1804 at Park Hill, Firbeck, Yorkshire. His 
father, Holland Watson, was nephew of John 
Watson (1725-1783) [q. v.] His mother, 
Harriett, daughter of Richard Powell of Hea- 
ton-Norris, near Stockport, was descended 
from the last Lord Folliott of Ballyshannon. 
In 1810 the family removed to Congleton, 
Cheshire, and young Watson was sent first 
to Congleton grammar school, where he had 
the reputation of a dunce, and was then 
placed under the Rev. J. Bell at Alderley. 
Dr. Stanley (afterwards bishop of Norwich) 
was then rector of Alderley, and first en- 
couraged a love of botany in the boy, while 
Watson often protected the frail, delicate 
Arthur Stanley (afterwards dean of West- 
minster), who was one of his schoolfellows 
though eleven years his junior. A perma- 
nent injury to the joint of one of his knees 


prevented Watson from entering the army, 
and on leaving school in 1821 he was articled 
to Messrs. Jackson, solicitors, of Manchester. 
Having, however, no inclination for the law, 

8 Watson 

In 1844 Watson was mainly instrumental 
in drawing up the ' London Catalogue of 
British Plants,' 'published under the direc- 
tion of the Botanical Society of London,' 

and inheriting a small estate in Derbyshire ! and, though the second and third editions of 
from a member of his mother's family when that authoritative list bear also the name of 
he was about twenty-two, he decided on en- G. E. Dennes, and the fourth and fifth that 
tering the university of Edinburgh. He had ' of J. T. Syme (afterwards Boswell), Watson 
at this time, through the acquaintance of a was mainly responsible for each recension 
Dr. Cameron, become deeply interested in down to the seventh, that of 1874. Al- 
phrenology, and on going to 'Edinburgh in though he had already acquired almost a 
1828 attended the medical classes; but, European reputation as an authority on geo- 
though he remained for four sessions, he graphical botany, he was in 1846 an un- 
took no degree. Besides phrenology, he successful candidate for a chair of botany 
devoted himself to ornithology, entomology, j in the newly established Queen's Colleges in 
and botany. In 1831-2 he was elected | Ireland. The first volume of his magnum 
senior president of the Royal Medical Society ; opus, ' Cybele Britannica,' appeared in 1847. 

of Edinburgh, and in 1831 gained the pro- 
fessor's gold medal for a botanical essay 

the succeeding volumes being issued in 1849, 
1852, and 1859, and a supplement in 1860. 

The subject of this essay, the geographical A 'Compendium of the Cybele Britannica' 
distribution of plants, was ultimately to be- j was published in 1870, and a supplement 
come the main study of his life, and in 1834 i dated 1872 was printed at Thames Dittou. 
he sent his collection of insects to Joseph j It was his own notion to apply the term 
(now Sir Joseph) Hooker. In 1833, after i ' Cybele ' to a treatise on plant distribution 
living for some months with a brother-in- ] as a parallel to the term ' Flora,' long used 
law, Captain Wakefield, near Barnstaple, he for descriptive works; and in this work he 
purchased the small house at Thames Ditton ' groups British plants according to their 
where he passed the remainder of his life. ' otafinna m- < linhitn.t.s.' t.hpir Imriznntnl rlis- 
He became a fellow of the Linnean Society 
in 1834. 

While at Edinburgh he had made the ac- 
quaintance of George Combe [q. v.] and 
Andrew Combe [q. v.], and of Dr. Spurzheim, 
and in 1837 he obtained from George Combe 
the copyright of the ' Phrenological Journal,' 

of which he acted as editor from that time 
until 1840, though his name did not appear 
on it until January 1839. His two phreno- 
logical works ' Statistics of Phrenology ; 
being a Sketch of the Progress and Present 
State of that Science in the British Islands,' 
and ' An Examination of Mr. Scott's attack 
upon Mr. George Combe' had been pub- 
lished in 1836 ; but, although always re- 
maining convinced of the truth of phreno- 
logical principles, he felt compelled to with- 
draw from any active part in promulgating 
them owing to the offence given to more 
zealous advocates by his pointing out imper- 
fections in their evidences, definitions, and 
investigations (T. S. PRIDEAUX, Strictures on 
the Conduct of Mr. Hewett Watson, Ryde, 
1840, 8vo). In 1842 he accompanied the 
Styx as botanist in a survey of the Azores, 
paying his own expenses, collect ing for three 
months in four of the larger islands, and in- 
troducing several Azorean species new to 
English gardens. This was his only excur- 
sion beyond the bounds of Britain. In 1870 
he contributed the botanical part to God- 
man's ' Natural History of the Archipelago.' 

stations or ' habitats,' their horizontal dis- 
tribution in 18 provinces based upon river 
drainage and divided into 38 sub-provinces, 
and 112 vice-counties their vertical range 
according to altitude and temperature, 
reckoning 1 F. to every 300 feet of altitude, 
their historical origin as ' natives, colonists, 
denizens, or aliens,' and their type of distri- 

7 _ _ 7 _ _ / L m 

bution, as British, English, Atlantic, Ger- 
manic, Scotch, or Highland. In this last 
series of conclusions a result nearly identical 
was reached almost simultaneously on more 
geological reasoning by Professor Edward 
Forbes [q. v.] Cautious and unspeculative 
to an extreme degree, Watson early formed 
very definite opinions as to the want of fixity 
in species ; and an article ' On the Theory of 
Progressive Developement ' contributed by 
him to the ' Phytologist ' in 1845 was re- 
printed in the concluding volume of the 
' Cybele,' with a fuller statement of his views 
in the light of the ' Origin of Species.' Dar- 
win in that work acknowledged ' deep obli- 
gation 'to Watson 'for assistance of all kinds,' 
and in later editions devoted considerable 
space to his criticisms. The series of Wat- 
son's geographical works was completed by 
' Topographical Botany ' (1873-4), which, 
like most of his other works, was originally 
only printed for private distribution. Early 
in his career he announced (NEVILLE WOOD, 
Naturalist, 1839, iv. 266) that he published 
' all his works with a certainty of pecuniary 
loss, and that he would decline to receive 



payment for any article sent to a periodical.' 
Always a keen controversialist, he often 
wrote more pungently than he intended (cf. 
Journal of Botany, 1881, p. 80). Keen and 
active as a politician, and an uncompromising 
democrat, he published in 1848, the year of 
revolution, a pamphlet entitled ' Public 
Opinion, or Safe Revolution through Self- 
representation,' in which he recommended a 
national association to take plebiscites on 
any public question. 

Watson died unmarried at Thames Ditton 
on 27 July 1881. A lithographic portrait of 
him in 1839 by J. Graf, after Haghe, accom- 
panies a memoir of him in Neville Wood's 
' Naturalist ' for that year, and a photograph 
of him in later life, the memoir by Mr. John 
Gilbert Baker, in the 'Journal of Botany' 
for 1 881. His British herbarium, which he 
at one time firmly intended to destroy, is 
preserved separately at Kew, and his general 
collection at Owens College, Manchester. 

Besides books already mentioned and forty- 
nine papers on critical species of plants, 
hybridism, and geographical distribution 
credited to him in the Royal Society's ' Cata- 
logue ' (vi. 280, viii. 1202), Watson's chief 
works are : 1. ' Outlines of the Geographical 
Distribution of British Plants/ Edinburgh, 
1832, 8vo, of which he considered ' Remarks 
on the Distribution of British Plants, chiefly 
in connection with Latitude, Elevation, and 
Climate,' London, 1835, 12mo, as a second 
edition, and ' The Geographical Distribution 
of British Plants,' of which only part i. (Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo), including Ranunculacese, 
Nymphaeacese, and Papaveraceae, was ever 
published, as a third. 2. ' The new Botanist's 
Guide to the Localities of the Rarer Plants 
of Britain,' London, 1835-7, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
dedicated to Sir W. J. Hooker. 3. 'Topo- 
graphical Botany ; being Local and Personal j 
Records. . . of British Plants traced through 
the 112 Counties and Vice-Counties,' Thames 
Ditton, 1873-4, 2 vols. 8vo, of which only a 
hundred copies were printed; second edition, 
corrected and enlarged, edited by J. G. Baker 
and W. W. Newbould, London, 1883. 

[Neville Wood's Naturalist, 1839, iv. 264; 
and memoir by J. G. Baker, reprinted from the 
Journal of Botany in the second edition of Wat- 
son's Topographical Botany ; 1883.] G. S. B. 

WATSON, JAMES (d. 1722), Scottish 
printer, and the publisher of the famous 
4 Choice Collection of Comic and Serious 
Scottish Poems,' was the son of a merchant 
in Aberdeen who had advanced money to 
two Dutch printers to set up a printing 
establishment in Edinburgh. Failing to 
make their business remunerative, they made 

over their printing house to the elder Wat- 
sou, who, having craved repayment of a sum 
of money lent to Charles II when in exile, 
obtained instead the gift of being sole printer 
of almanacs in Scotland, and was also made 
printer to his majesty's family and household, 
with a salary of lOO/. a year. He died in 1687. 

The son set up as a printer in 1095 in 
Warriston Close, on the north side of the 
High Street, whence, in 1697, he removed to 
premises in Craig's Close, opposite the Cross, 
long afterwards known as the King's Print- 
ing-house. In 1700 he was imprisoned in 
the Tolbooth for printing a pamphlet on 
' Scotland's Grievance regarding Darien,' but 
was released by the mob, who on 1 June 
forced an entrance into the prison by burn- 
ing and battering down the doors. In 1700 
he began to publish the ' Edinburgh Ga- 
zette,' and he was also the printer of the 
' Edinburgh Courant,' which was first issued 
(19 Feb. 1705) as a tri-weekly paper. In 
1709 he opened a bookseller's shop next door 
to the Red Lion and opposite the Lucken- 
booths, which faced St. Giles's Church. 

On the expiry of the patent of king's 
printer conferred on Andrew Anderson, and 
then held by his widow, Watson entered into 
negotiations with Robert Fairbairn and John 
Baskett [q. v.] (queen's printer for England) 
to apply for the patent in Fairbairn's name, 
each to have one-third of the patent. The 
application was successful, the patent being 
obtained in August 1711. On Fairbairn 
becoming printer to the Pretender, in 1715, 
Mrs. Anderson, along with Baskett, applied 
for a new gift, on the ground that the late 
patent was void ; but the court of session 
decided in Watson's favour, and on appeal 
to the lords its judgment was confirmed. 
In 1713 Watson issued a ' History of Paint- 
ing' mainly translated from the French of 
J. de la Caille, Paris, 1689 with a ' pub- 
lisher's preface to the printers in Scotland,' 
containing various particulars regarding 
Watson's own business. In beauty and ac- 
curacy of workmanship Watson quite sur- 
passed his Edinburgh contemporaries, the 
most important example of his art being his 
folio bible, 1722. But the book by which 
he will be longest and most worthily remem- 
bered is his ' Choice Collection of Comic 
and Serious Scottish Poems,' issued in three 
parts (1706, 1709, 1711), and containing 
many characteristic examples of the older 
' makers,' as well as various contemporary 
broadsides. It properly inaugurates the re- 
vival of the Scots vernacular poetry, which, 
through Ramsay and Ferguson, was to cul- 
minate in Burns ; and it \vas the main 
source, with Ramsay's ' Evergreen,' of Burns's 

Watson 10 


acquaintance with the older Scottish poets. 
Watson died on 22 July 1722. In the 
obituary notice of his widow, then Mrs. 
Heriot, who died on 20 July 1731, it is 
stated that by Watson, her previous hus- 
band, she had a very considerable estate. 

[Preface to the Keprint of the Choice Collec- 
tion, 1869; Lee's Memorial for the Bible So- 
cieties ; Preface to Watson's Histor j of Printing ; 
Dickson and Edmonds's History of Printing; in 
Scotland.] T. F. H. 

WATSON, JAMES (1739P-1790), en- 
graver, was born in Ireland in, or more pro- 
bably before, 1740, and came when young to 
London, where he is supposed to have been a 
pupil of James Macardell [q. v.] He became 
one of the leading mezzotint-engravers of his 
time, and produced many excellent plates 
from pictures by Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
Cotes, Catherine Read, Van Dyck, Metzu, 
Schalken, Rubens, and others. He engraved 
about fifty portraits after Reynolds, among 
the finest of which are those of the Duchess 
of Cumberland ; the Duchess of Manchester, 
with her son ; Countess Spencer and her 
daughter; Barbara, countess of Coventry; 
Anne Delaval, Lady Stanhope, and Xelly 
O'Brien. Watson published some of his 
works himself at his house in Little Queen 
Anne Street, Portland Chapel ; but the ma- 
jority were done for Sayer, Boydell, and 
other printsellers. He exhibited engravings 
with the Incorporated Society of Artists 
between 1762 and 1775, and died in Fitzroy 
Street, London, on 20 May 1790. 

CAROLINE WATSON (1761 P-1814), daugh- 
ter of James Watson, was born in London 
in 1760 or 1761, and studied under her 
father. She worked in the stipple method 
with much skill and refinement, and her 
plates are numerous. In 1784 she engraved 
a portrait of Prince William of Gloucester, 
after Reynolds, and in 1785 a pair of small 
plates of the Princesses Sophia and Mary, 
after Hoppner, which she dedicated to the 
queen, and was then appointed engraver to 
her majesty. Of her other works, the best 
are the portraits of Sir James Harris and the 
Hon. Mrs. Stanhope, both after Reynolds; 
Catherine II, after Rosselin ; and William 
Woollett, after G. Stuart ; S. Cooper's reputed 
portrait of Milton; 'The Marriage of St. 
Catherine,' after Correggio, and the plates to 
Hay ley's ' Life of Romney.' For Boydell's 
Shakespeare Miss Watson engraved the 
' Death of Cardinal Beaufort,' after Rey- 
nolds, and a scene from the 'Tempest,' 
after Wheatley. She also executed a set of 
aquatints of the ' Progress of Female Virtue 
and Female Dissipation,' from designs by 

Maria Cosway. She was much patronised 
by the Marquis of Bute, several of whose 
pictures she engraved. She died at Pimlico 
on 10 June 1814. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-93; J. Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits ; Le BlancV Manuel de 
1'Amateur d'Estampes; Gent. Mag. 1814, i.700.] 

F. M. O'D. 

WATSON, JAMES (176GP-1838), 
Spencean agitator, born about 1766, was 
probably a Scotsman, and may have been 
the person of that name who in 1787 pub- 
lished at Edinburgh a ' Dissertatio Inaugu- 
ralis Medica de Amenorrhea.' He afterwards 
came to London, and was officially described 
in 1817 as ' surgeon, late of Bloomsbury/ 
where he lived in Hyde Street with his son, 
who bore the same name and is similarly 
described. He may, however, have been 
only a chemist and apothecary, as he is 
called in his obituary notice; and in any 
case he could have had little practice, as he 
was in very poor circumstances. " Dr." Wat- 
son and his son James early connected them- 
selves with the ' Societies of Spencean Phil- 
anthropists ' founded in 1814 by Thomas 
Evans, a traces-maker, to carry on the de- 
signs of Thomas Spence [q. v.] They held 
that private ownership of land was unchris- 
tian, and advocated ' parochial partnership.' 
They met weekly at one or other of four 
London taverns, the chief of which was the 
Cock in Grafton Street, Soho. In spite of 
the alarmist reports of the secret committees 
of the two houses of parliament in 1817, the 
Spenceans were very harmless as a body, and 
not only never had provincial branches, but, 
as Evans told Francis Place (1771-1854) 
[q. v.], at no time numbered more than fifty 
persons. The peace of 1815 was followed 
by great distress and discontent among the 
labouring population, and of this some of the 
Spenceans, including the Watsons (father 
and son) and Arthur Thistlewood [q. v.], con- 
stituted themselves exponents. They were 
joined by a man named Castle, a figure or 
doll maker, and a committee was formed con- 
sisting of themselves and two others, opera- 
tives named Preston and Hooper. They met 
in Greystoke Place, near Fetter Lane. Castle, 
it seems highly probable, acted throughout 
as an agent provocateur for the government. 
According to his story, he struck up an ac- 
quaintance with the others at a Spencean 
meeting in the autumn of 1816, and went 
about with Watson preparing a revolution 
which was to follow public meetings in Spa 
Fields. Thistlewood was to be the head, 
and the other five, generals under him, Wat- 
son the elder being second in command. 



Attempts were made to rouse the discon- 
tented workmen, and especially the 'navi- 
gators 'in Paddington, and some efforts were 
made to seduce the soldiers. Watson himself 
prepared combustibles for blowing up the 
cavalry barracks in Portman Square. Two 
hundred and fifty pikes were made. The 
streets were to be barricaded and the Tower 
and the Bank seized. On 15 Nov. 1816 a 
meeting of distressed operatives was held in 
Spa Fields, Islington, at which all the con- 
spirators were present. Henry Hunt [q. v.] 
addressed them. A petition was prepared 
which he was to present to the prince regent, 
and a further meeting was to be called to re- 
ceive the answer to it. It was proposed that 
this should take place after the assembling of 
parliament in the following February ; but 
young Watson opposed this, and it was 
agreed that the second meeting should be 
held on 2 Dec. Placards were printed 
and posted in London summoning workmen 
to attend, and declaring that there were 
' four million in distress.' Hunt's petition 
was not received, and he himself contrived to 
be late for the meeting on 2 Dec. The elder 
Watson opened the meeting on that day. 
He spoke from a waggon, and concluded, 
' Ever since the Norman conquest kings" and 
lords have been deluding you . . . but this 
must last no longer.' His son succeeded in 
a much more violent strain, with allusions 
to African slaves and Wat Tyler and a per- 
sonal attack upon the regent. Finally ex- 
claiming: 'If they will not give us what 
we want, shall we not take it ? ' he seized 
a tricolour and called on the people to 
follow him. The mob then went through 
Clerkenwell and Smithfield to Snow Hill. 
A gunsmith's shop in Skinner Street was 
plundered, and young Watson wounded 
with a pistol a customer who was in it 
named Platt. He was arrested, but escaped 
after having lain concealed for some months 
in a house in Bayham Street belonging to 
his father's friend, Henry Holl, an actor. 

Meanwhile the mob was met at the Royal 
Exchange by the lord mayor and a few 
police, who succeeded in taking their flag 
from them. Part of them then went through 
the Minories, where they rifled another gun- 
smith's shop, towards the Tower. Thistle- 
wood and the elder Watson called to the 
soldiers on guard to surrender. Soon after- 
wards, when a few soldiers showed them- 
selves, the people were easily dispersed. The 
same evening Watson and Thistlewood were 
arrested at Highgate on suspicion of being 
footpads. They were armed, and made some 
resistance. Next day they were committed 
to the Tower, with Preston and Hooper. A 

[ plan of the Tower and of the contemplated 
operations was found at Watson's new 
lodgings at Dean Street, Fetter Lane, as well 
as a list of a ' committee of public safety/ 
which contained the names of Sir Francis 
Burdett, Lord Cochrane, Major Cartwright, 
Hunt, and other radicals. On 29 April 1817 
; a true bill was found by the grand jury of 
Middlesex against the prisoners, who were 
charged with high treason. On 17 May they 
were arraigned and assigned counsel. The 
younger Watson was included in the indict- 
ment, and a reward of 500 was offered for 
his apprehension. The trial began on 9 June 
before the court of king's bench, presided 
over by Lord Ellenborough. Watson was 
tried first. The proceedings against him 
lasted a whole week. For the crown the 
chief law officers, Sir Samuel Shepherd and 
Sir Robert Giffbrd (afterwards first Baron 
Gifford) [q. v.], appeared ; (Sir) Charles 
Wetherell [q. v.] and Serjeant John Singleton 
Copley (afterwards Lord Lyndhurst) [q. v.] 
defended Watson. Castle the informer was 
easily discredited. Orator Hunt, the chief 
witness for the defence, testified to the com- 
parative moderation of the elder Watson, 
who briefly disclaimed having had any in- 
tention whatever against ' the form of go- 
vernment established by king, lords, and 
commons.' In spite of an able reply by the 
solicitor-general, and the summing up of 
Ellenborough in favour of the prosecution, 
the jury brought in a verdict of ' not guilty.' 
The prosecution of the remaining prisoners 
was then dropped. Legal authorities held 
that had Watson and his associates been in- 
dicted merely for riot, they must have been 
convicted; but the government, it was 
thought, desired something on which they 
could ground the repressive measures which, 
they soon afterwards passed. In Place's 
opinion, which appears to be borne out by 
other considerations, the mob w T ere ' a con- 
temptible set of fools and miscreants, whom 
twenty constables could have dispersed.' 
Watson was ' a half-crazy creature,' and his 
son ' a wild, profligate fellow as crazy as his 
father.' The elder was, he adds, a man of 
loose habits and wretchedly poor. He con- 
tinued his life as an agitator (' Memoirs of 
R. P. Ward,' quoted in WALPOLE'S Hist, of 
England, ii. 37). He was not personally 
implicated in the Cato Street conspiracy, 
though his son was. Some time afterwards, 
however, he went to America, where he died 
in poor circumstances at New York on 
12 Feb. 1838. 

Samuel Bamford [q. v.], who met him 
soon after the trial, describes Watson as 
having somewhat of a polish in his gait and 




manner, and a certain respectability and 
neatness in his dress. Watson and his 
friend Preston were in Bamford's opinion 
two of the most influential leaders of the 
London operative reformers of the day, 
though the first had a better heart than 
head. The younger Watson died two years 
before his father. 

[Addit. MS. 27809 (pipers of Francis Place) ; 
Trial of James Watson, taken in Shorthand by 
W. B. Gurney, 2 vols. 1817 (reprinted in State 
Trials, 1817, pp. 1-674); Fairburn's edition of 
the Trial (with portrait) ; Shorthand Notes by 
a Gentleman of the Bar, published by W. Lewis, 
Clerkenwell (with portraits, 1817); Pindar's 
Bubbles of Treason, or State Trials at Large, 1817 
{a mock account in verse) ; Cobbett's Political Re- 
gister, 18 Oct. 1817; Bomilly's Diary, 2 Dec. 
1816, 17 June 1817; Campbell's Lives of the 
Chancellors, viii. 17-20, and Lives of the Chief 
Justices, iii. 220-1 ; Walpole's Hist, of England 
from 1815, new edit. vol. i. ch. v. ; Ann. Reg. 
1838, Append, to Chron. pp. 200-1 ; Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. xii. 399, 8th ser. i. 36, ii. 
252 (the reference to Savage Club Papers is 
illusory); Bamford's Passages in the Life of a 
Radical, ed. Dunckley, ii. 26-7"; Maddeu's 
Memoirs, 1891, p. 89.] G. LE G. N. 

WATSON, JAMES (1799-187-4), radi- 
cal publisher, was born at Malton, Yorkshire, 
on 21 Sept. 1799. His father died when he 
was barely a year old. His mother, ' a 
Sunday school teacher,' taught him to read 
and write. About 1811 she returned to 
domestic service in the family of a clergy- 
man wko had paid for James's schooling for 
a few quarters. The boy became under-gar- 
dener, stable-help, and house-servant, and 
acquired a strong taste for reading over the 
kitchen fire in winter evenings. About 1817 
the parson's household was broken'up, and 
Watson accompanied his mother to Leeds, 
where he became a warehouseman. Two 
years later he was converted to freethought 
and radicalism by public readings from Cob- 
bett and Richard Carlile [q. v.] For the 
next few years he took an active part in dis- 
seminating advanced literature and in getting 
up a subscription on behalf of Carlile. The 
latter being sentenced in 1821 to three 
years' imprisonment for blasphemy, Watson 
went up to London in September 1822 to 
serve as a volunteer assistant in his Water 
Lane bookshop. In January 1823 Carlile's 
wife, having completed her term of imprison- 
ment, took a new shop at 201 Strand, 
whither Watson removed, still in the capa- 
city of salesman. The occupation was a 
perilous one, and, despite all the precautions 
taken, salesman after salesman was arrested. 
This fate overtook Watson at the end of 

February 1823. He was charged with 
' maliciously ' selling a copy of Palmer's 
' Principles of Nature ' to a police agent, and, 
having made an eloquent speech in his own 
defence, was sent to Coldbath Fields prison 
for a vear. There he read^Hume, Gibbon, 
and Mosheim's ' Ecclesiastical History,' and 
was strongly confirmed in his anti-christian 
and republican opinions. During 1825 he 
learned the art of a compositor, and was 
employed in printing Carlile's ' Republican,' 
and for some time in conducting his busi- 
ness. In the intervals of work he suffered 
privation, and in 1 820 was struck down by 
cholera. Upon his recovery he became a 
convert to the co-operative schemes of Ro- 
bert Owen, and in 1828 he was storekeeper 
of the ' First Co-operative Trading Associa- 
tion ' in London in Red Lion Square. In 
1831 he set up as a printer and publisher, 
and next year was arrested and narrowly 
escaped imprisonment for organising a pro- 
cession and a feast on the day the govern- 
ment had ordained ' a general fast ' on 
account of the ravages of the cholera. In 
February 1833 he was summoned at Bow 
Street for selling Hetheringto'n's 'Poor 
Man's Guardian,' and was sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment at Clerkenwell. His 
championship of the right to free expression 
of opinion had won him admirers, and one of 
these, Julian Hibbert, upon his death in Janu- 
ary 1834, left him450guineas, with which sum 
Watson promptly enlarged his printing plant. 
He made a bold start by printing the life 
and works of Tom Paine, and these volumes 
were followed by Mirabaud's ' System of 
Nature ' and Volney's ' Ruins.' Later he 
printed Byron's ' Cain ' and ' Vision of Judg- 
ment,' Shelley's ' Queen Mab ' and ' Masque 
of Anarchy,' and Clark on the ' Miracles of 
Christ.' All these were printed, corrected, 
folded, and sewed by Watson himself, and 
issued at one shilling or less per volume. 
His shop near Bunhill Fields (whence he 
removed first to the City Road, and in 1843 
to 5 Paul's Alley) was well known to all the 
leading radicals of the day, and he had 
' pleasant and informing words for all who 
sought his wares.' lie married on 3 June 
1834, and two months later was arrested 
and imprisoned for six months for having 
circulated Hetherington's unstamped paper, 
the ironically entitled ' Conservative.' He 
had a little earlier come under the observa- 
tion of the government as a leader in the 
great meeting of trade unions (in April) in 
favour of the action of the Dorchester 
labourers [see WAKLEY, THOMAS]. He bore 
imprisonment with resignation ; ' I love pri- 
vacy ' he wrote to his wife. This was his 



last imprisonment, though he continued 
without intermission to issue hooks upon ' 
the government ' Index.' 

In June 1837 he was on the committee 
appointed to draw up the necessary bills 
embodying the chartist demands. But he 
was opposed to the unwise violence exhibited 
by the agitators, and, on the other hand, to 
the overtures made to whig partisans whom 
he consistently denounced for their selfish- 
ness. He remained constant in devotion to 
chartist 'principles ' ' the charter, the 
whole charter, and nothing but the charter ' 
and he was bitterly adverse to ' peddling 
away the people's birthright for any mess of 
cornlaw pottage.' In 1848 he was one of 
the conveners of the first public meeting to 
congratulate the French upon the revolution 
of that year. In the year previous he had 
given his adherence to the ' Peoples' Interna- 
national League ' founded by Mazzini, of 
whom he was an admiring friend and corre- 

A frugal, severe, and self-denying liver, a 
thin, haggard, thoughtful man, with an in- 
tellectual face and a grave yet gentle man- 
ner, Watson was an uncommon type of Eng- 
lish tradesman. He lost considerably over 
his publishing, his object being profitable 
reading for uneducated people rather than 
personal gain. At the same time he cared 
for the correctness and decent appearance of 
his books, even the cheapest. ' They were 
his children, he had none other.' An un- 
stamped and absolutely free press became 
the practical object of his later years. 

About 1870 anxiety about the health of 
his wife, Eleanor Byerley, induced a serious 
decline of his own powers. He died at 
Burns College, Hamilton Road, Lower Nor- 
wood, on 29 Nov. 1874, and was buried in 
Norwood cemetery, where a grey granite 
obelisk erected by friends commemorates his 
' brave efforts to secure the rights of free 
speech.' Among his comrades in the most 
active period of his life were Henry Hether- 
ington [q.v.], William Lovett [q.v.], Thomas 
Wakley [q. v.], Thomas Slingsby Buncombe 
[q. v.], and Mr. Thomas Cooper. 

A photographic portrait is prefixed to the 
appreciative ' Memoir ' by W. J. Linton. 

[James Watson : a Memoir, by W. J. Linton, 
privately printed, 1880; Linton'sMemories, 1898, 
passim ; A Report of the Trial of James Watson 
at the Clerkenwell Sessions House, 24 April 
1823 ; Wallas's Life of Francis Place, 1888, pp. 
272, 291, 365 ; Wheeler's Biogr. Diet, of Free- 
thinkers, 1889, pp. 330-1; Stanton's Reforms 
and Reformers ; Gammage's Hist, of Chartism ; 
Holyoake's Life of R. Carlile, 1848, and Sixty 
Years of an Agitator's Life, ii. 161, 266.] T. S. 

WATSON, JOHN (1520-1584), bishop 
of Winchester, was born in 1520 at Benge- 
worth, Worcestershire, and was educated at 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in June 
1539, and was elected fellow of All Souls' 
in 1540. He proceeded M.A. on 25 June 
1544, and for a time practised medicine, 
graduating M.D. at Oxford on 27 July 1575. 
Having taken holy orders, he became known 
as a reformer under Edward VI, and on 
20 Nov. 1551 the council procured his ap- 
pointment to the second prebend in Win- 
chester Cathedral (Royal MSS. cxxiv. f. 
159); he was admitted on 14 Dec. (LB 
NEVE, iii. 34). He seems to have retained 
his prebend during Mary's reign, and added 
to it in 1554 the rectories of Kelshall, Hert- 
fordshire, and Winchfield, Hampshire ; on 
7 Feb. 1557-8 he was collated to the chan- 
cellorship of St. Paul's Cathedral. His reli- 
gious views were obviously of an accommo- 
dating nature, and he received further 
preferment when Elizabeth's deprivations, 
created numerous vacancies. On 16 Nov. 
1559 he Avas made archdeacon of Surrey, 
and as such sat in the convocation of 1562 ; 
he subscribed the articles of religion passed 
in that assembly and voted with the majo- 
rity against the six articles designed to re- 
duce the ritual of the church to the level of 
the protestant communions abroad (STKYPE, 
Annals, I. i. 488, 505. 512). Possibly he 
was the John' Watson who was prebendary 
of Lincoln from 1560 to 1574. In 1568 he 
became rector of South Warn borough, Hamp- 
shire, and soon afterwards master of the 
hospital of St. Cross, Winchester. He was 
appointed dean of Winchester in 1570. In 
1580 he was executor to Robert Home 
(1519 P-1580) [q. v.], bishop of Winchester, 
and succeeded him in that see, being elected 
on 29 June, confirmed on 16 Sept., and con- 
secrated on the 18th. According to Strype, 
Watson's remissness encouraged the growth' 
of recusancy in his diocese. He died on 
23 Jan. 1583-4, and was buried on 17 Feb. 
in his cathedral. By his will (Lansd. MS. 
982, f. 49), dated 23 Oct. 1583 and proved 
22 July 1584, he left 40/. to All Souls' College,, 
and other benefactions to scholars at Oxford 
and the poor at Evesham. He also left sums- < 
to his numerous brothers and sisters and 
their children, and Sir Francis Walsingham 
was ' chief overseer' of the will. By Baker, 
Fleay, and others Watson is credited with 
the authorship of ' Absalom,' a tragedy 
written by Thomas Watson (1513-1584) 
[q.v.], bishop of Lincoln. 

Both bishops are confused by Strype and 
Burnet with JOHN WATSON (d. 1530), master 
of Christ's College, Cambridge, who was; 



apparently sent to Cambridge by the gene- 
rosity of Humphrey Monmouth, a citizen 
of London, and the patron of William Tyn- 
dale [q.v.] He was admitted fellow of Peter- 
house on 23 May 1501, served as proctor in 

1504, and was made university preacher in 

1505. After travelling in Italy he was on 
30 Nov. 1516 admitted rector of Elsworth, 
Cambridgeshire, resigning his fellowship at 
Peterhouseon 6 Dec. In 1517 he graduated 
D.D., and was elected master of Christ's 
College. He served as vice-chancellor in 
1518-19 : on 30 April 1523 he was insti- 
tuted rector of St. Mary's, Woolnoth (!!EX- 
NESSY, Nov. Rep. p. 315), and on 17 Sept. 
following was collated to Xorwell prebend 
in Southwell Cathedral. He was also a 
friend and correspondent of Erasmus, and 
chaplain to Henry VIII. He was learned in 
scholastic divinity, and in 1529 was one of 
the divines selected to answer for Cambridge 
University Henry's questions about his di- 
vorce. He died before 12 May 1530 (L,E 
NEVE, Fasti, passim ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vols. iv-v. ; KNIGHT, Erasmus, 
p. 145 ; COOPER, Athena Cantabr. i. 39-40). 

[Lansd. MSS. 36 art. 25, and 982 arts. 30, 31 ; 
Add. MSS. 5756 f. 228, and 6251 f. 81 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, passim; Strype's Works 
(General Index); Burnet's Hist, of the Reforma- 
tion, ed. Pocock ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 825 ; 
dun-ton's Nowell, p. 327; Fuller's Worthies; 
Hist, and Antiquities of Winchester, 1773, i. 61; 
Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, ii. 
32-5; Hennessy's Nov. Eep. Eccl. 1898; Gee's 
Elizabethan Clergy, 1 898 ; Baker's Biogr. Dram. i. 
739 ; Fleay's Biogr. Chron. of the English Drama, 
ii. 267; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 170.] A. F. P. 

WATSON, JOHN (1725-1783). anti- 
quary, son of Legh Watson of Lyrne Hand- 
ley in the parish of Prestbury, Cheshire, by 
his wife Hester, daughter of John Yates of 
Swinton, Lancashire, :,was born at Lyme 
Handley on 26 March 1725, and educated 
at the grammar schools of Eccles, Wigan, 
and Manchester, whence he proceeded to 
Brasenose College, Oxford. He matriculated 
on 8 April 1742, and graduated B.A. in 
1745, and M.A. in 1748. On 27 June 1746 
he was elected to a Cheshire fellowship of 
his college, and in the following December 
took holy orders and entered on the curacy 
of Runcorn, Cheshire, but removed three 
months afterwards to Ardwick, Manchester, 
where he was also tutor to the sons of 
Samuel Birch. From 1750 to 1754 he was 
curate of Halifax, Yorkshire, and in Septem- 
ber of the latter year was presented to the 
perpetual curacy of Ripponden in Halifax 

parish. On 17 Aug. 1766 he was inducted 
to the rectory of Meningsby, Lincolnshire, 
which he resigned on 2 Aug. 1769 on being 
promoted to the valuable rectory of Stock- 
port, Cheshire. It is believed that he owed 
this preferment to being ' a ^fierce whig of 
the plus quam Hoadleian pattern.' He was 
elected F.S.A. in 1759, and contributed six 
papers on Roman and other antiquities to 
' Archreologia.' His two important works 
were ' The History and Antiquities of the 
Parish of Halifax,' 1775, 4to, a second edi- 
tion of which was commenced in 1869 by 
F. A. Leyland, but left unfinished; and 
'Memoirs of the Ancient Earls of Warren 
and Surrey and their Descendants,' War- 
rington, 1782, 2 vols. 4to. The latter, a 
beautifully printed and illustrated book, was 
a vain attempt to prove that Watson's 
patron, Sir George Warren, was entitled to 
the earldom of Warenne and Surrey. Two 
earlier editions, limited to six and fifteen 
copies respectively, were printed in 1776 
and 1779. He also published four pam- 
phlets between 1751 and 1764, one of them 
criticising the ' absurdities ' of the Moravian 
hymn-book. He made extensive manuscript 
collections relating to local history, particu- 
larly of Cheshire, which are still preserved, 
and have been found of great value by 
Ormerod, Earwaker, and other antiquaries. 
Gilbert Wakefield, who was Watson's curate 
at Stockport and married his niece, describes 
him as one of the hardest students he ever 
knew, and a most agreeable man, ' by no 
means destitute of poetical fancy, had 
written some good songs, and was possessed 
of a most copious collection of bons mots, 
facetious stories, &c, copied out with un- 
common accuracy and neatness.' In the 
' Palatine Note-book ' (i. 24) is an account of 
a visit paid to Watson in 1780 by Thomas 
Barritt [q. v.] 

He died at Stockport on 14 March 1783. 
He was twice married : first, on 1 June 1752, 
to Susanna, daughter of Samuel Allon, vicar 
of Sandbach, Cheshire; secondly, on 11 July 
1761, to Ann, daughter of Barnes Jacques of 
Leeds. He left one son by the first wife, and 
a son and daughter by the second. 

Good portraits of Watson are given in his 
' Halifax ' and ' Warren and Surrey.' The 
latter is reproduced in Earwaker's 'East 

[Watson's Halifax, p. 523 ; Smith's Manches- 
ter School Register (Chetham Soc.), i. 12 ; Ear- 
waker's East Cheshire, i. 397 ; J. G. Nichols in 
the Herald and Genealogist, 1871 ; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. xxxi. 226 ; Heginbotham's Stock- 
port; Wakefield's Memoirs, 1804, i. 159.] 

C. W. S. 



1892), artist, born at Sedbergli, Yorkshire, 
on 20 May 1832, was the son of Dawson 
Watson, solicitor, and grandson of John 
AVatson of Borwick Hall, Lancashire. He 
was educated at Sedbergh grammar school 
under the Rev. John Harrison Evans. His 
artistic talent was manifested in early life, 
and he left Sedbergh in 1847, at the age of 
fifteen, in order to become a student at the 
Manchester School of Art. In 1851 he 
went to London and pursued his studies 
under A. D. Cooper and at the Royal Aca- 
demy, returning to Manchester in 1852. 
His first exhibited work was the 'Wounded 
Cavalier,' shown at Manchester Royal Insti- 
tution in 1851. His ' Painter's Studio,' con- 
taining portraits of himself and Mr. Cooper 
and family, was painted in 1852. In 1856 
some of his figure subjects were purchased 
by John Miller of Liverpool, and attracted 
the attention of Ford Madox Brown, who in- 
vited him to exhibit at his house in London. 
He joined the Letherbrow Club at Manches- 
ter in 1857, and between that time and the 
end of 1859 contributed twelve papers and 
many delightful pen-and-ink drawings to the 
manuscript volumes of the club. One of these 
volumes being shown to Routledge, the pub- 
lisher, led to Watson being asked to make 
a series of drawings for illustrations to Bun- 
yan's ' Pilgrim's Progress.' He then, in 
1860, settled in London, and the book was 
brought out at the end of the same year and 
was a great success. It was followed by 
illustrations to ' Robinson Crusoe,' 'Arabian 
Nights,' and many other books as well as 
periodicals (cf. GLEESON WHITE, English 
Illustration: the Sixties, 1897). 

Watson was elected an associate of the 
Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1S64, 
and a member in 1869. In 1865 he removed 
to Milford in Surrey, near his brother-in-law, 
Birket Foster, for whose house he designed 
the furniture and decorations. His picture 
' The Poisoned Cup ' was painted in 1866, 
and gained the medal at the Vienna Exhi- 
bition in 1873. In 1867 his painting of ' The 
Parting ' gained the Hey wood prize at Man- 
chester. It is engraved in the ' Art Jour- 
nal,' 1876. An admirable etching, his first 
attempt in this art, was published in the 
' Portfolio,' 1873. 

In April 1871 he got up an amateur per- 
formance of ' Twelfth Night ' at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, in aid of a fund for the sufferers 
by the war in France. For this he designed 
and cut out fifty dresses, and himself acted 
the part of the clown. In the following 
year he made sixty-five watercolour draw- 
ings of dresses for Charles Calvert's produc- 

tion of ' Henry V ' at the Prince's Theatre, 

In 1873 he painted ' A Stolen Marriage,' 
that afterwards gained the prize of 100A at 
the Westminster Aquarium. He was elected 
a member of the Royal Watercolour Society 
of Belgium in 1876, and sent three pictures 
to their exhibition in 1877. In the latter 
year a collection of his works, 158 in num- 
ber, was shown at the Brasenose Club, Man- 
chester, and he was entertained by the club 
at a complimentary dinner. 

Between 1859 and 1892 he contributed 
372 works to London exhibitions. Henry 
Boddington of Manchester possesses a large 
collection of his works. 

His last years were spent at Conway, 
North Wales, where he died on 3 Jan. 1892, 
and was buried in Conway cemetery. He 
married, at Giggleswick, on 22 Nov. 1858, 
his cousin, Jane Dawson Edinondson, daugh- 
ter of Christopher Dawson, solicitor, of Settle, 
Yorkshire, and left two daughters and a son. 

[Catalogue of Exhibition at the Brasenose 
Club, Manchester, 1877, with portrait; Memoir 
by W. E. A. Axon in Papers of the Manchester 
Literary Club, 1892; Magazine of Art, 1892, 
p. 179 (portrait) ; Graves's Diet, of Artists ; 
British Museum Catalogue ; Letherbrow Club 
Papers (manuscript), vols. iv-vi., kindly lent 
by Mr. Thomas Letherbrow ; Darbyshire's Archi- 
tect's Experiences, 1897, p. 236.] C. W. S. 

WATSON, JOHN FORBES (1827-1892), 
physician and writer on India, born in Scot- 
land in 1827, \was the son of an Aberdeen- 
shire farmer. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, where he graduated 
M.A. in March 1847, and M.D. on 5 Aug. 
1847. After completing his medical studies 
at Guy's Hospital, London, and at Paris, 
he was appointed assistant surgeon in the 
Bombay army medical service in August 
1850. He served with the artillery at Ah- 
mednuggur and with the Scinde horse at 
Khangur, now Jacobadad, and was after- 
wards appointed assistant surgeon to the 
Jamsetjee Hospital and lecturer on physio- 
logy at the Grant Medical College, where for 
a time he also acted as professor of medicine 
and lecturer on clinical medicine. Return- 
ing to England on sick leave in 1853, he 
spent some time at the School of Mines in 
Jerrnyn Street, and in investigating the 
sanitary application of charcoal, on which he 
published a pamphlet in 1855. He was then 
appointed by the court of directors to con- 
duct an investigation into the nutritive value 
of the food grains of India, the result of 

I which formed the basis of public dietaries in 
India. In 1858 he was nominated by the 

! secretary of state reporter on the products of 




India and director of the India Museum, ap- 
pointments which he held till the transfer- 
ence to South Kensington of the India Mu- 
seum at the end of 1879. 

In connection with his department he esta- 
blished a photographic branch, in which 
numerous illustrations were executed de- 
picting Indian life and scenery, and large 
maps of the country in relief. They were 
used to illustrate not only his own works, 
but also those of other eminent writers. In 
1874 Watson submitted to government a 
proposal for the establishment of an Indian 
museum and library, together with an Indian 
institute in a central position, where candi- 
dates for the civil service might pursue 
oriental studies. His plea for an Imperial 
museum for India and the colonies was sup- 
ported by the Royal Colonial Institute, and 
it assisted materially in the establishment 
of the Imperial Institute at South Kensing- 
ton. He represented India at the interna- 
tional exhibitions held at London in 1862, 
at Paris in 1867, and at Vienna in 1873, and 
at the South Kensington annual exhibitions 
from 1870 to 1874. He retired from the 
India Office in 1880, and died at "Upper Nor- 
wood on 29 July 1892. He was elected a 
fellow of the Linnean Society in 1889. 

Watson was the author of: 1. ' The Tex- 
tile Manufactures and the Costumes of the 
People of India,' London, 1866, fol. 2. 'Index 
to the Native and Scientific Names of Indian 
and other Eastern Economic Plants and Pro- 
ducts,' London, 1868, 8vo. 3. ' International 
Exhibitions,'London,1873,8vo. He also drew 
up catalogues for the Indian departments at 
several of the international exhibitions, and" 
with John William Kaye edited Meadows 
Taylor's 'People of India,' London, 1868- 
1872, 6 vols. 4to. 

[Journal of the Soc. of Arts, 12 Aug. 1892; 
Men and Women of the Time, 1891 ; Allibone's 
Diet, of English Lit.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, JOHN SELBY (1804-1884), 
author and murderer, baptised at Crayford 
church on 30 Dec. 1804, is stated to have 
been the son of humble parents in Scotland. 
He was educated at first by his grandfather, 
and then at Trinity College, Dublin, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1838, being one of the 
gold medallists in classics, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1844. On 30 March 1854 he was 
admitted ad eundem at Oxford. He was 
ordained deacon in 1839 by the bishop of 
Ely, and priest in 1840 by the bishop of 
Bath and Wells, and from 1839 to 1841 he 
served the curacy of Langport in Somerset. 

Watson continued his classical studies, and 
through life devoted his leisure to literary 

pursuits. From 1844 he held the post of head- 
master of the proprietary grammar school at 
Stockwell, a suburb of London, receiving a 
fixed salary of 300/. per annum, and a capi- 
tation fee when the scholars exceeded a cer- 
tain number. The school was for some years 
prosperous, but a serious^_decline in its 
popularity induced the governors to remove 
him from its management at Christmas 1870. 
He lived from 1865 at 28 St. Martin's 
Road, Stockwell, and there, in a fit of pas- 
sion, he killed his wife on 8 Oct. 1871. She 
was an Irishwoman named Anne Arm- 
strong, to whom he was married at St. Mark's 
Church, Dublin, in January 1845. Three 
days after the murder he attempted to 
commit suicide by taking prussic acid. He 
was tried for murder and found guilty, but 
recommended to mercy, and the sentence 
was commuted to penal servitude for life. 
A volume of psychological studies on his- 
married life was published at Berlin in 1875 ; 
one of his remarks at Bow Street was ' saepe 
I olim semper debere nocuit debitor!,' and 
Lowe (afterwards Lord Sherbrooke) divided 
the cabinet on the question whether this 
I was good or bad Latin (FAIRFIELD, Baron 
: JBramwell, p. 41). Watson died at Parkhurst 
prison in the Isle of Wight on 6 July 1884. 
He was buried in Carisbrooke cemetery. 

Watson published annotated editions of 
the ' Prometheus Vinctus ' of yEschylus, 
Sallust's ' Catiline ' and ' Jugurtha ; ' and his- 
editions of Pope's rendering of the 'Iliad 'and 
' Odyssey,' with notes, appeared in Bonn's 
'Illustrated Library.' Several volumes of 
translations by him, comprehending Sallust, 
Lucretius, Xenophon, Quinetilian, Cornelius 
Nepos, Velleius Paterculus, and parts of 
Cicero, were included in Bonn's ' Classical 
Library.' His version of Xenophon's 'Ana- 
basis ' and ' Mem orabilia ' of Socrates is No. 78- 
of Sir John Lubbock's ' hundred books.' His 
original works comprised: 1. 'Geology: a 
Poem in Seven Books,' 1844. 2. ' Life of 
George Fox,' 1860. 3. ' Life of Richard Por- 
son,' 1861. 4. 'Sir William Wallace, the 
Scottish Hero,' 1861. 5. ' Sons of Strength, 
Wisdom, and Patience : Samson, Solomon, 
Job,' 1861. 6. ' Life of Bishop Warburton,* 
1863. 7. 'Reasoning Power in Animals,' 
1867. 8. ' Biographies of John Wilkes and 
William Cobbett,' 1870. 

In October 1871 Watson had ready for 
the press several works, including a complete' 
history of the popes to the Reformation, 
which would have filled two octavo volumes. 
The sole work of his own composition which 
is known to have brought him any profit 
was the memoir of Warburton, from which 
he derived something under 51. 



[Men of the Time, 7th ed. 1868; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Times, 11, 12, and 13 Jan. 1872, 
11 July, 20, 26 Oct. 2, 16 Nov. 1884.] 

W. P. C. 

WATSON, JOSEPH (1765P-1829), 
teacher of the deaf and dumb, born in 1765 or 
at the end of 1764, was educated at Hackney 
in the school of Thomas Braidwood [q. v.] 
Under the influence of his master he resolved 
in 1784 'to embrace the instruction of the 
deaf and dumb as a profession.' On the 
foundation of the asylum for the deaf and 
dumb in Kent Road, through the efforts of 
John Townsend [q. v.], Watson assisted by 
counsel and advice, and on its completion 
was appointed headmaster. He continued 
in this office for the remainder of his life, 
rendering important services by his personal 
instruction and by his writings on the sub- 
ject. The well-known French teacher the 
abb6 Sicard was much interested in his me- 
thods, and for some time corresponded with 
him concerning the management of the Kent 
Road asylum. His system was founded 
on that of Thomas Braidwood, with some 
developments and improvements. He died 
at the asylum on 23 Nov. 1829, and was 
buried at Bermondsey. He was the author 
of: 1. ' Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb; 
or a View of the Means by which they 
may be Taught to Speak and Understand 
a Language,' London, 1810, 2 vols. 8vo. 
2. ' A First Reading Book for Deaf and 
Dumb Children,' London, 1826, 12mo. 3. ' A 
Selection of Verbs and Adjectives, with 
some other Parts of Speech,' London, 1826, 

His son, ALEXANDEE WATSON (1815?- 
1865), born in 1815 or the beginning of 1816, 
was educated at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, graduating B.A. in 1837 and M.A. in 
1840. Proceeding to Durham University, he 
passed as a licentiate of theology. He was 
ordained as curate of St Andrew's, Ancoats, 
Manchester ; in 1840 he took charge of St. 
John's, Cheltenham, where he established ex- 
cellent school s ; and i n!85 1 became vicar of St. 
Mary Church-with-Coffinswell, Devonshire. 
Removing to the rectory of Bridestow and 
Sourton in 1855, he borrowed money which 
led to the sequestration of the living and to 
his quitting it at the end of two years for 
the incumbency of Bedford Chapel, Blooms- 
bury, London. Being involved in a chancery 
suit concerning the chapel, he became in- 
solvent. During 1863-4 he assisted John 
Charles Chambers at St. Mary's, Soho, and 
in 1864 took charge of Middleton-on-the- 
Wolds, near Beverley. He died at Middleton 
on 1 Feb. 1865. 

His writings are numerous, but of ephe- 


meral interest. The most important are : 
1. 'Sermons on Doctrine, Discipline, and 
Practice,' London, 1843, 8vo. 2. 'The De- 
vout Churchman, or Daily Meditations,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 2 vols. 12mo. Watson also took 
part in editing ' Practical Sermons by Digni- 
taries and other Clergymen of the United 
Church of England and Ireland,' 1845-6, 
3 vols., and was sole editor of ' Sermons for 
Sundays, Festivals, and Fasts,' 1st ser., 
London, 1845, 1 vol. 8vo ; 2nd ser. 1846, 
3 vols. ; 3rd ser. 1847, 1 vol. (Gent. Mag. 
1865, i. 518 ; Guardian, 15 Feb. 1865). 

[Gent. Mag. 1822 i. 305, 1830 i. 183; Pantheon 
of the Age, 1828.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, JOSHUA (1771-1855), phil- 
anthropist, was born on Tower Hill in the 
city of London on Ascension day, 9 May 
1771. His forefathers were of the hardy 
and independent race of northern "states- 
men ; ' but his father, John Watson, had 
come on foot from Cumberland to London 
in early youth to try his fortunes, and esta- 
blished himself successfully as a wine mer- 
chant on Tower Hill. His mother, Dorothy, 
born Robson, cousin to the artist, George 
Fennel Robson [q. v.], was also a native of 
the north of England. John and Dorothy 
Watson had two sons John James (1767- 
1839), who was afterwards rector of Hack- 
ney for forty years and archdeacon of St. 
Albans ; and Joshua, who followed his father's 
business. The two brothers were throughout 
life linked together by the closest ties. At 
ten years of age Joshua was placed under 
the tuition of Mr. Crawford at Newington 
Butts, and at the age of thirteen was sent 
to a commercial school kept by Mr. Eaton 
in the city. In 1786 he was taken into his 
father's counting-house, which was at that 
time removed from Tower Hill to Mincing 
Lane ; and in 1792, when he came of age, 
was admitted a partner. In 1797 he married 
Mary, the daughter of Thomas Sikes, a banker 
in MansionHouse Street. Her uncle, Charles 
Daubeny [q. v.] (afterwards archdeacon of 
Salisbury), and her brother, Thomas Sikes, 
vicar of Guilsborough, who had been at Ox- 
ford with Joshua's elder brother, were among 
the leading churchmen of the day ; and 
Joshua from his early years was brought into 
contact with other members of the high- 
church party, of which he afterwards became 
the virtual leader. Among his early friends 
and advisers were William Stevens [q.v.],the 
disciple and biographer of William Jones of 
Nayland [q. v.], and founder of the club of 
' Nobody's Friends,' of which Joshua Watson 
was an original member ; Jonathan Boucher 
[q. v.], who became in 1785 vicar of Epsom, 





where John James Watson had his first 
curacy; and Sir John Richardson [q. v.] 
(afterwards a judge in the court of common 
pleas), who had been a college friend of 
John James Watson. Among other friends 
were Henry Handley Norris [q. v.], with 
whom he maintained an unbroken friendship 
of nearly sixty years, and William Van Mil- 
dert [q. v.], rector of St. Mary-le-Bow in the 
city (afterwards bishop of Durham). Van 
Mildert submitted both his ' Boyle Lectures ' 
and his ' Bampton Lectures ' to Watson's re- 
vision, and was largely guided by his advice 
in literary matters. Nor was Van Mildert 
the only man of letters who showed confi- 
dence in his literary power. At the house 
of Van Mildert in Ely Place he met the elder 
Christopher Wordsworth, master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, whom he joined in re- 
vising the proof-sheets of Christopher Words- 
worth the younger's well-known work, ' Theo- 
philus Anglicanus.' These men were, with 
Archdeacon Benjamin Harrison [q. v.] and 
William Rowe. Lyall [q. v.], Watson's chief 
friends and coadjutors. 

Though ' not slothful in business,' Wat- 
son always had his heart in church work, 
and in 1811 he took a house at Clapton, 
within five minutes' walk of his brother's 
rectory at Hackney, and also near Henry 
Handley Norris. The three worked shoulder 
to shoulder. Clapton and Hackney became 
the centre of the various religious and philan- 
thropic projects of the high-church party, 
and the coterie from which they emanated 
was called the ' Hackney Phalanx.' In 1811 
the ' National Society ' for the education of 
the poor was formed ; it originated in a meet- 
ing at Watson's house at Clapton, consisting 
of three persons, Watson, Norris, and John 
Bowles. Watson became its first treasurer, 
and it grew with marvellous rapidity. 

In the same year (1811) Watson and Norris 
purchased the ' British Critic ' in order to 
restore it to its original lines as the organ 
of the high-church party, from which it had 
somewhat diverged. In 1814 W'atson re- 
tired from business in order to devote him- 
self exclusively to works of piety and charity. 
He never missed any meeting of the societies 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge, or the National 
Society, and his counsel was highly valued. 
He took a deep interest in the colonial church, 
being an intimate friend of Bishops Middle- 
ton ( Calcutta), Inglis (Nova Scotia), Brough- 
ton (Australasia), and subsequently Selwyn 
(New Zealand). In 1814 he was appointed, 
in conjunction with his friend Archdeacon 
Cambridge, treasurer of the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge, which during 

his treasurership increased greatly its work 
and income. About the same time he be- 
came secretary of the relief fund for the Ger- 
man sufferers from the Napoleonic wars. 
In 181 7 the Church Building Society, called 
at first the Church Room Society, was 
formed. Watson was largely instrumental 
in its foundation, drawing up the original 
resolution. This was quickly followed by a 
royal commission for church building issued 
under Lord Liverpool's government. Wat- 
son was one of the commissioners, and he 
found the work so engrossing that in 1822 
he took a house, No. 6 Park Street, West- 
minster, where he lived for sixteen years, in 
order to be near the scene of his labours. 
He was also treasurer of the Clergy Orphan 
School, which was, perhaps, of all his 
benevolent schemes, the one nearest to his 
heart. In 1820 he was with difficulty per- 
suaded by his friend Van Mildert to accept 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. offered to him 
by the university of Oxford. His connec- 
tion with Oxford brought him into contact 
with Charles Lloyd, the regius professor of 
divinity, afterwards bishop of Oxford, who 
said of him, ; I look upon Joshua as the best 
layman in England.' Some time before he had 
become associated, through his friend Words- 
worth, with the archbishop of Canterbury 
(Charles Manners-Sutton), who appreciated 
his business talents. Button's successor, 
Archbishop Howley, had equal confidence 
in him. In 1828 he took a leading part in 
the foundation of King's College, London, 
and was a member of its first council. This 
brought him into communication with Hugh 
James Rose [q.v.], for whom he conceived 
unbounded admiration. In 1833, layman 
though he was, he had the task of revising 
the ' Clerical Address ' to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, expressing attachment to the 
church, which was drawn up by William Pal- 
mer ; the ' Lay Declaration,' which imme- 
diately followed, was entirely his composition. 
When the Additional Curates' Society was 
formed in 1837, Watson was the framer of 
its constitution and its first treasurer. In 
1838 his only daughter, Mary Sikes Watson, 
married Henry Michell Wagner, vicar of 
Brighton, but she died, to her father's grief, 
two years later, leaving two sons. His wife 
died in 1831, and his only brother in 1839. 
After these losses he gave up his house in Park 
Street, and lived alternately at the house of 
his wife's sister at Clapton, and his brother's 
widow at Daventry. In 1842, owing to the 
infirmities of age, he resigned the treasurership 
of the National Society, but he still inter- 
ested himself in religious and philanthropic 
work ; and when the new missionary college 



of St. Augustine, Canterbury, was founded 
in 1845, he was one of the council. He 
retained the treasurership of the Additional 
Curates' Society until he approached his 
eighty-third year. He died at Clapton, 
30 Jan. 1855, and was buried on 7 Feb. in 
the family vault at Hackney. 

Watson was an interesting link between 
the high-churchmen before, and the high- 
churchmen after, the Oxford movement. 
Dr. Pusey, after several interviews with him 
at Brighton in 1842-3, wrote to him : ' One 
had become so much the object of suspicion, 
that I cannot say how cheering it was to be 
recognised by you as carrying on the same 
torch which we had received from yourself 
and from those of your generation who had 
remained faithful to the old teaching.' But 
Watson did not sympathise entirely with 
the Oxford movement ; there were many 
points on which he entirely disagreed. He 
gratefully recognised, however, its good 
effects, and never lost his confidence in its 
future. Keble's ' Christian Year ' was one 
of his favourite books, and he was an admirer 
and constant reader of Newman's sermons. 
He was too diffident to write anything on 
his own account ; his only publication of 
note was an edition of ' Hele's Sacred Offices ' 
(a book of devotions which he always used 
himself) in 1825. This had a large circu- 
lation on its first appearance, and a still 
larger on its republication in 1842. There 
is an excellent miniature of Watson by Sir 
William Ross. 

[Churton's Memoir of Joshua Watson, 1861-3, 
2 vols. ; Overtoil's English Church in the Nine- 
teenth Century; Life of Christopher Words- 
worth, Bishop of Lincoln ; private recollections 
of conversations with Bishop Christopher Words- 
worth.] J. H. 0. 

WATSON, JUSTLY (1710P-1757), lieu- 
tenant-colonel royal engineers, son of Colonel 
Jonas Watson, royal artillery, by his wife 
Miriam, was born about 1710. 

The father, JOXAS WATSON (1663-1741), 
served over fifty years in the artillery, and 
after distinguishing himself, first in the cam- 
paigns of William III in Ireland and in 
Flanders, and then in those of Marlborough, 
succeeded to the command of the artillery 
of the train. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 17 March 1727, and com- 
manded the artillery at the siege of Gibraltar 
in that year. He was employed in the com- 
mand of the artillery on several expeditions 
until he was killed at the siege of Carthagena 
on 30 March 1741 . He left a widow, Miriam, 
and a family of children. His widow was 
granted a pension of 40. per annum in ac- 
knowledgment of her husband's services. 

Justly Watson entered the ordnance train 
as a cadet gunner about 1726, and served 
during the siege of Gibraltar in 1727 under 
his father, who commanded the ordnance 
train there. On 13 June 1732 he received 
a warrant as practitioner-engineer, and was 
promoted to be sub-engineer on 1 Nov. 1734. 
He received a commission as ensign in 
Harrison's foot on 3 Feb. 1740, and in June 
was appointed to the ordnance train of the 
conjoint expedition, under Lord Cathcart 
and Sir Chaloner Ogle, to join Vice-admiral 
Vernon in the West Indies. He spent some 
months in the Isle of Wight in instructing 
the men of the train, and sailed on 26 Oct., 
arriving at Jamaica on 9 Jan. 1741. 

Watson accompanied the expedition under 
General Wentworth, who had succeeded to 
the command on Cathcart's death, to Cartha- 
gena in South America, Jonas Moore [q. v.] 
being chief engineer, and took part in the 
operations from 9 March to 16 April, in- 
cluding the siege and assault on 25 March 
of Fort St. Louis, when Watson accompanied 
the successful storming party, the attack 
on other works in Boca-Chica harbour [see 
VERNOU, EDWARD], and the assault of Fort 
Lazar, where he so greatly distinguished 
himself in the unfortunate affair of 9 April 
that he was promoted on the following day 
by Wentworth to be lieutenant in Harrison's 
regiment of foot for his gallantry. 

Watson returned to Jamaica on 19 May 
1741. He was promoted to be engineer- 
extraordinary on 11 Aug., when he was 
serving in the expedition to Cuba. He re- 
turned to Jamaica in November. In March 
1742 he sailed from Jamaica in the abortive 
expedition, under Vernon and Wentworth, 
to attack Panama, landing at Portobello. 
Watson made a plan of the town, harbour, 
and fortifications of Portobello, which is in 
the king's library in the British Museum. 
On his return to Jamaica, and the recall of 
the expedition to England in September, he 
took charge of the works at Jamaica as chief 
engineer there, and his plans of Charles Fort, 
and the Port Royal peninsula are in the 
archives of the war office. 

In 1743 he visited Darien and Florida, 
under special orders, and made surveys and 
reports as to their defence. His plan of the 
harbour of Darien and adjacent country on 
the Isthmus, where Paterson's Scottish com- 
pany settled in 1698, and his survey in two 
sheets of the coast from Fort William, near 
St. Juan river, to Mosquito river, with a plan 
of the town of St. Augustine, are in the 
British Museum. Watson returned to Ja- 
maica, and was promoted to be engineer in 
ordinary on 8 March 1744. He sent to the 





toard of ordnance a plan of Port Royal with 
its fortifications, and himself returned to 
England in the autumn of 1744. He was 
promoted to be captain-lieutenant in Harri- 
son's foot on 24 Dec. 1745. 

On 30 April 1746 Watson joined the con- 
joint expedition under Admiral Richard Le- 
stock [q. v.] and Lieutenant-general St. Clair 
for North America. Its destination, how- 
ever, was changed for the coast of Brittany, 
and he took part in the siege of Port L'Orient 
from 20 to 27 Sept., and the attack on 
Quiberon and capture of forts Houat and 
Heydie, after which he returned to England 
with the expedition. He was promoted on 
2 Jan. 1748 to be sub-director of engineers, 
and appointed chief engineer in the Medway 
division, which included Gravesend and 
Tilbury, Sheerness, Harwich, and Land- 
guard forts. There is a plan in the war 
office drawn by Watson, dated 1752, show- 
ing the cliff and town of Harwich and the 
encroachments of the sea since 1709 ; and 
another, dated 1754, of a proposed break- 
water at Harwich Cliff ; also a plan of Sheer- 
ness and its vicinity, indicating the boun- 
daries of public lands. 

On 17 Dec. 1754 Watson was promoted 
to be director of engineers, and was sent to 
Annapolis Royal as chief engineer of Nova 
Scotia and of the settlements in Newfound- 
land. His stay in North America at 
this time was short, as he was specially 
selected for service on the west coast of 
Africa, where he arrived before December 
1755. An address to the king had been 
carried in the House of Commons on the 
defenceless state of the British possessions 
on the west coast of Africa, and Watson 
visited the military stations along the Gold 
Coast at Whydah, James's Island, Accra, 
Prampram, Tantumquerry, Winnebah, An- 
namaboe, Secondee, Dixcove, and Cape Coast 
Castle. He returned to England in the 
summer of 1756, when his reports and plans 
were approved and the House of Commons 
voted money to carry out his proposals. 

In October and November 1756 Watson 
examined Rye harbour and reported on the 
measures necessary to improve it ; and to- 
wards the end of the year again sailed for 
Annapolis Royal to resume his appointment 
as chief engineer in Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland. On 14 May 1757 he was com- 
missioned, on the reorganisation of the en- 
gineers, as lieutenant-colonel of royal engi- 
neers. He died suddenly in the summer of 
1757 from the effects of poison administered 
in his coffee, it was believed, by a black 
female servant. 

Watson's widow, Susan, was granted a 

pension of 40/. a year from 1 Jan. 1758 in 
consideration of her husband's services. 

[War Office Records; Royal Engineers Re- 
cords; Kane's List of Officers of the Royal 
Artillery ; Porter's History of the Corps of 
Roval Engineers ; Connolly Papers ; Gent. Mag. 
1741 ; Gust's Annals of the Wars.] R. H. V. 

ROCKINGHAM (1584-1653), baptised in 
Rockingham church on 14 July 1584, was 
the elder son of Sir Edward Watson (d. 
1 March 1615-16),by his wife Anne (d. 1611), 
daughter of Kenelm Digby of Stoke Dry, 
Rutland. The family of AVatson was first 
established in Rockingham Castle about 
1584, under Edward Watson (d. 1584), 
Lewis's grandfather. Lewis matriculated 
from Magdalen College, Oxford, on 24 May 
1599, and in 1601 was entered as a student 
I at the Middle Temple. On 19 Aug. 1608 
he was knighted by James I. He was at 
that time a constant attendant at court, 
where he formed a fast friendship with 
| George Villiers (afterwards Duke of Buck- 
ingham), and some years later became his 
security for a large sum of money. On 
' 19 Sept. 1611 he received license to travel 
j (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 75). 
i In 1014 he was returned to parliament for 
Lincoln, a borough for which he also sat in 
the parliaments summoned in 1621 and 1624. 
: On 21 July 1619 he received Rockingham 
I Castle in fee simple, having previously held 
' it on knight's service. On 23 June 1621 he 
: was created a baronet, and on 16 Feb. 
! 1627-8 was included among those to whom 
i an order of the privy council was addressed, 
directing them to prepare commissions of 
martial law and of oyer and terminer for 
the county of Northampton (ib. 1627-8, 
p. 567). In 1632-3 he tilled the office of 
sheriff 1 of Northamptonshire ; in 1634 he 
obtained the mastership of the royal buck- 
hounds ; and in 1638 he became verderer of 
Rockingham and Brigstock. 

On the outbreak of the civil war Sir Lewis 
sided with the king, though his zeal does 
not seem to have been very ardent, as he 
was summoned before the council by a 
warrant dated 11 Sept. 1640 as a delinquent 
for failing ' to show a horse ' at the muster 
at Huntingdon (ib. 1640 p. 610, 1640-1 
pp. 45, 85). Before Rockingham Castle could 
receive a royal garrison, it was seized on 
19 March 1642-3 by Thomas Grey, baron 
Grey of Groby [q. v.], who placed in it 
a parliamentary force. In May 1643 Sir 
Lewis himself was arrested by the royalist 
colonel Henry Hastings (afterwards Lord 
Loughborough) [q. v.l on the charge of 
neglecting to hold Rockingham for the king, 




and was imprisoned in Belvoir Castle. He 
cleared himself with Charles, and took up 
his residence at Oxford. On 29 Jan. 1644-5 
he was created Baron Rockinghana of Rock- 
ingham. After the surrender of Oxford he 
compounded for his delinquency for 5,000/. 
( Cal. of Proc. of Committee for Compound- 
ing, pp. 1435-7). He died on 5 Jan. 1652-3, 
and was buried in Rockingham church. Rock- 
ingham was twice married : first, in 1609, 
to Catherine, daughter of Peregrine Bertie, 
lord Willoughby de Eresby [q. v.l She died 
in childbed on 15 Feb. 1610. He married, 
secondly, on 3 Oct. 1620, Eleanor, daughter 
of Sir George Manners of Haddon Hall, 
Derbyshire. She died on 23 Oct. 1679, and 
was buried at Rockingham on 9 Nov. By 
her he had one surviving son, Edward, second 
baron Rockingham, and six daughters. The 
second baron's third son, Thomas, was grand- 
father of Charles Watson-Wentworth, second 
marquis of Rockingham [q. v.J 

[Wise's Kockingham Castle and the Watsons, 
1891 ; G. E. C[okaynej's Peerage.] 

E. I. C. 

WAITE (1804-1847), sculptor, was bom at 
Ilawksdale Hall in the valley of the Caldew, 
near Carlisle, on 24 Jan. 1804. His father, 
Thomas Watson, a small native landowner 
in the same valley, made money in the 
West Indies, and on his marriage, 6 April 
1795, with Mary, daughter of Musgrave 
Lewthwaite of Carlisle, settled at Hawks- 
dale as a farmer. Musgrave was their second 
son. He was educated at the school of the 
neighbouring village of Roughton Head. 
W T hile at school he carved wood and engraved 
on metal, making, it is said, his own tools. 
He developed a keen desire to follow art as 
a profession. But his parents insisted on 
articling him in 1821 to Major Mounsey, a 
solicitor of Carlisle. Fortunately his master, 
who had the only good collection of pictures 
in Carlisle, gave him every encouragement 
to study art. His illustrations to a poem by a 
local writer, Robert Anderson [q. v.J, brought 
him into notice, and he quickly attained con- 
siderable skill as a draughtsman. On the 
death of his father on 28 Dec. 1823 he adopted 
the profession of a sculptor, and went to Lon- 
don. There he made the acquaintance of 
Flaxman, who recommended him to enter 
the schools of the Royal Academy. He sent 
in a small model of an Italian shepherdess 
and was immediately admitted. He was 
for a short time articled to Robert William 
Sievier [q.v.], but, on the advice of Flaxman, 
he went abroad to study in Italy. There he 
lived among the French and German students 
in Rome. His versatile talent he was able 

to etch, carve, design for cameos, or produce 
watercolour drawings easily enabled him to 
meet his very slight expenses. He after- 
wards visited Naples and Pompeii, returning 
to London in 1828. He revisited Carlisle, 
where he executed a bust of the naturalist 
John Heysham [q.v.], shown at the Carlisle 
Exhibition in 1828, and he was also repre- 
sented there by three sketches in watercolour 
and oil of scenes from Anderson's ' Cumber- 
land Ballads,' a bust of Major Hodgson, and 
a twelve-inch figure of Clytie in marble, a 
commission from his friend G. G. Mounsey. 
He settled down in London, and for a time 
had a small studio near the British Mu- 
seum, where he produced some highly poeti- 
cal works. 

About 1833 (Sir) Francis Legatt Chan- 
trey [q. v.] engaged him as a modeller, but 
quickly parted with him rather than comply 
with his request for an increase of salary. 
He afterwards worked for Behnes and Bailey. 
In 1844 he exhibited at the Royal Academy 
a small but exceedingly clever bas-relief 
of ' Death and Sleep bearing off the Body of 
Sarpedon,' which was engraved by Alfred 
Robert Freebairn by the anaglyptic process. 
Only a few copies were executed, and those 
were presented to friends. A copy of this 
work in plaster was in the International Ex- 
hibition of 1862. One of his most charm- 
ing and poetic works is the bas-relief in 
marble, ' Literature,' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1845 ; it forms part of the 
monument to his old friend Allan Cunning- 
ham. At length, through the good offices 
of Allan Cunningham, he obtained the com- 
mission from Lord Eldon for a colossal 
group of the brothers Lord Eldon and Lord 
Stowell. After much careful study he had 
completed the models, and was busily en- 
gaged on the marble, when fatal illness at- 
tacked him, and it was only after his death 
that it was completed by his assistant and 
friend, George Nelson. This group is in the 
library of University College, Oxford. It is 
a noble monument, and along with his equally 
successful seated figure of Flaxman, which 
was begun in 1845 and was also completed 
by Nelson, received from the commissioners 
of the Great Exhibition of 1851 a prize 
medal. The Flaxman portrait was placed 
on the staircase leading to the Flaxman gal- 
lery of University College, London. In 1847 
Watson exhibited for the last time at the 
Royal Academy. It was a model for a bas- 
relief 7 ft. 9 in. by 3 ft., a fine design con- 
taining eleven figures, and representing Dr. 
Archibald Cameron tending the wounded on 
the field of Culloden. This monument was 
carved in Caen stone, and was erected in the 




Savoy Chapel ; it was unfortunately de- 
stroyed by fire in 1864. The original cast, 
however, was sold with Watson's effects and 
was purchased by Messrs. Nelson of Carlisle. 
Watson died at his residence, 13 Upper 
Gloucester Place, Dorset Square, on 28 Oct. 

1847, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. 
There is a medallion of Watson by George 
Nelson in the transept of Carlisle Cathedral. 
He was a man of quiet ways and insignifi- 
cant appearance, with no friends to push his 
claims to notice, and when at last his ability, 
fine taste, and knowledge of work raised 
him to fame and fortune, the disease which 
had been aggravated by the many anxieties 
in his career proved fatal to him. 

During his last illness Watson caused 
those of his models that he considered inferior 
work to be destroyed. His electrotypes, 
which were pronounced by his contem- 
poraries to be some of the best work of the 
time, he bequeathed to his friend Sir Charles 
Lock Eastlake [q. v.] 

The principal works executed by Watson, 
and not already mentioned, weje the bas- 
relief on Moxhay's hall of commerce, Thread- 
needle Street, London ; the statue of queen 
Elizabeth in the Royal Exchange; two 
figures, ' Hebe ' and ' Iris,' for Barry's new 
gates for the Marquis of Lansdowne's seat 
at Bowood (the sketches were exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1847); full-length 
colossal statues of Major Aglionby and 
William, earl of Lonsdale, both in Car- 
lisle ; a terra-cotta alto-relievo, ' Little 
Children, come unto Me,' erected over a 
doorway at Little Holland House ; and one 
of the four bas-reliefs of the Nelson monu- 
ment, ' The Battle of St. Vincent.' 

After his death a set of fifteen drawings 
he had executed as illustrations to the poem 
on 'Human Life' by his friend Samuel 
Rogers [q. v.] was lithographed by William 
Doeg of Carlisle. One of the cartoons, 
'Philanthropy,' was engraved on wood by 
W. J. Linton as an illustration to the ' Life 
and Works of Watson ' by Henry Lonsdale 
(p. 198). He exhibited between 1829 and 
1847 nineteen times at the Royal Academy, 
and twice at the Suffolk Street Gallery. 

[Lonsdale's Life of Watson; Art Journal, 

1848, p. 27; Royal Academy Cat.; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists.] A. N. 

1830), botanist, was born at Hull in 1761, 
being baptised at Holy Trinity Church on 
26 Aug. in that year. Educated at the 
grammar school under Joseph Milner [q.v.], 
and occupied in early life in trade, he was 
an enthusiastic student of botany, entomo- 

logy, chemistry, and mineralogy, and a skil- 
ful landscape-painter. In 1812 he took an 
active part in the establishment of the Hull 
botanic garden. In his ' Dendrologia Bri- 
tannica' he alludes (p. xii) to his 'own 
endeavours to furnish the institution with 
many indigenous plants, which I collected 
at considerable expense and labour, by tra- 
versing the whole East Riding ... in my 
gig, with proper apparatus for cutting up 
roots, collecting seeds, &c. of the rarer sorts, 
whose habitats had been rendered familiar to 
me from numerous previous herborisations.' 
In 1824 and the following year he issued, in 
twenty-four parts, his 'Dendrologia Britan- 
nica ; or Trees and Shrubs that will live in 
the Open Air of Britain throughout the 
year.' This work, which Loudon describes 
(Arboretum Britannicum, p. 188) as ' the 
most scientific work devoted exclusively to 
trees which has hitherto been published in 
England,' was completed in two octavo 
volumes, printed in Hull and published in 
London in 1825. It contains an introduc- 
tion to descriptive botany, occupying seventy- 
two pages and 172 excellent coloured plates 
of exotic trees and shrubs, each accompanied 
by a page of technical description. Watson 
died at Cottingham, near Hull, on 1 Sept. 
1830. He was elected a fellow of the Lin- 
nean Society in 1824. 

[R. W. Corlass's Sketches of Hull Authors, 
1879.] G. S. B. 

WATSON, RICHARD (1612-1685), 
royalist divine, controversialist and poet, son 
of William Watson, merchant, was born in 
the parish of St. Katharine Cree, London, in 
1612, and is said to have studied for five 
years in the Merchant Taylors' school under 
Mr. Augur (VENN, Admissions to Gonville 
and Caius College, p. 170), though his name 
does not occur in the ' Registers' (ed. Robin- 
son, 1882). On 22 Dec. 1628 he was ad- 
mitted a sizar of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. He proceeded B.A. in 1632, 
commenced M.A. in 1636, and was elected a 
junior fellow of his college in September 1636. 
From 1636 to 1642 he was headmaster of the 
Perse grammar school at Cambridge. He 
held the college offices of lecturer in rhetoric 
in 1639, Greek lecturer in 1642, and Hebrew 
lecturer in 1643. Being a zealous defender 
of the church of England, he preached a 
sermon ' touching schism ' (Cambridge, 1642, 
4to) at St. Mary's, the university church, in 
1642, and, as this was highly offensive to 
the presbyterians, he was ejected from his 
fellowship and his school. Afterwards, ' to 
avoid their barbarities,' he withdrew to 
France, and was patronised at Paris by Sir 



Richard Browne, clerk of his majesty's 
council, and for some months he officiated 
in that gentleman's oratory or chapel, where 
he frequently argued with the opposite party 
concerning the visibility of their church 
(KENNETT, Register and Chronicle, p. 229). 
Subsequently he became chaplain to Ralph, 
lord Hopton, in whose service he continued 
until that nobleman's death in 1 652, being 
then ' accounted one of the prime sufferers 
of the English clergy beyond the seas.' He I 
afterwards resided at Caen. 

At the Restoration he was re-elected fel- | 
low of Caius College, and he demanded his 
original seniority, 301. a year as compensa- 
tion for his sequestered fellowship from 
1644, and 31. a year for the rent of his 
rooms from the same date. The college re- 
fused to grant this demand, but all owed him 
10/. a year ' for the present.' Later, on j 
5 July 1662, he was allowed the value of his 
fellowship for the two years and a half dur- | 
ing which it was vacant after his ejection, 
and some allowance was made for rent of 
his rooms ' out of respect to his deserts and 
sufferings' (VENN, Biogr. Hist, of Gonville 
and Caius Coll. 1897, i. 286). On 29 April 
1662 Watson, who at that time was one of 
the chaplains to James, duke of York, was i 
created by diploma D.D. of the university of : 
Oxford. In September 1662 he was presented 
to the rectory of Pewsey, Wiltshire. He | 
was collated to the prebend of Warminster 
Eeclesia in the church of Sarum on 29 March ' 
1666 ; was appointed master of the hospital 
at Heytesbury, Wiltshire, in 1671 ; and on 
19 Dec. 1671 he was installed in the pre- I 
bend of Bitton in the church of Sarum ' 
(LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 658, 659). ! 
He died on 13 Jan. 1684-5. Wood says he j 
was ' a good scholar, but vain and conceited.' j 

Besides sermons and several copies of Latin 
verse, Watson published : l.'Regicidium Ju- i 
daicum ; or a discourse about the Jewes , 
crucifying . . . their King. With an ap- 
pendix .. . . tipon the late murder of ... 
Charles the First, delivered in a sermon [on 
John xix. 14, 15] at the Hague, before His j 
Majestie of Great Britaine ' [Charles II], 
The Hague, 1649, 4to. 2. ' 'A.Ko\ovdos, or a 
second faire warning to take heed of the ' 
Scotish Discipline, in vindication of the 
first (which the . . . Bishop of London 
Derrie published ann. 1649) against a ; 
schismatical and seditious reviewer, R[obert] : 
B[aillie of] G[lasgow],' The Hague, 1651, | 
2 pts. 4to. 3. ' Historicall Collections of i 
Ecclesiastick Affairs in Scotland, and Politic 
related to them,' London, 1657, 12mo. 4. < The 
Panegyrike, and the Storme, two poetike 
libells by Ed. Waller, vassall to the Usurper, 

answered [in verse] by more faythfull sub- 
jects to his sacred Ma ty K. Charles II ' (anon.), 
sine loco, 1659, 4to. 5. ' The Royal Votarie 
laying downe Sword and Shield, to take vp 
Prayer and Patience ; the devout practice of 
his Sacred Maiesty K. Charles I in his Soli- 
tvdes & Sufferings. In part metrically para- 
phrased,' Caen, 1660, 8vo. 6. ' Discipline : 
(1) A fair W r arning to take heed of the same, 
by Dr. Bramhall, &c. ; (2) A Review of Dr. 
Bramhall . . . his fair Warning, &c. ; (3) A 
second fair Warning, in vindication of the 
first against the seditious Reviewer,' The 
Hague, 1661, 4to. 7. ' EfFata Regalia: 
Aphorisms divine, moral, politic, scatter'd 
in the Books, Speeches, Letters, &c., of 
King Charles the First,' London, 1661, 12mo. 
8. ' Epistolaris Diatribe, una de Fide Ratio- 
nali, altera de Gratia Salutari ; his subnexa 
est, De voluntate etiam ab ultimo dictamine 
intellectus liberata, Dissertatio,' London, 
1661, 8vo. 9. An English translation of 
' The Ancient Liberty of the Britannick 
Church, by Isaac Basire,' London, 1661, 8vo. 
To this he added ' Three Chapters concern- 
ing the Priviledges of the Britannick Church, 
selected out of a Latin Manuscript, entituled 
Catholicon Romanus Pacificus. Written by 
F. J. Barnes, of the Order of St. Benedict.' 
Basire's Latin work ' Diatriba de Antiqua 
Ecclesiarum Britannicarum Antiquitate ' 
was published at Bruges (1656, 8vo) under 
the editorship of Watson. 10. ' Ludio Parae- 
neticus ; Orationes olim habitse Cantabrigise, 
in solemni Professione Filiorum, Artium 
Candidatorum,' published with the college 
and university exercises of Aquila Cruso, 
London, 1665, 8vo. 11. ' A fuller Answer 
to Elimas the Sorcerer ; or to the most ma- 
terial part (of a feign'd memoriall) towards 
the discovery of the Popish plot, with 
modest reflections upon a pretended declara- 
tion (of the late Dutchess) [of York] for 
changing her religion, published by M. 
Maimbourg, &c. In a letter addressed to 
Mr. Thomas Jones' [the author of ' Elymas '], 
London, 1683, fol. 12. ' The right reverend 
Dr. John Cosin, late Lord Bishop of Dur- 
ham, his Opinion (when Dean of Peter- 
borough and in exile) for communicating 
rather with Geneva than Rome : Also what 
slender authority, if any, the English 
Psalms, in rhime and metre, have ever had 
for the publick Use they have obtained in 
our Churches, and a short historical deduc- 
tion of the original design and sacrilegious 
progress of metrical psalms,' London, 1684, 
8vo; reprinted with a different title-page, 

He also edited E. Duncon's treatise 'De 
adoratione Dei versus altare,' 1660, 12mo. 


[Addit. MS. 5883, f. 48 ; Bibl. Anglo-Poetica, 
p. 865; Bodleian Cat.; Carter's Cambridge, pp. 
129,135,137; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, 
p. 1583; Kennetfs Register, pp. 228, 229, 371, 
458,571, 657; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; 
State Papers, Dom. Car. II, vol. xlviii. n. 98 ; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 145 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss) iii. 49, 611, IT. 52, 
and Fasti, ii. 11, 263.] 

WATSON, RICHARD (1737-1816), 
bishop of Llandaff, younger son of Thomas 
Watson (1672-1753), was born in August 
1737 (baptised 25 Sept.) at Heversham, 
Westmoreland, where his father, a clergy- 
man, was master (1698-1737) of the gram- 
mar school. Among his father's pupils was 
Ephraim Chambers [q. v.] Watson got his 
schooling at Heversham ; not from his 
father, who had resigned before his birth. 
On 3 Nov. 1754 he was admitted a sizar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; 300/.,left him by 
his father, provided for his education. The 
' blue worsted stockings and coarse mottled 
coat ' in which he came up were long a tra- 
dition at Cambridge. He early made a good 
impression by a clever criticism ftf an argu- 
ment in Clarke^ on the ' Attributes,' and 
gained a scholarship on 2 May 1757, a year 
before the usual time, winning the special 
favour of the master, Robert Smith (1689- 
1768) [q. v.] He graduated B. A. in January 
1759 as second wrangler. His examina- 
tion entitled him to the first place, but ' the 
talk about ' the injustice done him proved 
' more service than if ' he ' had been made 
senior wrangler.' On 1 Oct. 1760 he was 
elected fellow. In 1762 he proceeded M.A., 
was made moderator (10 Oct.) with John 
Jebb [q.v.], and helped William Paley [q.v.] 
at a pinch by suggesting the insertion of a 
' non ' in his proposed thesis, ' ^Eternitas 
poenarum contradicit divinis attributis.' 

On~~the death of John Hadley [q. v.] in 
1764 Watson was unanimously elected pro- 
fessor of chemistry by the senate on 19 Nov. 
His own statement is that he knew nothing 
of chemistry, ' had never read a syllable on 
the subject, nor seen a single experiment ; ' 
but he was ' tired with mathematics and 
natural philosophy,' and wanted ' to try ' his 
' strength in a new pursuit.' He sent to 
Paris for ' an operator ' (Hoffman), ' buried ' 
himself in his laboratory, and in fourteen 
months (during which he had shattered his 
workshop by an explosion) began a course 
of chemical lectures which were largely 
attended. At first awkward as an experi- 
menter, he soon attained dexterity, and his 
annual courses of chemistry lectures attracted 
crowded audiences. He printed, but did not 
publish, his ' Institutionum Chemicarum . . . 

Pars Metallurgical Cambridge, 1768, Svo 
(reprinted in Chemical Essays, vol. ii.), as- 
a text-book for part of his course, and a con- 
tribution to the work of giving ' a scientific 
form' to chemistry. His ingenious memoir, 
'Experiments and Observations on various 
phaenomena attending the solutions of salts/ 
brought him a unanimous election (2 Feb. 
1769) as fellow of the Royal Society, and was. 
translated from the ' Transactions ' (lx. 325) 
into French. In June and July 1772 he dis- 
covered that a thermometer gave a higher 
indication when the bulb was painted with 
Indian ink. This seems the origin of the 
black-bulb thermometer. The introduction 
of platinum, wrongly ascribed to him, belongs 
to William Brownrigg [q. v.] 

The chemistry chair was unendowed, and 
the university provided nothing but a lecture- 
room. Through the interest of his college 
friend, John Luther, with Charles Watson- 
Wentworth, second marquis of Rockingham 
[q. v.], and his own persistence with New- 
castle, Watson obtained from the crown (July 
1766) a stipend of 100Z. during his tenure 
of the chair, refusing to have it settled on him 
for life. Besides chemistry he studied ana- 
tomy and practised dissection. 

The death (5 Oct. 1771) of Thomas Ruther- 
forth [q. v.] left vacant the regius chair of 
divinity, which ' had long been the secret 
object ' of Watson's ambition. He was, 
however, not qualified for candidature, 
having no degree in divinity. ' By hard 
travelling and some adroitness ' he obtained 
the king's mandate, and was created D.D, 
on 14 Oct., the day before the examination 
of the candidates. He was unanimously 
elected (31 Oct.), and entered upon office on 
14 Nov. The rectory of Somersham, Hun- 
tingdonshire, went with the chair. 

At the end of the year he printed ' an 
essay,' already in the press, ' On the Subjects 
of Chemistry and their general divisions,' 
1771, 8vo, followed by his ' Plan of Chemical 
Lectures,' 1771, 8vo, intending these as tak- 
ing leave of the science. His ' Essay ' w r as- 
described in the ' Journal Encyclopedique ' 
as indebted to D'Holbach's ' Systeme de la 
Nature ' (1770), a w~ork~ which Watson had 
never seen. For some years he kept his- 
resolution to abandon chemistry ; but in 
1781 he published a first volume of ' Che- 
mical Essays,' followed at intervals by four 
others. The first two volumes were trans- 
lated into German by F. A. Gallisch, Leipzig, 
1782, 8vo. In the preface to the fourth vo- 
lume (9 Feb. 1786), he announces that he 
had ' destroyed all ' his ' chemical manu- 
scripts,' intimating that this was ' a sacrifice 
to other people's notions ' of the proper occu- 



pation of a dignitary of the church. The 
' Chemical Essays ' reached a seventh edi- 
. tion in 1800. The most notable essays are 
(1) On ' the Degrees of Heat at which Water 
. . . Boils' (1781), describing an experi- 
ment on the boiling of water in a closed 
flask nearly free from air, which has become 
classical ; (2) ' On Pit-coal ' (1781), suggest- 
ing the condensing of the volatile products 
from coke-ovens, an operation which has 
recently become of great industrial im- 
portance ; (3) on ' the smelting of Lead 
Ore ' (1782), suggesting the condensation of 
lead fume, and of the sulphurous acid pro- 
duced in the roasting of sulphide ores; 
(4) ' On Zinc' (1786). In 1787 government 
consulted him about improvements in gun- 
powder ; his advice is said to have resulted 
in a saving of 100,0007. a year. 

On entering upon the duties of the divinity 
chair, Watson frankly admits that he ' knew 
as much of divinity as could reasonably be 
expected of a man whose course of studies had 
been directed to, and whose time had been 
fully occupied in, other pursuits.' Neglecting 
systematic and historical theology, he de- 
voted himself to biblical studies, recognising 
no authority but the New Testament. His 
professorship connected him officially with 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel ; he "refused to contribute to it, believ- 
ing its agents ' more zealous in proselytising 
dissenters to episcopacy than in converting 
heathens to Christianity ' (Letter to Maseres, 
11 Oct. 1777). To the agitation for relief of 
the clergy from subscription, promoted by 
Francis Blackburne (1705-1787) [q. v.] and 
Francis Stone [q. v.J, he did not give his 
name. He printed, however, ' A Letter . . . 
byjt Christian Whig ' (1772, 8vo), demurring 
to the expediency of exacting any subscrip- 
tion beyond a declaration of belief in the 
scriptures, and placed a copy in the hands 
of every member of the House of Commons 
on 5 Feb. 1772, the day before the debate 
on the clerical petition. ' A Second Letter 
... by a Christian Whig' (1772, 8vo), deal- 
ing with the subscription at graduation, was 
inscribed to Sir George Savile [q. v.], the 
advocate of the clerical petition, whom Wat- 
son did not personally know. The two letters 
were not acknowledged as his till 18J.5. 
Apart from expediency, he defended the right 
of every church to require uniformity of doc- 
trinal profession, in ' A Brief State of the 
Principles of Church Authority ' (1773, 8vo, 
anon.) This he repeated as a charge at 
Llandaff in June 1813. He felt more confi- 
dence in his views when he found they were 
those of Benjamin Hoadly (1676^1761) 

At the end of 1773 he was presented to 
' a sinecure rectory ' in the diocese of St. 
Asaph, which he exchanged early in 1774 
for a prebend at Ely, owing both pieces of 

Preferment to the good offices of Augustus 
lenry Fitzroy, third duke of Grafton [q.v.], 
then chancellor of the university. His uni- 
versity sermon on 29 May 1776, on 'The 
Principles of the devolution A'indiriilrd' 
(Cambridge, 1776, 4to ; several editions), 
gave lasting offence at court, and interfered, 
Watson thoughfpwith his just promotion. 
John Dunning (afterwards first Baron Ash- 
burton) [qTvT] said ' it contained just such 
treason as ought to be preached once a month 
at St. James's.' Several pamphlets appeared 
in reply. Watson was told the sermon pre- 
vented his appointment as provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin, but this is chronologically 
impossible [see HELY-HTJTCHINSOX, JOHN. 

Later in the year he published his ' Apology 
for Christianity. . . . letters ... to Edward 
Gibbon'" (1776, 12mo), the result of 'a 
month's work in the long vacation,' under- 
taken to meet the challenge of Sir Robert 
Graham (1744-1836) [q. v.J He sent Gibbon 
a copy before publication ; courteous letters 
(2 and 4 Nov.) passed between them, and in 
Gibbon's 'Vindication' (January 1779) Wat- 
son is mentioned with marked respect, as 
' the most candid of adversaries.' As a popu- 
lar antidote to Gibbon's fifteenth chapter, the 
'Apology! was widely welcomed, and has 
been constantly reprinted. 

On 18 Oct. 1779 he was collated arch- 
deacon of Ely, by his bishop, Edmund Keene 
[q. v.], and in August Keene gave him the 
rectory of Northwold, Norfolk (COLE'S manu- 
script Athence Cantabr. Add. MS. 5883, 
p. 171). In February 1781 Charles Manners, 
fourth duke of Rutland [q. v.], who had been 
his pupil, and whose party he had aided in 
the Cambridgeshire election of 1780, pre- 
sented him to the valuable rectory of Knap- 
toft, Leicestershire. He then resigned North- 
wold. A fever which attacked him in 1781 
was attended with complications which left 
his health permanently impaired. In July 
1782 the see of Llandaft' was vacant by the 
translation of Shute Barrington [q.v.] Graf- 
ton and Rutland made interest with AVilliam 
Pelly-^then Lord SljeJJuirne, afterwards first 
Marquis of Lansdowne) [q. v.], and Watson 
was appointed! He was consecrated on 
20 Oct. 1782. Owing to the meagreness of 
the revenues of the see, he was allowed to 
retainhis other preferments (except the arch- 
deaconry) ; he reckoned his whole emolu- 
ments at 2,2007. a year. 

He at once drew up proposals for a redis- 



tribution of church, revenues, with a view to 
equalising episcopal and improving paro- 
chial incomes. The scheme was printed 
(November 1782), and, against Shelburne's 
advice, published as ' A Letter to Arch- 
bishop Cornwallis on the Church Revenues ' 
(1783, 4to). Except Beilby Porteus [q. v.], 
no bishop acknowledged its receipt. Richard 
Cumberland (1732-1811) [q.v.], who had 
written before against Watson, attacked the 
* Letter,' as did others ; William Cooke 
(1711-1797) [q. v.] was one of the few who 
approved the plan. Watson returned to the 
subject in a speech (30 May) in the House 
of Lords. 

To promote biblical study, Watson edited 
' A Collection of Theological Tracts ' (Cam- 
bridge, 1785, 6 vols. 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1791), 
with a dedication to the queen. Of the twenty- 
four works here reprinted, some of the most 
important are by dissenting divines, George 
Benson [q. v.], Samuel Chandler, Nathaniel 
Lardner [q.v.], and John Taylor (1694-1761) 
[q. vj On the death of his friend Luther 
(11 Jan. 1786) he came in for an estate 
which realised 20,500Z. After an illness and 
a visit to Bath, under medical advice he 
appointed (26 May 1787) Thomas Kipling 
[q.v.] as his deputy in the divinity chair, and 
took leave of the university. 

In 1788 he joined his old schoolfellow Wil- 
liam Preston (d. 1789), then bishop of Ferns 
and Leighlin, in restoring the Heversham 
schoolhouse, inscribing it to the memories of 
its founder and his father. Fixing his re- 
sidence in Westmoreland, first at Dallam 
Tower, then at Calgarth Park, where he 
built a house (1789), he devoted himself to 
extensive plantations and improvement of 
waste lands. The Society of Arts awarded 
him a premium for his paper on waste lands 
(published in Hunter's Georgical Essays, 
1805, vol. v.) Another paper (published in 
1808) obtained the year before the gold medal 
of the board of agriculture. Wordsworth 
sneered at his ' vegetable manufactory.' He 
was often in London, and visited his diocese 
triennially, but frankly records his various 
efforts to obtain translation to a better. His 
' Considerations on the Expediency of Re- 
vising the Liturgy and Articles' (1790, 8vo) 
was anonymous, but acknowledged in 1815. 

By far the most popular of his writings 
was his ' Apology for the Bible . . . Let- 
ters ... to Thomas Paine ' (1796, 12mo). 
This is usually described as an answer to 
Paine's ' Age of Reason ' (1794), which 
Watson had not seen. It is directed against 
Paine's ' Second Part ' (1795), and especially 
against Paine's treatment of scripture, which 
Watson thought unworthy of his powers. 

The ' Apology ' was eagerly read in America 
; as well as in this country. In additioif to 
very numerous reprints it has been abridged 
(1820, 8vo) by Francis Wrangham [q. v.], 
and translated into French (1829, 12mo) by 
Louis Theodore Ventouillacr Posthumous 
fragments of Paine's ' Answer ' were pub- 
lished in New York (1810-24), and in part 
reprinted in London in 1837. 

In his 'Address to the People of Great 
Britain,!. (1798, 8vo, 20 Jan.) Watson urged 
that the progress of events had rendered the 
1 vigorous prosecution of the war inevitable, 
and approved Pitt's imposition of the income- 
| tax. The ' Address' went through fourteen 
editions, besides pirated reprints, and was 
, widely distributed by the government. ' A 
| Reply ' (1798) by Gilbert Wakefield [q. v.] 
; led to Wakefield's trial and imprisonment. 
, Watson, who had exchanged courteous notes 
' with Wakefield, aflirms that he ' took some 
pains to prevent this prosecution.' He took 
! no notice of the taunt that he had changed 
his principles, and followed up the topic of 
the ' Address ' in a charge (June 1798) to 
his clergy. His speech in the lords (11 April 
1799), advocating the union with Ireland, 
was attacked by Benjamin Flower [q.v.], who 
was fined and imprisoned for a breach of 
privilege. AVatson had not seen the attack, 
and was on his way to Calgarth when the 
house took action. 

While occupied in political and economic 
questions, Watson kept in view the interests 
of practical religion. To Wilberforce, whom 
, he supported in his efforts against the slave 
trade, he communicated (1 April 1800) a 
scheme for twenty new churches in London 
with free sittings. When Freylinghausen's 
' Abstract ... of the Christian Religion ' 
(1804, 8vo) was issued at the queen's order, 
with Bishop Porteus as editor, he wrote to 
Grafton (23 Oct.), ' I have not my religion 
to learn from a Lutheran divine.' He pub- 
lished in 1804 a tract in favour of Roman 
catholic emancipation, and wrote (27 March 
1805) to remove the scruples of a lady about 
marrying into the Greek church. The de- 
fence of revealed religion was his frequent 
topic both in tEepulpit and through the press. 
In 1805 Sir Walter Scott was his guest at 
Calgarth. Rawnsley affirms that cockfight- 
ing was merrily pursued there by the bishop's 
sons. In October 1809 Watson had a slight 
paralytic attack, followed in 'April 1810 by 
another, which crippled his right hand. De- 
spairing of completing a projected series of 
theological essays, in 1811 he 'treated' his 
' divinity as ' he ' twenty-five years ago 
treated ' his ' chemical papers.' After Octo- 
ber 1813 his health rapidly declined. He 



died at Calgarth Park on 4 July 1816, and 
was buried in Windermere church, where 
is a tablet to his memory. His portrait, by 
George Romney [q. v.], was engraved by 
William Thomas Fry [q. v.] ; the cock of the 
hat and the pose of the figure give a military 
air to his refined and resolute countenance. 
Another portrait painted by Reynolds belongs 
to the family (Cat. Guelph Exhib. No. 186). 
He married at Lancaster (21 Dec. 1773) 
Dorothy (d. 11 April 1831, aged 81), eldest 
daughter of Edward Wilson of Dallam Tower, 
Westmoreland, and had six children. His 
son Richard was LL.B. (1813) of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and prebendary of Llan- 
daff (1813) and Wells (1815). 

Watson's versatility and power of applica- 
tion were alike remarkable. What he did 
he did well, up to a certain point, and then 
turned to something else. His scientific 
work was sound and ingenious, if not bril- 
liant, and careful and clear in its exposition 
of current views. He never turned to his- 
tory, though he accepted membership (1807) 
in the ' Massachusetts Historical Society.' 
He was an adrnirabTe letter-writer, courtly, 
pointed, and cautious. Besides the works 
above mentioned he published: 1.' Visita- 
tion Articles for the Diocese of Llandaff,' 
1784, 4to. 2. 'Sermons ... and Tracts,' 
1788, 8vo (chiefly reprints). 3. ' Thoughts on 
the intended Invasion/ 1803, 8vo. 4. ' Mis- 
cellaneous Tracts,' 1815, 2 vols. 8vo (in- 
cludes sermons, charges, political and eco- 
nomic tracts, chiefly reprints). He contri- 
buted to the 'Philosophical Transactions' 
and to the 'Transactions' of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, of which 
he was elected an honorary member on 
18 Dec. 1782 ; these papers are included in 
the ' Chemical Essays.' 

[Anecdotes of the Life . . . written by him- 
self . . .revised in 1814, published by his son 
Richard, 1817 (portrait), 2nd edit. 1818, 2 vols., 
and criticised in A Critical Examination, 
1818 (partly reprinted from the Courier), and 
in the Quarterly Review, October 1817, Edin- 
burgh Review, June 1818 ; London Review, Oc- 
tober 1782, p. 277; British Public Characters, 
1798, p. 251 ; [Mathias's] Pursuits of Literature, 
1798, p. 181 ; cf. Mathias's Heroic Epistle, 1780; 
Wakefield's Memoirs, 1804, i. 356, 509, ii. 118; 
Meadley's Memoirs of Paley, 1809, p. 18 ; 
Thomson 's Hist, of the Royal Soc. 1812 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. 1814 viii. 140, 1815 ix. 686; Bio- 
graphical Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 375 ; 
Gent. Mag. September 1816, p. 274 ; Annals of 
Philosophy (Thomson), 'April 1817, p. 257; 
Annual Biogr. 1817 ; Beloe's Sexagenarian, 1817, 
i. 59 ; Wordsworth's Description of the Lakes, 
1820, p. 73 ; Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, 
ii. 372 ; Le Neve's Fasti'Eceles. Anglic. (Hardy), 

1854, i. 197, 353, ii. 256, 268 ; Romilly's Gra- 
duati Cantabr. 1856 ; Atkinson's Worthies of 
Westmoreland, 1856, i. 185; De Quincey's 
Literary Reminiscences (Masson), ii. 195 ; Percy's 
Metallurgy, passim ; Hunt's Religious Thought 
in England, 1873, iii. 351; Fitzjames Stephen's 
Horse Sabbaticse, 1892, iii. 208; Rawnsley's 
Literary Associations of the English Lakes, 
1894, ii. 75; Paine's Writings (Conway), 1896, 
iv. 258 ; extract from parish register of Hever- 
sham, per the Rev. T. M. Gilbert ; information 
from the university registry, Cambridge, per 
C. S. Kenny, LL.D. ; minutes of Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Soc. ; information 
respecting Watson's chemical work kindly fur- 
nished by P. J. Hartog, esq.] A. G. 

WATSON, RICHARD (1781-1833), 
methodist divine, seventh of eighteen chil- 
dren of Thomas (d. 27 Nov. 1812, aged 70) 
and Ann Watson, was born at Barton- upon- 
Humber, Lincolnshire, on 22 Feb. 1781. 
His father was a saddler and a Calvinistic 
dissenter. Richard had a good education, 
beginning Latin in his seventh year under 
Matthew Barnett, curate of St. Peter's, 
Barton, and entering Lincoln grammar 
school in 1791. In 1795 he was apprenticed 
to William Bescoby, a joiner at Lincoln. He 
was precocious in stature (six feet two in- 
ches), in range of reading, and in power of 
address. Having spoken at a prayer meet- 
ing on 10 Feb. 1796, the day of his grand- 
mother's death, he preached his first sermon 
at Boothby, near Lincoln, on 23 Feb., being 
just fifteen years old. Applying at the 
quarter sessions in Lincoln for registration 
under the Toleration Act, he was refused as 
an apprentice, but obtained registration on 
repairing to Newark for the purpose. Bes- 
coby now voluntarily surrendered the ap- 
prenticeship indenture, and Watson removed 
to Newark as assistant to Thomas Cooper, 
then stationed there as Wesleyan preacher. 
At the conference of 1796 he was received 
on trial, and at that of 1801 he was received 
into full connexion as a travelling minister, 
having meantime been stationed at Ashby- 
de-la-Zouche, Castle Donington, and Derby, 
and published ' An Apology for the Metho- 
dists ' (1800). Shortly after his full admis- 
sion, resenting an unfounded report of his 
becoming an Arian, he withdrew from the 
Wesleyan connexion and from preaching. 
He tried secular business for a short time, 
but without success. 

His marriage with the daughter of a local 
preacher in the methodist ' new connexion ' 
[see KILHAM, ALEXANDER] led him into 
that body ; in 1803 he was taken on proba- 
tion, and in 1807 fully admitted to its 
ministry and appointed secretary of its con- 

Watson * 

ference, having been assistant secretary from 
1805. He was stationed at Stockport, and 
from 1806 at Liverpool. Here he did some 
literary work for Thomas Kaye, a Liverpool 
publisher, including a popular guide, ' The 
Stranger in Liverpool' (1807; 1 2th ed. 
1839). He became dissatisfied with the 
discipline of the ' new connexion,' and later 
in the year he resigned his ministry, and 
returned as a lay member to the Wesleyan 
body. Kaye engaged him as editor of the 
' Liverpool Courier,' established as a weekly 
conservative organ on 6 Jan. 1808, the first 
political paper published in Liverpool ; the 
ability he displayed led to his articles being 
copied by a leading London daily, and 
brought him offers of similar work in 
London. Jabez Buntmg [q. v.] and others 
urged him to resume^his ministry, and by the 
Wesleyan conference of 1812 he was rein- 
stated in his former position and stationed 
at Wakefield, whence in 1814 he was trans- 
ferred to Hull. 

The latter half of 1813 witnessed the | 
beginning of a great development in Wes- 
leyan zeal for foreign missions. The move- 
ment was inspired by the project of Thomas ; 
Coke [q. v.] for the evangelisation of India, j 
Local missionary societies were formed for ; 
raising funds. Into this new movement, 
after some little hesitation, Watson threw 
himself with great vigour. He drew up a 
plan of a general Wesleyan missionary 
society, which was accepted by the confer- j 
ence, and has since been reprinted in the 
successive reports of the society. The fame 
of his pulpit power rests mainly on the 
success of his appeals on great occasions, in 
deepening interest in the Wesleyan mis- ! 
sions, and in stimulating efforts for their 
support. In 1816 he was removed to Lon- ! 
don, and made one of two general secretaries 
to the Wesleyan missions, his being the ! 
department of home correspondence, with : 
supervision of reports and publications. For 
eleven years from this point his life is 
identified with the direction of missionary 
enterprise. In 1821 he was made a resident 
missionary secretary in London ; he held 
the office till 1827, having been president of 
conference during the previous year, and 
visited Scotland and Ireland in that capa- 
city. In 1827 he was appointed to Man- 
chester, succeeding Jabez Bunting; he re- 
turned to London in 1829, and in 1832 he 
was again appointed a resident secretary to 
the missionary society. 

Meanwhile his literary activity was con- 
siderable. In 1818 he published a treatise 
on the ' Eternal_Sonship ' in confutation of 
some opinions ""recently advanced in Adam 

fc Watson 

Clarke's ' Commentary.' This first brought 
him into note as a theologian. In 1820 he 
was selected by the conference to prepare 
a review of Southey's * Life of Wesley/ 
which, thougKTine as a biography, showed 
no understanding of the motives of the 
founder of methodism, and little of the 
principles and discipline of the methodist 
societies. Watson produced a grave and 
caustic refutation under the title ' Observa- 
tions on Mr. Southey's " Life of W_esley." T 
The controversy excited an interest beyond 
the religious world, the prince regent re- 
marking, ' Mr. Watson has the advantage 
over my laureate.' Watson's * Theological 
Institutes' (1823-29, six parts; new ed. 
1877, 4 vols. 12mo), the fruit of nine years' 
labour, deservedly ranks among the ablest 
expositions of the Arminian system (cf. 
HAGENBACH, Hist, of Doctrines, iii. 256). 
His ' Biblical and Theological Dictionary ' 
(1831) is a careful and intelligent compila- 
tion, on a plan more comprehensive than had 
previously been attempted in English. His 
' Life of the Rev. John Wesley ' (1831), 
written at the request of the conference, 
contains fresh and important matter; an 
edition in French, with additions, was pub- 
lished at Jersey (1843, 2 vols. 8vo). The 
' Supplement ' (1831) to the AVesleyan hymn- 
book was mainly of his selection, with some 
assistance from Thomas Jackson (1783-1873) 
[q. v.] 

From his intimate knowledge of the 
mission field he early became interested in 
the slavery question. The resolutions in 
favour of emancipation adopted by the mis- 
sionary committee (1825) and those adopted 
by conference (1830) were drafted by him. 
He was not, however, for immediate emanci- 
pation. One of the last productions of his 
pen was an able letter on the subject ad- 
dressed (December 1832) to Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton [q. v.] A strong methodist, 
and an able upholder of the connexional dis- 
cipline against the independent tendencies 
manifested in 1828, Watson constantly 
wrote of the Anglican communion as ' the 
mother of us all,' was deeply attached to 
the Anglican prayer-book, and was anxious 
to keep methodism in friendly relations 
with the establishment. 

In preaching Watson's style was lofty, 
refined, and pellucid. Without declamation 
he produced overwhelming effects by absolute 
eloquence. His delivery was commanding 
and deliberate, with rare action. His fame 
largely rests on the four volumes of sermons 
included in his works, lie was also cele- 
brated as a platform speaker. 

He was in ailing health from 1828, died 



on 8 Jan. 1833, and was buried in the grave- 
yard behind City Road Chapel, London. 
Funeral sermons were preached by Bunting 
at City Road, and by Robert Alder at Bristol. 
His portrait was one of the most character- 
istic works of John Jackson (1778-1831) 
q. v.], and was engraved by T. A. Dean ; it 
gives him an ascetic look, partly due to the 
emaciation of illness ; the features are fine, 
And the forehead high. He married (1801) 
Mary Henshaw of Castle Donington, who 
survived him with a son Thomas and a 
daughter Mary, who married James Dixon 
(q. v.] 

Watson's 'Works' were edited, with 
' Life,' by Thomas Jackson (1834-7,12 vols. 
8vb ; reprinted 1847, 13 vols. 8vo). A vo- 
lume of ' Sermons and Outlines ' (1865, 8vo) 
contains an essay on his character and 
writings by J. Dixon, and a ' Biographical 
Sketch' by W. AVillan. Besides sermons 
.andThe works noted above may be men- 
tioned : 1 . ' A Defence of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Missions in the West Indies/ 
1817, 8vo. 2. 'Conversations for the Young,' 
1830, 12mo ; 8th ed. 1851, 8vo. Posthumous 
was 3. ' An Exposition of ... St. Matthew 
and St. Mark, and of ... detached parts 
of ... Scripture,' 1833, 8vo ; edited by 
Thomas Jackson, being part of a projected 
commentary on the New Testament ; this 
and the ' Biblical and Theological Dictionary ' 
(1831, 8vo) are not included in the ' Works.' 
He wrote many reviews in the methodist 

[Funeral Sermon by Alder, 1833 ; Memorials 
by Bunting, 1833 ; Life by Jackson, 1834 ; 
Sketch by Willan (1865); Transactions of the 
Hist. Soc. of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1861, p. 
136; Stevenson's City Road Chapel (1872), p. 
564 ; Button's List of Lancashire Authors, 1876, 
p. 67; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1892, 
p. 728; information from the editor of the 
Liverpool Courier.] A. G-. 

WATSON, ROBERT (/. 1555), pro- 
testant, was born in the city of Norwich. 
Under Edward VI he attained considerable 
fame as a civilian, and became steward to 
Archbishop Cranmer. On the accession of 
Mary he was deprived of his post and re- 
turned to Norwich. There he was arrested 
for his opinions, and, after a month's im- 
prisonment, sent to London to appear before 
the council, by whom he was sent back to 
be confined in the bishop's palace. After an 
imprisonment of a year and four months he 
was examined on his views concerning the 
eucharist. He was set at liberty through 
the good offices of John Barret (d. 1563) [q.v.], 
on declaring that he held the doctrine of 
.transubstantiation as far as it was expounded 

in scripture and understood by the catholic 
church and the fathers. John Christopher- 
son [q. v.], the dean of Norwich, regarding 
this profession as equivocal, endeavoured 
again to lay hands on him, but he succeeded 
in escaping to the continent. While in exile 
lie published an account of his trial and his 
controversy with his examiners, entitled 
' ^Etiologia Robert! Watsoni Angli,' 1556, 
8vo. The preface is dated 1 Nov. 1555, but 
the place of publication is unknown. 

[Watson's ^itiologia ; Strype's Memorials of 
Cranmer, 1812, pp. 450, 610.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, ROBERT (fi. 1581-1605), 
almanac-maker, matriculated as a sizar of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, on 22 Nov. 
1581, and proceeded B.A. from Clare Hall 
in 1584-5. He had returned to Queens' 
College by 1589, in which year he was 
licensed by the university to practise physic. 
He pursued his profession at Braintree in 
Essex, and combined the study of medicine 
with that of astrology. He published for 
several years an almanac containing a fore- 
cast for the year. The earliest extant ap- 
peared in 1595, entitled ' Watsonn. 1595. 
A new Almanacke and Prognostication for 
. . . 1595. ... By Robert Watson. Im- 
printed at London by Richarde Watkins 
and James Robertes,' 8vo. There is a copy 
at Lambeth ; copies in the British Museum 
are dated respectively 1598 and 1605, the 
latter copy being among the Bagford papers. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. iii. 310; Gray's 
Index to Hazlitt's Collections.] E. I. C. 

WATSON, ROBERT (1730?-! 781), his- 
torian, son of an apothecary and brewer in 
St. Andrews, was born there about 1730. 
After studying at St. Andrews, Glasgow, 
and Edinburgh, he was licensed as a preacher 
of the Gospel ; but having failed to obtain a 
presentation to one of the churches in St. 
Andrews, he was shortly afterwards ap- 
pointed professor of logic in St. Salvator's 
College, of which he was promoted to be 
principal in 1777. The same year he was 
also presented by George III to the church 
and parish of St. Leonard. In 1777 he 
published, at London, in two volumes quarto, 
a 'History of Philip II of Spain [1548- 
1598],' which was praised by Horace Wai- 
pole, and had a great temporary popularity, 
being translated into French, German, and 
Dutch, and reaching a seventh edition by 
1812 ; the work was subsequently superseded 
by that of the American historian Prescott. 
At the time of his death, on 31 March 1781, 
he was engaged on a ' History of the Reign 
of Philip III, King of Spain [1598-1621],' 
which was completed by Dr. William Thorn- 




son, and published in 1783 (London, 4to; 
revised edition 1808 and 1839 ; French trans- 
lation 1809). This remains useful as filling 
a gap between Prescott and Coxe. 

Watson married, on 29 June 1757, Mar- 
garet Shaw, by whom he left five daughters. 
[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Conolly's Eminent 
Men of "Fife ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Hew 
Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scoticanse. ii. 400.] 

T. F. H. 

WATSON, ROBERT (1746-1838), ad- 
venturer, was born at Elgin, the first, it 
would seem, of two Robert Watsons bap- 
tised there a hirer's son on 29 June 1746, 
and a merchant's on 7 Aug. 1769. Certainly 
the latter could not have been ' intimate 
with Washington,' and been lamed by a 
wound in the American war of independence, 
' which gave him, on his retirement, the rank 
of a colonel, and some land, which he sold 
soon after.' Returning to Scotland from 
America, the hirer's son graduated M.D., and 
then settled in London. He was secretary to 
Lord George Gordon at the time of the riots 
of 1780, and was afterwards president of the 
revolutionary Corresponding Society. He 
was arrested for conspiracy in 1796, lay two 
years and three months in Newgate, and was 
tried at the Old Bailey, but acquitted. A 
reward of 400/. being offered for his reappre- 
hension, he ' escaped by living in disguise in 
a lord's house in London, and got away by 
the interestof Lady M'D. in aSwedish ship, in 
which he was nearly taken on suspicion of 
being Thomas Hardy.' In October 1798 the 
' Moniteur ' announced his arrival at Nancy 
as that of ' Lord Walson [sic], 6cossais libre ; ' 
and, going on to Paris, he issued an address 
to the British people, advocating a general 
rising and the reception of the French as 
deliverers. Lodging with Napoleon's forest- 
keeper, he was introduced to the consul, and 
gave him lessons in English ; Napoleon made 
im principal of the restored Scots College, 
with three thousand francs a year. He held 
the post six years, and it must have been 
during this period that, in 1807, he presided 
at the St. Patrick's banquet to the Irishmen 
in Paris. He next went to Rome to cultivate 
cotton and indigo in the Pontine marshes, 
and so gain the prize of a hundred thousand 
francs offered by Napoleon on the importa- 
tion of these articles to France being pre- 
vented by the English government. The 
scheme miscarried, and the ' Chevalier Wat- 
son ' had again to turn teacher of English. 
One of his pupils between 1816 and 1819 
was the German painter Professor Vogel 
von Vogelstein, who describes him as 'a 
little lame man of about sixty years of age,' 
and who painted the small portrait of him 

now in the Scottish Portrait Gallery at 
Edinburgh. At Rome in 1817 he purchased 
for 221. 10s. from an attorney who had been 
confidential agent to Cardinal York two cart- 
loads of manuscripts, relating chiefly to the- 
two Jacobite rebellions. These, the ' Stuart 
Papers,' were, however, seized by the Vatican 
and finally delivered to the prince regent ; 
W^atson's own statement thatie got 3,100/. 
from the English ministry is at least ques- 
tionable. In 1825 he wrote to an Elgin 
friend asking a loan of 100, and describing- 
himself as just returned from Greece, and as 
possessed of a valuable collection Queen 
Mary's missal, Marshal Ney's baton, Napo- 
leon's Waterloo carriage, &c. On 19 Nov. 
1838 he strangled himself in a London 
tavern by twisting his neckcloth with a 
poker as with a tourniquet. It was deposed 
at the inquest that his body bore nineteen 
old wounds, and a Colonel Macerone testified 
to the truth of his statements to the tavern- 
keeper on the eve of his suicide. He is said 
to have married in 1793 Cecilia, widow of 
the sixth Lord Rollo, and sister of James 
Johnstone (1719-1800?) [q.v.], the Cheva- 
lier de Johnstone ; but Rollo lived to marry 
a second wife. Watson, however, appears 
to have been connected by marriage with 
Johnstone, whose manuscripts he sold in 
1820 to Messrs. Longmans [see art. JOHN- 

Watson's chief work is a ' Life of Lord 
George Gordon, with a Philosophical Review 
of his Political Conduct ' (London, 1795, 
8vo). He also edited in 1798 the 'Political 
Works ' of Fletcher of Saltoun, with notes 
and a memoir; and in 1821 the Chevalier 
Johnstone's 'Memoirs of the Rebellion of 
1745.' His answer to Burke's ' Reflections ' 
is unidentified, and he seems never to have 
executed his proposed translation of the ' De- 
Jure Regni ' of George Buchanan, whom he 
styles ' the father of pure republicanism.' 

[Bishop A. P. Forbes of Brechin in Proceed- 
ings Soc. Antiquaries of Scotl. December 1867, 
pp. 324-34, based chiefly on information supplied 
by Professor Vogel von Vogelstein ; 'A Wild 
Career,' by Andrew Lang, in Illustrated London 
News, 12 March 1892, with portrait; Hone's 
Table Book (1827), i. 738-45 ; Percy Fitzgerald's 
Life and Times of William IV (1884), i. 53; 
Alger's Englishmen in the French Revolution, 
1889, pp. 271-2.] F. H. G. 

1860), captain R.N., eldest son of Captain 
Joshua Rowley Watson (1772-1810), was 
born in 1809. He entered the navy in No- 
vember 1821, and was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant on 7 Oct. 1829. He afterwards 
served on the coast of Portugal and on the 



North American station, till in November 
1837 he was appointed to the Calliope frigate, 
with Captain (afterwards Sir Thomas) Her- 
bert (1793-1861) [q. v.] After two years on 
the coast of Brazil the Calliope was sent to 
China, where she was actively employed dur- 
ing the first Chinese war. On 6 May 1841 
Watson was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander, and was moved with Herbert to the 
Blenheim ; and while in her was repeatedly 
engaged with the enemy, either in command 
of boats or landing parties. On 23 Dec. 1842 
he was advanced to post rank, and the next 
day, 24 Dec., was nominated a C.B. From 
February 1846 to October 1849 he com- 
manded the Brilliant, a small frigate, on the 
Cape of Good Hope station ; and in Decem- 
ber 1852 was appointed to the Imperieuse, a 
new 50-gun steam frigate, then, and for 
some years later, considered one of the finest 
ships in the navy. In 1S54 she was sent up 
the Baltic in advance of the fleet, Watson 
being senior officer of the squadron of small 
vessels appointed to watch the breaking up 
of the ice, and to see that no Russian ships 
of war got to sea. It was an arduous ser- 
vice well performed. The Imperieuse con- 
tinued with the flying squadron in the Baltic 
during the campaigns of 1854 and 1855. 
After the peace she was sent to the North 
American station, and returned to England 
and was paid off early in 1857. In June 
1859 Watson was appointed captain-super- 
intendent of Sheerness dockyard, where he 
died on 5 July 1860. He was married and 
left issue ; his son, Captain Burges Watson, 
R.N., is now (1899) superintendent of Pem- 
broke Dockyard. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Navy Lists; 
Gent. Mag. I860, ii. 217.] J. K. L. 

WATSON, SAMUEL (1663-1715), 
sculptor, was born at Heanor, Derbyshire, 
in December 1663. He executed some of 
the fine wood-carvings at Chatsworth, com- 
monly attributed to Grinling Gibbons [q.v.] 
The dead game over the chimneypiece in 
the great chamber is by his hand, and for 
this and other decorations in the same cham- 
ber in lime-tree wood, all completed in 1693, 
he received 133/. 7s. The trophy contain- 
ing the celebrated pen over the door in the 
south-west corner room is likewise his work. 
He also carved the arms in the pediment of 
the west front in 1704 ; the stone carvings I 
in the north front, finished in 1707, and j 
other decorations both in wood and stone. 
Walpole says that ' Gibbons had several 
disciples and workmen . . . Watson assisted 
chiefly at Chatsworth, where the boys and 
many of the ornaments in the chapel were 

executed by him ' (Anecdotes, ed. Wornum, 
p. 557). But it seems clear, since he made 
out his own bill for the above-mentioned 
works, that he executed them on his own 
account. He died at Heanor on 31 March 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists.] C. D. 

WATSON, THOMAS (1513-1584), 
bishop of Lincoln, was born in 1513 in the 
diocese of Durham, it is said at Nun Stinton, 
near Sedgefield. He was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, proceeding B.A. 
in 1533-4 and M.A. in 1537. He is con- 
fused by Strype and others with John Wat- 
son (d. 1530), master of Christ's College, 
Cambridge [see under WATSOX, JOHN, 1520- 
1584]. About 1535 Watson was elected 
fellow of St. John's College, where he was 
for several years dean and preacher. There, 
writes Roger Ascham [q. v.], AVatson was- 
one of the scholars who ' put so their help- 
ing hands, as that universitie and all stu- 
dents there, as long as learning shall last, 
shall be bound unto them ' (Scholemaster, 
ed. Mayor, p. 198). Besides Ascharn, Wat- 
son had as friends and contemporaries Cheke, 
John Redman, Sir Thomas Smith, and others 
who led the revival of Greek learning at 
Cambridge. They would frequently discuss 
Aristotle's ' Poetics ' and Horace's ' Ars 
Poetica ' while Watson was writing his 
tragedy of ' Absalom.' Watson's fastidious 
scholarship would not allow him to publish 
it because in one or two verses he had used 
an anapaest instead of an iambus, though 
Ascham declared that ' Absalom' and George 
Buchanan's ' Jephtha ' were the only two 
English tragedies that could stand ' the true 
touch of Aristotle's precepts' (ib. p. 207). 
Watson's play is said to have remained in 
manuscript at Penshurst, but it is not men- 
tioned in the historical manuscripts com- 
mission's report on the papers preserved 
there (3rd Rep. App. pp. 227 sqq.) ; it has 
erroneously been assigned by Mr. Fleay and 
others to John Watson [q. v.], bishop of 
Winchester, and has also led to Thomas's 
confusion with Thomas Watson [q. v.], the 
poet (e.g. GABRIEL HAEVEY, Works, ed. 
Grosart, i. 22, 23, 112, 218, ii. 83, 171, 290, 
where the references i. 112, 218, ii. 83, 290 
are to the poet ; and NASH, Works, ed. Gro- 
sart, ii. 65, 73, iii. 187, where the last refe- 
rence also is to the poet). 

In 1543 Watson proceeded B.D., and in 
1545 Stephen Gardiner [q. v.], bishop of 
Winchester, appointed him his chaplain 
and rector of Wyke Regis in Dorset ; he is 
also said to have been presented to the 
vicarage of Buckminster, Leicestershire, ia 



1547. He zealously abetted Gardiner in his 
dispute with the council as to its authority to 
make religious changes during Edward \ I s 
minority, and is said to have been the medium 
of communication between the council and 
Gardiner. He is himself stated to have been 
imprisoned in the Fleet in 1547 for preaching 
at Winchester against two reformers, who 
thereupon complained to Somerset and Sir 
William Cecil, and to have been liberated 
with Gardiner on 6 Jan. 1547-8; but there 
is no record of his imprisonment before 
4 Dec. 1550, when he was summoned before 
the privy council. He was in the Fleet 
prison in the following year, when he was 
called as a witness at Gardiner's trial, and 
examined as to whether the bishop had, in 
his sermon at St. Paul's on "29 June 1548, 
maintained the authority of the council or 
not ; he avoided offence by declaring that he 
had been too far off to hear what Gardiner 
said (Lit. Rem. of Edward VI, p. cviii). In 
the same year he assisted Gardiner in pre- 
paring his ' Confutatio Cavillationum,' a 
second answer to Cranmer, which was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1552. On one occasion 
during the reign Watson's life is said to 
have been saved by John Rough [q. v.], a 
service to which Rough appealed in vain 
when brought before Watson and Bonner 
in Mary's reign. On 3 Dec. 1551 AVatson 
was present at a private discussion at Sir 
Richard Morison's house on the question of 
the real presence ; his argument is preserved 
in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (MS. 
102, p. 259). and is abridged in Strype's ' Life 

On Mary's accession Watson became one 
of the chief catholic controversialists. On 
20 Aug. 1553 he was selected to preach at 
Paul's Cross, when, to prevent a recurrence 
of the disturbances at Gilbert Bourne's ser- 
mon on the previous Sunday, many of the 
privy council and a strong guard were pre- 
sent. According to a contemporary but 
hostile newsletter, ' his sermon was neither 
eloquent nor edifying . . . for he meddled 
not with the Gospel, nor with the Epistle, 
nor no part of Scripture ' (William Dalby in 
Harl. MS. 353, f. 141, where the writer pro- 
ceeds to report ' four or five of the chief 
points of his sermon;' MACHYX, pp. 41, 
332-3 ; Greyfriars Chron. p. 83 ; WRIOTHES- 
LEY, Chron. ii. 29 ; Chron. Queen Jane, p. 
18). Watson's services as a preacher were, 
however, constantly in request, and he al- 
ways drew large audiences (MACHYN, pp. 
128, 131, 132, 166). On 10 May 1554 John 
Cawood published at London Watson's 
' Twoo notable Sermons made the thirde 
and fyfte Fridays in Lent last past before 

the Quenes highnes concerninge the reall 
presence of Christes body and bloode in the 
Blessed Sacramente.' Ridley wrote some 
annotations on these sermons, which he sent 
to Bradford (BRADFORD, Works, ii. 207-8 ; 
RIDLEY, Works, pp. 538-40) ; and Robert 
Crowley [q.v.] in 1569 published ' A Setting 
Open of the Subtyle Sophistrie of Thomas 
Watson . . . which he used in hys two 
Sermons . . . upon the reall presence,' Lon- 
don, 4to. Crowley prints Watson's sermons 
passage by passage, with an answer to each 
(cf. STRYPE, Eccl. Mem. in. i. 115-25). 
When, in January 1557-8, convocation de- 
termined on the publication of a series of 
expositions of catholic doctrine somewhat 
similar to the 'Homilies 'of 1547, Watson 
revised the sermons he had preached at court 
in the previous year and published them as 
' Holsome and Catholyke doctryne concern- 
inge the Seven Sacraments of Chrystes 
Churche . . . set forthe in the maner of 
Short Sermons.' The royal license to Ro- 
bert Caley, the printer, was dated 30 April 
1558 (Lansd. MS. 980, f. 302), and the first 
edition appeared in June following ; a second 
edition followed on 10 Feb. 1558-9, and a 
third (described in the ' British Museum 
Catalogue ' as the first) in the same month. 
They were reprinted by Father T. E. Brid- 
gett in 1876 (London, 8vo). 

Meanwhile, on 25 Sept. 1553, Watson was 
commissioned by Gardiner, as chancellor of 
Cambridge University, to inquire into the 
religious condition of the colleges (SiRYPE, 
Parker, i. 82-3), and three days later he 
was admitted master of St. John's, Lever 
having fled beyond seas ; he was created 
D.D. in the following year. In the convo- 
cation that met at St. Paul's on 23 Oct. 
1553 Watson strenuously upheld the Roman 
catholic interpretation of the real presence 
against James Haddon [q. v.] and others 
(part of the disputation is preserved in Harl. 
MS. 422, ff. 38 sqq. ; cf. PHILPOT, Works, p. 
168 ; Dixox, Hist. iv. 78 sqq.) On 18 Nov. 
he was presented to the deanery of Durham 
in succession to Robert Home (1519 P-1580) 
[q. v.] In April 1554 he was sent to Oxford to 
dispute with Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, 
and on the 14th was incorporated D.D. in 
that university. He also took part in the 
proceedings against Hooper and Rogers, and 
ia said to have urged Gardiner to arrest Dr. 
Edwin Sandys [q. v.], afterwards archbishop 
of York. He resigned the mastership of St. 
John's in May 1554, and on 28 Aug. 1556 
was presented to the rectory of Bechingwall 
All Saints (RYHEB, xv. 444). On 7 Dec. 
1556 Mary issued a license for filling up the 
see of Lincoln, rendered vacant by the trans- 




lation of John White (1511-1564) [q.v.] to 
Winchester ; Watson was elected, and on 
the 24th of the same month was granted the 
temporalities of the see. The papal bull of 
confirmation was dated 24 March 1556-7, 
but the bishop was not consecrated until 
15 August. In the interval Watson was 
one of the delegates appointed by Cardinal 
Pole to visit Cambridge University in Ja- 
nuary 1556-7 ; the visitation was disgraced 
by the trial and condemnation as heretics of 
the dead Bucer and Fagius, and by the ex- 
humation and burning of their bodies (LAMB, 
Documents, 1828 ; COOPER, Annals of Cam- 

Watson is said (GEE, Elizabethan Clergy, 
1898, p. 30) to have been the first sufferer 
for religion under Elizabeth, and to have 
been confined to his house for preaching an 
incautious sermon at Queen Mary's funeral ; 
but Watson is here confused with John 
White, bishop of Winchester. Watson was j 
absent through ill-health from the parlia- 
ment which met in January 1558-9, but he 
took a prominent part in the debate on reli- 
gion held in the choir of Westminster Abbey 
on the morning of 3 April. The conference 
broke down because Sir Nicholas Bacon, who 
presided, insisted that the Roman catholics 
should begin the discussion. They refused, 
and ' the two good bishops [Watson and 
White], inflamed with ardent zeal for God, 
said most boldly that " they would not con- 
sent nor ever change their opinion from any 
fear." They were answered that this was 
the will of the queen, and that they would 
be punished for their disobedience' (Cal. 
State Papers, Venetian, 1558-80, No. 58). 
They were at once arrested and sent to the 
Tower (MACHYN, Diary, f. 192; WRIOTHES- 
1ET, Chron. ii. 144; Zurich Letters, i. 13; 
Acts P.O. vii. 78 ; State Papers, Dom. Eliz. 
iii. 52). 

Camden's story, repeated by Strype and 
others, that the two bishops threatened to 
excommunicate Elizabeth, has been disputed 
by Roman catholic historians. The incident 
on which it is probably based is reported by 
the Venetian ambassador. White ' said " the 
new method of officiating was heretical and 
schismatic." Then they replied " is the queen 
heretical and schismatic?" And thus in 
anger they sent him back to the Tower' 
(Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1558-80, No. 
82). In June Watson was released, and 
allowed ten days to decide whether he would 
take the new oath of supremacy. He re- 
fused, and on the 26th was deprived of the 
bishopric of Lincoln (MACHYN, p. 201 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Simancas i. 79, 82, Venetian 
1558-80, No. 91). He was again committed 


to the Tower on 20 May 1560. In May 
1563 he was brought before the ecclesiastical 
commissioners, but remained steadfast in 
his refusal to take the oath. On 6 Sept. 
following he was handed over to the custody 
of Grindal, bishop of London, because of the 
plague, and a month later was transferred to 
the keeping of Coxe, the bishop of Ely. On 
9 Jan. 1564-5 he was once more committed 
to the Tower (Acts P. C. vii. 183). On 
5 July 1574, being then in the Marshalsea, 
on giving a bond not to ' induce any one to 
any opinion or act to be done contrary to 
the laws established in the realm for causes 
of religion,' he was transferred to the cus- 
tody of his brother John Watson, a citizen 
of London (Lansd. MS. 980, f. 302 ; Acts 
P. C. viii. 264). Three years later the 
council accused him of abusing his liberty 
by suffering evil-disposed persons to resort 
to him, and by perverting them in religion, 
which confirms Dod's statement that, ' while 
Bisbop Watson lived, he was consulted and 
regarded as the chief superior of the English 
catholic clergy, and, as far as his confinement 
would permit, exercised the functions of his 
character.' He was accordingly, on 28 July, 
committed to the custody of the bishop of 
Winchester, being allowed his own Roman 
catholic attendant, " uppon consideracion 
that it is less dainger to lett one already 
corrupted then a sound person to attend 
uppon him ' (ib. x. 16). In January 1578-9, 
at the bishop of Winchester's request,Watson 
was transferred to the keeping of the bishop 
of Rochester. He now entered into corre- 
spondence with Douai, and this, coupled with 
the invasion of the Jesuits and missionary 

?riests, led to severer measures against him. 
n August 1580 he was committed to close 
keeping at Wisbech Castle, where his re- 
maining days were embittered by the quarrel 
between the Jesuits and seculars which de- 
veloped into the famous archpriest contro- 
versy. Watson died at Wisbech Castle on 
27 Sept. 1584, and was buried in Wisbech 
parish church. 

Watson was perhaps, after Tunstall and 
Pole, the greatest of Queen Mary's bishops. 
De Feria described him in 1559 as 'more 
spirited and learned than all the rest.' God- 
win and Strype refer to him as ' an austere, 
or rather a sour and churlish man.' The 
austerity may be taken for granted, but the 
gloss is due to religious antipathy. Ascham 
spoke warmly of Watson's friendship for 
him, and bore high testimony to his scholar- 
ship. Besides the works alieady mentioned, 
Watson is credited with a translation of the 
first book of the ' Odyssey,' which is now lost, 
and a rendering of a sermon of St. Cyprian 




which is extant in Cambridge University 
Library MS. KK. 1. 3, art. 17, and in Baker 
MS. xii. 107. A treatise entitled ' Certayne 
Experiments and Medicines,' extant in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 62, art. 1, is ascribed in an 
almost contemporary hand to Watson, and 
his ' Disputations ' at London in 1553 and at 
Oxford in 1554 are printed in Foxe's ' Actes 
and Monuments.' The collections on the 
bishops of Durham, assigned to him by Tan- 
ner and extant in Cottonian MS. Vitellius 
C.ix., are really by Christopher Watson [q.v.] 
[An elaborate life of Watson is prefixed by 
the Rev.T. E. Bridgett to his reprint of Watsotfs 
Holsome and Catholyke Doctrine, 1876, and is 
expanded in Bridgett and Knox's Story of the 
Catholic Hierarchy deposed by Elizabeth, 1889, 
pp. 120-207. See also authorities cited in text 
and in Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 491 ; a few 
additional facts are contained in the recently 
published Acts of the Privy Council, 1 558-82 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Siraancas, vol. i., Venetian, 
1558-80; Dixon's Hist, of the Church; and 
Gee's Elizabethan Clergy, 1898.] A. F. P. 

WATSON, THOMAS (1557?-! 592), 
poet, seems to have been born in London 
about 1557. According to Anthony j\ Wood 
he spent some part of his youth at Oxford, 
but his college there has not been identified. 
There was a Thomas Watson, of a good 
Worcestershire family, who matriculated 
from St. Mary Hall on 28 May 1580, aged 19 
(Oxford Univ. Reg. Oxf. Hist. Soc. u. ii. 93), 
but'his identity with the poet seems doubt- 
ful. At the university, according to Wood, 
he occupied himself, ' not in logic and philo- 
sophy, as he ought to have done, but in the 
smooth and pleasant studies of poetry and 
romance, whereby he obtained an honourable 
name among the students in those faculties.' 
The classics formed his chief study, and he 
became a classical scholar of notable attain- 
ments. But he left the university without 
a degree, and, migrating to London, ad- 
dressed himself to the law. He is said to 
have joined an inn of court, and he usually 
describes himself in his publications as ' Lon- 
dinensis Juris Studiosus ' (or ' I. V. Stud.'), 
but his connection with the legal profession 
seems to have been nominal. His main 
interests in life were literary. In his early 
days he was not, he tells us, ' minded ever 
to have emboldened himself so far as to 
thrust in foot amongst our English poets.' 
But he designed a series of original poems 
and translations in Latin verse, and closely 
studied Italian and French poetry. For the 
gratification of himself and a few sympa- 
thetic friends he turned Petrarch's sonnets 
into Latin, and he wrote a Latin poem called 
' De Remedio Amoris.' Other of his early 

Latin verses dealt with ' The Love Abuses 
of Juppiter.' These pieces were only circu- 
lated in manuscript. None were sent to 
press, and they have disappeared. 

In 1581 Watson visited Paris, and his 
aptitude for Latin verse gained him there 
the admiration of one Stephen Broelmann, 
a jurist and Latin poet of Cologne, who was 
also visiting Paris. In Paris, too, he seems 
to have met Sir Francis Walsingham, who 
was there on a diplomatic ,mission in the 
summer of 1581. Walsingham showed an 
interest in Watson's literary endeavours, 
and after his death Watson recalled how his 
' tunes ' delighted the ears of Sir Francis 
while both were sojourning on the banks 
of the Seine. Before Watson left France 
Broelmann addressed to him some Latin 
elegiacs, urging him to publish his Latin 
work. The result was Watson's first publi- 
cation, a Latin translation of Sophocles' 
'Antigone.' It was licensed by the Stationers' 
Company to John Wolfe on 31 July 1581 
(COLLIER, Extracts from Reg. of Stationers' 
Company, ii. 149, ed. 1849). The title of the 
published book runs : ' Sophoclis Antigone. 
Interprets Thoma Watsono, I. V. studioso. 
Huic adduntur pompse qusedam, ex singulis 
Tragcediae actis deriuatse ; & post eas, totidem 
Thernata Sententiis refertissima; eodem 
Thoma Watsono Authore. Londini Ex- 
cudebat lohannes W r olfius, 1581.' The de- 
dication was addressed to Philip Howard, 
earl of Arundel. There are commendatory 
verses by Philip Harrison, Christopher Atkin- 
son, and William Camden the antiquary. 
The ' PompfB ' at the end of the volume 
were allegorical descriptions of virtues and 
vices of Watson's own invention. The four 
' Thernata ' were skilful'exercises in different 
kinds of Latin A-erse such as iambics, sap- 
phics, anapaestic dimeters, and choriambic 
asclepiadean metre. 

Thenceforth Watson identified himself 
with the profession of letters, although he 
always affected something of his original 
attitude of a gentleman amateur. He became 
a prominent figure in the literary society of 
London. In John Lyly, the author of ' Eu- 
phues,' and in George Peele, the dramatist, 
he found warm admirers and devoted friends. 
He once supped with Nash at the Nag's 
Head in Cheapside, and laughed with the 
satirist over Gabriel Harvey's pedantries. 
He contributed commendatory verses to two 
books issued in 1582 : English verses by him 
in ballad metre prefaced George Whet- 
stone's ' Heptameron,' and a decastichon ap- 
peared in Christopher Ocklande's ' Anglorum 
Proelia.' He still maintained close relations 
with Sir Francis Walsingham, and came to 




linow his son-in-law, Sir Philip Sidney, and 
other members of the statesman's family ; 
but his patrons rapidly grew in number, and 
ultimately included most of the men of cul- 
ture at Elizabeth's court. 

"Watson's earliest effort in English verse 
that was published separately was licensed 
for the press to Gabriel Cawood on 31 March 
1582, under the title of ' Watson's Passions, 
manifesting the true frenzy of love.' It was 
soon afterwards published as ' 'EKATOJIIIA- 
IA, or Passionate Centurie of Loue, Divided 
into two parts : whereof, the first expresseth 
the Authours sufferance in Loue ; the latter, 
his long farewell to Loue and all his ty- 
rannic. Composed by Thomas Watson, Gen- 
tleman : and published at the request of cer- 
taine Gentlemen his very frendes ' (black 
letter), London, 4to [1582]. A perfect copy 
of the rare volume is in the British Museum ; 
five other perfect copies are known (cf. Huth 
Library Cat.} At Britwell are two copies, ] 
one perfect and another imperfect. George 
Steevens, the former owner of the latter copy, 
possessed a second imperfect copy with in- 
teresting manuscript notes of early date, 
some by a member of the Cornwallis family. 
This copy John Mitford [q. v.] acquired ; he 
described it in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
(1846, i. 491). In the Harleian MS. 3277 
seventy-eight of the hundred poems are tran- 
scribed in a sixteenth-century hand under 
the title, ' A Looking glasse for Lovers.' 
Watson's l ' V.Karo^TraBLa ' was dedicated to 
the Earl of Oxford. John Lyly contributed 
a prose epistle of commendation ' to the au- 
thour his friend,' and among writers of lauda- 
tory verse areT. Acheley, Matthew Roydon, 
and George Peele. There is a preliminary 
quatorzain by AVatson, but the poems that 
follow, although the author calls them son- 
nets, are each in eighteen lines (instead of 
fourteen). Each poem is termed a ' passion,' 
and is introduced by a prose note explaining 
its intention, and setting forth the literary 
source of its inspiration. Throughout the prose 
notes the author is referred to in the third 
person, but they all doubtless came from his 
own pen. The elaborate apparatus criticus 
confirms the impression given internally by 
the poems themselves, that they reflect no 
personal feeling, and are merely dexterous 
imitations of classical or modern French 
and Italian poems. The width of Watson's 
reading may be gathered from the fact that 
eight of his ' sonnets ' are, according to his 
own account, renderings from Petrarch ; 
twelve are from Serafino dell' Aquila(1466- 
1500) ; four each from Strozza, another 
Italian poet, and from Ronsard ; three 
from the Italian poet Agnolo Firenzuola 

(1493-1548); two each from the French 
poet Etienne Forcadel, known as Forca- 
tulus (1514 P-1573), the Italian Girolamo 
Parabosco (fl. 1548), and yEneas Sylvius; 
while many paraphrase passages from such 
authors as (among the Greeks) Sophocles, 
Theocritus, Apollonius of Rhodes (author of 
the epic ' Argonautica ') : or (among the 
Latins) Virgil, Tibullus, Ovid, Horace, Pro- 
pertius, Seneca, Pliny, Lucan, Martial, and 
Valerius Flaccus ; or (among other modern 
Italians) Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494) and 
BaptistaMantuanus (1448-1516) ; or (among 
other modern Frenchmen) Gervasius Sepinus 
of Saumur, writer of Latin eclogues after 
the manner of Virgil and Mantuanus (LEE, 
Life of Shakespeare, p. 103 n. 1). 

In 1585 Watson gave new proof of his ap- 
preciation of Italian literature and his apti- 
tude for Latin verse by publishing a trans- 
lation of Tasso's pastoral drama ' Aminta ' 
in Latin hexameters. The title ran : 
' Amyntas Thornse Watsoni Londinensis 
I. V. Studiosi. Excudebat Henricus Marsh, 
ex assignatione Thomse Marsh,' 1585, 16rno. 
This was dedicated to the Elizabethan 
courtier Henry Noel, who was equally well 
known as a spendthrift and a musician [see 
under NOEL, Sin ANDREW]. To the same 
patron Watson dedicated a philosophic trea- 
tise in Latin prose on the art of memory en- 
titled ' Compendium Memorise Localis ; ' of 
this work an imperfect copy without colo- 
phon and ending with the first page of the 
fifteenth chapter belonged to Heber, and is 
now in Mr. Christie-Miller's library at Brit- 
well ; no other copy has been me j with. 
Next year Watson published a second Latin 
translation from the Greek, 'Coluthus: Rap- 
tus Helense, Tho. Watsonse Londinensis,' 
London, 1586, 4to. This was dedicated to 
the Duke of Northumberland. Three years 
later Watson contributed a < Hexastichon ' 
to Robert Greene's romance ' Ciceronis Amor ' 

Meanwhile, in 1587, Watson had the 
mortification of witnessing the publication 
of an unauthorised English translation of 
his Latin version of Tasso's ' Aminta.' The 
English translator, Abraham Fraunce [q. v.], 
made no mention of Watson. Fraunce's 
work proved more popular than Watson's, 
and he printed it for a fourth time in 1591, 
together with a second original English 
translation by himself of the Italian poem ; 
Fraunce's volume of 1591 bore the general 
title of ' The Countess of Pembroke's Ivy- 
church.' There for the first time Fraunce 
made, in a prefatory sentence, a tardy and 
incomplete acknowledgment of his debt to 
Watson : ' I have somewhat altered S. Tas- 


Watson ; 

soes Italian and M. Watsons Latine " Amyn- 
tas " to make them both one English.' Nash, 
in his preface to Greene's ' Menaphon ' ( 1 589) , 
however, highly commended ' the excellent 
translation of Master Thomas Watson's 
sugared "Amyntas"' by 'sweet Master 
France.' In 1590 some Latin odes by Wat- 
son were prefixed to Vallans's ' Tale of Two 
Swannes,' with an English translation by 

Watson was deeply interested in music^ 
and was on terms of intimacy with the chief 
musicians of the day. In 1590 there ap- 
peared a book of music called ' The first sett 
of Italian Madrigalls Englished, not to the 
sense of the original dittie, but after the 
affection of the Noate. By Thomas Wat- 
son, Gentleman. There are also heere in- 
serted two excellent Madrigalls of Master 
William Byrd, composed after the Italian 
vaine, at the request of the sayd Thomas 
Watson,' London, 1590 (Brit. Mus. ; Huth 
Libr. ; Britwell). The volume is divided 
into six parts, each with a separate title-page, 
headed respectively, ' Superius,' ' Medius,' 
' Tenor,' ' Contra-Tenor,' ' Bassus,' and ' Sex- 
tus.' Before each part is placed a dedica- 
tion in Latin elegiacs by Watson to the 
Earl of Essex, as well as a Latin eulogy 
in the same metre on the celebrated Italian 
composer Luca Marenzio, whose music was 
very largely represented in the book. The 
words of AVatson's madrigals are somewhat 
halting ; they have not been reprinted. 
Another proof of AVatson's musical interests 
appears in a poem by him headed ' A 
Gratification unto Mr. John Case for his 
learned Booke lately made in the prayes 
of Musick.' According to Mr. AV. C. Hazlitt 
these verses were first printed in broadside 
form in 1586 (in which year Dr. John Case's 
' Praise of Musicke ' was published) as ' A 
Song in Commendation of the author of the 
Praise of Musicke. Set by AV. Byrd.' The 
earliest form in which they now seem 
accessible is in a manuscript volume trans- 
cribed by John Lilliat, formerly in Hearne's 
possession, now among Dr. Rawlinsou's col- 
lection in the Bodleian manuscripts (Rawlin- 
son, Poet. 148 ; reprinted in British Biblio- 
grapher, ii. 543, ed. 1812, and in ARBER). 

It was in 1590 that AVatson's patron, Sir 
Francis Walsingham, died. He lamented 
his death in a Latin elegy in hexameters. 
This was dedicated to Sir Francis's cousin, 
Thomas AValsingham, under the title, ' Me- 
libceus Thomse AVatsoni sive, Ecloga in 
Obitum Honoratissimi A^iri, Domini Francisci 
AValsinghami ' (London, 1590, 4to, Brit. 
Mus.) Mindful of the march that Fraunce 
had stolen on him in regard to his 'Amyntas,' 

> Watson 

AVatson published an English translation of 
his new elegy under the title of ' An Eglogue 
upon the Death of the Right Honorable Sir 
Francis AValsingham, late principall Secre- 
tarie to her Maiestie, and of her moste 
Honourable Privie Councell. AVritten first 
in latine by Thomas AVatson, Gentleman, 
and now by himselfe translated in English. 
Musis mendicantibusinsultat'Ajuouo-m' (Lon- 
don, 1590, 4to). ' I interpret myself,' AVat- 
son informed his readers, ' lest Melibceus, 
in speaking English by another man's labour, 
should leese my name in his chaunge as my 
Amyntas did.' The English version was 
dedicated toAA'alsingham's daughter Frances, 
widow of Sir Philip Sidney. 

AVatson seems in his last years to have 
been employed by AVilliam Cornwallis (son 
of Sir Thomas Cornwallis [q. v.], comptroller 
of Queen Mary's household, and uncle of 
Sir AVilliam Cornwallis (d. 1631 ?) [q. v.], 
author of the ' Essayes '). AVatson appears 
to have given tuition in literature to AVil- 
liam Cornwallis's son, and to have been on 
affectionate terms with his pupil (cf. Gent. 
May. 1846, i. 491). He married the sister 
of another of AVilliam Cornwallis's retainers, 
Thomas Swift. At the close of AVatson's 
life his brother-in-law and colleague Swift 
endeavoured to win the affections of their 
master's daughter. AVatson encouraged the 
intrigue and induced his pupil to farther it. 
After AVatson's death the facts came to the 
knowledge of the lady's father, who, filled 
with indignation, laid them before Lord 
Burghley (15 March 1593). AVilliam Corn- 
wallis charged AVatson with having forged 
some of the encouraging letters that his son 
and daughter were represented tohave written 
to Swift. AVatson, Cornwallis declared,. 
' could devise twenty fictions and knaveryes 
in a play w ch was his daily practyse and 
his living ' (Mr. Hubert Hall in Athenceum, 
23 Aug. 1880). No dramatic work by 
AVatson survives, apart from his versions, 
of Sophocles' ' Antigone ' and of Tasso's 
pastoral drama, although Meres reckons him 
with Peele, Marlowe, and Shakespeare as 
among ' the best for tragedie.' 

The poet seems to be identical with the 
' Thomas AVatson, gent, who was buried in 
the church of St. Bartholomew the less ' on 
26 Sept. 1592 (COLLIER, Biblioyraphicat 
Catalogue, ii. 490). 

Two volumes of AVatson's verse appeared 
posthumously. On 10 Nov. 1592 AVilliam 
Ponsonby obtained a license for an original 
pastoral poem in Latin by AVatson, entitled 
' Amintae Gaudia. Authore Thoma AVat- 
sono, Londinensi, iuris Studioso. Londini, 
Impensis Gulihelmi Ponsonbei, 1592.' It 




was dedicated to Mary, countess of Pem- 
broke, Sir Philip Sidney's sister, by a writer 
signing himself ' C. M.' who deeply lamented 
Watson's recent death. The initials have 
been very doubtfully interpreted as Christo- 
pher Marlowe. The poem is in hexameters, 
and is divided into five ' epistolse.' 

Finally there appeared a series of sixty 
sonnets in regular metre in English under 
the title of 'The Tears of Fancie, or Love 
Disdained,' London, for William Barley, 
1593. John Danter obtained a license for 
the publication on 11 Aug. 1593. The only 
known copy is in the Brit-well Library, but 
it wants two leaves containing eight sonnets 
(Nos. 9-16). 

Watson is represented in most of the 
poetical miscellanies of the end of the six- 
teenth century and early years of the seven- 
teenth century. In the 'Phoenix Xest' 
(1593) there are three previously unpub- 
lished poems by 'T. W., gent,' of which the 
first is an English rendering of a passage from 
Watson's ' Amyntas.' In ' England's Heli- 
con ' (1600) are five poems, of which only 
one was new ; this was superscribed ' The 
nimphes meeting their May Queene, enter- 
taine her with this dittie.' In another poeti- 
cal collection, Davison's' Poetical lihapsodie,' 
1602, ten poems are quoted from the ' c E*a- 
TOfjuraQia.' Watson's name figures among the 
authors whose works are quoted in Boden- 
liam's 'Belvedere, or the Garden of the Muses' 
(1600). A similar book of poetical quota- 
tions, known as ' England's Parnassus ' (1606), 
gives twelve extracts from Watson, all from 
the ' 'EKTo/i7ra#i'a.' 

Watson's verse lacks passion, but is the 
accomplished work of a cultivated and well- 
read scholar. As a Latinist he stands first 
among contemporaries. It is as a sonneteer 
that he left his chief mark on English litera- 
ture. He was the first English writer of 
sonnets after Surrey and Wyatt. Most of 
his sonnets were published before those of 
Sir Philip Sidney, and the popularity attend- 
ing Watson's sonneteering efforts was a 
chief cause of the extended vogue of the 
sonnet in England among poets and their 
patrons in the last decade of the sixteenth 
century. Watson's sonnets were closely 
studied by Shakespeare and other contem- 
poraries, and, despite their frigidity and imi- 
tative quality, actively influenced the form 
and topic of the later sonnets of the century. 
All manner of praise was bestowed on Wat- 
son at his death by his fellow poets and 
men of letters, who reckoned him the com- 
peer of Spenser and Sidney. Harvey in his 
'Four Letters' (1592) highly commended 
his ' studious endeavours in enriching and 

polishing his native tongue,' ranking him 
with Spenser, Stanyhurst, Fraunce, Daniel, 
and Nash. In his 'Pierce's Supererogation' 
(1593) Gabriel Harvey mentions Watson 
as ' a learned and gallant gentleman, a 
notable poet ; ' Nash in his reply to Harvey 
in ' Have with you to Saft'ron Walden ' 
(1596), says of Watson: 'A man he was 
that I dearely lov'd and honor'd, and for all 
things hath left few his equalls in England.' 
George Peele, in a prologue to his ' Honour 
of the Garter' (1593), refers 

To Watson, worthy many Epitaphes 
For his sweet Poesie for Amintas teares 
And joyes so well set downe. 

Spenser refers to him as a patron of the 
poets as well as a poet himself. In ' Colin 
Clout's come home again' (1595) Spenser, 
writing of Watson under the name of ' Amyn- 
tas,' deplores his recent death : 
Amyntas, floure of shepbeards pride forlorne, 
He whilest he liued was the noblest swaine, 
That euer piped in an oaten quill. 
Both did he other, which could pipe, maintaine, 
And eke could pipe himselfe with passing skill. 

William Clerke, in a work entitled ' Poli- 
manteia' (1595), seems, when referring to 
Shakespeare's ' Venus and Adonis,' to dub 
Shakespeare ' Watson's heire.' Watson has 
been doubtfully identified, too, with ' happie 
Menalcas,' to whom Thomas Lodge addressed 
a laudatory poem in ' A Fig for Momus ' 
(1595). Francis Meres, in ' Palladis Tamia ' 
(1598), after honourable mention of Watson 
as a Latinist, treated him as the equal of 
Petrarch, and declared that his Latin pasto- 
rals ' Amyntse Gaudia ' and ' Meliboeus ' 
were worthy of comparison with the work 
of Theocritus, Virgil, Mantuanus, and San- 

Professor Arber edited Watson's English 
poems (excluding the madrigals) in his series 
of English reprints in 1870. Another issue 
is dated 1895. 

[Arher's Introduction ; Brydges's British 
Bibliographer, iii. 1-17, Censura Literaria, iii. 
33-5; Eitson's Bibliographia Poetica ; Anthony 
a Wood's Athenae Oxon. i. 601, ed. Bliss; the 
present writer's Life of William Shakespeare, 
1898; Hunter's manuscript Chorus Vatum in 
Addit. MS. 21488, pp. 348 seq.] S. L. 

WATSON, THOMAS (d. 1686), ejected 
divine, was educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, where he was remarkable for 
hard study. After residing for some time 
with the family of Mary, the widow of Sir 
Horace Vere, baron Tilbury [q. vj, he was 
appointed in 1646 to preach at St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook. During the civil war he showed 
himself strongly presbyterian in his views, 


while discovering attachment to the king. 
He joined the presbyterian ministers in a 
remonstrance to Cromwell and the council 
of war against the death of Charles. In 
1651 he was imprisoned, with some other 
ministers, for his share in Love's plot to re- 
call Charles II [see LOVE, CHEISTOPHER]. 
After some months' imprisonment "Watson 
and his companions were released on peti- 
tioning for mercy, and on 30 June 1652 he 
was formally reinstated vicar of St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook. He obtained great fame and 
popularity as preacher until the Restoration, 
when he was ejected for nonconformity. 
Notwithstanding the rigour of the acts 
against dissenters, Watson continued to 
exercise his ministry privately as he 
found opportunity. In 1666, after the fire 
of London, like several other nonconfor- 
mists, he fitted up a large room for public 
worship for any who wished to attend. 
Upon the declaration of indulgence in 1672 
he obtained a license for the great hall in 
Crosby House, then belonging to Sir John 
Langham, a patron of evangelical noncon- 
formity. After preaching there for several 
years his health gave way, and he retired to 
Barnston in Essex, where he was buried on 
28 July 1686 in the grave of John Beadle 
[q. v.], formerly rector there. A- portrait, 
engraved by James Hopwood, is in Calamy's 
' Nonconformist's Memorial,' ed. Palmer : 
another, engraved by John Sturt,is prefixed 
to his ' Body of Divinity/ 1692 ; and a third, 
engraved by Frederick Henry van Hove, is 
prefixed to his ' Art of Contentment,' 1662. 
Watson was a man of considerable learn- 
ing, and his works preserved his fame long 
after his death. According to Doddridge, 
his ' Christian Soldier, or Heaven taken by 
Storm,' was the means of converting Colonel 
James Gardiner (1688-1745) [q. v.] His 
most famous work, the ' Body of Practical 
Divinity,' appeared after his death, in 1692 
(London, fol.) It consists of 176 sermons on 
the catechism of the Westminster assembly 
of divines. Numerous subsequent editions 
have been printed, the last being issued in 
1838 (London, 8vo) and in 1855 (New 
York, 8vo). His other writings were nume- 
rous. Among the most important are : 
1. 'The Christians Charter; shewing the 
Priviledges of a Believer both in this Life 
and that which is to Come,' London, 1652, 
8vo ; 6th edit. London, 1665, 8vo. 2. ' AVT- 
apueia, or the Art of Divine Contentment,' 
London, 1653, 8vo ; 15th edit. London, 
1793, 12mo; new ed. Diss, 183$, 16mo. 
3. ' The Saints Delight. To which is an- 
nexed a Treatise of Meditation,' London, 
1657, 8vo ; new edition by the Religious 

Tract Society, London, 1830, 12mo. 4. 'The 
Beatitudes : or a Discourse upon part of 
Christ's famous Sermon on the Mount ' 
(with other discourses), London, 1660, 4to. 
o. ' Jerusalems Glory ; or the Saints Safe- 
ties in Eying the Churches Security,' Lon- 
don, 1661, 8vo. 6. ' Ilapafjivdiov, or a Word 
of Comfort for the Church of God,' London, 
1662, 8vo. 7. 'A Divine Cordial: or the 
Transcendent Priviledge of those that love 
God,' London, 1663, 8vo; new edit. London, 
1831, 12mo. 8. ' The Godly Mans Picture, 
drawn with a Scripture Pensil,' London, 
1666, 8vo. 9. ' The Holy Eucharist,' 2nd 
impression, London, 1668, 8vo. 10. ' Heaven 
taken by Storm : or the Holy Violence a 
Christian is to put forth in the pursuit 
after Glory,' London, 1669, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
entitled ' The Christian Soldier, or Heaven 
taken by Storm ; ' new edit. London, 1835, 
8vo ; first American edit. New York, 1810, 
12mo; Nos. 1 and 2 were published, together 
with ' A Discourse of Meditation,' under the 
title of ' Three Treatises,' 6th edit. London, 
1660, 4to. A collection of his ' Sermons and 
select Discourses ' appeared in two volumes, 
Glasgow, 1798-9, 8vo ; Glasgow, 1807, 8vo, 
In 1850 appeared ' Puritan Gems, or Wise 
and Holy Sayings of Thomas AVatson,' edited 
by John Adey, London, 16mo. Two manu- 
script sermons by him are preserved in the 
British Museum (Harl. MS. 7517). 

[Watson's Works ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches 1808, i. 331-4; Calamy's Noncon- 
formist's Memorial, ed. Palmer, i. 188-91; 
Wood's Athenaj Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 982, 1001, 
1235; Granger's Biogr. Hist. iii. 320; CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1651, pp. 247, 457, 465; 
Hennessy's Novum Repert. Eecles. 1898, p. 386 ; 
Bromley's Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 184.] 

E. I. C. 

WATSON, THOMAS (1637-1717), de- 
prived bishop of St. David's, the son of John 
Watson, a ' seaman,' was born at North 
Ferriby, near Hull, on 1 March 1636-7. He 
was educated at the grammar school at Hull 
and was admitted to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on 25 May 1655, whence he 
graduated M.A. in 1662, B.D. in 1669, and 
D.D. in 1675. He was admitted a fellow of 
his college on 10 April 1660. He was also 
presented to the rectory of Burrough Green 
in Cambridgeshire, and in 1678 exerted him- 
self in the parliamentary elections for the 
county in favour of the court candidate ; in 
the following year he was made a justice of 
the peace. On 26 June 1687 he was con- 
secrated at Lambeth bishop of St. David's, 
succeeding John Lloyd (1638-1687) [q. v.] 

Watson was a strong supporter of James II's 
policy, and, according to Wood, owed his 




advancement to tlie recommendation of Henry 
Jennyn, baron Dover [q.v.], though his ene- 
mies asserted that he obtained it by purchase. 
After his consecration Watson did not abate 
his zeal, and strenuously promoted the read- 
ing of the Declaration of Indulgence in his 
diocese in 1688. At the revolution he was 
excepted from the act of indemnity, was at- 
tacked at Burrough Green by the rabble of 
the neighbourhood, was brought a prisoner 
to Cambridge, and was rescued by the scho- 
lars of the university. The strength of his 
opinions was not, however, to be moderated 
by fear of violence. He sympathised ardently 
with the nonjurors; and it was alleged, 
perhaps -without truth, that he ordained 
many persons without tendering them the 
oaths. In 1692 he voted consistently against 
the government in the House of Lords, and 
in 1696, after the detection of the assassina- 
tion plot, Le refused to join the association 
to defend William and Mary from such at- 
tempts, because membership involved a de- 
claration t'jat William was 'rightful and 
lawful ' king. In 1694 he announced his 
intention of insisting on the residence of his 
chancellor, residentiary canons, and beneficed 
clergy who had been lax in fulfilling the 
duties of their positions. This measure, 
though justly conceived, was somewhat 
abruptly announced, and Watson was pro- 
bably influenced by the knowledge that whig 
opinions were prevalent among his clergy. 
It was also believed that he intended remov- 
ing from his office his registrar, Robert Lucy, 
the son of William Lucy [q. v.], a former 
bishop of the see. In alarm Lucy and others 
of the clergy procured an inhibition from the 
archbishop, John Tillotson [q. v.], and Wat- 
son was suspended from his office on 21 Aug. 
1694 while a commission inquired into the 
state of his see (LTJTTRELL, Brief Relation, 
1857, iii. 347, 360). After the termination 
of the commission's researches, however, Wat- 
son undauntedly continued his endeavour to 
get rid of Lucy, and in self-defence Lucy 
brought charges of simony and maladmini- 
stration against him. In October 1695, in 
answer to a citation, Watson appeared before 
Thomas Tenison [q. v.] and six coadjutor- 
bishops and pleaded his privilege of peerage 
(ib. iii. 541, 542). This course arrested pro- 
ceedings until 20 March 1695-6, when he 
agreed to waive his privilege (ib. iv. 79, 383). 
In a further suit by Lucy for the recovery of 
some of his fees, the lords decided on 23 May 
1698 that Watson had no privilege. On his 
trial in the ecclesiastical court it was proved 
that Watson had let out to another clergy- 
man, William Brooks, his rectory of Bur- 
rough Green, which he had retained in com- 

mendam, and that he had appointed his 
nephew, John Medley, to the archdeaconry 
of St. David's, reserving most of the emolu- 
ments for himself. In defence it was shown 
that Brooks had Burrough Green on very 
favourable terms, and that Medley was in- 
debted to his uncle for sums of money ad- 
vanced upon bond to pay for his education 
and for the support of his mother and sisters. 
Watson was, however, found guilty of 
simony, and deprived. The original deed of 
deprivation is in the Lambeth Library. One 
of the coadjutors, Thomas Sprat [q. v.], re- 
fused to concur in the sentence because he 
regarded the proceedings as ultra vires. He 
was willing that Watson should be sus- 
pended, but did not think the archbishop 
competent to deprive him. Sprat's position is 
set forth by an anonymous writer in ' A 
Letter to a Person of Quality concerning the 
Archbishop of Canterbury's Sentence of De- 
privation against the Bishop of St. David's ' 
(London, 1699, 4to), and in Burnet's ' Letter 
to a Member of the House of Commons,' 
published without date ; both are in the 
British Museum Library. 

Watson refused to admit the validity of 
the sentence, which was confirmed by the 
court of delegates on 23 Feb. 1699-1700, 
and continued to take his seat in the House 
of Lords (ib. iii. 584, 621). He at first 
attempted to resume his privilege of peerage ; 
but, the lords declaring on 6 Dec. 1699 that 
he could not do so after voluntarily waiving 
it, he adopted Sprat's contention that the 
archbishop was incompetent to deprive a 
bishop. This point, however, was decided 
against him by the lords on 2 March 1699- 
1700, although on 8 March they requested 
the crown not to fill the see of St. David's 
immediately. On 4 May 1701 Watson was 
excommunicated for contumacy, and on 
30 June 1702 was arrested on a writ for 
1,0001., his costs in the suit (ib. v. 49, 189). 
In November 1703 the court of exchequer 
gave judgment that he was justly deprived 
of the temporalities of the see, and on 
23 Jan. 1704-5 the lords finally declared 
the see vacant by rejecting a petition of 
AVatson in connection with the proceedings 
in the court of exchequer (ib. v. 308, 362, 
501, 509, 511). He was succeeded in the 
see of St. David's in March 1704-5 by George 
Bull [q. v.] He retired to his seat at 
Wilbraham, near Cambridge, where he died 
on 3 June 1717. He was buried in the 
chancel of the parish church under the south 
wall, but without any service, as he was 
still excommunicated. He was married, his 
wife's Christian name being Johanna. He 
was an intimate friend of Thomas Baker 



(1656-1740) [q. v.], whom he wished to make 
his chaplain (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. v. 107). 
During his lifetime he bestowed many bene- 
factions on St. John's College, including the 
advowson of the three livings of Fulbourn 
St. Vigors, and Brinkley in Cambridgeshire, 
and Brandesburton, near Beverley in York- 
shire. He also founded a hospital at Hull, 
which was further endowed by his brother, 
"William Watson. 

Many points in W T atson's conduct during 
his tenure of the see of St. David's Avere 
undoubtedly discreditable, and his general 
character was painted in the blackest colours 
by his enemies. It is said that when his 
nephew, Medley, blundered while conduct- 
ing the service in the cathedral, Watson 
scandalised the congregation with ' two loud 
God dammes.' Much of the evidence on 
which the charge of simony was based was 
of a questionable character, and the court, 
in which Burnet was a coadjutor, displayed 
too much party feeling to allow confidence 
in the impartiality of its findings. The dif- 
ferent treatment meted out to the Jacobite 
"Watson and the whig Edward Jones (1641- 
1703) [q. v.], bishop of Llandaff, was very 
remarkable. Jones was clearly convicted 
of entering into simoniacal contracts, more 
heinous than any of those charged against 
Watson, but his only punishment was sus- 
pension for less than a year. Burnet casuis- 
tical) y defended the inconsistency by saying 
that, while Watson was convicted of simony, 
Jones was only found guilty of simoniacal 
practices ; for Watson took bribes himself, 
while Jones received them through his wife. 
Shippen remarked that Archbishop Tenison 

did in either case injustice show, 
Here saved a friend, there triumphed o'er a foe. 

(Faction Displayed, 1704, p. 5). 

[Baker'sHist.of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
ed. Mayor, 1869, pp. 27-5-6, 697-8; Salmon's 
Lives of the English Bishops from the Restaura- 
tion to the Revolution, 1723, pp. 244-6; Pa- 
trick's Works, ix. 547, 548 ; Godwin, De Prae- 
sulibus Anglise Commentarius, ed. Richardson, 
1743, p. 588; Gent. Mag. 1790, i. 321-3, 404-8, 
413, 516, 616 ; Vernon Letters, ed. James, 1841, 
ii. 334, 338, 376 ; Lords' Journals ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 870; Whiston's 
Memoirs, p. 23 ; Burnet's Hist, of his Own 
Times, 1823, iv. 405-7, 448-50, v. 184-5; 
Masters 's Memoirs of Baker, 1784, pp. 3-5, 
9-14; Evelyn's Diary, ed. Bray, ii. 345, 354; 
Birch's Life of Tillotson, 1753, pp. 229, 230-2 ; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 365 ; Raymond's 
Reports of Cases in the King's Bench and 
Common Pleas, 1765, i. 447, 539; Howell's 
State Trials, xiv. 447-71 ; Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 
5819 f. 195, 5821 f. 40,5831 ff. 148-50, 208-17, 

5836 f. 16, 5841 ff. 7-17. The evidence on 
which Watson was condemned is minutely dis- 
cussed in A Summary View of the Articles Exhi- 
bited agwinst the late Bishop of St. David's, Lon- 
don, 1701, 8vo, written in support of the arch- 
bishop's action, and in a reply entitled A Large 
Review of the Summary View, 1702, 4to.] 

E. LC. 

WATSON, THOMAS (d. 1744), captain 
in the navy, may very possibly, as Charnock 
supposes, have served as a midshipman with 
Edward Vernon (1684-1757) [q.v.], perhaps 
in the Grafton. The only mention of him 
now to be found is as first lieutenant of the 
Antelope in 1733, till his promotion on 7 Oct. 
1737 to be captain of the Antelope. On 
10 July 1739 he was appointed to the Burford 
as Vernon's flag-captain, and acted in that 
capacity at the reduction of Porto Bello. 
In January 1740-1 he moved wi:h Vernon 
to the Princess Caroline, was flag-captain 
during the abortive attack on Cartagena, and 
in June 1741 moved again with Vernon to 
the Boyne, in which he returned 1o England 
in December 1742. In Septembsr 1743 he 
was appointed to the 70-gun ship Northum- 
berland, which in the following spring was 
one of the fleet sent out to Lisbon under 
the command of Sir Charles Hardy (the 
elder) [q. v.] On the homeward voyage at 
daybreak on 8 May the Northumberland, 
looking out ahead, was ordered by signal to 
chase a strange sail seen to the northward. 
She did not come up with it, and did not 
obey her recall, which was made about two 
o'clock. The weather got thick and squally ; 
she lost sight of the fleet ; then of the chase ; 
but about four o'clock sighted three ships to 
the leeward, that is in the east quarter, 
the wind being westerly. Towards these 
strangers the Northumberland ran down. 
They lay-to to wait for her ; it was seen 
that they were French and that two of them 
were ships of 64 guns ; the third was a 26-gun 
frigate. One of the 04-guii ships, the Con- 
tent, was about a mile to windward of her 
consort, the Mars ; and if Watson had en- 
gaged her, he might possibly have disabled her 
before the Mars could come to her support. 
It was clearly the only sane thing to do, if 
he refused to accept the advice offered by 
the master and endeavour to lead the French- 
men back to Hardy's fleet. 

But Watson was in no humour to follow 
advice or plan which savoured of caution. 
While with Vernon he must have been a 
capable officer; but since then, it is said, 
his skull had been fractured in a fall, ' and a 
small matter of liquor rendered him quite 
out of order which was his unhappy fute 
that day ' (A True and Authentick Narra- 


five of the Action between the Northumber- 
land and three French Men of War .... 
By an Eye-Witness). ' We bore down on 
them/ says the eye-witness, ' so precipi- j 
tately that our small sails were not stowed 
nor top-gallant sails furled before the 
enemy began to fire on us, and at the same 
time had the cabins to clear away ; the 
hammocks were not stowed as they should 
be : in short, we had nothing in order as we 
should before action.' About five o'clock 
the Northumberland closed with the Con- 
tent and received her fire, but, without re- 
plying to it, ran down to the Mars. The 
Content followed, so did the frigate. The 
Northumberland was a target for the three 
of them. The men at the wheel were killed, 
and nobody thought of sending others to | 
take their place. The captain was mad- j 
drunk, the master a shivering coward, and 
the lieutenants unable or unwilling to take 
the command. The captain was mortally 
wounded ; and before the first lieutenant 
could get on deck, the master struck the 
colours, and the ship was taken possession 
of. Watson died in France on 4 June 1744. 
The master, tried by court-martial on 1 Feb. 
1745, was sentenced to be imprisoned in the 
Marshalsea for life ; he was spared the capital 
punishment on the ground that he had given 
good advice to his captain before the action. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 370 ; Gent. Mag. 
1745, p. 106; True and Authentick Narrative, 
1745; Commission and Warrant Books and 
Minutes of the Court-martial in the Public 
Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 

WATSON, THOMAS (1743-1781), en- 
graver, was born in London in 1743, and 
articled to an engraver on plate. He exe- 
cuted some good stipple prints, which in- 
clude portraits of Mrs. Sheridan as St. 
Cecilia, and Elizabeth Beauclerk as Una, 
both after Reynolds, and portraits of Mrs. 
Crewe and Mrs. AVilbraham, after Daniel 
Gardner ; but he specially excelled in mezzo- 
tint, working from pictures by Reynolds, 
Dance, West, Gardner, Willison, Rembrandt, 
Correggio, and others. His portraits, after 
Reynolds, of Lady Bampfylde, Lady Mel- 
bourne, Mrs. Crewe as St. Genevieve, Lady 
Townshend and her sisters, and the ' Straw- 
berry Girl,' are brilliant examples of the art, 
and proofs of them are now greatly prized. 
lie also executed a set of six fine plates of 
Lely's ' Windsor Beauties,' now at Hampton 
Court. Watson for a time carried on business 
as a printseller in New Bond Street, and in 
1778 entered into partnership with William 
Dickinson (1746-1823) [q.v.J He died and 
was buried at Bristol in 1781. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; J. Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits ; Le Blanc's 
Manuel del'Amateurd'Estampes.'J F. M. O'D. 

WATSON, SIB THOMAS (1792-1882), 
first baronet, physician, eldest son of Joseph 
Watson of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, and his 
wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Catton, was 
born at Montrath, near Cullompton in Devon- 
shire, on 7 March 1792. He was educated 
at the grammar school of Bury St. Edmunds, 
where Charles James Blomfield [q. v.], after- 
wards bishop of London, was his contem- 
porary ; they continued friends throughout 
life. Watson entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in 1811, and graduated B.A. as 
tenth wrangler in 1815. He was elected a 
fellow in 1816, and in 1818 graduated M.A. 
He studied medicine at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, where he attended the lectures of 
John Abernethy [q. v.], in 1819. After 
spending one session at Edinburgh, he 
again resided at Cambridge, obtained the uni- 
versity license in medicine in 1822, was 
junior proctor in 1823-4, and graduated M.D. 
"in 1825 (Graduati Cantabr. p. 549). In the 
same year, on 15 Sept., he married Sarah, 
daughter of Edward Jones of Brackley, 
Northamptonshire, and took a house in Lon- 
don. He was elected a fellow of the College 
of Physicians in 1826, and in May 1827 phy- 
sician to the Middlesex Hospital, which was 
then connected with University College. He^K 
was professor of clinical medicine, and lee- * 
turedfrom 1828 to 1831. In 1831 he became 
lecturer on forensic medicine at King's Col- 
lege, London, and in 1835 professor of medi- 
cine, an office which he held till 1840. He 
continued to be physician to the Middlesex 
Hospital till 1843. In that year he pub- 
lished his famous ' Lectures on the Principles 
and Practice of Physic,' which had first been 
printed in the ' Medical Times and Gazette.' 
The author corrected five editions, and it 
continued for thirty years the chief English 
text-book of medicine. It contains no dis- 
coveries, but is based upon sound clinical 
observations, gives a complete view of Eng- 
lish medicine of its period, and is remarkable 
for its good literary style. At the College 
of Physicians he gave the Gulstonian lectures 
in 1827, the Lumleian lectures on haemor- 
rhage in 1831, and was a censor in 1828, 
1837, and 1838. In 1862 he was elected 
president, and was re-elected for five succes- 
sive years. He was elected F.R.S. in 1859, 
and in 1864 was made an honorary LL.D. 
at Cambridge. In 1857 he became president 
of the Pathological Society, and in 1868 of 
the Clinical Society. His practice as a phy- 
sician was large, and in 1859 he was appointed 

\ For * University College ' 
read ' London University [now University 

11. 34-5. Omit ' , and lectured ' and 

Watson 4 

physician extraordinary to the queen, and in 
1870 physician in ordinary. He was one 
of the physicians who attended the prince 
consort in his last illness. He was created a 
baronet on 27 June 1866. He retired from 
practice soon after 1870. He last attended 
the comitia of the College of Physicians 
in March 1882, on which occasion all the 
fellows present rose when he entered the 
room, a rare mark of respect, and the highest 
honour which the college can bestow on one 
of its fellows who has ceased to hold office. 

Watson died on 11 Dec. 1882. His por- 
trait, by George Richmond, hangs in the 
censors' room at the College of Physicians. 
He left a son, Sir Arthur Townley Watson, 
Q.C., and one daughter. 

[Marshall's obituary notice in Medico-Chirur- 
gical Transactions, vol. Ixvi. ; Lancet, obituary 
notice, 16 Dec. 1882 ; Works.] N. M. 

WATSON, WALTER (1780-1854), 
Scottish poet, was born of lowly parentage 
at Chryston, parish of Calder, Lanarkshire, 
on 29 March 1780. At the age of eight he 
became a herd, and after a spell at weaving he 
tried farm service for a time at home, and em- 
ployment as a sawyer in Glasgow, after which 
he enlisted in the Scots greys in 1799. Dis- 
charged at the peace of Amiens, -1802, he 
presently married and settled as a weaver in 
Chryston. He changed to Kilsyth, Stirling- 
shire, in 1820, after which he made various 
experiments till 1849 in the adjoining coun- 
ties of Stirling, Lanark, and Dumbarton 
now working as a sawyer and again as a 
weaver finally settling at Duntiblae, near 
Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire, where he 
died on 12 Sept. 1854. He was buried in 
Calder churchyard, and a granite monument 
was erected at his grave in 1875. He was 
survived by a widow and four members of a 
family of ten. 

Several of Watson's lyrics especially such 
merry, festive songs as ' Sit down, my Cro- 
nie,' and ' A wee drappie o't ' though not 
of specially fine quality, have a winning 
shrewdness and vivacity that have secured 
them a certain popularity. Watson pub- 
lished three small volumes of his verse in 
1808, 1823, and 1843 respectively, and a 
volume of his ' Select Poems ' was edited by 
Hugh Macdonald in 1853. 

[Macdonald's Memoir ; Eogers's Modern 
Scottish Minstrel ; Grant Wilson's Poets and 
Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. 

WATSON, WILLIAM (1569P-1603), 
secular priest and conspirator, born on 
23 April, apparently in 1559, was, like his 
contemporaries, Anthony Watson [q. v.] and 

> Watson 

Christopher Watson [q. v.], a native of the 
diocese of Durham. His name does not 
occur in the ' Visitations of Durham ' (ed. 
Foster, 1887), but his father must have been 
a man of some position if William's state- 
ment is to be trusted, that he was ' sent to 
Oxforde at 10 yeares of age with my tutor 
(a perfect linguist, which my father kept to 
teach).' He must be distinguished from the 
' William Watson of Durham, pleb.,' who 
matriculated, aged 26, from All Souls' on 
28 Xov. 1581, and graduated B.A. in the 
following February, for the future con- 
spirator ' at 14 came to the inns of court,' 
and at sixteen ' passed the sea to Rheims ' 
(Watson to the Attorney-general, printed 
in LAW, Archpriest Controversy, i. 211 sqq.) 
Watson's family was evidently Roman ca- 
tholic, and his name does not appear on the 
registers at Oxford or at the inns of court. 
According to Parsons, who is even less 
veracious than Watson himself, Watson 
came to Rheims ' a poor, little begging boy/ 
and obtained employment in menial offices 
at the English College, where he made sport 
for the students ' in tumbling, for which his 
body was fitly made, and so he passed by the 
name of Wil. Wat., or Wat. Tumbler' 
(PARSOXS, Manifestation, 1602, ff. 83-4). 
Watson's own account was that ' my studies 
until I was 18 yeares of age were in the 
7 liberall sciences intermixte, with the 
tongues, phisicke, common lawe (and espe- 
cially histories all my life time for recrea- 
con); from 18 to 21 I studied the lawes 
canon and civil with positive divinitie, and 
perfecting of my metaphisicke and philo- 
sophie ; after that, untill my return home, I 
plyed schoole divinitie.' His library, when 
he was arrested, contained, besides theolo- 
gical works, ' lawe bookes, Machiavels works-, 
tragedies, cronycles, collecions of Doleman, 
Philopater, Leycesters Commonwealth.' 

Watson was confirmed at Rheims on 
25 March 1581, received minor orders on 
23 Sept. 1583, was ordained subdeacon 
on 21 Sept. 1585, deacon at Laon on 
22 March 1585-6, priest on 5 April, and on 
16 June following was sent as inissioner to 
England (Douai Diaries, pp. 13, 178, 198, 
209, 211). He was captured almost im- 
mediately and imprisoned in the Marshal- 
sea; he was soon released on condition of 
leaving England within a specified time, 
during which he was* not to be molested. 
Richard Topcliffe [q. v.], however, who had 
been commissioned to hunt out priests, seized 
Watson, shut him up in Bridewell, and 
severely tortured him (cf. State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. ccii. 61). In 1588 Watson escaped to 
the continent (on 30 Aug. in that year two 




persons were executed for contriving his 
escape), and passed two years at Liege. 
In the autumn of 1590 he again returned 
to England, and officiated for some time in 
the west, eluding capture in spite of there 
being at one time sixteen warrants out 
against him. Eventually one of SirWilliam 
Waad's agents discovered him; but his im- 
prisonment, apparently in the Gatehouse, 
was comparatively mild until Topcliffe again 
intervened with his tortures. Once again 
Watson, 'talcing occasion of the dores set 
Wyde open unto me,' effected his escape, in 
order, he maintained, to avoid legal pro- 
ceedings on account of 200/. which had been 
' taken up ' by some one using his name ; 
possibly this was on 18 May 1597, when he 
escaped from Bridewell with ' an Irish 
bishop' (Cal. Hatfield MSS. vii. 204). On 
30 June 1599 it was reported ' Watson, 
a seminary priest, has again escaped from 
the Gatehouse and cannot be heard of; he 
is thought to have with him a servant who, 
with his consent, has stolen his master's 
best gelding and 40/. in money for Watson's 
use' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601, 
p. 226). He now seems to have fled to 
Scotland, hoping to cross thence to France, 
but returned to the north of England, and 
thence once more to London. Here ap- 
parently he was again arrested, and he was one 
of the thirty-three secular priests in prison at 
Wisbech Castle who on 17 Nov. 1600 signed 
the famous 'appeal' against the appointment 
of George BlackAvell [q. v.] as archpriest, on 
the ground that he was a tool of Parsons and 
the Jesuits. Watson's thirty articles against 
Blackwell's appointment are printed by Mr. 
T. G. Law in ' The Archpriest Controversy ' 
(Camden Soc.), i- 90-8. 

To this struggle between the secular 
priests and the Jesuits Watson had devoted 
his entire energy. Like other seculars, he 
was bitterly opposed not only to the do- 
mination of the Jesuits, but also to their 
anti-national intrigues, especially the pro- 
ject for securing the succession to the in- 
fanta of Spain ; he maintained that but for 
these plots Elizabeth's government would 
grant a large measure of toleration to Roman 
catholics. As early as 1587, while in the 
Marshalsea, he had protested against Babing- 
ton's plot, and the Jesuits denounced him as a 
government spy and his sufferings in prison as 
fictitious ; Watson himself declared that he 
endured more from the tongues of the Jesuits 
than from Topcliffe 's tortures. Possibly his 
visit to Scotland was in connection with his 
project of answering the ' Conference about 
the next Succession,' which Parsons had 
published under the pseudonym of Doleman 

in 1594, advocating the claims of the infanta. 
The account which Watson gives of his book 
is obscure and possibly untrue ; at first ap- 
parently he wished to advocate the exclu- 
sion of all ' foreign ' claims, the Scottish 
included, and he says that the queen and 
Essex liked what he wrote ; then he main- 
tained James's right, and when this proved 
unpalatable at court he suggested that he 
had only been entrapped into writing the 
book at all by Jesuit intrigues. 

This book does not seem to have been 
printed, but in 1601 appeared four works, all 
probably printed at Rheims and ascribed to 
Watson. The first, ' A Dialogue betwixt a 
Secular Priest and a Lay Gentleman concern- 
ing some points objected by the Jesuiticall 
Faction against such Secular Priests as haue 
shewed their dislike of M. Blackwell and 
the Jesuit Proceedings,' was erroneously 
assigned by Parsons and Anthony Rivers to 
John Mush [q. v.], another of the appellants 
(FoLEY, Records, i. 42 ; LAW, Jesuits and 
Seculars, p. cxxxvii). The second, 'A Spar- 
ing Dis-coverie of our English lesuits and of 
Fa. Parsons' Proceedings under pretence of 
promoting the Catholike Faith in England . . . 
newly imprinted' (Rheims? 4to), is ascribed 
by Rivers to Christopher Bagshaw [q. v.] 
(ib.) But 'the most notable of these later 
Avritings on the side of the appellants was 
the " Important Considerations." It forms, 
however, an exception to the general cha- 
racter of Watson's productions, both in 
matter and style. Indeed it has so little of 
Watson's manner that it is not improbable 
that he was the writer of no more than the 
prefatory epistle, which is signed with his 
initials. The book itself professes to be 
" published by sundry of us, the Secular 
Priests," and is a brief, and on the whole fair, 
historical survey of all the rebellions, plots, 
and " bloody designments" set on foot against 
England by the pope or others, mainly at 
the instigation of the Jesuits ' (ib. p. xci). Its 
title was ' Important Considerations which 
ought to move all true and sound Catholickes 
who are not wholly Jesuited to acknowledge 
. . . that the Proceedings of Her Majesty . . . 
have been both mild and merciful.' It was re- 
printed in ' A Collection of Several Treatises 
concerning . . . the Penal Laws,' 1675 and 
1688, in ' The Jesuit's Loyalty,' 1677 series, 
in 'A Preservative against Popery,' 1738,. 
vol. iii., and was edited by the Rev. Joseph 
Mendham in 1831. It was also extensively 
used by Stillingfleet in his ' Answer to 
Cressy,' and by Joseph Berington [q. v.] 
in his ' Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Catholic Religion,' 1813 (ib., p. cxxxv; 
MENDHAM, pref. pp. xiv-xv). In 1601 also 




was published Watson's longest work, ' A 
Decacordon of Ten Quodlibeticall Questions 
concerning Religion and State ; wherein the 
author, framing himself a Quilibet to every 
Quodlibet, decides an Hundred Crosse In- j 
terrogatorie Doubts about the generall con- j 
tentions betwixt the Seminarie Priests and 
Jesuits . . .,' Rheims ? 4to. Though dated j 
1602, it was described by Father Rivers in a : 
letter to Parsons on 22 Dec. 1601. It con- , 
tains a few interesting allusions to Nash, j 
Tarlton, and Will Somers, which seem to 
indicate that Watson frequented the theatre 
(pp. 266, 329). Fuller called it a ' notable 
book,' and declared that no answer to it was 
published by the Jesuits (Church History, 
1656, bk. x. pp. 5-6). A puritan reply, how- , 
ever, appeared early in 1602 (FOLEY, i. 30) as 
' Let Quilibet beware of Quodlibet,' n.d., ' 
n. pi., and ' An Antiquodlibet or an Adver- j 
tisement to beware of Secular Priests ' (Mid- , 
delburg, 1602, 12mo) has been attributed : 
to John Udall [q.v.] who, however, died ten 
years before. 

Whatever hand other appellants had in 
the production of these works, their bitter- 
ness and extravagance impelled the deputa- 
tion then pleading the appellants' cause at 
Rome to repudiate repeatedly all share in 
them (Archpriest Controversy, ii. 68, 77, 87, 
89). The Jesuits at the same time en- 
deavoured to saddle them with the respon- 
sibility, and made good use of the books in 
their attempt to prejudice the papal court 
against the appellants. Parsons replied to 
them with equal scurrility, but more skill, 
in his ' Briefe Apologie ' (1602) and ' Mani- 
festation of the Great Folly . . .' (1602), in 
which he heaps on Watson all manner of 
personal abuse. 

Meanwhile Watson had benefited by the 
favoui shown by Elizabeth's government to 
the secular priests. He had probably been 
removed from Wisbech with the other 
seculars to Framlingham, but in April 1602 
he was in the Clink. In a letter to Parsons, 
Anthony Rivers relates how the Roman 
catholics in that prison had made secret 
arrangements for celebrating mass when 
they were surprised by government agents, 
and asserts that this was prearranged by 
Watson, who was removed to the king's 
bench, but discharged the next day. He 
was now seen in frequent consultation with 
Bancroft, bishop of London, the subject of 
their deliberations being a form of oath of 
allegiance which might be taken by the more 
moderate catholics. This oath was taken in 
November following by Watson and other 
seculars, who were thereupon released ; and 
to this period must probably be referred the 

report (dated October 1601 in Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1580-1625) of Wat- 
son's ' going gallantly, in his gold chain and 
white satin doublet . . . contrary to his priest's 
habit.' He had now begun to regard himself 
as a person of importance, and on the death 
of Elizabeth he hurried to Scotland to obtain 
from James a promise of toleration which 
would completely justify his own policy and 
cripple the influence of the Jesuits. He gained 
access to James and boasted that his reply 
was favourable. When therefore no change of 
policy was forthcoming, Watson was bitterly 
mortified; 'the resolution of James to exact 
the fines was regarded by him almost in the 
light of a personal insult' (GARDINER, i. 109). 
He began to meditate more forcible methods 
of effecting his aims, and communicated his 
grievances to Sir Griffin Markham [q.v.l, An- 
thony Copley [q. v.], William Clark (d. 1603) 
[q. v.], and others, seculars like himself or 
disappointed courtiers. In May 1603 Mark- 
ham suggested recourse to the Scottish pre- 
cedent of seizing the king's person and com- 
pelling him to accede to their demands. 
Even wilder schemes were discussed ; the 
king, not yet crowned and anointed, might, 
Watson thought, be set aside if he proved 
obdurate ; the Tower could easily be seized, 
and Watson nominated himself future lord 
keeper or lord chancellor, and "Copley secre- 
tary of state. Bands of catholic adherents 
were to be collected for 24 June, when they 
would press their demands on the king at 
Greenwich. This conspiracy became known 
as the ' Bye ' or ' Priests' Plot,' and George 
Brooke, his brother, Lord Cobham, and Lord 
Grey de Wilton were implicated in it; but 
Watson also knew of Cobham'sor the 'Main' 
plot (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10, pp. 
34-8), and even discussed the advisability of 
drawing Ralegh into the 'Bye' plot (Addit. 
MS. 6177, f. 265). 

Watson's plot gave the Jesuits an oppor- 
tunity, which they were not slow to use, of 
turning the tables on the seculars and re- 
venging their defeat over the archpriest con- 
troversy. Father Gerard obtained from the 
pope an express prohibition of ' all un- 
quietness.' and the whole influence of the 
society was exerted to frustrate Watson's 
scheme. Copley, who was to have brought 
in two hundred adherents, could not obtain 
one, ' for I knew never a catholic near me of 
many a mile that were not jesuited ' (con- 
fession ap. DODD, ed. Tierney, vol. iv. App. pp. i 
sqq.) Gerard, Blackwell, and Garnett all 
hastened to inform the government of what 
was going on, and Gerard at least made a 
merit of this when charged with complicity 
in the 'gunpower plot.' The attempt on 


45 Watson 

24 June was an utter fiasco, and on 2 July 
a proclamation was issued for Copley's arrest. 
It was by his confession on 12 July that the 
others conspirators were implicated, and this, 
coupled with the fact that Copley was par- 
doned, suggests that he also was playing a 
double part (EDWARDS, Life of Raleigh, ii. 
140, 142 sqq.) It was not till 16 July that 
a proclamation was issued forWatson's arrest, 
which apparently was not effected until about 
5 Aug. He ' was taken in a field by the Hay 
in Herefordshire (or Brecknockshire . . .) 
by Mr. . . . Vaughan. . . . 'Twas observed 
that Mr. Vaughan did never prosper after- 
wards ' (AUBREY, Brief Lives, ed. Clark, ii. 
293). Watson's confession, dated 10 Aug., is 
printed in Tierney's 'Dodd' (vol. iv. App. 
pp. xix sqq.) Owing to the efforts made by 
the government to disentangle the obscure 
ramifications of the two plots, Watson was 
not brought to trial till 15 Xov. at Win- 
chester Castle ( ' Baga de Secretis ' in Dep. 
Keeper of Records, 5th Rep. App. ii. 135-9). 
He was condemned to death for high treason, 
and was executed at Winchester on 9 Dec. 
with William Clark. Among the manu- 
scripts at Stonyhurst is a ' Breve relazione 
della morte di due sacerdoti Gul. Watsoni et 
Gul. Clarkei, 9 Dec. 1603.' 

In the proclamation for his arrest Watson 
is described as ' a man of the lowest sort 
[ = very short] ... his hair betwixt abram 
= auburn] and flaxen ; he looketh asquint, 
and is very purblind, so as if he reade "any- 
thing he puttethe the paper neere to his 
eyes ; he did weare his beard at length of 
the same coloured haire as is his head. But 
information is given that nowe his beard is 
cut.' Parsons says he ; was so wrong shapen 
and of so bad and blinking aspect as he 
looketh nine ways at once.' 

[The most important sources for Watson's 
life are the documents printed from the 
MSS. by Mr. T. G. Law in his Arcbpriest Con- 
troversy(Camd. Soc.2pts. 1897-8), and especially 
Watson's autobiographical letter to the attorney- 
general, endorsed April 1599 : a doubt whether 
this is the correct date, Watson's own vagueness, 
and a difficulty in reconciling his dates with those 
afforded by occasional references in the state 
papers, combine to render the chronology of his 
life somewhat tentative. See also Law's Jesuits 
and Seculars, 1889 ; Douai Diaries : Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. ; Parsons's Brief Apologie and 
Manifestation, both 1602? ; Foley's Records S.J. 
vol. i. passim ; Morris's Troubles, i. 196, ii.260, 
277 ; Lansd. MS. 983, art. 15 ; Cotton. MS.Vesp. 
cxiv.f. 579; Hist. MSS. Comm.3rdRop. App.pp. 
150, 152, 338, 13th Rep. App. iv. 129 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Venetian, 1592-1603, Noe. 1052, 1061, 
1078, 1089 ; Notes and Queries. 4th ser. iv. 314, 
422 ; and Watson's Works in Erit. Mus. Library. 

For his conspiracy, see Confessions and Examina- 
tions among the Domestic State Papers in the 
Record Office, the most important of which are 
printed in Tierney's Dodo, vol. iv. App. pp. 
i-lii ; others are at Hatfield (cf. extract in 
Addit. MS. 6177, f. 265); further details are 
given in the despatches of Beaumont, the French 
ambassador, in the Brit. Mus. King's MS. 123, 
ff. 309 sqq., 329-43, and MS. 124; see also 
Weldon's Court of James I, pp. 340 sqq. : Birch's 
Court and Times of James I ; Lodge's Illustra- 
tions, iii. 75-6 ; Edwards's Life of Raleigh, vol. 
ii. passim ; Sharpe's London and the Kingdom, 
ii. 6-7 ; Gardiner's Hist, of England, i. 108-40; 
Hume's Life of Raleigh, 1897, pp. 254, 259, 263, 
274 ; cp. also arts. BROOKE, GEORGE ; BROOKE, 
LIAM, (d. 1603) ; COPLEY, ANTHONY ; GREY, 
WALTER.] A. F. P. 

WATSON, SIR WILLIAM (1715-1787), 
physician, naturalist, and electrician, born 
on 3 April 1715 in St. John's Street, near 
Smithfield, London, was the son of a trades- 
man. He was entered at the Merchant Tay- 
lors' school in 1726, and in 1730 was appren- 
ticed to an apothecary named llichardson. 
! From his youth he made many excursions 
I into the country to search for plants, having 
a strong taste for botany, and he obtained the 
i premium given annually by the Apothecaries' 
i Company for proficiency in that subject. In 
i 1738 Watson married and set up in business 
for himself. He became distinguished for his 
I scientific knowledge, and on 9 April 1741 was 
elected F.R.S., though he does not seem to 
have published any researches previous to 
i this date. Between this and his death, how- 
ever, he contributed to the 'Philosophical 
Transactions' more than fifty-eight original 
papers and summaries of the work of others, 
1 bearing on natural history, electricity, and 
medicine, many of which are of considerable 
importance. Watson was a constant atten- 
dant at the regular meetings of the Koyal 
Society and at the private associations of its 
j members, which met on Thursdays, first at 
the Mitre in Fleet Street, and later at the 
Crown and Anchor in the Strand (PULTENEY, 
op. cit. ii. 333). In 1745 he was awarded by 
Sir Hans Sloane [q.v.], as surviving executor 
of Sir Godfrey Copley [q. v.j, the Copley 
medal for his electrical research. Later, 
Sloane, with whom he had become very 
intimate, nominatedhim trustee of the British 
Museum, and after its establishment in Mon- 
tagu House in 1756 Watson showed great 
assiduity in the internal arrangements and in 
furnishing the garden with a large collection 
of plants. 


4 6 

On 6 Sept. 1757 he was created doctor of 
physic of the university of Halle, and about 
the same time of Wittemberg ; he had already 
been elected member of the Royal Academy 
of Madrid. After having been disfranchised 
from the Society of Apothecaries he began 
to practise as a physician, and after exami- 
nation was admitted L.R.C.P. on 22 Dec. , 
1759. About this time he moved from Al- | 
dersgate Street to Lincoln's Inn Fields. In 
October 1762 he was chosen physician to the 
Foundling Hospital, and retained this office 
till his death. On 30 Sept. 1784 he was 
elected fellow of the Royal College of Phy- , 
sicians. He was censor of the college in ' 
1785 and 1786,. and was knighted on 6 Oct. | 
in the latter year, being one of those deputed j 
by the college to congratulate George III on ( 
his escape from assassination by Margaret j 
Nicholson. He was also a trustee of the 
College of Physicians, and for some time vice- 
president of the Royal Society. He died in ; 
Lincoln's Inn Fields on 10 May 1787. ' Wat- 
son,' says Pulteney, 'was a most exact econo- 
mist of his time ... up usually in summer 
at six or earlier ; ' he was in speech ' clear, 
forcible, and energetic,' ' a careful observer 
of men,' and endowed with an extraordinary j 
memory, being called by his friends ' the | 
living lexicon of botany ; ' he was, as a phy- 
sician, of particularly humane temp'er. 

Watson had a large foreign correspondence 
with Jean Andre Peyssonel, Clairaut, Bose 
of Wittemberg, the Abbe Is ollet, Bernard de 
Jussieu, and others. In 1748 he showed 
civility to the naturalist Peter Kalm (1715- | 
1779), a pupil of Linnaeus, and in 1761 to . 
Dr. Peter Simon Pallas of St. Petersburg 
{July 1761 to April 1762). 

Watson contributed his first papers on 
electricity to the Royal Society in the course 
of 1745 and February 1746 (Phil. Trans. 
xliii. 481, xliv. 41, 695), and published them 
separately under the title ' Experiments . . . 
[on] the Nature. . .of Electricity' in 1746, 
a second edition being published in the same 
year. He notices therein that although ice, 
as well as water, is an ' electric ' or non- 
conductor, moist air conducts, and he ex- 
plains thereby the failure of electrical experi- 
ments in wet weather. On 30 Oct. 1746 
(loc. cit. xliv. 704) Watson read his ' Sequel 
to the Experiments . . . [on] Electricity,' also 
published separately in the same year ; he 
shows therein by his own experiments and 
those of his friend John Bevis [q. v.] that 
the ' stroke ' of the recently discovered Ley- 
den jar was, cseteris paribus, proportional 
not to its size, but to the conducting surfaces 
of its coatings a point to which he returned 
later (Phil. Trans. 1748, xlv. 102). He 

notices that the ' electrical force always de- 
scribes a circuit' (loc. cit. p. 718), and pro- 
pounds the theory that in an electrical 
machine the glass globes, &c., have not the 
electrical power in themselves, but only serve 
as ' the first movers and determiners of that 
power.' He agrees with the Abb6 Nollet in 
regarding electricity as existing normally 
everywhere in a state of equilibrium, and 
regards the electrical machine as comparable 
to a pump which accumulates electricity on 
the bodies we term ' electrified.' Watson's 
theory, though less clearly formulated, is 
hardly distinguishable from that of Benja- 
min Franklin. In his next paper (read 
21 Jan. 1748, loc. cit. xlv. 93) Watson elabo- 
rates this theory and defines it more closely, 
quoting at the same time from Franklin's 
famous first letter (dated 1 June 1747) on 
the subject to Peter Collinson [q. v.] During 
1747 and 1748 Watson, in conjunction with 
Martin Folkes [q. v.], then president, and a 
number of other members of the Royal Society, 
along with Bevis, carried out a long series 
of experiments on ' the velocity of electric 
matter' across the Thames at Westminster 
Bridge, at Highbury, and at Shooter's Hill, 
Watson planning and directing all the opera- 
tions. They found that no appreciable inter- 
val could be perceived between the comple- 
tion of the circuit 12,276 feet long, uniting 
the two coatings of a Leyden jar, and the 
receipt of the shock by an observer in the 
middle of the circuit ; they conceived that 
the velocity of electricity was ' instantaneous.' 
In 1751 Watson, then 'the most interested 
and active person in the kingdom in every- 
thing relating to electricity' (PKIESTLEY), 
took great trouble to demonstrate the fallacy 
of certain statements of Georg Matthias Bose 
(1710-1761) and Johann Heinrich Winkler 
(1703-1770). In February 1752 he gave an 
account of the experiments on the electrical 
discharge in vacuo, on which he had been occu- 
pied since 1747, which, together with those of 
Xollet, are the first on the subject. In experi- 
mental details he was helped by John Smea- 
ton [q. v.] and by Lord Charles Cavendish. 
He gives an accurate account of the pheno- 
mena, finds that rarefied air conducts electri- 
city, though not so well as metals, and com- 
pares the discharge to the aurora borealis. 
On 16 Dec. 1762 he read before the Royal 
Society the substance of a letter to Lord An- 
son, first lord of the admiralty, advocating 
the use of the lightning conductors of Frank- 
lin for the powder magazine then being con- 
structed at Purfleet. The Royal Society was 
formally consulted in the matter, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to consider it, consist- 
ing of Watson, Henry Cavendish [q. v.], 




Franklin, JohnRobertson (1712-1776) [q.v.J, 
and Benjamin Wilson [q. v.]; they reported 
favourably in 1772. 

Watson's electrical experiments became 
famous outside scientific circles. George III 
(then Prince of Wales), the Duke of Cumber- 
land, and other fashionable people went to 
see them at his house in Aldersgate Street. 

In 1750 (loc. dt. xlvi. 584) Watson com- 
municated to the Royal Society ' several 
papers concerning a new semi-metal called 
platina.' The credit of the introduction of 
platinum has on this account been ascribed 
to Watson, and also to his namesake, Richard 
Watson [q. v.], bishop of Llandaff. The 
first and most important of the papers is by 
William Brownrigg [q. v.], who had himself 
been given the specimens of ' platina di Pinto ' 
from the Spanish West Indies by Charles 
Wood nine years previously, and Brownrigg 
deserves most credit in the matter, Watson's 
paper being merely a commentary on Brown- 
rigg's. In 1757 (Gent. Mag. xxvii. 6) Wat- 
son made the obvious but important practical 
suggestion that instead of covering the lead 
water pipes, used to supply houses, with 
horse-dung, to prevent them from freezing, 
these should be provided with two cocks, so 
as to cut off the supply and empty them 
during frost. 

The most important of Watson's botanical 
papers is that on the Star-puff ball (yeaster} 
which first drew the attention of continental 
botanists to his work (Phil. Trans, xliih 234, 
read 20 Dec. 174-4). Many of his botanical 
papers are historical summaries, showing 
great knowledge and perspicacity. On 7 May 
1752 (ib. xlvii. 445) he read a long account 
of a manuscript treatise by De Peyssonel, 
proving that coral was of animal and not 
vegetable origin, which had been communi- 
cated to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 
1727, but neglected. In 1754 (ib. xlviii. 615) 
he recognised that the holly is ' polygamous.' 
In the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1754, p. 555, 
Watson published over his initials a notice 
of Linnseus's Species plantarum, in which the 
author set forth his new method of nomen- 
-clature, and pronounced it to be the ' master- 
piece of the most compleat naturalist the 
world has ever seen,' but nevertheless criti- 
cises certain details. In the following year 
(Gent. Mag. xxv. 317) Linnaeus replied to 
his anonymous critic, whom he calls ' in re 
herbaria solidissimum et honestissimum, 
simul et mitissimum judicem.' Watson did 
much to introduce the Linnaean system into 
England. He wrote a number of medical 
memoirs dealing with cases of poisoning 
by fungi, &c. ; but his chief medical work 
deals with epidemics. In December 1762 he 

published (Phil. Trans. Hi. 646) a letter to 
his friend John Huxham [q.vj on the ' catar- 
rhal disorder' (influenza) of May 1762, and 
the dysentery that followed in the autumn. 
In February 1763 (loc. cit. liii. 10) he pub- 
lished an interesting cure of severe muscular 
rigidity by means of electricity. He pub- 
lished various papers in the ' London Medi- 
cal Observations' (iii. 35, iv. 78, 132) 'on 
putrid measles' (see CREIGHTON, Epidemics 
in Britain, ii. 705, iv. 321). In 1768 Wat- 
son published as a pamphlet ' An Account 
of a Series of Experiments instituted with 
a view of ascertaining the most successful 
Method of inoculating the Smallpox.' Wat- 
son found that preparatory drugs had no 
effect, that matter from natural or inoculated 
smallpox produced the same result, and that 
it was inadvisable to inoculate children 
under three years of age. 

A portrait of Watson in oils, by L. F. 
Abbot, given by the sitter, and an engraving 
therefrom by Thorntlnvaite (1767) are in 
the possession of the Royal Society. He 
had a massive though not handsome face, 
with highly arched eyebrows and large orbits. 

Watson left one son, and a daughter, mar- 
ried to Edward Beadon, rector of North Stone- 
ham, Hampshire, brother of Richard Beadon 
[q. v.], bishop of Bath and Wells. The son 
is probably to be identified with the WILLIAM 
WATSON (1744-1825 ?) jun., M.D., born on 
28 Aug. or 8 Sept. 1744. He was knighted 
on 6 March 1796 (THOMSON, Hist, of the 
Royal Society}, elected F.R.S. on 10 Dec. 
1767, and admitted on 19 May 1768. He 
contributed a paper on the blue shark to the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' (Ixviii. 789). 
He died about 1825. 

[Clark's Georgian Era, iii. 166; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 1787, i. 454; Robin- 
son's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, ii. 68; 
Poggendorflfs Biogr. Literar. Handworterbuch, 
1863 passim; Pulteney's Sketches of the Pro- 
gress of Botany in England, 1790, ii. 295-340 
(the most complete memoir; probably written 
from personal knowledge) ; Mtmk's Coll. ofPhys. 
ii. 298 ; Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Soc., 
1812, App. p. xlii ; Record of the Royal Soc., 
1897; Creighton's Epidemics in Britain, 1894, 
ii. passim ; Maty's Index to the Phil. Trans, 
vols. i Ixx. ; Watson's own papers ; Priestley's 
Hist, of Electricity, 5th edit. 1794, passim; 
Hoppe's Geschichte der Elektricitat, passim; 
Wiedemann's Lehre von Elektricitat, passim ; 
information from Prof. Marcus Hartog of 
Queen's Coll., Cork.] P. J. H. 


(1796-1860), baron of the exchequer, born 
at Bamborough in 1796, was the son of John 
Watson, captain in the 76th foot, by Eliza- 

Watson-Wentworth 48 Watson-Wentworth 

beth, daughter of HenryGrey of Bamborough, 
Northumberland. He was educated at the 
Eoyal Military College, Marlow, and given 
a commission in the 1st royal dragoons by the 
Duke of York on 7 May 1812, serving with 
his regiment in the Spanish peninsula. 
"When it Avas reduced in 1814 he exchanged 
into the 6th dragoons on 13 April 1815, with 
whom he served in Belgium and France. He 
was present at the battle of Waterloo and at 
the entry of the allied armies into Paris. 

He was placed on the half-pay list on 
25 March 1816, and the next year entered 
as a student at Lincoln's Inn, and by hard 
work soon became competent to practise as 
a special pleader, and continued to do so 
until 1832, when he was called to the bar 
in Lincoln's Inn. He joined the northern 
circuit, where he found work and became 
popular. In 1841 he entered the House of 
Commons as liberal member for Kinsale, 
for which borough he sat till 1847. In 
1843 he became a Q.C. and a bencher of his 
inn. He was an unsuccessful candidate 
for NeAvcastle-on-Tyne in the liberal in- 
terest, July 1852, but in 1854 he was 
elected member for Hull, and sat as 
such until on 3 Nov. 1856 he was created 
baron of the exchequer, to succeed Sir Thomas 
Joshua Plat-t [q. v.] He was .knighted on 
28 Nov. of the same year. "Watson proved 
himself a j udge possessed of clear head and 
strong mind, but his career on the bench 
was very short. On the conclusion of his j 
charge to the grand jury at Welshpool, ' 
12 March 1860, he was seized with apoplexy, 
and died the next day. 

Watson married, first, in 1826, a daugh- 
ter of William Armstrong of Ne\vcastle-on- ' 
Tyne, and sister of Lord Armstrong ; se- 
condly, in 1831, Mary, daughter of Anthony 
Hollist of Midhurst, Sussex. 

He was distinguished as an advocate by 
honesty and earnestness rather than elo- 
quence, but was a sound lawyer and the 
author of two (for a time) standard pro- 
fessional works : 1. ' A Treatise on Arbitra- 
tion and Award,' London, 1825, 8vo; 3rd ed. 
1846. 2. ' A Treatise on the Law relating 
to the Office and Duty of Sheriff,' 8vo, 1827 ; 
2nd ed. 1848, by William Newland Welsby 
[q. v.] 

[Morning Ptst ; Gent. Mag. 1860, i. 422; 
Foss's Judges ; Law Mag. ; Dod's Knightage ; 
Army Lists, 1813-17.1 W/C-it. 

1782), born on 13 May 1730, was fifth 
and only surviving son of Thomas Wat- 
son-Wentworth, marquis of Rockingham, 

by Mary, daughter of Daniel Fincb 
second earl of Nottingham and sixth earl o/ 
Winchilsea [q. v.] He descended from Sir 
Lewis Watson, first baron Rockingham [q. v.l 
His grandfather, Thomas Watson, third son*,, 
of Edward Watson, second baron Rocking-i 
ham, by Anne, first daughter of Thomas 1 
Went worth, first earl of Stratford, inherited j 
the Went worth estates, and assumed the 
additional surname of Wentworth. His 
father created on 28 Maj; 1728 Baron 
Wentworth of Malton, Yorkshire, and on 
19 Nov. 1734 Baron of Harrowden, and 
Viscount Higham of Iligham Ferrers, 
Northamptonshire, and Baron of Wath and 
Earl of Malton, Yorkshire succeeded to the 
barony of Rockingham on the death (26 Feb. 
1745-6) of his cousin, Thomas Watson, 
third earl of Rockingham the earldom and 
associated honours, except the barony, then 
becoming extinct and was created on 
19 April 1746 Marquis of Rockingham. 

Charles Watson-Wentworth, styled in 
his father's lifetime Viscount Higham and 
Earl of Malton, was educated at Westmin- 
ster school and St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He was created on 17 Sept. 1750 
an Irish peer by the titles of Baron and 
Earl of Malton, co. Wicklow, and on the- 
death of his father on 14 Dec. the same 
year succeeded to all his honours. He took 
his seat in the House of Lords- on 21 May 
1751, and in the following July was ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of the North and 
East Ridings of Yorkshire. He was elected 
F.R.S. on 7 Nov. 1751, and F.S.A. on 
13 Feb. 1752. On 27 Feb. 1755 he was- 
appointed vice-admiral of Yorkshire. He 
was installed K.G. on 6 May 1760, and 
on the accession of George III continued 
in the office of lord of the bedchamber, 
which he had held since 1751. In 1763 he- 
was appointed (14 April) trustee of West- 
minster school and (11 Oct.) governor of 
the Charterhouse; in 1766 (7 April) high 
steward of Hull. Rockingham Avas bred in 
the strictest whig principles, and even in 
boyhood was so full of zeal for the house 
of Hanover that during the winter of 
1745-6 he slipped away from Wentworth 
and joined the Duke of Cumberland's 
standard at Carlisle. He never coquetted 
witli Leicester House, or showed the 
slightest disposition to compromise with the 
party of prerogative which, on the acces- 
sion of George III, Lord Bute began to 
organise under the specious designation of 
'king's friends.' On the eve of the 
signature of the preliminaries of the peace 
of Paris, he followed the example of 
Devonshire [see CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, 

Watson-Wentworth 49 Watson-Wentworth 

fourth DUKE OP DEVONSHIRE] in resigning 
his place in the bedchamber (3 Nov. 1762). 
He was thereupon dismissed from his lieu- 
tenancies (December) and the office of vice- 
admiral of Yorkshire (29 Jan. 1763). A 
hesitant speaker, he made no brilliant parlia- 
mentary debut, and meddled little with 
politics until, in March 1765, he was in- 
duced by Lord John Cavendish to accom- 
pany him to Hayes to solicit Pitt's counsel 
and aid in organising opposition to the arbi- 
trary measures taken by the Grenville-Bed- 
ford administration against the supporters of 
Wilkes. From this mission Rockingham 
returned very dissatisfied with Pitt. He in 
consequence drew closer to Newcastle [see 
CASTLE-UPON-TYNE], by whom he was con- 
sulted during the prolonged struggle on the 
regency bill. During the crisis which re- 
sulted Rockingham received through Cum- 
berland separate overtures, concurrent with 
those made to Pitt, for the formation of a 
coalition administration, and, on Pitt's defi- 
nitive refusal of office, accepted the trea- 
sury, was sworn of the privy council (10 July), 
and reappointed lord lieutenant of the west 
and north ridings of Yorkshire (7 Aug.) 
The great seal was retained by Northing- 
ton and the first lordship of the admiralty 
by Egmont, but Keppel was made a junior 
lord [see HENLEY, ROBERT, first EARL OP 


VISCOUNT KEPPEL]. Grafton and Conway 
were made secretaries of state for the 
northern and southern departments re- 
spectively [see FITZROY, AUGUSTUS HENRY, 
HENRY SEYMOUR]. William Dowdeswell 
(1721-1775) [q. v.J took the seals of the ex- 
chequer and Newcastle the privy seal, Daniel 
Finch, seventh earl of Winchilsea, became 
president of the council, and William Legge, 
second earl of Dartmouth [q. vj, president 
of the board of trade. Lord John Caven- 
dish [q. v.], Thomas Townshend (afterwards 
Viscount Sydney) [q. v.], and George (after- 
wards Lord) Onslow [q. v.] were provided 
with seats at the treasury board. Barring-- 
second VISCOUNT BARRINGTON] was made 
secretary at war, and Charles Townshend 
[q. v.] paymaster of the forces. Chief- 
justice Pratt was created Baron Camden 
In the lower house the government was 
strengthened by the return of Rocking- 
hatn's private secretary, Edmund Burke 
[q. v.], for the borough of Wendover. 

On the American question ministers (ex- 


cept Northington, Barrington, and Town- 
shend) were inclined to be accommodating. 
Nevertheless they hesitated, and it was not 
until the spring of 1766, and then only 
under pressure from Pitt and Camden, that 
they proposed the repeal of the Stamp Act. 
The measure was carried in the teeth of 
the determined opposition of the Grenville- 
Bedford faction, reinforced in some degree 
by the king's friends. The king himself 
was known to prefer the modification of the 
measure to its repeal. The repeal was 
facilitated by a concurrent statutory declara- 
tion of the absolute supremacy of parlia- 
ment over the colonies, to which practical 
effect was given by a new Mutiny Act, 
under which the provincial assemblies were 
required to appropriate funds for the 
quartering and maintenance of the troops. 
The colonies were granted a more favourable 
tariff, the evasion of the navigation laws by 
the Spanish bullion ships was sanctioned, 
and the laws themselves were slightly relaxed 
in regard to the West Indies. To the chagrin 
which the repeal of the Stamp Act caused 
the king, ministers added the further morti- 
fication of refusing an allowance to his 
brothers and carrying (22, 25 April) resolu- 
tions condemnatory of general warrants. 
On 14 May Grafton resigned, and, though 
his successor was found in Richmond [see 
MOND], a negotiation which had long been 
pending between Pitt and the court ended 
in Rockingham's dismissal and Pitt's return 
to power at the close of the following July 
TON], Immediately after the prorogation 
of 2 July 1767 Rockingham was commis- 
sioned by Grafton to form an administration 
upon an extensive plan ; but, after prolonged 
discussion, the irreconcilable divisions of 
the whigs caused the abandonment of the 
project. Rockingham was disheartened by 
the subsequent fusion of the Bedford faction 
with the king's friends, and except to join 
in the protest against the limitation of the 
East India Company's dividend on 8 Feb. 
1768, and to move in March 1769 for de- 
tailed accounts preliminary to the discharge 
of the debt on the civil list, he took little 
part in public affairs until Chatham's return 
to St. Stephen's. 

A call of the House of Lords moved by 
Rockingham in consequence of the removal 
of Camden was defeated by an adjournment, 
against which he entered his protest in the 
journal (15 Jan. 1770). He moved for 
(22 Jan.), and^with Chatham's aid obtained 
(2 Feb.), a committee of the whole house 
on the state of the nation ; in which he was 

Watson-Wentworth 5 Watson-Wentworth 

defeated on a resol ution censuring the proceed- 
ings of the House of Commons in the matter of 
the Middlesex election [see WILKES, JOHN]. 
The minority recorded their protest in the 
journal of the house, and replied by a similar 
protest to a vote deprecating interference by 
either house in matters of which the other 
had exclusive cognisance. Rockingham also 
supported Chatham's motion for an account of 
the expenditure on the civil list (14 March), 
joined in the protest against the rejection 
of his bill to reverse the adjudications of 
the House of Commons in the matter of the 
Middlesex election (1 May), but declined to 
follow him in his attempt to force an im- 
mediate dissolution (14 May). He followed 
Richmond's lead in censuring the directions 
issued by Hillsborough for the dissolution 
of the assembly of Massachusetts Bay and 
the suspension of the revenue laws in Vir- 
ginia (18 May). He also supported Rich- 
mond's motion for papers relative to the Falk- 
land Islands question (22 Nov.), and joined 
(10 Dec.) in the protest against the forcible 
clearance of the house by which debate on 
the state of the national defences was stifled. 
Rockingham paid a tribute to civic virtue 
by visiting Lord-mayor Brass Crosby [q. v.] 
and Alderman Oliver in the Tower (30 March 
1771). He resented the extension of the 
prerogative effected by the Royal Marriage 
Act of 1772, and perpetuated the grounds 
of his opposition in an able protest (3 March). 
In 1773 he supported (2 April) the measure 
relieving protestant dissenters and school- 
masters from the partial subscription to the 
Thirty-nine articles of religion required by 
the Toleration Act, joined (10 June) in the 
protest against the rejection of Richmond's 
motion for a message to the House of Com- 
mons praying disclosure of the evidence on 
which the India bill was founded, and in 
the subsequent protest (19 -June) against 
the measure itself. He opposed the measures 
of 1774-5 enabling a change of venue for 
trials of persons prosecuted in Massachusetts 
Bay for acts done in execution of the law, 
and laying the external and internal trade 
of the colonies under interdict ; supported 
(20 Jan. 1775) Chatham's motion for the re- 
call of the troops from Boston ; and, after 
moving to the address on 31 Oct. 1776 an 
amendment deprecating the continuance of 
the struggle, recorded his protest against its 
rejection, and virtually seceded from the 
house. The office of vice-admiral of York- 
shire was thereupon restored to him (18 Dec.) 
Emerging from his cave on the conclusion 
of the Franco-American alliance, Rocking- 
ham censured North's conciliatory bills [see 

FORD] as inadequate, and declared for the 
immediate recognition of the independence 
of the colonies (9, 17 March 1778). The 
subsequent denunciation of war a outrance 
against the colonies by the peace commis- 
sioners drew from him an indignant re- 
monstrance (7 Dec.) In the interval he 
had lent his support to Sir George Savile's 
measure for the partial enfranchisement of 
Roman catholics (25 May). 

Rockingham was assidiious in attendance 
on Keppel during his court-martial at Ports- 
mouth, and, on the admiral's acquittal, moved 
in the House of Lords a vote of thanks for his 
eminent services (16 Feb. 1779). He also 
in the course of 1779 moved an address 
(11 May) on the distressed state of Ireland, 
led the attack on Lord Sandwich's admini- 
stration of the navy (25 June), and on the 
criminal negligence which sent Kempenfeldt 
to sea with an inadequate force founded a 
motion for the withholding of further sup- 
plies (19 Dec.) He also supported (1, 7 Dec.) 
Shelburne's censure upon the government's 
neglect of Irish affairs, and Richmond's 
motion for reform of the civil list establish- 
ment. Discountenancing the agitation of 
the following year for short parliaments- 
and a wide suffrage, he received but rejected; 
North's overtures for a coalition (8 July). 
In 1781 he censured the rupture with Holland 
as both unjust and impolitic (25 Jan.), and 
exposed the corrupt and improvident manner 
in which the loan was raised (21 March). On 
the eve of the fall of North's administration 
Rockingham received through Thurlow [see 
overtures which, after some delay, resulted 
in the formation of a coalition (27 March 
1782). Rockingham received the treasury, 
Lord John Cavendish the exchequer, Shel- 
burne was made home and colonial secretary,. 
Charles James Fox [q. v.] foreign secretary, 
Camden president of the council. Thurlow 
retained the great seal, and Grafton received 
the privy seal. Richmond became master- 
general of the ordnance, Keppel first lord of 
the admiralty, Con way commander-in-chief. 
Portland went to Dublin as viceroy. The 
administration was dissolved by Rocking- 
ham's death (1 July 1782), but not before 
legislative independence had been conceded 
to Ireland, and the power of the crown 
considerably curtailed by the reduction of 
the household, the disfranchisement of \ 
revenue officers, and the exclusion of go- 
vernment contractors from the House of 
Commons [see PETTY, WILLIAM, first MAR- 

Rockingham was buried (20 July) in the 
choir of York Minster. By his wife Mary 

Watson- Wentworth 


(m. 26 Feb. 1752, d. 19 Dec. 1804), daughter 
of Thomas Bright, formerly Liddell, of Bads- 
worth, Yorkshire, he left no issue. His 
honours became extinct. His estates de- 
volved upon his nephew, William Went- 
worth Fitzwilliam, second earl Fitzwilliam 
[q. v.] 

In the National Portrait Gallery and at 
Buckingham Palace are three-quarter-length 
portraits of Rockingham copied from the 
original, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the col- 
lection of Lord Fitzwilliam. Another copy 
was exhibited by Lord Hardwicke at the 
Grosvenor Gallery in 1884, and was part of 
the Mildmay collection dispersed at Christie's 
in 1893. For engravings see Lodge's ' Por- 
traits ' and ' Rockingham's Memoirs ' by 
Albemarle. Other portraits of Rockingham 
are a whole-length by Reynolds at Windsor 
Castle, and a three-quarter-length by Wilson, 
of both of which there are engravings in 
the British Museum. A mausoleum at 
Wentworth Park contains his statue by 
Nollekens, the pedestal inscribed with his 
eulogy by Burke (cf. ' Speech on American 
Taxation,' 19 April 1774, BTJKKE'S Speeches, 

\ ed. 1816, i. 212). 

Rockingham was an old whig of sterling 

// honesty who, during a long period of ad- 
versity, contended manfully against a cor- 
rupt system of government. He was, how- 
ever, by no means a great statesman. His 
policy towards America and Ireland was 
mere opportunism. At the commencement 
of the Wilkes affair he erred by defect, and 
towards its close by excess, of zeal. In his 
just jealousy of the influence of the crown he 
showed a disposition to push economy to the 
verge of cheeseparing, while he ignored the 
far weightier question of the reform of the 
representative system. 

[Albemarle's Memoirs of Kockingham ; Kep- 
pel's Life of Keppel ; Grenville Papers, ed. 
Smith ; Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign of 
George III, ed. Le Marchant, revised by Eussell 
Barker; Walpole's Journal of the Reign of 
George III, ed. Doran ; Walpole's Letters, ed. 
Cunningham ; Grafton's Autobiogr. ed. Anson ; 
Almon's Polit. Reg. 1767, p. 203 ; Protests of 
the Lords, ed. Rogers; Parl. Hist. vol. xvi-xxiii. ; 
Cavendish's Debates of the House of Commons, 
i. 576, 581-7, 606-7; Addit. MSS. 9828 f. 103, 
32723-33108; Wraxall's Hist, and Posth. Me- 
moirs, ed. Wheatley; Fitzmaurice's Life of Shel- 
burne ; Buckingham's Memoirs of the Courts and 
Cabinets of George III; Chatham's Corresp. ; 
Burke's Corresp. ; Memorials and Corresp. of 
Charles James Fox, ed. Lord John Russell, i. 
115, 154, 206; Corresp. of John, fourth Duke 
of Bedford, ed. Lord John Russell ; Earl Russell's 
Life of Charles James Fox, i. 278 et seq. ; 
Trevelyan's Early History of Charles James 

Fox; Gent. Mag. 1782, i. 359 ; Ann. Reg. 1782, 
Chron. p. 239; Allen's Yorkshire, i. 121, iii. 
172; Doyle's Official Baronage ; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage ; Adolphus's Hist, of Engl. ; Bisset's 
Hist, of the Reign of George III ; Massey's 
Hist, of Engl.; Lecky's Hist, of Engl.; G. E. 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. App. p. 222, 4th Rep. App. 
pp. 399, 402, 5th Rep. App. pp. 210-11, 252, 
255-8, 6th Rep. App. p. 24, 8th Rep. App. ii. 
121, 9th Rep. App. iii. 13, 14, 24, 25, 61, 132, 
10th Rep. App. i. 390, vi. 13, 24, 31-2, llth 
Rep. App. iv. 399, v. 331, 12th Rep. App. x. 53, 
59, 14th Rep. App. i. 11, 18, App. x. 15th Rep, 
App. v. 145-8.1 J. M. R. 

WATT, JAMES (1736-1819), engineer, 
born at Greenock on 19 Jan. 1736, was grand- 
son of Thomas Watt (1642-1734), a teacher 
of mathematics, surveying, and navigation at 
Crawfordsdyke, near Greenock. The father, 
JAMES WATT (1698-1782) of Greenock, ap- 
pears to have been a man of many pursuits : 
carpenter and joiner, builder and contractor, 
mathematical instrument maker to some 
extent at least (for it appears he ' touched ' 
compass needles) a shipowner, and a mer- 
chant. This last calling is that by which he 
is described in certain of the town papers, 
and this is the calling stated on the tomb- 
stone erected by his son, James Watt, in 
1808. He was much respected and esteemed, 
and in 1751 was made chief magistrate of 
Greenock. He died in 1782, in his eighty- 
fourth year. About 1728 he had married 
Agnes Muirhead ; she appears to have been 
a most exemplary and devoted wife and 
mother. Prior to the birth of James, the en- 
gineer, she had sustained the loss of two sons 
and an only daughter, who died in infancy ; 
three years afterwards another son, John 
Watt, was born, who died at sea in 1763, at 
the age of twenty-four. The mother prede- 
ceased her husband in 1755, at the age of 

James Watt, the son, was always delicate, 
and suffered throughout his life from severe 
attacks of headache. He lived with his 
parents till his eighteenth year. He was 
first sent to a school in Greenock, kept by 
one M'Adam, and was jeered at by his fellows 
as being dull and spiritless, a condition due, 
no doubt, to his feeble health. Subsequently, 
when thirteen years of age, he began to study 
geometry, and at once showed the greatest 
possible interest in the subject. He then 
went to the Greenock grammar school, where 
he acquired Latin and some Greek. During 
his boyhood he was a diligent worker in his 
father's shop so far as regards the making of 
models, and gave early evidence of his great 
manual dexterity and of his power to turn 




out delicate work. At tbe age of seventeen 
to eighteen he was sent to Glasgow to live 
with his mother's relatives, then to London 
to improve himself as a mathematical in- 
strument maker, and with this object became 
an apprentice of John Morgan, philosophical 
instrument maker, of Finch Lane, Cornhill. 
He found, however, that the atmosphere of 
London was unsuited to one of his delicate 
health, and in less than a year he returned 
to Greenock. He did not stay there for any 
length of time, but went and settled in 
Glasgow, being then in his twenty-first year. 
He then endeavoured to open a shop, as 
mathematical instrument maker, in Glasgow, 
but was prevented by the Corporation of 
Hammermen, on the ground that he had not 
served a proper apprenticeship. It was at 
this juncture that one of his school friend- 
ships stood him in good stead. Watt had 
for his most intimate schoolfellow Andrew 
Anderson, whose elder brother, John An- 
derson (1726-1796) [q. v.], was professor of 
natural philosophy at Glasgow University. 
The heads of the university now came to 
Watt's assistance by appointing him mathe- 
matical instrument maker to the university, 
and by allowing him to establish a workshop 
within its precincts. Here Watt continued 
to work and to improve himself in various 
ways, and here he made the acquaintance of 
many eminent men, such as Joseph Black 
[q. v.], the discoverer of latent heat : Adam 
Smith [q. v.] ; and John Robison [q. v.], pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy. Here also, in 
1764 (when Watt was in his twenty-eighth 
year), occurred the well-known incident of 
the repair of the model of a Newcomen fire 
(steam) engine, belonging to the university, 
which had never acted properly, although it 
had been sent to London to be put in order 
by the celebrated mathematical instrument 
maker, Sisson. The poor performance of this 
model fixed Watt's thoughts on the question 
of the economy of steam, and laid the founda- 
tion of his first and greatest invention. Watt 
prosecuted this invention so far as his 
limited means would admit, but nothing on 
a working scale seems to have been done, 
until he entered into an arrangement with 
John Roebuck [q. v.], the founder of the 
Carron Works, to take a share in the in- 
vention, and an engine was made at Kinneil, 
near Linlithgow. But Roebuck fell into diffi- 
culties, and this engine does not seem to 
have excited much attention ; nor did the 
invention develop in the manner that might 
have been expected. 

Moreover, Watt became largely employed 
in making surveys and reports, in connection 
with canals, rivers, and harbours. He appears 

to have succeeded Smeaton in the position 

of engineering adviser to the Carron Foundry. 

Among the last of his engineering works of 

this character were an improvement of the 

harbour of his native place, Greenock, and 

a provision of water- works for that town. 

In 1768 Dr. Small introduced Watt to 

Matthew Boulton [q. v.], the founder of the 

Soho Engineering Works, near Birmingham. 

In 1769 Watt's invention was patented. In 

1772 Roebuck failed, and Boulton offered to 

take a two-thirds share in Watt's engine 

i patent, in lieu of a debt of 1,200/. In May 

I 1774 Watt, discontented with his surveying 

I and other work in Scotland, migrated to 

Birmingham, and early in 1775, being then 

thirty-eight or thirty-nine, he entered into 

partnership with Boulton at the Soho Works. 

In 1786 Watt accompanied Boulton to 

Paris to consider proposals for the erection 

of steam engines in that country under an 

j exclusive patent. Watt declined the French 

i government's offer on the ground that the 

I plan was contrary to England's interests. 

! Among the French men of science who 

j welcomed Watt with enthusiasm on the 

j occasion was Berthollet, who communicated 

! to Watt his newly discovered method of 

i bleaching. It was through Watt that the new 

i method was introduced into this country. 

Watt retired from the firm of Boulton & 
Watt in 1800, Matthew Boulton going out at 
| the same time, leaving the business to their 
sons, James Watt, junior, and Matthew Robi- 
son Boulton. After his retirement from Soho 
James Watt pursued at his residence, Heath- 
field Hall, near Birmingham, various inven- 
tions in the workshop which he had fitted up 
there. He also continued his interest in 
Greenock, and gave to this town a library 
in 1816. In 1819, on 25 Aug., Watt died 
at Heathfield, in his eighty-fourth year, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Church at Hands- 
worth (now a suburb of Birmingham). 

Watt married, in 1763, his cousin, Mar- 
garet Miller of Glasgow, who bore him two 
sons and two daughters. This lady died in 
childbirth in 1773. It would appear that 
one son and a daughter died in Watt's life- 
time ; the other son, James, is noticed below. 
In 1775 Watt married his second wife, Ann 
Macgregor, who survived him some thirteen 
years, dying in 1832. He had by her a son 
Gregory, who appears to have been a man 
of great ability in literary as well as in 
scientific pursuits. To Watt's great and 
enduring grief this son died of consumption 
in 1804, at the age of twenty-seven. There 
was also a daughter of the second marriage. 

Most persons, of good standing and gene- 




ral information, if asked what they knew 
about ' Watt,' would probably say that he 
was the inventor of the steam engine. Those 
who at all study the subject, or are acquainted 
with mechanical matters, will at once agree 
that, great as were Watt's merits, they were 
the merits of an improver upon an existing 
machine the fire engine and were not 
those which attach to the original suggester 
of a novel principle of work. Solomon de 
Caus in 1616, the Marquis of Worcester in 
1659 [see SOMEESET, EDWAKD, second MAR- 
QUIS OF WORCESTER], Sir Samuel Morland 
[q.v.j in 1661, and Denis Papin[q. v.]in 1690, 
had each of them proposed to raise water 
from one level to another, in various ways, 
fey the use of steam. It is disputed as to 
whether any one of these four inventors ever 
put his ideas into practice. Following these 
inventors, however, came Thomas Savery 
[q. v.], who put his ideas of raising water by 
steam power into real use, and to a very 
considerable extent. 

All the before-mentioned inventors em- 
ployed the steam, not to drive an engine (as 
we understand that expression) to work a 
pump, but they applied it directly to the 
vessels into which the water to be raised 
came, either to cause a partially vacuous 
condition in such vessels, so as to allow the 
atmospheric pressure to drive the water up 
into them, or to press upon the surface of 
the water in the vessels, so as to expel the 
water up a rising main, to a height dependent 
upon the pressure above the atmosphere of 
the steam employed, or, as in Savery's inven- 
tion, to raise water by a combination of these 
methods. In Papin's case, pistons were inter- 
posed between the surface of the water and 
the steam. But about 1710 Thomas Newco- 
men [q. v.], in conjunction with John Galley, 
invented a ' fire engine ' which was in truth 
a steam engine, in the sense in which we 
now understand the expression ; that is, by 
the agency of steam he caused certain por- 
tions of machinery to move, and he applied 
their motion to work other machines, i.e. 
pumps. There was not any patent taken 
out for this engine, but Newcomen and 
Galley associated themselves with Savery, 
presumably on account of the existence of 
Savery's patent, which in those days probably 
would be held to cover the doing of an act 
by a particular agent (steam) almost irre- 
spective of the mode by which that agent 
was employed. Newcomen's engine com- 
prised a vertical cylinder with a piston work- 
ing within it, which, when it descended by 
the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the 
piston, pulled down the cylinder end of the 
great beam, the other end" at the same time 

rising and raising the pump rods. There 
was, of course, the boiler to produce the 
steam, and the condensation of the steam 
to produce the partially vacuous condition 
below the piston. An interesting adaptation 
of the power of a Newcomen engine to 
produce rotary motion is to be found in 
the specification of Jonathan Hull's patent 
of 21 Dec. 1736, or, better still, in the 
pamphlet that he issued in 1737, where he 
proposes to apply the steam engine to paddle- 
wheel propulsion. 

Before passing away from the Newcomen 
engine, it may be well to notice the admirable 
account given by Belidor, in his ' Architec- 
ture Hydraulique' (1739-53), of an engine 
of this construction which had been made 
in England and was erected in France at the 
colliery of Fresnes, near Conde. The de- 
scription is accompanied with complete scale 
drawings, from which, at the present day, a 
reproduction of this engine could be made 
without the slightest difficulty. It will be 
found that the boiler is provided with the 
safety valve invented by Papin, and with an 
open-ended standpipefor the admission of the 
feed water ; this latter arrangement should, 
at all events, have insured that the pressure 
never could have attained more than the in- 
tended amount, probably two pounds above 
the atmosphere ; but the amusing precaution 
is taken of covering the top of the boiler 
with heavy masonry, not for the purpose of 
confining the heat, but for that of holding- 
down the boiler top against the pressure 
within. The writer told the late Sir William 
Siemens this, and was informed by him that, 
until quite lately, a regulation existed in 
France making such loading of the boiler 
top obligatory a provision, it need hardly be 
said, not only useless with boilers of the 
present day, working at several atmospheres 
pressure, but absolutely harmful, as providing 
a stock of missiles ready to be fired all over 
the place should the boiler burst. Except in 
the matter of better workmanship and of 
increase in dimensions, the ' Newcomen ' 
engine, as applied to the very important pur- 
poses of pumping, had remained practically 
without improvement for the nearly fifty 
years intervening between 1720 and 1769, 
the date of Watt's first patent. 

Allusion has already been made to the 
well-known incident of the entrusting to 
James Watt for repair the model of the 
Newcomen engine belonging to the univer- 
sity of Glasgow. It turned out that the 
model was not out of repair, in the ordinary 
sense of the word, for it had lately been put 
in order by a celebrated philosophical in- 
strument maker in London ; but it was found 


54 Watt 

that, although the boiler appeared to be of 
ample size, having regard to the dimensions 
of the cylinder, it was incompetent to gene- 
rate sufficient steam to supply the heavy 

"Watt was very much struck by this large 
consumption of steam, and at once turned 
his powerful mind to the consideration of 
how it was that so large a quantity of steam 
was needed. He saw it was due to the cold 
water used to condense the steam being in- 
jected into the very steam cylinder itself, 
and being played into that cylinder until its 
walls were brought down to a temperature 
corresponding to the vacuous condition in- 
tended to be produced in it ; that, therefore, 
the quantity of incoming steam needed to 
fill the cylinder to atmospheric pressure in 
theup-stroke was not merely that represented 
by the cubic contents of the cylinder, but 
was, in addition, that needed in the first 
instance to heat up the whole of the walls 
of the cylinder, and the piston, with the 
water packing on the top of it, to its own 
temperature, to very considerably heat up 
the water accumulated in the cylinder, and 
also to expel the liquid contents and the air 
at the 'snifting valve.' Watt estimated 
these sources of loss as demanding at least 
three times as much steam as would have 
been needed to fill the contents of the 
cylinder ; and, in actual practice, with large 
engines, in after years, he based his remune- 
ration upon one-third of the cost of the fuel 
saved. At this time, and for some years 
previously, Joseph Black had held the 
chair of chemistry in Glasgow University, 
and in the course of his experiments had 
made the discovery of latent heat ; that is 
to say, he had proved that mere temperature 
capable of being appreciated by athermometer 
was by itself no guide as to the heat which 
had to be communicated to bodies to occasion 
changes of condition. This important scien- 
tific fact was repeatedly enunciated by Black 
in his lectures. Although it appears Watt 
had not the leisure to attend these lectures, 
he nevertheless was cognisant of the dis- 
covery, and he pursued the investigations 
into latent heat in connection with steam ; 
he also determined the relation between the 
bulks of steam and water at atmospheric 
pressure, at pressures less than the atmo- 
sphere, and, to some extent, at pressures 
above the atmosphere. In fact, he prepared 
himself, as a man of science, to deal with the 
problem of improvements in the steam 
engine in actual practice. The solution oi 
this problem by Watt was to condense the 
steam, not in the cylinder itself, but in a 
separate vessel, in connection, however, with 

:he cylinder at appropriate times. The jet 
of cold water was thus from henceforth for 
yer discarded from entering the steam 

With the early models constructed by 
Watt the separate vessel was composed of 
;hin metal and was immersed in water ; in 
other words, it was the ' surface condenser.' 
But subsequently, although "as a rule the 
ondenser continued to be immersed in water, 
the main reliance was no longer placed upon 
the cooling of the sides, but upon the use in 
the separate condenser of such an injection 
as had been employed by Newcomen in the 
steam cylinder itself. It must strike every 
one (of course it at once occurred to Watt) 
that in a very short time his condenser would 
be full of water from the condensed steam, 
mixed with the incondensable air liberated 
from the steam and from the condensing 
water, and that thus the vacuous condition 
would be speedily lost. The remedy for 
this was to apply an ordinary pump, to pump 
out the condensed steam, and also, where 
injection was used, the water of condensa- 
tion and the air, and in this way the sepa- 
rate vessel was at all times maintained in a 
partially vacuous condition. As has already 
been said, Watt's want of means, and the 
need of pursuing other avocations for a 
livelihood, retarded the practical outcome of 
the invention for some time. Indeed, the 
want of means even prevented the applica- 
tion for a patent to secure the invention ; 
for, although the discovery was made in 
1765, the patent was not obtained until 
1769 (No. 913). It does not appear that in 
the preparation of the specification Watt 
had the benefit of legal advice, but he 
had plenty of friendly philosophical advice. 
As a result of this amateur assistance 
the specification was so clumsily drawn 
that the validity of the patent was, many 
years afterwards, seriously contested. This 
patent not only included the separate con- 
denser, with the air-pump, but it also em- 
braced a variety of other matters. In the 
specification there is enunciated the doctrine 
which is as truly at the root of all engine 
economy at the present day as it was in the 
days'of Watt namely, that the walls of the 
cylinder should be maintained at the same 
heat as that of the steam which is about to 
enter the cylinder. Watt proposed to do 
this by means of an external casing, leaving 
an annular space between it and the outside 
of the cylinder, in which space there should 
always be steam, this external casing to be 
itself surrounded by some non-conductor. 
It should have been stated that Watt ex- 
perimented with wooden cylinders, hoping 



that the non-conducting character of that 
material would have diminished condensa- 
tion ; but he found that such cylinders could 
not resist the continued action of the steam. 
This 1769 patent covered, as has been said, 
several heads of invention. The fifth head 
was for a rotary engine, of which the de- 
scription was of the very haziest, and, as 
there -were not any drawings attached to the 
.specification of this patent, it would have 
been impossible from the information afforded 
by it for any workman to have constructed 
such a machine ; and even could he have 
made it, it would not have worked, as Watt 
found oat after repeated trials. Another 
head of invention was to lower the pressure 
of the steam by cooling it to a point not 
suificiert to cause condensation, and then to 
reheat it. Neither of these inventions ever 
came into practical use, and it is certainly a 
matte: of surprise that, in the actions which 
ensued upon this patent, objection was not 
taken to the absolute absence of explanation 
as regards the fifth head of invention, the 
rotary engine. With Roebuck's assistance 
an sngine with the separate condenser and 
air-pump was actually erected at Kinneil. 
Tie cylinder was eighteen inches diameter. 
Tais engine was tried on several occasions, 
but with no thoroughly definite result. 
Dr. Roebuck having got into financial 
difficulties, the progress of the engine was 
impeded until, fortunately for Watt and for 
the world, Roebuck and Dr. Small in 1767 
Irought about the connection between Watt 
ind Boulton. Subsequently Roebuck sur- 
rendered, on a proper payment, his interest 
in Watt's invention. It was then agreed, as 
30 many of the fourteen years' life of the 
patent had expired without any remunera- 
tive result whatever, to apply to parliament 
to obtain an extension. In 1775 this act, 
which extended the patent until 1800, was 
passed, and in the same year the partnership 
with Boulton was effected. The experi- 
mental engine was removed from Kinneil to 
Soho, and was there put to work in such a 
ananner as to demonstrate the merit of 
Watt's invention. 

Inquiries from owners of Cornish mines 
feegan to be made as to the provision of the 
new engines. A very considerable business 
developed gradually in Cornwall, involving 
Watt's living in that county for lengthened 
periods extending over several years. This 
appears to have been a time of great distress 
to Watt. He disliked the roughness of the 
people ; he was averse from all bargaining ; 
lie was in his usual bad health ; and was 
away from all the scientific society he loved. 
In the result a large number of the improved 

pumping engines were put up, and were paid 
for on the fuel-saving tesrns already stated ; 
but, whatever may have been the hoped-for 
eventual profits, the immediate result was 
the locking up of a large amount of capital, 
and it demanded all Boulton's indomitable 
energy and the exercise of his admirable 
business talents to carry the partnership 
through the time of trial. This Boulton, 
however, successfully accomplished, and, 
what is more, he encouraged his partner 
Watt, faint-hearted in all commercial mat- 
ters, to hold up against their troubles. On 
16 April 1781 he wrote to Watt in Birming- 
ham : ' I cannot help recommending it to you to 
pray morning and evening, after the manner 
of your countrymen (the Scotch prayer 
" The Lord grant us a gude conceit of our- 
selves "), for you want nothing but a good 
opinion and confidence in yourself and good 
health.' It should have been stated that in 
the ' Watt ' engine a cover was placed over 
the cylinder, the piston-rod working through 
a stuffing-box, and that the steam was at all 
times admitted to the upper side of the piston, 
its pressure replacing that of the atmosphere 
when the downward or working stroke of 
the piston was made, at which time the 
bottom of the cylinder was in connection 
with the condenser ; that when the return 
stroke was to be made the condenser was 
shut off by an appropriate valve, and that 
another valve, called an ' equilibrium valve,' 
was opened, thereby establishing a connec- 
tion between the upper and the under side 
of the piston, which, being then in equi- 
librium, could be drawn up by a counter- 
weight. Thus far the improved engine, like 
its predecessor (Newcomen's), was applied 
practically only for the raising of water; 
and where, as was so commonly the case, 
rotary motion was needed, recourse was had, 
if the work were beyond the power of horse 
gear, to the employment of a water-wheel 
to be driven by the water pumped by the 
engine. This was obviously an unsatisfac- 
tory operation, involving the cost of extra 
plant plant demanding a considerable space 
and involving also the diminished output 
of work due to the losses in the intermediate 
machine, the water-wheel. Watt therefore 
applied himself to obtain rotary motion from 
his reciprocating engine. The engine, being 
single-acting, did not lend itself well to the 
purpose ; but it could be made to perform, 
to a considerable extent, as though it were 
double-acting by the expedient of largely 
increasing the counter-weight until it was 
equivalent to about one-half the total rais- 
ing power of the piston. Watt applied 
himself to produce direct rotary motion from 

Watt s 

such a reciprocating engine. It is stated 
that he intended to obtain this end by 
the use of the crank, and was preparing to 
patent its application, but that, while the 
matter was under consideration, one Pickard, 
a workman in Watt's employ, revealed the 
secret to a man of the name of Wasbrough 
of Bristol, who was endeavouring to obtain 
rotary motion by various complex contriv- 
ances, which he made the subject of a 
patent of 1779 (No. 1213) ; that these being 
unsuccessful he joined hiihself to Pickard, 
who in 1780 took a patent (No. 1263) for 
the use of the crank in the steam engine. 
Watt was seriously inconsistent in his ob- 
servations on this crank question, and his 
biographers or some of them have allowed 
themselves to follow him in his inconsis- 
tency ; for while on the one hand he put 
himself forward as a meritorious inventor, 
and the intending patentee of the use of the 
crank, and complained bitterly of his inven- 
tion having been stolen, on the other hand 
he writes in respect of Pickard's patent 
that ' the true inventor of the crank rotative 
motion was the man who first contrived the 
common foot-lathe. Applying it to the 
engine was like taking a knife to cut cheese 
which had been made to cut bread.' Thus 
Watt, while intending to patent. the use 
of the crank, must in his own mind have 
known that such use was a mere ' obvious 
application,' and was therefore not capable 
of being made the subject of a valid patent. 
On finding that he was shut out by Pickard's 
patent from the use of the crank, Watt de- 
A'Oted himself to devising other means for 
converting a reciprocating into a rotary mo- 
tion. He devised five different modes, the 
subject of his patent of 1781 (No. 1306), 
none of which, in his opinion, were amen- 
able to the charge of involving the use of 
cranks ; but there is no doubt that two of 
them were absolutely cranks. There does 
not appear to be any record of four of these 
devices having been used ; but the fifth 
device, the ' Sun-and-Planet ' wheel, was 
largely employed by Watt for converting 
the reciprocating motion into rotary motion. 
Watts engines, as actually made (the 
writer of this article remembers one of them 
perfectly), had the sun and the planet wheels 
of equal size, the planet being confined to its 
orbit by a link loose upon the sun-wheel 
shaft the natural and proper means of doing 
it. But whether Watt feared that such a 
construction might be held to amount to a 
crank, or what other cause may have in- 
fluenced him, cannot now be determined ; 
but the fact is that in his specification he 
made a most extraordinary provision for 


confining the planet wheel to its orbit, by 
inserting a pin in continuation of the axis of 
the planet wheel, into a circular groove. 
The sun and planet wheels of the proportions 
used by Watt that of equality of dia- 
meter had a certain value besides that of 
steering clear of Pickard's patent, in that 
they gave two revolutions of the sun shaft, 
which was also the fly-wheel shaft, for each 
double reciprocation of the engine, so that 
the speed of a slow-going engine was at once 
augmented in the very engine itself, and, 
moreover, the fly-wheel had its value quad- 
rupled. Some attempt was made to agree 
with Pickard for the use of the crank; but 
Watt's pride revolted from buying back that 
which he said was his own invent ion, and 
he explains that he had no wish to destroy 
Pickard's patent, thus throwing the use of 
the crank open to the public, and depieciat- 
ing therefore the value of Watt's owi sub- 
stitute, the sun and planet. 

Up to the present time it will have been 
noticed that, in all cases of Watt's engines, 
there was only one working stroke nude 
during the passage to and fro of the piston 
in the cylinder, the return stroke being due 
to the action of a counter-weight. But, 
having now in these engines a close-topped 
cylinder with a piston-rod working through 
a stuffing-box, and having valves by which 
connection was made alternately between 
the under side of the piston and the steam 
boiler, and between the underside of th 
piston and condenser, it followed almost as 
a consequence that by additions to these 
valves the functions of the steam and vacuum 
might be repeated on the upper side of the 
piston, and that thus the engine would have 
a working stroke in both directions, render- 
ing it independent of counterweights, and 
eminently adapting it for operation upon a 
crank, or upon its equivalent, to produce 
rotary motion. This was one of the subjects 
of Watt's patent of 1782 (No. 1321), and not 
only was this construction of great utility 
for giving comparative uniformity of rotary 
motion, but also it was one which obviously 
doubled the work that could be obtained out 
of a given dimension of cylinder. This pa- 
tent also embraced another most important 
principle in the use of steam, one upon which 
practically the whole improvement, made 
since Watt's days to the present, in the eco- 
nomy of fuel depends namely, the employ- 
ment of steam expansively. 

A few words of explanation to the non- 
technical reader may perhaps be necessary. 
Assume a cylinder of such a diameter as to 
have 1 square foot = 144 square inches of 
area, and assume the stroke of the piston in 



it to be 2 feet. Let steam be introduced 
into this at, say, two atmospheres of pressure, 
and assume the impossible, that there were a 
perfect vacuum in the condenser. Then, for 
simplicity, calling the atmosphere 15 Ib. 
pressure, the piston would be urged to move 
by a load equal to 144 (2x15) = 4320 Ib. 
And, if it did so through the 2-feet stroke, 
it would give a work of 8640 foot Ib. and 
the consumption of steam would be 2 cubic 
feet at 2 atmospheres density. Assume, now, 
that, instead of allowing the steam to escape 
when the piston had completed the 2-feet 
stroke, the cylinder could be extended to a 
total length of 4 feet. Then the same steam 
the ingress of any further quantity being 
cut off continuing to press on the piston 
(the vacuous condition being maintained on 
the other side), the piston would be urged to 
move with a gradually decreasing pressure 
throughout the remaining two feet ; and that, 
at the end of its journey, the steam being 
then double in volume, would still have a 
pressure equal to one atmosphere. The mean 
pressure throughout this second 2 feet would 
be 20-8 Ib. then 144 x 20'8 x 2 feet equals 
another 5,990 foot-pounds obtained without 
the expenditure of any more steam. Thus, 
in the first supposed instance of non-expan- 
sion, 2 cubic feet of steam at 2 atmospheres 
density would produce 8,640 foot-pounds of 
work, while the same steam expanding to 
twice its bulk would produce 14,630 foot- 
pounds, or 69 per cent. more. It will of 
course be understood that these are merely 
illustrative figures, subject in practice to 
large deductions, the causes of which cannot 
be gone into here. As long as the engines 
were single-acting and the connection be- 
tween the piston-rod and the beam was one 
that was always exposed to a tensile strain, 
that connection could well be made by means 
of a chain working over a sector attached to 
the beam. But so soon as the engines were 
made double-acting, then the piston-rod had 
no longer only to pull the beam end down, but 
had also to push it up. This was an operation 
which obviously could not be carried out by 
a single chain. To overcome this difficulty, 
and still by the use of a chain, a contrivance 
was invented which prolonged the piston- 
rod high up, and a second chain connected 
to the bottom end of the sector was em- 
ployed ; so that while the old chain pulled 
the beam end down, the new chain pulled it 

Another contrivance was to furnish the 
sector with teeth and to provide the piston- 
rod with a rack engaging in these teeth. 
Both these arrangements were unsatisfac- 
tory. The remedy was to place a link jointed 

at its lower end to the top of the piston-rod 
and at its upper end to the beam. It is clear 
that, having regard to the versed sine of the 
arc described by the beam end, this link 
would be deflected out of the upright, and 
thus the piston-rod top would be exposed to a 
resultant horizontal stress, tending to deflect 
it. The obvious way to have overcome this- 
tendency was to furnish the ends of the pins 
of the piston-rod with guide-blocks working 
in or on vertical guides, and Watt in his 
patent of 1784 (No. 1432) specifies this as 
one means of attaining his end. But he de- 
vised another, and a most elegant mode, 
whereby advantage was taken of the reverse 
curve given by levers pivoted in opposite 
directions so that the moving ends of these 
levers being united by a link, a point would 
be found in that link which for the extent of 
stroke required in the engine would move in 
a path that did not harmfully deviate from 
a straight line. This is Watt's celebrated 
parallel motion, on which he prided himself 
more than on any of his other inventions, 
and it is still used in nearly all the beam- 
engines that are now manulactured in the 
United Kingdom. But in the large number 
of direct-acting engines, embracing* as they 
do in these days all steam vessels and all 
locomotives, transverse stresses of a more 
serious character namely, these given by the 
crank through the connecting rod are suc- 
cessfully combated by the simple guide which 
Watt rejected in practice for the parallel 
motion with which he was so very much 
pleased. Among Watt's other contrivances 
to obtain a connection between the piston- 
rod and the beam was the employment of a 
hollow or trunk piston-rod having the pin 
of the lower end of the connecting link 
situated at the lower part of the rod just 
above the piston. 

Watt's many and most valuable inventions 
must always place him among t-he leading 
benefactors of mankind, and there can there- 
fore be no need to endeavour to augment his 
merits by attributing to him, as some of his 
biographers have done, matters which were 
not really of his invention, although used 
by him. One instance is that of the centri- 
fugal governor to regulate the speed of 
steam engines. It is commonly stated that 
Watt invented the centrifugal governor; 
but this is by no means certain, as it is 
frequently said that it had previously been 
used in flour-mills to control the distance 
apart of the millstones. 

The writer has tried to find any publica- 
tion prior to 1781, the date of Watt's patent 
for obtaining rotary motion from a recipro- 
cating steam engine, which describes the use 



of the governor in flour-mills, but has not 
succeeded. The earliest publication he has 
as yet found is the specification of Thomas 
Mead's patent of 1787 (No. 1628), 'Regulator 
for Wind and other Mills.' A reader of this 
specification must certainly come to the con- 
clusion that Mead was (or that he believed 
himself to be); the inventor of the imple- 
ment, and not 'merely the suggester of its 
application to mills. 

The writer has not been able to ascertain 
when Watt first applied the governor to his 
steam engines. Farey in his book on the 
steam engine, published in 1827, says, at 
p. 437: 'In the years 1784 and 1785 Messrs. 
Boulton and Watt made several rotative 
engines . . . One of the first of these was set 
up at Mr. Whitbread's brewery in Chiswell 
Street . . . Mr. Whitbread's engine was set 
to work in 1785. In their general appearance 
these engines were very much like that re- 
presented in plate xi, having the same kind 
of parallel motion, sun and planet wheels, 
and governor.' If this statement about the 
governor be correct, then Watt was using 
governors three years before the date of 
Mead's patent. It must, however, be re- 
membered that Farey was writing between 
forty and fifty years after the period under 
consideration. At p. 435 Farey, -describing 
the governor, says : ' It was on the principle 
which had been previously used in wind and 
water mills.' 

Having regard to Watt's silence on the 
question of the governor, to the fact that he 
did not patent it, nor even its application to 
the steam engine ; having regard t also to the 
statements (unsupported, it is true) of many 
writers that the implement was used as ap- 
plied to flour-mills before the date of its 
application by Watt to the steam engine, it 
appears the probabilities are largely against 
Watt being the inventor of the governor. 
Watt applied it to the steam engine, and 
devised a particular kind of valve, the 
* throttle valve,' which, being balanced on 
each side of a central spindle, was capable 
of being moved by a comparatively weak 
agent, such as the centrifugal governor. 

There is another very useful adjunct to 
the steam engine the indicator the whole 
invention of which is also commonly but 
erroneously attributed to Watt. The indi- 
cator is an implement by which a pencil, 
controlled by a spring, is made to move 
forwards or backwards in accordance with 
the pressure prevailing in the engine cylinder 
at any moment, while a card, or nowadays a 
paper, is caused to traverse transversely to 
the movement of the pencil, and thus there 
is drawn on the card by the pencil, a diagram, 

which shows and records the varying pres- 
sures in the cylinder at all parts of the stroke 
of the piston, and thus enables the work 
done on the piston and the quantity of steam 
used] to be determined. No doubt this im- 
plement has been of the greatest value in 
the developing of the various improvements 
which have been made, and are still going on, 
in the steam engines. Wattes share in the 
invention of the indicator was confined to 
the simple and comparatively useless vertical 
motion of the pencil in accordance with the 
pressure in the cylinder, and was a mere 
substitution for a glass tube containing mer- 
cury ; the transverse motion, by which alone 
the diagram could be obtained, was due, it 
is believed, to the genius of John Southern, 
one of Boulton & Watt's assistants. So long 
as steam engines were used only for raising 
water, it was extremely easy to state the 
amount of work they were doing and to 
compare one engine with another. Thus, ii 
engine A were raising a hundred gallons per 
minute from a depth of a hundred fathoms, 
and engine B were raising two hundred 
gallons from the same depth, B was obviously 
doing double the work of A ; but when en- 
gines were employed to drive mill-work, 
there was no such record of ' work done ' ob- 
tainable ; it became necessary, therefore, to 
devise some standard. Prior to the use of 
the steam engine rotary motion on the large 
scale was derived from water-wheels, and on 
a small scale from windmills or from horse- 
wheels. Watt therefore, following Savery, 
determined that the horse-power should be 
the standard. Savery had come to the con- 
clusion that it would need a stock of three 
horses to provide one always at work. He 
does not appear to have determined the 
' work ' of a horse ; but if there were required 
four horses at work to drive, say, a pump, 
and Savery made an engine competent to do 
the same duty, he called that a 12-horse 
engine, as it was equivalent to the twelve 
horses that needed to be kept to provide four 
horses always at work. Watt, however, did 
not follow Savery in his rule-of-thumb 
determination, nor did he credit his engine 
with the idle horses. He satisfied himself 
that an average horse could continue to 
work for several hours when exerting him- 
self to such an extent as would raise 1 cwt. 
to a height of 196 feet in a minute, equal to 
22,000 Ib. one foot high. In order that a 
purchaser of one of his engines should have 
no ground of complaint, he proportioned 
these machines so that for each of his horse- 
powers they should raise half as much again, 
or 33,000 Ib. one foot high per minute. As 
regards the confusion into which the ques- 




tion of horse-power drifted, resulting in as 
many as five different kinds, see the ' Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Agricultural Society ' (2nd 
ser. vol. ix. Cardiff meeting, No. 17, p. 55). 

In 1785 Watt took out his last patent, 
No. 1485. This was for constructing fur- 
naces, &c., the object being to attain better 
combustion and the avoidance of smoke. 
The invention appears to have been based 
on correct principles, and to have been em- 
ployed with success to some little extent ; 
but it was dependent very largely on the 
attention of the stoker, and was of but little 
practical use. 

It has been thought well not to interrupt 
the sequence of the engine patents, and thus 
a patent as early as 1780 (No. 1244) has been 
passed over in order of its date, as it related 
to a matter entirely unconnected with the 
steam engine ; it was, however, of great 
utility, and is now universally employed. 
This was the invention of copying letters 
by means of a specially prepared ink, which 
would give an impression on a damped sheet 
of a suitable paper when the writing and 
the damped paper were pressed together. 
Probably but few of the thousands upon 
\ thousands who, throughout all civilised 
nations, have their letter-copying books and 
\ presses are aware that this most useful pro- 
I cess is due to the great James Watt. 

When the success of the Watt engine 
was fully established, attempts were made 
to invent engines which should have the 
same advantages, but which should not be 
within the ambit of Watt's patent. One of 
these attempts was by Edward Bull, in the 
case of pumping engines for mines. The sole 
alteration he made was to invert the cylinder 
over the shaft of the mine and to connect 
the pumps directly to the piston-rod, thus 
doing away with the main beam ; but he re- 
tained the separate condenser with its air- 
pump. Another attempt was made by 
Jonathan Carter Hornblower [see under 
HOBNBLOWEB, JONATHAN]. He proposed to 
employ the expansive principle by allowing 
the steam to pass from one working cylinder 
to a second working cylinder of increased 
capacity a construction which prevails 
to-day under the title of the compound 
engine, and that, in the further development 
of three cylinders in series, is practically 
universally employed in all large steam 
vessels, whether used for war or for com- 
merce. Hornblower, however, could not 
dispense with the separate condenser and 
air-pump, and his engines were thus in- 
fringements of Watt's original patent. 
From 1792 to 1800 Watt 'and his partner 
were engaged in vindicating his patent, and 

in putting a stop to these infringements. 
Actions were brought in the common pleas 
against Bull and against Hornblower, with 
whom was joined as defendant one Maberley. 
In each case the infringement was all but 
admitted, the defenders' arguments being 
addressed to the invalidity of the patent. In 
each case the jury found a verdict for the 
plaintiff. In each case the full court of 
common pleas by a majority determined 
the patent to be bad, on (speaking as a lay- 
man) grounds of the vagueness of the specir 
fication, due to the advice of the amateurs 
in patent matters to whom allusion has 
already been made, and in each case there 
was appeal. On appeal the patent was up- 
held, and the long litigation came to an end, 
after years of anxiety suffered by Watt and 
his partner, and after very heavy expendi- 
ture, as may be gathered from the fact that 
in the four years between 1796 and 1800 
the costs were 6,000/. Watt used to speak 
of his patent as ' his well-tried friend.' 

By the kindness of Mr. George Tangye of 
Soho and of Heathfield Hall (at one time 
Watt's residence), the writer has had access 
to much of the correspondence between 
Boulton and Watt and their sons during 
the period these actions were going on ; it is 
most interesting, and it shows also the 
charming character of the relations subsist- 
ing between these four men. In April 1781 
Boulton, after complaining to Watt of a 
difference he had with a partner in his 
separate business, continued : ' However, as 
to you and I [sic], I am sure it is impossible 
we can disagree in the settling of our 
accounts, as there is no sum total in any of 
them that I value so much as I do your 
esteem, and the promotion of your health 
and happiness ; therefore I will not raise a 
single objection to anything that you shall 
think just, as I have a most implicit confi- 
dence in your honour.' 

Watt's love of science was not confined 
to' physics. He had from the time of his 
early life in Glasgow been devoted to 
chemistry, and, when settled in Birming- 
ham, the pursuit of chemical science was 
stimulated by his intimate connection with 
such men as Priestley, Keir, Small, and 
Wedgwood. These, with others, consti- 
tuted the ' Lunar ' Society, who met monthly 
at about the time of the full moon. It was 
no doubt his steady pursuit of chemical 
science, even in the midst of all his steam- 
engine labours, that led Watt to the brilliant 
discovery of the composition of water. That 
Watt did make this independent discovery 
is undoubted. Whether it was made prior 
to a similar discovery by Henry Cavendish 



(1731-1810) [q.T.] is & question about which 
there has been much and bitter controversy. 
It seems clear, however, that Watt, as early 
as 13 Dec. 1782, wrote to Jean Andre Deluc 
[q. v.], ' I believe air is generated from 
water. ... If this process contains no de- 
ception, here is an effectual account of many 
phenomena, and one element dismissed from 
the list.' Later on, '26 April 1783, Watt 
wrote to Dr. Priestley a letter setting forth 
his discovery of the composition of water, 
and requesting that it might, be given to 
Sir Joseph Banks, then president of the 
Royal Society, with a view to its being 
read at a meeting. Owing to Priestley's 
doubts, Watt requested that the reading 
should be delayed to ascertain the result of ; 
some experiments Priestley said he was about 
to make ; k further appears that in the mean- i 
while Watt's paper was pretty freely shown , 
among the leading members of the society, j 
On 26 Nov. 1783 Watt wrote a letter to De- ; 
luc on the same subject ; this letter was not ; 
read to the society until 29 April 1784 ; j 
while Cavendish's communication on the 
same subject was read on 15 Jan. 1784. j 
Lord Brougham traced out various interpola- i 
tions in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' in | 
Cavendish's favour by Sir Charles Blagden 
[q. v.], then secretary ; and a curious double 
misdating of these transactions was also ; 
found ; making it appear that AVatt's com- , 
munication of 26 Nov. 1783 was 26 Nov. j 
1784, and that Cavendish's paper was of the 
date of 15 Jan. 1783, and not, as was the 
fact, of 15 Jan. 1784. On 22 April 1783 ! 
Watt, in writing to Gilbert Hamilton, made ' 
this declaration of faith : ' Pure inflammable 
air is phlogiston itself.' ' Dephlogisticated 
air is water deprived of its phlogiston, and 
united to latent heat.' ' Water is dephlo- 

fisticated air deprived of part of its latent 
eat, and united to a large dose of phlogiston.' 
Watt directs that one part by measure of 
' pure air ' ( = dephlogisticated air - oxygen) 
and two parts by measure of inflammable air 
( = phlogiston = hydrogen) are to be mixed 
and fired. It is quite certain that Arago in 
his 61oge of James Watt delivered in 
1839, though thoroughly aware of the 
claims that had been put forward by the 
friends of Cavendish, unhesitatingly ascribed 
the first discovery of the fact that water was 
not an element, but was a compound body, 
and also the ascertaining the nature and 
proportion of the two constituents, to 

Watt had his interest in chemical science 
still further stimulated by the hope of 
benefiting the health of his invalid son, 
Gregory, by the inhaling of gases, called in 

those days ' factitious airs.' This mode of 
cure was advocated by the celebrated Dr. 
Thomas Beddoes [q. v.], and Watt devised 
an apparatus to be used in hospitals, and of 
a smaller size in private houses, for the 
generation of the ' airs,' and in 1796 pub- 
lished a pamphlet, with illustrations, prices, 
and directions for use. Twa principal ' airs ' 
were to be produced, the one oxygen and 
the other hydro-carbonate ; this appears to 
have been a mixture of hydrogen, carbonic 
acid, and some carbonic oxide. This horrible 
compound was not supposed to be of the best 
kind, nor to do its work properly, unless it 
had the effect of producing in the unhappy 
inhaler an attack of vertigo. Watt had advo- 
cated the employment of lime in the case of 
the oxygen gas to purify it, but he cautions 
the user of the apparatus when making the 
hydro-carbonate to be careful not to let 
any lime come in contact with the gas, as, 
if so, it will not produce the desired giddi- 
ness. The pamphlet is one of extreme in- 
terest, and the writer is indebted to Mr. 
George Tangye for a copy. 

Watt fitted up a garret in Heathfield 
Hall as a workshop, and late in life returned 
to the practice of that delicate manual work 
in which he had always been so great a pro- 
ficient. He specially devoted himself to the 
invention and constructing of apparatus for 
the copying and reproduction of sculpture, 
and he produced some very admirable speci- 
mens of this work, of which he was not a 
little proud. In 1883 there remained in this 
workshop a most interesting collection of 
models of several of Watt's inventions, in- 
cluding models of his various modes of 
obtaining rotary motion. They are most 
clearly described in a paper by Mr. E. A. 
Cowper, read before the Institution of Me- 
chanical Engineers in November of that 
year. Now, practically the whole of these 
models have been removed, leaving only the 
sculpture copying machines. 

Among the very interesting letters in the 
possession of Mr. George Tangye are some 
from Argand, on behalf of himself and of 
Montgolfier, relating to that most ingenious 
water-raising implement, the hydraulic ram, 
and to the Argand lamps. There are also 
four original letters from Robert Fulton to 
Boultou and Watt, ranging from 1794 to 
1805, in which orders are given for steam 
engines, to be used in the steamboats Fulton 
was building. 

Watt's first and greatest invention con- 
densation in a vessel separate from the steam 
cylinder was the very life of steam engines 
working at the low pressure prevailing in 
those days, as such engines owed their power 



to the greater or less approach to a perfect 
vacuum which could be effected ; but as the 
pressure of steam became increased, the value 
of the vacuous condition became relatively 
less and less, and thus the finality so confi- 
dently claimed by Mr. Serjeant Rons, in his 
speech to the court of appeal, was speedily 
shown to be groundless. Kous asserted, ' This 
peculiar invention, for which this patent 
lias been obtained, was from the first perfect 
and complete, has never been improved, and 
from the nature of things never can, because 
it is impossible to have more than all.' So 
long ago as 1872, at the Cardiff meeting 
of the Royal Agricultural Society before 
mentioned, a portable non-condensing en- 
gine was shown, developing a horse-power 
for a consumption of 2 - 79 Ib. of coal per 

It has always been a matter of surprise 
that Watt, who had invented the expansive 
use of steam, did not develop this principle 
"by employing steam of higher and higher 
initial pressure; but this he did not do, and 
he steadily opposedJlicJiardT.r3dthickX|- v '-]) 
who was the persistent acfvocate of high- 
pressure steam coupled with expansion. 
Sixteen years after Watt's death, when the 
writer of this article was an apprentice, the 
common pressure of steam in condensing 
engines, whether stationary or marine, was 
from 4 to 6 Ib. per square inch above atmo- 
sphere ; and notwithstanding the condensa- 
tion in the separate vessel, the consumption 
of coal was from o to 8 Ib. per horse-power 
per hour. The steam pressure in marine en- 
gines is now from 150 to 250 Ib. (Perkins 
went as high as 500 Ib.), and the consump- 
tion of coal is from 1 to 2^ Ib. per horse- 
power per hour. 

In spite of his wretched health, Watt was 
one of the most determined and persistent 
of men ; his courage, except in matters of 
finance, was~o? the highest. lie very early 
acquired a knowledge of German and of 
Italian to enable him to read works on 
mechanics published in those languages, and 
he appears from his correspondence to have 
been a good French scholar. It has been 
said he was originally a mathematical in- 
strument maker, and a workman of great 
delicacy of touch. In his early days at 
Glasgow, at the request of some friends, he 
made an organ of great beauty of tone, and 
he also made other musical instruments to 
oblige his friends, and not, it would appear, 
from a love of music ; for in later years, when 
Southern applied for employment at Soho, 
Watt said : ' I should be very glad to en- 
gage him for a drawer, provided he gives 
bond to give up music. Otherwise I am 

sure he will do no good, it being the source 
of idleness.' In early days also Watt in- 
vented and sold a portable machine for draw- 
ing from nature in proper perspective. 

In his chemical pursuits he not only de- 
vised the apparatus to manufacture the 
' factitious airs,' but he invented a simple 
mode of ascertaining the specific gravity of 
fluids, by means of a tube terminating in two 
tubular legs, one of which was immersed in 
distilled water, the other in the liquid to be 
tested. A partial exhaustion of the single 
tube being made, the water and the liquid 
to be tested rose in the respective legs, and 
the differences in the height between that of 
the water and of the liquid under trial gave 
the specific gravity of this liquid as com- 
pared with the water. Watt also invented 
an admirable micrometer ; and he perceived 
the value of weather records, and for nine 
years kept at Soho a most complete account, 
observing every day at eight in the morning, 
two in the afternoon, and eight in the even- 
ing the height, of the barometer, the tem- 
perature, the hygrometer, the direction of 
the wind, the rainfall, and the general con- 
dition of the weather. 

Reverting to engineering Watt devised 
a locked-up automatic counter, to record the 
number of strokes made throughout length- 
ened periods by his pumping engines. He 
proposed, and included in his patent of 1784 
(No. 1432), a steam carriage for common 
roads, with differential gear for use on hills. 
He also proposed the use of the screw pro- 
peller, Avhich he called the ' spiral oar,' for 
navigation. He was, in truth, not a mere 
specialist devoted to one subject, but was 
of great general scientific learning, and was 
a happy instance of a man who based his 
inventions on scientific data, and proved 
them in the model form by aid of his rare 
manual dexterity. 

As regards the favourable impression he 
made on those with whom he associated in 
his later life, and the extent and versatility 
of his information, nothing can more readily 
testify to this than the statement by Sir 
Walter Scott of his meeting with Watt in 
1817, when Watt was in his eighty-second 
year (Scott erroneously says eighty-fifth); 
this is to be found in Scott's letter to ' Cap- 
tain Clutterbuck ' in ' The Monastery ' (1851 
edit., p. 42). 

Watt was made a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh in 1784, of the Royal 
Society of London in 1785, and an LL.D. 
Glasgow in 1806, and was everywhere re- 
cognised by men of science as one of the 
foremost among them. This was so not only 



in the United Kingdom, but on the con- 
tinent. As early as 1781 the Kussian 
ambassador wrote on behalf of the empress 
a most nattering letter, begging Watt to go 
to Eussia, and to be the supreme director of 
mines, metallurgy, and ordnance castings in 
that country. Watt refused this offer in a 
letter admirable for its clearness and its 
courtesy. He corresponded very frequently 
with scientific men in France, and was 
extremely well received there by them when 
he went with Boulton to Paris in 1786. 
Lavoisier and Berthollet were among his 
most intimate acquaintances. In 1808 he 
was made a corresponding member of the 
Institute of France, and in 1814 one of the 
eight foreign associes of the Academic des 
Sciences. He declined shortly before his 
death an offer of a baronetcy made through 
Sir Joseph Banks. 

On 18 June 1824 (rather less than five 
years after Watt's death) a public meeting 
was held in London to make provision 
for a monument to Watt's memory; this 
meeting was attended by (Sir) Humphry 
Davy, Sir Eobert Peel, Lord Brougham, and 
many others. In the result, a monument 
by Chantrey was erected in Westminster 
Abbey, with an epitaph by Brougham ; while 
in France, Arago in 1839 pronounced a 
well-known and appreciative eloge before 
the Academie des Sciences. 

A bust of Watt by Chantrey, a medallion 
and a chalk drawing by Henning, and a 
sepia by George Dawe are in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. Two portraits, 
one painted by Charles F. de Breda in 1793, 
and the other by Henry Howard, K.A., 
are in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 
Sir William Beechey in 1801 and Sir Thomas 
Lawrence in 1813 painted half-lengths, and 
Sir Henry Raeburn a head in 1815. A large 
statue was erected in Birmingham in 1868, 
and there are full-length statues by Chantrey 
not only in Westminster Abbey but at Glas- 
gow (both in George Square and at the col- 
lege), in Greenock Library, and in Hands- 
worth church, where the engineer was buried. 
The son, JAMES WATT (1769-1848), born 
on 5 Feb. 1769. early turned his attention 
to science. In 1789 he went to Paris to 
pursue his studies, and took part in the 
revolutionary movement. At first he was 
in high favour with the leaders, but on 
showing a distaste for their later excesses, 
he was denounced before the Jacobin Club 
by Robespierre and was compelled to flee 
into Italy. Returning to England in 1794, 
he became a partner in the Soho firm, and 
afterwards gave some assistance to Fulton. 
In 1817 he bought the Caledonia of 102 tons, 

fitted her with new engines, and went im 
her to Holland and up the Rhine to Coblenz. 
She was the first steamship to leave an Eng- 
lish port. On his return he made material 
improvements in marine engines. He died, 
unmarried, the last of Watt's descendants,, 
at Aston Hall, Warwickshire, on 2 June 
1848 (Gent. Mag. 1848, ii. 207 ; WAED, Men 
of the Reign). 

[Williamson's Memorial of the Life and 
Lineage, &c., of James Watt, 1856 ; Smiles's 
Lives of Boulton and Watt, 1865; Muirhead's- 
Origin and Progress of the Mechanical Inven- 
tions of James Watt, 1854; Muirhead's Life of 
Watt, 1 858 ; E. A. Cowper in the Transaction* 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1883, 
on the 'Inventions of James Watt and Ms- 
Models preserved at Handsworth and at South 
Kensington ; ' ' Watt ' in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, 6th ed. 1823, by James Watt, junr.;. 
Muirhead's Correspondence of the late James- 
Watt on his Discovery of the Theory of the 
Composition of Water, 1846; Robison's Me- 
chanical Philosophy: letters and notes by James 
Watt on the History of the Steam Engine ; 
"Farey on the Steam Engine, 1827 ; Law Reports : 
points reserved in Boulton and Watt v . Bull, and 
in Boulton and Watt v. Hornblower and Maber- 
ley ; Specification of Wasbrough's patent, 1779 ; 
Specification of Pickard's patent, 1780; Edin- 
burgh Review, vol. Ixxxvii., Jeffreys on Watt 
and the Composition of Water-; Phil. Trans. 
1783 and 1784, vol. Ixxiv. ; Lardner on the Steam 
Engine, 1828 and 1851 ; Arago's Eloge, trans- 
lated by Muirhead, 1839 ; North British Review, 
1847, vol. vi. ; Brewster on Watt's Discovery of 
the Composition of Water ; Transactions of the- 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Walker's (Presi- 
dent) Address, 1843 ; Brougham's Lives of Emi- 
nent Men of Letters and Science, 1845; Edin- 
burgh Review, xiii. 320 ; Rees's Cyclopaedia, 
about 1814, ' Steam Engine,' by Farey on Watt's 
information; Stuart's Descriptive History of the 
Steam Engine, 1831.] F. B-L. 

WATT, JAMES HENRY (1799-1867), 
line engraver, was born in London in 1799 
and, at the age of eighteen, became a pupil of 
Charles Heath (1785-1848) [q. v.] He en- 
graved many beautiful vignettes for the 
' Amulet,' ' Literary Souvenir,' and similar 
productions from designs by Robert Smirke, 
j Richard Westall, and others ; also several 
I plates for the official publication ' Ancient 
Marbles in the British Museum.' Of hi& 
larger works, which are all executed in pure 
line on copper, with much taste and power, 
the most important are : ' The Flitch of 
Bacon,' after Stothard, 1832 ; ' May Day in 
the Time of Queen Elizabeth,' after Leslie, 
1836 ; ' Highland Drovers' Departure/ and 
' Courtyard in the Olden Time,' after 
E. Landseer; and 'Christ Blessing Little 



Children,' after Eastlake, 1859. Watt died 
in London on 18 May 1867. 

[Art Journal, 1867 ; Kedgrave's Diet, of Ar- 
tists ; Gent. Mag. 1867, ii. 116.] F. M. O'D. 

WATT, EGBERT (1774-1819), biblio- 
grapher, son of John Watt (d. 1810), was 
born at Bonnyton farm in the parish of 
Stewarton, Ayrshire, on 1 May 1774. At 
an early age he was sent to school, but when 
about thirteen worked as a ploughboy to a 
neighbouring farmer. A love of adventure 
gave him the desire to be a chapman. With 
some others he made a trip into Galloway to 
work on stone-dyking and road-making. At 
Dumfries they boarded on the farm of Ellis- 
land, in the possession of Robert Burns, and 
lived for some days in the old house which 
he and his family had recently occupied. 
' During the summer I spent in Dumfries- 
shire I had frequent opportunities of seeing 
Burns, but cannot recollect of having formed 
any opinion of him, except a confused idea 
that he was an extraordinary character' 
(Autobiographical Fragment in Biographical 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, 1856, p. 433). 
Even while carting stones he found oppor- 
tunities for reading. His elder brother, John, 
who had been a cabinet-maker in Glasgow, 
returned home and persuaded Watt to join 
him in business as carpenter and joiner. His 
devotion to study became stronger, and young 
Watt in October or November 1792, having 
been prepared by an hour's tuition each morn- 
ing in Greek and Latin by Duncan Macfar- 
lane, schoolmaster in Stewarton, entered the 
classes for those languages at Glasgow Uni- 
versity in 1793, and for the Greek and logic 
classes the following year. He gained a 
prize bestowed by Professor John Young (d. 
1820) [q. v.] for Greek, and in 1795 and 1796 
attended the moral and natural philosophy 
classes at Edinburgh. During the summer 
recesses he supported himself by teaching, 
and in 1796 had a school in Kilmaurs parish, 
where he became acquainted with the Rev. 
John Russel [q. v.] of Kilmarnock Burns's 
' Rumble John.' In 1796 and 1797 he studied 
anatomy and divinity at Edinburgh, and 
obtained a prize of 101. for an essay on 
' Regeneration,' highly praised by Professor 
Hunter. He acted as parochial schoolmaster 
in Symington, near Kilmarnock, in 1797 and 
1798, but resolved to give up the study of 
divinity for that of medicine, which he fol- 
lowed at Glasgow in 1798 and 1799. He 
was not, however, apprenticed to a surgeon, 
although Peter Mackenzie states that in 1798 
Watt ' got into the apothecary shop of old 
Moses Gardner' in Glasgow (Reminiscences, 
vol. iii.) 

Having secured the license of the Glasgow 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons on 6 April 
1799, Watt commenced as a general practi- 
tioner at Paisley, contributed to the ' Medical 
and Physical Journal' (London, March and 
August 1800, and May 1801), and published 
his first book, ' Cases of Diabetes, Consump- 
tion, &c., with Observations on the History 
and Treatment of Disease in general ' (Paisley, 
1808, 8vo), a work long held in esteem. His 
practice and reputation increased, and he 
became a ' member ' of the Glasgow faculty 
on 5 Jan. 1807. Two years later he journeyed 
south to see if he could find a suitable open- 
ing in England. He received the degree of 
M.D. from King's College, Aberdeen, on 
20 March 1810, took a large house in Queen 
Street, Glasgow, practised as a physician, 
and delivered courses of lectures on medi- 
e. His system of teaching was 'to have 
recourse to original authors, and he esta- 
blished a well-chosen library, described in a 
' Catalogue of Medical Books for the use of 
Students attending Lectures on the Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Medicine ; with an 
Address to Medical Students on the best 
Method of prosecuting their Studies' (Glas- 
gow, 1812, 8vo), now extremely rare, and 
specially interesting as the starting point 
of the famous ' Bibliotheca Britannica,' the 
plan for which had been developing from 
the time he matriculated in 1793. The 'Cata- 
logue ' includes over a thousand entries ; 
ancient and modern literature are well re- 
presented. He also had a collection of a 
thousand theses available for reference, and 
' manuscript catalogues, arranged alphabeti- 
cally according to the authors' names and 
the subjects treated, may be seen in the 
library, and will be printed as soon as the 
collection is completed.' He made some pro- 
gress in the formation of a pathological 

In 1813 he published 'A Treatise on the 
History, Nature, and Treatment of Chin- 
cough, including a Variety of Cases and Dis- 
sections ; to which is subjoined an Inquiry 
into the relative Mortality of the principal 
Diseases of Children and the numbers who 
have died under ten years of age in Glasgow 
during the last thirty years,' Glasgow, 8vo. 
The 'Inquiry' was the fruit of a laborious 
investigation of the registers of the Glasgow 
burial-places, and suggested that the dimi- 
nution in deaths by smallpox due to vaccina- 
tion was compensated by the increase in 
deaths by measles (cf. BARON, Life ofJenner, 
ii. 392 ; Edinburgh Medical and Surgical 
Journal, April 1814, p. 177; Sir Gilbert 
Blane in Medical and Chirurgical Trans, of 
London, 1813, iv. 468; Dr. Farr in Registrar- 


6 4 


Generate Report, 1867 pp. 213-14, 1872 p. 
224, and his Vital Statistics, 1885, pp. 321-2). 
Watt's tables were reproduced by John 
Thomson, Glasgow, 1888 (see W. WHITE, 
Story of a Great Delusion, 1885, pp. 439-52 ; 
J. McViiL, Vaccination Vindicated, 1887, 
p 161 ; CREIGHTOST, History of Epidemics, 
1894, ii. 652-60). 

Watt published anonymously at Edin- 
burgh in 1814 a small octavo volume entitled 
' R,ules of Life, with Reflections on the Man- 
ners and Dispositions of Mankind,' contain- 
ing a thousand and one aphorisms. At this 
period he was leading a very active profes- 
sional life. He was a member of the Medical 
and Chirurgical Society of London, and con- 
tributed papers to that body ; he was a 
founder and first president of the Glasgow 
Medical Society ; and in 1814 was elected 
president of the Faculty of Physicians and 
Surgeons, and physician to the Royal Infir- 
mary of Glasgow. From 1816 to 1817 he 
was president of the Glasgow Philosophical 
Society. But the. continuous labour of pre- 
paring the ' Bibliotheca ' impaired his health, 
and he withdrew from practice about the 
beginning of 1817. He retired to Campvale, 
a suburb of Glasgow, where he remained 
until his death. In the compilation of the 
' Bibliotheca,' which he directed from a sick 
bed, he was assisted by his sons John and 
James, William Motherwell [q.v.], and Alex- 
ander Whitelaw. A sea voyage to London 
and a tour in England failed to restore his 
vigour. ' Proposals ' for the publication of 
the work by subscription were circulated ; 
the first part was advertised on 1 Dec. 1818 
as ready to be issued in February 1819, 
but Watt ' died when only a few of its sheets 
were printed off' (Preface, p. v), on 12 March 
1819 (Glasf/oiv Herald, 22 March 1819). 

He married Marion Burns (d. 1856), who 
bore him nine children, of whom John, the 
eldest, died in 1821, and James in 1829, both, 
like their father, victims to their devotion 
to bibliography. A daughter is said to have 
died in the workhouse at Glasgow in 1864 
(London Header, 28 May 1864). 

Two portraits of Watt are preserved in 
the hall of the Faculty of Physicians and 
Surgeons at Glasgow, one as a young man ; 
the other, in mature age, is said to be painted 
by Raeburn. A third portrait, of a date be- 
tween the two, was exhibited at the Old 
Glasgow Exhibition in 1894. Watt was a 
tall and handsome man, and very robust in 
early life. 

A month after Watt's death Dr. Thomas 
Chalmers [q. v.] and some others issued a 
circular to assure the subscribers that the 
manuscript of the 'Bibliotheca' had been 

left by the author in an advanced state of 
readiness, and that his son would see it 
through the press. The work was finally 
completed in 1824, under the title of * Bib- 
liotheca Britannica ; or a general Index to 
British and Foreign Literature, by Robert 
Watt, M.D. In two parts, Authors and 
Subjects' (Edinburgh, 4vols. 4to). It came 
out in parts, of which Nos7~i to 4 had the 
imprint of Glasgow, 1819-20, and 5 to 9 
that of Edinburgh, 1821-4. The publication 
brought nothing but evil fortune to the Watt 
family. The author and his two sons were 
killed by it, and the Constables failed before 
they paid to Mrs. Watt a sum of 2,000/. 
which had been agreed upon for the compila- 
tion. Watt was ' a practitioner of great 
sagacity and a philosophical professor of 
medicine' (Farr in Reg.-Gen. Report, 1867, 
p. 214), but it is as a bibliographer that his 
fame will live. His industry and perse- 
verance under difficulties were remarkable. 
The plan of a catalogue of authors, followed 
by an index of subjects, grew from the ar- 
rangement of his own medical collection ; 
he enlarged this to include all medical works 
published in England, then to law and other 
subjects, and finally to foreign and classical 
literature. Articles from periodicals and the 
productions of famous printing presses were 
also included. In spite of many imperfec- 
tions and the increase of modern require- 
ments, the book is still one of the handiest 
tools of the librarian and bibliographer. 
After the death of Watt's last surviving 
daughter in 1864 the original manuscript 
was discovered, consisting of two large sacks 
full of slips. It is now preserved in the free 
library at Paisley, arranged in sixty-nine 

[The chief sources of information are Dr. 
James Finlayson's Account of the Life and 
Works of Dr. Eobert Watt, 1897, 8vo (with a 
portrait and bibliography) ; Dr. Finlayson's 
Medical Bibliography and Medical Education ; 
Dr. Robert Watt's Library for his Medical Stu- 
dents in 1812 (Edinb. Medical Journal, October 
1898). See also Chambers's Biogr. Dictionary 
of Eminent Scotsmen, Glasgow, 1855-6, 4 vols. 
4to (with autobiographical fragment not in 1870 
edition, which, however, contains some family 
information) ; Macfarlane's Parish of Stewarton 
(New Statistical Account of Scotland, Edinb. 
1845, v. 730-1); Duncan's Memorials of the 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 
1896; Allibone's Diet, of English Lit.; Mac- 
kenzie's Old Reminiscences of Glasgow, iii. 633- 
640; Mason's Bibliographical Murtyr (The Li- 
brary, 1889, i. 56-63); Proc. of the Philosophical 
Soc. of Glasgow, 1860, iv. 101-17; Memorial 
Cat. of the Old Glasgow Eshib. 1894, Glasgow, 
1896.] H. R. T. 




(1797-1864), poet, born in London on 
16 March 1797, was the youngest son of 
John Mosley Watts, the representative of a 
respectable Leicestershire family, by Sarah, 
daughter of Samuel Bolton of Fair Mile,near 
Henley-on-Thames. His grandfather, Dr. 
William Watts, a physician, who married 
Mary, daughter of George Whalley (of the 
regicide family), was one of the founders of 
the Leicester Infirmary (see NICHOLS, Hist, 
of Leicestershire). The misconduct of his 
father occasioned a separation between his 
parents, whose affairs were further com- 
plicated by an interminable chancery suit. 
Young Watts was brought up by his mother, 
who placed him in 1808 at Wye College 
grammar school, Kent, and two years later 
at Power's ' Academy ' at Ashford. On 
leaving school in 1812 he became succes- 
sively usher in a school at Fulham ; a private 
tutor in the family of Mr. Ruspini, dentist 
to the prince regent ; and temporary clerk in 
the office of the controller of army accounts. 
Leaving this employment in consequence of 
the reduction of the army, he filled some 
tutorships in the north of England, and 
eventually, about 1818, returned to London 
as sub-editor of the 'New Monthly Maga- 
zine.' In 1819 he superintended the produc- 
tion of Charles Robert Maturin's unsuccessful 
tragedy of ' Fredolpho,' and in the same year 
made the acquaintance of Jeremiah Holmes 
and Benjamin Barron Wiffen [q. v.], whose 
sister, Priscilla Maden, usually known as 
' Zillah,' he married at Woburn on 16 Sept. 
1821. He was at this time a contributor to 
the ' Literary Gazette,' where a series of 
papers on the ' Borrowings of Byron ' had 
attracted considerable attention, and had be- 
come intimate with many literary and ar- 
tistic celebrities, but had no certain means 
of income until, in 1822, Mr. J. O. Robinson, 
of the firm of Hunt & Robinson, for whom 
he had performed some literary work, offered 
him the editorship of the ' Leeds Intelli- 
gencer.' He somewhat prejudiced the paper 
at first by an advocacy of the fencing of 
machinery in factories which astonished and 
exasperated the employers ; but in the opi- 
nion of his friend Croly ' his extracts and 
literary notices placed his work above the 
level of any country newspaper,' and he con- 
ducted it successfully until, in 182o, he left 
Leeds for Manchester to edit the ' Courier.' 
His connection with Messrs. Hunt & Robin- 
son, however, was not dissolved, but became 
more intimate through the establishment 
under his editorship in 1824 of the ' Lite- 
rary Souvenir,' partly an imitation of the 
German periodicals of the class, but sub- 


stantially the parent of the numerous tribe 
of annuals and pocket-books which absorbed 
so much of English art and literature for 
the next fifteen years. Watts spared no 
pains to secure first-rate contributors in 
both departments, and his editorship brought 
him into friendly relations with Scott, Words- 
worth, Coleridge, Praed, Sidney Walker, Mrs. 
Hemans, and many other leading writers. 
Such work was more congenial to him than 
the editorship of the 'Courier,' and he re- 
signed that post in 1826 : he now became 
proprietor of the 'Literary Souvenir,' the 
original publishers having sunk in the com- 
mercial tempest of the time. He had ob- 
tained reputation as a poet by a pleasing 
volume, 'Poetical Sketches,' privately printed 
in 1822 (London, 8vo) and published in 1823 
(4th edit. 1828) ; and in 1828 he collected 
some of the best fugitive poetry of the day 
in the ' Poetical Album.' A second series 
followed in 1829, and was succeeded by two 
similar collections, ' The Lyre ' and ' The 
Laurel,' together reprinted in 1867 as ' The 
Laurel and the Lyre.' In 1827 he took part 
in establishing the ' Standard ' newspaper 
[see GIFFARD, STANLEY LEES], and in 1833 
he founded the ' United Service Gazette,' 
which he conducted for some years. The 
' Literary Souvenir,' long exceedingly suc- 
cessful, was by this time declining, and ex- 
pired in 1838, after having being carried on 
for three years as the ' Cabinet of British 
Art.' Watts attributed this to the attacks 
of William Maginn [q. v.] in ' Eraser's Maga- 
zine,' where alibellousbut irresistibly comical 
caricature portrait by Maclise had appeared, 
representing Watts carrying off pictures with 
a decidedly furtive expression. An action 
for libel resulted, in which Watts obtained 
150/. damages. The decline of the ' Souvenir ' 
led him to become what Maginn contemp- 
tuously called ' head nurse of a hospital of 
rickety newspaperlings,' a description the 
truth of which is admitted by his son. 
These speculations, chiefly minor provincial 
papers established in the conservative in- 
terest, involved him in litigation with his 
partner in the ' United Service Gazette ; ' he 
retired from all connection with the press in 
1847, and in 1850 became a bankrupt. In 
the same year, nevertheless, appeared a col- 
lective edition of poems, which long retained 
fopularity, entitled ' Lyrics of the Heart.' 
n 1863 he accepted an inferior appointment 
in the inland revenue office, where his son 
had obtained a high position ; a civil list 
pension of 100/. a year was conferred upon 
him by Lord Aberdeen in January 1854. 
His later days were thus rendered comfort- 
able. In 1856 he initiated a very useful class 




of publication by editing the first issue of 
' Men of the Time/ remarkable for an un- 
paralleled misprint en bloc at the expense of 
the bishop of Oxford, and the portentous 
length of the article on the editor, who has 
awarded himself three times as much space 
as he has bestowed on Tennyson. 

Besides his poems, he was the author of 
several prose works, of which, as he says, 
' he did not think it worth while to claim 
the paternity.' His most noteworthy com- 
pilation is the memoir and letterpress ac- 
companying the beautiful issue of Turner's 
' Liber Fluviorum ' in 1853. He died on 
5 April 1864 at Blenheim Crescent, Netting 
Hill, whither he had moved from St. John's 
Wood in 1860. His widow survived until 
13 Dec. 1873, and was buried beside her 
husband in Highgate cemetery. Their son 
Alaric Alfred (born 18 Feb. 1825) married 
in 1859 Anna Maria, elder daughter of Wil- 
liam and Mary Howitt. Etchings of Watts 
and his wife are prefixed to the two volumes 
of the ' Life ' by Alaric Alfred Watts. 

[Alaric "Watts : a Narrative of his Life, by his 
son, Alaric Alfred Watts, 1884; Maginn and 
Bates in the Maclise Portrait Gallery.] E. G. 

WATTS, GILBERT (d. 1657), divine, 
a younger son of Richard Watts, by his wife 
Isabel, daughter of Arthur Alcock of St. 
Martin's Vintry, London, widow of his cousin, 
Thomas Scott (d. 1585) of Barnes Hall, 
Ecclesfield, Yorkshire, was grandson of John 
Watts (1497 P-1601) of Muckleton, Shrop- 
shire, by his wife Ann, daughter of Richard 
Scott of Barnes Hall. Watts was thus of 
kin to Thomas Rotherham [q.v.], archbishop 
of York and second founder of Lincoln Col- 
lege, whose arms he quartered with his own. 
His elder brother, Richard, M.A., fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, vicar of Chester- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, and chaplain to Thomas 
Wentworth, earl of Strafford [q. v.], became 
the owner of Barnes Hall after the death, 
on 17 July 1638, in Ireland, of his elder 
half-brother, Sir Richard Scott, comptroller 
of the household to the same earl. 

Gilbert was born at Rotherham, York- 
shire. He studied for a few terms at Cam- 
bridge, and on his admission as batler or ser- 
vitor at Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1607, he 
was permitted to reckon them towards quali- 
fying for a degree (Oxford Univ. Reg. n. i. 
371). He graduated B. A. on 28 Jan. 1610- j 
1611, M.A. on 7 July 1614, was elected a 
fellow in 1621, and became B.D. on 10 July 
1623. On 1 Nov. 1642 Watts was created 
D.D. during the king's visit to Oxford, having 
been presented on 11 July previous to the 
rectory of Willingale Doe, Essex. His rectory 

was sequestrated by the Westminster as- 
sembly in August 1647 ; but although the 
clerk of the committee for plundered mini- 
sters was ordered to show cause for the 
act, the ground of complaint against Watts 
does not appear. 

He returned to Oxford, died at Eynsham 
on 9 Sept. 1657, and was buried in the 
chancel of All Saints. ~By his will, dated 
5 Sept. (proved 5 Nov.) 1657, Watts left to 
Lincoln College ' soe many bookes as cost me 
threescore pounds,' to be chosen and valued 
by Thomas Barlow [q. v.], then librarian of 
the Bodleian. Watts was a good preacher 
and an excellent linguist. Wood says he 
had ' so smooth a pen in Latin or English 
that no man of his time exceeded him.' 

Watts translated Bacon's ' De Augmentis 
Scientiarum,' and his rendering called ' Of 
the Advancement and Proficience of Learn- 
ing, of the Partitions of Sciences,' Oxford, 
1640, fol., was highly praised on its appear- 
ance. His translation of D'Avila's ' History 
of the Civil Wars of France ' was never pub- 
lished; andhe left other works in manuscript, 
j including ' A Catalogue of all the works of 
; Charles I,' which is preserved among the 
; manuscripts at Corpus Christ! College, Ox- 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 433 ; 
Wood's Colleges and Halls, ed. Gutch, p. 248 ; 
Foster's Athense, 1500-1714,iv. 1584; Burrows's 
Visitation, p. 508 ; Newcourt's Repert. Eccles. 
ii. 668; Addit. MS. 15671, if. 172, 174; Will 
P.C.C. 472 Ruthen; Hunter's Hallamshire, 
p. 443 ; J. R. Scott's Family of Scott of Scots 
Hall, p. 157.] C. F. S. 

WATTS, HENRY (1815-1884), chemist, 
was born in London on 20 Jan. 1815. He 
went to a private school, and was articled at 
the age of fifteen as an architect and surveyor ; 
but, finding himself unsuited for this pro- 
fession, supported himself by teaching, chiefly 
mathematical, privately and at a school. 
He then went to University College, London. 
In 1841 he graduated B.A. in the university 
of London. In 1846 he became assistant to 
George Fownes [q. v.], then professor of 
practical chemistry at University College, 
and occupied this post, after Fownes's death 
in 1849, until 1857, under Professor Alex- 
ander William Williamson. Owing to an 
incurable impediment in speech he found 
himself unable to obtain a professorship, 
and, on this account, was ultimately in- 
duced to devote himself entirely to the 
literature of chemistry. In 1847 he was 
elected fellow of the Chemical Society. In 
1848 he was engaged by the Cavendish 
Society to translate into English and en- 
large Leopold Gmelin's classical ' Handbuch 


6 7 


der Chemie,' a, work which occupied much 
of his time till 1872, when the last of 
its eighteen volumes appeared. On 17 Dec. 
1849 he was elected editor of the Chemical 
Society's ' Journal,' and about the beginning 
of 1860 he also became librarian to the so- 
ciety. Early in 1871 it was decided to print 
in the society's journal abstracts of all 
papers on chemistry appearing in full else- 
where. In February 1871 a committee was 
appointed to superintend the publication of 
the journal and these summaries, but the 
scheme ' very soon proved to be unworkable, 
and the revision of the abstracts was left 
entirely in the hands of .... Watts, with 
the most satisfactory results.' The abstracts 
in the ' Journal ' may be regarded as models, 
and the success of this scheme must be at- 
tributed to Watts. In 1858 he was engaged 
by Messrs. Longmans & Co. to prepare a 
new edition of the ' Dictionary of Chemistry 
and Mineralogy ' of Andrew Ure [q. v.] ; 
but, finding this book too much out of date, 
he transformed it, with the help of a nume- 
rous and distinguished staff, into a real 
encyclopaedia of chemical science. The first 
edition of Watts's ' Dictionary of Chemistry,' 
in five volumes, was completed in 1868; 
supplements were published in 1872, 1875, 
and 1879-81. A new edition, revised and en- 
tirely rewritten by Professor M. M. Pattison 
Muir and Dr. H. Forster Morley, was pub- 
lished 1888-94, 4 vols. 8vo. The dictionary 
contains excellent summaries of the facts 
and theories of chemistry, presented in an un- 
usually readable and attractive form. In 1866 
Watts was elected F.R.S., and in 1879 he 
was elected fellow of the Phvsical Society. 

Watts died on 30 June 1884. He had 
married in 1854 Sophie, daughter of M. Henri 
Hanhart, of Miilhausen in Alsace, by whom 
he had eight sons and two daughters. 

Besides the works mentioned above, 
Watts edited the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, 
and thirteenth editions of Fownes's ' Manual 
of Chemistry.' He was an honorary member 
of the Pharmaceutical Society and life- 
governor of University College, London. 

[Obituaries in Nature, 1884, xxx. 217, Chem. 
Soe. Journ. 1885, xlvii. 343, including a brief 
autobiography ; Jubilee of the Chemical Society, 
1891, pp. 240, 252 passim.] P. J. H. 

WATTS, HUGH (1582 P-1643), bell- 
founder, the second son of Francis Watts, 
bell-founder of Leicester (d. 1600), and some- 
time partner with the Newcombes, was born 
about 1582. His grandfather may have been 
the Hew Wat who in 1563 cast a bell for 
South Luffenham, Rutland. 

In 1600, the year of his father's death, 
Watts cast for Evington in Leicestershire 

a bell bearing his own name and the shield 
with the device of three bells used by Fran- 
cis Watts. The same device was borne by 
Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire bells 
made by a William Watts, and in 1450 by 
Richard Brayser of Norwich, to whom the 
original bell-founder Watts may have been 

In 1611 Watts was admitted to the chap- 
man's or merchant's guild ; in 1620-1 he was 
elected chamberlain of the borough, and in 
1633-4 mayor of Leicester (' Payed to Mr. 
Hugh Watts maior for his yearly allowance 
according to the ancient order, 3/. 6*. 8rf.') 
A stately reception of Charles I and his 
queen on their progress in August 1634 
marked the year of Watts's mayoralty. 

There remain in the county of Leicester 
many examples of Watts's famous work, 
including several complete rings, admired 
for the beauty of their tone. The peal of 
ten bells for St. Margaret's, Leicester, was 
said to be the finest in England. His favourite 
inscription : ' J. H. S. : Nazareus : rex : ludeo- 
rum : Fili : Dei : miserere : mei : ' caused 
his bells to be called Watts's Nazarenes. 
He worked the bell-foundry of Leicester 
until his death, at the age of sixty, in 
February or March 1642-3, and was buried 
in St. Mary's Church, Leicester. 

Shortly after the death of Watts the 
business was wound up and partly taken 
over by Nottingham founders. Watts's son, 
also named Hugh (1611-1656), to whom 
the bell-metal and bell-founding appli- 
ances were bequeathed, married a daughter 
of Sir Thomas Burton of Stockerston. 

[For a full account of the Newcombe and 
Watts families and their bells see North's Church 
Bells of Leicestershire (Leicester, 1876, 4to).] 

L. M. M. 

WATTS, ISAAC (1674-1748), hymn- 
writer, was born at Southampton on 17 July 
1674. His grandfather, Thomas Watts, a 
commander of a man-of-war under Blake in 
1656, died in the prime of life through an 
explosion on boardhis ship. His father, Isaac, 
occupied a lower position, being described as 
' a clothier ' of 21 French Street, Southampton 
(1719). As deacon of the independent 
meeting, he was imprisoned for his" religious 
opinions in the gaol of Southampton at the 
time of the birth of his son Isaac and in the 
following year (1675). In 1685 also he was 
for the same cause obliged to hide in Lon- 
don for two years. In later years he kept 
a nourishing boarding-school at Southamp- 
ton. He had a liking for the composition 
of sacred verses. One or two of his pieces 
appear in the posthumous works of his son 
(1779), and several others in that volume are 





credited to him by Gibbons in his biography. 
He died in February 1736-7, aged 85. His 
wife was daughter of an Alderman Taunton 
at Southampton, and had Huguenot blood in 
her veins. 

Isaac Watts was the eldest of nine chil- 
dren, of whomRichard lived to be a physician, 
Enoch was bred to the sea, and Sarah mar- 
ried a draper named Brackstone at South- 
ampton. Watts received an excellent edu- 
cation at the grammar school from John Pin- 
horne, rector of All Saints, Southampton, 
prebendary of Leckford, and vicar of Eling, 
Hampshire : a Pindaric ode to Pinhorne, by 
Watts, describes the wide range of his classi- 
cal teaching. His facility in English verse 
showed itself very early. The promise of his 
genius induced Dr. John Speed, a physician 
of the town, to offer to provide for Watts at 
the university ; but, as he preferred ' to take 
his lot among the dissenters,' he was sent 
(1690) to an academy at Stoke Newing- 
ton, under the presidency of Thomas Rowe 
[q. v.], pastor of the independent meeting in 
Girdlers' Hall. The teaching in classics, 
logic, Hebrew, and divinity was excellent, 
as the notebooks of Watts show ; and he 
owed to the academy his after habits of labo- 
rious analysis and accuracy of thought. 
Amonghis contemporaries were JohnHughes 
(1677-1720) [q. v.l, one of the contributors 
to the ' Spectator ; Samuel Say [q. v.], who 
succeeded Calamy as pastor in Westminster ; 
Daniel Neal ; and Josiah Hort [q. v.] (after- 
wards bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, and 
archbishop of Tuam). Watts was admitted 
to communion in Rowe's church in December 
1693. After leaving the academy (1694), 
he spent two years and a half at home, and 
commenced the composition of his hymns. 
The first of these, ' Behold the glories of the 
Lamb,' was produced as an improvement on 
the hymns of William Barton [q. v.], and 
others then sung in the Southampton chapel. 
Several other pieces followed : they were 
circulated in manuscript, and given out line 
by line when sung. In October 1696 he 
became tutor to the son of Sir John Hartopp, 
bart., at Stoke Newington, and held the post 
five years, devoting all his leisure to Hebrew 
and divinity. He preached his first sermon 
on 17 July 1698, and in the following year 
was chosen assistant pastor to Isaac Chauncy 
[q. v.] in the chapel at Mark Lane. On 
18 March 1702 he succeeded to the pastorate. 
The congregation was a distinguished one : 
Joseph Caryl [q. v.] and John Owen (1616- 
1683) [q. v.] had formerly ministered to it ; 
it numbered among its members Mrs. Ben- 
dish, Cromwell's granddaughter ; Charles 
Fleetwood, Charles Desborough, brother-in- 

law of Cromwell ; as well as the Hartopps, 
and Sir Thomas and Lady Abney. It re- 
moved successively to Pinners' Hall (1704) 
and Bury Street, St. Maiy Axe (1708). 
Watts, however, soon proved unequal to its 
single supervision. The intense study to 
which he had devoted himself had under- 
mined his constitution and made him subject 
to frequent attacks of illHess. As early as- 
1703 Samuel Price began to assist him, and 
was afterwards chosen co-pastor (1713). A 
visit to Sir Thomas and Lady Abney at 
Theobalds in 1712 led to a proposal from 
them that Watts should reside permanently 
in their house ; and the remainder of his days 
was spent under their roof, either at Theo- 
balds or at Stoke Newington, to which Lady 
Abney removed (1735) after the death of 
Sir Thomas Abney (1722). The kindness of 
the Abneys gave him a sheltered and luxu- 
rious home. He drove in from Theobalds 
for his Sunday ministrations when his health 
permitted. In the fine house at Stoke New- 
ington, which stood in what is now Abney 
Park cemetery, some figures on the panelling, 
painted by Watts, were formerly shown. 
His attacks of illness increased as years went 
on : he only reluctantly consented to retain 
his pastorate, and had scruples as to taking 
any salary ; but the congregation refused to 
break the connection with one so famous and 
beloved as Watts became. 

Watts was one of the most popular writers 
of the day. His educational manuals the 
' Catechisms' (1730) and the ' Scripture His- 
tory ' (1732) were still standard works in 
the middle of this century. His philoso- 
phical books, especially the 'Logic' (1725), 
had a long circulation; so also had his 
' World to Come ' (1738) and other works 
of popular divinity. The best of his works 
is 'The Improvement of the Mind ' (1741), 
which Johnson eulogises. In two fields his 
literary work needs longer notice. His 
'Horse Lyricae' (1706) gave him his niche 
in Johnson's ' Lives of the Poets.' It was 
a favourite book of religious poetry, and as 
such was admitted into a series of ' Sacred 
Classics' (1834), with a memoir of Watts 
from Southey's pen. But his poetical fame 
rests on his hymns. At the beginning of the 
eighteenth century the stern embargo which 
Calvin had laid on the use in the music of 
sacred worship of everything except metrical 
psalms and canticles had been broken by the 
obscure hymns of Mason, Keach, Barton, 
and others ; and hymns were freely used in 
the baptist and independent congregations. 
The poetry of Watts took the religious world 
of dissent by storm. It gave an utterance, 
till then unheard in England, to the spiritual 


6 9 


emotions, in their contemplation of God's 
glory in nature and his revelation in Christ, 
and made hymn-singing a fervid devotional 
force. The success of Watts's hymns ap- 
proached that of the new version of the 
Psalms. Edition followed edition. In the 
early years of this century the annual output 
of Watts's hymns, notwithstanding all the 
wealth of hymn production arising out of 
methodism, was still fifty thousand copies. 
The two staple volumes, subsequently often 
bound together, were the 'Hymns' (1707; 
2nd edit. 1709) and the < Psalms of David ' 
(1719). There are also hymns appended to 
some of his ' Sermons ' (1721) and in the 
' Horae Lyricse.' The ' Psalms of David ' is 
not a metrical psalter of the ordinary pattern. 
It leaves out all the imprecatory portions, 
paraphrases freely, infuses into the text the 
Messianic fulfilment and the evangelical in- 
terpretations, and adjusts the whole (some- 
times in grotesquely bad taste, as in the sub- 
stitution of ' Britain ' for ' Israel ') to the de- 
votional standpoint of his time. The total 
number of pieces in the various books must 
be about six hundred, about twelve of which 
are still in very general use ( Jesus shall 
reign where'er the sun,' Psalm Ixxii. ; ' When 
I survey the wondrous Cross ; ' ' Come, let us 
join our cheerful songs ; ' and ' Our God, our 
help in ages past,' are in every hymn-book). 
The characteristics of his hymns are tender 
faith, joyousness, and serene piety. His 
range of subjects is very large, but many of 
them have been better handled since. He 
had to contend with difficulties which he has 
himself pointed out : the dearth of tunes 
which restricted him to the metres of the 
old version, the ignorance of the congrega- 
tions, and the habit of giving out the verses 
one by one, or even line by line ; and he 
had the faults of the poetic diction of the 
age. The result is a style which is some- 
times rhetorical, sometimes turgid, some- 
times tame ; but his best pieces are among 
the finest hymns in English. Of another 
department of hymnology, Watts was also 
the founder. The ' Divine Songs ' (1715), the 
first children's hymn-book, afterwards en- 
larged and renamed ' Divine and Moral 
Songs,' ran through a hundred editions before 
the middle of this century (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 493, x. 54, 250). 

The Arian controversy of his time left its 
mark on Watts, His hymns contain an en- 
tire book of doxologies modelled on the 
Gloria Patri. But at the conference about 
the ministers at Exeter held at Salters' Hall 
(1719) he voted with the minority, who re- 
fused to impose acceptance of the doctrine 
of the Trinity on the independent ministers. 

He did not believe it necessary to salvation ; 
the creed of Constantinople had become to 
him only a human explication of the mystery 
of the divine Godhead ; and he had himself 
adopted another explication, which he hoped 
might heal the breach between Arianism and 
the faith of the church. He broached this 
theory in 'The Christian Doctrine of the 
Trinity ' (1722), and supported it in ' Dis- 
sertations relating to the Christian Doctrine 
of the Trinity '(1724-5). He returned to 
the subject in ' The Glory of Christ as God- 
Man Unveiled ' (1746), and ' Useful and Im- 
portant Questions concerning Jesus, the Son 
of God ' (1746). His theory, held also by 
Henry More, Robert Fleming, and Burnet 
(DoKNEK, The Person of Christ, div. ii. 
ii. 329, transl. Clark), was that the human 
soul of Christ had been created anterior 
to. the creation of the world, and united to 
the divine principle in the Godhead known as 
the Sophia or Logos (only a short step from 
Arianism, and with some affinity to Sabel- 
lianism) ; and that the personality of the 
Holy Ghost was figurative rather than proper 
or literal. None of the extant writings of 
Watts advances further than this ; but a 
very pathetic piece, entitled ' A Solemn 
Address to the Great and Ever Blessed 
God ' (published in a pamphlet called ' A 
Faithful Inquiry after the Ancient and 
Original Doctrine of the Trinity ' in 1745, 
but suppressed by Watts at that time, and 
republished in 1802), shows how deeply his 
mind was perplexed and troubled. He lays 
out all the perplexity before God, stating 
his belief in the very words of Scripture 
generally, with the plea ' Forbid it, oh ! my 
God, that I should ever be so unhappy as to 
unglorify my Father, my Saviour, or my 
Sanctifier. . . , Help me . . . for I am quite 
tired and weary of these human explain- 
ings, so various and uncertain.' Lardner 
affirmed that in his last years (not more 
than two years at most, in failing health) 
Watts passed to the Unitarian position, and 
wrote in defence of it ; the papers were, as 
Lardner owned, unfit for publication, and as 
such were destroyed by Doddridge and Jen- 
nings, the literary trustees. Lardner de- 
clared also that the last belief of Watts was 
; completely Unitarian ' (BELSHAM, Memoirs 
of Theophilus Lindsey, pp. 161-4). The 
testimony, however, of those who were most 
intimate with Watts to his last hours is en- 
tirely silent as to any such change ; and his 
dependence at death on the atonement 
(which is incompatible with ' complete uni- 
tarianism ') is emphatically attested (MiLNEK, 
Life, p. 315). 

The Calvinism of Watts was of the milder 



type which shrinks from the doctrine of re- 
probation. He held liberal views on educa- 
tion. His tolerance and love of comprehen- 
sion degenerated at times into weakness ; 
as in his proposal to unite the independents 
and baptists by surrendering the doctrine of 
infant baptism, if the baptists would give 
up immersion. His learning and piety at- 
tracted a large circle, including Doddridge, 
Lady Hertford (afterwards Duchess of So- 
merset), the first Lord Barrington, Bishop 
Gibson, Archbishop Hort, and Archbishop 
Seeker. The university of Edinburgh gave 
him an honorary D.D. degree (1728). He 
died on 25 Nov. 1748, and was buried at 
Bunhill Fields. A monument has been 
erected to him in Westminster Abbey; a 
statue in the park called often by his name 
at Southampton (1861) ; and another monu- 
ment in the Abney Park cemetery, once the 
grounds of Lady Abney's house (1846). His 
portrait, painted by Kneller. and another 
drawn and engraved from the life in mezzo- 
tint by George White, are in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. An anonymous 
portrait and a bust are in Dr. Williams's Li- 
brary. There is a portrait of him in wig and 
gown and bands as a young man in the 
Above Bar chapel, Southampton. These are 
engraved in the ' Life ' by Paxton "Hood (cf. 
BEOMLEY, Cat. of Engraved Portraits). 

Besides those of Watts's publications 
already mentioned, the following are the 
chief: 1. 'The Knowledge of the Heavens 
and Earth,' 1726. 2. ' Essays towards the 
Encouragement of Charity Schools among 
the Dissenters,' 1728. 3. 'Philosophical 
Essays,' 1733. 4. ' Reliquiae Juveniles.' 
1734. 5. ' Works,' edited by Jennings and 
Doddridge, 1753. 6. ' Posthumous Works ' 
(compiled from papers in possession of his 
immediate successor), 1779. 7. 'A Faithful 
Enquiry after the Ancient and Original Doc- 
trine of the Trinity,' ed. Gabriel Watts, 1802. 

A collective edition of Watts's ' Works,' 
as edited by Jennings and Doddridge, with 
additions and a memoir by George Burder, 
appeared in six folio volumes in 1810. 

[Watts's Works ; Memoirs by Thomas Gibbons. 
D.D., 1780; Milner'sLife, 1834 ; Paxton Hood's 
Life, 1875 (Keligious TractSoc.) ; Julian's Diet. 
of Hymnology, arts. ' Watts,' ' Psalters English,' 
and ' Early English Hymnology.'] H. L. B. 

WATTS, MRS. JANE (1793-1826), au- 
thor. [See under WALDIE, CHARLOTTE ANN.] 

WATTS, SIR JOHN (d. 161 6), merchant 
and shipowner, the son of Thomas Watts of 
Buntingford, Hertfordshire, was owner of 
the Margaret and John, one of the ships set 
forth and paid by the city of London in 

1588 against the Spanish armada. Watts 
himself served in her as a volunteer, and was 
in the hottest of the fighting. In 1590 the 
same ship was one of a fleet of merchant- 
men coming home from the Mediterranean 
which fought and beat oft* the Spanish galleys 
near Cadiz. It does not appear that Watts 
was then in her ; but throughout the war 
he seems to have taken an active part in the 
equipment of privateers. Mention is made of 
one which in July 1601 took into Plymouth 
a prize coming from the Indies laden with 
China silks, satins, and taft'etas. At this 
time he was an alderman of London (Tower 
ward), and had been suspected of being a 
supporter of Essex. He was one of the 
; founders of the East India Company, and 
on 11 April 1601 was elected governor of it, 
duringtheimprisonment of Sir Thomas Smith 
or Smythe (Io58?-1625)[q.v.] On the acces- 
sion of James I he was knighted 26 July 
1603 (METCALFE, Book of Knights), &nd was 
lord mayor in 1606-7 (ORRIDGE, Citizens 
and their Rulers, p. 232), at which time he 
was described in a letter (30 April 1607, 
N.S.) to the king of Spain as ' the greatest 
pirate that has ever been in this kingdom ' 
(BROWN, Genesis of the United States, -p. 99). 
During the following years he was an active 
member of the Virginia Company. In the 
city of London Watts was a member of the 
Clothworkers' Company. 

Watts died at his seat in Hertfordshire in 
September 1616, and was buried on the 7th 
of that month at Ware. By his wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir James Hawes, knt. 
(lord mayor in 1574), he left four sons and 
four daughters. The eldest son, John, served 
in the Cadiz expedition and was knighted for 
his good service in 1625 ; he subsequently 
served under Buckingham in the Rhe expe- 
dition, and under Count Mansfeldt in the 
Palatinate ; he married Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Bayning, and aunt of Paul, first 
viscount Bayning, and left numerous issue. 
His eldest son (grandson of the lord mayor), 
who also became Sir John Watts, served 
an apprenticeship in arms under his father. 
He was knighted in 1642, and received a 
commission to raise a troop of arms for the 
king. Having been expelled from the go- 
vernorship of Chirk Castle, he attached him- 
self to the fortunes of Lord Capel, and was 
one of the defenders of Colchester Castle 
(August 1648). He compounded for delin- 
quency by paying the moderate fine of 100/., 
and was discharged on 11 May 1649 ; how- 
ever, he was forced to sell to [Sir] John 
Buck his manor of Mardocks in Ware. 
After the Restoration he was made receiver 
for Essex and Hertfordshire. He died about 



1680, and was buried in the church of Ilert- 

[Cal. State Papers, East Indies and Dom. ; 
Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Navy Records 
Soc.) ; Chauncey's Hist. Antiquities of Hert- 
fordshire, 1700, fol.; Harl. MS. 1546, f. 108 
(Watts's pedigree) ; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, 
iii. 305; Cussans's Hertfordshire (Hundred of 
Hertford), p. 112; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
viii. 310 ; Cal. of Committee for Compounding, 
p. 1865 ; information from Mr. F. Owen Fisher.] 

J. K. L. 

WATTS, JOHN (1818-1887), educa- 
tional and social reformer, son of James ! 
Watts, ribbon weaver, was born at Coven- | 
try, Warwickshire, on 24 March 1818. At ! 
five years of age he suffered partial paralysis ! 
of his left side, and was unable on that 
account to follow a manual employment. 
After leaving the ordinary elementary '. 
school, he became a member of the local 
mechanics' institution, where from the age j 
of thirteen to twenty he acted as assistant \ 
secretary and librarian, and it was there that 
much of his self-education was accomplished. 
After that he went into trade, but, having j 
adopted communistic principles, soon be- ' 
came a lecturer in furtherance of Robert j 
Owen's views, and visited many towns, j 
meanwhile reading hard, and in Scotland j 
attending lectures at the Andersonian Uni- 
versity. Finally in July 1841 he took up \ 
his residence in Manchester, where for three ! 
years he conducted a boys' school in the j 
Hall of Science, and held many public dis- 
cussions in the district on Owen's system of : 
society. In 1844 he had come to the con- : 
elusion that Owen's ideal community was I 
impracticable and many of its adherents j 
self-seeking, and he went into business | 
again; but public life still claimed a large j 
amount of his attention. At this time j 
(18 July 1844) he obtained from the uni- 
versity of Giessen the degree of Ph.D. In 
1845 he took part in a movement which 
led to the establishment of three public 
parks in Manchester and Salford, and in 
1847 joined, and afterwards became the 
leading advocate of, the Lancashire (subse- 
quently called the National) Public School 
Association, for the provision of free, 
secular, and rate-supported schools, of which 
organisation Samuel Lucas (1811-1865) 
[q. v.] was chairman. He also joined the 
society for promoting the repeal of the ' taxes 
on knowledge,' and materially assisted the 
efforts to that end in parliament of Milner 
Gibson, Cobden, and Ayrton, framing many 
of the puzzling questions, and collecting 
most of the specimen cases which so non- 
plussed the chancellor of the exchequer. In 

1850 he induced Sir John Potter, then mayor 
of Manchester, to form a committee for 
the establishment of a free library under 
the provisions of Ewart's act, which was 
then passing through parliament, the novel 
feature in his suggestion being that it should 
be a free lending library. Watts acted as 
one of the secretaries of the committee, 
whose labours ended in the opening of the 
Manchester free library, a sum of nearly 
13,000/. having been raised by public sub- 
scription. In 1853 he was a promoter of 
the People's Provident Assurance Society, 
and went to London, returning in 1 857 to be 
local manager in Manchester. This com- 
pany was afterwards known as the ' Euro- 
pean,' and, by numerous amalgamations with 
unsound companies and departing from the 
lines originally laid down, it came to a disas- 
trous end. During an illness brought about 
by this failure he resolved to profit by his 
bitter experience, and wrote the first draft of 
a bill which was introduced into parliament 
and became the Life Assurance Act of 1870, 
which among other precautionary measures 
forbade the transfer or amalgamation of in- 
surance companies without judicial autho- 
rity. The Education Aid Society of Man- 
chester received great assistance from him, 
as did also the educational section of the 
social science congress of 1866. As a re- 
sult of that conference a special committee 
was appointed, on whose behalf he prepared 
the draft of Henry Austin Bruce's education 
bill of 1868. He was an active member of 
the Manchester school board from its consti- 
tution in 1870 to his death, and secretary 
to the Owens College extension committee, 
which raised about a quarter of a million 
sterling for the erection and equipment of a 
new collegiate building, and for the further 
endowment of the college. He was intimately 
associated with the co-operative movement, 
and for a time was a principal contributor 
to the 'Co-operative News.' He was also 
chairman of the councils of the Union of 
Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes, the Man- 
chester Technical School, the Royal Botani- 
cal and Horticultural Society of Manchester, 
and the local provident dispensaries (which 
were founded on his suggestion and largely 
by his aid), secretary of the Manchester Re- 
form Club, a governor of the Manchester 
grammar school, and president of the Man- 
chester Statistical Society, besides being on 
the committees of other public institutions. 
During the cotton famine occasioned by the 
American war, he sat as a member^ the 
famous central relief committee, 
operations he recorded in a volume entitled 
' The Facts of the Cotton Famine,' pub- 



lished in 1866. In addition to this volume 
he published ' The Catechism of Wages and 
Capital/ 1867, and a large number of pam- 
phlets, chiefly on economic subjects, as trade- 
unions, strikes, co-operation, and education. 
He was a contributor to several of the 
leading periodicals, and a most effective 
newspaper correspondent, especially on edu- 
cational and economic subjects. His in- 
fluence with the working classes was always 
very great, and his conciliatory advice was 
often found to be of the utmost value 
in trade disputes. 

He died at Old Trafford, Manchester, on 
7 Feb. 1887, and was buried in the parish 
church of Bowdon, Cheshire. He married 
Catherine Shaw in October 1844, and left 
four children, three having died in his life- 
time. His eldest son is Mr. W. H. S. 
Watts, district registrar in Manchester of 
the high court of justice. His daughter, 
Caroline Emma, married Dr. T. E. Thorpe, 
F.R.S., chief government analyst. 

In 1885 a marble bust of Watts, executed 
by J. W. Swinnerton, was subscribed for and 
placed in the Manchester Reform Club. He 
had previously, in 1867, been the recipient 
of 3,600/., raised by subscription, as a mark 
of the esteem in which he was held. 

[Bee-Hive, 14 Aug. 1875, with portrait; 
Manchester Guardian, 6 Feb. 1887 ; Thompson's 
Owens College ; information from W. H. S. 
Watts, esq. ; personal knowledge.] C. W. S. 

WATTS, RICHARD (1529-1579), foun- 
der of Watts's charity at Rochester, was 
born at West Peckham, Kent, about 1529, 
and migrated to Rochester in or near 1552. 
He seems to have been a contractor to the 
government, and payments for victualling 
the fleet and army were made to him in 1550 
and 1551 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, 
p. 204 ; Watts acted as deputy for Sir Ed- 
ward Basshe, victualler to the navy in 1554 
and 1559), while in 1560 he was appointed 
by Queen Elizabeth to be paymaster and 
surveyor of the works at Upnor Castle and, 
two years later, ' surveyor of the ordnance ' 
at Upnor. He was also treasurer of the 
revenues of Rochester Bridge. He sat in 
Elizabeth's second parliament (1563-7), and 
received a visit from the queen during her 
progress through Surrey and Kent in 1573. 
The story goes that when, at leave-taking, 
the host was fain to apologise for the in- 
sufficiency of his house, Elizabeth remarked 
' Satis.' Watts took this as a compliment, 
and named his house on Bully Hill ' Satis 
House.' He died there on 10 Sept. 1579, 
and was buried in Rochester Cathedral. 
In 1738 the corporation, at the instance of 

the mayor, whose name happened to be 
Richard Watts, erected a monument to his 
memory in the south transept. By his will, 
states the inscription, ' dated 22 Aug. and 
proved 25 Sept. 1579, he founded an alms- 
house for the relief of poor people and for 
the reception of six poor travelers every 
night, and for imploying^ the poor of this 
city.' The original annual value of the 
estate in Chatham devoted to the purposes 
of the charity was twenty marks, but upon 
the death of Watts's widow, Marian (who 
after his death espoused a lawyer named 
Thomas Pagitt), the income was augmented 
to nearly 371. In 1771, when the poor tra- 
vellers' lodgings in the High Street were 
repaired, the revenue amounted to nearly 
500/. per annum, and in 1859 to 7,0001. per 
annum. At the date last mentioned the 
charity was remodelled and twenty almsfolk 
lodged in a new building on the Maidstone 
road, with an allowance of 30/. a year each. 
A reform of the charity had been urged five 
years previously by Charles Dickens in the 
Christmas number of ' Household Words ' 
for 1854. 

The clause in his will which has caused 
Richard Watts to be remembered stipulates 
that ' six matrices or flock beds and other 
good and sufficient furniture' should be 
provided ' to harbour or lodge in poor 
travellers or wayfaring men, being no 
common rogues nor proctors [i.e. itinerant 
priests] . . . the said wayfaring men to 
harbour therein no longer than one night 
unless sickness be the farther cause thereof; 
and those poor folks there dwelling should 
keep the same sweet and courteously in- 
treat the said poor travellers ; and every of 
the said poor travellers at their first coming 
in to have fourpence.' The singularity of 
the bequest, which is still operative, has 
given rise to a number of fictitious explana- 
tions. It has some points of resemblance to 
the ' wayfarer's dole ' in connection with the 
Hospital of St. Cross at Winchester. 

A bust of Watts, stated to have been exe- 
cuted during his lifetime, surmounts the 
monument in Rochester Cathedral. 

[Some new facts concerning Watts were con- 
tributed to the Kochester and Chatham News, 
30 July 1898, by Mr. A. Rhodes. See also the 
History and Antiquities of Rochester, 1817, pp. 
218-23; Thorpe's Registrum Roffense, 1769, 
pp. 720 sq. ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent; Archseo- 
logia Cantiana, v. 52, vii. 322; Addit. MS. 
5752, f. 344 ; Acts of Privy Council, new ser., 
ii!. 263 ; Langton's Childhood and Youth of 
Charles Dickens, 1891, with a view of 'Watts's 
Charity,' and a copy of the inscription in the 
cathedral.] T. S. 




WATTS, ROBERT (1820-1895), Irish 
presbyteriaii divine, youngest of fourteen 
children of a presbyteriaii farmer, was born 
at Moneylane, near Castlewellan, co. Down, 
on 10 July 1820. He was educated at the 
parish school of Kilmegan, co. Down, and at 
the Royal Academical Institution, Belfast. 
In 1848 he went to America, graduated 
(1849) at Washington College, Lexington, 
Virginia, and studied theology at Princeton, 
New Jersey, under Charles Hodge, D.D. 
(1797-1878). He organised (1852) a pres- 
byterian mission at Philadelphia, gathered a 
congregation in Franklin House Hall, was 
ordained its pastor in 1853, and obtained 
the erection (1856) of Westminster Church 
for its use. He got into controversy on Ar- 
minianism with Albert Barnes (1798-1870), 
a Philadelphia presbyterian of liberal views. 
On a visit to Ireland he accepted a call to 
Lower Gloucester Street congregation, 
Dublin, and was installed there in August 

On the death (1866) of John Edgar [q. v.], 
Watts was elected to the chair of systematic 
theology in the Assembly's College, Belfast. 
He was a keen theologian, of very conserva- 
tive views, opposed to the tendency of much 
modern criticism, and especially to the in- 
fluence of German exegesis. He studied 
current speculations with some care, in a 
spirit of uncompromising antagonism. His 
writings were acceptable to the older minds 
in his denomination, and were in some 
measure successful in arresting tendencies 
which he combated with confident vivacity. 
In matters where he considered that no theo- 
logical interest was involved he was not so 
conservative ; he advocated the use of in- 
strumental music in public worship, though 
this was against the general sentiment of 
Irish presbyterians. His health suffered from 
over work, and after the close of the college 
session, April 1895, he completely broke 
down. He died at College Park, Belfast, on 
26 July 1895, and was buried on 29 July in 
the city cemetery. He married (1853) Mar- 
garet, daughter of William Newell of Sum- 
merhill, Downpatrick, who survived him with 
a son and two daughters. His eldest son, 
Robert Watts, presbyterian minister of Kil- 
macreenan, co. Donegal, died on 4 Dec. 1889. 

Among his numerous publications may be 
named: 1. 'The Doctrine of Eternal Pun- 
ishment Vindicated,' Belfast, 1873, 8vo. 
2. ' Reply to Professor Tyndal's Address be- 
fore the British Association,' Belfast, 1874, 
8vo. 3. ' An Examination of Herbert Spen- 
cer's Biological Hypothesis,' Belfast, 1875, 
8vo. 4. ' The New Apologetic,' Edinburgh, 
1879, 8vo. 5. ' The Newer Criticism. . . . 

Reply to ... W. Robertson Smith,' Edin- 
burgh, 1881, 8vo. 6. ' The Rule of Faith 
and the Doctrine of Inspiration,' 1885, 8vo. 
He contributed many articles to presbyterian 
and other periodicals. 

[Northern Whig, 27 July 1895 ; Belfast News- 
letter, 27 July 1895; Irwin's Presbyterianism 
in Dublin, 1890, p. 233; Latimer's Hist, of Irish 
Presbyterians (1893), p. 227; Schaff and Jack- 
son's Encyclopaedia of Living Divines, 1894, p. 
231.] A. G. 

WATTS, THOMAS (1811-1869), keeper 
of printed books at the British Museum, was 
born in London, in the parish of St. Luke's, 
Old Street, in 1811. His father, originally 
from Northamptonshire, was the proprietor of 
the ' Peerless Pool ' "baths in the City Road, 
the profits from which placed the family in 
comfortable circumstances. Watts received 
his education at Linnington's academy, near 
Finsbury Square, where he soon learned 
whatever was taught, and distinguished 
himself in particular by his facility in com- 
posing essays and verses. He for some time 
followed no profession, but devoted himself 
to literary studies, in which he made remark- 
able progress, favoured by a prodigiously 
retentive memory and a faculty for acquiring 
difficult languages, which enabled him to 
master all the Celtic and Slavonic tongues, 
as well as Hungarian, and to make some 
progress with Chinese. He was particularly 
interested in Dutch literature. He occa- 
sionally contributed to periodicals, and in 
1836 wrote an article on the British Museum 
in the ' Mechanics' Magazine ' which in some 
degree anticipated Panizzi's subsequent feat 
of erecting the great reading-room within 
the interior quadrangle, though Watts hardly 
seems to speak of the step as one that was 
then practicable. His engagement to cata- 
logue a small parcel of Russian desiderata, 
purchased at his recommendation, introduced 
him to the museum. At Panizzi's invitation 
he became a temporary assistant in 1838, 
and was employed in effecting the removal 
of the books from the old rooms in Monta- 
gue House to the new library, a task per- 
formed with extraordinary expedition and 
unexpected facility. In the autumn of the 
same year he was placed upon the perma- 
nent staff. His duties for the next twenty 
years embraced two most important depart- 
ments: he was the principal agent in the 
selection of current foreign literature for the 
museum, giving at the same time much atten- 
tion to the acquisition of desiderata ; and 
he arranged all newly acquired books on the 
shelves according to a system of classification 
introduced by himself, though agreeing to 
a great extent with Brunet's. These books 




mostly occupied presses numbered according 
to the ' elastic system ' devised by Watts, 
which prevented the disturbance of the nu- 
merical series. ' He appeared,' says Cowtan, 
' never to have forgotten a single book that 
passed through his hands, and always re- 
membered its exact locality in the library.' 
He also gave great assistance to Panizzi in 
framing the memorable report (1843) which 
showed the inefficiency of the library as it 
was, and the necessity of a great augmenta- 
tion of the grant for purchases [see PANIZZI, 
SIR ANTHONY]. Of his labours as a selector 
of books, especially in the less known Euro- 
pean languages, lie was able to say, ' In 
Russian, Polish, Hungarian, Danish, and 
Swedish, with the exception perhaps of fifty 
volumes, every book that has been purchased 
by the museum within the last three-and- 
twenty years has been purchased at my sugges- 
tion. Every future student of these literatures 
will find riches where I found poverty.' He 
also, in this respect before his age, advocated 
the printing of the catalogue. He became 
assistant keeper in 1856. When the new 
reading-room was opened in 1857, Watts, 
much to the public advantage but greatly 
to his own dissatisfaction, was appointed its 
first superintendent. This necessitated his 
relinquishment of the duty of placing books, 
in which he had so delighted ; he continued, 
however, to bestow the same attention as 
before upon the enrichment of the library, and 
computed that between 1851 and 1860 he 
had ordered eighty thousand books and 
examined six hundred thousand titles. In 
1866 he succeeded John Winter Jones [q. v.] 
as keeper of printed books. He was eminent 
as a scholar rather than as an administra- 
tor, and his short term of office was chiefly 
distinguished for his persistence in realising 
his grand object ' of uniting with the best 
English library in the world the best ! 
Russian library out of Russia, the best Ger- 
man out of Germany, the best Spanish out 
of Spain ; and so on in every language from 
Italian to Icelandic, from Polish to Portu- 
guese.' Among other important acquisitions 
during his tenure of office were a large 
portion of the Mexican libraries of Father 
Fischer and M. Andrade, and the Japanese 
library of Dr. Siebold. He died unexpectedly 
at his residence in the British Museum on 
9 Sept. 1869. He was interred in Highgate 

Watts was a warm-hearted and occa- 
sionally a warm-tempered man. In spite 
of some brusquerie and angularity he was 
much beloved by his colleagues, and uni- 
versally regarded as one of the principal 
ornaments of the British Museum in his 

day. An inexpressive countenance and an 
ungainly figure were forgotten in the charm 
of his conversation, which resembled what 
has been recorded of Macaulay's. 

Watts's remarkable endowments would 
have gained him more celebrity if he had 
had more inclination to authorship. Al- 
though an excellent hejaras not a willing 
writer, and needed a strong inducement to 
employ his pen. Apart from his official 
work, he is perhaps best remembered for his 
exposure in ' A Letter to Antonio Panizzi, 
Esq.' (1839) of the fabrication of the alleged 
first English newspaper (the ' English Mer- 
curic'), a fortunate but an easy discovery, 
which the first serious investigator could 
hardly fail to make. His excellent ' Sketch 
of the History of the Welsh Language and 
Literature' was privately reprinted in 1861 
from Knight's ' English Cyclopaedia,' to which 
he also contributed an article, perfect in its 
day, upon the British Museum. He wrote 
many biographical articles for the same pub- 
lication, principally on foreign men of letters, 
and he was, with his brother Joshua, a lead- 
ing contributor to the abortive biographical 
dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion 
of Useful Knowledge. The valuable article 
on ' The History of Cyclopaedias ' in vol. cxiii. 
of the 'Quarterly Review' (April 1863) is 
by him ; he wrote a series of letters in the 
' Athenaeum,' under the signature of ' Verifi- 
cator,' on the fallacies of library statistics, 
and made many other important communi- 
cations to the same journal. He was also a 
valued member of the Philological Society. 
An interesting paper written in 1850 dealt 
with ' The Probable Future Position of the 
English Language ' (Philol. Soc. Proc. iv. 207 ; 
cf. AXON, Stray Chapters, 1888, p. 199). 
Two years later, in January 1852, he gave 
the society his paper on Cardinal Joseph 
Mezzofanti, whom he acknowledged (speak- 
ing with the authority of a connoisseur) to 
be ' the greatest linguist the world has ever 
seen' (ib. v. 112). A subsequent paper on 
the Hungarian language procured him the 
honour of election as a member of the Hun- 
garian Academy. 

[Athenaeum, 18 Sept. 1869 ; Edwards's 
Founders and Benefactors of the British 
Museum ; Cowtan's Memories of the British 
Museum ; Espinasse's Literary Recollections; 
Royal Commission on British Museum, 1849; 
personal knowledge.] B. G. 

1842), journalist and miniature-painter, born 
in the East Indies in 1776, was the son of a 
captain in the royal navy. He was sent to 
England at an early age and placed at school 
in Cheshire. He possessed talent as an 



artist, and devoted some time to the study 
of drawing and painting. In 1808 he was a 
member of the Society of Associated Artists 
in Watercolours. He obtained some re- 
nown as a miniature-painter, and from 1808 
to 1830 exhibited miniatures at the Royal 
Academy. In 1816 he was appointed minia- 
ture-painter to the Princess Charlotte. Not 
being able for some time to realise a suffi- 
cient income from painting, he obtained em- 
ployment as a parliamentary reporter on the 
staff of the ' Morning Post ' in 1803. About 
1813 he joined the ' Morning Chronicle ' in 
the same capacity. In 1826 he undertook 
to manage the reporting department of the 
' Representative,' but, returning to the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle ' in the following year, he con- 
tinued to act as a parliamentary reporter 
till 1840. During this time he also con- 
tributed criticisms on matters connected 
with the fine arts to the ' Literary Gazette,' 
and edited the ' Annual Biography and 
Obituary ' from its commencement in 1817 
until 1831. Watts died at his lodgings at 
Earl's Court Terrace, Old Brompton, on 
4 Jan. 1842. 

Jerdan states that Watts wrote several 
independent works, among others a replica- 
tion of Martin Archer Slice's ' Rhymes in 
Art,' but that they were nearly all published 

[Dodd's Annual Biography, 1842, p. 457; 
Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 223; Morning Chronicle, 
8 Jan. 1842; Jordan's Autobiography, 1853, iii. 
283, iv. 118-27.] E. I. C. 

WATTS, WILLIAM (1590? -1649), 
chaplain to Prince Rupert, son of William 
Watts of Tibbenham, Norfolk, was born 
there about 1590. He was at school at 
Moulton, and at sixteen was admitted sizar 
at Gonville and Gains College, Cambridge, 
in 1606. He graduated B.A. in 1611, M.A. 
in 1614 (VENN, Admissions, p. 105), and was 
college chaplain from 1616 to 1626. He was 
incorporated at Oxford on 14 July 1618, 
and in 1639 was created D.D. (FOSTER, 
Alumni, 1500-1714). He travelled on the 
continent after leaving college, and became 
a good linguist. In December 1620 he ac- 
companied Sir Albertus Morton [q. v.] as 
chaplain on his mission to the united pro- 
testant princes of Germany. 

In 1624 he was apparently appointed 
vicar of Barwick, Norfolk, the next year 
rector of St. Alban, Wood Street, London. 
The former living he seems to have held 
until 1648, as on 24 April of that year he 
was included in a list of sequestrated delin- 
quents and his estate valued at 81. (Cal. 
Comm.for Compounding, p. 114). From the 
city rectory he was driven in 1642, his wife 

and children rendered homeless for a time 
(Persecutio Undecima, p. 44). Perhaps his 
absence from both livings accounts for this 
treatment, for he was serving in 1639 as army 
chaplain to Lord Arundel, the general of the 
forces, with supervision of all the other chap- 
lains (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1689, p. 51). 
He was appointed a prebendary of Wells on 
19 March 1633, and in 1645 was nominated 
archdeacon, but of this charge he never took 
possession (LE NEVE, Fasti, i. 161, 190). 

Upon Prince Rupert's return to England 
in 1642, Watts, who had previously held 
the post of chaplain to the king, became 
attached to him. He accompanied the 
prince into the field, and was present 
throughout many actions. He also attended 
him at sea, and during the blockade of the 
royalist ships under the prince in Kinsale 
Harbour, Watts sickened of an incurable 
disease, and there died about December 1649. 
He was buried in Ireland. 

His wife, a daughter of Vaughan, mini- 
ster of Ashtead, Surrey, brother of Richard 
Vaughan [q. v.], bishop of London, with at 
least one son, survived him. 

Watts was a scholar, learned for his time. 
Gerard Vossius (De Vitiis Sermonis, lib. ii. 
cap. xvi. &c.) praises his great work, the 
edition of the 'Historia Major' of Matthew 
Paris, London, 1640, fol. ; Paris, 1644; Lon- 
don, 1684 [see PARIS, MATTH'EW]. He assisted 
Sir Henry Spelman [q. v.] with his glossary, 
and his translation of- the ' Confessions of 
St. Augustine' (London, 1631. 12mo) was 
edited by Pusey in 1838 for his ' Library 
of the Fathers.' He also issued a number of 
newsletters under the title of ' The Swedish 

Of other works mentioned by Wood only 
one seems to be extant. This is a manu- 
script treatise on the surplice entitled ' The 
Church's Linen Garment,' dated 1646, now 
among the Tanner manuscripts (No. 262) in 
the Bodleian Library. Eliot Warburton 
[q. v.] conjectured that Watts was author of 
two manuscripts describing portions of Prince 
Rupert's maritime exploits during the Com- 
monwealth. These Warburton found among 
the Rupert manuscripts and printed in the 
third volume of his ' Life ' of the prince. 

[Venn's Biographical Hist, of Gonville and 
Caius Coll. i. 193; "Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 
383 ; Newcourt's Repert. Eccles. i. 238 ; Lloyd's 
Memoires, pp. 504-5 ; Chalmers's Life of Ituddi- 
man, p. 113 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. xxxi. 254 ; 
Cfilamy's Nonconf. Mem. i. 75 ; Walker's Suffer- 
ings, ii. 72 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, x. 297 ; War- 
burton's Life of Prince Eupert, iii. 234, 278 ; 
Lansdowne MS. 985, fol. 154 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1628-9, p. 511.] C. F. S. 


WATTS, WILLIAM (1752-1851), line- 
engraver, the son of a master silk weaver 
in Moorfields, was born early in 1752. He 
received his art training from Paul Sandby 
[q. v.] and Edward Rooker [q. v.], and on 
the death of the latter in 1774 he continued 
the ' Copper-plate Magazine/ commenced by 
him, and published a number of engravings 
of country seats after Sandby. His own 
' Seats of the Nobility and Gentry,' a series 
of eighty-four plates, followed in 1779-86. 
He sold the furniture and prints in his house 
at Kemp's Row, Chelsea, and went to Italy, 
reaching Naples in September 1786. After 
about a year he returned, and lived at Sun- 
bury, Middlesex. In 1789 he went to Carmar- 
then, in 1790 to the Hotwells, Bristol, and 
in 1791 to Bath, where he spent two years. 
His views of the principal buildings in Bath 
and Bristol, prepared about this time, were 
published in 1819. 'Thirty-six Views in 
Scotland ' appeared in two parts (1791-4). 
He was keenly interested in the French re- 
volution, and went to Paris in 1793, where 
some of his views of English country seats 
were engraved in colours by Laurent Guyot. 
He invested most of the property which 
he had inherited from his father, with his 
own earnings, in the French funds, and the 
whole was confiscated, though he" recovered 
a portion at the peace in 1815. His loss com- 
pelled him to return to the practice of his 
profession. He engraved three of the plates 
in ' Select Views in London and Westmin- 
ster ' (1800), and sixty-five coloured plates, 
from drawings by Luigi Mayer, for Sir Ro- 
bert Ainstie's ' Views in Turkey in Europe 
and Asia ' (1801). Soon after this he retired 
from his profession, and lived for a short 
time at Mill Hill, Hendon. In 1814 he 
purchased a small property at Cobham, Surrey, 
where he died on 7 Dec. 1851, after having 
been blind for some years, within a few 
months of his hundredth birthday. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 420 ; Eedgrave's Diet, 
of Artists; South Kensington Cat. of Books 
on Art.] C. D. 

WAUCHOPE, SIE JOHN (d. 1682), of 
Niddrie, covenanter, was descended from 
the old family of Wauchope of Wauchope in 
Dumfriesshire, who became proprietors of the 
lands of Culter, Aberdeenshire, and from the 
thirteenth century were hereditary baillies in 
Mid Lothian to the keith marischal of Scot- 
land, afterwards earl marischal, from whom 
they obtained the lands of Xiddrie Marischal 
in that county. Robert Wauchope, great- 
grandfather of Sir John, and his son and heir- 
apparent Archibald were forfeited in 1587 
for aiding and abetting the turbulent fifth 



Earl of Bothwell [see HEPBURN", FRANCIS 
STEWART] ; but they continued to defy jus- 
tice, the son, after being captured in 1589, 
escaping from the Tolbooth during his trial, 
and living thereafter a wandering and law- 
less life. The father also, after taking part 
in the raid of Falkland in 1590, was cap- 
tured at Lesmahagow by Lord Hamilton, 
and placed in the castle of Drephan, but 
made his escape with the connivance of Sir 
John Hamilton, the commander of the castle. 

Sir John Wauchope was the son of Francis 
Wauchope of Wauchope by Janet Sandi- 
lands, said to have been the daughter of 
Lord Torphichen. He was knighted on 
22 June by Charles I on his visit to Scot- 
land in 1633. In 1642 he joined in a peti- 
tion of several noblemen, burgesses, and 
ministers to the Scottish privy council, pray- 
ing that nothing should be enacted preju- 
dicial to the work of the Reformation and 
the preservation of peace between the two 
kingdoms (SPALDING, Memorials, ii. 148 ; 
GUTHRY, Memoirs, p. 96). A zealous cove- 
nanter, he was present with Argyll at Inver- 
lochy against Montrose in 1645, but did not 
take part in the battle, having the previous 
evening gone with Argyll aboard Argyll's 
galley (SPALDING, ii. 444; GUTHRY, p. 129), 
Wauchope died in January 1682. By his 
wife Anne, daughter of Sir Andrew Hamil- 
ton of Redhouse, brother of Thomas, earl of 
Iladdington, he had two sons Andrew, 
who succeeded him ; and John, who, marry- 
ing Anna, daughter and heiress of James 
Rait of Edmondstone, became the founder 
of the Wauchopes of Edmondstone. By his 
second wife, Jean, widow of Sir John Ker, 
he had a son James, who served under 
Dundee at Killiecrankie. 

[Sir James Balfour's Annals ; Bishop Guthry's 
Memoirs ; Calderwood's Hist, of the Kirk of 
Scotland ; Spalding's Memorials in the Spalding 
Club ; Burke's Landed Gentry; Anderson's Scot- 
tish Nation.] T. F. H. 

WAUGH, ALEXANDER (1754-1827), 
Scottish divine, youngest son of Thomas 
Waugh, farmer, of East Gordon, Berwick- 
shire (d. 1783), and Margaret, his wife, 
daughter of Alexander Johnstone and Eliza- 
beth Waugh, also of the farmer class, was 
born at East Gordon on 16 Aug. 1754. His 
father was a zealous presbyterian, with a 
strong dislike of lay patronage. Waugh was 
as a child devoted by his parents to the 
ministry. He was educated at the village 
school of East Gordon until 1766, when he 
was entered at the grammar school of Earls- 
ton in Berwickshire. He was a high-spirited 
boy, a good classical scholar, and a skilful 
musician. In 1770 he entered the university 




of Edinburgh, and manifested great aptitude 
for- moral philosophy. In August 1774 he 
passed to the burgher secession academy, 
under the management of JohnBrown (1722- 
1787) [q.v.] of Haddington. After some hesi- 
tation Waugh accepted Brown's theological 
basis of philosophy in its entirety. In 1777 
he removed to the university of Aberdeen, 
and attended the lectures of Drs. Beattie and 
Campbell. He proceeded M.A. on 1 April 
1778, and was licensed by the presbytery of 
Edinburgh at Dunse on 28 June 1779. Two 
months later he was appointed temporarily 
for ten weeks to the secession congregational 
church of Wells Street, London. This church 
subsequently became the centre of his mini- 
strations ; but at the conclusion of his first 
term of office there he received a call to the 
ministry of Newtown in the parish of Mel- 
rose, Roxburghshire, to which he was or- 
dained on 30 Aug. 1780. The village was 
very small and poor, there was no manse, and 
Waugh continued to reside with his parents, 
fourteen miles off, at East Gordon. Twice in 
May 1781 he declined a call to Wells Street, 
London ; but when the call was repeated 
next year the presbytery of Edinburgh ad- 
mitted him to the London charge (9 May 
1782). His success at Wells Street was im- 
mediate and lasting. 

Apart from his ministerial duties, his chief 
activities were absorbed by the London Mis- 
sionary Society, of which he was one of the 
original committee, formed on 22 Sept. 1795. 
He preached at the Tabernacle at the second 
anniversary meeting on 10 May 1797. In 
September 1 802 he undertook a tour in France 
on behalf of the mission to 'promote the 
revival of pure religion in that country:' 
but the renewal of war interrupted his efforts. 
Thenceforth he made almost annually mis- 
sionary tours through various parts of Eng- 
land and, after 1815, through Scotland. In 
1812 he joined Dr. Jack of Manchester in a 
missionary tour in Ireland. At Bristol in 
the same year he formed an auxiliary branch 
of the society. He sat for twenty-eight 
years as chairman of the examining com- 
mittee of the society, and was also a member 
of the corresponding board of the Society for 
propagating Christianity in the Highlands 
and Islands of Scotland. 

In 1812 Waugh was largely instrumental 
in the enlargement and improvement of the 
psalmody appointed for church use. He re- 
ceived the degree of doctor of divinity in 
1815 from the Marischal College of Aberdeen. 
Through life he was one of the most effectual 
friends of Mill Hill school. He died on 
14 Dec. 1827, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields on 22 Dec., the funeral procession, 

which included ministers of all denomina- 

ns, being half a mile long. A marble 
tablet to his memory was placed in Wells 
Street Chapel by his congregation. 

Waugh married, on 10 Aug. 1786, at Edin- 
row in the parish of Coldingham, Berwick- 
shire, Mary Neill, daughter of William Neill 
of Edincrow, and Margaret Henderson his 
wife. By her he had six sons and four 
daughters. His wife died on 20 July 1840, 
aged 80. 

There are several portraits of Waugh still 
extant. The best is a drawing by Wage- 
mann, representing him, half-length, in his 
doctor's gown and bands. This portrait was 
reproduced in the memoir by Hay and Bel- 
frage. Tassie executed two gem portraits, 
one of which was distributed in a cameo 
reproduction among all branches of his 
family. There is an oil-painting by an un- 
known artist now in the possession of Mar- 
garet Waugh in Brisbane. A watercolour 
portrait, by an unknown artist, is in the pos- 
session of his grandson, Alexander Waugh 
of Midsomer Norton, Somerset. 

Besides single sermons, Waugh published 
' Sermons, Expositions, and Addresses at 
the Holy Communion,' London, 1825, 8vo. 

[Memoir of the Eev. Alexander Waugh, D.D., 
by the Eev. James Hay, D.D. and the Eev. 
Henry Belfrage, D.D., 3rd edit., Edinburgh, 
1839; Family Papers.] A. W. 


(1810-1878), major-general royal (late Ben- 
gal) engineers, surveyor-general of India, 
eldest son of General Gilbert Waugh, mili- 
tary auditor-general at Madras, grandson of 
Colonel Gilbert Waugh of Gracemount, Mid- 
Lothian (descended from Waugh of Shaw, 
standard-bearer at Flodden Field), and 
nephew of Sir Murray Maxwell of the royal 
navy, was born in India on 3 Feb. 1810. 
He was educated at Edinburgh High School, 
and, after passing through the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe in half the usual time, came out 
first of his term and received a commission 
as lieutenant in the Bengal engineers on 
13 Dec. 1827. After a course of professional 
instruction at Chatham under Sir Charles 
Pasley [q. v.], who recommended him to the 
chief engineer at Bengal, Waugh went to 
India, arriving in that country on 25 May 

Waugh was appointed in the following 
year to assist Captain Hutchinson in the 
construction of the new foundry at Kossi- 
pur. On 13 April 1831 he was appointed 
adjutant of the Bengal sappers and miners, 
and on 17 July 1832 to the great trigono- 


metrical survey of India under the imme- 
diate direction of Major (afterwards Sir) 
George Everest [q.v.],the surveyor-general. 
Waugh, with his friend and contemporary, 
Lieutenant Renny (afterwards Major Renny 
Tailyour), was sent in the following year 
to assist in operations near Sironj, to carry 
a series of triangles up one of the meridians 
fixed by the longitudinal series. They ex- 
plored the jungle country between Chunar 
and the sources of the Sone and Narbada 
up to Jabalpur, and submitted a topographi- 
cal and geological report, now in the geo- 
graphical department of the India office. 
In the following year the surveyor-general 
wrote officially in terms of great commenda- 
tion of Waugh's capabilities and services. 

In November 1834 Waugh joined the 
headquarters of the surveyor-general at 
Dehra, to assist in measuring the base-line. 
In April 1835, Everest having represented 
that Waugh and Renny unquestionably sur- 
passed all the other officers under his orders 
in mathematical and other scientific know- 
ledge, in correctness of eye and in their 
aptitude and skill in the manipulation of the 
larger class of instruments, Waugh was ap- 
pointed astronomical assistant for the celes- 
tial observations connected with the measure- 
ment of the great arc. At the esd of 1835 
he was at Fathgarh, conducting the rougher 
series of the great trigonometrical survey; 
but in January 1836 he joined Everest at 
Saini. to assist in the measurement of the 
arc of the meridian extending from Cape 
Comorin to Dehra Dun, at the base of the 
Himalayas, commencing with the northern 
base-line in the Dehra Dun valley, and con- 
necting it with the base-line near Sironj, 
some 450 miles to the south, and remeasur- 
ing the latter in 1837 with the new bars 
which had been used at Dehra Dun. The 
wonderful accuracy secured in these opera- 
tions may be estimated by the differences of 
length of the Dehra base-line as measured 
and as deduced by triangulations from Sironj 
being 7'2 inches. 

Everest continued to report in the very 
highest terms of the ability and energy dis- 
played by Waugh, and the court of directors 
of the East India Company on several occa- 
sions expressed their appreciation of his 
services. His training under Everest in- 
stilled into him the importance of the ex- 
treme accuracy with which geodetic mea- 
surements have to be conducted. In No- 
vember 1837 two parties were formed, one 
of which was placed under Waugh to work 
southwards on the base Pagaro to Jaktipura ; 
the other, under Everest, proceeding upon 
the base Kolarus to Ranod. The work was I 


satisfactorily accomplished by the end of 
February 1838, when Waugh was detached 
into the nizam's country to test the accu- 
racy of the triangulation between Bedar and 
Takalkhard and to lay out the site of an ob- 
! servatory at Damargidda. In October he took 
the field, commencing with azimuth obser- 
: vations, at Damargidda, and, working north 
: with the triangulation, completed his portion 
; of the work at the end of March 1839. He 
shared with Everest the arduous observatory 
work carried on simultaneously at the sta- 
tions of Kaliana, Kalianpur, and Damar- 
gidda from November 1839 to March 1840, 
| by which the arc of amplitude was deter- 
j mined. 

In 1841 Waugh was engaged in the re- 
measurement of the Bedar base, which re- 
sulted in a difference of only 4-2 inches. 
Between 1834 and 1840 Waugh had con- 
ducted the Ranghir series of triangles in the 
North-West Provinces, and in 1842 he carried 
the triangulation through the malarious 
Rohilkhand Terai, which Everest considered 
to be ' as complete a specimen of rapidity, 
combined with accuracy of execution, as 
there is on record.' 

At the end of 1843 Everest retired, and, 
in recommending that Waugh should suc- 
ceed him as surveyor-general, he wrote : ' I 
do not hesitate to stake my professional 
reputation that if your honourable court 
had the world at your disposal wherefrom to 
select a person whose sum total of practical 
skill, theoretical attainment, powers of en- 
durance, and all other essential qualities 
were a maximum, Lieutenant Waugh would 
be the very person of your choice.' Although 
only a subaltern of royal engineers, W r augh 
was accordingly selected to fill, from 16 Dec. 
1843, this very responsible and important 
post. He was promoted to be captain on 
14 Feb. 1844. He began by carrying out 
the remaining series seven in number, a 
total of some thirteen hundred miles in 
length, embracing an area of some twenty- 
eight thousand square miles, originating 
from the Calcutta longitudinal series on the 
' gridiron system ' projected by Everest 
(to form a correct conception of this system, 
see the chart facing p. 109 of the Memoir of 
the Indian Survey). The eastern side was 
formed by the Calcutta meridional series 
(begun in 1844 and finished in 1848), which 
terminated in another base-line near the 
foot of the Darjiling hills. 

One of the finest of surveying operations 
commenced about this period was the north- 
east Himalaya series, connecting the northern 
end of all the before-mentioned meridional 
series. In these field operations Waugh 



took a leading part. The line of the country- 
was along the base of the Himalaya Terai, 
and proved very deadly to a large proportion 
of the native establishment and to many of 
the European officers and assistants (40 out 
of 150 were buried in and about the swampy 
forests of Gorukpur). By these operations 
were fixed the positions and heights of 
seventy-nine of the highest and grandest of 
the Himalayan peaks in Nipal and Sikkim, 
one of which native name Devidanga 
29,002 feet above the sea, was named by 
Waugh Mount Everest, and was found to 
be the highest in the world. The series was 
the longest ever carried between measured 
bases, being 1690 miles long from Sonakoda 
to Dehra Dun. 

On 3 Dec. 1847 Waugh was given the 
local rank of lieutenant-colonel. In the 
south of India, the South Konkan, the Madras 
coast series, the South Parisnath and South 
Maluncha series were begun and finished. 
Waugh was now free to undertake a project 
originated by himself of forming a system 
of triangulation to the westward of the 
great arc series over the east territory, much 
of it newly acquired, that lay in Sind, the 
North-West Provinces, and the Punjab. The 
Khach base, near Attak, was measured in 
1851-2, and the north-west Himalayan 
series, emanating from the Dehra base, ex- 
tended to it, while from Sironj the Calcutta 
great longitud inal series was carried westward 
to Karachi, closing on another base-line at 
Karachi, measured in 1854-5 under Waugh's 
immediate supervision. Waugh was pro- 
moted to be major in the Bengal engineers 
on 3 Aug. 1855. In 1856 the great Indus 
series was commenced, forming the western 
side of the survey, having the usual north 
or south supplementary series. The mutiny 
in 1857-8 delayed this work, which was 
finally completed in 1860. In 1856 Waugh 
instituted a series of levelling operations to 
determine the heights of the base-lines in 
the interior, commencing in the Indus valley. 
He was promoted to be regimental lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 20 Sept. 1857, and in the 
same year was awarded the patron's gold 
medal of the Royal Geographical Society. 
In the following year he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society. 

Of all the Indian survey work which ori- 
ginated during Waugh's tenure of office, 
that of Kashmir was perhaps most interest- 
ing. Upon this work Waugh employed 
Colonel Thomas George Montgomerie [q. v.], 
and the results in 1859 elicited a warm letter 
of acknowledgment to Waugh from Lord 
Canning, the governor-general. During 
Waugh's tenure of office he advanced the 


triangulation of India by 316,000 square 
miles, and of this 94,000 were topographi- 
cally surveyed. He was promoted to be 
colonel on 18 Feb. 1861, and retired from 
the service on 12 March following. He re- 
ceived the honorary rank of major-general 
on 6 Aug. 1861, and in the same year he 
was knighted. The members of the survey 
department presented him, on leaving India, 
with a farewell address and a service of 
plate. On his retirement he resided in Lon- 
don. He was a deputy-lieutenant of the 
city of London for many years, a prominent 
member of the council of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and its vice-president from 
1867 to 1870, honorary associate of the 
Geographical societies of Berlin and Italy, 
a fellow of Calcutta University, and an 
active committee-man of the London Athe- 
naeum Club, to which he was elected by the 
committee for distinguished service. He 
died at his residence, 7 Petersham Terrace, 
Queen's Gate, on 21 Feb. 1878. 

Waugh married, first, in 1844, Josephine 
(d. 1866), daughter of Dr. William Graham 
of Edinburgh, and, secondly, in 1870, Cecilia 
Eliza Adelaide, daughter of Lieutenant- 
general Thomas Whitehead, K.C.B., of Up- 
lands Hall, Lancashire. 

The results of Waugh's work while sur- 
veyor-general are given in some thirteen 
volumes and reports deposited in the India 
office, parts of which, originally complete, 
appear to have been lost. He published in 
1861 ' Instructions for Topographical Sur- 

[India Office Records ; (Sir) Clements Mark- 
ham's Memoirs of the Indian Surveys ; Reports 
of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, 
1834 to 1861 ; letters in the Friend of India, 
17 Feb. 1861; The Hills, 31 Jan. 1861 ; Royal 
Engineers Journal, May 1878 (a memoir by 
Lieutenant-Colonel H. H. Godwin Austen); 
Times obituary notice, 28 Feb. 1878; Geographi- 
cal Magazine, March 1878 ; Presidential Address 
to the Royal Geographical Society by Sir 
Rutherford Alcock, 1878 ; Professional Papers 
on Indian Engineering, vols. ii. and iii.; Vibart's 
Addiscombe : its Heroes and Men of Note, 
p. 423 ; Nature, 28 Feb. and 6 June 1878.1 

R. H. V. 

WAUGH, EDWIN (1817-1890), Lan- 
cashire poet and miscellaneous writer, was 
born at Rochdale on 29 Jan. 1817. His 
father, a shoemaker at Rochdale, in decent 
circumstances, came of a Northumbrian 
stock, and had received some education at 
the local grammar school ; his mother, a 
woman of piety and rustic intelligence, was 
daughter of William Howarth, a stonemason 
and engraver, who belonged to south-east 


Lancashire. Edwin was nine when his 
father died, and during his mother's en- 
deavours to carry on the business in a humble 
way her poverty was so great that for several 
years a cellar dwelling was her own and her 
son's home. She taught him, however, to read. 
His father had left a few books, and among 
the first which he read with avidity were 
Foxe's ' Book of Martyrs,' a compendium of 
English history, and Enfield's ' Speaker.' At 
seven he received some schooling, but it was 
of a fitful kind. Already he had to assist 
his mother at a shoe-stall which she kept in 
Rochdale market. At twelve he earned 
his first wages as errand-boy to a local 
preacher and printer, his mother being a 
zealous Wesleyan. At twelve he entered 
the service, in the same capacity, of Thomas 
Holden, a Rochdale bookseller and printer, 
to whom two years afterwards he was bound 
apprentice, and under whom he learned to 
be a printer. Among the books in Holden's 
shop he found opportunities for reading 
which he had not known before. He read 
with eagerness any histories of his native 
county. From Tim Bobbin, the pseudonym 
of John Collier [q. v.], he learned something 
of the literary use that could be made of 
the Lancashire dialect. Roby's ' Traditions 
of Lancashire ' [see ROBT, JOHN] introduced 
him to romantic episodes in Lancashire 
family history and to the legendary lore of 
his native county. He is said to have 
visited in early life every locality which 
Roby has associated with a legend. He 
devoured poetry as well as prose. One of 
the books which most influenced him was a 
collection of border ballads. Waugh's writ- 
ings bear abundant testimony to his intimate 
knowledge of the chief English poets. 

His apprenticeship finished, Waugh led a 
wandering life, finding employment as a 
journeyman printer, chiefly in the provinces, 
but for a time in London. At the end of 
six or seven years he returned to Rochdale, 
and re-entered Holden's service. It was 
probably due to the active part which he 
took in establishing a literary institute in 
Rochdale that he was appointed about 1847 
assistant secretary to the Lancashire Public 
School Association, the headquarters of 
which were at Manchester. The association 
had been recently founded to advocate the 
establishment in Lancashire of a system of 
popular and unsectarian education, to be 
supported by local rates and administered 
by local boards elected by the ratepayers. 
The post was a modest one, but afforded 
him leisure for original composition. The 
reception of one or two of his attempts in 
prose, descriptions of rural rambles, which 



appeared in the ' Manchester Examiner,' 
encouraged him to persevere. In 1855, by 
which time he had become the town traveller 
of a Manchester printing firm, a local book- 
seller published his first book, ' Sketches of 
Lancashire Life and Localities ' (reprinted 
from the ' Manchester Examiner '). Its most 
distinctive feature was the racy humour of 
his reproduction, in their own dialect, of 
the daily talk of the Lancashire people. 

The welcome given to the ' Sketches ' was 
chiefly local, but discerning judges out of 
Lancashire recognised their sterling merit, 
and Carlyle, into whose hands the volume 
fell, pronounced its author ' a man of de- 
cided mark.' In 1856, the year after the 
' Sketches ' was published, Waugh greatly 
extended his reputation by his song, ' Come 
whoam to the cbilder an' me.' It was first 
printed in a Manchester newspaper, and 
forthwith reprinted, to be given away to his 
customers, by a Manchester bookseller. It 
became at once immensely popular, not only 
in Lancashire but out of it, and even in the 
colonies. The 'Saturday Review' called 
it 'one of the most delicious idylls in the 
world,' and Miss Coutts (now the Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts) had some ten or twenty 
thousand copies of it printed for gratuitous 
distribution (MiLNEK, p. 29). 

The success of this lyric largely influenced 
Waugh's subsequent career. It sent his 
' Lancashire Sketches ' into a second edition. 
Many metrical compositions still remained 
in manuscript. He now prepared some of 
them for publication, and they appeared, 
with many additions in the Lancashire 
dialect, in his ' Poems and Songs ' (1859). 
Offers of work poured in on him from 
local editors and publishers. About 1860 
he determined to depend solely on his pen, 
and for fifteen years, with occasional public 
readings from his works, he made it suffice 
for his support. During that period he 
poured forth prose and verse, songs, tales, 
and character-sketches, realistic, humorous, 
pathetic, which were illustrative of Lanca- 
shire life in town and country, in the north 
as well as in the south of the county, and in 
which abundant use was made of its dialect. 
Besides these there were more or less 
picturesquely written narratives of tour and 
travel outside Lancashire, in the Lake 
country, in the south of England, in 
Scotland, in Ireland, and even in Rhine- 
land. They were issued in various forms, 
from the broadsheet upwards. One of his 
earlier writings during this prolific period 
describes in graphic detail the districts most 
deeply affected by the cotton famine of 1862. 

In 1876, on Waugh's health becoming 




infirm, a committee of his Lancashire ad- 
mirers took over his copyrights and substi- 
tuted for his precarious literary gains a fixed 
annual income. In 1881 Mr. Gladstone 
conferred on Waugh a civil-list pension of 
90/. a year. Between 1881 and 1883 he 
published a collective edition of his works, 
in ten volumes, finely and copiously illus- 
trated. Subsequently ' he sent forth in quick 
succession a new series of poems.' They were 
printed singly in a Manchester newspaper, 
and in 1889 they and some earlier verses 
were issued as volume xi. of the collective 
edition. He died on 30 April 1890 at New 
Brighton, a watering-place on the Lancashire 
coast. His remains were brought to Man- 
chester, and on 3 May he was buried with 
public ceremonial in Kersal church, in the 
vicinity of his domicile for many years on 
Kersal Moor. 

The popularity of Waugh's writings was 
increased by his death. A moderately priced 
edition of his selected writings, in eight 
volumes, was issued in 1892-3, edited by 
his friend, Mr. George Milner, who prefixed 
to vol. i. an instructive and interesting notice 
of Waugh. Many of AVaugh's songs have 
been set to music, and a list of them occupies 
several pages of the music catalogue of the 
British Museum Library. 

Personally Waugh was a striking speci- 
men of the sturdy, independent, plain- 
spoken Lancashire man. His long struggle 
before he became known did not im- 
pair his geniality and cheerfulness, and 
he was not in the least spoilt by success. 
Eminently social and convivial a good 
singer as well as writer of songs he was a 
very pleasant companion and an admirable 
story-teller, especially if the stories were to 
be told in his favourite Lancashire dialect. 
He has been called the ' Lancashire Burns.' 

[Waugh's Works; Milner's Memoir; personal 
knowledge ; ' Manchester Memories : Edwin 
Waugh' in Literary Recollections and Sketches 
(1893), by the writer of this article.] F. E. 

WAUTON. [See also WALTON.] 

WALTHONE, SIMON BE (d. 1266), 
bishop of Norwich, probably a native of 
Walton d'Eiville, Warwickshire (DTTGDALE, 
Warwickshire, p. 576), was one of the clerks 
of King John, and received from him the 
church of St. Andrew, Hastings, on 9 April 
1206, and two other livings in the two fol- 
lowing years. He acted as justice itinerant 
for the northern counties in 1246, and his 
name constantly appears in later commis- 
sions in eyre for various counties ; a fine was 
levied before him in 1247, so that he may be 


held to have then been a judge of the com- 
mon pleas, and in 1257 he was apparently 
chief justice of that bench (Foss). In 1253 he 
was presented to the rectory of Stoke Prior, 
Herefordshire, by the prior and convent of 
Worcester, and in 1254 received from them 
a lease of the manor of Harvington, Wor- 
cestershire ; his connection with the convent 
doubtless being through Robert de Walton, 
the chamberlain of the house, possibly his 
brother. Walter Suffeld [q.v.], bishop of Nor- 
wich, having died on 18 May 1257, Wauton 
was elected to that see, and obtained confir- 
mation from the king and the pope without 
difficulty, but is said to have spent a good 
sum through messengers sent by him to 
Rome who obtained the pope's license for 
him to retain the revenues of his other prefer- 
ments along with his bishopric for four years. 
He was consecrated on 10 March 1258. 
Later in that year he was one of four bishops 
summoned to Oxford to settle a reform of 
the church, apparently with special refe- 
rence to monasteries ; but their scheme 
came to nothing. In common with the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and John Mansel [q.v.], 
he was commissioned by the pope to absolve 
the king and others from the oath to main- 
tain the provisions of Oxford. His conse- 
quent action in that matter greatly irritated 
the baronial party, and when war broke out 
in 1263 he had to flee for refuge to the abbey 
of Bury St. Edmunds. He died at a great 
age on 2 Jan. 1265-6, and was buried in his 
cathedral church. 

[Foss's Judges, ii. 508 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, 
iii. 492 ; Matt. Paris, v. 648, 667, 707, vi. 268, 
299; Cotton, pp. 137, 139, 141 ; Ann. de Dun- 
stap., Ann. de Wigorn., Wykes ap. Ann. Monast. 
iii. iv. passim (all Rolls Ser.) ; Fcedera, i. 406.1 

W. H. 

WAY, ALBERT (1805-1874), anti- 
quary, born at Bath on 23 June 1805, was 
the only son of Lewis Way of Stanstead 
Park, near Racton, Sussex, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Herman Drewe, rector of Comb 
Raleigh, Devonshire. 

The father, LEWIS WAY (1772-1840), born 
on 11 Feb. 1772, was the second son of Ben- 
jamin Way of Denham, and was elder brother 
of Sir Gregory Holman Bromley Way [q.v.] 
He graduated M.A. in 1796 from Merton 
College, Oxford, and in 1797 was called to 
the bar by the Society of the Inner Temple. 
He afterwards entered the church and de- 
voted to religious works part of a large legacy 
left him by a stranger, named John Way. 
He founded the Marboauf (English protes- 
tant) Chapel in Paris, which was completed 
by his son. He was active in schemes for 
the conversion of the Jews, but was not a 



little imposed upon by unworthy converts 
who became inmates of his house, hence 
Macaulay's lines : 
Each, says the proverb, has his taste. 'Tis true. 

Marsh loves a controversy, Coates a play, 
Bennet a felon, Lewis Way a Jew, 

The Jew the silver spoons of Lewis Way. 
He died on 26 Jan. 1840 (TREVELYAST, Life 
of Macaulay , chap. i. ; cf. Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. xi. 453, 7th ser. i. 87, 137). 

Albert Way was educated at home and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1829, and M.A. in 1834. In 
early life he travelled in Europe and the 
Holy Land with his father. In 1839 he was 
elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and was ' director ' of the society from 
1842 till 1846, when he left London to live 
at Wonham Manor, Reigate. He was a 
founder in 1845 of the Archaeological In- 

Way was a skilful draughtsman and a 
good English antiquary, who contributed 
much to the publications of the Society of 
Antiquaries and other societies. His prin- 
cipal publication was his well-known edition 
for the Camden Society of the 'Promptorium 
Parvulorum sive Clericorum' (1843-65, 4to), 
the English-Latin dictionary compiled by 
Geoffrey the grammarian [~q. v.] Way died 
at Cannes on 22 March 1874. He married, 
30 April 1844, Emmeline, daughter of Lord 
Stanley of Alderley, by whom lie had a 
daughter. His widow presented to the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries a hundred and fifty 
volumes of dictionaries and glossaries from 
his library, and two volumes of his draw- 
ings of prehistoric and other remains. She 
also presented to the society his fine collec- 
tion of impressions of mediaeval seals. The 
society possesses a wax medallion portrait 
of Way by R. C. Lucas. 

[Annual Reg. 1874, p. 147; Proceedings of 
Soc. of Antiquaries, 1874, pp. 198 f. ; Burke's Hist, 
of the Commoners, s.v. ' Way of Denham ;' Ward's 
Men of the Reign; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

BROMLEY (1776-1844), lieutenant-gene- 
ral, born in London on 28 Dec. 1776, was fifth 
son of Benjamin Way (1740-1808), F.R.S., 
of Denham Place, Buckinghamshire, M.P.for 
Bridport in 1765, and of his wife Elizabeth ' 
Anne (1746-1825), eldest daughter of Wil- 
liam Cooke (1711-1797) [q.v.], provost of 
King's College, Cambridge. His grandfather, 
Lewis Way (d. 1771), director of the South 
Sea Company, the descendant of an old west- 
country family, first settled in Buckingham- 
shire. His aunt Abigail was the wife of John 
Baker Holroyd, first earl of Sheffield [q. v.] 


He entered the army as ensign in the 26th 
foot (Cameronians) in 1797, was captured by 
French privateers when he was on his way 
to join his regiment in Canada, and was de- 
tained a prisoner in France for a year before 
| he was exchanged. He was promoted to be 
lieutenant in the 35th foot on 3 Nov. 1799, 
and sailed with his regiment in the expedi- 
tion under Generai-Pigot on 28 March 1800 
1 for the Mediterranean. Arriving at Malta 
in June, he took part in the siege of Valetta, 
which ended in the capitulation of the French 
on 5 Sept. He returned to England in 1802, 
was promoted to be captain in the 35th foot 
on 13 Aug. of that year, and shortly after 
was placed on half-pay on reduction of that 
I regiment. 

Way was brought in as captain of the 
] 5th foot on 20 Jan. 1803, and, after serving 
in the Channel Islands, embarked with his 
regiment in the expedition under LordCath- 
cart for the liberation of Hanover in 1805; 
but the vessel in which he sailed was wrecked 
off the Texel, and he was taken prisoner by 
the Dutch. After his exchange he sailed at 
the end of October 1806 in the expedition 
under Major-general Robert Craufurd [q.v.], 
originally destined for Chili, to Cape de 
i Verd, St. Helena, and the Cape of Good Hope, 
j whence, in accordance with orders received 
i there, the expedition sailed for the River 
i Plate, arriving at Monte Video ' in the be- 
; ginning of June 1807, where it joined the 
force under General John Whitelocke [q.v.], 
of which Way was appointed assistant quar- 
termaster-general. At the storming of 
Buenos Ayres Way led the right wing of 
the infantry brigade. He returned to Eng- 
j land after the disastrous capitulation. 

Way was promoted to be major in the 
29th foot on 25 Feb. 1808. He served under 
Sir Brent Spencer off Cadiz, and with him 
joined Sir Arthur Wellesley's army, landing 
in Mondego Bay, Portugal, on 3 Aug. He 
took part in the battle of Rolica on 17 Aug., 
when, on gaining the plateau with a few 
men and officers of his regiment, he, when 
charged by the enemy, was rescued from 
the bayonet of a French grenadier by the 
humanity of General Brenier, and made a 
prisoner. He was exchanged in time to take 
part in the operations in Portugal when Sir 
Arthur Wellesley returned in April 1809. 
He commanded the light infantry of Briga- 
dier-general R. Stewart's brigade, which led 
the advance of the British army, and was 
present in the actions of the passage of the 
Vouga on 10 May and the heights of Grijon 
the following day, at the passage of the 
Douro and capture* of Oporto on the 12th, and 
in the subsequent pursuit of Soult's army. 


At the battle of Talavera on the night of 
27 July Way took part with his regiment, 
under Major-general Hill, in the gallant 
repulse at the point of the bayonet of the 
French attack of the heights on the left of 
the British position. He was present at the 
battle of Busaco on 27 Sept. 1810, and at 
the battle of Albueraon 16 May 1811, when, 
on the fall of his lieutenant-colonel, he suc- 
ceeded to the command of the 29th foot 
during the action, for which he received the 
medal. He was himself, in charging with 
his regiment, shot through the body and his 
left arm fractured at the shoulder-joint by a 
musket-shot. He was promoted to be brevet 
lieutenant-colonel on 30 May 1811, and on 
4 July of the same year was gazetted to the 
command of the 29th foot. 

On his return to England in 1812 with 
the skeleton of the 29th regiment (about 
a hundred effective men), Way by con- 
siderable exertion reformed the corps, and 
embarked a second time for the Peninsula 
in 1813. In 1814, however, the effect of 
climate and wounds compelled him to re- 
turn to England, when he was placed on 
the half-pay list of the 22nd foot. For his 
services he was knighted the same year, was 
awarded an annuity of 20QI. for his wounds, 
and received permission to accept and wear 
the insignia of a knight commander of the 
Portuguese order of the Tower and Sword. 
On relinquishing the command of the 29th 
foot he was presented by his brother officers 
with a valuable piece of plate as a memento 
of their esteem. 

In 1815 Way was made a companion of 
the order of the Bath, military division, and 
was appointed to the staff as deputy adjutant- 
general in North Britain. He was promoted 
to be colonel in the army on 19 July 1821. 
On the abolition of his staff appointment in 
Scotland he was nominated, on 7 Nov. 1822, 
colonel of the 3rd royal veteran battalion, 
which was disbanded in 1826, when Way 
was placed on half-pay. He was promoted 
to be major-general on 22 July 1830, and 
lieutenant-general on 23 Nov. 1841, and was 
given the colonelcy of the 1st West Indian 
regiment on 21 Nov. 1843. He died at 
Brighton on 19 Feb. 1844, and was buried 
in the family vault at Denham church, Buck- 
inghamshire. Way married, on 19 May 1815, 
Marianne, daughter of John Weyland, of 
Woodeaton, Oxfordshire, and Woodrising, 
Norfolk. He left no issue. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Royal 
Military Calendar, 1820; Works on the Penin- 
sular War; United Service Journal, 1844; 
Burke's Landed Gentry; Gent. Mag. 1844, i. 
537.] R. H. V. 

3 Waylett 

WAY or WEY, WILLIAM (1407?- 

1476), traveller. [See WET.] 

1851), actress, the daughter of a Bath 
tradesman named Cooke, was born in Bath 
on 7 Feb. 1798. She came of a theatrical 
family, her uncle being a member of the 
Drury Lane company, while Mrs. West [q.v.] 
was her cousin. After receiving some in- 
struction in music from one of the Loders 
of Bath [see LODEE, JOHN DAVID], she ap- 
peared on the Bath stage on 16 March 1816 
as Elvina in W. R. Hewetson's ' Blind Boy.' 
In the following season she appeared as Leo- 
nora in the ' Padlock ' and Madge in ' Love 
in a Village,' and played in Bristol and, it 
is said, Brighton. Soon after this time she 
accompanied to London a Captain Dobyn, 
against whom her father brought an action 
for loss of service, which was tried at Taun- 
ton and compromised. She then acted at 
Coventry, where she met and married in 

1819 Waylett, an actor in the company. In 

1820 she was at the Adelphi, where she was 
the original Amy Robsart in Planche's adapta- 
tion of ' Kenilworth,' and the first Sue to 
her husband's Primefit in Moncrieff 's ' Tom 
and Jerry.' She played as Mrs. Waylett 
late Miss Cooke of Bath. In 1823 she was 
acting in Birmingham under Alfred Bunn 
[q. v.], playing in ' Sally ' Booth's part of Rose 
Briarly in ' Husbands and Wives.' Her sing- 
ing of ' Rest thee, Babe,' in ' Guy Manner- 
ing' established her in favour. Cicely in 
the ' Heir-at-Law ' and Therese in the piece 
so-named followed. She played five parts 
in ' Chops and Changes, or the Servant of 
All Work/ and was seen as Jenny Gammon 
in ' Wild Oats,' Ellen in ' Intrigue,' Aladdin, 
Lucy in the ' Rivals,' Cherry in ' Cherry and 
Fair Star,' Patch in the ' Busy Body,' Tattle 
in 'All in the Wrong,' Susanna in the ' Mar- 
riage of Figaro,' Priscilla Tomboy in the 
' Romp,' Diana Vernon, Mary in the ' Inn- 
keeper's Daughter,' Chambermaid in the 
' Clandestine Marriage,' Jessica, Marianne in 
the ' Dramatist/ Clari in ' Clari, or the Maid 
of Milan,' in which she sang ' Home, sweet 
Home,' Lucetta in the ' Suspicious Husband/ 
Clementina All-spice in the 'Way to get Mar- 
ried/ Bizarre in the ' Inconstant/ Zelinda in 
the ' Slave,' and in many other characters. 

It was accordingly with a fair amount of 
experience, with a large repertory, and with 
a reputation as a chambermaid and a singer, 
that Mrs. Waylett accompanied her manager 
to Drury Lane, whereat she appeared as 
Madge in ' Love in a Village ' on 4 Dec. 
1824. The sustained and excessive eulogies 
which had been bestowed on her in the 



8 4 


' Theatrical Looker-On,' a Birmingham paper, 
the ownership of which the Birmingham 
public insisted on ascribing to Bunn, had 
given rise to a crop of scandals and to 
threats on his part of prosecutions for libel. 
On 14 Jan. 1825 Mrs. Waylett was Mrs. 
Page in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor.' Her 
appearances must, however, have been few, 
perhaps on account of the rivalry and jealousy 
of Mrs. Bunn, and she is no further traced 
at Drury Lane. 

On 12 May she made, as Zephyrina in the 
' Lady and the Devil,' her first appearance at 
the Haymarket, where she played, among 
other parts, Catalina in the ' Castle of 
Andalusia,' Lady Emily in ' Match-making,' 
Daphne in ' Midas,' was the first Sophia 
Fielding in Ebsworth's ' liival Valets ' on 
14 July, and the first Harry Stanley in 
' Paul Pry ' on 13 Sept. In 1826 she"was 
Lady Racket in ' Three Weeks after Mar- 
riage,' Ellen in ' Intrigue/ Phoebe in the 
' Review,' Charlotte (Mrs. Abington's part) 
in the ' Hypocrite,' Louisa in the ' Duenna,' 
and Rosa in ' John of Paris.' For her 
benefit on 9 Oct. 1827 she enacted Virginia 
in ' Paul and Virginia.' On 10 June 1828 
she was the original Mary in ' Daughters to 
Marry,' and on the 28th the original Bridget 
in ' Milliners.' She was also Clari for the 
first time in London. In November 1828 
she played at the Hawkins Street Theatre, 
Dublin, Phoebe in ' Paul Pry.' She was 
also seen as Maria in ' Of Age To-morrow,' 
Letitia Hardy in the ' Belle's Stratagem,' 
Maria Darlington in ' A Roland for an 
Oliver,' Don Giovanni in ' Giovanni in Lon- 
don.' She stood in highest favour as a singer 
and actress both in Dublin and Cork. 
Among her favourite songs were ' Buy a 
Broom,' which she sang in ' Bavarian cos- 
tume,' ' Kate Kearney,' ' Cherry Ripe,' ' The 
Light Guitar,' ' Nora Creina,' 'Away, away 
to the Mountain's Brow,' and ' Love was 
once a little boy.' After her return from 
Dublin she played at the Haymarket, Drury 
Lane, Queen's Theatre (afterwards the 
Prince of Wales's), the Olympic, Covent 
Garden, and other houses. In 1832 she was 
acting at the Strand, of which house in 
1834 she was 'sole manager.' Here she 
played original parts in the ' Loves of the 
Angels,' the ' Cork Leg,' the ' Four Sisters,' 
' Wooing a Widow,' and in various bur- 
lesques. Admission to the house was ob- 
tained by paying four shillings an ounce at a 
neighbouring shop for sweetmeats, or pur- 
chasing tickets for the Victoria Theatre, 
which admitted also to the Strand, whereat 
the performances were nominally gratis. 
There were few London houses at which she 

was not seen, and she was a favourite in the 
country. In October 1835 she received in 
Dublin 800/. and half a clear benefit for 
twenty-one nights' performances. In 1838 
she was engaged at the Haymarket. 

In 1840 Waylett, from whom she had long 
been separated, who seems to have been a 
thoroughly objectionable, unworthy, and 
unpopular personage, and who, as Fitz- 
waylett, had married another woman, died, 
and she shortly afterwards married George 
Alexander Lee [q.v.], a musician, composer of 
many of her favourite songs, who survived 
her a few months, dying on 8 Oct. 1851 ; he 
was at one time page to the notorious Lord 
Barrymore (see Notes and Queries, 5th ser. 
xi. 276), at another lessee of Drury Lane, 
and in the end pianoforte-player to ' Baron ' 
Nicholson's exhibition in Bow Street of 
poses plastiques. 

In May 1843 Mrs. Waylett, as she was 
still called, was at the Lyceum, where she 
was the President in the ' Ladies' Club,' and 
played in the farce of ' Matrimony.' Her 
appearances became, through ill-health, in- 
frequent, and in 1849 she was spoken of as 
retired. She died on 29 April 1851, after a 
long and painful illness. 

Mrs. Waylett was one of the best sou- 
brettes of her day, was almost as popular 
in ballad and song as Madame Vestris, was 
symmetrically proportioned, and was always 
acceptable in burlesque and extravaganza, 
and in masculine characters generally. Her 
life was associated with many scandals. 
Bunn demanded an apology for what was 
said concerning her and him in Oxberry's 
' Dramatic Biography ' in 1827. This Avas 
proffered by the publisher, but Oxberry re- 
fused to carry it out, and, after some talk 
of a duel, the matter dropped. Mrs. Way- 
lett was taxed with ostentatiously over- 
dressing the chambermaid parts in which she 
was seen. 

A portrait of Mrs. Waylett as Elizabeth 
in some piece unnamed accompanies a me- 
moir in the ' Dramatic Magazine ' (ii. 97, 
1 May 1830) ; a second, as Da vie Gelletley 
(Gellatley), is prefixed to the 'Public and 
Private life of Mrs. Waylett/ forming No. 1 
of a series to be called 'Amatory Biography ; ' 
a third, as Miss Dorville, is in Oxberry's 
' Dramatic Biography.' 

[Most particulars of the early life of Mrs. 
Waylett are taken from the memoir in Oxberry's 
Dramatic Biography, new ser. 1827, i. 55. This 
life and a vindication by Bunn were reprinted in 
the Private and Public Life of Mrs. Waylett, 
n.d., a sixpenny tract of extreme rarity. Ox- 
berry's memoir is copied into the Georgian Era, 
the Dramatic Magazine, and other theatrical 



publications. See also Genest's Account of the 
English Stage; Dramatic Observer, Dublin; Thea- 
trical Looker-On, Birmingham ; History of the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin ; Dramatic and Musical 
Review ; Era Almanack ; and New Monthly 
Magazine.] J. K. 

WILLIAM OF (1395P-1486), bishop of 
Winchester, lord chancellor of England, and 
founder of Magdalen College, Oxford, was 
the elder of two sons of Richard Patyn, 
Patten, or Patton, alias Barbour, of Wain- 
fleet, Lincolnshire. From a deed (recently 
rediscovered and printed by the Rev. W. D. 
Macray in his Register of Magdalen College) 
executed by Juliana Chirchestyle, grandniece 
of the bishop, in 1497, it appears that Wayn- 
flete held the manor and manor-house of 
Dakenham Place, Barkinge (printed by Mac- 
ray 'Backinge'). This deed points to Essex 
as the home of at least one branch of the 
family, and corroborates the inference which 
may be drawn from other data that the bishop 
was of gentle blood. It also makes it pro- 
bable that the trade-name of Barbour was 
not common to the family, but was only the 
name of the bishop's father's mother. The 
social position of Richard Patyn is indicated 
by his marriage with Margery, youngest 
daughter of Sir William Brereton(<2. 1425-6), 
knight, of Brereton, Cheshire (ORMEROD, iii. 

From Leland we learn that the bishop was 
born at Wainfleet. Assuming him to have 
been of the canonical age of twenty-five at 
his ordination as deacon, he would have been 
born in 1395. Leland further says that he 
was a scholar at Winchester College. The 
word ' scholar ' must not be pressed, for his 
name does not appear upon the register of 
admissions to the foundation ; but there is 
no reason to doubt that Waynflete was edu- 
cated at Winchester. Leland further asserts 
that he was ' felow of the New Colege of 
Oxford.' It is not till 1577 that the sugges- 
tion first appears, in the ' Description of Eng- 
land ' by William Harrison (1534-1593) [q.v.], 
that Waynflete was ' fellow of Merton.' But 
Merton preserves no trace of him. On the 
other hand, he could not have been a fellow 
of New College according to the statutes, 
without having been a ' scholar ' on the Win- 
chester foundation. But this difficulty was 
probably removed by Henry Beaufort [qV.], 
bishop of Winchester, the visitor of New 
College, who had been bishop of Lincoln 
from 1398 to 1404, and might naturally exer- 
cise his dispensing power as visitor in favour 
of the son of a Lincolnshire family. In all 
his relations with Oxford in adult life Wayn- 
flete displayed for New College a regard 

which was unaccountable if he was himself 
a member of another society. In 1480 he 
nominated as president of his new foundation 
of Magdalen College Richard Mayew, fellow 
of New College. Mayew's first duty was 
to put into operation a body of statutes 
founded upon those of New College. Wayn- 
flete further provided that all future presi- 
dents of Magdalen should have been fellows 
of that house or of New College. Lastly, by 
his will he bequeathed to the warden, fel- 
lows, and scholars of New College the same 
sums of money as to those of his own founda- 
tion. The statement of Dr. Thomas Chaund- 
ler, successively warden of Winchester (1450) 
and of New College (1453), that Thomas 
Beckington [q.v.], also a fellow of New Col- 
lege, was Waynttete's early friend, sustains 
the conclusion that Waynflete was educated 
at New College. For the period during 
which Waynflete was in residence at Oxford 
no catalogue of graduates survives. 

The earliest record of Waynflete is his ordi- 
nation as an unbeneficed acolyte by Richard 
Fleming [q.v.], bishop of Lincoln, in the parish 
church of Spalding on Easter Sunday, 21 April 
1420, under the name of William Barbor. 
That this was Waynflete himself is proved 
by the entry of his ordination as subdeacon 
on 21 Jan. following, when it was mentioned 
that he took the style of William Waynflete 
of Spalding, a change of designation at ordina- 
tion being at that time common (HoiJifSHED, 
Chron. iii. 213). On 18 March 1420-1 he was 
ordained deacon, and on 21 Jan. 1426priest,on 
the title of the Benedictine Priory of Spalding. 
He had probably been studying divinity be- 
tween 1420 and 1426 at Spalding or Oxford. 
At some time between 1426 and 1429 Wayn- 
flete received from Cardinal Beaufort pre- 
sentation to the mastership of the Hospital 
of St. Mary Magdalen, situate upon a hill a 
mile east of Winchester. The preferment 
was worth about 9/. 12s. a year, or approxi- 
mately 110/. of our money. 

It is improbable that the future bishop 
was the William Waynflete ' inlegibus bacal- 
larius ' who accompanied Robert Fitzhugh 
[q. v.] on his embassy to Rome in 1429. He 
was probably first presented to the king on 
the occasion of Henry VI's visit to Win- 
chester on 30 July 1440. On 11 Oct. of the 
same year Henry sealed the foundation 
charter of Eton College. In it Waynflete is 
nominated a fellow, and to Eton he removed 
in 1442. A class-room was then open, but 
the pupils were lodged in private houses. 
Waynflete probably acted as ' informator,' 
though no appointment of him as such seems 
to have survived. On 21 Dec. 1443 he was 
installed second provost of the college. 




On Tuesday, 11 April 1447, Cardinal Beau- 
fort died at Winchester. Henry, it is evi- 
dent, received private news of the event on 
the same day, and immediately wrote to the 
monks recommending Waynflete for election 
to the bishopric (ib. p. 299). On Wednes- 
day, 12 April, the official letter announcing 
the vacancy and praying license to proceed 
to election was despatched to the king. 
Letters patent were issued, dated Canter- 
bury, 11 April, granting Waynflete custody 
of the temporalities of the see (Pat. Roil. 
25 Henry VI, pt. 2, m. 30). On 14 April 
he made his first presentation. The conge 
cfelire under the privy seal is dated 15 April 
at Canterbury (RrMER, Fcedera, xi. 153). 
On Monday, 17 April, the prior and chapter 
made a formal return of the election. The 
papal bull nominating Waynflete bishop 
bears the early date of 10 May. On 3 June 
Waynflete took the oath of fealty to the king 
in person (LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 15). On 
4 June the temporalities were formally re- 
stored (Feeder a, xi. 172). On 16 June Wayn- 
flete made profession of canonical obedience 
at Lambeth. He was consecrated at Eton 
on 13 July ; on 18 July he received the 
spiritualities. He held his first general ordi- 
nation on Sunday, 23 Dec. following, at 
Eton, by special license of the bishop of Lin- 
coln. On 19 Jan. 1448 he was enthroned at 
Winchester in presence of the king. Henry's 
choice was clearly a personal preference. As 
John Capgrave, the contemporary chronicler, 
dryly remarks, Waynflete 'carus, utputatur, 
domino regi habetur, non tarn propter scien- 
tiam salutarem quam vitam coelibem.' Henry 
himself, in assigning to Waynflete a para- 
mount place among the executors of his will 
(12 March 1448), expresses his attachment 
to him (CHANDLER, p. 318). 

Little more than a year after his advance- 
ment Waynflete obtained letters patent, 
dated 6 May 1448, for the foundation of a 
hall dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen in the 
university of Oxford. Its charter was dated 
20 Aug. 1448 (WOOD, Ant. pp. 307-8; 
CHANDLER, p. 330). Its object was the study 
of theology and philosophy. 

The rebellion of Jack Cade [see CADE, 
JOHN] at Whitsuntide 1450 first brought 
Waynflete into contact with the turbulent 
politics of the period. On the morning of 
Monday, 6 July, Cade having retreated into 
Southwark, an armistice was proclaimed. 
Waynflete, who ' for some safeguard laie then 
at Haliwell ' (HoLiNSHED, Chron. iii. 226), 
the priory in Shoreditch ( MAITLAND, Hist, 
of London, ed. 1772, ii. 1368), and not at 
his Southwark palace, received a summons 
to attend a council in the Tower. Thence 

Waynflete, with other lords (WYRCESTRE'S 
Chron. p. 768), proceeded to treat with Cade 
in the church of St. Margaret, Southwark, 
within his own diocese. lie received Cade's 
list of grievances, and promised both a gene- 
ral pardon under the great seal and a special 
one to Cade himself. The insurgents then 
dispersed from Southwark. But on 1 Aug. 
1450 a special commission was issued into 
Kent to try those who, after the proclama- 
tion of pardon, had remained in arms at 
Deptford and Rochester. The commission 
included Waynflete's name (Pat. Rolls, 28 
Henry VI, pt. ii. m. 17). Many executions 

Behind Cade's rebellion lay the sympathies 
of the Yorkists, and there are signs that 
Waynflete's intervention ultimately involved 
him in formidable odium. In September 
1450 disturbances broke out at Winchester, 
the citizens refusing their customary dues 
at St. Giles' fair (Hist. MSS. Comm. App. 
to 6th Rep. p. 603). It is possible that the 
despatch of a quarter of one of Cade's ad- 
herents for exhibition in that city had pro- 
voked irritation (Proceedings of the Privy 
Council, vi. 108). The citizens of Winchester 
submitted, and were pardoned. But a more 
serious attack threatened. On 7 May 1451 
Waynflete executed a remarkable document, 
appealing for protection to the pope and the 
archbishop of Canterbury. The recitals show 
that some attempt was on foot to deprive 
him of his see by a process in the spiritual 
courts (Registr. Waynflete, i. 2, f. 11 ; CHAND- 
LER, pp. 66-7). 

At this time Henry VI was relying much 
on Waynflete's counsels. They were to- 
gether at Canterbury in August 1451. In 
September the bishop issued from St. Albans 
a commission for the visitation of his diocese, 
alleging ' arduous and unexpected business 
concerning the king and the realm ' (CHAND- 
LER, p. 69). Upon the approach to London 
of Richard, duke of York, with an army in 
March 1452, Henry despatched Waynflete 
to make terms. 

In July 1453 Henry VI became totally 
paralysed. His son Edward, prince of Wales, 
was born on 13 Oct., and baptised by Wayn- 
flete on the following day (Engl. Chron., p. 
193). On 23 March 14o4 Waynflete, with 
a committee of lords, endeavoured to pro- 
cure from the king an authorisation for the 
conduct of the government by Richard, duke 
of York, to whose inevitable ascendancy he 
seems to have resigned himself. He re- 
ported to the House of Lords that the im- 
becility of the king rendered the errand 
fruitless. Daring this interregnum he was 
constant in his attendances at the council, 


perhaps to watch over the Lancastrian in- 
terests. On Christmas Day 1454 Henry 
recovered, and received Waynflete in audi- 
ence on 7 Jan. 1455 (Paston Letters, i. 315). 
But the defeat of Henry VI at St. Albans 
on "22 May following restored the Yorkists 
to power. Waynflete now seems to have 
supported the moderate Lancastrians, who 
desired to retain the Duke of York in the 
king's service (NICOLAS, Proceedings, vi. 
262). He still enjoyed the confidence of 
Henry, who on 12 July 1455 nominated him 
a life visitor of Eton and King's Colleges. 
On 11 Oct. 1456, in the priory of Coventry, 
Waynflete was appointed chancellor by the 
kmg(Fcedera, xi. 383). There is no founda- 
tion for Lord Campbell's story that he was 
nominated because his predecessor, Thomas 
Bourchier [q. iv.], ' refused to enter into the 
plots for the destruction of the Yorkists.' As 
a matter of fact, the Duke of York, at this 
very time ' in right good conceyt with the 
king '(James Greshamto John Paston, 16 Oct. 
1456), was present with his friends at the 
ceremony. Waynflete's salary as chancellor 
was 200/. a year, probably exclusive of 

Waynflete's next important public func- 
tion was as assessor at the trial of Bishop 
Reginald Pecock [q. v.] for heresy, in No- 
vember 1457. Whatever political animus 
may have been latent in this prosecution, 
Waynflete's denunciation of Pecock's doc- 
trines in the reformed statutes of King's 
College, Cambridge, issued three years before, 
is evidence that his participation in the sen- 
tence against Pecock was on theological 

On 18 July 1457 Waynflete obtained a 
license to found a college to the north-east 
of the original site of Magdalen Hall. The 
charter of foundation is dated 12 June 1458. 
On 14 June the society of Magdalen Hall 
* surrendered up their house with its ap- 
purtenances to the college,' the building of 
which was forthwith begun. 

In September 1458 civil war broke out 
afresh. The Lancastrians routed the Yorkist 
forces at Ludlow, and a contemporary letter 
describes Waynflete as incensed against the 
insurgent leaders (Paston Letters, i. 497). 
On 20 Nov. 1459 a packed parliament of 
Lancastrians was summoned to Coventry. 
Waynflete, as chancellor, opened it with an 
address upon the text ' gracia vobis et pax 
multiplicetur ' (Rot. Parl. v. 345). It is 
evident that he now took an active part 
against the Yorkists. A bill of attainder 
against the Duke of York and his friends 
was passed. An oath of allegiance and 
confirmation of the succession to Edward, 

7 Waynflete 

prince of Wales, was tendered singly to the 
lords by the chancellor {ib. p. 351), who had 
on 8 Jan. 1457 been appointed one of the 
prince's tutors (F&dera, xi. 385). 

On 3 Nov. 1459 Sir John Fastolf [q. v.] 
nominated Waynflete executor of his will, a 
trust which involved him in prolonged con- 
troversies (see Paston Letters}. Fastolf had 
directed the foundation of a college at 
Caistor, which in 1474 Waynflete, with a 
dispensation from Sixtus IV, diverted to 
his own college of Magdalen (ib. ii. 402, 
iii. 119). 

In common with the chief officers of the 
household Waynflete resigned office in 
Henry VI's tent on 7 July 1460, im- 
mediately prior to the defeat of Northampton. 
Like them, he took out a general pardon 
(Foedera, xi. 458). Upon the accession of 
Edward IV, according to Leland, Wayn- 
flete ' fled for fear of King Edward into 
secret corners, but at the last he was re- 
storid to his goodes and the king's favor.' 
He certainly is lost to sight for a year. That 
the Yorkists after Northampton again con- 
templated his punishment, and probably his 
deprivation, may be inferred from a remark- 
able letter on his behalf, dated 8 Nov. 1460, 
and written by Henry VI, then virtually a 
prisoner in London, to Pius II (CHANDLER, 
p. 347). 

In August 1461, when Edward IV went 
on progress to Hampshire, the tenants of Est 
Men or East Meon and elsewhere, ' in grete 
multitude and nombre,' petitioned the king 
for relief from certain services, customs, and 
dues which the bishop and his agents were at- 
tempting to exact. According to the author 
of the ' Brief Latin Chronicle' (Camden Soc. 
1880), the tenants had seized Waynflete, 
which suggests that they were preventing 
an anticipated escape by sea, East Meon 
being near the coast. Edward, however, 
not only rescued him from violence, but 
arrested the ringleaders, whose case was 
tried in the House of Lords on 14 Dec. 
1 461, when judgment was given for the bishop 
(Rot. Parl. v. 475). 

Henceforth Waynflete appears to have 
acquiesced in the new order of things (Rot. 
Parl. v. 461, 496, 571). On 16 Nov. 1466 
he received a pardon for all escapes of 
prisoners and fines due to the king (CHAND- 
LER, p. 353). On 1 Feb. 1469 he received 
a full pardon (Foedera, xi. 639), in which he 
was accepted as the king's ' true and faith- 
ful subject.' But on Edward's flight from 
London upon 29 Sept. 1470, Waynflete him- 
self released Henry VI from the Tower 
(WARKWORTH, Chron. p. 11). The return 
of Edward IV, and his victories of Barnet 

Waynflete * 

and Tewkesbury, followed by the deaths of 
Henry VI and Edward, prince of Wales, 
left the Lancastrian cause hopeless. Wayn- 
flete was obliged to purchase another full 
pardon on 30 May 1471 (Fosdera, xi. 711), 
this time by a 'loan' of 1,333/. (RAMSAY, ii. 
390). On 3 July 1471, with other peers, he 
took an oath of fealty to Edward IV's eldest 
son [Edward V] (Foedera, xi. 714), and was 
henceforth constantly at court. Meanwhile 
he was completing his college, as well as that 
of Eton. He finished off the Eton college 
buildings, for the greater part at his own j 
expense (CHANDLER, pp. 137, 153, 154). On 
20 Sept. 1481 Waynflete visited Magdalen, 
and on the 22nd entertained Edward IV 
there. He took part in the funeral cere- j 
monies of Edward IV on 19 April 1483 at 
Windsor (GAIRDNER, Letters and Papers, I 
i. 7). On 24 July 1483 he entertained Hi- ' 
chard III at Magdalen (ib. p. 161). In 1484 
he began the construction of a free school 
at his native place, endowing it with land 
which he had acquired in 1475. This school 
still flourishes under the title of Magdalen 
College School, Wainfleet. 

The countenance of a prelate so respected 
asWaynflete cannot fail to have strengthened 
the position of Richard III. On 5 July 1485 
the king borrowed of him 100/., 'doubtless a 
forced loan, to be spent in meeting the ex- 
pected invasion of Henry VII. 

In December 1485Waynfiete retired from \ 
his palace at Southwark to his manor of : 
South Waltham, Hampshire. There on 
26 April 1486 he executed his will. He had 
already completed his magnificent tomb and 
chantry in Winchester Cathedral, where he I 
directed that he should be buried. He left 
bequests in money to the members of the t 
various religious houses in Winchester and 
of the colleges of St. Mary Winton and 
New and Magdalen, Oxford. Almost all his i 
estates in land he devised in trust for Mag- 
dalen College. On 2 Aug. 1486 he made 
further provision for Cardinal Beaufort's 
Hospital of St. Cross (CHANDLER, p. 225). 
He died, apparently of a complaint of the 
heart, on Friday, 11 Aug. 1486 (CAMPBELL, 
Materials, ii. 67), having retained his senses 
to the last. 

Waynflete was of the school of episcopal 
statesmen of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, of whom Beaufort and Wolsey are the 
leading types. Like Wolsey, he was a 
favourer of learning, and is even said, though 
the statement is doubtful, to have provided 
for the study of Greek at Magdalen (CHAND- 
LER, pp. 267-8). He set Wolsey an example 
in the suppression of religious houses for his 
college. As chancellor he left the repnta- 


tion of an upright and prudent administrator 
of justice (POLYDORE VERGIL, p. 74), ' warilie 
wielding the weight of that office ' (HoLiN- 
SHED, Chron. iii. 212). A eulogy of him by 
Laurence William of Savona [q.v.~|, written 
in London in 1485, is printed by Chandler 
(p. 376) from Wharton's ' Anglia Sacra ' 
(i. 326). The panegyrist speaks of his vene- 
rable white hair ( ' veneranda canities ' ). This 
is the only contribution to a personal de- 
scription which has come down to us. The 
picture which prefaces Chandler's ' Life ' is 
taken either from a mask of the bishop's 
effigy in Winchester Cathedral or from the 
oil-painting at Magdalen College. If, as is 
probable, this is a portrait, Waynflete had 
large eyes and a refined countenance. An- 
other representation of him appears as a sup- 
port to the cushion under the head of the 
effigy of his father upon the tomb erected by 
the bishop in Wainfleet church, now removed 
to Magdalen College chapel. An effigy of 
Waynflete has also been placed on the outer 
western wall of Eton College Chapel. 

The bishop's younger brother, John Wayn- 
flete, became dean of Chichester, and died in 
1481 (CHANDLER, p. 240). Chandler adduces 
good reason for the conclusion that the state- 
ment first traceable to Guillim (Display of 
Heraldry, p. 408; cf. HOLINSHED, Chron, 
iii. 212 ; GODWIN, De Pratsulibus, p. 233), 
that there was a third brother, Richard 
Patten of Baslowe, Derbyshire, is a fiction. 
The arms originally born by Waynflete were 
'a field fusilly, ermine, and sable.' After 
he became provost of Eton he inserted ' on 
a chief of the second three lilies slipped 
argent,' borrowed from the shield of Eton 
College. These arms have ever since been 
borne by Magdalen College. He added as 
his motto the verse of the Magnificat, ' Fecit 
mihi magna qui potens est,' still remaining 
incised over the door of the chapel of his 

[Will. Wore. Annales, ed. Stevenson (Rolls 
Ser. 1858), vol. ii. pt. ii; Supplementary Letters 
and Papers of Henry VI, ib. ; Croyland Con- 
tinuator in Gale's Scriptores, i. 451-593 ; Le- 
land's Itinerary, ed. Hearne (1744) ; Gascoigne's 
Liber Veritatum, Loci e Libro Veritatum, or pas- 
sages selected from Gascoigne's Theological Diet, 
ed. Rogers (1881); Correspondence of Bishop 
Bekynton (Rolls Ser. 56), ed. Williams (1872), 
2 vols. ; Capgrave's Liber de Illustribus Hen- 
ricis, ed. Hingeston (Rolls Ser. 1858); Pecock's 
Repressor of overmuch Blaming of the Clergy, 
ed. Babington, 2 vols. (Rolls Ser. 1860) ; Paston 
Letters, ed.Gairdner, 3 vols. (1872-5); Three Fif- 
teenth-Century Chronicles, ed. Gairdner (Camd. 
Soc. 1880); Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta(1826), 
vol. i. and Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy 
Council (1834); Gregory's Chronicle (Camd. Soc. 


8 9 


1876); English Chronicle (Camd. Soc. 1856) ; 
Warkworth's Chronicle of the First Thirteen 
Years of Edward IV (Camd. Soc. 1839); Poly- 
dore Vergil's Three Books (Camd. Soc. 1844) ; 
Historical Collections of a Citizen of London, 
ed. Gairdner (Camd. Soc. 1876) ; Orridge and 
Cooper's Illustrations of Jack Cade's Rebellion, 
1869; Holinshed's Chronicles of England (1808), 
vol. iii. ; Gale's Kerum Anglicarum Scriptorum 
Veterum, &c.,3 vols. (1684, 1687, 1691); Letters 
and Papers illustrative of the Eeigns of Ri- 
chard III and Henry VII (Rolls Ser. 1861), 
2 vols. ed. Gairdner ; Materials for the Reign of 
Henry VII, 2 vols. (Rolls Ser. 1 873), ed. Campbell ; 
Harrison's Description of England prefixed to 
Holinshed's Chronicles, vol. i.; Sudden's Waynfleti 
Vita, Oxon. 1602 ; Harpsfeld s Historia Anglicana 
Ecclesiastica, 1622; Lanquet's Chronicle, ed. 
Cooper, Epitome of Chronicles, 1560; Godwin, 
De Prsesulibus Angliae Commentarius, 1743; 
Wood's History and Antiquities of Colleges and 
Halls, ed. Gutch, 1786; Hearne's Remarks and 
Collections, ed. Doble, 1889; Guillim's Dis- 
play of Heraldry, 6th edit. 1 724 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eeclesise Anglicanse, 3 vols. ed. Hardy, 
1854; Harwood's Alumni Etonenses, 1797; 
Ormerod's Hist, of Cheshire (1819), vol. iii. ; 
Walcott's William of Wykeham and his Colleges, 
1852; Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, 1 847- 
1849; JVlaxwell-Lyte's History of Eton College, 
1877; Kirby's Winchester Scholars, 1888, and 
Annals of Winchester College, 1892; Macray's 
Register of Magdalen College, Oxford, vol. ii. 
Fellows, 1897; Ramsay's Lancaster and York, 
2 vols. 1892.] I. S. L. 

WAYTE, THOMAS (fl. 1634-1668), 
regicide. [See WAITE.] 

WEALE, JOHN (1791-1862), publisher, 
born in 1791, commenced business as a pub- 
lisher at 59 High Holborn about 1820. He 
possessed a wide knowledge of art, and took 
a particular interest in the study of archi- 
tecture. In 1823 he issued a bibliographical 
' Catalogue of Works on Architecture and 
the Fine Arts,' of which a new edition 
appeared in 1854. He followed the ' Cata- 
logue ' in 1849-50 with a ' Rudimentary 
Dictionary of Terms used in Architecture, 
Building, and Engineering,' a work which 
reached a fifth edition in 1876. He was on 
intimate terms with many men of science. 
As one of the first publishers of cheap edu- 
cational literature he did much for technical 
education in England. His rudimentary 
series and educational series comprised stan- 
dard works, both in classics and science. 
They were continued after his death by 
James Sprent Virtue [q. v.] Weale died 
in London on 18 Dec. 1862. He was the 
father of the antiquary and historian, Mr. Wil- 
liam Henry James Weale. 

Besides the works mentioned he published : 

1. 'A Series of Examples in Architectural 
Engineering and Mechanical Drawing,' Lon- 
don, 1841, fol. ; supplemental ' Description,' 
London, 1842, 12mo. 2. ' Designs of orna- 
mental Gates, Lodges, Palisading, and Iron- 
work of the Royal Parks adjoining the Metro- 
polis, edited by John Weale,' London, 1841, 
fol. 3. 'The Theory, Practice, and Archi- 
tecture of Bridges of Stone, Iron, Timber, 
and Wire, edited by John Weale,' London, 
1843, 2 vols. 8vo ; a supplemental volume, 
edited by George Rowdon Burnell and Wil- 
liam Tierney Clarke, appeared in 1853. 

4. ' Divers Works of early Masters in Chris- 
tian Decoration,' London, 1846, 2 vols. fol. 

5. ' The Great Britain Atlantic Steam Ship,' 
London, 1847, fol. 0. ' Letter to Lord John 
Russell on the defence of the Country,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 8vo. 7. 'London exhibited in 
1851,' London, 1851, 12mo; 2nd edit. 1852. 

8. ' Designs and Examples of Cottages, Villas, 
and Country Houses,' London, 1857, 4to. 

9. ' Examples for Builders, Carpenters, and 
Joiners,' London, 1857, 4to. 10. ' Steam 
Navigation, edited by John Weale,' London, 
1858, 4to and fol. 11. ' Old English and 
French Ornaments, comprising 244 Designs. 
Collected by John Weale,' London, 1858, 4to. 
He edited ' Weale's Quarterly Papers on En- 
gineering,' London, 1843-6, 6 vols. 4to, and 
' Weale's Quarterly Papers on Architecture,' 
London, 1843-5, 4 vols. 4to. 

[Gent. Mag. 1863, i. 246 ; Ward's Men of the 
Reign ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

WEARG, SIE CLEMENT (1686-1726), 
solicitor-general, son and heir of Thomas 
Wearg of the Inner Temple, who married, 
in 1679, Mary Fletcher of Ely, was born in 
London in 1686, and baptised at St. Botolph 
Without, Aldersgate, where his grand- 
father, Thomas Wearg, a wealthy merchant, 
lived. He is said to have been at Peterhouse, 
Cambridge (DYER, Privileges of Cambr. ii. 
22). He was admitted student at the Inner 
Temple on 25 Nov. 1706, called to the bar in 
1711, and became bencher in 1723, reader 
in 1724, and treasurer in 1725. 

Wearg was a zealous whig and protestant. 
He acted as the counsel for the crown in 
the prosecutions of Christopher Layer [q. v.] 
and Bishop Atterbury, and was one of the 
principal managers for the commons in the 
trial of Lord-chancellor Macclesfield {State 
Trials, vol. xvi.) In 1722 he contested, 
without success, the borough of Shaftesbury 
in Dorset, but was returned for the whig 
borough of Helston in Cornwall on 10 March 
1723-4, having been appointed solicitor- 
general on the previous 1 Feb. About the 
same time he was created a knight. He 



died of & violent fever on 6 April 1726, and 
was buried, in accordance with the request 
in his will, in the Temple churchyard, under 
a plain raised tomb, on 12 April. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir James 
Montagu [q. v.], chief baron of the exchequer. 
She died on 9 March 1746, and was buried 
in the same grave with her husband on 
14 March. They had no children. 

A volume published in 1723 contained 
' The Replies of Thomas Reeve and Clement 
Wearg in the House of Lords, 13 May 1723, 
against the Defence made by the Late Bishop 
of Rochester and his Counsel.' Curll adver- 
tised late in 1726 the publication of six 
volumes of ' Cases of Impotence and Divorce, 
by Sir Clement Wearg, late Solicitor-Gene- 
ral.' Curll was attacked for this by ' A. P. ' 
in the ' London Journal ' on 12 Nov. 1726, 
and two days later swore an affidavit that 
a book produced by him, and entitled ' The 
Case of Impotency as debated in England, 
Anno 1613, in Trial bet ween Robert, Earl of 
Essex, and the Lady Frances Howard,' 1715, 
was by Wearg. It was dated from the 
Inner Temple, 30 Oct. 1714. Wearg then 
had chambers in the new court (Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 501). 

[Benchers of Inner Temple, p. 66; Gent. Mag. 
1746, p. 164. A ' Brief Memoir' of Wearg was 
published by his relative, George Duke, of 
Gray's Inn, barrister-at-law, in 1843.] 

W. P. C. 

(1790 P-1853), medical writer, born in Ber- 
wickshire in 1789 or 1790, graduated M.I), 
at Edinburgh University on 1 Aug. 1816. 
He was admitted a licentiate of the College 
of Physicians on 27 March 1820, and died at 
The Cottage, Foot's Cray Park, near Bromley 
in Kent, on 22 June 1853. 

Weatherhead was the author of: 1. ' An 
Essay on the Diagnosis between Erysipelas, 
Phlegmon, and Erythema, with an Ap- 
pendix on the Nature of Puerperal Fever,' 
London, 1819, 8vo. 2. ' A Treatise on In- 
fantile and Adult Rickets,' London, 1820, 
12mo. 3. ' An Analysis of the Leamington 
Spa in Warwickshire,' 1820, 8vo. 4. ' An 
Account of the Beulah Saline Spa at Nor- 
wood,' London, 1832, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1833. 
5. ' A New Synopsis of Nosology,' London, 
1834, 12mo. 6. ' A Pedestrian Tour through 
France and Italy,' London, 1834, 8vo. 7. ' A 
Treatise on Headaches,' London, 1835, 
12mo. 8. ' A Practical Treatise on the Prin- 
cipal Diseases of the Lungs,' London, 1837, 
8vo. 9. ' The History of the Early and Pre- 
sent State of the Venereal Disease examined, 
wherein is shown that Mercury never was 
necessary for its Cure,' London, 1841, 8vo. 

10. ' On the Hydropathic Cure of Gout,' 
London, 1842, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1843. He also 
translated from the French of Gabriel Laisne 
a treatise ' On the Spontaneous Erosions and 
Perforations of the Stomach in contradis- 
tinction to those produced by Poisons,' Lon- 
don, 1821, 12mo. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 213; Brit. Mus. 
Cat,] E. I. C. 

SHED, RICHARD OF (d. 1231), archbishop 
of Canterbury. [See GRANT, RICHAKD.] 

WEAVER, JOHN (d. 1685), politician, 
of North Luffenham, Lincolnshire, was ad- 
mitted a freeman of Stamford on 25 Oct. 
1631 (Lincolnshire Notes and Queries, i. 62). 
In 1643-4 he was judge-advocate to the army 
of the Earl of Manchester. In November 
1645 he was returned to the Long parlia- 
ment as member for Stamford, and in 1647 
became conspicuous as one of the most out- 
spoken members of the independent party in 
that body (Official Return, i. 490 ; WALKEE, 
Hist, of Independency, i. 95, 108, 124, 127). 
In January 1649 Weaver was named one of 
the commissioners for trying Charles I, but 
never attended any of the sittings of the court 
(NALSO^, Trial of Charles I). In September 
1650 he was appointed one of the four com- 
missioners for the civil government of Ire- 
land (Commons 1 Journals, vi. 479). Some of 
his letters in that capacity are printed in the 
appendix to Ludlow's ' Memoirs ' (ed. 1894, 
i. 492-503). In 1652 Weaver was sent over 
to England to represent the views of his 
brother commissioners to parliament, but on 
18 Feb. 1653 the officers of the Irish army 
petitioned for his removal, and on 22 Feb. 
he was, at his own request, allowed to resign 
(ib. i. 319 ; Commons' Journals, vii. 129, 260, 
261; Report on the Duke of Portland's MSS. 
i. 644, 673). On 14 April 1653 parliament 
voted him Scottish lands to the value of 
250/. per annum as a reward for his services, 
which the Protector commuted afterwards 
for a payment of 2,000/. (LuDi.ow, i. 401 ; 
Commons' Journals, vii. 278 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1654, pp. 260, 276). 

Weaver represented Stamford in both the 
parliaments called by the Protector, and 
steadily voted with the republican opposi- 
tion, though in 1656 he only procured his 
election by protesting that ' his mind was 
altered from what it was in the last parlia- 
ment ' (THUKLOE, State Papers, v. 296, 299). 
None the less he was excluded from the House 
in September 1656, and signed the protest 
of the 120 members then kept out (WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, ed. 1853, iv. 280). As 
soon as they were admitted Weaver began 


9 1 


the attack upon the authority of the new 
House of Lords (BURTON, Parliamentary 
Diary, ii. 377, 429). In Eichard Cromwell's 
parliament he once more represented Stam- 
ford, and made many speeches against the 
validity of the ' petition ' and ' advice,' the 
existence of the other house, and the admis- 
sion of the members for Scotland (ib. iii. 70, 
76, 142, 346, iv. 66, 164, 240; THURLOE, 
vii. 550 ; LUDLOW, ii. 50. 53). In December 
1659, after the army had turned out the 
Long parliament, Weaver aided Ashley 
Cooper and others in securing the Tower for 
the parliament (THURLOE, vii. 797). To 
this zeal he owed his election as a member 
of the council of state (Dec. 31, 1659), and 
his appointment as commissioner for the 
government of Ireland and the management 
of the navy (LtroLow, ii. 209; Commons' 
Journals, vii. 799, 800, 815, 825). He at- 
tended none of the meetings of the council 
from disinclination to take the oath abjuring 
monarchy, which was required from coun- 
cillors, and assisted in procuring the read- 
mission of the secluded members (KENNETT, 
Register, p. 61 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1659-60, p. xxv). In consequence, when 
those members were readmitted he was again 
elected to the council of state (23 Feb. 1000). 

Stamford elected Weaver to the Conven- 
tion parliament, but the return was disputed 
and his election annulled {Commons 1 Jour- 
nals, viii. 18). 

Weaver was buried at North Luffenham 
on 25 March 1685. 

[Lincolnshire Notes and Queries, 1889, i. 62- 
63; Noble's Lives of the Kegicides, 1798, ii. 
318.] C. H. F. 

WEAVER, JOHN (1673-1760), dancing 
master, son of John Weaver, was baptised at 
Holy Cross, Shrewsbury, on 21 July 1673. 
His father is believed to be identical with 
' one Mr. Weaver,' a dancing master in the 
university of Oxford, who is named in a 
letter from Ralph Bathurst to Gascoigne, 
the Duke of Ormonde's secretary, 18 March 
1675-6, as having been received by the 
chancellor of the university ' at a time when 
there was room for him,' but ' is now like to 
be ruined with his family, being supplanted 
by Mr. Banister,' another dancing master 
(WARTON, Life of Bathurst, p. 140). Weaver 
received his education at the free school, 
Shrewsbury. In early life he set up as a 
dancing master in Shrewsbury, and is said 
to have taught dancing there for three gene- 
rations, till nearly the close of his life. He 
was living there on 19 March 1711-12, when 
he wrote a letter to the ' Spectator' (No; 
334, see also No. 466), announcing his in- 

tention of bringing out a small treatise on 
dancing, which was ' an art celebrated by 
the ancients,' but totally neglected by the 
moderns, and now fallen to a low ebb. But 
his residence in Shrewsbury was never in his 
adult life continuous. From 1702 he was 
actively associated with theatrical enterprise 
in London. 

Weaver, and not John Rich [q. v.], as 
is commonly stated, was the original intro- 
ducer into England of entertainments which 
bore the name of pantomimes. But by 
'pantomimes' Weaver did not mean harle- 
quin entertainments, but rather ballets, or, 
as he terms it, ' scenical dancing,' a repre- 
sentation of some historical incident by 
graceful motions. In 1702 he produced a 
mime at Drury Lane styled ' The Tavern 
Bilkers,' which he stage-managed, and which 
he describes as ' the first entertainment that 
appeared on the English Stage, where the 
Representation and Story was carried on 
by Dancing Action and Motion only.' In 
1707 Weaver composed a new dance in fifteen 
couplets, ' The Union,' which was performed 
at court on the queen's birthday, 6 Feb. 
Either owing to the fluctuations of theatrical 
government, or possibly because his mime was 
not successful, Weaver did not put a second 
on the stage until 1716 ; this was called 'The 
Loves of Mars and Venus,' and was 'an 
attempt in imitation of the ancient Pan- 
tomimes, and the first that has appeared 
since the time of the Roman Emperors.' 
| Weaver's subsequent pantomimic entertain- 
ments were ' Perseus and Andromeda,' 1716 ; 
' Orpheus and Eurydice,' 1717 ; ' Harlequin 
turn'd Judge,' 1717; and ' Cupid and Bacchus,' 
1719, all performed at Drury Lane. These 
dates of Weaver's pieces are given on his 
own authority, from his ' History of the 
Mimes and Pantomimes.' Most of them 
were probably never printed. John Thur- 
mond produced somewhat similar pieces for 
Drury Lane between 1719 and 1726. Rich's 
pantomimes were produced at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields from 1717 to 1726. Weaver's ' Tavern 
Bilkers ' was revived at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
by the younger Rich on 13 April 1717, and 
again at the same house on 11 Dec. 1727, 
under the name of ' The Cheats.' 

Weaver himself sometimes acted in his 
representations. In 1728 he impersonated 
Clown, the Squire's Man, in ' Perseus and 
Andromeda, or the Flying Lovers,' an after- 
piece performed at Drury Lane Theatre. 

Weaver sought to establish a school of 
pantomime, more like the modern ballet 
enaction, but the public did not appreciate 
his effort ; they preferred grotesque dancing 
and acting. In 1730 he complains that 



spectators are squandering their applause 
on interpolations by pseudo-players, merry- 
andrews, tumblers, and rope-dancers, and are 
but rarely touched with or encourage a natu- 
ral player or just pantomime. 

On 6 Feb. 1733 his ' Judgment of Paris,' 
described as ' a new Pantomime Entertain- 
ment,' appeared at Drury Lane. Mrs. Booth 
acted as Helen, and Miss Rafter as Thalia 
(GENEST, iii. 369). There was an earlier 
performance, possibly during the Christmas 
of 1732; it is referred to in a letter from 
Aaron Hill [q. v.], the dramatist, to Victor, 
the actor, 1 Jan. 1732-3 ( VICTOR, History 
of the Theatres of London and Dublin, ii. 
177). It was performed by his pupils in the 
great room over the market-house at Shrews- 
bury about 1750 (OWEN and BLAKEWAY, ii. 

Weaver died at Shrewsbury on 24 Sept. 
1760, aged 90, and was buried in the south 
aisle of Old St. Chad's church in Shrewsbury 
on 28 Sept. (Addit. MS. 21236, fol. 65 b}. 
He is described as being ' a little dapper, 
cheerful man, much respected in the town, 
and by the first people in the neighbourhood ' 
(OwEjf and BLAKEWAY, ii. 152, n. 1). 

He was twice married. By his first wife, 
Catherine, who was buried at St. Chad's, 
Shrewsbury, on 13 Sept. 1712," he had three 
children John, baptised on 11 May 1709; 
Richard, baptised on 3 Nov. 1710; and 
Catherine, baptised on 13 Sept. 1712, all at 
St. Chad's Church (St. Chad's Register). His 
second wife, Susanna, who survived him, died 
on 5 Feb. 1773, aged 73, and was buried on 
10 Feb. at St. Chad's, Shrewsbury. The 
monument was destroyed at the fall of Old 
St. Chad's Church in 1788 ; but the inscrip- 
tion is preserved in Addit. MS. 21236, fol. 

Besides the plays before mentioned, Wea- 
ver published: 1. ' Orchesography; or the 
Art of Dancing, being an exact translation 
from the French of M. Feuillet,' 1700, 4to. 
2. ' A small Treatise of Time and Cadence in 
Dancing,' 1706. 3. 'The Union: a Dance 
writ down in Characters,' 1707 (?). 4. ' An 
Essay towards an History of Dancing,' 1712 
(the work referred to in the Spectator, Nos. 
334 and 466). 5. ' Anatomical and Mecha- 
nical Lectures upon Dancing,' 1721 (these 
were 'read at the Academy in Chancery 
Lane '). 6. ' The History of the Mimes and 
Pantomimes, &c. Also a List of the modern 
Entertainments that have been exhibited on 
the English Stage, either in imitation of the 
ancient Pantomimes, or after the manner of 
the modern Italians,' London, 1728, 8vo. 

[Owen and Blakeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, 
ii. 151-2, 245; Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 

ed. Eeed and Jones, i. 739 ; Colley Gibber's 
Apology; ' The Genesis of English Pantomime,' 
by W. J. Lawrence, in The Theatre for January 
1895, xxr. 28-34; 'Puzzle: Find the first Pan- 
tomime Clown,' by W. J. Lawrence, in the Sup- 
plement to the Newcastle Weekly Chron. 29 Dec. 
1894; 'The Father of English Pantomime,' in 
the Pall Mall Gazette, 27 Dec. 1897; Genest's 
Account of the English Stage ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iii. 89, 138, 297 ; information from W. J. 
Lawrence, esq.] W. G. D. F. 

WEAVER, ROBERT (1773-1852), con- 
gregational divine and antiquary, born at 
Trowbridge in Wiltshire on 23 Jan. 1773, 
was the son of Richard Weaver, clothier, by 
his wife Mary. He was intended to follow 
his father's trade, but, preferring to study for 
the congregational ministry, he entered 
Rotherham College early in 1794, residing 
with the president Edward Williams (1750- 
1813) [q. v.] On 15 Feb. 1802 he became 
pastor at Mansfield in Nottinghamshire, a 
charge which he retained till his death. 
When he went to Mansfield affairs were in 
confusion and the congregation had been 
broken up. He reconstituted it in 1805, and 
twice enlarged the place of worship, in 1812 
and in 1829. 

Weaver was an ardent student of the 
Greek Testament, in which he was accustomed 
to give instruction to resident pupils. He 
also took an interest in antiquities, and in 
1840 published ' Monumenta Antiqua, or the 
Stone Monuments of Antiquity yet remain- 
ing in the British Isles ' (London, 12mo), in 
which he ascribed the remains of pre-Roman 
times to Phoenician influence and supported 
his theory by the particulars of similar 
Canaanitish and Jewish monuments given in 
the Bible. Weaver died at Mansfield on 
12 Oct. 1852, and was buried in the ground 
attached to the independent chapel. 

Besides the work mentioned, he was the 
author of: 1. 'The Scriptures Fulfilled,' 
seven lectures, London, 1829, 8vo. 2. 
' Heaven : A Manual for the Heirs of 
Hea ven,' London,! 837, 12mo. 3. 'Education 
based on Scriptural Principles, the True 
Source of Individual and Social Happiness,' 
London, 1838, 8vo. 4. 'The Pagan Altar 
and Jehovah's Temple,' London, 1840, 12mo. 
5. 'The Reconciler: an Attempt to exhibit 
. . . the Harmony and Glory of the Divine 
Government,' London, 1841, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Complete View of Puseyism,' London, 1843, 
12mo. 7. ' Dissent: its Character,' London, 
1844, 8vo. 8. ' Rationalism,' London, 1850, 
12mo. 9. ' Popery, calmly, closely, and com- 
prehensively considered,' London, 1851, 8vo. 

[Congregational Year Book, 1853, pp. 233-5; 
Gent. Mag. 1853, i. 671.] E. I. C. 




WEAVER, THOMAS (1616-1663), 
poetaster, son of Thomas Weaver, was born 
at Worcester in 1616. Several of the family 
were prominent members of the Stationers' 
Company in London. An uncle of the poe- 
taster, Edmund Weaver (son of Thomas 
Weaver, a weaver of Worcester), was from 
1603 until his death in 1638 an active Lon- 
don publisher. This Edmund Weaver's son, 
another Thomas Weaver (the poetaster's first 
cousin), became a freeman of the Stationers' 
Company in 1627, was called into the livery 
in 1633, and, retiring from business in 1639, 
seems to have entered as a student of Gray's 
Inn on 1 Nov. 1640 ( Gray's Inn Register, 
p. 228 ; AKBEK, Transcript of Stationers' 
Company, ii. 176, iii. 686, iv. 29, 33, 449, 
471, 499). 

The poetaster matriculated from Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 21 March 1633-4, at the 
age of eighteen, graduated B.A. on 19 Oct. 
1637, and M.A. on 31 June 1640. In 1641 he 
was made one of the chaplains or petty canons 
of the cathedral. He was a sturdy royalist, 
and was accordingly ejected from his office by 
the parliamentary visitors in 1648 (Register 
of Visitors to Oxford, Camden Soc. p. 491). 
Under the Commonwealth he ' shifted from 
place to place and lived upon his wits.' 
Like Richard Corbet, William Strode, and 
other resident graduates of Christ Church in 
holy orders, he was an adept at lighter 
forms of verse, in which he took a more in- 
dulgent view of human frailties than is ordi- 
narily reckoned becoming in the clerical pro- 
fession. In October 1 654 there was published 
a collection entitled ' Songs and Poems of 
Love and Drollery, by T. W.' It was dedi- 
cated ' to my most obliging friend E. C. Es- 
quire.' The verse shows some lyrical capa- 
city, and deals freely with amorous topics. 
Many of the pieces were skits on the author's 
political and theological foes ; of these, a 
ballad, ' to the tune of " Chevy Chase " ' (p. 
21), called ' Zeal overheated, or a relation of 
a lamentable fire which hapned in Oxon in a 
religious brother's shop,' proved especially 
obnoxious to puritans. The ' religious brother ' 
whom Weaver sarcastically denounced was 
Thomas Williams, an Oxford milliner, who 
belonged to the flock of Henry Cornish, the 
presbyterian minister at All Saints' Church. 
The work was declared to be seditious and 
libellous. Weaver was arrested in London, 
was imprisoned and tried on a capital charge 
of treason. At the trial (information about 
which seems only accessible in Wood's 
' Athenae '), the book was produced ; but 
the judge, after reading some pages of it, 
summed up strongly in favour of Weaver. 
He was unwilling, he said, to condemn ' a 

scholar and a man of wit.' A verdict of ' not 
guilty ' was returned, and Weaver was set 
at liberty. His book is rare (BELOE, Anec- 
dotes, vi. 86-9). Perfect copies are in the 
British Museum and in Malone's collection 
in the Bodleian Library. A poem by Weaver, 
called ' The Archbishop of York's [John 
Williams's] Revels,' was reprinted from his 
book in some editions of the works of John 
Cleaveland. Weaver is in no way responsible 
for the collection of verse called ' Choice 
Drollery with Songs and Sonnets,' which 
imitated his title and was published in 1656. 
Further specimens of his poetry are said, 
however, to be found in miscellanies of the 

On the restoration of Charles II in 1660 
Weaver was, according to Wood, made ex- 
ciseman or collector of customs for Liver- 
pool (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1670, p. 
346). Wood further states that he was 
commonly called ' Captan Weaver.' He died 
at Liverpool on 3 Jan. 1662-3, ' prosecuting 
too much the crimes of poets,' and was buried 

To Weaver has been frequently ascribed 
a second volume of verse, entitled 'Plan- 
taganets Tragicall Story : or, the Death of 
King Edward the Fourth : with the un- 
naturall voyage of Richard the Third through 
the Red Sea of his Nephews innocent bloud, 
to his usurped Crowne. Metaphrased by 
T. W. Gent. ' (London, by F. B. for George 
Badger, 1647). A portrait of the author, 
engraved by Marshall, is prefixed. The 
first book is dedicated ' To the truly heroick 
Edward Benlowes, Esquire.' There are com- 
mendatory verses by 'I. C., Art. Mag.,' 
'S. N.,' and 'I. S. Lincoln's Inn.' I. C. 
refers to the surpassing merits of the more 
serious work of the writer, whom he describes 
as a soldier and a scholar, and addresses as 
'Captain T. W.' 'I. S.' writes in a like 
vein, and calls 'bis ever-honoured friend 
Captain T. W. ' a ' perfecter of poetry and 
patterne of gallantry.' The second book of 
the poem is dedicated by the author to 
' D. W.,' and the work is declared to be ' the 
offspring of a country-muse ' (see FRY, Biblio- 
graphical Memorials, 1816, pp. 114-21). A 
copy of the book is in the British Mu- 
seum. Internal evidence fails to connect 
the chronicle-poem with Weaver's acknow- 
ledged verse, and at the time of its pub- 
lication in 1647 Weaver was a chaplain 
of Christ Church, Oxford a rank which 
would not allow him to be designated on a 
title-page as ' T. W. Gent.,' or to be greeted 
as ' captain ' by his friends. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 622-3 ; 
authorites cited.] S. L. 




WEAVER, THOMAS (1773-1855), geo- 
logist, born in 1773, studied geology and 
mineralogy from 1790 to 1794 under Abra- 
ham Werner at Freiberg. Soon after his re- 
turn to England he was entrusted by govern- 
ment witlTthe investigation of the gold de- 
posits in Wicklow, in reference to which he 
published in 1819 his ' Memoir on the Geo- 
logical Relations of the East of Ireland' 
(London, 4to). In the early days of the Geo- 
logical Society he became one of its active 
members, and published in the second series 
of its ' Transactions ' (vols. i. and iv.) me- 
moirs on the geology of Gloucestershire and 
Somerset and the south of Ireland. In the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' of the Royal 
Society for 1825 he asserted the relatively 
modern age of the fossil remains of the great 
Irish deer (Cervus megaceros), and in the fol- 
lowing year he was elected a fellow of the so- 
ciety. He subsequently travelled as a mining 
geologist in Mexico and the United States, 
and in 1831 began a series of papers on the 
carboniferous rocks of America. Weaver 
had retired from his profession for some 
years before his death, which took place at 
his home in Pimlico, 2 July 1855. 

In the Royal Society's catalogue (vi. 
285-6) he is credited with twenty papers, 
bearing dates between 1820 and 1841, all of 
which are geological, and eight refer to Ire- 
land. They were contributed chiefly to 
Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy.' the 
' Philosophical Magazine,' the ' Annals of 
Natural History,' and the ' Transactions 
and Proceedings of the Geological Society.' 

[Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 
vol. xii. pp. xxxviii-ix; Michaud's Biographic 
Universelle, vol. xliv.] G. S. B. 

WEBB. [See also WEBBE.] 

WEBB, MBS. (d. 1793), actress, whose 
maiden name was Child, was born in Nor- 
wich. She became an actress and a singer 
in the Norwich company, and married first 
a Mr. Day, and afterwards a Mr. Webb. 
She appears to have made her first appear- ! 
ance in Edinburgh on 21 Nov. 1772 at the 
Theatre Royal in Shakespeare Square as j 
Charlotte Rusport in the ' West Indian,' ! 
springing at once into favour. She if the ! 
Mrs. Day were she also played Queen Cathe- | 
rine in ' Henry VIII.' Webb was about this ' 
time a member of the company, acting the j 
King in ' Hamlet,' Kent in ' Lear,' and simi- | 
lar parts. On 29 Nov. 1773 Portia in the 
' Merchant of Venice ' was played by Mrs. 
Webb, from which time Mrs. Day disap- 
pears. In the ' Edinburgh Rosciad,' 1775, 
Mrs. Webb is described as ' very useful,' and 
it is said of her that she ' sings very sweet.' 

! On 1 June 1778, as Mrs. Webb from Edin- 
burgh, she appeared at the Haymarket, 
playing Mrs. Cross in Column's ' Man and 
Wife.' During her first season she acted 
Lady Sycamore in the ' Maid of the Mill,' 
and Lady Wronghead in the ' Provoked 
Husband.' On 1 July 1779 she was the 
first Lady Juniper in ' Summer Amusement, 
or an Adventure at Margate,' by Andrews 
and Miles. She played Mrs. Sneak in Foote's 
' Mayor of Garratt,' Mrs. Margaret Maxwell 
in the ' Devil on Two Sticks,' and had an 
original part on 31 Aug. in Colman's im- 
printed ' Separate Maintenance.' As the 
original Dame Hearty in Goodenough's 'Wil- 
liam and Nanny ' she made on 12 Nov. her 
first appearance at Covent Garden, where 
she played Mrs. Peachum in the ' Beggar's 
Opera,' Statira in ' Rival Queens ; or the 
Life and Death of Alexander the Little.' 
She was at the Haymarket on 30 May 1780 
the Lady in the Balcony at the first produc- 
tion of Colman's ' Manager in Distress,' was 
Mrs. Honeycombe in ' Polly Honeycombe,' 
and the first Commode in Andrews's ' Fire and 
Water ' on 8 July. At Covent Garden she 
was on 3 Oct. Glumdalca in an alteration of 
Fielding's ' Tom Thumb,' the first Mrs. High- 
flight in Pilon's ' Humours of an Election ' 
on 19 Oct., the Duenna, Mother-in-law in 
the ' Chances,' Queen in ' Hamlet,' Emilia in 
' Othello,' Elvira (an original part) in Dib- 
din's ' Islander,' 25 Nov., Lady Rusport in 
' West Indian,' and Mrs. Hardcastle. Her 
principal original characters at this house, 
which she never quitted, were Lady Tacit in 
O'Keeffe's ' Positive Man,' 16 March 1782 ; 
Lady Dangle in Cumberland's ' Walloons,' 
20 April : Abigail in Cumberland's ' Capri- 
cious Lady,' 17 Jan. 1783 ; Widow Grampus 
in Pilon's ' Aerostation,' 29 Oct. 1784 ; Lady 
Bull in O'Keeffe's ' Fontainebleau/ 16 Nov. ; 
Marcellina in ' Follies of a Day ' (' Le Ma- 
riage de Figaro '), 14 Dec. ; Honour in Mac- 
nally's ' Fashionable Levities,' 2 April 1785; 
Lady Mary Magpie in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Ap- 
pearance is against Them,' 22 Oct. ; Mabel 
Flourish in O'Keeffe's 'Love in a Camp,' 
17 Feb. 1786; Lady Oldstock in Pilon's 
'He would be a Soldier,' 18 Nov.; Lady 
Dolphin in O'Keeffe's ' Man Milliner,' 27 Jan. 
1787 ; Cecily in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Midnight 
Hour,' 22 May ; Katty Kavanagh in O'Keeffe's 
'Toy,' 3 Feb. 1789; Lady Waitfor't in Rey- 
nolds's 'Dramatist,' 15 May; Miss Di 
Clackit in Bate Dudley's ' Woodman/ 
26 Feb. 1791 ; Lady Acid in Reynolds's 
' Notoriety,' 5 Nov. ; and Miss Spinster in 
Mrs. Inchbald's ' Every One has his Fault,' 
29 Jan. 1793. 

To this list may be added the following 




parts played duringthe summer seasonsat the 
Haymarket : Hebe Wintertop in O'Keeffe's 
'Dead Alive,' 16 June 1781; Mefrow Van 
Boterham in Andrews's 'Baron Kinkver- 
vankotsdorsprakingatchdern,' 9 July; Mrs. 
Cheshire in O'Keeffe's ' Agreeable Surprise,' 
3 Sept.; Lady Rounceval in O'KeefFe's 
' Young Quaker,' 26 July 1783 ; Lady Pedi- 
gree in Stuart's ' Gretna Green,' 28 Aug. ; 
Mayoress in O'Keefte's 'Peeping Tom ,'6 Sept. 
1784 ; Mrs. Mummery in O'Keeffe's ' Beggar 
on Horseback,' 16 June 1785 ; Lady Simple 
in the younger Column's ' Turk and no Turk,' 
9 July ; Mrs. Scout in the ' Village Lawyer,' 
28 Aug. 1787 ; Lady Dunder in Colman's 
'Ways and Means,' 10 July 1788; Mrs. 
Malmsey in ' Family Party,' 11 July 1789; 
and Mrs. Maggs in O'Keeffe's ' London Her- 
mit.' Other characters assigned her at one 
or other house were Lady Mary Oldboy in 
' Lionel and Clarissa,' Lockit in the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera' (with the male characters played 
by women and vice versa), Mrs. Amlet in 
the ' Confederacy,' Mrs. Otter in the ' Silent 
Woman,' Mrs. Heidelberg in the ' Clandestine 
Marriage,' Old Lady Lambert in the ' Hypo- 
crite,' Lady Wishfort in the ' Way of the 
World,' Dorcas in the ' Mock Doctor,' Wi- 
dow Lackit in ' Oroonoko,' Tag in ' Miss in 
her Teens,' Mrs. Dangle in the ' Critic,' Wi- 
dow Blackacre in the 'Plain Dealer,' Fal- 
staff (a strange experiment for her benefit), 
Ursula in the 'Padlock,' Mrs. Fardingale in 
the ' Funeral,' Lady Dove in Cumberland's 
'Brothers,' Mrs. Sealand in 'Conscious 
Lovers,' Mrs. Malaprop, Mrs. Grub in ' Cross 
Purposes,' Mother-in-law in the ' Chances,' 
and Mrs. Mechlin in the ' Commissary.' On 
5 Nov. 1793 at Covent Garden she played 
the Duenna, and on the 7th Miss Spinster 
in ' Every One has his Fault.' On the 24th 
she died. 

Mrs. Webb was a good actress with much 
humour, her best parts being Mrs. Cheshire 
and Mabel Flourish. She was corpulent in 
her late years, and was seen to advantage 
in grotesque characters. Her Lockit did 
much to recommend the strange experiment 
of Column of which it was a feature. A 
portrait by Dewilde as Lady Dove in the 
' Brothers ' is in the Mathews collection in 
the Garrick Club, in the catalogue of which 
she is erroneously said to have appeared in 
London as Miss Cross. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Gilli- 
land's Dramatic Mirror ; Thespian Dictionary ; 
Gent. Mag. 1793, ii. 1061, 1147.] J. K. 

WEBB, BENJAMIN (1819-1885), eccle- 
siologist and parish priest, eldest son of Ben- 
jamin Webb, of the firm of Webb & Sons, 

wheelwrights, of London, was born at Addle 
Hill, Doctor's Commons, on 28 Nov. 1819. 
On 2 Oct. 1828 he was admitted to St. Paul's 
school under Dr. John Sleath [q. v.], and 
proceeded with an exhibition to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in October 1838. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1842, M.A. in 1845. While 
still an undergraduate he, together with his 
somewhat older friend, John Mason Neale 
[q. v.], founded the Cambridge Camden 
Society, which played an important part in 
the ecclesiological revival consequent upon 
the tractarian movement, and of which 
Webb continued to be secretary, both at 
Cambridge and afterwards in London 
(whither it was removed in 1848 under the 
name of the Ecclesiological Society), from its 
beginning to its extinction in 1863. With 
Webb and Neale were associated in this 
enterprise Webb's intimate and lifelong 
friend Alexander James Beresford-Hope 
fq. v.] and Frederick Apthorp Paley [q. v.] 
The society restored the ' round church ' 
at Cambridge, and Webb had the honour ol 
showing the restored edifice to the poet 
Wordsworth. Webb was early recognised as 
a leading authority on questions of ecclesi- 
astical art (see LIDDON, Life of Pusey i. 476- 
480). He was ordained deacon in 1842 and 
priest in 1843, and served as curate first 
under his college tutor, Archdeacon Thorpe 
(who had been the first president of the 
Cambridge Camden Society), at Kemerton 
in Gloucestershire, and afterwards at Brasted 
in Kent, under William Hodge Mill [q. v.], 
who, as regius professor of Hebrew, had 
countenanced and encouraged his eccle- 
siological work at Cambridge, and whose 
daughter he married in 1847. He was also 
for a while curate to William Dodsworth 

S\. v.] at Christ Church, St. Pancras, Lon- 
on. In 1851 he was presented by Beres- 
ford-IIope to the perpetual curacy of Sheen 
in Staffordshire, and in 1862 by Lord Pal- 
merston, on the recommendation of Mr. 
Gladstone, to the crown living of St. An- 
drew's, Wells Street, London, which he re- 
tained till his death. Under him this church 
obtained a wide celebrity for the musical 
excellence of its services, and became the 
centre of an elaborate and efficient system 
of confraternities, schools, and parochial in- 
stitutions, in establishing which his powers 
of practical organisation found a congenial 
field of exercise. Among these may be 
especially mentioned his catechetical classes 
for children and young women of the upper 
classes, which may be compared with those 
held by Dupanloup at Paris : and also the 
day nursery or creche, said to have been the 
first of its kind in London. 


9 6 


Webb was appointed by Bishop Jackson 
of London in 1881 to the prebend of Port- 
pool in St. Paul's Cathedral. From 1881 to 
his death he was editor of the ' Church 
Quarterly Be view.' He died at his house in 
Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, on 27 Nov. 
1885, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Aldenham in Hertfordshire. A fine monu- 
ment by Armstead has been placed to his 
memory in the crypt of St. Paul's. 

Webb was throughout his life a consistent 
high-churchman, although his policy in 
matters of ritual differed from that of many 
of his party. He refrained from the adop- 
tion of the eucharistic vestments, not from 
any objection on principle, but, as he stated 
in his evidence before the royal commission 
of 1867, on grounds of ' Christian charity, 
expediency, and prudence.' On the other 
hand, he laid great stress on the ' eastward 
position,' and took an important part in the 
preparation of the very successful ' Purchas 
Remonstrance.' His refined artistic culture, 
and his deep conviction that the best of 
everything should be offered in God's service, 

Erevented him from sharing the prejudice 
ilt by many who otherwise agreed with him 
against the performance of elaborate modern 
music in church. He was a good Latin scho- 
lar and an accomplished liturgiologist and 
antiquary. The words of many anthems pub- 
blished by Messrs. Novello, Ewer & Co., and 
not a few inscriptions, among them those on 
the windows placed to the memory of Dean 
Stanley in the chapter-house of Westminster, 
are from his pen. His discovery, as it may 
be called, of James Frank Redfern [q. v.], 
and his encouragement of George Edmund 
Street [q.v.] in the early stages of his career, 
should not be forgotten. 

He published : 1. ' Sketches of Conti- 
nental Ecclesiology,' 1847. 2. ' Notes illus- 
trative of the Parish of Sheen' (a supple- 
ment to the ' Lichfield Diocesan Church 
Calendar,' 1859). 3. 'Instructions and 
Prayers for Candidates for Confirmation' (3rd 
edit. 1882). He contributed numerous articles 
in the publications of the Cambridge Camden 
Society (especially on the monogram I.H.S., 
1841 ; on the crypts of London, 1841 ; on the 
adaptation of pointed architecture to tropi- 
cal climates, 1845); and of the Ecclesiological 
Society, in the ' Ecclesiologist,' ' Christian 
Remembrancer,' and ' Saturday Review.' 
He was joint author (with J. M. Neale) of 
an ' Essay on Symbolism ' and a translation 
of Durandus, 1843; editor of Dr. W. H. Mill's 
' Catechetical Lectures,' 1856, of the second 
edition of his ' Mythical Interpretation of 
the Gospels,' 1861, and of his ' Sermons on 
the Temptation,' 1873; joint editor of Monta- 

gue's 'Articles of Inquiry,' 1841, of Frank's 
' Sermons ' in the ' Anglo-Catholic Library,' 
and (with W. Cooke) of the ' Hymnary,' 
1870-2; and one of the editors of ' Hierurgia 
Anglicana,' 1848, the ' Hymnal Noted,' 1852, 
and the Burntisland reprint of the ' Sarum 
Missal,' 1861-83. There is a portrait in oils 
by E. U. Eddis, A.R.A., in the possession of 
his widow. 

[Private information ; obituary notice by 
A. J. B.-H. in the Guardian, 2 Dec. 1885; 
Gardner's Admission Kegisters of St. Paul's 
School, p. 277. See also an article oil Webb in 
Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, which gives 
list of hymns composed by him.] C. C. J. W. 

WEBB, DANIEL (1719 P-1798), author, 
born at Maidstown, co. Limerick, in 1718 
or 1719, was the eldest son of Daniel Webb 
of Maidstown Castle, by his wife Dorothea, 
daughter and heiress of M. Leake of Castle 
Leake, co. Tipperary. He matriculated from 
New College, Oxford, on 13 June 1735. In 
later life he resided chiefly in Bath. He 
wrote several theoretical works on art, which 
had considerable vogue for a time. He 
died, without issue, on 2 Aug. 1798. He 
j was twice married : first, to Jane Lloyd ; 
and, secondly, to Elizabeth Creed. He was 
the author of: 1. 'An Inquiry into the 
Beauties of Painting,' London, 1760, 8vo ; 
4th edit. 1777 : Italian translation by Maria 
Quarin Stampalia, Venice, 1791, 8vo. 2. 'Re- 
marks on the Beauties of Poetry,' London, 
1762, 8vo; new edit, Dublin, 1764, 12mo. 
3. ' Observations on the Correspondence 
between Poetry and Music,' London, 1769, 
8vo ; German translation by J. J. Eochen- 
burg, Leipzig, 1771, 8vo. 4. 'Literary Amuse- 
ments in Verse and Prose,' London , 1787, 8 vo. 
5. ' Some Reasons for thinking the Greek 
Language was borrowed from the Chinese : 
in Notes on the " Grammatica Sinica " of 
Mons. Fourmont,' London, 1787, 8vo. These 
five works were republished in one volume 
in 1802 by Thomas Winstanley [q. v.] under 
the title of ' Miscellanies,' London, 4to. 
Webb also edited ' Selections from " Les 
Recherches Philosophiques sur les Ameri- 
cains " of Mr. Pauw,' Bath, 1789, 8vo ; new 
edit, with additions, Rochdale, 1806, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 725, 807; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 1898, Ireland ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.; 
Reuss's Reg. of Living Authors, 1770-90, 1790- 
1803; Ann. Reg. 1760 ii. 249, 1762 ii. 247, 
1766 ii. 225.] E. I. C. 

WEBB, FRANCIS (1735-1815), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born at Taunton on 
18 Sept. 1735, was the third son of John Webb 
of Taunton, by his wife Mary, daughter and 
coheiress of William Sweet of the same town. 




He was educated at Abingdon and Bristol ; 
afterwards studied theology under Philip 
Doddridge [q. v.l and his successor, Caleb 
Ashworth [q. v.], at the independent aca- 
demy at Northampton and Daventry ; and 
finished his training with Thomas Amory 
(1701-1774) [q. v.] at Taunton. He entered 
the nonconformist ministry, became pastor 
of the congregation at Honiton, and on 
27 Sept. 1758 was inducted assistant to 
Joseph Burroughs [q. v.], minister of the 
general baptist congregation at Paul's Alley, 
London. On the death of Burroughs, on 
23 Nov. 1761, Webb undertook the sole 
charge. In 1766 he retired from the pastoral 
office and filled the office of deputy searcher 
at Gravesend until 1777, when he removed 
to Poole in Dorset. In 1775 he republished 
Dr. Johnson's ' Manner Norfolciense,' a squib 
against Walpole, which first appeared in 
1739. Johnson had not concealed his Jaco- 
bite principles in penning it, and Webb, in a 
satirical preface, cleverly contrasted the views 
he had then held with those he manifested 
in the ' False Alarm ' (1770) and in 'Taxa- 
tion no Tyranny' (1775). During Webb's 
residence in Dorset he acquired the favour 
of the Duke of Leeds, the secretary of state, 
who employed him on several occasions. In 
1786 he was appointed secretary to Sir Isaac 
Heard [q.v.], and accompanied him to Hesse- 
Cassel to invest the landgrave with the order 
of the Garter. In 1801 he accompanied Fran- 
cis James Jackson [q. v.] to Paris, acting as 
his secretary during the negotiation of the 
treaty of Amiens. He was employed by 
Jackson during the negotiations as an unoffi- 
cial intermediary, the French diplomatists 
having much faith in his integrity from their 
knowledge of his sympathy with Napoleon's 
government. The understanding of the 
British envoys with the royalist and ultra- 
republican malcontents and conspirators 
was, however, intolerable to him, and he 
retired to England before the conclusion of 
peace. He was an intimate friend of the 
artist Giles Hussey [q. v.], and wrote a me- 
moir of him which appeared in the ' History 
of Dorset ' by John Hutchins [q. v.] (iv. 154- 
160), and in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes' 
(viii. 177-92). He also gave a more detailed 
account of Hussey's methods in ' Panharmo- 
nicon ' (London, 1814, 4to), a description of 
one of his engravings. Webb became a uni- 
tarian while residing at Lufton, near Yeovil, 
where he settled in 1811. He died at Bar- 
r ington, near Ilminster in Somerset, on 2 Aug. 
1815, without surviving issue. On 31 March 
1764 he was married at Wareham in Dorset 
to Hannah, daughter of William Milner of 


Webb's portrait has been engraved from 
a picture by Abbott. 

Webb was the author of: 1. 'Sermons,' 
London, 1766, 16mo; 3rd edit, with me- 
moir, London, 1818, 8vo. 2. ' Thoughts on 
the Constitutional Right and Power of the 
Crown in the bestowal of Places and Pen- 
sions,' London, 1772, 8vo. 3. ' An Epistle 
to the Rev. Mr. Kell, with an Ode to Forti- 
tude,' Salisbury, 1788, 4to. 4. ' Poems : on 
Wisdom ; on the Deity ; on Genius,' Salis- 
bury, 1790, 4to. 5. ' Ode to the rural 
Nymphs of Brasted,' 1801, 4to. 6. 'Somer- 
set : a Poem,' London, 1811, 4to. Three 
letters of his are preserved among Warren 
Hastings's correspondence in the British 
Museum Additional manuscripts (19174 ff. 
122, 419, 17176 f. 171). 

[Memoir prefixed to "Webb's Sermons, 1818 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1815, ii. 278, 563-5; Monthly Ke- 
pository, 1816, pp. 71, 189-93, 280; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches, iii. 259.] E. I. C. 

1873), physician and medical writer, born 
in Hoxton Square on 9 April 1826, was 
the eldest son of William Webb, a cadet 
of the family of Webb of Odstock Manor, 
by his second wife, Elizabeth Priscilla, 
daughter of Thomas Massett. He was 
educated at King's College school, London, 
and at the Devonport grammar school, where 
he became a sound classical scholar. On 
25 Sept. 1841 he was apprenticed to James 
Sheppard, a surgeon at Stonehouse, and in 
1843 he joined the medical school of Uni- 
versity College. He was awarded five gold 
and silver medals for proficiency in different 
classes. In 1847 he became a member of 
the College of Surgeons, and in 1849 he pro- 
ceeded to Edinburgh, and there graduated 
M.D. in 1850. In 1851 he returned to Lon- 
don. In 1859 he was appointed a member 
of the Royal College of Physicians, and he 
was elected a fellow on 31 July 1873. In 
1857 he was nominated to the chair of medi- 
cal jurisprudence in the Grosvenor Place 
school of medicine, and subsequently he was 
lecturer on natural history at the Metropoli- 
tan School of Dental Science. In 1861 at 
the Grosvenor Place school Webb delivered 
the introductory lecture on ' The Study of 
Medicine : its Dignity and Rewards,' which 
was publ ished by request. His first important 
literary effort was an article on ' The Sweat- 
ing Sickness in England,' published in the 
' Sanitary Review and Journal of Public 
Health ' for July 1857, afterwards republished 
separately. This was followed by ' An His- 
torical Account of Gaol Fever,' read before 
the Epidemiological Society on 6 July 1857, 



and printed in the ' Transactions ' of the 
society. In 1858 an essay on ' Metropolitan 
Hygiene of the Past ' was written by Webb 
for the ' Sanitary Review ; ' it was published 
in the January number and reprinted sepa- 
rately in the same year. It is a brief and a 
masterly survey of the sanitary condition 
of London from the time of the Norman 
conquest until our own era. When in the 
' Dental Review ' the great work of John 
Hunter on the teeth was published, Webb 
contributed notes to the text embodying 
results of modern research on the subject, 
and designed to bring Hunter's work up to 
the point of knowledge of the present day. 
' Hunter's Natural History of the Human 
Teeth,' with notes by Webb and R.T.Hulme, 
appeared in 1865. A few years later Webb 
became one of the editors of the ' Medical 
Times and Gazette,' and for the last years 
of his life he was editor-in-chief. 

He was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 22 May 1856, of the 
Linnean Society on 21 Jan. 1858, and of 
other learned bodies. He was an accom- 
plished musician. 

He died on 24 Dec. 1873, and was buried 
at Highgate cemetery. On 10 Feb. 1852 
he married Sarah Schroder, daughter of 
Joseph Croucher of Great James's Street, 
Buckingham Gate, and by her had twelve 
children, ten of whom survived him. A 
bust, exhibited in the Royal Academy in 
1874, is in the possession of his widow, 
and an oil painting, done shortly before his 
death, is now at Odstock, Netley Abbey, 
Hampshire ; both works were executed by 
Charles Bell Birch. 

Besides the above-mentioned papers, Webb 
published ' Biographies of Sir Benjamin 
Brodie, Bart., and of P. C. Price, Surgeon 
to King's College Hospital,' London, 1865. 

[Medical Times and Gazette, 1873-4; Times, 
December 1873 and January 1874 ; family 
papers ; Records of the Society of Antiquaries; 
Eecords of Royal College of Physicians ; Cat. 
Brit. Mas. Library.] W.W. W. 

WEBB, GEORGE (1581-1642), bishop 
of Limerick, born in 1581, was third son of 
Hugh Webb, rector of Bromham, Wiltshire. 
He entered New College, Oxford, in April 
1598, and migrated to Corpus Christi as 
scholar. He was admitted B.A. in February 
1601-2, and M.A. in June 1605, when he 
was already in orders and vicar of Steeple- 
Aston, Oxfordshire, on Lord Pembroke's 
presentation. He kept a grammar school at 
Steeple- Aston and also at Bath, where he 
became rector of SS. Peter and Paul in 1621. 
He enjoyed the friendship of Chief-justice Sir 
Henry Hobart [q. v.] Webb was made D.D. 

1624, and appointed chaplain to the Prince 

of Wales. He was a man of strict life and 

conversation, and a distinguished preacher. 

I Charles himself, with Laud's approval, se- 

| lected him for promotion to the bench (Straf- 

' ford Letters, i. 330), and he was consecrated 

j bishop of Limerick in St. Patrick's, Dublin, 

18 Dec. 1634. 

When the confederate catholics entered 
Limerick in June 1642, W T ebb had already 
died of gaol fever, having been imprisoned by 
their sympathisers within the city. He was 
buried in St. Munchin's churchyard, dug up 
twenty-four hours later by persons in hope 
of finding jewels, and reinterred in the same 
place. We learn from a casual remark in 
his ' Practice of Quietness ' that Webb was 
happily married. 

Webb published : 1. ' A Brief Exposition 
of the Principles of the Christian Religion,' 
London, 161 2. 2. ' The Pathway to Honour. 
Preached at Paul's Cross, 21 June 1612,' Lon- 
don, 1612. 3. ' The Bride-royal, or the Specu- 
lative Marriage between Christ and his 
Church,' London, 1613. 4. ' The Araign- 
ment of an Unruly Tongue,' London, 1619. 
o. ' Agur's Prayer, or the Christian Choice,' 
London, 1621. 6. ' Catalogus Protestantium, 
or the Protestant's Calendar, containing a 
| Surview of the Protestant's Religion long 
I before Luther's Days ' (Preface by John Gee 
I [q. v.]), London, 1624. 7. ' Lessons and Ex- 
j ercises out of Cicero ad Atticum,' London, 
t 1624. 8. ' Pueriles confabulatiunculae,' Lon- 
i don, 1624. 9. ' The Practice of Quietness,' 6th 
I edit, (amplified), London, 1633 ; to an edition 
published in 1705 an engraved portrait of 
Webb is prefixed. 

Webb also translated during 1629 the 
' Andria ' and ' Eunuchus ' of Terence. 

[Ware's Bishops and Writers, ed. Harris ; Cot- 
ton's Fasti Ecclesise Hibernicae ; Lenihan's Hist, 
of Limerick ; Fowler's Hist, of Corpus Christi 
College.] R. B-L. 

WEBB orWEBBE, JOHN (1611-1672), 
j architect, came of a Somerset family, but was 
born in London in 1611. He was educated 
! from 1625 to 1628 at Merchant Taylors' 
school (ROBINSON, Register, i. 114), aiid was 
a pupil and executor, and a connection by 
j birth and marriage, of Inigo Jones [q. v.] 
j (WOOD, Athence, iii. 806, iv. 753-4). His 
| architectural works were largely in connec- 
tion with or in continuation of those of his 
, master. When Inigo Jones laid out Great 
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Webb 
designed (circ. 1640) the large brick house on 
; the soutli side, and there exists among Jones's 
drawings at Worcester College, Oxford, a 
design by Webb of a house in the Strand for 




Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke. In 1648 
he rebuilt, possibly from designs by Jones, a 
portion of Wilton House, Wiltshire. 

Soon after the Restoration Webb peti- 
tioned for the post of surveyor of works, 
pleading the intention of the late king, his 
training under Inigo Jones, his appointment 
as Jones's deputy till thrust out for loyalty 
in 1643, and his commission under the 
existing parliament to prepare the royal 
palaces for residence at a cost of 8,140. He 
further urged that there were arrears of 
salary due to him, both on his own account 
and as executor to Jones, and proved his 
loyalty by recalling that he had sent to the 
king at Oxford designs of all the fortifica- 
tions in London, with instructions how they 
might be carried (Diet, of Architecture). 

Webb was granted a reversion of the office 
of surveyor after Sir John Denham (1615- 
1669) [q. v.] He acted as Denham's assis- 
tant in the building (1661-6) of a portion 
of Inigo Jones's design for Greenwich Palace, 
which wassubsequently incorporated by Wren 
as the west side of the river front of his build- 
ings. He is described in the order as 'John 
Webb of Butleigh, co. Somerset,' and was 
granted a salary of 200/. per annum, with 
II. 13s. lOd. a month for travelling (Life of 
1. Jones, 1848, pp. 34, 38, 48, in Shakespeare 
Soc.; CAMPBELL, Vitruviu8Britannicus,YI\5, 
vol. i. plate 31, and vol. iii. plate 1). 

With Sir John Denham he also carried 
out (gratuitously) certain repairs in 1663 
at St. Paul's Cathedral (MALCOLM, Londi- 
nium Redivivum, 1803, iii. 83), and designed 
Burlington House, Piccadilly (1664-6), for 
Richard Boyle, first earl of Burlington ; it 
was remodelled in 1718-20. 

Other works which Webb carried out in 
accordance with or extension of his master's 
designs were Amesbury, AViltshire (1661), 
for Lord Carleton (CAMPBELL, Vitruvius 
J3ritannicus,I725, vol. iii. plate 7); Gunners- 
bury House, near Kew (1663), for Serjeant 
Maynard (ib. 1717, vol. i. plates 17, 18), to 
which we may possibly add Ashburnham 
House, Westminster, and Bedford House, 
Bloomsbury Square, though Jones's share 
in the latter and W r ebb's in the former need 
further proof. 

To Webb are also attributed Horseheath 
Hall, Cambridgeshire (1665-9), destroyed 
in 1777; the portico and other works at 
the Vine, near Basingstoke ; Lamport Hall, 
Northamptonshire (road front only) ; Rams- 
bury Manor, Wiltshire ; and Ashdown Park, 

In 1669, on Denham's death, the post of 
surveyor passed to Sir Christopher Wren, 
despite the fact that Webb held the rever- 

sion. He died on 24 Oct. 1672 at Butleigh, 
and was buried there. He married Anne 
Jones, a kinswoman of Inigo Jones, who left 
W r ebb some of bis property. He edited ' The 
most noble Antiquity called Stoneheng,' by 
Inigo Jones (1655, fol.), and wrote ' Vindica- 
tion of Stoneheng Restored' (1665, fol., 2nd 
edit. 1725). Webb designed the frontispiece 
of Walton's 'Polyglot Bible ' 1657, fol. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Aubrey's Natural 
Hist, of Wiltshire, 1847, p. 84; Cunningham's 
Life of Inigo Jones; Campbell's Vitruvius Bri- 
tannicus; Wai pole's Anecdotes; Blomfield's Hist, 
of the Renaissance in England ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists.] P. W. 

WEBB, SIB JOHN (1772-1852), director- 
general ordnance medical department, fourth 
son of John Webb of Woodland Hill, Staf- 
fordshire, and afterwards of Dublin, by his 
wife, a daughter of Thomas Heath, was born 
at Dublin on 25 Oct. 1772. He was appointed 
assistant surgeon on 17 March 1794. He 
became a member of the College of Surgeons 
of England on 22 Feb. 1817, and was made 
a fellow on 11 Dec. 1843, being one of the 
first batch of three hundred fellows created 
at that date. It is stated that he had the 
degree of M.D., but of what university is not 
known. The following are the dates of his 
appointments to the various grades in the 
army : he was promoted regimental surgeon 
on lo.Tuly 1795, surgeon to the forces 1 March 
1797, field inspector 10 April 1801, deputy 
inspector-general 30 May 1802, inspector 
3 July 1809, inspector-general 20 Nov. 1809, 
and director-general 1 Aug. 1813. He served 
on the continent under the Duke of York 
from April 1794 to May 1795, in the West 
Indies from November 1795 to June 1798, at 
The Helder from August to November 1799, 
in the Mediterranean and Egypt from August 
1800 to April 1806, in the Baltic from July 
to November 1807, and at Walcheren from 
July to September 1809. He was thus pre- 
sent at the action of Lannoi on 17 and 18 May 
1794, at the siege of Morne Fortune, capture 
of St. Lucia, the expulsion of the Caribs 
from St. Vincent in 1796, capture of Trini- 
dad and the descent on the Porto Rico in 
1797, at the reduction of the Helder and 
the capture of the Texel fleet in 1799, 
on the coast of Spain in 1800, in the 
Egyptian campaign in 1801, including the 
actions at the landing and those of 13 and 
21 March, at the taking of Grand Cairo and 
all the subsequent operations, at the siege of 
Copenhagen and capture of the Danish fleet 
in 1807, and at the expedition to the Scheldt 
in 1809. He received the silver war medal 
with one clasp for Egypt, was knighted in 
1821, elected a knight of the Cross of Han- 





over in 1832, and made a companion of the 
Bath in 1850. He retired on full pay on 
1 April 1850. 

Webb was for many years a magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Kent. 
He died on 16 Sept. 1852 at his residence, 
Chatham Lodge, Woolwich Common, having 
nearly completed his eightieth year, and 
was buried on the 22nd in St. Thomas's 
Church, Woolwich. He married, in 1814, 
Theodosia, eldest daughter of Samuel Bran- 
dram of Lee Grove, Kent,, and left issue three 

While acting as a volunteer in charge 
of the British troops off Alexandria, who 
were suffering from the plague, he had the 
opportunity of collecting materials for his 
' Narrative" of Facts relative to the repeated 
Appearance, Propagation, and Extinction of 
the Plague among the Troops employed in 
the Conquest and Occupation of Egypt,' 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, ii. 528 ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. i. 482; Churchill's Medical Direct.; 
Medical Times and Gazette, 1852; Record of 
Services preserved at the War Office ; Records 
of College of Surgeons of England.] 

w. w. w. 

WEBB, JOHN (1770-1869), diving and 
antiquary, the eldest son of William Webb, 
of Castle Street, London, a cadet of the family 
of Webb of Odstock, Wiltshire, by his wife 
Ann, the daughter and coheiress of James 
Sise, medical officer to the Aldgate dis- 
pensary, was born on 28 March 1776. He 
was admitted to St. Paul's school on 28 July 
1785. He was captain of the school 1794- 
1795, and in the latter year proceeded to 
Wadham College, Oxford, as Pauline exhi- 
bitioner. He graduated B.A. on 21 March 
1798, and M.A. on 3 Nov. 1802. In 1800 
he was ordained to the curacy of Ravenstone 
in the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, and 
in the course of a ministry of about sixty 
years was successively curate of Ripple, in 
the diocese of Worcester ; Ross in that of 
Hereford : lecturer of St. Martin's, with the 
chapelry of St. Bartholomew's, Birmingham ; 
perpetual curate of Waterfall in Stafford- 
shire on 7 Sept. 1801 ; minor canon of the 
cathedral of Worcester, with the rectory of 
St. Clement's in that city on 5 Feb. 1811 ; 
rector of Tretire (of this living he afterwards 
became the patron), with Michael-church, in 
the gift of Guy's Hospital, on 17 Jan. 1812 ; 
minor canon of the cathedral of Gloucester ; 
and vicar of St. John's, Cardiff, in the gift 
of the dean and chapter of Gloucester on 
10 Jan. 1822, which he held with Tretire till 
the Christmas of 1863. Webb was a devoted 
student of antiquities (he was elected a fel- 

low of the Society of Antiquaries in 1819), 
learned in Latin and in Norman-French, and 
was skilful in palaeography. He was also 
something of a poet ; a piece of verse by him 
in imitation of Lord Surrey's style was in- 
cluded in Surrey's works, escaping detection 
even at the hands of Nott, their editor. He 
was deeply interested in music. Mehul's ora- 
torio ' Joseph' and part of Haydn's ' Seasons T 
\vere adapted by him for the Birmingham 
musical festival. He wrote the words for 
the oratorio ' David,' first performed in 1834 
at the Birmingham musical festival (1834, 
4to), composed by his intimate friend Cheva- 
lier Newkomm, which was received in Ame- 
rica with enthusiasm, and he prepared a simi- 
lar foundation fora libretto of Mendelssohn's 
projected but unaccomplished oratorio, ' The 
Hebrew Mother.' 

Webb died at Hard wick Vicarage on 18 Feb. 
1869, and was buried at Tretire. He mar- 
ried Sarah, the niece of Judd Harding of 
Solihull in Warwickshire, a lady whose family 
traced their descent to Shakespeare's kindred, 
and had by her two children, Thomas Wil- 
liam Webb [q.v.], and a daughter Frances, 
who died in infancy. There are two por- 
traits of him in existence one a miniature 
painted in early life, now at Odstock, Netley, 
Hampshire, and a watercolour drawing de- 
picting him in advanced life, now in the 
possession of F. E. Webb, esq., of 113 Maida 
Vale, London. 

Besides several papers contributed to 
' Archaeologia,' Webb was the author of : 
1. 'Some Account of the Monument and 
Character of T. Westfaling,' 1818. 2. ' An 
Essay on the Abbey of Gloucester,' written 
for Britton's ' History and Antiquities of 
Gloucester Cathedral,' privately printed in 
1829. 3. 'A Translation of the Charter 
of Gloucester,' privately printed in 1834. 
4. ' The Household Roll of Bishop Swyn- 
field,' edited for the Camden Society, 1854. 

He left unfinished an edition for the Cam- 
den Society of the manuscript ' Military Me- 
moirs of Colonel John Birch,' which was pub- 
lished in 1873, and ' Memorials of the Civil 
War as it affected Herefordshire,' which was 
published in 1879 by his son Thomas Wil- 
liam Webb (London, 2 vols. 8vo). 

[Athenaeum, 1869 ; Family Papers at Od- 
stock ; Cat. Brit. Museum Library.] W. W. W. 

1724), general, born about 1667, was the 
second son of Colonel Edmund Richmond 
Webb of Rodbourne Cheney, Wiltshire, by 
his first wife, Jane, daughter of John Smith of 
St. Mary Aldermanbury, London, and after- 
wards of Tidworth, Wiltshire. Rodbourne 




Cheney Lad for many generations been in 
possession of the family, whose position in 
the county was improved in the sixteenth 
century by a marriage into the St. John 
family of Lydiard Tregoze. Old pedigrees 
and tradition claim descent of the family 
from the De Richmonds, constables of Rich- 
mond, and lords of Burton. Webb lost his 
mother in 1669; his father, Avho had com- 
manded a regiment during Monmouth's re- 
bellion, a prominent man in Wiltshire, long 
member of parliament for Cricklade and 
afterwards for Ludgershall, lived to see his 
son a distinguished soldier, and was buried 
beside his wife in the family vault in Rod- 
bourne Cheney church on 19 Dec. 1705. The 
general's elder brother, Serjeant Thomas Rich- 
mond Webb (1663-1731) of Rodbourne Che- 
ney, a well-known lawyer and recorder of 
Devizes in 1706, died in November 1731, 
aged 68. 

John Richmond AVebb obtained a com- 
mission as a cornet in the queen's regiment of 
dragoons (now the 3rd hussars) in November 
1687, and in the November following was 
wounded at Wincanton in a skirmish between 
a small detachment of the king's army under 
Clifford and Sarsfield and a still smaller body 
of the prince of Orange's regulars (BoYEK, 
William III, pp. 143-4). On 20 Dec. 1695 
he was appointed colonel of the 8th regi- 
ment of foot (DALTON, iv. 76). Two years 
later we hear of his duel with Captain 
Mardike, in which both combatants were 
dangerously wounded. In 1702 he distin- 
guished himself at the storming of Venloo 
(CANNON, Hist. Rec. 8th Sey. p. 110). He 
served in the campaigns of Flanders under 
Marlborough from 1703, was promoted bri- 
gadier-general on 11 April 1704, and major- 
general on 1 Jan. 1706. As a brigadier he 
displayed great gallantry in an attack on 
the village of Blenheim on the evening of 
13 Aug. 1704, and in forcing the French lines 
at Helixem (17 July 1705). He commanded 
on the left of the English line at Ramillies 
on 23 May 1706, and distinguished himself 
greatly at Oudenarde on 11 July 1708. In 
the month following the victory last named 
Webb was one of the commanders of the 
force of twelve battalions, with cavalry and 
grenadiers, which raided Picardy and put the 
country under contribution. Near Lens the 
detachment under Webb fell in with a force 
of eight hundred cavalry, whom they pur- 
sued into the town. Early in September he 
was recalled to Thourout in Brabant. The 
circumvallation of Lille had been completed 
by the allies by the end of A ugust, but as 
September advanced their communications 
were threatened on all sides by the French, 

and supplies were running short. The only 
route by which the requisite stores could 
now reach the besieging army was that be- 
tween Ostend and Menin. The hasty prepara- 
tion of a convoy of between seven and eight 
hundred wagons soon reached the ears of 
the French generals, and Vendome and Ber- 
wick were both desirous to attempt its de- 
struction ; but the task was finally confided 
to Comte de Lamothe, whose local know- 
ledge was expected to be of special service, 
and a corps amounting to twenty-two thou- 
sand men was concentrated under his com- 
mand at Bruges. The convoy set out from 
Ostend some hours before daybreak on 
28 Sept., escorted by Brigadier Landsberg 
with a force of about 2,500 men. Webb, 
with a force of about four thousand foot 
and three squadrons of dragoons, had re- 
ceived orders on the previous day to cover 
the convoy in the neighbourhood of Thourout, 
where it was most liable to attack. As the 
wagons were defiling through Cochlaer news 
was brought to Webb that the enemy had 
been observed at Ichteghem . He imm ediately 
advanced towards that place, but came upon 
the French in an opening between a dense 
coppice on the one hand and the wood and 
castle of Wynendaele on the other. Posting 
his grenadiers in these woods, Webb kept 
the enemy in play with his small force of 
cavalry while he formed his infantry in the 
intervening space. It was nearly dark be- 
fore De Lamothe, after a long cannonade 
which did very little execution, ordered a 
general advance. He had an advantage in 
point of numbers of three to one ; but his 
infantry were dismayed by the crossfire of 
the two ambuscades, and, after three at- 
tempts to force the position, they retired in 
the utmost confusion, having suffered a loss 
of between two and three thousand men ; 
the allies lost 912 in killed and wounded. 
While the engagement was in progress the 
convoy pushed on to Rousselaere and reached 
Menin safely the next day. Major-general 
William Cadogan [q. v.], having seen the 
convoy safely through Cortemark, spurred to 
Wynendaele with a few squadrons of cavalry, 
arriving about dusk, and offered to charge 
the broken ranks of the French infantry; 
but the proposal was prudently negatived 
by Webb, who was the senior in command. 
Cadogan thereupon rode through the night 
to carry the news of the affair to Marl- 
borough at Ronce, and on 29 Sept. the 
commander-in-chief wrote to Webb to con- 
gratulate him on the success, ' which must 
be attributed chiefly to your good conduct 
and resolution ' (Despatches, ed. Murray, iv. 
424). In writing home to Godolphin, Marl- 



borough remarked that Webb and Cadogan 
had behaved well, ' as they always do.' L*n- 
fortuuately, in a communication to the ' Lon- 
don Gazette/ Adam [de] Cardonnel [q. v.j, 
the duke's secretary, assigned all the credit 
of the engagement to Cadogan, who was 
known to be a staunch whig and a rising 
favourite on Maryborough's staff. This 
version of the affair lost nothing at the 
hands of a partisan like Steele, who was at 
this time editor of the ' Gazette.' Webb 
asked and obtained leave to take home to 
the queen a true account of the engagement, 
and his brief narrative was printed. He 
was not averse from posing as the martyr of 
whig malevolence, and he became the hero 
of the hour. He received the order of 
Generosity from the king of Prussia, and 
the thanks ' in his place ' of the House of 
Commons (13 Dec.) 

Arbuthnot was clearly alluding to Webb's 
treatment when, in the ' Art of Political 
Lying,' he explains how ' upon good occa- 
sion a man may even be robbed of his vic- 
tory by a person that did not command in 
the action ; ' and the opposition generally 
endeavoured to make political capital out of 
what they represented as a great tory vic- 
tory, in much the same way that thirty 
years later the opposition extolled Vernon 
' for doing with six ships ' what W'alpole's 
admiral ' could not do with twenty.' Ma- 
lignity went so far as to hint that, jealousy 
apart, the Duke of Marlborough was grie- 
vously chagrined by the repulse of the 
French at Wynendaele, inasmuch as he had 
entertained the offer of an enormous bribe 
payable upon the frustration of the siege 
operations which would have ensued upon 
the failure of the convoy. 

Webb was promoted lieutenant-general on 
1 Jan. 1709, and on 27 March, through the 
good offices of Harley, to whom he attached 
himself, he was granted a pension of 1,000/. 
a year pending more lucrative employment 
under the crown. The same autumn he 
fought at Malplaquet in the division of the 
prince of Orange, along with Lord Orkney 
and General Meredith, on the right of the 
' premier ligne ' (see plan, ap. DUMONT, 
1709, ii. 247). In the report addressed to 
the States-General, which set out the allied 
loss at twenty thousand, he was stated to 
be among the dead (ib. p. 526) ; in fact, he 
received severe wounds which crippled him 
for life. Swift mentions the fact of his 
walking with a crutch and a stick to sup- 
port him (Journal to Stella ; cf. LUTTRELL, 
vi. 582). 

Webb, who was a fine figure of a man 
before he was incapacitated by his wounds, 

and had been described by a poetaster of the 

As Paris handsome and as Hector brave, 

was for the time being the idol of the popu- 
lace, and during the summer of 1710 he 
contemplated putting up for Westminster 
against the whig candidate, General Stan- 
hope. When, however, in August he was 
offered the post of captain and governor of 
the Isle of Wight, he thought fit to accept 
the offer (WARNER, Hampshire, iii. 92). 
With the governorship went the safe seat of 
Newport, for which borough he was duly re- 
turned on 6 Oct. 1710 ; he had hitherto, 
since 1690, sat for the borough of Lud- 
gershall. He voted steadily for Harley and 
the tories, and cultivated the good graces of 
Swift as the literary champion of his party. 
In January 1712 he was one of the first to 
pay his respects to Prince Eugene upon his 
arrival at Leicester House (BoYER, p. 535). 
On 16 June 1712 he was promoted general 
and nominated commander of the land forces 
in Great Britain. Upon the overthrow of 
the tories Webb was not only deprived of 
his posts, but was in 1715 forced to sell out. 
George I, who had fought by his side at 
Oudenarde and admired his bravery, re- 
monstrated, but was ' brought to reason ' by 
the triumphant whigs ( Wentworth Papers). 
Webb was again returned for the family 
borough of Ludgershall in 1715 and on 
24 March 1721-2. During the trial of Chris- 
topher Layer [q. v.] in November 1722, 
Webb's name was mentioned in connection 
with a Jacobite association known as ' Bur- 
ford's,' and thenceforth he found it expedient 
to live in strict retirement (Hist. Reg. 1723, 
p. 69, ib. Chron. Diary, 1724, p. 52). 

Webb died in September 1724, and was 
buried on 9 Sept. in the north transept of 
Ludgershall church, in the nave of which 
his hatchment still hangs. He was twice 
married : first, to Henrietta, daughter of 
Williams Borlase, M.P. for Great Marlow, 
and widow of Sir Richard Astley of Patshull 
(she died 27 June 1711); and, secondly, in 
May 1720, to Anne Skeates, a ' widow,' who 
must have been a comely person, seeing 
that, although of illegitimate birth, she was 
thrice married, the third time after Webb's 
death to Captain Henry Fowke or Fookes ; 
she was buried at Ludgershall on 8 April 
1737, having survived all her husbands. 
By his first wife Webb left two sons Ed- 
mund, ' a captain in Ireland,' and Borlase 
Richmond, M.P. for Ludgershall, who in- 
herited most of his father's property, and 
died without issue in March 1738 besides 
five daughters. By his second wife he left 




a son, John Richmond of Lincoln's Inn, 
M.P. for Bossiney (1761-6) and justice for 
the counties of Glamorgan, Brecon, and 
Radnor, who died 15 Jan. 1766, and two 

The Colonel Richmond Webb who died on 
27 May 1785, aged 70, and was buried in 
the east cloister of Westminster Abbey, was 
a kinsman second cousin of the half-blood 
of the general (they were both great- 
great-grandsons of Edmund Webb of Rod- 
bourne Cheney, who died in 1621, and his 
wife, Catherine St. John) ; his father, Captain 
Richmond Webb, was buried at Rochester 
in 1734. Richmond Webb the younger, 
born in 1714, a cornet in the queen's own 
royal dragoons in 1735, became captain in 
More ton's regiment in 1741, commanded a 
company for King George at Culloden, and 
retired from the army in 1758. He was 
survived four years by his widow, Sarah 
(Griffiths), who was buried beside her hus- 
band in June 1789. Their daughter Amelia 
(1757-1810), the godmother of ' Emmy ' in 
' Vanity Fair,' married at St. John's Cathe- 
dral, Calcutta, on 31 Jan. 1776, William 
Makepeace Thackeray (1749-1813), the 
grandfather of the great novelist. Another 
daughter, Sarah, married Peter Moore [q. v.], 
the friend of Sheridan (BAYNE, Memorials 
of the Thackeray Family ; cf. HUNTEK, The 
Thackerays in India, 1897, pp. 97, 179).. 

An interesting life-size equestrian portrait 
of Webb, signed ' J. Wootton 1712,' is pre- 
served at Biddesden House, a red-brick 
mansion in the style of Kensington Palace, 
which the general erected for himself in 
1711 upon an estate the nucleus of which he 
had purchased from the widow of Sir George 
Browne in 1692. Another portrait, now in 
the possession of Colonel Sir E. Thackeray, 
V.C., was engraved by Faber after Dahl 
(NoBLB, ii. 197). A curious medal attri- 
buted to Christian Wermuth was struck 
to celebrate the battle of Wynendaele, and 
represents a lion pursuing a cock through 
the mazes of a labyrinth (RAPix, vi. 5 ; 
Medallic Hist, of England, 1885, ii. 328). 
Three sketches drawn by Thackeray for some 
imaginary ' Memoirs of Lieutenant-General 
Webb ' are prefixed to the volume containing 
' Esmond ' in the ' Biographical Edition.' 
The chapters in ' Esmond ' relating to the 
exploits of Webb (bk. ii. chaps, x. xiv. xv.) 
are based upon minute research, and contain 
what is perhaps the best account extant of 
the affair of Wynendaele. 

[Burke's Family Records,! 897, s.v. ' Thackeray;' 
Dalton's English Army Lists, vols. iii. and iv. ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vi. 247, x. 119; 
Beatson's Political Index, ii. 209, 117 ; Members 

of Parliament (Official Keturns); Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Kegisters, 1876, pp. 439, 440 ; 
Hoare's Modern Wiltshire, ' Ambresbury Hun- 
dred,' pp. 91 sq. ; Marlborough Despatches, ed. 
Murray, vols. iv. and v. ; Coxe's Life of Marl- 
borough, ii. 318 sq. ; Swift's Journal to Stella, 
ed. Ryland, pp. 156, 157, 160; Arbuthnot's 
Works, ed. Aitken, p. 430; Wentworth Papers, 
ed. Cartwright, passim ; Boyer's Reign of Queen 
Anne, 1735, pp. 346, 362, 477, 535; Prior's 
Hist, of his Own Time, 1740, i. 277 ; Rapin's 
Hist, of England, iv. 75, 79, 84, 86, 116, 192, 
433; Burnet's Own Time, 1823, ii. 506,507; 
Oldmixon's Hist, of England, ii. 412-13; Stan- 
hope's History, 1701-13, pp. 357, 373 ; Pointer's 
Chronolog. Hist. 1714, p. 595; Wyon's Hist, of 
! Queen Anne, ii. 113 sq. ; Memoires du Marechal 
| do Berwick, Paris, '1780, ii. 36-9; Dumont's 
Lettres Historiques, 1708 ii. 505-20, 1709 ii. 
526 ; Detail du Combat de Wynendale, ap. 
Pelet's Mem. Militaires, 1850; Egerton MS. 
1707, f. 367 (a good account of Wynendaele in 
French, giving the English force as 18 to 20 
battalions, and the French 34 battalions and 42 
squadrons of cavalry) ; Official Return of Mem- 
bers of Parl. ; genealogical and other notes 
most kindly supplied to the writer by Malcolm 
Low, esq., of Clatto, who has aided in revising 
the article, and by Alfred H. Huth, esq., of 
Biddesden House.] T. S. 

WEBB, JONAS (1796-1862), of Babra- 
ham, stock-breeder, was born on 10 Nov. 
1796 at Great Thurlow in Suffolk. He was 
second son of Samuel Webb, who afterwards 
removed to Streetly Hall, West Wickham, 
in Cambridgeshire. He began business as 
a farmer at Babraham in Cambridgeshire 
in 1822. As the result of a series of experi- 
ments conducted by himself and his father, 
he rejected the native Norfolk breed of sheep 
and specially devoted himself to the breed- 
ing of Southdowns, which were then little 
known in his district. He first of all pur- 
chased ' the best bred sheep that could be ob- 
tained from the principal breeders in Sussex,' 
and then, by a vigorous system of judicious 
and careful selection, he produced a perma- 
nent type in accordance with his own ideas 
of perfection. He began his career as an 
exhibitor at the second country meeting of 
the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
held at Cambridge in 1840, when he received 
two prizes for his Southdown ewes. This 
| success was followed up at practically every 
subsequent annual meeting at which he exhi- 
bited, until at Canterbury in 1860 he took 
all the six prizes offered by the society for 
rams, and sold the first prize ram ' Canter- 
bury' for 250 guineas. He was also a con- 
stant prize-winner at other shows. In 
several instances, however, these successes 
were bought dearly, as his ewes and aged 




rams were rendered useless by over-fatten- 
ing. The result was that he resolved to 
exhibit for the future only young rams. He 
had great success with his Shearling rams 
exhibited at the French International Exhi- 
bition in 1855, for which he received a gold 
medal of the first class. The Emperor of the 
French congratulated him on his success, 
and admired the beauty of the rams he exhi- 
bited. Webb presented him with the choicest 
specimen, receiving some time afterwards in 
return ' a candelabrum of massive silver 
with appropriate devices.' 

In the course of the last two years of 
Webb's life the Babraham flocks were all 
dispersed, 969 sheep being sold by auction 
in June 1862 for 10,926/. He, however, 
bred cattle with success to the last. His 
herd of shorthorns, begun in 1838, and re- 
cruited by purchase from the celebrated herds 
of Lord Spencer and Lord Ducie, was men- 
tioned by Mons. Trehonnais in 1859 as the 
most important shorthorn herd then exist- 
ing, and one which had perhaps only been 
surpassed in beauty and perfection by those 
of Booth and Towneley. At the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society's show held at Battersea in 
1862, immediately after the dispersion of his 
flock of Southdowns, Webb's shorthorn bull 
calf ' First Fruit ' gained the gold medal as 
' the best male animal in the shorthorn 
class ' (for a portrait of this bull see 
Farmers' Magazine, December 1862.) 

Webb died at Cambridge on 10 Nov. 
1862 (his birthday) quite suddenly, his end , 
being accelerated by the death only five j 
days before of his wife, to whom he was 
devotedly attached. lie was buried at | 
Babraham on the 14th. He was one of , 
nine children, left nine children himself, and 
his eldest son, Henry Webb of Streetly, has ; 
also had nine children. ' His honour and 
scrupulous good faith,' says the famous French ! 
agriculturist M. Trehonnais, 'his generosity 
and uniform affability gained him the respect j 
of everybody.' Elihu Burritt, in his ' Walk j 
from London to John-o'Groats,' gives an in- 
teresting description of Webb's life and work. ! 
A full-length statue of Webb, erected by 
public subscription, stands in the corn ex- 
change at Cambridge. 

[Farmers' Mag. 2nd ser. xi. 195-7 (March 
1845), 3rd ser. xxii. 5-9, 461-6 (July-December 
1862), containing a notice which also appeared 
in the Mark Lane Express, ] 7 Nov. 1862 ; Illus- 
trated London News, 1862 (portrait and memoir) ; 
Journal of the Koyal Agricultural Soc. of Eng- 
land (1846) 1st ser. vii. 60, (1847) viii. 8, 
(1856) xvii. 37, (1858) xix. 381-2; Ann. Re- 
gister, 1862, p. 793 ; Journal of Agriculture, 
1863, pp. 202-3, 447-8; Eobiou de la Trehon- 

nais's Revue Agricole de 1'Angleterre, 1859, i. 
104-10, a biographical sketch with a portrait j 
Comte Gerard de Gourcy's Second Voyage Agri- 
cole en Angleterre, 1847, p. 2-5, Quatrieme Voy- 
age, 1859.] E. C-E. 

WEBB, MATTHEW (1848-1883), 
known as 'Captain Webb,' the Channel 
swimmer, was born on 18 Jan. 1848 at Daw- 
ley, Shropshire, where his father and grand- 
father, alike named Matthew, had both 
practised as country doctors. His father 
(b. 1813 ; d. at Ironbridge, 15 Dec. 1876), 
who had qualified as M.R.C.S. in 1835, sub- 
sequently moved to Madeley and then 1o 
Ironbridge, where the swimmer's brother, 
Mr. Thomas Law Webb, is still in practice. 
Matthew was one of a family of twelve 
children, eight of whom were sons. He 
learned to swim in the Severn before he 
was eight, and saved the life of a younger 
brother who was endeavouring to swim 
across the river for the first time. The 
perusal of Kingston's 'Old Jack' inspired 
him with a strong desire to go to sea, and 
having been trained for two years on board 
the Conway in the Mersey, during which 
period he saved a comrade from drowning, 
he was in 1862 bound apprentice to Rath- 
bone Brothers of Liverpool, and engaged in 
the East India and China trade until his 
indentures expired in 1866. He then shipped 
as second mate under various owners, and 
in 1874 was awarded the first Stanhope gold 
medal upon the occasion of the centenary 
dinner of the Royal Humane Society, for 
jumping overboard the Cunard steamship 
Russia on 22 April 1873 while a stiff breeze 
was blowing and the ship cutting through 
the water at the rate of 14 knots, in an 
endeavour to save a seaman who had fallen 
from the rigging (Swimming Notes and Re- 
cord, 1884 ; Royal Humane Society Annual 
Report, 1874). Soon after this he backed 
himself to remain in the sea longer than a 
Newfoundland dog, and after Webb had 
remained in the water about an hour and a 
half it Avas found that ' the poor brute was 
nearly drowned.' 

In January 1875 Webb joined the Eme- 
rald of Liverpool, and acted as captain for 
six months ; but in June of this year he de- 
termined to relinquish the mercantile marine. 
In the following month he established a 
record among salt-water swimmers by a 
'public swim ' from Blackwall Pier to Graves- 
end, a distance of some twenty miles, in 
4 hours (3 July) ; this was eclipsed on 25 July 
1899 by M. A. Holbein. 

At the beginning of August 1875 public in- 
terest was greatly aroused by the announce- 
ment that AVebb intended to attempt the 



feat of swimming across the English Channel 
without any artificial aid. The attempt 
made by J. B. Johnson to swim the straits 
in August 1872 had ended in a fiasco. On 
28 May 1875 Captain Paul Boyton, the 
American life-saving expert, had, after one 
failure, successfully accomplished the feat 
of paddling across the Straits when clothed 
in his patent dress ; but although the journey 
demonstrated the great value of the dress, 
the paddle in itself was mere child's play 
in comparison with the task which Webb 
set himself to accomplish. His first attempt 
on 12 Aug. was a failure, owing to the fact 
that he drifted upwards of nine miles out 
of his proper course in consequence of the 
strong current and the stress of weather. 
Twelve days later he dived from the Admi- 
ralty Pier, Dover, a few seconds before one 
o'clock in the afternoon (3^ hours before 
high water on a 15 ft. 10 in. tide), and 
swimming through the night by a three- 
quarter moon reached Calais at 10.40 A.M. 
next morning (25 Aug.), having been im- 
mersed for nearly twenty-two hours, and 
having swum a distance of about forty 
miles without having touched a boat or 
artificial support of any kind. Great anxiety 
had been felt by his supporters and the 
special correspondents upon the lugger which 
accompanied him, owing to the fact that oft' 
Cape Gris Nez the wind arose, the sea be- 
came choppy, and between eight and ten in 
the morning scarcely any progress appeared 
to be made, while Webb was getting tho- 
roughly exhausted. The successful accom- 
plishment of such a feat gave Webb a pre- 
eminence among all swimmers of whom 
there is any record. A handsome testimonial 
was presented to Webb as the result of a 
public subscription (the amount of the 
wager against him being only 125/.) 

At the time of his performance Webb was 
twenty-seven and a half years old, his chest 
measured 40 in., his height was 5 ft. 8 in., 
and he weighed 14 stone 81b. His body was 
anointed with porpoise grease, and he was 
sustained while treading water by doses of 
cod-liver oil, beef-tea, brandy, coffee, and 
strong old ale. He used the ' breast stroke ' 
almost exclusively, averaging twenty strokes 
per minute. He was examined by Sir Wil- 
liam Ferguson and other surgeons, and his 
exploit was pronounced by medical opinion 
to stand almost unrivalled as an instance 
of human prowess and endurance (Brit. 
Med. Journal, 28 Aug. ; cf. Lancet ; the 
best account of the details of the ' leviathan 
swim' is in Land and Water, 7 Aug., 28 Aug., 
4 Sept., with map showing the zigzag course, 
and 11 Sept. 1875). 

During the next few years Webb gave 
exhibitions of diving and swimming, but 
mainly of his power of endurance in the 
water, at various towns in the provinces, 
at the Westminster Aquarium, and in the 
United States. Despite these efforts, how- 
ever, his capital dwindled, and his health 
seemed on the point of breaking. In the 
early summer of 1883 he resolved to make a 
further bid for public favour by attempting 
to swim through the rapids and whirlpool 
at the foot of the Niagara Falls. The de- 
sign was so foolhardy as to be hardly distin- 
guishable from suicide ; but a considerable 
amount of capital seems to have been 
embarked upon the enterprise, mainly by the 
railway companies bearing excursionists to 
Niagara. The ferry-man at Niagara, after 
a last attempt to dissuade him from the 
enterprise, rowed ' Captain Webb ' out into 
the middle of the river on the afternoon of 
Tuesday, 24 July 1883. Webb plunged 
from the boat about 4 P.M., and in about 
eight minutes had got through what looked 
the worst part of the rapids; but at the 
entrance to the whirlpool he was engulfed. 
He was perceived to throw up his arms 
with his face towards the Canadian shore, 
but was never seen again. He left a widow 
and two children. 

[Times, 26 and 27 July 1883 ; Field, 28 July 
1883, p. 147 ; Illustr.Lond.News, 28 July, with 
portrait, and 4 Aug. ; Land and Water, 28 July 
1883 ; Sinclair and Henry's Swimming (Bad- 
minton Library), 1894, pp. 161-6, with a map of 
his course across Channel and interesting techni- 
cal details. Among the short Lives are Randall's 
Captain Webb (with portrait), Madeley, 1875; 
Webb's Art of Swimming, ed. Payne, with a 
coloured portrait and brief autobiographical 
preface, 1875; Dolphin's Channel Feats, 1875; 
and a chap-book by H. L. Williams, 1883.] 

T. S. 

WEBB, PHILIP BARKER (1793-1854), 
botanist, was great-grandson of Philip Car- 
teret Webb (1700-1770) [q.v.], and the eldest 
of three sons of Philip Smith Webb of Mil- 
ford House, Surrey, and Hannah, daughter 
of Sir Robert Barker, bart. Webb was born 
at Milford House on 10 July 1793, and was 
educated at Harrow and at Christ Church, 
Oxford (he matriculated on 17 Oct. 1811), 
where William Buckland [q. v.] inspired 
him with a taste for geology. In 1812 he 
entered Lincoln's Inn, and in 1815 he gra- 
duated as B.A. ; but, the death of his father 
having then put him in command of a hand- 
some fortune, he at once began to gratify his 
taste for travel, for which he had equipped 
himself by a study of Italian and Spanish 
while at Oxford. 




Visiting Vienna, he made the acquaint- 
ance of the Chevalier Parolini of Bassano, 
who was of the same age, station, for- 
tune, and tastes as himself, having studied 
botany and geology under Brocchi. Webb 
having stayed with him at Bassano, Parolini 
returned his visit at Milford in 1816, when 
they planned a joint expedition to the East. 
Previous to starting upon this, however, 
Webb paid a short visit to Sweden, visiting 
Gottenburg, Upsal, and Stockholm, and go- 
ing as far as 61 N. lat. 

The winter of 1817-18 Webb spent at 
Naples with his mother and two of his 
sisters, and Parolini joining him there, they 
started in April 1818 by way of Otranto, 
Corfu, Patras, and Athens, to the Cyclades, 
Constantinople, and the Troad, returning 
by Smyrna and Malta to Sicily. Being well 
versed in Homer and Strabo, Webb care- 
fully studied the topography of the Troad ; 
and. having come to conclusions very dif- 
ferent from those propounded by Le Chevalier 
in his ' Voyage de la Troade dans 1785 et 
1789,' he published at Milan in the winter 
of 1820-21 his ' Osservazioni intorno allo 
stato antico e presente dell' agro Trojano,' 
which was expanded in 1844 into ' Topo- 
graphie de la Troade ancienne et moderne,' 
Paris, 8vo, a work showing much anti- 
quarian and geological erudition. He re- 
discovered the Scamander and Simois, and 
settled some other important points in Ho- 
meric geography. 

After this Webb spent some time at Mil- 
ford, where he collected many interesting 
plants in his garden ; but in July 1825 he 
visited the entomologist Leon Dufour at St. 
Sever, and after wintering in the south of 
France, made a year's tour of the eastern 
and southern coasts of Spain, collecting 
birds, fish, shells, and especially plants, a 
tour afterwards described in his ' Iter His- 
paniense ' (1838) and ' Otia Hispanica ' 
(1853). In April 1827 he Avent from Gi- 
braltar to Tangier, and, though he found it 
impossible to get far into the interior, made 
an interesting exploration of Jebel Beni- 
Hosmar and Jebel Darsa, mountains near 
Tetuan, the flora of which was then entirely 
unknown. Returning to Gibraltar in June, 
Webb devoted the remainder of the year to 
a journey on horseback through Portugal, 
the botanical results of which were included 
in his ' Iter Hispaniense,' though his many 
geological and mineralogical notes, includ- 
ing a geological map of the Lisbon basin, 
made in conjunction with Louis da Silva 
Mouzinho dlAlbuquerque, remain unpub- 

In May 1828 Webb left Lisbon for 

Madeira, and in the following September 
went on to TenerifFe, intending to proceed 
to Brazil. Falling in with M. Savin Berthe- 
lot, however, a young Frenchman who had 
already spent eight years in the island and 
had formed a herbarium, Webb remained 
nearly two years in the Canaries, visiting 
with him Lanzarote, Feurteventura, Gran 
Canaria, and Palma. They studied and col- 
lected the plants, birds, fish, shells, and 
insects, examined the rocks, analysed the 
waters, made thermometrical observations, 
and neglected nothing which could help 
towards a complete physical and statistical 
history of the archipelago. In April 1830 
Webb and Berthelot embarked at Santa 
Cruz, and, being kept out of France by 
cholera and revolution, went by way of the 
coast of Algeria to Nice, and thence to Geneva. 
In June 1833 they established themselves 
in Paris, where Webb got together a good 
library and a herbarium finer than any 
private collection in France, save that of 
Delessert. In preparing their great work, 
' Histoire Naturelle des iles Canaries ' 
(Paris, 1836-50, 9 vols. 4to), Webb reserved 
to himself most of the geology and botany 
and the description of the mammals, Berthe- 
lot contributing the ethnography, the history 
of the conquest and of the relations of the 
islanders with the Moors and with America, 
and the descriptive and statistical geo- 
graphy, while the services of Valenciennes 
were secured for the description of the fish; 
Alcide d'Orbigny for the mollusks; Brulle, 
H. Lucas, and Macquart for the insects ; 
Paul Gervais for the reptiles ; and Moquin- 
Tandon for the birds. Articles were also 
contributed by Montagne, C. H. Schulz, 
Decaisne, Parlatore, De Noe, and the younger 
Reichenbach. The issue of the work itself 
was followed by that of a folio atlas of 441 
plates by the best artists obtainable. 

After having spent fourteen years over 
the preparation of this work, travelling only 
between Milford and Paris, Webb wished to 
visit Tunis and Egypt, to solve some bo- 
tanical problems left unsettled by Vahl and 
Desfontaines, but was twice stopped at the 
outset by indifferent health and the news 
of the unsatisfactory political and sanitary 
conditions of those countries. He accord- 
ingly in January 1848 started for Florence 
and Rome, the Italian climate suiting him, 
and devoted two years to collecting Italian 
plants. At Rome he made the acquaint- 
ance of the Countess Elizabeth Mazzanti- 
Fiorini, the cryptogamist, the only woman, 
he said, whom he had ever met who loved 
botany passionately. At Florence he was 
specially attracted by the botanical gallery 




of the museum, then under the care of his 
friend Parlatore, to which he planned to be- 
queath his library and herbaria. It was 
here that in the winter of 1848-9 he pre- 
pared his ' Fragmenta Florulse ^Ethiopico- 
yEgyptiacee,' which, however, was not 
published until 1854 (Paris, 8vo), owing to 
the Tuscan revolution of 1849. 

After six weeks at Bagneres-de-Luchon, 
where he had been ordered to take the waters, 
in the summer of 1850, Webb revisited Spain 
to put some finishing touches to his ' Otia 
Hispanica,' and to visit his friend Graells, 
director of the museum and garden at 
Madrid. He had recently been given the 
order of Charles III by Queen Isabella, and 
on the occasion of this visit was elected 
corresponding member of the Academy of 
Sciences at Madrid at the same time as 

In 1851 he returned to England, and in 
August, with his nephew, Godfrey Webb, 
visited Ireland, and, having received sug- 
gestions from his friend John Ball, explored 
the west coast from Cork to Killarney, 
Dingle, Tralee, Limerick, Galway, Hound- 
stone, and the Aranmore Islands, the home 
of an interesting offshoot of the Iberian 
flora which he so well knew. After a year 
devoted to a synopsis of the flora of the 
Canaries, which he did not live to finish, 
and a second futile attempt to start for 
Tunis in the autumn of 1852, Webb again 
visited Italy and his friend Parolini, but 
was recalled to England by the death of his 
mother. In May 1854 he started for Geneva 
to visit his younger brother, Admiral Webb, 
but at Paris was seized with gout; and, 
though he so far recovered as to be able to 
superintend on crutches the classification of 
his library by Moquin-Tandon, he died on 
31 Aug. 1854. He was buried in a mauso- 
leum which he had built in the churchyard 
of Milford. The whole of his collections and 
herbarium, including those of Philippe Mer- 
cier, Desfontaines, La Billardiere, Pavon, and 
Gustave de Montbret, together with complete 
setsof the plants collected byWallich,Wight, 
Gardner, and Schimper, he bequeathed, with 
an endowment for their maintenance, to the 
Grand Duke Leopold II of Tuscany. The 
collection has a room to itself in the museum 
at Florence, where there is also a bust of 
the donor. 

Besides the works already mentioned Webb 
was the author of many papers on various 
branches of natural history, the most im- 
portant of which was perhaps his ' Spicilegia 
Gorgonea,' a catalogue of the plants of the 
Cape deVerd Islands, prefixed to Hooker and 
Bentham's ' Niger Flora/ 1849. 

[Notice sur la vie et les travaux de Philippe 
Barker Webb, by M. J. Gay, Bulletin de la 
Societe Botanique de France, 1856.] Gr. S. B. 

1770), antiquary and politician, supposed to 
have been born at Devizes in Wiltshire in 
1700, was admitted attorney-at-law on 
20 June 1724. He practised at first in Old 
Jewry, then removed to Budge Row, and 
afterwards settled in Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. On 18 Dec. 1727 he 
was admitted at the Middle Temple, and on 
8 April 1741 was admitted at Lincoln's Inn. 
Early in his career he acquired a great re- 
putation for knowledge of records and of 
precedents of constitutional law. On the 
suppression of the rebellion of 1745 his abili- 
ties as solicitor on the trials of the prisoners 
proved of great service to the state. He was 
the author of ' Remarks on the Pretender's 
Declaration and Commission,' 1745, dated 
from Lincoln's Inn on 12 Oct. in that year, 
and of ' Remarks on the Pretender's Eldest 
Son's Second Declaration,' 1745, which 
came out subsequently. Lord Hardwicke 
made him secretary of bankrupts in the court 
of chancery, and he retained the post until 
1766, when Lord Northington ceased to be 
lord chancellor. 

Webb was elected F.S.A on 26 Nov. 1747 
and F.R.S. on 9 Nov. 1749, and in 1751 he 
assisted materially in obtaining the charter 
of incorporation for the Society of Anti- 
quaries (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ii. 712-13). 
In 1748 he purchased the estate of Bus- 
bridge, near the borough of Haslemere in 
Surrey, which gave him considerable in- 
fluence in that corrupt constituency. He 
sat for Haslemere in the parliaments from 
1754 to 1761 (Carlisle MSS. in Hist.MSS. 
Comm. 15th Rep. vi. 207), and from 1761 to 
1768. The first of these elections elicited 
in 1754 the well-known ballad, attributed 
to Dr. King, of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, of 
' The Cow of Haslemere,' which had eight 
calves, for each of which a vote in Webb's 
interest was claimed. 

In December 1756 Webb was made joint- 
solicitor to the treasury, and held that post 
until June 1765 ; he was consequently a 
leading official in the proceedings against 
John Wilkes, and for his acts was dubbed 
by Horace Walpole ' a most villainous tool 
and agent in any iniquity,' ' that dirty 
wretch,' and ' a sorry knave.' Webb was 
the leader in seizing, among the papers of 
Wilkes, the poem of the ' Essay on Woman ;' 
and when the legality of general warrants 
was impugned, he printed privately and 
anonymously a volume of ' Copies taken 
from the Records of the Court of King's 




Bench, the Office-books of the Secretaries of 
State, of Warrants issued by Secretaries of 
State,' 1763. He also printed ' Some Obser- 
vations on the late determination for Dis- 
charging Mr. Wilkes from the Tower. By 
a Member of the House of Commons,' 1763. 
In the action brought against Wood, Lord 
Egremont's secretary, for seizing Wilkes's 
papers, Webb, as a witness, swore that while 
in the house ' he had no key in his hand.' 
For this he was tried before Lord Mansfield, 
with a special jury, for perjury, on 22 May 
1764. The trial lasted seven hours, and the 
jury, after an absence of nearly an hour, 
returned a verdict of not guilty (Gent. Mag. 
1764, p. 248). A motion by Sir Joseph 
Mawbey [q. v.] in November 1768 for a re- 
turn of all moneys paid to Webb for prose- 
cutions was refused. On the charge made in 
the House of Commons on 31 Jan. 1769 
that Webb had bribed, with the public 
money, Michael Curry to betray Wilkes and 
give evidence against him, counsel pleaded 
on behalf of Webb that he was now blind 
and of impaired intellect, and the motion 
against him was defeated. 

Webb died at his seat of Busbridge Hall 
on 22 June 1770. He married, on 2 Nov. 
1730, Susanna, daughter of Benjamin Lo- 
dington, many years consul at Tripoli. She 
died at Bath on 12 March 1756, aged 45, 
leaving one son, also called Philip Carteret 
Webb (d. 10 Oct. 1793 ; Corresp. of Jekyll, 
p. 31). Two other children died in infancy, 
and, at her own desire, Mrs. Webb was 
buried with them in a cave in the grounds 
at Busbridge, ' it being excavated by a com- 
pany of soldiers quartered at Guildford ' 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 43). They 
were afterwards disinterred and placed in a 
vault under Godalming church, with a monu- 
ment to her and her husband. In August 
1758 Webb married Rhoda, daughter of 
John or James Cotes of Dodington in 
Cheshire, and by her had no issue. He 
bequeathed to her everything that he could. 
She married, on 5 Sept. 1771, Edward Bever 
of Farnham, Surrey, and in 1775 sold the 
estate of Busbridge. 

The other works of Webb comprised : 
1. 'A Letter to Rev. William Warburton on 
some Passages in the " Divine Legation of 
Moses." By a Gentleman of Lincoln's Inn,' 
1742. 2. ' Observations on the course of 
Proceedings in the Admiralty Courts,' 1747. 
3. ' Excerpta ex Instruments Publicis de 
Judseis,' 1753. 4. 'Short but True State 
of Facts relative to the Jew Bill,' 1753. 
5. ' The Question whether a Jew born 
within the British Dominions could before 
the late Act purchase and hold Lands. 

By a Gentleman of Lincoln's Inn,' 1753 ; 
a reply to the question was written by Joseph 
Grove [q. v.] 6. 'A Short Account of Dane- 
geld. By a Member of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. Read at a meeting 1 April 1756.' 
7. 'A Short Account of Domesday Book, 
with a view to its Publication. By a Mem- 
ber of the Society of Antiquaries. Read 
18 Dec. 1755,' 1756. His interleaved copy, 
with additional papers, is in the Gough col- 
lection at the Bodleian Library (MADAK, 
Western MSS. iv. 177-8). 8. ' State of Facts 
on his Majesty's Right to certain Fee-farm 
Rents in Norfolk,' 1758 ; hundred copies 
only. 9. ' Account of a Copper Table with 
two inscriptions, Greek and Latin, discovered 
in 1732 near Heraclea. Read before Anti- 
quaries, 13 Dec. 1759,' 1760. On 12 March 
1760 he presented this table to the king of 
Spain, through the Neapolitan minister, for 
the royal collection at Naples, and he re- 
ceived in return a diamond ring worth 300/. 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. v. 326-7). Webb 
wrote in the ' Moderator ' and contributed 
to the ' Philosophical Transactions.' John 
Topham [q. v.] served under him. 

The manuscripts of Sir Julius Caesar were 
dispersed by auction in 1757, and nearly 
one-third of the collection was purchased 
by Webb. These, with his other manuscripts 
on paper, were bought from the widow by 
Lord Shelburne, and are now among the 
Lansdowne manuscripts at the British Mu- 
seum (Pref. to Cat. p. ix). Webb sold 
to the House of Lords thirty manuscript 
volumes of the rolls of parliament, and the 
rest of his library, including his manuscripts 
on vellum, was sold on 25 Feb. 1771 and 
sixteen following days. His most valuable 
coins and medals were acquired by Matthew 
Duane [q. v.] ; the remainder and his ancient 
marble busts and bronzes were sold in 1771. 
On the death of his widow his other collect- 
tions were sold by Langford. 

A letter from E. M. da Costa to Webb is 
in Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature ' 
(iv. 788-9). In July 1758 he obtained from 
the Society of Arts a silver medal for having 
planted a large quantity of acorns for timber. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 279-82, 305 ; Man- 
ning and Bray's Surrey, i. 620-1, ii. 43, 589, 
iii. App. p. cxliv ; Lincoln's Inn Adm. Reg. i. 
422; Churchill's Works (1804 ed.), i. 166, ii. 
288 ; Walpole's George III, ed. Barker, passim ; 
Walpole's Letters, iv. 1 83-7, viii. 260 ; Caven- 
dish's Debates, i. 77, 82, 1 20 ; Halkett and Laing's 
Pseud. Lit. pp. 511, 2542; information from 
Captain W. W. Webb, M.D., F.S.A.] W. P. C. 

1885), astronomer, born at Ross in Here- 
fordshire, on 14 Dec. 1807, was the only son 




of John Webb (1776-1869) [q. v.] He ma- 
triculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 
8 March 1826, graduated B.A. in 1829 with 
mathematical honours, and M.A. in 1832. 
In 1830 he was ordained deacon at Hereford, 
and licensed to the curacy of Pencoyd. He 
was admitted to priest's orders in the fol- 
lowing year by George Isaac Huntingford, 
bishop of Hereford. After twenty-five years 
of diligent though unostentatious labour in 
this and other parishes (including a lengthy 
term as precentor and minor canon of Glou- 
cester Cathedral), he was presented in 1856 
to the scattered living of Hardwick, Here- 
fordshire, which he filled with the utmost 
conscientiousness until his death on 19 May 
1885. He was a fellow of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, and had a profound and 
accurate knowledge, practical and theoretical, 
of astronomy and optics. From an early age 
Webb took a deep interest in the former 
science, and as far back as 1825 was making 
useful observations, precursors of a long, 
painstaking, and most accurate series. His 
first telescope was a 4- inch fluid achromatic, 
after which he observed in succession with 
a 3 T Vinch Tulley, a 5-inch Alvan Clark, 
and a 9^-inch With reflector. In 1859 he 
issued ' Celestial Objects for Common Tele- 
scopes ' (London, 16mo), a work which is 
now (1899) in its fifth edition, and has done 
more than any other to advance the cause 
of amateur observation. Besides this book 
Webb published ' Optics without Mathema- 
tics ' (London, 1883, 8vo), 'The Sun' (Lon- 
don, 1885, 12mo),and a little work on ' Chris- 
mas and Easter Carols.' He also contri- 
buted largely to such publications as ' The 
Student,' ' The Intellectual Observer,' ' The 
London Review,' ' Nature,' ' Knowledge,' 
' The Argonaut,' and ' The English Mechanic.' 
He 'edited and completed ' his father's ' Me- 
morials of the Civil War' (London, 1879, 
2 vols.) Webb was an observer of great 
ability. He took a special interest in the 
study of the moon, was a member of the 
moon committee of the British Association, 
and an active supporter of the now defunct 
Selenographical Society. After his father's 
death he finished editing the ' Military Me- 
moirs of Colonel John Birch,' for the Cam- 
den Society, and in 1879 published a new 
and enlarged edition of John Webb's ' Civil 
War in Herefordshire.' In 1882 he became 
prebendary of Hereford Cathedral. On the 
death of Sir Henry Webb, seventh baronet, of 
Odstock, Wiltshire, he succeeded in 1874 as 
head of that family. He died on 19 May 
1885, and was buried beside his wife Hen- 
rietta (d. 1884), daughter of Arthur Wyatt 
of Troy House, Monmouth, in the cemetery 

of Mitchel Troy. He bequeathed the family 
estate in Herefordshire to his cousin, J. G. H. 
Webb, and left a sum of over 20,000/. to 
Herefordshire charities. 

There is a watercolour portrait of Webb 
in the possession of F. E. Webb, esq., at 
113 Maida Vale, London, and a good por- 
trait is prefixed to the fifth edition of ' Celes- 
tial Objects.' By his will he bequeathed 
certain pictures and articles of plate to the 
trustees of the South Kensington Museum. 

[Memoir in the Monthly Notices of the R.A.S. ; 
Nature ; Mee's Observational Astronomy ; and 
the biographical note prefixed by the Rev. T. E. 
Espin to the fifth edition of Celestial Objects; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Works in 
Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Burke's Landed Gentry. A 
detailed memoir is in preparation from the pen 
of Mr. S. Maitland Baird Gemmill.] A. M-E. 

WEBBE. [See also WEBB.] 

WEBBE, EDWARD (fi. 1590), master- 
gunner and adventurer, son of Richard AVebbe, 
' master-gunner of England,' was born at St. 
Katherine's, near the Tower of London, about 
1554. At the age of twelve his father placed 
him in the service of Captain Anthony Jen- 
kinsoii [q. v.], ambassador to Russia, who 
sailed from England on 4 May 1566. He was 
in Jenkinson's service in and about Moscow 
for three years, and returned with him to 
England. In 1570 he sailed in the English- 
Russian fleet, under Captain William Borough 
[q.v.], for Narva, and was at Moscow in May 
1571 when that town was burnt by the Grim 
Tartars. He became a slave to the Tartars 
in the Crimea, but was ransomed. Sailing 
again from London in the Henry, he appears 
to have been at Tunis when Don John of 
Austria took it from the Turks (October 1572), 
and to have reached the rank of master-gun- 
ner ; but some months later the Henry was 
captured by the Turks, and Webbe became 
a galley slave. ' Constrained for want of 
victuals,' he consented to serve the Turks as 
a gunner, and accompanied the Turkish army 
to Persia and many other eastern countries. 
About 1588 William Harborne [q. v.], the 
English ambassador, ransomed Webbe and 
nineteen others. He encountered various 
troubles on his way to England, but reached 
England safely in 1589. In November of that 
year he proceeded to France, and was made 
chief master-gunner by Henry IV. He was 
present at the battle of Ivry, 14 March 1590, 
but returned soon after to England, and took 
lodgings at Blackwall, where on 19 May he 
dedicates the little tract which recounts his 
adventures. The title of this is : ' The Rare 
& most wonderful thinges which Edward 
AVebbe an Englishman borne hath scene 




& passed in his troublesome travailes n 
the Citties of Jerusalem, Dammasko, Bethe- 
lem & Gallely ; and in the Landes ol 
Jewrie, Egipt, Grecia, Russia, & in the 
Land of Prester John. Wherein is set 
foorth his extreame slaverie sustained many 
yeres togither, in the Gallies & wars of the 
great Turk against the Landes of Persia 
Tartaria, Spaine, and Portugall, with the 
manner of his releasement, and comming 
into Englande in May last. London. Printed 
by Ralph Blower, for Thomas Pavier,' 4to. 
There is no date on the title-page, nor on the 
title-page of a reprint ' printed by A. J. for 
William Barley, dwelling in Gratious Streete, 
neere leaden hall,' which has six woodcuts. 
But the second edition, ' Newly enlarged and 
corrected by the Author. Printed for Wil- 
liam Wright,' is dated 1590. The first wood- 
cut is altered from that of the previous edi- 
tion, and some slight corrections made in the 
text. The tract has been reprinted by Pro- 
fessor Arber (London, 1868) among his ' Eng- 
lish Reprints,' with a careful introductory 
' chronicle ' of Webbe's life, so far as it can 
be disentangled from the confused and some- 
times contradictory details of his narrative. 
Mr. Arber's investigation establishes the bond 
Jide character of Webbe's story as a whole, 
while it shows that his memory a's regards 
dates was not accurate. The tract gives a 
vivid picture of the courage and constancy 
of the Elizabethan Englishman. 

Nothing further is known of Webbe's life, 
but possibly he is the Edward Webbe who 
paid a hundred pounds to the Virginia Com- 
pany in 1620 (BEowx, Genesis, U.S.A. ii. 

[Edward Arber's edition in English Reprints 
contains all that is known of Webbe and his 
book.] R. B. 

WEBBE, JOSEPH CA 161 2-1626), gram- 
marian and physician, was English by birth 
and Roman catholic in religion. He gra- 
duated M.D. and Ph.D. at some foreign uni- 
versity, perhaps Padua. In 1612 he pub- 
lished at Rome an astrological work entitled 
* Minae Coalestes Affectus segrotantibus de- 
nunciantes, hoc anno 1612,' 8vo. Before 

1622 he returned to England, and in 1623 
was residing in the Old Bailey. He strongly 
advocated a colloquial method of teaching 
languages, proposing to extend it even to 
the classical tongues, and to substitute it for 
the pedantic manner of grammatical study 
in general use. In 1622 he published, in 
support of his views, ' An Appeale to Truth, 
in the Controuersie betweene Art and Vse' 
(London, 4to), which he supplemented in 

1623 by ' A Petition to the High Court of 

Parliament, in the behalf of auncient and 
authentique Authors ' (London, 4to), in which 
he says that his system has received en- 
couragement from James I, and that he 
wishes to receive a monopoly of the right to 
teach by his method. John Gee [q. v.], in 
his 'Foot out of the Snare/ describes him in 
1623 as residing 'in the Old Bayly,' where 
' he pretendeth to teach a new gayne way to 
learne languages, and by this occasion may 
inveigle disciples.' His latest work, dedi- 
cated to Charles I, appeared in 1626, entitled 
'Vsus et Authoritas' (London, 12mo), a 
treatise on hexameters and pentameters. 
Webbe was also the author of a translation 
of ' The Familiar Epistles of Cicero' (Lon- 
don, 12mo), undated, but probably published 
about 1620. 

[Webbe's Works ; Foley's Record of the Eng- 
lish Province of the Soc. of Jesus, i. 683.] 

E. I. C. 

WEBBE, SAMUEL (1740-1816), musi- 
cal composer, the son of a government officer 
who died in Minorca about 1740, was born 
in England in 1740. Owing to poverty, his 
mother could do nothing better for her son 
than apprentice him at the age of eleven 
to a trade. His seven years of cabinet- 
making over, Webbe applied himself to the 
study of languages. His mother had died, 
and, to support himself, he copied music for 
a dealer, and thus attracted the notice of 
Barbandt, a musician, who thenceforward 
gave him lessons. Webbe soon adopted 
music as his profession. It is likely that he 
deputised for Barbandt at the chapels of the 
Portuguese and Bavarian embassies. In 1766 
he won the first of his twenty-six prize medals 
from the Catch Club, of which he was a 
member from 1771. On the resignation of 
Warren Home in 1794 Webbe was appointed 
the club's secretary, and was actively em- 
ployed in its interests until 1812 (preface to 
W. LINLEY'S Requiem). On the establish- 
ment, in 1787, of the Glee Club, Webbe 
became the librarian, and he joined the Con- 
centores Sodales soon after the formation of 
their society in 1798. 

Webbe produced about three hundred 
glees, canons, catches, and part-songs, and 
upon this work his fame chiefly rests. In 
the meantime he had become organist to the 
chapel of the Sardinian embassy near Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, and was announced in the 
Laity's Directory' of 1793 to give instruc- 
ion gratis every Friday evening at seven 
o'clock, ' to such young gentlemen as present 
;hemselves to learn the church music.' 
Among his pupils and choir-boys were 
John Danby [q. v.], Charles Knyvett the 
younger [see under KNYVETT, CHAELES, 


1752-1822], Charles Dignum [q.v.], and Vin- 
cent Novello [q. v.] The chapel of the 
Spanish embassy, near Manchester Square, 
also enjoyed his services, probably after Dan- 
by's death in 1798 until the younger Webbe's 

Webbe died at his chambers in Gray's Inn 
on 25 March 1816. His gravestone in Old 
St. Pancras Gardens (once the churchyard) 
has disappeared within the last few years, 
but a granite obelisk was erected in its stead 
in 1897. 

Webbe was ' the typical glee composer ' 
(DAVEY), and is best known by such polished 
and beautiful pieces as ' When winds breathe 
soft,' ' Swiftly from the mountain's brow,' 
' Glorious Apollo,' ' Thy voice, Harmony,' 
and ' Come live with me.' But his motets 
are still constantly sung in Roman catholic 
churches. His hymns include an ' O Salu- 
taris,' known in Anglican hymn-books as 
' Melcombe ; ' an ' Alma Redemptoris ' (' Al- 
ma'); a ' Veni Sancte Spiritus' ('Come, 
Thou Holy Spirit'), and the popular harmo- 
nised version of a Gregorian ' Stabat Mater.' 

Among Webbe's numerous publications 
are : 1. In conjunction with his son, nine 
books of vocal music in parts, 1764-95 ; 
afterwards republished in 3 vols. 1812. 
Many of Webbe's glees are re-edited or re- 
published by Warren, Hullah, Oliphant, 
Boosey, and Novello. 2. Songs, of which 
the best known may have been the simple 
melody, 'The Mansion of Peace,' 1785? 

3. 'Ode to St. Cecilia,' six voices, 1790. 

4. ' A Collection of Sacred Music as used in 
the Chapel of the King of Sardinia in Lon- 
don, by Samuel Webbe,' no date, obi. folio. 
It contains upwards of twenty motets, and 
masses in D minor for three voices, and G 
major for four voices, neither published in 

5. ' A Collection of Masses for Small Choirs,' 
1792 (No. 1 was printed by Skillern in 
1791) ; they are simply written, some for 
two parts only. 6. ' A Collection of Motets 
and Antiphons,' 1792, printed by Webbe's 
permission, although he had no intention 
of printing them. 7. 'Antiphons in six 
Books of Anthems,' 1818. 8. Seven masses 
rearranged for three and four voices, in- 
cluding two requiem masses in G minor and 
E minor, never before published, 1864. All 
Webbe's church music has been re-edited 
and republished by Novello. 

[Gent. Mag. 1816, i. 569, 643; Quarterly 
Musical Magazine, 1818 p. 219, 1821 p. 363. 
passim ; Grove's Dictionary, i. 323, 383, iv. 387; 
Davey'sHist. of English Music, p. 414 ; Cansick's 
Epitaphs in St. Pancras, p. 98 ; Daily News, 
26 July 1897; Tablet, 24 July 1897; infor- 
mation from the choirmaster of the Sardinia 

Street catholic church, where a volume of the 
rare ' Collection of Sacred Music ' is preserved ; 
information from Rev. R. B. Sankey. M.A., 
Mus. Bac. Oxon. ; authorities cited.] 

L. M. M. 

WEBBE. SAMUEL, the younger 
(1770 P-1843), teacher and composer, the son 
of Samuel Webbe (1740-1816) [q. v.], was 
born in London about 1770, and studied 
the organ, piano, and vocal composition 
under his father and Clementi. Webbe in 
his active interest in the glee clubs followed 
in the footsteps of his father. He composed 
many excellent canons and glees, but in 
1798 he settled in Liverpool, as organist to 
the Unitarian chapel in Paradise Street. 
About 1817 he joined John Bernard Logier 
[q. v.] in London in teaching the use of the 
chiroplast. Webbe became organist to the 
chapel of the Spanish embassy, before return- 
ing to Liverpool, where he was appointed 
organist to St. Nicholas and to St. Patrick's 
Roman catholic chapel. He died at Ham- 
mersmith on 25 Nov. 1843. His son, Eger- 
ton Webbe (1810-1840), wrote upon musical 
subjects ; his daughter married Edward 
Holmes [q. v.] 

Webbe published, in conjunction with his 
father, ' A Collection of Original Psalm 
Tunes,' 1800. He was also the author of 
several anthems, madrigals, and glees, be- 
sides a Mass and a Sanctus, and a Chant 
for St. Paul's Cathedral. He wrote settings 
for numerous songs and ballads. About 
1830 he published ' Convito Armonico,' a 
collection of madrigals, glees, duets, canons, 
and catches, by eminent composers. 

[Brown and Stratton's British Musical Bio- 
graphy, p. 437 ; authorities cited.] L. M. M. 

WEBBE, WILLIAM (fl. 1568-1591), 
author of ' A Discourse of English Poetrie,' 
was a member of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was acquainted with 
Gabriel Harvey and Edmund Spenser. He 
graduated B.A. in 1572-3. About 1583 or 
1584 he was private tutor to the two sons of 
Edward Sulyard of Flemyngs in the parish 
of Runwell, Essex. When these pupils 
reached manhood Webbe went, probably 
again as private tutor, to the family of 
Henry Grey (cousin of Lady Jane Grey), 
at Pirgo in the parish of Havering atte 
Bower, Essex. One of Grey's daughters 
was married to a William Sulyard. From 
Pirgo on 8 Aug. 1591 Webbe dates a letter 
to his friend Robert Wilmot (Jl. 1568) 
[q.v.], which is prefixed to the edition of 
' Tancred and Gismund ' revised and pub- 
lished by Wilmot in 1592. Grey's wife 
was one of the ladies to whom the tragedy 




is dedicated. From this letter Webbe would 
appear to have been present when the first 
version of the play in 1568 at the Inner 
Temple was ' curiously acted in view of her 
majesty, by whom it was then princely 
accepted.' " Nothing more is known of 

While he was at Flemyngs in the ' sum- 
mer evenings' apparently of 1586 Webbe 
composed ' A Discourse of English Poetrie. 
Together with the authors judgment touch- 
ing the reformation of our English Verse. 
By William Webbe, graduate. Imprinted 
at London, by John Charlewood for Robert 
Walley, 1586,' 4to. This was entered on the 
' Stationers' Register,' 4 Sept. 1586. Only 
two copies are known one is in Malone's 
Collection at the Bodleian, and the other is 
now at Britwell. It was reprinted in ' An- 
cient Critical Essays, edited by J. Hasle- 
wood, London, 1815 ' (ii. 13-95), and by Ed- 
ward Arber among the ' English Reprints ' 
in 1870. The work shows Webbe to have 
been intimately and intelligently acquainted 
with contemporary English poetry and poets. 
It is dedicated to Edward Sulyard, and has 
a preface ' to the noble poets of England.' 
At the end of the ' Discourse ' the author 
prints his own version in hexameters of the 
first two eclogues of Virgil. Jt appears from 
the dedication (see also Discourse, p. 55, ed. 
Arber) that he had previously translated the 
whole eclogues into a common English metre, 
probably hendecasyllables, for Sulyard's sons. 
The eclogues are followed by a table in Eng- 
lish of 'Cannons or general Cautions of Poetry,' 
compiled from Horace by George Fabricius 
(1516-1571) of Chemnitz. A short ' Epilogus ' 
concludes the tract. It is of high value and 
interest as a storehouse of allusions to con- 
temporary poets, and for the light it throws 
upon the critical ideas of the Cambridge in 
which Spenser was bred. It is a proof of 
Webbe's taste that he perceives the supe- 
riority to contemporary verse of the ' Shep- 
herd's Calendar' (ib. pp. 23, 35, 52, 81). 
He translates Spenser's fourth eclogue into 
quaintly absurb sapphics, and his hexameters 
are scarcely better ; but his protest against 
' this tinkerly verse which we call rhyme ' 
must not be judged by his attempts at com- 
position in classical metres. 

Warton mentions 'a small black-let- 
tered tract entitled " The Touchstone of 
Wittes," chiefly compiled, with some slender 
additions, from William Webbe's " Dis- 
course of English Poetry," written by Ed- 
ward Hake and printed at London by 
Edmund Bollifant ' (History of English 
Poetry, ed. 1870, p. 804) ; but no copy is 
known to be extant. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 12; notes anc 
prolegomena to Professor Arbor's reprint of th< 
Discourse, 1870 ; Morley's English Writers, ix 
84.] R.B. 

WEBBER, JOHN (1750P-1793), land 
scape-painter, was born in London aboir 
1750. His father, Abraham Weber, was i 
Swiss sculptor, who, at the age of twenty- 
four, settled in England, anglicised his name 
and married an Englishwoman named Maria 
Quandt. John, their eldest child, was sent 
when six years old to Berne to be brought 
up by a maiden aunt who resided there. At 
the age of thirteen he was placed witl 
J. L. Aberli, a Swiss artist of repute, bj 
whom he was instructed in both portraiture 
and landscape. Three years later he was 
enabled, with pecuniary assistance from the 
municipal authorities of Berne, to proceed 
to Paris to complete his training, and there 
he resided for five years, studying in the 
academy and under J. G. Wille. He then 
returned to his family in London, and was 
for a time employed by a builder in decorating 
the interiors of houses. In 1776 he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy a portrait of his 
brother, which attracted the notice of Dr 
Solander, and this led to his appointment as 
draughtsman to the third and last expeditior 
of Captain Cook to the South Seas. He 
returned in 1780, having witnessed th< 
death of Cook, and was then employed fo: 
some time by the Admiralty in making 
finished drawings from his sketches for th 
illustrations to the account of the expeditioi 
which was published in 1784^ These wer 
engraved by Woollett, Pouncy, and others 
Subsequently Webber painted many view 
of picturesque parts of England and Wales 
as well as of Switzerland and North Italj 
which he visited in 1787. Between 178 
and 1792 he published a series of sixtee 
views of places visited by him with Captai 
Cook, etched and coloured by himself. Fror 
1784 he was a regular exhibitor at th 
Royal Academy, of which he was electe 
an associate in 1785, and a full member i 
1791. His paintings were carefully finishec 
but weak in colour and drawing. Hi 
representation of the death of Captain Coo 
was engraved by Byrne and Bartolozzi, an 
his portrait of the explorer (now in th 
National Portrait Gallery), which he painte 
at the Cape of Good Hope, was also engrave 
by Bartolozzi. Webber died unmarried i 
Oxford Street, London, on 29 April 179? 
He bequeathed his Academy diploma to th 
public library at Berne, where also is . 
portrait of him painted by himself. Hi- 
brother, Henry Webber, practised as ! 
sculptor, but without distinction ; the monu- 

4 1784 ' insert ' (The originals are run 
B.M. Add. MSS. 15513-15514).' 



ment to Garrick in Westminster Abbey is 
his work. 

[Neujahrstiick der Kiinstlergesellschaft in 
Zurich, No. 17 (with portrait); Sandby's Hist. 
of the Royal Academy ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

1818), editor of plays and romances and 
literary assistant of Sir Walter Scott, is said 
to have been the son of a Westphalian who 
married an Englishwoman, and to have 
been born at St. Petersburg in 1783. He 
'escaped to this country in 1804 from mis- 
fortunes in his own,' and was sent down 
with his mother to Edinburgh ' by some of 
the London booksellers in a half-starved 
state.' Scott pitied their condition, em- 
ployed him from August 1804 as his 
amanuensis, and secured for him profitable 
work in literature. Weber was an excel- 
lent and affectionate creature,' but was im- 
bued with Jacobin principles, about which 
Scott used to taunt him. lie was ' afflicted 
with partial insanity,' especially under the 
influence of strong drinks, to which he was 
occasionally addicted (ScoiT, Journal, 1890, 
i. 149). Scott's family, with whom he often 
dined, liked his appearance and manners, 
and were pleased by his stores of knowledge 
and the reminiscences of a chequered career. 
After Christmas 1813 a fit of madness seized 
Weber at dusk, at the close of a day's work 
in the same room with his employer. He 
produced a pair of pistols, and challenged 
Scott to mortal combat. A parley ensued, 
and Weber dined with the Scotts; next day 
he was put under restraint. His friends, 
with some assistance from Scott, supported 
him, ' a hopeless lunatic,' in an asylum at 
York. There he died in June 1818.* 

Scott describes Weber as ' a man of very 
superior attainments, an excellent linguist 
and geographer, and a remarkable anti- 
quary.' He edited ' The Battle of Flodden 
Field: a Poem of the Sixteenth Century, 
with various Readings, Notes,' &c., 1808 ; 
Newcastle, 1819. Sixteen copies of the 
' Notes and Illustrations ' were struck off 
separately. Scott advised him in the pub- 
lication and supplied materials. 2. ' Metrical 
Romances of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
and Sixteenth Centuries, with Introduc- 
tion, Notes, and Glossary,' 1810, 3 vols. 
Described by Southey as ' admirably edited ' 
(Letters, ed. Warter, ii. 308). 3. 'Dramatic 
Works of John Ford, with Introduction 
and Explanatory Notes,' 1811, 2 vols. He 
was not skilled in old English literature, 
and did not collate the early editions of the 
plays. This work aroused a storm of angry 


comment (cf. FORD, Works, ed. Gifford, 
1827, vol. i. pp. li-clxxx ; Letter to William 
Gifford, by Octavius Gilchrist, 1811 ; Letter 
to J. P. Kemble [anon., by G. D. Whitting- 
ton], 1811 ; Letter to Richard Heber [anon., 
by Rev. John Mitford], 1812). 4. ' W^orks 
of Beaumont and Fletcher, with Introduc- 
tion and Explanatory Notes,' 1812, 14 vols.; 
acknowledged by Scott, whose own anno- 
tated edition supplied the most valuable 
notes, to have been ' carelessly done ; ' Dyce 
speaks of it as ' on the whole the best edi- 
tion of the dramatists which had yet ap- 
peared ' ( Works of Beaumont and Fletcher ; 
1843, vol. i. p. iii). 5. ' Tales of the East ; 
comprising the most Popular Romances of 
Oriental Origin and the best Imitations by 
European Authors,' 1812, 3 vols. ; the pre- 
face was borrowed from the ' Tartarian 
Tales ' of Thomas Flloyd of Dublin (Athe- 
nceum, 14 April 1894, p. 474). 6. ' Popular 
Romances, consisting of Imaginary Voyages 
and Travels,' 1812 (LowifDES, Bibl. Man. 
ed. Bohn, iv. 2862). 7. ' Genealogical His- 
tory of Earldom of Sutherland, by Sir Ro- 
bert Gordon [edited by Weber],' 1813. 
8. ' Illustrations of Northern Antiquities 
from the earlier Teutonic and Scandinavian 
Romances,' 1814; in this Weber was assisted 
by Dr. Jamieson and Scott ; it is a work ' of 
admirable learning, taste, and execution ' 
(RoscoE, German Novelists, iv. p. 6). 

[Gent. Mag. 1818, 5. 646 ; Nichols's Illustr. of 
Lit. Hist. vii. 213-18; Lockhart's Scott (1845 
ed.), pp. 117-18, 158-9, 202, 237, 251-2, 613; 
Byron's Poems, ed. 1898, i. 396; Scott's Journal, 
i. 149; Scott's Letters,]. 320, 387; Smiles's 
John Murray, i. 145, 172, 259; Pinkerton 
Corresp. ii. 406-7.] W. P. C. 

WEBER, OTTO (1832-1888), painter, 
son of Wilhelm Weber, a merchant of 
Berlin, was born in that city on 17 Oct. 
1832. He studied under Professor Steffeck, 
and was also much influenced by Eugen 
Kriiger. He became a very skilful painter 
of landscapes and animals, working both in 
oil and watercolours, and his pictures were 
much admired in Paris, where he resided 
for some years and was awarded medals at 
the Salon in 1864 and 1869. On the out- 
break of the Franco-German war in 1870, 
Weber left France, and, after a stay of two 
years in Rome, came to London, where he 
settled. He was a regular exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy from 1874 until his death. 
In 1876 he was elected an associate of the 
Old Watercolour ' Society, and he also 
became a member of the Institute of Painters 
in Oil Colours. He received many com- 
missions from the queen. His best work, 
' The First Snow on the Alp,' is now in the 




Melbourne Gallery. His 'Doughty and 
Carlisle ' (her majesty's pet dogs), ' Greedy 
Calves,' and ' A Sunny Day, Cookham,' have 
been engraved. Weber died in London, after 
a long illness, on 23 Dec. 1883. 

[Roget'sHist. of the ' Old Watercolour' Society; 
Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers (Arm- 
strong).] F. M. O'D. 


1784), Scots writer, was the son of James 
Webster, by his second wife, Agnes, daughter 
of Alexander Menzies of Culter in Lanark- 

The father, JAMES WEBSTER (1658 P-1720), 
minister, was born in 1658 or 1659, and 
studied at St. Andrews University, but, quar- 
relling with Archbishop Sharp, he had to 
leave the university before he took his M. A. 
degree. He joined the covenanters, and 
twice suffered imprisonment for his religious 
opinions. After the revolution he was ap- 
pointed presbyterian minister of Liberton 
(near Edinburgh) in 1688, was removed to 
AVhitekirk in 1691, and thence in 1693 to 
the collegiate church, Edinburgh, which he 
retained until his death on 18 May 1720 
(ScoiT, Fasti Eccles. Scot. i. 53, 116, 385). 

Alexander Webster was born at Edin- 
burgh in 1707, and was educated a.t the high 
school there. In 1733 he was licensed as a 
preacher by the presbytery of Haddington, 
and in the same year was appointed assis- 
tant and successor to Allan Logan, minister 
of Culross. On Logan's death in September 
1733 Webster assumed the full charge, and 
in June 1737 he was translated to the Tol- 
booth church, Edinburgh. Webster's 
favourite study had been mathematics, and 
he applied his knowledge in a philanthropic 
manner. In 1742 he laid before the general 
assembly a pi'oposal for providing annuities 
for the widows of clergymen, basing his 
plan upon actuarial calculations. To obtain 
information that would enable him to for- 
mulate his scheme, lie put himself in com- 
munication with all the presbyteries in 
Scotland ; and the tables of average lon- 
gevity drawn up by him were so accurate 
that they have since formed the basis for 
similar calculations made by modern life in- 
surance companies. Webster received in 
1744 the thanks of the general assembly for 
his labours. In August 1748 he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the Prince of Wales: 
and on 24 May 1753 he was elected mode- 
rator of the general assembly. Previous to 
1755 no census had been taken in Scotland, 
and the government, through Lord-president 
Dundas, commissioned Webster in that year 
to obtain figures as to the population. Sir 

Robert Sibbald [q. v.] had projected an enu- 
meration of this kind in 1682, but it had 
never been accomplished. The plan taken 
by Webster was to send a schedule of 
queries to every parish minister in Scotland, , 
and from the replies thus obtained he made 
up the first census of the kingdom in 1755. 
The manuscripts of this work are now in the 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. They were 
used by Sir John Sinclair [q. v.] when he 
made up his statistical account of Scotland 
at the close of last century ; and Sinclair 
adopted the system which Webster had 
devised. On 24 Nov. 1760 Webster obtained 
the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. In the following month he was 
one of a deputation sent by the general 
assembly to present an address to George III 
on his accession to the throne. He was 
appointed general collector of the ministers' 
widows' fund in June 1771, and in that 
year was made one of his majesty's chap- 
lains-in-ordinary for Scotland and a dean 
of the Chapel Royal. He died on 25 Jan. 
1784. In 1737 he married Mary, daughter 
of Colonel John Erskine of Alva, by whom 
he had six sons and a daughter ; his wife died 
on 28 Nov. 1766. 

Webster was a devoted adherent of the - 
house of Hanover. When Prince Charles 
Edward entered Edinburgh, Webster was 
almost the only minister who remained in 
the city ; and it is said that it was through 
his importunity that Colonel James Gardiner 
(1688-1 745) [q. v.] was induced to precipitate 
the encounter at Prestonpans, where Gardiner 
was slain. After Culloden had terminated the 
Jacobite rising, Webster preached a sermon 
in the Tolbooth church on 23 June 1746, in 
which he eulogised the conduct of the Duke 
of Cumberland. He is credited with the 
authorship of the song, { Oh, how could I 
venture to love one like thee ! ' which was 
first published in the ' Scots Magazine ' for 
1747 (ix. 589), and is often referred to as a 
model love-song. It is said that he sug- 
gested to Lord-provost George Drummond 
the plan for the construction of the new 
town of Edinburgh which has since been 
carried out. 

His portrait, painted by David Martin, was 
placed in the hall of the ministers' widows' 
fund office, and an engraved portrait was pub- 
lished in the ' Scots Magazine ' for 1802. 

His principal publications are: 1. 'Divine 
Influence the True Spring of the Extraordi- 
nary Work at Cambuslang,' 1742 (a defence 
of the revival that followed Whitefield's 
preaching) ; second edition with postscript, 
1742. 2. ' Vindication of the Postscript,' 1743. 
3. ' Calculations, with the Principles and 



Data on which they are instituted relative to 
the Widows' Scheme,' 1 748. 4. ' Zeal for the 
Civil and Religious Interests of Mankind 
commended,' 1754. 

[Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen, ed. 1872 iii. 
506; Scots Magazine, 1747 ix. 589, 1802 Ixiv. 
277,384,411; Scott's Fasti, i. 51, iv. 586 ; Cata- 
logue of Edinburgh Graduates, p. 242.] 

A. H. M. 

1894), poet, was born at Poole, Dorset, on 
30 Jan. 1837 (her full Christian names were 
Julia Augusta). Her father, Vice-admiral 
George Davies (1800-1876), attained great 
distinction for services in saving lives from 
shipwreck (O'BYKNE, Naval Biography, pp. 
266-7). Her mother, Julia (1803-1897), was 
the fourth daughter of Joseph Hume (1767- 
1843) of Somerset House, the intimate friend 
and associate of Lamb, Hazlitt, and God- 
win. Hume was of mixed English, Scottish, 
and French extraction, and claimed descent 
from the Humes of Polwarth. He was the 
author of a translation in blank verse of 
Dante's 'Inferno' (1812) and of 'A Search 
into the Old Testament' (1841). 

Augusta's earliest years were spent on 
board the Griper in Chichester Harbour 
and at various seaside places where her 
father, as lieutenant in the coastguard, held 
command. In 1842 he attained the rank 
of commander, and was appointed the next 
year to the Banff district. The family resided 
for six years in Banff Castle, and Augusta 
attended a school at Banff. After a short 
period spent at Penzance, Davies was ap- 
pointed in 1851 chief constable of Cam- 
bridgeshire, and settled with his family in 
Cambridge. In 1857 he was nominated also 
to the chief constableship of Huntingdon- 
shire. At Cambridge Augusta read widely, 
and attended classes at the Cambridge school 
of art. During a brief residence at Paris and 
Geneva she acquired a full knowledge of 
French. She studied Greek in order to help 
a young brother, and subsequently learned 
Italian and Spanish. 

In 1860 she published, under the name of 
Cecil Home, a volume entitled ' Blanche 
Lisle, and other Poems.' Under the same 
pseudonym appeared in 1864 ' Lilian Gray,' 
a poem, and ' Lesley's Guardians,' a novel 
in three volumes. 

In December 1863 Augusta Davies mar- 
ried Mr. Thomas Webster, then fellow, and 
afterwards law lecturer, of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. There was one child of the 
marriage, a daughter. In 1870 they left 
Cambridge for London, where Mr. Webster 
practised his profession. Meanwhile Mrs. 
Webster published in 1866 a literal trans- 

lation into English verse of ' The Pro- 
metheus Bound ' of ^Eschylus. This, and 
all her subsequent publications, appeared 
under her own name. She was not a Greek 
scholar, but her translations in 1868 ap- 
peared the ' Medea ' of Euripides obtained 
praise from scholars, and proved her a sym- 
pathetic student of Greek literature. Her 
views on translation may be found in two ex- 
cellent essays contributed to the 'Examiner,' 
entitled 'The Translation of Poetry' and 
' A Transcript and a Transcription ' (cf. A 
Houseirife's Opinions, pp. 61-79). The latter 
is a review of Browning's 'Agamemnon.' 
Mrs. Webster's first important volume of 
original verse, ' Dramatic Studies,' was pub- 
lished in 1866. It contains 'The Snow- 
waste,' one of her best poems. In 1870 
appeared ' Portraits,' Mrs. Webster's most 
striking work in verse apart from her 
dramas. It reached a second edition in the 
year of publication, and a third in 1893. A 
remarkable poem, ' The Castaway,' won the 
admiration of Browning, and deserves a place 
by the side of Rossetti's ' Jenny.' Her first 
effort in the poetic drama was ' The Auspi- 
cious Day,' published in 1872. It is a ro- 
mance of mediaeval English life of small 
interest. ' Disguises,' written in 1879, is a 
play of great charm, containing beautiful 

Mrs. Webster took as keen an interest hi 
the practical affairs of life as in literature. 
In 1878 appeared ' A Housewife's Opinions,' 
a volume of essays on various social subjects, 
reprinted from the ' Examiner.' She served 
twice on the London school board. In No- 
vember 1879 she was returned for the Chelsea 
division at the head of the poll, with 3,912 
votes above the second successful candidate ; 
she owed her success to her gift of speech. 
She threw herself heart and soul into the 
work. Mrs Webster was a working rather 
than a talking member of the board. She 
was anxious to popularise education by bring- 
ing old endowments into closer contact with 
elementary schools, and she anticipated the 
demand that, as education is a national neces- 
sity, it should also be a national charge. She 
advocated the introduction of technical (i.e. 
manual) instruction into elementary schools. 
Her leanings were frankly democratic, but 
in the heat of controversy her personality 
rendered her attractive even to her most 
vigorous opponents. In consequence of ill- 
health, which obliged her to seek rest in the 
south of Europe, she did not offer herself for 
re-election in 1882. 

During earlier visits to Italy Mrs. Web- 
ster had been attracted by the Italian peasant 
songs known as ' rispetti,' and in 1881 pub- 





lished ' A Book of Rhyme,' containing rural 
poems called ' English rispetti.' She was the 
first to introduce the form into English poetry. 
In 1882 she published another drama, 'In a 
Day,' the only one of her plays that was 
acted. It was produced at a matinee at Terry's 
Theatre, London, in 1890, when her daughter, 
Miss Davies Webster, played the heroine, 
Klydone. It had a succes cFestime. In 1885 
she was again returned member of the school 
board for Chelsea. She conducted her can- 
didature without a committee or any orga- 
nised canvassing. 

'The Sentence,' a three-act tragedy, in 
many ways Mrs. Webster's chief work, ap- 
peared in 1887. The episode of which the 
play treats illustrates Caligula's revengeful 
spirit (cf. ROSSETTI'S introductory note to 
MKS. WEBSTER'S Mother and Daughter, pp. 
12-14). It was mucli admired by Christina 
Rossetti (cf. MACKENZIE BELL'S Christina 
Rossetti, -$. 161). A volume of selections 
from Mrs. Webster's poems (containing some 
originally contributed to magazines), pub- 
lished in 1893, was well received. She died 
at Kew on 5 Sept. 1894. In 1895 appeared 
'Mother and Daughter,' an uncompleted 
sonnet-sequence, with an introductory note 
by Mr. William Michael Rossetti. 

A half-length portrait in crayons by Cane- 
vari, drawn at Rome in January 1864, is 
in the possession of Mr. Webster. 

Mrs. Webster's verse entitles her to a high 
place among English poets. She used with 
success the form of the dramatic monologue. 
She often sacrificed beauty to strength, but 
she possessed much metrical skill and an ear 
for melody. Some of her lyrics deserve a 
place in every anthology of modern English 
poetry. Many of her poems treat entirely or 
incidentally of questions specially affecting 
women. She was a warm advocate of woman's 
suffrage her essays in the 'Examiner' on 
the subject were reprinted as leaflets by the 
Women's Suffrage Society (cf. MACKENZIE 
BELL'S Life of Christina Rossetti, p. Ill) 
and she sympathised with all move- 
ments in favour of a better education for 

Works by Augusta Webster, not men- 
tioned in the text, are : 1. ' A Woman Sold, 
and other Poems,' 1867- 2. ' Yu-Pe-Ya's 
Lute : a Chinese Talie in English Verse,' 
1874. 3. ' Daffodil and the Croaxaxicans : a 
Romance of History,' 1884. A selection 
from her poems is given in Miles's ' Poets 
and Poetry of the Century' (Joanna Baillie 
to Mathilde Blind, p. 499). 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. vol. iii. and 
Suppl. vol. ii. ; Athenaeum, 15 Sept. 1894; pri- 
vate information.] E. L. 

HAM (1797-1882), actor and dramatist, was 
born in Bath on 3 Sept. 1797. His father, 
who came from Sheffield, and through whom 
Webster claimed descent from Sir George 
Buc or Buck [q. v.], was at one time a 
musical ' composer' and a pantomimist ; he 
married Elizabeth Moon of Leeds, joined the 
army, served in the West Indies, was en- 
gaged in Bath in organising volunteer forces, 
and settled there as a dancing and fencing 
master. A brother Frederick (</. 1878) be- 
came stage manager of the Haymarket 

After receiving some education at Dr. 
Barber's military academy, ' Ben ' Webster 
threw up the chances of a promised com- 
mission as midshipman from the Duchess of 
York. Upon his mother's death he made his fi rst 
appearance on the stage as a dancer, assisted 
his father in his occupations, ran away from 
home, and obtained from the younger Watson 
of Warwick an engagement at twenty-five 
shillings a week to play Harlequin, small 
speaking parts, and second violin in the 
orchestra. As Thessalus in ' Alexander the 
Great ' he made on 3 Sept. 1818 his first appear- 
ance at Warwick, play ing also at Lichfield and 
Walsall races. Joining in a sharing scheme 
a manager called ' Irish ' Wilson, who fitted 
up a barn at Bromsgrove, Webster (an- 
nounced, with no apparent claim, as from the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin) doubled the parts 
ol Sir Charles Cropland and Stephen Har- 
rowby in the ' Poor Gentleman,' danced a 
hornpipe, and played in his own dress, and 
with a head chalked to look like grey hair, 
Plainway in ' Raising the Wind.' He then 
went as Harlequin to the Theatre Royal, 
Belfast, under Montague Talbot [q. v.], acted 
in Londonderry and Limerick, and joined the 
Dublin company to play with it in Cork as 

After appearing in Manchester and Liver- 
pool he came to London, and played on 
11 May 1819 a smuggler in the opening en- 
tertainment of the Coburg Theatre. Ac- 
cording to a speech he made at a complimen- 
tary dinner given to him at the Freemasons' 
Tavern on 24 Feb. 1864, he had at this time 
married a widow with a family of children. 
Webster became ballet-master and walking 
gentleman at Richmond, then leader of the 
band at Croydon, which led to his engage- 
ment as dancer and walking gentleman under 
Beverley at the Regency Theatre in Totten- 
ham Street, called many names before it 
became the Prince of Wales's. At the Eng- 
lish Opera House (the Lyceum), where he 
played a part in 'Captain Cook,' he was Ray- 
mond in ' Raymond and Agnes' and Seyward 




in the ' Hypocrite.' Accepting from Elliston 
an engagement at Drury Lane, he appeared 
on 28 Nov. 1820 as Almagro in ' Pizarro,' and 
at Christmas played Pantaloon. At the end 
of the season of 1821-2 he joined Bunn's 
company at Birmingham, where he was seen 
in low-comedy parts, then acted at Sheffield, 
Newcastle, and Chester. Returning to 
Birmingham, he was re-engaged by Elliston 
for the Drury Lane season of 1823, an 
action which Elliston had brought against 
him for previous loss of service having been 
compromised. On a revival of ' Measure for 
Measure ' on 1 May 1824, Harley, who played 
Pompey, being taken ill, Webster took the 
part. In this year he was the first Tudi- 
tanus in Knowles's ' Caius Gracchus,' and in 
1825 the first Erni in the ' William Tell ' of 
the same author. In spite of obtaining some 
recognition, he was kept back. Remon- 
strating with Elliston, he was given on the 
third night of performance the part of Sadak, 
originally played on 27 March 1826 by Fitz- 
william in an anonymous adaptation of 
' Oberon,' and played a few other parts re- 
fused by Harley. On 4 Jan. 1827 he was 
the original Malise in the ' Lady of the Lake ; ' 
on 16 April the original Domingo, a negro, 
in Macfarren's ' Gil Bias and the Robbers of 
Asturias ; ' on 29 Nov. the original Spalatro 
in ' Isidore di Merida, or the Devil's Creek ; ' 
on 1 Dec. the original Peter in Howard 
Payne's ' Lancers ; ' on 18 Feb. 1828 the first 
Cyrus in ' Don Juan's Early Days,' and on 
7 April the first Sturmwald in Thompson's 
' Dumb Savoyard and his Monkey.' He was 
also seen as Sharpset in the ' Slave ' and in 
other slightly better parts. 

On 15 June 1829, as Webster from Drury 
Lane, he made at the Haymarket his first ap- 
pearance, playing Trusty, an original part, in 
Poole's ' Lodgings for Single Gentlemen.' 
Here he was assigned leading comic business: 
Dr. Pangloss in the ' Heir at Law,' Risk in 
' Love Laughs at Locksmiths,' Spatterdash in 
the ' Young Quaker,' Mungo in the ' Padlock,' 
Farmer Ashfield in ' Speed the Plough,' 
Lingo in the ' Agreeable Surprise,' Ramilie 
in the ' Miser,' Dougal in ' Rob Roy,' Trap- 
panti in ' She would and she would not,' 
Wormwood in the ' Lottery Ticket,' and 
Sir Philip Modelove in 'A Bold Stroke 
for a Wife.' Back at Drury Lane, he was the 
original Kastro in the ' Greek Family ' on 
22 Oct. 1829, and the original John Thomas in 
Buckstone's ' Snakes in the Grass ; ' played 
other unimportant original parts, was seen 
as Justice Greedy in ' A New Way to pay 
Old Debts,' and Old Gobbo in the ' Merchant 
of Venice ; ' was the first Sam in Haynes 
Bayly's ' Perfection ' on 25 March 1830, and 

on 1 May the original Herr Stetten in 
' Hofer, the Tell of the Tyrol.' He was seen 
in some other parts, and for his benefit 
(shared with Paul Bedford and Mrs. W. 
Barrymore) was Jock Robinson in the ' Cata- 
ract of the Ganges.' The Haymarket in 
1830 saw him as Roderigo, Launcelot 
Gobbo, Oswald in ' King Lear,' Robin Rough- 
head in ' Fortune's Frolic,' Jessamy in ' Bon 
Ton,' L'Eclair in the ' Foundling of the 
Forest,' Jocoso in ' Clari,' Sir Harry's ser- 
vant in ' High Life below Stairs,' Buskin in 
' Killing no Murder,' Dandie Dinmont, Mar- 
quis in the ' Cabinet,' Trudge in ' Inkle and 
Yarico,' and in a few original parts Pop- 

Jonoff in ' Separation and Reparation ' on 
July, Barney O'Cag in 'Honest Frauds' 
on 28 July, and Roughhead in Caroline 
Boaden's ' First of April ' on 31 Aug. The 
' Dramatic Magazine ' (1829-30) speaks of 
him at this time as an eminently useful actor, 
and asks what the Haymarket would do 
without him. In 1832 he was with Madame 
Vestris at the Olympic, where he played in 
Dance's ' .Kill or Cure,' and in an adaptation 
by himself of ' L'Homme de soixante Ans,' 
in which he took the part created by Gabriel 
Charles Potier. At the Haymarket he was 
on 17 July 1833 the original Father Olive in 
Jerrold's ' Housekeeper ;' played the following 
October in Buckstone's farce ' Uncle John,' 
then first produced ; and was on 2 Jan. 1834 
at Drury Lane the original Creamly in 
Jerrold's ' Wedding Gown.' At the same 
house he played Bardolph in a revival of 
the second part of ' King Henry IV ; ' in 

1834 had an original part in Jerrold's ' Beau 
Nash ; ' and was the original Samuel Coddle 
in Buckstone's 4 Married Life.' On 21 April 

1835 he was at Co vent Garden the first 
Sharkshead in Fitzball's ' Carlinilhan.' Again 
at the Haymarket he was the original Serjeant 
Austerlitz in Mrs. C. Gore's ' Maid of Croissey.' 
Among very many original parts which he 
played at the Haymarket, of which house 
he became lessee in 1837, were Frederick II 
in Tyrone Power's ' St. Patrick's Eve,' Mr. 
Docker in Buckstone's ' Weak Points,' Major 
Hans Mansfeldt in Lover's ' White Horse of 
the Peppers,' Gibolette in Buckstone's ' Les- 
son for Ladies,' Wallop in Thomas Haynes 
Bayly's 'Mr. Greenfinch,' John Niggle in 
Buckstone's ' Single Life,' Wildrake in 
Knowles's ' Love Chase,' and Joseph in 
Knowles's ' Maid of Mariendorpt,' Lionel 
Varley in Bayle Bernard's 'Boarding School,' 
Baron Ravenspurg in Bernard's ' Woman 
Hater,' Graves in Bulwer's ' Money,' Harry 
Lawless in Boucicault's ' Love by Proxy,' 
Pliant in Boucicault's ' Alma Mater,' Bob 
Lincoln in Mark Lemon's ' Grandfather 



Whitehead/ William Shakespeare Dibbs in 
Boucicault's ' Curiosities of Literature,' Non- 
pareil in Peake's ' Sheriff of the County/ 
Cymon Foxhall in R. Sulivan's 'Beggar on 
Horseback,' Nathan Thompson in Westland 
Marston's ' Borough Politics,' Napoleon in 
the ' Pretty Girls of Stilberg,' and Mark 
Meddle in ' London Assurance.' 

Webster's own farce, ' My Young Wife and 
Old Umbrella ' (' Ma Femme et mon Para- 
pluie,' by Laurencin), was given at the Hay- 
market on 23 June 1837, with Webster as 
Augustus Tomkins ; his ' Swiss Swain,' in 
which he played Swig, on 6 Oct. 1837 ; the 
' Village Doctor,' with himself as Baron de 
la Fadaise, on 24 July 1839. He was Hobbs 
in his own ' Hobbs, Dobbs, and Stubbs, or 
the Three Grocers/ 31 March 1840 ; the Mar- 
quis d'Arblay in his ' Caught in his own 
Trap/ 25 Nov. 1843 ; and Ally Croaker in 
his ' Miseries of Human Life/ 27 Nov. 1845. 
He also translated for the Haymarket in 
1846 'Le Part du Diable ' (the 'Black 
Domino '), 10 June 1846, but did not appear 
in it. He played Verges, Moses, Bob Acres, 
Sir Hugh Evans, Scrub, Trappanti, Tony 
Lumpkin, Don Vincentio in * A Bold Stroke 
for a Husband/ and First Witch in ' Mac- 
beth.' At Covent Garden in the meantime 
he had been seen as Sparrow in Dance's 
' Country Squire/ Tassel in Fitzball's ' Walter 
Tyrrel/ and Marquis de Montespan in Bul- 
ger's 'Duchesse de la Valliere.' His first 
appearance at the Adelphi was made in a 
piece called ' Yellow Kids.' 

After 1844 he divided his time between 
the Adelphi, of which he became manager, 
and the Haymarket. Among the pieces he 
had produced at the Haymarket were Bul- 
wer's 'Sea Captain/ Talfourd's 'Glencoe/ 
and the ' Bridal/ an adaptation of the ' Maid's 
Tragedy.' To the Adelphi, in conjunction 
with Dion ' Bourficault ' (sic), he gave ' Fox 
and Goose/ 2 Oct. 1844, in which he did not 
play ; and ' Caesar de Bazan/ 14 Oct. 1844, 
in which he was Don Caesar. He had pre- 
viously, June 1843, played at the Haymarket 
for the first time with his constant associate, 
Madame Celeste [q.v.], in an adaptation en- 
titled ' Louison/ and on 1 Nov. was Victor 
to her Hortense in a vaudeville called ' Victor 
and Hortense.' This year (1843) he offered 
a prize of 500/. for the best English comedy. 
This was awarded by the judges (including 
Charles Young, Charles Kernble, G. P. R. 
James, and Alexander Dyce) to ' Quid pro 
Quo, or the Day of Dupes/ by Mrs. Gore, 
which was produced at the Haymarket on 
18 June 1844, and was received with uproar 
and ridicule. ' Old Heads and Young Hearts/ 
by Boucicault, was given on 16 Nov. 1844, 

with Webster as Tom Coke, a good-hearted 
country gentleman, apart in which he showed 
much pathos. Webster next produced 
Jerrold's ' Time works Wonders/ in which, 
after the death of Strickland, the original 
exponent, he played Professor Truffles. On 
the secession of Charles Mathews, Webster 
played Sir Charles Coldstream in ' Used 
| Up.' On 6 Jan. 1846 he made a great hit 
: as John Peerybingle in his own adaptation 
j of the ' Cricket on the Hearth.' Still at the 
Haymarket, he was Clown in 'Twelfth 
j Night ; ' played the Laird of Killiecrankie, a 
duellist, in ' Queen Mary's Bower/ Planche's 
| adaptation of ' Les Mousquetaires de la 
Reine ; ' Jack Spriggs in Lovell's ' Look before 
I You Leap ; ' and Reuben Gwynne in the 
; ' Round of Wrong.' In 1847 he was the first 
j Job Sykes, M.P., in Boucicault's ' School for 
| Scheming/ and Hope Emerson in Robert 
Bell's ' Temper.' On 15 Nov. he played 
Stanislas de Fonblanche in his own ' Roused 
Lion ' (' Le Reveil du Lion '). In perfor- 
| mances at Covent Garden for the purchase 
| of Shakespeare's house, he was Petruchio. 
! He played Jabez Sneed in a revival of the 
i < Wife's Secret; ' was, 6 April 1848, Michael 
Bradshaw in Morton's ' Old Honesty/ and 
Lavater in ' Lavater the Physiognomist.' 
In his address at the close of the season of 
1848 he declared that in eighteen months at 
the Haymarket he had lost 8,000^. During 
the next two years he was the first Giles 
Fairland in the ' Queensberry Fete/ played 
Malvolio, Modus, Gratiano, Bullfrog in 
! Jerrold's ' Rent Day/ and produced his own 
; 'Bird of Passage/ a rendering of Bayard's 
| ' Oiseau de Passage.' In Morris Barnett's 
I ' Serious Family '(' Le Mari a la Campagne ') 
he was the original Charles Torrens, was the 
first Coolcard in Jerrold's ' Catspaw/ and 
Captain Gunn in Jerrold's ' Retired from 
Business.' In a version of ' Tartuffe ' by 
Oxenford he played Tartuft'e, and gave at 
the Adelphi his own 'Belphegor'(' Paillasse') 
January 1851. In April 1852 was the first 
Verdun in Mark Lemon's ' Mind your own 
Business.' On 20 Nov. he was seen for the 
first time in what was perhaps his greatest 
part, Triplet in 'Masks and Faces/ by 
Taylor and Reade ; and in a revival of 
Bulwer's ' Not so bad as we seem/ was Sir 
Geoffrey Thornside. On 14 March 1853, 
with a performance of the ' Roused Lion/ 
' A Novel Expedient/ and the ' Pretty Girls 
of Stilberg/ his management of the Hay- 
market closed. He had kept the house open 
sixteen years, paid 60,000/. for rent, 30,000/. 
to actors, and had employed the best actors 
of his time, the Keans, the Mathewses, the 
Keeleys, Mrs. Warren, Mrs. Glover, Mrs. 



Nisbett, Charlotte Cushman, Helen Faucit 
and many others. A presentation was made 
him by the company. 

On Easter Monday 1853 he began a new 
management of the Adelphi with Lemon's 
farce, ' Mr. Web'ster at Home.' He gave 
on 8 June Boucicault's ' Genevieve,' in which 
he played Lorin; produced on 10 Oct. his 
own ' Discarded Son,' and was Falstaff in a 
revival of the ' Merry Wives of Windsor.' 
On 20 March 1854 he was the first Father 
Kadcliffe in Taylor and Reade's 'Two Loves 
and a Life ; ' played two parts, Diogenes and 
Ferdinand Volage, in the ' Marble Heart/ 
Selby's adaptation of ' Les Filles de Marbre,' 
31 May ; was Richard Pride in Boucicault's 
'Janet Pride,' 5 Feb. 1855 ; and on 20 June 
first Lorentz Hartmann in Taylor's ' Help- 
ing Hand.' On 5 Feb. 1856 he was Cobbs 
in 'Boots at the Holly Tree Inn,' in 1857 
the first Joseph Chavigny in Watts Phillips's 
play so named, on 16 Nov. Carl Blitzen in 
the ' Headless Man,' and on 22 May 1858 
Horatio Sparkins in Morton's ' French Lady's 

In the new Adelphi theatre, erected on 
the site of the old, Webster was, on 6 Aug. 
1859, the original Penn Holder, one of his 
greatest parts, in his own adaptation, ' One 
Touch of Nature.' On 10 Nov. 1859 he was 
the original Robert Landry in Watts Phil- 
lips's ' Dead Heart.' On 29 Aug. 1864 he 
produced at the Adelphi his own adaptation, 
1 A Woman of Business.' On 30 Nov. he 
was first Van Gratz in the ' Workmen of 
Paris' ('Les Drames dti Cabaret'). In 'No 
Thoroughfare,' adapted by Wilkie Collins, 
Webster was the first Joey Ladle on 28 Dec. 
1867. In ' Monte Cristo,' which was damned 
in October 1868, he played Noirtier. On 
31 May 1869 he was the first Hugh Wollas- 
ton in ' Eve,' an adaptation by his son, B. Web- 
ster, jun., of Augier's ' Gabrielle.' On 1 Nov. 
he opened as lessee the Princess's, which he 
had long owned, reviving the ' Willow Copse,' 
in which he played his old part of Luke 
Fielding. In Byron's ' Prompter's Box,' on 
23 March 1870, he was the first Frank Bris- 
tow, and in April 1873 the first Rodin the 
Jesuit in the ' Wandering Jew,' adapted by 
Leopold Lewis. This appears to have been 
his last original part. In February 1874 he 
retired from the stage, and on 2 May his 
farewell benefit took place at Drury Lane. 
The 'School for Scandal' was given. Mrs. 
Keeley recited an address by Oxenford, and 
Webster, who did not act, made a speech ; 
over 2,000/. was raised. On 1 Aug. he re- 
peated at the Princess's Richard Pride in 
' Janet Pride.' He played Snake for Buck- 
stone's benefit at Drury Lane on 8 June 

1875. The previous day he had spoken at 
the Theatrical Fund dinner at the Free- 
masons' Tavern. His last appearance was at 
the Crystal Palace on 2 Nov. 1875 as Wil- 
liam Penn Holder. He died on 3 July 1882 
at his residence, Churchside, Kennington. 

Webster left two sons, Ben and John, 
who were connected with the stage. Ben 
Webster, the younger, wrote for the Adelphi 
' Behind Time,' a farce in one act, on 26 Dec. 
1865 ; and seven other farces or adaptations 
from the French came from his pen between 
that date and 1873. John Webster played 
about 1837 and 1838 at Covent Garden, the 
Haymarket, St. James's, and the Adelphi. 
A daughter married Sir Edward Lawson, 
bart., proprietor and editor of the 'Daily 
Telegraph.' Benjamin Webster, a grandson, 
is at present on the London stage. 

In his line as a character actor Webster 
stood foremost in his day, and has not since 
known a superior. He kept his energy, phy- 
sical and intellectual, almost to the last, and 
his latest creations count among his best. 
His greatest characters were Richard Pride, 
Robert Landry, Lavater, William Penn 
Holder, Lorentz Hartmann, Jabez Sneed, 
Triplet, Graves, Belphegor, Tartuffe, Rodin in 
the ' Wandering Jew,' and Joey Ladle. He 
was happiest in characters in which serious 
purpose, puritanical fervour, and grim re- 
solution were shown, and had not indeed 
more comedy than would serve like light 
points in a picture to indicate the gloom. 
He was a spirited manager so far as regards 
the engagement of good actors, but was 
behind the times, backward as those were, 
in respect of stage mounting and the em- 
ployment of supernumeraries. To this day 
the term Adelphi guests is used as a byword. 
Webster is responsible for about a hun- 
dred plays, the names of many of which can- 
not now be traced. Several are in part based 
on French originals. In addition to those 
named are ' High Ways and By Ways,' a 
farce in two acts (Cumberland's 'British 
Drama ') ; ' Paul Clifford,' a drama in three 
acts, and 'The Golden Farmer,' a drama 
n two acts (both in Cumberland's ' Minor 
Theatre'); 'The Old Gentleman,' a comedy 
in one act (Duncombe's 'British Theatre'); 
The Modern Orpheus,' a farce in one act ; 
The Village Doctor,' a drama in two acts ; 
Peter and Paul,' a comic drama in two acts ; 
Caught in a Trap,' a comedietta in two 
acts ; ' The Thimble Rig,' a farce in one act ; 
The Wonderful Water Cure,' extravaganza 
n one act ; ' Mrs. Sarah Gamp's Tea and 
Turn Out,' a Bozzian sketch in one act. 
These are all in Webster's ' Acting National 
Drama.' His name also appears to 'The 


1 20 


Series of Dramatic Entertainments performed 
by royal command at Windsor Castle, 1848- 
1849' (London, 4to),in which he took part. 

A portrait in oils of Webster is in the 
Garrick Club. A likeness, engraved by J. 
Onwhyn, accompanies a memoir prefixed to 
the sixth volume of his 'Acting National 
Drama.' Many photographs are in existence, 
in character alone, or in company with Mrs. 
Stirling and others. A large photograph of 
him as Robert Landry in Watts Phillips's 
Dead Heart' (1859), and a coloured engrav- 
ing of him in the ' Roused Lion,' as well as 
an oil painting, are in the possession of his 

[Personal knowledge ; manuscript Autobio- 
graphy lent by Webster's grandson ; Memoir 
contributed by himself to his Acting National 
Drama, vol. iv. [on title vere vol. vi.] ; Thea- 
trical Times ; Men of the Time ; Men of the 
Eeign ; Tallis's Dramatic Mag. ; The Players, 
1882; Pascoe's Dramatic List ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Dramatical and Musical 
Keview, 1842-9 ; Er.i newspaper, 15 July 1882 ; 
Pollock's Macready; Morley's Journal of a Lon- 
don Playgoer; Dutton Cook's Nights at the 
Play; Scott and Howard's Blanchard; Sunday 
Times ; Era Almanack.] J. K. 

WEBSTER, JOHN (1580?-! 625?), dra- 
matist, born about 1580, was the son of a 
London tailor. The father may be identical 
either with John Webster who was admitted 
to the freedom of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company on 10 Dec. 1571, or with John 
Webster who attained to the like position 
on 20 Jan. 1576. The dramatist seems to 
have been apprenticed to his father's trade, 
and nominally at any rate followed it. He 
was a freeman of the company in 1603-4, 
when he was assessed in the payment of 
ten shillings toward ' the charges of the 
pageants entended against the king's coro- 
nation' (CLODE, Memorials of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, 1875, p. 596). But Web- 
ster's interest lay elsewhere than in tailoring, 
and early in life he identified himself with 
the profession of letters. 

Before 1602 Webster had made the ac- 
quaintance of the chief members of the band 
of dramatists who were in the service of the 
theatrical manager Philip Henslowe, and in 
that year he joined his literary friends in 
preparing at least four pieces for the stage. 
Four or more pens were employed on each, 
and Webster's share must have been small. 
On 22 May 1602 ' Caesar's Fall' Avas accepted 
by Henslowe from the joint pens of Webster, 
Drayton, Middleton, Munday, and 'the rest.' 
The syndicate was possibly ambitious of 
measuring swords with Shakespeare, whose 
' Julius Caesar ' had been successfully pro- 

duced a year before. A week later Dekker 
joined the same four partners in producing 
a piece called by Henslowe ' Two Harpes.' 
Twice in the ensuing October (15 and 21) 
| there was performed a play named ' Lady 
1 Jane,' in the composition of which Chettle, 
'[ Dekker, Hey wood, and Wentworth Smith 
were associated with Webster. ' Lady Jane' 
seems to have been revived, under the new 
name of ' The Overthrow of Rebels,' on 6 and 
; 1 2 Nov. following. Thrice in the same month 
I (on 2, 23, and 26 Nov.) there was also acted 
a piece called ' Christmas comes but once a 
year,' in preparing which Chettle, Dekker, 
I and Hey wood again combined with Webster. 
Of these four plays only parts of one ' Lady 
Jane ' survive. There can be little doubt 
that Dekker's and Webster's contributions 
to ' Lady Jane ' appeared in print in 1607 in 
! the play assigned .to them jointly under the 
[ title of ' The Famous History of Sir Thomas 
i Wyat, with the Coronation of Queen Mary 
and the coming in of Philip.' ' Lady Jane/ 
when first produced in 1602, was acted 
at the Rose Theatre by the Earl of Worcester's 
company of players, w T ho were taken into 
Queen Anne's service in 1603, and were 
known thenceforth as ' the queen's servants.' 
The title-page of ' Sir Thomas Wyat ' de- 
clared that that piece was ' played by the 
queen's servants.' The play, which is in 
blank verse, lacks striking features, but the 
text is so corrupt that it is difficult to judge 
its merits fairly. 

Webster maintained through life very 
friendly relations with those engaged, like 
: himself, in writing for the stage, but after 
the first year of his dramatic career he gra- 
! dually abandoned the practice of writing in 
co-operation with others. With 'his kind 
friend ' Munday professional relations ap- 
parently ceased when he contributed com- 
mendatory verses to Munday 's ' Palmerin of 
England,' a poor translation from the French 
(1602). In 1604 Webster was employed by 
the king's company to make additions to 
'The Malcontent,' a play by John Marston, 
a writer of far greater power than most of 
those with whom he had worked before. At 
the same time he prefixed to ' The Malcon- 
tent ' a prose ' induction,' in which the actors 
were introduced under their own names in 
debate about the merits of the piece. Web- 
ster's contributions were printed in the se- 
cond edition of the play, which bore the title : 
' The Malcontent. Augmented by Marston. 
With the Additions played by the Kings 
Maiesties servants. Written by Jhon Web- 
ster' (1604). This was the sole production 
in which Webster seems to have been asso- 
ciated with Marston, and it is probable that 




he undertook the additions to ' The Malcon- 
tent ' at the request of the theatrical manager 
rather than of the writer of the play. With 
Thomas Heywood he was in closer personal 
intercourse, though they did not write to- 
gether for the stage after 1602. In 1612 
Webster joined Heywood and Cyril Tour- 
neur in compiling the volume entitled ' Three 
Elegies to the Memory of Prince Henry.' 
Webster was author of the second poein 
which was entitled ' A Monumental Column/ 
and was dedicated to Robert Carr, viscount 
Rochester ; there is a rare separate issue 
in the British Museum. It was a formal 
elegy, but it includes a fine compliment to 
the poet and dramatist George Chapman, 
whom Webster calls the prince's ' sweet 
Homer and my friend.' Webster also wrote 
prefatory verses for Hey wood's ' Apology for 
Actors' (1612), and there addressed Hey- 
wood as ' his beloved friend.' 

It was only with Dekker that Webster 
formed, as a dramatist, any enduring literary 
alliance. W T ith Dekker he wrote verses for 
the splendidly illustrated volume Stephen 
Harrison's 'Arches of Triumph ' which cele- 
brated James I's formal entry into the city 
of London in 1604. But the most important 
fruits of Webster's alliance with Dekker are 
the two bustling and unrefined domestic 
comedies in prose, ' Westward Hoe ' and 
' Northward Hoe.' There seems reason for 
believing that the first piece was begun by 
Webster in the summer of 1603, and that 
after he had completed the first three acts, 
the remaining two were added at the end of 
the next year by Dekker, with some aid 
from Webster. The piece was acted by the 
children of St. Paul's just before Christmas 
1604. Webster was also the larger con- 
tributor to ' Northward Hoe,' which was 
first produced, again by the children of St. 
Paul's, about February 1605. An allusion 
in act ii. sc. ii. to the fact that four years 
had passed since the Islands' Voyage of 1597 
has been held to point to 1601 as the date 
of the first draft of the play (Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. xi. 318), but the dates are 
stated loosely. Both ' Westward Hoe ' and 
' Northward Hoe ' were published in separate 
quartos in 1607. 

Webster's genius did not find full expres- 
sion until he wholly freed himself from the 
trammels of partnership with men of powers 
inferior to his own. At an unascertained 
date between 1607 and 1612 he for the first 
time wrote a play shiglehanded, and there 
evinced such command of tragic art and in- 
tensity as Shakespeare alone among English- 
men has surpassed. The new piece was first 
published in 1612, under the title of 'The 

White Divel, or the Tragedy of Paulo Gior- 
dano Ursini, Duke of Brachiano, with the 
Life and Death of Vittoria Corombona, the 
famous Venetian Curtizan. Acted by the 
Queene's Maiesties Servants,' London, 1612, 
4to. In an address ' to the reader ' Webster 
declared that the piece ' was acted in so dull 
a time of winter, presented in so open and 
black a theatre that it wanted a full and un- 
derstanding auditory.' It was produced by 
the queen's company, possibly at the Curtain, 
in the cold winter of 1607-8, with the great 
actor Burbage in the part of Brachiano. ' The 
White Devil ' was subsequently (after 1625) 
performed by Queen Henrietta's servants at 
the Phoenix Theatre in Drury Lane, and the 
fact was noted on the title-page of a new 
edition in 1631. The ' White Devil ' re- 
sembles in many points the ' Revenger's 
Tragedie ' of Cyril Tourneur [q. v.], which 
was published in 1607, and was doubtless 
written first. The plot, drawn from an 
Italian source, is compounded of a series of 
revolting crimes, but the piece holds the 
reader spellbound by the stirring intensity 
with which the dramatist develops the 
story. Rarely in tragedy has pity been more 
poignantly excited than by the sorrows of 
the high-spirited heroine Vittoria (cf. SY- 
MONDS, Renaissance, i. 381 seq. ; STENDHAL, 
Chroniques et Nouvelles, Paris, 1855). It is 
doubtful if the piece were justly valued in 
Webster's own day. Only one panegyric 
has been met with. In 1651 Samuel Shep- 
pard declared in his ' Epigrams ' that the 
chief characters in the ' White Devil ' should 
be ' gazed at as comets by posteritie.' There 
were later editions, in 1665 and 1672 respec- 
tively. The piece was revived by Betterton 
at the Theatre Royal in 1682, and Nahum 
Tate published in 1707 an adaptation under 
the title of ' Injured Love,' but this was not 

Webster followed up his success in the 
' White Devil ' with ' Appius and Virginia : 
a Tragedy,' a less notable piece, although 
it possessed substantial merit. The story, 
which belongs to Roman history, was drawn 
by Webster from Paynter's ' Palace of Plea- 
sure,' whither it found its way from Ser 
Giovanni's ' II Pecorone.' The dramatist 
invested the romance with much simple 
pathos, and the lucidity of the plot favour- 
ably contrasts with the obscurity that charac- 
terised Webster's more ambitious work in 
tragedy. Mr. Meay doubtfully detects an 
allusion at the end of ; Appius ' to Hey wood's 
play of ' Lucreece,' which was published in 
1608. This is the only ground suggested 
for assigning the composition to 1609. But 
it seems to have been acted by Queen Anne's 




company of players before 1619, and to have 
passed with the 'White Devil' to Queen 
Henrietta's company early in Charles I's 
reign. William Beeston, 'the governor of 
the king and queen's young company of 
players at the Cock-pit at Drury Lane,' laid 
a claim in 1639 to exclusive ownership in 
the piece ; Beeston's pretension was admitted 
by the king. The play was first published 
for Humphrey Moseley in 1654. 'Appius 
and Virginia' was adapted by Cartwright 
for representation at the Duke's Theatre in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1671, with the new 
name of the ' Roman Virgin, or the Unjust 
Judge.' The title-roles were filled by Better- 
ton and his wife. The play ran at the time 
for eight days successively, and was fre- 
quently revived in the following years (cf. 
GENEST, i. 109). The adaptation was pub- 
lished in 1679 under the title of the ' Unjust 
Judge.' John Dennis in 1709 published a 
new piece with Webster's old title. 

In the ' Duchess of Malfi ' Webster reached 
as high a level of tragic art as in the ' White 
Devil.' The ' Duchess of Malfi ' was first 
played by the king's men at the Blackfriars 
Theatre about 1616, but it was revived at 
the Globe Theatre in 1622, and was first 
printed next year. The title ran : ' The 
Tragedy of the Dutchesse of Malfy. As it 
was presented privately at the Black- 
Friers and publiquely at the Globe by the 
King's Majesties Servants. The perfect, and 
exact coppy with diverse things printed that 
the length of the play would not beare in 
the presentment.' A list of actors' names is 
prefixed. Burbage created the part of Duke 
Ferdinand, and a boy, R. Sharpe, that of the 
Duchess. The dedication was addressed to 
George, lord Berkeley, and there are prefa- 
tory verses embodying vague and unqualified 
eulogy by Ford, Middleton, and William Row- 
ley. O ther editions appeared in!640andwith 
alterations in 1678 and 1708, but the first 
quarto presents the best text. The piece 
was revived at the Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Theatre in 1664 by Betterton, who played 
the villain Bosola, with Mrs. Betterton as 
the Duchess; it was acted for eight days 
successively, and proved one of the best 
stock tragedies (GENEST, i. 55). The ' Duchess 
of Malfi ' is the only play by Webster that 
has been presented on a modern stage. On 
20 Nov. 1851 Phelps revived it at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre in a revised version by 
Richard Hengist Home ; Miss Glyn took 
the part of the Duchess, and Phelps appeared 
as Duke Ferdinand. The play met with 
great success, and had a long run. It was 
republished at the time as part i. of Tallis's 
' Acting Drama,' with a portrait and memoir 

of Miss Glyn by J. A. Heraud. Another 
revised version of the tragedy by Mr. Wil- 
liam Poel was produced at the Opera Comique 
by the Independent Theatre Society on 21 
and 25 Oct. 1892 ; Miss Mary Rorke played 
the Duchess. The play was separately 
edited in ' The Temple Dramatists ' by Pro- 
fessor C. E. Vaughan in 1896. 

The plot is based on an incident in Nea- 
politan history, which is narrated in Belle- 
forest's French translation of ' Bandello's 
Novels,' No. 19; in Beard's ' Theatre of God's 
Judgments,' bk. ii chap. 24 ; and in Goulart's 
' Histoires Admirables de notre temps,' p. 226. 
Lope de Vega constructed a play out of the 
same materials, and gave it the title of ' El 
mayordomo de la Duquesca de Amalfi.' 
The theme is the vengeance wrought by 
Ferdinand, duke of Calabria, and his brother, 
the cardinal, on their sister, the Duchess of 
Malfi, for her defiance of the family honour 
in marrying Antonio, the steward of her 
household. Duke Ferdinand subjects his 
sister to almost every fantastic torture known 
to the writers of Italian fiction. He pays 
the penalty of his cruelty by going mad, 
and at the end of the play hardly any lead- 
ing character is left alive ; five men, three 
I women, and two children come to violent 
ends. Webster owed the merest suggestion 
I of the play to his authorities. His develop- 
I ment of the plot is wholly original. The 
interest centres in the characterisation of the 
! courageous and noble-hearted heroine, who 
i is slowly murdered by her cruel brothers. 
I It was of her character and fortunes, which 
' move every just critic to enthusiasm, that 
! Charles Lamb wrote : ' To move a horror 
i skilfully, to touch a soul to the quick, to 
lay upon fear as much as it can bear, to 
wean and weary a life till it is ready to 
drop, and then step in with mortal instru- 
ments to take its last forfeit : this only a 
Webster can do. Writers of an inferior 
' genius may " upon horror's head horrors 
1 accumulate," but they cannot do this. They 
' mistake quantity for quality, they " terrify 
babes with painted devils," but they know 
j not how a soul is capable of being moved ; 
i their terrors want dignity, their affright- 
| ments are without decorum ' (LAMB'S Speci- 
mens, 'Duchess of Malfy,' ii. 42). 

Webster never reached the same heights 

again, and his remaining work, although at 

! times touched with his old spirit, is, as a 

whole, tame when compared with either the 

' Duchess of Malfy ' or the < White Devil.' 

' The Devil's Law Case ; or, When Women 

go to law the Devil is full of business, a 

I new trage-comredy,' has a few scenes that 

i are quite worthy of their author, but the 




disagreeable plot is inadequately relieved 
by artistic treatment. It was acted 'by 
Queen Anne's servants,' and therefore before 
1619. It was first published in 1623 with 
the assurance on the title-page that it was 
' The true and perfect copie from the origi- 
nall. As it was approouedly well acted by 
her maiesties servants.' Webster addressed 
the dedication to Sir Thomas Finch, bart., and 
a modest appeal for a fair judgment ' to the 
judicious reader.' Dyce asserts that it was 
written not earlier than 1622, on the strength 
of a very disputable allusion to the Amboyna 
massacre in February of that year. 

In 1624 Webster turned from play-writing 
to perform a piece of work for old friends. 
In that year Middleton, the city poet, was 
unable to prepare the words for the lord 
mayor's pageant. John Gore, the new lord 
mayor, was a member of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, to which Webster be- 
longed, and he appropriately undertook to 
fill Middleton's place. The result was a 
conventional 'pageant' entitled ' Monuments 
of Honor, Derived from remarkable antiquity, 
and celebrated in the Honorable City of 
London, at the sole munificent charge and 
expences of the Right Worthy and Worship- 
full Fraternity of the Eminent Merchant 
Taylors. . . . Invented and written by John 
Webster, Merchant Taylor,' printed at 
London by Nicholas Okes, 1624, 4to. The 
work is excessively rare. A copy which 
formerly belonged to Heber is now the 
property of the Duke of Devonshire. 

A year earlier Webster wrote slight com- 
mendatory verses for the ' English Dic- 
tionarie ' of ' his industrious friend Master 
Henry Cockeram ' (1623), and a year after 
the production of his mayoral pageant he 
seems to have died. It is possible, although 
it is by no means certain, that he was the 
John Webster, ' cloth- worker,' who made his 
will on 5 Aug. 1625 ; it was proved on 7 Oct. 

Gildon in his ' Lives of the Poets ' (1698) 
states that Webster was clerk of the parish 
of St. Andrew's, Holborn. The many refe- 
rences that appear in Webster's plays to 
tombstones and dirges have been held by 
Lamb and others to corroborate this theory 
of the dramatist's occupation. No confirma- 
tion has been found in the parochial records, 
and it is unlikely to be true. Webster has 
also been wrongly identified with John Web- 
ster, author of the ' Displaying of Supposed 
Witchcraft/ who is noticed separately. 

Collier stated without authority that 
Webster resided among the actors in Holy- 
Avell Street. Collier likewise identified him 
with one John Webster who married Isabell 
Sutton at St. Leonard's parish church, Shore- 

ditch, on 25 July 1590, and was father of a 
daughter Alice (baptised at the same church 
on 9 May 1606). 

Three extant plays were assigned to Web- 
ster after his death, but doubts as to his 
responsibility are justifiable. Kirkman, an 
enthusiastic reader and collector of plays, 
published in 1661 two plays 'The Thra- 
cian Wonder' and 'A Cure for a Cuckold' 
each of which he asserted to be from the 
joint pens of Webster and William Eowley. 
'The Thracian Wonder' a very dull piece 
of work was based on W T illiam Warner's 
pastoral story of ' Argeutile and Curan,' and 
shows few traces of the known style of either 
of the alleged authors. The fact that one 
William Webster published in 1617 a new 
poetic version of Warner's story may account 
for the association of John Webster's name 
with ' The Thracian Wonder.' 

The authorship of ' A Cure for a Cuckold ' 
seems rightly described by Kirkman. The 
piece naturally divides itself into two parts. 
One treats with some extravagance (but with 
a good deal of poetic feeling and dramatic 
power) a story in Webster's vein. The cen- 
tral character of this section, the perverse- 
tempered Clare, who is affianced to Lessing- 
ham, dares her lover to murder his best 
friend, Bonvile, and the ensuing complica- 
tions give the dramatist an opportunity for 
character-studies, of which he takes for the 
most part good advantage. Genest first 
pointed out that the incident of Lessing- 
ham's threat to kill his friend Bonvile had 
a close parallel in Massinger's ' Parliament 
of Love.' The second part of the play treats 
with much ribaldry, but with comic effect, 
the discovery by a rough sea captain that 
his wife has become a mother during his 
four years' absence. There is no connection 
in style between the two parts. The coarse 
scenes are in prose, and may well be by 
William Rowley. The love story of Clare is 
in blank verse, which closely resembles that of 
Webster's acknowledged work. Mr. Edmund 
Gosse ingeniously suggested that Webster's 
alleged contribution to the piece was a self- 
contained and independent whole. The 
fantastic tale of Clare and Lessingham was 
privately printed with the title of ' Love's 
Graduate ' under the direction of Mr. Stephen 
E. Spring-Rice, C.B., at Mr. Daniel's Oxford 
press in 1885. Mr. Edmund Gosse contri- 
buted a prefatory essay. 

The third piece posthumously assigned to 
Webster was a comedy called ' The Weakest 
goes to the Wall,' which was first printed 
anonymously in 1600, and again in 1018. 
It was first claimed for Webster (with Dek- 
ker) in 1675 by Edward Phillips in his 




' Theatrum Poetarum,' but Phillips was cer- 
tainly in error. The plot appears to be 
drawn from Barnabe Riche's ' Farewell to 
Militarie Profession ' (1581). The younger 
Hazlitt included it in his edition of Web- 
ster's works. 

Two other plays in which Webster had a 
hand are lost. On 13 Sept. 1624 there was 
licensed for publication* a new tragedy' called 
' A late Murder of the Son upon the Mother' 
by Ford and Webster. Webster was also 
the author of a play called ' Guise,' which 
was doubtless a tragedy founded, like Mar- 
lowe's ' Massacre of Paris,' on contemporary 
French history. Webster refers to the work 
when dedicating his ' Devil's Law Case ' to 
Sir Thomas Finch. Mention of a play of 
the name is made by Ilenslowe in his ' Diary ' 
in 1601, and Collier unwarrantably inserted 
the word ' Webster ' after this entry. AVeb- 
ster's play has not survived, and nothing is 
positively known of its date of composition. 

The best collection of original editions of 
Webster's plays belongs to the Duke of 
Devonshire. In 1830 Webster's works were 
collected in four volumes by Alexander Dyce. 
A new issue of Dyce's edition, revised and cor- 
rected, appeared in 1857, and in one volume 
in 1866. William Hazlitt, the critic's son, 
edited an edition in four volumes in 1856. 

Although Nathan Drake and some other 
eighteenth-century critics had detected in 
Webster ' a more than earthly wildness,' 
it was Charles Lamb who first recognised 
his surpassing genius as a writer of tragedy. 
Subsequently Hazlitt, and at a later period 
Mr. Swinburne, bore powerful testimony to 
Lamb's justnessof view. Webster is obviously 
a disciple of Shakespeare, and of all his con- 
temporaries Webster approaches Shakespeare 
nearest in tragic power. But his power is 
infinitely circumscribed when it is compared 
with Shakespeare's. His knowledge of his 
master's work, too, is sometimes visible in a 
form suggestive of plagiarism. His master- 
pieces are liable to the charge that they pre- 
sent the story indecisively and at times fail 
in dramatic point and perspicuity. Many 
scenes too strongly resemble dialogues from 
romances to render them effective on the 
stage. Webster lacked Shakespeare's sure- 
ness of touch in developing character, and 
his studies of human nature often suffer from 
over-elaboration. With a persistence that 
seems unjustifiable in a great artist, Webster, 
moreover, concentrated his chief energies on 
repulsive themes and characters ; he trafficked 
with an obstinate monotony in fantastic 
crimes. Nevertheless he had a true artistic 
sense. He worked slowly, and viewed with 
abhorrence careless or undigested work. 'No 

action,' he wrote in the preface to' The Devil's 
Law Case,' ' can ever be gracious where the 
decency of the language and ingenious struc- 
ture of the scene arrive not to make up a 
perfect harmony.' It is proof of his high 
poetic spirit that he was capable of illumi- 
nating scenes of the most repellent wrong- 
doing with miraculous touches of poetic 
beauty such as only Shakespeare could rival. 
Furthermore, Webster, despite all the vice 
round which his plots revolve, is rarely 
coarse. In depicting the perversities of pas- 
sion he never deviated into pruriency, and 
handled situations of conventional delicacy 
with dignified reticence. Webster's dia- 
logue (he seldom essayed soliloquy) abounds 
in rapid imagery. His blank verse is vigo- 
rous and musical. In its general movement 
it resembles that of Shakespeare's later plays. 
It is far less regular than Marlowe's, but some- 
what more regular than Fletcher's. At its 
best his language has something of the 'happy 
valiancy ' which Coleridge detectedin Shake- 
speare's ' Antony and Cleopatra ; ' it has con- 
sequently no small share of the obscurity 
which characterises Shakespeare's later work. 
This feature in Webster impressed his con- 
temporaries, one of whom, Henry Fitz- 
Geoffrey, applied to him the epithet ' crabbed,' 
and declared that he wrote ' with .his mouth 
awry.' But, as another contemporary, Mid- 
dleton, suggested with surer insight, the 
force of Webster's tragic genius, despite the 
occasional indistinctness of his utterance 
and other defects of execution, allows no 
doubt of the essential greatness of his dra- 
matic conceptions. 

The fame of Webster has spread to France 
and Germany. The ' Duchess of Malfy ' 
and ' The White Devil ' were published with 
an appreciative preface in French transla- 
tions by Ernest Lafond at Paris in 1865, 
and Frederick Bodenstedt devoted the first 
volume of his ' William Shakespeares Zeit- 
genossen und ihre Werke ' (Berlin, 1858) to 
a German rendering of extracts from all 
Webster's plays. 

[Dyce's Introduction to his edition of Web- 
I ster's Works, 1866; Genest's Account of the 
\ Stage, x. 16-17 ; Ward's History of English 
i Dramatic Literature, new edit. 1899, iii. 51 seq.; 
Fleay's Biographical Chronicle of the English 
! Drama; Lamb's Selections; Hazlitt 's Eliza- 
i betban Dramatic Literature ; William Hazlitt's 
| (the younger) introduction to his edition of Web- 
ster's Works, 1 857 ; Mr. J. A. Symonds's preface 
to the 'Mermaid ' edition of Selections from Web- 
ster ; Mr. Gosse's Seventeenth-Century Studies 
containing an admirable essay on Webster; Mr. 
Swinburne's extravagantly eulogistic essay in 
the Nineteenth Century, June 1886; Mr. Wil- 




liara Archer's more sober estimate in his article 
' Webster, Lamb, and Mr. Swinburne' in New 
Review, 1893, viii. 96 seq.] S. L. 

WEBSTER, JOHN (1010-1682), author 
of ' The Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft,' 
was bom at Thornton in Craven on 3 Feb. 
1609-10. He speaks of Cambridge as though 
he had received his education there, but no 
record can be found of him in the university 
registers. Subsequent to July 1632 he was 
ordained, and in 1634 was curate of Kild- 
wick in Craven. Previous to his ordination he 
had studied chemistry under John Huniades, 
probably in the course of medical study. 
In 1643 he was master of the free grammar 
school at Clitheroe, but during the civil war 
he acted as chaplain and surgeon in the parlia- 
mentary army. He was surgeon in Colonel 
Shuttleworth's regiment in 1648, by which 
time he had apparently left the established 
church and become a nonconformist (cf. 
Sainfs Rest, 1654). Towards the end of 
the civil war he ' was intruded by the go- 
verning powers ' into the vicarage of Mitton 
in Yorkshire, and thence preached sometimes 
' gratis' at Grindleton, four miles distant. 
He was still at Mitton in 1654. He was 
apparently officiating minister at All Hal- 
lows, Lombard Street, where, on 12 Oct. 
1653, he and William Erbury [q. v.] had ' a 
very famous dispute' with two ministers 
whose names are not known (cf. Mercurius 
Politicus, 13-20 Oct. 1653 ; ERBURY, A Mon- 
strous Dispute ; WEBSTER, The Picture of 
Mercurius Politicus). At this time Webster 
was famous as a preacher. His attitude 
towards university teaching, or as he called 
it ' humane or acquired learning,' led him 
into some controversy, and was, he states, 
much misunderstood. In his endeavour to 
make his position clear he published in 1654 
his ' Academiarum Examen,' in the epistle to 
which he asserts that he intends not ' to 
traduce or calumniate the academies them- 
selves, but only the corruptions that time and 
negligence hath introduced there.' He gives 
vent, however, to his tendency towards mys- 
ticism in his expressed admiration of Jacob 
Boehmen (p. 26), and his recommendation 
of the study of astrology (p. 51). The book 
was answered by Seth Ward [q. vj, bishop 
of Salisbury, under the signature H. D., the 
final letters of both his names, with a pre- 
fatory epistle by John Wilkins [q. v.], bishop 
of Chester, also signed with final letters, N.S., 
and which has in consequence been assigned 
to Nathaniel Stephens (1606 P-1678) [q. v.] 
Thomas Hall (1610-1665) [q. v.] also wrote 
a reply entitled ' Histrio-Mastix : a Whip 
for Webster,' at the end of his ' Vindicia3 
Literarum.' In 1654 he was occupied in a 

controversy with Thomas Jollie [q. v.] In 
1657 Webster was residing at Clitheroe. 
The following year his books were seized and 
taken away from him, but for what cause 
does not appear. He now seems to have 
given up the ministry and to have devoted 
himself to the study of metallurgy and the 
practice of medicine. 

It was at this time, as also later when 
his age interfered with active practice, that 
he prepared his ' Displaying of Supposed 
Witchcraft' (London, 1677; Halle, 1719, 
German translation, with preface by Chris- 
tian Thomas), in whichhe attacked the credu- 
lous views of Meric Casaubon [q. v.], Joseph 
Glanvill [q. v.],and Henry More (1614-1687) 

AVebster died on 18 June 1682, and was 
buried on the 21st at Clitheroe. His works 
show that his active, impressionable mind 
passed through many phases of religious con- 
viction, and it is difficult to reconcile the 
authorship of ' The Judgment Set ' with that 
of the ' Examen ' or the ' Displaying.' Ward 
accuses Webster of ignorance ( Vindicice Aca- 
demiarum, p. l),but he was acquainted with 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, and 

He was evidently married, as Thoresby 
(Diary, i. 393) mentions obtaining informa- 
tion respecting him from ' a minister who 
married his widow.' 

Hall, in the title to his ' Histrio-Mastix,' 
sarcastically speaks of Webster ' as (as 'tis 
conceived) the Quondam Player,' and for 
some time it seems to have been taken for 
granted that the ' Examen ' was written by 
his namesake, the dramatist. On the 
strength of Hall's ' conceived ' opinion, 
Payne Collier (Poetical Decameron, ii. 260 
et seq.) absurdly accepts the ' Examen ' as the 
work of the more famous John Webster, 
and compares passages in it with some in the 
' Duchess of Malfi ' to support his view. 
Thence he foolishly argues that the ' Saint's 
Guide ' was also by the dramatist. He makes, 
however, no mention of the ' Displaying of 
Supposed Witchcraft.' The identity of the 
author of the 'Examen ' with that of the ' Dis- 
playing,' which had been previously stated 
by Henry More in his attack on Webster in 
the ' Prsefatio Generalissima ' to the Latin 
edition of his works (vol. ii. pp. xvi-xvii), 
was finally established by Dyce in the intro- 
duction to his ' Works of Webster the Dra- 
matist.' Dyce at the same time disposed of 
the ridiculous ascription of the ' Examen ' 
and other works to the dramatist. Webster 
took pleasure in signing himself ' Johannes 
Hyphastes,' and the pseudonym appears on 
his memorial tablet in Clitheroe church. 




His published works include : 1. ' The 
Saint's Guide,' London, 1653, 1654, 1699. 
2. ' The Picture of Mercurius Politicus,' Lon- 
don, 1653, 4to. 3. < The Judgment Set and 
the Books opened,' London, 1654, containing 
(i.) ' The Vail of the Covering ' (reprinted, 
separately, London, 1713, Greenwich, 1817) ; 
(ii.) ' The Builders of Babel confounded ; ' 
(iii.) ' The Power of Divine Attraction ; ' 
(iv.) ' The Cloud taken off the Tabernacle ' 
(reprinted, London, 1708) ; (v.) ' The Secret 
Soothsayer ' (reprinted, London, 1716) ; 
(vi.) ' The Rooting of every Plant ; ' 
(vii.) 'The Saint's Perfect Freedom;' 
(viii.)'A Responsion to certain pretended 
Arguments ; ' (ix.) ' A Testimony freely 
given,' the whole work, Brighton, 1835. 

4. 'Academiarum Examen,' London, 1654. 

5. ' Metallographia,' London, 1661, 1671. 
He also wrote an account and defence of the 
character of William Erbury as an epistle 
to Erbury's work, ' The Great Earthquake.' 

[Whitaker's Whalley, ii. 86-7, 95, 494, 506, 
548-51 ; Whitaker's Craven, p. 22 ; Introduc- 
tion and Notes to Potts's Discovery of "Witches 
by James Crossley (Chetham Soc.) pp. xxviii-xli ; 
Webster's Works, passim ; Cal. of State Papers. 
1657-8, p. 302; Boehmer's Handbuch der 
Naturgeschiehte, pt. ii. vol. i. p. 34 ; Morhof s 
Polyhistor Literarius, ii. 402 ; Journal des 
Scavans, 1678, p. 158 ; Philosophical Transac- 
tions, 1670, p. 2034 ; Oldys's British Librarian, 
p. iii ; Brydges's Censura Literaria, x. 306-7 ; 
Lansdovme MS. 459, f. 72 ; Note-book of the 
Rev. Thomas Jolly (Chetham Soc.), pp. xiv, 126, 
128; State Papers (Record Office) Dom. Com- 
monwealth, vol. clxxix. f. 177.] B. P. 

WEBSTER, THOMAS (1773-1844), 
geologist, born in the Orkneys in 1773, was 
educated at Aberdeen, came to London early 
in life, and studied architecture and agricul- 
ture. He travelled through England and 
France, making sketches for illustrated works 
and obtained some practice as an architect, 
the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street 
being built from his design. It was probably 
this circumstance that brought him into asso- 
ciation with Sir Benjamin Thompson, count 
von Rumford [q.v.] Webster's geological in- 
sight was shown in his classical memoir ' On 
the Fresh-water Formations in the Isle of 
Wight, with some Observations on the Strata 
over the Chalk in the South-east of England,' 
which was published in the ' Geological Trans- 
actions ' in 1814, and led to his association as 
geologist with Sir Henry Charles Englefield 
[q. v.] in his ' Description of the Isle of Wight ' 
(London, 1816, 4to). Though Webster is only 
credited with eight papers in the Royal So- 
ciety's catalogue (vi. 296), all dealing with 
the geology of the Upper Secondary and Ter- 

tiary strata of the south-east of England, 
and dated between 1814 and 1825, they 
nearly all rank as loci classici on their respec- 
tive subjects. Such are the memoirs on the 
Reigate stone and Nutfield fuller's-earth 
(1821), Hordwell Cliff, the strata at Hast- 
ings, and the Purbeck and Portland beds 
(1824). He edited the best edition of 
Imison's ' Elements of Science and Art ' 
(London, 1822, 8vo), and, with Mrs. Parkes, 
Longman's ' Encyclopaedia of Domestic 
Economy ' (London, 1844, 8vo), which John 
Claudius London [q.v.] had begun. In 182fc> 
Webster was appointed house-secretary to 
the Geological Society and curator of the 
museum ; in 1840 he was granted a govern- 
ment pension of 501. a year for his services 
to geology, and in 1841-2 he was appointed 
professor of geology in the university of 
London (University College). He died in 
London on 26 Dec. 1844 at London Street, 
Fitzroy Square, and was buried in Highgate 
cemetery. He left more than a hundred 
volumes in manuscript dealing with a wide 
variety of subjects. His name is associated 
with a rare British mineral, Websterite, and 
with various fossils. 

[Midland's Biographie Universelle, vol. xliv. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1845, i. 211 ; Builder, 1847, v. 115; 
Cansick's Epitaphs in Church and Burial Grounds 
of St. Pancras, 1872, ii. 20; Jones's Royal In- 
stitution, 1871, passim.] G. S. B. 

WEBSTER, THOMAS (1810-1875), bar- 
rister, born on 16 Oct. 1810, was the eldest 
son of Thomas Webster, vicar of Oakington, 
Cambridgeshire. From the Charterhouse he 
proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
graduated B.A. as fourteenth wrangler in 
1832, proceeding M.A. in 1835. In 1837 he 
became secretary to the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. In 1839 he resigned this post, 
but remained honorary secretary to the in- 
stitution till 1841. In that year he was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and joined 
the northern circuit. He soon acquired a 
large practice in connection with scientific 
cases, and for many years was recognised as 
a leading authority on patent law. His ' Re- 
ports and Notes of Cases on Letters Patent 
for Inventions ' (1844) was long the chief 
textbook on the subject, and still remains a 
standard work of reference. It was largely 
due to his efforts that the Patent Law 
Amendment Act of 1852 was passed, an act 
by which the numerous abuses that had 
grown up round the ancient system of grant- 
ing patents were swept away, the cost of 
a patent greatly reduced, and the system in- 
troduced that with certain modifications has 
worked well up to the present time. Webster 




had also a considerable parliamentary prac- 
tice. He was one of the counsel engaged for 
Birkenhead in the great contests respecting 
the Liverpool and Mersey docks. In 1848 
he published a handbook on ' The Ports and 
Docks of Birkenhead, 'and in 1853 and 1857 
he republished the reports of the acting com- 
mittee of the conservators of the Mersey, 
and these books have been for many years 
the standard works of reference relating to 
that river. He was for long an active mem- 
ber of the governing body of the Society of 
Arts. He was in the chair at the meeting 
of the society in 1845 when the first pro- 
posal was made for holding the great Inter- | 
national Exhibition of 1851, and formed one 
of the first committee appointed to organise 
that exhibition. He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1847, and in 1865 
he was appointed one of her majesty's coun- j 
sel. He died in London on 3 June 1875. 

Webster was twice married : first, in 1839, 
to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Richard 
Calthrop of Swineshead Abbey, Lincolnshire; 
and, secondly, to Mary Frances, daughter of 
Joseph Cookworthy, M.D., of Plymouth. By 
his first wife he had three sons (the second of 
whom is Sir Richard Everard Webster, 
G.C.M.G., attorney-general) and two daugh- 
ters ; by his second wife he had one son and 
one daughter. 

[Journ. Soc. Arts, xxiii. 665 ; Law Times, 
12 June 1875; Times, 7 June 1875; personal 
knowledge ; information furnished by Sir Ri- 
chard Webster.] H. T. W. 

WEBSTER, THOMAS (1800-1886), 
painter, was born in Ranelagh Street, 
Pimlico, on 20 March 1800. His father, 
who held an appointment in the household 
of George III, took the boy to Windsor, 
where he remained till the king's death. He 
showed an early taste for music, and became 
a chorister at St. George's Chapel, but aban- 
doned music for painting, and in 1821 be- 
came a student at the Royal Academy. He 
exhibited a portrait-group in 1823, and 
gained the first prize for painting in 1825. 
In that year he exhibited at the Suffolk 
Street Gallery ' Rebels shooting a Prisoner,' 
the first of those pictures of schoolboy life 
by which he won his reputation. In 1828 
he exhibited ' The Gunpowder Plot ' at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1829 ' The Prisoner ' 
and ' A Foraging Party aroused ' at the 
British Institution. These were followed 
by numerous other pictures of school and 
village life at both galleries. In 1840 Web- 
ster was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy, and in 1846 an academician. He 
continued to be a frequent exhibitor till 

1876, when he retired from the academy. 
He exhibited his own portrait in 1878, and 
' Released from School,' his last picture, in 
1879. From -1835 to 1856 he resided at 
The Mall, Kensington, but the last thirty 
years of his life were spent at Cranbrook, 
Kent, where he died on 23 Sept. 1886. 

In the limited range of subjects which he 
made his own, Webster is unrivalled. Two 
good specimens of his work, 'A Dame's 
School ' and ' The Truant,' were presented to 
the National Gallery in 1847 as part of the 
Vernon collection. The painter bequeathed 
to the nation the portrait of his father and 
mother, painted in the fiftieth year of their 
marriage, which he had exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1844. Six pictures by 
him, including ' The Village Choir ' and 
'Sickness and Health.' are in the Sheep- 
shanks collection at the South Kensington 
Museum. Three more in the same museum 
formed part of the Jones bequest. ' The 
Smile,' ' The Frown,' ' The Boy with Many 
Friends,' are among the numerous pictures 
which are well known by engravings. Web- 
ster contributed etchings of similar subjects 
by his own hand to the following volumes 
issued by the Etching Club : ' The Deserted 
Village,' 1841 ; ' Songs of Shakespeare,' 
1843 ; and ' Etch'd Thoughts,' 1844. 

[Sandby's Hist, of Royal Academy, ii. 177 ; 
Catalogues of the National Gallery and of the 
Pictures in the South Kensington Museum ; 
Times, 24 Sept. 1886; Men of the Time, 1884.1 

C. D. 

WEBSTER, WILLIAM (1689-1758), 
divine, born at Cove in Suffolk in December 
1689, was the son of Richard Webster (d. 
1722), by his wife Jane, daughter of Anthony 
Sparrow [q. v.], bishop of Norwich. His 
father was a nonjuring clergyman, who after- 
wards submitted and became vicar of Pos- 
lingford in Suffolk. Webster was educated 
at Beccles, and was admitted to Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, on 2 March 
1707-8. He graduated B.A. in 1711-12, 
M.A. in 1716, and D.D. in 1732. He was 
ordained deacon on 24 June 1713 as curate 
of Depden in Suffolk, and priest on 26 Feb. 
1715-16 as curate of St. Dunstan-in-the- 
West, London, In 1723 he edited ' The Life 
of General Monk' (London, 8vo), from the 
manuscript of Thomas Skinner (1629 P-1679) 

S. v.], contributing a preface in vindication 
Monck's character. A second edition ap- 
peared in 1724. In 1730 he translated ' The 
New Testament, with Critical Remarks' 
(London, 2 vols. 4to), from the French of 
Richard Simon. Leaving St. Dunstan's in 
1731, he was appointed in August 1732 to 
the curacy of St. Clement, Eastcheap, and 




in February 1732-3 was presented to the 
rectory of Depdeu. On 16 Dec. 1732, under 
the pseudonym of ' Richard Hooker of the 
Inner Temple,' he began to edit a periodical 
entitled 'The Weekly Miscellany.' Not 
being very successful, it was discontinued on 
27 June 1741. From the number of religious 
essays it contained it became known as ' Old 
Mother Hooker's Journal.' It is chiefly 
memorable for the attacks made in its 
columns on William Warburton's ' Divine 
Legation of Moses.' Webster's contributions 
to the controversy were republished probably 
in 1739, under the title of ' Remarks on 
the Divine Legation' (London, 8vo). They 
earned him a place in the ' Dunciad,' Pope, 
in 1742, inserting a passage (bk. ii. 1. 258) 
in which Webster was coupled with George 
Whitefield, who had also criticised War- 
burton (POPE, Works, ed. Elwin and Court- 
hope, iv. 17, 333, ix. 205, 207). 

In 1740, from materials furnished by a 
merchant in the trade, Webster published a 
pamphlet on the woollen manufactory, en- 
titled 'The Consequences of Trade to the 
Wealth and Strength of any Nation. By a 
Draper of London' (London, 8vo). It had 
a large sale, and when the demand began to 
subside he penned a refutation of his own 
arguments, under the title ' The Draper's 
Reply' (London, 1741, 8vo), which went 
through several editions. 

In July 1740 he was instituted to the 
vicarages of Ware and Thundridge in Hert- 
fordshire, which he retained till his death, re- 
signing his rectory and curacy. In later life 
he fell into great poverty, and after vainly 
petitioning the archbishops and bishops for 
charity, he opened his woes to the public in 
' A plain Narrative of Facts, or the Author's 
case fairly and candidly stated' (London, 
1758, 8vo). He died unmarried at Ware on 
4 Dec. 1758. Christopher Smart [q. v.] ad- 
dressed to him his seventh ode, compliment- 
ing him on his ' Casuistical Essay on Anger 
and Forgiveness' (London, 1750, 12mo). 

Webster was a voluminous writer. Among 
his works not already mentioned are: 1. 'The 
Clergy's Right of Maintenance vindicated 
from Scripture and Reason,' London, 1726, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1727. 2. 'The Fitness of 
the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Christ 
considered,' London, 1731, 8vo. 3. ' The 
Credibility of the Resurrection of Christ,' 
London, 1735, 8vo. 4. ' A Complete History 
of Arianismfrom 306 to 1666. To which is | 
added the History of Socinianism, translated 
from the French of the learned Fathers Maim- 
bourg and Lainy,' London, 1735, 2 vols. 4to. 
5. ' Tracts, consisting of Sermons, Discourses, 
and Letters,' London, 1745, 8vo. 6. ' A Vin- j 

! dicatiou of his Majesty's Title to the Crown,' 
I London, 1747, 8vo. 7. ' A Treatise on Places 
and Preferments,' London, 1757, 8vo. 

[Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer, 1782, pp. 83, 
539-42 ; Venn's Biogr. Hist, of Gonville and 
Caius Coll. 1897, i. 427, 518; George III, his 
Court and Family, 1821, i. 99; Clutterbuck's 
History of Hertfordshire, iii. 280, 308; Davy's 
Suffolk Collections in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
19166, pp. 269-73.] E. I. C. 


(1584-1653), under-secretary of state in 
England, was born at Stuttgart on 15 Sept. 
1584. He studied jurisprudence at the uni- 
versity of Tiibingen, where he made many 
distinguished acquaintances, as attested by 

! the inscriptions in his album, lately extant 
but now lost. He appears to have entered 
the diplomatic service shortly after leaving 

I the university, and to have discharged nu- 
merous missions in Germany and France. 
He also, at some date between 1607 and 

i 1614, spent three consecutive years in Eng- 
land, which he probably visited in the train 
of the Wiirtemberg ambassador, Von Bii- 
winckhausen. In 1614 he was again at 

; Wiirtemberg, where he became private secre- 
tary to the duke, and continued there until 
some period between 1620 and 1624. This 

: residence at home, however, was interrupted 
by a visit to England in 1616,. when, on 

| 13 Sept., he married Elizabeth, daughter of 

: Francis Raworth of Dover. After April 
1624 his correspondence, preserved in the 
state paper office, shows him to be discharg- 
ing the duty of an under-secretary of state, 
and to have been regularly employed until 
1641 in drafting, deciphering, and translating 
official correspondence. He accompanied 
Charles I in his expedition against the Scots, 
but continually complains of the unremu- 
nerativeness of his post, and upon the break- 
ing out of the civil war he took part with 
the parliament. In February 1644 he was 
made ' secretary for foreign tongues ' to the 
joint committee of the two kingdoms, with 
an annual salary of 288/. 13s. 6irf., equivalent 
to nearly 1,0001. at the present day. This 
position he held until 13 March 1649, when, 
upon the constitution of the council of state, 
he was displaced by Milton. No mention 
is made of him in the resolution of the coun- 
cil appointing Milton, and the cause of his 
removal or resignation was probably ill- 
health, as his death was reported in Ger- 
many, and his countryman Mylius shortly 
afterwards found him suffering from gout. 
On 11 March 1652 he was, notwithstanding, 
appointed, at a salary of 200^. a year, assis- 
tant to Milton, who was fast losing his sight. 
He was succeeded by Thurloe on 1 Dec. of 




the same year, and died on 13 Feb. 1653. 
By his wife, who died between 1641 and 
1647, he had two children Rodolph, born 
in 1617, who obtained an estate in Kent 
and died in 1667 ; and Elizabeth, born in 

1618, who married William Trumbull of 
Easthampstead, and became the mother of 
Sir William Trumbull [q. v.], the friend of 

Weckherlin Avas a voluminous writer in 
verse, and rendered considerable service to the 
literature of his fatherland by contributing 
to introduce the sonnet, the sestine, and 
other exotic forms. He attested his versa- 
tility by writing with equal facility in Ger- 
man, French, and English. His principal 
English poems are the 'Triumphal Shows set 
forth lately at Stutgart,' 1616 ; and a ' Pane- 
gyricke to Lord Hay, Viscount of Poncaster,' 

1619, one copy of which, recorded to have 
been sold at an auction in 1845, is at present 
missing. A large proportion of his ver- 
nacular poems, chiefly published in 1641 
and 1648, are imitated from the French or 
the English of Samuel Daniel, Sir Henry 
Wotton, and other writers personally known 
to him in England, or are translated from the 
Psalms. A considerable number, however, 
of his lyrics and epigrams are original, and 
on the strength of these he is pronounced 
by his German editor and biographer, Fischer, 
the most important national poet of his 
period prior to Opitz. The same authority 
considers that he would have gained a yet 
higher reputation but for his besetting in- 
correctness ' he wrote too much as a gentle- 
man and too little as a scholar.' As a public 
servant he seems to have been efficient, 
though he did not escape charges of ' ma- 
licious barbarousness.' His poems have 
been published in two volumes by Hermann 
Fischer, Stuttgart, 1894-5. His portrait, 
painted when he was fifty by Mytens, was 
engraved by Faithorne after his death. 

[Hermann Fischer, in his edition of Weck- 
herlin and in the Allgemeine Deutsche Bio- 
graphic, vol. xli. ; Rye's England as seen by 
Foreigners, pp. cxxiv-cxxxii ; Masson's Life of 
Milton, vol. iv. bk. i. chap. ii. bk. ii. chap. viii. ; 
Calendars of State Papers from 1629 ; Conz, 
Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Schriften 
R. Weckherlin's, 1803 ; Bohm's Englands Ein- 
flussauf Weckherlin, 1893.] R. G. 

WEDDELL, JAMES (1787-1834), 
navigator, son of a working upholsterer, a 
native of Lanarkshire, who had settled in 
London and there married, was born at 
Ostend on 24 Aug. 1787. The father was at 
the time in bad health, and seems to have 
died shortly afterwards, leaving the widow 
with two boys unprovided for. The elder 


son went to sea, eventually settled in the 
West Indies, made a little money there, and 
died about 1818. At a very early age the 
younger son, James, with no education 
beyond the little that his mother had herself 
been able to give him, was bound to the 
master of a coasting" vessel, apparently a 
Newcastle collier. About 1805 he shipped 
on board a merchantman trading to the 
West Indies, made several voyages, and about 
1808 was handed over to the Rainbow 
frigate, as a prisoner guilty of insubordina- 
tion and mutiny; charged, in fact, with 
having knocked down his captain. Wed- 
dell's later conduct renders it very probable 
that the blow was given under extreme pro- 
vocation. His opportunities for educating 
himself had, up to this time, been extremely 
small ; such as they were, lie had made the 
most of them ; he was fond of reading ; and, 
on board the Rainbow, so far improved him- 
self that he was rated a midshipman, then 
quite as often a responsible petty officer as a 
youngster learning his profession. As a 
midshipman Weddell had more opportunities 
for reading and study ; he rendered himself 
a capable navigator, and in December 1810 
was appointed acting master of the Firefly. 
Twelve months later he was moved to the 
Thalia, and on her return to England and being 
paid off, he was on 21 Oct. 1812 promoted to 
be master of the Hope. A few months later 
he was moved to the Avon brig, with Com- 
mander (afterwards Admiral-of-the-fleet Sir 
George Rose) Sartorius [q. v.], who, in 1839, 
wrote of him as ' one of the most efficient 
and trustworthy officers I have met with in 
the course of my professional life. On taking 
command of the Portuguese liberating 
squadron (1831), I immediately wrote to 
Weddell to join me, but he unfortunately 
happened to be out of England, and when I 
received his answer accepting with pleasure 
my proposal, I had already given up the 
command.' The Avon was paid off in March 
1814, and Weddell was appointed to the 
Espoir sloop, from which he was promoted 
to the Cydnus frigate and later on to the 
Pactolus, from which he was superseded in 
February 1816. 

The reduction following the peace ren- 
dered it impossible for him to get further 
employment in the navy, and after three 
years on a scanty half-pay he accepted the 
command of the Jane of Leith, a brig of 160 
tons, belonging to a Mr. Strachan, intended 
for a sealing voyage in the southern seas, for 
which the newly discovered South Shetland 
Islands seemed to offer great facilities. Of 
this first voyage, made in the years 1819- 
1820-21, no record is extant. Though 




Weddeli had no previous experience as a 
sealer, it appears to have been sufficiently 
successful to enable him to buy a share in 
the brig, and to be entrusted with the com- 
mand for a second voyage, in company with 
the cutter Beaufoy of London, of 65 tons, 
also put under his orders. With these two 
small vessels, which sailed from the Downs 
on 17 Sept, 1822, Weddeli, in his search for 
fur-seals, examined the Falkland Islands, 
Cape Horn, and its neighbourhood, South 
Shetlands, South Georgia, the South Ork- 
neys, which he had discovered in his former 
voyage ; and finding the sea open, pushed on 
to the southward as far as latitude 7-4 15', 
which he reached on 20 Feb. 1823. The sea 
was still 'perfectly clear of field ice;' but 
the wind was blowing fresh from south, and 
the lateness of the season compelled him to 
take advantage of it for returning. Of course, 
too, the fact that the primary object of the 
voyage was trade, not discovery, had an im- 
portant weight. Weddeli returned to Eng- 
land in July 1824, and in the following 
year published 'A Voyage towards the 
South Pole performed in the years 1822-24' 
(1825, 8vo : 2nd ed. 1827), to which, in the 
second edition he added some ' Observations 
on the probability of reaching the South 
Pole,' and 'An Account of a Secqnd Voyage 
performed by the Beaufoy to the same seas.' 
The work is interesting not only as the re- 
cord of a voyage to what was then and for 
long after the highest southern latitude 
reached, but also as giving a survey of the 
South Shetlands, where many of the names 
as ' Boyd's Straits,' ' Duff's Straits,' ' Sar- 
torius Island' recall the names of the 
captains with whom Weddeli had served. 

Of the later years of Weddell's life there 
is no clear account. It appears from the 
letter of Sartorius already quoted that he 
was abroad from 1831 to 1833, possibly in 
command of a merchant ship. His trading 
ventures had not been successful, and he is 
said to have been in very straitened circum- 
stances. He died, unmarried, in Norfolk 
Street, Strand, on 9 Sept. 1834. 

A miniature is in the possession of the 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society ; it was 
presented by Mr. John Allen Brown, whose 
father, John Brown, author of ' The North- 
West Passage and the Search for Sir John 
Franklin,' 1858, presented, in 1839, a life- 
size copy of it to the Royal Geographical 

[Information from Mr. J. A. Brown ; a manu- 
script memoir by John Brown, by favour of the 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society, to which 
it now belongs ; Weddell's Voyage, as above ; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

WEDDELL, JOHN (1583-1642), sea- 
captain, born in 1583, was, in 1617, master's 
mate of the East India Company's ship Dra- 
gon ; and in December was promoted to com- 
mand the Lion. In April 1621 he sailed from 
England as captain of the Jonas, with three 
other ships under his orders. At the Cape 
of Good Hope he was joined by two others, 
which he also took under his command and 
went on to Surat. Thence he was sent by 
the company's agent to Gombroon, where 
the shah called on the English to assist him 
against the Portuguese. The English were, 
or pretended to be, unwilling ; but on the 
shah insisting, with a threat that he would 
treat them as enemies and sack their factory, 
they yielded, and the more readily as they 
learned that the Portuguese ships at Ormuz 
were intended to act against the English. 
The ships under Weddeli were accordingly 
sent to co-operate with the Persians, and 
after taking possession of the island of 
Kishm, attacked Ormuz, where they landed 
on 9 Feb. 1622. The Persians were numerous 
but inefficient, and the brunt of the work 
fell on the English, who blockaded the place 
by sea, and on shore acted as engineers and 
artillerymen. After holding out bravely for 
ten weeks, the Portuguese surrendered ex- 
pressly to the English, and to the number 
of 2,500 were sent to Goa. The. town was 
sacked, but most of the booty fell to the 
Persians ; the English share of the plunder 
was put on board the Whale, which, with 
her precious cargo, was utterly lost on the 
bar outside Surat ; and thus, in direct gain, 
neither the company nor the company's ser- 
vants were much the richer for the capture. 
This was necessarily inquired into when the 
Duke of Buckingham claimed a tenth of the 
spoil, as lord high admiral, and on 6 Aug. 
1623 the governor reported to the court of 
directors that he had ' received from Weddeli 
good satisfaction ' as to the matter ; that 
they had been obliged to aid the Persians, 
for otherwise ' the company's goods and 
servants ashore had been in danger ; ' and 
that they had 'mollified many rigorous 
courses intended against the Portugals, and 
lent them their own ships to carry them to 
a place of safety.' On 4 Dec. 1623 Weddeli, 
then described as ' of Ratcliffe, in Middlesex, 
gent., aged 40 or thereabouts,' was examined 
before the judge of the high court of ad- 
miralty, and gave a detailed account of his 
voyage and the plunder. 

With the further dispute between Buck- 
ingham and the company he was not con- 
cerned, and on 28 March 1624 he sailed for 
India in command of the Royal James. He 
was again commander of the company's fleet 



for the year, and on reaching Surat on 
18 Sept. and learning that the Portuguese 
were preparing ' great forces ' against the 
English and Dutch in the Gulf of Persia, he 
was sent at once to Gombroon to join with 
the Dutch squadron against the common 
enemy. When the Portuguese fleet came in 
sight the English and the Dutch commanders 
consulted, went out to meet it, and after a 
hard-fought action, which lasted through 
three days, put the Portuguese to flight, and 
chased them well on their way to Goa. The 
affair is curious, for the ' conspiracy ' or the 
* massacre ' of Amboyna [see TOWERSOST, 
GABRIEL, d. 1623] must have been fresh 
in the minds of both Weddell and his ally ; 
notwithstanding which, they seem to have 
acted together with perfect loyalty and good 

In 1626 Weddell returned to England, 
and, attending a court meeting on 18 Dec., 
was told that the company was going ' to 
commence a suit against him ' for irregular 
or illegal private trading. He hoped that 
' upon consideration of his services they 
would think he deserved better.' Afterwards, 
16 Feb. 1627, he ' submitted to their censure,' 
but 'desired them to look at his good 
services.' It seems probable that he con- 
ceived that his victory over the Portuguese 
gave him a right to break the very strict 
regulations which the company found ne- 
cessary, and that this difference of opinion 
ultimately led to a bitter quarrel. At the 
time it was quietly arranged, the more 
easily, perhaps, as Weddell offered his ser- 
vices to the crown to command a ship of war, 
and took with him ' divers prime and able 
men.' During 1627 and 1628 he commanded 
the king's ship Rainbow ; in May he was 
sent with a small squadron to Havre for in- 
formation ; afterwards, he seems to have 
been with Buckingham at Re. In December 
he was at Plymouth, in Catwater, where 
the Rainbow got on shore, and Weddell 
was highly praised for his diligence in get- 
ting her afloat again (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1627-8, pp. 517, 531). On 28 Jan. 1628 Buck- 
ingham wrote to him, giving him leave to 
come to town. ' On his arrival he is to let 
the duke see him with the first, for he longs 
to present him to his majesty.' There is no 
account of his being presented ; but Weddell, 
with a keen eye to business, wrote on 21 Feb. 
hoping that he might be paid for his late 
services as a vice-admiral. 

By December 1628 he had returned to the 
service of the company, and on the 3rd was 
appointed to command the Charles, with the 
pay of 16/. 13s. 4df. a month. It is thus not 
to be wondered at that on his return in 

April 1631 he was again censured for his 
private trading ; and, though he submitted 
himself to the court, 'he alleged his good 
service, and in particular that last year he had 
saved them at least 2,000/. at Gombroon 
by keeping a guard on shore to prevent the 
stealing of goods by the Moors and Persians' 
(Cal. State Papers, East Indies, 20 April). 
A few days later he reported that he had 
brought home a leopard and a cage of birds, 
winch he desired leave to present to the king 
and queen in his own name. The company 
thought it more fit to present them as from 
themselves. In 1632 Weddell went out 
again in the Charles, which, by the culpable 
carelessness of the master of the Swallow, 
was burnt at Surat, about 20 Jan. 1632-3 
(id. 4 Oct. 1633). The master of the Swallow 
was sent home in irons, and Weddell, in re- 
porting the circumstance, begged that ' hav- 
ing lost his whole estate by the firing of the 
Charles, the court would renew his commis- 
sion and give him another ship ' (ib. 1 1 Sept. 
1633). The court refused to do this, and 
sent out orders for him to return in the 

The company's agents in India took a 
different view of the matter, and on 21 April 
1634 the president and council of Surat 
gave Weddell a commission as admiral of 
the company's fleet. This was before they 
had received the refusal of the court to give 
him another ship ; and on 29 Dec. 1634, 
when the Jonas was on the point of sailing, 
they wrote, regretting that the court had 
not granted Weddell's request. ' He is,' they 
said, ' a gentleman of valour and resolution, 
and submits to no man that the company 
ever employed in the care of his charge, 
especially at sea ; but his tractability so far 
exceeds that of many of those churlish com- 
manders who conceive themselves only 
created for the sole good of the fleets they 
command, that they desire no better or other 
man to con the fleet.' Of Weddell's appear- 
ance before the court we have no account, 
but it is evident that he went home feeling 
that he was aggrieved by the company. It is 
possible also that the company were disposed 
to blame him for the loss of the Charles, even 
though he was not on board at the time. 
And just at the time of his arrival Sir 
William Courten [q. v.] was pushing his en- 
deavour to establish a separate trade to the 
East Indies, and Charles I, always in want 
of money, had no scruple about giving him a 
license to do this. For a man in the position 
of Courten, Weddell and his grievances were 
valuable aids, and he had no difficulty in 
persuading Weddell to throw over the com- 
pany and to take service with him. The 




grant to Courten was dated 12 Dec. 1635, 
and within a few months Weddell went out 
in command of a fleet of six ships. He ar- 
rived at Johanna in August 1636 ; went 
from there to Goa, and thence to Batticolo, 
Acheen, Macao, and Canton. At Canton 
(owing to Portuguese intrigues) he had a 
difficulty with the Chinese, and, after having 
stormed one of their forts, was compelled to 
return to Macao. Going back to India, he 
succeeded in establishing a trade at Rajapur, 
in spite of the remonstrances of the company's 
agents. He returned to England apparently 
in 1640, and in 1642, still as an interloper, 
was back in India, where he died. On 9 May 
1643 letters of administration in which he 
was named as dead ' in partibus transma- 
rinis ' were given to his creditor, "William 
Courten [see under COURTEN, SIR WILLIAM], 
and on Courten's death, to Jeremy Weddell, 
only son of the late John Weddell, 28 Aug. 
1656. Weddell's will has not been preserved ; 
but the will of his widow, Frances Weddell, 
proved 2 Oct. 1652 [Somerset House ; 
Bowyer, 165], mentions two sons, John and 
Jeremy (the former being dead), and a daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, wife of Edward Wye. Wed- 
dell's property, such of it as was not lost 
in the Charles, would seem to have been 
swallowed up in Courten's insolvency. A 
portrait of Weddell (now lost) was left by 
his widow to their daughter, Elizabeth Wye. 

[Cal. State Papers, East Indies and Domestic ; 
Bruce's Annals of the East India Company, vol. 
i. ; Low's Hist, of the Indian Navy ; notes kindly 
supplied by Mr. William Foster.] J. K. L. 

(161 0-1 676) , of Blackness, Forfarshire, eldest 
son of James Wedderburn, town clerk of 
Dundee, by Margaret, daughter of James 
Goldman, also a Dundee merchant, was born 
in 1610. Sir Peter Wedderburn [q.v.] was 
his younger brother. Alexander was edu- 
cated for the law and passed advocate ; but 
upon the death of his uncle Alexander of 
Kingennie, whose son was then a minor, he 
was in 1633 appointed town clerk of Dundee, 
and held the office till 1675. For his stead- 
fast loyalty he obtained from Charles I in 
1639 a tack of the customs of Dundee, and 
in 1640 a pension of IOQI. per annum out of 
the customs. In September of the same year 
he was appointed one of the eight Scots com- 
missioners to arrange the treaty of Ripon. 
In October following he had an exoneration 
and ratification from the king, and in 1642 
a knighthood was conferred on him. He 
represented Dundee in the Scottish parlia- 
ment, 1644-7 and 1648-51 (Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament}, and he served on nume- 

rous committees of the estates. At the 
Restoration in 1661 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners for regulating weights 
and measures ; and on 10 Feb. 1664 he re- 
ceived from Charles II a pension of 100/. 
sterling. He died on 18 Nov. 1676. By 
Matilda, daughter of Sir Andrew Fletcher 
of Innerpeffer, he had five sons and six 
daughters. His second son, James (1649- 
1696), was grandfather of Sir John Wedder- 
burn (1704-1746) [q. v.] 

[Gordon's Scots Affairs and Spalding's Me- 
morialls of the Troubles (Spalding Club) ; Sir 
James Balfonr's Annals; Returns of Members 
of Parliament ; Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, 
pp. 279-80; Wedderburn's ComptBuik, ed. Mil- 
lar, 1898.] T. F. H. 

ROSSLTN (1733-1805), lord chancellor, born 
at Edinburgh on 13 Feb. 1733, was the eldest 
son of Peter Wedderburn of Chester Hall, 
advocate (afterwards a senator of the College 
of Justice), by his wife Janet Ogilvy. Sir 
Peter Wedderburn [q.v.] was his great-grand- 
father. His education was begun in the 
school of Dalkeith under James Barclay, a 
famous pedagogue of the time, and he had 
Henry Dundas (afterwards Viscount Mel- 
ville) as his schoolfellow. On 18 March 1746 
he matriculated at Edinburgh University. 
While a student he was on familiar terms 
with many of the leading literary men of 
the time, among them Dr. Robertson, the 
historian ; David Hume, the librarian to the 
faculty of advocates ; and Adam Smith , whose 
friendship was lifelong. As Wedderburn 
was intendedfor the legal profession, he began 
his special studies in 1750 with a view to 
practising in the court of session. From an 
early period, however, he felt that the Eng- 
lish bar offered him larger opportunities, and 
on 8 May 1753 he was admitted a member 
of the Inner Temple while on a visit to Lon- 
don. Returning to Edinburgh, he pursued 
his studies, and was enrolled as advocate on 
29 June 1754. He first won distinction as 
a debater in the general assembly of the kirk 
of Scotland, taking his position there as an 
elder when only twenty-one years old, and 
it was his task to defend David Hume from 
church censure and John Home, the author 
of ' Douglas/ from deposition from his mini- 
sterial office. At this time he was associated 
with a number of the Edinburgh literati in 
founding the Select Society, in which Wed- 
derburn, though youngest member, had a 
prominent place. He also projected and 
edited two numbers of a semi-annual publi- 
cation called the ' Edinburgh Review,' which 
was started and ended in 1756. The death 




of his father on 11 Aug. 1756 altered Wed- 
derburn's prospects, and intensified his desire 
to abandon Edinburgh. His exit was dra- 
matic. In August 1757 he was opposed to 
Alexander Lockhart (afterwards Lord Cov- 
ington of Session) in a case which he won 
against his veteran adversary. Stung by a 
depreciatory remark made by Lockhart, the 
young advocate replied so intemperately that 
he was rebuked by the presiding judge, Lord- 
president Craigie. The other j udges were of 
opinion that Wedderburn should retract and 
apologise : but instead of doing so, he took 
off his advocate's gown, laid it on the bar, 
and, declaring that he would wear it no more, 
he left the court, never again to enter it. 
That night he set out for London, determined 
to make his way at the English bar. He 
rented chambers in the Temple, and, as his 
first step towards success, he took lessons in 
elocution from the elder Sheridan and after- 
wards from the actor Quin, so that he might 
overcome his provincial accent. On 25 Nov. 
1757 he was called to the bar. His practice 
for several years was not great, but he be- 
came an intimate friend of the Earl of Bute, 
and when that nobleman came into power 
after the death of George II in 1760, Wed- 
derburn came into notice. On 28 Dec. 1761 
he was returned to parliament as member for 
the Ayr burghs, and retained this seat till 
1768. He ' took silk ' and was chosen a 
bencher of Lincoln's Inn in February 1763, 
and joined the northern circuit. Here he 
was not so successful as he had anticipated, 
and shortly afterwards he took up his resi- 
dence permanently in London, practising 
chiefly in the court of chancery. He soon 
made a name for himself as an equity lawyer. 
Import ant casesfrom Scotland were entrusted 
to him, and he was counsel for the respondent 
in the famous Douglas cause, in which he 
greatly distinguished himself, though the 
final judgment was against his client [see 

On 21 March 1768 Wedderburn was re- 
turned as member of parliament for Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire. He entered the house as 
a tory ; but in the following year he warmly 
espoused the cause of Wilkes, and delivered 
60 violent a speech against the government 
that he felt bound in honour to accept the 
Chiltern Hundreds and resign his seat. 
Within a few days Lord Clive offered him 
the burgli of Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, a 
vacancy having been created by the retire- 
ment of William Clive, and Wedderburn 
took his seat as an ardent supporter of the 
popular party. He represented this con- 
stituency till 1774. 

Wedderburn began the session of 1770 in 
violent opposition to Lord North's admini- 
stration, and lost no opportunity of attack- 
ing the government alike on home and colo- 
nial policy. He has been accused, not with- 
out reason, of having adopted this attitude 
for the purpose of compelling Lord North to 
purchase his support. His ambition was un- 
bounded, and it is probable that he coveted 
the office of lord chancellor from the be- 
ginning of his parliamentary career. But 
Wedderburn did not at first listen to the 
cautious overtures made by Lord North. 
When, however, Lord Chatham, towards the 
close of 1770, sought to attach him to the 
whig party by personal attentions, he justi- 
fied the epithet of ' the wary Wedderburn,' 
applied to him by Junius. It was evident 
that his ardour for the popular cause was 
cooling, and at length Lord North was able 
to bid for his support. On 25 Jan. 1771 
Thurlow was gazetted as attorney-general, 
and Wedderburn succeeded his great rival as 
solicitor-general. This conversion has been 
justly described as 'one of the most flagrant 
cases of ratting recorded in our party annals.' 
There was no change of policy on the part of 
the government to excuse so virulent an 
opponent becoming a devoted partisan of 
Lord North. Wedderburn was also appointed 
at the same time chancellor to the queen and 
a privy councillor (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th 
Rep. App. vi. 3). He had thoroughly broken 
his connection with the whig party. Though 
Lord Clive was indignant at Wedderburn's 
conversion, the new solicitor-general had no 
difficulty in securing his re-election for 
Bishop's Castle. 

The reputation which Wedderburn had 
gained as a parliamentary debaterwas greatly 
increased after he took office. At the elec- 
tion in 1774 he was chosen for two places 
Castle Rising, Norfolk, and Okehampton, 
Devonshire ; and, selecting the latter, he sat 
as its member till 1778. In June of that 
year, when Thurlow received the great seal, 
Wedderburn was promoted to the attorney- 
generalship, and became once more member 
for Bishop's Castle. During his tenure of 
office he had many difficult cases to conduct, 
while the defence of the government through 
all the blundering of the American war was 
no light task. It was, besides, plainly seen 
by Wedderburn that the ministry could not 
retain its hold upon office much longer, and 
he was the more eager to obtain a secure 
place on the bench while opportunity re- 
mained. At length, on 14 June 1780, he 
was appointed chief justice of the court of 
common pleas, and raised to the peerage with 
the title of Baron Loughborough of Lough- 



borough, Leicestershire. lie remained chief j 
justice for twelve years, and preserved the j 
dignity of the office, although ' he had not 
much credit as a common lawyer.' On 2 April 
1783 Jvorth and Fox formed a coalition ! 
ministry under the premiership of the Duke 
of Portland ; the great seal was put into com- ' 
mission, and Loughborough was appointed 
first commissioner. The coalition govern- 
ment, it was evident, could not long hold 
together. Loughborough seemed to favour 
the party of Fox rather than that of their 
opponents. It is possible that the friend- 
ship of the prince regent for Fox had sug- 
gested to Loughborough that in event of the 
death of George III the coveted lord chan- 
cellorship might be at Fox's disposal. But 
Pitt came into office at the end of 1783, 
and Lord Thurlow was made chancellor. 
Thurlow retired in June 1792, and the great 
seal was for seven months in commission. 

At length Pitt gratified Loughborough's 
ambition. On 28 Jan. 1793 he obtained the 
great seal, and took his seat as lord chan- 
cellor. Having reached the goal of his ambi- 
tion, he abandoned the party of the Prince of 
Wales, and definitely joined himself to the 
adherents of George III, who were known 
as 'the king's friends.' In 1795 he obtained 
a regrant of his title, and, as he had no 
children, it was given in remainder to his 
nephew, Sir James St. Clair Erskine. The 
designation was changed from Loughborough, 
Leicestershire, to Loughborough, Surrey. 
The chancellor was not fated to find the 
woolsack an easy seat. The wave of in- 
surgency which had begun in France spread 
rapidly to this country, and the sedition 
trials were mercilessly prosecuted under the 
new chancellor. There can be little doubt that 
the firm attitude of Loughborough helped 
to stem the swelling tide of revolution, 
though it served to make him very un- 
popular. There were constant cabals among 
contending statesmen, and he knew that his 
place, so patiently waited for, was far from 
secure. After the king had a return of 
mental malady, Loughborough was accused 
of procuring theking'ssigTiature to important 
documents when he was not in a fit state to 
understand them. In March 1801 Pitt's 
ministry was dismissed, Mr. Addington 
(Lord Sidmouth) was called upon to form a 
new cabinet, and Loughborough was ousted 
from his office to make way for John Scott, 
lord Eldon. On 14 April Loughborough 
resigned the great seal, but so tenaciously 
did he cling to office that he continued to 
attend the meetings of the cabinet when he 
had no longer any right to do so, until he 
was politely dismissed by Addington. On 

21 April 1801 he was created Earl of 
Rosslyn, with remainder to his nephew, as 
in the patent of the barony of Loughborough. 
As an equity judge Loughborough attained 
a very modest reputation. But his decrees 
were well considered, and were couched in 
clear and forcible language. He showed 
good sense and good nature in the distribu- 
tion of ecclesiastical patronage. 

After his retirement from the woolsack 
Loughborough's mental powers declined. 
He took little part in parliamentary affairs, 
and spent most of his time in a villa which 
he purchased near Windsor. It is said that 
he often contrived to force himself into the 
company of the king. He died suddenly at 
his residence on 2 Jan. 1805, and was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. He was twice mar- 
ried: first, on 31 Dec. 1767, to Betty Anne, 
daughter of John Dawson of Morley, York- 
shire ; and, secondly, in 1782, to Charlotte, 
daughter of AVilliam, first viscount Courte- 
nay. As he died without issue, the earl- 
dom fell to his nephew, Sir James St. Clair 
Erskine, son of his sister Janet, who was 
the direct ancestor of the present Earl of 

[The chief authority is Campbell's Lives of the 
Lord Chancellors, as the writer had access to the 
Rosslyn documents. Many letters by and to 
Wedderburn will be found in Hist. MSS. Comm. 
6th Hep., 10th Rep. pt. vi., 12th Rep. pt. ix., 
14th Rep. pts. i. iv. x. See also The Wedderburn 
Book, 1898 ; Millar's Compt Bulk of David Wed- 
derburne (Scottish Hist. Soc.): Millar's Roll of 
Eminent Burgesses of Dundee; Franklin's Works, 
ed. Sparks, iv. 425, 447 ; Brougham's Statesmen 
of the Reign of George III ; Foss's Judges.] 

A. H. M. 

WEDDERBURN, DAVID (1580-1646), 
Latin poet, was baptised in Aberdeen on 
2 Jan. 1579-80 {Aberdeen Parish Register). 
He was the eldest son of William Wedder- 
burn, burgess of Aberdeen, and Marjorie 
Annand, and was educated at Marischal 
College. In 1002 he was appointed master of 
the grammar school of Aberdeen, in conjunc- 
tion with Thomas Reid (d. 1624) [q.v.]'; but 
in the following year he resigned his office, 
with the intention of becoming a minister. 
This purpose was abandoned, however, and 
in 1603 he was reinstated. In 1614 Gilbert 
Gray, principal of Marischal College, died, 
and Wedderburn was appointed to teach 
the class in that college which had been 
under Gray's charge. On 6 Feb. 1620 Wed- 
derburn was made poet-laureate of Aber- 
deen, receiving a salary of eighty merks 
yearly from the town council, for which 
he undertook to teach a weekly lesson of 
humanity in the college, and ' to compose in 




Latin, both prose and verse, whatever pur- 
pose or theme concerning the common affairs 
of the burgh, either at home or afield, that 
he shall be required by any of the magistrates 
or clerks.' From a passage in the ' Diary of 
Alexander Jaffray ' (3rd edit. p. 42) it appears 
that Wedderburn continued in his place as 
master of the grammar school along with the 
professorial charge in the college. But in 
16:14 the town council ordered him to resign 
his class in the college, and to confine his 
attention to the grammar school. In 1628 
he obtained an assistant in the grammar 
school, and in the following year his stipend 
was increased by eighty nierks (Records of 
Eurjh of Aberdeen, 1625-42, pp. 19, 20, Burgh 
Records Soc. edit.) On 14 Aug. 1620 he had 
been admitted a burgess of Aberdeen ' in 
right of his father,' but on 20 May 1632 he 
was made an honorary burgess of Dundee in 
recognition of his learning and skill ' in eru- 
diendo juventutem.' In 1630 he completed 
a new grammar for the use of young scholars, 
for which he received the reward of a hun- 
dred lib. Scots from the town council of 
Aberdeen. He was sent specially to Edin- 
burgh that the license of the privy council 
might be obtained for the printing of this 
work. The register of the privy council 
contains several entries in regard to this 
book in 1630-2, and the matter came before 
parliament in June 1633, when he presented 
a petition that his ' short and facile grammar ' 
might be the only one taught in the schools 
of this country ( Wedderburn Hook, vol. ii. ; 
Acts of Parl. of Scot.) The infirmities of age 
compelled Wedderburn to resign his office as 
master of the grammar school in 1640. His 
death took place either in February or Octo- 
ber 1646, and he was buried ' gratis ' in the 
church of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen. He was 
twice married : in April 1611 to Janet John- 
stone, by whom he had issue one son ; and j 
in October 1614 to Bathia Mowat, by whom 
he had two sons and five daughters. 

When James VI visited Scotland in 1617 
Wedderburn was engaged by the town coun- 
cil of Aberdeen to write a Latin wel- 
come, and the two poems which he com- 
posed ' Syneuphranterion in Reditu Regis' 
and ' Propempticon Caritatum Abredonen- 
sium' were afterwards published in Sir 
John Scot's ' Delitise Poetarum Scotorum.' 
These are usually referred to as Wedder- 
burn's first publications ; but in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh, there is a copy of ] 
a Latin poem on the death of Prince Henry, 
also included in the ' Delitine,' which was j 
printed by Andro Hart in 1613, under the \ 
title ' In Obitu summse Spei Principis Hen- j 
rici,JacobiVI Regis filiiprimogeniti,Lessus,' j 

by ' David Wedderburnus, Scholse Abre- 
donensis Moderator.' In 1625 he wrote a 
Latin poem on the death of James VI, which 
was printed by Edward Raban [q. v.] of 
Aberdeen, with the title ' Abredonia atrata 
sub Obitum serenissimi et potentissimi Mo- 
narchae Jacobi VI,' a work now very scarce. 
One of his most esteemed friends was Arthur 
Johnston [q. v.], who wrote one of his finest 
Latin poems on Wedderburn, to which he 
replied in a similar strain. When Johnston 
died in 1641, Wedderburn published six 
Latin elegies upon his friend, under the title 
' Sub Obitum Viri clarissimi et carissimi D. 
j Arturi Johnstoni, Medici regii, Davidis Wed- 
! derburni Suspiria.' These poems were in- 
cluded in Lauder's ' Poetarum Scotorum 
Musre sacrae,' published in 1731. In 1643 
Wedderburn published at Aberdeen ' Medi- 
tationum campestrium, seu Epigrammatum 
moralium, Centurise duse ; ' and in 1644 he 
issued a similar work, ' Centuria tertia,' which 
also was printed by Edward Raban. Another 
of his elegiac compositions was his contribu- 
tion to the ' Funerals,' or memorial verses 
on Patrick Forbes of Corse, bishop of Aber- 
deen, published in 1635. The council records 
of Aberdeen contain many entries of pay- 
ments made to Wedderburn for poems and 
on account of his grammar. Wedderburn 
was reckoned one of the foremost latinists 
of his day. Eight of his Latin poems are in- 
cluded in Scot's ' Delitise Poetarum Scoto- 
rum.' Besides those poems mentioned above, 
there are an elegy, epitaph, and apotheosis 
of Professor Duncan Liddel of Aberdeen, and 
an ode to Calliope. 

Wedderburn's next brother, ALEXANDER 
WEDDERBTJRN (1581-1650 ?), Latin scholar, 
was baptised at Aberdeen on 3 Sept. 1581. 
He was admitted as a bursar of Marischal 
College on 29 Jan. 1623, on the petition of 
his two brothers, William and David, ' being 
presentlie in England in a pedagogic.' Little 
is known regarding him, save that he pre- 
pared for publication an edition entitled 
' Persius enucleatus, sive Coinmentnrius ex- 
actissimus et maxime perspicuus in Persium, 
Poetarum omnium ditficillimum,' for which 
his brother David had left notes. This work 
was published at Amsterdam in 1 664, after 
the death of Alexander. The date of his 
decease is not recorded, but it was about 
1650 (The Wedderburn Book, i. 477). 

Another of Wedderburn's brothers, WIL- 
LIAM WEDDERBURN ( 1582^-1660), Scotch 
divine, was born in 1582 or 1584, but the 
loss of the Aberdeen parish register for the 
period leaves the exact date unknown. He 
was doctor of the grammar school of Aber- 
deen in 1616-17, and afterwards became one 




of the regents of Marischal College. On 
25 Oct. 1623 he was enrolled as burgess of 
Aberdeen, in right of his father. In 1633 he 
was admitted minister of Bethelnay, Old 
Meldrum, Aberdeenshire, and was presented 
to the charge by Charles I in June 1636. 
His name appears in the list of assemblies of 
1638-9. In 1642 he was deposed for forni- 
cation, but the sentence was rescinded in 
the following year, and he was recommended 
for a vacant place. It appears that he was 
again censured, as in November 1648 his 
status as a minister was restored. In 1651 
he was admitted minister of Innernochtie or 
Strathdon, and was in that charge in April 
1659 ; but as the parish was vacant in April 
1660, he probably died in the interim. He 
was twice married : first, in June 1624, to 
Margaret Tulliedeph, and secondly, in No- 
vember 1649, to Agnes Howisone. It is 
supposed that some of the "VVedderburns in 
Old Meldrum were his descendants. No 
literary works by him have been identified. 
In Maidment's ' Catalogue of Scotish 
Writers,' the ' Meditationum Campestrium ' 
written by David Wedderburn is wrongly j 
ascribed to William (ScoiT, Fasti, iii. 563, 

[The Wedderburn Book (privately printed 
1898), i. 477-8 ; Anderson's Records of Maris- 
chal College, passim ; Collections for Hist, of 
Aberdeen and Banff (Spalding Club); Extracts 
from Council Register of Aberdeen, 1-570-1625 
(Spalding Club) ; Misc. of Spalding Club, vol. v. ; 
Cat. of the Advocates' Library, 1 776 ; Chambers's 
Eminent Scotsmen ; Millar's Roll of Eminent 
Burgesses of Dundee ; manuscript Aberdeen 
Parish Register.] A. H. M. 

1553), Scottish poet, was eldest son of James 
Wedderburn, merchant in Dundee (described 
in documents as ' at the West Kirk Style ' 
to distinguish him from others of the name), 
and of Janet Barry, sister of John Barry, 
vicar of Dundee. He was born in Dundee 
about 1495, and matriculated at St. Andrews 
University in 1514. He was enrolled as a 
burgess of Dundee in 1517, and was intended 
to take up his father's occupation as a mer- 
chant. While at St. Leonard's College, St. 
Andrews, he had come under the influence 
of Gavin Logic, one of the leading reformers, 
and he afterwards took an active part against 
Romanism. After leaving the university he 
was sent to Dieppe and Rouen, where it is 
probable that a branch of the Wedderburn 
family was settled in commerce. Returning 
to Dundee, he wrote two plays a tragedy on 
the beheading of John the Baptist, and a 
comedy called ' Dionysius the Tyrant ' in 
which he satirised the abuses in the Romish 

church. These plays were performed in the 
open air at the Playfield, near the west port 
of Dundee, in 1539-40 ; but they have not 
been preserved, though from references made 
to them by Calderwood and others they seem 
to have given much offence to ruling eccle- 
siastics. About this time, in conjunctioi 
with his brothers John and Robert, he wrote 
a number of sacred parodies on popular 
ballads, which were published apparently at 
first as broadsheet ballads, and were after- 
wards collected and issued in 1567, uider 
the title ' Ane Compendious Booke of Godly 
and Spirituall Songs collected out of surdrie 
partes of the Scripture, with sundrie of 
other Ballates changed out of proptaine 
sanges, for avoyding of sinne and harlotrie, 
with augmentation of sundrie gude and godlie 
Ballates not contenit in the first editioun.' 
Only one copy of the edition of 1567 is known 
to exist, and there is no clue to the date of 
the first edition referred to on its title-page. 
As some of the songs plainly refer to inci- 
dents that took place in Scotland about 1540, 
the theory that these were circulated as 
broadsheets is not unreasonable. According 
to Calderwood, James Wedderburn ' counter- 
footed the conjuring of a ghost' in a drama, 
which seemed to reflect upon James V, whose 
confessor, Father Laing, had scandalised the 
king by some mummery of this kind. Pos- 
sibly this was the cause that action was 
taken against Wedderburn as a heretic, for 
in 1539 he was ' delated to the king, and 
letters of caption directed against him,' but 
he managed to escape to France, returning 
to Dieppe or Rouen and resuming his com- 
mercial occupation. An unsuccessful attempt 
was made by the Scottish factors there to 
have him prosecuted by the bishop of Rouen, 
and he remained in France until his death 
in 1553, not 1565, as sometimes stated. The 
date is proved by the return of his son John 
as heir to his father in October 1553. 
AVedderburn married before 1528 Janet, 
daughter of David Forrester in Nevay, by 
whom he had three sons ; of these John (d. 
November 1569) was grandfather of James 
Wedderburn [q.v.], bishop of Dunblane (Reg. 
Magni Sigilli Rey. Scot. 1513-46, Nos. 539, 
1280, 1311). 

His brother, JOHN WEDDERBTJRUT (1500?- 
1556), the second son of James Wedderburn 
and Janet Barry, was born in Dundee about 
1500. He studied at the psedagogium (after- 
wards St. Mary's College), St. Andrews, 
graduated B.A.'in 1520 and M.A. in 1528. 
While at college he came under the teaching 
of John Major (1469-1550) [q.v.] and Patrick 
Hamilton [q.v.] the martyr, and, like his elder 
brother, became an ardent reformer. Return- 




ing to Dundee, he was placed under the 
tuition of Friar Hewat of the Dominican 
monastery there, and he took orders as a priest. 
He was chaplain of St. Matthew's Chapel, 
Dundee, in 1532. Having the gift of poesy, 
he joined with his two brothers, James and 
Robert, in composing ballads directed against 
Romanism, and in 1538-9 he was accused of 
heresy. It is not known whether he stood 
his trial, but he was certainly convicted and 
his goods forfeited and given over to his 
youngest brother Henry, on payment of a 
small sum to the king's treasury. About 
1540 Wedderburn made his way to the con- 
tinent, and remained some time at Wittem- 
berg, then the chief centre of the reformers. 
In 1542 he returned to Scotland, and, in con- 
junction with John Scott or Scot (Jl. 1550) 
[q. v.], printer in Dundee, began publishing 
the ballads which he and his two brothers 
had composed against the Romish religion. 
That he had the largest share in writing 
these ballads seems probable from the fact 
that many of them are framed on German 
models with which he would be familiar. 
It was expected, after the death of James V, 
that the governor Arran would be favourable 
to the protestants, but this hope was not 
realised, and several acts of parliament were 
passed forbidding the publication of these 
ballads, which were known as ' the Dundee 
Psalms.' Wedderburn was in Dundee in 
the early part of 1546, but was forced to flee 
to England in that year to avoid prosecution, 
and he died there in exile in 1556. 

Another brother, ROBERT WEDDEEBTJBN 
(1510?-! 557?), the third son of James 
Wedderburn and Janet Barry, was also born 
in Dundee about 1510. He entered St. Leo- 
nard's College, St. Andrews, in 1526, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1529 and M.A. in 1530 with 
special honours. In 1528 the reversion of St. 
Katherine's Chapel, Dundee, was given to 
him, though he was then under age. He took 
orders as a priest, and ultimately succeeded 
his uncle, John Barry, as vicar of Dundee; 
but before he secured that benefice he fell 
under suspicion of heresy, and, like his 
brothers, was forced to take refuge on the 
continent. He went to Paris, probably in 
1534 or 1536, and attended the university 
there, and it is said that he also spent some 
time at Wittemberg, where his brother John 
joined him, and where there were many Scot- 
tish protestant refugees. He remained abroad 
till 1546, when the death of Cardinal Beaton 
seemed to promise safety in Scotland for the 
protestants. It is difficult to discover when 
he became vicar of Dundee. A document in 
Dundee charter-room refers to him as hold- 
ing that office in 1532, but John Barry was 

vicar after that date, and it is likely that 
Wedderburn did not come into the benefice 
till after 1546. He was certainly vicar in 
1552, and he died between 1555 and 1560. 
By a deed recorded in the register of the 
great seal, 13 Jan. 1552-3, his two illegiti- 
mate sons, David and Robert, were legiti- 
mised. Their mother was Isobel Lovell, who 
married David Cant in 1560 and died shortly 
before 1587. 

It is not possible to identify the different 
psalms and songs contributed by the three 
Wedderburns to the ' Compendious Book.' 
A thorough examination of that collection 
and an exhaustive account of it will be found 
in the edition issued by the Scottish Text 
Society, annotated, with introduction by 
emeritus professor A. F. Mitchell, D.D. In. 
the same volume there is an account of the 
evidence which led Dr. David Laing and 
others to ascribe ' Vedderburn's Complaynt 
of Scotland,' published in 1548, to Robert 

[Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum, 
1513-46 and 1546-80; Calderwood's Hist, of 
the Kirk, Wodrow edit. i. 141-3; Millar's Roll 
of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee, p. 21 ; Max- 
well's Old Dundee prior to the Reformation, 
p. 145 ; Dr. A. F. Mitchell's edition of A 
Compendious Book of Godly and Spiritual Songs 
(Scottish Text Soe.) ; The Wedderburn Book 
(privately printed 1898), pp. 14, 16, 22; Julian's 
Diet, of Hymnology; Millar's Compt Buik of 
David Wedderburn (Scot. Hist. Soc.) ; McCrie's 
Life of Knox, App. H ; Lamb's Dundee, its 
Quaint and Historic Buildings.] A. H. M. 

WEDDERBURN, JAMES (1585-1639), 

bishop of Dunblane, was the second son of 
John Wedderburn, mariner and shipowner, 
Dundee, and Margaret Lindsay. James 
I Wedderburn (1495 ?-l 553) [q.v.] was his 
I great-grandfather. He was born at Dundee 
; in 1585, and began his collegiate course at 
; St. Andrews University, matriculating in 
j 1604, graduating in 1608, and removing 
thence to one of the English universities. 
i Wood states that Wedderburn studied at Ox- 
ford, but his name does not occur in the 
registers; and Heylyn, in his ' Life of Wil- 
liam Laud, Archbishop,' gives Cambridge as 
the university. He was at one time tutor to 
the children of Isaac Casaubon, and among 
the Burney manuscripts in the British Mu- 
seum there are several letters from him to 
Casaubon and to his son Meric, the latter 
having been Wedderburn's special pupil. 
Wedderburn took orders in the Anglican 
church, was minister at Harstone in 1615, 
and was closely associated with Laud in 
the preparation of the liturgy for the Scot- 
tish church. He was professor of divinity in. 



St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, in 1617, and 
had obtained his degree of D.D. before January 
1623, as at that time, in conjunction with 
Principal Howie, he introduced the liturgy 
at the college, in compliance with the orders 
of the king (CALDEKWOOD, Hist, of the Kirk, 
Wodrow Soc. vii. 569). In February 1626 
he was appointed rector of Compton, diocese 
of Winchester, and was collated canon of Elv 
before Christmas 1626. On 12 Sept. 1628 
the king presented him to the vicarage of 
Mildenhall, diocese of Norwich. He was ap- 
pointed prebendary of Whitchurch in the 
bishopric of Bath andWells on 26 May 1631 
(LE NEVE, Fasti, i. 203, 3(50). He became 
dean of the Chapel Royal, Stirling, in Octo- 
ber 1635. On 11 Feb. 1636 he was preferred 
to the see of Dunblane, in succession to Adam 
Bellenden, promoted to the bishopric of Aber- 
deen. He must have retained the prebend of 
Whitchurch, as no successor was appointed 
until 1 July 1638 ( Wells Cath. MSS. in Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. iii. 260). When the 
Glasgow assembly of 1 3 Dec. 1638 deposed the 
bishops, Wedderburn was expressly included 
in the excommunication, because ' he had 
been a confidential agent of Laud, archbishop 
of Canterbury, in introducing the new liturgy 
and popish ceremonies.' He fled to England, 
in company with other Scottish bishops, and 
found protection from his patron, Laud ; but 
he did not long survive his deprivation. He 
died at Canterbury on 23 Sept. 1639, and 
was buried in the chapel of the Virgin Mary 
in the cathedral there. There is a portrait of 
the bishop, by Jamieson, at Birkhill, Fife- 
shire, reproduced in 'The Wedderburn Book.' 
In Scott's ' Fasti ' he is said to have written 
'A Treatise of Reconciliation.' 

[Keith's Catalogue of Bishops ; Millar's Roll 
of Eminent Burgesses, p. 52 ; The Wedderburn 
Book (privately printed, 1898), i. 28; Millar's 
Compt Buik of DavidWedderburn (Scottish Hist. 
Soc.); Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, ii. 418; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England, vii. 290, viii. 311 ; 
Scott's Fasti, ii. 840 ; Laud's Works ; Eogers's 
Hist, of the Chapel Eoyal in Scotland, p. 190.] 

A. H. M. 

1679), physician, was the fifth son of Alex- 
ander Wedderburn of Kingennie, town clerk 
of Dundee, and Helen, daughter of Alexander 
Ramsay of Brachmont in Fife, and was born 
at Dundee in 1599. He matriculated at St. 
Andrews University in 1615, graduated in 
1618, and was professor of philosophy there in 
1620-30. Having chosen the medical profes- 
sion, he rapidly attained an eminent position. 
He was appointed physician to the king, was 
knighted, and obtained a pension of two thou- 
sand pounds Scots from Charles I, which 

1 was confirmed to him by Charles II. Fol- 
lowing the example of his kinsman and name- 
sake, brother of James Wedderburn (1585- 
1639) [q. v.], who was then a distinguished 
physician in Moravia, Wedderburn prose- 
cuted his medical studies on the continent, 
and was with the prince (Charles II) in Hol- 
land. On 9 April 1646 he was incorporated 
M.D. of Oxford University, upon the recom- 
mendation of the chancellor. He acquired a 
large fortune, and gave so liberally to his 
i two nephews that one, Sir Alexander [q.v.], 
acquired the estate of Blackness, while the 
i other, Sir Peter [q. v.], bought Gosford in 
' East Lothian in 1059. At Gosford Sir John 
lived in partial retirement from 1662 till his 
death in July 1679, and was probably buried 
in the churchyard of Aberlady. He was un- 
married. By his will he bequeathed his ex- 
tensive and valuable library to St. Leonard's 
College, St. Andrews University. 

A portrait of him is at Meredith, in the 
possession of Sir William Wedderburn. It 
; is reproduced in ' The Wedderburn Book.' 

[Millar's Koll of Eminent Burgesses, p. 54 ; 
Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, ii. 188, 418 ; Wood's 
I Fasti Oxon. ii. 92. The genealogy of the Wed- 
I derburns in Douglas's Baronage is very incorrect; 
i the most complete and authentic accounts are 
I given in the Compt Buik of David We.dderburne 
| (Scot. Hist. Soc.) and in The Wedderburn Book, 
I 1898, i. I3'2.] A. H. M. 

| 1746), bart., of Blackness, Jacobite, born on 
: 4 Aug. 1704, eldest son of Sir Alexander 
I Wedderburu, fourth baronet (cr. August 
I 1704), by Katherine, daughter of John Scott, 
j merchant, of Dundee, was taken prisoner at 
| Culloden. Sir Alexander Wedderburn [q. v.] 
was his great-grandfather. His father had. 
been deprived of the town clerkship of Dun- 
dee in 1717, and on his death in 1741 the 
family estates had to be sold, and the son 
lived in great poverty. According to Sir 
John's own account, he was seized by the 
rebels and compelled to join them by force ; 
it was clearly proved that he had been con- 
cerned in levying excise for their use. He 
also joined the rebels as a soldier, was pre- 
sent at the battle of Falkirk, was seen on 
the retreat from Stirling, and in a return of 
rebel officers and soldiers prisoners in In- 
verness, 19 April 1746 his name appears as 
' Sir John Wedderburn of Elcho's lifeguards. 
He was found guilty of treason, and executed 
on Kennington Common on 28 Nov. 1746. 
His title and his estate of Blackness were 
| forfeited. By Jean, eldest daughter of John 
, Fullerton of that ilk, he had three surviving 
i sons and four daughters. His eldest son, 
j John, was father of David of Ballindean, who 




was created a baronet of the United King- 
dom in 1803, and became postmaster-general 
of Scotland. 

[Historical Papers relating to the Jacobite 
Period (New Spalding Club), 1896; List of 
Persons concerned in the Eebellion in 1745 
(Scottish History Soc.), 1890; Douglas's Scottish 
Baronage, p. 282 ; Burke's Peerage and Baronet- 
age ; Webster's G enealogical Account of the Wed- 
derburn Family (privately printed at Nantes), 
1819.] T. F. H. 

1679), Scottish judge, was the third son of 
James Wedderburn, town clerk of Dundee. 
Sir Alexander Wedderburn [q. v.] was his 
elder brother. He was born at Dundee about 
1616, and was educated at St. Andrews, 
where he graduated M.A. in 1636. He was 
admitted advocate on 19 Jan. 1642, and 
speedily attained prominence at the bar. In 
January 1658-9 he acquired theestate of Gos- 
ford, Haddingtonshire, from Sir Alexander 
Auchmuty, not, as is stated in Douglas's 
' Baronage,' from his uncle, Sir John Wedder- 
burn [q. v.], who advanced money for the 
purpose as he had no children and had de- 
cided to make Peter his heir. Wedderburn 
remained firmly attached to the royalists 
during the civil war ; and at the Restoration 
he was knighted and made keeper of the 
signet for life, with power to appoint deputies. 
In July 1661 he was appointed clerk to the 
privy council, and on 17 June 1668 he was 
raised to the bench as an ordinary lord of 
session, with the title of Lord Gosford. He 
represented the constabulary of Hadding- 
ton in the conventions almost continuously 
from 1661 until 1674. He died at Gosford 
on 11 Nov. 1679. He married, first, in 
1649, Christian Gibson, by whom he had 
one son, who died in infancy ; and secondly, 
in 1653, Agnes, daughter of John Dick- 
son, Lord Hartree of session, and had five 
sons and four daughters. The second son, 
Peter (1658-1746), assumed the name of 
Halkett on marrying Jane, daughter of Sir 
Charles Halkett, and heiress of her brother, 
Sir James Halkett ; he is represented by Sir 
Peter Arthur Halkett of Pitfirrane, bart. 
Sir Peter Wedderburn's third son was grand- 
father of Alexander Wedderburn, first earl 
of Rosslyn [q. v.] Lord Gosford published 
' A Collection of Decisions of the Court of 
Session from 1 June 1668 till July 1677,' 
which is still accepted as authoritative. He 
was regarded as an eloquent advocate and 
an upright judge, ' whose deeds were prompted 
by truthfulness, and whose law was directed 
by justice and sympathy.' 

A portrait of Sir Peter is in the possession 
of Sir William Wedderburn at Meredith, 

and is reproduced in ' The WedderburnBook.' 
Another portrait was at Leslie House, and 
was sold in 1886. 

[Brunton and Haig's Senators of the Col- 
lege of Justice, p. 394 ; Millar's Roll of Eminent 
Burgesses of Dundee, pp. 163, 196; The Wedder- 
burn Book (privately printed, 1898), p. 363; 
Millar's ComptBuik of David Wedderburn (Scot- 
tish Hist. Soc.); Douglas's Baronage.] A. H.M. 

WEDGE, JOHN HELDER(1 792-1872), 
colonial statesman, was born in England in 
1792. He arrived in Tasmania in 1827, 
having received an appointment in the sur- 
vey department. In 1828 he was ordered 
by government to make a preliminary survey 
of the country before the patent of the grant 
about to be made to the Van Diemen's Land 
Company was settled. In accordance with 
his report the grant to the company was in- 
creased from 250,000 to 350,000 acres, but 
his recommendation to reserve land at Emu 
Bay for a township was disregarded, though 
it was the only site suitable for a port not 
already in the company's possession. Some 
years later with Frankland, the surveyor- 
general, he explored the country from the 
headwaters of the Derwent to Fort Davey, 
tracing the Huon river from its source. In 
1835 he went to Port Phillip as agent for a 
syndicate of fifteen Tasmanians to take up a 
large tract of land in the territory of what 
is now Victoria. Six hundred thousand 
acres were purchased by Wedge from the 
natives before the syndicate's expedition, led 
by John Pascoe Fawkner [q. v.], arrived. 
The purchase \vas disallowed by the Sydney 
government, though at a later period the 
syndicate received a grant of land in partial 
compensation, Wedge selling his share in 
1854 for 18,000/. While at Port Phillip he 
aided in rescuing William Buckley (1780- 
1856) [q.v,], who had lived over thirty years 
among the Australian natives. After the 
collapse of this syndicate Wedge visited 
England, returning in 1843, with Francis 
Russell Nixon [q. v.], bishop of Tasmania, 
as manager of the Christ College estate at 
Bishopsbourne. In 1855 he was elected mem- 
ber of the Tasmanian legislative council for 
the district of Morven, and in 1856 for the 
district of North Esk. He was a member of 
the cabinet without office in Thomas George 
Gregson's short ministry from 26 Feb. to 
25 April 1857. At a later date he repre- 
sented Hobart, and afterwards the Huon in 
the legislative council, retaining his seat 
until his death. For many years he resided 
on his estate, Leighlands, near Perth, but in 
1865 removed to the estate of Medlands, on 
the river Forth, where he died on 22 Nov. 
1872. In 1843 he married an English lady 




who came to Tasmania with Bishop Nixon. 
She died soon after her marriage, leaving no 

[Hobart Mercury, 26 Nov. 1872 ; Mennell's 
Australasian Biogr. 1892; Fenton's Hist, of 
Tasmania, 1884, pp. 79, 80. 128, 131, 271, 292; 
Labilliere's Early Hist, of Victoria, 1878, pp. 
50, 54, 60, 65, 70.] E. I. C. 

1891), philologist, grandson of Josiah Wedg- 
wood [q. v.] of Etruria. was the youngest 
son of Josiah Wedgwood of Maer Hall, Staf- 
fordshire. He was born at Gunville, Dorset, 
in 1803, and educated at Rugby. He matri- 
culated from St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and graduated from Christ's College B.A. 
in 1824 and M.A. in 1828. He took a high 
mathematical degree (1824); but in the classi- 
cal tripos, initiated the same year, his name 
occupied the last place, giving occasion to 
the title (' the wooden wedge ') by which 
the classical equivalent of the mathematical 
' wooden spoon ' continued to be known for 
sixty years. After leaving Cambridge he 
read for the chancery bar, but never prac- 
tised, and in 1832 he was appointed police 
magistrate at Lambeth. This gave occasion 
to the most characteristic action of his life. 
Becoming convinced that the administration 
of oaths was inconsistent with the injunc- 
tions of the New Testament, he in 1837 re- 
signed his office, in spite of the expostula- 
tions of his friends, stating his decision to his 
father in words which deserve to be put on 
record : ' I think it very possible that it may 
be lawful for a man to take a judicial oath, 
but I feel that it is not lawful for me, and there 
is no use in letting 800/. a year persuade 
one's conscience.' The loss of income was 
partially recovered in the following year by 
his appointment to the post of registrar of 
metropolitan carriages, which he held till 
its abolition in 1849. 

Wedgwood's career as a scholar had in 
the meantime commenced with two small 
treatises on ' The Principles of Geometrical 
Demonstration ' (1844) and ' On the Develop- 
ment of the Understanding ' (1848), neither 
of them devoid of acuteness; and the keen , 
interest in psychological processes which in- 
spired them was the chief determining factor 
in the philological studies by which he first 
became well known. One of the original 
members of the Philological Society (founded 
in 1842), he published in 1857 his ' Dictionary 
of English Etymology,' a work far in advance 
of all its predecessors, displaying an extra- 
ordinary command of linguistic material and 
great natural sagacity, marred by imperfect 
acquaintance with the discoveries of philo- 
logical science. Much attention, and at first 

considerable ridicule, were excited by the 
elaborate introduction, in which he energeti- 
cally combated the theory, then recently 
advanced by Professor Max Miiller, that 
language originated in a series of ultimate 
and irresoluble roots, spontaneously created 
by primitive man as expressions for his ulti- 
mate and irresoluble ideas. Wedgwood's 
own view, which regarded language as the 
elaborated imitation of natural sounds, un- 
doubtedly accorded better with the positive 
instincts of modern philology ; and his in- 
troduction, though abounding in untenable 
equations, is a document of great value. Two 
years later his theory was placed in a new 
and suggestive light by the publication of 
his cousin Charles Darwin's ' Origin of 
Species.' When, in 1881, Professor Skeat 
completed his ' Etymological Dictionary,' 
Wedgwood was among its ablest critics ; and 
his volume of 'Contested Etymologies '(1882) 
deservedly exercised a considerable and 
mainly beneficial effect upon the second edi- 
tion (cf. Prof. Skeat's work). In his last 
years AVedgwood became a confirmed spiri- 
tualist and contributed to the periodical 
' Light.' Personally, he was a man of ex- 
treme modesty. His reputation came un- 
sought, and he saw with unqualified sym- 
pathy the final triumph of the movement for 
the remission of the compulsory oath, a move- 
ment in which his own early efforts were 
forgotten. He died on 2 June 1891 at his 
house in Gower Street. He married, in 
1832, Frances, daughter of Sir James Mackin- 
tosh, by whom he had six children. 

[Information and letters in the possession of 
the Wedgwood family.] C. H. H. 

WEDGWOOD, JOSIAH (1730-1795), 
potter, thirteenth and youngest child of 
Thomas and Mary Wedgwood (born Stringer), 
was baptised in the parish church of Burslem, 
Staffordshire, on 12 July 1730. He was 
the fourth in descent from Gilbert Wedg- 
wood of the Mole in Biddulph, born in 1588, 
who settled in Burslem about 1612, when 
he married Margaret, one of the two daugh- 
ters and coheirs of Thomas Burslem. This 
Gilbert was a great-great-grandson of John 
Wedgwood of Dunwood, whose marriage 
took place in 1470. The Wedgwoods were 
a prolific race, so that, in spite of the pos- 
session of some property in lands and houses, 
it was necessary for the cadet branches of 
the family to make a living by adopting the 
staple occupation of the district. Thus it 
came to pass that Josiah Wedgwood's father, 
as well as several of his uncles and cousins, 
were potters some masters, some journey- 
men. Before Josiah had completed his ninth 



year his father died, and the boy's school 
career, such as it was, closed. He at once 
began work at Burslem in the pottery of his 
eldest brother, Thomas, and soon became an 
expert ' thrower ' on the wheel. An attack of 
virulent smallpox when he was about eleven 
greatly enfeebled him, particularly affecting 
his right knee. However, on 11 Nov. 1744, 
when Josiah was in his fifteenth year, he 
was apprenticed for five years to his brother 
Thomas. Unfortunately so it seemed at 
the time he was soon compelled, by a re- 
turn of the weakness in his knee, to abandon 
the thrower's bench and to occupy himself 
with other departments of the potter's art. 
He thus obtained a wider insight into the 
many practical requirements of his craft, 
learning, for instance, the business of a 
' modeller,' and fashioning various imitations 
of onyx and agate by the association of 
differently coloured clays. Towards the 
close of his apprenticeship Josiah developed 
a love for original experimenting, which 
was not appreciated by his master and eldest 
brother, who declined on the expiry of his 
indentures to take him into partnership. 
The young and enthusiastic innovator was 
not fortunate in his next step, when he 
joined about 3751 Thomas Alders and 
John Harrison in a small pot-works at 
Cliff Bank, near Stoke. He succeeded, 
indeed, in improving the quality and in- 
creasing the out-turn of the humble pot- 
tery, but his copartners did not appreciate 
nor adequately recompense the efforts of one 
who was so much in advance of them in 
mental power and artistic perception. A 
more congenial position was, however, soon 
offered to him by a worthy master-potter, 
Thomas Whieldon of Feiiton. With this 
new partner Wedgwood worked for about 
six years, until the close of 1758, when he 
decided to start in business on his own ac- 
count. On 30 Dec. in that year he engaged 
for five years the services of Thomas AVedg- 
wood, a second cousin, then living at Wor- 
cester, and practising there as a journeyman 
potter. There is no doubt that the wares 
(especially those having green and tortoise- 
shell glazes) made during the period of col- 
laboration between Thomas Whieldon and 
Josiah Wedgwood owed much of their dis- 
tinctive character to improvements effected 
by the young potter. 

It was probably during the first half of 
1759 that Wedgwood, now in his twenty- 
ninth year, became a master-potter. His 
capital was extremely small ; but he knew 
his strength, and ventured to take on lease 
a small pot-works in Burslem, part of the 
premises belonging to his cousins John and 

Thomas Wedgwood. Although the annual 
rent paid for this Ivy House Works was 
but 10/., this sum did not represent its 
market value. The kilns and buildings 
soon became unequal to the demands made 
upon them. More accommodation was 
wanted, not only for an increased number of 
workmen, but also for carrying out the 
modern system of division of labour which 
W T edgwood was introducing, and for im- 
proved methods of manipulation. But the 
master-potter himself was everything and 
everywhere, and not only superintended all 
departments, but was the best workman in 
the place, making most of the models, pre- 
paring the mixed clays, and of course acting 
as clerk and warehouseman. Yet Wedg- 
wood saw the impossibility of conducting 
upon the old lines the factory which he had 
begun to develop. He could not tolerate 
the want of system, the dirt and the muddle, 
which were common characteristics of the 
workers in clay. But Wedgwood introduced 
much more than method and cleanliness into 
his factory. Dissatisfied with the clumsi- 
ness of the ordinary crockery of his day, he 
aimed at higher finish, more exact form, less 
redundancy of material. He endeavoured to 
modify the crude if nai've and picturesque 
decorative treatment of the common wares 
by the influence of a cultivated taste and of 
a wider knowledge of ornamental art. Such 
changes were not effected without some loss 
of those individual and human elements 
which gave life to many of the rougher 
products of English kilns during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. But there 
was much to be said on the other side. 
Owing to their uniformity in size and sub- 
stance, dozens of Wedgwood's plates could 
be piled up without fear of collapse from 
unequal pressure. In glaze and body his 
useful wares were well adapted for their 
several purposes. And then the forms and 
contours of the different pieces showed per- 
fect adjustment to their use : lids fitted, 
spouts poured, handles could be held. Al- 
though it is not to be assumed that all these 
improvements and developments took place 
during the first few years of Wedgwood's 
career as an independent manufacturer, yet 
they were begun during his occupancy of the 
Ivy House Works. That his business rapidly 
became profitable may be concluded from 
the fact that in the course of 1760, less 
than two years after Wedgwood had begun 
his labours at the Ivy House Works, he 
was able to make a gift double that of 
most of the smaller master-potters of Burs- 
lem towards the establishment of a second 
free school. And very soon after this date 




Wedgwood paid much attention to the im- 
provement of the means of communication 
by road in the potteries, giving evidence 
before a parliamentary committee in 1763, 
and subscribing in 1765 the sum of 500/. 
towards making new roads. Later on he 
took an important part in the development 
of the local canal system, seeing very clearly 
how necessary for the trade of the district 
were easy communication and rapid transit 
of raw materials and of goods by water as 
well as by land between the chief places of 
production and of distribution. 

About 1762, when he was appointed queen's 
potter, Wedgwood, finding it necessary to 
secure additional accommodation, rented the 
Brick House and Works in Burslem. These 
he occupied until his final removal to Etruria 
in 1773. In 1766 Thomas Wedgwood, who 
had been employed in the factory since 1759, 
was taken into partnership. In the same 
year Josiah Wedgwood acquired for 3,00(W. 
a suitable site between Burslem and Stoke- 
upon-Trent for a new factory and residence. 
Later on he added considerably to this do- 
main, and built thereon for his workmen a 
village, to which he gave the name Etruria, 
as well as the mansion Etruria Hall and an 
extensive and well-equipped pot-works. The 
new Etruria factory was opened on 13 June 
1769, just ten years after Wedgwood had first 
started in business entirely on his own ac- 
count. Doubtless the sale of useful ware 
as distinguished from ornamental furnished 
Wedgwood with the funds at his disposal. 
For during the decade 1759-69 he had been 
continually improving the cream-coloured 
earthenware, as well as several other ceramic 
bodies of less importance. Wedgwood, we 
know, was well acquainted with what other 
potters in England had already achieved. 
The ingenious processes and beautiful pro- 
ductions of John Philip Elers [q. v.] were 
familiar to him ; he used the slip-kiln intro- 
duced by Ralph Shaw, the liquid glaze or 
dips employed by Enoch Booth, and the 
plaster-of-paris moulds described by Ralph 
Daniel. Many patented and secret processes 
connected with the ceramic industry had I 
been devised in the forty years 1720-60. 
Wedgwood adopted or improved many of 
them, adding novel elements derived from 
his own careful and numerous experiments, 
and from his own acute powers of observa- 
tion. Wedgwood was not a great chemist 
in the modern sense, for chemistry in his day 
was very imperfectly developed. But his 
trials of methods and materials were carried 
out in the exhaustive spirit of true scientific 
inquiry, and brought about many improve- 
ments. His good taste and his endeavour 

after purity of material and finish of form 
bore good fruit. He rapidly acquired some- 
thing more than a local reputation. The 
products of his kilns were esteemed for their 
adaptation to their several uses, the variety 
and elegance of their shapes, the delicacy 
and sobriety of their colouring, and the 
propriety of their decoration. These remarks 
apply especially to the cream ware, after- 
j wards known as queen's ware. This was 
j not brought to perfection until about 1768 
j or 1769, when the English patents of Brancas- 
Lauraguais (1 760) and William Cookworthy 
[q. v.] (1768) had directed attention to the 
I true china-clay of Cornwall. But before 
that date Wedgwood had succeeded in im- 
' proving the texture and colour of his cream 
J ware, and in preventing its glaze from be- 
coming crazed through contracting more 
than the body after being fired in the kiln. 
This last improvement was effected by adding 
both pipeclay and ground flint to the lead 
compound previously used alone for glazing 
purposes. But Wedgwood's early advances 
were not confined to cream ware. He 
turned his attention to the black composition 
known as Egyptian black, a rough product 
which, under the name of black basaltes, 
acquired in Wedgwood's hands a richer hue, 
a finer grain, and a smoother surface. Its 
density was high (2'9), and it took a fine 
polish on the lapidary's wheel. Of it were 
fashioned many objects of decoration, as well 
as of utility. Inkstands, seals, tea equipages, 
salt-cellars, candlesticks, life-size busts, vases, 
relief-plaques, and medallion portraits of 
' illustrious ancients and moderns' were made 
in this body, which was sometimes decorated 
with ' encaustic ' colours, silvering, gilding, 
or bronzing. The encaustic colours were 
enamels without gloss, and were employed 
chiefly on black basalt vases imitative of 
Greek work. Although the examples avail- 
able for copying generally belonged to a 
period of poor art ; and although the effect 
of the encaustic colours was often marred 
by weak drawing and a vulgar modernity of 
style, still the body was choicer and the 
potting more accomplished than any similar 
work done by Wedgwood's immediate pre- 
decessors. Besides cream-coloured earthen- 
ware and black basaltes, another \vare im- 
proved by Wedgwood was the variegated or 
marbled. This was of two kinds, one coloured 
throughout its entire substance by means of 
the association, in various twistings and 
foldings, of two or more clays burning to 
different hues in the kiln. This kind of 
ware, though improved during his partner- 
ship with Whieldon, cannot be regarded as 
a characteristic product of Wedgwood's la- 




bours. But with the other kind of variegated 
ware the case is different. This was cream 
ware, or later on a kind of stone ware, irregu- 
larly and picturesquely veined and mottled 
merely on the surface in imitation of various 
kinds of granite, porphyry, jasper, agate, and 
marble. It was largely used for vases, and 
was distinctly in advance of anything pre- 
viously produced in this direction. A fourth 
ceramic body made by Wedgwood was pro- 
bably a new departure. It was a kind of 
unglazed semi-porcelain, used occasionally 
for the plinths of marbled vases and for 
early portrait-medallions. It possessed a 
marked degree of translucency and a smooth 
waxen surface ; but its usefulness was les- 
sened by a tendency to warp and crack in 
firing, and by the dulness and yellowish 
cast of its white. Its place was taken, and 
more than filled, in after years by the 
greatest inventive triumph among all Wedg- 
wood's improved wares, the jasper body. 
Of this more must be said presently, now 
one must be content with the bare mention 
of a fifth ware the various kinds of terra- 
cotta, cane-colour, bamboo, brick-red, choco- 
late, and sage-green. These were often used 
in relief of one hue upon a ground of 

At the time (1766) when Wedgwood was 
deeply occupied with the founding of the 
new Etruria, many other important matters 
engaged his attention. Among these the 
extension of the canal system to his locality 
ought to be named. Wedgwood's in- 
defatigable efforts, with his knowledge 
of the requirements of the potteries' dis- 
trict, had been of great use in settling sec- 
tions of the Grand Trunk Canal, in proving 
the weakness of rival schemes, and in gain- 
ing the approval of certain landowners. He 
was in frequent consultation with James 
Brindley [q. v.], the engineer, and with 
Francis Egerton, third duke of Bridge- 
water [q. v.] ; while his friends Erasmus 
Darwin [q. v.] and Thomas Bentley (1731- 
1780) [q. v.] helped his efforts by evidence 
and in writings and conferences when the 
bill was under discussion by a parliamentary 
committee. Finally the act received the 
royal assent on 14 May 1766. The Trent 
and Mersey Canal, which was opened in 
1777, and of which Josiah Wedgwood was 
first treasurer, passed through the Etruria 
estate and proved, as Wedgwood foresaw, of 
enormous benefit to the chief local industry. 
Another matter gave some trouble to Wedg- 
wood about the same time. His London show- 
room in Charles Street, Grosvenor Square, 
proved inadequate (and was indeed closed in 
October 1766), and it was not until August 

1768 that larger premises were secured in 
Newport Street, St. Martin's Lane. Just 
before this, on 28 May, Wedgwood had 
his right leg amputated, foreseeing that this 
useless and often painful member would 
prove a serious encumbrance in his en- 
larged sphere of work at Etruria, and on 
14 Nov. of the same year terms of partner- 
ship were finally arranged between Josiah 
Wedgwood and Thomas Bentley, the latter 
acquiring an equal share in the profits arising 
from the sale of ornamental as distinguished 
from useful ware. Wedgwood's letters to 
Bentley reveal the writer's appreciation of 
his partner's great services to the business, 
and show the innate refinement and amia- 
bility of Wedgwood's mind and character. 

The out-turn and sale of the products of 
Wedgwood's factory greatly increased after 
the opening of the Etruria works in 1769. 
The ornamental as well as the useful ware 
became better and better known and ap- 
preciated, not only in England but on the 
continent. But as yet the most original 
and most distinctive of the ceramic bodies 
invented by Wedgwood had not been 
produced. He was endeavouring to com- 
pound a paste of fine texture allied to true 
porcelain, but endued with certain pro- 
perties, which no hard or soft china 
previously made had possessed. He found 
the very substance required in certain mine- 
ral compounds of the earth baryta. The 
distinctive character of this earth seems to 
have been first made out in 1779 by 
Guyton de Morveau, while William Wither- 
ing [q. v.] four years afterwards recognised 
the same base in a mineral carbonate from 
Lead-hills, Lanarkshire. But Wedgwood 
so early as 1773 was making trials of both 
these minerals. He was puzzled by the 
apparently capricious behaviour of these two 
compounds, but learnt where to obtain and 
how to recognise the more important of the 
two, the sulphate of baryta or cawk, which 
became henceforth the chief and characteris- 
tic constituent of his 'jasper,' although a 
small quantity of the carbonate of baryta 
was occasionally added to the mixture. One 
of Wedgwood's early recipes for this new 
jasper body, when translated into percen- 
tages, approaches these figures sulphate of 
baryta 59, clay 29, flint 10, and carbonate 
of baryta 2. Within rather wider limits 
these proportions were varied with corre- 
sponding variations in the properties, 
texture, and appearance of the product. But 
the product was a ceramic novelty, a 
smooth paste of exquisite texture, without 
positive glass, yet so compact as to admit of 
being polished, like native jasper, on the 




lapidary's wheel; of varying degrees of 
sub-opacity to translucency, sometimes a 
dead white, sometimes of an ivory hue. 
But its chief charm was derived from its 
behaviour in the kiln with certain metallic 
oxides. By means of these the jasper body 
could be stained or coloured of various 
exquisite hues either on its surface-layer or 
throughout its substance. The oxide, 
whether that of cobalt for blue, of manga- 
nese for lilac, of iron for yellow, of iron and 
of cobalt for green, did not form a layer 
(as with enamel on porcelain) lying as an 
adherent film upon the paste, but became 
thoroughlv incorporated with the material 
to which "it was applied. But there were 
two methods of employing the chromatic 
constituent : it might be mingled uniformly 
with the body, forming solid jasper, or it 
might be used as a wash upon the surface, 
thus constituting jasper dip. The later 
method was invented in 1777, but came 
into general use after the death of Bentley 
in 1780 ; sometimes, as in jasper strap and 
chequer work, both methods were used on 
the same piece. Jasper was employed in 
the production of an immense variety of 
objects, portrait and other medallions and 
plaques, tea and coffee sets, salt-cellars, bulb 
and flower-pots, lamps and candlesticks, bell- 
pulls, scent-bottles, chessmen, and last and 
most esteemed of all, ornamental vases. The 
parts in relief, generally of white jasper, 
were separately formed in moulds and then 
affixed to the coloured body. Usually before 
firing, but sometimes after, corrections, un- 
dercutting, and further modelling could be 
given to the reliefs, and thus it happens that 
in many portrait cameos, plaques and vases, 
there are variations of excellence between 
different copies from the same mould. This 
remark applies particularly to the larger 
and more important pieces, such for in- 
stance as Wedgwood's remarkable reproduc- 
tion in jasper of the antique glass cameo 
vase known as the Barberini or Portland 
vase. No two copies of the very limited 
original issue (about 1790) of this vase are 
exactly alike, the differences not being con- 
fined to colour of the ground and quality of 
the white reliefs, but extending to the 
modelling and finish of the surfaces of the 
figures. Wedgwood's original price for his 
best copie? was fifty pounds, a sum which 
has been greatly exceeded in recent years, 
when copies have been sold for 173/., 
199/, 10s., and 2151. 5s. It may be here added 
that a jasper tablet, 28 inches by 11 inches, 
a sacrifice to Hymen, produced in 1787, was 
sold in 1880 for no less a sum than 415/. 
But the highest figure reached by a piece of 

jasper ware was in 1877, when a large 
black and white jasper-dip vase, decorated 
with the design of the ' Apotheosis of 
Homer,' fetched, with its pedestal, no less 
than 7351. It should be noted that Wedg- 
wood frequently polished on the wheel the 
edges of his cameos, and occasionally even 
the grounds or fields of his smallest pieces, 
thus closely imitating the appearance of 
natural engraved stones. 

It must not be thought that Wedgwood's 
energies were concentrated upon one variety 
of ornamental pottery, or that he failed to 

j develop the production of useful ware. His 
catalogues were indeed confined to decora- 

[ tive pieces, but their extensive distribution, 
not only in English, but in French, Dutch, 
and German translations, drew attention to 
his productions, such as his dinner services, 
which became extremely popular all over 
Europe. Wedgwood's agents were generally 
active in obtaining orders for both useful 
and ornamental wares, while home and 
foreign patronage, royal, noble, or distin- 

; guished, greatly extended his reputation 
and his business. The two dinner services 
finished in 1774 for the Empress Cathe- 
rine II of Russia consisted of 952 pieces, of 
cream-coloured ware, the decoration of 
which, in enamel with English views and 

I with ornamental leaf borders, added a sum 

j of over 2,000/. to the original cost of the 
plain services, which was under 52. 

Wedgwood's designs were drawn from 
numerous sources. Engravings, casts from 
antique and renaissance gems, the original 
work of many sculptors, English as well as 

| foreign, such as John Flaxman, L. F. Rou- 

j biliac, Henry Webber, AVilliam Hackwood, 
James Tassie, Keeling, Hollingshead, and 
Pacetti, with designs taken direct from an- 
cient vases and sculptures, furnished abun- 
dance of material. But Wedgwood was 
more than a mere chooser and employer of 
artists, a mere translator into clay of designs 
made by other hands in other materials, a 
mere copier of the antique. He possessed 
great power of adaptation, and an inventive 
faculty, which revealed itself not only in 
new materials and new methods, but in the 
origination of new forms. Into his selected 
designs, original or derivative, he infused 
something of his spirit and temper, and 
combined, wherever possible, beauty and 
utility. His work was distinguished by 
reticence in form and colour, and thus 
offered a marked contrast to the contem- 
porary productions of Chelsea and Wor- 
cester. In fact, no other potter of modern 
times so successfully welded into one har- 
monious whole the prose and the poetry of 



the ceramic art. Even if he has left us no 
works which we can call wholly his own, 
Ave know that he was a practical thrower, 
an expert modeller and an ingenious de- 
signer of new shapes ; and that his sense 
of beauty, his power of imagination, his 
shrewdness, skill, foresight, perseverance 
and knowledge enabled him to attain, in spite 
of the absence of school learning, an altogether 
unique position. His companionship and ad- 
vice were sought by men of the highest cul- 
tivation. But his reputation in his own day 
and in his own neighbourhood was due, not 
only to appreciation of the work which was 
the main occupation of his life, but to the 
generosity, public spirit, and high personal 
character, which were so conspicuous in 
Wedgwood. The most attractive products 
of his kilns were imitated, sometimes with a 
fair measure of success, by a host of potters 
during the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century and the first quarter of the nine- 
teenth, but the merit of initiating and carry- 
ing out on a very large scale a great tech- 
nical and artistic development of English 
earthenware remains with Wedgwood. His 
productions, with those of his immediate 
predecessors', his contemporaries, his rivals, 
imitators and successors, should be compared 
and contrasted not only in such public col- 
lections as those of the South Kensington 
Museum, the Museum of Practical Geology, 
and the British Museum, in London, but 
also by the study of the Tangye Collection 
at Birmingham, the Mayer Collection at 
Liverpool, the Hulme Collection at Burslem, 
and the Joseph Collection in Nottingham 

Wedgwood's contributions to literature 
(other than private letters) are few. There 
is sound common-sense in his ' Address to 
the Young Inhabitants of the Pottery,' pub- 
lished in 1783 on the occasion of bread 
riots, and in another epistle to workmen 
relating to their entering the service of 
foreign manufacturers. His remarks on 
the bas-reliefs of the Portland vase are not 
valuable, while his criticism (1775) of 
Richard Champion's petition for an ex- 
tension of a patent for making porcelain 
would have been differently worded had 
he been acquainted with the real merits of 
Champion's case (for a review of the matter, 
see HITGH OWEN'S Two Centuries of Ceramic 
Art in Bristol, 1873, pp. 149-51). 

On 16 Jan. 1783 Wedgwood was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society. He contri- 
buted two papers on chemical subjects to 
the 'Philosophical Transactions' (1783 and 
1790), and three (in 1782, 1784, and 1786) 
on the construction and use of a pyro- 


meter, an ingenious invention for determin- 
ing and registering high temperatures by the 
measurement of the shrinkage suffered by 
cylinders of prepared clay in the furnace or 
kiln. This method, though still employed in 
some potteries, affords irregular results. On 
4 May 1786 Wedgwood was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries. He ex- 
hibited to the society on 6 May 1790 an 
early copy of the Barberini vase and read a 
paper thereon. In the same year he retired 
from some of the more arduous duties of his 
business. During this and the three subse- 
quent years his health gave frequent oc- 
casions for anxiety to his friends, but he 
was able to entertain a succession of con- 
genial visitors at Etruria Hall, to make 
longer excursions from home than before, 
and to divert himself by improving his 
grounds and by collecting books, engrav- 
ings and objects of natural history. But 
after a brief illness, the nature of which 
admitted from the outset of no hope of 
recovery, Josiah Wedgwood died at Etruria 
Hall on 3 Jan. 1795, at the age of sixty-four. 
His grave is in Stoke-on-Trent churchyard ; 
in the chancel there is a monument to his 
memory by Flaxman, with an inscription, 
which tells us that he ' converted a rude and 
inconsiderable manufactory into an elegant 
art and an important part of national 
commerce.' Wedgwood left more than 
half a million of money besides his large 
and flourishing business. His will, made on 
2 Nov. 1793, was proved on 2 July 1795 
(P. C. C. 484 Newcastle). He divided his 
substance mainly among his children, but 
did not forget the assistant who, since 1781, 
had helped him in his scientific work, 
leaving to Alexander Chisholm an annuity 
of 20/., an immediate gift of ten guineas 'as 
a testimony of regard ; ' and further desiring 
his ' son Josiah to make the remainder of his 
life easy and comfortable.' 

On 25 Jan. 1764, at Astbury in Cheshire, 
Wedgwood married Sarah Wedgwood, 
daughter of Richard Wedgwood of Spen 
Green, Cheshire. Mrs. Wedgwood and her 
husband were cousins in the third degree, 
their common great-great-grandfather being 
the Gilbert Wedgwood previously named. 
She was born on 18 Aug. 1734, and died on 
15 Jan. 1815. From the union there sprang 
seven children, three sons and four daugh- 
ters. The eldest child, Susannah, married 
Robert Waring Darwin, son of Dr. Erasmus 
Darwin [q. v.], and father of Charles Robert 
Darwin [q. v.] Wedgwood's third son, 
Thomas, is noticed separately. His second 
son, Josiah, had nine children. One of these 
was Hensleigh Wedgwood [q. v.], mathema- 




tician and philologist ; a daughter, Emma, 
married her first cousin, Charles Robert Dar- 
win. The works at Etruria are still carried 
on by a grandson and other descendants of 
the second Josiah Wedgwood. 

A good portrait of Wedgwood, painted in 
1783 by Sir Joshua Reynolds, now belongs 
to Miss Wedgwood of Leith Hill Place, 
Dorking ; it has been twice engraved, once 
in mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds. The Earl 
of Crawford owns an early copy in oil by 
John Rising. George Stubbs painted in 
oil a family picture with nine figures, four 
being on horseback, also a large portrait in 
enamel on earthenware : both these works 
are now in the possession of Mr. Godfrey 
Wedgwood. A portrait of Wedgwood on 
horseback, also painted in enamel on earthen- 
ware, is owned by Lord Tweedmouth ; an 
engraving of this picture is given in F. 
Rathbone's 'Old Wedgwood.' A cameo 
medallion-portrait, modelled by William 
Hackwood, was made at Etruria. On the 
monument in Stoke-on-Trent church there 
is a posthumous relief by Flaxman, while 
there is a modern bust by Fontana in the 
Wedgwood Memorial Institute at Burslem 
(founded 1863). A bronze statue of Wedg- 
wood is at Stoke close to the railway 
station ; it is the work of Mr. E. Davis, of 
London. It is belived that a wax cameo 
portrait of Wedgwood was executed shortly 
after 1781 by Eley George Mountstephen. 

[Among the sources used in preparing this : 
memoir are Meteyard's Life of Josiah Wedg- 
wood, 1865 ; Ward's Borough of Stoke-upon- 
Trent, 1843 ; Gatty'sCat. of Liverpool Art Club 
Loan Collection, 1879 ; F. Rathbone's Cat. of 
the Centenary Exhibition at Burslem, 1895 ; 
Church's Portfolio Monograph on Josiah 
Wedgwood, 1894. The Stafford Advertiser of 
29 June 1895 contains an account of the pro- 
ceedings at Burslem at the centenary of Josiah 
Wedgwood's death.] A. H. C. 

WEDGWOOD, THOMAS (1771-1805), 
the first photographer, born at Etruria Hall, 
Staffordshire, on 14 May 1771, was the third 
surviving son of Josiah Wedgwood [q. v.] 
He was educated almost entirely at home, 
but spent a few terms at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity between 1787 and 1789. For a very 
short while he worked energetically at the 
potteries, but was soon compelled by bad 
health to lead a wandering life in vain 
search of cure. 

The name of Thomas Wedgwood is chiefly 
remembered in connectioii with photography. 
It had long been knownithat nitrate and 
chloride of silver are affected by light under 
certain conditions, but the\ idea of making 
practical use of this property does not seem 

to have occurred to any one before it occurred 
I to Wedgwood. In the ' Journal of the Royal 
! Institution of Great Britain' for 1802 we find 
i ' An Account of a Method of copying Paint- 
: ings upon Glass, and of making Profiles by 
i the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver, 
invented by T. Wedgwood, esq., with Ob- 
servations by H. Davy ' [see DAVY, SIR HUM- 
PHRY]. Wedgwood showed that a copy or 
a silhouette of any object could be obtained, 
! when its shadow was thrown on a piece of 
white paper or leather which had been sensi- 
tised by being moistened with nitrate of 
' silver. In a similar manner a silhouette of 
a picture painted on glass could be ob- 
tained by placing the glass in the light of 
the sun upon the sensitised surface. The 
' primary end ' of his experiments was to ob- 
tain photographs in a camera obscura, but in 
this endeavour he was unsuccessful, as no 
effect could be obtained ' in any moderate 
time.' Moreover he failed to discover any 
method of fixing his picture, and the copies 
made had to be kept in the dark. Miss 
Meteyard tries to connect the Daguerre, 
whose name is known in connection with 
the Daguerrotype, with a certain Daguerre 
with whom Josiah Wedgwood had business 
dealings, and in this way to trace back the 
origin of these early French photographic 
inventions to Thomas Wedgwood; but it is 
probable that there is no justification what- 
ever for these surmises. Although Wedg- 
wood failed to discover a practical photo- 
graphic process, to him appears to be due 
the credit of first conceiving and publishing 
the idea of utilising the chemical action of 
light for the purpose of making pictures, either 
by contact or in the camera, and of taking 
the first steps towards the realisation of his 
project [see TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY Fox]. 
On his father's death in 1795 Wedgwood 
inherited a considerable property, and spent 
much of his fortune in aiding men of genius. 
When in 1798 Samuel Taylor Coleridge was 
a candidate for the pastoral charge of the 
Unitarian chapel at Shrewsbury, in order to 
enable him to devote himself entirely to 
philosophy and poetry Wedgwood and his 
brother offered him an annuity of 150/. a 
year, the value of the emolument, the pro- 
spect of which he abandoned by accepting 
this offer. Thomas Wedgwood's half of the 
annuity was secured legally to Coleridge for 
Sir John Leslie [q. v.], whose ac- 


quaintance he made at Edinburgh, was also 
assisted in a similar manner. During the 
alarm of invasion in 1803 and 1804 he 
equipped at his own expense a corps of 
volunteers raised in the country round Ulles- 
water. They were known as the ' Loyal 




Wedgwood Volunteers.' The last eight or 
nine years of Wedgwood's short life were an 
incessant struggle with disease. He died at 
Eastbury, Dorset, on 10 July 1805. 

Perhaps the most striking tribute to 
Wedgwood is that of Sydney Smith when 
he said that he knew ' no man who appears 
to have made such an impression on his 
friends,' and his friends included many of 
the leading men of intellect of the day. He 
gave Wordsworth ' an impression of sub- 
limity.' Thomas Campbell speaks of him as 
a ' strange and wonderful being . . . full of 
goodness, benevolence ... a man of won- 
derful talents, a tact of taste acute be- 
yond description.' His opinions were to Sir 
Humphry Davy as ' a secret treasure,' and 
often, he said, enabled him to think rightly 
when perhaps otherwise he would have 
thought wrongly. Thomas Poole wrote of 
Wedgwood that he ' was a man who mixed 
sublime and comprehensive views of general 
systems with an acuteness of search into the 
minutiae of the details of each beyond any 
person he ever met with.' 

As to Coleridge's praises we may perhaps 
be tempted to discount them, though he de- 
clared, evidently alluding to the annuity, 
that Wedgwood was not ' less the benefactor 
of his intellect.' It is, however, to be re- 
gretted that the ' full portrait of his friend's 
mind and character,' written by Coleridge, 
is lost, and also that Sir James Mackintosh 
never carried out his intention of publish- 
ing Wedgwood's speculations, and at the 
same time of showing ' how bright a philo- 
sophical genius went out when the life of 
that feeble body was extinguished.' 

AVedgwood's only writings are two papers 
on the ' Production of Light from different 
Bodies by Heat and by Attrition,' read before 
the Royal Society in 1791 and 1792, in which 
we find the earliest suggestion of the general 
law, since established, that all bodies be- 
come red hot at the same temperature. They 
are remarkable as indicating a considerable 
power of research when he was only twenty 
years of age. 

[Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. 1792; Meteyard's 
Group of Englishmen ; Meteyard's Life of Josiah 
Wedgwood ; Campbell's Life of S. T. Coleridge; 
Sandford's Thomas Poole and his Friends; Paris's 
Life of Davy; Seattle's Life and Letters of 
Thomas Campbell ; Coleridge's Friend, 1850, 
i. 190; information kindly given by E. B. 
Litchfield, esq.] L. I). 

WEEDALL, HENRY (1788-1859), pre- 
sident of St. Mary's College, Oscott, born in 
London on 6 Sept. 1788, was son of a medical 
practitioner who had been at Douay College 
with John Milner [q_. v.], bishop of Casta- 

i bala. At the age of six years he was sent 
! to the school at Sedgley Park, and there 
! he remained for nine years and a half. 
Being destined for the priesthood, he con- 
tinued his course at St. Mary's College, 
Oscott, and was ordained priest by Bishop 
Milner at Wolverhampton on 6 April 1814. 
He taught classics in the college for some 
years, and in 1818 he became its vice- 
president and professor of theology. After- 
wards he was appointed acting president of 
the college, and he became absolute presi- 
dent in 1826. He was also chosen a canon 
of the English chapter, and made vicar- 
general to Bishop Thomas Walsh, vicar- 
apostolic of the midland district. He was 
created D.D. by Leo XII in January 1829. 
During his presidency the new buildings at 
Oscott were erected, and his name is inti- 
mately associated with that college and 
seminary, where he spent more than forty 
years of his life. 

In 1840 he was nominated bishop of 
Abydos in partibus, and vicar-apostolic of 
the new northern district of England, but he 
went to Rome and obtained a release from 
the appointment. In June 1843 he took 
charge of the mission at Leamington. Being 
called to St. Chad's, Birmingham, he was 
made vicar-general and dean of the cathe- 
dral. Soon afterwards he retired to the 
convent at Handsworth, near Birmingham. 
He was appointed provost of Birmingham, 
and he assisted at the first council of West- 
minster. In July 1853 he was reinstated as 
president of Oscott College, and on 9 May 
1854 he was named by Pius IX a monsignor 
of the second rank, as domestic prelate of 
his Holiness,'being thus entitled to the style 
of ' right reverend.' He died at Oscott on 
7 Nov. 1859. His funeral sermon, preached 
by Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Newman, was 
published under the title of ' The Tree be- 
side the Waters. 

Weedall was distinguished by his elo- 
quence as a preacher. He was diminutive 
in stature, and suffered from ill-health 
throughout his life. 

He was the author of: 1. An edition of 
the ' Douay Latin Grammar,' 1821. 2. ' The 
Origin, Object, and Influence of Ecclesiasti- 
cal Seminaries considered. ... To which is 
added a short discourse explaining the Doc- 
trine and Meaning of the Catholic Church 
in consecrating Bells,' Birmingham, 1838, 
8vo. He also published several funeral ser- 
mons and addresses. 

[Life by F.C. Husenbeth, D.D. Lond. 1860 ; 
Londonand Dublin Orthodox Journal, 1838, vii. 
168 ; Oscotian, new ser. iv. 275 (with portrait), 
and the 'History of Oscott' in subsequent 




volumes of that per-odieal ; Gent. Mag. 1859, ii. 
653 ; Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 237, 
242, 325, 3 12.] T. C. 

WEEKES, HENRY (1807-1877), sculp- 
tor, was born at Canterbury in 1807. After 
serving an apprenticeship of five years with 
William Behnes [q. v.] and studying in the 
schools of the Royal Academy, he became an 
assistant to Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey 
[q. v.] On the death of the latter in 1842 
Weekes carried out many of his commissions, 
and took over his studio in Buckingham 
Palace Road, which he occupied throughout 
his life. He exhibited for the first time at 
the Royal Academy in 1828, and in 1838 
modelled the first bust of the queen done 
after her accession to the throne. He took 
a high position as a portrait-sculptor, and 
his works of this class have great merit. 
He executed the statues of Sir Francis 
Bacon, for Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
Lord Auckland, for Calcutta ; Dr. Goodall, 
for Eton ; John Hunter, for the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons ; William Harvey, for the 
new museum at Oxford ; Archbishop Sum- 
ner,for Canterbury Cathedral ; Charles II, for 
the House of Lords ; the figures of Cran- 
mer, Latimer, and Ridley in the Martyrs' 
Memorial at Oxford ; and a very .large num- 
ber of busts of eminent persons. Of his 
fancy figures and groups the most important 
are the Shelley memorial in Christchurch 
Abbey, Hampshire, and the group of ' Manu- 
factures ' in the Albert Memorial in Hyde 
Park. Engraving's of his figure of a ' Sup- 
pliant ' and Shelley monument were pub- 
lished in the ' Art Journal ' in 1853 and 1863. 
Weekes was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy in 18oO, a full member in 1863, and 
professor of sculpture in 1873. In 1852 he 
was awarded a gold medal by the Society of 
Arts for his treatise on the fine arts section 
of the International Exhibition of 1851. He 
died, after much suffering, at his house in 
Pimlico on 28 May 1877. His bust of Dean 
Buckland is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery. A marble bust of Weekes was lent 
by J. Ernest Weekes to the Victorian Exhi- 
bition in 1887. 

[Men of the Time, 1875; Art Journal, 1877; 
Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists.] F. 31. O'D. 

WEELKES, THOMAS (ft. 1600), musi- 
cian, was probably boita between 1570 and 
1580, as in 1597 he puMished a set of ma- 
drigals, which he calls i* the dedication ' the 
first-fruicts of my barren ground.' He also 
alluded to his 'unripeneayears' in the dedi- 
cation of his second publication in 1598. 
Soon afterwards he bec.Vme organist of 
Winchester College, as appeers from his pub- 

lications in 1600. He then proceeded to 
New College, Oxford, but was not on the 
foundation (Reg. Univ. Oxon. II. i. 31, 147). 
He supplicated for the degree of Mus. Bac. 
on 12 Feb. 1601-2, and was admitted on 
13 July following. Wood (Fasti) erroneously 
calls him William AVeelks. In the works 
published in 1608 he describes himself as 
organist of Chichester Cathedral and gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal ; but his name does 
not occur in the ' Cheque-book.' He died 
before 1641, as an anthem of his was included 
in Barnard's 'First Book of Selected Church 
Musick,' from which composers then living 
were excluded. Another anthem in Bar- 
nard's manuscript collections at the Royal 
College of Music is dated 9 March 1617. * 

Weelkes's publications were: 1. 'Madri- 
gals to 3, 4, 5, and 6 Voyces,' 1597 ; this 
collection was edited in score by E. J. Hop- 
kins for the Musical Antiquarian Society, 
1845 ; Nos. 2-4 are set to the words ' My 
flocks feed not,' an incorrect version of which 
subsequently appeared in the 'Passionate 
Pilgrim.' 2. ' Ballets and Madrigals to five 
voyces, with one to 6 voyces,' 1598 ; re- 
printed in 1608. 3. ' Madrigals of 5 and 6 
parts apt for the Viols and Voyces,' 1600. 
4. ' Madrigals of 6 parts, apt for the Viols and 
Voices,' 1600. 5. 'Ayers or Phantasticke 
Spirites for three Voices,' 1608. Weelkes 
also contributed a madrigal to Morley's 
' Triumphs of Oriana,' 1601 ; and two pieces 
to Leighton's ' Teares or Lamentacions of a 
sorrowful Soule,' 1614. Besides the anthem 
printed by Barnard in 1641, two others were 
published in the Musical Antiquarian So- 
ciety's ' Anthems by Composers of the Ma- 
drigalian Period ' and ' Responses to the 
Commandments ' in ' The Choir and Musical 
Record,' July 1864. In the manuscript col- 
lections now at the Royal College of Music, 
whence Barnard selected his publications, 
there are eleven other anthems ; and vocal 
and instrumental pieces are preserved in 
Cosyn's 'Virginal Book' at Buckingham 
Palace, in Additional MSS. 29289, 29366-8, 
29372-7, and 29427 at the British Museum, 
and in MS. 1882 at the Royal College. A 
madrigal was published by Stanley Lucas 
from Additional MSS. 17786-91 ; and there 
are pavans for viols in Additional MSS. 

Some of Weelkes's madrigals have been 
reprinted in popular collections during the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Among 
his best works are : ' As Vesta was from 
Latmos Hill descending' (his contribution 
to the ' Triumphs of Oriana ') ; ' Lo country 
sports,' 1597 ; ' To shorten winter's sadness',' 
' In pride of May,' ' Welcome, sweet pleasure,' 




and ' Lady, your eye,' 1598 ; ' Now let us 
make a merry greeting,' 1600; ' Strike it up, 
neighbour,' * Now ev'ry tree,' and ' The Night- 
ingale,' 1608. Specimens may be seen in 
E. T. Warren's great collection of 'Catches,' 
&c. (1763), and ' Vocal Harmony,' ' Apollo- 
nian Harmony' (1780), Willoughby's ' Social 
Harmony ' (1780), Eland's ' Ladies' Collec- 
tion' (1785), R. Webb's ' Collection of Ma- 
drigals' (1808), Page's 'Festive Harmony' 
(1804), ' The Harmonist ' (c. 1810), Gwilt's 
'Madrigals and Motets' (1815), Samuel 
Webbe's ' Convito Armonico ' and C. Knight's 
' Musical Library' (1834), Hawes's ' Collec- 
tion of Madrigals ' (1835), 'The British Har- 
monist ' (1848), Cramer's ' Madrigals' (1855), 
Oliphant's ' Ten Favourite Madrigals ' and 
Turle and Taylor's ' People's Singing Book ' 
(1844), Hullah's 'Vocal Scores' (1846), 
Joseph Warren's 'Chorister's Handbook' 
(1856),' The Choir and Musical llecord' for 
August 1863, ' Arion' (1894), and the cheap 
publications of Novello, Stanley Lucas, Cas- 
sell, and Curwen. Weelkes and Wilbye are 
usually mentioned together by critics and 
historians ; but a 'certain characteristic stiff- 
ness ' (GROVE) makes Weelkes decidedly in- 
ferior as a composer to his contemporary. 

[Weelkes's -works ; Rimbault's Bibliotheca 
Madrigaliana, pp. 7, 12, 14, 26; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, ii. 191, iv. 313, .431; 
Cat. of Sacred Harmonic Society's Library, pp. 
188, 224; Oliphant's La Musa Madrigalesca ; 
Nagel's Geschichte der Musik in England, ii. 
118, 143; Hawkins's Hist, of Music, c. 102; 
Burney's General Hist, of Music, iii. 124; Davey's 
Hist, of Engl. Music, pp. 172, 180, 219, 255, 
493.] H. D. 

WEEMSE, JOHN (1579P-1636), divine. 

[See WEMYSS.] 

WEEVER, JOHN (1576-1632), poet 
and antiquary, a native of Lancashire, born 
in 1576, was admitted to Queens' College, 
Cambridge, as a sizar on 30 April 1594. His 
tutor was William Covell [q.v.] ( College Regi- 
ster}, He bathed freely, he relates, in what 
he described as ' Nestor-old nymph-nursing 
Grant[a].' He retained through life an affec- 
tion for his college, but seems to have left 
the university without a degree. 

Retiring to his Lancashire home about 
1598, he studied carefully and apprecia- 
tively current English literature, and in 
1599 he published a volume entitled 'Epi- 
grammes in the oldest Cut and newest 
Fashion. A twise seven Houres (in so 
many weekes) Studie. No longer (like the 
Fashion) not unlike to continue. The first 
seven. John Weever ' (London by V. S. for 
Thomas Bushell), 1599, 12mo. The whole 

work was dedicated to a Lancashire patron, 
Sir Richard Houghton of Houghton Tower, 
high sheriff of the county. A portrait en- 
graved by Thomas Cecil is prefixed, and de- 
scribed the author as twenty-three at the 
date of publication, 1599. But Weever in 
some introductory stanzas informs the reader 
that most of the epigrams were written when 
he was only twenty. He speaks of his Cam- 
bridge education, and confesses ignorance of 
London. The epigrams, which are divided 
into seven parts (each called a ' week,' after 
the manner of the French religious poet Du 
Bartas), are in crude and pedestrian verse. 
But the volume owes its value, apart from 
its rarity, to its mention and commendation 
of the chief poets of the day. The most in- 
teresting contribution is a sonnet (No. 22 of 
the fourth week) addressed to Shakespeare 
which forcibly illustrates the admiration ex- 
cited among youthful contemporaries by the 
publication of Shakespeare's early works 
his narrative poems, his ' Romeo and Juliet,' 
and his early historical plays (cf. Shakespeare's 
Centurie ofPrayse, New Shakspere Soc., 1879, 
p. 16). Hardly less valuable to the historian 
of literature are Weever's epigrams on Ed- 
mund Spenser's poverty and death, on Daniel, 
Drayton, Ben Jonson, Marston, Warner, 
Robert Allott, and Christopher Middleton. 
In his epigram on Alleyn, he asserts that 
Rome and Roscius yield the palm to London 
and Alleyn. A copy of this extremely rare 
volume is in the Malone collection at the 
Bodleian Library. 

Subsequently Weever produced another 
volume of verse. This bore the title : ' The 
Mirror of Martyrs ; or, the life and death 
of that thrice valient Capitaine and most 
godly Martyre Sir John Oldcastle, knight, 
Lord Cobham,' 1601, sm. sq. 8vo (London, 
by V. S. for William Wood). There are two 
dedications to two friends, William Covell, 
B.D., the author's Cambridge tutor, and 
Richard Dalton of Pilling. The work was, 
the author tells us, written two years before 
publication, and was possibly suggested by 
the controversy about Sir John Oldcastle 
that was excited in London in 1598 by the 
production of Shakespeare's ' Henry IV.' 
In that play the great character afterwards 
re-named Falstaff at first bore the designa- 
tion of Sir John Oldcastle, to the scandal of 
those who claimed descent from the lollard 
leader or sympathised with his opinions and 
career (cf. Shakespeare's Centurie of Prayse, 
pp. 42, 165). Weever calls his work the 
'true Oldcastle,' doubtless in reference to 
the current controversy. Weever displays at 
several points his knowledge of Shakespeare's 
recent plays. He vaguely reflects Shake- 




speare's language in 'Henry IV (pt. ii. 
line 1) when referring to Hotspur's death and 
the battle of Shrewsbury (stanza 113). 
Similarly in stanza 4 he notices the speeches 
made to ' the many-headed multitude ' by 
Brutus and Mark Antony at Caesar's funeral. 
These speeches were the invention of Shake- 
speare in his play of ' Julius Caesar/ and it is 
clear that Weever had witnessed a perform- 
ance of Shakespeare's play of ' Julius Caesar ' 
before writing of Caesar's funeral. Weever's 
reference is proof that 'Julius Caesar' was 
written before Weever's volume was pub- 
lished in 1601. There is no other contem- 
porary reference to the play by which any 
limits can be assigned to its date of compo- 
sition. The piece was not published until 
1623, in the first folio of Shakespeare's works. 
As in his first, so in his second volume, 
Weever mentions Spenser's distress at the 
close of his life (stanza 63). Four perfect 
copies of Weever's ' Mirror of Martyres ' are 
known ; they are respectively in the Huth, 
Britwell, and Bodleian libraries, and in the 
Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge. The only other copy now known is ! 
imperfect, and is in the British Museum. The ' 
poem was reprinted for the Roxburghe Club 
in a volume edited by Mr. Henry Hucks Gibbs 
(afterwards Lord Aldenham) in 1873. 

Subsequently Weever published a thumb- 
book (1 inch in height) giving a poetical 
history of Christ beginning with the birth of 
the Virgin. The title-page ran 'An Agnus 
Dei. Printed by V. S. for Nicholas Lyng, 
1606.' The dedication ran: 'To Prince 
Henry. Your humble servant. Jo. Weever.' 
The only copy known is in the Huth Library 
(cf. BRTDGES, Censura Literaria, ii.; Huth 
Library Cat.} 

In the early years of the seventeenth cen- 
tury Weever travelled abroad. He visited 
Liege, Paris, Parma, and Rome, studying 
literature and archaeology (cf. Funerall 
Monuments, pp. 40, 145, 257 ,568). Finally he 
settled in a large house built by Sir Thomas 
Chaloner in Clerkenwell Close, and turned 
his attention exclusively to antiquities. He 
made antiquarian tours through England, and 
he designed to make archaeological explora- 
tion in Scotland if life Avere spared him. 
He came to know the antiquaries at the 
College of Arms and elsewhere in London, 
and made frequent researches in the libraries 
of Sir Robert Cotton and Sir Simonds D'E wes. 
His chief labours saw the light in a folio 
volume extending to nearly nine hundred 
pages, and bearing the title ' Ancient Funerall 
Monuments within the United Monarchic of 
Great Britaine, Ireland, and the Islands ad- 
jacent, with the dissolved monasteries there- 

in contained, their Founders and what Emi- 
nent Persons have been in the same interred ' 
(London, 1631, fol.) A curious emblematic 
frontispiece was engraved by Thomas Cecil, 
as well as a portrait of the author, ' set. 55 
A 1631.' Weever dedicated his work to 
Charles I. In an epistle to the reader he 
acknowledges the encouragement and assist- 
ance he received from his ' deare deceased 
friend ' Augustine Vincent, and from the an- 
tiquary Sir Robert Cotton, to whom Vincent 
first introduced him. He also mentions among 
his helpers Sir Henry Spelman, John Selden, 
and Sir Simonds D'Ewes. A copy which 
Weever presented to his old college (Queens') 
at Cambridge is still in the library there, and 
has an inscription in his autograph (facsimile 
in PINK'S Clerkenwell, p. 351). Almost all 
Weever's sepulchral inscriptions are now 
obliterated. His transcripts are often faulty 
and errors in dates abound (cf. WHARTON, 
Angl. Sacra, par. i. p. 668 ; Gent. Mag. 1807, 
ii. 808). But to the historian and biographer 
the book, despite its defects, is invaluable. 
A new edition appeared in 1661, and a third, 
with some addenda by William Tooke, in 
1767. Weever's original manuscript of the 
work is in the library of the Society of Anti- 
quaries (Nos. 127-8). 

Weever, who dated the address to the 
reader in his ' Funerall Monuments ' from 
his house in Clerkenwell Close, was buried 
in 1632 in the church of St. James's, Clerken- 
well. The church was subsequently entirely 
rebuilt (cf. PINK'S Clerkenwell, p. 48). The 
long epitaph in verse inscribed on his tomb 
is preserved in Stow's ' Survey of London ' 
(1633, p. 900, cf. Strype's edition, bk. iv. 
p. 65 ; Gent. Mag. 1788, ii. 600). 

[Authorities cited ; Puller's Worthies ; Chal- 
mers's Biogr. Diet. ; Pink's Clerkenwell ; 
Addit. MS. 24487, f. 358 (Hunter's MS. Chorus 
Vatum) ; Collier's Bibliogr. Cat. ; Weever's 
books.] S. L. 

(rf.1828), soldier, born at Moorfields in Lon- 
don, was the eldest son of John Christopher 
Weguelin by his second wife, Elizabeth. He 
was appointed a cadet in the East India Com- 
pany's service in March 1781 on the Bengal 
presidency. He arrived in Calcutta in April 
1782, having previously been promoted to an 
ensigncy on 16 June 1781. He joined the 
third European regiment at Burhanpur, and 
received a lieutenant's commission on 22 Sept . 
1782. In November he was removed to the 
first battalion of the 22nd native infantry, 
at the frontier station of Fatehgarh in the 
dominions of the nawab of Oudh. In March 
1783 he proceeded to the Farukhabad dis- 
trict, where he took part in some petty 


operations, and in 1796, when his regiment 
was incorporated with the 2nd native in- 
fantry, he received the brevet rank of cap- 
tain. He served against Tipii Saib from 
1790 to 1792 with Lieutenant-colonel John 
Oockrell's detachment. He took part in the 
lattle of Seringapatam on 13 May 1791, in 
(he assault on the enemy's entrenched camp 
n 6 Feb. 1792, and in the siege of the city. 
]n December 1797 he was transferred to 
;he first battalion of the 13th native infantry, 
vhich he commanded in 1799 during the 
ceposition of the nawab of Oudh [see WEL- 


LESLEY], and shortly after joined the 1st 
European regiment at Cawnpur, removing 
svith it to Dinapur at the close of the year. 
On 10 Aug. 1801 he received the regimental 
rank of captain, and in September 1803 he 
proceeded in command of the flank com- 
panies of his regiment to join the army under 
Lord Lake [see LAKE, GERARD, first BARON], 
then engaged with the Marattas in the 
north-west, where he took part in the siege 
of Gwalior. In September 1804 he accom- 
panied Lake's army in the capacity of judge- 
advocate-general in the field provinces north 
and west of Allahabad, and took part in the 
siege of Bhartpur. He continued to hold 
the post until his appointment to a majority 
on 3 March 1808. In June he Avas nomi- 
nated to command an expedition for the I 
defence of the Portuguese of Macao against 
any French attempt, receiving the local | 
rank of colonel. On his return to Bengal in j 
February 1809 he received the thanks of the : 
governor-general for his conduct. On the 
establishment of the commissariat in Bengal I 
on 1 Feb. 1810 Weguelin was appointed j 
deputy commissary-general. He accom- , 
panied Major-general Sir John Abercromby j 
[q.v.] in the expedition against Mauritius in 
1810 as head of the commissariat depart- 
ment, and after the reduction of the island 
was appointed by the governor, Sir Robert 
Townsend Farquhar [q. v.], commissary- 
general of Mauritius, Bourbon, and their 
dependencies. He returned to Bengal in 
March 1812 with a letter from Farquhar to 
the governor in council expressing his appro- 
bation of his services. On 1 July 1812 he 
was nominated commissary-general of Ben- 
gal with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
attaining the regimental rank on 16 March 
1814. He discharged the duties of commis- 
sary-general through the two wars with 
Nepal between 1814 and 1816, and that with 
the Pindaris from 1816 to 1818, conducting 
the business of his office with so much ability 
that the extra expenses of the wars did not j 
exceed the comparatively small sum of 

;i Weir 

600,000/. Being obliged by private affairs 
to return to England, he resigned his office 
at the close of 1820, embarking in January 
1822. He received the rank of colonel com- 
mandant on 20 July 1823, and died in Lon- 
don at Montagu Square on 23 May 1828. 
He was twice married. By his first wife he 
had a son and a daughter, and by his second 
wife three sons. 

[Gent, Mag. 1828, ii. 180; Dpdwell and 
Miles's Indian Army List, 1838; information 
kindly given by Mr. A. W. Greene.] E. I. C. 

1868), Avatercolour-painter, was born in 
London, of German parents, in 1813. He 
was educated at Gottingen, and received his 
art training chiefly in Paris, Avhere and in 
' Jersey he resided from 1832 to 1837. He 
then returned to England and joined the 
recently founded ' New ' Society (now the 
Institute) of Painters in Watercolours, to 
the exhibitions of Avhich he Avas subsequently 
' a constant contributor. His draAvings were 
i all of an historical character, among the 
best being ' Lord Nigel's Introduction to 
j the Sanctuary of Alsatia/ ' Luther reading 
his Sermon to some Friends,' 'The Death of 
Wicklift'e,' ' Filippo Lippi and the nun 
Lucretia Buti,' ' Caxtou examining the first 
Proof Sheet from his Press,' and ' The 
Prisoner of Gisors.' The last is Avell known 
by the engraving published by the Art 
Union, 1848. Wehnert's large works, though 
excellently conceived and drawn, were un- 
attractive in colour, and did not readily find 
purchasers. He was more successful as a 
designer of book illustrations. Among the 
many publications for which he furnished the 
draAvings Avere Grimm's ' Household Stories,' 
1853; Keats's 'Eve of St. Agnes,' 1856; 
Coleridge's 'Ancient Mariner,' 1857; 'The 
Pilgrims Progress,' 1858; Andersen's 'Fairy 
Tales,' 1861 ; ' Robinson Crusoe,' 1862 ; and 
Poe's ' Poetical Works,' 1865. Wehnert 
contributed to the Westminster Hall cartoon 
exhibition in 1845 an allegorical drawing of 
' Justice,' now in the South Kensington 
Museum. He died at Fortess Terrace, 
Kentish TOAVII, on 15 Sept. 1868. A collec- 
tion of his works was exhibited at the 
Institute in the folloAving year. 

[Art Journal, 1868 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters 
(Armstrong); Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760- 
1893.] F. M. O'D. 

WEIR, THOMAS (1GOOP-1670), re- 
puted sorcerer, son of a Lanarkshire 
proprietor in Clydesdale, was born about 
1600. He served as captain-lieutenant in 
Colonel Robert Home's regiment in Ire- 



land in 1641, and also for some time as 
major in the Earl of Lanark's regiment; 
and on 3 March 1647 presented a petition 
to the estates for the payment of a sum of 
600 merks due to him for these services. In 
1649-50 he was promoted to the command 
of the city guard of Edinburgh. He was 
one of the promoters of the western re- 
monstrance in 1650, and gradually became 
noted as one of the most devoted and 
sanctified of a strict sect of Edinburgh co- 
venanters, at whose meetings he displayed 
a remarkable gift of extempore prayer. As 
major of the city guard he had special charge 
of Montrose before his execution in May 
1650, and is stated to have treated him with 
peculiar harshness. 

In his later years, and after he retired 
from the city guard, Weir gradually became 
reputed as a wizard. On coming to Edin- 
burgh he lodged for some time in the Cow- 
gate, in the house of a Miss Grissel Whitford, 
where James Mitchell (d. 1678) [q. v.], the 
would-be assassinator of Archbishop Sharp, 
also for some time lodged. Subsequently he 
resided with his sister Jean in a house in the 
West Bow. On the stair of this house he is 
said to have cast a powerful spell by which 
those who were ascending it felt- as if they 
were going down. His incantations were 
mainly effected by means of a black staff, 
which was curiously carved with heads like 
those of the satyrs, and was supposed to have 
been presented to him by Satan. This staff 
could be sent by him on errands, and on 
dark nights (so it was gravely affirmed) 
might be seen going before him carrying a 
lantern. Eraser, minister of Wardle, who 
saw him in Edinburgh in 1660, thus describes 
him : ' His garb was still a cloak, and some- 
what dark, and he never went without his 
staff. He was a tall black man, and ordi- 
narily looked down on the ground : a grim 
countenance and a big nose' (manuscript in 
the Advocates' Library, quoted in WILSON'S 
Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time, 
1872, pp. 335 sqq., where is also an engrav- 
ing of Weir's house in the West Bow). But 
whether influenced by remorse or lunacy, or 
a combination of the two, Weir, though he 
never professed any penitence, made a volun- 
tary confession to the authorities of incest, 
sorcery, and other crimes ; and, after trial, on 
9 April 1670, during which he is said to 
have been delirious, was burned at the stake 
on the 12th, at Gallowlie, on the slopes of 
Greenside, between Edinburgh and Leit h. He 
died impenitent, and renounced all hopes of 
heaven. His staff, which was also burned 
with him, ' gave rare turnings ' in the fire, 
and, like himself, ' was long a burning.' 

His sister, notwithstanding that she mani- 
fested unmistakable symptoms of lunacy, was 
burned along with him. His story is sup- 
posed to have suggested Lord Byron's ' Man- 

[Hickes'sRavaillac Redivivus, 1678; Sinclair's 
Satan's Invisible World Displayed, 1685, re- 
printed 1871; Lament's Diary, ed. 'Kinloch, 
1830; Robert Law's Memorialls, ed. C. K.Sbarpe, 
1818; Arnot's Criminal Trials; Robert Cham' 
bers's Traditions of Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

WEIR, WILLIAM (1802-1858), jouri 
nalist, was born in 1802 at Mount Hamiltor 
in Ayrshire. His father, who was Mr. Os- 
wald's ' factor,' died in 1804 ; his mother mar-i 
ried again, and Mr. Oswald acted as his 
guardian, sending him to Ayr academy, 
which he left in August 1817 with the repu- 
tation of being ' talented, honourable, kind- 
hearted, somewhat eccentric, and a most 
rapacious reader.' His education was com- 
pleted at the university of Gottingen. He 
became a member of the Scottish bar on 
27 Jan. 1827. He was the first editor of the 
' Glasgow Argus' {Glasgow Citizen, Septem- 
ber 1858), and, removing to London, he con- 
tributed to the ' Spectator.' Many articles 
in the ' Penny Cyclopaedia ' and in Knight's 
' London ' were from his pen, and he wrote the 
chapter on manners during the- reign of 
George III in the ' Pictorial History of Eng- 
land' (KNIGHT, Passages of a Working Life, 
ii. 229, 259, 263). 

W T eir joined the editorial staff of the 'Daily 
News' when it was founded in 1846, and 
succeeded Frederick Knight Hunt [q. v.] 
in 1854 as editor. After a few days' illness 
he died on 15 Sept. 1858. Under his editor- 
ship the 'Daily News' flourished, the 'Times' 
writing after his death that he had con- 
ducted it in a way which ' made it a worthy 
representative of the English press.' The 
'Globe' wrote 'that he was master of the 
library of Europe;' the ''Athenaeum' that 
' in the ranks of literature there was not a 
nobler or more unassuming soldier than he ;' 
and the ' Spectator' that ' his death is a 
public loss.' He was credited by the ' Glas- 
gow Citizen' with writing good verse as well 
as prose. The infirmity of deafness prevented 
him from playing a more conspicuous part in 
public life. 

[Private information.] F. R. 


(1820-1867), vocalist and composer, the son 
of Willoughby Gaspard Weiss, professor of 
the flute and music publisher at Liverpool, 
was born there on 2 April 1820. He was a 
pupil of Sir George Thomas Smart [q.v.] and 
Michael William Balfe [q. v.], and made his 



first appearance in public as a singer at a con- 
cert of his own at Liverpool, 5 May 1842. 
He first appeared in opera as Oroveso in 
' Norma ' at Dublin on 2 July 1842, and subse- 
quently became a useful member of the Pyne 
and Harrison and other opera companies. He 
was distinguished as a concert-singer, but he 
specially excelled as an exponent of oratorio 
music, in which his artistic feeling and rich 
voice found full means of expression. His 
first appearance at a festival was at Glouces- 
ter in 1844. 

Weiss's chief claim to distinction rests upon 
being the composer of ' The Village Black- 
smith,' set to Longfellow's words, a song 
which has had and still retains an extra- 
ordinary popularity. He composed it about 
1854. He offered the copyright to a firm of 
music publishers for the sum of 51., and, 
upon their declining to accept it on those 
terms, Weiss published the song on his own 
account, with the result that it brought to 
him and his descendants an annual income 
of no inconsiderable amount for upwards of 
forty years. 

Weiss, who was of a genial, lovable dis- 
position, died at St. George's Villa, Regent's 
Park, 24 Oct. 1867, and is buried in High- 
gate cemetery. He married, 15 Sept. 1845, 
Georgina Ansell Barrett (1826-1880), a 
native of Gloucester, who was favourably 
known as a singer. By her he left a daugh- 

In addition to ' The Village Blacksmith ' 
Weiss composed many other songs and 
ballads, and arranged a pianoforte edition of 
Weber's Mass in G. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, iv. 
433 ; Musical World, "26 Oct. and 2 Nov. 1867; 
Gent. Mag. 1867, ii. 828; private information 
from his grandson, W. W. Graham, esq.] 

F. G. E. 

(1828-1891), musician, son of Thomas Hill, 
goldsmith and freeman of the city, was born 
in London on 3 Jan. 1828. He showed an 
early taste for the violin, and, after appear- 
ing at Gravesend as an ' infant prodigy,' he 
in 1844 entered the Royal Academy of 
Music, where he studied under Prosper 
Philippe Catherine Sainton [q. v.], and in 
1845 took the king's scholarship. He was 
subsequently a professor of the violin at the 
academy, and conducted its choir and or- 
chestra. On leaving the institution he at- 
tached himself to the orchestra of the Prin- 
cess Theatre, but he soon became known as 
a concert violinist, and was taken up first 
by Edward James Loder [q. v.], and then by 
Louis Antoine Julien or Jullien [q. v.] With 
the latter he toured in America, where he 

was the first to make known Mendelssohn's 
violin concerto, and later visited the prin- 
cipal continental cities. Returning to Lon- 
don, he was engaged as first violin by (Sir) 
Michael Costa [q. v.], under whom he played 
for many years in the Opera, Philharmonic, 
and Sacred Harmonic societies' orchestras. 
On the opening of the Alexandra Palace in 
1873 he was appointed musical director, and 
in that capacity did good service by bringing 
forward new compositions by native writers, 
as well as by reviving forgotten works, such 
as Handel's 'Esther' and 'Susanna.' In 
1878 he conducted the orchestral concerts of 
Madame Viard-Louis, at which several im- 
portant works were heard for the first time 
in England. He was appointed principal of 
the Guildhall School of Music in 1880, and 
held that post till his death at South Ken- 
sington on 26 Dec. 1891. He was an admi- 
rable violinist and an able administrator. 
He wrote a few compositions, mostly for 
violin and 'cello, of which the ' Pompadour 
Gavotte ' became popular. 

[Musical Opinion, January 1885 ; Lute, 
March 1891 (portrait); Musical Herald (por- 
trait) and Musical Times, February 1892; 
Brown and Stratton's British Musical Biogra- 
phy ; information from the son, Ferdinand 
Weist-Hill, esq.] .T. C. H. 

WELBY, HENRY (d. 1636), 'The Phoe- 
nix of these late Times,' was the eldest son 
of Adlard Welby (d. 11 Aug. 1570) of Ged- 
ney in Lincolnshire, by his first wife, the 
daughter of an inhabitant of Hull named 
Hall. He was matriculated as a pensioner 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, on 24 May 
1558, and was made a student of the Inner 
Temple in November 1562, ' where, being 
accomodated with all the parts of a gentle- 
man, hee after retyred himself into the coun- 
trye,' purchasing the estate of Goxhill in 
Lincolnshire from Lord Wentworth. Wish- 
ing to enlarge his mind by travel, he ' spent 
some few yeares in the Lowe Countreys, 
Germany, France, and Italy, making the best 
use of his time.' 

In this manner W'elby continued his 
blameless life until past middle age. About 
1592 his younger brother, John, a dissolute 
youth, took umbrage at Henry's endeavours 
to reform his habits, and, after repeatedly 
threatening his life, attempted to shoot him 
with a pistol. Welby was deeply affected by 
this villainy, and, taking ' a very faire house 
in the lower end of Grub Street, near unto 
Cripplegate,' he passed the rest of his life in 
absolute seclusion, never leaving his apart- 
ments or seeing any living creature except 
his old maid-servant Elizabeth. In this 
manner he lived for forty-four years in the 



most abstemious fashion, while exercising a 
generous bounty towards his poorer neigh- 
bours. During that period he ate neither 
fish nor flesh, and never drank wine. He 
died on 29 Oct. 1636, and was buried in St. 
Giles's, Cripplegate. He married Alice, 
daughter of Thomas White of Wallingwells 
in Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire, by his 
wife Anne Cecil, sister of the first Lord 
Burghley. By Alice, Welby had one daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, his sole heiress, who was 
married at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, on 13 July 
1598 to Sir Christopher Hildyard of Wine- 
stead in Yorkshire. She was buried at 
Routh in the East Riding on 28 Nov. 1638. 
The family of Hildyard established at Flint- 
ham Hall, near Newark, are her descendants 
(BuRKE, Landed Gentry, 1898, s. v. 'Hild- 
yard ; ' FOSTER, Yorkshire Pedigrees, 1874, 
vol. ii. s.v. ' Hildyard'). 

A life so eccentric as that of Welby was 
the source of some notoriety, and in the year 
after his death a biography appeared entitled 
' The Phoenix of these late Times, or the 
Life of Mr. Henry Welby, Esq.' (London, 
1637, 4to). It contained commemorative 
verses by Shackerley Marmion [q. v.], John 
Taylor the ' Water Poet,' Thomas Heywood, 
Thomas Nabbes, and others, and had prefixed 
a portrait of Welby as he appeared at the 
time of his death, engraved by William Mar- 
shall. Two editions, with no important dif- 
ferences, appeared in the same year. 

[The Phoenix of these late Times, 1637; | 
Notices of the Family of Welby, 1842, pp. 48- ! 
54 ; Gibbons's Notes on the Visitation of Lin- I 
colnshire in 1634, pt. ix. 1898, pp. 193-207;) 
Students admitted to the Inner Temple, 1547- I 
1660, p. 47; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. | 
168, 197.] E. I. C. 

WELCH or WELSH, JOHN (1570?- 
1622), presbyterian divine, son of the laird 
of Collieston or Colliston, in the parish of 
Dunscore, Dumfriesshire, and bordering 
Craigenputtock which Carlyle (Jane Welsh 
Carlyle, p. 102) supposes to have been an- 
ciently included as moorland in the estate 
was born about 1570. When young he dis- 
played a rather unruly disposition, and, dis- 
liking the severe restraints of home, broke 
from parental control and joined a band of 
border reivers; but, discovering this ad- 
venturous life to be less pleasant and desir- 
able than his youthful fancy had depicted it, 
he sought reconciliationwith his father, and, 
with a view of studying for the church, he 
was presently sent to the university of Edin- 
burgh, where he took the degree of M.A. in 
1588. On 6 March 1589-90 he was nomi- 
nated by the privy council one of three for 
maintaining the true religion in the Forest 

and Tweeddale, and was settled at Selkirk. 
In 1594 he was translated to Kirkcudbright, 
and on 29 March 1596 he was appointed one 
of the visitors for Nithsdale, Annandale, 
Lauderdale, Eskdale, and Ewesdale (CALDEK- 
WOOD, History, v. 420). 

On 18 Dec. following, when occupying 
the pulpit of St. Giles s kirk, Edinburgh, 
shortly after the tumult of the presbyterians 
against the king, he took opportunity to 
preach against the king's conduct, ' alleging 
that his majesty was possessed of a devil, 
and after the outputting of that devil there 
joined to his highness seven devils, quhilk 
was his majesty's council ; ' and that as it was 
lawful for a son to bind a lunatic father, it 
was equally lawful ' to his highness's subjects 
to bind his majesty, being in the like case' 
(Key. P. C. Scotl. v. 359). Failing to answer 
the charge of having justified the tumult, he 
was on 17 Jan. denounced a rebel (ib.) ; but, 
on the petition of the assembly in the fol- 
lowing March he was, mainly through the 
intervention of Lord Ochiltree (MorsiE, Me- 
moirs, p. 133), relaxed from the horn and 
permitted to return to his charge. 

By the assembly held at Montrose in 
March 1599-1600 Welch was again ap- 
pointed one of the visitors for Nithsdale 
(CA.LDERWOOD, vi. 23), and in August of the 
same year he was transferred to the parish of 
Ayr as assistant to John Porterfield, on whose 
death in 1604 he was chosen to succeed him. 
Before this the preaching of Welch had be- 
gun to attract such crowds that the town 
council on 26 May 1603 resolved to build a 
new church. When Welch came to Ayr the 
town was noted for its feuds and riots, but 
by appearing boldly on the streets, clad in a 
steel cap, and intervening in disturbances, he 
speedily succeeded in effecting quite a refor- 
mation in public manners. 

For having concurred iu the meeting of 
the assembly held in Aberdeen in July 1605, 
contrary to the prohibition of the king, Welch, 
although he did not arrive in Aberdeen until 
two days after the assembly had been held, 
was along with John Forbes, the moderator, 
the first to be called before the privy council 
to answer for taking part in it, and, having 
declined to give his oath to answer such 
things as might be demanded of him in re- 
gard to the deliberations of the assembly, he 
was on 26 July ordained to be committed to 
ward in the castle of Blackness (Keg. P. C. 
Scotl. vii. 104), where it was stated they 
were ' more straitly used than either Jesuits 
or murderers ' (ib. p. 105). On 3 Oct. he 
and other ministers were summoned to ap- 
pear before the council on the 24th, when 
they were found guilty, the council reserv- 




ing the form of their punishment to the king's 
own will (CALDERWOOD, vi. 342-54; Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. vii. 134-7). As they had put in 
a declinature of the jurisdiction of the council 
in the matter the king resolved, on this ac- 
count, to put them on trial for high treason, 
which was done at an assize held at Lin- 
lithgow, when they were by a majority 
declared guilty (see especially letters to 
and from the king on the subject in Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. vii. 478-86, 493-6 ; Declaration 
of the Just Causes of his Majesty's Proceed- 
ings against those Ministers who are now 
lying in Prison attainted of High Treason, 
Edinburgh, printed by Robert Charteris, 
1606, also reprinted in Reg. P. C. Scotl. vii. 
189-202, and in CALDERWOOD'S History, vi. 
419-37 ; and FOEBES, Records touching the 
Estate of the Kirk in the Years 1605 and 
1606, in the Wodrow Soc.) The punish- 
ment for high treason was of course death, 
but by the king's direction the sentence was 
commuted on 23 Oct. 1606 to perpetual 
banishment from the king's dominions, and 
they were appointed to go on board a ship 
which on 1 Nov. sailed with them from 
Leith to Bordeaux. 

On arriving in France Welch set himself 
immediately to master the French language, 
and this with such diligence that within 
fourteen weeks he was able to preach in 
French. Shortly afterwards he became 
pastor of the protestant church of Nerac, 
then of Jonsac, and finally of St. Jean 
d'Angely in Saintonge, where he remained 
sixteen years. For several years after his 
banishment the town council of Ayr con- 
tinued regularly to remit to him his stipend 
as minister of the parish. 

When St. Jean d'Angely, a strongly forti- 
fied town, was besieged by Louis XIII dur- 
ing the war against the protestants in 1620, 
Welch showed great zeal in encouraging the 
citizens to resistance, and assisted in serving 
the guns on the walls. Having also, after 
the capitulation of the city, continued to 
preach as usual, he was summoned before 
the king, who reprimanded him for violating 
the law forbidding any one to use publicly 
within the verge of the court any other than 
the established form of religious service. To 
this remonstrance Welch shrewdly replied 
that if the king knew what he preached he 
would himself both come to hear him and 
make all his subjects do the same, for what 
he preached was that there was none on 
earth above the king, which none who had 
adhered to the pope would say. This shrewd 
answer so pleased the king that he answered, 
' Very well, father, you shall be my minister,' 
and promised him his protection. When 

therefore the town was captured again in 
the following year the king, in accordance 
with his promise, gave orders that guards 
should be placed round the house of Welch, 
and also provided horses and waggons to 
convey him, his family, and his household 
goods to Rochelle in safety. 

Welch never again returned to his charge, 
but went to Zealand, whence, finding himself 
in declining health, he sent a petition to the 
king of England that he might be permitted 
to return to his native country, and obtained 
liberty to come to London, that he ' might 
be dealt with.' There, through Dr. Young, 
dean of Winchester, an attempt was made 
to obtain from him a general approval of 
episcopacy, but without effect. To his wife, 
who had gone to the king to ask his remis- 
sion, the king answered that he would gladly 
pardon him if she would induce him to sub- 
mit to the bishops, to which she replied that 
she would rather receive his decapitated head 
in her lap 'Please your majesty, I had 
rather kep his head there.' On hearing, how- 
ever, that he was so ill that he would not 
long survive, the king acceded to his re- 
quest for permission to preach in London, ; 
but he died (2 April 1622) two hours after 
concluding the services ; ' and so,' says Cal- 
derwood, 'endit his dayes at London, after 
the exile of mannie yeers, with deserved 
name of ane holie man, a painfull and power- 
full preachour, and a constant sufferer for 
the trueth' (History, vii. 511). By his wife 
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of John Knox 
the reformer (she died at Ayr in January 
1625), Welch had four sons and two daugh- 
ters, of whom Josias became minister of 
Temple Bar, or Temple Patrick, Ireland. 
Jane Welsh, the wife of Thomas Carlyle, 
claimed descent from Welch, and through 
him from John Knox. 

Welch was the author of a ' Reply against 
Mr. Gilbert Browne, priest ' (Edinburgh, 
1602; another edition, Glasgow, 1672); 
' L'Armageddon de la Babylon Apocalyp- 
tique,' Jonsac, 1612; 'Forty-eight Select 
Sermons ... to which is prefixed the His- 
tory of His Life and Sufferings,' Glasgow, 
1771 , 8vo ; and ' Letters to Mr. Robert Boyd 
of Tochrig,' in the Wodrow Society. 

[Histories by Calderwood and Spottiswood; 
Reg. P. C. Scotl. v-vii.; Select Biographies in 
the Wodrow Society ; Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise 
Scoticanffi, ii. 85-6 ; The History of Mr. John 
Welsh, Minister at Aire, Glasgow, 1703; 
McCrie's Life of John Knox ; Chambers'sBiogr. 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen.] T. F. H. 

WELCH, JOSEPH (d. 1805), compiler of 
' Alumni Westmonasterienses,' was for forty 
years assistant to Mr. Ginger, bookseller to 




Westminster school. He prepared a list of 
scholars, which for many years he sold in 
manuscript. In 1788 he printed it under 
the title ' A List of Scholars of St. Peter's 
College, Westminster, as they were elected 
to Christ Church Col lege, Oxford, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, from 1561 to the present 
time,' London, 4to. To it he prefixed lists 
of the deans of Westminster, the deans of 
Christ Church, Oxford, the masters of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and the masters of West- 
minster school. The work was republished 
in 1852, under the editorship of Charles Bagot 
Phillimore, with the addition of the Queen's 
scholars from 1663, and of copious biogra- 
phical notes. The work is generally known 
as 'Alumni Westmonasterienses.' Welch 
died in April 1805. 

[Gent. Mag. 1805, i. 389.] E. I. C. 

WELCHMAN, EDWARD (1665-1739), 

theologian, son of John Welchman, ' gentle- 
man,' of Banbury, Oxfordshire, was born in 
1665. He was matriculated as a commoner 
of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 7 July 1679. 
He was one of the choristers of Magdalen 
College in that university from 1679 till 
1682 (BLOXAM, Register of Magdalen Col- 
lege, i. 117). He proceeded B.A. tin 24 April 
1683, was admitted a probationer fellow of 
Merton College in 1684, and commenced M. A. 
on 19 June 1688. His college presented him 
in 1690 to the rectory of Lapworth, War- 
wickshire, and he was also rector of Berkes- 
well in the same county. He became arch- 
deacon of Cardigan and a prebendary of St. 
David's on 7 Aug. 1727. Afterwards he 
became chaplain to the bishop of Lichneld, 
who collated him to the prebend of Wolvey 
in that cathedral on 28 Sept. 1732. He ob- 
tained the rectory of Solihull, Warwick- 
shire, in 1736, and held it until his death 
on 19 May 1739. 

His son John graduated M.A. at Oxford, 
and became vicar of Tarn worth, Warwick- 
shire. Another son kept an inn at Stratford- 
on-Avon, and used to boast that his father 
made the Thirty-nine articles {Spiritual 
Quixote, bk. xii. chap, x.) 

His principal work is : 1. ' Articuli 
XXXIX. Ecclesise Anglicanje Textibus e 
Sacra Scriptura depromptis confirinati, bre- 
vibusque Notis illustrati ; cum Appendice de 
Doctrina Patrum,' Oxford, 1713, 8vo ; re- 
printed 1718, 1724; 5th edit. 1730, 1774, 
1793, 1819. An English translation from 
the sixth edition appeared under the title of 
' The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of 
England, illustrated with Xotes,' 1776 ; re- 
printed in 1777, 1783, 1790, 1805, 1811, 
1823, 1834, and 1842. 

Among his other publications are : 2. ' A 
Defence of the Church of England from the 
Charge of Schism and Heresie, as laid against 
it by [Henry Dodwell] the Vindicator of 
the deprived Bishops' (anon.), London, 1693, 
4to. 3. ' The Husbandman's Manual : 
directing him how to improve the several 
actions of his calling, and the most usual 
occurrences of his life, to the glory of God, 
and the benefit of his soul,' London, 1695, 
8vo ; 25th edit. London, 1818, 8vo ; new 
edit. London, 1821, 12mo. 4. ' Dr. Clarke's 
Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity examined ; 
to which are added some remarks on his 
sentiments, and a brief examination of his 
Doctrine,' Oxford, 1714, 4to. 5. An edi- 
tion with notes of ' D. Aurelii Augustini 
Hipponensis Episcopi Liber de Hseresibus 
ad quod-vult-Deum, una cum Gennadii Mas- 
siliensis Appendice,' Oxford, 1721, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Conference with an Arian ; occasion'd by 
Mr. Whiston's Reply to the Earl of Notting- 
ham ' (anon.), Oxford, 1721, 8vo. 7. 'A 
Dialogue betwixt a Protestant Minister and 
a Romish Priest,' 3rd edit. London, 1723, 
8vo; 4th edit. 1735. 8. 'Xovatiani Presbyteri 
Romani Opera, qufe extant, omnia, correctius 
longe quam unquam antehac edita, notisque 
illustrata,' Oxford, 1724, 8vo. 

[Addit. MS. 5883, f. 224ft; Briiggemann's 
Engl. Editions of Greek and Latin Authors, 
pp. 724, 7^7 ; Cooke's Preacher's Assistant ; De 
la Roche's New Memoirs of Literature, 1725, 
ii. 122; Foster's Alumni Oxon., 1500-1714, iv. 
1594 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 315, 320, 
642; AVood's Atkenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 481.] 

T. C. 

1869), historian of the Royal Society, born 
at Windsor in August 1813, was the son of 
Isaac Weld (d. 1824) of Dublin, by his 
second marriage, contracted in 1812, to Lucy, 
only daughter of Eyre Powell of Great Con- 
nell, Kildare. He was thus half-brother to 
Isaac Weld [q. v.~| In 1820 he accompanied 
his parents to France, where they occupied 
a chateau near Dijon. After his father's 
death he returned to Dublin and attended 
classes at Trinity College, but took no degree 
there. In 1839 he proceeded to London and 
took up an appointment as secretary to the 
Statistical Society. Three years later he 
married Anne, daughter of Henry Selwood 
and niece of Sir John Franklin ; her elder 
sister, Emily, married Alfred Tennyson, 
and her youngest sister, Louisa, married 
Charles Tennyson. Weld studied at the 
Middle Temple, and was called to the bar 
on 22 Xov. 1844 ; but science was his true 
vocation, and, under the friendly advice 
of Sir John Barrow, he became in 1845 




assistant secretary and librarian to the 
Royal Society, a post which he held for six- 
teen years. The senior secretary at the 
time was Dr. Peter Mark Roget [q. v.] 
With Roget's warm encouragement Weld 
commenced at once upon the work by which 
he is remembered, and which appeared in 
two volumes in 1848 as ' A History of the 
Royal Society with Memoirs of the Presi- 
dents, compiled from Authentic Documents' 
(London, 8vo). The book was illustrated 
by drawings made by Mrs. Weld, and proved 
a well-written and much-needed supplement 
to the histories of Birch and Thomson. An 
interesting appendix to the volumes is the 
' Descriptive Catalogue of the Portraits in 
the possession of the Royal Society,' which 
Weld compiled by order of the council in 

In 1850 Weld commenced his agreeably 
written series of ' Vacation Tours,' with 
'Auvergne, Piedmont, and Savoy; a Sum- 
mer Ramble,' followed in 1854 by ' A Vaca- 
tion Tour in the United States and Canada,' 
dedicated to Isaac Weld, whose own 'Travels 
in North America ' had excited much atten- 
tion in 1799. Next came ' A Vacation in 
Brittany' (1856), 'A Vacation in Ireland' 
(1857), 'The Pyrenees, West and East' 
(1859), 'Two Months in the Highlands, 
Orcadia andSkye' (1860), 'Last Winter in 
Rome' (1865), ''Florence the New Capital 
of Italy ' (1867), and ' Notes on Burgundy,' 
edited by Mrs. Weld after her husband's 
death in 1869. Many of these were illus- 
trated by the author's own sketches. 

Weld was the chief helper of Sir John 
Franklin in the home work connected with 
his Arctic explorations, and was an authority 
on every matter connected with the polar 
circle. He issued in 1850 a well-timed 
lecture on ' Arctic Expeditions,' originally 
delivered at the London Institution on 
6 Feb. 1850, and this was followed by 
pamphlets upon the search for Franklin 
during 1851. 

In 1861 he resigned his post at the Royal 
Society, and he shortly afterwards became 
a partner in the publishing business with 
Lovell Reeve. In 1862 he was entrusted 
with the preparation and management of 
the philosophical department of the Inter- 
national Exhibition, and he was also ap- 
pointed a 'district superintendent 'of the ex- 
hibition. He represented Great Britain 
at the Paris Exhibition of 1867, as one of the 
assistant commissioners, and his able report 
on the ' Philosophical Instruments and 
Apparatus for Teaching Science' was printed, 
and afterwards abridged for the ' Illustrated 
London News' (5 Oct. 1867). In the 

autumn of 1863 he went on a tour in Bur- 

fundy, and during the winter season he 
elivered several papers at the ' Bath Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Association,' in the 
welfare of which he took a warm interest. 
He died suddenly at his residence (since 
1865), Belle vue, New Bridge Hill, near Bath, 
on 15 Jan. 1869. He was survived by a 
widow and a daughter, Miss Agnes Grace 
Weld. A portrait of Charles Richard Weld 
is prefixed to the posthumous ' Notes on Bur- 
gundy ' which he was preparing for the press 
at the time of his death. 

[Eegister and Magazine of Biography, 1S69, 
i. 222; Times, 19 Jan. 1869; Men of the Keign, 
5th edit. ; Allibone's Dictionary of English 
Literature; Brit. Mus. Cat.; private informa- 
tion.] T. S. 

(1823-1891), colonial governor, born on 9 May 
1823, came of a well-known Roman catholic 
family, being the third son of Humphrey 
W 7 eld of Chideock Manor, Dorset, and Chris- 
tina Maria, second daughter of Charles Clif- 
ford, sixth baron Clifford of Chudleigh. He 
was educated at Stonyhurst College and at 
Freiburg in Switzerland, and in 1844 emi- 
grated to New Zealand in order to devote 
himelf to grazing sheep and cattle. He soon 
attracted public notice, and was in 1848 
ottered a seat in the nominee council, which 
he declined, soon afterwards taking a leading 
part in the agitation for representative insti- 
tutions. In 1850 and part of 1851 he was 
in England, but later in the latter year car- 
ried out explorations of some interest in the 
uninhabited districts of the middle island, 
and again in 1855 around Nelson. In that 
year he also paid a visit to the Sandwich 
Islands, and ascended Mauna Loa. 

Weld became in September 1853 a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives of New 
Zealand. In 1854 he was for a time one of 
the special members of the executive coun- 
cil. In November 1860 he joined the first 
Stafford ministry as ministerfornativeaffairs, 
but was thrown out of office in July 1861 by 
the resignation of the ministry. In No- 
vember 1864 he was summoned by the gover- 
nor, Sir George Grey, to form a ministry. 
The period was a critical one ; there had 
been much dissension between the retiring 
ministry and the governor ; the policy of the 
ministers as regards the Maoris was distrusted, 
and their interference in respect of military 
operations was resented. Weld laid down 
the conditions on which he could accept 
office in a memorandum which enunciated 
the sound principles of ministerial responsi- 
bility. The governor accepted them at once. 
On 24 Nov. 1864 he became premier and 




chief secretary, and, though less than a year 
in office, gave a completely new turn to 
events, and left a mark upon administra- 
tion in New Zealand. His first efforts were 
directed to concluding the Maori war -with 
colonial troops and by guerilla methods 
rather than with the expensive imperial 
troops, and, although he was embarrassed by a 
dispute with the military commander, Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir Duncan Alexander Came- 
ron, he laid the basis for the successful termi- 
nation of the war; at the same time he 
carried out the confiscation of Waikato, insti- 
tuted native land courts, and carried a native 
rights bill. He also initiated proposals for 
the representation of the Maoris in the House 
of Representatives. His administration re- 
stored the credit of the colony, and brought 
back stability to its finances. A telegraph 
cable for connecting the two islands was 
begun, and the capital of the colony removed 
to Wellington, in accordance with the recom- 
mendation of commissions made in 1863. In 
July 1865 the crisis caused by the differences 
with General Cameron had blown over, and 
Weld met his parliament again ; but on the 
Otago reserves bill he was shaken, and on a 
question of imposing stamp duties he was all 
but defeated. His health was already giving 
way, and on 16 Oct. 1865 he resigned, and, 
as the house was dissolved, returned to Eng- 
land for change and rest. 

His administration made a considerable 
impression in Downing Street, and in 1869 
he was appointed governor of Western Aus- 
tralia. In his new sphere Weld continued 
to do well. He obtained the introduction 
of an elective element into the Legislative 
Council, and encouraged the establishment 
of municipal institutions ; an education act 
passed in 1871 provided for the equality of all 
religious denominations. His administration 
coincided with a period of distinct develop- 
ment in the colony ; it was marked by the 
completion of a system of internal telegraphs, 
the establishment of a steam service round 
the coasts, and the commencement of the first 
railway. In January 1875 he was transferred, 
on the completion of his term of office, to 
Tasmania. He came at a difficult time, when 
the personal antagonism of factions in the 
legislature occupied attention to the ex- 
clusion of public business. His conflict with 
the judges over the release of the woman 
Hunt created a storm. His term of office is 
chiefly marked by the discovery of tin. He 
was at Sydney for the opening of the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1879, and was trans- 
ferred in April 1880 to the government of 
the Straits Settlements, where he arrived on 

Again Weld's lot fell on a time of much 
expansion in the colony to which he was 
appointed. In the regulation of the rapid 
Chinese immigration he had a difficult task. 
His name is connected with general improve- 
ment of the public buildings and the Raffles 
Museum, but he particularly devoted him- 
self to the consolidation of relations with the 
native states. . In March 1883 he went to 
Malacca to settle the Rembau disturbances, 
and laid the foundation of the arrangements 
which led to the existence of the protected 
state of Negri Sembilan; in May 1885 he 
arranged a new treaty with the sultan of 
Johore ; in May 1887 he proceeded to Borneo 
as a commissioner to report on the claims of 
certain chieftains against the British North 
Borneo Company. In November 1887 he 
went to Pahang, and left there a British 
agency, which was soon followed by a regu- 
lar protectorate. 

Weld retired on a pension in 1887, and, re- 
turning to England, died at Chideock Manor, 
Bridport, on 20 July 1891. He was made 
C.M.G. in 1875, K.C.M.G. in 1880, and 
G.C.M.G. in 1885. He married, on 2 March 
1858, Filomena Mary Anne, daughter of 
Ambrose Lisle Marsh Phillipps de Lisle of 
Garenden Park, Leicester. By her he had 
six sons and seven daughters. 

Weld was a man of ability and culture ; 
straightforward and chivalrous, both as mini- 
ster and governor, but apparently wanting in 
tact and discretion. Port Weld in the Straits 
Settlements is named after him. He wrote 
two or three pamphlets on affairs in New 
Zealand, the chief of which are ' Hints to 
intending Sheep Farmers in New Zealand,' 
London, 1851, and ' Notes on New Zealand 
Affairs,' London, 1869 ; the latter contains a 
good sketch of his own policy. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry ; Mennell's Diet, of 
Australasian Biography ; Gisborne's Rulers and 
Statesmen of New Zealand; Rusden's Hist, of 
New Zealand, vol. ii. chaps, xii. and xiii.pp. 267 
seq. ; Colonial Office List, 1886; Weld's Notes 
on New Zealand Affairs, Parl. Papers of 1865 ; 
Fenton's Tasmania, ch. xviii. ; information fur- 
nished by Sir James Swettenham of the Straits 
Settlements.] C. A. H. 

WELD, ISAAC (1774-1856), topogra- 
phical writer, born in Fleet Street, Dublin, 
on 15 March 1774, was the eldest son by his 
first wife, Elizabeth Kerr, of Isaac Weld 
(d. 1824), and half-brother of Charles Ri- 
chard Weld [q. v.] His great-great-grand- 
father, the Rev. Edmund Weld, of Blarney 
Castle, co. Cork, in the time of Cromwell [see 
under WELD, THOMAS], was the descendant 
of Sir Richard Weld of Eaton. His grand- 
father was named Isaac after Newton, the 




intimate friend of his great-grandfather, Dr. 
Nathaniel Weld. Both Nathaniel (d. 1730) 
and his sonlsaac(<2. 1778)weredistinguished 
for learning and piety in the ministry, which 
they held successively in New Row, Dublin. 
The latter edited, in four volumes, in 1769, 
with ' a preface giving some account of the 
life of the author,' the ' Discourses on Various 
Subjects ' of Dr. John Leland. 

Young Isaac, the third of the name, was 
sent to the school of Samuel Whyte in Graf- 
ton Street, and thence to that of llochemont 
Barbauld at Palgrave, near Diss, Norfolk, 
where he had as schoolfellows Thomas, after- 
wards first Lord Denman, and Sir William 
Gell. From Diss he proceeded to Norwich as 
a private pupil to Dr. Enfield, by whom he 
was introduced to the Taylor and Martineau 
families. He left Norwich in 1793, and two 
years later, having resolved upon exploring 
the resources of the United States and 
Canada, he set sail from Dublin for Phila- 
delphia. He arrived in November 1795, his 
voyage having occupied some sixty days, 
and spent a little over two years in the 
country. Accompanied by a faithful servant, 
sometimes on horseback, sometimes on foot 
or in a canoe, he made his way (often under 
the guidance of Indians), throifgh the vast 
forests and along the great rivers. He nar- 
nowly escaped shipwreck on^Lake Erie and 
experienced all the adventure incident to 

in the original size. Weld was introduced 
at the ' Institut ' at Paris as an American 
traveller, was elected a member of the His- 
torical and Literary Society of Quebec, and 
on 27 Nov. 1800 was elected a member of 
the Royal Dublin Society, of which he sub- 
sequently .(in 1849) became vice-president. 

In 1801, at the request of the lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, Lord Hardwicke, Weld 
drew up a paper on the subject of emigra- 
tion, based upon some of the data given in 
his book, in which an effort was made to 
divert the stream of emigration from the 
United States to Canada. Lord Hardwicke 
in return interested himself successfully in 
procuring for Weld the reversion of a lucra- 
tive post in the Irish customs, which had 
been held by his father. When, however, 
the father died in 1824 the salary of the 
post was reduced to vanishing point, and 
Weld never secured any adequate compen- 
sation for this injustice. 

In the meantime Weld had fully sus- 
tained his reputation as a topographer in his 
' Illustrations of the Scenery of Killarney 
and the surrounding Country ' (London, 1807, 
4to, and 1812, 8vo), illustrated by eighteen 
engravings on copper from drawings by the 
author. During his peregrinations in the 
south-west of Ireland he navigated the lakes 
in a boat which he manufactured out of com- 

pressed brown 

passing through an unsettled country, while I the then little 

>aper, and he also ascended 
mown summit of Gheraun- 

in the towns he mixed in the best society, 
and had the privilege of meeting George 
Washington. He paid a visit to Mount 
Vernon, and meditated upon the slaves' 
cabins that disfigured the prospect. The 
impediments to locomotion were such that 
it took him two days and two nights to reach 
Albany from New York, and eight days be- 
tween'Montreal and Kingston. He returned 
home at the close of 1797 ' without entertain- 
ing the slightest wish to revisit ' the American 
continent, and published through Stockdale. 
in January 1799, his ' Travels through the 
States of North America and the Provinces 
of Upper and Lower Canada during the 
Years 1795, 1796, and 1797.' The work was 
received with great favour, and before the 
year was out a second edition was called for. 
The first was in quarto, with plates from 
original sketches by the author, the second 
in two volumes octavo, with folded plates ; 
other editions followed in 1800 and 1807. 
A French version was handsomely got up in 

tuel, in the Macgillicuddy Reeks. 

In May 1815 he sailed upon what was 
then thought a perilous voyage, embarking 
in the pioneer 14 horse-power steamboat 
Thames, sailing from Dunleary to London. 
His voyage, during which, though the 
weather was rough, the small steamer over- 
hauled all the shipping in the Channel, formed 
the subject of an animated narrative in 
' Fraser's Magazine ' for September 1848. In 
1838, at which time he held the post of 
senior honorary secretary to the Royal Dub- 
lin Society, Weld drew up for this body his 
compendious ' Statistical Survey of the 
County of Roscommon' (Dublin, 8vo). Weld 
took a keen interest in Irish industries, and 
first suggested the triennial exhibitions which 
the Royal Dublin Society inaugurated. In 
1838 he gave valuable evidence before the 
select committee appointed to inquire into 
the administration of the society. In his 
later years he travelled extensively in Italy 
and spent much time in Rome, where he be- 

Paris, with reduced copies of the plates, came intimate with Canova. He died on 
' better than the originals.' Two German 4 Aug. 1856 at Ravenswell, near Bray, 
translations were made, one by Koenig and ! where the greater portion of his later life, 

the other by Mme. Hertz, and a Dutch ver- 
sion also appeared, with copies of the plates 

when he was not upon his travels, had been 
spent. He married at Edinburgh, in 1802, 


1 60 


Alexandrina Home, but left no issue. The 
members of the Royal Dublin Society raised 
a monument to his memory in Mount Jerome 
cemetery in the course of 1857. 

[Dublin Univ. Mag. No. xlix (Jan. 1857); 
Proc. Royal Dublin Society, xciii. 3, 5, 22, 25, 
xciv. 14, 17; Athenaeum, 1857, i. 19; Steven- 
son's Cat. of Voyages and Travels, No. 808 ; 
Monthly Rev. 1799 iii. 200, 1808 i. 18 ; 
Quarterly Rev. ii. 314 ; Randall's Life of 
Jefferson, 1358, iii. 340; Gent. Mag. 1855, i. 
610 ; Tuckerman's America and her Commenta- 
tors, 1864, p. 208 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

MAS (1590P-1662), puritan divine, was 
born in the south of England about 1590, 
and educated at Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated in 1613. He was instituted vicar 
of Terling, Essex, in 1624. On 10 Nov. 
1629 he joined in the puritan petition to 
William Laud [q. v.], then bishop of London, 
in favour of Thomas Hooker [q. v.] On 
3 Sept. 1631 he was deprived by Laud for 
nonconformity, and succeeded by John Stal- 
ham [q. v.] He emigrated to New England, 
arriving at Boston on 5 June 1032. In 
July he was appointed ' pastor ' of First 
Roxbury, Massachusetts. On 5 Nov. John 
Eliot [q. v.], ' the Indian apestle,' was asso- 
ciated with him as ' teacher.' He was a 
member of the ' assembly of the churches ' 
(the first of the puritan synods of New 
England) which met for three weeks at New- 
town (renamed Cambridge in 1638), and 
condemned on 30 Aug. 1637 the antino- 
mian views of John Wheelwright (1592?- 
1679) of Braintree, and his sister-in-law, 
Mrs. Anne Hutchinson [q. v.] In the in- 
terval between the two trials of Mrs. Hutchin- 
son before the civil court at Newtown (Oc- 
tober 1637) and the ecclesiastical court at 
Boston (15 March 1638), she was detained 
in Weld's charge at Roxbury under sentence 
of banishment. 

In July 1638 John Josselyn [q.v.] brought 
to Boston from Francis Quarles [q. v.] a new 
metrical version of six psalms. This sug- 
gested the preparation of a psalter to super- 
sede Sternhold and Hopkins. Weld took 
part in the work (which Neal calls ' a mean 
performance') with Eliot and Richard 
Mather [q. v.] It was published as ' The 
Whole Booke of Psalmes, faithfully trans- 
lated into English Metre,' 1640, 8vo ; no 
place or printer is given, but it was printed 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Stephen 
Daye [q. v.] Known as the ' Bay Psalm 
Book,' it is memorable as the first volume 
printed in the American colonies. In August 
1641 Weld was sent to England with Hugh 
Peters [q. v.] as one of the agents of the 

colony. He visited Laud in the Tower, 
claiming redress for former grievances. Laud 
'remembered no such thing' (BURTON, 
Grand Impostor Unmasked, [1645]). In 
1642 he accompanied Peters in the Irish 
expedition under Alexander, lord Forbes. 

Being in London in 1644 he met with an 
account of the Wheelwright and Hutchinson 
case, ' newly come forth of the presse,' with 
title ' A Catalogue of Erroneous Opinions 
condemned in New England,' 1644, 4to (re- 
printed 1692), 'and, being earnestly pressed 
by diverse to perfect it,' he added a preface 
and a conclusion. It was issued as ' A Short 
Story of the Rise, Reign, and Ruin of the 
Antinomians, Familists, & Libertines, that in- 
fected the Churches of New-England,' 1644, 
4to. It has been conjectured that the main 
account was drawn up by John Winthrop 
[q. v.] Wheelwright replied in ' Mercurius 
Americanus,' 1645, 4to. In 1646 Weld was 
relieved of his agency and recalled to New 
England. He did not return, and appears 
to have remained in London. 

In 1649 he was put into the rectory of 
St. Mary's, Gateshead. Here he took part 
with William Durant (d. 1681), Samuel 
Hammond, D.D. [q. v.], and others, in con- 
troversy with quakers and in exposing the 
imposture of Thomas Ramsay [q. v.] Accord- 
ing to the church books his connection with 
Gateshead ceased in 1657 ; it is not impro- 
bable that he made some stay in Ireland. 
He signed the declaration against the in- 
surrection of fifth-monarchy men issued 
(January 1661) by congregational ministers 
' in and about the city of London.' His 
successor at Gateshead (John Laidler) was 
not presented till 16 March 1660-1. Weld 
is said to have died in England on 23 March 
1661-2. He was twice married. His eldest 
son, Thomas Weld, graduated M. A. at Har- 
vard in 1641, and remained in New England. 
Another son, Edmund Weld, graduated at 
Harvard in 1650, became one of Cromwell's 
chaplains in Ireland, was independent mini- 
ster at Kinsale, co. Cork, in 1655, and later 
at Blarney Castle, co. Cork, and died in 
1668, aged 37. This Edmund Weld was 
father of Nathaniel Weld (1660-1730), in- 
dependent minister at Eustace Street, Dub- 
lin, and grandfather of Isaac Weld (1710- 
1778), his successor, whose grandsons were 
Isaac Weld fq.v.] and Charles Richard Weld 
[q. v.] 

Besides the above he published : 1. ' An 
Answer to W. R. his Narration of the 
Opinions and Practises of the Churches . . . 
in New England,' 1644,4to; William Rath- 
band the elder (d. 1645) had treated the 
disorders above mentioned as the natural 



result of independency. 2. 'The Perfect 
Pharisee under Monkish Ilolines ... in the 
Generation . . . called Quakers,' Gateside 
[Gateshead], 1653, 4to ; reprinted London, 
1654, 4to, by Weld, Richard Prideaux, Ham- 
mond, William Cole, and Durant. 3. ' A False 
Jew,' Newcastle, 1653, 2 pts. 4to ; account of 
Itamsay, by Weld, Hammond, C. Sidenham, 
and Durant. 4. ' A further Discovery of 
that Generation . . . called Quakers,' Gate- 
side [Gateshead], 1654, 4to. 5. 'A Vindica- 
tion of Mr. Weld,' 1658, 4to ; in reply to 
W T heelwright. 

[Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Bio- 
graphy, 1889, vi. 425; Calamy's Account, 1713, 
p. 288 ; Calamy's Continuation, 1727, i. 454; 
Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi America, 
1702, iv. 137, vii. 17; Neal's Hist, of New Eng- 
land, 1720, i. 188; Hutchinson's Hist, of Mas- 
sachuset's Bay, 1765, p. 66; Brand's Newcastle, 
1789, i. 499; Surtees's Durham, 1820, ii. 118; 
Armstrong's Appendix to Martineau's Ordination. 
1829, pp. 81-2 ; Hanbury's Historical Memorials, 
1844, iii. 592; Uhden's New England Theocracy 
(Conant), 1858, p. 100; Davids's Nonconformity 
in Essex, 1863, pp. 154, 574; Reid's Hist. Presb. 
Church in Ireland (Killen),1867,ii. 558; Smith's 
Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, p. 445; 
Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presby- 
terianism in Ireland, 1879 i. 126 sq., 1880 ii. 
114 sq. ; Massachusetts Hist. Collections, 3rd 
ser. i. 236; Savage's Genealogical Diet. iv. 459, 
473 ; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1892, 
p. 119.] A. G-. 

WELD, THOMAS (1773-1837), car- 
dinal, born in London on 22 Jan. 1 773, was 
the eldest son of Thomas Weld of Lull worth 
Castle, Dorset, by his wife Mary, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Stanley Massey Stanley 
of Hooton, who belonged to the elder and 
catholic branch of the Stanley family, now 
extinct. He was educated at home under 
Charles Plowden [q. v.], and at an early age 
he gave proof of his great piety and munifi- 
cent charity,which was particularly displayed 
in favour of many religious communities that 
were driven into England by the fury of the 
French revolution. He concurred with his 
father in bestowing upon the banished mem- 
bers of the Society of Jesus the splendid 
mansion of Stonyhurst. The Trappist nuns 
were received at Lullworth ; while the Poor 
Clares from Gravelines and the nuns of the 
Visitation were also special objects of his 
bounty. George III, in his sojourns at Wey- 
mouth, used to visit Lullworth, and always 
expressed the greatest regard for the family. 

On 14 June 1796 Weld married, at Ug- 
brooke, Lucy Bridget, second daughter of 
Thomas Clifford of Tixall, fourth son of 
Hugh, third lord Clifford. Their only issue 

vol. LX. 

was Mary^Lucy, born at Upway, near Wey- 
mouth, on 31 Jan. 1799. The loss of his wife 
at Clifton on 1 June 1815, and the subse- 
quent marriage of his only child to her second 
cousin, Hugh Charles Clifford (afterwards 
seventh Baron Clifford), on 1 Sept. 1818, left 
him at liberty to embrace the ecclesiastical 
state, and to renounce the family property to 
his next brother, Joseph Weld. He placed 
himself under the direction of his old friend, 
the celebrated Abb6 Carron,and Mgr. Quelen, 
archbishop of Paris, ordained him priest on 
7 April 1821. On 20 June 1822 he began to 
assist the pastor of the Chelsea mission, and 
after some time he was removed to Hammer- 
smith. The holy see having nominated him 
coadjutor to Alexander Macdonell (1762- 
1840) [q. v.], bishop of Kingston, the cere- 
mony of Weld's consecration as bishop of 
Amycla, a town of the Morea, was per- 
formed at St. Edmund's College, near Ware, 
by Bishop William Poynter [q. v.] on 6 Aug. 
1826. Circumstances, however, delayed his 
departure for Canada. His daughter being 
in failing health, he accompanied her and 
her husband to Italy, and shortly after his 
arrival at Rome Cardinal Alboni, on 19 Jan. 

1830, announced to him that Pius VIII 
had decided to honour him with the purple. 
He was admitted into the College of Car- 
dinals on 15 March 1830, and on this occa- 
sion a Latin ode was composed and pub- 
lished to Dominic Gregorj (Rome, 1830, 
4to). His daughter died at Palo on 15 May 

1831, and was buried on the 18th in the 
church of Marcellus at Rome, from which 
his eminence derived his title. On his ele- 
vation to the Sacred College he received as- 
surances from persons of high influence and 
dignity in England that his nomination had 
excited no jealousy, but on the contrary had 
given general satisfaction. His apartments 
in the Odescalchi palace were splendidly 
furnished, and periodically filled by the 
aristocracy of Rome, native and foreign, and 
by large numbers of his fellow-countrymen 
(WISEMAN, Recollections of the Four Last 
Popes, 2nd edit. p. 246). He died on 19 April 
1837, and his remains were deposited in the 
church of S. Maria Aquiro. The funeral 
oration, delivered by Nicholas (afterwards 
Cardinal) Wiseman, has been published (Lon- 
don, 1837, 8vo). 

His brother, JOSEPH WELD (1777-1863), 
third son of Thomas Weld, was born on 
27 Jan. 1777. He received the exiled royal 
family of France at Lullworth in August 
1830, the king and his suite remaining there 
for some days, until their removal to Holy- 
rood House. He was the owner of the Alarm, 
Arrow, and Lullworth yachts, which he navi- 




gated himself until very late in life, and, 
having a practical knowledge and a real 
liking for the sea, he was always very fortu- 
nate in the construction and sailing of his 
vessels. He died at Lullworth Castle on 
19 Oct. 1863. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 199, 345, 
437; Catholic Directory, 1838, with portrait; 
Edinburgh Catholic ser. London, 1837, 
i. 383, iii. frontispiece (portrait) ; Gent. Mag. 
1864, i. 120; Gerard's Stonyhurst College 
Centenary (portrait); Gibson's Lydiate Hall, 
p. 148; Laity's Directory, 1838, with portrait; 
London and Dublin Orthodox Journal, 1837, iv. 
276 ; Macdonell's Life of Bishop Macdonell, 
Toronto, 1888, p. 25; Oliver's Cornwall, pp. 
50, 434 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 51 ; 
Eimmer's Stonyhurst Illustrated, 1884, with 
portrait; Ullathorne's Autobiography, pp. 122, 
125.] T. C. 

WELDON, SIR ANTHONY (d. 1649 ?), 
historical writer, of Swanscombe, Kent, 
descended from a younger branch of the 
family of Weltden of Northumberland. His 
father, Sir Ralph Weldon, knighted on 
24 July 1603, was clerk of the Green Cloth 
to Queen Elizabeth and James I, and his 
uncle, Anthony, clerk of the kitchen. Sir 
Anthony, who succeeded to his uncle's office 
on the resignation of the latter in" 1604, and 
to his father's in 1609, was knighted on 
11 May 1617 (HASTED, History of Kent, 
i. 261 ; NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, iii. 
299). He accompanied James I to Scot- 
land in 1617, and is said to have been 
dismissed from his post at court in conse- 
quence of the discovery of his authorship of 
a libel against the Scottish nation (Secret 
History of James I, ii. 102). Two letters 
written by Weldon to Secretary Winde- 
bank in 1634 prove that he still kept friends 
at court (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633-4, 
pp. 220, 244). Other letters, including a 
scheme for the better assessment of ship- 
money and a complaint against the gun- 
powder monopoly, show signs of hostility to 
the government of Charles I (ib, 1637-8, pp. 
233, 598 ; LARKING, Proceedings in Kent, 
p. 48). During the civil war Weldon was 
one of the chief men in the parliamen- 
tary committee in Kent, and energetically 
maintained the authority of parliament 
during the insurrections which took place 
in that county in 1643 and 1648 (Report on 
the Duke of Portland's Manuscripts, i. 296, 
312, 472, 708 ; Tanner MSS. Ixii. 175, 179; 
Clarke Papers, ii. 15). On 24 Oct. 1648 
parliament ordered him 500/. as a reward foi' 
his faithful services (Commons' Journals, vi. 
61). He died about 1649. 

A portrait, or rather a caricature, of Wel- 

don is given in the ' Antiquarian Repertory ' 
(ed. 1808, ii. 320). 

By his marriage with Elinor, daughter of 
George Wilmer, Weldon had eight sons (of 
whom the youngest, Colonel George Weldon, 
was father of Ralph Weldon [q. v.]) and four 
daughters (HASTED, i. 261). His eldest son, 
RALPH (fl. 1650). was colonel of a Kentish 
regiment of foot, under the command of Sir 
William Waller [q. v.] in 1644, and in April 
1645 became a colonel in the new model. He 
commanded the brigade detached by Fairfax 
to the relief of Taunton in May 1645, and 
also had command of a brigade at the siege 
of Bristol in the following September 
(SPEIGGE, Anglia Rediviva, ed. 1854, pp. 19, 
104, 126). On 25 Oct. 1645 the two houses 
passed an ordinance making him governor 
of Plymouth (Lords' Journals, vii. 374, 661, 
viii. 43). In that capacity he obtained 
various successes (Colonel Weldon 's taking 
of Inchmere House, near Plymouth, 1646, 
4to ; Articles of Agreement for the Surrender 
of Charles Fort, 1646), but was involved in 
continual difficulties from want of money to 
pay the soldiers of the garrison. Many of 
Weldon's letters representing their neces- 
sitous condition are in print, and, to prevent 
mutiny, he was finally obliged to raise money 
on his personal security for their payment 
(CART, Memorials of the Civil War, i. 324, 
326, 343 : Commons' Journals, v. 362, 494, 
571). In June 1656 4,000/. was still owing to 
him, and on 23 Dec. 1656 he was ordered by 
the Protector 3,3007. in satisfaction for the 
debt (ib. vii. 419, 549; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1656-7, pp. 209, 224). 

Another son, ANTHONY WELDOX (fl. 1650), 
was successively captain under Lord Esmond 
in the garrison of Duncannon, major of the 
Earl of Lincoln's regiment of horse in Lin- 
colnshire, and major to Sir Michael Livesey's 
Kentish regiment of horse in Sir William 
Waller's army. He quarrelled with all these 
commanders, presentingto parliament in 1643 
a charge against the Lincolnshire committee, 
and in 1644 articles against Sir Michael 
Livesey (Commons' Journals, iii. 245,508; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644,p. 171). In 1645 
Weldon took service under the Spaniards in 
Flanders, but lost his command, and was 
imprisoned owing to a dispute with Lord 
Goring. In 1648 he returned to England, 
and endeavoured to get leave to raise a re- 
giment for Venetian service out of the 
royalist prisoners in the power of the par- 
liament (Commons' Journals, vi. 60). In 
March 1649 he denounced the intended pub- 
lication of a translation of the Koran to 
parliament, and obtained authority to seize 
it. On 11 Dec. 1650 the council of state 




issued a warrant for his arrest, and on 
30 Nov. 1654 the Protector, on his own 
petition, ordered him a pass to go beyond 
seas (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-50 pp. 
42, 530, 1650 p. 568, 1654 p. 403). Weldon 
was the author of an autobiographical pam- 
phlet of some interest, called ' The Declara- 
tion of Colonel Anthony Weldon ' (1649, 

These two Colonel Weldon s are frequently 
confused with each other, and with a third, 
viz. Colonel MICHAEL WELDON (fi. 1645) of 
the Northumberland family, who was em- 
ployed by parliament as agent to the Scot- 
tish council in May 1643 (Lords' Journals, 
vii. 49). He commanded a regiment of 
horse in the Scottish army, which entered 
England in 1644, was also high sheriff of 
Northumberland in that year, and was very 
active in suppressing moss troopers on the 
border in 1645 (Report on the Duke of Port- 
land's Manuscripts, i. 202, 344; THTJRLOE, 
State Papers, i. 25, 36, 41). 

Sir Anthony Weldon was the author of : 
1. ' The Court and Character of King 
James I,' 1650, 12mo ; a second edi- 
tion, ' whereto is added the Court of King 
Charles,' appeared in 1651, and is reprinted 
in the ' Secret History of the Court of 
James I,' 1811, 2 vols. (i. 299 to ii. 72). 
This is a collection of scandalous gossip 
about the two kings and their ministers 
and favourites. A few of the stories it 
contains embody personal reminiscences, or 
information received from personages con- 
cerned in the incidents related. Heylyn, in 
his ' Examen Historicum,' summarily dis- 
misses Weldon's book as an infamous libel. 
It was immediately answered by William 
Sanderson in his ' Aulicus Coquinarise ' (re- 
printed in ' Secret History of James I,' ii. 
91), and also in his ' Complete History of 
the Lives and Reigns of Mary Queen of 
Scots and her son James ' (pt. ii. 1656). A 
second answer is contained in Goodman's 
'Court of King James I' [see GOODMAN, 
GODFREY], which was first published by 
J. S. Brewer in 1839. ' I never read,' says 
Goodman, ' a more malicious-minded author, 
nor any who had such poor and mean ob- 
servations ' (i. 412). 2. 'A Cat may look at 
a king ; or a Brief Chronicle and Character 
of the Kings of England from William the 
Conqueror to the Reign of Charles I,' 1652, 
16mo; this was reprinted in 1714 (see Somers 
Tracts, ed. Scott, vol. xiii., and again in 
1755). 3. 'A Perfect Description of the 
People and Country of Scotland,' 1659, 12mo. 
This is reprinted in the ' Secret History of 
the Court of James I ' (1811, ii. 76) and in 
Nichols's 'Progresses of James I ' (iii. 338). 

Manuscripts of it are to be found in Har- 
leian MS. 5191, Lansdowne MS. 973, and 
the Record Office (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1623-5, p. 550). 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, ii. 868 ; Hasted's 
Kent, i. 261; Secret History of the Court of 
James I, 1811.] C. H. F. 

WELDON, JOHN (1676-1736), musician, 
was born at Chichester on 19 Jan. 1676. He 
was educated at Eton College, and also 
studied music there under the organist, John 
Walter. Subsequently he had lessons from 
Henry Purcell. In 1694 he became organist 
of New College, Oxford. He was one of the 
contributors to Francis Smith's ' Musica 
Oxoniensis,' 1698. At the competition in 
1700 for the best setting of Congreve'e 
masque, ' The Judgment of Paris,' the first 
prize of 100/. was awarded to Weldon : but 
the work was not published, although John 
Eccles [q. v.] and Daniel Purcell [q. v.], the 
second and third prize winners, issued their 
settings. The only number of Weldon's now 
preserved is the air of Juno, ' Let ambition 
fire thy mind,' which was adapted by Thomas 
Augustine Arne [q.v.] to the duet, 'Hope, 
thou nurse of young desire,' in the opera 
' Love in a Village ; ' Burney says (1788) no 
air was ' in greater favour than this at pre- 
sent.' On 6 Jan. 1701 Weldon was sworn 
in a gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel 
Royal, and in 1702 he resigned his post at 
Oxford. On the death of John Blow [q. v.] 
in 1708, Weldon obtained the post of organist 
in the Chapel Royal ; and he also held the 
same post at St. Bride's Church, Fleet Street. 
Tillotson had recommended that a second 
composer should be appointed at the Chapel 
Royal ; this was first done by George I, and 
Weldon was sworn in for the place on 8 Aug. 
1715. Soon after his institution he com- 
posed music for the communion service, which 
was very seldom set after the Restoration, 
until the Oxford movement. The ' Sanctus ' 
and ' Gloria ' were edited by Rimbault for 
the ' Choir and Musical Record,' September 
1864. In 1726 he became organist of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields. He died on 7 May 
1736. and was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Paul, Covent Garden. At the Chapel 
Royal he was succeeded by William Boyce 
"q. v.1, at St. Martin's by Joseph Kelway 
q. v.] 

Weldon composed much sacred and secular 
music. He contributed to a collection of 
solos for flutes (or violins) which was re- 
printed at Amsterdam, but seems to have 
in general neglected instrumental music. 
He gave concerts at York Buildings, and a 
collection of songs performed there was pub- 





lished; also a collection of songs with violin 
and flute accompaniments, and many single 
songs. Specially popular among these was 
' From Grave Lessons,' which is printed by 
Hawkins. In sacred music Weldon was 
still more successful ; two of his anthems, 
' In Thee, O Lord,' and ' Hear my crying,' 
were printed in Boyce's ' Cathedral Music,' 
and are still frequently performed. Others 
were printed in the collections of Arnold 
and Page. 'Blessed art Thou' was pub- 
lished in the ' Parish Choir,' vol. iii., and 
with Welsh words in J. Roberts's ' Cerddor 
y Tonic Sol-fa.' Weldon published only six 
solo anthems, which he had composed for 
the celebrated counter-tenor Richard Elford 
[q.v.], and entitled ' Divine Harmony ; ' but 
these have not maintained their place upon 
the repertory. Five pieces, arranged for the 
organ, were included in Vincent Xovello's 
' Cathedral Voluntaries,' 1831 ; and two 
others in A. H. Brown's ' Organ Arrange- 
ments,' 1879. The cheap editions of Xovello 
and Curwen contain anthems by Weldon, 
both in staff notation and tonic sol-fa. 
Burney speaks very inappreciatively of Wei- 
don's anthems, but time has shown he was 
wrong ; and probably not a week passes 
without a performance of one or. more. 

[Hawkins's History of Music, chaps, cxlvi. 
clxiv. ; Burney's History of Music, iii. 612 ff. ; 
The Choir and Musical Record. May 1 865, p. 430 ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, i. 71, iv. 
435 ; Emil Vogel's Katalog der . . . Bibliothek 
zu Wolfeubiittel ; Barrett's English Church Com- 
posers, pp. 112-16, contains a good account of 
Weldon's anthems, but a very exaggerated state- 
ment of his importance as an inventor of new 
harmonies ; Cheque-book of the Chapel Eoyal 
(Camden Soc.), 1872 ; Davey's History of Eng- 
lish Music, pp. 329, 345, 373 ; Weldon's com- 
positions in the British Museum and Christ 
Church, Oxford.] H. D. 

WELDON, RALPH (1674-1713), Bene- 
dictine monk, of the ancient family of Wel- 
don of Swanscombe, Kent, was the seven- 
teenth child of Colonel George Weldon 
(youngest son of Sir Anthony Weldon [q.v.]) 
and of his wife, Lucy Necton. He was born 
in London on 12 April (N.S.) 1674, and was 
christened at the Savoy. Being converted 
to the catholic religion by Father Joseph 
Johnstone, he made his abjuration at St. 
James's Chapel on 12 Oct. 1687. He made 
his profession as a Benedictine monk in the 
convent of St. Edmund at Paris on 13 Jan. 
1691-2. Although a very learned man, he 
could never be induced to take priest's orders. 
He died at St. Edmund's on 23 Nov. 1713. 

He was the author of ' A Chronicle of the 
English Benedictine Monks from the renew- 

ing of their Congregation in the days of 
Queen Mary to the death of King James II r 
[London, 1882], 4to. The original manu- 
script, consisting of two folio volumes of 
' Chronological Notes,' is preserved at Am- 
pleforth, and there is an abridgment of it at 
St. Gregory's, Downside. 

[Rambler, 1850, vii. 433; Oliver's Cornwall, 
p. 529; Snow's Chronology, p. 87; Taunton's 
English Benedictines, 1898.] T. C. 

WELDON, WALTER (1832-1885), 
chemist, eldest son of Reuben Weldon, manu- 
facturer, and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Esther Fowke, Avas born at Lough- 
borough on 31 Oct. 1832. He was employed 
for some years in his father's business, but, 
finding he had a taste for literature, he went 
to London as a journalist shortly after his 
marriage in March 1854. He contributed to 
the ' Dial,' afterwards incorporated with the 
' Morning Star.' On 1 Aug. 1860 he issued 
the first number of a sixpenny monthlv maga- 
zine, called ' Weldon's Register of Facts 
and Occurrences relating to Literature, the 
Sciences, and the Arts,' but, although ably 
conducted, it proved a failure, and was aban- 
doned in 1864. Among the contributors 
were George Augustus Sala, Edmund Yates, 
Mr. William Michael Rossetti, James Hain 
Friswell, and Percy Greg. About this 
time, probably through the influence of a 
friend and fellow-Swedenborgian, Charles 
Townsend Hook, a paper manufacturer of 
Snodland, near Rochester, his attention was 
drawn to technological chemistry. He read 
widely and took out his first patents for the 
' manganese- regeneration process,' which 
eventually made his name famous, before he 
had ever seen a chemical experiment. On 
18 Sept. 1865 Weldonand his friend Greg met 
Mr. John Spiller to explain to him two pro- 
cesses devised by Weldon for the cheaper 
manufacture of magnesium and aluminium, 
which proved, however, impracticable. In the 
latter part of 1866 he met Colonel Gamble, 
and explained that he ' thought he had ob- 
tained a peroxide of manganese ' from the pro- 
toxide by suspending it in water and blowing 
air through, a process which, with certain 
important modifications, proved ultimately 
successful. He was at this time, says Colonel 
Gamble, totally unacquainted with the me- 
thods of quantitative chemical analysis, and 
the results to be obtained thereby. The 
object of Weldon (and of various unsuccess- 
ful predecessors) was to regenerate the 
manganese peroxide used in enormous quan- 
tities in the manufacture of chlorine, and 
converted into a valueless by-product which 
was thrown away. From this time onwards 




he carried out experiments on a large scale, 
first in 1866 at the demolished works of the 
Walker Chemical Company on the Tyne, 
and later at those of Messrs. J. C. Gamble 
& Company at St. Helens. These led to the 
' magnesia-manganese' process patented in 
1867, and the 'lime-manganese' process pa- 
tented a little later, which was finally adopted, 
but not worked commercially till 1869. By 
this latter process ninety to ninety-five per 
cent, of the manganese peroxide formerly 
lost was recovered ; ' the price of bleaching 
powder was reduced by 61. per ton, and 
something like 750,000/. per annum added 
to the national wealth.' The essential de- 
tail of the process which distinguishes it 
from that of earlier workers is the use 
of an excess of lime over and above that 
required for the precipitation of the man- 
ganese. M. Jean-Baptiste Dumas, in pre- 
senting to Weldon the gold medal of the 
Societe d'Encouragement pour 1'Industrie 
Nationale in Paris, said, ' By this invention 
every sheet of paper and every yard of calico 
throughout the world was cheapened.' For 
this discovery Weldon was also awarded a 
' grand prix ' at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. j 
In 1870 the invention of a new chlorine j 
process, ' the Deacon process,' by Henry Dea- j 
con (d. 1876) and Ferdinand Ilurter (1844- | 
1898) led Weldon to fear that his work might i 
be superseded, and he invented another pro- 
cess, known as the ' magnesia-chlorine ' pro- [ 
cess, which was developed later at the works 
at Salindres by Messrs. Pechiney and M. 
Boulouvard, and was then called the Pechi- 
ney- Weldon process (see James Dewar, 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 
vi. 775). This process has not proved finally 
successful, while the lime-manganese process 
is still largely employed. In 1880 Weldon 
read at the Swansea meeting of the British 
Association an important paper, in which he 
showed that the heat of formation of com- 
pounds increases in nearly all cases with the 
atomic volume, the heat of formation of equal 
volumes of different compoundsbeingapproxi- 
mately equal. On 8 June 1882 Weldon was 
elected F.R.S. On 11 July 1883 he was 
elected president of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, of which he had been one of the 
^founders in 1881. During the first half of 
1884 he voluntarily undertook the labour of 
supplying the journal of the society with a 
large number of abstracts of patents ' at a 
ruinous cost of time.' On 9 July 1884 he 
delivered his presidential address at New- 
castle-on-Tyne on the soda and chlorine in- 
dustries. A paper on the numerical relations 
between the atomic weights, read at the Mont- 
real meeting of the British Association, was 

not published, but Weldon printed in 1885 in 
quarto form, for private circulation, the first 
chapter dealing with the glucinum family, 
of a memoir ' On the Ratios . . . of the Atomic 
Weights.' He attempts to show that the 
ratios of the atomic weights of higher 
members of the glucinum family to that of 
glucinum are powers, or multiples of powers, 
of the fourth root of the ratio of the atomic 
weight of magnesium to that of glucinum. 
Weldon went in spite of illness to the Aber- 
deen meeting of the British Association in 
1885, but was obliged to return, and died at 
his house, Rede Hall, Burstow, Surrey, of 
heart disease shortly after, on 20 Sept. of 
that year. The manganese-recovery process 
will be remembered not only for its great 
intrinsic importance in chemical industry, 
but as a marvellous achievement on the part 
of a man without previous training. Like his 
scientific contemporaries, Mr. Alfred Russel 
Wallace and Sir William Crookes, Weldon 
was a believer in modern spiritualism. 

Weldon married Anne Cotton at Belper on 
14 March 1854. By her he had three chil- 
dren,of whom only one, Walter Frank Raphael 
Weldon, F.R.S., born on 15 March 1860, pro- 
fessor of comparative anatomy at Oxford, 
survived him. A second son, Walter Alfred 
Dante, born on 15 June 1862, died suddenly 
at Cambridge in 1881. The Royal Society's 
Catalogue contains a list of ten papers by 

[Besides the sources quoted, obituaries in the 
Journal of the Soc. of Chemical Industry, 1885, 
iv. 577 (the most important), and Proc. of the 
Royal Soc. 1889, vol. xlvi. p. xix, by F. W. 
R[enaut] ; Lunge's Manufacture of Sulphuric 
Acid and Alkali, 1880, iii. gives a history of 
Weldon's process, and of the work of his prede- 
cessors ; article by Lunge on Chlorine in Thorpe's 
Diet, of Applied Chemistry; Weldon's own 
papers ; information kindlv supplied by Prof. 
W. F. R. Weldon.] P. J. H. 

1858), Unitarian divine and archreologist, 
only child of John Wellbeloved (1742-1787), 
by his wife Elizabeth (Flaw), was born in 
Denmark Street,St. Giles, London, on 6 April 
1769, and baptised on 25 April at St. Giles- 
in-the-Fields. Owing to domestic unhappi- 
ness he was brought up from the age of four 
by his grandfather, Charles Wellbeloved 
(1713-1782), a country gentleman at Mort- 
lake, Surrey, an Anglican, and the friend 
and follower of John Wesley. He got the 
best part of his early education from a clergy- 
man (Delafosse) at Richmond. In 1783 he 
was placed with a firm of drapers on Hoi- 
born Hill, but only learned 'how to tie up 
a parcel.' In 1785 he became a student at 


1 66 

Homerton Academy under Benjamin Davies. 
Among his fellow-students were William 
Field [q.v.] and David Jones (1765-1816) 
[q. v.] Jones was expelled for heresy in 
1786 ; his opinions had influenced Wellbe- 
loved, who was allowed to finish the session 
of 1787, but not to return. In September 
1787 he followed Jones to New College, 
Hackney, under Abraham Rees [q. v.], the 
cyclopaedist, and Andrew Kippis [q. v.J, and 
subsequently (1789) under Thomas Belsham 
[q. v.] and (1790) Gilbert Wakefield [q. v.] 
Here he formed a close friendship with 
Arthur Aikin [q. v.], who entered in 1789. 
He attended the ministry of Eichard Price 
(1723-1791) [q. v.] His first sermon was 
preached at Walthamstow on 13 Nov. 1791. 
Shortly afterwards he received through 
Michael Maurice, father of [John] Frederick 
Denison Maurice [q. v.], an invitation to be- 
come assistant to Newcome Cappe [q. v.] at 
St. Saviourgate Chapel, York. He accepted 
on 23 Jan. 1792, and began his duties at 
York on 5 Feb. In 1801 he became sole 
minister on Cappe's death. 

He at once began a Sunday school and a 
system of catechetical classes. In 1794 he 
began to take pupils. He was invited in 
November 1797 (after Belsham had declined) 
to succeed Thomas Barnes (1747-1810) 
[q. v.J as divinity tutor in the Manchester 
academy. Barnes, an evangelical Arian, 
gave him no encouragement, but he did not 
reject the offer till February 1798 ; it was 
accepted soon after by George Walker (1 734 ?- 
1807) [q. v.] On Walker's resignation the 
trustees proposed (25 Marchl803) to remove 
the institution to York if Wellbeloved would 
become its director. He agreed (11 April ), and 
from September 1803 to June 1840 the in- 
stitution was known as Manchester College, 
York. Its management was retained by 
a committee, meeting ordinarily in Man- 
chester. For thirty-seven years Wellbe- 
loved discharged the duties of the divinity 
chair in a spirit described by Dr. Martineau, 
his pupil, as ' candid and catholic, simple 
and thorough.' He followed the method 
which Richard Watson (1737-1816) [q. v.] 
had introduced at Cambridge, discarding sys- 
tematic theology and substituting biblical 
exegesis. The chief feature of his exegetical 
work was his treatment of prophecy, limit- 
ing the range of its prediction, confining 
that of Hebrew prophecy to the age of its 
production, and bounding our Lord's pre- 
dictions by the destruction of Jerusalem. 
He broke with the Priestley school, reject- 
ing a general resurrection and fixing the | 
last judgment at death. In these and other 
points he closely followed the system of ; 

Newcome Cappe, but his careful avoidance 
of dogmatism left his pupils free, and none of 
them followed him into ' Cappism.' Among 
his coadjutors were Theophilus Browne 
[q.v.], William Turner, tertius [see under 
TURNEK, WILLIAM, 1714-1794], and Wil- 
liam Hincks [see under HINCKS, THOMAS 
Dix]. From 1810 he had the invaluable co- 
operation of John Kenrick [q. v.], who mar- 
ried his elder daughter Lsetitia. 

Proposals for editing a family bible were 
made to Wellbeloved (14 March 1814) by 
David Eaton (1771-1829), then a bookseller 
in Holborn in succession to William Yidler 
[q. v.] The prospectus (May 1814) an- 
nounced a revised translation with com- 
mentary. Between 1819 and 1838 nine parts 
were issued in large quarto, containing the 
Pentateuch, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesi- 
astes, and Canticles. The text was reprinted, 
withWellbeloved's revised version of Joshua, 
Judges, Ruth, and the Minor Prophets, in 
' The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant/ 
1859-62, 3 vols. 8vo. In 1823 he took up 
a controversy, begun by Thomas Thrush 
(17C1-1843), with Francis Wrangham [q.v.] 
Sydney Smith [q. v.] wrote : ' If I had a 
cause to gain I would fee Mr. W T ellbeloved 
to plead for me, and double fee Mr. Wrang- 
ham to plead against me.' As a sub-trustee 
of the Hewley trust he was involved in the 
suit (1830-42) which removed Unitarians 
from its management and benefits [see 

He was one of the founders of the York 
Subscription Library (1794), the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society (1822), and the York 
Institute (1827), and devoted much time to 
the archaeology of York. After the fire 
of 2 Feb. 1829 he took a leading part in 
raising funds for'the restoration of the min- 
ster, and in opposing the removal of the 
choir-screen. The description of the minster 
in Lewis's ' Topographical Dictionary,' the 
article.' York ' in the ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' 
and a 'Guide ' (1804) to York Minster are 
from his pen. His ' Eburacum, or York 
under the Romans ' (York, 1842, 8vo), gives 
the substance of his previous papers and lec- 
tures on the subject. 

Presentations of plate (1840) and of 1,000/. 
(1843) were made to him on resigning his 
divinity chair. He retained till death his 
connection with his chapel, officiating occa- 
sionally till 1853, having as assistants John 
Wright (1845-46) and Henry Vaughan 
Palmer (1846-58). He died at his residence, 
Monkgate, York, on 29 Aug. 1858, and was 
buried (3 Sept.) in the graveyard of St. 
Saviourgate Chapel ; a memorial tablet is in 
the chapel. His portrait, painted in 1826 by 




James Lonsdale [q. v.], is in the possession 
of G. "W. Rayner Wood at Singleton Lodge, 
Manchester; copies are in the museum of 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society and the 
vestry of St. Saviourgate Chapel; it has 
been engraved by Samuel Cousins [q. v.J 
He married, 1 July 1793, at St. Mary's, 
Stoke Newington, Ann (d. 31 Jan. 1823), 
eldest daughter of John Kinder, and was 
survived by a son and two daughters. His 
youngest son, liobert (b. 15 July 1803, d. 
21 Feb. 18o6), took (17 Feb. 1830) the name 
and arms of Scott, and was deputy-lieutenant 
for Worcestershire and M.P. for Walsall 
(1841-46). His youngest daughter, Emma 
(d. 29 July 1842), married (1831) Sir James 
Carter, chief justice of New Brunswick. 

Besides the works mentioned above, and 
single sermons and pamphlets, he published : 
1. ' Devotional Exercises,' 1801, 12mo ; 8th 
edit. 1832. 2. ' Memoirs of ... Rev. W[il- 
liamJWood,' 1809, 8vo. 3. ' Three Letters 
... to Francis Wrangham,' 1823, 8vo ; 
2nd edit, same year. 4. 'Three Additional 
Letters,' 1824, 8vo. 5. 'Memoir' prefixed 
to ' Sermons,' 1826, 8vo, by Thomas Wat- 
son. 6. ' Account of ... the Abbey of St. 
Mary, York,' in'Vetusta Monumenta,' 1829, 
vol. v. fol. 7. ' Memoir of Thomas Thrush,' 
1845, 8vo. 8. ' Descriptive Account of the 
Antiquities in the Museum of the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society,' 1852, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1858. He contributed to the ' York- 
shire Repository,' 1794, 12mo ; the ' Annual 
Review,' 1802-8 ; and the ' Proceedings of 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society,' 1855, 
vol. i. 

[Biographical Memoir by John Kenrick, 1 860 ; 
Funeral Sermons by Thomas Hincks and Wil- 
liam Gaskell, 1858; Christian Reformer, 1856 
p. 229, 1858 pp. 617. 650, 683, 708, 1859 p. 19; 
Memoirs of Catherine Cappe, 1822, p. 255 ; 
Eoll of Students, Manchester College, 1868; 
Kenrick's Memorials of St. Saviourgate, York. 
1869, p. 52 ; unpublished letters of Wellbeloved 
and Kenrick; pedigree extracted from family 
bible by the Rev.C.H. Wellbeloved,Southport.] 

A. G. 

WELLES. [See also WELLS.] 

BARON (d. 1311), was the son of William 
de Welle and his wife, Isabella de Vesci 
(DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 10). The family 
took its name from the manor of Well, near 
Alford in Lindsey, Lincolnshire, in which 
neighbourhood nearly all its estates lay ; 
but later and more famous members of it 
adopted the surname Welles, though in 
earlier times they were more commonly de- 
scribed as Welle. The earliest of the family 
mentioned in Dugdale nourished under Ri- 

chard I. William, Adam's father, paid fine 
in 1279 for his knighthood to be postponed 
for three years (Parl. Writs, i. 220). He was 
still alive in May 1286, when he nominated 
attorneys on going beyond seas with Hugh 
le Despenser (Cat. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, 
p. 248). Eight years later Adam also ap- 
pointed attorneys on 14 June 1294 for a 
year on going beyond seas with Hugh le 
Despenser (ib. 1292-1301, p. 73), who then 
went to Gascony. On 16 Jan. 1297 he ac- 
quired lands at Cumberworth, and the ad- 
vowson of Anderby, Lincolnshire, from Wil- 
liam de Willoughby (ib. p. 229). In March 
of the same year he was appointed, with the 
sheriff of Lincolnshire, to receive into the 
king's protection clerks who wished to dis- 
sociate themselves from Archbishop Win- 
chelsea's resistance to clerical taxation (ib. 
p. 239; Fcedera, i. 875). Before this he had 
become a knight. On 7 July he was ordered 
to muster in London for a fresh term of 
foreign service, but he was soon back in 
England, for on 1 Jan. 1298 he received 
letters of protection until Christmas as 
being about to accompany the king to Scot- 
land (Scotland in 1298, p. 36). He served 
through the Falkirk campaign with his bro- 
ther Philip, and fought in the battle (ib, pp. 
145-72). In 1299 he was made constable 
of Rockingham Castle and warden of its 
forest (Abbreviatio Rot.. Grig. i. 103). He 
was first of his house summoned as a baron 
to attend the parliament of March 1299 
(Parl. Writs, i. 899), after which he was 
regularly called until his death. He was 
summoned with equal regularity to serve 
against the Scots, and on 14 Jan. 1300 was 
one of the knights appointed to raise the 
Lincolnshire tenants of the crown ; and in 
the same year fought with Edward I at the 
siege of Carlaverock. He was present at the 
Lincoln parliament of February 1301, and 
signed the famous letter of the barons to 
the pope. In 1303 he was again summoned 
against the Scots (Foedera, i. 948). How- 
ever in February 1304 he seems to have been 
rebuked by the king for his remissness against 
the Scots (Hist. Doc. Scotland, ii. 470). 

Adam bought of John de Holland, who 
died soon after, the manor of Wyberton, near 
Boston (cf. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1301-7, p. 209 ; 
Memoranda de Parliaments, Rolls Ser. pp. 
70-2). Under Edward II Welles was in 
1309 (Fwdera,i\. 78) and in 1310 engaged on 
the king's service in Scotland, being allowed 
in the latter year a respite of his debts to the 
crown until Christmas (Cal. Close Rolls, 
1307-13, p. 298). He was also granted 
lands worth 42/. a year in Lincolnshire (Cal. 
Patent Rolls, 1307-13). His last summons 




to parliament was on 16 June 1311 (Parl. 
Writs, ii. 1597), in which year he died. 

His wife Joan, who was jointly seised with 
him of the manor of Wyberton, survived 
him. His estates at the time of his death 
are enumerated in ' Calendarium Inquisi- 
tionum . post mortem,' i. '247-8. Save a 
small property in Northamptonshire, they 
were all in Lincolnshire, including the whole 
or parts of seventeen manors, five and a half 
knights' fees, and five advowsons. 

His eldest son, Robert, succeeded to the 
lands. He had two younger sons, Adam and 
John, who in 1319 were declared to have 
equal rights of succession to Wyberton with I 
their elder brother. Robert was never sum- j 
moned to parliament, and died in 1320 with- I 
out issue from his wife. Adam (d. 1345) 
then succeeded, and was summoned as a j 
baron from 1332 to 1343. His direct de- 
scendants in the male line continued to hold 
the barony until the latter part of the fif- 
teenth century [see WELLES, LIONEL DE, sixth 

[Parliamentary Writs, vols. i. and ii. ; Calen- 
darium Rotulorum Cartarum ; Rymer's Fcede-a, j 
vols. i. and ii. ; Calendars of Patent and Close J 
Bolls; Rolls of Parliament; Memoranda de 
Parliamento, 1305 (Rolls Ser.) ; Nicolas's Siege 
of Carlaverock, pp. 32, 206-7; Dugdale's Baron- j 
age, ii. 10-11.] T. F. T. 

DE, sixth BARON WELLES (1405 P-1461), 
soldier, born about 1405, was son of Eudo 
de Welles by Maud, daughter of Ralph, 
lord Greystock. From Adam de Welles, first 
baron Welles [q. v.], descended John de : 
Welles, fifth baron, summoned to parliament 
as baron from 20 Jan. 1376 to 26 Feb. 1421, , 
and distinguished in the French and Scottish ; 
wars. He died in 1421 , leaving by his second i 
wife, Margaret (or Eleanor), daughter of ' 
John, lord Mowbray, the son Eudo above- j 
mentioned, who predeceased him. Eudo's j 
younger son, William, occasionally acted as 
deputy to his brother when lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, of which he was in 1465 lord j 
chancellor (O'FLANAGAN, Lord Chancellors of I 

Lionel, the eldest son, succeeded his ! 
grandfather in 1421, was knighted with 
Henry VI at Leicester by the Duke of Bed- 
ford on 19 May 1426, and went with the 
young king to France in 1430. He was sum- 
moned to parliament as sixth Baron AVelles 
from 25 Feb. 1432 to 30 July 1460. In 1434 
he became a privy councillor. He was sent 
to relieve Calais in 1436, when the town was 
feebly besieged by the Burgundians. He 
served as lord lieutenant of Ireland from 
about 1438, and was afterwards specially 

exempted from acts of resumption, because 
of the sums owed him by the crown in 
respect of his expenditure. He was a friend 
indeed a connection of the king, and 
constantly at court. In 1450 he was 
appointed a trier of petitions for Gascony 
and the parts beyond the seas. In 1454 
he was stated to be beyond the sea by the 
king's commandment. He was probably 
then at Calais, where he had been sent in 
1451, with Lord Rivers; he remained in 
command as lieutenant of the Duke of Somer- 
set until 20 April 1456, when Warwick se- 
cured possession. Hewaselected K.G. before 
13 May 1457. As a Lancastrian he took 
the oath of allegiance at Coventry in 1459. 
He joined Margaret of Anjou on her march 
south, was at the second battle of St. Albans 
on 7 Feb. 1460-1, and was killed at Towton 
on 29 March, and attainted in the parliament 
which followed. He was buried in Waterton 
church, Methley, Yorkshire. 

He married, first, about 1426, Joan (or 
Cecilia), only daughter of Sir Robert Water- 
ton of Waterton and Methley, and had issue 
a son, Richard (see below), and four daugh- 
ters ; and, secondly, between 27 May 1444 
and 31 Aug. 1447, Margaret, daughter of 
Sir John Beauchamp of Bletsoe ; she was 
widow of Sir Oliver St. John and of John 
Beaufort, duke of Somerset, by whom she 
had had a daughter, the Lady Margaret 
Beaufort [q. v.] ; by her Welles had a son 
John (see below). 

(1431-1470), son of Lionel, sixth baron, by 
his first wife, married Joane, daughter of 
Robert, lord Willoughby de Eresby, and was 
summoned in her right as Lord Willoughby 
from 26 May 1455 to 28 Feb. 1466. His 
first wife died before 1460, and he married 
secondly Margaret, daughter of Sir James 
Strangways and widow of John Ingleby, who 
took the veil in 1475. He was a Lancastrian 
and present at the second battle of St. Albans 
(7 Feb. 1460-1), but soon managed to make 
his peace with Edward, who pardoned him 
at Gloucester, in the first year of his reign ; 
and so he soon got his family property again, 
and in 1468 his honours. Doubtless his 
family connection with the Nevilles helped 
him. His son Robert, however, took part 
in Warwick's plots, and in March 1470 
attacked the house of Sir Thomas Borough, 
a knight of the king's body, spoiled it, and 
drove its owner away. Edward now sum- 
moned Lord Welles (the father) and his 
brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Dymock, to Lon- 
don. At first Welles refused to go on the 
plea of illness ; but afterwards went, took 
sanctuary at Westminster, and then rashly 




quitted it on promise of pardon. Edward 
made Welles write to his son telling him 
to give up Warwick's cause, and then took 
him down to Lincolnshire. Angry at the 
obstinacy of the son, he beheaded Lord 
Welles and Dymock at Huntingdon. His 
son then risked a battle near Stamford, 
but was defeated, taken, and executed on 
19 March 1470. His confession is printed 
in ' Excerpta Historica ' (pp. 382, &c.) 
Both father and son were attainted in the 
parliament of 1475, but the attainders were 
reversed in the first parliament of Henry VII. 
Richard Welles left a daughter Joane, who 
married, first, Richard Piggot of London, and, 
secondly, before 1470, Sir Richard Hastings. 
Hastings, in consequence, was afterwards 
summoned to parliament as Baron Welles, 
15 Nov. 1482; he died in 1503, and his 
widow in 1505, both without issue, and the 
barony of Welles fell into abeyance between 
the descendants of Lionel Welles's four daugh- 
ters. Sir Robert Welles had married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Bourchier, lord Ber- 
ners. She died a year after his execution, and 
was buried by his side in Doncaster church. 
Her will is printed in ' Testamenta Vetusta.' 
(d. 1499), son of Lionel, sixth baron, by his 
second wife, was a Lancastrian, but he is 
mentioned as a watcher at Edward IV's 
funeral. He was at the coronation of 
Richard III, but opposed him at once, and 
after the insurrection of Buckingham fled 
to Brittany. He took part in the Bosworth 
campaign, and was created Viscount Welles 
by summons to parliament on 1 Sept. 1487. 
Doubtless as a safe man of the second rank 
he was allowed to marry, before December 
1487, Cecily, daughter of Edward IV, who 
had been promised to the king of Scotland. 
He was elected K.G. before 29 Sept. 1488, 
and died on 9 Feb. 1498-9 ; he was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. By his wife Cecily 
he had two daughters, Elizabeth and Anne, 
both of whom died young; the viscouuty 
of Welles thus became extinct. 

[Excerpta Historica, pp. 282, &c. ; Hot. Parl. 
v. 1 82, &c., vi. 144, 246, &c. ; Wars of English in 
France (Rolls Ser.), ii. 776, 778 ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edw. IV, pp. 113, &c. ; Cooper's Life of the Lady 
Margaret, p. ; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, 
i. 96, &c., ii. 3,&c.; Beaucourt's. Charles 
VII, vi. 47 ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland, p. 
334 ; Camden Miscellany, vol. i. ; Warkworth's 
Chron. (Camd. Soc.), pp. 8, 52, 59 ; Polydore 
Vergil (Camd. Soc, transl.). pp. 126, 127; Tes- 
tamenta Vetusta, p. 310; Ramsay's Lancaster 
and York, i. 415, ii. 185, &c.; G. E. C[o- 
kaynej's Peerage; Burke's Extinct and Dor- 
mant Peerage.] W. A. J. A. 

WELLES, THOMAS (1598-1660), go- 
: vernor of Connecticut, born in 1598, belonged 
\ to the branch of the family of Welles settled 
in Northamptonshire. In 1634 he was living 
at Rothwell in that county. On 3 Nov. 
I 1634 he was admonished by the court of Star- 
chamber to answer in full articles against 
him and several others, among whom was 
William Fox, the ancestor of George Fox, 
charging him with holding puritan tenets. 
His property was confiscated, and on 16 April 
1635 their cause was appointed to be finally 
sentenced ; but Welles evaded punishment 
by proceeding to New England in the capacity 
of secretary to William Fiennes, first vis- 
count Saye and Sele [q. v.], a great protector 
of nonconformists (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1634-5 passim, 1635 p. 179). Early in 1636 
Lord Saye and Sele arrived with his secre- 
tary at the fort at the mouth of the Con- 
necticut, afterwards called Saybrook. Dis- 
pleased with his reception and discouraged 
by the difficulties of colonisation, he speedily 
I returned to England, leaving Welles, who 
was unwilling to face the Star-chamber. 
j Welles joined a party of emigrants from 
Newtown (now Cambridge) in Massachu- 
setts, among whom were Thomas Hooker 
; and Samuel Stone [q. v.], in founding a 
new settlement on the north bank of the 
Connecticut, which they at first called New- 
town, after their former residence, but after- 
wards, on 21 Feb. 1636-7, renamed Hartford, 
after Stone's birthplace. In 1637 Welles 
was chosen one of the magistrates of the 
town, an office which he held every year 
until his death. The colony of Connecticut 
was organised on an independent footing on 
1 May 1637, and in 1639 Welles was chosen 
the first treasurer under the new constitution, 
a post which he held till 1651, when, finding 
the duties burdensome, he w r as relieved of it 
at his own request. From 1640 to 1648 he 
filled the office of secretary, and in 1649 
was one of the commissioners of the united 
colonies in the first federal council assembled 
in New England. Welles defended the policy 
of the colony in placinga small duty on exports 
from the Connecticut river for the support 
of Saybrook, and successfully used his in- 
fluence to avoid war with the Dutch in 
Delaware Bay. On 1 March 1653-4 John 
Haynes, the deputy governor, died, and as 
the governor, Edward Hopkins [q. v.], was 
absent in England, Welles was chosen head 
of the colony, with the title of moderator of 
the general court. In May 1654 he was 
elected deputy governor. In the same year 
he was again appointed a commissioner to 
the assembly of the united colonies, but was 
prevented by his other duties from serving. 




During his year of office he quieted a dispute 
concerning lands between Uncas, the Mohi- 
can chief, and the settlers at New London, 
and sanctioned the sequestration of the Dutch 
property at Hartford. He served as governor 
in 1655 and 1658, and as deputy governor 
in 1656, 1657, and 1659. He possessed to a j 
very great degree the confidence of the colo- ; 
nists, and drafted many of their most im- 
portant enactments. He died at AV ethers- 
field, near Hartford, on 14 Jan. 1659-60. ; 
He was twice married. By his first wife, | 
Elizabeth Hunt, to whom he was married 
in England in 1618, he had seven surviving 
children, four sons and three daughters. His [ 
first wife died about 1640, and in 1645 he i 
was married to Elizabeth, daughter of John ; 
Deming of England, and widow of Nathaniel \ 
Foote of Wethersfield. By her he had no i 
issue. She died on 28 July 1683. Welles's 
will is printed in Albert Welles's ' History of 
the Welles Family,' New York, 1876. 

[Welles's Hist, of Welles Family, pp. 98-107, 
110-12,120,132-3; Savage's Genealogical Diet. , 
1862 ; Public Kecords of Connecticut, i. 346, 359 ; i 
Collections of the Connecticut Hist. Soc. ii. 84, 
iii. 277.] E. I. C. 

OP WELLINGTON (1769-1852), field-marshal, 
was fourth son of Garrett Wellesley, first earl 
of Mornington [q. v.], by Anne, eldest daugh- 
ter of Arthur Hill, viscount Dungannon. He 
was born in 1769, less than four months before 
Napoleon. There is some doubt about the 
exact date and place of his birth. His mother 
gave 1 May as his birthday, and he himself 
so kept it, but the nurse affirmed that he was 
born on 6 March at Dangan Castle, co. Meath. 
The registry of St. Peter's Church, Dublin, 
shows that he was christened there on 30 April 
1769, and the May number of ' Exshaw's 
Gentleman's Magazine ' has : ' April 29. The 
Countess of Mornington of a son.' The ' Dub- 
lin Gazette' of 2-4 May dates the event 'a 
few days ago, in Merrion Street.' On the 
whole the evidence points to 29 April, and 
to 24 Upper Merrion Street, Dublin (Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. x. 443, 7th ser. xi. 34 ; 
MURRAY, Wellington : the Date and Place of 
his Birth}. He signed himself ' Arthur Wes- 
ley' till May 1798, when he adopted the form 

Wellesley received his earliest education 
at Brown's preparatory school at Chelsea. 
Thence he was sent to Eton, where he boarded 
at Mrs. Ragueneau's. Asa boy he was un- 
sociable and rather combative. He had no 
turn for scholarship, but, like Napoleon, he 
had the power of rapid and correct calcula- 
tion. His father died in 1781, and in 1784 

his mother, straitened for means, withdrew 
him from Eton, where he had only reached 
the remove, and took him with her to Brus- 
sels. There he was the pupil of Louis Gou- 
bert, a barrister, at whose house they lodged. 
According to a fellow-pupil he was extremely 
fond of music and played well on the fiddle, 
but showed no other sort of talent. His 
mother, a clever but hard woman, came to 
the conclusion that her ' ugly boy Arthur ' 
was 'fit food for powder,' and in 1786 he was 
sent to Pignerol's military academy at An- 

fers, which was principally a riding-school, 
le Avas 'rather of a weak constitution, not 
very attentive to his studies, and constantly 
occupied with a little terrier called Vic ' 
(RAIKES, Journal, iv. 302). He remained 
there about a year, made friends in the neigh- 
bourhood, and gained a facility in French 
which was of service to him afterwards. 

On 7 March 1787 he was gazetted ensign 
in the 73rd (highland) regiment. His brother, 
Lord Mornington, obtained this commission 
for him, declining one in the artillery (Rut- 
land MSS. iii. 377). The regiment was in 
India, but Wellesley did not join it. It 
must have been on joining a depot that, as 
he afterwards related, he had a man weighed 
with and without his arms, accoutrements, 
and kit, that he might know exactly what 
weight the men had to carry (CROKER, i. 
337). On 25 Dec. he was made lieutenant 
in the 76th, from which he was transferred 
to the 41st on 23 Jan. 1788, and thence to 
the 12th light dragoons on 25 June. He 
obtained a company in the 58th foot on 
30 June 1791, and was transferred to the 
18th light dragoons on 31 Oct. 1792. 

But he did little, if any, duty with these 
regiments, for from November 1787 to March 
1793 he was aide-de-camp to the lord 
lieutenant of Ireland first, the Marquis of 
Buckingham, and afterwards the Earl of 
Westmorland. Mornington, in thanking 
Buckingham for his appointment, said : ' He 
has every disposition which can render so 
young a boy deserving of your notice' (BUCK- 
INGHAM, Courts and Cabinets of George III, 
i. 334 ; cf. Fortescue MSS. i. 286-8, ii. 11). 
But life was expensive at the viceregal court; 
his private income was only 125/. a year 
(GLEIG, iv. 164), and it is said he had to 
borrow money of the bootmaker with whom he 
lodged. In April 1790 he was returned to 
the Irish parliament as member for Trim, 
and he held that seat till the dissolution of 
5 June 1795. According to Mornington, he 
restored the interest of his family in that 
borough ' by his excellent judgment, amiable 
manners, admirable temper, and firmness ' 
(Suppl. Despatches, xiii. 37). On 10 Jan. 




1793 he seconded the address in reply to a 
speech from the throne announcing prepara- 
tions for war with France and recommending 
consideration of the catholic claims. He sup- 
ported the government bill giving catholics 
the franchise, but opposed an amendment ad- 
mitting them to parliament (Speeches, 10 Jan. 
and 25 Feb. ; LECKY, England, vi. 561-6). 

On 30 April 1793 he purchased a majority 
in the 33rd foot, Mornington lending him the 
money, and afterwards refusing to accept 
repayment. On 30 Sept. Wellesley became 
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and in 
Junel 794 embarked with it at Corkfor Ostend. 
In consequence of the French victory at 
Fleurus (26 June) the allied armies retired 
behind the Dyle, the British being on the 
right between Antwerp and Malines. The 
33rd, sent round by sea to Antwerp, joined 
the army there about 10 July. The allies 
soon separated, the Austrians going east- 
ward, and the Duke of York [see FREDERICK, 
DUKE OF YOKK] retreating to the line of the 
Dutch fortresses. In September Pichegru 
advanced into Holland. On the 14th the 
post of Boxtel, near Bois-le-Duc, was taken 
by the French, and the reserve corps, to which 
the 33rd belonged, was sent to recover it 
next day, but found the enemy in too great 
strength. This was Wellesley's first engage- 
ment. Seeing that the troops in front of him 
were retiring in some confusion, he deployed 
his regiment, let the others pass through, and 
drove back their pursuers by a volley (CusT, 
Annals, iv. 246). 

Outnumbered by four to one, York re- 
treated, but maintained himself behind the 
Waal till the end of the year. On 20 Dec. Wel- 
lesley wrote : ' We turn out once, sometimes 
twice, every night ; the officers and men are 
harassed to death. I have not had my clothes 
oft' my back for a long time, and generally 
spend the greatest part of the night upon 
the bank of the river ' (Suppl. Despatches, 
xiii. 2). Frost made the Waal passable at 
any point, and on 4 Jan. 1795 the 33rd was 
attacked at Meteren, and had to fall back on 
Geldermalsen, where, with the aid of two 
other regiments, it repulsed the French. The 
army retired to the Yssel, and thence across 
North Germany to the mouth of the Weser, 
where it embarked for England in April. 
During the retreat the command of a brigade 
in Dundas's corps fell to Wellesley by sen iori ty, 
but the brigades were below the normal 
strength of regiments. The hardships of this 
winter campaign were extreme, the disorder 
and disorganisation were without example. 
AVellesley learnt ' what one ought not to do,' 
and made acquaintance with the new French 

He came home in advance of the army, 
and on 13 March spoke in the Irish parlia- 
ment. On 25 June he asked the new lord 
lieutenant, Lord Camden, to appoint him to 
the revenue or treasury board. He took this 
step owing to ' the necessities under which 
j I labour from different circumstances.' He 
added that it was a departure from the line 
which he preferred, but he knew that it was 
useless to ask for a military office (Gi/EiG, i. 
23). The application proved fruitless. He 
joined his regiment at Warley in Essex, and 
embarked with it in October for the West 
Indies. Heavy gales dispersed the expedi- 
tion of which it formed part, and it returned 
, to England. It was four months at Poole, 
and was sent to India in April 1796. 
i Wellesley, who became colonel in the army 
on 3 May, was unable to accompany it, but 
he overtook it at the Cape, and landed with 
it at Calcutta on 17 Feb. 1797. His colonel, 
Lord Cornwallis, introduced him to the 
governor-general as ' a sensible man and a 
good officer' {Cornwallis Corresp. ii. 307). 

At this point his published correspondence 
begins, and the light on his character and 
actions, hitherto scanty, becomes abundant. 
| He had already made it a rule to study by 
I himself for some hours every day, and he 
I gave up cards and the violin as waste of 
time (KENNEDY, p. 28 ; CHOKER, i. 337). 
His earliest papers show his breadth of view 
and the influence he at once gained. He 
was given command of the Bengal portion 
of an expedition against Manilla, which 
reached Penang in September, but was then 
recalled on account of the attitude of Tippoo 
Sultan of Mysore. Wellesley had strongly 
urged his brother Mornington to come to 
India as governor-general. He did so, reach- 
ing Calcutta on 17 May 1798, and the 
younger brother became the unofficial ad- 
viser of the elder. The first question was 
how to act towards Tippoo, and here Wel- 
lesley discouraged Mornington's inclination 
to meet danger half way. He had paid a 
two months' visit to Madras in the begin- 
ning of the year, and was well acquainted 
with the situation there. He thought that 
war with Tippoo, though amply justified, 
was inexpedient, and that his dealings with 
the French should be ignored. This was the 
course adopted at that time. 

In August the 33rd was transferred to the 
Madras establishment, and Wellesley was to 
have gone as envoy to Seringapatam, but 
Tippoo refused to receive the mission. In 
December he was given command of the troops 
assembled near Vellore, and General Harris, 
when he arrived in February 1799, praised 
him for the state of his division, and for his 




'judicious and masterly arrangements in re- 
spect of supplies' (Suppl. Desp.xiu. 4). In 
the invasion of Mysore Wellesley had the 
direction of the nizam's auxiliary corps, to 
which the 33rd was attached. It consisted 
of ten battalions of sepoys, ten thousand mis- 
cellaneous horsemen, and twenty-six guns. 
It formed the left of the army in the action 
at Malavelly on 27 March. The army arrived 
before Seringapatam on 5 April, and an 
attack was made on the enemy's outposts 
that night by two detachments, of which 
one, under Wellesley, was repulsed with 
some loss. He determined ' never to suffer 
an attack to be made by night upon an 
enemy who is prepared and strongly posted, 
and whose posts have not been reconnoitred 
by daylight ' (ib. 18 April). He had no share 
in the storming of Seringapatam, being in 
command of the reserve in the trenches ; but 
he was sent into the town next day to restore 
order, and was appointed governor by Harris 
on 6 May. General (Sir) David Baird [q.v.], 
who had led the assault, was much mortified 
at this choice, but there were good reasons 
for it (CROKEB. ii. 103). 

On the withdrawal of the army in July 
the command of all the troops left in Mysore 
fell to Wellesley, and he also controlled the 
civil administration of Tippoo's successor. 
He had written in May : ' I intend to ask to 
be brought away with the army if any civil 
servant of the company is to be here, or any 
person with civil authority who is not under 
my orders' (ib. 8 May). In August he had 
to take the field against Dhoondiah Waugh, 
a freebooter who had gathered a large fol- 
lowing. Wellesley drove him across the 
frontier and dispersed his bands ; but they 
resumed their incursions in April 1800, mus- 
tering forty thousand men. Having ob- 
tained leave to pursue them into the Mahratta 
territory, Wellesley crossed the Toombud- 
dra, near Hurryhur, on 26 June, took some 
forts, and, pushing on with four regiments 
of cavalry, overtook on 30 Julypart of Dhoon- 
diah's army, encamped on the Malpoorba. 
The camp was stormed and the guns and 
stores taken. After chasing the remainder 
for several weeks, and following them into 
the nizam's dominions, Wellesley fell in with 
them at Conahgull on 10 Sept. Dhoondiah 
himself was killed, and his bands, reduced 
by this time to fiA~e thousand horse, were 
scattered. His son fell into the hands of 
Wellesley, who provided for him till his 
death (Despatches, 26 Oct. 1825). 

In May the governor-general had offered 
Wellesley the command of an expedition 
which was to be sent against Batavia, but 
he declined the offer, as it was not for the 

public interest that he should leave Mysore 
just then. In November he was sent to 
Trincomalee to take command of a force of 
3,500 men for a descent upon He de France 
(Mauritius) and Bourbon ; but on 7 Jan. 
1801 he learnt from his brother now Mar- 
quis Wellesley that this force might have 
to form part of an expedition to Egypt, in 
which case a general officer must be placed 
at the head of it. On the 24th Baird was 
appointed to it, and its destination was 
changed to Batavia. Before this news reached 
Trincomalee Wellesley had set out for Bombay 
with his troops. He had learnt that des- 
patches from England were on their way to 
Calcutta, desiring that a force should be sent 
to Egypt, and, in spite of the remonstrance 
of the governor of Ceylon, Frederick North 
(afterwards fifth Earl of Guilford) [q.v.], he 
decided to anticipate the orders of the go- 
vernor-general. The latter at first disap- 
proved his action, but was satisfied by the 
reasons given for it (Desp. 18 Feb. and 
23 March : Suppl. Desp. 30 March). 

On 6 April the expedition, numbering over 
six thousand men, left Bombay for the Red 
Sea under Baird. Wellesley was very sore 
at his supersession, and complained bitterly 
of it, with too little allowance for the cir- 
cumstances (Suppl. Desp. 11 and 26 April 
and 26 May). He yielded to his brother's 
wish, in which Baird joined, that he should 
go as second in command ; but he was dis- 
abled by illness at the last moment (STAN- 
HOPE, p. 103). The Susannah, in which he 
was to have sailed, was lost with all hands 
in the Red Sea. He sent Baird a careful 
memorandum containing such information 
as he had been able to gather bearing on the 
intended operations (Desp. 9 April). 

In May he returned to Mysore, and for 
the next year and a half he was busily oc- 
cupied there, bringing the country into 
order, making roads and fortifications, form- 
ing a good bullock-train, and organising the 
departments. He became major-general by 
seniority on 29 April 1802. At the end of 
that year the peshwah, the titular chief of 
the Mahratta confederacy, signed the treaty 
of Bassein, by which he accepted the posi- 
tion of a protected prince, and steps were 
taken to reinstate him at Poonah, whence 
Holkar had driven him. Wellesley had 
already furnished a ' memorandum upon 
operations in the Mahratta territory' (ib. 
6 Sept. 1801), and as soon as he learnt that 
Madras troops were to be used, he offered 
his services, pointing out that his pursuit 
of Dhoondiah had made him well acquainted 
with the country and people. On 28 Nov. 
he was appointed a major-general on the 




staff of the Madras establishment, and on 
8 Feb. 1803 he left Seringapatam with his 

By the end of the month the Madras 
army, under General James Stuart, was 
assembled on the frontier at Hurryhur, and 
Wellesley, with nine thousand men, was sent 
forward to Poonah. Learning that the place 
was to be set on fire on his approach, he 
made a forced march of forty miles with his 
cavalry and one battalion, and was in time 
to save it. He reached it on 20 April, and 
the peshwah returned to his capital on 1 3 May. 

For some months the attitude of Holkar 
and Scindiah was doubtful. Wellesley was 
made on 26 June chief political and mili- 
tary agent in the southern Mahratta states 
and the Deccan, and did all he could to pre- 
serve peace, but in vain, On 7 Aug. war 
was declared against the two chiefs, and 
they were attacked by Lake in the north, 
by Wellesley in the south. The latter had 
under his orders, besides his own division, 
some Bombay troops in Gujerat, and the , 
nizam's corps of eight thousand men under 
Colonel Stevenson, which was near Jaulnah, 
covering the nizam's dominions. The fort 
of Ahmednuggur, reckoned one of the 
strongest forts in India, was taken by Wel- 
lesley after a two days' siege (ib. 12 Aug.) 
Marching northward, he reached Aurunga- ' 
bad on the 29th ; but meanwhile Scindiah ; 
and the rajah of Berar had slipped past Ste- 
venson and were advancing on Hyderabad. 
Wellesley moved down the Godavery to in- ; 
tercept them, and they turned back. On 
21 Sept. Wellesley and Stevenson met at 
Budnapoor, and arranged to attack them at 
Bokerdun on the 24th, Stevenson falling on 
their right, Wellesley on their left. When 
the latter reached his camping-ground on 
the 23rd, he was told that the Mahrattas 
were within six miles, but were moving off. 
Sending word to Stevenson, he marched on, 
and about 1 P.M. found himself in presence 
of their whole army. 

It was drawn up behind the Kaitna, with 
its left near the village of Assye, past which 
the Juah flows to join the Kaitna. On the 
right were thirty thousand horsemen, on the 
left ten thousand infantry trained by Euro- 
pean officers, with over a hundred guns. 
Having left some of his troops to guard his 
camp, Wellesley had with him only 4,500 
men viz. six battalions and four regiments 
of cavalry, two battalions and one regiment 
of cavalry being European. He had seven- 
teen guns and about five thousand Mysore 
and Mahratta horsemen, not much to be 
relied on. But ' he fully realised the su- 
preme importance in eastern warfare of 

promptitude of action and audacity in 
assuming the offensive, even though the 
enemy might be enormously superior in 
number ' (LORD ROBERTS, p. 40). He decided 
to turn their left, seize Assye, and fall upon 
their flank and rear. To do this he must 
cross the Kaitna, and he was told there was 
no ford. But he noticed that, a little above 
its junction with the Juah, there was a 
village on the left bank opposite a village on 
the right bank, and he directed his troops 
on this point, confident that they would 
find some means of passage there (CROKER, 
i. 353). He found a ford, and, leaving the 
irregular horse on the right bank, led the 
rest of his army across, and formed it be- 
tween the two streams, whose nullahs 
covered his flanks. His infantry were in 
two lines, his cavalry in a third. 

The formation was carried out under a 
heavy fire from the enemy's guns, while 
their infantry changed front with surprising 
precision, and placed their right on the 
Kaitna, their left on the Juah at Assye. 
' When I saw that they had got their left to 
Assye, I altered my plan ; and determined 
to manoeuvre by my left and push the 
enemy upon the nullah, knowing that the 
village of Assye must fall when the right, 
should be beat ' (Desp. 24 Sept.) By a mis- 
understanding the British right attacked 
Assye ; it was exposed to ' a most terrible 
cannonade ; ' the cavalry had to be sent for- 
ward to cover its withdrawal, and could not 
be used afterwards for pursuit. The battle 
was obstinately contested, but the victory 
was complete, the enemy leaving nearly all 
their guns on the field. The loss of the 
British was a third of their strength, and 
included 640 Europeans. Wellesley had a 
horse shot under him and another bayoneted. 
One of his staff wrote : ' I never saw a man 
so cool and collected as he was the whole 
time, though I can assure you till our troops 
got orders to advance, the fate of the day 
seemed doubtful ' (Suppl. Desp. 3 Oct. and 
1 Nov.; THORN, War in India, 1803-6; 
Asiatic Annual JRe</iste>;l8Q3, p. 43 ; MALLE- 
SON, Decisive Battles of India, pp. 286-95). 

Scindiah retreated westward, and Wel- 
lesley watched him while Stevenson took 
Asseerghur. The two divisions then marched 
into Berar to besiege Gawilghur. Scindiah, 
having learnt that his best troops had been 
routed by Lake at Laswarree, opened nego- 
tiations with Wellesley, and on 23 Nov. a 
suspension of hostilities was agreed upon so 
far as he was concerned. But he did not 
observe it, and his cavalry joined the troops 
of the rajah of Berar in resisting Wellesley's 
advance on Gawilghur. On the 29th a 




battle was fought on a plain in front of the 
village of Argaum. Some sepoy regiments 
were disordered by the enemy's artillery fire, 
and Wellesley wrote : ' If I had not been 
there, I am co'nvinced we should have lost 
the day ' (Desp. 2 Dec.) But the Mahrattas 
soon broke and fled, leaving thirty-eight 
guns on the field, and the victory cost the 
British under 250 men. Gawilghur was 
stormed on 15 Dec. ; and treaties of peace, 
negotiated by Wellesley, were signed with 
the rajah of' Berar on the 17th, and with 
Scindiah on the 30th (Suppl. Desp. iv. 221- 

Wellesley received the thanks of parlia- 
ment. A sword of honour was presented to 
him by the inhabitants of Calcutta, and a 
service of plate, embossed with ' Assye,' by 
the officers of his division. He visited 
Bombay in March and received an address. 
He was now anxious to return to England : 
' I think I have served as long in India as 
any man ought who can serve anywhere 
els3 ; and I think that there appears a pro- 
spect of service in Europe in which I should 
be more likely to get forward ' (Desp. 8 June 
1804). His health had suffered by life in 
camp, and he was aggrieved that the Duke 
of York had not confirmed his appointment 
to the staff of the Madras army. He ad- 
vised the governor-general also to resign 
because of the hostility of the directors and 
the want of support from the ministry 
(Suppl. Desp. 31 Jan. and 24 Feb.) 

The peace turned adrift bands of free- 
booters who made raids into the Deccan, and 
in February 1804 Wellesley went in pursuit 
of one of these bands. He set out on the 
morning of the 4th with all his cavalry, 
three battalions of infantry, and four guns, 
and in thirty hours (including a halt of ten 
hours) he marched sixty miles. He over- 
took the band, which was near Perinda, and 
dispersed it, taking its guns (Desp. 5 Feb. ; 
CKOKEE, ii. 232). This was his last service 
in the field in India. 

He watched with some uneasiness the 
course of the governor-general, fearing that 
it would lead to a fresh coalition of the 
Mahratta princes : ' The system of modera- 
tion and conciliation by which, whether it 
be right or wrong, I made the treaties of 
peace, and which has been so highly ap- 
proved and extolled, is now given up' 
(Suppl. Desp. 13 May). Orders had already 
been given for hostilities against Holkar, 
but these fell mainly to Lake. On 24 June 
Wellesley bade farewell to his division at 
Poonah, and went to Calcutta. He meant 
to go home from there, but the disaster to 
Colonel Monson's force (Desp. 12 Sept.) 

made it necessary for him to return to 
Seringapatam in November. He was told 
that the command of the Bombay army would 
be offered him, but he wrote : ' Even if I 
were certain that I should not be employed 
in England at all, there is no situation in 
India which would induce me to stay here ' 
(Suppl. Desp. 15 Jan. 1805). 

He resigned his civil and military ap- 
pointments on 24 Feb. 1805. At Madras he 
was invested with the order of the Bath 
(K.C.B.), which had been conferred on him 
on 1 Sept. 1804 ; he received addresses 
from the officers of his late division, from 
those of the 33rd regiment, and from the 
native inhabitants of Seringapatam, and he 
was entertained by the civil and military 
officers of the presidency. In the middle of 
March Sir Arthur sailed for England in 
the Trident, and arrived in the Downs on 
10 Sept. His eight years' service in India 
had been excellent training for the varied 
business he was afterwards to be engaged in. 
In addition to the ordinary duties of com- 
mand, he had been engineer, commissariat 
and store officer, as well as civil admini- 
strator and diplomatist. Always ready to 
accept new functions and clinging to those 
he already had, more than fifty thousand 
soldiers were under his orders in different, 
paints of southern India at the beginning of 

It must have been within two or three 
days of his landing that the only meeting 
between Wellesley and Nelson took place by 
chance at the colonial office, for Nelson left 
England on 13 Sept. for the last time 
(CROKER, ii. 233). Lord Castlereagh, who 
was then secretary of state for war and the 
colonies, had been president of the board of 
control, and Wellesley made it his first 
business to explain and justify his brother's 
Indian policy to him and to Pitt. The 
latter was struck with his reticence about 
his own actions, and a few days before his 
death he told Lord Wellesley: 'I never 
met any military officer with whom it was 
so satisfactory to converse. He states every 
difficulty before he undertakes any service, 
but none after he has undertaken it ' (SxAN- 
HOPE, Pitt, iv. 375; CROKER, iii. 126). 
Wellesley was appointed to the staff of the 
Kent district on 30 Oct., and a month after- 
wards he was given command of a brigade 
in the expedition to Hanover under Lord 
SCIIAW, tenth BARON]. The victory of 
Austerlitz caused the withdrawal of this 
expedition, and on 25 Feb. 1806 Wellesley 
was appointed to a brigade at, Hastings. 
On 30 Jan. he had succeeded Lord Corn- 




wallis as colonel of the 33rd, of which he 
had continued to be lieutenant-colonel up 
to that time. 

On 1 April 1806 Wellesley was returned 
to parliament for Rye, a government seat 
which he accepted in order to reply to the 
charges brought against Lord Wellesley by 
James Paull [q. v.J He spoke on this and 
other Indian subjects, and wrote a full 
memorandum on it at the end of the session 
(Speeches, 22 April, &c. ; Suppl. Desp. iv. 
546-86). Parliament was dissolved in Octo- 
ber, and on 15 Jan. 1807 he Avas returned 
for Mitchell, Cornwall. In March 1807 the 
Grenville ministry resigned, on the king's 
demand that he should hear nothing more of 
concessions to the catholics. The Portland 
ministry succeeded it, the Duke of Richmond 
becoming lord lieutenant and Wellesley 
chief secretary of Ireland. He was sworn 
of the privy council in London on 8 April, 
and at Dublin on the 28th. 

He held this office for two years, but he 
had stipulated that it should be no bar to 
his employment on active service, and he 
was twice absent on that account. The lord 
lieutenant grumbled, but did not wish to 
part with him. The state of Ireland was 
such as to call for the whole attention of its 
chief secretary. The people were looking 
eagerly to a French invasion, and among the 
first things to which Wellesley turned his 
thoughts was how to guard against it. 'The 
operations Avhich the British army would 
have to carry on would be of the nature of 
those in an enemy's country, in which the 
hostility of the people would be most active. 
... I am positively convinced that no poli- 
tical measure which you could adopt would 
alter the temper of the people of this country' 
(Suppl. Desp. 7 May &c.) The tithe agita- 
tion soon became vigorous. He held that 
exorbitant rents, not tithes, were the real 
grievance ; but he suggested that the clergy 
should be enabled to grant leases of their 
tithes and should be obliged to reside in 
their benefices. He recommended increased 
expenditure on canals, which would lower 
rents and improve agriculture. He re- 
organised the Dublin police, and so laid the 
foundation for the Irish constabulary. He 
had been re-elected for Mitchell on becoming 
chief secretary, but parliament was dissolved 
soon afterwards, and in May he was re- 
turned for Tralee, co. Kerry, and Newport, 
Isle of Wight. He chose the latter seat. 

He was given command of the reserve in 
the army sent to Zealand under Lord Cath- 
cart, to secure the Danish fleet, and em- 
barked at Sheerness on 31 July. As the 
crown prince refused to surrender the fleet, 

the army landed on 16 Aug., Wellesley 
leading the way with the light troops ; and 
Copenhagen was invested next day. A 
Danish force of regulars and militia soon 
threatened the rear of the army, and on the 
26th Wellesley \vas sent against it with five 
battalions, eight squadrons, and two batteries 
of artillery. The Danes fell back before him 
to Kib'ge, where they had some intrench- 
ments. He attacked them on the 29th and 
routed them, taking fifteen hundred pri- 
soners. On 7 Sept. Copenhagen surrendered, 
Wellesley being one of the commissioners 
who arranged the terms of capitulation. By 
the 30th he was in England again, and on 
1 Feb. 1808 he received the thanks of the. 
House of Commons in his place. He was 
promoted lieutenant-general on 25 April, 
having already, on 12 Nov. 1807, had that 
rank given him in Ireland in case of in- 

He had been frequently consulted by the 
ministers, especially by Castlereagh, about 
schemes for attacking the colonial posses- 
sions of Spain, and had written several 
memoranda. But the change of dynasty and 
the uprising of the Spaniards against Napoleon 
in May 1808 altered the situation. He saw 
that ' any measures which can distress the 
French in Spain must oblige them to delay 
for a season the execution of their plans 
upon Turkey, or to withdraw their armies 
from the north,' and he recommended that 
all the Britisli troops that could be spared 
should be sent to Gibraltar to act as circum- 
stances might suggest (Suppl. Desp. vi. 80). 
General (afterwards Sir) Brent Spencer [q. v.] 
was at that time off Cadiz with a force of 
five thousand men, having been sent out 
to do what he could to hinder the French 
plans of naval concentration. On 14 June 
Wellesley was given command of a force 
of about nine thousand men, assembled at 
Cork, with general instructions to assist the 
Spaniards or the Portuguese. 

He sailed on 12 July, and put into Coruna, 
where the junta of Galicia informed him 
that they needed only money and arms, and 
advised him to take his troops to Portugal. 
He went on to Oporto, and, having consulted 
the bishop and the Portuguese generals, and 
the British admiral oft' the Tagus, he decided 
to land his men in Mondego Bay, and sent 
j orders to Spencer to join him there. It was 
I a bold step, for the French army under Junot, 
! which had been in occupation of Lisbon since 
' November, numbered nearly thirty thousand 
men. But Wellesley knew that they were 
scattered and had to find garrisons, and sup- 
posed the total to be under eighteen thousand. 
j The Portuguese, who had promised co-opera- 




tion, would be discouraged if his troops re- 
mained on board ship, and he expected to be 
soon reinforced. On the 30th he learnt that 
five thousand men were on their way from 
England, that ten thousand under Sir John 
Moore would follow, that the whole army 
was to be commanded by Sir Hew Dal- 
rymple, and that he himself Avould be fourth 
instead of first. ' I hope that I shall have 
beat Junot before any of them shall arrive, 
and then they will do as they please with 
me,' he wrote to the Duke of Richmond 
(Suppl. Desp. 1 Aug.) 

The disembarkation was not completed 
till 5 Aug., on which day Spencer arrived. 
On the 8th the army advanced, and on the 
] 2th it was joined at Leiria by six thousand 
Portuguese under Freire. Freire refused to 
march on Lisbon, but he allowed Colonel 
(afterwards Sir) Nicholas Trant [q. v.] to 
accompany the British with fourteen hundred 
foot and 250 horse. Junot, while gathering 
his troops, had sent forward Delaborde with 
five thousand men to delay the British 
advance. Delaborde chose a position at 
Rolica, and was attacked there on the 17th 
by Wellesley with nearly fourteen thousand 
men. This superiority in numbers enabled 
Wellesley to threaten both flanks while 
pressing the French in front : Delaborde was 
forced back to a second position, and then 
had to retreat altogether, after losing six 
hundred men. But the front attack had 
been premature, and the British loss was 
not much less. 

Wellesley meant to march next day on 
Torres Vedras, to secure the pass, but learn- 
ing that the brigades of Acland and An- 
struther were off the coast, he took a posi- 
tion atVimeiro to covertheir disembarkation. 
On the evening of the 20th a senior officer, 
Sir Harry Burrard [q. v.], arrived, and re- 
fused to allow any offensive movements till 
Moore's troops should have joined. On the 
morning of the 21st the British army was 
attacked in its position by Junot, and Bur- 
rard left Wellesley to conduct the action. 
Junot had fourteen thousand men, including 
thirteen hundred cavalry, and 23 guns. The 
British numbered sixteen thousand, of which 
only 240 were cavalry, with eighteen guns, 
besides Trant's Portuguese. Their position 
was convex, the right resting on the sea, and 
Junot's plan was to turn the left. But 
Wellesley moved four of his eight brigades 
from right to left by the rear, and Solignac's 
division, which made the turning movement, 
was driven back and separated from the rest 
of the army. The columns sent against the 
British front were also repulsed. Wellesley 
had said of the French when he was leaving 

England, ' if what I hear of their system of 
manoeuvres be true, I think it a false one as 
against steady troops' (CROKER, i. 13, ii. 
122). The columns failed, as he antici- 
pated, before a volley and a charge in line. 
The French loss was over two thousand 
men, about three times that of the British, 
and thirteen guns. 

Wellesley wished to follow up his victory, 
but he was stopped short. ' Sir H. Burrard, 
who was at this time on the ground, still 
thought it advisable not to move from 
Vimeiro ; and the enemy made good their 
retreat to Torres Vedras ' (Desp. 22 Aug.) 
Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple [q. v.] took 
command next day, and the convention of 
Cintra followed. Wellesley concurred in 
the principle of it, thinking that, as the 
French had not been cut off from Lisbon, 
it was best to allow them to evacuate 
Portugal; and on 22 Aug. he signed, by 
Dalrymple's desire, the armistice which was 
the prelude to it, though he disapproved 
of some details. In the further negotiations 
his advice was disregarded. Castlereagh 
had strongly recommended him to Dal- 
rymple's particular confidence, but he found 
that it was not given to him ; and he soon 
came to the conclusion that ' it is quite 
impossible for me to continue any longer 
with this army' (Desp. 5 Sept.) It was 
suggested that he should go to the Asturias 
to report on the country, but he replied 
that he was not a topographical engineer. 
He also declined a proposal that he should 
go to Madrid. Leave of absence was given 
him, and he arrived in England on 6 Oct. 

The convention had raised a storm there, 
and as Wellesley had signed the armistice, 
and was wrongly said to have negotiated it, 
much of the blame fell on him (CROKER, i. 
344). A court of inquiry met at Chelsea on 
17 Nov., and Wellesley laid before this court 
some masterly statements vindicating his 
conduct and forming a full record of the 
campaign (Desp. iv. 152-237 ; Suppl. Desp. 
vi. 151-94; cf. Speeches, 21 and 28 Feb. 
1809). In its final report (22 Dec.) the 
court approved of the armistice, one member 
dissenting ; with the convention Wellesley 
was not concerned. The inquiry prevented 
his rejoining the army, which was then ad- 
vancing into Spain under Moore. He re- 
ceived the thanks of parliament for his 
conduct at Rolica and Vimeiro, those of the 
House of Commons being given to him in 
his place (Speeches, 27 Jan. 1809). He also 
received addresses from Limerick and Lon- 
donderry, and a piece of plate from the com- 
manding officers who had served under him 
at Vimeiro. 




The hopes built on intervention in Spain 
were dashed by the result of Moore's cam- 
paign and by the masses of French troops 
{over three hundred thousand) poured into 
the Peninsula. But at the end of January 
1809 they began to revive. Austria's prepara- 
tions for war recalled Napoleon to Paris, and 
obliged him to withdraw forty thousand men. 
The Portuguese regency asked for a British 
officer to organise and command their troops, 
and at the suggestion of Wellesley, who him- 
self declined the post, Beresford was sent 
out. In a memorandum to Castlereagh, 
which was laid before the cabinet, Wellesley 
maintained that ' Portugal might be de- 
fended, whatever might be the result of 
the contest in Spain' (Desp. 7 March). 
There still remained some British troops near 
Lisbon, under Sir John Francis Cradock 
[q. v.] It was decided to raise them to 
twenty-three thousand men, and on 2 April 
Wellesley was appointed to the command, 
superseding Cradock. Samuel Whitbread 
had called in question the propriety of a man 
holding office and drawing pay as chief secre- 
tary while absent from the realm, and Wel- 
lesley, though he justified himself, had de- 
clared that if again appointed to a military 
command he should resign (Speeches, 2 and 
( Feb.) Accordingly he resigned both his 
office and his seat on 4 April, embarked on 
the 16th, and landed at Lisbon on 22 April 

lie was warmly welcomed, for ' the nation 
was dismayed by defeats, distracted with 
anarchy, menaced on two sides by powerful 
armies' (NAPIER, i. 114). Soult, with more 
than twenty thousand men, was in the north 
of Portugal, having stormed Oporto on 
27 March. Victor, with thirty thousand, 
was at Merida, having beaten the Spanish 
general, Cuesta, at Medellin on 29 March, 
and driven him into the Sierra Morena. 
Wellesley decided to deal first with Soult, 
and on 27 April, the day on which he took 
over the command, orders were issued for 
the troops to assemble at Coimbra. He had 
thirty-seven thousand men, of which nearly 
half were Portuguese. Leaving twelve 
thousand to guard the Tagus, in case Victor 
.should approach, and directingeight thousand 
under Beresford on Lamego, to pass the 
Duero and descend the right bank, he moved 
with the remainder on Oporto. The ad- 
vance began on 6 May. Soult, hemmed in 
by insurgent bands, had been forced to scatter 
his troops, and had only ten thousand men 
with him in Oporto. He knew nothing of 
the danger threatening him until the 10th, 
when a French division on the Vouga was 
attacked and driven in. He then destroyed 


the bridge over the Duero, seized all the 
boats near Oporto, and made arrangements 
for retreat. But on the 12th Wellesley forced 
the passage of the river. Three boats were 
obtained by Colonel John Waters [q .v.], and 
three companies were thrown into the Semi- 
nary, a large building on the right bank. 
More troops followed them, while others 
passed the river three miles higher up. After 
trying in vain to recover the Seminary, the 
French retired in disorder from the city. 
Soult found that his intended line of retreat 
was barred by Beresford ; so he destroyed 
his guns, abandoned his stores, took a path 
over the mountains, and on the 19th crossed 
the frontier into Galicia (Desp. 12 and 
18 May; Memoires de Saint- Chamans, pp. 

Wellesley, learning on that day that Victor 
had sent a division across the Tagus at 
Alcantara on the 14th, abandoned further 
pursuit, marched southward, and by 12 June 
was on the Tagus at Abrantes. The army 
remained there a fortnight for rest and re- 
equipment. Its lax discipline drew from 
VVellesley the first of many complaints : 'We 
are an excellent army on parade, an excel- 
lent one to fight ; but we are worse than an 
enemy in a country ; and take my word for 
it, that either defeat or success would dis- 
solve us' (Desp. 17 June). Having asked 
for and received authority to invade Spain, 
he now concerted arrangements with Cuesta 
for attacking Victor, who had retired on his 

On the 27th the British army passed the 
frontier, about twenty thousand strong. 
Beresford was left near Almeida, with one 
British brigade, to organise the Portuguese 
troops and guard the only vulnerable part 
of the frontier. As the Spanish government 
had pressed for British co-operation, Wel- 
lesley supposed that it would help him to 
obtain transport and provisions ; but he was 
disappointed, and by the time the British 
and Spanish armies met at Talavera on 
22 July, the former was so short of supplies 
that it could move no further. Cuesta had 
thirty-eight thousand men under his imme- 
diate command, and the corps of Venegas, 
eighteen thousand men, was also under his 
orders. This corps was to threaten Madrid 
from the south-east, and so distract the 
French forces ; but it did not play its part, 
and Cuesta, having advanced a few miles 
towards Madrid, was driven back. 

King Joseph had joined Victor with re- 
inforcements, raising his numbers to fifty 
thousand men, and on 27 and 28 July the 
French attacked the allied armies at Tala- 
vera. The British, who were on the left, 





bore the brunt of these attacks, which were 
vigorous and obstinate, and were directed 
against both front and flank. There was a 
critical moment, when the English guards, 
following up too eagerly some troops they 
had repulsed, were met by the French re- 
serves and driven back in confusion. But 
Wellesley, foreseeing what happened, had 
brought the 48th regiment from the left, and 
its steady fire gave the centre time to re- 
form. At length the French retired, leaving 
seventeen guns on the field and having lost 
over seven thousand men. The loss of the 
British was 5,400 and of the Spaniards 1,200 
(Desp. 29 July ; Napoleon's Correspondence, 
21 Aug.) 'II parait que c'est un homme, 
ce Wellesley,' was Napoleon's remark when 
the news reached him at Vienna (JoMlNT, 
Guerre d'Espagne, p. 87). 

Meanwhile Soult had reorganised his troops, 
had been joined by Ney, and had made his 
way unopposed through passes which Wel- 
lesley believed to be well guarded, with 
fifty-three thousand men. Four days after 
the battle of Talavera he reached Plasencia, 
where he was upon the British line of com- 
munications. The allied armies now lay 
between two French armies. Wellesley, be- 
lieving Soult's strength to be only half what 
it was. determined to march against him, 
leaving the Spaniards at Talavera to face 
Joseph. But Cuesta, perverse and incapable 
throughout, abandoned Talavera, and then 
opposed the only course open to them, to 
pass the Tagus at Arzobispo. This was done, 
however, by the British on 4 Aug., and the 
Spaniards followed next day. A large number 
of the wounded had to be left behind. 

The allied armies took up positions to 
dispute the passage of the Tagus at Arzo- 
bispo or Almaraz. At the former the 
Spaniards were surprised on the 8th, but the 
French did not follow up their success, and 
on the 12th Cuesta resigned. On the 20th 
extreme destitution obliged the British to 
fall back on Badajoz. The Spanish junta 
complained loudly, but Wellesley refused 
to co-operate any longer with their armies 
after, his experience of their breaches of 
faith and misbehaviour in the field. ' They 
are really children in the art of war,' he 
wrote (Desp. 25 Aug.) He warned 
them to avoid pitched battles, but in vain ; 
their best army was routed at Ocana on 
19 Nov., and another under Del Parque 
was beaten at Alba de Tonnes before the 
end of the month. Wellesley 's position at 
Badajoz saved Andalusia from invasion, 
and, in spite of great loss from sickness, he 
remained there till the middle of December. 
The exposure of northern Portugal by Del 

Parque's defeat then led him to move his 
army to upper Beira, leaving one division 
under Hill at Abrantes. 

The supreme command of the Portuguese 
army had been given to him on 6 July with 
the rank of marshal-general, and in August 
he had been made captain-general in the 
Spanish army. For the victories of Oporto 
and Talavera he was raised to the peerage 
on 4 Sept. as Baron Douro of Welles- 
ley and Viscount Wellington of Talavera. 
The title was chosen by his brother William, 
apparently to minimise the change of name. 
He received the thanks of parliament (26 Jan. 
and 1 Feb. 1810) and an annuity of 2,000/. 
But the vote of thanks was opposed in both 
houses (Hansard, xv. 130, 277), and Lords 
Grey and Lauderdale entered a protest. 
The common council of London asked for 
an inquiry into Wellington's conduct. He 
was used as a means of attacking the mini- 
stry, which was weak and divided. It had 
been discredited by the Walcheren failure, 
and had lost Castlereagh and Canning. 
Perceval, the new head of it, was inclined 
to withdrawal from the Peninsula, while 
Lord Wellesley had joined it as foreign 
secretary in order to counteract such a 
policy (Suppl. Desp. vii. 257). 

But it was not mere party spirit that 
found fault with Wellington. Talavera had 
shown that sixteen thousand British infantry 
could hold their ground against thirty 
thousand French, but otherwise it had 
borne no fruit ; and the army had escaped 
disaster only by the faults of the French 
leaders. It had suffered much and had 
lost faith in its general (NAPIER, Life of Sir 
Charles James Napier, i. 119, 126). The 
' Moniteur ' had expressed the hope that he 
would always command the English armies : 
' du caractere dont il est, il essuiera de 
grandes catastrophes ' (MATJREL, p. 29). 
Napoleon had made peace with Austria, 
and even before it was signed had given 
orders (7 Oct. 1809) for the formation of a 
fresh army of a hundred thousand men, 
which he meant to lead into Spain at the 
end of the year. As Lord Liverpool after- 
wards wrote, ' All the officers in the army 
who were in England, whether they had 
served in Portugal or not, entertained and 
avowed the most desponding views as to 
the result of the war in that country . . . 
and not a mail arrived from Lisbon which 
did not bring letters at that time from 
officers of rank and situation in the army . . . 
avowing their opinions as to the probability 
and even necessity of a speedy evacuation of 
the country ' (Suppl. Desp. 10 Sept. 1810). 

But Wellington himself never despaired. 




He remained convinced that the Bonaparte 
system was hollow and must collapse 
(Desp. 4 April 1810). In October he had 
carefully examined the country near Lisbon, 
and had started the works afterwards 
known as the lines of Torres Vedras (Desp. 
20 Oct. ; Suppl. Desp. 15 Oct., &c.) In reply 
to the anxious inquiries of the govern- 
ment, he assured them that the French 
armies would need to be very largely rein- 
forced to subjugate Spain, and until that 
was done an army of thirty thousand 
British and forty-five thousand Portuguese, 
aided by militia, would be able to hold 
Portugal. If it came to the worst, the 
British could embark. ' I may fail, I shall 
be most confoundedly abused, and in the end 
I may lose the little character I have 
gained ; but I should not act fairly by the 
government if I did not tell them my real 
opinion, which is, that they will betray the 
honour and interests of the country if they 
do not continue their efforts in the Peninsula ' 
(Desp. 14 and '28 Nov.) He would not ask 
for more men, being sure he should not get 
them, and it would only give the ministers an 
excuse for withdrawing the army (ib. 14 Jan. 

In the middle of January 1810 the French 
invaded Andalusia, and met with little resis- 
tance. Joseph entered Seville on 1 Feb., 
and on the 4th Victor invested Cadiz. The 
aid of British troops, hitherto declined, was 
now asked for by the Spanish regency, which 
had replaced the central junta. Wel- 
lington sent four regiments, and in a few 
months the force was increased to a division 
of 8,500 men under General Thomas Graham 
[q. v.] The French success increased the 
anxiety in England, and Liverpool wrote to 
Wellington that he would be more readily 
excused for bringing the army away too 
soon than for staying too long, adding, 'I 
could not recommend any attempt at what 
may be called desperate resistance ' (Suppl. 
Desp. 13 March). Wellington was ready to 
accept the responsibility thus thrown on 
him, if only the government would trust 
him and leave him to exercise his own judg- 
ment ; but if they were going to take other 
people's opinions instead of his, let them 
send him detailed instructions, and he would 
carry them out (Desp. 2 April). 

Napoleon changed his mind about going 
to Spain himself, but he sent 150,000 men 
there, or to the frontier, in the first half of 
1810. He wrote : ' The English alone are 
to be feared in Spain ; the rest are mere 
partisans, who can never keep the field ' 
(31 Jan.) To drive ' the hideous leopard ' 
into the sea, an army of Portugal was 

formed on 17 April, consisting of the 2nd 
corps (Reynier), the 6th (Ney), and the 8th 
(Junot), and numbering eighty thousand 
men. Massena was appointed to the com- 
mand of it, and 35,000 men in the northern 
provinces of Spain were also placed under 
his orders. He was to spend the summer 
in taking frontier fortresses, and not enter 
Portugal till after the harvest. 

To oppose this powerful army, Welling- 
ton had only about fifty thousand regular 
troops, half of which were Portugese, and 
he was very weak in cavalry. His object was 
'to make the French move in masses, and 
to gain time ; time to secure the harvest and 
complete the lines; time to discipline the 
regulars, to effect the arming and organisa- 
tion of the ordenanca, and to consolidate a 
moral ascendancy over the nation ' (NAPIEK, 
ii. 396). He meant to lay waste the 
country as he fell back, to starve the enemy 
if they kept together, and beat them if 
they scattered (cf. Desp. 5 July 1811). 

When Massena joined his army on 
27 June, the 6th and 8th corps were be- 
sieging Ciudad Rodrigo ; the 2nd corps was 
at Merida, and Hill with twelve thousand 
men was at Portalegre, south of the Tagus, 
to watch it. Wellington, whose head- 
quarters were at Almeida, was pressed both 
by Spaniards and Portuguese to raise the 
siege, and was taunted by the French with 
his inactivity ; but he would not risk a 
battle in open country with such odds 
against him. Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered 
on 11 July, Almeida on 27 Aug. Welling- 
ton had fallen back as the French advanced, 
and the sharp action on the Coa fought by 
Robert Craufurd [q. v.] on 24 July was 
against his orders. In the middle of July 
Reynier had crossed the Tagus near Alcan- 
tara, and Hill had made a parallel move- 
ment, crossing at Villa Velha, and taken a 
position near Castel Branco. Behind him, 
on the Zezere, there was a reserve corps of 
ten thousand men, under Leith ; for Wel- 
lington was uncertain as to the line of in- 
vasion, and the Serra de Estrella was an 
obstacle to prompt concentration. On 
4 Aug. he issued a proclamation to the 
Portuguese, warning them that they must 
remove themselves and their property on 
the French approach. 

On 16 Sept. Massena assembled his three 
corps west of Almeida. He had decided to 
march by the right bank of the Mondego, 
and hoped to reach Coimbra before Welling- 
ton could be joined by Hill. But he had 
chosen the worst road in Portugal ; his march 
was harassed, Leith and Hill joinedWelling- 
ton on the 21st, and the allied army was 





taking up its position on the ridge of Busaco, 
twenty miles north- east of Coimbra, when the 
head of the French army appeared on the 
25th. The strength of this position, the 
moral effect of a victory, and the wish to 
gain time for clearing the country, deter- 
minedWellington to fight there. The French 
army was now reduced to 65,000, and its 
cavalry was of no use. 

Napoleon had told Massena not to he 
over- cautious, hut to attack the English 
vigorously after reconnoitring them (Cor- 
resjwndence, 19 Sept.) ; and, though a letter 
to this effect could not have reached him, 
Massena acted as Napoleon would have 
wished. He would not allow Ney to fall on 
at once, as he wished to do, but spent the 26th 
in examining the English position, which, 
though steep and difficult of access, was ex- 
tended and shallow. On the 27th he directed 
Ney's corps against the left and Reynier's 
against the centre, holding Junot's in reserve. 
Ney's attack was promptly repulsed byCrau- 
furd's division. Ileynier's troops fell upon Pic- 
ton's division, and met with some success, but 
reinforcements were brought against them 
from the right, and they failed to keep their 
footing on the ridge. The French lost four 
thousand five hundred men a'nd the allies 
only thirteen hundred. Learning that there 
was a road over the hills by which the left 
of the position could be turned, Massena 
marched by it next day, gained the Oporto 
road, and entered Coimbra on 1 Oct. It was 
deserted, and he found no means of sub- 
sistence but growing crops. Leaving his 
sick and wounded there, to be made prisoners 
in a few days by the Portuguese militia 
[see TRANT, Sir NICHOLAS], he followed the 
allied army, which had fallen back towards 
Lisbon. He crossed the Monte Junto into 
the valley of the Tagus, and on 12 Oct. 
found himself in front of the lines of Torres 

These works, of which Massena had first 
heard five days before, though they had been 
in progress for nearly a year, consisted of two 
chains of redoubts across twenty-four miles 
of rugged country between the Tagus and 
the sea. The inner chain, about fifteen miles 
north of Lisbon, started from Alhandra 
and ran by Bucellas, Mafra, and the San 
Lorenco river to the coast. The outer chain 
also had its right at Alhandra, but, passing 
by Monte Graca and Torres Vedras, it fol- 
lowed the course of the Zizandra to the sea. 
The number of redoubts was 126 when the 
allied army took shelter within the lines, 
and 427 guns were mounted in them. 
There were also other works below Lisbon, 
to cover an embarkation at St. Julian's in 

the last resort. These were garrisoned by 
English marines, the works of the two ad- 
vanced lines mainly by Portuguese militia. 
The regular troops, raised by reinforcements 
to sixty thousand, were quite unfettered by 
the works ; while the French were cramped 
by Monte Junto and its spurs, which made 
lateral movements slow and difficult ( JOKES, 
Sieges in Spain, iii. 1-101 ; Journal of United 
Service Institution, xl. 1338). 

Massena carefully examined the outer 
line from end to end, but made no serious 
attempt to force it ; and in the middle of 
November he fell back to Santarem. The 
country behind it had not been wasted, and 
he was able to maintain himself there till 
the spring, though constantly harassed by 
partisans in his rear. He had asked for 
large reinforcements, and at the end of 
December he was joined by about twelve 
thousand men, but they did not make up 
for his loss by sickness. Soult was ordered 
to march to his assistance from Andalusia, 
but occupied himself in besieging Olivenca 
and Badajoz as a preliminary. 

Meanwhile Wellington had his own dif- 
ficulties. The people crowded round Lisbon 
suffered terribly, and forty thousand are said 
to have died from privations. Some mem- 
bers of the Portuguese regency, especially 
Principal Souza, obstructed him in every 
way and threw on him all the odium of 
the plan of defence (Desp. 30 Nov. and 
18 Jan. 1811). But before Busaco he wrote: 
'The temper of some of the officers of the 
British army gives me more concern than 
the folly of the Portuguese government. . . . 
There is a system of croaking in the army 
which is highly injurious to the public ser- 
vice, and which I must devise some means 
of putting an end to, or it will put an 
end to us ' (Desp. 11 Sept.) Among these 
croakers were Brent Spencer, the second in 
command, and Charles Stewart (afterwards 
Lord Londonderry) [q. v.], the adjutant- 
general (NAPiER/iii. 49; CHOKER, i. 346). 
The best officers were constantly asking for 
leave to go home, many others were in- 
efficient, and where he met with zeal and 
ability he could not reward it (Desp. 4 Aug. 
and 28 Jan. 1811; Suppl. Desp. 29 Aug. 

The Perceval ministry did not seem to 
have ' the power, or the inclination, or the 
nerves to do all that ought to be done to 
carry on the contest as it might be ' (ib. 
11 Jan. 1811). When invasion was immi- 
nent, Wellington had asked (on 19 Aug.) 
for all available reinforcements, but he re- 
ceived only five thousand men in the autumn, 
and five thousand more in the following 




spring. He was told that this increase 
could only be temporary, for ' it is ab- 
solutely impossible to continue our exertions 
upon the present scale in the Peninsula for 
any considerable length of time ' (ib. 20 Feb.) 
In reply, he reminded Liverpool that their 
only choice lay between fighting the French 
abroad or at home, and argued that the cost 
of the war in the Peninsula, subsidies in- 
cluded, was really five, instead of nine, 
millions a year (Desp. 23 March). 

There seemed every reason to expect that 
in the spring of 1811 the French advance 
on Lisbon would be resumed in greater force, 
and Wellington was urged to be before- 
hand and drive Massena out of Portugal ; 
but failure would have been disastrous, 
the gain doubtful, and he would not run 
the risk (Desp. 21 Dec.) He continued to 
strengthen his lines, and made new lines 
at Almada, opposite Lisbon, to protect the 
city and the fleet from bombardment from 
the left bank of the Tagus. He had to keep 
a corps of fourteen thousand men on that 
side of the river, while Massena was at 
Santarem, to check operations in Alemtejo 
by him or by Soult. 

On 2 March 1811 five thousand British 
troops landed at Lisbon, and on the night 
of the 5th Massena began his retreat. He 
meant to hold the line of the Mondego, as 
Napoleon reckoned on his doing (Corfesp, 
29 March) ; but on reaching Coimbra he 
fonnd it occupied by Portuguese militia, and, 
mistaking them for the newly arrived troops, 
he continued his retreat up the left bank of the 
river. Wellington followed him up as closely as 
supplies would permit, and sharp rearguard 
actions were fought at Pombal, Redinha, 
Cazal Novo, and Foz d'Aronce (11-15 March). 
Having reached the head of the Mondego, 
Massena held his ground at Guarda till the 
end of the month, but was then forced back 
behind the Coa. On 3 April an action was 
fought at Sabugal between the light division 
and lieynier's corps, which was ' one of the 
most glorious that British troops were 
ever engaged in' (Desp. 9 April). On the 
5th Massena recrossed the frontier of Por- 
tugal and fell back on Salamanca to recruit 
his troops. The invasion had cost him thirty 
thousand men. 

This was the turning-point of the war. 
Napoleon was already preparing for a breach 
with Russia, and could ill spare more men 
for Spain, while Wellington gained strength 
from the realisation of his forecast. In future 
he had not to fight against despondency 
about the war in the Peninsula, though he 
had often to oppose schemes for transferring 
some of the British troops, or even himself, 

to some other field (SuppL Desp. 7 Dec. 
1811, 12 Oct. 1812; and Desp. 7 Nov. 
1812, 12 July and 21 Dec. 1813). The thanks 
of parliament were voted to him on 26 April 
for his successful defence of Portugal, Grey 
seconding the motion in the lords ; and 
Samuel Whitbread wrote to him frankly 
owning that his opinion about the contest 
in the Peninsula was changed. 

It was now Wellington's first object to 
recover the frontier fortresses. He had 
hoped to save Badajoz, but it surrendered 
prematurely on 11 March; and Soult, hear- 
ing of Graham's victory at Barrosa on 
5 March, returned to Andalusia. On the 
15th Beresford was detached across the 
Tagus with twenty-two thousand men to 
retake Badajoz before the breaches were re- 
paired, and to raise the siege of Campo 
Mayor, on which Mortier was engaged. The 
latter place fell on the 21st, but was re- 
covered on the 25th, and, passing the Gua- 
diana on 6 April, Beresford retook Olivenca 
on the 14th. Wellington, having invested 
Almeida with the main army, left his troops 
under Spencer, and went to Elvas in the 
middle of April to arrange for Spanish co- 
operation in the siege of Badajoz ; but he was 
soon recalled to the north by the advance 
of Massena with forty-five thousand men 
to relieve Almeida. Wellington had only 
thirty-five thousand, and in cavalry the 
French were four times his strength. He 
drew up his army behind the Dos Casas 
stream, between Fort Conception and Fuentes 
de Onoro ; and on 3 May the French attacked 
the village, while demonstrating along the 
whole front. On the 5th the attack on the 
village was renewed, and having shifted the 
8th corps from right to left, Massena sent it 
forward to turn the British right. In antici- 
pation of such a movement Wellington had 
extended his line, so that Fuentes de Onoro 
had become the centre instead of the right ; 
but the extension had weakened it, the new 
right was soon forced back, and had to form a 
fresh front at right angles to the line. This 
it was allowed time to do, and the French 
attack was not pushed further ; but Wel- 
lington owned *if"Boney" had been there, 
we should have been beaten ' (Suppl. Desp. 
2 July ; LAKPENT, i. 82). On the 10th Mas- 
sena fell back to Ciudad Rodrigo, claiming 
a victory though he had failed in his object ; 
but that night Brennier, the governor of 
Almeida, blew up part of the works and 
brought off his garrison. Wellington was 
much vexed at his escape : ' I am obliged 
to be everywhere, and if absent from any 
operation, something goes wrong' {Desp. 
15 May). Massena now handed over his 




command to Marmont, who had been sent j 
to succeed him, and who withdrew most of ! 
the troops to Salamanca. 

The siege of Badajoz had been begun on 
8 May 1811, but Soult advanced to raise it. 
He was defeated by Beresford at Albuera, 
owing to the extraordinary tenacity of the 
English infantry, but at the cost of nearly 
two-thirds of them (Journal of United Service 
Institution, xxxix. 903) ; and he retired to 
Llerena. On the 16th, the day on which the 
battle was fought, Wellington had set out to 
join Beresford, and he arrived at Elvas on 
the 19th, followed by two British divisions. 
The siege of Badajoz was begun afresh ; but 
the means were scanty, the guns bad, and 
on 10 June it had to be raised, for Marmont 
was marching southward to join Soult. The 
two marshals met at Merida on the 18th, 
and next day their combined armies reached 
Badajoz. Wellington had retired across the 
Guadiana, and taken a position near Elvas, 
where he was joined on the 24th by Spencer 
with the rest of his troops. He was pre- 
pared to accept battle, though he had only 
fifty thousand men to meet sixty-four 
thousand. The French contented themselves, 
however, with relieving Badajoz. Soult was 
drawn back to Andalusia by threats against 
Seville, and in the middle of July Marmont 
retired across the Tagus to Plasencia. 

Wellington determined to try a stroke at 
Ciudad Rodrigo, believing that he would 
not find the enemy in such force in the 
north. Leaving Hill with fourteen thou- 
sand men south of the Tagus, he marched 
back to the neighbourhood of that fortress 
and invested it in the beginning of August. 
A powerful siege-train, newly come from 
England, was secretly sent up the Duero 
to Lamego. But he was again confronted 
by a combination more powerful than he 
had reckoned on, and confined himself to a 
blockade. In the middle of September, when 
the supplies of Rodrigo began to run short, 
Marmont and Dorsenne (who commanded 
the army of the north) advanced to re victual 
it with sixty thousand men. Wellington 
had only forty-four thousand, and could not 
prevent them ; but, wishing to make them 
show their force, he stood his ground south- 
west of the fortress, his troops being ex- 
tended over twenty miles. A vigorous 
attack would have been disastrous to him ; 
but he took the measure of his adversary, j 
and showed a bolder front than circum- 
stances warranted. His centre was forced 
back at El Bodon on the 25th, but he re- 
tired slowly, making a stand at Guinaldo 
and at Aldea Ponte, and so gained time to 
concentrate his troops on the Coa (cf. MAR- 

MONT, Memoires, iv. 62; THIEBAULT, Me- 
moires, iv. 510). Marmont then fell back, 
and returned to the valley of the Tagus. 

Wellington's plans had been baffled, but 
he had engaged the attention of the enemy's 
main armies and had saved Galicia. He 
had found great difficulty in feeding his men ; 
he was obliged to import wheat from Egypt 
and America, and to use commissariat bills 
as a paper currency in default of specie, to 
pay the muleteers on whom he depended for 
his transport. The British troops in the 
Peninsula had been raised to nearly sixty 
thousand men, but one-third of them were 
sick. The Portuguese suffered even more, 
for their government would make no exer- 
tions. It considered all danger past, and 
regarded the war as the concern of England, 
not Portugal (Desp. 13 Sept.) Yet Wel- 
lington, hard pressed for means as he was, 
still continued to strengthen the works for 
the defence of Lisbon, to meet a possible 
turn of fortune. He was given the local 
rank of general on 5 Aug., and received the 
grand cross of the Portuguese order of the 
Tower and Sword, with the title of Conde 
de Vimeiro. 

At the end of the year French troops to 
the number of sixty thousand men were 
withdrawn from Spain, the military divisions 
were rearranged, and Marmont was told to 
send troops to help Suchet in Valencia. 
This favoured an enterprise for which Wel- 
lington had been secretly preparing. He had 
brought his siege-train to Almeida, as if for 
the armament of that place, and on 8 Jan. 
1812 he appeared before Ciudad Rodrigo. 
That night a redoubt on a hill from which 
the walls could be breached at a range of 
six hundred yards was stormed. Batteries 
were built there, and on the 19th, there 
being two practicable breaches, a general 
assault was made at five points. At the 
main breach the defence was obstinate, but 
the defenders were taken in rear by the men 
of the light division, who had carried the 
smaller breach. Along with the fortress, 
and its garrison of seventeen hundred men, 
Marmont's siege-train fell into Wellington's 
hands. The loss of the besiegers was thir- 
teen hundred. Marmont, whose head- 
quarters were now at Valladolid, was not 
aware of the siege till the 15th, and by the 
time he had assembled his army he learnt 
that the place had fallen. In reward for 
this brilliant stroke Wellington Avas made 
an earl (18 Feb.), and received the thanks 
of parliament (10 Feb.), with an additional 
annuity of 2,000/. The Spanish government 
created him Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo and a 
grandee of the first class. 




He hoped to get possession of Badajoz 
also before the French, who had to live 
upon the country, could take the field. He 
remained near Rodrigo till its works were 
repaired; then putting a Spanish garrison 
into it, and trusting the defence of the 
frontier to the Portuguese militia and the 
Galicians, he took his whole army to Elvas 
in the beginning of March. On the 16th he 
invested Badajoz. The garrison numbered 
five thousand men, and the works were 
stronger than those of Rodrigo ; but there 
was again a hill from which the walls might 
be breached at a distance, and that side was 
chosen for the attack. The Picurina re- 
doubt, which occupied this hill, was stormed 
on the 25th ; and on 6 April, breaches having 
been formed in two bastions and the curtain 
between them, orders were given for the 
assault. The obstacles and fire encountered 
at the breaches proved insurmountable ; 
but a brigade of the fifth division under 
General George Townshend Walker [q. v.J 
escaladed the works on the opposite side of 
the town, and advanced along the ramparts 
towards the breaches. The castle, too, was 
escaladed by the third division under Picton. 
The troops defending the breaches dispersed, 
and the place was taken and sacked. It 
cost Wellington nearly five thousand men, 
of whom more than two-thirds fell in the 
assault. When he learnt the extent of 'his 
losses, ' the firmness of his nature gave way 
for a moment, and the pride of conquest 
yielded to a passionate burst of grief 
(NAPIER, iv. 123; PORTER, i. 295-311). 

He wrote next day to Lord Liverpool 
begging that the British army might be pro- 
vided with a corps of trained sappers and 
miners, as every foreign army was ; adding 
that it was a cruel situation for any person 
to be placed in to have to sacrifice his best 
officers and men in carrying such places by 
vive force (Athenceum, 1889, i. 537). But if 
he had had the means, he had not the time 
for systematic approaches. Soult was ad- 
vancing with twenty-four thousand men, 
and a second battle of Albuera was immi- 
nent, when the place fell. Marmont had 
meant to send three divisions to help Soult, 
but he received orders from Napoleon (Cor- 
resp. 18 Feb.) that if Wellington should 
make the mistake of attacking Badajoz, he 
was to march on Almeida and push out 
parties to Coimbra. Accordingly he entered 
Portugal at the end of March. 

Learning this, and that the Spaniards had 
neglected to provision Rodrigo, Wellington 
gave up his intention of following Soult, 
who had retreated into Andalusia, and in 
the middle of April recrossed the Tagus, 

leaving Hill on the south side as before, with 
seventeen thousand men. On his approach 
Marmont fell back, having done nothing be- 
yond gathering supplies. The invasion of 
Andalusia had been Wellington's plan for 
the campaign. Forced to abandon it, he de- 
termined to invade Castile, feeling sure that 
if he could beat Marmont he should in- 
directly deliver the south of Spain. As a 
preliminary, he caused Rowland Hill [q. v.] 
to seize and destroy the double bridgehead 
at Almaraz which Marmont had built to 
secure his communication with Soult ; and 
he made this capture seem to threaten Soult, 
strengthening his disinclination to detach 
troops to the north. Wellington shortened 
his own communication with Hill by repair- 
ing the bridge at Alcantara. The British 
sea-power not only helped him in feeding 
his troops (Desp. 4 Dec. 1811), but enabled 
him to give occupation to the other French 
armies while he was dealing with the army of 
Portugal. The east coast was to be threatened 
by an expedition from Sicily, the coast of 
Biscay by a squadron under Sir Home Pop- 
ham acting in concert with the Spaniards, 
while the troops at Cadiz and Gibraltar were 
to hinder Soult from concentrating against 
Hill. North of the Duero the Portuguese 
militia and the Galicians were to invade 
the Asturias and Leon, and to co-operate 
with his own army. 

On 13 June AVellington passed the Agueda 
with nearly fifty thousand men and marched 
on Salamanca. Some convents which had 
been converted into forts detained him there 
ten days. On the 20th Marmont brought up 
twenty-five thousand men, and was joined 
two days afterwards by fifteen thousand 
more. A good opportunity of bringing him 
to action seems to have been missed (NAPIER, 
iv. 249), and when the forts fell on the 27th, 
he retired behind the Duero. The two 
armies remained in observation of one another 
on that river till 16 July, when Marmont, 
being joined by six thousand men, took the 
offensive. His skilful manoeuvres and the 
greater mobility of his troops forced the 
allied army back to the Tormes, and across it. 

On 22 July that army was drawn up on 
the hills south-east of Salamanca, and its 
baggage was already on the road to Rodrigo. 
King Joseph was marching from Madrid 
with fourteen thousand men to join Marmont, 
and there was now nothing to hinder their 
junction. Some cavalry, in which arm Mar- 
mont was weak, were also on their way to 
him from the army of the north. But from 
vanity, as Napoleon not unfairly said (Corresp. 
2 Sept.), he gave the opportunity for which 
Wellington was anxiously watching. Fear- 




ing that his enemy would escape him, he 
pushed out two divisions of his left towards 
the Rodrigo road without waiting for all 
his army to come up. They were met and 
repulsed by the third division, under Paken- 
ham, while several other divisions advanced 
against their flank. A mass of British 
cavalry fell on the disordered troops, and, as 
a French officer put it, forty thousand men 
were beaten in forty minutes (NAPIEE, iv. 
296). Marmont was wounded, and Bonnet. 
Clausel, to whom the command then passed, 
made a brave stand at the Arapiles, and 
drew oft' his troops after nightfall across the 
Tormes. In this he was aided by the with- 
drawal of the Spaniards, unknown to Wel- 
lington, from the fort of Alba de Tormes. 
This battle was "Wellington's masterpiece : 
' There was no mistake ; everything went as 
it ought ; and there never was an army so 
beaten in so short a time ' (Desp. 24 July ; 
cf. CROKER, ii. 120 ; MARMONT, Memoires, iv. 
226). The loss of the British and Portu- 
guese was 5,224, that of the French more 
than twice as much. 

Clausel made a rapid retreat to Valladolid, 
and thence to Burgos. lie was not hard 
pressed, for ' the vigorous following of abeaten 
enemy was not a prominent characteristic 
of Lord Wellington's warfare ' (NAPIER, iv. 
278) ; but his army was so disorganised that 
afortnight afterwards only twenty-two thou- 
sand men had been brought together. Wel- 
lington followed him to the Duero, and occu- 
pied Valladolid ; then, leaving one division 
and some Spanish troops to watch Clausel, 
he marched with twenty-eight thousand men 
upon Madrid. Joseph had been within a 
few miles of the retreating army of Portugal 
on the 24th, but, on learning of its defeat, he 
retired towards Madrid. On Wellington's 
approach the court quitted that city, and, 
with the army of the centre, went to join 
Suchet in Valencia. On 12 Aug. Welling- 
ton entered Madrid. He was received with 
an enthusiasm which he tried to turn to 
some practical account by a proclamation 
issued on the 29th. 

His object still was to force Soult out of 
Andalusia, and he was prepared, if neces- 
sary, to march there himself. But on 25 Aug., 
the day on which Joseph joined Suchet at 
Almanza, Soult, in obedience to the king's 
reiterated orders, raised the blockade of 
Cadiz, and began his march to Murcia. 
Wellington remained at Madrid till 1 Sept. 
By that time he was satisfied that Soult was 
not moving on the capital, and he had learnt 
that the army of Portugal had reoccupied 
Valladolid. Leaving Hill to cover Madrid, 
he marched northward with three divisions, 

hoping to dispose of Clausel before the 
armies gathering in the south-east were 
ready to advance. But the Galicians kept 
him waiting, and Clausel fell back slowly 
and skilfully behind Burgos, giving no oppor- 
tunity for a decisive action. 

Wellington reached Burgos on 18 Sept. r 
and before going further he thought it neces- 
sary to take the castle. It was a poor place, 
but situated on a steep hill with three suc- 
cessive lines of defence, and it had an ex- 
cellent garrison of two thousand men. He 
was doubtful of success from the outset. 
The want of guns, ammunition, and trained 
men was even more marked here than be- 
fore, and he was unwilling to sacrifice Bri- 
tish soldiers to make up for it (Desp. 27 Sept.) 
An outwork was stormed on the 19th, but 
a month afterwards the main works still 
held out, though four assaults had been de- 
livered, and the loss of the besiegers ex- 
ceeded the number of the garrison. The 
assaults were made by too small parties, 
and the troops employed were inexperienced 
(Dei>p. 23 Nov. ; PORTER, i. 318-30). Mean- 
while the army of Portugal, joined by the 
army of the north and by other reinforce- 
ments, had grown to forty-four thousand 
men. Souham, who was now in command 
of it, advanced from the Ebro. Wellington 
prepared to meet him with thirty-three thou- 
sand, more than one-third of whom were 
Spaniards, and on 20 Oct. a battle was im- 
minent. ' Fortunately they did not attack 
me : if they had I must have been destroyed,' 
he wrote (Suppl. Desp. 25 Nov.) Souham 
received orders from the king not to fight, 
and Wellington had news next day from 
Hill which determined him to retreat. He 
raised the siege, disengaged himself skilfully, 
and by the 30th he was holding the line of 
the Duero opposite Tordesillas. 

By that time the king, with Soult and 
fifty-eight thousand men, had reached the 
Tagus, so that Wellington had on his hands 
more than a hundred thousand of the enemy 
as the result of his victory at Salamanca. 
The expedition from Sicily, which had landed 
at Alicant under Maitland, though not in 
such force as had been promised, detained 
Suchet on the coast ; but the Spaniards, as 
usual, had failed to do their part. The cortes 
had appointed Wellington generalissimo of 
the armies of Spain on 22 Sept. ; but Bal- 
lesteros, instead of threatening the flank of 
Joseph's army, as he was ordered to do, re- 
mained at Granada, and published a protest 
against the degradation of serving under a 
foreigner. On the 30th Hill received in- 
structions from Wellington either to join 
him or to retreat down the Tagus. He 




chose the former, and when he had passed 
the Sierra Guadarrama fresh orders directed 
him on Salamanca, to which place Welling- 
ton had been obliged to fall back. On 8 Nov. 
the whole army assembled there, consisting 
of fifty-two thousand British and Portuguese 
and sixteen thousand Spaniards. The united 
French armies numbered ninety thousand, 
some troops having been sent back to the 
north. Nevertheless, Wellington hoped to 
maintain himself on the Tormes, and was 
prepared to fight on his old battlefield. 
Jourdan, the chief of Joseph's staff, wished 
to attack him ; but Soult thought it better 
to turn his right flank, like Mannont, but 
with a wider sweep. This threatened his 
communications, and on the fifteenth he con- 
tinued his retreat to llodrigo. The troops 
then went into cantonments for the winter. 
There was no fear of an invasion of Portugal, 
for the French had lost their ordnance and 
magazines. In the course of the year nearly 
three thousand guns had been taken, and 
nearly twenty thousand French prisoners 
had been sent to England (Desp. 19 and 
23 Nov. ; LARPENT, i. 308). 

There had been much misconduct during 
the retreat, and Wellington issued a general 
order (28 Nov.) in which he spoke of the 
discipline of the army as worse than that of 
any army he had ever read of. This severe 
and undiscriminating censure of troops 
whose discipline, as he afterwards declared, 
was infinitely superior to that of the French 
was resented (BRTJCE, Life of Sir William 
Napier, i. 124; CKOKEE, ii. 310). He re- 
ceived the thanks of parliament (27 April) 
for the capture of Badajoz, and again (3 Dec.) 
for the subsequent campaign and especially 
the victory of Salamanca. He was created 
Marquis of Wellington on 18 Aug. 1812, 
and 100,000^ was voted for the purchase 
of estates for him. Wellington Park was 
bought with part of this grant, the manor of 
Wellington having been already acquired 
for him (Suppl. Desp. 21 Sept. and 22 Dec.) 
He was given 'the Union Jack' as an aug- 
mentation of arms, rather to his annoyance, 
as it seemed ostentatious, and it would 
scarcely be credited that he had not applied 
for it ; but he was glad at any rate that 
Lord Wellesley's suggestion had not been 
adopted ' a French eagle on a scutcheon of 
pretence ' (ib. 7 and 12 Sept.) The prince 
regent of Portugal made him Marquez de 
Torres Vedras and Duque da Victoria, and 
the Spanish regency gave him the orders of 
San Fernando and the Golden Fleece. On 
1 Jan. 1813 he was made colonel of the 
horse guards, which ended his long connec- 
tion with the 33rd ; and on 4 March he re- 

ceived the Garter, made vacant by the death, 
of Lord Buckingham, whose aide-de-camp 
he had been. 

In December he went to Cadiz, and with, 
the assistance of his brother Henry, the 
British minister there, he brought about 
some improvement in the condition of the 
Spanish armies. The hostility and obstruc- 
tion which he met with at Lisbon when pre- 
paring for the campaign of 1813 obliged 
him to appeal once more to the prince re- 
gent in Brazil (Desp. 12 April 1813). The 
war with the United States restricted his 
supplies of corn, and he was near losing his 
best soldiers for want of money to re-engage 
them. ' No adequate notion of Wellington's 
herculean labours can be formed without an 
intimate knowledge of his financial and 
political difficulties ' (NAPIER, v. 22). Yet 
with all this on his hands, we are told by 
his judge-advocate-general: 'He hunts al- 
most every other day, and then makes up 
for it by great diligence and instant decision 
on the intermediate days ' (LARPENT, i. 66). 

As the result of his efforts, and of Lord 
Wellesley's complaints of the sluggish support 
which the British government had afforded 
him, Wellington was ready to take the field 
in May 1813 with a well-equipped army of 
forty-three thousand British and twenty- 
seven thousand Portuguese, which was ifco 
be assisted in the north by twenty thousand 
Spaniards; while fifty thousand, including 
the Anglo-Sicilian force, now under Sir 
John Murray (1768P-1827) [q. v.], were to 
give occupation to Suchet on the east coast. 
During the winter the French troops had 
been harassed by guerilla warfare, and they 
had been reduced in numbers, and still more 
in quality, by drafts to replace the army 
which had been destroyed in llussia. Soult, 
whom Napoleon spoke of as ' the only man 
who understood war in Spain,' had been re- 
called at Joseph's wish. The king had trans- 
ferred his court by the emperor's orders to 
Valladolid, and spread his troops from the 
Esla to Madrid, though he believed the latter 
to be the threatened point, Out of 110,000 
men, forming the armies of the south, the 
centre, the north, and Portugal, half were 
engaged with the revived insurrection in the 
northern provinces. 

Wellington's real intention, which he took 
care to conceal, was to invade the north of 
Spain, where he would have the assistance 
of the Galicians, the insurgent bands, and 
the British fleet, and would strike the French 
communications. To turn their positions on 
the Duero, which had checked him in 1812, 
part of his army was to cross that river in 
Portugal, and advance on the north side of 




it. On 22 May he passed the frontier, waved 
farewell to Portugal, and moved with his 
right wing on Salamanca. Driving out a 
French division, he went on to the Duero, 
which was reached on the 28th. The left 
wing, forty thousand strong, under Graham, 
had great difficulties to overcome in march- 
ing through the Tras os Montes and crossing 
the Esla : but by 3 June the whole army 
was united at Toro, on the right bank of the 
Duero. Wellington afterwards said that 
this was ' the most difficult move he ever 
made that it was touch andyo, and required 
more art than anything he ever did ' (BRUCE, 
Life of Sir William Napier, i. 147). But 
the French were too weak and scattered to 
hinder the junction. 

By 3 June 1813 Joseph had brought to- 
gether fifty-five thousand men on the Pisuerga; 
he had summoned troops from the north and 
east, and hoped to make a stand at Burgos. 
But he was overmatched and out-generalled. 
Abandoning Burgos, he fell back to the 
Ebro ; and Wellington pushed on, against 
the advice of his staff, hoping to ' hustle ' the 
French out of Spain before they were rein- 
forced (CROKER, i. 336, ii. 232). Adhering 
to his system of turning their positions by 
the right, he passed the Ebro a'bove Frias, 
and provided himself with a new base at 
Santander. To give time for his detached 
troops to join him, and for his convoys to 
get away, Joseph took up a position near 
Vitoria, behind the Zadora. The army of 
the south under Gazan fronted west, with 
the army of the centre behind it ; while 
Reille, with two divisions of the army of 
Portugal, barred the roads which led to 
Vitoria from the north. The line of retreat 
to Bayonne was in prolongation of Reille's 
front. On 21 June Wellington attacked 
Gazan with fifty thousand men, while 
Graham with thirty thousand attacked 
Reille, and seized the Bayonne road. The 
French fought well, but pressed on two 
sides, and still encumbered with a huge 
train, they were forced to retreat on Pam- 
plona by a bad road, and in extreme con- 
fusion. Their loss in men was not much 
greater than that of the allies, about five 
thousand ; but they left behind them nearly 
all their guns, their stores, and treasure. 
Joseph's private papers and Jourdan's baton 
were among the spoil, and a large number 
of pictures, including many Spanish master- 
pieces from Madrid, which were afterwards 
given to Wellington by King Ferdinand 
(Suppl. Desp. 16 March 1814). 

The beaten army continued its retreat 
across the Pyrenees. Of the French troops 
not present at the battle, seventeen thou- 

sand under Foy retired by the Bayonne 
road, followed by Graham ; fourteen thou- 
sand under Clausel, pursued by Wellington, 
marched down the Ebro to Zaragoza, and 
crossed the Pyrenees by Jaca. Only the 
armies of Aragon and Catalonia remained in 
Spain, numbering nearly sixty thousand 
men. Murray had failed badly at Tarra- 
gona ; but Suchet, on learning Joseph's de- 
feat, concentrated his troops on Catalonia, 
and did not interfere with Wellington's 
operations. The victory and the expulsion 
of Joseph from Spain came most oppor- 
tunely ; they influenced the negotiations at 
Prague and the course of Austria. The 
! prince regent sent Wellington the baton, of 
field marshal in return for that of Jourdan 
(3 July) ; the thanks of parliament were 
voted him (7 July) ; and the Spanish re* 
gency bestowed on him the estate of Soto 
de Roma, near Granada, reputed to be of 
much more value than it actually proved 
(STANHOPE, p. 284 ; FORD, Spain, i. 326). 

French garrisons had been left in Pam- 
plona and St. Sebastian. Wellington 
blockaded the former and laid siege to the 
latter, as he needed a good port. But the 
truth of Vauban's saying, that precipitation 
in sieges often means failure and always 
bloodshed, was shown once more. The 
batteries opened fire on 14 July, and on the 
25th the breaches were assaulted. But the 
guns of the fortress had not been silenced, 
the assault was repulsed, and next day the 
siege had to be suspended. As soon as 
Xapoleon learnt that the allies had passed 
the Ebro, he had sent oft' Soult from Dresden 
as his lieutenant. Soult reached Bayonne 
on 12 July, and reorganised the troops on 
j the frontier as 'the army of Spain.' It con- 
! sisted of three corps Reille's, D'Erlon's, and 
I Clausel's and a reserve, and had a strength 
I of seventy thousand men. Wellington had 
i eighty-two thousand regulars, but one-third 
were Spaniards, and, while blockading two 
| fortresses, he had fifty miles of the Pyrenees 
; to guard. 

Soult decided to relieve Pamplona first, 

; not St. Sebastian, as Wellington expected. 

j On 25 July D'Erlon forced the pass of Maya, 

' and Reille and Clausel the pass of Ronces- 

valles. The two latter, following up the 

right of the allies, were within a few miles 

of Pamplona on the 27th. But Picton, who 

commanded the right, took a position east 

; of Sorauren covering Pamplona. Wellington 

i rode up and Avas recognised by both sides, 

j and Soult deferred his attack till the 28th. 

I By that time troops had arrived from the 

left, and after very hard fighting the attack 

i was repulsed (LARPENT, i. 304). 




On the 30th Soult, who had been joined 
by D'Erlon, while Wellington's divisions 
had also drawn together, gave up his at- 
tempt on Pamplona and moved off to his 
right, hoping to turn the left of the allies 
and relieve St. Sebastian. But Wellington 
fell upon the French left, which remained 
behind to cover this movement, and drove 
it in disorder over the mountains ; and Soult 
himself, giving up his plan, regained French 
territory with difficulty on 2 Aug. by way 
of Echalar. In the nine days' fighting, 
known as the battles of the Pyrenees, the 
loss of the allies Avas 7,300 ; that of the 
French was about twice as much (Desp. 
1 and 3 Aug.) 

The siege of St. Sebastian was renewed. 
A more powerful siege-train was used, and 
some trained sappers were employed for the 
first time ; but the attack was still unsyste- 
matic, and the naval blockade had not been 
close enough to prevent aid reaching the 
garrison. The town was stormed on 31 Aug., 
and the castle surrendered on 9 Sept. ; but 
they cost the besiegers 3,778 men (POKTEK, 
i. 335-48). On the day of the assault 
Soult, pressed to do something to save the 
place, sent some of his troops over the Bi- 
dassoa. 'They were beat back, some of them 
even across the river, in the most gallant 
style by the Spanish troops,' Wellington re- 
ported ; but this was said to encourage the 
Spaniards rather than as an accurate account 
(Desp. 2 Sept. ; cf. GREVILLE, i. 69 ; and 
STANHOPE, pp. 22, 156). 

Wellington was strongly urged on poli- 
tical grounds to invade France, and he so 
far complied as to throw his left across the 
Bidassoa on 7 Oct. and force the French 
back on the Nivelle. Further than this he 
was not prepared to go while Pamplona held 
out, and the course of the Avar in Germany 
was doubtful. He knew that Suchet could 
bring at least thirty thousand men to co- 
operate with Soult if he chose to do so ; and 
he had thoughts of going himself to Cata- 
lonia before undertaking any serious inv&- 
sion of France (Desp. 8 Aug. and 19 Sept.) 
He had trouble to keep his own army to- 
gether, for the Spaniards starved their 
troops, and the Portuguese wanted to with- 
draAv their brigades from the British divi- 
sions and combine them under a Portuguese 
commander. There Avas bitter hostility to 
the English both at Lisbon and Cadiz, and 
at the latter place it Avas inflamed by reports 
that they had burnt St. Sebastian by order, 
out of commercial jealousy (ib. 9 and 23 
Oct.) The minister of war, O'Donoju, who 
spread these reports, so persistently violated 
the conditions on which Wellington had 

accepted the command of the Spanish armies 
that he resigned that command on 30 Aug. 
His resignation was accepted by the regency 
but not by the cortes, and the dismissal of 
the minister improved matters (ib. 6 Oct. 
and 26 Jan. 1814) . 

Pamplona capitulated on 31 Oct. 1813. 
The battle of Leipzig had decided the war in 
Germany, and Wellington AA'as now ready 
to invade the south of France with ninety 
thousand men. He issued a proclamation 
to the French people on 1 Nov. assuring 
them of good treatment if they took no part 
in the Avar. On the 10th the battle of the 
Nivelle was fought. The French right was 
very strongly posted in front of St. Jean de 
Luz, and Wellington's object Avas to force 
the centre and cut off the right, like Marl- 
borough at Blenheim. He did not succeed 
entirely ; but the French Avere driven from 
positions which they had been intrenching 
for three months, and which Soult believed 
to be impregnable. They fell back on Bayonne, 
having lost four thousand men and fifty guns. 

The Spanish troops, neglected by their 
own government, plundered and ill-used the 
French peasantry, so Wellington sent them 
back to Spain, except Morillo's division. 
Bad Aveather kept him inactive for a month, 
but on 9 Dec. he forced the passage of the 
Nive, and placed Hill's corps between the 
Nive and the Adour. This restricted the 
French field of supplies and enlarged his 
own. Soult, seeing the allied army divided, 
took advantage of his central position at 
Bayonne to assail first one part and then the 
other. On the 10th he attacked the left 
and centre, but Avith no great vigour or 
success. He continued demonstrations against 
them on the llth and 12th; and haA T ing 
drawn the British reserA'es to that side of 
the Nive, he fell with twenty-eight thousand 
men upon Hill, Avho had only fourteen thou- 
sand. There Avas a hard-fought battle at St. 
Pierre on the 13th, but Hill held his ground 
till reinforcements came up (CLERC, Cam- 
payne du Marechal Soult en 1813-14, p. 284). 

The state of the roads obliged Wellington 
to suspend his further advance till the middle 
of February 1814. By that time Napoleon 
had drawn largely on Soult and Suchet for 
troops ; while Wellington, having at length 
received money to pay his way, Avas able to 
bring some of the Spaniards to the front 
again, though he could not cure them of 
pillaging. The French government tried, 
but with small result, to raise the peasantry 
against the invaders : ' the natives . . . are 
not only reconciled to the invasion, but Avish 
us success ' (Desp. 21 Nov.) Soult, not 
Avishing to be shut up in Bayonne, left a 


1 88 


garrison of fourteen thousand men there, and 
took up the line of the Bidouze. Welling- 
ton, by threatening his left, forced him to 
fall back, and drew him away from Bayonne, 
in front of which Sir John Hope [see HOPE, 
JOHN, fourth EARL OF HOPETOTJN] remained 
with twenty-eight thousand men. On 23 Feb. 
Hope sent a division across the Adour below 
the town, and by the 26th a bridge of boats 
was made, ' a stupendous undertaking which 
must always rank among the prodigies of 
war' (NAPIER, vi. 94; LARPENT, ii. 145). 
The width of the river was nearly three hun- 
dred yards, and the rise of tide fourteen feet. 
Bayonne was then invested on all sides. 

Meanwhile Soult had fallen back behind 
the Gave de Pau, and concentrated his troops 
at Orthes, where he was attacked on the 
27th by Wellington, who had passed the 
stream lower down with the bulk of his 
troops. There were nearly forty thousand 
men on each side, and the battle was obsti- 
nate. Wellington was himself struck by a 
bullet above the thigh his only wound, and 
not a serious one. The French were at 
length driven from their position, and as 
Hill, who had been on the left bank, had by 
that time forced a passage above Orthes, 
Soult was obliged to retreat northward. 
His retreat soon became a flight, in which he 
lost thousands of stragglers, and he had to 
abandon his magazines. After crossing the 
Adour he marched up the right bank, and 
hoped to deter Wellington from moving on 
Bordeaux or Toulouse. But Wellington sent 
Beresford to Bordeaux with twelve thousand 
men ; the Due d'Angouleme entered the 
city, and Louis XVIII was proclaimed there. 
Wellington refused, however, to identify 
himself with a Bourbon restoration, as the 
allies were at that time negotiating with 
Napoleon (Desp. 7 and 16 March). 

Wellington remained on the defensive at 
Aire till he was rejoined by Beresford and 
by other troops, bringing up his numbers to 
forty-six thousand men. Onl7March 1814 he 
advanced upon Soult, who had been threaten- 
ing him, but who now retreated rapidly by 
Tarbes on Toulouse. He was prepared to 
defend that city when Wellington, who fol- 
lowed more slowly, arrived there on the 26th. 
As the country to the south proved impass- 
able, Wellington crossed the Garonne below 
Toulouse, and made his attack from the 
north and east ; though the Canal du Midi 
formed a line of defence on these sides, and 
on the east, beyond the canal, the heights of 
Calvinet had been intrenched. In numbers 
Soult was inferior by ten thousand men, but 
his works and his central position more than 
made up for this. 

Bad weather delayed the battle till 1 April . 
While Hill threatened the St. Cyprien suburb 
on the left bank, and two divisions on the 
north threatened the posts on the canal, the 
real attack was made by the fourth and sixth 
divisions upon the heights of Calvinet, after 
a hazardous flank march under fire. Mo- 
rillo's Spaniards co-operated with them. The 
heights were at length taken, and the French 
fell back behind the canal, though their 
loss was only two-thirds of that of the allies, 
which was 4,660 men. On the night of the 
llth Soult, fearing that he would be shut 
in, left Toulouse and marched towards Car- 
cassonne (CHOTJMARA, Considerations Mili- 
taires, #c.) Next day news reached Wel- 
lington of Napoleon's abdication, and a con- 
vention was signed on 18 April 1814 by which 
hostilities ceased. 

Wellington was summoned to Paris to 
confer with the allied sovereigns about Spain. 
On 10 May he set out for Madrid, to smooth 
matters between the restored King Ferdinand 
and his subjects. He left Madrid on 8 June, 
having effected little ; issued a farewell 
order to his army at Bordeaux on the 14th t 
and landed in England on the 23rd. His 
journey from Dover to London was a trium- 
phal progress, and his carriage was drawn 
by the people from Westminster Bridge to 
his house in Hamilton Place. Fresh honours 
now fell thick upon him. He was created 
Marquis of Douro and Duke of Wellington 
on 3 May. An annuity of 13,000/., or in 
lieu of it "a sum of 400,000^. for the purchase 
of estates, was voted by parliament, in addi- 
tion to former grants, on 13 May. The 
thanks of parliament had already been voted 
for St. Sebastian (8 Nov.) and for Orthes 
(24 March). On 28 June the duke took his 
seat in the House of Lords, and received the 
thanks of that house and of the House of 
Commons. On 1 July he made his acknow- 
ledgments for the latter in person, the pro- 
cedure following closely that which had been 
adopted in the case of Schomberg a century 
and a quarter before. The speaker remarked 
in his reply that the nation ' owes to you 
the proud satisfaction that, amidst the con- 
stellation of great and illustrious warriors 
who have recently visited our country, we 
could present to them a leader of our own, 
to whom all, by common acclamation, con- 
ceded the pre-eminence ' (Speeches, i. 96). 
On the 7th he took part in the thanksgiving 
service at St. Paul's, bearing the sword of 
state, and on the 9th he was entertained by 
the city, which four years before had de- 
manded an inquiry into his conduct. The 
orders of Maria Theresa of Austria, St. 
George of Russia, the Black Eagle of Prussia, 




and the Sword of Sweden were conferred on 

On 5 July Wellington was appointed am- 
bassador at Paris a strange choice. On his 
way there he examined the defences of the 
Netherlands; he recommended the restora- 
tion of the barrier fortresses, and opposed 
the destruction of the works at Antwerp 
which the British government contemplated 
(Desp. 22 Sept.) Among the field positions 
which he indicated in his report was that of 
Waterloo, and a special survey was made of 
it. He arrived at Paris on 22 Aug., where 
the house of Princess Borghese, still the 
British embassy, had been bought for him. 
His chief business as ambassador was to 
negotiate for the suppression of the slave 
trade, which was then being urged in Eng- 
land ' with all the earnestness, not to say 
violence, with which we are accustomed to j 
urge such objects, without consideration for 
the prejudices and feelings of others ' {Desp. 

13 Oct.) 

Some of the French marshals showed 
much irritation at his appointment, and, as 
the general discontent in Paris increased, the 
British government became alarmed for him. 
They proposed, therefore, to send him to 
North America, to replace Sir George Prevost 
(1767-1817) [q.y.l, who had failed at Platts- 
burg. He replied, ' You cannot at this mo- 
ment allow me to quit Europe,' and added 
that to withdraw him from Paris in a hurry 
would do harm, 'although I entertaina strong 
opinion that I must not be lost ' (Suppl. Desp. 
7 Nov.) It was then arranged that as Castle- 
reagh must return to England for the session, 
Wellington should take his place at Vienna. 
This he did on 15 Feb. 1815. The main 
business of the congress was over ; but his 
presence there and his absence from Paris 
were alike opportune when Napoleon re- 
turned. The news that he had left Elba 
reached Vienna on 7 March. Wellington 
at first thought his enterprise Avould fail, 
but was none the less for prompt and vigo- 
rous measures in support of Louis XVIII. 
On the 13th he signed the declaration of the 
powers, that Napoleon had ' placed himself 
outside civil and social relations, and handed 
himself over to public justice, as the enemy 
and disturber of the peace of the world,' and 
on the 25th he signed a treaty, based upon 
that of Chaumont (1 March 1814), for the 
combined action of the four great powers, 
each contributing 150,000 men (Desp. 

14 and 27 March). The British government 
ratified the treaty, though it had not thought 
at first of going so far. 

After signing it, Wellington set out for 
Brussels, and on his arrival there, on 4 April, 

received his commission (dated 28 March) as 
commander of the British and Hanoverian 
forces on the continent. He at once con- 
certed measures with the Prussians at Aix 
la Chapelle for the security of Brussels, and 
he sent to Vienna a plan for the invasion of 
France which he hoped to see taken in hand 
at the beginning of May (Desp. 10 and 

13 April). But it soon became clear that 
the Austrians and Russians would not be 
ready till July. In May the command of 
the Netherland troops was given to him, 
with the rank of field-marshal. By the 
middle of June his army had grown to 
106,000 men, of which one-third were 
British, the rest being Dutch-Belgians or 
Germans. Most of the troops were raw and 
many half-hearted. His ' Spanish infantry,' 
as he called the regiments which had served 
in the Peninsula, had been sent for the most 
part to America. He organised the infantry 
in three corps : two were under the Prince 
of Orange and Lord Hill ; the third, or re- 
serve, he kept in his own hands. To each 
corps two British divisions were assigned, 
and each of these divisions included a 
Hanoverian brigade, except the guards. 
Instead of being left free to choose his own 
staff, he found himself ' overloaded with 
people I have never seen before' (Suppl. 
Desp. 4 May : Desp. 8 May and 25 June). 

The Prussian army under Bliicher, 117,000 
strong, was echeloned on the Sambre and 
Meuse, from Charleroi to Liege. Its base 
was Cologne, while the British base was 
Antwerp, so that the lines of communica- 
tion diverged. At a conference on 3 May at 
Tirlemont, Bliicher and Wellington seem to 
have arranged that, in case Napoleon should 
aim at separating the two armies by an ad- 
vance through Charleroi, they should con- 
centrate near Ligny and Gosselies respectively 
(MUFFLING, p. 232). Wellington thought 
it more likely that Napoleon would try to 
turn his right, to cut his communication 
with England and Holland, and get posses- 
sion of Ghent and Brussels. For this reason 
the cantonments of his first and second corps 
were spread over forty miles, to the west of 
the Charleroi-Brussels road, while the re- 
serve was kept at Brussels (Suppl. Desp. x. 
513-31, reply to Clausewitz written in 1842). 
But, in spite of rumours, he did not expect 
an immediate attack, and wrote, ' I think we 
are now too strong for him ' (Desp. 13 June). 

Napoleon had assembled on the frontier 
an army of 128,000 men, excellent troops, 
though hastily organised. He joined it on 

14 June, and next morning, at daybreak, at- 
tacked the Prussian outposts at Thuin, near 
Charleroi. The news reached Wellington at 




Brussels at 3 P.M., and he sent off orders for 
his troops to be in readiness to move. At 
10 P.M. when reports from Mons had satis- 
fied him that the attack was not a. feint he 
directed them on Nivelles and Quatre Bras 
(Desp. 15 June, and MUFFLING, p. 230). He 
then went to the Duchess of Richmond's 
ball to allay anxiety (see FRASER, The Water- 
loo Sail, 1897 ; this famous entertainment 
was held, not in the Hotel de Ville, as 
Byron's well-known lines would imply, but 
in a coach-maker's depot in the Rue de la 
Blanchisserie). A brigade of Perponcher's 
Dutch division was engaged that evening 
near Quatre Bras, but held its ground, and 
was reinforced by the other brigade before 

Wellington reached Quatre Bras about 
10 A.M. on the 16th, and, seeing little of the 
enemy rode over to Brye, where he met 
Bliicher at 1 P.M. Three Prussian corps, 
eighty-two thousand men, were drawn up 
behind the Ligny brook, in a position which 
made Wellington sure they would be 
' damnably mauled ' (STANHOPE, p. 109). He 
did not hide his opinion, but he promised 
that he would bring his troops to their sup- 
port if he were not attacked himself. He 
had sent a note to Bliicher at 10.30 A.M., 
stating generally the situation of his troops 
at that time. The statements were inexact, 
for his staff were over sanguine in their 
calculations ; but there is nothing to show 
that they influenced Bliicher's decision to 
accept battle, or led him to count on assist- 
ance, much less that they were deliberately 
misleading, as Dr. Hans Delbriick has alleged 
(MAURICE, p. 257 ; OLLECH, p. 125). 

On his return to Quatre Bras Wellington 
found that the troops there had been attacked 
by Ney, with about eighteen thousand men, 
at 2 P.M. They were being overpowered 
when Picton's division arrived, followed by 
the Brunswick and Nassau troops. In spite 
of brilliant charges by the French cavalry, 
in one of which Wellington narrowly es- 
caped capture, Quatre Bras was held, and 
by evening Ney was outnumbered and 
forced back. D'Erlon's corps, which had 
been allotted to him, was afterwards diverted 
towards Ligny, and then, on his urgent 
summons, marched back to join him. It took 
no part in either action, but nevertheless 
Wellington could claim that he had relieved 
his ally of one-third of the French army. 
He lost nearly five thousand men. 

Next morning he learnt that the Prussians 
had been beaten and had retreated on Wavre, 
and he fell back to the position in front of 
Waterloo which he had caused to be sur- 
veyed in 1814. Except for a cavalry skir- 

mish, his retreat was unmolested ; but it was 
, made under heavy rain, which lasted all 
night. He had sent word to Bliicher that 
I he would hold his position if he could count 
| upon the support of one or two Prussian 
corps, and in the night of the 17th he re- 
ceived a reply promising two corps and 
perhaps more. He is said to have mentioned 
long afterwards that he himself rode over to 
i Wavre that night and saw Bliicher (MAURICE, 
i p. 533). The Prussian commander was over 
seventy, and had been badly bruised at 
i Ligny, but his energy was unabated ; he 
i wrote next morning that, ill as he was, he 
should put himself at the head of his troops, 
to attack the right wing of the enemy as 
soon as Napoleon should attempt anything 
against the duke. This letter was to 
Miiffling, the Prussian representative at the 
English headquarters; and Gneisenau, the 
chief of the staff (who had previously warned 
Muffling that Wellington surpassed Indian 
nabobs in duplicity), added a postscript 
begging him to find out whether Wellington 
really meant to fight, as his retreat would 
place the Prussian army in the greatest dan- 
ger (OLLECH, pp. 187-9 ; MUFFLING, p. 212). 
Wellington believed that only one corps 
instead of two had been detached under 
Grouchy to follow the Prussians, . and that 
he had all the rest of the French army 
before him (Desp. 19 June) ; but he was 
still so anxious lest his right should be 
turned that he kept nearly fifteen thousand 
men. including one British brigade of two 
thousand four hundred men, at Hal and 
Tubize, eight miles to the west. He reckoned 
on early help from the Prussians to enable 
him to hold his ground, and he had no reason 
to suppose that Napoleon was unaware of 
their position or would disregard it. He 
always afterwards maintained that Napoleon 
should have turned his right instead of taking 
the bull by the horns (MAURICE, p. 539 ; 
GREVILLE, i. 39). Reille, from large ex- 
perience in Spain, warned the emperor that 
English troops in a good position were ' in- 
expugnable ' by front attack, and advised 
him to manoeuvre ; but Napoleon was in- 
credulous (SEGUR, Melanges, p. 273). His 
only fear was that Wellington would retire, 
and it was with equal satisfaction that the 
two commanders saw on the morning of 
Sunday, 18 June, that the issue was to be 
settled on that ground. Wellington would 
not allow the front of his position to be in- 
trenched lest he should deter Napoleon from 
direct attack, and the latter satisfied himself 
that there were no intrenchments before he 
issued his orders (PORTER, i. 384 : CHARRAS. 
p. 247). 




Napoleon Lad on the field seventy-two 
thousandmen, of which fifteen thousand were 
cavalry, with 240 guns ; Wellington had 
sixty-eight thousand, of which twelve thou- 
sand were cavalry, with 156 guns. Of 
British infantry (not including the king's 
German legion) there were fewer than fif- 
teen thousand. The position taken up was 
two miles south of Waterloo, and extended a 
mile to the right and a mile to the left of the 
Charleroi road. A ridge, along which ran 
the cross road to Wavre, formed its front, 
and gave shelter to the reserves. The right 
was thrown b