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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

WIIICIICORD WILLIAMS 




J 



DICTIONARY , 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LXI. 
WHICHCORD WILLIAMS 



LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO, 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1900 

[All rights reserved] 



ZS 



LIST OF WRITERS 



IN THE SIXTY-FIRST VOLUME. 



J. B. A. . . J. B. ATLAV. 

B. B-L. . . . RICHARD BAGWELL. 
M. B Miss BATESON. 

R. B THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

M. B-L.. . . MACKENZIE BELL. 

C. B PROFESSOR CECIL BENDALL. 

T. G. B. . . THE REV. PROFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.R.S. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULOER. 
E. I. C. . . . E. IRVING CARLYLE. 
W. C-R. . . WILLIAM CARR. 
J. L. C. . . J. L. CAW. 
A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 
A. M. C-E. . Miss A. M. COOKE. 

T. C THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 

L. C LIONEL Cusx, F.S.A. 

H. D HENRY DAVEY. 

A. D AUSTIN DOBSON. 

R. D ROBERT DUNLOP. 

C. L. F. . . C. LITTON FALKINER. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

W. G. D. F. THE REV. W. G. D. FLETCHER. 

S. R. G. . . S. R. GARDINER, LL.D., D.C.L. 

JI. G RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. i 



A. G. . . . THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

J. C. H. . . J. CUTHBERT HADDEN. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

C. A. H. . . C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 

P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 

J. A. H-T. . J. A. HERBERT. 

W. H THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

J. H JOHN HUTCHINSON. 

W. H. H. . THE REV. W. H. HUTTON, D.D. 

A. J THE REV. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, 

D.D. 



J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L SIDNEY LEE. 

F. L FRANCIS LEGGE. 

E. M. L. . . COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 

J. E. L. . . J. E. LLOYD. 

J. H. L. . . THE REV. J. H. LUPTON, B.D. 

M. MACD.. . MICHAEL MACDONAGH. 

J. R. M. . . J. R. MACDONALD. 

^E. M. ... SHERIFF MACKAY. 

D. S. M. . . THE REV. PROFESSOR D. S. 
MARGOLIOUTH. 

H. E. M. . . THE RIGHT HON. SIR HERBERT 
MAXWELL, BART., M.P., 
F.R.S. 

L. M. M. . . Miss MIDDLETOX. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



N. M 

J. B. M. . 
A. N-x. . . 

G. LE G. N, 
K. N. . . . 
D. J. O'D. . 
F. M. O'D. , 

A. F. P. . . 

B. P 

D'A. P. . . 
F. B. . . . 
W. E. R. . , 
J. M. B. . 
H. B. . . . 
F. S. ... 

T. S 

P. A. S. . 

C. F. S. 
L. S. , 



NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 
J. BASS MULLINOER. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED NEWTON, 
F.B.S. 

G. LE GRYS NOROATE. 
Miss KATE NOROATE. 

D. J. O'DONOOHUE. 

F. M. O'DONOOHUE, F.S.A. 

A. F. POLLARD. 

Miss BERTHA PORTER. 

D'ARCY POWER, F.B.C.S. 

FRASER BAE. 

W. E. BHODES. 

J. M. BIGG. 

HERBERT BIX. 

THE BEV. F. SANDERS. 

THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

P. A. SILLARD. 

Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

LESLIE STEPHEN. 



G. S-H. . . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-T. . . 
E. L. T. . 
H. B. T. . 

D. LL. T. 
M. T. . . . 
T. F. T. 
B. H. V. . 
A. V. . . . 

A. W. W. 
P. W. . . . 
M. G. W. 
W. W. W. 

M. H. W. 
J. F. W. . 

E. W-s. . 
W. B. W. 

B. B. W. . 



. GEORGE STRONACH. 

. C. W. SUTTON. 

. JAMES TAIT. 

. THE BEV. ETHELRED TACXTOX. 

. H. B. TEDDER, F.S.A. 

. D. LLEUFER THOMAS. 

. MRS. TOUT. 

PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 
. COLONEL B. H. VETCH, B.E., C.B. 
. ALSAGER VIAN. 
. A. W. WARD, LL.D., LITT.D. 
. PAUL WATERHOUSE. 
. THE BEV. M. G. WATKIXS. 

. CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB, M.D. 
F.S.A. 

. MARTIN H. WILKIN. 

. THE REV. J. FROME WILKINSON. 

. MRS. ROWLAND WILLIAMS. 

. W. R. WILLIAMS. 

. B. B. WOODWARD. 



In vol. Ix. (p. 83, col. 1. 11.4-2 fmm cml) emit He WM father of the antiquary and historian, Mr. William 
Henry James Wcale ; (p. 212, col. 2, 1. 8) for Lahore r'ad Indore. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Whichcord 



Whichcote 



WHICHCORD, JOHN (1823-1885), 
architect, born at Maidstone on 11 Nov. 1823, 
was the son of John Whichcord (1790-1860), 
an architect who designed two churches (St. 
Philip and Holy Trinity) in Maidstone, the 
Corn Exchange and Kent fire office in the 
same town, and various churches, parson- 
ages, and institutions in the county of Kent 
(Builder, I860, xviii. 383 ; Arch. Publ. Soc. 
Diet.) 

The son, after education at Maidstone and 
at King's College, London, became in 1840 
assistant to his father, and in 1844 a student 
at the Royal Academy. After prolonged 
travel in Italy, Greece, Asiatic Turkey, Syria, 
Egypt, and the Holy Land (1846-1850), and 
a tour in France, Germany, and Denmark 
(1850), he took a partnership (till 1858) with 
Arthur Ashpitel [q. v.] With him he carried 
out additions (1852) to Lord Abergavenny's 
house, Birling, Kent, and in 1858 built four- 
teen houses on the Mount Elliott estate at 
Lee in the same county. His subsequent 
work consisted largely of office premises in 
the city of London, such as 9 Mincing Lane, 
24 Lombard Street, 8 Old Jewry, Mansion 
House Chambers, the New Zealand Bank 
and the National Safe Deposit, all in Vic- 
toria Street, and Brown Janson & Co.'s bank, 
Abchurch Lane. He built the Grand Hotel 
at Brighton and the Clarence Hotel at Dover, 
as well as St. Mary's Church and parsonage 
at Shortlands, near Bromley, Kent, where 
he also laid out the estate for building. One 
of Whichcord's best known works is the St. 
Stephen's Club (1874), a classical building 
with boldly corbelled projections, facing 
Westminster bridge (Builder, xxxii. 308). 
He designed the internal fittings for the house 
of parliament at Cape Town. Whichcord was 
often employed as arbitrator in government 

VOL. LXI. 



matters, and he was one of the surveyors to 
the railway department of the board of trade. 

From 1854 he held the post of district sur- 
veyor for Deptford, and from 1879 to 1881 
was president of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, where he delivered various 
addresses and papers, and was largely instru- 
mental in the establishment of the examina- 
tion system (vide Transactions R.I.B.A., 
1845-80). 

In 1865 Whichcord unsuccessfully con- 
tested the constituency of Barnstaple in the 
conservative interest ; he was an ardent 
volunteer, and became in 1869 captain in the 
1st Middlesex artillery volunteers, for which 
he raised a battery mainly composed of young 
architects and lawyers. He was elected in 
1848 a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 

He died on 9 Jan. 1885, and was buried 
at Kensal Green. 

Whichcord published * History and Anti- 
quities of the Collegiate Church of All 
Saints, Maidstone,' with illustrations, in 
Weale's 'Quarterly Papers/ vol. iv. 1854, 
and various pamphlets. 

[Builder, 1885, xlviii. 98; Archit. Publ. Soc. 
Dictionary.] P. W. 

WHICHCOTE or WHITCHCOTE, 
BENJAMIN (1609-1683), provost of King's 
College, Cambridge, was the sixth son of 
ChristopherWhichcote of Whichcote Hall in 
the parish of Stoke in Shropshire, where he 
was born on 4 May 1609 (Baker MS. vi. 82 b). 
His mother, whose name was Elizabeth, was 
the daughter of Edward Fox of Greet in the 
same county (SALTEB, Pref. to Eight Letters, 
&c.,p.xvi). On 25 Oct. 1626 he was admitted 
a pensioner at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
on which occasion his name in the entry in the 
register is spelt ' Whitchcote.' His college 



Whichcote 



Whichcote 



tutor was Anthony Tuckney [q. v.], a divine 
with whose subsequent career his own became 
closely interwoven. In 1629-30 he was ad- 
mitted B. A., proceeded M.A. in 1633, in which 
year also he was elected a fellow of his col- 
lege. According to his biographer, he was 
ordained by John Williams Tq. v.l, bishop of 
Lincoln, on 5 March 1636, 'both deacon and 
priest ; ' ' which irregularity,' says Salter, ' I 
know not how to account* for in a prelate 
so obnoxious to the ruling powers both in 
church and state ' (tb. p. xvii). In the same 
year he was appointed to the important post 
of Sunday afternoon lecturer at Trinity 
Church in Cambridge, a post which he con- 
tinued to fill for nearly twenty years. About 
this time he received also his licence as uni- 
versity preacher. 

His discourses at Trinity Church, which 
were largely attended by the university, 
survive only in the form of notes, but it was 
through these that he attained his chief 
contemporary celebrity. It was his aim 
* to turn men's minds away from polemical 
argumentation to the great moral and spiri- 
tual realities lying at the basis of all re- 
ligion from the " forms of words " to " the 
inwards of things" and "the reason of 
them " ' (Letters, p. 108). 

In 1634 he succeeded to the office of col- 
lege tutor, in which capacity ' he was famous 
for the number, rank, and character of his 
pupils, and the care he took of them.' 
Among those who afterwards attained to 
distinction were John Smith (1618-1652) 
Pq. v.l of Queens', JohnWorthington [q. v.], 
iTohn Vallis (1616-1703) Tq. v.], the mathe- 
matician, and Samuel Cradock. 

In 1640 he proceeded B.D. ; in 1641 he 
was a candidate for the divinity chair at 
Gresham College, but was defeated by 
Thomas Horton (WABD, Gresham Professors, 
p. 65) ; and in 1643 was presented by his 
college to the rectory of North Cadbury in 
Somerset. He thereupon married (the name 
of his wife is not recorded) and retired to his 
living. In the following year, however, he 
was summoned back to the university by the 
Earl of Manchester, to be installed as provost 
of King's College in the place of the ejected 
Dr. Samuel Collins [q. v?] His honourable 
character and scrupulous nature were shown 
by the reluctance with which he at length, 
under considerable pressure, consented to 
supplant one whom he highly respected, as 
well as by the generosity which led him to 
stipulate that his predecessor should continue 
to receive a moiety of the stipend attaching 
to the provostship (Pref. &c. pp. xviii, xix). 
The arguments pro and con by which he 
ultimately arrived at the conclusion that 



duty required his acceptance of the post 
were committed by him to writing and are 
printed in Hey wood (King's College Statutes, 
p. 290) from Baker MS. vi. 90. Alone 
among the newly installed heads of colleges 
at Cambridge he refused to take the cove- 
nant ; he is even said to have * prevailed to 
have the greatest part of the fellows of King's 
College exempted from that imposition, and 
preserved them in their places ' (TILLOTSON, 
Sermon, p. 23). 

In July 1649 he was created D.D. bj 
mandate ; about this time he resigned his 
Somerset living, but was soon afterwards pre- 
sented by his college to the rectory of Mil- 
ton in Cambridgeshire, which he continued 
to hold as long as he lived (Pref. p. xxii). 
In November 1650 he was elected vice- 
chancellor of the university, and while filling 
this office preached at the Cambridge com- 
mencement (July 1651) a sermon which 
was the occasion of a notable correspondence 
between himself and his former tutor, Tuck- 
ney (now master of Emmanuel). These 
letters, eight in number, were edited and 
published in 1753 by Dr. Salter, a grandson 
of Dr. Jeffery, Whichcote's nephew and 
editor ; and an analysis and criticism of the 
same will be found in Tulloch's ' Rational 
Theology' (ii.' 59-84). Generally speaking, 
they represent the main points at issue be- 
tween a staunch and able upholder of the 
puritan orthodoxy as formulated in the 
Westminster confession, and one whose aim 
it was to bring about a fuller recognition of 
the claims of private judgment and of ' the 
rationality of Chfistian doctrine.' Rudely 
challenged at the outset, Whichcote's views 
eventually resulted in a movement repre- 
sented by the body known as the Cambridge 
Platonists and, in a wider circle, as the Lati- 
tudinarians, a remarkable school of writers 
and thinkers for whom Burnet claims the 
high credit of having saved the church 
from losing her esteem throughout the 
kingdom. 

In 1654, on the occasion of the peace with 
Holland, Whichcote appears as one of the 
contributors to the volume of verses (' Oliva 
Pacis ') composed by members of the uni- 
versity to celebrate the event, and dedicated 
to Cromwell. In December 1655 he was 
invited by Cromwell to advise him, in con- 
junction with Cudworth and others, on the 
question of tolerating the Jews (Crossley's 
note to WORTHINGTON'S Diary, i. 79). In 
1659 he combined with Cudworth, Tuckney, 
and other Cambridge divines, in supporting 
Matthew Poole's scheme for the maintaining 
of students of ' choice ability at the univer- 
sity, and principally in order to the mini- 



Whichcote 



Whichcote 



stry' (see POOLE, MATTHEW; Autobiogr. of 
Matthew Robinson, ed. Mayor, p. 193). 

At the Restoration Whichcote shared the 
fate of the other heads of colleges who had 
been installed under puritan influences, and 
was ejected, not without resistance on his 
part, from his provostship, his successor being 
James Fleetwood [q. v.] of Edgehill cele- 
brity. According to a letter written by 
Whichcote himself to Lauderdale, one of the 
objections urged against him had been that he 
had never been a fellow of the society (Daw- 
son Turner MS. No. 648). Among those 
whom he befriended about the time of this 
crisis was Samuel Hartlibfq. v.], with whom 
he frequently corresponded (WORTHINGTON, 
Diary, Chetham Soc., vols. i. ii. passim). 
His compliance with the Act of Uniformity 
restored him to court favour, and in No- 
vember 1662 he was appointed to the cure 
of St. Anne's, Blackfriars. When the church 
was burnt down in the great fire he retired 
to his living at Milton, and continued to re- 
side there for some years ; he ' preached con- 
stantly, relieved the poor, had their children 
taught to reade at his own charge, and 
made up differences among the neighbours ' 
(TILLOTSON, Sermon, p. '24). In 16C8 his 
friend Dr. John Wilkins [q. v.] was appointed 
to the bishopric of Chester, thereby vacat- 
ing the vicarage of St. Lawrence Jewry, to 
which, by his interest, Whichcote was now 
appointed. The church, however, had to be 
rebuilt, and during the work, which occu- 
pied some seven years, he preached regularly 
before the corporation at Guildhall Chapel. 
Inji letter written to Sancroft on 24 Dec. 
1670 he gives an account of his services both 
to literature and to the church. In 1674, 
along with Tillotson and Stillingfleet, he 
co-operated with certain nonconformists in 
furthering Thomas Gouge's efforts to extend 
education in Wales. 

In 1683 Whichcote was at Cambridge on 
a visit to Cudworth at Christ's College, 
when he took cold and eventually died. 
He was interred in St. Lawrence Church, 
where his funeral sermon was preached by 
Tillotson on 24 May. His epitaph is printed 
in Strype's 'Stow' (iii. 47-8). There are 
portraits of him in the provost's lodge at 
King's College and in the gallery and hall 
of Emmanuel, the last being noted by Dr. 
Westcott as especially ' characteristic.' He 
was a benefactor to the university library 
and also to King's and Emmanuel, at which 
last society he had founded, before his 
death, scholarships to the value of 1,000/., 
' bearing the name of William Larkin, who, 
making him his executor, entrusted him 
with the said summe to dispose of to 



pious uses at his own discretion' (Baker 
MS.RS9). 

Whichcote left no children ; his executors 
were his two nephews, the sons of Sir 
Jeremy Whichcote of the Inner Temple and 
deputy lieutenant of Middlesex. His sister 
Anne married Thomas Hayes, and was the 
mother of Philemon Hayes, minister of 
Childs Ercall (OWEN and BLAKEWAY, Hist. 
of Shrewsbury, i. 408 n. 7). 

An able estimate of his merits as a divine, 
from the pen of Dr. Westcott, will be found 
in ' Masters of Theology,' ed. Barry, London, 
1877. 

Whichcote's works (all published posthu- 
mously) are: 1. ' Beo^opou/ifVa Ady/zara ; or, 
some Select Notions of that Learned and 
Reverend Divine of the Church of England, 
Benj. Whichcote, D.D. Faithfully collected 
from him by a Pupil and particular Friend of 
his,' London, 1685. 2. < A Treatise of Devo- 
tion, with Morning and Evening Prayer for 
all the Days of the Week,' 1697 (attributed to 
him, but no copy is known to exist). 3. ' Se- 
lect Sermons,' with a preface by the third 
Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the ' Charac- 
teristics,' 1698 ; reprinted at Edinburgh in 
1742 by Principal Wishart. 4. 'Several 
Discourses [ten in number], examined and 
corrected by his own Notes, and published 
by John Jeffery, D.D., archdeacon of Nor- 
wich,' London, 1701. 5. 'The True Notion 
of Place in the Kingdom or Church of Christ, 
stated by the late Dr. Whitchcot in a Ser- 
mon [on James iii. 18] preach'd by him on 
the malignity of Popery. Examined and cor- 
rected by J. Jeffery,' London, 1717. 6. < The 
Works of the learned Benjamin Whichcote, 
D.D., rector of St. Lawrence Jewry, Lon- 
don,' 4 vols. ; Aberdeen, 1751 (contains only 
the discourses). 7. ' Moral and Religious 
Aphorisms: collected from the manuscript 
Papers of the Reverend and Learned Doctor 
W T hichcote, and published in MDCCIII by 
Dr. Jeffery. Now republished, with very 
large additions from the Transcripts of the 

latter, by Samuel Salter, D.D to which 

are added Eight Letters, which passed be- 
tween Dr. Whichcote, provost of King's 
College, and Dr. Tuckney, master of Em- 
manuel College,' London, 1753. 

[Preface to the Eight Letters by Salter, pp. 
xvi-xxviii ; Tillotson's Sermon preached at the 
Funeral of the Reverend Benjamin Whichcot 
(with portrait), London, 1683; Tulloch's Ra- 
tional Theology in England in the Seventeenth 
Century, ii. 2; unpublished notes by Profes- 
sor J. E. B. Mayor in his Cambridge in the 
Reign of Queen Anne, pp. 297-306 ; informa- 
tion kindly afforded by the master of Emmanuel 
College.] J- B. M. 

B - 



Whichcote 



Whiddon 



WHICHCOTE, GEORGE (1794-1891), 
general, born on 21 Dec. 1794, was the 
fourth son of Sir Thomas Whichcote, fifth 
baronet (1763-1824), of Aswarby Park, Lin- 
colnshire, by his wife Diana (d. 1826), third 
daughter of Edmund Turner of Panton and 
Stoke Rochford. In 1803 he entered Rugby 
school, where he fagged for William Charles 
Macready, the great actor. In December 
1810, on leaving Rugby, he joined the 62nd 
foot as a volunteer, and received a commis- 
sion as ensign on 10 Jan. 1811. In the same 
year he embarked on the Pompey, a French 
prize, to join the British army in the Spanish 
peninsula, where his regiment, with the 43rd 
and the 95th, formed the famous light divi- 
sion. He took part in the battle of Sabugal 
on 3 April, and in the combat of El Bodon 
on 25 Sept., though his regiment was not 
engaged. He assisted in the storming of 
Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 Jan. 1812, and of 
Badajoz on 6 April. On 8 July he became 
lieutenant, and on 22 July was present at 
the battle of Salamanca and at that of Vit- 
toria on 21 June 1813, where the 52nd car- 
ried the village of Magarita with an im- 
petuous charge. He took part with his 
regiment in the combats in the Pyrenees in 
July and August, the combat of Vera on 

3 Oct., the battle of the Nivelle on 10 Nov., 
the battle of the Nive on 10-13 Dec., the 
battle of Orthes on 27 Feb. 1814, of Tarbes 
on 12 March, and of Toulouse on 12 April. 
He was the first man in the English army 
to enter Toulouse. While in command of an 
advanced picket he observed the French re- 
treat, and, boldly pushing on, took posses- 
sion of the town. At the close of the war the 
regiment was placed in garrison at Castel- 
sarrasin on the Garonne, and afterwards was 
sent to Ireland. Whichcote took part in the 
battle of Waterloo, where the 52nd com- 
pleted the rout of the imperial guard. He 
was quartered in Paris during the occupa- 
tion by the allies, and on his return home 
received the Waterloo medal and the silver 
war medal with nine clasps, before he had 
attained his majority. After the peace the 
52nd was ordered to Botany Bay, andWhich- 
cote exchanged into the buffs. 

On 22 Jan. 1818 he obtained his cap- 
taincy, and in 1822 again exchanged into the 
4th dragoon guards. He was made major 
on 29 Oct. 1825, lieutenant-colonel on 
28 June 1838, and colonel on 11 Nov. 1851. 
In 1825 he was placed on half-pay, and on 

4 June 1857 he attained the rank of major- 
general; was promoted to be lieutenant- 
general on 31 Jan. 1864, and became a full 
general on 6 Dec. 1871. In 1887 he received 
a jubilee medal from the queen in recog- 



nition of his services, accompanied by an 
autograph letter. He died on 26 Aug. 1891 
at Meriden, near Coventry, where he had 
resided since retiring from active service, 
and was buried there on 31 Aug. With the 
exception of Lieutenant-colonel Hewitt, he 
was the last officer of the English army 
surviving who had been present at Waterloo. 
In 1842 he married Charlotte Sophia (d. 
1880), daughter of Philip Monckton. He 
had no issue. 

[Times, 27 Aug. 1891 ; Coventry Standard, 
28 Aug. 1891 ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; 
Rugby School Register ; Army Lists.] 

p j r\ 

WHICHELO, C. JOHN M. (d. 1865), 
watercolour-painter, is said to have been a 
pupil of John Varley [q. v.], but his manner 
suggests rather the influence of Joshua Cris- 
tall [q.v.l His earliest work was of a purely 
topographical character, and some of his 
drawings were engraved for Wilkinson's 
' Londina Illustrata' and Bray ley's ' Beauties 
of England and Wales.' He began to ex- 
hibit at the Royal Academy in 1810, send- 
ing chiefly marine views, and for a few years 
held the appointment of marine painter to 
the prince regent. In 1823 Whichelo be- 
came an associate of the Watercolour So- 
ciety, and for forty years he was a regular 
contributor to its exhibitions, his subjects 
being mainly representations of English 
coast and harbour scenery, with a few views 
on Dutch rivers. He usually signed his 
drawings 'John Whichelo.' He died in 
September 1865. , 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Roget's Hist, of 
the ' Old Watercolour ' Society.] F. M. O'D. 

WHIDDON, JACOB (Jl. 1585-1595), 
sea-captain, a trusted servant and follower 
of Sir Walter Ralegh, who speaks of him 
as ' a man most valiant and honest,' seems 
to have been with Sir Richard Greynvile in 
his voyage to Virginia in 1585. In 1588 he 
commanded Ralegh's ship the Roebuck, in 
the fleet under Lord Howard, and is de- 
scribed as particularly active in the various 
services which could be performed by so 
small a vessel. He took possession of, and 
brought into Torbay, the flagship of Don Pedro 
de V aides ; he brought supplies of am- 
munition to the fleet, and was constantly 
employed in scouting duty. In 1594 he 
was sent out by Ralegh to make a pre- 
liminary exploration of the Orinoco. His 
object was frustrated by the governor of 
Trinidad, who imprisoned some of his crew, 
and practically obliged him to return to 
England without the information he sought. 
It is probable that he was with Ralegh in 



Whiddon 



Whinyates 



the voyage to Guiana in 1595, the expedi- 
tion against Cadiz in 1596, and the Islands' 
voyage in 1597 ; but his name is not men- 
tioned. 

[Edwards's Life of Ralegh ; Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada (Navy Records Soc.) ; 
Ralegh's Discoverie of Guiana ; Lediard's Naval 
Hist.] J . K. L. 

WHIDDON, SIR JOHN (d. 1576), judge, 
was the eldest son of John Whiddon of 
Chagford in Devonshire, where his family had 
long been established. His mother, whose 
maiden name was Hugg, was also a native of 
Chagford. He studied law at the Inner Temple, 
and was elected a reader in the autumn of 
1528. Failing to read on that occasion, his 
appointment was renewed for the following 
Lent ; he was again elected to the office on 
12 Nov. 1535, and was chosen treasurer on 
3 Nov. 1538, holding the office for two years. 
He was nominated a serjeant at the close of 
Henry VIII's reign, and constituted by a 
new writ a week after the king's death. 
His arguments in court during Edward's 
reign are reported by Plowden. Whiddon 
was appointed a judge of the queen's bench, 
almost immediately after Mary's accession, 
by patent dated 4 Oct. 1553, and on 27 Jan. 
1554-5 he was knighted. He was the first 
judge to ride toWestminsterHall on a horse 
or gelding instead of a mule, according to 
previous custom. In April 1557, after the 
rising of Thomas Stafford (1631P-1567) 
[q. v.], he was sent down to Yorkshire to 
try the prisoners, and it is said that he re- 
ceived the commission of general, giving 
him authority to raise forces to quell any 
further risings. It is even stated that, owing 
to the unsettled state of the country, he sat 
on the bench in full armour. His patent 
was renewed on Elizabeth's accession, and 
he continued in his office until his death. 
He died at Chagford on 27 Jan. 1575-6, and 
was buried in the parish church. He was 
twice married. By his first wife, Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Hollis, he had one 
daughter, Joan, married to John Ashley of 
London ; by his second, Elizabeth, daughter 
and coheiress of William Shilston, he had 
six sons and seven daughters. 

[Vivian's Visitations of Devon, 1895; Foss's 
Judges, v. 545; Prince's Worthies of Devon, 
1701, p. 593; Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.), 
p. 342; Calendar of Inner Temple Records, 
1896, vol. i. passim; Dugdale's Origines Juri- 
diciales, 1680, pp. 38, 118, 164, 170.] 

E. I. C. 

WHINCOP, THOMAS (d. 1730), com- 
piler, came of a London family which pro- 
duced several divines of fair repute in the 
seventeenth century. John Whincop or 



Wincopp was appointed rector of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields in January 1641-2, a post which 
he resigned in 1643, though two years later 
he preached two sermons before the House 
of Commons (Journals, ii. 992). His son, 
Thomas Whincop, D.D., was appointed rector 
of St. Mary Abchurch on 10 Nov. 1681, 
preached the Spital sermon in 1701, and 
died in 1710 (HENNESSY, Novum Reperto- 
rium, p. 297 ; cf. COLE, Athena, Add. MS. 
5883, f. 23). The compiler may have been a 
son of this Dr. Whincop, but virtually nothing 
is known concerning him save that he lost 
considerable suras in the 'South Sea bubble' 
during 1721, and died at Totteridge, where 
he was buried on 1 Sept. 1730. Seventeen 
years after his death was printed, as by the 
late Thomas Whincop, ' Scanderbeg; or Love 
and Liberty : a Tragedy. To which is added 
a List of all the Dramatic Authors, with 
some Account of their Lives ; and of all the 
Dramatic Pieces published in the English 
language to the year 1747 ' (London, 1747, 
8vo). The work was nominally edited and 
brought up to date by Martha Whincop, the 
widow of the compiler, who dedicated the 
volume to the Earl of Middlesex and ob- 
tained a goodly list of subscribers ; but it is 
clear that some of the articles were pre- 
pared by the biographical compiler John 
Mottley [q. v.], and it is probable that the 
whole ' List ' was thoroughly revised by his 
hands (see List, pp. 204-8). The dramatic 
authors are divided into two alphabetical 
categories, those who flourished before and 
those who flourished after 1660, and the 
double columns are embellished by a number 
of small medallion portraits engraved by 
N. Parr. At the end is an index of the 
titles of plays. The book is neatly arranged, 
but cannot claim to be more than a hasty 
compilation, based for the most part upon 
the 'English Dramatic Poets' (1691) of 
Gerard Langbaine the younger. Whincop's 
labours have long since been merged in 
those of Victor, Baker, and Reed. The 
British Museum has a copy of the ' List ' 
with copious manuscript notes by Joseph 
Haslewood. 

[Baker's Biogr. Dram. i. 745; Lowe's Bibl. 
Account of Theatrical Literature, 1888, p. 360 ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 9 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. The connection, if any, between Thomas 
Whincop and the William Whincopp, M.D. 
(1769-1832), noticed in Davy's Athenae Suf- 
folcienses, iii. f. 206, has not been discovered.] 

T. S. 

WHINYATES, SIR EDWARD 
CHARLES (1782-1865), general, born on 
6 May 1782, was third son of Major Thomas 
Whinyates (1755-1800) of Abbotsleigh, 



Whinyates 



Whinyates 



Devonshire, by Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Franliland, hart., of Thirkleby Park, 
Yorkshire. He was educated at Mr. New- 
combe's school, Hackney, and at the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, which he en- 
tered as a cadet on 16 May 1796. He was 
commissioned as second lieutenant in the 
royal artillery on 1 March 1798, and became 
lieutenant on 2 Oct. 1799. He served in the 
expedition of that year to the Helder, and in 
the expedition to Madeira in 1801. When 
Madeira was evacuated at the peace of 
Amiens, he went with his company to 
Jamaica, and was made adjutant. On 8 July 
1805 he was promoted second captain, and 
came home. He served as adjutant to the 
artillery in the attack on Copenhagen in 
1807. In the following year he was posted 
to D troop of the horse artillery. 

In February 1810 he embarked with it for 
the Peninsula, but the Camilla transport, on 
board of which he was, nearly foundered, and 
had to put back. Owing to this, D troop did 
not take the field as a unit till 1811 ; but Whin- 
yates was present at Busaco on '27 Sept. 1810, 
and acted as adjutant to the officer command- 
ing the artillery. He was at Albueraonl6May 
1811 with four guns, and there are letters of 
his describing this and subsequent actions 
(WHINYATES, pp. 59 sq.) He and his troop 
took part in the cavalry affair at Usagre on 
25 May, and in the actions at Fuentes de 
Guinaldo and Aldea de Ponte on 25 and 
27 Sept. 

In 1812 the troop was with Hill's corps 
on the Tagus ; and at Ribera, on 24 July, 
Whinyates made such good use of two 
guns that the French commander Lalle- 
mand inquired his name, and sent him a 
message : ' Tell that brave man that if it had 
not been for him, I should have beaten your 
cavalry' (WHINYATES, p. 63). The captain 
of D troop died at Madrid on 22 Oct., and 
for the next four months Whinyates was in 
command of it. It distinguished itself at 
San Munoz on 17 Nov., at the close of the 
retreat from Burgos, five out of its six guns 
being inj ured. General Long, who commanded 
the cavalry to which it was attached, after- 
wards wrote of the troop that he had never 
witnessed 'more exemplary conduct in 
quarters, nor more distinguished zeal and 
gallantry in the field.' 

On 24 Jan. 1813 Whinyates became cap- 
tain, and consequently left the Peninsula in 
March. His service there won him no pro- 
motion, as brevet rank was not given at that 
time to second captains. In 1814 he was 
appointed to the second rocket troop, and he 
commanded it at Waterloo. Wellington, 
who did not believe in rockets, ordered that 



they should be left behind ; and when he was 
told that this would break Whinyates's 
heart, he replied : ' Damn his heart ; let my 
orders be obeyed.' However, Whinyates 
eventually obtained leave to bring them into 
the field, together with his six guns. When 
Ponsonby's brigade charged D'Erlon's corps, 
he followed it with his rocket sections, and 
fired several volleys of ground-rockets with 
good effect against the French cavalry 
(Waterloo Letters, pp. 203-10). He then 
rejoined his guns, which were placed in 
front of Picton's division. In the course of 
the day he had three horses shot under him, 
was struck on the leg, and severely wounded 
in the left arm. He received a brevet 
majority and the Waterloo medal, and after- 
wards the Peninsular silver medal with 
clasps for Busaco and Albuera. 

At the end of 1815 the rocket troop went 
to England to be reduced, and Whinyates- 
was appointed to a troop of drivers in the 
army of occupation, with which he remained 
till 1818. He commanded H troop of 
horse artillery from 1823 to 22 July 1830, 
when he became regimental lieutenant- 
colonel. He was made K.H. in 1823 and 
C.B. in 1831. He had command of the 
horse artillery at Woolwich from November 
1834 to May 1840, and of the artillery in 
the northern district for eleven years after- 
wards, having become regimental colonel on 
23 Nov. 1841. 

On 1 April 1852 he was appointed director- 
general of artillery, and on 19 Aug. com- 
mandant at Woolwich, where he remained 
till 1 June 1856. He had been promoted 
major-general on 20 June 1854, and became 
lieutenant-general on 7 June 1856, and gene- 
ral on 10 Dec. 1864. He was made K.C.B. 
on 18 May 1800. He had become colonel- 
commandant of a battalion on 1 April 1855, 
and was transferred to the horse artillery on 
22 July 1864. He was 'an officer whose 
ability, zeal, and services have hardly been 
surpassed in the regiment ' (DUNCAN, li. 37). 

He died at Cheltenham on 25 Dec. 1865. 
In 1827 he had married Elizabeth, only- 
daughter of Samuel Compton of Wood End, 
North Riding, Yorkshire. He left no chil- 
ren. He had five brothers, of whom four 
served with distinction in the army and 
navy. 

The eldest, Rear-admiral THOMAS WHIN- 
YATES (1778-1857), born on 7 Sept. 1778, 
entered the navy as first-class volunteer on 
L' I May 1793. He commanded a boat in the 
attack and capture of Martinique in March 
1794, and assisted in boarding the French 
frigate Bienvenue. Ele was also present at 
the capture of St. Lucia and Guadeloupe 



Whinyates 



Whipple 



I If was in Lord Bridport's action of 23 June 
1 "'.>"), and in that of Sir John Warren on 
12 Oct. 1798. He was commissioned as 
lieutenant on 7 Sept. 1799, and as com- 
mander on 16 May 1805. In April 1807 In- 
was appointed to the Frolic, an 18-gun brig 
of 384 tons. He took her out to the West 
Indies, and spent five years there, being pre- 
sent at the recapture of Martinique on 
L' I Feb. 1809, and of Guadeloupe on 5 Feb. 
1810. 

He was made first captain on 12 Aug. 
1812, and on his way home, in charge of 
convoy, he was attacked on 18 Oct. by the 
United States sloop Wasp of 434 tons. The 
Frolic had been much damaged in a gale, 
and after an action of fifty minutes, in which 
more than half her crew were killed or 
wounded, including her commander, she was 
boarded and taken. She was recovered, and 
the Wasp was taken by the Poictiers the 
same day. The court-martial which tried 
AVhinyates for the loss of his ship acquitted 
him most honourably, as having done all 
that could be done (JAMES, Naval History, 
vi. 158-62). In 1815 he was appointed to a 
corvette, but she was paid off at the peace. 
He was promoted rear-admiral on 1 Oct. 
1846, and died unmarried at Cheltenham on 
15 March 1857. He received the silver war 
medal with five clasps. 

The fourth son of Major Thomas Whin- 
yates, Captain GEORGE BARRINGTON WHIN- 
YATES (1783-1808), born on 31 Aug. 1783, 
entered the navy as first-class volunteer in 
1797, and saw much active service, chiefly 
in the Mediterranean. In 1805, as lieu- 
tenant in the Spencer, 74 guns, he served 
under Nelson in the blockade of Toulon, the 
voyage to the West Indies, and the blockade 
of Cadiz ; but his ship, which formed part 
of the inshore squadron, was sent to Gibral- 
tar for provisions three days before Trafalgar. 
He was in Duckworth's action off St. Do- 
mingo on 6 Feb. 1806. In 1807 he com- 
manded the Bergere sloop in the Mediter- 
ranean and the Channel. He died of con- 
sumption, brought on by hardship and ex- 
posure, on 5 Aug. 1808. 

The fifth son, Major-general FREDERICK 
WILLIAM WHINYATES (1793-1881), born on 
29 Aug. 1 793, was commissioned as second 
lieutenant in the royal engineers on 14 Dec. 
1811, and became lieutenant on 1 July 1812. 
He was present at the bombardment of 
Algiers on 27 Aug. 1816, being in command 
of a detachment of sappers and miners on the 
Impregnable. He has left a graphic account 
of the bombardment, and of a conference with 
the dey three days afterwards (Royal En- 
gineers, Journal, xi. 26). He received the 



medal. Heservedwith the army of occupation 
in France, and made reports on some of the 
French fortresses (now in the Royal Engi- 
neers' Institute, Chatham). He was com- 
manding royal engineer with the field force 
in New Brunswick when the disputed terri- 
tory was invaded by the state of Maine in 
1839. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
on 9 Nov. 1846, and colonel on 16 Dec. 1854. 
He retired as major-general on 13 Jan. 1855, 
and died at Cheltenham on 9 Jan. 1881. He 
married, on 25 Jan. 1830, Sarah Marianne, 
second daughter of Charles Whalley of Stow- 
on-Wold, Gloucestershire, and had six chil- 
dren, four of whom became officers of the 
army. 

The sixth son, General FRANCIS FRANKLAND 
WHINYATES (1796-1887), born on 30 June 
1796, entered the East India Company's ser- 
vice at the age of sixteen, and was gazetted 
as lieutenant-fireworker in the Madras artil- 
lery in July 1813. After serving in Ceylon 
and against the Pindaris, he took part in the 
Mahratta war of 1817-19 as a subaltern in 
A troop horse artillery, and received the medal 
with clasp for Maheidpoor (21 Dec. 1817). 
Promoted captain on 24 Oct. 1824, he served 
at the siege of Kittoor at the end of that year. 
He was principal commissary of ordnance 
from 1845 to 1850, and then had command 
of the horse artillery, and of the Madras ar- 
tillery as brigadier. He left India in 1854, 
having ' filled, with the highest credit to him- 
self, every appointment and command con- 
nected with his corps ' (general order, 10 Feb. 
1854). He became major-general on 28 Nov. 
1854, lieutenant-general on 14 July 1867, and 
general on 21 Jan. 1872. He died without 
issue at Bath on 22 Jan. 1887. On 7 Aug. 1826 
he had married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Campbell of Ormidale, Argyllshire. 

[Whinyates Family Kecords, by Major- 
General Frederick T. Whinyates, 1894, 3 vols. 
4to, with portraits (twenty-live copies privately 
printed) ; Whinyates pedigree in Genealogist, 
new ser. viii. 52-5 ; Proceedings of Royal Ar- 
tillery Institution, vol. v. pp. vii-ix ; Colonel 
F. A. Whinyates's From Coruiia to Sevastopol, 
j 1884 ; Duncan's History of the Royal Artillery ; 
! Records of the Royal Horse Artillery; O'Byrne's 
I Naval Biogr. ; Royal Engineers' Journal, xi. 31 ; 
I information furnished by Major-general F. T. 
1 Whinyates.] E. M. L. 

WHIPPLE, GEORGE MATHEWS 

(1842-1893), physicist, the son of George 
Whipple, a native of Devonshire, was born 
on 15 Sept. 1842 at Teddington, Middlesex, 
where his father was master of the public 
school. He was educated at the grammar 
school, Kingston-on-Thames, at Dr. Wil- 
liams's private school at Richmond, Surrey, 



Whish 



8 



Whish 



and at King's College, London, taking a de- 
gree of B.Sc. at the university of London in 
1871. During thirty-five years, from 4 Jan. 
1858, when he entered the Kew Observatory 
in a subordinate capacity, he identified him- 
self with the activity of that establishment, of 
which he became magnetic assistant in 1862, 
chief assistant in November 1863, and super- 
intendent in 1876. He drew the plates for 
Warren de la Rue's ' Researches in Solar 
Physics,' 1865-6 ; improved the Kew mag- 
netic instruments ; invented, besides other 
optical apparatus, a device for testing the 
dark shades of sextants (Proceedings Royal 
Society, xxxv. 42) ; and made, with Captain 
Heaviside in 1873, a series of pendulum 
experiments, repeated with Colonel Herschel 
in 1881, and with General Walker in 1888, 
for determining the constant of gravitation. 
Wind-pressure and velocity were his life- 
long study; he carried out at the Crystal 
Palace in 1874 a rein vestigat ion of the ' cup- 
anemometer ' invented by Thomas Romney 
Robinson [q. v.] ; and with General (Sir) 
Richard Strachey in 1890 conducted a re- 
search in cloud-photography under the me- 
teorological council, communicating the re- 
sults to the Royal Society on 23 April 1891 
(ib. xlix. 467). 

Whipple contributed freely to scientific 
collections, especially to the ' Quarterly 
Journal ' of the Meteorological Society, of 
which body he became a member on 18 April 
1874. He served on its council (1876 to 
1887), and acted as its foreign secretary 
(1884-5). He sat also for many years on 
the council of the Physical Society of Lon- 
don, and was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society on 12 April 1872. 
He was assistant examiner in natural philo- 
sophy to the university of London (1876-81), 
and in the science and art department, 
South Kensington (1879-82 and 1884-9). 
The magnetic section of the ' Report on the 
Eruption of Krakatoa,' published by the 
Royal Society in 1888, was compiled by him. 
He died at Richmond in Surrey on 8 Feb. 
1893. 

[Men of the Time, 13th ed. 1891; Nature, 
16 Feb. 1893; Times, 9 Feb. 1893; Quarterly 
Journal Royal Meteorological Society, xx. 113; 
Royal Society's Cat. Scientific Papers.] 

A. M. C. 

WHISH, SIB WILLIAM SAMPSON 
(1787-1853), lieutenant-general, Bengal ar- 
tillery, son of Richard Whish, rector of West 
Walton and vicar of Wickford, Essex, by a 
daughter of William Sandys, was born at 
Northwold on 27 Feb. 1787. He received a 
commission as lieutenant in the Bengal ar- 
tillery on 21 Aug. 1804, and arrived in India 



in December. He was promoted to be captain 
on 13 May 1807, and commanded the rocket 
troop of horse artillery of the centre division 
of the grand army under the Marquis of 
Hastings in the Pindari and Maratha war at 
the end of 1817 and beginning of 1818, after 
which he took the troop to Mirat, where, on 
26 July 1820, he was appointed to act as 
brigade-major. He was promoted to be major 
on 19 July 1821. 

He commanded the 1st brigade of horse 
artillery in the army assembled at Agra, 
under Lord Combermere, in December 1825, 
for the siege of Bhartpur. The place was 
captured by assault on 18 Jan. 1826, and 
Whish was mentioned in despatches and 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel for dis- 
tinguished service in the field from 19 Jan. 
On 23 Dec. 1826 he was appointed to com- 
mand the Karnal and Sirhind division of ar- 
tillery. He was made a companion of the 
order of the Bath, military division, on the 
occasion of the queen's coronation in 1838; 
appointed a colonel commandant of artillery, 
with rank of brigadier-general and with a 
seat on the military board, on 21 Dec. ; and 
in February 1839 succeeded Major-general 
Faithful in command of the presidency divi- 
sion of artillery at Dum Dum. He was pro- 
moted to be major-general on 23 Nov. 1841, 
and went on furlough to England until the 
end of 1847. 

Whish was appointed to the command at 
Lahore of the Punjab division on 23 Jan. 
1848. In August he was given the com- 
mand of the Multan field force, eight thou- 
sand strong, to operate against Mulraj, and 
towards the end of the month took up a posi- 
tion in front of Multan. The siege commenced 
on 7 Sept., but, owing to the defection of Shir 
Singh a week later, Whish withdrew his forces 
to Tibi, and a period of inaction followed, 
which enabled Mulraj, the defender of Mul- 
tan, to improve his defences and to increase 
his garrison. In the beginning of November 
Mulraj threw up batteries which threatened 
Whish's camp, and on 7 Nov. a successful 
action resulted in the destruction of Mulraj 's 
advanced batteries and the capture of five 
guns. On 21 Dec. Whish was reinforced by 
a column from Bombay, and on Christmas 
day was able to occupy his old position. On 
27 Dec. the enemy were driven from the 
suburbs. The siege recommenced on the 
28th, the city was captured on 2 Jan. 1849, 
and the siege of the citadel pressed forward. 
On 22 Jan. all was ready to storm when 
Mulraj surrendered. 

Leaving a strong garrison in Multan, 
Whish marched to join Lord Gough, cap- 
turing the fort of Chiniot on 9 Feb., on 



Whistler 



Whiston 



which day the advanced portion of his 
force reached Ramnagar. Anticipating Lord 
Gough's orders, Whish secured the fords of 
the Chenab at Wazirabad, and on 21 Feb. 
commanded the 1st division of Lord Gough's 
army at the battle of Gujrat. For his services 
he received the thanks of the governor-general 
of the court of directors of the East India 
Company, and of both houses of parliament. 
He was promoted to be a knight commander 
of the order of the Bath, military division 
(London Gazette, 23 March, 19 April, 6 June 
1849), and was transferred to the command 
of the Bengal division of the army in March. 
In October 1851 he was appointed to the 
Cis-Jhelum division, but before assuming 
command went home on furlough. He was 
promoted to be lieutenant-general on 11 Nov. 
1851. He died at Claridge's Hotel, Brook 
Street, London, on 25 Feb. 1853. 

Whish married, in 1809, a daughter of 
George Dixon, by whom he left a family. 
His eldest son, G. Palmer Whish, general of 
the Bengal staff corps, served with his father 
at Gujrat. Another son, Henry Edward 
Whish, major-general of the Bengal staff 
corps, served with his father at the siege of 
Multan, and was in the Indian mutiny cam- 
paign. 

[India Office Records ; Stubbs's Hist, of the 
Bengal Artillery ; Edwardes's Year on the 
Punjab Frontier, 1848-9 ; Gough and Innes's 
The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars ; Lawrence- 
Archer's Commentaries on the Punjab Cam- 
paign, 1848-9 ; Times (London), 1 March 1853 ; 
Gent. Mag. June 1853 ; Men of the Reign.] 

R. H. V. 

WHISTLER, DANIEL (1619-1684), 
physician, son of William Whistler of Elving- 
ton, Oxfordshire, was born at Walthamstow 
in Essex in 1619. He was educated at the 
school of Thame, Oxfordshire, and entered 
Merton College, Oxford, in January 1639. 
He graduated B.A. in 1642. On 8 Aug. 1642 
he began the study of physic at the university 
of Leyden, where he graduated M.D. on 
19 Oct. 1645, having in the interval returned 
to Oxford to take his M.A. degree (8 Feb. 
1644). His inaugural dissertation at Leyden, 
read 18 Oct. 1645, 'DeMorbo puerili Anglo- 
rum, quern patrio idiomate indigense vocant 
"The Rickets,'" is his only published work, 
and is the first printed book on rickets. He 
reprinted it in 1684. The disease was at that 
time the subject of much active observation 
by Francis Glisson [q. v.], and a committee, 
seven in number, of the College of Physicians 
which worked with him had made the* subject 
well known, though Glisson's elaborate ' Trac- 
tatus de Rachitide ' did not appear till 1650. 
Whistler's thesis contains no original obser- 



vations, but many hypotheses and reports of 
the views of others who are not named. 
It is clearly based on the current discussion, 
and takes nothing from the originality of 
Glisson's great work. He proposes the name 
' Paedossplanchnosteocaces ' for the disease, 
but no subsequent writer has used the word. 
He was incorporated M.D. at Oxford on 
20 May 1647, and was elected a fellow of 
the College of Physicians on 13 Dec. 1649. 
On 13 June 1648 he was elected professor 
of geometry at Gresham College, and was 
at the same time Linacre reader at Oxford. 
He took care of wounded seamen in the 
Dutch war of 1652, and in October 1653 
was desired to accompany Bulstrode White- 
locke [q. v.] to Sweden. His first case 
(WHITELOCKE, p. 188) was a broken arm, 
and his next a broken leg, and he himself set 
both. He spoke Latin and French, and 
wrote Latin verses on the abdication of 
Queen Christina of Sweden, which are printed 
i in the ' Journal of the Swedish Embassy ' (ii. 
474). In July 1654 he returned to London. 
At the College of Physicians he delivered the 
Harveian oration in 1659, was twelve times 
censor, registrar from 1674 to 1682, treasurer 
in 1682, and in 1683 president. He married 
in 1657, and died on 11 May 1684, while pre- 
sident, of pneumonia, and was buried in 
Christ Church, Newgate Street. His house 
was in the college inWarwick Lane. He was 
thought agreeable by Samuel Pepys [q. v.], 
who often dined and supped with him. They 
walked together to view the ravages of the 
great fire of 1666. John Evelyn also liked 
his conversation. He was negligent as re- 
gistrar, and as president of the College of 
Physicians took little care of its property. 
His portrait was presented in 1704 to the 
College of Physicians. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 249 ; Journal of the 
Swedish Embassy, London, 1772; Norman 
Moore's History of the First Treatise on Rickets, 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports, vol. xx. ; 
Ward's Gresham Professors ; Pepys's Diary, 
6 vols. 1889 ; Evelyn's Diary.] N. M. 

WHISTON, JOHN (d. 1780), bookseller, 
was the son of William Whiston [q. v.], and 
was probably born within five years of his 
! father's marriage in 1699, though he is 
i known to have been a younger son. He set 
up as a bookseller in Fleet Street, and en- 
joyed the coveted, though nominal, distinc- 
tion of being one of the printers of the votes 
of the House of Commons. He was one of 
the earliest issuers of regular priced cata- 
logues (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. iii. 668). In 
1735 he bought and issued a priced catalogue 
of Edmund Chishull's library. Shortly after 
this date he seems to have been in partner- 



Whiston 



10 



Whiston 



ship with Benjamin White (d. 1794), but 
White subsequently withdrew and specialised 
in natural history and other costly illustrated 
books. In conjunction with White he issued 
in 1749 ' Memoirs of the Life and Writings 
of Mr. William Whiston.' His mother died 
in January 1751, and his father followed her 
in the year ensuing, whereupon in 1753 
John Whiston issued a * corrected ' edition 
of the 'Memoirs.' His publishing trade- 
mark was ' Boyle's Head/ With Osborne, 
Strahan, and other bookseller-publishers, 
Whiston took a leading part in promoting 
the ' New and General Biographical Dic- 
tionary,' issued in twelve volumes at six 
shillings each during 1761-2. The British 
Museum possesses a copy with a large num- 
ber of marginal notes and addenda written 
by WTiiston. Other biographical memoranda 
of no great value were supplied by Whiston 
to John Nichols, and acknowledged by him 
in his ' Literary Anecdotes.' Whiston's shop 
was known as a meeting-place and house of 
call for men of letters, and a comic encoun- 
ter is reported to have taken place there be- 
tween Warburton and his adversary, Dr. 
John Jackson. In 1765 Whiston bought the 
library of Adam Anderson (1692P-1765) 
[q. v.] He probably retired soon after this, 
and nothing further is known of him save 
that he died on 3 M ay 1780. His elder brother, 
George Whiston, is stated to have been for a 
time associated with him in the Fleet Street 
business (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. viii. 376), and 
to have died at St. Albans about 1775. 

[Nichols's Literary Anecdotes and Lit. Illus- 
trations, index, freq. ; Allibone's Diet, of Eng- 
lish Literature; Timperley's Cyclopaedia, 1842, 
pp. 772, 782.] T. S. 

WHISTON, WILLIAM (1667-1752), 
divine, born at Norton juxta Twycrosse, 
Leicestershire, on 9 Dec. 1667, was the son 
of Josiah Whiston, rector of the parish, by 
Catherine, daughter of Gabriel Rosse, the 
previous incumbent, who died in 1658. The 
elder Whiston had been a presbyterian, and 
only just escaped ejection alter the Restora- 
tion. He was, according to his son, very 
diligent in his duties, even after he had be- 
come blind, lame, and, for a time, deaf. In 
his boyhood William was employed as his 
father's amanuensis, and the consequent con- 
finement, he thought, helped to make him 
a ' valetudinarian and greatly subject to the 
flatus hypochondriac^ throughout his life. 
His father was his only teacher until 1684, 
when he was sent to school at Tamworth. 
The master was George Antrobus, whose 
daughter Ruth became his wife in 1699. 
In 1686 he was sent to Clare Hall, Cam- 



bridge. He was an industrious student, 
particularly in mathematics, but had much 
difficulty in supporting himself, as his 
father had died in January 1685-6, leaving 
a widow and seven children. He managed 
to live upon 100/. till he took his B.A. de- 
gree in 1690. He was elected to a fellow- 
ship on 16 July 1691 (Memoirs, p. 73), and 
graduated M.A. in 1693. He had scruples 
as to taking the oaths to William and Mary, 
and resolved not to apply to any bishop who 
had taken the place of one of the deprived 
nonjurors. He therefore went to William 
Lloyd (1627-1717) [q. v.], bishop of Lich- 
field, by whom he was ordained deacon in 
September 1693. He returned to Cambridge, 
intending to take pupils. He must have been 
regarded as a young man of high promise. 
Archbishop Tillotson (also educated at Clare 
Hall) sent a nephew to be one of his pupils. 
Whiston's ill-health, however, decided him 
to give up tuition. His 'bosom friend' Ri- 
chard Laughton was chaplain to John Moore 
(1646-1714) [q. v.], bishop of Norwich. 
Moore had previously sent Whiston 51., to 
help him as a student, and now allowed an 
exchange of places between Whiston and 
Laughton. While chaplain to Moore, Whiston 
published his first booK. He had been l igno- 
miniously studying the fictitious hypotheses 
of the Cartesian philosophy ' at Cambridge, 
but he had heard some of Newton's lectures, 
and was induced to study the ' Principia' by a 
paper of David Gregory (1661-1708) [q. v.] 
His ' New Theory of the Earth ' was sub- 
mitted in manuscript to Newton himself, to 
Wren, and to Bentley. It was praised by 
Locke (letter to Molyneux of "22 Feb. 1696), 
who thought that writers who suggested 
new hypotheses ought to be most encouraged. 
Whiston's speculation was meant to super- 
sede the previous theory of Thomas Burnet 
(1635P-1715) [q.v.] of the Charterhouse. 
He confirmed the narrative in Genesis on 
Newtonian grounds, explaining the deluge 
by collision with a comet. In 1698 he was 
presented by Bishop Moore to the vicar- 
age of Lowestoft-with-Kissingland in Suf- 
folk, worth about 120/. a year after allow- 
ing for a curate at Kissingland. He set up 
an early service in a chapel, preached twice 
a day at the church, and gave catechetical 
lectures. Part of the tithes of Kissingland 
belonged to John Baron (afterwards dean of 
Norwich), who offered to sell his property to 
the church for eight years' purchase (160/.) 
Whiston got up a subscription, advancing 
50/. himself, and ultimately settled the tithe 
upon the vicarage on being reimbursed for 
his own expenses. His successor afterwards 
made him a yearly present of five guineas, 



Whiston 



Whiston 



which was of considerable importance to 
him. In 1701 Whiston was appointed deputy 
to Newton's Lucasian professorship. He 
published an edition of * Euclid ' for the use 
of students. In 1703 he succeeded Newton 
as professor, and gave up his living. He de- 
livered lectures (afterwards published) upon 
mathematics and natural philosophy, and 
was among the first to popularise the New- 
tonian theories. Roger Cotes [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed to the new IMumian professorship in 
1706, chiefly upon Whiston's recommenda- 
tion, and in the next year he joined Cotes in 
a series of scientific experiments. In 1707 
he was also permitted by the author to pub- 
lish Newton's * Arithmetica Universalis.' 
Whiston was active in other ways. He com- 
plains of the practice of the time in regard 
to fellowship elections. The candidates some- 
times recommended themselves by prowess 
in drinking. Whiston proposed reforms of 
various kinds (Memoirs, pp. 42, 111). He was 
also a member of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, founded by his friend 
Thomas Bray (1656-1730) [q. v.], and wrote 
a memorial for setting up charity schools 
throughout the kingdom. Meanwhile Whis- 
ton, like Newton, had unluckily been combin- 
ing scientific with theological inquiries. He 
delivered the Boyle lectures in 1707, and in 
1708 he wrote an ' imperfect ' essay upon the 
'Apostolical Constitutions,' which the vice- 
chancellor refused to license. Whiston wrote 
to the archbishops in July 1708, informing 
them that he was entering upon an important 
inquiry. It led him to the conclusion that 
the ' A postolical Constitutions ' was ' the most 
sacred of the canonical books of the New 
Testament,' and that the accepted doctrine 
of the Trinity was erroneous. Reports that 
he was an Arian, or, as he called himself, a 
Eusebian, began to spread, and his friends 
remonstrated. He told them that they might 
as soon persuade the sun to leave the firma- 
ment as change his resolution. He was 
finally summoned before the heads of houses, 
and banished from the university and deprived 
of his professorship, 30 Oct. 1710. Whiston 
went to London with his family, and to- 
wards the end of 1711 published his rchief 
work, 'Primitive Christianity Revived.' The 
case was taken up by convocation, which 
voted an address for his prosecution. Various 
delays took place, till in 1714 a 'court' of 
delegates was appointed by the lord chan- 
cellor for his trial. The proceedings against 
him were dropped after the death of Queen 
Anne. (Whiston published an account of 
the proceedings against him at Cambridge 
in 1711 and 1718. Various 'papers' relat- 
ing to the proceedings in convocation and 



the court of delegates were published by 
him in 1715. See also appendices to Primi- 
tive Christianity ', and COUBETT'S State Trials, 
xv. 703-16). Whiston was known to many 
leading divines of the time, especially to 
Samuel Clarke, who had succeeded him as 
chaplain to Moore, and Hoadly, who svm- 
pathised with some of his views, but were 
cautious in avowing their opinions. Whiston 
was now a poor man. He states (Memoirs, 
p. 290) that he had a small farm near New- 
market, and that he received gifts from 
various friends, and had in later years a life 
annuity of 20/. from Sir Joseph Jekyll [q. v.], 
and 40/. a year from Queen Caroline (con- 
tinued, it is said, after her death by George II). 
These means, together with ' eclipses, comets, 
and lectures,' gave him ' such a competency 
as greatly contented him.' When Prince 
Eugene came to London in 171 1-12, Whiston 
printed a new dedication to a previous essay 
upon the Apocalypse, pointing out that the 
prince had fulfilled some of the prophecies. 
The prince had not been aware, he replied, 
that he ' had the honour of being known to 
St. John,' but sent the interpreter fifteen 
guineas. In 1712 Whiston made a charac- 
teristic attempt to improve his finances. 
Simon Patrick, bishop of Ely, had in 1702 
promised him a prebend which was expected 
to be vacated upon Thomas Turner's refusal 
to take the oaths [see TURNER, THOMAS, 1645- 
1714]. Whiston supposed (erroneously, it 
seems) that Turner managed to evade the 
oath and to keep his prebend. In 1712 he 
wrote to Turner mentioning this as a fact, 
and 'hinting' his expectations. Turner, he 
thought, having wrongfully kept the prebend, 
ought to contribute to the support of the 
rightful owner. Turner took no notice of 
what must have looked like an attempt at 
extortion. W T histon kept the secret, how- 
ever, and in 1731 appealed to the corporation 
to which Turner had left a fortune, stating 
that he had lost 1,200/. by his acquiescence. 
He was again obliged ' to sit down contented * 
without any compensation. 

Whiston was one of the first, if not the 
first person, to give lectures with experi- 
ments in London (cf. DESAGULIERS, JOHN 
THEOPHILUS, and DE MORGAN, Budget of 
Paradoxes, p. 93). He co-operated in some 
of them with the elder Francis Hauksbee 
[q.v.] The first, upon astronomy, were given 
at Button's coffee-house by the help of Addi- 
son and Steele (Memoirs, p. 257), both of 
whom he knew well. He amused great men 
by his frank rebukes. He asked Steele one day 
how he could speak for the Southsea directors 
after writing against them. Steele replied, ' M r. 
W r histon, you can walk on foot and I cannot/ 



Whiston 



12 



Whiston 



When he suggested to Craggs that honesty 
might be the best policy, Craggs replied that 
a statesman might be honest for a fortnight, 
but that it would not do for a month. 
Whiston asked him whether he had ever tried 
for a fortnight (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. i. 504). 
Whiston's absolute honesty was admitted by 
his contemporaries, whom he disarmed by his 
simplicity. He gives various anecdotes of 
the perplexities into which he brought other 
clergymen by insisting upon their taking 
notice of vice in high positions. In 1715 he 
started a society for promoting primitive 
Christianity, which held weekly meetings at 
his house in Cross Street, Hatton Garden, 
for two years. The chairmen were succes- 
sively the baptist John Gale [q. v.], Arthur 
Onslow [q. v.J (afterwards speaker), and the 
Unitarian Thomas Emlyn [q. v.J (see \V. 
CLABKE'S Memoirs ; and for an account of 
the subjects discussed, WHISTON'S Three 
Tracts, 1742). To this society he invited 
Clarke, Hoadly, and Hare, who, however, 
did not attend. Whiston was on particu- 
larly intimate terms with Clarke. Clarke 
probably introduced him to the Princess of 
Wales (afterwards Queen Caroline), who 
enjoyed Whiston's plainness of speech and 
took his reproofs good-humouredly. Among 
the members of Whiston's society was Tho- 
mas Rundle [q. v.] (afterwards bishop of 
Deny). Whiston was afterwards shocked by 
hearing that Rundle attributed the 'Apos- 
tolical Constitutions ' to the fourth century, 
and said, ' Make him dean of Durham, 
and they will not be written till the fifth.' 
Another member was Thomas Chubb [q. v.], 
of whose first book he procured the publica- 
tion. He had afterwards to attack Chubb's 
more developed deism. A more decided 
opponent was Anthony Collins [a. v.], 
whose two books on the ' Grounds and 
Reasons,' &c. (1724), and the ' Scheme of 
Literal Prophecy' (1727) are professedly 
directed against Whiston's view of the 
prophecies. In the first (p. 273) he gives 
* an account of Mr. W T histon himself,' prais- 
ing his integrity and zeal. Whiston, he says, 
visits persons of the highest rank and * fre- 
quents the most public coffee-houses,' where 
the clergy fly before him. Whiston was 
rivalled in popular estimation by that ' ecclesi- 
astical mountebank ' John Henley [q. v.] the 
' orator.' Whiston accused Henley of im- 
morality, and proposed in vain that he should 
submit to a trial according to the rules of the 
primitive church. The bishop of London de- 
clared that there was no canon now in force 
for the purpose, and Henley retorted by re- 
proaching Whiston for bowing his knee in 
the house of Rimmon, that is, attending the 



Anglican services (WHISTON, Memoirs, pp. 
215, 327, and his pamphlet Mr. Henley's 
Letters and Advertisements, with Notes by 
Mr. Whiston,' 1727, which is not, asLowndes 
says, * almost unreadable ' on account of its 
' scurrility '). 

Whiston meanwhile kept up his mathe- 
matics. He made various attempts to de- 
vise means for discovering the longitude. A 
large reward for a successful attempt was 
offered by parliament. Whiston co-operated 
with Humphrey Ditton [q. v.] in a scheme 
published in 1714, which was obviously 
chimerical. In 1720 he published a new 
plan founded on the ' dipping of the needle,' 
improved in 1721, but afterwards found 
that his ' labour had been in vain.' A 
public subscription, however, was raised 
in 1721 to reward him and enable him to 
carry on his researches. The king gave 
100/., and the total was 470/. 3s. 6d. 
Another sum of 500/. was raised for him 
about 1740, the whole of which, however, 
was spent in a survey of the coasts, for 
which he employed a Mr. Renshaw in 1744. 
A chart was issued, which he declares to be 
the most correct hitherto published. In 
1720 a proposal to elect him a fellow of the 
Royal Society was defeated by Newton. 
Newton, according to Whiston, could not 
bear to be contradicted in his old age, and 
for the last thirteen years of his life was 
afraid of Whiston, who was always ready to 
contradict any one. 

Whiston lectured upon various subjects, 
comprising meteors, eclipses, and earth- 
quakes, which he connected more or less 
with the fulfilment of prophecies. In 1726 
he had models made of the tabernacle of 
Moses and the temple of Jerusalem, and 
afterwards lectured upon them at London, 
Bristol, Bath, and Tunbridge Wells. These 
lectures and others preparatory to the re- 
storation of the Jews to Palestine (an event 
which he regarded as rapidly approaching) 
were to be his 'peculiar business' hence- 
forth. He continued, however, to publish a 
variety of pamphlets and treatises upon his 
favourite topics. His most successful work, 
the translation of Josephus, with several 
dissertations added, appeared in 1737, and 
has since, in spite of defective scholarship, 
been the established version. In 1739, on 
the death of his successor in the Cambridge 
professorship, Nicholas Saunderson [q. v.], 
he applied to be reinstated in his place, 
but received no answer. In his last years 
he took up a few more fancies, or, as he 
put it, made some new discoveries. He 
became convinced that anointing the sick 
with oil was a Christian duty. He found 



Whiston 



Whiston 



that the practice had been carried on with 
much success by the baptists. He had 
hitherto attended the services of the church 
of England, though in 1719 Henry Sache- 
verell [q. v.] had endeavoured to exclude 
him from the parish church. Whiston de- 
clined an offer from a lawyer to prosecute 
Sacheverell gratuitously, saying that it 
would prove him to be ' as foolish and pas- 
sionate as the doctor himself.' He published 
a curious ' Account ' of Dr. ' Sacheverell's 

Sroceedings '. in this matter in 1719. Gra- 
ually he became uncomfortable about the 
Athanasian creed, and finally gave up com- 
munion with the church and joined the bap- 
tists after Trinity Sunday 1747. He heard 
a good character of the Moravians, but was 
cured by perceiving their ' weakness and en- 
thusiasm. His ' most famous discovery,' or 
revival of a discovery, was that the Tartars 
were the lost tribes. He was still lecturing 
at Tunbridge Wells in 1746 when he an- 
nounced that the millennium would begin 
in twenty years, and that there would then 
be no more gaming-tables at Tunbridge 
"Wells or infidels in Christendom (Memoirs, 
p. 333). He appears there in 1748 in the 
well-known picture prefixed to the third 
volume of the * Richardson Correspondence.' 
In 1750 he gave another series of lectures 
(published in second volume of ' Memoirs '), 
showing how his predictions were confirmed 
by the earthquake of that year, and that 
Mary Toft [q. v.], the rabbit-woman, had 
been foretold in the book of Esdras. 

Whiston died on 22 Aug. 1752 at the 
house of Samuel Barker, husband of his 
only daughter, at Lyndon, Rutland. He was 
buried at Lyndon beside his wife, who died 
in January 1750-1. He left two sons, George 
and John [q. v.] A young brother, Daniel, 
was for fifty-two years curate of Somersham. 
He agreed with his brother's views, and 
wrote a ' Primitive Catechism,' published by 
his brother. He refused preferments from 
unwillingness to make the necessary sub- 
scriptions, and was protected, it is said, at 
the suggestion of Samuel Clarke, by the 
Duchess of Marlborough (NICHOLS, Lit. 
Anecd. viii. 376-7). He is apparently the 
Daniel who died on 19 April 1759, aged 82 
(ib. i. 505). 

Whiston belonged to a familiar type as a 
man of very acute but ill-balanced intellect. 
His learning was great, however fanciful his 
theories, and he no doubt helped to call at- 
tention to important points in ecclesiastical 
history. The charm of his simple-minded 
honesty gives great interest to his autobio- 
graphy ; though a large part of it is occupied 
with rather tiresome accounts of his writings 



and careful directions for their treatment by 
the future republishers, who have not yet 
appeared. In many respects he strongly re- 
sembles the Vicar of Waketield, who adopted 
his principles of monogamy. His condem- 
nation of Hoadly upon that and other 
grounds is in the spirit of Dr. Primrose 
(Memoirs, p. 209). It is not improbable that 
Whiston was more or less in Goldsmith's 
mind when he wrote his masterpiece. 

Whiston's portrait, by Mrs. Sarah Hoadly, 
is in the National Portrait Gallery of Lon- 
don. A characteristic portrait, by B. White, 
is engraved in his ' Memoirs,' and also in 
Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes' (i. 494), 
Another by Vertue was engraved in 1720. 

Whiston's works, omitting a few occa- 
sional papers, are: 1. 'A New Theory of 
the Earth,' &c., 1696; appendix added to 
5th edit. 1736. 2. Short View of the Chro- 
nology of the Old Testament,' &c., 1702. 
3. ' Essay on the Revelation of St. John/ 
1706 (nearly the same as ' Synchronismo- 
rum Apostolicorum Series,' 1713). 4. 'Prae- 
lectiones Astronomicae,' 1707 (in English 
in 1715 and 1728). 5. ' The accomplishment 



of Scripture Prophecies,' 1708 (Boyle lec- 
tures). 6. ' Sermons and Essays upon several 
Subjects,' 1709, 7. ' Praelectiones Physio- 
Mathematicse,' 1710 (in English in 1716). 

ft f TT-QOOTT ITTH-kTI f \\1 T^/io/lV* inrv r\f C!4- Ts-**i <i 4 i i i ' * 




published separately in 1718). 
' Replies to Dr. Allen,' 1711. 11 . 



re- 
10. Two 

' Remarks 




the Epistles of Ignatius, the ' Apostolical 
Constitutions,' and dissertations; a fifth 
volume, containing the 'Recognitions of 
Clement,' was added in 1712). 13. ' Athana- 
sius convicted of Forgery,' 1712. 14. ' Pri- 
mitive Infant Baptism revived,' 1712. 
15. ' Reflexions on an Anonymous Pam- 
phlet ' (i.e. Collins's 'Discourse of Free- 
thinking'), 1712. 16. 'Three Essays' (on 
the Council of Nice, 'Ancient Monuments 
relating to the Trinity,' &c., and ' The 
Liturgy of the Church of England reduced 
nearer to the Primitive Standard'), 1713. 
17. ' A Course of Mechanical, Optical, Hy- 
drostatical, and Pneumatical Experiments/ 
1713 (with F. Hauksbee). 18. 'A New 
Method of discovering the Longitude/ 1714 
(with Humphrey Ditton). 19. 'An Argu- 
ment to prove that ... all Persons solemnly, 
though irregularly, set apart for the Ministry 
are real Clergymen . . ./ 1714. 20. 'A 
Vindication of the Sibylline Oracles/ 1715. 
21. ' St. Clement's and St. Irenaeus's Vindi- 



Whiston 



Whi taker 



cation of the Apostolical Constitutions/ 
1715. 22. * An Account of a Surprizing 
Meteor/ 1716 (another in 1719). 23. 'An 
Address to the Princes ... of Europe for 
the Admission ... of the Christian Reli- 
gion to their Dominions/ 1716. 24. 'Astro- 
nomical Principles of Religion/ 1717. 

25. 'Scripture Politics/ 1717 (to which is 
added ' The Supposal, or a New Scheme of 
Government/ privately printed in 1712). 

26. ' A Defense of the Bishop of London/ 
1719 ; a second ' Defense/ 1719. 27. ' Com- 
mentary on the Three Catholic Epistles of 
St. John/ 1719. 28. 'Letter to the Earl of 




the Sabellian and Athanasian Doctrines of 
the Trinity/ 1720. 30. ' The Longitude and 




cian, Egyptian, and Chaldean Antiquities, 1 
1721. 32. ' An Essay to wards restoring the 
True Text of the Old Testament/ 1722 
('Supplement' in 1723). 33. 'The Calcu- 
lation of Solar Eclipses without Parallaxes/ 

1724. 34. ' The Literal Accomplishment of 
Scripture Prophecies/ 1724 ; answer to Col- 
lins's 'Grounds and Reasons' ('Supplement' 
in 1725). 35. ' Of the Thundering Legion/ 

1725. 36. ' A Collection of Authentick 
Records, belonging to the Old and New 
Testaments' (in English), 1727. 37. 'The 
Horeb Covenant revived/ 1730. 38. 'His- 
torical Memoirs ... of Dr. Samuel Clarke/ 
1730 (three editions). 39. ' Paraphrase on 
the Book of Job,' 1732. 40. ' The Testimony 
of Phlegon vindicated/ 1732. 41. 'Six Disser- 
tations/ 1734. 42. ' Athanasian Forgeries, Im- 
positions, and Interpolations ' (by a ' Lover 
of Truth'), 1736. 43. 'The Primitive Eu- 
charis revived/ 1736 (against Hoadly's 
* Plain Account '). 44. ' The Astronomical 
Year/ 1737. 45. ' The Genuine Works of 
Flavius Josephus, the Jewish Historian, in 
English/ 1737 (often reprinted till 1879). 

46. ' An Account of the Daemoniacks/ 1737. 

47. ' The Longitude found by the Ellipses 
... of Jupiter's Planets/ 1738. 48. 'The 
Eternity of Hell Torments considered/ 1740. 
49. ' Three Tracts/ 1742. 50. ' The Primi- 
tive New Testament in English/ 1745. 

51. 'Sacred History of the Old and New 
Testament; reduced into Annals/ 1748. 

52. 'Memoirs of the Life and Writings of 
Mr. William Whiston, containing several of 
his Friends also, and written by Himself/ 
1749 ; 2nd edit. 1753. 

[Whiston's Memoirs is the chief authority for 
his life. References above are to the second edi- 



tion. Other facts are mentioned in his writings. 
See also Nichols's Lit. A.necd. i. 494-506. For 
numerous references to Whiston's various contro- 
versies, see the Index to the same work.] L. S. 

WHITAKER. [See also WHITTAKBB.] 

WHITAKER, SIB EDWARD (1660- 
1735), born in 1660, admiral, was on 16 Oct. 
1688 appointed lieutenant of the Swallow, 
then commanded by Matthew (afterwards 
Lord) Aylmer [q. v.] In 1689 he was in the 
Mary, in 1690 again with Aylmer, in the 
Royal Katherine, and on 15 May 1690 he 
was promoted to be captain of the Dover 
of 44 guns, in which, during the following 
three years, he made several rich prizes and 
captured many of the French privateers. In 
1693-4 he was flag-captain to Aylmer in the 
Royal Sovereign. In 1695-6 he successively 
commanded the Elizabeth, Monck, and St. 
Andrew, and was flag-captain to Sir Clow- 
disley Shovell [q. v.] in the Victory. In 
1698 he was living at Leigh in Essex. In 
May 1699 he was appointed to the Portland, 
and on 13 Jan. 1701-2 to the Ranelagh, one 
of the fifty ships commissioned on the same 
day. A month later, 16 Feb., he was ap- 
pointed master-attendant at Woolwich, and 
seems to have held the office through the 
year. On 4 Jan. 1702-3 he was appointed 
to the Restoration, and, a few days later, 
from her to the Dorsetshire, one of the fleet 
with Rooke in the Mediterranean in 1704. 
In the capture of Gibraltar Whitaker acted 
as aide-de-camp to Sir George Byng [q. v.], 
' his ship not being 3 upon service/ com- 
manded the boats in the attack, rallied the 
men when panic-struck by the explosion of 
a magazine, and hoisted the English colours 
on the bastion. In the battle of Malaga 
the Dorsetshire was one of the red squadron, 
and was closely engaged throughout. In 
1705 Whitaker commanded the Barfleur ; 
early in 1706 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral of the blue, was knighted, and ap- 
pointed to command a squadron off Dun- 
kirk. In April he convoyed the Duke of 
Marlborough to Holland. 

In 1708, with his flag in the Northum- 
berland, he went out to the Mediterranean 
with Sir John Leake [q. v.], and in August 
commanded the detachment which co- 
operated in the reduction of Minorca. 
When Leake returned to England, Whitaker 
remained in command, and on 21 Dec. was 
promoted to be vice-admiral of the blue. A 
commission of 20 Dec. to be admiral of the 
blue seems to have afterwards been cancelled, 
and on 14 Nov. 1 709 he was made vice-admiral 
of the white. In January 1708-9 he was re- 
lieved from the command in chief in the 



Whitaker 



Whitaker 



Mediterranean by Sir George Byng, with 
whom he remained as second, till he again 
became chief by Byng's return to England 
in July 1709. In the summer of 1710 he 
also returned to England, and had no 
further sea service. He lived afterwards in 
retirement, and died on 20 Nov. 1735 at 
Carshalton in Surrey, where he was buried. 
His will (in Somerset House : Ducie, 260) 
was proved on 3 Dec. by his niece, Mary 
Whitaker, spinster, sole executrix. His 
wife Elizabeth (CHARNOCK, ii. 370) died 
on 1 Sept. 1727. The will mentions his 
nephew, Captain Samuel Whitaker (ib. iii. 
118), who, as commanding a ship at 
Gibraltar and Malaga, has been often con- 
fused with his uncle ; and his grand- 
daughter Ann, daughter of his son, Captain 
Edward Whitaker, deceased, who is ordered 
to be brought up by Mary Whitaker, 
' separate from and without the advice, 
direction, or control of her mother.' Mary 
afterwards married Peter St. Eloy, who ad- 
ministered her will on 26 July 1738. 

[Charnock's BSogr. Nav. ii. 366 ; Memoirs re- 
lating to the Lord Torrington (Camden Soc.), 
pp. 140-3, 192-3, 195 ; Lediard's Naval History ; 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, ii. 517, 548 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1735, p. 682 ; Official letters, and commis- 
sion and -warrant books in the Public Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

WHITAKER, EDWARD WILLIAM 
(1752-1818), divine, historian, and philan- 
thropist, son of William Whitaker of Lon- 
don, serjeant-at-law, born in 1752, was 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
2 April 1773, and graduated B.A. 4 Feb. 
1777. He was instituted to the rectory of 
St. John's, Clerkenwell, in 1778, afterwards 
to the rectory of St. Mildred, Bread Street, 
London, and from 1783 until his death he 
held the rectory of St. Mary-de-Castro with 
that of All Saints, Canterbury. He was 
the founder of the Refuge for the Destitute. 
For many years he resided at Egham, Surrey, 
where he kept a school. He died at Bread- 
street Hill, London, on 14 Oct. 1818. 

His numerous works include: 1. 'Four 
Dialogues on the Doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity, taught throughout the Scriptures, 
and on other points which have of late been 
subjects of ... discussion,' Canterbury, 
1786, 8vo. 2. ' Sermons on Education/ 
London, 1788, 8vo. 3. *A Letter to the 
People of the Jews,' London, 1788, 8vo. 
4. ' A General and Connected View of the 
Prophecies relating to the times of the 
Gentiles, delivered by our blessed Saviour, 
the Prophet David, and the Apostles Paul 
and John; with a brief account of their 
accomplishment to the present age,' Egham, 



1795, 12mo. An enlarged edition was pub- 
lished under the title of ' A Commentary 
on the Revelation of St. John,' London, 
1802, 8vo. 5. ' Family Sermons,' 2nd edit. 
London, 1801-2, 3 vols. 8vo. 6. 'The 
Manual of Prophecy/ Egham, 1808, 12mo. 
7. 'An Abridgment of Universal History/ 
London, 1817, 4 vols. 4to. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 382 ; 
Darling's Cycl. Bibl. pp. 3180, 3181 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. Mag. 1818, 
ii. 474; Pinks's Clerkenwell, p. 229; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

WHITAKER, SIR FREDERICK (1812- 
1891), premier of New Zealand, eldest son 
of Frederick Whitaker, deputy-lieutenant of 
Oxfordshire, was born on 23 April 1812 at 
Bampton, Oxfordshire, and brought up to 
the profession of a solicitor. In 1839, soon 
after he had qualified, he emigrated to Syd- 
ney, and thence went on to New Zealand in 
1840, settling down to practice at Korora- 
reka, then the seat of government, and mov- 
ing with the government to Auckland in the 
following year. In 1842 he was appointed 
a county-court judge; but in 1844 these 



courts were abolished, and he once more re- 
turned to the practice of his profession. 

In 1845 Whitaker was appointed an 
unofficial member of the legislative council ; 
and during the first native war of 1845 and 
1846 he was called upon to serve in the 
militia, of which he was a major. In 1851 
he was elected to represent Auckland in the 
legislative council for the province of New 
Ulster ; but the council was superseded 
before meeting by the constitution of 1852. 
Under the new constitution he was elected 
a member of the new provincial council, be- 
coming somewhat later provincial law officer 
and a member of the provincial executive 
council. In 1853 he was nominated a mem- 
ber of the legislative council, and in 1854 
took his seat as such in the first general 
assembly of the colony. In 1855 he was 
appointed attorney-general in succession to 
William Swainson (1809-1883) [q. v.], and 
later in the year he became speaker of the 
legislative council. On 7 May 1856, with 
the introduction of responsible government, 
Whitaker became attorney-general in the 
Bell-Sewell ministry, and, although before 
the end of May he was out of office, he was 
during June again attorney-general under 
(Sir) Edward William Stafford ; in this capa- 
city he was leader of the government in the 
legislative council. The two main questions 
which this government had to face were 
those of the organisation of provincial ad- 
ministrations and of the adjustment of native 
rights. On 12 July 1861 they were de- 



Whitaker 



16 



Whitaker 



feated on the question of native affairs and 
the war of 1860. Whitaker was out of 
office till 1 June 1863, when he became attor- 
ney-general to the Doinett ministry without 
a seat in the cabinet ; in October the mini- 
stry resigned because of internal dissensions, 
and Whitaker became premier at one of the 
most stormy periods of the colonial history. 
His bills for the suppression of rebellion and 
native settlements were severely criticised. 
He was soon involved in dispute with the 
governor, Sir George Grey, as to the con- 
duct of the Maori war, which was then at 
its height (see House of Commons Papers, 
1864 and 1865). Eventually he resigned, 
November 1864 [see W T ELD, SIR FREDERICK 
ALOYSIUS]. In 1865 he was elected super- 
intendent of Auckland, and in the same year 
was member for Parnell in the house of re- 
presentatives. He led the opposition to the 
change of the seat of government from Auck- 
land to Wellington. His scheme for the 
administration of the land fund was one of 
the chief items of his policy. 

In 1867 Whitaker retired from the as- 
sembly and the post of superintendent, and 
devoted himself to the practice of his pro- 
fession, and to speculation in various busi- 
nesses connected with timber and grazing 
as well as mining. He was for many years 
in partnership with Thomas Russell, and 
enjoyed a lucrative private practice, but 
his investments and speculations were un- 
fortunate, and he died poor. A man of 
untiring industry and activity, he was a 
director of the Bank of New Zealand, the 
New Zealand Sugar Company, the New 
Zealand and River Plate Land Mortgage 
Company, and other local institutions or 
agencies. Some of his land claims, such as 
the matter of the Piako Swamp, came before 
the legislature and were the subject of 
acrimonious debate. In 1876 he once more 
returned to politics, and was elected for 
Waikato to the house of representatives ; in 
September 1876 he became attorney-general 
in Atkinson's government, taking later the 
portfolio of posts and telegraphs. His land 
bill this year was strenuously opposed, and 
at last withdrawn. On 15 Oct. 1877 the 
government was defeated, and in the 
general election which followed he lost his 
seat. But the incoming ministry was short- 
lived, and when Sir John Hall formed his 
administration, Whitaker became attorney- 
general with a seat in the legislative council. 
It was during this term of office that he 
came into collision with Taiaroa, the Maori 
member, over his west coast settlements 
bill. On 21 April 1882, on Hall's resigna- 
tion, he became premier and reconstructed 



' the ministry ; on 25 Sept. 1883 he resigned 

i to attend to private affairs. He was created 

i K.C.M.G. in February 1884. Again in 

October 1887 Whitaker resumed his old 

position of attorney-general under Sir 

Henry Atkinson, sitting in the council till 

! his health began to fail in 1890 ; in Decem- 

! ber of that year the ministry resigned, and 

j Whitaker decided to retire from public life. 

He died at his office on 4 Dec. 1891, and 

| was buried in St. Stephen's cemetery with 

masonic honours and much sign of public 

mourning. 

Whitaker has been described as ' probably 
the most remarkable public man in New 
Zealand' (GISBORNE, op. cit. p. 71), yet he 
worked with greater effect in subordinate 
position than when holding prominent office. 
As a premier he hardly succeeded ; as adviser 
to many ministries his influence was power- 
ful and efficient. He was neither a good 
[ speaker nor correspondent, yet he was skil- 
ful in drafting bills in clear and simple lan- 
guage. Rusden utterly and perhaps too 
severely condemns his high-handed policy 
towards the Maoris. He was certainly pro- 
minent in instigating measures which on 
their face disregarded the natives' interest. 
Whitaker married, in 1843, Augusta (?. 
1884), stepdaughter of Alexander Shepherd, 
colonial treasurer of New Zealand, and left 
four sons one of whom was in partnership 
with him and three daughters. 

[Auckland Weekly News, 12 Dec. 1891 ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biography ; Gis- 
borne's New Zealand , Rulers and Statesmen ;. 
Rusden's Hist, of New Zealand, vols. ii. and iii. 
passim.] C. A. H. 

WHITAKER, JEREMIAH (1599- 
1654), puritan divine, was born at Wake- 
field, Yorkshire, in 1599. After being edu- 
cated at the grammar school there under the 
Rev. Philip Isack, he entered Sidney-Sussex 
College, Cambridge, as a sizar in 1615, two- 
years before Oliver Cromwell. In 1619 he 
graduated in arts, and for a time was a 
schoolmaster at Oakham, Rutland. In 1630 
he was made rector of Stretton, Rutland; 
and on the ejection of Thomas Paske from 
the rectory of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermond- 
sey, in 1644, Whitaker was chosen in his 
stead. When the Westminster assembly of 
divines was convened in June 1643, he was 
one of the first members elected, and in 
1647 was appointed moderator. In the same 
year he was chosen by the House of Lords, 
along with Dr. Thomas Goodwin, to examine 
and superintend the assembly's publications. 
Whitaker died on 1 June 1654, and was 
buried in the chancel of St. Mary Magda- 
len's Church, Bermondsey. His epitaph is 



Whitaker 



Whitaker 



printed in ' A New View of London/ 1708 
(p. 389). While at Oakham he married 
Chephtzibah, daughter of William Peachey, 
a puritan minister of Oakham. William 
Whitaker (1629-1672) [q.v.] was his son. 

Whitaker was a good oriental scholar, and 
unremitting in his labours, preaching, when 
in London, four times a week. A letter 
fromhimto Cromwell is preserved among the 
Sloane manuscripts in the British Museum 
(No. 4159, art. 360) ; he writes to excuse 
himself from attending in person to present a 
book to the Protector, ' being confined to my 
chamber vnder extreme tormenting paines 
of the stone, which forceth me to cry and 
moane night and day.' 

[Living Loves between Christ and dyiug 
Christians, a funeral sermon by Simeon Ashe, 
1654; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 
190; Bailey's Life of Thomas Fuller, 1874, p. 
Ill; Peacock's History of Waketield Grammar 
School, 1892, p. 122 ; Manning and Bray's Sur- 
rey, i. 209, 214.] J. H. L. 

WHITAKER, JOHN (1735-1808), his- 
torian of Manchester, son of James Whitaker, 
innkeeper, was born at Manchester on 
27 April 1735, and attended the Manchester 
grammar school from January 1744-5 to 
1752, when he entered Brasenose College, 
Oxford, with a school exhibition. He was 
elected on 2 March 1753 a Lancashire 
scholar of Corpus Christi College, and be- 
came fellow on 21 Jan. 1763. He gradu- 
ated B.A. on 24 Oct. 1755, M.A. on 27 Feb. 
1759, and B.D. on 1 July 1767. He was or- 
dained at Oxford in 1760, and acted as curate 
successively at Newton Heath chapel, near 
Manchester, 1760-1, and at Bray, Berkshire. 
He was elected F.S.A. on 10 Jan. 1771, and 
later in the year published his first work, 
' The History of Manchester/ vol. i. 4to, 
forming book i., and containing British and 
Roman periods. A second edition of this, 
in two vols. octavo, is dated 1773, and at 
the same time a quarto volume of 'The 
Principal Corrections ' to the original edi- 
tion was published. The second volume, 
embracing the Saxon period, was published 
in 1775, 4to, and never reissued in octavo, 
and only two of the projected four books 
were completed. A transcript of Whitaker's 
manuscript continuation to the fifteenth 
century is preserved at the Chetham Library, 
Manchester. This work has been termed 
* an antiquarian romance,' and Francis Douce 
[q. v.], on leaving his annotated copy to the 
British Museum, applied the inappropriate 
epithet < blockhead ' to the author. In spite 
of its diftuseness and untenable hypotheses, 
it is a valuable and interesting book, show- 

VOL. LSI. 



ing acute research and profound learning, 
as well as bold imagination and originality. 
Some of its weaknesses were ably criticised 
by John Collier (Tim Bobbin) in * Remarks 
on the History of Manchester,' by Muscipula, 
1771, and ' More Fruit from the same Pannier,' 
1773 (cf. Trans. Lane, and Chesh. Antiq. 
Soc. 1895). Whitaker next published The 
Genuine History of the Britons asserted in a 
. . . Refutation of Mr. Macpherson's " Intro- 
duction to the History of Great Britain and 
Ireland,'" 1772, 8vo, 2nd edit, corrected, 
1773, which would have been more valuable 
if it had been less controversial. For a 
short time (November 1773 to February 
1774) he held the morning preachership at 
Berkeley Chapel, London, but left it owing 
to a dispute, concerning which he published 
an intemperate * State of the Case.' While 
in London he made the acquaintance of 
Dr. Johnson and Edward Gibbon. The first 
volume of the latter's ' Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire' was submitted in 
manuscript to Whitaker, but Gibbon with- 
held his chapter on Christianity, and Whi- 
taker first read it in the published volume, 
whereupon he wrote indignantly to the 
author. 

In 1776 he actively participated in mea- 
sures for the improvement of the town of 
Manchester, and in an angry paper war 
which arose in connection with the im- 
provement bill. During the next year he 
wrote * An Ode ' to promote the formation 
of the Manchester regiment, intended for 
' reducing the American rebels/ The regi- 
ment never reached its destination, but 
was diverted to Gibraltar, where it won its 
laurels. 

On 22 Aug. 1777 he was presented by 
Corpus Christi College to the rectory of 
Ruan Lanyhorn, Cornwall. In 1787 he 
published < The Charter of Manchester trans- 
lated, with Explanations and Remarks,' 
prepared at the request of a committee of 
inhabitants engaged in vindicating the rights 
of the town against the lord of the manor. 
For this service he received the thanks of 
the townspeople in 1793. In his 'Mary 
Queen of Scots vindicated,' 1787, 3 vols. 
8vo, he went beyond all previous writers 
in defending the queen and incriminating 
her enemies. A second edition is dated 
1790, and to the same date belongs a volume 
of ' Additions and Corrections.' In 1791 
and 1794 he announced the ' Private Life of 
Mary Queen of Scots.' This was not pub- 
lished until George Chalmers made use of 
the unfinished manuscript in his life of the 
queen, 1818. His ' Origin of Arianism dis- 
closed,' 1791, 8vo, while praised by William 



Whitaker 



18 



Whitaker 



van Mildert [q. v.] in his Boyle lectures, 
was severely handled by Coleridge (Literary 
Remains, 1838, iv. 296). In 1791 he pub- 
lished ' Gibbon's History of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, in vols. iv. 
v. and vi. reviewed' (styled by Macaulay 

1 pointless spite, with here and there a just 
remark'); and in 1794 'The Course of 
Hannibal over the Alps ascertained,' "2 vols. 
8vo. The latter was the subject of <A 
Critical Examination ' by Alexander Fraser 
Tytler (Lord Woodhouslee) [q. v.], 1794, 

2 vols. 8vo. In 1804 he issued his ' Ancient 
Cathedral of Cornwall historically sur- 
veyed,' 2 vols. 4to, perhaps his ablest pro- 
duction. 

He died at Ruan rectory on 30 Oct. 1808. 
He married Jane, daughter of the Rev. 
John Tregenna, rector of Mawgan-in-Pyder, 
Cornwall, and had by her three daughters ; 
she died on 30 Dec. 1828. 

His other works were: 1. 'A Course of 
Sermons upon Death, Judgment, Heaven, 
and Hell,' 1783; another edition, 1820. 
2. ' The Real Origin of Government,' 1795, 
expanded from a sermon against the results 
of the French Revolution. It was denounced 
by Sheridan and others in the House of 
Commons. 3. ' The Life of St. Neot,' 1809, 
upon which he was engaged when he died. 
He contributed to Richard Polwhele's ' Poems 
chiefly by Gentlemen of Devonshire and Corn- 
wall,' 1792; wrote an introduction and notes 
to Flindell's Bible, 1800; and 'Remarks on 
St. Michael's Mount,' in vol. iii. of Pol- 
whele's ' Cornwall ; ' besides articles in the 
' English Review,' the * British Critic,' and 
the 'Anti-Jacobin Review.' Among his 
contemplated but unaccomplished works 
were histories of London and Oxford, a 
military history of the Romans in Britain, 
notes on Shakespeare, and illustrations to 
the Bible. 

His letters to George Chalmers between 
1791 and 1804 remain in manuscript in the 
Chetham Library. They show, inter alia, 
that he hankered after the wardenship of 
Manchester Collegiate Church . Other letters, 
to George Browne of Bodmin, are in the 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 29703). Pol- 
whele, Britton, Wolcott (Peter Pindar), and 
others attest great admiration for Whitaker's 
intellectual eminence and conversational 
powers. A good portrait, after a miniature 
by H. Bone, is engraved in Britton's ' Auto- 
biography,' 1850, i. 335. 

[Polwhele's Biogr. Sketches, iii. 1 ; Polwhele's 
Reminiscences, i. 83, ii. 185; Polwhele's Tradi- 
tions, p. 152; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet.; Gent. 
Mag. 1808, ii. 1035 ; Smith's Manchester School 
Register, i. 18 ; Baines's Lancashire, ed. Har- 



lund, i. 410; J. E. Bailey's Memoir in Papers of 
the Manchester Literary Club, 1877; Britton's 
Autobiogr. i. 215, 335; Britton's Reminiscences, 
ii. 170, 205, 379; Bouse and Courtney's Biblio- 
theca Cornubiensis, ii., and the authorities cited 
there ; Palatine Notebook, i. 77 (with portrait) ; 
the Life of S. Drew, 1834, contains letters from 
Whitaker; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 563; 
Worth ington's Diary and Corresp. (Chetham 
Soc.) ii. 237 ; Boswell's Johnson (ed. G. B. Hill), 
ii. 108, iii. 333; Imperial Magazine, iii. 1238 ; 
Trevelyan's Life of Macaulay, 1897, ii. 285; 
Southey's Doctor, i. 20.] C. W. S. 

WHITAKER, JOHN (1776-1847), 
composer, and a member of the music pub- 
lishing firm of Button, Whitaker, & Co., St. 
Paul's Churchyard, was born in 1776. He 
was a teacher of music, and organist to St. 
Clement's, Eastcheap. In 1818 Whitaker 
collected and published * The Seraph,' two 
volumes of sacred music, for four voices, of 
which many pieces are original. He was 
better known as a writer of occasional songs 
introduced in musical plays at the principal 
theatres between 1807 and 1825. Among those 
which attained great popularity were : ' Fly 
away, dove,' sung by Miss Cawse on her 
debut in the ' Hebrew Family ; ' ' say 
not woman's heart is bought,' ' Go, Rover, 
go,' ' Remember me,' ' The Little Farmer's 
Daughter,' ' My Poor Dog Tray,' < The Lily 
that blooms,' ' Paddy Carey's Fortune,' and 
' Hot Codlins.' 

A more lasting claim to celebrity is 
afforded by Whitaker's beautiful glee, ori- 
ginally written for, three voices, ' Winds, 
gently whisper.' He died at Thavies' Inn, 
Holborn, on 4 Dec. 1847. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, iv. 450; Genest's 
Hist of the Stage, vols. viii. ix. ; Quarterly 
Musical Magazine, 1825, p. 259; Gent. Mag. 

1848, i. 105; Whitaker's preface to 'The 
Seraph.'] L. M. M. 

W;HITAKER, JOSEPH (1820-1895), 

publisher, born in London on 4 May 1820, 
was the son of a silversmith. At the age of 
fourteen he was apprenticed to Mr. Barritt, 
bookseller, of Fleet Street. Nine years later 
young Whitaker was with John William 
Parker [q. v.] of the Strand. He next en- 
tered the house of J. H. & J. Parker of Ox- 
ford, for whom he became the London agent, 
and opened a branch at 377 Strand. Here, in 

1849, he originated the 'Penny Post,' the first 
penny monthly church magazine, which still 
continues in its original form, and edited 
an edition of the ' Morning ' and ' Evening 
Church Services.' In 1850 he projected and 
published for four years the * Educational 
Register ' and ' Whitaker's Clergyman's 
Diary ; ' the latter is still issued by the Com- 



Whitaker 



Whitaker 



pany of Stationers. He commenced busi- 
ness on his own account as a theological pub- 
lisher in Pall Mall, and removed in 1855 to 
310 Strand, where he published, with tin; 
assistance of Thomas Delph, ' The Artist,' a 
fine-art review. Between 1856 and 1859 he 
edited the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' and in 
January 1858 started the 'Bookseller,' in- 
tended primarily as an organ for booksellers 
and publishers, but also adapted to the re- 
quirements of book-buyers generally. The 
new monthly journal was very successful, 
and was warmly supported by the bookselling 
and publishing trade. With it, in 1860, was 
merged ' Bent's Literary Advertiser ; ' the 
form of the periodical has remained prac- 
tically unaltered for over forty years. 

His name has become familiar throughout 
English-speaking countries owing to ' Whita- 
ker s Almanac.' This was commenced in 
1868 ; thirty-six thousand copies of the first 
issue were subscribed before publication. As 
an example of the wise forethought of its 
originator, it is noticeable that the ' Alma- 
nac,' like the t Bookseller,' has been little 
changed since the first number, except in the 
direction of natural expansion. Whitaker 
had a large share in the organisation of a 
relief fund, which ultimately reached 2,000/., 
for the Paris booksellers and their assistants 
in 1871. As a distributor of the fund he 
was one of the first Englishmen who entered 
Paris after the siege. In 1874 he produced 
the ' Reference Catalogue of Current Litera- 
ture,' consisting of a collection of catalogues 
of books on sale by English publishers, with 
aji elaborate index. Other editions of this 
useful compilation appeared in 1875, 1877, 
1880, 1885, 1889, and 1894; the latest, in 
two very thick volumes, was published in 
1898. 

He published a few devotional works, 
among which may be mentioned < The Daily 
Round ' (1880, and many subsequent edi- 
tions) and Ridley's ' Holy Communion.' He 
was always a keen and judicious defender of 
the interests of the bookselling trade, and 
was recognised as an authority upon copy- 
right. In 1875 he was elected a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries. He died at En- 
field on 15 May 1895. He had a family of 
fifteen children, of whom the eldest, 

JOSEPH VERNOX WHITAKER (1845-1895), 
born on 3 Feb. 1845, was educated at Blox- 
ham school. He preferred a life of adventure 
to business, and, after a voyage to the East 
Indies, enlisted in the army, and became a 
full sergeant at the age of twenty-one. Hav- 
ing purchased his discharge, he entered the 
office of the ' Bookseller ' for a year or two. 
At the invitation of George William Childs 



of Philadelphia he went to the United 
States, and was editor of the * American 
Literary Gazette,' and subsequently acted as 
sub-editor of the ' Public Ledger ' for three 
years. He returned to England in 1875 to 
resume his connection with the ' Bookseller,' 
of which he ultimately became editor, as 
well as of the ' Reference Catalogue,' men- 
tioned above. In 1880, in conjunction with 
his father, he started the ' Stationery Trades' 
Journal.' He took an active interest in all 
trade questions, especially those of a social 
and charitable character. He died in Lon- 
don on 15 Jan. 1895, in his fiftieth year. He 
married, in 1875, an American lady, who 
bore him two children, one of whom sur- 
vived the father. 

[Bookseller, 6 Feb. 1895 (with portrait), 
8 June 1895 (with portrait); Publishers' Cir- 
cular, 19 Jan., 18 May, 25 May (with portrait) 
1895; Athenaeum, 19 Jan., 18 May 1895; 
Times, 16 Jan. 1895.] H. R. T. 

WHITAKER, THOMAS DUNHAM 

(1759-1821), topographer, born at Rainham 
on 8 June 1759, was son of William Whi- 
taker (1730-1782), curate of Rainham, Nor- 
folk, by his wife Lucy, daughter of Robert 
Dunham, and widow of Ambrose Allen. 
In 1760 his father removed to his ancestral 
house at Holme, in the township of Cliviger, 
Lancashire, and the boy was in November 
1766 placed under the care of the Rev. John 
Shaw of Rochdale. In November 1774, after 
spending a short time with the Rev. W. 
Sheepshanks of Grassington in Craven, he 
was admitted of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and went into residence in October 
1775. He took the degree of LL.B. in No- 
vember 1781, intending to enter the legal 
profession, which purpose was set aside on 
the death of his father in the following year, 
when he settled at Holme. He was or- 
dained in 1785, but remained without pas- 
toral charge until 1797, when he was licensed 
to the perpetual curacy of Holme, having 
rebuilt that chapel at his own cost in 1788. 
He completed his degree of LL.D. in 1801. 
In 1809 he attained the great object of his 
wishes in becoming vicar of the extensive 
parish ofWhalley, Lancashire. The rectory 
of Hey sham, near Lancaster, was presented 
to him in January 1813. He resigned it in 
1819. On 7 Nov. 1818 he became vicar of 
Blackburn, which benefice he retained, to- 
gether with Whalley, until his death. When 
settled at Holme he instituted a sort of 
local literary club. He devoted much atten- 
tion to improving his estate there, taking 
especial delight in planting. He received 
the gold medal of the Society of Arts for 
the greatest number of larch trees planted 

c 2 



Whitaker 



20 



Whitaker 



in one year. He bad great influence with 
the people of his parishes, and on several 
occasions exerted it with good effect in 
quelling disturbances, particularly at Black- 
burn in 1817. For his ' patriotic services ' 
he was presented with a public testimonial 
in April 1821. 

He died at Blackburn vicarage on 18 Dec. 
1821, and was interred at Holme, his coffin 
being made out of a tree of his own plant- 
ing, hollowed out by his own directions. 
He married, 13 Jan. 1783, Lucy, daughter 
of Thomas Thoresby of Leeds, and left seve- 
ral children, of whom one, Robert Nowell 
Whitaker, succeeded him at Whalley vicar- 
age (cf. FOSTER, Lancashire Pedigrees). 
There are portraits of Whitaker by W. D. 
Fryer, engraved in his ' Craven ' and ' Whal- 
ley,' and by James Northcote, engraved in 
* Loidis and Elmete,' and a smaller copy in 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' February 1822. 
A bust was executed by Macdonald. A 
monument raised by public subscript ion was 
placed in Whalley church in 1842. His 
library was sold at Sotheby's in 1823, and 
his coins and antiquities, with the exception 
of his Roman altars and inscriptions, which 
he bequeathed to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, were dispersed in 1824. 

Towards the end of last century Whitaker 
projected the first of his topographical works, 
which long had great fame on account of 
their scholarship and literary charm. His 
works were: 1. * History of the Original 
Parish of Whalley and Honour of Clitheroe, 
in the Counties of Lancaster and York,' 
1801, 4to; 2nd edit. 1806, 3rd edit. 1818; 
4th edit, (enlarged by John Gough Nichols 
and Ponsonby A. Lyons), 1872-6, 2 vols. 
4to. 2. ' History and Antiquities of the 
Deanery of Craven,' 1805, 4to; 2nd edit. 
1812 ; 3rd edit, (by Alfred William Morant) 
1878, 4to. 3. 'De Motu per Britanniam 
Ciyico annis 1745 et 1746,' 1809, 12mo, 
being an account in Latin based on John 
Home's ' History of the Rebellion of 1745.' 
4. ' Life and Original Correspondence of Sir 
George Radclitfe, Knt., LL.D., the Friend of 
the Earl of Strafford,' 1810, 4to. 5. 'The Ser- 
mons of Dr. Edwin Sandvs, formerly Arch- 
bishop of York, with a Life of the Author,' 
1812, 8vo. 6. ' Visio Will'i de Petro Plouh- 
man ... or the Vision of William concern- 
ing Piers Plouhman,' 1813, 4to. 7. ' Pierce 
the Ploughman's Crede, edited from the 
edition of 1553,' 1814, 4to. 8. ' Loidis and 
Elmete, or an Attempt to illustrate . . . the 
Lower Portions of Airedale and Wharfdale,' 
1816, fol. (uniform with No. 8). An appendix 
was published in iSi'l. 9. 'The History 
of Richmondahire, in the North Riding of 



Yorkshire,' 1823, 2 vols.-.fol. This was a 
portion of a projected history of Yorkshire, 
to be completed in about seven folio volumes. 
It is the least satisfactory of his topo- 
graphies, though the most pretentious. A 
series of thirty-two beautiful plates, after 
J. M. W. Turner, add to the value and dis- 
tinction of the work. Some of this artist's 
early drawings appeared in Whitaker's first 
book. 

Whitaker re-edited Thoresby's 'Ducatus 
Leodiensis ' (2nd edit, with notes and addi- 
tions, 1816). He also projected, but did 
not finish, several other works, including a 
history of Lonsdale (1813), new editions of 
John Whitaker's f History of Manchester ' 
and Horsley's 'Britannia Romana,' and even 
a new edition of Tim Bobbin's ' Lancashire 
Dialect ' [see COLLIER, JOHN]. 

He published ten occasional sermons and 
a political speech, and wrote at least twenty- 
eight articles in the ' Quarterly Review ' 
between 1809 and 1818. 

[Memoir, by J. G-. Nichols, prefixed to 4th 
edit, of History of Whalley, 1872; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes and Illustr. of Lit. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1822, i. 83, 105, 312; Allibone's Diet, of 
Authors, iii. 2679 ; Boyne's Yorkshire Library, 
1869. Wilson's Miscellanies (Chetham Soc.) con- 
tain several of Whitaker's letters. An early 
manuscript commonplace book by Whitaker is in 
the Chetham Library, Manchester.] C. W. S. 

WHITAKER, TOBIAS (fl. 1634-1661), 
physician, was born probably in 1600 or 1601. 
He practised physic first in Norwich, and in 
1634, while residing in that town, published 
' ncpl vSpoirocrias,' London, 12mo. Between 
1634 and 1638 he removed to London, and 
in 1638 brought out his most important 
work, 'The Tree of Humane Life, or the 
Bloud of the Grape, proving the Possibilitie 
of maintaining Humane Life from Infancy 
to Extreame Old Age, without any Sick- 
nesse, by the Use of Wine ' (London, 8vo). 
This defence of wine, which he regarded as 
a universal remedy against disease, was re- 
published in 1654, and translated into Latin 
under the title ' De Sanguine Uvse ' (Frank- 
fort, 1655, 8vo ; Hague, 1660, 1663, 12mo). 
In September 1660 he was appointed physi- 
cian in ordinary to the royal household with 
a salary of 50 /. a year (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1660-1, p. 281). In 1661 he published 
'An Elenchus of Opinions concerning the 
Smallpox,' London, 12mo, to which was pre- 
fixed his portrait engraved by John Chan- 
trey; another edition appeared in 1671. 
Whitaker died early in 1666, before 21 May 
(cf. ib. 1664-5 p. 129, 1665-6 p. 406). 

' The Tree of Life ' is ascribed by Wood to 
William Whitaker, a candidate of the Royal 



Whitaker 



21 



Whitaker 



College of Physicians, who died in the parish 
of St. Clement Danes in January 1670-1 
(WooD, Fasti O.row., ed. Bliss, ii. 178 ; FOS- 
TER, Alumni O.row., 1500-1714; MUNK, 
Royal Coll. of Phys. i. 268). 

[Whitaker's Works; Granger's Biogr. Hist, 
iv. 6; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] E. I. C. 

WHITAKER, WILLIAM (1548-1595), 
master of St. John's College, Cambridge, and 
a leading divine in the university in the latter 
half of the seventeenth century, was born ' at 
Holme in the parish of Bromley, Lancashire, 
in 1548, being the third son of Thomas 
\\hitaker of that place, by Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter of John Nowell, esq., of Read, 
and sister of Alexander Nowell, dean of St. 
Paul's ' (COOPER, Athenee Cantabr. ii. 196). 
After receiving the rudiments of learning 
at his native parish school, he was sent by 
his uncle, Alexander Nowell [q. v.], to St. 
Paul's school in London, and thence proceeded 
to Cambridge, where he matriculated as a 
pensioner of Trinity College on 4 Oct. 1564. 
He was subsequently elected a scholar on 
the same foundation, proceeded B.A. in 
March 1568, and on 6 Sept. 1569 was elected 
to a minor fellowship, and on 25 March 1571 
to a major fellowship, at his college. In 
1571 he commenced ALA. Throughout his 
earlier career at the university he was assisted 
by his uncle, who granted him leases, 'freely 
and without fine' (CnuRTON, No2vell, p. 306), 
towards defraying his expenses. Whitaker 
evinced his gratitude by dedicating to Nowell 
a translation of the Book of Common Prayer 
into Greek, and a like version of Nowell'sown 
larger catechism from the Latin into Greek. 

The marked ability with which he ac- 
quitted himself when presiding as ' father of 
the philosophy act' at an academic com- 
mencement appears to have first brought 
him prominently into notice. He also be- 
came known as an indefatigable student of 
the scriptures, the commentators, and the 
schoolmen, and was very early in his career 
singled out by Whitgift, at that time master 
of Trinity, for marks of special favour 
(Opera, vol. ii. p. v). On 3 Feb. 1578 he 
was installed canon of Norwich Cathedral, 
and in the same year was admitted to the 
degree of B.D., and incorporated on 14 July 
at Oxford (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714). In 1580 he was appointed by the 
crown to the regius professorship of divinity, 
to which Elizabeth shortly after added the 
chancellorship of St. Paul's, London, and 
from this time his position as the champion of 
the teaching of the church of England, inter- 
preted in its most Calvinistic sense, appears 
to have been definitely taken up. In 1582, 



on taking part in a disputation at com- 
mencement, he took for his thesis, 'Ponti- 
fex Romanus est ille Antichristus, quern 
futurum Scriptura prsedixit.' His lectures, 
asprofessor, afterwards published from short- 
hand notes taken by John Allenson, a fellow 
of St. John's (BAKER, Hist, of St. John's 
College, p. 185), were mainly directed to- 
wards the refutation of the arguments of 
divines of the Roman church, especially 
Bellarmine and Thomas Stapleton (1535- 
1598) [q. v.] He also severely criticised the 
Douay version of the New Testament, thereby 
becoming involved in a controversy with 
William Rainolds [q. v.l 

On 28 Feb. 1586 Whitaker, on the recom- 
mendation of Whitgift and Burghley, was 
appointed by the crown to the mastership of 
St. John's College. The appointment was, 
however, opposed by a majority of the 
fellows on the ground of his supposed lean- 
ings towards puritanism. His rule as an 
administrator justified in almost equal mea- 
sure the appointment and its objectors. The 
college increased greatly in numbers and 
reputation, but the puritan party gained 
ground considerably in the society. Whi- 
taker was a no less resolute opponent of 
Lutheranism than of Roman doctrine and 
ritual, and under his teaching the doctrine 
of Calvin and Beza came to be regarded as 
of far higher authority than that of the 
fathers and the schoolmen. 

In the discharge of his ordinary duties as 
master his assiduity and strict impartiality 
in distributing the rewards at his disposal 
conciliated even those who demurred to his 
theological teaching, and Baker declares 
that the members of the college were ' all 
at last united in their affection to their 
master/ and that eventually ' he had no 
enemies to overcome.' 

In 1587 he was created D.D. ; and in 
1593, on the mastership of Trinity College 
falling vacant by the preferment of Dr. John 
Still [q. v.] to the bishopric of Bath and 
Wells, he was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the post. In the following year he pub- 
lished his 'De Authoritate Scripture,' 
written in reply to Stapleton, prefixing to it 
a dedication to Whitgift (18 April 1594), 
the latter affording a noteworthy illustration 
of his personal relations with the primate, 
and also of the Roman controversialist learn- 
ing of that time. In May 1595 he was in- 
stalled canon of Canterbury ; but his pro- 
fessorship, mastership, and canonry appear 
to have left him still poor, and in a letter 
to Burghley, written about a fortnight before 
his death, he complains pathetically at being 
so frequently passed over amid 'the great 



Whitaker 



22 



Whitaker 



preferments of soe many.' lie may possibly 
have been suffering from dejection at this 
time, owing to the disagreement with \Vhit- 
gift in which, in common with others of the 
Cambridge heads, he found himself involved 
in connection with the prosecution of Wil- 
liam Barrett [q. v.] In November 1595 he 
was deputed, along with Humphrey Gower 
[q. v.l, president of Queens' College, to con- 
fer with the primate on the drawing up of 
the Lambeth articles. On this occasion he 
appears to have pressed his Calvinistic views 
warmly, but without success, and he re- 
turned to Cambridge fatigued and disap- 
pointed. An illness ensued by which he 
was carried off on 4 Dec. in the forty- 
seventh year of his age. 

There are two portraits of Whitaker in 
the master's lodge at St. John's College (one 
in the drawing-room, the other in the hall), 
both bearing the words, ' Dr. Whitaker, Mr. 
1587,' and one at the Chetham Hospital and 
Library at Manchester. His portrait has also 
been engraved by William Marshall in Tho- 
mas Fuller's 'Holy State,' 1642, and by John 
Payne. His epitaph, in Latin hexameters on 
a marble tablet, has been placed on the 
north wall of the interior of the transept of 
the college chapel; it is printed in ' Opera,' i. 
714. 

His hopes of preferment were disappointed 
probably owing to the fact that he was 
twice married, and thus forfeited in some 
measure the favour of Elizabeth. The 
maiden name of his first wife, who was [ 
sister-in-law to Laurence Chaderton [q. v.], j 
was Culverwell; his second wife, who sur- 
vived him, was the widow of Dudley Fenner 
[q. v.] He had eight children: one of the 
sons, Alexander, who was educated at 
Trinity College, afterwards became known 
as the ' Apostle of Virginia ; ' a second, Ri- 
chard, was a learned bookseller and printer 
in London (CHURTON, Nowell, pp. 331-3). 

No English divine of the sixteenth cen- j 
tury surpassed Whitaker in the estimation j 
of his contemporaries. Churton justly styles > 
him ' the pride and ornament of Cambridge.' ' 
Bellarmine so much admired his genius and ' 
attainments that he had his portrait sus- j 
pended in his study. Joseph Scaliger, j 
Bishop Hall, and Isaac Casaubon alike > 
speak of him in terms of almost unbounded ! 
admiration. 

The following is a list of Whitaker's pub- 
lished works, those included in the edition | 
of his theological treatises reprinted by j 
Samuel Crispin at Geneva in two volumes, j 
folio, in 1610, being distinguished by an 
asterisk: 1. 'Liber Precum Publicarum 
Ecclesiae Anglican . . . Latine Graece- | 



que seditus,' London, 1569. 2. Greek 
verses appended to Carr's * Demosthenes,' 
1571. 3. ' Kar^i(r/J.o?, . . . TTJ re 'EXXrjv&v 
/cat rf) 'Po)fj.ai(t)V SiaAcVra) ei(BoQel(Ta,' London, 
1573, 1574, 1578, 1673 (the Greek version 
is by Whitaker, the Latin by Alexander 
Nowell). 4. 'loannis luelli Sarisbur. . . . 
adversus Thomam Hardingum volumen 
alterum ex Anglico sermone conversum in 
Latinum a Gulielmo W T hitakero,' London, 
1578. 5*. 'Ad decem rationes Edmundi 
Campiani . . . Christiana responsio,' Lon- 
don, 1581 ; a translation of this by Richard 
Stock [q.v.J was printed in London in 1606. 
6*. ' Thesis proposita ... in Academia 
Cantabrigiensi die Comitiorum anno Domini 
1682 ; cujus summa haec, Pontifex Roma- 
nus est ille Antichristus,' London, 1582. 
7*. ' Responsionis . . . defensio contra con- 
futationem loannis Duraei Scoti, presbyteri 
lesuitse,' London, 1583. 8*. 'Nicolai San- 
deri quadraginta demonstrationes, Quod 
Papa non est Antichristus ille insignis . . . 
et earundem demonstrationum solida refu- 
tatio,' London, 1583. 9*. ' Fragmenta vete- 
rum haereseon ad constituendam Ecclesiae 
Pontificiae airoa-raviav collecta,' London, 
1583. 10. ' An aunswere to a certaine 
Booke, written by M. William Rainoldes 
. . . entituled A Refutation,' London, 
1585; Cambridge, 1590. 11*. ' Disputatio 
de Sacra Scriptura contra hums temporis 
papistas, inpnmis Robertum Bellarminum 
. . . et Thomam Stapletonum . . . sex quaes- 
tionibus proposita et tractata,' Cambridge, 
1588. 12*. ' Adversus Tho. Stapletoni Anglo- 
papistaa . . . defensionem ecclesiastic 
authoritatis . . . duplicatio pro authoritate 
atque avroTrtorta S. Scripturee,' Cambridge, 
1594. 13*. ' Praelectiones in quibus trac- 
tatur controversia de ecclesia contra ponti- 
ficios, inprimis Robertum Bellarminum 
lesuitam, in septem qusestiones distributa,' 
Cambridge, 1599. 14. ' Cygnea cantio . . . 
hoc est, ultima illius concio ad clerum, habita 
Cantabrigice anno 1595, ix Oct.' Cambridge, 

1599. 15*. ' Controversia de Conciliis, contra 
pontificios, inprimis Robertum Bellarminum 
lesuitam, in sex quaestiones distributa,' Cam- 
bridge, 1600. 16*. 'Tractatus de peccato 
originali. . . contra Stapletonum,' Cambridge, 

1600. 17*. ' Prselectiones in controversiam 
de Romano Pontifice . . . ad versus pontificios, 
inprimis Robertum Bellarminum,' Hanau, 
1608. 18. ' Praelectiones aliquot contra Bel- 
la mi in am habitae' (inConr. Decker* De Pro- 
prietatibus lesuitarum,' Oppenheim, 1611). 
19. ' Adversus universalis gratiae assertores 
praelectio in 1 Tim. ii. 4' (in Pet. Baro's 
' Summa Triurn de Praedestinatione Senten- 
tiarum,' Harderwyk, 1613). 20. 'Praelec- 



Whitaker 



Whitbourne 



tiones de Sacramentis in Genere et in Specie 
<! SS. Baptismo et Eucharistia,' Frankfort, 
1624. 21. ' Articuli de praedestinatione . . . 
Lambeth propositi, et L. Andrews de 
iisdem ludiciuni,' London, 1051. 

Other works by Whitaker are extant in 
manuscript ; the Bodleian Library has 
* Commentarii in Cant ica,' and 'Pnelecti ones 
in priorem Epistolam ad Corinthios ' bv 
him ; Caius College, ' Theses : de fide Davi- 
dis ; de Praedestinatione ; ' and St. John's 
College, Cambridge, a treatise on ecclesiasti- 
cal polity (MS. II. 8), which Baker (Hist, 
of at. John's College, p. 188) thinks was 
probably from his pen, although it leans 
somewhat to Erastianism. 

[Vita et mortis doctissimi sanctissimique 
Theologi Guillielrai Whitakeri vera descriptio 
<by Abdias Ashton), in Opera, i. 698-704 ; 
Epicedia in obitum ejusdem theologi a variis 
doctis virisGraece et Latino scripta, ib. i. 706- 
714 (a collection of more than ordinary inte- 
rest) ; Life by Gataker in Fuller's Abel Redi- 
Tivus, pp. 401-8 ; Cburton's Life of Nowell, pp. 
325-34; Strype's Life of Whitgift; Baker's 
Hist, of St. John's College, ed. Mayor ; Baker 
MSS. ; Hey wood and Wright's Cambridge Uni- 
versity Transactions ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. 
vol. ii. ; Mullinger's Hist, of the University of 
Cambridge, vol. ii.] J. B. M. 

WHITAKER, WILLIAM (1G29-1672), 
puritan divine, son of Jeremiah Whitaker 
[q. v.], was born at Oakham, Rutland, in 
1629, and in his fifteenth year was admitted 
a member of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he became noted for his skill in the 
classical and oriental languages. Richard 
Holdsworth [q. v.], master of the college, set 
him the task of translating Eustathius upon 
Homer, and he performed it in a highly 
creditable manner. He took the degree of 
B.A. in 1642. Two years later he was ad- 
mitted a fellow of Queens' College by virtue 
of a parliamentary ordinance, and in 1646 
he graduated M.A. as a member of that col- 
lege. In 1652 he took orders and became 
minister of Hornchurch, Essex. He suc- 
ceeded his father in the living of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Bermondsey, in 1654, and he was 
one of the London ministers who drew up 
and presented to the king the memorial 
against the oppression of the Act of Unifor- 
mity. After his ejectment he gathered a 
private congregation, which assembled in a 
small meeting-house in Long Walk, Ber- 
mondsey. For many years his house was 
full of candidates in divinity, and he had 
many foreign divines under his care. He 
died in 167^. 

He has two sermons in Annesley's 4 Morn- 
ing Exercises,' and in 1674 eighteen of his 



sermons, which had been taken in shorthand, 
\\.iv published by his widow, with a dedica- 
tion to Elizabeth, countess of Exeter, and a 
sketch of the author's character by Thomas 
Jacomb, D.D. 

[Funeral Sermon by Samuel Annesley, LL.D., 
1673; Addit. MS. 5883, f. 164; Calamy's Life 
of Baxter, ii. 25; Silvester's Life of Baxter, 
pp. 285, 430, pt. iii. 87, 95 ; Palmer's Nonconf. 
Memorial, 2nd edit. pp. 157, 431 ; Dunn's 
Seventy-five Eminent Divines, p. 70.] T. C. 

WHITBOURNE, SIR RICHARD (Jl. 
1579-1626), writer on Newfoundland, born 
at Exmouth in Devonshire, was * a traveler 
and adventurer into foreign countries ' at 
fifteen years of age. His journeys extended 
to * France, Spaine, Italy ,'Sauoy, Denmarke, 
Norway, Spruceland, the Canaries, and Soris 
Hands.' He made his first voyage to New- 
foundland about 1579 in a vessel of 300 tons, 
freighted by Edward Cotton of Southampton. 
He visited the island again in 1583 in a 
Southampton vessel of 220 tons, and was 
eye-witness of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's formal 
annexation of the country, the ceremony 
taking place in the harbour of St. John's. 
In 1585 he paid a third visit in a ship of 
which he was part owner, and saw Sir 
Bernard Drake [q. v.] capture 'many Por- 
tugall ships laden with fish.' In 1588 
Whitbourne equipped a ship at his own ex- 
pense to serve against the Spanish armada, 
commanding her in person, and on taking 
leave of the English admiral, Lord Howard, 
received ' favorable letters ' from him. He 
made several other voyages to Newfound- 
land, and occasionally fell in with pirates. 
In 1611 he met the famous Peter Easton, for 
whom he subsequently solicited a pardon at 
court, and in 1614 encountered Sir Henry 
Mainwaring. On 11 May 1615 he sailed from 
Exeter in a bark equipped at his own charge 
bearing a commission from the court of ad- 
miralty to hold courts of vice-admiralty in 
Newfoundland, the first attempt to create a 
formal court of justice in the country. He 
proceeded to the various harbours, called 
the masters of the English ships together 
and held courts, in which he carefully 
inquired into disorders committed on the 
coast, receiving presentments and trans- 
mitting them to the admiralty. 

In 1(516 a ship of Whitbourne's was rifled 
' by a French pyrate of Rochell,' one Daniel 
Tibolo, by which he lost more than 860/. 
In 1617 he was sent for by Sir William 
Vaughan [q. v.], who was attempting to 
people Newfoundland with Welshmen, and 
in the year following was entrusted with 
the conduct of a second detachment of colo- 



Whitbourne 



Whitbread 



nists, who were conveyed in a ship belonging 
to Whitbourne to Vaughan's settlement, 
Golden Grove, now known as Trepaney 
Harbour. The venture was a failure, owing 
chiefly to the idleness of the Welsh colonists, 
and it nearly ruined Whitbourne, who says 
pathetically that, ' after the more than forty 
yeeres spent in the foresaid courses, there re- 
maines little other fruite vnto me, sauing 
the peace of a good conscience' and the 
contentment of health. In 1020, while re- 
siding in London 'at the signe of the Gilded 
Cocke in Pater-noster-Row,' he published 
his ' Discovrse and Discovery of New-fovnd- 
land, with many reasons to prooue how 
worthy and beneficiall a Plantation may 
there be made, after a far better manner 
than now it is. Together with the laying 
open of Certaine Enormities and abuses 
committed by some that trade to that 
Countrey, and the meanes laide doune for 
reformation thereof. Imprinted at London 
by Felix Kyngston, for William Barret,' 
4to. Whitbourne's treatise found favour 
with James I, and the archbishops of Can- 
terbury and York were enjoined by letters 
from the lords of the council to recommend 
the work and to assist in making collections 
for W : hitbourne in the * severall parishes of 
this Kingdome ' to defray the cost of print- 
ing it. By a proclamation, dated 12 April 
1622, James reiterated these injunctions, and 
granted Whitbourne the sole right of print- 
ing his book for twenty-one years. In 1622 
Whitbourne supplemented the original edi- 
tion with ' A Discourse containing a loving 
invitation ... to all such as shall be Ad- 
venturers . . . for the advancement of his 
Majesties . . . Plantation in the New-found- 
land,' London, 4to. Some copies also con- 
tain a letter from the bishop to the clergy 
of his diocese directing them to recommencl 
the work from their pulpits, and to make a 
special collection for the author. The ' Dis- 
course ' was dedicated to the king, with a 
supplementary address ' to his Maiesties good 
Subiects,' and an autobiographical introduc- 
tion. The account of Newfoundland is inte- 
resting and valuable, full of amusing detail, 
and written with a literary skill hardly to 
be looked for in one who had been a mariner 
from fifteen years of age. The ' Discourse ' 
had considerable fame at the time of its 
appearance, and is several times quoted and 
referred to by Captain John Smith. Another 
edition of the ' Discourse ' was published in 
1623 (London, 4to). 

Whitbourne soon after received the honour 
of knighthood; but his circumstances con- 
tinued straitened, and he grew tired of the 
inactivity of his life ashore. On 13 July 



1626 Edward Drake wrote to Edward 
Nicholas, recommending him as peculiarly 
qualified to command a ship, and on 10 Nov. 
he himself solicited the favour of Bucking- 
ham, sending a certificate of his good ser- 
vices and losses, signed by Sir Edward 
Seymour, John Drake, and eight others 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1625-6, p. 374, 
Colonial 1574-1660, p. 82). On 11 Oct. 

1627 he wrote to Hugh Peachey, stating that 
he had been appointed lieutenant on the 
Bonaventure, under Sir John Chudleigh, to 
hasten the ship round the Downs (ib. Dom. 
1627-8, p. 382). The date of his death is 
unknown. 

A rough draft of W T hitbourne's ' Dis- 
course,' in manuscript, with many alterations 
in the author's own hand, is preserved in the 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 22564). The 
' Discourse ' was abridged and translated into 
German by Theodor de Bry in 1628, for the 
thirteenth part of his ' Historia Americee,' a 
collection of the writings of explorers of all 
nationalities. It also appeared in a similar 
collection by Levinus Hulsius (Theil 20), 
published in 1629 at Frankfort-on-Main, and 
in 1634 in the Latin version of De Bry's col- 
lection. Some parts of the ' Discourse' were 
also reprinted in 1870, under the editorship 
of T. Whitburn, with the title ' Westward 
Hoe for Avalon,' London, 8vo. 

[WhitbourneVWorks ; Provrse's Hist, of New- 
foundland, 1895; Brown's Genesis of the United 
States, 1890, ii. 1050-1 ; Works of John Smith 
(Arber's English Scholars' Library), 1884.] 

1 18 T f 

WHITBREAD, SAMUEL (1 758-181 5), 
politician, was only son of Samuel Whit- 
bread (d. 1796) of Southill, Bedfordshire, by 
his first wife, Harriet, daughter of William 
II ay ton of Ivinghoe. Samuel Whitbread 
the elder came of a nonconformist family 
in Bedfordshire, where he inherited a small 
property. As a young man he entered a 
London brewery, in the first instance as a 
clerk, and in course of time became pos- 
sessor of the whole brewery through hard 
work and good luck. After realising a large 
fortune he purchased Lord Torrington's 
Southill estate in 1795 (LysoNS, Bedford- 
shire, p. 134), and for a time supported the 
tory interest in Bedfordshire (Cornwalli 
Corresp. ii. 104). 

Samuel \\hitbreadthe younger was born 
at Cardington, Bedfordshire, in 1758. His 
early home education was remarkable for 
strictness approaching severity, and a strong 
religious character. An only son, he was 
the object of great parental care ; at Eton, 
where he was a contemporary and friend of 
Charles Grey (afterwards second Earl Grey) 



Whitbread 



Whitbread 



he was accompanied by a private tutor; 
thence he was sent to Christ Church, Oxford, 
and matriculated in July 1780. His pro- 
gress at Oxford not satisfying his father, he 
was removed to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 1784, 
and was then sent on a foreign tour through- 
out Europe, under the charge of William 
Coxe [q. v.] the historian. He returned in 
May 1786. For the next three years he 
completely devoted himself to the business 
of the brewery. His marriage in 1 789 with 
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Sir Charles 
(afterwards first Earl) Grey, and sister of 
his old schoolfellow, inclined his interests to 
politics, and at the general election in 1 790 
he was elected as a whig to represent Bed- 
ford. Almost immediately he began to take 
a prominent part in the debates in the house, 
and in November 1790 energetically attacked 
the government for waste of money on mili- 
tary preparations. A speech on 12 April 1791, 
in which he severely and powerfully criti- 
cised the ministerial policy, attracted public 
attention. From the first he attached him- 
self closely to Fox, who soon admitted him 
to his confidence in foreign affairs, and in 
June and July 1791 he took a part in the 
correspondence with Fox's emissaries at St. 
Petersburg, who, if not actually assisting in 
bringing about, were rejoicing at, the failure 
of Pitt's negotiations. Well qualified by the 
special information he possessed, he was en- 
trusted with one of the opposition motions 
in the debate on the Russian armament, and, 
though the motion was lost by a considerable 
majority on this occasion, he greatly distin- 
guished himself. Whitbread now rapidly 
developed into a leading spirit in opposition, 
and an earnest opponent of everything 
savouring of oppression and abu se. He proved 
himself a constant advocate of negro eman- 
cipation, the extension of religious and civil 
rights, and the establishment of a form of na- 
tional education. He consistently cherished 
a belief in the possibility of maintaining 
peace with France, and on 15 Dec. 1792 
strongly supported Fox's motion for sending 
a minister to negotiate with France. In the 
beginning of 1793 he presented petitions in 
favour of reform from Birmingham and other 
great towns in the north of England, and he 
expressed his conviction of the necessity for j 
reform on 7 May 1793. Towards the end of [ 
1795, when there was great distress and the 
wages of agricultural labourers were at the 
lowest point, Whitbread brought in a bill | 
(9 Dec.) to enable the magistrates to fix the ! 
minimum as well as the maximum wage at I 
quarter sessions; this proposal was opposed 
by Pitt and defeated. In 1790 he was one | 



of those who left the house with Fox on the 
occasion of the seditious assembly bill being 
referred to the committee of the house, and 
the following year he moved an inquiry into 
the conduct of the administration (3 March 
1797) and a vote of censure (9 May). 

He continued steadily to harass the govern- 
ment, supporting Arthur O'Connor [q. v.] on 
his trial at Maidstone, May 1798, urging the 
consideration of the French overtures for 
peace, 3 Feb. 1800, and opposing (March 
1801) the continuance of the act for the 
suppression of rebellion in Ireland. On 
the conclusion of peace in 3802, he expressed 
his approval of the Addington ministry by 
supporting the address, 17 Nov. 1802. He 
was quite unable to understand the unstable 
character of the peace, and even in May 
1803 separated himself from some of his own 
party by imagining that its continuance could 
be procured through the intervention of 
Russia. 

The report of the commissioners (1805) 
who had been appointed to inquire into the 
abuses of the naval department set forth a 
case of suspicion against Lord Melville [see 
DUNDAS, HENRY, first VISCOUNT MELVILLE^. 
Whitbread was accepted by his party as their 
instrument of attack on the friend of Pitt. 
He commenced proceedings by moving a 
series of resolutions, 8 April 1805, detailing 
and attacking the whole conduct of the 
treasurer of the navy, and, despite Pitt's 
strenuous endeavours to prevent the passing 
of the resolutions, they were adopted by the 
house on the casting" vote of the speaker. 
Encouraged by this success, Whitbread im- 
mediately moved, on 10 April, an address 
to the king to remove Melville from his 
presence and councils for ever, but after a 
debate this motion was withdrawn. Whit- 
bread now moved (25 April) for a select 
committee, and on their report gave notice 
of moving for the impeachment of Melville, 
and of resolutions to follow against Pitt. 
Though Whitbread's motion for the impeach- 
ment of Melville was lost in the first instance 
(11 June), and an amendment in favour of 
criminal prosecution adopted, it was subse- 
quently agreed to, and on 26 June, accom- 
panied by nearly a hundred members, he 
carried up the impeachment to the bar of the 
House of Lords. His name was now placed 
at the head of the committee appointed by 
the commons to draw up the articles of 
impeachment, and he was appointed manager 
on the nomination of Lord Temple. He 
entered on the task with the energy of an 
enthusiast, and the same session moved for a 
bill of indemnity in favour of those who 
had been in office under Melville who should 



Whitbread 



Whitbread 



give evidence on his impeachment. On 
29 April 1806, on the first clay of the trial in 
Westminster Hall, Whitbread opened all 
the charges in a speech of three hours and \ 
tw.-nty minutes. Later in the trial he ' 
offered himself as a witness to prove the 
substance of the charges before the com- 
mons, and was severely cross-examined. He 
began his reply on the entire case on 16 May, 
and concluded it on the following day. Mel- 
ville was acquitted on all the charges on 
12 June. In his management of the trial 
Whitbread appears to have been somewhat 
masterful, and to have insisted on his own 
methods in opposition to the general views 
of the managers and of his friend Komilly 
in particular (COLCHESTER, Diary, ii. 58). 
His diligence in preparing the case was re- 
markable, but he is said to have been so 
occupied with displaying his own wit and 
eloquence, or, as the Duchess of Gordon ex- 
pressed it, ' with teaching his drayhorse to j 
caper/ that his speeches failed to convince 
(HOLLAND, Memoirs of the Whiff Party, i. 
234). llowlandson records the result of the 
trial by his cartoon, ' The Acquittal, or up- 
setting the Porter Pot' (20 June 1806). 

On the approaching death of Fox (Sep- 
tember 1806) the inclusion of Whitbread in 
the ministry was under consideration (BUCK- 
INGHAM, Memoirs of Court and Cabinets of 
GeoryeIII,i\. 65), but on this occasion Lord 
Grey appears without sufficient warrant to 
have vouched for his brother-in-law having 
no desire for office (if).) At this period he 
certainly deserved well of his party, for his 
attack on Melville, which he followed up by 
a vigorous exposure of the conduct of the 
Duke of York, was popular in the country 
and improved the position of the vvhigs (LE 
MARCHANT, Life of Lord Spencer, p. 115 ; see 
art. JOHNSTONE, ANDREW JAMES COCHRANE). 

In 1807 Whitbread brought in a poor-law 
bill of the most elaborate and unwieldy cha- 
racter. His speech, delivered on 19 Feb. 
1807, was published in pamphlet form. His 
scheme comprised the establishment of a free 
educational system, the alteration of the law 
of settlement, the equalisation of county 
rates, and a peculiar proposal for distinguish- 
ing between the deserving and undeserving 
poor by the wearing of badges. It excited 
considerable public interest, and was keenly 
criticised in the press by Malthus, Bone, 
Bowles, and others. The portions of the 
main scheme dealing with education and the 
law of settlement were subsequently con- 
verted into separate bills which passed their 
second reading; the parochial schools bill, 
under which children between the ages of 
seven and fourteen and unable to pay were | 



entitled to two years' free education, was 
regarded as such a practical proposal that 
it was circulated in the country for the con- 
sideration of the magistrates. The proposed 
measures, though containing much that was 
good and exhibiting political foresight, were 
hurriedly prepared, and showed want of 
exact knowledge on the part of their author. 
They were committed, but subsequently 
abandoned (29 July). 

Whitbread's attitude with regard to the 
conduct of the war and foreign affairs now 
began to cause differences of opinion between 
himself and other leading members of the 
opposition, and in December 1807 his bro- 
ther-in-law (now Lord Grey) privately 
warned him of the dangers attending his 
peace-at-any-price policy. But he was not 
to be restrained, and insisted upon moving 
a peace resolution on 29 Feb. 1808, wherein 
it was stated that there was ' nothing in the 
present state of affairs which should preclude 
his majesty from embracing the opportunity 
of commencing negotiations.' George Pon- 
sonby [q. v.], acting in concert with Lords 
Grenville and Grey, moved and carried the 
previous question by 211 to 58, but Whit- 
bread's following was probably increased by 
mistake (Life of Lord Grey, p. 183). His 
action on this occasion caused a party split, 
which resulted in the practical disbandment 
of the opposition in 1809. Though Ponsonby 
had been accepted as leader of the opposition 
by Whitbread with certain reservations on 
11 Dec. 1807 (BUCKINGHAM, Memoirs of the 
Court and Cabinets of George III, iv. 219), 
yet a section of the party, following Whit- 
bread, Folkestone, and Burdett, had in 1809 
completely asserted its independence (ib. p. * 
414) ; and their strongly expressed policy 
that ' peace should be the cry of the nation ' 
and the furious attack on the Duke of York 
caused open variance between them and 
Lords Grenville and Grey in April 1809 
(COLCHESTER, Diary, ii. 177). As the re- 
gular opposition relaxed its efforts, so Whit- 
bread and his following redoubled their ener- 
gies and became the only forcible organs 
of liberal principles in the house (LE MAR- 
CHANT, Life of Lord Spencer, p. 115). 

From 1809 up to the time of his death 
Whitbread spoke more frequently than any 
member of the House of Commons. His 
opinion that publicity was the very essence 
of the British constitution accounts for the 
earnestness with which he attacked abuses 
of all kinds, and the frequent debates he 
occasioned on foreign affairs. His criticism 
of Lord Chatham's conduct with regard to 
the Scheldt operations was highly successful 
and greatly inspirited the opposition ; his 



Whitbread 



Whitbread 



motion on 23 Feb. 1810 for an address to the 
king asking for all papers submitted at any 
time by the Earl of Chatham was carried by 
seven votes, and the subsequent motion of 
censure on Lord Chatham's conduct by thirty- 
three (2 March 1810). Despite the carrying 
of this resolution, it is said that Chatham 
only resigned onWhitbread threatening pub- 
licly to ask whether he was still master- 
general of the ordnance. 

On the tumults preceding Sir Francis Bur- 
dett's arrest, Whitbread, though generally in 
sympathy with the extremists, played the 
part of prudent adviser to his friend, and 
urged him not to resist the speaker's war- 
rant ; he also affirmed in the house the 
legality of the warrant and the consequent 
proceedings. 

He was one of the few who uniformly 
and on principle expressed disapprobation 
of the regency bill, and on 25 Feb. 1811 
he moved for a committee to inspect the 
journals of the House of Lords concerning 
the king's illness in 1804, and condemned 
the conduct of Lord Eldon in 1801 and 1804. 
When in 1811 it appeared certain that the 
whigs would secure office, it was arranged, 
despite objection to him from the Gren- 
villes, that Whitbread should be secretary 
of state for home affairs (BROUGHAM, Auto- 
biography, vol. ii.) The calculations of the 
opposition were, however, upset by the 
abrupt determination of the regent to main- 
tain in office the Perceval administration. 
After Perceval's death, Whitbread pursued 
his independent course in opposition, acting 
separately from the bulk of his party. 

In the summer of 1812 he appears to have 
made the acquaintance of the Princess of 
Wales (ib. ii. 148). From the first he deemed 
it his duty to stand by her, ' considering her 
as ill-used as possible, and without any just 
ground' (ib. ii. 165). Although his action was 
absolutely independent and alienated him 
from some of his own relatives (ADOLPHUS, 
Memoirs of Caroline, i. 561), he was on 
better terms with the whigs now than in 
1809. In the House of Commons he con- 
stituted himself champion to the princess, 
and, with his usual earnestness, attempted 
on all occasions to do her service. His zeal, I 
however, outran his discretion when, in a I 
long speech on 17 March 1813, he made j 
a groundless charge against Lord Ellen- ! 
borough and the other commissioners who had j 
inquired into the princess's conduct, of sup- j 
pressing a portion of Mrs. Lisle's evidence, j 
On this occasion his friends in the commons j 
censured him for his rash credulity, and '. 
Lord Ellenborough in the House of Lords on ' 
i'- March 1813 denounced the accusation ' as , 



false as hell in every part.' Whitbread with 
characteristic obstinacy refused to admit 
himself in the wrong (Hansard, pp. 25, 274). 
His ardour on behalf of the princess was not 
checked by this episode, and he continued 
to exert himself in her support. On her de- 
parture from England in August 1814 he 
wrote expressing ' his unalterable attach- 
ment, his devotion and zeal for her re-esta- 
blishment ' (ADOLPHUS, Memoirs of Caroline, 
i. 565). 

During the last year of Whitbread's life 
his desire for peace, despite all change of cir- 
cumstance on the continent, determined his 
conduct in opposition. He questioned the 

f rounds of war with America on 8 Nov. 
814, urged the maintenance of peace on 
20 March 1815 whether the Bourbon dynasty 
or Napoleon should prove successful, pro- 
tested on 3 April against the declaration of 
the allies in congress against Napoleon, and 
on 28 April moved an address praying the 
crown not to involve the country in a war 
upon the ground of excluding a particular 
person from the government of France. 
When, however, war was actually entered 
upon, he supported the vote of credit for its 
prosecution. 

During the last few years of his life the 
part taken by Whitbread in the rebuilding 
and reorganisation of Drury Lane Theatre oc- 
casioned him great anxiety and annoyance, 
and is said to have materially affected his 
health. On the burning down of the old 
theatre, 24 Feb. 1809, he became a member, 
and soon after chairman, of the committee 
for the rebuilding of the theatre. A bill 
for its re-erection by subscription was passed 
through parliament, and Whitbread sup- 
ported the interests of Drury Lane in the 
commons, successfully opposing the intro- 
duction of bills for the establishment of 
rival theatres, one of his arguments being 
that the more theatres the worse actors and 
no one good play (9 May 1811, 20 March 
1812). In 1811 and 1812 he was much oc- 
cupied with the rebuilding and reorganisa- 
tion of the theatre, which was opened again 
on 10 Oct. 1812. Innovations which he 
attempted by beginning the performances at 
an earlier hour and by playing every night 
the whole year round involved him in dis- 
putes and difficulties with other theatres 
(Addit. MS. 27925, f. 40), but his mone- 
tary relations with Sheridan were to him a 
source of still greater annoyance. His busi- 
nesslike abilities enabled him to stand firm 
against Sheridan's powers of persuasion 
( MOORE, Life of Sheridan, ii. 443), but there 
does not appear to be any ground for the 
suggestion that he treated Sheridan harshly, 



Whitbread 



Whitby 



or that at this time he was suffering from 
disease of the brain. 

Whitbread died by his own hand on 
6 July 1815, having cut his throat at his 
town house, 35 Dover Street. At the in- 
quest, held the same day, the jury found 
that he was in a deranged state of mind at 
the time the act was committed ; his friend 
Mr. Wilcher gave evidence that his de- 
spondency was due to belief that his public 
life was extinct. He was buried at Card- 
ington in Bedfordshire. His widow died on 
28 Nov. 1846. Whitbread died possessed of 
five-eighths of the brewery, his father by 
will having made it compulsory on him to 
retain a majority of the shares" in his own 
hands. He left two sons William Henry 
(d. 1867), M.P. for Bedford 1818-37 ; and 
Samuel Charles and two daughters, Eliza- 
beth (d. 1843), who married William, eighth 
earl Waldegrave; and Emma Laura (d. 1857), 
who married Charles Shaw-Lefevre, viscount 
Eversley [q. v.] 

In the opinion of a good judge of charac- 
ter, Whitbread 'was made up of the elements 
of opposition ' (WARD, Diary, ed. Phipps, i. 
403). His eloquence was more suited for 
attack in debate than defence. Lord Byron 
considered him the Demosthenes of bad taste 
and vulgar vehemence, but strong and Eng- 
lish ; his peculiar and forcible Anglicism 
was also noted by Wilberforce, who, how- 
ever, thought 'he spoke as if he had a pot of 
porter to his lips and all his words came 
through it' (WILBERFORCE, Life, v. 339). 
He was, in the words of Romilly, * the pro- 
moter of every liberal scheme for improv- 
ing the condition of mankind, the zealous 
advocate of the oppressed, and the undaunted 
opposer of every species of corruption and ill- 
administration;' but too vain and rash to 
acquire any real ascendency over the minds 
of well-educated men (HOLLAND, Memoirs 
of Whig Party, ii. 237). Whitbread was 
frequently portrayed by both Rowlandson 
and Gillray in their political cartoons, and 
is invariably distinguished by a porter-pot 
or some reference to Whitbread's ' entire.' 

A half-length portrait of Whitbread was 
painted by Thomas Gainsborough. An en- 
graved portrait, from an original drawing, 
appears in Adolphus's ' Memoir of Caroline ' 
(i. 461); and another engraved portrait, by 
W. Ward, after the painting by H. W. 
Pickersgill, was published on 27 June 1820. 

[Hansard, 1806-1 5, passim; Annual Register; 
Hone's Tributes of the Publ ic Press to the Memory 
of the late Mr. Whitbread, 1815; Authentic 
Account of the Death of Mr. Whitbread, 1815; 
Sir F. Grey's Life of Lord Grey; Le Marchant's 
Life of Earl Spencer (which contains a short 



biography of Whitbread, pp. 172-80); Diary 
and Correspondence of Lord Colchester ; Edin- 
burgh Review, April 1838; Memoirs of the 
Life of Sir S. Romilly ; Moore's Memoirs.] 

W. C-R. 

WHITBREAD, THOMAS (1618-1679), 
Jesuit. [See HARCOURT, THOMAS.] 

WHITBY, DANIEL (1638-1726), pole- 
mical divine and commentator, son of Thomas 
Whitby, rector (1631-7) of Rushden, North- 
amptonshire, afterwards rector of Barrow- 
on-H umber, Lincolnshire, was born at 
Rushden on 24 March 1638 (manuscript 
note in British Museum copy, 3226 bb., 
36, of his Last Thoughts, 1728). After 
attending school at Caster, Lincolnshire, 
he became in 1653 a commoner of Trinity 
College, Oxford, matriculating on 23 July, 
when his name is written Whitbie. He was 
elected scholar on 13 June 1655; graduated 
B.A. on 20 April 1657, M.A. on 10 April 
1660, and was elected fellow in 1664. In 
the same year he came out as a writer, or 
rather compiler, against Roman catholic doc- 
trine, attacking Hugh Paulinus or Serenus 
Cressy, D.D. [q. v.] He was answered by 
John Sergeant [q. v.], to whom he replied in 
1666. Seth Ward [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, 
made him his chaplain in 1668, giving him 
on 22 Oct. the prebend of Yatesbury, and on 
7 Nov. the prebend of Husborn-Tarrant and 
Burbage. In 1669 he became perpetual 
curate of St. Thomas's and rector of St. Ed- 
mund's, Salisbury. He next wrote on the 
evidences (1671). On 11 Sept. 1672 he was 
installed precentor at Salisbury, and at once 
accumulated B.D. and D.D. (13 Sept.) He 
resumed his anti-Romish polemics in 1674, 
and continued to publish on this topic at 
intervals till 1689. 

Considerable popularity had attended 
Whitby's earlier controversial efforts ; he 
lost it by putting forth anonymously, late in 
1682, The Protestant Reconciler,' pleading 
for concessions to nonconformists, with a 
view to their comprehension. A fierce paper 
war followed, in which Lawrence Womock 
[a. v.], David Jenner [q. v.], and Samuel 
Thomas [q. v.] took part. In contemporary 
pamphlets Whitby, nicknamed Whigby, was 
unfavourably contrasted with Titus Oates ; 
ironical letters of thanks were addressed to 
him, purporting to come from Minister ana- 
baptists and others. The university of Ox- 
ford in convocation (21 July 1683) con- 
demned the proposition ' that the duty of not 
offending a weak brother is inconsistent with 
all human authority of making laws con- 
cerning indifferent things,' and ordered 
W'hitby's book to be forthwith burned by 



Whitby 



Whitby 



the university marshal in the schools quad- 
rangle. Seth Ward extorted from Whitby 
a retractation (9 Oct. 168,3) in which he ac- 
cused himself of ' want of prudence and de- 
ference to authority,' revoked 'all irreverent 
and unmeet expressions,' and renounced the 
above proposition and another similar one. 
He further issued a ' second part ' of the 
' Protestant Reconciler,' urging dissenters to 
conformity. 

In 1684 he published in Latin a com- 
pendium of ethics. In 1689 he wrote in 
favour of taking the oaths to William and 
Mary. He took a small part in the Socinian 
controversy [see SHEKLOCK, WILLIAM, D.D.] 
by publishing (1691) a Latin tract on the 
divinity of Christ. On 14 April 1696 he 
received the prebend of Taunton Regis. His 
magnum opus, which has retained a certain 
reputation to the present century, is a ' Para- 
phrase and Commentary on the New Testa- 
ment,' begun in 1688 and published in 1703, 
fol. 2 vols. ; latest edition, 1822, 4to. Dod- 
dridge ( Works, 1804, v. 472) thought it, 
with all deductions, ' preferable to any other.' 
In his commentary he opposes Tillotson's 
view of hell torments. Faith he defined as 
mere assent to Gospel facts as true. A Latin 
appendix (1710) is an unwise attack on the 
critical labours of John Mill fq. v.] Of this 
' Examen ' use was made by Ajithony Collins 
fq. v.] ; it was reprinted (Leyden, 1724) by 
Sigebert Haverkamp. A later Latin disser- 
tation (1714) rejects the authority of the 
fathers as interpreters of Scripture, or as en- 
titled to determine controversies respecting 
the Trinity. He had been led to this posi- 
tion by his antagonism (1707) to the argu- 
ments on which Henry Dodwell the elder 
[q. v.] based his rejection of the natural im- 
mortality of the soul. He made further use 
of it iii criticisms directed (1718) against 
George Bull [q. v.] and (1720-1) Daniel 
Waterland [q. v.] His knowledge of the 
fathers was accurate, but not profound. 

Meanwhile his busy pen was engaged 
(1710-11) in refuting the Calvinistic posi- 
tions of John Edwards (1637-1716) [q.v.] 
He is usually ranked as an Arminian, but his 
strenuous denial of the imputation of Adam's 
sin soon carried him beyond Arminian lines. 
In the Bangorian controversy he wrote (1714 
and 1718) in defence of Hoadly. On the 
doctrine of our Lord's deity, which he had 
defended in 1691 and had firmly upheld 
throughout his New Testament commentary 
(1703), he was shaken by the treatise (1712) 
of Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) [q. v.] Of 
this there are marked evidences in his criti- 
cisms of Bull and Waterland, but the extent 
of his departure from 'the received opinion' 



was not revealed till the posthumous publi- 
cation (' by his express order') in April 1727 
of his ' Last Thoughts,' which he calls his 
' retractation,' and which ' clearly shows his 
unitarianism' (letter of 17 July 1727 by 
Samuel Crellius, in ' Thesaurus Epistolicus 
La-Crozianus,' quoted in WALLACE'S Anti- 
trinitarian Biography, 1850, iii. 471). 

Whitby suffered in his later years from 
failing sight, and employed an amanuensis, 
otherwise he retained his faculties, including 
a tenacious memory, to a very advanced age. 
He was ' very well, and at church [accord- 
ing to Noble he had preached extempore] 
the day before he died ; and returning home 
was seized with a fainting, and died the 
night following' (STKES). He died on 
24 March 1725-6, his eighty-eighth birth- 
day. His portrait, painted by E. Knight, 
was engraved (1709) by Van der Gucht. He 
was short and very thin ; always studious, 
using no recreation except tobacco, affable 
in disposition, but utterly ignorant of busi- 
ness matters. To his piety and unselfish- 
ness there is full testimony. 

Sykes gives a list of thirty-nine publica- 
tions by Whitby, not counting several 
separate sermons. The chief are : 

I. (against Romanism) : 1. ' Romish Doc- 
trines not from the Beginning,' 1664, 4to. 
2. 'An Answer to " Sure Footing,'" Oxford, 
1666, 8vo (with appended 'Answer to Five 
Questions'). 3. 'A Discourse concerning 
the Idolatry of ... Rome,' 1674, 8vo. 
4. 'The ... Idolatry of Host- Worship,' 1679, 
8vo. 5. ' A Discourse concerning . . . Laws 
. . . against Heretics . . . approved by ... 
Rome,' 1682, 4to. 6. 'Treatise in con- 
futation of the Latin Service,' 1687, 4to. 
7. ' The Fallibility of the Roman Church,' 
1687, 4to. 8. ' A Demonstration that . . . 
Rome and her Councils have erred,' 1688,4to. 
9. ' Treatise of Traditions,' pt. i. 1688, 4to ; 
pt. ii. 1689, 4to. 10. ' Irrisio Dei Pannarii 
Romanensium,' 1716, 8vo (in English). 

II. (on the evidences): 11. ' \6yos rfjs 
Trtfrrfa)? . . . the Certainty of Christian 
Faith,' Oxford, 1671, 8vo. 12. ' Discourse 
concerning the Truth ... of the Christian 
Faith,' 1691, 4to. 13. 'The Necessity . . . 
of ... Revelation,' 1705, 8vo. 14. ' 'H 
\oyiKT) Xarpa . . . Reason is to be our guide 
in ... Religion/ 1714, 8vo. 

III. (against Calvinism): 15. 'A Dis- 
course concerning . . . Election and Repro- 
bation,' 1710, 8vo. 16. 'Four Discourses 
. . . Personal Election or Reprobation,' 1710, 
8vo (includes replies to Edwards). 17. * Trac- 
tatus de Imputatione . . . Peccati Adami 
posteris ejus, 1711, 8vo. 

IV. (on the fathers): 18. 'Reflections on 



Whitby 



Whitchurch 



. . . Dodwell,' 1707, 8vo. 19. 'Dissertatio 
deS. Script urarum Interpretationesecundum 
Patrum Commentaries,' 1714, 8vo. 20. ' A 
Discourse, showing that . . . the Ante- 
Nicene Fathers ... are ... agreeable to 
the Interpretations of Dr. Clarke,' 1714, 8vo 
(against Robert Nelson [q. v.]) 

V. (on the Trinity): 21. 'Tractatus <!> 
vera Christi Deitate adversus Arii et Socini 
hsereses,' 1691, 4to (shows extensive know- 
ledge of Socinian writers). 22. ' A Dissua- 
sive from enquiring into the Doctrine of the 
Trinity,' 1714, 8vo. 23. ' A ... Confuta- 
tion of the Doctrine of the Sabellians,' 1716, 
8vo. 24. ' Disquisitiones Modesto in Bulli 
Defensionem Fidei Nicaenae,' 1718, 8vo. 
25. 'A KeplytoDr.Waterland's Objections,' 
1720, 8vo; second part 1721, 8vo. 26. (pos- 
thumous) '"Yo-repm <J>poirif ? ; or ... Last 
Thoughts . . . added, Five Discourses/ 1727, 
8vo (edited by Arthur Ashley Sykes [q.v.]) ; 
2nd ed. 1728, 8vo; reprinted with additions 
by the Unitarian Association, 1841, 8vo. 

Volumes of his sermons were issued in 
1710, 1720, 1726. 

[Short Account, by Sykes, prefixed to Last 
Thoughts, 1 727 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Tanner), 
ii. 1068 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 671 ; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), ii. 198, 223, 332-3; Bio- 
graphia Britannica, 1763, vi. 4216 (article by 
' C.,' i.e. Philip Morant [q. v.]) ; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Granger, 1806, ii. 112; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), 1854, ii. 644, 657, 664 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oion. 1892, iv. 1612.] A. G. 

WHITBY, STEPHEN OF (d. 1112), abbot 
of St. Mary's, York. [See STEPHEN.] 

WHITCHURCH or WHYTCHURCH, 
EDWARD (d. 1561), protestant publisher, 
was a substantial citizen of London in the 
middle of Henry VIII's reign. His business 
was probably that of a grocer. He accepted 
with enthusiasm the doctrines of the pro- 
testant reformation. In 1537 he joined with 
his fellow citizen Richard Grafton [q. v.] in 
arranging for the distribution of printed 
copies of the Bible in English. In that year 
Grafton and Whitchurch caused copies of 
the first complete version of the Bible in 
English, which is known as * Thomas Mat- 
thews's Bible ' and was. printed at Antwerp, 
to be brought to London and published 
there. Whitchurch's name does not appear 
in the rare volume, but his initials, * E. W.,' 
are placed below the woodcut of the ' Pro- 

?hete Esaye' [see ROGERS, JOHN, 1500?- 
555]. In November 1538 Coverdale's 
corrected version of the New Testament 
was printed in Paris at the expense of Graf- 
ton and Whitchurch, whose names appear on 
the title-page as publishers of the work in 



England. Subsequently they resolved to 
reprint the English Bible in Paris in a more 
elaborate shape, but after the work was be- 
gun at the French press the French govern- 
ment prohibited its continuance. Thereupon 
Grafton and Whitchurch set up a press in 
London, ' in the House late the Graye Freers, 7 
and, with some aid from Thomas Berthelet, 
they published the work, which was known 
as ' the Great Bible,' in April 1539. No 
fewer than seven editions appeared before 
December 1541. The second edition of 1540, 
with Cranmer's ' prologe/ seems to have been 
printed independently by both Whitchurch 
and Grafton. Half the copies bear the name 
of Whitchurch as printer, and half that of 
Grafton. The third, fourth, and fifth editions 
(July and November 1540, and May 1541) 
bearWhitchurch's imprint only. Whitchurch 
and Grafton printed jointly the New Testa- 
ment in English after'Erasmus's text in 1540; 
the primer in both English and Latin in 
1540 ; and two royal proclamations on eccle- 
siastical topics on 6 May and 24 July 1541 
respectively [see GRAFTON, RICHARD]. 

After Cromwell's fall, Whitchurch and 
G rafton offended the government by displays 
of protestant zeal. On 8 April 1543 Whit- 
church, Grafton, and six other printers were 
committed to the Fleet prison for printing 
unlawful books ; Whitchurch and Grafton 
were released on 3 May following (Acts 
of Privy Council, ed. Da'sent, i. 107, 125 ; 
STRYPE, Ecclesiastical Memorials, i. i. 566). 
On 28 Jan. 1543-4 Grafton and Whitchurch 
received jointly an exclusive patent for print- 
ing church service books (RYMER, Foedera, 
xiy. 766). On 28 May 1546 they were granted 
jointly an exclusive right to print primers in 
Latin and English. 

In secular literature Whitchurch pub- 
lished during the same period on his own ac- 
count a new edition of Richard Taverner's 
' Garden of Wysedome' (1540?); Traheron's 
translation of Vigo's ' Workes of Chirur- 
gerye' (1543, new ed. 1550); Thomas 
Phaer's ' Newe Boke of Presidentes ' (1543) ; 
Roger Ascham's 'Toxophilus' (1545) ; and 
William Baldwin's < Morall Phylosophye ' 
(1547). 

In Edward VI's reign Whitchurch was 
established at the sign of the Sun in Fleet 
Street, and was on terms of intimacy with 
the protestant leaders. His press was busy 
until the king's death, and he was occasion- 
ally employed by the government to print offi- 
cial documents. Early in 1549 Whitchurch 
and Grafton printed the first edition of the 
Book of Common Prayer (CARDWELL, Two 
Books of Common Prayer, pp. xxxviii-xliv). 
He reprinted single-handed an edition of the 



White 



White 



New Testament in small octavo in 1547. 
Many editions of the prayer-book and of 
the Psalter in Sternhold and Hopkins's ver- 
sion came from his press during the next five 
years. He reprinted the Great Bible in small 
folio in 1549, and again in folio in 1553. He 
helped to project and he printed the trans- 
lation of Erasmus's paraphrase of the New 
Testament, in which Nicholas Udall [q. v.l, 
John Old, the Princess Mary, and others took 
part ; the first volume appeared in 1548, the 
second in 1549. John Rogers was for some 
time Whitchurch's guest at his house in 
Fleet Street, and he published for him on 
1 Aug. 1548 his book on 'The Interim.' In 
1549 he issued a sermon by Bishop Hooper. 

The accession of Queen Mary imperilled 
AVhitchurch's position. He was excepted 
from pardon in the proclamation of 1654 
directed against those who refused allegiance 
to the new ecclesiastical regime. He pro- 
bably fled to Germany. His name was 
omitted from the list of stationers to whom 
Queen Mary granted the charter of incor- 
poration constituting them the Stationers' 
Company in 1556, nor was he mentioned in 
the confirmation of that charter by Queen 
Elizabeth on 10 Nov. 1559. But after 
Elizabeth's accession Whitchurch resumed 
business in London, and in 1560 he pub- 
lished a new edition of Thomas Phaer's 
' Regiment of Life.' This was his last un- 
dertaking. He is apparently the ' Maister 
Wychurch ' who was buried at Camberwell 
on 1 Dec. 1561. 

Whitchurch married, after 1556, the widow 
of Archbishop Cranmer ; she was Margaret, 
niece of Osiander, pastor of Nuremberg. She 
survived Whitchurch, and married on 29 Nov. 
1564 a third husband, Bartholomew Scott of 
Camberwell, justice of the peace for Surrey 
(Narratives of the Reformation ,Camden Soc. 
p. 244). 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert ; Strype's 
Works ; Chester's Life of John Rogers ; Bore's 
Old Bibles, 2nd ed. 1888.] S. L. 

WHITE, ADAM (1817-1879), natura- 
list, was born at Edinburgh on 29 April 
1817, and educated at the high school of that 
city. When quite a lad he went to London 
with an introduction to John Edward Gray 
[q. v.], and became an official in the zoological 
department of the British Museum in Decem- 
ber 1835. He held the post till 1863, when 
mental indisposition, consequent on the loss 
of his wife, necessitated his retirement on a 
pension. 

He never permanently recovered, although, 
even when an inmate of one of the Scottish 
asylums, he edited and largely contributed 



to a journal the contents of which were sup- 
plied by the patients. 

He was a member of the Entomological 
Society of London from 1839 to 1863, and a 
fellow of the Linnean Society of London from 
December 1846 to 1855. He died at Glasgow 
on 4 Jan. 1879. His work, except in a few 
instances in which he wrote to order, has 
proved, under the test of time, to be of ex- 
ceptional value. 

He was author of : 1. 'List of Crustacea 
in the . . . British Museum,' London, 1847, 
12mo. 2. 'Nomenclature of Coleopterous 
Insects in the . . . British Museum,' pts. 
i-iv. vii. and viii., London, 1847-55, 12mo. 
3. ' A Popular History of Mammalia,' 
London, 1850, 8vo. 4. 'A Contribution 
towards an Argument for the Plenary In- 
spiration of Scripture. ... By Arachno- 
philus,' London, 1851, 8vo. 5. 'A Popular 
History of Birds,' London, 1855, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Popular History of British Crustacea,' Lon- 
don, 1857, 8vo. 7. 'Tabular View of the 
Orders and Leading Families of Insects ' (en- 
graved by J. W. Lowry), London, 1857, and 
many subsequent issues undated. 8. ' Tabular 
View of the Orders and Leading Families 
of Myriapoda, Arachnida, and Crustacea ' 
(engraved by J. W. Lowry), London, 1861 , and 
many subsequent issues undated. 9. ' Heads 
and Tales ; or Anecdotes ... of Quadrupeds 
and other beasts,' London and Edinburgh, 
1869, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1870. Between 1850 and 
1855 he contributed parts iv.,viii., xiv., xv., 
and xvii. to the ' List of British Animals in 
the British Museum.' He contributed notes 
on natural history specimens to numerous 
narratives of exploring expeditions published 
between 1841 and 1852. 

He edited: 1. 'A Collection of Docu- 
ments on Spitzbergen and Greenland ' [Hak- 
luyt Society's works, No. 18], 1855. 2. 'The 
Instructive Picture Book, or Progressive 
Lessons from the Natural History of Ani- 
mals and Plants,' edited by A. White and 
R. M. Stark, 1857; 10th ed. 1877. 3. 'Spring 
... by R. Mudie,' fifth thousand [I860]. 

He also wrote upwards of sixty papers, 
mostly on insects and Crustacea, for various 
scientific journals between 1839 and 1861, 
and contributed 'Some of the Invertebrata' 
to the 'Museum of Natural History,' by Sir 
J. Richardson and others, Glasgow (1859- 
1862), 8vo; another issue (1868). 

[Entom. Monthly Mag. xv. 210 ; Proc. Linn. 
Soc. i. 310; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Nat. Hist. Mus. 
Cat. ; Roy. Soc, Cat.] B. B. W. 

WHITE, ALICE MARY MEADOWS 

(1839-1884), composer, daughter of Richard 
Smith, lace merchant, was born in London 



White 



White 



on 19 May 1839. She studied under Sir 
William Sterndale Bennett fq. v.] and Sir 
George Alexander Macfarren [q.v.], and first 
attracted attention as a composer by a quar- 
tet performed in 1861 by the Musical Society 
of London. She had an exceptional musical 
faculty, and produced in rapid succession 
quartets, symphonies, concertos, and can- 
tatas, many of which were heard at the con- 
certs of leading societies. A setting of Col- 
lins's ode, * The Passions,' was performed at 
the Hereford Festival of 1882. She also set 
the 'Ode to the North-East Wind' (1880) 
and Kingsley's ' Song of the Little Bal- 
tung ' (1883). She composed many piano 
pieces, songs and duets, one of the most 
popular of which is the duet ' Maying,' for 
tenor and soprano, the copyright of which 
sold in 1883 for 663/. All her work bore 
the impress of high artistic culture. She 
was married to Frederick Meadows White, 
Q.C., in 1867, and died in London on 4 Dec. 
1884. 

[Times, 8 Dec. 1884 ; Musical World, 13 Dec. 
1884; Musical Times, January 1885, where a 
list of her compositions, drawn up by her hus- 
band, is given ; Grove's Diet, of Music; infor- 
mation from Richard Horton Smith, esq., Q.C., 
M.A.] J. C. H. 

WHITE, ANDREW (1579-1656), Jesuit 
missionary, born in London in 1579, was 
educated in the English College at Douay. 
where he was ordained a secular priest 
about 1605. On his return to England he 
was arrested under the laws in force against 
missionary priests, was cast into prison, and, 
with forty-five other priests, was condemned 
to perpetual banishment in 1606. He was 
admitted to the Society of Jesus at Louvain 
in 1607, was again sent to England in 1609, 
and he appears as a missioner in London in 
1612. On 15 June 1619 he was professed 
of the four vows. At different periods he 
was prefect of studies and professor of 
sacred scripture, dogmatic theology and 
Hebrew in the Jesuits' colleges at Valladolid 
and Seville. In 1625 he was a missioner 
in the Suffolk district, and he was after- 
wards superior of the Devon district. In 
1628 he was appointed professor of theology 
and Greek in the college of his order at 
Liege. He was labouring in the Hampshire 
district in 1632, and he was sent to America 
in 1633 to found the Maryland mission, of 
which he was styled the apostle. He acquired 
the native language of the Indians, and was 
twice declared superior of the mission. In 
1644, having been taken prisoner by a band 
of marauding soldiers, he was carried in 
chains to London, tried on a charge of high 
treason, under the statute of 27 Elizabeth, for 



being a priest in England, but was acquitted 
on the plea that he was in this country by 
force and against his will. He was still 
kept in prison, however, and soon afterwards 
he was condemned to perpetual banishment. 
After a sojourn in the Austrian Netherlands 
he returned to England, became chaplain to 
a noble family in the Hampshire district, 
and died there on 6 June 1656. 

He was author of: 1. A Grammar, Dic- 
tionary, and Catechism of the Timuquana 
Language of Maryland. The catechism only 
is known to be extant; it was found by 
Father William McSherry in the archives 
of the Jesuits at Rome. *2. ' Narrative of a 
Voyage to Maryland,' written in Latin, in 
April 1634. A translation into English by 
N. C. Brooks appeared in ' A Relation of 
the Colony of the Lord Baron of Baltimore, 
in Maryland, near Virginia ; a Narrative of 
the first Voyage to Maryland, by Father 
Andrew White, and sundry reports from 
Fathers Andrew White, John Altham, John 
Brock, and other Jesuit Fathers of the 
Colony to the Superior General at Rome. 
Copied from the archives of the Jesuits' 
College at Rome, by the late Rev. William 
McSherry, of Georgetown College.' This is 
printed in Peter Force's ' Tracts relating to 
the Colonies in North America,' vol. iv. No. 
12 (Washington, 1846, 8vo). It is reprinted 
in Foley's 'Records' (iii. 339-61). The 
Maryland Historical Society printed the 
original Latin with a translation, edited by 
the Rev. E. A. Dalrymple, 1874 ; and a cor- 
rected version is given in the 'Woodstock 
Letters ' (i. 12-24, 71-80, 145-55, ii. 1-13). 

There is a picture of the baptism of King 
Chilomacon by Father White in Tanner's 
'Societas Jesu Apostolorum Imitatrix' 
(Prague, 1694). It is reproduced in Shea's 
'History of the Catholic Church in the 
United States.' 

[De Backer, Bibl. des iEcrivains de la Com- 
pagniede Jesus, 1876, iii. 1525; Dodd's Church 
Hist. iii. 313; Florus Anglo-Bavaricus, p. 55 ; 
Foley's Records, iii. 334, vii. 834 ; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collections, p. 221 ; Pilling's Bibl. of the 
Languages of the North American Indians, pp. 
790, 802 ; Shea's Hist, of the Catholic Church 
in the United States, i. 40-67 ; Southwell's Bibl. 
Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 60.] T. C. 

WHITE, ANTHONY (1782-1849), sur- 
geon, born in 1782 at Norton in Durham, a 
member of a family long resident in the 
county, was educated at Witton-le-Wear, 
and afterwards at Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated bachelor of medicine from Emmanuel 
College in 1804, having been admitted a pen- 
Honn-on ISMay 1799. He was apprenticed 
to Sir Anthony Carlisle [q. v.], and was ad- 



White 



33 



White 



mitted a member of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons of England on 2 Sept. 1803. He was 
elected an assistant-surgeon to the West- 
minster Hospital on 24 July 1806, surgeon 
on 24 April 1823, and consulting surgeon on 
23 Dec. 1846. At the College of Surgeons 
he was elected a member of the council on 
6 Sept. 1827, and two years later, 10 Sept. 
1829, he was appointed a member of the 
court of examiners in succession to William 
Wadd [q. v.] In 1831 he delivered the Hun- 
terian oration (unpublished), and he became 
vice-president in 1832 and again in 1840, 
serving the office of president in 1834 and 
1842. He also tilled the office of surgeon to 
the Royal Society of Musicians. 

\Yhite suffered severely from gout in his 
later years, and died at his house in Parlia- 
ment Street on 9 March 1849. As a sur- 
geon he is remarkable because he was the 
first to excise the head of the femur for 
disease of the hip-joint, a proceeding then 
considered to be so heroic that Sir Anthony 
Carlisle and Sir William Blizard threatened 
to report him to the College of Surgeons. 
He performed the operation with complete 
success, and sent the patient to call upon his 
opponents. His besetting sin was unpunc- 
tuality, and he often entirely forgot his ap- 
pointments, yet he early acquired a large 
and lucrative practice. 

White published : 1. Treatise on the 
Plague,' &c., London, 1846, 8vo. 2. < An 
Enquiry into the Proximate Cause of Gout, 
and its Rational Treatment,' London, 1848, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1848 ; American edit. New 
York, 1852, 8vo. 

A three-quarter-length portrait in oils by 
T. F. Dicksee, engraved by W. Walker, was 
published on 20 Aug. 1852. A likeness by 
Simpson is in the board-room of the West- 
minster Hospital. 

[Gent. Mag. 1849, i. 431 ; Lancet, 1849, i. 324.1 

D'A. P. 

WHITE, BLANCO (1775-1841), divine 
and author. [See WHITE, JOSEPH BLANCO.] 

WHITE, CHARLES (1728-1813), sur- 
geon, only son of Thomas White (1695- 
177G), a physician, and Rosamond his wife, 
was born at Manchester on 4 Oct. 1728 and 
educated there by the Rev. Radcliffe Russel. 
At an early age he was taken under his 
father's tuition, and subsequently studied 
medicine in London, where he had John 
Hunter as a fellow-student and friend, and 
afterwards in Edinburgh. Returning to 
Manchester, he joined his father, and in 
1752 was instrumental, along with Joseph 
Bancroft, merchant, in founding the Man- 
chester Infirmary, in which hospital he gave 

VOL. LXI. 



his services as surgeon for thirty-eight years. 
He was admitted a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety on 18 Feb. 1762, and a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons on the same day. 
In 1781 he took an active part in the foun- 
dation of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, and was one of its first 
vice-presidents. In 1783 he shared in the 
formation of a college of science, literature, 
and art, in which he and his son, Thomas 
White, lectured on anatomy. These were 
the first of such lectures in Manchester, and, 
it is believed, in the provinces. In conjunc- 
tion with his son, and with the assistance of 
Edward and Richard Hall, he founded in 
1790 the Manchester Lying-in Hospital, now 
St. Mary's Hospital, and was consulting sur- 
geon there for twenty-one years. 

W T hite was equally accomplished in the 
three departments of medicine, surgery, and 
midwifery, and was the first to introduce 
what is known as 'conservative' surgery. 
In 1768 he removed the head of the humerus 
for caries ; in 1769 he first proposed excision 
of the hip, and was one of the first to prac- 
tise excision of the shoulder-joint. He was 
also the first to describe accurately ' white 
leg' in lying-in women. He was widely 
known for his successful operations in litho- 
tomy, but especially for the revolution he 
effected in the practice of midwifery, which 
he rescued from semi-barbarism and placed 
on a rational and humane basis. 

De Quincey, in his ' Autobiography ' (ed. 
Masson, i. 383), has an interesting personal 
sketch of White, whom he styles ' the most 
eminent surgeon by much in the north of 
England,' and gives a description of his 
museum of three hundred anatomical prepa- 
rations, the greater part of which he pre- 
sented to St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester, 
in 1808. A large portion was destroyed at 
a fire there in February 1847. 

White had an attack of epidemic ophthal- 
mia in 1803, which ended in blindness in 
1812. He died at his country house at Sale 
in the parish of Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire, 
on 13 Feb. 1813. In the church of Ashton- 
on-Mersey a monument to him and several 
members of his family was afterwards erected. 

He married, on 22 Nov. 1759, Ann, daugh- 
ter of John Bradshaw, and had eight chil- 
dren. His second son, Thomas, who died 
in 1793, was a physician, and appears as 
one of the characters in Thomas Wilson's 
'Lancashire Bouquet' (Chetham Soc. vol. 
xiv.) Thomas's son John was high sheriff 
of Cheshire in 1823, and was famous for his 
fox-hunting and equestrian exploits. 

A good portrait of White was painted by 
J. Allen and engraved by William Ward. 

D 



White 



34 



White 



An earlier portrait, by W. Tate, is preserved 
at the Manchester Infirmary, where there 
is also a bust, executed for and presented by 
Charles Jordan in 1886. There are portraits 
of Charles White and his father in Greg- 
son's ' Fragments of Lancashire,' 1824, and a 
view of White's house, King Street, Man- 
chester, in Ralston's 'Manchester Views,' 
1823 (this house stood on the site of the Town 
Hall, now the Free Reference Library). 

His works include : 1. ' Account of the 
Topical Application of the Spunge in the 
Stoppage of Haemorrhage,' 1762. 2. ' Cases 
in Surgery,' 1770. 3. * Treatise on the Ma- 
nagement of Pregnant and Lying-in Women/ 
1733 ; 2nd edit. 1777 ; 3rd, 1785 ; 5th, 1791 j 
an edition printed at Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, 1773 ; a German translation, Leipzig, 
1775. 4. ' Inquiry into the Nature and 
Causes of that Swelling in one or both of 
the Lower Extremities which sometimes 
happens to Lying-in Women,' 1784 and 
1792, part ii. 1801 ; German translation, 
Vienna, 1785 and 1802. 5. ' Observations on 
Gangrenes and Mortifications,' Warrington, 
1790 (Italian version, 1791). 6. 'An Ac- 
count of the Regular Gradation in Man and 
in different Animals and Vegetables, and 
from the former to the latter,' 1799, 4to. 
This treatise on evolution occasioned a reply 
from Samuel Stanhope Smith, president of 
New Jersey College. One of his contribu- 
tions to the ' Memoirs of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society ' was on 
the cultivation of certain forest trees, a sub- 
ject in which he was much interested, having 
planted a large collection of trees at Sale. 

[Thomas Henry's paper in Memoirs of Man- 
chester Lit. and Phil. Soc. 2nd ser. iii. 33 ; 
Smith's Manchester School Register, i. 164; 
R. Angus Smith's Centenary of Science in Man- 
chester; Palatine Notebook, i. 113; Hibbert- 
Ware's Foundations in Manchester, ii. 148, 311 ; 
Thomson's Hist, of Royal Society ; Ormerod's 
Cheshire; Cat. of Surgeon-general's Library, 
Washington ; note supplied by Mr. D'Arcy 
Power ; information kindly given by Dr. D. 
Lloyd Roberts.] C. W. S. 

WHITE, FRANCIS (1564P-1638), 
bishop of Ely, son of Peter White (d. 
19 Dec. 1615), curate, afterwards vicar, of 
Eaton Socon, Bedfordshire, was born at 
Eaton Socon about 1664 (parish register 
begins in 1566). His father had five sons, 
all clergymen, of whom John White, D.D. 
(1570 P-1615), is separately noticed. Francis, 
after passing through the grammar school at 
St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, was admitted 
pensioner at Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 20 March 1578-9, aged 15. 
He graduated B.A. in 1582-3, M.A. in 1586, 



and was ordained priest by the bishop of 
London on 17 May 1588. His early prefer- 
ments were the rectory of Broughton- 
Astley, Leicestershire, a lectureship at St. 
Paul's, London, and the rectory of St. 
Peter's, Cornhill, London (not in NEWCOURT). 
In the controversy against Rome he took a 
prominent part. His first publication, ' in 
answer to a .popish treatise, entituled, 
White dyed Black,' was 'The Orthodox 
Faith and Way to the Church,' 1617, 4to; 
reprinted at the end of the ' Workes ' 
(1624, fol.) of John White, his brother. 
He graduated D.D. in 1618. Early in 1622 
he was employed by James I as a dis- 
utant against John Fisher (1569-1641) 
q. y.], to stay the Roman catholic ten- 
dencies of Mary, countess of Buckingham 
[see under VILLIERS, SIR EDWARD]. He held 
two ' conferences ; ' the third (24 May 1622) 
was entrusted to William Laud fq. v.] 

24,fol.V 



White's ' Replie ' to Fisher (1624, 
dedicated to James I, whose copy is in the 
British Museum ; it was reprinted by sub- 
scription, Dublin, 1824, 2 vols. 8vo. An 
account, from the other side, is in 'Trve 
Relations of Svndry Conferences,' 1626, 4 to, 
by ' A. C.' On 14 Sept. 1622 White was 
presented to the deanery of Carlisle (installed 
15 Oct.) He took part, in conjunction with 
Daniel Featley or Fairclough [q. v.], in an- 
other discussion with Fisher, opened on 
27 June 1623, at the house of Sir Humphrey 
Lynde, in Sheer Lane, London ; a report 
was published in ' The Fisher catched in his 
owne Net,' 1623, 4to ; and more fully (by 
Featley) in ' The Romish Fisher cavght and 
held in his owne Net,' 1624, 4to. 

In 1625 White became senior dean of 
Sion College, London. He was consecrated 
bishop of Carlisle on 3 Dec. 1626 at Durham 
House, London, by Neile of Durham, 
Buckeridge of Rochester, and three other 
prelates, John Cosin [q. v.] preaching the 
consecration sermon. His elevation was much 
canvassed; a letter (13 Feb. 1627-8) in 
Archbishop Ussher's correspondence states 
that he 'hath sold all his books to Hills the 
broker . . . some think he paid for his place.' 
It was said that he had 'sold his orthodoxe 
bookes and bought Jesuits'.' Sir Walter 
Earle referred to the matter in parliament 
(11 Feb. 1628), quoting the line 'Qui color 
albus erat, nunc est contrarius albo ' (appen- 
dix to ' Sir Francis Seymor his . . . Speech,' 
1641, 4to). On 22 Jan. 1628-9 he was elected 
bishop of Norwich (confirmed 19 Feb.) He 
was elected bishop of Ely on 15 Nov. 1631 
(confirmed 8 Dec.) Shortly afterwards he 
held a conference at Ely House, Holborn, 
with Theophilus Brabourne [q. v.] on the 



White 



35 



White 



Sabbath question, and had much to do with 
Brabourne's subsequent prosecution. His 
'Treatise of the Sabbath-Day,' 1635, 4to 
3rd ed. 1G36, 4to, was dedicated to Laud 
and written at the command of Charles I 
White treated the question doctrinally ; its 
historical aspect was assigned to Peter 
lli'ylyn [q. v.] He visited Cambridge in 
1632, to consecrate the chapel of Peter- 
house, and was entertained at his own col- 
lege, ' where with a short speech he en- 
couraged the young students to ply their 
books by his own example.' His last 
publication was 'An Examination and Con- 
futation of . . . A Briefe Answer to a late 
Treatise of the Sabbath-Day/ 1637, 4to ; 
this ' Briefe Answer ' was a dialogue (by 
Kichard Byfield [q. v.]), with title, ' The 
Lord's Day is the Sabbath Day,' 1636, 4to. 
He died at Ely House, Ilolborn, in February 
1637-8, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. His will, dated 4 March 1636-7, 
proved 27 Feb. 1637-8 by his relict, Joane 
White, shows that he survived a son, and 
left married daughters and several grand- 
children ; the bulk of his property, which 
was not large, went to his grandson Francis 
White. His portrait ( 1 624, set. 59), engraved 
toy Thomas Cockson or Coxon [q. v.], was 
prefixed to his ' Replie ' to Fisher, and re- 
produced by an opponent in ' The Answere 
vnto the Nine Points,' 1626, 4to, for the 
purpose of rallying White on the vanity of 
the inscription and the luxury of his attire. 
Another engraving, by G. Moimtin, was 
reproduced at Frankfort in 1632. 

[Fuller's Worthies (Nichols), 1811, i. 469 
(under Huntingdonshire) ; Stow's Survey of 
London (Strype), 1720, vol. ii. App. p. 137; 
Granger's Biographical Hist, of England, 1775, 
i. 357; Gorham's Hist, and Antiq. of Eynesbury 
and St. Neot's, 1824, i. 210-16 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
(Hardy), 1854, i. 344, ii. 471, iii. 243, 246 ; Cox's 
Literature of the Sabbath Question, 1865, i. 166, 
188; Venn's Biographical History of Gonville 
and Caius College, 1897, i. 101; Stubbs's Re- 
gistrum Sacrum Anglicanum, 1897, p. 117; 
White's will at Somerset House.] A. G. 

WHITE, FRANCIS (d. 1711), original 
proprietor of White's Chocolate House, who 
may very probably have been of Italian 
origin with a name anglicised from Bianco, 
set up a chocolate house on the east side of 
St. James's Street, upon the site now occu- 
pied by 'Boodle's,' in 1693. It was perhaps 
started in rivalry with the tory ' Cocoa 
Tree ' at the west end of Pall Mall. White's 
customers grew more and more select and 
exclusive, and in 1697 he changed his 
quarters for others on the west side of the 
street. A number of the early ' Tatlers' of 



1709 are dated from ' White's Chocolate- 
house ' in accordance with Steele's announce- 
ment in the first number, 'All accounts of 
gallantry, pleasure, and entertainment shall 
be under the article of White's Chocolate- 
house ; poetry under that of Will's Coffee- 
house ; learning under the title of Grecian ; 
foreign and domestic news you will have 
from St. James's Coffee-house.' We learn 
from the same authority that the charge for 
entrance at White's was sixpence, the charge 
at the majority of coffee-houses being only 
one penny. Francis White prospered in his 
business until his death in February 1711, 
in which month he was buried in St. James's, 
Piccadilly. By his will he left a sum of 
2,500/., including legacies, to his sister An- 
gela Maria, wife of Tomaso Casanova of 
Verona, and to his aunt NicolettaTomasi of 
Verona. The widow, Elizabeth White, 
carried on the chocolate-house, already esta- 
blished as the favourite resort in the new 
west end for aristocratic members of the 
whig party ; she made it equally well known 
as a place for the sale of opera and mas- 
querade tickets. Upon her death, shortly 
before 1730, the proprietorship fell to John 
Arthur, formerly assistant to Francis 
White. The famous club within the choco- 
late-house, the history of which is so inti- 
mately bound up with that of the oligarchic 
r6f/ime down to 1832, is believed to have 
originated about 1697, but the first list of 
rules and members is dated 1736. Long 
before this ' White's ' had become notorious 
for betting and high play (cf. SWIFT, Essay 
on Education ; POPE'S 3rd Epistle, ' To Lord 
Bathurst ; ' and HOGARTH, Rake's Progress, 
plates iv. and vi. : the plate last mentioned 
has reference to the fire by which the choco- 
late-house was burned to the ground in 
April 1733, see Daily Courant, 30 April), 
[n 1755 the club was removed to the ' great 
louse ' in St. James's Street (east side) the 
Dremises in which it still flourishes. 

[The History of "White's Club, 1892, 2 vols. 

4to (chaps, i-iii.) ; Timbs's Clubs and Club 

,ife of London, 1872, pp. 92-103; Steele's 

Tatler, ed. Aitken, i. 12; Pope's Works, ed. 

51 win and Courthope, iii. 41, 134, 430, 487, iv. 

520, 488; National Review, 1857, No. viii.; 

Ashton's Social Life in the Reign of Anne, p. 

67 ; Notes and Queries, 3rdser. ii. 127, 7th ser. 

xii. 288.] T - s - 

WHITE, FRANCIS BUCHANAN 
WHITE (1842-1894), botanist and ento- 
mologist, born at Perth, 20 March 1842, was 
the eldest son of Francis White. Educated 
at a school attached to St. Ninian's Cathe- 
dral, and by a private tutor, in his native 
own, he entered the university of Edin- 

D2 



White 



White 



burgh in 1860, and in 1864 graduated M.D., 
his thesis being ' On the Relations, Analo- 
gies, and Similitudes of Insects and Plants.' 
After his marriage in 1866 he spent nearly 
a year on the continent, and then settled in 
Perth, passing several months, however, 
almost every year, in some part of Scotland 
the natural history of which he wished to 
study. Being independent of his profes- 
sion, he devoted himself entirely to the study 
of plants and animals, his contributions to 
the 'Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer' 
beginning as early as 1857. Devoted through- 
out his life to the study of the Lepidoptera, 
investigating their distribution, variation, and 
structure, he from 1869 made a special study 
of the Hemiptera, collecting specimens of this 
group of insects from all parts of the world. 
In botany he devoted much attention to 
local distribution, altitude, and life-histories, 
and to * critical ' groups, such as the willows ; 
and it was his desire for extreme accuracy 
and thoroughness that delayed the publica- 
tion of his * Flora of Perthshire ' until after 
his death. In 1867 he joined in founding 
the Perthshire Society of Natural Science, 
of which he was president from 1867 to 
1872 and from 1884 to 1892, secretary from 
1872 to 1874, and editor from 1874 to 1884 
and from 1892 to 1894. His communications 
to this society, many of which are printed 
in its ' Proceedings ' and ' Transactions,' 
number a hundred, and it is by following 
the scheme mapped out in his presidential 
addresses that the museum of this society 
at Perth has become recognised as a model 
for all local museums. In 1871 he induced 
the society to establish ' The Scottish Natu- 
ralist/ a magazine which he carried on until 
1882, but which was afterwards merged in 
the ' Annals of Scottish Natural History.' 
White, who had great powers of endurance 
as a mountaineer and was very fond of 
alpine plants, initiated the Perthshire Moun- 
tain Club as an offshoot from the Society 
of Natural Science ; and in 1874 he was one 
of the founders of the Cryptogamic Society 
of Scotland, of which he acted as secretary. 
He was one of the first to recognise the 
need for co-operation among local natural 
history societies, and, acting on this convic- 
tion, brought about the East of Scotland 
Union of Naturalists' Societies, over which 
he presided at its first meeting, which was 
held at Dundee in 1884. He died at his 
residence, Annat Lodge, Perth, 3 Dec. 1894, 
and was buried in the Wellshill cemetery, 
Perth. White married Margaret Juliet, 
daughter of Thomas Corrie of Steilston,D urn- 
fries, who survives him. He had been a 
member of the Entomological Society of 



London from 1868, and of the Linnean So- 
ciety from 1873. A bronze mural memorial 
to him has been erected in the Perth 
Museum, and a stained-glass window in 
St. Ninian's Cathedral. 

In addition to his numerous papers contri- 
buted to the ' Entomologist's Monthly Maga- 
e,' the ' Journal of Botany,' the ' Trans- 
actions of the Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh,' and the journals already mentioned. 
White's writings include articles on a cock- 
roach, the earwig, ants, the bee, locusts, and 
grasshoppers in ' Science for All ' (vols. iii-v.) ; 
a ' Report on Pelagic Hemiptera, collected 
by H.M.S. Challenger,' in the seventh volume 
of the ' Reports ' of that expedition, pp. 82, 
with three plates, written in 1883 ; and a 
' Revision of the British Willows,' in the 
' Journal of the Linnean Society ' for 1889 
(vol. xxvii.) His views on the latter group 
are also represented by a classification in 
the ' London Catalogue of British Plants/ 
ninth edition, 1895, an arrangement charac- 
terised by a wide recognition of the existence 
of hybridism among these plants. His 
separate publications were : ' Fauna Per- 
thensis Lepidoptera/ 1871, a small quarto 
monograph, intended as the first of a series, 
but not continued ; and ' The Flora of 
Perthshire/ Edinburgh, 1898, with a portrait 
and full bibliography. 

[Memoir, by Professor James W. H. Trail, 
prefixed to White's Flora of Perthshire.] 

G. S. B, 

WHITE, GILBERT (1720-1793), natu- 
ralist, born on 18 July 1720 at the par- 
sonage of Selborne in Hampshire (of which 
parish his grandfather, Gilbert White, was 
then vicar), was the eldest son of John 
White (1688-1758), barrister-at-law, who 
married (1719) Anne (1693-1739), only child 
of Thomas Holt (d. 1710), rector of Streat- 
ham in Surrey. The elder Gilbert White 
(1650-1728), who married Rebecca Luckin 
(d. 1755, setat. 91), was the fourth son of 
Sir Sampson White (1607-1684) and Mary, 
daughter of Richard Soper of East Oakley, 
Hampshire. Sir Sampson was possessed of 
Swan Hall in the parish of Witney and 
county of Oxford (an estate which passed 
into the female line and was subsequently 
sold), and was mayor of Oxford in 1660, 
when in that capacity he attended the coro- 
nation of Charles II, and claimed success- 
fully the right of acting as butler to the 
king, being knighted for his service. 

John White seems to have left Selborne 
soon after the birth of his eldest son, the 
naturalist, and to have lived for the next 
half-dozen years at Compton, near Guildford ; 
but he had returned to Selborne by 1731, 



White 



37 



White 



and there ended bis days. One of his sis- 
ters, Elizabeth (1098-1753), was married to 
Charles White (d. 1763), apparently a cousin, 
who held the livings of Bradley and Swar- 
raton (both in Hampshire), besides being, 
through his wife, owner of the house at Sel- 
borne, built on land bought by the elder 
Gilbert, and then distinguished as having 
belonged to one Wake. This house has been 
subsequently known as ' The W r akes,' and 
at the death of Charles White in 17G3 it 
passed to Gilbert, the naturalist, who had 
already resided there for some time. 

Gilbert had six brothers and four sisters; 
one of the former and two of the latter 
died in infancy. Those who grew up were 
Thomas (1724-1797), presumably godson of 
Thomas Holt (not the rector of Streatham, 
just mentioned, but receiver to the Duke of 
Bedford's estate at Thorney in the Isle of 
Ely), whose property he inherited and name 
he prefixed to his own, but he did not enter 
upon the enjoyment of the bequest until 
1776, when he retired from the business he 
had carried on as a wholesale ironmonger in 
Thames Street, and took up his abode in 
South Lambeth. He was a man of con- 
siderable attainments, writing on various 
subjects in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ and 
was elected F.R.S. in 1777. 

The next brother was Benjamin (1725- 
1794), the successful publisher of Fleet 
Street, who left several sons: Benjamin and 
John, who carried on their father's business 
at l The Horace's Head; ' and Edmund, vicar 
of Newton Valence, near Selborne. 

Then came John (1727-1781) of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, who, taking orders, 
proceeded as chaplain to the forces at Gi- 
braltar; and, doubtless through the influence 
of the governor of that fortress, Cornwallis, 
was subsequently (1772) presented by the 
governor's brother (archbishop of Canter- 
bury) to the living of Blackburn in Lanca- 
shire. John White had a strong taste for 
natural history, as his correspondence with 
Linnseus (whose letters to him were first 
printed by Sir William Jardine in Contribu- 
tion* to Ornithology, 1849, pp. 27-32, 37-40) 
and with his brother Gilbert (printed by 
Bell, as below) shows. This correspondence 
chiefly related to a zoology of Gibraltar 
{Fauna Calpensis it was named), which he 
wrote but never succeeded in publishing. 
The manuscript of the introduction exists, 
and is not remarkable for style or matter. 
Of the rest of the work, which has excited so 
much curiosity, nothing more is known than 
that it was completed. After his death his 
widow, Barbara Mary (1734-1802), daugh- 
ter of George Freeman of London, resided 



at Selborne, keeping house for her brother- 
in-law, Gilbert, to the time of his death; 
and her son John, subsequently in medical 
practice at Salisbury, was for a time his 
pupil, and seems to have been one of his 
favourite nephews. 

G ilbert's other brothers, Francis (b.\ 728-9) 
and Henry (1733-1788), were of less note ; 
but the latter was rector of Fyfield, near 
Andover, and the extracts from his diary (in 
Notes on the Parishes of Fyfield, Sfc. Re- 
vised and edited by Edward Doran Webb, 
Salisbury, 1898) show that in quiet humour 
and habit of observation he was worthy of 
his more celebrated brother. 

Of the sisters, one, Ann (b. 1731), was 
married to Thomas Barker of Lyndon in 
Rutland, by whom she had a son Samuel, a 
frequent correspondent of his uncle Gilbert, 
with whose pursuits he had much sympathy ; 
the other, Rebecca (b. 1726), became the wife 
of Henry Woods of Shopwyke and Chil- 
grove, near Chichester, at which place her 
brother often stayed on his way to and from 
Ringmer, near Lewes, where lived an aunt 
Rebecca (d. 1780), the wife of Henry Snooke, 
whom he visited nearly every year as long 
as she lived. Three other aunts must also 
be noticed : Mary (d. 1768), married to Bap- 
tist Isaac, rector of Whitwell and Ash well in 
Rutland, where Gilbert passed three months 
in 1742, before leaving Oxford; Dorothea 
(d. 1731), the wife of William Henry Cane, 
who succeeded her father in 1727 as vicar of 
Selborne ; and Elizabeth (d. 1753), married 
to Charles White, rector of Bradley and 
Swarraton, as before mentioned. 

Gilbert was presumably sent to a school 
at Farnham, whose ' sweet peal of bells,' 
heard at Selborne of a still evening, brought 
him in the last year of his life ' agreeable 
associations' and remembrances of his youth- 
ful days (Zoologist, 1893, pp. 448, 449). Sub- 
sequently he went to the grammar school at 
Basingstoke, then kept by Thomas Warton 
(1688P-1745) [q. v.l, whose two celebrated 
sons were W T hite s fellow pupils, and we have 
White's own statement (Antiquities of Sel- 
borne, chap, xxvi.) that while at Basingstoke 
he was ' eye-witness [of], perhaps a party 
concerned in, undermining a portion of the 
fine old ruin known as Holy Ghost Chapel.' 
At Easter 1737 he seems to have been at 
Lyndon, where, according to the diary of his 
future brother-in-law (Barker), the departure 
of wild geese and the coming of the cuckoo 
were noted by ' G. W.' an early evidence 
of the observant naturalist's bent. A list 
in his own hand of thirty books (mostly 
classical, but some religious) which he took 
back with him to school in January 1738-9 



White 



White 



is in the possession of his collateral de- 
scendant, Mr. llashleigh Holt-Whit.', tlu- 
present head of the family. In the Decem- 
ber following he was admitted a commoner 
of ( )riel College, Oxford, though he did not 
enter into residence there until November 
17 lit. In 171-J he passed three agreeable 
months with his uncle Isaac at Whitwell 
(BELL, ii. 165), but it may be presumed that 
he lived with his father at Selborne during 
the greater part of the time when he was 
not in residence at Oxford. On 17 June 
1743 he obtained his 'testamur,' and a few 
days after graduated B.A. Returning to 
Oxford, he attended Dr. Bradley 's mathema- 
tical lectures, and in the March following 
he was elected a fellow of his college, where 
he resided during the summer and early 
autumn. After a visit to Selborne he went 
back to Oxford, and again attended Brad- 
ley's lectures. In September and October 
of 1745 he was at Ringmer, the house of his 
uncle Snooke, whose wife, Gilbert's aunt, 
was owner of the tortoise, always associated 
with his name. Early in February 1745-6 
his mother's relative, the second Thomas 
Holt before mentioned, died, leaving a con- 
siderable estate, subject to annuities, to Gil- 
bert's next brother Thomas. Gilbert attended 
the sick-bed, and found himself executor and 
trustee of the property under the deceased's 
will. This led him to pass some months at 
Thorney in the Isle of Ely not his first visit 
to that part of the country, for he mentions 
having seen Burleigh before and to go into 
Essex, where Holt had property, of which 
Gilbert wrote an excellent and businesslike 
account to his father. The winding-up of 
the affairs of this estate took some time. 
In connection with it, he passed a week at 
Spalding in June 1746 (letter to Pennant, 
28 Feb. 1767); but the next month he 
was staying with a college friend, Thomas 
Mander (elected fellow of Oriel at the fol- 
lowing Easter), who seems to have been some- 
what of a natural philosopher, at Toddenham 
in Gloucestershire, returning to Oxford in 
October to take his ALA. degree. In the 
following April (1747) he received deacon's 
orders from Thomas Seeker [q. v.l bishop of 
Oxford, let his rooms at Oriel, and returned 
to Selborne, becoming, though unlicensed, 
curate at Swarraton for his uncle Charles 
White. Later in the year he was again 
with his friend Mander in Gloucestershire, 
and shortly after he had a severe attack of 
small-pox at Oxford. In due time h- \\ ,is 
ordained priest by the bishop of Hereford, on 
letters dimissory from Bishop Iloadly ; and 
continued to make Selborne liis home while 
doing duty at Swarraton. In the summer 



of 1750 he went into Devonshire on a visit 
to his college friend and contemporary Na- 
thaniel Wells, rector of East Allington, near 
Totnes, staying there at least as late as the 
middle of September (Garden Kalendar, 
2 \ .] uly 1765), and becoming well acquainted 
with the district known as the South Hams 
(letter to Pennant, 2 Jan. 1769). 

In the following year (1751) White sent 
the verses, originally written 'out of the 
fens of Cambridgeshire' (Mulso, in lift. 
12 Sept. 1758), entitled ' Invitation to Sel- 
borne,' to Miss Hetty (or Hecky as she was 
called in her family) Mulso. They were 
forwarded through the lady's brother John, 
who had been White's contemporary at 
Oriel. Mulso, in acknowledging their re- 
ceipt, somewhat severely criticised them. 
This version differed considerably from that 
which was long after published, and it is to 
be remarked that all the phrases objected to 
by Mulso and his sister in the early copy 
disappeared from the later version. The 
long and interesting series of unpublished 
letters written by John Mulso to Gilbert 
White (extending from 1744 to 1790), and 
now in the possession of the Earl of Stam- 
ford, a great-grandson of Henry White (who 
has kindly allowed the present writer access 
to them), give no encouragement to the no- 
tion announced originally by Jesse in his 
edition of the ' Natural History of Selborne/ 
and adopted by Bell and others, that there 
was ever any very particular attachment, 
much less an engagement to marry, between 
Hester Mulso, who subsequently became Mrs. 
Chapone [q. v.l, and Gilbert White. He was 
on the most friendly terms with the whole 
of the Mulso family, and these letters of 
Mulso, all of which seem to have been most 
carefully preserved, throw much light on 
the earlier portion of White's career, hitherto 
little known. White's letters to Mulso were 
destroyed many years ago. 

In July 1751 White visited his sister, 
lately married to Barker, at Lyndon, and was 
afterwards at Stamford. Mulso at this time 
writes of his having a pretty collection of 
Gilbert's travels, which indeed must have 
covered the greater part of the south of 
England and a good deal of the midlands. 
We know that he had been in Essex, and hr 
must at some time have visited Norfolk, since 
he mentioned to Pennant (2 Jan. 1769) the 
mean appearance of its churches. The most 
northern limit of his journeys that can be 
traced is the Peak of Derbyshire (letter to 
Churton, 25 Oct. 1789). Towards the end of 
1 ?")! he became curate to Dr. Bristow, who 
had succeeded as vicar of Selborne, and \\ as 
for a time non-resident, since White lived 



White 



39 



White 



in the parsonage-house ; but this was a tem- 
porary arrangement, and in April 17~>'2 lit-, 
doubtless by virtue of seniority as a fellow of 
his college, to which the right of nominal ion 
fell, exercised his claim to the proctorship 
of the university of Oxford. About the same 
time he was also appointed dean of Oriel, 
the most important post in the college next 
to the provostship, which shows that the 
alleged dissatisfaction of some of its mem- 
bers at his claiming the proctorship was not 
deeply grounded. On quitting his offices he 
undertook the curacy of Durley, near Bishop's 
Waltham, at which place he resided for a 
year, and while there, according to Bell, who 
has printed the accounts (ii. 316-46), the 
actual expenses of the duty exceeded the re- 
ceipts by nearly 20/. (ib. vol. i. p. xxxv). 
Mulso's letters about this time express the 
surprise with which he and others of White's 
friends regarded his acceptance of this charge, 
though admitting ' it was your [i.e. G. W.'s] 
sentiment that a clergyman should not be 
idle and unemployed.' 

This sentiment, to which he adhered for the 
whole of his life, by no means interfered, how- 
ever, with his rambling habits, which he con- 
tinued to indulge, though for the next few 
years precise information as to the places 
he visited a stay of some weeks at ' the 
hot wells near Bristol' excepted is not 
forthcoming. Whenever he went to Mulso, 
who at this time had a small cure at Sun- 
bury, he was expected to preach a sermon, 
and the same demand was probably made at 
other places. At this time nearly all his 
journeys seem to have been performed on 
horseback, and several passages in Mulso's 
letters show that he took care to be well 
mounted. 

On 2 Feb. 1754 WTiite was at Harting in 
Sussex, where his mother had some property, 
and was apparently staying with Dr. Durn- 
ford the vicar. Durnford's wife was sister 
to William Collins [q.v.], the poet. Mr. 
Gordon (History of Harting, p. 208) sug- 
gests that the visit was to inquire after that 
unhappy man, with whom White in his un- 
dergraduate days had been intimately ac- 
quainted. It seems very doubtful whether 
Collins had been moved to Chichester so 
early in the year. But W r hite was for many 
years after frequently with his sister (Mrs. 
Woods) at Chilgrove, and at Chichester 
usually on his way to and from his aunt's 
at Ringmer. In a* letter written by 'White 
many years later to the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine' (1781, pp. 11, 12), the authorship of 
which is vouched for by Mr. Moy Thomas 
in the memoir prefixed to his edition of the 
poet's works (pp. xxx, xxxi) and confirmed 



by Bell (vol. i. p. lviii),he states that he had 
not seen Collins since he was carried to a 
madhouse at Oxford, and declares his igno- 
rance of when or where Collins died. 

That White had many good friends in his 
college there can be no doubt. In February 
1755 Mulso wrote to him, ' Young Mr. Shaw 
of Cheshunt would yesterday have persuaded 
me that Dr. Hodges [provost of Oriel] was 
dead, and you was going to be provost in his 
room;' and two months later, * You give me 
pleasure hearing of the stand against the per- 
verse party at Oriel ; I would' the provost 
should live until you succeed him (if that is 
English; it sounds rather Irish).' On 14 Jan. 
1757 Dr. Hodges died, and thirteen days 
later there was a college meeting, attended 
by White, for the election of his successor. 
Chardin, fourth son of Sir Christopher Mus- 
grave of Edenhall, was chosen; but it is 
evident that White had some strong sup- 
porters. Mulso, writing shortly after, says : 
' As you have not been the man on this occa- 
sion, I am not sorry for Chardin's success ' 
they had been old friends and again, a 
month later, * W 7 ith regard to the affair at 
Oriel, I heartily wish you had put yourself 
up from the beginning, if anything that we 
could have done would have given you suc- 
cess.' A few months later the living of More- 
ton-Pinkney in Northamptonshire, which 
was in the gift of Oriel, fell vacant, and 
White, as fellow, did not hesitate to assert 
his right to it. It was a small vicarage, 
and had long been held by a non-resident 
incumbent. In accordance with the custom 
of the age, White thought that the practice 
hitherto prevailing need not be set aside. 
Musgrave, the new provost, was of a different 
opinion, and recorded in his memorandum 
book (which by favour of Dr. Shadwell is 
here quoted) under date of 15 Dec. 1757 
' Morton Pinkney given to Mr. White as 
senr. petitioner, tho without his intentions 
of serving it, and not choosing to wave his 
claim tho' Mr. Land wd. have accepted it 
upon the other more agreeable terms to the 
society. I agreed to this to avoid any possi- 
bility of a misconstruction of partiality' 
this last sentence evidently (from what we 
now know) referring to the recent contest 
for the provostship, when White and Mus- 
grave were competitors. The provost, from a 
proper sense of duty we may consider, nearly 
a year later (1 Nov. 1758) made another 
entry in the same book, that he ' hinted to 
.M r. White's friends that I was ignorant what 
his circumstance really was, but suppose his 
estate incompatible [with the terms of his 
fellowship] and beg'd he might be inform'd 
that if a year of grace was not applied [for] 



White 



White 



in the regular time ... it cd. not be granted.' 
The suspicions of the provost, subsequently 
set at rest, as would seem by a letter of his 
to White of L>4 Dec. 1758 (BELL, ed. vol. i. 

E. xxxviii), were doubtless excited by the 
ict that, some two months before, the father 
of Gilbert White had died, and he, being 
the eldest son, might naturally be presumed 
to have inherited property of an amount 
that by statute or custom would have voided 
his fellowship. It is certain that this was 
not the case. Gilbert's father was never a 
rich man; he had a large family to edu- 
cate ; he had retired on his marriage from 
the bar, where his practice was inconsider- 
able, and even the house at Selborne (The 
Wakes) in which he lived was not his 
own, but belonged to a relative. Stronger 
evidence to this effect is afforded by the fact 
that in 1750 he borrowed money (10J. or so) 
of his son Gilbert, which was not repaid 
until May 1753 (Bell's ed. ii. 332), and a 
careful examination of the family papers 
made by the present Mr. Holt-White shows 
that Gilbert's patrimony must have been of 
the slenderest. He had, indeed, little more 
than his fellowship and eventually his North- 
amptonshire living upon which to depend 
until the death of his uncle Charles in 1763 
put him in possession of The Wakes, which 
he and his father before him had occupied 
as tenants. Even that inheritance was of 
small pecuniary value (the annual rent was 
but five guineas), though it was obviously 
the thing he most desired, and it was ap- 
parently with the view of living at Selborne 
that soon after his father's death he had 
given up the curacy at Durley and accepted 
that of Faringdon, an adjoining parish. For 
a short time he held the curacy of West 
Deane in Wiltshire, where, according to 
Mulso, he felt lonely and unhappy by reason 
of its distance from Selborne. Mulso's 
letters constantly allude to White's narrow 
means, while praising his economy and 
hoping for his preferment. It might be in- 
ferred from one letter (23 March 1 759), though 
this is uncertain, that he had taken a legal 
opinion as to the propriety of holding his 
fellowship, and that the reply satisfied him, 
as well as others, that he could do so. A 
little earlier (4 Feb. 1759) Mulso had met 
Musgrave, the new provost, and asked him 
as to his own intentions and those of the col- 
lege towards White, receiving for an answer 
that ' it was in your own [G. W.'s] breast 
to keep or leave your fellowship, for nobody 
meant to turn you out if you did not choose 
it yourself.' Some two years later the two 
men seem to have been quite reconciled. 
White was at Oxford, and Mulso was able 



to write (13 Jan. 1761): 'The provost and 
you begin to have your own feels for one 
another, such as you had before competitions 
divided you . . . and as I know you have the 
good of the foundation at heart, it will make 
you forget what was disagreeable in his elec- 
tion.' In January 1768 Musgrave died very 
suddenly, and Mulso thought that White 
might be his successor; but, though the idea 




the niece of Bishop Thomas, was rapidly 
rising in the church, kept harping on his 
friend's prospects, suggesting even an appli- 
cation to the lord chancellor for a living, 
and it seems that on the promotion of Sir 
Robert Henley [q. v.J to be lord keeper in 
1757 and chancellor m 1761, White, with 
whom he was acquainted, had hope of ob- 
taining some preferment in the neighbour- 
hood of Selborne, which would have allowed 
him still to reside there. On his uncle 
Charles's death in 1763, application was un- 
doubtedly made for one of his livings (pro- 
bably Bradley), which were in the private 
patronage of Henley, by that time Lord 
Northington ; but the latter was dissatisfied 
with what he termed the 'cold, lingering 
manner' in which White had voted for 
Richard Trevor [q. v.], bishop of Durham, 
in the contest of 1759 with Lord Westmor- 
land for the chancellorship of Oxford, and 
so withheld the boon. 

White's desire, which in no long time be- 
came a determination,' to live and die at Sel- 
borne, was the reason why he passed bene- 
fice after benefice which came to his turn as 
fellow of his college. Yet his love of his 
native place, the beauties of which he and 
his brothers were at no small pains and ex- 
pense to improve, did not stay his practice 
of taking long riding journeys a ' hussar 
parson ' Mulso calls him in one of his letters 
(February 1762) and visiting his relations 
in Sussex, in London, and in Rutland, or his 
friends at Oxford and other places. In 1760, 
having at the time no clerical duty (More- 
ton-Pinkney being permanently served by a 
curate), he was absent for six months with 
his brothers Thomas and Benjamin at Lam- 
beth, or with his sister (Mrs. Barker) at Lyn- 
don. He undoubtedly took what nowadays 
might be called an easy view of some of 
the duties of his cloth ; but the tradition, 
which can hardly be ill-founded, has come 
down of his especial kindliness to his poorer 
parishioners and neighbours, while the ab- 
sence of ambition in his character, except 
perhaps in regard to the provostship of his 
college, is manifest. Despite his moderate 



White 



White 



income, and the calls which some members 
of his family made upon his generosity, he 
\\;is able to use hospitality, and relatives 
and friends were from time to time enter- 
tained by him. 

In August 1772 his brother John, whom 
he calls his most constant correspondent 
though few of his letters have been preserved 
returned from Gibraltar, and his only son, 
born in 1759, a promising lad, who had pre- 
ceded his father to England, was received at 
Selborne, where he became a favourite with 
his uncle Gilbert. White read Horace with 
him, and generally looked after his educa- 
tion ; while ' Jack,' as the nephew was com- 
monly called, acted as his amanuensis and 
made himself generally useful. Even laming 
his uncle's horse did not ruffle the owner's 
temper, and Jack subsequently justified the 
good opinion formed of him, settling at Salis- 
bury in medical practice. The terms on 
which he was with his other nephew, Sam 
Barker, and his hitherto unpublished corre- 
spondence with his niece Mary (' Molly '), 
the daughter of Thomas, who afterwards 
married her cousin Benjamin, the son of 
Benjamin, strongly show his affection for his 
family. 

Turning to the life which White led as a 
naturalist the life which especially entitles 
him to distinction we find that in 1751 he 
began to keep a * Garden Kalendar' on sheets 
of small letter-paper stitched together. This 
he continued until 1767, after which year he 
adopted a more elaborate form, a ' Natura- 
list's Journal,' invented and supplied to him 
by Daines Barrington [q. v.], and printed by 
Benjamin White, a copy being each year 
prepared for filling in by an observer. Both 
of these diaries, for so they may be called, 
are now in the library of the British Museum ; 
but though each has been cursorily inspected 
by naturalists, and certain excerpts were 
printed from the former by Bell (ii. 348-59), 
and from the latter by Dr. John Aikin 
(1747-1822) [q. v.] in 1795, and in 1834 by 
Jesse (Gleanings in Nat. Hist., 2nd ser. pp. 
144-80), who gave also a facsimile reproduc- 
tion of one of its pages (18-24 June 1775), 
neither seems to have been studied by a com- 
petent zoologist. Yet a close examination 
of these documents is absolutely needed to 
attain a true knowledge of White's life. 
That he was a born naturalist none will 
dispute; in his earliest letter to Pennant 
(10 Aug. 1767) he says he was attached to 
natural knowledge from his childhood ; but 
it is no less certain that the habit of 
observation and reflection on what he ob- 
served grew upon him daily. It has been 
suggested (Saturday Review, 24 Sept. 1887) 



that he, like Robert Marsham, the corre- 
spondent of his closing days, acquired from 
Stephen Hales [q. v.], the rector of the neigh- 
bouring Faringdon, who was well known to 
White himself, his father, and grandfather 
(letter to Marsham, 13 Aug. 1790), * the taste 
for observing and recording periodic natural 
phenomena.' This may have been so, though 
from his own statement it is not likely. In 
the letter to Pennant just mentioned White 
lamented throughout life ' the want of a com- 
panion to quicken my industry and sharpen 
my attention.' The * Miscellaneous Tracts ' 
of Benjamin Stillingfleet [q. v.] are often cited 
with approval by White, and their publica- 
tion in 1759 must have encouraged him to 
pursue the course he had early adopted ; 
while still later the five little annual volumes 
of Scopoli (1769-1772), which he was fond 
of quoting, must have had the same effect. 
There is abundant proof that in his youth 
he was an enthusiastic sportsman, although 
at the same time a reflective one (cf. his 
letter No. xxiii. to Barrington). So keen 
was he in his undergraduate days at Oxford, 
as one of Mulso's letters (16 Aug. 1780) re- 
minds him, that he used to practise with 
his gun in summer, and fetch down migrant 
birds in order to steady his hand for the 
winter ; and in early years to shoot wood- 
cocks, even when paired, in March (BAK- 
EINGTON, Miscellanies, pp. 217, 218). It 
must by degrees have dawned on him that 
the kind of observation needed for the suc- 
cessful pursuit of sport, just as of horticul- 
ture, might be rendered more valuable by 
the study of plants and animals on a prin- 
ciple more or less methodical. Even in 1753 
we find him (BELL, ii. 338) buying Ray's 
' Synopsis Methodica Avium et Piscium,' and 
this was the book which, in regard to zoology, 
served him as his guide to the last, though 
he to some extent availed himself of the im- 
provements introduced from time to time 
into systematic natural history by Linnaeus. 
Yet it would seem that he did not seriously 
take up the study of botany until 1766 ; but 
he then for the rest of his life pursued it to 
a good end. 

White was in the habit of paying at least 
one annual visit to London, where his bro- 
thers Thomas and Benjamin were established. 
It may be inferred from his advice subse- 

?uently given to Ralph Churton (30 March 
784) that he attended, as a visitor, many 
meetings of the Royal Society and of the 
Society of Antiquaries (ib. ii. 198). On his 
visits to London (which seem to have gene- 
rally been early in the year) he met several 
men of high scientific position. He was 
there in the spring of 1767, and then, through 



White 



White 



his brother Benjamin, the publisher of Pen- 
nant's works, made Pennant's personal ac- 
quaintance (cf. his first letter to him 4 Aug. 
1767, first printed by Bell, i. '27, in 1877). 
Pennant, having in hand a new edition 
of his 'British Zoology' (1708-1770), was 
naturally pleased at falling in with an ob- 
server who had so much valuable informa- 
tion to impart, and a correspondence sprang 
up between them which lasted until the com- 
pletion of the new (so-called fourth) edition 
(1776), the proofs of which were revised by 
White. Unfortunately Pennant's letters 
are not forthcoming, though White's, being 
subsequently returned to him, form the basis 
of the celebrated ' Natural History of Sel- 
borne.' There cannot be a doubt that they 
were originally written merely for Pennant's 
<>\VM use, without any thought of separate 
publication. Certain writers have been ready 
to depreciate Pennant, both as a zoologist and 
as an antiquary; but with him White found 
himself on the best of terms, praising his 
candour. He did, indeed, complain to his 
brother John in February 1776 of the state 
of the proof-sheets sent for revision, and at 
another time he contrasted Lever's generous 
conduct with that of Pennant, to the advan- 
tage of the former, though it was the latter 
who gave him the much-esteemed Scopoli 
(ib. ii. 41). White was very ceremonious 
in his correspondence. Mulso, who al \vays 
wrote to him ' My dear Gil/ often protested 
against being addressed, in the letters now 
unhappily destroyed, ' My dear Sir/ and 
White frequently began his letters to his 
nephew in the same formal style; yet, in 
1769, in an unpublished letter, sold by 
Messrs. Sotheby & Co. in April 1896, he 
gently rallied Pennant on the honour, of 
which the latter was very proud, of being 
elected to the Academy of Sciences of Dront- 
heim (Trondhjem), humorously suggesting 
that henceforth he would be bound to believe 
in Bishop Pontoppidan's Kraken and Sea- 
Serpent under pain of expulsion. Bell (vol. i. 
p. xli) complains of Pennant's scant recog- 
nition of White's discoveries, but ignores the 
fact that White in correcting the proofs of 
the fourth edition of the ' British Zoology/ 
and making additions thereto, would natu- 
rally not introduce his own name on every 
occasion. In the preface Pennant generally 
but fully acknowledges White's services. 

White's personal acquaintance with Dailies 
Barrington did not begin until May 1769, 
when they met in London, though more than 
a year before the latter had sent him a copy 
of the 'Naturalist's Journal' (an invention 
of Barrington's) through his brother Benja- 
min, who published it. Thereupon followed 



a series of letters which, continued until 
1787, form the second part of the 'Natural 
History of Selborne/ though some ' letters' 
appear, as in the former part consisting of 
Pennant's letters, to have been subsequently 
added by way of completing the work. With 
his usual perversity Barrington chose to dis- 
believe in the migration of the swallow-kind, 
and, with his usual casuistry, attempted to 
defend the position he took up. It seems to 
have been his influence that from time to 
time disturbed White's mind on the subject, 
sending him to search for torpid swallows 
among the shrubs and holes of Selborne 
Hanger (Letters li. and Ivii. to Barrington ; 
JESSE, Gleanings in Natural History r , 2nd ser. 
p. 161); and, when he had actually seen 
their migration in progress (Letter xxiii. to 
Pennant), causing him to ignore the signifi- 
cance of his observation. The hold that 
this uncertainty had upon him lasted to the 
end, for in a letter to Marsham (BELL, ii. 
302) only a few days before his death he 
repudiated the supposition that he had written 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' against the 
torpidity of swallows, as it would not ' be 
consistent with what I have sometimes 
asserted so to do.' This is the more extra- 
ordinary, since through one brother he had 
positive assurance of the migration of swal- 
lows in southern Spain, and through another 
brother, the bookseller, he had opportunities 
(of which he certainly availed himself) of 
knowing what was published on the subject. 
He could hardly have been unaware of the 
' Essays upon Natural History ' brought out 
by George Edwards (1694-1773) [q. v.] in 
1770, one of which contains views on migra- 
tion, which are mostly sound, though possibly 
the remarkable ' Discourse on the Emigration 
of British Birds ' printed ten years later by 
John Legg (Salisbury, 1780), being a local 
publication and anonymous, may have escaped 
White's notice. 

It is certain that during his annual visits 
to London White made other scientific ac- 

Suaintances. He is found writing to (Sir) 
oseph Banks [q. v.] (BELL, ii. 241) in ful- 
filment of a promise so early as the spring of 
1768. A few months later that intrepid 
naturalist sailed with Cook on his memo- 
rable voyage in the success of which White 
took the greatest interest (ib. vol. i. pp. xliv- 
xlviii), while subsequently he knew Daniel 
Charles Solander [q.v.], Banks's companion ; 
the elder Forster, the naturalist of Cook's 
second voyage, as well as William Curtis 
[q. v.l the entomologist and botanist (ib. ii. 
17) ; Sir Ashton Lever [q. v.], who formed 
the enormous museum known by his name ; 
and John Lightfoot (1735-1788) [q. v.] of 



White 



43 



White 



Uxbridge, Pennant's fellow-traveller. It is 
evident, too, that White's sympathies were 
not limited to the animals of his own coun- 
try, as is shown by the interest he took in 
his brother's zoological investigations at Gi- 
braltar, and in the Chinese dogs brought home 
by Charles Etty, a son of the vicar of Sel- 
borne (Letter Iviii. to Barringtou), to say 
nothing of his desire to see the swallows of 
Jamaica (Letter vii. to the same). 

It is perhaps impossible now to ascertain 
when the notion of publishing his observa- 
tions in a separate work first occurred to 
White, or when he formed the determination 
of doing so. Early in 1770 Barrington 
must have made some suggestion on the 
subject, to which White replied on 12 April 
in hesitating terms : ' It is no small under- 
taking for a man unsupported and alone 
to begin a natural history from his own 
autopsia ! ' Something must also have passed 
between him and Pennant, for the next year, 
in a letter to him of 19 July, of which only 
an extract has been printed (BELL, vol. i. 
p. xlix), he says : ' As to any publication in 
this way of my own, I look upon it with 
great diffidence, finding that I ought to have 
begun it twenty years ago.' In 1773, writing 
to his brother John, he says (ib. ii. 21): 
' If you don't make haste I shall publish 
before you;' and again in 1774 (ib. ii. 28): 
' Out of all my journals I think I might 
collect matter enough and such a series of 
incidents as might pretty well comprehend 
the natural history of this district. ... To 
these might be added some circumstances of 
the country its most curious plants, its 
few antiquities all which altogether might 
soon be moulded into a work, had I resolu- 
tion and spirits to set about it/ The follow- 
ing year, however, he seems to have made 
up his mind, though in the spring of 1775 
his eyes suffered ' from overmuch reading ' 
(ib. ii. 40). In October he wrote (ib. pp. 
44, 45), ' Mr. Grimm has not appeared,' he 
being the Swiss draughtsman who even- 
tually executed the plates for the work. 
Writing from London to Sam Barker on 
7 Feb. 1776, he was still in doubt, at afcy 
rate, as to the form of publication he shtnild 
adopt ; but he had been to see Grimm, who 
a few weeks later came to Selborne, and 
is called 'my artist' (ib. ii. 128), taking 
views of the Hermitage and other places 
subsequently engraved for the volume ; while 
White declares his intention ' some time 
hence' to publish 'in some way or other' 
a new edition of his papers on the * Hirun- 
dines.' Those memorable monographs, al- 
most the earliest in zoological literature, he 
had communicated through Barrington, at 



whose instigation they were written (ib. ii. 
20), in 1774 and 1775 to the Royal Society, 
for insertion in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions.' There they were printed, although 
very carelessly, as the author justly com- 
plained (ib. ii. 115). He had intended an- 
other paper, on ' Caprimulgus/ to follow, 
but Barrington, having quarrelled with the 
Society (ib. ii. 43), would not present it 
( ib. ii. 229). In the first half of 1777 White 
had a severe illness (J. Mulso, in lift. 
1 June 1777), which must have interfered 
with his work on which he had begun to be 
seriously engaged. Moreover, the anti- 
quarian portion for he had decided to 
include in it an account of the antiquities 
of Selborne (BELL, ii. 137) obviously re- 
quired much labour, and he spent a good 
part of October in that year at Oxford, 
investigating the archives of Magdalen Col- 
lege, to which the priory of Selborne had 
been united on its suppression some fifty 
years before the general dissolution of the 
monasteries. In this task White was greatly 
assisted by his friend Richard Chandler (1738- 
j 1810)[q.v.],the celebrated Greek traveller and 
j antiquary, who not only examined for him 
! the records relating to Selborne possessed 
j by that college, but also those which he was 
! allowed to borrow from the dean and chap- 
| ter of Winchester. About 1779 White be- 
came acquainted with Ralph Churton [q. v.], 
from whom he received no little assistance, 
as appears by their correspondence first pub- 
lished by Bell (ii. 186-230). Still, progress 
was slow, and he complained to Sam Barker 
that ' much writing and transcribing always 
hurts me ' (ib. ii. 139). Mulso's letters re- 
peatedly urge greater speed, but White was 
not to be hurried in the execution of his 
! self-imposed task. He evidently determined 
j that what he had to do he would do with 
his might, and the result justified his delay. 
It was not until January 1788 that he 
wrote to Sam Barker (ib. ii. 168) that he 
had at length put his Mast hand' to the 
book ; but still there was the index to make 
' an occupation full as entertaining as that 
of darning of stockings ' and the actual 
publication did not take place until the end 
of that year, the volume bearing on its 
title-page the date 1789. Almost coincident 
with its appearance was the death of his 
youngest brother Harry, of Fy field, with 
whom he was always on most affectionate 
terms, and the loss was evidently much felt 
by him. The book was published by White's 
brother Benjamin. His brother Thomas, 
who had been constantly urging the publi- 
cation, if he were not its prime instigator, 
wrote (anonymously, of course) a review of 



White 



44 



White 



it in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' which, 
speaking of it highly as it deserved, yet be- 
trayed no excess of fraternal partiality. 
.John Mulso, whose taste and critical faculty, 
originally keen, seem to have been blunted 
by the lazy life he had now so long led as a 
well-beneticed ecclesiastic, expressed his ap- 
proval in warm though not very enthusias- 
tic terms, partly, perhaps, because he seems 
to have before read the natural history por- 
tion of the 'piece,' and he lamented that his 
own name, as that of the friend at Sunbury 
mentioned by the author, did not ' stand in 
a book of so much credit and respectability.' 
The correspondence with Churton, whence 
most information of White's life at this 
period is obtainable, contains no letter be- 
tween the beginning of December 1788 and 
the end of July 1789, and it was not until 
the following October that he says he was 
reading the book with aviditv, this being 
after White had written to him (BELL, ii. 
214) : ' My book is still asked for in Fleet 
Street. A gent, came the other day, and 
said he understood that there was a Mr. 
White who had lately published two books, 
a good one and a bad one ; the bad one was 
concerning Botany Bay [' A Voyage to New 
South Wales,' by John White (no relation), 
published in 1790], the better respecting 
some parish.' Churton justly complained 
that the index was not more copious, and 
the same complaint may be made in regard 
to every edition that has since appeared. 
Soon after this, White wrote that Oxford 
appeared every year to recede further and 
further from Selborne, and it is clear that 
the infirmities of age had come upon him. 
For at least ten years he had suffered from 
deafness, and his letters, though showing no 
indication of decay in mental power, seem 
to have been written at longer intervals. 
Yet in March 1793 Churton canvassed him 



for his 



his vote in favour of George Crabbe fq.v.] 
as professor of poetry at Oxford, and ao- 
peared to think he might come to the uni- 
versity to give it. 

Whatever may have been its reception on 
the part of White's family and friends, the 
merits of the book were speedily acknow- 
ledged by naturalists who were strangers to 
him. Within six months of its appearance 
George Montagu (1751-1815) [q. v.J, hardly 
then Known to fame, but not many years after 
recognised as a leading British zoologist, 
wrote that he had been 'greatly entertained' 
by it (id., ii. 236), plying its author with in- 
quiries which were sympathetically answered. 
Another letter of the same kind followed a 
few weeks later, telling White ' Your work 
produced in me fresh ardour, and, with that 



degree of enthusiasm necessary to such investi- 
gations, I pervaded the interior recesses of 
the thickest woods, and spread my researches 
to every place within my reach that seemed 
likely.' The next year brought another 
correspondent, and one whose scientific repu- 
tation was assured. This was Robert Mar- 
sham of Stratton-Strawless in Norfolk (the 
place where Stillingfleet had written his 
* Tracts '), White's senior by twelve years, 
who (introduced to the new work by his 
neighbour, William Windham the states- 
man) wrote that he could not deny himself 
'the honest satisfaction' of offering the 
author his thanks for 'the pleasure and in- 
formation ' he had received from it. Most 
fortunately the correspondence which there- 
upon began between these two men is almost 
complete, there being but two of White's 
letters missing. It has been published by Mr. 
Southwell in the ' Transactions of the Norfolk 
and Norwich Naturalists' Society' for 1875-6 
(ii. 133-95), was thence reprinted by Bell 
(ii. 243-303), and White's side of it by Mr. 
Harting as an appendix to his second edition. 
Here we see that White's interest in all 
branches of natural history was to the very 
end as keen as ever for his last letter to 
Marsham was dated but eleven days before 
his death while every characteristic of his 
style, its unaffected grace, its charming sim- 
plicity, and its natural humour is maintained 
as fully as in the earliest examples which 
have come down to us, so that this corre- 
spondence is a fitting sequel to that between 
himself and Pennant and Barrington. White's 
pleasure at Marsham's approval is unmistak- 
able. ' O that I had known you forty years 
ago ! ' is one of White's exclamations to Mar- 
sham, the significance of which may be seen 
when read in connection with that passage 
in his earliest letter to Pennant (10 Aug. 
1767), wherein he wrote : ' It has been my 
misfortune never to have had any neighbours 
whose studies have led them towards the 
pursuit of natural knowledge.' 

During White's last years there his sister- 
in-law, widow of his brother John, continued 
to keep house for him at Selborne. On the 
death of his aunt Mrs. Snooke in 1780 he 
had become possessed of property which 
could not have been inconsiderable, including 
' the old family tortoise/ and he was there- 
by enabled the more easily to gratify his 
disposition towards hospitality. From his 
correspondence with his niece ' Molly,' the 
Barkers, and Churton who seems to have 
usually passed Christmas with him we see 
how open his door was to members of his 
family and to his friends, despite his in- 
creasing deafness. Mulso, writing to him in 



White 



45 



White 



December 1790, says: 'Alas! my good friend, 
how should we now do to converse if we 
met ? for you cannot hear, and I cannot now 
speak out.' Many times in the correspon- 
dence with Marsham each complained ot the 
hold which ' the Hag procrastination ' had 
taken upon himself, but there is really little 
sign of the power of 'this daemon' upon 
White, and his 'Naturalist's Journal' was 
continued until within four days of his death. 
On 14 June 1793 the son of his oldest friend, 
John Mulso (who had died m September 
1791), came to Selborne, where he stayed for 
a night, and next day White wrote his last 
letter to Marsham, which ended with the 
words. ' The season with us is unhealthy.' 
In it he said he had been annoyed in the 
spring by a bad nervous cough and ' a 
wandering gout.' His fatal illness must 
have been of short duration, though, accord- 
ing to Bell, it was attended by much suffer- 
ing. On the 26th he died at his house, The 
Wakes, which has since been visited by so 
many of his admirers. He lies buried among 
his kinsfolk on the north side of the chancel 
of Selborne church, 'the fifth grave from 
this wall ' as recorded on a tablet originally 
placed against it on the outside, but since 
removed within, and inappropriately affixed 
to the south wall of the building. The grave, 
however, is still marked by the old headstone 
bearing the initial letters of his name and 
the day of his death. 

That White's ' Selborne ' is the only work 
on natural history which has attained the 
rank of an English classic is admitted by 
general acclamation, as well as by competent 
critics, and numerous have been the attempts 
to discover the secret of its ever-growing 
reputation. Scarcely two of them agree, 
and no explanation whatever offered of the 
charm which invests it can be accepted as 
in itself satisfactory. If we grant what is 
partially true, that it was the first book of 
its kind to appear in this country, and 
therefore had no rivals to encounter before 
its reputation was established, we find that 
alone insufficient to account for the way in 
which it is still welcomed by thousands of 
readers, to many of whom and this espe- 
cially applies to its American admirers 
scarcely a plant or an animal mentioned in 
it is familiar, or even known but by name. 

White was a prince among observers, 
nearly always observing the right thing in 
the right way, and placing before us in a 
few words the living being he observed. Of 
the hundreds of statements recorded by 
White, the number which are undoubtedly 
mistaken may be counted almost on the 
fingers of one hand. The gravest is perhaps 



that on the formation of hpneydew (Letter 
Ixiv. to Barrington) ; but it was not until 
some years later that the nature of that 
substance was discovered in this country 
by William Curtis [q. v.], and it was not 
made known until 1800 (Transactions Lin- 
ncean Society, vi. 76-91) ; while we have 
editor after editor, many of them well- 
informed or otherwise competent judges, 
citing fresh proofs of White's industry and 
accuracy. In addition White was ' a scholar 
and a gentleman,' and a philosopher of no 
mean depth. But it seems as though the 
combination of all these qualities would not 
necessarily give him the unquestioned supe- 
riority over all other writers in the same field. 
The secret of the charm must be sought 
elsewhere ; but it has been sought in vain. 
Some have ascribed it to his way of iden- 
tifying himself in feeling with the animal 
kingdom, though to this sympathy there were 
notable exceptions. Some, like Lowell, set 
down the ' natural magic ' of White to the 
fact that, ' open the book where you will, it 
takes you out of doors ; ' but the same is to 
be said of other writers who yet remain com- 
paratively undistinguished. White's style, 
a certain stiffness characteristic of the period 
being admitted, is eminently unaffected, even 
when he is ' didactic,' as he more than once 
apologises for becoming, and the same sim- 
plicity is observable in his letters to mem- 
bers of his family, which could never have 
been penned with the view of publication, 
and have never been retouched. Then, too, 
there is the complete absence of self-impor- 
tance or self-consciousness. The observation 
or the remark stands on its own merit, and 
gains nothing because he happens to be the 
maker of it, except it be in the tinge of 
humour that often delicately pervades it. 
The beauties of the work, apart from the 
way in which they directly appeal to natu- 
ralists, as they did to Darwin, grow upon 
the reader who is not a naturalist, as Lowell 
testifies, and the more they are studied the 
more they seem to defeat analysis. 

No portrait of White was ever taken, 
and, though some have pleased themselves 
with a tradition that one of the figures in 
the frontispiece of the quarto editions of his 
book was intended to represent him, Bell's 
authority (vol. i. p. Iviii n.) for otherwise 
identifying each of those figures must be ac- 
cepted. Bell was told by Francis White, the 
youngest son of Gilbert's youngest brother, 
that he well remembered his uncle, who 
' was only five feet three inches in stature, 
of a spare form and remarkably upright 
carriage.' 

A complete bibliography of W r hite's writ- 



White 



White 



ings would occupy many pages, owing to the 
number of editions and issues (eighty or 
more) through which his chief work has 
passed. A full list has been attempted in 

* Notes and Queries' for 1877-8 (5th ser. vols. 
vii. to ix.), and by Mr. Edward A. Martin 
(A Bibliography of Gilbert White, Westmin- 
ster [1897], 8vo), who wrote apparently in 
ignorance of what had appeared in 'Notes 
and Queries.' The first publication to be 
noticed is the 'Account of the House-Martin 
or Martlet. In a letter from the Rev. Gil- 
bert White to the Hon. Daines Barrington ' 
(Phil. Trans, vol. Ixiv. pt. i. pp. 196-201). 
This letter bears date 20 Nov. 1773, and 
was ' redde 'to the Royal Society on 10 Feb. 
1 774. It is reprinted in the 'Natural His- 
tory of Selborne ' as letter xvi. to Bar- 
rington. Next there is 'Of the House- 
Swallows, Swift, and Sand-Mart in. By the 
Rev. Gilbert White, in Three Letters to the 
Hon. Daines Barrington ' (ib. vol. Ixv. pt. ii. 
pp. 258-76). These were read to the same 
society on 16 March 1775, and were respec- 
tively dated 29 Jan. 1775, 28 Sept, 1774, 
and 26 Feb. 1774 ; but the annual dates of 
the first and last should be reversed, and 
White complains of various other misprints. 
They reappeared in the ' Natural History of 
Selborne ' as letters xviii. xxi. and xx. to 
Barrington. These were but forerunners of 
the great work which bore on its title-page, 

* The I Natural History | and i Antiquities | 
of | Selborne, | in the | County of Southamp- 
ton : | with | Engravings, and an Appendix. | 
London : \ printed by T. Bensley ; | for B. 
White and Son, at Horace's Head, Fleet 
Street. | M.DCC.LXXXIX.' It is in quarto, 
pp. vi, 468 + 13 unnumbered, being twelve 
of index and one of errata. The author's 
name is not on the title-page, but appears as 
' (til. White ' on p. v. It has an engraved 
title-page, and seven copperplates, besides 
one inserted on p. 307. Contemporary ad- 
vertisements show that it was issued in 
boards at the price of one guinea, and it was 
the only English edition published in the 
author's lifetime. Two years after his death 
there appeared ' A I Naturalist's Calendar I 
with Observations in Various Branches | of | 
Natural History; | extracted from the papers ! 
of the late | Rev. Gilbert White, M.A. | of 
Selborne, Hampshire, | Senior Fellow of Oriel 
College, Oxford. ! Never before published. | 
London: I printed for B. and J. White, 
Horace's Head, | Fleet Street. 1 1795.' This 
is in octavo, and contains pp. 170 + 6 un- 
numbered. It was compiled by Dr. John 
Aikin, who signs the ' Advertisement.' The 
text begins at p. 7, and to face p. 65 is a 
coloured copperplate by J. F. Miller, after 



Elmer's picture of ' A Hybrid Bird ; ' but 
so badly done as to misrepresent not only 
the original, but also the watercolour draw- 
ing from which the plate is copied. In 
1802 appeared ' The Works in Natural His- 
tory of the late Rev. Gilbert White . . . com- 
prising the Natural History of Selborne ; the 
Naturalist's Calendar; and Miscellaneous 
Observations, extracted from his papers. To 
which are added a Calendar and Observations 
by W. Mark wick, Esq.' This was published 
in two volumes octavo by John (the son of 
the elder Benjamin) White in Fleet Street, 
who added the brief sketch of his uncle's 
life, which has been constantly reprinted, 
and it is often spoken of as Aikin's or Mark- 
wick's edition ; but whether the latter had 
more to do with it than allow a calendar, 
kept by himself in Sussex, to be printed 
alongside of that compiled by Aikin from 
White's journals is doubtful. The coloured 
plate of the ' Hybrid Bird ' is repeated, with 
considerable modification of tinting, from 
the former publication ; but the ' Antiqui- 
ties ' of the original work are omitted. 
S. T. Coleridge's copy of this edition, with 
his manuscript comments, is in the British 
Museum. In 1813 two editions appeared 
one in two volumes octavo, practically a 
reprint of the last, with the addition of the 
poems, now for the first time published, and 
the other in a single quarto volume, a re- 
print of the original, together with all the 
other matter subsequently added, and twelve 
copperplates instead of the nine of the editio 
princeps,one of the new engravings being that 
of a picture presented to Selborne church by 
Benjamin White, and some rational notes by 
John Mitford (1781-1859) [a. v.] of Benhall, 
after whom this edition is often named. In 
1822 appeared another edition in two volumes 
octavo, which is almost a reprint of the 
octavo of 1813, as is also one published in 
1825. In 1829 came out two editions in 
12mo one forming vol. xlv. of ' Constable's 
Miscellany ; ' the other, on larger paper, by 
Shortreed, each being published by Con- 
stable, and containing an introduction and 
some notes by Sir William Jardine ; but the 
dates of the letters, the plates, antiquities, 
calendars, many observations, and the poems 
are omitted. One or the other of these was 
reissued in succeeding years (1832, 1833, and 
1836) with a mere change of date on the 
title-page ; but, in 1853, a very superior edi- 
tion in octavo, with additional notes by 
Jardine, came out as a volume of the ' Na- 
tional Illustrated Library.' This gives the 
antiquities, and though the woodcuts are of 

Soor quality, the insertion of a map of the 
istrict and the excellence of the notes 



White 



47 



White 



render it very serviceable ; and it has since 
been reprinted or reissued several times 
(1879, 1882, 1890, c.) But Jardine in 
1851 brought out another edition containing 
notes by Edward Jesse [q. v.l, who, in 1834, 
had printed in the second series of his 
' Gleanings in Natural History ' (pp. 144- 
210) a considerable number of hitherto un- 
published extracts from White's ' Natura- 
list's Journal,' which for a time was in his 
possession, giving also a facsimile of one 
page of it, comprising the week 18-24 June 
[17751 

In 1833 also appeared an edition (in one 
volume octavo, but bearing no date) includ- 
ing the antiquities, ' with notes by several 
eminent naturalists,' who were William Her- 
bert (afterwards dean of Manchester), Ro- 
bert Sweet, and James Rennie. This is the 
best edition published up to that time, and 
is commonly known as Rennie's ; but four 
years after (1837) there appeared one, based 
upon it, which is better still, and is known 
as Bennett's, since Edward Turner Bennett, 
though dying before it left the press, super- 
vised it, adding notes of his own, and others 
by Bell, Daniell, Owen, and Yarrell, as well 
as a selection from those in Rennie's edition. 
This, with some fair woodcuts, remained for 
a long while the standard, but in time be- 
came out of date, whereupon in 1875 a re- 
vision of it (illustrated by a number of copies 
of Bewick's woodcuts of birds, and the fac- 
simile from White's journal formerly given 
by Jesse) was brought out with fresh notes 
by Mr. Harting, and it has several times 
since been reissued, with the addition of 
White's letters to Marsham. It includes 
the antiquities, and takes a high rank among 
editions. In 1833 also Captain Thomas 
Brown brought out at Edinburgh, with notes 
of his own, a new edition of the natural his- 
tory only, forming vol. i. of a series called 
1 The British Library,' and this, being stereo- 
typed, has been over and over again reissued 
with a new title-page and a changed date. 
Furthermore, still in the same year (1833), 
there appeared an edition of the natural his- 
tory, * arranged for young persons,' which is 
now known to have been done by Georgiana, 
lady Dover [see ELLIS, GEORGE JAMES WEL- 
BOEE AGAR-], and is dedicated to her son, 
H. A[gar]-E[llis] (afterwards Lord Clifden). 
It is the first ' bowdlerised ' edition, chiefly 
remarkable for the omission of a few pas- 
sages ; but the intention was good, and the 
book has subsequently found its way into 
children's hands, it having been latterly 
adopted by the Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knowledge, and many times reprinted, 
with new illustrations by Joseph Wolf [q.v.j, 



and a few notes by Bell ; while it is the foun- 
dation also of a large number of reprints in 
America, ranging from 1841 to the present 
time. 

A handy edition, including the antiqui- 
ties, with good notes by Blyth, but very 
poofr woodcuts, which has since been reissued 
several times, was brought out in 1836 ; and 
in 1843, a very pretty one, with a few judi- 
cious notes by Leonard Jenyns. In 1854 
there was started a series of editions of the 
natural history, published by Messrs. Rout- 
ledge, of which the first contained notes by 
John George Wood [q. v.], of a kind very 
inferior to those by all the preceding editors, 
Brown excepted. Year after year this series 
has continued, the price of one of the issues 
being sixpence, and that further reduced, in 
1875, to threepence for an issue of selections, 
with an introduction by Mr. Haweis. 

In 1875 there appeared an edition, with 
numerous illustrations, by P. H. Delamotte, 
with unsatisfactory notes by Frank Buck- 
land, and a chapter on the antiquities by 
Roundell Palmer, first lord Selborne [q. v.] 
The memoir is slight, and the five new 
letters are unimportant. This volume has 
had a large sale, and two cheaper issues 
since published are very popular, as well as 
one founded upon it, but printed in America 
in 1895 under the supervision of Mr. John 
Burroughs. 

In 1876 the newly discovered and delight- 
ful correspondence between White and Mar- 
| sham was first printed by the Norfolk and 
! Norwich Naturalists' Society, annotated by 
i Mr. Southwell and others, and next year 
appeared in two volumes the classical edi- 
tion of Thomas Bell (1792-1880) [q.v.], the 
possessor and occupant formerly for forty 
years of White's house at Selborne, an edi- 
tion which, from the great amount of new 
information it gives, throws all others into 
the shade. To Bell's edition reference has 
been chiefly made throughout this article. 
Of two editions announced in 1899, one has 
a preface by Grant Allen, with illustrations 
by Mr. E. H. New and Coleridge's manuscript 
notes from the copy of Mark wick's edition 
in the British Museum; the other, edited 
by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe from the original 
manuscript, includes for the first time the 
whole of ' The Garden Kalendar ' kept by 
W r hite from 1751, which is edited by Dean 
Hole, and numerous illustrations by Mr. 
J. G. Keulemans, and others. 

A German translation by F. A. A. Meyer 
was published at Berlin in 1792 (16mo) 
under the title of White's Beytrage zur 
Naturgeschichte von England.' It consists 
of extracts so put together as to lose their 



White 



4 8 



White 



epistolary character, though the name of 
letters is kept up. White's first six letters 
to Pennant are condensed into an ' Erster 
Brief,' while the last and ' Vierzehnter Brief 
is compounded of three of those to Barring- 
ton. The translation is not very accurate, 
and the editor's remarks, whether inserted 
in the text between brackets or as footnotes, 
often convey a sneer. 

[Various editions, especially that by Thomas 
Bell (2 vols. 1877), of The Natural History and 
Antiquities of Selborne ; unpublished letters 
and documents ; a ' Life,' as yet unfinished ana 
in manuscript, by White's great-great-nephew, 
Rashleigh Holt-White, esq. ; series of unpub- 
lished letters from John Mulso to Gilbert White 
(1744-90) in the possession of the latter's rela- 
tive, William, earl of Stamford ; extracts from 
documents in Oriel College, Oxford, furnished 
by Charles Lancelot Shadwell, esq., D.C.L., and 
a contribution by him to A. Clark's Colleges 
of Oxford, 1891, p. 121 ; anonymous article 
' Selborne' in the New Monthly Magazine, vol. 
xxix., for December 1830; Edward Jesse's 
Gleanings in Natural History, 2nd ser., Lon- 
don, 1834 ; Correspondence of Robert Marsham 
and Gilbert White, with notes by Thomas South- 
well and others, in Trans. Norfolk and Norwich 
Naturalists' Society, ii. 133-95 (1876); 'The 
Published Writings of Gilbert White,' Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. vols. vii-ix. (1877-8); 
' Gilbert White of Selborne ' (revised proof of the 
full article by Richard Hooper), Temple Bar 
Magazine, vol. Iv. April 1878 ; review of Bell's 
edition, Nature, xvii. 399, 400 (21 March 1878); 
Spectator, 13 July 1878 ; articles in the Satur- 
day Review, 10 and 24 Sept. 1887; 'Gilbert 
White in Sussex,' by H. D. Gordon, Zoologist, 
1893, pp. 441-50; ' Gilbert White of Selborne,' 
by W. W. Fowler, Macmillan's Magazine for 
July 1893, pp. 182-9; E. A. Martin's Biblio- 
graphy of Gilbert White, 1897 ; Clutterbuck's 
Notes on the Parishes of Fyfield (extracts from 
Henry White's Diary), &c., edited by E. D. 
Webb, Salisbury, 1898.] A. N-N. 

WHITE, HENRY (1812-1880), histori- 
cal and educational writer, born on 23 Nov. 
1812, was the son of Charles White of Min- 
ster Street, Reading. He was educated 
at Reading grammar school under Richard 
Valpy [q. v.J, and proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He also studied at the 
university of Heidelberg, where he obtained 
the degree of Ph.D. In the earlier part of his 
career, after working at Geneva with Merle 
d'Aubign6 for some time, he was chiefly 
occupied with scholastic work, and published 
several historical textbooks of considerable 
merit. Perhaps the best known is his * His- 
tory of France,' Edinburgh, 1850, 12mo, 
which attained an eighth edition in 1870. 
In 1868 he was appointed to superintend the 



compilation of the ' Catalogue of Scientific 
1 'apers' issued by the Royal Society, and was 
^ 



engaged in this^work until his death. For 
some years he also acted as literary critic to 
the ' Atlas ' during the editorship of Henry 
James Slack [q. vJ 

In 1867 he published his most important 
book, 'The Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
preceded by a History of the Religious 
Wars in the Reign of Charles IX,' London, 
8vo, a work of genuine research. White's 
was the first English treatise to show that the 
massacre was the result of a sudden revolu- 
tion, and not of a long-prepared conspiracy. 
The merits of his monograph were recog- 
nised by Alfred Maury, who reviewed it 
elaborately in the ' Journal des Savants/ 
White died in London on 5 Jan. 1880. In 
1837 he married Elizabeth King of Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer, and left issue. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
White was the author of : 1. ' Elements of 
Universal History,' Edinburgh, 1843, 12mo ; 
13th ed. Edinburgh, 1872, 8vo. 2. * Out- 
lines of Universal History,' Edinburgh, 
1853, 8vo ; 10th ed. 1873, 12mo. 3. < His- 
tory of Great Britain and Ireland,' Edin- 
burgh, 1849, 12mo ; 20th ed. 1879. He also 
compiled several school histories, and be- 
tween 1843 and 1853 translated Merle d'Au- 
bigne's ; History of the Reformation.' In 
conjunction with Thomas W. Newton he 
prepared the l Catalogue of the Library of 
the Museum of Practical Geology,' published 
in 1878. 

[Information kindly given by Mr. Henry 
White's son. Mr. A. Hastings White; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Trubner's American, Euro- 
pean, and Oriental Record, 1880, p. 12 ; 
Athenaeum, 1880, i. 58.] E. I. C. 

WHITE, HENRY KIRKE (1785-1806), 
poetaster, born in Nottingham on 21 March 
1785, was son of a butcher. His mother, 
whose name was Neville, came of a Stafford- 
shire family, and at one time kept a board- 
ing-school for girls. The house in which 
Henry is said to have been born is still 
pointed out in Exchange Alley, Notting- 
ham ; the lower portion remains a butcher's 
shop, the upper portion is a tavern with the 
sign of ' The Kirke White.' 

After receiving an elementary education 
at small private schools, he was at the age 
of fourteen put to work at a stocking loom. 
But he chafed against such employment. 
He developed literary tastes, and began 
writing poetry. He joined a literary society 
and showed promise as an orator. Within 
a year he obtained more congenial employ- 
ment with a firm of lawyers at Nottingham. 
His parents could not afford to pay a pre- 



White 



49 



White 



mium, and he was accordingly compelled to 
serve two years before being articled. He 
signed his articles in 1802. His employers 
noticed his promise, and advised him to 
study Latin. In ten months he could read 
Horace ' with tolerable facility,' and had 
begun Greek. Soon afterwards he acquired 
some knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, 
and read many books on natural science. 
He continued his poetic endeavours, and 
contributed to the 'Monthly Preceptor' a 
periodical which offered prizes to youthful 
writers. Subsequently he sent poems and j 
essays to the ' Monthly Mirror,' in which his . 
work attracted the favourable notice of one 
of the proprietors, Thomas Hill (1760-1840) 
fq. v.], and of Capel Lofft. White now deve- 
loped a strong evangelical piety. He read 
with appreciation Scott's ' Force of Truth,' | 
and made up his mind to go to Cambridge I 
and take holy orders. With a view to rais- | 
ing some of the needful funds, he, with the 
sanguineness of youth, prepared in 1802 a 
volume of poems lor the press. The Duchess 
of Devonshire accepted the dedication, and 
the volume appeared in 1803 under the title 
of ' Clifton Grove, a sketch in verse, with 
other poems, by Henry Kirke White of Not- 
tingham.' In the preface White confessed 
that the verses came from a very youthful 
pen. The work was of modest merit ; the 
title poem showed the influence of Gold- 
smith s 'Deserted Village,' and a reviewer 
in the 'Monthly Review' for February 1804 
justly and courteously said that the boyish 
verse was not distinctive. White sent a 
letter of complaint to the editor, and the re- 
viewer next month replied in a kindly tone 
that he adhered to his first opinion. Mean- 
while the book came under the notice of 
Southey, who exaggerated its literary value, 
and encouraged White to regard himself as 
a victim of the critic's malignity. Thence- 
forth Southey deeply interested himself in 
White's career (SOOTHEY, Correspondence, 
ii. 91). The volume of poems was not a 
pecuniary success, and White, compelled to 
look elsewhere for assistance to enable him 
to enter the university, obtained an intro- 
duction through his employer at Nottingham 
to Charles Simeon of King's College, Cam- 
bridge. Simeon was impressed by White's 
Siety, and procured him a sizarship at St. 
ohn's ; Wilberforce and other sympathisers 
guaranteed him a small supplementary in- 
come, and he quitted his legal employment 
in 1804 to spend a year in preparation for the 
university with a clergyman named Grainger 
of Winteringhnm, Lincolnshire. There over- 
work injured his health, which had already 
shown signs of weakness. 
VOL. LXI. 



In October 1805 he entered St. John's Col- 
lege, and at once distinguished himself in 
classics. At the general college examina- 
tion at the end of the first term, and again 
at the end of the summer term of 1806, he 
came out first of his year. But his health 
was failing, and consumption threatened. 
The college provided a tutor for him in 
mathematics during the long vacation of 

1806. His health proved unequal to the 
strain. At the beginning of the October 
term he completely broke down, and he 
died in his college rooms on 19 Oct. 1806. 
In 1819 a tablet to his memory, with 
a medallion by Chantrey and an inscrip- 
tion by Professor William Smyth, was 
placed above his grave in All Saints' 
Church, Cambridge, at the expense of a 
young American admirer, Francis Boott 
fq. v.J of Boston, subsequently well known 
in England as a botanist. The original 
model of Chantrey's medallion is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. The museum 
at Nottingham possesses two portraits of 
White, one (in profile) by T. Barber, and 
another by J. Hoppner, R.A. There is a 
third (anonymous) portrait in the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

White left in manuscript a mass of un- 
published verse and prose. His relatives 
placed it in Southey's hands, and Southey 
compiled from it ' The Remains of Henry 
Kirke White . . . with an Account of his 
Life,' which he published in two volumes in 

1807. The volume contained ' Clifton 
Grove ' and many poems written by White 
in childhood, together with a series of hymns 
and a fragment of an epic on the life of 
Christ called ' The Christiad,' which death 
prevented White from completing. Waller's 
lyric * Go, lovely Rose,' was reprinted with 
a new concluding stanza by White. The 
chief contribution in prose was a series of 
twelve essays on religious and philosophic 
topics called 'Melancholy Hours.' In the 
prefatory memoir Southey emphasised the 
pathos of White's short career, and wrote 
with enthusiasm of his poetic genius. The 
'Remains' was well received, and passed 
through ten editions by 1823. The work 
was often reprinted subsequently both in 
England and America. It was published 
for the first time in America at Boston 
in 1829. Ten of White's hymns were in- 
cluded by Dr. W. B. Collyer in his ' Sup- 
plement to Dr. Watts's Psalms and Hymns,' 
London, 1812, and are still in common 
use. 

Many early readers of the ' Remains ' 
shared Southey's high opinion of White's 
literary merits. In 1809 Byron wrote sym- 



White 



5 



White 



pathetically in his 'English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers : ' 

Unhappy White ! while life was in its spring 
And thy young muse just shook her joyous 

wing, 

The spoiler came ; and all thy promise fair 
Has sought the grave, to sleep for ever there. 
'Twas thine own genius gave the final blow 
And helped to plant the wound that laid thee 

low. 

Byron also wrote of White to Dallas on 
27 Aug. 1811 : ' Setting aside his bigotry, he 
surely ranks next Chatterton. It is asto- 
nishing how little he was known ; and at 
Cambridge no one thought or heard of such 
a man till his death rendered all notice use- 
less. For my own part I should have been 
proud of such an acquaintance ; his very pre- 
ludices were respectable.' But Southey's 
charitable judgment, which Byron echoed, 
has not stood the test of time. White's 
verse shows every mark of immaturity. In 
thought and expression it lacks vigour and 
originality. A promise of weirdness in an 
early and prophetic lyric, ' A Dance of Con- 
sumptives ' (from an unfinished ' Eccentric 
Drama '), was not fulfilled in his later com- 
positions. The metrical dexterity which is 
shown in the addition to Waller's 'Go, 
lovely Rose,' is not beyond a mediocre capa- 
city. Such popularity as White's work has 
enjoyed is to be attributed to the pathe- 
tic brevity of his career and to the fervour 
of the evangelical piety which inspired the 
greater part of his writings in both verse and 
prose. 

[Southey's Memoir prefixed to Remains, 
1807; Brown's Nottinghamshire Worthies, pp. 
283-99 ; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology.'J 

S.'L. 

WHITE, HUGH (/. 1107P-1155?), 
chronicler. [See HUGH.] 

WHITE, JAMES (1775-1820), author 
of ' FalstatTs Letters,' baptised on 7 April 
1775, was the son of Samuel White of 
Bewdley in Worcestershire. Born in the 
same year as Charles Lamb, he was educated 
with him at Christ's Hospital, where he was 
admitted on 19 Sept. 1783 on the presen- 
tation of Thomas Coventry. He left the 
school on 30 April 1790 in order to become 
a clerk in the treasurer's office. After re- 
maining for some years in that position he 
founded an advertising agency at 33 Fleet 
Street, which is still carried on under a firm 
of the same name. To this business he 
united that of agent for provincial news- 
papers. 

White was the lifelong friend of Charles 
Lamb. He was introduced by Lamb to 
Shakespeare's ' Henry IV,' and was at once 



fascinated by the character of Falstatf , whom 
he frequently impersonated in the company 
of his friends. By his success in sustaining 
the character at a masquerade he roused the 
jealousy of several small actors hired for the 
occasion, and according to his friend and 
schoolfellow John Mathew Gutch [q. v.], he 
was generally known as ' Sir John ' among 
his intimates. In 1796 he published ' Ori- 
ginal Letters, &c., of Sir John Falstaff and 
his Friends' (London, 8vo). William Ire- 
land's forgery, ' Vortigern,' was produced at 
Drury Lane in the same year, and the ' Letters T 
were'prefaced by a dedication in black letter 
to 'Master Samuel Irelaunde,' the forger's 
father, which was probably written by Lamb. 
The ' Letters' were held in the highest esteem 
by Lamb, who induced Coleridge to notice 
them in the ' Critical Review ' for June 
1797, and himself contributed an apprecia- 
tion of them to the * Examiner' for 5 Sept. 
1819. ' The whole work,' he wrote, ' is full 
of goodly quips and rare fancies, all deeply 
masked like hoar antiquity.' Notwithstand- 
ing his enthusiasm, which led him to pur- 
chase every second-hand copy he found on 
the booksellers' stalls and present it to a 
friend in the hope of making a convert, the 
sale of the ' Letters ' was inconsiderable, and 
they brought their author little fame. A 
second edition appeared in 1797, composed 
of unsold copies of the first with new title- 
pages, but the work was not reprinted until 
1877, when a new edition was issued with an 
elaborate memoir (London, 12mo). 
*" White died in London at his house in 
Burton Crescent, on 13 March 1820. He 
married a daughter of Faulder the book- 
seller, and left three children. He was a 
man of infinite humour, one ' who carried 
away with him half the fun of the world 
when he died' {Essays of Elia). Lamb 
always spoke of him with great affection. 
' Jem White,' he said to Le Grice in 1833, 
1 there never was his like. We shall never 
see such days as those in which he flourished/ 
He commemorated White's annual feast to 
the chimney-sweeps in one of his most 
familiar essays, and in the essay ' On some 
Old Actors ' he gives a pleasant account of 
White's discomfiture by Dodd the comedian. 
The author of ' Falstaff's Letters ' must 
be distinguished from JAMES WHITE (d. 
1799), scholar and novelist, who was pro- 
bably a relative. This James White was 
elected a scholar of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, in 1778, and graduated B.A. m 1780. 
He was well versed in the Greek language, 
edited one or two classical works, and wrote 
three historical novels of some merit. To- 
wards the close of his life his conduct be- 



White 



White 



came eccentric, and he imagined himself 
t In- victim of a conspiracy. He died, unmar- 
ried, at the Carpenters' Arms in the parish 
of Wick in Gloucestershire on 30 March 
1799, in great destitution. He was the 
author of : 1. 'Hints of a Specific Plan for 
the Abolition of the Slave Trade,' 1788, 8vo. 
'2. 'Conway Castle,' and other poems, Lon- 
don, 1789, 4to. 3. ' Earl Strongbow ; or the 
History of Richard de Clare and the Beauti- 
ful Geralda,' London, 1789, 2 vols. 12mo; 
German translation by Georg Friedrich 
Beneke,Helmstadt,1790,8vo. 4. 'The Ad- 
ventures of John of Gaunt,' 1790, 3 vols. 
12mo; German translation, Helmstadt, 

1791, 8vo. 5. 'The Adventures of King 
Richard Coeur de Lion,' London, 1791, 
3 vols. 12mo. 6. 'Letters to Lord Cam- 
den,' 1798. He also translated : 7. ' The 
Oration of Cicero against Verres,' 1787, 4to. 
8. Jean Paul Rabaut Saint-Etienne's ' His- 
tory of the French Revolution,' London, 

1792, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1793. 9. 'Speeches 
of M. de Mirabeau the Elder,' Dublin, 1792, 
8vo (Annual Register, 1799, ii. 11 ; RETJSS, 
Register of Living Authors, 1770-90; ib. 
1790-1803; Cat. of Dublin Graduates}. 

[The Lambs, their Lives, their Friends, and 
their Correspondence, by W. C. Hazlitt, 1897, 
pp. 24-6 ; Life, Letters, and Writings of Lamb, 
ed. Fitzgerald, 1886; Letters of Lamb, ed. 
Ainger, 1888 ; Letters of Lamb, ed. Hazlitt, 
1882-6 (Bohn's Standard Library); Hazlitt's 
Mary and Charles Lamb, 1874; Charles Lamb 
and the Lloyds, ed. E. V. Lucas, 1898, pp. 48- 
50; Southey's Life and Corresp. 1850, vi. 286- 
287 ; Gent. Mag. 1820, i. 474.] E. I. C. 

WHITE, JAMES (1803-1862), author, 
born in Midlothian in March 1803, was the 
younger son of John White of Dunmore in 
the county of Stirling, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Logan of Howden in Mid- 
lothian. After studying at Glasgow Uni- 
versity he matriculated from Pembroke 
College, Oxford, on 15 Dec. 1823, graduating 
B. A. m 1827. He served as curate of Hartest- 
cum-Boxsted in Suffolk, and on 27 March 
1833 he was instituted vicar of Loxley in 
Warwickshire. Ultimately, on succeeding to 
a considerable patrimony on the death of his 
wife's father, he resigned his living and re- 
tired to Bonchurch in the Isle of Wight. In 
this retreat he turned his attention to litera- 
ture, in which he had already made some 
essays, producing between 1845 and 1847 a 
succession of Scottish historical tragedies, 
works of some merit, though only moderately 
successful. Another tragedy, ' John Savile 
of Haystead ' (London, 1847, 8vo), was acted 
at Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1847. At a 
later time he brought out several historical 



* sketches of a popular character, written with 
considerable power of generalisation. The 
best known is ' The Eighteen Christian Cen- 

j turies ' (Edinburgh, 1858, 8vo), which reached 
a fourth edition in 1864. 

White died at Bonchurch on 26 March 
1862. He married in 1839 Rosa, only 
daughter of Colonel Popham Hill. By her 
he had one son, James (1841-1888), and 
three daughters. White possessed a charm- 
ing style, and interested his readers by his 
clearness of thought and his ability in select- 
ing and arranging detail. He was the friend 
of Charles Dickens, who in 1849 took a house 
at Bonchurch for some months in order to 
be near him. One of his tragedies was 
dedicated to Dickens. His portrait was 
painted in 1850 by Robert Scott Lauder. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
White was the author of : 1. 'The Village 
Poorhouse ; by a Country Curate,' London, 
1832, 12mo. 2. ' Church and School : a 
Dialogue in Verse,' London, 1839, 12mo. 
3. ' The Adventures of Sir Frizzle Pumpkin/ 
London, 1836, 8vo. 4. ' The Earl of Gowrie : 
a Tragedy,' London, 1845, 8vo. 5. 'The 
King and the Commons : a Drama,' London, 
1846, 8vo., 6. ' Feudal Times ; or the Court 
of James III : a Scottish historical Play,' 
London, 1847, 16mo. 7. ' Landmarks of 
the History of England,' London, ] 855, 8vo. 
8. 'Landmarks of the History of Greece,' 
London, 1857, 8vo. 9. ' Robert Burns and 
Walter Scott : two Lives,' London, 1858, 
12mo. 10. ' History of France,' Edinburgh, 
1859, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1860. 11. ' History of 
England,' London, 1860, 8vo. Some trans- 
lations from Schiller by White were published 
in Blackwood's Magazine,' xliii. 267, 684, 
725. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, s.v. 'White of Keller- 
stain ;' Gent. Mag. 1862, i. 651 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Foster's Index Eccles. ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Forster's Life of 
Dickens, ii. 394-6, iii. 104.] E. I. C. 

WHITE, JAMES (1840-1885), founder 
of the Jezreelites. [See JEZREEL, JAMES 
JERSHOM.] 

WHITE, JEREMIAH (1629-1707), 
chaplain to Cromwell, was born in 1629. 
He was admitted a sizar of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, on 7 April 1646, proceeded B.A. 
in 1649, and M.A. in 1653. In his student 
years he experienced much mental distress 
owing to religious difficulties, but ultimately 
found consolation in the doctrine of the 
restoration or restitution of all things. On 
leaving the university he passed at once to 
Whitehall, and became domestic chaplain 
to Cromwell and preacher to the council of 

a 



White 



White 



state. His attractive person and witty con- 
versation soon made him popular. His posi- 
tion in the household of the Protector brought 
him into close relationship with his family, 
and White allowed his ambition to go so far 
as to aspire to the hand of Cromwell's 
youngest daughter Frances. It is said that 
the lady did not look upon him with dis- 
favour. The state of things came to Crom- 
well's knowledge. With the help of a house- 
hold spy he managed to surprise the two at a 
moment when his chaplain was on his knees 
before his daughter kissing her hand. ' Jerry,' 
who was never at a loss for something to 
say, explained that for some time past he 
had been paying his addresses to the lady's 
waiting woman, but being unsuccessful in 
his endeavours, he had been driven to 
soliciting the Lady Frances's interest on his 
behalf. The opportunity thus offered was 
not neglected by Cromwell. Reproaching 
the waiting woman with her slight of his 
friend, and gaining her consent to the match, 
he sent for another chaplain and had them 
married at once. 

At the Restoration White found himself 
without fixed income, but abstained from 
the religious disputes of the day. It is 
probable that his popularity gained him 
some form of maintenance. In 1666 the 
estate of ' old Mrs. Cromwell ' was in his 
hands. He collected much information 
with respect to the sufferings of the dissenters 
after the Restoration, but refused a thousand 
guineas from James II for his manuscript, 
being disinclined to discredit the established 
church. His manuscript is not known to be 
extant. White never himself conformed to the 
church of England. He preached occasion- 
ally in an independent church in Meeting- 
house Alley, Queen Street, Lower Rother- 
hithe, which was built soon after the Resto- 
ration. 

While was a conspicuous member of the 
Calves' Head Club at its annual meetings on 
30 Jan., when the * Anniversary Anthem ' 
was sung, and wine in a calf's skull went 
the round to the memory of 'the patriots 
who had relieved the nation from tyranny.' 
He died in 1707. A glowing character is 
given of him in the ' Monthly Miscellany ' 
for 1707 (i. 83-5, 116-18). There is a por- 
trait of White incorrectly attributed to Van 
Dyck. An engraving is prefixed to his work, 
' A Persuasive to Moderation,' published 
after his death in 1708. 

His publications include: 1. 'A Funeral 
Sermon on the Rev. F. Fuller,' London, 
1702. 2. ' The Restoration of all Things,' 
<anon.), London, 1712, 1779 (3rd edit.), 
1851 (in vol. iii. of the Universalist's Li- 



brary). Extracts from the work were pub- 
lished in a volume entitled ' Universal 
Restoration,' with others of a like nature 
by ' some of the most remarkable authors 
who have written in defence of that inte- 
resting subject' (London, 1698). 3. 'A 
Persuasive to Moderation,' London, 1708 
(1726 ?). This is an enlargement of part 

; of White's preface to Peter Sterry's 'The 

I Rise, Race, and Royalty of the Kingdom of 
God in the Soul.' 

[Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, i. 211 ; 
Preface to White's Restoration, 1712; Old- 
mi xon's Hist, of the Stuarts, p. 426 ; Xotes and 

I Queries, 1st ser. vii. 388; Cal. of State Papers, 
1665-6, p. 299; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, 

1 ir. 367 ; Thoresby's .Diary, i. 7 ; The Secret 
Hist, of the Calves' Head Club, p. 10 ; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist. (cont. by Noble) ii. 151; Pepys's 
Diary, 19 Sept. 1660, 13 Oct. 1664 ; Admission 
registers of 'J rinity College, Cambridge, per the 
Master; University registers, per the Regi- 
strary.] B. P. 

WHITE, JOHN (1510?-! 560), bishop of 
Winchester, was the son of Robert White of 
Farnham, where he was born in 1510 or 1511 
(his brother John became lord mayor of Lon- 
don in 1563: see pedigree in MANNING and 
BRAY'S History of Surrey, iii. 177 ; but Col- 
lectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vii. 
212, says this is incorrect). In 1521, at 
the age of eleven, he was admitted scholar 
at Winchester, whence he proceeded as 
fellow to New College, Oxford (KiBBY, p. 
111). He was admitted full fellow in 1527, 
graduated B.A. on 13 Dec. 1529, M.A. on 
30Jan.l534,B.D.(?)beforel554(seeRYMEB, 
Fadera, xv. 388), and D.D. 1 Oct. 1555. 
In 1534 he resigned his fellowship, being 
then master of Winchester College, of which 
he was made warden in February 1541 
(WILLIS, Mitred Abbies, i. 333). Of his life 
at Winchester different accounts are given ; 
favourable by Pits (De Rebus Anglicis, 1619, 
p. 763, partly on report of Christopher John- 
son, himself master of Winchester), who de- 
scribes him as 'acutus poeta, orator eloquens, 
theologus solidus, concionator nervosus;' 
and unfavourable by Bale (Scriptt. Britann. 
Illustr. p. 737), who describes him with scan- 
dalous suggest! veness, and dubs him ' saltans 
asinus.' He was appointed in March 1540-1 
a prebendary of Winchester. Under Ed- 
ward VI he began to attract attention as 
an opponent of the protestants. He was 
examined by the council on 25 March 1551, 
when he admitted receiving ' divers books 
and letters from beyond sea,' and was com- 
mitted to the Tower (Hatfield MS. i. 83; 
Acts P. C. 1550-2, p. 242). 

On 14 June following the council, ' upon 



\Yhite 



53 



White 



knowledge of some better conformytie in 
matters of religion, 'transferred him to Cran- 
mer's custody 'till suche tyme as lie may 
reclamye him ' (ib. p. 302; STRYPE, Cranmer, 
] i. L': I: '. ). Cranmer was apparently successful, 
for in the same year White became rector of 
Cheyton, Surrey, and on 24 May 1552 he was 
admitted to the prebend ofEccleshall inLich- 
field Cathedral (LE NEVE, Fasti, i. 601). He 
entered into controversy with Peter Martyr, 
and was the first, Fuller says, who treated 
theological disputes in verse (see list of his 
works below). John Philpot [q. v.], arch- 
deacon of Winchester, excommunicated him 
' for preaching naughty doctrine' (PHILPOT, 
Works, Parker Soc. p. 82) ; but White seems 
to have retained his preferments, and is said 
to have been instrumental in preserving the 
college of St. Mary at Winchester, when the 
adjoining college of St. Elizabeth, the site 
of which he purchased, was destroyed (see 
MII.XER, Winchester, i. 362). 

( Mi the accession of Mary he came at once 
into prominence. He sat on several of the 
commissions which restored and deprived 
bishops. He preached at St. Paul's on 
25 Nov. 1553 in favour of the restoration of 
religious processions (MACHYN, p. 49). He 
was elected bishop of Lincoln on 1 March 
l. r M4 (LE NEVE, Fasti-, but see RYMER'S 
Fcedera, xv. 374, for licence), was consecrated 
in St. Saviour's, South wark, on 1 April by 
Bonner, Tunstall, and Gardiner (STUBBS, 
"Registrum Sacrum Am/licanum. ed. 1897, p. 
104), and received restitution of the tempo- 
ralities of the see on 2 May 1554. He was 
' provided ' to the see by the pope in a con- 
sistory on 6 July (RAYNALDTJS, ann. 1554, 
5). He was granted the next presentation 
to the archdeaconry of Taunton on 2 Nov. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. Wells MSS. p. 239). On 
the arrival of Ph il ip II he was one of those who 
received him at the west door of Winchester 
Cathedral (Cat. State Papers, For. 1553-8, 
pp. 106-7). He preached at the opening of 
parliament on 21 Oct. 1555 (ib. Venetian, 
1655-6, p. 217). He had already become 
famous in the pursuit of heretics, and on 
30 Sept. 1555 he presided at Ridley's trial. 
He then twitted the accused with his change 
of opinion on the doctrine of the eucharist 
(PARSONS, Conversion of England, iii. 209 
sqq. ; cf. FOXE, Actes and Monuments). He 
was one of the executors of Gardiner's will, 
preached at the requiem mass for him on 
1 s Nov. 1555, and went with the funeral 
procession (23 Feb. 1556) from St. Saviour's, 
South wark, to Winchester. On 22 March 
1556 he was one of the consecrators of 
Reginald Pole. In this year he visited his 
large diocese by commission of the new 



archbishop (interesting details in STRYPE, 
vi. 389, and see DIXON'S History of the 
Church of England, iv. 597-9). He retained 
the wardenship of Winchester with the 
bishopric of Lincoln (cf. Cal. Hatfield MSS. 
v. 221). 

The appointment to Winchester was de- 
layed till Philip's return to England (Cal. 
State Papers, Venetian, 1555-6, p. 281), 
and when White was at last nominated to 
the see the bulls for his translation were 
long delayed, and were very costly (ib. For. 
1653-8, pp. 227, 228, 242," and Venetian, 
1555-6, pp. 393, 477). Pole, it is said, had 
wished to hold the bishopric in commendam, 
and White, who desired it especially be- 
cause of his birth and long association, could 
only obtain it on his promise to pay 1,000/. 
a year to the cardinal as long as he lived, 
and to his executors a year after his death 
(MATTHEW PARKER, De Antiq. Brit. Eccl. 
p. 353). The cong6 d'elire to the dean and 
chapter was dated 1C July 1556. White had 
already received custody of the temporalities 
on 16 May 1556, and they were formally re- 
stored to him on 31 May 1557 (RYMER, 
Fcedera, xv. 436, 437, 441, 466 ; cf. MACHYN, 
p. 103). 

He continued to preach constantly in 
London (ib.}, notably before several heretics 
at St. Saviour's, Southwark, on 23 May 
1557, when Gratwick stood up and ' played 
the malapert fellow with' him (White, in 
FOXE, iii. 688). He tried the same heretic 
two days later, and is charged by Foxe 
with great harshness (Gratwick's own de- 
claration is in FOXE, iii. 663). 

On 13 Dec. 1558 he preached the funeral 
sermon of Queen Mary, from the text Ec- 
clesiasticus iv. 2. He spoke warmly of her, 
but charily of Elizabeth ; and a passage in 
which, referring to the preachers of the day, 
he said ' melius est canis vivus leone rnor- 
tuo,' was taken, probably unjustly, to refer 
to the new sovereign. He was at once com- 
manded to ' keep his house,' but on 19 Jan. 
1558-9 he was called before the council, and, 
' after a good admonicion geven him, was sett 
at lyberty and discharged' (Acts P. C. 1558- 
70, p. 45). On 18 March he voted against 
the supremacy bill in the House of Lords, and 
on 31 March 1559 he took part in the con- 
ference in the choir of Westminster Abbey 
between nine Romanists and nine Angli- 
cans (Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558-67, 
pp. 45, 46-8, Dom. 1547-1550, p. 127, and 
Venetian, 1558-80, pp. 65, 69; see CAMDEN, 
Annals, p. 27 ; PARSONS, A Review of Ten 
Public Disputations, 1604, pp. 77 sqq.; 
BURNET, History of the Reformation, ii. 388, 
396). White declared that he was not ready 



White 



S4 



White 



to dispute, as they ' had not their wrytynge 
ready to be read there/ and the conference 
broke up not without disorder. It was re- 
newed on 3 April, and at the close "White, 
with the bishop of Lincoln [see WATSON, 
THOMAS, 1513-1584], was removed to the 
Tower (Acts P. C. 1558-70, p. 78). On 
21 June he was deprived of his bishopric 
(deprivation formally completed on 26 June, 
MACHYN, p. 201), and was sent back to the 
Tower after a new attempt had been made 
to induce him to take the oath of supremacv 
(Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558-67, p. 79, cf. 
Venetian, 1558-80, p. 104). Before long his 
health began to fail (STRYPE, Annals, i. 1 42-3), 
and on 7 July he was released to live with 
his brother, Alderman John White, 'near 
Bartholomew Lane.' He was now dependent 
on his friends for maintenance (5 Aug. 
1559, Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1558-80, 
p. 117). He was shortly afterwards allowed 
to retire to the house of his sister, wife of 
Sir Thomas White, at South Warnborough, 
Hampshire, where he died on 12 Jan. 1560, 
* of an ague ' (MACHYN, Diary). He was 
buried in Winchester Cathedral on 15 Jan. 
He had many years before written his own 
epitaph, but this, though in the cathedral, 
was not apparently placed over his grave. 
He ' gave much to his servants ' (MACHYN), 
and was a benefactor to ]Sew College, Ox- 
ford (WOOD, History and Antiquities, ed. 
Gutch, p. 185), and to Winchester (Woon, 
Athena Oxon. i. 314). 

White is spoken of as a severe and grave 
man, more of a theologian than a courtier. 
His enemies accused him of pride and cove- 
tousness. 

Very few of White's works have survived 
(Pus, De Rebus Anylicis, p. 763). We have 
his ' Diacosio-Martyrion ' (London, 1553), 
to which is added * Epistola Petro Martyri ; ' 
both are concerned with the doctrine of the 
eucharist. His ' Carmina in Matrimonium 
Philippi regis cum Maria regina ' are quoted 
by many writers (e.g. FOXE, Actes and Monu- 
ments, ii. 1642), but no separate copy is 
known to exist. They were probably pub- 
lished in his l Epigrammatium liber i.' of 
which Pits says, ' Vidi aliquando Oxonii 
exemplar,' but no copy is now known. His 
{ Sermon preached at the Funeral of Queen 
.Mary' is in British Museum Sloane MS. 
1578 ; and an inaccurate copy is printed in 
Strype's ' Memorials ' (App. Ixxxiv. p. 277). 

[Further details as to degrees will be found 
in Boase's Registers of University of Oxford 
(Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 130. Dates of preferments, 
&., in Rymer's Foedera, vol. xv., Le Neve's Fasti, 
and Godwin's Catalogues of the Bishops of 
England. See also Wood's Athenae Oxon. and 



Fasti ; Cal. State Papers, Dora., For., Spanish, 
and Venet ian ; Hist. MSS. Comra. Reps. Hatfield, 
pt. i. and Wells Cathedral; Gough's Index to 
Parker Soc. Publ. passim ; Acts of the Privy 
Council, ed. Dasent; Strype's Eccles. Memorials 
and Craumer ; Camden's Annals ; Harrington's 
Brief View of the Church of England ; Burnet's 
Hist, of the Reformation, vol. ii. ; Parsons's Con- 
version of England ; Foxe's Actes and Monu- 
ments; Heylyn's Ecclesia Restaurata; Milner's 
Hist, of Winchester, vol. i. ; Parker, De Anti- 
quit. Brit. Eccles.; Andrewes's Tortura Torti, 
p. 146 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannico- 
HibernicH, p. 761 ; Warton's Life of Sir T. Pope; 
Holinshed'sChronicle.vol. iii.; Fuller's Worthies, 
ed. Nichols, i. 405; Cassan's Bishops of Winches- 
ter; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ; Bridgett andKnox's 
Catholic Hierarchy, 1889; Gee's Elizabethan 
Clergy, 1898.] W. H. H. 

WHITE or WITH, JOHN (f. 1585- 
1593), Virginian pioneer, sailed with Sir 
Richard Grenville from Plymouth on 9 April 
1585, and was one of the 107 men whose 
names are recorded by Hakluyt as those of 
the first settlers in Virginia! They were 
left by Grenville on the island of Roanoke 
under the governorship of (Sir) Ralph Lane 
[q. v.]; but in June 1586, at their own 
earnest request, they were taken back to 
England by Drake. Two years later one of 
the colonists, Thomas Harriot [q. v.], wrote 
for the edification of Ralegh (at whose ex- 
pense the experiment had chiefly been made) 
his * Briefe and True Report of the new 
found land of Virginia ' (London, 1588, 8vo ; 
and Frankfort, 'sumptibus Theodori De 
Bry,' 1590). The Frankfort edition was 
illustrated by twenty-three copperplates 
from drawings by John White, including a 
' carte of all the coast of Virginia,' which 
formed the basis of the subsequent ' Map of 
Virginia' (1612) of John Smith. 

In July' 1587 a hundred and fifty new 
settlers were sent out by Ralegh under John 
White, who is generally identified with the 
draughtsman of the previous expedition (cf. 
STEVENS, Bibl. Historic, 1870, p. 222). In 
August White wished to send home two of 
his subordinates to represent the needs of 
the colonibts, but the wish of the colony 
generally was that White himself should 
undertake the mission. He was reluctant 
to leave some relatives who had accom- 
panied the expedition, but eventually on 
27 Aug. he sailed, and after a painful voyage 
reached Southampton on 8 Nov. With him 
there landed an Indian, who was baptised 
in Bideford church, but died within tlu 
year. In April 1588 Ralegh sent White 
back with two small relief vessels, but the 
sailors, as usual, had thoughts for nothing 



White 



5S 



White 



but Spanish prizes, and, after having been 
worsted in an encounter, the vessels had to 
put back to Plymouth to the utter destruc- 
tion of the unhappy colonists.' lie managed 
ultimately, in March 1590, to sail upon what 
he states in his letter to Hakluyt to be 
his fifth voyage to the West Indies, in 
one of the ships of a merchant, John Wattes 
(probably Sir John Watts [q.v.], lord mayor 
in 1606-7), the captain of which undertook 
to land supplies at Roanoke. On 15 Aug. 
they weighed anchor off that island, cheered 
by the sight of some ascending smoke, but j 
when next day they went ashore, nothing of 
the former colonists could be found. White ' 
arrived back at Plymouth on 24 Oct. On ' 
4 Feb. 1593 from his ' house at Newtowne in 
Kylmore,' he wrote a letter to Hakluyt, in j 
which he apologises for his ' homely stile,' 
giving details of his last voyage. This 
letter was printed in Hakluyt's third volume 
(1600, pp. 288-95). 

In Additional MS. 5270 (now in the 
print room at the British Museum) are 
some watercolour drawings by White of 
Virginian subjects. Some of these drawings 
are copied in Additional MS. 5253. 

[Stith's Hist, of Virginia, i. 25; Doyle's Eng- 
lish in America, Virginia, pp. 91 sq. ; Archaeo- 
logia Americana, iv. 21 ; Winsor's Hist, of 
America, iii. 124 ; Drake's Making of Virginia, 
1894 ; Kohl's Maps relating to America, Wash- 
ington, 1857, pp. 42 sq.] T. S. 

WHITE, JOHN (1570-1615), divine, \ 
son of Peter White, vicar of St. Neots, i 
Huntingdonshire, and of the neighbouring 
parish of Eaton Socon, Bedfordshire, was 
Born at Eaton Socon in 1570, and educated 
at St. Neots grammar school. He was ad- 
mitted a sizar of Gonville andCaius College, 
Cambridge, on 15 Feb. 1585-6, was scholar 
from Lady-day 1588 to Michaelmas 1592, 
and graduated B.A. in 1589-90, M.A. in 
1593, and D.D. in 1612. He was appointed 
vicar of Eccles, Lancashire, and fellow of 
the Collegiate Church, Manchester, in 1606, 
and resigned these offices in 1009 on being 
presented by Sir John Crofts to the rectory 
of Barsham, Suffolk. In 1614 or 1015 he 
was made chaplain in ordinary to James I. 

White in his will speaks of the ' distresses ' 
that he suffered at Eccles, ' which I was 
never able to look through to this day.' It 
is inferred from this that he was in poverty 
when he died, at the age of 45, in 1615, in 
Lombard Street, London. He was buried 
on 28 May 1615 at the church of St. Mary 
Woolnoth. He left seven children. The 
eldest, John, entered Gonville and Caius 
College in 1611, aged 10, and became vicar 



of Eaton Socon ; another son is mentioned 
by Fuller as a druggist in Lombard Street, 
London. 

White wrote 'The Way to the True 
Church : wherein the principal Motives per- 
swading to Komanisme are familiarly dis- 
puted and driven to their Issues,' London, 
1608, 4to. Further editions of this learned 
defence of the reformed faith came out in 
1610, 1612, and 1616. 

It was answered at first by A. D. or Fisher, 
alias Piercy, to whom White rejoined in ' A 
Defence of the Way to the I'rue Church 
against A.D. his Reply,' 1614, 4to. White's 
' Defence ' occasioned ' A Discovery of cer- 
tain notorious Shifts, Evasions, and Un- 
truths uttered by M. J. White . . . ByW.G.,' 
London, 1619, 4to. Meanwhile White's 
original work evoked Thomas Worthing- 
ton's *W T hyte dyed Black, or a Discovery 
of many most Foule Blemishes, Impostures 
and Deceipts which D. Whyte hath prac- 
tysed in his Book/ &c., 1615, 4to. A reply 
to Worthington was published after White s 
death, namely in 1617, by his brother Francis 
White [q.v.], afterwards bishop of Ely. A 
third reply to White's original book was ' A 
Treatise of the Church, in which it is proved 
Mr. J. W. his Way to the True Church to 
be indeed no Way at all to any Church,' 
1616, 4to. 

John White also published: 1. 'English 
Paradise, discovered in a Latine Prospect of 
Jacobs Blessing, a Sermon on Gen. xxvii. 27,' 
London, 1612, 4to. 2. ' Two Sermons: the 
Former at Pauls' Crosse on 1 Tim. ii. 1, upon 
the Anniversary Commemoration of the 
Kings most happy Succession to the Crowne 
of England ; the Latter at the Spittle on 
1 Tim. vi. 17,' London, 1615, 4to. His 
works were collected and republished by his 
brother Francis in 1624 in one volume folio, 
with a portrait of the author. 

[Fuller's Worthies, ed. Nuttall, ii. 103; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 236 ; Gor- 
tmm's Eynesbury and St. Neots, 1820, p. 223; 
Raines's Fellows of Manchester College, i. 104 ; 
Venn's Biographical Hist, of Gonville and Caius 
College, 1897, i. 12" ; French's Chatham's 
Church Libraries, p. 52 ; Arber's Stationers' 
Register, iii. 382; Granger's Biogr. Hist, 1824, 
ii. 62; Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, ed. 
Win taker, p. 255 (wrong with respect to White's 
parentage) ; Catalogues of Brit. Mus., Bodl. 
Libr., and Manchester Free Libr. ; note from 
the Rev. J. M. S. Brooke, rector of Sr. Mary 
Woolnoth.] C. W. S. 

WHITE alias BRADSHAW, JOHN, after- 
wards AUGUSTINE (1576-1618), Benedictine 
monk, was born near Worcester, probably 
at Henwick, in 1576, of parents of good con- 



White 



White 



dition and of the old faith. Father Oldcorne, 
the Jesuit, was chaplain at Ilinlip, and it 
was most likely through him that young 
"White was introduced to Henry Garnett 
[q. v.], the Jesuit superior, who sent him to 
St. Omer. On 21 Feb. 1596 he arrived at 
the Jesuit seminary at Valladolid, one of the 
establishments founded by Robert Parsons 
(1547-1010) [q. v.], which accustomed the 
English secular clergy to the Spanish and 
Jesuit influences necessary for the realisation 
of his intrigues concerned with the succession 
to the English crown. White was made 
prefect over his companions. During a 
dangerous illness in the winter of 1598-9 
he vowed to become a Benedictine monk if 
his life were spared. Already several Eng- 
lish youths in Rome, dissatisfied with the 
attempts the Jesuits were making to secure 
the mastery over the secular priests at home, 
had joined the Italian monks of Monte 
Cassino and other Benedictine monasteries 
with the hope of one day returning to Eng- 
land. White was the first to leave the 
seminary for the monastery of San Benito in 
Valladolid, April 1599. After a month's 
postulancy he was sent to Compostella, 
where he was received as a novice on 26 May 
and took the name of Augustine. In 1600 
he was professed with four others (one of 
them being John (Leander) Jones [q.v.]), 
who had followed him from the seminary. He 
then went to the university of Salamanca. 
On 5 Dec. 1602, in spite of the opposition 
of the Jesuits, Clement VIII granted formal 
permission to the English Benedictines to 
return to their country as missionaries. As 
soon as the news arrived in Spain, White 
with three others set out for England on 
26 Dec., and arrived just as Elizabeth was 
dying. 

W T hite had been appointed superior over 
his companions. He seems to have worked 
at first in his native county. He is also 
very likely the White mentioned as a priest 
haunting Worcestershire and the neighbour- 
ing counties (State Papers, Dora. James I, 
vol. xiii. No. 52). The Benedictines were 
received with open arms by their co-reli- 
gionists, and the secular clergy gave them 
a special welcome as allies in the struggle 
against the Jesuits. So many desired to join 
their order that it was soon evident that 
steps must be taken to find a spot more 
accessible than Spain for a monastery in 
which English subjects could be trained. 
So in the spring of 1604 White set out again 
for Spain to attend the general chapter and 
lay before his superiors the plan. On his 
way he called upon the nuncio in Paris, and 
there it was that most likely his attention 



was first directed to Douai as a suitable 
position for the proposed foundation, it being 
a university town with rich abbeys close 
at hand. The Spanish abbots agreed to the 
proposal, and AVhite returned to England 
with the title of vicar-general. 

During the early part of 1605 White was 
engaged in a scheme for purchasing a tolera- 
tion from the government ( Westminster 
Archives, viii. 99). Garnett, the Jesuit su- 
perior, had lately failed in a similar attempt, 
and did his best to prevent W'hite's success. 
It was very likely about this time that 
White came into personal contact with Cecil, 
who, tradition asserts (WELDON, manuscript 
History), was so struck with the loyalty 
and Christian spirit of the monk that he 
promised as far as in him lay that no Bene- 
dictine should suffer the penalty of the law 
for exercising his priestly functions. 

In the autumn of 1605 Thomas Arundell, 
first lord Arundell of Wardour [q. v.], had 
taken command of an English regiment in 
the service of the Archduke Albert. He 
' brought Father Augustine Bradshaw 
[W T hite] out of England with him to be 
chaplain-general of that regiment ' (Down- 
side Review, xvi. 30 seq.) Coniers, a Jesuit 
and confessor to the English College at 
Douai, also joined the camp at Ostend as 
one of the chaplains, but he by no means 
liked being under the command of the Bene- 
dictine chaplain-general. Every means was 
taken, therefore, by the Jesuits to secure 
White's removal. All other plans failing, 
! it was determined to get rid of White by 
i procuring the dismissal' of Lord Arundell. 
James Blount, one of the officers, was sent, 
with recommendations, ' to blast his late 
colonel ' at the Spanish court, and succeeded 
so well that at the end of May 1606 Lord 
Arundell and almost half of the officers 
were cashiered, and with them, of course, 
the chaplain-general White. The nuncio 
at Brussels, Frangipani,and William Giffard, 
dean of Lille, also lost their posts, being 
favourers of the Benedictine. 

Why the Jesuits were so incensed against 
White is clear from the history of the founda- 
tion of the monastery at Douai. Parsons, as 
a means to an end, had secured the control, 
directly or indirectly, over all the seminaries 
on the continent in which the English secular 
clergy were educated. At Douai, the only 
college nominally in the hands of the clergy, 
he was also in power, as the president, Dr. 
Thomas Worthington [q. v.], had made a 
secret vow of obedience to the Jesuit. Under 
Worthington the state of the college, both 
material and intellectual, had been reduced 
with the express purpose, so the logic of 



White 



57 



White 



events proves, of lowering 1 the standard of 
the secular clergy. If the Benedictines, wit li 
their tradition of learning, were to be al- 
lowed to settle in Douai, it would entirely 
upset the intentions that Parsons had as 
regards the secular college and the Englisb 
mission. The maladministration would be 
exposed, and students leave the college for 
the monastery. The new foundation was 
made early in 1605, and White, as vicar- 
general, had control over it, although his 
work as chaplain-general and the defence 
of his position kept him away from Douai 
till the September of 1606, when he was 
actually in residence as prior. Very soon 
he found that Dr. Worthington had been 
appointed to head the attack. In June 1607 
he went to Brussels to defend his monastery, 
and had an interview with the nuncio 
Caraffa, who told him that he sent for him 
to counsel him to leave Douai, for that ' the 
Jesuits and the president will never let you 
be quiet.' 

White had already found another spot in 
case the Jesuits succeeded in driving him out 
of^pouai. Through the good offices of Wil- 
liam (jittard, an old disused collegiate church 
at Dieulewart in Lorraine was transferred 
to him in December 1606. White, however, 
succeeded at Home and Madrid in defeating 
the opposition to the establishment at Douai, 
where Philip Caverel, abbot of St. Vedast's 
in Arras, promised to build and endow a 
house for them. The monastery of St. 
Gregory was founded at Douai, where it 
remained flourishing until the French revo- 
lution, when the community passed over to 
England and finally settled at Downside, 
near Bath. 

While thus engaged in a life and death 
struggle White was able to help the secular 
clergy. He obtained, from the munificent 
Caverel, Arras College in Paris as a house of 
study for the English clergy who were to 
devote themselves to writing. The house 
was to be modelled after the idea of Chelsea 
College, lately established for Anglican 
divines by James I. When Worthington 
was released from his vow of obedience at 
Parsons's death (15 April 1610), he became 
reconciled to White, who informed the 
arch-priest George Birkhead [q. v.] that he 
might deal confidently with the president. 
Thus the clergy were induced to forgive the 
grievous wrong that misguided president had 
done them. 

As vicar- general, White was constantly 
in England superintending the numerous 
subjects who were working on the mission. 
In '1614 there were over eighty. Before 
Parsons's death White began his negotiations 



for a reunion of all Benedictines in England 
into one congregation. The monks from 
Italy (never more than a dozen) had secured 
for two of their own men, Edward Maihew 
[q. v.] and Sadler, an aggregation to the 
monastery of Westminster, then represented 
by old Father Robert (or Sigebert) Buckley 
[q. v.] These two were joined later on by a 
third (19 Dec. 1609), who therefore repre- 
sented the old historic English congregation. 
White's subjects were numerous : they pos- 
sessed houses and men. The Italians had 
neither ; the old English had only the suc- 
cession. These two latter were desirous of 
a union, and White entered enthusiastically 
into the project. What would suit the 
smaller bodies would be for the Anglo- 
Spanish monks to furnish men, money, and 
houses, while the others acted as superiors. 
The incongruity of such an arrangement did 
not seem to strike White, who, on 13 Feb. 
1610, signed an agreement of ten articles. 
His precipitate action was greatly resented 
by the rest of his brethren, and the monks 
at Douai appealed to the Spanish general, 
and White was summoned to Spain in 1612. 
The result was that he was removed from 
his vicarship and John (Leander) Jones set 
up in his place. The union with the old 
English congregation was eventually brought 
about under more equitable terms. On his 
way back from Spain White came under 
the notice of the famous Capuchin Joseph de 
Tremblai, afterwards known as the ' Grey 
Cardinal.' The friar was then engaged in 
his work of reforming certain abbeys, and 
had lately taken interest in the order of 
Fontevrault. Under his influence the Abbess 
Louise de Bourbon, with her coadjutrix 
Antoinette d'Orleans, was desirous of re- 
storing monastic observance in the houses 
of monks and nuns subject to her rule. 
White was recommended by De Tremblai 
1 as one full of /eal, sanctity, ability, and 
energy.' He began his work in October 
1613, and was so successful that he was 
called to a like work in the abbeys of 
Chelles, Remiremont, and Poitiers. He 
became also engaged in a projected union of 
the monks of lontevrault with the English 
monk& at Douai. But, although this would 
| have been of material advantage to the latter, 
j further reflection showed the vicar-general 
I that it would drain the mission of men and 
be a tax beyond the strength of his English 
monks. So the matter was dropped, and 
White withdrawn. He was then sent to 
found a house for English monks in Paris, 
and for one year presided over its destinies. 
In 1616, having a well-earned reputation for 
observance, he was sent to reform the 



White 



White 



Cluniac priory of Longueville, near Rouen, 
where he died on 4 May 1618. 

White was a frank, open-minded man. A\ itli 
a singular winning way, which gained him 
many friends. Dauntless and warm-hearted, 
his generous nature led him into impetuous 
actions which caused difficulties a more pru- 
dent man would have escaped. It is perhaps 
open to question whether he would have 
succeeded so well as he did had he not had 
the help of such men as John Roberts (1576- 
1610") [q. v.] and John (Leander) Jones to 
supply the deficiencies of his character. 
The only known portrait is reproduced in 
the ' Downside Review,' vol. xvii., from the 
original in possession of Miss Berkeley of 
Spetchley. 

[Dodd's Church History, vol. iii. ; Tierney, 
vols. iii. iv. v. ; Lewis Owen's Running Re- 
gister; Weldon's History (MS.) and Chrono- 
logical Notes; Ely's Certaine Briefe Notes; 
Reyner's Apostolatus Benedictinornm in Anglia ; 
Maihew's Trophaea ; A reply to Fr. Parsons's 
Libel, by W. C.; Records of the English Catho- 
lics, i. ii. Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 212)3; Cotton 
MS. Plut. ciii. E. 14; Taunton's English Black 
Monks of St. Benedict ; Gasquet's Henry VIII 
and the English .Monasteries ; R. B. Caram's A 
Benedictine Martyr; Downside Review, vols. 
xvi. and xvii. ; Ampleforth Journal, ii., and 
various manuscripts quoted from the archives of 
the diocese of Westminster, the old chapter, the 
Stonyhurst (Jesuit) collections, the registers of 
the college of Valladolid, and manuscripts from 
Monte Cassino and Silos.] E. L. T. 

WHITE, JOHN (1590-1645), parliamen- 
tarian, commonly called ' Century White,' 
was the second son of Henry White of 
Henllan (now written Hentland), in the 
parish of Rhoscrowther, Pembrokeshire, 
where he was born on 29 June 1590. His 
mother was Jane, daughter of Richard 
Fletcher of Bangor, who appears to have 
been a near relative of Richard Fletcher 
[<j. v.], bishop of London (DwNN, Her. Visita- 
tions, i. 129, and cf. p. 161 ; PHILLIPPS, Pedi- 
grees of Pembrokeshire, pp. 131, 139). White 
was descended from a family of wealthy mer- 
chants of that name which had been closely 
identified for many generations with the 
town of Tenby. One of them, Thomas White 
(d. 1492), who was six times mayor of that 
town between 1457 and 1481, aided the earls 
of Richmond and Pembroke to escape from 
Tenby to Brittany after the battle of Tewkes- 
bury (1471), and was in turn rewarded by 
receiving from the former, after he had 
ascended the throne, a grant of all his lands 
in the neighbourhood of Tenby (LAAVS, 7,/V/A 
England beyond Wales, pp. 216, 226; cf. 
OWEN, Pembrokeshire, i. 30). Thomas's 



brother, John Whire, was mayor seven times 
between 1482 and 1498. Their tombs, with 
recumbent figures ' beautiful works of art,' 
in a good state of preservation are in Tenby 
church (FENTON,pp. 450-2 ; N ORRIS, Tenby; 
LAWS, pp. 233-4 ; Arch. Cambr. 4th ser. xi. 
130). 

John White, who, with his elder brother, 
Griffith, matriculated at . Jesus College, 
Oxford, on 20 Nov. 1607 (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714), proceeded thence to the 
Middle Temple, where he was called to the 
bar in 1618, and became autumn reader or 
bencher in 1641. White is said to have 
been a puritan from his youth. In 1625 he 
and eleven others formed themselves into a 
committee known as the feoffees for impro- 
priations. A large fund was speedily raised 
by voluntary contributions for the purpose of 
buying up impropriate tithes, so as to make 
a better provision for a preaching ministry. 
Their proceedings were, however, attacked 
by Peter Heylyn [q.v.], and in 1632 William 
Noye fq. v.], at the instigation of Laud, ex- 
hibited an information against them in the 
exchequer chamber. On 11 Feb. 1632-3 the 
court decreed the dissolution of the feoffment 
and the confiscation of all its funds and 
patronage to the king's use, while the feoffees 
appear to have been censured in the Star- 
chamber (HEYLYN, Cyprianus Anglicus, 1668, 
pp. 210-12; GARDINER, Hist, of England, 
vii. 258, quoting Exchequer Decrees, iv. 88). 
It was probably during this time that White 
had occasion to appear before Laud as counsel 
about a benefice, and when that business 
was done Laud ' fell bitterly on him as an 
underminer of the church.' 

On 20 Oct. 1640 White was returned to 
parliament for Southwark, his colleague 
being Edward Bagshaw [q. v.] (Members of 
Parliament, i. 494). When, in the following 
month, it was decided that there should be 
a grand committee of the house to inquire 
into the immoralities of the clergy, White 
was at once elected its chairman, and he also 
presided over an acting sub-committee for 
considering how to replace the scandalous 
ministers by puritan preachers. When an- 
other committee was appointed in December 
1642 to relieve plundered ministers, its pro- 
ceedings got interwound with the previous 
one, White being at the head of the whole 
agency. According to an opponent (THOMAS 
Til. BOB, The New Discoverer Discovered, 1659, 

E. 140), it was White's boast that * he and 
is had ejected eight thousand churchmen 
in four or five years;' but according to a 
recent estimate (MASBON) the committee 
during its whole existence ejected no more 
than about sixteen hundred. With the view 



White 



59 



White 



of publishing alike a report and a defence 
of the proceedings of the committee, White 
issued on 19 Nov. 1643 ' The first Century 
of Scandalous Malignant Priests, made and 
admitted into Benefices by the Prelates ' 
(London, 4to). So indecent are the cases 
reported in this work that, according to 
Wood, White's own party dissuaded him 
' from putting out a second century,' while 
another writer (PIERCE, loc. cit.) says that the 
author ' was ashamed to pursue his thoughts 
of any other.' No second volume ever ap- 
peared. 

W r ith reference to the episcopacy, White 
advocated a 'root and branch' policy of ex- 
tirpation, and two of his speeches on this 
subject were published, namely, that deli- 
vered in June 1641 on the introduction of 
the first bill for the exclusion of the bishops, 
and another concerning the trial of the twelve 
bishops, delivered on 17 Jan. 1641-2, on 
which day he was also appointed a member 
of the commons' committee to hear the 
bishops' defence in the House of Lords. He 
was also occasionally entrusted with the task 
of licensing publications, and was charged 
by the church party with being too ready to 
license works attacking the church (cf. 
CLARENDON, Hist, of England, iii. 56). He 
gave evidence against Laud on two occasions 
first along with (Sir) Richard Pepys the 
elder [q. v.] on 22 March 1643-4, with refe- 
rence to Laud's removal of Edward Bagshaw 
from the readership of the Middle Temple ; 
and secondly, on 5 J uly, as to Laud's attack 
upon himself when he appeared before him 
as counsel ('Troubles and Trials' in LAUD'S 
Works, iv. 132-3, 304-5). Towards the end 
of 1643 he published a book called ' A Look- 
ing Glass for Cowardly Governors.' He was 
also frequently deputed by the House of Com- 
mons to draft letters and impeachments. The 
first charter of the colony of Massachusetts 
was procured probably under his advice, and 
was perhaps actually drafted by him also. 
His name appears among the members of the 
company at meetings held before their em- 
barkation, but he did not himself emigrate. 
He also drew up in October 1629 the articles 
agreed upon 'between the Planters and Ad- 
venturers for the performance of what shall 
be determined,' and was chosen one of the 
umpires to settle any disputes that might 
arise (Collections of the Massachusetts Hist. 
Soc. 4th ser. ii. 217-20, quoting BROOK'S 
Lives of the Puritans and VOTING'S Chronicles, 
pp. 69, 74, 86, 101-2). White has some- 
times been confused with John White, the 
Patriarch of Dorchester, who was also con- 
cerned in the settlement of Massachusetts, 
and is separately noticed below. 



He died on 29 Jan. 1644-5, and was buried 
at the Temple Church, at the high altar, on 
the Middle Temple side, the members of tin- 
House of Commons attending his funeral in 
a body. The memorial inscription placed 
over him contained the following verses : 
Here lyeth John, a burning, shining light, 
His name, life, actions were all White. 

He was twice married, his first wife being 
Janet, daughter of John ap Griffith Eynon 
of Jeffreston, Pembrokeshire (Pembr. MS. 
Pedigrees, 1685, penes Henry Owen, esq., 
F.S.A.) By his second wife, Winifred, 
daughter of Richard Blackwell of Bushey, 
Hertfordshire, he had four sons and five 
daughters, who survived him. His third 
wife, who survived him, was Mary, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Style of Little Mis- 
senden, Buckinghamshire (DuGVA.iE,Oriffines 
Juridiciales, ed. 1671, p. 179; cf. FOSTER, 
Alumni O.IYW.) 

Contemporaries describe White as a grave 
and learned lawyer, an opinion confirmed by 
his two published speeches. His hostility to 
the episcopal system was extreme, and after 
his death his enemies tried to damage his 
reputation by charging him with conjugal 
infidelity and open immorality (Mercurius 
Aulicus^Sl Jan. 1644-5). 

His elder brother, Griffith, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Lort of Stack- 
pole, was high sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 
1626, and proved one of the staunchest and 
most active parliamentarians in that county 
throughout the whole of the civil war (PHIL- 
LIPS, Civil War in Wales, i. 396, ii. 4, 80-1, 
85, 150, 164 ; LAWS, Little England, pp. 321, 
323, 325, 327, 335, 337). 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. iii. 105, 144; Neal's 
Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, ii. 361-5, iii. 23- 
34, 226; Reliquiae Baxterianae, i. 19; Fuller's 
Church Hist. 1845, vi. 67; Clarendon's Hist, 
of England, iii. 56 ; Whitelocke's Memorials, 
p. 128; Commons' Journals, vol. ii. ; Masson's 
Life of Milton, iii. 28-30, 268; Cambrian 
Journal, viii. 295, ix. 265 ; Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen, p. 517.] D. LL. T. 

W;HITE, JOHN (1575-1648), called the 
Patriarch of Dorchester, son of John White, 
who held a lease under New College, Oxford, 
by his wife Isabel, daughter of John Rawle 
of Lichfield, was baptised at Stanton St. John, 
Oxfordshire, on 6 Jan. 1575. His elder 
brother, Josias, was rector of Hornchurch, 
Essex, 1614-23, and father of James, a 
wealthy merchant of Boston, Massachusetts 
(Essex Archeeol. Trans, new ser. iv. 317). 
In 1587 he entered Winchester school, whence 
he was elected a fellow of New College in 
1595 (KiRBT, Winchester Scholars, p. 153). 



White 



White 



He graduated B.A. on 12 April 1597, M.A. 
on 16 Jan. 1601 (FOSTER, Alumni O.ron. 1500- 
1714). He was appointed rector of Holy 
Trinity, Dorchester, in 1606, and for the rest 
of his long life was identified with that place. 
A moderate puritan, he effected great re- 
forms in the character of its inhabitants, 
who Fuller says were much enriched by 
him, ' for knowledge caused piety, and piety 
bred industry, so that a beggar was not to be 
seen in the town. All the able pcor were 
set on work, and the impotent maintained 
by the profit of a public brewhouse and 
other collections ' ( Worthies, ii. 340). The 
same authority says ' he had perfect con- 
trol of two things, his own passions and his 
parishioners' purses,' which he drew upon 
for his philanthropic ends. While at Dor- 
chester he expounded all through the Bible 
once and half through again. 

About 1624 White interested himself in 
sending out a colony of Dorset men to 
settle in Massachusetts, where such as were 
nonconformists might enjoy liberty of con- 
science. The experiment not proving at first 
successful, White undertook to procure them 
a charter and to raise money for their necessary 
operations. Through his exertions the Mas- 
sachusetts Company, of which Sir Richard 
Saltonstall was a chief shareholder, was 
formed, and purchased their interest for 
1,800/., payable in sums of 200/. at the Royal 
Exchange every Michaelmas from 1628. The 
council for New England signed the Mas- 
sachusetts patent on 19 March 1028, and 
the king confirmed it by a charter dated 
4 March 1629. John Endecott [q. v.] was 
sent out as governor. Francis Higgmson 
[q. v.] and Samuel Skelton were chosen and 
approved by White as ministers, and sailed 
for the Dorchester colony on 4 May 1629 in 
the George Bonaventura. John Winthrop 
[q. v.] sailed in the Arbella, White holding a 
service on board before she sailed. White 
was a member of the company, and on 
30 Nov. he was nominated one of the com- 
mittee to value the joint stock. In 1632 and 
1636 he was corresponding with John Win- 
throp (who urged White to visit the colony) 
about cod-lines and hooks to be sent, as well 
as flax of a suitable growth for Rhode Island 
{Cat. State Papers, Colonial Ser. America, 
1574-1660, pp. 164, 155, 214, 216, 220). 

In the winter of 1629-30 he preached at 
the opening of a congregational church at 
the new hospital in Plymouth. He is cre- 
dited with having drawn up ' the governor 
and company's Humble Request to the rest 
of their Brethren in England,' London, 1630, 
4to ; and on the authority of Increase Mather 
[q. v.], as well as from internal evidence of 



style and matter, must be accepted as author 
of the anonymous ' Planters' Plea,' London, 
1630, 4to. This work, unknown to Cotton 
Mather, Prince, Hutchinson, and Bancroft, 
historians of New England, contains the 
earliest trustworthy information on the first 
planting of the colony. It has become ex- 
tremely scarce, but a copy is in the British 
Museum, and part of chap. viii. with chap, 
ix. is reprinted in Alexander Young's 'Chro- 
nicles of Massachusetts Bay,' Boston, 1846, 
8vo. 

About 1635 or 1636 White was examined 
before Sir John Lambe [q. v.] about some 
papers seized in his study, and relating to a 
considerable sum of money sent by White 
to Dr. John Stoughton. This eventually 
turned out to be in part a legacy from one 
Philippa Pitt, bequeathed to White in pios 
usus, and in part disbursements for the colo- 
nists in New England. White produced 
minute particulars of these in his note-books, 
and at last, after six months' attendance 
before the court of high commission, he was 
discharged and the informant reproved for 
'twattling' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635 
and 1635-6, passim). In the beginning of 
the Long parliament White and many of 
his congregation took the covenant. Wood 
calls him ' a moderate, not morose or peevish 
puritan,' and says he conformed to the cere- 
monies of the church of England. 

When the war broke out about 1642, 
a party of Prince Rupert's horse burst into 
A\ hite's house at Dorchester, plundered it, 
and carried off his books. > He took refuge at 
the Savoy, where he ministered until, after 
the ejection of Daniel Featley [q. v.], he was 
appointed rector of Lambeth on 30 Sept. 
1643, and given the use of Featley 's library 
until his own could be recovered. He was 
chosen one of the Westminster assembly of 
divines, and at their opening service in St. 
Margaret's (25 Sept. 1643) prayed a full 
hour to prepare them for taking the covenant 
(WHITELOCKE, Memorials, p. 74). He con- 
stantly attended the sittings of the assembly, 
and signed the petition for the right to refuse 
the sacrament to scandalous persons, pre- 
sented to the House of Lords, 12 Aug., was 
one of the assessors, and in 1645 was chosen 
on the committee of accommodation. 

Upon the death of Robert Pinck [q. v.l in 
November 1647, White was designed warden 
of New College, but he declined to go to 
Oxford, being * sick and infirm, a dying man ' 
( K'J6). Perhaps he returned to Dorchester 
before his death, which took place on 21 July 
1648. He was buried in xhe porch of St. 
Peter's Chapel (belonging to Trinity), Dor- 
chester, but no inscription appears. 



White 



61 



White 



White married Ann, daughter of John 
Burges of Peterborough, sister of Cornelius 
Burges [q. v.l, and left four sons: John, 
Samuel, Josiah, and Nathaniel. The eldest 
entered the ministry, and became rector of 
Pimperne, Dorset (cf. Lords' Journals, viii. 
352, 452, 489 ; CALAMY, Nonconformist's Me- 
morial, ed. Palmer, ii. 145). 

Besides the 'Planters' Plea' and a few 
separate sermons and short treatises, White 
was author of: 1. 'A Way to the Tree of 
Life: Sundry Directions for the Profitable 
Reading of the Scriptures,' London, 1647, 8vo. 
2. 'David's Psalms in Metre, agreeable to 
the Hebrew. To be sung in usuall Tunes 
To the benefit of the Churches of Christ,' 
London, 1655, 12mo. 3. * A Commentary 
upon the Three First Chapters of the First 
Book of Moses called Genesis,' London, 1656, 
fol. The preparation of this for the press was 
entrusted to Stephen Marshall [q. v.], but 
as he died (1655) before it was ready, a fur- 
ther note by Thomas Manton [q. v.] accom- 
panied John White junior's dedication to 
Denzil Holies [q. v.] 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, iii. 88; Wood's 
Athenae Oxou. ed. Bliss, iii. 236 ; Prince's Chro- 
nological Hist. i. 144, 153, 158, 171, 178, 183, 
195, 200, 205; Mauduit's Short View of the 
Hist. Massachusetts Bay, 1774, p. 24 ; Hutchin- 
son's Hist, of Massachusetts Bay, i. 8, 9 ; Hub- 
bard's Hist, of New England, pp. 16, 106 ; Rhode 
Island Hist. Coll. iv. 67 ; Everett's Dorchester 
in 1630, Boston, 1855, pp. 22-7 ; Young's Chro- 
nicles of Massachusetts Bay, passim ; Massa- 
chusetts Hist. Coll. 4th ser. vol. ii. ; Mather's 
New England, bk. i. p. 19; Prynne's Canter- 
buries Doorae, p. 362 ; Wharton's Troubles and 
Tryals of Laud, i. 174, 175; Fuller's Worthies, 
ii. 340 ; Mitchell's Westminster Assembly, xiv. 
98, 141, 297, 409 ; Wood's Hist, of the Col- 
leges and Halls, ed. Gutch, p. 235 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1628-9, p. 543, 1631-3, pp. 360, 
402, 1638-9; Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset, ii. 375, 
iv. 152 ; Masson's Milton, ii. 522, 549, 558, 605 ; 
Appleton's Cyclop, of American Biogr. vi. 472 ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. ; Bancroft's Hist, of America, i. 264.] 

C. F. S. 

WHITE, JOHN (1826-1891), historian 
of the Maoris, son of Francis White, was 
born in England in 1826, and went out to 
New Zealand with his father in 1832, settling 
first at Kororareka ; the sack of that place 
by the Maoris drove them to Auckland in 
1844. He was early attracted towards the 
Maori race and their customs, and was em- 
ployed by the government in positions where 
he came much into contact with them. Sub- 
sequently he was gold commissioner at Coro- 
mandel, and received the appointment of 
official interpreter and agent for the pur- 



chase of native lands ; in this last capacity 
he succeeded in obtaining for the colonists 
the title to most of the lands round Auck- 
land. At a later date he became magistrate 
of Central Wanganui. He died suddenly at 
Auckland on 13 Jan. 1891. 

White was employed by the government 
of New Zealand to compile a complete his- 
tory of the traditions of the Maori race ; he 
had completed four volumes only at the time 
of his death. They appeared in 1889 with 
the title ' The Ancient History of the 
Maori ' (Wellington, 8vo). He was also 
author of a novelette, entitled ' Ta Rou, or 
the Maori at Home.' 

[Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biography ; 
Auckland Weekly News, 24 Jan. J891, p. 7.1 

C. A. H. 

WHITE, JOHN TAHOURDIN (1809- 
1893), classical scholar, born in 1809, was 
the second son of John White of Selborne in 
Hampshire. He matriculated from Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, on 28 Jan. 1830, 
was elected an exhibitioner in the same year, 
and graduated B.A. in 1834, M.A. in 1839, 
and B.D. and D.D. in 1866. He was ordained 
deacon in 1834 as curate at Swinnerton in 
Staffordshire. He was appointed reader at 
St. Stephen Walbrook in 1836, and acted as 
assistant master at Christ's Hospital from 
1836 to 1869. In 1837 he became curate at 
St. Ann, Blackfriars, was ordained priest in 
1839, and in 1841 was appointed curate at 
St. Martin Ludgate, serving until 1868, when 
he was instituted rector. He died at 17 Cam- 
bridge Road, Brighton, on 17 Dec. 1893. 

White was an able classical scholar, and 
published numerous scholastic works and 
critical editions of Greek and Latin authors. 
He is best known perhaps for his * Grammar 
School Texts,' a series of Latin and Greek 
authors most commonly read in schools. In 
conjunction with Joseph Esmond Riddle 
[q. v.] he brought out in 1862 ' A Latin- 
English Dictionary,' London, 8vo, founded 
on Ethan Allen Andrews's translation of 
Wilhelm Freund's ' Worterbuch der la- 
teinischen Sprache.' Freund's ' Worterbuch ' 
was published at Leipzig between 1834 and 
1845, and Andrews's translation at New 
York in 1852. White and Riddle's 'Dic- 
tionary ' was largely superseded by that by 
Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short in 
1879. A ' College Latin-English Dictionary ' 
of intermediate size appeared in 1865, and a 
'Junior Student's Complete Latin-English 
and English-Latin Dictionary' in 1869. 
AVhite also edited Robert Lynam's ' History 
of the Roman Emperors' (London, 1850, 
2 vols. 8vo). 



White 



White 



[Times, 21 Dec. 1893 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Simms's Bibliotheca Stafford. 1894 ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] K. I. C. 

WHITE, JOSEPH (1745-1814), orienta- 
list and theologian, was born at Stonehouse 
(or, according to another account, Stroud) 
in Gloucestershire in 1745, and was the son 
of Thomas White, a journeyman weaver. He 
received his earliest education in one of the 
Gloucester charity schools, and started life 
in his father's employment. His talents and 
attainments, however, attracted the notice of 
some wealthy neighbours, who enabled him 
to pursue his studies at Ruscomb, and again 
at Gloucester, and the liberality of John 
Moore (1730-1805) [q.v.] (afterwards bishop 
of Bangor and archbishop of Canterbury) 
enabled him to enter Wadham College, Ox- 
ford, as a commoner on 6 June 1765. In 
September of that year he became scholar 
of his college, where he shortly afterwards 
obtained the Hody exhibition for Hebrew, 
as well as other prizes. He was fellow from 
1771 until 1788, and filled various college 
offices. He graduated B.A. on 5 April 1769, 
M.A. on 19 Feb. 1773, B.D. on 17 May 1779, 
and D.D. on 17 Dec. 1787. At his patron's 
desire he devoted himself to the study of 
Syriac, Arabic, and Persian, and in 1775, by 
a unanimous vote, was elected to the Lau- 
dian chair of Arabic. At the suggestion of 
Bishop Lowth the delegates of the Clarendon 
press entrusted to White the task of complet- 
ing and issuing an edition of the Philoxenian 
(or rather Harklensian) version of the New 
Testament, for which Glocester Ridley [q.v.] 
had left materials based on two manuscripts 
which he had brought from the east and 
afterwards presented to New College. Rid- 
ley's materials were, however, of little use to 
White, who had both to copy the manuscripts 
and translate the text himself. His edition 
appeared in 1778, and exhibited both his 
scholarship and his accuracy in a favourable 
light ; and since no other edition of this im- 
portant version has ever appeared, it is the 
work by which he is still remembered. A 
volume of comments which he at one time 
planned as a supplement to the edition never 
appeared. From 1780 to 1783 he was oc- 
cupied in preparing an edition of the Persian 
text of the ' Institutes of Timur,' of which 
a specimen was issued in the former year, 
while the whole appeared in 1783, at the 
expense of the East India Company. The 
text was accompanied by a translation into 
English from the pen of Major Davy, then 
Persian secretary to the governor-general of 
Bengal. In 1783 White, who was already 
one of the preachers at Whitehall Chapel, was 
appointed to the recently founded Bampton 



lectureship for 1784, his subject being a com- 
parison between ' Mahometism ' and Chris- 
tianity, which his studies had well qualified 
him to treat. He was, however, somewhat 
diffident of his rhetorical ability, and, regard- 
ing the appointment as the chance of his life, 
he took the dangerous step of secretly asso- 
ciating with himself some persons in whose 
capacity he had confidence, and to one of 
these, Samuel Badcock [q. v.], a clergyman 
in poor circumstances, he entrusted the 
composition of one entire discourse and 
of large portions of others, including the ex- 
ordium to the series. The result j ustified his 
selection of coadjutors ; the sermons, which 
contained among other matter a courteous 
answer to Gibbon, as well as a reply to 
Hume, were greatly admired when delivered, 
and favourably received by the press; and 
indeed, though the thought is shallow, the 
arrangement is lucid, the manner exceed- 
ingly refined, and the language everywhere 
choice and felicitous, and in the fifth lecture 
even exquisite. Badcock, who as newspaper 
writer did something to press the sale of the 
book, of which several editions were speedily 
exhausted, kept silence while praises that 
were due to him were lavished on White ; 
but his silence was not gratuitous, and the 
day when some important preferment should 
be White's reward was anxiously expected by 
both. In 1787 White was, through Moore's 
interest, presented by the dean and chapter 
of Ely to the rectory of Melton in Suffolk ; 
and supposing this to be all that the Bamp- 
ton lectures would produce, he hurried on 
the printing of a learned work, the Arabic 
description of Egypt by Abdullatif, a writer 
of the last century of the caliphate. But 
he despaired too soon ; for early in 1788 he 
was presented by Lord-chancellor Thurlow 
to a prebend at Gloucester Cathedral, of 
which the value was considerable. His pre- 
ferment came none too early. Shortly after 
the presentation Badcock died, and White, 
in his letter of condolence to his sister, re- 
quested her to return all letters of his that 
might be found in Badcock's papers; but 
Miss Badcock, knowing or guessing the value 
of the correspondence, took the opinion of 
R. Gabriel, to whom her brother had been 
curate, and who had some dealings with 
White of a nature to give him a clue to the 
relations between the two men. Among the 
papers was found a bond for SOO/. which 
White at first refused to pay, alleging a legal 
flaw, and also asserting that it was for help 
which had never been actually rendered, but 
afterwards agreed to renew, hoping thereby 
to prevent the truth about the lectures get- 
ting abroad. His compliance came too late. 



White 



White 



Gabriel had meanwhile circulated the story, 
and being challenged from several quarters 
to produce evidence for his assertion, at 
length published a number of White's letters 
to Badcock, giving irrefragable evidence of 
the joint authorship, and also suggesting that 
yet other hands had been employed on the 
discourses. Gabriel's pamphlet ran through 
several editions ; and additional force was 
lent to it by a rejoinder from one of White's 
partisans, in which Gabriel was virulently 
attacked, but his charges were left unan- 
swered. White kept silence as long as pos- 
sible. At last, in 1790, being compelled to 
answer, he published an account of his literary 
obligations, in which he apparently en- 
deavoured to conceal nothing, but main- 
tained still that the oOO/. bond was for help j 
in a projected history of Egypt, of which his | 
' Abduliatif ' was to be the forerunner. His i 
pamphlet seems to have satisfied the public, j 
but White did not attempt again the role of 
popular preacher. 

Between 1790 and 1800 lie published little. 
In the latter year his edition of ' Abdullatif 
at last appeared, with a dedication to Sir 
William Scott. He had printed the text 
Sixteen years before, but, not being satisfied 
with it, had presented the copies to Paulus 
of Jena, afterwards famous as the leader of 
rationalism, who issued the work in Germany. 
White's edition embodied a translation which 
had been commenced by the younger Ed- 
ward Pococke [see under POCOCKE, ED- 
WAKD], but was completed by W r hite himself. 
This is the only part that ever appeared of a 
great work on Egypt which he seems to 
have planned, and which Badcock was to 
have rendered popular in style. The time, 
however, was by no means ripe for such 
a work, and the elaborate monograph on 
Pompey's Pillar which W 7 hite published in 
1804 became antiquated as soon as the science 
of Egyptology was started. The rest of 
White's literary work was concentrated on 
the textual study of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, and earned him in 1804 the regius 
professorship of Hebrew at Oxford, carrying 
with it a canonry of Christ Church. Besides 
various pamphlets, in which he advocated a 
retranslation of the Bible, and proposed a new 
edition of the Septuagint, to be based on the 
Hexaplar-Syriac manuscript then recently 
discovered at Milan, he published in 1800 a 
'Diatessaron or Harmony of the Gospels,' 
and in his edition of the 'New Testament in 
Greek' (1st edit. 1808; often reprinted) en- 
deavoured to simplify and popularise Gries- 
bach's ' Critical Studies.' His last work, 
'Criseos Griesbachianae in Novum Testa- 
mentum Synopsis' (1811) contains a sum- 



mary of the more important results. Both 
as a theologian and as a critic he was ultra- 
conservative. 

White died at Christ Church, Oxford, on 
23 May 1814. He married, in 1790, Mary 
Turner, sister of Samuel Turner (1749?- 
1802) [q.v.J, who visited Thibet as a British 
envoy. Her death in 1811 affected him 
severely. 

Persons who knew White declared him to 
be of an indolent disposition, and it is a fact 
that in most of his books he embodied where 
possible the labours of others. His linguistic 
attainments were, however, very great, and 
compare favourably with those of the most 
eminent orientalists of his time, with many 
of whom, including Silvestre de Sacy, he was 
in communication. His portrait was painted 
by William Peters and presented to the uni- 
versity of Oxford. It was engraved by 
Joseph Thompson and appeared in the 
'European Magazine ' for October 1796. 

[Nichols's Illustrations of the Literary Hist, 
of the Eighteenth Century, iv. 858-65; Gar- 
diner's Register of Wadham Coll. vol. ii. ; Lan- 
gles's Necrologie de J. W.; Gent. Mag. 1814, i. 
626.] I). S. M. 

WHITE, JOSEPH BLANCO (1775- 
1841), theological writer, was born at 
Seville on 11 July 1775, and christened 
Jos6 Maria. His grandfather, an Irish 
Roman catholic, as the heir of an uncle, 
Philip Nangle, had become head of a large 
mercantile house at Seville. His father, 
after some early misfortunes, carried on 
the business successfully, and married an 
Andalusian lady of noble descent and 
small property. Other Irishmen became 
partners in the house, and formed a ' small 
Irish colony,' in which some English was 
spoken; although the Whites translated 
their name into Blanco and became virtually 
Spaniards. Joseph was put into his father's 
office at the age of eight. He hated the 
business, and preferred lessons on the violin. 
His mother thought commerce degrading, 
and had him taught some Latin. At twelve 
he declared his desire to become a priest, in 
order to escape the counting-house. His 
mother induced his father to consent. He 
was allowed to attend a school, and at 
fourteen he was sent to study philosophy 
at a Dominican college. An accident led 
him to read the works of Feyjoo (1701- 
1764), who had attacked the scholastic 
philosophy still dominant in Spanish 
colleges. This induced the boy to revolt 
against the repulsive teaching of his masters. 
He was then allowed to enter the univer- 
sity (October 1790). He formed a friend- 
ship with a senior student of literary tastes, 



White 



White 



and they started a little society to read 
papers on ' poetry and eloquence.' He also 
gamed some knowledge of French and 
Italian literature. He was, however, still 
studying theology with a view to the 
priesthood, and had taken the ' four minor 
orders 'at the age of fourteen. At twenty- 
one he took subdeacon's orders, though 
with some misgivings. Both his parents were 
very devout, and he complains bitterly of 
the long services which he had been forced 
to attend, from the age of eight. From 
fourteen he had daily to read his breviary 
and to spend an hour in * pious reading ' 
and meditation. The 'spiritual exercises' 
in which he had afterwards to join had a 
powerful effect upon him, Though they 
excited him so far as to suppress his scruples 
about taking orders, his taste was shocked 
by the ' cloying and mawkish devotion,' and 
by the material imagery employed to sti- 
mulate the emotions. 

While a subdeacon Blanco was elected 
fellow of the college of Maria a Jesu at 
Seville, a position of trifling emolument, but 
conferring some social advantages. He be- 
came reconciled for a time to his profession, 
and at Christmas 1800 was ordained priest. 
He gained some credit by performing public 
exercises as candidate for a stall in the 
cathedral of Cadiz ; and in 1802 was ap- 
pointed, in spite of some intrigues, to a 
chaplaincy in the Chapel Royal of St 
Ferdinand at Seville. Meanwhile his re- 
ligious scruples had been again awakened. 
He was popular as a confessor, and his 
experience convinced him that the system 
had demoralising effects especially upon the 
nuns. One of his two sisters had taken 
the veil, fell into bad health, and died in 
consequence of the unwholesome life in the 
convent. His indignation increased his 
doubts, and, though he endeavoured to con- 
firm his faith by preaching a sermon against 
scepticism, he at last gave up his belief in 
Christianity. He made the acquaintance of 
two priests of similar opinions, who lent 
him freethinking books, carefully hidden for 
fear of the inquisition. His mental struggles 
led to a bad illness, and he was profoundly 
affected by the decision of his younger 
sister to enter * one of the gloomiest 
nunneries at Seville.' She had already be- 
come hysterical ; she soon developed mental 
and physical disease, and died a few years 
later. Blanco obtained leave to reside for a 
time at Madrid in order to escape his painful 
position. There he was appointed for a time 
'religious instructor' to a newly founded 
Pestalozzian school. Meanwhile the French 
were entering Spain. Blanco hoped that the 



rule of Joseph Buonaparte would be fatal 
to the inquisition and the religious orders. 
He yielded, however, to his patriotic senti- 
ments, and returned to Seville. There he 
was appointed as co-editor with a Professor 
Antillon of the ' Semanario Patriotic,' a 
paper established by the central junta. His 
political philosophy was not approved, and 
the paper was suppressed. He was ap- 
pointed, however, to draw up a report on 
the constitution of the cortes, and com- 
pelled the inquisition to hand over to him 
some of the prohibited books in their 
possession. When the advance of the 
French forced the junta to leave Seville, 
Blanco White resolved to escape from the 
country and the priesthood. He fled with 
some of his friends to Cadiz, where he was 
in some danger, as the patriots thought 
that fugitives must be traitors. He claimed, 
however, to be a British subject, and con- 
clusively demonstrated the fact by replying 
' damn your eyes ' to the official who in- 
quired into his character. He was allowed 
to sail in the English packet, and reached 
Falmouth on 3 March 1810. A son of the 
painter, John Hoppner [q. v.], was carrying 
despatches by the same boat, and brought 
him to London. Hoppner the elder had 
just died, and Blanco White was at a loss 
in a strange city. He had .thought of ob- 
taining employment as a musician in a 
theatre. Some Englishmen who had 
travelled in Spain, especially Lord Holland, 
j John George Children [q. v.l, and Lord 
I John Russell, received him kindly. He 
j applied to Richard, son of Lord Wellesley, 
for employment at the foreign office. Wel- 
' lesley introduced him to the French book- 
seller Dulau, and through Dulau he was 
introduced to one Juign6, a French refugee 
priest, who had become a printer in London. 
Juign6 agreed to give him 15/. a month to 
conduct a monthly periodical to be called 
the ' Espanol.' Blanco (who now added 
White to his name) wrote the original 
matter, and filled the rest up with translated 
documents, to be circulated in Spain in 
defence of the national cause. The labour 
was considerable, and Blanco White gave 
offence to one party by supporting the inde- 
pendence of the Spanish colonies in America. 
He says that he was libelled and seriously 
threatened with assassination. Juign6 also 
had tricked him into a very bad bar- 
gain. The paper was partly circulated by 
the English government, which, however, 
did not dictate his politics. He constantly 
consulted Lord Holland and Holland's 
friend, John Allen. The paper was carried 
on with success till after the final expulsion 



White 



White 



of the French, when he was rewarded by a 
life pension of 250/. a year from the English 
government. Blanco White's health, how- 
ever, had broken down, and his life was 
ever afterwards tormented by repeated if 
not continuous illness. Besides writing, 
he had worked hard to improve his English 
and to learn Greek. He had also renewed 
his theological studies and become a I 
Christian again, finding, as he thought, 
that the church of England had cast off the 
corruptions which had driven him from 
Catholicism. He took the sacrament in his 
parish church in 1812 ; and, after dropping ; 
the ' Espafiol,' signed the Thirty-nine articles j 
on 10 Aug. 1814 to qualify himself for [ 
acting as an English clergyman. He j 
settled at Oxford to pursue his studies. He 
read prayers occasionally at St. Mary's, \ 
and felt a revival of his religious en- 
thusiasm. He left Oxford in 181/5 to be- 
come tutor to Lord Holland's son. He led 
an ascetic life in the singularly uncongenial 
atmosphere of Holland House. The Hollands 
were personally kind to the last, but he 
found his duties as a tutor irksome, and 
finally retired from his position in June ; 
1817. He lived for a time with his friend 
James Christie in London, then stayed for j 
a couple of years with a Mr. Carleton at \ 
Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire; and in 

1821 returned to London to live near 
the Christies. His ill-health depressed 
him, and he felt himself a burden to his 
friends, who, however, seem all to have 
been greatly attracted by his amiable charac- 
ter. In 1820 he was slowly improving, and 
was invited by Thomas Campbell, then ] 
editor of the ' New Monthly,' to contribute 
articles. The first part of his book, ' Dob- i 
lado's Letters,' appeared in the 'New I 
Monthly/ and made him generally known. | 
He wrote the article upon ' Spain ' in the i 
supplement to the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- ' 
tannica.' He was engaged at the end of j 

1822 by Rudolph Ackermann [q. v.] to write | 
the chief part of a journal" intended for | 
Spanish America, called ' Variedades.' He j 
was to have 300/. a year as editor, and 
carried on the work till October 182o (Life, i. 
225, 397). He gave it up upon becoming in- , 
terested in the controversy between Southey 
and Charles Butler upon the merits of the 
Roman and Anglican churches. He pub- j 
lished his ' Evidences against Catholicism ' 
in 1825. It was warmly praised by his ! 
friend Southey. To prove his independence, I 
he declared that he would never accept , 
preferment. By this book and its sequels j 
ne became a protestant champion, and 
scandalised his friends at Holland House by 

VOL. LXI. 



turning even against catholic emancipation, 
though with some hesitation. In 1826 
the university of Oxford conferred the M.A. 
degree upon him in recognition of his ser- 
vices to the church, and in October he settled 
at Oxford as a member of Oriel College, 
intending to pursue his studies. He was 
made a member of the Oriel common-room, 
and was welcomed by the men who were 
soon afterwards to be leaders of the Oxford 
' movement.' Newman (who played the 
violin with him), Pusey, Hurrell Froude, 
and others were on very friendly terms ; 
but his closest friendship was with Whately. 
Whately and his friend Nassau Senior 
were interested in a new quarterly which 
was started in 1828 as the 'London Re- 
view.' Blanco White was appointed editor, 
and Newman was one of his contributors. 
The ' Review,' however, was too ponderous, 
and died after two numbers. Meanwhile 
White's knowledge of the catholic church 
made him interesting to the rising party. 
He was officiating as a clergyman, and 
preached to the university. He explained 
the use of the breviary to Pusey and 
Froude (Life, i. 439). His knowledge of 
the scholastic philosophy, then hardly 
known at Oxford, interested his friends. 
W T hen Hampden preached the Bampton 
lectures of 1832 upon the corruptions of 
the true faith introduced by the schoolmen, 
he was thought to have been inspired by 
Blanco White. Liddon says that the ' germ* 
of the book is in Blanco White's 'Facts and 
Inferences ' (an early version of his ' Heresy 
and Orthodoxy ; ' see Life, iii. 362). Mozley 
in his ' Reminiscences' takes the same 
view, although Hampden's friends denied 
what appears to be at least a grave overstate- 
ment. The general argument was too familiar 
to require a special suggestion, though 
Blanco White may have drawn Hampden's 
attention to the particular line of inquiry. 
Blanco White's later career made it desirable 
for Hampden's opponents to attribute the 
book to heterodox inspiration. 

Blanco White's singularly sensitive cha- 
racter made his Oxford residence uncom- 
fortable. He was keenly annoyed by the 
attacks of the protestant party when he 
voted for Peel at the election of 1829. He 
thought that the university generally dis- 
liked him as a foreigner and an outsider. 
Not being a fellow, he was only on suf- 
ferance in the Oriel common-room ; the ser- 
vants were impertinent, and junior fellows 
took precedence of him. Rough raillery 
from old-fashioned dons stung him to the 
soul ; and he was humiliated by civilities 
as savouring of charity. When his friend 



White 



66 



White 



Whately left Oxford on becoming archbishop 
of Dublin in 1831, the position became in- 
tolerable (see Life, iii. 126, c.,and MOZLEY). 
Whately soon offered him a home. Ilr\\ns 
to live as one of the family and to act as 
tutor to two lads, sons of Whately himself 
and of their common friend Senior. Blanco 
White accordingly went to Dublin in the 
summer of 1832. He lived on the most 
friendly terms with Whately and his wife, 
and began to write a history of the inqui- 
sition (Life, i. 497). He found the subject 
too painful ; but in 1833 he published an 
answer to Moore's ' Travels of an Irish 
Gentleman in search of a Religion,' calling 
it ' Second Travels,' &c. The name expressed 
his own history. He had been continually 
oscillating in his views, and his physical 
sufferings gave a morbid tinge to his mental 
troubles. He had been convinced by catholic 
writers that orthodox dogmas rested upon 
authority, and by protestants that the au- 
thority of the church was indefensible. As 
he was still a Christian by sentiment, the 
only solution was to accept a purely rational 
religion ; and this, he finally concluded, was 
to be found in unitarianism. He could no 
longer live with an archbishop ; and in 
January 1835 he left Dublin for Liverpool. 
There he attended the Unitarians' services, 
and was especially delighted by the preach- 
ing of Dr. Martineau, whose views he 
thoroughly approved (Life,\\. 92). Newman, 
on hearing of his secession, sent him an 
affectionate letter, which, however, was 
nothing but ' a groan, a sigh, from beginning 
to end (Life, ii. 117). Whately annoyed 
him by enormously long letters of severe 
remonstrance (WHATELY, Life, i. 250-90), 
but continued his friendly relations. Blanco 
White found congenial friends at Liverpool, 
including his biographer, John Hamilton 
Thorn [q. v.] He settled there for the rest 
of his life. In October 1835 Whately sent 
him ICO/., and repeated the gift annually, 
except in 1838, when Blanco White refused 
it upon obtaining, through Lord Holland, 
a sum of 300/. from the queen's bounty. 
Blanco White seems to have been always in 
want of money, in spite of his pension. On 
accepting the annuity he told Mrs. Whately 
that he was beginning for the first time in 
his life to be economical. His great temp- 
tation was to buy books. He had also spent 
much upon a son, Ferdinand White, who 
was patronised by Lord Holland, and be- 
came major in the 40th regiment (Life, i. 
224, 395). Nothing is said of the mother, 
but a reference to an unhappy and clan- 
destine attachment during his last years in 
Spain (Life, i. 117) probably explains the 



j facts. Blanco White speaks of his son with 
i great tenderness. During the Liverpool 
! period White was able to do some desultory 
work, and he contributed to the 'London 
' and Westminster Review,' then under J. S. 
Mill, with whom he had very friendly 
' correspondence (Letters in Life, vol. ii., and 
j Theological Review, iv. 112). lie also cor- 
responded with Professor Baden-Powell 
and the American Unitarians Channing and 
Andrews Norton. His health rapidly de- 
clined, and he suffered great pain. He was 
removed in February 1841 to Greenbank, 
the house of William Rathbone the younger 

Saee under RATHBONE, WILLIAM, 1757- 
809], and died there on 20 May following. 
Blanco White's sweetness of character is 
shown by the warmth and endurance of his 
friendships. Southey knew him before 1817, 
and later letters (given in Blanco White's 
Life) show a warm regard. Coleridge was 
another friendly correspondent. In later 
years some of his orthodox friends, such as 
Newman, were alienated by his secession, 
though retaining a kindly feeling. Thorn 
says that when he left Dublin more than 
one clergyman offered him a home {Life, 
ii. 76 n.) His friends were always trying to 
provide for him. John Allen, master of 
Dulwich College, procured his nomination as 
a fellow in 1831 ; but the final decision was 
by lot, and Blanco White drew the blank 
(ib. i. 227, 471). He was frequently em- 
ployed as tutor to children, but admits that 
' the impatience of an old nervous invalid ' 
unfitted him for the task(t'6. ii. 10 w.) His 
ill-health prevented him from finishing any 
work worthy of the remarkable abilities 
which he clearly possessed. He complains 
that he had partly forgotten his Spanish 
without feeling completely at home in Eng- 
lish. He applies to himself the speech of 
Norfolk {Richard II, act i. sc. iii.) upon 
the loss of his native language {Life, i. 176). 
Though the defect hardly appears in his 
style, it is the more remarkable that he 
wrote what Coleridge declared to be ' the 
finest and most grandly conceived sonnet 
in our language ' (Letter of 28 Nov. 1827 in 
Life, i. 439). The sonnet (on 'Night and 
Death ') had been published in the ' Bijou ' 
for 1828, apparently through an oversight of 
Coleridge, without the author's approval 
(ib. p. 443). An amended version is given 
in Blanco White's 'Diary,' 16 Oct. 1838 
(ib. iii. 47 ; see MAIN'S Treasury of English 
Sonnets, p. 397, and Three Hundred English 
Sonnets, p. 304). Probably he will continue 
to be known by it when his other works, in 
spite of the real interest of his views, have 
been forgotten. 



White 



White 



Blanco White's works are: 1. * Sermon 
in Spanish on the Evidences of Christianity,' 
(TiiOM, i. 113). 2. ' Sermon in Spanish 
on the Slave Trade' (TnoM, iii. 174, 180). 
3. ' Oda a la Instalacion de la Junta Central 
de Espafia,' 1808. 4. 'Preparatory Obser- 
vations on the Study of Religion, by a 
Clergyman,' 1817. 5. ' Letters from Spain ; 
by Don Leucadio Doblado,' 1822, 1 vol. 8vo 
(partly published in ' New Monthly Maga- 
zine'); 2nd edit, with name in 1825. 
6. ' Practical and Internal Evidence against 
Catholicism, with Occasional Strictures on 
Mr. Butler's " Book of the Roman Catholic 
Church,"' 1825, 1 vol. 8vo. 7. 'The Poor 
Man's Preservative against Popery,' 1825, 
1 vol. 8vo ; several later editions. 8. ' A 
Letter to Charles Butler, Esq., on his Notice 
of the "Practical, &c., Evidences,'" 1826, 
1 vol. 8vo. 9. ' Second Travels of an Irish 
Gentleman in search of a Religion . . . not 
by the Editor of " Captain Rock's Memoirs " ' 
(i.e. Thomas Moore), 1833, 2 vols. 12mo. 
10. * The Law of Anti-Religious Libel re- 
considered in a Letter to the Editor of the 
" Christian Examiner," by J. Search,' 1834, 
1 vol. 8vo. 11. ' An Answer to some friendly 
Remarks ' (on the last), with appendix on 
an epigram of Martial supposed to refer to 
Christian martyrs, 1836, 8vo. 12. ' Obser- 
vations on Heresy and Orthodoxy/ 1835, 
1 vol. 8vo. BlancoWhite also translated into 
Spanish Porteus's ' Evidences,' Paley's ' Evi- 
dences,' the Book of Common Prayer, some 
of the Homilies, and Cottu's work upon the 
* English Criminal Law ; ' and supervised 
Scio's translation of the Bible. A list of 
his contributions to the ' Quarterly Review,' 
the ' New Monthly,' the ' London Review ' 
of 1829, the 'Dublin University Review,' 
the ' London ' and the ' London and West- 
minster Review,' and the 'Christian Teacher ' 
is given in Thorn (iii. 468). 

The 'Rationalist a Kempis' (1898) is a 
short selection of passages from the third 
volume of Thorn's 'Life,' with a memoir by 
James Harwood. 

[The Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White, 
edited by John Hamilton Thorn, 1845, 3 vols. 
8vo. This consists of an autobiography, ori- 
ginally addressed in letters to Whately, ending 
at his arrival in England, and continued to his 
death by letters and extracts from full diaries. 
Thorn wrote an earlier life in the ' Christian 
Teacher,' vol. iii. Whately, who was apparently 
afraid that some scandal might arise from his 
friendship with a Unitarian, refused to give 
letters, and protested passionately against the 
life (see article by Thorn in Theological Review, 
1 867, i v. 82-1 1 2). Memorials of R. D. Hamp- 
den, 1871, pp. 23, 27; Locker-Lumpson's My 



Confidences, 1896, p. 68 ; Liechtenstein's Hol- 
land House, i. 142, ii. 183; Memoir of T. G. 
Children, 1853, pp. 90, 109; Mozley's Remi- 
niscences, 1882, i. 56-62, .352-61; Newman's 
Letters, 1891, i. 132, 146, 192-6, 201, 206, 210, 
219,271, ii. 122, 129, 165; Life of Whately, 
1866, i. 178, 248-90, 382, ii. 32, 123 ; Liddon's 
Life of Pusey, i. 165-6, 314, 360, ii. 109.] L. S. 

WHITE, SIR MICHAEL (1791-1868), 
lieutenant-general, born at St. Michael's 
Mount in 1791, was the third son of Robert 
White, major in the 27th dragoons, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Sir John St. Aubyn, 
fourth baronet (1726-1772), of St. Michael's 
Mount. He was educated at Westminster 
school, and obtained a cornetcy in the 24th 
dragoons on 15 Aug. 1804. On 14 May 1805 
he was promoted lieutenant. Proceeding to 
India, he was engaged in active service in 
1809 on the banks of the Sutlej. On 7 Nov. 
1815 he attained his captaincy, and in 1817 
he was present at the capture of Hatras. He 
served through the Mahratta campaign of 
1817-18, and at the siege and capture of 
Bhartpiir in 1825-6. He was promoted 
major on 10 Jan. 1837, and lieutenant-colonel 
on 13 Dec. 1839. He commanded the cavalry 
throughout the Afghan campaign of 1842, 
accompanying the army under General Sir 
George Pollock [q. v.J which forced the 
Khaibar Pass, stormed the heights at Jagda- 
lak, defeated the enemy at Tezin, captured 
the position at Haft Kotal, and finally oc- 
cupied the Afghan capital Kabul. After 
the conclusion of the campaign, on 29 Dec. 
1842, he was nominated C.B. He served 
in the Sikh war in 1845-6, under Sir Hugh 
Gough (first Viscount Gough) [q. v.] He 
commanded the cavalry at the battle of 
Mudki on 18 Dec. 1845, when his horse was 
wounded. At the battle of Ferozshah on 
21 Dec., where he commanded a brigade, he 
was wounded and had his horse killed under 
him, and at Sobraon he behaved with such 
conspicuous gallantry that he was nominated 
aide-de-camp to the queen. On 1 April 1846 
he attained the rank of colonel. 

Three years later the second Sikh war 
began in the Punjab, and White commanded 
the first brigade of cavalry throughout the 
campaign. At the disastrous affair at Ram- 
nagar on 22 Nov. 1848, he assailed the Sikh 
cavalry, taking the command of the cavalry 
on the fall of Lieutenant-colonel William 
Havelock [q. v.] On 13 Jan. 1849 he was 
present at the dearly bought victory of Chil- 
lianwallah, where he protected the left of 
the infantry, and on 21 Feb. 1849 he took 
part in the victory at Gujrat. On 20 June 
1854 he received the rank of major-general, 
and on 26 Aug. 1858 he was appointed colonel 

F 2 



White 



68 



White 



of the 7th dragoons. On 31 Aug. 1860 he 
attained the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
on 10 Nov. 1862 was nominated K.C.B. He 
died in London at 15 Pembridge Crescent, 
Bayswater, on 27 Jan. 1868. In 1816 he 
married Mary, daughter of Major Mylne of 
the 24th dragoons. 

[Gent. Mag. 1868,i.400; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornub. ; Barker and Stenning's 
Westminster School Reg. ; Army Lists ; Times, 
1 Feb. 1868 ; Colburn's United Service Mag. 
1868, i. 446; Thackwell's Narrative of the 
Second Seikh War, 1851, pp. 35-6, 169.] 

E. I. C. 

WHITE, SIR NICHOLAS (d. 1593), 
master of the rolls in Ireland, described as 
of Whites Hall, near Knocktopher, co. Kil- 
kenny, a descendant of one of the early Pale 
settlers, was a relative apparently, perhaps 
the son, of James White of Waterford, gen- 
tleman, to whom Henry VIII in 1540 
granted a lease of the rectory of Dunkitt in 
co. Kilkenny (Cal. Plants, Hen. VIII, p. 
154). He is surmised to be identical with 
the 'Nicholas Whyt' mentioned in the 
codicil to the will of James Butler, ninth 
earl of Ormonde and Ossory (MoRRiN, Cal. 
Patent Rolls, i. 133). He is mentioned in 
April 1563 as a justice of the peace for 
the counties of Kilkenny and Tipperary, and 
the following year as recorder of the city of 
Waterford (Cal. Plants, Eliz. Nos. 542, 
666). Visiting England subsequently, he 
made a favourable impression on Elizabeth 
and Cecil. On 4 Nov. 1568 the queen 
directed him to be appointed to the seneschal- 
ship of Wexford and the constableship and 
rule of Leighlin and Ferns, in the room of 
Thomas Stucley [q. v.] On 18 Jan. follow- 
ing he obtained a grant of the reversion of 
the lands of Dunbrody in co. Wexford, and 
of sundry other leases (cf. Cal. Plants, Nos. 
1527, 1537, 1543, 1558, 1562, 1572, 1638), 
with instructions at the same time to be 
admitted a privy councillor (Cal. State 
Papers, Irel. Eliz. i. 392, 400). It is note- 
worthy that his advancement was attri- 
buted to the influence of the Earl of 
Ormonde (ib. i. 404). 

On his way back to Ireland he had a 
curious interview with Mary Queen of Scots 
at Tutbury in February 1569, of which he 
sent a detailed account to Cecil (HAYNES, 
Burghley Papers, pp. 509-12). During the 
Butlers' war his property was plundered, 
and he himself obliged for a time to take 
refuge in Waterford (Cal. State Papers, 
Irel. Eliz. i. 406, 412). On 28 May, in 
consideration of his losses, he obtained a 
grant of the lands of St. Katherine's, Leixlip 
(Cal. Plants, Eliz. No. 1369 ; cf. Cal. Hat- 



field MSS. i. 413), where he afterwards 
established his residence. As seneschal of 
Wexford he kept a firm hand over the 
Kavanaghs (Cal. State Papers, Irel. Eliz. 
i. 426), and by his conduct at the siege of 
Castle Mocollop in May 1571 won the appro- 
bation of the lord justice, Sir William 
Fitzwilliam (ib. i. 457). In September he 
repaired, with permission from the state to 
be absent six months, to England. On 
14 July 1572 he was appointed master of 
the rolls in Ireland (patent, 18 July) in 
succession to Henry Draycott, with con- 
cession to retain the office of seneschal of 
Wexford for the further space of eight 
months, ' in the hope that he may more 
effectually prosecute those that murdered 
his son-in-law, Robert Browne ' (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, i. 548 ; SMYTH, Law Officers, p. 60 ; 
see also under O'BYRXE, FIAGH MACHUGH). 
At the same time the lord chancellor was 
directed to accept a surrender from him of 
his lands in counties Tipperary, Waterford, 
and Kilkenny for a regrant of them to him 
in fee-simple. 

After his return to Ireland in the autumn 
of 1572 a dispute arose between him and 
Archbishop Adam Loftus [q. v.], on the 
death of the lord chancellor, Robert Weston 
[q. v.], as to the custody of the great seal, 
which Loftus claimed ex officio (Cal. State 
Papers, Irel. Eliz. i. 506, 509). The incident 
caused bad blood between him and the offi- 
cials of English birth, and was followed by 
disastrous consequences for him. A year or 
two later he supported the agitation of the 
gentry of the Pale against cess by refusing 
to sign the order for their committal [see 
under NUGENT, SIR CHRISTOPHER, 1544- 
1602], and drew down upon him the wrath 
of Sir Henry Sidney, who described him to 
Walsingham as ' the worst of Irishmen ' (ib. 
ii. 117). He offered an explanation of his 
conduct to Burghley on 13 June 1577, alleg- 
ing that he had no intention to impugn the 
queen's prerogative (Hatjield MSS. ii. 154, 
186). But Sidney, who from the first had 
disliked him as belonging to the faction of 
his enemy, the Earl of Ormonde, was in no 
humour to brook opposition from him, and a 
charge being preferred against him by the 
attorney-general, Thomas Snagge [a. v.], of 
remissness in the execution of the duties of 
his office and of maintaining any cause that 
touches his countrymen 'how foul soever 
it be' (Cal. State Papers, Irel. Eliz. ii. 124, 
126), he was in April 1578 suspended from 
the mastership of the rolls (Cal. Plants, 
Eliz. No. 3267). He found, however, a friend 
in Sir William Drury [q. v.], and in September 
received permission to repair to England to 



White 



6 9 



White 



plead his cause with Burghley (ib. No. 3509). 
He succeeded in clearing himself of the 
charges preferred against him by Snagg ; but 
returning to Ireland, and being reinstated 
in his ortice, he found a bitter enemy in Sir 
Henry Wallop [q. v.], who protested strongly 
against a concordatum of a thousand marks 
that had been allowed him (Cal. State 
Papers, Irel. Eliz. ii. 223). He was with 
the army under Sir William Pelham [q. v.] 
in Munster during the summer of 1580, corre- 
sponding regularly the while with Burghley, 
to whom he sent Dr. Sanders's ' sanctus bell, 
and another toy after the manner of a crosse 
supporting a booke,' discovered at Castle 
Island (ib. ii. 236), from which it may be 
inferred that so far as his religion was con- 
cerned there was nothing to find fault with. 
His misadventure in the matter of the cess 
did not prevent him generously pleading the 
cause of Chief-justice Nicholas Nugent [q.v.] 
to Burghley (ib. ii. 300), and it was probably 
owing to this circumstance that he was 
fiercely denounced by Wallop as ' a solicitor 
for all traitors ' (ib. ii. 415). Even his suc- 
cessful management of Fiagh MacHugh, the 
O'Conors, and Kavanaghs, as reported by 
the council, received from Wallop a sinister 
interpretation. 'The cawse,' he wrote to 
Walsingham, ' that moved him to apprehend 
the bad fellowes we comende him for in 
owr joynt letter, grywe by menes that I 
dyd openly in counsell, the end of the last 
terme, charge him upon his evell delynge 
with us bothe in impoynyng and crosynge 
owr doynges, that he was a coinon advocate 
for traytors and evell men, that he never 
apprehendyd, or cawsed to be apprehended, 
anye traytor, rebell, or evell dysposed parson, 
nor ever woulde come to the examynatyon 
or araynement oft* any traytor or conspyrator ' 
(ib. ii. 428). It might have been deemed 
by Wallop sufficient pledge for his loyalty 
that he was the author (ib. iv. 292) of the 
extraordinary trial by combat in September 
1583 between Teige MacGilapatrick O'Conor 
and Conor MacCormack O'Conor (Cal. Carew 
MSS. ii. 361), in which both combatants 
lost their lives. 

With the arrival of Sir John Perrot as 
<3eputy in 1584 White's prospects improved. 
From Perrot he received the honour of 
knighthood at his taking the oath in Christ 
Church on 21 June. His gratitude naturally 
inclined him to take the part of the lord 
deputy in the many disputes in which the 
latter was involved almost from the begin- 
ning of his government. But neither his 
gratitude nor his admiration of Perrot's 
good qualities blinded him to the defects 
in his character (cf. Cal. State Papers, Irel. 



Klis. iii. 138). Going the Leinster circuit in 
the autumn of the same year (1584), White 
caused forty-eight of the hundred and eighty- 
one prisoners sent up for trial to be executed, 
and in the fulfilment of his duty even ven- 
tured to visit the redoubtable Fiagh Mac- 
Hugh O'Byrne in his fastness of Ballinacor, 
' where law never approached ' (ib. ii. 531). 
In December he was sent down into Con- 
naught in order to investigate the charges 
of extortion preferred against the late go- 
vernor, Sir Nicholas Malby [q. v.], and on 
15 July 1585 was appointed a commissioner 
for compounding for cess in that province 
(ib. ii. 542; Cal. Plants, No. 4745). In 
September 1586 he and Sir Lucas Dillon 
attended the lord deputy thither, greatly to 
the annoyance of Sir Kichard Bingham [q. v.], 
who confidentially described them as l fit 
instruments ' in Perrot's hands to discover 
anything against him (ib. iii. 182). Dillon 
besought Burghley not to let ' the place of 
our birth scandalise our faithful service ; ' but 
the fact that they were regarded as wholly 
subservient to Perrot rendered any cordial 
action between them and the English section 
in the council impossible. Everything that 
White did was misinterpreted. His account 
of the quarrel between the lord deputy and 
Marshal Bagenal in the council chamber, 
though certainly the fairest, was impugned, 
and an attempt even made to deprive him 
of the custody of Duncannon Fort, which 
formed part of his estate at Dunbrody, under 
the pretence that ' it was unmeet that the 
same should be put into the hands of any of 
this country's birth ' (ib. iii. 449). Perrot's 
successor, Sir William Fitzwilliam, shared 
the general prejudice against him, alleging 
that neither he nor Sir Lucas Dillon would 
set their hand to any letters ' wherein Sir 
John Perrot is mentioned not to their lik- 
ing' (ib. iv. 116). In 1589 he was included 
in the commission for effecting a pacification 
with the Burkes, whom the alleged arbi- 
trary conduct of Bingham had caused to 
revolt. In announcing the ill-success of 
their efforts to Burghley, he remarked that 
there was a general inclination to lay the 
blame on Bingham; for himself, he after- 
wards inclined to take Bingham's part in 
the matter, as being in his opinion ' altogether 
inclined to follow the mildest course ' (ib. 
iv. 161, 263, 276). Shortly afterwards he 
was involved in the revelations of Sir Denis 
O'Roughan in the charge of high treason 
preferred against Perrot, and Fitzwilliam, 
who was apparently too glad of an excuse 
for removing him, caused him in June 1590, 
though extremely ill, to be placed under 
restraint, at the same time taking effective 



White 



White 



measures to pn>v en t any personal application 
on the part of his son to the queen (ib. 
iv. 343, 354, 357). Two months later he 
was sent over to England, and, after exami- 
nation by Sir John Popham (1531 P-1607) 
[<j. v.], was committed to the Marshalsea 
(ib. iv. 3~>J), 388). In a subsequent ex- 
amination in the Star-chamber he admitted 
that Perrot had complained that the queen's 
fears hampered his service; but otherwise 
nothing of material importance was elicited 
from him (ib. iv. 439), He was not deprived 
of his office, and, being apparently allowed 
to return to Ireland, he died there shortly 
afterwards, at the end of March cr the be- 
ginning of April 1593 (cf. Cat. Fiants, Nos. 
5820, 6836). 

White married a niece of Arthur Brereton 
of Killyon, co. Meath, by whom he had two 
sons Thomas, educated at Cambridge and 
died in November 1 586, and Andrew, likewise 
educated at Cambridge,who succeeded him 
and two daughters, one of whom married 
Robert Browne of Mulcranan, co. Wexford, 
the other being the wife of Christopher 
D'Arcy of Platten, co. Meath. 

[Authorities as quoted.] R. D. 

WHITE, RICHARD (d. 1584), school- 
master and Roman catholic martyr, belonged 
to an old Welsh family of the name of Gwyn 
settled at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, 
where he himself was also probably born. 
It is said that ' he was twenty years of age 
before he did frame his mind to like of good 
letters,' after which he proceeded to Oxford, 
but left there shortly afterwards for St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he lived 
by the charity of the college. It was while 
at the university that his friends, discover- 
ing ' Gwyn ' to be the Welsh for * White,' 
began to 'call him by the latter name, which 
he thereafter adopted. He quitted Cam- 
bridge soon after Elizabeth's accession, and 
set nimself up as a schoolmaster in East 
Denbighshire and Flintshire, first at Overton, 
then at Wrexham, Gresford, Erbistock, and 
other neighbouring villages. After follow- 
ing this occupation for about sixteen years, 
he appears to have fallen under the influence 
of one of the Douay missioners, with the 
result that he commenced absenting himself 
from church. For this he was arrested in 
July 1580, and was committed to Rutliin 
gaol byJudge Puleston. During thenext four 
years he was kept a close prisoner, and was 
eventually indicted for high treason on the 
ground that he had declared the pone and 
not the queen to be the head of the ctiurch. 
With two other fellow prisoners he is said 
to have been sent before the council of the 



marches at Bewdley (? Ludlow), where he 
was tortured with the view of eliciting in- 
formation to incriminate others ; but to no 
effect. He was finally brought up at the 
Wrexham assizes, on 9 Oct. 1584, before 
Sir George Bromley, Simon Thelwall, and 
others. The jury, after being locked up in 
the church all night, returned a verdict of 
' guilty,' and Thelwall, in Bromley's absence, 
pronounced the usual sentence, which was 
carried out in all its barbarity on 15 Oct. 
His head and one of his quarters were set 
up on Denbigh Castle, and the other quarters 
were exposed at Wrexham, Ruthin, and 
Holt. 

White left behind him a widow (who- 
was a native of Overton) and three children. 

[There are two contemporary accounts of 
White's martyrdom, one printed (at if. 172 b to 
203 a) in the Concertatio Ecclesise Catholicae 
(3rd edit. London, 1589) of Dr. J. Bridgewater, 
or ' Aquipontanus.' This (which gives the dates 
of White's trial and execution as 11 and 17 Oct. 
respectively) has been followed in Challoner's 
Catholic Martyrs, 1877, pp. 109-11. The other 
account, which is much fuller and contains a 
copy of a letter by White describing one of his 
trials, is from a contemporary manuscript pre- 
served at the Catholic Mission House, Holywell; 
it was printed in full by Richard Simpson in the 
Rambler, new ser. 1860, iii. 233, 366, and by 
Chevalier Lloyd in his History of Powys Fadog, 
iii. 128-64. See also Williams's Montgomery- 
shire Worthies, p. 85 ; A. N. Palmer's Wrexham 
Church, pp. 36. 62, 71, 119, and his Town, Fields, 
and Folk of Wrexham, pp. 9, 10. A pedigree 
of the Gwyns of Llanidloes (from Harl. MS. 
9864) is given in Lloyd's Powys Fadog, v. 59- 
62 ; cf. Dwnn's Heraldic Visitations, i. 310.] 

D. LL. T. 

urist 
hite 

of Basingstoke, Hampshire, who died at 
the siege of Boulogne in 1544, and whose 
grandfather had almost half the town of 
Basingstoke in his own possession. His 
mother was Agnes, daughter of Richard 
Capelin of Hampshire. He was born at 
Basingstoke in 1539, entered Winchester 
school in 1553, and was admitted perpetual 
fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1557 
(KiRBY, Winchester Scholars, p. 131). He 
took the degree of B.A. on 30 May 1559, but 
afterwards left the college, and the time 
allowed for his absence having elapsed, his- 
fellowship was declared void in 1564. Shortly 
before that time he went to Louvain and 
afterwards to Padua, where he was created 
doctor of the civil and canon laws. At 
length, going to Douay, he was constituted 
the king's professor of those laws. He con- 
tinued to reside for more than twenty years 



WHITE, RICHARD (1539-1611), juri 
and historian, was son of Henry Whi 



White 



White 



at Douay, where he married twice and ac- 
quired great wealth by each wife. By order 
of the pope he was made, though out of 
his ordinary turn, 'magnificus rector' of the 
university, and about the same time he was 
created ' comes palatinus.' 

After the death of his second wife he was, 
by dispensation of Clement VIII, ordained 
priest, and about the same time a canonry 
in the church of St. Peter at Douay was 
bestowed upon him. In his favourite study 
of 1 >i it ish history he received encouragement 
from Thomas Godwell, bishop of St. Asaph, 
Sir Henry Peacham, and Sir Francis Engle- 
fiold, formerly privy councillors to Queen 
Mary ; but chiefly from Cardinal Baronius, 
with whom he maintained a constant corre- 
spondence (DoDD, Church Hist. ii. 383). He 
died at Douay in 1611, and was buried in 
tin- church of St. Jacques in that city (Addit. 
MS. 5803, ft'. 99, 100). 

His works are: 1. '/Elia Laelia Crispis. 
Epitaphium antiquum quod in agro Bono- 
niensi adhuc uidetur ; a diuersis hactenus 
interpretatum uarie : nouissime autem a 
Tlicardo Yito Basinstochio, amicorum pre- 
cibus explicatum,' Padua, 1568, 4to. Dedi- 
cated to Christopher Johnson, chief master 
of \\inchester school : reprinted, Dort, 1618, 
IGmo. 2. ' Orationes : (1) De circulo artium 
et philosophise. (2) De eloquentia et Cice- 
rone. (3) Pro divitiis regum. (4) Pro doc- 
toratu. (5) De studiorum finibus. Cum notis ; 
rerum variarum et antiquitatis,' Arras, I 
1596, 8vo. The first two, delivered at Lou- ' 
vain, were published by Christopher John- 
son, 1564, 1565, and ordered by him to be 
read publicly in Winchester school. 3. ' It. 
Viti . . . Notae ad leges Decem-virorum in 
duodecim tabulis ; institutiones juris civilis 
in quattuor libris: primam partem Digesto- 
rum in quattuor libris,' 2 parts, Arras, 1597, 
8vo. 4. ' Historiarum (Britanniae)libri(l-ll) 
. . . cum notis antiquitatum Britannicarum ' 
[edited by Thomas White], 7 parts, Arras 
and Douay, 1597-1607, 8vo. The author's 
portrait is prefixed to this work. 5. * Oratio 
septima de religione legum Romanorum, ad 
reverendum Dominum, Dominum Nicolaum 
Manifroy, electum Abbatein Bertinianum,' 
Douay, 1604, 8vo. 6. 'Brevis explicatio 
privilegiorum iuris et consuetudinis circa 
venerabile sacramentum Eucharistiae/Douay , 

1609, 8vo. 7. ' De Reliquiis et Veneratione 
Sanctorum,' Douay, 1609. 8. 'Brevis ex- 
plicatio Martyrii Sanctse Ursulae et undeciin 
millium Virginum Britannarum,' Douav, 

1610, 8vo. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 382; Duthilld-ul's 
Bibl. Douaisienne, 1842, pp. Ho, 160, 161; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Granger's 



Biogr. Hist, of England, 6th edit. i. 272; Kirby's 
Annals of VVinclii-stur College, p. 276 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Mnn. ed. Bohn, p. 2902 ; Pits, De Angliae 
Scriptoribus, p. 806; Records of the English 
Catholics, i. 446 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 118.] T. C. 

WHITE, alias JOHNSON, RICHARD 
(1604-1687), devotional writer, was born in 
the diocese of Winchester, of poor Roman 
catholic parents, in 1604, and entered the 
English College at Douay in 1623, when he 
adopted the name of Johnson, which he re- 
tained for the rest of his life. He was or- 
dained priest on 23 Feb. 1629-30. On 23 May 
1630 he was sent from Douay to assist Ste- 
phen Barnes as confessor"oFtne English Au- 
gustinian canonesses of St. Monica's at Lou- 
vain. He acted in that capacity for twenty 
years, and for thirty-six years after Barnes's 
death he was principal confessor to the com- 
munity. He died in the convent on 12 Jan. 
1686-7. 

He left in manuscript a large number of 
devotional treatises, most of which were 
lost at the time of the French Revolution. 
One of them, entitled 'The Suppliant of the 
Holy Ghost : a Paraphrase of the " Veni 
Sancte Spirit us," ' was printed at London in 
1878, 8vo, under the editorship of the Rev. 
Thomas Edward Bridgett, who appended to 
it two other treatises, believed to have been 
also written by White, entitled ' A Para- 
phrase of the Pater Noster ' and ' Medita- 
tions on the Blessed Sacrament.' 

[Memoir by Bridgett ; Records of the English 
Catholics, i. 23.] T. C. 

WHITE, ROBERT (1540?-! 574), mu- 
sician, was probably born about 1540. His 
father, who outlived him, was also named 
Robert. A John "White supplicated Mus. 
Bac. Oxon. in 1528. There is some reason to 
suppose that the elder Robert W r hite was an 
organ-builder. In 1531, and on several sub- 
sequent occasions until 1545, a Magister 
White repaired the organ of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford. He was wrongly identified 
by Cope with the composer, but may have 
been his father. The parish of St. Andrew's, 
llolborn, in 1553 ' gave young W^hyte 5/. 
for y c great orgaynes wh his father made for 
y e church.' This organ was sold in 1572 
to < Robert W r hite, gentleman of W T estmin- 
ster,' and John Thomas. In 1574 the elder 
Robert White had been for some time living 
with his son at Westminster, and these 
entries may not improbably all refer to him. 

The first definite fact recorded of the 
younger W^hite is that, having studied music 
ten years, he graduated Mus. Bac.Cantabr. on 
13 Dec. 1560. He was required, under penalty 



White 



White 



of 40s. fine, to compose a communion service 
to be sung in St. Mary's Church on com- 
mencement day. ' Omnia peregit ' was added 
in the grace book. In a set of part-books, 
written in 1581, preserved at Christ Church, 
Oxford, White is styled ' batchelar of art, 
batchelar of musick ' but in his own and his 
wife's wills ' batchelar of musick 'only. Very 
soon after graduating, and not later than 
Michaelmas 15G2, White succeeded Dr. 
Christopher Tye [q. v.] as master of the 
choristers at Ely Cathedral, and was paid 
the same salary, 10/., as Tye, who had been 
also styled organist, had received. White 
probably married Ellen Tye at Doddington 
not long afterwards. The baptism of their 
daughter Margery is recorded on 23 Dec. 1565 
at Ely. He must have resigned his appoint- 
ment in 1566, as John Farrant [see under 
FARRANT, RICHARD] received a year's salary 
as master of the choristers at Michaelmas 
1567. White was appointed in or before 
1570 master of the choristers and organist 
at Westminster Abbey ; to the former post 
was allotted, by Queen Elizabeth's founda- 
tion, ' a house, 41. in regard, and 3/. Gs. 4rf. 
for every one of thetenne Queresters,besydes 
a yerely ly verey to each one, and a bushell of 
wheate weekely.' Between 1570 and 1573 
three daughters of Robert White were bap- 
tised at St. Margaret's, Westminster. All 
these apparently died during the pestilence of 
1574, and were buried in the churchyard of 
St. Margaret's ; and on 7 Nov. Robert White 
made his will, directing he should be buried 
near them. He was buried on 1 1 Nov., and 
on the 2 1 st his wife made her will. She died 
soon after, and letters of administration were 
taken out on 8 Dec. Two daughters, Mar- 
gery and Anne, survived. Robert White 
possessed the estate of Swallowfield and 
Winslowes at Nuthurst, West Sussex, which 
he bequeathed to his wife. From her will it 
appears that she had sisters named Mary 
Rowley [see TIE, CHRISTOPHER] and Susan 
Fulke, a brother-in-law Thomas Hawkes, 
and an aunt Anne Dingley. She left the 
children in charge of her mother, Katherine 
Tye, probably Dr. Tye's widow. 

Robert White in his short life attained a 
high reputation as a composer. The part- 
books at Christ Church contain the couplet : 

Maxima rausarum nostrarum gloria White, 
Tu peris : aeternum sed tua musa manet. 

Baldwin, writing in 1591, begins his list of 
great musicians with White. Morley men- 
tions him among the famous Englishmen 
' nothing inferior' to the best masters on the 
continent, and justifies the use of a sixth 
as the beginning of a composition, by the 



authority of White and Lassus. But as 
White had published nothing, he became 
forgotten and confused with later musicians 
named White (see below), until Burney re- 
discovered him. 

In Barnard's 'Selected Church Musick,' 
1641, there is one anthem by White, 'The 
Lord blesse us ; ' but it was not included in 
Boyce's ' Cathedral Music.' Burney printed 
another, 'Lord, who shall dwell in Thy 
tabernacle,' from the Christ Church part- 
books. Burns's ' Anthems and Services ' 
contains a third, ' O praise God in His holi- 
ness.' Arkwright's Old English Edition, No. 
xxi., has 'The Lord blesse us' in score, and 
' O how glorious art Thou ! ' All these are 
anthems for five voices, except ' O praise 
God,' which is for double choir. There are 
imprinted works, generally to Latin words, 
in early manuscripts at Buckingham Palace, 
the British Museum, the Royal College of 
Music, the Bodleian and Christ Church 
libraries at Oxford, St. Peter's, Cambridge, 
Tenbury, and several cathedrals. A fairly 
complete list is given in Grove's ' Dictionary/ 
iv. 452. White completed a setting of the 
'Lamentations' which had been begun by 
Tallis, and at Buckingham Palace there is a 
continuation by White of a motet by Tye. 
Except some fancies for the lute, no instru- 
mental music by White is known. 

White's printed anthems are models of pure 
polyphony, beautifully melodic themes join- 
ing in harmonies of the richest effect. ' The 
warm eulogies of Burney, Fetis, and Ambros, 
and the great value of White's very few 
known works, have caused general expecta- 
tion that his unprinted works are also mas- 
terpieces. Nagel, who judges that White, 
though superior to all his predecessors, lived 
a few years too soon for the perfect union 
of spiritual beauty with formal mastery, pro- 
claims that it is a bounden duty of the Eng- 
lish nation to edit White's complete works. 
Some who have scored various manuscripts 
report less favourably, and have found a 
stiffness which suggests an earlier period, 
and might rather be expected from the John 
White at Oxford in 1528. In a set of part- 
books at the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 
17802-5) there is a 'Libera me 'constructed 
upon a plain-song in long notes. Burney 
possessed an important manuscript, at pre- 
sent undiscoverable, containing twenty-seven 
pieces by White, of which he speaks with 
enthusiasm. 

MATTHI:\V WHITE (Jl. 1610-3630), to 
whom Robert White's works are often attri- 
buted in seventeenth-century manuscripts, 
was at Wells Cathedral, and in 1611 or- 
ganist of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1613 



White 



73 



White 



he was sworn a gentleman of the chapel 
royal, but resigned next year. In Kii".' In- 
accumulated the degrees of Mus. Bac. and 
Mus. Doc. Oxon. Anthony Wood, in his 
' Lives of English Musicians' ( Wood MSS. 
19 D 4 in the .Bodleian Library) confuses 
Matthew with Robert White. The collections 
(now at the Royal College of Music) from 
which Barnard compiled his Selected Church 
Musick' contain an anthem by M. White 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxomenses, p. 1615 ; Cheque- 
book of the Chapel Koyal,C&mden Soc. 1872). 
WILLIAM WHITE (jft. 1620), of whom 
nothing is recorded, has left some anthems 
in Additional MSS. 29372-7 at the British 
Museum, and among the choir-books at St. 
Peter's, Cambridge; and some fancies for in- 
struments in the Bodleian and Christ Church 
libraries at Oxford, and Additional MSS. 
17792-6. One of the 'Songs' by Thomas 
Tomkins (d. 1656) [q. v.l, published about 
1623, is dedicated to Will. \Vhite. He also 
has been confused with Robert White. 

[Introd. to Arkwright's Old English Edition, 
xxi, where the wills of Robert and Ellen White 
are printed; Morley's Plaine and Easie Intro- 
duction to Practicall Musicke, reprint of 1771, 
pp. 170, 238, 249, 258; Abdy Williams's Musical 
Degrees, pp. 80, 155 ; FosteVs Alumni Oxon. p. 
1614 ; Burney's General Hist, of Music, iii. 65- 
71 ; Ambros's Geschichte der Musik, iii. 459; 
Rimbault's Early English Organ-builders, pp. 
40, 72 ; Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, 
iii. 273, ir. 452, 817; Nagel's Geschichte der 
Musik in England, ii. 64-9, 287 ; Davey'sHist. 
of English Music, pp. 57, 134, 155, 234, 493; 
MSS., and Works quoted ; information from Mr. 
Arkwright.] H. D. 

WHITE, ROBERT (1645-1 703),draughts- 
man and engraver, was born in London in 1 645, 
and became a pupil of David Loggan[q.v.] He 
was the most esteemed and industrious por- 
trait engraver of his time, and his plates, 
which number about four hundred, comprise 
most of the public and literary characters of 
the period. A large proportion of them were 
executed ad vivum, the rest from pictures by 
Lely, Kneller, Riley, Beale, and others, and 
they have always been greatly valued for 
their accuracy as likenesses. Of the plates 
engraved by W T hite from his own drawings 
the best are the portraits of Prince George of 
Denmark, the Earl of Athlone, the Duke of 
Leeds, and the Earl of Seaforth; and the 
groups of the seven bishops, the bishops' 
council, the lords justices of England, and 
the Portsmouth captains who declared for 
King W r illiam. He engraved the plates to 
Sandford's account of the funeral of the Duke 
of Albemarle, 1670; the first Oxford < Alma- 
nac,' 1674; a set of portraits of members of 



the Rawdon family ; the plates to Gwillim's 
' Heraldry ' and Burnet's ' History of the Re- 
formation,' and many book-titles and fronti- 
spieces. A few scarce mezzotint portraits of 
noblemen bear W T hite's name as the pub- 
lisher, and are assumed to have been exe- 
cuted by him. White was celebrated for 
his original portraits, which he drew in pen- 
cil on vellum with great delicacy and finish, 
in the manner of Loggan. He died in re- 
duced circumstances in Bloomsbury Market, 
where he had long resided, in November 
1703. A portrait of White was engraved 
by W. II. Worthington for Wornum's edition 
of Walpole's ' Anecdotes.' 

GEORGE WHITE (1684P-1732), mezzotint 
engraver, son of Robert, was born about 
1684, and instructed by his father. He com- 
pleted some of the plates left unfinished by 
the latter, and himself executed a few in the 
line manner ; but, being deficient in industry, 
he at an early period turned to the less 
laborious method of mezzotint. A portrait 
of Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer, which he exe- 
cuted in this style from a painting by Kneller, 
was greatly admired and brought him much 
employment. He became the ablest mezzo- 
tint engraver that had yet appeared in 
England, and was the first to make use of 
the etched line to strengthen the work. 
White's plates number about sixty, of which 
the best are the portraits of William Dobson, 
George Hooper, bishop of St. Asaph, Tycho 
Wing, and ' Old ' Parr. White, like his 
father, drew portraits in pencil on vellum 
with great success; he also practised in 
crayons, and latterly took to painting in 
oils. He died at his house in Bloomsbury 
on 27 May 1732. His plate of the 'Laugh- 
ing Boy ' after Hals, a masterly work, was 
published after his death, with laudatory 
verses. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; Vertue's 
Collections in Brit. Museum (Addit. MSS. 
23072 f. 2, and 23076 f. 38) ; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of English Engravers, in Brit. Museum 
(Addit. MS. 33407) ; Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits.] F. M. O'D. 

WHITE, ROBERT (1802-1874), anti- 
quary, the son of a border farmer, was born 
on 17 Sept. 1802 at the Clock Mill, near the 
gipsy village of Yetholm in Roxburghshire. 
While he was a boy his father removed to 
Otterburn in Redesdale. There he herded 
his father's cattle, managing at the same 
time to acquire a knowledge of books, and 
filling his mind with border lore. His father's 
landlord, James Ellis [q. v.], the friend and 
correspondent of SirWalter Scott, encouraged 
him, and made him welcome in his library, 



White 



74 



White 



where he spent the winter c\ . 11111--, copying 
whole volumes of his patron's treasures. 
After spending a short time with a weaver 
in Jedburgh he returned to employment on j 
the farm. In 1825 he found employment in 
Nf \vcastle in the counting-house of Robert 
Watson, a plumber and brassfounder at the 
High Bridge. White remained with AVatson 
until A\ r atson died forty years later. 

At Newcastle AA r hite found time and oppor- 
t unity for study. By abstemious living he 
was able to devote part of his small income 
to the purchase of books, and in time he j 
accumulated a library containing many rare ! 
and valuable volumes. His holidays were ! 
usually spent in rambles on the border with 
hi> friend James Telfer [q.v.], the Saughtrees 
poet, steeping himself m border minstrelsy 
and gathering knowledge of border life. His 
first poem, * The Tynemouth Nun/ was written 
in 1829, and at the suggestion of the anti- 
quary, John Adamson (1787-1855) [q. v.], it ; 
was printed in the same year for the Typo- 
graphical Society of Newcastle. After this 
successful essay he devoted himself to the 
preservation and reproduction of local legend 
and song, contributing to many local pub- 
lications. In 1853 he printed for distribution 
among his friends a poem on 'The AN "hid ' 
(Newcastle, 8vo), and in 1856, also for private 
circulation, another poem entitled ' England' 
(Newcastle, 8vo). About this time, or a 
little earlier, he became a member of the 
Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, to which 
he contributed a paper on the battle of 
Neville's Cross (Arch. ALliana, new ser. i. 
271-303). Encouraged by its reception, he 
published a volume on the ' History of the 
Battle of Otterburn' (London, 1857, 8vo), 
adding memoirs of the warriors engaged. 
This was followed in 1858 by a paper read 
to the Newcastle Society on the battle of 
Flodden (ib. iii. 197-236), and in 1871 by a 
* History of the Battle of Bannockburn' 
(London, 8vo). These monographs were 
rendered valuable by White's intimate ac- 
quaintance with local legend, and by his topo- 
graphical knowledge, which enabled him to 
elucidate much that hitherto had remained 
obscure. He died unmarried at his house in 
Claremont Place, Newcastle, on 20 Feb. 1874. i 

AVhite was also the author, apart from 
other antiquarian papers, of ' Going Home,' 
a poem [1850?], 8vo ; ' A Few Lyrics,' Edin- 
burgh, 1857, 8vo, reprinted from Charles 
Rogers's 'Modern Scottish Minstrel,' 1855 
(for private circulation); and 'Poems, in- 
cluding Tales, Ballads, and Songs,' Kelso, 
1867, 8vo (with a portrait). He edited the 
1 Poems and Ballads of John Leyden,' Kelso, 
1858, 8vo, with a memoir supplementing that 



by Sir AValter Scott. Several of his songs 
are to be found in the ' A\ r histleBinkie' col- 
lection and in Alexander AVhitelaw's 'Book 
of Scottish Song' (1844). 

[Memoir by Richard AVel ford in the New- 
castle Weekly Chronicle, 1 Oct. 1892; Memoir 
by John Helson in the Hawick Adrertiser, 
2.3 Sept. 1869.] E. I. C. 

WHITE, ROBERT MEADOWS (1798- 
1865), Rawlinson professor of Anglo-Saxon 
at Oxford University, born on 8 Jan. 1798, 
was the eldest son of Robert Goatling AVhite 
(d. 18 Oct. 1828), a solicitor at Halesworth 
in Suffolk, by his second wife, Elizabeth 
Meadows (d. 25 Sept. 1831). In 1813 Robert 
was placed under John Valpy at Norwich, 
where John Lindley [q. v.], the botanist, and 
Rajah Sir James Brooke [q.v.] were his fellow 
pupils. On 20 July 1815 he matriculated from 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and in the same 
year was elected a demy, graduating B.A. on 
14 Dec. 1819, M.A. on 28 Feb. 1822, B.D. on 
21 Nov. 1833, and D.D. on 23 Nov. 1843. He 
was ordained deacon in 1821 and priest in 
1822. In 1824 he was elected a fellow of 
Magdal en College, retaining his fellowship till 
1847. From 1832 till 1840 he acted as a col- 
lege tutor. On 15 March 1831 he became 
proctor, and on 23 April 1834 he was chosen 
Rawlinson professor of Anglo-Saxon, hold- 
ing that post for the statutable period of 
five years. 

Anglo-Saxon professors at that time were 
sometimes defined as ' persons willing to 
learn Anglo-Saxon.' White, however, was 
known as a scholar before he was elected 
to the chair. He had already contemplated 
the publication of a Saxon and English 
vocabulary, and only abandoned the project 
because it appeared likely to clash with the 
'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary' then being pre- 
pared by Joseph Bosworth [q. v.] On giving 
up this design, he turned his attention about 
1832 to editing the ' Ormulum,' a harmonised 
narrative of the gospels in verse, preserved 
in a unique manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library. The task, owing to other demands 
on his time, occupied nearly twenty years. 
In the course of his researches he visited 
Denmark in 1837, and extended his travels to 
Moscow, where he was arrested and suffered 
a short del cut ion for visiting the Kremlin 
without an official order. His edition of the 
' ( h-iiiuluin' was issued in 1852 from the uni- 
versity press, and in the following year an 
elaborate crit icism of it was pu Wished in Eng- 
lish by Dr. Monicke, a German professor. 

In 1839, at the end of his term of office, 
White was presented to the vicarage of 
AA T oolley, near AVakefield, by Godfrey Went- 



White 



75 



White 



worth of that parish, to whose son Willium 
he had acted as tutor. After Wentworth's 
death he left Woolley, and went to Lord 
Yarborough at Brocklesby Park in Lincoln- 
shire, where he acted as tutor to the baron's 
grandsons. In 1842 he was presented to the 
rectory of Little and Great Glemlmm in 
Suffolk by the Hon. Mrs. North, Lord Yar- 
borough's sister, and on 29 Oct. 1846 he was 
presented by Magdalen College to the rectory 
of Slimbridge in Gloucestershire, which he 
retained until his death. lie died unmarried ; 
at Cheltenham on 31 Jan. 1865, and was | 
buried at Slimbridge, in the churchyard, 
near the chancel south wall. 

His younger brother, JOHN MEADOWS ' 
WHITE (1799?-! 863), solicitor, was born at ; 
Halesworth in 1799 or 1800, and entered 
into partnership with his father there. He j 
removed to London, where he became the ; 
partner of T. Barett in Great St. Helen's 
Street, and rose to great eminence as a par- ' 
liamentary solicitor. He was engaged in 
the preparation of many measures of social, 
legal, and ecclesiastical reform, such as the ' 
new poor law, the commutation of tithes, ! 
and the enfranchisement of copyholds. On 
the subject of tithes he became a great 
authority, and issued several treatises on 
tithe legislation. He was a solicitor of the 
ecclesiastical commission, and died at Wey- 
mouth on 19 March 1863. On 17 Sept. 
1825 he married at Halesworth Anne, daugh- 
ter of Robert Crabtree, an attorney of that 
place, and by her had a large family. 

Besides publications on tithe law he was 
the author of : 1 . * Some Remarks on the 
Statute Law of Parish Apprentices,' Hales- 
worth, 1829, 8vo. 2. ' Remarks on the Poor 
Law Amendment Act,' London, 1834, 8vo. 

3. 'Parochial Settlements an Obstruction 
to Poor Law Reform,' London, 1835, 8vo. 

4. ' Remarks on the Copyhold Enfranchise- 
ment Act,' London, 1841, 12mo. 5. ' The 
Act for the Commutation of certain Manorial 
Rights in respect of Lands of Copyhold and 
Customary Tenure,' London, 1841, 12mo 
(Gent. Mag. 1863, i. 667; Brit. Museum 
Addit. MS. 19168, f. 211). 

[Gent. Mag. 1865, ii. 111-13: Allibone's 
Diet, of English Lit. ; Davy's Suffolk Collections in 
Brit. Museum Addit. MS. 19155, f. 92 ; Bloxam's 
Registers of Maedalen Coll. vii. 265-9 ; Cox's 
Recollections of Oxford, 1868, pp. 246-7.] 

E. I. C. 

WHITE, SAMUEL (1733-1811), school- 
master. [See WHYTE.] 

WHITE, STEPHEN (1575-1 647 ?), Irish 
Jesuit, born in 1575, was a native of Clon- 
mel (IlOGAX, Hibcnua lynatiana, p. 2i )( J). 



He was educated at the Irish seminary at 
Salamanca, where he was a reader in philo- 
sophy. He joined the Jesuits in 1596. In 
1 tii )(>' he became professor of scholastic theo- 
logy at Ingoldstadt, and returned to Spain 
in 1609 (ib. p. 179), but did not live there 
long. John Lynch describes him as ' doctor 
and emeritus professor of theology at In- 
goldstadt, Dillingen, and other places in 
Germany; a man full of almost every kind 
of learning' (Cambrensis Eversus, ii. 394). 
He was for a long time rector of the college 
at Cassel. He is chiefly remembered for his 
labours among Irish manuscripts preserved 
in German monasteries, and may be said 
to have opened that rich mine. He corre- 
sponded in a friendly way with Ussher, who 
acknowledges his courtesy and testifies to 
his immense knowledge, not only of Irish 
antiquities, but of those of all nations. He 
was a good Hebrew scholar. 

In 1621 White transcribed at Dillingen 
a manuscript of Adamnan's life of St. 
Columba, lent to him for the purpose by the 
Benedictines of Reichenau, and now pre- 
served at Schaffhausen. This is the most 
important of the manuscripts used by Reeves 
in settling the standard text. White lent 
his transcript to Ussher before 1639, when 
the latter published his great work on ecclesi- 
astical antiquities. Ussher prints a long 
extract from an unpublished life of Columba 
which Reeves believed to have been written 
by White. The 'Tertia Vita S. Brigidse' 
printed by John Colgan [q. v.] in his ' Trias 
Thaumaturga ' was transcribed by White 
from a very old manuscript at St. Magnus, 
Ratisbon. Colgan calls him ' vir patriarum 
antiquitatum scientissimus et sitientissimus.' 
At St. Magnus he also found a manuscript 
life of St. Erhard, and sent a transcript to 
Ussher. At Kaiserheim White transcribed 
for Hugh Boy Macanward [q. v.] the life of 
Colman, patron saint of Austria. He also 
copied manuscripts at Biberach and at Metz. 
White was long resident at Schaffhausen, 
and is sometimes spoken of as 'Scaphusio- 
Helvetius.' His best known work, the 
' Apologia pro Hibernia,' is believed to have 
been written as early as lt>15, and was long 
supposed to be lost. Lynch used an imper- 
fect copy for his 'Cambrensis E versus.' The 
manuscript from which the 'Apologia' is 
printed was found in the Burgundian library 
at Brussels in 1847. 

White was in Ireland from 1638 to 1640, 
and gratefully acknowledges the kindness of 
C-slu-r, who often asked him to dinner 
('quod modest e renui'), and who admitted 
him freely to his house and library (letter 
to Colgan). White appears to have been 



White 



White 



alive in 1647, when Colgan published his 
1 Trias Thaumaturga,' but nothing is known 
of him after that date. 

Of White's numerous works the following 
are printed in the * Bibliotheca Historico- 
philologico-theologica,' Bremen, 1719-25 : 
1. ' Dissertatio degenuina humanee libertatis 
natura atque indole.' 2. 'Dissertatio qua 
divina rationis auctoritas contra \|/-fu8ep- 
nqvctnv loci 2 Cor. x. 5 modeste vindicatur.' 
3. ' VitaJohannis Jezleri.' 4. 'Schediasmajin 
quo Augustini, Lutheri, supralapsariorumque 
sententia a Manichaeismi calumnia pro pace 
inter protestantes facilius concilianda vindi- 
catur. 5. 'Schediasmajinquoargumentaqui- 
bus vir celeb. Joh. Christianus Loers . . . cor- 
pora etiam angelis vindicatumivit,ad rationis 
trutinam modeste exiguntur.' White's ' Apo- 
logia pro Hibernia adversus Cambri calum- 
nias ' was edited by M. Kelly, Dublin, 1849. 
A ' Letter to Colgan,' dated 31 Jan. 1640 
N.S., in which White gives an account of 
his studies, is printed from the St. Isidore's 
manuscript in Reeves's ' Memoir,' Dublin, 
1861. 

[Memoir of White by Bishop William Reeves 
(1861), notes to Works of Adamnan, Index to 
Ussher's Works, Memoir of Colgan in vol. i. 
of the Ulster Journal of Archaeology all by 
Reeves ; Kelly's notes to White's Apologia and to 
Lynch's Cambrensis Eversus ; Hogan's Hibernia 
Ignatiana and Life of Fitzsimon ; Ware's Writers 
of Ireland, ed. Harris ; Brit. Mus. Cat. s.v. 
' Vitus.'J R. B-L. 

WHITE, SIR THOMAS (1492-1567), 
founder of St. John's College, Oxford, born 
at Reading (for the site, see COATES'S Read- 
ing, p. 405 n.) in 1492, was the son of Wil- 
liam White of Rickmans worth, Hertford- 
shire, clothier, and his wife Mary, daughter 
of John Kebblewhite of South Fawley, 
Buckinghamshire (CHAUNCEY, Antiquities of 
Herts, p. 481 a, gives Kickmansworth as his 
birthplace, erroneously). He was probably 
taught first at the Reading grammar school, 
founded by Henry VII, to which he gave 
two scholarships ; but he was brought up 
' almost from infancy ' in London. He was 
apprenticed at the age of twelve to Hugh 
Acton, a prominent member of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, who left him 100/. on his 
death in 1520. With this and his small 
patrimony he began business for himself in 
1523. In 1530 he was first renter warden 
of the Merchant Taylors' Company. From 
this he passed on to the senior wardenship 
about 1533, and was master probably in 
1535 (CLODE, History of the Merchant Tay- 
lors' Company, ii. 100). 

He appears in 1533 as one of those to 
whom the nun of Kent made revelations 



(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII,\\. 587). 
In 1535 he was assessed for the subsidy at 
1,000/., which shows him to have been by 
this time a prosperous clothier (for note on 
the exact nature of his trade, see CLODE'S 
History of the Merchant Taylors' Company, 
vol. ii. App. p. 4). In 1542 and 1545 he 
made large loans to the cities of Coventry 
and Bristol. He resided in the parish of St. 
Michael, Cornhill, and in 1544 was elected 
by the court ninth alderman for Cornhill. 
On his refusing ' to take upon himself the 
weight thereof,' he was committed to New- 
gate, and the windows of his shop were 
ordered to be * closed so long as he should 
continue in his obstinacy' (17 June, 
36 Hen. VIII, Repertory 11, f. 78 A). He 
was not long recalcitrant. In the same year, 
being then alderman, he contributed 3001. 
to the city's loan to the king. In 1547 he 
was sheriff. In 1549-50 he aided his guild 
with money to purchase the obit rent charges. 
In 1551 the trust-deed between his company 
and the city of Coventry was drawn up, by 
which large sums became available after his 
death for the charity loans, Xrc. In 1553 he 
was one of the promoters of the Muscovy 
Company (MACPHERSON, Annals of Com- 
merce, ii. 114). On 2 Oct. 1553 he was 
knighted in the presence of the Queen Mary 
by the Earl of Arundel, lord steward (MS. 
Coll, Arms, I. 7, f. 74 ; see MACHTN, pp. 46, 
335). He was elected lord mayor on 29 Oct. 
1553. Machyn records the splendour of his 
pageant. 

He sat on 13 Nov. on the commission for 
the trial of Lady Jane Grey and her adhe- 
rents. On 3 Jan. 1553-4 he received the 
Spanish envoys, and ten days later restored 
the custom of going in procession to St. 
Paul's for the high mass. On the breaking 
out of W r yatt's rebellion he arrested the 
Marquis of Northampton on 25 Jan. 1553-4. 
He received Mary on 1 Feb. when she made 
her appeal to the loyalty of the citizens, and 
on the 3rd repulsed the rebels from the 
bridge-gate, Southwark. His prudence and 
sagacity preserved London for the queen. 
On 10 Feb. he presided over the commission 
to try the rebels. In the further suppres- 
sion of tumult, he seems to have come 
into conflict with Gardiner in the Star- 
chamber (cf. CLODE, ii. 128, 138). On 
7 .March 1554, in pursuance of the queen's 
proclamation, he issued orders to the alder- 
men to admonish all residents of their wards 
to follow the catholic religion, which he re- 
peated with special application in April. The 
unpopularity caused by this possibly led to 
an attempt to assassinate him as he was hear- 
ing a sermon at St. Paul's on 10 June. On 



White 



77 



White 



19 Aug. he received Philip and Mary at their 
entry in state into the city. His mayoralty 
was marked by several sumptuary regulations, 
and by a proclamation (May 1554) against 
games, morris-dances, and interludes. 

At the end of his year of office White de- 
voted himself to acts of benevolence outside 
the city. His friend Sir Thomas Pope (1507?- 
1 :.."/. i ,j.v. had ivcrntly f.mn<Ii-<l ;i <-'lli-MV 
(Trinity) in Oxford. White already held 
land in the neighbourhood of Oxford (Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII, xv. 290), and the 
example of Pope turned his thoughts to the 
endowment of a college. He is said to have 
been directed by a dream to the site of the dis- 
solved Cistercian house of St. Bernard out- 
side the city walls (TAYLOR, manuscript 
History of College ; PLOT, Natural History of 
Oxfordshire, p. 169; GRIFFIN HIGGS'S manu- 
script Nativitas, and COATES'S Reading, 
p. 409). On 1 May 1555 he obtained the 
royal license to found a college for ' the 
learning of the sciences of holy divinity, philo- 
sophy, and good arts,' dedicated to the praise 
and honour of God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
and St. John Baptist (the patron saint of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company). The society 
was to consist of a president and thirty 
graduate or non-graduate scholars (royal 
patent of foundation in college manuscripts). 
In 1557 the scope and numbers of the 
foundation were enlarged (5 March, 4 & 5 
Philip and Mary ; the statutes were further 
revised under Dr. Willis, cf. TAYLOR'S manu- 
script History}. The endowment of the 
college connected it closely with the neigh- 
bourhood of Oxford, but it was not a rich 
foundation. The statutes given were based 
on those of William of Wykeham for New 
College. Many letters among the college 
manuscripts show White's constant care of 
the college he had founded. In 1559 he pur- 
chased Gloucester Hall, Oxford, where he is 
said to have resided in his later years. He 
was frequently entertained at Trinity College 
(WARTON, Life of Pope, p. 123 n.} Glouces- 
ter Hall he made into a hall for a hundred 
scholars. It was opened on St. John Bap- 
tist's day, 1560. Sir Thomas White's asso- 
ciation with Cumnor is emphasised by the 
fact that in this hall the body of Amy Rob- 
sart lay before burial at St. Mary's. His inte- 
rest in education was not confined to his own 
college. He took a considerable part in the 
foundation of the Merchant Taylors' school, 
for which Richard Hilles was mainly respon- 
sible. In 1560 he sent further directions 
and endowments to his college. But from 
1562 he suffered severely from the falling-off 
in the cloth trade. He was unable to fulfil 
the obligation of his marriage contract. He 



was still able, however, to settle some con- 
siderable trusts on different towns, the Lon- 
don livery companies, and his own kindred. 
These arrangements were finally completed 
in his will, dated 8 and 24 Nov. 1566 (full 
detail in CLODE, ii. 176-81). At the be- 
ginning of the next year (2 Feb. 1566-7) he 
made further statutes for his college, by 
which he ordered that forty-three scholars 
from the Merchant Taylor's school should be 
' assigned and named by continual succes- 
sion ' to St. John's College by the master and 
wardens of the company and the president 
and two senior fellows of the college. 

On 12 Jan. 1/567 he wrote a touching letter 
to his college, of which he desired that every 
one of the fellows and scholars should have 
a copy, counselling brotherly love, in view 
doubtless of the religious differences which 
had already caused the cession of two, if not 
three, presidents. 

Later letters concerned the jointure of his 
wife and the performance of choral service 
in the college chapel (for these see CLODE, 
pt. ii. chap, xiv.) He died on 12 Feb. 1566-7 
either in the college or at Gloucester Hall. 
He was buried in the college chapel. Ed- 
mund Campion [q. v.] delivered a funeral 
oration (college manuscripts). 

White died a poor man. Much of what he 
had intended for his college never reached 
it, and the provisions of his will in regard 
both to his property and the college would 
have been still less fully carried out but for 




master of the rolls (college manuscripts ; 
and cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 
417 ; cf. art. ROPER, WILLIAM). 

White was a man of sane judgment and 
genuine piety ; he has rarely, if ever, been 
surpassed among merchants as a benefactor 
to education and to civic bodies. 

There are several portraits of Sir Thomas 
White, but it is doubtful if any were painted 
from life. A large picture in the hall of St. 
John's College is similar to those belonging 
to the Merchant Taylors' Company, to Lei- 
cester (see COAXES, Reading, p. 410), and to 
nearly all of the towns to which he left bene- 
factions (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. Reading, 
p. 206, Lincoln, p. 88). Smaller portraits 
are in the bursary and thepresident's lodging 
at St. John's College. From one of these 
there is a mezzotint by Faber. Tradition 
says that for the original picture Sir Thomas 
White's sister (whose portrait is in the presi- 
dent's lodgings at St. John's College) sat. 
An early portrait on glass is in the east win- 
dow of the old library of St. John's College, 



White 



White 



erected by Dr. Willis, president of the col- 

1 ">77-90. 
lit- was twice married. His first wife, 

i:i, whose surname is unknown, died on 
26 Feb. 1557-8, and was buried in the parish 
of St. Mary Aldermary (MACHYN, Diary, p. 
] 67). On 25 Nov. of the same year he mar- 
ried Joan, daughter and coheiress of John 
Lake of London, and widow of Sir Ralph 
Warren [q. v.] (t'6.) He had no issue. 

Sir Thomas White has frequently been 
confused (as by INGRAM, Memorials of Ox- 
ford, St. John's College, p. 5) with a name- 
sake, Sir Thomas White of South Warn- 
borough, Hampshire [cf. art. WHITE, JOHN, 
1511-1560], who was knighted on the same 
day, and whose wife's name, Agnes, is not 
uncommonly interchanged with Avicia. The 
confusion is rendered the more natural from 
the fact that the White property at South 
Warnborough eventually passed into the 
hands of St. John's College, Oxford. But 
this was by the gift of Archbishop Laud, 
who obtained it from William Sandys in 
1636 (LAUD, Works, vii. 306-7). 

[Among the manuscripts of St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, are several early lives. Especially 
to be noticed are the History of the college by 
J. Taylor, D.C.L., the Nati vitas Vita Mors 
honoratissimi illustrissimique viri Thorn* White, 
by Griffin Higjrs, and copies of funeral verses. 
See also the Verses on the death of Mrs. Amy 
Leech (his niece), and Edmund Campion's Fune- 
ral Sermon on Sir Thomas. Many later manu- 
scripts contain references to him (for list of 
St. John's College manuscripts, see Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. App. pp. 464-8). For letters 
of his, see Hist. MSS. Comm. Coventry, p. 100 ; 
Letters and Papers, For. and Dom. of the Reign 
of Henry VIII ; Strype's Memorials ; Machyn's 
Diary; Plot's Natural History of Oxfordshire; 
Fuller's Worthies, Hertfordshire, p. 30 ; Gutch's 
History and Antiquities of the University of 
Oxford ; Ingram's Memorials of Oxford ; Clode's 
History of the Merchant Taylors' Company; 
Coates's History of Reading ; Warton's Life of 
Pope ; Button's Hist, of S. John Baptist Col- 
lege, 1898 ; information kindly given by Reginald 
Sharpe, esq., D.C.L., librarian of the Guildhall. 
For list of White's benefactions, see Hist. MSS. 
Comm. Reports on manuscripts of towns of 
Southampton, Reading, Lincoln, and Coventry; 
Gough's Camdeu, ii. 345 ; Stow's Survey, cd. 
Strype, vol. i. bk. i. pp. 263-4; Clode's History 
of Merchant Taylors' Company, pt. ii. chap. 
xiv. Tennyson's ' Queen Mary' did not, as the 
poet afterwards admitted, do justice to the 
character of White (cf. Memoir of Tennyson, ii. 
176).] W. H. H. 

WHITE, THOMAS (1550 ?-l 624), foun- 
der of Sion College, London, and of White's 
professorship of moral philosophy at Oxford, 



the son of John White, 'a Gloucestershire 
clothier' (CLODK, Early History of the Mer- 
chant Taylors, 1888, ii. 333), was born about 
1 ") ">0 in Temple Street, Bristol, ' but descended 
from the Whites of Bedfordshire.' He entered 
as student of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1566, 
graduated B.A. 25 June 1570, M.A. 12 Oct. 
1573 (BoASE, Register of the Univ. of Ox- 
ford, i. 279), took holy orders and ' became 
a noted and frequent preacher of God's word ' 
(WooD, Athena Oxon. 1815, ii. 351). He 
removed to London, and was rector of St. 
Gregory by St. Paul's, a short time before 
being made vicar of St. Dimstan-in-the-West, 
2:\ Nov. 1575. In 1578 Francis Coldock 
printed for him 'A Sermon preached at 
Pawles Crosse on Sunday the ninth of De- 
cember, 1576,' London, 8vo, in which he 
attacks the vices of the metropolis (pp. 45-8), 
1 and specially refers to theatre-houses and 
playgoing ; and also ' A Sermon preached at 
Pawles Crosse on Sunday the thirde of No- 
uember, 1577, in the time of the Plague,' 
London, 8vo. The Paul's Cross preachings 
against plays are referred to by Stephen Gos- 
son (Playes confuted in Five Actions, 1590). 
On 11 Dec. 1581 he received the degree of 
B.D. and that of D.I), on 8 March 1584-5. 
! Fuller states that White ' was afterwards 
related to Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.], lord 
deputy of Ireland, whose funeral sermon he 
made, being accounted a good preacher* 
( Worthies, 1811, ii. 299). It was printed 
under the title of ' A Godlie Sermon preached 
the XXI day of lune, 1586, at Pensehurst in 
Kent, at the buriall of tne late Sir Henrie 
Sidney,' London, 1586, 8vo. In 1588 he 
was collated to the prebend of Mora in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and in 1689 he printed 
another ' Sermon at Paule's Crosse,' preached 
on the queen's day. He was appointed trea- 
surer ot Salisbury on 21 April 1590, canon 
of Christ Church, Oxford, 1591, and canon 
of Windsor 1593 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; CLARK, Register of the Univ. of 
Oxford, pt. ii. p. 38, pt, iii. p. 82). < In 1613 
he erected a hospital in Temple St. [Bristol] 
called the Temple Hospital, for eight men 
and two women, and one man and one woman 
were afterwards added by himself. He en- 
dowed the same with lands and tenements of 
the yearly value of 52/.,'and in 1622 he gave 
to Bristol certain houses in Gray's Inn Lane, 
London, of the yearly value of 40/. to be 
applied to various charities (BARRETT, Hist, 
and Antiq. of Bristol, 1789, p. 554). He long 
had friendly relations with the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, who, on 12 Dec. 1634, 
commenced negotiations for leasing certain 
gardens in Moorfields from him (CLODE, ii. 
333). White in his will made the company 



White 



79 



White 



nominators to eight out of the twenty places 
provided in his almshouses at Sion College, 
and the company were also connected as 
auditors with the moral philosophy lecture 
which he had founded at Oxford in 1(521, 
with a stipend of 100/. to the reader ; five 
exhibitions of 5/. each were made for scho- 
lars of Magdalen Hall, and 4/. given to the 
principal as well as other sums derived from 
the manor of Langdon Hill, Essex, conveyed 
to the university (WooD, Hist, and Antiq. 
of Oxford, 1796, ii. 335, n. ii. 872). 

He died on 1 March 1623-4, and was buried 
in the chancel of St. Dunstan-in-the-West, 
Fleet Street. In spite of his widely diffused 
benefactions there was no monument to his 
memory until 1876, when Sion College and 
the trustees of the charities at Bristol caused 
one, designed by Sir A. W. Blpmfield, to 
be erected near his grave. Both of his wives 
were buried in the same church. After his 
death the university of Oxford honoured his 
memory in a public oration delivered by 
William Price (1597-1646) [q. v.], the first 
reader of the moral philosophy lecture founded 
by White, which was printed with some Latin 
and Greek verses, chiefly by members of 
Magdalen Hall, under the title of ' Schola 
Moralis Philosophise Oxon. in funere Whiti 
pullata,' Oxford, 1624, sm. 4to. There is a 
copy of the book in the Bodleian Library. 
At the back of the title-page is a list of 
White's benefactions to Oxford. Some 
copies of the oration seem to have been pub- 
lished separately. 

' He was accused for being a great pluralist, 
though I cannot learn that at once he had 
more than one cure of souls, the rest being 
dignities, as false is the aspersion of his 
being a great usurer' (FULLER, Worthies, 
1811, ii. 299). Against these accusations 
his numerous charities during his life and 
by bequest are a sufficient answer. By his 
will, dated 1 Oct. 1623, besides a long list of 
smaller legacies, he left money for lecture- 
ships at St. Paul's, at St. Dunstan's, and one 
for the Newgate prisoners ; but his chief 
dotation was 3,000/. for the purchase of 
premises ' fit to make a college for a corpora- 
tion of all the ministers, parsons, vicars, 
lecturers, and curates within London and 
suburbs thereof; as also for a convenient 
house or place fast by, to make a convenient 
almeshouse for twenty persons, viz. ten men 
and ten women.' This was afterwards known 
as Sion College, designed as a guild of the 
clergy of the city of London and its suburbs, 
placing them in the same position as most 
other callings and professions who enjoyed 
charters of incorporation, and with common 
privileges and property. All his Latin folios 



were left to the dean and chapter of Windsor, 
and it is worthy of record that scarcely any 
place whence he derived income or dignity 
was forgotten. He requested John Vicars, 
John Downeham, and John Simpson to exa- 
mine and perfect his manuscript sermons and 
lectures on the Hebrews, and print them, as 
wi'H as a volume of ' Miscellanea,' from his 
papers. These two wishes were not carried 
out. To the exertions of John Simpson, his 
cousin, and one of his executors are chiefly 
due the charter obtained in 1630 incorporat- 
ing the college, and also the erection of the 
building at London Wall in 1629, where the 
library remained until its removal to the 
new building on the Victoria Embankment 
in 1886. Dr. Simpson was the builder and 
founder of the great library which now forms 
the most striking feature of the institution 
(READING, History of Sion College, 1724, pp. 
o lo ) 

1 In the chamber of Bristol is his picture 
with some verses under it, which end " Quique 
Albos coeli portamque invenit apertam"' 
(BARRETT, Bristol, p. 652). There is also a 
portrait at Sion College. 

[Information from the Rev. "W. H. Milman, 
Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson, and Mr. H. Guppy. See 
also Milman's Account of Sion College and 
of its Library, 1880, and his Brief Account of 
the Library "of Sion College, 1897; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccles. Anglicanae, 1854, ii. 648; Hen- 
nessy's Novum Repertorium Eccles. Paroch. Lon- 
dinense, 1898, pp. 38, 39, 138; Madan's Early 
Oxford Press, 1895, pp. 121-2; Stowe's Survey 
of London (Strype), 1754, ii. 163-4.] 

H. R. T. 

WHITE, THOMAS (1593-1676), philo- 
sopher and controversialist, who wrote under 
the pseudonyms of ALBIUS, ANGLFS, and 
BLACLOE or BLACKLOW, was born in 1593, 
being the second son of Richard White of 
Hutton, Essex, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Edmund Plowden [q. v.], the celebrated 
lawyer. He was carefully educated in the 
Roman catholic religion, and sent while very 
young to the English College at St. Omer, 
and afterwards to the college at Valladolid, 
which he entered on 4 Nov. 1609 {Palatine 
Note-book, iii. 103, 175). Subsequently he 
removed to the English college at Douay 
and, having completed his studies, he was 
ordained priest at Arras on 25 March 1617 
under the name of Blacloe. He afterwards 
graduated B.D., and was employed in teach- 
ing classics, philosophy, and theology in 
Douay College. On 17 Aug. 1G23 he set out 
for England, where some business affairs 
required his attention, and on his return to 
Douay in the same year he brought with 
him one of the ribs of Thomas Maxfield (d. 



White 



White 



1616) [q. v.], who had been executed on 
account of his sacerdotal character {Douay 
Diaries, p. 36). 

On 17 April 1624 he left Douay for Paris 
in order to prosecute his studies in canon law, 
and after a short time he was sent by the 
clergy to settle some affairs at Rome, where 
he was residing on 21 March 1625-6. On 
his return he was again employed in teaching 
divinity at Douay. In 1633 he was sent to 
Lisbon, where he was appointed president of 
the English College. Not long afterwards 
he came to England, and applied himself to 
the exercise of his priestly functions. In 
1650 he was again teaching divinity at r Douay, 
and executing the office of vice-president of 
the English College. On retiring from aca- 
demic life he settled in London, and spent 
most of his time in publishing books which 
* made a great noise in the world.' Wood 
relates that ' Hobbes of Malmsbury had a 
great respect for him, and when he lived in 
Westminster he would often visit him, and 
he and Hobbes but seldom parted in cool 
blood : for they would wrangle, squabble, 
and scold like young sophisters ' (Atherue 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1247). White died at 
his lodgings in Drury Lane on 6 July 1676, 
and was buried on the 9th near the pulpit in 
the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. His 
portrait has been engraved by Vertue. 

White's peculiar philosophical and theo- 
logical opinions raised up a host of adversaries 
from all quarters. Many protestants engaged 
with him upon controversial topics, and he had 
several serious quarrels with the secular and 
regular clergy of his own communion, who 
attacked his works with great fury. In par- 
ticular his treatise on the ' middle state of 
souls' gave great scandal. Another, which 
drew a persecution upon him, was entitled 
1 Institutions Sacrae/ Thence the univer- 
sity of Douay drew twenty-two propositions, 
which they condemned under censures, on 
3 Nov. 1660, chiefly at the instigation of 
George Leyburn [q. v.], president of the 
English College, and John Warner (1628- 
1692) [q. v.], professor of divinity in the 
same house. He was again censured for the 
political scheme exhibited in his book en- 
titled 'Obedience and Government,' in which 
he was said to assert a universal passive 
obedience to any species of government that 
had obtained an establishment. White's 
object, his adversaries insinuated, was to 
flatter Cromwell in his usurpation, and to 
incline him to favour the catholics in the 
hope of their being influenced by such prin- 
ciples. These and several other writings 
having given great offence, and the see of 
Home having been made acquainted with 



their dangerous tendency, especially when 
White had attacked the pope 8 personal in- 
fallibility, they were laid before the inqui- 
sition and censured by decrees of that court 
dated 14 May 1655 and 7 Sept. 1657. In 
the meantime a number of priests, who had 
been educated in the English College at 
Douay, signed a public disclaimer of his 
principles. Eventually White recanted his 
opinions, and submitted himself and his 
writings unreservedly to the catholic church 
and the Holy See (KENNETT, Register and 
Chronicle, p. 625). 

White's sentiments may be best ascertained 
from his edition of William Rushworth's 
'Dialogues, or the Judgment of Common 
Sense in the choice of Religion ' (Paris, 1654, 
12mo) ; as well as from ' An Apology for 
Rushworth's Dialogues. Wherein the excep- 
tions of the Lords Falkland and Digby are 
answer'd, and the arts of Daill6 discovered ' 
(2 parts, Paris, 1654, 8vo). These works ex- 
hibit a Christian without enthusiasm, tole- 
rant of doubt and discussion, but at the same 
time determined for Catholicism as against the 
reformed doctrines, because the uncertainties- 
and obscurities of the Scriptures require to 
be corrected by a constant tradition of which 
a permanent authority has guarded the 
deposit. To rely solely upon Scripture, as 
the protestants did, was only, in his judg- 
ment, a plausible way for going on to 
atheism. The question, therefore, was this : 
' Is it better to confide in a church or to be 
an atheist ? ' It was in some measure by 
prudential considerations that White would 
have a man decide upon the choice of a 
religion (DE REMDSAT, Hist, de la Philosophic 
en Angleterre, 1875, i. 301-13). 

Among White's numerous works are the 
following: 1. ' De mundo dialogi tres; 
quibus materia, . . . forma, . . . caussae 
. . . et tandem definitio rationibus pure e 
natura depromptis aperiuntur,concluduntur,' 
Paris, 1642, 4to. 2. Institutionum Peri- 
pateticarum ad mentem . . . K. Digbaei 
pars theorica. Item appendix theologica de 
Origine Mundi,' two parts, Lyons, 1646, 
12mo; 2nd edit. London, 1647, 12mo ; 
translated into English, London, 1656, 12mo. 
3. ' Institutionum sacrarum Peripateticis 
inaedificatarura ; hoc est, Theologioo, super 
fundamentis in Peripatetica Digbaeana jactis 
extructae, pars theorica . . . Tomus secundus,' 
two parts, [Lyons?], 1652, 12mo. 4. ' Men* 
August ini de gratia Adami. Opus herme- 
neuticum. Ad conciliationem gratiae et 
liberi arbitrii in via Digbaeana accessorium,' 
Paris, 1652, 12mo. 5. ' Quaestio Theologica, 
quomodo, secundum principia peripatetices 
Digbaeanoe . . . humaiii arbitrii libertas sit 



White 



81 



White 



explicanda et cum gratias efticacia concili- 
anda,' [Paris, 1652], 12mo. 6. ' Villicationis 
8use de medio animarum statu ratio episcopo 
Chalcedonensi [see SMITH, RICHARD, l">i;i;- 
1655] reddita,' Paris, 1;.V!, li'mo; this was 
translated by White as ' The Middle State 
of Souls. From the hour of Death to the 
day of Judgment,' 1659, 12mo. 7. 'A Con- 
templation of Heaven: with an exercise 
of love, and a descant on the prayer in the 
Garden. By a Catholique gent.' Paris [Lon- 
don], 1654, 12mo. 8. ' Sonus Buccinae ; 
sive tres tractatus de virtutibus fidei et 
theologize, de principiis earundem, et de 
erroribus oppositis,' Paris, 1654, 12mo, Co- 
logne, 1659, 12mo. 9. 'The state of the 
future life, and the present's order to be 
considered/ translated from the Latin, 
London, 1654, 12mo. 10. 'The Grounds 
of Obedience and Government. Being the 
best answer to all that has been lately 
written in defence of Passive Obedience and 
Non Resistance,' 2nd edit. London, 1655, 
12mo, 3rd edit. London [1685?], 12mo. 
11. ' TabuliB Suffragiales de terminandis 
Fidei ab ecclesia Catholica fixae : occasione 
Tesserae ^euoWu^coy Romans, inscriptse 
adversus folium unum Soni Buccinae,' Lon- 
don, 1655, 12mo (cf. Addit. MS. 4458, art. 
13). 12. ' Euclides Physicus, sive de princi- 
piis naturae stoecheidea 'E,' London, 1657, 
12mo. 13. ' Euclides Metaphysicus, sive de 
Principiis sapientiae, stoecheidea 'E,' London, 

1658, 12mo. 14. 'Exercitatio Geometrica 
de geometria indivisibilium et proportione 
spiralis ad circulum,' London, 1658, 12mo. 
16. ' Controversy-Logicke, or the method to 
come to truth in debates of religion,' [Paris], 

1659, 12mo. 16. ' A Catechism of Christian 
doctrine,' 2nd edit, enlarged, Paris, 1659, 
12mo. 17. ' Chrysaspis seu Scriptorum suo- 
rum in scientiis obscurioribus Apologise vice 
propalata tutela geometrica,' 2 parts [Lon- 
donj, 1659, 16mo. 18. ' Institutionum 
Ethicarum sive Staterae Morum, aptis ra- 
tionum momentis libratae, tomus primus 
( secundus) . . . authore T. Anglo ex 
Albiis East-Saxonum,' 2 vols. London, 1660, 
12mo. 19. ' Religion and Reason mutually 
corresponding and assisting each other. . . . 
A reply to the vindicative Answer lately 
published against a Letter, in which the 
sense of a Bull and Council concerning the 
duration of Purgatory was discust,' Paris, 

1660, 8vo. 20. ' Apologia pro Doctrina sua, 
adversus Calumniatores. Authore Thoma 
Albio,' London, 1661, 12mo. 21. 'Devotion 
and Reason. Wherein modern devotion for 
the dead is brought to solid principles, and 
made rational, in way of answer to Jfames] 
M[umford]'s Remembrance for the living to 

VOL. LXl. 



pray for the dead,' Paris, 1661, 12mo. 
--. ' An exclusion of scepticks from all title 
to dispute : being an answer to The Vanity 
of Dogmatizing [by Joseph Glanvil],' Lon- 
don, 1665, 4to. 

[Biogr. Brit. iv. 2206 ; DodcL's Church Hist. 
iii. 285, 350-6 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of Engl. 
5th edit. ii. 382 ; Hallam's Lit. of Europe (1854), 
iii. 301 ; Lominus [i.e. Peter Talbot, q.v.], Black- 
loanae Hseresis Historia et Confutatio, Ghent, 
1675, 4to; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn, p. 
2903; Nouvelle Biogr. Ge"nerale, 1853, vi. 162; 
Panzani's Memoirs, pp. 226, 293 ; Plowden's Re- 
marks on Panzani, pp. 255-73 ; Reid's Works, 
ed. Hamilton, 6th edit., 1863, pp. 898, 952; 
Weldon's Chronological Notes, pp. 197, 228-1 

T. C. 

WHITE, THOMAS (1628-1698), bishop 
of Peterborough, was the son of Peter White 
of Aldington in Kent, and was born there 
in 1628. His father died soon after his 
birth, and his mother went to reside with 
her near kinsfolk the Brockmans of Beach- 
borough near Folkestone. There seems 
little doubt that he attended the grammar 
school at Newark-on-Trent for some time, 
but John Johnson (1662-1725) [q. v.] of 
Cranbrook claims him as a scholar of the 
King's School, Canterbury, and he was 
admitted at Cambridge as from the grammar 
school of Wye, after three years' study there. 
He was admitted a sizar of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, on 29 Oct. 1642, and took 
the degree of B.A. in 1646. During the 
Protectorate he held the post of lecturer at 
St. Andrew's, Holborn. 

On 6 July 1660 he petitioned the king for 
the vicarage of Newark-on-Trent, which he 
obtained and resigned in June 1666, when 
he was made rector of Allhallows the Great, 
London. This living he held till 5 July 
1679, when he received the rectory of Bottes- 
ford in Leicestershire. On 4 June 1683 he 
was created D.D. of the university of Oxford, 
and in July following was made chaplain to 
the Lady (afterwards queen) Anne, daughter 
of James, duke of York, on her marriage with 
George, prince of Denmark. He was in- 
stalled archdeacon of Nottingham on 13 Aug. 
1683. On 3 Sept. 1685 he was elected bishop 
of Peterborough, was consecrated on 25 Oct. 
and enthroned by proxy on 9 Nov. He re- 
signed the rectory of Bottesford in the same 
year. The following year he with Nathaniel 
Crew, third baron Crew [q. v.], bishop of 
Durham, and Thomas Sprat [q. v.], bishop of 
Rochester, was appointed to exercise eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction in the diocese of Lon- 
don during the suspension of Henry Comp- 
ton (1632-1713) [q.v.] When in April 1688 
James II issued the order for all ministers 

G 



White 



White 



to read his second ' Declaration of Indulgence ' 
on 4 May following, White was one of the 
six bishops who with Sancroft, archbishop of 
Canterbury, petitioned against it. Me was 
examined with his fellow petitioners in the 
privy council on 8 June, and committed to 
the Tower the same day ; was with them 
brought by writ of habeas corpus to the court 
of king's bench on 15 June, was tried on 
Friday the 29th, and acquitted the following 
morning [see LLOYD, \V ILLIAM, 1627-1717 ; 
and KEN, THOMAS]. With other bishops 
he attended on the king to give counsel 
on 24 Sept., on 3 Oct., and again on 6 Nov., 
when he says * we parted under some dis- 
pleasure.' On that occasion he made a 
personal protestation that he had not in- 
vited the prince of Orange to invade, nor 
did he know any that had done so, in which 
he appears to have been perfectly sincere. 
After the departure of the king he was 
anxious for a regency in order that all public 
matters might proceed in his majesty's name. 
He was one of the eight bishops who absented 
themselves at the calling of the Convention 
parliament in 1689, refused the oaths to 
William and Mary, was suspended on 1 Aug. 
1689, and deprived of his see on 1 Feb. 1690. 

The remainder of his life was spent in 
retirement. On 23 Feb. 1695 he took part 
in the consecration of Thomas W r agstaffe 
[q. v.], and he accompanied Sir John Fen- 
wick [q. v.] to the scaffold on 28 Jan. 1697. 
He is said to have written the ' Contempla- 
tions upon Life and Death,' published under 
Sir John's name in the same year, which 
provoked the Jacobites by a paragraph con- 
demning the design of assassinating King 
William. 

White's private character was exemplary. 
In his youth he had been remarkable for his 
physical strength and agility. There is a 
story that on one occasion, when accompany- 
ing the bishop of Rochester to Dartford to 
officiate there, a trooper of the guard insulted 
1 1n- two and impeded their progress. White 
reproved the man, who retaliated by chal- 
lenging him to fight it out. A stiff fight 
ensued, in which White was victorious, and 

pardon. The story amused Charles II, who 
laughingly threatened to impeach White for 
high treason for assaulting one of his guards. 
White managed his bishopric with great pru- 
dence and care, struggling hard to reform the 
abuse of pluralities which had crept in ( Tan- 
ner MSS. xxxi. 289). He died on 30 May 
1698, and was buried in St. Gregory's vault 
in the precincts of St. Paul's, London, be- 
tween 9 and 10 P.M. on 4 June. An account 
of the funeral and the friction in connection 



with it between the nonjurors and the clergy 
of the cathedral is contained in a letter to 
the archbishop of Canterbury from J. Man- 
devile among the manuscripts at Lambeth 
Palace (MS. 930, No. 22). 

In his early years he was considered a 
good preacher. He wrote 'A True Re- 
lation of the Conversion and Baptism of 
Isuf the Turk,' London, 1058. In his will 
he left IQl. to the poor of the parish in which 
he should die, 240/. to Newark to be laid out 
in lands, and 10/. annually to be distributed 
among twenty poor parishioners above forty 
years of age who on 14 Dec. in the church porch 
should distinctly repeat the Lord's Prayer, 
the Apostles' Cree'd, and the Ten Command- 
ments without missing or changing a word. 
The rest of the money to go to the vicar. 
A similar sum subject to the like conditions 
was bequeathed to the poor of Peterborough 
and of Aldington. He also left money to 
the poor of Bottesford. He made a present 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, towards 
the carrying on of the new buildings, and 
left an excellent library to the church of 
Newark. 

There are portraits of White in the presi- 
dent's residence at Magdalen College, Oxford, 
and in the palace at Peterborough, and in a 
group of the ' Seven Bishops' in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. The last picture 
has been engraved by R. Robinson, E. Cooper, 
Pieter van der Banck, and R. White. There 
are large folio engravings of the bishop by 
J. Drapentiere and R. White (1688), a 
quarto by S. Gribelin, and smaller portraits 
by J. Gole, A. Haelwegh (with Dutch 
verses), J. Smith (1686), J. Sturt and J. Oliver 
(mezzotint). Smith (Mezzotint Portraits) 
mentions a portrait in oval, engraved by W. 
Vincent. One surrounded by an ornamental 
circular border is in the print-room of the 
British Museum. Letters from W r hite to 
Lord Hatton are among the British Museum 
manuscripts (Addit. MS. 29584, ff. 62, 64, 
68, 70). 

[Strickland's Lives of the Seven Bishops, pp. 
132-45 ; Lives of the English Bishops from the 
Restoration to the Revolution (Nath. Salmon), 
pp. 323-4 ; Sidehotham's Memorials of King's 
School, Canterbury, p. 61; Mayor's Admissions 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, p. 66 ; Foster's 
Alumni ; Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 112 ; 
Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 249 ; Nichols's Lei- 
cestershire, ii. 90; Wood's Fasti, ii. 392; Le 
Neve's Fasti, od. Hardy, ii. 536, iii. 152 ; Gutch's 
Collectanea Curiosa, i. 335-9, 353, 357, 376, 
382, 409, 440-1 ; D'Oyly's Life of Sancroft, i. 
256-7, 334, 338, 360-1, 373; Evelyn's Diary, 
ii. 273-5, 286-7, 349 ; Burnet's Hist, of his own 
Time, 1823; Lee's Life of Kettlewell, p. 431 ; 
Brown's Annals of Newark-upon-Trent, pp. 200- 



White 



White 



20 1 ; Book of Institutions (Record Office), set. B, 
iii. f. 448 6; information from C. Dack, esq., 
kindly communicated by E. J. Gray, esq., of 
Peterborough.] B. P. 

WHITE, THOMAS (1830-1888), Cana- 
dian politician, born in Montreal on 7 Aug. 
1830, was son of Thomas White, who emi- 
grated from co. Westmeath in 1826, and 
carried on business as a leather merchant in 
Montreal. On his maternal side he belonged 
to an Edinburgh family. He was educated 
at the High School, Montreal, and began 
life in a merchant's office, but soon turned 
his attention to journalism. A paper read 
by him at a discussion class introduced him 
to the editor of the * Quebec Gazette.' In 
1853 he founded the ' Peterborough Review,' 
and conducted it until 1860, when he tem- 
porarily left journalism to study law as a 
preparation for public life. At the end of 
four years he returned to journalism, and, 
in partnership with his brother, founded the 
1 Hamilton Spectator.' His last journalist 
connection was made on his return from 
England in 1870, when he assumed control 
of the ' Montreal Gazette.' This lasted for 
fifteen years. 

His first public work was as a member of 
the school boards of Peterborough and 
Hamilton, Ontario; and he was for some 
time reeve of Peterborough. In 1867 he 
made an unsuccessful attempt to enter the 
Ontario provincial parliament, and in 1874, 
1875, and 1876 he made three fruitless 
efforts to be returned to the Dominion House 
of Commons. In 1878 the constituency of 
Cardwell elected him, and he represented it 
for the rest of his life. 

His special interests were commercial, but 
the work with which his name will be per- 
manently connected in Canadian politics is 
the opening up of northern and western On- 
tario and the prairie beyond to emigrants. 
He was sent to Britain in 1869 as the first 
emigration agent, and from his mission dates 
the diversion to Ontario of the stream of 
emigration which till then flowed from 
Canada westwards over the borders of the 
United States. In furtherance of his emi- 
gration schemes he was one of the pioneers 
of Canadian railways, and as minister of 
the interior, an appointment he received 
in 1885, he was responsible for the political 
reorganisation of the centre of the country 
after the second Kiel rebellion. He died at 
Ottawa on 21 April 1888. Both Canadian 
houses adjourned out of respect for his 
memory. 

[Canadian Parliamentary Companion, 1887; 
Montreal Gazette, 23 April 1888.] J. R. M. 



WHITE, WALTER (1811-1893), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born on 23 April 1811 at 
Reading in Berkshire, was the eldest son of 
John White, an upholsterer and cabinet- 
maker of that town. He was educated at 
two local private schools, one of which was 
kept by Joseph Huntley, the father of the 
founder of Huntley & Palmer's well-known 
biscuit manufactory. 

At the age of fourteen Walter left school 
and began to learn his father's trade, spend- 
ing much of his leisure in reading and in the 
study of French and German. He continued 
cabinet-making at Reading until 1834. On 
19 April of that year he sailed for the 
United States of America with his wife and 
children, in the hope of earning more money. 
He worked at his trade in New York and 
Poughkeepsie, but without improving his 
circumstances. He has given a detailed and 
pathetic account of his experiences as an 
emigrant in an anonymous article entitled 
' A Working Man's Recollections of America r 
(Knight's Penny Magazine, 1846, i. 97). 
Finally, on 20 May 1839, he returned with 
his family to the old world, where he rejoined 
his father's business. In October 1842 he 
went to London, and, the cabinet-making 
trade being still in a depressed condition, he 
accepted a situation as clerk to Joseph Main- 
zer [q.v.], author of ' Singing for the Million.' 
In the following year he accompanied him to- 
Edinburgh, where Mainzer was candidate 
for the chair of music. While at Edinburgh 
White attended some lectures to the working 
classes by James Simpson (1781-1853) [q. v.J 
Simpson introduced him to Charles Richard 
Weld [q. v.], then assistant secretary to the 
Royal Society, who oft'ered him the post of 
* attendant ' in the library of that body. 

White entered upon his duties at the 
Royal Society's rooms in Somerset House on 
19 April 1844, and was officially confirmed 
in the appointment on 2 May, at a salary of 
80/. a year. His work was at first largely 
mechanical, but increased in importance. 
When Weld retired in 1861, White was at 
once elected to the post of assistant secretary 
and librarian. In this position he met and 
conversed with many eminent men; some 
account of his intercourse with them is given 
in his published * Journals.' 

While an ' attendant,' or, as he was after- 
wards designated, 'clerk,' White began 
serious literary work. Between 1844 and 
1849 he wrote no fewer than two hundred 
articles for ' Chambers's Journal ' (Journals, 
p. 93), besides occasional contributions to- 
other serials. It was at this time also that 
he began the holiday walks which furnished 
the material for all his best known books. 

G2 



White 



White 



These walks he commenced in 1850 with a 
month's tramp in Holland, a narrative of 
which he published under the title of ' Notes 
from the Netherlands' (Chambers' 8 Journal, 
1858, vol. xv.) 

White resigned the assistant-secretaryship 
of the Royal Society on 18 Dec. 1884, and 
received a pension to the full amount of his 
salary. He resided at Brixton until his 
death, 18 July 1893. In 1830 he married 
Maria Hamilton. His domestic lot was not 
happy. His wife left him in 1845 (Journals, 
pp. 67, 95), his sons emigrated, and for the 
last thirty years of his life he lived quite 
alone. 

Besides contributions to magazines, he pub- 
lished : 1. 'To Mont Blanc and Back Again,' 
London, 1854, 12mo. 2. ' A Londoner's , 
Walk to the Land's End/ London, 1855, 8vo ; I 
2nd ed. 1861. 3. ' On Foot through Tyrol 
in the Summer of 1855,' London, 1856, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1863. 4. 'A July Holiday in j 
Saxony, Bohemia, and Silesia,' London, 
1857, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1863. 5. ' A Month in 
Yorkshire,' London, 1858, 8vo ; 4th ed. 1861. 
6. ' Northumberland and the Border,' Lon- 
don, 1859, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1863. 7. ; All 
Round the Wrekin,' London, 1860, 8vo ; 2nd 
ed. 1860. 8. ' Eastern England from the 
Thames to the Humber,' London, 1865, 2 
vols. 8vo. 9. ' Rhymes,' 1873. 10. ' Holi- 
days in Tyrol, Kufstein, Klobenstein, and 
Paneveggio,' London, 1876, 8 vo. 11.' Obladis : 
a Tyrolese Sour-Spring,' Birmingham, 1881, 
8vo. He edited ' A Sailor Boy's Log-book 
from Portsmouth to the Peiho,' London, 
1862, 8vo (the 'sailor boy' was his third 
son, Henry). 

[The Journals of Walter White, London, 1898, 
8vo; Me" of the Time, 1891 ; Athenaeum, 29 July 
1893; Minutes of Council of the Royal Society 
(unpublished); private information.] H. R. 

WHITE, WILLIAM (1604-1678), di- 
vine, was born of humble parentage at Wit- 
ney, Oxfordshire, in June 1604. He matri- 
culated from Wadham College, Oxford, on 
13 July 1621, graduated B.A. on 25 Feb. 
1626 and M. A. on 27 June 1628. In 1632 he 
became master of Magdalen College school, 
from which post he was ejected by the par- 
liamentary commissioners in 1648. Several 
of his pupils there became eminent. Through 
the influence of Brian Duppa [q. v.], bishop of 
Salisbury, he obtained about the same time 
the rectory of Pusey, Berkshire, which Wood 
says he kept ' through the favour of his 
friends and the smallness of its profits.' 

After the Restoration, about 1662, the 
rectory of Appleton was conferred upon him 
by the efforts of Thomas Pierce [q. v.], presi- 
dent oi Magdalen College and a former pupil 



of White. He kept both livings until his 
death, at Pusey, on 31 May 1678. He was 
buried on 5 June in the chancel, where a 
flat stone records his death. By his will, 
dated 25 Oct. 1677, he left to his only daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, houses and lands at Bampton 
and AVest Weale, subject to a charge of 5/. 
to be paid to the vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, 
and his successors, for a catechism at even- 
ing prayer. The house which he had erected 
at Pusey he bequeathed to a son. 

White wrote several works in Latin under 
the name of ' Gulielmus Phalerius.' One, 
'Via ad Pacem Ecclesiasticam,' London, 
1660, 4to, is in the British Museum. Three 
others are mentioned by Wood. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. iii. 1167. Burrows's Visitation, 
p. 514 ; Gardiner's Register of Wadham, p. 62 ; 
Bloxam's Hist, of Magd. Coll. iii. 158.1 

C. F. S. 

WHITE, SIR WILLIAM ARTHUR 
(1824-1891), diplomatist, the son of Arthur 
White, who was in the British consular 
service, and Eliza Lila, daughter of Lieu- 
tenant-general William Gardiner Neville, 
was born in 1824, and educated at King 
AVilliam's College, Isle of Man, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He entered 
the consular service on 9 March 1857 as 
clerk to the consul-general at Warsaw. He 
frequently acted as consul-general ; and on 
9 Jan. 1861 he became vice-consul, again 
acting as consul-general for the greater 
part of 1862 and 1863. Here, with strong 
Polish sympathies, he nevertheless com- 
ported himself with such judgment as never 
to offend Russia. On 9 Nov. 1864 he was 
appointed consul at Danzig, where in 1866 he 
acted also for six months as Belgian consul, 
and during the war of 1870 took charge of 
French interests. On 27 Feb. 1875 he was 
transferred to Servia as British agent and 
consul-general. This post at last gave him 
some scope for employing the knowledge 
which for many years past he had been 
acquiring, and laid the foundation of his 
great influence in dealing with Eastern 
nationalities. Within a few months of 
his arrival in Servia the old Eastern 
question began to assume an acute phase, 
and in June 1876 the Servians, following 
the lead of Herzegovina, declared war against 
Turkey. Their defeat was followed by the 
conference at Constantinople in December 
1876. There Lord Salisbury was assisted 
by White, and was deeply impressed by 
his knowledge and ability. Through the 
succeeding Russo-Turkish war he remained 
in Servia, but on the erection of Roumania 
into a kingdom he was appointed envoy- 



White 



Whitefield 



extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary 
at Bucharest on 3 March 1879. On 18 April 
1885 White was nominated envoy-extra- 
ordinary at Constantinople, and was at once 
brought face to face with a question of first 
importance the legality of the annexation 
of Eastern Roumelia to Bulgaria in defiance 
of the treaty of Berlin of 1878. Kussia took 
the ground that the treaty must be upheld 
at all costs. White, was convinced that the 
breach of the treaty was really in the inte- 
rests of Europe; and eventually he carried 
his point with the representatives of the 
powers. His action directly contributed to 
the consolidation of Bulgarian nationality, 
and the Bulgarians were not slow to recog- 
nise this. Early in 1886 he was specially 
thanked by the government for his action. 
He was created C.B. on 21 March 1878, 
K.C.M.G. on 16 March 1883, G.C.M.G. on 
28 Jan. 1886, G.C.B. on 2 June 1888, and 
sworn of the privy council on 29 June 
1888 ; he was made an honorary LL.D. 
of Cambridge on 17 June 1886. 

On 11 Oct. 1886 White was confirmed as 
special ambassador-extraordinary and pleni- 
potentiary at Constantinople. He died at. 
Berlin, at the Kaiserhof hotel, on 28 Dec. 
1891. He was buried in the Roman catholic 
church of St. Hedwig, Berlin, on 31 Dec. in 
the presence of representatives of the whole 
diplomatic and political body- A special 
memorial service was held at Constanti- 
nople. 

White showed facility in acquiring the 
languages of those with whom he had to deal. 
He spoke Polish like a native, and was 
equally conversant with Roumanian. In 
Bucharest he would go out into the market- 
place in the early morning and pick up news 
from the peasants, He had a faculty for 
devoting himself to all that bore imme- 
diately on his work ; he was a great reader j 
of newspapers and blue-books, sifted his 
matter with great acumen, and retained 
what he needed with extraordinary accuracy 
and method ; his recollection of personal and 
official occurrences was of the same precise 
and useful character, and he utilised to the 
full, and was appreciated by, the correspon- 
dents of the press. He applied his knowledge 
with a quick insight into motives and con- 
sequences which enabled him to check in- 
trigue without resorting to it himself. He 
was a great lover of Germany, and is said 
to have urged Great Britain to join the 
triple alliance (Times, 1 Jan. 1891, p. 8), 
The French press paid him the compliment 
of congratulating themselves on his death 
as on the removal of an obstacle to French 
ambition and expansion (ib. 31 Dec. p. 5). 



White married, in 1867, Katherine, daugh- 
ter of Lewis Rendzior of Danzig, and left 
three daughters. 

[Times, 29 and 30 Dec. 1891, and 1 and 2 Jan. 
1892 ; Foreign Office List, 1891 ; Burke's Peer- 
age, 1890.] C. A. H. 

WHITEFIELD, GEORGE (1714-1770), 
evangelist and leader of Calvinistic metho- 
dists, sixth son and youngest child of Thomas 
Whitefield (d. 27 Dec. 1716, aged 34), by 
his wife, Elizabeth Edwards (d. December 
1751), was born at the Bell Inn, Gloucester, 
on 16 Dec. 1714. His earliest known an- 
cestor was William W T hytfeild, vicar of May- 
field, Sussex, 1605, whose son, Thomas Whit- 
feld, was vicar of Liddiard Melicent, Wilt- 
shire, 1664-5, and subsequently rector of 
Rockhampton, Gloucestershire. Thomas was 
succeeded in 1683 as rector of Rockhampton 
by his son, Samuel Whitfeld, and Samuel, in 
1728, by his son, Samuel Whitfield (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1892, iv. 1621). Andrew, 
brother of the last named, had fourteen chil- 
dren, of whom the eldest, Thomas Whitefield, 
father of George, became a wine merchant 
in Bristol, and later kept the Bell Inn at 
Gloucester. The name is pronounced Whit- 
field. Of Whitefield's early years (to 1736) 
a self-accusing history was given by himself 
in A Short Account,' 1740, 12mo (abridged, 
1756 ; TYERMAN'S Life incorporates the whole 
of the original). His well-known squint was 
the result of measles in childhood (GILLIES, 

E. 279). He seems to have been a roguish 
id, but with good impulses. His mother 
took pains with his education. She married, 
in 1724, one Longden, an impecunious iron- 
monger at Gloucester. 

In 1726 George went to the St. Mary de 
Crypt school. He was fonder of the drama 
than of classical study, and, being a born 
actor, took part (' in girl's clothes') in school 
plays before the corporation. Before he was 
fifteen he persuaded his mother to remove 
him from school. Shortly afterwards, her 
circumstances being 'on the decline,' he 
assisted in the public-house, becoming at 
length ' a common drawer for nigh a year 
and a half.' During this period the inn was 
made over to one of his brothers ; he then 
fell out with his sister-in-law and left the 
inn (the same inn was kept, from 1782, by 
the father of Henry Phillpotts [q. v.], bishop 
of Exeter). After visiting another brother, 
Andrew, at Bristol, he returned to his mother, 
who, on the report of one of his school- 
fellows, induced him to prepare for Oxford. 
He went back to school, became a commu- 
nicant on Christmas day 1731, and entered 
as a servitor at Pembroke College, Oxford, 



Whitefield 



86 



Whitefield 



matriculating on 7 Nov. 1732. Among his 
contemporaries was William Shenstone the 
poet. lie had pecuniary aid from Lady Eliza- 
beth Hastings [q. v.], through whom pro- 
bably began his connection with Selina Hast- 
ings, countess of Huntingdon [a. v.] 

Before going to Oxford he ' nad heard of 
and loved' the Oxford methodists. His in- 
troduction to Charles Wesley (1707-1788) 
fq. v.] was brought about by his sending 
Wesley notice of a case of attempted suicide. 
Charles Wesley lent him books ; he first 
' knew what true religion was' through read- 
ing 'The Life of God in the Soul of Man' 
(1677), by Henry Scougal [q. v.] He copied 
the methodist practices, but was not actually 
admitted to the ' society' till 1735, in which 
year he dates his conversion. At Gloucester, 
where he spent the latter half of that year, 
he formed * a little society ' on the methodist 
model. On 20 June 1736 he was ordained 
deacon at Gloucester by Martin Benson [q.v.], 
preached his first sermon at St. Mary de 
Crypt on 27 June, and graduated B.A. in 
July. The removal of the Wesleys gave him 
the lead of the few remaining Oxford me- 
thodists. During a visit to London he con- 
ceived the idea of joining the Wesleys in 
Georgia, but was dissuaded by friends. His 
first sermon in London was on 8 Aug. at St. 
Botolph's, Bishopsgate, where he captivated 
an audience inclined at first to sneer at his 
youthful looks. For a few weeks (November 
to December 1736) he officiated for Charles 
Kinchin (1711-1742) at Dummer, Hamp- 
shire, and had the offer of ' a very profitable 
curacy in London,' which he declined, though 
in debt, having made up his mind (21 Dec.) 
for Georgia (CHARLES WESLEY, Journal, 1849, 
i. 59). James Hervey (1714-1758) [q. v.] 
succeeded him at Dummer. Bishop Benson, 
whom he consulted on New Year's day 1737, 
approved his design. It was not carried out 
for a year, spent in missionary preaching, 
chiefly in the west of England and London. 
For two mouths he was in charge of Stone- 
house, Gloucestershire (his farewell sermon, 
10 May 1737, was edited, 1842, by J. G. 
Dimock,from a manuscript discovered in that 
year). The popularity of his preaching was 
extraordinary; his first printed sermon ran 
through three editions in 1737. He was in 
constant request for charity sermons. 

On 30 Dec. 1737 he went on board the 
Whitaker, which did not leave the Downs 
for Georgia till 2 Feb. 1738. John Wesley, 
who reached Deal the day before, would have 
stopped him, but did not use the opportnnit y 
of meeting him (see WESLEY, JOHX, and 
WHITEFIELD'S Work*, 1771, iv. 56, for 
Wesley's recourse to lot on this occasion). 



II-- made a fortnight's stay at Gibraltar, 
where, after seeing high mass, he ' needed no 
other argument against popery.' The governor, 
Joseph Sabine (1662P-1739) [q. v.], showed 
him much attention. Among the garrison 
he found a religious society, known as ' new 
lights ; ' others, belonging to the church of 
Scotland, were known as ' dark lanthorns.' 
The journals of his voyage out, sent to James 
Hutton (1715-1795) [q. v.], were printed 
(1738) by T. Cooper. Hutton deprecated 
the publication as surreptitious; it is more 
close to the original than Hutton's own issue, 
which ran through four editions in the same 
year. Whitefield's journals were too ego- 
tistic for publication, and they prejudiced 
the methodist cause. Their issue set an ex- 
ample followed, with more judgment, by 
John Wesley, who began to publish his 
journals in 1740. Whitefield's Georgia mis- 
sion had more apparent success than Wesley's ; 
he was a younger man, much more eloquent, 
and unconcerned with disputes about church- 
manship ; moreover, he was provided with 
funds ' for the poor of Georgia.' He sympa- 
thised with the colonists, denied by the 
trustees ' the use both of rum and slaves/ 
But he bears emphatic testimony to the fact 
that ' the good which Mr. John Wesley has 
done ... is inexpressible ' (Journal). White- 
field struck out a line of his own by esta- 
blishing schools and projecting an orphan 
house. To collect money for this scheme, and 
to obtain priest's orders, he left for England 
on 28 Aug. On his return he spent a fort- 
night in Ireland, well received by Bishops 
Burscoughand Rundleand Archbishop Boul- 
ter. He was ordained at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, on 14 Jan. 1739 by Martin Benson, 
acting for Seeker, and on letters dimissory 
from Edmund Gibson [q. v.], bishop of Lon- 
don, who accepted as title Whitefield's ap- 
pointment by the Georgia trustees as minister 
of Savannah. Lady Huntingdon interested 
herself in his ordination, and brought aristo- 
cratic hearers to his preaching, among them 
the famous Sarah, duchess of Marlborough. 

Like Wesley, Whitefield attended the 
Moravian meetings in Fetter Lane ; unlike 
Wesley, he paid visits to leading dissenters ; 
Isaac Watts [q. v.] received him ' most cor- 
dially.' He got into trouble by preaching at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, in the afternoon 
of Sunday, 4 Feb. 1739. Morgan, the Friendly 
Society's lecturer, being out of town, had en- 
gaged John James Majendie to supply his 
place. Not knowing this, the stewards had 
sent for Whitefield. Majendie was rudely 
superseded ; of this Whitefield, who wished 
to retire in his favour, was innocent ; but 
the matter gave rise to much angry writing 



Whitefield 



Whitefield 



against methodists, continued for some 
months by 'Richard Hooker' (i.e. William 
Webster [q. v.]) in the ' Weekly Miscellany.' 
A consequence was that at Bath and Bristol, 
where he wished to preach on behalf of the 
Georgia orphanage, his overtures were re- 
jected. At Salisbury he visited Susanna 
Wesley, who asked him if her sons ' were 
not making some innovations in the church ; ' 
he assured her * they were so far from it that 
they endeavoured all they could to reconcile 
dissenters to our communion' (STEVENSON, 
Memorials of the Wesley Family, 1876, p. 216). 
He began open-air preaching at Rose Green, 
on Kingswood Hill, near Bristol, on 17 Feb. 
1739. This service converted Thomas Max- 
field, afterwards John Wesley's assistant. 
The pulpits of Bristol churches were now 
opened to him, but on 20 Feb. he was sum- 
moned to the chancellor's court and threatened 
with excommunication for preaching without 
license. Bishop Butler, to whom he applied, 
wrote him a favourable letter, promising a 
benefaction towards the orphanage ; he gave 
five guineas on 30 May (TYERMAN, i. 182, 
233, 349). He was, however, excluded from 
churches, and even from preaching in the 
prison ; only the ' society ' rooms were open 
to him. Hence he threw himself into the 
work of outdoor preaching, always wearing 
his clerical robes. 

Visiting Wales in March with William 
Seward (1702-1740), brother of Thomas 
Seward [q. v.], he first met Howel Harris 
[q. v.] On 2 April he laid the first stone of 
a school for the colliers at Kingswood, a 
work taken up by Wesley in the following 
June. At St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester, he 
baptised (17 April) a quaker 'about sixty 
years of age.' At Oxford he received ' a great 
shock' on hearing that his old friend Kinchin 
had resigned his fellowship, and was reported 
to be on the point of leaving the church ; he 
looked forward to ' dreadful consequences ' 
from l a needless separation.' No pulpit was 
open to him in Oxford. In London George 
Stonehouse, vicar of St. Mary's, Islington, 
invited him to preach, but the churchwarden 
interfered ; accordingly he preached (27 April) 
in the churchyard, standing on a tombstone, 
' to a prodigious concourse of people.' His 
first open-air sermon at Moorfields (then a 
wooded park) was on 29 April, before church 
time. At morning service the same day he 
heard a violent sermon against his movement 
by Joseph Trapp [q. v.J at Christ Church, 
Newgate, and remarks that ' the preacher 
was not so calm as I wished him.' Trapp 
was backed up by the ' Weekly Miscellany; ' 
Whitefield by Robert Seagrave [q. v.] Dod- 
dridge heard Whitefield in May on Kenning- 



ton Common, and thought him rash and 
enthusiastic, ' a weak man, much too posi- 
tive' (HUMPHREYS, Correspondence of Dod- 
dridffe, 1829, iii. 381;. Bishop Benson, dis- 
approving of his itinerant labours, ' affection- 
ately admonished ' him to preach only where 
he was ' lawfully appointed/ a suggestion at 
which, replied \\ hitefield (9 July), 'my blood 
runs chill.' He had already (10 5larch) 
begun a correspondence with Ralph Erskine 
[q. v.], the Scottish seceder, whose sermons 
he had read. Whitefield wrote (23 July) 
' My tenderest affections await the associate 
presbytery' (constituted 6 Dec. 1733). It 
has been said that in Whitefield's sermon 
(Gen. iii. 15) at Stoke Newington (31 July) 
' to about twenty thousand people,' he gives 
prominence for the first time to the Cal- 
vinistic doctrine of election ; but this sermon 
('The Serpent beguiling Eve/ 1740, 8vo) 
has been confused with a later sermon (' The 
Seed of the Woman/ &c., 1742, 8vo) from 
the same text (TYERMAN, i. 273). On 1 Aug. 
Bishop Gibson issued a pastoral in which 
' enthusiasm/ as manifest in Whitefield's 
journals, is condemned ; Whitefield, in reply, 
offered Gibson ' the dilemma of either allow- 
ing my divine commission, or denying your 
own' ( Worlis, iv. 13). 

On 14 Aug. 1739 he embarked for Ame- 
rica in the Elizabeth, taking with him 
William Seward and Joseph Periam (an 
attorney's clerk, whose father, thinking him 
crazy, had put him into Bedlam for three 
weeks). They landed in America on 30 Oct. 
and visited Philadelphia on 2 Nov. ; thence 
he visited New York. He left Pennsyl- 
vania on 29 Nov. to make his way through 
Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina, to Georgia. 
His preaching, welcomed by ' all but his 
own church ' (Letter of Benjamin Colman, 
D.D.\ was mainly in presbyterian meeting- 
houses and the open air. There is no better 
testimony to its power than that of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, who writes, 'It was wonder- 
ful to see the change soon made in the 
manners of our inhabitants ' (Memoirs, 1818, 
i. 80). He reached Savannah on 11 Jan. 
1740, bringing with him 2,530/. (about half 
collected in America) towards the orphan- 
age, for which the Georgia trustees had 
granted him five hundred acres of land. 
He at once hired a house, and on 25 March 
began a building, to be called Bethesda. 
For the remainder of his life the main- 
tenance of this institution was an important 
factor in his work, compelling him to travel, 
and inspiring him to preach (TYERMAN, i. 
350). During thirty years of its manage- 
ment he expended on it, from his private 
resources, 3,299/. (ib. ii. 581). 



Whitefield 



88 



Whitefield 



preacnea against mm, i 
from a dissenting pulpit, 
quarrel into print. He unde 
Tillotson ' knew no more 



On a visit to Charleston, South Carolina, 
in March 1740, he got into an unwise con- 
troversy with the commissary, Alexander 
Garden (1686-1755) [see under GARDEN, 
ALEXANDER], rector of St. Philip's, who 

Preached against him, Whitefield retorting 
and carrying the 
[e undertook to prove that 
about true Chris- 
tianity than Mahomet,' an expression which 
he fathered on Wesley, * if I mistake not.' 
On 4 April he wrote an unavailing proposal 
of marriage to Elizabeth Delamotte of Blen- 
don, Kent, sister of Charles Uelamotte, Wes- 
ley's companion to Georgia (TYERMAN, i. 
369). Revisiting Philadelphia in April, he 
pleaded as usual for the orphan house. 
Franklin, whom he employed as printer, had 
advised him on economic grounds to build 
the house at Philadelphia, and refused to 
contribute to the Georgia scheme. But, 
hearing Whitefield preach, he ' began to 
soften,' and concluded to give copper; 
' another stroke ' decided him to give silver ; 
at the finish he * emptied ' his ' pocket into 
the collector's dish, gold and all.' His fol- 
lowers in Philadelphia founded there (1743) 
a presbyterian congregation. Whitefield 
himself projected * a school for negroes in 
Pennsylvania ; ' five thousand acres of land 
were bought for the purpose. Seward went 
to England to collect funds, but the plan 
ended with his untimely death. 

Nominally the Anglican incumbent of 
Savannah, Whitefield was act ing in effect as 
a minister at large, leaving James Haber- 
sham, the schoolmaster (a layman), to read 
prayers and sermons in his place. He him- 
self discarded the surplice; always prayed, as 
well as preached, extempore ; constantly offi- 
ciated in dissenting meeting-houses, and 
several times put Tilly, a baptist minister, 
into his pulpit. Visiting Charleston in 
July 1740, he was cited (7 July) to appear 
on 15 July before the commissary to answer 
for certain irregularities, * chiefly for omit- 
ting to use the form of prayers prescribed 
in the communion book.' He duly appeared. 
Garden and four other clergymen constituted 
the commissary's court. Five days (on each 
of which Whitefield preached twice to large 
audiences) were spent in arguing questions 
of jurisdiction; Whitefield appealed to chan- 
cery, and on 19 July was bound under oath to 
lodge his appeal within a twelvemonth, depo- 
siting 10/. as guarantee. The appeal was duly 
made ; but as it did not come to a hearing 
within a year and a day, Garden again sum- 
moned W T hitefield, and, in his absence, pro- 
nounced a decree of suspension. This is 
said to have been the first trial in any 



Anglican ecclesiastical court in a British 
colony. 

Whitefield was invited to Boston (Sep- 
tember 1740) by Benjamin Colman, D.D. 
(1673-1747), of Brattle Street congregation, 
a correspondent of Henry Winder [q. v.], 
and in close alliance with English dissent. 
He preached against the liberalism which 
was making its way into Harvard College ; 
there is no doubt that his influence did much 
to stem the tide of doctrinal indifference 
among the congregationalists of New Eng- 
land. He gave new vitality to the Cal- 
vinistic position, and this reacted on his own 
teaching. Hence Wesley's 'free grace' 
sermon (of which Wesley had sent a copy to> 
Garden) drew from Whitefield a ' Letter ' of 
remonstrance (24 Dec. 1740). Its publica- 
tion (March 1741), which Charles Wesley 
tried to avert, made the breach between the 
* two sorts of methodists ' (WESLEY, Works, 
viii. 335). The personal alienation was 
shortlived ; Wesley says the trouble ' was 
not merely the difference of doctrine,' but 
' rather Mr. Whitefield's manner ' (ib. xi. 463). 
It must be owned that there was ' manner ' 
on both sides. The followers of Wesley and 
Whitefield henceforth formed rival parties. 

Whitefield left Charleston on 16 Jan. and 
reached Falmouth on 11 March 1741. From 
this date he ceased to write journals; but nar- 
ratives of his work from his own pen were sup- 
plied in the 'Christian History '(1740-7), the 
1 Full Account,' 1747, 12mo, and the 'Further 
Account,' 1747, 8vo. To provide a preaching 
place for him while in London, his friends 
procured a site a little to the north of 
Wesley's Foundery, and erected ' a large, 
temporary shed' known as the tabernacle/ 
This was opened about the middle of April 
1 741 , and became the headquarters of White- 
field's London work. It was replaced by a 
brick building on the same site, opened on 
10 June 1753. The Moorfields tabernacle 
suggested the Norwich tabernacle, erected 
for James Wheat ley in 1751. Whitefield's 
Bristol tabernacle was opened on 25 Nov. 
1756. 

On 10 April 1741 Ralph Erskine wrote 
entreating Whitefield to visit Scotland. 
The members of the ' associate presbytery T 
had now (1740) been formally excluded 
from the ministry by the general assembly. 
Erskine, who wished Whitefield to cast in 
his lot entirely with the ' associate presby- 
tery,' made it a condition that he should not 
preach in the pulpits of their ' persecutors.' 
Against this limit Whitefield wrote frankly 
1" Mbenezer Erskine [q.v.] as well as to Ralph, 
desiring to be ' neuter as to the particular 
reformation of church government.' Ebenezer 



Whitefield 



Whitefield 



Erskine felt it ' unreasonable ' to seek to 
identify Whitefield with the seceding orga- 
nisation, and found a way out of the difficulty 
by suggesting that he might preach at the 
invitation not of ' our corrupt clergy ' but of 
'the people.' Whitefield arrived at Dun- 
ferralme on 30 July 1741 on a visit to 
Ralph Erskine, who at once tackled him on 
the subject of his episcopal ordination. Writ- 
ing (31 July) to his brother, he affirms that 
AYhitefield told him 'he would not have it 
that way again for a thousand worlds ; ' as 
for refusing invitations to preach, he would 
' embrace ' the offer of ' a Jesuit priest or a 
Mahomedan,' in order to testify against 
them. He met and conferred with the 
' associate presbytery ' on 5 Aug. It was 
on this occasion that he gave his famous 
answer, when besought to preach only for 
'the Lord's people,' that ' the devil's people ' 
were in more need of preaching. Finding 
that he was resolved to be strictly neutral 
on ecclesiastical politics, the associate pres- 
byters disavowed him. Adam Gib [q. v.] 
published 'A Warning' (1742, 12mo) 
against * this foreigner,' to prove that 
Whitefield's ' whole doctrine is, and his suc- 
cess must be, diabolical.' The ' associate 
presbytery ' in its act of 23 Dec. 1743 enu- 
merates 'the kind reception' given to White- 
field among the sins of Scotland. His popu- 
larity was very great : in thirteen weeks he 
visited some thirty towns and had huge 
open-air audiences. His detractors observed 
that ' he was inflexible about the article of 
gathering money' (WAKELEY, Anecdotes, 
1872, p. 231) ; they forgot to add that this 
was necessary for his benevolent schemes. 
In October he was the guest at Melville 
House, Fifeshire, of Alexander, fifth earl of 
Leven and fourth earl of Melville (d. 1754), 
the royal commissioner to the general as- 
sembly. 

Leaving Edinburgh on 29 Oct. 1741, he 
rode to Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, the 
residence of a widow, Elizabeth James (born 
Burnell), a friend of Wesley, who calls her 
'a woman of candour and humanity' (WES- 
LEY, Works, i. 321). Whitefield married her 
on 14 Nov. 1741 at St. Martin's, Caerphilly, 
parish of Eglwsilan, Glamorganshire. He 
had made up his mind to marry (19 Oct. 1740) ; 
but no previous courtship of Mrs. James is 
known. She was ten years his senior, and 
had neither fortune nor beauty (his own ac- 
count), but was a ' tender nurse ' and a woman 
of strong mind, proved more than once in 
trying circumstances ; she ' set about making 
cartridges ' when the Wilmington, bound 
for Georgia, seemed in danger of attack by a 
Dutch fleet ( Works, ii. 68) ; and on another 



occasion, as Whitefield noted in her funeral 
sermon, bade her husband ' play the man ' 
(Christian Miscellany, 1856, p. 218). Un- 
happiness in his married life has been in- 
ferred from the language of John Berridge 
[q. v.], who unworthily calls the wives 
ot Wesley and Whitefield ' a brace of 
ferrets ' (GLEDSTONE, p. 500) ; and from the 
testimony of Cornelius Winter (1742-1807), 
who was an inmate (1767-9) in Whitefield's 
house during his wife's declining days, but 
who does not lay all the fault on the lady 
(JAY, Memoirs of Winter, 1809, p. 80). 
She died on 9 Aug. 1768, and eight months 
after her death Whitefield writes (11 March 
1769), ' I feel the loss of my right hand 
daily.' They had one child, John, born at 
Hoxton on 4 Oct. 1743, baptised publicly at 
the Moorfields tabernacle, buried at Glou- 
cester on 8 Feb. 1744 (Register of St. Mary 
de Crypt). 

Within a week after his marriage White- 
field started on a missionary tour in the 
west. At Gloucester and Painswick he 
preached in parish churches, after long ex- 
clusion. From London he embarked for 
Scotland on 26 May 1742, reaching Edin- 
burgh on 3 June. His second visit to 
Scotland stimulated the famous revival 
at Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, just begun by 
William M'Culloch (1692-1771), the parish 
clergyman. The penitents were seized with 
hysteria and convulsion (RoBE, Faithful 
Narrative, 1742 ; reprinted 1840), pheno- 
mena denounced by seceders as renewing 
the excesses of the Camisards (FISHER, 
Review, 1742). Correspondence with W 7 es- 
ley was resumed in October, and the personal 
relations of the two leaders were henceforth 
cordial. Whitefield was back in London on 
6 Nov. He presided at the first conference 
of Calvinistic methodists held at Watford, 
near Caerphilly (HUGHES, Life of H. Harris, 
1892, p. 223), on 5 Jan. 1743, preceding 
Wesley's conference by a year and a half. 
It consisted of four clergymen, including 
Daniel Rowlands fq. v.], and ten laymen, 
including Harris, Humphreys, and Cennick, 
the latter two having deserted Wesley for 
Whitefield. At the second conference 
(6 April) Whitefield was 'chosen, if in 
England, to be always moderator,' Harris to 
be moderator in his absence ( Gospel Maga- 
zine, 1771, p. 69; HUGHES, p. 240). At a 
later conference in the same year it was 
agreed ' not to separate from the established 
church ' ( Works, ii. 38). Five years after- 
wards W T hitefield admits in a letter to 
Wesley (1 Sept, 1748) that he must leave 
to others the formation of ' societies,' and 
give himself to general preaching (tfc. ii. 169). 



Whitefield 



Whitefield 



Hence he put Harris in charge (27 April 
1749) of the Moorfields tabernacle and other 
English societies. After his rupture with 
Rowlands (May 1750), Harris seceded to 
form an association of his own (HUGHES, p. 
364), Rowlands heading the main body. 

In September 1743 Doddridge preached 
at the tabernacle, and was taken to task 
(20 Sept.) by Isaac Watts for ' sinking the 
character of a minister, and especially a 
tutor, among the dissenters, so low thereby ' 
(HUMPHREYS, Correspondence of Doddridge, 
1829, iv. 254). Next month Doddridge 
opened his pulpit at Northampton to AVhite- 
field, and was warmly censured by Nathaniel, 
son of Daniel Neal [q. v.], and by John 
Barker (1682-1762) [q. v.] (ib. pp. 275 sq.) 
They considered that any alliance with 
methodism would prejudice their relations 
with the established church. Others main- 
tained that field-preaching was not protected 
by the Toleration Act. Richard Smalbroke 
[q.v.] had charged against methodistsin 1743, 
having Whitefield especially in view. Taking 
his wife with him, Whitefield embarked for 
America at Plymouth on 10 Aug. 1744, and 
reached New York on 26 Oct. His stay 
in America lasted till 2 June 1748. His 
success was achieved in the face of opposi- 
tion from New England ministers, many of 
whom wrote strongly respecting his irregu- 
lar methods. Testimonies against him were 
issued by the faculties of Harvard (28 Dec. 
1744) and Yale (25 Feb. 1745). Towards 
the support of his orphan house he purchased 
(March 1747) ' a plantation and slaves ' in 
South Carolina, holding it ' impossible for 
the inhabitants to subsist without the use 
of slaves' (Christian History, 17 7, p. 34), 
an opinion which he reiterated in a letter 
(6 Dec. 1748) to the Georgia trustees 
(Works, ii. 208). The ' lawfulness of keep- 
ing slaves' he defended (22 March 1751) on 
biblical grounds (ib. ii. 404). 

Shortly after his return, Lady Huntingdon 
made him (August 1748) one of her domestic 
chaplains, following the course by which, 
before toleration, nonconforming clergy had 
been protected. Bolingbroke wrote to her 
that the king had ' represented to his grace 
of Canterbury ' [Herring] ' that Mr. White- 
field should be advanced to the bench, as 
the only means of putting an end to his 
preaching' (TYERMAN, ii. 194). During a 
visit of six weeks to Scotland (September- 
October 1748) the synods of Glasgow, 
Lothian, and Perth passed resolutions in- 
tended to exclude him from churches. In 
November he visited Watts on his death- 
bed. The attacks on methodism by George 
Lavington [q. v.], which began in 1749 



'. (Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists com- 

pared, 1749-51, 3 pts.), were mainly directed 

against Whitefield. Lavington had been 
nettled by a sham ' charge ' published in his 
name by some unknown person during 1748, 
and containing methodist sentiments. In the 
Grace Murray episode [see WESLEY, JOHN] 
Whitefield followed Charles Wesley's bid- 
ding, though he told John Wesley that in 
his judgment Grace Murray was his wife. 
He visited Ireland in May 1751, remaining 
till July, when he embarked from Belfast 
for Scotland. The impression he made in 
Ireland seems to have been very transitory. 
His fourth visit to America (October 1751- 
May 1752) was curtailed by his wish to gain 
from the Georgia trustees, before their 
charter expired, certain privileges for his 
orphan house. His hymn-book (1753), which 
in 1796 had passed through thirty-six edi- 
tions, was compiled for the new-built taber- 
nacle. During a visit to Scotland (July- 
August 1753) a playhouse at Glasgow against 
which he had declaimed was pulled down 
(Scots Magazine, 1753, p. 361). Detained a 
month at Lisbon, on his way to America, he 
wrote and published (1755) graphic accounts 
of the religious observances there. On this 
his fifth visit to America (May 1754-May 
1755) the M.A. degree was conferred on him 
(September 1754) by New Jersey College. 

The eight years from May 1755 to June 
1763 were spent by Whitefield in the United 
Kingdom (excepting a trip to Holland in 
1762). In a remarkable letter (2 July 1756) 
Franldin wrote: 'I sometimes wish that you 
and I were jointly employed by the crown 
to settle a colony on the Ohio ' (Evangelical 
Magazine, 1803, p. 51). On 7 Nov. 1756 
Whitefield opened the chapel in Tottenham 
Court Road (rebuilt 1899) ; at the laying of 
the foundation in the previous June he had 
the countenance of Benjamin Grosvenor, 
D.D. [q. v.], Thomas Gibbons [q. v.], and 
Andrew Gifford [q. v.], representing the three 
sections of protestant dissent. He constantly 
visited Scotland, and in 1 757 heard the debates 
in the general assembly on the case of Alex- 
ander Carlyle, D.D. [q. v.], prosecuted for 
attending the representation of the tragedy 
of ' Douglas ' by John Home [q. v.] In 1760 
Whitefield (' Dr.Squintum ') was burlesqued 
by Samuel Foote [q. v.] in the * Minor.' The 
performance let loose a flood of discreditable 
lampoons and caricatures. Of numerous 
animadversions by Whitetield's friends, none 
were more effective than John Wesley's three 
letters to ' Lloyd's Evening Post ' in Novem- 
ber and December 1760. In the 'Register 
Office' (1761), by Joseph Reed fq. v.], 
\\ hitefield is introduced as 'Mr. Watch- 



Whitefield 



Whitefield 



light ; ' in the ' Methodist ' vpubiished 1761, 
but never acted) he figures again as 
* Squintum.' These attacks, which were felt 
to be unworthy, raised Whitefield's repute 
instead of injuring it. He was seriously ill 
at the time, and for nearly a twelvemonth, 
from March 1671, was practically disabled 
from preaching. He felt, too, the pressure 
of financial obligations connected with his 
philanthropic undertakings. On 4 June 1763 
he started from Greenock in the Fanny, for 
his sixth voyage to America. During his 
stay there of two years he exerted himself 
in procuring gifts of books for Harvard 
College library, lately burned (Works, iii. 
307). His preaching powers were still 
limited, but his popularity showed no dimi- 
nution. He reached England again on 
7 July 1765 much enfeebled. On 6 Oct. he 
opened Lady Huntingdon's chapel at Bath. 
Wesley, who met him in London on 28 Oct., 
describes him as 'an old, old man, fairly 
worn out . . . though he has hardly seen fifty 
years' (WESLEY, Journal). Yet he continued 
his missionary tours and his open-air preach- 
ing. From 17 June 1767 to 12 Feb. 1768 
he corresponded with Seeker respecting the 
conversion of his orphanage into a college. 
He was willing that the first master should 
be an Anglican clergyman, but refused to 
narrow the foundation by excluding others 
in the future, or by making the daily use of 
the common prayer-book a statutable obli- 
gation. On these points the governor and 
council of Georgia were with him. In August 
1767 he attended Wesley's conference with 
Howel Harris. His wife, who died 9 Aug. 
1768, was buried in Tottenham Court Road 
chapel. She left him 700/. He opened Lady 
Huntingdon's college at Trevecca on 24 Aug. 
1768, and her chapel at Tunbridge Wells on 
23 July 1769. His last sermons in England 
were preached at Ramsgate on 16 Sept., 
shortly before his final embarkation for 
America. His assistant, whom he left in 
charge of the London chapels, was Torial 
Joss (1731-1797), formerly a sea-captain. 

His last public work was the settlement 
of a scheme for his ' orphan house academy,' 
or Bethesda College. He might probably 
have obtained for it a charter had he placed 
it under the direction of the state authorities, 
but he bequeathed the whole institution to 
Lady Huntingdon (the main building was 
destroyed by fire in June 1773, and never 
rebuilt). Leaving Savannah on 24 April 
1770, he moved about Pennsylvania and 
New England, preaching nearly every day. 
His last letter was written on 23 Sept.; his 
last sermon, two hours in length and full 
of vigour, was given at Exeter, New Hamp- 



shire, on 29 Sept. That evening he reached 
the manse of Jonathan Parsons (1705-1776), 
presbyterian minister of Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, whom he had converted irom 
Arminianism. He was to have preached 
next morning, and was going to bed tired, 
but was prevailed on to address, from the 
staircase, a gathered throng till his bed 
candle burned out. During the night he 
was seized with asthma, as he thought ; it 
was probably angina pectoris (TYERMAN). 
He died at six o'clock in the morning of 
30 Sept. 1770, and was buried at his own 
desire in a vault beneath the pulpit of the 
presbyterian meeting-house, Federal Street, 
Newburyport. Among the pall-bearers was 
Edward Bass (1726-1803), rector of St. 
Paul's, Newburyport, afterwards (1797) first 
bishop of the protestant episcopal church in 
Massachusetts. The coffin was opened in 
1784, when the body was found perfect ; in 
1801 it was again opened, the flesh was 
gone, but the ' gown, cassock, and bands ' 
remained (TYERMAN, ii. 602). Later, the 
' main bone of the right arm ' was stolen by 
an admirer and sent to England, but restored 
in 1837 (ib. p. 60C). At Newburyport there 
is a monument, erected in 1828 (figured in 
HARSHA). An inscription to his memory 
was added to the marble monument erected 
to his wife in Tottenham Court Road chapel 
(GILLIES, p. 277). This monument has 
since perished ; the chapel, now [1900] re- 
building, will contain a memorial. Funeral 
sermons we.re very numerous. The most im- 
portant are those by Parsons and by Wesley; 
the latter was delivered both at the taber- 
nacle and at Tottenham Court Road, in 
accordance with Whitefield's own request. 
His will is printed by Gillies, and reprinted 
by Philip; he died worth about 1,400/. 

Whitefield's unrivalled effects as a preacher 
were due to his great power of realising his 
subject, and to his histrionic genius, aided 
by a fascinating voice of great compass and 
audible at immense distances (FRANKLIN, 
Memoirs, 1818, i. 87). Lord Chesterfield, 
hearing him portray a blind beggar as he 
tottered over the edge of a precipice, 
bounded from his seat and exclaimed, ' Good 
God ! he's gone ! ' (WAKELEY, 1872, p. 197 ; 
for a vivid description of the potency of his 
rhetoric see LECKY, Hist, of England, ii. 
562 sq. ; for its effect on Hume, GLEDSTONE, 
p. 378). His printed sermons by no means 
explain his reputation ; it should be remem- 
bered that he preached over eighteen thousand 
sermons ; only sixty-three were published 
by himself, forty-six of them before he was 
twenty-five years of age. Eighteen other 
sermons in print were published from short- 



Whitefield 



Whitefoord 



hand notes, unrevised. The warmth of his 
expressions, and an incautious frankness of 
statement in his autobiographical writings, 
laid him open to ridicule and undeserved 
reproach. It was primarily against White- 
field that the more persistent attacks upon 
methodism were levelled. Apart from his 
evangelistic work he was in many ways a 
pioneer. With none of the administrative 
genius by which Wesley turned suggestions 
to account, he anticipated Wesley's lines of 
action to a remarkable extent. He preceded 
him in making Bristol a centre of methodist 
effort ; he was beforehand with him in 
publishing journals, in founding schools, in 
practising open-air preaching, and in calling 
his preachers to a conference. His religious 
periodical, ' The Christian History ' (begun 
in 1740), may be looked upon as a predecessor 
of the ' Arminian Magazine' (1778). 

Whitefield's complexion was fair, his eyes 
dark blue and small; originally slender,* he 
became corpulent from his fortieth year, 
though his diet was spare, and a cow-heel 
his favourite luxury. Like Wesley, he rose 
at four ; his punctuality was rigid, his love 
of order extreme ; ' he did not think he 
should die easy, if he thought his gloves 
were out of their place ' (WINTER, p. 82). 
He was * irritable, but soon appeased ' (ib. 
p. 81) ; his beneficence was the outcome of 
the generous glow of his affections. 

The National Portrait Gallery has a por- 
trait, painted about 1737 by John Woolas- 
ton, in which Whitefield" is depicted as 
preaching from a pulpit ; a female figure in 
front of the congregation is supposed to re- 
present his wife. Other portraits are by 
Nathaniel Hone [q. v.], engraved by Picot ; 
and (1768) by John Kussell (1745-1806) 
[q. v.], engraved in mezzotint by Watson. A 
whole-length mezzotint (1743) by F. Kyte 
is said by Gillies to be the best likeness of 
him in his younger years. His effigy in wax 
was executed (during his lifetime) by Rachel 
Wells of Philadelphia, and was given to 
Bethesda College ; another was by her sister, 
Mrs. Patience Wright of New York (GILLIES, 
pp. 280, 358). Caricatures are very numerous. 

Whitefield's 'Works' were edited, 1771-2, 
6 vols. 8vo, by John Gillies, D.D. [q. v.j 
The collection contains letters, tracts, and 
sermons, with a few pieces previously un- 
published. It does not contain the auto- 
biographical pieces, the ' Short Account ' 
(1740), the seven 'Journals ' (issued between 
1738 and 1741 ; none of them republished 
in full since 1744), the ' Christian History ' 
(1740-7), the ' Full Account ' (1747), and 
the 'Further Account' (1747). In 1756, 
12mo, Whitefield published 'The Two First 



Parts of his Life, with his Journals revised, 
corrected, and abridged.' The fullest biblio- 
graphy of original editions of Whitefield's 
publications will be found embedded in 
Tyerman's ' Life.' He wrote prefaces to 
several works ; notably, a brief ' recommen- 
datory epistle ' to an ' Abstract,' 1739, 12mo 
(made by Wesley), of the ' Life ' of Thomas 
Halyburton [q. v.] ; and a preface to a folio 
edition, 1767, of the works of Bunyan. 
Julian does not include him in his ' Dic- 
tionary ' as a hymn- writer, and it is doubtful 
whether any of the verses which he uses as 
the expression of his own feelings are strictly 
original. His alterations of the hymns of 
the Wesleys drew from John Wesley (who 
does not name him) the scornful remarks in 
the preface to his hymn-book of 1780. 

[The Short Account, Journals, Christian 
History, Full Account, Further Account, and 
Letters of Whitefield are the primary authorities 
for his biography. The Memoirs, 1772, by 
Gillies, is a careful piece of work, which has 
been often re-edited, but not always improved. 
The Life and Times, 1832, by Robert Philip 
[q. v.] (criticised by Sir James Stephen, Edin- 
burgh Review, July 1838), is very full but 
discursive. The Life and Travels, 1871, by 
Gledstone, is the best for general use. The Life, 
1876-7, 2 vols., by Tyerman, is a nearly ex- 
haustive compendium of materials. Of bio- 
graphies published in America, the Life, 1846, 
by D. Newell, and the Life, 1866, by D. A.Harsha, 
may be mentioned. A Faithful Narrative of the 
Life, 1739, is by a friend, but the Life . . . 
by an Impartial Hand, 1739, and Genuine and 
Secret Memoirs, 1742, are rfnonymous lampoons. 
See also Jay's Memoirs of Cornelius Winter, 
1809, pp. 72 sq.; Life and Times of Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon, 1 839, 2 vols. ; Richard- 
son's George Whiteh'eld, Centenary Commemo- 
ration of Tottenham Court Chapel, 1857 ; Wake- 
ley's Anecdotes of Whitefield, 1872 ; Macaulay's 
Whitefield Anecdotes, 1886 ; Stratford's Good 
and Great Men of Gloucestershire, 1867, pp. 
231 sq.; Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, 
1881, ii. ; Winsor's Hist, of America, vol. v. 
passim; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1888, iv. 1.541, 
1892, iv. 1621 ; extract from register of St. Mary 
do Crypt, Gloucester, per Rev. W. Lloyd.] ^ 

A. G. 

WHITEFOORD, CALEB (1734-1810), 
wit and diplomatist, the natural son of 
Colonel Charles Whitefoord [q. v.], was 
born at Edinburgh in 1734 and educated at 
James Mundell's school and Edinburgh Uni- 
versity (matriculating on 3 March 1748). 
His father acquiesced in his objections to 
entering the ministry, and placed him in the 
counting-house of a wine merchant, Archi- 
bald Stewart, of York Buildings, London. 
During 1756 (having in the meantime set 
up in the wine business at 8 Craven Street), 



1* Add to list of authorities : C. Roy 
Hudleston's George Whitefield's Ancestry 
(Trans. Bristol and G/ouc. Archaeol. Soc. y 

liv OO t X O V 



Whitefoord 



93 



Whitefoord 



Whitefoord was in Lisbon in connection 
with his trade, and sent home a vivid ac- 
count of the earthquake. Benjamin Frank- 
lin was his neighbour in Craven Street for 
some time ; they became intimate, and their 
intimacy led to Whitefoord being chosen by 
Shelburne in 1782 as intermediary between 
Franklin, as minister of the United States 
at Versailles, and the British government. 
Whitefoord accompanied Richard Oswald 
[q. v.] to Paris in April and served for a 
year as secretary to the commission which 
concluded the peace with America. Burke, 
to express his poor opinion of the pleni- 
potentiaries chosen, described Oswald as a 
simple merchant and Whitefoord as a mere 
' diseur de bons mots.' It was not until 
1793 that a pension of 200/. a year was 
secured to Whitefoord for his services. 

Whitefoord's contributions to the ' Public 
Advertiser,' the ' St. James's Chronicle,' and 
other newspapers were numerous, his line 
being political persiflage and his aim to 
reveal the humorous side of party abuse. 
The ministry would have liked a pamphlet 
on the Falkland Islands difficulty from his 
pen in 1771, and it was he who recom- 
mended that the task should be assigned to 
Dr. Johnson. The latter thought highly of 
Whitefoord's essays in the periodical press, 
and Caleb was one of the guests at the 
Shakespeare Tavern when Johnson took the 
chair on 15 March 1773, prior to the first 
performance of ' She stoops to conquer.' 
Many of his best squibs, such as ' Proposals 
for a Female Administration,' ' Errors of the j 
Press,' < Westminster Races,' < Ship News,' 
and ' Cross Readings,' are in the ' New 
Foundling Hospital for Wit ' (1784, i. 129 sq.) 
The ' Cross Readings ' delighted not only 
Johnson, but a critic of such taste as Gold- 
smith, and one so difficult to please as Horace 
Walpole. When Garrick set the fashion 
of writing caricature epitaphs in 1774, White- 
foord naturally tried his hand; and, Cumber- 
land says, displayed more ill-nature than wit. 
Goldsmith, however, thought well of him, 
as is shown in the epitaph which he left 
among his papers to be worked into 'Retalia- 
tion,' and which was actually included in 
the fourth and subsequent editions : 

Here Whitefoord reclines, deny it who can ; 

Tho' he merrily lived, he is now a grave man. 

"What pity, alas ! that so lib'ral a mind 

Should so long be to Newspaper Essays con- 
fined! 

Who perhaps to the summit of science might 
soar, 

Yet content if the table he set in a roar ; 

Whose talents to fit any station were fit, 

Yet happy if Woodfall confessed him a wit. . . . 



Whitefoord's correspondence with the 
Woodfalls and with James Macpherson 
(printed in the Whitefoord Papers) is of 
some literary interest ; in August 1795 he 
i received from John Croft, the antiquary 
of York, some inedited anecdotes of Sterne, 
which Croft had collected at his request (ib. 
pp. 223 sq.) Caleb lived on to patronise a 
generation far subsequent to that of his 
early associates Foote and Garrick. In May 
180o David Wilkie brought him a ' letter 
of introduction ' from Sir George Sandilands, 
and the painter is said to have successfully 
transferred to the well-known canvas the 
, grave expression which Whitefoord thought 
, proper to the occasion. Whitefoord, who 
was a F.R.S. (elected 1784), a F.S.A., and 
a member of the Arcadian Society of Rome, 
died at his house in Argyll Street in Fe- 
bruary 1810, and was buried in Paddington 
churchyard (WIIEATLEY and CUNNINGHAM, 
London, iii. 2). His fine collection of pic- 
tures was sold at Argyll Street on 4 and 
5 May 1810. 

A portrait by Reynolds (1782), owned 
by Charles Whitefoord, esq., of Whitton 
Paddocks, near Ludlow, was engraved in 
mezzotint by I. Jones in 1793. A sketch by 
George Dance (July 1795) was engraved by 
William Daniell, and a drawing by Cosway 
by P. Cond6 for the ' European Magazine ' 
(i810). An anonymous portrait is at the 
rooms of the Society of Arts, for which body 
Whitefoord procured portraits of William 
Shipley [q. v.J and Peter Templeman [q. v.] ; 
he was vice-president of the society in 1800 
{Trans. Soc. of Arts, No. xxix.) 

Whitefoord married late in life (1800) a 
Miss Sidney, and left four children. His 
eldest son, Caleb, graduated from Queen's 
College, Oxford (B.A. 1828, M.A. 1831), 
and became rector of Burford with Whitton 
in 1843. 

[Whitefoord Papers, 1898, ed.Hewins ; Gent. 
Mag. 1810, i. 300; Public Characters, 1801-2; 
Boswell's Johnson, iv. 233, ed. Hill ; Walpole's 
Correspondence, v. 30, ed. Cunningham ; North- 
cote's Life of Reynolds, i. 217 ; Forster's Gold- 
smith, bk. iv. ch. xx. ; Cumberland's Memoirs, 
i. 367; Smith's Mezzotinto Portraits, p. 774; 
Cust's Society of Dilettanti, 1898, p. 123 ; Frank- 
lin's Works, ed. Sparks, vii. 242.] T. S. 

WHITEFOORD, CHARLES (d. 1753), 
soldier, third son of Sir Adam Whitefoord, 
first baronet (d. 1727), by Margaret (d. 
1742), only daughter of Alan, seventh lord 
Cathcart, is stated, although the evidence is 
far from conclusive, to have been a descendant 
of Walter Whitford [q. v.l bishop of Brechin. 
His elder brother, Sir John, second baronet, 
became a lieutenant-general in the army 



Whitefoord 



94 



Whitehall 



(1761), and died in 1763, leaving a son, Sir 
John \Vhitefoord, third baronet (d. 1803). 
The third baronet, who is supposed to have 
been the original of Sir Arthur Wardour in 
Scott's ' Antiquary,' got into difficulties and 
left Ballochmyle in Ayrshire for Whitefoord 
House in the Canongate of Edinburgh. He 
was one of the early patrons of Burns, who 
celebrates him in some complimentary lines 
enclosing a copy of the * Lament for James, 
Earl of Glencairn,' and his daughter Maria 
[Cranstoun] was the heroine of the * Braes 
of Ballochmyle.' He was a well-known 
figure in the Scottish capital, and was de- 
picted by Kay along with his cronies, Major 
Andrew Fraser and the Hon. Andrew Ers- 
kine (Edinburgh Portraits, 1877, No. cxcii.) 
Charles Whitefoord entered the navy in 
1718, but afterwards joined a regiment of 
dragoons, having 'learned his exercises of 
riding' in the famous academy of Angers. 
In 1738 he was a captain in the royal Irish at 
Minorca, and two years later was gazetted 
aide-de-camp to his uncle, Lord Cathcart, 
and sailed in the West India expedition, 
took part in the deadly operations against 
Carthagena, and in 1741 became lieutenant- 
colonel in the 5th marines. He was visiting 
relatives in Scotland when the rebellion of 
1745 broke out, and immediately offered his 
services to the government as a volunteer. 
He was one of the very few officers in the 
royal army who distinguished themselves at 
the battle of Prestonpans, and his conduct 
supplied the groundwork of the chivalrous 
contest between Edward Waverley and 
Colonel Talbot in the forty-seventh and fol- 
lowing chapters of 'Waverley.' 'When,' 
says Scott in his revised preface to the novel 
(in 1829), ' the highland ers made their memo- 
rable attack on Sir John Cope's army, a bat- 
tery of four field-pieces was stormed and car- 
ried by the Camerons and the Stewarts of 
Appine. The late Alexander Stewart of In- 
verhayle was one of the foremost in the 
charge, and, observing an officer of the king's 
forces who, scorning to join the flight of all 
around, remained with his sword in his hand, 
as if determined to the very last to defend the 
post assigned to him, the highland gentle- 
man commanded him to surrender, and re- 
ceived for reply a thrust which he caught 
on his target. The officer was now defence- 
less, and the battle-axe of a gigantic high- 
lander was uplifted to dash his brains out, 
when Mr. Stewart with great difficulty pre- 
vailed on him to yield. He took charge of 
his enemy's property, protected his person, 
and finally obtained him his liberty on parole. 
The officer proved to be Colonel White- 
foord.' After Culloden it was Whitefoord's 



turn to strain every nerve to obtain Stewart's 
pardon. Representations to the lord justice 
clerk, the lord advocate, and other law dig- 
nitaries proving of no avail, he at length 
applied to the Duke of Cumberland in per- 
son. ' From him also he received a positive 
refusal. He then limited his request to a 
protection for Stewart's house, wife, chil- 
dren, and property. This was also refused 
by the duke ; on which Colonel Whitefoord, 
taking his commission from his bosom, laid 
it on the table before his royal highness 
with much emotion and asked permission to 
retire from the service of a sovereign who 
did not know how to spare a vanquished 
enemy.' Thereupon the duke ' granted the 
protection required.' 

In September 1751 Whitefoord was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the fifth regi- 
ment of foot, on the staff" in Ireland, and on 
25 Nov. 1752 he was promoted full colonel. 
He died at Galway on 2 Jan. 1753. He 
does not appear to have been married, but 
he left a son, Caleb Whitefoord, who is 
separately noticed, and also, it is believed, 
a daughter. Colonel Whitefoord's ' Letters 
and Papers' referring to his services in 
Minorca, Cuba, and in Scotland were edited 
for the Clarendon Press in 1898 by Mr. 
W. A. S. Hewins. A portrait in oils is 
in the possession of Charles Whitefoord, of 
Whitton Paddocks, near Ludlow. 

[The Genealogist, ed. Marshall, 1880,iv. 142; 
Gent. Mag. 1753, p. 51 ; Cunningham's Life and 
Work of Burns, iv. 156-7; Scott's Waverley, 
Introduction ; Whitefoord Papers, ed. Hewins, 
Introduction and pp. 1-117 ; Hamilton's Lanark 
and Kenfrew, 1831, p. 79.] T. S. 

WHITEHALL, ROBERT (1625-1685), 
poetaster, second son of Robert Whitehall of 
Sharpcliffe, Staffordshire, and of Dorothy 
his wife, daughter of Thomas Henshaw of 
Lockwood, Staffordshire, was born at Amers- 
ham, Buckinghamshire, early in 1625, and 
was baptised thereon 18 March of that year. 
His father, who died in September 1658, 
was vicar of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, 
and from 1616 rector of Addington, Bucking- 
hamshire. The poetaster was educated first 
at Westminster school, under Dr. Richard 
Busby, whence he was elected to Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1643. He graduated B. A. 
on 2 Nov. 1647. On 10 May following, 
with other students of Christ Church, he 
was summoned to appear before the parlia- 
mentary visitors, and, when questioned, re- 
plied: 'As I am summoned a student ot 
Christ Church, my name itself speaks for 
me, that I can acknowledge no visitation 
but King Charles's/ which reply subsequent 



Whitehall 



95 



Whitehead 



development has converted into an indif- 
ferent distich : 

My name's Whitehall, God bless the poet ; 
If I submit the king shall know it. 

He was expelled on 7 July 1648, apparently 
retiring to nis father's honse in Buckingham- 
shire. There coming into contact with his 
neighbours, the Ingoldsbys, he became popu- 
lar with the parliamentary party, submitted 
to the committee for regulating the univer- 
sity, and was by them elected to a fellowship 
in Merton College in 1650. He completed 
his degree of M.A. on 18 Nov. 1652. In 
1655 he was ' terrse films,' and he derided 
the puritan discipline of the university. Jn 
1657 Henry Cromwell, writing from Ireland 
(22 June), requested the college authorities to 
allow him leave of absence, without loss of 
emolument, in order to give instruction in the 
university of Dublin ; the permission was 
granted in the following August. He was 
created M.B. on 5 Sept. 1657 by letters from Ri- 
chard Cromwell. On 21 Junel665 he appears 
to have been in Oxford, when he was licensed 
to practise medicine. He was certainly there 
on 19 Oct. 1670, when he wrote from Merton 
College to Williamson begging for considera- 
tion for his losses, he having been 'worsted 
in spirituals of 250/. a year and nearly 1,000/. 
by the Cheshire misadventure ' [? Sir George 
Booth's rising]. Whitehall was tutor to 
John Wilmot, second earl of Rochester [q.v.], 
at Oxford, and much devoted to him. He 
was sub-warden of Merton College in 1671, 
and in 1677 received a lease of the Bur- 
mington tithes. He died on 8 July 1685, 
and was buried in Merton College chapel on 
the following day. 

Wood calls him 'a mere poetaster and 
time-serving poet.' His works consist chiefly 
of congratulatory odes, and ' his pen seems 
to have been as ready to celebrate Oliver 
Cromwell's elevation to the protectorate as to 
congratulate Charles II on his recovery from 
an ague ; and equally lavish of panegyric, 
whether Richard Cromwell or Lord Claren- 
don, whom he hailed as chancellors of the uni- 
versity' (WELCH, Alumni Westmon. pp. 
1 1 9-20). His works possess a certai n rhythmic 
fluency not unpleasant to the ear. 

He published: 1. ' Tf^i/r/TroAf/ioya/ua, or the 
Marriage of Arms and Arts, 12 July 1651, 
being an Accompt of the Act in Oxon. to a 
Friend,' London, 1651. 2. * Viro . . . hono- 
ratissimo . . . Eduardo Hide ' on his being 
raised to the dignity of chancellor of the uni- 
versity of Oxford), Oxford, 1660? 3. ' The 
Coronation,' London, 1661 ? 4. ' Urania, or 
a Description of the Painting of the Top 
of the Theatre at Oxford, as the Artist 



laid his Design,' London, 1669. 5. Verses 
on Mrs. More, upon her sending Sir Thomas 
More's picture (of her own drawing) to the 
Long Gallery at the Public Schools at Ox- 
ford,' Oxford, 1674. The picture presented 
by Mrs. More is, however, a portrait of 
Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex ( WALPOLB, 
Anecdotes, 1765, iii. 148). 6. < 'E^uo-ri^oi/ 
i Ifpov ; sive Iconum quarundam extranearum 
; (numero258) Explicatio breviuscula et clara,' 
1 Oxford, 1677. This work, of which only 
I twelve copies were printed, consisted of 
I plates purchased by Whitehall in Holland, 
; illustratingboth the Old and New Testament. 
The majority of the plates were those (in 
many cases reversed) engraved by Matthias 
Merian for a German edition of the Bible 
published in Strasburg in 1630. They 




plates 

appear to have been specially printed on thin 
paper. Each was pasted on a sheet of paper 
on which had previously been printed six 
explanatory verses by Whitehall. His twelve 
copies were handsomely bound, and pre- 
sented severally to the king and to noble 
friends. 7. * Gratulamini mecum : a Con- 
gratulatory Essay upon His Majesties Most 
Happy Recovery,' London, 1679. 8. ' The 
English Rechabite, or a defyance to Bacchus 
and all his works,' London, 1680 ? 

Whitehall contributed one Latin and one 
English poem to 'Musarum Oxoniensium 
(XaioQopia, sive, Ob Fcedera Auspiciis Se- 
renissimi Olivieri Reipub.' Oxford, 1654; one 
Latin poem under his own name in 'Britannia 
Rediviva,' Oxford, 1660 (with another Latin 
poem with the name of John Wilmot, earl of 
Rochester, attached, which is more probably 
the work of Whitehall) ; two Latin and one 
English to ' Epicedia Academiae Oxoniensis 
in Obitum SerenissimaB Marite Principis 
Arausionensis/ Oxford, 1661. Four of the 
pieces were reprinted in Rochester's ' Poems 
on several Occasions,' London, 1697. 

[Visitations of Staffordshire (William Salt, 
Archaeological Soc. vol. v. pt. ii.) ; Amersham 
Par. Reg. ; Burrows's Reg. of Visitors of Univ. 
Oxon. pp. 68, 144 ; Foster's Alumni ; Wood's 
Athenae (Bliss), i. col. Ixix, iii. cols. 1231-2, iv. 
cols. 176-7, 479 ; Brodrick's Memorials of Merton 
College (Oxford Hist. Soc.), pp. 106, 292; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), ii. cols. 104, 171, 209; Cal. State 
Papers, 1670, p. 487; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. 
(Gulch), n. ii. 583-4, 598, 646; Wood's Col- 
leges and Halls (Crutch), App. p. 213 ; Lips- 
comb's Buckinghamshire, ii. 509.] B. P. 

WHITEHEAD, CHARLES (1804- 
1862), poet, novelist, and dramatist, the son 
of a wine merchant, was born in London 



Whitehead 



9 6 



Whitehead 



in 1804. He began life as a clerk in a 
mercantile house, but soon adopted litera- 
ture as his profession. In 1831 he published 
'The Solitary/ a poem in the Spenserian 
stanza, showing genuine imagination. The 
poem won the approval of Professor Wilson 
in the ' Noctes Ambrosianae,' and of other 
critics of eminence. In 1834 appeared White- 
head's ' Lives and Exploits of English High- 
waymen ' (probably written some years 
earlier, the least worthy of his productions), 
and ' The Autobiography of Jack Ketch,' a 
burlesque biography of the hangman, which 
contained a remarkable episodical story of 
serious intent, 'The Confession of James 
Wilson.' Whitehead's vivid blank-verse 
drama, ' The Cavalier,' the plot of which is 
laid in Restoration times, was produced at 
the Haymarket Theatre on 15 Sept. 1836, 
with Ellen Tree and Vandenhoff in the 
principal parts, and has been revived more 
than once, notably at the Lyceum Theatre 
in 1856. 

Owing to the success of Whitehead's ' Jack 
Ketch,' Messrs. Chapman & Hall invited 
him to write the letterpress to a monthly 
issue of a humorous kind, to which Robert 
Seymour [q. v.] was to furnish the illustra- 
tions. Pleading inability to produce the 
copy with sufficient regularity, Whitehead 
recommended his friend Charles Dickens 
for the work. The publishers acted on the 
recommendation, and the result was the 
' Pickwick Papers.' A further point of 
contact between Whitehead and Dickens 
consisted in Whitehead's revising in 1846 
' The Memoirs of Grimaldi,' which had been 
edited by Dickens in 1838 under the pseu- 
donym of ' Boz.' Whitehead's masterpiece, 
'Richard Savage' (1842), illustrated by 
Leech, a romance, partly founded on Dr. 
Johnson's life of Savage, was much admired 
by Dickens. It was dramatised, and the play 
ran for nearly thirty nights at the Surrey 
Theatre. A new edition of the novel, with 
an introduction by Harvey Orrinsmith, was 
published in 1896. Included in ' The Solitary 
and other Poems' (1849), a collected edition 
of Whitehead's poetical work, is his most 
remarkable sonnet beginning 'As yonder 
lamp in my vacated room,' which Dante 
Rossetti described as ' very fine.' 

Whitehead belonged to the Mulberry Club, 
of which Douglas Jerrold and other wits were 
members, and was acquainted with all the 
famous men of letters of his day. When 
'Richard Savage' appeared he had every 
prospect of success in literature, but in- 
temperance wrecked his career. He went 
to Australia in 1857, with the hope of re- 
covering his position. He contributed to 



'Melbourne Punch,' and he printed in 
' Victorian Monthly Magazine ' the 



the 
the 

' Spanish Marriage,' a fragment of poetic 
j drama possessing considerable merit. White- 
head's personal qualities, despite his in- 
i firmities of disposition, endeared him to 
those who knew him well, and an admirer 
of his literary talent gave him an asylum at 
his house in Melbourne, but he furtively 
made his escape from the restrictions of re- 
spectability. He sank into abject want, and 
died miserably in a Melbourne hospital on 
5 July 1862. He was buried in a pauper's 
grave, and the authorities refused the request 
made by friends, when they heard for the first 
time of his sad end, to remove his remains 
to a fitting tomb. His publisher and warm 
well-wisher, George Bentley, described him 
as a 'refined scholarly man . . . with thought- 
ful, almost penetrating eyes.' 

Whitehead was a frequent contributor to 
magazines, particularly to 'Bentley's Mis- 
cellany,' He also published ' Victoria Vic- 
trix,' a poem (1838), 'The Earl of Essex' 
(1843), ' Smiles and Tears,' a series of col- 
lected stories (1847), and 'A Life of Sir 
Walter Ralegh ' (1854). 

[Mackenzie Bell's Charles Whitehead, a mono- 
graph, with extracts from his works.] 

M. B-L. 

WHITEHEAD, DAVID (1492 P-1571), 
divine, born about 1492, was a native of 
Hampshire (WOOD), where the Whiteheads 
had some landed property (Cal. Inq. post 
mortem, Henry VII, vol. i. No. 10). His 
contemporary, HUGH WHITEHEAD (d. 1551), 
with whom David has been confused, be- 
longed to a Durham branch of the family, 
was from 1519 to 1540 last prior, and from 
1541 first dean of Durham. He was im- 
plicated in the fictitious charges of treason 
brought against his bishop, Cuthbert Tunstall 
("q. v.], in 1550-1 , and was imprisoned in the 
Tower, where he died in November 1651 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, passim ; 
Acts P. C.j ed. Dasent, vol. iii. ; WOOD, 
Fasti, p. 38 ; Collectanea, Oxford Hist. Soc., 
iii. 25 ; Oxford Univ. Reg. i. 62 ; DIXON, 
Hist. Church of England, ii. 149, 223, iii. 
320,321). 

David Whitehead is said to have been 
educated at Brasenose or All Souls' College, 
Oxford, but his name does not appear in the 
defective registers of the period. The state- 
ment that he was chaplain to Anne Boleyn 
has also not been verified, but there is no 
doubt that he was tutor to Charles Brandon, 
the young duke of Suffolk, who died in 1551. 
During the winter of 1549-50 Whitehead, 
Lever, and Hutchinson endeavoured to con- 
vert Joan Bocher [q. v.] from her heresies 



Whitehead 



97 



Whitehead 



(HUTCHINSON, Works, p. 146). In 1552 
Cranmer described him as 'Mr. \\'hit.-liead 
of Iladley,' though with which Hadley he 
was connected is uncertain, and on 25 Aug. 
suggested him to Cecil as a candidate for 
the vacant archbishopric of Armagh, adding 
' I take Mr. Whitehead for his good know- 
ledge, special honesty, fervent zeal, and 
politic wisdom to be most meet' (CBANMER, 
Works, ii. 438). Whitehead, however, re- 
fused the appointment, and Hugh Goodacre 
fq. v.] became archbishop. On 25 Nov. fol- 
owing he took part in the discussion on the 
sacrament at Cecil's house. 

Soon after Mary's accession Whitehead 
fled to the continent ; he was one of the 
hundred and seventy-five who sailed with 
John u Lasco [q. v.l from Gravesend on 
17 Sept. 1553. Whitehead was in the 
smaller vessel which reached Copenhagen on 
3 Nov. ; the exiles were taken for anabaptists, 
and soon expelled by order of the king on 
refusing to subscribe to the Lutheran con- 
fession. They then made their way to Ros- 
tock, where Whitehead pleaded their cause 
before the magistrates, whose Lutheran re- 
quirements they failed to satisfy, and they 
were compelled to leave in January. A 
similar fate befell them at W T ismar, Lubeck, 
and Hamburg, but they found a refuge at 
Emden in March (UTENHOVE, Simplex Nar- 
ratio, Basle, 1560, pp. 119 sqq. ; English 
Hist. Rev. x. 434-40; DALTON, Lasciana, 
Berlin, 1898, pp. 335-6). Meanwhile an 
attempt was being made to found a church 
of English exiles at Frankfort, and on 2 Aug. 
1554 an invitation was sent to Whitehead 
and other exiles at Emden to join the church 
at Frankfort ; ' on 24 October came Maister 
Whitehead toFranckford,and at therequeste 
of the congregation he took the charge for a 
time and preached uppon the epistle to the 
Romans' (Km>x, Works, Bannatyne Club, 
iv. 12). 

Whitehead was one of those who wished 
to retain the use of the English prayer 
book of 1552, and in the famous 'troubles' at 
Frankfort took the side of Richard Cox 
[a. v.] against Knox. After the expulsion of 
Knox (26 March 1555) Whitehead was 
chosen pastor of the congregation. On 
20 Sept. he and his colleagues wrote a letter 
to Calvin to justify their proceedings against 
Knox, and repudiating the charge of too rigo- 
rous adherence to the prayer-book and using 
' lights and crosses ; ' their ceremonies, they 
pleaded, were really very few, and they went 
on to attack Knox's 'Admonition' as an 
'outrageous pamphlet' which had added 
' much oil to the flame of persecution in 
England' (Original Letters, Parker Soc., 

VOL. LXI. 



pp. 755 sqq.) In February 1555-6 White- 
head resigned his pastorate, being succeeded 
on 1 March by Robert Home (1519P-1680) 
[q. v.] ; the cause is said to have been his- 
disappointment at not being made lecturer 
in divinity in succession to Bartholomew 
Traheron [q. v.] He remained, however, 
at Frankfurt, signing a letter to Bullinger on 
27 Sept. 1557. 

On Elizabeth's accession Whitehead re- 
turned to England, preaching before the 
queen on 15 Feb. 1558-9, taking part in the 
disputation with the Roman catholic bishops 
on 3 April, and serving as a visitor of Oxford 
University, and on the commission for re- 
vising the liturgy (MACHYN, Diary, p. 189 ; 
HAY WARD, Annals, p. 19 ; GEE, Elizabethan 
Clergy, p. 130). He is said by all his bio- 
graphers to have had the first refusal of the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, and he also 
declined the mastership of the Savoy. On 
17 Sept. 1561 he wrote to Cecil acknow- 
ledging his obligations to him, but lamenting 
the necessity he was under of refusing the- 
living he offered (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 185). ' So that whether he had 
any spiritualities of note conferr'd on him 
is yet doubtful, he being much delighted in 
travelling to and fro to preach the word of 
God in those parts where he thought it was 
wanting ' (WOOD). He is reported by 
W T hitgift to have frequently deplored the- 
excesses of some ministers, but his own 
leanings were puritan, and on 24 March 
1563-4 he was sequestered for refusing to 
subscribe. Francis Bacon, who calls White- 
head a ' grave divine ... of a blunt stoical 
nature,' and says he was ' much esteemed by 
Queen Elizabeth, but not preferred because 
he was against the government of bishops, 
also relates that the queen once said to him 
' I like thee better because thou livest un- 
married,' to which Whitehead replied ' In 
troth, madame, I like you the worse for the 
same cause ' ( Works, ed. Spedding, vii. 163). 
Richard Hilles, however, in announcing 
Whitehead's death in June 1571, stated that 
' he lived about seven years a widower . . . 
but very lately, before the middle of this 
year, he married a young widow when he- 
was himself about eighty ' (Zurich Letters r 
i. 242). An engraved portrait is given in 
Fuller's 'Holy State' and in Holland's 
' Herwologia ' (p. 173). 

Fuller mentions Whitehead's ' many books 
still extant,' but with the exception of some- 
discourses printed in Whittingham's ' Brieff 
Discours of Troubles at Frankfort' (1575), 
they have not been traced either in print or 
manuscript. A translation of Ripley's ' Me- 
dulla Alchymiae ' is ascribed in Bernard's 

H 



Whitehead 



9 8 



Whitehead 



* Catalogue of Ashmolean Manuscripts ' to 
David Whitehead, ' doctor of Phy sick ' (Cat. 
MSS. Anglia, i. 332 ; in BLA.CK,GW. Ashmole 
MSS. col. 1319, the ascription is merely to 
1 D. W. 1 ) 

[Authorities cited ; Lansd. MS. 981 f. 113; 
Strype's Works (general index) ; Gough's Index 
to Parker Soc. Publ. passim ; Whittingham's 
Brieff Discours, 1575; Wood's Athense, i. 396; 
Knox's Works (Bannatyne Club) ; Foxe's Actes 
and MOD.; Kale, ix. 91; Fuller's Worthies, ii. 
12; Peter Martyr's CommenUirius, 1568; Tan* 
tier's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 762 ; Brook's Puritans, 
i. 170-4; Parkhurst's Ludicra, p. 114; Chur- 
ton's Life of Noweil ; Burnet's Hist, of the Re- 
formation, ed. Pocock ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Dixon's Hist. Church of England, 
iii. 238, 386, iv. 696.] A. F. P. 

WHITEHEAD, GEORGE (1636?- 
1723), quaker, was born at Sun Bigs, parish 
of Orton, Westmorland, in 1636 or 1637, 
and educated at Blencoe free school, Cum- 
berland, after which he taught as usher in 
two schools. When about fourteen he heard 
of the quakers, to whom he was chiefly at- 
tracted by observing how they were reviled 
by unprincipled people. The first meeting he 
attended was at Captain Ward's at Sunny 
Bank, near Grayrigg chapel, where he first 
heard George Fox [q. v.] His presbyterian 
parents, at first much grieved at his turning 
quaker, grew afterwards to love the society, 
of which his mother and sister Ann died 
members. 

After ' bearing his testimony ' against pro- 
fessional ministers in Westmoreland from 
1652 to 1654, Whitehead started about Au- 
gust 1654 as an itinerant preacher through 
Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Cambridgeshire 
to Norwich. At Cambridge he met James 
Parnell [q. v.] At Norwich he visited Ri- 
chard Hubberthorn [q. v.], a prisoner in the 
castle, and held meetings and public dispu- 
tations; in spite of violent opposition and 
much contempt of his youth, many were 
converted to quakerism. In December 1654 
he was haled out of St. Peter's Church for 
speaking after the sermon, and, being exa- 
mined about water baptism, was imprisoned 
for more than eight weeks ; soon after his 
discharge, in March 1655, he was again 
committed for visiting prisoners in Norwich 
Castle. In May he went to Colchester to see 
young Parnell in prison ; in July, for defend- 
ing a paper affixed to the church door of 
Bures, Suffolk, by his companion, he was com- 
mitted for trial at Bury St. Edmunds. There 
he lay for three months ; at the October ses- 
sions he was accused of being an idle wan- 
dering fellow, and fined 20/. On his refusal 
to pay he was remanded, and suffered much 



hardship in prison for fifteen months until 
his friends in London, especially one Mary 
Saunders, a waiting woman to Oliver Crom- 
well's wife, appealed to the Protector for an 
inquiry. Whitehead was examined on 22 May 
1656, and again in June, but was not re- 
leased until 16 Oct. 

Worse treatment now befell him. At 
Saffron Waiden he was set in the stocks, and 
at Nayland was condemned ' to be openly 
whipped until his body be bloody.' About 
May 1 657 he went to the west of England, 
meeting Fox at Gloucester. 

He now (1657), after three years' absence, 
returned to Sun Bigs, where many quakers 
had gathered, and large meetings were held 
winter and summer on crag sides or on the 
moors, until funds for building meeting- 
houses were forthcoming. He visited S warth- 
more, Newcastle, Berwick, Alnwick, and 
Holy Island, the governor of which place 
Captain Phillipps and his wife both became 
quakers. Returning south, Whitehead was 
thrown into prison at Ipswich on the suit 
of a clergyman whom he had overtaken and 
discoursed with on the road. When sessions 
came he incensed the magistrates by point- 
ing out the illegality of his accusation, and 
was sent back to gaol, whence he was only 
released, after four months, on the death of 
the Protector. 

On 29 Aug. 1659 Whitehead held at Cam- 
bridge a public dispute with Thomas Smith, 
vicar of Caldecot and university librarian, 
who had already appeared as his opponent 
at a meeting in Westminster. Smith under- 
took to prove that Whitehead was a heretic. 
Whitehead displayed much skill in his reply, 
and in answer to Smith's two books, ' The 
Quaker Disarm 'd, or a True Relation of a 
late Public Dispute held at Cambridge' (Lon- 
don, 1659, 4to), and * A Gagg for the Quakers,' 
same place and date (replying to Henry 
Denne's 'The Quaker no Papist,' London, 

1659, 4to), issued ' The Key of Knowledge 
not found in the University Library of Cam- 
bridge, or a short Answer to a Foolish, Slan- 
derous Pamphlet entituled " A Gagg for the 
Quakers," ' London, 1060, 4to. This was only 
one of a long series of public disputes, usually 
culminating in literary effort, to which White- 
head was challenged at this time. Frequently 
they took place in the parish churches, some- 
times in private houses. Thus, he was at 
Lynn on 15 Sept. 1659, and again on 13 Jan. 

1660, appearing against Thomas Moor and 
John Horn, leaders of a small sect of Uni- 
versalists or ' Free willers,' as Whitehead 
calls them. In reply to Horn he wrote ' A 
briefe discovery of the dangerous Principles 
of John Home and Thomas Moor, both 



Whitehead 



99 



Whitehead 



teachers of the people called Mooreians or 
Manifestarians,' London, 1659, 4to; 'The 
Quakers no Deceivers, or the Management of 
an unjust charge against them confuted,' 1600, 
4to; and 'The He-Goats Horn broken, or 
Innocency elevated against Insolency and 
Impudent False-hood,' 1660, 4to. Other dis- 
putations took place at. Fulham and Bluntis- 
ham. At Peterborough in April 1660 he 
had to be rescued from the mob by Lambert's 
old soldiers quartered in the town. Under 
the proclamation against conventicles he 
was soon in prison again, and in March 1661, 
while in Norwich Castle, he almost died of 
ague and gaol fever. A royal proclamation 
released him after sixteen weeks. 

The first parliament after the Restoration 
brought in a bill (13 & 14 Car. II, cap. 1) for 
the suppression of quakers as ' dangerous to 
the public peace and safety.' Whitehead, Ed- 
ward Burrough [q. v.], and Hubberthorn ap- 
peared before the committee several times in 
May 1661 to protest against its conditions. 
They were also heard at the bar of the house, 
19 July, on the third reading. The bill, 
which forbade five quakers to meet for wor- 
ship, passed; but although their meeting- 
houses were locked up, were turned into sol- 
diers' quarters, or pulled down, the quakers 
continued to meet m the streets or in private 
houses. 

From this time to 1672 Whitehead spent 
most of his time in prison. Once, while in 
White Lion prison, he was charged with 
being concerned in the Westmorland ' Kipper 
Rigg Plot' (cf. FERGUSON, Early Cumber- 
land and Westmorland Friends, pp. 4 seq. ; 
CaL State Papers, Dom. 1663-4, pp. 632, 640). 
He lodged at this time, when at liberty, at 
the house of Rebecca Travers [q .v.] in Wat- 
ling Street, and laboured in and about Lon- 
don. When, under a new act (16 Car. II), 
imprisoned quakers were sent to the colonies, 
he held meetings on board the transport ships 
at Gravesend. All through the plague he 
visited those in prison. In 1670 he married 
a pious widow ' divers years ' older than him- 
self, who was ' like a mother to him.' 

In the spring of 1672 Whitehead and his 
friend Thomas Moor had an audience with 
Charles II at Whitehall. Whitehead ex- 
plained their conscientious objection to 
swearing, and consequent inability to take 
the oath of allegiance. In the end an order 
was given on 8 May to prepare a bill for the 
royal signature which should contain the 
names of all prisoners committed before 
21 July. The instrument, upon eleven skins 
of parchment, and with the names of 480 
prisoners eleven times repeated, is now the 
property of the Meeting for Sufferings (cf. 



, 



\\ HITEHEAD, Christian Progress}. By this 
patent John Bunyan was released from 
Bedford gaol. Delays occurring in obtaining 
lists of the prisoners, it was not until 13 Sept. 
that the document was sealed (cf. BAR- 
CLAY'S Letters, p. 184). Whitehead made 
great exertions to obtain the release of quakers 
under this patent, visiting himself Chelms- 
ford, Bury St. Edmunds, Norwich, and Hert- 
ford. 

In little over a year, however, this indul- 
gence was withdrawn. On 21 March 1679-80 
\Vhitehead and Thomas Burr were taken 
from a meeting at Norwich and sent to gaol. 
When brought before the magistrates five 
weeks later, Francis Bacon, the recorder, re- 
fused to allow the mittimus to be read, and 
offered them the oath of allegiance. White- 
head's able and dignified defence is in his 
'Due Order of Law and Justice pleaded 
against Irregular and Arbitrary Proceedings 
. . . .' London, 1680, 4to. 

Whitehead had many interviews with 
Charles II. In 1673 he pleaded for Fox's 
liberation from Worcester gaol. On 16 Jan. 
1679-80, with William Mead [q.v.], he pre- 
sented details of the persecution Friends 
suffered by being confounded with papists, 
and showed how parliament had prepared 
a special clause for their relief in the bill 
of ease, but had been prorogued before the 
bill reached the upper house ; on 17 Feb. 
1681-2 he introduced some Bristol quakers 
to report the state of things there ; in Fe- 
bruary 1682-3, with Gilbert Latey [q. v.], 
he described the sufferings of numbers in 
an underground dungeon at Norwich; on 
25 April 1683 they saw Charles at Hampton 
Court, when he asked for an explanation of 
their peculiar language and wearing of hats, 
their own meanwhile having been gently 
removed by a court official and hung upon the 
park palings; on 8 Aug. Whitehead pre- 
sentea an address from the society clearing 
themselves from participation in the ' Rye 
House plot.' The last interview occurred 
only a few weeks before Charles's death, 
when, as Whitehead owns, he left fifteen 
hundred quaker men and women in prison, 
with hundreds more despoiled of their estates. 

Shortly after James II's accession White- 
head represented this to him ; three or four 
months later, accompanied by Robert Bar- 
clay, he had a second interview. James issued 
(15 March 1685-6) a warrant for their re- 
lease. Whitehead next procured from 
James II the appointment of two commis- 
sioners, who sat at Clifford's Inn in June 1686 
and effectually crushed the iniquitous trade 
of the ' informers.' The king also granted 
him a royal mandate for the stay of pro- 

H 2 



Whitehead 



100 



Whitehead 



cesses in the exchequer by which Quakers 
were fined 20/. a month and two-thirds of 
their estate for absence from their parish 
church. Assisted by Latey and William 
Mead and by the lord treasurer (Hyde, earl 
of Rochester), he succeeded in getting the 
fees of the pipe office reduced from the 
* many hundreds demanded ' to 60/. The 
result of several interviews with James II 
was a declaration for liberty of conscience 
on 4 April 1687. 

Whitehead's continued efforts were crowned 
by the act of toleration passed in the first 
year of William and Mary. This he keenly 
scrutinised in draft, and, because the precise 
standing of the quakers was obscure, drew 
up a short creed and expounded it to the 
committee of the house. Many quakers still 
remaining prisoners, Whitehead, introduced 
by Daniel Quare [q.v.] the clockmaker, made 
a personal appeal to William III. The king 
was duly impressed by Whitehead's refe- 
rence to the toleration of Mennonites in 
Holland, and a few weeks later released the 
quakers by act of grace. Whitehead then 
set about obtaining an alteration of the law 
which precluded quakers from taking any 
legal action, from proving or administering 
wills, from taking up their freedom in cities 
or corporations, and in some places from 
exercising any electoral rights. He had now, 
besides Edmund Waller (son of the poet), 
many influential friends in both houses, and 
was warmly congratulated outside when 
leave to bring in a motion passed by a large 
majority. The affirmation bill, drawn up 
by Sir Francis Winnington [q. v.], became 
law on 20 April 1696. This act, passed 
for seven years, was made perpetual in 1727. 
When the poll act obliging every dissenting 
preacher to pay 20s. quarterly was about to 
be renewed in 1695, Whitehead's influence 
prevailed for the introduction of a new 
clause exempting Friends, who have no paid 
preachers. 

Although the status of the Friends was 
now legally much improved, a complete mis- 
understanding of their tenets still prevailed. 
In reply to a series of pamphlets by Ed- 
ward Beckham, D.D., rector of Gayton 
Thorpe, and two other Norfolk rectors, 
Whitehead wrote his ' Truth and Innocency 
Vindicated,' 1699, 4to, and ' Truth Preva- 
lent,' 1701, 4to, containing a well-reasoned 
and able defence of their civil and religious 
principles. A little later he issued, with 
Mead, 'The People called Quakers truly 
represented . . . with a Brief Enquiry into 
a Persecuting Pamphlet lately delivered to 
the Members of Parliament stiied " A Wind- 
ing Sheet for Quakerism " ' (by Edward Cock- 



son, rector of Westcot Barton), London, 
1712, 4to. 

Whitehead's autobiography ceases on 
18 Aug. 1711. His health was failing, but 
| he was able to present the society's address 
to William III on his return from Holland 
in 1701 ; to Queen Anne on her accession ; 
to George I on a like occasion, and also in 
1716 on the suppression of the Scots re- 
bellion. In an interview with the Prince of 
Wales (George II), he urged toleration and 
liberty of conscience, for which he had 
pleaded in person with seven English 
sovereigns. He died on 8 March 1723, in 
his eighty-seventh year, and was buried in 
the quakers' burial-ground at Bunhill Fields 
on 13 March. 

Whitehead's first wife, Anne Downer 
(widow of Benjamin Greenwell), whom he 
married at Peel Meeting in Clerkenwell on 
13 May 1670, was a minister as early as 
1660. She travelled two hundred miles on 
foot preaching, and was prominent in settling 
the order of the separate women's meetings. 
She died at Bridget Austell's, South Street, 
27 July 1686. Whitehead published a little 
memoir of her, ' Piety promoted by Faithful- 
ness,' 1686, 12mo. His second wife, Ann, 
daughter of Captain Richard and Ann God- 
dard of Reading, was, when she married him 
at Devonshire House on 19 July 1688, an 
orphan keeping a shop in Whitechapel, ' an 
honest and virtuously inclined maid.' By 
neither had he any surviving issue. 

It is almost impossible to overestimate 
Whitehead's share in the foundation of the 
Society of Friends, or his influence on the 
development of national religious liberty. 
Without the mysticism of Fox, Barclay, or 
Pennington, he addressed his acute legal 
knowledge and literary gifts to establishing 
the sect on a sound civil and political basis. 
His works were almost entirely controversial 
and written to confute existing attacks upon 
quakers. In the titles of his chief writings 
j given below may be traced all the principal 
j features of their creed. 1. 'David's Enemies 
I Discovered,' and 2. 'Cain's Generation Dis- 
! covered,' both London, 1655, 4to, against 
i Jonathan Clapham's books in defence of sing- 
ing Psalms. 3. 'The Path of the Just- 
cleared, and Cruelty and Tyranny laid open,' 
1655, 4to. 4. 'Jacob found in a Desert 
Land,' 1656, 4to. 5. 'A Brief Treatise,' 
1658, 4to, in answer to Richard Baxter's 
'Sheet for the Ministry.' 6. 'An Unjust 
Plea Confuted. ... In answer to a book 
called Moses and Aaron, or the Ministers 
Right and the Magistrates Duty, by Daniel 
Pomtell [rector of Staplehurst, Kent],' 1659, 
4to. 6. (With James Nayler) 'The True 



Whitehead 



ior 



Whitehead 



Ministers living of the Gospel, distinguished 
from the False Ministers living upon Tithes 
and forced Maintenance,' 1660, 4to, in an- 
swer to John Bewick, rector of Staindrop. 
7. ' The Authority of the True Ministry in 
Baptizing with the Spirit,' 1660, in answer 
to Samuel Bradley, a baptist. 8. ' The True 
Light expelling the Foggy Mist of the Pit,' 
1660, in answer to Francis Duke. 9. 'A 
Serious Account in XXXV Evident Reasons 
.... why the .... Quakers cannot go to 
worship at .... churches and chappels 
. . . .' 1661, 4to. 10. ' The Pernicious Way 
of the Rigid Presbyter and Anti-Christian 
Ministers Detected,' 1662, 4to, in answer to 
Cresswell, Whatelv, and Matthew Caffin. 
11. 'The Law and Light within are the 
most sure Rule or Light, which sheweth the 
right use and end of the Scripture,' n.d., in 
answer to William Bridge. 12. 'The Con- 
scientious Cause of the Sufferers called 




Christ within, and the Extent and Efficacy 
thereof Demonstrated,' 1668, 4to, in answer 
to William Burnet. 15. 'The Divinity of 
Christ and Unity of the Three that bear 
Record in Heaven,' 1669, 4to. With a Pre- 
face by George Fox, in answer to books by 
Thomas Vincent, William Madox, Thomas 
Danson,Ed ward Stillingfleet, and John Owen. 
16. ' Christ ascended above the Clouds, His 
Divinity, Light in Man,' 1669, 4to, replying 
to John Newman's 'Light within.' 17. 'A 
Serious Apology for the Principles and 
Practices of the People called Quakers,' 1671, 
4to, against Thomas Jenner and Timothy 
Taylor ; pt. ii. by William Penn. 18. ' The 
Nature of Christianity in the True Light 
asserted,' 1671, 4to. 19. ' The Dipper Plung'd, 
or Thomas Hicks his Feigned Dialogue 
between a Christian and a Quaker proved 
an Unchristian Forgery consisting of Self- 
contradictions and Abuses against the . . . 
People called Quakers,' 1672, 4to. 20. ' The 
Christian Quaker,' 1673-4, fol. pt. ii. (pt. i. 
is by Penn) ; 2nd ed. 1099, 8vo, reprinted 
Philadelphia, 1824, 8vo. 21. ' Enthusiasm 
above Atheism, or Divine Inspiration and 
Immediate Illumination asserted,' 1674, sm. 
8vo. 22. 'A Serious Search into Jeremy 
Ives Questions to the Quakers,' 1674, 8vo. 
23. 'The Quaker's Plainness detecting 
Fallacy,' and 24. ' The Timorous Re viler 
Slighted,' 1674, 8vo, in answer to 'The 
Quaker's Quibbles,' by Thomas Thompson. 

25. 'The Case of the Quakers concerning 
Oaths defended as Evangelical,' 1675, 4to. 

26. 'The Way of Life and Perfection 
livingly demonstrated,' 1676, 4to. 27. ' The 



Real Quaker a Real Protestant,' 1679, 4to. 
28. ' Judgment fired upon the Accuser of 
our Brethren,' 1682, sm. 8vo. 29. ' Christ's 
Lambs defended from Satan's Rage, in a 
Just Vindication of the People called 
Quakers,' 1691, 4to, in answer to John 
Pennyman fa. v.] 30. ' The Contemn'd 
Quaker and his Christian Religion defended,' 
1692, sm. 8vo. 31. 'The Divine Light of 
Christ in Man,' 1692, sm. 8vo. 32. 'The 
Christian Doctrine and Society of the People 
called Quakers, cleared from the Reproach of 
the late division of a few ... in America 
(signed by seven others),' 1693, sm. 8vo, re- 
printed in Sewel's ' History,' translated into 
Dutch by him, 1755, 12mo, and into German, 
Amsterdam, 1701, 12mo. 33. 'An Antidote 
against the Venome of the Snake in the 
Grass,' 1697, sm. 8vo, and 34. ' A Supple- 
ment upon Occasion of what the Snake 
calls,' 1699, 8vo; these two in answer to 
Charles Leslie [q. v.] He also wrote five 
books in reply to Francis Bugg [q. v.], and 
three answering George Keith [q. v.], both 
apostate quakers ; as well as innumerable 
epistles and testimonies, or biographical 
accounts. Several of his sermons were taken 
down and printed. 

[The Christian Progress of that ancient ser- 
vant George Whitehead, historically relating 
his Experience, Ministry, &c., edited by Joseph 
Besse, London, 1725, 8vo, is invalualle for the 
quaker historian. Much of it is reprinted in 
Tuke's Memoirs of Whitehead, 2 vols. York, 
1830 ; Sewel's History of the Rise, &c., i. 102, 
104,115, 116, 152, ii. 171,287,402,410,416, 
434, 453, 467, 471 ; Fox's Journal, pp. 124, 204, 
342, 458, 469; Ferguson's Early Cumberland 
and Westm. Friends; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1 6o8-9 p. 1 59, 1 663-4 pp. 632, 640, 1 664-5 p. 35, 
1672 pp. 489,490; Smith's Catalogue; Barclay's 
Letters of Early Friends ; Besse's Sufferings, 
passim ; Gough's Hist, of the Quakers ; Whiting's 
Persecution exposed; Beck and Ball's London 
Friends' Meet ings, pp. 174seq.; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit] C. F. S. 

WHITEHEAD, JAMES (1812-1885), 
physician, born at Oldham in 1812, was the 
son of John Whitehead, who had a wide 
reputation in the district as a herbalist and 
dealer in simples. James, after working as 
a boy in a cotton-mill, attended the Marsden 
Street school of medicine in Manchester, and 
was a pupil first of Mr. Clough of Lever 
Street, and afterwards of Mr. Lambert of 
Thirsk. He was admitted a licentiate of 
the Society of Apothecaries of London on 
11 Sept. 1834, and on 15 Dec. 1835 he be- 
came a member of the College of Surgeons. 
He was admitted a fellow of the College of 
Surgeons after examination on 14 Aug. 1845. 



Whitehead 



102 



Whitehead 



lie graduated M.D. at the university of St. 
Andrews in 1850, and he became a member 
of the Royal College of Physicians of London 
in 1859. 

Whitehead visited France and Germany in 
1836, and on his return to England in 1838 j 
he began to practise his profession in Oxford 
Street, Manchester. In 1842 he was ap- 
pointed demonstrator of anatomy at the 
Marsden Street school of medicine, and in 
the same year he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Hayward Radcliffe, who died on 
20 Sept. 1844. In 1856 he founded, jointly 
with Dr. Schoepf Merei, the Clinical Hos- 
pital and Dispensary for Children, which be- 
came subsequently the Manchester Clinical 
Hospital for Women and Children. He was 
lecturer on obstetrics at the Royal School of 
Medicine, and for fifteen years he acted as 
surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital for Women 
and Children. In 1851 he moved into 
Mosley Street, where he conducted a large 
practice until 1881, when he retired to live 
on an estate he had purchased at Sutton in 
Surrey. He died, after a long illness, on 
9 April 1885, and is buried in the Ardwick 
cemetery, Manchester. 

W T hitehead's works were: 1. 'On the 
Causes and Treatment of Abortion and 
Sterility,' London, 1847, 8vo; republished 
in America, 1848. 2. 'On the Transmission 
from Parent to Offspring of some Forms of 
Disease,' London, 1851 , 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1857. 
3. 'The W T ife's Domain, by Philothalos,' 
I860, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1874. 4. 'Notes on 
the Rate of Mortality in Manchester,' 1863, 
8vo. 5. Jointly with Dr. Merei, a report 
on children's diseases, being the first ' Report 
of the Clinical Hospital,' Manchester, 1856, 
8vo. 

[Obituary notice in the British Medical Journal, 
1885, i. 870; additional information kindly 
given by Dr. David Lloyd Roberts, Dr. J. E. 
Platt, and the late Mr. Edward Lund of Man- 
chester.] D'A. P. 

WHITEHEAD, JOHN (1630-1696), 
quaker, was born of puritan parents at 
Owstwick in Holderness, Yorkshire, in 1630. 
He entered the army when eighteen, having 
three years before experienced ' conversion.' 
He first preached as a quaker at Malton in 
December 1652. In March or April 1653 
he held a meet ing at Butterwick, and in the 
summer he left the army and started preach- 
ing on the moors of Yorkshire. In November 
1654 he attempted to preach in Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, but had to be rescued by soldiers 
from an angry crowd. At Christmas he was 
in prison at Leicester. Thence he went to 
Wellingborough, where, after the vicar, 
Thomas Andrews, had contemptuously de- 



parted, he held forth to an attentive audience 
in the church. A public dispute between 
the two followed, and on 14 March 1655-6 
Whitehead was arrested as a vagrant. He 
called in a Yorkshire neighbour, Marmaduke 
Storr, who was then visiting his brother in 
prison at Northampton, to prove that he 
reputably maintained his wife and family; 
but on the witness refusing to swear, both 
Whitehead and Storr were committed to- 
Northampton gaol. They were liberated by 
an order from Cromwell in January 1657. 

After preaching in Berkshire and London 
Whitehead was in 1658 in prison at Boston. 
He was again in prison at Aylesbury in 
January 1660-1 for refusing the oath. There 
he wrote ' A Small Treatise ' (1661, 4to ; 2nd 
ed. 1665, 4to). On 13 Nov. 1661 he was 
arrested while on a visit to a friend at Bin- 
brook, Lincolnshire, and spent three months 
in Lincoln Castle. On 9 July 1662 he was 
again sent to the castle, and kept until May 
1663. While there he wrote 'For the 
Vineyard ' (1662, 4to). After three months' 
liberty he was again in gaol at Hull, and 
later in the year at Spalding. 

Whitehead travelled with George Fox 
[q. v.] in Derbyshire in 1663, and next year 
he succeeded in obtaining an order for Fox's 
release from Scarborough Castle. Soon after 
1668 he removed from Owstwick to Swine 
Grange. In 1675 he drew up an address to- 
king and parliament asking relief for the 
Yorkshire quakers who had been fined and 
distrained to the amount of 2,381 /. 10s. under 
the Conventicle Act. 

On 22 May 1682 Whitehead was again 
committed to Lincoln Castle charged with 
being a Jesuit. He was then on his way to 
London to see about a legacy of 200/. in a 
chancery suit. In spite of certificates from 
the vicar and churchwardens of Swine, the 
constable and inhabitants of Owstwick, and 
his written declaration of allegiance, he was 
sent to gaol, and when brought up in March 
1683 was asked if he could deny that he was 
a Romish priest in orders. He was unable 
to procure counsel, and was remanded. 
Some time before July 1684 he was released. 
At that date he was presiding over a meet- 
ing for discipline at Fulbeck, when two 
justices entered. Fines were subsequently 
levied to the amount of 72/. 13s. 2d. 

AYhitehead's last imprisonment was at 
the Poultry Compter, London, whither the 
lord mayor, Sir Robert Jefferies, sent him 
on 11 Feb. 1685, for preaching at Devon- 
shire House. lie died on 29 Sept, 1696 at 
his house at Fiskerton, Lincolnshire, and 
was buried at Lincoln on 1 Oct. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 



Whitehead 



103 



Whitehead 



Whitehead wrote : 1. * The Enmity between 
the Two Seeds,' London, 1055, 4tb. 2. 'A 
Reproof from the Lord,' London, 1656, 4to. 
:*. 'A Manifestation of Truth/ 1662, 4to; 
this was in answer to ' Folly and Madness 
made Manifest' (A-shmolean Library), by 
William Fieimes, lord Save and Sri.-, which 
Whitehead had received in manuscript. 
3. ' Ministers among the People of God 
(called Quakers) no Jesuits,' 1683, 4to. Other 
fugitive pieces are in ' The Written Gospel 
Labours of that Ancient and Faithful . . . 
John Whitehead,' London, 1764, 8vo ; pre- 
face by William Penn. 

[Fox's Journal, pp. 267, 304,305,428; Chalk's 
Life and Writings of Whitehead, 1852 ; Smith's 
Cat. ii. 909-15 ; Besse's Sufferings, i. 75, 76, 
331, 347, 348, 349, 355-7, 360, 479, 482, 523, 
525,528, ii. 98, 107, 139, 143; Poulson's Hist, 
of Holderness, ii. 103, for an engraving of Owst- 
wiok Meeting House ; Whiting's Memoirs ; 
Whitehead's Christian Progress, p. 23. Two 
original letters to George Fox are in the Swarth- 
more MSS.] C. F. S. 

WHITEHEAJ), JOHN (1740?-! 804), 
physician and biographer, was born about 
1740, apparently at Dukinfield, Cheshire, of 
humble parents who had left the old dis- 
senting congregation to join the Moravians 
(1738). lie had a classical education. Early 
in life he became connected with the move- 
ment of the Wesleys, having been converted 
by a methodist preacher, Matthew Mayer of 
Stockport (TYERMAN, John Wesley, 1870, ii. 
474). He acted as a lay preacher at Bristol. 
Leaving this vocation, he married and set up 
in Bristol as a linendraper. Being successful 
he removed to London, where he joined the 
Society of Friends, became a speaker in that 
body, and conducted a large boarding-school 
at AVandsworth. Barclay the brewer offered 
him a life annuity of 100/. to travel with his 
son on the continent ; he accepted. At 
Leyden he entered as a medical student on 
16 Sept. 1779 (when his age is given as 
thirty-nine), and graduated M.D. on 4 Feb. 
1780. On the death (19 Jan. 1781) of John 
Kooystra, M.D., he became physician to the 
London dispensary, through the influence 
of John Coakley Lettsom [q. v.] He was 
admitted a licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians on 25 March 1782. In 1784 the 
Friends pushed his candidature as physician 
to the London Hospital ; he was returned 
as elected on 28 July, but the election was 
declared not valid, one vote being bad 
through a slight informality. He attended 
the Wesleys as their medical adviser. John 
Wesley thought him second to no physician 
in England, and was anxious for his return 
to methodism. He left the Society of 



Friends in 1784 and again became a metho- 
dist; he would have quitted his medical 
practice, and devoted himself entirely to the 
ministry, if Wesley would have given him 
ordination. He preached the funeral ser- 
mon for Wesley, which went through four 
editions in 1791, 12mo, and realised 200/., 
which he handed over to the society. 

Wesley left his papers to Thomas Coke 
[q. v.], Whitehead, and Henry Moore (1761- 
1844) fa. v.], giving them full discretion, 



as his literary executors, to deal with them 
as they thought fit. The three agreed to 
bring out a life of Wesley, but to await 
the appearance of a promised life by John 
Hampson [q. v.] This life, mainly written 
and in great part printed before Wesley's 
death, was really the work of Hampson's 
father (also John Hampson), who had left 
methodism from disappointment at not being 
included in the ' legal hundred,' constituting 
the conference under Wesley's ' deed of 
declaration' of 1784. At a meeting of 
preachers James Rogers proposed, and the 
executors agreed, that Whitehead, being the 
man of most leisure, should write the life, 
and receive a hundred guineas for it ; for 
this purpose he was entrusted with all Wes- 
ley's papers. Hampson's ' Life ' was pub- 
lished at Sunderland in June 1791. On 
6 July Whitehead issued ' Proposals ' for 
printing by subscription * a full, accurate, 
and impartial' life of Wesley, remarking 
that ' nothing has yet been published which 
answers to any one of these characters/ 
With the proposals was printed a document 

Zed (21 June) by Wolff, Horton, and 
riott, Wesley's general executors, solicit- 
ing Whitehead to write the life. At the 
conference (opened at Manchester on 26 July) 
the arrangement was confirmed and White- 
head placed on the book committee. Moved 
by his friends, who represented that the 
work would realise a large sum, Whitehead 
now claimed the copyright and half the 
profits. Then began a wrangle about his 
custody and use of Wesley's papers. On 
9 Dec. 1791 the quarterly circuit meeting 
removed him from the list of preachers ; 
subsequently the authorities at City Road 
chapel withheld his ticket of membership. 
COOKC and Moore at once undertook a life 
of Wesley, without access to his papers, 
which Whitehead denied them. The work, 
mainly by Moore, was begun in January and 
completed in February 1792; published on 
2 April, it had the authority of conference ; 
two editions of ten thousand copies each 
were disposed of within the year. At the 
conference of July and August 1792, Whitf- 
head was called upon to submit the papers 



Whitehead 



104 



Whitehead 



for examination and sifting. His offered 
compromise was accepted by a committee, 
but the dispute went on ; both parties began 
civil actions. Proceedings were stayed ; the 
London society paying all costs, amounting 
to over 2,000/. 

The first volume of Whitehead's ' Life ' of 
Wesley was published in 1793, 8vo, the 
included 'Life' of Charles Wesley being 
issued separately in the same year ; the 
second volume appeared in 1796, 8vo. It 
fell undeservedly flat, being in every respect 
superior to the ' Life ' by Coke and Moore. 
In 1796 Whitehead returned Wesley's 
papers to the methodist book-room. Before 
they reached Moore's hands (1797) some had 
been destroyed by John Pawsori as ' useless 
lumber.' Aided by these manuscripts, Moore 
brought out his new life of Wesley in 1824-5. 
No higher tribute can be paid to the excel- 
lence of Whitehead's work than the constant 
use which Moore makes of it, frequently, 
and without acknowledgment, adopting its 
language, though criticisms of Whitehead 
are not spared. Whitehead's 'Life' was 
reprinted at Dublin in 1806, with some 
additions. 

In 1797 Whitehead was restored to mem- 
bership in the methodist body. He died at 
his residence, Fountain Court, Old Bethlem, 
in 1804 ; the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' gives 
7 March as the date of his death, and 
14 March as that of his interment in Wes- 
ley's vault at City Road chapel ; these dates 
are probably correct, but the inscription 
added in 1840 gives 18 March as the date 
of death, while Stevenson says he died ' at 
the end of February,' and was buried on 
4 March. His will, dated 24 Feb., codicil 
26 Feb., was proved 15 March 1804. He left 
a widow (Mary), children, and grandchildren. 
His funeral sermon was preached by Joseph 
Benson [q. v.l There is no portrait of him ; 
1 a full-length figure in the picture of Mr. 
Wesley's deathbed is said to be that of Dr. 
Whitehead ' (STEVENSON, p. 378). 

Besides the life of Wesley, he published : 
1. ' An Essay on Liberty and Necessity. . . . 
By Philaretus ' [1775], 12mo (against Ton- 
lady). 2. ' Materialism philosophically 
examined,' 1778, 8vo (against Priestley). 
3. 'Tentamen physiologicum . . . sistens 
novam theoriam de causa reciprocarum in 
corde et arteriis contractionum,' Leyden, 
1780, 4to. 4. 'To whom it belongs,' 1781, 
fol. (a auaker broadsheet, signed ' Principle '). 

5. 'A Report . . . of a Memoir containing a 
New Method of treating . . . Puerperal 
Fever,' 1783, 8 vo (translated from the French 
of Denis Claude Doulcet, with notes). 

6. ' A Letter on the Difference between the 



Medical Society of Crane Court and Dr. 
Whitehead,' 1784, 8vo. 7. ' A True Narra- 
tive of ... the Difference between Dr. Coke, 
Mr. Moore, Mr. Rogers, and Dr. Whitehead, 
concerning ... the Life of ... Wesley,' 
1792, 8vo. 8. ' A Defence of a True Narra- 
tive,' 1792, 8vo. 9. ' A Letter to the Me- 
thodist Preachers,' 1792, 8vo. 10. ' Circular 
to the Methodist Preachers,' 1792, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1 804, i. 28 3; Hunk's Coll. of Phys. 
1878, ii. 328; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, 
1867; Whitehead's Life of Wesley (preface), and 
his True Narrative; Moore's Life of Wesley 
(preface) ; Stevenson's City Road Chapel, 1372, 
pp. 131, 172, 370, 377 ; Album Studiosorura Aca- 
demiae Lugduno-Batavse, 1875, p. 1132.] 

A. o. 

WHITEHEAD, JOHN (1860-1899), 
ornithologist, the second son of Mr. Jeffrey 
Whitehead of Newstead, Wimbledon, was 
born at Muswell Hill, Hornsey, on 30 June 
1860. He was educated at Elstree under 
the Rev. Mr. Saunderson, and at the Edin- 
burgh Institution under Dr. Ferguson, who 
greatly fostered his taste for natural history. 
Exposing himself too recklessly in the pur- 
suit of his favourite science, he developed a 
weakness of the lungs, and was compelled 
to winter in the Engadine in 1881-2, and in 
Corsica in 1882 and 1883, when he began 
collecting, and discovered a bird new to 
science. On his return to England he pre- 
pared fora collecting trip to Mount Kina Balu, 
North Borneo,which lasted from October 1884 
to August 1 888. He brought back examples 
of many new animals, including no fewer 
than forty-five new species of birds. The 
results of this trip are fully set forth in his 
1 Exploration of Mount Kina Balu,' London, 
1893, 4to. In December 1893 he set out for 
the Philippines. He made nine different 
trips in those islands, and discovered on 
Mount Data the first known indigenous mam- 
malian fauna, returning to England in 1896. 
In January 1899 he started for those islands 
again, intending to complete his researches 
there ; but the war between the United States 
and Spain put an end to the plan, and, after 
waiting a few weeks at Manila, he sailed for 
Hong Kong, and thence set out to explore 
the island of Hainan. The expedition was, 
however, attacked by fever. He with diffi- 
culty struggled back to the coast, and died 
at the port of Hoi-hou on 2 June 1899. 

[Country Life, July 1899 ; Spectator, July 
1899; information kindly supplied by White- 
head's father and by Mr. W. Ogilvie Grant.] 

B. B. W. 

WHITEHEAD, PAUL (1710-1774), 
satirist, was born on 6 Feb. 1710 in Castle 
Yard, Holborn, where his father was a pro- 



Whitehead 



105 



Whitehead 



sperous tailor. After attending- a school at 
Hitchin he was apprenticed to a mercer in 
the city, but, showing little disposition for 
business, took chambers in the lemple as a 
law student. lie was, however, obliged, 
apparently for a series of years, to transfer 
his residence to the neighbouring Fleet prison, 
having backed a bill which the theatrical 
manager Charles Fleetwood had failed to 
meet. From prison Whitehead is said to 
have put forth his first literary efforts in the 
shape of political squibs. His first more 
elaborate production, ' State Dunces,' a satire 
in heroic couplets, was published in 1733. 
It was inscribed to Pope, the first of whose 
* Imitations of Horace dates from the same 
year, and whose 'Dunciad' had appeared in 
1728. Pope's rhythm, together with certain 
other characteristics of his satirical verse, is 
perhaps as successfully reproduced by White- 
head as by any contemporary writer ; but he 
is altogether lacking in concentration and 
in anything like seriousness of purpose. The 
chief ' State Dunce ' is Walpole (Appius) ; 
others are Francis Hare [q. v.], bishop of 
Chichester, and the whig historian James 
Ralph [q. v.] The poem, which provoked 
an answer under the title of 'A Friendly 
Epistle,' was sold to Dodsley for 10/. (Bos- 
WELL in Life, ed. Birkbeck Hill, i. 124-5, 
records Johnson's refusal to accept a smaller 
sum for his ' London' in 1738, on the ground 
that he 'would not take less than Paul 
Whitehead,' and adds an absurd apology for 
Johnson's ' prejudice' against him). 

In 1735 Whitehead married Anna, the 
only daughter of Sir Swinnerton Dyer, bart., 
of Spains Hall, Essex. By this time he may 
be concluded to have been out of the Fleet, 
unless indeed his marriage provided him 
with the means of quitting it. In 1739 he 
published ' Manners, the satirical poem so 
highly thought of by Boswell, but considered 
by Johnson a 'poor performance' (BoswELL, 
Life, v. 116). The manuscript is preserved 
in British Museum Additional MS. 25277, 
ff. 117-20. It cannot be said to exhibit any 
advance upon its predecessor, nor can its 
clamorous vituperation 

Shall Pope alone the plenteous harvest have, 
And I not glean one straggling fool or knave? 

be held to be dignified by its pretence of 
proceeding from a patriot whose hopes are 
centred in Frederick, prince of Wales. The 
personalities in this satire led to the author 
being summoned, with his publisher, before 
the bar of the House of Lords; but White- 
head absconded [see DODSLEY, ROBERT]. 
Whether or not the action of the lords had 
been intended as a warning to Pope, whose 



j t wo ' Dialogues,' 1 738 (Epilogue to the Satires), 
had done their utmost to make the existing 
political tension unbearable, it at least sufficed 
to muzzle Whitehead for the moment. He 
continued, however, to make himself gene- 
rally useful to the opposition. Thus in 1741 
Horace Walpole mentions him as ordering 
a supper for eight patriots who had tried in 
vain to beat up a mob on the occasion of 
Admiral Vernon's birthday (Letters, ed. 
Cunningham, i. 92). His next publication, 
' The Gymnasiad' (1744), is a harmless mock 
heroic in three short books or cantos, with 
' Prolegomena' bv Scriblerus Tertius, and 
' Notes Variorum, in ridicule of the pugilistic 
fancy of the day, and dedicated to John 
Broughton, one of the most celebrated ' Sons 
of Hockley and fierce Brickstreet breed.' In 
1747 he published his last would-be political 
satire, ' Honour,' in which Liberty is intro- 
duced as prepared to follow Virtue in quitting 
these shores, unless specially detained by 
' Stanhope ' (Chesterfield). About the same 
time he is stated to have edited the ' Apology 
for the Conduct of Mrs. Teresia Constantia 
Phillips ' [q. v.], first published in 3 vols. in 
1 1 48. 

Whitehead had now become a paid hanger- 
on of the ' Prince's friends,' and in the West- 
minster election of 1749 was engaged to com- 
pose advertisements, handbills, and the like 
for their candidate, Sir George Vandeput. 
When a supporter of the opposition candi- 
date, Alexander Murray (d. 1777) [q. v.], 
was sent to Newgate and detained there for 
a considerable period on the charge of having 
headed a riot, Whitehead composed a pam- 
phlet on his case, which appealed to the 
indignation of the people of Great Britain 
as well as of the electors of Westminster. 
(See extracts ap. E. THOMPSON; and cf. LORD 
ORFORD'S Memoirs of the Reign of Georye II, 
ed. Lord Holland, s.d. 28 June 1751). In 
1751 the prince died, and in 1755 Whitehead 
published his 'Epistle to Dr. Thompson/ 
a physician of dissolute habits, who had 
quarrelled with the treatment adopted by 
the prince's physicians in his last illness, and 
whom Whitehead, from whatever motive, 
strives to justify by indiscriminate abuse of 
the ' college.' A pamphlet published by 
him in defence of Admiral Byng (1757) is 
said by Hawkins to be written in a defiant 
strain, as if an acquittal were certain. 

Within these years, or those immediately 
following, falls the deepest degradation of 
Whitehead's life. His political intimacy 
with Sir Francis Dashwood (afterwards Lord 
Le Despenser) and other politicians, and the 
facility of his literary talents, made him an 
acceptable member of the dissipated circle 



Whitehead 



106 



Whitehead 



calling themselves the ' monks of Medmen- 
ham Abbey,' and he was appointed secretary 
and steward of their order of ill fame. He 
had to suffer severely in consequence, for 
the scalp-hunting satire of Churchill found 
in him a victim entirely to its taste. In 
three of Churchill's satires he was branded 
as a ' disgrace on manhood ' ( The Conference, 
1763), as 'the aged Paul' who chalks the 
score of the blasphemous revellers behind 
the door (The Candidate, 1764), and as the 
type of the ' kept bard ' (Independence, 
1764). The times were not squeamish, and 
Churchill's testimony was not respected; 
but the charges were unanswerable, and 
Whitehead is remembered for little else. 
He had, however, at the time, been rewarded 
for his services by being appointed, through 
Sir Francis Dashwood, probably during his 
chancellorship of the exchequer in Lord 
Bute's ministry (1762-3), to a 'deputy 
treasurership of the chamber,' as one of his 
biographers calls it, worth 800/. a year. This 
enabled him to enlarge the cottage on 
Twickenham Common where he had for 
some years resided (in 1755 Horace Walpole 
mentions him as one of the celebrities of 
the locality; see Letters, ii. 447). In his 
' Epistle to Dr. Thompson' he describes, quite 
in Pope's Horatian vein, the modest comforts 
of his retirement, and he appears to have 
been popular both in the country, where 
he was known for his kindliness, and in 
London society, where among his friends 
were Hogarth and Hayman, and the actor 
and dramatist William Havard [q. v.l Sir 
John Hawkins, however, says that ' in his 
conversation there was little to praise; it 
was desultory, vociferous, and profane. He 
had contracted a habit of swearing in his 
younger years, which he retained to his 
latest.' He published very little in his later 
years a pamphlet on Covent Garden stage 
disputes is mentioned in 1768 but he wrote 
a few songs for his friend the actor Beard 
and others. On 20 Dec. 1774 he died in his 
lodgings in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 
having during the course of a protracted ! 
illness burnt all his manuscripts within his ; 
reach. In his will he left his heart to his j 
patron, Lord Le Despenser, by whose orders | 
it was buried in the mausoleum at High : 
Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, amid so- 
lemnities which under the circumstances ' 
might, like the bequest itself, have been [ 
pretermitted. A collection of his ' Poems : 
and Miscellaneous Compositions,' with a I 
life by Captain Edward Thompson, which is j 
dedicated to Lord Le Despenser, and written j 
in a strain of turgid and senseless flattery, 
appeared at London in 1777 (4to). His 



portrait, painted by Gainsborough, was en- 
graved by Collyer in 1776, and prefixed to 
the 1777 edition of Whitehead's ' Poems ' 

(BROMLEY, p. 896). 

[Captain Edward Thompson's Life in Poems, 
1777 ; Sir John Hawkins's Life of Samuel John- 
son, 1787, 2nd edit. pp. 330 sqq. ; Chalmers's 
English Poets, vol. xvi.] A. W. W. 

WHITEHEAD, WILLIAM (1715- 
1785), poet-laureate, was born at Cambridge 
early in 1715. He was baptised on 12 Feb. 
at St. Botolph's, in which parish his father 
carried on the trade of a baker, serving Pem- 
broke Hall in that capacity. The elder 
Whitehead, while bestowing a liberal educa- 
tion on both his sons, is said to have been 
inclined to extravagance, and to have chiefly 
employed his time in ornamenting a plot of 
land near Grantchester, which long went 
under the name of Whitehead's Folly. Two 
years before his death his second son Wil- 
liam, when fourteen years of age, through 
the patronage of Henry Bromley (afterwards 
Lord Montfort, and high steward of the 
university of Cambridge), obtained a nomi- 
nation to Winchester College, where he re- 
mained till 1735. It was the period, as 
Whitehead afterwards sang (see his stanzas 
to the Rev. Dr. Lowth, in his Life of William 
of Wykeham], * when Bigg presided and when 
Burton taught.' He is said to have acted 
the parts of Marcia in ' Cato' and of one of 
the women in the * Andria,' and in 1733 to 
have gained one of the guinea prizes offered 
by Peterborough, on a visit to the school, for 
the best poem on a subject to be given out 
by his companion Pope, who chose Peter- 
borough himself as the theme. This led to 
his being employed by Pope to translate into 
Latin the first epistle of the ' Essay on Man ; ' 
but this effort was not published, and White- 
head, although a competent scholar, never 
attained to distinction as a writer of Latin 
verse. In 1735, not commanding sufficient 
interest to secure election to New College, 
Oxford, he entered as a sizar at Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, with the aid of a small scholar- 
ship open to the orphan sons of tradesmen 
of the town. He graduated B.A. in 1739 
and M.A. in 1743, and in 1742 was elected 
a fellow of his college. His irreproachable 
conduct, amiable manners, and growing repu- 
tation as a poet secured to him at Cambridge 
the friendship of many young men of a rank 
superior to his own, conspicuous among 
whom was Charles Townshend (1725-1767) 
[q. v.] f to whom two of his early poems are 
addressed (ii. 171, 173). In his lines 'On 
Friendship' (ii. 129), justly praised by his 
biographer and according to him highly com- 



Whitehead 



107 



Whitehead 



mended by Gray, Whitehead softened what 
the latter disliked as satirical touches ; but 
though he was through life more or less 
dependent on his social superiors, his nature 
was not servile, and his lack of ambition 
was largely due to self-knowledge (see the 
lines, ii. 192, addressed in 1751 to his friend 
Wright). In 171") \\ hitehead, at the request 
of the Earl of Jersey, undertook the private 
tuition of his surviving son, Viscount Vil- 
liers, then a boy -of seven years of age who 
afterwards as Lord Jersey, was reputed one 
of the most high bred as well as one of the 
most fashionable men of his age and a 
young companion [see VILLTERS, GEORGE 
BUSSY, fourth EARL]. He accordingly re- 
moved to London, and shortly afterwards 
abandoned his fellowship, as its retention 
would have obliged him to take orders. 

At Cambridge Whitehead had published 
his first more important poetic efforts, which 
showed him to have deliberately formed his 
style as a writer of verse upon Pope, at a 
time when English poetical literature was 
at last on the very point of widening its range 
as to both form and subjects. His epistle 
' On the Danger of writing in Verse' (1741) 
is elegant in versification and diction, and 
modest in tone two merits which are rarely 
absent in Whitehead. It was rapidly fol- 
lowed by ' Atys and Adrastus' (from Hero- 
dotus) ; an ' heroic epistle ' from ' Ann Boleyn 
to Henry the Eighth,' the reverse of original 
in treatment, but delicate in feeling ; and a 
readable didactic essay on ' Ridicule' (1743), 
protesting against such as is excessive or 
misplaced. All these pieces, as well as the 
rather later ' Hymn to the Nymph of Bristol 
Spring' (1751), are in the heroic couplet. 

Within these years Whitehead became 
well known in the world of letters and of 
the theatre, and on 24 Feb. 1750 Garrick 
(to whom he had addressed a very judicious 
compliment in verse, containing a charac- 
teristic hint as to the morals of the stage ; 
Works ,'ii. 17C) brought out at Drury Lane 
his tragedy of the Roman Father/ It is 
founded more or less on Corneille's ' Horace ; ' 
but it omits the part of Horatius's wife, sister 
to the Curiatii, and it seeks to centre the 
interest in Horatius's father, the character 
played by Garrick. Though it was a theatrical 
success, this tragedy is but a poor piece of 
literary work, and in execution one of the 
least adequate of Whitehead's performances. 
His second tragedy, ' Creusa, Queen of 
Athens' (first acted on 20 April 1754), a re- 
cast of the Euripidean ' Ion,' with the super- 
natural element omitted, is far superior to its 
predecessor in skilfulness of construction and 
in dignity of style, and deserves the high 



praise bestowed on it by Horace Walpole 
(to John Chute, Letters, ed. Cunningham, 
ii. 382) and by Mason. These constitute 
Whitehead's only essays in the tragic drama, 
unless there should be included in them the 
rather clever burlesque, ' tragedy in the 
heroic taste,' of ' Fatal Constancy, or Love 
in Tears,' spoken in monologue by the hero. 
A parody with a more serious purpose is 
the city idyll, as it would perhaps be called 
in these days, of ' The Sweepers,' written in 
blank verse. In form Whitehead's versa- 
tility was remarkable, and about this time 
he produced a series of tales in (four-foot 
I iambic) verse, something in the manner of 
Prior, but more nearly perhaps in that of 
I La Fontaine, which possess decided merit of 
their kind. Such are ' Variety, a Tale for 
Married People ;' 'The Goat's Beard,' a free 
expansion of one of Phaedrus's fables, which 
playfully discusses the question of equality 
between the sexes ; and others. These, with a 
number of vers de soctett and complimentary 
pieces, make up an agreeable variety of mis- 
cellaneous verse; and it would have been 
fortunate for Whitehead's posthumous fame 
had he not been called upon to put a pre- 
tentious top to so unpretending an edifice. 
He wrote little in prose a disquisition, of 
no moment, on the shield of JEneas, and 
a light essay or two for insertion in ' The 
| World.' In June 1754 he accompanied his 
! pupil, Lord Villiers, and Lord Nuneham, the 
eldest sou of the Earl of Harcourt, to Leipzig. 
A tour in Germany and Italy followed, and 
the travellers did not return to England till 
the autumn of 1756. The ' Elegies' in which 
Whitehead commemorated their visits to the 
mausoleum of Augustus and other places of 
interest have not permanently added to his 
poetic fame ; but they were not inoppor- 
tunely written. While still in Italy he 
had been appointed by the Duke of New- 
castle, through the influence of Lady Jersey, 
to the 'two genteel patent places* usually 
united' of secretary and registrar of the 
order of the Bath; and when, in December 
1757, Colley Gibber passed away, the Duke 
of Devonshire, as lord chamberlain, offered 
to Whitehead the poet-laureateship, which 
had been previously refused by Gray [see 
GRAY, THOMAS], the latter was to have 
been permitted to hold it as a sinecure ; but 
Whitehead's muse was called upon in the 
usual way, and executed herself in a series 
of birthday odes extending over more than 
a quarter of a century, as well as of special 
effusions on occasions such as a peace or a 
royal marriage. A selection of the birthday 
odes is published in the poet's works, but 
cannot be said to call for posthumous cri- 



Whitehead 



1 08 



Whitehurst 



ticism. In his own day the series at large 
was visited with much unfriendly comment. 
Johnson, who seems to have felt no par- 
ticular gratitude to Whitehead for having 
helped to make the plan of his dictionary 
known to Chester6eld (BoswuLL, Life, ed. 
J. Birkbeck Hill, i. 184; see also HAWKINS, 
Life, 2nd edit. 1787, p. 176), compared Gib- 
ber's birthday odes with Whitehead's, to the 
disadvantage of the latter; for 'grand non- 
sense is insupportable' (ib. i. 402). John 
Byrom [q. v/], the Lancashire poet, in 1758 
coupled Whitehead's ' Verses to the People 
of England* with Akenside's * Appeal to the 
Country Gentlemen of England ' as illustra- 
tive of the jingoism of the hour (Poems of 
John Byrom, printed for the Chetham Soc., 
1894, i. 459). Churchill, who had suddenly 
sprung into fame and was beginning to pour 
forth volume after volume of furious invec- 
tive, in bk. iii. of 'The Ghost' (17G2) apo- 
strophised the laureate as ' Dulness and Me- 
thod's darling Son.' Whitehead but once 
made a public reply to these and other attacks 
in ' A Charge to the Poets' (first printed in 
1762), which introduces itself as a sort of 
sequel to his early poem on ' The Danger of 
writing in Verse,' and, in the humorous form of 
acharge from the laureate to his brother poets, 
very reasonably and very good-humouredly 
explains and defends his position. In 'A 
Pathetic Apology for all Laureates, past, 
present, and to come,' privately circulated 
among his friends, he put the matter still 
more plainly, and with the same modest bon- 
homie. And whether or not he actually 
cherished the design of replying to Churchill 
in a longer poem, he was wise enough never 
to carry it out, though the fragments which 
remain are in part generous as well as essen- 
tially just in spirit. 

In the year in which Churchill had sought 
to write down the laureate dunce and fool, 
he had produced at Drury Lane on 10 Feb. 
his comedy of ' The School for Lovers ' ( 1 762), 
which has been erroneously supposed to be- 
long to the soecies called sentimental comedy. 
The life of the play is to be found in the cha- 
racters of Araminta and Modely, which are 
genuinely comic, while the former is also 
unmistakably attractive (cf.GENEST, iv.640). 
The success of this comedy (which was re- 
vived in 177o and 1794) seems to have in- 
creased Garrick's confidence in Whitehead, 
who in the following years officiated as his 
'reader' of plays. When in 1767 Garrick 
was hesitating as to the production of Gold- 
smith's 'Good-natured Man,' he proposed 
Whitehead, who for some time acted as 
reader of new plays for Drury Lane, to him 
as arbitrator in the difficulty 'of all the 



manager's slights to the poet,' according to 
the biographer of the latter, that which was 
'forgotten last' (FoRSTER, Life and Times 
of Oliver Goldsmith, 5th edit. 1871, ii. 41). 
On 6 Jan. 1770 W T hitehead's ' Trip to Scot- 
land ' was performed at Drury Lane, which 
may be described as a farce ending like an 
extravaganza. 

For many years after his return from the 
continent Whitehead remained the welcome 
household friend of Lords Jersey and Har- 
court, and resided in the town house of the 
former, and in the summer at Middleton and at 
Nuneham, of which frequent mention is made 
in his verse, and where some lines by him on 
the gardener, Walter Clark, are stated as 
still to be seen in the grounds. After the 
death of Lord Jersey in 1769, and the acces- 
sion to the title of his former pupil, White- 
head occupied apartments in London, but 
still kept up his intimacy with both families. 
In 1 774 he collected his works in two volumes, 
under the title of ' Plays and Poems.' A 
tragedy, offered to Garrick, but never pub- 
lished ; the first act of an ' CEdipus; ' and one 
or two other dramatic fragments were found 
among his papers at the time of his death, 
which took place in Charles Street, Grosvenor 
Square, on 14 April 1785. 

A complete edition of W T hitehead's poems, 
with a good memoir by his friend William 
Mason (1724-1797) [q! v.], was published at 
York in 1788 (3 vols. 8vo). A half-length 
life-sized portrait of Whitehead was painted 
by R. Wilson (Cat. Guelph Exhib. No. 238). 
Another, painted by W. Doughty in 1776, 
was engraved by Collyer, and prefixed to 
vol. iii. of Mason's edition of Whitehead's 
' Works.' 

[Memoirs by Mason in collected edition of 
Whitehead's Poems, 3 vols. 1788; Chalmers's 
English Poets, vol.xvii.; Genest's SomeAccount 
of the English Stage, vols. iv. and v. ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage.] A. W. W. 

WHITEHORNE. [See WHITHOBNE.] 

WHITEHURST, JOHN (1713-1788), 
horologer, born at Congleton in Cheshire 
on 10 April 1713, was the son of John 
Whitehurst, a clock and watch maker of 
that place. His early education was slight, 
and on leaving school he was bred by his 
father in his own trade. His father, who 
was a man of inquisitive turn, encouraged 
him in his passion for knowledge, which led 
him at the age of twenty-one to visit Dublin 
in order to inspect a clock of curious con- 
struction of which he had heard. 

About 1736 he entered into business for 
himself at Derby, where he soon obtained 
great employment, distinguishing himself 



Whitehurst 



109 



Whitelaw 



by constructing several ingenious pieces of 
mechanism. Besides other works he made 
the clock for the town-hall, and in reward 
was enrolled as a burgess on 5 Sept. 1737. 
lie also made thermometers, barometers, and 
other philosophical instruments, and inte- 
rested himself in contriving waterworks. He 
was consulted in almost every undertaking 
in Derbyshire and in the neighbouring coun- 
ties in which skill in mechanics, pneumatics, 
and hydraulics was required. 

In 1776, on the passage of the act for the 
better regulation of the gold coinage, with- 
out any solicitation on his part he was ap- 
pointed stamper of the money- weights, on 
the recommendation of the Duke of New- 
castle. He removed to London, where the 
rest of his life was gassed in philosophic pur- 
suits, and where his house in Bolt Court, 
Fleet Street, formerly the abode of James 
Ferguson (1710-1770) [q. v.], became the 
constant resort of men of science of every 
nation and rank. In 1778 he published his 
' Inquiry into the Original State and Forma- 
tion of the Earth ' (London, 4to), of which a 
second edition appeared in 1786, consider- 
ably enlarged and improved ; and a third, 
after his death, in 1792. The original design 
of this work, which he began to prepare 
while living at Derby, was to facilitate the 
discovery of valuable minerals beneath the 
earth's surface. He pursued his researches 
with so much ardour that the exposure he 
incurred tended to impair his health. 

On 13 May 1779 he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society, and in 1783 he was 
sent to examine the Giant's Causeway and 
the volcanic remains in the north of Ire- 
land, embodying his observations in the se- 
cond edition of his ' Inquiry.' About 1784 
he contrived a system of ventilation for St. 
Thomas's Hospital (BEBNAN, History and 
Art of Warming and Ventilation, 1845, ii. 
70). In 1787 he published 'An Attempt 
towards obtaining invariable Measures of 
Length, Capacity, and Weight, from the 
Mensuration of Time ' (London, 4to). Start- 
ing on the assumption that the length of a 
second pendulum in the latitude of London 
was 39-2 inches, he deduced that the length 
of one oscillating forty-two times a minute 
is eighty inches, while that of one oscillating 
twice as many times is twenty inches. The 
difference between these two lengths would 
therefore be exactly five feet. He found, 
however, upon experiment that the actual 
difference was only 59'892 inches owing to 
the real length of the pendulum, oscillating 
once a second, being 39-125 inches. He 
obtained roughly, however, data from which 
the true lengths of pendulums, the spaces 



through which heavy bodies fall in a given 
time, and many other particulars relating to 
t he force of gravitation and the true figure 
of the earth, could be deduced. 

Whitehurst died at his house in Bolt 
Court, Fleet Street, on 18 Feb. 1788, and was 
interred beside his wife in St. Andrew's bury- 
ing-ground in Gray's Inn Road. On 9 Jan. 
1745 he married Elizabeth, daughter of 
George Gretton, rector of Trusley and Dai- 
bury in Derbyshire. He had no surviving- 
issue. 

Whitehurst's portrait, engraved by A. 
Smith from a painting by Joseph Wright, 
was published by W. Bent on 10 Oct. 1788 
(cf. Cat. Second Loan Exhib. No. 714). 
Another, painted by Joseph Wright and en- 
graved by Hall, is prefixed to his ' Works ' 
(BROMLEY, p. 396). His ' Works' were 
edited by Charles Hutton [q. v.], with a 
memoir (London, 1792, 4to). In 1794 Ro- 
bert Willan [q. v.] edited from his papers 
* Observations on the Ventilation of Rooms, 
on Chimneys, and Garden Stoves ' (London, 
4to). A collection of his ' Tracts, Philoso- 
phical and Mechanical,' was published in 
1812 (London, 4to). Three of his papers 
first appeared in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Royal Society. 

[Memoir by Hutton, prefixed to Whitehurst's 
Works ; European Mag. 1788, ii. 316-20 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1788, i. 182, 363; Universal Mag. 1788.H. 
225-9.] E. I. C. 

WHITELAW, JAMES (1749-1813), 
statistician and philanthropist, was a native 
of county Leitrim, where he was born in 
1749. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in July 1766, became a scholar in 1769, and 
graduated B.A. in 1771. He studied for the 
church, and after his ordination became tutor 
to the Earl of Meath, who presented him 
with the living of St. James's, Dublin. He 
soon afterwards obtained the more remunera- 
tive living of St. Catherine's in the same city. 
His deep interest in the poor people living 
in the ' liberties ' in his immediate neigh- 
bourhood led him to form several charitable 
institutions, the most useful of which was 
the Meath charitable loan, founded in 1808, 
which proved of immense service to the 
weavers of the Cooinbe during very distressing- 
periods. Mainly owing to his strong repre- 
sentations the trustees of the Erasmus Smith 
fund in 1804 allocated 2,000/. to the founda- 
tion of a school in the Coombe, at which 
poor children were given free education. 
He was appointed one of the governors of the 
Charter schools of Ireland, and by his energy 
and unwearied attention to the interests of 
the poor he was enabled greatly to improve 
their working. 



\Yhitelocke 



no 



Whitelocke 



Perhaps his most important service was 
his census of the city of Dublin, which he 
undertook in 1798, and carried through suc- 
cessfully in the face of many difficulties and 
dangers, publishing the results of his inves- 
tigation in 1805 in his admirable ' Essay on 
the Population of Dublin in 1798 ' (Dublin, 
8vo). Epidemic diseases were then frequent 
in Dublin, but, undeterred by the fear of in- 
fection, he personally inspected every house 
in the city and questioned nearly every in- 
habitant. Hitherto the extent of the popu- 
lation had been only vaguely conjectured. 
He found in one house alone 108 people. 
The government ordered the results of his in- 
quiry to be printed, while the original papers 
were deposited in Dublin Castle. In 1805 he 
was made one of the members of the com- 
mission to inquire into the conduct of the 
paving board of Dublin. He received from 
John Law (1745-1810) [q. v.], bishop of 
Elphin, the valuable living of Castlereagh, 
which he was allowed to hold jointly with 
that of St. Catherine's. He died of a malig- 
nant fever, contracted while visiting poor 
parishioners, on 4 Feb. 1813. The govern- 
ment conferred a pension of 200/. a year 
upon his widow. 

The work with which Whitelaw's name 
is most frequently associated is the valu- 
able ' History of Dublin,' in which he col- 
laborated with John Warburton, keeper of 
the records in Dublin Castle. Warburton 
did the more ancient portion of the work ; 
Whitelaw undertook the modern part. Both 
Whitelaw and Warburton died, however, 
before it was published, and it was completed 
by Robert Walsh [q. v.] It was published 
in 18 18 in two large quarto volumes. White- 
law's other works are ' Parental Solicitude ' 
(Dublin, 1800 ?, 12mo) ; ' A System of Geo- 
graphy,' of which the maps only (engraved 
by himself) were published ; and ' An Essay 
on the best method of ascertaining Areas 
of Countries of any considerable Extent' 
(/Transactions of Royal Irish Academy,' 
vol. vi.) 

[Whitelaw and Walsh's Hist, of Dublin, vol. i. ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Lit. ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography ; Gilbert's Hist, of Dublin ; 
Register of Trinity College, Dublin.] 

D. J. O'D. 

WHITELOCKE, BULSTRODE (1605- 
1675), keeper of the great seal, eldest son of 
Sir James Whitelocke [q.v.] and Elizabeth, 
daughter of Edward Bulstrode of Hedgerley 
Bulstrode, Buckinghamshire, was born at 
his uncle Sir George Croke's house in Fleet 
Street on 6 Aug. 1605, and christened at St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-East on 19 Aug. (SiR JAMES 
WHITELOCKE, Liber Famelicus, p. 15 ; Col- 



lectanea Topographica et Genealoyica, v. 
369). He was admitted to Merchant Tay- 
lors' school in 1615, and matriculated at 
Oxford on 8 Dec. 1620 as a member of 
St. John's College (FOSTER, Alumni Oxo- 
nienses, i. 1620). Dr. Parsons was White- 
locke's tutor, and Laud, who was then pre- 
sident of St. John's and was his father's 
friend, took great interest in his education, 
which Whitelocke subsequently requited by 
refusing to take part in the prosecution of 
the archbishop (Memorials, i. 219). He re- 
created himself with music and field sports, 
joining other members of the college to 
maintain a pack of beagles (R. H. WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memoirs of Bulstrode Whitelocke, 
pp. 6-11). Whitelocke left Oxford without 
a degree, and was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple in 1626. He represented 
Stafford in the parliament of 1626. At 
Christmas 1628 he was chosen master of the 
revels and treasurer of the Middle Temple, 
and in 3633, when the four inns of court 
joined together to perform a masque before 
the king and queen, he and his friend Edward 
Hyde represented the Middle Temple on 
the committee (ib. pp. 56-62; Memorials, 
i. 31, 53-62). Whitelocke had ' the whole 
care and charge of all the music for this 
great masque, which was so performed that 
it excelled any music that ever before that 
time had been heard in England.' But while 
distinguishing himself socially he did not 
forget his professional studies, as to which 
Selden gave him valuable advice. He be- 
came about 1631 recorder of Abingdon and 
counsel for the corporation of Henley. In 
1632 he earned by fees no less than 310/., 
which dropped, however, to 46/. in the fol- 
lowing year, when he was no longer backed 
by his father's influence (WHITELOCKE, Me- 
moirs of Whitelocke, pp. 74, 90). 

Whitelocke had married in 1630, but his 
wife became insane shortly afterwards, and 
in 1634 he placed her under the care of a 
doctor, and travelled to alleviate his melan- 
choly. At Paris he was received with jgreat 
favour by Cardinal Richelieu, and offered 
the command of a troop of horse in the French 
service. Returning to Englandnn June 1634, 
he resumed his practice, earned some local 
reputation by a speech as chairman of the 
Oxfordshire quarter sessions, in which he 
vindicated the jurisdiction of the civil against 
the ecclesiastical courts, and more by op- 
posing the extension of Wychwood Forest 
in the interest of the gentlemen of the county 
(ib. pp. 102-9; Memorials, \.Q7, 70). Having 
thus become popular, he was elected to the 
Long parliament as member for Marlow, and 
took from the first a prominent part in its 



Whitelocke 



Whitelocke 



proceedings. He was chairman of the com- 
mittrp which managed the prosecution of 
St milord, and was specially entrusted with 
the conduct of articles nineteen to twenty- 
four of the charge (Rusiiwoimi, Trial <>f 
the Earl of Stra/ord, pp. 490, 520, 572 ; 
BAILLIE, Letters, i. 337). Stratford told a 
friend, speaking of the committee that 
managed the evidence against him, that 
Glyn and Maynard used him like advocates, 
but Palmer and Whitelocke used him like 
gentlemen, and yet left out nothing material 
to be urged against him (Memorials, i. 113, 
124, 126). Whitelocke also prepared the 
bill against the dissolution of the Long par- 
liament without its own consent, supported 
and added an amendment to the ' grand re- 
monstrance,' and took part in the proceedings 
against the illegal canons drawn up by con- 
vocation (VEBNEY, Notes of the Lmg Par- 
liament, pp. 72, 84 ; FORSTER, Grand Re- 
monstrance, pp. 230, 342). 

In February 1642 Whitelocke made a 
trimming speech on the militia question, as- 
serting the authority over it to be jointly in 
king and parliament, following up this by 
a speech against raising an army in July 
(Memorial*, i. 160, 177). But this did not 
prevent him from becoming a deputy lieu- 
tenant both of Buckinghamshire and Ox- 
fordshire, from finally preventing the exe- 
cution of the king's commission of array, and 
from raising troops to occupy Oxford. He 
urged Lord Saye to make that city a par- 
liamentary garrison, and was himself pro- 
posed as governor as being one whom ' the 
city, the university, and the country there- 
abouts did well know and would be pleased 
with.' Saye, however, declined to fortify 
Oxford (ib. i. 171, 180, 183). Whitelocke's 
subsequent military services were slight. At 
Brentford, in November 1642, he marched 
with Hampden's regiment (ib. i. 192). In 
1644, when the association of the three 
counties of Oxford, Buckingham, and Berks 
was established, Whitelocke was one of its 
governing committee, and was proposed to 
command its forces, but declined (ib. i. 254, 
260, 306, 511, 516; RUSHWORTH, v. 673). 
He became instead governor of Henley 
and of his own house at Phyllis Court, 
which was made a garrison. As his house 
at Fawley had been occupied and plundered 
by Prince Rupert in the autumn of 1642, 
the damage caused by the war to his pro- 
perty was very considerable (Memorials, i. 
188, 244, 407, ii. 54, 60, 62 ; WHITELOCZE, 
Memoirs of Whitelocke, p. 230). Whitelocke 
was on tolerably intimate terms both with 
Essex and Fairfax. Essex, whom he fre- 
quently praises, consulted him in December 



1644 on the feasibility of accusing Cromwell 
as an incendiary, a course which Whitelocke 
deprecated (Memorials, i. 320, 343). White- 
locke spoke against the self-denying ordi- 
nance, but Clarendon describes him as in- 
strumental in getting it passed (ib. i. 353 ; 
Rebellion, viii. 261). He claimed kinship 
with the Fairfax family, was present in Sir 
Thomas Fairfax's army during the siege of 
Oxford in 1646, and was admitted by Sir 
Thomas to his council of war (Memorials. 
ii. 19, 48). 

Throughout the first civil war Whitelocke 
describes himself as ' industriously labouring 
to promote all overtures for peace.' He 
was one of the eight commissioners sent by 
parliament to the king at Oxford in January 
and March 1643. In the spring of 1644 he 
made a speech urging that fresh overtures 
should be made to the king. In November 
1644 he was again sent to Oxford to arrange 
the preliminaries of a treaty, and he was 
one of the parliamentary commissioners at 
Uxbridge in January 1645, where he gained 
great honour among his friends by success- 
fully combating Hyde's arguments about 
the militia (Memorials, i. 194, 199, 246,331, 
382). Hyde, in his narrative of this treaty, 
describes Whitelocke as one who had from 
the beginning concurred with the presby- 
terian leaders ' without any inclination to 
their persons or principles,' the reason being 
that ' all his estate was in their quarters, 
and he had a nature that could not bear or 
submit to be undone.' Yet he sincerely 
desired peace, and ' to his old friends who 
were commissioners for the king he used his 
old openness, and professed his detestation 
of all their proceedings yet could not leave 
them' (Rebellion, viii. 248). Whitelocke's 
intimacy with Hyde excited suspicion, and 
in July 1645 Lord Savile accused Whitelocke 
and Holies to the parliament of treasonable 
communications with the king and his 
counsellors during the negotiations of 1644. 
But parliament acquitted both (21 July 
1645), and gave them permission to prose- 
cute their accuser (Memorials, i. 336, 385, 
457-81; BAILLIE, Letters, ii. 303; Commons' 
Journals, iv. 214). Whitelocke was one of 
the thirty lay members of the assembly of 
divines (12 June 1643), and both in the 
assembly itself and in the House of Com- 
mons persistently combated the view that 
the presbyterian form of church government 
existed jure divino. For that reason he 
says ' I did not pass uncensured by the rigid 
presbyterians, against whose design I was 
neld to be one, and they were pleased to 
term me a disciple of Selden and an 
Erastian ' (Memorials, i. 209, 292, 327, 504, 



Whitelocke 



I 12 



Whitelocke 



508). He also incurred the displeasure of 
the same party by his arguments in favour 
of toleration (ib. ii. 88, 118). In May 1 < > 1 7 . 
when the disbanding of the army was under 
discussion. Whitelocke opposed the rash 
policy of Holies and the presbyterian leaders, 
and separated himself from them in the 
debates on the subject, which, he adds, * took 
very well, and created an interest for me 
with the other party ' (ib. ii. 146). He was 
consequently ' courted ' by Cromwell, and 
escaped impeachment in June 1647 when 
the army impeached the eleven members, 
although one of the chief charges against 
Holies was that which Lord Savile had 
brought against Whitelocke also (ib. ii. 162, 
171, 178 ; Old Parl. Hist. xvi. 70). During 
the troubled summer of 1647 Whitelocke 
stayed away from the House of Commons as 
much as possible, and avoided committing 
himself to either party (Memorials, ii. 172). 
His rapidly increasing legal business, care- 
fully recorded in his ' Memorials,' supplied 
him" with an excuse for his absence. On 
15 March 1648 Whitelocke was appointed 
by parliament one of the four commissioners 
of the great seal for one year with a salary 
of 1,OOOJ. In that capacity he swore in the 
newly appointed serjeants-at-law in Novem- 
ber 1648, delivering then and at the swearing- 
in of Chief-baron Wilde long speeches on 
judicial antiquities (Memorials, ii. 278, 283, 
296, 299, 341, 428, 440, 449). Throughout 
the military revolution of December 1648 
he continued to act in his judicial capacity, 
' glad of an honest pretence to be excused 
from appearing in the house.' At the end of 
the month he and his colleague, Sir Thomas 
Widdrington[q. v.], discussed with Cromwell 
the settlement of the nation, and endeavoured 
to frame some compromise between parlia- 
ment and army. When it was decided to 
bring the king to a public trial, Whitelocke 
was one of the committee appointed to draw 
up a charge and consider the method of the 
trial, but declined to take any part in the 
proceedings, and purposely left London till 
the trial had begun. He sat in the House 
of Commons during the progress of the trial, 
but on the day of the king's execution he 
savs, ' I went not to the House, but stayed 
all day at home in my study and at my 
prayers, in the hopes that this day's work 
might not so displease God as to bring pre- 
judice to this poor afflicted nation ' (Memo- 
rials, ii. 467, 477, 484, 487, 498, 516). 

Whitelocke was elected a member of the 
council of state of the republic, though de- 
clining the retrospective approval of the late 
proceedings which its members were ori- 
ginally required to express. He was obliged, 



however, to declare his disapprobation of the 
vote of 5 Dec. 1648 declaring the king's con- 
cessions sufficient, in order to retain his seat 
in the House of Commons (ib. ii. 519, 527, 
555). He opposed, but in vain, the abolition 
of the House of Lords, and had the duty of 
drawing the act for that purpose imposed 
upon him (ib. ii. 521). A new great seal 
was made, and Whitelocke was appointed 
one of the three commissioners with Lisle 
and Keble as his colleagues (8 Feb. 1649). 
He justified his conduct by the consideration 
that the business to be undertaken was * the 
execution of law and justice, without which 
men could not live one by another ' (ib. ii. 
523). In this office he did considerable ser- 
vice to the republic by procuring an altera- 
tion in the oath of the judges which enabled 
them to act under the new government, 
drawing up a new treason law, and attempt- 
ing some reforms in chancery procedure. 
But he felt continually called upon to de- 
fend the law and its practitioners against 
popular prejudice, succeeded in defeating a 
proposal to exclude lawyers from parliament, 
and promoted the act for conducting all legal 
proceedings in English (ib. ii. 528, iii. 31, 
49, 89, 118, 260). 

In June 1650 Whitelocke was one of the 
| committee appointed to remove Fairfax's 
I scruples about the invasion of Scotland, and 
I in September 1651 he was similarly selected 
! by parliament to congratulate Cromwell on 
I his victory at Worcester (ib. iii. 209, 350). 
I Cromwell gave him a captured horse and 
j two Scottish prisoners as ' a token of hi 
thankful reception of the parliament's con- > 
gratulations.' W T hitelocke records two long 
conferences between himself and Cromwell, 
one soon after Worcester and another in 
November 1652, in the first of which he 
urged the restoration of the monarchy, and 
in the second recommended Cromwell to 
make terms with Charles II, in preference to 
taking upon himself to be king. In conse- 
quence of this Cromwell, according ta 
Whitelocke, wishing to get him out of the 
way, proposed to make him chief commis- 
sioner for the government of Ireland, and 
finally sent him as ambassador to Sweden 
(ib. iii. 372, 431, 474). In April 165$ 
i Whitelocke opposed Cromwell's scheme for 
the dissolution of the Long parliament and 
j the devolution of its authority upon a pro- 
visional council created for the purpose (ib. 
iv. 4). When Cromwell dissolved the Long 
parliament Whitelocke was one of the per- 
sons he specially attacked in his speech to 
the house. He is described as ' looking 
sometimes and pointing upon particular per- 
sons, as Sir B. Whitelocke, &c., to whom he 



Whitelocke 



113 



Whitelocke 



gave very sharp language though he named 
them not, but by his gestures it was well 
known that he meant them' (BLENCOWE, 
Sydney Papers, p. 140). 

For a few months Whitelocke remained 
in complete retirement, but in August 1653 
he heard that the council of state intended 
to nominate him as ambassador to Sweden 
in place of Lord Lisle, who had been originally 
appointed. In the most flattering terms 
Cromwell pressed Whitelocke to accept the 
post, and, more from fear of the consequences 
of refusing than from any desire for the dis- 
tinction, he finally accepted. On 14 Sept. 
his nomination was approved by parliament 
(REEVE, Journal of Whitelocke's Swedish 
Embassy, i. 15, 32, 37). His instructions 
authorised him not only to make a general 
treaty of amity, but to come to an agreement 
with Sweden for securing the freedom of 
the Sound against Denmark and the united 
provinces (ib. i. 85-90). Whitelocke sailed 
on 6 Nov. with a large retinue and a squadron 
of six ships, reaching Gothenburg on 15 Nov. 
He returned through Germany, landing again 
in England on 1 July 1654. The treaty he 
negotiated, which was long delayed by the 
desire of the Swedes to await the upshot of 
the peace negotiations between England and 
Holland, and by the difficulties which the 
impending resignation of Queen Christina 
threw in its way, was signed on 28 April 
1654, though dated 11 April (ib. ii. 168). 
In substance it was little more than a general 
expression of friendship between the two 
states. Questions such as the trade relations 
of England and Sweden, and the suggested 
alliance for the freedom of the Sound, were 
discussed but postponed, and it was under- 
stood that a Swedish ambassador was to be 
sent to England to settle them. During his 
mission Whitelocke showed considerable 
diplomatic skill, and succeeded in gaining 
the queen's favour. She freely discussed 
with him the affairs of Europe, the revolu- 
tions of England, and her own intending 
abdication, and he plumed himself on proving 
to the Swedish court that a puritan could 
possess all the graces of a cavalier. His 
self-satisfaction is amusingly evident through- 
out his narrative, but its portraits of Chris- 
tina, Oxenstierna, and other notable persons, 
and its description of Sweden and the 
Swedes render it an authority of permanent 
value, and it has been translated into 
Swedish. 

Whitelocke landed in England again on 
1 July 1654, and gave an account of his 
embassy to the council of state on 6 July 
(Memorials, iv. 115). During his absence 
from England a new commission for the 

VOL. LXI. 



custody of the great seal had been issued 
(April 1654), and Whitelocke, who was first 
named of the three commissioners, was sworn 
into his office on 14 July 1654 (REEVE, 
Swedish Embassy, ii. 463). At the opening 
of the parliament of 1654, to which he was 
returned by three several constituencies 
Buckinghamshire, Bedford, and the city of 
Oxford Whitelocke carried the purse be- 
fore the Protector, and in his opening speech 
dwelt on the importance of the treaty with 
Sweden, ' an honourable peace, through the 
endeavours of an honourable person here 
present as the instrument ' (CARLYLE, Crom- 
well, Speech ii.) On 6 Sept. Whitelocke gave 
a narrative of his negotiations to the house, 
and was voted 2,000/. for his services (Me- 
morials, iv. 137). In 1655 the Protector and 
his council passed an ordinance for the re- 
form of the procedure of the court of chan- 
cery which seemed objectionable both to 
Whitelocke and to his colleague Widdrington. 
' It would be of great prejudice to the public/ 
argued Whitelocke on behalf of both, and he 
had also private objections as to the authority 
making the law. As their scruples could 
not be overcome by argument, both were de- 
prived of their office on 6 June 1655 (Me- 
morials, iv. 191-206 ; Carte MSS. Ixxiv. 50 ; 
cf. INDERWICK, The Interregnum, pp. 224-9). 
Whitelocke had, however, been appointed 
one of the commissioners of the treasury 
(2 Aug. 1654), and was permanently con- 
tinued in that post with a salary of 1,000/. 
per annum (Memorials, iv. 207 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 284). 

On 2 Nov. 1655 Whitelocke was named 
one of the committee for trade and naviga- 
tion, and he was frequently consulted by 
the Protector on foreign affairs. The 
negotiation of the commercial treaty with 
Sweden, concluded on 17 July 1656, was 
mainly trusted to his hands, and in January 
1656 he was much pressed by Cromwell to 
undertake a second mission to Sweden 
(Memorials, iv. 215, 219, 223-70 ; GUERN- 
SEY JONES, The Diplomatic Relations between 
Cromwell and Charles Gustavus of Sweden, 
1897, pp. 28-47). In the parliament called 
in 1656 he again represented Buckingham- 
shire, and during the illness of Thomas 
Widdrington he tilled the place of speaker 
for three weeks, to the great satisfaction of 
the house (BURTON, Parl. Diary, ii. 369, 
375; Memorials, iv. 285). When the 
humble petition and advice was brought 
in, and parliament invited the Protector to 
take the title of king, Whitelocke was 
chairman of the committee appointed to 
confer with Cromwell, in which capacity he 
made frequent reports to the house and 

I 



Whitelocke 



114 



Whitelocke 



several speeches urging Cromwell to accept 
the crown. It was about this time, ac- 
cording to his own statement, that White- 
locke was most intimate with the Protector, 
who would be familiar with him in private, 
lay aside his greatness, and make verses 
by way of diversion (Memorials, iv. 287-91 ; 
Old Parl. Hist. xxi. 60, 71, 118). In the 
ceremonial of the Protector's second inaugu- 
ration Whitelocke played a conspicuous 
part ; he was summoned to the new House 
of Lords (11 Dec. 16o7), and it was generally 
reported that he was to be made baron of 
Henley. He states that Cromwell actually 
signed* a patent to make him a viscount, which 
he refused (Memorials, iv. 309, 313, 335). 

When Richard Cromwell succeeded his 
father, Whitelocke presented the congratu- 
latory address of Buckinghamshire to the 
new Protector. Richard, he adds, f had a 
particular respect for me/ as the result of 
which, without any solicitations of his own, 
W T hitelocke was again made a commissioner 
of the great seal (22 Jan. 1659). In April 
1659 Richard consulted him on the quest ion 
of dissolving the parliament then sitting, 
which Whitelocke ineffectually opposed. 
He considered that the young Protector 
was betrayed by his near relations and by 
those of his own council. ' I was wary,' 
he concludes, ' what to advise in this 
matter, but declared my judgment honestly, 
and for the good of Richard, when my 
advice was required ' (ib. iv. 337, 339, 343). 
The fall of Richard did not necessarily imply 
the fall of Whitelocke. As a member of 
the Long parliament he took his place 
again in that assembly when it was re- 
stored, and was elected by it a member of 
the new council of state (14 May). He 
lost, however, the commissionership of the 
great seal, which was placed in new hands 
(14 May). Parliament charged him to bring 
in a bill for the union of England and Scot- 
land, which it was held necessary to re-enact, 
and offered him the post of ambassador to 
Sweden, which he refused (ib. iv. 351, 355). 
His enemy, Thomas Scott (d. 1660) [q. v.l 
accused him of being in correspondence with 
Charles II, but the charge was discredited 
(ib. iv. 349). In August 1659 Whitelocke 
was elected president of the council of state, 
and, holding that post at the time of Sir 
George Booth's insurrection, was enabled to 
show favour to Booth and other royalists, 
which stood him in good stead at the Resto- 
ration (ib. iv. 357). When the army turned 
out the Long parliament again (11 Oct.), 
Whitelocke was one of the committee of 
safety appointed by the officers to succeed 
the council of state. According to his own 



account he accepted the post offered him 
solely to prevent Vane and his party from 
compassing the overthrow of magistracy and 
ministry which the officers were too much 
inclined to do (ib. iv. 367 ; cf. LUDLOW, Me- 
moirs, ii. 161, ed. 1894). He was appointed 
one of the committee to draw up a scheme 
for a new constitution (ib. ii. 149; cf. Memo- 
rials, iv. 385). On 1 Nov. 1659 the great 
seal was again committed to his keeping, and 
in December he consented to issue writs for 
a new parliament (ib. iv. 369, 373, 375, 379, 
383). When Monck declared for the re- 
storation of the Long parliament, White- 
locke, in company of Fleetwood and Des- 
borough, made a speech to the lord mayor 
and common council warning then against 
his designs (Old Parl. Hist. xxii. 10). Ac- 
cording to his own account he distrusted 
Monck throughout, urged Lambert to attack 
him at once instead ot allowing him to gain 
time by negotiating, and, finally perceiving 
that he meant to restore Charles II uncon- 
ditionally, urged Fleetwood to anticipate 
him by offering to restore the king upon 
terms. Whitelocke offered to be Fleetwood's 
emissary to Charles II himself, but, after at 
first consenting, Fleetwood drew back, and 
Whitelocke's plan was frustrated (MemoriaL 
iv. 373, 377, 381). 

When the military revolution collapsed 
and the Long parliament was a second time 
restored, Whitelocke found himself in dan- 
ger for acting on the committee of safety. 
His enemy Scot threatened to have him 
hanged with the great seal about his neck, 
there was a report that he would be sent to 
the Tower, and evident signs of impending 
prosecution. To be out of the way he re- 
tired to the country, while his wife prepared 
for the worst by burning many of his papers 
(ib. iv. 384, 386; cf. Commons' Journals, vit. 
820, 833 ; Clarendon State Papers, iii. 639, 
648). He escaped, however, all punishment, 
and at the restoration of Charles II he was 
equally fortunate. Clarendon classes to- 
gether Whitelocke and John Maynard as 
men who, though they ' did bow their knees 
to Baal and so swerve from their allegiance, 
had yet acted with less rancour and malice 
than other men ; they never led but followed, 
and were rather carried away with the 
torrent than swam with the stream ' (Life of 
Clarendon, i. 63). This view was general, 
and hence, when Prynne moved that White- 
locke should be excepted from the Act of 
Indemnity, the motion was not carried 
(14 June 1660). Sir Robert Howard, Sir 
George Booth, and other royalists who were 
under obligation to him, spoke in his favour, 
and it was also urged that he had sent 500/. 



Whitelocke 



Whitelocke 



to the king, and that his son James, who 
had been governor of Lynn in August 1659, 
had undertaken to secure it for Charles II 
(Old Part. Hist. xii. 347, 352 ; cf. Clarendon 
State Papers, iii. 473). According to family 
tradition the king demanded 90,000/. from 
Whitelocke for his pardon, and Whitelocke 
actually paid 50,000/. This, however, is con- 
tradicted by the dedication of Whitelocke's 
book. ' When it was in the power of your 
majesty and the purpose of men,' writes the 
author, 'to have taken my small fortune, 
liberty, and life from me, you were pleased 
most graciously to bestow them on me, and 
to restore me to a wife and sixteen children ' 
(WHITELOCKE, Memoirs of Whitelocke, pp. 
451- 3). No doubt, however, he paid some- 
thing to the king, and in his ' Annals ' he 
also mentions having paid 500/. to the Earl 
of Berkshire as compensation for the im- 
prisonment of Lady Mary Howard in 1659, 
and 250/. to Sir Robert Howard for the 
benefit of the lord chancellor in order to 
get his pardon passed under the great seal. 
During the rest of his life Whitelocke lived 
in retirement at Chilton Park, near Hun- 
gerford in Wiltshire, which had been pur- 
chased with his third wife's fortune. He 
died on 28 July 1675, and was buried at 
Fawley, Buckinghamshire, or, according to 
other accounts, at Chilton (WOOD, Athenes, 
iii. 1041 ; WHITELOCKE, Memoirs of White- 
locke, pp. 446, 464). 

Whitelocke married three times : first, 
in June 1630, Rebecca, daughter of Thomas 
Bennet, alderman of London (Memoirs of 
Bulstrode Whitelocke, p. 65); she became 
insane and died on 9 May 1634 (ib. p. 107). 
Their eldest son, James, born on 13 July 
1631, served in Cromwell's guard in Ireland, 
was chosen colonel of an Oxfordshire militia 
regiment in 1651, was knighted by the Pro- 
tector on 6 Jan. 1657, represented Ayles- 
bury in the parliament of 1659, and died in 
1701 (ib. p. 69 ; Memorials, iii. 75, 135, 311, 
342, 413, iv. 338; LE NEVE, Knights, p. 422). 
Whitelocke married, secondly, on 9 Nov. 
1635, Frances, sister of Francis, lord Wil- 
loughby of Parham [<. v.], by whom he had 
nine children (Memoirs, p. 123). His eldest 
son by his second marriage, William White- 
locke, entertained William III on his jour- 
ney to London, and was knighted by him on 
10 April 1689 ( LE NEVE, p. 421). She died 
in 1649, and Whitelocke married, thirdly, 
about 1651, Mary, daughter of one Carleton, 
and widow of Rowland Wilson fq. v.] (Me- 
moirs, p. 282), by whom he had four sons 
and several daughters (LE NEVE, p. 422). 
An account of the distribution ' of his pro- 
perty among these different sons is given in 



II. H. Whitelocke's 'Life of Whitelocke' 
(Memoirs, pp. 457-64). 

An anonymous portrait of Whitelocke 
was lent by Mr. George Whitelocke Lloyd 
to the first loan exhibition at South Ken- 
sington in 1806 (Cat. No. 626) ; it was pur- 
chased by the trustees of the National Por- 
trait Gallery, London, in 1867. There are 
engraved portraits by Stent and Faithorae. 

Whitelocke was a very voluminous writer. 
His best known work, 1. ' Memorials of the 
English Affairs from the beginning of the 
Reign of Charles I to the happy Restoration 
of King Charles II,' was first published in 
1682. A second edition, with additions, was 
published in 1732. The first edition was 
edited by Arthur Annesley, earl of Anglesea, 
who was the author of the preface. A re- 
print of the second edition in four volumes 
was published at Oxford by the Clarendon 
Press in 1853. The value of Whitelocke's 
work was greatly overestimated by whig 
writers of the next generation, who opposed 
it to Clarendon's * History of the Rebellion ' 
as being more truthful and impartial. With 
this object Oldmixon published his ' Claren- 
don and Whitelocke compared,' 1727, 8vo. 
In reality Whitelocke's ' Memorials ' is a 
compilation put together after the Restora- 
tion, consisting partly of extracts from news- 
papers, partly of extracts from Whitelocke'a 
autobiographical writings, and swarms with 
inaccuracies and anachronisms (cf. SANFORD, 
Studies and Illustrations of the Great Re- 
bellion, p. 324). 2. Whitelocke's Annals 
of his Life. Only portions of this work 
have been published. Manuscripts of it are 
in the possession of the Marquis of Bute and 
Earl De la Warr (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd 
Rep. pp. 202-17). The British Museum 
possesses Whitelocke's history of the forty- 
eighth year of his age, interspersed with 
Scripture lectures addressed to his children 
(Bibl. Egerton 997, Plut,), and annals of 
his life from 1653 to 1656 (No. 4992). These 
are described in the preface to Reeve's edi- 
tion of Whitelocke's ' Swedish Embassy.' Ex- 
tracts from the annals and other autobiogra- 
phical writings are printed in R. H. White- 
locke's 'Life of Whitelocke,' 1860 (pp. 114, 
124). 3. ' Journal of the Swedish Embassy 
in the Years 1653 and 1654.' This was first 
published by Dr. Charles Morton in 1772 
and re-edited by Mr. Henry Reeve in 1855. 
It was translated into Swedish in 1777 (Up- 
sala, 8vo). Manuscripts of this journal and 
other papers relating to the embassy are in 
the British Museum (Nos. 4902 and 4991 A. 
Plut. cxxiii. H). Other manuscripts are in 
the possession of the Marquis of Bath and 
the Earl De la Warr (Hist. MSS. Comm. 

I 2 



Whitelocke 



116 



Whitelocke 



3rd Rep. pp. 190-217). 4. 'Notes on the 
King's Writ for choosing Members of Par- 
liament, 13 Charles II, being Disquisitions 
on the Government of England by King, 
Lords, and Commons,' published by Dr. 
Charles Morton in 1766 (2 vols. 4to). 5. ' Me- 
morials of English Affairs from the supposed 
Expedition of Brute to this Island to the 
end of the Reign of James I. By Sir Bui- 
strode Whitelocke, with some Account of 
his Life and Waitings by W. Penn, and a 
Preface by J. Wei wood,' 1709, fol. 6. ' Essays 
Ecclesiastical and Civil, to which is subjoined 
a Treatise of the Work of the Sessions of the 
Peace,' 1706, 8vo. 7. ' Quench not the Spirit, 
or Several Discourses, &c., with an Epistle 
to the Reader by W. Penn,' 1711, 8vo. 
Other unpublished theological works are 
mentioned by Mr. R. H. Whitelocke in his 
1 Life of Whitelocke ' (p. 447). 

The following are attributed to White- 
locke : ' Monarchy asserted to be the best 
Form of Government,' 1660, 8vo ; ' A Pro- 
posal humbly offered for raising considerable 
Sums of Money yearly to His Majesty, by 
James Lord Mordington, Bulstrode White- 
locke,' 1670?, folio; two tracts on the 
benefit of registering deeds in England : 
' The Draft of an Act for a County Register 
by the Lords Commissioners, Whitelocke and 
Lisle,' 1756, 8vo ; and ' A Proposal for pre- 
venting effectually the Export of Wool,' 
1695, fol. < My Lord Whitelocke's Reports 
on Machiavel,' 1659, 4to, is a satirical pam- 
phlet against him. 

[R. H. Whitelocke's Memoirs Biographical 
nnd Historical of Bulstrode Whitelocke, 1860 ; 
Lives of all the Lord Chancellors, 1 708, 8vo ; Mor- 
ton's preface to Whitelocke's Swedish Embassy, 
also reprinted in Reeve's edition of the same 
work; Foss's Judges of England, 1*48-64, and 
Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England, 
1870; Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chancellors 
and Keepers of the Great Seal ; about fifty of 
Whitelocke's letters are printed in the Thurloe 
State Papers ; Hist. MSS. Comm., 5th Rep. pp. 
312-13. Twenty-eight folio volumes of papers 
collected by Whitelocke are in the possession of 
the Marquis of Bath, Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd 
Rep. p. 190.] C. H. F. 

WHITELOCKE, EDMUND (1565- 
1608), courtier, born in the parish of St. 
Gabriel, Fenchurch Street, London, on 
10 Feb. 1564-5, was eldest son of Richard 
Whitelocke, merchant. The judge Sir James 
Whitelocke [a. v.] was a younger brother. 
After being educated at Merchant Taylors' 
school under Richard Mulcaster [q. v.], he 
was sent to Christ's College, Cambridge, 
"where he matriculated as a pensioner in j 
November 1581. He acquired at the uni- | 



versity a good knowledge of the classics and 
of Hebrew, and graduated B.A. in 1584-5. 
His brother attests that he studied law at 
Lincoln's Inn, and he may be identical with 
* Edward Whitelock of Berks ' who, accord- 
ing to the registers of the inn, was admitted 
a student on 25 Oct. 1585 (Lincoln's Inn 
Records, 1896, i. 102). At Whitsuntide 1587 
Whitelocke left London on a foreign tour. 
He visited universities in Germany, Italy, 
and France. Subsequently he obtained a 
commission as captain of a troop of infantry 
from the governor of Provence (M. Des- 
guieres), and was stationed successively at 
Marseilles and Grenoble. He saw some ac- 
tive service during the civil wars in France, 
and soon spoke French like a native. He 
finally returned to England in 1599, after 
an absence of twelve years. Thenceforth he 
spent his time and such substance as re- 
mained to him in attendance at Elizabeth's 
court, and won a reputation for profuse dis- 
play and dissolute living. He was on terms 
of close intimacy with many of the younger 
nobility, including Roger Manners, earl of 
Rutland, and other followers of the Earl of 
Essex. Rutland invited him to visit Essex's 
house in London on 30 Jan. 1601, the day 
fixed for the Earl of Essex's insurrection. 
He remained in the house only a few minutes, 
but he incurred a suspicion of disloyalty (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601, pp. 548, 596). 
He was arrested as an abettor of Essex's re- 
bellion, and was indicted of high treason, but, 
though brought before the court of king's 
bench, was not trie'd, but allowed to go on 
parole before he obtained a final discharge. 
Subsequently he came to know Henry Percy, 
ninth earl of Northumberland [q. v.], whom he 
zealously supported in his quarrel with Sir 
Francis Vere in 1602. A challenge which 
Whitelocke carried from the earl to Sir 
Francis led to the issue of a warrant by the 
privy council for his arrest ; but Whitelocke 
went into hiding, and escaped capture for 
the time (ib. Dom. 1601-3, pp. 202-5 ; MARK- 
HAM, Fighting Veres, pp. 334-6). He hap- 
pened, however, to dine with the Earl of 
Northumberland and his kinsman Thomas 
Percy on 4 Nov. 1605, the day preceding 
that fixed by the conspirators for the execu- 
tion of the ''gunpowder plot.' Suspicion 
again fell on Whitelocke, and, with his host, 
suffered a long imprisonment in the 
Tower of London. No evidence was pro- 
duced against him, and he was released with- 
out trial. While a prisoner in the Tower he 
spent much time with the Earl of North- 
umberland, who granted him a pension of 
W)/. (afterwards raised to 60/.) Another of 
Whitelocke's friends was Robert Radcliffe, 



Whitelocke 



Whitelocke 



fifth earl of Sussex [see under RADCLIFFE, 
THOMAS, third EARL OF SUSSEX]. Manning- 
ham the diarist attributes to Whitelocke's 
evil influence that nobleman's scandalous 
neglect of his wife. Whitelocke was on a 
visit to the Earl of Sussex at Newhall in Essex 
in the autumn of 1608 when he was taken 
ill and died. He was buried in the family 
tomb of his host at Boreham. 



pp. 
Ma 



[Whitelocke's Liber Famelicus (Camden Soc.), 
. iv, 5-10 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 494 ; 
nningham's Diary.] S. L. 

WHITELOCKE, SIR JAMES (1570- 
1632), judge, was born on 28 Nov. 1670, 
the younger of posthumous twin sons of 
Richard Whitelocke, merchant, of London, 
by Joan Brockhurst, widow, daughter of 
John Colte of Little Munden, Hertford- 
fordshire. His twin-brother, William, served 
under Drake, and fell at sea in an engage- 
ment with the Spaniards. Of two other 
brothers, the elder, Edmund, is separately 
noticed. For a liberal education and the 
means of starting in life Whitelocke was 
indebted to his mother, whose care and pru- 
dence surmounted the difficulties in which 
she was involved by an unfortunate third 
marriage with a spendthrift merchant named 
John Price. She placed Whitelocke in 1575 
at Merchant Taylors' school, whence, on 
11 June 1588, he was elected probationer at 
St. John's College, Oxford. He matricu- 
lated on 12 July following, and was elected 
fellow of his college in November 1589. 
Besides the classics and logic, in which his 
tutor was Rowland Searchfieldrq.v.J (after- 
wards bishop of Bristol), he studied Hebrew 
and the cognate tongues, and under Albe- 
rico Gentih [q. v.] 1 the civil law, in which 
he graduated bachelor on 1 July 1594. 
Among the contemporaries at Oxford with 
whom he formed lasting friendship were 
Laud, Humphreyfafterwards Sir Humphrey) 
May [q.v.l and Ralph (afterwards Sir Ralph) 
Winwood [q. v.] In London his taste and 
aptitude for learned research drew him into 
the circle of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton [a, v.], 
and about 1600 he joined the Society of 
Antiquaries. His professional studies he 
pursued first at New Inn, afterwards at 
the Middle Temple, where he was admitted 
on 2 March 1592-3, called to the bar in 
August 1600, elected bencher in Hilary term 
1618-19, and reader in the following Au- 
gust. His reading on the statute against 
pluralities, 21 Henry VIII, c. B, is in Ash- 
molean MS. 1150, ff. 1-8. 

YYhitelocke was appointed steward of the 
St. John's College estates in 1601, steward 
of and counsel for Eton College on 6 Dec. 



1609, and joint steward of the Westminster 
College estates on 7 May 1610. On 1 Aug. 
1606 he was chosen recorder of W T oodstock, 
for which borough he was returned to par- 
liament on 9 Feb. 1609-10. He represented 
the same constituency in the parliaments of 
1614 and 1621-2. In parliament he took 
the popular side, and especially distinguished 
himself in the debates on impositions in 

1610. He also acted as the mouthpiece of 
the commons on the presentation (24 May) 
of the remonstrance against the royal inhi- 
bition which terminated the discussion (see 
his speech in Stowe MS. 298, if. 84 et seq.) 
The subsequent proceedings drew from him 
(2 July) the masterly defence of the rights 
of the subject and delimitation of the royal 
prerogative which was long attributed to Sir 
Henry Yelverton [q.v.] A reprint of the argu- 
ment (from an edition of 1658) is in ' State 
Trials ' (ed. Cobbett, ii. 477 et seq.) A con- 
temporary summary ascribed to Whitelocke 
is in 'Parliamentary Debates in 1610' 
(Camden Soc., pp. 103 et seq. ; cf. Stowe 
MS. 297, ff. 89 et seq.) 

In 1613 Whitelocke's jealousy of prero- 
gative brought him into sharp collision with 
the crown. The administration of the navy 
stood in urgent need of reform, and in the 
winter of 1612-13 a preliminary step was 
taken by the issue of a commission investing 
the lord high admiral (Earl of Nottingham) r 
the lord chancellor (Ellesmere), the lord 
privy seal and lord chamberlain with extra- 
ordinary powers for the investigation of 
abuses and the trial of offenders. As legal 
adviser to Sir Robert Mansell [q. v.], who 
was interested in defeating the investigation, 
\Vhitelocke drew up a series of ' exceptions ' 
to the commission, in which he very strictly 
circumscribed the prerogative. A copy of 
the exceptions came into the hands of the 
crown lawyers, who at once suspected that 
they were Whitelocke's. Evidence was want- 
ing; but his contemporaneous opposition to 
the transfer of a cause in which he was re- 
tained from the chancery to the court of the 
earl marshal furnished a pretext for his com- 
mittal to the Fleet prison (18 May) ; and he 
was not released until he had made full sub- 
mission in writing (13 June). The detailed 
account which Whitelocke wrote of this 
affair is, unfortunately, lost ; and, as the 
text of the commission is also missing, it is 
impossible to pronounce whether his excep- 
tions were tenable or no. In any case, how- 
ever, his incarceration was a flagrant breach 
of counsel's privilege, which greatly in- 
creased his popularity. 

In the short parliament of 1614 White- 
was nominated with Sir Thomas Crew 



Whitelocke 



118 



Whifelocke 



[q. v.] and others to represent the commons 
in the projected conference with the lords. 
By reason of the sudden dissolution (7 June) 
the conference never met ; and on the day 
following Whitelocke and his colleagues 
were summoned to the council chamber, and 
compelled to make a holocaust of the notes of 
their intended speeches. Thus was lost a rich 
collection of material illustrative of the 
constitutional history of England during the 
reigns of the first three Edwards. In con- 
sequence of the disfavour in which he stood 
at court Whitelocke was compelled to sur- 
render (18 Nov. 1616) the reversion of the 
king's bench enrolments' office which he held 
jointly with Robert (afterwards Sir Robert) 
Heath [q. v.], by whom he was also defeated 
in the contest for the recordership of London 
in November 1618. Meanwhile, however, 
his professional reputation and gains in- 
creased. In 1616 he purchased the fine estate 
of Fawley Court, Buckinghamshire, which 
gave him the rank of a county magnate. He 
was placed on the commission of the peace 
for Buckinghamshire on 27 Nov. 1617, and 
for Oxfordshire on 7 May 1618. On 12 Jan. 
1618-19 he was appointed deputy custos 
rotulorum for the liberties of Westminster 
and St. Martin's-le-Grand. 

Notwithstanding political jars, White- 
locke stood, on the whole, well with Bacon, 
to whom he owed his investiture with the 
coif (29 June 1620) and subsequent advance- 
ment (29 Oct.) to the then important posi- 
tion of chief justice of the court of session 
of the county palatine of Chester, and the 
great sessions of the counties of Montgomery, 
Denbigh, and Flint ; upon which he was 
knighted. Shortly afterwards he was elected 
recorder by each of the four boroughs of 
Bewdley in Worcestershire, Ludlow and 
Bishop's Castle in Shropshire, and Poole in 
Cheshire. Differences with the president of 
the council in the Welsh marches (Lord 
Northampton) led to Whitelocke's trans- 
ference from the Chester court to the king's 
bench, where he was sworn in as justice on 
18 Oct. 1624. He had also a commission to 
hear causes in chancery, and sat once in the 
Star-chamber. He was continued in office 
by Charles I, by whom he was much re- 
snected. In the following autumn it fell to 
him, as junior judge in his court, to discharge 
the hazardous duty of adjourning term dur- 
ing the plague. To escape from the contagion 
he drove, halting only at Hyde Park Corner 
to dine, in his coach from Horton, near 
Colnbrook, Buckinghamshire, toWestminster 
Hall, and, after hurrying through the neces- 
sary forms, re-entered his coach and drove 
back to Horton. 



In November 1626 Whitelocke concurred 
with Sir Ranulph Crew [q. v.l in declining 
to certify the legality of forced loans. He 
did not, however, scruple to give the king 
the benefit of the doubt in the case of the 
five knights [see DARNELL, SIR THOMAS]. 
The bench at that date enjoyed as little in- 
dependence of parliament as of the crown ; 
and the remand was not allowed to pass 
without the citation of the judges to the 
House of Lords to answer for their conduct. 
They obeyed, and through Whitelocke's 
mouth condescended to put a false gloss on 
their order by representing it as only in- 
tended to allow time for further considera- 
tion (see COBBETT, State Trials, iii. 161, and 
Parl. Hist. ii. 289). In February 1628-9 
the House of Commons saw fit to inquire 
into the release of the supposed Jesuits re- 
cently discovered in Clerkenwell. White- 
locke, as one of the judges who had examined 
them, was cited to'justify the release, which 
he did on the ground that there was no evi- 
dence that the prisoners were in priest's^ 
orders. The stormy scenes which preceded 
the dissolution of this parliament (10 March) 
and the subsequent committal of Sir John 
Eliot [q. v.] and his friends to the Tower 
brought the judges once more into close and 
delicate relations both with the crown and 
with parliament. The evasion by the three 
common-law chiefs of the issues submitted 
to them by the king [see HEATH, SIR RO- 
BERT, and WALTER, SIR JOHN] was followed 
by the reference of substantially the same 
questions to the entire common-law bench 
(25 April). The points of law were again 
evaded, but eleven out of the twelve judges 
sanctioned proceedings in the Star-chamber. 
Of the eleven Whitelocke was one. He also 
concurred in the pusillanimous course taken 
after the argument upon the writs of habeas 
corpus, the application by letter to the king 
for directions, and the remand of the prisoners 
pending his answer (June). This was much 
against Whitelocke's grain, and at a private 
audience of the king at Hampton Court on 
Michaelmas day he obtained nis consent to 
the enlargement of the prisoners upon secu- 
rity given for their good behaviour, a con- 
cession which they unanimously rejected. 
On the trial Whitelocke concurred in the 
judgment. He died at Fawley Court on 
'2'2 June 1632. His remains were interred 
in Fawley churchyard, and honoured by 
filial piety with a splendid marble monu- 
ment. His estates were exempted by the Long 
parliament from liability to contribute to 
the fund for making reparation to Eliot and 
his fellow-sufferers. 

By his wife (married 9 Sept. 1602) Eliza- 



Whitelocke 



119 



Whitelocke 



beth, eldest daughter of Edward Bulstrod 
of Hedgerly Bulstrode, Buckinghamshire 
Whitelocke had, with female issue, a son 
Bulstrode, who is separately noticed. 

\\ hitelocke retained throughout life the 
tastes and accomplishments of the scholar 
His son records that on one occasion his Latin 
served him to expound from the bench witl 
perspicuity and elegance the course of lega 
proceedings to some distinguished foreigners 
who happened to be present at the assizes 
(WHITELOCKE, Memorials, ed. 1732, p. 18) 

Several papers by him, communicated to 
the Society of Antiquaries, are printed in 
Hearne's ' Collection of Curious Discourses 
(ed. 1771). Their titles are: (1) 'Of the 
Antiquity and Office of Heralds in England; 
(2) l Of the Antiquity, Use, and Privilege 
of Places for Students and Professors of the 
Common Laws of England ; ' (3) ' Of the 
Antiquity, Use, and Ceremony of Lawfu 
Combats in England ; ' (4) ' Our Certain and 
Definite Topographical Dimensions in Eng- 
land compared with those of the Greeks and 
Latins set down in order as they arise in 
quantity.' His ' Liber Famelicus,' or jour- 
nal, was edited by John Bruce, F.S.A., for 
the Camden Society in 1858. He was also 
author of ' A History of the Parliament of 
England and of some Resemblances to the 
Jewish and other Councils,' which is pre- 
served among the Ashburnham manuscripts 
(see Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. iii. 
20). His charge to the grand jury of Ches- 
ter, 10 April 1621, is in Harleian MS. 583, 
f. 48. 

[The Liber Famelicus ; Le Neve's Pedigrees 
of Knights (Harl. Soc.), p. 426 ; Croke's Geneal. 
Hist, of the Croko Family, i. 630; Croke's Rep. 
ed. Leach, Car. pp. 117, 268 ; Whitelocke's Mem. 
ed. 1732, pp. 13-15, 37 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 537, Fasti, i. 266 ; Merchant Tay- 
lors' School Reg. ed. Robinson; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon.; Fam. Min. Gent. (Harl. Soc.) iii. 1125, 
Registers (Harl. Soc.) v. 133 ; Li psco in b's Buck- 
inghamshire, iii. 561; Clutterbuck's Hertford- 
shire, i. 204 ; Cussans's Hertfordshire, ii. (Broad- 
water) 136 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, 
i. 65; Members of Parl. (Official Lists); Win- 
wood's Mem. iii. 460; Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th 
Rep. App. p. 312, 8th Rep. App. i. 638, 12th 
Rep. App. i. 172, 207, ii. 68, and 13th Rep. App. 
vii. 72; Spedding's Life of Bacon, iv. 346-57; Oil. 
State Papers, Dom. 1611-33; Nichols's Progr. 
James I, iii. 618; Documents connected \vith 
the History of Ludlow, &c., p. 240; Camdon 
Misc. vols. ii. and iv.; Chetham Misc. ii. 35; 
Court and Times of James I, i. 121, ii. 105,214; 
Court and Times of Charles I, i. 164; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, iii. 287, 307 ; Parl. Hist. i. 
1173; Stowe MS. 1045, ff. 58, 182; Vit 
Selectse quorundam Eruditissimorum ac Illus- 



triiini Virurum (17H),p. 455; Forster's Life of 
Sir John Kliot; Foss's Lives of the Judges; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England.] J. M. R. 

WHITELOCKE, JOHN (1757-1833) 
lieutenant-general, born in 1757, was the son 
of John Whitelocke, steward to the fourth 
Earl of Aylesbury, and probably a descend- 
ant of Bulstrode Whitelocke [a. v.] His 
mother died at Ramsbury, Wiltshire, on 
7 June 1809 (Gent. Mag. 1809, i. 589), and 
was buried as Sarah Liddiard (alias White- 
locke). He was educated at Marlborough 
grammar school, was placed by Lord Ayles- 
bury at Lochee's military academy at Chel- 
sea, and obtained through Lord Barrington 
a commission as ensign in the 14th foot on 
14 Dec. 1778. Owing to his previous train- 
ing he was appointed adjutant to a battalion 
of flank companies a few months afterwards. 
He was promoted lieutenant on 26 April 1780 
and went to Jamaica with his regiment in 
1782. Soon afterwards he married a daugh- 
ter of William Lewis of Cornwall, Jamaica, 
while another daughter was married to his 
brother officer, afterwards Sir Robert Brown- 
rigg [q.v.], who became military secretary and 
quartermaster-general. Matthew Lewis, his 
brother-in-law, was deputy secretary at war, 
and Whitelocke is said to have owed much 
to his influence. He obtained a company 
in the 36th foot on 12 May 1784, and a 
majority in one of the newly raised battalions 
of the 60th on 2 Oct. 1788. He went with it 
Lo the West Indies, and on 30 March 1791 
tie became lieutenant-colonel of the 13th foot, 
:hen stationed in Jamaica. In September 
1793, when the French part of San Domingo 
was in insurrection, he was sent thither with 
lis own regiment and some other troops, with 
the local rank of colonel. He landed at 
Feremie on the 19th with nearly seven hun- 
dred men. On the 22nd the fort at the mole 
)f Cape St. Nicholas surrendered. On 4 Oct. 
le made an attempt on Tiburon, but the pro- 
mised co-operation of French planters failed 
lim, and he was repulsed. Yellow fever soon 
roke out and reduced his small force, but 
at the end of the year it was joined by nearly 
ight hundred men from Jamaica. On 2 Feb. 
794 a fresh atteinnt was made on Tiburon, 
nd proved successful. He next tried to ob- 
ain possession of Port de la Paix by bribing 
ts commander, Lavaux, but his offers were 
ndignantly refused (Annual Register, 1794, 
>p. 174-5). On 19 Feb. he stormed Fort 
Acul, which was an obstacle to an attack 
n Port-au-Prince. On 19 May Bri^adier- 
eneral Whyte arrived with three regiments 
nd took the chief command. Whitelocke 
>ecame quartermaster-general, but he stipu- 



Whitelocke 



120 



Whitelocke 



lated that he should be allowed to lead the 
principal column in the attack on Port-au- 
Prince, and did so * with the greatest gal- 
lantry' on 4 June. He was sent home with 
despatches, and Major (after wards Sir Brent) 
Spencer expressed, on behalf of the troops, 
their hope that they might again serve under 
an officer ' who carries with him such uni- 
versal approbation and so well earned ap- 
plause' (Trial, App. p. 67). He was made 
brevet colonel on 21 Aug. 1795, colonel of 
the 6th West India regiment on 1 Sept., and 
brigadier on 10 Sept. After further service 
in the West Indies he was appointed bri- 
gadier-general in Guernsey on 12 Jan. 1798, 
and lieutenant-governor of Portsmouth on 
29 May 1799. He was promoted major- 
general on 18 June 1798, and lieutenant- 
general on 30 Oct. 1805. Shortly after this 
he was made inspector-general of recruiting. 

In 1806 General Beresford [see BERESFORD, 
WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT BERESFORD], with 
only twelve hundred men, had gained posses- 
sion of Buenos Ayres, but had been after- 
wards forced to surrender. The British go- 
vernment, in deference to the popular cry 
for new markets, determined to send a large 
force to recover it, and on 24 Feb. 1807 
Whitelocke was appointed to the command. 
He was also to undertake the civil govern- 
ment of the province when recovered. More 
than five thousand men had already been sent 
to Rio de la Plata, under Sir Samuel Auch- 
muty [q. v.], and a corps of four thousand, 
under Brigadier Robert Craufurd, which was 
on its way to Chili, was to join them. Re- 
inforcements from England would raise the 
total to eleven thousand men, of which not 
more than eight thousand were to be perma- 
nently retained. Whitelocke, accompanied 
by Major-general John Leveson-Gower as 
second in command, reached Montevideo on 
10 May, and on 15 June Craufurd's corps 
arrived. Whitelocke did not wait for the 
troops from England. He left a garrison of 
1,350 men at Montevideo, and on 28-9 June 
the army landed on the right bank of the 
river, at the Ensenada de Barragon, about 
thirty miles below Buenos Ayres. It con- 
sisted of nine battalions of infantry, two and 
a half regiments of cavalry (of which only 
150 men were mounted), and sixteen field- 
guns, and numbered 7,822 rank and file. 

The march was delayed by swamps, which 
caused a loss of guns and stores, but on 
2 July the advanced guard under Gower 
forded the Chuello, drove the Spanish troops 
back into Buenos Ayres, and took up a posi- 
tion in the southern suburb. They were 
joined on the afternoon of the 3rd by the 
main body, which had been misled by their 



guide. The town had a garrison of about 
six thousand and a population of seventy 
thousand. It was cut up into squares by 
streets 140 yards apart, parallel and perpen- 
dicular to the river. It was unfortified, but 
the streets were barricaded. Whitelocke's 
intention had been to establish himself on 
the west of it, with his left on the river, 
land guns, and bombard it. But he wished 
to save time, as the rains were impending, 
and to avoid alienating the inhabitants, so 
he determined to take it by assault. 

At 6.30 A.M. on the 5th eight battalions, 
formed in thirteen columns, entered the town 
with arms unloaded. They were to make 
their way, if possible, to the river by parallel 
streets, and occupy blocks of houses there. 
They were to avoid the central part of the 
town, the fort, and the great square, and to 
incline outwards, if at all. The columns on 
the right got possession of the Residencia, 
those on the left of the Plaza de los Toros ; 
but in the centre the 88th regiment and the 
light brigade (under Craufurd) met with 
stouter resistance from troops in the streets, 
and from the inhabitants on the tops of their 
houses. They found themselves isolated, 
and unable to advance or retire, and at 
length surrendered. Next morning White- 
locke received a proposal from the Spanish 
commander, Liniers, that hostilities should 
cease, that the prisoners on both sides should 
be restored, and that the British should 
evacuate the province, Montevideo included, 
within two months. If the attack were re- 
newed, Liniers could not answer for the 
safety of the prisoners. Of these there were 
1,676, and the total British loss was 2,500. 
Doubtful whether a fresh attack would be 
i successful, and convinced that if it were the 
i object of the expedition was no longer at- 
j tamable, and that the prisoners' lives would 
; be sacrificed to no purpose, Whitelocke, after 
j consulting Gower and Auchmuty, accepted 
Liniers's terms. The troops withdrew from 
Buenos Ayres on the 12th, and from Monte- 
video on 9 Sept. The indignation of soldiers 
and traders alike was unbounded. ' General 
Whitelocke is either a coward or a traitor, 
perhaps both !' was written up at the corners 
of the streets of Montevideo (WHITTING- 
HAM, p. 22). ' Success to grey hairs, but bad 
luck to white locks,' became a favourite toast 
among the men. 

Whitelocke reached England on 7 Nov., 
and on 28 Jan. 1808 he was brought before 
a court-martial at Chelsea. He was charged 
with, first, excluding the hope of amicable 
accommodation by demanding the surrender 
of persons holding civil offices at Buenos 
Ayres; secondly, not making the military 



Whitelocke 



121 



Whiter 



arrangements best calculated to ensure suc- 
cess ; thirdly, not making any effectual 
attempt to co-operate with or support the 
different columns when engaged in the streets ; 
fourthly, concluding a treaty by which he 
unnecessarily and shamefully surrendered 
the advantages he had gained at heavy cost, 
and delivered up the fortress of Montevideo. 
The trial lasted seven weeks, and on 18 March 
the court found him guilty of all the charges, 
with the exception of that part of the second 
charge which related to the order that ' the 
columns should be unloaded, and that no 
firing should be permitted on any account,' 
to which they attached no blame. They sen- 
tenced him to be cashiered. The sentence 
was confirmed by the king, and ordered to 
be read out to every regiment in the service. 

Whitelocke had much to urge in his defence. 
The expedition had been sent Out under the 
profoundly false impression that the inhabi- 
tants would be friendly, from experience of 
'the difference between the oppressive do- 
minion of Spain and the benign and protecting 
government of his Majesty.' The season and 
the swamps embarrassed him. The plan of 
assault was drawn up by Gower, and none 
of the other officers raised any objection to 
it, or showed any doubt of its success. Had 
Craufurd fallen back on the Residencia, as 
Pack, who knew the place, advised, the town 
would probably have been surrendered next 
day. 

But Whitelocke had shown' himself incom- 
petent throughout; infirm of purpose and 
wanting in resource, prone to lean on others, 
yet jealous of his own authority. He left a 
rearguard of sixteen hundred men idle, on 
the east of the Chuello, during the assault, 
and he himself remained passive all day, and 
went back to his headquarters to dine and 
sleep, without making any serious attempt 
to learn what had happened to his columns 
on the right. In the words of the general 
order, he was ' deficient in zeal, judgment, 
and personal exertion.' 

People asked how he came to be ap- 
pointed. According to Lord Holland, who 
was in the cabinet, he was an opponent to 
A\ indham's plan of limited enlistment, and 
\\ indhain wished to get rid of him as in- 
spector-general of recruiting (Memoirs of the 
Whig Party, ii. 116). But Windham him- 
self mentions that he suggested Sir John 
Stuart (of Maida), and the choice seems to 
have been mainly due to the Duke of York 
( \VIXDHAM, Diary, p. 467). 

He spent the rest of his life in retirement, 
latterly at Clifton. He died on 23 Oct. 
1833 at Hall Barn Park, Beaconsfield, Buck- 
inghamshire, the. seat of Sir Gore Ouseley 



[q. v.l, who had married his eldest daughter. 
Another daughter was married to Captain 
George Burdett, R.N. He was buried in 
the west aisle of Bristol Cathedral. 

[Georgian Era, ii. 475; Records of the 13th 
Regiment; Bryan Edwards's Hist, of the British 
West Indies, iii. 1 65-60; War Office Original 
Correspondence, No. 43, P.R.O. (1807, Buenos 
Ayres and Montevideo) ; Trial at large of 
General Whitelocke, 1808; Craufurd's Life of 
Craufurd ; Memoirs of Sir Samuel Ford Whit- 
tingham; Memoirs of M. G. Lewis; Erskine 
Neale's Risen from the Ranks, p. 67-95 ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 201, 455, x. 54, 8th ser. 
xii. 492 ; Gent. Mag. 1833, ii. 475.] E. M. L. 

WHITER.WALTER(1758-1832),philo- 
logist, born at Birmingham on 30 Oct. 1758, 
was at school under Dr. Edwards for ten 
years at Coventry, where Robert Bree, M.D. 
[q. v.], was a fellow-pupil. He was admitted 
at Clare College, Cambridge, on 19 June 1776 
as sizar, and graduated B.A. 1781, M.A. 
1784, but did not go out in honours. On 
4 April 1782 he was elected a fellow of 
Clare, probably on account of his reputation 
for classical and philological knowledge. 
He lived in his rooms in college from 1782 
to 1797. Person was one of his intimate 
friends, and often wrote notes on the margin 
of Whiter's books. Whiter's nephew pos- 
sessed a copy of ' Athenseus,' once the pro- 
perty of his uncle, with these annotations 
(WATSON, Porson, pp. 31-2). Person in 1 786 
added some notes of his own and of Whiter 
to an edition by Hutchinson of Xenophon's 
'Anabasis' (ib. p. 49). These were issued 
separately from Valpy's press in 1810, and 
George Townsend added them to his edition 
of 1823. 

Whiter was presented by his college in 
1797 to the rectory of Hardingham in 
Norfolk, and held the benefice until his 
death. His sense of clerical decorum was 
the reverse of strict. Baron Merian, in a 
letter to Dr. Samuel Butler of Shrewsbury 
school, writes : ' I pity Whiter. A great 
etymologist, perhaps the greatest that ever 
lived. A genius certainly, but it seems, like 
most eminent artists, dissolute ' (BUTLER, 
Life and Letters, i. 186). Every year on 
23 April, the day of St. George (titular saint 
of Hardingham church), it was his harmless 
practice to collect his friends at a picnic 
under a beech on a hillock called St. George's 
Mount, and to claim from each of them an 
appropriate poem in Latin or English. A 
specimen of his verses on one of these occa- 
sions is in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1816, 
i. 542-3). He died at Hardingham rectory on 
23 July 1832, aged 73 years (Norfolk Chro- 
nicle, 4 Aug. 1832), and was buried in its 



Whiter 



122 



Whiteside 



churchyard on 30 July, a large railed-iu 
tomb being erected to his memory. A bust 
of him is in the library at Clare College. 

Whiter wrote: 1. 'A Specimen of a 
Commentary on Shakspeare, containing (i.) 
Notes on " As you like it ; " (ii.) Attempt 
to explain and illustrate various Passages 
on a new Principle derived from Locke's 
Doctrine of the Association of Ideas,' 1794, 
pronounced by Mathias ' very learned and 
sagacious ' (Pursuits of Lit. 1798 edit. Dia- 
logue i. pp. 98-9). By 1819 he had collected 
sufficient matter for two or three volumes 
of notes. 2. ' Etymologicon Magnum,' a 
universal etymological dictionary on a new 
plan, Cambridge, 1800, part i. ; no more pub- 
lished. In his preface he enlarged on the 
value of the gipsy language. These views 
and his word-speculations interested George 
Borrow, who made his acquaintance and in- 
troduced him, as understanding some twenty- 
languages, into ' Lavengro,' 1851 edit. vol. i. 
chap. xxiv. (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 
370 ; KNAPP, George Borrow, ii. 5). Jeffrey 
wrote two articles on the ' Etymologicon 
Magnum ' in the * Monthly Review ' (June 
and July 1802), assigning to Whiter * much 
labour and shrewdness, with a considerable 
share of credulity.' 3. ' Etymologicon Uni- 
versale,or Universal Etymological Dictionary 
on a New Plan/ vols. i. and ii. 1822, vol. iii. 
1825. These three large quarto volumes were 
partly printed at the cost of the University 
Press. The first volume was originally issued 
in 1811, and the preface to the first volume in 
the collected edition of 1822-5 still retains 
the date of 15 May 1811. In this work- 
Whiter set out that ' consonants are alone 
to be regarded in discovering the affinities 
of words, and that the vowels are to be 
wholly rejected ; that languages contain the 
same fundamental idea, and that they are 
derived from the earth.' Baron Merian 
styled it ' splendid, a very fine book indeed ' 
(BuiLER, Life and Letters, i. 185). 4. ' A 
Dissertation on the Disorder of Death, or 
that State called Suspended Animation,' 
1819. In this he tried to show how the 
apparently dead should be treated with a 
view to their restoration to life. In the ad- 
vertisement at the end he announced ' a 
series of essays to be called " Nova Tenta- 
mina Mythologica, or Attempts to unfold j 
various Portions of Mythology by a new 
Principle.' These, and other manuscripts of 
W T hiter, are now in the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Library (Cat. of C'ambr. Libr. MSS. iv. 
521, 543-4). 

[Gent. Mag. 1832, ii. 185; Cockburn'a Lord 
Jeffrey, i. 127-8; three letters from Whiter to 
Dr. Samuel Butler in Additional M8S. (Brit. 



Mus.) 34585 ff. 200, 205 and 34587 f. 195 (ib. i. 
234-5, 237-40); information from the Kev. 
Dr. Atkinson, Clare College, Cambridge, and the 
Kev. C. S. Isaacson of Hardingham rectory.1 

W. P. C. 

WHITESIDE, JAMES (1804-1876), 
lord chief justice of Ireland, was born on 
12 Aug. 1804 at Delgany, co. Wicklow, of 
which parish his father, William Whiteside, 
was curate. Shortly after Whiteside's birth 
his father removed to Rath mines, near Dub- 
lin, where he died in 1806. Mrs. White- 
side was left in narrow circumstances, but 
she was devoted to her children, and to her 
the boy was indebted for much of his early 
education. He entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1822, and graduated B.A. in 1832. 
In 1829 he entered as a law student at the 
Inner Temple, and in 1830 he was called to 
the Irish bar. He did not attempt to prac- 
tise during his first year, preferring to study 
law in the chambers of Joseph Chitty [q. v.] 
While studying for the bar Whiteside occu- 
pied his leisure by contributing to the maga- 
zines a series of sketches, mostly of legal 
personages, much in the style of the ' Sketches 
Legal and Political ' of Richard Lalor Sheil 
[q. v.] These papers, which are written in 
a lively manner and evince considerable 
powers of observation, were collected and 
republished in 1870 under the title of * Early 
Sketches of Eminent Persons.' Among his 
subjects were James Scarlett, lord Abinger 
[q. v.l Thomas Denman, first lord Denman 
[q. v.J, Sir Charles Wetherell [q. v.], and 
William Conyngham, first lord PI unket[q.v.J 
From 1831 Whiteside's progress at his pro- 
fession was rapid, and he was made a queen's 
counsel in 1842. Rapidly gaining a reputa- 
tion for an eloquence which recalled the tra- 
ditional forensic splendours of Curran, Plun- 
ket, and Burke, his speech in defence of 
O'Connell in the state trials of 1843 placed 
him in front of all his contemporaries at the 
Irish bar. 

Shortly after the O'Connell trials White- 
side's health obliged him temporarily to re- 
linquish his profession. He visited Italy, 
and, taking much interest as well in the 
affairs of the peninsula as in the antiquities 
of Rome, he wrote and published his ' Italy 
in the Nineteenth Century,' 1848, 3 vols., 
and translated Luigi Canina's * Indicazione 
topografica di Roma Antica in Corrisppn- 
denza dell' epoca imperiale ' under the title 
1 Vicissitudes of the Eternal City.' Return- 
ing to active work, Whiteside acted as lead- 
ing counsel for the defence of William Smith 
O'Brien [q.v.] and his fellow-prisoners in the 
state trials at Clonmel in 1848. Three years 
later (1851) he entered parliament as conser- 



Whiteside 



123 



Whitfeld 



vative member for Enniskillen. In 1859 he 
was chosen as one of the representatives of 
Dublin University, and held this position 
until his elevation to the bench. Whit. - 
side's striking talent as a speaker made him 
a valuable accession to his party in the House 
of Commons, and on the formation of Lord 
Derby's first administration in 1862 he was 
appointed solicitor-general for Ireland, his 
brother-in-law, (Sir) Joseph Napier [q. v.], 
being attorney-general. In the same pre- 
mier's second government Whiteside filled 
the office of attorney-general. During the 
liberal administration (1859-66) Whiteside 
was in opposition ; but, despite the claims 
of his profession, he was able to devote much 
of his time to his parliamentary duties, and 
took an eminent part in the counsels of the 
conservative opposition. He attained a 
high position in the House of Commons, 
where his eloquence, wit, and geniality made 
him popular with all parties. In 1861, on 
his return to London after the marvellous 
speech in the celebrated Yelverton case 
the most famous of all his forensic efforts 
Whiteside received a remarkable compli- 
ment, being greeted with general cheers as 
he entered the House of Commons for the 
first time after the conclusion of the trial. 

On the return of Lord Derby to office in 
1866 Whiteside was again appointed attorney- 
general, but shortly afterwards accepted the 
office of chief justice of the queens bench 
in Ireland, on the retirement of Thomas 
Langlois Lefroy [q. v.] Whiteside's talents 
were rhetorical and forensic rather than 
judicial ; and though he brought to his high 
position great personal dignity and the 
charm of a singularly attractive personality, 
he was not very successful as a judge. lie 
presided in the queen's bench division for 
ten years ; but the last of these were clouded 
by ill-health. He died at Brighton on 
25 Nov. 1876, and was buried at Mount 
Jerome cemetery near Dublin. He married, 
in July 1833, Rosetta, daughter of William 
Napier and sister of Sir Joseph Napier [q. v.], 
sometime lord chancellor of Ireland. 

\\ hiteside's is one of the most brilliant 
names in the annals of the Irish bar. He 
was unapproached in point of eloquence by 
any of his contemporaries, and his powerful 
personality, at once winning and command- 
ing, gave him an almost unexampled pre- 
eminence. His forensic style has been de- 
scribed as * impetuously burying facts and 
law under a golden avalanche of discursive 
eloquence ; ' and his parliamentary oratory 
has been praised by Lord Lytton in his poem 
of ' St. Stephen's.' In person he was tall and 
gracefully proportioned. There is a statue 



of Whiteside in the hall of the Four Courts 
at Dublin, by Woolner. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography ; 
Annual Register, 1870; Dublin Univ. Mag. 
xxxiii. 326, xxxv. 213: Temple Bar, xiii. 264; 
Remains of Sir Joseph Napier ; Todd's Catalogue 
of Graduates, Dublin Univ. ; Law Magazine and 
Review, May 1877; O'Flanagan's Irish Bar; 
Brooke's Recollections of the Irish Church, 2nd 
ser.] C. L. F. 

WHITFELD or WHITFIELD, 
HENRY (d. 1660?), divine, is said by Ma- 
ther to have been second son of Ralph Whit- 
feld of Gray's Inn, by Dorothy, daughter of 
Sir Henry Spelman [q. v.1 He was more 
probably son of Thomas Whitfeld, lord of 
the manor of East Sheen and of Mortlake, 
who was licensed to marry Mildred Manning 
of Greenwich on 10 Jan. 1585 (Addit. MS. 
27984, f. 206). He appears to have taken 
holy orders, is described as B.D., and is said 
to have been appointed to the rich living of 
Ockley, Surrey, in 1616, although the regi- 
ster there contains no mention of his induc- 
tion. Mather (Hist, of New England, 1853, 
i. 592) says that, possessing a fair estate of 
his own besides the rectory, he put ' another 
godly minister ' in at Ockley, and went about 
preaching in the neighbourhood for twenty 
years as a conformist. As Nicholas Cul- 
pepper was instituted on 14 Sept. 1615, and 
the next rector, Hubert Nowell, on 15 Jan. 
1638-9, this may have been the case. Whit- 
feld wrote during this period ' Some Helpes 
to stirre up to Christian Duties ' (2nd edit, 
corrected and enlarged, London, 1634 ; 3rd 
edit. 1636). 

In 1639 Whitfield, who had become a 
nonconformist at the same time as Cotton, 
and refused to read the * Book of Sports,' 
resigned the rectory, sold his estate, and, 
accompanied by a number of his hearers from 
Surrey, Sussex, and Kent, embarked in May 
for New England. In July 1639 they landed 
at Newhaven, ' the first ship that ever cast 
anchor in that port,' and founded Guildford, 
Connecticut, Whitfield being the wealthiest 
of the six settlers who purchased the land. 
One of the first houses built was Whit- 
field's, called ' the Stone House ' (figured in 
APPLETON'S Cyclop, of American Biogr.} 
Members increased but slowly until 1643, 
when seven 'pillars' were chosen to draw 
up a doctrine of faith. After eleven years 
at Guildford, Whitfield returned to Eng- 
land. He settled at Winchester, where he 
became a member of the corporation. Brook 
says he died about 1660. 

By his wife, who came from Cranbrook, 
Whitfield had nine children, baptised at 
Ockley between 1619 and 1635. 



Whitfeld 



124 



Whitford 



Besides 'Some Helpes,' Whitfield was 
author of ' The Light appearing more and 
more towards the Perfect Day, or a Farther 
Discovery of the Present State of the In- 
dians in New England concerning the Pro- 
gresse of the Gospel amongst them ' (Lon- 
don, 1651, 4to ; reprinted in ' Massachusetts 
Historical Collections,' 3rd ser. vol. iv., and 
in Sabin's ' Reprints,' 1865, 4to). This was 
followed by 'Strength out of Weakness' 
(London, 1652, 4to), an account of the 
further progress of the Gospel in New Eng- 
land. 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, iii. 373; 
Savage's Geneal. Diet, of First Settlers, iv. 517 ; 
Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, i. 100 ; 
Proceedings of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth 
Anniversary of the Settlement of Guildford, 
Newhaven, 1889, pp. 49, 75, 149, 257, 262; 
Ruggle's Hist, of Guildford in Mass. Hist. Coll. 
iv. 183 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, vol. vi.; Drake's American Biogr. ; 
information from the Rev. F. Marshall of Ock- 
ley.] C. F. S. 

WHITFELD, JOHN CLARKE- (1770- 
1836), organist and composer, son of John 
Clarke (d. 17 Sept. 1802) of Malmesbury, 
Wiltshire, was born on 13 Dec. 1770 at 
Gloucester, and adopted by letters patent in 
1814 the family name of his mother, Am- 
phillis (d. 10 Nov. 181 3), daughter of Henry 
Whitfeld of The Bury, Rickmansworth, 
Hertfordshire. 

After a musical training at Oxford under 
Dr. Philip Hayes, Clarke-Whitfeld obtained 
in 1789 the post of organist in the parish 
church of Ludlow, and married in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1793 he took the Mus. 
Bac. degree at Oxford. In 1794 he suc- 
ceeded Richard Langton as organist and 
master of the choristers at Armagh Cathe- 
dral for three years; on 17 March 1798 
he was appointed choirmaster of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral and Christ Church, Dublin, after 
obtaining in 1795 the honorary degree of 
Mus. Doc. at Dublin University. His earliest 
glees and sonatas were written and partly 

Sublished in Ireland ; but the unsettled con- 
ition of the country at length induced him 
to resign his posts, and, returning to Eng- 
land, he settled at Cambridge, becoming 
organist and choirmaster to Trinity and St. 
John's colleges. To the masters and fellows 
were dedicated his three volumes, ' Services 
and Anthems ' (London, 1800-5). This col- 
lection was afterwards reprinted with a sup- 
plementary fourth volume, about 1840, by 
Novello, who also re-edited in various forms 
others of Clarke-Whitfeld's sacred works. 

In 1799 Clarke-Whitfeld was granted the 
degree Mus. Doc. Cambridge ad eundem from 



Dublin ; and in 1810 he was incorporated 
Mus. Doc. at Oxford. In 1821 , on the death 
of Dr. Hague, Whitfeld was appointed pro- 
fessor of music to the university of Cambridge, 
a post which he held until his death. To 
make leisure for composition he retired to 
the village of Chesterton, where he set to 
music many of Sir Walter Scott's verses. 
In the course of some amicable correspon- 
dence with the musician, Scott pleaded his 
' wretched ear,' but seemed gratified by the 
great flow of music inspired by his ballads 
and poems. He was now and then at pains 
to forward his manuscript to Whitfeld, so 
that words and music should see the light 
simultaneously (Annual Biography). Whit- 
feld worked only less industriously on the 
poems of Byron, Moore, and Joanna Baillie, 
setting their words to music in some hundred 
songs and part-songs. About 1814 he pub- 
lished two volumes of 'Twelve Vocal Pieces/ 
for which original material was contributed 
by these and other poets. 

" From 1820 to 1833 Whitfeld was organist 
and choirmaster of Hereford Cathedral, being 
frequently retained at the Three Choirs Fes- 
tivals to conduct or to preside at the piano. 
At the Hereford festival of 1822 he produced 
his oratorio, ' The Crucifixion,' and at that 
of 1825 its continuation, * The Resurrection ' 
(published London, 1835). Whitfeld died 
at Holmer, near Hereford, on 22 Feb. 1836. 
A mural tablet records his burial in the 
bishop's cloisters, Hereford Cathedral. 

Whitfeld's work was excellently adapted 
to the end he had in view, and to the wants 
of the period. His scores were musicianly 
and agreeable, and, like his songs, attained 
popularity. He did pioneer work in editing 
the scores of Purcell, Arne, and Handel, 
and his collections of ' Favourite Anthems ' 
(1805) and 'Single and Double Chants* 
(1810) were compiled with judgment. 

[Grove's Dictionary, i. 365, iv. 592 ; preface 
to vol. ii. Clarke's Anthems; Annals of the 
Three Choirs, pp. 106 et seq. ; Anmial Bio- 
graphy, 1837, p. 139; HavergaPs Hereford, p. 
102; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, 1815, i. 190; 
Abdy Williams's Degrees in Music; Whitfeld's 
works; private information.] L. M. M. 

WHITFORD, DAVID (1626-1674), 
soldier and scholar, born in 1626, was the 
fourth son of Walter Whitford [q. v.l, bi- 
shop of Brechin. He was educated at 
Westminster, where he was elected a queen's 
scholar on a royal warrant dated 21 March 
1639-40 (Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1639- 
1640, p. 567), and matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, graduating B. A. on 
30 March 1647, and M.A. on 14 Jan. 1660- 



Whitford 



Whitford 



1661. On the outbreak of the civil war 
he espoused the king's cause and ' bore arms 
with the garrison of Oxford.' Inconsequence 
he was deprived of his studentship by the 
parliamentary visitors in 1648, and returned 
to Scotland. There he attached himself to 
Charles II, and became an officer in his 
army. He took part in the battle of Wor- 
cester on 3 Sept. 1651, was wounded, taken 
prisoner, carried to Oxford, and conveyed 
thence to London, where his friends' impor- 
tunity obtained his release (cf. ib. 1651-2, 
. 11). He found himself in a state of 
istress from which he was relieved by (Sir) 
Edward Bysshe [q.v.], Garter king-of-arms. 
He obtained employment as an usher in 
Whitefriars in the school of the poet, James 
Shirley [q. v.], and in November 1658 was 
entered as a student of the Inner Temple. 
On the Restoration he was reinstated in 
his studentship by the visitors, but, finding 
himself disabled from holding it by the 
college statutes, he petitioned Charles II in 
December 1660 to grant him a dispensation 
(ib. 1660-1 , p. 432). On 26 July 1666 he was 
appointed chaplain to Lord George Douglas's 
regiment of foot (ib. 1665-6, p. 540). He 
afterwards became chaplain to John Mait- 
land, duke of Lauderdale [q. v.] In 1672 
he officiated as minister to the Scottish regi- 
ment in France (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 
ii. 448 a), and in 1673 he was appointed 
rector of Middleton Tyas in Yorkshire. He 
died suddenly in his chambers at Christ 
Church on 26 Oct. 1674, and was buried on 
the following day in the south transept of 
the cathedral, near his elder brother, Adam. 
Whitford was an excellent scholar, and 
published * Mussel, Moschi, et Bionis quee 
extant omnia, quibus accessere quaedam 
selectiora Theocriti Eidyllia,' Latin and 
Greek, London, 1655, 4to ; republished with 
a new title-page in 1659. The work con- 
tained a dedication to Bysshe. He also 
translated into Latin three treatises by Sir 
Edward Bysshe, entitled ' Note in auatuor 
Libros Nicholai Upton, de Studio Alilitari ' 
[see UPTOX, NICHOLAS], ' Notae in Johannis 
de Bado Aureo Libellum de Armis,' and 
' Note in Henrici Spelmanni Aspilogiam ' 
[see SPELMAN, SIR HENEY], which were 
published in one volume in 1654, London, 
lol. The last had been previously prefixed 
to Spelman's ' Aspilogia ' in 1650. Whit- 
ford was the author of an appendix to 
Wishart's ' Compleat History of the Wars 
in Scotland under the Conduite of James, 
Marquess of Montrose,' 1660, and of some 
complimentary verses prefixed to Francis 
Goldsmith's 'Hugo Grotius his Sophom- 
paneas, or loseph,' 1652. 



[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 742, 
1016-18, 1220; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
1852, p. 118; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, 
ii. 109; Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scoticanse in. ii. 
890 ; Dalton's Army Lists, 1892, i. 71 ; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. of the Colleges of Oxford, 
ed. Crutch, p. 513; Members admitted to the 
Inner Temple, 1547-1660, p. 373.] E. I. C. 

WHITFORD or WHYTFORD, RI- 
CHARD (Jl. 1495-1555?), 'the wretch of 
Syon,' obtained his name probably from 
Whytford, near Holywell, in Flint, where 
his uncle, Richard Whitford, possessed pro- 
perty. Wood states that he studied at Ox- 
ford, but this can have been only a tem- 
porary visit, since he was elected a fellow of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, about 1495. He 
was given leave of absence by his college for 
five years in 1496-7 that he might attend 
William Blount, fourth lord Mountjoy [q.v.], 
as chaplain and confessor, on the continent. 
In that capacity he received at Paris a letter 
from Erasmus, Lord Mountjoy's tutor, written 
shortly before 4 Feb. 1497, probably from 
the Chateau Tournahens, where Erasmus 
was staying. Erasmus addresses Whitford 
as his ' dear friend Richard,' and encourages 
him in his study of philosophy. In 1498 
tutor, chaplain, and pupil returned to Eng- 
land ; and perhaps at this time Whitford 
visited Oxford with Erasmus. Soon after- 
wards he became chaplain to Richard Foxe 
rq.v.l bishop of Winchester ; and Roper, in 
his 'Life of More,' reports that in 1504 he 
encouraged More in his resistance to 
Henry VH's exactions. The speech against 
Foxe ascribed to Whitford sounds apocry- 
phal, but the closeness of his friendship with 
More is attested by a letter written from 
'the country,' 1 May 1506, by Erasmus 
during his second visit to England. He 
sends Whitford a Latin declamation com- 
posed against the 'Pro Tyrannicida' of 
Lucian. This Whitford is to compare with 
a similar effort of More's, and to decide which 
is better. The letter contains an enthusiastic 
estimate of More's abilities. It states that 
Whitford used to affirm Erasmus and More 
to be ' so alike in wit, manners, affections, 
and pursuits, that no pair of twins could be 
found more so.' It concludes, 'Both of us 
certainly you equally love ; to both you are 
equally dear.' The letter occurs in the 
editions of these declamations which were 
printed with the translations from Lucian 
(e.g. Ludani Optiscu/a, Leyden, 1528, p. 
210). It forms the dedicatory epistle of 
Erasmus's version of the ' Pro Tyrannicida ' 
(Erasmi Opera, Le? den, 1 703, torn. i. ) When 
next heard of, Whitford, like his uncle, is 



Whitford 



126 



Whitford 



entered at the Brigittine house at Isleworth, 
Middlesex, known as Syon House. Wood 
says the uncle gave large benefactions to the 
convent, which was a double one for nuns ; 
and monks. The nephew is conjectured to 
have entered about 1507, at which time he | 
composed his first devotional treatise by re- 
quest of the abbess for the use of the nuns. 
The rest of his life was spent in the compo- 
sition and compilation of similar works, which 
had a wide vogue beyond the convent walls. 
The exactness of his scholarship has been 
criticised, but he acquired by degrees an 
English style of singular charm and sweet- 
ness. In 1535 Thomas Bedyll visited Syon 
House to obtain from the monks and nuns 
an acknowledgment of the king's supremacy. 
His letters to Cromwell show that Whit- 
ford's firmness was conspicuous. He resisted 
Bedyll's brutality with constancy and courage, 
but escaped any evil consequences, perhaps 
by the help of Lord Mountioy. At the dis- 
solution of Syon House he obtained a pension 
of 8/. and an asylum for the rest of his days 
in the London house of the Barons Mountjoy. 
He died before the end of Queen Mary's 
reign. 

He was author of: 1. ' A dayly exercyse 
and experyence of dethe, gathered and set 
forth, by a brother of Syon, Rycharde Whyt- 
forde. Imprinted by me John Waylande at 
London within the Temple barre, at the 
sygne of the blewe Garlande. An. 1537,' 
12mo. The preface states that this was 
written ' more than 20 yeres ago at the re- 
quest of the reverende Mother Dame Eliza- 
beth Gybs, whom Jesu perdon, the Abbes 
of Syon.' But this preface is not dated. 
Cooper (Athena Cantabr. i. 80) quotes an 
edition of the tract in 1531. The original 
composition of it has been referred to about 
1507. 2. 'The Martiloge in Englyshhe 
after the use of the chirche of Salisbury, and 
as it is redde in Syon with addicyons,' 
printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1526, 4to. 
The translator was Whitford, who gathered 
the additions ' out of the sanctiloge, legenda 
aurea, catalogo Sanctorum, the cronycles of 
Anton ine, and of Saynt vincent and other 
dyvers auctours.' The preface says the 
translation was made for the use of ' cer- 
taine religyous persones unlerned,' no doubt 
the nuns of Syon House. The book has 
been reprinted and edited with introduction 
and notes by F. Procter, M.A., and E. S. 
Bewick, M.A., F.S.A., 1893. 3. 'Saynt 
Augustin's Rule in English alone,' Wynkyn 
de Worde, n.d. [1525], 4to. The address by 
the translator to his 'good devout religious 
daughters ' says that he was asked to amend 
theEnglish version of their rule, but found 



it ' so scabrous rough or rude ' that he has 
translated it ' of new.' It was printed again 
by Wynkyn de Worde as ' The rule of Saynt 
Augustine both in latyn and Englysshe, 
with two Exposycyons. And also the same 
rule agayn onely in Englysshe without 
latyn or Exposycyon.' The longer exposi- 
tion is that of St. Hugh of Victor, the 
shorter is Whitford's. The book is dated 
28 Nov. 1525. 4. 'A werke for House- 
holders and for them that have the Gydyng 
or Governaunce of any Company,' printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde, 1530, 4to. This was 
reprinted with a slightly altered title in 
1537 by John Wayland, and in 1538 by 
Robert Redman. 5. ' The Four Revelations 
of St. Bridget,' London, 1531, 12mo. 6. 'The 
Golden Epistle of St. Bernard,' London, 
1531, 12mo. This was repu Wished in- 1537 
and 1585 along with other treatises of Whit- 
ford. 7. ' The Crossrune, or A B C. Here 
done folowe two opuscules or small werks 
of Saynt Bonaventure, moche necessarie and 
profy table unto all Christians specyally unto 
religyous persons, put into Englyshe by a 
brother of Syon, Richard Whytforde. Al- 
phabetum Religiosorum,' 1537, 12mo, 
printed by Waylande before No. 6. It came 
out first in 1532. 8. 'The Pomander of 
Prayer,' 1532, 4to, printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde. 9. Here begynneth the boke called 
the Pype or Tonne, of the lyfe of perfection. 
The reason or cause whereof dothe playnly 
appere in the processe. Imprynted at london 
in Flete strete by me Robert Redman, 
dwellynge in Saynt 'Dunstones parysshe, 
next the Churche. In the yere of our lord 
god 1532, the 23 day of Marche,' 4to. This 
was a treatise against the Lutherans. 10. 'A 
dialoge or Communicacion bytwene the 
curate or ghostly father and the parochiane 
or ghostly chyld. For a due preparacion 
unto howselynge,' followed by Nos. 7 and 6, 
printed by Waylande, 1537, 12mo. 11. ' A 
Treatise of Patience. Also a work of divers 
impediments and lets of Perfection,' London, 
1540, 4to (perhaps two works). 12. 'An 
Instruction to avoid and eschew Vices,' Lon- 
don, 1541, 4to; translated with additions 
from St. Isidore. 13. ' Of Detraction,' Lon- 
don, 1541, 4to; translated from St. Chry- 
sostom. 14. 'The following of Christ, 
translated out of Latin into English/ 1556, 
printed by Cawood; a second edition, 
' newly corrected and amended/ appeared in 
1685, printed probably at Rouen. The trans- 
lation was founded upon that of the first 
three books of the ' De Imitatione ' made by 
Dr. William Atkinson at the request of the 
Countess of Richmond in 1504. It is Whit- 
ford's most remarkable work, and may claim 



Whitford 



127 



Whitford 



to be in style and feeling the finest rendering 
into English of the famous original. It has 
been ' eaited with historical introduction bv 
Dom Wilfrid Kaynal, O.S.B.,' London, 1872. 
15. ' Certaine devout and Godly petitions 
commonly called Jesus Psalter. Cum Privi- 
legio. Anno 1583.' It is very probably con- 
jectured that this favourite boon of devotion, 
"known in modern times under the title of ' A 
Meditation Glorious named Jesus Psalter/ 
was Whitford's composition. In 1558-9 there 
is licensed to John Judson in the ' Stationers' 
Register ' ' The Spirituall Counsaile, Jesus 
Mattens, Jesus Psalter, and xv Oes.' A 
manuscript in the library of Manresa House, 
Roehampton, seems to be the book entered 
in the ' Stationers' Register,' and is nearly 
identical with the work published in 1583. 
There is an earlier edition printed at Ant- 
werp in 1575, and numerous later editions. 
The whole question of Whitford's authorship 
and the relation to each other of manuscript 
and editions is discussed in ' Jesu's Psalter. 
What it was at its origin and as consecrated 
by the use of many martyrs and confessors,' 
by the Rev. Samuel Heydon Sole, London, 
1888. This prints the manuscript of 1571, 
the edition of 1583, and the modern version 
of the Psalter. 16. A translation in the 
Bodleian Library of the ' Speculum B. Marise 
The Myrrour of Our Lady,' was almost 
certainly by Whitford. It was executed at 
the request of the abbess of Syon, and printed 
in 1530, 4to. Certain ' Solitary Meditations ' 
are also ascribed to Whitford by Tanner, 
without any date or comment. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 132 ; Tan- 
ner's Bibliotheca, p. 765 ; Cooper's Athenae 
Cantabr. i. 79; the introductory matter of 2, 14, 
and 15 above; Erasmi Epistolae, London, 1642, 
pp. 287, 1716; Drummond's Erasmus, i. 144, 
150; Seebohm's Oxford Keformers, p. 182; 
More's Life of Sir Thomas More, 1726, pp. 36- 
37 ; Jortin's Erasmus, i. 188 ; Letters and Papers, 
ed. Gairdner, 1534, Nos. 622, 1090; Wright's 
Letters relating to the Suppression of the 
Monasteries, pp. 40, 41, 45, 47, 49; Aungier's 
Hist, of Syon Monastery, 1840 ; Bateson's Cat. 
of Syon Library, 1898.] R. B. 

WHITFORD, WALTER (1581 ?-l 647), 
bishop of Brechin, born about 1581, was the 
son of Adam Whitford of Milntown (now 
called Milton Lockhart), by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Sir James Somerville of Cam- 
busnethan in Lanarkshire. The family of 
Whitford derives its name from the estate 
of Whitford in Renfrewshire on the Cart, 
which Walter de Whitford obtained for his 
services at the battle of Largs in 1263. 
Adam Whitford was accused of being con- 
cerned in January 1575-G in a conspiracy 



against the regent, James Douglas, fourth 
earl of Morton [q. v.] 

Walter was educated at Glasgow Uni- 
versity, where he was laureated in 1601, 
and afterwards acted as regent. On 10 May 
1604 he was licensed to preach by the pres- 
bytery of Paisley, and on 3 Dec. 1008 he 
was presented by James VI to the parish of 
Kilmarnock in Ayrshire. In 1610 he was 
translated to Moflfat in Dumfriesshire, where 
he was admitted before 8 June. In 1613 
he was nominated on the commission of the 
peace for Annandale (MASSON, Reg. of Privy 
Council, 1613-16, pp. 162-3, 546-7, 552), and 
was involved in several of the family feuds 
with which the county abounded (ib. 1616- 
1619, p. 389). 

On 27 June 1617 Whitford signed the pro- 
testation to parliament in support of the liber- 
ties of the kirk, but he suffered himself soon 
after to be won over by the king, and on 15 June 
1619 he was nominated a member of the 
court of high commission. On 30 Aug. he 
was constituted minister of Failford in Ayr- 
shire by James VI, in addition to his other 
charge. In March 1620 he received the de- 
gree of D.D. from Glasgow University; and 
on 4 Aug. 1621 he was confirmed in his 
ministry by act of parliament. In 1623 his 
commission of justice of the peace was re- 
newed, and he was appointed convener of the 
stewartry of Annandale (ib. 1622-5, p. 344). 
In the same year James proposed to trans- 
late him to Liberton in Midlothian, but failed 
to carry out his intention. On 25 Oct. 1627 
he was appointed one of the commissioners 
nominated by the king for taking measures 
against the papists (Reg. Mag. Sigil. Regum 
Scot. 1620-33, p. 356), which on 21 Oct. 
1634 was expanded into a high commission 
to cite and punish all persons dwelling in 
Scotland concerning whom there were un- 
favourable reports (ib. 1634-51, p. 94). On 
9 Dec. 1628 he was presented by Charles I 
to the sub-deanery of Glasgow, which after 
1670 formed the parish of Old Monkland in 
Lanarkshire. He removed thither in 1630, 
a dispute as to the crown's right of patronage 
preventing him from taking possession before ; 
and on 21 Oct. 1634 he was nominated to 
the commission for the maintenance of church 
discipline. 

In 1635 Whitford was consecrated by the 
bishop of Brechin as successor to Thomas 
Sydserff [q. v.], holding the sub-deanery in 
commendam until 1639, when he disponed 
his title to James Hamilton, third marquis 
(afterwards first duke) of Hamilton [q. v.] 
On 16 April 1635 he was created a burgess 
of Arbroath. Whitford used his episcopal 
authority to support the liturgical changes 



Whitford 



128 



Whitford 



which Charles I had introduced. The new 
service-book was very unpopular with the 
multitude, and in 1637. when Whitford an- 
nounced his intention of reading it, he was 
threatened with violence. Undeterred he 
ascended the pulpit, holding a brace of pistols, 
his family and servants attending him armed, 
and read the service with closed doors. On 
his return he was attacked by an enraged 
mob, and escaped with difficulty. The mini- 
ster of Brechin, Alexander Bisset, refusing to 
obey Whitford's commands to follow his ex- 
ample, the bishop caused his own servant to 
read the service regularly from the desk. This 
obstinacy roused intense feeling against him, 
and towards the close of the year, after his 
palace had been plundered, he was compelled 
to fly to England, where, with two other 
bishops, he violently opposed the Scottish 
treasurer, Sir John Stewart, first earl of 
Traquair [q. v.], whose moderation he dis- 
liked, drawing up a memorial against em- 
ploying him as a commissioner to treat with 
the Scots (BAILLIE, Letters and Journals, i. 
74). On 13 Dec. 1638 he was deposed and 
excommunicated by the Glasgow assembly, 
whose authority, in common with the other 
bishops, he had refused to recognise. In ad- 
dition to the ecclesiastical offence of signing 
the declinature, he was accused of drunken- 
ness and incontinence, and of 'useing of 
masse crucifixes in his chamber' (ib. i. 154). 
On 23 Aug. 1639 he and the other Scottish 
prelates drew up a protest against their ex- 
clusion from parliament (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
9th Rep. App. ii. 254). 

On 28 Dec. 1640 Whitford was living in 
London in great poverty (BAILLIE, Letters, 
i. 288), but on 5 May 1642, as a recompense 
for his sufferings, Charles presented him to 
the rectory of Walgrave in Northampton- 
shire, where he was instituted. In 1646 he 
was expelled by the parliamentary soldiery ; 
he died in the following year, and was buried 
on 16 June in the middle aisle of the chancel 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster. He married 
Anne, fourth daughter of Sir John Carmi- 
chael of that ilk, and niece of the regent 
Morton (DOUGLAS, Peerage of Scotland, 1813, 
i. 753). By her he had five sons John, 
Adam, David, Walter, and James and two 
daughters Rachel was married to James 
Johnstone, laird of Corehead, and Christian 
to William Bennett of Bains. James re- 
ceived a commission as ensign in the Earl 
of Chesterfield's regiment of foot on 13 June 
1667 (DALTON, Army Lists, i. 79). David 
and Walter (d. 1686 ?) are separately no- 
ticed. In 1660 Whitford's widow peti- 
tioned for a yearly allowance out of the 
rents of the bishopric of Brechin in con- 



sideration of the sufferings of her family in 
the royal cause (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
23114, f. 135). 

His eldest son, JOHN WHITFORD (d. 1667), 
divine, was presented in 1641, at the instance 
of Laud, to the rectory of Ashton in North- 
amptonshire, and instituted on 17 May. In 
1645 he was ejected, and took refuge with 
his father. lie was reinstated at the Re- 
storation, and on 5 July 1661 received a 
grant of 100/. in compensation for the loss 
of his books and other property (Acts of 
Parl of Scotl. vol. vii. App. p. 82). He 
died at Ashton on 9 Oct. 1667. "He married 
Judith (d. 5 March 1706-7), daughter of 
John Marriott of Ashton. 

The third son, ADAM WHITFORD (1624- 
1647), soldier, born in 1624, was a queen's 
scholar at Westminster school, and in 1641 
was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, whence 
he matriculated on 10 Dec., graduating B. A. 
on 4 Dec. 1646. Like his brother David, he 
enrolled himself in the royal garrison at Ox- 
ford, and was killed in the siege. He was 
buried in the south transept of the cathedral 
on 10 Feb. 1646-7. 

[Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scoticanae, i. ii. 655, n. i. 
172, in. ii. 889; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 1016 ; Keith's Catalogue of Scottish 
Bishops, 1824, p. 167 ; Registrum Magni Sigilli 
Regum Scotorura, 1620-33 pp. 243, 513, 1634- 
1651 pp. 40, 156, 214, 710; Bridges's Hist, of 
Northamptonshire, ed. Whalley, i. 284-5, 301, 
ii. 129-30; Baillie'sLetters and Journals (Banna- 
tyne Club), vol. i. passim ; Nisbet's Heraldry, 
1722, i. 376-7; Spottjswoode's Hist, of the 
Church of Scotland (Spottiswoode Soc.), i. 44 ; 
Calderwood's Hist, of the Kirk (Wodrow Soc.), 
vol. vii. passim; Black's Hist. of Brechin, 1839, 
pp. 51-2, 303-4 ; Row's Hist, of the Kirk of 
Scotland (Wodrow Soc.), pp. 269, 342, 388; 
Balfour's Annales of Scotland, 1825, i. 364, ii. 
309 ; Crawfurd's Description of the Shire of 
Renfrew, ed. Robertson, 1818, pp. 56-7; Me- 
moirs of Henry Guthry, 1748, p. 16; Irving's 
Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, 1864, ii. 420 ; 
Hewins's Whitefoord Papers, 1898; Kennet's 
Reg. and Chron. 1 728, p. 204 ; Hamilton's Descrip- 
tion of the Sheriffdoms of Lanark and Renfrew 
(Maitland Club), pp. 18, 79 ; Pitcairn's Criminal 
Trials, 1833, i. ii. 70; Munimenta Alme Glas- 
guensis (Maitland Club), passim ; Grub's Eccle- 
siastical Hist, of Scotland, 1861, ii. 353, iii. 32, 
42, 44, 88 ; Acts of Parliament of Scotland, iv. 
688, v. 46, 120, 129. 479, 505, 528, vii. 347; 
Spalding's Memorials of Trubles (Spalding Club), 
passim ; Peterkin's Records of the Kirk, 1843, 
pp. 26-7, 99-106 ; Paterson's Hist, of Ayr and 
Wigton, 1866, ii. 466 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. 
of the Colleges of Oxford, ed. Gutch, p. 510; 
Misc. Gen. et Herald. 2nd ser. i. 289; Laud's 
Works (Library of Anglo- Catholic Theol.), iii. 
313, vi. 434-5, 438, 590, vii. 427.] E. I. C. 



Whitford 



129 



Whitgift 



WHITFORD, WALTER (d. 1686 P), 
soldier, was the second son of Walter Whit- 
ford (1581 P-1647) [q. v.], bishop of Brechin. 
He fought on the sicle of the king in the civil 
war, attained t he rank of colonel, and, on the 
overthrow of Charles, took refuge in Holland. 
In 1649 Isaac Dorislaus [q. v.], who had 
taken an active part in the trial of the king, 
was appointed English envoy in Holland, and 
reached The Hague on 29 April. Among 
the followers of Montrose who swarmed in 
the streets of The Hague the feeling against 
the regicide was especially bitter, and a 
scheme was laid among them to murder 
the new envoy. On the evening of 12 May, 
as Dorislaus was sitting down to supper at 
the Witte Zwaan, six men burst into his 
rooms, and while some of them secured his 
servants, Whitford, after slashing him over 
the head, passed a sword through his body, 
and said, 'Thus dies one of the king's 
judges' (WooD, Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 
666). The whole party, leaving their victim 
dead upon the ground, made their escape, 
and Whitford succeeded in crossing the 
frontier into the Spanish Netherlands, where 
he was in perfect safety. All royalists re- 
ceived the news of the murder with un- 
bounded satisfaction. Even the staid and 
kindly Nicholas wrote of the assassination 
as ' the deserved execution of that bloody 
villain ' (CARTE, Letters and Papers, i. 291). 
Whitford accompanied Montrose in his last 
Scottish expedition in 1650, and was taken 
prisoner after the battle of Carbisdale on 
27 April (HEWINS, Whitefoord Papers, p. x). 
He was to have been beheaded on 8 June 
with Sir John Urry [q. v.], Sir Francis Hay, 
and other royalist officers, but, while being 
led to execution, exclaimed that he was 
condemned for killing Dorislaus, who was 
one of those who had murdered the last 
king. One of the magistrates present, hear- 
ing this, ordered him to be remanded, and, 
inquiry confirming his statement, * the coun- 
cil thought fit to avoid the reproach, and so 
preserved the gentleman.' The part he had 
taken in the murder of Dorislaus was 
1 counted to him for righteousness ' ( WISH ART, 
Deeds of Montrose, 1893, pp. 298, 496), and 
he was given a pass to leave the country on 
25 June (Acts of Par/, of Scotl vi. ii. 575, 
580, 588, 594). In August 1656 he was at 
the court of Charles (THURLOE, State Papers, 
v. 316), and ten years later Downing wrote 
to Thurloe : * As for Whitford, I did give 
De Witt two or three times notice of his 
lodging, and he must have been taken, but 
that it was always twenty-four hours ere an 
order could be had ; and he removed his 
lodging every night, and now he has gone 

VOL. LXI. 



to Muscovy, in a ship loaded with ammuni- 
tion ' (id. vii. 429). He entered the Russian 
service (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1663-4, 

f. 156), but returned to England before 
666, and on 14 July of that year petitioned 
for the post of town-major of Hull (ib. 
1665-6, p. 532). He subsequently petitioned 
for ' aid to keep his family from starving/ 
stating that he was disabled by old wounds 
(ib. Addenda, 1660-70, p. 632). Eventually 
he received a commission in the guards, and 
his paternal coat-of-arms was charged with 
three crosses patee, ' being added at bis 
majestie's speciall command' (STODDART, 
Scottish Arms, ii. 213). He was dismissed 
from the guards as a papist in 1673 (WoD- 
ROW, Hist, of the Sufferings of the Church 
of Scotland, ii. 232). James II granted him 
a pension on 31 Dec. 1686 (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1689-90, p. 382). During- 
his wanderings on the continent he entered 
the Duke of Savoy's service, and was there 
when the last massacre of the Vaudois was 
perpetrated. At the close of his life the 
remembrance of these atrocities preyed upon 
his mind. Bishop Burnet says ' he died a 
few days before the parliament met (in 
1686), and called for some ministers, and to 
them he declared his forsaking of popery, 
and his abhorrence of it for its cruelty' 
(BURNET, Hist, of his Own Time, p. 433). 
But according to Wood he was still living 
in Edinburgh in 1691 ( WOOD, Athena Oxon. 
iii. 1015). His son Charles was principal 
of the Scots College in Paris in 1714 (Brit. 
Mus. Cat. Addit. MS. 28227). 

[Balfour's Annales of Scotl. iv. 60 ; Claren- 
don's Hist, of the Rebellion, 1888, v. 121 ; 
Gary's Memorials of the Civil War, 1842, ii. 
131 ; Gardiner's Hist, of the Commonwealth 
and Protectorate, i. 73 ; Nisbet's Heraldry, 1722, 
i. 377; Stoddart's Scottish Arms, ii.213; White- 
locke's Memorials, p. 460; notes supplied by 
Hugh T. Whitford, esq.] 

WHITGIFT, JOHN (1530P-1604), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was eldest son of 
Henry Whitgift, a well-to-do merchant of 
Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, and Anne 
[Dynewell] his wife. According to Francis 
Thynne he was born at Great Grimsby in 
1533, but he himself declared that in 1590 
he reached the age of sixty. In childhood 
he attracted the favour of his uncle, Robert 
Whitgift, abbot of the Augustinian monastery 
at Wellow. The abbot was a liberal-minded 
ecclesiastic, and no blind opponent of the 
Reformation. Noticing his nephew's literary 
promise, he undertook the direction of his 
education. By his advice the boy was sent 
to St. Anthony's school in London, which 
had already numbered many distinguished 



Whitgift 



130 



.Whitgift 



men among its scholars. He lodged in St. 
Paul's Churchyard with his aunt, the wife 
of Michael Shaller, one of the cathedral ver- 
gers. She was a bigoted Romanist. Whit- 
gift was out of sympathy with her views, 
and she finally drove him from the house. 
In due time he proceeded to Queens' College, 
Cambridge, but soon migrated to Pembroke 
Hall, where he matriculated as a pensioner 
: in May 1550. At Pembroke Hall his predi- 
( lection for the reformed religion was rapidly 
confirmed. Nicholas Ridley [q. v.] was the 
master, and his first tutor was the convinced 
protestant John Bradford (1610? -1555) 
fq. v.], who afterwards suffered martyrdom. 
He was appointed a bible-clerk, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1553-4 and M.A. in 1557. 
Meanwhile his attainments were rewarded 
by his election on 31 May 1555 to a fellow- 
ship at Peterhouse. Andrew Perne [q. v.], 
the master, showed much liking for him, and 
although Perne's own religious views were 
pliant, he respected Whitgift's adherence to 
the principles of the Reformation. During 
the visitation of the university by Cardinal 
Pole's delegates in 1557, Perne screened him 
from persecution. Throughout Mary's reign 
Whitgift pursued his studies while engaged 
in college tuition. 

It was not until the position of the pro- 
testant reformation was assured in England 
by the accession of Queen Elizabeth that 
Whitgift definitely entered the service of 
the church. He did not take holy orders 
until 1560. His first sermon was preached 
soon afterwards at Great St. Mary's, the 
university church, on the text ' I am not 
ashamed of the gospel of Christ ' (Rom. i. 
16). His delivery was admirable, and his 
reputation as a preacher was made. In the 
same year Dr. Richard Coxe, bishop of Ely, 
invited him to become his chaplain, and also 
collated him to the rectory of Teversham, 
Cambridgeshire. In 1563 he proceeded 
B.D., and was appointed Lady Margaret 
professor of divinity in the university. His 
first lecture dealt with the identity of the 
I pope and Antichrist. Calvinistic views were 
in the ascendant in the university, and 

1 Whitgift throughout his career adhered to 
the doctrinal theories of Calvin; but he 
never approved the Calvinist principles of 
church government. In matters of ritual, 
however, he seemed for a time inclined to 
accept the views of the Calvinists. At first 
he shared the doubts of his future foe, 
' Thomas Cartwright, the leader of the Cal- 
/ vinists in the university, as to the surplice. 
On 26 Nov. 1565 he signed the petition to 
Sir William Cecil, chancellor of the univer- 
sity, entreating him to withdraw his recent 



edict enjoining the use of surplices in col- 
lege chapels. But these objections reflected 
a passing phase of Whitgift's opinions, and 
he was soon as convinced an advocate of 
Anglican ritual as of the episcopal form of 
church government. 

On 10 June 1566 he was licensed to be 
one of the university preachers. On 5 July 
following the university marked their esteem 
for his lectures as Lady Margaret professor 
by raising his salary from twenty marks to 
20/. Academic preferment flowed steadily 
towards him. On 6 April 1567 he left Peter- 
house on his election to the mastership of 
Pembroke Hall. At the same time he was 
created D.D. But he remained at Pembroke 
Hall barely three months. On 4 July he 
was admitted master of Trinity College, and 
shortly afterwards he exchanged his Margaret 



two years till October 1569. Within the 
same period, on 5 Dec. 1568, he was collated 
to the third prebendal stall at Ely, and his 
name reached the court. He was summoned 
to preach before the queen. She was deeply 
impressed by his sermon, punningly declared 
him to be her ' White-gift,' and gave order 
that he should be sworn one of the royal 
chaplains. But his chief energies were ab- 
sorbed by his academic duties. He sug- 
gested a revision of the statutes of the uni- 
versity, with a view to increasing the powers 
of the heads of houses. To them was to 
be practically entrusted the choice of vice- 
chancellor and of the ' caput,' a body which 
was to exercise supreme authority. The 
* caput ' was to be elected annually, and to 
consist of the chancellor and a doctor of 
each of the three faculties, with a non-regent 
and a regent master of arts (MTTLLINGER, 
pp. 222 seq.) The statutes passed the great 
seal in the form that Whitgift designed on 
25 Sept. 1570. The internal affairs of his 
college also exercised his constant atten- 
tion. The Calvinistic leader Cartwright was , 
a fellow of Trinity ; Whitgift was by nature ) 
a disciplinarian, and, while sympathising ( 
with the leading doctrines of Calvinism, / 
made up his mind to extend no toleration ) 
to Genevan principles of church govern- 
ment. Cartwright had of late powerfully S 
denounced episcopacy, which Whitgift re- ( 
garded as the only practicable form of church I 
government, and had divided the college 
and the university into two hostile camps. 
Whitgift believed that peace could best be 
restored by the removal of Cartwright. In 
November 1570 he was elected vice-chan- 
cellor. Taking advantage of the new uni- 
versity statutes, he induced his fellow-mem- 



Whitgift 



Whitgift 



bers of the 'caput' in December 1570 to 
deprive Cartwright of the Lady Margaret 
professorship of divinity, which he had held 
for a year. This decisive step he followed 
up in September 1571 by decreeing Cart- 
wright's expulsion from his fellowship at 
Trinity, which he had held for more than 
nine years. Whitgift's pretext was that 
Cart wright had not taken priest's orders 
within the statutory period. Such displays 
of resolution, while they increased his repu- 
tation with one section of the university, 
roused a storm of protest on the part of 
another. Whitgift retorted by threatening 
to resign the mastership and withdraw from 
the university. Six heads of houses on 
28 Sept. appealed to Burghley to show 
Whitgift some special mark of favour. They 
declared that Whitgift's disciplinary mea- 
sures were wise and beneficial, and that the 
university owed to him ' the repressing of 
insolence and the maintaining of learning 
and well-doing.' For the time his enemies 
acknowledged their defeat. 

M fan while he was preparing for with- 
drawal if the need arose. On 19 June 1571 
he was elected dean of Lincoln, and was in- 
stalled in the cathedral on 2 Aug. On 31 Oct. 
Archbishop Parker granted him a faculty 
authorising him to hold with the deanery the 
mastership of Trinity College, the canonry 
at Ely, the rectory at Teversham, and any 
other benefice he chose. He had no scruples 
about taking full advantage of so valuable a 
dispensation. On 31 May 1572 he was col- 
lated to the prebend of Xassington in the 
church of Lincoln, and, although he resigned 
the rectory of Teversham about August 1572, 
he at once accepted the rectory of Laceby, 
Lincolnshire (Notes and Queries, 8th ser/i. 
433). The clergy of the Lincoln diocese, 
with which he was thus associated in many 
capacities, returned him as their proctor to 
convocation, and towards the end of 1572 
Archbishop Parker nominated him to preach 
the Latin sermon. On 14 May 1572 he was 
chosen prolocutor of the lower house. 

Whitgift took wide views of the service 
he owed the church both inside and outside 
the university. He seized every opportunity 
that offered of championing its organisation 
against attack. In 1572 two violent tracts 
(each entitled ' An Admonition to the Par- 
liament') recommended the reconstitution of 
the church on presbyterian lines. The first 
' Admonition ' was by two London clergy- 
men, John Field and Thomas Wilcox [q.v.], 
and the second was by Whitgift's former op- 
ponent Cartwright. Whitgift at once took 
up new cudgels against Cartwright, and 
issued a pamphlet which was entitled ' An 



Answere to a certen Libel intituled An 
Admonition to the Parliament. By John 
Whitgifte, D. of Diuinitie ' (London, 1572, 
by Henrie Bynneman for Humfrey Toy; 
black letter). Whitgift's tract had a wide 
circulation, and reappeared next year 'newly 
augmented by the authour.' He wrote with 
force of his conviction that the episcopal 
form of church government was an essential 
guarantee of law and order in the state. 
Cartwright readily crossed swords with the 
master of his college, to whom he owed his 
expulsion, and his 'Replye' to Whitgift's 
1 Answere ' overflowed with venom. Whit- 
gift returned to the charge in his ' Defense 
of the Answere to the Admonition ' (Lon- 
don, 1574, fol.) * I do charge all men before 
God and his angels,' he solemnly warned 
' the godly reader ' at the conclusion of his 
preface, 'as they will answer at the day of 
judgment, that under the pretext of zeal 
they seek not to spoil the church ; under 
the colour of perfection they work not con- 
fusion ; under the cloak of simplicity they 
cover not pride, ambition, vainglory, arro- 
gancy ; under the outward show of godli- 
ness they nourish not contempt of magi- 
strates, popularity, anabaptistry, and sundry 
other pernicious and pestilent errors.' Cart- 
wright again answered Whitgift in both a 
'Second Replie' (1575) and 'The Rest of 
the Second Replie' (1577), but Whitgift 
deemed it wise to abstain from further direct 
altercation with his obstinate enemy. 

In 1573 Whitgift was for a second time 
elected vice-chancellor of Cambridge Uni- 
versity. On 26 March 1574 he preached 
about church government before the queen 
at Greenwich, and his sermon was printed 
and published. In 1576 he was a commis- 
sioner for the visitation of St. John's Col- 
lege, and in the same year entreated the 
chancellor of the university to take effective 
steps to prevent the sale of fellowships and 
scholarships (28 March 1576 ; STRYPE, Life, 
bk. i. cap. xiii ; MTJLLINGER, p. 269). But 
Whitgift's activities were now to find a wider 
field for exercise than was offered by aca- 
demic functions. On 17 March 1574-5 Arch- 
bishop Parker suggested his appointment to 
the see of Norwich, but the recommendation 
was neglected. Parker's second suggestion 
of a like kind was successful. On 24 March 
1576-7 Whitgift was nominated to the 
bishopric of Worcester; he was enthroned 
by proxy on 5 May 1577, and had restitu- 
tion of the temporalities on the 10th. Next 
month he resigned the mastership of Trinity, 
which had prospered conspicuously, as his 
successor Dr. Still eloquently acknow- 
ledged, during his ten years' vigorous rule. 

K 2 



Whitgift 



132 



Whitgift 



His pupils included many men who were to 
win distinction in after life among them 
Francis Bacon and Robert Devereux, second 
earl of Essex ; but the latter only formally 
entered the college a month before Whitgift 
left it. Whitgift stoutly protested against 
the claims of Westminster school to a prac- 
tical monopoly of scholarships at Trinity, 
after the manner in which the endow- 
ments of King's College were monopolised 
by Eton, and those of New College, Oxford, 
by Winchester. Whitgift secured a modi- 
fication of the Westminster monopoly, but 
that only proved temporary. Macaulay in his 
' Essay on Bacon ' misrepresented the effect, 
though not the spirit, of Whitgift's action, 
and erroneously assigned the distinguished 
part that Trinity College has played in the 
educational history of the country to W T hit- 
gift's opposition to the Westminster mono- 
poly CMULLINGER, pp. 272-7). After preach- 
ing farewell sermons at Great St. Mary's and 
in Trinity College chapel, the new bishop 
was escorted to his home at Worcester by a 
cavalcade of university friends. 

Whitgift discharged his episcopal func- 
tions with characteristic zeal. Every Sunday 
he preached either in his cathedral or in a 
parish church of his diocese. He cultivated 
the society of the gentry, and employed his 
influence to allay disputes among them. The 
story is told that two of his neighbours, Sir 
John Russell and Sir Henry Berkeley, be- 
tween whom there long existed a deadly feud, 
on one occasion arrived in Worcester each at 
the head of an armed band of friends and 
followers. Whitgift ordered the leaders to 
be arrested by his guard and to be brought 
to his palace. There he discussed with them 
their points of disagreement for two hours, 
with the result that they left his presence as 
friends. His judicial temperament caused 
him to be nominated a royal commissioner 
to visit the cathedrals of Lichfield and Here- 
ford. In both chapters serious quarrels 
were rife, and W T hitgift succeeded in ter- 
minating them. 

The queen proved her respect for him not 
merely by foregoing her first-fruits, but by 
resigning to him, so long as he remained at 
Worcester, the right, hitherto exercised by 
the crown, of filling the prebends in his 
cathedral church (4 Aug. 1581). But marks 
of royal favour did not imperil his indepen- 
dence or his sense of the duty he owed 
the church. The queen's favourite, the Earl 
of Leicester, showed little respect for church 
property, and he and his friends were in the 
habit of diverting to themselves the incomes 
of vacant sees. Leicester had shown sym- 
pathy with Cartwright, and had no liking 



for Whitgift. Whitgift now solemnly pro- 
tested against this misappropriation of eccle- 
siastical revenues, and in an elaborate and 
dignified speech which he pronounced before 
the queen solemnly warned her that her 
future salvation depended on the security 
she gave the inherited estates of the church 
(WALTON, Life of Hooker). The queen ac- 
knowledged the justice of the rebuke. But 
it was not solely ecclesiastical work that 
occupied him while he was bishop of Wor- 
cester. Soon after his elevation he was 
appointed vice-president of the marches of 
Wales in the absence in Ireland of the pre- 
sident, Sir Henry Sidney. He held the 
office for two years and a half, and performed 
multifarious administrative dutieswith bene- 
ficial energy and thoroughness. 

On 6 July 1583 Edmund Grindal, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, died at Croydon. On 
14 Aug. Whitgift was nominated to succeed 
him. He was enthroned at Canterbury on 
23 Oct. Unlike his three immediate pre- 
decessors Cranmer, Parker, and Grindal 
he took part in the ceremony in person 
instead of by proxy. His father had left 
him a private fortune, which enabled him 
to restore to the primacy something of the 
feudal magnificence which had characterised 
it in earlier days. He maintained an army 
of retainers. He travelled on the occasion 
of his triennial visitations with a princely 
retinue. His hospitality was profuse. His 
stables and armoury were better furnished 
than those of the richest nobleman. The 
queen approved such putward indications of 
dignityin her officers of state, and the friendly 
feeling which she had long cherished for him 
increased after he was installed at Lambeth. 
She playfully called him 'her little black 
husband,' and treated him as her confessor, 
to whom she was reported to reveal * the 
very secrets of her soul.' The whole care 
of the church was, she declared, delegated 
to him (t'A.) She was frequently his guest 
at Lambeth, and until her death the amity 
between them knew no interruption. 

Whitgift held the primacy for more than 
twenty years. His predecessor Grindal, 
owing in part to feebleness of health and in 
part to personal sympathy with puritanism, 
had outraged the queen's sense of order by 
tolerating much diversity of ritual among 
the clergy. Such procedure in Elizabeth's) 
eyes spelt ruin for the church and country.' 
The queen eagerly promised Whitgift a free 
hand on the understanding that he would 
identify himself unmistakably with the cause 
of uniformity. Whitgift had no hesitation 
in accepting the condition. From the first 
he concentrated his abundant energies on 



Whitgift 



133 



Whitgift 



regulating and rigorously enforcing disci- 
pline throughout thechurch's boun<l>. Puri- 
tan doctrine was not uncongenial to him, 
but with puritan practice wherever it con- 
flicted with the Book of Common Prayer 
or the Act of Uniformity he resolved to 
have no truce. To Roman Catholicism he 
was directly opposed in regard to both its 
doctrine and practice, but , like all the states- 
men of the day, he regarded Roman Catholi- 
cism in England chiefly as a political 
danger, and while supporting with enthu- 
siasm penal legislation of an extreme kind 
against catholics, he was content to let 
others initiate schemes for repressing the 
exercise of the papist religion. The stifling 
of puritanisra, especially in the ranks of the 
clergy, he regarded as his peculiar function. 
He not merely devised the practical mea- 
sures for the purpose, but refused to allow 
the queen's ministers to modify them, and 
closed his ears to arguments, however in- 
fluential the quarter whence they came, in 
favour of laxity in the administration of a 
coercive policy. 

His first step was to draw up in 1583 a 
series of stringent articles which, among 
other things, prohibited all preaching, read- 
ing, or catechising in private houses, and 
forbade any one to execute ecclesiastical 
functions unless he first subscribed to the 
royal supremacy, pledged himself to abide 
in all things by the Book of Common Prayer, 
and accepted the Thirty-nine Articles. The 
articles received the queen's sanction, and 
were put into force during AVhitgift's first 
visitation. All clergymen who hesitated 
to assent to them were suspended from 
their duties. On the anniversary of the 
queen's accession (17 Nov. 1583) the arch- 
bishop preached at St. Paul's Cross, and took 
for his text (1 Cor. vi. 10) ' Railers shall not 
inherit the kingdom of God ' (the sermon 
was published in 1589). At the same time 
he successfully recommended that the liipli 
commission court should be granted greatly 
augmented powers. By his advice the en >\vii 
delegated to the court, which was thence- 
forth to consist of forty-four commissioners, 
{twelve of them to be bishops), all its powers 
in the way of discovering and punishing 
heretics and schismatics. In 1584 Whitgift 
drew up a list of twenty-four articles, or 
interrogatories, which were to be adminis- 
tered by the amended court of high commis- 
sion to any of the clergy whom the court, 
of its own initiative, thought good to ques- 
tion. The new procedure obliged a sus- 
pected minister to answer upon oath (called 
the oath e.r officio) whether he was in the 
habit of breaking the law, and thus he was 



forced to become evidence against himself. 
Burghley doubted the wisdom of such courses, 
which he explained to Whitgift ' too much 
savoured of the Romish inquisition, and 
[were] rather a device to seek for offenders 
than to reform any.' Whitgift replied at 
length that the procedure was well known 
to many courts of the realm, but promised 
not to apply it except when private remon- 
strances had failed. The clergy and many 
inlliiential sympathisers protested against 
Whitgift's procedure with no greater effect. 
Such ministers of Kent as were suspended 
from the execution of their ministry ad- 
dressed a strong remonstrance to the privy 
council. The ministers of Suffolk followed 
the example of their Kentish colleagues. 
Leicester and other members of the council 
urged the archbishop to show greater modera- 
tion. Whitgift peremptorily refused. He 
asserted that the puritan ministers were 
very few in number. He knew only ten 
nonconformist clergy of any account in his 
own diocese of Kent, where sixty ministers 
enthusiastically supported his policy at all 
points. The House of Commons joined in 
the attack on the ex-officio oath and the 
new articles of subscription that Whitgift 
imposed on the clergy, but Whitgift retorted 
that the complaints came from lawyers 
whose learning was too limited to warrant 
any attention being paid to it. He declined 
to be moved from any of his positions, and 
in order to crush adverse criticism he caused 
to be passed in the high commission court 
on 23 Jan. 1586 an extraordinarily rigorous 
decree known as the Star-chamber decree 
which seemed to render~pirt>lic criticism 
impossible. No manuscript was to be set 
up in type until it had been perused and 
licensed by the archbishop or the bishop of 
London. The press of any printer who dis- 
obeyed the ordinance was to be at once 
destroyed ; he was prohibited from following 
his trade thenceforth, and was to suffer six 
months' imprisonment (ARBER, Transcript 
of Stationers' Company, ii. 810). Elizabeth's 
faith in the archbishop was confirmed by his 
rigorous action. He was admitted a mem- 
ber of the privy council on 2 Feb. 1585-6, 
and regularly attended its meetings thence- 
forth. The absence of Leicester in the Low 
Countries during 1586, and his death in 
1588, deprived the puritans of a powerful ' 
advocate, and the archbishop of a powerful ' 
critic. The patriotic fervour excited by the 
Spanish armada also strengthened Whitgift's 
hands, and officers of state prew less in- 
clined to question the wisdom of his policy. 
In 1587, on the death of Sir Thomas Brom- 
ley, he was offered the post of lord chancel- 



Whitgift 



134 



Whitgift 



lor, but declined it in favour of Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton, whose attitude to purit:ml>m 
coincided with his own and rendered him a 
valuable ally. In government circles AY 1 1 i t - 
gift's relentless persistency silenced all active 
opposition. 

The archbishop was not indifferent to the 
advantage of effectiv* literary support. Early 
in 1586 he recommended Richard Hooker 
[q. v.] for appointment to the mastership of j 
the Temple, and next year he silenced Walter 
Travers [q. v.], the puritan champion, who 
was afternoon lecturer at the Temple, and ' 
had violently denounced Hookers theo- 
logical views. Hooker dedicated to Whit- 
gift his 'Answer' to charges of heresy 
which Travers brought against him, and the 
archbishop evinced the strongest interest in 
Hooker's great effort in his ' Ecclesiastical 
Polity ' to offer a logical justification of the 
Anglican establishment. 

Meanwhile the activity of the archbishop 
exasperated the puritans, and, in spite of his 
enslavement of the press, they for a time 
triumphantly succeeded in defying him in 
print. John Penry [q. v.l and his friends ar- 
ranged for the secret publication of a series of 
scurrilous attacks on the episcopate which 
appeared at intervals during nearly two 
years under the pseudonym of ' Martin Mar- 
Prelate.' The fusillade began in 1588 with 
the issue of Martin Mar- Prelate's * Epistle,' 
and was sharply maintained until the end of 
1589. Throughout, Whitgift was a chief 
object of the assault. ' The Epistle ' (1588), 
the earliest of the tracts, opened with the 
taunt that Whitgift had never replied to 
Cartwright's latest contributions to the past 
controversy. Penry's address to parliament 
in 1589 was stated on the title-page to be an 
exposure of 'the bad & injurious dealing of 
tVArchb. of Canterb. & other his colleague! 
of the high commission.' In the ' Dialogue 
of Tyrannical Dealing ' (1589) Whitgift was 
denounced as more ambitious than Wolsey, 
prouder than Gardiner, more tyrannical than 
Conner. In the ' Just Censure and Reproof ' 
(1589) the pomp which characterised Whit- 
gift's progresses through his diocese was 
boisterously ridiculed : 'Is seven score horse 
nothing, thinkest thou, to be in the train of 
an English priest?' Elsewhere the arch- 
bishop was described as the 'Beelzebub of 
Canterbury,' ' the Canterbury Caiaphas,' ' a 
monstrous Antichrist,' and ' a most bloody 
tyrant.' The attack roused all Whitgifts 
resentment. He accepted Bancroft's pro- 
posal that men of letters should be induced 
to reply to the Mar-Prelate tracts after tin ir 
own indecent fashion, but he deemed it his 
personal duty to suppress the controversy 



at all hazards. lie personally directed the 
search for the offending libellers, and pushed 
the powers of the high commission court to 
the extremest limits in order first to obtain 
evidence against suspected persons, and then 
to secure their punishment. In his exami- 
nation of prisoners he showed a brutal inso- 
lence which is alien to all modern concep- 
tions of justice or Religion. He invariably 
argued for the severest penalties. Of two of 
the most active Mar-Prelate pamphleteers, 
Penry died on the scaffold, and Udal in 
prison. Nor did he relax his efforts against 
older offenders. In 1590 Cartwright was 
committed to prison for refusing to take the 
ex-officio oath. In all parts of the country's] 
ministers met with the same fate. But 
W 7 hitgift reached the conclusion that more 
remained to be done. In 1593 he induced 
the queen to appeal to parliament to pass an 
act providing that those who refused to at- / 
tend church, or attended unauthorised reli- j 
gious meetings, should be banished. In the ! 
result the church's stoutest opponents left 
their homes and found in Holland the liberty 
denied them in their own country. By such 
means Whitgift was able to boast that he 
put an end for a season to militant noncon- 
formity. 

After the crisis Whitgift showed with 
bold lack of logical consistency that he re- 
mained in theory well disposed to those 
portions of Calvinist doctrine which did not 
touch ritual or discipline. Cambridge was 
still a stronghold of Calvinist doctrine, and 
the Calvinistic leaders of the university 
begged Whitgift in 1595 to pronounce autho- 
ritatively in their favour. He summoned 
William Whitaker [q. v.], the professor of 
divinity, and one or two other Cambridge 
tutors to Lambeth to confer with him in 
conjunction with the bishops of London and 
Bangor and the dean of Ely. As a result of 
the conference Whitgift drew up on 20 Nov. 
1595 the so-called Lambeth articles, nine in 
number, which adopted without qualification 
the Calvinist views of predestination and 
election. The archbishop of York (Hutton), 
who was not present at the conference, wrote 
to express approval. Whitgift in a letter to 
the vice-chancellor and heads of colleges at 
Cambridge, while strongly urging them to 
allow no other doctrine to be taught pub- 
licly, stated that the propositions were not 
laws or decrees, but mere explanations of the 
doctrine of the church (24 Nov.) The 
queen did not appreciate Whitgift's attitude, 
and for the first time complained of his 
action. Through Sir Robert Cecil, her secre- 
tary, she bade the archbishop ' suspend ' his 
pronouncement (5 Dec.) Three days later 



Whitgift 



135 



Whitgift 



Whitgift confidentially informed l>r. 
master of Trinity, that the articles must 
not be formally published owing to the 
queen's dislike of them. He had only in- 
tended to let the Cambridge Calvinists know 
that ' he did concur with them in judgment 
and would to the end, and meant not to 
su'i'er any man to impugn [those opinions] 
openly or otherwise.' There the matter was 
allowed to drop. For the remaining years 
of ;he queen's reign Whitgift mainly con- 
/ fined his attention to administrative reforms. 
' Order was taken to secure a higher standard 
of learning among the inferior clergy (WiL- 
KINS, Concilia, iv. 321 ; CARDWELL, Synodalia, 
ii. -V 52), and canons were passed in 1597 to 
prevent the abuse of non-residence. It is 
said by his biographer Paule that he sought 
a reconciliation with Cartwright. But Whit- 
gift still fought hard for the independence 
of ecclesiastical courts, and, while revising 
their procedure, he protested in 1600 against 
the growing practice in the secular courts 
of law of granting ' prohibitions ' suspending 
th3 ordinances of the court of high com- 
mission. 

On the occasion of Essex's rebellion in 
January 1600-1, Whitgift, despite his per- 
sonal friendship for the earl, who was his 
old pupil, showed the utmost activity in 
anticipating an attack on the queen. He 
sent from Lambeth a small army of forty 
horsemen and forty footmen to protect the 
court in case of need. The archbishop's 
troop of footmen secured Essex's arrest at 
Essex House, and conducted him to Lam- 
beth before carrying him to the Tower. 
Whitgift attended Queen Elizabeth during 
her last illness, and was at her bedside when 
she died at Richmond on 23 March 1602-3. 
He acted as chief mourner at her funeral in 
Westminster Abbey. Meanwhile he was 
not neglectful of his relations with her suc- 
cessor. He attended the council at which 
James VI of Scotland was proclaimed king, 
and at once sent Thomas Neville, dean of 
Canterbury, to Edinburgh to convey his 
congratulations. He employed terms of 
obsequiousness which have exposed him to 
adverse criticism, but he was merely follow- 
ing the forms in vogue in addressing sove- 
reigns. At the king's invitation he forwarded 
a report on the state of the church, and re- 
ceived satisfactory assurances that the king 
would prove his fidelity to the Anglican 
establishment. In May Whitgift met the 
king for the first time at Theobalds on his 
way to London, and on 25 July celebrated 
his coronation. The puritans hoped for new 
liberty from the new regime, and Whitgift 
found himself compelled to adopt the king's 



suggestion of a conference with the puritan 
clergy, in order that the points of difference ; 
between them might be distinctly stated. 
The conference was opened at Hampton 
Court on 16 Jan. 1603-4. The king pre- 
sided. Whitgift attended as the veteran 
champion of orthodoxy, but it was left to 
Richard Bancroft, bishop of London, to take 
the leading part in the discussions. The 
archbishop was placed in an embarrassing 
position by the importunity of John Rai- 
noldes, the leader of the puritan disputants, 
in urging the formal adoption by the heads 
of the church of Whitgift's Lambeth articles. 
James I finally decided the main points in 
the bishops' favour. 

Whitgift was feeling the inconveniences of 
old age. In February 1604 he caught cold 
while travelling on his barge from Lambeth 
to the bishop of London's residence at Ful- 
ham to consult with the bishops on church 
business. A few days later the first Sun- 
day in Lent he went to dine at Whitehall, 
and while at dinner was stricken with para- 
lysis. He was removed to Lambeth. The 
king paid him a visit a few days later, but 
his power of speech was gone. He could 
only ejaculate at intervals the words ' Pro 
ecclesia Dei.' He died ' like a lamb,' ac- 
cording to his attendant and biographer, 
Paule on 29 Feb. 1603-4. The next day 
his body was carried to Croydon, and his 
funeral was solemnised there on 27 March 
1604 in great state. A sermon was preached 
by Gervase Babington, bishop of Worcester. 
In the south-east corner of the chantry of 
St. Nicholas in the parish church of Croy- 
don there was set up a monument on which 
lay his recumbent effigy, with his hands in 
the act of prayer ; the decoration included 
his armorial bearings as well as those of 
the sees of Canterbury and Worcester, the 
deanery of Lincoln, and the colleges of 
Peterhouse, Pembroke Hall, and Trinity, at 
Cambridge. The monument was much in- 
jured in the fire which nearly destroyed the 
church on 5 Jan. 1867. Thomas Churchyard 
[q. v.] issued on Whitgift's death a poem 
called ^Churchyards Good Will, sad and 
heavy Verses in the nature of an Epitaph ' 
(London, 160^ *o; reprinted in Park's 
4 Heliconia,' vti. iii.) Another ' epitaph' in 
the form of a pamphlet appeared anony- 
mously in the same year from the pen of 
John Rhodes, and a eulogistic life by the 
controller of his household, Sir George Paule 
[q. v.], was published in 1612. 

With his contemporaries Whitgift's cha- 
racter stood very high, in spite of the 
rancour with which he was pursued by 
puritan pamphleteers. The poet Thomas I 



Whitgift 



136 



Whitgift 



Bastard, in his ' Chrestoleros ' (1598), apo- 
strophised his ' excelling worth ' and purity 
(cf. GAMAGE, Linrie Wookie, 1621). Ac- 
cording to John Stow, who dedicated his 
'Annals 'to him in 1592, he was 'a man 
born for the benefit of his country and the 
{rood of his church.' Camden asserts that he 
devoutly consecrated both his whole life to 
God ana his painful labours to the good of his 
church.' Sir Henry Wotton terms him ' a 
man of reverend and sacred memory ; and 
of the primitive temper, as when the church 
did flourish in highest example of virtue.' 
Fuller pronounces him 'one of the worthiest 
men that ever the English hierarchy did 
enjoy/ Izaak Walton asserted that ' he was 
noted to be prudent and affable, and gentle 
by nature.' Hooker credited him with 
patience. Despite the pomp which he main- 
tained at Lambeth and on his visitations, 
he was not personally self-indulgent. When 
master of Trinity he usually took his meals 
with the undergraduates in the college hall, 
and shared 'their moderate, thrifty diet.' 
In his latest years he frequently dined witli 
his poor pensioners at his Croydon hospital, 
and ate their simple fare. But the ani- 
mosities which he excited by his rigorous 
coercion lived long after him, and such fea- 
tures in his character as these were over- 
looked or denied. Prynne, in his ' Antipathy 
of the English Lordly Prelacy' (1641), con- 
demned him not only for his oppression, but 
for his lack of spiritual temper, as evidenced 
by the magnificence of his household and 
his maintenance of a garrison of retainers. 
Macaulay, echoing the views of the puritan 
historians, calls him ' a narrow-minded, 
mean, and tyrannical priest, who gained 
power by servility and adulation, and em- 
ployed it in persecuting both those who 
agreed with Calvin about church government 
and those who differed from Calvin touching 
the doctrine of reprobation.' 

Whitgift's public work can only be fairly 
3 ^ed in relation to his environment. The 
ern conceptions of toleration and com- 
prehension, by which Macaulay tested his 
conduct, lay outside his mental horizon. 
He conceived it to be his bounden duty to 
enforce the law of the land in ecclesiastical 
matters sternly and strictly. The times 
were critical, and he believed the Anglican 
establishment could not resist the assaults 
of catholics on the one hand and puritans on 
the other unless they were repressed sum- 
marily and by force. His personal accep- 
tance of the doctrinal theories of some of 
the revolting clergy went in his mind for 
nothing when he was engaged in the practi- 
1 cal business of governing the church. The 



passive obedience of the clergy to the bishops 
in all matters touching discipline and ritual 
was in his eyes the fundamental principle of 
episcopacy. Active divergence from disci- 
pline or ritual as established by law, of 
which the bishops were sole authorised ia- \ 
terpreters, placed the clergy in the position \ 
of traitors or rebels. Much cruelty marked 
his administration, and he gave puritanism 
something of the advantage that comes of 
persecution. The effect of his policy was to 
narrow the bounds of the church, but within 
the limits that lie assigned it he made the 
Anglican establishment a stubbornly power- 
ful and homogeneous organisation which 
proved capable a few years later of main- 
taining its existence against what seemed to 
be overwhelming odds. 

W r hitgift was unmarried. Throughouthis 
life he encouraged learning and interested 
himself in education. At Lambeth, as at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, he took charge 
of young men to whose training he devoted 
much attention. According to his earliest 
biographer, Sir George Paule, 'his home, for 
the lectures and scolastic exercise therein 
performed, might justly be accounted a little 
academy, and in some respects superior and 
more profitable viz. for martial affairs and 
the experience that divines and other scholars 
had, being near, and often at the court and 
chief seats of justice, from whence they con- 
tinually had the passages and intelligences 
both for matters of state and government, 
in causes ecclesiastical and civil.' 

While rector of Teversham Whitgift and 
Margaret, widow of Bartholomew Fulnetby 
of that place, founded a bible clerkship at 
Peterhouse. They also settled 31. per annum 
for the relief of poor widows of the parish of 
Clavering in Essex. He gave to Trinity 
College a piece of plate and a collection of 
manuscripts. He also gave a manuscript of 
the Complutensian bible to Pembroke Hall, 
and a hundred marks to the city of Canter- 
bury. Under letters patent from Queen 
Elizabeth, dated 22 Nov. 1595, he founded 
at Croydon a hospital and a free school 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, for a warden, 
schoolmaster, and twenty poor men and 
women, or as many more under forty as the 
revenues would admit. The structure, a brick 
edifice of quadrangular form, was finished 
on 29 Sept. 1599, at a cost of 2,716/. 11*. Id., 
the revenues at that period being 18o/.4s.2d. 
per annum. Whitgift's statutes, from a manu- 
script at Lambeth, were printed in Ducarel's 
'Croydon,' 1783, and separately in 1810. 
The foundation is still maintained, and the 
endowment is now worth 4,000/. a year. 
The hospital maintains thirty-nine poor per- 



Whithorne 



137 



Whithorne 



eons, each male inmate receiving 40/. a year j 
and each female 30/. Two schools are now j 
supported out of the benefaction. The ori- j 
ginal school was removed to new buildings 
at Croydon in 1871, and in addition there 
has been opened the ' Whitgift Middle 
School.' 

The chief tracts and sermons published by 
Whitgift in his lifetime have been men- 
tioned. A. collection of these works, with 
much that he left in manuscript, was edited 
for the Parker Society by the Rev. John 
Ayre, Cambridge, 1851-3 (3 vols. 8vo). 
These volumes contain his tracts against 
Cart-wright, sermons, letters, and extracts 
from his determinations and lectures. Many 
notes by Whitgift remain in manuscript at 
Lambeth, in the Tanner manuscripts at the 
Bodleian Library, and in various collections 
at the Public Record Office and the British 
Museum. 

Portraits of Whitgift are at Lambeth 
Palace, at Knole, in the Whitgift hospital 
at Croydon, Durham Castle, the University 
Library, Cambridge, Trinity College, and 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, and the picture gal- 
lery at Oxford. His portrait has been en- 
graved in the ' Herooologia,' and by R. 
White, George Vertue, Thomas Trotter, 
and J. Fittler. 

[The earliest biography was the sympathetic 
Life ' written by Sir George Paule, knight, 
comptroller of his Graces Householde' (London, 
printed by Thomas Snodham, 1612; another 
edit. 1699); reprinted in Wordsworth's Ecclesi- 
astical Biography, vol.iv. There is a good sketch 
of the archbishop in Izaak Walton's Life of 
Hooker. But the fullest account is Strype's Life 
and Acts of Whitgifr, London, 1718, fol., with 
an engraved portrait by Vertue (1822, 3 vols. 
8vo, with an engraved portrait by J. Fittler). 
See also Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of 
Canterbury, vol. v. ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. 
vol. ii. ; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge ; J. Bass 
Mullinger's University of Cambridge from 1535 
to 1625, Cambridge, 1884, passim; Maskell's 
Martin Marprelate Controversy; Arber's In- 
troduction to the Martin Marprelate Contro- 
versy ; Acts of the Privy Council; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1576-1604; Collier's Eccles. Hist. ; 
Soames's Elizabethan Hist. ; Fuller's Church 
History; Ducarel's Croydon and Lambeth ; 
Hallam's Constitutional Hist. ; Garrow's Hist, 
and Antiq. of Croydon, with a Sketch of the 
Life of Whitgift, Croydon, 1818.] S. L. 

WHITHORNE or WHITEHORNE, 
PETER (/. 1543-1563), military writer, is 
described on the title-pages of his*books, first 
as student and then as 'fellow 'of Gray's Inn; 
but his name does not occur in the registers 
unless he be the P. Whytame who was ad- 
mitted a student in 1543 (FOSTER, p. 16). 



About 1550 he was serving in the armies of 
the emperor Charles V against the Moors, 
and was present at the siege and capture by 
the Spaniards of ' Calibbia,' a monastery in 
Africa. He also speaks of having been in 
Constantinople. While in Africa he trans- 
lated into English from the Italian Ma- 
chiavelli's treatise on the art of war, but it 
was not published till ten years later, when 
Whitehorne terms it ' the first fruites of a 
poore souldiour's studie.' It was dedicated 
to Queen Elizabeth and was entitled ' The 
Arte of Warre written first in Italian by 
Nicholas Machiauell and set forthe in Eng- 
lishe . . . with an addicion of other like 
Marcialle feates and experiments . . .,' Lon- 
don, 4to. The title-page is dated 'Anno 
MDLX. Mense Julii,' but the colophon has 
1 MDLXII Mense Aprilis.' Other editions 
appeared in 1573-4 and 1588, both in quarto. 
Whitehorne next produced an English trans- 
lation of Fabio Cotta's Italian version of the 
Greek ' Strategicus ' by Onosander, a writer 
of the first century A.D. It was entitled 
' Onosandro Platonico, of the General Cap- 
taine, and of his office . . . imprinted at 
London by Willyam Seres. Anno 1563,' 
and was dedicated to the earl marshal, 
Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, to whom 
Whitehorne 'wysheth longe life and per- 
petuall felicitie.' 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Library; Tanner's Bibl. 
Bnt.-Hib.] A. F. P. 

WHITHORNE, THOMAS (Jl. 1590), 
musical amateur, published in 1571 * Songes 
of three, fower, and fiue partes, by Thomas 
Whythorne, gent.' The collection consists 
of seventy-six pieces, mostly to devotional 
words, in'five part-books. They were well 
printed by John Day, the words in black 
letter. There are copies at the British Mu- 
seum, Bodleian, and Christ Church libraries. 
As was usual, Whithorne wrote both the 
words and music. Complimentary Latin 
verses, different in each of the part-books, 
are prefixed; and Whithorne is duly pro- 
mised immortality. In 1590 he published 
another collection entitled ' Duos,' contain- 
ing fifty-two pieces, some for treble and bass, 
some for two trebles or two cornets, and fif- 
teen canons. It is dedicated to the Earl of 
Huntingdon from London ; it was printed 
by Thomas East, and Whithorne's portrait, 
at the age of forty, is at the end of each 
part-book. The first twelve pieces are an- 
thems ; only the opening words of all the 
others are given. 

Whithorne was an amateur with an inor- 
dinate belief in his own powers. His works 
are ignored in the theoretical treatises of 



\Yhiting 



138 



Whiting 



Morley, Ravenscroft, and Campion ; nor 
were they mentioned by any critic until 
Burney described the 4 Songes,' dismissing 
both words and music as * truly barbarous.' 
1 I imbault, Rockstro, Husk, Davey, and Nagel 
all speak of them with contempt. The 
4 Duos ' are less bad, but are unknown to 
bibliographers, and are not mentioned even 
in Grove's * Dictionary.' In Brown and 
Stratton's 'British Musical Biography 'they 
are absurdly entitled * Bassavo.' 

A portrait of Whithorne, dated 1569, is in 
the possession of Mr. W. H. Cummings (cf. 
BROMLEY, p. 43). 

[Whithorne's Works in British Museum Li- 
brary; Burner's History of Music, iii. 119; Rim- 
bault's Bibliotheca Madrigaliana, p. vii ; Grove's 
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ii. 191, iv. 
454, 817; Davey's History of English Music, 
p. 138; NageFs Geschichte der Musik in Eng- 
land, ii. 288.] H. D. 

WHITING, JOHN ( 1656-1 722), quaker, 
son of John Whiting of Nailsea, near Bristol, 
where his yeoman ancestors had long owned 
a small estate, was born there in 1656. His 
mother Mary, daughter of John Evans of the 
same parish, and his father were converted to 
Quakerism in 1654 by John Audland and 
John Camm [q.v.] At their house were 
held the first meetings in Somerset. Whiting's 
father died in 1658. His mother in December 
1660 was sent with two hundred others to 
Ilchester gaol for refusing the oath of alle- 
giance. Released at the spring assizes at 
Chard, she married in 1661 Moses Bryant of 
Nailsea; by him she had three sons, and 
died in November 1666. 

Whiting was educated at a grammar 
school, but was brought up as a quaker. 
At his stepfather's death in 1672 he went 
to live with his new guardian, Edmond 
Beaks, at Portishead, and met there Charles 
Marshall (1637-1698) [q. v.] His sister 
Mary, born in 1654, was now a quaker 
preacher, and in August 1675 set out on a 
preaching journey towards London. In No- 
vember he joined her in Buckinghamshire. 
They visited quakers in Reading gaol, and 
reached London in December. Thence he 
returned home, while she travelled north- 
ward. ( >n 1 April 1676 he rejoined her at 
Norton, Durham, and found her ill ; she died 
there on 8 April 1676, aged twenty-two. 
Some time after, while in prison, he wrote 
4 Early Piety exemplified in the Life and 
Death of Mary Whiting, with two of her 
Epistles' (1(384 ?,4to; 2nd edit, 1711, 12mo). 

Soon after his return to Nailsea, Whiting 
was cited to appear in the bishop's court at 
Wells (28 May 1678) for not paying tithes. 



He was. however, appointed overseer of his 
parish, and was unmolested through the 
winter, but on 28 Jan. 1679 he was arrested 
and carried to Ilchester gaol. After eighteen 
months he was removed to the Old Iriary, 
allowed to walk out, and sometimes to visit 
Nailsea. Many other quakers were prisoners, 
and on Sundays they held meetings, which 
outsiders attended, in the great hall or in 
the walled orchard. Whiting- was in fre- 
quent correspondence with London Friends, 
who sent him books. He wrote much, and 
read the works of Boehme, Sir Walter Ralegh, 
and other authors. On James II's accession 
Whiting vainly tried to obtain his release. 
4 Liberty of conscience was in the press,' he 
says, 4 for it was so long in coming out.' 

When Monmouth arrived in Taunton, 
Whiting and his sister-in-law, Mrs. Scott, in- 
terviewed him. Considering the state of the 
country, Whiting thought best to surrender 
himself at Ilchester. There he was speedily 
thrust into irons among Monmouth's men, 
and spent six weeks chained to John Hips- 
ley, another quaker. He was allowed to go 
to his own room after thirteen weeks, in time 
to be an eye-witness of some of the atrocities 
of the ' Bloody assize ' (/Some Memoirs, pp. 
152-3). He remained a close prisoner until 
the king's proclamation about the end of 
March 1686. 

Whiting married Sarah Hurd on 20 May 
1686, and two years after moved to a shop at 
Wrington. There Penn often visited him, 
and held meetings. Whiting's autobiography 
ends in 1696. The remainder of his life was 
largely spent travelling in various counties 
in the south of England and in London, 
where he died in the parish of St. An- 
drew, Holborn, on 12 Nov. 1722. He was 
buried in the now vanished quaker burial- 
ground in Hanover Street, Long Acre, on 
the 16th. 

Many of Whiting's manuscripts remained 
unpublished. His 'Catalogue of Friends' 
Books '(London, 1708, 8vo), the first attempt 
at quaker bibliography, and his 4 Persecution 
Exposed, in some Memoirs of the Suffer- 
ings' (London, 1715, 4to; reprinted 1791, 
8vo), hold important places in quaker an- 
nals. He also wrote, besides smaller works : 
1. ' An Abstract of the Lives, Precepts, and 
Sayings of Ancient Fathers,' London, 1684, 
4to. 2. ' Judas, and the Chief Priests,' Lon- 
don, 1701, 4to (this was in answer to George 
Keith). 3. ' Truth and Innocency defended,' 
London, 1702, 8vo (in answer to aspersions 
on the quakers in Cotton Mather's 'His- 
tory '). 4. 4 Memoirs of Sarah Scott ' (his 
niece), London, 1703, 12mo; 2nd edit. 1711, 
8vo. 5. 4 The Admonishers admonished,' 



Whiting 



139 



Whiting 



London, 1765, 4to. 6. ' Truth, the strongest 
of all,' London [1706], 4to ; 2nd edit. 1709, 
4to. 7. ' The Rector corrected, or Forgery 
dissected,' London, 1708, 8vo. 8. 'Christ 
Jesus owned as he is God and Man,' London, 
1709, 8vo. He also edited 'Strength in 
Weakness,' memoirs of his fellow prisoner, 
Elizabeth Stirredge (London, 1711, 12mo; 
other editions, 1746, 1772, 1795 ; reprinted 
in the ' Friends' Library,' vol. ii. Philadelphia. 
1838); and the ' Journal of John Gratton,' 
(London, 1720, 8vo; 1779, 1795, and Stock- 
port, 1823 ; republished in the ' Friends' 
Library/ 1845, vol. ix.) 

[Memoirs above named ; Besse's Sufferings, 5. 
611, 612, 613, 641, 644, 647, 648 ; Smith's Cat. 
ii. 917-22.] C. F. S. 

WHITING, RICHARD (d. 1539), abbot 
of Glastonbury, graduated M. A. at Cambridge 
in 1483 and D.I), in 1505, and became a monk 
at Glastonbury (where he may previously 
have been a scholar) during the abbacy of 
Richard Bere (for conjectures, more or less 
plausible, of the date and place of birth, see 
GASQUET, The Last Abbot of Glastonbury, 
pp. 14, 19). He was admitted to the order 
of acolyte in September 1498, sub-deacon in 
1499, deacon in 1500, priest 6 March 1601 
(GASQUET, p. 28, quoting register of Bishop 
King of Bath and Wells). He held for 
some time the office of camerarius in the 
abbey. On the death of Bere in February 
1525 forty-seven of the monks gave their 
rights of electing into the hands of Wolsey, 
and on 3 March 1625 the cardinal appointed 
Whiting to the vacant abbacy (document in 
ADAM OF DOMERSHAM, ed. Hearne. vol. i. 
pp. xcvii sq.) After canonical investigations, 
&c., on 5 April 1525 he received restitution 
of the temporalities of the abbey (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, iv. i. 548). 

While abbot he appears frequently in the 
state papers as presenting Christmas gifts 
to the king, providing hawks, &c., negotia- 
ting concerning advowsons, and engaging 
lay clerks and organists. The property of 
the abbey was very large, and the abbot kept 
great state, bringing up nearly three hundred 
sons of the nobility and gentry besides other 
meaner folk ; he entertained sometimes five 
hundred persons of quality at once, and 
every Wednesday and Friday fed the poor 
of the neighbourhood. When he went abroad 
he was attended by over a hundred men. 
He entertained Leland, who in his first draft 
spoke of him as ' homo sane candidissimus, 
et amicus meus singulars' (Collect, vi. 70). 
In 1534 he took the oath of supremacy with 
his prior and fifty monks (Letters and 
Papers, vii. 296, 473 ; the oath was signed 



19 Sept., but had apparently been taken on 
1 June). 

The early investigations spoke well of the 
state of Glastonbury. Layton, writing to 
Cromwell 24 Aug. 1635, says that the monks 
are there 'so strait kept that they cannot 
offend, but fain they would ' (ib, ix. 50) ; 
and it has been suggested that the gladness 
with which the monks departed on the 
dissolution (WRIGHT, Dissolution of the 
Monasteries, p. 298) is evidence of the strict- 
ness of Whiting's rule (R. W. Dixon in 
English Historical Review, October 1897, 
p. 782). The abbot seems to have been 
anxious to be on good terms with Cromwell. 
He thanks him 'for his goodness to this 
house/ grants him a corrody formerly en- 
joyed by Sir Thomas More, ' wishing it a 
better thing' (Letters and Papers,'^.. 59, 105). 
Nevertheless the jurisdiction of the abbey 
over the town and district was suspended 
(ib. p. 231), and strict injunctions as to the 
management of the property and observance 
of the rules were given by the visitors (ib. 
p. 85). It was announced, however, that 
there was no intention of suppressing the 
abbey (ib. x. 180). 

In 1536 a friar preaching in the abbey de- 
nounced the ' new fangylles and new men ' 
(ib. p. 121), and this appears to have directed 
the attention of the court to alleged sedition 
in the house (ib. xii. 264). The property 
of the abbey was constantly being granted 
on leases to courtiers (ib. passim), andWhit- 
ing, writing from his castle of Sturminster- 
Newton, Dorset, 26 Jan. 1538, complains 
that his ' game in certain parks is much 
decayed by despoil ' (ib. vol. xiii. pt. i. p. 50). 
He appears to have been reassured about the 
same time by Cromwell against any ' fear 
of suppression or change of life' (ib. pp. 
211-12, and see Mr. GAIRDNER'S note), and 
at Christmas 1538 his servants received the 
usual present from the king (ib. pt. ii. p. 538). 

At the beginning of 1539 Glastonbury 
was the only religious house left untouched 
in the county. In September a new visitation 
was determined on. On 16 Sept. Layton 
wrote to Cromwell that Whiting, whom he 
had formerly praised, ' now appears to have 
no part of a Christian man ' (ib. xiv. ii. 54). 
On 19 Sept. Layton, Pollard, and Moyle 
arrived at Glastonbury, but, not finding the 
abbot, went to Sharpham, one of his manors, 
where they found and examined him, ap- 
parently touching the succession. He was 
then taken back to Glastonbury, and thence 
to the Tower. There has been much discus- 
sion as to the charge on which the abbot 
was arrested (see SANDERS, De Schismate, 
p. 135, ed. 1628 ; BURNET, Hist, of the Re- 



Whiting 



140 



Whitlock 



formation, p. 239; GODWIN, Annals, pp. 167- 
168; Letter* ami /'//.<?, xiv. ii. passim); 
but it seems certain t hat it was not concern- 
ing the royal supremacy, but the succession 
to the crown (see the commissioners' letter 
to Cromwell, WRIGHT, Dissolution of the 
Monasteries, p. 255; and Letters and Papers, 
\iv. ii. 136, where Marillac states that 
Whiting was 'put into the Tower because 
in taking the abbey treasures, valued at two 
hundred thousand crowns, they found a 
written book of the arguments on behalf 
of Queen Catherine '). 

( Mi -2 Oct., by which time the abbot was 
safe in the Tower, ' being but a very weak 
man and sickly ' (ib. p. 61 ), the commissioners 
reported to Cromwell that they had come to I 
the knowledge of treasons committed by him i 
(ib. p. 104). In the same month Cromwell I 
wrote his sinister ' remembrances ' touching , 
the abbot : ' Certain persons to be sent to | 
the Tower for the further examination of the i 
abbat of Glaston . . .' [for his own examina- 
tion of the abbot, see WRIGHT'S Dissolution 
of the Monasteries, p. 262]. ' The abbat of 
Glaston to be tried at Glaston, and also 
executed there with his complycys. Coun- 
sellors to give evidence . . . against the abbat 
of Glaston, Rich. Pollard, Lewis Forstew, 
Thos. Moyle. To see that the evidence be 
well sorted and the indictments well drawn&| 

Later ' remembrances ' repeat this, and re-] 
cord the vast sums received from the abbey | 
(Letters and Papers, xiv. ii. 424, 427). It is 
possible that a charge of embezzlement may 
nave been added to that of treason, but 
of this there is no clear evidence (compare 
GASQUET, p. 102, with the original letters, 
&c.), though the monks with Whiting seem 
to have been charged with ' robbing Glaston- 
bury church.' The abbot was sent down to 
"Wells in charge of Pollard. lie was ar- 
raigned at Wells on Friday, 14 Nov., and 
* the next day put to execution on the 
Torre Hill, next unto the town of Glaston' 
(WRIGHT, pp. 259-60, 261-2). At the 
moment of execution he asked the king ' to 
forgive him his reat offences, and took his 
death very patiently.' The monks who 
suffered with him were John Thorne and 
Roger James. His limbs were exposed at 
\\Vlls, Bath, Ilchester, and Bridgwuh-r. 

Whiting was 'beatified' in !*<)<;. II,. 
appears to have been a pious man, a good 
ruler, and a keen sportsman. 

[Besides the authorities quoted in the text, 
Hearne's History and Antiquities of Glaston- 
bury, 1722; Burnet's History of the Beforma- 
tion; Godwin's Annals; Sanders's De Origine 
Schismatis Anglicani; Engl. Hist. Rev. xii. 
781-5.] W. H. H. 



<Well . d x rawn ' add '(Letters and 
ers, xiv. 11. No. 399).' 



WHITLOCK, MRS. ELIZABETH (1761- 
1836), actress, the third daughter and fifth 
child of Roger Kemble [q. v.], was born at 
Warrington on 2 April 1761, and was ap- 
prenticed to a mantua-maker. After ac- 
quiring some experience in the country she 
went with her two elder sisters, Sarah (Mrs. 
Siddons [q. v.]), and Frances (Mrs. Twiss), 
to Drury Lane, where she made her first ap- 
pearance on 22 Feb. 1783 as Portia in the 
' Merchant of Venice,' a part she repeated on 
1 March. Here she remained two seasons, 
playing, through the influence of Mrs. Sid- 
dons, Margaret in ' A New Way to pay Old 
Debts,' Imogen, Leonora in 'Revenge,' El- 
vira in ' Love makes a Man,' Lucia in ' Cato,' 
Lady Touchwood in ' Double Dealer,' and 
Mrs. Marwood in ' Way of the World.' At 
the end of this period she went to York, and 
married on 21 June 1785 Charles Edward 
Whitlock, proprietor or shareholder of 
the Newcastle, Sunderland, Lancaster, and 
Chester theatres; him she accompanied to 
America, where she played principally in 
Annapolis, Charleston, and Philadelphia 
(where she played before Washington), with 
such success as to obtain an independency. 
On 18 June 1792 she made, as Mrs. Whitlock, 
her first appearance at the Haymarket, play- 
ing the Queen in the 'Battle of Hexham' 
and Julia in 'Siege of Calais.' On 30 Aug. 
1797 she first appeared at New York, at the 
Greenwich Street theatre, as Isabella in the 
'Fatal Marriage ' (BROWN, American Stage, 
p. 392). On 6 Oct. 1807 she reappeared at 
Drury Lane as Elwina in ' Percy.' She was 
announced as having returned from America, 
and her reappearance caused some sensation ; 
but she does not appear to have been seen 
more than once, and is no more heard of 
on the stage. The characters named are 
all in which she can be traced. She played 
others, however, a portrait of her, by De 
Wilde, as Margaret in the 'Earl of War- 
wick ' being in the Mathews collection in the 
Garrick Club. Her husband died subse- 
quently to 1812. She herself died on 27 Feb. 
1836. She was a more than respectable 
actress in tragedy, but the reputation of her 
sister, Mrs. Siddons, to whom she bore in 
youth some resemblance, stood in her way. 
Her voice was the best in the family, but 
she dropped it towards the close of a sen- 
tence. Her action was statuesque as well 
as powerful, but her bearing lacked spirit. 

[Most information supplied concerning Mrs. 
Whitlock is inaccurate, her husband's death 
being anticipated by more than twenty years, 
and her own appearances confused with those 
of her sister Fanny. The foregoing facts are 
derived from Genest's Account of the English 



Whitlock 



141 



Whitlock 



Stage, Campbell's Life of Siddons, Gent. Mag. 
(i. 438, 450), Fitzgerald's Lives of the Kembles, 
Monthly Mirror (1807, new ser. vol. ii.), Thes- 
pian Diet., Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror, and 
Thespian Mag. 1792-3.] J. K. 

WHITLOCK, JOHN (1625-1709), 
ejected divine, born in 16:25, was the son of 
Richard Whitlock, merchant, of London. 
His mother (born in 1596) died at Leighton 
on 2 April 1649, and was buried there. A 
small brass to her memory is in the church. 
On 23 June 1642 Whitlock was admitted a 
pensioner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1645 and M.A. in 1649. 
In 1643 he made the acquaintance of William 
Reynolds [q.v.], which quickly ripened into a 
close friendship, only broken after nearly fifty- 
five years' standing by the death of Reynolds 
in 1698. In the summer of 1645 Whitlock 
was invited to preach at Leighton Buzzard 
in Bedfordshire. He settled there in No- 
vember, and in the following month was 
joined by Reynolds, the two living under 
the same roof, studying in the same room, 
and writing at the same table. In the spring 
of 1648 Reynolds was invited to Aylesbury, 
and agreed to share the two places (Ayles- 
bury and Leighton) with his friend. Re- 
fusing the ' Engagement ' in 1649, they were 
deprived of their maintenance in both their 
places of ministry, and ceased to preach at 
Aylesbury in March 1650, and at Leighton 
in March 1651 . Later in 1651 Whitlock was 
presented to the vicarage of St. Mary's, Not- 
tingham, his friend Reynolds being joined 
with him as lecturer. In October 1651 they 
were both ordained at St. Andrews Under- 
shaft in London, and established their church 
after the presbyter ian form on their return 
to Nottingham. In July 1662 Whitlock 
was indicted at the sessions at Nottingham 
for not reading the common prayer, and, 
although the Act of Uniformity was not yet 
in force, he was suspended and his church 
sequestered. The two friends then sought 
refuge out of the town, and shared all dis- 
turbances and imprisonments [see REYNOLDS, 
WILLIAM! till the ' Indulgence ' of October 
1687 enabled them to return to Nottingham. 
Rooms at Bridlesmith Gate were certified in 
July 1689 for the joint use of the presby- 
terians Whitlock, Reynolds, and John Barret 
(1631-1713) [q.v.l, and the independent John 
Ryther (d. 1704) [see under RYTHER, JOHN, 
1634 P-1681]. A little later the two sects 
had separate houses, but even after the 
building of the presbyterian chapel on the 
High Pavement about 1690, they joined with 
each other in religious services. 

Whitlock continued to preach in the High 
Pavement Chapel until within two years of 



his death. He died on 4 Dec. 1709, and was 
buried in St. Mary's Church on 13 Jan. fol- 
lowing. He married, on 25 March 1652, a 
daughter of Anthony Tuckney [q. v.l suc- 
cessively master of Emmanuel and St. John's 
Colleges, Cambridge. Possessed of a fair 
property, he was liberal in the use of it. 
He was succeeded in the ministry by his 
son John, who died on 16 March 1723, aged 62, 
and was buried in St. Mary's on 20 March. 
A joint tablet to father and son is in the 
church. 

Besides single sermons, Whitlock pub- 
lished : 1. ' A Short Account of the Life of 
the Rev. W. Reynolds,' London, 1698 ; Not- 
tingham, 1807. 2. 'The Great Duty and 
Comfortable Evidence,' London, 1698. 

[Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, iii. 100- 
103 ; Carpenter's Presbyterianism in Notting- 
ham, passim; The Conformist's Fourth Plea 
for the Nonconformists, pp. 36, 43-4; Whit- 
lock's Life of the Rev. William Reynolds, 
passim ; Heywood and Dickinson's Noncon- 
formist Register, p. 287 ; Creswell's Collection 
towards a History of Printing in Nottingham- 
shire ; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), iii. 985; Blaydes's 
Genealogia Bedfordiensis, p. 387 ; Cat. of Dr. 
Williams's Library ; admission registers of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, per the master ; uni- 
versity registers, per the registrary.] B. P. 

WHITLOCK, WILLIAM (d. 1584), his- 
torian of Lichfield, was educated at Eton 
College, and elected to King's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1537. He graduated B.A. in 
1541-2, commenced M.A. in 1545, and pro- 
ceeded B.D. in 1553. On 18 Dec. 1558 he 
was presented by King's College to the 
vicarage of Prescot in Lancashire. On 
2 July 1560 he was admitted to the rectory 
of Greenford Magna in Middlesex, on the 
presentation of Sir Edward Thornton, and 
on 10 Jan. 1560-1 he was collated to the 
prebend of Curborough in Lichfield Cathe- 
dral. He died in or before February 1583- 
1584. He was a friend of John Twyne 
[q. v.] 

Whitlock is chiefly remarkable for his ad- 
ditions to the manuscript chronicle of Thomas 
Chesterfield [q.v.l This record of the bishops 
of Coventry and Lichfield extended to 1347. 
Whitlock added many details to the exist- 
ing chronicle, and compiled a supplement con- 
tinuing it to 1559. His manuscripts were 
used by Henry Wharton [q. v.] in 1691 in 
his ' Anglia Sacra,' who printed in that work 
Whitlock's additions to Chesterfield's manu- 
script under the title ' Additamenta ad His- 
toriam veterem Litchfeldensem,' and his 
supplement under the title ' Continuatio 
Histories Litehfeldensis ab anno MCCCLIX 
ad annum MDLIX.' The earlier date is 



Whitmorc 



142 



Whitney 



misleading, as Whitlock's chronicle begins 
after 1347. Whitlock's manuscripts are pre- 
served in the Bodleian Library (MSS. iNos. 
770 and 866), and in the Cottonian manu- 
scripts at the British Museum (Vesp. E. 16 
and Cleopatra D. 9). 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 485 ; Harwood's 
Alumni Eton. p. 156; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 
1 798 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. Anglican* ; Simms's 
Bibl. Stafford. 1894; Harwood's Hist, of Lich- 
field, pp. 223, 246 ; Cole's Collections in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 5815, f. 10 ; Newcourt's Repert. 
Eccles. Londin. i. 615 ; Willis's Survey of Cathe- 
drals, 1742, ii. 433, 461 ; Wharton'sAnglia Sacra, 
1691, vol. i. preface, p. xxxvi.] E. I. C. 

WHITMORE, SIR GEORGE (d. 1654), 
lord mayor of London, was the third son of 
William Whitraore (d. 8 Aug. 1593), a Lon- 
don merchant, by his wife Anne (d. 9 Oct. 
1615), daughter of Sir William Bond, an 
alderman of London. He was master of the 
Haberdashers' Company, and on 23 May 1609 
became a member of the Virginia Company 
under the second charter. He served the 
office of sheriff of London in 1621-2, and 
was alderman of the ward of Farringdon 
Within from 2 June 1621 to 7 Nov. 1626, 
when he exchanged to Laiigbourne ward, of 
which he was alderman until May 1643. 
On 7 July 1626 he and his elder brother, Sir 
William Whitmore, received a grant of the 
manor of Bridgwater Castle, with Heygrove 
in Somerset (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1625-6, 
pp. 369, 569). In 1631 he was chosen lord 
mayor of London, and on 27 May 1632 he 
was knighted. The pageants which cele- 
brated his entry into office are detailed in 
a pamphlet preserved in the Huth Library, 
entitled ' Londonslus Honorarium '(London, 
1631, 4to), compiled by Thomas Hey wood 
(d. 1650?) [q. v.J (cf. CORSER, Collectanea, 
iv. 267). On 5 May 1637 he was appointed 
a commissioner to carry out the statute of 
Henry VIII for encouraging the use of the 
long bow and suppressing unlawful games 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1637, p. 66). 

Whitmore was an ardent loyalist, and on 
_'."> Xov. 1641 the king passed through his 
grounds at Balmes in Hackney on his return 
from Scotland. In 1642 he was imprisoned 
in Crosby House as a delinquent (ib. 1641-3, 
p. 403), and, although he was shortly re- 
leased, he was reimprisoned on 20 Jan. 1642- 
1643 for refusing to pay the taxes levied by 
parliament. His estate was sequestered for 
some time, but he finally obtained his dis- 
charge from the committee of sequestrations, 
and on 22 Oct. 1651 was commanded to lay 
his discharge before the committee for com- 
pounding (Cal. Comm. for Compoundiny, p. 
491). 



He died at Balmes on 12 Dec. 1654, and 
was buried at St. Mary Magdalen, Milk 
Street, on 6 Jan. He married Mary (1616- 
1657), eldest daughter of Richard Daniel of 
Truro. By her he had three sons Charles, 
George, and William and four daughters : 
Elizabeth, married to Sir John Weld of 
Willey; Anne, married to Sir John Robin- 
son, lord may or of London; Margaret, married 
to Sir Charles Kemys ; and Mary 

[Boase and Courtney's Biblioth. Cornub. 1874 ; 
Brown's Genesis of the United States, 1890, i. 
228, ii. 1052 ; Whitmore's Notes on the Manor 
and Family of Whitmore, 1856, pp. 8, 9 ; Robin- 
son's Hist, and Antiq. of Hackney, 1842, i. 154- 
162; Courtney's Guide to Ponzance, 1845, App. 
p. 80; Gent. Mag. 1826, i. 131 ; Pepys's Diary 
and Corresp. ed. Braybrooke, ii. 293, 377, iv. 
442 ; Funeral Sermon by Anthony Farindon, 
appended to his Thirty Sermons, 1657.] 

E. I. C. 

WHITNEY, GEOFFREY (1548 ?- 
1601 ?), poet, the son of a father of the same 
name, was born at, or near, Coole Pilate, a 
township in the parish of Acton, four miles 
from Nantwich in Cheshire, in or about 
1548. His family, probably sprung from the 
Whitneys of Whitney in Herefordshire, had 
been settled on a small estate at Coole 
Pilate since 1388. Educated at the neigh- 
bouring school of Audlem, he afterwards 
proceeded to Oxford, and then for a longer 
period to Magdalene College, Cambridge ; but 
he seems to have left the university without 
a degree. Having adopted the legal pro- 
fession, he became in time under-bailiff of 
Great Yarmouth. He heldthis post in 1580 
(how much earlier is not evident), retaining 
it till 1586. In 1584 the Earl of Leicester, 
high steward of the borough, made an un- 
successful attempt to procure the under- 
stewardship for Whitney, but the place was 
given to John Stubbs [q. v.] After some 
litigation with the corporation, by which he 
seems to have been badly treated, the dis- 
pute was settled by a payment to the poet of 
45/. (MANSHIP, Yarmouth, vol. ii.) 

During his residence at Yarmouth Whit- 
ney appears to have had much intercourse 
with the Netherlands, and to have made the 
acquaintance of many scholars there. On 
the termination of his connection with the 
town, he proceeded to Leyden, * where he 
was in great esteem among his countrymen 
for his ingenuity.' On 1 March 1586 he be- 
came a student in its newly founded univer- 
sity, and later in the year he brought out at 
Plant in's press his ' Choice of Emblems,' the 
book which has preserved his name from 
oblivion. Of the duration of his sojourn on 
the continent there is no evidence. He sub- 



Whitney 



Whitshed 



sequently returned to England, and resided 
in the neighbourhood of his birthplace. At 
Ryles (or Royals) Green, near Combermere 
Abbey, he made his will on 11 Sept. 1600, 
which was proved on 28 May 1601. He 
seems to have died unmarried. 

Whitney's reputation depends upon his 
celebrated work, entitled ' A Choice of Em- 
blemes and other Devises, for the moste 
parte gathered out of sundrie writers, Eng- 
lished and moralised, and divers newly 
devised, by Geffrey Whitney. A worke 
adorned with varietie of matter, both plea- 
sant and profitable: wherein those that 
please maye finde to fit their fancies : Be- 
cause herein, by the office of the eie and the 
eare, the minde maye reape dooble-delighte 
throughe holsome preceptes, shadowed with 
pleasant devises : both fit for the vertuous, 
to their incoraging ; and for the wicked, for 
their admonishing and amendment ' (2 pts., 
Leyden, 1586, 4to). The book was dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Leicester from London 
on 28 Nov. 1585 with an epistle to the reader 
dated Leyden 4 May 1586. The author speaks 
as if this were a second edition ; if so, the 
first was written only, and not printed. His 
emblems, 248 in number, generally one or 
more stanzas of six lines (a quatrain followed 
by a couplet), have a device or woodcut 
prefixed, with an appropriate motto. Being 
addressed either to his kinsmen or friends, 
or to some eminent contemporary, they fur- 
nish notices of persons, places, and things 
not elsewhere readily to be met with. Of 
the devices twenty-three only are original, 
while twenty-three are suggested by, and 
202 identical with, those of Alciati, Paradin, 
Sambucus, Junius, and Faerni. The work 
was the first of its kind to present to Eng- 
lishmen an adequate example of the emblem 
books that had issued from the great conti- 
nental presses ; and it was mainly from it, 
as a representative book of the greater part 
of emblem literature which had preceded it, 
that Shakespeare gained the knowledge which 
he evidently possessed of the great foreign 
emblematists of the sixteenth century. Whit- 
ney's verses are often of great merit, and 
always manifest a pure mind and extensive 
learning. 

The only other works which can be posi- 
tively assigned to Whitney are: 1. 'An Ac- 
count in Latin of a Visit to Scratby Island, 
off Great Yarmouth,' 1580, a translation of 
which is printed in Manship's ' History of 
Great Yarmouth.' 2. Some verses in Dousa's 
' Od Britannic,' Leyden, 1586, 4to. 

Isabella Whitney, a sister of the poet, was 
likewise a writer of verses. Her principal 
work, ' A Sweet Nosegay, or Pleasant Posye, 



contayning a Hundred and Ten Phylosophi- 
call Flowers/ appeared in 1573. 

[Green's facsimile reprint of the Choice of Em- 
blems, 1866, and the same writer's Shakespeare 
and the Emblem Writers ; Melville's Family of 
Whitney; Wood's Athenae Oxon. i. 527 ; Ritson's 
Bibl. Anglo-Poetica ; Corser's Collectanea ; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 23-4.] F. S. 

WHITSHED, SIR JAMES HAWKINS 

(1762-1849), admiral of the fleet, born in 
1762, was third son of James Hawkins 
(1713-1805), bishop of Raphoe, and in 1773 
was entered on the books of the Ranger 
sloop, then on the Irish station. He was 
afterwards borne on the books of the Kent, 
guardship at Plymouth, and first went afloat 
in the Aldborough, serving on the New- 
foundland and North American stations, 
till, on 4 Sept. 1778, he was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant. During 1779 he 
was in the Amazon, on the home station, 
and in December he joined the Sandwich, 
flagship of Sir George Brydges (afterwards 
Lord) Rodney [q. v.], with whom he was 
present in the action off Cape St. Vincent on 
16 Jan. 1780. At Gibraltar he was made 
commander into the San Vincente sloop, and, 
going out to the West Indies with Rodney, 
was present in the action of 17 April 1780, 
and on the next day, 18 April, was posted 
to the Deal Castle, which, in a violent hurri- 
cane in the following October, was blown 
from her anchorage at St. Lucia, and wrecked 
on the coast of Porto Rico. The crew hap- 
pily escaped to the shore, and Hawkins, after 
recovering from a dangerous fever brought 
on by the exposure, was honourably ac- 
quitted by a court-martial of all blame, and 
was sent to England with despatches. In 
July 1781 he was appointed to the Ceres 
frigate, in which, in the following spring, he 
took out Sir Guy Carleton (afterwards Lord 
Dorchester) [q. v.] to New York, and brought 
him back to England in December 1783. 
For the next three years Hawkins com- 
manded the Rose frigate at Leith and on 
the east coast of Scotland. He then studied 
for three years at Oxford, attending lectures 
on astronomy, and travelled on the continent, 
mainly in Denmark and in Russia. In 1791 
he assumed the name of Whitshed, that of his 
maternal grandmother, in accordance with 
the terms of a cousin's will. 

In 1793 he was appointed to the Arrogant 
of 74 guns, one of the squadron under Rear- 
admiral George Montagu [q. v. ] in May and 
June 1794. In 1795 he was moved into the 
Namur, one of the ships which in January 
1797 were detached from the Channel fleet 
with Rear-admiral [Sir] William Parker 



Whitson 



144 



Whittaker 



(1743-1802) [q. v.] to reinforce Sir John 
Jervis (afterwards Earl St. Vincent) [a. v.] 
at Lisbon, and to take part in the battle of 
Cape St. Vincent, for which Whitshed, with 
the other captains engaged, received the gold 
medal and the thanks of both houses of par- 
liament. He afterwards commanded suc- 
cessively the Ajax and the Formidable in 
the Channel fleet, and on 14 Feb. 1799 was 
promoted to be rear-admiral. In April, with 
his flag in the Queen Charlotte, he com- 
manded a squadron of four ships of the line 
which was sent as a reinforcement to the 
Mediterranean fleet, on the news of the 
French fleet having escaped from Brest. In 
the pursuit he returned off Brest with Lord 
Keith [see ELPHINSTONE, GEORGE KEITH, 
LORD KEITH]. He continued in the Chan- 
nel till 1801, and in 1803, on the renewal of 
the war, was appointed naval adviser to the 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, to superintend the 
arrangements for the defence of the Irish 
coast and to organise the sea fencibles. He 
became vice-admiral on 23 April 1804, and 
in the spring of 1807 was appointed com- 
mander-m-chief at Cork, where he remained 
for three years. On 31 July 1810 he was 
promoted to the rank of admiral. lie was 
nominated a K.C.B. on 2 Jan. 1815, was com- 
mander-in-chief at Portsmouth from January 
1821 to April 1824, was made a G.C.B. on 
17 Nov. 1830, a baronet on 16 May 1834, 
baron of the kingdom of Hanover in 1843, 
and admiral of the fleet on 8 Jan. 1844. He 
died at his house in Cavendish Square, Lon- 
don, on 28 Oct. 1849. 

Whitshed's portrait, by F. Cruikshank, is 
in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 

Whitshed married, in 1791, Sophia Hen- 
rietta, daughter of Captain John Albert Ben- 
tinck of the navy (<?. 1775), and had issue 
two sons and four daughters. The eldest 
son was killed in 1813, when a midshipman 
of the Berwick. The second, St. Vincent 
Keene, who succeeded to the baronetcy, died 
in 1870 ; and on the death of the second 
baronet's only surviving son in the follow- 
ing year the baronetcy oecame extinct. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; ftalfe's Nav. 
Biogr. ii. 271 ; Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. i. 
120 ; Naval Chronicle (with portrait), xxii. 353 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1850, i. 85.] J. K. L. 

WHITSON, JOHN (1557-1629), mer- 
chant adventurer, was born in 1557 at Clear- 
well in the parish of Newland, Gloucester- 
shire, and at the age of eighteen went to 
Bristol, where he entered the service of 
Trenchard, a wine-cooper and shipowner. 
He became Trenchard's first clerk, and on 
Trenchard's death married the widow and 



succeeded to the business. When Philip II 
laid an embargo on the English ships in 1585, 
Whitson fitted out the Mayflower to make 
reprisals. Her cruise was successful, but 
\Vhitson, not caring to carry on the busi- 
ness, sold her to Thomas James, afterwards 
mayor of Bristol, who has been erroneously 
described as father of Thomas James (1593?- 
1635 ?) [q. v.l, the navigator. In the early 
voyages lor the settlement of North Ame- 
rica, Whitson took an active part, and espe- 
cially in sending out Martin Pring [q. v.] 
He was also distinguished for his charities 
and as a benefactor to the town of Bristol, 
of which he was twice mayor in 1603 and 
1615. He represented Bristol in four par- 
liaments, being returned in 1605, 1620, 1625, 
and February 1625-6. He died of a fall 
from his horse, and was buried in St. Nicho- 
las Church, Bristol, on 9 March 1628-9. He 
was three times married. 

[Brown's Genesis of the United States, with 
portrait, pp. 1020, 1052; Seyer's Memoirs of Bris- 
tol ; Notes from Mr. Ivor James.] J. K. L. 

WHITTAKER. [See also WHITAKEE.] 

WHITTAKER, GEORGE BYROM 
(1793-1847), bookseller and publisher, born 
at Southampton in March 1793, was the son 
of the Rev. George Whittaker, master of the 
grammar school. About 1814 he became a 
partner of Charles Law, wholesale bookseller, 
Ave Maria Lane, London, a house established 
by W. Bid well Law (d. 1798). Whittaker 
brought capital and energy into the business. 
One enterprise was the -publication of a 
translation of Cuvier's 'Animal Kingdom/ 
in sixteen volumes, with many coloured 
plates. In 1824 he served as sheriff" of Lon- 
don and Middlesex. He published for Mrs. 
Trollope, Colley Grattan, George Croly, and 
Miss Mitford. The last novel of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott came out with his imprint, and 
his firm published in London all the early 
collective editions of the novelist. In con- 
junction with the Oxford and Cambridge 
booksellers he produced a series of Greek and 
Latin classics. John Payne Collier's edition 
of Shakespeare (1841) was issued by him. 
He published the Pinnock educational pri- 
mers and many other children's books, and 
he was a promoter of reading among the 
people by his ' Popular Library.' 

He died at Kensington on 13 Dec. 1847. 
Richard Gilbert [q. v.], founder of the print- 
ing firm of Gilbert & Rivington, married 
Whittaker's only sister; their son Robert 
succeeded to his uncle's property and business. 

[Gent. Mag. 1848, i. 95-6 ; Nichols's Illustra- 
tions, 1858, viii. 483-4.] H. R. T. 



Whittaker 



'45 



Whittingham 



WHITTAKER, JAMES WILLIAM 

(1828-1876), painter in watercolours, son 
of John Whittaker, warehouseman, was born 
at Manchester in 1828, and apprenticed to 
an engraver for calico printers. He subse- 
quently took up etching, and then painting. 
On coming into a small fortune he removed 
about 1858 to Llanrwst, North Wales, where 
he practised landscape-painting in water- 
colours. Francis William Topham [q.v.l there 
made his acquaintance, and, being 1 struck with 
the ability shown in his work, induced him 
to become a candidate for the Society of 
Painters in Watercolours. He was elected 
an associate on 10 Feb. 1862, and a member 
on 13 June 1864, and exhibited 191 pictures 
at the exhibitions of that society, and three 
works at the Royal Academy. His subjects 
were chiefly views in the Snowdon district, 
and many of his sketches, especially those 
of rough moorland tracts of ground, possessed 
exceptional power. 

He was accidentally drowned in the river 
Llugwy, near Bettws-y-Coed, on 6 Sept. 1876. 

By his wife Sarah, daughter of Joseph 
Heyes of Manchester (to whom he had been 
apprenticed), he left four children. 

[Roget's ' Old Watercolour' Soc. 1891, ii. 411 ; 
Stanfield's Cat. of Manchester City Art Gallery, 
No. 141 ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1895; Cat. 
of the Jubilee Exhibition, Manchester, 1887, 
Nos. 956 and 972; Times, 15 Sept. 1876; in- 
formation given by Mr. J. G. Eoss, Longsight.l 

C. W. S. 

WHITTAKER, JOHN WILLIAM 
(1790 ?-l 854), divine, son of William Whitta- 
ker of Bradford, Yorkshire, by his wife, Sarah 
Buck, was born at Manchester about 1790, 
and educated at Bradford grammar school 
and St. John's College, Cambridge, where 
he was admitted a pensioner on 31 March 
1810. He was thirteenth wrangler in 1814, 
when he was admitted to a Beresford fel- 
lowship of his college and took his B.A. 
degree. He proceeded M.A. in 1817, B.D. 
in 1824, and D.D. in 1830. In 1819 he was 
a candidate for the professorship of Arabic 
at Cambridge, and about the same time was 
appointed examining chaplain to Charles 
Manners-Sutton [q. v.], archbishop of Can- 
terbury, who presented him to the impor- 
tant vicarage of Blackburn, Lancashire, in Fe- 
bruary 1822. He was nominated honorary 
canon of Manchester in 1852. During his 
vicariate of Blackburn the parish church was 
rebuilt and twelve new churches in various 
parts of the old parish were erected. 

His learning was wide, and he kept up to 
the end his reading in philology, geology, 
and astronomy. His interest in tSe last- 
named subject led him to assist in the forma- 

VOL. LXI. 



tion of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
One of his unfulfilled projects was a work on 
the nebular hypothesis and geological time. 
He died at Blackburn vicarage on 3 Aug. 
1854. On 20 June 1825 he married Mary 
Haughton, eldest daughter of William Feil- 
den (afterwards created a baronet) of Fenis- 
cowles, by whom he left nine children. 

He wrote : 1. ' An Historical and Critical 
Inquiry into the Interpretation of the Hebrew 
Scriptures, with Remarks on Mr. Bellamy's 
New Translation,' Cambridge, 1819, and 
Supplement, 1820. It was this work that 
brought the author under the notice of the 
archbishop, and marked him out for pro- 
motion. It was reviewed in the ' Quarterly 
Review/xxiii.291, and by Robert Nares [q.v.] 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1819, ii. 340. 
2. ' Justification by Faith : a Course of Lec- 
tures preached before the University of Cam- 
bridge,' 1825. 3. The Catholic Church : five 
Sermons on the Commemoration of the Re- 
formation/ 1836. 4. ' A Series of Letters 
to the Rev. Nicholas Wiseman on the Con- 
tents of his late Publications,' 2 parts, 1836- 
1837. 5. ' Motives to the Study of Biblical 
Literature,' 1839. 6. <A Treatise on the 
Church of Christ,' 1842. 7. ' Letters to Wil- 
liam Eccles of Blackburn on the Voluntary 
System,' 2 vols. 1844. He also published 
several single sermons, including one preached 
to the chartists at Blackburn church in 1839, 
of which a great number were circulated, and 
he contributed a paper on ' Ancient Etymo- 
logies, especially Celtic,' to the British Ar- 
chaeological Association, 1850, besides arti- 
cles to periodicals. 

[Gent. Mag. 1854, ii. 396; Monthly Notices 
of the Koyal Astronomical Soc. xv. 119; Baines's 
Lancashire, ed. Croston, iv. 11; Brit. Museum 
and Dublin Univ. Library Catalogues ; informa- 
tion kindly supplied by Mr. R. F. Scott, bursar 
of St. John's Coll. Cambridge.] C. W. S. 

WHITTINGHAM, CHARLES (1767- 
1840), 'the uncle/ printer and founder of 
the Chiswick Press, born on 16 June 1767 at 
Stoke Farm, Caludon or Calledon, in War- 
wickshire, three miles from Coventry, was 
the youngest child of Charles Whittingham, 
a farmer. He was apprenticed to Richard 
Bird, printer, bookseller, and stationer of 
Coventry, on 25 March 1779. In 1789 he 
set up a press in a garret in Dean Street, 
Fetter Lane, London, and at first confined 
himself to jobbing work ; his plant was small, 
and he was his own compositor and pressman, 
clerk and office-boy. In 1792 he printed a 
half-sheet of an edition of Young's ' Night 
Thoughts ' and Thomas Paine's ' Letters to 
Dundas." By the following year he had two 



Whittingham 



146 



Whittingham 



or three presses and had produced a number 
of small popular volumes. His family was 
Roman catholic, but he attended an Angli- 
can church. The firm of William Caslon, , 
t\]>f founders, had advanced 30/. to young 
Whittingham on commencing business, and 
)>y this time his annual bill tor type, much ! 
ofr which he sold at a profit, came to 500/. 
In 1794, 1795, and 1796 he produced books 
of specimen types for Caslon. In 1795 he 
print.'d tlit> title-page and preface to the 
second part of Paine's ' Age of Reason ' and 
'The Tomahawk' (27 Oct. 1795), a fiercely 
patriotic daily paper which was killed by 
the stamp duty in its hundred and thirteenth 
number. Whittingham is said to have been 
the first English printer to produce a ' fine ' or 
' India paper' edition in the shape of an issue of 
Tate and Brady's ' Psalms' in 1795 or 1796. 
This was followed by a prayer-book for John 
Reeves of Cecil Street, Strand. In 1797 he 
removed to larger premises, No. 1 Dean Street. 
For Heptinstall, a bookseller of Fleet Street 
and subsequently of Hoi born, Whittingham 
produced editions of Boswell's 'Johnson,' 
Robertson's ' America ' and ' Charles V,' and 
Rogers's * Pleasures of Memory.' His first 
example of a book illustrated with wood- 
cuts was l Pity's Gift : a Collection of in- 
teresting Tales,' printed for Thomas Long- 
man in 1798, followed by two companion 
volumes, 'The Village Orphan' and 'The 
Basket Maker.' The business increased, and 
he took a second house in Dean Street and 
became tenant of a private residence at 

9 Paradise Row, Islington. In 1799 he 
printed Gray's ' Poems ' ' in a more elegant 
state of typography than they ever before 
assumed,' and sold the whole edition to 
Miller of Old Bond Street, and James 
Scatcherd of Ave Maria Lane. This work 
seems to have brought the Rivingtons, John 
Murray, and all the leading publishers to 
him. He introduced the plan of printing 
neat and compact editions of standard 
authors in rivalry with tho more expensive 
editions issued by the bookselling trade. 
The booksellers threatened to withdraw 
their patronage, but he took a room at a 
coffee-house and sold the books himself by 
auction. With John Sharpe of the Strand, 
and afterwards of Piccadilly, he brought out 
a series of the essayists, in twenty-two neat 
volumes, called 'The British Classics' (1803). 
Sharpe's ' British Theatre' was the next 
joint venture, and in 1805 came the ' British 
Poets,' not to be confounded with the Chis- 
wick edition brought out some years later. 
In 1803 he took another workshop at 

10 Union Buildings in Leather Lane, and 
adopted the sign of the 'Stanhope Press, 



after the first press designed by Lord Stan- 
hope, which he had purchased. In 1807 the 
whole business was transferred to Goswell 
Street. Two years later he started a paper- 
pulp manufactory at Chiswick under the 
superintendence of Thomas Potts. ThU 
business grew rapidly, and Whittingham 
found it necessary to live at Chiswick. He 
leased in 1810 the High House in Chiswick 
Mall, leaving the London business in the 
charge of Robert Rowland, who had been 
his foreman since 1798; the style of the 
firm was Whittingham & Rowland. The 
High House was fitted up as a printing 
office and became the famous Chiswick 
Press, this name being first used on an im- 
print of 1811. His speculations increased ; 
he bought leasehold property, and was 
partner with John Arliss as stationer and 
bookseller at Watling Street. 

Between 1810 and 181 5 he was elaborating 
his methods as a printer of illustrated books, 
was ' the first printer to develop fully 
the overlaying of wood engravings for book 
illustration,' and was the first to print 
woodcuts perfectly (WARREN, The Charles 
Whittinghams, pp. 50-2). His inks were of 
peculiar excellence and brilliancy. About 
1814 Triphook, the bookseller, and Samuel 

editor of old 
An edition 
1815) is a 

charming specimen of this period. In 1816 
he began to be ' eminently successful in small 
editions of Common Prayer' (TIMPERLEY, 
Encyclopedia, p. 864). He moved from the 
High House in 1818 to more commodious 
premises, College House, Chiswick Mall, 
which had been occupied in 1665 by Dr. 
Busby and the Westminster boys during the 
plague. From 1819 to 1821 he was asso- 
ciated with William Hughes in an engrav- 
ing business at 12 Staining Lane, London. 
The well-known Chiswick edition of the 
' British Poets ' (1822), in a hundred small 
volumes, was planned and entirely carried 
out by him. In 1824 his nephew Charles 
(1795-1867), who is separately noticed, be- 
came a partner in the Chiswick Press ; they 
dissolved partnership four years afterwards, 
but remained on friendly terms. Among the 
masterpieces of Whittingham's later period 
are Northcote's ' Fables ' (1829), second series 
(1833), the 'Tower Menagerie' (1829), and 
companion volumes describing the birds and 
animals at the Zoological Gardens (1830-1). 
The engravings were after the drawings of 
William Harvey. John Thompson, Jackson, 
Branston, Thomas Williams, and others, 
worked for him as engravers. He produced 
a great variety of albums, keepsakes, and 



IW14 Triphook, tne bookseller, an 
Weller Singer [q. v.], the edit 
authors, began to use his press, i 
of the 'Vicar of Wakefield' (1 



Whittingham 



147 



Whittingham 






annualsfor John Pooleand Sut lal.y. l'uckl.-'> 
Club ' (1834) is a fine specimen of liis typo- 
graphy. Early in 1838 his health began to 
fail, and by June the nephew took over the 
control at Chiswick, where the uncle died 
on 5 Jan. 1840. He left, among other 
legacies, one to the Company of Stationers 
and one to the Printers' Pension Society, by 
which special pensions bearing his name 
were founded. 

He married Mary Mead, who predeceased 
him. He had no children. His portrait, 
painted by Thomas Williams, now at Sta- 
tioners' Hall, is reproduced as a frontispiece 
by Warren (The Charles Whittinghams). 

He devoted himself to fine printing with 
ardour and success, and dabbled in many 
commercial speculations. All mechanical 
novelties attracted him. He was one of 
the first in England to use a steam engine 
in making the paper-pulp, and to warm his 
workshops with steam pipes. He never had 
an engine for printing, as he believed the 
hand press produced a better result. 

[Information from Mr. B. F. Stevens. See 
also Warren's The Charles Whittinghams, Prin- 
ters (Groliert5lub), New York, 1896, where all 
the available facts are recorded, with many por- 
traits, autographs, woodcuts, blocks, and other 
illustrations. See also Not.es and Queries, 3rd 
ser. x. 91, 5th ser. v. 359, 8th ser. ix. 367, 
414, 472; Faulkner's Hist, of Chiswick, p. 459 ; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, iii. 689, and Illus- 
trations, viii. 462, 512; Bigmore and Wyman's 
Bibliogr. of Printing, vol. iii. ; Linton's Masters 
of Wood Engraving, 1889, pp. 181-2; British 
Bookmaker, September 1890.] H. K. T. 

WHITTINGHAM, CHARLES (1795- 
1876), 'the nephew,' printer, nephew of 
Charles Whittingham (1767-1840) [q. v.], 
was born at Mitcham, Surrey, on 30 Oct. 
1795. His father, Samuel, brother of the 
elder Charles, was a nurseryman. Young 
Whittingham, alwaysknown as 'the nephew,' 
was apprenticed at the age of fifteen to his 
uncle, who had paid for his education under 
the Rev. John Lvans of Islington. He was 
made a freeman of the Company of Stationers 
in 1817, and the following year his uncle 
sent him to Paris with letters of introduction 
to the Didots. One result of the visit was 
the production on his return of Whitting- 
han/s 'French Classics' by the Chiswick 
Press. A series of ' Pocket Novels' was also 
issued under his supervision. In 1824 his 
uncle took him into partnership, and they 
printed 'Knickerbocker's New York' (1824), 
Pierce Egan's 'Life of an Actor' (1825), 
Singer's ' Shakespeare,' in ten volumes (1825), 
and many other books. The partnership was 
dissolved in 1828, and the younger Whit- 



tingham started a printing office at 21 Took's 
Court, Chancery Lane. His first work, ' A 
Sunday Book,' bears the date of 1829. He 
j shortly afterwards made the acquaintance of 
j Basil Montagu, through whom he knew Wil- 
| liam Pickering [q. v.J, the bookseller, a life- 
long friend and associate in the production of 
many choice volumes. They now lie side 
by side at Kensal Green cemetery. Among 
the earliest of his books were Peele's ' Works' 
(1829), ' The Bijou, or Annual of Literature 
and the Arts,' Walton's ' Angler/ the ' Canter- 
bury Tales,' Bacon's ' Works,' and Holbein's 
'Dance of Death.' In conjunction with 
Pickering he had many woodcut initial 
letters and ornaments designed or adapted. 
He did not attempt to rival his uncle as 
a printer of illustrated books, but aimed at 
distinction in letterpress and originality in 
woodcut ornaments and initials, in the em- 
ployment of fine ink and hand-made paper, 
and in the artistic arrangement of the pages 
and margins. Some books illustrated by 
George and Robert Cruikshank came from 
Took's Court between 1830 and 1833. On 
the death of his uncle in 1840 the entire 
business passed into the hands of the younger 
Whittingham, who carried on the works at 
Chiswick as well as at Took's Court until 
1848, and the books printed at both places 
bear the imprint of Chiswick Press. In 
1840 he commenced block colour printing in 
Shaw's ' Elizabethan Architecture published 
in 1842. Some of the finest specimens of 
his work are to be found in Shaw's publi- 
cations. Pickering issued from his new 
premises at 177 Piccadilly in 1841 a prayer- 
book, one of the first of the many fine orna- 
mental volumes printed for him by Whit- 
tingham. Samuel Rogers came to the Chis- 
wick Press for the 'Notes' to his 'Italy' 
(1843). 

The years 1843 and 1844 were of great 
importance in the annals of the Chiswick 
Press, as they marked the introduction of 
the old-fashioned style of book production 
for which Whittingham and Henry Cole 
were chiefly responsible. In 1843 Whit- 
tingham persuaded Caslon to revive an old- 
faced fount of great primer cut in 1720, and 
an Eton prize 'Juvenal' was printed for 
Pickering and the ' Diary of Lady Wil- 
loughby' for Longman in this letter (1844 ; 
see art. RATHBONE, HANNAH MABY; cf. 
REED, Old English Letter Foundries, 1887, 
p. 255 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ix. 415, 
472). He printed Pickering's fine repro- 
ductions of the first editions of the ' Com- 
mon Prayer ' in 1844. In 1848 he became a 
liveryman of the Company of Stationers. 
The lease at Took's Court expired in 1849, 

L 2 



Whittingham 



148 



Whittingham 



and for three years all his printing was carried 
on at Chiswick. In 1862 he returned to 
the premises at Took's Court, which have 
remained the Chiswick Press down to the 
present day. Among the later fine works 
there printed may be mentioned the volumes 
of the Philobiblon Society, Lord Vernon's 
* Dante' (1854), and the ' Breviarium Aber- 
donense' (1864). In 1864 Whittingham 
lost his -wife and his friend Pickering, and 
in 1860 took his manager, John Wilkins 
(</. 1869), into partnership, and retired from 
active work. The business subsequently 
passed to Mr. George Bell, the well-Known 
London publisher. The Chiswick Press has 
largely contributed to raise the standard of 
English printing in the nineteenth century, 
and its productions are as distinctive in 
character as those of Baskerville. 

Whittingham died on 21 April 1876. He 
was learned in the history of the art of 
printing, of printing ink, and of the manu- 
facture of papers. He was rather brusque 
and severe in manner; fly-fishing was his 
relaxation. His portrait, painted by Mrs. 
Furnival, is now at Stationers' Hall. 

He married, in 1826, Eleanor Hulley (d. 
1854) of Nottingham, who bore him five 
children William, Charlotte, Elizabeth 
Eleanor, Jane, and Charles John all of 
whom were for many years connected with 
the Chiswick Press, the daughters applying 
themselves to the literary and artistic de- 
partments. Elizabeth died in 1867. Char- 
lotte married Mr. B. F. Stevens, who was 
a partner in the Chiswick Press from January 
1872 to August 1876. Charlotte and Eliza- 
beth were educated as artists, and from their 
designs came the greater part of the exten- 
sive collection of borders, monograms, head 
and tail pieces, and other embellishments 
still preserved and used. The engraver of 
most of the ornamental wood-blocks was 
Mary Byfield (d. 1871). 

[Information from Mr. B. F. Stevens. See also 
Warren's The Charles Whittinghams, Printers 
(Grolier Club), New York, 1896 ; Bigmore and 
Wyman's Bibliography of Printing, vol. iii.; 
Athenaeum, 19 Aug., 2, 9 Sept. 1876; British 
Bookmaker, September 1890.] H. R. T. 

WHITTINGHAM, SIR SAMUEL 
FORD (1772-1841), whose Christian names 
were contracted by himself and his friends 
into ' Samford,' lieutenant-general, elder son 
and second child of William Whittingham 
of Bristol, was born at Bristol on 29 Jan. 
1772. Samuel Ford was educated at Bristol 
and was intended for the law. Determined 
to be a soldier, but unwilling to oppose his 
father's wishes during his lifetime, he en- 



tered temporarily the mercantile house of 
his brother-in-law, travelling for it in Spain. 
In 1797 he was enrolled at Bristol in the 
mounted volunteers, a force organised among 
the wealthier citizens on a threatened French 
invasion. On his father's death, on 12 Sept. 
1801 (aged 60), at Earl's Mead, Bristol, 
Samford, who was in Spain, became inde- 
! pendent, and took steps to enter the army. 
i On his return to England he was gazetted 
j ensign on 20 Jan. 1803. He bought a lieu- 
tenancy on 25 Feb., and was brought into 
the 1st life guards on 10 March the same 
year. He went to the military college at 
High Wycombe, and joined his regiment in 
London towards the end of 1804. Intro- 
duced by Thomas Murdoch, an influential 
merchant, to William Pitt, then prime mini- 
ster, as an officer whose knowledge of the 
Spanish language would be useful, Whit- 
tingham was sent by Pitt at the end of 1804 
on a secret mission to the Peninsula, and 
during absence promoted, on 14 Feb. 1805, 
to be captain in the 20th foot. On his return 
he was complimented by Pitt, and on 13 June 
1805 he was transferred to the command of 
a troop in the 13th light dragoons. 

On 12 Nov. 1806 Whittingham sailed 
from Portsmouth as deputy-assist ant quarter- 
master-general of the force, under Brigadier- 
general Robert Craufurd [q. v.], intended for 
Lima ; but on arrival at the Cape of Good 
Hope on 15 March 1807 its destination was 
changed, and on 13 June it reached Monte- 
video, recently captured by Sir Samuel Auch- 
muty [q. v.] General John Whitelocke [q.v.] 
had arrived to take command of the com- 
bined forces, and as Whittingham's staff 
appointment ceased on the amalgamation of 
the forces, Whitelocke made him an extra 
aide-de-camp to himself. He took part in 
the disastrous attack on Buenos Ayres and 
in the capitulation on 6 July, and sailed for 
England on 30 July. He gave evidence 
before the general court-martial, by which 
Whitelocke was tried in London in February 
and March 1808. Owing to his having served 
on Whitelocke's personal staff, Whitting- 
ham's position was a delicate one; but he 
acquitted himself with discretion. 

Whittingham was immediately after- 
wards appointed deputy-assistant quarter- 
master-general on the staff of the army in 
Sicilv. On arrival at Gibraltar, however, he 
acted temporarily as assistant military secre- 
tary to Lieutenant-general Sir Hew Dal- 
rymple [q. v.], the governor, and, hearing of 
a projected campaign of the Spaniards under 
Don Xavier Castanos against the French, 
obtained leave to join Castanos as a volun- 
teer, with instructions to report in detail to 



Whittingham 



149 Whittingham 



Dalrymple on the progress of affairs. This 
special duty was approved from home on 
2 July 1808, and on the 18th of the same 
month Whittingham was appointed a de- 
puty-assistant quartermaster-general to the 
iorce under Sir Arthur Wellesley, but was 
ordered to remain with Castanos. He took 
part under La Pena on 18 July 1808 in the 
victorious battle of Baylen, and for his ser- 
vices was made a colonel of cavalry in the 
Spanish army on 20 July. 

On his recovery from a severe attack of 
rheumatic fever, Whittingham was sent to 
Seville on a mission from the Duke of In- 
fantado, and in February 1809 joined the 
armv corps of the Duke of Albuquerque in 
La IVIanclia, where he took part in several 
cavalry affairs with such distinction that he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general in the 
Spanish army, to date from 2 March 1809. 
He was present at the battle of Medellin on 
28 March, when the Spanish general Cuesta 
was defeated by the French general Victor. 
On this occasion W T hittingham re-formed the 
routed cavalry and led them against the 
enemy. He reported constantly throughout 
these campaigns to the British minister in 
Spain, John Hookham Frere [q. v.], as to the 
state and operations of the Spanish army. 

A short time previous to Wellesley's ad- 
vance into Spain Whittingham joined the 
British headquarters on the frontier of Por- 
tugal, and became the medium of communi- 
cation with the Spanish general Cuesta. 
On 28 July at Talavera he was severely 
wounded when gallantly bringing up two 
Spanish battalions to the attack, and was 
mentioned in Sir Arthur Wellesley's despatch 
of 29 July 1809. lie went to Seville to re- 
cover, and lived with the British minister, 
Lord Wellesley ; employing himself during 
his convalescence in translating Dundas's 
' Cavalry Movements' into Spanish. He was 
promoted to be major-general in the Spanish 
army on 12 Aug. 

On the appointment of Castanos to be 
captain-general of Andalusia, Whittingham 
became one of his generals of division. At 
Isla-de-Leon, whither he went by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley's direction to see General Venegas 
about the defence of Cadiz, he was given the 
command of the Spanish cavalrv, which he 
remodelled upon British lines. 

Whittingham served in command of a 
force of Spanish cavalry and infantry under 
La Pena at the battle of Barrosa, on 5 March 
1811, and kept in check a French corps of 
cavalry and infantry which attempted to 
turn the Barossa heights by the seaward 
side. In June he went to Palma, Majorca, 
with the title of inspector-general of divi- 



sion, and, in spite of the opposition and in- 
trigues of Don Gregorio Cuesta, captain- 
general of the Balearic Islands, raised a 
cavalry corps two thousand strong, and 
established in February 1812 a college in 
Palma for the training of officers and cadets 
of his division. 

On 24 July 1812 the Majorca division 
embarked for the eastern coast of Spain to 
co-operate with the troops under Lord Wil- 
liam Bentinck from Sicily. In October 
Whittingham's corps (increased to seven 
thousand) was employed on outpost duty 
with its headquarters at Muchamiel, three 
miles from Alicante. In March 1813 Whit- 
tingham was appointed inspector-general of 
both the cavalry and infantry troops of his 
division. He was engaged on the 7th of the 
month in the affair of Xegona, and on the 
15th in the affair of Concentayna was 
wounded by a musket-ball in the right 
cheek, and was on both occasions most 
favourably mentioned by Sir John Murray 
in despatches. On 13 April he took part in 
the victorious battle of Castalla, and was 
again mentioned in despatches. When Mur- 
ray invested Tarragona on 3 June Whitting- 
ham's division occupied the left. On Suchet's 
advance to relieve the place Whittingham 
vainly suggested to Murray that a corps of 
observation should be left before Tarragona, 
and that Murray should move to meet 
Suchet with all his force. The siege was 
raised [see MURRAY, SIR JOHN, 1768 ?- 
1827]. Murray was relieved in command 
of the army by Lord William Bentinck, and 
Whittingham covered the retreat, checking 
and repulsing the French column in pursuit, 
and joining the main army again at Cambrils. 
In July he was given the command of the 
cavalry of the second and third army corps 
in addition to his own division. 

In March 1814 Whittingham escorted King 
Ferdinand VII in his progress to Madrid, 
and was presented with a mosaic snuffbox 
by the king, who on 16 June 1814 promoted 
him to be lieutenant-general in the Spanish 
army. On 4 June Wellington wrote from 
Madrid to the Duke of York, in anticipation 
of Whittingham's return home : ' He has 
served most zealously and gallantly from the 
commencement of the war in the peninsula, 
and I have had every reason to be satisfied 
with his conduct in every situation in which 
he has been placed.' Whittingham was pro- 
moted to be colonel in the British army and 
appointed aide-de-camp to the prince regent 
from the date of Wellington's letter. 

In January and February 1815 Whitting- 
ham gave evidence in London before the 
general court-martial for the trial of Sir John 



Whittingham 



150 Whittingham 



Murray. On .') .May he was made a com- 
panion of the order of the Bath, and also 
knighted. On Napoleon's escape from Elba 
NV hit t ingham returned to Spain, at the special 
ivijuest of King Ferdinand, who conferred 
upon him the grand cross of the order of San 
Fernando. He was employed as a lieutenant- 
general in the Spanish army under General 
Castanos. When the war was over he re- 
sided at Madrid, enjoying the favour of the 
court, and using for good such influence as 
he possessed with the king. In July 1819 
he took leave of the Spanish court, upon ac- 
cepting the lieutenant-governorship of Domi- 
nica. Sir Henry Wellesley wrote at this time 
to Castlereagh, expressing the sense he enter- 
tained of Whittingham's services both during 
the war and after, and reporting that he left 
Spain with the testimony of all ranks in his 
favour, ' but without any other reward from 
the government for the valuable services ren- 
dered by him to the Spanish cause than that 
of being allowed to retain his rank in the 
Spanish army/ His private means had been 
reduced by losses, and he was at this time 
a poor man with an increasing family. He 
arrived at Dominica on 28 March 1820. On 
his departure to take up the appointment, 
dated 5 Oct. 1821, of quartermaster-general 
of the king's troops in India, the inhabitants 
presented him with the grand cross of San 
Fernando set in diamonds, while the non- 
resident proprietors of estates in the island 
gave him a sword of honour. On his arrival 
in England he was made a knight commander 
of the Hanoverian Guelphic order. 

Whittingham reached Calcutta on 2 Nov. 
1822. He was busy in 1824 with the pre- 
parations for the expedition to Ava, and in 
November of that year with the Barrackpur 
mutiny. On 27 May 1825 he was promoted 
to be major-general, retaining his appoint- 
ment as quartermaster-general until a com- 
mand became vacant. He took part in the 
siege of Bhartpur, was slightly wounded on 
13 Jan. 1826, but was present at the capture 
on the 18th. He was made a knight com- 
mander of the order of the Bath, military 
division, on 26 Dec., for his services at Bhart- 
pur, and received the thanks of the House 
of Commons. In February 1827 he was ap- 
pointed to command the Cawnpore division. 
On 1 Nov. 1830 he was transferred to the 
Mirat command, on exchange with Sir Jasper 
Nicholl. His tenure of command came to 
an end in August 1833, and he then acted 
temporarily as military secretary to his old 
commander, Lord William Bentinck, the 
governor-general, with whom he returned to 
England in 183/5. 

On arrival in England in July he was near 



fighting a duel with Sir William Napier, on 

account of the slur which he considered that 

Napier had cast on the Spanish troops in 

his ' History of the War in the Peninsula/ 

Imt tln> matter was arranged by Sir liufane 

Donkin. In October 1836 Whittingham was 

appointed to the command of the forces in 

the Windward and Leeward Islands of the 

West Indies. He sailed for Barbados on 

22 Dec., with the local, exchanged in a few 

months for the substantive, rank of lieu- 

I tenant-general. In September 1839 he was 

: given the command of the Madras army ; 

\ he arrived at Madras on 1 Aug. 1840, and 

' died there suddenly on 19 Jan. 1841. He 

I was buried with military honours at Fort 

; George on the following day, salutes being 

i fired at the principal military stations of 

the presidency. A tablet to his memory was 

placed in the garrison church, Madras. 

Whittingham married at Gibraltar, in 

January 1810, Donna Magdalena, elder of 

j twin daughters of Don Pedro de Creus y 

| Xirnenes, intendant of the Spanish royal 

armies, by whom he had a large family, and 

! several of his sons were in the army. 

Whittingham published in 1811 'Primera 
Parte de la Tactica de la Caballeria Inglesa 
traducida,' 8vo, and in 1815 ' A System of 
Manoeuvres in Two Lines ; ' also ' A System 
of Cavalry Manoeuvres in Line,' London and 
Madrid, 8vo. He was the author of several 
unpublished papers on military and political 
subjects, which are in possession of the family. 
A list of them is given in the 'Memoir of 
Whittingham's Services ' (1868), which has 
as frontispiece a portrait engraved by H. Ad- 
lard from an original miniature. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Royal 
Military Gal. 1820; Gent. Mag. 1841 ; Memoir 
of the Services of Sir Samuel Ford Whitting- 
ham, &c., edited by Major-general Ferdinand 
Whittingham, C.B., 8vo, London, 1868, new edit, 
same year ; Southey's Peninsular War ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit,; Allibone's Diet, of English Lit.; 
Cannon's Regimental Records of the 7 1st High- 
land Light Infantry.] R. H. V. 

WHITTINGHAM, WILLIAM (1524?- 
| 1579), dean of Durham, born at Chester 
about 1524, was son of William Whitting- 
| ham, by his wife, a daughter of Haughton 
j of Haughton (Hoghton) Tower, Lancashire, 
j a county from which the Whittinghams ori- 
ginally came ( Visitation of Cheshire, Harl. 
Soc. p. 248). In 1540, at the age of six- 
teen, he entered Brasenose College, Oxford, 
i as a commoner, graduating B.A. and being 
' elected fellow of All Souls' in 1545. In 1547 
he became senior student of Christ Church, 
commencing M.A. on 5 Feb. 1547-8, and on 
17 May 1550 he was granted leave to travel 



Whittingham 



Whittingham 



for three years. He went to France, where 
he spent his time chiefly at the university of 
( >rlt'ans,but he also visited Lyons and studied 
at Paris, where his services as interpreter 
were often required by the English am- 
bassador, Sir John Mason fq. v.] or Sir Wil- 
liam Pickering [q. v.] lowards the end 
of 1552 he visited the universities in Ger- 
many and Geneva, and, probably at the close 
of his three years' leave, returned to Eng- 
land in May 1553. Whittingham had adopted 
extreme protestant views, and the accession 
of Queen Mary ruined his prospects for the 
time. Late in August, however, he made 
intercession, which was ultimately success- 
ful, for the release of Peter Martyr [see 
VERMIGLI, PIETRO MARTIKE] ; but after a 
few weeks he himself escaped with difficulty 
by way of Dover to France. 

In the spring of 1554 the project was 
started of making Frankfort the ecclesiasti- 
cal centre for the English exiles on the con- 
tinent, andWhittingham was one of the first 
who reached the city on 27 June 1554, 
and at once sent out invitations to exiles in 
other cities to join them [see WHITE HEAD, 
DAVID]. Difficulties soon arose between those 
who wished to use Edward VI's second prayer- 
book without material modification and those 
led by Whittingham and Knox, who con- 
sidered Calvinism the purest form of Chris- 
tianity, and insisted on revising the prayer- 
book in that direction. Whittingham was 
one of those appointed to draw up a service- 
book, and he procured a letter from Calvin, 
dated 18 Jan. 15545, which won over some 
of the wavering adherents of the prayer-book; 
but the compromise adopted was rudely dis- 
turbed by the arrival of Richard Cox [q.v.], 
who was an uncompromising champion of the 
prayer-book. In the ensuing struggle be- 
tween Knox and Cox Whittingham was 
Knox's chief supporter, but he failed to pre- 
vent Knox's expulsion from Frankfort on 
26 March, and is thereupon said to have 
given in his adhesion to the form of church 
government established at Frankfort under 
Cox's influence. He was, however, pro- 
foundly dissatisfied with it, and about 
22 Sept. in the same year he followed Knox 
to Geneva (Original Letters, Parker Soc. p. 
766). He was himself probably the author 
of the detailed account of the struggle, en- 
titled 'A Brieft' Discours off the Troubles 
begonne at Franckford in Germany, anno 
Domini 1554. Abowte the Booke off Com- 
mon Prayer and Ceremonies, and continued 
by the Englishe men theyre tothende oll'Q. 
Maries Raigne, 1 1 575, -Ito. It bears no place 
or printer's name, but was printed probably 
at Geneva, and in the same type as Cart- 



wright's tracts; one copy of the original 
edit ion is dated MDLXXIV. It was reprint <! 
at London in 164:1, 4to, in vol. ii. of ' The 
Phenix,' 1708, 8vo ; again in 1846, 8vo (ed. 
M'Crie), and in vol. iv. of 'Knox's W T orks' 
(Bannatyne Club). It is the only full ac- 
count of the struggle extant, but its value 
is impaired by its polemical object (see also 
M'CRIE, pref. to reprint of 1846; MAIT- 
LAND, Essays on the Reformation, 1849, pp. 
104, 106, 196; English Hist. Rev. x. 439- 



Meanwhile on 16 Dec. 1555, and again in 
December 1556, Whittingham was elected a 
' senior ' or elder of the church at Geneva ; 
on 16 Dec. 1558 he was appointed deacon, 
and in 1559 he succeeded Knox as minister. 
He had hitherto received no ordination of 
any kind, and declared that he was fitter for 
civil employment than for the ministry, but 
his reluctance was overcome by Calvin's 
insistence. On Mary's death most of the 
exiles at Geneva returned to England, but 
Whittingham remained to complete the 
translation of the 'Geneva' or 'Breeches' 
bible, as it is often called, 'breeches' being 
the rendering of the word usually translated 
'aprons' in Genesis iii. 7. He had already 
produced a version of the New Testament, 
which was issued at Geneva in 12mo by 
Conrad Badius on 10 June 1557, but this 
differs from the version included in the 
' Breeches ' bible, for which, as well as for 
the ' prefatory address to the reader, Whit- 
tingham is generally held to be mainly re- 
sponsible. He also took part in the revision 
of the Old Testament, and the fact that he 
remained behind to supervise the completion 
of the work when most of the translators 
returned to England probably justifies his 
claim to the most important part of the 
work. This version of the Bible is in many 
respects notable; the old black-letter type 
was abandoned for Italian characters, the 
chapters were for the first time divided into 
verses, and it was printed in quarto instead 
of in folio. It was in a way a manifesto of 
the Calvinists ; the apocrypha was for the 
first time omitted, as were the names and 
days of saints from the calendar prefixed, 
and the critical and explanatory notes were 
of a pronounced Cal vinistic character. It was 
printed at Geneva by Rowland Hall in 1560, 
and at once became the most popular version 
of the Bible in England. Some sixty editions 
were published before the appearance of the 
authorised version in 1611, four times the 
number of the editions of the bishops* bible 
produced in 1568 to counteract the puritan 
tendencies of the Genevan version. Even 
after 1611 its vogue was not exhausted, ten 



Whittingham 



15* 



Whittingham 



editions appearing between that date and 
1640. It was the hible on which most j 
Englishmen in Elizabethan England were | 
brought up, and even after the appearance j 
of the authorised version continued to be the 
favourite bible in puritan households. 

Besides the translation of the Bible, Wliit- 
tingham while at Geneva turned into metre 
various of the Psalms. Seven of these were 
included among the fifty-one psalms pub- 
lished at Geneva in 1556 as part of the 
service-book whichWhittingham and his col- 
leagues had been appointed to draw up at 
Frankfort ; the others were revised versions 
of Sternhold's psalms. A metrical render- 
ing of the Ten Commandments by Whit- 
tingham is appended. Another edition in 
1558, now lost, is believed to have contained 
nine fresh psalms by Whittingham ; these 
were reprinted in the edition of 1561, to 
which Whittingham also contributed a ver- 
sion of the ' Song of Simeon ' and two of the 
Lord's Prayer (for other editions see JULIAN, 
Diet, of Hymnology, pp. 857-61). Besides 
these Whittingham translated four psalms 
in the Scottish psalter, which do not appear 
in any English edition. ' His influence on 
the psalter was, in the first place, that of 
scholarly revision of the work of Sternhold, 
and of Hopkins's seven early psalms from 
his knowledge of Hebrew; and, in the 
second, imitation of French metres ' (ib. p. 
861). W 7 hittingham also wrote a preface 
to Ridley's ' Brief Declaration of the Lord's 
Supper' (Geneva? 1555, 8vo), revised for 
press Knox's work on predestination, which 
was published at Geneva in 1560 (Kirox, 
Work*, Bannatyne Club, v. 15* sqq.), and 
contributed a dedicatory epistle to Good- 
man's 'How Superior Powers ought to be 
obeyed ' (Geneva, 1558, 8vo), in which views 
similar to Knox's were adopted with regard 
to the ' regiment of women.' 

Whittingham took formal leave of the 
council at Geneva on 30 May 1500 (extract 
from council-book in Original Letters, Parker 
Soc. p. 765 n.) Soon after his return to 
England he was in January 1560-1 ap- 
pointed to attend on Francis Russell, second 
earl of Bedford, during his embassy to the 
French court. In the following year he be- 
came chaplain to Ambrose Dudley, earl of 
Warwick [q. v.], and one of the ministers 
at Havre or Newhaven, which was then oc- 
cupied by the English under Warwick. His 
religious zeal, and other services of a more 
warlike character at the siege of Havre, won 
him general praise (see Cal. Stote Papers, 
For. 1501-3, passim) ; but Cecil was obliged 
to complain of his neglect of conformity to 
the English prayer-book (Camden Miscel- 



lany, vi. 14-18). Neither his puritanism, how- 
ever, nor the dislike Elizabeth felt towards 
him for his share in Goodman's book pre- 
vented his being collated on 19 July 1503 to 
the deanery of Durham, a promotion which 
he owed to the strenuous support of War- 
wick and Leicester. On his way to Durham 
he preached before the queen at Windsor on 
2 Sept. 1563. 

Unlike many deans of Elizabeth's reign r 
when deaneries, being sine cura animarum, 
were regarded as semi-secular preferments,. 
Whittingham took his religious duties 
seriously, holding two services a day, devot- 
ing much time to his grammar school and 
song school (Lansd. MS. 7, art. 12), and 
being ' very carefull to provide the best 
songs and anthems that could be got out of 
the queen's chappell, to furnish the quire 
with all, himselfe being skillfull in musick/ 
Before the outbreak of the northern rebel- 
lion in 1569 he vainly urged Pilkington, the 
bishop of Durham, to put the city in a state 
of defence, but he was more successful at 
Newcastle, which resisted the rebels. In 
1572, when Burghley became lord treasurer, 
Whittingham was suggested, probably by 
Leicester, as his successor in the office of 
secretary. In 1577 Leicester also promised 
Whittingham his aid in securing the see of 
York or Durham, both of which were 
vacant ; but the dean refused to prosecute 
his suit. 

Meanwhile Whittingham's iconoclastic 
proceedings in the cathedral, a list of which 
is given by Wood, had offended the higher 
church party. As early as 1564 he had writ- 
ten a long letter to Leicester (printed in 
STRYPE'S Parker, iii. 76-84) protesting 
against the ' old popish apparel,' and pro- 
ceedings had in 1566 been taken against 
him for refusing to wear the surplice and 
cope (Camden Miscellany, vi. 22); Whit- 
tingham eventually gave way, alleging 
Calvin's advice not to leave the ministry 
' for these externall matters of order.' In 
1577, however, he incurred the enmity of 
Edwin Sandys [q. v.l the new archbishop 
of York, by resisting his claim to visit Dur- 
ham Cathedral (ib. pp. 26-7 ; Injunctions 
and Eccl. Proc. of Bishop Barnes, p. 65, Sur- 
tees Soc.) According to Hutchinson (Dur- 
ham, ii. 143-52) and Strype (Annals, II. ii. 
167) a commission, which does not appear 
on the patent or close rolls, had been issued 
in 1576 or 1577 to examine matters of com- 
plaint against him, but had proved ineffec- 
tual because the Earl of Huntingdon and 
Matthew Hutton (1529-1600) [q. v.] sided 
with the dean against the third commissioner, 
Sandys. A fresh commission was issued on 



Whittingham 



153 



Whittington 



14 May 1578, including the three former 
commissioners and about a dozen others. 
The articles against Whittingham are printed 
from the domestic state papers in the ' Cam- 
den Miscellany ' (vi. 46-8) ; the charge that 
' he is defamed of adulterie ' is entered as 
'partly proved ' and that of drunkenness as 
'proved ;' but these assertions are too vague 
to deserve acceptance, and the real gravamen 
against Whittingham, apart from his icono- 
clasm, was the invalidity of his ordination. 
lie had admittedly not been ordained ac- ' 
cording to the rites of the church of Eng- 
land, but parliament had already passed an 
act (13 Eliz. c. 12) practically acknowledging 
the validity of the ordination of ministers 
whether according to Roman catholic or the 
rites of the reformed churches on the con- 
tinent. Sandys maintained that Whitting- 
ham had not been validly ordained even ac- 
cording to the Genevan rite, but only elected 
preacher without the imposition of hands. 
Huntingdon, however, wrote that * it could 
not but be ill-taken of all the godly learned 
both at home and in allthe reformed churches j 
abroad, that we should allow of the popish 
massing priests in our ministry, and disallow 
of the ministers made in a reformed church ' 
(STRTPE, Annals, n. ii. 174). He suggested 
the stay of the proceedings, and this, besides 
being the wisest course, naturally commended 
itself to Elizabeth's habit of temporising. 
Whittingham's death on 10 June 1579 ren- 
dered further proceedings unnecessary. He 
was buried in Durham Cathedral, where his 
tomb was destroyed by the Scots in 1640. 
His will, dated 18 April 1579, is printed in 
'Durham Wills and Inventories' (Surtees 
Soc. ii. 14-19). 

In the inscription placed on Whitting- 
ham's tomb he is said to have been described 
as 'maritus Catherine sororis Johannis 
Calvini theologi ' (HUTCHINSON, Durham, ii. 
151), and this statement has been commonly 
repeated. Calvin is, however, not known to 
have had a sister named Catherine (cf. 
GALIFFE, Notices Gcnealogiques, iii. 106 
sqq.), no allusion to the supposed relation- 
ship has been found in the works of either 
Calvin or Whittingham, and chronology 
makes the supposition almost impossible. 
Similar objections apply to the statement 
that Whittingham's wife was sister of Cal- 
vin's wife ; the latter was Idolette de Bures, 
the widow of a Strasburg anabaptist whom 
Calvin married in 1640; whereas Whitting- 
ham's wife Catherine, daughter of Louis 
Jaqueman ' and heire to her mother beinge 
the heire of Genteron [or Gouteron] in Or- 
leance ' (Genealogist, i. 309), was probably 
born not before 1535 and married to Whit- 



tingham on 15 Nov. 1556. Her eldest son, 
Zachary, was baptised on 17 Aug. 1557, and 
her eldest daughter, Susanna, on 11 Dec. 
1558 ; both died young. And Whittingham 
was survived by two sons, Sir Timothy 
(cf. FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714) and 
Daniel, and four daughters. In 1583 she 
was defendant in a curious action for slander 
(Depositions from the Courts of Durham, 
Surtees Soc. pp. 314-16), and her will, dated 
9 Dec. 1590, is printed in 'Durham Wills'" 
(ii. 18-19). 

[The transcript in Anthony a Wood's hand of 
a life of Whittingham, written about 1603 by a 
personal friend, formerly Ashmoloan MS. 8560 
E. 4 art. 5, is now in the Bodleian Wood MS. 
E. 64; it is the basis of Wood's account in the 
Atheuce Oxon. i. 446 sqq., and has been printed 
in full, with many illustrative documents, by 
Mrs. Everett Green in vol. vi. of the Camden 
Society's Miscellany, 1871, and also as an ap- 
pendix to Peter Lorimer's 'John Knox,' 1875. 
See also, besides authorities cited in text, 
Harl. MS. 1535 f. 297*, Lansd. MSS. 981 f. 
147, Addit. MSS. 24444 f. 45, Rawlinson MS. 
xxi. f. 207 ; Burn's Livre des Anglois a Geneve, 
1831; Visit. Cheshire, p. 248 (Harl. Soc.); 
Baines's Lancashire, iv. 409 ; Surtees's Dur- 
ham, ii.280; Reg. Univ. Oxon. i. 211 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 
299 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, Foreign 
1560-6 passim; Cal. Hatfield MSS. ii. 217; 
Brieff Discours of Troubles, 1575; Knox's 
Works (Bannatyne Club) passim ; Gough's Index 
to Parker Soc. Publ.; Strype's Works passim 
(see General Index) ; Brook's Puritans, i. 229 ; 
Neal's Puritans, ed. 1811, i. 114-17; Cotton's 
Editions of the Bible, 1852, pp. 30, 128 ; Ander- 
son's Annals of the Bible; Dore's Old Bibles, 
1888; Holland's Psalmists of Britain, i. 110; 
Maitland's Essays on the Reformation ; Dyer's- 
Life of Calvin, 1850; Dixon's Hist, of Church 
of England, vol. iv. ; Dalton's Lasciana, 1898, 
p. 344 ; Nineteenth Century, April 1899 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd, 4th, and 6th ser. passim.] 

A. F. P. 

WHITTINGTON, RICHARD (d. 1423), 
mayor of London, was son of Sir William 
Whittington and his wife Joan (Monasticon, 
vi. 740). Sir Robert Atkyns, the historian of 
Gloucestershire, in 1712 affiliated Whitting- 
ton to the family which acquired the manors 
of Pauntley, near Newent, in that county, and 
Sellers Hope in Herefordshire, by marriage 
with the heiress of John de Sellers towards 
the close of the thirteenth century. Samuel 
Lysons (1806-1877) fq. v.], in his 'Model 
Merchant of the Middle Ages' (1860), gave 
strong reasons for identifying his father with 
Sir William Whittington of Pauntley, who 
married (after 1355) Joan, daughter of Wil- 
liam Mansell, sheriff of Gloucestershire in 



Whittington 



'54 



Whittington 



1313, and widow of Thomas Berkeley of 
Cubberley, who held the same office at least 
three times (List of Sheriffs, p. 49 ; Cal. Ing. 
post mortem, ii. 17-). Whittington bore the 
arms of the Pauntley family with a mark of 
cadency and a difference of tincture and 
crest (LYSONS, pp. 7, 90), and lent a large 
sum of money to Philip Mansell, Joan's 
brother, in 1386 (BESANT, p. 176). A little 
difficulty is involved in the fact that though 
he can only have been the third son of Sir 
William and Joan Mansell, and hardly born 
before 1359, Whittington was already a sub- 
stantial London citizen in 1379 (cf. LYSONS, 
p. 96, pedigree). Sir William Whittington 
was an outlaw in 1359, and it has been sug- 
gested that his offence was marrying without 
license Berkeley's widow, who survived him 
and died in 1372 (Cal. Inq. post mortem, ii. 
217, 323, iii. 454). Their eldest son, Wil- 
liam, died without issue in 1398-9 (ib. iii. 
235), leaving the estates to his next brother, 
Robert, whose descendants still hold land in 
Gloucestershire. 

Nothing is known of Whittington's settle- 
ment and early life in London. The legend 
converts the Dorsetshire knight, his father- 
in-law, into a London merchant and his 
master, which Sir Walter Besant accepts 
as historical fact. But his first authentic 
appearance belongs to 1379, when he contri- 
buted five marks to a city loan (RiLEY, 
p. 534). By trade a mercer, we find him 
supplying the household of the Earl of 
Deroy, afterwards Henry IV, with velvets 
and damasks (WYLIE, iv. 159, 162-3). In 
1385, and again in 1387, he sat in the com- 
mon council as a representative of Cole man 
Street ward (RiLEY, p. 535). Two years 
later he became surety to the chamberlain 
for 10/. towards the defence of the city. 
In March 1393 he was chosen alderman 
for Broad Street ward, and served as sheriff 
in 1393-4 (ib. p. 535; FABYAN, p. 538; 
WYLIE, iii. 65). When Adam Bamine, the 
mayor of 1397, died during his term of 
office, the king appointed (8 June) Whitting- 
ton to fill his place until the next election 
(Fcedera, vii. 856; FABYAN, p. 542). A 
month later Richard's long-deferred ven- 
geance descended upon the lords appellant, 
and Whittington had to assemble the city 
militia to accompany the king to Pleshy to 
arrest the Duke of Gloucester (Annales, p. 
203). It would be rash perhaps to infer 
that he was a thoroughgoing royal partisan, 
in view of his last instructions to the mem- 
bers of his college, directing them to pray for 
the souls both of King Richard and the Duke 
of Gloucester, ' his special lords and pro- 
moters ' (Monasticon, vi. 740). In October 



he was elected mayor for the ensuing year, 
thus holding office continuously for a year 
and five months at a time of great excite- 
ment in the city, provoked by the king's 
arbitrary proceedings (FABYAN, p. 542). His 
name headed the humiliating submission ex- 
torted from the citizens (GREGORY, p. 100). 
Richard, when deposed, owed Whittington 
a thousand marks, which he was fortunate 
enough to get repaid (WYLIE, i. 64). His 
wealth made him very useful to Henry IV 
in his chronic pecuniary difficulties. The 
minutes of the privy council record his pre- 
sence with William Brampton, another citi- 
zen, at a meeting on 15 June 1400, and there 
was some idea of summoning him to a great 
council in the following year (Ord. Privy 
Council, i. 122, 163). He furnished cloth of 
gold and other mercery for the bridal outfits 
of Henry's daughters married abroad in 
1401 and 1406, and frequently advanced to 
the crown large sums of money on loan, on 
one occasion no less than 6,400 (LYSONS, p. 
87 ; WYLIE, ii. 442, 448, iii. 65 ; Ord. Privy 
Council, ii. 107, 114). As mayor of the staple 
at London and Calais and a collector of the 
customs and subsidy in both ports, he held 
good security for the repayment of his loans 
(WYLIE, iii'. 65; DEVON, Issues, p. 322). 
Henry V also borrowed from Whittington 
and gave him various proofs of his confi- 
dence, entrusting the expenditure of the 
funds set aside for the restoration of the 
nave of Westminster Abbey to him with a 
single colleague, and forbidding the mayor 
of 1415 to pull down any buildings in the 
city without consulting Whittington and 
three others (Fasdera, ix. 79 ; Ord. Privy 
Council, ii. 109). But his knighthood is as 
legendary as his burning the royal bonds. 

Whittington was mayor for the second 
time (third if his short tenure of the office in 
1397 be counted) in 1406-7 (RiLEY, p. 565), 
and for the last time in 1419-20 (ib. p. 676). 
[Lysona asserts (p. 50) that he represented- 
London in one of the parliaments of 1416, 
but no returns seem to exist (List of Mem- 
bers, i. 287-8^ In his last years he was 
very active in prosecuting the forestallers 
of meat and sellers of dear ale (Cotton. MS. 
Galba B 5). 

On 5 Sept. 1421 Whittington made his 
will (LYSONS, p. 80). He attended the city 
elections in the autumn of 1422, but died, it 
would seem, in the early days of the follow- 
ing March (ib. p. 71). His will was proved 
on the 8th of that month (ib. p. 80). In 
accordance with its directions he was buried 
on the north side of the high altar in the 
church of St. Michael de Paternoster-church 
in Riola, for whose collegiation he pro- 



4 he was elected to the 
second (October) parliament of 1416 ' (Cal. 
Letter Books, City of London. I. p. i c8). 



Whittington 



155 



Whittington 



vided ; an epitaph in somewhat obscure Latin 
verse, describing him as ' flos mercatorum ' 
and ' regia apes et pres,' is preserved by Stow 
(iii. 5). His tomb is said (t&.) to have been 
rifled for treasure in the reign of Edward VI 
by the parson of the church, who abstracted 
the lead in which the body was lapped. 
It was replaced under Mary, but the tomb 
perished with the church in the great fire 
of 1666. Whittington's executors were in- 
structed by his will to sell the house he 
lived in close by the church with other pro- 
perty in the city, and expend the proceeds on 
masses for the souls of himself, his wife, his 
father and mother, and all others to whom 
he was bound. The old house in Hart 
Street, oft* Mark Lane, which used to be tra- 
ditionally known as Whittington Palace, 
would seem therefore to have no claim to 
that distinction. There are several en- 
gravings of this house, which was pulled 
down early in the present century (Gent. 
May. 1796, LXVI. ii. 545 ; LYSONS, p. 76). 

Whittington married (Hfonasticon, vi. 746) 
Alice, daughter of Sir Ivo Fitzwaryn, a 
knight of considerable landed property in the 
south-western counties, who on several occa- 
sions represented Dorset and Devon in parlia- 
ment, by his wife Matilda or Maud Dargen- 
tein, one of the coheiresses of the well-known 
Hertfordshire family in which the office of 
royal cupbearer was hereditary (HUTCHINS, 
i. 327-8, iv. 174 ; CLUTTERBUCK, ii. 541-2). 
She must have predeceased her father, who 
died on 6 Sept. 1414 and was buried in 
Wantage church, where his tomb remains, 
for he left only one daughter, Alianor, who 
became his heir (ib. ; ASHMOLE, ii. 235 ; 
WYLIE, iii 65). Apparently Whittington 
had no issue by her. 

The only portrait of Whittington at all 
likely to be authentic is the illumination at 
the beginning of the copy of the ordinances 
for his hospital at Mercers' Hall which re- 
presents him on his deathbed surrounded by 
nis executors and bedesmen. It is engraved 
in the works of Malcolm (iv. 515), Lysons, 
and Besant. The face is long, thin, and 
smooth shaven. It has little or nothing in 
common with the portrait engraved by 
Renold Elstracke J"q. v.l early in the seven- 
teenth century. The chain of office in the 
latter is of sixteenth-century design, and the 
original picture was probably a work of that 
age. In the first impressions of the engrav- 
ing Whittington's right hand rested upon a 
skull, but popular taste compelled Elstracke 
to substitute a cat in the remainder, and the 
former are now excessively rare (GRANGER, 
Biographical History, i. 63). The engraving 
in its second shape is reproduced in Lysons 



and the ' Antiquarian Repertory ' (ii. 343). 
Malcolm mentions a small portrait at 
Mercers' Hall, which has since disappeared, 
in which he appeared as a man of about 
sixty ' in a fur livery gown and a black cap 
such as the yeomen of the guard now wear,' 
and with a black-and-white cat on the left- 
hand side. The inscription, ' R. Whittington, 
1536,' suggests the possibility of its being an 
adaptation of a portrait of Robert Whitting- 
ton [q. v.], the grammarian. The present 
portrait at Mercers' Hall is modern. It was 
engraved in Thornton's ' New History, De- 
scription and Survey of London ' (1784). 

Whittington was a good type of the mediae- 
val city magnate. There had no doubt been 
more distinguished mayors of London. He 
played a less prominent part in the affairs of 
the kingdom than Sir John de Pulteney [q. v.] 
or Sir John Philipot [q. v.], and there is no- 
thing to show that his contemporary repu- 
tation extended beyond the city. The chroni- 
clers of his time who wrote in the country 
never mention him by name. But his com- 
mercial success, unusually prolonged civic 
career, and great loans to the crown seem to 
have impressed the imagination of his fellow- 
citizens if we may accept the evidence. of his 
epitaph and the allusion to him in Gregory's 
' Chronicle ' (p. 156), written not long after 
his death, as 'that famos marchant and 
mercer Richard Whytyndone.' In a sense, 
too, he was the last of the great mediaeval 
mayors, for the outbreak of the wars of the 
roses ushered in a period far less favourable 
to municipal magnates. Yet he would hardly 
have been permanently remembered had not 
his benefactions mostly posthumous asso- 
ciated him with some of the most prominent 
London buildings, and one of the few mediae- 
val foundations in the city which survived 
the Reformation. As that of the rebuilder 
of the chief prison and the founder of the 
principal almshouse in London, Whitting- 
ton's name was a household word with the 
Londoners of the sixteenth century, when 
many of the scanty facts of his life had 
already been forgotten. 

Childless, and surviving his wife, Whit- 
tington was free to devote his wealth to 
public and pious objects. He arched over 
a spring on the bank of the city ditch, and 
inserted a public * boss ' or water-tap in the 
wall of St. Giles, Cripplegate (Slow). This 
or a similar one at Billingsgate gave Robert 
Whittington [q.v.J, the grammarian, his nick- 
name of ' Boss ' (LYSONS, p. 52). In his last 
term of office as mayor Whittington defrayed 
the greater part of the cost of the new library 
of the Greyfriars, now the north side of the 
great cloister of Christ's Hospital (Chron. of 



Whittington 



156 



Whittington 



Greyfriars, p. 13). With others he handed 
over Leadennall to the corporation in 1411, 
and he opened Bakewell Hall for the sale of 
broadcloths (LYSONS, p. 84 ; BESANT, p. 169). 
By his directions his executors, one of whom 
was the well-known town clerk, John Car- 
penter (1370P-1441 ?) [q. v.], who compiled 
the ' Liber Albus ' in Whittington's third 
mayoralty (1419), obtained license to rebuild 
Newgate, which served as a city prison, on 
the ground that it was ' feble, over litel and 
so contagious of Eyre, yat hit caused the 
deth of many men' (Fcedera, x. 287 ; Hot. 
Parl iv. 370). They also contributed to the 
repair of St. Bartholomew's Hospital and the 
restoration and enlargement of the Guildhall 
(Sxow, i. 261). But they were directed to 
use the bulk of his wealth for the foundation 
of a hospital or almshouse, and the col- 
legiation of his parish church of St. Michael 
de Paternoster-church. He had taken some 
preliminary steps in his lifetime, though 
Stow's authority for the statement that he 
obtained a royal license in 1410 does not 
appear (Slow, iii. 3 ; cf. LYSONS, p. 84). 
In 1411 he gave land for the rebuilding of 
the church (RiLEY, p. 578). His executors 
obtained the consent of the archbishop of 
Canterbury tothecollegiationof St. Michael's, 
which was an archiepiscopal peculiar, on 
20 Nov. 1424, and on 17 and 18 Dec. issued 
a charter of foundation and regulations for 
a college dedicated to the Holy Ghost and 
the Virgin Mary, to consist of five priests, 
one of whom was to be master. They were 
to reside in a building newly erected east 
of the church, and say masses for the souls 
of Whittington and his wife, his father and 
mother, Richard II, Thomas of Woodstock, 
and their wives (Monasticon, vi. 739-41). 
Further endowments and rules were added 
on 13 Feb. 1425 (#. vi. 743). Reginald 
Pecock [q. v.] became master in 1431. The 
college was suppressed in 1548, and the build- 
ing sold for 92/., but its memory is kept alive 
by College Street. Simultaneously with the 
creation of Whittington College, the execu- 
tors founded (21 Dec. 1424) a hospital be- 
tween the church and Whittington's house 
for thirteen poor men, one of whom was to 
be tutor, and whose prayers were to be 
offered for the souls of the persons mentioned 
above, and also for those of the parents of 
the founder's wife (ib. vi. 744-7). An 
illuminated copy of their ordinances is pre- 
served by the Mercers' Company, who manage 
the hospital now removed to Highgate (Rep. 
Livery Companies 1 Commission, 1884, iv. 
39-44). 

It has been Whittington's singular fate 
to become the hero of a popular tale which 



has found an uHmate lodgment in the 
nursery. The Whittington of the old bal- 
lads, chap-books, and puppet play started 
life as a poor ill-treated orphan in the west 
of England, and made his way to London 
on hearing that its streets were paved with 
gold. Arriving in a state of destitution, he 
attracted the commiseration of a rich mer- 
chant, one Mr. Hugh FitzWarren, who 
placed him as a scullion in his kitchen, 
where he suffered greatly from the tyranny 
of the cook, tempered only by the kindness 
of his master's daughter, Mrs. Alice. From 
this state of misery he was presently released 
by a strange piece of good fortune. It waa 
the worthy merchant's custom when sending 
out a ship to let each of his servants venture 
something in it, in order that God might 
give him a greater blessing. To the freight 
of the good ship Unicorn Whittington could 
only contribute his cat, which he had bought 
for a penny to keep down the vermin in his 
garret ; but the vessel happening to touch at 
an unknown part of the Barbary coast, the 
king of the country, whose palace was over- 
run with rats and mice, bought the cat for 
ten times more than all the freight besides. 
Meanwhile her owner, unconscious of his 
good luck and driven desperate by the cook's 
ill-usage, stole away from Leadenhall Street 
early in the morning of All Hallows day, 
and left the city behind him, but as he 
rested at Holloway he heard Bow bells ring 
out a merry peal, which seemed to say : 

Turn again, Whittington, 
Lord Mayor of London. 

Whereupon he returned to his pots and 
spits, and, the Unicorn soon coming in, mar- 
ried Mrs. Alice, and rose to be thrice lord 
mayor of London and entertain Henry V, 
after his conquest of France, at a great 
feast, in the course of which he threw into 
the fire the king's bonds for thirty-seven 
thousand marks. The story of the venture 
of a cat leading to fortune is in one form or 
another very widely diffused. It has been 
traced in many countries both of southern 
and northern Europe, and occurs in a Persian 
version as early as the end of the thirteenth 
century. The germ of the story seems sug- 
gested by the mention of the custom of ship- 
masters taking the ventures of the poor whose 
? ray era were thought to bring good luck, 
lalston and Clouston claim a Buddhistic 
origin for the tale. One of the reasons ad- 
duced in support of this view is that in some 
of the older versions the cat is saved from 
ill-treatment by the person whose fortune it 
is destined to make. The English version 
has more in common with the Scandinavian 



Whittington 



157 



Whittington 



and Russian forms of the story than 
those current in southern Europe. It stands 
almost, alone, however, in selecting an his- 
torical personage as the central figure. The 
t legend ' of Whittington is not known to 
have been narrated before 1605. On 8 Feb. 
1604-5 a dramatic version entitled ' The 
History of Richard Whittington, of his 
lowe byrth, his great fortune, as yt was 
plaied by the prynces servants,' was licensed 
lor the press (ARBER, Stationers' Registers, 
iii. 282). On 16 July 1605 a license was 
granted for the publication of a ballad called 
' The vertuous Lyfe and memorable Death 
of Sir Richard Whittington, mercer, some- 
tyme Lord Maiour.' Neither play nor ballad 
is known to have survived. The earliest 
extant references to the ' legend ' figure in 
Thomas Heywood's ' If you know not me, 
you know nobody ' (act i. sc. i.) published 
in 1606, and in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
* Knight of the Burning Pestle/ which ap- 
peared five years later. Both references 
imply that serious liberties had been taken 
in the legend with the historical facts. The 
various attempts to rationalise the legend, 
by dragging in the use of the word * cat ' as a 
name for ships carrying coals from New- 
castle, a mere humorous suggestion of Samuel 
Foote [q. v.], or by explaining * cat ' as a cor- 
ruption of the French achats, fall to the 
ground when the real character of the story 
is recognised. Lysons's defence of the his- 
torical truth of the incident of the cat would 
hardly call for criticism if it had not been 
seriously revived in Sir Walter Besant's 
popular history of Whittington. Their 
corroborative proofs may be at once dis- 
missed. The evidence of the portraits is of 
course worthless. The piece of sculpture 
found in an old house at Gloucester said to 
have once belonged to the Whittington 
family, and figured by Carr (p. xvi), repre- 
sents a small boy, not ' a fine sturdy youth,' 
carrying a nondescript small animal, and 
there seems no satisfactory evidence for 
attributing the stone to the fifteenth century. 
The assumption that the cat carved on the 
front of Newgate when rebuilt after the 
great fire had existed on the building 
erected by Whittington's executors rests on 
a mere mistake of Pennant. 

[The first serious attempt to ascertain and 
bring together the facts of Whittington's life 
was made by Samuel Lysons, one of the authors 
of the Magna Britannia, in ' The Model Merchant 
of the Middle Ages ' (1860) ; very little escaped 
him, but the value of his work is marred by his 
acceptance of the legend as genuine biography. 
The life by Walter Besant and James Rice 
<1881 ; 2nd ed. 1894) adds a few details from 



the City Archives, but adheres to Lysons's un- 
critical standpoint, and is little more than an 
expansion of his work without his references and 
documents. The chief original authorities are 
the following : Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Rymer's 
Foedera, original ed. ; Ordinances of the Privy 
Council, ed. Nicolas ; Calendarium Inquisitionum 
post mortem ; Devon's Issues of the Exchequer ; 
Return of Names of Members of Parliament, 
1878; Lists of Sheriffs, 1898; Monasticon Angli- 
canum, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel ; Annales 
Ricardi II (Rolls Series); Fabyan's Chronicle, 
ed. Ellis; Gregory's Chronicle and Chronicle 
of Greyfriars (Camden Soc.); Stow's Survey of 
London, ed. Strype ; Riley's Memorials of Lon- 
don. Also Brewer's Life and Times of John 
Carpenter, 1856 ; Malcolm's Londinium Redi- 
vivum ; Hutchins's History of Dorset, 3rd ed. ; 
Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire ; Ash- 
mole's History of Berkshire; Wylie's History 
of Henry IV. The legend is critically examined 
in Thos. Keightley's Tales and Popular Fictions, 
1834, W. A. Clouston's Popular Tales and Fic- 
tions, 1887, and by H. B. Wheatley in the pre- 
face to his edition of the ' Hi story of Sir Richard 
Whittington ' (By T. H. [1670]) for the Villon 
Society, 1885; compare also Reinhold Kohler, 
Orient und Occident (ii. 488), and Ralston's 
Russian Folk-Tales. The earliest form of the 
story in the British Museum Collection is a 
black-letter ba)lad of 1641, entitled 'London's 
glory and Whittington's renown ; or a looking 
glass for the citizens of London ; being a remark- 
able story how Sir Richard Whittington . . . 
came to be three times Lord Mayor of London, 
and how his rise was by a cat.' The prose 
series begins with ' The famous and remarkable 
History of Sir Richard Whittington, three times 
Lord Mayor of London,' by T. H. 1656, also in 
black letter, a later edition of which has been 
republished by the Villon Society. The story 
became a favourite subject of chap-books whose 
imprints include Edinburgh, Durham, Carlisle, 
and Newcastle-on-Tyne. Carr's Story of Sir 
Richard Whittington, 1871, is a modern version.] 

J. T-T. 

WHITTINGTON, WHYTYNTON, or 
WHITINTON, ROBERT (/. 1520), gram- 
marian, was born at Lichfield, and educated 
first at the school of St. John's Hospital in 
that city (Short Account of the Ancient and 
Modern State of Lichfield, 1819, p. 112), and 
afterwards under John Stanbridge [q. v.J in 
the school attached to the college of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Oxford. In April 1513 he sup- 
plicated the congregation of regents at Ox- 
ford for laureation in grammar, which was 
granted him on 4 July ensuing. At the 
same time he was admitted B.A. In his 
supplicat he represents that he had studied 
rhetoric for fourteen years, and taught it for 
twelve. This would point to his being born 
not much later than 1480. On his laureation 
he assumed the title of ' Protovates Angliae,' 



Whittington 



158 



Whittlesey 



a piece of arrogance which gave olli-nce to 
other scholars, * in.comparison with whom,' 
says Fuller, ' he was but a crackling thorn.' 
A warfare of epigrams ensued between him 
and William Herman [q. v.] f supported by 
Lily and Aldrich, the intricacies of which 
have been unravelled with much ingenuity 
by Dr. Maitland (Early Printed Books, 
p. 415). The sobriquet of ' Boss ' was be- 
stowed on Whittington by his foes, in deri- 
sive allusion to a public ' boss ' or water-tap 
in the city of London which had been origi- 
nally set up by Richard Whittington [q. v.J, 
and was called by his name. Whytynton is 
said by Bale to have been alive in 1630 ; but 
beyond that all is uncertain. His gram- 
matical treatises, along with those of his old 
master, Stanbridge, had a wide circulation 
(Day-Book of John Dome, vol. i. of the Oxford 
Hist. Society's publications, p. 75). He de- 
scribes one of them as ' iuxta consuetudinem 
ludi literarii diui Pauli.' Several of these are 
of great value for illustrating the language 
and manners of the time. The chief of them 
are the following : 1 . ' Editio Secunda de con- 
sinitate [concinnitate] grammatices,' Wyn- 
kyn de Worde, 1512, 4to (Bodl. Libr), 1516, 
4to. 2. ' De syllabarum quantitate,' Lon- 
don, 1519, 4to (Hazlitt mentions an edition 
of 1513). 3. ' W^hytthyntoni editio: Declina- 
tiones nominum tarn latinorum quam gre- 
corum,' London, 1517, 4to (Bodl. Libr.) 

4. * Opusculum affabrum et recognitum . . . 
de nominum generibus,' London, s.a. 4to. 

5. * Editio de Heteroclitis nominibus et gra- 
dibus comparationis,' Oxford, 1518, 4to 
(Bodl. Libr.) ; London, 1633, 4to. 6. ' Acci- 
dentia ex Stanbrigiana editione ' together 
with ' Parvula,' London, 1528, 4to. 7. < Vul- 
garia quedam cum suis vernaculis,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1528, 4to. Besides these he wrote ' De 
difficultate iustitiae servandse in reip. admini- 
stratione,' along with ' De quatuor uirtutibus 
cardineis/ both addressed to Wolsey, Lon- 
don, 1519, 4to. The presentation copies, in 
manuscript, are in the Bodleian Library. 
Whytynton was also the author of the 
following translations : * The thre bookes of 
Tullyes Offyces bothe in latyne tonge & in 
englysshe,' London, 1534, 8vo. ' Tullius de 
Senectute bothe in latyn and englysshe 
tonge,' London, s.a. (1535?), 8vo. 'The 
Paradox of M. T. Cicero/ London, 1540, 
16mo. ' A frutefull work of Lucius Anneus 
Seneca, named the forme and rule of honest 
lyuynge,' London, 1546, 4to. * A frutefull 
worke of ... Seneca, called the Myrrour 
or Glasse of Maners . . .' London, 1547, 
8vo. 'Lucii Annei Senecce ad Gallionem. 
. . . The remedy es agaynst all casuall 
chaunces,' London, 1547, 8vo. ' De civili- 



tate morn in . . . per Des. Erasmum . . . 
Roberto Whitintoni [sic] interprete,' London, 
I .V>4, 8vo. An earlier edition of this last 
is said to have appeared in 1/513:3 (Bibliotheca 
Erasmiana, 1893, p. 29). 

[Editions of Why tynton's Works in Brit. Mus. 
and Bodleian Libraries; Wood's Athense and 
Hist, et Antiq. ii. 4, 5 ; Warton's English Poe- 
try, sect. xxv. ; Boase's Register of the Univ. 
of Oxford, 1885, i. 85 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
W. Carew Hazlitt's Schools, Schoolbooks, &c., 
1 888, pp. 60-8 ; Briiggemann's View of the Eng- 
lish Editions, 1797, pp. 500, 651.] J. H. L. 

WHITTLE, PETER ARMSTRONG 

(1789-1866), Lancashire antiquary, was born 
at Inglewhite in the parish of Goosnargh, 
Lancashire, on 9 July 1789, and was edu- 
cated at the grammar schools of Goosnargh, 
AValton-le-Dale, and Preston. He began 
business as a bookseller and printer at Pres- 
ton in 1810, and became an active contri- 
butor to various journals. He was intelli- 
gent but ill-educated, and his works, though 
not without value, abound in errors. He 
styled himself F.S.A., but was not a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries. In 1858 Lord 
Derby, as prime minister, gave him a pension 
of 60/. a year for ' literary services.' After 
giving up business in 1851, he lived at Bolton 
for some years, and then removed to Mount 
Vernon, Liverpool. Whittle, who was a 
Roman catholic, died on 7 Jan. 1866. He 
married, in October 1827, Matilda Henrietta 
Armstrong, and had two sons : Robert Clau- 
dius, author of 'The Wayfarer in Lanca- 
shire,' and Henry Armstrong. 

He was the author of the ^following local 
histories: 1. 'A Topographical Account, 
&c., of Preston,' 1821; vol. ii. 1837, 12mo (the 
first volume was published under the pseu- 
donym of 'MarmadukeTulket'). 2. 'Marina; 
or an Historical and Descriptive Account of 
Southport, Lytham, and Blackpool,' Preston, 
1831, 8vo (anon.) 3. ' Architectural Descrip- 
tion of St. Ignatius's Church, Preston,' 1833. 
4. ' Description of St. Mary's Cistercian 
Church at Penwortham,' 8vo. 6. ' Historical 
Notices of Hoghton Tower,' 1845. 6. * An 
Account of St. Marie's Chapel at Ferny- 
halgh/ 1851, 8vo. 7. ' Blackburn as it is/ 
1862. 8. ' Bolton-le-Moors and the Town- 
ships in the Parish,' Bolton, 1855, 8vo. 

[Whittle's Preston, ii. 336 ; Men of the Time, 
1865, p. 825; Johnstone's Religious Hist, of 
Bolton, p. 177 ; Fishwick's Lancashire Library.] 

c. w. s. 

WHITTLESEY or WITTLESEY, 
WILLIAM (d. 1374), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, though doubtless a native of the 



Cambridgeshire village whose name he bore, 
studied at Oxford, where he to 



icre he took his doctor's 



Whittlesey 



159 



Whittlesey 



degree in canon and civil law (WooD, i. 
183; GODWIN). His choice of university 
must have been decided for him by his 
maternal uncle, Simon Islip (afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury) [q. v.J, to whom 
Whittlesey owed his education and much 
ecclesiastical promotion. He was collated 
archdeacon of Huntingdon in June 1337, 
according to a record quoted by White 
Kennett ; but if this be correct, he was re- 
appointed by letters patent on 20 June 1343 
(LE NEVE, ii. 50). In the plague year 
(1349), when his uncle became archbishop, 
Whittlesey was made (10 Sept.) ' custos' of 
Peterhouse at Cambridge, but held this posi- 
tion only until 1351 . lie was a prebendary of 
Lichfield from 1350, and of Chichester and 
Lincoln from 1356, retaining the last down 
to his appointment as primate (ib. i. 626, ii. 
106). He had also a prebend at Hastings 
(TANNER, p. 784). Along with his arch- 
deaconry and prebends Whittlesey held the 
benefices of Ivychurch,near Romney (1352), 
Croydon (1353), and Cliffe, near Rochester 
(ib. ; Anf/lia Sacra, i. 535). He is said to 
have acted for a time as his uncle's proctor 
at the papal court, and was certainly sent 
on a mission there by the king in 1353 (ib. ; 
Rot. Part. ii. 252 ; Fcedera, v. 747). Islip 
made him first his vicar-general, then dean 
of the court of arches, and finally secured 
his election (23 Oct. 1360) to the dependent 
see of Rochester, not, it would seem, with- 
out a bargain with the monks (Lfi NEVE, 
ii. 564 ; Registrum Roffense, p. 181 ; HOOK, 
iv. 224). The pope gave his consent by 
way of provision on 31 July following, and, 
owing to Islip's infirmities, Whittlesey 's con- 
secration was quietly performed in the 
chapel of the archbishop s manor-house at 
Otford, not a single diocesan bishop being 
present (ib. iv. 225 ; LE NEVE, u.s.) Two 
years later (6 March 1364) he was trans- 
lated by Islip's influence to the richer see of 
Worcester, but does not seem to have re- 
sided (ib. iii. 58 ; cf. HOOK, iv. 226). 

After his uncle's death in 1366 Whittlesey 
can hardly have looked for further promotion, 
but fortune still stood his friend. Langham, 
Islip's masterful successor, accepted a cardi- 
nal's hat without the royal permission, and 
had to resign. A more colourless and pliant 
primate being desiderated, the choice fell 
upon Whittlesey, who was accordingly 
translated to Canterbury by a papal bull, 
dated 11 Oct. 1368 (LE NEVE, i. 19). He 
received the temporalities on 15 Jan. 1369, 
the pallium on 19 April, and was enthroned 
on 17 June, the usual feast being dispensed 
with on account of the plague. Whittlesey 
would hardly have made his mark in the 



primacy, even if lie had not very soon be- 
come a confirmed invalid. lie was unable 
in consequence to take part in the defence 
of the church in the memorable parliament 
of 1371, and rarely left his quiet refuge at 
Otford (WILKINS, iii. 89; HOOK, iv. 228). 
But the pressure of taxation upon the clergy 
became so heavy that he dragged himself 
up to London for the meeting of convoca- 
tion in December 1373, and ascended the 
pulpit of St. Paul's to make his protest; but 
he had not proceeded far when he swooned 
in the arms of his chaplain, and was carried 
out and rowed to Lambeth (PARKER, p. 380 ; 
WILKINS, iii. 97). He lingered until 5 June, 
when he made his will, bequeathing his 
books to Peterhouse, and the residue of his 
property to his poor relations. His register 
appears to give this as the day of his death 
(Anfflia Sacra, i. 794 ; LE NEVE, i. 20). 
But the record of Canterbury obits places it 
on the 6th (Anfflia Sacra, i.*61). The date 
in Walsingham (i. 317) 5 July though 
the month is obviously wrong, rather con- 
firms the former statement. Perhaps he 
died in the night between the two dates. 
His remains were taken to Canterbury and 
buried in the cathedral near the tomb of 
Islip, between two pillars on the south side 
of the nave (SoMNER, Antiquities of Canter- 
bury, pt. i. p. 134). His epitaph, inscribed 
on brass, remained legible about 1586, when 
it was read by Godwin; but only a fragment 
survived when it was seen by Weever, who 
published his 'Funerall Monuments' in 
1631. 

.... tumulatus 
Wittelcsey natus gemmata luce. 

It was Whittlesey who obtained from Ur- 
ban V a bull exempting the university of 
Oxford from the jurisdiction of the bishop of 
Lincoln. 

The story in the 'Continuation of the 
Eulogium ' (iii. 337-8) of the great council 
of prelates and lords called after Pentecost 
(20 May 1374) to discuss a papal demand 
for a subsidy to be used against the Floren- 
tines, in which the Black Prince is repre- 
sented as calling Whittlesey an ass, is dis- 
posed of, so far as the latter is concerned, 
by the fact that he was on his deathbed at 
Lambeth when the scene is supposed to have 
taken place at Westminster. Nor is this 
the only incredible feature of the incident as 
there related. 

[Rot. Parl., Rymer's Fcedera, original edit., 
Walsingham 's Historia Anglicana and the Eulo- 
gium Historiarum (in Rolls Ser.) ; Anglia Sacra, 
ed. Wharton ; Godwin, De Praesulibus Anglise, 
ed. 1743 ; Wilkins's Concilia Magnae Britanniae 
et Hiberniae ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Scriptomm 



Whitty 



160 



Whitty 



Britannico-Hibernicu; Le Neve's Fasti Kcclesise 
Anglicanse, ed. Hardy ; Parker, De Antiquitate 
Ecclesiae et Privileges Ecclesiae Cautuariensis ; 
Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury.] 

J. T-T. 

WHITTY, EDWARD MICHAEL 

(1827-1860), journalist, son of MichaelJames 
Whitty [q. v.J, was born in London in 1827. 
He was educated at the Liverpool Institute 
and at Hanover. About 1844 he became a 
reporter on the provincial press, and from 
1846 to 1849 he was the writer of the 
parliamentary summary of the ' Times.' He 
was the London correspondent of the ' Liver- 
pool Journal,' and for several years served 
with George Henry Lewes, E. F. S. Pigott, 
and other distinguished writers on the 
staff of the ' Leader.' His great powers 
of sarcasm were first conspicuous in the 
singularly vivid and vigorous sketches of 
the proceedings in parliament which he con- 
tributed to the ' Leader.' The preliminary 
essays began in its columns on 14 Aug. 
1852, and the first description of the debates 
by * The Stranger in Parliament ' appeared 
in the number for 13 Nov. in that year. A 
selection from them was published anony- 
mously in 1854 as the ' History of the Ses- 
sion 1852-3: a Parliamentary Retrospect.' 
These articles originated the superior kind 
of parliamentary sketch, and for pungency 
of expression and fidelity of description have 
never been surpassed. A volume entitled 
<The Derbyites and the Coalition' (1854? 
12mo) is assigned to Whitty by Allibone. 
A brilliant series of his ' Leader ' articles 
was collected in ' The Governing Classes of 
Great Britain : Political Portraits ' (Lon- 
don, 1854 ; with additions, 1859), a volume 
which is said to have made a great impres- 
sion on Montalembert. The phrase ' the 
governing classes,' though previously used 
by Carlyle ( Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, 
1845, ii. 150), was identified with Whitty's 
volume ; R. B. Brough dedicated to him in 
1855 his volume of ' Songs of the Governing 
Classes.' 

Before long Whitty quarrelled with his 
old friends on the ' Leader,' and he seized 
the opportunity of satirising them in clever 
epigrammatic sentences in his novel of 
* Friends of Bohemia, or Phases of London 
Life,' which was written in a fortnight and 
sold for 50Z. (London, 1857, 2 vols. ; New 
York and Philadelphia, 1864, with memoir) 
Whitty was appointed editor of the ' Northern 
Whig' early in 1857, but the engagement 
terminated abruptly in the spring of 1868. 
He returned for a time to London, and on 
the death of his wife and two children 
emigrated to Australia to work on the 



Melbourne Argus.' He died at Melbourne, 
at the house of a relative, on 21 Feb. 1860. 
A few years later a handsome monument 
was erected to his memory by Barry Sullivan 
the actor. 

Whitty possessed great talent, and was en- 
dowed ' with a brilliant style and a powerful 
battery of sarcastic irony ' (Irish Quarterly 
Review, vii. 385, &c.) A sketch of him 
under the name of ' Ned Wexford,' by James 
Hannay, is in the 'Cornhill Magazine' (xi. 
251-2; reprinted in ESPINASSE'S Literary 
Recollections, pp. 323-4). 

[Athenaeum, 12 May 1860, p. 651 ; Saunders, 
Otley, & Co.'s Oriental Budget, 1 June 1860, p. 
122; Dublin Review, July 1857, pp. 101-4; 
Jeaffreson's Novels and Novelists, ii. 402 ; in- 
formation from Miss Whitty of Concordia, 
Blundellsands, Liverpool, Sir Edward R. Russell, 
and Mr. F. D. Finlay.] W. P. C. 

WHITTY, MICHAEL JAMES (1795- 
1873), journalist, born in Wexford in 1795, 
was the son of a maltster. In 1821 he 
commenced his literary career in London, 
and among his earliest friends were Sir 
James Bacon and George Cruikshank. He 
was appointed in 1823 to be editor of the 
' London and Dublin Magazine,' and in its 
first volume appeared the substance of the 
work on ' Robert Emmet,' which he published 
with a prefatory note signed ' M. J. W./ 
about 1870. He remained editor of the maga- 
zine until 1827. From 1823 to 1829 he con- 
tributed largely to Irish periodical literature, 
and was an ardent advocate for catholic eman- 
cipation. He published anonymously in 1824 
two volumes of 'Tales of Irish Life,' with 
illustrations by Cruikshank. These stories 
depicted the customs and condition of his 
fellow-countrymen. 

Whitty began his connection with Liver- 
pool in 1829, when he accepted the post of 
editor of the ' Liverpool Journal,' started 
in January 1830. He vacated this position 
in February 1836 on his appointment as 
chief constable of the borough. He had 
previously been 'superintendent of the 
nightly watch ' (Picxox, Memorials of Liver- 
pool, i. 550). During his twelve years' 
tenure of the office he perfected the organi- 
sation of the police force and formed an 
efficient fire brigade. On his retirement he 
was presented by the town council with 
the sum of 1,000/. in recognition of his ser- 
vices. 

His connection with the ' Liverpool 
Journal ' had not been wholly severed 
during this period of his life, and in 1848 he 
purchased the paper and resumed his literary 
work. For many years he acted as the Liver- 
pool correspondent and agent of the ' Daily 



Whitwell 



161 



Whitworth 



News.' In 1851 he was a witness before 
the parliamentary commission appointed to 
inquire into tin- Newspaper Stamp Act, and 
he vigorously advocated the abolition of the 
stamp act, the advertisement duty, ami th. 
duty on paper. On the removal of these 
imposts he issued in 1855 the 'Liverpool 
Daily Post,' the first penny daily paper pub- 
lished in the United Kingdom, in the columns 
of which during 1861-4 he zealously advo- 
cated the cause of the northern states. The 
paper passed out of his hands some years 
before his death, but it has never ceased to 
hold a prominent place among the leading 
daily papers. ' Wliitty's Guide to Liver- 
pool ' was published from the office in 1868. 
The last few years of Whitty's life were 
spent in retirement at Prince's Park, Liver- 
pool. He died there on 10 June 1873, and 
was buried at Anfield cemetery by the side 
of his wife, the sister of E. B. Neill, corre- 
spondent in London of the ' Liverpool 
Albion.' Edward Michael Whitty [q. v.] 
their son. 



[Athenaeum, 14 June 1873, p. 763 ; informa- 
tion from Miss Whitty, Sir Edward K.Russell, 
and Mr. J. Gregson of 70 Grove Street. Liver- 
pool.] \V. P. C. 

WHITWELL, JOHN GRIFFIN, LORD 
HOWARD DE WALDEN (1719-1797). [See 
GRIFFIN, JOHN GRIFFIN.] 

WHITWORTH, CHARLES, BARON 
WHITWORTH (1675-1725), eldest of the six 
sons of Richard Whitworth of Blowerpipe, 
and afterwards of Adbaston, Staffordshire, 
who married, on 15 Dec. 1674, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Francis Moseley, rector of Wilmslow, 
Cheshire, was born at Blowerpipe in 1675, 
and baptised at Wilmslow on 14 Oct. in that 
year. He was educated at Westminster (ad- 
mitted as a queen's scholar in 1690), was 
elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 

94, and became a fellow of that society in 
1700, having graduated B.A. in 1699. 'He 
was initiated into the arts of diplomacy by 
George Stepney [q. v.], and while William III 
was still king he was, upon Stepney's re- 
commendation, appointed to represent Eng- 
land at the diet of Ratisbon on 28Feb 1702 
(cf. Addit MS. 21551, ff. 27, 32). After 
Stepney, he is said to have understood the 
politics of the empire better than any Eng- 
ishman during the reign of Anne. He was 
appointed envoy-extraordinary to Russia on 
- bept. 1704, and retained the post for six 
years. In September 1707, in reply to a 
question from Harley, he gave some informa- 
icn about the library at Moscow. In Sep- 
tember 1709 he was commissioned to con- 
gratulate the czar upon his victory of Pul- 

YOL. LXI. 



towa. Peter seized the opportunity to de- 
mand the instant execution of all the persons 
concerned in the arrest and imprisonment 
for debt of his London envoy, Mateof. Whit- 
worth had difficulty in explaining how im- 
possible it was for his royal mistress to 
comply with the czar's wish ; but, the offenders 
having received a nominal punishment and 
an act having been passed by parliament for 
preserving the privileges of ambassadors, 
Peter was eventually appeased, and was more- 
over highly gratified by the English envoy's 
addressing him as ' emperor' (the incident 
is fully treated by Voltaire in his Histoire 
de JRussie, pt. i. chap, xix.) When Whit- 
worth took his leave in May 1710 his ' czarish 
majesty' presented him with his portrait set 
in diamonds (LuTTRELL ; Stowe MS. 223, 
f. 304). On his second mission to Moscow 
Whitworth found Catherine I, whom on his 
former embassy he had known in a much 
humbler station, exalted to the rank of 
empress, and, if an anecdote may be believed 
which Walpole relates upon the authority of 
Sir Luke Schaub [q. v.], the empress, after 
honouring the envoy by dancing a minuet 
with him, * squeezed him by the hand, and 
said in a whisper, " Have you forgot little 
Kate?"' 

Early in 1711 he was sent as ambassador 
to Vienna, but his endeavours to overcome 
theremissness of the imperial court in making 
up their quota of troops for service under 
Marlborough were all in vain (MARLBOROUGH, 
Despatches, ed. Murray, vol. v. passim). On 
30 April 1714 Whitworth was appointed 
English plenipotentiary at the congress of 
Baden, where during the following summer 
were ultimately settled the terms of peace 
Detween the emperor and the French king 
7 Sept. ; GARDEN, Traites de Pair, ii. App.) 
[n 1716 he was appointed envoy-extraordi- 
nary and plenipotentiary at the court of 
Prussia. Next year he was transferred to 
The Hague (whence he sent long accounts 
of rumoured Jacobite conspiracies), but re- 
;urned to Berlin in 1719. On 9 Jan. 1720- 
L721 he was created Baron Whitworth of 
jralway, in recognition of his diplomatic ser- 
vices, and a little later, in February 1721-2, 
le was appointed, in conjunction with Lord 
Polwarth, British plenipotentiary at the con- 
gress of Cambray (ib. iii. 132). He voiced 
;he English protest against the secret treaty 
ecently concluded between France and 
Spain, and procured the adhesion of Dubois 
;o another treaty between Great Britain, 
Spain, and France. Great Britain under- 
;ook to replace the Spanish ships destroyed 
)y Byng oft' Syracuse in August 1718, but 
ecured highly advantageous commercial con- 



Whitworth 



162 



Whitworth 



cessions. Whitworth's chaplain at the con- 
<rtv-s was Kit-hard rhriirvix i|. v. This 
was his last diplomatic achievement. He 
settled in London, and was in 1722 returned 
to parliament as member for Newport in the 
Isle of Wight. His health, however, was 
not good; his physician, Dr. Arbuthnot, told 
Swift that he had practically cured the ambas- 
sador's vertigo by a prescript ion of Spa waters, 
but his illness recurred, and he died at his 
house in Gerard Street on 23 Oct. 1725. 
He was buried in the south aisle of West- 
minster Abbey on 6 Nov. (CHESTER, Burials 
Register, p. 315). He married Magdalena 
Jacoba, countess de Vaulgremont, who died 
in 1734, but he left no issue and the peerage 
became extinct. His will, dated Berlin 
2-13 March 1722-3, was proved on 1 Dec. 
by his brother, Francis Whitworth [see under 
WHITWORTH, SIR CHARLES], 

Mucky describes the ambassador as a man 
of learning and good sense, handsome, and 
of perfect address. A three-quarter-length 
portrait by Jack Ellys (owned, in 1867 by 
Countess De la Warr) depicts him holding the 
hand of his youthful nephew, and a paper 
addressed to him as plenipotentiary at the 
congress of Cambray (Cat. of National Por- 
traits, 1867, No. 397). From a large quan- 
tity of notes and memoranda that he left in 
manuscript but one piece has been selected 
for publication, 'An Account of Russia as it 
was in the year 1710, by Charles Lord Whit- 
worth. Printed at Strawberry Hill, 1758.' 
Horace Walpole, who wrote an advertisement 
for the book, obtained the manuscript through 
Richard Owen Cambridge [Q.V.] ; Cambridge 
bought it from the fine collection of books 
relating to Russia formed by Zolman, a secre- 
tary of Stephen Poyntz [q. v.] It was re- 
printed in the second volume of * Fugitive 
Pieces' in 1762, and again in 1765 and 1771. 
Summary though Whitworth's treatment is 
of a subject so interesting, his book is of 
value, and is not unjustly compared by Wal- 
pole to Molesworth s account of Denmark. 
The author infers great feats for the Russian 
arms from the ' passive valour ' and endu- 
rance of the peasantry. The account of the 
Russian naval yards (of which the personnel 
was almost entirely English) at the end of 
the volume is specially curious. Whitworth 
himself was instrumental in 1710 in sending 
over a number of English glass-blowers to 
Moscow. 

Thirty volumes of Whitworth's official 
correspondence are preserved among the 
papers of Earl De la Warr at Buckhurst in 
Sussex^- Many of his letters are among the 
Stair Papers (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd and 
3rd Reps.) 

After 'Sussex' insert * These are now in 

A 1 cc h M ^ Um ( Whitw h Papers, 
Add. MSS. 37348-37397).' 



[Walpole's account of Whitworth prefixed to 
the Account of "Russia, 1758; George Lewis's 
Sermon preach 'd at Wostram, 31 Oct. 1725, upon 
the death of Right Hon. the Lord Whitworth ; 
G. K. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, viii. 131 ; 
Burke's Extinct Peerage, p. 582 ; Cole's Athenae 
Cantabr. xlv. 335 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
pp. 227, 239; Luttrell's Brief Hist. Relation, 
vi. 97, 491, 586, 590, 598 ; Boyer's Reign of 
Anne, 1 735, pp. 397, 398, 483, 608, 664 ; Swift's 
Works, ed. Scott, iv. 343, xvi. 423 ; Parl. Hist, 
vi. 792 ; Wentworth Papers, p. 11; Walpole's 
Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, v. 235, and 
Correspondence, iii. 181, 187 ; Pinkerton's Wal- 
poliana, 1798; Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, 1725, 
p. 45, cf. 1728 p. 46 ; Notes and Queries, 6th 
ser. iii. 429, 497, 7th ser. i. 89, 193 ; Monthly 
Review, xix. 439 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Stowe MSS. 
223, 224, 227 (letters to Robethon) ; Addit. 
MSS. 28155 (letters to Sir J. Norris), 28902-16 
(to J. Ellis). 32740 (to Lord Walpole).] 

T. S. 

WHITWORTH, SIR CHARLES (1714 ?- 
1778), author, born about 1714, was the 
eldest son of Francis Whitworth of Ley- 
bourne, Kent, the younger brother of Charles, 
baron Whitwortli [q. v.] Francis Whit- 
worth was M.P. for Minehead from May 
1723. He was appointed a gentleman usher 
of the privy chamber to the king in August 
] 728, surveyor-general of woods and forests 
in March 1732, and secretary of the island 
of Barbados ; these offices he held until his 
death on 6 March 1742. 

Charles Whitworth entered parliament for 
Minehead at the general election of 1747, 
represented that pocket borough in two 
parliaments until 1761, and then sat for 
Bletchingly from 1761 to 1768, when he was 
once more returned for Minehead. In Octo- 
ber 1774 he migrated to East Looe, but at 
the end of the year accepted the stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, and was chosen 
for Saltash the following January. Whit- 
worth was a great student of parliamentary 
customs ; in May 1768 he was chosen chair- 
man of ways and means, and, being reap- 
pointed at the meeting of the succeeding 
parliament in 1774, discharged its duties 
until his death. He received the honour of 
knighthood on 19 Aug. 1768 (TOWNSEND, 
Catalogue of Knights), and his name appears 
in the list of those who voted for the expul- 
sion of Wilkes in 1769. He was appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Gravesend and Til- 
bury fort (under Lord Cadogan) in August 
1758 (Gent. Mag.}, and this command he 
held for twenty years until his death. When 
the western battalion of the Kent militia 
was embodied on 22 June 1759, Whitworth 
became its major. Being chosen one of the 
vice-presidents of the Society for the En- 



Whitworth 



'63 



Whitworth 



couragement of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Commerce, at its meeting on 28 Feb. 1755, 
he supported the society during the rest of 
his life. Having inherited from his father, 
who was the first of his family to settle 
there, the estate of Leybourne Grange, near 
Town Mailing, in Knit, Whitworth resided 
there until 1776, when, with his eldest son's \ 
consent, he obtained a private act of parlia- 
ment which enabled him to sell Leybourne, 
and he thereupon removed to Stanmore. At 
the time of his death he was also seated at 
Blachford, Somerset. He died at Bath on 
L'L 1 Aug. 1778. 

\\ hit worth married, on 1 June 1749, 
Martha, eldest daughter of Richard Shelley, 
who was deputy ranger of St. James's and 
Hyde Park, and chairman of the board of 
stamps at his death on 28 Oct. 1755. Whit- 
worth left four daughters and three sons, of 
whom Charles (1752-1826) fq. v.l the eldest 
son, became Earl Whitworth. Sir Francis, 
the second son, was a lieutenant-colonel in 
the royal artillery, and died on 26 Jan. 1805, 
aged 48; and Richard, who was a captain in 
the royal navy, was lost at sea. 

Whitworth compiled several works of 
reference, which, though useful in their day, 
have long been superseded. They included : 
1. ' Succession of Parliaments from the Re- 
storation to 1761,' London, 1764, 12mo. 
2. 'A Collection of the Supplies and Ways 
and Means from the Revolution to the Pre- 
sent Time,' London, 1764, 12mo; 2nd edit. 
1765. 3. 'A List of the Nobility and Judges,' 
London, 1765, 8vo. To the 1766 edition of 
David Lloyd's ' State Worthies ' Whitworth 
contributed the ' Characters of the Kings and 
Queens of England.' In 1 77 1 appeared l The 
Political and Commercial Works of Charles 
D'Avenant, collected and revised by Sir 
C. W. ; ' and in 1778, the third edition of 
Timothy Cunningham's ' History of the 
Customs, Aids, Subsidies, &c., of England, 
with several Improvements suggested by Sir 

[Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Official Return of 
Members of Parliament; Gent. Mag.] 

WHITWORTH, CHARLES, 'EARL 
WHITWORTH (1752-1825), son and heir of 
Sir Charles Whitworth (a nephew of Charles 
Whitworth, baron Whitworth of Galway 
[q.v.]), was baptised at Leybourne on 29 May 
1752. He was educated at Tunbridge school, 
his preceptors there including James Caw- 
thorn [q. v.l and ' Mr. Towers ' (Tunbn<l<jc 
School Register, 1886, p. 13). He entered 
the first regiment of footguards in April 1772 
as ensign, became captain in May 1781, and 
was eventually on 8 April 1783 appointed 



lieutenant-colonel of the 104th regiment. 
His transference from military life to diplo- 
macy is not easy to explain, but in the 
account given by Wraxall, disfigured though 
it is by malicious or purely fanciful em- 
broidery, there is perhaps a nucleus of 
truth. Whitworth was ' highly favoured by 
nature, and his address exceeded even his 
figure. At every period of his life queens, 
duchesses, and countesses have showered on 
him their regard. The Duke of Dorset, re- 
cently sent ambassador to France (1783), 
being an intimate friend of Mr. Whitworth, 
made him known to the queen (Marie- 
Antoinette), who not only distinguished 
him by flattering marks of her attention, 
but interested herself in promoting his 
fortune, which then stood greatly in need of 
such patronage.' The good offices of the 
queen and Dorset, according to this autho- 
rity, procured for Whitworth in June 1785 
his appointment as envoy-extraordinary and 
minister-plenipotentiary to Poland, of which 
country the unfortunate Stanislaus Ponia- 
towski was still the nominal monarch. He 
was at Warsaw during the troublous period 
immediately preceding the second partition. 
Recalled early in that year, he was in the 
following August nominated envoy-extra- 
ordinary and minister-plenipotentiary at St. 
Petersburg, a post which he held for nearly 
twelve years. 

Whitworth was well received by Cathe- 
rine II, who was then at war with Turkey, 
but the harmony between the two countries 
was disturbed during the winter of 1790-1 
by Pitt's subscription to the view of the 
Prussian government that the three allies 
England, Prussia, and Holland could not 
with impunity allow the balance of power 
in Eastern Europe to be disturbed. Pitt 
hoped by a menace of sending a British 
fleet to the Baltic to constrain Russia to 
make restitution of its chief conquest, 
Oczakow and the adjoining territory as far 
as the Dniester, and thus to realise his idea 
of confining the ambition of Russia in the 
south-east as well as that of France in the 
north-west portion of Europe. The Russian 
government replied by an uncompromising 
refusal to listen to the proposal of restitu- 
tion. War began to be talked of, and Whit- 
worth sent in a memorandum in which he 
dwelt upon the strength of the czarina's 
determination and the great display of 
vigour that would be necessary to overcome 
it. In the spring of 1791 he wrote of a 
French adventurer, named St. Ginier, who 
had appeared at St. Petersburg with a plan 
for invading Bengal by way of Cashmere, 
and in July he communicated to Grenville a 

M2 



Whitworth 



164 



Whitworth 



circumstantial account of a plot to burn the 
English fleet at Portsmouth by means of 
Irish and other incendiaries in Russian pay. 
In the meantime Pitt had become alarmed 
at the opposition to his Russian policy in 
parliament, Burke and Fox both uttering 
powerful speeches against the restoration of 
Oczakow to the Porte, and early in April 
1791 a messenger was hastily despatched to 
St. Petersburg to keep back the ultimatum 
which Whitworth had on 27 March been 
ordered to present to the empress. His rela- 
tions with the Russian court were now for a 
short period considerably strained. Cathe- 
rine, elated by recent victories of Suvarof, 
said to him with an ironical smile : ' Sir, 
since the king your master is determined to 
drive me out of Petersburg, I hope he will 
permit me to retire to Constantinople' 
(TooKE, Life of Catharine II, iii. 284). 
Gradually, however, through the influence of 
Madame Gerepzof,the sister of the favourite, 
the celebrated Zubof, and in consequence of 
the alarm excited in the mind of Catherine 
by the course things were taking in France, 
"Whitworth more than recovered his position. 

Great Britain's influence upon the peace 
finally concluded at Jassy on 9 Jan. 1792 
was, it is true, little more than nominal, but 
Whitworth obtained some credit for the 
achievement, together with the cross of a 
K.B. (17 Nov. 1793). Wraxall's statement 
that the relations between Whitworth and 
Madame Gerepzof were similar to those 
between Marlborough and the Duchess of 
Cleveland is utterly incredible (see Quar- 
terly Review, December 1836, p. 470). 

The gradual rapprochement between the 
views of Russia and England was brought 
about mainly by the common dread of any 
revolutionary infection from the quarter of 
France, and in February 1795 Catherine was 
induced to sign a preliminary treaty, by the 
terms of which she was to furnish the coali- 



tion with at least sixty-five thousand men 
in return for a large monthly subsidy from 
the British government. This treaty was 
justly regarded as a triumph for Whitworth's 
diplomacy, though, unfortunately, just be- 
fore the date fixed for its final ratification 
by both countries, the czarina was struck 
down by mortal illness (February 1795). 
Paul I, in his desire to adopt an original 
policy, refused to affix his signature, and it 
was not until June 1798 that the outrage 
committed by the French upon the order 
of the knights of St. John at Malta, who 
had chosen him for their nrotector, disposed 
him to listen to the solicitations of Whit- 
worth. The latter obtained his adhesion to 
an alliance with Great Britain offensive and 



defensive,with theobjectof putting a stop to 
the further encroachments of France, in De- 
cember 1798, and the treaty paved the way 
for the operations of Suvarof and Korsakof 
in Northern Italy and the Alps. 

Whitworth was now at the zenith of his 
popularity in St. Petersburg, and Paul 
pressed the British government to raise him 
to the peerage. The request was readily 
complied with, and on 21 March 1800 the 
ambassador was made Baron Whitworth of 
Newport Pratt in Ireland; but before the 
patent could reach him the czar had been 
reconciled to Napoleon. Irritated, more- 
ever. by the British seizure and retention 
of Malta, Paul abruptly dismissed Whit- 
worth, and thereupon commenced that angry 
correspondence which developed into the 
combination of northern powers against 
Great Britain. 

In July 1800 the seizure of the Danish 
frigate Freya for opposing the British right 
of search led to strained relations with 
Denmark, and, in order to anticipate any 
hostile move from Copenhagen, Whitworth 
was despatched in August on a special mis- 
sion to that capital. To give the greater 
weight to his representations, a squadron of 
nine sail of the line, with five frigates and 
four bombs, was ordered to the Sound under 
Admiral Dickson. The Danish shore bat- 
teries were as yet very incomplete, and Whit- 
worth's arguments for the time being proved 
effectual. He returned to England on 
27 Sept., and on 5 Nov. was made a privy 
councillor. 

His former friend, the Duke of Dorset, 
had died in July 1799, and on 7 April 1801 
he married the widowed duchess (Arabella 
Diana, daughter of Sir Charles Cope, bart., 
by Catharine, fifth daughter of Cecil Bishop 
of Parham, who afterwards married Lord 
Liverpool). She was a capable woman of 
thirty-two, with a taste for power and plea- 
sure, says Wraxall, kept 'always subordi- 
nate to her economy.' By the death of the 
duke she came into possession of 13,OOOJ. a 
year, besides the borough of East Grinstead, 
while Dorset House and Knole Park subse- 
quently passed into her hands. 

The peace of Amiens was concluded on 
27 March 1802, and Whitworth, whose 
means were now fully adequate to the situa- 
tion, was chosen to fill the important post 
of ambassador at Paris. His instructions 
were dated 10 Sept. 1802, and two months 
later he set out with a large train, being re- 
ceived at Calais with enthusiasm; a consider- 
able period had elapsed since a British ambas- 
sador had been seen in France. He was 
i presented to Napoleon and Mme. Bonaparte 



Whitworth 



165 



Whitworth 



on 7 Dec., and six days later his wife was 
received at St. Cloud. The duchess, whose 
hauteur was very pronounced, had consider- 
able scruples about calling 1 upon the wife of 
Talleyrand. As early as 23 Dec. Whitworth 
mentions in a despatch the rumour that the 
first consul was meditating a divorce from 
his wife and the assumption of the imperial 
title, but during his first two months' so- 
journ in Paris there seemed a tacit agree- 
ment to avoid disagreeable subjects. Napo- 
leon ignored the attacks of the English press, 
the retention of Malta, and the protracted 
evacuation of Egypt, while England kept 
silence as to the recent French aggressions 
in Holland, Piedmont, Elba, Parma, and 
Switzerland. The British government were, 
however, obstinate in their refusal to quit 
Malta until a guarantee had been signed by 
the various powers ensuring the possession 
of the island to the knights of St. John. 
This difficulty, which constituted the darkest 
cloud on the diplomatic horizon, was first 
raised by Talleyrand on 27 Jan. 1803. Three 
days later was published a report filling 
eight pages of the ' Moniteur ' from Colonel 
Sebastiani, who had been sent by Napoleon 
upon a special mission of inquiry to Egypt. 
In this report military information was 
freely interspersed with remarks disparaging 
to England, in which country the document 
was plausibly interpreted as a preface to a 
second invasion of Egypt by the French. 
The Addington ministry consequently in- 
structed Whitworth, through the foreign 
minister Hawkesbury, to stiffen his back 
against any demand for the prompt evacua- 
tion of Malta. On 18 Feb. Napoleon sum- 
moned the ambassador, and, after a stormy 
outburst of rhetoric, concluded with the 
memorable appeal, ' Unissons-nous plutot 
que de nous combattre, et nous rSglerons 
ensemble les destinies du monde.' Any 
significance that this offer might have had 
was more than neutralised by the first con- 
sul's observation, ' Ce sont des bagatelles' 
(much commented upon in England), when, 
in answer to reproaches about Malta, Whit- 
worth hinted at the augmentation of French 
power in Piedmont, Switzerland, and else- 
where. 

The crisis, of extreme importance in the 
career of Napoleon ('il etait arrive",' says 
Lanfrey, 'i rinstant le plus critique de sa 
carriere') as well as in the history of England, 
was arrived at on 13 March 1803, the date 
of the famous scene between Napoleon and 
the British ambassador at the Tuileries. At 
the close of a violent tirade before a full 
court, interrupted by asides to foreign diplo- 
matists expressive of the bad faith of the 



British, Napoleon exclaimed loudly to 
Whitworth, ' Malheur a ceux qui ne respec- 
tent pas les traites. Ils en seront respon- 
sables 11 toute 1'Europe.' * He was too 
agitated,' says the ambassador, 'to prolong 
the conversation ; I therefore made no 
answer, and he retired to his apartment re- 
peating the last phrase.' Two hundred 
people heard this conversation (' if such it 
can be called '), ' and I am persuaded,' adds 
Whitworth, ' that there was not a single 
person who did not feel the extreme impro- 
priety of his conduct and the total want of 
dignity as well as of decency on the occa- 
sion.' The interview was not, however, a 
final one (as has often erroneously been 
stated). Whitworth was received by the 
first consul once again on 4 April, when the 
corps diplomatique were kept waiting for an 
audience for four hours while Napoleon in- 
spected knapsacks. * When that ceremony 
was performed he received us, and I had 
every reason to be satisfied with his manner 
towards me' (Whitworth to Hawkesbury, 
4 April 1803). Napoleon wished to tem- 
porise until his preparations were a little 
more advanced, but the pourparlers hence- 
forth had little real significance. On 1 May 
an indisposition prevented the ambassador 
from attending the reception at the Tuileries, 
on 12 May he demanded his passports, and 
on 18 May Britain declared war against 
France. Whitworth reached London on 
20 May, having encountered the French am- 
bassador, AndrSossy, three days earlier at 
Dover (GARDEN, TmiUs de Pair, viii. 100- 
151). Throughout the trying scenes with 
the first consul, his demeanour was gene- 
rally admitted to have been marked by a 
dignity and an impassibility worthy of the 
best traditions of aristocratic diplomacy. 

Irritated by his failure to stun him by a 
display of violence (such as that which had 
so daunted the Venetian plenipotentiaries 
before the treaty of Campo Formio), Napo- 
leon did not hesitate to suggest in one of 
his journals that Whitworth had been privy 
to the murder of Paul I in Russia. At St. 
Helena in July 1817 he alluded to him with 
calmness as l habile ' and * adroit,' but he 
always maintained that the accepted version 
of the celebrated interview of 13 March was 
' plein des faussetes ' (cf. the account printed 
in Notes and Queries, 1st ser. v. 313). 

After his return, not occupying a seat in 
either house of parliament, Whitworth sank 
for ten years into comparative insignificance, 
but in 1813, owing to his wife's connection 
with Lord Liverpool, he was made on. 
2 March a lord of the bedchamber to George 
III, and on 3 June was appointed lord lieu- 



Whitworth 



166 



Whitworth 



tenant of Ireland, in succession to the Duke 
of Richmond, a post which he held until 
October 1817. In the same month he was 
created an English peer as Viscount Whit- 
worth of Adbaston ; on 2 Jan. 1815 he was 
promoted to the grand cross of the Bath, 
and on L } 5 Nov. was created Baron Adbaston 
and Earl Whitworth of Adbaston. After 
the restoration of the Bourbons in France, 
which as a political expedient he highly 
approved, he visited Paris in April 1819 
with the Duchess of Dorset and a numerous 
train. His official capacity was denied, but 
he was generally deemed to have been 
charged with a mission of observation. He 
visited Louis XVIII and the princes, but 
carefully avoided any interview with the 
ministers. He revisited Paris in the follow- 
ing October on his way to Naples, where he 
was received with great distinction, though 
political significance was again disclaimed 
for the visit. He returned to England and 
settled at Knole Park in 1820, his last pub- 
lic appearance being as assistant lord sewer 
at the coronation of George IV on 19 July 
1821. He died without issue at Knole on 
13 May 1825, when all his honours became 
extinct. His will was proved on 30 May by 
the Duchess of Dorset, his universal legatee, 
the personalty being sworn under 70,000/. 
The duchess died at Knole on 1 Aug. follow- 
ing, and was buried on 10 Aug. at Withyam, 
Sussex, twenty-two horsemen following her 
remains to the grave. Her only son (by her 
first husband), the fourth Duke of Dorset, 
having died in 1815, her large property (esti- 
mated at 35,000/. per annum) was divided 
between her two sons-in-law, the Earls of 
Plymouth and De la Warr. ' Knole in Kent 
was judiciously bequeathed to the former, he 
being the richer man of the two, on the ex- 
press condition that his lordship should 
expend 6,000/. per annum on this favourite 
residence of the Sackvilles for several cen- 
turies ' (Sussex Herald, ap. Gent. Mag. 1825, 
ii. 647). 

Whitworth, according to Napoleon, was 
a ' fort bel homme ' (Memorial de Sainte- 
Helene, ed. 1862, p. 104, April, May, July 
1817), and this description is confirmed by 
the portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, an 
engraving from which appears in Doyle's 
'Official Baronage/ There is a very fine 
mezzotint engraving of this portrait by 
Charles Turner. The original forms one of 
the small collection of British masters in the 
Louvre at Paris. A portrait of 'Captain 
Whitworth ' of much earlier date, engraved 
by R. Laurie after A. Graff, is identified 
bv J. Chaloner Smith as a portrait of the 
diplomatist (Mezzotinto Portraits, p. 809). 



[The best account of Earl Whitworth hitherto 
available is that in the fiftieth volume of the Bio- 
graphie Universelle (Paris, 1827), by De Beau- 
champ. A very valuable supplement to this is 
4 England and Napoleon in 1803, being the Des- 
patches of Lord Whitworth and others . . . 
from the originals in the Record Office/ ed. Oscar 
Browning, London, 1887. See also Doyle's 
Official Baronage, iii. 664 ; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage, p. 583; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete 
Peerage, viii. 132; Times, 17 May 1825; Gent. 
Mag. 1825, ii. 74, 271, 647; Annual Register, 
1800, 1803, 1825; Wraxall's Hist. Memoirs, 
1884, iv. 34 sq. ; Pantheon of the Age, 1825, iii. 
609 ; Georgian Era, i. 550 ; Scott's Life of Napo- 
leon, v. 39 sq. ; Von Sybel's French Revolution, 
1867, ii. 390 sq.; Lecky's Hist, of England in 
the Eighteenth Century, v. 270 sq.; Alison's 
Hist, of Europe, vols. iv. v, passim ; Lady Blen- 
nerhasset's Talleyrand, 1894, ii. 59-63; Ram- 
baud and Lavisse's Hist. G^nerale, vol. vii. ; Mar- 
tin's Hist, de France depuis 1789, iii. 203-5 ; Lan- 
frey's Hist, de Napoleon Premier, 1862, vol. iii. 
chap. ix. ; Sorel's Europe et la Revolution Fran- 
c,aUe, 1892, vol. iv. passim. A considerable por- 
tion of Whit worth's diplomatic correspondence is 
preserved among the Addit. MSS. 28062-6 
(letters to the Duke of Leeds, 1787-00), 33450 
If. 430-2 (letters to Jeremy Bentham), 34430 
(letters to Lord Auckland, 1790-95), 34432 (to 
the Duke of Leeds, 1790-91), and 34437-52 (to 
Lord Greuville, 1791-3).] T. S. 

WHITWORTH, SIB JOSEPH (1803- 
1887) baronet, mechanical engineer, the son 
of Charles Whitworth (d. 16 Jan. 1870), a 
schoolmaster, and eventually a congrega- 
tionalist minister, first at Shelley, Leeds, and 
then at Walton, near Liverpool, by Sarah, 
daughter of Joseph Hulse, was born at Stock- 
port on 21 Dec. 1803. In 181f> he was sent 
from his father's school to W T illiam Vint's 
academy at Idle, near Leeds, where he re- 
mained until he was fourteen, being then 
placed with his uncle, a cotton-spinner in 
Derbyshire. He mastered the construction 
of every machine in the place, but, like Watt 
and Babbage, he found that the machinery 
was very imperfect, and true workmanship 
in consequence very rare. The prospect of 
a regular business partnership was not allur- 
ing to him ; he was already conscious of the 
true bent of his genius, and, being unable to 
emancipate himself in a more regular manner, 
he ran away to Manchester. There in 1821 
he entered the shop of Crighton & Co., ma- 
chinists, as a working mechanic. His first 
ambition was to be a good workman, and 
he often in later years said that the happiest 
day he ever had was when he first earned 
journeyman's wages. 

In February 1825 he married Fanny, 
youngest daughter of Richard Ankers, a far- 



Whitworth 



167 



Whitworth 



merof Tarvin in Cheshire, and shortly after- 
wards entered the workshop of Maudslay & 
Co. in the Westminster Bridge Road, London 
m ' M .VUDSLAY, HENRY]. Maudslay soon re- 
cognised his exceptional talent, and placed 
him next to John Hampson, a Yorkshireman, 
the best workman in the establishment. Here 
Whitworth made his first great discovery, 
that of a truly plane surface, by means of 
which for all kinds of sliding tools frictional 
resistance might beTeduced to a minimum. 
After intense and protracted labour at the pro- 
blem Whitworth ended by completely solving 
it. The most accurate planes hitherto had 
been obtained by first planing and then grind- 
ing the surface. ' My first step,' he says, * was 
to abandon grinding for scraping. Taking 
two surfaces as accurate as the planing tool 
could make them, I coated one of them thinly 
with colouring matter and rubbed the other 
over it. Had the two surfaces been true the 
colouring matter would have spread itself 
uniformly over the upper one. It never did 
so, but appeared in spots and patches. These 
marked the eminences, which I removed 
with a scraping tool till the surfaces became 
gradually more coincident. But the co- 
incidence of two surfaces would not prove 
them to be planes. If the one were concave 
and the other convex they might still coin- 
cide. I got over this difficulty by taking a 
third surface and adjusting it to both of the 
others. Were one of the latter concave and 
the other convex, the third plane could not 
coincide with both of them. By a series of 
comparisons and adjustments I made all 
three surfaces coincide, and then, and not 
before, knew that I had true planes ' (Brit. 
Assoc. Proc. 1840 ; Inst . Mechan. Engineers 
Proc. 1856 ; Presidential Address at Glas- 
ffow). The importance of this discovery can 
hardly be overestimated, for it laid the 
foundation of an entirely new standard of 
accuracy in mechanical construction. 

On leaving Maudslay'sWhitworth worked 
at Holtzapffers, and afterwards at the work- 
shop of Joseph Clement, where Babbage's 
calculating machine was at that time in pro- 
cess of construction [see BABBAGE, CHARLES]. 
In 1833 he returned to Manchester, where 
he rented a room with steam power in Chorl- 
ton Street, and put up a sign, 'Joseph Whit- 
worth, tool-maker, from London,' thus found- 
ing a workshop which soon became a model 
of a mechanical manufacturing establish- 
ment. The next twenty years were devoted 
mainly to the improvement of machine tools, 
including the duplex lathe, planing, drilling, 
slotting, shaping, and other machines. These 
were all displayed and highly commended 
at the Great Exhibition of 1851. A natural 



sequel to the discovery of the true plane was 
the introduction of a system of measurement 
of ideal exactness. This was effected be- 
tween 1840 and 1850 by the conception and 
development of Whitworth's famous measur- 
ing machine. A system of planes was so 
arranged that of two parallel surfaces the 
one can be moved nearer to or further from 
the other by means of a screw, the turns of 
which measure the distance over which the 
moving plane has advanced or retired. Ex- 
perience showed that a steel bar held be- 
tween the two planes would fall if the dis- 
tance between the surfaces were increased 
by an incredibly small amount. For mov- 
ing the planesWhitworth used a screw with 
twenty threads to an inch, forming the axle 
of a large wheel divided along its circum- 
ference into five hundred parts. By this 
means if the wheel were turned one division, 
the movable surface was advanced or retired 
5^ f a turn of the screw that is by 
TITBIT f an inch. This slight difference 
was found successfully to make the differ- 
ence between the steel bar being firmly held 
and dropping. A more delicate machine, sub- 
sequently made and described to the In- 
stitution of Mechanical Engineers in 1859, 
made perceptible a difference of one two- 
millionth of an inch. 

By means of this gradually perfected de- 
vice was elaborated Whitworth's system ot 
standard measures and gauges, which soon 
proved of such enormous utility to engineers. 
But of all the standards introduced byW T hit- 
worth, that of the greatest immediate prac- 
tical utility was doubtless his uniform 
system of screw threads, first definitely sug- 
gested in 1841 (cf. Minutes of Proc. Inst. 
Civil Engineers, 1841, i. 157). Hitherto the 
screws used in fitting machinery had been 
manufactured upon no recognised principle 
or system : each workshop had a type of its 
own. By collecting an extensive assortment 
of screw bolts from the different English 
workshops, Whitworth deduced as a com- 
promise an average pitch of thread for dif- 
ferent diameters, and also a mean angle of 
55, which he adopted all through the scale 
of sizes. The advantages of uniformity could 
not be resisted, and by 1860 the Whitworth 
system was in general use. The beauty of 
Whitworth's inventions was first generally 
recognised at the exhibition of 1851, where 
his exhibit of patented tools and inventions 
gained him the reputation of being the first 
mechanical constructor of the time. 

In 1853 Whitworth was appointed a mem- 
ber of the royal commission to the N ew York 
Industrial Exhibition. The incomplete state 
of the machinery department prevented his 



Whitworth 



168 



Whitworth 



reporting upon it, but he made a journey 
through the industrial districts of the United 
States, and published upon his return, in 
conjunction with George Wallis (1811-1891) 
[q. v.], ' The Industry of the United States 
in Machinery, Manufactures, and Useful and 
Ornamental Arts,' London, 1854, 8vo. Whit- 
worth's share consisted of the twelve short 
but interesting opening chapters devoted to 
machinery. 

In 1856 he was president of the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers, and at the Glasgow 
meeting delivered an address in which his 
favourite projects were ably set forth, lie 
deplored the tendency to excessive size and 
weight in the moving parts of machines and 
the national loss by over-multiplication of 
sizes and patterns. He contemplated the 
advantage that might be derived from de- 
cimalising weights and measures, a subject 
which led in 1857 to his paper ' On a Standard 
Decimal Measure of Length for Engineering 
Work.' His papers, five in number, each 
one of which signalises a revolution in its 
subject, were collected in a thin octavo as 
1 Miscellaneous Papers on Mechanical Sub- 
jects, by Joseph Whitworth, F.R.S.,' Lon- 
don, 1858. Whitworth had been elected to 
the Royal Society in 1857 ; he was created 
LL.D. 'of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1863, 
and D..C.L. Oxford on 17 June 1868. 

In the meantime, as a consequence of the 
Crimean war, Whitworth had been requested 
by the board of ordnance in 1854 to design 
and give an estimate for a complete set of 
machinery for manufacturing rifle muskets. 
This Whitworth declined to do, as he con- 
sidered that experiments were required in 
order to determine what caused the diffe- 
rence between good and bad rifles, what was 
the proper diameter of the bore, what was 
the best form of bore, and what the best 
mode of rifling, before any adequate ma- 
chinery could be made. Ultimately the go- 
vernment were induced to erect a shooting- 
S tilery for Whitworth's use at Fallowfield, 
anchester, and experiments began here in 
March 1855. They showed that the popular 
Enfield rifle was untrue in almost every par- 
ticular. In April 18o7 Whitworth submitted 
to official trial a rifle with an hexagonal 
barrel, which in accuracy of fire, in penetra- 
tion, and in range, ' excelled the Enfield to a 
degree which hardly leaves room for com- 
parison ' (Times, 23 April). Whit worth's 
rifle was not only far superior to any small 
arm then existing, but it also embodied the 
principles upon which modern improvements 
have been based, namely, reduction of bore 
(45 inch), an elongated projectile (3 to 3 
calibres), more rapid twist (one turn in 



20 inches), and extreme accuracy of manu- 
facture. This rifle, after distancing all others 
in competition, was rejected by a war office 
committee as being of too small calibre for 
a military weapon. Ten years later, in 1869 
(that is, just twelve years after Whitworth 
had first suggested the '45 calibre), a similar 
committee reported that a rifle with a '45 inch 
bore would ' appear to be the most suitable 
for a military arm ' (the Lee-Metford arm of 
to-day has a *303 bore). 

The inventor found some consolation for 
the procrastinations of official procedure in 
the fact that at the open competition promoted 
by the National Rifle Association in 1860 the 
Whitworth rifle was adopted as the best 
known, and on 2 July 1860 the queen opened 
the first Wimbledon meeting by tiring aWh it- 
worth rifle from a mechanical rest at a range 
of four hundred yards, and hitting the bull's- 
eye within 1^ inches from its centre. The 
new rifle was adopted by the French govern- 
ment, and was generally used for target- 
shooting until the introduction of the Martini- 
Henry, a rifle in which several of W^hit- 
worth's principles were embodied. 

In the construction of cannon he was 
equally successful, but failed to secure their 
adoption. In 1862 he made a rifled gun of 
high power (a six-mile range with a 250-lb. 
shell), the proportions of which are almost 
the same as those adopted to-day. But this 
gun, despite its unrivalled ballistic power, 
was rejected by the ordnance board in 1865 
in favour of the Woolwich pattern, whereby 
the progress of improvement in British ord- 
nance was retarded for nearly twenty years. 

It was after the termination of this ' battle 
of the guns ' that Whitworth made the 
greatest of his later discoveries. Experience 
had taught him that hard steel guns were 
unsafe, and that the safeguard consisted in 
employing ductile stesl. A gun of hard 
steel, in case of unsoundness, explodes, 
whereas a gun of ductile steel indicates 
wear by losing its shape, but does not fly to 
pieces. W T hen ductile steel, however, is cast 
into an ingot, its liability to ' honeycomb ' or 
form air-cells is so great as almost to neutra- 
lise its superiority. Whitworth now found 
that the difficulty of obtaining a large and 
sound casting of ductile steel might be suc- 
cessfully overcome by applying extreme pres- 
sure to the fluid metal, while he further 
discovered that such pressure could best be 
applied, not by the steam-hammer but by 
means of an hydraulic press. Whitworth 
steel, as it was styled, was produced in this 
manner about 1870, and its special applica- 
tion to the manufacture of big guns was de- 
scribed by Whitworth in 1876 (Proc. Inst. 



Whitworth 



169 



Whitworth 



M ech. Enrj. 1875, p. 268). In 1883 the gun- 
foundry board of the United States, after 
paying a visit to Whitworth's large works at 
< >i>.Tisli!i\v,near Manchester, gave it as tin -ir 
opinion that the system there carried on 
surpassed all other methods of forging, and 
that the ' experience enjoyed by the board 
during its visit amounted to a revelation ' 
(Report, October 1884, Washington, 1885, 
8vo, p. 14). 

At the Paris exhibition of 1867 Whit- 
worth was awarded one of the five ' grands 
prix' allotted to Great Britain. In Sep- 
tember 1868, after witnessing the perform- 
ance of one of the Whitworth field-guns at 
Chalons, Napoleon III sent him the Legion 
of Honour, and about the same time he re- 
ceived the Albert medal of the Society of 
Arts for his instruments of measurement 
and uniform standards. On 18 March 1868 
he wrote to Disraeli, offering to found thirty 
scholarships of the annual value of 100/. 
each, to be competed for upon a basis of 
proficiency in the theory and practice of 
mechanics. Next year his generous action 
and his merits as an inventor were publicly 
recognised by his being created a baronet 
(1 Nov. 1869). 

His first wife died in October 1870, and 
on 12 April 1871 he married Mary Louisa 
(b. 31 Aug. 1829), daughter of Daniel Broad- 
hurst, and widow of Alfred Orrell of Cheadle. 
Shortly before his second marriage (though 
etill retaining the Firs, Fallowfield, as his 
Manchester residence) he purchased a seat 
and estate at Stancliffe, near Matlock. 
There upon an unpromising site, amid a 
number of quarries, he constructed a won- 
derful park, and he acauired much local 
celebrity for his gardens, his trotting horses, 
and his herd of shorthorns. His iron billiard- 
table, too (remarkable for its true surface), 
his lawns, cattle pens, and stables were all 
' models.' His interest in artillery was still 
unrelaxed, however, and he was continually 
making new experiments. He was the first 
to penetrate armour-plating upwards of four 
inches in thickness, and the first to demon- 
strate the possibility of exploding armour- 
shells without using any kind of fuse. In 
1873 he gave to the world his own version 
of the points at issue with the ordnance 
department in ' Miscellaneous Papers on 
Practical Subjects: Guns and Steel' (Lon- 
don, 8vo). The unfortunate treatment to 
which he was subjected was due in part, no 
doubt, to his plain and inflexible determina- 
tion. ' He would not modify a model which 
he knew to be right out of deference to 
committees, who, ne considered, were in- 
comparably his inferiors in technical know- 



ledge, and who, being officials, were liable 
to take offence at the plain speaking of one 
who regarded official and infallible as far 
from synonymous.' In 1874 he converted 
his extensive works at Manchester into a 
limited liability company. Whitworth, his 
foremen, and others in the concern, twenty- 
three in number, held 92 per cent, of the 
shares, and had practical control ; no good- 
will was charged, and the plant was taken 
at a low valuation. At the same time the 
clerks, draughtsmen, and workmen were 
encouraged and assisted to take shares 
(25/. each). On 1 Jan. 1897 the firm was 
united with that of Armstrong's of Elswick, 
with an authorised capital of upwards of 
4,000,000/. 

As he advanced in age Whitworth formed 
the habit of wintering in the Riviera : but 
he was not fond of going abroad, and in 
1885 he made for himself at Stancliffe a 
large winter-garden, hoping that he might 
thus be able to spend the winters at home. 
He passed one winter successfully in Derby- 
shire, but in October 1886 he went out to 
Monte Carlo, and there he died on 22 Jan. 
1887. Lady Whitworth died on 26 May 
1896, and, there being no issue by either wife, 
the baronetcy became extinct. The second 
Lady Whitworth was buried beside her 
husband in a vault in Darley churchyard. 

For many years before his death Whit- 
worth made no secret of his intention to 
devote the bulk of his fortune to public and 
especially educational purposes, but died 
without maturing any scheme. By his will 
and codicils, after giving a large life interest 
both in real and personal estate to his 
widow, and making both charitable and 
personal legacies, he devised and bequeathed 
his residuary estate to his wife and his friends, 
Mr. Richard Copley Christie and Mr. Robert 
Dukinfield Darbishire, in equal shares for 
their own use, ' they being each of them 
aware of the general nature of the objects 
for which I should myself have applied such 
property.' After paying 100,000/. to the 
Science and Art Department in fulfilment of 
Whitworth's intention expressed in 1868 of 
permanently endowing thirty scholarships, 
the legatees have, during the twelve years 
that have elapsed since the testator's death, 
devoted sums, amounting in all to 594,416/., 
to educational and charitable purposes. Of 
this amount 198,648/. has been given to the 
Whitworth Park and Institute, Manchester ; 
118,815/. to the Owens College (besides an 
estate of the value of 29,404/. given to the 
college for hospital purposes) ; 60,1 10/. to 
the Manchester Technical School; 30,407/. 
to the Baths, Library, and other public pur- 



Whitworth 



170 



Whorwood 



poses at Openshaw ; 25,218/. to other Man- 
chester institutions and charities; 104,9667. 
to an institute, baths, and hospital at Darley 
Dale (in which Whitworth's seat of Stan- 
rliffe was situate) ; 12,000/. to the Technical 
Schools and other institutions in Stockport ; 
and 14,848/. to charities and institutions else- 
where. 

Whitworth's mind was not that of a 
logician, but that of an experimentalist. 
A man of few words, he encountered each 
problem in mechanics by the remark ' Let us 
try.' His experiments with rifles are a 
striking example of the manner in which a 
mind of the highest inventive order gradually 
and surely advances towards its object. 
Tyndall said that when he began to work 
at firearms he was as ignorant of the rifle 
* as Pasteur was of the microscope when he 
began his immortal researches upon spon- 
taneous generation.' In the matter of gun- 
nery (like Darwin in some of his special 
investigations) he may be said to have 
proved all things in order to hold fast that 
which was good. The patience, the step-by- 
step progress of investigation, the certainty 
with which conclusions once fairly reached 
are grasped as implements, the systematic 
form in which facts are marshalled and 
results arranged, all indicate, as in the case 
of a Darwin or a Pasteur, the capacity for 
taking pains over trifles, and the mastery 
of large principles, which go to make up a 
genius. 

An excellent full-length portrait of Whit- 
worth by L. Desanges is in the Whitworth 
Institute at Darley Dale; in the grounds 
adjoining stands a monolithic obelisk (seven- 
teen feet high), erected by the inhabitants 
in memory of Whitworth, and unveiled on 
1 Sept. 1894 ; upon the pedestal are portrait 
and other medallions. Portraits of Whit- 
worth appeared in the ' Illustrated London 
News ' on 16 May 1868 and on 5 Feb. 1887. 
Whitworth's exceptionally fitting motto was 
' Fortis qui prudens.' 

[Memoir of Whitworth in the Proceedings of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1887-8, 
vol. xci. pt. i. ; Instit. of Mechanical Engineers 
Proc. February 1887 ; Manchester Literary and 
PhiloBOph. Soc. Proc. 19 April 1887 ; Nature, 
27 Jan. 1887; Biograph,H.465; Eclectic Engin. 
Mag. New York, ii. 42, xiv. 196 (by Tyndall); 
Eraser's Mag. Ixix. 639 ; Trans, of the Royal 
Soc. 1887; Sir J. Emerson Tennent's Story of 
the Guns, 1864; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Smiles's Industrial Biogr. ; Button's Cat. 
of Lancashire Authors; Times, 24 Jan. 1887; 
Manchester Examiner and Times, 24 Jan. 1887 ; 
Illustrated London News, 1887, i. 149; Debrett's 
Baronetage, 1887, p. 539 ; private information.] 

T. S. 



WHOOD, ISAAC (1689-1752), portrait- 
painter, born in 1689, practised for many 
years as a portrait-painter in Lincoln's Inn 
Inelds, and was a skilful imitator of the 
style of Kneller. He was especially patro- 
nised by the Duke of Bedford, for whom he 
painted numerous portraits of members of 
the Spencer and Russell families, now at 
Woburn Abbey; some of these were copied 
by Whood from other painters. At Cam- 
bridge there are portraits by Whood at 
Trinity College, including one of Dr. Isaac 
Barrow, and at Trinity Hall. His portraits 
of ladies were some of the best of that date. 
There is a good portrait of Archbishop Wake 
by Whood at Lambeth Palace, painted in 
1736. Some of his portraits were engraved 
in mezzotint, notably one of Laurent Delvaux 
the sculptor, engraved by Alexander Van 
Haecken. Whood's drawings in chalk or 
blacklead are interesting. In 1743 he exe- 
cuted a series of designs to illustrate Butler's 
1 Hudibras.' Whood died in Blooinsbury 
Square on 24 Feb. 1752. The portrait of 
Joseph Spence [q. v.] prefixed to his ' Anec- 
dotes ' was engraved from a portrait by 
Whood. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painters ed. "VVor- 
num, with manuscript notes by G. Scharf; 
Scharf's Cat. of the Pictures at Woburn Abbey ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

WHORWOOD, JANE (ft. 1648), 
royalist, was the daughter of one Ryder or 
Ryther of Kingston, Surrey, sometime sur- 
veyor of the stables to James I (CLARK, Life 
of Anthony Wood, i. 227)/ In September 
1634, at the age of nineteen, she married 
Brome Whorwood, eldest son of Sir Thomas 
W^horwood of Holton, Oxfordshire (CHESTER, 
London Marriage Licenses, p. 1460 ; TURNER, 
Visitation of Oxfordshire, p. 242). In 1647 
and 1648, when the king was in captivity, 
Mrs. Whorwood signalised herself by her 
efforts to communicate with him and to 
arrange his escape. She conveyed money to 
him from loyalists in London when he was 
at Hampton Court in the autumn of 1647, 
and consulted William Lilly the astrologer 
as to the question in what quarter of the 
nation Charles could best hide himself after 
his intended flight. Lilly recommended 
Essex, but the advice came too late to be 
acted upon (LILLY, History of his Life and 
Times, p. 39; cf. WOOD, p. 227). Mrs. 
Whorwood consulted Lilly again in 1648 
on the means of effecting the king's escape 
from Carisbrooke, and obtained from a IOCK- 
smith whom he recommended files and aqua- 
fortis to be used on the window-bars of the 
king's chamber, but through various acci- 



Whvte 



171 



Whyte 



dents the design failed. She also assisted in 
providing a ship, and on 4 May 1048 Colonel 
Hammond, the governor of the Isle of Wight, 
was warned that a ship had sailed from the 
Thames, and was waiting about Queen- 
borough to carry the king to Holland. 
' -Mrs. Whorwood,' adds the letter, 'is aboard 
the ship, a tall, well-fashioned, and well- 
languaged gentlewoman, with a round visage 
and pockholes in her face' (Letters between 
Colonel Robert Hammond and the Committee 
at Derby House, 1704, 8vo, pp. 43, 45, 48 ; 
LILLY, p. 142 ; HILLIER, Charles I in the 
Isle of Wiyht, pp. 147, 155, 159). Wood, 
who had often seen her, adds to this de- 
scription that she was red-haired (Life, i. 
227). After the frustration of this scheme 
Mrs. Whorwood continued to convey letters 
to and from the king during the autumn 
of 1648, and to hatch fresh schemes. She 
is often referred to in the king's letters 
under the cipher ' N.' or ' 715 ' (HiLLiEK, 
p. 240; WAGSTAFFE, Vindication of Kiny 
Charles the Martyr, 1711, pp. 142, 150, 
152-7, 161-3). ' I cannot be more confident 
of any,' says the king in one of his letters, 
and in another speaks of the ' long, wise 
discourse' she had sent him. Wood identi- 
fies Mrs. Whorwood with the unnamed lady 
to whom the king had entrusted a cabinet of 
jewels which he sent for shortly before his 
execution, in order that he might give them 
to his children (Athence O.vonienses, ii. 700, 
art. * Herbert'). But a note in Sir Thomas 
Herbert's own narrative states that the lady 
in question was the wife of Sir W. Wheeler 
(HERBERT, Memoirs, ed. 1702, p. 122). 

The elate of Mrs. Whorwood ? s death is un- 
certairir^Her eldest son, Brome, baptised on 
29 Oct. 1635, was drowned in September 
1657, and buried at Holton (Wooo, Life, i. 
226). Her daughter Diana married in 1677 
Edward Masters, LL.D., chancellor of the 
diocese of Exeter (ib. ii. 331, iii. 403). Her 
husband represented the city of Oxford in 
four successive parliaments (1661-81), but, 
becoming a violent whig, was put out of the 
commission of the peace in January 1680. 
He died in Old Palace Yard, Westminster, 
on 12 April 1684, and was buried at Holton 
on 24 April (ib.'i. 399, ii. 439,460,476, 523, 
iii. 93). 

[Turner's Visitations of Oxfordshire (Harl. 
Soc.), 1871, p. 242; Life of Anthony Wood, ed. 
Clark; Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss; Lilly's Hist. of 
his Life and Times, ed. 1822.] C. H. F. 

WHYTE. [See also WHITE.] 

WHYTE,SAMUEL(1733-1811), school- 
master and author, born in 1733, was natural 
son of Captain Solomon Whyte, deputy- 

^ 

She died 24 Sept. 1684, according 
to R. Rawlinson. 



governor of the Tower of London. In a note 
to verses on himself Whyte says that ' he 
was born on ship-board approaching the 
Mersey [and] Liverpool was the first land he 
ever touched' (Poems on Various Subjects, 
3rd ed.) His mother died after giving birth 
to him. 

Whyte's first cousin, Frances Chamberlain 
(her mother was sister of Whyte's father), 
became the wife of Thomas Sheridan [q. v.] 
The Sheridans were very kind to WTiyte; 
indeed, he termed Mrs. Sheridan ' the friend 
and parent of my youth.' He was placed as 
a boarder in Samuel Edwards's academy in 
Golden Lane, Dublin (GILBERT, Dublin, iii. 
! 200). His father died in 1757, and his estate 
i passed to his nephew, who was Mrs. Sheri- 
! dan's elder brother, Whyte receiving a legacy 
I of five hundred pounds. On 3 April 1758 
; he opened a ' seminary for the institution 
of youth' at 75 (now 79) Grafton Street, 
Dublin. He described himself as ' Principal 
of the English Grammar School.' Mrs. 
Sheridan persuaded her husband's sisters, 
Mrs. Sheen and Mrs. Knowles, and other 
ladies to send their children to be taught, 
and, 'thus favoured, young Whyte had a 
handsome show of pupils on first opening 
his school ' (Memoirs of Frances Sheridan, 
p. 83). Her own three children, the eldest 
not seven, were among them. Charles Fran- 
cis remained a few weeks only, while Richard 
Brinsley and his sister Alicia were under 
Whyte s care as a schoolmaster for upwards 
of a year. 

Whyte was proud of having had the famous 
Sheridan as a pupil. But in a footnote to 
page 277 of the third edition of his poems 
he made a fanciful statement which is the 
origin of the myth about Sheridan and his 
brother being styled by him ' impenetrable 
dunces.' He repeated the footnote story to 
Moore in after years, and Moore aided in 
diffusing it (Memoirs, i. 7). Miss Lefanu 
has exposed Whyte's inaccuracy (Memoirs 
of Frances Sheridan, p. 85), while Sheridan's 
elder sister, writing to Lady Morgan in 
1817, charges the schoolmaster of her child- 
hood with wilful misrepresentation (LADY 
MORGAN, Memoirs, ii. 61). On the other 
hand, Whyte was grateful for the kindness 
he received from Thomas Sheridan and his 
wife, and made a substantial return when 
fortune frowned upon them. 

His first work was a 'Treatise on the 
English Language,' which, though printed 
in 1761, was not published till 1800. He 
wrote two tragedies and put them in the 
fire after Thomas Sheridan had undertaken 
to get them represented. He was a fluent 
versifier, and some of his verses appeared in 



Whytehead 



172 



Whytehead 



1772 in & quarto entitled ' The Shamrock, 
or Hibernian Cresses,' practical proposals 
for a reform in education being appended 
(another edit. 1773, 8vo). His reputation 
had led to the offer in 1759 of the pro- 
fessorship of English in the Hibernian Aca- 
demy; but, thinking that Thomas Sheridan 
had been unfairly overlooked, he declined it. 
His custom was to make his pupils represent 
a play at the annual examination, and some 
became actors in consequence. Being blamed 
for this, he wrote in self-defence a didactic 
poem, ' The Theatre,' which was published in 
1790. Whyte's son, Edward Athenry, who 
had become his partner, collected his works 
in 1792, of which four editions were printed. 
Copies were given as prizes to the pupils 
who distinguished themselves, while each 
one who fell short of the required standard 
received his engraved portrait. 

After the union between Great Britain 
and Ireland the attendance at Whyte's 
school diminished owing to Irish parents 
sending their children to England for their 
education. He died at 75 Grafton Street, 
Dublin, on 11 Oct. 1811. His son conducted 
the school till 1824, when he migrated to 
London and afterwards died there. 

Whyte's works, in addition to those 
named above, included : 1. * Miscellanea 
Nova, with Remarks on Boswell's " John- 
eon" and a Critique on Burger's "Leonora,"' 
1801, 8vo. 2. 'The Beauties of History.' 
3. * The Juvenile Encyclopaedia.' 4. An 
edition of ' Matho.' 5. An edition of ' Hoi- 
berg's Universal History.' 6. ' A Short 
System of Rhetoric.' 7. ' Hints to the Age 
of Reason.' 8. ' Practical Elocution.' 

[Gilbert's History of Dublin, iii. 200-10; 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1811, ii. 486; Alicia 
Lefanu's Memoirs of Mrs. Frances Sheridan, 
pp. 82-6 ; The Junto, or the Interior Cabinet 
laid open.] F. R. 

WHYTEHEAD, THOMAS (1815-1843), 
missionary and poet, born at Thormanby in 
the North Riding of Yorkshire on 30 Nov. 
1815, was the fourth son of Henry Robert 
Whytehead (1772-1818), curate of Thor- 
manby and rector of Goxhill, by his wife 
Hannah Diana (d. 21 Nov. 1844), daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Bowman, rector of 
Crayke in Yorkshire. On the death of Henry 
Robert Whytehead on 20 Aug. 1818, his 
widow removed to York with her young 
family. After attending the grammar school 
at Beverley, and reading privately along with 
his elder brother Robert (1808-1 863), Thomas 
was entered as a pensioner at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in October 1833. His uni- 
versity successes were remarkable. In 1834 



he was first Bell scholar, in 1835 and 1836 he 
won the chancellor's English medal with 
poems on the death of the Duke of Gloucester 
and < The Empire of the Sea.' In 1835 he 
won the Hulsean prize, with an essay on 'The 
Resemblance between Christ and Moses ;' in 
1836 he obtained Sir William Browne's gold 
medal for Latin and Greek epigrams; on 
4 Feb. 1837 he was placed second in the 
classical tripos, and in March he was chosen 
senior classical medallist. On 13 March he 
was elected to a fellowship at St. John's Col- 
lege, which he retained until his death. He 
graduated B.A. in 1837, and M.A. in 1840, 
and was admitted at Oxford ad eundem on 
4 Dec. 1841. In December 1839 he was or- 
dained to the curacy of Freshwater in the 
Isle of Wight. During 1841 he composed an 
ode for the installation of the Duke of North- 
umberland as chancellor of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, which was set to music by Thomas 
Attwood Walmisley [q. v.], and performed at 
the senate house on 5 July 1842. 

From childhood Whytehead had been re- 
markable for his earnest piety, and after 
long consideration he resolved to devote him- 
self to mission work. In 1841 he accepted 
the post of chaplain to George Augustus Sel- 
wyn [q.v.], recently appointed bishop of New 
Zealand, and sailed on 26 Dec. 1841. He 
reached Sydney on 14 April 1842, but his 
health completely broke down, and, though 
he reached New Zealand, he died at Waimate, 
in the Bay of Islands, on 19 March 1843. 
He was unmarried. A memorial stone was 
placed over his grave at Waimate, and a 
marble tablet erected to hiin by his friend 
the Earl of Powis in the chapel of St. John's 
College, near the city of Auckland. In the 
ne\y chapel of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
which was completed in 1869, a full-length 
figure of Whytehead appears on the roof of 
the choir (WiLLis, Architecture and Hist. 
of the University of Cambridge, 1886, ii. 335. 
343). 

Whytehead was a poet of some merit. 
The widely known hymn, ' Sabbath of the 
saints of old,' is one of seven hymns written 
by him for holy week. Almost his last act 
was to translate this hymn and Ken's lines, 
* Glory to Thee, my God, this night,' into 
Maori rhyming verse. A collection of his 
'Poems' was published in 1842 (London, 
8vo). A second edition, entitled ' Poetical 
Remains,' with a memoir, including many of 
his letters, was prepared by his nephew, 
Thomas Bowman Whytehead, and appeared 
in 1877, with a preface by Bishop Howson 
(London, 8vo). In 1841 a series of epistles 
on 'College Life: Letters to an Undergra- 
duate,' were published at Cambridge after 



Whyte-Melville 173 Whyte-Melville 



his death in 1845, under the editorship of 
Thomas Francis Knox [q. v.] A second edi- 
tion by William Nathaniel (Jrillin appeared 
in London in 1856. Whytehead's two prize 
poems were also printed in 1859, in ' A Col- 
lection of the English Poems which have ob- 
tained the chancellor's gold medal,' Cam- 
bridge, 8vo. 

[Memoir prefixed to Whytehead's Poetical 
Remains, 1877 ; Pref. to College Life, 1845 ; 
Mission Life, 1873, pp. 375-90 ; Tucker's Life 
of Selwyn, 1879; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892; Foster's 
Alumni OXOD. 1715-1886; Stock's Hist, of 
Church Missionary Soc. i. 430.] E. I. C. 

WHYTE - MELVILLE, GEORGE 
JOHN (1821-1878), novelist and poet, born 
on 19 June 1821, was son of John Whyte- 
Melville of Strathkinness in Fifeshire, by his 
wife Catherine Anne Sarah, youngest daugh- 
ter of Francis Godolphin Osborne, fifth duke 
of Leeds. Robert Whyte [q. v.] was his 
great-grandfather. The novelist was edu- 
cated at Eton under Keate, and in 1839 re- 
ceived a commission in the 93rd highlanders. 
Exchanging in 1846 into the Coldstream 
guards, he retired in 1849 with the rank of 
captain, but on the outbreak of the Crimean 
war in 1854 he volunteered for active service, 
and was appointed major of Turkish irregu- 
lar cavalry. After peace was restored he 
devoted himself to literature and field sports, 
especially fox-hunting, on which he soon 
came to be regarded as a high authority. He 
married, on 7 Aug. 1847, Charlotte, daughter 
of William Hanbury, first lord Bateman, 
by whom he had one daughter; but his mar- 
ried life was unhappy. To that misfortune 
perhaps may be traced the strain of melan- 
choly which runs through all Whyte-Mel- 
ville's writings. His literary powers, which 
he himself was always inclined to underrate, 
were considerable, and would have brought 
him greater fame had circumstances required 
him to put them to more diligent use. As 
Locker-Lampson remarks : * This notion of 
the smallness of his gift may have been fos- 
tered by his never having been a really needy 
man : he could alwavs afford to hunt the fox, 
so the excitement of the chasse aux pieces de 
cent sous, which stimulates most authors, 
was denied him.' As it was, Whyte-Mel- 
ville devoted all the earnings of his pen, 
which must have been considerable, to phi- 
lanthropic and charitable objects, especially 
to the provision of reading-rooms and other 
recreation for grooms and stable-boys in 
hunting quarters. Locker-Lampson observes 
in ' My Confidences ' (p. 382) that Whyte- 
Melville never sought literary society, pre- 
ferring the companionship of soldiers, sports- 



men, and country gentlemen. Perhaps, had 
he been more assiduous in cultivating lite- 
rary men, his reputation as an author 
might have stood higher with the general 
public, though he could scarcely have been 
a greater favourite with readers of his own 
class. From his intimate acquaintance with 
military, sporting, and fashionable life, 
Whyte-Melville could deal with it in fiction 
without any risk of falling into the ludicrous 
exaggerations and blunders which beset 
many writers who attempt to do so. 

After his marriage in 1847 Whyte-Mel- 
ville lived for some years in Northampton- 
shire, and then removed to Tetbury in Glou- 
cestershire. An acknowledged arbiter of 
hunting practice and a critic of costume, he 
was careless to a fault in his own attire. 

Most of Whyte-Melville's works were 
novels, though his volume of 'Songs and 
Verses ' contains some lyrics of charming 
vivacity and tenderness, and all his writings, 
though appealing chiefly to sporting men, 
have attractions for general readers also, 
owing to the lofty tone of chivalry which 
pervades them and the reverent devotion 
expressed for the fair sex. Throughout all 
his works there is evident also an affection 
for classical lore, reflecting the training which 
Whyte-Melville received at Eton in the days 
of Dr. Keate. 

Whyte-Melville was very fond of making 
young horses into finished hunters, but it 
was on an old and favourite horse, the Shah, 
that he met his death. On 5 Dec. 1878 he 
was hunting in the Vale of White Horse, 
the hounds had found a fox, and Whyte- 
Melville was galloping for a start along the 
grass headland of a ploughed field. His 
horse fell and killed him instantaneously. 
He was buried at Tetbury. A bust was 
executed by Sir Edgar Boehm ( Cat . Victorian 
Rrhib. No. 1075). 

Whyte-Melville's father, who is men- 
tioned in Locker-Lampson's 'Confidences,' 
survived him for five years, dying in 1883 ; 
Strathkinness then passed to his kinsman, 
Mr. James Balfour, who assumed the name 
of Melville in addition to his own. 

Whyte-Melville's published works are as 
follows: 1. 'Captain Digby Grand: an 
Autobiography,' 1853. 2. ' General Bounce ; 
or, The Lady and the Locusts,' 1854. 
3. ' Kate Coventry : an Autobiography,' 
1856. 4. 'The Arab's Ride to Cairo,' 
1858. 5. 'The Interpreter: a Tale of 
the War,' 1858. 6. 'Holmby House: a 
Tale of Old Northamptonshire,' I860. 
7. ' Good for Nothing; or, All Down Hill,' 
1861. 8. 'Market Harborough,' 1861. 
9. 'Tilbury Nogo: an Unsuccessful Man,' 



Whytford 



174 



Whytt 



1861. 10. ' The Queen's Maries : a Romance 
of Holyrood,' 1862. 11. 'The Gladiators: 
a Tale of Rome and Judaea/ 1863. 12. ' The 
Brookes of Bridlemere,' 1864. 13. ' Cerise,' 
1866. 14. 'The White Rose,' 1868. 15. 
' Bones and I ; or, The Skeleton at Home,' 
1868. 16. 'M. or N.,' 1869. 17. 'Songs 
and Verses,' 1869. 18. 'Contraband; or, 
A Losing Hazard,' 1870. 19. Sarchedon : 
a Tale of the Great Queen,' 1871. 20. ' The 
True Cross' (a religious poem), 1873. 
21. ' Satanella : a Story of Punchestown,' 
1873. 22. 'Uncle John: a Novel,' 1874. 
23. ' Riding Recollections,' 1875. 24. ' Ka- 
terfelto,' 1875. 25. 'Sister Louise; or, 
Woman's Repentance,' 1875. 26. ' Rosine,' 
1875. 27. ' Roy's Wife,' 1878. 28. 'Black 
but Comely,' 1879 (posthumous). 

[Burke's Landed Gentry ; Allibone's Diet. ; 
Annual Register ; Baily's Magazine ; Locker- 
Lampson's Confidences ; private information.] 

H. E. M. 

WHYTFORD, RICHARD ( rf. 1495- 
1555?), author. [See WHITFORD.] 

WHYTT, ROBERT (1714-1766), presi- 
dent of the Royal College of Physicians, 
Edinburgh, second son of Robert Whytt of 
Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of 
Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire, 
was born in Edinburgh on 6 Sept. 1714, six 
months after his father's death. Having gra- 
duated M.A. at St. Andrews in 1730, he 
went to Edinburgh to study medicine. Two 
years before this he had succeeded, by the 
death of his elder brother George, to the 
family estate. Whytt devoted himself in 
particular to the study of anatomy under the 
first Monro. Proceeding to London in 1734, 
Whytt became a pupil of Cheselden, while 
lie visited the wards of the London hospitals. 
After this he attended the lectures of Wins- 
low in Paris, of Boerhaave and Albinus at 
Leyden. He took the degree of M.D. at 
Rheims on 2 April 1736. On 3 June 1737 
a similar degree was conferred on him by 
the university of St. Andrews, and on 21 June 
he became a licentiate of the Royal College 
of Physicians of Edinburgh. On 27 Nov. 
1738 he was elected to the fellowship, and 
commenced practice as a physician. 

In 1743 Whytt published a paper in the 
'Edinburgh Medical Essays' entitled 'On 
the Virtues of Lime- Water in the Cure of 
Stone.' This paper attracted much atten- 
tion, and was published, with additions, 
separately in 1752, and ran through several 
editions. It also appeared in French and 
German. Whytt's treatment of the stone by 
limewater and soap is now exploded. 

On 26 Aug. 1747 Whytt was appointed 



professor of the theory of medicine in Edin- 
burgh University. In 17ol he published a 
work ' On the Vital and other Involuntary 
Motions of Animals.' The book attracted 
the attention of the physiologists of Europe. 
Whytt ' threw aside the doctrine of Stahl 
that the rational soul is the cause of all in- 
voluntary motions in animals,' and ascribed 
such movements to ' the effect of a stimulus 
acting on an unconscious sentient principle.' 
He had a vigorous controversy with Haller 
on the subject of this work. 

On 16 April 1752 Whytt was elected 
F.R.S. London, to the 'Transactions' of 
which he contributed several papers. In 
1756 he gave lectures on chemistry in the 
university inplace of John Rutherford (1695- 
1779) [q.v.] In 1764 he published his greatest 
book, ' On Nervous, Hypochondriac, or Hys- 
teric Diseases, to which are prefixed some 
Remarks on the Sympathy of the Nerves.' 
This work was also translated into French 
by Achille Guillaume Le Begue de Presle 
in 1767. In 1761 Whytt was made first 
physician to the king in Scotland ' a post 
specially created for him ' and on 1 Dec. 
1763 he was elected president of the Royal 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh ; he held 
the presidency till his death at Edinburgh 
on 15 April 1766. His remains were accorded 
a public funeral, and were interred in Old 
Greyfriars churchyard. He was twice mar- 
ried. His first wife, Helen, sister of James 
Robertson (1720P-1788) [q.v.J, governor of 
New York, died in 1741, leaving no children. 
In 1743 he married Louisa, daughter of 
James Balfour of Pilrig in Midlothian, who 
died in 1764. By his second wife Whytt 
had six surviving children. 

Besides the works mentioned, Whytt was 
the author of: 1. 'An Essay on the Virtue 
of Lime- Water in the Cure of the Stone,' 
Edinburgh, 1752, 12mo; 3rd edit. Dublin, 
1762, 12mo. 2. 'Physiological Essays,' 
Edinburgh, 1755, 12mo; 3rd edit, 1766, 
12mo. 3. 'Observations on the Dropsy of 
the Brain,' Edinburgh, 1768, 4to. An edi- 
tion of his ' Works ' was issued by his son 
in 1768, and was translated into German by 
Christian Ehrhardt Kapp in 1771 (Leipzig, 
8vo). A complete list of his detached papers 
will be found in Watt's ' Bibliotheca Bri- 
tannica.' 

Whytt's son John, who changed his name 
to AVliyte, became heir to the entailed estates 
of General Melville of Strathkinness, and 
took the name of Melville in addition to his 
own. He was grandfather of Captain George 
John Whyte-Melville [q. v.] 

[Life and Writings of Robert Whytt, M.D., 
by William Seller, M.D., in Trans, of Royal Soc. 



Whytynton 



175 



Wiburn 



of Edinb., xxiii. 99-131 (which ohtaim-d the 
Macdougall Brisbane Prize); Grant's Story of 
the University of Edinburgh, ii. 401-2 ; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation ; Scots Mag. 1766, p. liii:* ; 
Brown's Epitaphs in Greyfriars Churchyard ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1868; Brit. Mus. Cat, ; 
Wood's Hist, of Royal Coil, of Phys. Eflinb.] 

G. S-H. 

WHYTYNTON or WHITINTON, 
ROBERT (/. 1520), grammarian. [See 

\\ HITTINGTON.] 

WIBURN or WYBUR-N, PERCEVAL 

(1633 P-1606 ?), puritan divine, born about 
1533, was admitted a scholar of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, on Cardinal Morton's 
foundation, on 11 Nov. 1546, and was 
matriculated as a pensioner in the same 
month. He proceeded B.A, in 1551, and 
on 8 April 1552 he was elected and admitted 
a fellow of his college. A man of strong 
protestant opinions, he sympathised with 
the reforming tendencies of Edward VI's 
government, and after the accession of Mary 
he judged it prudent to leave England. In 
May 1557 he joined the English congrega- 
tion at Geneva (Livre des Any lots, ed. Burn, 
1831, p. 10). On the accession of Elizabeth 
he returned to England; in 1558 he pro- 
ceeded M.A., and in the same year was 
appointed junior dean and philosophy lecturer 
in his college. On 25 Jan. 1559-60 he was 
ordained deacon by Edmund Grindal [q. v.], 
bishop of London, and on 27 March 15"" 
he received priest's orders from Richard 
Davies (d. 1581) [q. v.], bishop of St. Asaph 
(STRYPE, Life of Grindal, 1821, pp. 54, 5 ' 
On 24 Feb. 1560-1 he was installed a pre- 
bendary of Norwich, and on 6 April 1561 
was admitted a senior fellow of St. John's 
College. In 1561 he occurs as holding the 
second prebendal stall in the cathedral of 
Rochester, which he still possessed in 1589 
but which he had resigned before 1592 (cf 
STRYPE, Annals of the Reformation, 1824 
i. 488, 502). On 23 Nov. 1561 he was 
installed a canon of Westminster. 

Wiburn took part, as proctor of the clergy 
of Rochester, in the convocation of 1562, anc 
subscribed the revised articles. On 8 Marcl 
1563-4 he was instituted to the vicarage o 
St. Sepulchre's, Holborn. In the same year 
however, he was sequestered on refusing 
subscription, and in order to maintain hi: 
family employed himself in husbandry. H 
was not, however, hardly dealt with, th 
ecclesiastical authorities conniving at hi 
keeping his prebends and at his preachinj 
in public (STRYPE, Life of Grindal, pp. 145 
146; Life of Parker, 1821, i. 483). In 156< 
he visited Theodore Beza at Geneva an 



leinrich Bullinger at Zurich to represent 
tie evil condition of the English church, 
nd to solicit assistance from the Swiss re- 
ormers. It was probably at this time that 
rViburn wrote his description of the * State 
f the Church of England,' which is pre- 
erved in the Zurich archives. He was sus- 
)ected by the English ecclesiastics of calum- 
liating the church, an accusation which he 
ndignantly repelled, and which in a letter 
dated 25 Feb. 1566-7 he besought Bullinger 
o contradict. 

In June 1571 Wiburn was cited for noncon- 
brmity before Archbishop Parker, together 
with Christopher Goodman [q. v.], Thomas 
..ever [q. v.], Thomas Sampson [q. v.], and 
some others, and in 1573 he was examined 
)y the council concerning his opinion on 
he ' Admonition to the Parliament/ some- 
imes erroneously attributed to Thomas 
Cartwright (1535-1603) [q. v.], which had 
appeared in the preceding year [see WILCOX, 
THOMAS]. Wiburn declared that the opinions 
expressed in the ' Admonition ' were not law- 
ful, but he was, notwithstanding, forbidden 
to preach until further orders (STRYPE, Life 
of Parker, ii. 66, 239-41; Life of Grindal, p. 
252; PARKER, Corresp., Parker Soc. p. 342 ; 
GRINDAL, Remains, Parker Soc. p. 348). He 
was afterwards restored to the ministry, and 
was preacher at Rochester. In 1581 he was 
one of the divines chosen for their learning 
and theological attainments to dispute with 
the papists. In the same year he published a 
reply to Robert Parsons (1546-1610) [q. v.], 
who under the name of John Howlet had 
ventured to dedicate his f Brief Discourse ' 
to Queen Elizabeth. Wiburn's treatise was 
entitled ' A Checke or Reproofe of M. How- 
lets vntimely shreeching in her Majesties 
eares,' London, 4to. His zeal against the 
Jesuits, however, did not prevent him from 
being suspended from preaching in 1583 by 
Archbishop Whitgift [q.v.l (STRYPE, Life of 

Whitgift, 1822, i. 245, 249, 271, 550). He 
continued under suspension for at least five 
years. Towards the close of his life he 
preached at Battersea, near London, and, 
being disabled for a time from the public 
duties of his ministry by breaking his leg, he 
was assisted by Richard Sedgwick. He 
died about 1606 at an advanced age. He 
was married. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 449 ; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 169-71 ; Baker's 
Hist, of St. John's Coll. ed. Mayor, i. 148, 286, 
291, 325; Lives appended to Clarke's Engl. 
Martyrologie, 1677, p. 158; Newcourt's Repert. 
Eccles. Lond. 1708, i. 534; Shindler's Reg. 
Rochester Cathedral, 1892 ; Hennessy's Novum 
Repertorium, 1898.] E. I. C. 



Wiche 



176 



Wickens 



WICHE. [See also WTCIIB.] 

WICHE, JOHN (d. 1549), first bishop of 
Gloucester. [See WAKEMAN.] 

WICHE, JOHN (1718-1794), baptist 
minister, was born at Taunton, Somerset, 
on 24 April 1718. His parents were bap- 
tists; his elder brother, George Wiche 
(d. 2 Nov. 1794, aged 78), originally a 
mechanic, became steward of the assembly 
rooms, Taunton, where his portrait, by 
Thorn, was placed by the subscribers. John 
Wiche was baptised on 25 June 1734 by 
Joseph Jefferies, baptist minister of Taunton, 
from whom, and from Thomas Lucas, baptist 
minister (1721-43) of Trowbridge, Wiltshire, 
he received his early education. By help of 
the general baptist fund he studied succes- 
sively at Taunton, Kendal, and Findern 
academies. At Salisbury, where he was 
assistant and then minister to a declining 
baptist congregation (1743-6), he became 
acquainted and corresponded with Thomas 
Chubb [q. v.] In 1746 he went to London 
to consult Joseph Burroughs [q. v.] and 
James Foster [q. v.] about leaving the 
ministry. On their advice he became in 
December 1746 minister of a small general 
baptist congregation at Maidstone, and held 
this charge till death. His views at this 
time were Arian, but in 1760 he became 
a Socinian, after reading the anonymous 
'Letter on the Logos,' published in 1759, by 
Nathaniel Lardner [q. v.] With Lardner 
he corresponded from 1762, if not earlier. 
Lardner fenced with him about the author- 
ship of the 'Letter,' but on 9 June 1768 
(six weeks before his death) wrote to inform 
him that the 'Papinian' to whom it had 
been addressed was John Shute Barrington, 
first viscount Barrington fq. v.] Some time 
after Lardner's death Wiche obtained access 
to four of his manuscript sermons (preached 
1747), and transcribed and published them 
as ' Two Schemes of a Trinity . . . and the 
Divine Unity,' 1784, 8vo. Among his in- 
timate friends was William Hazlitt, father 
of the essayist, who had been presbyterian 
minister (1770-80) at Earl Street, Maid- 
stone. After the Birmingham riots of 1791 
he waited on Henry Dundas (afterwards 
first Viscount Melville) [q. v.], then home 
secretary, with a deputation from Maidstone 
in Priestley's interest. Though his resources 
were scanty, he collected a considerable 
library, boot-buying being his 'only extrava- 
gance.' Wiche died at Maidstone on 7 April 
1794. He married, in 1765, Elizabeth Pine 
(d. 1767), by whom he had six children ; his 
eldest son, Thomas (d. 11 July 1821, aged 
63), became a London bookseller ; his 



daughter Mary married in August 1795 
John Evans (17G7-1827) [q. v.], author of 
the ' Sketch ' of Christian denominations. 
Wiche's portrait (no engraver's name) is 
given in the ' Protestant Dissenter's Maga- 
zine,' 1797. 

He published, besides single sermons and 
tracts : 1. ' A Defence of. . . Foster's Sermon 
of Catholic Communion. By Philocatholi- 
cus,' 1752, 8vo (anon., answered by Grant- 
ham Killingworth [q. v.]) ; and 2. ' Observa- 
tions on the Debate . . . concerning the 
Divine Unity . . . addressed to the Rev. 
E. W. Whittaker of Canterbury,' 1787, 8vo. 
To Priestley's 'Theological Repository,' 1786, 
v. 83, he contributed ' Observations favour- 
ing the Miraculous Conception,' signed 
'Nazaraeus;' wrongly attributed by Thomas 
Belsham [q. v.] to Newcome Cappe [q. v.l 

George Wiche or Wyche (1767-1799), 
dissenting minister at Monton, Lancashire, 
from 1788 to 1795, when he left the ministry 
and emigrated to America, was John Wiche's 
nephew. 

[Sketch by J[oshua] Tfoulmin] in Protestant 
Dissenter's Magazine, 1797, p. 121 ; Monthly 
Repository, 1821, p. 491; Rutt's Memoirs of 
Priestley, 1831-2, i. 69, 93, 99, 365, gives ex- 
tracts from his correspondence furnished by John 
Evans, his grandson ; Christian Reformer, 1836, 

&517; Evans's Record of the Provincial Assem- 
y of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1896, p. 133 ; 
Evans's Vestiges of Protestant Dissent, 1897, 
pp. 163, 244.] A. GL 

WICKENS, SIB JOHN (1815-1873), 
judge, second son of James Stephen Wickens 
of Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, by his 
wife, Anne Goodenough, daughter of John 
Hayter of Winterbourne Stoke, Wiltshire, 
was born at his father's house on 13 June 
1815. He was educated at Eton (under Dr. 
Keate), where he gained the Newcastle. Sub- 
sequently he won in 1832 an open scholar- 
ship at Balliol College, Oxford, matriculating 
in the university on 30 Nov. of that year. 
He graduated B.A. with a ' double first ' in 
Michaelmas term 1836, and M.A. in 1839, 
but was an unsuccessful candidate for a 
Balliol fellowship. Having entered at Lin- 
coln's Inn, he was called to the bar in May 
1840. His practice was of somewhat slow 
growth, but he gradually obtained reputa- 
tion as a conveyancer and equity draftsman ; 
and when in 1852 a number of leading juniors 
took silk, Wickens stepped at a bound into 
a large and lucrative court business, which 
never deserted him. He was retained in 
most of the heavy chancery suits of the day, 
and appeared frequently before the House 
of Lords and the privy council. During the 
later years of his career at the bar he was 



Wickham 



177 



Wickham 



equity counsel to the treasury, the duties 
connected with which post precluded him 
from applying for a silk gown even had he 
been so inclined. They were also deemed 
incompatible with a seat in the House of 
Commons, and he never figured as a parlia- 
mentary candidate. 

In 1868 he was made vice-chancellor of 
the county palatine of Lancaster on the 
elevation of Sir W. M. James to a vacant 
lord-msticeship. In 1871 he was elected a 
bencher of his inn, and in April of that year 
was raised to the bench as vice-chancellor in 
succession to Sir John Stuart, and received 
the honour of knighthood in due course His 
sound knowledge of law, together with the 
great satisfaction he had given in the pala- 
tinate court, raised expectations which were 
not destined to be fulfilled, as his health 
broke down within a short period of his 
appointment, and he died at his seat, Chil- 
grove, near Chichester, on 23 Oct. 1873. 

During his short tenure of office, Wickens 
acquired a reputation for slowness and for 
too close an adherence to that case law, of 
which he was an acknowledged master ; but 
he was famous for his intimate acquaintance 
with all matters relating to practice, and his 
judgments were rarely appealed from. At 
the bar he was chiefly renowned as an equity 
pleader and as a writer of opinions; but 
though no great speaker, he possessed a gift 
of clear and vigorous expression, together 
with a trenchant, concise way of arguing a 
legal point, which rendered his services as 
an advocate of no inconsiderable value. In 
private life he was remarkable for the extent 
and variety of his literary knowledge, and 
he was the object of the warmest regard both 
from his personal and professional friends. 
He was famed for wit as well as learning, 
and it was current rumour that his failure 
to obtain a Balliol fellowship was due to 
some ill-timed display of the former quality. 

He married, in 1845, Harriet Frances, 
daughter of William Davey of Cowley 
House, Gloucestershire. His daughter, Mary 
Erskine, is wife of Mr. Justice Farwell. 

[Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Eton 
School Lists; Law Times, Ivi. 11; Solicitors' 
Journal, xviii. 20 ; Times, 27 Oct. 1873 (con- 
taining an erroneous statement that he won the 
Newdigate prize at Oxford).] ^ J. B. A. 

WICKHAM. [See also WYZEHAM.] 

WICKHAM, WILLIAM (1761-1840), 
politician, eldest son of Henry Wickham of 
Cottingley in Yorkshire, a colonel in the 1st 
foot guards, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter j 
of William Lauaplugh, vicar of Cottingley, 

VOL. LXI. 



was born at Cottingley in October 1761. 
He was educated at Harrow and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he matriculated on 
27 Jan. 1779, obtained a studentship, and 
became intimate with Charles Abbot (after- 
wards Lord Colchester) and William Wynd- 
ham Grenville (afterwards Lord Grenville). 
He took his B.A. degree in 1782, and then 

Eroceeded to Geneva, where he studied civil 
iw under Amadie Perdriau, a professor in 
the Genevese university. He then graduated 
M.A. in February 1786. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn in the ensuing 
Michaelmas term, and obtained a commis- 
sionership in bankruptcy in 1790. In Geneva 
he became acquainted with Eleonora Made- 
leine Bertrand, whose father was professor 
of mathematics in the university, and on 
10 Aug. 1788 they were married. She lived 
until 1836. 

Wickham's early intimacy with Lord 
Grenville and his Swiss residence and con- 
nections first brought him into public em- 
ployment. Grenville, then foreign secretary, 
made use of his services in a secret foreign 
correspondence in August 1793, and in 1794 
he was appointed superintendent of aliens in 
order to enable him to extend his foreign 
communications. His letters were carefully 
kept from the knowledge of the diplomatic 
service generally, and only reached Gren- 
ville's hands through Lord Rosslyn. In 
October 1794 he was sent to Switzerland 
on an exceedingly confidential mission, and 
the fact that he was thus engaged was as- 
siduously concealed from the foreign office. 
When the fact became known about the end 
of 1794 it excited great jealousy, and secrecy 
being no longer attainable, Lord Robert Fitz- 
gerald (then minister plenipotentiary to 
Switzerland) was recalled, and Wickham 
was appointed charge d'affaires during his 
absence. In the summer of 1795 Fitzgerald 
was appointed to Copenhagen, and Wickham 
became minister to the Swiss cantons. His 
correspondence in this post was most exten- 
sive, and the information which he thus 
gathered for his government proved very accu- 
rate and valuable, particularly in connection 
with the condition of Provence and the 
royalist movements in La Vend6e. He was 
in fact the government's principal spy on the 
continent, and his activity and success were 
so great that in 1797 the directory formally 
demanded his expulsion on the ground that 
he acted not as a diplomatic agent but as a 
fomenter of insurrection (MA.LLET DU PAN, 
Correspondence avec la Cour de Vienne, ii. 
355). He was privately pressed to relieve 
the Swiss government from its embarrass- 
ment by voluntarily retiring, and in Novem- 

N 



Wickham 



178 



Wickwane 



her he thought it wise to comply, and with- 
drew to Frankfort. 

In January 1798 Wickham returned to 
England and was appointed under-secretary 
of state for the home department, which office 
had been promised him some years before and 
kept temporarily occupied during his service 
in Switzerland. It was a busy and impor- 
tant post. His correspondence with Castle- 
reagh during the Irish rebellion fills a con- 
siderable part of the first two volumes of the 
* Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount 
Castlereagh,' and portions of it are also to 
be found in Ross's ' Correspondence of Lord 
Cornwallis.' Wickham was also private secre- 
tary to the Duke of Portland. He returned as 
envoy to the Swiss cantons and the Russian 
and Austrian armies in June 1799, while 
still retaining his post at home, and was en- 
trusted with very extensive powers of nego- 
tiating treaties and arranging supplies for 
the anti-revolutionary forces. He travelled 
via Cuxhaven, Hanover, and Ulm, and 
reached Switzerland on 27 June. His wife 
narrowly escaped capture at the battle of 
Zurich, and was announced in the Paris 
papers to have fallen into the hands of the 
French. He was engaged abroad until, early 
in 1802, he was appointed on Abbot's ad- 
vice chief secretary for Ireland. He was 
then sworn of the privy council, and came 
into parliament for Heytesbury. Emmett's 
rising was the chief event of his term of 
office in Ireland, but the position was dis- 
tasteful to him, and he resigned early in 
1804. He would have been sent in 1802 and 
1803 as minister either to Berlin or Vienna, 
but for the objection made by those courts 
to his nomination on the ground of his being 
personally obnoxious to the French govern- 
ment. He accordingly retired from active 
service on a pension of about 1,800/. per 
annum. This was the conclusion of Wick- 
ham's public career, except that for a short 
time (February 1800 to March 1 807) he was 
a member of the treasury board under Lord 
Grenville, and went on one or two missions 
to Germany in connection with subsidies. 
In 1807 he retired into the country. He 
was made honorary D.C.L. at Oxford in 
1810, and died at Brighton on 22 Oct. 1840. 
His portrait by Fiiger belongs to the family 
(Cat. Third Loan Exhib. No. 35). 

He had one son, HENRY LEWIS WICKHAM 
(1789-1864), who was born on 19 May 1789, 
was educated at Westminster and Christ 
Church ; having been called to the bar from 
Lincoln's Inn (13 May 1817), he was ap- 
pointed receiver-general of Gibraltar. He 
was principal private secretary to Althorp 
when chancellor of the exchequer, and from 



1838 to 1848 was chairman of the boards of 
stamps and taxes. He published with his 
cousin, John Antony Cramer [q. v.], a ' Dis- 
sertation on the Passage of Hannibal over 
the Alps ' (2nd edit. London, 1828), and died 
in Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, on 27 Oct. 
1864 (Gent. Mag. 1864, ii. 794; FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886). His son, Wil- 
liam Wickham (1831-1897), was M.P. for 
the Petersfield division of Hampshire from 
1892 to 1897. 

[Correspondence of the Right Hon. W. Wick- 
ham, 1870; Berville et Barriere, Collection de 
M6moiresrelatifs a la Revolution Franchise, vol. 
Iviii. ch. xxxiv. p. 99 ; Lecky's History of Eng- 
land in the Eighteenth Century; Lord Malmes- 
bury's Correspondence, iii. 454, 531 ; Lord Col- 
chester's Diary ; Ann. Reg. 1841 ; Memoires et 
Correspondance de Mallet du Pan, ii. 336.1 

J. A. H. 

WICKLOW, VISCOUNT (d. 1786). [See 
under HOWARD, RALPH, 1638-1710.] 

WICKWANE or WYCHEHAM, 
WILLIAM DE (d. 1285), archbishop of 
York, was canon and chancellor of York 
when on 4 Feb. 1262 he was instituted to 
the rectory of Ivinghoe, Buckinghamshire 
(RAINE). Walter Giffard [q. v.], archbishop 
of York, having died in April 1279, Wick- 
wane was elected by the cnapter to succeed 
him on 22 June; he received the king's 
assent on 4 July, and went to the pope for 
his pall. Nicolas III set aside the election 
by the chapter, but as of his own will con- 
secrated him to York at Viterbo on 26 Aug. 
On landing in England about 29 Sept. he 
caused his cross to be borne before him in 
the province of Canterbury. John Peckham 
[q. v.], the archbishop, ordered that no food 
should be sold Jo him on pain of excommu- 
nication, and his official and his men had a 
struggle with Wickwane's party and broke 
the cross (WYKES). He was enthroned at 
York at Christmas. In 1280 he began a 
visitation of his province, and was specially 
careful in visiting its monasteries. On com- 
ing to Durham he was refused admission 
into the cathedral priory, the gate being 
forcibly kept against him. Standing in the 
road, hepronounced excommunication against 
the monks ; appeals were made to Rome, and 
the dispute lasted during the remainder of 
his life. He again visited Durham in person 
in 1283, and was about to excommunicate 
the prior in the church of St. Nicolas, when 
some of the younger citizens raised a tumult ; 
he was forced to flee, one of his palfrey's ears 
was cut off, and he is said to have been in 
danger of his life. On 8 Jan. 1284 he trans- 
lated the body of St. William [see FITZ- 
HERBERT, WILLIAM], archbishop of York, in 



Wiclif 



179 



Widdowes 



the presence of Edward I, and with much 
state, and on the next day consecrated 
Antony Bek (d. 1310) [q. v.] to the see of 
Durham, an act which he is said to have 
regretted to the day of his death. Having 
obtained the king's leave, he set out to lay 
his complaints against the convent of Dur- 
ham before the pope. On his way he fell 
sick of a fever at Pontigny, assumed the 
Cistercian habit, and died there on 26 Aug. 
1285. The statement that he resigned his 
see appears merely to refer to his assump- 
tion of the monastic habit during his last 
illness. He was buried in the abbey church 
of Pontigny. 

Emaciated in person, austere in life and 
manners, and sparing in expenditure, Wil- 
liam had a high reputation for sanctity, took 
as little part as possible in civil affairs, and 
was industrious and strict in his administra- 
tion of his province and of his diocese, in 
which he consecrated many new churches. 
Miracles, and specially cures of fever, are 
said to have been wrought at his tomb. He 
made a beneficial rule, confirmed by the king 
in 1283, that each archbishop of York should 
leave a certain amount of stock on the 
estates of the see. He is said to have been 
learned, and to have written a book called 
' Memorials,' full of learning of all kinds, 
apparently a kind of commonplace book 
(BALE). His register is extant at York. 

[Raine's Fasti Ebor. pp. 317-27; Tres Scriptt. 
Hist. Dunelm. (Surtees Soc.), pp. 58-69, has 
a long account of the quarrel with Durham; 
Prynne's Records, iii. 235 sqq. ; Chron. de 
Lanercost, pp. 121-2 (Maitland Club); Stubbs's 
Historians of York, ii. 407-8, Wykes's Chron. 
apud Ann. Monast. iv. 281, Matt. Westminster, 
iii. 53 (all Rolls Ser.) ; Bale's Scriptt. Cat. cent. 
* 72.] W. H. 

WICLIF, JOHN (1324 P-1384), reformer. 
[See WYCLIFFE.] 

WIDDICOMB, HENRY (1813-1868), 
comedian, born in Store Street, Tottenham 
Court Road, on 14 Feb. 1813, was the son 
of JOHN ESDAILE WIDDICOMB or WIDDI- 
CUMB (1787-1854), a well-known figure for 
many years in London, having been from 
1819 to 1853 riding-master and conductor 
of ' the ring ' at Astlev's Amphitheatre. The 
elder Widdicomb, before he was at Astley's, 
had ' played the dandylover in pantomime 
to the clown of Grimaldi at the old Coburg 
Theatre. He was to the last a wonderfully 
young-looking man, and was an excellent 
ring-master' (BLANCHARD, Life and Reminis- 
cences, 1891, p. 125). 'The unapproachable 
Mr. Widdicombe ' he is called in a note to 
the ' Lay of St. Romwold,' who ' preserved 



the graces of his ; 
by Tom Hill and the Wandering Jew' (7n- 
yoldsby Legends, 1894, iii. 85). Browning 
described him in a letter to his wife in August 
1840 as having a face 'just Tom Moore's, 
plus two painted cheeks, a sham moustache, 
and hair curled in wiry long ringlets.' When 
there was no evening performance at Astley's 
he was frequently seen at Vauxhall. He 
died in Kennington on 3 Nov. 1854 (Gent. 
Mag. 1854, ii. 406). 

' Harry ' Widdicomb was entered by his 
father at fifteen as a clerk in the long room 
at the Custom House. Against his father's 
wish he left this employment in 1831, and 
obtained an engagement at the Margate 
Theatre under Saville Faucit. He joined 
I the Yorto^ ire circuit under Down, but came 
to LondoV' in 1835 or soon after, and ob- 
tained an engagement under Andrew Ducrow 
[q. v.] When Astley's was burned down he 
went to Liverpool and played leading parts 
as a low comedian under Malone Raymond. 
In March 1842 he first obtained employ- 
ment at a west-end theatre, being engaged 
by Benjamin W r ebster during Buckstone's 
absence in America. In 1845 he became 
joint manager of the Sheffield and Wolver- 
hampton theatres with Charles Dillon, but 
three years later he returned to London 
and was principal comedian at the Surrey 
Theatre from 1848 down to 1860. He 
played at first occasionally and then regu- 
larly under Fechter at the Lyceum; in 
' Sarah's Young Man ' in August 1858, in 
Gilbert's ' Uncle Baby ' in November 1863, 
as first gravedigger in ' Hamlet ' in the re- 
vivals of ' Hamlet ' in January 1861 and May 
1864, in the ' King's Butterfly ' in the fol- 
lowing October, as Jacques Strop in the 
* Roadside Inn' to Fechter's Macaire in Janu- 
ary 1865, as Craigengelt in the 'Bride of 
Lammermoor' in January 1866, and as 
Moneypenny in Boucicault's 'Long Strike* 
in the ensuing September. He was last 
seen during 1867 at the Holborn Theatre. 

Widdicomb never attained to the front 
rank, but he had a considerable fund of origi- 
nal humour and was famous for his power 
of facial expression. He died in Kennington 
Park Road on 6 April 1868, and was buried 
in Norwood cemetery on 12 April. 

[Era, 12 April 1869 ; Gent. Mag. 1868, i.689; 
Era Almanac, 1871, p. 14; Daily Telegraph, 
7 April 1868; Blanchnrd's Reminiscences, p. 
358; Letters of Robert Browning, 1899, ii.432; 
Frost's Circus Life, 1876 ; Punch, 10 May 1899, 
p. 225.] T. S. 

WIDDOWES, GILES (1588 ?-l 645), 
divine, born about 1588, son of Thomas 
Widdowes of Mickleton, Gloucestershire, 

N2 



Widdrington 



180 



Widdrington 



was probably matriculated at Oriel College, 
Oxford, in 1603-4 (but there are no records 
of Oriel matriculations at that date), gra- 
duated B. A. at Oxford on 25 Feb. 1608, M.A. 
on 27 Jan. 1614, was fellow of Oriel in 1610- 
1621, and therein was tutor to Prynne, with 
whom he afterwards engaged in controversy. 
Born in the parish in which Endymion 
Porter [q. v.] lived, he was patronised by 
him in later years (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 4 Feb. *1639). In 1619 he became 
rector of St. Martin Carfax, Oxford, and, 
after resigning his fellowship at Oriel, he 
became vice-principal of Gloucester Hall. 
He was also chaplain to Katherine, duchess 
of Buckingham (preface to the Schismatical 
Puritan, 1631), and was highly thought of 
by Laud (Canterburies Doome, p. 72). In 
1630 he published a sermon preached at 
Witney ' concerning the lawfulness of church 
authority, for ordaining and commanding of 
rites and ceremonies to beautify the church,' 
under the title of The Schismatical Puri- 
tan' (1st ed. 1630; 2nd ed. 1631). It was 
answered by Prynne in an appendix to his 
' Anti-Arminianism ' (2nd ed. 1630). Wid- 
dowes replied in 'The Lawless Kneeless 
Schismat.ical Puritan' (Oxford, 1631), dedi- 
cated to Endymion Porter, in which he 
defended the church's order of bo wing at the 
Holy Name. This Prynne answered in ' Lame 
Giles his Haltings' (1631). His sermons 
at Carfax, though popular among the royal- 
ists and soldiery, caused occasional riots 
among the puritan youths. At Laud's trial 
it was stated that he had set up a window in 
his church with a crucifix on it. He was 
generous to the poor, a strong antisabba- 
tarian, dancing with his flock on Whit-Sun- 
day, and worked energetically in his parish 
during the siege of Oxford. He died on 
4 Feb. 1644-5, and was buried in the chancel 
of his church. 

Wood describes him as ' a harmless and 
honest man, a noted disputant, well read in 
the schoolmen, and as conformable to and 
zealous in the established discipline of the 
church of England as any person of his 
time, yet of so odd and strange parts that 
few or none could be compared with him.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Wood's 
Athenae and Fasti ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; 
Laud's Works ; Atkyns's Gloucestershire ; Flet- 
cher's Church of St. Martin Carfax.] 

W. H. H. 

WIDDRINGTON, RALPH (d. 1688), 
regius professor of Greek at Cambridge, 
younger son of Lewis Widdrington and 
brother of Sir Thomas Widdrington [q. v.l, 
was born at Stamfordham, Northumberland, 
and educated at Christ's College, Cambridge. 



He must have been a college acquaintance of 
Milton's, whose ' Lycidas ' first appeared in 
the same volume as a Latin poem by Wid- 
drington (cf. MASSON, Milton, new edit. i. 
248, 651). He graduated B.A. in 1635 and 
M.A. in 1639, and was elected a fellow of 
his college. In 1647 he served the office of 
taxer of the university. He was one of the 
first to sign the ' engagement ' in 1650, and on 
2 Nov. in that year he was appointed public 
orator. He became regius professor of Greek 
in 1654. In 1661 he was created D.D. per 
literas regias. He was presented to the rec- 
tory of Thorp by the dean and chapter of 
Lincoln on 6 Feb. 1661. His brother- 
fellows, to whom, especially to Cud worth, 
he had long been obnoxious, ejected him 
from his fellowship in 1661, but he was 
restored upon appeal, and retained his fel- 
lowship, or at least resided in college, until 
his death. He became Lady Margaret's 
preacher in 1664, and Lady Margaret's pro- 
fessor of divinity on 4 March 1672-3. He 
was instituted to the rectory of Great 
Munden, Hertfordshire, on the presentation 
of the king, on 17 Dec. 1675, and died before 
30 Aug. 1688, when John Cole succeeded 
him in that rectory (CLUTTERBUCK, Hert- 
fordshire, ii. 395). His will was proved in 
the prerogative court on 2 Aug. 1689. 

Besides many Latin letters and numerous 
copies of verses in the various university 
collections published on official occasions 
between 1637 and 1685, Widdrington has 
verses prefixed to Duport's ' Homeri Gnomo- 
logia,' 1660, and a treatise ' belnvov /cat iwi- 
Sftnvov, Ccena Dominica," cum micis aliquot 
epidorpidum,' printed at the end of Thomas 
a Kempis's 'De Christo imitando,' Cam- 
bridge, 1688, 12mo. 

[Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, n. ii. 
542 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. MS. ; Bodleian 
Cat. ; Duport's Sylvse, p. 389 ; Fisher's Funeral 
Sermon (Hymer's), p. 79 ; Kennett's Register, 
pp. 251, 375, 552 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), iii. 
614, 638, 655, 660; Mayor's Cambridge in the 
Seventeenth Century, ii. 196; Pepys's Diary, 
1849, i. 32, 34, 195; Worthington's Diary, ii. 
160.] T. C. 

WIDDRINGTON,ROGER(1563-1G40), 

Benedictine monk, whose real name was 
THOMAS PRESTON, born in Shropshire in 
1563, studied divinity under Vasquez at 
Rome and was ordained a secular priest, 
but in 1590 he made his profession as a 
monk of the order of St. Benedict at the con- 
vent of Monte Cassino. Being sent to the 
English mission in 1602 he was appointed by 
his abbot superior of the Italian Benedictines 
then serving it. Soon afterwards he was 
arrested and committed to prison. On his 



\Yiddrington 



Widdrington 



he proceeded to Rheims, where he 
held a consultation with Dr. Gittbrd, Father 
John Whit,- nlia* Bradshaw (1576-1618) 
fq. v.l, and Father John Jones (1575-1636) 
[q. v.J, on forming a more intimate union 
among the several congregations of Benedic- 
tines [see BIVKI.DV, SIGEBERT]. After his 
return to the mission Widdrington, who was 
much admired for the elegance of his style 
and his rare knowledge of canon law, set 
himself up as a champion of the condemned 
oath of allegiance against the pope's deposing 
power, and he published several books on 
that subject against Bellarmin, Suarez, F'itz- 
herbert, and others. He maintained his 
opinions stubbornly for a long time, not- 
withstanding papal threats ; but eventually 
he submitted before his person was attacked 
by any express censure or declaration. 
Hackett states that at one time this man 
for his own preservation lay quiet in the 
Marshalsea, his death being threatened by 
the rigid Papalins ' (Life of Williams, p. 158). 
He appears to have spent a great part of 
his life in prison. In the Record Office 
there is a letter, dated 25 Sept. 1614, 
authorising the archbishop of Canterbury 
to remove him from th Clink for the re- 
covery of his health. On 28 Dec. 1621 he 
was examined before the archbishop at 
Lambeth, and he then denied the correct- 
ness of the statement that he had reconciled 
Dr. John King, bishop of London, to the 
church of Rome shortly before his death; 
his examination is appended to ' A Sermon 
preached at Paul's Cross' by Henry King ' 
(London, 1621, 8vo). 

Secretary Conway, writing to secretary 
Calvert on 26 July 1623, wished some safe- 
guard to be devised for Widdrington and 
others, who, having taken the oath of allegi- 
ance, incurred hazard from the church of 
Rome if they went beyond the bounds of 
his majesty's protection. Two days later 
Widdrington thanked the king for his care, 
and begged that he and others who had taken 
the oath of allegiance might on their release 
be forbidden to depart the realm without 
license, as otherwise they would be sum- 
moned to Rome on pain of excommunication. 
At the time when the negotiations for the 
Spanish marriage were in progress James I 
granted to Widdrington a pardon for all 
offences against certain statutes on religion 
named, and a dispensation to exercise in 
private houses the rites and ceremonies of 
divine worship according to the custom of 
the church of Rome. A copy of the pardon 
was placed in the hands of Inojosa, the 
Spanish ambassador in England, and it was 
arranged that the pardon itself should be 



issued as soon as it was known that the 
marriage ceremony had taken place at Ma- 
drid ((I.VKIMXKK, Hi*t. of England, \. 127). 
Charles I confirmed the favours granted by 
his father to Widdrington. In the last docu- 
ment concerning him in the Record Office, 
conjecturally dated 1636, the king orders 
justices of the peace and others not to molest 
Thomas Preston, prisoner in the Clink, in 
respect of religion, he having by reason of 
age and infirmities been permitted to reside 
in anyplace in London or the suburbs under 
caution to return to his prison when com- 
manded. He died in the Clink on 3 April 
1640. 

Among his works are: 1. 'Apologia Car- 
dinalis Bellarmini pro Jure Principum. Ad- 
versus suas ipsius Rationes pro Auctoritate 
papali Principessaeculares in Ordine ad bonum 
spirituale deponendi,' Cosmopoli [Lond.], 

1611, 8vo. 2. ' R. W Responsio apolo- 

getica ad Libellum cujusdam Doctoris Theo- 
logi, qui ejus Pro Jure Principum Apologiam, 
tanquamFideiCatholicse. . .repugnantem. . , 
criminatur,' Cosmopoli [Lond. 1612], 12mo. 
3. ' Disputatio theologica de Juramento 
Fidelitatis . . . Paulo Papre quinto dedicata. 
In qua potissima omnia Argumenta, quse a 
. . . Bellarmino, J. Gretzero, L. Lessio, M. 
Becano, aliisque nonnullis contra recens 
Fidelitatis Juramentum . . . facta sunt, . . . 
examinantur. (R. W. . . . Apologeticce Re- 
sponsionis ad Libellum cujusdam Doctoris 
Theologi Pnefatio),' 2 pts., Albionopoli 
[Lond.J, 1613, 8vo. 4. ' Purgatio,' 1614. 
At the demand of the Cardinals de Propa- 
ganda Fide. 5. ' A cleare . . . confutation 
of the . . . Reply of T. F., who is knowne to 
be Mr. Thomas Fitzherbert, an English 
jesuite. Wherein also are confuted the 
chiefest objections which Dr. Schulckenius, 
who is commonly said to be Card. Bellar- 
mine, hath made against Widdrington's 
Apologie for the Right, or Soveraigntie of 
temporall princes. By R. W\, an English 
Catholike,' 1616, 4to. 6. ' Appendix ad 
Disputationem theologicam de Juramento 
Fidelitatis, in quo omnia Argumenta, quae 
F. Suarez . . . pro Potestate Papali Principes 
deponendi, et contra recens Fidelitatis Jura- 
mentum allata sunt . . . examinantur/ 
Albionopoli [Lond.l, 1616, 8vo. 7. ' R. 
Widdrington ... ad ... Paulum Quintum 
Pontificem haec . . . Supplicatio cui adjun- 
gitur Appendix, in quo pi urimae Calumnies. . . 
quas A. Schulckenius Widdringtono . . . 
imposuit, . . . deteguntur,' 2 pt., Albionopoli 
[Lond.], 1616, 8vo. 8. 'The tryal and exe- 
cution of Father H. Garnet . . . for the 
Powder-Treason. Collected by R. W. . . . 
Printed in Latin in 1616 . . and thence 



Widdrington 182 



Widdrington 



translated. Now published to make it 
further evident that it is no new thing for 
Jesuits to curse and ban to ju stifle a lie ' 
Lond. 1679, fol. 9. * Discussio Discussionis 
Decreti Magni Concilii Lateranensis, ad- 
versus L. Lessium nomine Guilhelmi Single- 
toni personatum, in qua omnia Argumenta, 
quae idemmet Lessius pro Papali Potestate 
Principes deponendi adducit, . . . examinantur 
& refutantur et qutedam egregia . . . Car- 
dinalis Peronii Artificia . . . deteguntur & 
refutantur,' August [Lond.], 1618, 8vo. 

10. ' R. Widdringtons last reioynder to Mr. 
T. Fitz-Herberts Reply concerning the Oath 
of Allegiance and the Popes power to depose 
princes. . . . Also many replies ... of ... 
Bellarmine in his Schulckenius, and of L. 
Lessius in his Singleton are confuted, and 
divers cunning shifts of ... Peron are dis- 
covered,' 1619, 4to, and [Lond. ? 1 1633, 4to. 

11. < A New Yeares Gift for English Ca- 
tholikes, or a brief and cleare Explication of 
the New Oath of Allegiance. By E. I., 
Student in Divinitie ' [Lond.], 16:20, 8vo. 
Also published in Latin the same year, under 
the title of Strena Catholica.' 12. 'An 
Adjoinder to the late Catholick New Year's 
Gift,' 1620, 8vo. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 420; 
Oliver's Cornwall, p. 521 ; Snow's Necrology, 
p. 45; Weldon's Chronicle, p. 180; Taunton's 
Black Monks of St. Benedict, 1898.] T. C. 

WIDDRINGTON, SAMUEL ED- 
WARD (d. 1856), writer on Spain, was the 
eldest son of Joseph Cook (1759-1844) of 
Newton Hall in Northumberland, vicar of 
Chatton and Shilbottle in the same county, 
by his wife Sarah, daughter of E. Brown 
and great-niece and coheiress of Nathaniel 
Widdrington of Hauxley in Northumber- 
land ; Sarah and her son afterwards assumed 
the name of Widdrington. Samuel entered 
the English navy on 31 Dec. 1802. During 
the first years of his sen-ice he was em- 
ployed against the French batteries and 
flotillas in the neighbourhood of Boulogne. 
He was afterwards sent to the West Indies, 
where in June 1805 he obtained special 
mention for his conduct at the capture of 
the Conception, a large felucca, lie saw 
much boat service on the coast of Cayenne 
and Surinam, and on 10 July 1809 he was 
appointed lieutenant to the Fame, 74 guns. 
While serving as first lieutenant with Cap- 
tain Edward Reynolds Sibly in the Swallow 
sloop, in the neighbourhood of Port d'Anzo 
in Tuscany, he led a successful boat attack 
on the Guerriere, a French brig, on 16 Sept. 
1813. He served with the same captain in 



the Niemen on the establishment of peace, 
and with Captain Charles Dashwood on the 
Windsor Castle, a 74-gun ship. The Windsor 
Castle being at Lisbon during a popular com- 
motion, Dom John of Portugal took refuge 
on board her, and Cook was in consequence 
presented with the order of the Tower and 
Sword, and on 3 June 1824, at the earnest 
request of the prince, was promoted to the 
rank of commander. 

He retired soon after from the navy, and 
in 1829 went to Spain. After residing there 
for more than three years he published in 
1834 ' Sketches in Spain during the years 
1829-32' (London, 2 vols. 8vo). The work, 
which was dedicated to Lord Algernon Percy, 
baron Prudhoe, was the most complete ac- 
count of Spain which had then been pub- 
lished in the English language. In 1840 he 
assumed the surname of Widdrington, and 
in 1843 he paid a second visit to Spain, and 
on his return published his experiences under 
the title ' Spain and the Spaniards in 1843 ' 
(London, 1844, 2 vols. 8vo), dedicated to the 
Duke of Northumberland. 

Widdrington was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 22 Dec. 1842, and was 
also a fellow of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety. He died at Newton Hall on 11 Jan. 
1856. He married, on 18 Sept. 1832, at 
Trinity Church, Marylebone, Dorothy, second 
daughter of Alexander Davison of Swarland 
Park, Northumberland, but left no children. 
He was succeeded in his estates by his 
nephew, Shalcross Fitzherbert Jacson, who 
assumed the sunrame of Widdrington. 

[Gent. Mag. 18o6, i. 305; Burke's Landed 
Gentry; Allibone's Diet, of English Lit.; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. 1849.] E. I. C. 

WIDDRINGTON, Sm THOMAS (d. 

1C64), speaker of the House of Commons 
and commissioner of the great seal, belonged 
to a younger branch of the well-known North- 
umbrian family. He was the eldest son of 
Lewis Widdrington of Cheesebourne Grange 
in the parish of Stamfordham, and was an 
executor of his father's will in 1030 (HoDG- 
SON, Hist, of Northumberland, II. ii. 542). 
His mother was Katherine, daughter of Wil- 
liam Lawson of Little Usworth, co. Durham. 
His younger brother, Ralph, is noticed sepa- 
rately. According to Wood (Athena O.von. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 661), ' at about sixteen years of 
age he spent some time in one of our northern 
colleges in Oxon., and I think in Cambridge, 
but took no degree;' perhaps he was the 
j Thomas Widdrington of Christ's College who 
' graduated B.A. at Cambridge in June 1620 
(Addit. MS. 5885, f. 74 ). lie was admitted 
I to Gray's Inn on 14 Feb. 1019 (FOSTER, Hey. 



Widdrington 183 



Widdrington 



of Admissions, p. 153), and was called to the 
bar in due course. From 1625 to 1631 be 
reported cases in tbe court of king's bench 
< //an/rave MSS. 38-9 ; Lansdowne MS. 
1083, f. 356 ; a note on f. 1 of the last-named 
manuscript states that he was appointed 
king's reporter by privy seal in 1617, but 
this is a mistake). In November 1631 he 
became recorder of Berwick, where he ad- 
dressed a speech of loyal welcome to Charles I 
on 2 June 1633 (Scorr, Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
p. 200 ; RUSHWORTH, II. i. 179). In 1634 he 
married Frances, daughter of Ferdinando 
Fairfax, afterwards second baron Fairfax 
[q. v.], an alliance which doubtless helped to 
bring him into prominence some years later 
(Addit. MS. 29670, f. 1376). He was ap- 
pointed recorder of York in 1638, and there 
again it was his duty, on 30 March 1639, to 
bid the king welcome. His speech on that 
occasion, though fulsome and extravagant, 
seems to have pleased the royal taste, for 
he was knighted two days later (RusH- 
WORTH, II. ii. 886; DRAKE, Eboracum, pp. 
368, 136-7; METCALFE, Book of Kniyht*, 
p. 194). In the same year he became an 
ancient and bencher of Gray's Inn, and was 
Lent reader there in 1641 ; in November 
1641 he was elected treasurer (DOUTHWAITE, 
Gray's Inn, 1886, p. 71; DUGDALE, Orig. 
Jurid. 1680, pp. 297, 299). 

He was returned M.P. for Berwick on 
11 March, and again on 3 Oct. 1640 (Mem- 
bers of Parliament, i. 482, 491). Though 
never prominent in debate, he was frequently 
employed by the Long parliament in com- 
mittees and conferences, for which he was 
well fitted by his legal knowledge. He drew 
up the articles of impeachment against Bishop 
Wren, and laid them before the lords on 
20 July 1641, with 'a smart, aggravating 
speech' (RUSHWORTH, in. i. 350 ; Parl. Hist. 
ii. 861, 886). On 18 Aug. 1645 he took the 
chair when the house resolved itself into a 
grand committee for reviewing the proposi- 
tions to the king (Commons' Journals; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom., 1645-7, p. 64). He was 
sent as a parliamentary commissioner to the 
armyonl2Junel647(WHiTELOCKE,pp.252- 
253). On 15 March 1648 he was appointed 
a commissioner of the ^reat seal (ib. p. 295). 
On 12 Oct. he was raised to the degree of 
serjeant-at-law and made one of the king's 
Serjeants (ib. p. 342; Commons' Journals). 
He ' had no great mind to sit in the House 
of Commons' after ' Pride's Purge,' and seems 
to have absented himself for some weeks; 
but Cromwell consulted him, together with 
Bulstrode Whitelocke [q. v.] and William 
Lenthall [q. v.], upon the state of affairs, on 
18 and 21 Dec. Widdrington and White- 



locke spent all the next day in attempting 
to frame a satisfactory scheme, and on the 
23rd they took part in a fruitless conference 
at the speaker's house. On the 26th they 
were both summoned to the committee for 
the king's trial; but they withdrew to 
W T hitelocke's house in the country, and did 
not return to the house until 9 Jan. (WHITE- 
LOCKE, pp. 360-5, 367). 

When the great seal of Charles I was re- 
placed by that of the parliament on 8 Feb. 
1649, Widdrington retired from the com- 
mission, pleadingill health and ' some scruples 
in conscience;' the house showed its ap- 
preciation by voting him a quarter's salary 
more than was due to him, and by entitling 
him to practise within the bar (ib. p. 378). 
He was appointed Serjeant for the Common- 
wealth on 6 June 1650, and a member of the 
council of state on 10 Feb. 1651 (Commons' 
Journals}. At a meeting convened by Crom- 
well on 10 Dec. 1651 to discuss the settle- 
ment of the nation, he advocated some 
form of monarchy, suggesting the Duke of 
Gloucester as king; and at the conference 
held in Whitehall on 19 April 1653, he spoke 
strongly against the impending dissolution of 
the Long parliament (WHITELOCKE, pp. 516, 
554). He had been put on the militia com- 
mission for Yorkshire on 28 Aug. 1651, and 
he served on various committees during the 
Commonwealth and protectorate, e.g. trade 
and navigation, distressed protestants in 
Piedmont, and Durham College (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1651 p. 381, 1655-6 pp. 1, 
100, 218). Cromwell made him once more 
a commissioner of the great seal on 4 April 
1654 (ib. 1654, p. 73), but dismissed him, 
6 June 1655, upon his refusal to execute the 
ordinance for reforming the court of chancery. 
He remained, however, until 1659 on the 
treasury commission, to which he had been 
appointed in August 1654 (WHITELOCKE, pp. 
621, 625-7; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1654 
p. 284, 1655 p. 362, 1656-7 p. 19, 1658-9 
pp. 23, 323 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. 
App. pp. 94, 95), and in 1655 he also became 
chancellor of the county palatine of Durham 
(Deputy-Keeper of Publ. Itec. 5th Rep. App. 
ii. 253). He represented York in the parlia- 
ment of 1654, and was re-elected in 1656, 
but preferred instead to sit for Northumber- 
land, and was chosen as speaker on 17 Sept. 
1 ;.-><> (Parl. Hist. iii. 1432, 1484; Commons' 
Journals, 1 Oct. 1656). He was so ill in the 
following January that he had to be carried 
into the house in a sedan-chair, and the 
house at first adjourned for some days, and 
afterwards appointed Whitelocke to take 
the chair during his absence, 27 Jan.-18 Feb. 
(BURTON, Diary, i. 337, 369, 375 ; WHITE- 



Widdrington 



184 



Widdrington 



LOCKE, pp. 654-5). As speaker be showed to 
no great advantage in the house (BURTON, 
ii. :il. 70, 1 17, 149); but on 31 March 1657 
he made a learned speech at Whitehall in 
support of the 'petition and advice' (of 
which Sir Philip Warwick thought him the 
true author), and spoke impressively at the 
inauguration of Cromwell as lord protector 
(ib. i. 397; Par/. JIi*t. iii. 1492, 1515; 
WARWICK, Memoirs, p. 381). After the 
dissolution of this parliament Widdrington 
was made lord chief baron of the exchequer 
on 26 June 1658 (WHITELOCKE, p. 674; 
SIDERFIN, Reports, ii. 106) ; but this office 
was restored to John Wilde [q. v.] by the 
Long parliament on 18 Jan. 1660, when 
Widdrington was for the third time made a 
commissioner of the great seal (Commons' 
Journals). He was also elected a member 
of the council of state on 31 Dec. 1659, and 
again on 23 Feb. 1660 (ib.) Being elected 
for both York and Berwick in the Conven- 
tion parliament, he chose the former; he 
was on the committee for the reception of 
Charles II, and also on that for the indem- 
nity bill (ib. 14 and 16 May 1660). 

At the Restoration he lost all the offices 
and honours which he had gained since the 
civil war ; but he was restored to the degree 
of Serjeant on 1 June 1660, and was appointed 
temporal chancellor of the bishopric of Dur- 
ham on 21 Dec. (DUGDALE, Orig. Jurid., 
Chronica Ser. p. 115; HUTCHINSON, Hist, 
of Durham, i. 553). He was returned for 
Berwick to the parliament of 1661, but took 
no active part in its proceedings; he had 
already resigned the recordership of Berwick, 
and he resigned that of York in or about j 
January 1662 (Members of Parliament, i. 
526; DRAKE, p. 368; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1661-2, pp. 234, 612). It was probably 
shortly before the election of 1661 that his 
offer to dedicate ' Analecta Eboracensia' to 
the mayor and corporation of York was re- 
fused, the citizens having looked for a more 
substantial gift (CAINE, pp. viii-xi). In 1663 
he founded a free school at Stamfordham 
(ib. p. xxix; Foss, Judges of England, vi. 
518). He died on 13 May 1664, and was 
buried in the chancel of St. (lih's-in-tlu-- 
Fields, near his wife and daughter Dorothy, 
both of whom had died in 1649. A monu- 
ment was erected to his memory in 1674 
(PECK, Des. Cur., ed. 1779, p. 543 ; MAIT- 
LAND, London, ii. 1362; STRTPE, Survey, iv. 
80). His will is dated 1 Sept. 1663 (see 
abstract in Archceologia sEliana, new ser. 
i. 18). His only son Thomas died at The 
Hague in 1660 (Egerton MS. 2146, f. 34). 
He left four daughters, all married, viz. 
Frances, to Sir John Legard, bart. ; Cathe- 



rine, to Sir Robert Shaftoe; Mary, to Sir 
Robert Markham, bart.; and Ursula, to 
Thomas Windsor, lord Windsor (afterwards 
Earl of Plymouth) [q. v.] (CAINE, p. xxii). 
The royalist Sir Philip Warwick sums him up 
as ' a good lawyer, but naturally a cautious 
and timorous man' (Memoirs, p. 381). 

AViddrington wrote, in or about 1660, 
1 Analecta Eboracensia,' a description and 
history of the city of York. In disgust at 
his treatment by the citizens he withheld ifc 
from publication; but it was edited in 1897 
by the Rev. Caesar Caine. His reports of 
king's bench cases, 1-7 Charles I, are in Har- 
grave MSS. 38-9, and parts of them are in 
Lansdowne MSS. 1083, 1092. Rushworth 
printed from them the arguments in the case 
of the imprisoned members (App. i. 18-55). 
Letters from him to Lord Fairfax are in 
Additional MS. 18979, ff. 174, 178, 182, 184, 
245, 249. Some of these, with a few others, 
are printed in Johnson's ' Fairfax Correspon- 
dence' (i. 367), Bell's ' Memorials of the Civil 
War' (see refs. in index), and Neill's ' The 
Fairfaxes of England and America' (p. 13). 
A full list of his extant speeches is given by 
Caine (introd. to Anal. Ebor. p. xxx). An 
epitaph on Lord Fairfax has also been attri- 
buted to him (ib. p. xxxi). 

[Caine, introduction to Analecta Eboracensia; 
Foss's Judges of England, vi. 513; Commons' 
Journals, passim ; other authorities cited in 
text.] J. A. H-T. 

WIDDRINGTON, WILLIAM, first 
BARON WIDDRINGTON (1610-1651), was the 
only son of Sir Henry Widdrington of Swin- 
burne and Widdrington, Northumberland, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Sir Henry 
Curwen of Workington in Cumberland. At 
the time of his father's death, 4 Sept. 1023, 
he was thirteen years, one month, and twenty- 
four days old ; he must therefore have been 
born on 11 July 1610 (Record Office, Court 
of Wards, Inquis. post mortem, bundle 39, 
No. 186). He was knighted at Newmarket 
on 18 March 1642 (METCALFE, Book of 
Knights, p. 191). From 1635 to 1640 he 
took an active part in the administrative 
work of the county, of which he was sheriff 
1636-7, and which he represented in both 
parliaments of 1 640 ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; 
HUTCHINSON, View of Northumberland, ii. 
461 ; Members of Parliament, i. 482, 491). 
He had to apologise to the house on 10 Nov. 

1640 for applying the term ' invading rebels-' 
in debate to the Scots, whose depredations 
in the northern counties formed the subject 
of a petition presented by him on 15 March 

1641 to the commissioners for the Scottish 
treaty (Commons' Journals, ii. 25; Hist. 



Widdrington 



185 Widdrington 



MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. p. 57). He was 
one of the fifty-six members whose names 
were posted as ' betrayers of their country' 
for voting against the attainder of Strafford 
(Par/. Hist. ii. 756). On 9 June 1641 he 
was sent to the Tower by the House of 
Commons for bringing in candles on the 
previous night without authority, but was 
released on the 14th (ib. ii. 818 ; Commons' 
Journals, ii. 171, 173, 175). 

At the outbreak of the civil war he took 
up arms for the king, and was in consequence 
expelled from parliament on 26 Aug. 1642 
(Commons' Journals, ii. 738). He is said to 
have been made a baronet on 9 July ( WOTTON, 
English Baronetage, iv. 274 ; DUGDALE, Ba- 
r<>/ifif/c, ii. 471 ; but see G. E. C[OCKAYNE], 
Complete Peerage, viii. 135) ; on the 14th he 
was in Newcastle apparently raising forces 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Hep. App. p. 37). In 
an army list of 1642 he appears as major of 
Sir Lewis Dives's regiment (MASSON, Life of 
Milton, ii. 442). The Duchess of Newcastle 
says that he was ' president of the council 
of war, and commander-in-chief of the three 
counties of Lincoln, Rutland, and Notting- 
ham ' (Life of William, Duke of Newcastle, 
ed. 1886, p. 166) ; but this must have been 
later, probably towards the end of 1643 (cf. 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 482). 
Dugdale enumerates the places, in Yorkshire, 
Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire, 'but chiefly 
at Bradford,' where he fought with distinc- 
tion under Newcastle, to whom he attached 
himself closely [see CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, 
DUKE OF NEWCASTLE]. In August 1643 
he was put in command of the garrison at 
Lincoln (Life of Newcastle, p. 56), and he 
was one of the leaders in the royalist defeat 
at Horncastle on 11 Oct. (his letter to New- 
castle, describing the battle, was intercepted, 
and is printed in RUSHWORTH, in. ii. 282, 
also in a pamphlet entitled A True and 
Exact Relation of the Great Victories ob- 
tained by the Earl of Manchester, 1643, 
Brit. Museum, E. 71, 22). On 2 Nov. he 
was created Baron Widdrington of Blank- 
ney, Lincolnshire (Deputy- Keeper of Publ. 
Rec. 47th Rep. App. p. 121), and he was one 
of the rovalist noblemen who wrote shortly 
afterwards to the Scottish privy council 
(CLARENDON, History, ed. 1888, iii. 288; 
RUSHWORTH, in. ii. 563). He assisted in 
the defence of York in June 1644 (MARK- 
HAM, Life of Fairfax, p. 146 ; WHITELOCKE, 
p. 90). 

After the battle of Marston Moor Wid- 
drington accompanied Newcastle to Ham- 
burg, and eventually to Paris. He stayed 
inFrance until the summer of 1648, returning 
then to the Low Countries, where he joined 



Prince Charles (Life of Newcastle, pp. 84-94; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1645-7, p. 61 ; Addit. 
MS. 23206, f. 24 ; Clarendon State Papers, 
ed. 1872, i. 323, 438). He was proscribed 
by parliament on 14 March 1649, and his 
estates were confiscated ; on 17 July his wife 
was granted a pass to go beyond sea (Com- 
mons Journals, vi. 164 ; WHITELOCKE, p. 
406; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-50, 
pp. 39, 541). He crossed over to Scotland 
with Charles in June 1650 ; the committee 
of estates regarded him as ' wrong principled,' 
and ordered him repeatedly to quit the king- 
dom, but eventually (28 Dec.) gave him leave 
to stay (BALFOUR, Historical Works, iv. 64- 
65, 109-10, 121, 225; GARDINER, Common- 
wealth, i. 264 ; Clarendon State Papers, ii. 
69). He followed Charles into England in 
1651, but was left in Lancashire with Derby 
[see STANLEY, JAMES, seventh EARL OF 
DERBY], while the main army moved south. 
Derby's force was routed near Wigan by 
Robert Lilburne [q. v.] on 25 Aug., after 
a sharp fight. Widdrington was wounded 
mortally and died a day or two later (ORME- 
ROD, Civil War Tracts, pp. 298-305). 

Widdrington married, in 1629, Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Anthony Thorold 
of Blankney, and had by her eight sons and 
two daughters. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son, William. His daughter Jane 
married Sir Charles Stanley, K.B., nephew 
of the Lord Derby mentioned above (HoDG- 
SON, Hist, of Northumberland, II. ii. 238 ; 
Stanley Papers, Chetham Soc. ill. i. clxxxvi). 
Clarendon describes him as ' one of the most 
goodly persons of that age, being near the 
head higher than most tall men,' and speaks 
of his courage in very high terms (History, 
v. 183, 185-6). There are portraits of him 
by Van Dyck and Van Loo at Towneley 
(Stanley Papers, as above ; Cat. Third Loan 
Exhib. NOB. 692, 763). 

[Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, ii. ii. 
226, 237 ; authorities cited.] J. A. H-T. 

WIDDRINGTON, WILLIAM, fourth 
BARON WIDDRINGTON (1678-1743), great- 
grandson of William Widdrington, first 
baron Widdrington [q. v.], was the eldest 
son of William, third baron Widdrington, 
by his wife Alathea, daughter and heiress of 
Charles Fairfax, fifth viscount Fairfax of 
Emley. He was educated at Morpeth gram- 
mar school, and succeeded his father on 
10 Feb. 1695. He joined the Jacobite rising- 
under Thomas Forster>(1675?-1738) [q. v. J 
and the Earl of Derwentwater [see RAD- 
CLIFFE, JAMES, third EARL] at Warkworth 
on 7 Oct. 1715, the day after the Plainfield 
meeting. It was at his instance that the 



Widdrington 



1 86 



Wiffen 



rebel army entered Lancashire, where he 
counted on support from his relatives the 
Towneleys and others of the gentry (WARE, 
Lancashire Memorials of the Rebellion of 
1715, ii. 27, 61 , Chetham Soc.) He took no 
part in the fighting at Preston on 12 Nov., 
and was one of the first to urge Forster next 
day to surrender. He was brought to London 
with the other prisoners, and was attainted 
of high treason on 9 Feb. 1716. He pleaded 
guilty at his trial, but appealed for mercy 
on the ground that ' as he was the last who 
took up arms, so he was the first who pro- 
cured a meeting of the chief persons among 
them, in order to lay them down.' He was 
sentenced to death, but was reprieved, and 
was admitted on 22 Nov. 1717 to the benefit 
of the act of pardon so far as life and liberty 
were concerned (Lords' Journals, xx. 557). 
A petition which he presented on 17 Feb. 
1719 for an allowance from his late wife's 
property to support himself and 'his dis- 
tressed family' was negatived by the House 
of Commons; but a later petition for the 
removal of his disabilities was granted, and 
an act to that effect was passed on 17 May 
1733 (Commons' Journals, xix. 103-4, xxii. 
62, 154). He died at Bath on 19 April 1743, 
aged 65, and was buried at Nunnington in 
Yorkshire, where his second wife had in- 
herited an estate (Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 218; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 550). Patten 
speaks with contempt of his conduct as a 
military leader, a role for which he was un- 
fitted by temperament (Hist, of the late Re- 
bellion, 2nd edit. 1717, pp. 125, &c.) Roger 
Gale described him in 1728 as 'an infirm 
sort of a gentleman and a perfect valetudi- 
narian' (STUKELEY, Memoirs, i. 200, Surtees 
Soc.) He married, first, in 1700, Jane, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir Thomas Tempest, bart. 
of Stella, co. Durham, and had by her (who 
died on 9 Sept. 1714) three sons and five 
daughters. He married, secondly, about 
July 1718, Catherine, daughter (and co- 
heiress in 1739) of Richard Graham, vis- 
count Preston [q. v.], but had no children 
by her; she survived him, dying in 17">7 
(DOUGLAS, Peerage of Scotland, ed. Wood, 
ii. 376). After his death his eldest son, 
Henry Francis, was commonly called Lord 
Widdrington, and, dying at Turnham Green 
in 1774, was confused with his father in 
obituaries (see Gent. May. 1774, p. 446; 
Ann. Reg. 1774, p. 196). 

[Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, n. ii. 
227-9, 238, 255-7, 402 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1 1th 
Rep. App. iv. 169-72 ; Lady Cowper's Diary, ed. 
1865, pp. 72, 85, 186 ; Howell's State Trials, xv. 
761-806 ; G. E. C[okayne's] Complete Peerage, 
viii. 135.1 J. A. H-T. 



WIDVILE. [See WOODVILLE.] 

WIFFEN, BENJAMIN BARRON 

(1794-1867), biographer of early Spanish 
reformers, second son of John Wiffen, iron- 
monger, by his wife Elizabeth (Pattison), 
was born at Woburn, Bedfordshire, in 1794. 
His elder brother was Jeremiah Holmes 
Wiffen [q. v.l He followed his brother to 
Ackworth school in 1803; on leaving in 
1808 he went into his father's business, and 
remained in it at Woburn till 1838, when 
his health failed, and he retired to Mount 
Pleasant, near Woburn. His literary tastes 
were encouraged by his brother, and by 
Richard Thomas How of Aspley Guise, Bed- 
fordshire, owner of a remarkable library 
(collected by his father, Richard How [1727- 
1801], editor of Lady Rachel Russell's 
'Letters'). How, portrayed in Wiffen's 
posthumous poem, ' The Quaker Squire,' first 
gave him the hint of an ' old work, by a 
Spaniard [one of the works of Juan de 
Vald6s], which represented essentially the 
principles of George Fox.' 

Early in 1839 Luis de Usoz y Rio (d. 
13 Aug. 1835, aged 59) came to London 
from Madrid, and was introduced by George 
Borrow [q. v.] to Josiah Forster. When 
Wiffen came up to the Friends' yearly meet- 
ing in Whitweek, Forster told him that 
Usoz y Rio had inquired after his brother 
as a translator of Spanish poetry. At For- 
ster's request he called on Usoz y Rio in 
Jermyn Street, when there at once sprang 
up a lifelong friendship between them, and 
' henceforward Spain took entire possession' 
of Wiffen. Towards the close of 1839 he 
made his first visit to Spain with George 
William Alexander, as a deputation to for- 
ward the abolition of the slave trade. It 
was in the summer of 1841, during a visit 
of Usoz y Rio to Mount Pleasant, that 'they 
formed the common purpose to rescue from 
oblivion the works of the early Spanish re- 
formers.' In 1842 he accompanied Alexan- 
der a second time to Spain and Portugal ; 
on his return he began his book-hunting, of 
which he gives a most interesting account 
(' Notices and Experiences,' printed by Boeh- 
mer in Jiibliotheca Wijfeniana, 1874, i. 29- 
57; and partly embodied in PATTISON'S Life). 
He obtained some unique treasures. Many 
rare works he himself copied line for line ; 
of others he obtained transcripts. Without 
his aid the collection of ' Obras Antiguas de 
los Espanoles Reformados' (1847-65, 16mo 
and 8vo, 20 vols.) could not have been 
produced. The volumes were privately 
printed under his superintendence. He 
himself edited vol. ii., the ' Epistola Conso- 



Wiffen 



187 



Wiffen 



latoria' (1848, 8vo) by Juan Perez, with a 
notice of the author in English (this notice 
i- reprinted with the English translation, 
1871, 8vo, by John T. Betts) and Spanish ; 
and vol. xv., the 'Alfabeto Cristiano' 
(1861, 8vo) by Juan de Vald6s, in Italian, 
with modern versions in Spanish and Eng- 
lish. The remaining volumes were edited 
by Usor y Rio. Wiffen wrote also the 'Life 
and Writings of Juan de Valdes' (1865, 
8vo) which accompanies the English trans- 
lations of works of Vald6s by John T. Betts ; 
and a 'Biographical Sketch' (1869, 8vo) of 
Constantino Ponce de la Fuente, to accom- 
pany the English version of his ' Confession 
of a Sinner,' by the same translator. Eduard 
Boehmer has printed two volumes (1874 and 
1883, 8vo) of the ' Bibliotheca Wiffeniana,' 
containing lives and writings of Spanish re- 
formers from 1520, 'according to . . . 
Wiffen's plan, and with the use of his mate- 
rials.' Ticknor in his standard ' History of 
Spanish Literature' spoke of Wiffen in 1863 
as ' an English quaker, full of knowledge of 
Spanish literature.' 

In early life, and again later, Wiffen had 
written verses of some merit, but published 
nothing separately. His ' Warder of the 
Pyrenees' appeared in Finden's 'Tableaux 
of National Character' (1845, fol.), edited 
by his sister, Mrs. Alaric A. Watts. This 
is reprinted in the selection of his poems 
(unpublished previously, for the most part) 
given in 'The Brothers Wiffen' (1880), 
edited by Samuel Howies Pattison. 

He died, unmarried, at Mount Pleasant 
on 18 March 1867, and was buried in the 
Friends' graveyard at Woburn Sands on 
24 March. His portrait is given in 'The 
Brothers Wiffen.' He was ' a small, pale, 
keen-eyed man,' delicately organised, always 
wearing quaker arb, and strict in all obser- 
vances of the Friends. 

[Memoir, by his niece Mary Isaline W. 
Wiffen, in Boehmer's Bibliotheca Wiffeniana, 
1874, i. 1-25; 8. R. Pattison's Life in The Bro- 
thers Wiffen, 1880; Doeg's Ackworth School 
Catalogue, 1831 ;Seebohm's Memoirs of Stephen 
Grellet, 1862, ii. 72; Obras Antiguas de los 
Espanoles Reformados, 1865, xx. 156; Smith's 
Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867, and Supple- 
ment, 1893; Martin's Catalogue of Privately 
Printed Books, 1854 ; Menendez y Pelayos' 
Heterodoxos FLspunoles, 1880 i. 11, 1881 iii. 675; 
Biographical Catalogue of Portraits at Devon- 
shire House, 1888, p. 727.] A. G. 

WIFFEN, JEREMIAH HOLMES 

(1792-1836), translator of Tasso, eldest son 
of John Wiffen, ironmonger, by his wife 
Elizabeth (Pattison), was born at Woburn, 
Bedfordshire, on 30 Dec. 1792. Both his 



parents were members of old quaker families. 
! His father died early, leaving six children to 
I the mother's care. His younger brother, 
! Benjamin Barron Wiffen, is separately 
j noticed ; his youngest sister, Priscilla, mar- 
I ried Alaric Alexander Watts [q. v.] At the 
j age of ten Jeremiah entered the Friends' 
i school at Ackworth, Yorkshire, where he 
improved a taste for poetry and acquired 
some skill in wood engraving. His linguistic 
attainments were due to his own later study. 
At fourteen he became apprenticed to Isaac 
Payne, schoolmaster, at Epping, Essex. His 
first appearance in print was in the ' Euro- 
pean Magazine ' (October 1807, p. 308) with 
an ' Address to the Evening Star,' versified 
from Ossian. His first contribution on an 
archaeological subject was an account, of 
Broxbourne church, Hertfordshire, with an 
etching by himself (Gen t. May. 1808, i. 408). 
In 1811 he returned to Woburn and opened 
a school in Leighton Road. A hard student, 
he made himself at home in classics and 
Hebrew, French, and Italian, and later, 
Spanish and Welsh. In conjunction with 
James Baldwin Brown the elder [q. v.] and 
Thomas Haffles [q. v.] he published ' Poems 
by Three Friends' (1813, 8vo); the joint 
authorship was acknowledged in the second 
edition (1815, 12mo). With his brother he 
published ' Elegiac Lines' (1818, 8vo) com- 
memorating William Thompson, quaker 
schoolmaster of Penketh, Lancashire. His 
earliest independent volume was ' Aonian 
Hours' (1819, 8vo, dedicated to his brother; 
2nd ed. 1820, 8vo). On a visit to the lakes 
with his brother in the summer of 1819 he 
made the acquaintance of Southey and of 
Wordsworth, whose ' white pantaloons ' and 
'hawk's nose' are described in his diary. 
His next book was 'Julia Alpinula . . . and 
other Poems' (1820, 12mo, dedicated to 
Alaric A. Watts; 2nd ed. 1820, 12mo). In 
the summer of 1821 he was appointed 
librarian at Woburn Abbey to John Hussell, 
sixth duke of Bedford. 

In 1821 he issued his ' Proposals ' for pub- 
lishing by subscription a new translation of 
Tasso in Spenserian verse. As a specimen, 
the fourth book of the ' Jerusalem Delivered' 
wag published in 1821, 8vo, with a disserta- 
tion on existing translations. His next essay 
in verse was a translation of ' The Works of 
Garcilasso de la Vega,' 1823, 8vo, dedicated 
to the Duke of Bedford, with a life of Garcia 
Lasso de la Vega, and an essay on Spanish 
poetry. The publication of the completed 
version of ' Jerusalem Delivered ' was de- 
layed by a fire in the printing office (which 
destroyed the sheets of a quarto edition, 
nearly printed off); it appeared in 1824. 



Wigan 



1 88 



Wigan 



dedicated to the Duchess of Bedford, with 
a life of Tasso and a list of English cru- 
saders (2 vols. 8vo; another edition same 
year, 3 vols. 8vo ; ivprintrd ls;;o. L> vols. 
12mo ; and in Bonn's series, 1854, 1 vol. 
12mo, in addition to several American edi- 
tions). Hogg, in the ' Noctes Ainbrosianse,' 
refers to Witten as ' the best scholar among 
a' the quakers' and 'a capital translator, 
Sir Walter tells me, o' poets wi' foreign 
tongues, sic as Tasso, and wi' original vein, 
too/ The 'Quarterly' in an able article 
concludes that Wiften, as a translator of 
Tasso, though he has fairly distanced Hoole 
and Hunt, cannot hope to contend success- 
fully with Fairfax (June 1826 ; see also art. 

TURBERVILLE or TlJRBERVILE, GEORGE). 

AVitf'en declined the degree of LL.D. from 
Aberdeen in 1827. His 'Verses ... on the 
Alameda,' 1827, 4to; 'Appeal for the Injured 
African,' Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1833, 8vo; and 
' Verses ... at Woburn Abbey, on ... the 
statues of Locke and Erskine,' 1836, 4to, 
complete his poetical publications. 

Eight years were spent in the compilation 
of his ' Historical Memoirs of the House of 
Russell,' 1833, 2 vols. (portrait and plates) 
in three sizes atlas folio (thirty-two copies), 
royal 8vo, and demy 8vo. For the produc- 
tion of this handsome work he made researches 
during a four months' tour in Normandy. 

His death was sudden, at Froxfield, near 
Woburn, on 2 May 1836; he was buried on 
8 May in the Friends' graveyard, Woburn 
Sands, Buckinghamshire; his portrait (1824) 
is prefixed to ' The Brothers Wiffen,' 1880. 
He married, on 28 Nov. 1828, at the Friends' 
meeting-house, Leeds, Mary Whitehead 
1 descended from the line of Holinshed the 
chronicler,' and had three daughters. 

Besides the works above noted, he pub- 
lished a ' Geographical Primer' (1812), 12mo, 
and edited ' Thoughts on the Creation, Fall, 
and Regeneration,' 1826, 12mo, by John 
Humbles, ' a Bedfordshire peasant.' A se- 
lection of his poems and ballads is given 
in ' The Brothers Wiffen.' 

[Life, by his daughter, Mary Isaline W. 
Wiffen, in the Brothers Wiffen, 1880, edited by 
S. R. Pattison ; Doeg's Ack worth School Cata- 
logue, 1831 ; Gent. Mag. 1836, ii. 212 ; Smith's 
Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867; Biographical 
Catalogue of Portraits at Devonshire House, 
1888, p. 725; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. and 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), s. v. ' Tasso.'] 

A. G. 

WIGAN, ALFRED SYDNEY (1814- 
1878), actor, whose father, a teacher of 
languages, was at one time secretary to the 
Dramatic Authors' Society, was born at 
Blackheath, Kent, on 24 March 1814. Ex- 



hibiting some talent for music, he became 
' a wandering minstrel,' and sang at Rams- 
gate, Margate, and elsewhere. He was also 
an usher at a school and assisted his fat In T 
at the Dramatic Authors' Society. Under 
the name of Sydney or Sidney he was in 
1834 at the Lyceum, and the following year 
was under Mrs. Louisa Cranstoun Nisbett 
[q. v.] at the Queen's Theatre, Tottenham 
Street. When John Braham [q. v.] opened 
the newly erected St. James's, Wigan joined 
him, and, under the name of Sidney, was on 
29 Sept. 1836 the original John Johnson 
in the ' Strange Gentleman,' by Charles 
Dickens. In 1838 he was at a small theatre 
in the Old Manor House, King's Road, 
Chelsea, where he played Tom Tug in the 

4 Waterman,' and other musical parts, and 
sang songs between the acts. With Madame 
Vestris he appeared in 1839 at Co vent Gar- 
den as Mr. Wigan, playing the original Sir 
Conrad (or, according to another account, Sir 
Otto) in Sheridan Knowles's ' Love.' On 

5 Aug. of this year ( Tallies Dramatic Maga- 
zine ; another account says 1841) he mar- 
ried the actress Leonora Pincott [see below]. 
In Boucicault's * Irish Heiress ' he played a 
French valet. He was seen as Lionel Scruple 
in the revised comedy of ' Court and City,' 
was the original Miffin in Jerrold's ' Bubbles 
of the Day ' in March 1842, and played Lord 
Allcash in ' Fra Diavolo ' and other operatic 
parts. Some success attended his Montagu 
Tigg in ' Martin Chuzzlewit ' and his French 
usher in ' To Parents and Guardians.' Not 
until he was cast for Alcibiades Blague in 
Jerrold's ' Gertrude's Cherries, or Waterloo 
in 1835,' did he show, as a guide to the field 
of Waterloo and a seller of vamped-up relics 
of the fight, the remarkable finish of his style. 
The impression he created was strengthened 
by his performance in November of Bruce 
Siney, an adventurer, in Mark Lemon's 
' Turf.' Mark Meddle in a revival of ' Lon- 
don Assurance ' followed. On the abrupt 
closing of Covent Garden he went to the 
Strand, where he played lago in a burlesque 
of * Othello ' and parodied Macready, and was 
on 15 Jan. 1844 a dancing-master in Peake's 
' Madelon/ At Drury Lane he had pre- 
viously played Trip in a revival by Macready 
of the ' School for Scandal.' At the Lyceum, 
with the Keeleys, in 1844 and subsequent 
years he produced his own ' Watch and 
Ward ' (in which he was the Chevalier Du 
Guet), ' Model of a Wife ' (in which he was 
Pygmalion Bonnefoi), 'Luck's All,' 'The 
Loan of a Wife,' 'Next Door,' and 'Five 
Hundred Pounds Reward,' in all of which 
he took some part. 

A performance of the Prince in the ' Cin- 



Wigan 



189 



Wigan 



derella' of Albert Smith and Tom Tay- 
lor strengthened his reputation. As a mem- 
ber of Webster's company he appeared at 
the Haymarket on 2 Oct. 1847, playing 
Sir Benjamin Backbite in a revival of the 
'School for Scandal.' On 20 Oct. 1847 he 
was the first Osborne in Westland Marston's 
* Heart and the World/ and on 15 Nov. the 
first Hector Maul6on in Webster's ' Roused 
Lion.' He also played Dudley Smooth in 
' Money,' Goldfinch in the ' Road to Ruin,' 
and Tattle in ' Love for Love.' At the 
Olympic he appeared with Mrs. Mary Anne 
Stirling [q.v.J, playing the hero of 'Mon- 
sieur Jacques, a musical comedy by Morris 
Barnett, a character created eleven years 
previously by the author. In this part he 
raised his reputation to its height. Here 
he produced his own 'Law for Ladies.' In 
1848-9 he was at the Haymarket with Mr. 
and Mrs. Charles Kean. Here he enacted 
the Clown in ' Twelfth Night,' Bassanio in 
the ' Merchant of Venice,' one of the Witches 
in ' Macbeth,' and Tom Purple in Jerrold's 
' Housekeeper.' His Achille Talma Dufard 
in the 'First Night' (' Le Pere de la 
Debutante'), seen at the Princess's in Oc- 
tober 1849, was one of his finest impersona- 
tions. At the Olympic he produced in 1850 
his farce 'A Dead Take-in.' Joining the 
Kean and Keeley combination at the Prin- 
cess's, he appeared on 28 Sept. 1850, the 
opening night, as the original Tom Rawlings 
in Bayle Bernard's ' Platonic Attachments.' 
He was seen as Osric in ' Hamlet,' as Or- 
lando, and as Dr. Caius in ' Merry Wives of 
Windsor.' On 4 June 1851 he was the first 
Richelieu in Slous's ' Duke's Wager ' (' Mile. 
de Belle Isle '). On 24 Feb. 1852 Wigan was 
the first Chateau-Renaud in the ' Corsican 
Brothers,' on 5 March the first Richard 
Hazard in Tom Taylor's ' Our Clerks,' and in 
May the first Paul Raimbaut in ' A Lucky 
Friday,' a part he repeated by command at 
Windsor Castle. He had also played Faul- 
conbridge in ' King John.' At the Adelphi 
he was in June 1853 the first Dixiner in 
Boucicault's ' Genevieve.' He was also seen 
as Jonathan Wild in ' Jack Sheppard.' On 
17 Oct. 1853 he opened the Olympic with 
Planch6's Camp ' and Taylor's ' Plot and 
Passion ' (in which he was the hero), had an 
original part in Palgrave Simpson's ' Heads 
and Tails ' on 29 June 1854, and was the 
first Thornby in his own and Talfourd's 
' Tit for Tat ' (' Les Maris me font rire ') on 
23 Jan. 1855. On 14 May he obtained 
another conspicuous success as the first John 
Mildmay in Taylor's ' Still Waters run deep.' 
He also played Joseph Surface. In 1857, 
on the plea of ill-health, he took a benefit on 



his retirement from the stage, on which he 
reappeared at the Adelphi on 17 March 1859 
as Sir Paul Pagoda in the ' Bengal Tiger.' 
He was in May 1859 the original Horace 
Chetwynd in the ' House or the Home,' 
an adaptation by Taylor from 'P6ril dans 
la Demeure.' On 29 Feb. 1860 he was the 
first Sir Richard Plinlimmon in Watts 
Phillip's ' Paper Wings.' He also took part 
in ' It s an ill Wind that blows Nobody any 
good ' and other pieces. On 29 Nov. Wigan 
opened the St. James's with ' Up at the 
Hills,' in which he was Major Stonyhurst. 
After playing the hero of the ' Isle of St. 
Tropez,' he strengthened his reputation as 
the hero of ' A Scrap of Paper' (' Les Pattes 
de Mouche') in April 1861. In May 1863 
he was, at the Haymarket, Dr. Bertrand in 
Lady Dufterin's ' Finesse, or Spy and Counter 
Spy.' The following year he gave, with 
his wife, a series of readings in London. On 
24 Oct. 1867 he opened the newly erected 
Queen's Theatre in Long Acre with Charles 
Reade's ' Double Marriage,' adapted from 
his novel of ' White Lies.' In this Wigan 
was Captain Raynal. On 11 May 1868 he 
reappeared as the Marquis de Belleterre in 
the ' Poor Nobleman,' Selby's adaptation of 
' Un Gentilhomme Pauvre,' in which he had 
previously been seen, and played Sir Anthony 
Absolute. On the opening of the Gaiety 
on 21 Dec. 1868 he was Adolphe Chavillard 
in ' On the Cards,' an adaptation by Alfred 
Thompson of ' L'Escamoteur.' On 27 March 
1869 he was Rittmeister Harfthal in Robert- 
son's ' Dreams.' In the ' Life Chase,' an adapta- 
tion by Oxenford and Horace Wigan of * Le 
Drame de la Rue de la Paix,' he was, at the 
same house, Bertrand Alvimar, on 11 Oct. 
For the benefit of Charles Mathews he played 
Dangle in the 'Critic.' In the 'Man of 
Quality,' an alteration by John Hollingshead 
of the ' Relapse,' he was Lord Foppington 
on 7 May 1870. On 6 July 1872 in the 
' First Night ' and ' Still Waters run deep ' 
he took a farewell benefit at Drury Lane 
and retired from the stage. After giving 
a few private readings, he was seen at the 
Gaiety at an afternoon performance of ' The 
House or the Home' and the 'Bengal 
Tiger.' In the summer of 1878 he left his 
house, 33 Brompton Square, and on 29 Nov. 
he died at 26 Sandgate Road, Folkestone. 
He was buried in Kensal Green cemetery 
on 8 Dec. A good portrait was engraved 
for the ' Illustrated London News ' (14 Dec. 
1878). 

Wigan was an admirable actor in a rather 
narrow groove. He lacked robustness and 
breadth of style, and could never play a 
modern gentleman, which part he could not 



Wigan 



190 



Wigan 



even dress. His method was modelled to 
some extent upon that of Bouff6, a brilliant 
French actor of the early part of the century. 
Humour and pathos were, however, enually 
at his command. He was a French scholar, 
and his greatest successes were made in 
Frenchmen or characters in which he spoke 
French or broken English Tourbillon in 

* To Parents and Guardians,' Chateau-Renaud, 
Talma Dufard, Adolphe Chavillard, Hector 
Maul6on in the ' Roused Lion/ and the 
Marquis de Belleterre in the ' Poor Noble- 
man. In the piece last named his conquest 
of humiliation and his efforts to hide from 
the world the depths of his poverty had 
extreme pathos. Among purely English 
characters, his John Mildmay in ' Still Waters 
run deep ' may count as his masterpiece. 

No list of his plays, many of them un- 
printed, is obtainable. The following, in- 
cluded in various acting editions, are in the 

* British Museum- Catalogue : ' ' Loan of a 
Wife/ a farce in one act ; ' A Model of a 
Wife/ in one act ; ' Five Hundred Pounds 
Reward/ a comic drama in two acts ; and 
' Tit for Tat/ a comedietta by Francis Tal- 
fourd and A. Wigan (January 1855). 

Wigan's wife, LEONORA WIGAN, known 
as Mrs. Alfred Wigan (1805-1884), was 
daughter of Pincott, a showman, and his wife 
Elizabeth, a daughter of William Wallack 
and sister of James William Wallack [q. v.] 
She was at the outset a rope-dancer and per- 
former on stilts. Her first appearance in 
London took place on 6 July 1818 at the Eng- 
lish Opera House (Lyceum) as Chimpanzee 
in a pantomime drama entitled < La Perouse, 
or the Desolate Island/ founded on Kotzebue. 
Her mother, Mrs. Pincott, was Umba and 
J. P. Cooke La Perouse. Leonora Pincott 
also took part in the ballet of ' Don Juan/ 
was Ganymede in ' Midas/ the Crown Prince 
in * Ah ! What a Pity/ and Julio in the 
'Devil's Bridge.' She was next at Drury 
Lane, at which her uncle, James Wallack, 
was stage-manager (1826-8), playing panto- 
mime, utility, and walking ladies. She was 
on 10 March 1827 the first Antoinette in 
1 Comfortable Lodgings, or Paris in 1750.' 
On 16 April she was the first Donna Mensia 
in Macfarlane's * Boy of Santillane, or Gil 
Bias and the Robbers of Asturia/ on 1 May 
Clara de Lorenzo in ' Turkish Lovers/ and on 
15 Oct. Henry Germaine in Thompson's 
adaptation ' Gambler's Fate, or a Lapse of 
Twenty Years.' In 1831 she was with 
Mme. *Vestris at the Olympic, where her 
Catherine Seton, in a burlesque on 'Mary 
Queen of Scots/ attracted attention. In or 
about 1839 she married Alfred Wigan, whose 
senior by several years she was, and whom 



she had nursed during an illness. When 
(8 April 1844) the Lyceum opened under 
the Keeley management, Mrs. Wigan spoke 
as a police-inspector of fairies the opening 
lines of Gilbert a Beckett's ' Forty Thieves/ 
in which Wigan was Mustapha. She had 
a plump figure, a bright eye, and a mass of 
dark hair, but was not otherwise attractive. 
To her husband and his associate and part- 
ner, Robson, she was of great service, as she 
had stage knowledge and^azV, though with 
no special expository capacity. She took, 
after her marriage, some important parts 
Mrs. Candour and Mrs. Malaprop (both 
of which she over-accentuated), obtained 
applause as Mrs. Yellowleaf in the ' Bengal 
Tiger/ and Mrs. M'Cann in '< Up at the Hills.' 
Her best part was Mrs. Hector Sternhold ' 
in 'Still Waters run deep/ of which Mrs. 
Melfort was the original exponent ; in this 
she outplayed her predecessor and Mrs. Stir- 
ling, who also took the part. She supported 
her husband at most of the theatres at which 
he appeared, and acquired a reputation in 
Frenchwomen. As an example of the un- 
consciousness of some performers during 
their acting Mr. Archer relates the story 
that Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Wigan, ' having 
made some mistake in a cue at the end of 
an important scene, played the whole scene 
over again in blissful unconsciousness of 
their blunder ' (Masks or Faces, p. 69). She 
died on 17 April 1884. Her sister, Ellena 
Elizabeth Pincott, played on 14 March 1814 
at Co vent Garden the Duke of York in 
' Richard the Third.' 

[The mist which ordinarily surrounds the be- 
ginning of theatrical careers is in the case of 
Alfred Wigan, and in a less degree that of his 
wife, thicker than usual, and the notices con- 
tributed presumably by himself to various perio- 
dicals are unlike and sometimes contradictory. 
The foregoing biography is drawn from personal 
knowledge and private information. Genest's 
Account of the English Stage; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard ; Theatre, 1884; Morley's 
Journal of a London Playgoer, pp. 61, 191, 231 ; 
Pascoe's Dramatic List; Theatrical Times, vol. i. ; 
Cole's Life and Times of C. Kean; Stirling's 
Old Drury Lane, i. 309 : Dutton Cook's Nights 
at the Play, 1883 ; Tallis's Dramatic Magazine ; 
Men of the Time ; Men of the Reign ; Shepherd's 
Plays and Poems of Charles Dickens; Era Alma- 
nack, various years; Era, 8 Dec. 1878, 19 April 
1884; Daily News, 19 April 1884.] J. K. 

WIGAN, HORACE (1818 P-1886), actor 
and adapter of plays, born about 1818, youn- 
ger brother of Alfred Sydney Wigan fq. v.], 
acted in Ireland, and was first seen in Dublin 
on 1 Aug. 1853 as Billy Lackaday in * Sweet- 
hearts and Wives.' He subsequently replaced 



Wigan 



191 



Wigan 



"Webb as Kiii^ Bruin in the 'Good Woman in 
t In- \Vood.' Quitting Dublin, lie made, under 
tin- name of Danvers, his first, appearance in 
London on 1 May 1854, at the Olympic, as 
Paddy Murphy in Lever's extravaganza 'The 
Happy Man.' He was the original O'Rafferty 
in Taylor's ' Blighted Being,' 17 Oct., but 
failed to win acceptance as a representative j 
of Irishmen, and made no mark for four years, j 
On 5 June 1858 he was, as Horace Wigan, 
the first Smythers, a hairdresser, in Taylor's 
1 Going to the Bad,* to the Peter Potts of 
Robson, and on 2 Dec. the first Smoothly 
Smirk to Robson's Aaron Burr in Oxenford's 
* Porter's Knot.' After playing Abder Khan 
in II. J. Byron's burlesque of ' Mazeppa,' 
Horatio Codes Bric-a-brac in Taylor's ' Pay- 
able on Demand,' Mr. Cunningham in Tay- 
lor's 'Nine Points of the Law,' the Baron de 
Beaupre" in Maddison Morton's 'Husband 
to Order' on 23 April 1860, and "William 
Hogarth in Taylor's ' Christmas Dinner,' he 
produced at the Strand an adaptation from 
the French, entitled ' Observation and Flir- 
tation,' on 26 Sept. 1860. In H. T. Craven's 
'Chimney Corner' he was, 21 Feb. 1861, the 
original Solomon Probity, and during a 
temporary illness of Robson played Peter 
Probity. His 'Change for a Sovereign' was 
produced at the Strand on 14 March. On 
30 June he was the first Symptom, an 
imaginary invalid, in his own ' Charming 
Woman' ('A trente ans'), and subsequently 
acted in 'Jack of all Trades,' an adaptation 
of 'Le Ramoneur' byH. Neville and Florence 
Haydon. His ' Friends or Foes,' an adapta- 
tion of M. Sardou's ' Nos Intimes,' was given 
at the St. James's on 8 March 1862, and was 
the best of his adaptations. Still at the 
Olympic, he was, 14 Nov., the first Fusell 
in Watts Phillips's 'Camilla's Husband,' 
and on 19 March the first Blush in ' Taming 
a Truant,' his own adaptation of M. Sar- 
dou's 'Papillone.' In Taylor's ' Ticket-of- 
Leave Man' he was the original Hawkshaw, 
a detective, on 27 June 1863, his first dis- 
tinct acting success. On 1 Nov. 18(>4 he 
undertook the management of the Olympic, 
at which house alone he had been seen in 
London, producing on the opening night 
Taylor's 'Hidden Hand,' and two farces, 
Oxenford's 'Girl I left behind me' and 
Maddison Morton's ' My Wife's Bonnet,' all 
of them adaptations. In Taylor's ' Settling 
Day,' 4 March 1865, he was the first Meik- 
lam, and in his own 'Always Intended,' 
3 April, the first Project. In a revival of 
' Twelfth Night ' he was Sir Andrew Ague- 
cheek. On 30 June in Taylor's ' Serf, or 
Love levels all,' he was Khor, an old serf; 
Carnaby Fix in Oxenford's 'Cleft Stick' ('Le 



Supplice d'un Homme') followed on 8 Nov. 
In ' Love's Martyrdom,' by Leicester Buck- 
ingham, 26 April 1866, he was Trevelyan. 
In a revival of ' Money ' he played Graves, 
in a second of ' Frozen Deep ' Lieutenant 
Cray ford, and in a third of ' London Assu- 
rance ' Sir Harcourt Courtly. He had now 
resigned the Olympic to Benjamin Notting- 
ham Webster [q.v.J, whose acting manager 
he remained. He was, 21 Oct. 1867, the 
first Percy Chaifington in Maddison Morton's 
' If I had a Thousand a Year,' and on 2 Dec. 
in ' From Grave to Gay,' by Ben Webster the 
younger, Cornelius Tattenham. In Coyne's 
; 'Woman of the World' ('Les Coulisses de 
la Vie ') he was on 18 Feb. 1868 the first 
Golden Bird. Inspector Javert in the Yel- 
low Passport ' (7 Nov.) an adaptation of 
' Les Misrables,' was another success, 7 Nov. 
'The Life Chase,' an adaptation of 'Le 
Drame de la Rue de la Paix,' by Wigan 
and Oxenford, was produced at the Gaiety 
on 11 Oct. 1869. A melodrama by Wigan, 
entitled ' Rag Fair,' in which he played a 
cheapj ack called Brightside, was given at 
the Victoria on 20 May 1872. At the Gaiety 
he was, on 14 Dec., the Doctor in ' Awaking,' 
Campbell Clarke's version of < Marcel.' At 
the revival at the Vaudeville of the ' Road 
to Ruin,' Wigan was Sulky, 1 Nov. 3873. 
In a performance at Drury Lane, for Web- 
ster's benefit, of the ' School for Scandal ' 
he was Rowley. On 24 April 1875 he 
opened, as manager, the Holborn Theatre, 
renamed the Mirror, with a revival of the 
' Hidden Hand,' Maltby's ' Make Yourself 
at Home,' and Kenney's ' Maids of Honour.' 
He was, 29 May, the first Inspector Walker 
in the ' Detective ' (' Le Parricide '), adapted 
by Clement Scott and E. Manuel. His 
speculation was not too successful, and the 
theatre passed into other hands, to be, after 
frequent changes of name, demolished. A 
complimentary benefit on his retirement 
from management was given him at Drury 
Lane. Wigan also acted at the Strand. He 
died, on 7 Aug. 1885, at Sidcup, Kent, at 
the house of his son-in-law, and at the re- 
puted age of 67. 

Wigan was a quiet, stolid, undemonstra- 
tive actor, whose chief success was obtained 
in detective parts which called for no dis- 
play of emotion. Rowley in the ' School 
for Scandal' suited him exactly, and showed 
the measure of his intelligence. He was a 
fair linguist and translated many pieces. 
The following appear in Lacy's acting edi- 
tion : ' Always intended,' a comedy in one 
act ; ' The Best Way,' a comedy in one act ; 
'The Charming Woman,' a comedy in three 
acts ; ' The Hidden Hand,' a drama in four 



Wigan 



192 



Wigg 



acts, adapted from ' L'Aieule ; ' ' Friends or 
Foes,' a comedy in four acts, from M. Sardou ; i 

* The Life Chase,' a drama in five acts, by 
Oxenford and H. Wigan ; ' Observation and 
Flirtation,' a comedy in one act; 'The Real 
and the Ideal,' a comedy in one act ; ' A 
Southerner just arrived,' a farce in one act ; 

* Taming the Truant,' a comedy in three acts. | 

[Personal knowledge; History of Theatre 
Royal, Dublin, 1876 ; Scott and Howard's Blan- 
charJ ; Pascoe's Dramatic List ; Era, 8 Au?. 
1885 ; Sunday Times, various years ; Era Alma- 
nack, 1886; Morley's Journal of a London Play- 
goer.] J. K. 

WIGAN, JOHN (1696-1739), physician 
and author, son of William Wigan, rector j 
of Kensington, Middlesex, was born on 
31 Jan. 1695-6. In 1710 he was admitted j 
to Westminster school, and thence proceeded 
to Christ Church, Oxford, where he matri- I 



culated on 15 June 1714. He raduated 



B.A. on 6 Feb. 1718-19, M.A. on 22 March 
1720-1, and M.B. and M.D. (6 July) in 1727. 
Some verses of his occur among the academi- 
cal lamentations on the death of Queen Anne 
in 1714, and of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715; be- 
sides these he wrote the lines on the death 
of Dean Aldrich which are published in Vin- 
cent Bourne's edition of the dean's poems, and | 
four at least of the exercises in the ' Carmina 
Quadragesimalia'(i.8,57-8,62-3,and 104-5) \ 
are ascribed to him. On 5 Oct. 1726 he was 
admitted principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, \ 
and about the same time was appointed | 
secretary to the Earl of Arran, the chan- j 
cellor of the university. 

He was admitted a candidate at the Col- 
lege of Physicians on 12 April 1731, and a 
fellow on 3 April 1732, when he resigned 
his office at New Inn Hall and settled in 
London. He resided in Craig Court. He 
was elected physician to Westminster Hos- 
pital in 1733, and retained his office there 
until 1737. In 1738 he accompanied his 
friend Mr. (afterwards Sir Edward) Trelawny 
[q. v.] to Jamaica, in the double capacity of 
physician and secretary. He there married 
Mary, daughter of John Douce, a planter in 
the island, and widow of Philip Wheeler of 
Jamaica, and by her had one daughter, Mary 
Trewlawny Wigan. He died in Jamaica on 
6 Dec. 1739, aged 43. His memorial, a black 
marble inscribed slab, still exists in the 
cathedral church of St. Catherine, Spanish 
Town. His portrait, a three-quarter length 
by Hogarth, is in the possession of the Rev. 
W. W. Harvey, rector of Ewelme, Oxford- 
shire. 

Dr. Wigan was well known in his day as 
a writer. As early as 1718 he published a 
translation of a treatise upon the cure of fevers, 



from the original pf Longinus ('De Curandis 
Febribus continuis Liber,' edited by J. W., 
1718, 8vo). His name will always be held 
in respect by admirers of Aretseus, for 
his splendid folio edition of that author, 
which was issued from the Clarendon Press 
in 1723. Maittaire compiled the index to it, 
and a great part of the expense was defrayed 
by Dr. Freind, to whom it is dedicated. 
When Boerhaave published his edition of the 
same author in 1735, he availed himself of 
Wigan's labours, and made a handsome ac- 
knowledgment of the circumstance. Wigan 
compiled the index to P. Petit's ' In tres 
priores Aretsei Cappadocis libros Commen- 
tarii,' 1726, 4to; and had a share in editing 
Dr. Freind's works {Opera Omnia Medica, 
edited by J. W., 1733, fol.) Besides writing 
the ' Life of Freind' in choice Latin, he trans- 
lated the ' History of Physick ' into Latin 
and prefixed to the folio edition of 1732 a 
long alcaic ode, dated 15 July 1727, which 
he had composed on Freind's appointment as 
physician to the queen. 

[List of Queen's Scholars of St. Peter's, West- 
minster, by Joseph Welch; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-17H; Carmina QuadragesimaHa ; 
Cat. Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Munk's Coll. of Phys.] 

W. W. W. 

WIGG, LILLY (1749-1828), botanist, 
was born at Smallburgh, Norfolk, on 25 Dec. 
1749, being the son of a poor shoemaker in 
that village. He received a good village 
education, and was brought up to his father's 
trade, but removed to Yarmouth before he 
was twenty, where until 1801 he kept a 
small school in Fighting-cock Row. He 
acquired some knowledge of Latin, Greek, 
and French, was a skilled arithmetician, and 
wrote a beautifully neat * copperplate ' hand ; 
while his love of botany and skill as a col- 
lector procured him the acquaintance of Dr. 
John Aikin, Thomas Jenkinson Woodward, 
Sir James Edward Smith, and Dawson Tur- 
ner. He was chiefly devoted to the study 
of algB, in which he seems to have initiated 
Dawson Turner. In 1801 Turner engaged 
him as a subordinate clerk in Messrs. Gur- 
neys & Turner's bank at Yarmouth, a position 
which he occupied for the rest of his life. 
For nearly twenty years Wigg was collect- 
ing material for a history of esculent plants, 
some of which exists in manuscript in the 
botanical department of the British Mu- 
seum, while a manuscript ' Flora Cibaria,' 
consisting of extracts from books of travel, 
with a pencil sketch of .the compiler taken 
by Mrs. Dawson Turner in 1804, is at Kew. 
Wigg also studied the birds and fishes of 
the Norfolk coast. He was elected an asso- 
ciate of the Linnean Society as early as 



\Vigginton 



193 



Wigginton 



J7'.K). Smith acknowledges contributions 
from him to 'English Botany,' styling him 
'a most ingenious and accurate observer . . . 
<-min'ntly skilful in detecting, as well as in 
Tving, specimens of marine algre ;' and 
Dawaon Turner named ufti-r him Kucus (now 
.Nan-aria) Wigghii. Wigg died at Great 
Yarmouth on 28 March 1828. 

[Memoir by H. G. Glasspoole in the Trans- 
Mctions of the Norfolk Naturalists' Society, ii. 
269-74 ; Gent. Mag. 1830, vol. i.] G. S. B. 

WIGGINTON, (ULES (f. 1564-1.VJ7), 
divine, born atOundle in Northamptonshire, 
was educated at Cambridge, under the pa- 
tronage of Sir Walter Mildmay [q. v.] lie 
matriculated as a sizar of Trinity College in 
October 15G4, and in 1566 was elected a 
scholar. He proceeded B.A. in 1568-9, and 
was subsequently elected a fellow, notwith- 
standing the strong opposition of the master, 
John Whitgift [q. v.], afterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury, who disliked his puritan views. 
He commenced M.A. in 1572, having made 
great progress in the study of divinity, Greek, 
ami Hebrew. On 3 Sept. 1579 he was in- 
stituted to the vicarage of Sedbergh in York- 
shire, on the presentation of Trinity College, 
but found his Calvinism as unpopular 
there as at Cambridge. In 1581 the arch- 
bishop of York, Edwin Sandys [q. v.l wrote 
severely concerning his practices to his dio- 
(-an, William Chaderton [q. v.], bishop of 
Chester, remarking' He laboureth not to build, 
but to pull down, and by what means he can 
to overthrow the state ecclesiastical' (PECK, 
Desiderata Curiosa, 1779, p. 115). In 1584, 
when in London, he was appointed to preach 
before the judges in the church of St. Dun- 
stan-in-the-West. Information of this coming 
to the knowledge of Archbishop Whitgift, he 
sent a pursuivant to Wigginton in the dead 
of night, while he was in bed at his lodgings, 
who forbade him to preach, and required him 
to give a bond for his appearance at Lambeth 
the next day. Upon his appearance he was 
tendered an oath ex officio to answer certain 
articles altogether unknown to him, and, on 
his refusal, the archbishop, after reviling and 
reproaching him, committed him to the Qate- 
house, where he remained nine weeks all but 
one day. On his release he was admonished 
not to preach in the province without further 
license. 

In the following year, upon the informa- 
tion of Edward Middleton, Whitgift gave 
orders to Sandys to proceed against Wiggin- 
ton, and he was in consequence cited before 
Chaderton and deprived of his living. In 
1586, while visiting London, he was appre- 
hended by one of Whitgift's pursuivants, 

VOL. LXI. 



carried before the archbishop at Lambeth, 
and, on refusing the oath airain, was com- 
mitted to the White Lion prison, where he 
j was loaded with irons and treated with 
i great severity. He was removed to another 
j prison, and, on failing through illness to 
obey a citation of the archbishop, he was 
sentenced to deprivation and degradation, 
in spite of the intercession of the earls of 
Warwick and Huntingdon. 

Upon his release and recovery he returned 
to Sedbergh, but was excluded from the 
pulpit of his former charge. He thereupon 
preached at his own house and other places, 
gathering large congregations to hear him. 
On learning this, Whitgift instigated Sandys 
to issue an attachment, and Wigginton was 
arrested by a pursuivant at Boroughbridge 
and conveyed to Lancaster Castle. Thence 
on 28 Feb. 1587 he despatched a letter to 
Sir Walter Mildmay, soliciting his assistance. 
He was released before December 1588, for in 
that month he was again arrested in London 
and brought before the high commissioners 
at Lambeth on the charge of being concerned 
in the authorship of the Mar-Prelate tracts. 
Though he denied the accusation he declined 
the oath tendered to him, and was committed 
to the Gatehouse, where he long remained 
in confinement. 

During his imprisonment he was nearly 
involved in the punishment of the fanatic 
William Hacket [q. v.], whom he met at 
some time during a visit to Oundle, their 
common birthplace. He became a disciple, 
and was also the confidant, of another en- 
thusiast, Edmund Coppinger [q. v.] About 
Easter 1591 Hacket came to London and 
visited Wigginton in prison. Wigginton 
made Hacket and Coppinger acquainted, and 
they both found a common cause for lamenta- 
tion in the insufficiency of English ecclesi- 
astical and social reform. It is doubtful how 
far Wigginton was privy to the after pro- 
ceedings of the two enthusiasts, which termi- 
nated in the suicide of Coppinger and the 
execution of Hacket, but a pamphlet en- 
titled 'The Fool's Bolt,' put into circulation 
by them, is ascribed to him (STRYPE, Annals 
of the Reformation, 1822, iv. 95-8), and it 
is probable that his confinement alone hin- 



About 1592 Wigginton was restored to 
the vicarage of Sedbergh by the direction of 
Burghley, and on 4 April 1597 he wrote to 
his benefactor, proposing the establishment 
of a seminary to furnish men fitted for con- 
troversy with the priests trained in the 
Roman catholic colleges on the continent, 
and presenting him with a manuscript treatise 
which he had composed against the papists, 



Wighard 



Wight 



and which he proposed to style ' A paire of 
Kidles against the Philistynes of Rome' 
(Lansdowne MS. 84, art. 105). 

The date of Wigginton's death is unknown. 
"While in prison he composed ' A Treatise on 
Predestination.' He was also the author of 
'Giles Wigginton his Catechisme' (London, 
1589, 8vo),and of several theological treatises 
in manuscript, formerly in the possession of 
Dawson Turner [q. v.] An autograph letter 
is preserved in the British Museum (Lans- 
downe MS. 77, art. 61). 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 329-31 ; Ban- 
croft's Dangerous Positions and Proceedings 
published and practised within this Hand, 1640, 
pp. 142-75 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, 
i. 418-28; Heylyn's Aerius Redivivus, 1670, 
pp. 304-7 ; Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, i. 
377 ; Strype's Life of Whitgift, 1822, i. 550, 
584, iii. 219; Sutcliffe's Answere unto Throck- 
morton, 1595 ; Platt's Hist, of Sedbergh, 1876, 
p. 17.] E. I. C. 

WIGHARD, WIGHEARD, or VIG- 
HARD (d. 064), archbishop-elect of Can- 
terbury, was a Kentish priest and one of 
Deusdedit's clergy. He was nominated to 
the archbishopric with the assent of the 
English church by the kings Oswy and 
Egbert, and was sent, bearing gold and silver 
vessels, to Rome for consecration. He died 
of the plague in Rome in 664, before his 
consecration. He is described as very learned 
in ecclesiastical discipline. 

[Bede's Hist. Eccles. iii. 29, iv. 1 ; Haddan 
and Stubbs, iii. 110; Tanner's Bibl. p. 773; 
Diet. Chr. Biogr. iv. 1176.] RI. B. 

WIGHT, ROBERT (1796-1872), bota- 
nist, was born at Milton, Duncra Hill, East 
Lothian, on 6 July 1796, being the twelfth 
of fourteen children of a writer to the signet. 
He was educated at the high school and uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, having among his con- 
temporary students Robert Christison and 
George Walker-Arnott, and took out his 
surgeon's diploma in 1816, graduating M.D. 
two years later. He went on several voyages 
as surgeon, including one to America, before 
entering the East India Company's service 
in 1819, but knew very little botany before 
his arrival in India. He was appointed 
assistant-surgeon on 25 May 1819, and at- 
tached to the 42nd native infantry stationed 
at Madras, where he employed 'natives to 
collect plants, and obtained copies of Will- 
denow's 'Species Plantarum,' Persoon's 
' Synopsis,' and Linne's ' Genera Plantarum.' 
A collection sent by him to Professor Robert 
Graham in 1823 was lost at sea; but one 
formed at Samulcotta, Rajamundry, Vellore, 
and Madras, reached Dr. William Hooker at 
Glasgow in 1826. In that year Wight was 



appointed to succeed l)r. Shutev as naturalist 
at Madras, and for two or three years had 
charge, as such, of the botanical establish- 
ment there, employing native draughtsmen, 
making an extensive tour in the southern 
provinces, the route of which is marked on 
the map in Wallich's ' Plantre Asiatics 
Rariores,' and collecting and distributing 
among botanists a great number of dupli- 
cates. In 1828, on the abolition of his 
office, Wight was appointed garrison surgeon 
at Negapatam, and thoroughly explored that 
neighbourhood and Tanjore; but in 1831, 
having attained the rank of surgeon on 22 Feb., 
he contracted jungle fever, and came home 
on three years' furlough, most of which he 
spent in Edinburgh. He then began the 
publication of his materials in W.J. Hooker's 
'Botanical Miscellany' (ii. and iii.), and 
afterwards in his ' Companion to the Bo- 
tanical Magazine' (1835-6), issuing also 
some coloured plates in quarto, under the 
title of 'Illustrations of Indian Botany, 
principally of the Southern Parts of the 
Peninsula' (Glasgow, 1831), but was pre- 
vented from continuing the publication by 
the expense. 

During this furlough Wight was mainly 
occupied in preparing, in conjunction with 
George Walker-Arnott [see AENOTT], what 
is certainly one of his chief works, the ' Pro- 
dromus Florae Peninsulae Indise Orientalis,' 
which J. D. Hooker and T. Thomson, in 
their ' Introductory Essay to the Flora Indica ' 
(1855), describe as 'the most able and valu- 
able contribution to Indian botany which 
has ever appeared, and. one which has few 
rivals in the whole domain of botanical lite- 
rature.' Only the first volume, however, was 
published, carrying the work down to the 
end of the Dipsacacese. It describes some 
fourteen hundred species, and in 1833 Wight 
issued a lithographic catalogue of 2,400 species 
enumerated in it. 

Before his return to India Wight made 
himself master of the art of lithography. 
In 1834 he was attached to the 33rd native 
infantry at Bellary, and marched with them 
to Palamcotta, near Cape Comorin, a dis- 
tance of some seven hundred miles. He 
then planned a systematic series of plates 
to illustrate Ainslie's 'Materia Medica,' a 
scheme which he never carried out, but in the 
course of which he published various papers 
on officinal plants in the ' Madras Journal of 
Science.' Seized with a severe attack of fever 
in Tinnevelly in 1836, Wight was obliged 
to pay a short visit to Ceylon. In the same 
year he was transferred to the revenue de- 
partment, with the title of superintended 
of cotton cultivation, to inquire into and re- 



Wightman 



195 



Wightman 



port on the cultivation of cotton, tobacco, 
- -1111:1. :iiul other useful plants, and in this 
capacity he had charge from 1842 to 1850 
of an <'\]>fiimrutul cotton ftirm at Coimba- 
tore. In 1 838 he began the issue of his* Illus- 
trations of Indian ]>< >t a i iv ' \v it h coloured, and 
'Icones Plantarum Indias Orientals' with 
nncoloured, quarto plates; but, though the 
Madras government subscribed for fifty 
copies, both works entailed a considerable 
loss upon Wight, who in 1847 started his 
* Spicilegium Neilgherrense,' a selection of a 
hundred plates copied from those in the 
4 Icones,' in the hope of partly reimbursing 
himself. The 'Icones' ran to six volumes 
( 1838-63), containing in all over 2, 100 plates, 
and during his entire Indian career of thirty- 
live years he described nearly three thousand 
>]>i-cH's of Indian plants. 

Wight remained at Coimbatore till March 
l^.'J, when he retired. He then purchased 
(Jrazeley Lodge, near Reading, formerly the 
residence of Mitford the historian, and de- 
voted himself zealously to farming the land 
attached to this property. In 1861 and 1862 
he contributed articles on cotton farming to 
the ' Gardener's Chronicle,' and from 1865 to 
1868 he gave great assistance in the editing 
of Edward John Waring's ' Pharmacopoeia 
of India.' Wight died at Grazeley on 26 May 
1872. He married, in 1838, the daughter 
of Lacy Gray Ford of the Madras medical 
board, who, with four sons and a daughter, 
survived him. He was elected a fellow of 
the Linnean Society and a member of the 
Imperial Academy in 1832, and a fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1855. 

Wight's chief works were: 1. ' Illustra- 
tions of Indian Botany,' Glasgow, 1831, 4to. 
'2. l Prodromus Florre Peninsulae Indira Ori- 
entalis' (with G. W. Walker- Arnott). vol. 
i., London, 1834, 8vo. 3. ' Contributions to 
the Botany of India,' with the assistance of 
\\alker-Arnott, A. P. De Candolle, and Nees 
von Esenbeck, London, 1834, 8vo. 4. ' Illus- 
trations of Indian Botany,' 2 vols. Madras, 
1838-50, 4to, with 182 coloured plates. 
5. ' Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis,' 6 vols. 
Madras, 1838-53, 4to, with 2101 plates; 
Systematic Index, compiled by Dr. Hugh 
Cleghorn, printed by the Madras government, 
1857. I). 'Si)icile<num Neilgherrense,' Madras, 
lM<;-51,4to. 

[Memoir, by Dr. H. Cleghorn, with lithogra- 
phic portrait and full bibliography, in Trans- 
actions of the I5otairr.il Society of Edinburgh, 
si. 363 ; Dodwell and Miles's Medical Officers 
"f India.] G. S. B. 

WIGHTMAN. EDWARD (d. 1612), 

t'anat ic, was the last person burned for heresy 
in England. He is said to have been of the 



same family as William Wightman, who 
purchased in 1544 the manor of Wykin, 
parish of Hinckley, Leicestershire (BURTON, 
Description of Leicestershire, 1777, p. 287). 
In the warrant and writ for his execution 
he is described as * of the parish of Burton- 
upon-Trent,' Staffordshire. In this and 
neighbouring parishes were held periodic 
meetings of puritan divines for lectures and 
conferences [see BRADSHAW, WILLIAM, 1571- 
1618]. Wightman presented himself on 
these occasions and ventilated anabaptist 
views ; the puritans were for treating him 
tenderly, hoping to reduce his errors by 
argument. Wightman, however, rushed oil 
destruction by presenting a petition to 
James I at Royston, apparently in March 
161 1 . Finding that he was from the diocese 
of Coventry and Lichfield, James sent him 
to Westminster to Richard Neile [q. v.], 
then bishop of that see, * with command to 
commit him to the Gatehouse, and to take 
examinations of his several opinions under 
his own hand.' Neile was one of the judges 
of Bartholomew Legate [q. v.], the last 
heretic burned in Smithfield. From the be- 
ginning of April to the middle of October, 
Neile, William Laud [q. v.], then his chap- 
lain, and ' other learned divines,' held con- 
ferences with Wightman, who ' became every 
day more and more obstinate in his blas- 
phemous heresies.' James then ordered 
Wightman's removal to Lichfield for trial. 
After 'divers days' conference, but to no 
purpose,' at Lichfield, Wightman was tried 
in the consistory court ; the trial occupied 
' sundry days.' Sentence was at length 
publicly pronounced in the cathedral (14 
Dec.) by Neile, who ' began the business with 
a sermon and confutation of his blasphemies 
against the Trinity' (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1639-40, pp. 83-5). These details are 
found in an apologetic statement by Neile 
himself, furnished twenty-seven years after 
the execution. Neile lays stress on his anti- 
trinitarianism, but the list of his opinions, 
as detailed in the commission, shows that 
in addition to holding anabaptist views he 
claimed to be himself the promised paraclete, 
and the person predicted in messianic pro- 
phecies. Theophilus Lindsey [q. v.] disputes 
the account of his ' ten heresies,' partly on 
the ground of their inconsistency (Apology, 
1774, ii. 53 ; Historical View, 1783, p. 292), 
but the case is not without parallel. The 
nature of his personal claims shows that 
religious fanaticism had turned his head. 

NO date appears on the printed copies of 
the commission and warrant for his execu- 
tion, but the date of the commission was 
9 March 1011-12 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 

o v 



Wightman 



196 



Wightwick 



1611-18, p. 123). Neile says that on the 
arrival of the writ directed to the sheriff of 
Lichfield, also dated 9 March 1611-12 
(COBBETT), Wightman was brought to the 
.-take. The fire * scorched him a little,' and 
1 he cried out that he would recant.' There- 
upon the crowd rescued him, themselves 
getting ' scorched to save him.' A form of 
recantation was presented to him ' which he 
there read and professed, before he was un- 
chained from the stake.' lie was remitted 
to prison, and ' after a fortnight or three 
weeks ' was again brought before the con- 
sistory court to recant ' in a legal way.' 
This he declined to do, but ' blasphemed 
more audaciously than before.' The writ 
was renewed, ' sent down and executed, and 
he died blaspheming' (Calendar, ut supra, 
1639-40, pp. 83-5). Fuller says he was burned 
' in the next month ' after the execution 
(18 March 1612) of Legate. Wallace supposes 
the date to have been 11 April 1612; this 
was the Saturday between Good Friday and 
Easter day. Neile affirms that Laud ' was 
with me and assisted me in all the proceed- 
ings . . . from the beginning to the end.' 

[The Narrative History of King James, 1 651, 
pt. iv., gives the commission and warrant (re- 
printed in Greenshield's Brief Hist, of the Re- 
vival of the Arian Heresie, 1711); Fuller's 
Church History, 1655, bk. x. sect. 4 (reprinted, 
with the warrants, in Cobbett's State Trials, 
1809, ii. 727); Wallace's Antitrinitarian Biogr. 
1850, ii. 534, iii. 565 (with reprints of the war- 
rants).] A. G. 

WIGHTMAN, SIR WILLIAM (1784- 
1863), judge, came of an old Dumfriesshire 
family. He was the son of William Wight- 
man, gentleman, of St. Clement's, London, 
and was born in 1784. He was an under- 
graduate of University College, Oxford, where 
he matriculated on 23 March 1801, and on 
21 June was elected to a Michel exhibition at 
Queen's College, graduating B.A. on 30 May 
1805, and M.A. on 23 Oct. 1809 ; from 1859 
to 1863 he was an honorary fellow of his col- 
lege. On 31 Jan. 1804 he entered Lincoln's 
Inn, and, after some years of practice as a 
special pleader, he was called to the bar in 
1821. In 1830 he transferred himself to the 
Inner Temple and joined the northern circuit. 
He was known as an exceptionally sound 
and clear-headed lawyer, and for several years 
held the important post of junior counsel to 
the treasury. He was appointed a member 
of the commission of 1830 upon the practice 
of the common-law courts, and of that of 
1833 upon the proposal for a criminal law 
digest. He was engaged in many celebrated 
cases, particularly the prosecutions arising 
out of the Bristol riots ; but, owing to an 



almost excessive modesty, was little known 
except to his profession. In February 1841 
lif was promoted to a judgeship of the queen's 
bench, on the resignation of Mr. Justice Lit- 
tledale, and was knighted on 28 April, and 
here he served as a judge for nearly twenty- 
three years. While on circuit at York, on 
9 Dec. 1863, he was seized with an attack of 
apoplexy, and died next day. He married 
in 1819, a daughter of James Baird of Lass- 
wade, near Edinburgh. 

Wightman's pre-eminent qualities as a law- 
yer were accuracy and caution. As a judge 
he had deep learning, a faculty of lucid- 
reasoning, and abundance of good sense. He 
was courteous, firm, and dignified, and added 
greatly to the strength of the court of which 
he was a member. He had also great 
humour, considerable literary gifts, and was 
widely read in English letters (CAMPBELL, 
Autobiography, ii. 310; Croker Papers, iii. 
240). 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Gent. Mag. 1 864, 
ii. 250; Times, 11 Dec. 1863 ; Arnould's Life of 
Dcnman; Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886: Lincoln's 
Inn Admission Register.] J. A. H. 

WIGHTWICK, GEORGE (1802-1872), 
architect, son of William Wightwick (d. 
1811) by his wife Anna Maria (1779-1864), 
daughter of Alexander Taylor, was born at 
Alyn Bank, Mold, Flint, on 26 Aug. 1802. 
He was educated at Wolverhampton gram- 
mar school, and privately under Dr. Lord at 
Tooting. After professional pupilage under 
Edward Lapidge and an educational tour 
(1825-6) in Italy, he entered the office of Sir 
John Soane, and in 1829 opened practice at 
Plymouth (where for a time he was in part- 
nership with J. Foulston), having already 
erected Belmont House for John Norman in 
that neighbourhood. In 1836 he designed 
the South Devon and East Cornwall hos- 
pital ; this was followed by works at Credi- 
ton church in 1838 and the restoration of the 
church at Helston. In Plymouth he carried 
out the town-hall (1839-40), the congrega- 
tional chapel, Courtenay Street (1848), and 
the Cottonian Library (1 850). He designed 
the episcopal chapel at Flushing, near Fal- 
mouth, in 1841, and St. John's Church, Tre- 
slothan, in 1844. Wightwick, whose terms 
for employment are to be seen in the ' Jour- 
nal of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects' (1891, p. 161; reprinted from the 
' Architect,' 1850, ii. 28), retired to Clifton 
in 1851, and subsequently to Portishead 
(1865), where he died on 9 July 1872. He 
was buried in Portishead churchyard on the 
13th. He married, first, in 1829, Caroline 
(1808-1807), daughter of William Damant 



Wiglaf 



197 



Wigner 



of r.ucklaml Moiiarhorum; and, -tvondly, in 
January 1H!8, Isabella (b. 1*:J2), (laughter 
of Samuel Jackson, who survived him. 

He was a copious writer, and published, 
besides many pamphlets and two plays : 
I . ' Select Views of Roman Antiquities,' 
1827