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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

WORDSWORTH ZUYLESTEIN 




DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LXIII. 
WORDSWORTH ZUYLESTEIN 



LONDON 

SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1900 

[A II rights reserved} 



DfY 

18 
D4- 
\$85 
v.G3 



THE 



DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

A STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 



THE present volume brings the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' to 
the end of the alphabet, and thus completes an undertaking of excep- 
tional magnitude in the history of publishing. The goal has been 
reached after eighteen years of unremitting labour, aijd, like travellers 
at the end of a long and difficult journey, those who are responsible 
for the design and execution of the Dictionary turn their thoughts 
instinctively on the conclusion of their task to the general features 
of the ground they have traversed and to some of the obstacles they 
have surmounted on the road. A detailed history of the enterprise is 
needless, for it has been conducted in the full light of day. But facts 
and figures are in accord with the spirit of the Dictionary, and a few 
facts and figures may be fittingly presented here by way of recalling the 
chief incidents in its progress and of indicating some of the statistical 
results which a survey of the completed work suggests. 

The ' Dictionary of National Biography ' owes its existence to Mr. 
George M. Smith, of Smith, Elder, & Co. In 1882, after a career as a 
publisher which had already extended over nearly forty years, he 
resolved to produce a cyclopaedia of biography which should be of 
permanent utilitj^ to his countrymen and should surpass in literary value 
works of similar character that had either been published or were in 
course of publication on the Continent of Europe. Mr. Smith's first 
design was an improved and extended cyclopaedia of universal biography 
on the plan of the ' Biographie Universelle,' the latest edition of which 
was issued in forty large volumes in Paris between 1843 and 1863. He 
proposed to render his projected work more complete and more trust- 
worthy than any that had preceded it by entrusting its preparation to a 
numerous staff of editors and contributors at home and in foreign 



VI 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



countries. But Mr. Smith took counsel with Mr. Leslie Stephen, who 
convinced him that the measureless growth throughout the world in late 
years of the materials of historical and biographical research rendered 
the execution of a cyclopedia of universal biography on the suggested 
scale almost impracticable. Acting on Mr. Stephen's advice, Mr. Smith 
resolved to confine his efforts to the production of a complete dictionary 
of national biography which should supply full, accurate, and concise 
biographies of all noteworthy inhabitants of the British Islands and the 
Colonies (exclusive of living persons) from the earliest historical period 
to the present time. The change of plan was justified on many grounds. 
While it was impossible to deal exhaustively and authoritatively with 
universal biography within the compass of a single literary under- 
taking, that field had been more or less efficiently surveyed in France 
and Germany, and English students had at their command modern 
cyclopedias on the subject in foreign tongues which made some 
approach to adequacy. On the other hand, although in Germany, 
Holland, Belgium, Austria, and Sweden cyclopaedias of national 
biography had been set on foot with a view to satisfying the just 
patriotic instinct of each nation, as well as the due requirements 
of historical knowledge, there had been no earnest endeavour of a 
like kind for nearly a century in this country. Only one venture in 
national biography of an exhaustive and authoritative kind had been 
previously carried to completion in this country, and that venture 
belonged to the eighteenth century. ' The Biographia Britannica, or 
the Lives of the most Eminent Persons who have flourished in Great 
Britain and Ireland from the Earliest Ages down to the Present Times,' 
was inaugurated in 1747, and was completed in seven folio volumes in 
1766. A second edition in five folio volumes, which was begun in 1778, 
reached the beginning of the letter F in its fifth volume in 1793, and 
did not go further. This was the latest effort ha national biography of 
which the country could boast before the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography.' Alexander Chalmers's ' Biographical Dictionary,' which 
was completed in thirty-two volumes in 1814, and Eose's ' New General 
Biographical Dictionary,' which was begun in 1839 and completed in 
twelve volumes in 1847, were inadequate experiments in universal 
biography ; and after 1847, when the twelfth volume of Eose's Dictionary 
was published, the field both of universal and of national biography 
was for the time practically abandoned by English workers. In the 
years that followed, the need for an exhaustive and authoritative treat- 
ment of national biography was repeatedly admitted by general readers 
and students, and was often passively contemplated by men of letters 
and by publishers, but no one had the boldness seriously to face the 



A Statistical Account 



execution of the task until Mr. Smith began operations on this Dictionary 
in 1882. The design satisfied none of the conditions of a merely com- 
mercial venture. It was obvious from the first that the outlay would far 
exceed that hitherto involved in publishers' undertakings, and there was 
little or no prospect of a return of the capital that was needed to secure 
the completion of the work on a thoroughly adequate scale. But it was 
in no commercial spirit that Mr. Smith embarked on the enterprise, 
and he has ignored considerations of profit and loss in providing for 
its conduct to a successful issue. 

Mr. Leslie Stephen was appointed editor in the autumn of 1882, and 
active work was then commenced. A list of names which it was judged 
desirable to treat under A was compiled under Mr. Stephen's direction 
by Mr. H. E. Tedder, with some assistance from Mr. C. F. Keary. It 
was essential that the Dictionary should codify all scattered biographical 
efforts that had hitherto been made in the country. Thus the first, like 
the subsequent lists of names, which formed the primary foundation of 
the work, comprised all names that had hitherto been treated in 
independent works of biography, in general dictionaries, in collections of 
lives of prominent members of various classes of the community, and 
in obituary notices in the leading journals and periodicals. At the same 
time it was found that many names which had hitherto escaped bio- 
graphical notice were as important as many of those which had already 
received some kind of attention from biographers. These omissions it 
was the special province of a new and complete Dictionary to supply. 
For this purpose it was necessary to explore in the task of gathering 
the names a wide field of historical and scientific literature, and to take 
a survey of the most miscellaneous records and reports of human 
effort. The first list of names, which was compiled in accordance with 
these principles, was, as soon as it was printed, posted on the 10th of 
January 1883 to persons most of them being specialists of literary 
experience who it was believed would be willing and competent to 
write articles. Numerous applications were received from those who 
were prepared to contribute to the Dictionary, and the names in A 
were distributed among the applicants by Mr. Stephen. Meanwhile 
the original editorial staff was finally constituted by the appointment 
of Mr. Thompson Cooper to the post of compiler of the lists of names 
to be treated under B and future letters, and Mr. Stephen selected Mr. 
Sidney Lee in March 1883 to fill the office of assistant-editor. 

The second list of names (Baalun-Beechey) was completed in June 
1883, and by the kindness of the editor of the ' Athenaeum ' it was 
printed in the columns of that journal. Headers of the ' Athenaeum ' 
were invited to offer suggestions or corrections to tlie editor of the 



VU1 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



Dictionary. The result was very valuable, and all subsequent lists 
were every half-year in October and April submitted to the like test 
of public criticism before they were distributed among the contributors 
to the Dictionary. 

It was determined at the outset to publish successive volumes of the 
work at quarterly intervals. Much research was involved and much 
time was required in the compilation and editing of a sufficient number 
of articles to make up a volume. Not only was it intended to present as 
far as possible in every case the latest results of biographical and 
historical research, but the principles of the Dictionary obliged contri- 
butors to seek information from first-hand authorities, and often from 
unpublished papers and records. It was made an indispensable condition 
that writers should append to each article a full list of the sources 
whence their information was derived. In order to insure punctuality 
in the projected quarterly issue, it was therefore necessary that the 
work should be far advanced before the first volume appeared. Two 
years' preliminary preparation was essential before publication could be 
safely commenced. Accordingly it was not until the 1st of January 
1885 that the first volume (Abbadie to Anne) was published. The 
volume contained 505 separate articles, from the pens of eighty-seven 
contributors. 

Since the date of the appearance of the first volume a further 
instalment, averaging 460 pages, has been issued with unbroken punc- 
tuality on every successive quarter-day until the completion of the work. 
From Christmas 1884 until Midsummer 1900, through fifteen and a half 
years, the original promise of quarterly publication has been faithfully 
kept. No similar literary undertaking, embodying equally thorough 
and extensive research, and proceeding from an equally large body of 
writers, has either been produced with a like regularity in regard to the 
issue of the several parts, or has been finally completed within a 
shorter period of time. 

The publication of sixty-three quarterly volumes in fifteen and a half 
years compares very favourably with the modes and rates of publication 
which have characterised the issue of cyclopaedias of national biography 
abroad. The successive volumes of foreign dictionaries have invariably 
appeared at irregular intervals, and in the case of every work which has 
any claim to be compared with this Dictionary, the publication of the 
whole has spread over far more years than in the case of the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography.' The publication of the Swedish Dictionary of 
National Biography in twenty-three volumes covered twenty-two years 
(1885-57) ; the Dutch Dictionary, in twenty-four volumes, occupied 
twenty-six years (1852-78) ; the Austrian Dictionary, in sixty volumes, 



A Statistical Account ix 



thirty-five years (1856-91) ; and the German Dictionary, in forty-five 
volumes, twenty-five years (1875-1900) ; while the ' Biographie Na- 
tionale ' of Belgium, though it has been thirty-one years in progress 
(1866-97), has not yet passed beyond the letter M. Appleton's ' Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography' was planned on a far less elaborate 
scale than the works that have just been enumerated, and consequently 
it was found possible to publish its six volumes in the very brief period 
of two years. 

During the progress of the work changes have taken place in the 
editorial staff. Twenty-one volumes were published under Mr. Stephen's 
sole editorship, and they brought the alphabet as far as Gloucester. 
The twenty-first volume appeared at the end of December 1889. The 
severe strain of editorial duties, coupled with his labours as writer of 
many of the most important memoirs, had then somewhat seriously 
impaired Mr. Stephen's health, and early in 1890 his assistant, Mr. 
Sidney Lee, after working under him for seven years, became joint- 
editor with him. Volumes xxii. to xxvi., which were published between 
March 1890 and March 1891, and brought the alphabet from Glover 
to Hindley, appeared under the joint-editorship of Mr. Stephen and 
Mr. Lee. In the spring of 1891 Mr. Stephen, owing to continued ill- 
health, was compelled to resign his part in the editorship, after eight 
and a half years' service. Happily for the literary success of the 
undertaking, re-established health enabled him to remain a contributor, 
and almost every succeeding volume of the Dictionary has included 
valuable memoirs from his pen. The last volume includes important 
articles by him on the poet Wordsworth and Edward Young, the author 
of the ' Night Thoughts.' On Mr. Stephen's retirement, in 1891, the 
full responsibilities of editorship passed into the hands of Mr. Lee, 
under whose guidance the last thirty-seven volumes have appeared. 
These are numbered xxvii. to Ixiii., and bring the names from Hind- 
marsh to Zuylestein. 

Various changes have also taken place during the progress of the 
undertaking in the subordinate editorial offices. Mr. T. F. Henderson 
and the Eev. William Hunt gave some sub-editorial assistance in 1885. 
Mr. C. L. Kingsford acted as assistant to Mr. Lee from November 1889 
to July 1890, and was then succeeded by Mr. W. A. J. Archbold. After 
Mr. Lee's assumption of the office of editor in May 1891, Mr. Archbold 
and Mr. Thomas Seccombe, who then began a long and important 
association with the Dictionary, became sub-editors. At the same date 
Mr. Thompson Cooper resigned his place on the editorial staff, after 
having prepared the lists of names from the letter B as far as the 
name Meyrig. Mr. Cooper has remained a valued contributor of 



x The Dictionary of National Biography 

memoirs to the Dictionary until its close. The lists of names from the 
middle of the letter M to the end were prepared by Mr. Seccombe 
and his colleagues. Mr. Archbold retired at the end of 1892, and his 
place was filled by the appointment of Mr. A. F. Pollard, who has ably 
and zealously performed the duties of sub-editor since that date, besides 
contributing numerous useful memoirs. At the beginning of 1896 the 
final change was made in the arrangements of the editorial office by 
the appointment of Mr. E. Irving Carlyle as an additional sub-editor, 
whose chief function was to compile a large number of the smaller 
miscellaneous articles. Thus at the completion of the undertaking the 
editorial staff consists of Mr. Lee, whose connection with it has lasted 
nearly seventeen and a half years ; of Mr. Seccombe, whose term of 
service extends over nine years ; of Mr. Pollard, whose term of service 
extends over seven years and a half ; and of Mr. Carlyle, whose term of 
service extends over four years and a half. 

Mr. H. E. Murray has acted as clerk in charge of the Dictionary 
while the undertaking has been in progress, and has continuously ren- 
dered most valuable service to editors and publishers. The whole work 
has been printed by Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co., and all the proofs have 
been finally read by Mr. Frederick Adams, their learned and efficient 
corrector of the press, to whom the Dictionary stands indebted for 
many useful suggestions and for the detection and removal of many 
errors. 

The ' Dictionary of National Biography ' supplies notices of 29,120 
men and women ; of these 27,195 are full substantive articles, and 1,925 
are briefer subsidiary articles. It is believed that the names include all 
men and women of British or Irish race who have achieved any reason- 
able measure of distinction in any walk of life ; every endeavour has been 
made to accord admission to every statesman, lawyer, divine, painter, 
author, inventor, actor, physician, surgeon, man of science, traveller, 
musician, soldier, sailor, bibliographer, book-collector, and printer whose 
career presents any feature which justifies its preservation from oblivion. 
No sphere of activity has been consciously overlooked. Niches have 
been found for sportsmen and leaders of society who have commanded 
public attention. Malefactors whose crimes excite a permanent interest 
have received hardly less attention than benefactors. The principle 
upon which names have been admitted has been from all points of 
view generously interpreted ; the epithet ' national ' has not been held 
to exclude the early settlers in America, or natives of these islands who 
have gained distinction in foreign countries, or persons of foreign birth 
who have achieved eminence in this country. Great pains have been 
bestowed on the names of less widely acknowledged importance, and 



A Statistical Account 



every endeavour has been made to maintain the level of the information, 
in the smaller as well as in the larger articles, at the highest practicable 
standard of fulness and accuracy. 

The number of memoirs in this Dictionary is far in excess of the 
number of memoirs to be found in national biographies of other countries. 
The ' Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic,' which has just been completed 
in forty-five volumes under the auspices of the King of Bavaria, by the 
Historical Commission of the Bavarian 'Konigliche Akademie der 
Wissenschaften,' over which Eochus von Liliencron has presided, con- 
tains only 23,273 articles or some six thousand fewer articles than 
appear in this Dictionary. The Austrian dictionary, ' Der grosse 
Oesterreichische Hausschatz : biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums 
Oesterreich,' which has been edited by Dr. Constant von Wurzbach under 
the auspices of the Imperial Academy of Vienna, does not exceed the 
German dictionary in the number of its memoirs. The ' Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography ' reaches a total of twenty thousand. The Dutch 
dictionary, ' Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden,' edited by 
A. G. Van der Aa, supplies only some ten thousand articles, and the 
Swedish, ' Biographiskt Lexicon ofver Namnkunnige Svenskaman,' about 
four thousand. The unfinished ' Biographie Nationale de Belgique,' 
which has been prepared under the auspices of the ' Academie Koyale 
de Belgique,' at present falls below a total of five thousand, but may, 
when completed, reach ten thousand. 

The table on the next page gives statistics of the memoirs in the 
Dictionary, according both to the initial letters under which they fall 
and the centuries to which they belong. This table excludes five genea- 
logical articles on the history respectively of the families of Arundell, 
Bek, Berkeley, Plantagenet, and Vere, and some eleven articles on 
legendary personages or creatures of romance who have been mistaken 
for heroes of history (e.g. Arthur of the Eound Table, Fleta, Guy of 
Warwick, Kobin Hood, Sir John Mandeville, Merlin, Didymus Mountain, 
Mother Shipton, St. Ursula, Matthew Westminster). 

The distribution of the memoirs over the centuries suggests various 
reflections and admits of various interpretations. Leaving out of 
account the dark periods that preceded the sixth century, it will be 
seen that the ninth and tenth prove least fruitful in the production of 
men of the Dictionary's level of distinction. The seventh century was 
more than twice as fruitful as the ninth, and the tenth was far less 
fruitful than the sixth or eighth. Since the tenth century the numbers 
for the most part steadily increase. The eleventh century gives twice 
as many names as its predecessor, and supplies no more than half 
as many as its successor. The successive rises in the thirteenth 



b 

s 


To end of j 
5th Century 


6th Century 
501-600 


7th Century 
601-700 


8th Century ; 
701-800 


9th Century 
801-900 


10th Century 
901-1000 


llth Century 
1001-1100 


12th Century 
1101-1200 


13th Century 
1201-1300 


14th Century 
1301-1400 


15th Century 
1401-1500 


16th Century 
1501-1600 


17th Century : 
1601-1700 , 


18th Ci-nturv 
1701-1800 


So 
5^ 

^ o 
o 

O5 r ~ l 


Grand Total 




1* !^ 

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S 


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S 


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1 


1 


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1 


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1 


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1 


1 








CO 


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1 


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1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


1 


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2 


S 


rH 


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X 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


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Century 


To end of 
5th Century 


6th Century 
501-600 


fe- 
ll 

i 

t- 


8th Century 
701-800 


9th Century 
801-900 


10th Century 
901-1000 


llth Centurj" 
1001-1100 


12th Century 
1101-1200 


13th Century 
1201-1300 


14th Century 
1301-1400 


15th Century 
1401-1500 


16th Century 
1501-1600 


17th Century 
1601-1700 


18th Century 
1701-1800 


19th Century 
1801-1900 


Total number 
under 
each Letter 





A Statistical Account xiii 



and fourteenth centuries are proportionately smaller, and there is a 
well-marked decline in the fifteenth century for which it is difficult 
to account. The sixteenth makes a notable bound, the aggregate 
memoirs belonging to that era being three times as many as those 
of the previous century. The upward progress is continued, although 
not at quite so high a rate, in the seventeenth century, which supplies 
more than twice, but less than thrice, as many names as the sixteenth. 
In the eighteenth the number remains almost stationary : only a slight in- 
crease of 115 names is on the record. In the nineteenth century the 
advance recommences at a very rapid pace, the total number of nine- 
teenth-century names more than doubling those of the previous century. 
In mental and physical activity the nineteenth century resembles the 
sixteenth ; but the advance of the nineteenth century upon the eighteenth 
in the total of memoirs is relatively far smaller than the advance of 
the sixteenth upon the fifteenth. 

Other deductions from the table are possible, if the population esti- 
mates of the country be compared with the tabulated results. When we 
compare the total of thirty thousand memoirs in this work with the total 
number of persons who are believed to have reached adult life (i.e. their 
twenty-fourth year) in these islands through the historic ages, it appears 
that as many as one in every five thousand has gained a sufficient level 
of distinction to secure admission to this Dictionary. If the calculation 
be based on the whole number of births, and not on the number of 
persons who have reached the mature age of twenty-four, every infant's 
chance of attaining the needful level of distinction has been one in ten 
thousand. The ratio for adults is seen from the annexed table to be more 
or less progressive from the tenth century to the nineteenth. In the 
sixteenth century the ratio for adults seems to have stood at one in 
6,250. Through the seventeenth century it rose to one in six thousand, 
but it fell slightly in the eighteenth century, when the increase of popu- 
lation did not produce any proportionate increase in the total of men 
and women of the Dictionary's level of distinction. In this century, 
when we include the English-speaking inhabitants of our colonies (the 
United States are excluded from the Dictionary), the ratio is seen to 
rise sensibly viz. to one in four thousand. 

It would not be pertinent to speculate here on the causes of the 
rise, fall, or stagnation of the ratio of distinction which the figures 
indicate. The stagnation of the ratio in the eighteenth century may 
be attributable to the absence of such stupendous crises in our 
national history as offered exceptionally extended opportunities of 
distinction to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the rise of 
the ratio of distinction in the present century it may be necessary to 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



make some allowance for the inevitable propensity to exaggerate the 
importance of contemporary achievement, and, more especially, for the 
multiplication of printed records ; yet the rise may not be wholly inexpli- 
cable on philosophic grounds. By the multiplication of intellectual 
callings take engineering and its offshoots, for example and by the 
specialisation of science and art, the opportunities of distinction, of the 
lesser magnitudes at any rate, have been of late conspicuously augmented. 
Improvements in educational machinery may, too, have enlarged the 
volume of the nation's intellectual capacity, which is the ultimate spring of 
distinctive achievement. The largeness of the number of names belonging 
to the nineteenth century need not consequently be held to impair the his- 
torical perspective which ought to govern the design of the Dictionary. 

The conclusions to be drawn from the distribution of the names 
over the alphabet are less subtle or arguable. The most favoured 
initial letter of British and Irish surnames is B with 3,078 names. 
C approaches it nearest with 2,542 names, and is very closely followed 
by the two letters S and H, each of which yields the same total 
of 2,420. M yields 2,310 names. In the descending scale P and W 
enjoy almost equal popularity, P providing 1,807 and W 1,797. G 
lags somewhat behind with 1,490, and is followed by K and L, the 
former with 1,462, the latter with 1,437. There succeed D with 1,316, 
F with 1,165, T with 1,054. A musters 870, N 716, J 656, and K, E,' 
and almost tie with 635 in the first case, 619 in the second, and 616 
in the third. The remaining letters present very modest totals. V 
affords 296, I 160, Y 111, U 75, and Q 31. Z with 21 appropriately 
occupies the last place. X is not represented at all. 

The surname which claims the largest number of memoirs is Smith 
(Smith, Smyth, or Smythe) ; biographies of 195 persons bearing this 
surname are published in the Dictionary. Jones follows with 132. 
Stewart (Steuart, Steward, Stewart, or Stuart) is the title of 112 memoirs ; 
Hamilton of 106 memoirs ; Brown (Broun, Brown, or Browne) of 102 ' 
Clark (Clarke, Clerk, or Clerke) of 99 ; Moore (Moor, Moore, or More) 
of 88 ; Taylor (or Tayler) of 86 ; Douglas (or Douglass) of 85 ; Scott (or 
Scot) of 83 ; Grey (or Gray) of 81 ; Williams of 81 ; Gordon of 80 - 
Wilson (or Willson) of 80 ; Thompson (or Thomson, Tomson, and Tomp- 
son) of 78 ; Campbell of 72 ; Murray of 71 ; Davies (or Davis) of 68 
Howard of 66 ; and Robinson of 63. There are 389 names beginning 
with the prefix Mac- ; 220 names beginning with the prefix 0' ; and 13< 
beginning with the prefix Fitz-. 

The full number of pages in the Dictionary is 29,108. The number 
of articles is 29,120. It therefore follows that the average length of an 
article is slightly less than one page. Volume by volume the average 



A Statistical Account xv 



length of articles has slightly risen in the progress of the work. The 
following articles are among the longest in the Dictionary : 

PAGES 

Shakespeare (by Mr. Sidney Lee) ....... 49 

The Duke of Wellington (by Col. E. M. Lloyd, R.E.) ... 34 
Francis Bacon (by Dr. S. Rawson Gardiner and the Rev. Dr. 

Thomas Fowler) 32 

Oliver Cromwell (by Mr. C. H. Firth) 31 

Queen Elizabeth (by the Rev. Dr. Augustus Jessopp) . . .28 
Sir Robert Walpole (by Mr. I. S. Leadam) . . . . .28 
John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough (by Mr. Leslie Stephen) . 26 

Sir Walter Scott (by Mr. Leslie Stephen) 25 

Edward I (by the Rev. William Hunt) 24 

Byron (by Mr. Leslie Stephen) . . . . . . . .24 

Charles II (by Dr. A. W. Ward) 24 

Sir Isaac Newton (by Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S.) . . . .23 

Swift (by Mr. Leslie Stephen) 23 

Edward III (by the Rev. William Hunt) . . . . ,22 

Sterne (by Mr. Sidney Lee) 22 

Wycliffe (by the Rev. Hastings Rashdall) .21 

The total number of contributors to the Dictionary is 653, of whom 
fifty-six have died during the publication of the work. Of these, 224 
have contributed one article apiece, and 829 from two to twenty articles 
apiece. The remaining one hundred can be described as more or less 
regular and voluminous contributors, either through the whole progress 
of the work or during prolonged periods in the course of its preparation. 
It is by these one hundred regular and voluminous contributors that the 
bulk of the work has been done. In fact, they have written nearly 
three-fourths of the whole. These one hundred regular contributors 
include experts in nearly all departments of knowledge, and they have 
treated many of the more prominent names, as well as the names of 
smaller importance, in their special fields of study. In a single instance 
the whole of one department of biographical knowledge has been entrusted 
to a single regular contributor. All the naval biographies have come 
from the pen of Professor J. K. Laughton. Similarly the memoirs of all 
but a very few actors and actresses have been written by Mr. Joseph 
Knight. The treatment of other special fields has engaged the attention 
of two or more regular contributors, or in the course of the work one 
specialist has been succeeded by another, or one regular writer has 
undertaken a share of more than one branch of special study. The 
lives of soldiers have been chiefly handled by Mr. H. Morse Stephens 
(until the letter F), the late H. Manners Chichester, Colonel R. H. 
Vetch, R.E., C.B., and Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. In mediaeval history 
the chief part of the work has been executed by Sir Edward Maunde 
Thompson, K.C.B., the Rev. William Hunt, Professor T. F. Tout, Mr. 



XVI 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



J. H. Bound, Mr. James Tait, Mr. C. L. Kingsford, Mr. R. L. Poole, Mr. 
T. A. Archer, Miss Kate Norgate, and Miss Mary Bateson. In sixteenth- 
century history Dr. Mandell Creighton, the present Bishop of London, 
Mr. James Gairdner, C.B., Dr. Augustus Jessopp, Mr. W. A. J. Archbold, 
Mr. A. F. Pollard, and Mr. I. S. Leadam have treated notable statesmen 
and politicians. Dr. S. E. Gardiner, Mr. C. H. Firth, and Dr. A. W. 
Ward have dealt with leading figures in the history of the seventeenth 
century, while many men of smaller note have been treated by Mr. 
W. A. Shaw and Miss Bertha Porter. Eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
century lawyers and politicians have been noticed by Mr. J. M. Rigg, 
Mr. J. A. Hamilton, Mr. G. F. Russell Barker, Mr. William Carr, and 
Mr. Fraser Rae ; men of varied kinds of distinction in the nineteenth 
century by the late Mr. G. C. Boase, Mr. G. Le Grys Norgate, and Mr. 
E. Irving Carlyle ; Indian administrators by Sir Alexander Arbuthnot, 
K.C.S.I. ; early settlers in America by Mr. J. A. Doyle, and colonial 
statesmen by Mr. C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. The careers of some 
distinguished personages in the history of the City of London have been 
chronicled by Mr. Charles Welch. Mr. Robert Dunlop, Mr. Richard 
Bagwell, Mr. Litton Falkiner, the Rev. Thomas Olden, and Dr. Norman 
Moore have dealt with eminent Irishmen of various periods ; Sheriff 
Mackay, Mr. T. F. Henderson, Mr. A. H. Millar, and Mr. Thomas 
Bayne with eminent Scotsmen, and Mr. Lleufer Thomas and Mr. J. E. 
Lloyd with eminent Welshmen. Many memoirs of Anglican bishops 
and divines are from the pens of the Rev. Canon Overtoil, the late Rev. 
Canon Venables, Mr. J. Bass Mullinger, the Rev. W. H. Hutton, the 
Rev. A. R. Buckland, and the Rev. Ronald Bayne. The Rev. Alexander 
Gordon has dealt with a very large number of the nonconformist clergy 
of the three kingdoms. Roman Catholic divines and writers have been 
entrusted to Mr. Thompson Cooper, and, in later volumes, also to Mr. 
T. G. Law ; and numerous Quakers to Miss Fell Smith. 

Some of the greatest names in literature and philosophy have been 
dealt with by Mr. Leslie Stephen, and his contributions include memoirs 
of Addison, Burns, Byron, Carlyle, Coleridge, Defoe, Dickens, Dryden, 
Goldsmith, Hume, Landor, Macaulay, the Mills, Milton, Pope, Scott, 
Swift, Thackeray, and Wordsworth. Many Elizabethan men of letters 
and politicians have been treated by Mr. Sidney Lee, and his contribu- 
tions include memoirs of Ascham, Lodge, Lyly, Marlowe, Shakespeare, 
Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Francis Walsingham, Archbishop Whitgift, and 
Sir Thomas Wyatt, as well as Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Laurence 
Sterne, of later periods. In the earlier volumes Mr. A. H. Bullen also 
wrote of many prominent Elizabethan and Jacobean authors. Mr. 
Thomas Seccombe has covered a wide field, chiefly in literature of the 



A Statistical Account xvii 

last three centuries : his contributions include memoirs of Smollett and 
of Sir John Vanbrugh. Mr. G. A. Aitken has treated of several writers 
of the Eestoration and Queen Anne's reign. Mr. "W. P. Courtney has 
written nearly six hundred articles on Cornishmen and on literary 
workers of- the eighteenth century. Mr. Austin Dobson has likewise 
contributed memoirs of several eighteenth- century men of letters, 
including Eichard Steele and Horace Walpole. Dr. Eichard Garnett, 
C.B., has dealt with numerous men of letters of the nineteenth century, 
including Bossetti, Shelley, and Southey ; some minor women writers 
of the same period have been commemorated by Miss Elizabeth Lee. 
Mr. H. B. Tedder has described the careers of printers and book- 
collectors ; and various authors of Lancashire birth have been treated 
by Mr. C. W. Sutton. Orientalists have been mainly undertaken by 
Professor Stanley Lane-Poole, Professor E. K. Douglas, Professor 
Cecil Bendall, and the Eev. Professor Margoliouth. Artists have 
been entrusted to Mr. Lionel Gust, Mr. Austin Dobson, Mr. Cosmo 
Monkhouse, Mr. E. E. Graves, Mr. F. M. O'Donoghue, Mr. Campbell 
Dodgson, and Sir Walter Armstrong ; architects in later volumes to 
Mr. Paul Waterhouse ; numismatists and medallists throughout the 
work to Mr. Warwick Wroth, and musicians to Mr. W. Barclay Squire, 
Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland, Mr. H. Davey, Mr. F. G. Edwards, Mr. J. Cuth- 
bert Hadden, Mr. E. H. Legge, and Miss Middleton. Physicians have 
been handled by Dr. J. F. Payne and by Dr. Norman Moore, who has 
also treated of many writers in the Irish tongue ; surgeons, from the 
letter L, by Mr. D'Arcy Power ; astronomers by Miss A. M. Clerke ; 
botanists by Mr. G. S. Boulger and Mr. B. B. Woodward ; geologists, 
from the letter M, by Professor Bonney, F.E.S. ; chemists, from the 
letter M, by Mr. P. J. Hartog ; many engineers and inventors by 
Mr. E. B. Prosser ; mathematicians by Mr. E. Irving Carlyle ; agricul- 
turists, from the letter P, by Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. ; and economists, 
from L, by Professor W. A. S. Hewins. 

The table on the pages that follow shows the total number of pages 
contributed by the thirty-four largest regular contributors. Only those 
whose contributions reach a total of pages nearly equivalent to half a 
volume or more are included. It will be seen that this table accounts 
for the production of no less than thirty-eight volumes. 

The names of only seven contributors appear in the prefatory lists of 
all the sixty-three volumes namely, Mr. Thompson Cooper, Mr. W. P. 
Courtney, the Eev. Alexander Gordon, the Eev. William Hunt, Professor 
J. K. Laughton, Mr. Sidney Lee, and Dr. Norman Moore. The name of 
Mr. J. M. Eigg is absent only from one volume viz. Volume LII. Dr. 
Garnett's name appears in all but two (Volumes XXVI. and LVL), and 
VOL. LXIII. a 



XV111 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



THE THIRTY-FOUR CONTRIBUTORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN THE LARGEST 
NUMBER OF PAGES IN THE DICTIONARY. 



Name 


Full Amount of 
Contributions 
reckoned 
approximately in 
number of pages 


Amount of Contributions 
reckoned in volumes 


No. of 
Articles 
contributed 


Mr. Sidney Lee 


1370 


Three volumes 


820 


Professor J. K. Laughton 


1000 


Two and a quarter 


904 


Mr. Leslie Stephen .... 


1000 


Two and a quarter 


378 


Mr. T. F. Henderson 


900 


Two 


918 


Mr. Thompson Cooper . , 


900 


Two 


1422 


Rev. William Hunt .... 


830 


Two 


595 


Rev. Alexander Gordon . 


750 


One and three-quarters 


691 


Mr. Gordon Goodwin 


730 


One and three-quarters 


1178 


Mr. Thomas Seccombe . 


680 


One and a half 


578 


Mr. W. P. Courtney .... 


610 


One and a third 


595 


Mr. J. M. Rigg 


560 


One and a quarter 


610 


Mr. C. H. Firth .... 


500 


One 


222 


Mr. G. F. Russell Barker . 


470 


One 


300 


The late Mr. George C. Boase . 


470 


One 


723 


Mr. Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 


460 


One 


351 


The late Mr. H. Manners Chichester 


430 


One 


499 


Professor T. F. Tout .... 


430 


One 


240 


Mr. A. F. Pollard . 


410 


One 


426 


Mr. E. I. Carlyle .' 


380 


Seven-eighths 


569 


Colonel R. H. Vetch .... 


360 


Three-quarters 


183 


Mr. C. L. Kingsford .... 


330 


Three-quarters 


378 


Mr. Lionel Cust, F.S.A. . 


320 


Three-quarters 


7fiO 










Mr. J. A. Hamilton .... 


320 


Three-quarters 


293 


Mr. Robert Dunlop .... 


310 


Three-quarters 


169 


Dr. A. W. Ward . 


300 


Two-thirds 


58 



A Statistical Account 



XIX 



THE THIRTY-FOUB CONTRIBUTORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN THE LARGEST 
NUMBER OF PAGES IN THE DICTIONARY. Continued. 



Name 


Full Amount of 
Contributions 
reckoned 
approximately in 
number of pages 


Amount of Contributions 
reckoned in volumes 


No. of 

Articles 
contributed 


Dr. Norman Moore .... 


280 


Two-thirds 


454 


Mr. James Gairdner, C.B. 


270 


Five-eighths 


77 


Sheriff Mackay . . . . 


260 


Five-eighths 


125 


Dr. Richard Garnett, C.B. 


230 


One half 


177 


Mr. W. A. J. Archbold . 


220 


One half 


351 


Mr. G. Le Grys Norgate . 


220 


One half . 


241 


Mr. James Tait .... 


210 


One half 


118 


Mr. H. Morse Stephens . . . 210 


One half 


229 


Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse 


200 


One half 


137 


Totals . 


16920 


Thirty-eight 


15769 



Mr. Leslie Stephen and Mr. C. W. Button in all but three. Mr. T. F. 
Henderson and Mr. Joseph Knight figure in every volume excepting 
four, Mr. J. A. Hamilton in every volume excepting five. Mr. C. H. 
Firth and Mr. Warwick Wroth contribute to fifty-seven of the sixty- 
three volumes, the late Mr. G. C. Boase to fifty-six volumes, Mr. 
G. F. Eussell Barker and Mr. Lionel Gust to fifty-five volumes, 
Professor T. F. Tout to fifty-four volumes, and Mr. Thomas Bayne to 
fifty volumes. 

The following regular contributors have died during the progress of 
the work : G. T. Bettany (d. 1892) ; George Clement Boase (d. 1897) ; 
H. Manners Chichester (d. 1894) ; C. H. Coote (d. 1898) ; Dr. John Westby 
Gibson (d. 1892) ; Sir John T. Gilbert (d. 1898) ; John Miller Gray, 
curator of Scottish National Gallery (d. 1894) ; Dr. W. A. Greenhill 
(d. 1894) ; Dr. A. B. Grosart (d. 1899) ; Eobert Harrison, late librarian of 
the London Library (d. 1897) ; the Eev. Dr. Luard (d. 1891) ; Walter H. 
Tregellas (d. 1894) ; and the Rev. Canon Venables (d. 1895). Memoirs 
of the last three contributors have been included in volumes of the 
Dictionary that have been published subsequently to the dates of their 
deaths. Special commemoration is due to the late G. C. Boase and the 
late H. Manners Chichester, whose contributions in their several lines of 
study were very numerous. Their zeal for the undertaking was great, 



XX 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



and it is cause for deep regret that they did not live to witness its com- 
pletion. 1 

The occasional contributors, who are larger numerically than the 
regular contributors, although their contributions cover a smaller area, 
include distinguished experts in every branch of knowledge, and they 
have usefully supplemented the labours of the regular contributors by 
undertaking memoirs to the preparation of which they brought pecu- 
liarly apposite experience. The following is a list of some of the more 
interesting and valuable articles due to occasional contributors : 2 

The Rev. Canon Ainger on Charles Lamb and Tennyson. 

Mr. Robert Boyle on Philip Massinger. 

Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S., on James Watt the engineer. 

Professor A. H. Church, F.R.S., on Josiah Wedgwood. 

The Rev. Andrew Clark on Anthony a Wood. 

Mr. Sidney Colvin on Flaxman, Keats, and Robert Louis Stevenson. 

Mr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., on Charles Darwin. 
*Sir William Flower, F.R.S. (d. 1899), on Sir Richard Owen. 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., on Francis Maitland Balfour. 
Professor E. A. Freeman (d. 1892) on Alfred the Great. 

The Very Rev. the Hon. W. H. Fremantle, Dean of Ripon, on 
Archbishop Tait. 

The Right Hon. Sir Edward Fry on John Selden. 

Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., on Sir Isaac Newton. 

Mr. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., on Walter (Horatio) Pater. 

Professor J. W. Hales on Chaucer. 

Professor C. H. Herford on Ben Jonson and Middleton. 

Mr. Henry Higgs on Arthur Young. 
*The Rev. Professor Hort (d. 1892) on Bishop Lightfoot. 

1 Memoirs of Messrs. Boase and Chichester, as well as of Sir John T. Gilbert, John 
Miller Gray, Dr. W. A. Greenhill, and Dr. A. B. Grosart (among deceased regular contri- 
butors), will be issued in a Supplement to the present issue of the Dictionary, which will be 
published next year. 

2 Six of these writers, whose names are here marked with an asterisk, have died since the 
cited articles were prepared. Of these contributors a memoir of Professor Tyndall is given 
in Vol. LVII. of the Dictionary. Notices of the other five deceased contributors who are 
mentioned in the above list will appear in the Supplement to the Dictionary. The following 
occasional contributors who died while the work was in progress are already noticed in 
volumes issued subsequently to the dates of their deaths : Octavian Blewitt (d. 1884), Dutton 
Cook (d. 1883), Mrs. Anne Gilchrist (d. 1885), Robert Hunt, F.R.S. (d. 1887), Westland 
Marston (d. 1890), F. R. Oliphant (d. 1894), Wyatt Papworth (d. 1894), George Groom 
Robertson (d. 1892), Dr. Hack Tuke (d. 1896), Henri van Laun (d. 1896), Cornelius Walford 
(d. 1885), Edward Walford (d. 1897), and John Ward, C.B. (d. 1890). The Supplement will 
include the following names of occasional contributors, in addition to those already indicated, 
who have died during the progress of the work: Grant Allen (d. 1899), Sheldon Amos 
(d. 1886), John Eglinton Bailey (d. 1888), Professor W. G. Blaikie (d. 1899), Wilkie Collins 
(d. 1889), the Rev. Canon Dixon (d. 1900), J. P. Earwaker (d. 1895), Arthur Locker (d. 1893), 
Professor John Nichol (d. 1894), John Ormsby (d. 1895), the Rev. Canon Perry (d. 1897), 
and the Rev. Nicholas Pocock (d. 1897). 



A Statistical Account xxt 

Professor G. B. Howes, F.R.S., on William Kitchin Parker. 
*Mr. E. H. Hutton (d. 1897) on Walter Bagehot. 
*Mr. Alexander Ireland (d. 1894) on Leigh Hunt. 

Professor Sir Eichard Jebb on Bentley and Person. 

The Hon. Francis Lawley on Admiral Eous. 

Mr. W. S. Lilly on Cardinal Newman. 

Sir Theodore Martin on Prince Albert, John Singleton Copley 
(Lord Lyndhurst), and Croker. 

Sir Alfred Milner, G.C.B., on Arnold Toynbee. 

The Eight Hon. John Morley on Eichard Cobden. 

Sir George Herbert Murray, K.C.B., on Thomas Tooke. 

The Hon. George Peel on Sir Eobert Peel. 

Mr. F. C. Penrose, F.E.S., on Christopher Wren. 

Mr. G. W. Prothero on Sir John Eobert Seeley. 

Mr. E. E. Prothero on Dean Stanley. 

The Eev. Hastings Eashdall on Wycliffe. 

Mrs. Eichmond Eitchie on Elizabeth Barrett Browning. 

Professor Goldwin Smith on Lord Cardwell. 

The Very Eev. W. E. W. Stephens, Dean of Winchester, on St. 
Anselm. 

Professor Silvanus Thompson, F.E.S., on Sir Charles Wheatstone. 
*Professor Tyndall (d. 1893) on Michael Faraday. 

Sir Henry Trueman Wood on Sir William Siemens. 

Dr. Aldis Wright on Edward Fitzgerald. 

Much voluntary assistance has been rendered to the Dictionary in 
the course of its publication. Information on points of family history 
has been placed at the disposal oi editors and contributors too fre- 
quently and too abundantly to render specific acknowledgment practicable. 
Special thanks are due to the editor of the ' Athenaeum,' who generously 
printed successive lists of names of persons, memoirs of whom were to 
appear in the Dictionary. Many readers of the ' Athenaeum ' forwarded 
suggestions, by which the Dictionary has greatly benefited. Nor ought 
omission to be made of critics of the Dictionary, who carefully examined 
each volume on publication and noted defects or ambiguities. One of 
these critics, the Eev. John Eussell Washbourn, Eector of Eudford, 
Gloucester, forwarded his remarks with great regularity, volume by 
volume, through the first thirty-five volumes, until his death in 1893. 
Another critic, the Eev. W. C. Boulter, contributed a series of quarterly 
papers of corrections to ' Notes and Queries ' through the whole progress 
of the undertaking. 

Much help has been received from the custodians of archives of the 
public offices at home and abroad, from the officials of the British Museum, 



xxu 



The Dictionary of National Biography 



of the Bodleian and Cambridge University Libraries, and of the Inns of 
Court, as well as from librarians in all parts of the United Kingdom 
and from the secretaries of learned societies in the colonies and in 
America. Many clergymen have, at the request of editors or contributors, 
consulted their parish registers without charging fees. At both Oxford and 
Cambridge, not only have the keepers of the University Eegisters been 
always ready in answering inquiries, but the heads of many colleges have 
shown great zeal in making researches in their college archives on behalf of 
the Dictionary. Particular recognition is due in this regard to the Eev. 
Dr. Magrath, provost of Queen's College, Oxford, and to Dr. John Peile, 
master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Information respecting members 
of the great society of Trinity College, Cambridge, has been freely placed 
at the Dictionary's disposal by Dr. Aldis Wright, the vice-president, 
while no inquiry addressed to Mr. E. F. Scott, bursar of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, or to Dr. John Venn, fellow and lecturer of Caius College, 
Cambridge, has failed to procure a useful reply. The successive regis- 
trars of Dublin University have also shown the readiest disposition to 
render the information supplied by the Dictionary concerning the 
graduates of Trinity College as precise as possible. 

Criticism or appreciation of the completed enterprise would be out 
of place here. That there are errors in the Dictionary those who 
have been most closely associated with its production are probably more 
conscious than other people. On that subject it need only be said 
that every effort will be made, as soon as opportunity serves, to correct 
those errors that have been pointed out to the editor, all of which 
have been carefully tabulated. But whatever the shortcomings of the 
work, the Dictionary can fairly claim to have brought together a 
greater mass of accurate information respecting the past achievements 
of the British and Irish race than has been put at the disposal of the 
English-speaking peoples in any previous literary undertaking. Such 
a work of reference may be justly held to serve the national and the 
beneficial purpose of helping the present and future generations to 
realise more thoroughly than were otherwise possible the character of 
their ancestors' collective achievement, of which they now enjoy the 
fruits. Similar works have been produced in foreign countries under 
the auspices of State-aided literary academies, or have been subsidised 
by the national exchequers. It is in truer accord with the self- 
reliant temperament of the British race that this ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' is the outcome of private enterprise and the 
handiwork of private citizens. 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE SIXTY-THIRD VOLUME. 



G. A. A.. . 
J. G. A. . . 
M. B. . . . 
R. B. . . . 
T. B. . . . 
C. B. . . . 
H. E. D. B. 
T. G. B. . 

G. S. B. . 
T. B. B. . 
E. L. C.. . 
E. I. C. . . 
J. W. C-K. 

E. C-E. . . 
A. M. C-E, 
T. C. . . . 
W. P. C. . 
L. C. . . . 
H. D. . . . 

A. D. . . . 
J. A. D. . 

B. D. . . . 

F. G. E.. . 

C. L. F. . 
C. H. F. . 



, G. A. AITKEN. 
. J. G. ALGEB. 
. Miss BATESON. 
. THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 
. THOMAS BAYNE. 
. PKOFESSOR CECIL BENDALL. 
. THE REV. H. E. D. BLAKISTON. 
. THE REV. PBOFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.R.S. 

. G. S. BOULGEB. 

. T. B. BBOWNING. 

. E. LEVESON CALVERLEY. 

. E. IRVING CAELYLE. 

. J. WILLIS CLARK. 

. SIB ERNEST CLARKE. 

. Miss A. M. COOKE. 

. THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

. W. P. COURTNEY. 

. LIONEL GUST, F.S.A. 

. HENRY DAVEY. 

. AUSTIN DOBSON. 

. J. A. DOYLE. 

. ROBERT DUNLOP. 

. F. G. EDWARDS. 

. C. LITTON FALKINEB. 

. C. H. FIBTH. 



P. J. H. 
H. H-s.. 
T. E. H. 
W. H.. 



W. Y. F. . . W. Y. FLETCHER. 

S. R. G. . . S. R. GABDINEB, LL.D., D.C.L. 

R. G RICHARD GABNETT, LL.D., C.B. 

A. G THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

T. H THE REV. THOMAS HAMILTON, D.D. 

C. A. H. . . C. ALEXANDER HARRIS, C.M.G. 
J. E. H. . . J. E. HARTING, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
P. J. HARTOG. 
HENRY HIGGS. 
PROFESSOR T. E. HOLLAND. 
THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 
W. H. H. . THE REV. W. H. HUTTON, B.D. 

J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 
T. G. L. . . T. G. LAW. 
I. S. L. . . . I. S. LEADAM. 

E. L Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 

S. L SIDNEY LEE. 

C. H. L. . . C. H. LEES, D.Sc. 

COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 

J. E. LLOYD. 

THE REV. J. H. LUPTON, D.D. 

J. R. MACDONALD. 

SHERIFF MACKAY. 

THE REV. PROFESSOR MAKGO- 
LIOUTH. 




XXIV 



List of Writers. 



A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAR. 

C. M COSMO MONKHOUSE. 

N. M NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. BASS MULLINGER. ' 

A. N ALBERT NICHOLSON. 

G. LE G. N. G. LE GRTS NOROATE. 

D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D.. F. M. O'DONOGHUE, F.S.A. 
J. H. 0. . . THE REV. CANON OVERTON. 
F. C. P. . . F. C. PENROSE, Lrri.D., D.C.L., 
F.B.S. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLABD. 

B. P Miss BERTHA PORTER. 

D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 
E. L. E. . . MRS. EADFORD. 

H. E-L. . . . THE EEV. HASTINGS EASHDALL, 
B.D. 



W. E. E. . . W. E. EHODE 
J. M. E. . . J. M. EIGG. 

H. E HERBERT Eix. 

JOHN SARUM THE BISHOP OF SALISBURY. 

T. S THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

L. S LESLIE STEPHEN. 

i G. S-H. . . . GEORGE STRONACH. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 

D. LL. T. . D. LLEUFER THOMAS. 
M. T MRS. TOUT. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 
C. T COUTTS TROTTER. 

E. H. V. . . COLONEL E. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 
P. W PAUL WATERHOUSE. 

W. W. . . . WARWICK WROTH, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



WORDSWORTH, CHARLES (1806- 
1892), bishop of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and 
Dunblane, second son of Christopher Words- 
worth (1774-1846) [q. v.J, master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, was nephew of William 
Wordsworth [q. v.], the poet, and elder bro- 
ther of Christopher Wordsworth (1807- 
1885) [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln. 

Charles was born at Lambeth on 22 Aug. 
1806, his father then being chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Manners-Button. His mother died in 
1815 at the age of thirty-three, and Mrs. 
Hoare, widow of the banker, Samuel Hoare 
of Hampstead, and his sister, did much to 
supply a mother's place. At Sevenoaks school, 
near his father's benefice of Sundridge, he 
began to show his taste for Latin verse and 
cricket. In 1820, when his brothers went to 
Winchester^ Charles, having somewhat deli- 
cate health, was sent to the milder discipline 
of Harrow, whither his friend and neighbour 
Henry Edward (afterwards Cardinal) Man- 
ning was also sent. Other contemporaries 
were the two Meri vales, Herman and Charles 
(dean of Ely), and the two Trenches, Francis 
and Richard (the archbishop of Dublin). 
Here his special tastes abundantly developed. 
Charles Merivale calls him ' king of our 
cricket field ' (Autobioyr. p. 44), though his 
nervousness prevented him from scoring 
largely in set matches. His name must, 
however, always be associated with the 
history of the game. He played in the first 
regular Eton and Harrow match in 1822, 
in the first Winchester and Harrow match 
in 1825, and brought about the first Oxford 
and Cambridge match in 1827. He had 
also much to do with the first inter-univer- 
sity boatrace in 1828. He played tennis at 
Oxford, and was an excellent skater to a late 
period of his life. He did. not take to golf, 

VOL. LXIII. 



which he never played till he reached the 
age of eighty-four. He was brilliant as a 
classical scholar, and in writing Greek and 
Latin verses he became a poet. Latin-verse 
composition was his peculiar delight and 
solace to the end of his long life. 

His Harrow successes were crowned by 
greater distinctions at Christ Church, Oxford, 
which he entered in 1825 as a commoner, 
Charles Thomas Longley [q. v.] (afterwards 
archbishop) and Thomas Vowler Short [q.v.] 
(afterwards bishop of St. Asaph) being his 
tutors. His Virgilian poem on Mexico, with 
which he won the chancellor's prize for Latin 
verse in 1827, is one of the best of its kind ; 
it is printed in appendix to ' Annals,' vol. i., 
with the Latin essay, which also gained him 
the chancellor's prize in 1831. It led to his 
obtaining a studentship in 1827 from Dean 
Smith. He took his degree (first-class classics) 
in the spring of 1830, and shortly afterwards 
gathered, in succession up to 1833, a bril- 
liant company of private pupils, including 
James Hope (Hope-Scott), William Ewart 
Gladstone, Henry E. Manning, Francis 
Doyle, Walter Kerr Hamilton, Lord Lincoln 
(Duke of Newcastle), Thomas Dyke-Acland, 
Charles J. Canning (Lord Canning), and 
Francis L. Popham. In September 1831 he 
went with William Wordsworth and Dora, 
his uncle and cousin, on their last visit to 
Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford. From 
July 1833 to June 1834 he travelled as tutor 
to Lord Cantelupe in Germany, Denmark, 
Sweden, and Norway, returning by Greifs- 
wald and Berlin, where he learnt something 
of German university education, and became 
more or less acquainted with Professors 
Schleiermacher, Neander, Bockh, Henning, 
Immanuel Bekker, and D. F. Strauss. He 
also visited Dresden and Leipzig. In the 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



same summer he travelled in France with 
Roundell Palmer (afterwards Lord Selborne). 

After Palmer's departure he met, in Paris, 
Charlotte, orphan daughter of the Rev. 
George Day of Earsham, near Bungay, to 
whom he became engaged to be married. 
On his return to Christ Church he was ap- 
pointed to a public tutorship by Gaisford 
(dean in 1831), and was ordained deacon by 
Bishop Bagot of Oxford (21 Dec. 1834). He 
did not proceed to the priesthood until six 
years later (13 Dec. 1840). 

Meanwhile, at midsummer 1835, he was 
elected second master of Winchester College. 
The mastership had never been held except 
by a Wykehamist. The office brought him 
an opportunity for the exercise of his special 
faculty of teaching and a valuable experience 
of management, involving the inner control 
of the ancient college and its seventy scholars. 
He enjoyedthere not only the intimate friend- 
ship of Warden Barter, but close companion- 
ship with George Moberly [q. v.], the head- 
master (afterwards bishop or Salisbury), and 
frequent intercourse with John Keble at 
Hursley. His marriage followed on 29 Dec. 
1835 in Norwich Cathedral, and his married 
life was extremely happy. But Mrs. Words- 
worth died after giving birth to her only 
child, a daughter (Charlotte Emmeline), 
10 May 1839. The Latin distich which con- 
cludes his epitaph on her (in the antechapel 
of the college) has become famous : 

I, nimiuzn dilecta, vocat Deus ; I, bona nostrae 
Pars animae : maerens altera, disce sequi. 

Her death was followed (31 Dec. 1839) by 
that of his elder brother John. To Words- 
worth and to Warden Barter (who began 
the sermons in chapel) the initiation of a new 
period in the religious life of our oldest 
public school was largely due. His efforts 
were directed chiefly to make the traditional 
system of the place real. He succeeded in 
instituting a set time for private prayer. 
The chapel service was much improved, 
partly by the efforts pf John Pyke Hullah 
[q. v.], who came at Wordsworth's request 
to teach every college boy to sing, as the 
statutes required that they should be able to 
do. Owing to his decisive and yet persuasive 
method of teaching, his expectation of great 
results, his taste in scholarship, and his 
camaraderie in games, Wordsworth had pro- 
bably a greater ability to draw boys out 
into a manly way of church religion than 
any schoolmaster of the period. He was 
orthodox but not narrow. He inherited from 
his father and his friends, such as Joshua 
Watson [q.v.] and Hugh James Rose [q.v.], 
the traditions of the old high-church Angli- 



canism, to which he added much of the zeal 
and hopefulness of the Oxford movement, 
while his quaker blood and connections gave 
him broader and more evangelical sym- 
pathies. His Winchester life and its aspira- 
tions and successes are reflected in several 
books. His churchmanship was developed 
to its highest point in a sermon on ' Evan- 
gelical Repentance ' (1841 ; with large ap- 
pendix, 1842), in which he advocated the 
restoration of public penance. His teaching 
to the boys is given in an excellent con- 
firmation manual, first published under the 
title ' Catechetical Questions ' (1842, 1844), 
and afterwards as 'Catechesis' (1849); in 
' Three Sermons on Communion in Prayer ' 
(1843) ; and in the two volumes of ' Chris- 
tian Boyhood at a Public School,' which 
collected his chief addresses to them (1846). 
Aprivatelyprinted address suggested a closer 
relation of individual confidence. His en- 
thusiasm for the old foundation is expressed 
in ' The College of St. Mary, Winton, near 
Winchester' (1848), a miscellaneous illus- 
trated volume of great interest to Wyke- 
hamists. 

Wordsworth's greatest success in scholar- 
ship was the production of a ' Greek Gram- 
mar' (' Grsecse Grammaticse Rudimenta'), 
which for a long time was the grammar almost 
everywhere in use in England ; and its acci- 
dence, at any rate, is still widely used. The 
accidence was published in January 1839, 
and the syntax apparently in 1843. Among 
his scholastic methods was the learning of 
Latin prose (Cicero) by heart by every boy. 
His own most remarkable production was 
the translation of Roundell Palmer's ' Lines 
on the Four Hundred and Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of the Foundation of Winchester 
College ' (1843), done into Greek trochaics in 
1846. Admirable translations into Latin 
verse of Ken's morning, evening, and mid- 
night hymns, and Keble's morning and even- 
ing hymns, were also printed for his friends 
and pupils in!845. At the beginning of 1846 
Wordsworth resigned his post at Winches- 
ter, partly on account of his father's failing 
health (he died on 2 Feb. 1846). In the spring 
he preached a farewell sermon and edited 
the two volumes of ' Christian Boyhood.' 

Shortly afterwards he accepted the offer 
made by his old pupil Gladstone of the 
wardenship of the new episcopalian Trinity 
college then being founded in Scotland. The 
scheme for founding this college, which was 
to be a training college for ordination candi- 
dates and a public school for boys, was first 
broached by James Hope and Gladstone in 
1841, and was encouraged by Dean Ramsay 
in Edinburgh. Much money was collected 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



for it in England as well as among the Scot- 
tish gentry, and in September 1844 the site, 
at Glenalmond in Perthshire, was chosen, the 
gift of Mr. G. Patton. The buildings, de- 
signed by Sir Gilbert Scott, were soon in pro- 
gress, but it was not until 8 Sept. 1846 that 
the first stone of the chapel was laid by Sir 
John Gladstone. On 28 Oct. Wordsworth 
entered on a second marriage with Katha- 
rine Mary, eldest daughter of William Bar- 
ter, rector of Burghclere, Hampshire, and 
niece of his friend the warden of Winchester. 
A few months were spent by the newly 
married pair in foreign travel, chiefly in Italy : 
and the new college was opened on 4 May 
1847. 

Wordsworth began with fourteen boys, the 
first being the eighth Marquis of Lothian ; 
two others were sons of Bishop Ewing of 
Argyll. The divinity students came about 
a year later. Notwithstanding the difficul- 
ties attaching to such joint education, Words- 
worth made it a success, and was sore when 
the elder students were settled in Edinburgh 
in 1876. They were the warden's special 
charge as Pantonian professor, and his ' Cur- 
sus Theologicus, drawn from Sermons,' for 
their benefit, may be studied with advantage 
(Annals* App. ii. 217-23). The school dis- 
cipline was naturally much based on that of 
Winchester (see the rules and prayers, ib. 
pp. 205-16). The prefectorial system was 
instituted and school games encouraged. 
Even a school for servitors was established 
(1848), somewhat after the older model. 
The chapel, which was in great part his 
over-generous gift to the college (consecrated 
on 1 May 1851), was the centre of the daily 
life. All wore surplices, and all were taught 
to sing. The success was great and real. 
The Scottish office for holy communion was 
used (by the bishops' desire) alternately 
with the English. ' Three Sermons on Holy 
Communion as a Sacrament, Sacrifice, and 
Eucharist ' (1855), worthily embody the 
warden's teaching to his boys on this sub- 
ject. The staff was strong and congenial. 
The volume of ' Sermons preached at Trinity 
College' (1854) gives not only seven of 
his own but eight by the editor (Bishop) 
Alfred Barry, who joined the staff in 1849, 
and was sub-warden from 1850 and seven 
by other colleagues. 

During his residence at Glenalmond the 
warden became gradually interested in 
Scottish church questions.* Unfortunately 
his interest took largely the form of criti- 
cism of the actions of Patrick Torry, bishop 
of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane, his 
diocesan, and of Gladstone, the leading mem- 
ber of the college council. Bishop Torry's ! 



' Prayer Book ' (1850) was the first book since 
1637 purporting to be a complete and inde- 
pendent Scottish prayer-book, and it gave 
natural offence to many. Wordsworth cen- 
sured it in seven letters to the ' Guardian ' 
newspaper, and led the condemnation of it 
in the diocesan synod. His opposition to 
Gladstone was on the subject of the duty 
of church establishment, of which Words- 
worth was always, as Gladstone had been, 
a staunch upholder. Wordsworth refused 
his vote to Gladstone, who became candidate 
for Oxford first in 1847, and in sermons and 
letters lost no opportunity of manifesting 
his opposition to Gladstone's views. 

His leadership in regard to the Gorham 
case, however, united all parties in the 
diocese, and his frequent articles in the 
' Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal ' did credit 
to the church. Bishop Torry died on 3 Oct. 
1852. Wordsworth was one of the seventeen 
presbyters with whom the election of a suc- 
cessor lay. He and Bishop Eden of Moray 
were nominated for the vacancy. The elec- 
tors (excluding himself) were exactly divided, 
eight against eight. The decisive voice was 
in his hands, and he was persuaded, in ac- 
cordance with precedent, to vote for him- 
self, in order to counteract what he regarded 
as the dangerous policy of his opponents. 
Owing to some informality the process had to 
be repeated, his rival on the second occasion 
being Dr. T. G. Suther (afterwards bishop of 
Aberdeen). On appeal to the bishops of 
the Scottish church, Wordsworth's election 
was upheld. He retained his wardenship 
with the bishopric until 1854. He left 
seventy boys in the college, and reported 
that there had been on an average five 
divinity students. 

Elected bishop of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, 
and Dunblane on 30 Nov. 1852, Wordsworth 
was consecrated at St. Andrew's Church, 
Aberdeen, on 25 Jan. 1853. The principles 
on which he acted in this office were mainly 
three : (1) to prevent the capture of the 
Scottish episcopal church by a narrow party, 
especially by a party manned by Englishmen 
and controlled from England ; (2) to convince 
Scotsmen of the value of episcopacy and epi- 
scopal ordinances ; (3) to make some conces- 
sions to presbyterians by which they might 
be conciliated, the main principle of epi- 
scopacy being saved (Episcopate, pp. 37-9). 
He was a strong believer in the duty of 
establishment of religion where it was pos- 
sible and in the synodal system. He held 
different opinions on the place of the laity 
in church synods at different times, but 
ended by advocating their presence and right 
to vote (ib. p. 194). 

B2 



Wordsworth 



There was no episcopal residence, and the 
bishop, after leaving Glenalmond, moved 
from place to place before settling down 
finally at Perth, first at Pitcullen Bank 
(Easter 1856 to 1858), and then at the Feu 
House (1858 to October 1876). He was 
thus brought into close connection with the 
cathedral of St. Ninian, a venture supported 
chiefly by two gentlemen who had little 
or no connection with the diocese (Lord 
Forbes and G. F. Boyle, afterwards earl 
of Glasgow), and manned chiefly by high- 
churchmen from England. He felt it a 
costly experiment for a poorly endowed dio- 
cese/but in many respects he sympathised 
with it. His wise treatment of its affairs in 
his first synods conciliated his opponents. 
But when he came to reside permanently in 
Perth, and tried to make St. Ninians his 
own church, a fundamental divergence be- 
tween himself and Provost Fortescue and 
Precentor Humble showed itself. Unfor- 
tunately the eucharistic controversy was in- 
troduced in an acute form into Scotland by 
Alexander Penrose Forbes [q. v.], bishop of 
Brechin, in his ' primary charge,' delivered 
in 1857. Not only was high doctrine taught, 
but it was taught ex cathedra, and with 
rigorous logic, as necessary truth, and scant 
regard was shown for the traditional teach- 
ing of the Scottish church, which on the 
whole was that of a Presence of ' virtue and 
efficacy.' Agitation followed, and the storm 
\vas further intensified by the publication, 
in January 1858, of ' Six Sermons on the 
Doctrine of the Most Holy Eucharist ' by 
the Rev. P. Cheyne, of St. John's, Aberdeen ; \ 
Cheyne went further than Forbes, and put j 
the same kind of doctrines in a more provo- \ 
cative and more nearly Roman form. In the 
result Forbes's charge was censured in a i 
' pastoral letter,' drafted by Wordsworth ! 
(27 May 1858), in which all the six remain- ' 
ing bishops concurred. This was followed 
by the suspension of Cheyne by the bishop of 
Aberdeen (5 Aug.) and by the issue of Words- 
worth's very valuable ' Notes to assist to- 
wards a right Judgment on the Eucharistic 
Controversy' (4to, September 1858), with 
' Supplement ' dated Advent. These ' Notes ' 
were never published,but ci re ulated privately, 
especially among the clergy. He took part in 
the subsequent proceedings which issued in 
the declaration by the bishops that Cheyne 
was no longer a clergyman of the episcopal 
church (9 Nov. 1859). On 3 Oct. 1859 pro- 
ceedings were formally instituted against 
Bishop Forbes. The same year saw an open 
breach between Wordsworth and the cathe- 
dral clergy. The points at issue were the 
attempt to reopen the cathedral school, the 



' cathedral declaration ' on the Eucharist, and 
certain ritual matters, such as celebration 
with one communicant only. He left the 
cathedral, and did not return to it except to 
perform some necessary episcopal acts, such 
as confirmation, for more than twelve years 
(1859-1872). He did his best, however, to 
stave off proceedings in Bishop Forbes's case, 
and published anonymously some ' Proposals 
for Peace.' The trial took place in February 
and March 1860, and Wordsworth delivered 
an ' opinion ' which had previously been ap- 
proved by George Forbes, the bishop's bro- 
ther. The court unanimously censured and 
admonished Bishop Forbes, but with the 
least possible severity. Cheyne later on 
tendered some explanations, and was restored 
in 1863. Wordsworth's attitude in the con- 
troversy was one of reserve, working for 
united action, and refraining from public 
demonstrations on his own part. But he 
set himself most strenuously to form a 
thorough and correct judgment on it. He 
criticised Forbes's and Cheyne's teaching not 
not only as unauthorised but as disturbing 
the proportions of the faith. His collections 
of authorities, especially Anglican and Scot- 
tish, are of permanent importance. 

The restoration of peace and the simul- 
taneous revival experienced by the episcopal 
and presbyterian communions gave an open- 
ing for that reunion work which Words- 
worth had deeply at heart. His powerful 
synodal and other addresses in these years 
brought the question well forward, and at 
one time an important conference was in 
prospect. His most popular contribution 
was a sermon on 'Euodias and Syntyche,' 
preached in 1867 (published 1869). Words- 
worth attempted to use the opportunities of 
changes in popular education by suggesting 
that episcopalians and presbyterians might 
unite to some extent in a common catechism, 
but little came of the suggestion at the time. 
After the Lambeth conference of 1867 he 
suspended his efforts for fifteen years. His 
part in that conference was generally on the 
side of Bishop Robert Gray [q. v.] of Cape 
Town, but tempered with a fear of disesta- 
blishment principles. 

The foundation of a school chapel at Perth 
in 1866, of which the bishop was practically 
incumbent, was a relief to him in his dis- 
appointments as to the cathedral. An im- 
portant and successful conference of clergy 
and laity was also held at Perth in 1868, 
and the bishop had hopes of getting the 
question of the admission of laymen to 
church synods sympathetically treated by 
the general synod. By the friendly gene- 
rosity of Bishop \V. K. Hamilton a "sum of 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



some 20W. a year was added to his income 
from 1866 to 1871, when he obtained a fellow- 
ship at Winchester, a matter of great com- 
fort to him. But, with these exceptions, the 
years that remained at Perth were a period of 
depression. Provost Fortescue resigned in 
1871, and in his place the bishop appointed 
John Burton, who soon came under the in- 
fluence of Precentor Humble. The struggles 
of 1859 were repeated in 1872 over the 
'Perth Nunnery' and alleged breaches of 
faith in regard to ritual. The charge of this 
year led to an indictment of the bishop by 
Humble before the episcopal synod, which 
was unanimously dismissed, 27 March 1873. 
After various negotiations with the chapter, 
the bishop in April 1874 announced his in- 
tention of resigning. But he took no steps to 
make it effective. He then established a sort 
of modus vivendi with Burton, but he was 
never easy in his relations with the chapter 
as long as he remained at Perth. Humble's 
death, on 7 Feb. 1876, removed the chief 
actor in these disputes. 

During this period the bishop published 
his book ' On Shakespeare's Knowledge and 
Use of the Bible '(1864; 3rd edit. 1880), 
which has a permanent place in literature. 
In 1866 his Greek grammar was adopted 
by the headmasters of England. In 1870 
he became one of the company of New Testa- 
ment revisers, and worked hard at that great 
task; but before it was completed (in 1881) 
he expressed his reasons for differing from 
the action of the majority, who, he thought, 
made far too many changes. In 1872 he pub- 
lished an important volume on ' Outlines of 
the Christian Ministry,' which was supple- 
mented in 1879 by ' Remarks on Dr. Light- 
foot's Essay.' 

In October 1876 Wordsworth left Perth 
for St. Andrews. He first resided at The 
Hall (hitherto a hall for episcopalian stu- 
dents attending the university), which he 
called Bishop's Hall or Bishopshall ; it is 
now St. Leonard's girls' school. Afterwards 
(1887) he removed to a smaller house on the 
Scores, which he called Kilrymont, the old 
name of St. Andrews. St. Andrews brought 
him opportunities of again influencing 
young men, and introduced him into the 
congenial literary society formed by the pro- 
fessors of the university. Most of these 
were pr^sbyterians, and this revived his 
hopefulness in reunion work. The new 
efforts may be dated from his sermon at the 
consecration of Edinburgh Cathedral (30 Oct. 
1879). In the spring of 1884 the bishop 
received the honorary degree of D.D., both 
at St. Andrews and Edinburgh, and began a 
practice of occasionally preaching in presby- 



terian churches in connection with academic 
functions, especially in the college church 
at St. Andrews, where he preached about 
once a year till 1888. In May 1884 he pub- 
lished an article in the ' Scottish Church 
Review' entitled 'Union or Separation,' 
which contained the following proposal : 
' Can a reconciliation between presbyterians 
and ourselves be effected upon the under- 
standing that the adoption of the threefold 
ministry is eventually to be accepted as the 
basis of our agreement, the existing genera- 
tion of presbyterian clergy being left free to 
receive episcopal ordination or not, at their 
own option ; and that in the meantime we 
are to work together with mutual respect 
and with no unkind or unbrotherly dispa- 
ragement of each other's position ? ' 

The alarm excited by this proposal led to 
his being denied his proper place at the 
Seabury commemoration at Aberdeen in 
October, for which he prepared and printed 
a valuable address. His charge of September 
1885, ' The Case of Non-episcopal Ordination 
fairly considered,' is in the same line. The 
fullest and most logical expression of the 
scheme is given in a letter to Archbishop 
Benson in preparation for the Lambeth con- 
ference, dated 24 May 1888, and entitled 
' Ecclesiastical Union between England and 
Scotland.' This is his most important pub- 
lication on the subject. The committee of 
the conference, under the presidency of 
Bishop Barry, then metropolitan of Sydney, 
went further than was deemed expedient by 
the conference or even by Wordsworth. He 
did not press his proposal further. 

On 18 April 1889 he preached the com- 
memoration sermon before the university of 
Edinburgh, under the title ' A Threefold Rule 
of Christian Duty needful for these Times.' 

Relations with his own cathedral began 
to improve after the move to St. Andrews, 
and from 1882 onwards he held his synods 
again there. In 1885 Provost Burton died, 
and the Rev. V. L. Rorison of Forfar 
accepted the offer of his position. The 
cathedral now became a thoroughly diocesan 
institution. From 1886 to 1890 some 8,0007. 
was spent upon it, and the new nave was con- 
secrated by the bishop on 7 Aug. 1890. The 
chapter-house, to which his library has been 
given by his sons, will be specially his 
memorial. In the same year the bishop ap- 
pointed the provost of St. Ninians dean, and 
the Rev. A. S. Aglen, incumbent of Alyth, 
archdeacon a new title in the Scottish 
hurch. A severe illness followed in the 
winter of 1890-1, but he delivered one more 
important charge, that on Old Testament 
riticism, in October 1891, and saw the 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



appearance and rapid success of the first 
volume of his autobiographical ' Annals/ of 
which a second edition was called for in 
the month of its publication (October 1891). 
His charge of 1892 was delivered in his 
absence by the dean. The last month of his 
life was cheered by the foundation of the 
' Scottish Church Society ' by his friend Dr. 
Milligan. He died at St. Andrews on 
6 Dec. 1892, and was buried in the cathe- 
dral yard. On the memorial tablet, after 
the dates, follow these words, drawn up by 
himself: ' Remembering the prayer of his 
Divine Lord and Master \ for the unity of 
His Church on earth, | He prayed con- 
tinually and laboured earnestly | that a way 
may be* found, in God's good time, | For the 
reunion of the Episcopalian and Presbyterian 
bodies | without the sacrifice of Catholic 
principle \ or Scriptural Truth.' 

Wordsworth left his own communion in 
a much higher position in public opinion 
than when he first came to the country, and 
this change was largely due to his courage, 
persistent energy, and ability. The diocese 
developed considerably during the forty 
years' episcopate. The number of incum- 
bencies increased from sixteen to twenty-six, 
and new churches or chapels were built in 
at least twenty-six places. The parsonage- 
houses increased from two (Dunblane and 
Kirriemuir) to twenty, including the pro- 
vost's house at Perth. 

Wordsworth was tall and handsome, with 
a strong and prepossessing countenance, set 
off by brown curly hair and brightened by 
a winning smile. He had a taste and a 
talent for friendship, and numbered among 
his firmest friends Bishops W. K. Hamilton 
and T. L. Claughton, and Roundell Palmer, 
lord Selborne. In disposition he was gene- 
rous, and free in expense. He was very 
accurate and orderly, even in trifles, and 
expected others to be so. His character, as 
well as his experience as a teacher, made him 
critical, and he could be occasionally severe, 
and he was therefore sometimes misjudged. 
He was on the one side impulsive and eager, 
on the other sensitive, and subject to fits of 
depression ; but on the whole he was san- 
guine and resolute, and gifted with much 
perseverance and consistency. His religious 
faith was serene and rational, while he had 
little sympathy for the philosophical and 
mysterious aspects of religion. He never 
preached without book, and took great pains 
with his sermons, which were admirably 
delivered. 

Of the bishop's publications his two small 
books, a ' Discourse on the Scottish Re- 
formation' (1861) and a 'Discourse on 



Scottish Church History ' (1881), are both 
valuable for the earlier periods of their sub- 
; ject. His own life in Scotland is recorded 
in the two volumes of ' Public Appeals on 
behalf of Christian Unity ' (1886), contain- 
ing his chief writings and addresses on the 
: subject of ecclesiastical polity, especially as 
1 regards Scotland, from 1854 to 1885. They 
are connected by useful summaries and intro- 
ductions which are indispensable for the 
history of the period. He published also a 
i commentary on ' Ecclesiasticus ' in the 
! Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge edition of the 'Apocrypha' (1880-1), 
and a ' Life of Bishop Hall,' prefixed to the 
edition of his ' Contemplations ' issued by 
! the same society in 1872. His edition 01 
j twelve of Shakespeare's ' Historical Plays ' 
(1883, 3 vols.) deserves to be better known. 
During the evening of his life at St. An- 
drews he indulged his taste in Latin verse 
in a way that rendered his residence there 
| more delightful to his friends. The effect 
' of some of them was heightened by a part- 
nership with Dean Stanley, which began 
with a translation by the latter of some 
spirited hexameter lines to Dean Ramsay 
(1872), and attained its highest point in the 
version of congratulatory elegiacs to Lord 
Beaconsfield after the Berlin congress 
(1878), which Lord Beaconsfield compared 
(somewhat inaptly) to the partnership of 
Beaumont and Fletcher. In 1880 he pub- 
lished translations of Keble's hymns relating 
to the clerical office, reprinting with them, 
the versions of Ken and Keble published at 
Winchester in 1845. In 1890 he produced 
a remarkable tour deforce, the whole body 
of prayer-book collects in Latin elegiacs, 
the solace of many weary hours of sickness. 
The titles of numerous other valuable 
papers are detailed in the bibliography at 
the end of the ' Episcopate,' among which 
may be named * Papal Aggression in the 
East' (1856); various publications on the 
Scottish communion office and on the east- 
ward position of the celebrant; a Shake- 
spearian sermon, ' Man's Excellency a Cause 
of Praise and Thankfulness to God ' (1864) ; 
' St. Chrysostom as an Orator ' (1884) ; 
1 Archbishop Hamilton's Catechism ' (1885); 
and ' Pindar and Athletics Ancient and 
Modern : an Address to St. Andrews Stu- 
dents ' (1888). 

The bishop had twelve children by his 

second marriage, five sons and seven daugh- 

I ters, of whom three sons and five daughters 

still survive. His widow died on 23 April 

1897. 

An engraving from a portrait drawn by 
G. Richmond about 1840 hangs in the head- 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



master's house at Winchester. A three- 
quarter-length portrait, painted in oils by 
G. Horsburgh of Edinburgh in 1893,belongs to 
Mr. W. B. Wordsworth. A portrait, painted 
in 1882 by H. T. Munns, and a photograph, 
dated 1889, were engraved by W. L. Colls 
for ' The Episcopate of Charles Wordsworth,' 
London, 1899. 

[Full materials for Wordsworth's life are 
contained in Annals of my Early Life (1806- 
1846), published by himself in 1891 ; Annals of 
my Life (1847-56), ed. by W. Earl Hodgson, 
1893 ; and The Episcopate of Charles Words- 
worth (1853-92), London, 1899, a memoir, with 
some materials for forming a judgment on the 
great questions ip the discussion of which he 
was concerned, by John Wordsworth, bishop of 
Salisbury, writer of this article. The last is 
preceded by a sketch of the earlier years, and 
has a bibliography (pp. 366-85.)] 

JOHN SA.SUM. 

WORDSWORTH, CHRISTOPHER 

(1774-1 846), master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, youngest son of John Wordsworth 
and youngest brother of William Words worth 
[q. v.], was born at Cockermouth in Cum- 
berland on 9 June 1774. He received his 
first education at Hawkshead grammar 
school, and went to Trinity College as a 
pensioner in 1792. He graduated B.A. in 
1796 as tenth wrangler, and in 1798 was 
elected fellow of his college. Extracts from 
a diary kept by him at Cambridge (1793- 
1801) have been printed by his grandson 
Christopher (Social Life at the English Uni- 
versities, pp. 585-99). He proceeded M. A. in 
1799 and D.D. (by royal mandate) in 1810. 
In 1802 Wordsworth published, anonymously, 
' Six Letters to Granville Sharp, Esq., respect- 
ing his " Remarks on the Uses of the Defini- 
tive Article in the Greek Text of the New 
Testament,'" London, 1802 [see SHARP, 
GEANVILLE]. Wordsworth supported his 
views with great learning and accurate scho- 
larship, gaining thereby the approval of Ri- 
chard Porson [q. v.] (preface to Who wrote 
Eicon Basilike ? p. iv). 

Wordsworth had been private tutor to 
Charles Manners-Sutton, first viscount Can- 
terbury [q. v.], probably while he was an 
undergraduate of Trinity College (1798- 
1802), and through him had become ac- 
quainted with his father, then bishop of 
Norwich, and afterwards archbishop of Can- 
terbury. Both father and son became his 
patrons. The bishop in 1804 presented him 
to the rectory of Ashby with Obyand Thinne, 
Norfolk, a preferment which enabled him to 
marry. In 1805, when Manners-Sutton 
became archbishop of Canterbury, he made 
Wordsworth his domestic chaplain, and 



transferred him first to the rectory of Wood- 
church, Kent (1806), and next (1808) to the 
deanery and rectory of Booking, Essex, to 
which Monks-Eleigh, Suffolk, was afterwards 
added (1812). In 1816 these preferments 
were exchanged for St. Mary's, Lambeth, and 
Sundridge, Kent, in the former of which 
parishes Wordsworth actively promoted 
the erection and endowment of additional 
churches. In 1817, when his old pupil was 
elected speaker of the House of Commons, 
Wordsworth became chaplain. 

Residence at Lambeth gave Wordsworth 
facilities of access to the library, of which he 
availed himself for his ! Ecclesiastical Bio- 
graphy ' published in 1810, with a dedication 
to the archbishop. In 1811, with his friend 
Joshua Watson [q. v.], he took an active 
part in the foundation of the National Society 
(CHTJRTON, Life of Watson, i. 113). 

On the death of William Lort Mansel 
[q. v.], on 27 June 1820, Wordsworth was 
made master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
by Lord Liverpool, on the recommendation 
of the archbishop (Annals of my Early Life, 
p. 8). He thereupon gave up Lambeth and 
Sundridge, receiving in exchange the living 
of Buxted with Uckfield in Sussex. He re- 
moved at once to Cambridge, and was elected 
vice-chancellor for the ensuing academic year, 
1820-1. He held the office for a second 
time, 1826-7. The new master began as a 
reformer. A few months after his election 
he laid before the seniors his views on pro- 
viding increased accommodation in college 
for undergraduates. The first entry on this 
subject in the 'Conclusion Book' is dated 
14 Dec. 1820, and, notwithstanding con- 
siderable opposition in the society, the qua- 
drangle called ' The New Court ' was occupied 
in the Michaelmas term of 1825. The archi- 
tect was William Wilkins [q.v.] (Arch. Hist. 
ii. 651-60). Further, he instituted in his 
own college prizes for compositions in Latin 
hexameters, elegiacs, and alcaics, and during 
his first vice-chancellorship (10 April 1821) 
made proposals for a public examination in 
classics and divinity which met with con- 
siderable support (WHEWELL, Of a Liberal 
Education, 218), and, though rejected at 
the time, may be regarded as the parent of 
the classical tripos, established in the fol- 
lowing year. His mastership, however, can 
hardly be described as a success. He came 
back to Cambridge after an absence of six- 
teen years, with interests and friends outside 
the pale of the university. His wife had 
died in 1815, and he had no daughter or 
female relative to take her place at the head 
of his household. He therefore led a secluded 
life, and made few, if any, new friends. 



Wordsworth 



8 



Wordsworth 



He was a strict disciplinarian, and exacted 
an unquestioning conformity to all college 
rules. It was on his initiative that a more 
frequent attendance at chapel was insisted 
upon a step which so irritated the under- 
graduates that they established a ' Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Undergra- 
duates,' which printed and published for a few 
weeks a tabular view of the attendance of 
the fellows, with notes. The younger mem- 
bers of the college persistently misunderstood 
him, though he had been the first to allow, 
as vice-chancellor, the Union Debating So- 
ciety previously forbidden. Nor did he fare 
much better with the fellows, as may be 
gathered from what took place when he re- 
quested Connop Thirlwall [q. v.] to resign 
his assistant tutorship. 

Wordsworth was an earnest and deeply 
religiousman ; in some respects a high church- 
man of the old school, but with sympathy 
for whatever was good and noble in others, 
and tolerance for dissenters (Annals, &c., pp. 
330-4). In politics he was a staunch con- 
servative, and when age and weakened health 
induced him to resign the mastership of 
Trinity College, he waited till Sir Robert 
Peel was in office in order to be sure that 
William Whewell [q. v.] would succeed him 
(Life of Whewell, p. 225). He resigned in 
October 1841, and retired to Buxted, where 
he died on 2 Feb. 1846. On 6 Oct. 1804 
he married a quaker lady, Priscilla Lloyd, 
daughter of Charles Lloyd, banker, of Bir- 
mingham, and sister of Charles Lloyd [q. v.], 
the poet (Luc AS, Charles Lamb and the 
Lloyds, 1898, p. 95). 

Wordsworth had three sons: John, of 
whom an account is given below, and Charles 
and Christopher, who are separately noticed. 

His principal works, exclusive of those 
already mentioned, were : 1. 'Ecclesiastical 
Biography; or Lives of Eminent Men con- 
nected with the History of Religion in 
England from the Commencement of the 
Reformation to the Revolution, with Notes,' 
1810, 6 vols. 8vo; 2nd edit. 1818; 3rd edit, 
(with a new introduction and additional 
lives), 1839 ; 4th edit. 1853. 2. ' Sermons 
on various Subjects,' 1814, 2 vols. 8vo. 
3. 'Who wrote EIKQN BA2IAIKH?' 1824. 
In this work and those that succeeded it 
Wordsworth supported the claims of Charles I 
as the author of the Icon (see GATTDEN, JOHN, 
where the titles of Wordsworth's publica- 
tions are given, with a full account of the 
controversy: cf. Quarterly Review, xxxii. 
467 ; Edinburgh Review, xliv. 1-37 ; article 
by Sir James Mackintosh, reprinted in his 
Works, ed. 1854, i. 508-42). 4. ' Christian 
Institutes: a Series of Discourses and Tracts 



selected from the Writings of the most emi- 
nent Divines of the English Church,' 1836, 
4 vols. 8vo. 

His eldest son, JOHN WORDSWORTH (1805- 
1839), born at Lambeth on 1 July 1805, was 
educated at a school at Woodford, Essex, 
kept by Dr. Holt Okes (1816-20), and at 
Winchester College (1820-4). In October 
1824 he commenced residence at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. His university career 
was distinguished. In 1825 he obtained 
the Bell scholarship, in 1826 a scholarship 
at his own college, and was second for the 
Person prize ; in 1827 be obtained it. In 1828 
he proceeded to the B.A. degree, but was 
disqualified for classical honours through 
distaste for mathematics. In 1830 he was 
elected fellow of his college.^ 

He resided at Cambridge till 1833, occupy- 
ing himself with literary pursuits. During 
this period he contributed to the first number 
of the ' Philological Museum ' a review of 
Scholefield's ' JEschylus,' which exhibited 
unusual powers of criticism and extent of 
research. In 1833 he visited France, Switzer- 
land, and Italy. At Florence he collated 
carefully the Medicean manuscript of ^Eschy- 
lus, with a view to a new edition. Some 
use was made of his material by John 
Conington [q. v.] in his edition of the 
' Choephorce.' In 1834 he was appointed a 
classical lecturer in Trinity College. His 
lectures were remarkable for erudition and 
unwearied industry. In addition to the 
work thus entailed upon him he undertook 
to edit Dr. Bentley's ' Correspondence' (after- 
wards completed by his brother Christopher). 
He also made large collections for a classical 
dictionary (Autobiography of Dean Merivale, 
p. 193). In 1837 he was ordained deacon, 
and priest shortly afterwards. 

At about the same time his health began 
to fail ; he resigned his lectureship, and even 
endeavoured, it is said, to obtain educational 
work of less severity elsewhere. From this 
step he was dissuaded, and remained at Cam- 
bridge till his death on 31 Dec. 1839. He 
is buried in the antechapel of the college, 
where a monument to him was placed by- 
subscription. The bust was executed by 
Weekes, under Chantrey's supervision. Most 
of his collections are in the possession of 
his nephew, the bishop of Salisbury. 

[Gent. Mag. 1846, i. 320; Annals of my 
Early Life, by Charles Wordsworth, London, 
1891, 8vo; Memoir of Joshua Watson, ed. Ed- 
ward Churton, Oxford, 1861, 2 vols. 8vo; Life 
of Sedgwick by Clark and Hughes, i. 436 ; Life 
of William Wh ewel 1 by Mrs. Stair Dougl as, 1 88 1 , 
p. 225 ; Graduati Cantabrigienses. For John 
Wordsworth see Correspondence of Dr. Bentley, 

After 'of his college' add * he "proceeded 
M.A. in 1831.' (Date from Graduati 
Cantabrigiensfs. ) 






Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



1842, 8vo, pp. xvi-xix, and Memoirs of William 
Wordsworth, 1851, ii. 358, both by Christopher 
Wordsworth, bishop of Lincoln ; Annals of my 
Early Life, by Charles Wordsworth, bishop of 
St. Andrews, 1891, p. 239 ; Christopher Words- 
worth, bishop of Lincoln, by J. H. Overton and 
E. Wordsworth, 1888 ; Gent. Mag. 1840, i. 436.] 

J. W. C-K. 

rjftwORDSWORTH, CHRISTOPHER 

: (1807-1885), bishop of Lincoln, bora at 
..Lambeth on 30 Oct. 1807, was third and 
youngest son of Christopher Wordsworth 
; /tfi' (1774-1846) [q. v.], master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, from 1820, and his wife Priscilla, 
daughter of Charles Lloyd of Bingley Hall, 
Birmingham. John, the scholar, and Charles 
[q. v.], bishop of St. Andrews, were his elder 
brothers. The three were brought up at 
Bocking, Essex, of which their father was 
rector and dean from 1808, and at Sun- 
dridge, Kent, where they were from 1816 
friends and neighbours of Henry Edward 
Manning [q. v.] In 1815 they lost their 
mother, and in 1820 Christopher entered 
as a commoner at Winchester, where he 
distinguished himself both as a scholar and 
as an athlete, and was known as ' the great 
Christopher.' In 1825 he left Winchester, 
and in 1826 entered at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where his list of college and univer- 
sity prizes and honours was almost unique. 
In 1830 he graduated as senior classic and 
fourteenth senior optime, winning also the 
first chancellor's medal for classical studies ; 
and in the same year he was elected fellow 
of Trinity, and became shortly afterwards 
assistant college-tutor. In 1832-3 he tra- 
velled in Greece, and was the first English- 
man presented to King Otho. He was a 
keen observer: e.g. his conjecture as to the 
site of Dodona was confirmed in 1878 by 
Carapanos. His 'Athens and Attica' and 
' Greece ' are still books of authority. In 
1833 he was ordained deacon, and in 1835 
priest. In 1836 he was chosen public orator 
at Cambridge, and in the same year became 
headmaster of Harrow. In 1838 he married 
Susanna Hatley Frere, daughter of George 
Frere, a solicitor (afterwards of Twyford 
House), a marriage which proved the greatest 
happiness of his life. His position at Harrow 
was difficult. Discipline had been lax there, 
and, although he improved the religious tone 
and was instrumental in building a school 
chapel, the numbers decreased greatly under 
his headmastership ; he suffered pecuniary 
loss, and his health began to fail. In 
1844 he was appointed, through Sir Robert 
Peel, canon of Westminster. He was one 
of the chief founders of the Westminster 
spiritual aid fund and of St. John's House, 



an institution for training nurses ; and he 
won reputation as a preacher at the abbey. 
In 1850 he accepted the country living of 
Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berkshire, in the gift 
of the dean and chapter of Westminster. The 
income of the living was more than swallowed 
up by the expenses ; but Wordsworth's ex- 
perience of nearly twenty years as a parish 
priest stood him in good stead when he 
became a bishop. In 1852 he was elected 
proctor in convocation for the chapter of 
Westminster, and for seventeen years was 
a prominent figure in the lower house of 
convocation. In 1865 he became archdeacon 
of Westminster, and finally, in November 
1868, after considerable hesitation, he ac- 
cepted, on the nomination of Disraeli, the 
bishopric of Lincoln. He was consecrated 
in February 1869. In the same year he 
revived the office of (so-called) suffragan 
bishops, consecrating Henry Mackenzie [q.v.] 
bishop-suffragan of Nottingham on 2 Feb. 

1870, and in 1871 the diocesan synod. Only 
one synod, however, was held ; but at that 
synod the establishment of a diocesan con- 
ference of clergy and laity was arranged, 
which has been held annually ever since. In 

1871, after the Purchas judgment, he revived 
the use of the cope in Lincoln Cathedral. 
He also held that a distinctive dress of the 
celebrant in holy communion was permissible 
under the ' ornaments rubric,' but not com- 
pulsory. 

One of Wordsworth's marked charac- 
teristics was his moral courage in dealing 
with burning questions. The diocese of 
Lincoln is a stronghold of Wesleyanism, 
and in 1873 he issued ' A Pastoral to the 
Wesleyan Methodists in the Diocese of 
Lincoln,' inviting them to return to their 
mother church on the principles of their 
founder. A vehement controversy followed, 
the heat of which was not allayed when 
shortly afterwards he declined to use his 
influence with the vicar of Owston to allow 
the title of ' Reverend ' to be applied to a 
Wesleyan minister on a tombstone in the 
churchyard. His decision was upheld in 
the court of arches, but overruled in the 
privy council. 

In 1873-5 occurred ' the Great Coates 
case,' on his refusing to institute a clergy- 
man who had purchased the life interest in 
an advowson, which the bishop held to be 
practically the purchase of a next presenta- 
tion. The courts, however, held that it was 
of the nature of the purchase of an advow- 
son. The bishop had to pay heavy costs 
and damages ; but the laity of the diocese 
subscribed the sum ( 1, 000 J.), which he de- 
voted to repairing Bishop Alnwick's tower. 



10 



Wordsworth 



In 1874 he opposed the public worship 
regulation bill, because he thought that the 
church had not had a fair opportunity of 
discussing it in its own proper assembly 
(convocation), and he had much to do with 
saving the bishops' veto in ritual prosecu- 
tions. In 1880 he stood almost alone among 
the bishops in his opposition to the burials 
bill, which opened churchyards for non- 
church services. In 1873 he revived, after 
an abeyance of more than a hundred years, 
the triennial visitation of the cathedral body ; 
and in 1874 he reissued the ' Laudum ' and 
' Novum Registrutn ' of Bishop Alnwick as 
statutes by which they should be guided. 
He contended that each residentiary canon 
had his own particular work, and insisted 
upon constant residence as a sine qua non 
for the capitular body. One result was the 
establishment of the ' Scholae Cancellarii' for 
the training of young men for the ministry 
under the direction of the chancellor, Ed- 
ward White Benson (afterwards archbishop), 
whom he brought from Wellington College, 
and drew into the circle of cathedral and 
diocesan life, thus creating an intimacy 
which was valuable to both. On this in- 
stitution the bishop expended personally at 
least 6,000/., besides an annual subscription 
of 100Z. to the bursary fund. His generosity 
to the diocese (as, indeed, elsewhere) was 
unbounded : one of his last gifts was that of 
his costly commentary on the whole Bible 
to every licensed curate. 

Wordsworth's anti-Roman attitude was 
very marked, especially in his earlier life, 
and was exhibited in his books on the 
' Apocalypse ' and the striking ' Letters to 
M. Gondon' (1847) and 'Sequel' (1848). 
He made special inquiries into church life 
in France and Italy, and left interesting me- 
morials of his tours in a ' Diary in France ' 
(1845), ' Notes at Paris ' (1854), and ' A 
Journal of a Tour in Italy ' (1863). He was 
naturally one of the strongest supporters of 
the Anglo-Continental Society, the secretary 
of which (Canon F. Meyrick) was one of 
his examining chaplains. The revolt of the 
old catholics in Germany, which followed 
the Vatican council of 1870, drew him into 
close relations with Dollingerandhis friends. 
He attended the congress at Cologne in 1872, 
writing a remarkably learned Latin letter 
to its members on his journey in favour of 
the abolition of clerical celibacy. He was 
also deeply interested in the Greek church, 
to which he looked with hopefulness as not 
irrevocably committed to new developments 
of doctrine. Being an accomplished modern 
Greek scholar, he was able to hold inter- 
course with its members with greater facility 



than most Englishmen. He translated into 
Greek (as well as Latin) the Lambeth en- 
cyclicals of 1867 and 1878 ; and he received 
with great delight at Riseholme Alexander 
Lycurgus, archbishop of Syra and Tenos, 
who visited England in 1870. Wordsworth 
lived just long enough to see the accom- 
plishment of a scheme which he had long 
had at heart : the subdivision of the diocese 
of Lincoln, and the establishment of the new 
see of Southwell, embracing Nottingham- 
shire and Derbyshire. Though a Cambridge 
man, he had frequent contact with Oxford. 
As bishop of Lincoln he was ex-officio visitor 
of Brasenose and Lincoln colleges ; in 1881 
he successfully maintained his right to ap- 
point a clerical fellow of Lincoln, a right 
which was about to be swept away by the 
new college statutes. In 1884 his health 
gave way, and on 28 Oct. of that year his 
wife died, a blow from which he never re- 
covered. On 9 Feb. 1885 he resigned his 
see, and on 21 March passed away at the. 
house of his son-in-law, P. A. Steedman, at 
Harewood. His funeral took place in Lin- 
coln Cathedral on 25 March, whence his 
body was conveyed to Riseholme, and laid 
by the side of his wife. He left '& family of 
two sons and five daughters. His eldest son, 
John, became bishop of Salisbury (October 
1885), and his second son, Christopher, is 
known as a writer on university life and 
liturgical subjects. His eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth, became in 1879 the first principal 
of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, an institu- 
tion which he warmly supported. 

There are several portraits of Bishop 
Wordsworth : one in oils, painted by Robson 
(1823), belonging to his brother's family; 
one in crayon, drawn by G. Richmond (1853), 
with Canon Wordsworth; one in oils, by 
Edwin Long, R.A. (1878), at Old Palace, 
Lincoln ; one in oils, by E. R. Taylor, and 
a drawing in coloured crayons by Rev. J. 
Mansell, both taken when he was bishop of 
Lincoln, with Canon. Trebeck. A bust by 
Miller belongs to Miss Wordsworth. The 
best portrait, perhaps, is a photograph by 
Elliott & Fry (1884), reproduced in his 'Life.' 
A good portrait of Mrs. Wordsworth by Ed- 
dis is at the Palace, Salisbury. 

Wordsworth was an indefatigable writer, 
but much more than a mere scholar. His 
memory was remarkable, and his learning 
always ready for use. He was clear-headed 
and businesslike, yet he had a vein of 
mystic enthusiasm. In manner he was 
quick but courteous and dignified ; his lan- 
guage was studiously refined, but rather 
full in its expression, after the manner of 
some of our older divines. He was trans- 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



parently sincere in character, and unhesi- 
tating in faith and doctrine. A certain ten- 
dency to sarcasm and severity was kept 
under by rigorous self-discipline. To many 
he seemed a living embodiment of the spirit 
of the early fathers of the church, and on 
those who knew him well, or followed his 
teaching for any time in the pulpit, he at all 
periods of his life exercised a remarkable 
influence not least on his Harrow pupils 
winning their lasting love and venera- 
tion. 

His monumental work was a commentary 
on the whole Bible. He began intention- 
ally with the New Testament, in the light 
of which he always taught that the Old 
should be read. He published a revised 
Greek text and commentary in four parts, 
1856-60. The Old Testament followed with 
extraordinary rapidity in twelve parts, 1864- 
1870. His great merit as a commentator is in 
showing the interdependence of the various 
portions of scripture and in supplying homi- 
letic material. The introductions are spe- 
cially valuable. His ' Church History up to 
A.D. 451,' in four volumes, was the work of 
his old age (1881-3). It is specially inte- 
resting from his sympathy with, and first- 
hand knowledge of, the fathers. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Wordsworth's publications included, apart 
from numerous single sermons, tracts, pam- 
phlets, addresses, and charges: 1. 'Athens 
and Attica,' 1836. 2. ' Pompeian Inscrip- 
tions,' the first published collection of ' graf- 
fiti,' 1837, republished in No. 34. 3. ' Greece, 
Pictorial and Descriptive,' 1839 ; 6th edition 
1858, with 600 engravings and a notice of 
Greek art by (Sir) George Scharf ; new edi- 
tion edited by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, 1882 ; 
a French translation, 1840. 4. ' Preces 
Selectee,' 1842. 5. 'A Manual for those about 
to be Confirmed,' 1842; like No. 4, for the use 
of Harrow school. 6. ' King Edward VI's 
Latin Grammar' (1841), long a standard 
schoolbook, but superseded in 1871 by the 
publication of the 'Public Schools Latin 
Grammar.' 7. 'The Correspondence of Hi- 
chard Bentley,' 1842, which had been com- 
menced by Dr. Monk and carried on by the 
bishop's brother, John Wordsworth, who died 
in 1839 while engaged in the work. 8. ' Theo- 
philus Anglicanus,' 1843, was intended in the 
first instance simply to instruct his Harrow 
pupils in church principles, but, appearing 
at a time when those principles, having been 
revived by the Oxford movement, were re- 
ceiving a shock by the threatened secessions 
to Rome, it just met a deeply felt want. 
9. ' Theocritus,' 1st edit. 1844, which 
was superseded by the fuller edition of 1877, 



a work of much scholarship and full of acute 
conjectures. 10. 'Discourses on Public Edu- 
cation,' 1844. 11. 'Hulsean Lectures [first 
series] on the Canon of Scripture,' 1848. 
12. ' Hulsean Lectures [second series] on 
the Apocalypse,' 1849. 13. ' Occasional 
Sermons ' (first series), 1850 : chiefly on the 
Gorham controversy. 14. ' Occasional Ser- 
mons ' (second series), 1851. 15. 'Memoirs 
of William Wordsworth ' (1851), his uncle 
the poet, with whom he had been on terms 
of the greatest intimacy, and whose literary 
executor he became. 16-17. 'Occasional Ser- 
mons' (1852), the third and fourth series. 
18. 'Sermons on the Irish Church,' 1852. 
19. ' S. Hippolytus and the Church of Rome ' 
(1853), which threw much light upon a then 
little known period of church history. 
20. ' Boyle Lectures on Religious Restora- 
tion' (1854), forming the fifth series of his 
' Occasional Sermons.' 21-2. ' Occasional Ser- 
mons,' sixth series 1857, and seventh series 
1859. 23. ' Lectures on Inspiration,' 1861. 
24. 'The Holy Year,' 1862: his only publica- 
tion in English verse, intended for congre- 
gational use, and to illustrate in detail all 
the teaching of the Book of Common Prayer. 
Many hymns from this book are now in 
common use. They are largely scriptural 
and patristic in substance, and are often a 
sort of essence of his commentaries. They 
are intensely devotional in tone, but the 
element of individual emotion is generally 
suppressed. 25. ' Sermons on the Mac- 
cabees,' 1871 ; preached at Cambridge. 
26. ' Ethica et Spiritualia,' 1872 : a collec- 
tion of about five hundred pithy maxims, 
intended for the students at the Scholae 
Cancellarii. 27. ' Twelve Diocesan Ad- 
dresses,' 1873. 28. A revised English ver- 
sion of 'Bishop Sanderson's Lectures on Con- 
science and Human Law,' 1877. 29. ' Mis- 
cellanies, Literary and Religious,' 1879, 
3 vols. 8vo, containing an extraordinary 
variety of matter, some of which was printed 
for the first time. 30. ' Conjectural Emen- 
dations of Passages in Ancient Authors, and 
other Papers,' 1883 (see No. 3). 31. A tract 
on 'John Wiclif,' 1884, fi propos of the 
Wycliffe tercentenary. 32. ' How to read 
the Old Testament,' 1885 : written for his 
grandchildren. 

[Life of Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of 
Lincoln, by J. H. Overton and Elizabeth Words- 
worth (1888); Bishop Wordsworth's Works, 
passim ; personal knowledge and private in- 
formation.] J. H. 0. 

WORDSWORTH, DOROTHY (1804- 
1847), author. [See under QUILLINAN, ED- 
WARD.] 



Wordsworth 



12 



Wordsworth 



WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM (1770- 
1850), poet, son of John Wordsworth, was 
born at Cockermouth, Cumberland, on 7 April 
1770. The poet's grandfather, Richard 
Wordsworth (1680P-1762), descendant of 
a family which had been settled for many 
generations at Penistone, near Sheffield, 
bought an estate at Sockbridge, near Pen- 
rith. His eldest son, also Richard (d. 1794), 
became collector of customs at Whitehaven. 
His daughter Anne married Thomas Myers, 
vicar of Lazonby, Cumberland (Appendix to 
Memoirs, 1851). His second son, John 
(1741-1783), the poet's father, was an at- 
torney at Cockermouth, and in 1766 became 
agent to Sir James Lowther (afterwards 
first Earl of Lonsdale) [q.v.] On 5 Feb. 
1766 John Wordsworth married Anne (6. 
January 1747), daughter of William Cook- 
son, mercer, of Penrith, by Dorothy (Crackan- 
thorpe). They had five children : Richard 
(1768-1816),William,Dorothy(1771-1855), 
John (1772-1805), and Christopher (1774- 
1846) [q. v.], afterwards master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. The mother died ' of a 
decline ' in March 1 778. Brief references in 
the ' Prelude ' (v. 256, &c.) and the auto- 
biographical fragment show that Words- 
worth remembered her with tenderness as a 
serene and devoted mother. William, alone 
of her children, caused her anxiety on account 
of his ' stiff, moody, and violent temper,' and 
she prophesied that he would be remarkable 
for good or for evil. To prove his audacity 
he once struck a whip through a family pic- 
ture. On another occasion he thought of 
committing suicide by way of resenting a 
punishment, but stopped in very good time, 
He was sent to schools at Cockermouth and 
Penrith, where he learnt little. His father 
at the same time made him get by heart 

B usages from Shakespeare, Spenser, and 
ilton (Memoirs, i. 34). 
In 1778 Wordsworth and his elder brother 
were sent to the grammar school at Hawks- 
head (founded by Archbishop Edwin Sandys 
[q.v.]). The life was simple and hardy. 
Wordsworth lived in the cottage of Anne 
Tyson, a 'kind and motherly' old dame, 
whom he commemorates affectionately in the 
'Prelude' (iv. 27-43). There were four 
masters during Wordsworth's time. William 
Taylor, master from 1782 till his death in 
1786, won his warm regard, and was in some 
degree the original of the ' Matthew' of the 
well-known poems of 1799. An usher taught 
him more Latin in a fortnight than he had 
learnt in two years at Cockermouth ; and he 
wrote some English verses which were ad- 
mired, and of which a fragment or two is 
preserved. His first published poem, an 



irregular sonnet, signed ' Axiologus,' in the 
' European Magazine ' for March 1787, ap- 
peared before he left school. The great 
merit of the school in his opinion was the 
liberty allowed to the scholars. Disciples 
of Rousseau's then popular theories would 
have approved a system which had doubtless 
grown up without reference to the theories 
! of Rousseau or of any one else. Words- 
worth congratulated himself upon the ab- 
sence of any attempt to cram or produce 
model pupils. He read what he pleased, in- 
cluding ' all Fielding's works,' ' Don Quixote,' 
'Gil Bias,' 'Gulliver's Travels,' and 'The 
Tale of a Tub.' He also read an abridgment 
of the ' Arabian Nights.' He tried with his 
schoolfellows to save enough money to buy 
the whole book, but their resolution failed. 
He amused himself rambling over the fells, 
fishing, boating, birdsnesting on the crags, 
riding to Furness Abbey, and skating upon 
the lake ; skating was the only athletic exer- 
cise, except walking, which he kept up in 
later life. He took his share in the simple 
society of the place, and probably appeared 
to his fellows to be a fine sturdy lad, with 
no nonsense about him. He already de- 
lighted, however, in lonely strolls, in which 
a characteristic mood began to show itself. 
The outward world, he says, seemed to him 
to be a dream ; distant mountains assumed 
a spectral life, and affected him with a 
kind of superstitious awe {Prelude, i. 377, 
&c., ii. 351). The love of boyish sports gra-. 
dually developed into an almost mystical 
]/ love of nature. Wordsworth may in later 
! years have read a little too much into these 
| early moods, but the general truth of his 
recollections is unmistakable. He thoroughly 
imbibed at the same time the local sentiment 
of the little rustic society of independent 
' statesmen ' and peasants, though he still 
regarded the shepherd rather as the genius 
of the scenery than as a human being (ib. 
viii. 256, &c.) Scott was hardly more a 
product of the border country than Words- 
worth of the lake district ; but while Scott 
was filling his mind with picturesque his- 
torical imagery, AVordsworth was indulging 
in vague reveries, and was already some- 
thing of a recluse. He was, however, far 
from unsocial, and was often deeply moved 
by some of the little incidents which after- 
\ wards served as a text for his poems. Mean- 
while his father had died on 30 Dec. 1783. 
He left little beyond a claim upon Lord Lons- 
dale. When application was made for pay- 
ment the earl simply defied his creditors. 
j Basil Montagu, in his evidence to a comniis- 
. sion on bankruptcy, stated that when an 
! action was brought at Carlisle, the earl ' re- 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



tained every counsel on the circuit, and came 
down \vith a cloud of fivescore witnesses.' 
The case was ordered to stand over, and no- 
1 hing was done until Lonsdale's death (24 May 
1802). Montagu gives erroneous figures, and 
his statement of facts may be also exaggerated 
(Report of commission in 1840, not 1846, 
vol. i. p. 150, quoted in KNIGHT, ii. 38). The 
uncles, Richard Wordsworth and Christo- 
pher Crackanthorpe (previously Cookson), 
were guardians of the children. Dorothy 
lived partly with her grandparents at 
Penrith, and for a time with a Miss Threl- 
keld at Halifax. The guardians managed to 
' scrape together ' funds enough to send 
William and his younger brother, Christo- 
pher, to college ; while Richard became an 
attorney in London, and John was sent to 
sea about 1787 (KNIGHT, i. 49). 

William went up to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in October 1787. His rooms 
were in the first court above the college 
kitchens ; and from them he could see the 
antechapel of Trinity. At Cambridge he en- 
joyed even more thoroughly than at Hawks- 
head whatever advantages might be derived 
from the neglect of his teachers. He had 
acquired enough knowledge of Euclid and 
arithmetic to be ahead of his contemporaries. 
He took advantage of this by employing him- 
self in the study of Italian with Isola (a 
refugee who had known Gray, and was grand- 
father of the girl adopted by the Lambs, after- 
wards Mrs. Moxon). He neglected the re- 
gular academical course, partly, it seems, 
because he thought it narrow, and disliked 
the excessive competition (Prelude, iii. 497, 
&c.), and partly by way of spiting his 
guardians by ' hardy disobedience ' (ib. vi. 28). 
The ' northern villager ' appeared uncouth 
enough to the ' chattering popinjays ' whom 
men called fellow-commoners, and looked 
with little reverence upon the dons of the 
time, quaint 'old humorists,' who left the 
youths to themselves, and in whose hands the 
chapel services seemed to him a ' mockery.' 
He managed to indulge in his poetic 
reveries even in the ' level fields ' of Cam- 
bridgeshire. He was sociable enough with 
his contemporaries, talked and lounged, gal- 
loped in ' blind zeal of senseless horseman- 
ship,' and 'sailed boisterously' on the Cam. 
He remembered the haunts of Chaucer and 
Spenser, and ' poured out libations ' in Mil- 
ton's old rooms till, for the only time in his 
life, his brain ' grew dizzy.' He was able 
even then to run back to chapel. In the long 
vacation of 1788 he revisited Hawkshead, 
revived his old friendships, and, after a night 
spent in dancing, was deeply moved by a splen- 
did sunrise. He felt that he was henceforth 



' a dedicated spirit ' (ib. iv. 337). His last two 
years at Cambridge were spent in desultory 
reading, while he began to lose his awe of 
' printed books and authorship ' and to as- 
spire to the fellowship of letters. In 1789 he 
made an excursion through Dovedale to Pen- 
rith, and rambled with his sister and her 
friend, Mary Hutchinson, who had been his 
schoolfellow at Penrith. In 1790 he re- 
solved to make a foreign tour with his friend 
Robert Jones of Plas-yn-llan, Denbighshire, 
afterwards fellow of St. John's. They took 
201. apiece, carried all they required in 
pocket-handkerchiefs, and made their tour on 
foot. They left Dover on 13 July 1790, 
found the French people ' mad with joy ' in 
the early stages of the revolution, and were 
welcomed as representatives of British 
liberty. They crossed the country to Chalon- 
sur-Saone, descended the Rhone to Lyons, 
visited the Grande Chartreuse, went thence 
to Geneva, and, after an excursion to Cha- 
monix from Martigny, crossed the Simplon ; 
went by Locarno to Gravedona on the Lake 
of Como, thence to Soazza in the Val 
Misocco, and by the Bernardino to Hinter- 
Rhein; traversed the Via Mala to Reiche- 
nau, and then crossed the Oberalp Pass, and 
went through the Canton Uri to Lucerne, 
Zurich, and Schaffhausen. They returned 
to Lucerne, visited Grindelwald and Lauter- 
brunnen, and finally travelled through Basle 
to Cologne and Calais. Wordsworth heartily 
enjoyed an expedition which seemed to be 
' unprecedented' to his friends and the college 
authorities. He ought to have been reading 
for his degree. He graduated as B.A. with- 
out honours in January 1791. His grand- 
father, Cookson, had died in 1787, when his 
sister left Penrith to live with her uncle, Dr. 
William Cookson, canon of Windsor, who 
had been a fellow of St. John's, and also 
held the college living of Forncett, near 
Norwich. Wordsworth went to Forncett 
after taking his degree, then spent three 
months in London, which he had first seen 
in 1788 (Prelude, vii. 65), and in the summer 
visited his friend Jones in Wales. The Lon- 
don visit bad an effect upon him, described 
in the ' Prelude.' He was a diligent sightseer, 
heard Burke speak, and saw Mrs. Siddons 
act ; admired clowns and conjurors at Sadler's 
i Wells and shows of every variety at Bar- 
tholomew fair ; visited Bedlam and St. 
Paul's, and gazed at the tragic and comic 
sights of London streets. The general re- 
j suit, he says, was to introduce human sym- 
i pathies into his thoughts of nature, and 
j make him recognise ' the unity of man,' 
I though he looked at the ' moving pageant ' 
: (Prelude, vii. 637) as at a dream, and with a 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



sense that the face of every passer-by was a 
mystery. He was, as Coleridge notes, a spec- 
tator ab extra. Meanwhile he was puzzled 
as to his future. His sister calculated in De- 
cember 1791 (KNIGHT, Life, i. 52) that there 
would be about 1,000/. apiece for her and her 
three younger brothers, from which, in Wil- 
liam's case, the cost of his education would 
be deducted. He had wished to be a lawyer 
' if his health would permit.' He had 
thoughts for a time of entering the army 
(Memoirs, ii. 466). He was urged to take 
orders, but he was not yet of the right age, 
and probably was not sufficiently orthodox. 
He had learnt Italian, French, and Spanish ; 
was writing poetry, and was thinking of study- 
ing ' the oriental languages.' These accom- 
plishments were of little commercial value ; 
but he thought that by learning French 
thoroughly he might qualify himself to be a 
travelling tutor. He had money enough for 
a year abroad, and accordingly left England 
in November 1791. 

He passed through Paris, heard debates at 
the assembly and at the Jacobins' Club ; he 
pocketed a relic of the Bastille, but admits 
that he ' affected more emotion than he felt.' 
He went to Orleans, and thence early in 
1792 to Blois. Here he made acquaintance 
with the officers of a regiment quartered in 
the town. Most of them were royalists, in- 
tending to emigrate at the first opportunity. 
One of them, however, Michel de Beaupuy 
(1755-1796), though of noble birth, was an 
ardent republican (see Le General Michel 
de Beaupuy, by G. B. and Emile Legouis, 
Paris, 1891 ; and EMILE LEGOUIS'S Jeunesse 
de Wordsworth, 1896, pp. 206-18). Words- 
worth was predisposed to republicanism by 
his education in a simple society and by his 
life in ' the literary republic ' of Cambridge. 
Beaupuy's personal charm and accomplish- 
ments gave him great influence with his 
young friend, in whose eyes he resembled 
one of Plutarch's heroes (Prelude, ix. 419). 
When Beaupuy pointed to a ' hunger-bitten ' 
peasant girl, and said ' it is against that that 
we are fighting' (ib. ix. 517), Wordsworth 
became a thorough disciple. From Beaupuy 
he heard the story afterwards made into his 
dullest poem, ' Vaudracour and Julia' (ib. ix. 
548. In the Fenwick notes Wordsworth 
says that he heard the story from a lady who 
was an ' eye and ear witness '). Beaupuy after- 
wards distinguishedhimself in Vendee, where 
Wordsworth erroneously says that he was 
killed (he was really killed on the Elz on 
19 Oct. 1796). In October Wordsworth 
returned to Paris, which was still under the 
influence of the September massacres. He 
was disgusted by the failure of Louvet's 



attack upon Robespierre (29 Oct.), and was 
half inclined to take some active part in 
support of the Girondins. He felt, however, 
his incapacity as an insignificant foreigner, 
and was moreover at the end of his money. 
He returned to England in December 1792. 
Soon after his return he first appeared as an 
author. Joseph Johnson [q. v.J, who pub- 
I lished for many of the revolutionary party, 
brought out the 'Evening Walk' and the 
' Descriptive Sketches' early in 1793. In 
! both poems the metre and diction conform 
to the conventions of the old-fashioned school, 
to whom Pope was still the recognised model. 
The ' Evening Walk,' composed during his 
college vacations spent at the lakes, is re- 
! markable for its series of accurate transcripts 
[ of natural scenery, obviously made on the 
| spot. The ' Descriptive Sketches' describes 
the journey to Switzerland and was composed 
| in France, where he helped a fading memory 
of details from the work of the French painter 
Eamond (LEGOtns, p. 117; SAINTE-BETJVE'S 
Causeries, x. 454), who in 1781 translated 
| Archdeacon Coxe's letters from Switzerland, 
j with additional notes. The poem recalls 
Goldsmith's ' Traveller,' and illustrates 
Wordsworth's politics at the time of its com- 
: position. He bewails the harsh lot of the 
I poor peasant in language recall ing the hunger- 
j bitten peasant of Blois. Wordsworth ob- 
serves in the ' Prelude' that he and Jones 
! had ' taken up dejection for pleasure's sake ' 
(Prelude, vi. 551), and the pessimism may be 
a little forced. It leads up to an eager ex- 
j/pression of sympathy for the defenders of 
liberty in France. Coleridge read the poem 
at Cambridge in 1794, and thought that ' the 
emergence of an original poetical genius 
above the horizon 'had seldom been 'more 
evidently pronounced,' though the style was 
still contorted and obscure (Biogr. Lit. 1847, 
i. 64, 75). Few readers, however, were 
Coleridges, and the poem attracted little 
notice. Wordsworth's political principles 
found more energetic expression in a letter 
to Richard Watson [q. v.], bishop of Llandaff, 
who in January 1793 had published an 
attack on the revolution. The letter shows 
that Wordsworth, while professing hearty 
detestation of violence, strongly sympathised 
with the principles advocated "in Paine's 
' Rights of Man.' It was not published till 
it appeared in Dr. Grosart's edition of the 
' Prose Works.' 

The outbreak of war placed Wordsworth's 
philanthropy in painful conflict with his 
patriotism. He exulted (Prelude, x. 185) 
in the humiliation and was distressed by 
the victories of the country which he loved. 
His prospects in life became still more pre- 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



carious. His relatives had been disgusted 
by his refusal to take up a regular profession, 
and were not likely to be propitiated by his 
avowed principles. For some time his life 
was desultory. In the summer of 1793 he 
stayed in the Isle of Wight with an old 
schoolfellow, William Calvert, one of the 
sons of R. Calvert, steward to the Duke of 
Norfolk. Here he watched the ships at Spit- 
head with melancholy forebodings of a long, 
disastrous, and unrighteous war. He went 
on foot through Salisbury Plain and by 
Tintern Abbey to his friend Jones in Wales. 
In the beginning of 1794 he went to the 
lakes, and soon afterwards joined his sister 
at Halifax to talk over his prospects. He 
had resolved not to take orders, and had 
' neither strength of mind, purse, or consti- 
tution ' for ' the bar,' nor could he hear of a 
place as tutor. His sister accompanied him 
back to the lakes, where they stayed at a 
farm belonging to his friend Calvert at Windy 
Brow, near Keswick. They afterwards visited 
their uncle, Richard Wordsworth, a solicitor 
at Whitehaven. Wordsworth proposed to his 
friend Mathews, a London journalist, to start 
a monthly miscellany to be called ' The Phi- 
lanthropist.' While this was under dis- 
cussion he was staying with Raisley, brother 
of William Calvert, at Penrith. Raisley 
Calvert was failing in health, and soon after- 
wards died of consumption. He left 900/. 
to Wordsworth, partly, as Wordsworth told 
Sir G. Beaumont, ' from a confidence on his 
part that I had power and attainments which 
might be of use to mankind.' But for this 
legacy he might, he says, have been forced 
into the church or the law. With the help 
of it and a few small windfalls he managed 
to support himself and his sister for the next 
seven or eight years. In 1795 Basil Montagu 

j. v.], then a widower, with a son four or 
ve years old, proposed that Wordsworth 
should become the child's tutor for 50/. a year. 
Montagu also obtained for him the offer of a 
farmhouse at Racedown, between Crewkerne 
in Somerset and Lyme in Dorset. The 
owner was a Mr. Pinney of Bristol, one 
of -Montagu's friends. The Wordsworths 
apparently occupied it rent free, with an 
orchard and garden. Dorothy Wordsworth 
calculates that with the legacy and a little 
cousin of whom she was to take charge, they 
would have an income of ' at least 70/. or 
80/. ' a year (KNIGHT, i. 104). They settled 
at Racedown in the autumn of 1795, and 
Wordsworth began to labour steadily in his 
vocation. His revolutionary sympathies were 
still strong. He had been deeply agitated 
by the ' reign of terror.' He declares that for 
months and years 'after the last beat of those 



atrocities' (Prelude, x. 400) his sleep was 
generally broken by 'ghastly visions' of 
cruelty to ' innocent victims.' When cross- 
ing the sands of Morecambe Bay in August 
1794 he heard of the death of Robespierre 
with ' transport,' and expected that the 
'golden time' would now really come. His 
old hopes revived, but were disappointed 
when he saw that the war of self-defence 
was becoming a war of conquest. His first 
writings expressed the emotions of the earlier 
period. His ' Guilt and Sorrow,' in which 
he abandons the Pope model to the great 
benefit of his style, was composed of two j 
tragic stories: one of a 'female vagrant' { 
whose miseries were due to the ruin caused 
by war and her husband's enlistment in the 
army, was partly written, he says, ' at least 
two years before ; ' the other, of a man who 
had been impressed in the navy, and led to 
commit murder by excusable irritation at the 
social injustice, was suggested during his 
ramble over Salisbury Plain in 1793. The 
story, which was used in Barham's ' Ingoldsby 
Legends,' is told in the ' New Annual Regi- 
ster' for 1786 (Occurrences, p. 27), and in the 
'Gentleman's Magazine 'for same year (i. 521). 
The ' Female Vagrant ' appeared in the ' Lyri- 
cal Ballads;' the whole in the 'Poems' of 
1842. He wrote at Racedown some satires, 
imitated from Juvenal, which he proposed 
to publish in a joint volume with his friend 
Archdeacon Wrangham. From a fragment 
(given in Athenceum, 8 Dec. 1894) it appears 
that he spoke some unpleasant truths about 
the Prince of Wales. He resolved, however, 
to ' steer clear of personal satire,' and refused 
to allow the publication. In 1795-6 he com- 
posed a tragedy called ' The Borderers.' No 
poem could have less local colour, though 
he read Ridpath's ' Border-History' in order 
to get some, and he had not the slightest 
dramatic power. It was offered to Covent 
Garden at the end of 1797, and the Words- 
worths went to London to request of ' one 
of the principal actors' to consider possible 
alterations. It was, however, rejected, as 
Wordsworth apparently expected. 'The Bor- 
derers' was intended, he says, to make in- 
telligible the ' apparently motiveless actions 
of bad men,' and was founded upon his re- 
flections during the ' Terror.' The wicked hero 
has learnt to regard all morality as merely con- 
ventional, and gets rid of scruples in general. 
As M. Legouis has pointed out, Wordsworth 
was thinking of the revolutionary doctrine 
as represented by Godwin, whose ' Political 
Justice' (1793) was taken at the time as a 
philosophical revelation. Wordsworth de- 
scribes the perplexity into which he was 
thrown by his attempt to defend his principles 



Wordsworth 



16 



Wordsworth 



by metaphysics, while facts refused to con- 
firm them. lie gradually abandoned a doc- 
trine which he came to regard as sophistical, 
not so much from any argumentative process 
as through the influence of his sister and of 
the quiet domestic life. Old associations 
revived, and the revolution now appeared to 
him to imply a dissolution of the most sacred 
bonds of social life. His poetry has been 
called 'essentially democratic' (see his reply 
to this in KNIGHT'S Life, i. 79). The so- 
called 'democratic'' element was the spirit 
of the simple society in which he had been 
bred, and of which" he had found types in 
the Swiss peasantry. His ideal state, like 
Cobbett's, was that in which the old yeo- 
manry flourished. The old order was being 
broken up by the worship of the ' idol 
proudly named the Wealth of Nations,' and 
the revolutionists were really his enemies. 
The occupation of Switzerland by the French 
in 1798, when the forest cantons which 
had especially charmed him were forcibly con- 
quered, seems to have finally disenchanted 
him. The process, however, was gradual, 
and in May 1796 Coleridge calls him a ' very 
dear friend,' and describes him as ' a repub- 
lican, and at least a semi-atheist' (COLE- 
RIDGE, Letters, 1895, i. 164). 

The acquaintance with Coleridge marks an 
epoch in both lives. The exact dates are 
uncertain. They possibly met at Bristol in 
1795, and must, as Coleridge's letter shows, 
have known each other in 1796; but the 
close intimacy began in 1797 (see Letters of 
Coleridge, i. 163 n. ; J. DYKES CAMPBELL, 
Life of Coleridge, 1896, p. 67 ; KNIGHT, Life 
of Wordsworth, i. 111). Coleridge was living 
at Nether Stowey in 1797,and in June visited 
the Wordsworths at Racedown. In July 
they visited him at Stowey, and while there 
took a house at Alfoxden, three miles from 
Nether Stowey, for 23/. a year (agreement 
printed in T. Poole and his Friends, i. 125). 
Their ' principal inducement' was Coleridge's 
society. Each of the two men appreciated 
the genius of the other to the full. Cole- 
ridge told Cottle (COTTLE, Reminiscences, p. 
142; cf. DYKES CAMPBELL, Coleridge, p. 67) 
that he felt himself a ' little man' beside 
Wordsworth, pronounced ' The Borderers' to 
be absolutely wonderful, and compared it to 
Schiller's 'Robbers' and to Shakespeare, 
though in Wordsworth, he added, ' there are 
no inequalities.' Wordsworth showed to 
Coleridge his ' Ruined Cottage,' a poem which 
afterwards formed part of the ' Excursion,' 
and Coleridge repeated part of his ' Osorio ' 
to Wordsworth, and was encouraged by his 
friend's opinion. Coleridge also described 
"Wordsworth's ' exquisite sister ' in glowing 



language (COTTLE, Reminiscences, p. 144). 
He speaks of her exquisite taste and close 
observation of nature. Her diary (partly 
printed in KNIGHT, Journals of Dorothy 
Wordsworth, 1897) amply confirms the judg- 
ment and shows the close intimacy of the trio. 
' We are three people,' said Coleridge, ' but 
only one soul.' As Coleridge was already 
married, they could not be lovers ; but they 
were the warmest of friends, and for the 
time Dorothy's influence upon Coleridge was 
almost as strong as her influence upon 
her brother. Charles Lamb visited Cole- 
ridge during the first stay of the Words- 
worths in Stowey. Shortly afterwards John 
Thelwall [q. v.J came for a visit. The neigh- 
bourhood was alarmed by a conjunction of 
three republicans, though Poole answered 
for their respectability. A spy is said to 
have watched them, and from a letter in 
Southey's ' Life and Correspondence ' (ii. 343) 
there was clearly some truth in the account, 
which Coleridge embroiders (see Poole and 
his Friends, i. 240 ; COTTLE, Reminiscences, 
p. 181 ; Biogr. Lit. i. 196-200). In the be- 
ginning of 1798 the party was visited by 
Hazlitt, who gave his reminiscences in the 
' Liberal' (1823). Wordsworth appeared as 
a gaunt quaintly-dressed being, ' not unlike 
his own Peter Bell,' passages from which he 
recited. Though looking stern and worn, 
with furrowed cheeks, he talked ' very na- 
turally and freely,' and enjoyed a ' Cheshire 
cheese.' 

The most remarkable incident of this time 
was the walk of 13 Nov. 1797, when the two 
poets proposed to compose a joint ballad to 
be sold for 51. to pay for their tour. The 
' Ancient Mariner,' thus begun, was left to 
Coleridge (see WOEDSWOETH'S note to We 
are Seven, and COLEEIDGE, Biogr. Lit. vol. ii. 
chap, i.) This led to talk of a joint publica- 
tion to which Coleridge should contribute 
poems showing the dramatic truth of super- 
natural incidents, while Wordsworth should 
try to give the charm of novelty to ' things 
of every day.' The result was the publica- 
tion of the 'Lyrical Ballads,' for which 
Cottle agreed in May 1798 to give thirty 
guineas. The book appeared in September, 
Wordsworth contributing the largest part 
of the contents. It was reviewed un- 
favourably by Southey, though he knew, 
as Wordsworth told Cottle, that the book 
had been published ' for money and for 
money alone,' and might therefore have kept 
his opinions to himself (KNIGHT, ii. 2). The 
sale was at first so slow that Cottle, who 
had sold his copyrights to Longman, found 
that its value was reckoned as nothing. 
He thereupon asked Longman to give it 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



him back, and presented it to Wordsworth, 
who brought out a second edition in 1800. j 
To this he added a preface upon ' poetic 
diction,' arguing that the language of poetry 
should be identical with that of ' real life.' 
This became the text of Coleridge's admirable ' 
criticism of Wordsworth in the ' Biographia 
Literaria.' Wordsworth in his preface apolo- 
gised for publishing the ' Ancient Mariner,' 
which had offended the critics and, as he 
thought, injured the sale of the volume (see 
J. D. Campbell in COLERIDGE'S Poetical 
Works, 1893, p. 596, and COTTLE, Early 
Recollections, ii. 47), while Coleridge attri- | 
buted the unpopularity to Wordsworth's 
unfortunate theory. Wordsworth, indeed, I 
was very far from adhering to it in practice, 
as appeared, for example, in the magnificent 
' Lines on Tintern Abbey ' in this volume 
(commemorating a ramble with his sister 
and Cottle in June 1798). Other pieces, 
however, contained some of the puerile and 
prosaic passages which excited the ridicule 
of critics and were parodied in ' Rejected 
Addresses.' The tendency to lapse into 
prose was a permanent weakness, but at 
this time was intensified by Wordsworth's 
state of mind. He had escaped from his 
revolutionary passion by regaining his early 
sympathy for the quiet life round ' the 
village steeple,' and had found ' love in huts 
where poor men lie.' He rejected the j 
' artificial ' language of Pope and Gray, 
which had been ' natural ' to men of the 
world and scholars ; and tried to adopt the , 
language of the peasant of real life. The 
genuine pathos gradually impressed a grow- 
ing circle of readers ; but for the moment 
his lapses into a clumsy rusticity gave an 
easy triumph to the judicious critic. 
> In January 1798 Coleridge, having been 
pensioned by the Wedgwoods, planned a 
visit to Germany, and the Wordsworths 
resolved to j oin him. They intended (KNIGHT, 
i. 147) to spend two years in learning German 
and ' natural science.' They left Alfoxden 
on 26 June, and, after a stay at Bristol seeing 
the 'Lyrical Ballads' through the press, 
sailed from Yarmouth on 16 Sept. After a 
week at Hamburg, where they saw Klop- 
stock, the Wordsworths settled at Goslar, 
while Coleridge went to Ratzeburg and 
Gottingen. Goslar was chosen for its quiet, 
and turned out to be a ' lifeless ' place. The 
Wordsworths saw no society, because, as he 
had a lady with him, he would have been 
bound to entertain in return, and because 
he hated tobacco, and, according to Cole- 
ridge, was unsociable and hypochondriacal 
(COLERIDGE, Letters, i. 273). The winter 
was so cold that the people at his house told 

VOL. LXIII. 



him ' rather unfeelingly ' that he would be 
frozen to death (note to ' Lines written in 
Germany'), and, instead of associating with* 
Germans, he composed poetry chiefly about \ 
himself. He wrote the beginning of the 1 
' Prelude ' on 10 Feb 1799 on his way to a ' 
visit to Coleridge. He also wrote the poems 
to Lucy. She has been taken for a real 
person, and was made the heroine of a 
silly story by the Baroness von Stockhausen. 
Nothing, however, is known to suggest that 
there was any such person. The verses, 
' She was a phantom of delight,' which Miss 
Martineau thought applicable to ' Lucy ' 
(Miss Martineau's ' Mrs. Wordsworth ' in 
Biographical Sketches), were really addressed 
to his wife (KNIGHT, i. 189). Coleridge 
(Letters, p. 284) surmised that one of the 
poems ' A slumber did my spirit seal ' 
referred to Dorothy. The residence in Ger- 
many had no traceable effect upon Words- 
worth's mind. The cost of living was more 
than he had expected, and early in 1799 he 
returned with his sister to England, after 
spending a day with Coleridge at Gottingen 
(COLERIDGE, Letters, pp. 288, 296). They 
reached England about the end of April. 
Their plans for the future were unsettled, 
and they went at once to stay with their 
friends the Hutchinsons at Sockburn-on- 
Tees. Coleridge soon followed them, and 
at the end of October Wordsworth, with his 
brother John and Coleridge, made an excur- 
sion to the lakes. There he was impressed 
by the beauty of a vacant house called Dove 
Cottage, at Town End, Grasmere. He re- 
solved to take it at once, and soon afterwards 
travelled on foot with his sister from Sock- 
burn, reaching Dove Cottage on 21 Dec. 1799. 
The cottage was small, as befitted their 
means, but the country was so congenial 
that they remained in it for the rest of their 
lives. Wordsworth settled down to the 
composition of poetry, working at the long 
philosophical work which was to sum up 
his whole theory of life, and writing many 
occasional poems, some of which are among 
his best. Dorothy's journals show that he 
laboured steadily at his task, and was often 
tired and upset by the excitement or by the 
trouble of revising. She was constantly 
noting effects of scenery with her usual 
delicacy, and recording little incidents which 
supplied texts for her brother. Coleridge 
was still their closest intimate. He settled 
at Keswick in July 1800, after a short stay 
at Dove Cottage, and in the following period 
was constantly coming over to Grasmere. 
The Wordsworths knew a few neighbours 
W. Calvert (who was building a house at 
W r indy Brow), Thomas Clarkson (who was 

c 



Wordsworth 



18 



Wordsworth 



living at Eusemere, on Ulleswater), and 
others but lived in the quietest, fashion. 
Among Wordsworth's first employments 
was the publication of the second edition of 
the ' Lyrical Ballads.' The first volume 
had sold ' much better than we expected,' 
as Dorothy said (KNIGHT, i. 212), and had, 
she hoped, ' prepared a number of purchasers ' 
for the second, which was now added with 
some of Wordsworth's finest poems. The 
enlarged ' Lyrical Ballads ' gained some 
popularity, as Jeffrey admitted in his review 
of Wordsworth's next book (1807), and 
Wordsworth made about 100/. from the 
sale. By Poole's advice copies were sent 
to Wilberforce and the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, and one, with a remarkable letter 
from the author, to Fox. To Fox he explains 
A t the intention of his poems, especially of 
/ the two noble idylls ' The Brothers ' and 
I ' Michael.' They were meant to illustrate 
the strength of the domestic affections among 
the ' statesmen ' of the north. The ' rapid 
decay' of such affections, caused by the 
growth of manufactures, the war taxes, and 
the poor law, was, he thought, the greatest 
curse which could befall a land. The letter 
is the most explicit statement of the senti- 
ment embodied in much of Wordsworth's 
best work. Fox made a civil but not very 
appreciative reply (Memoirs, i. 166-71). 
Another noteworthy letter explaining his 
poetical principles was in answer to John 
Wilson (' Christopher North '), who at the 
age of seventeen had written a very appre- 
ciative letter (24 May 1802). The enthu- 
siasm of the yo unger generat ion was beginning 
to be roused. 

The death of Lord Lonsdale in 1802 im- 
proved Wordsworth's financial position. 
The sum originally due was 5,000/., and the 
second earl [see under WILLIAM LOWTHER, 
third EARL OF LONSDALE], on succeeding to 
his cousin's estates, repaicl the original debt 
with interest, making altogether 8,oOO/. 
(KNIGHT, i. 98). William and his sister 
were each to have about 1,800Z. ; of this they 
had lent 1,200/. to John Wordsworth, and 
in February 1805 (ib. i. 98) William was 
still uncertain as to the final result. The 
prospect of a better income probably en- 
couraged him to marry Mary Hutchinson 
(b. 1C Aug. 1770), who had been his school- 
fellow at Penrith, and was the daughter of a 
man in business at Penrith. She was not, 
as has been said, his cousin, though there 
was a remote family connection, Words- 
worth's uncle, Dr. Cookson, and her uncle, 
W. Monkhoiise, having married sisters. Her 
parents had died in her childhood, and she 
lived with relations at Penrith, till in 1792-3 



she went to keep house for her brother 
Thomas, who had a farm at Sockburn. In 
1800 they moved to another farm at Gallow 
Hill, Brompton, near Scarborough (ib. i. 
192, 336, 343). Mary Hutchinson and the 
Wordsworths had kept up the old relations; 
she had been with them in his vacation 
rambles in 1790, and had visited them at 
Racedown and at Dove Cottage ; while they 
had stayed with her at Sockburn. The mar- 
riage was thus the quiet consummation of a 
lifelong intimacy. If there was no romantic 
incident, it proved at least that a poet might 
be capable of perfect domestic happiness. 
Wordsworth's wife had not the genius nor 
the remarkable acquirements of his sister, 
but she was a gentle, sympathetic, and 
sensible woman. He described her appa- 
rently with as much fidelity as love in the 
verses ' She was a phantom of delight.' 

In July 1802 Wordsworth and his sister 
left Grasmere, and, after visiting the Hut- 
chiusons, made an expedition to Calais. 
Passing through London, he wrote (31 July) 
the famous sonnet upon Westminster Bridge. 
He had been struck by Milton's sonnets 
when read to him by his sister on 21 May 
1802 (note to ' I grieved for Buonaparte,' 
cf. KNIGHT, i. 320), and at once tried his 
skill on a form of poetry his best efforts in 
which are unsurpassed* by any English 
writer. The narrow limits prevented devia- 
tions into prosaic verbosity and allowed a 
dignified expression of profound feeling. The 
Wordsworths returned at the end of August, 
and, after three weeks in London, went to 
Gallow Hill, where he was married to Mary 
Hutchinson on 4 Oct. 1802. The same day 
the three drove to Thirsk, and on the 6th 
reached Grasmere, and settled down to the 
old life. Dorothy could not ' describe what 
she felt,' but accepted her sister-in-law with- 
out a trace of jealousy. 

From this time Wordsworth's life was 
uneventful. His five children were born : 
John on 18 June 1803; Dorothy, 16 Aug. 
1804; Thomas, 16 June 1 806 ;" Catharine, 
6 Sept. 1808 ; and William, 12 May 1810. 
In the autumn of 1801 Wordsworth made a 
walking tour in Scotland, briefly mentioned 
in his sister's ' Recollections.' While cross- 
ing Solway Moss he composed the verses 
' To a Skylark,' first published in 1807, and 
he probably wrote some other poems at the 
same time. In August 1803 he started for 
a second tour in Scotland with his sister 
and Coleridge, leaving his wife with her 
infant son (John) at Grasmere. Coleridge's 
bad health, his domestic discomforts, of 
which the Wordsworths soon became cog- 
nisant, and his resort to opium, which they 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 






probably discovered by degrees, caused them 
anxiety. He left them after a time at In- 
versnaid. The Wordsworths visited Burns's 
country, saw the falls of Clyde, Loch Lo- 
mond and the Trossachs, Inverary, Glencoe, 
Killiecrankie, and many of the scenes to 
which Scott was about to give popularity. 
The journal of this tour kept by Dorothy 
Wordsworth was admired by S. Rogers, who 
in 1823 corresponded with her as to its pro- 
posed publication (Rogers and his Contem- 
poraries, i. 343), but it did not appear in full 
until it was edited in 1874 by Professor 
Shairp as ' Recollections of a Tour made in 
Scotland, A.D. 1803.' At the end they visited 
Scott himself at Lasswade, and in his com- 
pany visited Melrose, Jedburgh, and Hawick. 
A cordial friendship began; and in 1805 
Scott with his wife visited the Wordsworths 
at Grasmere, and Scott, with (Sir*) Humphry 
Davy, made an ascent of Helvellyn, which 
suggested well-known poems to the two 
authors. 

The Wordsworths returned to Grasmere 
in October 1803. Coleridge had now re- 
solved to go abroad. On his way to London 
he fell ill at Dove Cottage, and was nursed 
by the two ladies. Wordsworth ' almost 
forced' upon him (Coleorton Mem. i. 41) a 
loan of 100/. to enable him to travel, and he 
sailed for Malta on 9 April 1804. At this 
time Sir George Howland Beaumont [q.v.] 
had made the acquaintance of Coleridge, 
whom he visited at Keswick, and admired, 
though he was not personally known to 
Wordsworth. He had an 'ardent desire' 
to bring the two poets into closer neighbour- 
hood, and with this purpose bought a small 
property at Applethwaite on the flanks of 
Skiddaw, and presented it to Wordsworth 
as a site for a house. Coleridge's departure 
removed the reason for this change. Dove 
Cottage, however, was becoming over- 
crowded. 

In November 1805 Wordsworth rambled 
with his sister into Patterdale (his sister's 
journal of the tour was incorporated in 
Wordsworth's ' Guide ' to the lakes in 1835). 
He was struck by the beauty of a cottage 
with nine acres .of land under Placefell. 
The owners wanted 1,000/. for it, and 
Wordsworth offered 800J. His friend Wil- 
kinson applied to the new Lord Lonsdale, 
who at once sent 8001. to Wordsworth to 
effect the purchase. Wordsworth, after 
some hesitation, accepted 200/. of this to 
make up the 1,0001., paying the 8001. him- 
self, half of which was supplied by his wife. 
The purchase was finally completed in March 
1807 (KNIGHT, ii. 37-8, 72-3) ; but Words- 
worth never built upon the land. The 



generosity of Lord Lonsdale led to a friend- 
ship which afterwards became very inti- 
mate. 

John Wordsworth had sailed early in 1805 
in command of the East Indiaman Aber- 
gavenny, which was wrecked by the fault 
of a pilot off the Bill of Portland on 5 Feb. 
The captain, who behaved with great courage, 
and over two hundred persons were lost. 
John was a man of great charm, sharing, it 
seems, his sister's eye for natural scenery, 
and of a refinement and literary taste un- 
usual in his profession. The whole family 
were profoundly affected by his loss (see 
KNIGHT, i. 370-80, ii. 41). Wordsworth told 
Sir George Beaumont (5 May 1805) that he 
had been trying to write a commemorative 
poem, but had been too much agitated to 
remember what he wrote. He composed, 
however, some ' elegiac verses ' referring to 
his last parting with his brother near Grise- 
dale tarn. An inscription has been placed 
on the face of a neighbouring rock at the 
suggestion of Canon Rawnsley. There are 
many references to John in Wordsworth's 
poetry, especially in the verses on Piel Castle 
(the reference is to Piel, near Barrow-in- 
Furness ; see Eversley Wordsworth, iii. 56- 
57). The character of the ' Happy War- 
rior,' suggested by the death of Nelson, in- 
cludes traits of character derived from John 
Wordsworth. 

In May 1805 (letters to Sir G. Beaumont 
of 1 May and 3 June 1805) Wordsworth had 
finished the ' Prelude,' having worked at it 
for some months. He observes that it is 
' unprecedented ' for a man to write nine 
thousand lines about himself, but explains 
that he was induced to this by ' real humility.' 
He was afraid of any more arduous topic. 
The poem was meant to be ' a sort of portico 
to the " Recluse," ' which he hoped soon to 
begin in earnest. It remained unprinted 
till his death. Meanwhile Dove Cottage 
was becoming untenable. Sir G. Beaumont 
was at this time rebuilding his house at 
Coleorton, near Ashby-de-la-Zouche, Lei- 
cestershire. During the building he occu- 
pied a farmhouse, and he now offered this 
for the winter of 1806-7 to the Words- 
worths. They moved thither with Mrs. 
Wordsworth's sister Sarah at the end of 
October 1806. Wordsworth took a lively 
interest in plans for the gardens, upon which 
he wrote long letters to the Beaumonts. 
He wrote inscriptions to be placed in the 
grounds. Sir G. Beaumont's pictures sug- 
gested some of his poems (especially that on 
Piel Castle), and Beaumont drew illustra- 
tions for several of Wordsworth's poems 
(KNIGHT, ii. 56, gives a list). The friend- 

c2 



Wordsworth 



20 



Wordsworth 



ship remained unbroken until the death of 
Sir G. Beaumont (7 Feb. 1827). He left an 
annuity of 100/. to Wordsworth to pay the 
expenses of an annual tour. At the end of 
1806 Coleridge came with Hartley to stay 
with the "Wordsworths at Coleorton. In 
January 1807 Wordsworth recited the 'Pre- 
lude' to Coleridge, who thereupon wrote his 
verses 'To a Gentleman' (the first version 
given in Coleorton fetters, i. 213, contains 
some affectionate lines upon Wordsworth, 
afterwards suppressed). From Coleorton 
Wordsworth went to London for a month 
in the spring of 1807, coming back with 
Scott. The Wordsworths returned to Gras- 
mere in the autumn. He afterwards went 
to the Hutchinsons at Stockton, where he 
wrote part of the ' White Doe of Rylstone.' 
A collection of poems in two volumes ap- 
peared this year, including the odes to ' Duty,' 
and upon the ' Intimations of Immortality,' 
' Miscellaneous Sonnets,' sonnets dedicated 
to 'Liberty,' and poems written during a 
tour in Scotland. Though containing some 
of his finest work, the new publication was 
sharply attacked upon the old grounds. 
Southey wrote to Miss Seward (KNIGHT, ii. 
97) that had he been Wordsworth's adviser 
a great part of the last volume would have 
been suppressed. The 'storm of ridicule' 
might have been foreseen, and Wordsworth, 
though he despised, was ' diseasedly sensi- 
tive to the censure which he despises.' Words- 
worth, however, himself expressed great con- 
fidence as to the ultimate success of his 
work, misunderstood by a frivolous public 
(to Lady Beaumont, 21 May 1807). Jeffrey 
in the 'Edinburgh '(October 1807) treated 
W T ordsworth as a man of great ability, led 
into error by a perverse theory ; but the 
ridicule was more pointed than the praise, 
and was thought to have stopped the circu- 
lation of the poems. 

Wordsworth went to London to see Cole- 
ridge, who was ill, and heard him lecture in 
the beginning of 1808. He had now decided 
to leave Dove Cottage, where he had to work 
in the one room also used by the family, the 
children, and visitors. He moved to a house 
called Allan Bank, recently built under Sil- 
verhowe on the way to Easedale. There he 
settled in the autumn of 1808, and Coleridge 
came to be his guest. De Quincey, who 
had recently become Coleridge's friend, was 
another guest, who at the end of 1809 settled 
in Dove Cottage. John Wilson, Wordsworth's 
old admirer, had built his house at Elleray, 
and now became personally intimate with 
the Wordsworths. The whole country was 
at this time in a passion of excitement over 
the convention of Cintra. Wordsworth's inte- 



rest in political matters appeared to have sub- 
sided ; and in June 1805 he wrote to Sir G. 
! Beaumont wondering at his own indifference 
to current affairs, such as Nelson's voyage to- 
the West Indies. The Spanish rising, how- 
ever, roused him thoroughly. He sympa- 
thised heartily with the patriotic resistance 
to Napoleon, and was shocked by the per- 
mission granted to the French army to re- 
turn to their own country. He expressed 
his feelings in a pamphlet, which Canning 
is said to have regarded as the most eloquent 
production since Burke's. It takes a high 
moral ground, and, if rather magniloquent t 
is forcibly written. Unluckily it was en- 
trusted to De Quincey, who was unbusiness- 
like, and worried the printers by theories of 
punctuation. The publication was delayed,, 
but, as Southey wrote to Scott, it would 
have failed in any case from its 'long and 
involved ' sentences. Wordsworth, he says r 
became obscure, partly because he imitated 
Milton, and partly because the habit of dic- 
tating hides a man's obscurity from himself. 
The series of sonnets ' dedicated to national 
independence and liberty,' written about 
this time, represent the same mood. 

Coleridge was now bringing out the 
' Friend,' of which the first number appeared 
on 1 June 1809, and the last on 15 March 
1810. He dictated much of it at Grasmere 
to Sarah Hutchinson, sister of Mrs. AVords- 
worth. Wordsworth gave some help by re- 
plying to a letter by John Wilson (signed 
' Mathetes ') and contributing an essay upon 
' Epitaphs.' In 1810 appeared the first ver- 
sion of his prose book upon the lakes. 
Coleridge, after the failure of the ' Friend, r 
had decided to go to London with Basil 
Montagu, at whose house he meant to reside. 
W T ordsworth, having had painful experience 
of Coleridge's habits as a guest, thought it 
his duty to warn Montagu of the responsi- 
bilities which he was incurring. Montagu,, 
three days after reaching London, took the 
amazing step of communicating this state- 
ment to Coleridge. Wordsworth, according 
to him, had said, ' Coleridge has been a 
" nuisance " in my house, and I have no 
hope for him ; ' and had commissioned Mont- 
agu to deliver this agreeable opinion to its 
object. Coleridge, in his unfortunate con- 
dition, was thrown into a paroxysm of dis- 
tress. He left Montagu to settle with the 
Morgans, and, instead of appealing to Words- 
worth himself, confided more or less in the 
Lambs, the Morgans, Mrs. Clarkson, and 
other friends. For a time a complete aliena- 
tion followed. In the spring of 1812 Cole- 
ridge was on the lakes, but refused, in spite 
of Dorothy's entreaties, to visit Grasmere. 



Wordsworth 



21 



Wordsworth 



In May 1812 Wordsworth came to London, 
and Crabb Robinson acted as a friendly 
mediator. The difficulty was that, although 
Wordsworth could deny that he had sent 
any message or used the words repeated by 
Coleridge, who had probably exaggerated 
Montagu's exaggerated version, he could not 
deny that he had said something which would 
be painful to Coleridge. He might have 
used the word ' nuisance ' in regard to some 
of Coleridge's habits, which undoubtedly 
Reserved the name ; but he denied that he 
'had applied it to Coleridge himself. Words- 
worth was both delicate and straightfor- 
ward, and Coleridge ended by accepting his 
statements. At the end of the year he wrote 
a very warm letter of condolence upon the 
death of Wordsworth's son. It included a 
reference (COLERIDGE, Letters, p. 601) to 
his feeling for Sarah Hutchinson, of which 
Wordsworth would naturally disapprove. 
At any rate, he delayed answering, but he 
then wrote inviting Coleridge to Grasmere, 
where his company would be the greatest 
comfort to his friend. Coleridge went oft' to 
the seaside and made no reply. Intercourse 
was renewed by some letters in 1815 upon 
poetical points ; but in 1816 Wordsworth 
was annoyed at the criticisms in the ' Bio- 
graphia Literaria,' and the friendship was 
not re-established till 1817, and never re- 
gained the old warmth. The quarrel which 
suspended one of the most remarkable of 
literary friendships was regarded by Cole- 
ridge as one of the ' four griping sorrows of 
his life ' (ALLSOP, Coleridge, ii. 140). Though 
known to so many people at the time, the 
facts have only recently been made public 
(KNIGHT, ii. 168-87 ; J. D. CAMPBELL, Cole- 
ridge, pp. 179-85, 193-7 ; COLEKIDGE, Let- 
ters, pp. 578, 586-612. A full account given 
in GRABS ROBINSON'S Diary was suppressed 
t>y the editor. Mrs. Clarkson wrote to him 
that Wordsworth's conduct had been affec- 
tionate and ' forbearing throughout '). 

In the summer of 1810 the Wordsworths 
had moved from Allan Bank to the parson- 
age at Grasmere. Two of the children were 
ailing, and both died in 1812 Catherine on 
4 June and Thomas on 1 Dec. They were 
buried in the churchyard, and the pain- 
ful association made Wordsworth anxious 
to leave the house. Early in 1813 he moved 
accordingly to Rydal Mount, the house 
which he occupied for the rest of his life. 
In 1812 he had applied to Lord Lonsdale to 
obtain some situation for him, stating that 
his actual literary pursuits brought in little 
money, and that he could not turn to less 
exalted and more profitable work. Lord 
JL'jnsdale, after applying fruitlessly to Lord 



Liverpool, offered an allowance (apparently 
of 1001. a year) from himself (KNIGHT, ii. 
209). Wordsworth accepted this, after some 
hesitation, but soon afterwards Lonsdale 
obtained for him the office of distributor of 
stamps for the county of Westmoreland. 
[The statement that Lonsdale acted upon 
a hint from Rogers, who had said that the 
Wordsworths had often to abstain from 
meat (Rogers and his Contemporaries, i. 103), 
cannot be accurate.] The office brought 
him in about 400/. a year. A good deal 
of the work was done by a clerk, John 
Carter, who served him for his life, and 
edited the 'Prelude ' after his death. It in- 
volved, however, some careful superinten- 
dence, and Wordsworth says that for seven 
years he or < one of his nearest connections ' 
had been daily on the spot (KNIGHT, ii. 211). 
In 1814 Wordsworth made another tour 
in Scotland, when he saw Hogg and Gillies, 
who published several of his letters in ' Me- 
moirs of a Literary Veteran.' In July ap- 
peared the ' Excursion.' When finishing 
the ' Prelude ' he says that the task ' of his 
life ' will be over if he can finish the ' Re- 
cluse ' and ' a narrative poem of the epic 
kind' (to Beaumont, 3 June 1805). The 
epic was never begun, and the ' Excursion ' 
(with a fragment published in 1888), on 
which he worked at intervals from 1795 
till its publication, represents the ' Recluse.' 
It marks the culmination of Wordsworth's 
poetical career. Jeffrey's famous phrase, 
' This will never do ! ' (Edinburgh, Novem- 
ber 1814) was really the protest of literary 
orthodoxy against a heresy the more offen- 
sive because it was growing in strength. 
Southey (Life, iv. 91), Keats, and Crabb 
Robinson now put Wordsworth by the side 
of Milton. Lamb was allowed by his old 
enemy Gifford (perhaps in remorse for a pre- 
vious attack, see SOUXHEY'S Life, v. 151) to 
review the poem in the ' Quarterly,' where, 
however, the article was cruelly mangled. 
Coleridge objected that the ' Excursion ' did 
not fulfil his anticipations that the 'Re- 
cluse ' was to be the ' first and only true 
philosophical poem in existence' (Letters, 
pp. 643-50) ; whereas the philosophy was still 
subordinate to the exposition of commonplace 
truths. The poem took its place as Words- 
worth's masterpiece among the younger gene- 
ration now growing up. Wordsworth gra- 
dually abandoned any thought of carrying 
out any larger design. The ' White Doe of 
Rylstone ' (published in 1815) had been 
written in 1807-8, 'Peter Bell' and the 
' Waggoner ' (both published in 1819) in 
1798 and 1805 respectively. ' Peter Bell ' 
is said to have been his ' most successful ' 



22 



Wordsworth 



book up to that time, an edition of five 
hundred copies having been sold in the 
year and a second published. From ' want 
of resolution to take up a longer -work,' he 
says (KNIGHT, iii. 95), he spent much time 
in writing sonnets. The sonnets on the 
Duddon, chiefly written about 1820, show 
his true power. The longest and least suc- 
cessful series was that called ' Ecclesias- 
tical Sketches,' published in 1822. In fact 
Wordsworth's productive power had declined, 
and henceforth appeared only in occasional 
' effusions.' He had become respectable and 
conservative. To the liberals he appeared to 
be a renegade. Shelley expresses his view 
in a sonnet and in ' Peter Bell the Third,' 
the first ' Peter Bell ' being the parody by 
John Hamilton Reynolds [q. v.], brought out 
when Wordsworth's poem was advertised. 
Browning's ' Lost Leader ' (see his letter to 
Dr. Grosart in Wordsworth's Prose Works) 
gives a later version of this sentiment. 
Wordsworth's 'Thanksgiving Ode 'in 1815 
(to which Shelley refers) shows how com- 
pletely he shared the conservative view. 
Although the evolution of Wordsworth's 
opinions was both honest and intelligible, it 
led to a practical alliance with toryism. He 
took a keen interest in local politics, as 
appears from his letters to Lord Lonsdale 
(partly published by Professor Knight), and 
in 1818 published two addresses to the West- 
minster freeholders in support of the tory 
party. He was alarmed by the discontent 
of that period, and fully approved of the re- 
pressive measures. At a later period he was 
strongly opposed to catholic emancipation, 
and thought the Reform Bill would lead to a 
disastrous revolution (see W. HALE WHITE'S 
Examination of the Charge of Apostasy 
against Wordsworth, 1898, for an interest- 
ing discussion of his religious and political 
views). On 13 Jan. 1819 he was placed on 
the commission of the peace for Westmor- 
land. 

During his later years Wordsworth made 
>. good many tours and widened his circle of 
friends. Samuel Rogers had seen him at 
the lakes in 1803, and was a helpful friend. 
Another friend, who had first met him at 
Coleortpn in 1809, was B. R. Haydon, who 
in 1815 took a cast of his face and intro- 
duced him to Leigh Hunt. In 1817 he had 
a famous dinner at Haydon's studio with 
Keats and Lamb (TAYLOR, Haydon*, i. 
384-7). Keats saw 'a good deal' of him, 
and regarded him with reverence (Works 
by Buxtcn Forman, iii. 45, 107). Crabb 
Robinson, introduced to him by Lamb in 
3808, was always a most attentive disciple 
and something of a Boswell. In later visits 



he saw much of Rogers and his younger ad- 
mirer (Sir) Henry Taylor, who asked some 
of the utilitarians to meet him at a break- 
fast party. In 1820 he made a four months' 
tour with his wife and sister and other 
friends up the Rhine to Switzerland, met 
Robinson at Lucerne, and, after visiting 
the Italian lakes, returned by Paris. In 1823 
he visited Belgium with his wife, and in 
1828 went again to Belgium and up the 
Rhine with his daughter and Coleridge (see 
T. C. GRATTAX'S Beaten Paths, ch. iv., and 
Memoir of C. Mayne Young for notices of 
this tour). In 1829 he went to Ireland to 
visit (Sir) William Rowan Hamilton [q. v.], 
an ardent admirer, to whom he often wrote 
criticising poems written by Hamilton and 
his sister kindly and judiciously. In 1831 he 
went to Scotland, chiefly to see. Scott, whom 
he visited in September at Abbotsford. A 
fine sonnet, ' Yarrow Revisited ' (1835), 
commemorates this last meeting. A final 
tour through the Isle of Man to Scotland 
was made in 1833, and produced another 
series of poems in the same volume. The 
death of James Hogg (1770-1835) [q.v.l on 
21 Nov. 1835 suggested an ' Effusion,' with 
touching allusions to the deaths of Scott 
(1832), Crabbe (1832), Coleridge (1834), 
Lamb (1834), and Mrs.Hemans (1835). The 
old generation was vanishing. Wordsworth 
was deeply affected by the death of Cole- 
ridge, though the close intimacy had never 
been restored. The death of his sister-in-law, 
Sarah Hutchinson, on 23 June 1835, was a 
still severer blow. Dorothy Wordsworth had 
never really recovered from a severe illness 
in 1829, and by this time was sinking into 
incurable ill-health. The disease, as he tells 
) Rogers in February 1836, had to some degree 
| affected the brain. In 1837 Wordsworth 
i made his last continental tour, attended by 
! H. C. Robinson, who in later years spent 
I several Christmases at Grasmere. Between 
19 March and 7 Aug. they went through 
France, and by the Corniche road through 
Italy to Rome; back to Florence, Milan, 
and the lakes to Venice, and thence through 
the Tyrol, Salzburg, Munich, and Heidelberg, 
and back by Brussels and Calais. Words- 
worth enjoyed his tour and still wrote poems. 
Dr. Arnold built his house at Fox How in 
1833. He and his family and Mrs. Fletcher 
[see FLETCHER, ELIZA], with her daughters, 
Lady Richardson andMrs. Davy, were valued 
neighbours in later years. 

Admiration of Wordsworth's poetry was 
now becoming part of the orthodox creed. 
Coleridge's criticisms in the ' Biographia 
Literaria' expounded the true faith, and 
Coleridge had become a prophet. In 1823 



Wordsworth 



2 3 



Wordsworth 



Dorothy Wordsworth told Robinson that he 
would publish no more poems, as they never 
sold (KNIGHT, iii. 70). The collective edition 
of 1820 of five hundred copies was not sold 
out for four years. In 1825-6 he corresponded 
with S. Rogers and Alaric Watts, asking 
them to help him to get better terms from 
a new publisher. The profits of his books 
had been spent in advertising. Rogers said 
that if he were allowed to select, he would 
make a popular collection of the poems. To 
this Wordsworth declined to submit, and, 
after some negotiation, had to fall back upon 
his old publishers, the Longmans, who in 
1827 brought out a new edition Words- 
worth to have two-thirds of the expenses 
and profits, instead of half profits as before. 
Of a new edition in 1831 only four hundred 
out of two thousand copies were sold by 
June 1832 (see Rogers and his Contem- 
poraries, i. 403-15 ; Life of Alaric Watts, 
i. 234-7 ; Transactions of Wordsworth So- 
ciety, vol. vi.) On 20 Feb. 1835 Words- 
worth told Moore that he had not made 
above 1,000^. by all his publications up to 
that time. Rogers told Robinson (Diaries, 
&c., iii. 73) about this time that Words- 
worth would now be as much overpraised 
as he had been depreciated. In 1836 Ed- 
ward Moxon [q. v.], who had published 
' Selections' in 1831, gave him 1,0001. for a 
new edition, a bargain which in 1842 Words- 
worth thought had been a bad one for the 
publisher (KNIGHT, iii. 418). The circula- 
tion, however, was increasing. In 1837 he 
began to hear that his poems were making 
an impression at home and abroad. In that 
year he was told that an edition of twenty 
thousand copies had been published in 
America (ib. iii. 267). In 1839, when Tal- 
fourd was proposing a new law of copyright, 
Wordsworth, in a petition to the House of 
Commons, stated that within the last four 
years he had received more for his writings 
than during his whole previous career. He 
had a long correspondence with Talfourd, 
Gladstone, and other supporters of the 
measure at this period (printed in KNIGHT, 
iii. 318-58). When on 26 May 1836 he 
attended the first performance of Talfourd's 
' Ion,' lie was received with loud cheers, ac- 
cording to the rather doubtful statement of 
John Dix, who was present (KNIGHT, iii. 
265). In 1838 he received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of 
Durham, and in 1839 the same degree at 
Oxford. He there received an enthusiastic 
welcome. Keble, who presented him, dedi- 
cated to him in 1844 his ' Prselectiones 
Academicse,' and on both occasions used 
terms of reverent affection, by which Words- 



worth was deeply gratified. He had waited 
forty years for general recognition of his 
genius. 

In 1842 Wordsworth resigned his place 
in the stamp office ; it was transferred to his 
son William, who had done much of the duty 
since 1831, when upon an enlargement of the 
district he had become his father's deputy 
at Carlisle. This involved a loss of 400/. a 
year, ' more than half his income ' (KNIGHT, 
iii. 426). This fact, as he desired, was brought 
under the notice of Sir R. Peel, who in Octo- 
ber gave him a pension of 300/. a year from 
the civil list. The grant was due to the influ- 
ence of Gladstone. 

Wordsworth's eldest son, John, had taken 
orders, and at the end of 1828 was preferred to 
the rectory of Moresby, Cumberland, by Lord 
Lonsdale. He afterwards became vicar of 
Brigham, near Cockermouth. Wordsworth's 
daughter Dorothy (called ' Dora ' to distinguish 
her from her aunt) was- his favourite child, 
and is commemorated with Edith Southey 
and Sara Coleridge in the ' Triad.' On 11 May 
1841 she married Edward Quillinan [q.v.j 
Wordsworth withheld his consent for some 
time, partly, it seems, because Quillinan 
was a Roman catholic, but chiefly from un- 
willingness to part from the daughter whom 
he loved with a 'passionately jealous' affec- 
tion (TATLOE, Autobiography, i. 334-9). His 
consent was partly due to the pressure of 
Isabella Fenwick, who had come to live at 
Grasmere out of admiration for his poetry, 
and stayed for some time in the family. 
Both the poet and his wife found in her an 
ardent and judicious friend, and to her 
Wordsworth dictated the invaluable notes 
upon the composition of his poems. 

Upon the death of Southey (21 March 
1843) the poet-laureateship was offered to 
Wordsworth, who at first declined on the 
ground of his inability to discharge the 
duties. Sir Robert Peel having assured 
him that no official verses would be required 
from him, he accepted the offer. In May 
1845 he went to London upon being invited 
to a state ball. He afterwards attended a 
levee in court dress, and had to be forced 
into Rogers's clothes and to wear Davy's 
sword (see HATDON, iii. 303-6, and the 
Browning Letters, i. 86-7). Tennyson was 
squeezed into the same coat when he had to 
attend a levee as Wordsworth's successor 
(Life of Tennj/son, i. 338). In January 1846 
he sent a copy of his poems to the queen, 
with verses inscribed upon the flyleaf (printed 
in KNIGHT, iii. 470). In 1847 an ode, nomi- 
nally by him, but probably written by Quilli- 
nan (Eversley Wordsworth, viii. 320), was set 
to music and performed at the installation 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



of the prince consort as chancellor of the 
university of Cambridge. It was received 
with great applause. Wordsworth was still 
vigorous. Some memorials of his conversa- 
tion are given by Mrs. (Eliza) Fletcher [q.v.l 
and her daughters, Lady Richardson and 
Mrs. Davy. Disciples such as Henry Taylor, 
Mr. Aubrey de Vere, and Matthew Arnold 
paid him their homage, and he was the object 
of general reverence. His son William mar- 
ried Miss Graham. Mrs. Quillinan was 
taken ill soon afterwards. Her parents re- 
turned from a visit to Christopher "Words- 
worth at Westminster upon hearing of her 
state. After two months of anxiety she 
died on 9 July. Wordsworth's grief was 
overpowering and darkened his remaining 
years. In 1849 he visited one of the Hutchin- 
sons at Malvern, and there had his last 
interview with Robinson. On 10 March 
1850 he was able to attend divine service at 
Rydal chapel, but a day or two later caught 
cold and gradually sank, dying peacefully 
on 23 April 1850. He was buried in Gras- 
mere churchyard on the 27th by the side of 
his children. Dorothy Wordsworth died on 
25 Jan. 1855. Mrs. Wordsworth survived 
till her ninetieth year, and died on 17 Jan. 
1859, when she was buried beside her hus- 
band. John, the elder of the two surviving 
sons, died in 1875, and William, the younger, 
in 1883. Both left children. 

The criticism of Wordsworth's poetry by 
S. T. Coleridge in the ' Biographia Literaria ' 
is still unsurpassed. Later criticisms of 
interest are by Sir Henry Taylor (in ' Notes I 
on Books,' 1849) ; Mr. Aubrey de Yere in j 
/ 'Essays chiefly on Poetry ,'1887, vol. i.: Mat- | 
thew Arnold (in a preface to a selection of | 
'Poems,' 1880); Dean Church (in Mr. Hum- | 
phry Ward's 'English Poets,' 1880, vol. iv.); j 
Shairp in ' Studies in Philosophy and Poetry,' 
1868 ; R. H. Hutton in ' Essays Philoso- 
phical and Literary,' 1871, vol. ii.; Walter 
Pater in ' Appreciations,' 1890 ; Mr. A. C. 
Swinburne in 'Miscellanies,' 1886: Mr. John | 
Morley (in ' Introduction ' to edition of 
poems in 1888); and J. R. Lowell (in 
'Among my Books'). J. S. Mill in his' Auto- 
biography f (pp. 146, &c.) has an interesting 
account of the effect upon himself of reading 
Wordsworth. The soothing influence which 
Mill recognised no doubt explains the strong 
| affection which Wordsworth has inspired in 
I all sympathetic readers. No poet has been 
more loved because none has expressed more 
forcibly and truly the deepest moral emotions. 
Some critics have laboured to show that his 
poetry was not a philosophy such as Cole- 
ridge fondly expected to find in the 'Excur- ' 
sion.' Wordsworth was to begin by exposing 



the ' sandy sophisms of Locke,' and to show 
the reconciliation of true idealism and true 
realism (COLERIDGE, Letters,n. 643). Words- 
worth, in fact, was only puzzled by meta- 
physical arguments, and could not, if any 
one could, transmute them into poetry. 
His ' philosophy,' if he be allowed to have 
one, must be taken to correspond to a pro- 
found and consistent perception of certain 
vitally important aspects of human life. 
His aim from the first was to find fit utter- 
ance for the primary and simple feelings. 
The attempt to utter the corresponding 
truths has an awkward tendency to de- 
generate into platitude ; and W T ordsworth's 
revolt against the ' artificial ' style of the 
previous school led to his trivialities. He 
seems to have thought that because the 
peasant has the feelings common to man, 
the peasant's language could give them ade- 
quate expression. He became inartistic at 
times from fear of being unnatural. He fully 
recognised, indeed, the necessity of polishing 
his poems, as is shown by his continual re- 
visions (given in Knight's edition). A cer- 
tain clumsiness always remains ; but in his 
earlier period he had the power of arresting 
simple thought with the magic of poetical 
inspiration. The great stimulus came from 
the French revolution. The sympathy which 
he felt with the supposed restoration of an 
idyllic order disappeared when it took the 
form of social disintegration. The growth 
of pauperism and the factory system, and 
the decay of old simple society, intensified 
the impression ; and some of his noblest 
poems are devoted to celebrating the virtues 
which he took to be endangered. Words- 
worth's love of ' nature ' is partly an expres- 
sion of the same feeling. He loved the 
mountains because they were the barriers 
which protected the peasant. He loved 
them also because they echoed his own most 
characteristic moods. His 'mystical' or 
pantheistic view of nature meant the delight 
of the lonely musings when he had to 
' grasp a tree ' to convince himself of the 
reality of the world (Memoirs, ii. 280). The 
love of nature was therefore the other side 
of his ' egotism.' He hated the scientific 
view which substituted mere matter of fact 
for emotional stimulus. The truth and 
power of his sentiment make this the most 
original and most purely poetical element 
in his writings. He could as little rival 
Coleridge and Shelley in soaring above the 
commonplace world as Byron or Burns in 
uttering the passions. But in his own 
domain, the expression of the deep and 
solemn emotions of a quiet recluse among 
simple people and impressive scenerv, he 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



is equally unsurpassable. Miss Fenwick 
says (TAYLOR, Correspondence, p. 109) that 
all his affections were so powerful that, had 
his intellect been less strong, ' they must 
have destroyed him long ago.' Coleridge 
notices his strong tendency to hypochondria 
(METEYARD, Group of Englishmen, p. 164). 
Wordsworth's solidity gave him always a 
certain ' alacrity in sinking ; ' and it was 
chiefly during the period which followed his 
great intellectual crisis that he achieved his 
highest flights. In later years he was an 
excellent distributor of stamps, but, except 
in the opinion of one or two very zealous 
disciples, a very inferior poet. 

Wordsworth, according to Haydon (Life, 
iii. 223), was exactly 5 feet 9 inches in 
height. He was of sturdy large-boned 
clumsily built figure, looking like one of his 
respectable dalesmen. Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, 
and De Quincey speak of his eyes as glowing 
at times with remarkable fire. De Quincey 
says that the ' Richardson ' portrait of Nel- 
son was an exact likeness ; but the impres- 
sion is scarcely confirmed by his portraits. 
They show a strong bony framework, a 
heavy mouth, and a prominent nose, and 
some are more suggestive of strength than 
of fire. After leaving Kacedown he ^vas en- 
tirely without the sense of smell (SouxHEY, 
Life, i. 63). 

Professor Knight gives a list of Words- 
worth's portraits in ' Works,' ii. 402-31. 
Original portraits are: 1. Half-length, by 
an unknown artist at Stowey in 1797, men- 
tioned in Cottle's ' Early Recollections ' (i. 
317) ; bought in 1887 by Mr. George, the 
bookseller at Bristol. 2. Drawing in black 
chalk by Robert Hancock [q. v.J in 1798 ; 
engraved in Cottle's ' Recollections ; ' now in 
National Portrait Gallery, London. 3. Por- 
trait by William Hazlitt in 1803 ; ridiculed 
by Southey in ' Life and Correspondence ' (ii. 
238). 4. Oil painting by Richard Carruthers 
in 181 7 ; belonged to the Rev. Thomas 
Hutchinson, Mrs. Wordsworth's nephew ; 
engraved by Meyer, and reproduced in 
Tutin's ' Wordsworth Birthday Book.' 
5. Pencil drawing by Edward Nash in 1818 ; 
bought at Southey's sale by Mrs. Joshua 
Stanger ; engraved for Wordsworth's ' Prose 
Works ' (see SOUTHEY, Life and Corresp. v. 
50). 6. A crayon drawing by B. R Haydon 
in 1818 ; given to Wordsworth, and after- 
wards by his sons to Mrs. Walter Field ; 
engraved by Thomas Landseer in 1831. 7. A 
portrait by Haydon : introduced into his 
< Christ's Entry into Jerusalem,' exhibited 
in 1820, where Wordsworth appears as a 
reverent disciple ; the picture is now in the 
Jloman catholic cathedral at Cincinnati ; a 



dark study for the head was bought by Mr. 
Stephen Pearce at Haydon's sale. 8. A 
small half-length by Mr. William Boxall, 
1831, belonging to Mr. Gordon Wordsworth, 
the poet's grandson ; engraved for Reed's 
American edition of 1844, and elsewhere. 

9. Lithograph by William Wilkins ; drawn 
for ' Men of the Day ' about 1835 ; called 
by Wordsworth the 'Stamp-Distributor.' 

10. Medallion in wax by W. W. Wyon, 1835. 

11. Portrait by Joseph Severn [q. v.] when 
at Rome in 1837 ; in possession of the poet's 
grandson, principal of the Elphinstone Col- 
lege, Bombay. 12. Three-quarter length by 
Henry William Pickersgill [q. v.], painted 
for St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1832 ; 
copies were made by H. H. Pickersgill, the 
artist's son, for Mrs. Quillinan, and for the 
Master of Trinity. 13. Portrait by H. V. 
Pickersgill, painted for Sir Robert Peel in 
1840 ; engraved in the ' Memoirs ; ' a replica 
at the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

14. Miniature on ivory by Miss Margaret 
Gillies in 1841 for Mr. Moon, the publisher, 
for an engraving issued in 1841 and again 
in 1853 ; the original afterwards belonged to 
Sir Henry Doulton, and was engraved for a 
volume of ' Selections ' compiled by the 
Wordsworth Society; Miss Gillies made 
three copies, introducing Mrs. Wordsworth, 
and a profile, engraved in the ' New Spirit 
of the Age,' by Richard Henry Home [q. v.] 

15. Portrait representing Wordsworth as- 
cending Helvellyn, by B. R. Haydon, 1842 ; 
Mrs. Browning wrote a sonnet upon this por- 
trait, which has been engraved. 16. An un- 
finished portrait by Haydon in 1846, be- 
longing to Mr. Francis Bennoch, representing 
Wordsworth seated on Helvellyn. 17. Por- 
trait painted in 1844 by Henry Inman, an 
American artist, for Professor Reed of Phila- 
delphia, now in America ; a replica was given 
to Wordsworth. 18. A miniature in water- 
colours by Thomas Carrick [q. v.] Two 
sketches of Wordsworth's head by Samuel 

"" belonged to Mr. J. Dykes 
of Wordsworth by Chan- 
re 1821, is at Coleorton. 
by Mr. Angus Fletcher, 
brother of Mrs. Fletcher of Lancrigg. The 
statue in the baptistery at Westminster 
Abbey is by Frederick Thrupp [q. v.], who 
used a plaster-cast taken from Wordsworth's 
face during life. A medallion in Grasmere 
church is by Thomas Woolner [q. v.] 

Dove Cottage was bought by subscription 
in 1891, and is held by trustees for the 
public. The other houses occupied by 
Wordsworth are still in existence. For an 
account of various places associated with 
Wordsworth see Professor Knight's ' Eng- 



Laurence 




trey, 
Another 



Wordsworth 



Wordsworth 



lish Lake District as interpreted in the Poems 
of Wordsworth,' 1891, and Canou Rawns- 
ley's ' Literary Associations of the English 
Lakes,' Glasgow, 1894. 

AVordsworth's works are: 1. 'An Even- 
ing Walk : an Epistle ... to a Young Lady 
from the Lakes of the North of England,' 
1793. 2. ' Descriptive Sketches in Verse, 
taken during a pedestrian tour in the Italian, 
Grison, Swiss, and Savoyard Alps,' 1793. 
3. 'Lyrical Ballads, with a few other poems,' 
1798, 1 vol. 8vo (anon.) There are four 

?oems by Coleridge. A reprint, edited by 
"rofessor Dowden, was published in 1891 ; 
and another, edited by Mr. T. Hutchinson, in 
1898 (both with valuable notes). 4. ' Lyrical 
Ballads, with other poems,' 1800, 2 vols. 
8vo. The first represents the volume of 1798, 
and is called ' second edition,' omitting ' The 
Convict,' by Wordsworth, including Cole- 
ridge's ' Love,' making some changes, and 
adding a ' preface ; ' reprinted in 1802 at 
Philadelphia, U.S. The second volume, 
containing new poems, is not called second 
edition. Another edition appeared in 1802, 
vol. i. called a ' third edition,' and vol. ii., 
to which are added the ' preface ' of 1800 
and an ' appendix ' on poetic diction, ' second 
edition ; ' and another, in two volumes, both 
called ' fourth edition,' in 1805. 5. ' Poems 
in two volumes,' 1807, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. ' Con- 
cerning the Relations of Great Britain, 
Spain, and Portugal to each other, and to 
the Common Enemy at this Crisis, and spe- 
cifically as affected by the Convention of 
Cintra . . .,' 1809, 1 vol. 8vo; 2nd edit. 
1820 ; new edit. 1836. 7. ' The Excursion, 
being a portion of the Recluse,' 1814, 4to. 
In the notes is the ' essay upon epitaphs,' 
from the ' Friend ' of 22 Feb. 1810. 8. ' The 
White Doe of Rylstone ; or the Fate of the 
Nortons,' 1815, 1 vol. 4to ; includes the 
' Force of Prayer ; or the Founding of Bol- 
ton Abbey.' 9. ' A Letter to a Friend of 
Robert Burns ' (James Gray), 1816, 1 vol. 
8vo. 10. ' Thanksgiving Ode, 18 Jan. 1816, 
with other short pieces, chiefly referring to 
recent events,' 1816, 1 vol. 8vo. 11. 'Two 
Addresses to the Freeholders of Westmore- 
land,' 1818, 1 vol. 8vo. 12. ' Peter Bell : a 
Tale in Verse,' 1819, 1 vol. 8vo (with four 
sonnets) ; 2nd edit. 1819. 13. ' The Wag- 
goner: a poem ; to which are added Sonnets,' 
1819. 14. ' The River Duddon : a Series of 
Sonnets, Vaudracour and Julia, and other 
Poems, to which is annexed " A Topographi- 
cal Description of the Country of the Lakes 
. . ,'" 1820, 1 vol. 8vo. The" topographical 
description was first prefixed to the Rev. 
Joseph Wilkinson's ' Select Views in Cum- 
berland, &c.' (fol. 1810). A third edition 



(first separately published) in 1822, fourth 
1823, fifth as ' A Guide through the Lakes,' 
with 'considerable additions,' 1835. 15. ' Me- 
morials of a Tour on the Continent, 1822,' 
1 vol. 8vo. 16. ' Ecclesiastical Sketches,' 
[1822], 1 vol. 8vo. 17. 'Lines after the 
Death of Charles Lamb,' privately printed 
without title or date in 1835 or 1836. 
18. ' Yarrow Revisited, and other Poems,' 
1835, 1vol. 12mo; again in 1839. 19. 'The 
Sonnets of W. Wordsworth . . . with a few 
additional ones now first published,' 1838, 
1 vol. 8vo. 20. ' Poems chiefly of early and 
late years,' including 'The Borderers,' 1842, 
1 vol. 8vo ; also issued as vol. vii. to ' Poeti- 
cal Works ' of 1836. 21 . ' Kendal and Win- 
dermere Railway : Two letters reprinted from 
the "Morning Post," revised, with additions,' 
n.d. (end of 1844). 22. ' Ode on the In- 
stallation of H.R.H. Prince Albert as 
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge,' 
[1847], 4to. 23. 'The Prelude, or Growth 
of a Poet's Mind,' 1850, 1 vol. 8vo (pos- 
thumous). 24. The first book of the 'Recluse' 
was published in 1888. 

Collective editions during Wordsworth's 
life are : 1. ' Poems,' 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. It 
included previous publications, except the 
' Excursion,' and some additional poems. 
There was a new preface, and at the end of 
vol. i. an essay, supplementary to the pre- 
face. The old preface and appendix are at 
the end of vol. ii. A third volume was 
made up in 1820 by binding together ' Peter 
Bell,' the ' River Duddon,' the ' Waggoner,' 
and the 'Thanksgiving Ode.' 2. 'Miscel- 
laneous Poems,' 1820, 4 vols. 12mo ; includes 
all except the ' Excursion ; ' it was repub- 
lished at Boston, Mass. 3. ' Poetical Works,' 
1827, 5 vols. 12mo ; including the ' Excur- 
sion ; ' reprinted by Galignani in Paris, 1828. 

4. 'Poetical Works,' 1832, 4 vols. 8vo. 

5. 'Poetical Works,' 1836, 6 vols. 8vo. 
Moxon's stereotyped edition, reprinted 1840, 
1841, 1842, 1843, 1846, 1849. A supple- 
ment, containing new sonnets and some 
Latin translations by his son John, was 
added to vol. v. of 1840, and 'Poems of 
Early and Late Years' of 1842 was added 
as a seventh volume. 6. ' Poems,' 1845, 
1 vol. royal 8vo ; reprinted in 1846, 1847, 
1849, 1851. 7. ' Poetical Works,' 1849-50, 
6 vols. 12mo. Wordsworth published a 
translation of part of the first book of the 
'^Eneid' in the 'Philological Museum ' for 
1832. The chief later editions are that by 
Professor Knight in eight volumes octavo 
(1882-6), followed by his ' Life ' in 3 vols. ; 
edition in one volume octavo, with preface by 
Mr. John Morley, 1888 ; the Aldine edition 
in 7 vols. sm. 8vo, 1893, edited by Professor 



Wordsworth 



Worgan 



Dowden, and the Oxford miniature edition 
in 5 vols. 24mo, 1895, edited by Mr. T. 
Hutchinson. The text of the last two editions 
is remarkably correct. 'Poetical and Prose 
Works, together with Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Journals,' 1896, edited by Professor Knight. 
The life and letters promised for this edition 
have not yet been published. Miss Fenwick's 
notes, partly given in the ' Memoir,' were first 
added to the poems in a six-volume edition, 
published by Moxon in 1857. A volume of 
' Selections ' was published with preface by 
J. Hine in 1831, and again in 1834. The 
'Sonnets' were collected (with some addi- 
tions) in 1838. Other ' Selections ' are edited 
by F. T. Palgrave, 1865, Matthew Arnold, 
1879, and by Professor Knight and other 
members of the Wordsworth Society, 1888. 
The prose works, in 3 vols. 8vo, were edited 
by Dr. Grosart in 1876. 

Professor Dowden's ' Bibliography and 
Chronological List ' appears in vol. vii. of his 
edition of ' Wordsworth's Poetical Works.' 
There is also a bibliography in Professor 
Knight's 1882-6 edition (vol. i. pp. xxxix- 
xlvii), and a chronological table in the same 
volume, revised and corrected in vol. viii. pp. 
325-87. A revision of the bibliography and 
chronological table appears in the edition of 
1896, vol. viii. Mr. J. R. Tutin contributed 
a bibliography to the edition of 1886, and has 
also published a ' Wordsworth Dictionary 
of Persons and Places . . .,' 1891, 8vo. For 
some interesting details in regard to the 
' Lyrical Ballads ' see ' A Description of the 
Wordsworth and Coleridge Manuscripts in 
the possession of Mr. T. Norton Longman, 
edited with notes by W. Hale White,' 1897. 

[The Memoirs of William Wordsworth, by 
Christopher Wordsworth (afterwards bishop of 
Lincoln), his nephew, 1851, 2 vols. 8vo, gives 
a useful though not very full narrative. The 
life by Professor Knight, in 3 vols. 8vo (1889), 
forms the ninth, tenth, and eleventh volumes of 
the Poetical Works, &c., and adds a considerable 
number of letters and other materials. The 
short life by Mr. F. W. Myers in the ' Men of 
Letters' series is an admirable summary and 
criticism. See also ' William Wordsworth,' by 
Elizabeth Wordsworth, 1891. La jeunesse de 
Wordsworth, par Emile Legouis, 1896, is a 
singularly interesting and careful study of the 
early life. An English translation by J. W. 
Matthews appeared in 1898. William Words- 
worth: sein Leben, seine Werke, seine Zeit- 
genossen, von Marie Gothein, 1893, 2 vols., is 
painstaking and sympathetic. The second volume 
consists of translations into German. Other 
books of original materials are : Cottle's Early 
Kecollections, 1837 (republished with alterations 
as Reminiscences, 1847); Coleridge's Biographia 
Literaria ; Letters of S. T. Coleridge, 1 893 ; 



Letters of the Lake Poets (privately printed in 
1889), pp. 329-86 for Wordsworth's letters; 
Memorials of Coleorton, 1887, 2 vols. edited by 
Professor Knight ; Mrs. Sandford's Thomas 
Poole, 1888, i. 225, 238, 241, 298, ii. 54, 58, 
120, 269, &c. ; Lamb's Letters; Southey's Life 
and Letters and Select Correspondence ; Lock- 
hart's Life of Scott ; De Quincey's Wordsworth in 
' Lake Poets ; ' Moore's Diaries; Crabb .Robinson's 
Diaries, passim ; Campbell's Life of Coleridge ; 
Clayden's Samuel Rogers and his Contemporaries, 
1889, 2 vols. ^many references) ; Carlyle's Remi- 
niscences ; Martineau's Autobiography, 1877, ii. 
234-44 ; Haydon's Correspondence and Table 
Talk, ii. 18-59 (letters); Tom Taylor's Life of 
Haydon, i. 135, 297, 325, 384, ii. 11, iii. 218, 
223, 302, 305 ; Keats's Works (Buxton Forman), 
iii. 45, 92, 101, 107, 151-5 ; Leigh Hunt's Auto- 
biography, 1860, pp. 247-9; Pattison's The 
Brothers Wiffen, 1880, pp. 32-42 ; Life of Alaric 
Watts, 1884. i. 234-47, 281-8 ; Gillies's Memoirs 
of a Literary Veteran, 1851, ii. 137-73; Mrs. 
(Eliza) Fletcher's Autobiography, 1874, pp.213, 
&c. ; Sir Henry Taylor's Autobiography, i. 
172-82, 190, 333-9, ii. 54-62 ; Yarnall's Words- 
worth and the Coleridges, 1899 ; Fields's Yester- 
days with Authors. The Wordsworth Society 
published eight volumes of Transactions (1880, 
&c.), which contain some letters and notes upon 
various details. A life of Dorothy Wordsworth 
by Ednrmnd Lee appeared in 1886. The writer 
has especially to thank Mr. W. Hale W T hite for 
many suggestions and corrections."] L. S. 

WORGAN, JOHN (1724-1790), organist 
and composer, of Welsh descent, and the 
son of a surveyor, was born in London in 
1724. He became a pupil of his brother, 
James Worgan (1715-1753), organist of 
Vauxhall Gardens, and he subsequently 
studied under Thomas Roseingrave [see under 
ROSEINGRAVE, DANIEL] and Geminiani. John 
Worgan speedily took a foremost place as 
a skilful organist. In succession to his brother 
' James he was organist at St. Mary Under- 
i shaft with St. Mary Axe, about 1749, at 
Vauxhall Gardens, 1751 to 1774, and at St. 
: Botolph, Aldgate, in 1753. He subsequently 
became organist of St. John's Chapel, Bed- 
ford Row, in 1760 ; and, in succession to 
his brother, he held the post of ' composer' 
to Vauxhall Gardens from 1753 to 1761, and 
again from 1770 to 1774. He took the degree of 
bachelor in music at Cambridge in 1748, and 
the doctorate in 1775. He died at 22 (now 
65) Gower Street on 24 Aug. 1790, and was 
buried in St. Andrew Undershaft on 31 Aug., 
when Charles Wesley ( 1 757-1 834) [q.v.] , one 
of his favourite pupils, presided at the organ. 
Four interesting tributes are extant to 
the remarkable powers of Worgan as an or- 
ganist, whose performances always attracted 
great crowds of both professors and amateurs. 



Worlidge 



Worlidge 



Handel said : ' Mr. Worgan shall sit by me; 
he plays my music very well at Vauxhall.' 
Richard Cecil [q.v.] wrote : ' Admiration and 
feeling are very distinct from each other. 
Some music and oratory enchant and astonish, 
out they speak not to the heart. . . . Dr. 
Worgan has so touched the organ at St. 
John s that I have been turning backward 
and forward over the prayer-book for the 
first lesson in Isaiah and wondered that I 
could not find Isaiah there!' Martin Madan 
(1726-1790) [q.v.], in a satirical song upon 
Joah Bates [q.v.], issued anonymously, and 
set to music by Samuel Wesley (1766-1837) 
[q. v.], entitled ' The Organ laid open, &c.,' 
placed him as a player upon an equality with 
Ilandei : 
Let Handel or Worgan go thresh at the organ. 

Burney refers to him as ' a very masterly 
and learned fuguist on the organ.' 

As a composer Worgan was not great. 
His compositions, now forgotten, include 
two oratorios : ' Hannah ' (King's Theatre, 
Haymarket, 3 April 1 764) and ' Manasseh ' 
(Lock Hospital Chapel, 30 April 1766) ; ' We 
will rejoice in Thy salvation,' a thanksgiving 
anthem for victories (29 Nov. 1759); many 
songs for Vauxhall Gardens, of which thirteen 
books (at least) were published ; psalm- 
tunes, glees, organ music, and sonatas and 
other pieces for the harpsichord. Some of 
his manuscripts are in British Museum 
Addit. MSS. 31670, 31093, 34009, and 35038. 

Worgan is persistently credited with 
having composed the Easter hymn. As a 
matter of fact the tune appeared (anony- 
mously) in ' Lyra Davidica ' (1708) sixteen 
years before Worgan was born. 

[Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review, 
v. 113 (a very full memoir); Grove's Dictionary 
of Music and Musicians, iv. 486 ; biographical 
preface to Rev. Henry Parr's Church of England 
Psalmody ; Barney's Hist, of Music, iv. 665 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.; Musical Times, August 1888, 
p. 490, for a reference to Worgan's grandcon, 
George Worgan.] F. G-. E. 

WORLIDGE or WOOLRIDGE, JOHN 
{.#. 1669-1698), agricultural writer, who re- 
sided at Petersfield, Hampshire, is of interest 
in the history of agricultural literature as 
the compiler of the first systematic treatise 
on husbandry on a large and comprehensive 
scale. He was a correspondent of John 
Houghton [q.v.], who gives in his ' Letters' 
(1681) two contributions by 'the ingenious 
Mr. John Worlidge of Petersfield in Hamp- 
shire,' on ' a great improvement of land by 
parsley,' and on ' improving and fyning of 
Syder.' 

Worlidge's ' Systema Agricultu-ae, or the 



Mystery of Husbandry discovered ... by 
J. W., Gent.,' first published in 1669, went 
through a number of editions (1675, 1681, 
1687, 1716) before it was supplanted in 
popular favour by the numerous agricultural 
reference books which are a feature of the 
eighteenth century. He appears to have 
carefully studied the writings of his pre- 
decessors, Fitzherbert, Sir Richard Wes- 
ton, Robert Child, Walter Blith, Gabriel 
Plattes, Sir Hugh Plat [q.v.], and the anony- 
mous writers whose works were published 
by Samuel Hartlib [q.v.] Worlidge's system 
of husbandry may be regarded as gathering 
into a focus the scattered information pub- 
lished during the period of the Common- 
wealth. 

Besides the ' Systema Agricultures,' Wor- 
lidge wrote (mostly under the initials of 
' J. W., Gent.') the following: 1. ' Yinetum 
Britannicum, or a Treatise of Cider,' 1676; 
2nd edit. 1678 ; 3rd edit. 1691, dedicated to 
Elias Ashmole. 2. 'Apiarium, or a Dis- 
course of Bees,' 1676. 3. ' Systema Horti- 
culture, or the Art of Gardening,' 1677. 
4. ' The most easie Method of Making the 
best Cyder,' 1687. 5. 'The Complete Bee 
Master ' (a revised edition of No. 2), 1698. 

[Houghton's Letters, 1681, pp. 136, 163; 
Cuthbert Johnson's Farmer's Cyclopaedia, p. 
1311 ; Worlidge's works cited above; Brit. Mus. 
s.v. 'J. W., Gent.'] E. C-E. 

WORLIDGE, THOMAS (1700-1766), 
painter and etcher, born at Peterborough of 
Roman catholic parents in 1700, studied art 
in London as a pupil of a Genoese refugee, 
Alessandro Maria Grimaldi (1659-1732) 
(HuBER and MARTIN, Manuel des Curieux 
et des Amateurs de I'Art, 1808, ix. 132). 
He painted portraits of his master Grimaldi 
and his master's wife about 1720. He 
married Grimaldi's daughter, and long re- 
mained on intimate terms with Alexander 
Grimaldi, his master's son. Subsequently 
he received instruction from Louis Peter 
Boitard [q. v.] About 1736 Worlidge and 
the younger Grimaldi are said to have 
visited Birmingham, where Worlidge reintro- 
duced the art of painting on glass. For a 
time, too, he seems to have practised portrait- 
painting at Bath. 

About 1740 Worlidge settled in London 
in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, 
where he remained for the rest of his life. 
At one time Worlidge's address was ' at 
the Piazza, Covent Garden.' He afterwards 
resided in Bedford Street and King Street 
in the same neighbourhood. Though his 
portraits in oil and pastel enjoyed some 
vogue, his first reputation was made by his 
miniature portraits. In middle life his 



Worlidge 



Worlidge 



most popular work consisted of heads in 
blacklead pencil, for which he charged two 
guineas apiece. Numerous leaders of 
fashionable society employed him to make 
drawings of the kind. Finally he concen- 
trated his energies on etching in the style of 
Rembrandt. He used a dry-needle with 
triangular point. He copied some of Rem- 
brandt's prints, among them the artist's por- 
trait of himself and the hundred-guelder 
plate. The copies are said to have been 
sometimes mistaken for the originals. An 
etching after Rembrandt's portrait of Sir 
John Astley was described by Walpole as 
"Worlidge's ' best piece.' 

One of Worlidge's most popular plates, 
although it was not of great artistic value, 
depicted the installation of the Earl of West- 
morland as chancellor of the university at 
the theatre at Oxford in 1761. Worlidge re- 
presents himself in the gallery on the right 
in the act of drawing the scene with his 
(second) wife beside him. In the correspond- 
ing placeon the left-hand side of the plate is a 
portrait of his brother-in-law, Alexander Gri- 
maldi. Most of the numerous heads and figures 
are portraits. A plate of the bust of Cicero 
at Oxford (known as the Pomfret bust) also 
enjoyed a wide vogue. 

In April 1754 Worlidge caused a large 
collection of his works to be sold by public 
auction. The printed catalogue bore the 
title, ' A Collection of Pictures painted 
by Mr. Worlidge of Covent Garden, consist- 
ing of Histories, Heads, Landscapes, and 
Dead Game, and also some Drawings.' The 
highest price fetched was 51. 15s. 6d., which 
was given for a 'fine head ' after Rembrandt. 
In 1763 he settled in Great Queen Street 
in a large house built by Inigo Jones. It 
adjoined the present site of the Freemasons' 
Tavern. The previous occupiers included Sir 
Godfrey Kneller and Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
In his last years he spent much of his leisure 
in a country house situated in Messrs. Ken- 
nedy & Leigh's ' nursery-ground ' at Ham- 
mersmith. There he died on 23 Sept. 1766, 
and was buried in Hammersmith church. 
A plain marble slab, inscribed with verses 
by Dr. William Kenrick [q.v.], was placed 
on the wall of the church ; it is now at the 
east end of the south aisle. More than six- 
teen hundred prints and more than thirteen 
hundred drawings by Worlidge were sold by 
Langford in March 1767 by order of his 
widow and executrix. 

Worlidge's last work was a series of 182 
etchings of gems from the antique (three are 
in duplicate). The series was published in 
parts, some of which seem to have been issued 
as early as 1754 ; but Worlidge died before 



the work was completed. It was finished 
by his pupils William Grimaldi [q. v.] and 
George Powle, and, being printed on satin, 
was published by his widow in 1768 at the 
price of eighteen guineas a copy. In its ori- 
ginal shape the volume bore the title, ' A 
select Collection of Drawings from curious 
antique Gems, most of them in the pos- 
session of the Nobility and Gentry of this 
Kingdom, etched after the manner of Rem- 
brandt by T. Worlidge, printed by Dryden 
Leach for M. Worlidge, Great Queen Street, 
Lincolns Inn Fields; and M. Wicksteed, 
Seal-engraver at Bath, MD.CCLXVIII ' (8vo). 
The frontispiece, dated in 1754, shows 
Worlidge drawing the Pomfret bust of 
Cicero ; behind on an easel is a por- 
trait of his second wife, Mary. No 
letterpress was included originally in the 
volume, but between 1768 and 1780 a few 
copies were issued with letterpress. After 
1780 a new edition in quarto, deceptively 
bearing the original date of 1768, appeared 
with letterpress in two volumes at five 
guineas each. The title-page omits men- 
tion of ' M. Wicksteed's ' name, but is other- 
wise a replica of the first. Some of the old 
copper plates (108 in all) were reproduced in 
' Antique Gems, etched by T. Worlidge on 
Copper Plates, in the Possession of Sheffield 
Grace, Esq.,' London, 1823, 4to (privately 
printed). Charles William King in his ' An- 
tique Gems' (1872, i. 469) says that Wor- 
lidge's plates, though displaying incredible 
labour, are often inferior to those of Spils- 
bury in catching the spirit of the originals, 
and the descriptions placed below contain 
ridiculous misnomers. As with most of the 
connoisseurs of his day, Worlidge's taste 
was not sufficiently educated to enable him 
to distinguish a genuine from a spurious an- 
tique. 

Worlidge, who is said to have been hand- 
some in youth, was extremely corpulent in 
later life. He was hot-tempered, habitually 
employing strong language, gluttonous, and 
often drunk ; on one occasion a drunken de- 
bauch in which he took a prominent part 
lasted three whole days and nights. Care- 
less in dress, he was recklessly extravagant 
in money matters. Latterly he was a 
martyr to the gout. 

Worlidge was thrice married : first, to 
Arabella (b. 1709), daughter of Alessandro 
Grimaldi (d. 1732) ; she died before 1749. 
The name of his second wife was Mary. 
He married in 1763 his third wife, Elizabeth 
Wicksteed, a young woman of great personal 
attractions, daughter of a toyman of Bath, 
and apparently sister of a well-known seal- 
engraver there. She assisted Worlidge in his 



Wormald 

artistic work, and gained a reputation for 
herself by her skill in copying paintings 
in needlework. After Worlidge's death she 
carried on the sale of his etchings at his 
house in Great Queen Street ; but she let 
the mansion to Mrs. Darby and her daughter, 
Mary Robinson ('Perdita') [q. v.], on her 
marriage to a wine and spirit merchant 
named Ashley, who had been one of Wor- 
lidge's intimate friends. Worlidge is said 
to have had thirty-two children by his three 
marriages, but only Thomas, a son by his 
third wife, survived him. This son married, 
in 1787, Phoebe, daughter of Alexander 
Grimaldi (1714-1800) ; she was buried in 
Bunhill Fields on 14 Jan. 1829. Her hus- 
band migrated to the West Indies in 1792. 
In March 1826 he was again in London, and 
while employed as compositor in the office of 
the ' Morning Advertiser ' was sent to pri- 
son for an assault. His father drew a 
portrait of him, which bore the title 'A 
Boy's Head.' 

Worlidge drew a pencil portrait of him- 
self, which is reproduced in Walpole's 
' Anecdotes ' (ed. Wornum). 

Many examples of Worlidge's drawings 
and etchings are in the British Museum 
print-room. There is also there a priced 
catalogue of a selection of his etchings. 

[Notes supplied by the Rev. A. B. Grimaldi ; 
Stacey Grimaldi's Miscellaneous Writings, ed. 
A. B. Grimaldi, 1884, iv. 638; Wp.lpole's 
Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum, ii. 
.334 sq., \vith portrait; Gent. Mag. 1766; 
Fuseli's Anecdotes ; Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; 
Bryan's Diet, of Artists.] 

WORMALD, THOMAS (1802-1873), 
surgeon, born at Pentonville in January 
1802, was son of John Wormald, a partner 
in Messrs. Child's bank, and of Fanny, his 
wife. He was educated at the grammar 
school of Batley in Yorkshire, and after- 
wards by W. Heald, vicar of Birstal. He 
returned to London in 1818, and was then 
apprenticed to John Abernethy [q. v.], the 
surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital."* His 
master soon employed him to make prepara- 
tions for his lectures, to teach the junior stu- 
dents, and to assist Edward Stanley (1793- 
1862) [q. v.], the demonstrator of anatomy 
in the medical school, in preserving speci- 
mens for the Pathological Museum. Yet 
Wormald found time during his apprentice- 
ship to visit the continental schools. 

He was admitted a member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England in 1824, 
and Abernethy, who was at this time con- 
templating the resignation of his lectureship 
upon anatomy, made arrangements for 
VVonnald to become the demonstrator of 



30 

anatomy in place of Stanley, who was to be 
promoted to the lectureship. But when the 
time arrived for making the appointment 
Frederic Carpenter Skey [q. v.] was elected 
demonstrator, and in October 1824 Wormald 
was nominated house-surgeon to (Sir) Wil- 
liam Lawrence [q. v.], then newly appointed 
surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. In 
1826 Wormald was appointed jointly with 
Skey to give the anatomical demonstrations, 
and in 1828, when Skey temporarily left the 
hospital to join the Aldersgate Street school 
of medicine, Wormald continued to act as 
sole demonstrator, a position he held for 
fifteen years. He was elected assistant sur- 
j geon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital on 13 Feb. 
1838, but it was not until 3 April 1861 that 
he became full surgeon to the charity. Five 
years later, on 9 April 1867, he had reached 
the age of sixty-five, at which the hospital re- 
gulations compelled him to resign office. He 
was appointed consulting surgeon, and re- 
tired to his country house in Hertfordshire. 

At the Foundling Hospital he was sur- 
geon from 1843 to 1864, and his services 
were so highly appreciated that he was 
chosen a governor in 1847. At the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England Wormald 
held all the important offices. Elected a 
fellow in 1843, he was a member of the 
council, 1849-67 ; Hunterian orator in 1857, 
examiner 1858-68, and chairman of the 
midwifery board in 1864. He was a vice- 
president in 1863-4, and he was elected presi- 
dent in 1865. 

He died at Gomersal in Yorkshire, during 
a visit, on 28 Dec. 1873, and is buried in 
Highgate cemetery. He married Frances 
Meacock in September 1828, and by her had 
eight children. 

Wormald was the last of the apprentices 
of John Abernethy, and at his death the last 
link was snapped which connected St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital with Hunterian sur- 
gery. As a teacher of surgical anatomy 
Wormald has seldom been surpassed ; as a 
surgeon he was a perfect assistant, while his 
mechanical genius enabled him to excel in 
the manipulative parts of his art. His sur- 
gical teaching was strictly clinical. He was 
a pertinent and ready public speaker. 

Wormald published (with A. M. McWhin- 
nie) ' A Series of Anatomical Sketches and 
Diagrams with Descriptions and References,' 
London, 1838, 4to ; reissued in 1843. These 
sketches form one of the best series of ana- 
tomical plates issued for the use of students. 
They are true to nature and are not over- 
loaded with detail. 

[Memoir by Luther Holden. esq., P.R.C.S. 
Engl., in the St. Bartholomew's Hospital Ee- 



Wornum 



Wornum 



ports, 1874, vol. x. ; additional facts kindly 
given by the late P. H. Wormald, esq., and by 
Eobert Grey, esq., treasurer of the Foundling 
Hospital.] D'A. P. 

WORNUM, RALPH NICHOLSON 
(1812-1877), art critic and keeper of the 
National Gallery, the son of Robert Wor- 
num (1780-1852), a well-known pianoforte 
maker of Store Street, Bedford Square, and 
inventor of the now universally used upright 
action for the pianoforte, was born at Thorn- 
ton, near Norham, North Durham, on 29 Dec. 
1812. Having studied at the London Uni- 
versity (University College) in 1832. he was 
to have read for the bar, but he soon aban- 
doned the law, attended the studio of Henry 
Sass [q. v.], and in 1834 Avent abroad, spend- 
ing six years in familiarising himself with the 
galleries of Munich, Dresden, Rome, Florence, 
and Paris. At the close of 1839 he settled in 
London as a portrait-painter, but does not ap- 
pear to have exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
though he was honourably mentioned in the 
Westminster Hall cartoon competition of 
1840. In 1840 and onwards he contributed 
to the ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' and in 1841 to 
Smith's 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman An- 
tiquities' (to which he furnished the valuable 
article ' Pictura'), while he also wrote for the 
abortive 'Biographical Dictionary 'of the So- 
ciety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 
In 1846 he began working for the 'Art 
Journal,' and, having drawn attention to the 
shortcomings of the National Gallery cata- 
logues then in circulation, he was authorised 
by Sir Robert Peel to compile an official cata- 
logue. This appeared in 1847, and served as 
' a model for similar publications throughout 
Europe.' In 1848 Wornum was appointed 
lecturer on art to the government schools of 
design, and in this capacity delivered lectures 
in the chief towns of England, besides issuing 
an enlightened ' Essay upon the Schools of 
Design in France.' In 1851 he was awarded 
the prize of a hundred guineas offered by 
the ' Art Journal' for the best essay on ' The 
Exhibition of 1851 as a Lesson in Taste.' 
Next year he was appointed librarian and 
keeper of casts to the schools of design, then 
under the direction of the board of trade. 
In December 1854 he was chosen as successor 
to General Thwaites as keeper of the Na- 
tional Gallery and secretary to the trustees, 
upon the recommendation of Sir Charles 
Eastlake (see Athen&um, 30 Dec. 1854 and 
6 Jan. 1855). The appointment of Wornum 
was taken as an augury of reform in the 
administration of the National Gallery. 
Hitherto the office had been little more than 
a sinecure, and had been held at the small 
salary of 150/. a year with residence. The 



duties were few, being mainly clerical. Wor- 
num's ' whole time and knowledge were 
now secured for the public,' and the salary 
raised to 800/. a year (see Gent. Mag. 1855, 
i. 168). Eastlake himself was appointed di- 
rector of the gallery in March 1855, and in 
the following July were issued treasury 
minutes entirely reconstituting the admini- 
stration of this branch of the public service. 

In the same year (1855) Wornum edited 
and practically rewrote a ' Biographical Cata- 
logue of the Principal Italian Painters,' ' by 
a lady ' (Maria Farquhar), while in 1856 he 
contributed the ' Lives' of native artists to 
Creasy 's ' British Empire ' (London, 8vo). 
In 1 860-1 Wornum was chiefly instrumental 
in getting the Turner collections, which had 
been banished first to Marlborough House, 
and then to South Kensington (1856-60), 
restored to their place in the National 
Gallery, in accordance with the terms of the 
artist's bequest. During 1861 he edited, in 
a sumptuous folio, with a ' sensible and judi- 
cious ' memoir and notes, ' The Turner Gal- 
lery,' forming a series of sixty engravings. 
Thornbury, in his 'Life of Turner 7 (1862), 
passed some disparaging remarks upon Wor- 
num ; his justification iu adopting this tone 
was warmly combated in an able article in 
the ' Quarterly ' (April 1862), in which Wor- 
num's work was commended. In the intro- 
duction to the ' Turner Gallery ' Wornum 
pleaded eloquently for an enlargement of the 
Trafalgar Square galleries, which were quite 
inadequate to contain the 725 pictures then 
belonging to the nation. He also deprecated 
the separation of the pictures by native from 
those by foreign artists. The best of Wor- 
num's energies were devoted to the improve- 
ment and development of the National Gal- 
lery. He died at his residence, 20 Belsize 
Square, South Hampstead, on 15 Dec. 1877, 
leaving a widow and a large family. 

Wornum's chief separate publications were : 
1. ' The Epochs of Painting : a biographical 
and critical Essay on Painting and Painters 
of all Times and many Places,' London, 1847, 
12mo ; enlarged, 1859 and 1864. This was 
dedicated by Wornum to the memory of his 
father. Appended to the later editions is 
' a table of the contributions of some of the 
more eminent painters to the exhibitions of 
the Royal Academy.' This was largely 
adopted as a text-book for art school exami- 
nations. 2. ' Analysis of Ornament : the 
Characteristics of Style and Introduction to 
the Study of the History of Ornamental Art,' 
London, 1856 ; 8th edit. 1893. 3. ' Some 
Account of the Life and Works of Hans 
Holbein, Painter, of Augsburg, with nume- 
rous illustrations,' 1867, large 8vo. Ap- 



Worsdale 



3 2 



Worsley 



pended to this excellent biographical anc 
critical work (dedicated ' To my friend, John 
liuskin ') is a valuable catalogue of portraits 
and drawings by Holbein at Windsor 
4. ' Saul of Tarsus ; or Paul and Sweden- 
borg. By a Layman,' London, 1877, 8vo 
Wornum had been a member of the New 
Church, though as a ' non-separatist ' he re- 
mained in communion with the church oi 
England. In this book he expressed very 
strongly the notion of conflict between the 
teaching of Christ and the theology of St. 
Paul. 

In addition to the above works Wornum 
edited ' Lectures on Painting' [by Barry, 
Opie, and Fuseli], 1848, 8vo, for the ' Bohn' 
Library; Walpole's 'Anecdotes of Painting 
in England,' with copious notes and emenda- 
tions, London, 1849, 3 vols. (a revised edi- 
tion of this, which appeared in 1888, is now 
the standard) ; ' The National Gallery; ' a se- 
lection of pictures by the old masters, photo- 
graphed by L. Caldesi (with annotations), 
London, 1868-73, fol. ; ' Etchings from the 
National Gallery,' 18 plates, with notes, two 
series, 1876-8, fol. 

[Gent. Mag. J852 ii. 549; Times, 18 and 
19 Dec. 1877 ; Art Journal, 1878, p. 75; Athe- 
naeum, 1877, ii. 823 ; English Cyclopaedia ; Men 
of the Reign ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers, ii. 730 ; Cat. of Eastlake Library at 
National Gallery.] T. S. 

WORSDALE, JAMES (1692 P-1767), 
portrait-painter, born about 1692, was the 
son of a poor colour-grinder. He was en- 
gaged as a servant to Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
and subsequently became his apprentice, 
but was dismissed for surreptitiously marry- 
ing Lady Kneller's niece. In later times he 
claimed to be a natural son of Sir Godfrey. 
Though possessed of little artistic ability, 
Worsdale obtained a considerable amount 
of patronage as a portrait-painter, and was 
appointed master-painter to the board of 
ordnance, his success being due mainly to 
his amusing conversation and clever sing- 
ing and acting. His portraits of Princess 
Louisa, Sir John Ligonier, the Duke of 
Devonshire, 'Beau 'Nash, and other persons 
of mark, were engraved by Brooks, Bock- 
man, and Faber. Worsdale was much 
associated with the stage, both in London 
and Dublin, and for a time belonged to a 
travelling company. In 1753 he acted at 
Drury Lane the part of Lady Pentweazle 
in Foote's comedy 'Taste.' He was pro- 
fessedly the author of a number of songs, 
plays, and operas, but these seem to have 
been chiefly the work of others needy 
writers whom he exploited. Ltetitia Pil- 
kington [q. v.], who was one of these, de- 



scribes him in her ' Memoirs ' in extremely 
uncomplimentary terms; and Vertue asserts 
that he pushed himself into notoriety solely 
by his artful ways and ' shameless mounte- 
bank lies.' Worsdale died on 11 June 1767, 
and was buried in St. Paul's, Covent Gar- 
den. A portrait of him, painted by R. E. 
Pine, was engraved by Dickinson, with the 
motto 'Ridendo dicere verum.' The dra- 
matic works ascribed to Worsdale are : 
1. 'A Cure for a Scold,' a ballad opera or 
farce taken from the ' Taming of the Shrew,' 
1735 (acted at Drury Lane 25 Feb. 1735, 
and at Covent Garden 27 March and 26 April 
1750). 2. ' The Assembly,' a farce in which 
he himself played the part of Lady Scandal. 
3. 'The Queen of Spain,' 1744. 4. 'The 
Extravagant Justice.' 5. 'Gasconade the 
Great,' 1759. Of these only the first and 
last were printed. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes (Dalla'way and Wor- 
num) ; Vertue's collections in Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 23076, f. 37 ; Memoirs of Lsetitia Pilking- 
ton, 1 748-54 ; Cooke's Memoirs of Samuel Foote ; 
Baker's Biographia Dramatica ; Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits ; Genest's Hist. Ac- 
count, iii. 448.] F. M. O'D. 

WORSLEY, CHARLES (1622-1656), 
major-general, born on 24 June 1622, was 
the eldest son of Ralph Worsley of Platt, 
Manchester, by Isabel, daughter of Edward 
Massey of Manchester, and widow of Alex- 
ander Ford of Wigan (BOOKER, Ancient 
Chapel of Birch, p. 25 ; Court Leet Records 
of Manchester, iv. 117). Worsley was a cap- 
tain in some regiment of Lancashire parlia- 
mentarians in 1644, but his early military ser- 
vices are not recorded (BOOKER, p. 39). On 
21 June 1650 parliament voted that a regi- 
ment of foot should be raised in Lancashire 
for Cromwell under such officers as he should 
be pleased to appoint. Of this regiment 
Worsley became lieutenant-colonel (Com- 
mons' Journals, iv. 428 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1650, p. 308). He joined Cromwell's 
army with it at Edinburgh on 12 Sept. 1650, 
just after the battle of Dunbar (BOOKER, p. 
37). In August 1651, when Cromwell re- 
turned to England in pursuit of Charles I r 
W T orsley was sent into Lancashire to assist 
Colonel Robert Lilburne against James Stan- 
ley, seventh earl of Derby [q. v.], but arrived 
:oo late to take part in the victory at 
Wigan (CART, Memorials of the Civil War, 
i. 339, 343 ; Life of Captain John Hodgson. 
L882, p. 47). Worsley was not at the 
tattle of Worcester, but the regiment was 
employed under Colonel Duckenfield in the 
reduction of the Isle of Man. At the 
lose of 1652 the regiment was stationed 



Worsley 



33 



Worsley 



in London, being quartered at St. James's 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom., 1651-2 p. 352, 
1652-3 p. 460). Worsley commanded the 
detachment of it which Cromwell employed 
in the expulsion of the Long parliament 
(20 April 1653), helped Colonel Harrison 
to put Algernon Sidney [q. v.] out of the 
house, and took the mace into his own 
charge (BLENCOWE, Sydney Papers, p. 140; 
Commons 1 Journals, vii. 282). In 1654 
Worsley was elected the first member for 
Manchester (BOOKER, p. 41). In October 
1655 he was appointed one of the major- 
generals instituted by the Protector, having 
Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire as 
his province (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1655, 
pp. 275, 378). Worsley was extremely 
zealous in carrying out his instructions. 
' The sense of the work, and my unworthiness 
and insufficiency as to the right manage- 
ment of it, is my only present discourage- 
ment,' he wrote to Thurloe ; and in another 
letter he professed to observe ' a visible hand 
of God going along with us in this work ' 
(THURLOE, State Papers, iv. 149, 340). No 
one suppressed more alehouses or was more 
active in sequestering royalists, preventing 
horse-races, and carrying on the work of re- 
formation. Worsley died at St. James's on 
12 June 1656, having been summoned to 
London to take part in a meeting of the 
major-generals. He was buried the next 
day with great pomp in Henry VII's 
chapel in Westminster Abbey. His name 
does not appear in the list of burials in the 
abbey register, and, thanks to this omission 
or to some other accident, his body was not 
disinterred at the Restoration. During a 
search for the body of James I the corpse of 
a tall man was found in Henry VII's chapel, 
which Dean Stanley believed to be that of 
Worsley (Public Intelligencer, 9-16 June 
1656; CHESTER, Westminster Registers,^, x, 
521 ; STANLEY, Westminster Abbey, 3rd ed. 
pp. 674-7). 

Thurloe describes Worsley as ' a very great 
loss ' both to the Protector and the nation, 
he ' having been a most trusty and diligent 
man ' (State Payers, v. 122). A portrait 
now at Platt Hall, is engraved in Booker's 
'History of the Ancient Chapel of Birch.' 

Worsley was twice married : first, on 
18 Sept. 1644, to Mary, daughter of John 
Booth of Manchester (she died on 1 April 
1649) ; secondly, on 6 Oct. 1652, to Dorothy, 
daughter of Roger Kenyon of Park Head, 
Whalley. By his first marriage he had a 
son Ralph and two daughters ; by his second 
marriage a son Charles, born 9 July 1653, 
and two other children who died young 
(BOOKER, pp. 35, 38, 49). 

TOL. LXHI. 



In recognition of Worsley's services the 
council of state ordered a lease of lands 
worth 1001. per annum to be settled on his 
family, and a year's salary as major-general, 
being 66G/. 13s. 4rf., to be paid to the widow 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1656-7, pp. 28,97, 
171, 199, 226, 266). In 1659 his widow 
married Lieutenant-colonel Waldine Lagoe 
of Manchester, and some of her letters are 
among Lord Kenyon's manuscripts (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 14th Rep. pt. iv.) 

[Lives of Worsley are contained in Booker's 
History of the Ancient Chapel of Birch, 1859 
(Chetham Soc. vol. xlvii.), and in Espinasse's 
Lancashire Worthies, 1874, i. 96-114. About 
thirty of his letters are printed in Thurloe's State 
Papers, vols. iv-v.] C. H. F. 

WORSLEY, EDWARD (1605-1676), 
Jesuit, born in Lancashire in 1605, is said to 
have been an Oxford student and a pro- 
testant minister, but his name does not occur 
in the records of that university. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus on 7 Sept. 1626. 
Having repeated his studies at the college 
of Liege, he was made professor of philo- 
sophy, logic, and sacred scripture. He was 
professed of the four vows on 29 Sept. 1641, 
and in 1655 he was a missioner in London. He 
was declared rector of the college at Liege 
on 31 Oct. 1658. In 1662 he was acting as 
English procurator and missioner at the Pro- 
fessed House, Antwerp, where he died on 
2 Sept. 1676, aged seventy-one. He was 
' regarded both by his own community and 
by externs as an oracle alike of talent, in- 
dustry, learning, and prudence' (FoLEY, Re- 
cords, iv. 597). 

Subjoined is a list of his works, which 
were all published under the initials ' E. W.' 
1. ' Truth will out ; or a Discouery of some 
Untruths, smoothly told by Dr. Jeremy 
Taylor in his Dissuasiue from Popery; with 
an Answer to such Arguments as deserve 
Answer,' 1665, 4to. 2. ' Protestancy with- 
out Principles; or Sectaries unhappy Fall 
from Infallibility to Fancy,' Antwerp, 1668, 
4to. At the end are ' A few Notes upon Mr. 
Poole's Appendix against Captain Everard' 
[see POOLE, MATTHEW]. The book is in reply 
to Matthew Poole's ' Nullity of the Romish 
Faith ' and Bishop Stillingfleet's 'Account of 
the Protestant Religion.' 3. ' Reason and Re- 
ligion; orthe certain Rule of Faith, where the 
Infallibility of the Roman Catholick Church 
is asserted against Atheists, Heathens, Jewes, 
Turks, and all Sectaries. With a refutation 
of Mr. Stillingfleet's many gross errors,' 
Antwerp, 1672, 4to. 4. 'The Infallibility 
of the Roman Catholick Church and her 
Miracles defended against Dr. Stillingfleets 

D 



34 



Worsley 



Cavils,' Antwerp, 1674, 2 vols. 8vo. In the 
second volume the author maintains the 
truth of the miraculous translation of the 
house of Loreto. f>. ' A Discovrse of Miracles 
wrought in the Roman Catholick Chvrch, or 
a full Refutation of Dr. Stillingfleets unjust 
Exceptions against Miracles,' Antwerp, 1676, 
8vo. 6. ' Anti-Goliath, or an Epistle to Mr. 
[ Daniel] Brevint, containing some Reflections 
upon his Saul and Samuel at Endor,' 1678, 
8vo, pp. 59 : a posthumous work. 

[De Backer's Bibl. de la Compagnie de Jesus; 
Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 314; Florus Anglo- 
Bavaricus, p. 53 ; Wood's Athenae, ii. 403 ; 
Foley's Records, vii.863 : Jones's Popery Tracts, 
pp. 219, 221, 251. 380,485; Oliver's Jesuit Col- 
lections, p. 227 ; Southwell's Bibl. Soc. Jesu, p. 
186.] T. C. 

WORSLEY, SIR HENRY (1768-1841), 
major-general, born on 20 Jan. 1768 at 
Appuldurcomb in the Isle of Wight, -was 
the second son of Francis Worsley, rector of 
Chale in the Isle of Wight, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Henry Roberts of Standen in the 
same island. In June 1780 he embarked for 
Bengal as an infantry cadet, and in January 
1781 he landed in Madras to take part in the 
defence of Fort St. George, which was be- 
sieged by Haidar Ali. Arriving in Bengal 
in April, he was promoted ensign and lieu- 
tenant in the course of the year, and joined 
the 2nd European regiment at Cawnpur. 
In 1782 he served with the 30th regiment 
of sepoys in reducing Chait Singh's forts in 
the neighbourhood of Benares. In the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed adjutant, and 
served with the 1st battalion of his regiment 
against insurgents in the Kaimur Hills. In 
1785 the regiment was disbanded in conse- 
quence of tlie general peace, and Worsley 
was appointed to the 8th regiment of sepoys. 
Early in 1789 he embarked with a detach- 
ment of volunteer sepoys for service in 
Sumatra. On their return in December the 
officers and men were honoured with the 
special approbation and thanks of Lord 
Cornwallis. 

Towards the close of 1791 Worsley volun- 
teered for service in the Mysore war, and was 
appointed to the 7th battalion of Bengal 
sepoys. He took part with the centre column 
in the night attack on Tipii's fortified camp 
under the walls of Seringapatam on 6 Feb. 
1792, and in the subsequent operations against 
that town. In the following year he was re- 
appointed to the 32nd battalion, and by the 
regulations of 1796-7 he was posted to the 
1st native infantry, receiving the brevet rank 
of captain. During a visit to Europe he was 
promoted captain-lieutenant and captain on 
1 Xov. 1798, and was posted as captain to the 



15th native infantry, which he joined in 
1801. At the close of the year and during 
1802 he was employed in command of part 
of the first battalion in tranquillising,the dis- 
tricts ceded by the nawab of Oudh. On 
4 Sept. 1803 he fought at Aligarh, and on 
11 Sept. he commanded his battalion at the 
battle of Delhi. On 10 Oct. he again com- 
manded his battalion in the attack made on 
the enemy's infantry and guns under the walls 
of Agra, when he received the thanks of the 
commander-in-chief, Lord Lake, in general 
orders. He also led it at the battle of 
Laswari on 1 Nov. In 1804 he joined the 
21st native infantry, and on 21 Sept. was 
promoted to a majority. In command of a 
detachment he cleared the Doab of Holkar's 
troops, which had overrun it after Monson's 
reverse [see MONSON, WILLIAM], and oc- 
cupied the city of Muttra, where he was 
employed in protecting the communication 
of Lake's army. Without scientific assist- 
ance he constructed a bridge of boats over 
the Jumna at Muttra, which proved of great 
use to the English force. Lake highly 
appreciated Worsley's services, and obtained 
for him the post of deputy adjutant-general. 
Early in 1806 he succeeded to the office of 
adjutant-general with the official rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. On 29 Xov. 1809 he 
attained the regimental rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, but in the beginning of 1810 ill- 
health compelled him to resign his office, 
and in 1811 he proceeded to Europe on fur- 
lough. In 1813 he accepted the post of 
principal private secretary to the governor- 
general, Francis Rawdon Hastings, second 
earl of Moira (and afterwards Marquis of 
Hastings) [q. v.] His health compelled 
him to resign this post almost immediately; 
but in 1818 he returned to India, and Moira 
at once appointed him military secretary. 
In a few months he was obliged to resign 
from the same cause as before, and joined his 
corps in the vain hope of restoring his health 
by active service. In 1819 he returned finally 
to Europe. On 12 Aug. he attained the 
brevet rank of colonel, and in August 1822 
the rank of colonel with the command of a 
regiment. Worsley became major-general 
on 24 Aug. 1830. On 4 June 1815 he was 
nominated a C.B., on 26 Sept. 1821 K.C.B., 
and on 16 Feb. 1838 G.C.B. He died at 
Shide in the Isle of Wight on 19 Jan. 1841, 
and was buried at Chale. He married Sarah 
Hastings, and had one daughter, Elizabeth. 
Worsley has frequently been confounded 
with HENRY WORSLEY (1783-1820), lieu- 
tenant-colonel, born February 1783, who was 
the third son of James Worsley (1748- 
1798), rector of Gatcombe in the Isle of 






Worsley 



35 



Worsley 



Wight, by his wife, Ann Hayles. In the 
autumn of 1799 he obtained an ensigncy in 
the 6th foot, and accompanied the expedition 
to Holland under the Duke of York. In 1800 
he received a lieutenancy in the 52nd foot. 
In 1802 the 2nd battalion of that regiment 
became the 96th foot, to which Worsley was 
posted. In 1804 he obtained a company, 
and in 1805 went to America with Sir Eyre 
Coote (1762-1824?) [q.v.] In 1809 he joined 
the 85th regiment and took part in the ex- 
pedition to the Scheldt under John Pitt, 
second earl of Chatham [q.v.] In 1811 he 
proceeded to the Peninsula, and was present 
at the battle of Fuentes d'Onor and the 
siege of Badajoz. Shortly afterwards he was 
promoted to a majority in the 4th garrison 
battalion, then at Guernsey, but, obtaining 
his removal to the 34th regiment in 1812, 
he returned to Spain and served in the ad- 
vance on Madrid and the retreat from Sala- 
manca. After the battle of Vittoria in 1813 he 
. was recommended for promotion, received the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, and served in the 
conflicts in the Pyrenees, gaining the thanks 
of Lord Hill. In 181G he proceeded to India, 
but was forced shortly afterwards by ill- 
health to return to Europe. He was ap- 
pointed captain of Yarmouth Castle in the 
Isle of Wight and a companion of the Bath. 
He died, unmarried, at Newport in the Isle 
of Wight on 13 May 1820, and was buried 
at Kingston (Gent. Mag. 1823, i. 569. Ac- 
counts of his services, confused with those 
of Sir Henry Worsley, appear in Gent. Mag. 
1841, i. 654, Men of the Reign, and La JSio- 
graphie Universelle). 

[Information kindly given by Mr. C. Francis 
Worsley; East India Military Calendar, 1823-6, 
j. 130-0, iii. 78-9, 424-5, 470; Berry's Hamp- 
shire Genealogies, pp. 140, 142 ; Dodwell and 
Miles's Indian Army List, 1838.] E. I. C. 

WORSLEY, ISRAEL (1768-1836), uni- 
tarian minister, was born at Hertford in 
1768. His grandfather, John Worsley 
(d. 16 Dec. 1767), was for fifty years a suc- 
cessful schoolmaster at Hertford, and author 
of grammatical tables (1736, 8vo) and of 
.an able translation of the Ne wTestament, pub- 
lished posthumously by subscription (1770, 
8vo), edited by Matthew Bradshaw and the 
author's son, Samuel Worsley (d. 7 March 
1800). His father, John Worsley, who died 
at High Wycombe. Buckinghamshire, in 
1807 (Monthly Repository, 1808, p. 515), had 
continued the school at Hertford for thirty 
years, with less success, being too easy a 
lisciplinarian ; he published a Latin gram- 
mar (1771, 8vo). Israel Worsley entered at 
Daventry Academy in 1786, under Thomas 



Belsham [q. v.]. who made him a Unitarian. 
In December 1790 a committee of merchants 
at Dunkirk (where there was no English 
service) engaged Worsley as their minister, 
the services to be conducted with a ' Book 
of Common Prayer compiled for the use of 
the English Church at Dunkirk . . . with a 
Collection of Psalms,' Dunkirk, 1791, 12mo. 
The volume is reprinted in ' FragmentaLitur- 
gica' (1848, vol. vi.) by Peter Hall [q.v.j, 
who seems unaware that it is itself a reprint 
of the ' reformed ' prayer book of Theophilus 
Lindsey [q. v.] How long this experiment 
lasted is not certain. Worsley established 
a school at Dunkirk ; after the outbreak of 
the war in 1793 he made his way to England, 
but returned after the peace of Amiens 
(1802), only to be arrested on the resumption 
of hostilities (1803), ultimately making his 
escape with difficulty through Holland. 
From 1806 to 1813 he ministered at Lin- 
coln, and from 1813 to February 1831 at 
Plymouth, where he established a fellow- 
ship fund and a chapel library. He left 
Plymouth with his family for Paris, intend- 
ing a six months' stay, but was persuaded 
to open (in June) a place for Unitarian wor- 
ship (in the Rue Provence). In January 
1832 he formed a French Unitarian associa- 
tion for circulation of tracts. The cholera 
of March 1832 dispersed his congregation, 
but he kept his chapel open till June 1833. 
Returning to England, he again ministered 
at Lincoln (1833-6). He died at Havre 
on 3 Sept. 1836. His son, William Worsley 
(1796-1881), was B.A. Glasgow 1816, 
studied at Manchester College 1816-19, and 
was Unitarian minister at Thome (1819-22), 
Hull (1822-25), and Gainsborough (1825- 
1875). 

Besides sermons, tracts, and school-books, 
he published: 1. 'Account of the State of 
France . . . and the Treatment of the Eng- 
lish,' 1806, 8vo. 2. 'Memoir of Jacob 
Brettell,' Lincoln, 1810, 8vo. 3. ' Observa- 
tions on ... Changes in the Presbyterian 
Societies of England/ 1816, 8vo (valuable 
for Unitarian history). 4. ' Lectures on ... 
Nonconformity,' 1823, 12mo; 2nd edit. 
1825, 12mo. 5. 'View of the American 
Indians . . . the Descendants of the Ten 
Tribes of Israel,' 1828, 12mo. 

[Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 
1816, p. 399; Monthly Repository,- 1822, p. 
286 ; Christian Reformer, 1833 pp. 269, 308, 
369, 1836 p. 824; Murch's Hist. Presb. and 
Gen. Bapt. Churches in West of Engl. 1835, pp. 
.505, 507 ; Kenrick's Memoir of Kentish, 1854, p. 
13 ; Roll of Students, Manchester College, 1868 ; 
Unitarian Almanac, 1882, p. 24 ; Ur wick's Non- 
conformity in Herts, 1883, p. 514.] A. G. 

D2 



Worsley 



WORSLEY, PHILIP STANHOPE 

(1835-1860), poet, born at Greenwich on 
12 Aug. 1835, was son of Charles Worsley 
(1783-1864), rector of Finchley, Middlesex, 
a member of the family of the Worsleys of 
Gatcombe, Isle of Wight. After attending 
the Cholmeley grammar school, Highgate, 
lie was admitted to a scholarship at Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, on 28 May 1853, and 
graduated B.A. and M.A. in 1861. He 
gained the Newdigate prize ('The Temple 
of Janus,' Oxford, 8vo) in 1857, and became 
a fellow of his college in 1863. His health 
interfered with the pursuit of any profession, 
and he devoted himself chiefly to classical 
and poetical studies. His version of the 
' Odyssey ' in the Spenserian stanza was pub- 
lished in 1861 (reissued 1868 and 1877), and 
his translation of the first twelve books of 
the ' Iliad ' in the same metre in 1865. On 
8 May of the following year Worsley died 
unmarried at Freshwater after a long illness, 
terminating in consumption. His patience 
and cheerfulness under great suffering, and 
the beauty of his character, are pathetically 
extolled by Sarah Austin in a note to the 
' Athenaeum ' of 19 May 1866. 

Worsley's distinction as a poet is to have 
achieved what no one else has achieved. His 
Spenserian translation of the ' Odyssey ' and 
the first half of the ' Iliad,' regarded merely 
as an endeavour to make Homer speak like 
Spenser, leaves no room for improvement. 
No version diverging so widely from the 
form of the original can become the stan- 
dard version ; it was nevertheless well that 
the attempt should be made as a test of the 
power and resources of our language. In 
grace, skill, command of diction, and native 
music, Worsley is surpassed by no poet who 
has employed this most difficult form, pecu- 
liar to our language, of which the most ac- 
complished foreign translators are shy, and 
of which Shelley said, ' You must succeed 
or fail.' ' Worsley,' says Matthew Arnold, 
'making the stanza yield to him what it 
never yielded to Byron, it s treasures of fl uidity 
and sweet ease, above all bringing to his task 
a truly poetical taste and skill, has produced 
a version of the '' Odyssey " much the most 
pleasing of those hitherto produced.' If he 
is more successful with the 'Odyssey' than 
with the ' Iliad,' this is because the romantic 
character of the former poem adapts itself 
better to the romantic stanza. The transla- 
tion of the ' Iliad ' was completed by John 
Conington [q. v.], and the contrast between 
the two moieties of the book is most instruc- 
ti ve. Conington was a greater scholar than 
\V orsley, and his command of language is re- 
markable ; but as a poet he was made, not born, 



Worsley 

and his mechanical stanzas entirely want 'the 
grandeur and the bloom ' of his predecessor. 

Worsley's original poems, first published 
in 1863 (' Poems and Translations,' London, 
8vo) and reprinted in 1875. are pleasing 
from their elegance and polish, but deficient 
in originality and force. He was born to 
interpret others. 

[Sarah Austin in Athenaeum, 19 May 1866; 
Gent. Mag. 1866, i. 925; Fowler's Hist, of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, p. 414 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. (1715-1886) ; private informa- 
tion.] K. a. 

WORSLEY, SIR RICHARD, seventh 
baronet (1751-1805), antiquary and travel- 
ler, born on 17 March 1751, was the son of 
Sir Thomas Worsley, sixth bart ., of Appuldur- 
comb, Isle of Wight, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Boyle, earl of Cork and 
Orrery. He was educated at Winchester 
College, and matriculated from Corpus Christ i 
College, Oxford, on 9 April 1768. He suc- 
ceeded his father, as seventh baronet, in 
1768. He became one of the clerks comp- 
trollers of the board of green cloth in 1777, 
and in 1779 clerk of the privy council. In 
the same year he was appointed comptroller 
of the king's household, and he was sworn 
of the privy council on 9 Feb. 1780. He 
was subsequently British resident at Venice, 
and was also governor of the Isle of Wight, 
and a fellow of the Royal Society and of the 
Society of Antiquaries. From 1774 to 1784 
he was member of parliament for Newport, 
Isle of Wight, and he represented Newtown, 
Isle of Wight, from 1790 to 1793 and from 
1796 to 1802. 

In February 1785 Worsley left Rome for 
an extensive journey in the Levant, accom- 
panied by Willey Reveley [q. v.] as his 
draughtsman. He reached Athens on 9 May 
1785, and stayed there with Gaspari, the 
French consul. From Athens he proceeded 
on a tour in Greece, visiting Eleusis, Megara 
(where he obtained for a small sum the statue 
of Asclepias, priestess of Artemis Orthosia), 
Epidaurus, JEgina, Delos, Myconos, Rhodes, 
Cairo, and Constantinople. In the spring of 
1786 he made an excursion to Sigeum and 
Troy, and visited the Crimea. He returned 
to Rome on 4 April 1787. In his travels 
Worsley had brought together a remarkable 
collection of statues, reliefs, and gems, which 
he arranged at his house at Appuldurcomb. 
In 1798 he issued the first part (dated 
' 1794 ') of the ' Museum Worsleyanum,' a 
sumptuous illustrated description of his col- 
lection. E. Q. Visconti seems to have sup- 
plied a great deal of material for the text. 
The cost of part i., exclusive of binding, 
Avas 2,887/. 4s. 



Worsley 



37 



Worsley 



Worsley died at Appuldurcomb on 8 Aug. 
1805, and was succeeded in the title (which 
became extinct in 1825) by his fourth cousin, 
Henry Worsley-Holmes. He married, in 
September 1775, Seymour Dorothy, daughter 
of Sir John Fleming, bart., of Brompton 
Park, Middlesex, and had by her a son Ro- 
bert Edwin, who died before his father, and 
a daughter, who died unmarried. The amours 
of Lady Worsley with the Earl of Peter- 
borough (who first met her at Sadler's Wells) 
and with others are duly chronicled by Wai- 
pole (Letters, via. 135, 166), and are satirised 
in such publications as the ' Memoirs of Sir 
Finical Whimsy and his Lady ' (1782). On 
21 Feb. 1782 Worsley brought an action 
against George M. Bissett, an officer in the 
J lampshire militia, claiming 20,00(W. damages 
for criminal conversation with his wife. The 
jury found for the plaintiff', but, on the ground 
of his connivance, awarded him only one 
shilling damages. Lady Worsley (who after- 
wards took by royal grant the name of Lady 
Fleming) was married a month after her 
husband's death to Mr. J. Louis Couchet 
(Gent. Mag. 1805, ii. 874). 

Worsley died intestate, and his estates and 
property devolved to his niece, Henrietta 
Anna Maria Charlotte, daughter of John 
Bridgman Simpson, who married, in 1806, 
Charles Anderson-Pelham, second baron Yar- 
borough, created (1837) Earl of Yarborough 
and Baron Worsley. On the sale of the Ap- 
puldurcomb property the collections formed 
by Worsley were removed to the Earl of Yar- 
borough's seat, Brocklesby Park, Ulceby, Lin- 
colnshire. The statues at Brocklesby were 
described by Michaelis in his ' Ancient Mar- 
bles,' and Mr. A. H. Smith has since printed 
(1897) a critical description of the whole 
collection. Worsley's manuscript 'Journal' 
of his travels is preserved at Brocklesby. 

Worsley's publications are: 1. ' The His- 
tory of the Isle of Wight,' London, 1781, 4to 
(Walpole, in his Letters, viii. 53, 54, speaks 
contemptuously of it). 2. ' Museum Wors- 
leyanum ; or a Collection of Antique Basso- 
Relievos, Bustos, Statues, and Gems ' (with 
portrait of Worsley and more than 150 
plates), London, 1794-1803, 2 vols. fol., text 
in English and Italian (pt. i. issued in 1798, 
pt. ii. in 1802) ; 2nd edit. London (Prowett), 
1824, 2 vols. sm. fol., with illustrations from 
the original copper-plates ; German transl. by 
Eberhard and Schaefer, Darmstadt, 1827-8, 
4to; an edition of the Italian text, with notes 
by Giovanni Labus, Milan, 1834 (part of 
Visconti's collected works). 3. ' Catalogue 
raisonn6 of the principal Paintings at Ap- 
puldercombe ' (privately printed), 1804, 
4to. 



[Gent. Mag. 1805, ii. 781 ; Berry's County 
Genealogies, ' Hants ; ' Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Mi- 
chaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great Britain ; 
Smith's Antiquities at Brocklesby Park; Don- 
kin's Worsley v. Bissett, 1782 ; Allibone's Diet. ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; information from Mr. Arthur 
Hamilton Smith.] W. W. 

WORSLEY, WILLIAM (1435P-1499), 
dean of St. Paul's, born probably about 
1435, is believed to have been the son of 
Sir Robert Worsley of Booths in Eccles, 
Lancashire, and his wife Maude, daughter 
of Sir John Gerard of Bryn, Lancashire. 
His brother Robert married Margaret, niece 
of William and Lawrence Booth [q. v.], 
both of them archbishops of York, to whose 
influence William owed most of his prefer- 
ments. He was possibly educated at Cam- 
bridge, as no mention of him occurs in Wood ; 
he is usually described as 'sanctae theologize 
professor,' but in his epitaph is styled ' doctor 
of laws.' On 29 April 1449 he was collated 
to the prebend of Tachbrook in Lichfield 
Cathedral, on 30 March 1453 to Norweli 
Overall in Southwell, and in 1457 to South 
Cave in York Cathedral. These preferments 
were apparently conferred on him during 
his minority by his uncles, for it was not 
till 20 Sept. 1460 that he was ordained 
priest. On 19 May 1467 he was instituted 
to the rectory of Eakring, Nottinghamshire. 
On 28 Sept. 1476 he was admitted arch- 
deacon of Nottingham, and on 22 Jan. 1478-9 
he was elected dean of St. Paul's in suc- 
cession to Thomas Winterbourne ; he re- 
tained with it the archdeaconry of Notting- 
ham and the prebend of Willesden in St. 
Paul's, and from 1493 to 1496 also held the 
archdeaconry of Taunton. Worsley held the 
deanery throughout the reigns of Edward V 
and Richard III, but in 1494 he became in- 
volved in the conspiracy in favour of Perkin 
Warbeck [q. v.] He was arrested in No- 
vember, confessed before a commission of 
oyer and terminer, and was attainted of 
high treason on the 14th (Rot. Parl. vi. 
4896). The lay conspirators were put to 
death, but Worsley was saved by his order, 
and on 6 June 1495 he was pardoned (GAIRD- 
NER, Letters and Papers, ii. 375). In 
October following parliament passed an act 
(11 Henry VII, c. 52) restoring him in blood 
(Statutes of the Realm, ii. 619). He had 
retained his ecclesiastical preferments, and 
died in possession of them on 14 Aug. 1499, 
being buried in St. Paul's Cathedral ; his 
epitaph and a very pessimistic copy of Latin 
verses are printed by Weever (Funerall 
Monuments, p. 368 : GOTJGH, Sepulchral Mon. 
ii. 337 ). Fabyan describes Worsley as ' a 



Worth : 

famous doctour and precher ' (Chronicle, 
p. 685). His will, dated 12 T Feb. 1498-9, 
was proved at Lambeth on 8 Nov. 1499, and 
at York on 27 March 1500, and is printed in 
' Testamenta Eboracensia,' iv. 155-6 ; by it 
he left money for an obit in St. Paul's. 

[Authorities cited; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Angl. ed. Hardy, passim ; Newcourt's Reper- 
torium and Hennessy's Nov. Rep. Eccl. Londin. 
1898; Polydore Vergil, p. 592; Bacon's 
Henry VII, ed. 1870, p. 339; Gairduer's 
Richard III, p. 352; Busch's England under the 
Tudors. i. 95; Archseologia, xxvii. 165; Dug- 
dale's St. Paul's ; Milman's St. Paul's ; Testa- 
ments Ebor. (Surtees Soc.) ; notes from Francis 
Worsley, esq.] A. F. P. 

WORTH, CHARLES FREDERICK 
(1*25-1895), dressmaker, was the son of 
William Worth, a solicitor at Bourne, Lin- 
colnshire, who lost his property in specula- 
tions. Born in 1825, he was at first intended 
for a printer, but after a few months went 
to London to be apprenticed to Messrs. 
Swan & Edgar, linendrapers. He was 
chiefly employed in bookkeeping, but 
showed an interest in French fabrics and 
models. In 1846, on the expiration of his 
indentures, he went to Paris, and for twelve 
years was in the service of Gagelin, silk- 
mercer. A lady's train designed by him 
figured in the exhibition of 1855. He next, 
in partnership with a Swede named Bobergh, 
started in business as a lady's tailor. Prin- 
cess Metternich, wife of the Austrian am- 
bassador, was one of his earliest customers, 
and the Comtesse de Pourtales introduced 
him to the Empress Eugenie, to whom he 
submitted every novelty. Thenceforth all 
wealthy Paris flocked to his rooms in the 
Rue de la Paix, and acknowledged him as 
the dictator of fashions. After the war of 
1870 Bobergh retired, and Worth, with the 
assistance of his two sons, continued a 
business which yielded 50,000/. a year 
profit, going down daily, to the end of his 
life, to the establishment from his house in 
the Rue de Berri or the villa erected by 
him at Suresnes. He was liberal to his 
staff and to French charities, but had joined 
the French reformed church and did not 
associate with the English colony. He 
died on 10 March 1895, and was buried at 
Suresnes. His widow died on 8 Aug. 1898. 

[Private information; Annuaire Bottin, 1859- 
Figaro, Sup. Litteraire, 13 April 1887; Gaulois, 
11, 12, and 14 March 1895; New York Herald, 
Pans edit., and other Paris papersof March 1895 ; 
Daily Telegraph, 10 Aug. 1898.] J. G. A. 

WORTH, RICHARD NICHOLLS (1837- 

896), miscellaneous writer and geologist, 
was the eldest son of Richard Worth, a 



s \Vorth 

builder of Devonport, by his wife Eliza, daugh- 
ter of Richard Nicholls of the same place. 
He was born on 19 July 1837, and appren- 
ticed in 1851 at the Devonport and Plymouth 
' Telegraph,' becoming a member of the staff 
in 1858. In 1863 he joined the Western 
Morning News,' remaining with it till 1865. 
In 1866 and the following year he lived at 
Newcastle- on-Tyne as edit or of the ' Nor them 
Daily Express,' but, finding the climate too 
trying, rejoined the staff of the ' Western 
Morning News 'in 1867. In 1877 he became 
] associated with Messrs. Brendon & Son, 
printers and publishers, of Plymouth, receiv- 
ing a testimonial of plate by public subscrip- 
tion in Devon and Cornwall for his services 
as a journalist. In this business he remained 
till his death, though he continued to con- 
tribute occasionally, not only to the local 
press but also to ' Nature,' the ' Academy,' 
and other periodicals. 

Worth was a diligent student, and devoted 
all his spare time to investigating the his- 
| tory and geology of the west of England. 
j Patient and exact, dreading hasty theorising, 
I he was one of that indefatigable band of 
! workers who have done so much for the 
I history, archaeology, and geology of Devon 
. and Cornwall. Altogether Worth published 
about 140 papers between 1869 and his 
I death, mostly historical, and in the proceed- 
; ings of local societies ; some of the scientific 
papers appeared in the ' Quarterly Journal ' 
of the Geological Society of London, of 
which he became a fellow in 1875. Besides 
a series of guide-books and several smaller 
works, he was the author of: 1. 'History 
of the Town and Borough of Devonport,' Ply- 
mouth, 1870, 8vo. 2. ' History of Plymouth,' 
Plymouth, 1871, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1873 ; 3rd 
edit. 1890. 3. 'The Three Towns Biblio- 
theca ' [for Plymouth, Devonport, and Stone- 
house], 1871, 8vo. 4. 'The West Country 
Garland, selected from the Writings of the 
Poets of Devon and Cornwall,' Plymouth, 
1878, 8vo. 

He was twice president of the Plymouth 
Association, and in 1891 of the Devonshire 
Association. A true son of the west, he 
loved its two great counties, and no stranger 
interested in their history or geology ever 
sought Worth's help in vain. He died sud- 
denly at Shaugh Prior, where he was tem- 
porarily resident, on 3 July 1896, and was 
buried in the village churchyard. He mar- 
ried, 22 March I860, at Stoke Damerel, Devon- 
shire, Lydia Amelia, daughter of Richard 
Davies of the Dockyard, Devonport. One 
son and one daughter survived him. 

A portrait in oils, painted by Lane in 
1873, is in possession of the family. 



Worth 



39 



Worthington 



[Obituary notice Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 1897, 
Proc. Ixii; Trans. Devonshire Assoc. xxviii. 
(1896), p. 52; Trans. Plymouth Institution and 
Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc. 1895-6 ; 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, ii. 907; Collectanea 
Cornubiensia, p. 1 295 ; information from his son, 
K. G. Hansford Worth, esq.] T. G. B. 

WORTH, WILLIAM (1677-1742), 
classical scholar and divine, born at Penryn, 
Cornwall, and baptised at St. Gluvias, its 
parish church, on 20 Feb. 1676-7, was the 
second son of William Worth, merchant of 
Penryn, who died there on 22 Jan. 1689-90, 
aged 55, by his wife Jane, daughter and 
coheiress of Mr. Pennalerick. He matricu- 
lated from Queen's College, Oxford, on 
14 March 1691-2, but migrated to St. 
Edmund Hall, graduating B.A. on 17 Oct. 
1695, and MA. on 4 July 1698. In 1702, 
on the nomination of Archbishop Tenison, 
he was elected fellow of All Souls' College, 
Oxford, he was chaplain to the bishop of 
Worcester in 1705, and on 14 Dec. 1705 he 
was collated to the archdeaconry of Wor- 
cester. He proceeded B.D. in 1705 and 
D.D. in 1719. 

The value (5.) of this archdeaconry in 
the king's books was greater than that of 
any preferment tenable with his fellowship. 
The warden of All Souls' College thereupon 
declared, on 7 Jan. 1706-7, that the fellow- 
ship was vacant. Worth appealed to Teni- 
son against the warden's action, but on 
12 June 1707 renounced the appeal. Bishop 
William Fleetwood [q. v.] was led to pub- 
lish his ' Chronicon Preciosum ' on the occa- 
sion of this dispute. 

Worth retained this archdeaconry until 
his death in 1742, and combined with it 
from 17 Feb. 1715-16 the third canonry at 
Worcester. From 16 July 1707 to 1713 he 
held the rectory of Halford in Warwick- 
shire. On 9 April 1713 he was collated to 
the rectory of Alvechurch, and on 11 July 
following to the rectory of Northfield, both 
in Worcestershire, and he enjoyed both 
these benefices, with his canonry and arch- 
deaconry, until his death. He died on 
7 Aug. 1742, and was buried in Worcester 
Cathedral on 11 Aug. His wife was a Miss 
Price, and their only daughter, with a for- 
tune of 60,000^, married on 3 March 1740, 
William Winsmore, mayor of Worcester in 
1739-40 (Gent. Mag. 1740, p. 147). 

Worth edited at Oxford in 1700 ' Tatiani 
Oratio ad Grsecos. Hermise irrisio gentilium 
philosophorum,' with his own annotations 
and those of many previous scholars. Hearne 
says that ' most of the notes, with the dedi- 
cation and preface, were written by Dr. Mill ' 
( Collections, Oxford Hist. Soc. i. 40). Worth's 



notes to the tract of Hermias were included 
in the edition by J. C. Dommerich, which 
was printed at Halle in 1764. He greatly 
assisted Browne Willis in his account of 
Worcester Cathedral (Survey of Cathedrals, 
vol. i. p. vi), and extracts from his collec- 
tions on Worcestershire are embodied in 
Nash's history of that county. Edward 
Dechair in his edition of the ' Legatio pro 
Christianis ' (1706) of Athenagoras was 
much indebted to Worth for various readings 
in manuscripts (preface to edition). A letter 
from Worth to Potter, afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, on the death of Dr. 
John Mill [q. v.] is in Lambeth MS. 933, 
art. 42, and a copy is in the British Museum 
Additional MS. 4292, art. 61. It is printed 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1801, ii. 587) 
and in H. J. Todd's ' Brian Walton' (i. 79- 
81). 

[Hearne's Collections, i. 43, 131, 167, 172-3, 
270, 289, 307, 316, ii. 28, 65-6, 75, iv. 430; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Chambers's 
Worcestershire Biogr. p. 343 ; Green's Worces- 
ter, i. 230, 237, ii. 40, and app. p. xxix ; Martin's 
All Souls' Archives, pp. 320, 340-1 ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 907, 909-10 ; Boase's 
Collect. Cornub. p. 1294 ; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 
76, 82.] W. P. C. 

WORTHINGTON, HUGH (1752-1813), 
Arian divine, was born at Leicester on 
21 June 1752. His father, Hugh Worth- 
ington, son of John Worthington (d. 1757), 
tanner, near Stockport, was born on 11 June 
1712 ; was educated at Glasgow (M.A. May 
1735) ; and ministered at Leek, Staffordshire 
(1735-8), Newington Green (1738-41),being 
also librarian at Dr. Williams's Library, and 
Great Meeting, Leicester (1743-97). He 
married a daughter of Benjamin Andrews 
Atkinson (d. 1765), presbyterian minister 
(1713-42) in London, and died 29 Oct. 1797. 
His portrait has been engraved (Memoirs by 
his son in ' Protestant Dissenter's Magazine,' 
1797, pp. 401, 444). 

Worthington, having been grounded by 
his father, entered Daventry Academy in 
1768, under Caleb Ashworth [q. v.] On 
completing his course he was chosen (1773) 
classical tutor, but on a visit to London at 
Christmas he at once achieved fame as a 
preacher, was invited as assistant at Salters' 
Hall to Francis Spilsbury the younger (d. 
3 March 1782), and began his ministry there 
on 1 Jan. 1774. His duty was that of after- 
noon preacher. In connection with Abra- 
ham Rees [q, v.], he maintained a Sunday 
evening lecture at Salters' Hall ; he was also 
one of the Tuesday morning lecturers (till 
1795), and a Wednesday evening lecturer. 
On Spilsbury's death he was chosen pastor 



Worth ington 



Worthington 



(ordained 15 May 1782): on the first Sunday 
of the month he preached in the morning 
and celebrated the Lord's Supper. On other 
Sunday mornings he preached at Highbury 
Grove (1793-6) and at Hanover Street 
(1796-1803). 

In 1785 he was elected a trustee of Dr. 
Williams's foundations, and in 1786 he was 
one of a committee of nine for establishing 
a new college in London. He undertook 
the departments of classics and logic, lectur- 
ing from September 1786 at Dr. Williams's 
library, Red Cross Street, and from Septem- 
ber 1787 at Hackney. He resigned in the 
spring of 1789. Later in the year he pro- 
jected an association to stay the progress of 
Socinianistn among liberal dissenters. A 
three days' conference of Arian divines, in- 
cluding Habakkuk Crabb [q. v.], Benjamin 
Carpenter (1752-1816) of Stourbridge, and 
John Geary of Beaconsfield, was held at 
Chapel House, Oxfordshire. Inability to 
agree on the question of inspiration rendered 
the plan abortive (Monthly Repository, 1813, 
p. 571). 

Worthington's popularity as a preacher, 
sustained in London with no diminution for 
nearly forty years, is unexampled among 
liberal dissenters of any school, and was the 
undisguised envy of more radical thinkers. 
An unfriendly critic describes ' his upright 
posture, his piercing eye, his bold and de- 
cisive tone, his pointed finger, the interest 
he gave to what he delivered, and the entire 
nothingness of what he often said'(t'6. 1817, 
p. 91). Another describes his voice as 'hard 
and dry, pungent and caustic,' and says his 
manner was ' full of bustle,' and ' even his 
spectacles were not idle' (Christian Re- 
former, 1823, p. 29). His sermons were 
read, but the peroration was delivered with- 
out book. His last sermon was preached on 
11 July 1813. He left London for Worth- 
ing, suffering from a pulmonary disorder 
which for many years had affected his 
health. He died at Worthing on 26 July 
1813. His body was brought to his re- 
sidence, Northampton Square, London, and 
lay in state on 5 Aug. at Salters' Hall. He 
was buried (6 Aug.) in Bunhill Fields; the 
funeral service, attended by two thousand 
people, was conducted by Thomas Taylor 
(d. 23 Oct. 1831), the last person who re- 
membered Doddridge. Funeral sermons 
were preached by James Lindsay (d. 14 Feb. 
1821) and Henry Lacey at Salters' Hall; 
John Evans (1767-1827) [q. v.], Joshua 
Toulmin [q. v.], Jeremiah Joyce [q. v.], and 
William Bengo Coll ver[q.v.], who succeeded ! 
him at Salters' Hall. He married (1782) < 
Susanna (d, March 1806), eldest daughter of , 



Samuel Statham, dissenting minister of 
Loughborough, and had two daughters, who 
died in infancy. 

Besides many separate sermons, he pub- 
lished : 1. 'An' Essay on the Resolution of 
Plane Triangles,' 1780, 8vo. 2. ' Memoir of 
Habakkuk Crabb,' prefixed to ' Sermons,' 
1796, 8 vo. Posthumous was 3. 'Sermons . . . 
at Salters' Hall between 1800 and 1810,' 
1822, 8vo, from the notes of Mrs. Wilkin- 
son of Enfield ; 2nd edit. 1823, 8vo (with 
additions). He had left fifteen hundred 
manuscript sermons, mostly in shorthand. 
He edited his father's 'Discourses,' 1785, 
8vo, and assisted Butcher in ' The Substance 
of the- Holy Scriptures Methodised,' 1801 
and 1813, 4to. 

[Funeral Sermons by Lindsay and by Evans ; 
Obituary by E[dmund] B[utcher] [q. v.] in 
Monthly Repository, 1813, p. 545; Memoir by 
J[eremiah] J[oyce] in Universal Magazine, 
1813, ii. 150, reprinted in Monthly Repository, 
1813, p. 561, also separately 1813; Memoirs by 
Benjamin Carpenter, 1813; Memoir by V. R. X. 
[John Kitcat] in Christian Moderator, 1826, p. 
185; Monthly Repository, 18<i6 p. 43, 1814 p. 
53, 1815 pp. 693, 746, 1822 p. 196, 1823 p. 319 
(critique by ' N.,' i.e. John Kentish [q. v.]; 
Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, 
ii. 61 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, p. 
172.] A. G. 

WORTHINGTON, JOHN (1618-1671), 
master of Jesus College, Cambridge, was a 
native of Manchester, where he was born in 
February 1617-18. He was the son of Roger 
Worthington and Katharine Heywood his 
wife, both members of families of the corre- 
sponding names in the county palatine of 
Lancaster, and described as ' persons of chief 
note and esteem in the town ' (Diary and 
Corresp. i. 2-3, ii. 372). On 31 March 1632 
John was admitted a sizar of Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and in the Michaelmas term, 
of 1635 was admitted B.A., his name and 
that of his friend Cudworth standing ninth 
and tenth in the 'ordo senioritatis ' (Grace 
Book Z in registry). Benjamin W T hichcote 
[q.v.] and Richard Clarke were successively 
his college tutors. He graduated M.A. in 
1639. In 1641 he was appointed lecturer of 
the college for the year, and on 4 April 1642 
was admitted a fellow, his election, which 
was attended with some difficulty, having 
taken place in the preceding year (Diary, 
p. 12). In June 1646 he was admitted into 
deacon's orders, and in the following October 
was appointed university preacher. He gra- 
duated B.D. in the same year, and proceeded 
D.D. in 1655. In 1649 he made, in con- 
junction with a friend, a tour of some of 
the south-western counties, and his diary 



Worthington 



Worthington 



contains some interesting notes of his obser- 
vations (pp. 31-7). 

On 14 Nov. 1650 Worthington was elected 
to the mastership of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. In March 1654 he found it necessary 
to petition the Protector respecting the non- 
payment of ' the augmentation ' annexed to 
his office, and represents that ' he had con- 
stantly resided upon the place until the last 
year,' but, not having received the augmen- 
tation, ' he was in a manner necessitated to 
supply a place in that country for that sum- 
mer quarter ' (State Papers, Dom. vol. Ixviii. 
No. 56). In the following November he was 
presented to the rectory of Fen Ditton in 
Cambridgeshire, and on 13 Oct. 1657 was 
married by Dr. Whichcote (the uncle of the 
bride) to Mary, the daughter of Christopher 
Whichcote. In the following November he 
was elected vice-chancellor of the university, 
but filled the office for only one year. Along 
with his mastership he held other prefer- 
ments. In November 1652 he was presented 
by the college to the rectory of Gravely in 
Cambridgeshire, and in April 1653 to the 
living of Horton in Buckinghamshire; the 
latter, however, he appears to have resigned 
in May 1654. 

In October 1660 Worthington was dis- 
placed from his mastership of Jesus College 
in order to make way for the restoration of 
Dr. Richard Sterne [q. v.], who had himself 
been ejected from the post in 1644 to make 
way for the puritan Thomas Young (1587- 
1655) [q. v.] Writing to Sterne on the 
occasion, Worthington says : ' I never had 
any ambitious desires to such a place, . . . 
for when I was brought in I could with 
as much cheerfulness have left it for you ' 
(Diary, i. 39). On his successor's arrival 
he received him with overflowing hospitality, 
and gratified his own enjoyment of music 
(in which he was himself a proficient) by an 
elaborate performance in his honour. He 
now retired to his living at Ditton, and from 
1655 to 1662 carried on an interesting corre- 
spondence with Samuel Hartlib [q. v.], which 
contains some noteworthy illustrations of 
the tendencies of academic thought at Cam- 
bridge and elsewhere at this period. In 1663, 
however, he resigned the living of Ditton for 
that of Barking and Needham in Suffolk, 
and about the same time was collated to 
the sinecure living of Moulton All Saints 
in Norfolk. He was still far from affluent, 
and writing to a friend (28 Oct. 1664) he 
says : ' Our expenses will be beyond our 
receipts, and yet we are as frugal, both for 
diet and apparel, as we can be ' (Diary, ii. 
139). He was now appointed preacher at 
the church of St. Benet Fink in London, and 



removed to the city. Writing to Whichcote, 
he speaks of ' tedious and lonesome journeys 
between London and Suffolk in winter ' and 
' painful and solitary livings at Gresham 
College.' He continued throughout the 
plague faithfully to discharge the duties of 
his London cure ; but in September 1666 hia 
church and house were both burnt down in 
the great fire, and the record of his sufferings 
through that visitation is one of considerable 
interest. In the following November his 
friend Henry More (1614-1687) [q. v.] pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Ingoldsby in 
Lincolnshire, on which occasion Worthing- 
ton speaks of having been ' kindly and nobly 
entertained ' by him at Ragley. To this pre- 
ferment Archbishop Sheldon added the pre- 
bend of Asgarby in Lincoln Cathedral. About 
this time, however, his health began to fail, 
and the loss of his wife (August 1667), which 
he describes as making ' the rural solitude 
more solitary and uncomfortable,' deter- 
mined him to accept the appointment of 
' lecturer ' at the parish church of Hackney, 
under its vicar Dr. Jameson, with the view 
of being nearer ' friends and books.' Shel- 
don also successfully exerted his influence 
to procure for him the lease of the rectory 
of St. Benet Fink ; but before this could be 
carried into effect Worthington died. He 
was in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and 
was buried on 30 Nov. 1671 in the chancel 
of the church at Hackney. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Tillotson, who pro- 
nounced a high eulogium on his character 
and virtues his peculiar merit, in the 
preacher's estimation, having been ' his 
great zeal and industry to be useful, es- 
pecially in those things which tended to the 
promoting of piety and learning.' 

Worthington had five children. John 
(b. 18 June 1663), his only son and heir, 
was educated at Eton and at Jesus College, 
Cambridge, whence, after taking his M.A. 
degree, he migrated to Peterhouse. He 
declined to take the oaths at the Revolution, 
and appears subsequently to have resided in 
London. He died in 1737, and was buried 
in St. John's, Hackney. Of the daughters, 
Damaris (b. 2 April 1661) married Nathaniel 
Turner, a linendraper of Fleet Street, by 
whom she had nine children ; Anne married 
Meshach Smith, formerly of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, and afterwards vicar of Hendon 
in Middlesex; the other two died in in- 
fancy. 

By his contemporaries Worthington was 
generally regarded as an Arminian; but his 
sympathies were rather philosophical than 
theological, and he shared with the school 
of the Cambridge Platonists (to which he 



Worthington 



Worthington 



stood in close relation) their dislike to dog- 
matic intolerance. A warm admirer of 
Colet and Erasmus, his teaching was 
directed towards the development of a 
liberal Christian spirit rather than to 
' opinions and extra-essentials.' But, while 
averse from a too rigid interpretation of 
doctrine, he was distinguished by his care 
and exactness in his literary labours, and 
his edition of the works of the ' incom- 
parable ' Joseph Mede [q. v.] the father, in 
some respects, of the Cambridge movement 
was referred to byTillotson as 'a monument 
likely to stand so long as learning and re- 
ligion shall continue in the world ' (pref. to 
the Miscellanies, 1 704 edit.) His like labours 
on his edition (London, 1660) of the ' Select 
Discourses 'of John Smith (1618-1652) [q.v.] 
of Queens' preserved them from the oblivion 
into which, notwithstanding their high merit, 
they would otherwise have fallen. His 
translation of the ' De Imitatione ' of Thomas 
a Kempis, published under the title of ' The 
Christian's Pattern,' first appeared in 1654, 
and went through numerous editions. Of 
that of 1654 no copy is known to exist. 
The edition of 1677 was the basis of John 
Wesley's edition, although he appears to 
have adopted it in ignorance of the fact that 
he was building on the labours of Worthing- 
ton (Bibliography, pp. 15-17). 

A ' Bibliography of Works written or 
edited ' by Worthington, compiled by Chan- 
cellor R. C. Christie, was published" by the 
Chetham Society (new ser. vol. xiii.) in 
1885, in which the following are enumerated 
as his own writings: 1. ' 'YnoTVTraxriy vyi- 
etvatv T<i)v AoyoH'. A Form of Sound Words : 
Or a Scripture Catechism ; shewing what a 
Christian is to believe and practise in order 
to Salvation,' London, 1673, 1674, 1676, 
1681, &c., 8vo, 1723, 12mo. 2. ' The Great 
Duty of Self-Resignation to the Divine 
Will,' London, 1675, 8vo. This also went 
through numerous editions and was trans- 
lated into German. 3. 'The Doctrines of 
the Resurrection and the Reward to come, 
considered as the grand Motives to an Holy 
Life,' London, 1690, 8vo. 4. 'Charitas 
Evangelica : a Discourse of Christian Love,' 
London, 1691, 8vo (published by his son). 
5. ' Forms of Prayer for a Family,' London, 
1693, 1721, 12mo. This was also translated 
into German. 6. ' Miscellanies . . . also a 
Collection of Epistles ; with the Author's 
Character by Archbishop Tillotson,' London, 
1704, 8vo. 7. ' Select Discourses . . . with 
the Author's Character,' London, 1725, 8vo. 
The edition of 1826, ' to which is added 
a Scripture Catechism,' contains 1, 2, 3, 
and 4. 



[Diary and Correspondence, edited by James 
Crossley and R. C. Christie for the Chetham 
Society, 2 vols. ; Autobiography of Simon Pa- 
trick; MSS. Baker, vols. vi. xviii. and xxviii. ; 
I Brydges's Restituta, vol. i. ; Robinson's Memo- 
! rials of Hackney, ii. 70 ; Nichols's Leicester- 
I shire, iii. 731 ; Tulloch's Rational Theology in 
I England, ii. 426-33.] J. B. -M. 

WORTHINGTON, THOMAS (1549- 
1622 ?), president of Douay College, born in 
1549 at Blainscough or Blainsco in the parish 
of Standish, near Wigan, Lancashire, was 
son of Richard Worthington, by his wife 
Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Charnock of 
Charnock in the same county (DoDD, Church 
Hist. ii. 391). His father, who was an occa- 
sional conformist, though at heart a firm 
catholic, sent him about 1566 to Brasenose 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A, 
on 17 Oct. 1570. Afterwards going abroad, 
| for conscience' sake, he was admitted into 
: the English College at Douay on 15 Feb. 
1572-3. In 1577 he was made B.D., and 
the year following he removed with the rest 
of the college to Rheims. Afterwards he 
was sent on the mission to England, where 
he laboured for several years with great suc- 
cess. In 1584 he was seized in his lodgings 
| at Islington, and was immediately com- 
mitted prisoner to the Tower, and ' put into 
the pit.' He was among the twenty-one 
Jesuits, seminarists, and other ' massing 
priests ' who on 25 Jan. 1584-5 were shipped 
at the Tower wharf to be conveyed to France 
and banished the realm for ever by virtue of 
a commission from the queen (HOLIXSHED, 
Chronicles, iii. 1379-80 ; FOLEY, Records, ii. 
132). 

Retiring to the English College at Rheims, 
Worthington remained there till he was ap- 
pointed by Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Allen to 
the post of chaplain in Sir William Stanley's 
regiment in the Spanish service. He was 
created D.D. by the university of Trier in 
1588. In 1590 he returned to Rheims, and 
was employed in reading a lesson of moral 
divinity ; but in 1591 he was sent to Brussels, 
and remitted to the camp to exercise the 
office of chaplain again. 

On the decease of Dr. Barret, president of 
the English College of Douay, Worthington 
was on 1 July 1599 appointed to be his suc- 
cessor by Cardinal Caetano, protector of the 
English nation. This appointment was made 
chiefly by the influence of Father Robert 
Parsons [q.v.j, to whom Worthington took 
a secret vow of obedience, and under Worth- 
ington's direction new rules were imposed. 
The most eminent professors and doctors 
were dismissed ; a Jesuit was appointed con- 
fessor to the students, and no alumnus was 



Worthington 



43 Worthington 



admitted to the college without the approval 
of the archpriest or the superior of the 
Jesuits in England. Subsequently the ag- 
grieved clergy petitioned for a visitation, the 
result being that Worthington was removed 
from his office, and Dr. Matthew Kellison 
[q.v.] appointed in his place. 

Worthington was now invited to Rome 
by the cardinal-protector, and he set out 
from Douayon 15 May 1613. On his arrival 
he had an allowance of two hundred lloman 
crowns a year, with an apartment and diet 
for himself and a servant. He was also made 
apostolic notary, and obtained a place in con- 
nection with the Congregation of the Index 
_of Prohibited Books. While at Rome he was 
admitted a member of the Oratory. After 
residing for two or three years in Rome he 
obtained leave to return to his native country 
upon the mission. He died at the house of Mr. 
Biddle of Biddle or Biddulph, Staffordshire, in 
1622 (ALLEN, Defence of Sir W. Stanley's Sur- 
render of Deventer, ed. Hey wood, p. xlv n.) 
Dodd states, however, that he died about 
1626. Father Southwell asserts that he was 
a novice of the Society of Jesus at the time 
of his death. 

There is a portrait of him in the print en- 
titled ' The Portraiture of the Jesuits and 
Priests as they used to sit at Council in Eng- 
land' in the second part of ' Vox Populi.' 

Worthington's works are : 1. ' The Rosarie 
of Our Ladie. Otherwise called our Ladies 
Psalter. With other godlie exercises,' Ant- 
werp, 1600, 12mo (anon.) The preface, dated 
25 March 1590, is signed ' T. W. P.' 2. ' Ri- 
chardi Bristol Vigorniensis . . . Motiva,' 
Arras, 1608, 2 vols. 4to ; translated from the 
English, with a memoir of Bristowe prefixed. 
3. ' Annotations, Tables, &c.,' to the two 
volumes of the Old Testament printed at 
Douay, 1609-10 (cf. COTTON, Rheims and 
Don-ay, p. 25). 4. ' Catalogus Martyrum in 
Anglia ab anno 1570 ad annum 1612.' 
Printed 1612 and 1614, 8vo. Prefixed to 
this extremely rare book is 'Narratio de 
Origine Seminariorurn, et de Missione Sacer- 
dotum in Anglia.' This catalogue and narra- 
tion are taken mostly from the collection en- 
titled ' Concertatio Ecclesiae Catholicse in 
A.nglia ' [see BRIDGEWATEK, JOHN]. 5. ' Why te 
dyed Black. Or a Discouery of many most 
foule blemishes, impostures, and deceiptes, 
which D. Whyte haith practysed in his 
book entituled The way to the true Church. 
Written by T. W. P.,'' sine loco, 1615, 4to 
[see WHITE, JOHN-, 1570-1615]. In a reply 
to this Francis White Tq-v.] wrote his ' Or- 
thodox Faith and Way to the Church.' 
6. ' An Anker of Christian Doctrine Wheare- 
in the most principal pointes of Catholiqve 



Religion are proued by the only written 
word of God,' 4 pts. in 3 vols. Douay, 1618- 
1622, 4to. The preface, dated 1616, is signed 
' Th. W.' It has been stated that those volumes 
were printed in London, and that they were 
sold by the author at his lodgings in Turn- 
bull Street for 14s. (GEE, Foot out of the 
Snare). 

[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Com- 
pngnie de Jesus, 1876, Hi. 1 574 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. ii. 388, 389, 391, iii. 88, and Tierney's edit, 
iii. 156, 158; Douay Diaries, p. 446; Foley's 
Records, ii. 104, vii. 866 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, 
of England, 5th edit. ii. 80; More's Hist. Mis- 
sionis Anglicanae Soc. Jesu, p. 285 ; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 194 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 228 ; Panzani's Memoirs, p. 88 ; Re- 
gister of the University of Oxford, i. 279 ; 
Southwell's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 770; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 406, and Fasti, 
i. 185; T. G-. Law's Archpriest. Controversy, 
1898 (Camden Soc.)] T. C. 

WORTHINGTON, THOMAS (1671- 
1754), Dominican friar, fourth son of Thomas 
Worthington of Blainsco in the parish of 
Standish, near Wigan, Lancashire, by his 
wife Jane, eldest daughter of John Plomp- 
ton of Plompton, Yorkshire, was born on 
23 Nov. 1671, and received his education in 
the college of the English Jesuits at St.Omer. 
In 1691 he entered the Dominican order at 
the convent of Bornhem in Flanders, and in 
the following year he made his solemn con- 
fession as a member of the order. He was 
ordained priest at Rome in 1695, and went 
afterwards to the college of St. Thomas 
Aquinas at Louvain, where he became suc- 
cessively professor of philosophy, theology, 
and sacred scripture. He graduated B.D. 
in 1704, was elected prior of Bornhem in 
1705, and re-elected in 1708, and was in- 
stituted prior provincial of England. For 
nine years he laboured on the English mis- 
sion, sometimes in London, but generally in 
Yorkshire and Lancashire. On his return to 
Flanders he was again installed prior of 
Bornhem, 25 Jan. 1717-18. He was created 
D.D. in 1718, was elected prior of Bornhem 
for the fifth time in 1725, and was again 
instituted provincial on 4 Jan. 1725-6. Sub- 
sequently he became chaplain at Middleton 
Hall, the residence of Ralph Brandling, in 
the parish of Rothwell, near Leeds. He 
died there on 25 Feb. 1754 (N.S.) 

His works are : 1. ' Prolegomena ad 
Sacram Scripturam et Historia Sacra 
Scholastica Mundi sub lege Naturae,' Lou- 
vain, 1702, 4to. 2. ' Historia Sacra Scholas- 
tica Mundi, sub legeMosaica, adTempli aedifi- 
cationem,' Louvain, 1704, 4to, 3. 'Historia 
Sacra Scholastica Mundi, sub lege Mosaica 



Worth ington 



44 



Wortley 



siTempli {edifications ad Nativitatem Christ i,' 
Lou vain, 1705, 4to. 4. 'An Introduction to the 
Catholic Faith. By an English Dominican,' 
London, 1709, 8vo, pp. 152. The author- 
ship has been erroneously ascribed by Quetif 
and Echard, in their ' Scriptores Ordinis 
Praedicatorum,' to Father Ambrose Burgis. 
5. ' Annales Fratrum Praedicatorum Pro- 
vinciae Anglicanae Restauratae,' 1710. This 
manuscript, preserved in the archives of the 
province, comprises a history of the convent 
of Bornhem from its foundation to the year 
1675. It is a Latin abridgment of the 
' Annals' compiled in Flemish by Hyacinth 
Coomans, a lay brother, who died in 1701. 
The Flemish original is lost. 6. ' History 
of the Convent of Bornhem, the College of 
Louvain, and the Monastery of English 
Sisters at Brussels,' printed in Bernard de 
Jonghe's ' Belgium Dominicanum,' Brussels, 
1719, 4to. 7. ' Obituary Rolls of Bornhem,' 
consisting of notices of the religious of the 
English Dominican province from the founda- 
tion of the convent in 1658 down to 1719. 
8. A Latin 'Memoir of Bishop Williams,' 
1714, 8vo. The whole contents of this manu- 
script have been published in ' A Consecrated 
Life ' by the Rev. Raymund Palmer, O.P., 
which appeared in ' Merry England ' for 
November and December 1887. 9. ' Brevis 
Provinciae Anglicanae Ratio,' 4to. Manu- 
script preserved in the archives of the pro- 
vince ; there is also a transcript in the ar- 
chives of the master-general of the Domini- 
can order at Rome. 

[Catholic Miscellany, 1826, vi. 255 : Gibson's 
Lydiate Hall, p. 203 ; Merry England, 1888-9, 
xii. 25, 135; Oliver's Cornwall, p. 469; Palmer's 
Life of Card. Howard, p. 130; Palmer's Obit. 
Notices of the Friar-Preachers, p. 14.] T. C. 

^WORTHINGTON, WILLIAM (1703- 
1778), divine, son of Thomas Worthington 
of Aberhafesp, Montgomeryshire, was born 
in 1703, and educated at Oswestry school. 
He was matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, 
May 1722, and graduated B.A. on 22 Feb. 
1 725-6. Afterwards he became usher in the 
school at Oswestry. He took the degree of 
M.A. at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
1742, was incorporated in that degree at Ox- 
ford on 3 July 1758, and accumulated the 
degrees of B.D. and D.D. in the latter uni- 
versity on 10 July the same year. He was 
patronised by Francis Hare [q. v.], bishop of 
St. Asaph, who presented him In 1729 to 
the vicarage of Llanyblodwell, Shropshire, 
and in 1740 removed him to Llanrhaiadr, 
Denbighshire. Hare also gave him the sine- 
cure rectory of Darowen, Montgomeryshire, 
in 1 737 ; and Archbishop Drummond, to whom 
he had been chaplain for several years, pre- 



sented him in 1762 to a stall in the cathedral 
of York. He died at Llanrhaiadr on 6 Oct. 
1778. 

His principal works are: 1. 'An Essay 
on the Scheme and Conduct, Procedure and 
Extent, of Man's Redemption ; designed for 
the honour and illustration of Christianity. 
To which is annexed a Dissertation on the 
Design and Argument of the Book of Job,' 
London, 1743, 8vo ; 2nd edit, enlarged, Lon- 
don, 1748, 8vo. 2. ' The Historical Sense 
of the Mosaic Account of the Fall proved 
and vindicated,' London, 1751, 8vo. 3. 'The 
Use, Value, and Improvement of Various 
Readings shown and illustrated,' Oxford, 
1764, 8vo. 4. ' A Disquisition concerning 
the Lord's Supper, in order to ascertain the 
right Notion of it,' 1766, 8vo. 5. ' The Evi- 
dence of Christianity deduced from Facts, 
and the Testimony of Sense, throughout all 
Ages of the Church,' 2 vols. London, 1769, 
8vo, being the Boyle lectures for 1766-8. 
6. 'The Scripture Theory of the Earth, 
throughout all its Revolutions, and all the 
Periods of its Existence, from the Creation 
to the final Renovation of all Things ; being 
a Sequel to the Essay on Redemption, and 
an Illustration of the Principles on which it 
is written,' London, 1773, 8vo. 7. ' Ireni- 
cum, or the Importance of Unity in the 
Church of Christ considered ; and applied to- 
wards the Healing of our unhappy Diffe- 
rences and Divisions,' 1775, 8vo. 8. 'An im- 
partial Enquiry into the Case of the Gospel 
Demoniacks ; with an Appendix, consisting 
of an Essay on Scripture Demonology,' 1777, 
8vo. This was an attack on the opinion ex- 
pressed by Hugh Farmer [q.v.], a dissenting 
minister, in his ' Essay on the Demoniacks.' 
1775. 9. 'A further Enquiry into the Case 
of the Gospel Demoniacks, occasioned by 
Mr. Farmer's Letters on the Subject,' 1779, 
8vo, a posthumous publication. 

[Cooke's Preacher's Assistant; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. Mag. 1778, p. 495; 
Graduati Cantabr. (1823), p. 530 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), iii. 204, 206 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. vii. 477 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Williams's 
Eminent Welshmen, p. 544.] T. C. 

WORTLEY, STUART-. [See STUABT- 

WOETLET.] 

^WORTLEY, SIB FRANCIS (1591- 
1652), poet, born in 1591, was son of Sir 
Richard Wortley, knight, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Edward Boughton of Cawston, 
Warwickshire, who became after Sir Ri- 
chard's death (1603) the wife of William 
Cavendish, earl of Devonshire (HUNTER, 
South Yorkshire, ii. 316). Wortley matri- 
culated from Magdalen College, Oxford, on 

for reV'S'or)^ 



Wortley 



45 



Wortley 



17 Feb. 1G08-9, was knighted on 15 Jan. 
1610, and created a baronet on 29 June 1611 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714). In the 
three parliaments of 1624, 1625, and 1626 
he represented East Retford, and was one of 
the candidates of Sir Thomas "Wentworth 
for Yorkshire in 1625 (CAETWEIGHT, Chap- 
ters of Yorkshire History, 1872, pp. 216-28 ; 
Stratford Letters, i. 29). He was assessed 
30Z. towards the forced loan of 1626 and 
made some opposition to its payment (ib. pp. 
236, 350). In 1626 he had a duel with Sir 
John Savile and was reported to be killed 
( Court and Times of Charles I, i. 143 ; 
HUNTEE, p. 317). Wood describes Wortley 
as an ' ingenious gentleman,' who trod ' in 
the steps of his worthy ancestors in hospi- 
tality, charity, and good neighbourhood.' He 
was a friend of Ben Jonson, and contributed 
to ' Jonsonus Virbius' (1638). In September 
1639 he entertained JohnTaylor(1580-1653) 
[q.v.],the water poet, who has left an account 
of his visit to Wharncliffe (Part of this Sum- 
mer's Travels, or News from Hell, Hull, and 
Halifax, p. 23). In the disputes which pre- 
ceded the beginning of the civil war Wortley 
distinguished himself by his zeal for the king, 
whom he accompanied in the attempt to 
obtain possession of Hull (ViCAES, Parl. 
Chron. i. 81 ; cf. WOETLEY, Declaration in 
Vindication of himself, 1642). The House 
of Commons on 25 April 1642 ordered him 
to be sent for as a delinquent, but the vote 
was fruitless (Commons' Journals, ii. 540). 
He garrisoned his house at Wortley with 
150 dragoons, and was one of the most active 
supporters of the king in south Yorkshire 
(HUNTER, ii. 317). On 3 June 1644 Wort- 
ley was captured by the parliamentarians at 
the taking of Walton House, and on 22 Aug. 
following he was sent to the Tower (RUSH- 
WORTH, v. 622 ; Commons' Journals, iii. 603). 
In the Tower he remained for several years, 
suffering, like other royalist prisoners, great 
hardships because parliament confiscated 
their estates and made no allowance for their 
maintenance, in spite of repeated petitions 
(A true Relation of the Unparalleled Oppres- 
sion imposed upon the Gentlemen Prisoners 
in the Tower, 1647, 4to). On 19 Aug. 1647 
King Charles sent the prisoners in the Tower 
a brace of fat bucks for a feast, which gift 
and banquet Wortley celebrated in a ballad 
containing characters of the different pri- 
soners. Of himself he says : 

Frank Wortley hath a jovial soul, 

Yet never was good clubman ; 
He's for the bishops and the church, 

But can endure no tubman 
(WEIGHT, Political Ballads published during 
the Commonwealth, 1841, p. 91). About 



1649 or perhaps earlier he was released from 
the Tower, compounded for his estate, and, 
being much in debt, ' lived in the White 
Friars near Fleet Street in London/ where, 
according to Wood, he died (Athena Oxon. 
iii. 392). In his will, dated 9 Sept. 1652, 
he desired to be buried at Windsor with his 
father. It was proved in London, 13 Sept. 
1652, by his son, Sir Francis (JACKSON, 
Yorkshire Diaries, i. 281). 

Wortley is described as 'a tall proper 
man, with grey hair ' (ib.) An engraved 
portrait is mentioned by Bromley (p. 81). 
He married Grace, daughter of Sir William 
Brouncker of Melksham, Wiltshire, and had 
by her two children : Sir Francis, who suc- 
ceeded him ; and Margaret, married to Sir 
Henry Griffith, bart., of Agnes Burton, 
Yorkshire. Sarah, his daughter by his second 
wife, Hester, daughter of George Smithies, 
alderman of London, and widow of Alder- 
man Eyre of Coleman Street, married Roger 
Bretteridge of Newhall, Yorkshire (Calendar 
of the Committee for Compounding, p. 1376 ; 
HTJNTEE, ii. 325). Sir Francis Wortley, the 
second baronet, married Frances, daughter 
of Sir William Faunt of Freeston, Lincoln- 
shire, but died on 14 March 1665, leaving no 
legitimate issue. He bequeathed his estates 
to his natural daughter, Anne Newcomen, 
and she married Sidney Montagu (second 
son of the first Earl of Sandwich), who took 
the name of Wortley (ib. ii. 319 ; Yorkshire 
Diaries, i. 282). 

Wortley was the author of : 1. ' His Duty 
delineated in his Pious Pity and Christian 
Commiseration of the Sorrows of ... Eliza- 
beth, Queen of Bohemia,' 1641, 4to (quoted 
by Bliss in his edition of WOOD'S Athene?, 
iii. 391). 2. ' Lines dedicated to Fame and 
Truth,' 1642, 4to (on the same subject). 
3. ' Characters and Elegies,' 1646, 4to. This 
consists chiefly of poems on the royalist 
noblemen and gentlemen killed during the 
war. Specimens of the characters are 
printed in Bliss's edition of Earle's ' Micro- 
cosmography,' 1811, pp. 298, 299. 4. 'A 
Loyal Song of the Royal Feast kept by the 
Prisoners in the Tower,' 1647, fol. (reprinted 
in WEIGHT'S Political Ballads published 
during the Commonwealth, Percy Soc. 1841, 
p. 87). 5. ' Mercurius Britannicus his Wel- 
come to Hell,' 1647, 4to. He wrote also two 
prose pamphlets : 6. ' Declaration in Vindi- 
cation of himself from divers Aspersions and 
Rumours concerning the drawing of his 
Sword and otherActions,' 1642,4to (reprinted 
in the Yorkshire Archeeological Journal, viii. 
395). 7. ' Truth asserted by the Doctrine 
and Practice of the Apostles, &c., viz. that 
Episcopacy is Jure Divino] 1642, 4to. 



Wortley-Montagu 46 



Wotton 



[A Life of Wortley and a pedigree of the 
Family are contained in Hunter's South York- 
shire, ii. 316-18, 324 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 391 ; Yorkshire Eoyalist Composition 
Papers, ii. Go, 197, iii. 39 ; Harleian MS. 2100 ; 
other authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

WORTLEY-MONTAGU, EDWARD 
(1713-1776), author and traveller. [See 
MOXTAGU.] 

WORTLEY-MONTAGU, LADY MARY 

(1689-1762), writer of 'Letters.' [See 
MONTAGU.] 

WOTTON, ANTHONY (1561P-1626), 
divine, born in London about 1561, was 
educated at Eton, whence he was elected 
scholar of King's College, Cambridge, being 
admitted on 1 Oct. 1579. His tutor was 
(Sir) William Temple (1555-1627) [q.v.] 
He graduated B.A. in 1583, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1587 and B.D. in 1594. In the 
latter year he disputed with John (afterwards 
bishop) Overall [q. v.] at Cambridge before 
the Earl of Essex, who made him his chap- 
lain. On the death of William Whitaker 
(1548-1595) [q. v.] in the following year 
Wotton wrote some eulogistic verses, which 
were printed in Whitaker's ' Works ' (1610, 
p. 708), and became a candidate for the regius 
professorship of divinity vacated by Whita- 
ker ; though Wotton was highly commended 
for his disputation, Overall was elected by 
the votes of the younger Cambridge men, who 
preferred Overall's moderately high-church 
views to Wotton's puritanism. In March 
1596, on the establishment of Gresham 
College, Wotton was appointed its first 
professor of divinity, but he held the post 
less than two years, vacating it and his 
fellowship at King's on his marriage, on 
27 Oct. 1598, to Sybell, aged 28, daughter 
of William Brisley of Isleworth, Middlesex. 

Wotton now became lecturer at All 
Hallows, Barking, a post which he held till 
his death : all his books are dated from his 
house on Tower Hill. His failure, in spite 
of his learning and abilities, to obtain 
further preferment was due to his puritan 
tendencies, but he became a well-known 
and popular preacher. In 1604 he was sus- 
pended by Bancroft, his prayer that 'the 
king's eyes might be opened ' being taken as 
an insinuation that the king was blind. The 
suspension did not last long, but in 1611 , 
Wotton was attacked from a different j 
quarter. George Walker (1581 P-1651) 
[q. v.] accused him of socinianism ; this led ; 
to a 'conference' of learned divines, which 
ended in Wotton's vindication. The con- ', 
troversy went on till 1615, and in 1641, long 



after Wotton's death, Walker repeated his 
accusations. This provoked ' Mr. Anthony 
Wotton's Defence ' (Cambridge, 1641, 4to), 
published under the name of Thomas 
Gataker [q. v.], who, however, only wrote 
the postscript, the ' Defence ' being by 
Wotton's son, Samuel (see below). Walker 
replied in ' A True Relation of the cheife 
Passages between Mr. Anthony Wotton and 
Mr. George Walker in ... 1611, and in the 
Yeares next following . . . till 1615 ' (Lon- 
don, 1642, 4to). 

Wotton died on 11 Dec. 1626 in his 
house on Tower Hill, leaving several sons. 
The eldest, Anthony, born in 1599, died 
young. The second, Samuel, born on 30 Aug. 
1600, was educated at Eton, and elected a 
fellow of King's College, Cambridge; he 
graduated M.A. in 1629, and subsequently 
D.D., and was presented by the provost of 
Eton to the rectory of West Wrotham, Nor- 
folk, on 29 April 1640. He died on 4 Feb. 
1680-1 (Ls NEVE, Man. Anglkana, v. 148 ; 
BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, iii. 319). Besides 
the 'Defence' of his father, he translated 
Pierre de la Ramee's ' Logic,' which was pub- 
lished by his father in 1626 as ' The Arte of 
Logicke gathered out of Aristotle' (London, 
8vo), and was dedicated to James, viscount 
Doncaster. The third son, John, also fellow 
of King's and vicar of Weedon, Northamp- 
tonshire, was ejected for refusing the ' en- 
gagement ' in 1650, and died about 1659. 

Wotton was author of : 1. 'A Defence of 
Mr. Perkins's Booke called "A Reformed 
Catholicke " against the Cauils of a Popish 
Writer, one B. P. or W. B. [i.e. William 
Bishop [q. v.], bishop of Chalcedon], in his 
" Deformed Reformation," ' London, 1606, 
4to, a substantial work of six hundred pages 
dedicated to the Earl of Salisbury [cf. art. 
PERKIXS, WILLIAM]. 2. 'A Trial of the 
Romish Clergies Title to the Church. By 
Way of Answer to a Popish Pamphlet 
written by one A. D. and entitled "A 
Treatise of Faith,'" London, 1608, 4to. 
This provoked 'A Reply made unto Mr. 
Anthonie Wotton and Mr. John White [see 
WHITE, JOHN, 1570-1615], by A. D.,' no 
place, 1612, 4to. 3. ' Sermons upon a Part 
of the first Chapter of the Gospel of St. 
John, preached in the Parish Church of All 
Hallows, Barking, in London,' London, 1609, 
4to. 4. ' Runne from Rome, or a Treatise 
shewing the Necessitie of separating from 
the Church of Rome,' London, 1624, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1636, 12mo : in this work Wotton 
seeks to confute Bellarmine. 5. ' De Re- 
conciliatione Peccatoris libri v.,' Basle, 
1624, 4to; no copy of this is in the British 
Museum. 



Wotton 



47 



[Cole's manuscript Collections, xiv. 178-84, 
xv. 90-1, 110; Ward's Gresham Professors,!. 
39-43, and his miscellaneous collections in 
Gresham College in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 6194, 
pp. 281-2 ; Francis Peck in Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 6209, f. 87 ; Harwood's Al. Etonenses, pp. 
189, 221 ; Chester's London Marr. Licences; 
Fuller's Hist, of Cambr. p. 75 ; Rapin's Hist, of 
England, ii. 240, 244, 276 ; Brooke's Lives of 
the Puritans, ii. 346-9 ; Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. vi. 34 ; Wotton's Works, and authorities cited 
in text.] A. F. P. 

WOTTON, SIR EDWARD (1489-1551), 
treasurer of Calais, born in 1489, was the 
eldest son of Sir Robert Wotton, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Sir Henry Belknap. Sir 
Robert was grandson of Nicholas Wotton 
(1372-1448), a member of the Drapers' Com- 
pany of London, who was sheriff in 1406 
and lord mayor in 1415, and again in 1430, 
and represented the city in parliament con- 
tinuously from 1406 to 1429 (Of. Ret. i. 
269-316). He acquired the manor of 
Boughton Malherbe, Kent, by his marriage 
with Joan, only daughter and heir of Robert 
Corbie of that place, and was succeeded by 
his son Nicholas, who died on 9 April 1481 
(Cal. Inq. post mortem, Henry VII, i. 694) ; 
the latter's son, Sir Robert, born in 1465, was 
knighted by Edward IV, served as sheriff of 
Kent in 1498-9, was made lieutenant of 
Guisnes, and from 1510 to 1519 was knight- 
porter of Calais. He left issue two sons, Ed- 
ward and Dr. Nicholas Wotton [q.v.], and 
three daughters, of whom Margaret (d. 1541) 
was the second wife of Thomas Grey, second 
marquis of Dorset [q. v.] 

Edward first appears in the commission 
of the peace for Kent on 2 June 1524 ; sub- 
sequently his name was generally included 
in the commissions of the peace, of gaol 
delivery, and oyer and terminer for the 
county. He was knighted before 22 April 
1528, and on 9 Nov. 1529 was appointed 
sheriff of Kent. He accompanied Henry VIII 
to Calais in 1532, landing on 11 Oct. (Chron. 
of Calais, p. 42), officiated at the coronation 
of Anne Boleyn in 1534, and at the christen- 
ing of Edward VI in 1537. He was again 
sheriff of Kent in 1535-6, and in December 
1539 was one of the knights sent to Calais 
to receive Anne of Cleves. He seems to 
have eagerly adopted the principles of the 
Reformation, and in September 1538 a cor- 
respondent told Bullinger that Wotton had 
received one of the reformer's books ' with 
the greatest satisfaction, and is diligently en- 
gaged upon it ' (Oriff. Letters, Parker Soc. ii. 
612). In July 1540 Henry VIII intimated 
his intention of reviving the office of treasurer 
of Calais, and appointing to it his trusty 



Wotton 

'councillor 'Sir Edward Wotton, whose patent 
was dated 24 Nov. following. The phrase 
does not necessarily imply that Wotton was a 
member of the English privy council, and he 
is not recorded as attending any of its meet- 
ings during Henry's reign. After the con- 
clusion of the war with France he served on 
the various commissions appointed in 1546 
for delimiting Henry's conquest, the Boulon- 
nais (State Papers, Henry VIII, xi. 181 sqq. ; 
Corr. Pol. de Odet de Selve, passim). Ac- 
cording to Holinshed, Henry VIII offered to 
make Wotton lord chancellor; the offer, 
improbable in any case, is more likely to have 
been made to Sir Edward's brother Nicholas 
(Reliquice Wottonianee, ed. 1685). 

Henry VIII nominated Wotton one of his 
executors, and a privy councillor to his son 
Edward, though Wotton's official superior 
at Calais, Lord Cobham, was neither. Wotton 
remained a privy councillor when Somerset 
reconstructed the council in March 1546-7, 
but his duties at Calais prevented his fre- 
quent attendance at the council board. In 
April he was again made a commissioner to 
settle the disputes as to the frontier of the 
Boulonnais, and the growing hostility of 
France kept him busy with preparations for 
defence. On 13 March 1547-8, however, he 
signed the council's letter ordering the ad- 
ministration of the sacrament in one kind 
only, and on 17 Jan. 1548-9 joined in pro- 
ceedings against Thomas Seymour, baron 
Seymour of Sudeley [q. v.] In September 
following he again came over to take part in 
Warwick's scheme for overthrowing Somer- 
set. He was lodging in Warwick Lane, 
Holborn, on the 18th, he signed the council's 
manifesto against the Protector on 6 Oct., 
and accompanied the other councillors to 
Windsor six days later, when Somerset was 
arrested. In November he appears to have 
returned to Calais, but a year later he was 
again in attendance at the council. Hasted 
states that he died on 8 Nov. 1550, but he 
attended the council on the 22nd of that 
month, and in January 1550-1 was suppress- 
ing disorder in Kent. In the same year 
also he was included in various commissions, 
among which the young king proposed to 
divide the work of the privy council. Appa- 
rently it was on 8 Nov. 1551 that he died 
(Inquisitio post mortem, Edward VI, vol. 
xciii. No. 113) ; he was buried in Boughton 
Malherbe church. 

Wotton married, first, Dorothy, fourth 
daughter of Sir Robert Rede [q. v.] (she died 
on 8 Sept. 1529); and he married, secondly, 
Ursula, daughter of Sir Robert Dymoke and 
widow of Sir John Rudston, lord mayor of 
London (METCALFE, Visit, of Lincolnshire, 



Wotton 



Wotton 



E. 42). By her Wotton had no issue, but by 
is first wife he was father of 
THOMAS WOTTON (1521-1587), who was in 
December 1547 employed in conveying 
treasure to his father at Calais, and in 1551 
succeeded to his estates, his father having 
procured two acts of parliament ' disgavel- 
ling' his lands in Kent. Edward VI had 
intended making him K.B., but after Mary's 
accession the council on 19 Sept. 1553 wrote 
him a letter ' discharging him from being 
knight of the Bath, whereunto he was once 
appointed and written unto' (Acts P. C. 
1552-4, .p. 351). On 16 Jan. 1553-4 he was 
summoned before the council, and on 21 Jan. 
' for obstinate standing against matters of 
religion was committed to the Fleet, to re- 
main there a close prisoner' (ib. pp. 385, 
389). Walton in his 'Life of Sir Henry 
Wotton' (Reliquice Wottoniarwe, 1685, sig. 
b4) declares that the council's action was 
due to Nicholas Wotton, who had twice 
dreamt that his nephew was in danger of 
participating in some dangerous enterprise, 
apparently Wyatt's rebellion, and secured his 
temporary imprisonment to save him from 
worse perils. The date of his release has not 
been ascertained; but on 23 Nov. 1558, six 
days after Elizabeth's accession, he was 
made sheriff of Kent. For nearly thirty 
years he was regularly included in the 
various commissions for the county, such as 
those for the peace, for taking musters, gaol 
delivery, examining into cases of piracy, and 
fortifying Dover. In July 1573 he enter- 
tained Queen Elizabeth at Boughton Mal- 
herbe, when he declined an offer of knight- 
hood, and in 1578-9 again served as sheriff'. 
He was a person of ' great learning, religion, 
and wealth,' and a patron of learning and 
protestantism in others. Thomas Becon 
[q. v.] dedicated to him his ' Book of Matri- 
mony,' and Edward Dering his ' Sparing 
Kestraint.' William Lambarde [q. v.] also 
dedicated toWotton in 1570 his 'Perambula- 
tion of Kent,' which was published in 1576 
with a prefatory letter by Wotton. He died 
on 11 Jan. 1586-7, and was buried at 
Boughton Malherbe (Inguisitio post mortem, 
Elizabeth, vol. ccxv. No. 263). He married, 
first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Rud- 
ston, by whom he had issue Edward, first 
baron Wotton [q.v.] ; Robert ; Sir John, who 
travelled widely, was knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth, and died young after giving some 
promise as a poet (cf. his two contributions 
to England's Helicon of 1600, ed. A. H. 
Bullen, 1899, pp. xviii, 65, 82) ; James (d. 
1628), who served in Spain and was knighted 
on the field in 1596 near Cadiz ; and Thomas. 
By his second wife, Eleanor, daughter of 



j Sir William Finch and widow of Robert Mor- 
ton, Wotton was father of Sir Henry Wot- 
ton [q.v.], the diplomatist and poet. 

[Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII; State Papers, Henry VIII; 
Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, vols. 
i-xii. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-00, 
For. 1547-53; Stowe MS. 150 ff. 31,42, 44, 
51, 180 f. 18; Harl. MSS. 283 and 284; Cal. 
Inq. post mortem, Henry VII, i. 694; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. passim ; Chron. of 
Calais and Troubles connected with the Prayer- 
book (Camden Soc.); Lit. Remains of Edw. VI 
(Roxburghe Club); Corresp. Pol. de Odet do 
Selve, 1546 8 ; Original Letters (Parker Soc.), 
ii. 612; Parker Corresp. pp. 304, 370, 441; 
Cranmer's Works, ii. 54 ; Strype's Works 
(general index) ; Reliquiae Wottonianse, ed. 1685; 
Lists of Sheriffs, 1898; Burnet's Hist, of the 
Reformation, ed. Pocock ; Nichols's Progresses 
of Queen Elizabeth ; Hasted's Kent, passim, esp. 
iv. 176; Archaeologia Cantiana (general index); 
Todd's Deans of Canterbury, pp. 11-12 ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage.] A. F. P. 

WOTTON, EDWARD (1492-1555), phy- 
sician and naturalist, born at Oxford in 1492, 
was son of Richard Wotton, bedel of the uni- 
versity. He was educated at Magdalen Col- 
lege school, and became a chorister at Mag- 
dalen College in 1503. In 1506 he was 
elected demy, and on 9 Feb. 1513-14 gra- 
duated B. A. ; he was elected fellow of Mag- 
dalen in 1516, and in 1520 was accused of 
conspiring with other fellows to elect certain 
undergraduates to scholarships (MACRAY, 
Reg. Magdalen Coll. i. 73, 74, 153). Soon 
afterwards he became first reader in Greek 
at Corpus Christi College, just founded by 
Bishop Foxe, though he was not definitely 
appointed until 2 Jan. 1520-1, and retained 
his rooms at Magdalen. In a letter (Lansd. 
MS. 989, f. 129) to Wotton, ascribed by Dr. 
Fowler and the Rev. W. D. Macray to that 
date, Bishop Foxe says that he has heard 
of Wotton's talents from the president of 
Corpus Christi, and regrets that the statutes 
of Magdalen did not permit him to make 
Wotton fellow of Corpus. He made him, 
however, socio compar, and gave him leave 
to travel in Italy for three or five years from 
1 May next, ' to improve his learning, and 
chiefly to learn Greek.' But in a note to this 
letter in Brewer's ' Calendar' the date is cor- 
rected to 2 Jan. 1523-4 (Letters and Paper.? 
of Henry VIII, iv. 4). Wotton spent most 
of his time at Padua, where he graduated 
M.D., being incorporated at Oxford in that 
degree on 16 May 1526 (BoASE, Rea. Univ. 
Oxon. i. 84). 

Wotton was admitted fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians on 8 Feb. 1528, was con- 



Wotton 



49 



Wotton 



siliarius in 1531, 1547, and 1549, elect in 
1531, censor in 1552, 1553, and 1555, and 
president in 1541, 1542, and 1543. He does 
not appear, as is often stated, to have been 
physician to Henry VIII, but he served the 
Duke of Norfolk and Margaret Pole, countess 
of Salisbury [q. v.], in that capacity, receiving 
from her an annuity of 60 shillings, and 
corresponded with her son Reginald, after- 
wards Cardinal Pole (Cal. State Papers, 
Venetian, iv. 677). He died on 5 Oct. 1555, 
and was buried in St. Alban's Church, Wood 
Street, Cheapside, where also was buried his 
wife Katharine, who died on 4 Dec. 1558 
(Lansd. MS. 874; MACHYN, Diary, pp. 95, 
-346). His son Henry graduated M.B. from 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1562, and M.D. 
in 1567, was proctor in 1556, and, like his 
father, Greek reader at Corpus ; he was ad- 
mitted a candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians on 12 May 1564, and fellow on 18 Jan. 
1571-2, and was censor in 1581 and 1582 
(MTJNK, Coll. ofPhys. i. 70-1). 

Wotton is said to have been the first Eng- 
lish physician who made a systematic study 
of natural history, and he acquired a European 
reputation by his ' Edoardi Wottoni Oxoni- 
ensis de Differentiis Animalium libri decem.' 
The book was dedicated to Edward VI, and 
published at Paris in 1552 ; the copy in the 
British Museum, a fine folio, is probably un- 
surpassed in its typographical excellence by 
any contemporary work. Conrad Gesner, 
the great Zurich professor, who had com- 
menced the publication of his ' Historia Ani- 
malium' in 1551, notices Wotton's work in 
the ' Enumeratio Authorum' prefixed to his 
fourth book (Ziirich, 1558), and remarks 
that, while Wotton teaches nothing new, 
his book deserves to be read and praised as 
a complete and clearly written digest of 
previous works on the subject. Haller's 
verdict is very similar, while Neander de- 
clared that no one had written of animals 
more learnedly and elegantly than Wotton 
{NEANDER, Succinct a Explicatio Orbis Ter- 
rce, Leipzig, 1597, p. 410). Wotton also col- 
lected materials for the history of insects, 
which were published in ' Insectorum sive 
Minimorum Animalium Theatrum olim ab 
Edoardo Wottono, Conrado Gesnero, Tho- 
maque Pennio inchoatum, tandem Tho. Mou- 
feti . . . opera . . . perfectum,' London, 1634, 
fol. [see MOFFETT, THOMAS]. Engraved por- 
traits of Wotton, MofTett, and Penny appear 
in the frontispiece (BROMLEY, p. 41). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 226-7; 
Cal. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, iv. 4, 
xiv. i. 181 ; Boase's Reg. Univ. Oxon. ; Bloxam's 
Reg. Magdalen Coll. i. 4, iv. 48 ; Macray's Reg. 
of Magdalen Coll. Oxford ; Foster's Alumni 

"VOL. LXIII. 



Oxon. 1500-1714; Fowler's Hist, of Corpus 
Christi, Oxford ; Munk's Royal Coll. of Phys. 
i. 27-9 ; Aikin's Biogr. Mem. of Medicine, 1780, 
pp. 66-8 ; Visitation of London (Harl. Soc.), ii. 
369 ; Wotton's Works and authorities cited.] 

A. F. P. 

WOTTON, EDWAED, first BARON 
WOTTON (1548-1626), born in 1548, was 
the eldest son of Thomas Wotton (1521- 
1587) by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir John Rudston, lord mayor of London 
[see under WOTTON, SIR EDWARD, 1489- 
1551]. Sir Henry Wotton [q. v.] was his 
half-brother. Edward does not appear to 
have been educated at any English uni- 
versity, but made up for the deficiency by 
long study on the continent. In 1579 Men- 
doza, the Spanish ambassador, stated that 
Wotton had spent three or four years among 
the Spanish residents at Naples, and de- 
scribed him as ' a man of great learning and 
knowledge of languages' (Cal. Simancas 
MSS. 1568-79, pp. 672, 679). He was cer- 
tainly an accomplished French, Italian, and 
Spanish scholar ; Mendoza also thought him 
' a creature of Walsingham's,' but was unable 
to discover what his religion was. He was 
early employed in diplomatic business by 
Walsingham, and in 1574-5 was acting as 
secretary to the embassy at Vienna, Sir 
Philip Sidney [q. v.] being for a time asso- 
ciated with him in these duties. In May 
1579 Wotton was sent to congratulate the 
new king of Portugal on his accession, and 
on his way back had audience of Philip II 
at Segovia. In January 1583-4 it was pro- 
posed to send him to Spain to protest against 
Mendoza's conduct in England, and to ex- 
plain his summary expulsion by Elizabeth. 
(Sir) William Waad [q. v.] was, however, 
sent instead, and on 9 Nov. following Wot- 
ton was returned to parliament as one of 
the knights of the shire for Kent. 

In May 1585 Elizabeth, alarmed at the 
progress of the catholic league in France 
and the success of Alexander of Parma in 
the Netherlands, selected Wotton as envoy 
to Scotland to persuade James VI to enter 
into an offensive and defensive alliance, and 
to take the Dutch under his protection. He 
was also to suggest James's marriage to 
Anne of Denmark or Arabella Stewart, but 
it was not till six years later that the former 
scheme was adopted. Wotton received his 
instructions at the hands of his friend Sir 
Philip Sidney on 15 May, was at Berwick 
on the 26th, and was received by James VI 
at Edinburgh on the 30th. ' Dou6 de 
qualit6s brillantes, et qui excellait dans toua 
les exercices que Jacques VI aimait de pre- 
dilection, il ne tarda pas a preudre le plus 



Wotton 



Wotton 



grand ascendant sur 1'esprit du jeune prince' 
(TETJLET, Papiers d'Etat, ii. 728). At first 
Wotton's success appeared complete ; James 
agreed to the proposal for an offensive and 
defensive league, and on 28 June the lords 
and estates approved. In the same month, 
however, the exiled Scots in England made 
a raid into Scotland, supported by an English 
force, and, though Elizabeth ordered the 
arrest of the offenders, James, with some 
reason, suspected the complicity of the Eng- 
lish government, and feared a repetition of 
the attempts to restore the exiled lords by 
force. Moreover Arran's influence over the 
king was still supreme, and Arran was 
strenuously supported by the French party. 
A fresh complication arose with the murder 
of Francis, lord Kussell, on 27 July [see 
under RUSSELL, FRANCIS, second EARL op 
BEDFOKD]. Fernihurst was the criminal, but 
Arran was implicated, and Elizabeth now 
sought to use the circumstance to ruin him. 
Wotton demanded his arrest and removal to 
England for trial, but. James merely confined 
him in St. Andrews, whence he was soon 
released and resumed his ascendency over 
James. Wotton's position was now pre- 
carious, and in August Arran's ally, Sir 
William Stewart (Jt. 1575-1603) [q. v.], 
openly insulted him in the king's presence. 
Elizabeth, however, hesitated to risk an open 
breach with James by effective support of 
her ambassador, but the despatch of Castel- 
nau de Mauvissiere by Henri I II to Scotland 
reinforced French influence at Edinburgh, 
strengthened James in his refusal to give up 
Arran, and made Wotton's success hopeless. 
He now advocated an incursion by the 
exiled lords, supported by an English force, 
and the seizure of James and Arran as the 
only means of restoring English prestige ; 
but, aware of the danger to himself in such 
an event, he begged for his recall. This 
was granted on 11 Oct., but before Walsing- 
ham's letters could arrive Wotton had on his 
own authority crossed the border, and on 
the 12th he was at Berwick (full details of 
Wotton's negotiations are given in Cotton 
MSS. Calig. C. viii-ix ; Addit. MS. 32657, 
ff. 83-223; Hamilton Papers, 1543-99, pp. 
643-708 ; Border Papers, 1560-94, Nos. 335- 
376 ; THORPE, Cal. Scottish State Papers, i. 
495-51 2 ; TETILET, Papiers d"Etat, Bannaty ne 
Club, ii. 728, iii. 404-6 ; Cal. Simancas MSS. 
1580-6, pp. 546-52). 

For some time after his return Wotton 
was occupied in local administration in 
Kent. In 1586, however, he was sent to 
France to explain to Henry III the intrigues 
against Elizabeth of Mary Queen of Scots, 
certified transcripts of her letters in connec- 



tion with the Babington plot being sent him 
with directions how to use them (Addit. MS. 
33256, ff. 172-205; Cal. Simancas MSS. 
1587-1603, p. 178, and his instructions dated 
29 Sept. in Cotton. MS. Calig. E. vi. 302 ; 
and BERNARD, Cat. MSS. Anglice, iii. 5270, 
f. 240). On 16 Feb. 1586-7 he was one of 
the pallbearers at Sidney's funeral, and later 
in the year he succeeded his father at Bough- 
ton Malherbe, and on 5 Jan. 1587-8 he was 
admitted student of Gray's Inn. In 1591 
he was knighted, and in 1594-5 he served 
as sheriff of Kent (Addit. MS. 33924, f. 16). 
In 1595-6 he vainly petitioned Burghley for 
the treasurership of the chamber (Lansd. 
MS. Ixxix. 19), and in March 1597 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the Cinque 
ports. About the same time it was proposed 
to make him secretary of state (COLLINS, 
Letters and Mem. ii. 25, 27, 30, 54), but, this 
failing, Wotton made strenuous but vain 
efforts to secure a peerage (ib. ii. 85-8). In 
1599, on an alarm of a Spanish invasion, he 
was appointed treasurer of a ' camp ' to be 
formed, and in May 1601 he was offered but 
declined the post of ambassador in France. 
On 23 Dec. 1602 he was made comptroller of 
the household and was sworn of the privy 
council ; on 17 Jan. 1602-3 Chamberlain 
wrote : ' The court has flourished more than 
ordinary this Christmas. The new comp- 
troller has put new life into it by his example, 
being always freshly attired and chiefly in 
white.' On 19 Feb. following he was ap- 
pointed to negotiate with Scaramelli, the 
Venetian ambassador (Cal. State Papers, 
Venetian, ix. 1135). 

James I continued Wotton in the office 
of comptroller, and on 13 May created him 
Baron Wotton of Marley, co. Kent (Addit. 
MS. 34218, f. 190 b). In November he was 
one of the lords who tried Sir Walter Halegh 
(Addit. MS. 6177, f. 137 ; The Arraignment 
of & Walter Raicleigh . . . before Lord 
Wotton . . ., London, 1648, 4to ; EDWARDS, 
Life of Raleigh}. During the early years of 
James I's reign Wotton was lord-lieutenant 
of Kent (Egerton MS. 860, passim : Harl. 
MS. 6846, f. 42), but in August 1610 he 
was sent as ambassador extraordinary to 
France to congratulate Louis XIII on his ac- 
cession (BREWER, Court and Times of James I, \ 
i. 131 ; instructions in Stowe MS. 177, ff. 
131-6). On his return in October he brought 
Isaac Casaubon [q. v.] to England in his 
suite (Casaubonorum Epistolee, pp. 361-2). 
In June 1612 he was nominated commis- 
sioner of the treasury on Salisbury's death. 
In November 161 6 he was made treasurer of 
the household, but on 23 Dec. 1617 he was 
' persuaded ' to retire from that office by the 



Wotton 



Wotton 



payment of five thousand pounds. This did 
not satisfy him, and he clung to office some 
weeks longer in the vain hope of extracting 
a viscountcy as a further compensation. He 
was excluded from the council on Charles I's 
accession on the ground of being a catholic 
(GARDINER, v. 419; BREWER, Court and 
Times of Charles I, i. 8). He retired to 
Boughton Malherbe, where he died early in 
1626 ; the inquisitio post mortem was taken 
on 12 April (6 Charles I, vol. iii. no. 92). 

Wotton married, first, on 1 Sept. 1575, 
Hester, daughter of Sir William Puckering, 
who died on 8 May 1592, and was buried in 
Boughton Malherbe church ; and secondly, 
Margaret, daughter of Philip, third baron 
Wharton, who survived until 1652 (see 
Calendar of the Committee for Compound- 
ing, p. 2309 ; Addit. MS. 5494, f. 197 ; and 
Lords' Journals, vii. 302, 388, viii. 254, 315, 
ix. 118). Wotton had issue by his first wife 
only, a son Thomas and a daughter Philippa, 
who married Sir Edmund Bacon. Thomas 
succeeded as second baron, but, being of weak 
health and a catholic, took little part in poli- 
tics. He died, aged 43, on 2 April 1630, and 
was buried in Boughton Malherbe church ; his 
widow was in February 1632-3 fined 5QQI. 
by the court of high commission for removing 
the font in the church to make room for her 
husband's tomb and for inscribing on it ' a 
bold epitaph ' stating that he died a Roman 
catholic (Court and Times of Charles I, ii. 
227 ; LAUD, Works, v. 311). He married, on 
6 June 1608, Mary (1590-1658), daughter of 
Sir Arthur Throckmorton, and had issue four 
daughters : Catherine, who inherited Bough- 
ton Malherbe, and married, first, Henry, lord 
Stanhope, by whom she was mother of Philip 
Stanhope, second earl of Chesterfield [q. v.] ; 
secondly, John Polyander a Kirkhoven [see 
KIRKHOVEN, CATHERINE]; and, thirdly, 
Daniel O'Neill [q.v.] ; Hester (d. 1649), who 
was third wife of Baptist Noel, third vis- 
count Campden [q. v.] ; Margaret, Avho mar- 
ried Sir John Tufton ; and Anne, who mar- 
ried Sir Edward Hales, father of Sir Edward 
Hales, titular earl of Tenterden [q. v.] 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1580-1625; Lans- 
downe MSS. xlv. 6, 1. 87, Ixii. 54,lxxix. 19, cxi. 
37 ; Addit. MSS. 20770 f. 23, 34176 ff. 37-43, 49, 
50 (corresp. with Sir William Twysden); Ash- 
mole MSS. 832 f. 71, 862 f. 411, 1132 f. 3 ; 
Collins's Letters and Memorials, vol. ii. ; Birch's 
Mem. of Elizabeth, i. 157; Winwood's Memo- 
rials, ii. 151 ; Brewer's Court and Times of 
James I, i. 132-3, 176-7, 451-5; Cal. Hatfield 
MSS.; Cal. Buccleuch MSS. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
5th Eep. App. p. 487 ; Official Return Memb. 
of Parl. ; Reg. P. C. Scotl., ed. Masson ; Cam- 
den's Annals and Britannia, ed. Gough ; Baker's 



Chron. ; Spedding's Bacon ; Brown's Genesis 
U.S.A. ; Fortescue Papers (Camden Soc.), pp. 
38, 43 ; Gardiner's Hist, of England ; Reliquiae 
Wottoniana?, ed. 1685 ; Strype's Works (general 
index) ; A. W. Fox's Book of Bachelors, 1899 
(contains various errors respecting the Wotton 
family); Hasted's Kent, esp. ii. 429; Archseo- 
logia Cantiana (general index); Burke's Extinct 
and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerages; authorities 
cited in text.] A. F. P. 



WOTTON, SIR HENRY 

diplomatist and poet, was born in 1568 at 
Boughton H&ll, in the parish of Boughton 
Malherbe, in Kent. He was grandson of 
Sir Edward Wotton (1489-1551) [q. v.], and 
fourth son of Thomas Wotton (1521-1587), 
being only son of his father's second mar- 
riage with Eleanor, daughter of Sir William 
Finch, and widow of Robert Morton of Kent. 
Edward Wotton, first baron Wotton [q. v.], 
was his eldest half-brother. After receiving 
some instruction at home from his mother 
and a tutor, Henry was sent to Winchester 
school, and at the age of sixteen proceeded 
as a commoner to New College, Oxford, 
matriculating on 5 June 1584. Two years 
later he migrated to Queen's College, and 
while an undergraduate there he wrote 
a play called ' Tancredo,' which was appa- 
rently based on Tasso's recently published 
' Gerusalemme Liberata.' Wotton's effort is 
lost. Science also attracted him, and he 
is said when in his twentieth year to have 
'read in Latin three lectures "de oculo," 
wherein he described the form, the motion, 
and the curious composure of the eye' 
(WALTON). At Oxford, despite Wotton's 
fiye years' seniority, he began a friendship 
with John Donne [q. v.], which was only 
terminated by the latter's death. Alberico 
Gentili [q. v.], professor of civil law, also 
became warmly attached to him. Wotton's 
father died in 1587, leaving him a beg- 
garly annuity of a hundred marks. He sup- 
plicated for the degree of B.A. on 8 June 
1588, and then left the country for a long 
tour on the continent of Europe, which 
seems to have occupied him nearly seven 
years. 

He first proceeded to the university of 
Altdorf, where he met Edward, lord Zouche 
[q.v.], a regular correspondent of his in later 
years. From Altdorf Wotton passed to Linz, 
where he witnessed some experiments carried 
out by Kepler. He also visited Ingolstadt 
and Vienna, and early in 1592 pushed on to 
Rome, where he was introduced to Cardinals 
Bellarmine and Allen. After a few months, 
which he divided among Naples, Genoa, 
Venice, and Florence, he arrived at Geneva 
on 22 June 1593 ; he lodged with the scholar 

E2 



Wotton 



Wotton 



Casaubon, and left owing his host much 
money, which Casaubon recovered with 
difficulty after inconvenient delay (PATTI- 
BON, Casaubon, pp. 44-6). Subsequently 
Wotton spent some time in France. He 
was ambitious of diplomatic employment, 
and while on the continent he seems to have 
forwarded foreign news to Robert Devereux, 
second earl of Essex, who appreciated his j 
services. Returning to England in 1595, he : 
was admitted a student to the Middle Temple, ! 
but he never was called to the bar. To- 
wards the close of the year he became one 
of Essex's agents and secretaries. 

By October 1595 he was fully in his mas- 
ter's confidence, and visited the margrave of 
Baden at the earl's instance to win his 
friendship for Queen Elizabeth (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. Hatfield MSS.) In De- 
cember 1595 he was sent by Essex to Paris 
to warn Essex's Portuguese prot6g6, Antonio 
Perez, of the treachery of his English atten- 
dant Aleyn. Aleyn returned with Wotton 
and was arrested (BiBCH, Queen Elizabeth, i. 
346). Essex, who made it his object to col- 
lect foreign intelligence from all parts of 
Europe, entrusted Wotton in 1596 with the 
department dealing with the affairs of 
Transylvania, Poland, Italy, and Germany 
(ift. ii. 243). Although Wotton was an 
active correspondent, his judgment and 
fidelity to his master were questioned by a 
fellow secretary, Anthony Bacon [q.v.], and 
continual bickerings between Wotton and 
Bacon disturbed the harmony of Essex's 
household. While in London in Essex's 
employment, Wotton made the acquaintance 
of many men of letters, to whom probably 
his friend Donne introduced him. As soon 
as Essex fell out of favour with his sove- 
reign, Wotton hastily left England on a 
second visit to Italy. Unlike his fellow 
secretary, Henry Cuft'e, he seems to have 
been in no way involved in Essex's futile 
conspiracy, but he was not free from a sus- 
picion of complicity, and, so long as Queen 
Elizabeth lived, England was closed to him. 
He appears to have settled at Venice, where 
he occupied himself in literary work. There 
he wrote his longest and most important 
prose work, ' The State of Christendom,' an 
outspoken survey of current politics, dis- 
playing both information and insight ; it re- 
mained unpublished till 1657, eighteen years 
after its author's death. At the opening 
of the work he meditates the possibility of 
securing a safe return home by ' murder- 
ing some notable traitor to his prince and 
country,' but he thought better of the plan 
owing to ' the great difficulty to remain un- 
punished' and to 'the continual terror that 



such an offence might breed into his con- 
science.' From Venice he passed to Flo- 
rence, where he obtained an introduction to 
the court of Ferdinand, the great duke of 
Tuscany. In 1602 the duke's ministers in- 
tercepted letters disclosing a design against 
the life of James, the Scottish king. At the 
suggestion of his secretary Vietta, the duke 
sent Wotton to warn James of the conspi- 
racy, entrusting him not merely ' with letters 
to the king ' but with ' such Italian anti- 
dotes against poison as the Scots till then 
had been strangers to.' Travelling as an 
Italian under the assumed name of Octavio 
Baldi, Wotton reached Sweden, whence he 
crossed to Scotland and was received by 
King James at Stirling. After three months' 
stay in Scotland he returned to Florence, 
and was there at the time of Queen Eliza- 
beth's death. 

Wotton at once returned to England and 
was accorded a kindly reception by the new 
sovereign, James I. He received the honour 
of knighthood and a choice of posts as am- 
bassador at the courts of Spain, France, or 
Venice. Wotton's means were small, and 
he accepted the post at Venice as pecuniarily 
the least onerous of the three. He left 
London in July 1604. His half-nephew 
( son of a half-brother). Sir Albertus Morton 
fq. v.], went with him as secretary, and 
William Bedell [q. v.] joined him as chap- 
lain in 1607 (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
vii. 281). His friend Donne sent him a 
letter in verse on his departure (DoircrE, 
Poems, ed. Chambers, ii. 7-9, 41-2 ; cf. 
WALTON, Life, ed. Bullen, p. 119). 

Wotton was engaged in diplomatic duties 
at Venice for nearly twenty years, but he did 
not hold office continuously. His first term 
covered eight years, 1604 to 1612 ; his 
second four years, 1616 to 1619, and his third 
four years, 1621 to 1624. 

During Wotton's first period he was chiefly 
occupied in supporting the republic in its 
long resistance to the authority of the pope. 
By his exertions, too, many English soldiers 
who had been brought over to serve the 
Venetian republic against the Turks were 
relieved from extreme poverty and sent back 
to England. He made the acquaintance of 
Paolo Sarpi, and caused a portrait to be 
painted of him, which he sent to Dr. Collins, 
provost of King's College, Cambridge (BtJR- 
XET,Lifeof Bedell,]). 194 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. vii. 350-1), and he showed atten- 
tion to James Howell, Thomas Coryate, and 
other English travellers (cf. CORYATE, Crudi- 
ties, 1776, ii. 7). Donne, writing in 1607, 
complained that Wotton, ' under the op- 
pression of business or the necessity of seem- 



Wotton 



53 



Wotton 



ing so,' was an infrequent correspondent 
(GossE, Donne, i. 170). Wotton contrived 
to offend Gasper Scioppius, a Roman catholic 
controversialist who had been a fellow stu- 
dent at Altdorf. Scioppius visited Venice 
in 1607, and was then preparing a confuta- 
tion of James I's theology. In 1611 he issued 
a volume of scurrilous abuse of the king, 
entitled ' Ecclesiasticus.' Incidentally he 
alluded to an anecdote respecting Wotton 
which involved the English envoy in disas- 
ter. It appears that on his journey to Italy 
in 1604 Wotton stayed at Augsburg, where 
Christopher Flecamore or Fleckmore, a mer- 
chant, invited him to inscribe his name in 
his album. Wotton complied by writing the 
sentence ' Legatus est vir bonus peregre 
missus ad mentiendum Reipublicae causa,' 
' which he would have been content should 
have been thus englished : An ambassador 
is an honest man, sent to lie abroad for the 
good of his country' (WALTON). Scioppius, 
in noticing this episode, charged James I 
in his printed diatribe with sending a con- 
fessed liar to represent him abroad (Eccle- 
siasticus, cap. iv.) 

About the same date as Scioppius's attack 
on James I was published (1611), Wotton 
obtained leave to revisit England. He de- 
sired a change of employment. He had al- 
ready received a grant of the second vacancy 
among the six clerks (18 March 1610-11; 
Cal. State Papers, 1617-18, p. 17). While 
at home at leisure in the following autumn, 
he paid much court to Prince Henry and to 
the Princess Elizabeth ; the princess inspired 
him with an enthusiastic esteem, and he cele- 
brated her charms in beautiful verse. Early 
in 1612 he went to France on diplomatic 
business, and wrote to Donne from Amiens. 
On Lord Salisbury's death on 24 May 1612 
he was a candidate for the vacant post of 
secretary to the king. The queen and Prince 
Henry encouraged his pretensions ; but Wot- 
ton had at court many enemies who doubted 
his sincerity. Chamberlain, who usually 
called him in his correspondence ' Signor Fa- 
britio,' declared in October 1612 ' my good 
old friend Fabritio will never leave his old 
trade of being fabler, or, as the devil is, father 
of lies.' 

Finally, Wotton's chances of preferment 
were ruined by the king's discovery of the 
contemptuous definition of an ambassador's 
function which was assigned him in Sciop- 
pius's book. James invited explanations of 
the indiscreet jest. Wotton told the king 
that the affair was ' a merriment,' but he was 
warned to take it seriously (cf. NICHOLS, 
Progresses, ii. 468-70; Cal. State Papers, 
1611-18, pp. 154, 157, 162), and he deemed 



it prudent to prepare two apologies. One, 
privately addressed to the king, is not ex- 
tant, but James admitted that it ' sufficiently 
commuted for a greater offence.' The other 
in Latin was inscribed to Marcus Walser, a 
burgomaster of Augsburg and patron of 
Scioppius ; it was dated from London 1612, 
and is said to have been published then, al- 
though it is now only accessible in the ' Re- 
liquise Wottonianae.' It was a vituperative 
assault on Scioppius, who retorted in a tract 
which was entitled ' Legatus Latro ' (pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of Oporinus Gra- 
vinius at Ingolstadt in 1615). A burlesque 
trial of Scioppius for his insolence was intro- 
duced into the prologue of Ruggles's ' Ignora- 
mus,' when that piece was performed in the 
king's presence at Cambridge on 6 May 1616. 

Through 1613 Wotton persistently sought 
official employment in vain, and his obse- 
quious bearing diminished his reputation (cf. 
NICHOLS, Progresses, ii. 66 ; cf. WIKWOOD, 
Memoirs, iii. 468). In the spring of 1614, 
still disappointed of office, he entered the 
House of Commons as M.P. for Appleby. 
He stoutly supported the king's claim to 
lay impositions on merchandise without ap- 
peal to parliament. The right belonged, he 
argued, to hereditary, although not to elec- 
tive, monarchs. In the autumn his subser- 
vience was rewarded by an invitation to 
resume diplomatic work abroad. In Au- 
gust 1614 he was sent to The Hague to 
negotiate with the French ambassador in 
the Netherlands concerning the inheritance 
of the duchies of Juliers, Cleves, and Berg, 
which was disputed by Wolfgang William, 
count palatine of Neuberg, and the elector 
of Brandenburg. By November 1614 the 
envoys contrived to bring about an arrange- 
ment on paper (the treaty of Xanten) be- 
tween the claimants, whereby the disputed 
territories were provisionally divided be- 
tween them; but the question was not 
settled, and the dispute contributed largely 
to the outbreak of the thirty years' war. 
Wotton also superintended the resumption 
of negotiations for the amalgamation of the 
Dutch and English East India companies, 
and for the settlement of disputes with 
Holland in regard to the Greenland fisheries ; 
but the discussion on these points also 
proved abortive, and was broken off in April 
1615. In the following autumn Wotton 
was at home, but he was sent again to 
Venice early next year, and he completed 
there a second uneventful term of three years' 
service. He mainly occupied himself in pur- 
chasing pictures and works of art for the 
king and Buckingham. 

Wotton travelled home slowly through. 



Wotton 



54 



Wotton 



Germany in the spring of 1619. At Munich 
in May he learned much of the designs of 
the continental catholics against England. 
In June he visited at Heilbronn the elector 
palatine, who had been elected king of Bo- 
hemia, and was attending in the city a con- 
gress of the princes of the union. Distressed 
by the misfortunes threatening the electress 
palatine and her husband, Wotton deemed 
it the bounden duty of James I to intervene 
effectually in continental politics in the elec- 
tor's behalf. In August 1619 he had an 
audience of James at Woodstock, but seems 
to have been coldly received. In June 1620 
he was ordered to Vienna to sound the em- 
peror as to the possibility of staying the war 
which was overwhelming the new king and 
queen of Bohemia. Wotton was unable 
to reach any common basis for negotiation. 
But although the discussions proved in- 
effectual the emperor gave Wotton ' a jewel 
of diamonds as a testimony of his good 
opinion of him.' Wotton at once handed 
the gift to ' the Countess of Sabrina,' an 
Italian whose house had been appointed by 
the emperor for his accommodation. He 
was indisposed, he said, * to be the better of 
any gift that came from an enemy to his 
royal mistress, the Queen of Bohemia.' Un- 
able to render her assistance, he returned to 
his post at Venice in 1621, and remained 
there until the early months of 1624. Then 
he came home for good. 

Absolutely penniless, Wotton bent all his 
energies anew to the task of obtaining 
lucrative employment. In the spring he 
published his short and jejune tract on archi- 
tecture, a paraphrase of 5 Vitruvius, which 
Chamberlain described as ' well spoken of, 
though his own castles have been in the air ' 
(Cal. State Papers, 10 April 1624). James I 
suggested that he might in course of time 
succeed Sir Julius Caesar as master of the 
rolls, and gave him the reversion. Happily a 
more suitable office was found for him. In 
April 1623 Thomas Murray's death had va- 
cated the provostship of Eton. Many can- 
didates had entered the field, among them 
Wotton's friend Bacon, the disgraced chan- 
cellor, and his nephew, Sir Albertus Morton ; 
but Wotton's importunate appeals to secre- 
tary Conway were well received, and he was 
duly instituted to the provostship on 26 July 
1624. He had to borrow money to provide 
for his settlement at Eton. In 1625 he 
carried a banneret at James I's funeral, and 
was elected to Charles I's first parliament as 
member for Sandwich. James I had granted 
him a dispensation to enable him to bold 
the Eton provostship without entering holy 
orders, but Wotton on his own initiative 



received deacon's orders in 1627, doubtless 
with a view to preferment in the church. 
He was still embarrassed pecuniarily. The 
income of the provostship was no more than 
100/. with board, lodging, and allowances. 
On one occasion he was arrested for debt. 
In 1627 the king granted him a pension of 
200/. In 1628 he laid his continued difficul- 
ties before Charles I ; he applied for a small 
allowance reserved from the income of the 
master of the rolls, the reversion to which 
he had resigned, and ' for the next good 
deanery that shall be vacant by death or 
remove ' (Reliquiee, pp. 562 sqq.) In 1630 
Wotton's pension was raised to 500/. in order 
to enable him to write a history of England 
and to obtain the requisite clerical assis- 
tance. In 1637 he applied for the master- 
ship of the Savoy, should its present holder 
be promoted to the deanery of Durham (ib. 
pp. 340-2). 

Wotton was an amiable dilettante or lite- 
rary amateur, with a growing inclination to 
idleness in his later years. He did not neg- 
lect his educational duties, and wrote, after 
long years of cogitation, a suggestive ' survey 
of education ' or ' moral architecture,' as he 
termed it, which he dedicated to the king 
(it was printed posthumously in his ' Reli- 
quiae,' ed. 1672, pp. 73-99) ; but he found 
the boys more interesting than their work. 
' He was a constant cherisher,' says Walton, 
' of all those youths in that school, in whom 
he found either a constant diligence or a 
genius that prompted them to learning ' 
' one or more hopeful youths ' being ' taken 
and boarded in his own house.' The provost 
was a familiar figure in the schoolroom, and 
he gave practical trial of the dictum that 
learning can be taught through the eye as 
well as through the ear, ' for he caused to be 
choicely drawn the pictures of divers of the 
most famous Greek and Latin historians, 
poets, and orators.' These he fixed to wooden 
pillars in the schoolroom (lower school) which 
seem to have been erected about this time. 
In the Election Hall he placed a picture of 
Venice which still hangs there. ' He could 
never leave the school,' adds Walton, ' with- 
out dropping some choyce Greek or Latin 
apophthegme or sentence such as were worthy 
of a room in the memory of a growing 
scholar' (cf. MAXWELL LYTE, History of 
Eton, 1889, pp. 208 sqq. ; GUST, History of 
Eton, p. 81). 

W f otton r s literary occupations at Eton led 
to little practical result. His history of 
England did not progress beyond the accu- 
mulation of a few notes on the characters of 
William I and Henry VI (Reliquice, pp. 100- 
110). He contemplated a life of Martin 



Wotton 

Luther, but never began it, and be promised 
shortly after Donne's death in 1631, to write 
a life of the dean as introduction to ' Eighty 
Sermons ' by Donne. The publication was 
delayed until Wotton's life should be ready. 
Wotton applied to Izaak Walton, whose ac- 
quaintance he had made thro ugh" Donne, to 
collect materials, and Walton says that he 
' did but prepare them in a readiness to be 
augmented, and rectified by Wotton's power- 
ful pen' (1640), but Wotton never worked 
upon Walton's draft, and Walton's biography 
of Donne alone survives (GossE, Life of John 
Donne, ii. 315). Wotton was one of the few 
close friends to whom Donne gave one of 
his bloodstone seals a few months before he 
died. 

Science also engaged some of Wotton's 
attention at Eton. He had never ceased to 
interest himself in it since he had been an 
undergraduate at Oxford. In 16:20 he sent 
Bacon, who was then working at his ' Novum 
Organon,' an account of experiments wit- 
nessed by him in Kepler's house at Linz (Re- 
liquics, pp. 298 sq.) In 1622 he had written 
from Venice to Charles, prince of Wales, 
promising to communicate such philosophi- 
cal experiments as might come in his way ; 
'for mere speculations have ever seemed to 
my conceit.' At Eton he was consulted by 
Walton on the ingredients of certain strong- 
smelling oils which proved seductive to fish 
(Compleat Angler, reprint of 1653 edit. p. 
98), and he discussed with Sir Edmund 
Bacon, who married a half-niece, certain dis- 
tillings from vegetables for medical purposes 
(Reliquiae, pp. 454-5). He also experimented 
on the measurement of small divisions of 
time by the descent of drops of water through 
a filter (id. p. 475). 

Wotton maintained to the end a highly 
valuable correspondence. Among his most 
interesting letters was one to the great Fran- 
cis Bacon, thanking him for a gift of three 
copies of his ' Organum,' and promising to 
send one of them to Kepler. Wotton wrote 
the epitaph on Bacon's monument at St. 
Michael's Church, St. Albans (ATJBREY,Zzi'es, 
i. 493). Milton came over from Horton to 
visit him, and on 10 April 1638 Wotton 
acknowledged a gift of ' Comus ' from a friend, 
John House [q. v.], in a very complimentary 
letter to the poet, which was printed with 
Milton's ' Poems ' in 1643. With this letter 
Wotton sent the poet, who was leaving Eng- 
land to travel on the continent, an introduc- 
tion to Michael Branthwait, formerly British 
agent in Venice. Branthwait was at the 
moment in Paris, 'attending the young Lord 
S[cudamore] as his governor.' Milton grate- 
fully mentions AVotton's ' elegant epistle ' to 



55 



Wotton 



him in his account of his visit to Paris ('De- 
fensio Secunda,' Works, vi. 287). 

Wotton practised at Eton a lavish hos- 
pitality, and delighted in the society of his 
friends, chief among whom in his last years 
were Izaak Walton and John Hales, a fellow 
of Eton. Wotton was almost as enthusias- 
tic an angler as Walton. Angling occupied, 
he said, ' his idle time not idly spent,' and 
he designed an account of the sport in antici- 
pation of Walton. Wotton and Walton 
were at seasons accustomed to angle in com- 
pany close to the college at a bend in the 
Thames known as ' Black Pots.' ' When he 
was beyond seventy years of age,' AValton 
tells us, ' he described in a poem a part of 
the pleasure of angling as he sat quietly in a 
summers evening on a bank a-fishing.' Wal- 
ton quotes in his ' Compleat Angler ' Wotton's 
verses, which begin : 

This day Dame Nature seemed to love ; 

they reappear with some verbal changes in 
the ' Reliquiae.' 

Once a year Wotton left Eton to visit his 
native place, Boughton Hall, and Oxford. 
In the summer of 1638 he revisited his old 
school at Winchester ; but on his return to 
Eton he was seized with ' feverish distemper,' 
which proved incurable. He died at the 
beginning of December 1639, and was buried 
in the college chapel. He wrote the epitaph 
for his grave : ' Hie jacet hujus sententise 
primus author disputandi pruritus, eccle- 
siarum scabies. Nomen alias quaere ' (cf. 
Reliquice Wotton. 1672, p. 124). The tomb- 
stone is now one of the stones leading into 
the choir. 

In 1637 he made a will, his executors 
being his grand-nephews Albert Morton and 
Thomas Bargrave, and the supervisors Dean 
Isaac Bargrave [q. v.], Nicholas Pey, and 
John Harrison, fellow of Eton (cf. WALTON, 
who prints the will in full). Several pic- 
tures arid Sir Nicholas Throckmorton's papers, 
which Sir Nicholas's son, Sir Arthur, had 
bequeathed to him, were left to the king ; 
the Throckmorton papers are now in the 
Public Record Office. To the library of Eton 
! ollege he left ' all manuscripts not before 
disposed,' and to each fellow a plain gold 
ring, enamelled black, with the motto 'Amor 
vincit omnia ' engraved inside. 

There is an interesting half-length por- 
trait in oils in the provost's lodge at Eton ; 
i;his is reproduced in Gust's ' History of 
Eton.' Another portrait, by Cornelius 
Janssen, is in the picture gallery at the 
Bodleian Library ; it is reproduced in 
Lodge's ' Portraits,' vol. iv. 27. 

Wotton had published in his lifetime two 



Wotton 



Wotton 



slender volumes. The first was ' The Elements 
of Architecture, collected by Henry Wotton, 
Knight, from the best Authors and Exam- 
ples, London (printed by John Bill,1624,4to) ; 
a copy in the British Museum Library has the 
dedication to Prince Charles inserted in 
Wotton's autograph (C. 45, c. 6). The second 
volume, a panegyrical congratulation inLatin 
prose to the king on his return from Scot- 
land in 1633, was entitled ' Ad Regem e 
Scotia reducem Henrici Wottonij Plavsvs et 
Vota. Londini excusum typis Augusti Ma- 
thusii Anno cioiDCXXxm'i 1633]. The dedi- 
cation was addressed to Prince Charles ; a 
copy of this rare volume is in the Grenville 
Library at the British Museum (cf. KNOW- 
XER, Strafford Papers, i. 167). The work 
reappeared in an English translation in 1649. 
Immediately after Wotton's death there 
were issued ' A Parallell betweene Robert, 
late Earle of Essex, and George, late Duke 
of Buckingham, written by Sir Henry W T ot- 
ton, Knight,' London, 1641 ; and ' A Short 
View of the Life and Death of George Vil- 
liers, Duke of Buckingham, written by Sir 
Henry Wotton, Knight, late Provost of 
Eaton Colledge ' (London, printed for Wil- 
liam Sheares,no date; another edition, 1642). 
In 1651 there appeared the main collection 
of Wotton's works, ' Reliquiae Wottonianae.' 
This was prefaced by an elegy by Abraham 
Cowley and by a memoir from the pen of 
Izaak Walton, who apparently had a chief 
hand in preparing the whole work for the 
press. The title ran : ' Reliquiae Wottonianae, 
or a Collection of Lives, Letters, Poems, 
with Characters of Sundry Personages and 
other Incomparable Pieces of Language and 
Art. By the Curious Pensil of the Ever 
Memorable S r Henry Wotton, K'., late 
Provost of Eton Colledg,' London (printed 
by Thomas Maxey for R. Marriot, G. Bedel, 
and T. Garthwait), 1651 ; other editions are 
dated 1654, 1672, 1685. The volume in- 
cludes Lord Clarendon's ' Difference and 
Disparity between the Estates and Condi- j 
tions of George, Duke of Buckingham, and 
Robert, Earl of Essex, in reply to Wotton's 
" Parallell." ' Wotton's chief contributions 
are (besides the 'Parallel,' the 'Life of 
the Duke of Buckingham,' the ' Elements of 
Architecture,' and an English translation of 
the already published Latin ' Panegyrick to 
King Charls') the following previously un- 
published essays : ' A Philosophicall Surveigh 
of Education or Moral Architecture, by 
Henry Wotton, K'., Provost of Eton Col- 
ledg;' 'A Meditation upon the XXIlth 
Chapter of Genesis, by H. W. ; ' letters to 
several persons, including James I, Charles I, 
Buckingham, Bacon, Lord Keeper Williams, 



Lord Treasurer Weston Laud, IzaaJc Wal- 
ton, and Dr. Edmund Castle [q. v.] ; and a 
number of poems. 

In 1661 some further letters were issued 
as ' Letters of Sir Henry Wotton to Sir Ed- 
mund Bacon,' London, printed by R. W. for 
F. T. at th'e Three Daggers in Fleet Street, 
1661 ; these cover the period 1611-1638. 

A third and enlarged edition of the ' Re- 
liquiae '(1672) contains a few new historical 
essays on Italian topics, the letters to Sir 
Edmund Bacon, and others ' to and from 
several persons,' mainly on foreign politics. 
A fourth edition appeared in 1685 with an 
important appendix of Wotton's letters to 
Edward, lord Zouche. 

Finally there appeared ' The State of 
Christendom, or A most Exact and Curious 
Discovery of many Secret Passages and 
Hidden Mysteries of the Times. Written 
by the Renowned Sr Henry Wotton, Kt., 
Ambassadour in Ordinary to the Most Serene 
Republique of Venice, and late Provost of 
Eaton Colledg,' London, printed for Hum- 
phrey Moseley, 1657, with portrait (another 
edit. 1679, fol.) 

' Letters and Despatches from Sir Henry 
Wotton to James I and his Ministers in 
the years 1617-20,' were printed from the 
originals in the library of Eton College for 
the Roxburghe Club in 1850. The letters 
dated from Venice begin on 1 Aug. 1617 ; 
the last letter of Wotton, dated 15 Nov. 
1620, is addressed to Sir Robert Naunton. 
Many are in Italian and bear Wotton's 
pseudonym of Gregorio de' Monti. 

Wotton's poems are the most valuable of 
his literary remains. Of the twenty-five 
poems included in the ' Reliquiae ' only fifteen 
are attributed to Wotton. The ten which 
are assigned to other pens include the well- 
known poem, beginning ' The World is a 
bubble,' which is assigned in the ' Reliquiae ' 
to Francis Bacon ; in some contemporary 
manuscripts it is associated with the names 
of other writers, including Wotton himself. 
Wotton's fully authenticated verse includes 
an elegy on the death of his nephew, Sir 
Albertus Morton (November 1625), and a 
very happy epigram on Lady Morton's death. 
' An Elegy of a Woman's Heart ' was first 
printed in Davison's 'Poetical Rhapsody,' 
1602. A short hymn upon the birth of 
Prince Charles was clearly written in the 
spring of 1630, and the ode to the king on 
Charles I's return from Scotland in 1633. 
Two of Wotton's poems rank with the finest 
in the language. These are entitled respec- 
tively ' The Character of a Happy Life,' and 
verses ' On his Mistress, the Queen of Bo- 
hemia;' both are justly included in Pal- 



Wotton 



57 



Wotton 



grave's ' Golden Treasury of Songs and Ly- 
rics.' The poem on the queen of Bohemia 
was probably written at the end of 1619. It 
was first printed (with music) in 1624 in 
Est's sixth set of books, and again in ' Wit's 
Recreations,' 1640, in ' Wit's Interpreter,' 
1671, and with the second part of ' Cantus 
Songs and Fancies,' 1682. It has been con- 
stantly imitated and new stanzas have been 
written to it. It appears with some varia- 
tions among Montrose's poems (NAPIEE, Life 
of Montrose, 1858, Appendix, p. xl). The 
' Character of a Happy Life ' is said to have 
been printed in 1614 with Overbury's ' AVife,' 
but no example has been found to contain it. 
At Dulwich a manuscript copy in the hand of 
Ben Jonson maybe dated 1616; this was 
printed somewhat inaccurately by Collier in 
his 'Memoirs of Alleyn,' p. 53 (WARNER, 
Dulwich Manuscripts, pp. 59-60). According 
to the poet Drummond, Jonson had by heart 
Wotton's ' Verses of a Happie Lyfe ' ( JONSON, 
Conversations^. 8). The resemblance between 
this poem of Wotton and a similar poem in 
1 Geistliche und weltliche Geschichte ' by a 
German resident in England, Georg Rudolph 
Weckerlin [q. v.], does not justify a charge 
of plagiarism against Wotton, whose poem 
seems to have been in circulation before 
Weckerlin wrote (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. ix. 420). ' A Dialogue ' in verse on a 
topic of love ' between Sir Henry Wotton 
and Mr. Donne ' is given in Donne's ' Poems' 
(1635), but the poem is ascribed to other 
pens in other collections of the period (cf. 
DONNE, Poems, ed. Chambers, i. 79, 232). 
Dyce edited Wotton's poems for the Percy 
Society in 1843, and they were included in 
Hannah's ' Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh and 
other Courtly Poets,' 1870, new ed. 1885, pp. 
87 seq. 

Sir Henry Wotton should be distinguished 
from Henry Wotton, son of Edward Wot- 
ton [q. v.], and also from Henry Wotton or 
Wooton, son of John Wooton of North 
Tudenham, and brother of one Wooton of 
Tudenham, Norfolk, whose second wife was 
Mary or Anne, daughter of George Nevill, 
lord Bergavenny, and widow of Thomas 
Fiennes,lordDacre of the South (BLOMFIELD, 
Norfolk, i. 205). This Henry Wotton was 
responsible for the collection of stories from 
Italian romances, interspersed with verse, 
entitled : ' A Courtlie Controversie of Cupids 
Cautels containing five Tragicall Historyes 
by three Gentlemen and two Gentlewomen, 
translated out of French by Hen. Wotton,' 
London, 1578, 4to. It was dedicated to the 
translator's sister-in-law, the Lady Dacre of 
the South. Two copies, both imperfect, are 
known one is in the Bodleian Library, and 



the other, formerly belonging successively to 
George Steevens and to Corser, is now in 
the British Museum (cf. BRY.DGES, Censura 
Lit. i. 158). 

[The main authority is Izaak Walton's Life, 
which was originally prefixed to Reliquiae Wot- 
tonianae, 1651, and was included in Walton's 
collected ' Lives,' 1 670, and all subsequent edi- 
tions. The antiquary, William Fulman, pre- 
pared a sketch of Wotton's life, which is now in 
the library of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
with some of Wotton's letters. Bliss seems to 
have used Fulman's work in his edition of 
Wood's Athensa Oxon. ii. 644. See also Dr. A. 
W. Ward's Biographical Sketch of the Life of 
Wotton, 1899; Donne's Letters, 1651; Gosse's 
Life of Donne, 1899; Masson's Milton; Har- 
wood's Alumni Etonienses, pp. 14 seq. ; Maxwell 
Lyte's History of Eton ; A. W. Fox's Book of 
Bachelors, 1899 ; Gust's History of Eton, 1899 ; 
Spedding's Bacon's Life and Letters^ iii. 10 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1603-1639.] S. L. 

WOTTON, NICHOLAS (1497P-1667), 
secretary of state, diplomatist, and dean of 
Canterbury and York, was the fourth son of 
Sir Robert Wotton of Boughton Malherbe, 
Kent, by his wife Anne, daughter of Sir 
Henry Belknap. Sir Edward Wotton (1489- 
1551 ) [q. v.] was his eldest brother. Nicholas 
is often said to have been born in 1495, but 
in his epitaph he is described as ' fere sep- 
tuagenarius.' According to Fuller he was 
educated at Oxford, where he graduated in 
civil and canon law, but no record of his 
matriculation or graduation has been found 
in the registers or in Wood. Many years 
later Wotton referred (Letters and Papers, 
xv. 581) to his having lived at Perugia, and 
probably he studied at some Italian uni- 
versity. During his stay in Italy he was 
admitted a brother of the hospital of St. 
Thomas at Rome, and apparently he wit- 
nessed the sack of Rome in 1527. He cer- 
tainly graduated not only doctor of civil and 
canon law, but of divinity as well, and in 
1536 he was officially described as 'sacrae 
theologiae, juris ecclesiastici et civilis pro- 
fessor ' (ib. xi. 60). He was ' clericus ' before 
9 Dec. 1517, when he was presented by his 
father to the family living of Boughton Mal- 
herbe, and on 6 Sept. 1518 he was presented 
by Archbishop Warham to the vicarage of 
Sutton Valence. Wotton, however, pre- 
ferred the legal to the spiritual duties of his 
order, and having attracted the notice of 
Tunstall, bishop of London, was appointed 
the bishop's official. In this capacity he 
attended the proceedings of the legatine 
court which sat in London in June and July 
1529 to try the divorce question (HERBERT, 
Henry VIII, p. 279), and in June 1530 he 



Wotton 



Wotton 



was sent to France to assist Edward Fox | 
[q. v.] in procuring a favourable answer from 
foreign universities (Letters and Papers, iv. 
6481 ; POCOCK, Records of the Reformation, \ 
i. 659). He had resigned the vicarage of 
Sutton Valence before 20 May, and on | 
26 Oct. 1530 was collated by Warham to 
the living of Ivychurch, Kent. In 1536 j 
he was proctor for Anne Boleyn, and sub- 
scribed the articles of religion, and in 1537 
had a share in compiling the ' Institution 
of a Christian Man' (Letters and Papers, vi. 
299, xi. 60, xii. ii. 402-3). In 1538 Cran- 
mer appointed him his commissary of facul- j 
ties. 

On 11 March 1538-9 Wotton was one of 
the ambassadors sent to the Duke of Cleves j 
to negotiate a marriage between Henry VIII ] 
and the duke's sister Anne, and a league j 
with the German protestant princes against i 
Charles V. On 23 April Cromwell requested j 
the ambassadors to procure a portrait of Anne 
of Cleves, and on 11 Aug. following Wotton 
reported that ' your Grace's servant, Hanze ] 
Albein, hath taken th' effigies of my ladye j 
Anne and the ladye Amelye, and hathe ex- i 
pressyd theyr imaiges verye ly velye ' (ib. xiv. 
ii. 33). His description of Anne's domestic [ 
virtues was, however, pitched in a minor 
key, and he remarked that she could not sing j 
or play upon any instrument. In July Henry | 
nominated him archdeacon of Gloucester, ] 
though he was not admitted until 10 Feb. 
1539-40, and on 25 Oct. 1539 commissioned 
him as sole ambassador to the dukes of 
Saxony and Cleves. As a further reward 
for his services Henry designed for him in 
the same month the bishopric, of Hereford, 
which Bonner had just vacated by his trans- ' 
lation to London. Wotton, however, had a ; 
rooted aversion to bishoprics ; ' for the passion 
of God,' he wrote to his friend Dr. Bellasis 
on 11 Nov., 'if it be possible yet, assay as 
far as you may to convey this bishopric from 
me,' signing his letter ' yours to his little ; 
power. Add whatsoever you will more to j 
it, so you add not bishop' (ib. xiv. ii. 501 ; 
TODD, Deans of Canterbury, 1793, p. 4). On 
this and on subsequent occasions W T otton | 
successfully resisted all attempts to make ! 
him a bishop. Meanwhile he accompanied 
Anne of Cleves to England in December 
1539, and on 27 Jan. 1539-40 was again sent ; 
as ambassador to her brother, reaching Cleves | 
on 5 Feb. In April he attended the duke to j 
Ghent, on his negotiations with Charles V 
about the duchy of Gueldres, returning to i 
Cleves in May. In July he had the un- 
pleasant task of communicating to the duke 
Henry's repudiation of his sister. Naturally 
the negotiations for an alliance did not 



prosper ; the Duke of Cleves threw himself 
into the arms of Francis I, and on 20 June 
1541 Wotton was recalled. 

He had in his absence been nominated first 
dean of Canterbury on 22 March 1540-1, 
when the monks were replaced by secular 
canons, but he was not installed until 8 April 
1542. He was also appointed first arch- 
deacon of Gloucester on 3 Sept. 1541, when 
it was erected into a separate see. Subse- 
quently, on 7 Aug. 1544, he was nominated 
dean of York, being installed by proxy on 
4 Dec. following. He retained with it the 
deanery of Canterbury, and on 13 March 
1545-6 was collated to the prebend of Os- 
baldwick in York Cathedral. But even these 
semi-spiritual functions had no attractions 
for Wotton, and he soon found relief from 
them in further diplomatic service. In spite 
of the unfortunate end of his mission to 
Cleves, his ability was recognised by Henry, 
and in March 1543 he was sent with Sir 
Thomas Seymour (afterwards Baron Seymour 
of Sudeley) [q. v.] to the court of Charles V's 
sister Mary, regent of the Netherlands. 
Their immediate object was to secure the 
exemption of English goods from import 
duties in the Netherlands, but the imminence 
of war between England and France and 
France and the emperor soon led to nego- 
tiations for an offensive alliance between 
Henry VIII and Charles V, in which Wotton 
took considerable part, endeavouring espe- 
cially to persuade Charles to include the 
Scots in his declaration of hostility (State 
Papers, ix. 363-604). On 24 Nov. 1543 he 
was transferred from the regent's court to 
that of the emperor, and, the terms of the 
alliance having been settled, he accompanied 
Charles V during his invasion of France in 
the summer of 1544, while Henry besieged 
and took Boulogne. His post was difficult, 
for it soon became evident that the allies 
were pursuing not a common but separate 
aims, and at the end of August Charles V, 
having penetrated as far as Vitry. made 
peace with France, leaving Henry at war. 
Wotton saw clearly enough what was going 
to happen, but was powerless to prevent it 
(see Cal. State Papers, Spanish, vol. vii. 
throughout ; State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 
x. passim ; and FROUDE, iv. 55 seq.) To in- 
duce Charles to carry out his engagements, 
Hertford and Gardiner were in the autumn 
associated with Wotton as special ambas- 
sadors to the emperor, but were recalled in 
December. In the following March Paget 
joined Wotton in an endeavour to persuade 
Charles to renew the war on France, and in 
April Wotton accompanied the emperor to 
AA'onns. He was recalled in August, being 



Wotton 



59 



Wotton 



succeeded by Thomas Thirlby [q. v.], bishop 
of Westminster. 

In the following year "VVotton's services 
were required to arrange the terms of peace 
with France. He was sworn of the privy 
council on 7 April 1546, and on Paget's re- 
commendation appointed peace commissioner 
with Paget, Hertford, and Lisle. The con- 
ference held at Guisnes proved successful, 
and on 25 May Henry VIII nominated 
Wotton resident ambassador in France, and 
commissioner with Tunstall and Lisle to 
receive the ratification of the treaty from 
Francis I. He set out on his embassy early 
in July 1546, and remained in France unin- 
terruptedly for three years. 

Henry VIII showed his confidence in 
Wotton by leaving him 300/. and appointing 
him executor of his will and privy councillor 
to Edward VI. Being absent in France he 
took no part in the appointment of Somerset 
as Protector, or the measures against South- 
ampton ; but he was included in the recon- 
stituted privy council in March. Meanwhile 
the diplomatic relations between England 
and France were cordial, and more than one 
project of marriage between the English and 
French royal families were proposed. But 
with the accession of Henry II, on 29 March 
1547, the Guise influence became supreme 
at the French court, and the new king 
scarcely concealed his determination to sup- 
port by force of arms the Guise party in 
Scotland, and to wrest Boulogne from the 
English at the earliest possible opportunity. 
To these sources of trouble were added the 
perpetual disputes about the limits of the 
English pale, and mutual recriminations and 
aggressions with regard to the fortifications 
near Boulogne. France took advantage of 
England's internal troubles, and declared 
war on 8 Aug. 1549, and Wotton returned 
from Paris in time to take part with the 
majority of his colleagues on the council in 
deposing the Protector in October. It was 
proposed to send him as ambassador to the 
emperor, but on 15 Oct. he was sworn one of 
the principal secretaries instead of Sir Thomas 
Smith, who was deprived of the office as 
being a partisan of Somerset. 

Wotton remained secretary for less than 
a year, giving place on 5 Sept. 1550 to (Sir) 
William Cecil, and more congenial occupa- 
tion was found for him in April 1551 in a 
fresh embassy to Charles V. The occasion 
of this mission was the emperor's refusal to 
allow the English ambassador liberty of 
worship, and his irritation with the English 
council for its persecution of the Princess 
Mary, and Sir Richard Morison [q. v.] had 
neither tact nor firmness sufficient to deal 



with the situation. Wotton, he acknow- 
ledges, ' had a more mannerly " nay ; " ' but 
Wotton's courage was as great as his tact, 
and to the emperor's threats he replied that, 
though Mary ' had a king to her father, hath 
a king to her brother, and is akin to the 
emperor, yet in England there is but one 
king, and the king hath but one law to rule 
all his subjects by.' He had many stormy 
interviews and theological discussions with 
Charles, but the imminence of war with 
France and troubles in Germany made 
the emperor's threats empty words, and in 
August the council could afford to recall 
Wotton. He took his leave on 3 Sept., and 
reappeared at the council board on 21 Oct., 
five days after the arrest of Somerset and 
his friends. 

For eighteen months Wotton remained in 
England, taking an active share in the pro- 
ceedings of the privy council. On 2 April 
1553 he was commissioned with Sir Thomas 
Chaloner the elder [q. v.] to proffer England's 
mediation with a view to ending the war 
between France and the emperor. The 
genuineness of the council's desire for p^ace 
is open to doubt, as the war gave Northumber- 
land his only chance of supplanting Mary 
without Charles V's interference. On the 
failure of the duke's conspiracy Chaloner 
was recalled as a pronounced reformer, and 
Wotton was left as resident ambassador in 
France. His chief difficulty consisted in the 
more or less open support the French king 
afforded to the protestant exiles like the 
Dudleys, Carews, and Staffords, and to their 
plots against Queen Mary, but at the same 
time their intrigues in France often enabled 
Wotton to forewarn the English government. 
Thus he discovered Dudley's secret negotia- 
tions with Henry II in 1556, got wind of 
Stafford's project in 1557 [see STAFFOKD, 
THOMAS], and as early as 1556 reported 
French designs on Calais. He also used his 
influence on behalf of the exiles, such as Sir 
Gawin Carew, his brother-in-law, and suc- 
ceeded in winning over his predecessor, Sir 
William Pickering [q. v.], whose disaffection 
was especially dangerous, as he possessed the 
key of the cipher which Wotton used in his 
diplomatic correspondence. On 7 June 1557 
Mary declared war on France, and Wotton 
was recalled, resuming his attendance at the 
council board on 2 Aug. He had resigned 
the living of Ivychurch on 28 May 1555, and 
on 5 June 1557 he was installed treasurer of 
Exeter Cathedral, but this also he resigned 
before March following. 

In September 1558 Wotton was once more 
sent to France as commissioner with Arundel 
and Thirlby for drawing up terms of peace, 



Wotton 



Wotton 



in which England and Spain. France and 
Scotland should be included. Mary died 
while the conference was sitting at Cercamp, 
and Elizabeth immediately ordered Wotton 
to Brussels to renew with Philip the treaties 
existing between England and Spain. The 
peace negotiations were continued there, and 
subsequently at the congress of Cambray. 
The chief difficulty was the English demand 
for the restitution of Calais, and Wotton 
advocated a continuance of the war rather 
than acquiescence in its loss. Philip, how- 
ever, was bent on peace, and eventually on 
6 May 1559 Wotton was commissioned to 
receive the French king's ratification of the 
treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. He was then 
to return to England, leaving Sir Nicholas 
Throckmorton as resident ambassador in 
France. 

Four days after Queen Mary's death the 
Spanish ambassador, De Feria, had urged 
Philip to offer Wotton a pension, as he 
would be one of Elizabeth's most influential 
councillors and possibly archbishop of Can- 
terbury. The archbishopric seems to have 
been offered him, but even this temptation 
failed to move Wotton from his 'attitude of 
nolo episcopari. De Feria implies that there 
was some difficulty in persuading Wotton to 
take the oath of allegiance, ' etcetera,' but 
while Canterbury was vacant Wotton per- 
formed, as he had done in 1553-5, some of 
the archiepiscopal functions. His religious 
opinions were catholic in tendency, and he 
absented himself from convocation in 1562. 

Meanwhile in April 1560 he laid before 
the queen his views on the policy to be 
adopted with regard to Scotland, and on 
25 May he and Cecil were commissioned 
ambassadors to Scotland to arrange terms 
with the French envoys for the evacuation 
of Scotland by the French, and other ques- 
tions raised by the establishment of the 
Reformation in Scotland and return of Mary 
Queen of Scots. On 5 June conferences were 
held at Newcastle, and subsequently at Ber- 
wick and Edinburgh. Cecil complained of 
having all the work to do, ' for Mr. Wotton, 
though very wise, loves quietness.' On 
6 July the treaty of Edinburgh was 
signed, and Wotton and Cecil returned to 
London. Wotton remained in attendance 
upon the privy council until March 1564-5, 
when he was sent with Montagu and Haddon 
to Bruges to represent the grievances of Eng- 
lish merchants to the Netherlands govern- 
ment, and to negotiate a commercial treaty. 
The negotiations dragged on for eighteen 
months, and it was not till October 1566 
that Wotton returned to London. He died 
there on 26 Jan. 1566-7, and was buried in 



Canterbury Cathedral ; a magnificent tomb, 
erected by his nephew Thomas [see under 
WOTTON, SIK EDWARD], is engraved in 
Dart's ' Canterbury Cathedral ' and in 
Hasted's ' Kent ' (8vo edit. vol. xii. p. i) ; the 
inscription on it, composed by his nephew, 
has been frequently printed, lastly, and most 
accurately, in Mr. J. M. Cowper's ' Inscrip- 
tions in Canterbury Cathedral, 1897. Wot- 
ton's books and papers were presented by his 
nephew and heir to Cecil in 1583. 

Wotton was one of the ablest and most 
experienced of Tudor diplomatists ; his dex- 
terity, wariness, and wisdom, constantly 
referred to in the diplomatic correspondence 
of the time, were combined with a perfect 
self-control, and with a tenacity and courage 
in maintaining his country's interests that 
secured him the confidence of four succes- 
sive sovereigns. He was no more incon- 
sistent than modern diplomatists in serving 
governments of opposite political and re- 
ligious views. He made no pretence to 
theological learning ; his clerical profession 
was almost a necessity for younger sons 
ambitious of political service, and his resolute 
refusal of the episcopacy on the ground of 
personal unfitness is testimony to his honesty. 
His simultaneous tenure of the deaneries of 
Canterbury and York is unique, but his 
ecclesiastical preferments were for the age 
comparatively scanty. A master of Latin, 
French, Italian, and German, he humorously 
protested against his appointment as secre- 
tary, on the ground that he could neither 
write nor speak English. A scholar himself, 
he was a patron of learning in others, and 
figures as one of the chief interlocutors in 
the ' De Rebus Albionicis ' (London, 1590, 
8vo) of John Twyne [q. v.], the Canterbury 
schoolmaster. Verses on him are extant in 
the Bodleian Library (Rawlinson MS. 840, 
ff. 293, 297, 299). He was small and slight 
in stature, and his effigy in Canterbury 
Cathedral represents him with a handsome 
bearded face. 

[There is a sketch of Wotton's life in TodJ's 
Deans of Canterbury, 1793, pp. 1-29, which is 
supplemented in a collection of notes about him 
in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 20770, but these are 
quite superseded by the mass of information 
about him contained in the various calendars of 
state papers. For his early life and embassy 
to Germany, 1540-1, see Brewer and Gairdner's 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. iv-xvi. ; 
for his embassies, 1543-5, see State Paper.s, 
Henry VIII, vols. viii-x., and Spanish Calendar, 
vols. vi. and vii. ; for his embassies in France, 
1546-9, 1553-7, and 1558-9, see State Papers 
Henry VIII, vol. xi., Correspond. Politique de 
Odet de Selve, Foreign Calendar 1553-60, 



Wotton 



6r 



Wotton 



Du Bellay's Memoires, Vertot's Ambassades de 
Noailles, 1763, 5 torn., and Lettres de Catherine 
de Medicis, 1880, vol. i. ; for his embassy in 
Scotland see Thorp's Scottish Calendar, vol. i., 
Bain's Scottish Gal. 1543-65, Teulet's Relations 
Politiques and Papiers d'Etat (Bannatyne Club), 
Forbes's State Papers, and Sir James Melville's 
Memoirs. See also Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80 ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, 
1542-70; Cal. Hatfield MSS. vol. i.; Haynes 
and Murdin's Burghley Papers ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Angl. ed. Hardy; Strype's Works (general 
index) ; Gough's Index to Parker Soc. Publ. ; 
Ellis's Original Letters; Cat. Lansdowne, Cotton, 
and Harleian, and Additional MSS. passim ; Cal. 
SimancasMSS. 1558-67 ; Stow's Annals ; Holins- 
hed's Chron. ; Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Rox- 
burghe Club) ; Troubles connected with the 
Prayer Book, Machyn's Diary, Chron. Queen 
Jane, and Hayward's Annals (Camden Soc.) ; 
Herbert's Reign of Henry VIII ; Hayward's and 
Ty tier's Edward VI; Wright's Life and Times of 
Elizabeth ; Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation, 
ed. Pocock ; Froude's Hist, of England; Burgon's 
Life and Times of Gresham; Reliquiae Wot- 
tonianse ; Ascham's Epistolse ; Hasted's Kent, 
iv. 588, and other genealogical references under 
WOTTON, SIR EDWAED.] A. F. P. 

WOTTON, THOMAS (rf.1766), compiler 
of the ' Baronetage,' was the son of Matthew 
Wotton, who kept a bookshop at the Three 
Daggers and Queen's Head, near St. Dun- 
stan's Church, Fleet Street. According to 
John Dunton [q. v.], the elder Wotton was 
* a very courteous, obliging man ' of the 
highest character, whose trade 'lay much 
among the lawyers.' Thomas Wotton suc- 
ceeded to his father's business and carried it 
on for many years, but retired some time 
before his death. He was warden of the 
Stationers' Company in 1754 and master in 
1757. Among the works published by him 
were Rushworth's ' Historical Collections ' 
and editions of the works of Bacon and 
Selden. In 1727 he issued in three small 
(16mo) volumes his ' English Baronetage. 
Being a Genealogical and Historical Ac- 
count of their Families.' It is dedicated to 
Holland Egerton of Heaton, Lancashire, son 
of Sir John, baronet, of Wrine Hall, Staf- 
fordshire. William Holman [q. v.] of Hal- 
stead, Essex, and Thornhaugh Gurdon [q. v.] 
of Norfolk had also placed their collections 
at his disposal ; and great assistance had 
been given by Arthur Collins [q. v.], who 
himself published a baronetage in 1720. 
The work is divided into five sections, con- 
taining respectively an account of the insti- 
tution of the order by James I, the descents, 
creations, successions, and public employ- 
ments of the baronets ; correct lists of exist- 
ing and extinct baronets, exact tables of 



precedence, and an account of the institution 
of the order in Nova Scotia and Ireland. 
An explanatory index of terms in heraldry 
is appended. In 1741 Wotton published in 
five octavo volumes a revised and enlarged 
edition, which is usually erroneously attri- 
buted to Collins. In it were incorporated 
the manuscript notes furnished by Robert 
Smyth, who had published a volume of 
corrections and additions. Peter Le Neve 
[q. v.], who published three folio volumes 
on the same subject, also rendered valuable 
assistance to Wotton in preparing this edi- 
tion. Letters, notes, and pedigrees furnished 
to Wotton for his ' Baronetage ' are in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MSS. 24114-21. 

In 1771, after Wotton's death, a further 
edition of the 'Baronetage' was issued in 
three volumes, under the editorship of Ri- 
chard Johnson and Edward Kimber [q. v.] 
The copy in the British Museum has manu- 
script notes by Francis Hargrave. The 
arrangement of each edition is chronological. 
Wotton died at Point Pleasant, Surrey, on 
I April 1766. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 62, iii. 440, 441 nn. 
602, v. 48, 49.; Gent. Mag. 1766, p. 199; 
Dunton's Life and Errors, 1818, i. 210; Alli- 
bone's Diet. Engl. Lit. ; Wotton's Baronetages ; 
art. COLLINS, ARTHUR.! G. LE G. N. 

WOTTON, WILLIAM (1666-1726), 
scholar, second son of Henry Wotton, in- 
cumbent of Wrentham, Suffolk, was born in 
that parish on 13 Aug. 1666. His father, 
after seven years at the free school at Can- 
terbury, lived in the household of Meric 
Casaubon [q. v.], and was by him trained in 
Latin and Greek. Casaubon's method seems 
to have suggested to Henry Wotton the ad- 
vantage of trying from the beginning to in- 
terest children in their studies, and his ' Es- 
say on the Education of Children ' was pub- 
lished posthumously in 1753. 

William could read a psalm when aged 
four years and six weeks, and from that date 
his father laboured at his education. He 
liked reading in big books such as Buck's 
' Cambridge Bible.' One day a friend called 
on his father, bringing with him Bucer's 
' Commentary on the Gospel.' The child 
looked into the book and tried to spell out 
the Latin words, and thus became eager to 
know that language. He worked into it by 
learning the names of things, and so was 
soon able to read the gospel of St. John in the 
Vulgate. After two months at St. John's 
gospel in Latin his father showed him the 
Greek Testament, and by five years of age 
he could read St. John's Gospel through. 
Two months later he began Hebrew, and soon. 



Wotton 



Wotton 



read the first psalm. Every day he then read 
English at eight, Latin at ten, Greek at two. 
and Hebrew at four. He gradually acquired 
a natural perception of grammar. At five and 
a half he began Homer and Virgil, and by six 
he had read the whole ' Batrachomyomachia,' 
the golden verses of Pythagoras, and the first 
three eclogues of Virgil, and some Terence 
and Corderius. He then for the first time 
learned the declensions, and soon after the 
rest of grammar. On 24 May 1672 John 
Ombler, fellow of Corpus Christ! College, 
Cambridge, examined him and certified to his 
knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. 
Philip Skippon on 4 Sept. 1672 testified that 
he could translate Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
into English ; and on 20 July in the same 
year Sir Thomas Browne the physician certi- 
fied that he read a stanza in Spenser very 
distinctly, also some verses of the first eclogue 
of Virgil, some verses of Homer, and of the 
Carmina Aurea, and the first verse of the 
fourth chapter of Genesis in Hebrew, and 
construed all accurately. 

He was admitted at Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, in April 1676, and John Eachard 
[q.v.], the master, recorded in the register 
that he was less than ten years of age and 
' nee Hammondo nee Grotio secundus,' in 
reading which statement it must, however, 
be remembered that Eachard had a vein of 
ironical humour which made Swift come to 
visit him. James Duport [q. v.], master of 
Magdalene, described his merits in some Latin 
verses ' In Gulielmum Wottonum.' He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1679. In 1680 Gilbert Bur- 
net invited him to London and introduced 
him to Bishop William Lloyd (1627-1717) 
[q. v.], who took him in 1681 to St. Asaph, 
and employed him to arrange his library. 
Dr. Francis Turner (afterwards bishop of Ely) 
[q. v.] got him a fellowship at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and he graduated M.A. 
in 1683, and B.D. in 1691. He was elected 
F.R.S. on 1 Feb. 1687. 

In 1694 Wotton published 'Reflections 
upon Ancient and Modern Learning,' a con- 
tribution on the side of the moderns to the 
controversy between Sir William Temple 
and Monsieur Perrault. Unlike most con- 
troversial writings it is chiefly devoted to the 
clear statement of facts, and may still be read 
as the best summary of the discoveries in 
nature and physical science up to its date. A 
second edition appeared in 1697. Swift, on 
the other side of the controversy, attacks him 
in the ' Battle of the Books.' In 1695 Wotton 
published in the 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' an abstract of Scilla's treatise on 
petrifaction, and in 1697 a vindication of 
that abstract and ' An Examination of Dr. 



Woodward's Account of the Deluge ; ' these 
were followed in 1698 by ' An Answer to a 
late Pamphlet.' He paid much attention 
to medals, and in 1701 wrote a ' History of 
Rome from the Death of Antoninus Pius to 
the death of Severus Alexander,' intended 
for the Duke of Grafton, of which it is said 
that Leibnitz praised it to George II. 

Meantime Wotton received preferment, and 
was in 1691 given the living of Llandrill-yn- 
Rhos in Denbighshire, became chaplain to 
Daniel Finch, second earl of Nottingham, 
and a little later rector of Middleton Keynes, 
Buckinghamshire. In 1704 he published 
' A Letter to Eusebia,' an attack on Toland, 
and in 1705 a ' Defence ' of his own ' Re- 
flections.' Bishop Burnet presented him on 
18 Nov. 1705 to the prebend of Grantham 
South in Salisbury Cathedral, which he held 
till his death, and Archbishop Tenison in 
1707 conferred upon him the degree of D.D. 
He published in 1706 a visitation sermon, 
' A Defence of the Rights of the Christian 
Church,' which attacked Tindal and received 
much applause. He was constantly at work, 
and published in 1708 'A Short View of 
Hickes's " Thesaurus," ' in 1711 ' The Rights 
of the Christian Church Adjusted,' and 
' The Case of Convocation Considered.' He 
was in embarrassed circumstances in 1714 
and retired into Wales, where he wrote 
a treatise ' De Confusione Linguarum Baby- 
lonica ' (published posthumously, 1730, 8vo). 
He published in 1718 two volumes entitled 
' Miscellaneous Discourses relating to the 
Traditions and Usages of the Scribes and 
Pharisees.' The work is in four parts, of 
which the first two are on Misna, the third on 
Shema, phylacteries, and gates and door- 
posts, the fourth on the observance of one 
day in seven. He urges the clergy whenever 
possible to learn Hebrew and the history of 
Jewish customs from learned Jews. Simon 
Ockley [q.v.], the historian of the Saracens, 
commended the book in a letter to the author, 
and it has often been quoted in later theolo- 
gical writings. He published a ' Description 
of the Cathedral of Llandaff ' in 1719. 

Wotton diligently studied Welsh, and on 
his return to London preached a sermon in 
Welsh, dedicated to the stewards of the So- 
ciety of Ancient Britons, on 1 March 1722, 
which was published in 1723. He also made 
considerable progress in an edition with trans- 
lation of the laws of Hy wel Dda, published 
after his death as 'Leges Wallicfc' in 1730, 
fol. He was probably encouraged in Celtic 
studies at Catharine Hall, which has from 
the time of Nehemias Donellan [q. v.] to that 
of George Elwes Corrie [q. v.J, and even 
later, produced a series of students of Celtic 



Woty 



languages. In 1723 he revised ' A New His- 
tory of Ecclesiastical Writers' of Du Pin. 

Wotton died on 13 Feb. 1726 at Buxted in 
Essex. After his death editions of several 
of his works appeared, and in 1734 ' Some 
Thoughts concerning a Proper Method of 
studying Divinity.' He retained a powerful 
memory throughout life, his learning was 
always ready, and he helped many other 
scholars, among them Browne Willis [q.v.] 
His handwriting was of fine strokes and very 
clear. He was of a genial disposition and 
fond of smoking. He gave a Roman urn, 
which had been dug up at Sandy, Bedford- 
shire, to Archdeacon Battely of Canterbury 
for a tobacco-jar (Letter in NICHOLS'S Illus- 
trations, iv. 99). He was the friend of 
Richard Bentley and of Sir Isaac Newton, 
and seems to have felt no resentment at the 
sarcasms of Swift. He left, by his wife 
Anne Hammond, of St. Alban's Court, near 
Canterbury, one daughter Anne (1700-1783), 
who married William Clarke (1696-1771) 
[q.v.] 

[Henry Wotton's Essay on the Education of 
Children, London, 1753. The Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library copy of this work contains a 
manuscript note stating that the original manu- 
script of the essay was given to T. Waller the 
bookseller, who issued it, by E. Umfreville. It 
was written with a dedication to Charles II in 
1673, but not printed till 1753. The same 
copy contains careful notes by Richard Person. 
Monthly Review, 1 753 ; Monk's Life of Bent- 
ley, 1833, vol. i. ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. Angli- 
canse, vol. ii. ; Nichols's Literary Illustrations ; 
Wotton's Works.] N. M. 

WOTY, WILLIAM (1731P-1791), versi- 
fier, was possibly a native of the Isle of Wight, 
and among his poems is an elegy on his school- 
master, who lived near Alton in Hampshire. 
He came to London as a clerk or writer to a 
solicitor in chancery, and soon began speak- 
ing in the debating societies and contribut- 
ing small poems to the newspapers. Some 
one ' published clandestinely in 1758, with- 
out his consent, in a borrowed name.' a small 
piece of his composition called ' The Spouting- 
club.' He himself issued in 1760, under the 
pseudonym of ' J. Copy well of Lincoln's Inn,' 
a volume entitled ' The Shrubs of Parnassus,' 
consisting of the ' poetical essays, moral and 
comic,' which he had contributed to the 
newspapers, and after its appearance he sub- 
sisted for some years as a Grub-street writer. 
About 1767 he became companion and ad- 
viser in legal matters to Washington, earl 
Ferrers, who created for his benefit a rent- 
charge of ISO/, per annum on the family 
estate in Leicestershire. In his intervals of 
leisure Woty continued throughout his life 



5 Woulfe 

the production of small poetical pieces. The 
subjects of many poems in the 'Shrubs of 
Parnassus' testify to his devotion to the 
pleasures of the table. He died at Lough- 
borough on 15 March 1791, aged about sixty. 

Woty's other works included: 1. 'Campa- 
nologia: a Poem in praise of Ringing '[anon.], 
1761. 2. ' Muses' Advice addressed to the 
Poets of the Age,' 1761 (cf. Monthly Review, 
xxv. pp. 478-9). 3. 'The Blossoms of 
Helicon,' 1763. It contained, with a hymn to 
good nature by Dr. Dodd, an amusing de- 
scription by Woty of White Conduit House. 
These lines, which made their first appear- 
ance in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 
1760 (p. 242), are quoted at length in Thorn- 
bury's ' Old and New London ' (ii. 280) and 
in Wroth's ' London Pleasure Gardens' (pp. 
132-3). 4. ' The Poetical Calendar,' a supple- 
ment to Dodsley's collection, 1763; twelve 
volumes, one for each month in that year. 
They were edited by Woty and Francis 
Fawkes [q. v.] 5. ' Church Langton : ' a 
poem, n.d. [1768?], in praise of the chari- 
table projects of the Rev. William Hanbury 
[q. v.] 6. 'The Female Advocate : ' a poem, 
1770, 2nd edit. 1771. 7. ' Poetical Works,' 
1770, 2 vols. : dedicated to Washington, 
earl Ferrers. 8. 'The Stage,' n.d. [1770?] 
9. ' Particular Providence : ' a poetical 
essay, 1774. 10. 'The Estate Orators: a 
Town Eclogue' [anon.], 1774; a satire on 
the London auctioneers. 11. ' Poems on 
several Occasions,' 1780 ; this contained 
reprints of several of his works. 12. ' Fugi- 
tive and Original Poems,' 1786, contains 
' The Country Gentleman : a Drama.' 
13. ' Poetical Amusements,' 1789, dedi- 
cated to Robert, earl Ferrers. It contained 
a Latin version of Gray's elegy ; ' Sunday 
Schools : a Poetical Dialogue between a 
Nobleman and his Chaplain ; ' and ' The 
Ambitious Widow: a Comic Entertain- 
ment.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1791,5. 285,379 ; Baker's Biogr. 
Dramatica (1812 edit,), i. 760, ii. 24, 135; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ii. 479, 498 ; Works 
of Woty; Nichols's Leicestershire, in. ii. 917, 
1142.] W. P. C. 

WOULFE, PETER (1727 P-1803), che- 
mist and mineralogist, was probably of Irish 
origin. He first discovered native tin in 
Cornwall in 1766 (FouncROY, Systeme des 
Connaissances Chimiques, vi. 9), was elected 
F.R.S. on 5 Feb. 1767, on the proposal of 
Henry Baker [q. v.], John Ellis, Daniel 
Charles Solander [q. v.], Matthew Maty, and 
John Bevis, and was admitted on 12 March 
1767. On 18 Nov. of the same year he con- 
tributed a paper on ' Experiments on the 
Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies,' c. 



Woulfe 



Woulfe 



to the 'Philosophical Transactions' (1767, 
p. 617), in which he describes an apparatus 
for the passing of gases through liquids, 
which has since borne the name of ' Woulfe's 
bottle.' Woulfe's innovation consisted in 
the introduction of water into a form of con- 
denser previously used, and already figured 
and described in Glauber's work on ' Philo- 
sophical Furnaces' (GLAUBER, WiorA-s, transl. 
by Packe, 1689, plate 1, pp. 2-3). But this 
simple invention formed ' almost an era in 
chemical discovery' (AiKix), no convenient 
method being known previously for obtain- 
ing concentrated solutions of soluble gases, 
or for purifying insoluble gases from soluble 
impurities. The apparatus was improved 
by the introduction of a 'safety-tube' by 
Jean Joseph Welter. Woulfe applied his 
apparatus to the production of hydrochloric 
ether by passing gaseous hydrochloric acid 
into alcohol. In 1768 the Royal Society 
awarded him the Copley medal. In 1771 
Woulfe investigated the composition and 
preparation of ' mosaic gold ' (stannic sul- 
phide), and showed that on treating indigo, 
cochineal, and other colouring matters with 
strong nitric acid, a yellow dye (picric acid) 
may be obtained (Phil. Trans. 1771, pp. 114, 
127). He was later nominated by the pre- 
sident and council ' to prosecute discoveries 
in natural history, pursuant to the will of 
Henry Baker,' and in 1776 (ib. p. 605) pub- 
lished an account of ' Experiments made . . . 
to ascertain the nature of some mineral sub- 
stances,' in which he attempted to analyse 
hornsilver, but found that it contained not 
only ' acid of salt,' but also ' acid of vitriol.' 
The paper was published separately in 1777, 
translated into German, and published at 
Leipzig in 1778 (GMELIN, Gesch. der Chemie, 
iii. 679). It was followed by another paper 
on similar subjects in 1779 (Phil. Trans.) 

Woulfe generally spent his winters in 
London, and his summers in Paris, and from 
1784 most of his publications seem to have 
appeared in Rozier's ' Journal de Physique ' 
(1784 xxv. 352, 1787 xxxi. 362, 1788 xxxii. 
370, 374, 1789 xxxiv. 99). They are of less 
importance than those mentioned above. 
He also contributed to the English edi- 
tion of Crell's 'Chemical Journal' (Gmelin). 
Woulfe was a firm believer in alchemy. He 
thought that his ' new method of distillation 
bid fair to discover the mercurial and co- 
louring earths of Beccher' (Phil. Trans. 
1767, p. 534) ; he searched long for the elixir, 
and ' attributed his failure to want of due 
preparation by pious and charitable acts' 
(BRA.NDE). He was altogether erratic, or, 
according to Scherer, mad at the end of his 
life ; but Scherer only adduces as evidences 



of his madness his adherence to the doctrines 
of a religious prophet named Brothers, and 
his strange alchemical ideas. He breakfasted 
at four in the morning, and guests gained 
admittance by a secret signal to his rooms, 
crowded with chemical apparatus, in Bar- 
nard's Inn (No. 2, second floor). His remedy 
for illness was a journey by mail-coach to 
Edinburgh and back ; but in 1803 the remedy 
proved fatal. Like Henry Cavendish, he 
insisted on dying without medical care and 
alone. Charles Hatchett [q. v.], Woulfe's 
neighbour and friend, presented an athanor 
furnace formerly belonging to Woulfe to 
the Royal Institution. 

[Besides the sources quoted and information 
from Professor James Dewar, F.R.S., the follow- 
ing authorities have been used : Record of the 
Koyal Soc. p. 214 ; Archives of the Royal Soc. ; 
PoggendorfFs Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch; A. N. Scherer's Allgemeines Jour-, 
nal fur Chemie, v. 128); Thomson's Hist, of 
the Royal Soc. ; Fourcroy's Sjsteme des Con- 
naissances Chimiques, an ix. v. 283, vi. 9, passim ; 
Brando's Manual of Chemistry, 1848, i. p. xvii ; 
Gent. Mag. 1868, i. 187 (art. by John Timbs 1 ) ; 
Kopp's Gesch. der Chemie, passim ; Gmelin's 
Gesch. der Chemie, iii. 623-626, passim ; Aikin's 
Diet, of Chemistry, 1807, ii. 541 ; Chaptal's 
Chemistry, transl. Nicholson, 1860, i. 17 ; Glau- 
ber's Works, transl. Packe, 1689, plate 1, pp. 
2-3 ; Priestley's Experiments [on] Natural Phi- 
losophy, 1786, iii. 15.5, mentions Wonlfe as an 
acquaintance. Nicholson's Journal, 1803, iv. 6 ; 
Roscoe and Schorlemmer's Chemistry, vol. iii. pt. 
i. p. 342; Foster's Gray's Inn Admission Register 
gives the entry 1 Feb. 1771, 'Peter Woulfe of 
West End, Middlesex, gent.] P. J. H. 

WOULFE, STEPHEN (1787-1840), 
Irish judge, born in 1787, was the second 
son of Stephen Woulfe of Tiermaclane, Ennis, 
co. Clare, who married Honora, daughter of 
Michael McNamara of Dublin, sister of Ad- 
miral James McNamara, and of Colonel John 
McNamara of Llangoed Castle, co. Brecon. 
The Woulfes of Tiermaclane settled in Ire- 
land at Limerick at least as far back as the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, and had 
remained staunch Roman catholics. Stephen 
was educated at Stonyhurst, where Richard 
Lalor Sheil, Nicholas Ball, and Sir Thomas 
Wyse were his companions. With them he 
was one of the earliest Roman catholic 
students to gain admission to Trinity College, 
Dublin. He was called to the Irish bar in 
Trinity term 1814. He was a good advo- 
cate and an effective speaker. He took from 
an early period an active part in Irish poli- 
tics, engaging in agitation for Roman ca- 
tholic emancipation. He soon signalised 
himself by ' withstanding the tyranny of 



Wrangham 



Wrangham 



O'Connell.' His opposition to O'Connell 
was mainly in regard to the question of the 
securities which were demanded as a co- 
rollary of catholic emancipation. Woulfe 
was quite ready to accept the crown veto 
upon the nomination of catholic bishops, 
and in 1816 published a tract in defence of 
the veto, being the substance of a speech 
delivered at Limerick during the Lent assizes 
of 1816. On 6 May 1829 he followed O'Con- 
nell in subscribing the address to the king 
on the subject of catholic relief (WYSE, 
Catholic Association, ii. App.) Woulfe's 
moderate views and ability recommended 
him to Plunket, who, upon his appointment 
as lord chancellor of Ireland in 1830, gave 
Woulfe the lucrative post of crown counsel 
for Munster. He was appointed third ser- 
jeant on 23 May 1834, and having entered 
parliament as member for the city of Cashel 
in September 1835, he was appointed soli- 
citor-general for Ireland on 10 Nov. 1836. 
He retained his seat in parliament until 
July 1838, but, owing mainly to ill-health, 
did not make any figure as a debater. He 
was appointed attorney-general for Ireland 
on 3 Feb. 1837, and on "ll July 1838, in suc- 
cession to Henry Joy (1767-1838), he was 
made chief baron of the Irish exchequer, being 
the first Roman catholic to be so appointed. 
Woulfe accepted the honour with some re- 
luctance, but the selection was admitted 
to be a happy one. A design was stated to 
have been on foot to get Woulfe to resign 
in favour of O'Connell, but ' this job was de- 
feated by Woulfe's high-spirited firmness.' 
He is said to have been careless in his attire, 
awkward and angular in his movements, but 
very effective in his utterance ; no profound 
lawyer, but a man of quick and shrewd 
observation. He died at Baden-Baden on 
2 July 1840. He married Frances, daughter 
of Roger Hamill of Dowth Hall, co. Meath, 
and left issue Stephen Roland, who suc- 
ceeded his uncle, Peter Woulfe, in 1865 in 
the estate of Tiermaclane ; and Mary, who 
married in 1847 Sir Justin Sheil, K.C.B. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840, ii. 676; Burke's Landed 
Gentry of Ireland, 1899, p. 491; Times, 10 
nd 13 July 1840 ; Shell's Sketches of the Irish 
Bar, 1856, ii. 107, 119; Torrens's Memoirs of 
Melbourne, 1890, pp. 418, 428, 454; Official 
Eeturn of Members of Parl.] T. S. 

WRANGHAM,FRANCIS (1769-1842), 
classical scholar and miscellaneous writer, 
born on 11 June 1769, was the only son of 
George Wrangham (1742-1791), who occu- 
pied the farm of Raisthorpe, near Malton in 
Yorkshire, and rented the moiety of another 
farm at Titchwell. near Wells, Norfolk. 
From 1776 to 1780 Francis attended a small 

VOL. LXIII. 



school at West Heslerton, kept by Stephen 
Thirhvell, originally a bricklayer, but ulti- 
mately vicar of Cottingham, near Hull. 
For two summers he was with the Rev. 
John Robinson at Pickering, and he passed 
two years under the instruction of Joseph 
Milner at Hull (FROST, Address at Hull, 
1831, p. 41). In October 1786 Wrangham 
matriculated from Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, and next year won Sir William 
Browne's medal for the best Greek and 
Latin epigrams. They were printed in July 
1787 in a single octavo sheet. At the sug- 
gestion of Joseph Jowett fa. v.] he migrated 
to Trinity Hall on 16 Nov. 1787, and on 
5 Dec. was elected ' scholaris de minor! 
forma.' He graduated B.A. in 1790, being 
third wrangler in the mathematical tripos, 
second Smith's prizeman, and senior chan- 
cellor's medallist. In the last competition 
he beat his friend and rival John Tweddell 
[q. v.] Wrangham remained at Cambridge 
taking pupils, and confidently anticipating 
that he would be elected to a fellowship at 
Trinity Hall on the first vacancy. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. on 22 March 1793; in the fol- 
lowing June he obtained from the tutors of 
Trinity Hall letters testimonial to the arch- 
bishop of York of his good and satisfactory 
conduct, and in July he was ordained. Next 
month a divinity fellowship became vacant 
at his college, and he applied for it ; but 
another person, not a member of the hall and 
disqualified as in possession of preferment of 
too high value, was elected to it. This gra- 
duate afterwards resigned the fellowship, 
but, having dispossessed himself of his pre- 
ferment, was at once re-elected. Wrangham 
petitioned the lord chancellor that, in accor- 
dance with the statutes of the hall, he was 
as a minor scholar entitled to the fellowship, 
but the tutors claimed the right of rejecting 
him as not ' idoneus moribus et ingenio.' and 
the lord chancellor upheld their view (F. 
VESEY, jun., Reports, ii. 609). To injure 
Wrangham ' reports were circulated that he 
was a friend to the French revolution, one 
who exulted in the murder of the king, and 
that he was a republican,' but he was in 
reality a moderate whig (GUNNING, Remi- 
niscences, ii. 14-37). The probable explana- 
tion of this rejection lay in the suspicion 
that he was the author of the well-known 
epigram on Jowett and his little garden. 

Wrangham after this injustice abandoned 
Trinity Hall and became a member of Trinity 
College. During 1794 and 1 795 he served 
as curate of the parish of Cobham in Surrey, 
and in conjunction with Basil Montagu took 
pupils at 200/. per annum each. Sir James 
Mackintosh said of their long prospectus : ' A 



Wrangham 



66 



Wrangham 



boy thus educated -will be a -walking en- 
cyclopaedia.' At this period in his life 
Wrangham was a constant figure in the 
most intellectual society of London. To- 
wards the close of 1795 he was presented by 
Humphrey Osbaldeston, with ' almost un- 
solicited patronage,' to the rectory of Hun- 
manby-with-Muston, near Filey, in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire, and through his re- 
commendation became vicar of the neigh- 
bouring parish of Folkton. After the 
Inclosure Act the living of Hunmanby was 
' something better than 600/. aje&T' (Atlantic 
Monthly, January 1894, p. 66). A print by 
Bewick of its church and of the vicarage- 
house, which was much improved by Wrang- 
ham, appears on the titles of many of his 
works, and in John Cole's ' Antiquarian 
Trio ' are lines by him on the acacia, his 
' favourite tree at Hunmanby.' He collected 
there a remarkable library, which contained 
in 1825 no fewer than fifteen thousand 
volumes (DlBDiN, Library Companion, p.xxi). 
It was said that ' the book-shelves began at 
the front door and ran up into the garret and 
down to the cellar ' (MozLET, Reminiscences, 
i. 42 ; cf. PRYME, Recollections, pp. 246-8). 

For some years after leaving the university 
Wrangham competed for the academical 
rewards at Cambridge. He won four times 
the Seaton prize in 1794 with a poem on 
the ' Restoration of the Jews ' (Cambridge, 
1795, with a dedication to Basil Montagu, 
and included in ' Musae Seatonianae,' 1808) ; 
in 1800 with ' The Holy Land' (Cambridge, 
1800, and also in ' Musae Seatonianse,' 1808) ; 
in 1811 with ' Sufferings of the Primitive 
Martyrs' (Cambridge, 1812); and in 1812 
with ' Joseph made known to his brethren ' 
(Cambridge, 1812). His poem on the 'De- 
struction of Babylon,' rejected in 1795, was 
printed at the request of the judges, and in- 
cluded in the 'Musse Seatonianae' of 1808. 
That ' On the Restoration of Learning in the 
East ' (1805), written for a prize offered by 
Claudius Buchanan [q. v.], was beaten by a 
poem of Charles Grant (afterwards Lord 
Glenelg) [q. v.], but the adjudicators asked 
for its publication ( NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ix. 
534-5). He printed in 1805 'A Dissertation 
on the Best Means of civilising the Subjects 
of the British Empire in India,' and in 1807 
' A Sermon on the Translation of the Scrip- 
tures into the Oriental Languages,' which 
was preached before the university of Cam- 
bridge ; both works were composed under the 
system of prizes established by Buchanan. 
His poem ' On the Death of Saul and Jona- 
than ' was published in 1813. 

Wrangham was chaplain to three high 
sheriffs of Yorkshire, and from 1814 to 1834 



was examining chaplain to Vernon liar- 
court, the archbishop of York, a position 
which secured for him high preferment. 
The archbishop (who once remarked to 
Sydney Smith, ' I consider Wrangham an 
ornament to my diocese,' with the result 
i that for some time his chaplain retained the 
sobriquet of ' Ornament Wrangham ') be- 
stowed on him on 28 June 1820 the arch- 
deaconry of Cleveland, and allowed him in 
the same year to exchange the living of 
Folkton for that of Thorpe Bassett. This 
archdeaconry he surrendered on 2 Oct. 1828 
on appointment to the archdeaconry of the 
East Riding, and on 12 Dec. 1823 the arch- 
bishop gave him the prebendal stall of Am- 
pleforth in York Cathedral. His next act 
was to confer on Wrangham on 9 April 
1825 his option of the fourth prebend at 
Chester Cathedral, which carried with it 
the right of institution to the rectory of 
Dodleston in Cheshire. Wrangham suc- 
ceeded to this benefice on 3 Dec. 1827, 
whereupon he resigned that of Thorpe Bas- 
sett in favour of his son. He put up in 
Dodleston church a monument to Lord- 
chancellor Ellesmere. 

Wrangham printed in 1821, 1822, and 
1823, the charges which, he had delivered to 
the clergy of his archdeaconry. They con- 
tained some reflections on the Unitarians, 
and produced the publication of ' A Letter 
to Yen. Francis Wrangham by Captain 
Thomas Thrush,' 1822 ; ' Letters" addressed 
to Rev. James Richardson on Archdeacon 
Wrangham's Charge, by Captain Thrush," 
1823; ' Three Letters to Archdeacon Wrang- 
ham by Charles Wellbeloved,' 1823 ; Three 
Additional Letters by C. Wellbeloved,' 
1824; and 'Three Letters to Mr. Well- 
beloved by Rev. John Oxlee,' 1824. Well- 
beloved and Wrangham, though theologi- 
cal disputants, used to meet as whigs in 
social life. Sydney Smith said of this con- 
troversy : ' If I had a cause to gain I would 
fee Wellbeloved to plead for me, and double- 
fee Wrangham to plead against me.' Wrang- 
ham was a consistent advocate throughout 
his life of catholic emancipation, printing 
on that subject letters to the clergy of his 
archdeaconry and to individual persons, and 
a moderate high-churchman, supporting in 
education the system of Joseph Lancaster 
(OVERTOX, English Church, 1800-33, pp. 27, 
237, 266). ' A tall slight man of exceed- 
ingly gentle and attractive manners ' (HALL, 
Book of Memories, p. 178), and revelling in 
society, he longer than any man kept up 
' the elegant tastes of youth and college ' 
(Spectator, 19 Feb. 1831). For a few years 
before his death he was slightly paralysed. 



Wrangham 



6 7 



Wrangham 



He died at Chester on 27 Dec. 1842, and a 
tablet to his memory was placed in the cathe- 
dral. An engraving by R. Hicks of his por- 
trait by J. Jackson, R.A., is in Jerdan's 
' National Portrait Gallery ' (vol. i.) There 
is another print of him, possibly a private 
plate, without artist's name ; and a miniature 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Wrangham married at Bridlington, on 
7 April 1799, Agnes, fifth daughter of 
Colonel Ralph Creyke of Marton in York- 
shire. She died in childbed on 9 March 

1800, aged 21 ; but her daughter, Agnes 
Frances Everilda, survived, and on 10 June 
1832 married Robert Isaac Wilberforce [q. v.], 
who succeeded her father as archdeacon of 
the East Riding. Wrangham married, se- 
condly, at Brompton, near Scarborough, in 

1801 , Dorothy, second daughter and coheiress 
of Rev. Digby Cayley of Yorkshire, who 
brought him ' a neat 700/. a year.' She had 
issue two sons and three daughters. The 
eldest daughter, Philadelphia Frances Esther, 
married Edward William Barnard [q. v.] 
The third, Lucy Charlotte, was the wife of 
Henry Raikes of Llwynegrin, Flint, and 
mother of Henry Cecil Raikes [q. v.] The 
second son, Digby Cayley Wrangham (1805- 
1863), graduated B.A. with a double first- 
class from Brasenose College, Oxford, in 
1826, and, after leaving Oxford, was for some 
years private secretary to Lord Aberdeen in 
the foreign office. Called to the bar from 
Gray's Inn in 1831, he was created queen's 
Serjeant in 1847, and' became father of the 
parliamentary bar (see Times, 1 3 and 16 March 
1863, and Gent. Mag. 1863, i. 532). 

Wrangham, who was elected F.R.S. on 
15 Nov. 1804, was a member of the Banna- 
tyne and Roxburghe clubs, editing in 1825 
for the latter body Henry Goldingham's ' Gar- 
den Plot, an allegorical poem.' His works 
comprised, in addition to those already men- 
tioned, and in addition to many single 
sermons and fugitive pieces : 1. 'Reform: a 
farce modernised from Aristophanes. By 
S. Foote, jun.' [i.e. Wrangham], 1792. 
2. ' Poems,' 1795. It contains most of his 
pieces to date, including ' Ad Bruntonam e 
Granta exituram, iii. Cal. Oct. MDCCXC.' 
The English lines (pp. 79-83) are by S. T. 
Coleridge, and the translation (pp. 106-11) 
of Wrangham's French stanzas is by Words- 
worth. Some copies of this volume seem 
to have been circulated in 1803; it is noticed 
in the ' Monthly Review ' for January 1804 
(pp. 82-5). Wordsworth sent him from 
Racedown in Dorset, in November 1795, 
certain imitations of Juvenal, and they 
thought of publishing a joint volume of 
satirical pieces (KxiQHT, Life of Words- 



worth, i. 106). 3. ' Thirteen Practical Ser- 
mons, founded upon Doddridge's " Religion 
in the Soul," '1800; 2nd edit. 1802. 4. ' Epi- 
grams.' Signed 'X.,' 1800 ? s.sh.Svo. 5. 'The 
raising of Jairus's daughter, with short Me- 
moir of Caroline Symmons,' 1804. 6. 'A 
Volunteer Song,' &c., 1805. Eleven pieces 
in all, including ' Trafalgar, a song,' which 
was issued separately in that year. 7. ' Plu- 
tarch's Lives,' translated by John and Wil- 
liam Langhorne. Edited by Wrangham, 
1808 ; 4th edit, under his editorship, 1826 
(Notes and Queries, 9th ser. iii. 426, 492). 

8. 'A Word for Humanity' [1810], s. sh. 

9. ' Death of Saul and Jonathan : a Poem,' 
1813. 10. 'Poems' [circa 1814]; thirty-six 
copies only printed. 11. 'Virgil's Bucolics,' 
translated, 1815, fifty copies only. His 
translation, revised and corrected, is included 
in Valpy's ' Family Classical Library' (1830). 
Conington says : ' His lines are elegant, but 
artificial and involved ; they show the man 
of taste, not the genuine poet' (Miscell. 
Writings, i. 166). 12. 'The British Plu- 
tarch,' new edit, rearranged, 1816, 6 vols.; 
the set at the British Museum contains many 
manuscript additions and corrections by 
Wrangham. 13. ' Scraps,' 1816, fifty copies; 
he was much assisted in this and other works 
by Charles Symmons [q. v.] ; it contained a 
spirited translation of Milton's ' Second De- 
fence,' which was also issued in a separate 
form. 14. ' Sermons, Dissertations, and 
Translations,' 1816, 3 vols. It contained 
most of his writings to date, 1816 ; prefixed 
is a print of him. 15. ' A few Sonnets [forty 
in all] from Petrarch. Italian and English,' 
Lee Priory Press, 1817; signed 'F. W.' 
16. ' Evidences of Christianity,' abridged from 
Doddridge, 1820 ; fifty copies. 17. ' Apology 
for the Bible,' abridged from Bishop Wat- 
son, 1820 ; fifty copies. 18. ' Principal parts 
of Bishop Butler's Analogy,' abridged, 1820 ; 
fiftycopies. 19. 'Internal Evidence of Chris- 
tianity,' abridged from Paley and Soame 
Jenyns, 1820 ; fifty copies. 20. ' Inward 
Witness to Christianity,' abridged from 
Watts, 1820 ; fifty copies. 21. ' Reasons of 
the Christian's Hope,' abridged from Leland, 
1820; fiftycopies. 22. 'Short and easy Me- 
thod with the Deists,' abridged from Leslie, 
1820, fifty copies. This had previously ap- 
peared at York in 1802. These seven abridg- 
ments were also included in ' The Pleiad,' 
1820 (only twenty-five perfect copies), and in 
'Constable's Miscellany,' vol. xxvi. (1828). 
By 1820 ' twelve editions of ten thousand 
copies each ' had been circulated. 23. ' Speci- 
mens of a Version of Horace's first four Books 
of Odes,' 1820 ; fifty copies. It contained 
the whole of the third book. 24. ' Lyrics of 

F2 



Wrangham 



68 



Wratislaw 



Horace, being the first four Books of his 
Odes,' 1821 ; 2nd edit. n.d. 25. ' Works of 
Rev. Thomas Zouch, with Memoir,' 1820, 
2 vols. ; four copies only. Also printed for 
sale in 1820 in 2 vols. The memoir was 
issued separately. E. D. Clarke issued in 




' Life of Clarke,' 2nd edit. App. pp. 387-92. 
26. ' Hendecasyllabi' [anon.] 1821. 27. ' Scar- 
borough Castle : a Poem,' 1823. 28. ' Ser- 
tum Cantabrigiense, or the Cambridge Gar- 
land,' 1824. Signed 'F.W.' 29. 'The Savings 
Bank, in two Dialogues ' [1825 ?] 30. ' Briani 
Waltoni in biblia polyglotta prolegomena 
specialia,' 1827-8, 2 vols. 31. 'Psychae, or 
Songs on Butterflies,' by T. H. Bayly, at- 
tempted in Latin rhyme, 1828. Signed 
' F. W.' His version of ' I'd be a butterfly' 
was much quoted in 1828, and was included, 
with other pieces by him, in the first edition 
of the ' Arundines Cami' (Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. xi. 304, 435). 32. ' Lines by Wrang- 
ham, sacred to memory of E. W. Barnard,' 
turned into Latin by "S. G. Fawcett, 1828. 
Wrangham edited Barnard's 'Fifty select 
Poems of Marc- Antonio Flaminio imitated,' 
1829. 33. 'The Quadrupeds' Feast '[anon.], 
Chester [1 829 ?]. 34. ' Homerics,' 1 834, trans- 
lation of ' Odyssey ' v. and ' Iliad ' iii. 35. ' Epi- 
thalamia tria Mariana,' 1837 ; translation of 
three epithalamia on Mary Queen of Scots. 
36. 'A few Epigrams attempted in Latin 
Translations,' 11 Jan. 1842. 

Wrangham superintended the passing 
through the press of E. D. Clarke's ' Tour 
through the South of England' (1792), and 
he edited 'The Soldier's Manual' of J. F. 
Neville (1813) and the 'Carmina Quadra- 
gesimalia' (1820) of Archbishop Markham. 
He contributed to the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' ' Blackwood's 'Magazine,' ' Literary 
Anecdotes' of John Nichols, vol. ix., to 
several works of John Cole [q. v.] of Scar- 
borough, and to the ' Classical Journal.' 
Under the signature of ' Sciolus' he sent to 
the ' York Herald ' about 1810 a series of 
articles entitled ' The Smatterer,' containing 
poems by himself and others. Pieces by 
Wrangham are in Muirhead's collection of 
epigrams on Chantrey's ' Woodcocks,' Wal- 
ton's ' Complete Angler' (ed. Nicolas), vol. i. 
p. cxxxvi, James Bailey's ' Comicorum Grse- 
corum fragmenta,' George Pryme's ' Recol- 
lections,' p. 406, and in the ' Life of Milton' 
by Charles Symmons. His Latin rendering 
of Brydges's famous sonnet on ' Echo and 
Silence' is in the ' Anglo-Genevan Critical 
Journal,' ii. 230, and in Maclise's ' Portrait 
Gallery ' (ed. 1891), pp. 222-3. His render- 



ing of Donne's later epitaphs at St. Paul's 
is reproduced from Zouch's edition of Izaak 
Walton's ' Lives ' in Mr. Edmund Gosse's life 
of the dean (ii. 282). Many works were dedi- 
cated to Wrangham, among them being the 
' Desultoria' of Brydges, Prickett's ' Bridling- 
ton Priory Church,' and Poulson's ' Beverlac.' 

Letters from Wrangham are in Leigh 
Hunt's ' Correspondence,' i. 44-5 ; Miss Mit- 
ford's ' Friendships,' i. 194-5; Byron's ' Let- 
ters' (1899), iii. 87-9; and in Parr's ' Works/ 
vii. 377-9. Letters from Wordsworth to 
him are in Knight's 'Life of Wordsworth' 
(i. 106, ii. 377-82, iii. 245), and in Knight's 
edition of that poet's works (i. 285-6). Many 
volumes at the British Museum have notes 
and additions by him. Part of his library 
was described by John Cole in 'A Biblio- 
graphical and Descriptive Tour from Scar- 
borough' (1824), and the whole English 
collection was catalogued by himself in a 
volume, of which seventy copies were printed 
at Malton in 1826 for his friends. It was 
sold at London in 1843, the sale taking 
twenty days ; but he had given in 1842, 
shortly before his death, his collection of 
pamphlets, about ten thousand in number, 
bound in 996 volumes, to Trinity College, 
Cambridge. They are of a most miscel- 
laneous character, and there is a manuscript 
catalogue of their contents. 

In 1842 Wrangham founded, with a gift 
of 100/., a prize at Trinity College, which 
was augmented in 1849 by an addition of 
515/. from the Rev. Peter Leigh. A minia- 
ture portrait of Wrangham is in the small 
combination room, and a large collection of 
his works, including several sermons not in 
the British Museum, is in the Trinity College 
library. 

[Gent. Mag. 1799 i. 346, 1801 ii. 763, 1843 
i. 430-2 ; Manuscript Autobiogr. in copy of 
' Sketches of Yorkshire Biography ' (from Zouch's 
works) at British Museum ; Jerdan's National 
Portrait Gallery, vol. i. ; Ross's Celebrities of 
Wolds, pp. 178-82; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 144, 
149, 170, 273; Hunter's Families (Harl. Soc.), 
iii. 952; Burke's Commoners, 1835, ii. 311-13 ; 
Otter's E. D. Clarke, 1st edit. pp. 87, 648; 
Yorkshire Genealogist, January 1899 (by George 
Wrangham Hardy); Gunning's Eeminiscences, 
ii. 14-37; Dibdin's Literary Life, i. 139-42, 
392-6 ; Halkett and Laing's Anon. Lit. ii. 917, 
iii. 18T6-7, 2053; information from W. Aldis 
Wright, esq., of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and C. E. S. Headlam of Trinity Hall. Cam- 
bridge.] W. P. C. 

WRATISLAW, ALBERT HENRY 

(1822-1892), Slavonic scholar, of Czech 
descent, the grandson of an emigre 1 of 1790, 
and son of William Ferdinand, ' Count ' 



Wratislaw 



6 9 



Wraxall 



Wratislaw von Mitro-vitz (1788-1853), 
solicitor of Rugby, by his wife, Charlott 
Anne (d. 1863), was born at Rugby on 
5 Nov. 1822. He entered Rugby School 
aged seven, on 5 Nov. 1829 (Register, i. 161) 
and matriculated at Cambridge from Trinity 
College in 1840, but migrated to Christ's 
where he was admitted 28 April 1842 ; he 
graduated B.A. as third classic and twenty- 
fifth senior optime in 1844. Having in 
the meantime been appointed fellow (1844- 
1853) and tutor of his college, he commenced 
M.A. in 1847, and next year, in collabora- 
tion with Dr. Charles Anthony Swainson 
[q. v.], published ' Loci Communes : Common 
Places.' During the long vacation of 1849 
he visited Bohemia, studied the Czech lan- 
guage in Prague, and in the same autumn 
published at London 'Lyra Czecho Slo- 
vanska,' or Bohemian poems, ancient and 
modern, translated from the original Sla- 
vonic, with an introductory essay, which he 
dedicated to Count Valerian Krasinski, as 
' from a descendant of a kindred race.' 

In August 1850 Wratislaw was appointed 
headmaster of Felsted school, his being the 
last appointment made by the representatives 
of the founder, Richard Rich, baron Rich 
[q. v.] During the last twenty-four years, 
under Thomas Surridge, the school had 
greatly declined in numbers. Wratislaw 
commenced with twenty-two boys, and the 
revival of the school was by him inaugurated. 
Unfortunately he found the climate of Felsted 
too bleak for him, and in 1855 he migrated,with 
a number of his Felsted pupils, to Bury St. 
Edmund's, to become headmaster of King Ed- 
ward VI's grammar school there. At Bury 
also he greatly raised the numbers of the 
school, which the ' Book of Jasher' of his 
predecessor, Dr. John William Donaldson 
[q. v.], is said to have helped to empty. 
Duringthe twenty years that followed his ap- 
pointment at Felsted scholastic work took up 
nearly all Wratislaw's time. He published 
several texts and school books, but found it 
difficult to keep up his Bohemian studies, 
though he issued in 1852 ' The Queen's Court 
Manuscript, with other ancient Bohemian 
Poems,' translated from the original Slavonic 
into English verse, mostly in ballad metre. 
The poems thus rendered had been discovered 
by Ilanka in the tower of a church at Ko- 
niginhof in 1817. Experts assigned the date 
1290 to the collection, which proved of great 
value both intrinsically and on account of 
the impulse which it gave to the revival of 
Czech national literature (see Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. i. 556, 605). Ten years 
elapsed between this publication and that of 
the most interesting ' Adventures of Baron 



Wenceslas Wratislaw of Mitrowitz. What 

he saw in the Turkish Metropolis . . . expe- 
rienced in his captivity, and, after his happy 
return to his country, committed to writing 
in 1599;' this was literally translated from 
the Bohemian work first published from the 

original manuscript by Pelzel in 1777, and 
prefaced by a brief sketch of Bohemian 
history. It was followed in 1871 by a version 
from the Slavonic of the ' Diary of an Em- 
bassy from King George of Bohemia to King 
Louis XI of France.' Two years later, as 
the result of much labour, Wratislaw pro- 
duced the ' Life, Legend, and Canonization 
of St. John Nepomucen, Patron Saint and 
Protector of the Order of the Jesuits,' being 
a most damaging investigation of the myth 
contrived by the Jesuits in 1729. Among 
the small group of scholars in England taking 
an interest in Slavonic literature Wratis- 
law's reputation was now established, and 
in April 1877 he was called upon to deliver 
four lectures upon his subject at the Tay- 
lorian Institution in Oxford, under the II- 
chester foundation. These were published 
at London next year as ' The Native Litera- 
ture of Bohemia in the Fourteenth Century.' 
In 1879 he resigned his headmastership at 
Bury St. Edmund's, and was appointed to 
the college living of Manorbier in Pembroke- 
shire. There he wrote his excellent sketch, 
' John Huss, the Commencement of Resist- 
ance to Papal Authority on the part of the 
Inferior Clergy' (London, 1882, 8vo, in the 
'Home Library'), based mainly upon the 
exhaustive researches of Palacky" and Tomek. 
His last work was a charming collection of 
' Sixty Folk-Tales from exclusively Slavonic 
sources,' translated into English prose, with 
introduction and notes (London, 1889). The 
stories were taken from Erben's ' Citanka,' 
1865, and the admitted merit of the version 
shows that Wratislaw had a considerable 
mowledge of the various Slavonic languages 
llustrated by the originals. He gave up 
lis benefice, owing mainly to failing sight, 
n 1889. and retired to Southsea. He died 
;here at Graythwaite, Alhambra Road, on 
3 Nov. 1892, aged 70. He married on 28 Dec. 
^853, at High Wycombe, Frances Gertrude, 
second daughter of the Rev. Joseph Charles 
Helm (d. 1844). 

[Athense.um, 12 Nov. 1892; Times, 5 Nov., 
and Guardian, 9 Nov. 1 892 ; Luard's Graduati 
lantabr. ; Sargeaunt's Felsted School, 1889, p. 
34.1 T. S. 

WRAXALL, SIR FREDERIC 

CHARLES LASCELLES, third baronet 

1828-1865), miscellaneous writer, born at 

Boulogne in 1828, was the eldest son of 

harles Edward Wraxall (1792-1854), lieu- 



Wraxall 



tenant royal artillery, by Ellen Cecilia, | 
daughter of John Madden of Richmond, 
Surrey. His grandfather was Sir Nathaniel 
Wraxall [q.v.] He was educated at Shrews- 
bury (where he was Dyke scholar), and matri- ; 
culated from St. Mary Hall, Oxford, on 
26 May 1842, but left the university without ; 
graduating. In May 1863 he succeeded his : 
uncle, Sir William "Lascelles Wraxall, as 
third baronet. 

From 1846 he spent the greater part of | 
his life on the continent. In 1855 he served | 
for nine months at Kertch in the Crimea as 
first-class assistant commissary, with the 
rank of captain, in the Turkish contingent. 
His experiences during this period are em- 
bodied in his 'Camp Life: Passages from 
the Story of a Contingent,' published in 1860. 
Before going to the Crimea he had issued ! 
' A Visit to the Seat, of War in the North/ 
a brochure which purported to be a transla- 
tion from the German, but was probably ori- 
ginal. Throughout life Wraxall continued 
to interest himself in military matters. In 
1856 he issued ' A Handbook to the Naval 
and Military Resources of European Na- 
tions ; ' in 1859 ' The Armies of the Great 
Powers ; ' and in 1864 a volume called ' Mili- 
tary Sketches,' which was chiefly concerned 
with the French army and its leaders, but 
had also chapters on the Austrian army, the 
British soldier, and ' The Chances of Invasion.' 

In 1858 he conducted the ' Naval and 
Military Gazette,' and from January 1860 to 
March 1861 'The Welcome Guest';' and he 
sent frequent contributions to the 'St. James 
Magazine ' and other periodicals. In 1860 
he edited for private circulation the Persian 
and Indian despatches of Sir James Outram 
[q. v.] He was well versed in modern history, 
more particularly that of France and Germany 
during the last two centuries. His ' Memoirs 
of Queen Hortense,' written in collaboration 
with Robert Wehran (1861, 2 vols. 8vo ; re- 
issued in 1864), is little more than a com- 
pilation of gossip ; but ' Historic Byeways,' 
two volumes of essays reprinted from periodi- 
cals, shows extensive reading. Besides other 
stories of German, French, and Russian his- 
tory is ' Mr. Carlyle's latest Pet,' a hostile 
criticism of the characters drawn by that 
historian of Frederick William 1, based upon 
the recently published ' Aus vier Jahrhun- 
derten' of Karl von Weber. 

Wraxall's most important historical work 
was ' The Life and Times of Caroline Matilda, 
Queen of Denmark and Norway,' 1864, 3 vols. 
8vo. He claimed to have shown by original 
research the worthlessness of the evidence 
on which the queen was divorced after the 
Struensee affair, and published for the first 



time (iii. 252-3) the letter protesting her in- 
nocence, which the queen wrote just before 
her death to her brother George III of Eng- 
land. He obtained through the Duchess of 
Augustenburg a copy of the original in the 
Hanoverian archives, and through Sir Au- 
gustus Paget was afforded access to the privy 
archives of Copenhagen. He also used the 
privately printed ' Memoirs' of the Landgrave 
Charles of Hesse-Cassel (brother-in-law of 
Christian VII of Denmark), the ' Memoirs ' 
of Reverdil (secretary to Christian), and the 
private journals of Sir N. W. Wraxall. The 
English foreign office remained closed to him. 

Wraxall died at Vienna on 11 June 1865. 
He married, in 1852, Mary Anne, daughter 
of J. Herring, esq. She died without issue on 
27 Nov. 1882. The baronetcy passed succes- 
sively to Wraxall's younger brothers, Sir 
Horatio Henry (d. 1882) and Sir Morville 
Nathaniel Wraxall (b. 1834), the present 
baronet (1900). 

Wraxall published several entertaining 
novels. They include:"!. 'Wild Oats: a 
Tale,' 1858, 12mo ; 1865, 8vo. 2. ' Only a 
Woman,' 1860, 8vo ; 1861, 8vo. 3. ' The Fife 
and Drum, or Would be a Soldier,' 1862, 8vo. 
4. ' Married in Haste : a Story of Everyday 
Life,' 1863, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ' The Black Pan- 
ther, or a Boy's Adventures among the Red- 
skins,' 1863, 8vo; Boston, 1865, 16mo. 
6. ' The Backwoodsman ' (illustrated), 1864, 
8vo ; 1871, 8vo. 7. ' Golden Hair : a Tale of 
the Pilgrim Fathers' (illustrated), 1864, 8vo. 
8. ' Mercedes,' a romance of the Mexican war, 
1865, 3 vols. 9. Fides, or the Beauty of 
Mayence ' (adapted from the German), 1865, 
3 vols. 

He was author also of ' Remarkable Ad- 
ventures and L T nrevealed Mysteries,' 1863, 
2 vols. 8vo, containing articles on Struensee, 
Konigsmark, D'Acon, Cagliostro, Clootz, and 
other adventurers ; of ' Criminal Celebrities, 
a collection of Memorable Trials,' 1861, 8vo; 
and ' The Second Empire as exhibited in 
French Literature,' 1852-63, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
1865. In 1862 he made the authorised Eng- 
lish translation of Victor Hugo's 'Les 
Misrables,' the version being reissued in 
1864 and 1879. Many other translations 
from both the French and German came 
from his pen. A posthumous volume, col- 
lected from magazines, entitled ' Scraps and 
Sketches gathered together,' appeared in Sep- 
tember 1865. 

[Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; Men of the 
Time, 1862; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Times, 17 June 1865; Athenaeum, 1 7 June 1865 ; 
111. Lond. News, 24 June 1865 ; Allibone'sDict. 
Engl. Lit. ; Walford's County Families; "Works 
in Brit. Mus.] G. LE G. N. 



Wraxall 



Wraxall 



WRAXALL, SIB NATHANIEL WIL- 
LIAM (1751-1831), baronet, author of his- 
torical memoirs, only son of Nathaniel 
Wraxall (1725-1781), who married in 1749 
Anne (d. 1800), daughter of William Thorn- 
hill of Bristol, and great-niece of Sir James 
Thornhill [q. v.], was born in Queen's Square, 
Bristol, on 8 April 1751, and ' was educated 
in his native city.' His grandfather, Na- 
thaniel Wraxall (1687-1731), merchant, was 
sheriff of Bristol a short while previous to 
his death, which took place on 24 March 
1731 (Gent. Mag. 1731, p. 125). The histo- 
rian subsequently claimed to be a represen- 
tative of the ancient family which derived 
its name from the parish of Wraxall, six 
miles west of Bristol, but this connection it 
would be impossible to trace (CoLLiNSON, 
Somerset, iii. 159). 

Nathaniel, whose love of travel was per- 
sistent from an early age, went out to Bom- 
bay in 1769, having obtained employment in 
the civil service of the East India Company, 
and he was appointed judge-advocate and 
paymaster of the forces in the Guzerat ex- 
pedition, and that against Baroche in 1771. 
He left the service of the East India Com- 
pany in 1772, and, having returned to Eng- 
land, visited Portugal and then the northern 
courts of Europe. In September 1774 he 
had an interview with Caroline Matilda 
[q. v.], sister of George III, at Zell (Celle). 
He proceeded from Zell to Altona, where he j 
seems to have given frank expression to his ; 
sympathy for the banished queen. At Ham- ! 
burg, hard by, there resided a group of noble | 
Danish exiles. Two of their leaders, Barons 
Schimmelman and Bulow, recognised in 
Wraxall a fitting agent of communication 
between the queen whom they sought to re- 
place upon the throne of Denmark and 
George III, whose concurrence in the move- ! 
ment they felt it indispensable to obtain. ' 
As accredited intermediary in this affair ! 
Wraxall made several arduous journeys, the ! 
incidents of which lose nothing by his re- j 
porting in the pages of his ' Posthumous j 
Memoirs ' (i. 378 sq.) He had private in- 
terviews with the queen in the library and 
Jardin Anglais at Zell, and conveyed to 
her on 15 Feb. 1775 a paper containing 
George Ill's qualified sanction of the scheme 
devised by her partisans. He returned to 
England in April, in the hope of obtaining ! 
a personal interview with the king, and a : 
more definite assurance that he would coun- ' 
tenance such action as might prove neces- 
sary at Copenhagen. But while he was 
anxiously waiting in Jermyn Street, Lon- 
don, for a favourable answer, the news 
reached him on 19 May of the sudden death 



of Caroline Matilda (see Correspondence of 
George III and Lord North, 1867, ii. 359). 

He appears to have been living in London 
in 1776, and he mentions meeting Dr. Dodd 
in this year, together with Wilkes, Sir Wil- 
j liam Jones, and De Lolme, at the house of 
Dilly the bookseller. Dodd invited the com- 
pany to dine with him at his house in Argyll 
Street, and the invitation was accepted. In 
the following year Dodd, while lying in 
Newgate, made an urgent appeal to Wraxall 
to exert himself to procure a pardon through 
Lord Nugent. In the summer of 1777 
Wraxall made some stay at The Hague, 
where he was presented to the Prince of 
Orange. Before leaving England he had 
received from George III a lieutenant's com- 
mission, granted upon the application of 
Lord Robert Manners [q. v.], who then com- 
manded the third regiment of dragoon guards. 
In the uniform of this regiment Wraxall 
visited the theatre at Florence in 1779 and 
saw Prince Charles Edward. The chevalier 
was semi-intoxicated ; but when ' he ap- 
proached near enough to distinguish the 
English regimental, he instantly stopped, 
gently shook oft* the two servants who sup- 
ported him, one on each side, and, taking ott' 
his hat, politely saluted us.' He visited 
Dresden in 1778 and Naples in 1779. There 
he met Sir William and Lady Hamilton. 
Upon her authority he introduces into his 
4 Memoirs ' some curious anecdotes of private 
executions, which have been frequently cited 
(cf. CHAMBERS, Book of Days, ii. 555). 

In 1780 he returned to England, and was 
elected M.P. for the borough of Hindon 
in Wiltshire. In 1781 he was appointed on 
a committee to inquire into the causes of 
war in the Carnatic. Lord North was a 
member of this committee, and in June 1781 
he unexpectedly asked Wraxall to spend 
the day with him at Bushey Park. The 
minister there told him that the king was 
most anxious to acknowledge in a proper 
manner his important services to the late 
queen of Denmark. Before entering parlia- 
ment his persistent applications for recom- 
pense had been unanswered. The sum of a 
thousand guineas for his expenses was now 
awarded him and paid with alacrity, while 
he also obtained a promise (unfulfilled, 
owing to North's retirement) of a post in the 
administration. Early in this same year 
(1781) Horace Walpole, whose antipathy to 
rival memoir writers was instinctive, wrote 
to Mason of Wraxall as ' popping into every 
spot where he can make himself talked of, 
by talking of himself ; but I hear he will 
come to an untimely beginning in the House 
of Commons' (Corresp. ed. Cunningham, 



Wraxall 



Wraxall 



vii. 511). This kind anticipation was not 
realised. In 1783 Wraxall obtained some 
credit for having despatched an extraordinary 
gazette to India containing the news of the 
peace of 1783, which reached Madras six 
weeks before the official intelligence. In the 
same year he ceased to be a follower of Lord 
North, and, when the division was taken on 
Fox's ' India Bill,' he joined the minority 
that followed Pitt. Re-elected for Ludgershall 
in the general election of 1784, he settled 
down in the new parliament into a pretty 
steady follower of Pitt. As such he came 
under the lash of one of the wittiest writers 
in the ' Rolliad.' his claims to encylopedism, 
inferred from his ' Northern Tour '(1775), 
and his fondness for interspersing his speeches 
with geographical information being satirised 
in the ninth of the ' Probationary Odes for 
the Laureateship.' Appended is a burlesque 
testimonial from Lord Monboddo, affirming 
his opinion that Wraxall is ' the purest ourang- 
outang in Great Britain.' In January 1787 
Wraxall published anonymously a pamphlet 
entitled ' A Short Review of the Political 
State of Great Britain,' six editions of which, 
an estimated total of seventeen thousand 
copies, were rapidly circulated in England, 
while a French version (' Coup d'oeil sur 1'etat 
politique de la Grande-Bretagne ') appeared on 
23 Feb. It is chie6y noteworthy for its frank 
delineation of the Prince of Wales, who is 
said to have menaced the publisher, Debrett, 
with a prosecution for libel, and as marking 
Wraxall's divergence from his leaders on 
the subject of the Warren Hastings trial ; 
the authorship was actually ascribed to 
Hastings himself, and his agent, Major Scott 
[see SCOTT, afterwards SCOTT-WARING, 
JOHN], took the trouble to deny this pre- 
sumption from his seat in the commons. Of 
the replies issued, one was attributed to Lord 
Erskine and another to Sir Philip Francis. 
The deduction one naturally draws from 
this success, even though it were anonymous, 
is that Wraxall's capacity and insight into 
politics were by no means so insignificant as 
his critics in the quarterlies subsequently as- 
sumed. He was re-elected for Wallingford in 
1790, but he had to accede to the wishes of 
the proprietor of this borough (Sir Francis 
Sykes) by resigning his seat in 1794. He had 
lost valuable friends in Lords Nugent and 
Sackville, and being a novus homo, without 
sufficient influence either in the country or 
in the best clubs (at White's George Selwyn 
was wont to ask ' Who is this Rascal ? '), his 
parliamentary career was closed. For some 
years previous to his retirement from the 
House of Commons he acted as vakeel or 
agent for the nabob of Arcot, and was one 



of the small party of retired Indian officials 
known as the ' Bengal squad.' Upon leav- 
ing parliament and his house in Clarges 
Street, Wraxall seems to have devoted him- 
self mainly to compiling his historical me- 
moirs. The secret of his 1787 pamphlet 
must have been fairly well kept ; for he 
managed to establish himself in favour at 
Carlton House, where in 1799 the regent 
' was pleased to designate him under official 
seal his future historiographer.' His strik- 
ing ' Reminiscences ' of the regent, first pub- 
lished in 1884, form a curious commentary 
upon this announcement. At Whitehall on 
25 Sept. 1813, upon the express nomination 
of the prince regent, W T raxall was created 
a baronet, as ' of Wraxall, Somerset.' Two 
years later were published his ' Historical 
Memoirs,' the first edition of which enter- 
taining work was sold in the course of a 
month. Unfortunately for the author the 
sale was arrested by an action for libel, 
maintained in the court of king's bench 
before Lord Ellenborough by Count Woron- 
zow, whom Wraxall had made responsible 
for the imputation that the Empress Cathe- 
rine of Russia had caused the Princess of 
Wiirtemberg to be put to death. Wraxall 
was sentenced to pay a fine of 500/. and to 
go to the king's bench prison for six months 
remitted to three by the regent at the in- 
stance of Woronzow himself (Morning Post, 
2 Sept. 1816). In the meantime the ' Me- 
moirs ' had been attacked with the utmost 
ferocity in the ' Quarterly ' (vol. xiii.), the 
'Edinburgh' (vol. xxv.), and the 'British 
Critic,' and the book has the rare distinction 
of having brought Croker, Mackintosh, and 
Macaulay into substantial agreement upon 
the merits, or rather demerits, of a literary 
performance. The ' Edinburgh ' cited an 
epigram, said to have been composed by 
George Colman, which has been widely mis- 
quoted 

Men, measures, scenes, and facts all 
Misquoting, misstating, 
Misplacing, misdating. 

Here lies Sir Nathaniel Wraxall. 

Wraxall replied with success to some of the 
specific charges of garbling and deliberate 
unveracity in ' An Answer to the Calum- 
nious Misrepresentation of the " Quarterly 
Review," the "British Critic," and the" Edin- 
burgh Review " ' (1815, 8vo), and he found 
disinterested supporters in Sir George Osborn 
for fifty years equerry to George III, who 
wrote, ' I pledge my name that I personally 
know nine parts out of ten of your anecdotes 
to be perfectly correct ' and in Sir Archi- 
bald Alison, who wrote in 'Blackwood' 
(Ivii. 361) that nothing but truth could pro- 



Wraxall 



73 



Wraxall 



duce so portentous an alliance as that be- 
tween the ' Edinburgh ' and the ' Quarterly.' 
The contempt expressed by Croker and the 
other critics was, in fact, largely that of 
quidnuncs of St. James's Street for gossip 
collected from sources north of Piccadilly. 
It would be difficult indeed to distinguish 
the degrees of authenticity between the 
anecdotes of Wraxall and those edited by 
Croker himself (in the ' Her vey ' and ' Suffolk ' 
memoirs), and except in one or two in- 
stances, such as those of Whitworth, Al- 
vanley, and Rumbold, where Wraxall was 
swayed by an easily explicable personal bias, 
Macaulay's ' Mendacium Wraxallianum' can 
no longer be held to be fairly applicable. His 
portraits of the minor actors on the politi- 
cal stage between 1772 and 1784 are of real 
historical value ; and, although there must 
be many blemishes upon the surface of a 
canvas so vast, his book has signally falsi6ed 
the prediction of the critics that it would be 
rapidly forgotten. Wraxall's wide reading 
in history afforded him a fertile field of illus- 
tration ; this circumstance and his weakness 
for ' travell'd learning ' render him a very 
discursive writer ; but, though diffuse, he is 
nearly always entertaining. 

Practically nothing is known of Wraxall's 
declining years. He died at Dover on 7 Nov. 
1831, ' on his way to Naples, aged 80 ' (Ann. 
Reg. 1831, p. 258). He was buried in St. 
James's Church, Dover (MURRAY, Sent, p. 
62). He married, on 30 March 1789, Jane, 
eldest daughter of Peter Lascelles of Knights 
in Hertfordshire (Gent. May. 1789, i. 371), 
and left two sons, Lieutenant-colonel Wil- 
liam Lascelles, second baronet (b. 5 Sept. 
1791, d. 2 May 1863), and Charles Edward 
(1792-1854), lieutenant royal artillery, and 
father of Sir Frederic Charles Lascelles 
Wraxall [q. v.] 

A portrait of Wraxall was engraved by 
T. Cheeseman from an original drawing by 
J.Wright (published 8 March 1813 in Cadell 
and Davies's ' Contemporary Portraits ') : 
another portrait was engraved for the ' Me- 
moirs ' by Robert Cooper (Brit. Mus. print- 
room). 

Wraxall's chief publications were: 1. 'Cur- 
sory Remarks made in a Tour through some 
of the Northern Parts of Europe, particu- 
larly Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Peters- 
burgh,' London, 1775, 8vo. A dedication to 
Viscount Clare is dated Bristol, 1 Feb. The 
writer candidly avows (p. 267) that his work 
is based upon hasty observation, but he suc- 
ceeded in rendering the ' Letters ' of which 
it is composed uniformly amusing. ' You 
may read him,' wrote Dr. Johnson to Mrs. 
Thrale on 22 May 1775. A fourth edition 



appeared in 1807, under the title 'A Tour 
round the Baltic.' 2. ' Memoirs of the Kings 
of France of the Race of Valois, interspersed 
with interesting anecdotes. To which is 
added A Tour through the Western, Southern, 
and Interior Provinces of France, in a series 
of Letters,' London, 1777, 2 vols. 8vo. The 
dedication, addressed to the Earl of Hills- 
borough, is dated New Bond Street, 22 Nov. 
1776. A second edition was less appro- 
priately entitled ' The History of France 
under the Kings of the Race of Valois 
(1364-1574),' 1785; 3rd edit. 1807. The 
amusing qualities of this work are appre- 
ciated in Smyth's ' Lectures on Modern 
History ' (vol. ix.) The ' Tour ' appended to 
the first edition was published separately in 
1784, and again in 1807. 3. ' History of 
France from the Accession of Henry III to 
the Death of Louis XIV, preceded by A 
View of the Civil, Military, and Political 
State of Europe between the Middle and 
Close of the Sixteenth Century,' London, 

1795, 3 vols. 4to ; and 1814, 6 vols. 8vo. 
The work progressed only as far as the death 
of Henri IV, and was never finished. It. 
was commended in the ' Monthly Review ' 
(1795, ii. 241). 4. ' Correspondence between 
a Traveller and a Minister of State in Oc- 
tober and November 1792, preceded by Re- 
marks upon the Origin and the Final Object 
of the Present War, as well as upon the 
Political Position of Europe in October 

1796. Translated from the original French, 
with a Preface, by N. W. W.,' London, 1796, 
8vo. This pamphlet is dedicated to Pitt 
and Fox, who are urged to unite for the 
benefit of their country. 5. ' Memoirs of 
the Courts of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw, and 
Vienna in the years 1777, 1778, and 1779,' 
London, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo; 1799 (Dublin), 
1800 and 1806: a book ' abounding in en- 
livening anecdote ' (Monthly Review, 1799, 
iii. 390). 6. ' Historical Memoirs of my 
own Time, from 1772 to 1784,' London, 
1815, 2 vols. 8vo ; 2nd edit., with omissions, 
June 1815; 3rd edit., revised and corrected, 
1818, 3 vols. 8vo. Prefixed to the third 
edition are three letters to reviewers and a 
' Second Answer to the Calumnious Attacks 
of the "Edinburgh;"' 4th edit., revised 
with additions, 1836, 4 vols. 8vo (Phila- 
delphia, 1837 and 1845). 7. ' Posthumous 
Memoirs of his own Time, by Sir N. W. 
Wraxall '(1784-90), London, 1836, 3 vols. 
8vo (Philadelphia, 1836); 3rd edit. 1845, 
8vo. By way of preface the writer again 
answers the strictures of his reviewers, and 
gives an account of his relations with Count 
Woronzow. In this work, more than in the 
' Historical Memoirs,' interest is concen- 



Wray 



74 



Wray 



trated upon the House of Commons. It met | 
a similar fate to its predecessor, being se- | 
verely reviewed in the ' Quarterly ' (vol. 
Ivii.), ' Westminster' (vol. xxvi.), ' Gentle- j 
man's Magazine ' (1836, ii. 115), and else- 
where. Sir Egerton Brydges, in ' Fraser ' 
(vol. xiv.), wrote, however, that ' Wraxall's 
characters are generally correct,' and this 
verdict, is strongly supported by the annota- 
tions of Mrs. Piozzi and others. 

In 1884 the ' Historical and Posthumous 
Memoirs ' were combined in an admirable , 
edition, with introduction and notes, by Mr. 
H. B. VVheatley, F.S.A. (London, 5 vols. 
8vo, with portrait of Wraxall), with an ap- 
pendix of ' Reminiscences of Royal and j 
Noble Personages,' hitherto unpublished, and j 
a full index. The text embodies Wraxall's 
latest corrections, together with annotations ! 
by Mrs. Piozzi, Dr. Doran, and Henry G. 
Bohn. The work, which contains numerous 
illustrations, has proved a favourite recipient J 
of extra illustration. 

[Introduction to Wraxall's Memoirs, ed. 
Wheatley, 1884; Gent. Mag. 1832 i. 268, 1836 
ii. 115; Annual Biogr. and Obituary, 1833; 
Debrett's Baronetage, 1828, p. 667; Burke's 
Peerage and Baronetage ; Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1816 ; Pantheon of the Age, 1825, iii. 
633; Annual Eegister, 1831, p. 288; Prior's 
Life of Malone, p. 271 ; Mrs. Piozzi's Letters, 
ii. 98 ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, iii. 
425-6, ed. Croker, 1848, p. 614; Oorresp. of 
George III and Lord North, ed. Donne; Cum- 
berland's Memoirs; Mme. D'Arblay's Diary, 
1891. i. 551 ; Raikes's Journal, 1858, ii. 12-13 ; 
Jesse's Mems. of George III, 1867, ii. 22, 323, 
532 ; Blackwood's Mag. 1 836, xl. 63 ; Athenaeum, 
1836, pp. 373, 398; Specta tor, 1884 ; Harvard's 
Autobiogr of Mrs. Piozzi, 1863, ii. 89 ; Lascelles 
Wraxall's Life and Times of Caroline Matilda, 
1864; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Literature; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 231, 3rd ser. v. 511, 
6th ser. ix. and x.] T. S. 

WRAY, SIR CECIL (1734-180-5), tenth 
baronet, politician, born on 3 Sept. 1734, was 
the eldest and only surviving son of Sir John 
Wray, ninth baronet (d. 1752), who married 
on 4 March 1727-8 Frances (d. 1770), daugh- 
ter and sole heiress of Fairfax Norcliffe of 
Langton, Yorkshire [see under WRAY, SIR 
CHRISTOPHER]. On the death of his father 
in 1752 Cecil succeeded to the baronetcy and 
to large estates in Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and 
Yorkshire. He lived in a large house on the 
north-east side of Eastgate, Lincoln, but, 
through annoyance from ' the clanging 
of anvils in a blacksmith's shop opposite, 
got disgusted' with it (VENABLES, Lincoln 
Streets, p. 21). He also procured the demo- 
lition of the four gatehouses across Eastgate 
(tb. p. 21). From 26 Dec. 1755 to 20 Dec. 



1757 he was a cornet in the 1st dragoons, 
and on 17 June 1778 he was appointed 
captain in the South Lincolnshire militia. 
He was also captain of a troop of yeomanry. 
In 1760 Wray built a ' Gothic castellated 
building,' which he called Summer Castle, 
after his wife's name, but it has long been 
known as Fillinghain Castle. It stands on 
a hill about ten miles from Lincoln. He 
contested the borough of East Retford in 
1768 as ' a neighbouring country gentleman 
and a member of the Bill of Rights Society ' 
against the interest of the Duke of Newcastle 
and the corporation, and sat for it in the 
two parliaments from 1768 to 1780 (OLD- 
FIELD, Purl. Hist. iv. 340). He acted as 
chairman of the committee for amending 
the poor laws, and was one of the strongest 
opponents of the American war. On the 
elevation of Rodney to the peerage Wray, 
mainly through the influence of Fox, was 
nominated by the whig association to fill 
the vacancy in the representation of West- 
minster, and he held the seat from 12 June 
1782 to 1784. 

Between these dates the coalition of Fox 
and North had been brought about, and 
Wray at once denounced the union in the 
House of Commons. He also opposed with 
vigour Fox's India bill. At the general 
election in 1784 he stood for AVestminster, 
with the support of the tories, and in the 
hope of ousting Fox from the representation. 
The poll opened on 1 April, and closed on 
17 May, when the most famous of all poli- 
tical contests ended, the numbers being 
Hood 6,694, Fox 6,233, Wray 5,998. The 
beaten candidate demanded a scrutiny, 
which the high bailiff', a tool of the tories, 
at once granted, and it was not abandoned 
until 3 March 1785, when he was ordered 
by parliament to make his return at once 
(OLDFIELD, Parl. Hist. iv. 218-19, 234-5 ; 
GREGO, Parl. Elections, pp. 259-88). 

Wray, without possessing ' superior talents, 
was independent in mind as well as in 
fortune' (WRAXALL, Memoirs, 1884, ed. iii. 
80), and had agreeable manners, but he was 
parsimonious. During the contest of West- 
minster the wits made themselves merry 
over his frailties. His ' small beer ' was 
ridiculed, the ' unfinished state of his newly 
fronted house in Pall Mall' was sneered at 
(Rolliad, dedication), and he provoked much 
raillery by his proposals to abolish Chelsea 
Hospital and to tax maid-servants. Some 
absurd lines were attributed to him in the 
'Rolliad' (1795, pp. 99, 239), and to him 
was imputed an irregular ode in the contest 
for the poet-laureateship (ib. pp. 292-3). 

Wray figured in many of Rowlandson's 



Wray 



75 



Wray 



plates to the ' History of the Westminster 
Election, 1784.' His person reappears as 
that of a whig in 1791 in Gillray's carica- 
tures of ' the hopes of the party prior to 
July 14,' and 'A Birmingham Toast as given 
on 14 July by the Revolution Society.' He 
lived after 1784 in comparative obscurity. 
He died at Fillingham or Summer Castle, 
Lincolnshire, on 10 Jan. 1805, and was 
buried at Fillingham, a tablet being placed 
in the church to his memory. His wife was 
Esther Summers, but nothing is known as 
to her history or the date of their marriage. 
She died at Summer Castle on 1 Feb. 1825, 
aged 89, and was buried at Fillingham, 
where a tablet preserves her memory. They 
had no issue, and Sir Cecil Wray's estates, 
which his widow enjoyed for her life, passed 
to his nephew, son of John Dalton (1726- 
181 1) [q. v.], who had married his sister 
Isabella. 

There was published in 1784 'A full 
Account of the Proceedings in Westminster 
Hall, 14 Feb. 1784, with the Speeches of 
Sir Cecil Wray and others ; ' and Watt 
mentions under his name the ' Resolves of 
the Committee appointed to try the Election 
for the County of Gloucester in 1777, printed 
from the Notes of Sir Cecil Wray, the Chair- 
man' (Bibl. Britannica). 

A full-length portrait by Reynolds of Sir 
Cecil Wray is said to be at Sleningford. 
and there are portraits also at Langton and 
Fillingham Castle. Miss Dalton of Staindrop 
possesses a miniature of him, in the uniform 
of the 1st dragoons, and a full-length portrait 
by Opie of him in yeomanry uniform. Lady 
Wray's portrait was painted in 1767 by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. In 1865 it was at 
Sleningford, near Ripon,the seat of Captain 
Dalton, and was in fair condition. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetcies; Gent. Mag. 1805 
i. 91, ii. 611, 1825 i. 477; Wraxall's Memoirs 
(1884 ed.), iii. 18, 80, 284-5, 341-7 ; Hist, of 
Lincolnshire, 1834, p. 39; Monthly Mag. 18^5, 
i.80-2 ; Leslie and Tnylor's Sir Joshua Keynolds, 
i. 282- 3 ; Charles Dalton's Wrays of Glentworth, 
ii. 187-214 ; Wright and Evans's Gillray Carica- 
tures, pp. 35-36 ; Wright's Caricature Hist, of 
the Georges, pp. 381-98 ; Grego's Kowlandson, 
i. 122-42.] W. P. C. 

WRAY, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1524- 
1592), judge, third son of Thomas Wray, 
seneschal in 1535 of Coverham Abbey, 
Yorkshire, by Joan, daughter of Robert 
Jackson of Gatenby, Bedale, in the same 
county, was born at Bedale in 1524. The 
ancient doubts, revived by Lord Campbell 
(Chief Justices, i. 200), as to his legitimacy, 
were removed by the publication in 1857 of 
the wills of his mother (by her second mar- 



riage wife of John Wycliffe, auditor of 
issues in the Richmond district) and his 
brother-in-law, Ralph Gower ( Richmondshire 
Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. pp. 156, 
161, 194-6). The pedigree, however, was 
first traced with accuracy from the Wrays 
of WAisleydale by the Rev. Octavius Wray 
in the ' Genealogist,' ed. Marshall, iv. 278- 
282. 

Wray was an alumnus of Buckingham (re- 
founded during his residence as Magdalene) 
College, Cambridge. Though apparently no 
graduate, he was a loyal son to his alma 
mater, and set a high value on learning. 
Tradition ascribes to him the adornment of 
the college with the rich Renaissance west 
porch, and a deed dated 16 July 1587 shows 
that he had then built or rebuilt a portion 
of the edifice containing three stories of four 
rooms apiece, which were appropriated to 
the use of two fellows and six scholars, 
whose maintenance he secured by a rent- 
charge (see WILLIS and CLAEK, Architec- 
tural History oftJie University of Cambridge, 
ii. 364). He added another fellowship by 
his will ; two more were founded by his wife 
in 1591, and a fellowship and two scholar- 
ships by his second daughter in 1625. 

Wray was admitted on 6 Feb. 1544-5 
student at Lincoln's Inn, where he was 
called to the bar in Hilary term 1549-50, 
was reader in autumn 1562, treasurer in 
1565-6, and again reader in Lent 1567 in 
anticipation of his call to the degree of 
serjeant-at-laAV, which took place in the en- 
suing Easter term. On 18 June of the same 
year he was made queen's Serjeant. His 
parliamentary career began by his return 
(30 Sept. 1553) for Boroughbridge, York- 
shire, which constituency he continued to 
represent until the death of Queen Mary. 
From 1563 to 1567 he sat for Great Grimsby, 
Lincolnshire. Like most of the gentlemen 
of the north, he was probably catholic at 
heart, but he evidently steered a wary course, 
for in the religious census of justices of the 
peace, compiled by episcopal authority in 1 564, 
he is entered as ' indifferent.' In the following 
year he was assigned by the court of king's 
bench as counsel for Bonner in the proceed- 
ings on the prsemunire. In the spring of 
1569-70 he attended the assizes held at York, 
Carlisle, and Durham for the trial of the 
northern rebels, and was employed in re- 
ceiving their submissions. Among them 
were his brother Thomas and his sister's son 
John Gower, both of whom were pardoned. 

In the parliament of 1571 Wray, taen 
member for Ludgershall, Wiltshire, was 
chosen speaker of the House of Commons. 
In his address to the throne on presentation 



Wray ; 

(4 April) he expatiated with much learning 
and eloquence in praise of the royal supre- 
macy in matters ecclesiastical, touched 
lightly but loyally on supply, and gratefully 
acknowledged the free course which her 
majesty allowed to the administration of 
justice. The speech introduced petitions for 
freedom from arrest, free access to and con- 
siderate audience by her majesty, and free 
speech. The first three were granted ; the 
last only elicited an intimation that the 
commons would do well to meddle with no 
affairs of state but such as might be referred 
to them by ministers. The revival, in de- 
fiance of this injunction, of the whole ques- 
tion of the reformation of religion and church 
government occasioned an early dissolution 
(29 May). An act (13 Eliz. c. 29) con- 
firming the charters, liberties, and privileges 
of the university of Cambridge owed its 
passage largely to Wray's influence, for 
which the thanks of the senate were com- 
municated to him by letter (5 June). 

Wray was appointed on 14 May 1572 
justice, and on 8 Nov. 1574 chief justice, of 
the queen's bench. The only state trial in 
which as puisne he took part was that in 
Trinity term 1572 of John Hall and Francis 
Rolston for conspiracy to effect the release 
of Mary Queen of Scots. As chief justice, 
in addition to his ordinary jurisdiction he 
exercised functions of a somewhat multi- 
farious character. He was a member of the 
commission appointed on 23 April 1577 to 
adjudicate on the validity of the election of 
John Underbill (1545 P-1592) [q. v.] to the 
rectorship of Lincoln College, Oxford ; and 
as assistant to the House of Lords he advised 
on bills, received petitions, and on one 
occasion (14 Sept. 1586) was placed on the 
commission for its adjournment. He was a 
strong judge, who well knew how to sustain 
the dignity of his office, and showed as much 
firmness in restraining by prohibition an 
excess of jurisdiction on the part of the 
ecclesiastical commission in 1581 as in 
enforcing the laws against the sectaries in 
that and subsequent years [see BROWNE, 
ROBERT; CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS, 1535-1603 ; 
and COPPIN or COPPING, JOHN], It was not 
until towards the close of his life that he 
was himself added to the ecclesiastical com- 
mission (Christmas 1589). 

The principal state trials over which he 
presided were those of the puritan John 
Stubbs or Stubbe [q. v.], the Jesuit Edmund 
Campion [q. v.], and his harbourer, William, 
lord Yaux (son of Thomas, second baron 
Vaux of Harrowden [q. v.]), and the con- 
spirators against the life of the queen, John 
Somerville [q. v.] and William Parry (d. 



) Wray 

1585) [q. v.] He also presided at the Star- 
chamber inquest, by which (23 June 1580) 
the suicide and treasons of the Earl of 
Northumberland were certified [see PERCY, 
HENRY, eighth EARL OP NORTHUMBERLAND] ; 
and was a member of the commissions which 
attainted Northumberland's accomplice, Wil- 
liam, grandson of Sir William Shelley [q. v.], 
and passed sentence of death upon Anthony 
Babington [q. v.] and his associates (Septem- 
ber 1586). He was present at Fotheringay 
as assessor to the tribunal before which the 
Queen of Scots pleaded in vain for her life 
(14 Oct. 1586), but appears to have taken 
no part in the proceedings. He presided, 
vice Sir Thomas Bromley (1530-1587) [q. v.], 
absent through illness, at the subsequent 
trial in the Star-chamber of the unfortunate 
secretary of state, William Davison [q. v.], 
whose indiscreet zeal he blandly censured 
as ' bonum sed non bene ' before pronouncing 
the ruthless sentence of the court (28 March 
1587). The last state trials in which he took 
part were those of Philip Howard, thirteenth 
earl of Arundel [q. v.], on 18 April 1589, 
and of Sir John Perrot [q. v.] on 27 April 
1592. At a conference with his colleagues 
in Michaelmas term 1590 he initiated the 
revision of the form of commissions of the 
peace, then full of corruptions and redun- 
dancies. 

He died on 7 May 1592, and was buried 
in the church of Glentworth, Lincolnshire, 
where, by the aid of grants from the profits 
of the mint, he had built for himself a noble 
mansion, which was long the seat of his 
posterity, and of which a portion was after- 
wards incorporated in the modern Glent- 
worth Hall. By his will he established a 
dole for the inmates of an almshouse which 
he had built on the estate. A sessions 
house at Spittal-in-the-Street was also built 
by him. 

Wray was lord of the manors Brodsworth 
and Cusworth, Yorkshire, and of Ashby, 
Fillingham, Grainsby, and Kennington, 
Lincolnshire. His monument, a splendid 
structure in alabaster and other marbles, is 
in the chancel of Glentworth church. ' Re 
Justus, nomine verus,' so, in allusion to his 
motto and with an evident play upon his 
name, he is characterised by the inscription. 
Coke (Rep. iii. 26) praises his ' profound and 
judicial knowledge, accompanied with a 
ready and singular capacity, grave and sen- 
sible elocution, and continual and admirable 
patience.' No less eulogistic, though less 
weightv, are the encomiums of David Lloyd 
(State "Worthies, i. 467) and Fuller ( Wor- 
thies of England, ed. 1662, p. 200). Their 
general accuracy is unquestionable ; and 



Wray 



77 



Wray 



though the judicial murder of Campion and 
the iniquitous sentence on Davison show 
that in crown cases Wray was by no means 
too scrupulous, it is unfair to apply the 
moral standard of the nineteenth century to 
a judge of the Elizabethan age. 

Original portraits of Wray are at "Filling- 
ham Castle, Lincolnshire, and Sleningford 
Park, Yorkshire, the seats of his present 
representative, Mr. Seymour Berkeley Port- 
man-Dalton, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. A copy of one of the family por- 
traits, done in the lifetime of Sir Cecil 
Wray [q. v.], is at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge. Engraved portraits are in the 
British Museum, the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine (1805, ii. 1105 ; cf. ib. 1806, i. 115) and 
Dalton's ' History of the Wrays of Glent- 
worth' (1880). 

Wray's judgments and charges are re- 
corded in the reports of Dyer, Plowden, 
Coke, and Croke, Cobbett's ' State Trials ' (i. 
1069-71, 1110-12, 1238), and Nicolas's ' Life 
of Davison '(p. 327). One of his speeches on 
a call of Serjeants in Michaelmas term 1578 
has been preserved by Dugdale ( Orig. Jurid. 
1660, p. 222). His speech to the throne in 
1571 may be read in Sir Simonds D'Ewes's 

* Journals of all the Parliaments during the 
Reign of Queen Elizabeth ' (1682, p. 141), 
or in Cobbett's ' Parliamentary History ' (i. 
729). For his opinions, notes of cases, letters, 
and other miscellaneous remains, see Peck's 

* Desiderata Curiosa ' (p. 107), University 
Library Cambridge MS. Ee IT. i. f. 132, 
Lansdowne MSS. 38 ff. 19, 55, 64, and 50 
f. 57 ; Harleian MSS. 6993 f. 123, 6994 f. 19 ; 
Egerton MS. 1693 f. 105 ; Additional MSS. 
33597 f. 18, 34079 f. 19 ; and Hist, MSS. 
omm. 4th Rep. App. pp. 216, 221, llth 
Rep. App. vii. 306, 12th Rep. App. iv. 90, 
141,148, 152, 14th Rep. App. viii. 257; 
Calendar of Cecil MSS. pt. ii. pp. 136, 1 37, 509. 

By his wife Anne, daughter of Nicholas 
Girlington of Normanby, Yorkshire, Wray 
had issue a son and two daughters. The 
elder daughter, Isabel, married, first, God- 
frey Foljambe of Aldwarke, Yorkshire, and 
Walton, Derbyshire, who died on 14 June 
1595; secondly, in or before 1600, Sir Wil- 
liam Bowes, who succeeded his uncle Robert 
Bowes [q. v.] in the Scottish embassy, and 
died on 30 Oct. 1611 ; thirdly, on 7 May 
1617, John, lord Darcy of Aston, com- 
monly called Lord Darcy of the North. She 
died on 12 Feb. 1623. Frances, the younger 
daughter, married, first, in 1583, Sir George 
Saint Paule, bart. (so created on 29 June 
1611), of Snarford, Lincolnshire, who died 
on 28 Oct. 1613; secondly, on 21 Dec. 1616, 
Robert Rich, earl of Warwick, whom she 



survived, dying about 1634. The son, Sir 
William Wray (1555-1617), was created a 
baronet on 25 Nov. 1611, and married, first, 
in 1580, Lucy, eldest daughter of Sir Edward 
Montagu of Boughton, son of Sir Edward 
Montagu [q. v.], by whom he was father of 
Sir John Wray [q. v.] ; and, secondly, about 

1600, Frances, daughter of Sir William Drury 
of Hawsted, Suffolk, and widow of Sir Nicho- 
las Clifford, by whom he was father of 

SIR CHRISTOPHER WRAY (1601-1646), of 
Ashby and Barlings, Lincolnshire, born in 

1601, and knighted on 12 Nov. 1623. He 
successfully resisted the levy of shipmoney 
in 1636, represented Great Grimsby in the 
Long parliament, was deputy lieutenant of 
Lincolnshire under the militia ordinance, and 
co-operated in the field with John Hotham 
[q. v.] He was appointed on 15 April 1645 
commissioner of the admiralty, and on 5 Dec. 
following commissioner resident with the 
Scottish forces before Newark. He died on 

8 Feb. 1645-6, leaving by his wife Albinia 
(married on 3 Aug. 1623), daughter of Sir 
Edward Cecil (afterwards Baron Cecil of 
Putney and Viscount Wimbledon), six sons 
and six daughters [cf. VANE, SIR HENRY, 
the younger]. The eldest son, Sir William 
Wray, bart. (so created in June 1660), died 
in October 1669, leaving, with other issue by 
his wife Olympia, second daughter of Sir 
Humphrey Tufton, bart., of The Mote, Kent, 
a son, Sir Christopher Wray, bart., who on 
the extinction of the male line of the elder 
branch of the family succeeded in 1672 to 
the Glent worth baronetcy, and died without 
issue in A ugust 1679. On the death about 
March 1685-6 of his only surviving brother 
and successor in title, Sir William Wray, 
bart., the junior baronetcy became extinct. 

SIR DRURY WRAY (1633-1710), third son 
of Sir Christopher Wray (1601-1646), by his 
wife Albinia Cecil, born on 29 July 1633, 
obtained in 1674 grants of land in the coun- 
ties of Limerick and Tipperary, which he for- 
feited by his loyalty to James II, on whose 
side he fought at the battle of the Boyne. 
He succeeded his nephew, Sir Baptist Edward 
Wray, as ninth baronet of Glentworth about 
1689, and died on 30 Oct. 1710, leaving, with 
female issue by his wife Anne, daughter of 
Thomas Casey of Rathcannon, co. Limerick, 
two sons, both of whom died without issue 
after succeeding to the baronetcy, the younger, 
Sir Cecil Wray, the eleventh baronet, on 

9 May 1736, having acquired by entail the 
Glentworth and other estates. The title and 
estates thus passed to Sir Drury Wray's 
grand-nephew, Sir John Wray, bart., of 
Sleningford, Yorkshire, father of Sir Cecil 
Wray [q. v.] 



Wray 



Wray 



[Lincoln's Inn Adm. Reg. i. 55, and Black 
Books, i. 293, 336, 338, 349, 352-3 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-92 ; 4th Rep. of the Deputy- 
Keeper of the Public Records, App. ii. 270-82 ; 
Rymer's Fcedera, ed. Sanderson, xv. 773 ; Cal. 
Chanc. Proceedings (Eliz.), iii. 245,287 ; Charity 
Comm. 32nd Rep. pt. iv. pp. 412, 453 ; Coke's 
Institutes, pt. iv. p. 171 ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 
pp. 92-4; Metcalfe's Book of Knights; Arehaeo- 
logia, xi. 23, xxx. 105, xli. 369; Monro's Acta 
Cancellarise, p. 444 ; Jones's Index to Records, 
called Originalia and Memoranda (1703) ; 
Sharp's Memorials of the Rebellion in 1569, p. 
225; Comm. Journ. i. 82; Analyt. Index to 
Remembrancia ; Manningham's Diary (Cnmden 
Soc.);CamdenMisc.ix., 'Letters from the Bishops 
to the Privy Council, 1564,' p. 27 ; Cartwright's 
Chapters of the History of Yorkshire, p. 60 ; 
D'Ewes's Journals of all the Parliaments during 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, pp. 312, 323, 
345, 377, 420; Ducatus Lancastrise, ii. 206; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, ii. 409-10, 493 ; 
Strype's Works ; Acts of the Privy Council, new 
ser. vol. vii. et seq. ; Cal. Inner Temple Records, 
i. 406; Surtees's Durham, ii. 223-6 ; Plantagenet 
Harrison's Yorkshire, p. 43 ; Allen's Lincolnshire, 
ii. 38; Lodge's Illustrations of British History, 
ii. 382; Leland's Collectanea, ed. Hearne, v. 
241 ; Camden's Britannia, ed. Gough, ii. 133, 
266 ; Nichols's Progr. Eliz. ii. 496, James I, 
ii. 135 ; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 
Wornum; Court and Times of James I, i. 449 ; 
Wotton's Baronetage (1741), i. 242; Burke's 
Extinct Baronetage; Cooper's Athenne Cantabr. ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

WRAY, DANIEL (1701-1783), anti- 
quary, born on 28 Nov. 1701 in the parish 
of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, was the youngest 
child of Sir Daniel Wray (d. 1719), a Lon- 
don citizen and soap-boiler residing in Little 
Britain, by his second wife. His father was 
knighted on 24 March 1707-8, while high 
sheriff of Essex, where he possessed an estate 
near Ingatestone. At the age of thirteen the 
son was received at Charterhouse as a day 
scholar. In 1718 he matriculated from 
Queens' College, Cambridge, graduating 
B.A. in 1722, and M.A. in 1728. Between 
1722 and 1728 he paid a prolonged visit to 
Italy in the company of James Douglas 
(afterwards fourteenth Earl of Morton) [q. v.] 
On 13 March 1728-9 he was admitted a 
fellow of the Royal Society, and on 18 June 
1731 he was incorporated at Oxford. He 
resided generally at Cambridge until 1739 
or 1740, but after being elected a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries in January 1740- 
1741 he became a more habitual resident of 
London, lodging at the house of Arthur 
Pond [q. v.], the painter and engraver. At 
a later date he removed to lodgings at Rich- 
mond, and after his marriage took a house 



in town, first in King Street, Covent Garden, 
and afterwards in Duke Street, Soho, and 
another at Richmond. 

In 1737 Wray became acquainted with 
Philip Yorke (afterwards second Earl of 
Hardwicke) [q. v.], and a friendship grew 
up between them which was only terminated 
by Wray's death. In 1741 Philip and his 
brother, Charles Yorke (1722-1770) [q. v.], 
brought out the first volume of the ' Athe- 
nian Letters,' to which Wray contributed 
under the signature ' W.' In 1745 Philip 
Yorke appointed Wray his deputy teller of 
the exchequer, an office which he continued 
to hold until 1782. 

Wray had many friends among his literary 
contemporaries. Among them may be men- 
tioned Henry Coventry (d. 1752) [q. v.], 
William Heberden the elder [q. v.J, Wil- 
liam Warburton [q. v.], Conyers Middleton 
[q. v.], and Nicholas Hardinge [q. v.] He 
was a devoted antiquary and collector of rare 
books, and on 18 June 1765 was appointed 
one of the trustees of the British Museum. 
He possessed the gift of attracting and 
assisting younger men. Among those who 
considered themselves specially indebted to 
him were Francis Wollaston [q. v.], George 
Hardinge [q. v.], and William Heberden the 
younger [q. v.] 

Wray died on 29 Dec. 1783, and was 
buried in the church of St. Botolph Without, 
where there is a tablet to his memory. He 
married Mary (d. 10 March 1803), daughter 
of Robert Darell of Richmond, Surrey. His 
portrait by Sir Nathaniel Holland was pre- 
sented by his widow to Queens' College, 
Cambridge. Another, engraved by Henry 
Meyer from a painting by Nathaniel Dance, 
forms the frontispiece of the first volume of 
John Nichols's ' Literary Illustrations.' A 
copy of Dance's portrait by John Powell was 
presented to the Charterhouse library. In 
the ' Literary Illustrations ' there is an en- 
graving by Barak Longmate of a profile of 
Wray cut out in paper by his wife, said to 
be a remarkable likeness, and a copy of a 
profile in bronze executed in Rome by G. 
Pozzo in 1726. His library was presented 
by his widow to Charterhouse in 1785, and a 
' Catalogue ' was printed in 1790, 8vo. 

Though Wray wrote much, he published 
little in his lifetime. He contributed three 
papers to the first two volumes of ' Archseo- 
logia ' on classical antiquities. After his death 
George Hardinge compiled a memoir to ac- 
company a collection of his verses and corre- 
spondence, which he published in 1817 in the 
first volume of ' Literary Illustrations,' with 
a dedication to Philip Yorke, third earl of 
Hardwicke [q. v.] Fifty copies of the me- 



Wray 79 

moir were separately printed for private dis- 
tribution. Two sonnets to Wray by Thomas 
Edwards (1699-1757) [q. v.] appear in the 
later editions of Edwards's ' Canons of Cri- 
ticism.' Hardinge declares that a sonnet by 
Richard Roderick [q. v.], printed in Robert 
Dodsley's ' Collection of Poems ' (ed. 1775, 
ii. 321), and again in 'Elegant Extracts,' 
edited by Vicesimus Knox [q. v.] (ed. 1796, 
p. 838), is also addressed to Wray, but the 
identification seems doubtful. 

Wray is one of those who have been 
identified with Junius. In 1830 James 
Falconar published an ingenious work en- 
titled ' The Secret Revealed,' in which he 
made out a plausible case for the identifica- 
tion. An examination of his evidence shows, 
however, that it is untrustworthy (cf. Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 164, 212). 

[Nichols's Lit. Illustr. i. 1-168, 826-30, ii. 
87, 100, 126, 130, iii. 43, ir. 524-37, viii. 406; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 441-2, 712, vii. 716, 
viii. 525, ix. 445, G09 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. 
1817; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. 
Mag. 1779 p. 150, 1783 i. 393, 1784 i. 72, ii. 
567, 1785 i. 337, ii. 512, 689, 1803 i. 601 ; 
"Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present, 1891, i. 226; Thomson's Hist, of the 
Royal Soc. Appendix, p. xxxviii ; Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Surrey, 1814, iii. 127.] 

E. I. C. 

WRAY, SIR JOHN (1586-1655), parlia- 
mentarian, eldest surviving son of Sir William 
Wray [see under WEAY, SIR CHRISTOPHER] 
of Glentworth, by his first wife, Lucy, eldest 
daughter of Sir Edward Montagu of Bough- 
ton, was born in 1586, and spent the last three 
years of his minority in foreign travel. He 
was knighted at Whitehall on 7 June 1612, 
and succeeded to the baronetcy on 13 Aug. 
1617. He represented the county of Lincoln 
in the first, third, and fourth parliaments of 
Charles I and the Long parliament. While 
serving the office of high sheriff of Lincoln- 
.shire he was placed (15 Feb. 1626-7) on the 
commission for raising the forced loan in that 
county. He declined to act under the com- 
mission, to contribute to the loan, or to give 
security for his appearance before the coun- 
cil, and suffered in consequence a term of im- 
prisonment in the Gatehouse [see DARNELL, 
SIR THOMAS]. He also made default in pay- 
ment of shipmoney (March 1 635-6) . He made 
a certain figure as a zealous presbyterian in 
the Short parliament (Harl. MS. 7162, f. 99 ; 
Addit. MS. 6411, f. 33) and in the earlier de- 
bates of the Long parliament (see the list of 
his printed speeches, infra). He moved the 
' protestation ' (3 May 1641), subscribed 600/. 
to the war fund (9 April 1642), and took 
the covenant (22 Sept. 1043). He was a 



Wray 



man of weight in the ' eastern association ' 
(see Cromwell's Speeches and Letters, ed. 
Carlyle, App. No. 5), and in the propositions 
submitted to the king in July 1646 was 
nominated one of the conservators of the 
peace with Scotland. On their rejection 
he retired from political life. He died in 
December 1655. 

Wray was one of the early patrons of Ed- 
ward Rainbowe [q. v.] His presbyterianism 
was apparently untinged with republican- 
ism, and, although he approved the execu- 
tion of Strafford and Laud, he was not pre- 
pared to mete out the same measure to the 
king. By his wife (married in September 
1607) Grisilla, only daughter of Sir Hugh 
Bethell of Ellerton, Yorkshire, he had, with 
eight daughters [see HOTHAM, JOHX, d. 
1645], four sons. His heir, Sir John Wray, 
bart., captain in the parliamentary array, 
and member for Lincolnshire in the parlia- 
ment of 1654-5, died in 1664, having 
married, first, Elizabeth, widow of Sir 
Simonds D'Ewes [q. v.] ; and, secondly, in 
1661, Sarah, daughter of Sir John Evelyn 
of West Dean, Wiltshire. His sole sur- 
viving issue was a daughter by his second 
wife, Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Saunderson, 
eldest son of George, fifth viscount Castleton. 
On her death without surviving issue the 
Glentworth estates passed by entail to her 
next heir male, Sir Cecil Wray, eleventh 
baronet [see under WRAT, SIR CHRISTOPHER, 
ad fin.~\ 

[For Sir John Wray's speeches in the Long 
parliament see Rushworth's Historical Collec- 
tions, in. i. 40, 240 ; Nalson's Collection of 
Affairs of State, pp. 522-3, 566, 781, 786, 796, 
809; Parl. Hist. ii. 671, 707, 742, 776, and 
King's Pamphlets, 1640-1, E 196 Nos. 10-17; 
Eight Occasional Speeches made in the House 
of Commons this Parliament, 1641 (1) con- 
cerning religion; (2) upon the same subject; 
(3) upon dismounting of the cannons; (4) upon 
the Scotch treaty; (5) upon the impeachment 
of the Lord Strafford, and Canterbury, &c. ; 
(6) upon the Straffordian knot; (7) upon the 
same subject ; (8) a seasonable motion for a 
loyal covenant ; also E 198 No. 8 and E 199 
No. 27; A Worthy Speech spoken in Parlia- 
ment, November the Thirteenth, concerning 
Episcopal Authority and lordly primacy of the 
Bishops in these our Times (cf. Cambr. Univ. 
Libr. MS. Mm. iv. 10, and Hist. MSS. Comm. 
10th Rep. App. ii. ii. 41, 13th Rep. App. i. 23). 
Some of the speeches are reprinted in extensn 
by Dalton (Wrays of Glentworth, i. 156 et seq.) 
See also Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10 p. 12<>, 
1627-8 p. 81, 1631-3 p. 65, 1633-4 p. 408, 
1635-6 pp. 288-9, 361, 1638-9 pp. 90, 171,217, 
226, 425, 1645-7 p. 264; Rimer's Foedcra, 
ed. Sanderson, xviii. 841 ; Metealfe's Book of 



Wren 

Knights, pp. 163, 181 ; Official Return of Memb. 
of Parl. ; Rushworth's Hist. Coll. in. i. 244, 
565, iv. i. 313; Whitelocke's Mem. (1732), 
pp. 34, 142, 184, 194; Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th 
Rep. App. iv. 463, 471. 13th Rep. App. i. 23, 
56, 14th Rep. App. via. 279, 283; Thurloe's 
State Papers, i. 79 ; Evelyn's Diary, 23 March 
1646 et seq. ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage ; Dai- 
ton's Wrays of Glentworth.] J. M. R. 

WREN, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1632- 
1723), architect, born at East Knoyle, near 
Tisbury, Wiltshire, on 20 Oct. 1632, was 
son of Christopher Wren (1591-1658), rector 
of East Knoyle. The father, son of Francis 
Wren, a London mercer, was educated at 
Merchant Taylors' school (1601-9) and St. 
John's College, Oxford. He was a well- 
known clergyman, acting as chaplain succes- 
sively to Bishop Lancelot Andrewes [q. v.] 
and to Charles I. He became rector of Font- 
hill, Wiltshire, in 1620, and of East Knoyle 
in 1623. Subsequently, on 4 April 1635, he 
was installed dean of Windsor, in succession 
to his elder brother, Matthew Wren [q.v.], 
bishop of Hereford, Norwich, and Ely, and 
held that dignity till his death. In 1639 
he was also appointed dean of the collegiate 
church of Wolverhampton and rector of 
Haseley, Oxfordshire. He died at Bletching- 
don, Oxfordshire, on 29 May 1658. The 
architect's mother, Mary, daughter of Robert 
Cox of Fonthill Abbey, died when he was 
very young. The exact date has not been 
recovered ; that she lived, however, at least 
two years after his birth is evident from the 
baptismal register at East Knoyle of her 
daughter Elizabeth, born 26 Dec. 1634. 
The boy's father lived to help and watch his 
progress for twenty-six years, and an elder 
sister took the mother's place. He was also 
from the first very intimate with his cousin, 
Matthew Wren, a son of the bishop[see under 
WREN, MATTHEW]. 

W r hen Wren was eleven years old his 
sister Susan married William Holder [q.v.] 
the mathematician, who undertook the in- 
struction of his nephew in that branch. 
During his boyhood Wren's constitution 
was very delicate ; he grew up short in 
stature. At nine years of age, after pre- 
liminary instruction from a private tutor, 
he was sent to Westminster school, then 
under Dr. Busby. At Westminster Wren 
learnt to write Latin well, and after only 
one year's residence he sent a letter to his 
father good both initslatinity and in its filial 
sentiments. But it was to natural science 
and mathematics that he was chiefly drawn. 
Some extant Latin verses addressed to his 
father in 1645 show in elegant Ovidian 
metre his predilection for astronomical re- 



5 Wren 

search (Parentalia, p. 182). In 1646, at the 
age of fourteen, he left Westminster. In the 
interval between leaving school and going to 
college he was chosen by Dr. (afterwards Sir 
Charles) Scarburgh [q. v.] as his assistant, 
demonstrating and making anatomical pre- 
parations and various experiments (ib. p. 187) 
for his lectures on anatomy at Surgeons' Hall. 
Shortly afterwards he was recommended to 
William Oughtred [q. v.] to translate into 
Latin his work on geometrical dialling. On 
25 June 1649 or 1650 he was entered at 
Wadham College as fellow-commoner (R. B. 
GARDINER, Rey. of Wadham, i. 178). The 
master of the college was John W r ilkins[q.v.], 
afterwards bishop of Chester. At Oxford 
Wren joined a society of philosophical in- 
quirers with whom he fully sympathised, and 
with whom he conducted many valuable ex- 
periments between 1646 and 1660. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 18 March 1650-1, and M.A. 
on 11 Dec. 1653. Shortly before the last 
date he was elected fellow of All Souls' 
College. He resided there till 1657, mainly 
engaged in scientific study and experiment. 
In that year Wren, being then twenty-five 
years old, succeeded Lawrence Rooke [q.v.] 
in the chair of astronomy at Gresham Col- 
lege, London. His rooms at Gresham Col- 
lege soon became a meeting-place of those 
men of science who subsequently founded 
the Royal Society. 

On 5 Feb. 1660-1 Wren was elected Savi- 
lian professor of astronomy at Oxford, and 
he then resigned his chair in Gresham Col- 
lege and his fellowship at All Souls'. In 
1661 Wren graduated D.C.L. at Oxford, and 
LL.D. at Cambridge. He retained the Savi- 
lian professorship till 9 March 1673, but 
before that date he had largely abandoned 
science for the practice of his profession of 
architecture. 

Wren's fame rests chiefly on his architec- 
tural achievements; but had his philosophical 
pursuits not been interfered with by the ab- 
sorbing work of the arduous profession to 
which he devoted himself in later life, he 
could not have failed of securing a scientific 
position higher than was attained by any of 
his contemporaries, with of course one ex- 
ception Newton. Before he became an 
architect he was acclaimed as a prodigy by 
reason of his scientific attainments. In 1662 
Isaac Barrow [q. v.], on becoming professor 
of geometry at Gresham College, spoke in 
his Latin inaugural oration of Wren, thus : 
' As one of whom it was doubtful whether 
he was most to be commended for the divine 
felicity of his genius or for the sweet huma- 
nity of his disposition formerly, as a boy a 
prodigy; now, as a man a miracle, nay, even 



Wren 



something superhuman ! ' The justification 
of this eulogy rests on what he did during 
the first thirty years of his life. 4part from 
more juvenile work, he contributed when 
scarcely nineteen years old to the ' Prole- 
gomena ' of the filth edition of Helvicus's 
' Theatrum Historicum,' published in 1651, 
a treatise on the Julian era, which is still 
useful. When twenty-one years old he had 
made elaborate drawings to illustrate Dr. 
Thomas Willis's work on the ' Anatomy of 
the Brain ' (ib, p. 227). He was some years 
afterwards specially requested by Charles II 
to prepare some drawings of insects micro- 
scopically enlarged. This talent of fine and 
accurate drawing must have been of great 
use to him in the profession which he subse- 
quently adopted, and indeed may have had 
much to do with his choosing it. With refe- 
rence to his skill in this and in experimental 
manipulation, Hooke writes of Wren in 
the preface to his ' Micrographia : ' 'I must 
affirm that since the time of Archimedes 
there scarce ever met in one man in so great 
a perfection such a mechanical hand and so 
philosophic a mind.' Probably about the 
same period he invented the planting instru- 
ment, which, ' being drawn by a horse over 
land ploughed and harrowed, shall plant corn 
equally and without waste, and a method of 
making fresh water at sea ' (ib. pp. 183 n. and 
198), and produced his clearly explained 
and illustrated scheme for the graphical con- 
struction of solar and lunar eclipses and 
occultation of stars, which was afterwards 
published in 1681 in Sir Jonas Moore's ' Sys- 
tem of Mathematics,' p. 533. About 1656 
he solved a problem proposed by Pascal to 
the geometers of England, and retorted by 
sending a challenge to the French savants 
one which had originally been issued by Kep- 
ler, and which Wren had himself solved. 
This challenge was not answered. 

Four tracts on the cycloid by Wren were 
published by John Wallis (1616-1703) [q.v.] 
in 1658 among his ' Mathematical Works ' 
(see i. 533), which Wren had communicated 
to him ; one of these was Kepler's problem, 
which Wren had solved by means of a -cy- 
cloid. These tracts on the cycloid show 
Wren's powerful handling of the old geo- 
metry. Demonstrations of this curve are 
given which are now considered to be proper 
subjects for the differential calculus; but 
Wren's solutions preceded by many years 
the publication of Newton's fluxions or the 
equivalent method of Leibnitz. It is much 
to be wished that more records had been 
preserved of Wren's geometrical demonstra- 
tions. The few that do exist quite justify 
Newton's high opinion (quoted below) of 

TOL. LXIII. 



Wren as a geometrician. Hooke in his 
' Cometa ' preserves a beautiful geometrical 
method of Wren for one of the steps in the 
graphical determination of a comet's path 
(see the diagram and text, ELMES, App. p. 60). 

Wren seems to have taken very little 
pains to secure for himself the merit of his 
various inventions, and it was generally 
believed that Henry Oldenburg [q.v.], the 
secretary to the Royal Society, was in the 
habit of communicating Wren's inventions 
to his friends in Germany, who passed them 
off for their own. It is through Flamsteed 
that we are enabled to give Wren the credit 
of his method of graphical construction of 
solar eclipses, and it is through Hooke that 
we learn of his geometry respecting the 
comet's path (HooKE, Posthumous Works, p. 
104). 

While Wren was still at Oxford, he initi- 
ated some experiments (see BOYLE, Works, 
i. 41 ; WAKD, Lives, p. 97) on the subject of 
the variations of the barometer, to test the 
opinion of Descartes that they were caused by 
the action of the moon. Observations for the 
same purpose had taken place near Clermont 
in France, at the instance of Pascal, about 
ten years earlier ; but the practical use of the 
instrument as connected with the weather 
is attributed to Wren, and was so recorded at 
a meeting of the Royal Society in February 
1679 (see also Derham's account of Hooke's 
experiments published in 1726). About the 
same date he made experiments which led 
him to the invention of a method for the 
transfusion of blood from one animal to 
another. This appears from a letter of Boyle, 
dated 1665, in which he speaks of the 
experiments ' started by Wren at Oxford 
about six years agone, long before others, as 
we know, thought of such a thing.' At the 
time very great results were expected from 
this invention ; nor is it now entirely obso- 
lete. Anatomical and medical subjects seem 
to have always engaged much of Wren's at- 
tention. To this he may have been led by 
sympathy with his sister Mrs. Holder's pur- 
suits, who was very skilful, and is even said 
to have cured Charles II of a hurt in his 
hand (PniLLiMOKE, p. 224), and to his own 
experience as demonstrating assistant to Dr. 
Scarburgh. Again, his cousin, Thomas Wren, 
a son of Bishop Matthew Wren, was in his 
earlier years a practising physician. We also 
read of Wren himself being busied with an 
invention for purifying and fumigating sick 
rooms (Parentolia, p. 213). Twelve pages 
of the 'Parentalia' (pp. 227-39) are de- 
voted to Wren's anatomical and medical 
pursuits. A study which greatly occupied 
Wren's thoughts from his college days even 



Wren 



Wren 



to the end of his life was the best method 
of finding the longitude at sea (zA. p. 246). 

Wren's inaugural oration addressed to the 
members of Gresham College in 1057 com- 
prises many subjects which still occupy the 
attention of scientific men. In this address, 
after a short exordium, he calls in astronomy 
in aid of theology, mentioning the unsatis- 
factory explanations given by theologians of 
the three days and nights during which our 
Lord rested in the grave. ' Here,' he said, 
' seems to be need of an astronomer, who 
thus possibly may explain it. While there 
was made by the motion of the sun a day 
and two nights in the hemisphere of Judea, 
and at the same time in the contrary hemi- 
sphere was made a day and two nights ; ' 
observing that 'Christ suffered not for Judea 
alone, but for the whole earth.' He also 
explained the retrocession of the shadow on 
the dial of Ahaz (2 Kings xx. 11) to be the 
effect of a partition, adding that we need 
not fear to diminish a miracle by explaining 
it. He then spoke of the enormous dis- 
tance of the nearest fixed star, ' and yet 
probably some are infinitely more remote 
than others.' He held out the expectation 
that some one of that age would explain 
Kepler's elliptical theory of the planetary 
orbits. This was said nearly thirty years 
before the publication of the ' Principia ; ' 
but Newton himself allows (Principia, Scho- 
lium to Prop. iv. B 1) that Wren, Hooke, 
and Halley had already arrived at the law 
of the inverse square. The demonstration, 
however, of this law was reserved for New- 
ton. Wren speaks with natural enthusiasm 
of the revelations, then comparatively new, 
afforded by the telescope of the physical 
nature of the sun, his spots and faculse, of 
the planets and the moon ' who to discover 
our longitudes by eclipsing the sun hath 
painted out the countries upon our globe 
with her conical shadow as with a pencil.' 
He mentions magnetics as a British inven- 
tion (that refer?, however, to the inclination 
and the variation of the needle, not the 
discovery of the compass), and to logarithms 
as wholly a British art [see NAPIER, JOHN, 
1660-16171 The Latin oration as delivered 
is published in Ward's ' Lives ; ' the English 
draft in the ' Parentalia ' (p. 200). Both 
are given by Elmes ( App. p. 27). The art 
of engraving in mezzotint, which is often 
said to have owed its origin to Wren about 
this time, seems to have been solely the in- 
vention of Ludwig von Siegen, who im- 
parted his secret to Prince Rupert, and the 
prince was apparently the first to practise 
the art in England ('Parentalia, p. 214 ; cf. 
art. RtTEKT. o'Jfn.) 



Wren took no small part in the formation 
of the Royal Society. According to a letter 
of Dr. Wallis, quoted in the recently pub- 
lished ' Records of the Royal Society ' (1897) : 
' About the year 1645 there had sprung up 
an association of certain worthy persons in- 
quisitive in natural philosophy who met to- 
gether first in London for the investigation 
of what was called " the new or experimen- 
tal philosophy ; " and afterwards several of 
the more influential of the members about 
1648 or 1649, finding London too much dis- 
tracted by civil commotions, commenced 
holding their meetings at Oxford.' One of 
these was Dr. Wilkins, the master of Wren's 
college. At first the meetings were held 
at Wilkins's college during Wren's residence 
there. When Wilkins was appointed to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, the meetings 
were continued in the rooms of Robert Boyle 
[q. v.l, with whom Wren was intimate, and 
he took no small part in their discussions 
and experiments. The associates occasionally 
combined their gatherings with those friends 
who still remained in London, and the usual 
place of meeting was Gresham College, in 
Wren's private room on the days of his lec- 
tures. During one of the four years of 
Wren's professoriate, viz. 1659, these lec- 
tures were interrupted in consequence of 
civic troubles, but were resumed after the 
king's restoration. After one of these meet- 
ings (28 Nov. 1660) the determination was 
reached to ask the king to erect the asso- 
ciation into a permanent society by royal 
charter. The king's approval was reported" to 
them on 5" Dec. of the same year, and they 
then proceeded to complete the arrange- 
ments, and the drawing up of the preamble of 
the charter, of which a draft copy has been 
handed down, was entrusted to Wren (ib. p. 
196). After this Wren was most constant in 
his attendance at the meetings for more than 
twenty years, until his architectural busi- 
ness absolutely precluded it. He was pre- 
sident of the society from 1680 to 1682 
inclusive. After 1665, however, his original 
communications to the society became com- 
paratively rare. 

At the opening of a new year, soon after 
the establishment of the Royal Society 
and probably 1664 he gave an address stat- 
ing the objects to which he recommended 
the society to devote its energies. He classed 
these under three heads, viz.: knowledge, 
profit, and convenience of life. The heads 
of this discourse embrace punctual diary on 
meteorology ; the study of refractions ; the 
tremulation of the air meteors and the in- 
quiry if anything falls from them; the growth 
of fruits and grain, plenty, scarcity, and the 



Wren 

price of corn ; the seasons of fish, fowl, and 
insects ; the physicians of the society are 
urged to give account of epidemic diseases ; 
the effect of weather upon medicine ; due 
consideration of the weekly and annual bills 
of mortality in London ; that ' instead of the 
vanity of prognosticating he could wish we 
would have the patience for some years of 
registering past times, which is the certain 
way of learning to prognosticate.' He speaks 
of self-registering anemometers, thermome- 
ters, and hygrometers as being practicable. 
Many other things he might suggest which, 
if the design be once begun, he would most 
willingly submit upon occasion. He exhorts 
his hearers 'not to flag in the design, since in 
a few years, at the beginning, it will hardly 
come to any visible maturity. . . . The Royal 
Society should plant crabstocks for posterity 
to graft . on'(t&. p. 221). 

The mere enumeration of the subjects 
brought by Wren before the society occu- 
pies more than three pages of the 'Paren- 
talia.' In 1663 he suggested the self-regis- 
tering weathercock, designed to record the 
various meteorological variations which are 
now performed by photography (see BIRCH, i. 
341) ; and in 1666 an exceedingly simple 
form of level ' fortaking the horizon everyway 
in a circle,' the main principle of which was 
a bowl having the lip accurately turned and 
provided with a ball-and-socket joint, so that 
when a drop of quicksilver was adjusted to 
the centre, the lip should lie level in every 
direction. He had probably found the want 
of some such instrument in his survey of 
London after the fire. In 1667 he reported 
his experiments on the force of gunpowder 
in lifting weights and bending springs ; also 
a means of curing smoky chimneys. In the 
same year he showed methods of taking 
astronomical measures to seconds, and his 
pair of telescopes jointed for the same pur- 
pose. In 1668 he presented papers and 
showed experiments to illustrate the laws of 
motion deduced by him several years before 
from careful and varied observation of the 
effects produced by the collision of suspended 
balls under different conditions equal, un- 
equal, direct, and differential velocities and 
momentum. On this subject Newton, in the 
' Principia ' (p. 20), writes : ' From these laws 
[i.e. the laws of motion] Dr. Christopher 
Wren, knight : John Wallis & Christian 
Huyghens, who are beyond comparison the 
leading geometers of this age, arrived at the 
laws of the collision and mutual rebound of 
two bodies ; but their truth was proved by 
Dr. Wren by experiments on suspended 
balls in the presence of the Royal Society.' 
> In 1670 Wren showed to the society an 



3 Wren 

improvement in the machinery for winding 
up weights by ropes from great depths (Royal 
Society Register, bk. iv. p. 99, with diagram). 
An identical arrangement has recently been 
brought into use. In 1679, Newton having 
written to the Royal Society to propose that 
an experiment should be made to give ocular 
proof of the earth's diurnal motion by letting 
a weight fall from a considerable height, 
which ought to fall to the eastward of the 
plumb-line, Wren proposed a still more 
effective test by ' shooting a bullet upward 
at a certain angle from the perpendicular 
round every way ' to see if the bullet would 
fall in a perfect circle around the barrel. 
Bishop Sprat, speaking of the labours of the 
Royal Society in 1667, selects Wren's name 
alone for special mention. He refers to ' his 
doctrine of motion' which 'Descartes had 
before begun, having taken up some experi- 
ments of this kind on conjecture and made 
them the first foundations of his whole system 
of nature, but some of his conclusions seeming 
very questionable because they were only de- 
rived from the gross trials of balls meeting 
one another at tennis, billiards, &c., Dr. Wren 
produced before the society an instrument to 
represent the effects of all sorts of impulses 
made between two hard globous bodies 
whether of equal or different bigness and 
swiftness, and following or meeting each 
other.' Then he adds : ' And because the 
difficulty of a constant observation of the 
air by night and day seemed invincible, he 
therefore devised a clock to be annexed to 
the weathercock, so that the observer, by the 
traces of a pencil on paper, might certainly 
conclude what had blown in his absence. 
After a like manner he contrived a thermo- 
meter to be its own register. He has con- 
trived an instrument to measure the rain that 
falls, and devised many subtil ways for the 
easier finding the gravity of the atmosphere, 
the degrees of drought and moisture.' He 
mentions also new discoveries in the pendu- 
lum ' that in one descent and ascent it 
moves unequally in equal times, and that 
from the pendulum may be produced a natural 
standard for measure.' Wren saw reason, 
however, to give up the latter proposal when 
it was found that the length of the degree 
varied in different latitudes. Dr. Sprat pro- 
ceeds : ' He has invented many ways to make 
astronomical observations more accurate and 
easy . . . has made two telescopes to open 
with a joint like a sector, by which distances 
can be taken to half minutes . . . devices to 
telescopes for taking small distances and dia- 
meters to seconds, apertures to take in more 
or less light the better to fit glass to crepus- 
culine observations ; has added much to the 



Wren 



Wren 



theory of dioptrics, and to the manufacture 
of good glasses and of other forms t han spheri- 
cal ; has exactly measured and delineated the 
spheres of the humours of the eye, whose 
proportions were only guessed at before ; he 
discovered a natural and easy theory of re- 
fraction, showing not only the common pro- 
perties of glasses but the proportions by 
which the individual rays cut the axis upon 
which the proportion of eyeglasses and aper- 
tures are demonstrably discovered ; has 
essayed to make a true selenography by 
measure the world having had nothing yet 
but pictures ; has stated the moon's libration 
as far as his observations could carry him 
. . . has carefully pursued magnetical ex- 
periments. Among the problems of naviga- 
tion, demonstrated how a force upon an 
oblique plane would cause the motion of the 
plane against the first mover. He explained 
the geometrical mechanics of rowing, and 
the necessary elements for laying down the 
geometry of sailing, swimming, rowing, fly- 
ing, and the fabricks of ships. He invented 
a very curious and speedy way of etching, 
and has started several things towards the 
emendation of waterworks ; was the first 
inventor of drawing pictures by microsco- 
pical glasses ; amongst other things the keep- 
ing the motion of watches equal, in order for 
longitudes and astronomical uses. He was 
the first author of the noble anatomical ex- 
periment of injecting liquors into the veins 
of animals, now vulgarly known, but long 
since exhibited to meetings at Oxford. Hence 
arose many new experiments, and chiefly 
that of transfusing blood. ... I know very 
well that some of them he did only start and 
design, and that they have been since carried 
to perfection by the industry of others ; yet 
it is reasonable that the original invention 
should be ascribed to the true author rather 
than the finishers. Nor do I fear that this 
will be thought too much which I have said 
concerning him ; for there is a peculiar re- 
verence due to so much excellence covered 
with so much modesty, and it is not flattery 
but honesty to give him his just praise who 
is so far from usurping the fame of other 
men that he endeavours with all care to 
conceal his own ' (SPRAT, p. 319). 

Although, as a natural philosopher, Wren 
was overshadowed by the genius of Newton, 
as an English architect he stands above 
his competitors. In some particulars, in- 
deed, Inigo Jones may have surpassed him ; 
but if a comprehensive view is taken, the 
first place must be adjudged to Wren. It 
has been argued that as he had passed the 
youngest and most receptive part of his 
life before he turned his attention practi- 



cally to architecture it must have been 
unfavourable to his proper development in 
that profession. That this was so in his case 
can be conceded only to a very small ex- 
tent. It is true that the first definite infor- 
mation we receive of his applying himself 
professionally to architecture is his accepting 
in his twenty-ninth year (1661) the invita- 
tion from Charles II to act practically as sur- 
veyor-general to his majesty's works, though 
nominally as assistant to Sir John Denham 
(1615-1669) [q.v.] (Parentalia, p. 260 n. ; he 
had previously declined a commission as 
surveyor of the fortifications of Tangier) ; 
but it is clear that for such an appointment 
to have been offered he must already have 
given proof of his fitness; moreover,his father 
would have been quite capable of giving him 
valuable instruction, for during his residence 
at East Knoyle the elder Wren had designed 
a new roof for that parish church (ib. p. 142), 
and had also been engaged by Charles I to 
design a building for the queen's use, of 
which a detailed estimate has been preserved 
among the state papers* (cf. ELMES, p. 9). 
We have also had occasion to note, in speak- 
ing of Wren's scientific capabilities, that he 
was remarkable for his skill in accurate 
drawing ; so that, in addition to his mathe- 
matical knowledge, he was already armed 
with one essential of his art. In a cata- 
logue given (Parentalia, p. 198) of the sub- 
jects on which Wren discoursed at Wad- 
ham College, one is ' new designs tending 
to strength, convenience, and beauty in 
building.' This must have been several 
years earlier than the appointment referred 
to. The two earliest original works we hear 
of are the chapel of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, built at the expense of his uncle 
Matthew, and the Sheldonian Theatre at Ox- 
ford. The preparation of the designs for 
these two buildings must have been nearly 
contemporaneous. A model of the Shel- 
donian Theatre was submitted and approved 
in April 1663, but the first stone was not 
laid until the year following, whereas that 
of the Cambridge chapel was laid in the May 
of the same year, viz. 1663. The chapel was 
finished in two years, but the Sheldonian 
Theatre not till '1669. We may therefore 
take Pembroke College chapel as his first 
original work, and it need cause no surprise 
if we find in it some signs of the ' 'prentice 
hand.' The interior is very simple, and calls 
for no particular remark. The exterior, 
which shows its front to the street, has 
good general proportions, a never-failing 
excellence in Wren; but it certainly exhibits 
a want of familiarity with architectural de- 
tail, particularly in the lack of subordination 



Wren 



Wren 



between the parts, the cornice of the main 
front being rather small and tame, while that 
of the hexagonal lantern which it supports 
is unduly ponderous. There is nothing sur- 
prising in this. It must be remembered that 
the facilities for studying the detail of clas- 
sical architecture in England were in 1663 
very limited. Few books were then avail- 
able. Evelyn did good service by publishing 
in 1G64 a translation of Roland Freart, Sieur 
de Cambray's ' Parallel/ and we may feel 
pretty sure that Wren would have had access 
to the French edition. The ' Parallel,' de- 
rived from Albert! and other Italian mas- 
ters, is a good treatise as far as it goes, but 
is brief, and the examples given in the plates 
are not comprehensive. Wren evidently- 
felt his need of better opportunities of study, 
and took the earliest opportunity available 
to him to supply it by his journey to Paris 
in 1665, when ordinary business in London 
and other parts of England was interrupted 
by the plague. This journey of Wren to 
Paris, where he seems to have resided for 
about six months, is the only one of which 
any information exists. 

The architectural detail of the Sheldonian 
Theatre, which, however, is chiefly remark- 
able for its noble interior, is much in 
advance of the Pembroke chapel; but its 
completion did not take place till 1669, and 
he had by that time had plenty of time for 
education in correct classical expression, and 
the lesson was effectively learnt. The ele- 
gant fa$ade of the chapel of Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, commenced in 1668, shows 
full command of architectural technicality. 

Thus it will be seen that he was ready, 
both by sufficient study and practical expe- 
rience, when the great opportunity of his 
life presented itself. Up to the time of the 
fire of London his work had not been so en- 
grossing but that he was able to attend to 
philosophical pursuits to a considerable ex- 
tent, and certainly without neglecting any 
business he had undertaken. A definition 
of genius has been given as being a capacity 
for hard work, and no better instance of this 
could be given than the life of Wren and 
his powers of work throughout his life, 
and especially on this occasion. Before the 
embers of the great fire had cooled, Wren, 
as virtual surveyor-general, felt that it 
was his duty to prepare a scheme for the 
rebuilding of the city. The fire had raged 
from 2 Sept. till 8 Sept. 1660. On the 12th 
of the same month he laid before the king a 
sketch-plan of his design for the restoration 
of the city. Several other schemes were pre- 
sented afterwards, but Wren's was first both 
in time and in the general approval which it 



received (EVELYN, Diary, iii. 345). A copy 
of the plan after it had been more fully 
matured is preserved at All Souls' College, 
Oxford, and is published also by Elmes (ap- 
pendix, opp. p. 63) ; a description is given in 
' Parentalia ' (p. 267). It is the plan of what 
would have been a magnificent city, but the 
public spirit which would have been req uired 
to carry it out would have demanded very 
great sacrifices of present interest for the 
sake of future benefit ; and we cannot be 
greatly surprised, however much we may re- 
gret it, that a more hand-to-mouth expedient 
was adopted. Wren's great scheme remains 
a record of his genius. But Wren had the 
happy disposition of being able to address 
himself with energy to the second best when 
the best was unattainable ; and he found 
employment enough in rebuilding a cathe- 
dral, more than fifty parish churches, thirty- 
six of the companies' halls, and the custom- 
house, besides several private houses and 
provincial works, and he was content to un- 
dertake all this for extremely small remune- 
ration. For the cathedral and the parish 
churches the stipend he asked for was only 
300/., preferring (as the writer of the ' Paren- 
talia ' says) in every passage of his life public 
service to any private advantage (p. 327). 

Immediately afterwards Wren was ap- 
pointed ' surveyor-general and principal ar- 
chitect for rebuilding the whole city ; the 
cathedral church of St. Paul ; all the paro- 
chial churches . . . with other public struc- 
tures ' (Parentalia, p. 263). This was a spe- 
cially created office, but on 6 March 1668-9 
Wren was formally appointed sole deputy to 
Denharn as surveyor-general of the royal 
works (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1668-9, pp, 
224,227), and after Denham's death he was, 
on 24 Nov. following, appointed to succeed 
him (ib. p. 615). 

As respects the cathedral, Wren knew 
from previous surveys that even before the 
fire the fabric had been extremely insecure. 
It had suffered much during the Common- 
wealth both from neglect and from positive 
injury. At the invitation of the dean and 
chapter in 1662, Wren had made a careful 
examination of it, and had pointed out in a 
report sent in only a few months before the 
fire (Parentalia, p. 274) what was necessary 
to be done, as well as what he advised for 
its improvement, particularly the removal of 
the central tower and the formation in lieu 
of it of a cupola covering a wide area as a 
proper place for a ' vast auditory,' in which 
the Paul's Cross sermons should in future 
be preached, and of which the example 
of Ely. his uncle's cathedral, may have given 
him the first suggestion. Several of the 



Wren 



86 



Wren 



drawings preserved at All Souls' College 
refer to this proposal. In these the old 
Norman nave is shown as altered to the 
lloman manner, while the choir was to re- 
main Gothic as originally built. 

After the fire, therefore, Wren was able to 
give an unhesitating opinion to the dean, Dr. 
(afterwards archbishop) William Sancroft 
[q.v.],that nothing but a new structure ought 
to be contemplated. There are some persons 
whose love for mediaeval architecture is such 
that they even now, with the existing cathe- 
dral before them, regret that old St. Paul's 
was not repaired in some way and allowed 
to stand. It must, however, be clear to those 
who have any practical knowledge of archi- 
tecture, after reading Sir Christopher Wren's 
reports both before and after the fire, that 
even to retain the mediaeval features of the 
structure it would have been necessary to 
take nearly the whole down and reconstruct 
it, and it is doubtful if that could have been 
done successfully in the seventeenth century 
(cf. MILSIAX, p. 388). Wren's advice on the 
necessity of a new building was practically 
enforced shortly afterwards. It was not at 
once taken, and a partial attempt at repair 
was still proceeded with; but the fall of 
part of the cathedral where this was going 
on gave convincing proof of the futility of 
the undertaking ; and Wren, who had re- 
tired to Oxford, where his duties as Savilian 
professor of astronomy required his presence, 
was summoned in haste to London to advise 
respecting a new cathedral. This was in 
July 1668 (Parent alia, p. 278). The report 
from Wren which followed soon after is given 
in Elmes (p. 248). A great spur was given 
to the undertaking by parliament having in 
1670 assigned a portion of the coal tax viz. 
4|<Z. per chaldron annually for the rebuild- 
ing ; and Wren, now being satisfied that an 
earnest attempt would be made, devoted 
himself to forming a design worthy of the 
occasion. Meanwhile the clearing of the 
site of the old cathedral was going on, an 
operation which demanded both time and 
skilful management. The walls were in 
that condition that it would have been both 
tedious and dangerous to have taken them 
down in the ordinary way by workmen going 
aloft ; so, guided by the experiments men- \ 
tioned above for measurement of the effect i 
produced by gunpowder, he succeeded in 
lifting one of the angles of the old tower, 
more than two hundred feet high, a few 
inches only, and causing it to collapse with- | 
out scattering or accident or any injurious i 
consequences to the neighbourhood. But ' 
afterwards his second in command, being 
ambitious of improving upon his master, 



conducted during his absence a similar 
operation with less care and with the em- 
ployment of a larger quantity of powder, 
which indeed brought down the old 
masonry, but caused so frightful an ex- 
plosion that Wren was obliged to give up 
that method of procedure. However, the 
resources of his mind were equal to the 
occasion; he bethought him of the battering- 
rams of ancient warfare, and caused a huge 
mast, about forty feet long and shod with 
iron, to be slung with ropes, and by the 
labour of thirty men vibrated against the 
wall at one place for a whole day. The 
workmen, it is said, despaired of any result, 
but Wren insisted on its continuance, and 
on the second day the wall slowly opened 
and fell (ib. p. 284). It is likely that we 
have a glimpse at this operation in Pepys's 
'Diary' (14 Sept. 1668): ' Strange how the 
sight of stones falling from the top of the 
steeple do make me sea-sick, but no hurt I 
hear hath yet happened.' W r e learn from 
' Parentalia ' that the taking down of old 
St. Paul's, which was begun in 1666, lasted 
through part of 1668. In 1673 Wren (who had 
been knighted the previous year) submitted 
his first design for the new cathedral to the 
king, who greatly approved of it, and 
ordered a model to be made of it ' after so 
large and exact a manner that it may serve 
as a perpetual and unchangeable rule and 
direction for the conduct of the whole work ' 
(ib. pp. 280-2). In respect of sequence of 
events, however, the 'Parentalia' is here 
rather confused. This model still exists in the 
cathedral. It had been much neglected and 
defaced, but has been in part restored by 
the dean and chapter, and is sufficient to 
give an adequate impression of what Wren 
intended. Before giving any account of the 
cathedral as built, this first and favourite 
design of its author requires some notice. 
Some of the original drawings are preserved 
in All Souls' College, Oxford. The plan 
has been carefully engraved in Elmes (p. 
319), and to a smaller scale both in Dean 
Milman's 'Annals of St. Paul's' and in 
Longman's ' Three Cathedrals,' published in 
1873. There are also two perspective views 
of it in the latter. This design, while being 
loyal to architectural precedent, is an en- 
tirely original conception. The central 
idea an essential quality in any great work 
of art is of extreme simplicity. An octa- 
gon which circumscribes a Greek cross is 
combined with a square attached to one of 
its sides viz. the western which connects 
the whole into a Latin cross. The central 
area of the Greek cross is covered by a large 
and lofty cupola intended to have about the 



Wren 



Wren 



same dimension on plan as the present 
dome, while eight smaller and lower cupolas 
are arranged around it : four at the ends of the 
arms of the cross, and one touching each of 
the intermediate sides of the octagon, the 
smaller cupolas being all equal and their 
diameters bearing to that of the central one 
the proportion of two to five. " Simple, how- 
ever, as is the general plan, its architectural 
treatment supplies all that can be desired 
of picturesque beauty and intricacy. The 
scheme for the lighting, which would 
chiefly come from above, through pantheon- 
like apertures over the smaller cupolas, is 
both ample and the best possible for 
architectural effect. The entrance from 
the west is through a noble portico. This 
led into an area of considerable width, with 
entrance doors north and south, and sur- 
mounted by a cupola which in the interior 
is similar to those around the principal dome, 
but rises so as to form a feature externally. 
The skill, artistic and constructive, shown 
by Wren in the junction of his spherical sur- 
faces has never been approached, and there 
is no counterpart elsewhere to the noble 
vistas which would have been presented to 
the eye in every direction by this plan. 
The western dome, ample as a vestibule, 
was sufficient to raise the expectation but 
not to satisfy it. Then the width was con- 
fined to that of the ordinary nave, forming a 
passage about forty feet wide, previous to 
the unrestricted burst of vision through the 
diagonal vistas, opening on each side along 
the radiating sides of the octagon referred 
to above, which is analogous to the sensation 
produced in a grand mountain defile where 
one passes through a confined gorge from one 
fine opening to one incomparably finer (MiL- 
HAN, Annals, p. 403 n.~) 

It must be fully admitted that externally 
this design, fine as it is, does not compete on 
equal terms with the existing structure, 
especially when we consider the height to 
which the surrounding buildings have grown, 
which gives the value of greater loftiness to 
the adopted design ; and as to certain defects 
in it which Mr. Fergusson in his ' History 
of Modern Architecture ' (p. 268) discusses, 
we must remember that Wren had not in 
the case of this design, as he had in the 
adopted one, more than forty years of study 
and improvement to give to it, of which 
he availed himself to the full as the work 
proceeded ; but this marvellous production 
was the outcome of necessarily a very short 
incubation. John Louis Petit [q.v.], in dis- 
cussing St. Front, Perigueux, observes that 
Wren, ' who, though he may not have known 
St. Front, yet must have known St. Mark's, 



Venice, from which St. Front was derived, 
had conceived a design [viz. this model] on 
similar principles which, had it been carried 
out, would have given his cathedral the 
noblest interior in the world ' {Architectural, 
Studies in France, p. 78). 

Notwithstanding the approval with which 
this design was at first received, a com- 
mission for its execution given, and even, it 
seems, a commencement actually made, so 
much clerical opposition was brought to 
bear against it, on account of its being 
different from the usual cathedral shape, 
that Wren was reluctantly obliged to turn 
his thoughts in another direction. Elmes, 
in his 'Life of Wren' (p. 319), speaking of 
this model, refers to the story in Spence's 
' Anecdotes ' (ed. Singer, p. 265), that the 
Duke of York and his party insisted on side 
chapels being added contrary to Wren's 
opinion, and that Wren even shed tears 
when he found he could not prevail. 
Neither the model nor the plan preserved at 
Oxford shows any traces where side chapels 
could have been placed, whereas the adopted 
design has them, not in the earliest plans 
but in the church as built. It seems likely, 
however, that, notwithstanding this diffi- 
culty, Elmes is right in connecting the tradi- 
tion of Wren's tears with the struggle which 
must have taken place when his favourite de- 
sign had to be abandoned. As respects the 
side chapels, even though they had formed 
no part of the original design, with the fine 
architectural precedent in Lincoln Cathe- 
dral before him, and considering the admi- 
rable use which Wren was able to make of 
them both on the ground story and for the 
library above, their demand could scarcely 
have seemed to him a sufficient reason for 
such strenuous opposition, whereas the re- 
tention of the ' favourite design' would have 
seemed worthy of every practicable attempt 
he could make. The anecdote is given by 
Spence on the authority of a Mr. Harding. 
Who this person was is not stated. It might 
have been the Samuel Harding who, with 
others, published various engravings of St. 
Paul's and other designs of Wren's, includ- 
ing this model, dated 1724. These engrav- 
ings with certain others were afterwards 
collected into a book entitled ' Designs for 
Public Buildings to illustrate Parentalia,' 
London, 1749, fol. ; but, at any rate, Spence 
could not have received the anecdote till 
fully fifty years after the circumstance which 
gave rise to it. There can be little doubt 
but that the Duke of York would have been 
strongly opposed to Wren's desire to build 
the cathedral in a form not specially suited 
to Roman catholic services. 



Wren 



88 



Wren 



After the rejection of the ' favourite 
design,' Wren proceeded with several trial 
plans in Gothic form ' rectified to a better 
manner of architecture.' His genius was at 
first evidently very much unhinged by his 
recent disappointment and the mental 
struggle he had gone through. However, 
one of these was accepted, and he was or- 
dered by a royal commission, dated May 
1675, to proceed with it. The design was 
approved as being ' very artificial, proper, 
and useful, and so ordered that it might be 
built and finished by parts.' This authori- 
sation was accompanied with the permission 
to make variations (Parentalia, p. 283) 
' rather ornamental than essential : ' but 
happily, as the whole was left to his manage- 
ment, he found himself able to make use of 
this permission without troubling himself 
about the qualification as to essentials. 

There is no concealing the point that if 
this design, which the king's warrant au- 
thorised, had been carried out unaltered, St. 
Paul's would, externally at least, have 
proved a gigantic failure, and we must sup- 
pose that some cause such as we have en- 
deavoured to assign (aggravated, perhaps, by 
domestic trouble owing to the illness of his 
wife, who died in the same year that this 
design was authorised) must have obscured 
Wren's usually fine judgment. But as the 
ground plan is not far different from that 
of the present church, showing sufficiently 
Wren's submission in respect of the usual 
cathedral form, it is likely that no serious 
opposition from his critics was to be appre- 
hended, and they were probably quite in- 
capable of judging of the external effect. 

In this design we may perceive there was 
in Wren's mind a struggle between two 
ideas as respects the great central feature of 
the dome namely, that of retaining the fine 
and well-studied internal proportions of the 
favourite design as more in harmony Avith 
its surroundings than greater height such as 
that of the present cupola would be, but 
that he felt at the same time the quality of 
great loftiness was demanded for the ex- 
ternal appearance. This he proposed to 
attain by means of a lofty spire, not unlike 
that which he afterwards built as the steeple 
of St. Bride's Church, which is shown as sur- 
mounting the lantern of the cupola. Before 
long, however, he abandoned this attempt, 
and adopted the idea of general height as 
the leading principle, by which he ultimately 
arrived at the unrivalled exterior of his 
cathedral ; and if for the interior he erred 
in giving an excess of loftiness to the dome, 
he did so, at any rate, in good company, for 
the proportion of height to internal dia 1 



meter is still greater in Michael Angelo's 
dome of St. Peter's. 

Now that he was fully authorised to pro- 
ceed, Wren devoted all his energies, with- 
out any longer dwelling on his late disap- 
pointment, to maturing the design. A con- 
siderable time, even many months, must 
necessarily elapse even in preparing the 
foundations and in building the crypt, and 
this he made good use of. A great many 
studies are extant, some at Oxford, some in 
two portfolios preserved in the cathedral, 
containing principally working drawings, 
and others in private collections, which show 
the steps by which, he arrived at the final 
result. An engraving of one of these is 
given in Longman's ' Three Cathedrals,' 
opposite p. 115. Several of these studies 
are in perspective. In ' Parentalia' (p. 292) 
are given Wren's views on the importance 
of using perspective sketches in designing 
architecture. Wren had no doubt a suf- 
ficiently clear general idea in his mind's eye 
of what the completed structure should be, 
but these studies show that the details of 
even such essential features as the profile of 
the dome and the western towers were not 
settled until the time approached when they 
would be required. It was his constant en- 
deavour to adopt only the best ancient Greek 
and Roman architecture, ' the principles 
of which ' (as he said shortly before he was 
superseded in his surveyorship) ' throughout 
all my schemes of this colossal structure I 
have always religiously endeavoured to fol- 
low, and if I glory it is in the singular mercy 
of God, who has enabled me to begin and 
finish my great work so conformable to the 
ancient model' (ELMES, p. 510). This he 
could justly say, for there is no important 
ecclesiastical structure certainly none of the 
seventeenth century at all approaching it 
in the purity of its classical treatment. The 
cathedral also is throughout an example of 
skilful and provident construction. Every- 
where, too, the ornamental accessories, 
though liberally applied, are well kept in 
subordination to the parts purely architec- 
tural, and are almost invariably finely de- 
signed and well carved. Sketches have been 
preserved which show that Wren had a bold, 
free hand in designing ornament, and was 
a master of scale ; but in the department of 
ornament he had the good fortune to secure 
the services of a consummate artist namely, 
Grinling Gibbons [q. v.], whom Evelyn acci- 
dentally had discovered in an obscure situa- 
tion (EVELYN, Diary, ii. 554, January 1671). 
The unsurpassed oak and limewood carvings 
of the choir are his well-known work. 

Twenty-two years after the commence- 



Wren 



8 9 



Wren 



ment of the work it was so far advanced 
that the choir could be opened for ser- 
vice (December 1697) ; nineteen years later 
Wren was dismissed from its superinten- 
dence, and the cathedral was reported as 
finished, as no doubt it was in the main 
essentials. There remained, however, still 
incomplete several matters which its archi- 
tect had intended, among these, as he had 
complained in 1717, the paintingof the cupola 
which had been taken out of his hands. 
This he had desired should be executed in 
mosaic, after the manner of St. Peter's at Rome 
(ELMES, p. 510). There was also his marble 
' altar-piece ' intended for the apse, for which 
he had caused a model to be made (Paren- 
talia, p. 282, see also p. 292 ra.) Part of 
this model is still preserved in the cathedral, 
but unhappily it was considered to be too 
fragmentary to give authoritative evidence 
of what Sir Christopher had intended when 
the design for the present reredos was made. 

Meanwhile, about 1680, Wren had been 
much engaged in the restoration of the 
Temple after the fire. Temple Bar had been 
rebuilt from his designs about 1670-2. In 
the Temple the cloister is the chief remnant 
of his work which can now be identified, a 
substantial building of no peculiar architec- 
tural merit. He introduced into the church 
much ornamental oak wainscoting which 
had escaped the fire, including a richly carved 
altar-piece, which was removed as unsuitable 
early in the nineteenth century ; it is now 
in Mr. Bowes's museum at Barnard Castle, 
Durham. Full records of Wren's work at 
the Temple are given in a forthcoming volume 
of Mr. F. A. Inderwick's ' Calendar of Inner 
Temple Records.' Another of Wren's best 
works, the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, 
was executed during this period, in 1683. 
In 1684 Wren was appointed by the king 
{Charles II) comptroller of the works in the 
castle of Windsor, an office of small salary, 
but involving a considerable amount of work. 
Besides all these spheres of activity Wren 
took some part in politics. He was returned 
to James II's first parliament as member for 
Plympton on 20 April 1085, and to the con- 
vention parliament for Windsor on 11 Jan. 
1688-9. He was also elected for Windsor 
to William and Mary's first parliament in 
March 1689-90, but the return was declared 
void, and Wren did not sit again in parlia- 
ment until he was elected for Weymouth on 
26 Nov. 1701 (Official Return, i. 552, 557, 
564 note, 594). 

Of the fifty-two churches which Wren 
built in London a considerable number have 
been sacrificed to the utilitarian spirit of the 
age. Fortunately a record has been pre- 



served in ' The Parochial Churches of Sir 
Christopher Wren' (1848-9, fol.) by John 
Clayton (d. 1861) [q. v.], which includes all 
but three of those which have perished ; the 
rest were at that date standing, and, with 
the exception of three built by Wren in a 
Gothic style, are included in the forty-six 
examples of that book. Wren's churches 
have also been well illustrated in Mr. G. H. 
Birch's ' London Churches,' 1896. Of these 
a selection of about half may be made of 
those which are of superior interest on vari- 
ous accounts, and arranged approximately 
according to the date of their construc- 
tion : 1670-5, St. Benet Fink, St. Mary-at- 
Hill, St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Stephen Wai- 
brook, St. Dionis Backchurch ; 1675-80, St. 
Ann and St. Agnes, St. Bride, St. Lawrence, 
St. Swithin; 1680-5, All-Hallows Thames 
Street, St. Antholin, St. Clement Danes, St. 
James Garlickhithe, St. James Westmin- 
ster, St. Martin Ludgate, St. Mary Magda- 
lene Old Fish Street, St. Peter Cornhill ; 
1685-90, St. Andrew Holborn, St. Mary 
Lothbury, St. Mary Abchurch ; 1690-5, 
St. Michael Royal, St. Augustin and St. 
Faith (spire), St. Mary Somerset (tower), 
St. Vedast (the steeple) ; 1700, the steeple 
of St. Dunstan-in-the-East ; 1704, that of 
Christ Church Newgate Street; 1705, that of 
St. Magnus; and, lastly, that of St. Michael 
Cornhill, built from Wren's designs in 1722. 
Every one of these churches is to the ar- 
chitect a valuable study in planning. Some 
of them show great skill in their adap- 
tation to irregular sites. Among existing 
churches in this particular may be men- 
tioned St. Mary-at-Hill and St. Clement 
Danes; and among those that have perished, 
St. Antholin, St. Benet Fink, and St. Dionis 
Backchurch. In all the churches the main 
proportions are excellent, but the minor de- 
tails are not in all good alike. But this 
could have hardly happened otherwise, as 
many of them required to be built almost 
simultaneously. Nothing that has been 
achieved in modern architecture has sur- 
passed the beauty of their campaniles, not 
only from the elegance of each, but from 
their complete variety, while at the same 
time in harmony with one another. No two 
are alike. The view of the city of London 
from the old Blackfriars Bridge (up to about 
the middle of this century, when huge ware- 
houses and loftier street houses were be- 
ginning to be erected) a view which com- 
prised St. Paul's, with the church steeples, 
more numerous than exist at present, grouped 
around it was scarcely surpassed in any 
country, and all this was the work of one 



Wren 



9 o 



Wren 



From the above list it will be seen that 
while the plans for St. Paul's were being 
so anxiously and even painfully elaborated, 
Wren was busily engaged on other works. 
Two of these in particular must have flowed 
unruffled from his genius namely, St. Mary- 
le-Bow and St. Stephen's, Walbrook. The 
former, commenced in 1671 and completed 
about six years after, though chiefly remark- 
able for its steeple, has some good points in 
the interior ; but the whole church, except- 
ing the north entrance, which is through a 
handsome arch in the tower, is removed so 
far back and so much closed in with houses 
that a plain solid exterior was all that was 
required ; even a special purchase had to be 
made to provide for the steeple the com- 
manding position which it occupies. The 
tower (as was invariably Wren's principle) 
starts visibly from the ground. It is massive 
and well proportioned, and up to the cornice 
is so simple as to be only just removed from 
severity ; but above the cornice and balustrade 
a happy contrast is presented by the modu- 
lated and varied richness of the work above, 
which commences with a circular peristyle 
of twelve columns surrounding a cylindrical 
wall, within which is a staircase. Above 
these columns and based on their entabla- 
tures rise as many radiating flying buttresses, 
so curved as to give in the aggregate the 
outline of a ribbed cupola. These help to 
strengthen the upper parts of the spire, 
which here partake more of the quadrate 
form. The whole is surmounted by a large 
dragon vane, which, however, does not seem 
at all disproportionate to its supports. Fine 
transitions of light and shade are seen 
throughout, and the varied mass of masonry 
is enlivened by many cunning peeps of the 
sky from the bottom to the top of the com- 
position. This work alone is sufficient to 
establish the fame of its architect as an 
artist of the highest rank (cf. FEBGUSSON, 
Modern Architecture, p. 275). 

The second of the two specially named 
churches exhibits an interior of a merit 
equal, if not superior, to that just mentioned. 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook, was commenced in 
1672 and finished in 1679. Fergusson 
(p. 276) has rightly praised this interior ' as 
the most pleasing of any Renaissance church 
that has yet been erected.' The great result. 
a true sign of genius, has apparently been 
produced by small effort. The plan is a 
simple parallelogram measuring on the longer 
side, that is east and west, eighty-three feet, 
and on the shorter sixty. These are internal 
dimensions. Within this area are disposed 
sixteen columns : twelve are employed to 
surround a square space showing four on 



each side, and four others are placed further 
west so as to form another tetrastyle row. 
Narrow aisles are left between the columns 
and the side walls. The distances between 
the columns in the square are so arranged 
that those forming the middle pair of each 
side coincide with the angles of an octagon. 
The entablatures over these eight columns 
are parallel to the side or end walls, as may 
be required to give a cruciform effect to the 
superstructure, but above the entablatures 
spring arches following the sides of the 
octagon which intersect without distortion 
with the surface of a spherical cupola which 
covers the whole of the central area, and 
the arches form with the sphere true pen- 
dentives, a method of construction which 
Wren used frequently and with the best 
effect. The extreme lightnessof thestructure 
is one of its merits, the proportion of the 
supports to the area being about one hun- 
dredth part ; while the judicious planning 
of the supports, by placing them exactly 
where they are wanted, satisfies the eye 
with the required evidence of strength. 
The contrast between the square shapes 
below and the cylindrical and spherical 
shapes above is most agreeable in respect of 
form. The arrangement also provides ample 
unencumbered space for the congregation. 
The columns are mounted on pedestals, so 
that their bases were always in view. 
Throughout this church all the principal 
subdivisions are harmonised to those con- 
tiguous to them in proportions of low 
numbers. Indeed this was Wren's usual 
method. Here they obtain with extreme 
accuracy. As this church did not occupy 
so prominent a situation as it now does, no 
particular attention to the exterior was 
required, but the plain tower was surmounted 
by an elegant spire. One of Wren's prin- 
ciples was, that when sufficient funds were 
not available for the elaboration of the 
whole of a design, some one or more impor- 
tant features should be worked up to a 
higher ideal than the rest, instead of adopt- 
ing a lower standard for the whole. 

Of the next period, St. Bride's is the most 
remarkable church. Internally a fine per- 
spective is formed on each side by the arches 
of the nave, and externally its steeple is a 
beautiful and well-known object. In some 
repairs which it required in 1764, in order to 
facilitate the operation the height was re- 
duced by eight feet. The next period, 1680 
to 1685, includes some very good churches. 
All Hallows, Thames Street, now destroyed, 
had a stately internal arcade, and pos- 
sessed, what St. Peter's, Cornhill, still re- 
tains, a very handsome carved oak screen. 



Wren 



9 1 



Wren 



St. James's, Garlickhithe, has both a well- 
planned interior and a picturesque steeple, 
not improved by the cement having been 
stripped oft' the walls of the tower. The 
stone steeple of St. Mary Magdalene, re- 
cently taken down, though A'ery simple, was 
one of Wren's most graceful campaniles. 
The elegant lead- covered spire of St. Mar- 
tin's, Ludgate Hill, forms an admirable fore- 
ground object to the views of St. Paul's from 
the west. The front of this church is an 
example of quiet well-proportioned treat- 
ment where no projection was allowable. 
The spire of St. Augustin's in Watling 
Street, though less elegant than St. Martin's, 
has something of the same value, contrasting 
with the dome of St. Paul's as seen from the 
east. St. James's, Westminster, may be cited 
as the most successful example of a church 
in which galleries form a fundamental part. 
Its congregational capacity is remarkable, 
and the framing of the roof is a marvellous 

?iece of economic and scientific construction. 
11 the next period, St. Mary Abchurch, ex- 
ternally very plain, is full of merit within, 
especially the cupola and its pendentives and 
other details of the interior, including some 
excellent carvings by Gibbons. St. An- 
drew's, Hoi born, exhibits a very fine interior, 
partaking to a considerable extent of the 
character of St. James's, Westminster. Of 
the churches built between 1690 and 1695 
St. Michael Royal deserves mention for its 
beautiful campanile and for the carvings by 
Gibbons in the interior. The tower of St. 
Mary Somerset is still left standing, after the 
demolition of the church, on the north side 
of Thames Street, and forms with its crown 
of pinnacles an extremely picturesque object. 
The fine steeple of St. Vedast, near the Gene- 
ral Post Office, is of this period. Its design 
is the most original of all Wren's campaniles. 
It owes nothing to sculpture or any ornate 
architectural treatment ; but such is the skil- 
ful modulation of the masses and the contrasts 
of light and shade, combined with the ex- 
pression of strength, that it requires no assist- 
ance from ornament to add to its beauty and 
importance. This fine object has the advan- 
tage of being well seen. The steeple of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-East dates from 1700. It 
is built in the Gothic style, and in a form 
which follows the precedent of St. Giles's, 
Edinburgh, and St. Nicholas's, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. At this period of Wren's profes- 
sional life, as evidenced by this work and the 
church of St. Mary Aldermary, built in 1711, 
as well as in his repairs of Westminster 
Abbey, he shows an appreciation of Gothic 
architecture which he evidently did not en- 
tertain so strongly in his earlier days. In 



the work at St. Dunstan's there is much true 
feeling for the style in which he was work- 
ing. That the spire was constructed rn a 
highly scientific manner does not need to be 
stated. In the fine steeple of St. Magnus, 
built in 1705, he returned to his more re- 
cent style and produced one of his finest 
examples. Lastly, the old tower of St. 
Michael's, Cornhill, which had been left stand- 
ing when he rebuilt the church fifty years 
earlier, was taken down in 1722 and recon- 
structed in bold and very effective Gothic 
from his designs. In all the above-men- 
tioned beautiful campaniles, and indeed in 
Wren's works in general, surface ornament 
forms but a very subordinate part of their 
success ; this is derived chiefly from the true 
elements of architecture, balance of light and 
shade, evident strength and security of con- 
struction, accurate proportions of the parts, 
.and the expression of the object of the 
structure. He shows also great reserve and 
does not fritter expense away. 

In 1698 Wren was appointed surveyor to 
Westminster Abbey, and proceeded to carry 
out very important repairs to that fabric. 
' Parentalia ' (p. 296) gives his extremely 
able and valuable report to Dean Allenbury, 
dated 1714 partly historical, the repairs 
being included which had been executed 
during the previous sixteen years, and partly 
on works proposed to be done. He built the 
central tower, as we see it, sufficiently high 
to stop the cross roofs. He made a model, 
which is preserved, though in bad condition, 
in the abbey ; it shows the height to which 
he intended to carry up the tower, and proves 
that it should have been surmounted by a 
lofty spire, of an unusual number of sides 
indeed, but of well-proportioned outline. 
He had carefully considered how this addi- 
tional Aveight was to be carried. This part 
of the proposal has not been proceeded with, 
but the western towers, which formed part of 
the project, have been built, but not as he 
intended. Of these works he says in the 
report : ' I have prepared perfect draughts 
and models such as I conceive will agree 
with the original scheme of the old archi- 
tect without any modern mixtures of my own 
inventions ' (Parentalia, p. 297). Unhappily 
after Wren's death his successors did not 
adhere to this wise and loyal resolution, and 
it is easy to see where the master-hand 
finishes and where the modern mixtures of 
incongruous detail obtrude themselves. The 
fine general proportion of the towers is 
alone Wren's. 

At an earlier date, about 1675, he had 
built in Roman Doric the library which 
forms the north side of the cloister of Lin- 



Wren 



Wren 



coin Cathedral. In 16G8 be was called 
in to execute some considerable repairs at 
Salisbury Cathedral, for which he made a 
very full report, replete with valuable prac- 
tical suggestions (ib. p. 304), and executed 
some much-needed repairs, and without any 
alteration to the style of the architecture, of 
which, in several passages of the report, he 
speaks in praise. In 1682 he built a new 
chapel at Queen's College, Oxford. In April 
1684 (PHILLIMOBE, p. 244) he repaired the 
spire of Chichester Cathedral, which had been 
damaged by the wind exerting too much 
strain upon the weathercock. This he 
successfully counteracted by a very skilful 
device, which is fully described and illus- 
trated in Elmes (pp. 320, 486). The Salis- 
bury report was afterwards published as part 
of a history of that cathedral (London, 1723, j 
sm. 8vo), but without naming Wren as the j 
author of the report. 

Wren built a new custom-house in 1668, 
but this was burnt down in 1718. Its suc- 
cessor was then built by Ripley, and this 
again shared the same fate about a hun- 
dred years afterwards. 

The Monument, the Roman Doric column 
which commemorates the great fire, was 
built by Wren between 1671 and 1678. 
The drawings, which are preserved at All 
Souls', show that its figure was the result of 
much study well bestowed. W T ren had at 
first intended that it should have been left 
hollow from top to bottom, to serve as A 
vertical telescope-tube, to be used for astro- 
nomical purposes, with a large object-glass 
presented to the Royal Society by Huyghens. 
Previous to the days of achromatic combi- 
nations powerful telescopes required exces- 
sive focal length. In this case the height of 
the Monument proved insufficient, and the 
adaptation was not made (WARD, Lives, p. 
104). Contrasting indeed in height with 
the Monument, but not less successful in 
design, is the pedestal of the equestrian 
statue of Charles I at Charing Cross. Much 
judgment is required in designing pedestals 
for statues : they are frequently made too 
massive. This work was executed, according 
to Elmes (p. 372), in 1678. A congenial 
task must have been the erection in 1675 of 
the Greenwich Observatory. 

In 1677 Wren commenced the library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. The drawings, 
and a letter referring to them, are in the 
collection at All Souls', Oxford. The work 
was not completely finished till 1692. The 
result is one of the handsomest buildings in 
t he co un try , remarkable externally for bread th 
of effect and correctness of style, while its 
interior is a model of excellent arrangement. 



In the letter referred to Wren proposes to 
give ' all the mouldings in great,' observing 
that 'architects are scrupulous in small 
matters . . . and as great pedants as criticks 
or heralds.' In 1678 he made a design com- 
plete in every respect, of which the draw- 
ings and estimate are preserved at All Souls' 
College, Oxford, for a monumental struc- 
ture to be erected at Windsor in memory of 
Charles I, which, if it had been built, would 
certainly have proved a noble mausoleum, 
its external diameter being 68 and its height 
by scale 145 feet (for a description see Paren- 
talia, p. 331). In 1681 he built the tower 
over the gateway to Christ Church, Oxford, 
in a style well harmonising with Wolsey's 
Tudor Gothic (ib. p. 342). In 1682 Wren 
produced in Chelsea Hospital a building very 
practical and well arranged internally, and 
solid and substantial externally, without 
aiming at much architectual effect. 

The College of Physicians in Warwick 
Lane, City, now destroyed, was built in 1689. 
The external architecture, though by no 
means weak, may be classed as of ordinary 
merit ; but the theatre was extremely good, 
the seats well arranged for seeing the lec- 
turer, and the acoustics of the building ad- 
mirable (ELMES, p. 451, with engraving). 
Wren's work at Greenwich Hospital he 
contributed it gratuitously (PHILLIMORE, p. 
269) consists of two noble blocks of build- 
ing ; it is among his best achievements, and 
in complete harmony with the earlier portion 
by Inigo Jones. Additions to Kensington 
Palace were made by Wren for William III. 
To these may be added a very fine building 
of its class, the great school-room at Win- 
chester College, built while Wren was em- 
ployed on Charles II's palace in that city. 
Wren also built for Charles II the Royal 
Hospital at Kilmainham, begun 1680 and 
finished 1686. He was long engaged on ex- 
tensive works at Hampton Court Palace (see 
LAW, Hampton Court). Several private 
houses were built by Wren, of which Marl- 
borough House, London, may be cited as an 
example. They are chiefly noticeable for 
stately and good arrangements inside, and 
dignified sobriety outside. 

The All Souls' collection contains many 
drawings for works in connection with the 
Houses of Parliament, Whitehall and St. 
James's Palaces, and several plans for large 
mansions, of which the greater part have not 
been identified. Besides the enormous amount 
of labour implied by all that has gone before, 
Wren's office of surveyor to his majesty's 
works entailed a great deal of business in 
references, arbitrations, and other matters, 
which required personal attention, both in 



Wren 



93 



Wren 



London and in the provinces. In London 
he seems to have been the sole representative 
of what is now the Building Act, in enfor- 
cing the regulations put forth subsequent to 
the great fire by a royal proclamation (ELMES, 
pp. 300, 442). Of the thirty-six companies' 
halls which are named as Wren's work, many 
have been rebuilt and all more or less en- 
larged and altered. What remains of his 
work is chiefly to be found in the interiors. 
Brewers' Hall, both within and without, 
contains some characteristic portions. 

Having been appointed by the Stuarts to 
the office of surveyor-general. Wren retained 
the royal favour unclouded through the 
reigns of William and Mary and Queen 
Anne ; but on the accession of the Hano- 
verian family in 1714 the jealousies which 
his high position had created were able to 
prevail against him. At first he was sub- 
jected to repeated annoyances, but after 
having endured these for four years, during 
which time he was able to complete the 
fabric of St. Paul's, he was finally super- 
seded in 1718, and William Benson (1682- 
1754) [q.v.] was made surveyor-general in 
his place (LAAV, Hampton Court, iii. 228 
sgq.) Wren after this retired from practi- 
cal business, retaining only the supervision 
of Westminster Abbey, which he held until 
his death. 

For the last five years of his life Wren 
resided much in a house at Hampton Court 
which he held on lease from the crown, 
but also occupied a house in St. James's 
Street, Piccadilly. On one of his journeys 
to the London house he took a chill, and 
died after a short illness, on 25 Feb. 1723, 
in the ninety-first year of his age. He was 
buried on 5 March in St. Paul's Cathedral 
under the south aisle of the choir, near the 
east end. His successor as architect of the 
cathedral, Robert Mylne [q. v.], caused to be 
placed in his honour an inscription at the 
entrance into the choir, ending with the 
words ' Si monumentum requiris, circum- 
spice.' 

The best known portraits of him are: 
(1) at the Royal Society's rooms in Burling- 
ton House, believed to be by Sir Peter Lely, 
though there seems some ground for attri- 
buting it to Sir Godfrey Kneller ; (2) the 
picture by Sir Godfrey Kneller in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London; (3) a 
portrait in the Deanery, St. Paul's ; and 
(4) the profile engraved in the ' Parentalia.' 
Besides these, (5) All Souls' College Library 
possesses a cast of the face taken after death, 
which appears to confirm particularly the 
likeness shown by 1 and 4. C6) There is 
also a bust of Wren at All Souls', and (7) a 



portrait by Sir James Thornhill in the Shel- 
donian. A fine group of Wren's works, de- 
signed by C. R. Cockerell, was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1838 ; a reduced copy 
forms the frontispiece to Miss Phillimore's 
biography. By his will Wren left his archi- 
tectural drawings to' All Souls' College, where 
they have been ' bound and catalogued with 
due veneration for his memory ' (BUEEOWS, 
Worthies of All Souls, p. 233). 

Wren enjoyed intimate friendships with 
the best and most scientific men of his age, 
among whom may be named specially Eve- 
lyn, Boyle, Wallis, Isaac Barrow, Halley, 
and Newton, to whom may be added Hooke 
and Flamsteed ; and the fact of his having 
preserved the continuous friendship of the 
two last named may be taken as evidence 
of the amiability of his temper, for neither 
was easy to get on with. He must also have 
reckoned among his friends a celebrated man 
who was an intimate associate of his cousin 
Matthew Wren namely, Samuel Pepys. 
Miss Phillimore (p. 225) thus sums up 
Wren's character : ' Loving, gentle, modest, 
he was as a boy ; and the famous architect 
possessed those qualities still. In a corrupt 
age all testimony leaves him spotless ; in 
positions of great trust and still greater 
difficulty his integrity was but the more 
clearly shown by the attacks made against 
him ; among the foremost philosophers of 
his age he was a striking example that 
" every good gift and every perfect gift is 
from above." No child could hold the truths 
of Christianity with a more undoubting 
faith than did Sir Christopher Wren.' 

In addition to the lectures and reports 
above mentioned, Wren left a few tracts on 
occasional subjects connected chiefly with 
architecture. Two of these, both unfortu- 
nately incomplete, are published in the 
' Parentalia,' and reprinted by Elmes (App. x. 
pp. 118, 123), and a third was obtained in 
manuscript by Miss Phillimore and printed 
(pp. 341 et seq.) There are also in the 
' Parentalia ' attempts made by Wren to 
restore the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and 
the temple of Diana at Ephesus. These are, 
of course, superseded by more recent restora- 
tions, assisted by data obtained by excavation. 
Both of them, however, seem to show all 
that was possible with the scanty historical 
data which were then accessible. In one of 
the two incomplete tracts referred to above 
he shows that the spherical vaulting he so 
often used is also the lightest construction 
that can be employed for such a purpose. 

In December 1669 Wren married a lady 
to whom it may be inferred he had been for 
some years much attached, Faith, daughter 



Wren 



94 



Wren 



of Sir John Coghill. There were two sons 
by this marriage Gilbert, born in 1672, 
who died before he was two years old ; and 
Christopher, who was born on 18 Feb. 1675 
only a few months before his mother's death, 
which took place in the following September 
(PHILLIMOKE, p. 203). In the year follow- 
ing Wren married a second time Jane, 
daughter of Lord FitzWilliam. Two chil- 
dren were the fruit of this marriage Jane, 
born in 1077 ; and William in 1679. Their 
mother died in the latter year (ib. p. 226). 
William survived his father, and died in 
1738. Jane Avas for some years her father's 
constant companion, but died, aged 26, on 
29 Dec. 1702, twentj' years before his own 
death. Very touching is the epitaph on her 
tomb in St. Paul's crypt. 

CHRISTOFHEB WEEN (1675-1 747), the son 
of his first wife, was educated at Eton and 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, which he en- 
tered in 1691, but left without a degree. 
He laid in 1710 the last stone of the lantern 
which surmounts the dome of St. Paul's, in 
the presence of his father. He represented 
Windsor in parliament 17 13-15 (O^Zc/a/ Re- 
turn Memb. of Parl. ii. 29, 37), and died on 
24 Aug. 1747 (Gent. Mag. 1747, p. 447; | 
Letters of Eminent Lit. Men, Camden Soc. p. 
346). His first wife was Mary, daughter of 
Philip Musard, jeweller to Queen Anne. 
His second wife, Constance, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Middleton, and widow of Sir Roger 
Burgoyne, bart., died on 23 May 1734 (Gent. 
Mag. 1734, p. 275). He collected the docu- 
ments which form the 'Parentalia,' after- 
wards published by his son Stephen in 1750, 
and dedicated to Arthur Onslow [q. v.], j 
speaker of the House of Commons. Two i 
letters written to him by Sir Christopher 
while he was quite a youth are printed in 
Miss Phillimore's ' Life*' (pp. 282, 302), and 
show that their relations to one another were 
of an affectionate character. The younger 
Christopher was also a numismatist of some j 
repute (HEAKXE, Collections, ed. Doble, ii. ! 
264), and published in 1708 (London, 4to) , 
' Numismatum Antiquorum Sylloge.' His 
portrait, engraved by Faber, forms the frou- ' 
tispiece of the ' Parentalia.' 

[The main authority for Wren's life is Paren- 
talia, or Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens 
. . . compiled by the architect's son Christopher 
Wren and published by Stephen Wren, London, 
1750, fol. Other lives of Wren are : Elmes's Life 
of Sir Christopher Wren, 1823 ; Phillimore's Sir 
Christopher Wren, his Family and Times, 1881 ; ; 
and Stratton's Life, Work, and Influence of Sir 
Christopher Wren, printed for private circula- 
tion, 1897. See also Cal. State Papers, Doni. 
1668 sqq. passim; Lut troll's Brief Eelation; , 



Pepys's Diary, ed. Wheatley ; Sprat's History 
of Royal Society, 1667 ; Evelyn's Diary, ed. 
Wheatley, 1879; Hooke'sCometa,1678 ; Boyle's 
Diary, ed. Bray, 1879; Newton's Principia, 1687 ; 
Ward's Lives of Gresham Professors, 1740 ; 
Birch's Hist. Royal Society, 1756 ; Weld's Hist. 
Royal Society, 1848; Biographia Britannica, 
1766, vi. 4359-4378; Fergusson's Hist, of Mo- 
dern Architecture, 1862 ; Papworth's Diet, of 
Architecture ; Milman's Annals of St. Paul's, 
1868 ; Longman's Three Cathedrals of St. Paul, 
1873; Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble, and 
Wood's Life and Times, ed. Clark (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.); Burrows's Worthies of All Souls' College ; 
R. B. Gardiner's Register of Wadham College, 
Oxford ; Reginald Blomefield's Renaissance Ar- 
chitecture in England, 1897.] F. C. P. 

WREN, MATTHEW (1585-1667), bishop 
of Ely, eldest son of Francis Wren (1553- 
1624), mercer, of London, by his wife Susan, 
was born in the parish of St. Peter's Cheap, 
London, on 23 Dec. 1585 (baptised 2 Jan. 
1586). The family, originally from Denmark, 
was settled in Durham in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Wren's father, only son of Cuthbert 
Wren (d. 1558), was born at Monk's Kirby, 
Warwickshire ; he is said to have kept, as a 
haberdasher, 'the corner stall, next unto 
Cheap-Crosse'( Wren's Anatomy, 1641, p. 2). 
Sir Christopher Wren [q.v.] was his nephew 
(cf. pedigree in Genealogist, n.s. 1884, i. 262- 
268 ? 1890, vi. 168-71). 

Matthew was a protege of Launcelot An- 
drewes [q.v.], then master of Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, and hence was educated at Pem- 
broke Hall (admitted 23 June 1601). He 
graduated B. A. in 1604-5, was elected fellow 
on 5 Nov. 1605, graduated M.A. on 2 July 
1608 (incorporated at Oxford on 12 July 
1608), ordained deacon on 20 Jan., priest on 
10 Feb. 1610-11, and graduated B.D. in 1615, 
when Andrewes made him his chaplain and 
gave him (21 May 1615) the rectory of Tevers- 
ham, Cambridgeshire. James I, who had 
taken notice of his skill in academic dispu- 
tation (he had argued that the king's dogs 
' might perform more than others, by the pre- 
rogative'), appointed him (27 Jan. 1621-2) 
chaplain to Prince Charles. Being made 
D.D. (1623, incorporated at Oxford on 31 Aug. 
1636), he accompanied Prince Charles to 
Spain. On his return he was installed (10 Nov. 
1623) prebendary of Winchester, and next 
year (17 May) was inducted to the rectory 
of Bingham, Nottinghamshire, on which he 
resigned (8 Nov.) his fellowship. On 20 July 
1625 he was admitted master of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, and proved himself a successful 
head. He looked after the college records, 
and collected money for building a new 
chapel (dedicated 17 March 1632-3), where 



Wren 



95 



Wren 



he introduced the service in Latin (ib. p. 3). 
On 24 July 1628 he was installed dean of 
Windsor (and Wolverhainpton), carrying 
with it the duties of registrar of the Garter. 
He went with Charles I to Scotland in 
1633 ; on 20 Oct. Charles made him clerk of 
the closet. On 14 May 1634 he was chosen 
a governor of the Charterhouse. On 5 Dec. 

1634 he was elected bishop of Hereford ; 
this voided his Winchester stall, but in its 
place he was nominated (18 Feb. 1634-5) to 
a stall at Westminster. He had resigned 
his mastership on 22 Jan., and is said to 
have interested himself in the appointment 
of John Cosin [q. v.] as his successor. He 
was consecrated at Lambeth on 2 March 
by Laud (STUBBS, Registrum Sacrum An- 
glicanum, 1897). Though he held the see 
for eight months only, and as clerk of the 
closet was much absent from his diocese, he 
showed some of the qualities of a capable 
governor; he digested and reformed the 
statutes of his cathedral and improved its 
revenue. His visitation articles (1635, 4to) 
were inquisitorial in character. On 10 Nov. 

1635 he was elected bishop of Norwich, re- 
taining his Westminster stall. On 7 March 
1635-6 he was made dean of the Chapel 
Royal ; he resigned on 11 July 1641. 

At Norwich he succeeded a prelate, Richard 
Corbet [q. v.], who had never shown any 
love for puritans, and had taken proceedings 
against them. Yet Laud, at his visitation 
(1635), found the diocese ' much out of order,' 
and expected Wren to ' take care of it.' 
Wren's visitation articles (1636, 4to) are an 
expansion of those for Hereford. The British 
Museum copy (5155, c. 20) has an appendix of 
twenty-eight 'particular orders' in manu- 
script. The public mind was soon excited 
against Wren ,by William Prynne [q. v.], 
writing as ' Matthew White ' in ' Newes from 
Ipswich,' 1636, 4to, which atonce ran through 
three editions, and was reprinted in 1641. 
Wren's own reports, as summarised by Laud, 
explain how, in less than two years and a 
half, he had roused the puritanism of East 
Anglia to a dangerous pitch of rebellious fury 
( WHAKTOX, pp. 540, 548). Clarendon relates 
that he ' passionately and furiously proceeded 
against them [the foreign congregations], that 
many left the kingdom, to the lessening the 
wealthy manufacture ' (Hist. 1888, vi. 183). 
Wren himself affirms (Answer to Articles of 
Impeachment; Parentalia, p. 101) that the 
migration was a question of wage ; that it 
began in Corbet's time, and was at its height 
in the first half-year of the episcopate of 
Richard Montagu [q. v.] Owing to his 
liturgical knowledge he was selected as one 
of the revisers of the new common-prayer 



book for Scotland. In April 1638 he was 
translated to Ely, succeeding Francis White 
[q. v.] ; and in this diocese he pursued the 
same policy as in that of Norwich, and by 
the same methods. His Ely visitation ar- 
ticles (1638, 4to) are an exact duplicate of 
those for Norwich. He acted all along, it 
should be said, xinder the constant supervi- 
sion of Laud, confirmed by direct instruc- 
tions from the king, which appeared on the 
margins of Laud's reports. 

On 19 Dec. 1640, the day after Laud's 
impeachment, John Hampden acquainted the 
House of Lords that the commons had re- 
ceived informations against Wren. He was 
bound in 10,000/. for his daily appearance ; 
on 23 Dec. the bishops of Bangor, LlandaiF, 
and Peterborough became joint sureties with 
him. A committee of the commons drew 
up nine articles of impeachment, on which 
the commons resolved (5 July 1641) that 
Wren was unfit to hold any office in the 
church or commonwealth. A conference of 
both houses was held on 20 July for the 
transmission of the r rticles of impeachment 
(enlarged to twenty-four), when Sir Thomas 
Widdrington [q. v.] delivered a florid speech 
urging proceedings against Wren (Sr. Tho. 
Widdringtons Speech, 1641 : Parentalia, p. 
19). Wren prepared an elaborate defence. 
No proceedings were taken ; but on 30 Dec. 
Wren was sent to the Tower with other 
bishops and detained tfll 6 May 1642. In 
1642 he presented a petition to parliament 
' in defence of episcopacie ' (Bishop Wren's 
Petition, 1642). On 30 Aug. 1642 his 
episcopal residence at Ely was searched for 
ammunition by ' a troop of well-affected 
horsemen ' (Joyfull Newes from the Isle of 
Ely, 2 Sept. 1642), who, by order of parlia- 
ment, arrested and brought him to London 
(1 Sept.), when he was again committed to 
the Tower (A True Relation, 2 Sept. 1642). 
He continued while in the Tower to per- 
form episcopal acts, such as the institution 
of clergy, and kept up his register. In the 
terms offered by parliament to the king at 
Uxbridge (23 Nov. 1644) he was one of 
those excluded from pardon. He is said to 
have held intercourse with Monck, his fel- 
low-prisoner (1644-6), and to have given 
Monck his blessing on the understanding 
that he was going to do the king ' the best 
service he could' (Life of Harwich, 1721, 
p. 16). On 14 March 1648-9 the commons 
resolved that he be not tried for life, but 
imprisoned till further order. During the 
interregnum he was much consulted on 
church affairs by Hyde, with whom he com- 
municated through John Barwick (1612- 
1664) [q. v.] Cromwell more than once 



Wren 



9 6 



Wrench 



offered him his liberty (once through his 
nephew Christopher), but Wren declined to 
acknowledge his favour or own his authority 
(Parentalia, p. 34). The order for his dis- 
charge was given on 15 March 1659-60. 
He was not allowed to return to his palace, 
but lived in lodgings till the Restoration. 

His zeal ' in purging his diocese from 
disaffected ministers ' carried him to great 
lengths. He resisted the rightful title of 
Richard Reynolds (father of Richard Rey- 
nolds, bishop of Lincoln [q. v.]) to the 
rectory of Leverington, trying to put in 
his own nominee, and when Charles II 
begged him 'to give no further distur- 
bance,' he ' bluntly said, " Sir, I know the 
way to the Tower"' (KENNETT; Paren- 
talia, p. 30). As visitor of Peterhouse he 
appointed (21 April 1663) Joseph Beaumont 
(1616-1699) [q. v.] to the mastership 
' by a stretch of power ' setting aside the 
nominations of the fellows, one of the 
nominees being Isaac Barrow (1630-1677) 
[q. v.] He spent over 5,000/. in build- 
ing the new chapel at Pembroke Hall (foun- 
dation laid 13 May 1663, finished 1666). 
His habits throughout life were those of a 
hardy scholar, up at five and seldom in bed 
till eleven. 

He died at Ely House, Holborn, on 24 April 
1667, and was buried in the chapel he had 
built at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, the 
funeral oration, in Latin, being delivered by 
John Pearson (1613-1686) [q. v.], then master 
of Trinity (printed in ' Parentalia,' p. 39). 
An early and fine portrait, engraved by 
Van der Gucht, is in ' Parentalia ; ' a crude 
woodcut, evidently a likeness, is on the 
title-page of ' Wren's Petition,' 1642 ; other 
contemporary woodcuts are mere carica- 
tures. He wore a ruff. His wife Elizabeth 
(d.8 Dec. 1646), whom he married on 17 Aug. 
1628, was born at Ringshall, Suffolk, 17 Oct. 
1604. She is believed to have been daugh- 
ter of Thomas Cutler, and widow of Robert 
Brownrigg (Genealogist, 1890, vi. 170). He 
had nine children, of whom several died in 
infancy. 

Wren published a sermon (1627) and a 
tract, ' An Abandoning of the Scotish Co- 
venant,' 1662, 4to, written ' in prison,' and 
published to prepare his clergy for the re- 
nunciation of the covenant, in accordance 
with the Uniformity Act. From a large 
book of ' critical meditations,' composed in 
the Tower, his son Matthew edited a volume 
of polemical interpretations of Scripture, in 
answer to the Racovian catechism, entitled 
'Increpatio Barjesu,' 1660, 4to ; it is in- 
cluded in the ' Critici Sacri,' 1660, ix. fol. 

His eldest child, MATTHEW WEEX (1629- 



1672), born on 20 Aug. 1629, was edu- 
cated at both universities (M.A. Oxford 
9 Sept. 1661), was secretary to Clarendon 
1660-7), M.P. for St. Michael (1661-72), and 
secretary to James, duke of York (1667-72) ; 
he was one of the council of the Royal So- 
ciety named in Charles II's original charter, 
dated 15 July 1662 (SPRAT, Hist. 1667, p. 
55), and was a prominent member of the 
society. He died on 14 June 1672, being 
buried with his father at Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge. He wrote : 1. ' Considerations 
on Mr. Harrington's . . . Oceana,' 1657, 12mo 
(anon.) 2. ' Monarchy Asserted ... in Vin- 
dication of the Considerations,' 1659, 8vo ; 
2nd edit. 1660, 8vo, to which Harrington 
replied in his ' Politicaster,' London, 1659, 
8vo. 

Other sons were Thomas Wren (1633- 
1679), M.D. and LL.D., an original F.R.S., 
archdeacon of Ely 1663 ; Charles Wren (d. 
1681) ; and Sir William Wren (1639-1689), 
knighted 1685, M.P. for Cambridge 1685-7 
(Genealogist, 1879, iii. 314, v. 330). The 
bishop's daughter, Susan, was second wife of 
Sir Robert Wright [q. v.] 

[Stephen Wren's Parentalia, 1750, contains a 
life of Matthew Wren, with appendix of docu 
ments (at p. 138 is a valuable list of family dates 
to 1652 by the bii-hop). On this is founded the 
article in Biographia Britannica, 1763, vi. 4353. 
Wren's Anatomy (1641) is bitter but contains 
facts; The Wren's Nest Defiled (1641) and The 
Myter (1641) are lampoons; A Most Strange 
Letter (1642) is an evident forgery. See also 
Prynne's Canterburies Doome, 1646; Heylyn's 
Cyprianus Anglicus, 1668; Wharton's Troubles 
and Tryal of Laud, 1675 ; Lloyd's Memoires. 
1668, p. 611 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 
885 ; Parr's Life of Ussher, 1686, p. 393; Ken- 
nett's Kegister, 1728; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of 
England, 1779, ii.'l 57 ; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, 
1779. ii. 336; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 1851; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England, 1884, viii. 224; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] A. G. 

WKENCH, BENJAMIN (1778-1843), 
actor, was born in 1778 in London, where 
his father occupied ' a lucrative appointment 
in the exchequer.' He seems to have been 
grandson of Sir Benjamin Wrench, M.D., of 
Norwich (d. 1747, aged 82) (see Notes and 
Queries, 5th ser. v. 48). His father died be- 
fore he reached his seventh year, and having 
declined a proffered living and a commission 
in the army offered by General Tryon, a re- 
lative, Wrench adopted the stage as a pro- 
fession, making his first appearance at Stam- 
ford. Whatever ability he had was slow in 
ripening, and he had to rehearse for four- 
teen days the part of Francis in the ' Stranger ' 
before he could be allowed to essay it. Mrs. 



Wrench 



97 



Wrench 



Robinson Taylor, the manager of the Not- 
tingham circuit, whom he married, coached 
him carefully and brought out such ability 
as he possessed. He then joined in York 
the company of TateWilkinson, whose praise 
he obtained, and proceeded to Edinburgh, 
where with complete success he played 
Othello, Gossamer, Job Thornberry, and 
Jeremy Diddler. 

When Robert William Elliston [q. v.] in 

1804 quitted Bath, he was replaced by 
Wrench, who made his appearance on 5 Jan. 

1805 as Gossamer in ' Laugh when you can,' 
and Walter in ' Children in the Wood.' 
Cheveril in Holcroft's ' Deserted Daughter,' 
Aircourt in O'Keeffe's ' Lie of the Day,' 
Young Rapid in ' Cure for the Heartache,' 
Doricourt in the ' Belle's Stratagem,' Ro- 
lando in ' Honeymoon,' Sir Robert Ramble 
in ' Every one has his Fault,' Beauchamp in 
' Which is the Man ? ' Job Thornberry in 
' John Bull,' Jeremy Diddler in ' Raising 
the Wind,' Sir Charles Racket in ' Three 
Weeks after Marriage,' and Jaffier in 'Venice 
Preserved,' followed during the season, which 
was the last in the old Bath theatre. In the 
new house Wrench opened on 26 Oct. 1805 as 
Percy in the ' Castle Spectre.' He played dur- 
ing the season Archer in ' Beaux' Stratagem,' 
Orlando, Belcour in 'West Indian,' and Pedro 
in the 'Pilgrim.' He then returned to York, 
and while there received an offer from Drury 
Lane, where he appeared, with the company 
then temporarily occupying the Lyceum, as 
' Wrench from Bath and York,' playing on 
7 Oct. 1809 Belcour in ' West Indian ' and 
Tristram Fickle in the ' Weathercock.' 
Frank Heartall in the ' Soldier's Daughter,' 
Lenitive in the 'Prize/ Howard in Rey- 
nolds's ' Will,' Marplot, Frederick in < Poor 
Gentleman,' Captain Absolute, Benedict, 
Charles Austencourt in ' Man and Wife,' 
Delaval in ' Matrimony,' Colonel Lambert in 
' Hypocrite,' Storm in ' Ella Rosenberg,' 
Loveless in ' Trip to Scarborough,' Millamour 
in ' Know your own Mind,' with some other 
parts in which he had been seen in Bath, 
were given in his first season ; he was also 
seen as the first Henry Torringham in Cobb's 
' Sudden Arrivals' (19Dec. 1809), and Edward 
Lacey in ' Riches,' adapted by Sir James 
Bland Surges from Massinger's ' City Madam.' 
Genest says he showed himself a good actor, 
but was no adequate substitute for Elliston. 

At Drury Lane he remained until 1815, 
adding to his repertory Sir Harry Beagle in 
the 'Jealous Wife,' Marquis in 'Midnight 
Hour,' Duke in ' Honeymoon,' Beverley in 
' All in the Wrong,' Floriville in ' Dramatist,' 
Duke's Servant in ' High Life below Stairs,' 
the Copper Captain, Dick in ' Heir-at-Law,' 

VOL. LXIII. 



Gratiano, Frank in ' School for Authors,' 
Major Belford in ' Deuce is in him,' Bob 
Handy in ' Speed the Plough,' and Count 
Basset in 'Provoked Husband.' He played 
a few original characters in obscure plays of 
Masters, Millingen, Leigh, and other for- 
gotten dramatists, among which may be 
named Gaspar in the ' Kiss,' taken by Clarke 
from the ' Spanish Curate ' of Fletcher, 31 Oct. 
1811 ; Sir Frederick Fillamour in Mrs. 
LeFanu's 'Prejudice,' 11 April 1812; Cap- 
tain Blumenfield in ' How to die for Love,' 
taken from Kotzebue, 21 May; Professor 
Trifleton in Horace Smith's ' First Impres- 
sions,' 30 Oct. 1813 ; Captain Enrico in T. 
Dibdin's ' Who's to have her?' 22 Nov. ; and 
Volage in Henry Siddons's ' Policy,' 14 Oct. 
1814. 

He left Drury Lane in 1815, and divided his 
time between the Lyceum and the country 
Birmingham, Bristol, Dublin, and other large 
towns. At the Lyceum he was on 29 Aug. 
1818 the first Wing in Peake's ' Amateurs 
and Actors,' the first Jenkins in ' Gretna 
Green,' and the first Sir John Freeman in 
' Free and Easy.' In 1820, as Captain Somer- 
ville in ' Capers at Canterbury,' he made his 
first appearance at the Adelphi, where he 
made perhaps his greatest success on 26 Nov. 
1821 as Corinthian Tom in Moncrieff 's 'Tom 
and Jerry, or Life in London.' 

On 4 Oct. 1826 he appeared for the first 
time at Covent Garden, enacting Rover in 
' Wild Oats.' He playedVolatile in ' Wife's 
Stratagem,' Antipholus of Syracuse, Lord 
Trinket in ' Jealous Wife,' Sponge in ' A 
Race for a Dinner,' Duretete in the 'In- 
constant,' Tom Shuffleton in ' John Bull,' 
Almaviva in ' Marriage of Figaro,' and was 
the first Pedrillo in Dimond's ' Seraglio,' 
24 Nov. ; Rosambert in Moncrieff 's ' Som- 
nambulist, 10 Feb. 1828; and Aufait in 
' Li ttle Offerings,' 26 April. During the fol- 
lowing season he was Rochester in ' Charles 
the Second,' Mercutio, Kite in the ' Recruit- 
ing Officer,' Valcour, an original part, in 
Pocock's ' Home, Sweet Home,' 19 March 
1829 ; Peter Shock in ' Master's Rival,' and 
Frankly in 'Suspicious Husband.' In 1829- 
1830, where the records of Genest end, he was 
the first Tarleton in Somerset's ' Shake- 
speare's Early Days,' 29 Oct. 1829; Quickset 
in the ' Phrenologists,' 12 Jan. 1830; Richard 
Jones in the 'Wigwam, 'founded on Cooper's 
' Pioneers,' 12 April ; Captain Fervid in the 
' Colonel,' 4 May. He was also seen as 
Captain Tickall in ' Husbands and Wives,' 
Baron Wolfenstein in the 'Poacher,' and 
Flutter in ' Belle's Stratagem.' He had 
made a great success at the Lyceum in ' He 
lies like Truth,' and was at that house when 



Wrenn 



9 s 



Wrey 



(16 Feb. 1830) it was burnt to the ground. 
In 1834, in the rebuilt house, Wrench and 
Keeley made a great hit in Oxenford's ' I 
and my Double.' On 30 Oct. at the Hay- 
market he was the first Caleb Chizzler in 
'But however' by Henry Mayhew and 
Henry Baylis. In 1840 Wrench was at the 
Olympic. His last engagement was at the 
Haymarket, On 24 Oct. 1843 he died at 
his lodgings in Pickett Place, London, in 
his sixty-sixth year. Wrench and Manly, 
an actor, were engaged respectively to Miss 
and Mrs. Taylor of Nottingham, but ulti- 
mately changed partners, Wrench marrying 
Mrs. Taylor and Manly her daughter. 
Wrench's marriage was not happy. He 
was charged with leaving his wife necessi- 
tous while he indulged in tavern dissipations. 
His wife had formerly, as Mrs. Taylor, been 
an actress of some ability (see Thespian Dic- 
tionary, under Taylor [Mrs. Robinson]). 

In the country Wrench played a large 
round of comic characters, including Charles 
Surface, Dr. Pangloss, Captain Absolute, and 
many others. Wrench was a good comedian, 
but never reached the first rank. Oxberry, 
who played with him at many theatres, 
speaks of him as knock-kneed, and says that, 
adopting Elliston as model, he copied his 
nasal twang and drawling doubtful delivery, 
mistook abruptness for humour, and was 
less a gentleman on the stage than a ' blood.' 

Wrench was medium height, light com- 
plexioned, with high shoulders and flat 
features. A portrait of him, by Sharpe. as 
Wing in ' Amateurs and Actors,' and one 
by De Wilde as Sir Freeman in ' Free and 
Easy,' are in the Mathews collection in the 
Garrick. His portrait as Belmour is in Ox- 
berry's ' Dramatic Biography,' and as Bene- 
dick in the ' Theatrical Inquisitor ' for 
January 1814. 

[Oxberry's Dramatic Biography, vol. iv. ; 
Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Dra- 
matic and Musical Review, November 1843; 
Theatrical Inquisitor, vol. iv. ; Memoirs of 
Munden : Donaldson's Recollections of an Actor ; 
Authentic Memoirs of the Green Room, n.d. 
(1814) ; Theatrical Looker-on, Birmingham, 
1823; Biography of the British Stage, 1824 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1844, i. 438.] J. K. 

WBENN, RALPH (d. 1692), commo- 
dore, was on 18 April 1672 appointed com- 
mander of the Hopewell fireship, and in the 
following year of the Rose dogger. After 
the peace with Holland he was lieutenant of 
the Reserve; in 1677 he had command of 
the fireship Young Spragge ; in 1679 he was 
lieutenant of the Kingfisher in the Mediter- 
ranean with Morgan Kempthorne [see under 
KEMPTHORXE, SIR JOHX], and was so still 



in May 1681, when she fought a brilliant 
action with seven Algerine pirates. After 
Kempthorne's death Wrenn took the com- 
mand and beat off the enemy. His gallantry 
was rewarded by his promotion to the com- 
mand of the Nonsuch on 9 Aug. 1681. In 
May 1682 he was moved into the Centurion, 
to which, still in the Mediterranean, he was 
reappointed in May 1685. In 1687-8 he 
commanded the Mary Rose, and in Septem- 
ber 1 688 he was appointed to the Greenwich, 
one of the ships at the Nore with Lord 
Dartmouth during the critical October [see 
LEGGE, GEORGE, LORD DARTMOUTH]; from 
this appointment he was superseded after the 
revolution. In 1690, however, he was ap- 
pointed to the Norwich of forty-eight guns, 
and in October 1691 was ordered out to the 
West Indies in succession to Lawrence 
Wright [q. v.] He sailed from Plymouth on 
26 Dec., and after a most favourable passage 
arrived at Barbados on 16 Jan. 1691-2, 
when his force consisted of the Mary and, 
besides the Norwich, five 4th-rates, ships of 
from forty to fifty guns. He had orders to 
send one of these with the trade to Jamaica ; 
but, receiving intelligence that the French 
were in greater force than had been supposed, 
he detached two on this duty. Then, on a 
report that a squadron of nine French ships 
was cruising off Barbados, he strengthened 
his force with two hired merchant ships, 
and put to sea on 30 Jan. Not meeting 
with the enemy in a cruise of five days, he 
returned to Barbados, and, apprehending that 
the whole French fleet had gone to Jamaica, 
he sailed again on 17 Feb. On the 21st off 
Desirade he sighted the French fleet of more 
than three times his strength eighteen ships 
of from forty to sixty guns, with some six 
or seven fireships and tenders. In face of 
such odds, Wrenn drew back, but was the 
next morning attacked by their full force. 
After a sharp action of four hours' duration, 
Wrenn found himself able to draw off and 
retire unpursued 'the bravest action per- 
formed in the West Indies during the war ' 
(LEDIARD, p. 655). He returned to Barba- 
dos, where a sickness carried off a great many 
of the men, and, among others, Wrenn him- 
self. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. i. 880 ; Lediard's 
Naval Hist. pp. 653-5 ; Colomb's Naval War- 
fare (1st ed.), pp. 258-9.] J. K. L. 

WREY, SIR BOURCHIER (d. 1690), 
duellist, son of Sir Chichester Wrey, second 
baronet, by Anne, widow of Lionel Cranfield, 
earl of Middlesex, and daughter and coheiress 
of Edward Bourchier, fourth earl of Bath (d. 
1636). The Wreys had lived for generations 
at Trebigh, Cornwall, but by the marriage 



Wrey 



99 



Wright 



of Sir Chickester with Lady Anne they be- 
came possessors of Tawstock, thenceforth 
the family seat. 

Sir Bourchier Wrey commanded a regi- 
ment of horse after the Restoration, and 
served under the Duke of Monmouth. He 
was M.P. for Liskeard from 1678 to 1679, 
was returned for the county of Devon 1685, 
and sat for Liskeard 1689 to 1696. He fought 
a duel with Thomas Bulkeley, M.P. for Beau- 
maris, in Hyde Park on 4 Feb. 1691-2, in 
which Luttrell notes that of the six men en- 
gaged as principals and seconds five were 
M.P.s. Two of the seconds were slightly 
wounded. In May 1694 he fought another 
duel with James Praed of Trevethowe, M.P. 
for St. Ives, at Falmouth, and ' was run 
through the body, Mr. Praed being only hurt 
slightly in the face.' On 1 June he was re- 
ported dead of his wound, but lived until 
21 July 1696, when Luttrell notes that Sir 
Bourchier Wrey and Captain Pitts, both 
M.P.s, are dead. He was buried in Taw- 
stock church. He married Florence, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Rolle. 

His grandson, SIK BOURCHIEB WREY 
(1714-1784), dilettante, born in 1714, be- 
came fifth baronet on the death of his father, 
Sir Bourchier Wrey, in 1726 His mother, 
Diana, was daughter of John Rolle of Steven- 
stone. After attending Winchester College, 
he matriculated from New College, Oxford, 
on 21 Oct. 1732. He was elected M.P. for 
Barnstaple, 20 Jan. 1747-8, and became a 
member of the Society of Dilettanti in 1742. 
He went to Bremen, Hamburg, and Liibeck 
in 1752 as a delegate of the ' Society for 
carrying on the Herring Fishery,' and suc- 
ceeded in these ports and at Copenhagen in 
arranging better terms for the English fisher- 
men. He rebuilt the pier at Ilfracombe in 
1761. There are several of his letters among 
the Newcastle correspondence in the British 
Museum manuscripts. In them he speaks 
of his zeal for his majesty and his ministers ; 
asks for a living in Devon for his brother as 
' a proof that those that exert themselves 
towards the support of Liberty in Times of 
Confusion and Rebellion are entitled to its 
benefits in the days of Tranquillity,' dated 
November 1748, alluding apparently to 'the 
'45 ' when there were some disturbances in 
Exeter. He died on 13 April 1784, and 
was buried in Tawstock church, where is a 
pyramidal monument to him and his two 
wives, for the first of whom there is a long 
Latin epitaph in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' 
of 1751. He married, first, in 1749, Mary, 
daughter of John Edwards of Highgate 
(she died without issue in 1751) ; and se- 
condly, in 1755, Ellen, daughter of John 



Thresher of Bradford in Wiltshire. He was 
succeeded as sixth baronet by his eldest son 
Bourchier. His portrait was painted by 
George Knapton in 1744 ; he is represented 
with a punch-bowl, on which is inscribed 
' Dulce est desipere in loco.' 

[Luttrell's Brief Relation ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. ; Lysons's Devon; Gust and Colvin's His- 
tory of the Society of Dilettanti ; Notes and 
Queries, 5th ser. viii. 473.] E. L. E. 

WRIGHT, ABRAHAM (1611-1690), 
divine and author, son of Richard Wright, 
silk-dyer, of London, was born in Black Swan 
Alley, Thames Street, 23 Dec. 1611 ; appa- 
rently his father was the Richard Wright 
who was warden of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company, 1600-1, 1606-7, and master 1611- 
1612. He was sent to the Mercers' chapel 
school in Cheapside, and was afterwards 
from 1626 at Merchant Taylors' school. He 
was elected scholar of St. John's College, 
Oxford, on 11 June 1629, and matriculated 
on 13 Nov. (certificate of his signing the 
articles in Hist. MSS. Comm, 2nd Rep. App. 
i. 78). He was especially favoured by Juxon 
for his good elocution. He was elected 
fellow of his college in 1632, graduated B.A. 
on 16 May 1633, and M.A. on 22 April 1637. 

When Laud received Charles I in St. 
John's on 30 Aug. 1636, Wright delivered 
the speech welcoming the king to the new 
library (the verses are printed in his Par- 
nassus Biceps, 1656), and after dinner he 
acted in the play ' Love's Hospital,' by 
George Wild [q.v.], before the king and queen. 
St. John's had long been famous for its 
plays (see The Christmas Prince, London, 
1816; and Narcissus, London, 1893), and 
' was at that time so well furnished as that 
they did not borrow any one actor from any 
college in town ' (LAUD, Hist, of his Chan- 
cellorship of Oxford}. Wright is said him- 
self to have written a comic interlude 
called ' The Reformation,' acted at St. John's 
about 1631 (WABTO^'S edition of Milton's 
Poems, 1785, pp. 602-3). 

On 27 Sept. 1637 Wright was ordained 
deacon by Francis White (1564 P-1638) [q.v.], 
bishop of Ely, in the chapel of Ely House. In 
the same year he published at Oxford a collec- 
tion of sixteenth and seventeenth century 
epigrams, which he called ' Delitise Delitia- 
rum.' On 22 Dec. 1639 he was ordained 
priest by Bancroft, bishop of Oxford, in 
Christ Church Cathedral. He soon became 
a popular preacher, and preached before the 
king, before the university, and at St. Paul's 
(WooD, Athena Oxon. iv. 275; cf. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. App. i. 79). 

In August 1645 he was presented to the 



Wright 



IOO 



Wright 



vicarage of Oakham, Rutland, by Juxon, his 
constant patron, but he was not inducted, 
as he refused to take the covenant (cf. his 
poem to Juxon in Parnassus Biceps). He 
was expelled from his fellowship by the par- 
liamentary commission (WILSON, Hist, of 
Merchant Taylors' School, ii. 728), and be- 
came tutor to the son of Sir James Grime 
or Graham at Peckham, and 'read the 
common prayer on all Sundays and holy 
days, and on principal feasts he preached 
and administered. About 1655 he was 
prevailed with to leave Peckham and 
to live in London, where he was chosen 
by the parishioners of St. Olave in Silver 
Street to be their minister and to re- 
ceive the profits of that little parish, of 
which he was in effect the rector, though 
formally to take actual possession of the 
living he would not (as his nearest relation 
hath told me), because he would avoid 
oaths and obligations ' ( WOOD, Athence 
O.ron.) He continued to minister there four 
years, according to the rites of the church 
of England, but was obliged to withdraw 
in 1659. On the Restoration he was offered 
a chaplaincy to Elizabeth of Bohemia, but he 
declined it and took possession of his living 
of Oakham. He refused several preferments 
and lived quietly in the country, busy with 
his parish and his garden (cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 2nd Rep. i. 396, 398). He died on 
Friday, 9 May 1690, and was buried in 
Oakham church. He married, in 1643, Jane, 
daughter of James Stone of Yarnton, Ox- 
fordshire. His son James (1643-1713) [q.v.] 
was a noted antiquary and man of letters. 

Wright's works have each some peculiar 
interest. Besides the ' Delitiae Delitiarum ' 
and some lines in ' Flos Britannicus,' Oxford, 
1636, he was author of: 1. ' Novissima Straf- 
fordii,' a highly eulogistic account of Went- 
worth, ' in the style of Tacitus.' This was 
printed by Dr. P. Bliss and Dr. B. Bandinel 
in 'Historical Papers of theRoxburghe Club,' 
pt. i. London, 1846. The editors say (p. vi) : 
' We have seenavolume of manuscript collec- 
tions made by Wright in his youth, probably 
when at college, which is here mentioned, 
because it contains some early and original 
criticisms on Shakespeare.' 2. 'Parnassus 
Biceps, or severall choice pieces of Poetry, 
composed by the best wits that were in both 
of the Universities before their dissolution, 
with an epistle in the behalf of those now 
doubly secluded and sequestered members, by 
one who himself is none,' London, 1656. 
3. ' Five Sermons,' 1656 ; in the style re- 
spectively of Bishop Andrewes, Bishop Hall, 
Dr. Mayne, and Mr. Cartwright, the presby- 
terian way., and the independent way. These 



in his preface ' to the Christian reader ' he 
declares to show ' what a scholar may do 
more than a mere preacher, and that there 
is a vast difference between shop-board breed- 
ing and the Universities,' and he disparages 
the ignorant preaching of the day. 6. ' A 
Practical Commentary on the Psalms,' 1661, 
London (Wood also mentions a commentary 
on the Pentateuch, n.d.) He left other manu- 
scripts behind him (WoOD, Athenee O.ron. ; 
some are among the manuscripts of Mr. 
Bromley-Davenport at Baginton). 

[Wood's Fasti and Athenae Oxon. ir. 2"5 ; 
Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' School; 
Wilson's History of Merchant Taylors' School ; 
Laud's Works ; Wright's Hist, and Antiquities 
of Rutland, p. 85. There are lives of Abraham 
Wright in Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. vol. xxxii. and 
in the Biographic Universelle.] W. H. H. 

WRIGHT, EDWARD (1558P-1615), 
mathematician and hydrographer, younger 
son of Henry Wright of Garveston, Norfolk, 
' mediocris fortunse,' was born at Garveston . 
about 1558. His elder brother, Thomas, was 
entered at Caius College, Cambridge, in 
April 1574, then aged 18. Edward was 
entered, also at Caius College, as a sizar in 
December 1576, being presumably about two 
years younger than Thomas. He graduated 
B.A. in 1580-1, was a scholar of the college 
1581-4, graduated M.A. in 1584, and was 
a fellow 1587-96. When and in what cir- 
cumstances Wright turned his attention to 
nautical matters is doubtful. It is certain 
that he accompanied the Earl of Cumberland 
[see CLIFFOED, GEORGE, third EARL OF CUM- 
BERLAND] in his voyage to the Azores in 
1589, and that he wrote an account of the 
voyage ; but in that he mentions as one of 
the gentlemen with Cumberland, ' Captain 
Edward Carelesse, alias Wright, who in 
Sir Francis Drake's West Indian voyage to 
St. Domingo and Cartagena was captain of 
the Hope,' that is in 1585-6. The natural 
conclusion is that the Wright who com- 
manded the Hope in 1585 was the Wright 
who was with Cumberland as a mathema- 
tician in 1589, though it seems to be con- 
tradicted by a statement of Wright's in 
1599 that his ' first employment at sea was 
now more than ten years since.' Again, it 
is doubtful whether he had any later service 
at sea ; for though in the manuscript annals 
of Caius College it is stated that he ' made a 
voyage to the Azores with the Earl of Cum- 
berland, for which, by royal mandate, leave 
of absence was granted him by the college, 
11 May 1593 ' (VENN), it seems possible that 
the annalist wrote the date in error; the 
more so as there is no mention of his having 
leave from the college in 1589, when he was 



Wright 



101 



Wright 



equally a fellow. We have, too, his own 
reference to himself as a landsman, with an 
apology for his seeming presumption in 
writing of nautical matters. But, in fact, 
with the exception of his account of the 
voyage of 1589 (published separately in 
1599, and also in HakluytV Principal Navi- 
gations,' II. ii. 1^3), all his nautical writings 
relate to navigation considered as a branch 
of mathematics. It is on these that his fame 
rests. He did, in fact, effect a complete 
revolution in the science, bringing to it for the 
first time a sound mathematical training. 

From a very early date navigators had 
used a plane chart, in which the meridians, 
represented by parallel straight lines, were 
crossed at equal distances by parallels of 
latitude, the degrees of latitude and longi- 
tude being thus shown of equal length. 
Such a chart had not only the great fault of 
grossly distorting the ratio of length to 
breadth, but, from the navigator's point of 
view, the still greater one of not permitting 
the course from one place to another to be 
laid off at sight. What was wanted was a 
chart which would show as a straight line 
the curve drawn on a globe cutting each 
meridian at a constant angle. Such a curve, 
it may be said, is called by navigators a 
rhumb, or rhumb line. Now, a year or two 
before Wright was born, Mercator in Hol- 
land had attempted to draw such a chart 
(1556) by lengthening the degrees of latitude 
in some rough proportion to the lengthening 
of the degrees of longitude, apparently by 
noting on the sphere where the rhumbs cut 
the meridians ; but these charts were not 
thought much of by navigators, and when 
Wright first went to sea he found the old 
plane chart still in common use. The pro- 
blem, as it appeared to him, was to devise a 
chart in which the degrees of latitude should 
be lengthened in the same proportion as the 
degrees of longitude were when the meri- 
dians were represented by parallel straight 
lines. 

The solution of this problem is now easy 
by the use of the integral calculus, but in 
1589 very little was known of the doctrine 
of limits, even in its most elementary form. 
What little was known Wright applied ; he 
arrived at a correct and practical answer to 
the question, and constructed a table for 
lengthening the degrees of latitude such as 
is now commonly printed as a ' table of 
meridional parts.' Wright's first table was 
very rough, and he himself was doubtful of 
its practical value; but when Hondius in 
Germany without acknowledgment, and Tho- 
mas Blundeville [q. v.] in England with 
acknowledgment (Exercises, 1594, p. 3266), 



adopted it, and others were preparing to 
put the method forward as their own, he 
conceived the time had come to claim it 
publicly, and in 1599 published 'Certaine 
Errors in Navigation, arising either of the 
ordinarie erroneous making or using of the 
sea chart, compasse, crosse staffe, and tables 
of declination of the sunne and fixed starres, 
detected and corrected' (sm. 4to, London, 
printed for Valentine Simms ; 2nd edit. 
1610, with additions ; 3rd edit, [see MOXON, 
JOSEPH], 1657 ; there is a beautiful copy of 
the rare first edition in the Grenville Library, 
British Museum. In this the question of 
the chart was fully and clearly discussed, 
once for all, as a mathematical problem. 
Practically speaking, the so-called Mercator's 
charts in use at the present time are drawn 
on the projection laid down by Wright. 

Wright is said to have been tutor to 
Prince Henry, a report which seems corro- 
borated by the dedication to the prince of 
the second edition of the ' Certaine Errors.' 
It is also said that he conceived the plan of 
bringing water to London by a canal, which 
was known as the New River, ' but by the 
tricks of others he was hindered from com- 
pleting the work he had begun.' He was 
appointed by Sir Thomas Smith (Smythe) 
[q. v.] and (Sir) John Wolstenholme [q. v.J 
to lecture on navigation, which he did in 
Smythe's house, till in 1614 the matter was 
taken up by the court of the East India 
Company, and Wright was appointed by 
them at a salary of 50/. a year to lecture 
on navigation, to examine their journals and 
mariners, and to prepare their plots. He 
died in London in 1615, ' vir morum sim- 
plicitate et candore omnibus gratus.' He 
was married and left one son, Samuel, who 
entered at Caius College in 1612, and died 
apparently in 1616. 

Besides the 'Certaine Errors' and the 
' Voyage to the Azores,' Wright published : 
1. ' The Haven finding Art, or the way to 
find any Haven or place at Sea by the lati- 
tude and variation' (1599, sm. 4to) ; an 
adaptation and extension of Simon Stevin's 
' De Havenvinding,' which was translated 
into Latin by the elder Groot under the 
title of ' At/iei/evpei-iKTj sive portuum investi- 
gandorum ratio.' Bearing in mind that there 
was then absolutely no way of determining 
the longitude at sea, the proposal was to 
determine a position by the latitude and 
variation of the compass, assumed as con- 
stant in the same place, which is only 
approximately true for a few years. 2. ' The 
Description and Use of the Sphsere ' (1613, 
sm. 4to). 3. ' A Short Treatise of Dialling' 
(1614, sm. 4to). 4. 'A Description of 



Wright 



IO2 



Wright 



Napier's Table of Logarithms,' translated by 
E. W. (1616, 12mo, posthumous, edited by 
Samuel Wright). 

[Venn's Biogr. Hist, of Gonville and Caius 
College ; C. Button's Philosophical and Mathe- 
matical Diet. ; James Wilson's Dissertation on 
the Hist, of Navigation, prefixed to J. Robert- 
son's Navigation (4th ed. 1780); Penny Cyclo- 
paedia; Rees's Cyclopaedia. See also H. W. 
Jeans's Problems in Astronomy and Navigation, 
pp. 127-30.] J. K. L. 

WRIGHT, EDWARD RICHARD 
(1813-1859), actor, born in 1813, was in trade, 
and became a citizen of London and a mem- 
ber of the Skinners' Company. After acting, 
in September 1832 at the Margate Theatre, 
John Reeve's part of Marmaduke Magog in 
the ' Wreck Ashore ' of Buckstone, he was 
seen in London, in 1834, at the Queen's 
Theatre. After a time spent on the stage in 
Birmingham and Bristol, he came to the St. 
James's Theatre, then built and opened by 
John Braham [q. v.], and on the first night 
made his earliest recognised appearance as a 
comedian, on 29 Sept. 1837, as Splash in the 
' Young Widow,' and Fitzcloddy in a farce 
called ' Methinks I see my Father.' His re- 
ception was favourable. On 20 March 1838 
he was the original Wigler in Selby's ' Valet 
de Sham.' At this house, too, he was the first 
Simmons in Haynes Bayly's ' Spitalfields 
Weaver.' On 3 Dec. 1838 at the Adelphi, 
destined to be his home, and with which his 
fame is principally associated, he was the first 
Daffodil Primrose, a valet in Stirling's ' Grace 
Darling, or the Wreck at Sea,' and on 28 Oct. 
1839 the first Shotbolt in Buckstone's ' Jack 
Sheppard.' He also played in a burletta called 
' The Giant of Palestine.' During one year 
he visited the Princess's ; then, returning to 
the Adelphi, remained there, with the excep- 
tion of visits of a few days or weeks to the 
Strand, the Standard, or other houses, until 
the year of his death. His constant associates 
were Paul Bedford and, in his later years, 
Miss Woolgar (Mrs. Alfred Mellon). 

At the Adelphi Wright made his first con- 
spicuous success, in 1842, as Tittlebat Tit- 
mouse in Peake's adaptation of Warren's ' Ten 
Thousand a Year.' He also played Adelgisa 
in Oxberry's burlesque of ' Norma,' Leaming- 
ton Spooner in Peake's ' H. B.,' and in Decem- 
ber 1842 a Tumbler in Stirling Coyne's ' Mer- 
chant's Clerks.' In September 1843 he was 
with Bedford and Oxberry at the Strand, 
where he appeared in ' Bombastes Furioso ' 
and the ' Three Graces,' but in November was 
back at the Adelphi, playing in the ' Bohe- 
mians, or the Rogues of Paris.' In February 
1844 he was Bob Cratchit in Stirling's adap- 
tation of ' A Christmas Carol,' and Richard in 



a burlesque of ' Richard III.' On 29 Oct. he 
was Criquet, a valet, in Selby's ' Mysterious 
Stranger.' He also played at the Princess's 
in a farce called ' Wilful Murder,' and in a 
burlesque by A'Becket of ' Aladdin,' and was 
seen at the Strand. In February 1845 he 
was the hero of ' Mother and Child are doing 
well,' and at Easter he played in Buckstone's 
' Poor Jack.' 

After a long absence, due to illness, he re- 
appeared at the Adelphi on 1 Sept. 1845 as 
Barbillon in Stirling's ' Clarisse, or the Mer- 
chant's Daughter.' On 31 Dec. he was Tilly 
Slowboy in Stirling's adaptation of the 
' Cricket on the Hearth.' He was very popu- 
lar in Listen's role of Paul Pry, was the first 
Smear in ' Domestic Cookery,' and appeared 
in Madison Morton's ' Seeing Wright.' In 
Holl's ' Leoline, or Life's Trial,' he was, on 
2 Feb. 1846, the first Apollo Kit, a rheu- 
matic dancing master, and on 16 March the 
first Chesterfield Honeybun in Coyne's ' Did 
you ever send your wife to Camberwell ? ' 
In July he played in Peake's ' Devil of Mar- 
seilles, or the Spirit of Avarice,' and in 
Buckstone's ' Maid of the Milking-pail ; ' and 
in August in ' Marie Ducange ' and in the 
' Judgment of Paris,' a burlesque, in which 
he was Venus. Acis Moccassin, in the 
'Jockey Club,' belonged to October. He 
played in the same month in ' Mrs. Gamp's 
Tea and Turn out,' and was seen in Selby's 
' Phantom Dancers.' In March 1847 he was 
in Buckstone's ' Flowers of the Forest,' and 
in the same month enacted Jem Baggs in 
the ' Wandering Minstrel.' In Peake's 
' Title-deeds' (22 June 1847) he was a lite- 
rary hack, and on 26 July, in Coyne's ' How 
to Settle Accounts with your Laundress,' a 
fashionable tailor. Other parts to which 
his name appears are Alderman Cute in the 
' Chimes,' by Mark Lemon and A'Becket ; 
Almidor in ' St. George and the Dragon ; ' 
Chatterton Chopkins in ' This House to be 
let,' a skit on the sale of Shakespeare's house ; 
a comic servant in Peake's ' Gabrielli ; ' 
Green in ' A Thumping Legacy ; ' Restless 
Wriggle in the ' Hop-pickers ' (March 1849); 
Deeply Dive in ' Who lives at No. 9 ; ' a part 
in the ' Haunted Man ; ' Tom in the ' Devil's 
Violin ; ' a lawyer's clerk in ' Mrs. Bunbury's 
Spoons ; ' Thomas Augustus Tadcaster in 
Webster's ' Royal Red Book ; ' and himself 
in ' An unwarrantable intrusion will be com- 
mitted by Mr. Wright to the anuovance of 
Paul Bedford.' In 1852 he was at the Prin- 
cess's, whence he migrated in turn to the 
Lyceum, the Haymarket, Sadler's Wells, and 
the country, reappearing at the Adelphi in 
1855. His most popular success, which baa 
always since been associated with his name, 



Wright 



103 



Wright 



was his Master Grinnidge, the travelling 
showman in the ' Green Bushes.' Scarcely 
less admired was his John Grumley in ' Do- 
mestic Economy.' He was excellent, too, in 
1 Slasher and Crasher,' as Blaise in Buck- 
stone's ' Victorine,' as Medea in Mark Lemon's 
burlesque so named, as Watchful Waxend 
in ' My Poll and my Partner,' and several 
parts in which he replaced John Reeve. At 
the last performance at the old Adelphi 
(2 June 1858) he played Mr. Osnaburg in 
' Welcome, Little Stranger.' Soon after the 
opening of the new house, in 1859, he ap- 
peared for a few nights. At the end of March 
his engagement finished, and he left the 
house and was not again seen on the stage. 
Towards the close of 1859 he took refuge 
from ill-health, worries domestic and finan- 
cial, and legal proceedings at Boulogne, where 
he died on 21 Dec. He was buried in 
Brompton cemetery. 

In his best days Wright was an excellent 
low comedian ; Macready pronounced him 
the best he had seen. He took unpardonable 
liberties with a public that laughed at, par- 
doned, petted, and spoilt him. He often 
did not know his part and resorted to gagging. 
On occasion he could be indescribably and 
repulsively coarse. Some of his perform- 
ances had remarkable breadth of humour. 
He inherited the method and traditions of 
Reeve and to some extent those of Liston. 
At his death many of his characters came 
into the hands of Mr. John Lawrence Toole. 

A portrait of Wright as Marmaduke Ma- 
gog from a painting by Crabb (see Cat. Third 
Loan Exhib. No. 582) is given in the ' Thea- 
trical Times,' i. 225 ; one as Tittlebat Tit- 
mouse, engraved by Holl from a drawing by 
E. Walker, appears in Cumberland's edition 
of ' Ten Thousand a Year.' 

[A list, incomplete but the longest given, of 
Wright's parts has been extracted from Web- 
ster's Acting Drama, Peake's Plays, and the 
Dramatic and Musical Review, 1842-9. Per- 
sonal recollections have been used, and private 
information kindly supplied by Mr. Graham 
Everitt, as well as short memoirs given in the 
Theatrical Times, i. 225, the printed edition of 
Peake's Ten Thousand a Year, and th Era, 
25 Dec. 1859; Tool's Reminiscences: Remini- 
scences of an Old Bohemian ; Recollections of 
Edmund Yates; and Scott and Howard's Life of 
Blanchard.] J. K. 

WRIGHT, FORTUNATUS (d. 1757), 
merchant and privateer, of a Cheshire family, 
son of John Wright, master-mariner and 
shipowner of Liverpool (d. 1717), seems to 
have served in early life on board merchant 
ships or privateers, and later on to have 
been in business in Liverpool. Owing to 



some lawsuit or political entanglement, the 
details of which are unknown, he left Liver- 
pool in 1741 with his wife and family, went 
to Italy, and finally settled at Leghorn as a 
merchant, probably making occasional voy- 
ages. Whether he was the Captain Wright 
who commanded the Swallow, trading from 
Lisbon to London, which was captured by a 
Spanish ship in the Soundings on 18 Jan. 
1743-4 (Gent. Mag. 1744, p. 260), must re- 
main doubtful ; but the association with Cap- 
tain Hutchinson makes it probable. In 1746 
he commanded the privateer Fame, a brigan- 
tine fitted out by the merchants of Leg- 
horn, making a large number of prizes, the 
value of which was greatly exaggerated by 
common report. It was said that they were 
worth 400,000/., his share of which would 
have made Wright a rich man, and this he 
never was. William Hutchinson (1715-1801) 
[q. v.], in his treatise on seamanship, speaks 
of Wright as a master of the art, and de- 
scribes his method of cruising in the fairway 
of the Levant, which, mutatis mutandis, 
was very exactly copied more than a hundred 
years later by Captain Semmes of the Ala- 
bama on the coast of Brazil. On 19 Dec. 
1746 the Fame captured a French ship with 
the Prince of Campo Florida's baggage on 
board, and sent her into Leghorn. In some 
way she had a pass from the king of Eng- 
land, but she was not named in it, and 
Wright maintained that it was a good cap- 
ture, and refused to restore her on the re- 
presentation of the consul. Eventually, on 
the suggestion of (Sir) Horace Mann [q. v.], 
the English minister at Florence, the matter 
was referred to the naval commander-in-chief, ' 
who decided against Wright. 

Early in 1747 complaints were made from 
the Ottoman Porte that English privateers 
had made prize of Turkish property on board 
French ships, and, specifically, that on 26 Feb. 
1746-7 the Fame had so seized Turkish 
property on board the French ship Hermione. 
The English consul at Leghorn called on 
Wright to explain, which he did. The Her- 
mione, he said, was a French ship, under 
French colours ; she had made stout resist- 
ance and had been captured in fair fight ; 
she had been legally condemned in the ad- 
miralty court, the ship and her cargo had 
been sold, and the money distributed. On 
this the Turkey Company procured an order 
from the home government to the effect that 
Turkish property was not prize, even on 
board a French vessel, and this order, dated 
30 March 1747, was sent out to the Mediter- 
ranean, where Wright urged that it could 
not be retrospective, and positively refused 
to refund. Another order was then sent out 



Wright 



104 



Wright 



for him to be arrested and sent to England. 
The Tuscan government anticipated this and 
put him in prison on 11 Dec. 1747, and kept 
him there till 10 June 1748, when an order 
came from Vienna to hand him over to the 
English consul. There was just then no 
opportunity to send him home ; and before 
one occurred a fresh order came to s^t him 
at liberty, as he had given bail in the ad- 
miralty court to answer the action com- 
menced against him. Two years later the 
suit was still undecided, and seems to have 
been at last included in some general settle- 
ment with the Porte. All that can be said 
with any certainty is that Wright did not 

pay- 

At this time he and Hutchinson were en- 
gaged in buying and fitting out the old 
20-gun ship Lowestoft, which made several 
voyages to the West Indies and the Mediter- 
ranean under Hutchinson's command. In 
May 1756, when war was again declared, 
Wright was ready with a newly built vessel, 
which he named the St. George ; but the 
Tuscan government,in the interests of Austria 
and her ally, took measures to prevent such 
English ships as were at Leghorn increasing 
their crews or armament, with a view to 
either offence or defence. Wright, whose 
purpose was clearly known, applied to the 
authorities to know what force he might 
have on board, and was formally permitted 
to take four small guns and twenty-five men. 
Wright urged them to make sure that he 
had no more, got a certificate from the go- 
vernor, and put to sea on 28 July 1756, with 
four merchant ships under his convoy, which, 
in addition to their cargo, carried an efficient 
armament and ship's company for the St. 
George. As soon as they were clear of the 
land these were hastily transhipped, but 
were scarcely well on board before they 
sighted a large French ship of war, which 
had been specially fitted out by the mer- 
chants of Marseilles to put a stop to Wright's 
cruising, and now expected an easy victory. 
Under all the disadvantages, however, 
WVight beat her off and put her to flight ; 
after which the St.George,having apparently 
received a good deal of damage, returned to 
Leghorn. There she was arrested by order 
of the Tuscan government, as having vio- 
lated the neutrality of the port, and, not- 
withstanding Mann's protest, was detained, 
as also all the other English ships there, till, 
on Sir Edward Hawke's coming out as com- 
mander-in-ehief, two ships of war were sent 
to bring them away, by force if necessary. 
The governor, not being in a position to 
repel force by force, yielded after a feeble 
protest, and on 23 Sept. 1756 the two ships 



of war, with the St. George and sixteen 
merchantmen in company, sailed from Leg- 
horn. 

After a short cruise the St. George put 
into Malta, where French influence was 
strong enough to prevent Wright getting 
any stores or supply of provisions, or even 
taking on board some English seamen who 
had been put on shore by French privateers. 
Finally, Wright was obliged to put to sea 
without them on 22 Oct. After that he 
made several prizes, which were sent into 
Cagliari. On 22 Jan. 1757 Mann wrote to 
Pitt that the Leghorn government, recog- 
nising that their action had ruined the trade 
of the port, had given permission for Wright 
to send his prizes thither, and that he had 
written to Wright to that effect. Whether 
Wright ever got this letter is unknown. It 
was reported in a Liverpool newspaper of 
19 May 1757 that the St. George had foun- 
dered in a storm on 16 March; but later 
letters were said to report that the ship had 
arrived with a rich prize at Messina on 
26 May. On 2 July 1757 Mann wrote con- 
clusively of NWight : ' It is feared by some 
circumstances, and by his not having been 
heard of for some months, that he foundered 
at sea.' 

Wright's daughter, Philippa, married 
Charles Evelyn, grandson of John Evelyn 
[q. v.] of W r otton ; her daughter, Susanna, 
married Wright's nephew, John Ellworthy 
Fortunatus Wright, a lieutenant in the navy 
during the American war of independence, 
and afterwards master of St. George's Dock 
at Liverpool, where he was accidentally 
killed in 1798. The present representatives 
of Evelyn and Wright are now settled in 
New Zealand. 

[The details of Wright's story, worked out 
from information from the family and from the 
Foreign Office papers in the Public Record 
Office, are told in the present writer's Studies in 
Naval History (1887, pp. 206 et seq.), to which 
Mr. Gomer Williams, in the Liverpool Privateers 
(pp. 40 et seq.), has added some further par- 
ticu'ars gleaned from Liverpool newspapers and 
other local records ] J. K. L. 

WRIGHT, FRANCES (1795-1852), 
philanthropist. [See DARUSHONT, FRANCES.] 

WRIGHT, GEORGE NEWENHAM 

(1790 P-1877), miscellaneous writer, was the 
son of John Thomas Wright, M.D., and was 
born, probably in Dublin, in 1790. He en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, whence he 
matriculated in 1809. He was a scholar in 
1812, and graduated B.A. in 1814 and M.A. 
in 1817. He was admitted ad eundem at 
Oxford University on 2 May 1836. He was 



Wright 



ordained deacon and priest in 1818, and held 
several curacies in Ireland. Subsequently 
he was appointed reader of St. Mary Wool- 
noth, London, and master of Tewkesbury 
grammar school. He died in 1877. 

Besides several guide books and other 
works of little value, Wright's publications 
are: 1. ' Rudiments of the Greek Language/ 
1820, 8vo. 2. 'An Historical Guide to 
Ancient and Modern Dublin,' illustrated by 
engravings after drawings by G. Petrie, 
London, 1821, 12mo ; 1825. 3. ' Ireland illus- 
trated in a Series of Views from Drawings 
by Petrie,' London, 1829, 4to. 4. 'Land- 
scape Historical Illustrations of Scotland and 
the Waverley Novels,' 1831. 5. ' Scenes in 
North Wales,' illustrated, London, 1833, 
12mo. 6. ' Scenes in Ireland,' with historical 
legends, illustrated, London, 1834, 12mo. 
7. ' A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer,' 
London, 1834-8, 5 vols. 8vo. 8. ' Life and 
Reign of William IV ' (in collaboration with 
John Watkins), 1837. 9. ' The Shores and 
Islands of the Mediterranean,' with engrav- 
ings, London, 1839, 4to. 10. ' Lancashire, 
its History, Legends, and Manufactures,' 
London, 1842, 8vo. 11. 'Life and Cam- 
paigns of Arthur, Duke of Wellington,' 
1841, 4 vols. 4to. 12. 'Life and Times of 
Louis Philippe,' 1841, 8vo. 13. ' China, in 
a Series of Views,' 1843, 4 vols. 4to. 
14. ' The People's Gallery of Engravings,' 
1845-6, 3 vols. 4to. 15. ' France Illustrated,' 
1845-7, 4 vols. 4to. 16. 'Belgium, the 
Rhine, Italy, and Greece,' illustrated, 1849, 
2 vols. 4to. He also edited the ' Works of 
George Berkeley' (1843), the 'Works of 
Thomas Reid' (1843, 8vo), and ' Dugald 
Stewart's Elements of Philosophy of the 
Human Mind ' (1843). He contributed the 
Welsh and Irish portions to Gorton's ' Topo- 
graphical Dictionary.' 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. ; Todd's List of Dubl. Graduates ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.] D. J. O'D. 

WRIGHT, ICHABOD CHARLES 
(1795-1871), translator of Dante, was born 
at Mapperley Hall, Nottinghamshire, on 
11 April 1795. His father, Ichabod Wright 
(1767-1862 ), a descendant of the old Suffolk 
family of Wright, was a grandson of Ichabod 
Wright (1700-1777), who was originally 
an ' ironmonger ' of Nottingham, but subse- 
quently, in 1761, founded the bank in Long 
Row in that town. The younger Ichabod, 
who took an active part in all local matters, 
was admitted a freeman of the town in 1791, 
was commandant of the South Nottingham- 
shire yeomanry when it was enrolled in 1794, 
and many years later presented the ' Mapper- 



5 Wright 

ley Cup' as a prize for the best marksman of 
the Robin Hood volunteers. He married, 
On 28 Jan. 1794, Harriett Maria (d. 1843), 
daughter of Benjamin Day of Yarmouth and 
Norwich, and died at his seat of Mapperley 
on 14 Nov. 1862, leaving three sons and ten 
daughters. 

The eldest son, Ichabod Charles, was edu- 
cated at Eton (1808-14) and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, matriculating on 22 April 
1814. He graduated B.A. (with second- 
class honours) in 1817 and M.A. in 1820, 
and held an open fellowship at Magdalen, 
1819-25. He became a joint manager of 
the bank at Nottingham in 1825, and on 
21 Dec. in the same year he married Theo- 
dosia, daughter of Thomas Denman, first 
lord Denman [q. v.] His best energies were 
devoted henceforth to his business and to 
the theory of banking, in connection with 
which he published some pamphlets. Between 
1830 and 1840, however, he gave his leisure 
to the study of Italian literature, and pro- 
duced a metrical translation of the ' Divina 
Commedia ' which entitles him to a high 
place among the popularisers of Dante in 
England. A few years before his father's 
death he moved from Bramcote, near Not- 
tingham, to Stapleford Hall, Derbyshire. He 
died on 14 Oct. 1871 at Heathfield Hall, 
Burwash, Sussex, the residence of his eldest 
son, Charles Ichabod Wright, lieutenant- 
colonel of the Robin Hood rifles and M.P. 
for Nottingham 1868-9. His widow died on 
20 May 1895. 

Wright's version of the ' Divina Com- 
media ' was issued originally in three instal- 
ments, dedicated respectively to Lord 
Brougham, Archbishop Howley, and Lord 
Denman, ' all ardent admirers of Dante ' 
(the translator further acknowledged special 
encouragement and help from Panizzi and 
from Count Marioni). The first instalment, 
' The Inferno of Dante translated into Eng- 
lish Rhyme: with an Introduction and Notes' 
(London, 1833, 8vo, and 1841), was com- 
mended by the ' Athenaeum,' and the ' Edin- 
burgh ' entreated Wright to proceed ; but the 
' Quarterly,' ' with every disposition to en- 
courage any gentleman in an elegant pur- 
suit,' conceived it to be its duty to ask ' how 
far (Carey's volumes being in every collec- 
tion) it was worth Mr. Wright's while to 
undertake a new version of Dante.' What 
little advantage, concludes the reviewer, 
Wright may have gained as to manner is 
counterbalanced by losses on the side of 
matter (July 1833). 'The Purgatorio, trans- 
lated into English Rhyme ' (1837 and 1840), 
was, however, generally thought to have in- 
creased Wright's reputation, and it was 



Wright 



1 06 



Wright 



followed in 1840 by 'The Paradise.' The 
three portions were published together in 
1845 as ' The Vision and Life of Dante,' and 
reissued in Bohn's Illustrated Library (1854 
and 1861), with thirty-four illustrations on 
steel after Flaxman. Wright's version, 
which derived much benefit from the com- 
mentary (1826) of Gabriele Rossetti, is 
generally admitted to be accurate and 
scholarly, but the stanza which the trans- 
lator adopted, in preference to essaying the 
terza rima, must be held to detract con- 
siderably from the effect. 

After an interval of nineteen years 
Wright issued the first part of his ' The 
Iliad of Homer, translated into English 
Blank Verse' (Cambridge, 1859, 8vo; the 
last portion down to the end of book xiv. 
appeared in December 1864). The blank 
verse was good without being striking, and 
Matthew Arnold wrote in his ' Lectures on 
translating Homer ' (1861) that Wright's 
version, repeating in the main the merits 
and defects of Cowper's version, as Sotheby's 
repeated those of Pope's version, had, ' if he 
might be pardoned for saying so, no proper 
reason for existing.' This drew from the 
translator ' A Letter to the Dean of Canter- 
bury on the Homeric Lectures of Matthew 
Arnold, Esq., Professor of Poetry in the 
University of Oxford' (Cambridge, 1861, 
8vo). Wright poked fun, not unsuccessfully, 
at the professor of poetry's ex cathedra 
English hexameters, and this reflection upon 
the chair of poetry at the ancient university 
elicited from Arnold (in the preface to 
' Essays in Criticism ') his notable apostrophe 
to Oxford, ' adorable dreamer,' and his appeal 
to Wright to pardon a vivacity doomed to 
be silenced in the imminent future by the 
' magnificent roaring of the young lions of 
the -" Daily Telegraph." ' 

In addition to his versions of Dante and 
Homer, by which alone he is remembered, 
Wright published ' Thoughts on the Currency' 
(1841), The Evils of the Currency' (1847), 
an exposition of Sir Robert Peel's Bank 
Charter Act of 1844 (a valuable contribution 
to its subject, which reached a sixth edition 
in 1855), and ' The War and our Resources ' 
(with an abstract of the lords' report on 
commercial distress in 1848), 1855. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. 
Mag. 1863, i. 518; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Stapylton's Eton Lists, pp. 60, 66 ; Bailey's 
Annals of Nottingham ; Wylie's Old and New 
Nottingham, p. 203 ; Nottingham Daily Guar- 
dian, 18 and 21 Oct. 1871 ; Times, 18 and 
23 Oct. 1871 ; Men of the Time, 1868 ; Men of 
the Reign; Allibone's Diet, of English Litera- 
ture ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 



WRIGHT, JAMES (1643-1713), anti- 
quary and miscellaneous writer, son of 
Abraham Wright [q. v.], by his wife Jane 
(d. 1645), daughter of James Stone, was born 
at Yarnton, Oxfordshire, where he was bap- 
tised in 1643 (STAPLEION, Three Oxford- 
shire Parishes, p. 277). Though evidently 
a good scholar, he was not of either univer- 
sity ; but in 1666 he became a student of 
New Inn, migrating in 1669 to the Middle 
Temple, by which society he was called to 
the bar in 1672. ' During the fluctuations 
of government and afterwards,' says War- 
ton, ' he was attached to the principles of 
monarchy in their most extensive compre- 
hension, and from this circumstance he 
might have derived his predilection for the 
theatre which had been suppressed by the 
republicans.' Besides the theatre he was 
much attached to country life, and dwelt 
often with his father at Oakham. He was 
' a skilful antiquary and not a bad poet,' 
and possessed many rare and valuable old 
manuscripts, being ' one of the first collec- 
tors of old plays since Cartwright,' but all 
his literary curiosities, among which was an 
excellent transcript of Leland'-s ' Itinerary ' 
of the age of Queen Elizabeth, and conse- 
quently made before the present mutilations 
and corruptions, were unfortunately con- 
sumed in the fire of the Middle Temple of 
1678 (HEARXE, Collections, ii. 227). Thomas 
Hearne wrote of him in October 1713 as 
recently dead. T am told, he adds, that ' he 
dyed a papist, and y* he continued always 
so from his first turning, which was I hear 
in K. Charles II nd ' 8 time ' (HEARNE, Col- 
lections, ed. Rannie, iv. 252). 

A versatile writer with a lucid style and 
a genuine touch of humour, especially as an 
essayist, Wright was author of: 1. 'The 
History and Antiquities of the County of 
Rutland . . . illustrated with Sculptures,' 
London, 1684, 4to. In dedicating this work 
to the ' Nobility and Gentry of the County,' 
Wright specially mentions the encourage- 
ment he received from Dugdale, and the 
admission, which he greatly prized, to Cot- 
ton's library. Nine pages of ' Additions ' 
appeared in 1687, folio, and ' Farther Addi- 
tions, with a view of Burley-on-the-Hill ' 
(8 pp. folio) in 1714. These 'Farther 
Additions' are now rare. Two numbers 
(pp. 36) of a new edition by William Harrod 
appeared in 1788. 2. ' A Compendious View 
of the late Tumults and Troubles in this 
Kingdom, by way of Annals,' 1685, 8vo. 
This is a succinct account of the troublous 
period of the 'popish plot' (1678-84), 
dedicated to Henry Hyde, earl of Clarendon, 
and containing a warm testimonial to the 



Wright 



107 



Wright 



good qualities of Sir Roger L'Estrange. 
3. ' Country Conversations : Being an Ac- 
count of some Discourses that happen'd in 
a visit to the Country last Summer on 
divers Subjects; chiefly of the Modern 
Comedies, of Drinking, of Translated Verse, 
of Painting and Painters, of Poets and 
Poetry,' London, 1694, 12mo. 4. 'Three 
Poems of St. Paul's Cathedral : viz. The 
Ruins, The Rebuilding, The Choire,' Lon- 
don, 1697, fol. (the poem on ' The Ruins ' 
had been issued separately in 1668, 4to). 
6. ' Historia Histrionica : an Historical Ac- 
count of the English Stage, shewing the 
Ancient Use, Improvement, and Perfection 
of Dramatick Representations in this Na- 
tion. In a Dialogue of Plays and Players,' 
London, 1699, 4to (reprinted in facsimile 
among Ashbee's reprints, 1872). This in- 
teresting little sketch of the ' transition ' 
stage was, by Warburton's advice, incor- 
porated (as a preface to vol. xi.) in Dodsley's 
' Old English Plays,' 1744 (it is also given 
in Collier's reissue of Dodsley, and in 
White's 'Old English Dramas,' and it is 
summarised in Oldys's ' British Librarian '). 
It assumes the form of a dialogue between 
Lovewit and an old cavalier, who discourses 
amiably upon old plays and old actors such 
as Lowin and Pollard, Taylor, a notable 
Hamlet, and Swanston, who played Othello 
' before the wars.' 6. ' Phoenix Paulina : 
a Poem on the New Fab rick of St. Paul's 
Cathedral,' London, 1709, 4to ; published 
anonymously, but referred to by Wright in 
a manuscript note by Hearne in the Bod- 
leian copy(cf. HEARXE, Collections, ii. 119). 
Wright is further credited with translations 
from the Latin and French : ' Thyestes, a 
Tragedy translated out of Seneca ; to which 
is added Mock-Thyestes in burlesque,' 1674, 
8vo, and 'The New Description of Paris,' 
in two parts, London, 1687, 8vo. 

Besides these works, Wright prepared an 
accurate epitome in English of Dugdale's 
' Monasticon ' (London, 1693, fol.), in the 
dedication of which he remarks : ' War- 
wickshire has produced two of the most 
famous and deserving writers in their several 
ways that England can boast of a Dtigdale 
and a Shakespeare.' Wood cites a distich 
of an elegy written by Wright upon John 
Goad [q. v.J Hearne, who respected Wright, 
having corresponded with him upon the 
subject of Leland, informs us that he wrote 
strictures upon Wood's ' Athenae,' but never 
published them. From a manuscript entry 
by Hearne, dated 1719, in Dr. Rawlinson'"s 
copy of Wright's ' Ruins in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral,' it appears that Wright, a few years 
before his death, gave Hearne a complete 



catalogue of his works ; and that upon a 
previous application he had at a former date 
refused this favour to Wood as being an inju- 
dicious and partial biographer ' (cf. HEARNE, 
Collections, iii. 372). 

Hazlitt doubtfully attributes to Wright 
a volume of translations entitled ' Sales 
Epigrammatum : Being the choycest Dis- 
tichs of Martials Fourteen Books of Epi- 
grams & of all the Chief Latin Poets that 
have writ in these two last Centuries. To- 
gether with Cato's Morality,' London, 1663, 
and 1664, 4to ; this volume is dedicated 
to Sir William Bromley in June 1663 by 
' James Wright M. Arts.' The same signa- 
ture is affixed to a version of Ovid's 'Epis- 
tles,' 1683. 

[Milton's Poems, ed. Thomas Warton, 1785, 
ad fin. (this long note by Warton contains the 
only connected account extant of Wright and 
his writings) ; Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble 
(Oxford Hist. Soc.) ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 844, iv. 219, 278 ; Wilson's Merchant 
Taylors' School, p. 857 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet, 
s.v. ' Abraham Wright ;' Watt's Bibliotheca ; 
Halkett and Laing's Diet, of Anonymous and 
Pseudon. Lit. ; Allibone's Diet, of Eiigl. Lit. ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 113; Lowe's Bibl. of 
Engl. Theatr. Lit. p. 368 ; Hazlitt's Collections 
and Notes ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 469, 
6th ser. x. 36 ; Addit. MS. 29569, f. 346.] 

T. S. 

WRIGHT, SIR JAMES (1716-1785), 
first baronet, governor of Georgia, born in 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, on 8 May 1716, 
was the fourth son of Robert Wright of 
Sedgfield in the county of Durham, who re- 
moved from England to Charleston, and for 
many years was chief justice of South Caro- 
lina. Robert, son of Sir Robert Wright [q.v.], 
lord chief justice of England, married Mrs. 
Pitts, whose maiden name was Isabella 
Wright. 

James entered Gray's Inn on 14 Aug. 
1741, and was called to the bar. He prac- 
tised in Charleston, and about 1739 was 
nominated attorney-general of South Caro- 
lina. He was afterwards appointed agent 
of the colony in England, and on 13 May 
1760 he was nominated lieutenant-governor 
of Georgia. On 28 Jan. 1762 he received 
the commission of captain-general and go- 
vernor-in-chief, with full executive powers. 
In 1762 he defeated the attempts of Thomas 
Boon, governor of South Carolina, to extend 
his jurisdiction over some districts south of 
Georgia, on the borders of Florida, and on 
7 Oct. 1763 procured the extension of the 
southern frontier of the province from the 
Alatamaha to the river St. Mary. In 1763 
AVright also presided at Augusta at a con- 



Wright 



1 08 



Wright 



ference of the governors of the four southern 
provinces with the chiefs of five Indian 
nations, where on 10 Oct. a treaty was rati- 
fied which procured for Georgia a considerable 
extension of territory on the western frontier. 
The deliverance of the colony by the treaty 
of Paris from the dangerous neighbourhood 
of the Spaniards in Florida and the French 
at Mobile, together with the extension and 
regulation of the boundaries, led to rapid 
growth in prosperity and to the emigration 
of numerous planters from South Carolina. 
This hopeful prospect was overcast by the 
passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. The colony 
of Massachusetts took the lead in opposing 
the new tax, and the provincial assembly 
issued a circular letter to the other colonies 
inviting them to take part in a general 
congress. On the arrival of the letter in 
Georgia the assembly was privately convened 
by the speaker at Savannah. Georgia had 
been so long the immediate neighbour of 
hostile French and Spanish settlements that 
a livelier sense of loyalty prevailed than in 
the other colonies. Wright exerted his in- 
fluence to the utmost, and succeeded in pre- 
venting the nomination of delegates to the 
general congress ; but he failed to hinder a 
sympathetic reply to the message from Mas- 
sachusetts. By the close of 1765 he found 
his authority almost gone except in Savan- 
nah, owing chiefly to the course of events 
in South Carolina, where the insurgents had 
completely triumphed. On the arrival of 
the stamped paper from England on 5 Dec., 
Wright saved it from destruction, and even 
induced the merchants to use it for the 
purpose of clearing vessels ready to sail. 
This measure of compliance aroused the wrath 
of the inhabitants of South Carolina, who 
termed Wright ' a parricide,' and decreed 
that ' whosoever trafficked with the Georgians 
should be put to death.' The repeal of the 
Stamp Act allayed without extinguishing the 
spirit of discontent, and when Townshend 
imposed fresh duties in 1767 it manifested 
itself more strongly than before. On 24 Dec. 
1768 the Georgian lower house expressed its 
sympathy with the Massachusetts assembly, 
and on 16 Sept. 1769 the merchants adopted 
resolutions against importing English goods. 
On 10 July 1771 Wright obtained permis- 
sion to visit Great Britain to look after his 
private affairs, leaving James Habersham 
as his deputy at Savannah. He was well 
received in London, and on 5 Dec. 1772 was 
created a baronet in reward for his services. 
He returned to Georgia about the middle 
of February 1773. On 5 Aug. 1774, learning 
that an irregular convention had met to 
concert action with the other colonies, he 



issued a proclamation denouncing it as il- 
legal, but was unable to prevent the passage 
of resolutions condemning the action of the 
English government, or to hinder the ap- 
pointment of a committee to correspond with 
the committees of the other provinces. He 
succeeded again, however, in preventing dele- 
gates being sent to the general congress of 
the other twelve states. On the meeting of 
assembly in January 1775 he learned that 
the lower house was about to urge the ap- 
pointment of delegates. To prevent this, on 
10 Feb. he prorogued it to 9 May. When 
that date arrived the representatives refused 
to assemble to furnish supplies, and the 
bouse was further prorogued to November. 

The unique position of Georgia in regard 
to the continental congress roused the bitter 
resentment of the other colonies. Wright, 
apprehensive of invasion, repeatedly urged 
the secretary for the colonies, the Earl of 
Dartmouth [see LEGGE, WILLIAM, second 
EARL], to furnish him with a force of five 
hundred men at least. In May the popular 
party seized the gunpowder in the maga- 
zine at Savannah, and spiked the cannon in- 
tended to fire salutes on the king's birthday. 
Wright's letters for assistance to the mili- 
tary and naval commanders were intercepted 
by the insurgents at Charleston, and others 
substituted, stating that the province was 
quiet. On 4 July a provincial congress as- 
sembled and elected delegates to the conti- 
nental congress. The executive committee 
appointed by that body intercepted Wright's 
official correspondence at Savannah, and 
ordered the British vessels in port to depart 
without unlading. In August the militia 
came under their control, and loyalist officers 
were replaced by patriots. On 1 Dec. the 
congress extended its control over the judi- 
cial courts. On 12 Jan. 1776 two men-of- 
war arrived in Tybee, and, to prevent Wright 
communicating with them, Joseph Haber- 
sham, brother of the former deputy go- 
vernor, by order of the council of safety, 
entered the governor's house on 18 Jan. and 
made him a prisoner. On 11 Feb., after being 
insulted and fired at, he broke his parole 
and escaped to the Scarborough man-of- 
war. After an ineffectual attack on the 
town he left Savannah, arriving at Halifax 
on 21 April. Thence he proceeded to Eng- 
land, where he remained until, at the close 
of December 1778, (Sir) Archibald Camp- 
bell (1739-1791) [q. v.] recaptured Savannah 
and recovered Georgia. Wright was imme- 
diately directed to proceed to America, and 
reached Savannah on 14 June 1779. 

He found affairs in a miserable condition, 
and, while striving to reorganise the govern- 



Wright 



109 



Wright 



ment, he was suddenly menaced in Septem- 
ber by the arrival of the French fleet, under 
the Comte d'Estaing, with a large military 
force on board. Savannah was immediately 
besieged, and Wright is said to have saved 
the place from surrender by his casting vote. 
On 9 Oct. a final assault was repelled and 
the siege raised. Wright took advantage of 
this triumph to press for severe measures 
against the revolutionary party. He strongly 
objected to the general amnesty offered by 
Sir Henry Clinton (1738 P-1795) [q. v.], who 
landed in Georgia in February 1780, and 
hastened to summon an assembly before the 
security it offered to the disaffected could in- 
fluence the character of the representatives 
chosen. Immediately on the meeting of the 
assembly an act was passed granting the 
home government a duty of two and a half 
per cent, on all exports. In retaliation for 
the attainder of royalists by the republican 
legislature, Wright procured the passage in 
May 1780 of two acts, attainting 150 republi- 
cans of high treason, and disqualifying them 
from holding any office in Georgia. 

On 12 May Sir Henry Clinton captured 
Charleston, and for a time relieved Georgia 
from apprehension of invasion. Wright 
urged the British to secure their position in 
the south before undertaking decisive opera- 
tions. His advice had some weight with 
Clinton, but when Cornwallis assumed the 
command in 1781 he disregarded Wright's 
opinion and commenced the famous march 
which ended in the capitulation of York- 
town. After the surrender of Cornwallis, 
most of the south was regained by the re- 
publicans. Wright appealed strongly for 
reinforcements, but without avail. On 14 June 
1782 he received orders to abandon the pro- 
vince, and on 11 July, after obtaining favour- 
able terms for the loyalists, he evacuated 
Savannah and returned to England. He had 
been attainted in the Georgian assembly on 
1 March 1778, and his property confiscated. 
In 1783 the American refugees placed him 
at the head of the board of agents of the 
American loyalists for prosecuting their 
claims for compensation. In return for his 
services and in compensation for the loss of 
property, worth 33,000/., he received a pen- 
sion of 500/. a year. He died in Fludyer 
Street, Westminster, on 20 Nov. 1785, and 
was buried in the north cloister of Westmin- 
ster Abbey on 28 Nov. Wrightsborough, iu 
Columbia county, Georgia, was named after 
him. He married at Charleston, in 1740, 
. Sarah (d. 1763), only daughter and heiress 
of James Maidman, a captain in the army. 
By her he had three surviving sons and six 
daughters. He was succeeded in the baro- 



netcy by his eldest son, James, but the suc- 
cession was continued in the line of his second 
son, Alexander, who settled in Jamaica. 

A valuable report made by Wright to the 
colonial secretary on the condition and re- 
sources of Georgia, dated 20 Nov. 1773, 
together with his official correspondence with 
the colonial secretaries between 1774 and 
1782, was published in 1873 in the 'Col- 
lections' of the Georgia Historical Society. 
His official correspondence with Lord Shel- 
burne is preserved among the Shelburne 
manuscripts in the possession of the Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne (Hist. MS8. Comm. 6th 
Rep.) 

[Burke's Peerage and Baronetcy, 1839; Fos- 
ter's Admission Registers of Gray's Inn, p. 375 ; 
Jones's Hist, of Georgia, 1883, vol. ii. passim; 
Collections of Georgia Hist. Soc., 1873, iii. 157- 
378 ; Acts passed by the General Assembly of 
Georgia, 1755-74, Wormsloe, 1881 ; Stevens's 
Hist, of Georgia, 1859, vol. ii. passim; M'Call's 
Hist, of Georgia, Savannah, 1811-16; White's 
Hist. Collections of Georgia, New York, 1855, 
pp. 188-96; Bartram's Travels through North 
and South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 1792, 
pp. 4, 35 ; Sabine's Loyalists of the American 
Revolution, 1864; Davy's Suffolk Collections in 
Addit. MS. 19156, ff. 233, 244; Chester's Re- 
gisters of Westminster Abbey, 1876, p. 440.] 

E. I. C. 

WRIGHT, JOHN (1568P-1605), con- 
spirator, was a grandson of John Wright of 
Ploughland Hall, Yorkshire, who had been 
seneschal to Henry VIII, and migrated 
thither from Kent in the thirty-third year of 
that king's reign. His son Robert had by his 
second wife, Ursula Rudston of Hayton, 
two sons, John and Christopher (see below), 
both gunpowder plotters, and two daughters, 
one of whom married Thomas Percy (1560- 
1605) [q. v.], who was engaged in the same 
conspiracy. 

John, the elder brother, was baptised at 
Welwick on 16 Jan. 1568 (PouLSOX, Holder- 
ness, ii. 516). He is said to have been a 
schoolfellow of Father Tesimond [q. v.] the 
Jesuit, and of Guy Fawkes ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. James I, xvii. 18). Father Gerard, his 
contemporary, describes him as 'a strong, 
stout man, and of very good wit, though slow 
of speech.' He was an excellent swordsman 
and much disposed to fighting. Camden, 
writing to Sir R. Cotton in 1596 when Queen 
Elizabeth was sick, says that both theWrights, 
with Catesby, Tresham, and others, were put 
under arrest as men likely to give trouble in 
case of the queen's death (BiRCH, Orig. 
Letters, 2nd ser. iii. 179). However, accord- 
ing to Gerard, John Wright became a catho- 
lic only about the time of Essex's rising, in 



Wright 



no 



Wright 



which he was implicated (1601), and after 
that a change came over him. He became 
' staid and of good sober carriage.' He kept 
much in the company of Catesby, who es- 
teemed him for his valour and secrecy. His 
house at Twigmore in Lincolnshire, where 
he now chiefly resided, became the resort of 
priests, who went to him for his spiritual 
and their own corporal comfort (GERARD, 
Narrative, p. 59). John was one of the first 
initiated into the plot by his friend Catesby, 
probably at the same time as Thomas Winter 
fq. v.], i.e. January 1604. He now removed 
his family from Twigmore to a house belong- 
ing to Catesby at Lapworth in Warwick- 
shire. He took an active part in all the 
operations of the conspirators, and on the 
eve of the actual discovery of the plot (on the 
afternoon of 4Nov.)he fled from London with 
Catesby. At Holbeche on the morning of 
the 8th, when an accident took place with 
some gunpowder, he wished in his despair to 
ignite the rest so as to blow up the house and 
all. In the fight which followed with Sir 
Richard Walsh's men he and his brother fell 
mortally wounded. Sir Thomas Lawley, who 
was in this affair assisting the sheriff of Wor- 
cester, wrote to Salisbury : ' I hasted to re- 
vive Catesby and Percy and the two Wrights, 
who lay deadly wounded on the ground, 
thinking by the recovery of these to have 
done unto his majesty better service than 
by suffering them to die/ but the people 
standing by roughly stripped the bodies 
naked, and, no surgeon being at hand, they 
soon died (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 617, p. 565, 
quoted in ' Life of a Conspirator,' 1895, p. 
230). 

CHRISTOPHER W T RIGHT (1570P-1605), the 
younger brother, before the plot was pro- 
jected had been sent into Spain in March 
1603, in accordance with the arrangement 
made with Thomas Winter, to inform Philip 
of the queen's death and to solicit the aid 
of the Spanish forces. He was, like Winter, 
furnished with letters of recommendation 
by Garnet to Creswell, and -was followed 
two months later by Fawkes, who came into 
Spain from Brussels on a similar errand 
(TiERJfEY, iv. 8, liii). Christopher was not 
called upon to take part in the powder con- 
spiracy till Lent 1605, when the five workers 
at the mine, finding 'the stone wall very 
hard to beat through,' needed fresh hands. 
His fortunes were thenceforward linked with 
those of his brother, and he was mortally 
wounded with him on 8 Nov. 1605. 

[Jardine's Narrative; Condition of Catholics 
in the Eeign of James I ; Father Gerard's Nar- 
rative of the Gunpowder Plot, ed. John Morris, 
S.J., 18"! ; Traditional History and the Spanish 



Treason, articles in the Month, May and June 
1896, by the Rev. John Gerard, S.J. ; What was 
the Gunpowder Plot ? by Father Gerard, 1897; 
What Gunpowder Plot was, by S. K. Gardiner, 
1897.] T. G. L. 

WRIGHT, JOHN (1805-1843?), Scots 
poet, born on 1 Sept. 1805, at the farmhouse of 
Auchencloigh in the parish of Sorn, Ayr- 
shire, was the fourth child of James Wright 
of Galston in the same county, a coal-driver, 
by his wife, Grizzle Taylor (d. December 
1842) of Mauchline. While he was still a 
child his parents removed to Galston, where 
he received a few months' schooling and 
learned to read, but not to write. He gave 
evidence of powers of memory by reciting 
the whole of the 119th Psalm in the Sabbath 
school to the discomfort of his audience. 
From the age of seven he assisted his father 
in driving coals, and at thirteen he was 
apprenticed to George Brown, a Galston 
weaver, a man of cultivated mind, who 
assisted his education and placed books at 
his disposal. While still a youth Wright 
composed fifteen hundred lines of a tragedy 
entitled ' Mahomet, or the Hegira,' which he 
was forced to retain in his memory until he 
learned to write at the age of seventeen. 
In 1824 he proceeded to Glasgow, carrying 
with him ' The Retrospect ' and some smaller 
poems. On his arrival he saw John Stru- 
thers [q.v.] and Dugald Moore [q.v.], who 
approved his work and assisted him to go to 
Edinburgh. There he found patrons in 
' Christopher North ' and Henry Glassford 
Bell [q-v.l who helped him to obtain a pub- 
lisher. ' The Retrospect ' appeared in 1825, 
and was lauded by the ' Quarterly Review ' 
and the ' Monthly Review,' as well as by 
Scottish journals. Some shorter poems 
which were published with it had the higher 
honour of being praised by Sir Walter Scott. 
Wright settled at Cambuslang, near Glas- 
gow, where he married Margaret Chalmers, 
granddaughter of the parish schoolmaster, 
and worked as a weaver. Finding his means 
scanty he printed a second edition of the 
' Retrospect ' two or three years later, and 
made a tour through Scotland selling copies. 
He found that his fame was extensive, and 
the discovery was his ruin. The hospitality 
he received encouraged habits of intem- 
perance which, a few months after his return 
to Cambuslang, completelv mastered him. 
He was separated from his" wife, and lived 
in poverty and wretchedness. In 1843 he 
made a determined effort to regulate his life. 
His friends assisted him by publishing at 
Ayr ' The Whole Poetical Works of John 
AVright.' Unfortunately, hia reformation 
was either transient or too late, for he died 



Wright 



Wright 



in a Glasgow hospital a few months later. 
He had a genuine poetic gift and an intense 
appreciation of natural beauty. His more 
ambitious pieces were marred by an artificial 
imitation of Lord Byron, but his shorter 
poems, reflecting the emotions of his own 
life, were happier. 

[Memoir prefixed to Wright's Works, 1843, 
with portrait; Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit.] 

E I C 

WEIGHT, JOHN (1770 P-1844), book- 
seller and author, born in 1770 or 1771, was 
the son of a clerk in a manufacturing house 
at Norwich. He was apprenticed to his 
uncle, J. Roper, a silk mercer, but he dis- 
liked trade, and at the expiry of his inden- 
tures went to London to seek for literary em- 
ployment. He obtained an engagement as 
foreman or superintendent at Hookham's 
rooms in Bond Street, and afterwards en- 
tered business on his own account as a book- 
seller at 169 Piccadilly, opposite Old Bond 
Street. His shop became the general morn- 
ing resort of the friends of Pitt's ministry, aa 
Debrett's was of the opposition [see DEBRETT, 
JOHN]. In 1797 Canning, John Hookham 
Frere [q. v.], and others, projected the 'Anti- 
Jacobin, or Weekly Examiner.' They took 
a lease of 168 Piccadilly, the next house to 
Wright's, which was vacant on account of 
the failure of J. Owen, the publisher of 
Burke's pamphlets, and made over the house 
to Wright, reserving to themselves the first 
floor. By means of a door in the partition 
wall they passed from Wright's shop to the 
editorial room without attracting notice. 
The ' Anti-Jacobin ' appeared first on 20 Nov. 

1797, under the editorship of William Gif- 
ford [q. v.], and was continued until 9 July 

1798. The journal was distinguished for the 
vigour of its attacks on its opponents, and 
Wright's shop was the scene of the attempt 
of John Wolcot [q. v.], better known as 
Peter Pindar, to chastise Gifford with a 
cudgel for his severe reflections on his 
character and writings. Wright's political 
connections brought him into contact with 
William Cobbett [q. v.], then at the height 
of his earlier fame as a tory martyr. While 
Cobbett was still in America, Wright acted 
as his agent in London, and when he came 
to England in 1800 he gave him lodging in 
his house. In 1802 Wright failed in his 
business. He had started with little money, 
and, according to Cobbett, the publication of 
the ' Anti-Jacobin ' brought him more noto- 
riety than remuneration. By his failure he 
found himself seriously in Cobbett's debt, 
and he received little mercy. In 1803 he 
was confined in the Fleet at the suit of his 
creditor. At a later time Cobbett asserted 



and Wright denied that the committal was 
by mutual arrangement. At any rate, he 
was released in a few weeks on terms which 
made him Cobbett's hack and forced him to 
follow his master in 1804 in his change of 
politics. He took rooms at a tailor's at 
5 Panton Square, Westminster, but during 
Cobbett's frequent absences from town he 
lived at his house at 15 Duke Street, West- 
minster, looked after his domestic affairs, and 
superintended the publication of the ' Weekly 
Political Register.' According to Thomas 
Curson Hansard [q. v.], he received no re- 
muneration for these services, and was denied 
even postal expenses' unless he produced the 
back of every twopenny post letter which he 
received. 

He was chiefly employed, however, as 
editor of ' Cobbett's Parliamentary History,' 
' Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates,' and ' Cob- 
bett's State Trials.' Of the two former he 
took entire charge, but the last was entrusted 
to Thomas Bayly Howell [q. v.] as sub- 
editor. To Wright were assigned by a verbal 
agreement two-thirds of the profits on the 
' Debates' and half the profits on the 'Par- 
liamentary History ' and the ' State Trials.' 
Cobbett was originally proprietor, but in 1810 
he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment 
for an attack on the government, and during 
his incarceration a violent dispute arose as to 
the division of the profits, which was com- 
plicated by Wright's raising a claim for re- 
muneration for his other services. The 
printer Hansard, who sided with Wright, 
eventually obtained possession of the ' Par- 
liamentary Debates ' and the ' History,' re- 
moved Cobbett's name from the title-page, 
and continued Wright in his post of editor. 
The ' Parliamentary History ' appeared in 
thirty-six volumes between 1806 and 1820, 
and dealt with the period previous to 1803, 
when the series of the ' Debates ' began. 
Wright edited thirty-six volumes of the 
' Debates ' between 1812 and 1830, and was 
then succeeded as editor by Thomas Hodg- 
skin. 

Their financial differences produced a last- 
ing enmity between Cobbett and Wnght, 
which was embittered by another circum- 
stance. On Cobbett's release from gaol in 
1812 a statement appeared in the ' Times ' that 
he had sought to avoid imprisonment two 
years before by making his submission to go- 
vernment and offering to suppress the 'Weekly 
Register.' Wright, who had been privy to 
Cobbett's overtures, and had endeavoured to 
dissuade him from them, was unjustly sus- 
pected of having betrayed them. The re- 
velation was too damaging to be forgiven. 
In 1819, while in America, Cobbett published 



Wright 



112 



Wright 



a savage attack on Wright in the ' Register,' 
alleging that he had detected him falsifying 
his accounts and describing graphically ' the 
big round drops of sweat that in a cold 
winter's day rolled down the caitiff's fore- 
head ' when his villainy was discovered. 
Wright obtained 500/. damages against Wil- 
liam Tnnell Clement, the bookseller, for 
publishing the libel, and when Cobbett re- 
turned to England he commenced proceed- 
ings against him also, and on 11 Dec. 1820 
obtained 1,000/. damages (Times, 12 Dec. 
1820). 

When Wright's connection with the 'Par- 
liamentary Debates ' ceased in 1830, he un- 
dertook a ' Biographical Memoir of William 
II uskisson ' (London, 1831, 8vo), a work of 
considerable merit. He was next employed 
by the publishers John Murray (1778-1843) 
[q. v.l and Richard Bentley (1794-1871) 
[q. v.j in literary work. In 1831 Murray 
published an edition of Boswell's ' Life of 
Johnson,' founded on that of John Wilson 
Croker [q. v.] The ninth and tenth volumes, 
consisting of a supplementary collection of 
contemporary anecdotes concerning Johnson 
under the title ' Johnsoniana,' were edited by 
Wright. They appeared in a separate edi- 
tion in 1836 (London, 8vo). Between 1832 
and 1835 he was engaged on the ' Life and 
Work of Lord Byron,' published by Murray, 
and in 1835 on the collective edition of 
Crabbe's ' Works.' Between 1838 and 1840 
he assisted William Stanhope Taylor and 
Captain John Henry Pringle in editing the 
' Correspondence of William Pitt, Earl of 
Chatham ' (London, 4 vols. 8vo). He was 
editor of the first collective edition of 
Horace Walpole's ' Letters,' which appeared 
in 1840 (London, 6 vols. 8vo). A revised 
edition was published in 1844 and a third in 
1846. An American edition appeared in 
Philadelphia in 1842. At the time of his 
death Wright was engaged in his most im- 
portant work, the publication of ' Sir Henry 
Cavendish's Debates of the House of Com- 
mons during the Thirteenth Parliament of 
Great Britain, commonly called the Unre- 
ported Parliament' [see CAVENDISH, SIB 
HENKT]. The original notes, written in 
shorthand, are contained iu forty-eight 
volumes in the Egerton manuscripts at the 
British Museum. Wright deciphered and 
transcribed the manuscript as far as 27 March 
1771, and supplemented the text with ' illus- 
trations of the parliamentary history of the 
reign of George III,' drawn from unpub- 
lished letters, private journals, and memoirs. 
In 1839 he published a preliminary volume, 
containing the 'Debate of the House of 
Commons on the Bill for the Government of 



Quebec' (London, 8vo), a subject at that 
time of considerable interest. The work 
was approved by Lord Brougham, who, to- 
gether with Hudson Gurney [q. v.], assisted 
Wright financially. Seven parts appeared 
between 1841 and 1843, which, when bound, 
formed two volumes (London, 8vo). 

Wright died in London on 25 Feb. 1844 
at his residence, 26 Osnaburgh Street, Re- 
gent's Park, and was buried at the Maryle- 
bone parish church. Two volumes of Cob- 
bett's correspondence with Wright are pre- 
served at the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 
22906, 22907). A third (Addit. MS. 31126) 
contains letters in the possession of Cobbett, 
and a statement of his case against W r right in 
regard to the ' Parliamentary History ' and 
' Debates.' Wright translated from the 
German of Alexandre Stanislas de WimpfFen 
'A Voyage to Saint Domingo in 1788, 1789, 
and 1790^ (London, 1797, 8vo). 

[Gent. Mag. 1844, i. 437; Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit. ; Report of the action Wright v. 
Clement, 1819 ; Huish's Memoirs of Cobbett, 
1836, ii. 312-35; Smith's Life of Cobbett, 1878; 
Life of William Cobbett, 1835, pp. 167-72; 
Political Death of William Cobbett, 1820; 
Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin, ed. Edmonds, 1890, 
p. xxiii; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vi. 5-6; Edin- 
burgh Review, 1839-40, Ixx. 90.] E. I. C. 

WRIGHT, JOHN MASEY (1777-1866), 
watercolour-painter, was born on 14 Oct. 
1777 at Pentonville, London, where his 
father was an organ-builder. He was appren- 
ticed to the same business, but, as it proved 
distasteful to him, he was allowed to follow 
his natural inclination for art. As a boy 
he was given the opportunity of watching 
Thomas Stothard [q. v.] when at work in 
his studio, but otherwise he was self-taught. 
About 1810 Wright became associated with 
Henry Aston Barker [q. v.], for whose 
panorama in the Strand he did much ex- 
cellent work, including the battles of Co- 
rufia, Vittoria, and Waterloo. He was 
also employed for a time as a scene-painter 
at the opera-house. But his reputation 
rests upon his small compositions illustrating 
Shakespeare and other poets, which were ex- 
tremely numerous and executed with ad- 
mirable taste and feeling in the manner of 
Stothard. He exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy from 1812 to 1818, and in 1824 was 
elected an associate of the Watercolour 
Society ; he became a full member in 1825, 
and thenceforward to the end of his long 
life was a regular exhibitor. His drawings 
were largely engraved for the 'Literary 
Souvenir,' 'Amulet,' 'Forget-me-not,' and 
similar publications ; also for fine editions of 
the works of Sir Walter Scott and Burns, 



Wright 



Wright 



and for the 'Gallery of Modem British 
Artists.' Plates from his 'Battle of Vit- 
toria ' and ' The Ghost, a Christmas Frolic,' 
appeared in 1814, and ' Devotion,' a subject 
from Boccaccio, was engraved by Charles 
Heath in 1833. Though extremely indus- 
trious, Wright was poorly remunerated for his 
work, and during his later years received a 
small pension from the Watercolour Society. 
He died on 13 May 1866. By his wife, Miss 
Meadows, he had a son and a daughter. 

[Roget's Hist, of the Old Watercolour ' 
Society ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves' s 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1893.1 F. M. O'D. 

WRIGHT, JOHN MICHAEL (1625?- 
1700), portrait-painter, born about 1625 in 
Scotland, is stated to have been a pupil of 
George Jamesone [q. v.], and to have come 
to England at the age of seventeen. Soon 
afterwards he went to Italy and resided 
there for some years. He was elected in 1648 
a member of the academy of St. Luke at 
Florence, and was also a member of the 
academy at Rome. While at Rome he copied 
the triple portrait of Charles I by Van Dyck, 
which had been sent to Bernini the sculptor. 
He returned to England during the Common- 
wealth and executed several excellent por- 
traits, including one of Elizabeth Claypole, 
Cromwell's favourite daughter, painted in 
1658, and now in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London. A portrait of General Monck 
at Ham House is signed and dated 1059. 
Other portraits of Monck painted by Wright 
are at Longleat, Cambridge, and elsewhere. 

After the Restoration Wright became a 
leading painter in London and a rival of Lely. 
His portraits are well and solidly painted, 
and show much character, as may be seen 
from the portraits of Thomas Hobbes [q. v.] 
and Thomas Chimnch [q. v.] in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. John Evelyn 
[q. v.] the diarist notes that ' 1659, 5 April, 
came the Earle of Northampton and the 
famous painter Mr. Wright ;' and ' 1662, 
3 October. Visited Mr. Wright, a Scotsman, 
who had liv'd long at Rome and was esteem'd 
a good painter.' Wright painted some de- 
corative pictures for Charles II at Whitehall. 
Evelyn alludes to these and to a triple por- 
trait of John Lacy (d. 1681) [q. v.], the famous 
comedian, as Parson Simple in the ' Cheats,' 
Sandy in the ' Taming of the Shrew,' and 
Monsieur de Vice in the ' Country Captain ; ' 
this picture, painted in 1675, is now at 
Hampton Court. Samuel Pepys [q. v.] pre- 
ferred Lely, for, after seeing Lady Castle- 
maine's portrait in Lely's studio, he says in 
his ' Diary ' for 18 June 1662 : ' Thence to 
Mr. Wright's, the painter ; but Lord ! the 

VOL. LXIII. 



difference that is between their two works ! ' 
Probably Wright was painting Lady Castle- 
maine too. After the great fire of London in 
1666 great assistance was rendered to the 
corporation of London by Sir Matthew Hale 
[q.v.] and other judges in settling the difficult 
questions of property arising from the disaster. 
In 1670 the corporation of London deter- 
mined to commemorate this action by hav- 
ing the portraits of all the judges, twenty- 
two in number, painted to be hung in the 
Guildhall or some other public place. Sir 
Peter Lely was invited to undertake this 
task, but declined to attend upon the judges. 
The commission was therefore given to 
Wright, who executed the greater number 
of the portraits, all at full length, during 
the next three or four years. Evelyn, in his 
' Diary ' for 31 July 1673, notes that he 'went 
to see the j udges newly set up in Guildhall.' 
These portraits were restored and repainted 
by one Spiridione Roma in 1779. 

In 1672 Wright painted for Sir Robert 
Vyner a full-length portrait of Prince Ru- 
pert, which is now at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford. He painted many portraits of the 
gentry and nobility, which are to be found 
in private collections, such as those of Lord 
Bagot, the Earl of Bradford, Lord Talbot de 
Malahide, and others. They are painted 
with a quiet strength and dignity which con- 
trast with the graces and conventions of the 
fashions of the time. 

In 1686 Wright, probably on account of 
his knowledge of Italian and previous re- 
sidence in Italy, was appointed 'majordomo' 
in the suite of Roger Palmer, earl of Castle- 
maine[q. v.], upon his abortive embassy from 
James II to Innocent XI at Rome. The 
embassy arrived at Rome in January 1687. 
Wright, who seems to have remained at 
Rome for some time later than the embassy, 
published in Italian a fulsome, though not 
uninteresting, account of the embassy and 
its reception in Rome, with illustrations. It 
was entitled ' Ragguaglio della solenne com- 
parsa fatta in Roma,' Rome [1687], fol. An 
English version of this was prepared in 1688 
(London, fol.) by Nahum Tate [q. v.] On 
his return to England Wright found that his 
most dangerous rival, Sir Godfrey Kneller 
[q. v.], had established himself firmly in 
popular favour and fashionable patronage. 
Wright therefore lost his ground, and when, 
not long before his death, he solicited the 
post of king's limner in Scotland, he was 
unsuccessful. He died in 1700 in James 
Street, Covent Garden, and was buried in 
the St. Paul's Church close by. 

Owing to his habit of signing his name in 
Latin, ' J. M. Ritus,' with the initials con- 



Wright 



114 



Wright 



joined, his name has been the source of 
perplexity to many art historians. Wright 
had a valuable collection of agates, gems, 
shells, &c., mostly collected in Italy, and 
noticed by Evelyn ; this collection he dis- 
posed of to Sir Hans Sloane [q. v.], with 
whose other treasures it passed into the 
British Museum. 

Wright had a son, whom he established 
at Rome as a teacher of languages. His 
brother, Jeremiah Wright, was also a painter, 
who assisted in the accessories of the judges' 
portraits in the Guildhall. A nephew, John 
Michael Wright, settled in Ireland and prac- 
tised with some success as a portrait-painter 
there. In the collection of the Earl of Powis 
there is a portrait of the Earl of Castlemaine, 
standing and dictating to his secretary ; the 
latter is probably Wright, and the whole 
picture painted by himself. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. "Wor- 
num, with manuscript notes by SirGeorge Scharf ; 
Pepys's and Evelyn's Diaries; De Piles's Lives 
of the Painters; Brydall's Hist, of Art in Scot- 
land ; Seguier's Diet, of Painters ; Price's De- 
scriptive Account of the Guildhall.] L. C. 

WRIGHT, JOHN WESLEY (1769- 
1805), commander R.N., of a Lancashire 
family, son of James Wright, a captain in 
the army, was born at Cork on 14 June 
1769. While still very young he went with 
his father and the family to Minorca, where 
he learnt music and French, in both of 
which he excelled. It may be presumed 
that he also learnt Spanish. Early in 1781 
he was entered on board the Brilliant with 
(Sir) Roger Curtis [q. v.], and was for the 
next two years at Gibraltar during the siege. 
In 1783, when the Brilliant was paid off, 
Wright was sent to a school at Wandsworth, 
where he remained for two years. He was 
then employed for some time in a merchant's 
office in the city, and apparently in 1788 
was sent ' on an important commission ' to 
St. Petersburg. He remained in Russia for 
the next five years, visiting Moscow and 
other places, and acquiring a thorough know- 
ledge of the language. He was introduced 
to Sir William Sidney Smith [q. v.], and at 
his requetit joined the Diamond in the spring 
of 1794 with the rating of midshipman, and 
apparently doing duty as captain's clerk ; 
he seems to have described himself as ' the 
secretary of his friend.' After nearly two 
years on the coast of France, he was with 
Smith on the night of 18-19 April 1796, 
when he was taken prisoner. His confiden- 
tial relations to Smith secured him the par- 
ticular attentions of the French government ; 
he was sent with Smith to Paris, was confined 



in the Temple as a close prisoner, was re- 
peatedly examined as to Smith's designs, and 
finally effected his escape with Smith in May 
1798. He then joined the Tigre, apparently 
as acting lieutenant, for his commission was 
not confirmed till 29 March 1800. He con- 
tinued with Smith throughout the commis- 
sion at Acre and on the coast of Egypt till 
promoted, on 7 May 1802, to the Cynthia 
sloop, which he took to England. 

On the renewal of the war he was ap- 
pointed to the Vincejo brig, in which for 
the next year he was employed on the coast 
of France. On the morning of 8 May 1804 
he had been blown by stress of weather into 
Quiberon Bay, and was off the mouth of the 
Vilaine, when the wind died away. Some 
seventeen gunboats came out of the river, 
and surrounded the brig, which the calm ren- 
dered almost defenceless against such odds ; 
after being pounded for two hours, the brig 
was compelled to surrender. Wright was 
sent to Paris and again confined as a close 
prisoner in the Temple. He was subjected to 
repeated examinations as to whether he had 
not put on shore in France some royalist 
agents : Georges, Pichegru, Riviere, and 
others were named. Wright refused to an- 
swer to the interrogations ; and to this re- 
fusal he adhered, in spite of many threats of 
ill-treatment. After being so detained for 
nearly eighteen months it was announced 
that he had committed suicide on the night 
of 27 Oct. 1805. It was immediately said 
in England that if he was dead he had been 
murdered ; and, in fact, so little was it be- 
lieved by the authorities that his name was 
not removed from the navy list till the au- 
tumn of 1807. 

After the Restoration Sir Sidney Smith 
and others made unofficial inquiries in Paris 
which seemed to prove that he was mur- 
dered. According to the evidence which 
Smith collected, the body was found on the 
bed with the sheet drawn up to the chin, the 
razor with which the throat had been cut 
to the bone closed, and the hand which 
grasped it pressing the thigh. There was 
some blood about the room, but none on the 
sheet. Great weight has been attached to 
this and other stories ; but, after all, they 
are worthless as evidence. The only state- 
ment of any value is that his letters were in 
good and determined spirit, and no cause 
for any great depression was shown. That 
alleged the news of Mack's surrender at 
Ulm is absurd, especially to a naval officer 
who had also the news of Trafalgar. On 
the other hand, it is difficult to see what 
Bonaparte had to gain by murdering Wright. 
At St. Helena he pooh-poohed the idea, and 



Wright 



Wright 



said that if he had interfered it would have 
been to order Wright to be tried as a spy and 
shot, though nothing in the accepted laws 
of war would condemn an officer as a spy 
for landing men who might be objectionable 
to the enemy's government. In the total 
absence of trustworthy evidence, and the 
want of motive for either murder or suicide, 
it may be suggested that Wright died from 
natural causes an affection of the heart, 
for instance and that the French govern- 
ment took a mean revenge on the man who 
had given them a good deal of trouble by 
alleging suicide. 

[Naval Chronicle, vols. xxxiv. xxxv. and 
xxxvi.; Annual Kegister, 1799 ii. 72. 1801 i. 
221, 1804 i. 389, 1805 i. 6, 118, 427 ; O'Meara's 
Voice from St. Helena ; Warden's Letters from 
St. Helena.] J. K. L. 

WRIGHT, JOHN WILLIAM (1802- 
1848), watercolour-painter, son of John 
Wright (d. 1820), a miniature-painter of 
repute, was born in London in 1802. He 
was articled to Thomas Phillips (1770-1845) 
[q. v.], and from 1825 was a frequent exhibi- 
tor at the Royal Academy, chiefly of por- 
traits. In 1831 he was elected an associate of 
the Watercolour Society, and in 1842 a full 
member ; in 1844 he succeeded Robert Hills 
as secretary. Wright painted domestic and 
sentimental subjects in the pleasing but 
artificial style then popular, and his com- 
positions were largely engraved in the 
' Keepsake,' ' Literary Souvenir,' Heath's 
' Book of Beauty,' ' The Drawing-room 
Scrap Book,' and 'The Female Characters 
of Shakespeare.' His portraits of Lord 
Tenterden, Bishop Gray, and Bishop Marsh 
were engraved for Fisher's ' National Por- 
trait Gallery.' Wright died in London on 
14 Jan. 1848 at his house in Great Marl- 
borough Street, leaving a widow and two 
children. 

[Gent. Mag. 1848, i. 554 ; Koget's Hist, of the 
' Old Watercolour' Society ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers 
(Armstrong); Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760- 
1893.] F. M. O'D. 

WRIGHT, JOSEPH (1734-1797), 
painter, called Wright of Derby, to dis- 
tinguish him from Richard Wright (1735- 
1775 ?) [q. v.], marine painter, was born at 
28 Irongate, Derby, on 3 Sept. 1734, the 
third and youngest son of John Wright, 
an attorney of that town, who was called 
'Equity Wright ' on account of the up- 
rightness of his character. His mother's 
maiden name was Hannah Brookes. He 
was educated at Derby grammar school 
under Dr. Almond, and soon showed a 



talent for mechanics. He made a small 
spinning-wheel, a toy 'peep-show,' and a 
little gun, but at eleven years of age his in- 
clination for art showed itself strongly. He 
copied the public-house signs and made 
sketches in the assize court ; one of Coun- 
cillor Noel, in black and white chalk upon 
blue paper, done at the age of sixteen, is in 
the possession of his biographer, Mr. Wil- 
liam Bemrose of Derby. In 1751 his father 
placed him with Thomas Hudson (1701- 
1 779) the portrait-painter, the master of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds and of John Hamilton Mor- 
timer [q. v.], for two years, after which he re- 
turned to Derby and commenced painting 
portraits. In 1756 he returned to study under 
Hudson, and remained with him about fifteen 
months. He soon obtained some local cele- 
brity. He painted portraits of the members 
of the Derby hunt (now at Markeaton Hall), 
and was allowed to exhibit his pictures in the 
town-hall. From the first Wright was very 
fond of strong effects of light and shade, and 
soon added greatly to his reputation by his 
pictures of figures illuminated by artificial 
(chiefly candle) light. It is on his pictures of 
this class that his fame mainly rests, and neatly 
all of them were produced before his visit to 
Italy in 1773. Nor was his reputation con- 
fined to Derby. In 1765 he exhibited at 
the Society of Artists in London 'Three 
Persons viewing the Gladiator by Candle- 
light; ' in 1766 ' A Philosopher giving that 
Lecture on the Orrery in which a Lamp is 
put in the place of the Sun,' now in the Derby 
Corporation Art Gallery ; in 1768 ' An Ex- 
periment on a Bird in the Air Pump,' now in 
the National Gallery ; in 1769 'A Philosopher 
by Candlelight,' and ' An Academy by 
Candlelight;' in 1771 'The Alchymist in 
Search of the Philosopher's Stone discovers 
Phosphorus and prays for the successful 
Conclusion of his Operation, as was the 
custom of the ancient Chymical Astrologers,' 
now in the Derby Corporation Art Gallery. 
Of the thirty-one pictures exhibited during 
what may be called his first period, 1765 
to 1773 inclusive, more than half were candle- 
light or firelight scenes, four of them being 
' smith's shops ' or ' forges ; ' the rest were 
portraits (twelve) and landscapes (two), one 
of them a 'Moonlight.' Among the most 
successful examples of his imitative skill are 
his children blowing or playing with blown 
bladders. In November 1773 he went to 
Italy with his wife and Mr. Hurleston 
(great-uncle of F. Y. Hurleston, president 
of the Incorporated Society of Artists). At 
Rome he spent much time in making a series 
of sketches from the frescoes of Michael 
Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. He is said 



Wright 



116 



Wright 



to have permanently affected his health by 
overwork, and by lying on his back on the 
stones of the chapel. He took with him his 
picture of the ' Alchymist,' which was much 
admired, and painted another called ' The 
Captive ' (from Sterne), in which the 
attitude of the figure resembles that of 
Michael Angelo's Adam. The 'Captive' 
was exhibited at the Society of Artists in 
1773. Among other places which he 
visited in Italy were Naples, Florence, and 
Bologna. He was disappointed with Flo- 
rence, pleased with Bologna, but his letters 
and diary did not record admiration for 
any works of art outside Rome. On the 
whole his visit to Italy had no very im- 
portant effect upon his figure-painting, and 
of all the sights he saw there none produced 
so great a change in his art as an eruption of 
Vesuvius. On one so fond of strange and 
strong effects of light, this stupendous scene 
naturally produced a profound impression, 
and he painted no fewer than eighteen pic- 
tures of it, the last in 1794. He was also 
much impressed by the scenery about Rome 
and the grandeur of its ruins, and the general 
result of his visit to Italy may be said to 
have been that he abandoned candlelight 
pieces for scenes of conflagration, and to some 
extent figure-painting for landscape. To the 
exhibition of the Society of Artists in 1776 
he sent ' An Eruption of Mount Vesuvius ' 
and 'The Girandola at the Castle of St. 
Angelo at Rome.' These pictures were pur- 
chased by the empress of Russia for 500/. 

He arrived back in Derby on 26 Sept. 
1775, and shortly afterwards went to Bath, 
where he thought to find an opening for a 
portrait-painter, as Gainsborough had re- 
cently left that city for London. In this 
he was disappointed. The Duchess of Cum- 
berland sat to him, but her commission for 
a full-length dwindled to a head, and he 
got so few sitters that he felt that there were 
enemies at work against him. In 1777 he 
returned to Derby, where he lodged for a 
while with his friends the Eleys, removing 
to St. Helen's House in 1779. In his 
native town he found much employment as 
a portrait-painter, and eventually raised his 
prices to fifty guineas for a full-length, and 
ninety and a hundred and twenty guineas for a 
'conversation piece.' In 1778 he began to ex- 
hibit at the Royal Academy, and continued 
to do so yearly till 1782. His contributions 
consisted chiefly of scenes in Italy, ' Erup- 
tions,' ' Girandolas,' 'Grottoes,' and 'Ca- 
verns,' but comprised two beautiful and 
poetical figures ' Edwin ' from Beattie's 
' Minstrel,' for which Thomas Haden, a sur- 
geon of Derby and one of the handsomest 



men in the town, served as a model (the 
figure was etched by Mr. F. Seymour 
Haden for Mr. Bemrose's life of the artist) ; 
and Sterne's 'Maria,' painted from Mrs. 
Bassano, also of Derby. In 1781 he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy, 
and in 1784 a full academician. The latter 
distinction he declined for reasons not pre- 
cisely known, but he was angry with the 
academy for the way they hung his pictures, 
and because they elected Edmund Garvey 
[q. v.] before him. It is also said that he 
resented, as George Stubbs [q. v.] had done 
a year or two before, the rule that a mem- 
ber should deposit a picture with the 
academy before receiving his diploma. One 
result of his quarrel with the academy, 
which seems to have begun about 1782, was 
that he did not send any pictures to their 
exhibitions after that year until 1788. In 
1783 he sent two pictures to the Free So- 
ciety of Artists, and in 1785 he held a 
separate exhibition of twenty-five pictures 
at Mr. Robins's rooms in Covent Garden. In 
1787 he sent some works to an exhibition 
at Derby. The exhibition in 1785 showed 
very fairly the extensive range of Wright's 
art. Its sentimental and poetical side was 
shown by the lady in Milton's ' Comus ; ' 
' The Widow of an Indian Chief watching 
her deceased husband's arms by moonlight ; 
by ' William and Margaret,' a ghost scene 
from the ballad in Percy's ' Reliques ; ' ' Julia, 
the daughter of Augustus ' (in a cavern) ; 
' The Maid of Corinth ' (painted for Josiah 
Wedgwood), and 'Penelope,' besides two 
scenes from the story of ' Hero and Leander.' 
There were also a few portraits and many 
landscapes, Italian and English, including 
' Matlock High Tor ' and a ' Vesuvius.' It 
also contained ' A View of Gibraltar dur- 
ing the Destruction of the Spanish Floating 
Batteries on the 13th of Sept. 1782,' which 
was bought by Mr. J. Milnes for 420/., the 
largest price received by the artist for any 
single picture. The quarrel with the academy 
was never healed, although Wright sent pic- 
tures to their exhibitions in 1788, 1789, 
1790, and 1794. In 1790 a fresh cause of 
annoyance arose from the places assigned to 
two large pictures intended for Boydell's 
' Shakespeare.' He exhibited them " again 
the year after at the Society of Artists, with 
a note in the catalogue referring to their ' un- 
fortunate position' at the academy, owing 
(Mr. Wright supposes) to their having ar- 
rived too late in London.' 

In 1794 he complained that his pictures 
at the academy were placed on the floor and 
injured by the feet of the visitors. He had 
also a quarrel with Boydell. The first pic- 



Wright 



117 



Wright 



ture he painted for the ' Shakespeare Gallery,' 
and the only one the alderman bought, was 
a scene from the ' Tempest,' ' Prospero's Cell, 
with the Vision.' Wright thought he should 
be paid as highly as any artist engaged on 
the 'Shakespeare' (including Reynolds), but 
Boydell would not give him more than 300/. 
for it, and hinted that that was more than 
it deserved. At the sale of the 'Shakespeare 
Gallery' in 1805 it was bought by the Earl 
of Balcarres for 691. 6s. The other pictures 
from Shakespeare were the tomb scene in 
'Romeo and Juliet,' and one of 'Antigonus 
in the Storm ' from the 'Winter's Tale,' with 
a bear drawn from a sketch supplied by 
Sawrey Gilpin. The former was never 
sold, and the latter was bought by Wright's 
friend, John Leigh Philips. During all these 
years Wright went on painting portraits, 
with an occasional poetical composition, but 
most of these were not exhibited in London, 
and his public reputation was mainly based 
on his 'candlelight' pieces and pictures of 
fire and moonlight, until he obtained a 
wider popularity from the well-known en- 
graving by J. Heath from his pathetic pic- 
ture of ' A Dead Soldier, his Wife and Child, 
vide Langhorne's "Poems,"' which was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1789. 
Heath bought the picture for 105/. before he 
engraved it, and reaped a large profit from 
his venture. 

After 1790, though Wright went on paint- 
ing for years, he produced nothing worthy of 
special record, except some landscapes painted 
from sketches taken on a visit to the lakes in 
1793. Though not an old man, he had been 
more or less of an invalid and a dietarian 
ever since his return from Italy. In 1783 
he wrote that he had suffered ' a series of 
ill-health for these sixteen years past,' and 
in 1795 that he had been ' ten months with- 
out touching a pencil.' He died on 29 Aug. 
1797 at 26 Queen Street, Derby, whither 
he had removed from St. Helen's House 
about five years before, and was buried on 
1 Sept. in St. Alkmund's Church. In 1773 
he married Ann Swift, who died, aged 41, 
on 17 Aug. 1790. 

In his youth Wright was handsome and 
of a sprightly disposition. He was fond of 
society, and played well on the flute. After 
his return from Italy he lived a very quiet 
life, much esteemed by all who knew him. 
His friends and acquaintances included few 
more notable people than Josiah Wedgwood 
[q. v.], Erasmus Darwin [q. v.], Sir Richard 
Arkwright [q.v.], and William Hayley [q.v.J, 
who, as well as Darwin and others, cele- 
brated his art in many bad verses. Ho was 
of a kind and generous disposition, giving 



away many of his pictures and drawings to 
his friends. 

At his death Wright was little known as 
a portrait-painter, except in Derby and its 
neighbourhood, and it is doubtful whether 
even now his skill in this branch of art is 
sufficiently recognised. The only opportunity 
of anything like a complete study of his works 
of this kind was afforded by the collection of 
his paintings at the Derby Corporation Art 
Gallery in 1883, which comprised about sixty 
of his portraits. The list, though full of local 
notables, contained few names of wide cele- 
brity, except those of Sir Richard Arkwright, 
the inventor of the ' spinning jenny,' and 
Erasmus Darwin. In comparison with Rey- 
nolds or Gainsborough he was a homely, 
almost a domestic, portrait-painter, but his 
portraits have the great merits of sincerity 
and thoroughness, show true insight into 
character, are finely modelled, and well 
painted. Among the finest are his portraits 
of himself, Jedediah Strutt, Christopher 
Heath, John Whitehurst, Mr. Cheslyn, Mrs. 
Compton, and Lady Wilmot and her child. 
He was very successful with children, whom 
he presented with all their artlessness and 
simplicity, and his powers as a colourist 
(which, if not of the highest, were consider- 
able) are perhaps best displayed in some of 
his groups of young people, like those of 
the little Arkwrights with a goat, and the 
little Newtons picking cherries. 

A small selection from his pictures was a 
prominent feature of the winter exhibition 
of the Royal Academy in 1886. Wright 
was an able and versatile artist, and the 
great reputation which he made in his life- 
time is fairly sustained at the present day. 
As a painter of candlelight pieces, especially 
in those compositions ' The Orrery,' ' The 
Gladiator,' and ' The Air-pump,' where genre 
and portrait are combined with dramatic 
action, he has no rival in the English school ; 
as a portrait-painter he holds a high, if not 
the highest, rank, and among painters of 
sentiment his ' Edwin ' and ' Maria ' entitle 
him to consideration. His pictures of 
Vesuvius and fireworks have, however, now 
ceased to attract, and his daylight land- 
scapes want atmosphere. Richard Wilson 
[q. v.] good-naturedly hit their weakness 
when he agreed to exchange landscapes with 
Wright. ' I'll give you air,' he said, ' and 
you'll give me fire.' 

Fine mezzotint engravings from Wright's 
works did much to spread his reputation 
in his lifetime and have served to preserve 
it since. Valentine Green engraved ' The 
Orrery,' 'The Air-pump,' and others ; Earlom 
' A Blacksmith's Shop ' and 'An Iron Forge ;' 



Wright 



118 



Wright 



J. R. Smith 'Edwin,' 'Maria/ 'Boy and Girl 
with Bladder,' ' Boy and Girl with Lighted 
Stick/ &c.; and among plates by W. Pether 
were ' The Alchymist/ ' The Drawing Aca- 
demy/ and ' The Gladiator.' 

In the National Gallery is his master- 
piece, 'The Air-pump;' "in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, his portraits of 
Arkwright and Erasmus Darwin and one of 
himself. He made many portraits of him- 
self, one of which (in a hat) was engraved by 
Ward, while another is reproduced in Bern- 
rose's 'Life' (1885) as well as the National 
Portrait Gallery portrait and an etching, the 
only etching by Wright that is known. An 
early sketch, in a turban-like cap, is repro- 
duced as a frontispiece to a biographical no- 
tice by Bemrose, republished from the ' Reli- 
quary/ quarterly journal, of 1864. 

[Bemrose's Life and Works of Joseph Wright, 
1885, 4to ; Bemrose's biographic*! notice of 
' Wright of Derby/ reprinted from Nos. xv. and 
xvi. of the Reliquary, 1864 ; Monthly Mag. 
17 Oct. 1797 ; Hayley's Life of Romney; John- 
son's Life of Hayley ; Meteyard's Life of Wedg- 
wood ; Wine and Walnuts ; Hayley 's Poems ; 
Catalogue of the Wright Exhibition at Derby 
Corporation Art Gallery, 1883 ; Redgraves' Cen- 
tury ; Sandby's Royal Academy ; Magazine of 
Art, 1883.] ' C. M. 

WRIGHT, LAURENCE (1590-1657), 
physician, third son of John Wright of 
Wright's Bridge, near Hornchurch in Essex, 
was born in 1590, matriculated a pensioner 
of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in March 
1608, and proceeded B. A. the following year. 
He entered as a medical student at Leyden 
on 22 Aug. 1612, but graduated M.A. at 
Cambridge in 1618. He was admitted a 
candidate of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians on 22 Dec. 1618, elected fellow on 
22 Dec. 1622, censor in 1628 and 1639, named 
an elect on 24 May 1642, conciliarius in 1647, 
and again from 1650 annually till his death 
in 1657. Wright was a physician in ordinary 
to Cromwell and to the Charterhouse. To 
the latter post he was elected on 25 May 
1624, and resigned it in 1643. He was chosen 
governor of the Charterhouse on 21 March 
1652. 

Wright, who was possessed of property 
at Henham and Havering in Essex, died on 
3 Oct. 1657, and was buried in the church 
of South Weald. He married Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Duke, physician, of Foulton Hall, 
Ramsey, Essex, and Colchester. She sur- 
vived him till 16 Feb. 1698, being also buried 
at South Weald. Of Wright's two sons, 
Laurence was expelled from a fellowship at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, during the Com- 
monwealth, but readmitted in 1660, and took 



the degree of M.D. in 1666. A second son 
(1636-1663), Henry, who was added to the 
trade committee of the council of state on 
5 Feb. 1656, was made a baronet by Crom- 
well on 10 April 1658, in which dignity he 
was confirmed on 11 June 1660; he mar- 
ried Anne (d. 1708), daughter of John Crew, 
first baron Crew of Stene, by whom he had 
a son and a daughter ; the baronetcy expired 
on the death of his son in 1681. 

[Visitation of Essex, 1634 (Harl. Soc. Publ. 
xiii. 534) ; Morant's Hist, of Essex, i. 62, 121, 
ii. 568 ; Munk's Royal Coll. of Phys. i. 181-3 ; 
Peacock's Index to Lpyden Students ; Cal. of 
State Papers, Dom. ; Wood's Athense (Bliss), 
vol. iii. col. 827 n. ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
pp. 139, 141 ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage ; Mas- 
son's Milton, v. 354 n.] B. P. 

WRIGHT, LAWRENCE (d. 1713), 
commodore, is first mentioned as lieutenant 
of the Baltimore in 1665. In 1666 he was 
in the Royal Charles, flagship of George 
Monck, first duke of Albemarle [q.v.], in the 
four days' fight and in the St. James's fight. 
He is said to have been almost continuously 
employed during the next twenty years of 
peace and war, but the details of his service 
cannot now be satisfactorily traced ; those 
given by Charnock are not entirely trust- 
worthy : some of them appear very doubtful. 
He is said to have taken post as a captain 
from 1672. On the accession of James II 
he was appointed to command theMaryyacht, 
and in March 1687 was moved into the Fore- 
sight, in which he carried out Christopher 
Monck, second duke of Albemarle [q. v.], to 
Jamaica. Albemarle died within a year of 
his taking up the governorship, and Wright 
returned to England with the corpse. He 
arrived in the end of May 1689, and in the 
following October was appointed to the 
60-gun ship Mary as commodore and com- 
mander-in-chief of an expedition to the 
West Indies, with orders to fly the union 
flag at the main (Admiralty Minute, 6 Feb. 
1689-90), and with instructions 'to act ac- 
cording to the directions of General Codring- 
ton in all things relating to the land ser- 
vice/ and ' in enterprizes at sea to act as 
should be advised by the governor and 
councils of war, when he had opportunity 
of consulting them.' He was, ' when it was 
necessary, to spare as many seamen as he 
could with regard to the safety of the ships/ 
and he was not ' to send any ship from the 
squadron until the governor and council 
were informed of it and satisfied that the 
service did not require their immediate 
attendance ' (cf. Secretary's Letters, iii. 21, 
December 1689). 

The squadron, consisting of eight two- 



Wright 



119 



Wright 



decked ships of the smallest size, with a few 
frigates and fireships, sailed from Plymouth 
on 8 March 1689-90, and after a stormy 
passage reached Barbados on 11 May, with 
the ships' companies very sickly. It was 
not till the end of the month that Wright 
could go on to Antigua and join Codrington, 
who combined the two functions of governor 
of the Leeward Islands and commander-in- 
chief of the land forces. It was resolved to 
attack St. Christopher's by sea and land. 
This was done, and St. Christopher's was re- 
duced with but little loss. St. Eustatius 
also was taken possession of; and in August 
the squadron went to Barbados for the 
hurricane months. In October Wright re- 
joined Codrington at St. Christopher's, and 
it was resolved to attack Guadeloupe ; but 
while preparations were being made, Wright 
received orders from home to return to Eng- 
land. He accordingly went to Barbados, 
which he reached on 30 Dec. The want of 
stores and provisions delayed him there, and 
before he was ready to sail counter orders 
reached him, directing him to remain and 
co-operate with Codrington. But he had 
sent two ships to Jamaica ; two others had 
sailed for England in charge of convoy ; and 
those that he had with him were in a very 
bad state, leaking badly, and with their lower 
masts sprung. In order to strengthen his 
squadron as much as possible, he hired seve- 
ral merchant ships into the service ; but 
it was the middle of February before he 
could put to sea ; and when he at last joined 
Codrington at St. Christopher's, a serious 
quarrel between the two threatened to put a 
stop to all further operations. 

The details of the quarrel were never 
made public, but it may be assumed that it 
sprang out of the ill-defined relations of the 
two men, and the probable confusion in the 
minds of both between the governor and the 
general, who was, in fact, only a colonel in 
the army. It is probable that Wright saw 
the distinction as marked in his instructions 
more clearly than Codrington did ; but the 
quarrel seems to have been very bitter on 
both sides. However, after some delays, 
the attack on Guadeloupe was attempted ; 
the troops were landed on the island on 
21 April, but by 14 May little progress had 
been made ; and on report of a French 
squadron in the neighbourhood, Wright put 
to sea, came in sight of it, and chased it. As 
his ships were foul and some of them jury- 
rigged, the enemy easily outsailed him ; and, 
finding pursuit useless, he recalled his ships 
and returned to Guadeloupe, when it was 
resolved to give up the attack, avowedly at 
least, in consequence of great sickness 



among the ships' companies and the troops, 
though it is possible that Wright, and perhaps 
even Codrington, realised that the appearance 
of the French squadron threatened the 
absolute command of the sea which was a 
primary condition of success (CoLOMB, pp. 
255-6). The squadron returned to Barba- 
dos, where Wright himself was struck 
down by the sickness, and, on the urgent 
advice of the medical men, turned the com- 
mand over to the senior captain, Robert 
Arthur, and took a passage to England. 

In the West Indies party feeling ran ex- 
tremely high ; most of the officials, as 
military men, taking the side of Codrington, 
and attributing the failure at Guadeloupe to 
Wright's disaffection or cowardice. The 
merchants, too, whose trade had been 
severely scourged by the enemy's privateers, 
while the English ships, by the governor's 
orders, were kept together to support the 
attacks on the French islands, attributed 
their losses to Weight's carelessness, if not 
treachery, and clamoured for his punishment. 
Numerous accusations followed him to Eng- 
land, and he was formally charged ' with 
mismanagement, disaffection to the service, 
breach of instructions, and other mis- 
demeanours.' Charnock says that there was 
neither trial nor investigation. This is 
erroneous. On 20 May 1693 the joint 
admirals presided at a court-martial, which, 
after ' duly examining the witnesses upon 
oath,' after ' mature deliberation upon the 
whole matter,' and ' in consideration that 
Mr. Hutcheson, late secretary to the go- 
vernor, was the chief prosecutor, and in 
regard of the many differences that did 
appear to have happened betwixt the 
governor and Captain Wright,' were of 
opinion that ' the prosecution was not 
grounded on any zeal or regard to their 
majesties' service, but the result of particular 
resentments,' that it was ' in a great measure 
a malicious prosecution,' and resolved that 
Wright was 'not guilty of the charge laid 
against him.' The influence of the accusers 
was, however, so strong that the sentence of 
the court was virtually set aside, and 
Wright had no further employment till, 
after the accession of Anne, he was appointed 
on 14 May 1702 commissioner of the navy 
at Kinsale, from which post he was moved 
to the navy board as extra commissioner on 
8 May 1713. It was only for a few months ; 
he died in London on 27 Nov. 1713. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. i. 317 ; Lediard's 
Naval Hist. pp. 644-7 ; Duckett's Naval Com- 
missioners; Minutes of the Court Martial, in 
the Public Record Office ; Colomb's Naval War- 
fare (1st ed.), pp. 249-57.] J. K. L. 



\Yright 



I2O 



Wright 



WRIGHT, LEONARD (/. 1591), con- 
troversialist, wrote many essays on religious 
and moral subjects which abound in scrip- 
tural references. He came into prominence 
as a champion of the cause of the bishops in 
the Martin Marprelate controversy, and was 
denounced by those who attacked episcopacy. 
The anti-episcopal author of ' Theses Mar- 
tinianse ' (1590) anathematised him and six 
other ' haggling and profane ' writers, and 
described them as 'serving the established 
church if for no other use but to worke its 
mine, and to bewray their owne shame and 
miserable ignorance ' (sig. B. iii, v.) [cf. art. 
KEMP, WILLIAM]. 

Wright published: 1. 'A Summons for 
Sleepers. Wherein most grieuous and no- 
torious offenders are cited to bring forth true 
frutes of repentance, before the day of the 
Lord now at hand. Hereunto is annexed, 
A Patterne for Pastors, deciphering briefly 
the dueties pertaining to that function, by 
Leonard Wright.' This was licensed for the 
press to John Wolfe on 4 March 1588-9, and 
was first published early in 1589. An edition 
'newly reprinted, corrected and amended' 
bears the same date (black letter, 4to). A 
copy is in the British Museum. Neither 
place nor printer's name is given. Other 
editions are dated 1596 ('imprinted by Adam 
Islip, and are to bee sold by Edward White; ' 
in the British Museum copy an engraving 
of the Seven Sleepers, dated 1740, is pre- 
fixed), 1615 (' imprinted by George Pur- 
slowe'), and 1617 (' newle corrected and 
augmented '). 2. ' A Display of Dutie, dect 
with sage sayings, pythie sentences, and 
proper similies : Pleasant to read, delightful 
to heare, and profitable to practise, by L. 
Wright,' London (printed by John Wolfe, 
1589, 4to ; black letter). This work, which 
was licensed on 13 Oct. 1589, was dedicated 
4 to the Right worshipfull, most valiant, and 
famous Thomas Candish, Esquier.' Other 
editions are dated 1602 (' printed by Vfalen- 
tine] S[ims] for Nicholas Lyng') and" 1614 
(' printed by Edward Griffin for George Pur- 
slowe '). The volume contains a poem of 
some merit ('In Prayse of Friendship'). 
3. 'The Hunting'of Antichrist, With a caueat 
to the contentious. By Leonard Wright,' 
London (imprinted by John Wolfe, 1589; 
black letter, 4to). There is a sub-title at 
beginning of text, running ' A briefe descrip- 
tion of the Church of Rome from the time 
of Antichrist untill our present age ' (Brit. 
Mus.) Reference is made in the preface 
to Wright's ' Summons to Sleepers.' The 
work advocates the cause of prelacy. 4. ' A 
friendly admonition to Martine Marprelate 
and his Mates, by Leonard Wright,' London, 



1590. 4to. 5. ' The Pilgrimage to Paradise, 
by Leonard Wright' (London, by John 
Wolfe), 1591, 4to. No copy of either 4 or 5 
is in the British Museum. 

[Wright's Works; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Hunter's 
manuscript Chorus Vatum in Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 24490, p. 212.] S. L. 

WRIGHT, SIB NATHAN (1654-1721), 
judge, eldest surviving son of Ezekiel 
Wright,B.D.,rectorof Thurcaston, Leicester- 
shire, by Dorothy, second daughter of John 
Oneby of Hinckley in the same county, was 
born on 15 Feb. 1653-4. He was entered in 
1668 at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, but 
left the university without a degree, and in 
1670 was admitted at the Inner Temple, where 
he was called to the bar on 29 Nov. 1677, 
and elected bencher in 1692. On the death 
of his father in 1668 Wright inherited a com- 
petence which enabled him to marry early, 
and gave him a certain standing in his native 
county. The recordership of Leicester, to 
which he was elected in 1680, he lost on the 
surrender of the charter of the borough in 
1684, but was reinstated in office on its re- 
storation in 1688. In the same year he was 
elected deputy-recorder of Nottingham, and 
was junior counsel for the crown in the case 
of the seven bishops (29 June). On 11 April 
1692 he was called to the degree of serjeant- 
at-law. On 16 Dec. 1696 he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself by his speech as counsel 
for the crown in the proceedings against Sir 
John Fenwick[q.v.]in the House of Lords, and 
shortly before the commencement of Hilary 
term 1696-7 he was made king's serjeant 
and knighted. 

Wright opened the case against the Earl 
of Warwick on his trial on 28 March 1699 
for the murder of Richard Coote, conducted 
on 12 Oct. following the prosecution of 
Mary Butler, alias Strickland, for forgery, 
and was one of the counsel for the Duke of 
Norfolk in the proceedings on his divorce bill 
in March 1699-1700 [see HOWARD, HENRY, 
seventh DUKE OF NORFOLK]. In the same 
year he was offered the great seal, in default 
of a better lawyer willing to succeed Lord 
Somers. He accepted not without hesitation, 
and was appointed lord keeper and sworn of 
the privy council on 21 May. He took his 
seat as speaker of the House of Lords on 
20 June following, and the oaths and de- 
claration on 10 Feb. 1700-1. He was one 
of the lords justices nominated on 27 June 
1700, and again on 28 June 1701, to act as 
regents during the king's absence from the 
realm. He was also an ex-officio member of 
the board of trade. Wright presided over 
the proceedings taken against Somers and 



Wright 



121 



Wright 



the other lords on whom it was sought to 
fix the responsibility for the negotiation of 
the partition treaty [see BENTINCK, WIL- 
LIAM, first EARL OF PORTLAND ; MONTAGU, 
CHARLES, EARL OP HALIFAX ; SOMERS or 
SOMMERS, JOHN, LORD SOMERS]. He con- 
tinued in office on the accession of Queen 
Anne; he pronounced on 31 July 1702 the 
decree dissolving the Savoy Hospital, and 
presided over the commission which on 
22 Oct. following met at the Cockpit to 
discuss the terms of the projected union with 
Scotland but accomplished nothing. On 
14 Dec. 1704 he conveyed the thanks of the 
House of Lords to Marlborough for his ser- 
vices in the late campaign. 

Among the sages of the law Wright has 
no place. Entirely without experience of 
chancery business, he made a shift to supply 
his deficiencies by assiduous study of a 
manual of practice compiled for his use ; but, 
though he succeeded in avoiding serious 
error, the extreme circumspection with 
which he proceeded entailed a vast accumu- 
lation of arrears. His shortcomings were 
the more conspicuous by contrast with the 
great qualities of his predecessor, and the 
political meanness which led him to exclude 
Somers with other whig magnates from the 
commission of the peace gave occasion to 
unpleasant animadversions in the House of 
Commons (31 March 1704). His judicial in- 
tegrity, however, is unimpeached even by 
his most censorious critic, Bishop Burnet ; 
and his intervention, by the issue of writs of 
habeas corpus (8 March 1704-5), on behalf 
of the two counsel committed by the House 
of Commons to the custody of the serjeant- 
at-arms for pleading the cause of the plain- 
tiffs in the Aylesbury election case, if indis- 
creet, was at any rate courageous [see 
MONTAGU, SIR JAMES]. The House of Com- 
mons peremptorily enjoined the serjeant-at- 
arms to make no return to the writs, and 
might perhaps have proceeded to commit 
the lord keeper had not an opportune proro- 
gation terminated the affair [cf. HOLT, SIR 
JOHN]. 

The coalition of the following autumn be- 
tween Marlborough and Godolphin and the 
whig junto was sealed by the dismissal of 
Wright, now out of favour with both parties, 
and his replacement (11 Oct.) by William 
(afterwards Lord) Cowper [q. v.] Neither 
peerage nor pension rewarded his services ; 
but the wealth which he had amassed, 
largely, it was rumoured, by the corrupt dis- 
posal of patronage, enabled him to sustain 
with dignity the position of a county mag- 
nate. His principal seat was at Caldecote 
in Warwickshire, but he had also estates at 



Hartshill, Belgrave, and Brooksby in Leices- 
tershire. He died at Caldecote on 4 Aug. 
1721, and was buried in Caldecote church. 

Wright married, in 1676 (license dated 
4 July), Elizabeth, second daughter of George 
Ashby of Quenby, Leicestershire (CHESTER, 
London Marr. Licences, col. 1514), by whom 
he had six sons and four daughters. The 
eldest son, George Wright, purchased the 
manor of Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire, which 
remained in his posterity until the present 
century. 

Wright is described by Macky (Memoirs, 
Roxburghe Club, p. 50) as ' of middle 
stature,' with ' a fat broad face much marked 
by the small-pox.' An engraving from his 
portrait by White, done in 1700, is in the 
British Museum (cf. NICHOLS, Leicestershire, 
iii. 218). His decrees in chancery are re- 
ported by Vernon and Peere Williams. For 
the proceedings in the case of the Savoy, see 
' Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica,' vii. 
238, and Stowe MS. 865. For epistolary 
and other remains, see Additional MSS. 
21506 f. Ill, 28227 ff. 67, 71, 29588 f. 135 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. i. 440, ii. 
103, 12th Rep. App. iii. 14. A small but 
important modification of criminal proce- 
dure, the substitution (by 1 Anne, stat. ii. 
c. 9, s. 3) of sworn for unsworn testimony 
on behalf of the prisoner in cases of treason 
and felony, appears to have been due to 
Wright's initiative. 

[Le Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights (Harl. 
Soc.); Inner Temple Books; Nichols's Leicester- 
shire, i. 435 et seq., 438, 453, iii. 176, 194, 216, 
1059, iv. 689, 1036; Dugdale's Warwickshire, 
ed. Thomas, p. 1097; Lipscomb's Buckingham- 
shire, iv. 151; Howell's State Trials, xii. 280, 
954, xiii. 1250, 1355, xiv. 861, 876; Luttrell's 
Relation of State Affairs ; Eaymoncl's Rep. p. 
135; London Gazette, 20-28 May, 27 June- 
1 July 1700, 26-30 June 1701 ; Lords' Journals, 
xvi. 583 ; Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, i. 155, 
iii. 184, iv. 181 ; Account of the Conduct of the 
Duchess of Marlborough, 1742, pp. 124, 147; 
Burnet's Own Time (fol.) ii. 242, 379, 426 ; Ver- 
non's Letters, ed. James, ii. 54, 56, 257 ; Noble's 
Continuation of Granger's Biogr. Hist, of Eng- 
land, i. 35 ; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, x. 302 ; 
Pope's Works, ed. Elwin, vi. 25 ; Campbell's 
Lives of the Chancellors; Foss's Lives of the 
Judges; Stanhope's History of England, 1701- 
1713.1 J. M. R. 

WRIGHT, MRS. PATIENCE (1725- 
1786), wax modeller, was born of quaker 
parents named Lovell at Bordentown, New 
Jersey, North America, in 1725. In 1748 
she married Joseph Wright, also of Borden- 
town, and in 1769 was left a widow with 
a son and two daughters. Having made a 



Wright 



122 



Wright 



reputation in the colony by her portraits in 
wax, she removed to England in 1772 and 
settled in London, where she became cele- 
brated as the ' Promethean modeller.' Her 
residence was in Cockspur Street, Hay- 
market, and there she arranged an exhibi- 
tion of her works, comprising life-sized figures 
and busts of contemporary notabilities and 
historical groups, which was superior to 
anything of the kind previously seen. She 
modelled for Westminster Abbey the effigy 
of Lord Chatham, which is still preserved 
there. During the American war of inde- 
pendence Mrs. Wright, who was a woman of 
remarkable intelligence and conversational 
powers, acted successfully as a spy on behalf 
of Benjamin Franklin, with whom she regu- 
larly corresponded. Her house was much 
resorted to by artists, especially Benjamin 
West [q. v.] and John Hoppner [q. v.], the 
latter of whom married her second daughter 
Phoebe. In 1781 Mrs. Wright paid a visit 
to Paris, and returned only shortly before 
her death, which took place in London on 
23 March 1786. An engraving of Mrs. 
Wright accompanies a notice of her in the 
'London Magazine ' of 1775. 

JOSEPH WEIGHT (1756-1793), only son 
of Patience Wright, accompanied his mother 
to England, and, with the assistance of West 
and Hoppner, became a portrait-painter. 
In 1780 he exhibited a portrait of his 
mother at the Royal Academy, and at about 
the same time he painted a portrait of the 
Prince of Wales. In 1782 he returned to 
America, where he practised both painting 
and wax-modelling ; Washington sat to him 
several times. He was appointed the first 
draughtsman and die-sinker to the mint at 
Philadelphia, and died in 1793. 

[Dunlap's Hist, of the Arts of Design in the 
United States, 1834; London Mag. 1775, p. 
555 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ] 

F M. O'D. 

WRIGHT, PETER (1603-1651), Jesuit, 
was born at Slipton, Northamptonshire, in 
1603 of poor parents, who were zealous 
catholics. After being engaged for ten years 
as clerk in a solicitor's office, he enlisted in 
the English army in Holland, but soon left 
it, and entered the Society of Jesus at 
Watten in 1629. In 1633 he was at Liege 
studying philosophy; in 1636 in the same 
college pursuing his theological course, and 
in 1639 prefect in the English Jesuit college 
at St. Omer. He was appointed camp com- 
missioner to the English and Irish forces at 
Ghent in 1642. Being sent to the English 
mission in 1643, he served for two years in 
the Oxford and Northampton district. He 
removed to London in 1646, was appre- 



hended on 2 Feb. 1650-1, was committed to 
Newgate, tried for high treason under the 
statute 27 Elizabeth, condemned to death, and 
hanged at Tyburn on 19 May (O.S.) 1651. 

Among the manuscripts at Stonyhurst 
College are sixty-two of his sermons, preached 
in the course of a year. His portrait has 
been engraved by C. Galle, and again by 
J. Thane. 

[An account of Wright appeared under the 
title of ' R. P. Petri Writi . . . More, quam ob 
fidem passus est Londini xxix Maii 1651 ' [Ant- 
werp, 1651], 12mo. It was translated into 
Italian (Bologna, 1651) and into Dutch (Ant- 
werp, 1651). See also Challoner's Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests; Dodd's Church Hist.; Florus 
Anglo Bavaricus, p. 84; Foley's Records, ii. 
506-64, vii. 870; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of 
England, 5th edit. iii. 348 ; Oliver's Jesuit Col- 
lections, p. 229; Tanner's Societas Jesu, 1675.] 

T. C. 

WRIGHT, RICHARD (1735-1775?), 
marine painter, born at Liverpool in 1735, 
was brought up as a ship and house painter. 
An entirely self-taught artist, he first ap- 
peared as an exhibitor in London in 1760, 
and between that date and 1773 exhi- 
bited twenty-five works with the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists and one with 
the Free Society. He was a man of rough 
manners and warm temper, and during his 
membership of the Incorporated Society he 
took an active lead among those discon- 
tented with its affairs. His exhibited pic- 
tures included ' A Storm with a Shipwreck ;' 
' Sunset, a Fresh Breeze; ' ' A Fresh Gale ; ' 
' River with Boats, &c., Moonlight.' In 
1764 a premium was offered by the Society 
of Arts for the best marine picture ; this he 
won, as was the case with similar prizes 
given by the society in 1766 and 1768. His 
most notable work is a sea-piece, for which 
he obtained a premium of fifty guineas in 
1764 ; from it William Woollett [q. v.] en- 
graved his fine plate 'The Fishery.' No 
doubt owing to excellence of the engraver's 
work, a copy of this was published in France, 
on which the name of Vernet is affixed as 
painter. There is a picture by him in the 
collection at Hampton Court, ' The Royal 
Yacht bringing Queen Charlotte to England 
in a Storm.' His wife and daughters were 
also painters. He died about 1775. 

[Bryan's Diet. ed. Graves ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Graves's Diet of Artists.] A. .N. 

WRIGHT, RICHARD (1764-1836), 
Unitarian missionary, eldest son of Richard 
Wright, was born at Blakeney, Norfolk, on 
7 Feb. 1764. His father was a labourer ; his 
mother, Anne (d. 11 Oct. 1810), claimed 



Wright 



123 



Wright 



cousinship with Sir John Fenn [q. v.] A 
relative (who died in 1776) sent him to 
school, and would have done more had his 
parents not joined the dissenters. He served 
as page, and was apprenticed to a shopkeeper, 
joined (1780) the independent church at 
Guestwick under John Sykes (d. 1824), and 
began village preaching on week nights, an 
irregularity for which he was excommuni- 
cated. The Wesleyans opened their pulpits 
to him, but he did not join them. For a 
short time he ministered to a newly formed 
general baptist congregation at Norwich. 
Here he made the acquaintance of Samuel 
Fisher, who had been dismissed on a moral 
charge from the ministry of St. Mary's 
particular baptist church, Norwich, and had 
joined the Sabellian particular baptists, 
founded by John Johnson (1706-1791) [q. v.] 
Fisher ministered for periods of six months 
alternately at a chapel of this class in 
Deadman's Lane, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, 
and a chapel erected (1778) by his friends 
in Pottergate Street, Norwich. Wright was 
engaged to alternate thus with Fisher at both 
places. After no long time the arrangement 
was broken, Wright giving his whole time 
to Wisbech. His views rapidly changed ; 
he brought his congregation with him from 
Calvinism to unitarianism. Some time after 
they had been disowned by the Johnsonian 
baptists, he procured their admission to the 
general baptist assembly. His influence 
extended to the general baptist congregation 
at Lutton, Lincolnshire, which had become 
universalist (1790). This introduced him 
(1797) to William Vidler [q. v.], to whose 
periodical, the ' Universalist's Miscellany,' he 
contributed (in the last half of 1797) a series 
of letters (reprinted Edinburgh, 1797, 8vo). 
Vidler and he exchanged visits, and he made 
Vidler a Unitarian (by 1802). At this time 
he wrote much on universalism. He began 
to travel as a missionary, and in 1806 the 
' Unitarian fund ' was established in London, 
with W T right as the first travelling missionary. 
His journeys were mostly on foot ; his effec- 
tiveness was greater in private converse 
than as a preacher; his debating skill and 
temper were alike admirable. In 1810 he 
resigned his charge at Wisbech, to devote 
himself entirely to itinerant work. His 
travels extended through most parts of Eng- 
land and Wales, and in Scotland as far as 
Aberdeen. In 1819 the ' Unitarian fund ' 
brought him to London to superintend the 
organisation of local preachers. He became 
(September 1822) minister of a baptist con- 
gregation at Trowbridge, Wiltshire, which 
he brought into the general baptist assembly. 
In 1827 he removed to the charge of a small 



congregation at Kirkstead, Lincolnshire [see 
TAYLOR, JOHN, 1694-1761]. Here he died 
on 16 Sept. 1836 ; a tablet to his memory is 
in Kirkstead chapel. His portrait has been 
engraved. He was a little man ; at a public 
dinner in 1810 he ' mounted the table ' to 
make a rousing speech (Christian Reformer, 
1860, p. 264). His first wife died on 6 June 
1828. He left a widow and three daughters. 
His brother, F. B. Wright (d. 26 May 1837), 
was a printer and lay-preacher in Liverpool, 
author of ' History of Religious Persecu- 
tions ' (Liverpool, 1816, 8vo), and editor of 
the 'Christian Reflector' (1822-7, 8vo), a 
Unitarian monthly. His brother, John 
Wright, lay-preacher in Liverpool, was the 
subject of an abortive prosecution for blas- 
phemy in a sermon delivered on Tuesday, 
1 April 1817. He emigrated to Georgetown, 
United States of America. Richard Wright's 
grandson, John Wright (1824-1900), was 
one of the projectors (1861) of the ' Uni- 
tarian Herald.' 

Among Wright's very numerous publica- 
tions, most of which were often reprinted, 
the following may be noted. 1. ' An 
Abridgment of Five Discourses . . . Uni- 
versal Restoration,' Wisbech, 1798, 8vo. 

2. ' The Anti-Satisfactionist,' Wisbech, 1805, 
8vo (against the doctrine of atonement). 

3. ' An Apology for Dr. Michael Servetus,' 
Wisbech, 1806, 8vo (has no original value). 

4. ' An Essay on the Existence of the Devil,' 
1810, 12mo. 5. ' Essay on the Universal 
Restoration,' 1816, 12mo. 6. ' Essay on a 
Future Life,' Liverpool, 1819, 12mo. 7. ' The 
Resurrection of the Dead,' Liverpool, 1820, 
12mo. 8. ' Christ Crucified,' Liverpool, 1822, 
12mo. 9. ' Review of the Missionary Life 
and Labours ... by Himself,' 1824, 12mo. 
He left an autobiography, which has not 
been published. 

[Memoir, by F. B. Wfright], in Christian 
Reformer, 1836, pp. 749, 833 ; Biographical 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816 ; Missionary Life 
and Labours, 1824; Christian Reformer, 1828, 
p. 315; Monthly Repository, 1817, pp. 244, 306, 
431 (for John Wright); minute-book of Wis- 
bech baptist congregation ; extract from Blakeney 
parish register, per the Rev. R. H. Tillard.] 

A. G. 

WRIGHT.ROBERT (1560-1643), bishop 
successively of Bristol and of Lichfield and 
Coventry, was born of humble parentage at St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire, in 1560. He matricu- 
lated from Trinity College, Oxford, in 1574, 
and was elected next year to a scholarship 
there. He graduated B.A. on 23 June 1580, 
and became a fellow on 25 May 1581, sub- 
sequently proceeding M.A. on 7 July 1584, 
B.D. on 6 April 1592, and D.D. on 2 July 



Wright 



124 



Wright 



1597. In 1596 he edited the volume of 
Latin elegies called 'Funebria' by members 
of the university on the death of Sir Henry 
Unton [q.v.]; two of the elegies were from 
his own pen. He held many country livings, 
although he seldom visited them. From 
15 Aug. 1589 to 16 Nov. 1619 he was rector 
of Woodford, Essex ; he became rector of 
St. John the Evangelist, London (1589-90) ; 
of St. Katherine, Coleman Street, London, 
in 1591 ; of Brixton Deverell, Wiltshire, on 
29 Nov. 1596; of Bourton-on-the-Water, 
Gloucestershire ; of Hayes, Middlesex, 4 April 
1601 ; and vicar of Sonning, Berkshire, 13 June 
1604. In 1601 Wright was made canon resi- 
dentiary and treasurer of Wells, and for 
some years often resided there. He ob- 
tained an introduction to the court, and 
was appointed chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. 
He was afterwards nominated chaplain-in- 
ordinary to James I. In March 1610 Carle- 
ton wrote that Oxford men had lately proved 
the most prominent among preachers at court, 
but of them Wright was reckoned ' the worst' 
(NICHOLS, Progresses, ii. 287). 

On 20 April 1613 Wright was appointed 
by Dorothy, widow of Nicholas Wadham 
[q. v.], the first warden of the newly esta- 
blished Wadham College, Oxford. He re- 
signed the office three months later (20 July) 
because the foundress refused his request for 
permission to marry. He appears to have 
withdrawn to his vicarage at Sonning. In 
1619 he added to his many benefices that of 
Rattingdon, Essex. He received ample com- 
pensation for his surrender of the wardenship 
of Wadham by his appointment early in 
1622 to the bishopric of Bristol. With the 
bishopric he continued to hold his stall at 
Wells. He acted as an executor of the will 
of Sir John Davies [q.v.], which was dated 
6 April 1625 and proved on 13 May 1626. 
Six years later he was translated to the see 
of Lichfield and Coventry, where he suc- 
ceeded Thomas Morton (1564-1659) [q. v.] 

Wright was reputed to be of covetous 
disposition. According to Wood, he was 
' much given up to the affairs of the world,' 
He impoverished in his own interests the 
episcopal property at Bristol, and acquired 
for himself, among other landed property, 
the manor of Newnham Courtney in Oxford- 
shire at a cost of 18,000/. While bishop of 
Lichfield and Coventry he is said to have 
reaped large profits out of the sale of timber 
on the episcopal estate of Eccleshall, Stafford- 
shire. But he caused the fabrics of many 
churches in his dioceses to be renovated and 
improved the services, enjoining the use of 
copes and due attention to music. 

Wright acted with Laud in the crises of 



1640 and the following years. In May 1640 
he signed the new canons, which were adopted 
in convocation. On 27 Oct. 1641 the House 
of Commons marked its resentment of the 
action of himself and other bishops by vot- 
ing their exclusion from parliament. In De- 
cember Wright joined eleven of the bishops 
in signing a letter to the king in which they 
complained of intimidation while on their 
way to the House of Lords, and protested 
against the transaction of business in their 
absence. The House of Commons caused 
the twelve bishops to be arrested in antici- 
pation of their impeachment on a charge of 
high treason. Wright, with nine colleagues, 
was committed to the Tower. He was 
brought to the bar of the House of Lords iu 
February 1641-2. He declined to plead, but 
made an impressive speech. He appealed to 
the members from his present and past dio- 
ceses to judge him by their ' knowledge of his 
courses. He desired to ' regain the esteem 
which he was long in getting, but had lost in a 
moment,' ' for if I should outlive, I say not 
my bishopric, but my credit, my grey hairs 
and many years would be brought with sor- 
row to the grave.' He was released on heavy 
bail after eighteen weeks' imprisonment, and 
was ordered to return to his diocese. He 
withdrew to one of his episcopal residences, 
Eccleshall Hall in Staffordshire. The man- 
sion was garrisoned for the king by ' Dr. Bird, 
a civilian,' but Sir William Brereton laid 
siege to the place in the autumn of 1643, and 
while the house was still invested the bishop 
died (September 1643). 

He left an only son, Calvert Wright, who 
was baptised at Sonning in 1620, and be- 
came a gentleman commoner of Wadham 
College, Oxford, in 1634, graduating B.A. in 
February 1636-7. He wasted the fortune 
left him by his father, and died a poor debtor 
in the king's bench prison, Southwark, in the 
winter of 1666. 

There is a portrait of the bishop in the 
hall of Wadham College, Oxford. 

Two contemporaries named Robert Wright 
should be distinguished from the bishop. 
ROBERT WEIGHT (1553? -1596?) matri- 
culated at Cambridge as a sizar of Trinity 
College on 2 May 1567, and became a scholar 
there. In 1570-1 he graduated B.A. (M.A. 
1574), and was elected a fellow. He was 
incorporated M.A. of Oxford on 9 July 1577. 
He was appointed tutor of Robert Devereux, 
second earl of Essex, before the earl went to 
Cambridge, and accompanied him thither. 
After Essex left the university Wright be- 
came head of his household. When Essex 
was made the queen's master of the horse, 
Wright was appointed clerk of the stables 



Wright 



125 



Wright 



(Addit. MS. 5755, fol. 143). He was a man 
of learning, and Thomas Newton (1542 ?- 
1607) [q. v.j complimented him on his many 
accomplishments in an epigram addressed 
' Ad eruditiss. virum Robertum Wrightum, 
nobiliss. Essexiae comitis famulum prima- 
rium.' Latin verses prefixed to Peter Baro's 
' Prselectiones in Jonam' (1579) are also 
assigned to Wright. He died about 1596 (cf. 
DEVERETJX, Lives of the Devercux Earls of 
Essex}, 

Another ROBERT WRIGHT (1656P-1624) 
was son of John Wright of Wright's Bridge, 
Essex. He matriculated as a pensioner of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, on 21 May 1571, 
and graduated B.A. 1574, and M.A. 1578. 
He was an ardent Calvinist, and received 
ordination at Antwerp from Villiers or Cart- 
wright in the Genevan form. At Cambridge 
he became acquainted with Robert, second 
lord Rich, and about 1580 acted as his chap- 
lain in his house, Great Leighs, Essex, where 
he held religious meetings (STRYPE, Aylmer, 
pp. 54seq.) He was incorporated M.A. of Ox- 
ford on 11 July 1581. After several efforts 
on Bishop Aylmer's part to obtain the arrest 
of Wright, he and his patron were examined 
in the court of ecclesiastical commission in 
October 1581 in the presence of Lord Burgh- 
ley. It was shown that Wright had asked, 
in regard to the solemnisation of the queen's 
accession day (17 Nov.), ' if they would 
make it an holy day, and so make our queen 
an idol.' Wright was committed to the 
Fleet prison. Next year the prison-keeper 
on his own authority permitted him to visit 
his wife in Essex, but complaint was made 
of this lenient treatment to Lord Burghley. 
Wright appealed for mercy to Burghley, who 
replied by informing him of the charges 
brought against him. Wright sent a volu- 
minous answer (STRYPE, Annals, in. ii. 
228). He seems to have returned to prison 
and remained there till September 1582, 
when he declared his willingness to sub- 
scribe to ' his good allowance of the mini- 
stry of the church of England and to the 
Book of Common Prayer.' After giving 
sureties for his future conformity, he was 
released. He was subsequently rector of 
Dennington, Suffolk, from 1589 till his death 
in 1624. 

[Wood's Athens; Oxon. iv. 800. Fasti, i. 215; 
Cooper's AthenaeCantabr.ii. 223 ; Laud's Works ; 
Gardiner's Eegisters of Wadham College ; Beres- 
ford's Lichfield in Diocesan Histories, p. 235; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Strype's 
Works.] S. L. 

WRIGHT, alias DANVERS, ROBERT, 
called VISCOUNT PURBECK 1621-1674. 

[See 



WRIGHT, SIR ROBERT (d. 1689), lord 
chief justice, was the son of Jenny n Wright 
of Wangford in Suffolk, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Richard Bachcroft of Bexwell 
in Norfolk. He was descended from a family 
long seated at Kelverstone in Norfolk, and 
was educated at the free school at Thetford, 
graduating B.A. from Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, in 1658 and M.A. in 1661. He 
entered Lincoln's Inn on 14 June 1654, and 
after being called to the bar went the Norfolk 
circuit. According to Roger North (1653- 
1734) [q. v.] he was ' a comely person, airy 
and nourishing both in his habits and way of 
living,' but a very poor lawyer. He was a 
friend of Francis North (afterwards Baron 
Guilford) [q. v.], and relied implicitly on him 
when required to give a written opinion. 
Although by marrying the daughter of the 
bishop of Ely he obtained a good practice, 
' his voluptuous imthinking course of life ' 
led him into great embarrassments. These 
he evaded by pledging his estate to Francis 
North, and afterwards mortgaging it to Sir 
Walter Plummer, fraudulently tendering 
him an affidavit that it was clear of all en- 
cumbrances. On 10 April 1668 Wright was 
returned to parliament for King's Lynn (cf. 
Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1667-8, pp. 335, 
339). In 1678 he was appointed counsel 
for the university of Cambridge, and in Au- 
gust 1679 he was elected deputy recorder of 
the town. In October 1678 he fell under 
suspicion of being concerned in the popish 
plot, Coleman having been in his company 
the Sunday before he was committed. On 
31 Oct. the matter was brought by the speaker 
before the House of Commons, which ordered 
Wrights chambers in Lincoln's Inn and his 
lodgings to be searched. As nothing was 
found to incriminate him, he was declared 
completely exculpated (Journals of the House 
of Commons, ix. 524-5). In Easter 1679 he 
was made a Serjeant, and on 12 May 1680 
he was made a king's serjeant (LTJTTRELL, 
Brief Historical Relation, i. 43). He was 
knighted on 15 May, and in 1681 was ap- 
pointed chief justice of Glamorgan. 

At this time his fortunes were at low 
ebb. He had made the acquaintance of 
Jeffreys, and had acquired his regard, it is 
said, by his ability as a mimic. He went 
to him and implored his assistance. Jeffreys 
had recourse to the king, and in spite of the 
objections of Francis North, who was then 
lord keeper of the great seal, procured his 
nomination on 27 Oct. 1684 as a baron of 
the exchequer (ib. i. 318). On 10 Feb. 
1684-5 he was elected recorder of Cam- 
bridge. James II selected him to accompany 
Jeffreys on the western assize after Mon- 



Wright 



126 



Wright 



mouth's rebellion, and on his return removed 
him on 11 Oct. to the king's bench. In 1686, 
in the case of Sir Edward Hales [q. v.], 
Wright, gave an opinion in favour of the 
dispensing power, when consulted by Sir 
Edward Herbert (1648P-1698) [q. v.], pre- 
vious to judgment being given in court in 
favour of Hales. On 6 April 1687 he was 
promoted to the chief-justiceship of the com- 
mon pleas on the death of Sir Henry Beding- 
field (1633-1687) [q. v.] This office he held 
only five days, for Herbert, having refused 
to assist the 'king to establish martial law in 
the army in time of peace by countenancing 
the execution of a deserter, was transferred 
to the chief-justiceship of the common pleas. 
Wright, who took his place as chief justice 
of the king's bench, hanged deserters without 
hesitation. He gave further proof of his 
zeal by fining the Earl of Devonshire, an 
opponent of the court, the sum of 30,000 
for assaulting Colonel Thomas Colepeper 
[q. v.] in the Vane chamber at Whitehall 
while the king and queen were in the pre- 
sence, overruling his plea of privilege, and 
committing him to prison until the fine was 
paid [see CAVEXDISH, WILLIAM, first DUKE 
OF DEVONSHIRE]. Wright accompanied the 
sentence with the remark that the offence 
was ' next door to pulling the king off his 
throne.' 

In October 1687 Wright was sent to 
Oxford as an ecclesiastical commissioner 
with Thomas Cartwright (1634-1689) [q. v.] 
and Sir Thomas Jenner [q. v.] on the famous 
visitation of Magdalen College, when all 
the fellows but three were expelled for 
resisting the royal authority, and declared 
incapable of holding any ecclesiastical pre- 
ferment. When the president of Magdalen, 
John Hough [q. v.], protested against the 
proceedings of the commission, Wright 
declared that he would uphold his majesty's 
authority while he had breath in his body, 
and bound him over in a thousand pounds 
to appear before the king's bench on the 
charge of breaking the peace (cf. BLOXAM, 
Magdalen College and James II, Oxford 
Hist. Soc.) 

On 29 June 1688 Wright presided at the 
trial of the seven bishops [see SANCROFT, 
WILLIAM]. Although he so far accommo- 
dated himself to the king as to declare 
their petition a libel, he was overawed during 
the trial by the general voice of opinion 
and the apprehension of an indictment. In 
the words of a bystander he looked as if all 
the peers present had halters in their pockets 
(MACAULAT). He conducted the proceed- 
ings with decency and impartiality (EVELYN, 
Diary, ed. Bray, ii. 276). At an early stage 



the evidence of publication broke down, and 
Wright was about to direct the jury to acquit 
the prisoners when the prosecution was saved 
by the testimony of Sunderland. In his 
charge, while declaring in favour of the 
right of the subject to petition, he gave it as 
his opinion that the particular petition before 
the court was improperly worded, and was, 
in the contemplation of the law, a libel. 
He failed, however, to pronounce definitely 
in favour of the dispensing power of the 
crown. For this omission his dismissal was 
afterwards contemplated, and he was pro- 
bably saved by the difficulty of finding a suc- 
cessor ( cf. Ellis Corresp. 1829, ii. 33). 

In December 1688 the Prince of Orange 
caused two impeachments of high treason 
against Jeffreys and Wright to be printed 
at Exeter. Wright was accused among 
other offences of taking bribes ' to that 
degree of corruption as is a shame to any 
court of justice' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th 
Rep. App. p. 420). He continued to sit in 
court until the flight of James on 11 Dec. 
He then sought safety in concealment, and 
on 10 Jan. 1688-9 addressed a supplicating 
letter to the Earl of Danby asserting that 
he had always opposed popery, and had 
been compelled to act against his inclinations 
(original in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 28053, 
f. 382). His hiding-place in Old Bailey was 
discovered by Sir William Waller (d. 1699) 
[q. v.] on 13 Feb. (LUTTRELL, i. 502 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom, 1689-90, p. 1 ; but cf. 
BRAMSTOX, Autobiogr. Camden Soc. p. 346), 
and he was taken before Sir John Chapman, 
the lord mayor, who committed him to 
Newgate on the charge that, ' being one of 
the judges of the court of king's bench, he 
had endeavoured the subversion of the 
established government by alloweing of a 
power to dispence with the laws ; and that 
hee was one of the commissioners for eccle- 
siastical affairs.' On 6 May he was brought 
before the House of Lords for his action in 
regard to the Earl of Devonshire : but, 
although his overruling the earl's plea of 

Srivilege and committing him to prison was 
eclared a manifest breach of privilege of 
parliament (LTTTTRELL, i. 530), no further 
action was taken against him. On 18 May 
he died of fever in Newgate. In the debate 
on the act of indemnity on 18 June it was 
determined to except him from the act in 
spite of his decease. His name, however, 
j does not appear in the final draft of the act. 
Wright was thrice married. His first 
' wife was Dorothy Moor of Wiggenhall St. 
j Germans in Norfolk. She died in 1662 with- 
j out issue, and he married, secondly, Susan, 
daughter of Matthew Wren [q. \"~], bishop 



Wright 



127 



Wright 



of Ely ; and thirdly, Anne, daughter of Sir 
William Scroggs [q. v.], lord chief justice of 
England. By his second wife he had four 
daughters and one son, Robert, father of 
Sir James Wright [q. v.] By his third wife 
he had three daughters. His portrait was 
painted by John Riley in 1687 and engraved 
by Robert White. 

[Foss's Judges of England, vii. 280-4; Camp- 
bell's Lives of the Chief Justices, ii. 95-117; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist. iv. 310 ; Macaulay's Hist, 
of England ; Mackintosh's Hist, of the Revolu- 
tion, 1834, pp. 266-74 ; Lives of the Norths, ed. 
Jessopp (Bonn's Standard Library), i. 324-6 ; 
Eecords of Lincoln's Inn, 1896, i. 268 ; Hatton 
Corresp. (Camden Soc.). ii. 50, 73 ; Davy's Suffolk 
Collections in Addit. MS. 19156 if. 233, 244-6 ; 
Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, 1805, i. 545 ; 
Burnet's Hist, of his own Time, 1823, iii. 225 ; 
State Trials, ed. Howell, xi. 1353-71, xii. 26- 
112, 183-524; Woolrych's Memoirs of the Life 
of Judge Jeffreys, 1827 ; Jesse's Court of Eng- 
land during the Stuarts, 1840, iv. 419; Journals 
of the House of Commons, x. 149, 184, 185 
205 ; Parliamentary History, v. 339 ; Kennet's 
Complete Hist, of England, 1706, iii. 468; 
Townsend's Catalogue of Knights, 1833; Official 
Return of Members of Parliament.] E. I. C. 

WRIGHT, SAMUEL (1683-1746), dis- 
senting divine, eldest son of James Wright, 
was born at Retford, Nottinghamshire, on 
30 Jan. 1682-3. His grandfather, John 
Wright (d. I Feb. 1684-5), was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin (admitted on 
22 Nov. 1636, but did not graduate) ; was 
ordained by presbyterians (13 Aug. 1645) to 
the chapelry of Billinge, parish of Wigan, 
Lancashire; was nominated (2 Oct. 1646) a 
member of the fourth presbyterian classis 
of Lancashire ; was ejected at the Restora- 
tion, and from 1672 preached at Prescot. 
His father, James Wright (d. 1694), was 
educated at Lincoln College, Oxford (B.A. 
1669), and Magdalene College, Cambridge 
(M.A. in December 1673), but became non- 
conformist through the influence of William 
Cotton, a wealthy ironmaster of Wortley, 
near Sheffield, whose daughter Elinor (d. 
1695) he married. He preached at Atter- 
cliffe and Retford as a nonconformist. 

Left early an orphan, Wright was brought 
up in his mother's family, who sent him to 
boarding schools at Attercliffe, near Shef- 
field, and Darton, near Wakefield. In 1699 
he entered the nonconformist academy of 
Timothy Jollie [q. v.] at Attercliffe. Leav- 
ing in 1704, he became chaplain at Haigh, 
Lancashire, to his uncle, Cotton, on whose 
death he repaired to another uncle, Thomas 
Cotton (1653-1730), presbyterian minister 
at Dyott Street, Bloomsbury. For a short 
time he was chaplain to ' the Lady Susannah 



Lort' at Turnham Green, preaching also the 
Sunday evening lecture at Dyott Street. 
In 1705 he was chosen assistant to Benja- 
min Grosvenor [q. v.] at Crosby Square, 
and undertook in addition (1706) a Sunday 
evening lecture at St. Thomas's Chapel, 
Southwark, in conjunction with Harman 
Hood. On the death (25 Jan. 1708) of 
Matthew Sylvester [q. v.j, he accepted the 
charge of ' a handful of people ' at Meeting 
House Court, Knightrider Street, and was 
ordained on 15 April ; his ' confession of 
faith ' is appended to ' The Ministerial 
Office' (1708, 8vo), by Daniel Williams, 
[q. v.] His ministry was very successful ; 
the meeting-house was twice enlarged, and 
had the honour of being wrecked by the 
Sacheverell mob in 1710. He was elected 
a Sunday lecturer at Little St. Helen's. 
His Calvinistic orthodoxy was unimpeach- 
able, but, probably influenced by Grosvenor, 
he took (1719) the side of non-subscription 
at the Salters' Hall conference [see BBAD- 
BTJRY, THOMAS]. He contributed also to 
the ' Occasional Papers ' (1716-19) [see 
AVEET, BENJAMIN], the organ of whig dis- 
sent. His popularity suffered no diminu- 
tion. He was chosen (1724) one of the 
Salters' Hall lecturers, and elected (1724) a 
trustee of Dr. Williarns's foundations. On 
j 1 May 1729 the diploma of D.D. was granted 
| to him by Edinburgh University. In 1732-3 
| he had a sermon debate with Thomas Mole 
I (d. 1780) on the foundation of virtue, which 
Wright could trace no higher than to the 
divine will. A new meeting-house was built 
for him in Carter Lane, Doctors' Commons 
(opened 7 Dec. 1734; removed in 1860). 
Among protestant dissenters he ranked 
' as a presbyterian ; his will explains his 
| separation from ' the common parochial 
worship ' as an act of service to ' catholic 
Christianity.' His delivery was striking ; it 
is said that Thomas Herring [q.v.] (after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury) often at- 
tended his services, as samples of effective 
utterance (Protestant Dissenter's Magazine, 
1798, p. 325). His communion services were 
remarkable for their fervour, and he was a 
sedulous pastor. Hughes admits a ' particular 
turn of temper ' which was not always agree- 
able. The satiric verses (1735?) describing 
London dissenting divines open with the 
lines : 

Behold how papal Wright with lordly pride 
Directs his haughty eye to either side, 
Gives forth his doctrine with imperious nod, 
And fraught with pride addresses e'en his God 

(Protestant Dissenter's Magazine, 1798, p. 
314; Notes and Queries,\\ May 1850, p. 454 ; 
Christian Life, 16 Sept, 1 899, p. 439). John 



Wright 



128 



Wright 



Fox (1693-1763) [q.v.] says he 'bore the 
character of a man of sense and a polite 
preacher, and one who put a proper value on 
his abilities ' (Monthly Repository, 1821, p. 
193). Doddridge credits him as a sermon 
writer with ' great simplicity and awful 
solemnity ' ( Works, 1804, v. 432). Thomas 
Newman (1692-1758) [q. v.] was his assis- 
tant and successor, After long illness, he 
died on 3 April 1746, and was buried in the 
south aisle of Stoke Newington church, 
where is a Latin inscription (by Hughes) to 
his memory. Funeral sermons were preached 
by his brother-in-law, Obadiah Hughes [q.v.], 
and John Milner of Peckham. His portrait, 
in Dr. Williams's Library (engraving in Wil- 
son), is one of the few portraits of dissent- 
ing divines vested in the Scottish doctor's 
gown. He married (1710) the widow of Syl- 
vester, his predecessor, daughter of George 
Hughes fsee under HUGHES, OBADIAH], and 
had issue one daughter. 

Hughes gives a list (revised by Wilson) of 
forty-three publications by Wright (nearly 
all sermons), adding that he published seve- 
ral anonymous pieces. The most notable 
are: 1. 'A Little Treatise of being Born 
Again . . . Four Sermons,' 1715, 12mo; 17th 
edit. 1761, 16mo. 2. 'A Treatise on the 
Deceitfulness of Sin,' 1726, 8vo. 3. ' Human 
Virtues,' 1730, 8vo. 4. ' Charity in all its 
Branches,' 1731 , 8vo. 5. ' The Great Concern 
of Human Life,' 1732, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1733, 
8vo. He was one of the continuators of the 
unfinished commentary of Matthew Henry 
[q.v.], his part being St. James's Epistle. 

[Funeral sermons by Hughes and by Milner 
(unimportant) ; Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 408; 
Calamy's Continuation, 1727, ii. 564 ; Calamy's 
Own Life, 1830, ii. 483; Life, by J[oshua] 
T[oulmin], in Protestant Dissenter's Magazine, 
1798, p. 321; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memo- 
rial, 1802, ii. 353; Wilson's Dissenting Churches 
in London, 1808 i. 352, ii. 139, 1814 iv. 358, 
377 ; Hoppus's Memoir, prefixed to reprint of 
Carter Lane sermon, 1825; Catalogue of Edin- 
burgh Graduates, 1858, p. 240; Miall's Con- 
gregationalism in Yorkshire, 1868, p. 348 ; 
Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, p. 125; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] A. G. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (d. 1624 ?), Roman 
catholic controversialist, was ordained priest 
in the reign of Queen Mary, and became one 
of the readers of divinity in the English 
College at Douay at the time of its founda- 
tion in 1569. It is said that he had pre- 
viously taught theology and Hebrew at 
Milan, and had also been professor of divinity 
both in Spain and at Louvain. He graduated 
D.D., and was ' always regarded as one of 
the ablest divines and controvertists of his 



time.' In 1577 he was labouring upon the 
mission in Yorkshire, and was soon after- 
wards committed as a prisoner to York 
Castle, where he engaged in a conference 
with Dean Hutton and some other divines 
of the church of England. He was ' tossed 
about from prison to prison till 1585, when 
he was shipped off at Hull, and sent into 
banishment.' He took refuge at the English 
College of Douay, then temporarily removed 
to Rheims, was vice-president for some time, 
and was afterwards made dean of Courtray. 
In 1622 he was at Antwerp, where Marco 
Antonio de Dominis [q. v.j, archbishop of 
Spalato, repeated before him the recantation 
of protestantism formerly made to the pope's 
nuncio at Brussels. Wright died about 1624. 
Wright has been very doubtfully credited 
with several religious tracts, which are said 
to have been published anonymously, but 
he has been much confused by bibliographers 
with other writers of the time of his name, 
and no list of his works can be given with 
confidence. It is probable that he was 
author of ; Certaine Articles discovering the 
Palpable Absurdities of the Protestants Re- 
ligion ' [Antwerp, 1600], and ' The Substance 
of the Lord's Supper' (1610, 12mo). The 
first of these was answered by Edward 
Bulkeley in ' An Apologie for the Religion 
established in the Church of England. Be- 
ing an Answer to a Pamphlet by T. W[right] ' 
(1602). 

To another THOMAS WEIGHT (Jl. 1604), a 
proteg6 of Henry Wriothesley, third earl of 
Southampton [q. v.], who had travelled in 
Italy, must be ascribed 'A Succinct Philoso- 
phicall Declaration of the Nature of Clymac- 
tericall Yeeres, occasioned by the Death of 
Queene Elizabeth. Written by T. W[right]. 
Printed for T. Thorpe,' London, 1604, 4to, 
and ' The Passions of the Minde in generall. 
By Thomas Wright,' London, 1601, 4to, 
which reappeared in 1604 ' corrected, en- 
larged, and with sundry new discourses aug- 
mented,' and was reissued in 1621 and 1630. 
This work was dedicated to Southampton in 
the hope that he may be ' delivered from in- 
ordinate passions,' and had commendatory 
verses by B. I. [? Ben Jonson]. Another 
Thomas Wright, M.A., of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, issued in 1685 ' The Glory of Gods 
Revenge against the Bloody and Detestable 
Sins of Murther and Adultery' (London, 
8vo). 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 91, 384 ; Records of 
the English Catholics, i. 447.] T. C. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (Ji. 1740-1760), 
author of ' Louthiana,' is stated to be ' of 
Durham' (Brit. Mus. Cat.} His published 



Wright 



129 



Wright 



writings are : 1. ' The Use of the Globes, 
or the General Doctrine of the Sphere,' 
London, 1740, 8vo. 2. ' Clavis Celestis, be- 
ing the Explication of a Diagram entituled 
a Synopsis of the Universe, or the Visible 
World epitomised,' London, 1742, 4to. 
3. ' Louthiana, or an Introduction to the 
Antiquities of Ireland in upwards of ninety 
Views and Plans, representing with Ex- 
planations the principal Ruins, Curiosities, 
and Antient Dwellings in the County of 
Louth,' with a portrait, London, 1748, 4to ; 
a second edition, with some few additions, 
London, 1758, 3 pts. 4to. 4. ' An Original 
Theory or New Hypothesis of the Universe 
founded upon the Laws of Nature,' London, 
1750, 4to. An edition of this work was pub- 
lished in Philadelphia, with notes by C. 
Rafinesque, in 1837. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit.] D. J. O'D. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (1792-1849), 
engraver and portrait-painter, was born at 
Birmingham on 2 March 1792. After serving 
an apprenticeship with Henry Meyer [q.v.] he 
worked for four years as assistant to William 
Thomas Fry [q. v.], for whom he engraved 
the popular plate of Princess Charlotte and 
Prince Leopold in a box at Covent Garden 
Theatre. About 1817 he began to practise 
independently as a stipple-engraver, and 
also found employment in taking portraits 
in pencil and miniature. Wright became 
much associated with George Dawe [q. v.], 
whose sister he married, and in 1822 fol- 
lowed him to St. Petersburg to engrave his 
gallery of portraits of Russian generals ; 
there he also executed a fine plate of the 
Emperor Alexander, and another of the Em- 
press Alexandra with her children, both 
after Dawe, on account of which he received 
diamond rings from members of the royal 
family and a gold medal from the king of 
Prussia. Wright returned to England in 
1826, and during the next four years was 
employed upon the plates to Mrs. Jameson's 
' Beauties of the Court of Charles II,' which 
constitute his best work ; also upon some of 
the plates to the folio edition of Lodge's 
' Portraits.' In 1830 he again went to 
Russia, and remained for fifteen years, work- 
ing under the patronage of the court. There 
he published a series of portraits entitled 
4 Les Contemporains Russes,' drawn and 
engraved by himself. On finally leaving 
St. Petersburg Wright presented a com- 
plete collection of impressions from his 
plates, numbering about 300, to the Hermit- 
age Gallery. He died in George Street, 
Hanover Square, London, on 30 March 

VOL. LXIII. 



1849. He was a member of the academies 
of St. Petersburg, Florence, and Stockholm. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Gent. Mag. 
1849, ii. 211 ; Athenaeum, 1849.] F. M. O'D. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (1789-1875), pri- 
son philanthropist, was born at Manchester 
in 1789, his father being a Scotsman and 
his mother a Manchester woman. He re- 
ceived his education at a Wesleyan Sunday 
school, and when fifteen years old was 
apprenticed to an ironfounder, ultimately 
becoming foreman of the foundry at 3/. 10s. 
a week. In 1817, after a few years of in- 
difference to religion, he joined the congre- 
gationalists, and was deacon of the chapel 
in Grosvenor Street, Piccadilly, Manchester, 
from 1825 to the end of his life. Among 
the labourers in the same workshop with 
him was a discharged convict, whom he 
saved from dismissal by depositing 20/. for 
the man's good behaviour. This circum- 
stance directed his attention to the reclama- 
tion of discharged prisoners, and about 1838 
he obtained permission to visit the Salford 
prison. As he was at work at the foundry 
from five in the morning until six in the 
evening, he could spend only his evenings 
and his Sunday afternoons at the prison, 
where he became the trusted friend of the 
inmates, for large numbers of whom on their 
release he obtained honest employment, his 
personal guarantee being given in many 
cases. The value of his labours was made 
public by the reports of the prison inspectors 
and chaplains, and he was offered the post 
of government travelling inspector of prisons 
at a salary of 800/. This he declined, on 
the ground that if he were an official his in- 
fluence would be lessened ; but in 1852 he 
accepted a public testimonial of 3,248/., in- 
cluding 100/. from the royal bounty fund. 
With this sum an annuity equal to the 
amount of his wages was purchased, and he 
was enabled to give up his situation at the 
foundry and devote all his time to the 
ministration of criminals. For some years 
he attended nearly every unfortunate wretch 
that was executed in England. 

Mr. G. F. Watts presented his picture 
of the ' Good Samaritan ' to the corpo- 
ration of Manchester in May 1852, 'as a 
testimony of his high esteem for the 
exemplary and praiseworthy character ' of 
Wright. Another picture, ' The Condemned 
Cell,' containing Wright's portrait, was 
painted by Charles Mercier, and presented 
by subscribers to the corporation of London 
in July 1869. Another portrait by Mercier 
was given to the Salford Museum. A full- 
length portrait by J. D. Watson, painted in 



Wright 



130 



Wright 



1853, was presented to Wright, and left by 
him to the visiting justices of Salford prison. 
Since the demolition of that building it has 
been placed in the committee-room of 
Strangeways prison, Manchester. 

Wright gave evidence before select com- 
mittees of the House of Commons in 1852 
on criminal and destitute juveniles, and in 
1854 on public-houses. He was a promoter 
of the reformatory at Blackley, and worked 
on behalf of the Boys' Refuge, the Shoeblack 
Brigade, and the ragged schools of Manches- 
ter and Salford. He was strongly in favour 
of compulsory education. 

Wright died at Manchester on 14 April 
1875, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Birch-in-Rusholme. He was twice married, 
and had nineteen children. 

[McDermid's Life of Wright, 1876, with 
photograph portrait ; Chambers's Edinb. Journal, 
12 May 1849, p. 296; Household Words, 
6 March 1852, p. 553 ; Graphic, 8 May 1875 
(portrait).] C. W. S. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (1810-1877), anti- 
quary, was born at Tenbury in Shropshire on 
23 April 1810. His father's family had long 
been settled at Bradford in Yorkshire, where 
they had been engaged in the manufacture of 
broadcloth. His grandfather, Thomas Wright, 
who for many years occupied a substantial 
farmhouse named Lower Blacup, at Birken- 
shaw, near Bradford, was a supporter of the 
Wesleyan methodists of the district. He 
knew John Wesley and John Fletcher of 
Madeley, and engaged in theological con- 
troversy with Sir Richard Hill. His chief 
publication was a satiric poem in defence of 
Arminianism entitled ' A Modern Familiar 
Religious Conversation ' (Leeds, 1778 ; 2nd 
edit. 1812). He died on 30 Jan. 1801, 
having married twice, and leaving a family 
of thirteen children. He left in manuscript 
a detailed autobiography reaching down to 
1797 ; this was published by his grandson 
the antiquary in 1864, under the title of 
' Autobiography of Thomas Wright of 
Birkenshaw. 

The antiquary's father, also Thomas 
Wright, was apprenticed to a firm of book- 
sellers and printers at Bradford, and finally 
obtained employment with a firm carrying 
on the same business at Ludlow. He com- 
piled ' The History and Antiquities of Lud- 
low ' (2nd edit. 1826). He was always in 
poor circumstances, and died of cholera at 
Birmingham. 

The antiquary was educated at King Ed- 
ward's grammar school at Ludlow. His 
zeal for literary research showed itself in 
early youth, and attracted the attention of 



a well-to-do neighbour named Hutchings, 
who defrayed the expenses of his education 
at Cambridge. He was admitted to a sizar- 
ship at Trinity College, Cambridge, on 7 July 
1830, Whewell being his tutor : he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1834 and M.A.'in 1837. 
While an undergraduate he contributed an- 
tiquarian articles to ' Fraser's,' the ' Gentle- 
man's,' and other magazines. He came to 
know John Mitchell Kemble [q. v.~j, who in- 
duced him to devote himself to Anglo-Saxon, 
and he formed a lifelong friendship with a 
younger student, James Orchard Halliwell 
(afterwards Halliwell-Phillipps) [q.v.], with 
whom he collaborated constantly in later 
years. The chief labour of his undergraduate 
life was an elaborate ' History and Topography 
of Essex,' which he was invited to undertake 
by the London publisher George Virtue. It 
formed one of a series of topographical com- 
pilations which had been inaugurated by a 
' History of Kent ' from the pen of the Shake- 
spearean forger Henry Ireland [see under 
IRELAND, SAMTJEL]. Wright's 'History of 
Essex' was issued in forty-eight monthly 
parts between 1831 and 1836. It was illus- 
trated with a hundred plates, and the com- 
pleted work was published in two demy 
quarto volumes in 1836. The work was 
based on Morant's ' History,' but Wright 
supplied much new topographical, historical, 
and biographical information. He had many 
correspondents in the county, but he seems 
to have rarely visited it himself. 

In 1836 Wright left Cambridge to settle 
in London. He soon took a house at Bromp- 
ton, and for nearly forty years plied his pen 
unceasingly. He recovered from manuscript 
and printed for the first time many valuable 
historical and literary records. Much of his 
work was hastily executed, and errors abound, 
but his enthusiasm and industry were inex- 
haustible. At first his efforts were mainly 
confined to mediaeval literature. In 1836 an 
anthology of ' Early English Poetry,' prepared 
by Wright, was issued in black letter by 
William Pickering [q. v.], with prefaces and 
notes, in 4 vols. sq. 12mo. At the same 
time he was giving much aid to the French 
mediaeval scholar Francisque Michel in his 
researches. In 1836 Michel and his friend 
Renaudiere issued in Paris a French trans- 
lation of a sketch by Wright of Early Eng- 
lish literature ; this they entitled ' Coup d'ceil 
sur les Progres et sur 1'Etat actuel de la 
Litterature Anglo-Saxonne en Angleterre/ 
Wright's original English version was issued 
in 1839. In 1838 Michel and Wright com- 
bined to produce ' Galfridi de Monemuta 
Vita Merlini: Vie de Merlin attribute a 
GeofFroy de Monmouth.' There followed 



Wright 



immediately Wright's ' Early Mysteries and 
other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth Centuries,' and at the same period 
he supplied many of the historical descrip- 
tions to Le KeuxV Memorials of Cambridge.' 
On 16 Nov. 1837 Wright was elected a 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Of the 
newer literary societies which came into being 
in 1838 and following years, Wright, like his 
friend Halliwell, was an indefatigable sup- 
porter. He was long the honorary secretary 
of the Camden Society from its foundation 
in 1838, and he edited for it : ' Alliterative 
Poem on the Deposition of Richard II ' 
(1838); 'The Political Songs of England, 
from the Reign of John to that of Edward II ' 
(1839) ; 'The Latin Poems commonly attri- 
buted to Walter Mapes' (1841); 'Narra- 
tive of the Proceedings against Dame Alice 
Kyteler for Sorcery in 1324' (1843); 'Let- 
ters relating to the Suppression of Monaste- 
ries ' (1843) ; ' Mapes de Nugis Curialium ' 
(1850), 4to, and 'Churchwardens' Accounts 
of the Town of Ludlow in Shropshire, from 
1540 to the End of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ' (1869), 4to. 

For the Percy Society, founded in 1841, of 
which he was treasurer and secretary. Wright 
edited fifteen publications, including ' Politi- 
cal Ballads published in England during the 
Commonwealth ' (1841) ; ' Specimens of old 
Christmas Carols, chiefly taken from Manu- 
script Sources ' (1841) ; ' Specimens of 
Lyric Poetry composed in England in the 
Reign of Edward I ' (1842) ; ' A Collec- 
tion of Latin Stories, illustrative of the 
History of Fiction during the Middle Ages, 
from Manuscripts of the Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth Centuries' (1842) ; ' The Seven Ages 
in English Verse, edited from a Manuscript in 
the Public Library of the University of Cam- 
bridge' (1845), with an 'Introductory Essay ' 
(1846) ; Hawes's ' Pastime of Pleasure ' (1845), 
and Chaucer's ' Canterbury Tales,' a new 
text, with illustrative notes (vols. i. and ii. 
1847, vol. iii. 1851 ; reissued in a single 
volume, 1853, and in Cooke's ' Universal 
Library,' 1867). 

For a short-lived Historical Society of 
Science, formed by Halliwell and himself, 
Wright edited, in 1841, ' Popular Treatises on 
Science, written during the Middle Ages, in 
Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and English.' 

For the Royal Society of Literature Wright 
undertook a more ambitious work, a ' Bio- 
graphia Britannica Literaria; or Biography 
of Literary Characters of Great Britain and 
Ireland, arranged in Chronological Order.' 
It was intended to carry the undertaking down 
to 1840, but only two volumes appeared, one 
dealing with 'The Anglo-Saxon Period' 



3i Wright 

(1842), and the other with 'The Anglo- 
Norman Period ' (1846). 

For the Shakespeare Society Wright edited 
'The Chester Plays' (1843-7, 2 vols. 8vo); 
and for the Caxton Society Geoffrey Gaimar's 
'Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of the 
Anglo-Saxon Songs: printed for the first 
time entire ; with Appendix, containing the 
Lay of Havelok the Dane, the Legend of 
Ernwulf, and Life of Hereward the Saxon ' 
(1850, 8vo). 

Meanwhile his collaboration with Halli- 
well produced ' Reliquiae Antiquae : Scraps 
from Ancient Manuscripts, illustrating Early 
English Literature and the English Lan- 
guage' (1839-43, 2 vols. 8vo ; reissued 1845, 2. 
vols. 8vo). Together, too, the friends edited ten 
numbers of a monthly periodical called ' The 
Archaeologist and Journal of Antiquarian 
Science' (September 1841 -June 1842). 
Halliwell acknowledged great assistance 
from Wright in preparing his ' Dictionary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words ' (1846) ; 
and they were avowedly joint editors of the 
revised edition of Nares's 'Glossary' (1859). 

Intimacy with the engraver Frederick 
William Fairholt [q. v.] led Wright to pro- 
duce in partnership with him an interesting 
series of illustrated volumes. In 1848 there 
appeared ' England under the House of Han- 
over : its History and Condition during the 
Reigns of the Three Georges, illustrated from 
the Caricatures and the Satires of the Day, 
with Portraits and 300 Caricatures, Plans, 
and Woodcuts engraved by F. W. Fairholt, 
F.S.A.'(2vols.8vo; 2nd edit. 1849; 3rd edit. 
1852). To the same class of compilation be- 
longed Wright's ' History of Caricature and 
Grotesque in Literature and Art, with Illus- 
trations from various sources ; drawn and 
engraved by F. AV. Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A.,' 
London, 1865, sm. 4to. With R. H. Evans 
he also wrote for Bonn's library an 'Historical 
and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures 
of James Gillray ; comprising a Political and 
Humorous History of the latter part of 
the Reign of George III' (London, 1851, 
8vo). Wright subsequently developed this 
essay into ' The Works of James Gillray the 
Caricaturist ; with a History of his Life and 
Times,' with four hundred illustrations, 
London, 1873, 4to. 

Wright's independent work of the period 
included : ' Queen Elizabeth and her Times : 
a Series of Original Letters selected from the 
inedited private Correspondence of Lord 
Burghley, the Earl of Leicester, and others ' 
(London, 1838, 2 vols. 8vo, with very slender 
commentary) ; 'The History of Ludlow and 
its Neighbourhood ' (8vo, part i. 1841, part 
ii. 1843, in 1 voL 1852) ; Autobiography 



Wright 



132 



Wright 



of Joseph Lister of Bradford in Yorkshire' 
( 1842, 8vo) ; ' St. Patrick's Purgatory : an Es- 
say on the Legends of Purgatory, Hell, and 
Paradise current during the Middle Ages' 
(1844, 8vo ; partly written when he was an 
undergraduate) ; an edition of ' The Vision 
and the Creed of Piers Ploughman,' edited 
with notes and a glossary (1842, 2 vols. 500 
copies ; 2nd edit., with additions to the notes 
and glossary, in J. R. Smith's 'Library of 
Old Authors,' 1855, 2 vols.) ; ' Anecdota 
Literaria: a Collection of Short Poems in 
English, Latin, and French, illustrative of 
the Literature and History of England in 
the Thirteenth Century, and more especially 
of the Condition and Manners of the different 
Classes of Society ; edited from Manuscripts 
at Oxford, London, Paris, and Berne,' Lon- 
don, 1844, 8vo, 250 copies; 'The Archaeo- 
logical Album : or Museum of National An- 
tiquities, with Illustrations by F. W. Fair- 
holt ' (1845, 4to) ; and a collection of con- 
tributions to periodicals, ' Essays on Subjects 
connected with the Literature, Popular 
Superstitions, and History of England in the 
Middle Ages ' (1846, 2 vols. 8vo). 

Wright's industry gave him a wide repu- 
tation. His friend and neighbour at Bromp- 
ton, Francois Guizot, recommended him for 
election as a corresponding member of the 
French Institut des Arts et Sciences, and he 
was admitted in 1842, in succession to the 
Earl of Munster. In 1843 he joined Petti- 
grew, T. Crofton Croker. and Charles Roach 
Smith in founding the British Archaeological 
Association, and continued to advance its 
interests until he seceded in 1849 with Lord 
Albert Conyngham-Denison, afterwards first 
Baron Londesborough [q. v.l, and others. 
Thenceforth he devoted much attention to 
archaeological exploration, and one of his 
most successful works was ' The Celt, the 
Roman, and the Saxon: a History of the 
Early Inhabitants of Britain down to the 
Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Chris- 
tianity : illustrated by the Ancient Remains 
brought to light by recent Research' 
(1852, 8vo ; revised with additions, 1861, 
< s vo, 1875, 1885). Wright was an enthu- 
siastic pedestrian, and he combined his walks 
with archaeological exploration. Entertain- 
ing and valuable sketches of both appeared 
in 1852-3 in the 'Gentleman's Magazine,' 
and were collected into a volume under the 
title ' Wanderings of an Antiquary: chiefly 
upon the Traces of the Romans in Britain ' 
(1854, 8vo). It was largely at AVright's 
persuasion that Beriah Botfield [q.v.] under- 
took the expense of excavating the site of the 
Roman city at Wroxeter. The work was 
conducted under Wright's direction in 1859, 



and he published in that year an interesting 
account of ' The Ruins of the Roman City of 
Uriconium at Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury ' 
(1859, 12mo ; republished as a ' Guide to 
Uriconium,' 1859; a fuller work on the sub- 
ject followed in 1872. 

Wright's labours were not remunerative, 
and much of his antiquarian work in middle 
life was undertaken at the expense of wealthy 
patrons. For James Heywood [q. v.J he 
translated ' Statutes of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, and Eton College,' 1850, 8vo ; and 
he edited ' Cambridge University Trans- 
actions during the Puritan Controversies of 
the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries ' 
(1854, 2 vols. 8vo), for which Heywood wrote 
the preface. At the expense of Joseph Mayer 
[q. v.] he produced ' A Volume of Vocabularies 
illustrating the Condition and Manners of our 
Forefathers, as well as the History of the 
Forms of Elementary Education, and of the 
Languages spoken in this Island, from the 
Tenth Century to the Fifteenth ; edited from 
MSS. in Public and Private Collections ' 
(Liverpool, 1857, imp. 8vo, privately 
printed). A second volume under the same 
auspices appeared in 1873. A new edition, 
edited by Professor Richard Wiilcker, was 
issued at Leipzig in 1884 (2 vols.) For his 
friend Lord Londesborough he compiled 
' Miscellanea Graphica : Representations of 
Ancient, Mediaeval, and Renaissance Re- 
mains in the possession of Lord Londes- 
borough ; the Historical Introduction by 
Thomas Wright,' London, 1857, 4to. 

For various members of the Roxburghe 
Club he edited ' Joannes de Garlandia de 
Triumphis Ecclesiae Libri Octo : a Latin 
Poem of the Thirteenth Century,' 1856, 4to ; 
' Songs and Ballads, with other Short Poems, 
chiefly of the Reign of Philip and Man* : 
edited from a Manuscript in the Ashmolean 
Museum,' 1860, 4to ; and the ' De Regimine 
Principum : a Poem by Thomas Occleve, 
written in the Reign of Henry IV ; edited 
for the first time,' 1860, 4to. On the re- 
commendation of his friend Guizot, and at 
the request of the author, Wright translated 
very rapidly in 1865-6 the Emperor Xapo- 
leon's 'Vie de Jules Cesar,' 1865-6, 2 vols. 
8vo. 

The more important of Wright's latest phi- 
lological or antiquarian publications were : 
' Essays on Archaeological Subjects, and on 
Various Questions connected with the His- 
tory of Art, Science, and Literature in the 
Middle Ages,' with 120 engravings, 1861, 
2 vols. 8vo ; and ' A History of Domestic 
Manners and Sentiments in England during 
the Middle Ages,' illustrated by upwards of 
three hundred engravings on wood by Fair- 



Wright 



133 



Wright 



holt, 186:2, foolscap 4to. For the Eolls Series 
he also edited two works of value to the stu- 
dent of mediaeval history, although errors 
abound in Wright's editorial contributions, 
viz. : ' Political Poems and Songs relating to 
English History, composed during the Period 
from the Accession of Edward III to that of 
Richard III,' London, 1859-61, 2 vols. royal 
8vo ; and ' The Anglo-Latin Satirical Poets 
and Epigrammatists of the Twelfth Century,' 
London, 1872, 2 vols. 8vo. For the Early 
English Text Society he edited ' The Book of 
the Knight of La Tour-Landry : translated 
from the Original French into English in the 
Reign of Henry VI ; from the unique Manu- 
script in the British Museum : with Intro- 
duction and Notes,' London, 1869, 8vo. 

In 1865 Wright's small resources were 
supplemented by a grant from the civil list 
of a pension of 651., which was increased to 
100 in 1872. Until that year he had en- 
joyed robust health and buoyant spirits ; but 
after 1872 his mind failed, and he sank into 
imbecility before his death. Halliwell-Phil- 
lipps generously contributed towards his 
maintenance in his last years. He died at 
Chelsea on 23 Dec. 1877, and was buried at 
Brompton cemetery. His civil list pension 
was revived in 1881 in favour of his widow, 
a Frenchwoman whom he married in early life. 
She was buried beside him on 10 Feb. 1883. 

A marble bust of Weight by Durham, 
purchased of his widow, is in the apartments 
of the Society of Antiquaries at Burlington 
House. A portrait engraved by Daniel 
J. Pound for the ' Drawing-room Portrait 
Gallery ' (2nd ser. 1859) was reproduced in 
the ' E"ssex Review ' for April 1900. 

Richard Garnett [q. v.] justly castigated 
Wright's carelessness as an editor of mediaeval 
literature in the ' Quarterly Review ' for 
April 1848. Nearly all his philological books 
are defaced by errors of transcription and 
extraordinary misinterpretations of Latin 
and early English and early French words 
and phrases. But as a pioneer in the study 
of Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval literature and 
of British archaeology he deserves grateful 
remembrance. 

Wright's works embrace in the British 
Museum catalogue 129 entries. Besides 
those already enumerated and many sepa- 
rately published lectures and papers in 
transactions of archaeological societies, he 
issued : 1 . ' Early Travels in Palestine : com- 
prising the Narratives of Arculf, Willibald, j 
Bernard, Saewulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tu- ! 
dela, Sir John Maundeville, De la Brocquiere, 
and Maundrell; edited with Notes,' 1848, 
8vo (Bohn's ' Antiq. Libr.') 2. 'Narratives j 
of Sorcery and Magic : from the most au- j 



thentic sources,' 1851, 8vo; New York, 

2 vols. 1852. 3. ' The History of Fulke 
Fitz-Warine, an Outlawed Baron in the 
Reign of King John ; edited from a Manu- 
script preserved in the British Museum ; 
with an English Translation and Notes,' 1855, 
8vo. 4. ' Songs and Carols from a Manu- 
script of the Fifteenth Century in the British 
Museum,' 1856, 8vo. 5. 'Les Cent Nou- 
velles Nouvelles, publiees d'apres le seul 
Manuscrit connu, avec Introduction et Notes 
[et Glossaire] par M. Thomas Wright,' Paris, 
1858, 2 vols. 16mo. 6. 'The History of King 
Arthur and of the Knights of the Round 
Table ; compiled from Sir Thomas Malory ; 
edited from the Text of the Edition of 1634, 
with Introduction and Notes,' London : 
J. R. Smith's ' Library of Old Authors,' 1858, 

3 vols. fcap. 8vo ; 2nd edit, revised 1865, 
3 vols. fcap. 8vo. 7. ' History of Ireland,' 
London and New York, 1848-52, 3 vols. 
imp. 8vo. 8. ' History of France,' imp. 8vo, 
pts. 1-34, 1858-62. 9. ' Roll of Arms of 
the Princes, Barons, and Knights who at- 
tended King Edward I to the Siege of Caer- 
laverock in 1300. Edited from the Manu- 
script in the British Museum, with a Trans- 
lation and Notes ; with the Coat-Armoury 
emblazoned in Gold and Colours,' 1864, 4to. 
10. ' Ludlow Sketches : a Series of Papers,' 
1867, 8vo. 11. 'Womankind in Western 
Europe, from the Earliest Ages to the Seven- 
teenth Century. Illustrated with Coloured 
Plates and numerous Wood Engravings,' 
1869,fcap. 8vo. 12. ' Feudal Manualsof Eng- 
lish History : a Series of popular Sketches of 
our National History, compiled at different 
periods from the Thirteenth Century to the 
Fifteenth ; from the Original Manuscripts,' 
London, 1872, 4to ; privately printed. 

[Essex Review, ix. 65-76, art. by Edward 
A. Fitch; Reliquary, 1877-8, vol. xviii., art. by 
Llewellyn Jewitt; Academy, 29 Dec. 1877; 
Athenaeum, 29 Dec. 1877; Roach Smith's Re- 
trospections, iii. 83 sq., and Collectanea Antiqua, 
viii. 250.] S. L. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS (1809-1884), phy- 
sician and geologist, was born on 9 Nov. 
1809 at Paisley, Renfrewshire, and received 
his early education in the grammar school 
of that town, after which he was articled to 
his brother-in-law, a surgeon in practice 
there. On the removal of the latter to Ayr- 
shire, Wright's medical studies were for a 
time interrupted, but their attraction was 
irresistible, so that he ultimately rejoined 
his relative and completed his time. Then 
he became a student at the Royal College of 
Surgeons, Dublin, working also at the Peter 
Street Anatomical and Surgical School. He 
rapidly acquired great skill as a dissector 



Wright 



134 



Wright 



and an extensive knowledge of anatomy, so 
that he was offered a demonstratorship, which 
probably would have led to a higher position, 
but blood-poisoning from a wound received 
in dissecting a case of confluent small-pox 
produced such serious results that he was 
unable to accept the office. On recovering 
his health he passed the College of Surgeons 
in 1832, and shortly afterwards settled at 
Cheltenham. Here he acquired a large prac- 
tice, became medical officer of health to the 
urban district, and was for many years sur- 
geon to the general hospital. In 1846 he 
graduated M.D. at St. Andrews University. 

Wright's enthusiasm for scientific studies 
never flagged. At first he was engrossed in 
delicate microscopic work, but when this 
proved too trying to his eyes, he devoted 
himsel f to palaeontology and grad ually form ed 
a collection of Jurassic fossils which was rich 
in cephalopods, and perhaps unequalled for 
sea-urchins and starfish. Notwithstanding 
his many occupations he found time to be an 
active member of the Cotteswold Club, an 
enthusiastic advocate of science as a branch 
of education, and a frequent lecturer at all 
places within reach of Cheltenham. His 
power of exposition, ample stores of know- 
ledge, and remarkably fine presence made 
him an educational force in the Severn valley . 

Such vacations as Wright's profession per- 
mitted were devoted to travel in Britain and 
on the continent in order to enlarge his 
knowledge, especially of Jurassic rocks and 
fossils. He was the author of about thirty-two 
papers on geological subjects, seven of them 
published in the ' Quarterly Journal ' of the 
Geological Society; but one of the most 
valuable, on the correlation of the Jurassics 
of the Cote d'Or with those in Gloucester- 
shire and Wiltshire, appeared in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' of the Cotteswold Club. Yet more 
important were his contributions to the 
volumes of the Palseontographical Society. 
He was engaged from 1855 to 1882 in de- 
scribing the sea-urchins and starfishes of the 
Jurassic and cretaceous formations, in which 
task at the outset he had counted on aid from 
Professor Edward Forbes [q. v.], but the 
early death of the latter left him to work 
single-handed. In 1878 he began the ' Lias 
Ammonites,' which was just completed at his 
death. This palseontological work was pub- 
lished by the Palseontological Society (Lon- 
don, 1878-84, 4to), and fills four large and 
well-illustrated volumes. 

Wright was elected F.R.S.E. in 1855; 
F.G.S. in 1859, receiving the Wollaston 
medal in 1878; president of the geological 
section at the British Association meeting 
in 1875 ; F.R.S. in 1879. He also received 



honorary distinctions from various British 
and foreign societies. 

AVright died on 17 Nov. 1884. His fine 
collection of fossils was purchased for an 
American museum. He was twice married : 
first, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Captain 
Vincent May of Liverpool ; and, secondly, in 
1845, to Mary, youngest daughter of Sir Ro- 
bert Tristram Ricketts, bart., of the Elms, 
Cheltenham. She died in 1878, leaving one 
son, Thomas Lawrence Wright, and two 
daughters, the elder married to Edward Best- 
bridge Wethered, a well-known geologist; 
and the younger to Canon Charles Byron 
Wilcox, vicar of Christ Church, Birmingham. 

[Memoir (with portrait) in the Midland Medi- 
cal Miscellany, 1 Nor. 1883; obituary notices, 
Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc. xli. (1885), Proc. 
p. 39 ; Geol. Mag. 185, p. 93 (with list of papers) ; 
information from E. B. Wethered, esq.] 

T. G. B. 

WRIGHT, WALLER RODWELL (d. 
1826), author of ' Horse lonicse,' was British 
consul-general for the republic of the Seven 
Islands (Ionian Islands) from 1800 to 1804. 
On his return to England he became re- 
corder for Bury St. Edmunds. Subsequently 
he was president of the court of appeals at 
Malta, where he died in 1826. Wright's 
library at Zante was rifled by the French in 
1804, and the materials which he had col- 
lected for a work upon the Greek islands 
were scattered or destroyed. His remi- 
niscences took the form of ' Horse lonicse : 
a Poem descriptive of the Ionian Islands 
and part of the adjacent coast of Greece ' 
(London, 1809, 8vo). There are some charm- 
ing lines among its heroic couplets, the 
work throughout of an ardent disciple of 
Pope. A ' Postscript ' contains a few re- 
marks upon the Modern Greek spoken in 
the Ionian Islands. To the third edition 
(London, 1816, 12mo) were appended 
' Orestes, a Tragedy : from the Italian of 
Count Vittor Alfieri ' (this was in blank 
verse, for which Wright showed little apti- 
tude), and two odes. One of these odes, on 
the Duke of Gloucester's installation at 
Cambridge, had been printed in 1811 and 
forwarded in September by Dallas to Byron, 
who wrote : ' It is evidently the production 
of a man of taste and a poet, though I 
should not be willing to say it was fully 
equal to what, might be expected from the 
author of " Horse lonicse." ' In reference to 
this poem Byron had previously written in 
' English Bards : ' 

Blest is the man who dare approach the bower 
Where dwelt the Muses in their natal hour . . . 
Wright, 'twas thy happy lot at once to view 
Those shores of Glory, and to sing them too. 



Wright 



135 



Wright 



[Wright's Horse (three editions') in Brit. Mus. 
Libr. ; Byron's Letters, ed. Henley, i. 375 ; 
Moore's Life and Letters of Byron, 1854, p. 136; 
Monthly Re view, 1809, iii. 98 ; Biographical Diet, 
of Living Authors, 1816, p. 401.] T. S. 

WRIGHT, WILLIAM (1563-1639), 
Jesuit, son of John Wright, an apothecary of 
York, was born there in 1563, and went to 
school in his native city until he was about 
twenty years old, when his uncle, a priest, 
sent him to France. After a brief sojourn 
at Rheims he proceeded to Rome, where he 
entered the English College for his higher 
course on 18 Oct. 1581. He was admitted 
to the Society of Jesus at St. Andrew's 
novitiate, Rome, on 8 Dec. in the same year, 
and was professed of the four vows on 
23 July 1602. For' many years he was pro- 
fessor of philosophy and theology in the col- 
leges of the society at Gratz in Styria, where 
tie graduated D.D., and at Vienna. 

He was sent to the English mission in 
1606, and was seized soon afterwards at Hen- 
grave Hall, Suffolk, the seat of the Gage 
family, taken before Dr. Bancroft, archbishop 
of Canterbury, at Lambeth, and committed 
by that prelate in 1607 to the Tower of Lon- 
don, whence he was transferred to the 
White Lion prison. He ultimately effected 
his escape by the aid of friends, and retired 
into Leicestershire, where he founded the 
missions of the society originally called the 
Residence of St. Anne, and in 1633 incor- 
porated into the Derby and Nottingham 
district. He was rector of the ' college ' 
until about 1636, when he became minister. 
He died in the same district on 18 Jan. 
1638-9. 

Wright was a vehement opponent of the 
oath of allegiance and supremacy devised by 
the government of James I, and solemnly 
condemned by the holy see. His works, 
which were published under various initials, 
are as follows: 1. 'The English larre. Or 
Disagreement amongst the Ministers of great 
Brittaine, concerning the Kinges Supremacy. 
Written in Latin [by Martin Becanus] and 
translated into English by I. W. P./ [St. 
Omer], 1612, 4to. 2. ' A Discoverie of cer- 
taine notorious shifts, evasions, and un- 
truthes uttered by Mr. J. White, Minister, 
in a booke of his lately set forth, and inti- 
tuled A defence of the Way ... in manner 
of a Dialogue. . . . By W. G., Professor in 
Divinity,' St. Omer, 1613, 4to ; 2nd edit. 
1619 [see WHITE, JOHN, 1570-1615]. 3. A 
Summary of Controversies : where in are 
briefly treated the cheefe Questions of Divinity 
now a dayes in dispute betweene Catholikes 
and Protestants . . . [written in Latin by 
James Gordon]. Translated into English by 



I.,' vol. i. [St. Omer?], 1614, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1618. No more appears to have been published. 
4. ' A Treatise concerning the Church. 
Wherein it is shewed . . . that the Church 
of Rome ... is the only true Church of 
Christ. Written in Latin by ... J. Gordon 
Huntly . . . and translated into English by 
J. L.' [St. Omer ?], 1 614, 8vo. 5. ' A Treatise 
of the Church. In which is proued M. lohn 
White his Way to the True Church to be 
indeed no way at all to any Church true or 
false. . . . Written by W. G. Professour in 
Divinity, in manner of Dialogue,' sine loco, 
1616, 4to. 6. ' A Consultation what Faith 
and Religion is best to be embraced. Written 
in Latin [by Leonardtis Lessius] and trans- 
lated into English by W. I. (An Appendix 
to the former Consultation. Whether every 
one may be saved in his owne fayth and re- 
ligion),' [St. Omer ?], 1618, 16mo. _ 7. . A 
Treatise of the ludge of Controversies,' [St. 
Omer], 1619, 12mo ; translated .from the 
Latin of Martin Becanus ' by W. W., Gent.' 
8. ' A briefe relation of the Persecvtion 
lately made against the Catholike Christians, 
in the Kingdome of laponia. . . . Taken out 
of the Annuall Letters of the Fathers of the 
Society of lesvs,' pt. i., all published, sine 
loco, 1619, translated from the Spanish ' by 
W. W, Gent.' 9. ' The Treasure of vowed 
Chastity in secular Persons. Also the 
Widdowes Glasse [by Leonardus Lessius]. 
Translated into English by I. W.,' [St. 
Omer?], 1621, 24mo. 10. 'A Letter to a 
Person of Honour, concerning the evil Spirit 
of Protestants,' 1622, 4to. 11. ' A Treatise 
against N. E. a Minister of the Church of 
England,' St. Omer, 1622, 4to. Southwell 
says this treatise is ' De Spiritibus.' It is 
subscribed ' W. G.' 12. ' A briefe treatise 
in which is made playne, that Catholikes 
living and dying in their profession may be 
saved, by the judgment of the most famous 
and learned Protestants. . . . Agaynst a 
Minister [N. E.] who in his Epistle exhorteth 
an honourable person to forsake her Reli- 
gion,' [St. Omer], 1623, 4to. 13. 'A Treatise 
of Penance,' often reprinted. This may 
be the work which appeared at St. Omer in 
1633 under the pseudonym of ' Douley,' and 
which has been ascribed to Father William 
Warford [q.v.] or Warneford. 14. Bartoli 
mentions a treatise written in a week, 
against the Archpriest George Blackwell 
[q.v.], which caused an extraordinary sensa- 
tion in the public mind, on the question of 
the oath of allegiance (DelV Inghilterra, pp. 
631-5). 

[De Backer's Bibl. des ficrivains de la Com- 
pagnie de Jesus; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 136, 
iii. 114 ; More's Hist. Missionis Anglicanse Soc. 



Wright 



136 



Wright 



Jesu, pp. 363-6 ; Notes and Queries. 3rd ser. ix. 
38 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 229 ; South- 
well's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu; Law's Arch- 
priest Controversy, 1898 (Camden Soc.)] 

T. C. 

WRIGHT, WILLIAM (1735-1819), 
physician and botanist, was born at Crieff. 
Perthshire, in March 1735. He went to Crieff 
grammar school, and when seventeen was ap- 
prenticed to George Dennistoun, a surgeon 
at Falkirk. In 1756 he entered the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, living with his uncle, 
and in 1757 he made a voyage to Greenland 
as surgeon on a whaler. In January 1758 
he presented himself at Surgeons' Hall 
for examination, and was appointed second 
surgeon's mate on board the Intrepid. He 
began a careful study of scurvy, attributing 
it mainly to dirt, drink, and bad food. He was 
present on4 April 1758 at Sir EdwardHawke's 
engagement at Rh6; shared at Gibraltar 
in the prize-money of the Raisonnable, which 
Captain Pratten of the Intrepid captured on 
26 April ; and witnessed Boscawen's victory 
over De la Clue off Lagos on 16 Aug. 1759. 
The Intrepid returning to refit, Wright offered 
himself for re-examination, and was rated as 
first mate to the Danae under Captain Sir 
Henry Martin. In 1760 she was ordered to 
the West Indies under Rodney. Wright was 
transferred in succession to the hospitals at 
Port Royal and St. Pierre, to the Culloden 
and to the Levant, and was then paid off in 
September 1763. 

Though he now qualified as surgeon and 
graduated M.D. in absentia at St. Andrews, 
in default of employment he started in De- 
cember 1764 for Jamaica, intending to com- 
mence private practice. Finding, however, 
too many doctors there before him, he was 
glad to become assistant to Dr. Gray. Six 
months later Thomas Steel, his former fellow- 
student, invited him to become his partner at 
Hampden, Trelawny, one hundred and fifty 
miles from Kingston. They lived together 
and invested their savings in negroes. In 
1771 they built a new house named Orange 
Hill ; and in that year Wright began his 
herbarium of Jamaica plants, verifying dur- 
ing his residence in the island seven hundred 
and sixty species, and attaching to them their 
vernacular names and references to the works 
of Sloane and Browne. He sent live plants 
to Kew and dried ones to Sir Joseph Banks 
[q. v.], Jonathan Stokes, and others, main- 
taining an extensivescientific correspondence 
with medical men and botanists both in 
Europe and America. In 1774 Wright was 
appointed honorary surgeon-general of Ja- 
maica, and in the following year he made 
known the occurrence in Jamaica of a native 



species of cinchona, and published in the 
' Transactions ' of the Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia his first paper, one on diabetes. 
In August 1777 Wright embarked for 
England, but on the voyage caught a malig- 
nant fever from a seaman, and cured himself 
by douches of cold sea-water, a remedy 
which he had previously successfully em- 
ployed in cases of tetanus. His priority in 
this cold-water treatment of fever was after- 
wards fully admitted by the London Medical 
Society. In London he stayed with Maxwell 
Garthshore [q. v.], the obstetrician, in St. 
Martin's Lane ; studied, with William Alton's 
assistance, at Kew ; and enjoyed the weekly 
meetings with Banks, Daniel Cbarles Solander 
[q. v.], Fothergill, Pitcairn, and others, at the 
house of Sir John Pringle [q. v.] He eventu- 
ally settled at his native place, where his 
brother James had at his request built him 
a house, in which they both lived, Wright 
adopting his nephew James and educating 
him for the medical profession. After a tour 
in the west of Scotland and a visit to Lord 
Buchan near Linlithgow, Wright went to 
Edinburgh and attended the lectures of Pro- 
fessors Black, Munro, and Cullen. He became 
an original member of the Philosophical So- 
ciety (afterwards the Royal Society) of Edin- 
burgh. 

In 1779 Sir Joseph Banks procured for 
Wright the post of regimental surgeon to the 
Jamaica regiment. Wright on this became 
j a licentiate of the Edinburgh College of 
I Physicians, and embarked at Portsmouth 
with two companies of his regiment on the 
transport Morant, which sailed with fifty-four 
I other unarmed vessels under the protection of 
j the Ramilies, Thetis, and Southampton. The 
i whole expedition fell into the hands of a 
j French and Spanish fleet off Cape St.Yinceut, 
during a fog, this being perhaps the greatest 
loss the mercantile navy of Britain had ever 
I sustained. Wright, whose valuable hortus 
siccus was lost on this occasion, but who 
I managed to secrete and destroy the colours 
of his regiment, was landed on parole at 
i Cadiz on 3 Sept. by the French man-of-war 
| the Bourgogne, and was marched to Arcos on 
! the Guadalete in Andalusia. In a country 
i where medicine was a century behindhand 
I his skill soon gained him great repute, and 
he was even taken into convents to prescribe 
for sick nuns ; but the corregidor of the in- 
quisition, discovering that one of the British 
officers had a masonic apron, threatened 
j general domiciliary visits, whereupon the 
Englishmen resolved to offer forcible resist- 
ance, and the Spanish authorities preferred 
to march them to the Guadiana and across 
the Portuguese frontier. Wright and some 



Wright 



137 



Wright 



others dropped down the river in an open 
boat to Taro, where they freighted a sloop 
and reached Lisbon on 21 Dec. 1780, and 
then proceeded to Falmouth. 

Being detained in England under his parole 
until an exchange of prisoners was arranged, 
Wright visited a Scottish botanical friend 
named Baxter at Oldham, Hampshire, until 
the return of the remnant of his regiment 
from Spain. In April 1782 they sailed once 
more, being now known as the 99th foot ; 
but arriving in the West Indies just after 
Rodney's victory over De Grasse, the regi- 
ment was sent home and disbanded, while 
Wright was permitted to remain to settle 
his private att'airs and replace his lost hortus 
siccus.' This he did very completely, adding 
several new species, and having in 1784 the 
assistance of the Swedish botanist Olaf 
Schwartz. He was appointed physician- 
general of Jamaica ; but suffering from fever 
and ague, and having realised his property, 
he returned home in 1785, and, after spend- 
ing most of 1786 in Perthshire, settled at 
Edinburgh. He was nominated to succeed 
John Hope (1725-1786) [q. v.] in the chair 
of botany, but refused to stand against Daniel 
Rutherford [q.v.], contenting himself with 
the formation of a library, a scientific corre- 
spondence with no fewer than two hundred 
and sixty acquaintances, and the training of a 
few other students in his house with his 
nephew James. 

In 1792 Wright was summoned as a wit- 
ness before the committee of the House of 
Commons on the slave trade ; and in 1795, 
in spite of the opposition of Sir Lucas Pepys 
[q.v.l, the head of the army medical board, 
and of the Royal College of Physicians, on 
the ground of his not being one of their 
licentiates, he was appointed physician to the 
expedition sent to the West Indies under Sir 
Ralph Abercromby [q.v.] He sailed in De- 
cember in the William and John hospital ship, 
reach ing Barbados on 21 Feb. 1796. Wright 
stayed two years in Barbados, during which 
time he drew up a report on the diseases 
common among troops in the West Indies 
and made a large collection of Windward 
Island plants. On his return to England in 
June 1798, after narrowly escaping capture 
by the French on the voyage, he was retained 
on full pay for four months, and was offered 
an honorary extra licentiateship of the Col- 
lege of Physicians, which latter he declined. 
He settled in Edinburgh, only practising 
gratuitously among his university friends and 
the poor, arranging his natural history collec- 
tions, which were among the largest private 
museums in the kingdom, and taking an active 
part in the scientific societies of the city. 



Until 1811 he made an annual tour in the 
north-west highlands, often in the company 
of John Stuart (1743-1821) [q.v.], minister of 
Luss, Dumbartonshire, who was related to 
him by marriage, walking six or seven miles 
a day. He assisted his friend James Currie 
[q.v.] in forming, in conjunction with William 
Roscoe [q. v.], the herbarium of the Liver- 
pool Botanical Garden. Himself a Neptunist 
in geology, he became in 1808 an original 
member and vice-president of the Wernerian 
Society ; and when in 1809 the collections 
made by (Sir) William Jackson Hooker [q.v.] 
in Iceland were destroyed by a fire on board 
ship, he presented him with an herbarium and 
specimens of minerals collected in that island 
by his nephew James Wright, who had accom- 
panied Sir John Stanley thither in 1789, a 
kindness acknowledged by Hooker in his ' Re- 
collections of a Tour in Iceland in 1809.' In 
1800 he was invited by Sir Ralph Abercromby 
to accompany him to Egypt as physician to 
the army, but declined. 

Wright died unmarried in Edinburgh on 
19 Sept. 1819, and was buried in Grey Friars 
churchyard^ He was elected fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1778, president of the Royal 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1801, 
and associate of theLinnean Society in 1807. 
He published no separate volume of his own, 
but in 1800 printed a chronological collec- 
tion of Edinburgh medical graduation theses, 
and contributed various medical papers to dif- 
ferent publications, a selection from which, 
and from the notes in his herbarium, was re- 
printed in a ' Memoir ' of him published in 
1828. This volume also contains a vignette 
portrait engraved by William Home Lizars 
after a miniature by John Caldwell. An 
index by him to the Linnsean names of the 
plants mentioned in James Grainger's poems 
was printed in the 1836 edition. Dr. Rox- 
burgh named a genus Wrightca in his honour, 
but, this proving to have been already named 
Wallichia, Robert Brown dedicated another 
to him as Wriyhtia. His dried plants occur 
in various herbaria, especially those of Patrick 
Neill (1776-1851) [q. v.], in possession of the 
Edinburgh Botanical Society and the Liver- 
pool Botanical Garden. 

[Memoir of Dr. William Wright, London, 
1828, 8vo; Nichols's Literary Illustrations, iii. 
781.1 G. S. B. 

WRIGHT, WILLIAM (1773-1860), 
aural surgeon, born at Dartford in Kent on 
28 May 1773, was son of William and Mar- 
garet Wright. He was educated under John 
Cunningham Saunders [q. v.j, and was 
therefore in all probability a student of St. 
Thomas's Hospital. He does not appear to 
have obtained any medical diploma or 



Wright 



138 



Wright 



license, but he proceeded to Bristol, where 
he began his professional career in 1796. 
Here Miss Anna Thatcher came under his 
care. She was almost deaf and dumb, but 
his method of treatment was so successful 
that in a year she could repeat words, and 
in 1817 she had a long audience and conver- 
sation with Queen Charlotte. Her majesty 
thereupon appointed Wright her surgeon- 
aurist in ordinary. He moved to London 
and soon acquired a large and fashionable 
practice. He began to attend the Duke of 
Wellington in 1823, and remained one of , 
his medical attendants until the death of the j 
duke. Wright died on 21 March 1860 in 
Duke Street, St. James's Square, London. 

Wright's works were : 1. ' An Essay on 
the Human Ear,' London, 1817, 8vo. 2. ' On 
the Varieties of Deafnesses/ London, 1829, 
8vo. 3. ' A few Minutes' Advice to Deaf 
Persons,' London, 1839, 12rno. 4. ' Deafness 
and Diseases of the Ear : the Fallacies of 
present Treatment exposed and Remedies 
suggested. From the Experience of half a 
century,' London, 1860, 8vo. 

[Medical Times and Gazette, I860, i. 328; 
additional information kindly given by the Rev. 
P. E. Smith, M.A., vicar of Dartford, Kent] 

D'A. P. 

WRIGHT, WILLIAM (1830-1889), 
orientalist, son of Captain Alexander Wright 
of the East India Company's service, was born 
at Mullye or Mallai, on the Nepal frontier, 
on 17 Jan. 1830. His mother was a daughter 
of Daniel Anthony Overbeck, the last Dutch 
governor of Bengal, and, being herself skilled 
in several oriental languages, including Per- 
sian, encouraged her son in his chosen pur- 
suits. His school and first university edu- ! 
cation was at St. Andrews, where he gra- 
duated. He then visited the university of 
Halle, primarily for the study of Syriac, 
residing there in the house of Professor Rodi- 
ger. Here, however, he became proficient ! 
in all the chief Semitic languages, especially i 
in Arabic, gaining at the same time a know- | 
ledge not only of other languages containing 
Semitic elements, such as Persian and 
Turkish, but even finding time for the study 
of so difficult a non-Semitic language as 
Sanskrit. Rodiger always spoke of Wright 
as his best pupil. Passing to Leyden, mainly 
for the study of Arabic manuscripts, he 
studied under Dozy, and there received, at 
the early age of twenty-three, an honorary 
doctor's degree. It was from Leyden that 
he wrote in 1852 his famous letter to Pro- 
fessor Fleischer, published in the ' Journal 
of the German Oriental Society ' (vii. 109), 
stating the plan of his lifework in Arabic, 
largely founded on the extracts made at 



Leyden ' an ambitious programme ' (as his 
friend Professor Bensly observed), ' which 
might well have daunted the ripest scholar, 
but which in the end was carried out with 
but slight variations.' Returning from the 
continent, Wright held successively the 
chair of Arabic at University College, Lon- 
don (1855-6), and at Trinity College, Dublin 
(1856-61). Having at the latter place to 
lecture in Hindustani, he commenced col- 
lecting materials for publishing a scientific 
dictionary of the language, a project after- 
wards abandoned. 

Leaving for a time teaching for an oppor- 
tunity of original work, which was always 
his main object, Wright accepted a post in 
the department of manuscripts at the British 
Museum, in order to catalogue the great 
collection of Syriac manuscripts. 

In 1870 Wright was recalled to academic 
work, as Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of 
Arabic, at Cambridge. This post he held till 
his death, 22 May 1889. In the same uni- 
versity he was elected fellow of Queens' 
College, and held many foreign distinctions, 
including membership of the Institut de 
France, and of the Imperial Academy of St. 
Petersburg. He married, in 1859, Miss Emily 
Littledale of Dublin. 

In Arabic his chief publications were : 
'Travels of Ibn Jubair' (1852) ; ' Opuscula 
Arabica' (1859); ' Kamil of Al-Mubarrad' 
(1864-82); also his 'Arabic Grammar' 
(1859, 1875), professedly founded on Caspari, 
but, especially in the later edition, practically 
an original work. In Syriac, besides the 

treat catalogue of manuscripts at the British 
luseuni already referred to, and published 
1870-2, he issued : ' Homilies of Aphraates ' 
(1869) ; ' Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ' 
(Syriac and English), 2 vols. 1871 ; < Chro- 
nicle of Joshua the Stylite ' (Syriac and 
English), 1882 ; ' Book of Kalilah and Dim- 
nali ' (1883) ; and his brilliant article on 
Syriac literature for the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' republished with notes since his 
death (1894). His unfinished edition of the 
Eusebian history has been completed and 
issued by Mr. W. Maclean (Cambridge, 1898). 
His minor works in Syriac 'Notulse Sy- 
riacae ' and ' Fragments of the Curetonian 
Gospels ' (both privately printed) may be 
mentioned for their rarity. In ^Ethiopic he 
published a catalogue for the British Mu- 
seum, and also contributed to several journals 
valuable articles on early Semitic epigraphy. 
His comprehensive attainments are shown 
in his ' Lectures on the Comparative Gram- 
mar of the Semitic Languages,' a posthumous 
publication (1890), edited by his successor, 
William Robertson Smith [q. v.] 



Wright 



Wright 



Wright's work with and for others formed 
one of his most characteristic activities. 
To such co-operation are due the splendid 
oriental series of the Palseographical Society, 
drawn up under his editorship, and his 
weighty contributions to the lexical works of 
Payne Smith in Syriac, of Dozy in Arabic, 
and of Neubauer in Hebrew. His wide 
scholarship was also of the greatest value to 
the Old Testament revision committee, of 
which he was a member. As a teacher he 
will be long remembered at Cambridge, both 
by colleagues and by a succession of dis- 
tinguished pupils. The University Library | 
is largely indebted to his active mediation I 
for the possession of the finest European | 
collection of early Indian manuscripts, that j 
obtained by his brother, Dr. D. Wright, in 
Nepal, and since enlarged. 

[Personal knowledge ; communications from 
family ; obituary notices by E. L. B[ensly] in 
Academy, in Journal of Royal Asiatic Soc. for 
1889, p. 708, and by Professor de Goeje of 
Leiden ; Catalogue of the Cambridge University 
Library.] C. B. 

WRIGHT, WILLIAM (1837-1899), 
missionary and author, born on 15 Jan. 1837 
at Finnards, near Rathfriland, in co. Down, 
was the youngest child of William Wright, 
a North of Ireland farmer, by his wife, Miss 
Niblock. He was educated at a small country 
school, and supplemented the deficiencies of 
his instructors by a miscellaneous course of 
reading. Possessed of unusual ability, he 
resolved to prepare himself for the civil 
service, and, after passing a few months at 
the Belfast Royal Academical Institution, 
he matriculated in Queen's College in 1858. 
A visit to Belfast by Charles Haddon Spur- 
geon [q. v.] determined Wright to become 
a missionary, and on leaving Queen's Col- 
lege he studied theology at the assembly's 
college and at Geneva. About 1865 he pro- 
ceeded to Damascus as missionary to the 
Jews. During the ten years that he spent 
in the East he acquired a knowledge of 
Arabic, studied the customs and topography 
of Palestine, and made expeditions in Syria 
and Northern Arabia. His 'Account of 
Palmyra and Zenobia, with Travels and 
Adventures in Bashan and the Desert ' 
(London, 8vo), though not published until 
1895, was in great part written during the 
journeys which it describes. While in the 
East he filled the post of special corre- 
spondent to the 'Pall Mall Gazette.' At 
Damascus he made the acquaintance of 
Edward Henry Palmer [q. v.] and of Sir 
Richard Burton. For Burton he had a high 
regard, and published an appreciative sketch 
of his character in October 1891 in the first 



number of the ' Bookman,' under the sig- 
nature of ' Salih.' 

Returning to England, Wright succeeded 
Robert Baker Girdlestone (now Canon 
Girdlestone) as editorial superintendent of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society in 
June 1876. This post he retained until his 
death. During his tenure of office 150 new 
versions of the whole or parts of the Bible 
passed through his hands, and all the great 
vernacular versions of India, China, and 
other countries underwent revision. 

Wright's literary labours were not limited 
by his official duties. While in Syria he 
made casts of the Hamath inscriptions, and 
from further investigations came to the con- 
clusion that they were Hittite remains and 
that a Hittite empire had at one time 
existed in Asia Minor and Northern Syria. 
In 1884 he published ' The Empire of the 
Hittites ' (London, 8vo), with a conjectural 
decipherment of Hittite inscriptions by Pro- 
fessor Archibald Henry Sayce, who had come 
to similar conclusions. A second edition of 
the book appeared in 1886, and Wright con- 
tributed the article on the 'Hittites' to 
' Chambers's Encyclopaedia' in 1895. The 
whole subject is still rather obscure, but 
Wright must be credited with assisting 
materially to elucidate it. In 1893 he pub- 
lished another work of some fame, 'The 
Brontes in Ireland' (London, 8vo), which 
reached a third edition within a year. It 
embodied many personal investigations by 
Wright, but some of his statements were 
controverted by J. Ramsden in 1897 in ' The 
Bronte Homeland : or Misrepresentations 
rectified.' 

In 1890 Wright was selected to repre- 
sent the Bible Society at Shanghai at the 
conference of all the protestant missions of 
China, at which, on his initiative, it was re- 
solved to prepare a standard version of the 
Bible in the chief languages of the empire 
to supersede the various versions in the same 
script at that time in use. Wright's last 
years were saddened by the long illness and 
death of his eldest son, W. D. Wright, a 
minister of the presbyterian church of Eng- 
land. He died on 31 July 1899 at his resi- 
dence, 10 The Avenue, Upper Norwood, and 
was buried on 4 Aug. in West Norwood 
cemetery. He was twice married, and left 
a widow, three sons, and four daughters. In 
1882 he received the honorary degree of 
D.D. from Glasgow University. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Wright contributed to the ' Contemporary 
Review ' ' The Power behind the Pope,' a 
vigorous narrative of the publication and 
eventual condemnation by the Vatican of the 



Wrightsland 



140 



Wriothesley 



popular version of the New Testament by 
Henri Lasserre, the authorwho made the fame 
of the holy well at Lourdes. The article was 
separately published (London, 1888, 8vo). 
"Wright also contributed an introduction on 
' The Growth of the English Bible ' to the 
' Comprehensive Concordance' to the Holy 
Scriptures' (London, 1895, 8vo); edited 
' Bible Helps. The Illustrated Bible Trea- 
sury,' London, 1896, 8vo ; and wrote an 
introduction to Joseph Pollard's 'Land of 
the Monuments,' London, 189C, 8vo. 

[Bible Society Monthly Eeport, September 
and October 1899; Presbyterian, 10 Aug. 1899 
(with portrait) ; Missionary Herald of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Ireland, 2 Oct. 1899 (with 
portrait) ; British Weekly, 3 Aug. 1899 ; Times, 
2 Aug. 1899.] E. I. C. 

WRIGHTSLAND, LORD. [See CRAIG, 
SIR LEWIS, 1569-1622.] 

WRIOTHESLEY, CHARLES (1508 ?- 
1562), herald and chronicler, said by Anstis 
to have been born on 8 May 1508 at his 
father's house outside Cripplegate, was 
fourth sou of Sir Thomas Wriothesley (d. 
1534) [q. v.], by his first wife, Joan, daugh- 
ter of William Hall of Salisbury. Thomas 
Wriothesley, first earl of Southampton 
[q.v.],was his first cousin. At a very early age 
he adopted the profession of his father, his 
grandfather, and his uncle, and obtained a 
subordinate position in the herald's office. 
In 1522, when he was only fourteen, if 
Anstis's date of birth is correct, his pro- 
perty ' in lands and fees ' was assessed at 
38Z. 6s. 8d. and in goods at 40/., and on 
29 May 1525 he was appointed rouge croix 
pursuivant (Letters and Papers, iii. 2486, 
iv. 1377 [28]), and in 1529 he was admitted 
student of Gray's Inn. He speaks of Lord- 
chancellor Audley as his ' master,' and his 
cousin, the first earl of Southampton, be- 
queathed him 20/. on his death in 1550 
(Trevelyan Papers, i. 213). He was created 
Windsor herald on Christmas day 1534, 
and retained this office until his death in 
his friend Camden's house in St. Sepul- 
chre's on 25 Jan. 1561-2 ; he was buried 
with the usual heraldic pomp in the middle 
aisle of St. Sepulchre's Church on the 27th 
(MACHYN, Diary, pp. 275, 389). He was 
apparently twice married ; the maiden name 
of his first wife is said to have been Mai- 
lory, and the Christian name of his second 
was Alice ; he is not known to have left 
children. 

Wriothesley was author of the chronicle 
now called ' Wriothesley's Chronicle.' The 
original manuscript is not known to be ex- 
tant, the only existing copy being a tran- 



script made early in the seventeenth century 
probably for Henry Wriothesley, third earl 
of Southampton [q. v.] It passed into the 
possession of the Percy family by the mar- 
riage of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas, 
fourth earl of Southampton [q. v.], to Josce- 
line Percy, eleventh earl of Northumberland, 
and belonged to Lord H. M. Percy in 1874, 
when it was edited by William Douglas 
Hamilton for the Camden Society (2 vols. 
1875). The chronicle is anonymous, but 
internal evidence points conclusively to 
Wriothesley's authorship ; in the main it 
may be regarded as a continuation of the 
chronicle of Richard Arnold [q. v.], whose 
sister was second wife of Sir John Wriothes- 
ley or Writh [q. v.], Charles Wriothesley's 
grandfather, and the reign of Henry VII 
and first eleven years of Henry A 7 III are 
little more than transcripts from Arnold. 
After that date Wriothesley becomes an in- 
dependent authority of great value ; in many 
cases, such as the trial of Anne Boleyn, he 
supplies new information ; and in others, 
Avhere his differs from generally received 
accounts, his testimony always merits care- 
ful consideration. 

[An account of Wriothesley and a detailed 
examination of his chronicle are given in 
Hamilton's preface (Camden Soc.) ; see also 
Addit. MS. 33376, f. 27 ; Anstis's Order of the 
Garter, i. 373, n. xxiv ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII; Rymer's Fcedera, xv. 187, 423: 
Foster's Gray's Inn Keg.; and authorities cited.} 

A. F. P. 

WRIOTHESLEY, HENRY, third EARL 
OF SOUTHAMPTON (1573-1624), Shakespeare's 
patron, was second son of Henry Wriothesley, 
second earl of Southampton, by his wife, 
Mary Browne, daughter of the first viscount 
Montague. He was born at his maternal 
grandfather's residence, Cowdray House, near 
Midhurst, on 6 Oct. 1573. His father died two 
days before his eighth birthday [see WRIO- 
THESLEY, THOMAS, first EARL OF SOUTHAMP- 
TON]. The elder brother was already dead. 
Thus on 4 Oct. 1581 he became third earl 
of Southampton. His mother remained a 
widow during nearly the whole of his 
minority ; on 2 May 1594 she married Sir 
Thomas Heneage, vice-chamberlain of Eliza- 
beth's household : but he died within a year, 
and in 1598 she took a third husband, Sir 
William Hervey, who distinguished himself 
in military service in Ireland, and was created 
Lord Hervey by James I. As was customary, 
the young earl became on his father's death 
a royal ward, and Lord Burghley, the prime 
minister, acted as his guardian in his capa- 
city of master of the court of wards. At 
the age of twelve, in the autumn of 1585, he 



Wriothesley 



141 



Wriothesley 



was admitted to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. Next summer he sent his guardian 
Burghley an essay in Ciceronian Latin on 
the somewhat cynical text that 'All men 
are moved to the pursuit of virtue by the 
hope of reward.' The paper, an admirable 
specimen of caligraphy, is preserved at 
Hatfield. He remained at the university 
for four years, graduating M.A. at sixteen 
in 1589. Before leaving college he entered 
his name as a student at Gray's Inn, and soon 
afterwards took into his ' pay and patronage' 
John Florio [q. v.], the well-known author 
and Italian tutor. According to Florio the 
earl quickly acquired a thorough knowledge 
of Italian. About 1590, when he was hardly 
more than seventeen, he was presented to 
Queen Elizabeth, who showed him kindly 
notice, and her favourite, the Earl of Essex, 
thenceforth displayed in his welfare a bro- 
therly interest which proved in course of 
time a doubtful blessing. In the autumn 
of 1592 he was in the throng of noblemen 
that accompanied Elizabeth to Oxford, and 
was recognised as the most handsome and 
accomplished of all the young lords who fre- 
quented the royal presence. In 1593 South- 
ampton was mentioned for nomination as 
a knight of the garter, and although he was 
not chosen the compliment of nomination 
was, at his age, unprecedented outside the 
circle of the sovereign's kinsmen. On 17 Nov. 
1595 he distinguished himself in the lists set 
up in the queen's presence in honour of the 
thirty-seventh anniversary of her accession, 
and was likened by George Peel, in his 
account of the scene in his ' Anglorurn Fe- 
rise,' to Bevis of Southampton, the ancient 
type of chivalry. 

Literature was from early manhood a 
chief interest of Southampton's life, and 
before he was of age he achieved wide re- 
putation as a patron of the poets. From 
the hour that, as a handsome and accom- 
plished lad, he joined the court and made 
London his chief home, authors acknow- 
ledged his appreciation of literary effort of 
almost every quality and form. His great 
wealth was freely dispensed among his literary 
eulogists. In 1593 Barnabe Barnes appended 
a sonnet in his honour to his collection of 
sonnets called ' Parthenophil and Parthe- 
nophe ; ' in 1594 Thomas Nash described him, 
when dedicating to him his romance of ' Jack 
Wilton,' as ' a dear lover and cherisher as well 
of the lovers of poets as of the poets them- 
selves.' For him Nash seems to have penned 
at the same time a lascivious poem entitled 
' The Choosing of Valentines/ which opens 
and closes with a sonnet to ' Lord S[outh- 
ampton].' In 1595 Gervase Markham in- 



scribed to him in a sonnet his patriotic 
poem on Sir Richard Grenville's fight off 
the Azores. In 1598 Florio associated with 
his name his great Italian-English dic- 
tionary, ' A Worlde of Wordes.' But the 
chief of Southampton's poetic clients was 
Shakespeare. In April 1593 Shakespeare 
dedicated to Southampton his poem ' Venus 
and Adonis ; ' there Shakespeare's language 
merely suggests the ordinary relations sub- 
sisting between a Maecenas and a poetic 
aspirant to his favourable notice. In May 
1594 Shakespeare again greeted Southamp- 
ton as his patron, dedicating to him his second 
narrative poem ' Lucrece.' In his second 
dedicatory epistle to the earl Shakespeare 
used the language of devoted friendship ; 
although such language was common at the 
time in communication between patrons and 
poets, Shakespeare's employment of it is 
emphatic enough to suggest that his inti- 
macy with Southampton had become very 
close since he dedicated ' Venus and Adonis ' 
to him in more formal language a year before. 

Evidence of Southampton's love for the 
Elizabethan drama is abundant, and there is 
a very substantial corroboration of Southamp- 
ton's regard for Shakespeare, which the dedi- 
cations of the two narrative poems attest, in 
the statement made by Nicholas Eowe, 
Shakespeare's first adequate biographer, on 
the competent authority of Sir William 
D'Avenant. This statement runs thus : 
' There is one instance so singular in its 
magnificence of this patron of Shakespeare's 
[i.e. the Earl of Southampton], that if I had 
not been assured that the story was handed 
down by Sir William D'Avenant, who was 
probably very well acquainted with his affairs, 
I should not venture to have inserted ; that 
my lord Southampton at one time gave him 
a thousand pounds to enable him to go through 
with a purchase which he heard he had a 
mind to. A bounty very great and very rare 
at any time.' 

Southampton is the only patron of Shake- 
speare who is positively known to biographers 
of the dramatist. There is therefore strong 
external presumption in favour of Southamp- 
ton's identification with the anonymous friend 
and patron whom the poet describes in his 
sonnets as the sole object of his poetic adula- 
tion. The theory that the majority of Shake- 
speare's sonnets were addressed to South- 
ampton is powerfully supported by internal 
evidence. Several of the sonnets which are 
avowedly addressed to the patron of the 
writer's poetry embody language almost 
identical with that employed by Shakespeare 
in the dedicatory epistle of ' Lucrece.' Else- 
where Shakespeare complains that his own 



Wriothesley 



142 



Wriothesley 



predominant place in his patron's esteem is 
threatened by the favour bestowed by the 
patron on rival poets. In 1594, when most 
of Shakespeare's sonnets were probably 
written, Southampton was the centre of 
attraction among poetic aspirants. No other 
patron's favour was at the moment more per- 
sistently sought by newcomers in the literary 
field. There is a possibility that Shakespeare 
saw his chief rival in Barnabe Barnes, a 
youthful prottgt of the earl ; Barnes, in one 
of his sonnets, had eulogised Southampton's 
virtues and inspiring eyes in language which 
phrases in Shakespeare's sonnets seem to 
reflect. In other sonnets in which Shake- 
speare avows love in the Elizabethan sense of 
friendship for a handsome youth of wealth 
and rank, there are many hints of South- 
ampton's known character and career. The 
opening sequence of seventeen sonnets, in 
which a youth of rank and wealth is ad- 
monished to marry and beget a son so that 
' his fair house ' may not fall into decay, can 
only have been addressed to a young peer 
like Southampton, who was as yet unmar- 
ried, had vast possessions, and was the sole 
male representative of his family. 

Southampton doubtless inspired Shake- 
speare with genuine personal affection, but it 
was in perfect accord 'with the forms of ad- 
dress that were customary in the 1 intercourse 
of poets with patrons for Shakespeare to 
describe his relations with his Maecenas in 
the language of an overmastering passion. 
Some exaggeration was imperative among 
Elizabethan sonnetteers in depicting the 
personal attractions of a patron. But the 
extant portraits of Southampton confirm the 
' fair ' aspect with which the sonnet's hero is 
credited. Shakespeare's frequent references 
inhissonnetstohis youthfulpatron's 'painted 
counterfeit' (sonnets 16, 24, 47, 67) were 
doubtless suggested by the frequency with 
which Southampton sat for his portrait (see 
list of portraits ad fin.} Sonnet 68 has an 
allusion to the youth's ' golden tresses,' and 
Southampton is known to have attracted 
special attention at court by his vanity in 
wearing his auburn hair so long as to fall 
below his shoulders. The lascivious temper 
with which Shakespeare credits his hero, and 
the patron's intrigue with the poet's mistress 
which the sonnets indicate, are in full agree- 
ment with what is known of Southampton's 
youthful amours. The extreme youth with 
which the hero of the sonnets is at times 
credited presents no difficulty. Southampton, 
who was twenty-one in 1594, was generally 
judged to be young for his years, while 
serious-minded Shakespeare at the age of 
thirty on the threshold of middle age 



naturally tended to exaggerate the difference 
between his boyish patron's age and his own 
(Elizabethan sonnetteers, moreover, habitu- 
ally respected Petrarch's con vent ion of speak- 
ing of themselves as far advanced in years). 
\ Sonnet 107, which seems to refer to the 
! death of Queen Elizabeth and the accession 
' of James I, may be regarded as a congratu- 
latory greeting from Shakespeare on South- 
ampton's release from prison, and is doubtless 
the last of the series. (Shakespeare's sonnets 
were not published till 1609, although they 
had been circulated earlier in manuscript. 
The printed volume was the surreptitious 
venture of a disreputable and half-educated 
publisher, Thomas Thorpe [q. v.], who knew 
nothing of the sonnets' true history, and 
dedicated the book to a friend in the trade, 
who was a partner in the transaction of the 
publication. Thorpe, in the Pistol-like lan- 
guage that he invariably affected in such 
dedicatory greetings as are extant from his 
eccentric pen, adapted to his humoursome 
purposes the common dedicatory formula 
(which ' wisheth ' a patron ' all happiness ' 
and ' eternity '), and puzzled future students 
by bombastically dubbing the friend ' Mr. 
W. H.,' who procured for him the un- 
authorised * copy ' of the sonnets, ' the only 
begetter of these ensuing sonnets ; ' Thorpe 
employed ' begetter ' in the sense 'of ' pro- 
curer,' in accordance with a not unfamiliar 
Elizabethan usage. The laws of Elizabethan 
bibliography render it irrational to seek in 
Thorpe's dedicatory bombast for a clue to 
the persons commemorated by Shakespeare 
in the text of his sonnets.) 

At the time that Shakespeare was penning 
his eulogies in 1594 Southampton, although 
just of age, was still unmarried. "When he 
was seventeen Burghley had suggested a 
union between him and his granddaughter 
Lady Elizabeth Yere, daughter of the Earl of 
Oxford. The Countess of Southampton ap- 
proved the match, but Southampton declined 
to entertain it. By some observers at court 
he was regarded as too fantastic and volatile to 
marry at all. In 1595 he involved himself 
in an intrigue with one of the queen's waiting 
women, Elizabeth, daughter of John Vernon of 
Hodnet in Shropshire, and a first cousin of 
the Earl of Essex. The amour was deemed 
injurious to his reputation. In 1596 he with- 
drew from court and played a part as a volun- 
teer with his friend Essex in the military and 
naval expedition to Cadiz. Next year he 
again accompanied Essex on the expedition 
to the Azores. These experiences developed 
in him a martial ardour which improved his 
position, but on his return to court in Janu- 
ary 1598 he gave new proof of his impetu- 



Wriothesley 



'43 



Wriothesley 



ous temper. One evening in that month 
Ralegh with Southampton and a courtier 
named Parker were playing at primero in 
the presence chamber, but when Ambrose 
Willoughby , an esquire of the body, requested 
them to desist on the queen's withdrawal to 
her bedchamber, Southampton struck Wil- 
loughby, and during the scuffle that ensued 
' the esquire pulled off some of the earl's 
locks.' Next morning the queen thanked 
Willoughby for what he did (Sydney Papers, 
ii. 83). Later, in 1598, Southampton ac- 
cepted a subordinate place in the suite of 
the queen's secretary, Sir Robert Cecil, who 
was going on an embassy to Paris. Before 
leaving London he entertained his new chief 
with a dramatic entertainment. While in 
Paris he learned that his mistress, Elizabeth 
Vernon, was about to become a mother, and, 
hurrying home, he secretly made her his wife 
during the few days he remained in Eng- 
land. When the news reached the queen she 
was full of anger and issued orders for the 
arrest of both the bride and bridegroom. 
' The new-coined countess ' was at first dis- 
missed with much contumely from her place 
at court and then committed to ' the best- 
appointed lodging in the Fleet ' (Chamberlain 
to Carleton). A few weeks later Southamp- 
ton, on his return from France, was carried 
to the same prison. Although he was soon 
released from gaol, all avenues of the queen's 
favour were thenceforth closed to him. 

Early in 1599 he sought employment in 
the wars in Ireland, and accompanied thither 
his friend Essex, who had been appointed 
lord-deputy. Essex nominated Southampton 
general of his horse, but Elizabeth refused to 
confirm the appointment, and Essex, after 
much resistance, was obliged to cancel it in 
July. In, the autumn of 1599 Southampton 
was idling in London with his friend, Lord 
Rutland. His love of the drama was his 
only resource. He avoided the court, and 
' passed away the time merely in going to 
plays every day ' (Sydney Papers, ii. 132). 
As soon as Essex was committed to custody 
on his return to England from Ireland in 
October 1599, Southampton was in frequent 
communication with him, and was gradually 
drawn into the conspiracy whereby Essex 
and his friends designed to regain by vio- 
lence their influence at court. In July 
1600 Southampton revisited Ireland, in 
order to persuade the new deputy, Lord 
Mountjoy, to return to Wales with an army 
that might be used to serve Essex's in- 
terests, but Mountjoy proved unconciliatory. 
As soon as Essex regained his liberty in 
August, he and his associates often met at 
Southampton's house to devise a scheme of 



rebellion. On Thursday, 5 Feb. 1000-1, 
Southampton sent a message and forty shil- 
lings to the players at the Globe Theatre, 
bidding them revive for the following Satur- 
day Shakespeare's play of ' Richard II ' so as 
to excite the London public by presenting 
on the stage the deposition of a king. The 
performance duly took place. Xext morning, 
Sunday, 8 Feb., there followed the outbreak 
which Essex and Southampton had organised 
to remove their enemies from the court. The 
rising failed completely. Southampton was 
arrested and sent to the Tower, and on 
19 Feb. was brought with Essex to trial on 
a capital charge of treason before a special 
commission of twenty-five peers and nine 
judges sitting in Westminster Hall. South- 
ampton declared in the course of the trial 
that the queen's secretary, Sir Robert Cecil, 
had told him that the Spanish infanta was 
Elizabeth's rightful successor. Cecil hotly 
denied the damaging allegation. Both de- 
fendants were convicted and condemned to 
death. Cecil interested himself in securing 
a commutation of Southampton's sentence. 
He pleaded that 'the poor young earl, merely 
for the love of Essex, had been drawn into 
this action,' and his punishment was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life. Further 
mitigation was not to be looked for while 
the queen lived. Essex sent Southampton 
a pathetic letter of farewell before his execu- 
tion on 25 Feb. 

Essex had been James's sworn ally, and 
the king's first act on his accession to the 
crown of England was to set Southampton 
free (10 April 1603). After a confinement 
of more than two years, Southampton thus 
resumed, under happier auspices, his place 
at court. Popular sympathy ran high in his 
favour. Samuel Daniel and John Davies 
of Hereford offered him congratulations on 
his release in verse, Bacon addressed him a 
prose epistle of welcome, and Shakespeare's 
sonnet 107 may well be associated with the 
general joy. 

As soon as Southampton was at liberty, 
he was given high honours. On 2 July 
1603 he was created K.G. Five days later 
he was appointed captain of the Isle of 
Wight and Carisbrooke Castle, as well as 
steward, surveyor, receiver, and bailiff of 
the royal manors in the island. He was re- 
created Earl of Southampton (21 July 1003), 
and on 18 April 1604 was fully restored in 
blood by act of parliament. On 10 Dec. 
1603 he became keeper of the king's game 
in the divisions of Andover, Sawley, and 
Kingsclere, Hampshire. He was made lord 
lieutenant of Hampshire, jointly with the 
Earl of Devonshire, on 10 April 1004, and 



Wriothesley 



144 



Wriothesley 



commissioner for the union with England on 
10 May. The new queen showed him special 
favour. In 1603 he entertained her at South- 
ampton House, and engaged Burbage and 
his company of actors, of whom Shakespeare 
was one, to act ' Love's Labour's Lost ' in her 
presence. On 10 Oct. he was made her mas- 
ter of the game. He joined her council on 
9 Aug. 1604, and when acting as steward at 
the magnificent entertainment given at 
"Whitehall on 19 Aug. 1604 in honour of 
the signing of a treaty of peace with Spain, 
he twice danced a coranto with the queen. 

But Southampton's impetuosity had not 
diminished. In July 1603, when the queen 
expressed astonishment, in the course of con- 
versation with him in the presence chamber, 
' that so many great men did so little for 
themselves ' on the fatal day of Essex's re- 
bellion, Southampton replied that they were 
paralysed by the course skilfully taken by 
their opponents to make their attempt appear 
to be a treasonable attack on Queen Eliza- 
beth's person. But for that false colour given 
to our action, none of those, said he, with 
whom our quarrel really was, ' durst have 
opposed us.' Lord Grey, an enemy of Essex, 
with whom Southampton had quarrelled in \ 
Ireland, was standing by, and, imagining him- j 
self aimed at, fiercely retorted at the word 
' durst ' that the daring of the adversaries of 
Essex was not inferior to that of his friends. 
Southampton gave his interlocutor the lie 
direct, and was soon afterwards ordered to 
the Tower for his infringement of the peace 
of the palace. Although he did not forfeit 
the good opinion of the king and queen, 
James I's chief minister, Lord Salisbury, who 
knew him of old, distrusted him, and his 
efforts to obtain something beyond orna- 
mental offices were unsuccessful. He there- 
fore devoted his ample leisure and wealth to 
organising colonial enterprise. He helped to 
equip Weymouth's expedition to Virginia in 
1605, and became a member of the Virginia 
Company's council in 1609. He was admitted 
a member of the East India Company in the 
same year. In April 1610 he helped to des- 
patch Henry Hudson to seek the North- 
west Passage, and was an incorporator both 
of the North- west Passage Company in 1612, 
and of the Somers Island Company in 1615. 
He was chosen treasurer of the Virginia 
Company on 28 June 1620, and retained 
office till the company's charter was declared 
void on 16 June 1624. The papers of the 
company, which are now in the Congress 
Library at Washington, were entrusted to 
his keeping, and they are said to have been 
purchased by a Virginian settler, William 
Byrd, of Southampton's son. The map of 



New England commemorates Southampton's 
labours as a colonial pioneer. In his honour 
were named Southampton Hundred (17 Nov. 
1620), Hampton River, and Hampton Roads 
in Virginia, while Southampton ' tribe ' in 
the Somers' Island was also called after 
him. 

Meanwhile some of Southampton's super- 
fluous energy continued to find an outlet in 
court brawls. In April 1610 he had a quarrel 
with the Earl of Montgomery ; ' they fell 
out at times, where the rackets flew about 
their ears ; but the matter was compounded 
by the king without further bloodshed ' 
(\\~ix\rooD, Memorials, iii. 154). At Prince 
Henry's creation as Prince of Wales on 
4 June 1610 he acted as the prince's carver 
(t'6. iii. 180). Still faithful to Essex's memory, 
he came to London in 1612 especially to 
support the candidature of Sir Henry Neville, 
Essex's old friend, for the secretaryship to 
the king. In May next year, at the opening 
of the dispute between the young Earl of 
Essex and his wife, Southampton represented 
the young earl, together with Lord Knollys, 
at a meeting with the countess's representa- 
tives at Whitehall, but no settlement was 
possible. 

Although Southampton had been brought 
up by his parents as a catholic, his sympa- 
thies gradually inclined to protestantism. 
His colleague in the work of colonial orga- 
nisation, Sir Edwin Sandys, claimed to have 
finally converted him. In the continental 
troubles which centred round the elector 
palatine and the electress (James I's daugh- 
ter) Southampton gave unhesitating support 
to the champions of protestantism, and be- 
came a powerful advocate of active inter- 
vention on the part of the English govern- 
ment to protect the German protestants 
from the threatened attack of the catholic 
emperor. In 1614 he went out as a volun- 
teer to engage in the war in Cleves ; Edward, 
lord Herbert of Cherbury, accompanied him 
(cf. HERBERT'S Autobiography, ed. Lee, p. 
146). In May 161 7 he proposed to fit out an 
expedition of twelve thousand men to capture 
the Barbary pirates who plundered the ships 
of English merchants in the Mediterranean. 
The merchants desired Southampton to take 
command of the expedition. Gondomar, the 
Spanish ambassador, strongly opposed the 
scheme ; he ridiculed it as designed to fur- 
ther Southampton's ambition of becoming 
lord high admiral of England. As far as 
Southampton was concerned the scheme 
fell through. Later in the year (1617) he 
accompanied James I on a long visit to Scot- 
land. After his return the king acknow- 
ledged his attentions on the journey by 



Wriothesley 



Wriothesley 



nominating him a privy councillor. He was 
sworn on 19 April 1619. 

Thereupon Southampton played a more 
prominent part in home politics. He joined 
the party in the council that was opposed to 
the favourite, Buckingham, and characteristic 
quarrels between him and Buckingham were 
frequent. In March 1621 Southampton 
checked Buckingham on a point of order 
when he attempted to address a committee 
of the two houses without having been ap- 
pointed a member of it (cf. Parliamentary 
Hist. v. 371). A fight nearly followed in 
the House of Lords. In opposition to Buck- 
ingham, Southampton relentlessly pressed 
the charges against Bacon. On 20 March 
1621 he moved that a very curt answer be 
sent to Bacon's appeal for delay. On 3 May 
he strongly supported Lord Say's proposal to 
degrade Bacon from the peerage, and asserted 
that he ought to be banished. A few days 
later he strongly opposed the government in 
their resolution to condemn Sir Henry Yel- 
verton [q. v.] unheard. In the same month 
Southampton invited members of both houses 
to meet at his house in Holborn and concert 
measures against the favourite. He was at 
any rate resolved to open direct negotiations 
with the elector palatine and Princess Eliza- 
beth, whose misfortunes the king and Buck- 
ingham seemed resolved to ignore. On 
16 June Southampton was arrested as he left 
the council board, and was confined in the 
house of John Williams, the lord-keeper and 
dean of Westminster, on the charge of mis- 
chievous intrigues with members of the Com- 
mons. He was released a month later, twelve 
days after the adjournment of parliament, 
and was ordered to repair to his own seat 
of Titchfield in the custody of Sir William 
Parkhurst. Thence he addressed to Wil- 
liams, with whom his relations were cordial, 
a letter proudly submitting himself to the 
king's will (Harleian MS. 7000, p. 46). He 
was relieved of restraint on 1 Sept. (Cabala, 
1663, pp. 283, 285, 359). 

Southampton was in no mood to curry 
favour with Buckingham, and the quarrel 
was never healed. When in July 1623 the 
privy councillors took an oath to support the 
Spanish marriage treaty, Southampton was 
one of six who absented themselves. He and 
Edward lord Zouche were the only absentees 
who offered no excuse for their absence. 
During the session of parliament (February- 
May 1624) he was especially active, sitting 
on committees to consider the defence of 
Ireland, for stopping the exportation of 
money, and for rendering firearms more ser- 
viceable. He also devoted much energy to 
championing the imperilled interests of the 

VOL. LXIII. 



Virginia Company, to which the Spanish 
ambassador was resolutely hostile, but was 
unable to prevent the withdrawal of the 
company's charter in June 1624. He was 
present at the prorogation of parliament on 
29 May. Six weeks later Southampton left 
England not to return alive. 

In the summer a defensive treaty of 
alliance against the emperor was signed with 
the United States of the Netherlands, by 
one article of which the States were per- 
mitted to raise in England a body of six 
thousand men. This was promptly done, 
and Southampton with his elder son, James, 
lord Wriothesley, took command of a troop 
of English volunteers. Father and son, on 
landing in the Low Countries, were both 
attacked by fever. The younger man suc- 
cumbed at once at Rosendael. The earl re- 
gained sufficient strength to accompany his 
son's body to Bergen-op-Zoom, but there, on 
10 Nov. 1624, he himself died ' of a lethargy.' 
Father and son were buried in the chancel 
of the church of Titchfield, Hampshire, on 
28 Dec. 

Williams, a few days before, wrote to 
Buckingham begging ' his grace and good- 
ness towards the most distressed widow and 
children of my Lord Southampton ' (Cabala, 
p. 299). Besides James, who died in Holland, 
Southampton left a second son, Thomas 
Wriothesley, who succeeded to his estates 
and is noticed separately, and three daugh- 
ters : Penelope, who married William, second 
baron Spencer, of Wormleighton ; Anne, who 
married Robert Wallop [q. v.], of Farleigh in 
Hampshire ; and Elizabeth, who married Sir 
Thomas Estcourt, a master in chancery. 

Southampton never ceased to cherish the 
passion for books which was implanted in 
him in boyhood, and had brought him the 
personal intimacy of Shakespeare. Towards 
the end of his life he presented a collection 
of books and illuminated manuscripts to 
the value of SQOl. to furnish a new library 
which was being built at St. John's College, 
Cambridge (MAYOR, Hist, of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge). Until his death he con- 
tinued to be the subject of much literary 
eulogy. Henry Locke (or Lok), George 
Chapman, Joshua Sylvester, Richard Brath- 
waite, George Wither, and others wrote poems 
in his honour during his middle age. Min- 
sheu was in 1617 among the scholars who 
were recipients of his bounty. The com- 
bination in him of a love of literature and 
military ambition was especially emphasised 
in his lifetime in Camden's ' Britannia ' and 
in ' The Mirrour of Majestie,'by H. G., 1618. 
Sir J ohn Beaumont, on his death, wrote an 
elegy which panegyrises him in the varied 

L 



Wriothesley 



146 



Wriothesley 



capacities of warrior, councillor, father, and 
husband, but chiefly as a literary patron, i 
To the same effect "are some twenty poems j 
which were published in 1624, just after j 
Southampton's death, in a volume edited by j 
his chaplain, William Jones, entitled 'Teares 
of the Isle of Wight, Shed on the Tombe of | 
their most noble, valorous, and loving Cap- 
taine and Governor the right honorable 
Henrie, Earl of Southampton ; ' this was re- 
printed by Malone in the ' Variorum Shake- 
speare,' 1821, xx. 450 seq. 

Southampton's countenance probably sur- 
vives in more canvases than that of any of 
his contemporaries. Fifteen extant portraits 
have been identified on good authority. Two 
portraits representing the earl in early man- 
hood are at Welbeck Abbey. One, in which 
he is resplendently attired, is reproduced in 
Mr. Fairfax Murray's catalogue of the pic- 
tures at Welbeck, and in the present writer's 
' Life of Shakespeare ; ' it was probably 
painted when the earl was just of age. The 
second portrait at Welbeck depicts South- 
ampton five or six years later in prison ; a 
cat and a book in richly jewelled binding are 
on a desk at the right hand (cf. FAIRFAX 
MURRAY, Catalogue of the Pictures at Wel- 
beck). Of the remaining eight paintings, two 
are assigned .to Van Somer, and represent 
the earl in early middle age ; one, a half- 
length, a very charming picture, now belongs 
to James Knowles, esq., of Queen Anne's 
Lodge, London ; the other, a full-length in 
drab doublet and hose, is in the Shakespeare 
Memorial Gallery at Stratford-on-Avon. 
Mereveldt thrice painted the earl at a later 
period of his career ; the pictures are now re- 
spectively at Woburn Abbey (the property 
of the Duke of Bedford), at Althorpe, and at 
the National Portrait Gallery, London. A 
sixth picture, assigned to My tens, belongs to 
Viscount Powerscourt; a seventh, by an 
unknown artist, belongs to Mr. Wingfield 
Digby ; and the eighth (in armour) is in the 
master's lodge at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where Southampton was educated. 
The miniature by Isaac Oliver, which also 
represents Southampton in late life, was 
formerly in Dr. Lumsden Propert's collec- 
tion. It now belongs to a collector at Ham- 
burg. The two miniatures assigned to Peter 
Oliver belong respectively to Mr. Jeffery 
Whitehead and Sir Francis Cook, bart. (cf. 
Catalogue of Exhibition of Portrait Minia- 
tures at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 
London, 1889, pp. 32, 71, 100). In all the 
best preserved of these portraits the eyes are 
blue and the hair a dark shade of auburn. 
Among the middle-life portraits Southamp- 
ton appears to best advantage in the one by 



Van Somer belonging to Mr. James Knowles. 
There is a good print by Pass. 

[Gervase Markham supplied a brief biography 
of Southampton as well as of Henry de Vere, 
earl of Oxford, Robert, third earl of Essex, and 
Eobert Bertie, lord Willoughby of Eresby, in a 
work entitled Honour in his Perfection, 1624. 
Nathan Drake, in his Shakespeare and his Times 
(1817), ii. 1-73, supplied the first full argu- 
ment in favour of Southampton's identity with 
the hero of Shakespeare's sonnets. Much space 
is devoted to Southampton's early life and his 
relations with Shakespeare and the Elizabethan 
poets in the present writer's Life of Shakespeare, 
1898 (illustrated edit. 1899). Mr. Samuel But- 
ler, in Shakespeare's Sonnets Reconsidered 
(1899), questions the conclusions there reached. 
See also Brydges's Memoirs of the Peers of Eng- 
land, p. 324 seq. ; Memoirs of Henry Wriothes- 
ley in Malone's Shakespeare, edited by James 
Boswell the younger, Variorum edition, 1821, 
vol. xx. ; Malone's Inquiry into the Authenticity 
of the Ireland Manuscripts, 1796, pp. 180-94; 
Gerald Massey's The Secret Drama of Shake- 
speare's Sonnets ; Lodge's Portraits, iii. 155 seq.; 
Edward Edwards's Life of Ralegh, 1868, i. 251 
seq., 346 ; Devereux's Lives of the Earls of 
Essex ; Spedding's Life of Bacon ; Gardiner's 
History of England ; Brown's Genesis of the 
United States; Doyle's Baronage; G. E. C[o- 
kaynej's Complete Peerage.] S. L. 

WRIOTHESLEY (more correctly 
WBJTH or WRYTHE), SIR JOHN (d. 
1504), Garter king-of-arms, is represented 
in the pedigree drawn up by his son Sir 
Thomas as descended from a W'riothesley 
who lived in the reign of John. That form 
of the name is, however, an invention by 
Sir Thomas, and probably the pedigree is also. 
The family name was Writh or Wrythe, and 
incidental notices of various members of it oc- 
cur in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ; 
a Nicholas Wryth (d. 1499) was fellow of Mer- 
ton College, Oxford (BRODRICK, Memorials, 
pp. 236-7; cf. Brit. Mus. Add. Charters, 
26932-3 ; Cal. Ancient Deeds, P. R. O., i. 558). 

Sir John is said to have been brought to 
the court of Henry V, and made by that 
king antelope pursuivant extraordinary, but 
both these statements are practically im- 
possible. He was, however, faucon herald 
in the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV, 
and was made Norroy king-of-arms on 
25 Jan. 1477 ; he was promoted Garter king 
on 16 July 1479, being the third holder of 
that office. He was sent to proclaim war 
with Scotland at Edinburgh in 1480 and on 
many similar missions, and officiated at the 
funeral of Edward IV and coronation of 
Richard III, who renewed his grant. Writh 
was thus its official head when the College 
of Heralds was incorporated in 1483, and in 



Wriothesley 



147 



Wriothesley 



compliment to him the college adopted his 
arms, changing only the colour ; they were 
azure, a cross or, between four falcons 
argent. Writh also officiated at the coro- 
nation of Henry VII, who continued his 
salary of 40Z. and gave him a gratuity of 
801. In September 1491 he conveyed the 
insignia of the Garter to Maximilian, king 
of the Romans, and three years later to 
Charles VIII of France. 

Writh died in April 1504, on the 30th of 
which month his will, dated 25 March, was 
proved. He married, first, Barbara, daugh- 
ter and heir of John de Castlecomb, a mar- 
riage by which he largely increased his 
fortune, and was father of two sons Sir 
Thomas Wriothesley (d. 1534) [q. v.],' and 
William, father of Thomas Wriothesley, 
first earl of Southampton [q. v.], and two 
daughters. He married, secondly, Eleanor, 
daughter of Thomas and sister of Richard 
Arnold [q. v.], by whom he had a son and 
two daughters; and thirdly, Anne Mynne, 
probably a relative of John Mynne, York 
herald. 

[There is an excellent account of Writh in 
Anstis's Order of the Garter, i. 354-67; see also 
Gairdner's Letters and Papers, Richard III and 
Henry VII, and Campbell's Materials (Rolls 
Ser.) passim; Rawl. MSS. B. 58 f. 113, B. 102 
f. 63; Ashmole MSS.1116ff. 111-13,1133 f. 1; 
Ashmole's Order of the Garter ; Noble's College 
of Arms; Dallaway's Heraldry, 1793 (where he 
is confused with his son Sir Thomas) ; Wriothes- 
ley 's Chron. (Camden Soc.), pref. pp. viii-ix.] 

A. F. P. 

WRIOTHESLEY (formerly WRITH), 
SIB THOMAS (d. 1534), Garter king-of- 
arms, born at Colatford, near Castlecomb 
in Wiltshire, was the second son of Sir John 
Wriothesley or Writh [q. v.], by his first 
wife, Barbara, daughter and heir of John de 
Castlecomb or Januarius de Dunstanville, an 
alleged descendant from an illegitimate son of 
Henry I. The name Thomas was given him by 
his godfather, Thomas Holmes, Clarencieux 
herald. His elder brother, William Writh, 
was father of Thomas Wriothesley, first 
earl of Southampton [q. v.] Both brothers 
followed their father's profession of heraldry, 
and Thomas was in 1489 appointed Walling- 
ford pursuivant at the investiture of Prince 
Arthur, to the fact of whose marriage with 
Catherine of Arragon he was one of the 
principal witnesses before the legatine court 
in July 1529 (Letters and Papers, iv. 5791 ; 
HERBERT, Hist, of Henry VIII, pp. 273-4). 
At this time he lived at Cricklade, near his 
birthplace ; but on his father's death,in 1504 
he was, in preference to Roger Machado 
[q. v.], suddenly promoted (26 Jan. 1504-5) 



to succeed as Garter king-of-arms, and re- 
moved to London, where he built himself a 
house called Garter House in Red Cross 
Street, outside Cripplegate (Slow, Survey, 
ed. Strype, iii. 89). He was confirmed in 
his office of Garter king by letters patent of 
Henry VIII, dated 9 Oct. 1509 (Addit. MS. 
6297, p. 105 ; Letters and Papers, i. 556). 
Possibly owing to his rapid elevation, Writh 
was involved in frequent disputes with 
other heralds (Ashmole MSS. 840 f. 61, 857 
ff. 428, 429). His 'articles against the 
untrue surmises ' of Thomas Benolt [q. v.] 
are extant in British Museum Additional MS. 
6297, pp. 77, 81, and further correspondence 
with Benolt on the matter among the manu- 
scripts at Trinity College, Dublin (BERNARD, 
Cat. MSS. Anglice, iv. 819 ; cf. Letters and 
Papers, vol. v. App. No. 38). As Garter king 
W T rith took part in the chief court ceremonies 
of the time ; he officiated at the jousts held 
at Tournay in 1513, was present in 1514 at the 
marriage of the Princess Mary to Louis XII of 
France, was summoned to attend Henry VIII 
to his meeting with Francis I in 1520, and 
was commissioned to convey the insignia of 
the Garter to the French king in 1527 
(Addit. MSS. 6113 f. 8b, 6297 p. 175, and 
5712). He was knighted at Nuremberg by 
Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while on a 
similar errand. 

He died on 24 Nov. 1534, and was buried 
in Cripplegate church. A portrait of him 
from a tournament roll of 1511 is repro- 
duced in Dallaway's ' Heraldry in England ' 
(1793). By his first wife, Joan, daughter of 
William Hall of Salisbury, Wriothesley 
was father of Charles Wriothesley [q. v.], 
the chronicler, two other sons, and three 
daughters. His second wife was Anne, 
daughter of William Ingleby of Yorkshire, 
and widow of Richard Goldesborough and 
also of Robert Warcop. 

Sir Thomas was a great collector of 
heraldic antiquities, though some of the 
manuscripts attributed to him are of later 
date. British Museum Additional MS. 5530 
is a volume of pedigrees in his hand, but 
Additional MS. 6113, which in the printed 
catalogue is ascribed to him, consists largely 
of descriptions of ceremonies after his death 
written in an Elizabethan hand. Other col- 
lections and notes by him are in Bodleian 
manuscripts, Ashmole 1109, 1110, and 1113, 
and Rawlinson B 56, 58, and 102. He spelt 
his name in a variety of ways, originally as 
Writh or Wrythe, subsequently as Wreseley, 
Writhesley, and eventually Wriothesley ; 
the last was the form adopted by his own 
and his brother's family. In Tudor times 
it was pronounced Wrisley. 

L2 



Wriothesley 



148 



Wriothesley 



[An elaborate account of Wriothesley is given 
in Anstis's Order of the Garter, i. 369-73 ; a 
pedigree and notes on Wriothesley are extant in 
Ashmole MS. 1115 ff. 90, 256; see also Harl. 
MS. 1529 f. 316; Riwlinson MS. 384 ff. 93-4, 
B333 f. 52, B 314 f. 87; Tanner MSS. cvi. 14, 
ccxxxvi. 40; Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII ; Noble's College of Arms ; 
Ashmole's Order of the Garter ; Hamilton's Pre- 
face to Charles Wriothesley's Chronicle (Camden 
Soc.), vol. i. pp. iii-ix; Cat. Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MSS. and Bodleian, Ashmole, Rawlinson, and 
Tanner MSS. ; Dallaway's Heraldry in England, 
1793; Greenfield's Wriothesley Tomb, Titchfield 
(Hampshire Field Club Proc. 1889).] A. F. P. 

WRIOTHESLEY, SIR THOMAS, first 
BARON WRIOTHESLEY of TITCHFIELD and 
EARL of SOUTHAMPTON (1505-1550), lord 
chancellor of England, was eldest son of 
William Writh or Wriothesley, York herald, 
who, like his brother, Sir Thomas Wriothes- 
ley (d. 1534) [q. v.], adopted Wriqthesley as 
the spelling of the family name. His mother, 
who survived until 1538, was Agnes, daugh- 
ter of James Drayton of London ; and Dray- 
ton's notes recording his own and his grand- 
children's dates of birth are still extant 
(Brit. Mus. Add. Charters, ISIS!). Thomas, 
the eldest son, was born on the feast of St. 
Thomas the Apostle, 21 Dec. 1505; his 
sisters, Elizabeth and Anne (who married 
Thomas Knight of Hook in Hampshire) in 
1507 and 1508, and his brother Edward in 
1509. At Edward's christening the god- 
fathers were Edward Stafford, third duke of 
Buckingham [q. v.], and Henry ' Algernon ' 
Percy, fifth earl of Northumberland [q. v.] 
Two other sisters, whom Wriothesley names 
in his will, were born subsequently. 

Thomas was educated at King's Hall or 
St. John's College, Cambridge, but seems to 
have left the university without a degree, 
and sought employment at court. In a docu- 
ment dated 12 Feb. 1523-4 he refers to 
Cromwell as his master, and after that date 
documents in his handwriting are frequent. 
In 1529, however, he is described as servant 
to (Sir) Edmund Peckham [q. v.], who, like 
Wriothesley, married a Cheyne of Chesham 
Bois, and on 4 May 1 530 he appears as clerk of 
the signet ; on that date he was granted in re- 
version the office of bailiff in Warwick and 
Snitterfield, where Shakespeare's father 
lived (Letter sand Papers, iv. 6600 [11]). He 
probably ingratiated himself with Henry by 
his ' labour in the king's great business,' i.e. 
the divorce (ib. xiv. i. 190), and on 26 Jan. 
1530-1 he received a pension of 51. from the 
lands of St. Mary's Abbey, York. In Decem- 
ber 1532 he was sent abroad, probably as 
bearer of despatches for some foreign am- 



bassador. A similar mission followed in the 
autumn of 1533. In October he was at Mar- 
seilles in financial straits, ' apparel and play 
sometimes, whereat he was unhappy,' having 
' cost him more than 50 crowns.' Apparently 
he went on to Rome, where he vainly en- 
deavoured to obtain papal bulls for his friend 
John Salcot, bishop-elect of Bangor. He had 
returned by the summer of 1534, and in that 
year was admitted a student of Gray's Inn. 
On 2 Jan. 1535-6 he was granted in reversion 
the lucrative office of coroner and attorney 
in the king's bench (ib. x. 12), and in the 
same year was appointed ' graver ' of the 
Tower. In the autumn he was required to 
supply twelve men for service against the 
rebels in the north, and to attend the king 
thither in person. He remained, however, 
with Henry at Windsor, doing an increas- 
ing amount of secretarial work, and using his 
growing influence to secure large grants out 
of the lands of the dissolved monasteries. 
Early in 1537 he was given various manors 
previously belonging to Quarr Abbey in the 
Isle of Wight (ib. xn. i. 539 [45], 662, ii. 
1150 [77]). On 30 Dec. in the same year he 
acquired the site of the monastery of Titch- 
field, on the east side of Southampton Water, 
and on 29 July 1538 that of Beaulieu Abbey, 
on the opposite side of the water (ib. xm. i. 
1519 [67]). Wriothesley had previously 
owned houses near both these monasteries, 
with which he appears to have been officially 
connected, possibly as steward, and also at 
Micheldever, where his family resided. He 
was likewise seneschal of Hyde Abbey, near 
Winchester, of which his friend Salcot had 
been abbot ; and when the abbey was sur- 
rendered, Wriothesley naturally obtained 
a grant of its site and of many of its manors. 
He ' pulled the abbey down with amazing 
rapidity and sold the rich materials ' (Liber 
Mon. de Hyda, Rolls Ser. Introd. pp. Ixxi- 
Ixxiii ; LELAND, Itinerary, iii. 86), With the 
grant of these abbeys he also received 
numerous manors, chiefly in Hampshire and 
the Isle of Wight, and his acquisition of 
landed property was naturally followed by 
his inclusion in local commissions of the 
peace and of oyer and terminer, to visit 
monasteries and to pull down images and 
shrines. His active participation in measures 
of this character, especially at Winchester, 
brought on him the hostility of the bishop, 
Stephen Gardiner [q. v.], who was his wife's 
uncle, but Cromwell's patronage made him 
secure for the time. 

In September 1538 Wriothesley was sent as 
ambassador to the regent of the Netherlands, 
Mary, queen of Hungary, to propose marriage 
between Henry VIII and the Duchess of 



Wriothesley 



149 



Wriothesley 



Milan, and between the Princess Mary and 
Don Luis of Portugal. He arrived at Calais 
on 28 Sept., and had audience with the 
regent at Brussels on 6 Oct. During his 
residence in the Netherlands he made various 
efforts to kidnap English refugees, both pro- 
testant and Roman catholic, but these were 
as unsuccessful as the main objects of his 
mission. It was, however, intended to be 
nothing more than an attempt to delay the 
threatened coalition of Francis I and 
Charles V against Henry. In March 1538-9 
war seemed imminent ; Chapuys left Eng- 
land, and Wriothesley was in great dread of 
being detained a prisoner in Flanders. He 
obtained the regent's leave to depart on the 
19th, and reached Calais just in time to 
escape the messengers she had sent after 
him to effect his arrest. 

On 1 April following, in spite of Gardi- 
ner's opposition, Wriothesley was returned 
to parliament as one of the knights of the 
shire for the county of Southampton. In 
December he was sent to Hertford to obtain 
the consent of the Princess Mary to negotia- 
tions for her marriage with Philip of Bavaria, 
and about the same time he is said to have 
attempted to dissuade Henry from marrying 
Anne of Cleves. In April 1540 Wriothesley 
was appointed joint principal secretary with 
Sir Ralph Sadleir [q.v.], with the usual pro- 
vision of lodging within the royal palaces 
'and like bouge of court in all things as is 
appointed ; ' his commission (Stowe MS. 141, 
f. 78) dispensed with the statute (31 
Henry Vlll, c. 10) providing that both 
secretaries should sit on one of the woolsacks 
in the House of Lords, and directed, in con- 
sideration of their usefulness in the House 
of Commons, that the two secretaries should 
sit alternate weeks, one in the lower and one 
in the upper house. On the 18th of the same 
month Wriothesley was knighted at the same 
time that Cromwell was created Earl of Essex 
(Letters and Papers, xv. 437, 541 ; WRIOTHES- 
LEY, Chron. i. 115). 

Cromwell's fall two months later made 
Wriothesley's position perilous, and it was 
commonly reported that he was about to 
follow his patron to the Tower. A series of 
charges, instigated possibly by Gardiner, and 
accusing him of unjustly retaining some 
manors near Winchester, were brought 
against him and repeatedly discussed by the 
privy council. On 27 June, however, Ri- 
chard Pate [q.v.] wrote to Wriothesley from 
Brussels rejoicing ' to hear the common 
rumours proved false touching his trouble,' 
and on 29 Dec. the privy council pronounced 
the charges against him slanderous. In 
reality Wriothesley had proved himself 



useful by the evidence he gave with respect 
to Cromwell's case and the repudiation of 
Anne of Cleves. Apparently, too, he had 
made his peace with the now powerful 
Gardiner, with whom he henceforth acted in 
concert, and had given sureties against any 
recurrence of his former religious and icono- 
clastic zeal ; at any rate, ha now became one 
of the mainstays of the 'conservative party. 
On 26 July he was sufficiently in favour to 
be granted in fee the ' great mansion ' within 
the close of Austin Friars, London. On 
13 Nov. he ' came to Hampton Court to the 
Queue [Catherine Howard], and called all 
the ladies and gentlewomen and her ser- 
vauntes into the Great Chamber, and there 
openlye afore them declared certeine offences 
that she had done . . . wherefore he there 
discharged all her househould' (WRIOTHES- 
LEY, Chron. i. 130-1 ; HERBERT, Reign of 
Henry VIII, pp. 535-6). This offensive 
duty was followed by repeated examinations 
of the Duchess of Norfolk and her house- 
hold, in which Wriothesley also took the 
principal part, and on 7 Jan. 1540-1 he was 
appointed constable of Southampton Castle. 
In the same month at the time of the arrest 
of his friends Sir Thomas Wyatt [q. v.] and 
Sir John Wallop [q. v.], Wriothesley was 
again thought by Marillac to be in great 
danger ( Correspondance, ed. Kaulek, pp. 261- 
262), and the rumour has led to erroneous 
statements that he waa at this time sent to 
the Tower (Cal. State Papers, Spanish, vol. 
vi. pt. i. index) ; but there is no sign of this 
in the state papers or in the register of 
the privy council, where Wriothesley con- 
tinued to be an assiduous attendant. 

In reality the loss of influence inflicted 
upon the Howards by the attainder of their 
relative, Queen Catherine, opened up for 
Wriothesley the prospect of greater power 
than he had hitherto enjoyed, and in April 
1542 Chapuys reported that Wriothesley and 
the lord privy seal, William Fitzwilliam, earl 
of Southampton [q. v.], were the courtiers 
who possessed most credit with Henry VIII 
(ib. vi. i. 493). In November of the same 
year he went further and declared that 
Wriothesley 'almost governed everything' 
in England (ib. vi. ii. 167). This view of 
Wriothesley's influence was partly due to 
the fact that he was working hand in hand 
with the imperial party and Chapuys to 
restore a complete alliance between England 
and Spain. With this object he was in con- 
stant communication with the imperial am- 
bassador, and on 25 Oct. 1543 he was com- 
missioned with Gardiner and Thirlby to 
formulate an offensive and defensive league 
with Charles V, the outcome of which was 



Wriothesley i 

the joint invasion of France by the two 
monarchs in 1544. As a reward for his 
efforts Wriothesley was on 1 Jan. of that 
year created Baron Wriothesley of Titchfield, 
on 22 April following he was made keeper 
of the great seal during Audley's illness, 
and on his death succeeded him as lord 
chancellor (3 May). He was also on 26 June 
appointed to treat with Matthew Stewart, 
earl of Lennox [q. v.], for the delivery of 
Dumbarton and Bute into English hands, 
and on 9 July was named one of the advisers 
of Queen Catherine Parr as regent during 
Henry VIII's absence in France. On 
23 April 1545 he was elected knight of the 
Garter. 

The alliance between England and Spain 
was, however, only part of a general re- 
actionary policy in which Wriothesley was 
the king's chief instrument. It extended 
also to .domestic affairs, and the new lord 
chancellor gained a notoriety by his persecu- 
tions which his legal accomplishments would 
never have won him. Audley's lenience 
towards reformers was replaced by frequent 
sentences to the pillory and other punish- 
ments pronounced by Wriothesley in the 
Star-chamber. The best known of his victims 
was Anne Askew [q. v.], and there seems no 
adequate ground for disbelieving the story 
that the lord chancellor and Rich racked the 
unfortunate woman in the Tower with their 
own hands when the lieutenant shrank from 
the task (see Narratives of the Reformation, 
Camden Soc. pp. 303-8 ; BALE, Works, 
Parker Soc. pp. 142 sqq.) Wriothesley was 
certainly present at Anne Askew's execution. 
The intrigue against Catherine Parr, in 
which he is said to have participated, is more 
doubtful, and it is almost certain that for 
all his severity W'riothesley had the king's 
approbation. Probably, too, it was with 
the king's sanction that Wriothesley, who 
sat at Baynard Castle in January 1544-5 as 
chief commissioner for enforcing payment 
of the benevolence, condemned Alderman 
Rede to be sent to the wars in Scotland for 
refusal, a violation of law not less glaring 
than the torture of Anne Askew (HALLAM 
Const. Hist. i. 25 ; LODGE, Illustrations, i 
98; WBIOTHESLEY, Chron. i. 151). His 
last employment in Henry VIII's reign was 
in the proceedings against Surrey and Nor- 
folk ; he personally assisted the king to 
draw up the accusations against Surrey, hac 
the earl under his custody until he was com- 
'mitted to the Tower, and finally passec 
sentence upon him (WRIOTHESLEY, Chron 
i. 176). Similarly he was placed at the 
head of the commissioners appointed to 
declare to parliament Henry's assent to the 



Wriothesley 



jills of attainder against Surrey and Norfolk. 
Wriothesley had never been intimately 
associated with the Howards, but their fall 
was fatal to his own position in the new 
reign and to the policy with which he had 
aeen identified. He was possibly conscious 
of this when ' with tears in his eyes ' he 
announced to parliament on 31 Jan. 1546-7 
the death of Henry VIII. 

By his will Henry VIII left Wriothesley 
500/., and appointed him one of his executors 
and of his son's privy councillors. There is 
no authority for the speech in opposition to 
Somerset's elevation to the protectorate 
which Froude attributes to Wriothesley at 
the meeting of the executors on the after- 
noon of 31 Jan., but it probably represents 
with some accuracy the lord chancellor's 
sentiments. Cranmer alone ranked before 
him in order of precedence, and Wriothesley 
conceived that his position and abilities 
entitled him to an influential if not a pre- 
ponderating voice in the new government. 
' I was afraid,' wrote Sir Richard Morison 
[q. v.], ' of a tempest all the while that 
Wriothesley was able to raise any. I knew 
he was an earnest follower of whatsoever 
he took in hand, and did very seldom miss 
where either wit or travail were able to 
bring his purposes to pass. Most true it is 
I never was able to persuade myself that 
W T riothesley would be great, but the king's 
majesty must be in greatest danger' (Cal. 
State Papers, For. 1547-53, No. 491). This 
distrust more than the chancellor's supposed 
hostility to the religious views of the majority 
of the executors precipitated his fall. He 
had been peculiarly identified with the 
repressive absolutism of Henry VIII's last 
years which the Protector had resolved to 
sweep away, and his removal was no doubt 
a popular measure. He was appointed first 
commissioner of claims for the coronation 
of Edward VI on 5 Feb., was created Earl 
of Southampton on the 16th in accordance 
with Henry's intentions as expressed by 
Paget, and on the 20th bore the sword of 
state at Edward's coronation. But on the 
18th, ambitious of taking a leading part in 
politics, he had issued a commission under 
the great seal to four civilians to hear 
chancery cases in his absence, thus relieving 
himself of a large part of his legal duties. 
Thereupon ' divers students of the common, 
law ' accused the chancellor of ' amplifying 
and enlarging the jurisdiction of the said 
court of chancery ' to the derogation of the 
common law, and declared the said com- 
mission to be ' made contrary to the common 
law.' The commission was in fact only a 
i repetition of one the lord chancellor had taken 



Wriothesley 



Wriothesley 



out three years before ; but he had been guilty 
of a more serious offence, for the commission 
had been issued without a warrant and 
without consulting his fellow executors. 
The question was submitted to the judges 
and law officers of the crown, and they 
unanimously declared that the lord chan- 
cellor had ' by common law ' forfeited his 
office and rendered . himself liable to such 
fine and imprisonment as the king should 
impose. Southampton aggravated his offence 
by threatening the judges and abusing the 
Protector'; on 5 March the great seal was 
taken from him, he was ordered to confine 
himself to his house in Ely Place, and bound 
over in four thousand pounds (Acts P.O. 
1547-50, pp. 48-57 ; Harleian MS. 284, art. 
7). He was not, strictly speaking, expelled 
from the council, but his name was not in- 
cluded in the council when it was recon- 
stituted a few days later on Edward VI's 
authority instead of on that of Henry VIII. 
Southampton's fall removed an obstacle 
from Somerset's path, but the inference that 
it was due to the Protector's animosity is 
hardly warranted. ' Your Grace,' wrote the 
chancellor's ally Gardiner, ' showed so much 
favour to him that all the world commended 
your gentleness,' and a few weeks later the 
French ambassador observed Southampton 
and Somerset in friendly and confidential con- 
versation (Corr.Pol.de Odet de Selve,j>. 147). 
He was soon at liberty, the fine imposed ap- 
pears to have been remitted, and in 1548, if 
not earlier, he was re-admitted to the council 
board. Sduthampton, however, nursed his 
grievance against the Protector, and it is sig- 
nificant that the first occasion on which he 
again comes prominently forward was when 
he joined Warwick and other enemies of 
the Protector in the proceedings against his 
brother Thomas Seymour, baron Seymour of 
Sudeley [q. v.], in January and February 
1548-9. He was no less prominent in the 
intrigues which led to the fall of the Pro- 
tector himself in the following October. In 
September, when the kingmoved to Hampton 
Court, Southampton remained in London, 
and at his house in Ely Place many of the 
secret meetings of the councillors were held ; 
Burnet, indeed, represents Southampton as 
the prime mover in the conspiracy, and War- 
wick as merely his accomplice or even his 
tool. Personal motives as well as antipathy 
to the Protector's religious and social policy 
dictated his action. He was present at all 
the meetings of the council in London from 
6 to 11 Oct., and accompanied the majority 
of the councillors to Windsor to arrest 
Somerset. He was then appointed one of 
the lords to be in special attendance upon 



the young king, and for a time he seemed to 
have regained all his former influence. 
Rumours were everywhere current that the 
mass was to be restored and the progress of 
the Reformation stopped. But Southampton 
was soon undeceived ; after the end of Oc- 
tober he ceased to attend the meetings of 
the privy council, and on 2 Feb. 1549-50 he 
was struck off the list of councillors and 
confined to his house. It may be true, as 
Burnet states, that, disappointed at not being 
restored to the lord chancellorship or made 
lord great master, Southampton began to 
intrigue against Warwick, but his second 
fall is explicable on other grounds. He had 
served Warwick's purpose and was now dis- 
carded, a similar fate attending his associates 
the Earls of Shrewsbury and Arundel, Sir 
Thomas Arundell and Sir Richard South- 
well. So chagrined was Southampton at 
this failure of his hopes that, according to 
Bishop Ponet, ' fearing lest he should come 
to some open shameful end, he poisoned him- 
self or pined away for thought.' He died on 
30 July 1550 ' at his place in Holborne, 
called Lincolnes Place . . . and the 3 of 
August in the forenone he was buryed in 
St. Andrewes church in Holborne at the 
right hand of the high aulter, Mr. Hooper, 
Bishopp of Glocester, preachinge there at the 
buryall ' (WRIOTHESLEY, Chron. ii. 41 ; 
MACHTN, Diary, pp. 1, 313). His body was 
afterwards removed to Titchfield, where a 
sumptuous monument erected to his memory 
is still extant. A full description with en- 
gravings is given in Mr. B. W. Greenfield's 
' Wriothesley Tomb, Titchfield,' reprinted 
from the ' Proceedings of the Hampshire 
Field Club.' His portrait, painted by Holbein, 
belongs toMajor-General F. E. Sotheby; the 
inscription is erroneously given as ' setatis 
suse 51, 1545' (Cat. Tudor Exhib. No. 77). 
A portrait ' after Holbein ' belongs to the 
Duke of Queensberry, and was engraved by 
Harding in 1794 for John Chamberlaine's 
'Imitations of Original Drawings,' 1792- 
1800; another engraving is given in Doyle's 
'Official Baronage.' His executors were his 
widow, Sir Edmund Peckham [q. v.], Sir 
Thomas Pope [q. v.], (Sir) William Stanford 
[q. v.], and Walter Pye ; his will, dated 
21 July 1550, was proved on 14 May 1551. 
It is extant in British Museum Addit. MS. 
24936, is printed in the ' Trevelyan Papers ' 
(Camden Soc.), i. 206-16, and gives details of 
his large estates, which are supplemented by 
the ' inquisitio post mortem ' taken on 12 Sept. 
1550 (4 Edward VI, vol. 92, No. 78 ; a tran- 
script is extant in Brit. Mus. Harl. MS. 813 
ff. 119-26). The most interesting of his 
possessions besides Titchfield (for which see 



Wriothesley 



152 



Wriothesley 



Titchfield Abbey and Place House, 1898, re- 
printed from ' Hampshire Field Club Pro- 
ceedings') and Beaulieu was his house in 
Holborn, originally called Lincoln House 
because it was the town house of the bishops 
of Lincoln. From them it passed to the 
Earl of Warwick, and from him by exchange 
to Southampton, who named it Southampton 
House ; eventually it passed with ' the manor 
or grange of Bloomsbury,' which Wriothesley 
acquired about 1542, into the Bedford family 
[see under WRIOTHESLEY, THOMAS, fourth 
EARL OF SOUTHAMPTON ]. The fate of the earls 
of Southampton furnished Sir Henry Spelman 
with an illustration for his ' History of 
Sacrilege.' 

It is difficult to trace in Southampton's 
career any motive beyond that of self-ag- 
grandisement. Trained in the Machiavellian 
school of Cromwell, he was without the 
definite aims and resolute will that to some 
extent redeemed his master'slack of principle. 
He won and retained Henry VIII's favour 
by his readiness in lending his abilities to 
the king's most nefarious designs, thereby 
inspiring an almost universal distrust. The 
theological conservatism with which he has 
always been credited was tempered by a strict 
regard to his own interests. Under Crom- 
well he was an enemy to bishops and a patron 
of reformers like Richard Taverner [q. v.] and 
Robert Talbot [q. v.] ; he was thanked by 
another protestant for bringing him ' out of 
the blind darkness of our old religion into the 
light of learning,' and thought the ' Bishops' 
Book ' of 1537 too reactionary. It was not 
until Cromwell had fallen and Henry had 
adopted a more conservative policy that 
Wriothesley returned to Catholicism. Even 
then he sacrificed nothing in its cause, and 
few profited more extensively by the spolia- 
tion of the monasteries. He racked Anne 
Askew, it is true, but he also assisted to 
ruin the Howards, who alone might have 
stayed the Reformation after Henry's death. 
As lord chancellor he made no mark except 
by his severity towards the victims of 
Henry VIII, and his legal training seems to 
have consisted solely in his admission to 
Gray's Inn. Leland, however, wrote a eulogy 
of him (Encomia, p. 102), and he is credited 
with at least two irreproachable sentiments, 
namely,. that he who sold justice sold the 
king; and that while force awed, justice 
governed the world. 

There is some obscurity about the identity 
of Southampton's wife. He was married 
before 1533 to Jane, niece of Stephen Gar- 
diner [q. v.l, bishop of Winchester, and sister 
of the unfortunate Germain Gardiner, the 
bishop's private secretary, who was executed 



for denying the royal supremacy in 1543 
(Letters and Papers, xu. i. 1209, ii. 47, 546, 
634, 825). In all the pedigrees, however, 
his wife is styled ' Jane daughter of William 
Cheney or Cheyne of Chesham Bois, Buck- 
inghamshire,' and there is no trace of his 
having had two wives. The inference is 
that the Countess of Southampton's mother 
married first a brother of Bishop Gardiner, 
and secondly William Cheney, being mother 
of Germain Gardiner by her first husband, 
and of the Countess of Southampton by her 
second. The countess survived until 15 Sept. 
1574, and was buried at Titchfield, where her 
monument is still extant (GREENFIELD, p. 
72). A manuscript book of prayers dedicated 
to her by Roger Welden, apart from its in- 
terest as a collection, contains some curious 
notes on the family history. It belonged to 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, and in 1895 to Bernard 
Quaritch. By his countess Wriothesley had 
issue a son, who died in August 1537 (ib. 
xn. ii. 546) ; another son, Anthony, who 
died about 1542 (the consolatory letter to 
Lady Wriothesley in Lansd. MS. 76, art. 81, 
apparently refers to this event, though it is 
endorsed ' 1594 '), and his only surviving son 
and successor, Henry (see below). He had 
also five daughters: (1) Elizabeth, who was 
sufficiently old to have married Thomas 
Radcliffe (afterwards third Earl of Sussex) 
[q. v.] before 1550, and died without issue in 
15545; (2) Mary, who married, first,William 
Shelley of Michelgrove, and secondly Richard, 
son of Sir Michael and grandson of Sir Rich- 
ard Lyster [q. v.] ; (3) Catherine, who married 
Thomas Cornwallis of East Horsley, Surrey, 
groom-porter to Queen Elizabeth ; (4) Mabel, 
who married (Sir) Walter Sandys, grandson 
of William, baron Sandys of the Vyne [q. v.] ; 
and (5) Anne, who was intended by her fa- 
ther to be the third wife of Sir John Wallop 
[q. v.] Wallop, however, died before the 
marriage took place, and Anne seems to 
have died unmarried (Trevelyan Papers, i. 
206-16 ; Harl MSS. 806 f. 45, 1529 f. 25, 
2043 ff. 68-9). 

HENRY WRIOTHESLEY, second EARL OF 
SOUTHAMPTON (1545-1581), only surviving 
son of the first earl, was christened on 
24 April 1545 ' at St. Andrewes in Holborne 
with great solempnity, the kinges Majestie 
godfather ; the Erie of Essex deputy for the 
kinge ; the Duke of Suffolke the other god- 
father; my Lady Mary godmother at the 
christninge ; and the erle of Arundel god- 
father at the bishopinge ' (WRIOTHESLEY, 
Chron. i. 154). He was styled Baron 
Wriothesley from 1547 until 30 July 1550, 
when he succeeded as second Earl of South- 
ampton. In August 1552 Edward VI was 



Wriothesley 



153 



Wriothesley 



entertained at Titchfield, and in 1560 the 
council entrusted the earl, ' as a ward of 
state,' to the care of William More of Lose- 
ley Park, near Guildford (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
7th Rep. App. p. 615). Southampton, who 
was privately educated, inclined to the Ro- 
man catholic religion, and married into a 
Roman catholic family. His wife was Mary, 
daughter of Anthony Browne, first viscount 
Montague [q. v.], and the marriage took 
place on 19 Feb. 1565-6, when Southampton 
was still under age, at Montague's house, 
' by hys advyse without the consent of my 
lady hys mother.' In 1569 he entertained 
Queen Elizabeth at Titchfield, but his 
Roman catholic sympathies had already 
involved him in the scheme for marrying 
Mary Queen of Scots to the Duke of Nor- 
folk. This was not the limit of his dis- 
loyalty ; for on 1 Dec. 1569 the Spanish 
ambassador wrote to Alva, ' Lord Montague 
and the Earl of Southampton have sent to 
ask me for advice as to whether they should 
take up arms or go over to your excellency ' 
(Cal. Simancas MSS. 1568-71, p. 214; 
FROTJDE, ix. 135, 144). On the 18th he re- 
ported that the two lords actually started for 
Flanders, but were driven back by contrary 
winds. Southampton was arrested on 16 June 
1570, and placed in the custody of (Sir) Wil- 
liam More of Loseley, his former guardian 
(Acts P. C. 1558-70, p. 366 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. App. pp. 622-6; KEMPE, 
Loseley MSS. passim ; ' The Confinement of 
the Earl of Southampton,' apud Archceo- 
loffia, xix. 263-9). According to Guerau de 
Spes the earl was ' again ' arrested in October 
1571, ' having come unsuspiciously to court.' 
He was reported to be one of those ' with 
whom Ridolfi most practised, and upon whom 
he put most trust,' and, according to the 
bishop of Ross, Southampton consulted him 
as to whether he might conscientiously obey 
Queen Elizabeth after the bull of excom- 
munication. He was examined on 31 Oct. 
1571 and denied the truth of these accusa- 
tions (MtrRDiN", Burghley State Papers, pp. 
38, 40 ; Cal. State Papers, Scottish, ed. 
Thorp, ii. 889, 890 ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. i. 
626-7, 558, 560-2). He is said (Archceol. 
xix. 267) to have remained at Loseley till 
July 1573, but it appears that after this ex- 
amination he was really confined in the 
Tower. On 30 March 1573 his father-in- 
law was allowed to confer with him ' touch- 
ing matters of law and the use of his living 
in the lieutenant [of the TowerJ's presence.' 
On 1 May following he was allowed ' more 
liberty,' and on 14 July was permitted to 
' remain with the Lord Viscount Montague ' 
at Cowdray, near Midhurst, Sussex. His dis- 



pute with the lieutenant of the Tower about 
his diets was settled by arbitration, and on 
12 July 1574 he was placed on the commission 
of the peace for Hampshire (Acts P. C. 1571-5, 
pp.92, 102, 109, 111, 130, 267). He was 
also a commissioner for the transport of 
grain (ib. 1577-8, p. 368), commissioner of 
musters, and to suppress piracy. Two months 
before his death he was suspected of harbour- 
ing Edmund Campion [q. v.] ; Edward Gage, 
his executor, was in prison for a similar 
reason ; and on 20 Dec. 1581 the earl's house 
in Holborn was searched by order of the 
council (ib. 1581-2, pp. 153, 296, 298, 376). 

Southampton died, in his thirty-seventh 
year, on 4 Oct. 1581, and was buried in 
Titchfield church, where his monument is 
still extant. His portrait, painted by Lucas 
van Heere, now at Bridgewater House, is re- 
produced in Lee's ' Life of Shakespeare ' 
(illustrated edit. 1899) ; with the inaccuracy 
common at the time it is inscribed ' setatis 19, 
1566.' By his wife, whose portrait is at 
Welbeck, Southampton had issue a son, who 
died young ; his son and successor, Henry 
Wriothesley, third earl of Southampton 
[q.v.] ; and a daughter Mary, who on 18 June 
1585 was licensed to marry in her mother's 
private chapel in St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
Sir Matthew Arundell (Bishop of London's 
Marr. Licences, Harl. Soc. 1520-1610, p. 
140). His will, dated 29 June 1581, was 
proved in 1583. His widow married, as 
her second husband, Sir Thomas Heneage 
[q. v.] ; and as her third, in May 1598, Sir 
William (afterwards baron) Hervey of Kid- 
brooke [q. v.] She died in 1607, and was 
buried at Titchfield, her will, dated 22 April, 
being proved on 4 Nov. 1607. Autograph 
letters from Southampton to Burghley and 
the lords of the council desiring his release 
are extant in Lansdowne MSS. 16, arts. 22 
and 23, and 17, art. 14. 

[Sketches of Southampton's life are given in 
Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chancellors, Foss's 
Judges of Engl., and Cooper's Athense Cantabr.; 
but all need to be supplemented from recently 
published Calendars of State Papers, Brewer 
and Gairdner's Cal. Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vols. iv-xvi. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Spanish, vols. vi-vii. ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. vol. i.; 
Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, vols. i-iii. 
See also Cotton MSS. Titus B ii. ff. 319, 330, 
338, vii. f. 8, Caligula B vii. f. 301, Galba B x. 
ff. 122, 127 ; Harl. MSS. 282 arts. 75-85, 283 
arts. 82, 103, 806 f. 45, 807 f. 27, 813 ff. 117-19; 
Lansd. MS. 2, arts. 8, 9 ; Stowe MS. 141 f. 78; 
Addit. MSS. 25114 ff. 333-46, 28023 f. 8 ; State 
Papers, Henry VIII, vols. i-xi.; Acts of the 
Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, vol. vii. ; Rymer's 
Foedera, vols. xiv. and xv. ; Lords' Journals ; 
Off. Return Memb. of Parl. ; Haynes and 



Wriothesley 



154 



Wriothesley 



Murdin's Burghley State Papers ; Wriothesley's 
Chron. and Troubles connected with the Prayer 
Book (Camden Soc.) ; Lit. Remains of Edward VI 
(Roxburghe Club) ; Archaeologia, xxx. 468 eqq. ; 
Corresp. Politique de Marillac et de Odet de 
Selve, passim; Bapst's Deux Gentilshommes 
Poetes; Nott's Works of Surrey; Herbert's 
Reign of Henry VIII ; Hay ward's Reign of 
Edward VI ; Ponet's Treatise of Politique 
Power ; Ellis's Original Letters ; Lodge's Illus- 
trations of British History ; Hamilton Papers, 
2 vols. 1890; Strype's Works (general index); 
Foxe'sActesnnd Monuments; Holinshed's Chron.; 
Stow's Annuls ; Gough's Index to Parker Soc. 
Publ. ; Heylyn's Hist, of the Reformation ; 
Burnet's Hist. el. Pocock; Fronde's Hist, of 
England ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church of Eng- 
land; Dugdale's Baronage; Burke's Extinct* 
Peerage ; Doyle's Official Baronage ; Gr. E. 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage ; Warner's Hist, 
of Hampshire ; Berry's Hampshire Pedigrees ; 
Hampshire Field Club Papers and Proceedings, 
1889 and 1898.] A. F. P. 

WRIOTHESLEY, THOMAS, fourth 
EAKL OF SOUTHAMPTON (1607-1667), second 
but eldest surviving son of Henry Wriothes- 
ley, third earl of Southampton [q. v.], born 
in' 1607, was educated at Eton and Magdalen 
College, Oxford. He succeeded to the earl- 
dom on his father's death on 10 Nov. 1624, 
and inherited large property in London as 
well as in Hampshire. He owned the manor 
of Bloomsbury, besides Southampton House 
in Holborn. From Oxford he proceeded to the 
continent, and stayed for nearly ten years in 
France and the Low Countries. He married 
in France in August 1634, and soon after- 
wards returned home. In August 1635 he 
suffered serious anxiety from the persistency 
with which the king and his ministers laid 
claim in the name of the crown to his pro- 

Krty in the New Forest about Beaulieu. 
October 1635 a forest court, sitting under 
the Earl of Holland at Winchester, issued 
a decree depriving him of land worth 2,000 
a year. The earl petitioned for relief, and 
nine months later the king agreed to forego 
the unjust seizure of the property. 

A man of moderate views, Southampton re- 
sen t ed warmly the king's and the Earl of Straf- 
ford's extravagant notions of sovereignty 
He was reluctant to identify himself with the 
champions of popular rights ; but the close 
friendship, however, which had subsisted be- 
tween his own father and the father of the 
third Earl of Essex inclined him to act with 
the latter when the differences between th 
king and parliament first became pronounced 
During the Short parliament of 1640, h< 
declared himself against the court, and in 
April voted in the minority in the House o 
Lords which supported the resolution of thi 



Jouse of Commons that redress of grievances 
hould precede supply. But he went no 
'urther with the advanced party of the House 
of Commons. Although he had little sym- 
>athy with Strafford, he disliked the ran- 
our with which the House of Commons 
pursued him. He dissociated himself from 
ex when criminal proceedings were initi- 
ated against Stratford, and the estrangement 
grew rapidly. On 3 May 1641 he declined 
assent to Pym's ' protestation against plots 
and conspiracies.' This was signed by every 
other member present in each of the two 
louses, excepting Lord Robartes and him- 
self. The commons avenged Southampton's 
action by voting that ' what person soever 
who should not take the protestation was 
unfit to bear office in the church or common- 
wealth.' Thenceforth Southampton com- 
pletely identified himself with the king. He 
was soon appointed a lord of the king's bed- 
chamber, and joint lord lieutenant for Hamp- 
shire (3 June 1641), and next year became a 
member of the privy council (3 Jan. 1641-2). 
He became one of the king's closest advisers, 
and remained in attendance on him with 
few intervals till his death. He accompanied 
Charles on his final departure from London 
in the autumn of 1641, but was hopeful until 
the last that peace would be easily restored. 
No sooner had Charles I set up his standard 
at Nottingham than Southampton prevailed 
on him to propose a settlement to the par- 
liament. On 25 Aug. 1642 the king sent him 
and Culpepper to Westminster to suggest a 
basis for negotiation, but the parliament 
summarily rejected the overture. The king 
entrusted to Southampton the chief manage- 
ment of the fruitless treaty with the parlia- 
mentary commissioners at Oxford in 1643. 
Whitelocke sa^p that the earl stood by the 
king daily during the progress of the nego- 
tiations, whispering him and advising him 
throughout. In the succeeding year he was 
appointed a member of the council for the 
Prince of Wales. On 17 Dec. 1644 South- 
ampton and the Duke of Richmond, after re- 
ceiving a safe-conduct from the parliament, 
again brought to Westminster a letter, in 
which Charles requested the houses to ap- 
point commissioners to treat of peace. In 
January 1645 Southampton, whose efforts 
for peace never slackened, represented the 
king at the abortive conference at Uxbridge. 
Later in the year Southampton again pressed 
on the king the urgent need of bringing the 
war to an end. In April 1646 the king sent 
him and the Earl of Lindsay to Colonel 
Rainsborough, who was attacking W r ood- 
stock, with instructions to open negotiations 
through the colonel with the army. On 



Wriothesley 



155 



Wriothesley 



24 June 1646 Southampton was one of the 
privy councillors who, on behalf of the king, 
arranged with Sir Thomas Fairfax for the 
surrender of Oxford. 

Before Southampton left Oxford a hasty 
rebuke from Prince Rupert led to a quarrel 
between the prince and Southampton, which 
led Rupert to send Southampton a challenge. 
Southampton chose to fight on foot with 
pistols. Sir George Villiers was appointed 
his second, but after all arrangements had 
been made for a duel the friends of the 
parties intervened and effected a reconcilia- 
tion. In October 1647 Southampton, with 
the Duke of Richmond, Marquis of Ormonde, 
and others, ' came to the king at Hampton 
Court, intending to reside there as his coun- 
cil,' but the army vetoed the arrangement 
( WHITELOCKE, ii. 219). On 12 Nov. 1647 
the king visited the Earl of Southampton 
at his house at Titchfield, on his way to the 
Isle of Wight, and Southampton followed 
the king thither. He afterwards claimed 
to have been the first to show the king at 
Carisbrooke the ' Eikon Basilike ; ' he affirmed 
that the book was written by Dr. Gauden 
and merely approved by Charles I ' as con- 
taining his sense of things.' In March 1648 
he refused to assist in a new negotiation 
between the king and the independents. 
He was in London during the king's trial, 
and visited him after his condemnation. It 
is said that on the night following Charles's 
execution Southampton obtained leave to 
watch by the dead body in the banqueting 
hall at Whitehall, and that in the darkness 
there entered the chamber a muffled figure 
who muttered ' Stern necessity.' South- 
ampton affirmed his conviction that the 
visitor was Cromwell. On 8 Feb. 1649 
Southampton attended the king's funeral at 
Windsor. 

After the king's death Southampton lived 
in retirement in the country. The parlia- 
ment seems to have shown leniency in their 
treatment of his estate. He was allowed to 
compound for his ' delinquency in adhering 
to the king ' by a payment on 26 Nov. 1646 
of 6,466/?., that sum being assumed to be a 
tenth of the value of his personal property. 
At the same time he was required to settle 
2501. a year on the puritan ministry of 
Hampshire out of the receipts of the rec- 
tories in the county, the tithes of which he 
owned (Cal. Committee for Compounding, 
pt. ii. pp. 1507-8). His fortune was there- 
fore still large, and he was liberal in gifts to 
the new king Charles and his supporters. 
After the battle of Worcester he offered to 
receive the prince at his house and provide 
a ship for his escape. He declined to re- 



cognise Cromwell and his government. When 
the Protector happened to be in Hampshire 
he sent the earl an intimation that he pro- 
posed to visit him. Southampton sent no 
reply, but at once withdrew to a distant 
part of the county. He corresponded with 
Hyde, with whom he had formed a close 
friendship at Oxford, and looked forward 
with confidence to the Restoration. When 
it arrived Southampton re-entered public 
life. His moderate temper gained him the 
ear of all parties. In the convention par- 
liament he spoke for merciful treatment of 
the regicides who surrendered (LuDLOW, ii. 
290). At Canterbury, on his way to Lon- 
don, Charles II readmitted him to the privy 
council and created him K.G. On 8 Sept. 
1660 he was appointed to the high and 
responsible office of lord high treasurer of 
England. This office he held till his death. 
On 5 Feb. 1660-1 Southampton publicly 
took possession of the treasury offices (PEPYS, 
i. 341). Next year he endeavoured to settle 
the king's revenue on sound principles, and 
to ' give to every general expense proper 
assignments ' (PEPYS, ii. 427). At the same 
time he acted on the committee for the 
settlement of the marriage of the king with 
Catherine of Braganza. He scorned to take 
personal advantage of his place, as others 
had done, and came to an agreement with 
the king by which he was to receive a fixed 
salary of 8,000/. a year. The offices, which 
had formerly been sold by the treasurer for 
his own profit, were placed at the disposal of 
the king. So long as he held the treasurer- 
ship no suspicion of personal corruption 
fell on him. But it was beyond his power 
to reduce the corrupt influences which domi- 
nated Charles H's personal following. Like 
his close friends Clarendon and Ormonde, 
who had also been councillors of the new 
king's father, he retained the decorous 
gravity of manner which had been thirty 
years before in fashion at Whitehall, and 
was wholly out of sympathy with the de- 
praved temper of the inner circle of the 
court. He at first hoped that he might be 
able to reform the conduct of the king and 
his friends, or at least set a limit on their 
wasteful expenditure of the country's reve- 
nue. According to Clarendon he lost all 
spirit for his work when he perceived that 
it was out of human power to ' bring the 
expense of the court within the limits of 
the revenue.' He spoke with regret of his 
efforts in behalf of the king during the 
exile, and openly stated that, had he known 
Charles H's true character, he would never 
have consented to his unconditional resto- 
ration. Clarendon credits him with sug- 



Wriothesley 



156 



Wriothesley 



gesting the sale of Dunkirk to meet the 
pressing needs of the exchequer ; but his 
resentment of the king's behaviour, and his 
personal sufferings from the gout and stone, 
gradually withdrew him from active work 
in his office. He left the whole conduct of 
treasury business to his secretary, Sir Philip 
Warwick [q. y.] In 1664 Lord Arlington, 
Ashley, and Sir William Coventry appealed 
to the king to displace Southampton, on the 
ground that he had delegated all his functions 
to Warwick. Clarendon, who constantly 
sought his advice, and was proud of the 
long intimacy, urged him to remain at his 
post and persuaded the king to retain his 
services. According to Burnet the king 
Btood ' in some awe of him, and saw how 
popular he would grow if put out of his 
service, and therefore he chose rather to 
bear with his ill humour and contradiction 
than to dismiss him.' 

In church matters Southampton power- 
fully supported the principles of the esta- 
blishment. In 1663 he opposed in council 
and parliament the bill for liberty of con- 
science, by which Charles proposed to allow 
a universal toleration of catholics. When 
the bill was presented to the House of Lords 
for the first time, Southampton declared 
that it was a ' design against the protestant 
religion and in favour of the papists.' On 
the second reading he denounced it as ' a pro- 
ject to get money at the price of religion.' 
Finally the bill was dropped. 

When some troops of guards were raised 
on the occasion of the outbreak of the Fifth- 
monarchy men under Thomas Venner, South- 
ampton strongly pronounced against a stand- 
ing army. He declared ' they had felt the 
effects of a military government, though 
sober and religious, in Cromwell's army ; he 
believed vicious and dissolute troops would 
be much worse ; the king would grow fond 
of them ; and they would quickly become 
insolent and ungovernable; and then such 
men as he must be only instruments to serve 
their ends ' (BURNET). 

Towards the close of 1666 Southampton 
fell desperately ill. A French doctor gave 
him no relief. ' The pain of the stone grew 
upon him to such a degree that he resolved 
to have it cut ; but a woman came to him 
who pretended she had an infallible secret 
of dissolving the stone, and brought such 
vouchers to him that he put himself into 
her hands. The medicine had a great ope- 
ration, though it ended fatally.' He bore 
the tedious pain with astonishing patience, 
and died at his house in London on 16 May 
1667. He was buried at Titchfield. 

Southampton's delicacy of constitution 



was a main obstacle in his career, and pre- 
vented his moderating influence from affect- 
ing the course of affairs to the extent that 
his abilities, honesty, and courage deserved. 
'Having an infirm body, he was never active 
in armes,' wrote Sir Edward Walker (Ash- 
mole MS. 1110, f. 170). Burnet described 
him as ' a man of great virtue and of very 
good parts ; he had a lively apprehension 
and a good judgment.' According to his 
admiring friend Clarendon, 'he was in his 
nature melancholick, and reserved in his 
conversation. . . . His person was of a small 
stature ; his courage, as all his other facul- 
ties, very great ' (CLARENDON, Life, iii. 785). 
' There is a good man gone,' wrote Pepys, 
who called at the lord treasurer's house 
just after his death ; but, despite his in- 
tegrity, Pepys was inclined to attribute to 
his slowness and remissness a large share 
in the disasters which fell on the nation 
during Charles II's reign. 'And yet,' Pepys 
added, ' if I knew all the difficulties that he 
hath lain under, and his instrument Sir 
Philip Warwick, I might be brought to 
another mind' (PEPYS, Diary, ed. Wheatley, 
vi. 321-2). Pepys always found him, offi- 
cially, ' a very ready man, and certainly a 
brave servant of the king ; ' the only thing 
that displeased the diarist in him perso- 
nally was the length to which he let his 
nails grow (ib. iii. 351). 

He married three times. His first wife 
was ' la belle et vertueuse Huguenotte,' 
Rachel, eldest daughter of Daniel de Massue, 
seigneur de Ruvigny, whom he married in 
France in August 1634 ; she died on 16 Feb. 
1640. By her Southampton had two sons, 
Charles and Henry, who died young, and 
three daughters Magdalen, who died an 
infant ; Elizabeth, wife of Edward Noel, first 
earl of Gainsborough ; and Rachel, wife first 
of Francis, lord Vaughan, and secondly of 
William, lord Russell, ' the patriot.' South- 
ampton's second wife was Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter and heiress of Francis Leigh, lord 
Dunsmore (afterwards earl of Chichester), 
by whom he had four daughters ; only one 
survived youth, namely Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried, first (23 Dec. 1662), Josceline Percy, 
eleventh earl of Northumberland ; and se- 
condly (24 Aug. 1673), Ralph Montagu, 
duke of Montagu [q. v.] Southampton's 
third wife was Frances, second daughter of 
William Seymour, second duke of Somerset 
[q. v.], and widow of Richard, second vis- 
count Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland. 
His widow married, as her third husband, 
Conyers D'Arcy, second earl of Holdernesse ; 
she was buried in Westminster Abbey on 
5 Jan. 1680-1. 



Wriothesley 



157 



Writer 



On his death without male heirs the earl- 
dom became extinct, but it was re-created on 
3 Aug. 1670 in behalf of Charles Fitzroy, 
natural son of Charles II by the Duchess of 
Cleveland . The re-created earldom of South- 
ampton was elevated into a dukedom on 
10 Sept. 1675. 

Southampton left his mark on London 
topography. In early life he abandoned the 
family mansion, Southampton House in 
Holborn. In 1636 he petitioned the House 
of Lords for permission to demolish it, and 
to build small tenements on its site. Per- 
mission was refused at the time, but about 
1652 the earl carried out his design, and 
the old Holborn house was converted into 
Southampton Buildings. At the same time 
he built for himself a new and magnificent 
residence on the north side of what is now 
Bloomsbury Square. The new edifice, South- 
ampton House, occupied the whole of the 
north side of the present Bloomsbury Square. 
It is supposed to have been designed by 
John Webb, Inigo Jones's pupil. The 
gardens included the south side of what is 
now Russell Square. Pepys walked out to 
see the earl's new residence on Sunday, 
12 Oct. 1662, and deemed it 'a very great 
and a noble work' (PEPYS, Diary, iv. 256). 
Evelyn, who records a dinner on 9 Feb. 1665 
at ' my lord treasurer's ' in Bloomsbury, says 
that the earl built ' a noble square or piazza, 
a little tower, some noble rooms, a pretty 
cedar chapel, a native garden to the north 
with good air.' The house, Evelyn added, 
stood ' too low.' 

Much of the earl's landed property in both 
London and Hampshire passed, on South- 
ampton's death, to his eldest daughter Eliza- 
beth and her husband, Edward Noel, first 
earl of Gainsborough. On their only son 
dying without issue the Titchfield estate 
ultimately passed to their two granddaugh- 
ters, co-heiresses Elizabeth, wife of Wil- 
liam Henry Bentinck, first duke of Portland, 
and Rachel, wife of the first duke of Beau- 
foit. Titchfield House eventu ally became the 

Property of the Duchess of Portland, whose 
usband assumed the secondary title of 
Marquis of Titchfield. The Titchfield pro- 
perty was sold by the third duke of Portland 
at the end of the eighteenth century. 

Southampton's second daughter, Rachel, 
wife of William, lord Russell, and mother of 
Wriothesley Russell, second duke of Bed- 
ford, finally inherited the greater part of 
Southampton's property in London, the 
Bloomsbury estate falling to her on the 
death of her elder sister, the Countess of 
Gainsborough, in 1680. Southampton House 
in Bloomsbury descended to her son, the 



second duke of Bedford, and was renamed 
Bedford House ; it was pulled down in 
| 1800. The Bloomsbury property of the 
dukes of Bedford thus reached them through 
William lord Russell's marriage with South- 
ampton's daughter Rachel. The memory 
of its original connection with the Earl of 
Southampton survives in the name of South- 
ampton Row. 

The Holborn property and the estate of 
Beaulieu in Hampshire fell to Elizabeth, 
duchess of Montagu, Southampton's daugh- 
ter by his second wife. 

A portrait of Southampton by Sir Peter 
Lely is the property of the Duke of Bedford 
at Woburn Abbey ; it is reproduced in Lodge's 
' Portraits ' (v. 179). Another portrait be- 
longs to the Duke of Portland at Welbeck 
Abbey. A third portrait, formerly in the 
Earl of Clarendon's gallery, has long since 
disappeared. 

[Clarendon in the Continuation of his Life 
gives an admirable sketch of his friend's career 
and character, 1759, vol. iii. pp. 780-90. See 
also Whiteloeke's Memorials; Ludlow's Me- 
moirs, 1625-72, ed. C. H. Firth, 1894 ; Burnet's 
Hist, of his own Time; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. ; Pepys's Diary, ed. Wheatley ; Ranke's 
Hist, of England, vi. 84 ; Lodge's Portraits, v. ; 
Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present; Gardiner's Hist, of England, viii. 86, 
ix. 109, and Hist, of the Great Civil War.] 

S. L. 

WRITER, CLEMENT (fi. 1627-1658), 
'anti-scripturist,' was a clothier in Worcester, 
and is chiefly memorable for his attacks on 
the infallibility of the bible. In 1627 
'Clement Write, tailor,' attached Captain 
Edward Spring's horses for a debt of 8/. 
(Cal. State Papers, 1627-9, p. 83). In 1631 
he had a lawsuit with John Racster, who 
wrote on 19 Nov. to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
viscount Dorchester [q. v.], requesting him 
to use his influence in his behalf with Sir 
Nathaniel Brent [q. v.], judge of the pre- 
rogative court (ib. 1631-3, p. 185). He had 
another lawsuit at a later date against his 
uncle, George Worfield, in the court of 
chancery, in which he complained that the 
lord keeper, Coventry, did him injustice to 
the extent of some 1,5001. on the representa- 
tions of some puritan antagonist (ib. 1635-6, 
p. 55). On 4 Dec. 1640 he petitioned for 
redress to 'the grand committee of the courts 
of justice,' but before his case could be heard 
the committee was dissolved. In February 
1645-6 he renewed his complaint to the com- 
mittee of the House of Commons appointed 
to consider petitions. They on 10 Feb. 
nominated a sub-committee to examine 
his case, but before their report was made 



Writer 



158 



Wroe 



the committee of petitions was suspended. 
After this new disappointment he printed 
and distributed to members of parliament 
* The Sad Case of Clement Writer, who hath 
waited for reliefe therein since the fourth 
December 1640.' In 1652 the Worcester 
committee for sequestration were enjoined 
by Thomas Fowle, solicitor for the Com- 
monwealth, to examine into his case against 
Lord Coventry (Cal. of Proceedings of Com- 
mittee for Compounding,^. 566), but the dis- 
solution of parliament in December again 
prevented his obtaining hearing. On 1 Oct. 
1656 he petitioned Cromwell on the subject, 
and the council of state referred his case to 
a committee. Whether he ultimately ob- 
tained satisfaction is uncertain. 

While Writer's temporal affairs were far 
from prosperous, his spiritual condition, ac- 
cording to Thomas Edwards (1599-1647) 
[q. v.l, was continually becoming more 
dreadful. Originally a presbyterian, or at 
least a puritan, about 1638 he ' fell off from 
the communion of our churches to inde- 
pendency and Brownisme; from that he 
fell to anabaptisme and Arminianisme and 
to mortalisme, holding the soul mortal. 
After that he fell to be a se"eker, and is 
now an anti-scripturist, questionist, and 
sceptick, and, I fear, an atheist ' ( Gangreena, 
1647, pp. 81-2). By 1647, Edwards pro- 
ceeds to say, he had become ' an arch- 
heretique and fearfull apostate, an old wolf, 
and a subtile man, who goes about corrupt- 
ing and venting his errors ; he is often in 
Westminster-Hall and in the Exchange,' 
making it ' his businesse to plunder men of 
their faith ; and if he can do that upon any it 
fattens him that's meat to him ' (ib. p. 84). 
Edwards asserts that Writer had a large 
share in ' Man's Mortalitie,' an anonymous 
tract usually attributed to Richard Overt on 
[q. v.], in which heterodox doctrines were 
propounded concerning the immortality of 
the soul. 

Shortly before 1655 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Richard Baxter [q. v.], who 
described him as ' an ancient man, who pro- 
fessed to be a seeker, but was either a 
juggling papist or an infidel, more probably 
the latter.' He wrote 'a scornful book 
against the ministry,' called ' Jus Divinum 
Presbyterii,' a treatise which is not extant. 
Baxter added that in conversation with him 
Writer urged that ' no man is bound to be- 
lieve in Christ who doth not see confirming 
miracles with his own eyes,' thus anticipat- 
ing Hume's great argument. Baxter replied 
to Writer in the Vnreasonableness of In- 
fidelity ' (London, 1655, 8vo). In 1657 ap- 
peared 'Fides Divina: the Ground of True 



Faith asserted ' (London, 8vo), which is pro- 
bably by Writer, although he refused to 
acknowledge to Baxter that he was the 
author. In this treatise he urged the insuffi- 
ciency of the scriptures as a rule of faith on 
account of their liability to error in tran- 
scription and translation, and on account of 
the differences of opinion respecting the in- 
spiration of certain of them. Baxter resumed 
the controversy in ' A Second Sheet for the 
Ministry,' and in 1658 Writer rejoined with. 
'An Apologetical Narration: or a just and 
necessary Vindication of Clement Writer 
against a Four-fold Charge laid on him by 
Richard Baxter ' (London, 8vo). The date 
of Writer's death is not known. 

("Authorities cited in text ; Writer's Works ; 
Reliquiae Baxterianse, 1696, i. 116; Masson's 
Life of Milton, 1873, iii. 158,159, 165, 262, 687.] 

E. I. C. 

WROE, JOHN (1782-1863), fanatic, 
founder of ' Christian Israelites,' eldest son 
of Joseph Roe, was born at Bowling, parish, 
of Bradford, Yorkshire, on 19 Sept. 1782 
(baptised on 8 Dec.) His name is latinised 
Joannes Roes by Samuel Walker and Henry 
Lees, his followers. His father was a farmer, 
worsted manufacturer, and collier. As a lad 
he was neither robust in mind nor in body, 
and grew up without learning to read. He 
complains of ill usage ; after carrying ' a win- 
dow stone to the second floor,' he was never 
straight again. He was with his father in 
business, getting the drudgery and cheated 
of the profits, till at length (about 1810) he 
set up for himself in the farming and wool- 
combing business, marrying, five years later, 
a daughter of Benjamin Appleby, of Farnley 
Mills, near Leeds (she died on 16 May 1853, 
aged 74). Symptoms of mania appeared in 
the winter of 1816-17, when he harboured for 
atime the resolve to shoot his brother Joseph, 
who had overt cached him. In the second half 
of 1819 he was struck down by fever, being 
at the same time much harassed by debt. 
On his recovery- he took to bible-reading in 
the fields, and began to see visions, followed 
by temporary blindness and a condition of 
trance (the first dated vision is 12 Nov. 
1819). They were written down by neigh- 
bours (Abraham Holmes being the first 
scribe), and were considered prophetic His 
wife had his head shaved (1 Feb. 1820), but 
the visions went on. He began to attend 
meetings of the followers of Joanna South- 
cott [q. v.], then led by George Turner of 
Leeds (d. September 1821). His angelic 
'guide' told him to visit the Jews. He 
walked to Liverpool for that purpose, and 
on the same errand travelled to London, 
where he delivered (30 Aug. 1820) a ' mes- 



Wroe 



159 



Wroe 



to the queen. In September 1822 
he first claimed the succession to Turner's 
leadership ; by many members of the South- 
cottian societies his claim was allowed. On 
14 Dec. 1822, leaving his wife and three 
children, he started on his prophetic pere- 
grinations to the Southcottian societies, the 
Jews, and ' all nations.' His authority for 
preaching ' the everlasting gospel of the re- 
demption of soul and body' was supposed to 
be attested by acts of healing, as well as by 
prognostication. His travels, as reported in 
the fragmentary notices of his followers, are 
not without interest ; in 1823 he visited 
Gibraltar, Spain, France, Germany, and 
Italy; in 1827 he made his way to Scotland, 
in 1828 to Wales. His peculiarities deve- 
loped as he went on. In March 1823 he 
discarded the names of the months, using 
the quaker numbering. He let his beard 
grow. On 30 Aug. 1823, and again on 
29 Feb. 1824, he was publicly baptised in 
running rivers. On 17 April 1824 he was 
publicly circumcised at a meeting of be- 
lievers, and proclaimed the fact next day to 
a large congregation in a field at Ashton- 
under-Lyne. His followers adopted the rite. 
For circumcising Daniel Grimshaw, an infant 
who died of the operation (September 1824), 
Henry Lees of Ashton was tried for man- 
slaughter at Lancaster (March 1825), but 
acquitted. On several occasions Wroe dis- 
appeared for days together, subsisting once 
for fourteen days (September 1824) on hedge 
fruit and growing corn. He divided his 
people into twelve tribes ; his sou Benjamin 
was to lead one of them, and on Benjamin's 
death he transferred the name Benjamin to 
another son. Money was forthcoming in 
support, of Wroe's pretensions. In 1823 his 
followers employed a room at Charlestown, 
Ashton, as a ' sanctuary.' On 25 Dec. 1825 
a well-built and costly ' sanctuary ' was 
opened in Church Street, Ashton. On this 
erection John Stanley spent 9,500. ; a fine 
organ was subsequently added (the building 
is now a theatre). The sanctuary had an 
' unclean ' pew, and beneath the pulpit was a 
'cleansing' room. At each of the cardinal 
points in the outskirts of the town a square 
building was erected, marking the four ' gates ' 
of the future temple area, of which the 
' sanctuary 'was to form the centre. One of 
these (in which Wroe's ' trial ' was held) is 
now a public-house, known as 'The Odd 
Whim.' 

While living at Park Bridge, near Ashton, 
a charge of criminal intercourse with Martha 
Whitley, his apprentice, a child of twelve, 
was brought against Wroe on 18 Dec. 1827, 
but not sustained. During his absence at 



Bristol, in October 1830, charges of minor 
misconduct were laid against him by Mary 
Quance, Sarah Pile, and Ann Hall, all of 
whom had been in his service. An investi- 
gation was held (24 and 25 Oct.) at Ashton 
by a committee of his friends. The proceed-, 
ings, which were unruly, ended in an ac- 
quittal, after two of the 'jury' had been 
removed and replaced by others ; one of 
these two was James Elimalet Smith [q. v.] 
'A very considerable part' of his following, 
including Henry Lees, now left him, and 
' cut off their beards.' Wroe left for Hud- 
dersfield, but made two attempts (February 
and April 1831) to return to Ashton, causing 
serious riots. Other immoralities were laid 
to his charge, but cannot be said to have 
been proved. He was frequently accused 
by those who left his fold of sharp practice, 
which they called swindling. 

From this date the ' Israelites,' or ' Chris- 
tian Israelites,' as they called themselves, 
Wroeites, as their opponents designated 
them, formed a sect apart from the main 
followers of Joanna Southcott. His ad- 
herents at Ashton-under-Lyne, among whom 
were many respectable shopkeepers, were 
popularly known as ' Joannas ' for forty years 
later ; their long beards, and their habit of 
wearing their tall broad-brimmed felt hats, 
as they served their customers, rendered 
them conspicuous ; their shops were closed 
from Friday at six to Saturday at six. George 
Frederick Muntz [q. v.], when visiting Man- 
chester, was saluted as a ' Joanna ' on ac- 
count of his beard. The women followers 
had many peculiarities of dress, and the 
dietetic regulations of the community were 
strictly conformed to Hebrew usage. Half- 
members, being uncircumcised and not wear- 
ing the beard, were recognised as ' brethren ' 
on ' signing to obey the two first books of 
the Laws.' Obedience was enforced by a 
system of penances. 

Driven from Ashton in 1831, Wroe con- 
tinued to travel in search of disciples, his 
headquarters being at Wrenthorpe, near 
Wakefield, where he had a printing press 
from 1834, perhaps earlier. In 1842 his 
house was broken into by burglars. On the 
false evidence of Wroe and his family, three 
innocent persons were transported ; they 
were released five years later on the dis- 
covery of the real culprits. In the autumn 
of 1843 he visited Australia and New Zea- 
land, and again in 1850, returning in June 
1851. His followers were known in Aus- 
tralia as ' beardies.' He had many followers 
in America, which he visited four times. 
After rambling as before in many parts of 
England, he again visited Australia, return- 






Wroe 



1 60 



Wroth 



ing to England in 1854. In 1856 he di- 
rected his followers to wear a gold ring. 
The rings supplied by Wroe were paid for 
as gold, but turned out to be base metal. 
His Melbourne followers found money for 
building him a splendid mansion, Melbourne 
House, near Wakefield, dedicated with great 
ceremony in presence of delegates from all ' 
parts of the world, at sunrise, on Whit- j 
Sunday, 1857. He was again in Australia 
in 1859. On a final voyage (1862) to Aus- i 
tralia, he dislocated his shoulder. He died | 
suddenly on 5 Feb. 1863 at Collingwood, i 
Melbourne. He had prophesied 1863 as the 
beginning of the millennium ; his followers 
expected his resurrection. No portrait of 
him exists, pictorial art being rejected as a i 
breach of the decalogue. J. E. Smith refers 
to his ' savage look and hump back ; ' Chad- ' 
wick mentions his ' very prominent nose ; ' i 
others note his haggard visage, shaggy hair, ! 
and broad-brimmed beaver. 

Wroe's 'divine communications,' as re- 
corded by his scribes and published by the ' 
' trustees of the people called Israelites,' may 
be found in 1. 'An Abridgment of John 
"Wroe's Life and Travels,' 4th edit. Graves- 
end, 1851, 8vo (the incomplete first edit. 
Wakefield, 1834, 8vo, has title 'Divine Com- ' 
munications ') ; vol. ii. 4th edit. Gravesend, 
1851 ; vol. iii. 1st edit. Gravesend, 1855, 
8vo ; there is also the first volume of a fuller | 
collection, ' The Life and Journal of John | 
Wroe,' Gravesend, 1859, 8vo ; a second vo- 
lume, Gravesend, 1861, 8vo, is merely a fifth I 
edition of 'Abridgment,' vol. ii. 2. 'The 
Word of God to guide Israel . . . contain- 
ing the Afternoon Service,' Wakefield, 1834, 
8vo (finished 20 April). 3. ' The Laws and 
Commandments of God,' Wakefield, 1835, 
8vo. 4. ' Twelve Songs for Divine Worship,' 
Wakefield [1834], 8vo (chiefly from the Song 
of Solomon) ; included in ' Song of Moses 
and the Lamb,' Gravesend, 1853, 12mo 
(several earlier editions of this hymn-book, 
which appears to be of mixed authorship). 
5. 'The Faith of Israel,' Wakefield, 1843, 
12mo. 6. ' The Laws of God,' Wakefield, 
1843, 12mo. Two sets of reports of Wroe's 
sermons are in 7. ' A Guide to the People 
surnamed Israelites,' Boston, Massachusetts, 
1847, 12mo, and 8. ' A Guide to the People 
surnamed Israelites,' Gravesend, 1852, 8vo. 
See also ' An Abridgment of John Wroe's 
Revelations,'3rd edit. Boston, Massachusetts, 
1849, 8vo ; ' Extracts of Letters,' Wakefield 
[1841], 12mo (from Australian believers), 
and ' Extracts of Letters ... of the Israelite 
Preachers,' 1822-9, 12mo (eight pamphlets). 

There must have been some strange fasci- 
nation about the man, for (apart from his re- 



markable code of discipline) his utterances 
are but fatuous insipidities with a biblical 
twang, having neither the pathetic earnest- 
ness of Joanna Southcott nor the crude 
originality of her other improver, John 
Ward (1781-1837) [q. v.] The appended 
notes, claiming 'fulfilments' of Wroe's pro- 
phecies, are childish. Any speciality attach- 
ing to Wroe's doctrine arises from the pre- 
sence of a mysticism akin to that of Guillaume 
Postel (1505-1581), which demands a femi- 
nine Messiah to complete the requisites of 
salvation. The references to topics of sex 
are frequent, but not impure ; it is said, but 
the statement may be received with caution, 
that there is a secret manual of the sect, 
' the private revelation given to John Wroe' 
(FIELDEN), offensively indecent in its lan- 
guage ; its subject is understood to be one 
which is common to all treatises of moral 
theology. The mode of administering the 
penance by stripes, as related by Fielden, is 
grossly indelicate ; but there is not a tittle of 
evidence of immoral teaching. His com- 
munity still exists in diminished number. 

[Wroe's publications, above ; E. Buttervrorth's 
Hist, of Ashton-under-Lyne, 1842, p. 69 ; Da vis's 
The Wroeites' Faith, 1850; Fielden's Exposi- 
tion of the Fallacies of Christian Israelites 
[1861 ?] ; Letter to ' Leeds Times ' on the Cha- 
racter of J. Wroe, 1858 ; Notes and Queries, 
18 June 186-t, p. 493 ; Smith's The Coming Man, 

1873, i. 168 ; Baring-Gould's Yorkshire Oddities, 

1874, i. 23 ; Glover and Andrews's Hist, of Ash- 
ton-under Lyne, 1884, p. 306 (engraving of the 
sanctuary) ; W. Anderson Smith's Shepherd 
Smith, 1892, p. 44 ; Chadwick's Reminiscences 
of Stalvbridge, in ' Stalybridge Herald,' 1897, 
Nos. xiii-xvi ; extract from Bradford parish re- 
gister, per Mr. A. B. Sewell ; information from 
the Rev. W. Begley.] A. G. 

WROE, RICHARD (1641-1717), war- 
den of Manchester church, son of Richard 
Wroe of Heaton Yate or Heaton Gate in 
the parish of Prestwich, Lancashire, was 
born at Radcliffe, Lancashire, on 21 Aug. 
1641, and educated at the Bury grammar 
school and at Jesus College, Cambridge, 
which he entered in June 1658. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1661, M.A. in 1665, B.D. in 
1672, and D.D. in 1686; and was incor- 
porated M.A. of Oxford University in May 
1669. Through the influence of Lord Dela- 
mere (afterwards Earl of Warrington) he 
obtained in 1672 a royal mandate for the 
next presentation to a fellowship of the col- 
lege at Manchester. He was admitted in 
February 1674-5. His next promotion was 
to a prebendal stall in Chester Cathedral in 
March 1677-8. He had previously been 
appointed domestic chaplain to Dr. John 



Wroth 



161 



Wroth 




Pearson (1613-1686) [q. v.], his diocesan, 
who in 1679 appointed him curate of Wigan 
church, and in April 1681 presented him to 
the rectory of Bowdon, Cheshire. This he 
resigned in March 1689-90. On 1 May 1684 
he was installed warden of Manchester Col- 
lege, and in the same year became vicar of 
Garstang, Lancashire, which benefice he re- 
signed in 1696 on being presented to the 
rectory of West Kirby, Cheshire. William 
Hulme [q. v.] appointed him one of the first 
trustees of the Hulmean benefactions. As 
rural dean of Manchester he rendered great 
assistance to Bishop Gastrell in the compila- 
tion of his ' Notitia Cestriensis.' He was a 
student of natural philosophy and a corre- 
spondent of Flamsteed (RiGAUD, Corresp. of 
Scientific Men, 1841, ii. 136, 159). During 
the long period of his wardenship he had 
great influence in the town, due to his high 
personal character, earnest piety, and per- 
suasive eloquence. The animation and felicity 
of his pulpit discourses earned him the title 
of ' silver-tongued Wroe.' Asa whig he was 
sincerely devoted to the Hanoverian dynasty 
(cf. HIBBERT WAKE, Foundations in Man- 
chester, ii. 20 et seq.) A number of his 
le t ters on public and personal affairs addressed 
to Roger and George Kenyon, 1694-1713, 
are preserved in the Kenyon manuscripts 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 14th Rep. App. iv. 
1894). He was the author of five separately 
published sermons. 

Wroe died at Manchester on 1 Jan. 1717- 
1718, and was buried in the chancel of the 
collegiate church. His portrait is in the 
possession of Lord Kenyon. A few copies 
of an etched portrait by Geikie were pub- 
lished at Manchester about 1824, and a 
woodcut appears in the ' Palatine Note- 
book,' 1882. 

He was thrice married : first, to Elizabeth 
(surname unknown), who died in 1689 ; 
second, in 1693, to Ann Radclifte, who died 
in the following January ; third, on 3 March 
1697-8, to Dorothy, daughter of Roger Ken- 
yon of Peel, M.P. By his last wife he had 
four children, three of whom predeceased 
him ; the youngest, Thomas, became a fellow 
of Manchester College. 

[Palatine Notebook, 1882, ii. 1, and autho- 
rities there cited ; ib. ii. 33, iii. 88, iv. 56, 145; 
llaines's Wardens of Manchester (Chetham 
Soe.1, ii. 148; Worthington's Diary (Chetham 
Soc.), ii. 328, 376, 383 ; Fishwick's Hist, of 
Garstang (Chetham Soe.), ii. 182; Fishwick's 
Lancashire Library, p. 418.] C. W. S. 

WROTH, LADY MARY (fl. 1621), author 
of 'Urania,' born about 1586, was eldest 
daughter of Robert Sidney, first earl of 

VOL. LXIII. 



Leicester [q. v.], by his first wife, Barbara, 
daughter of John Gamage. The great Sir 
Philip Sidney was her father's brother. On 
27 Sept. 1604 Lady Mary married, at Pens- 
hurst, Sir Robert Wroth, eldest son of Sir 
Robert Wroth [q. v.] The bridegroom was 
about ten years his wife's senior. He had 
been knighted by King James a year before 
the marriage. On 27 Jan. 1605-6, on his 
father's death, he succeeded to large property 
in Essex, including Loughton House and the 
estate of Durrants in the parish of Enfield. 
He was a keen sportsman, and the king oc- 
casionally visited him at Durrants for hunt- 
ing. In 1613 Sir Robert was chosen sheriff 
of Essex. In February 1613-14 Lady Mary 
bore him an only child, a son (James), and 
on 14 March following Sir Robert died at 
Loughton House. He was buried two days 
later in the church at Enfield. His will was 
proved on 3 June 1614. 

Lady Mary was often at court after her 
marriage. On Twelfth-night 1604-5 she 
acted at Whitehall in Ben Jonson's ' Masque 
of Blackness.' She came to know Jonson 
and the chief poets of the day, and was soon 
recognised as one of the most sympathetic 
patronesses of contemporary literature. Ben 
Jonson dedicated to her, as ' the lady most 
deserving her name and blood,' his play of 
the ' Alchemist,' 1610. He also addressed 
to her a sonnet in his ' Underwoods ' (No. 46) 
and two epigrams (103 and 105). A sonnet 
addressed to her by Chapman prefaced his 
translation of Homer's 'Iliad' (1614). 
George Wither in 1613 addressed an epi- 
gram to the Lady Mary Wroth, apo- 
strophising her as ' Arts Sweet Louer ' 
(Abuses Stript, epigram 10). In the same 
year (1613) William Gamage, in ' Linsi- 
Woolsie : or Two Centuries of Epigrammes,' 
inscribed an epigram ' To the most famous 
and heroike Lady Mary Wroth ' (BRIDGES, 
Censura Literaria, v. 349). 

On her husband's death in 1614 Lady 
Wroth, according to court gossip, was left 
with a jointure of 1,2001. a year, an infant 
son, and an estate 23,000/. in debt (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, pp. 224, 227-8). 
She lived chiefly at Loughton, and there her 
only child, James, died on 5 July 1616. In 
April 1619 she stayed with her father at 
Baynard's Castle in London. Next month 
she figured in the procession at Queen Anne's 
funeral, and the rumour spread that she was 
about to marry the young Earl of Oxford 
(NiCHOLS, Progresses of James I, iii. 547). 
Margaret, widow of Sir John Hawkins the 
admiral, left to Lady Mary by will, dated 
23 April 1619, ' a gilt bowl, price twenty 
pounds' (Notes and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 

M 



Wroth 



162 



Wroth 



252). On 21 July 1621 the king made her 
a gift of deer. 

Sir Robert named three trustees to ad- 
minister his property, each named John 
Wroth (one being his uncle, a second being 
his brother, and a third, of London, being his 
cousin) ; but Lady Mary appears to have 
managed her own affairs after Sir Robert's 
death, with disastrous result. She was in- 
volved in an endless series of pecuniary 
embarrassments. In 1623 she obtained from 
the king an order protecting her from credi- 
tors for one year. This was constantly re- 
newed. She wrote to secretary Conway on 
3 Jan. 1623-4 that she had paid half her 
debts and hoped to pay all in a year; but 
she was too sanguine, and she was still in 
need of 'protection' in 1628 (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. passim). 

Meanwhile Lady Mary had sought a more 
interesting road to reputation. On 13 July 
1621 there was licensed for publication a 
folio volume from her pen (ARBER, Sta- 
tioners 1 Company Register, iv. 57). Her work 
bore the title : ' The Countesse of Mount- 
gomerie's Urania. Written by the right 
Honourable the Lady Mary Wroath, daugh- 
ter to the right Xoble Robert Earl of Lei- 
cester, And Neece to the ever famous and 
renowned Sir Phillips Sidney, Knight, And 
to ye most exelet Lady Mary Countesse 
of Pembroke late deceased (London, printed 
for Joh n Marriott and John Grismand).' 
An elaborate frontispiece was engraved by 
Simon Pass, and bore the date 1621. The 
book was called 'The Countess of Mont- 
gomery's Urania ' in compliment to the 
author's friend and neighbour at Enfield, 
Susanna, wife of Philip Herbert, earl of 
Montgomery. Lady Mary's ' Urania ' is a 
close imitation, in four books, of the ' Arcadia ' 
of her uncle, Sir Philip Sidney. It is a fan- 
tastic story of princes and princesses dis- 
guised as shepherds and shepherdesses. The 
scene is laid in Greece. The tedious narra- 
tive is in prose, which is extraordinarily 
long-winded and awkward, but there are oc- 
casional verse eclogues and songs. At the 
close of the volume is a separate collection 
of poems, including some hundred sonnets 
and twenty songs. The appended collection 
loears the general title ' Pamphilia to Amphi- 
lanthus.' One section is headed ' A Crowne 
of Sonnets dedicated to Love.' In these 
poems Lady Mary figures to greater advan- 
tage, and discovers some lyric faculty and 
fluency. Two of her poems are reprinted in 
Mr. Bullen's ' Lyrics and Romances ' (1890). 
The book seems to have had a satiric 
intention, and to have reflected on the 
amorous adventures of some of James I's 



courtiers. On 15 Dec. 1621 Lady Mary wrote 
to Buckingham, assuring him that she never 
intended her book to offend anyone, and that 
she had stopped the sale of it (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 60). On 9 March 1623 
Chamberlain wrote to his friend Carleton, 
enclosing ' certain bitter verses of the Lord 
Denny upon the Lady Mary Wroth, for that 
in her book of " Urania " she doth palpably 
and grossly play upon him and his late daugh- 
ter, the Lady Mary Hay, besides many others 
she makes bold with ; and, they say, takes 
great liberty, or rather licence, to traduce 
whom she pleases, and thinks she dances in 
a net.' Chamberlain adds that he had seen 
an answer by Lady Mary to these rhymes, 
but ' thought it not worth the writing out ' 
(Court and Times of James I, ii. 298 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, p. 356; cf. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 179, Hat- 
field MSS.) 

Lady Mary survived these incidents for 
more than twenty years. On 4 Dec. 1640 Sir 
John Leeke wrote to Sir Edmund Verney : 
' I received a most courteous and kind letter 
from my old mistress, the Lady Mary Wroth. 
. . . She wrote me word that by my Lord 
of Pembroke's great mediation the king hath 
given her son a brave living in Ireland ' 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 435). She 
had no surviving son by Sir Robert AVroth, 
and reference was made either to a son by a 
second husband, or more probably for there 
is no proof that she married again to a 
godson, who has not been identified. 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum Anglicanorum, 
Addit. MS. 24492 ; Visitations of Essex (Harl. 
Soc.), p- 331 ; Collins' s Sydney Papers, i. 120, 
ii. 305, 352(where Lady Mary is wrongly credited 
with a second son); Morant's Essex, i. 163; 
Robinson's Enfield ; Notes and Queries, 7th 
and 8th sers. passim.] S. L. 

WROTH, SIR ROBERT (1540 P-1606), 
member of parliament, born in Middlesex 
about 1540, was eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Wroth (1516-1573) [q. v.] by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Richard, lord Rich. He was 
admitted a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on 21 April 1553, but, owing to 
the religious changes consequent on the ac- 
cession of Queen Mary, he left the university 
without a degree soon after his admission. 
Accompanying his father in his exile, he re- 
turned to England soon after the accession 
of Elizabeth. He afterwards entered public 
life, and the rest of his career was usefully de- 
voted to politics and the administration of a 
large estate. He was elected for the first time 
to parliament for St. Albans on 11 Jan. 1562- 
1563 ; he was returned for Trevena on 2 April 
1571 ; he took his seat as member for the 



Wroth 



163 



Wroth 



important constituency of Middlesex on 
8 May 1572, and was re-elected to four later 
parliaments (23 Nov. 1585, 4 Feb. 1588-9, 
7 Oct. 1601, and 9 March 1603-4). 

Meanwhile his father's death on 9 Oct. 
1573 had placed him in possession of large 
estates in Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, 
and Somerset, but he lived chiefly at Lough- 
ton Hall, Essex, which he acquired through 
his wife, and devoted much time to the 
affairs of the county of Essex. He was 
high sheriff in 1587. He was appointed to 
the command of two hundred untrained men, 
forty harquebusiers, and forty musketeers 
of Essex in the army which was raised in 
1588 to resist the Spanish armada. He was 
knighted in 1597. During the closing years 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign he, as a staunch 
protQStant and loyal supporter of the queen's 
government, was nominated to serve on 
many special commissions for the trial of 
persons charged with high treason, including 
Dr. William Parry (20 Feb. 1584-5), An- 
thony Babington (5 Sept. 1586), Patrick 
O'Cu'llen (21 Feb. 1592-3), many Jesuits and 
suspected coiners (26 March 1593), and 
Valentine Thomas (22 July 1598). 

Wroth retained the favour of the govern- 
ment under James I. On 22 May 1603 the 
new king granted him a walkership in Walt- 
ham Forest for life, and on 19 Feb. next 
year he and others were directed to see to 
the erection of bridges across the river Lea 
between Hackney and Hoddesdon for the 
king's convenience when hawking. On 18 
and 19 July 1605 he entertained James I at 
his residence at Loughton in Essex for two 
days. His estates in Essex were greatly in- 
creased by the death of Francis Stonard, his 
father-in-law, on 13 Sept. 1604. He was 
a juryman at the trial of Sir Walter Ralegh 
on 15 Sept. 1603, when through some mis- 
understanding he incurred the displeasure 
of the attorney-general (EDWARDS, Ralegh, 
i. 420). He was in the special commission 
of oyer and terminer for Middlesex issued 
16 Jan. 1605-6 for the trial of Guy Fawkes 
and the great powder-plot conspirators. 

Wroth died on 27 Jan. 1605-6, and was 
buried on the following day at Enfield. His 
obsequies were formally celebrated on 
3 March. 

Sir Robert married Susan, daughter and 
heiress of Francis Stonard of Loughton, 
through whom he acquired the estate of 
Loughton. He seems to have had at least 
four surviving sons: Sir Robert (1576?- 
1614), who is noticed under his wife, Lady 
Mary Wroth : John, who was admitted a 
student of the Inner Temple, 1596, was after- 
wards described as a captain, and succeeded 






to Durrants ; Thomas ; and Henry, who is 
styled ' of Woodbury in Herefordshire.' 

SIR HENRY WROTH (d. 1071), second son 
of Henry, Sir Robert's youngest son, acquired 
some fame as a royalist during the civil wars, 
was a 'pensioner' of Charles I, and was 
knighted at Oxford on 15 Sept. 1645. He 
compounded with the parliament for GOl. 
(Cal. Committee for Compounding, p. 1567). 
He was granted land in Ireland and succeeded 
to Durrants on the death of his uncle John. 
In 1664 Sir Henry Wroth with a party of 
horse escorted Colonel John Hutchinson [q.v.] 
from the Tower of London on the road to 
Sandown Castle in Kent (Memoirs of Colonel 
Hutchinson, ed. C. II. Firth, ii. 329). Sir 
Henry Wroth was a patron of Fuller, who 
dedicated to him his ' Pisgah Sight,' 1650. 
Fuller often visited him at Durrants (BAILEY, 
Life of Fuller, p. 460). He died on 22 Sept. 
1671. He married Anne (1682-1077), daugh- 
ter of William, lord Maynard of Wicklow. 
His second daughter Jane married in 1681 
William Henry Zuylestein, first earl of 
Rochford [q. v.] 

[Morant's Essex, i. 162-5 ; Visitation of Essex 
(Harl. Soc.); Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 428, 
534; Nichols's Progresses; Robinson's Enfield; 
Park's Hampstead ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
x. xi.; Davy's MS. Suffolk Collections in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 19156, ff. 255-7.] S. L. 

WROTH, SIR THOMAS (1516-1573), 
politician, born in 1516, claimed as his an- 
cestor William de Wrotham [q. v.], the judge, 
whose alleged descendant, John, was sheriff 
of London in 1351, lord mayor in 1361, and 
represented Middlesex in many parliaments, 
of Edward Ill's reign (Official Return, i. 
170-89). John's son, Sir Thomas Wroth, 
married Maud, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Durant (d. 1348), who built Durrants in En- 
field, afterwards the seat of the Wroth 
families. Robert Wroth, father of the sub- 
ject of this article, was attorney of the duchy 
of Lancaster, and one of the commissioners 
appointed to inquire into Wolsey's posses- 
sions in 1529. He sat for Middlesex in the 
Reformation parliament (1529-35), and died 
in 1536, leaving issue by his wife Jane, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Hawte, four sons 
and two daughters. 

Thomas, the eldest son, was a ward of the 
king, and was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, but seems to have taken 
no degree, and in 1536 was admitted student 
of Gray's Inn. On 4 Oct. of that year the 
right of his wardship and marriage was 
granted to Cromwell (Letters and Papers, 
xi. 943 [6]). In 1539 Sir Richard Rich 
(afterwards first Baron Rich) [q. v.] paid 
Cromwell three hundred marks for the right 

M2 



Wroth 



164 



of disposing of Wroth in marriage, and then 
provided for his third daughter, Mary, by 
betrothing her to Wroth. Wroth was granted ; 
livery of his lands on 24 April 1540, and in 
that and the following year Rich secured 
for his daughter's husband the manors of 
Highbury (forfeited by Cromwell) and of j 
Beymondhall, Hertfordshire, and lands in | 
Cheshunt, Wormley, and Enfield, belonging 
to various dissolved monasteries {Letters 
and Papers, xiv. ii. 324, xv. 613 [9], 733 
[64], XYI. 727). On 18 Dec. 1544 Wroth 
was returned to parliament as one of the j 
knights of the shire for Middlesex, and in 
the following year, through Cranmer's in- 
fluence, it is said, was appointed gentleman 
of the chamber to Prince Edward. He re- 
tained that post during EdwardVI's reign, was 
knighted on 22 Feb. 1546-7, and was one of 
the young king's principal favourites. In 
September 1547 he was sent to the Protector 
in Scotland with Edward's letters congratu- 
lating him on his victory at Pinkie, and in 
July 1548 was one of the witnesses against 
Bishop Gardiner for his sermon in St. Paul's. 
He probably represented Middlesex in the 
parliament that sat from 1547 to 1552, but 
the returns are wanting. After Somerset's 
fall Wroth was on 15 Oct. 1549 appointed 
one of the four principal gentlemen of the 
privy chamber, his fidelity to AVarwick's in- 
terests being secured by doubling the ordi- 
nary salary of 50/. On 24 July 1550 he was 
granted the manors of Bardfield, Chigwell, 
and West Ham in Essex {Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80, p. 28, Addenda, 1547-65, p. 
412), and on 14 April 1551 he was made 
joint lord lieutenant with Paget of Middle- 
sex. On 29 Nov. following he was present 
at the disputation on the Sacrament held in 
Cecil's house (Dixox, Church Hut. iii. 388). 
Somerset's second fall brought AVroth further 
grants ; on 22 Jan. 1551-2, the day of the 
Protector's execution, he was sent to Sion 
House to report on the number and ages of 
the duke's sons, daughters, and servants, 
and on 7 June following was given a twenty- 
one years' lease of Sion. This he is said to 
have surrendered on an assurance that Ed- 
ward designed it for some public charity. 
In 1552, and again in 1553, he was one of 
the commissioners for the lord-lieutenancy 
of Middlesex, and in February 1552-3 he 
was again knight of the shire for Middlesex 
in Edward's last parliament. He was not a 
member of the privy council, but was one of 
those whom Edward VI proposed in March 
1551-2 to ' call into commission,' his name 
appearing on the committees of the council 
which were to execute penal laws and pro- 
clamations and to examine into the ' state 



of all the courts,' especially the new courts 
of augmentations, first-fruits and tenths, and 
wards {Lit. Remains of Edward VI, pp. 403, 
499-501). In December 1552 he was placed 
on a further commission for the recovery of 
the king's debts, and in the same year was 
one of the ' adventurers ' in the voyage to 
Morocco (HAKLTJYT, n. ii. 8 ; cf. art. WYXD- 
HAJI, THOMAS, 1510 P-1553). 

AVroth was until July 1553 in close at- 
tendance upon Edward VI, who is said to 
have died in his arms. He signed the king's 
letters patent limiting the crown to Lady 
Jane Grey, but apparently took no overt 
part in Northumberland's insurrection. He 
was sent to the Tower on 27 July, but was 
soon released. In January 1553-4, however, 
when Suffolk was meditating his second 
rising, Lord John Grey had an interview 
with Wroth, and urged him to join. Gardiner 
proposed his arrest on the 27th, but AA r roth 
escaped to the continent. For this step he 
is said to have obtained royal licence, which 
was probably due to the intercession of his 
father-in-law, Lord Rich(C%7'0. Queen Jane, 
p. 184 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 
57). He remained abroad during the rest 
of Mary's reign, principally at Strasburg and 
Frankfort, giving material help to the pro- 
testant exiles. Immediately on Elizabeth's 
accession he returned to England, and on 
29 Dec. 1558 was elected knight of the shire 
for Middlesex, which he again represented 
in the parliament of 1562-3. On 21 Aug. 
1559 he was appointed commissioner to visit 
the dioceses of Ely and Norwich. In June 
1562 he was nominated a special commis- 
sioner to consult with the lord-deputy on 
the government of Ireland (instructions in 
Lambeth MS. 614, ff. 143, 145, 149), but 
does not seem to have gone to Dublin till 
February 1563-4 ; he was recalled at his own 
request in August. In 1569 he was com- 
missioner for musters in Middlesex and for 
the lord-lieutenancy of London, and on 
1 Sept. 1571 was sent to take an inventory 
of Norfolk's goods in the Charterhouse. 

Wroth died on 9 Oct. 1573. He left 
issue by his wife Mary Rich six or seven 
sons and three or four daughters. The eldest 
son, Sir Robert (1540P-1606) [q.v.], suc- 
ceeded him. The second son, Thomas, was 
admitted student of the Inner Temple in 
November 1564 (CooKE, Admissions, p. 56), 
and was Lent reader in 1601, being fined 20/. 
for neglecting to read his lecture {Inner 
Temple Records, i. 440, 442). He acquired 
wealth in the practice of the law, and settled 
at Blundenhall, Boxley, Kent, where he died 
in 1610. He married Joan, second daughter 
and heir of John or Thomas Bulmer or Bui- 



Wroth 



165 



Wroth 



I 



man, and left, besides other issue, Sir Tho- 
mas Wroth (1584-1672) [q.v.] and Sir Peter 
"Wroth (d, 1644), a member of the Inner 
Temple and ' a gentleman of great learning, 
from whose collections ' Collinson derived 
the account of the family printed in his 
' Somerset,' and whose grandson John even- 
tually succeeded to the Somerset property. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. xiv. 
xvi. ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, 
1547-75; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, 
and Addenda, 1547-65, and Foreign, 1553-8; 
Hatfield MSS. vol. i. ; Official Eeturn of Memb. 
of Parl. ; Chron. Queen Jane and Greyfriars' 
Chron. (Camden Soc.) ; Lit. Rem. of Edward VI 
(Roxburghe Club) ; Inner Temple Records, 
1898, passim; Foster's Reg. of Gray's Inn; 
Strype's Works (general index) ; Burnet's Hist, 
of the Reformation, ed. Pocock ; Gough's Index 
to Parker Society's publications ; Dixon's Hist, 
of the Church of England, iii. 251-2, 261, 388; 
Lansd. MS. 155, f. 312 b; Harl. MS. 2218, if. 
236-256; Cotton MS. Julius F. x. 18; Addit. 
MSS. 5524 f. 207 t>, 16279 ff. 224-5 ; Todd's Cat. 
MSS. Lambeth ; Visitations of London, ii. 373-4, 
of Essex, i. 132, 330, and of Somerset, p. 147 
(Harl. Soc.) ; Collinson's Somerset, passim (gene- 
ral index, 1898); Morant's Essex, i. 162-4, ii. 
519; Hasted's Kent; Hoare's Modern Wilts, 
vol. iii. 'Downton,' p. 44; Drake's Blackheath, 
1886, p. xxv ; Davy's Suffolk Collections (Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 19156, f. 255); Cooper's Athenae 
Cantabr. i. 321-2, 561, and authorities there 
cited.] A. F. P. 

WROTH, SIR THOMAS (1584-1672), 
parliamentarian and author, eldest son of 
Thomas Wroth (d. 1610) and grandson of 
Sir Thomas Wroth (1516-1573) [q. v.], was 
born in London, and baptised at St. Ste- 
phen's, Coleman Street, on 5 May 1584. 
He matriculated as a commoner from Glou- 
cester Hall (afterwards Worcester College), 
Oxford, on 1 July 1600, but was afterwards 
described as ' sometime scholar to the prin- 
cipal ' of Broadgates Hall, to the rebuilding 
of which he contributed 40s. in 1620 (MAC- 
LEAKE, Pembroke Coll. Oxf. Hist. Soc. p. 
147). He left the university without a de- 
gree, and in November 1606 was entered 
with his brother (Sir) Peter as a student at 
the Inner Temple (CooKE, Admissions, p. 
175). He was knighted on 14 Oct. 1613, 
and, having inherited a considerable portion 
of his father's wealth, he purchased the 
Somerset estates of his cousin, Sir Robert 
Wroth (1575-1614), when they were sold 
to pay his debts. The chief of these were 
the manors of Newton and Petherton Park, 
of which his great-grandfather Robert had 
been appointed forester by Henry VII, and 
which his grandfather Sir Thomas had pur- 
chased of Edward VI in 1550. Petherton 



Park became the seat of his branch of the 
family, and for the rest of his life Wroth was 
associated with Somersetshire politics. 

Wroth employed his leisure in literary 
pursuits, and in 1620 published ' The De- 
struction of Troy, or the Acts of ./Eneas, 
translated out of the second booke of the 
yEneads of Virgil . . .,' London, 4to. It is 
dedicated to Sir Robert Sidney, first earl 
of Leicester [q. v.], and bound up with the 
British Museum copy is Wroth's ' Abortive 
of an Idle Hour, or a Centurie of Epigrams,' 
also printed in London, 1620, 4to. Wroth's 
only other literary efforts were his account 
of his wife Margaret, who died of a fever at 
Petherton Park on 14 Oct. 1635, and was 
buried on 11 Nov. in St. Stephen's, Coleman 
Street, London. It is printed in the Duke 
of Manchester's ' Court and Society from 
Elizabeth to Anne ' (i. 343 sqq.) ; his ' sad 
encomium ' upon her was separately printed 
in 1635 (London, 4to) (cf. COLLIER, Bibl. 
Ace. of English Lit. ii. 547-8). 

Wroth's wife was daughter of Richard 
Rich of Leighs in Essex, and sister of 
Sir Nathaniel Rich [q. v.], the colonial 
pioneer (cf. STITH, Hist, of Virginia, 1747, 
p. 182) ; and this connection and his friend- 
ship with the first Earl of Leicester, a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Company, led Wroth to 
associate himself with colonial enterprise. 
He was a subscriber to the Virginia Com- 
pany in 1609, and during 1621-4 was a 
prominent member of the Warwick party, 
in opposition to Sir Edwin Sandys [q. v.] 
He voted in favour of the surrender ot the 
original charter in October 1023, and was 
one of those included in James I's new 
grant of 15 July 1624 (Cal. State Papers, 
Amer. and West Indies, 1574-1660, pp. 50, 
53, 404, 449, Addenda, 1574-1664, No. 131). 
On 3 Nov. 1620 he became a member of the 
council for New England, and subsequently, 
on 25 June 1653, was made a commissioner 
for the government of the Bermudas. 

In domestic politics Wroth joined the op- 
position to the king, and he represented 
Bridgwater in the parliament of 1627-8. 
In September 1635 the government seized a 
letter from him in which he bewailed the 
condition of the church, and hinted at re- 
sistance ' usque ad sanguinis effusionem ' 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635, pp. 377-8). 
He served as sheriff of Somersetshire in 
1639-40, and was therefore excluded from 
the Short parliament ; but he again repre- 
sented Bridgwater in the Long parliament, 
which met in November 1640. In 1642 was 
published ' A Speech spoken by Sir Thomas 
Wroth . . . upon his delivery of a Petition 
from . . . Somerset, 25 Feb. 1641-2,' Lon- 



Wroth 



1 66 



Wrotham 



don, 4to. Gradually inclining towards the 
views of the independents, Wroth retained 
his seat in the Long parliament through all 
its vicissitudes, and on 3 Jan. 1647-8 moved 
the famous resolution that Charles I should 
be impeached and the kingdom settled with- 
out him (GARDINER, Civil War, iv. 50). He 
took the ' engagement ' in 1649, and was one 
of the judges appointed to try the king, but 
he attended only one session (NOBLE, Regi- 
cides, ii. 339-40). In June following he was 
thanked by parliament for suppressing the 
levellers in Somerset. Wroth does not ap- 
pear to have sat in the parliaments of 1653 
and 1654, but on 20 Oct. 1656 was again 
returned for Bridgwater, which he is said 
to have represented in Richard Cromwell's 
parliament of 1658-9, and for which he cer- 
tainly sat in the Convention parliament of 
1660. His petition for pardon (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 9) was apparently 
granted (but cf. ib. 1661-2, p. 57), and 
Wroth lived in retirement until his death, 
aged 88, at Petherton Park on 11 July 1672. 
His will was proved on 24 Aug. following. 

He left no issue by his wife Margaret, and 
did not marry again, his estates passing to his 
great-nephew, Sir John Wroth, second baro- 
net (d. 1674). son of Sir John Wroth, first 
baronet (d. 1664), a royalist who fought 
with distinction atNewbury,and was created 
a baronet in 1660, and grandson of Sir 
Thomas's brother, Sir Peter Wroth. The 
baronetcy became extinct on the death of 
Sir John Wroth, third baronet, on 27 June 
1722. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. and Amef. and West 
Indies, 1574-1660 ; Commons' Journals ; Official 
Return Memb. of Parl. ; Wood's Athense, ed. 
Bliss, iii. 514-16 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714; Noble's Regicides, ii. 339-40; List of 
Sheriffs, 1898; Inner Temple Records, i. 440, 
442; Harl. MS. 2218, f. 24 b ; Addit, MS. 
16279, ff. 224-5; Visitation of Somerset, 1623 
(Harl. Soc.), p. 147; Sir Thomas Phillips's Visi- 
tation of Somerset ; Collinson's Hist, of Somer- 
set, iii. 62-80 ; Visitation of London (Harl. 
Soc.), ii. 373-4 ; Park's Hist, of Hampstead, p. 
116; Davy's Suffolk Collections (Addit. MS. 
19156, f. 257); Hunter's Chorus Vatum in 
Addit. MS. 2449, f. 462; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetcies; Brown's Genesis U.S.A. ; Gardiner's 
Civil War, iv. 50; Wroth's Works, and au- 
thorities cited in text.] A. F. P. 

WROTH, WILLIAM (1576P-1042), 
Welsh nonconformist, was born about 1576 
in the neighbourhood of Abergavenny. He 
was of good family, and on 27 Nov. 1590 
matriculated at Oxford from New Inn Hall. 
On 18 Feb. 1595-6 he graduated B.A. from 
Christ Church, and on 26 June 1605 M.A. 
from Jesus College. In 1611 he was pre- 



sented by Sir Edward Lewis of Van to the 
rectory of Llan Faches, Monmouthshire, to 
which was added in 1613 that of Llanti- 
hangel Roggiett, hard by. About 1620 the 
sudden death of a friend made a deep im- 
pression upon him, and he became renowned 
as an earnest preacher and a zealous puritan. 
So large was the concourse of folk who came 
to hear him that he frequently preached in 
the churchyard; he visited other districts, 
and was especially in request at Bristol. 
His zeal led to his being summoned in 1635 
before the court of high commission; the 
case, however, was not promptly dealt with, 
for in 1637 Wroth was still reckoned ' re- 
fractory,' though in 1638 he had made some 
kind of submission. In November 1639, 
having resigned (or been ejected from) his 
living, he formed at Llan Faches, with the 
aid of Henry Jessey [q. v.] and Walter Cra- 
dock [q.v.], the first separatist church in Wales, 
of which he was chosen pastor. He died in 
the early part of 1642. Cradock, in a ser- 
mon preached before the House of Commons 
in 1646, speaks of Wroth as ' that blessed 
apostle of South Wales,' and quotes, in illus- 
tration of his pastoral diligence, a saying 
of his ' that there was not one person in his 
congregation whose spiritual estate he did 
not fully know.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Rees's 
Hist, of Protestant Nonconformity in Wales ; 
Laud's- Works, vol. v. passim; Life of Henry 
Jessey.] J. E. L. 

WROTHAM, WILLIAM DE (d. 1217), 
judge, was the grandson of Geoffrey de 
Wrotham of Baddenville, near Wrotham 
in Kent, a domestic servant of several arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, including Hubert 
Walter [see HUBERT], who gave him lands 
near Wrotham, Kent. By his wife, Maud 
de Cornhill, Geoffrey was father of William 
de Wrotham (d. 1208?), who was sheriff of 
Devonshire in 1198-9, acted as justiciar in 
the reigns of Richard I and John, and 
married Muriel de Lydd. As he survived 
until about 1208, it is difficult to distinguish 
him from his son, but apparently it was the 
son who was custos of the stanneries of 
Devonshire and Cornwall from 1199 to 1213 
(MADOX, History of the Exchequer, ii. 132), 
and appears in 1204 as one of the bailiffs of 
the seaports and of the fifteenth of mer- 
chandise, and in 1205 as one of the 
'custodes galearum.' On 30 Sept. 1206 
he was acting as custodian, with Hugh 
of Wells, of the temporalities of the 
bishopric of Bath and the abbey of Glaston- 
bury (Rot. Pat. p. 576); and on 4 Feb. 1206 
he was appointed to inquire into the mal- 
administration of the borough of London 



Wrottesley 



167 



Wrottesley 



(Rot. Claus. p. 64). On 25 June of the 
same year he was custodian of the tempo- 
ralities of the bishopric of Winchester (ib. 
p. 73&). He'was also forester of the counties 
of Somerset and Dorset, and later of Somerset 
and Exmoor. He was a canon of Wells in 
1204, and in the same year became archdea- 
con of Taunton (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
i. 166). Soon after he received the churches 
of Warden in Sheppey and East Mailing 
in Kent. Le Neve, misreading 'Tant' for 
' Cant,' makes Wrotham archdeacon of Can- 
terbury in 1206. lie paid two thousand 
three hundred marks for the king's favour 
in 1208, and he seems to have held the 
office of warden of the seaports during most 
of John's reign (see Rot. Claus. passim). 
He was constantly with the king in 1209- 
1210 and 1212-13, and is mentioned by 
Roger of Wendover as one of John's ad- 
visers during the time of the interdict. He 
must have left the country during the war 
at the end of the reign, but was permitted 
by Henry III to return in safety in 1217. 
He died in that year, being succeeded by his 
nephew and heir, Richard de Wrotham 
(Rot. Claus. i. 352-3). His chief grants of 
land were in Somerset, and, according to the 
pedigrees given in Collinson, he was ancestor 
of the Wroth or Wrothe family, a name said 
to be a contraction of Wrotham [cf. art. 
W r ROTH, SIB THOMAS, 1516-1573]. 

[Eot. Pat., Rot. Claus., and Rot. Char- 
tarum. (Record Comm. Publ.) ; Madox's Hist. 
Exchequer ; Roger Wendover, Matthew Paris, 
ii. 533, Walter of Coventry (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Collinson's Somerset, iii. 63-5, &c. (see general 
index, 1898); List of Sheriffs, 1898 ; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] W. E. R. 

WROTTESLEY, SIR JOHN, second 
BARON WROTTESLEY (1798-1867), was born 
at Wrottesley Hall in Staffordshire on 5 Aug. 
1798. 

His father, SIE JOHN WROTTESLEY, first 
BARON WROTTESLEY (1771-1841), born on 
4 Oct. 1771, was the eldest son of Major- 
general Sir John Wrottesley, bart. (1744- 
1787), by his wife Frances (d. 1828), daughter 
of Sir William Courtenay, first viscount 
Courtenay (d. 1762). He was a descendant 
of Sir Walter Wrottesley [q. v.], was ad- 
mitted to Westminster school on 31 Jan. 
1782, and served in Holland and France 
during the revolutionary war as an officer 
in the 13th lancers. On 2 March 1799 he 
was returned to parliament for Lichfield in 
the whig interest. He was re-elected in 
1802, but in 1806 was defeated. On 23 July 
1825 he was returned for Staffordshire, and 
after the passage of the Reform Act in 1832 
he continued to sit for the southern division 



of the county until 1837, when, his seat 
being endangered by the decline of the 
whig interest, he was advanced to the House 
of Lords on 11 July 1838 with the title of 
Baron Wrottesley of Wrottesley. He was 
a good practical farmer, and his lands at 
Wrottesley were furnished with the latest 
improvements in agricultural machinery. 
While in parliament he procured the exemp- 
tion of draining tiles from duty. He died 
at Wrottesley on 16 March 1841, and was 
buried in the ancestral vault at Tettenhall 
church on 24 March. He was twice mar- 
ried : first, on 23 Jan. 1795, to Caroline, 
eldest daughter of Charles Bennet, fourth 
earl of Tankerville. By her he had five 
sons and three daughters. She died on 
7 March 1818, and he married, secondly, on 
19 May 1819, Julia (d. 29 Sept. 1860), 
daughter of John Conyers of Copt Hall, 
Essex, and widow of Captain John Astley 
Bennet, R.N., brother of Wrottesley 's first 
wife. By her he had no issue (Gent. Mag. 
1841, i. 650; GREVILLE, Memoirs, 1888, iii. 
9, 13). 

His eldest son, John, was admitted to 
Westminster school on 22 Jan. 1810. He 
left in 1814, and matriculated from Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 15 May 1816, graduating 
B.A. in 1819 and M. A. in 1823. He entered 
Lincoln's Inn on 19 Nov. 1819, and was 
called to the bar in 1823. He joined the 
committee of the Society for Diffusing Useful 
Knowledge, of which he continued a member 
until his death. While practising as an 
equity lawyer he settled at Blackheath, 
where between 1829 and 1831 he built and 
fitted up an astronomical observatory. He 
especially devoted himself to observing the 
positions of certain fixed stars of the sixth 
and seventh magnitudes. He took ten 
observations of each star, a task which 
occupied him from 9 May 1831 till 1 July 
1835. In 1836 he presented his ' Catalogue 
of the Right Ascensions of 1318 Stars' to 
the Royal Astronomical Society, which he 
had assisted to found in 1820, and of which 
he was secretary from 1831 to 1841, and 
president from 1841 to 1843. The society 
printed the ' Catalogue ' in their ' Memoirs ' 
in 1838, and presented Wrottesley with 
their gold medal on 8 Feb. 1839. On 29 April 
1841 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society. 

After his father's death in 1 841 Wrottesley 
transferred his observatory to Wrottesley, 
and provided it with an equatorial of 129 
inches focal length by 7f inches aperture. 
In 1842 and 1854 he issued two supple- 
mentary catalogues of stars (Memoirs of the 
Royal Astron. Soc. vols. xii. and xxiii.) In 



Wrottesley 



1 68 



Wrottesley 



1851 be published in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' of the Royal Society a paper 
' On the Results of Periodical Observations 
of nineteen Stars favourably situated for 
the Investigation of Parallax,' and in 1861 
in the ' Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical 
Society ' a ' Catalogue of the Positions and 
Distances of 398 Double Stars ' (vol. xxix.) 

Wrottesley served on several royal com- 
missions of a scientific nature, and was one 
of the original poor-law commissioners, 
publishing in 1834, in conjunction with 
Charles Hay Cameron [q. v.] and John 
Welsford Cowell, ' Two Reports on the Poor 
Laws ' (London, 8vo). In 1 853 he called 
attention in the House of Lords to Lieute- 
nant Matthew Fontaine Maury's scheme of 
meteorological observations and discoveries, 
and advocated the policy of encouraging 
merchant captains to keep meteorological 
records of winds and currents during their 
voyages, a project which has since been 
extensively adopted by the board of trade. 
Wrottesley's speech on this subject was 
published (London, 8vo). In November 
1854 he succeeded William Parsons, third 
earl of Rosse [q. v.], as president of the 
Royal Society, a post which he resigned in 
1857. In 1860 he was elected president of 
the British Association, and on 2 July 
received the degree of D.C.L. from the 
university of Oxford. He died at Wrottes- 
ley on 27 Oct. 1867. On 28 July 1821 he 
married Sophia Elizabeth (d. 13 Jan. 1880), 
third daughter of Thomas Giffard of Chil- 
lington in Staffordshire. By her he had 
five sons and two daughters. His two 
youngest sons Henry and Cameron fell 
in action. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son Arthur, third baron Wrottesley. 

Besides the ' Catalogues ' already men- 
tioned, Wrottesley was the author of : 
1. ' Thoughts on Government and Legisla- 
tion,'London,1859,8vo; German translation, 
by G. F. Stedefeld, Berlin, 1869, 8vo. 2. 'An 
Address on the Recent Application of the 
Spectrum Analysis to Astronomical Phe- 
nomena/ Wolverhampton, 1865, 8vo. He 
compiled a treatise on navigation for the 
* Library of Useful Knowledge,' issued under 
the auspices of the Society for Diffusing 
Useful Knowledge in the series on ' Natural 
Philosophy ' (1854, vol. iii.) He also contri- 
buted many papers to the ' Memoirs ' and 
'Monthly Notices' of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, and furnished a paper ' On 
the Application of the Calculus of Proba- 
bilities to the Results of Measurements of 
the Positions and Distances of Double Stars ' 
in the ' Proceedings ' of the Royal Society 
(1859). 



[Monthly Notices of the Royal Astron. Soc. 
1868, xxviii. 64-8; Proceedings of the Royal 
Soc. 1867-8, vol. xvi. pp. Ixiii-lxiv; Gent. Mag. 
1867, ii. 820 ; Burke's Peerage ; Simms's Biblio- 
theca Stafford. 1894; Welch's Alumni West- 
monast. 1852; Barker's and Stenning's West- 
minster School Keg. 1892 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Official Return of Members 
of Parliament; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. j 
Stedefeld's Ueber die naturalist ische Auffassung 
der Englander vom Staat und vom Christenthum, 
Berlin, 1869; Records of Lincoln's Inn, 1896, 
ii. 85.] E. I. C. 

WROTTESLEY, SIR WALTER (d. 
1473), captain of Calais, was eldest son of 
Hugh Wrottesley (d. 1464) and his wife 
Thomasine, daughter of Sir John Gresley of 
Drakelaw. The family, whose name seems 
originally to have been Verdon, had been 
settled at Wrottesley in Staffordshire for 
many centuries, the first to adopt the name 
Wrottesley being William de Verdon, who 
succeeded to the manor in 1199, and died in 
1242 (see the elaborate history of the family 
in the course of publication in the Genealo- 
gist, vols. xv. xvi. et seq.) Walter was a 
firm adherent of Warwick ' the king-maker,' 
and on 7 Nov. 1460 he was appointed sheriff 
of Staffordshire. Apparently he held the 
office for the usual term, undisturbed by the 
varying fortunes of the party. On 26 Jan. 
1461-2 he is styled a 'king's knight,' and 
was granted the manors of Ramsham and 
Penpole, Dorset, formerly belonging to Wil- 
liam Neville, earl of Kent. Grants of the 
manors of Clynte, Hondesworth, and Mere 
in Staffordshire, formerly belonging to the 
Lancastrian James Butler, earl of Wiltshire 
[q. v.], soon followed, and on 14 June 1463 
Wrottesley was one of those to whom War- 
wick was allowed to alienate manors and 
castles, although their reversion might belong 
to the crown. AVrottesley joined Warwick 
in his attempt to overthrow the Woodvilles, 
and when in 1471 the king-maker restored 
Henry VI, Wrottesley was put in command 
of Calais, a stronghold of the Nevilles. After 
Warwick's defeat and death at Barnet on 
14 April, Wrottesley surrendered Calais to 
Edward IV on condition of a free pardon. 
He died in 1473, and is said to have been 
buried in Greyfriars Church, London. By 
his wife Jane, daughter of William Baron 
of Reading, he left two sons Richard, who 
succeeded him, and was sheriff of Stafford- 
shire in 1492-3; and William and three 
daughters. H is descendant, Sir Walter Wrot- 
tesley (d. 1659), was created a baronet on 
30 Aug. 1642, and the seventh baronet, Sir 
Richard Wrottesley (d. 1769), dean of Wor- 
cester, was grandfather of John, first baroa 



Wroughton 



169 



Wroughton 






Wrottesley [see WROTTESLET, JOHN, second 
BARON]. 

[The history of the Wrottesley family in the 
Genealogist only extends (1900) to the fourteenth 
century. See also Hist. MS3. Comm. 4th Rep. 
App. pp. 339, 341 ; see also Black's Cat. Ash- 
moleanMSS. ; Adclit. MSS. 5521 f. 223 b, 29995 
f. 1646; Cal. Patent Rolls Edward IV, vol. i. 
passim; Wark worth's Chron. (Camden Soc.), p. 
19; Paston Letters, ii. 37; Lists of Sheriffs, 
1898; Fubyan's Chron.; Shaw's Staffordshire, 
ii. 205; Simms's Bibl. Staffordiensis ; Oman's 
Warwick the Kingmaker; Burke's Peerage, 
1899.] A. F. P. 

WROUGHTON, RICHARD (1748- 
1822), actor, born in 1748, was bred as a 
surgeon in Bath, and made occasional ap- 
pearances on the stage of that city. He came 
to London, followed by a young milliner 
who had fallen in love with him, who nursed 
him through a severe illness, and whom he 
married. His first appearance was made at 
Covent Garden on 24 Sept. 1768 as Zaphna 
in ' Mahomet,' and not apparently in Alta- 
mont in the 'Fair Penitent' (acted on the 
12th), as all his biographers say. He was 
seen during the season as Tressel in 'Ri- 
chard III,' Nerestan in ' Zara,' Creon in 
' Medea,' Altamont, for his benefit, on 4 May 
1769, and George Barn well. He was slow 
in ripening, and his early performances gave 
little promise. By dint of sheer hard work 
he developed, however, into a good actor. 
During the seventeen years in which he re- 
mained at Covent Garden he played the 
principal parts in comedy and many impor- 
tant characters in tragedy and romantic 
drama. These included Dick in the ' Miller 
of Mansfield,' Frederick in the ' Miser,' Poly- 
dore in the ' Orphan,' Cyrus, Moneses in 
' Tamerlane,' Claudio in ' Measure for Mea- 
sure,' Guiderius, Colonel Briton in the 
' Wonder,' Marcus in ' Cato,' Theodosius, 
Colonel Tamper in ' Deuce is in him,' Flo- 
rizel in ' Winter's Tale,' Bonario in ' Vol- 
poue,' Sebastian in ' Twelfth Night,' Buck- 
ingham in ' Henry VIII,' Bellamy in ' Sus- 
picious Husband,' Richmond in ' Richard III,' 
Younger Worthy in ' Love's Last Shift,' Lord 
Hardy in ' Funeral,' Poins, Dolabella in ' All 
for Love,' Myrtle in ' Conscious Lovers.' In 
the summers of 1772, 1773, and subsequent 
years he was in Liverpool, where he played, 
with other parts, Lear, King John, Henry V, 
Antony in ' Love for Love,' Romeo, Othello, 
Leontes, and Lord Townly. Back at Covent 
Garden, he was seen as Flaminius in 'Herod 
and Mariamne,' Shore in ' Jane Shore,' 
Alonzo in the ' Revenge,' Phocion in 'Grecian 
Daughter,' Laertes, Pedro in ' Much Ado 
about Nothing,' Oakly in ' Jealous Wife/ 



Juba in ' Cato,' Aimwell in ' Beaux' Strata- 
gem,' Lord Randolph in ' Douglas,' Lovemore 
in 'Way to keep him,' Bassanio, Amphitryon, 
Castalio in the ; Orphan,' Fainall in 'Way 
of the World,' Romeo, Sir George Airy, 
Henry V, Hotspur, Kitely, Banquo, Ford, 
Tancred, Archer, Lear, Young Mirabel, 
Othello, Charles I, Wellborn in ' New AVay 
to pay Old Debts,' Jafh'er, Proteus in ' Two 
Gentlemen of Verona,' Darnley, lachimo', 
Truewitin ' SilentWoman/ColonelStandard, 
Evander, Plain Dealer, and Apemantus. 

Among very many original parts which 
Wroughton enacted at Covent Garden, only 
the following call for mention : Prince 
Henry in ' Henry II, King of England,' by 
Bancroft or Mouutfort, on 1 May 1773 ; Lord 
Lovemore in Kenrick's 'Duellist' on 20 Nov. ; 
Elidurus in Mason's ' Caractacus' on 6 Dec. 
1776 ; Earl of Somerset in ' Sir Thomas Over- 
bury,' altered from Savage by Woodfall, 
1 Feb. 1777 ; Douglas in Hannah More's 
' Percy,' 10 Dec. This was one of Wrough- 
ton's best parts. About this time he seems 
to have joined Arnold in the proprietorship 
of Sadler's Wells, but he sold his share some 
twelve years later in 1790. He continued at 
Covent Garden as Orlando in Hannah More's 
'Fatal Falsehood,' 6 May 1778; Sir George 
Touchwood in Mrs. Cowley's ' Belle's Strata- 
gem,' 22 Feb. 1780 ; Raymond in Jephson's 
'Count of Narbonne,' 17 Nov. 1781, and 
Don Carlos in Mrs. Cowley's ' Bold Stroke 
for a Husband,' 25 Feb. 1783. 

In 1786-7 Wroughton disappeared from 
the bills, his parts at Covent Garden being 
assigned to Farren, and on 29 Sept. 1787, 
as Douglas in ' Percy,' he made his first ap- 
pearance at Drury Lane. For the time being 
he replaced John Palmer (1742 ?-l 798) [q.v.], 
but he practically remained at Drury Lane 
for the rest of his career. He played with 
the Drury Lane company at the Haymarket 
in 1792-3 Charles Surface, Clerimont, and 
other parts, and at Drury Lane enlarged his 
repertory by many new characters, including 
the Ghost in ' Hamlet' and Hamlet himself, 
King in ' Henry IV ' and in ' Richard III,' An- 
tonio in 'Merchant of Venice,' the Stranger 
in 'Douglas,' Leontes, Jaques, Careless in 
' Double Dealer,' Jaques, Tullus Aufidius, 
Macduff, Moody in ' Country Girl,' Sciolto, 
Belarius, Kent and Edgar in 'Lear,' Sir Peter 
Teazle, and Leonato. Most conspicuous 
among his original characters were Gomez 
in Bertie Greathead's ' Regent,' 1 April 
1788 ; Polycarp in Cumberland's 'Impostors,' 
26 Jan. 1789; Periander to the Ariadne of 
Mrs. Siddons in Murphy's ' Rival Sisters,' 
18 March 1793 ; Charles Ratcliffe in Cum- 
berland's 'Jew,' 8 April 1794; Odoarto 



Wroughton 



170 



Wulfhere 



Galotti in ' Emilia Galotti,' translated by 
Thompson from Lessing, 28 Oct. ; Lord Sen- 
sitive in Cumberland's ' First Love,' 12 May 
1795 ; Fitzharding in Colman's ' Iron Chest,' 
12 March 1796 ; Orasmyn in Miss Lee's 
' Almeyda,' 20 April, Mandeville in Rey- 
nolds's ' Will,' 19 April 1797 ; and Earl 
Reginald in ' Monk ' Lewis's ; Castle Spec- 
tre,' 14 Dec. 

In 1798 he retired from the stage and 
settled in Bath, but in 1800, on the death 
of John Palmer and the illness of Aikin, 
in answer to an invitation of the Drury Lane 
management he came back, and was seen 
in a new series of parts including : Don 
Pedro in Godwin's 'Antonio,' 13 Dec. 1800; 
Provost in Sotheby's ' Julian and Agnes,' 
25 April 1801 ; Casimir Rubenski in Di- 
rnond's ' Hero of the North/ 19 Feb. 1803 ; 
Maurice in Cobb's 'Wife of Two Husbands,' 
1 Nov. ; Sir Rowland English in Holt's 
' Land we live in,' 29 Dec. 1804 ; Balthazar 
in Tobin's ' Honeymoon,' 31 Jan. 1805 ; 
Conrad in Theodore Hook's 'Tekeli,'24 Xov. 
1806; and Coelestino in 'Monk' Lewis's 
' Venoni,' 1 Dec. 1808. His return did little 
good to his reputation, and before he finally 
quitted the stage he was completely worn 
out. 

On 9 March 1815 Wroughton gave to the 
stage an alteration of ' Richard II' with 
additions from other plays of Shakespeare, 
in which he did not act. On 10 July 1815 
he acted his old part of Withers in Kenney's 
' World.' This was his last performance. 
On 7 Feb. 1822, at the reputed age of seventy- 
four, he died in Howland Street, London, 
leaving behind him a widow, and was buried 
in St. George's, Bloomsbury. 

Wroughton was what Michael Kelly calls 
him, ' a sterling, sound, and sensible per- 
former.' His person was bad, he was knock- 
kneed, his face was round and inexpressive, 
and his voice was not good. He had, how- 
ever, an easy and unembarrassed carriage 
and deportment, was never offensive, and, 
though he rarely reached greatness, seldom 
sank into insipidity or dulness. He was 
always perfect in his parts, indefatigable in 
industry, and wholly free from affectation. 
Wroughton was a close friend of Bannister ; 
they were spoken of as Pylades and Orestes. 

A portrait of Wroughton by De Wilde, 
as Sir John Restless in ' All in the Wrong,' 
is in the Mathews collection in the Garrick 
Club. A mezzo portrait by Robert Laurie 
after R. Dighton was published in 1779, and 
there are several portraits in character in 
Bell's ' British Theatre.' 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; 
Theatrical Observer, Dublin, 1822 ; Boaden's 



Life of Kemble ; Huntlen's Life of Munden ; 
Gent. Mag. 1822, i. 284; Clark Kussell's Re- 
presentative Actors ; Kelly's Reminiscences ; 
Memoirs of Munden ; Candid and Impartial 
Strictures on the Performers belonging to Drury 
Lane, Covent Garden, and the Ha) market, 
1795; Secret History of the Green Room; 
Thespian Diet. ; Era Almanack, various years.] 

J. K. 

WULFHELM (d. 942), archbishop of 
Canterbury, succeeded Athelm [q. v.J as 
bishop of Wells, when Athelm was pro- 
moted to Canterbury in 914, and on the 
death of Athelm in 923 succeeded him in 
the primacy. He crowned Athelstan at 
Kingston in 924, and in or about 927 went to 
Rome for his pall. In the laws published at 
Greetanlea, or Grately, in Hampshire, Athel- 
stan speaks of having had the counsel of 
Wulf helm. His name is among those en- 
rolled at Bishop Cynewold's request among 
the confraternity of St. Gall in 928. Ade- 
lard, a biographer of St. Diinstan, in saying 
that Dunstan stayed some time with Athelm, 
who was his uncle, and was introduced by 
him to Athelstan, probably confuses Athelm 
with Wulfhelm, for Athelm died before 
Dunstan's birth. Some extant verses, ad- 
dressed to Wulfhelm, are believed to have 
been written bv Dunstan. Wulfhelm died 
on 12 Feb. 942: 

[A.-S. Chron. E. ann. 925, 927, F. 92>, ed. 
Plummer ; Flor. "Wig. an. 924; Thorpe's Ancient 
Laws, i. 1 94, 1 96 ; Stubbs's Reg. Sacr. Anglic, pp. 
25-6 ; Memorials of Dunstan, pp. 55, 354 ( Rolls 
Ser).] W. H. 

WULFHERE (d. 675), king of the Mer- 
cians, was the second of the five sons of 
Penda [q. v.] and his queen, Cyneswitha. 
After Penda had been slain by Oswy [q. v.] 
at the battle of Winwaedfield (15 Nov. 655), 
Wulfhere was kept in hiding by Mercian 
ealdormen loj'al to the Mercian royal house. 
In 658 these ealdormen, Immin, Eafa, and 
Eadbert, rose against Oswy in favour of 
Wulfhere, and established him as king of 
Mercia (BEDE, Hist. Eccl. bk. iii. ch. xxiv.) 
Wulfhere was already a Christian, having 
possibly received the faith in Kent, where 
he sought his wife Eormenhild, a Christian. 
He is described by the chroniclers as ' the 
first of the Mercian kings to be baptised ' 
(FLOK. WIG. in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 637). 

Wulf here's first step as king was to take 
means for the completion of the conversion 
of Mercia, thus continuing the work of Oswy, 
and giving unity to Mercian history. Trum- 
here, abbot of Grilling, who was consecrated 
at Lindisfarne,was bishop of Mercia from 659 
to 662, being succeeded by Jaruman, whose 
episcopal rule lasted from 662 to 667. ' Jaru- 



Wulfhere 



171 



Wulfhere 



man was "VVulf here's right hand in extending 
the Christian faith throughout Mercia and 
all those lands which were under Mercian 
rule, and the heathen reaction among the 
dependent East-Saxons was stayed by his 
preaching (BBDE, Hist. Eccl. iii. 30). How 
complete Wulfhere's ascendency over Essex 
must have been is shown by his sale to Wini 
[q.v.] of the East-Saxon bishopric of London. 
The South-Saxons received the faith through 
Wulfhere, who was sponsor to their king 
Ethelwold at baptism. Wulfhere joined 
with Wilfrid in sending to Sussex Eoppa, 
the mass-priest, who first baptised the South- 
Saxons. Politically and ecclesiastically 
Wulfhere laid the foundations of the Mer- 
cian supremacy of the following century. 
Upon the death of Jaruman, Wulfhere tried 
to persuade St. Wilfrid [q. v.], then in re- 
tirement at Ripon, to accept the Mercian 
bishopric, but failed (EDDius, Vita Wilfridi, 
c. 14). Finally, St. Chad [q. v.] in 669 re- 
ceived the bishopric of the Mercians and 
Lindiswaras, together with the gift from 
Wulfhere of land for a monastery at 'Ad Bar- 
vae ' in Lindsey, usually identified with Bar- 
row in Atwood, Lincolnshire. Chad moved 
the see to Lichfield, where he died and was 
buried in 672. Winfrith [q. v.j, Chad's 
successor, who opposed Theodore's general 
scheme of organisation of the church in 
England, and especially of his scheme of 
splitting up the great Mercian diocese into 
five independent sees, was deposed by Theo- 
dore in 675, the year of Wulfhere's death. 

Politically, Wulfhere's establishment as 
king showed that there were limits to the 
Northumbrian overlordship. He remained, 
however, on good terms with Oswy, and 
accepted his direction. But Lindsey re- 
mained a stumbling-block between Mercia 
and Northumbria. In 657 Wulfhere re- 
gained it from Oswy, but before 675 Egfrith 
of Northumbria, Oswy's successor, recon- 
quered it (BEDE, Hist. Eccl. iv. 12). Apart, 
however, from these disturbances as to Lind- 
sey, Wulfhere's attitude to Northumbria 
was on the whole friendly. The political 
history of the reign centres round Wulf- 
here's hostility to the rising power of Wessex, 
against which he established a counterpoise 
in an alliance with the petty states of the 
south-east. In 661 he defeated the king 
of Wessex, Coinwalch, at Posentesbyrig 
(? Pontesbury), in Shropshire, and laid the 
country waste as far as Ashdown. Then, 
crossing and wasting Wessex, he took the 
Isle of Wight and the land of the Meanwaras 
(BEDE, iv. 13 ; ' Anglo-Saxon Chron.' in 
Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 317 ; Flor. Wig. in M<m. 
Hist. Brit. p. 431). He gave Wight and 



the land of the Meanwaras to his close ally, 
Ethelwold, king of the South-Saxons. In 
675 hostilities were renewed, and a battle at 
Bidanheafda (Beadanhead ?) was fought be- 
tween Wulfhere and Wessex (ETHELWERD 
in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 506 ; FLOE. WIG. in 
Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 534). Wulfhere greatly 
enlarged the borders of Mercia ; the land of 
the West-Hecanas was subject to him, and 
he placed his brother Merewald as sub-regulus 
over it (FLOR. WIG., App. in Mon. Hist. 
Brit. p. 638). 

The chroniclers glorify Wulfhere as the 
friend of the church, but he was not always 
a disinterested one. He saw the importance 
to the state of the church as the greatest 
civilising agent. Thus he planted Chris- 
tianity wherever he conquered. He supported 
his bishops to his utmost, though he seems, 
like his last bishop, Winfrith, to have some- 
what mistrusted the broad schemes of Theo- 
dore. In addition to his foundation at Bar- 
row he, together with his brother Ethelred, 
founded a monastery for their sister Kine- 
burga, who had married Alchfrith, king of 
the Northumbrians, but afterwards renounced 
the world.' Wulfhere's other sister, Kine- 
switha, also entered the same monastery 
(FLOR. WIG. in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 637 ; 
cf. ib. Appendix to FLOR. WIG. p. 622). 
This monastery, Bishop Stubbs conjectures, 
was at Caistor. The elaborate story of 
Wulfhere's connection with Medeshamstede 
(Peterborough) seems to be mainly the in- 
vention of the Peterborough chroniclers 
( ; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' in Mon. Hist. 
Brit. pp. 313-16 ; cf. HUGO CANDIDTJS in 
SPARKE, Histories Anglicance Scriptores, pp. 
4-5, 6-7, and art. SAXULF). The one kernel 
of fact is that Wulfhere did help the abbey 
of Medeshamstede. More ent irely legendary 
is the account of his connection with the 
abbey of St. Peter's at Gloucester (Hist, et 
Cartularium Monasterii Gloucestrice, I. Ixxii. 
4) ; and another fabulous attribution to 
Wulfhere is the foundation about 670 of a 
college of secular canons at Stone in Stafford- 
shire (DuGDALE, Monasticon, vi. 226-30). 

Wulfhere died in 675, and was succeeded 
by his brother Ethelred. He married Eor- 
menhild, daughter of Erconbert of Kent, and 
of Sexburga (d. 699?) [q. v.], and had one 
son, Coinred, and one daughter, Werburga 
[q.v.] 

[Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. Plummer, 
bks. iii. chaps. 7, 21, 24, 30; bk. iv. chaps. 3, 12, 
13, 24; Anglo-Saxon Chron., Flor. Wig., Henry 
of Huntingdon, all in Monumentu Historica Bri- 
tannica ; Eddius's Vita Wilfridi in Historians 
of the Church of York (Rolls Series), vol. i. ; 
Dugdale's Monasticon (Eolls Ser.), vols. i. and. 



Wulford 



172 



Wulfred 



vi.; Kerable's Codex Diplomaticus.vol. v. ; Hugo 
Candidas, pp. 1-8, 24, ed. Sparke; Dict.of Chris- 
tian Biogr., articles ' Wulf here,' 'Saxulf,' and 
' Peada ; ' Green's Making of England, pp. 
306-8.] M. T. 

WULFORD or WILFORD, RALPH 
(1479 P-1499), pretender, born about 1479, 
is described in ' Fabyan's Chronicle ' as son 
of a cordwainer in London, and he was not 
improbably a member of the London and 
Kent family of Wilford [cf. art. WILFORD, 
SIR JAMES]. He resembles Lambert Simnel 
[q. v.] in the obscurity of his origin, and, like 
Simnel, he was one of the tools used by the 
Yorkists in their endeavours to overthrow 
Henry VII. Like Simnel, too, he was made 
to personate the Earl of Warwick, eldest son 
of Edward IV's brother, the Duke of Clarence 
[see EDWARD, 1475-1499], though, according 
to Fabyan, AVilford only ' avaunced himself 
to be the son or heir to the Earl of Warwick's 
lands' (Chronicle, p. 686) an absurd state- 
ment in view of the fact that Warwick was 
not more than four years older than Wul- 
ford. Wulford was educated for the part 
by one Patrick, an Austin friar, and in 1498 
rumours were spread abroad that that year 
was likely to be one of great danger for 
Henry VII (Cal. State Papers, Spanish, i. 
206). Wulford began to confide to various 
persons in Kent the scene of Warbeck's 
early attempts that he was the real Earl of 
Warwick. Henry VII had, however, learnt 
to be prompt in dealing with pretenders, and 
before the conspirators could take definite 
action both Wulford and his preceptor were 
arrested. Wulford was executed on Shrove 
Tuesday, 22 Feb. 1498-9, and Patrick was 
imprisoned for life. 

[Fabyan's Chron. pp. 685-6 ; Hall's Chron. 
p. 490; Polydore Vergil's Historia, p. 770; 
Bacon's Henry VII ; Lingard's Hist, of England ; 
Busch's England under the Tudors, i. 119-20.] 

A. F. P. 

WULFRED (d. 832), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, first appears as archdeacon under 
Archbishop Ethelhard [q. v.] He had large 
estates in Kent, and was probably a Kentish 
man (Ecclesiastical Documents, iii. 557). He 
was consecrated in Canterbury at the time 
of the council of Acle in 805, probably early 
in August (id. p. 559), and the next year re- 
ceived his pall. Before long he had some 
disagreement with Cenwulf, king of Mercia. 
Though Cuthred, who had reigned in Kent 
in dependence on Mercia, was succeeded in 
807 by Baldred, with whom the' archbishop 
was on friendly terms, Cenwulf virtually 
ruled the kingdom, and was doubtless jealous 
of the archbishop's political influence, for 
Wulfred's wide possessions rendered him 



peculiarly powerful; his position is illus- 
trated by the fact that his coins are not, like 
those of his predecessor, stamped on the re- 
verse with the name of the Mercian king. 
Cenwulf evidently regarded his power as 
dangerous to the Mercian supremacy, and un- 
scrupulously attempted to counterbalance it 
by attacking the metropolitan see. Their 
disagreement had reached the ears of Leo III 
in 808, who refers to it in a letter to the 
Emperor Charles the Great (Monumenta 
Carolina, p. 313). In 814 Wulfred, accom- 
panied by Wigthegn, bishop of Winchester, 
went to Rome, probably to represent his 
cause to the pope, who may have arranged 
matters, for in 816 Cenwulf was present at a 
provincial council hel d by Wulfred at Chelsea. 
This council was attended by all the bishops 
of the southern province, and eleven canons 
were agreed upon (Eccl. Documents, u.s. 
579-85). 

In 817 Cenwulf seized the monasteries 
of Minster in Thanet and Reculver, which 
belonged to the church of Canterbury, and, 
in order to defeat the archbishop's resis- 
tance, laid false charges against him before 
the pope. In consequence, according to a 
contemporary document, for six years (817-- 
822) ' the whole English nation were deprived 
of primordial authority and the ministry of 
holy baptism ' (ib. p. 597) ; the words are 
doubtless rhetorical, for no other notice of a 
virtual interdict of so tremendous a character 
is known to exist. As it was from Canter- 
bury that baptism first came to the English, 
and the archbishop was the head of national 
Christianity, it seems probable that this 
puzzling sentence really means that during 
the progress of the quarrel Wulfred was more 
or less prevented from exercising his autho- 
rity, either by Cenwulf 's tyranny or by the 
pope during the examination into the king's 
charges against him. Wulfred evidently re- 
presented his innocence to the pope and the 
Emperor Lewis, who seem to have espoused 
his cause. Their interference enraged Cen- 
wulf, who, about 820, cited the archbishop 
to appear before him at a witenagemot at 
London, and demanded that he should sur- 
render another estate and pay a fine, in 
which case he would withdraw the charges 
that he had made against him, threatening 
that if he refused he would confiscate all his 
property, would banish him from the land, 
and never receive him back again, ' either 
for pope or emperor or any other person/ 
Wulfred was forced to agree, but the king 
did not keep his word, and still kept posses- 
sion of Minster and Reculver. 

Cenwulf died in 822, and Ceolwulf, who 
became king in that year, appears to have been 



Wulfric 



173 



Wulfstan 



friendly to Wulfred, for he made him a grant 
on his coronation. The estates of which Cen- 
wulf had despoiled the see passed to his 
daughter, the Abbess Cwenthryth. Wulfred 
claimed them at a council held at Clovesho, 
apparently in 825, by Beornwulf, the suc- 
cessor of Ceolwulf. Cwenthryth met the 
archbishop, and promised to surrender the 
estates. When in 820 the Mercian power 
was on the eve of its overthrow by Egbert, 
the West-Saxon king, and the friendship of 
the archbishop was of especial importance to 
the Mercian king, Beornwulf held another 
council at Clovesho in which he caused Cwen- 
thryth to restore the property of the see (ib. 
pp/594, 596-604). In spite of the friendly 
relations that seem to have existed between 
Wulfred and Baldred, the archbishop proba- 
bly welcomed the invasion of Kent by the 
West-Saxon forces, for when Baldred was 
fleeing before them he granted Mailing to 
the see, as though to purchase Wulfred's 
good will. Wulfred was on good terms with 
Egbert and his son yEthelwulf. He died on 
24 March 832. He was a man of singular 
courage and no small political ability. So 
far as may be gathered from the canons of 
the council of 816, he appears to have been 
pious, and he was a liberal benefactor to his 
church. His will in its known form was 
drawn up after his death, about 833 (ib. p. 
557, KEMBLE, Codex Dipl. No. 235). 

[All that is known of Wulfred will be found 
in Haddan and Stubbs's Eccl. Documents, and 
in Kemble's Codex Dipl., to which references 
are made above.] W. H. 

WULFBIC, called SPOT or SPROT (d. 
1010), founder of Burton Abbey, was son of 
Leofwine, probably a thegn of Ethelred II, 
and himself signs charters as ' minister ' or 
thegn. The assumption that his father was 
Leofwine, earl of Mercia, and father of Leof- 
ric [q. v.], is uncorroborated by any satis- 
factory evidence, and the name Leofwine 
was extremely common. Wulfric himself is 
sometimes, but probably erroneously, styled 
ealdorman, and Palgrave's suggestion that 
he was ealdorman of Lancaster is based on 
several misconceptions (FREEMAN, Norman 
Conquest, i. 671-2). Wulfric owned lands in 
many parts of England, but chiefly in West 
Mercia. He was killed on 18 May 1010 
fighting against the Danes at the battle of 
Ringmere, near Ipswich. He was buried in 
the cloisters of Burton Abbey, where also 
was buried his wife Ealhswith, who seems 
to have predeceased him, leaving issue one 
daughter. The remains of an alabaster statue 
of Wulfric, which is believed to have re- 
placed an earlier one, still exist at Burton 
Abbey. 



Wulfric made his will in 1002, giving a 
large portion of his property for the founda- 
tion of a Benedictine abbey at Burton-on- 
Trent. The endowment 'is said to have 
been valued even at that time at seven hun- 
dred pounds' (DUGDALE, Monasticon, iii. 33). 
Ethelred IPs charter of confirmation is dated 
1004, and to obtain it Wulfric paid the king 
two hundred marks of gold, each archbishop 
ten, and each bishop five marks. Wulfric's 
will is printed in Kemble's ' Codex Diplo- 
maticus' (vi. 147-50), in Thorpe's 'Codex' 
(pp. 543 seq.), and in Dugdale's ' Monasticon' 
fed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, iii. 36-40). 
A sixteenth-century transcript is in British 
Museum Stowe MS. 780, ff. 1-3. The ori- 
ginal charter of Burton Abbey belongs to 
the Marquis of Anglesey. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chron. ed. Thorpe, i. 262-3, 
ii. 116; Henry of Huntingdon, p. 178, Sjm. 
Dunelm. ii. 142, Burton Annals in Annales Mo- 
nastici, i. 183, ii. 171, and Walter of Coventry 
(all these in Kolls Ser.) ; Kemble's Codex Diplo- 
maticus, iii. 332, and Flor. Wig. i. 162 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; Chron. Johannis Bromton in Twys- 
den's Decem Scriptores, col. 888 ; Tanner's No- 
titia Monastica; Erdeswick's Staffordshire, p. 
241 ; Hunter's Deanery of Doncaster, i. 7, 99, 
152, 281, 307; Shaw's Staffordshire; Freeman's 
Norman Conquest, i. 347, 671-2 ; notes from the 
Kev. G. W. Sprott, D.D.] A. F. P, 

WULFSTAN OF WINCHESTER (fi. 1000), 
versifier, was a monk of St. Swithun's, 
Winchester. He was a pupil of Bishop 
Ethelwold [q. v.], and became priest and 
precentor (BiRCH, New Minster, p. 25). 
Leland records that he had a fine voice 
(Scriptt. Brit. p. 164), and ascribes to him a 
versification of Lanferth's work on the life 
and miracles of St. Swithun ( Collect, i. 151- 
156), from which he quotes largely. The 
work follows on Lanferth's in the Royal MS. 
15 C. vii., the whole being written in an 
early eleventh-century hand. It is in all 
likelihood the Sherborne manuscript which 
Leland used. The work opens with a letter 
in hexameters addressed to ^Blfheah [q.v.], 
then bishop of Winchester, wherein the 
writer describes ^Elfheah's buildings at Win- 
chester, and in particular the organ which 
he made. This letter is printed in Migne's 
' Patrologia,' cxxxvii. col. 107, 'Acta SS.' Aug. 
i. 98, and Mabillon's ' Acta SS.' v. 628. There 
follows another verse-letter addressed to the 
monks of Winchester, printed in Mabillon, 
v. 034, with two books of the ' Miracles of 
St. Swithun,' each containing twenty-two 
chapters in hexameters. These two books 
have not been printed. 

Wulfstan also wrote a life of St. Ethel- 
wold, apparently written in verse, the style 



Wulfstan 



174 



Wulfstan 



of which William of Malmesbury condemns 
as mediocre (Gesta Begum, i. 167 ; cf. Gesta 
Pontiff, p. 406). A prose life, without au- 
thor's name, has been printed as "Wulfstan's 
by Mabillon ('Acta SS.' v. 606), and by the 
Bollandists (' Acta SS.' Aug. vol. i.) and 
Migne (' Patrologia,' cxxxvii. col. 81), but it 
is so closely similar to that which is un- 
doubtedly /Elfric's (printed in the Chroni- 
con Abbendonice, ii. 255) that it is probably 
another version of that work. It is some- 
what longer than yElfric's, the style is as 
good as JElfric's, and the mention of Wulf- 
stan, the precentor, by name, is further against 
the idea of his authorship. 

William of Malmesbury ascribes to Wulf- 
stan a further work, ' De tonorum harmonia ' 
(Gesta Reyum, i. 167), which appears to be 
lost. 

[Authorities cited.] M. B. 

WULFSTAN (d. 1023), archbishop of 
York, a man of good family, whose sister's 
son was Brihtheah (d. 1038), bishop of 
Worcester, is said to have been brought 
into the world by an operation that cost his 
mother's life. He was a monk, probably of 
Ely, and an abbot, succeeded Aldulf [q. v.] 
or Ealdulf as archbishop of York in 1003, 
and, like his two predecessors, held the see of 
Worcester along with the archbishopric. 
His name occurs as present at various coun- 
cils and royal acts during the reign of 
Ethelred the Unready, and specially as ad- 
vising the king at the undated council held 
at Enham (WiLKiNS, Concilia, i. 285). 
Canute held him in esteem, and, the see of 
Canterbury probably being vacant at the 
time, caused him to dedicate his church at 
Achiugdon in Essex in 1026^ He died at 
York on 28 May 1023, and was buried ac- 
cording to his request at Ely, of which 
monastery he was a benefactor. When the 
new choir of Ely was built in 1106 his body 
was removed into it. The pastoral epistle 
and the epistle ' Quando dividis Chrisma ' of 
Abbot /Elfric (fi. 1006) [q. v.] were written 
for Wulfstan and probably for the use of 
other bishops also (THORPE, Ancient Laws, 
ii. 365-93), Wulfstan's homilies, written be- 
fore 1000, have been ascribed to the arch- 
bishop, but not apparently for any con- 
vincing reason, as there is nothing to show 
that their author was in episcopal orders, 
though manuscript editions bear dates later 
than 1003 ; they have for the first time been 
printed by Professor Napier in ' Sammlung 
englischer Denkmaler' (Bd. 4, 1880); the 
most famous of them, however, ' LupiSermo 
ad Anglos,' had previously been printed with 
a translation by George Hickes [q. v.] in his 



' Thesaurus.' Archbishop Wulfstan must 
not be confused (as in FREEMAX, Norman 
Conquest, i. 342) with Wulfstan, bishop of 
London, who was consecrated in 996. 

[A.-S. Chron . an. 1023, ed. Plummer ; Flor. 
Wig. i. 156, 183-4 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Will, of 
Malmesbury 's Gesta Pontiff, p. 250 ; Liber EHen. 
ed. Stewart, i. 205-6 ; Raine's Fasti Ebor. pp. 
131-4; Ramsay's Foundation of England, i. 
349, 354, 362.] W. H. 

WULFSTAN, ST. (1012 P-1095), bishop 
of Worcester, son of yEthelstan and Wulf- 
gifu, people of good position, who both in 
later life entered religion at Worcester, was 
born at Long Itchington, near Warwick, in 
or before 1012, for he is described as past 
fifty in 1062. After receiving his education 
in monastic schools, first at Evesham and 
afterwards at Peterborough, where his teacher 
was Ervenius, a skilful scribe and illumi- 
nator, who wrote a sacramentary for Canute 
[q.v.] and a psalter for his queen Einma[q.v.], 
he lived for a while as a layman, taking part 
in the sports of other young men. Between 
1033 and 1038 he was ordained deacon and 
priest by Brihtheah, bishop of Worcester, 
who highly esteemed him and offered him a 
well-endowed living near his cathedral city. 
As his mother had roused in him a desire to 
become a monk, he refused the offer, received 
the habit from Brihtheah, and was admitted 
a monk of the cathedral monastery, where he 
held office first as schoolmaster, and after- 
wards as precentor and sacristan, and finally 
as prior under the bishop. He was distin- 
guished for his asceticism, devotion, and hu- 
mility, was always ready to instruct all who 
came to him, and was wont to journey about 
the country baptising the children of the poor, 
for it is said that the secular clergy refused 
to baptise without a fee. 

The prior's virtues became widely known ; 
Godgifu or Godiva [q. v.], the wife of Earl 
Leofric [q. v.], was much attached to him, 
many nobles esteemed him, and among them 
Earl Harold (1022 P-1066), afterwards king. 
Aldred [q. v.], archbishop of York, having 
been forced by the pope to promise to resign 
the see of Worcester, two legates who were 
in England in 1062 visited Worcester and 
exhorted the clergy and people to choose 
Wulfstan as their bishop, and, having secured 
his election there, attended the Easter meet- 
ing of the witan and proposed his election 
by the assembly. Many spoke in his favour, 
and all approved ; he was sent for, and on 
his arrival vehemently declined the office. 
His objections were overborne by the legates, 
the archbishops, and finally by a hermit 
named Wulfsige. He was consecrated by 
Aldred at York on 8 Sept., without making 



Wulfstan 



175 



Wulfstan 



profession of obedience to Stigand [q. v.], 
whose position was uncanonical (FREEMAN, 
relying on Florence of Worcester, holds 
that he made profession to Stigand, but 
prints in an appendix his later profession to 
Lanfranc in which Wulfstan declares the 
contrary, Norman Conquest, ii. 466, 607). 

Under a pretence of doing him honour, 
Aldred left him for some time in charge of 
the church of York, and took to himself the 
revenues of Worcester ; nor was it without 
much difficulty that Wulfstan persuaded 
him to resign the temporalities of the see, 
with the exception of twelve estates which 
the archbishop insisted on withholding from 
him. As bishop, Wulfstan practised the 
same asceticism that had marked his earlier 
life; he was diligent in the administration' of 
his diocese, constantly going about from 
place to place confirming the young, exhort- 
ing the people, and promoting church build- 
ing. His connection with the diocese of 
York enabled him to be useful to Harold on 
his accession by helping to gain the allegiance 
of the Northumbrians. He made submission 
to the Conqueror, along with Aldred and 
other great ecclesiastics and laymen, at 
Berkhampstead. The property of his church 
was invaded byUrse[q.v.]of Abetot,sheriffof 
Worcester, who built his castle so that it 
encroached on the monastic cemetery, and 
Ealdred laid his curse on the offender. At 
the council of 1070, in which many English 
prelates were deprived, Wulfstan demanded 
the restitution of the twelve manors unjustly 
retained by Aldred, and then in the king's 
hands during the vacancy of the see of York 
by Aldred's death. A decision was deferred 
until anew archbishop had been appointed 
to York. Thomas (d. 1100) [q. v.], the next 
archbishop, claimed Wulfstan as one of his 
suffragans, but the see of Worcester was de- 
clared to be included in the southern pro- 
vince. It is probable that Wulfstan, who 
had suffered from the close connection be- 
tween his see and the archbishopric of York, 
was on the side of Canterbury in this dispute. 
Both archbishops sought to have him de- 
prived, Lanfranc on the ground of his igno- 
rance, and Thomas for insubordination to 
himself. Nevertheless he kept his see. Later 
writers record a legend which represents the 
Conqueror demanding the resignation of 
W T ulfstan's pastoral staff at a council at 
Westminster ; Wulfstan went to the Con- 
fessor's tomb, and, addressing the dead king, 
declared that he would resign his staff only 
to him from whom he had received it. He 
struck his staff upon the tomb, saying ' Take 
it, my lord king, and give it to whomsoever 
thou wilt.' The marble opened to receive 



the staff and held it fast, nor could any re- 
move it until a decision had been given in 
Wulfstan's favour, and then the staff was 
yielded to its rightful possessor (AILEED, ap. 
TWYSDEX, cols. 405-7 ; HOG. WEXD. ii. 52-5). 
Both archbishops eventually became Wulf- 
stan's friends ; he helped Thomas by visiting 
parts of his diocese for him, and at Lanfranc's 
request held, probably in 1072, a visitation 
of the vacant diocese of Lichfield, where the 
Norman power had not yet been established. 
In that year Lanfranc obtained a decree from 
the king adjudging to the see of Worcester 
the twelve manors taken from it by Aldred. 
Wulfstan increased the number of monks in 
his cathedral monastery, was careful and 
strict about the performance of divine ser- 
vice, punishing any monks who came in late 
with a stroke of a ferule administered by his 
own hand, and rebuilt his cathedral church 
between 1084 and 1089, supplying it with 
all necessary furniture The crypt and some 
other parts of his building still exist. When 
it was complete and the church built by St. 
Oswald had to be pulled down, he wept, say- 
ing that the men of old, if they had not 
stately buildings, were themselves a sacrifice 
to God, whereas 'we pile up stones and 
neglect souls.' He and his monks entered 
into a bond with six other monasteries to be 
obedient to God, St. Mary, and St. Benedict, 
to be loyal to the king and queen, and to 
perform certain masses and good works. He 
was diligent in his diocesan work, and, among 
the many churches which he built or restored, 
rebuilt St. Oswald's Church at Westbury in 
Gloucestershire and gave it to the monastery 
of Worcester. In confession as well as in 
preaching he was excellent, and many came 
to him for spiritual direction. He is said to 
have insisted that the married clergy of his 
diocese should either put away their wives 
or resign their benefices. While he was ex- 
tremely abstemious he entertained others 
liberally, and when not dining with his 
monks would preside in his hall at the feast- 
ing of his followers, for he seems to have 
always had a number of armed retainers in 
his household, to which many rich youths 
were sent for education. Careful not only 
for the wants but the feelings of the poor, 
he instructed these youths whom he caused 
to serve poor people with food to do so with 
humility. He was much beloved by Nor- 
mans as well as English, and was on friendly 
terms with Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances, 
who reproved him for the monastic plainness 
of his dress. The influence of his preaching 
is illustrated by its success at Bristol, where 
the merchants had long been in the habit of 
kidnapping their fellow-countrymen, and 



Wulfstan 



176 



Wulfvvig 



indeed women also, and selling them as slaves 
to the Irish. The Conqueror having tried in 
vain to put down this practice, Wulfstan 
often visited the town, staying there two or 
three months at a time, and preached against 
the slave trade, with such good effect that 
the people entirely abandoned it. 

During the rebellion of 1075 he joined 
Urse, the sheriff, in calling out the force of 
his diocese, and posting it so as to prevent 
the rebel Earl of Hereford from crossing the 
Severn [see FuzosBERJf , WILLIAM]. In 1085 
he assisted the commissioners for Worcester- 
shire in taking the survey for Domesday, and 
at that time gained a suit against the abbot 
of Evesham as to the right of his church to 
the hundred of Oswaldslaw. When the rebels 
and their Welsh allies marched against Wor- 
cester in 1088, the bishop, who was faithful 
to William Rufus, armed his followers, and 
at the request of the garrison took up his abode 
in the castle. With his blessing, the loyal 
troops marched to battle, and the defeat of 
the rebels was attributed to his anathema. 
He strongly disapproved of the custom of 
wearing long hair, adopted by the vicious i 
youths of the court, and when he had the 
chance would cut their locks with his pocket- 
knife. Nevertheless, the king held him in ho- 
nour, as did also the nobles generally. Irish 
kings sought his favour ; Malcolm III [q. v.] of 
Scotland and his queen, Margaret (d. 1093) 
[q. v.], desired his prayers ; and among his 
correspondents were the pope, the archbishop 
of Bari, and the patriarch of Jerusalem. He 
was disabled by infirmity from attending the 
consecration of Anselm [q. v.] in December 
1093. Early in 1094 his decision was re- 
quested with reference to a dispute between 
Archbishop Anselm and Maurice (d. 1107) 
[q. v.], bishop of London, as he was the only 
one left of the old English episcopate and 
was skilled in the English customs : he 
decided in favour of the archbishop. He 
fell sick at Easter, and at Whitsuntide sent 
for his friend, Robert Losinga (d. 1095) 
[q. v.], bishop of Hereford, confessed to him, 
and received the discipline. At the beginning 
of 1095 Robert again visited him, and he 
again confessed. He died on 18 Jan., and 
was believed at the moment of his death to 
have appeared to Bishop Robert, who was 
then with the king at Cricklade in Wiltshire. 
He was buried amid general lamentation in 
his church at Worcester. He was, so far as 
is known, a faultless character, and, save 
that he knew no more than was absolutely 
necessary for the discharge of his duties, a 
pattern of all monastic and of all episcopal 
virtues as they were then understood. Some 
miracles and prophecies are attributed to 



him. Immediately on his death he was 
reckoned as a saint, though less than fifty 
years later William of Malmesbury com- 
plains that the incredulity of the age slighted 
his miraculous power. He was canonised 
by Innocent III in 1203; his day in the 
calendar is 19 Jan. King John, when dying, 
commended his soul and body to God and 
St. Wulfstan, and was buried between Wulf- 
stan and St. Oswald. Wulfstan's tomb 
escaped destruction in the fire of 1113; his 
shrine was melted down in 1216 to provide 
money for a payment demanded of the con- 
vent, and his body was translated to a new 
shrine on the dedication of the restored 
cathedral on 7 June 1218. Some of his 
relics were then divided and probably sold ; 
a rib was obtained by William, abbot of St. 
Albans,' who encased it in gold and silver, 
and dedicated an altar to St. Wulfstan 
(Gesta Abbatum S. Albani, i. 283 ; Chronica 
Majora, iii. 42). 

[A Life of Wulfstan, written by Hemming, his 
sub-prior and the compiler of the Worcester Char- 
tulary, is in Anglia Sacra, i. 541 ; another Life 
in English, by Coleman, a monk of Worcester 
and prior of Westbury, is not now known to 
exist. Florence of Worcester gives several bio- 
graphical notices. William of Malmesbury 's Life, 
founded on Coleman's work and written about 
1140, is in Anglia Sacra, ii. 241 ; he also gives 
notices in Gesta Pontiff, and Gesta Eegum; 
Eadmer's Hist. Nov., ed. Migne, supplies one or 
two facts. Many later writers give notices of 
him, and a Life was written by Capgrnve, see 
AA. SS., Bolland, Jan. ii. ; Freeman's Norman 
Conquest vols. ii-v. passim, Will. Rufus i. and 
ii. 475-81.] W. H. 

WULFWIG or WULFWY (d. 1067), 
bishop of Dorchester, appears in a doubtful 
charter of 1045 as royal chancellor (Cod. 
Dipl. iv. 102). In 1053 he succeeded Ulf in 
the great bishopric of Dorchester (A.-S. 
Chron. ii. 155, Rolls Ser.) His predecessor 
was living and had been irregularly deprived, 
and Freeman suggests that the record of this 
fact in the chronicle ($.) may indicate some 
feeling against Wulfwig's appointment 
(Norm. Cony. ii. 342), but there seems to 
have been no opposition. AVulfwig appa- 
rently shared the scruple about the canonical 
position of Archbishop Stigand [q.v.], for he 
went abroad to be consecrated (A.-S. Chron. 
1. c.) His appointment is thought to mark a 
momentary decline in Norman influence, 
and he was the last of the old line of Dor- 
chester bishops, for his death occurred when 
the great English ecclesiastical preferments 
were passing into Norman hands. Wulfwig 
died at Winchester (FLOR. WIG. ii. 1, Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) in 1067, and was buried in his 



Wyatt 



177 



Wyatt 



own church at Dorchester (A.-S. Chron. ii. 
171). His will is extant (Cod.Dipl. iv. 290), 
and is witnessed by a large number of per- 
sons, beginning with the king. 

[See, in addition to the chief authorities 
quoted in the test, Stubbs's Registr. Saer. Angl. 
p. 20; Freeman's Norm. Conq. i. 759, iv. 130- 
131; Green's Conquest of England, pp. 546, 
579.] A. M. C-E. 

WYATT or WYAT, SIR FRANCIS 

((1575 ?-l 644), governor of Virginia, born 
about 1575, was the eldest son of George 
Wyat of Boxley Abbey, who married, on 
S Oct. 1582, at Eastwell, Kent, Jane, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Finch, kt., of Eastwell, by 
his wife Katherine, elder daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir Thomas Moyle of Eastwell. 
This George Wyat, who was the son of Sir 
Thomas Wyatt the younger [q. v.], was re- 
stored to his estate at Boxley by Queen Eliza- 
beth in 1570, and was buried at Boxley on 
1 Sept. 1623. 

Through his wife's kinsmen of the Sandys 
family [see SANDYS, SIB EDWIN, and SANDYS, 
GEORGE], Sir Francis (he was knighted in 
1603) became interested in the affairs of the 
Virginia Company. In 1619 some of the 
leading colonists in Virginia sent home a 
^petition that a nobleman ' like the late Lord 
cle la Warr might be sent as governor.' On 
25 Jan. 1620, failing the reappointment of 
Sir George Yeardley [q. v.], whose com- 
mission was wellnigh expired, the Earl of 
Southampton proposed as governor Sir 
Francis Wyat, ' who was well reported of in 
respect of his parentage, good education, in- 
tegrity of life, and fair fortune.' A week 
later the company proceeded to a ballot, and 
Wyatt was elected with but two blackballs. 
After his election several steps were taken 
to improve the condition of the Virginia 
colony, the English board of the company 
being greatly strengthened. The new go- 
vernor went out with nine sail, arrived at 
Jamestown at the close of October 1621, 
and entered upon his government on 18 Nov. 
(SxiTH, p. 204). He was accompanied 
as chaplain by his brother, Hawte Wyat 
(d. 31 July 1638), subsequently rector 
of Merston in Kent, by William Claiborne 
as surveyor, John Pott as physician, and 
George Sandys [q. v.], the translator of Ovid, 
as treasurer. 

Wyat brought with him the new consti- 
tution for the colony, the opening clause ol 
his instructions reading as follows : * To 
keep up the religion of the church of Eng- 
land as near as may be ; to be obedient to 
the king and do justice after the form of the 
laws of England, and not to injure the 

VOL. LXIII. 



natives ; and to forget old quarrels now 
juried.' All former immunities and fran- 
chises were confirmed, trial by jury was 
secured, and the assembly was privileged to 
meet annually upon the call of the governor, 
who was vested with the right of veto. No 
act of the assembly was to be valid unless 
t should be ratified by the Virginia Com- 
mny ; but, on the other hand, no order of 
;he company was to be obligatory without 
;he concurrence of the assembly. This 
'amous ordinance furnished the model of 
very subsequent form of government in the 
Anglo-American colonies. 

During the first year of Wyat's governor- 
ship twenty-one vessels arrived in Virginia, 
jringingmore than thirteen hundred settlers, 
and for a brief space new life was imparted 
to the community. Jabez Whitaker set up 
a large guest-house for the accommodation 
of immigrants ; Captain William Norton, 
with some Italians, erected glass-works near 
Jamestown, and great attention was paid to 
the manufacture of iron and the importa- 
tion of metal and skilled iron-workers. Un- 
fortunately the prosperity of Wyat's go- 
vernorship received a severe check from a 
great uprising of the Indians towards the 
nd of March 1622, when over three hun- 
dred of the settlers were massacred. News 
of the massacre reached London in July, 
whereupon the governor's wife, who had re- 
mained in Kent, ' determined to share her 
husband's anxieties,' and set sail in the 
Abigail, arriving at Jamestown in December. 
In April 1624 it was intimated to the com- 
pany in London that Sir Francis desired to 
ret ire from the governorship at the close of his 
term of five years, but upon several of the 
planters commending his 'justice and noble 
carriage ' it was decided by ballot ' to urge 
his continuance.' A few months later the 
charter of the old Virginia Company was 
annulled, but Sir Francis was continued as 
governor by royal commission, and upon 
James's death in March 1625 he was like- 
wise continued in office by Charles I. 

Wyat's father died in Ireland in Septem- 
ber 1625, and upon the receipt of this intel- 
ligence Sir Francis straightway prepared to 
leave Virginia. It was not, however, until 
the close of May 1626 that he reached Eng- 
land and succeeded to his property at Boxley. 
The governorship was taken over by Sir 
George Yeardley. Thirteen years later Wyat , 
returned again to Virginia, and succeeded 
Sir John Harvey as governor (November 
1639). Virginia was now torn lty factions, 
and, as he was unwilling to promote certain 
interests, Wyat became unpopular during his 
last term of office. After eighteen months 



Wyatt 



178 



Wyatt 



Sir William Berkeley was appointed his 
successor, and in February 1642 landed at 
Jamestown. Next year Sir Francis Wyat 
went back to England in time to be present 
at the death of George Sandys, his wife's 
uncle, at Boxley Abbey. In less than a 
year after this, on 24 Aug. 1644, Wyat was 
himself buried in the family vault in the 
same churchyard at Boxley. He married, 
in 1618, Margaret, daughter of Sir Samuel 
Sandys of Ombersley, Worcestershire, son 
and heir of Archbishop Edwin Sandys [q. v.] 
She predeceased her husband, and was buried 
at Boxley on 27 March 1644. 

[Miscell. Geneal. et Herald, new ser. ii. 
107 ; Smith's Governors of Virginia, pp. 86 sq.; 
Virginia Hist. Collections, vols. vii. and viii. ; 
Stith's Hist, of Virginia, 1747, pp. 204 sq. ; 
Neill's Virginia Governors under the London 
Company, 1889, pp. 19-31 ; Doyle's English in 
America, Virginia, pp. 252, 276 ; Winsor's Hist, 
of America, pp. 146 sq. ; Neill's Annals of the 
Virginia Company ; Appleton's Cyclop, of Ame- 
rican Biogr. vi. 629 ; Cal. Colonial State Papers, 
America and West Indies. Copies of letters of 
Sir Francis Wyatt, with particulars of the his- 
tory of his family, are in the volume of Wyatt 
MSS. now the property of the Earl of Komney.] 

T. S. 

WYATT, HENRY (1794-1840), painter, 
was born at Thickbroom, near Lichfield, on 
17 Sept. 1794. On the death of his father, 
when he was only three years old, he went to 
live at Birmingham with his guardian, Fran- 
cis Eginton [q. v.], the glass-painter, who, 
finding he had a taste for art, sent him to 
London in 1811, and in the following year 
he was admitted to the school of the Royal 
Academy. In 1815 he entered the studio of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence [q. v.] as a pupil, and 
proved so valuable an assistant that he re- 
ceived 300Z. a year after the first twelve 
months. At the end of 1817 he established 
himself as a portrait-painter, practising first 
at Birmingham and successively at Liverpool 
and Manchester, also painting occasionally 
subject-pictures. In 1825 he settled in Lon- 
don, where he resided in Newman Street till 
1834, when ill-health obliged him to remove 
to Leamington. It was his intention to re- 
turn to London in 1837, but having some 
portrait commissions in Manchester he first 
visited that town, and in the following April 
he -was seized with paralysis, from which he 
never recovered. He died at Prestwich, near 
Manchester, on 27 Feb. 1840, and was buried 
in the churchyard of that village. He was 
a clever artist, a skilful draughtsman, and a 
goodcolourist, and both his portraits and sub- 
ject-pictures earned him considerable popu- 
larity. There are many examples of his 



work still to be seen in the neighbourhood 
of Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Ches- 
ter, and Leamington. Two by him are in 
the National Gallery (Yernon Collection) 
' Vigilance,' which was exhibited in the Royal 
Academy in 1836 (it was engraved by G. A. 
Periam) ; and the ' Philosopher,' called also 
' Galileo ' and ' Archimedes,' a fancy portrait, 
half-length life-size, exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1832, and engraved by R. Bell. 
Among others of his works that have been 
popular are ' Fair Forester ' and ' Proffered 
Kiss,' which were engraved by George Tho- 
mas Doo, and the following are also well 
known ' Juliet,' ' Chapeau Noir,' ' Gentle 
Reader,' ' The Romance,' ' Clara Mowbray," 
and ' Mars and Venus.' There is in Chester 
Castle a portrait by him of Thomas Harri- 
son (1744-1829) [q. v.], the architect of that 
building. There is in the possession of Mrs. 
Joseph Taylor of Ashton-on-Mersey , Cheshire, 
a portrait of Wyatt drawn from life in 1839 
by William Bradley [q. v.] He was a man 
of refined tastes, living a quiet bachelor life, 
but, as his sketch-books show, always indus- 
triously working at every variety of draw- 
ing ; family groups, landscapes, cattle, build- 
ings, shipping, animals of many kinds and 
flowers were alike drawn with the utmost 
care and with much ability. He exhibited 
between 1817 and 1838 eighty pictures in 
London, including thirty-five at the Royal 
Academy. 

His younger brother, THOMAS WYATT 
(1799 P-1859), portrait-painter, was born at 
Thickbroom about 1799. He studied in the 
school of the Royal Academy, and accom- 
panied his brother to Birmingham, Liverpool, 
and Manchester, practising as a portrait- 
painter without much success. In Manches- 
ter he tried photography. Eventually he 
settled as a portrait-painter in Lichfield, and 
died there on 7 July 1859. His works are 
best known in the Midland counties, and 
especially at Birmingham, where he held 
the post of secretary to the Midland Society 
of Artists. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840, ii. 555; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists of Engl. School ; Manchester City News,, 
15 May 1880; Bryan'sDict. ed. Graves; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists.] A. N. 

WYATT, JAMES (1746-1813), archi- 
tect, born at Burton Constable, Stafford- 
shire, on 3 Aug. 1746, was sixth of the 
seven sons of Benjamin Wyatt, a farmer 
and timber-merchant of Blackbrook, who 
also practised as an architect and builder. 
An engraving of Stafford infirmary (dated 
about 1775) is inscribed ' B. Wyatt and 
Sons, Arch.' Benjamin's brother William 



Wyatt 



179 



Wyatt 



was steward to Lord Uxbridge ; from him 
descended the brothers Thomas Henry 
Wyatt [q. v.] and Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt 
[q. v.] Benjamin's son Joseph was father of 
Sir Jeffrey Wyatville [q. v.] 

James attended the village school at Bur- 
ton Constable, and was for a time a pupil of 
W. Atkinson. When he was only fourteen 
years of age his great skill in drawing for- 
tunately came to the know-ledge of Lord 
Bagot, who had just been appointed ambas- 
sador to the pope. He took Wyatt with 
him to Rome that he might study archi- 
tecture. He seems to have made good use 
of the three or four years that he remained 
there, and of the following two years spent 
in Venice, where he was under the archi- 
tect and painter Antonio Vicentini. He re- 
turned to London about 1766. In 1770 he 
was elected an associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy. At the same time the important work 
of adapting the old Pantheon in Oxford 
Street for dramatic performances was en- 
trusted to him, and from its opening on 
22 Jan. 1772 may be dated Wyatt's great 
popularity and success in his profession. 
Owing to its complete destruction by fire in 
1792, and the fact that there are no ade- 
quate representations of it preserved, we 
have no means of judging of that splendour 
and fitness which, we are told, secured for 
him his position in the fashionable world. 
For many years he was constantly employed 
erecting mansions in the Grseco-Italian style, 
which, though they had a certain sameness 
in their outward appearance, were a distinct 
advance on the work of his predecessors. 
They were notable for the refinement and 
comfort of their interior decoration and de- 
sign. A good specimen of his earlier work 
is Heaton House, near Manchester, which 
he built in 1772 for Sir Thomas Egerton 
(afterwards first Earl of Wilton). On 23 Jan. 
1776 he was appointed surveyor of West- 
minster Abbey. In 1778 and the years 
following he had many important commis- 
sions in Oxford. 

Wyatt gradually turned his attention to 
the Gothic style, to the study of which he 
applied himself with great diligence, em- 
ploying draughtsmen to make careful draw- 
ings of the best ancient work. His first 
effort to adopt the Gothic in the design of a 
modern mansion was in Lee Priory, near 
Canterbury, built for Thomas Barrett. In 
this new departure he soon became as popu- 
lar as in his old style, and among other 
commissions may be mentioned restorations 
at Salisbury and Lincoln cathedrals. At 
Hereford Cathedral he rebuilt the nave after 
the fall of the tower and front on 17 April 



1786. In 1795 he erected Fonthill Abbey 
for Mr. Beckford, and in a castellated design 
the Royal Military College at Woolwich in 
the following year. His employment in re- 
storing parts of Salisbury and Lichfield 
cathedrals led to severe criticism, and among 
the archaeologists of his time he was known 
as ' The Destroyer ; ' but he may be fairly 
considered the author of the great revival of 
interest in Gothic architecture which has 
led to a higher appreciation of the value 
and beauty of old work, and the develop- 
ments that have since taken place in modern 
architecture. In 1796 he succeeded Sir 
William Chambers [q. v.] as surveyor-gene- 
ral to the board of works, which led to his 
employment at the House of Lords and by 
George II I at Windsor Castle. He held the 
office in 1806 of architect to the board of 
ordnance. He was a most industrious man, 
exhibiting at the Royal Academy between 
1770 and 1799 no fewer than thirty-five de- 
signs. In 1785 he became a R.A., and in 
1805, at the express wish of the king, he 
filled the office of president of the Royal 
Academy during a temporary misunder- 
standing between Benjamin West [q. v.] 
and the council of the academy. He was 
recognised as president by his contempo- 
raries, but it has since been doubted whether 
he can be regarded as more than president- 
elect, owing to the fact that his election 
was not confirmed by the royal signature. 
Among Wyatt's other works were the addi- 
tion of wings to the Duke of Devonshire's 
house at Chiswick ; a Gothic palace, since 
demolished ; the mansion house at Dodding- 
ton Park, Gloucestershire, which cost Cod- 
rington 120,000^., was completed in 1808 ; 
Lord Bridgewater's seat at Ashridge Castle, 
Hertfordshire ; he designed the south ele- 
vation of Wynnstay for Sir W. W. Wynn, 
bart. The front of White's Club, St. James's 
Street, is his design ; and mausoleums 
at Cobham and Brocklesby were among his 
later works. In journeying from Bath to 
London on 4 Sept. 1813 his carriage was 
overturned near Marlborough, and he died 
instantly. Probably on account of his hold- 
ing the appointment of surveyor to the dean 
and chapter he was buried in Westminster 
Abbey on 28 Sept. 

There is scarcely a county or large town 
in the country in which Wyatt did not erect 
some public or private building. He left a 
widow, Rachel, and four sons, including 
Benjamin Dean Wyatt (see below), Matthew 
Cotes Wyatt [q. v.], and Philip Wyatt (d. 
1836), who assisted his brother Benjamin 
Dean in many of his works. There is a bronze 
bust of Wyatt by C. F. Rossi in the National 

N2 



Wyatt 



1 80 



Wyatt 



Portrait Gallery of London. A portrait is 
in the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
together with three drawings by him of 
Fonthill Abbey. 

The eldest son, BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT 
(1775-1850?), architect, bom in 1775, was 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he matriculated on 24 April 
1795, and remained there till 1797, taking 
no degree. After studying for a time with 
his father he visited the continent, and, re- 
turning in 1802, became private secretary to 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, accompanying him to 
Ireland and India. He afterwards re-entered 
his profession, and soon, from his father's 
great name and influence, had ample work. 
In 1811 he commenced the rebuilding of 
Drury Lane Theatre, which had been de- 
stroyed by fire on 24 Feb. 1809, and pub- 
lished ' Observations on the Principles of the 
Design for the Theatre now building in Drury 
Lane,' 1811, 1812, 8vo. With his brother 
Philip he altered Apsley House for the 
Duke of Wellington in 1829, and he de- 
signed Crockford's Club House, St. James's 
Street, in 1827. He also built in the 
same year, in conjunction with his brother 
Philip, Londonderry House, Park Lane, 
and Wynyard, Durham, for the Marquis of 
Londonderry; and in 1830-33 he erected 
the Duke of York's column at a cost of 
25,OOOJ. On the death of his father in 
1813 he succeeded him as surveyor to 
Westminster Abbey, and held the post 
till 1827. In 1814 he restored the rose 
window of the south transept. He retired 
from practice and died about 1850, it is 
said in Camden Town. There is a por- 
trait of him in the ' European Magazine,' 
1812, engraved by T. Blood, after S. Drum- 
mond, A.R.A.' 

[Diet, of Architecture, viii. 80 ; Sandby's 
Hist, of the Koyal Academy, i. 226 ; Eedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Koyal Academy Cat. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1813, ii. 296; Chester's Westminster Abbey 
Kegister, p. 485.] A. N. 

WYATT, JOHN (1700-1766), inventor, 
eldest son of John and Jane Wyatt (born 
Jackson) of Thickbroom in the parish of 
Weeford, near Lichfield, was born in April 
1700, and educated at Lichfield school. His 
family was connected with that of Sarah 
Ford, Dr. Johnson's mother. He worked 
for some time in his native village as a 
carpenter, until, in 1730, his mind was 
diverted by a plan which he conceived for 
a machine to make files. He sought pecu- 
niary help from another Birmingham in- 
ventor, Lewis Paul [q. v.], but the difficulties 
involved in perfecting the machine soon led 



to its abandonment. Wyatt was already en- 
gaged in a new and more profitable sphere 
of invention. The discovery of the fly-shuttle 
in 1733 had greatly increased the demand 
for yarn, and suggested the need of a ma- 
chine to perform the operation of spinning. 
The earliest hint of the construction of such 
a machine is contained in a letter from 
Wyatt to one of his brothers, written about 
1733, in which he says he intends residing in 
or near Birmingham, as he has ' a gymcrack 
there of some consequence.' He was unable, 
however, to carry out his idea without addi- 
tional mechanical assistance ; this he ob- 
tained from Lewis Paul, who in June 1738 
took out a patent (No. 562) embodying for 
the first time the all-important principle of 
spinning by rollers revolving at different 
velocities. A company, including the names 
of Edward Cave [q. v.J and Dr. James, was 
formed to apply the invention at a cotton 
mill,Upper Priory, Birmingham. Two hanks 
of the cotton thus spun are preserved in the 
Birmingham Reference Library, and at- 
tached to them is an inscription in Wyatt's 
own hand testifying that they were spun 
without hands about 1744, the motive power 
being ' two or more asses walking round an 
axis ' and the superintendent, John Wyatt. 
The concern nevertheless languished and 
eventually died, owing partly to defects in 
Wyatt and Paul's machinery, which, though 
highly ingenious, was far inferior in efficiency 
to that brought to perfection by (Sir) 
Richard Arkwright [q. v.] in 1769, and partly 
to the heavy cost of freight and the diffi- 
culties of transport in the then condition of 
the country roads. 

His spinning speculations having failed, 
Wyatt turned for work to the Soho foundry 
of Boulton & Watt. While employed there, 
about 1744, he invented and perfected the 
compound lever weighing machine. Five- 
ton weighing machines constructed by him 
were set up at Birmingham, Liverpool, 
Chester, Hereford, Gloucester, and Lich- 
field (a model of this last is at South Ken- 
sington). The machine is similar in its 
outlines to those now used by most of the 
railway companies. Wyatt died on 29 Nov. 
1766, and was buried in the churchyard 
of St. Philip's, Birmingham. He was fol- 
lowed to the grave by Matthew Boulton 
[q. v.], who is said to have upbraided 
Wyatt's sons for not asserting their father's 
inventions, and John Baskerville [q. v.] His 
tombstone has recently been set erect and 
reinscribed. Wyatt was twice married, 
and by his second wife left four daugh- 
ters and two sons Charles, who took out 
several patents between 1790 and 1817; 



Wyatt 



181 



Wyatt 






and John, publisher of the 'Repertory of 
Arts '(1818). 

A number of his papers, plans, and de- 
signs for inventions were presented to the 
Reference Library, Birmingham, by Mrs. 
Silvester of Bath. The original model con- 
structed by Wyatt and Paul, by which the 
first cotton thread is said to have been spun, 
was 'offered to Arkwright as an interesting 
relic, but the successful adapter declined to 
take it ' (TlMMiNS, Indust. Hist, of Birming- 
ham, 1866, p. 214). Wyatt is said to have 
been one of the unsuccessful competitors 
for the erection of Westminster Bridge in 
1736. 

[John Wyatt, Master Carpenter and Inventor, 
London, 1885; French's Life and Times of 
Samuel Crompton, chap. iv. ; Baines's Hist, of 
the Cotton Manufacture, pp. 121-40 (Baines's 
advocacy of Wyatt's claims against Paul was 
strongly combated by Cole) ; Cole's Account of 
Louis Paul and his Invention for Spinning Cotton 
and Wool by Rollers, September 1858 ; Guest's 
Hist, of the Cotton Manufacture, 1823; Dent's 
Making of Birmingham, 1894, p. 79 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1812 i. 196, 1836 ii. 231 ; Builder, 14 Aug. 
1880; Simms's Bibliotheca Staffordiensis, 1894, 
p. 530.] T. S. 

WYATT, JOHN (1825-1874), army sur- 
geon, eldest son of James Wyatt of Lidsey, 
near Chichester, yeoman, by his wife Caro- 
line, was baptised in the parish church of 
Aldingbourne, Sussex, on 28 Oct. 1825. 
He was admitted a member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England on 26 May 
1848, becoming a fellow of that body on 
13 Dec. 1866. He entered the army medical 
service with the rank of assistant-surgeon 
on 17 June 1851, was gazetted surgeon on 
9 April 1857, and surgeon-major on 9 Jan. 
1863, being attached throughout his life to 
the first battalion of the Coldstream guards. 
He was engaged in active service in the 
Crimean war, and was present at the battles 
of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, and at 
the siege of Sebastopol. At Inkerman his 
horse was shot under him. At the close of 
the war he received the Crimean medal with 
four clasps, the Turkish medal, and a knight- 
hood of the legion of honour. In 1870 he 
was selected by the war department to act 
as medical commissioner at the head- 
quarters of the French army during the 
Franco-German war, and in this capacity he 
was present in Paris during the whole of the 
siege. At this time he rendered important 
services to the sick and wounded, for he was 
attached to an ambulance and was a member 
of the Societe de Secours aux Blesses. For 
these services he was made a companion of 
the Bath in 1873. He died at Bourne- 



mouth on 2 April 1874, and was buried at 
Brompton cemetery. 

[Registers of Aldingbourne Parish Church ; 
Obituary notices in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Med. and Chir. Soc. vii. 320; Medical Times 
and Gazette, 1874 i. 414, 1874 ii. 192.] 

U'A. P. 

WYATT, MATTHEW COTES (1777- 
1862), sculptor, youngest son of James 
Wyatt [q. v.J, was born in 1777 and educated 
at Eton. After studying in the schools of 
the Royal Academy he, through his father's 
influence, obtained employment at Windsor 
Castle, where he became a favourite with 
the king and queen. From 1803 to 1814 
he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy 
of portraits and "historical subjects in oils, 
and in 1811 sent his only contribution in 
sculpture, a bust of the king. One of his 
earliest public commissions was the Nelson 
monument in the Exchange quadrangle at 
Liverpool. After the death of Princess 
Charlotte, Wyatt was employed to execute 
the marble cenotaph to her memory in St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, for which 15,0001. 
had been subscribed ; this was completed in 
1826, and gained much admiration (Gent. 
Mag. 1826, i. 350). When George III died 
and a subscription for a national monument 
was started, Wyatt prepared a design re- 
presenting the king standing in a quadriga, 
and of this he published an etching ; but, 
though highly approved of and provisionally 
accepted, Jack of funds necessitated its 
abandonment. Eventually, in 1832, a com- 
mittee of the subscribers commissioned him 
to execute the bronze equestrian statue of 
the king which now stands in Pall Mall 
East, and is his best work. Other well- 
known productions by Wyatt are the marble 
monument to the Duchess of Rutland at 
Belvoir, and the poorly modelled colossal 
bronze equestrian statue of the Duke of 
Wellington which was placed on Decimus 
Burton's arch at Hyde Park Corner in 1846 
and remained there until 1883, when it was 
removed to Aldershot. A portrait of a New- 
foundland dog, sculptured in coloured 
marbles by Wyatt, was shown at the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1851. Thanks to 
royal and other influential patronage, Wyatt 
enjoyed a reputation and practice to which 
his mediocre abilities hardly entitled him, 
and he amassed considerable wealth. He 
died at his house in the Harrow Road, Lon- 
don, on 3 Jan. 1862. By his wife Maria 
(d. 1852) he had, with other children, two 
sons Matthew, who became a lieutenant 
of the queen's bodyguard and was knighted ; 
and James, who followed his father's pro- 
fession and worked as his assistant. 



Wyatt 



182 



Wyatt 



[Art Journal, 1862; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Gent. Mag. 18221. 208, 1836 ii. 306, 
1862, i. 241 ; Royal Academy Catalogues; pri- 
vate information.] F. M. O'D. 

WYATT, SIB MATTHEW DIGBY 
(1820-1877), architect and writer on art, 
youngest son of Matthew Wyatt, a metro- 
politan police magistrate, wasborn atRowde, 
near Devizes, on 28 July 1820. Thomas 
Henry Wyatt [q. v.] was his eldest brother. 
The VVyatt family was prolific in artists 
and architects. Thomas and Matthew were 
descended from William Wyatt (brother of 
Benjamin Wyatt of Blackbrook), who was 
at the end of the eighteenth century steward 
to Lord Uxbridge [see under WYATT, JAMES]. 

Matthew Digby was in 1836 placed as a 
pupil in the office of his brother Thomas. 
In the first year of pupilage he showed his 
literary ability by winning the essay prize 
medal of the Institute of British Architects, 
and the continental tour which he took in 
1844-6 was made the occasion for collecting 
the materials of a work on the ' Geometric 
Mosaics of the Middle Ages' (1848, fol.) 
In 1849 Wyatt was employed by the So- 
ciety of Arts to report upon the French Ex- 
hibition of that year. He furnished a re- 
markably able report, with the result that 
in 1851 he was selected for the post of secre- 
tary to the executive committee of the Great 
Exhibition in London. Besides winning 
prize medals for his exhibited designs, he 
received a special gold medal from the Prince 
Consort and a premium of 1,000/. for his 
official services. Ajnong his collaborators 
in the work of the exhibition were Isambard 
Kingdom Brunei [q. v.], with whom he sub- 
sequently built Paddington station, and 
Owen Jones [q. v.], who became a close 
friend. A paper upon the construction of 
the exhibition buildings read before the 
Institution of Civil Engineers (x. 127 ) was 
awarded a ' Telford ' medal, and Wyatt 
further contributed to the literature of the 
exhibition by undertaking the editorship of i 
the ' Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Cen- , 
tury,' a work which illustrated a selection 
of the objects exhibited (1851, fol.) 

During the time that the exhibition build- 
ings were being transformed into the Crystal 
Palace at Sydenham, Wyatt acted as super- 
intendent of the fine arts department, and, 
together with Owen Jones, designed the 
courts characteristic of various periods and 
nationalities of art. In 1855 he was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the East India Company, 
and his execution of the interior of the India 
office, in collaboration with Sir George Gil- 
bert Scott [q. v.], was the occasion of his 
receiving knighthood. In the same year 



Wyatt attended as juror at the Paris Exhi- 
bition, and for his services to the French 
government in reporting on decoration was 
created a knight of the Legion of Honour. 
From 1855 until 1859 he was honorary se- 
cretary of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, and in 1866 received the gold 
medal of that body. On the foundation of 
the Slade professorship of fine arts at Cam- 
bridge in 1869 he was the first occupant of 
the chair, and received the honorary degree 
of M.A. Wyatt's knowledge and use of 
architectural styles were catholic and com- 
prehensive, but his special leaning towards 
the art of the Renaissance made him in a 
sense a leader in the movement which has 
characterised the last quarter of the century. 

His domestic works included Alford 
House, in Kensington Gore ; Possingworth, 
Sussex; N e wells, near Horsham; the Mount, 
Norwood; the Ham, Glamorganshire; and 
the restorations of Compton Wynyates, 
Warwickshire, and of Isfield Place, Sussex. 
He designed the chapel and hospital for the 
barracks at Warley, the Crimean memorial 
arch at Chatham, the Indian government 
stores at Lambeth, Addenbrooke's Hospital, 
Cambridge, a Rothschild mausoleum at West 
Ham cemetery, the East India Museum, 
and the Adelphi Theatre. North Marston 
church, Buckinghamshire, was restored by 
Wyatt for the crown, and he was associated 
with his brother Thomas Henry in the 
design of the military chapel at Woolwich. 
He also executed many important colonial 
commissions. His other writings, which 
were numerous, include ' Metal Work and 
its Artistic Design,' 1852, fol. ; ' The Art of 
Illuminating,' 1860, 4to ; ' On the Foreign 
Artists employed in England during the 
Sixteenth Century,' 1868, 4to ; and a paper 
on the ' History of the Manufacture of 
Clocks,' 1870. 

Wyatt died on 21 May 1877 at his resi- 
dence, Dimlands Castle, near Cowbridge, 
South Wales, to which he had retired in the 
hope of recruiting his overworked strength, 
and was buried at Usk. A bust life-size 
portrait of Wyatt, painted by A. Ossiani, is 
in the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
He married, on 11 Jan. 1853, Mary, second 
daughter of Iltyd Nicholl of the Ham, 
Glamorganshire. 

[Builder, 1869, xxvii. 906 (portrait), 1877, 
xxxv. 541, 545, 550, 1878, xxxvi. 49, 391; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Burke's Peerage, 
1877, p. 1406; Times, 23 and 24 May 1877; 
Institution of Civil Engineers Proceedings, 
1876-7, xlix. pt. 3; Architect, 1877, xvii. 331, 
339; information from Mr. R. B. Prosser.] 

P. W. 



Wyatt 



183 



Wyatt 



WYATT, RICHARD JAMES (1795- 
1850), sculptor, son of Edward Wyatt (1757- 
1833), a well-known carver and gilder of 
Oxford Street, by his wife Anne Madox, 
and cousin of Matthew Cotes Wyatt [q. v.], 
was born in Oxford Street, London, 6n 
3 May 1795. He studied in the school of 
the Royal Academy, where he gained two 
medals, and served his apprenticeship with 
John Charles Felix Rossi [q. v.] In 1818 he 
exhibited at the academy a ' Judgment of 
Paris,' and in 1819 a monument to Lady 
Anne Hudson ; other early memorial works 
by him are in Esher church and St. John's 
Wood chapel. When Canova visited this 
country Wyatt was brought under his notice 
by Sir Thomas Lawrence [q. v.], and re- 
ceived from him an invitation to Rome. He 
left England early in 1821, and, after study- 
ing for a few months in Paris under Bosio, 
proceeded to Rome, and entered the studio 
of Canova, where he had John Gibson (1790- 
1866) [q. v.] as a fellow pupil. Settling per- 
manently in Rome, Wyatt practised his pro- 
fession there with great enthusiasm and suc- 
cess, and from 1831 until his death was a 
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. 
Among his best works were ' Ino and the 
Infant Bacchus,' ' Girl at the Bath,' ' Musi- 
dora ' (at Chatsworth), and ' Penelope,' ' The 
Huntress,' and ' Flora ' (all in the royal col- 
lection). Several of these have been engraved 
for the ' Art Journal.' The ' Penelope ' was 
a commission given by the queen to Wyatt 
at the time of his only visit to England in 
1841. His whole life was otherwise passed 
in Rome, where he died, unmarried, on 29 May 
1850, and was buried in the protestant ceme- 
tery. Some of his works were shown at the 
London exhibition of 1851, and were awarded 
a gold medal. Wyatt was a highly accom- 
plished artist, particularly excelling in his 
female figures, which in purity of form and 
beauty of line rivalled those of his master 
Canova. A woodcut portrait, from a drawing 
by S. Pearce, accompanies a memoir of him 
in the < Art Journal/ 1850. 

[Art Journal, Aug. 1850; Gent. Mag. 1850, 
ii. 99; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Royal 
Academy catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

WYATT, SIR THOMAS (1503P-1542), 
poet, only son of Sir Henry Wyatt and Anne, 
daughter of John Skinner of Reigate, Surrey, 
was born about 1503, at his father's resi- 
dence, Allington Castle, Kent. The ' inqui- 
sitio post mortem ' of his father, dated 1537, 
inaccurately describes him as then aged 
' twenty-eight years and upwards.' 

SIR HENRY WYATT (d. 1537), the father 
of the poet, resisted the pretensions of Ri- 



chard III to the throne, and was in conse- 
quence arrested and imprisoned in the Tower 
for two years. According to his son's state- 
ment he was racked in Richard's presence, 
and vinegar and mustard were forced down 
his throat. There is an old tradition in the 
family that while in the Tower a cat brought 
him a pigeon every day from a neighbouring 
dovecot and thus saved him from starvation. 
There is no contemporary confirmation of 
the legend. The Earl of Romney, who is 
directly descended in the female line from 
the Wyatts, possesses a curious half-length 
portrait of Sir Henry seated in a prison cell 
with a cat drawing towards him a pigeon 
through the grating of a window. Lord 
Romney also possesses a second picture of 
' The cat that fed Sir Henry Wyatt,' besides 
a small bust portrait of Sir Henry. The 
pictures, illustrating the tradition of the cat 
(now at Lord Romney's house, 4 Upper Bel- 
grave Street, London), represent Sir Henry 
Wyatt in advanced years, and were obviously 
painted on hearsay evidence very long after 
the date of the alleged events they claim to 
depict. The Wyatt papers, drawn up in 1727, 
relate that Sir Henry on his release from the 
Tower ' would ever make much of cats, as 
other men will of their spaniels or hounds.' 
On the accession of Henry VII Wyatt was 
not merely liberated but was admitted to 
the privy council, and remained high in the 
royal favour. He was one of Henry VH's 
executors, and one of Henry VIII's guar- 
dians. Henry VIII treated him with no 
less consideration than his father had shown 
him. He was admitted to the privy council 
of the new king in April 1509, and became 
a knight of the Bath on 23 July following. 
In 1511 he was made jointly with Sir Thomas 
Boleyn [q. v.] constable of Norwich castle 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, i. No. 
3008), and on 29 July of the same year was 
granted an estate called Maidencote, at Est- 
garstone in Berkshire. At the battle of the 
Spurs he served in the vanguard (16 Aug. 
1513). He became treasurer to the king's 
chamber in 1524, but resigned that office to 
Sir Brian Tuke on 23 April 1528. He had 
purchased in 1492 the castle and estate of 
Allington near Maidstone in Kent, and made 
the place his principal residence. Henry VIII 
visited him there in 1527 to meet Wolsey 
on his return from the continent. Wyatt 
remained friendly with Sir Thomas Boleyn 
(the father of Queen Anne Boleyn), who had 
been his colleague at Norwich, and resided 
at Hever Castle in Kent. Sir Henry died on 
10 Nov. 1537 (Ing. post mort. 28 Hen. VIII, 
m. 5), and, in accordance with the directions 
in his will, which was proved on 21 Feb. 



Wyatt 



184 



Wyatt 






1537-8 (Cromwell, f. 7), was buried at Mil- 
ton, near Gravesend. 

At twelve years of age the son Thomas 
was admitted of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He graduated there B.A. in 1518, 
and M.A. in 1520. There is a vague tradi- 
tion that he also studied at Oxford. He 
married early in 1520, when not more than 
seventeen but as a boy he had made the 
acquaintance of Anne Boleyn,and long after 
the date of his marriage Wyatt was re- 
garded as her lover. He soon sought official 
employment, and became esquire of the 
body to the king. In 1524 he was appointed 
clerk of the king's jewels, but the statement 
that he succeeded his father as treasurer to 
the king's chamber is an invention of J. P. Col- 
lier, who forged entries in official papers in 
support of it ( Trevelyan Papers, Camd. Soc.; 
SIMONDS, Sir Thomas Wyatt and his Poems). 
At Christmas 1525 he distinguished himself 
at a court tournament. Next year he accom- 
panied Sir Thomas Cheney on a diplomatic 
mission to France. 

In January 1526-7 he accompanied Sir 
John Russell, the ambassador, to the papal 
court. The story is told that Russell in his 
journey down the Thames encountered 
Wyatt, and, ' after salutations, was demanded 
of him whither he went, and had answer, 
"To Italy, sent by the king." " And I," 
said Wyatt, " will, if you please, ask leave, 
get money, and go with you." " No man 
more welcome," answered the ambassador. 
So, this accordingly done, they passed in 
post together' (Wyatt MSS.) While 
abroad at this time, Wyatt visited Venice, 
Ferrara, Bologna, Florence, and Rome. 
Russell broke his leg at Rome, and Wyatt 
undertook to negotiate on his behalf with 
the Venetian republic. On his return 
journey towards Rome he was taken captive 
by the imperial forces under the constable 
Bourbon, and a ransom of three thousand 
ducats was demanded. Wyatt, however, 
escaped to Bologna. 

On settling again in England Wyatt 
rejoined the court, but in 1529 and 1530 
he chiefly spent his time at Calais, where 
he accepted the post of high-marshal. His 
relations with Anne Boleyn continued cl ose 
until her favours were sought by Henry VIII. 
Then it is said that he frankly confessed 
to Henry the character of his intimacy 
with her (cf. HARPSFIELD, Pretended Di- 
vorce), and warned him against marrying 
a woman of blemished character. In 1533 
he was sworn of the privy council, and 
at Anne's coronation on Whit Sundav 
of that year he acted as chief ' ewerer ' 
in place of his father, and poured scented 



water over the queen's hands. The story of 
the Spanish chronicler that Henry after- 
wards banished Wyatt from court for two 
years is uncorroborated. In the spring of 
1535 he was engaged in a heated contro- 
versy with Elizabeth Rede, abbess of West 
Mailing, who declined to obey the orders 
of the government to admit Wyatt to con- 
fiscated property of the abbey. He was in 
attendance on the king early in 1536, but 
soon afterwards the discovery of Anne'8 
post-nuptial infidelities created at court an 
atmosphere of suspicion, which threatened 
to overwhelm Wyatt. On 5 May 1536 he 
was committed to the Tower, but it was 
only intended to employ him as a witness 
against the queen. Cromwell wrote to 
Wyatt's father on 11 May that his life was 
to be spared. No legal proceedings were 
taken against him, and he was released on 
14 June. His sister Mary attended Queen 
Anne on the scaffold. A miniature manu- 
script book of prayers on vellum bound in 
gold (enamelled black), which now belongs- 
to Lord Romney, is said to have been given 
by the queen to a lady of Wyatt's family. 
(A very similar volume and binding i 
among the Ashburnham MSS. at the British* 
Museum ; cf. Archceologia, xliv. 259-70). 

Wyatt made allusion to the fatal month 
of May in one of his sonnets ; but he had not 
forfeited the king's favour, and the mini- 
ster Cromwell thenceforth treated him with 
i marked confidence. In October 1536 he was 
given a command against the rebels in Lin- 
colnshire, and he was knighted on 18 March 
1536-7. In 1537 he became sheriff of Kent. 
In April of the same year he was appointed 
ambassador to the emperor, in succession to 
Richard Pate, and he remained abroad, mostly 
in Spain, till April 1539. The negotiations 
in which he was engaged were aimed at se- 
curing friendly relations between the emperor 
and Henry VIII. The diplomacy proved 
intricate, and although Wyatt displayed in 
its conduct sagacity and foresight, he achieved 
no substantial success. He found time in 

1537 to send interesting letters of moral 
advice to his son (printed by Nott). In May 

1538 Edmund Bonner [q. v.] and Simon 
Heynes [q. v.] were ordered under a special 
commission to Nice, where the emperor was 
staying, to join Wyatt in dissuading him 
from taking part in a general council con- 
vened by the pope at Vicenza. Wyatt 
entertained Bonner and his companion at 
Villa Franca, where the English embassy 
had secured apartments remote from the 
heat and crowd of Nice; but Wyatt re- 
sented the presence of coadjutors and treated 
them with apparent contempt. Bonner re- 



Wyatt 



'85 



Wyatt 



taliated by writing to Cromwell (from Blois, 
2 Sept. 1538) that Wyatt was engaged in 
traitorous correspondence with Reginald 
Pole, lived loosely, and used disrespectful 
language to the king (cf. Inner Temple 
Petyt MS. No. 47, f. 9 ; printed in Gent. 
Mag. 1850, i. 563-70). Cromwell, a staunch 
friend of Wyatt, ignored the accusation, and 
on 27 Nov. 1538 wrote to him in terms of 
confidence. Wyatt was recalled to England 
in April 1539. 

In the following December he was des- 
patched to Flanders to interview the emperor, 
who was on the point of paying a visit to 
the king of France in Paris. Thither Wyatt 
followed the emperor. In January 1540 
Wyatt was especially requested to procure 
from the French court the arrest of a Welsh- 
man named Brancetor, an ally of Cardinal 
Pole, who had taken service in the house- 
hold of the emperor, and was with him in 
Paris. Wyatt failed to secure the arrest of 
the man, who appealed to the emperor and 
to the French government for protection. 
Wyatt pressed the matter in an audience of 
the emperor, but he proved unconciliatory. 
Henry VIII, on hearing from Wyatt of his 
difficulties, instructed him to remain firm. 
Wyatt followed the emperor to Brussels 
and boldly renewed his entreaties without 
result. Wyatt's inability to improve the re- 
lations between Henry VIII and the emperor 
were in part responsible for Cromwell's fall. 
In 1540 he returned from the Low Coun- 
tries. 

After Cromwell's execution Bonner and 
Heynes renewed their old attack upon 
Wyatt. Their charges were now treated 
seriously, and Wyatt was sent to the Tower 
at the same time as another innocent ally 
of Cromwell, Sir John Wallop [q. v.] Wyatt 
was privately informed of the accusation, 
and sent an elaborate paper of explanations, 
denying with much spirit that any treason- 
able intent could be deduced from any reports 
of his conversation (cf. Harl. MS. 78, arts. 
6, 7 ; first printed by Horace Walpole in 
Miscellaneous Antiquities, 1772, ii. 21-54, 
from a transcript made by the poet Gray). 
But according to a letter sent by the lords 
of the council to Sir William Howard on 
26 March 1541, Wyatt ' confessed uppon his 
examination, all the thinges objected unto 
him, in a like lamentable and pitifull sorte as 
Wallop did, whiche surely were grevcms, de- 
lyvering his submission in writing, declaring 
thole history of his offences, but with a like 
protestation, that the same proceeded from 
him in his rage and folishe vaynglorios fan- 
tazie without spott of malice ; yelding him- 
self only to his majesties marcy, without the 



whiche he sawe he might and must needes be 
justely condempned. And the contempla- 
tion of which submission, and at the greate 
and contynual sute of the Quenes Majestie, 
His Highnes, being of his owne most 'godly 
nature ecclyned to pitie and mercy, hathe 
given him his pardon in as large and ample 
sorte as his grace gave thother to Sir John 
Wallop, whiche pardons be delyvered, and 
they sent for to come hither to Highnes at 
Dover.' Thenceforth the king's favour was 
secure. He had added the estate of Boxley 
to his large Kentish property, and now re- 
ceived grants of land at Lambeth and else- 
where, exchanging some of his land in Kent 
for other estates in Dorset and Somerset. 
He was made high steward of the manor of 
Maidstone, and early in 1542 he was returned 
to parliament as knight of the shire for 
Kent. In the summer of 1542 he was sent 
to Falmouth to conduct the imperial am- 
bassador to London. The heat of the weather 
and the fatigue of the journey brought on a 
violent fever, which compelled him to halt 
at Sherborne in Dorset. There Wyatt died, 
and on 11 Oct. 1542 he was buried in the 
great church of Sherborne. The register 
describes him as 'vir venerabilis.' The 
' inquisitio post mortem/ dated 8 Jan. 
1542-3, enumerates vast estates in Kent 
(34 Hen. VIII, Kent, m. 90). 

Sir Thomas Wyatt's (bust) portrait (with 
flowing black beard and bald head) on panel is 
in the picture gallery at the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford. The Earl of Romney (at his Lon- 
don residence) owns a portrait (small bust) 
on panel by Lucas Cornelisz. Two other 
similar portraits were exhibited at South 
Kensington in 1866. Two drawings by Hol- 
bein are in the Royal Library at Windsor ; one 
was engraved for Leland's tract in 1542, and 
is said to have been drawn on wood by Hol- 
bein. A painting after one of Holbein's 
sketches is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London. According to Vertue, a full-length 
portrait was at Ditchley, the present seat of 
Viscount Dillon ; it has long been missing. 
The Bodleian portrait has often been en- 
graved (cf. Dr. Nott's edition of Wyatt's 
' Works, frontispiece). 

Wyatt married about 1520 Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Brooke, lord Cobham, 
and had by her an only surviving son, Sir 
Thomas Wyatt [q. v.] His widow married 
Sir Edward Warner [q. v.] 

Wyatt's unexpected death was widely 
mourned. John Leland, the antiquary, pub- 
lished in 1542 a Latin elegy of much merit, 
' Nsenia in mortem Thomas Viati equitis 
incomparabilis,' which was dedicated to the 
Earl of Surrey (with woodcut of Wyatt). 



Wyatt 



1 86 



Wyatt 



There followed an interesting anonymous 
effort : ' The Excellent Epitaffe of Syr 
Thomas Wyat, with two other compendious 
dytties, wherin are touchyd, and set furth 
the state of mannes lyfe. (Imprynted at 
London by John Herforde for Roberte Toye 
[1542],' 4to, 4 leaves) ; the portrait of Wyatt, 
in a circle, is reproduced from Leland's 
' Nsenia ; ' a partial reissue was entitled 'A 
compendious dittie, wherein the state of 
mans lyfe is briefely touched,' London, by 
Thomas Berthelet, 3 Jan. 1547-8. But the 
most interesting poetic tributes to Wyatt 
were paid by Surrey in two poems one a 
sonnet and the other an elegy in forty-eight 
lines which were first published by Tottel 
in ' Songes and Sonettes ' (1557). 

Wyatt belonged to the cultivated circle of 
Henry VIII's court. He closely studied 
foreign literature, and acquired a high re- 
putation as a writer of English verse. He 
ordinarily shares with Henry Howard, earl 
of Surrey [q. v.], the honour of having intro- 
duced the sonnet from Italy into this country. 
He is better entitled to be treated as the 
pioneer. Wyatt was Surrey's senior by fif- 
teen years. At Wyatt's death Surrey was 
only twenty-four. When Wyatt first studied 
Petrarch's sonnets in Italy, Surrey was 
barely nine. Surrey may be fairly regarded 
as Wyatt's disciple. Wyatt wrote both 
sacred and secular verse, but none of his 
compositions were published in his lifetime. 
His sacred poems, in which he shows the 
influence of Dante and Alamanni, appeared in 
1549 as ' Certayne Psalmes chosen out of 
the Psalter of Dauid commonly called the vij 
penytentiall Psalmes, drawen into Englyshe 
meter by Sir Thomas Wyat, knyght, where- 
unto is added a prologe of the auctore before 
every Psalma very pleasant and profettable 
to the godly reader. Imprinted at London 
by Thomas Raynald and John Harryngton, 
MDXLIX, 4to.' A sonnet in praise of the 
book by Surrey is prefixed, and is reprinted 
inTottel's ' Songes and Sonettes ' (ed. Arber, 
p. 28). The work is dedicated by the printer 
Harryngton to William Parr, marquis of 
Northampton. 

Many of Wyatt's secular poems were first 
printed in 1557, with those of Surrey and 
some anonymous contemporaries, by Richard 
Tottel, in the volume called ' Songes and 
Sonettes,' which is commonly quoted as 
' Tottel's Miscellany.' Ninety-six poems are 
there assigned to Wyatt out of a total of 
310. In Nott's edition of the works of 
Surrey and Wyatt (1815-16) important ad- 
ditions to the collection of Tottel were made 
from manuscript sources. The most his- 
torically interesting of Wyatt's surviving 



poems are thirty-one regular sonnets; of 
these ten are direct translations of Petrarch, 
and many others betray his influence. The 
metre is simplified from the Italian model, 
and the two concluding lines usually form a 
rhymed couplet. The rest of Wyau's poems 
consist of rondeaus, epigrams, lyrics in various 
short metres, and satires in heroic couplets. 
His muse was largely imitative, and French 
and Spanish verse waa laid under contribu- 
tion as well as Italian. His epigrams often 
imitate the strambotti of Serafinodell'Aquila. 
His satires are inspired by a study of Horace 
or Persius. Wyatt's poetic efforts often lack 
grace, his versification is at times curiously 
uncouth, his sonnets are strained and arti- 
ficial in style as well as in sentiment ; but 
he knew the value of metrical rules and 
musical rhythm, as the ' Address to his 
Lute ' amply attests. Despite his persistent 
imitation of foreign models, too, he displays 
at all points an individual energy of thought, 
which his disciple Surrey never attained. As 
a whole his work evinces a robuster taste 
and intellect than Surrey's. 

'Tottel's Miscellany' was constantly re- 
printed [see HOWARD, HENRY, EARL OF 
SURKEY ; TOTTEL, RICHARD]. Wyatt's poems 
were separately reprinted from ' Tottel's Mis- 
cellany ' twice in 1717; in Bell's 'Annotated 
Edition of English Poets' in 1854; by the 
Rev. George Gilfillan, Edinburgh, in 1858 ; 
and by James Yeowell in the ' Aldine Poets,' 
1863. 

The poetical works of Wyatt and Surrey 
have often been edited together, notably in 
1815-16, by George Frederick Nott [q. v.], 
who printed many new poems by Wyatt for 
the first time from the Harington MSS. and 
the Duke of Devonshire's manuscript collec- 
tions (2 vols. 4to), and again in 1831 by Sir 
Harris Nicolas. 

[An elaborate memoir by Nott is prefixed to 
his edition of Wyatt's works (1816); a few 
additions are made by Nicolas aud Yeowell in 
their respective editions of Wyatt's poems. John 
Bruce, in Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 235 seq., gave a 
seriesof valuable extracts touching Sir Thomas's 
career from the Wyatt manuscripts, a remnant 
of a collection of family papers made in 1727 
by a descendant, Richard Wyatt (1673-1753) ; 
in 1850, when Bruce used them, these papers 
were in the possession of the Rev. B. D. Hawkins 
of Rivenhall, Essex, but they were made over 
in 1872 to the Earl of Romney, in whose ances- 
tors' possession they had formerly been ; they 
are now the property of the present earl (infor- 
mation kindly given by the Hon. R. Marsham- 
Townshend). Mr. Cave Browne in his History 
of Boxley Parish, Maidstone, 1892, pp. 134 seq., 
made some use of the Wyatt MSS. See also 
Arber's preface to his reprint of Tottel's Miscel- 



Wyatt 



187 



Wyatt 



lany, 1870; Cooper's Athense Cantabr.; Froude's 
History ; Miss Strickland's Queens of England ; 
Bapst's Deux Gentilhommes-Poetes de IH Cour 
de Henry VIII, 1891; Thomas's Historical Notes; 
Miscell. Geneal. et Heraldica, new ser. ii. 107; 
Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII; Cal. State Papers, Spanish, v.-vi. ; 
Fnedmann's An