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The Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, Biology, 
and Allied Sciences. 5th Edition. 

Full Sheep or Half Dark Green Leather, .... $10.00 

With Thumb Index, 11.00 

Half Russia, Thumb Index, 12.00 

The Student's Medical Dictionary, nth Edition. 

Half Morocco, $2.50; Thumb Index, .... 3.C0 

Full Flexible Leather, " " .... 3.50 

The Pocket Pronouncing Medical Lexicon. 4th 

(30,000 Medical Words Pronounced and Defined.) 

Full Limp Leather, Gilt Edges, Si. 00; Thumb Index, . 1.25 

Biographic Clinics, Volume I. 

The Origin of the Ill-Health of DeQuincy, Carlyle, Darwin, 
Huxley, and Browning. Cloth, i.oo 

Biographic Clinics, Volume II. 

The Origin of the Ill-Health of Wagner, Parkman, Mrs. 
Carlisle, Spencer, Whittier, Ossoli, Nietsche, and George 
Elliott. Cloth 1.00 

Borderland Studies. Cloth, 2.00 


Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine and Surgery. 

A Concise Reference Handbook. 75 Contributors. Illus- 
trated. Large Square Octavo. Full Sheep or Half Dark 
Green Leather, $10.00; With Thumb Index, . . . $11.00 
Half Russia, Thumb Index, 12.00 

Pocket Cyclopedia of Medicine and Surgery. 

Based upon the above Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine and 
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With Thumb Index, 1.25 

Compend of Diseases of the Eye. 2d Edition. 

lOQ Illustrations. Cloth, <i.oo ; Interleaved, . . . 1.25 











Copyright, 1904, by P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

WM. F. Fei_l_ COMPANY 




Nothing so well illustrates the astonishing vitality and progress of present-day medical 
science as its unparalleled multiplication of new words. It is only ten years since I made what 
seemed then a thorough gathering of such new coinages and incorporated them in the 
" Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, Biology, and Allied Sciences." It seemed at that time as 
if, for the most part, the possible phasings and discoveries of pathologic and physiologic 
conditions must have been made and designated with names. Since then I have kept an 
eye — and through friends and helpers, many eyes — upon the busy minting still proceeding 
unabated. That in a decade over 30,000 new terms should have been devised is almost 
incredible. It is doubtful if any other science or object of study has ever shown such 
a phenomenon. 

Nomina si nescis pcrif cognitio reriim, said Coke with the acumen of the legal mind, and it 
is generally true that the knowledge of things depends upon the knowledge of their names. 
Discoveries of new facts, or new standpoints for viewing old facts, demand new tags or 
"nicking " symbols whereby their status may be fixed and their recognition insured and made 
more clear for distant or future students. Few philosophic and scientific minds may exhibit an 
aloofness and a freedom from the tyranny of words to enable them to study things without the 
aid of words and namings. But nothing, it is admitted, is more blundering in a personal 
sense, and more harmful to the progress of science, than the exhaustion of interest so soon as a 
classification and nomenclature have been made. The ridiculous is only needed to end in the 
absurd, and this is generally supplied by their wrong pigeon-holing and false ticketing. A diag- 
nosis once made, a mere word, long, mysterious, and meaningless, pinned upon the bunched 
symptoms, and further study of etiology, prophylaxis, or therapeutics is with too many at an end. 
Over 200 years ago Dr. South tried to check this "fatal imposture and force of words" by 
showing how "the generality of mankind is governed by words and names," not by things as 
they are, but as they are called — in a word, by " verbal magic." 

And yet in a groping science like medicine, one that inductively, slowly, and tenatively is 
feeling its way towards the truth, this need of naming every step forward is peculiar!} 
necessary. It is the condition of securing the step in itself, and of guiding the aftercomers. It 
is the blazing of trails into the wilderness of the unknown. Closure may consequently be called 
upon the critic who may say that half the new words, or more, are the marks of trails which lead 
nowhither, and that have been abandoned before they can be sketched. Of course no one can 
tell what lines of research may finally prove the best and true, and none, therefore, what blazes 
will be useful or useless. New trails, shorter, easier, and better, may indeed be discovered, and 
when the wilderness country is settled, all trails will either be abandoned or become well-known 
roads. But even then good sign-posts and pointing index-fingers will be helpful for strangers, and 
some of the old names will never be discarded. None can foretell what words may die and what 
ones become a part of the language. Hence neither by guess nor by judgment may the 
lexicographer too recklessly exclude. He is moreover a contemporary historian, and must 


gather even the spurious, debased, or rounterfeit coins. Not even may the " ghost -words," nor 
the unnamed and unnamable terata of scholarship or ignorance be thrown out, for they serve at 
least as warnings and danger signals to the unwary. Posterity will choose, whether wisely or 
unwisely, at least wilfully, and will restamp with its approval what it pleases. For the rest, as 
of old, the " bad words" need not be looked for, nor put to ser\-ice. Thus, in a way, the 
dictionary of modern medicine is a sort of crude topographic map, drawn to large scale 
from the hurried and often inaccurate messages of the scouts and spies of science, for the in- 
struction of the army which follows. 

The history of le.xicography finds its first data about 700 or 800 A. D., in glosses, or the 
more common explanatory words annexed or superpo.sed over " hard " terms, and made either 
in Latin or in the glossator's own vernacular. A list of such glosses was called 3. glossarium, or 
as we say, a glossary. It soon became the custom for children and students to learn by heart the 
classified lists of the names of things, such as those of the parts of the body, of animals, trades, 
tools, virtues and vices, diseases, etc. Such a list constituted a vocabularitim, or vocabulary. 
These glosses and vocabularies were in time thrown together in bundles, at first without any 
order, and as lists, without losing their individuality. Then came the "first letter order," in 
which all words and terms beginning with the letter a, were bundled together, still without 
discrimination, so that the entire list of words beginning with a, or b, had to be scanned in 
order to find a special word. The classification proceeded to an arrangement of the items 
also according to the second letter, then the third, etc., until after hundreds of years complete 
alphabetization came into use. At first the aim had been to explain difficult Latin words by 
easier Latin ones ; then by English ones, and in the tenth and eleventh centuries the English 
equivalents were the rule, and the glossaries were Latin-English. The first book of this kind to 
be called a dictionarium, that is a repertory of dictiones or .sayings, was that of Sir Thomas Elyot 
in 1538, and from that time the word dictionary has supplanted all others ; so much so that it is 
now the title of any alphabetic gathering not only of words but of any kind of knowledge 

Our modern language of medicine is unique in that it is made up of the unchanged and 
undigested materials and relics used or contributed during its entire history. The persisting 
substratum is Latin, upon which has been placed a mass of pseudogreek words, not physiologicly 
created nor grown by natural philologic methods, but springing Minervalike from the brains of 
thousands of modern Jupiters. These largely bear the marks of their parentage in characteristics 
that do not, or should not, beget a spontaneous pride of lineage. From a highly variegated 
medievalism that has, indeed, never ended, we have taken over another unassimilable 
conglomerate, and superadded are thousands of dissimilar terms derived from modern chemistry, 
biology, bacteriology, and many other sciences. Each single group of contemporaneous 
nationalities contributes to the others its share of names, and is itself hard at work endeavoring to 
fuse the whole heritage into homogeneity and unity with the amalgam of the spirit of the general 
language dominant among its people. The result is a strange hodge-podge of the medical 
language of two or more thousand years and of many special national tongues, in mechanic, not 
chemic mixture, with modem sounds and symbols, the whole amazingly heterogeneous and 
cacophonous. The thirtieth century medical student will probably be compelled to memorize 
iter a tertio ad quartum ventriculum, etc., and to write his orders for drugs in a sad mixture of 
sorry Latin so far as his knowledge will carry, and then to end it in despair in the vulgar 
manner of speech of his contemporaries. In general biology the law holds that the ontogeny 
epitomizes and repeats the phylogeny ; but only at the different successive stages of its 
individual development. In medical language the phylum is always present, and there are no 
successive stages ; there has been no rebirth or inheritance; the ontogeny goes on preserving 


all the old origins and accretions, and simply adding the new to them. For this sort of evolution 
there is no name (unless Weissmann's immortality theory is applicable;, and its study may be 
commended to the Darwins and Spencers of the future as a noteworthy exception to hitherto 
formulated laws. The result is before us : a huge and unassimilated philologic mass, many 
times greater than it should be, the despair of medical students and of the makers of diction- 
aries. These word-books, of course, reproduce the phylogenetic history in the same way, and 
there is no escape from the republication of all the methods and most all the words gathered 
and found useful in the course of ages. Here with some modifications of detail must be repeated 
the glosses and vocabularies of a thousand years ago, the foiled attempts together with the 
partial successes at alphabetic arrangement, and lastly the addition of the modern en- 

The functions of the dictionary-maker have thus become multiplied and varied. As the 
gloss-lists and vocable-lists grew into dictionariums, and as alphabetization became thorough- 
going, as one after another subject was added to the word-gatherer"s work, so our technical dic- 
tionary has at last become in part encyclopedic and expository, its plan and outworking still 
somewhat subject to the personality, scholarship, and judgment of the author. It will always 
remain an open question how far the author should or may go in giving individual color to his 
dictionary. Johnson's famous definitions of excise, lexicographer, oats, pension, pensioner, 
tory, whig, etc.; Webster's "Americanism" in spelling; the Century's seconding in various 
ways the obvious trending of philologic progress, — these, and many such illustrate the lexicog- 
rapher's belief in his own, at least, "limited" free-will. 

" Johnson's great work," says Dr. Murray, "raised English lexicography altogether to a 
higher level. In his hands it became a department of literature." The technical dictionary 
of to-day may indeed claim a higher office than that, because no monograph or text-book comes 
near the far-reaching and lasting influence of modern encyclopedic dictionaries. They help 
more than teacher or text-book to bring order into the student's forming mind, and to system- 
atize and make definite his knowledge. In postgraduate life and practice there is no book that 
is so frequently consulted, and the teachings of which are so clearly kept in memory. This is 
because of the validity of the maxim of Coke. 

Solely upon condition, however, that the author has put heart, intellect, and labor into his 
work ! If he has been content to repeat, copy, and adopt, it will not be so. And even then 
only if other repeaters, copiers, and adopters "do not break through and steal." .As has 
often happened since, dictionary-theft is an ancient story. .\s long as 250 years ^go Phillips 
plagiarized the g/ossographia of Blount. The robbed author indignantly exposed the shameless- 
ness of the cribber, even of misprints and errors. But he was not ashamed ! More suo the thief, 
having no defense, made none, and instead proceeded to correct all the errors pointed out by 
Blount, and, in many subsequent editions, the quack-lexicographer reaped the reward given by 
a too careless public. 

The ancient injustice would be much manifolded in modern times, with an intensely pro- 
gressing science which demands that, if to be of the best service, new editions of its word- 
books shall be made every few years. The system must become systematic and the professing 
truly professional. No spasmodic, incidental, or amateur methods will nowadays avail. 
Revisions are required, and continuous labor, not only of one but of many, so that helpers, a 
large corps of them, must be organized, and paid. Over 300 years ago a great worker in this 
field, one who " contrived and wrought not onelie for our owne private use, but for the common 
profet of others," even with the patronage of great men "who encouraged in this wearie 
worke ' ' was grieved that ' ' the charges were so great and the losse of time * ' so much that he 
came near having " never bene able alone to have wrestled against so manie troubles." 


Finding thai " his spiritual substance had vanished," old Simon Browne " took to an em|ilo\ • 
ment which did not reijuire a soul, and so became a dictionary-malcer," piously adding that 
we should "thank God for everything and therefore for dictionary makers." 

This supplement has grown so rapidly and so voluminously that it is at least four times as 
great as intended, yon men culpa ! It may serve as an addendum to most other works as well 
as to my own, and also as a new book of the terminology of medical science which has been 
devised during the last ten years. I have made use of the opjiortunity and have included some 
things omitted in the work of 1894, and have added a number of obsolete or obsolescent words 
which the student might find in his historic reading. Those who may detect any sins of 
omission or of commission are reiiuested to notify me in order that future editions may 
be made more accurate. 

To many friends and assistants I cannot adequately express my gratitude for unfailing kind- 
ness and help in the preparation of this su[)]jlementary volume. To O. Rodham, (i. C. C. 
Howard, C. S. Dolley, 1). Riesman, Burt (1. Wilder, S. H. (iage, M. P^. Raigueil, and others, 
especial thanks are due, as also to C. F. Taylor, of London, England. Both scholarship and 
time have lieen so continuously and unselfishlv given liy many that projjer recognition mav 
hardly be expressed in words. I should also mention the obligation of those who may find 
the book of service in their professional work for the good offices, going far beyond any 
calculating commercialism, rendered by the best of publishers and of ]jrinters. 

A word may be added of some interest to those who have editions, subsequent to the first, 
of the Illustrated Dictionary. The changes, insertions, corrections, etc., made in these various 
editions have, for the most [lart, been incorjjorated in this supplement. 

I have a feeling of gladness in learning from my publishers that as many as 166,000 copies 
of my medical dictionaries have been scattered among the profession in many parts of the 
world. That evidences something of usefulness in the great cause of medical science and 


Philadelphia, /go^. 



aa ana 

A. c Ante cibum . . . . 

Abdom. . , . Abdomen . . . 
Abs.feb. . . . Absente febre . . . 

Abstr Abstractum . . . . 

Ad Adde 

Ad lib Ad libitum . . . . 

Admov. . . . Admoveatur . . . 
Ad Ad pondus omnium 

Adv Adversuin . . . . 

Aggred. feb. . Aggrediente febre . 
Al. ...... Aluminum . . . . 

Alt. dieb. . . . Alternis diebus . . 

Alt. hor. . . Alternis horis . . . 
Alv. adstrict. Alvo adstricta . . 
Alv. deject. . Alvi dejectiones . . 


Aq Aqua 

Aq. astr. . . . Aqua astricta . . . 
Aq, bull. . . . Aqua bulliens . . 
Aq. com. . . . Aqua communis . 
Aq. dest. . . . Aqua destillata . . 
Aq. ferv. . . . Aqua fervens . . . 
Aq. font. . . . Aqua fontana . . . 
Aq. mar, . . , Aqua marina . . . 
Aq. pur. . . . Aijua pura . . . . 




B. A, orB S. Balneum arenae . . 

Bals Balsamum . . . . 





. Bibe 

B. i. d. . . . 
B, M. ... 


B. n 

. His in die 

. Balneum maris . . 
. Bolus 

Bi-.^ :::;;;:;;;: 

Bull Bulliat 

B. V Balneum vaporis 

r f Coiigius, Centi- 

X grade 


•Cap Capiat .... 







Cm Cras mane 


C. m.s. ... /Cras mane su- 
I mendus 

C. n. ..... Cras nocte . , . . 


Cochl Cochleare . . . . 

Cochl. ampl. . " amplum 

" infant. " infantis 

" nnag. . " magmmi 

" med. . " medium 

*' parv. . " parvum 

Col Cola 

Colat Colatus 

Colet Coletur 

Color Coloretur 

Comp Compositus . . . . 

Cong CnuKius 

Cons Conscrva 

Contin Continuatur 

Cont. rei 

Coq Coque 

Cort Cortex 

f Continuetur 
' ■ ■ l remedium 

Of each. 
Before meals. 
The belly. 

When fever is absent. 

At pleasure, as desired. 
Let it be applied. 
To the weight of the whole. 

While fever is coming on. 
Every other day. 
Every other hour. 
The bowels being confined. 
The intestinal evacuations. 

Boiling water 
Common water. 
Distilled water. 
Hot water 
Spring water. 
Ocean water. 
Pure water. 
Atomic weight. 
Boron, Bowels. 
Sand bath. 
Twice daily. 
Sea-water bath. 
A large pill. 
Let it boil. 
Vapor hath. 

I Carbon ; Cubic; A gallon ; 
( Centigrade. 
Let him take. 
Cubic centimeter. 
To-morrow morning. 

/To be taken to-morrow 
I morning. 
To-morrow' night. 
A tahlespoonful. 
A tea'^poonful. 
A tahlespoonful. 
A desserts[H)nnt'ul. 
A teas(iaonfut- 

Let it be strained. 
Let it be colored. 
A gallon. 

Let it be continued 
f Let the medicine be con- 
\ tinued. 

Crast Crastinus . 



Cu Cuprum .... 

Cuj Cujus 

C. V Cras vespere . . 

Cyath Cyathus .... 

D Dosis; Da . . . 

Decub. . . . Decubitus . . . 
De d. in d. . . De die in diem . 


De R 

Destil. . . . Destilla 

Det Detur 

Dieb. alt. . . . Diebus alternis . 

" tert. . . " tertiis 

Dil Dilue 

Dilut Dilutus 

Dim Dimidius .... 

Dist Distilla 

Div Divide 

D in p. eeq. . Divide in paries 

aequales . . . . 
Donee alv. f Donee alvus 

sol. fuerit, 1 solula fuerit 

D. P. . . . . . Directione propria 


. For to-morrow. 

. Cesium. 
. Copper. 
. Of which. 

. To-morrow evening. 
. A glassful. 
. A dose ; Give. 
. Lying down. 
. From day to day. 
. Degree; degeneration. 
. Reaction of degeneration. 
. Distil. 

. Let it be given. 
. On alternate days. 
. Every third day. 
. Let it be dissolved. 
. Dilute. 
. One-half. 
. Distil. 
. Divide. 



Ejusd Ejusdem 

Elec Electuarium . . . 




Exhib Exhibeatur . . . . 

Ext Extractum . . . . 



Fe Ferrum 

Feb. dur. . . . Febre durante . . 

F. . Ft Fac, Fiat 

Fill Filtra 

Fid Fluidus 

Flor Flores 

F. m Fiat mislura . . . 

Fol Folia 

F. ,p Fiat pntio 

F. pil Fiat pilula . . . . 

F. s. a Fiat secundum 





Gr Grantnn 

Gtt Guttae 

Guttat Guttatim 


Hg H\drarg\rum . . 

HI . . .' 


Hor. decub. . Hora decubitus . . 

H. s Horasomni . . . . 

I lodum 


In d In die 

Inf. Infunde 

Inj Injeclio 


K Kalium 







M Meridies; Misce . 

Mac Macera 

Mass. pil . . Massa pilularum . 

Divide into equal parts. 

(Until the bowels are 

j opened . 

With a proper direction. 
Ei bow-jerk. 
Of the same. 
An electuary; Electricity 
Let it be given. 

Fahrenheit ; Fluorin. 

The fever continuing. 
Make a mixture. 

Make a potion. 
Make a pill. 

Prepare skilfully. 






By drops. 





At bed-time. 

.■\t bed-time. 




Pour in. 

An injection. 









Noon : Mix. 




M. ft Mislurafiai. . . . Let a mixture be made. 

Mg Magnesium ; Milligram. 

Ml Milliliter. 

Mm Millimeter. 

Mod. pre- 
script . . Modo pr^scripto . In the manner directed. 

Mol. wt Molecular weight. 

Mor. sol. . . . More sollto . . . . In the usual way. 

Muc Mucilago Mucilage. 

Myg Myriagiam. 

Myl Mvrialiter. 

Mym Myriameler. 

N Nitrogen. 

Na Natrium Sodium. 

Ni Nickel. 

No Numero Number. 

Noct NoctL- By night. 

O Uctarius .... A pint. 

Ol Oleum Oil. 

01. oliv. . . . Oleum olivEe . . . Olive-oil. 

Ol.-res Oleoresina .... Oleoresin. 

O. m Omni mane .... Every morning. 

Omn. bib. . . Omni bihora . . . Every two hours 
Omn. hor. . . Omni bora .... Every liour. 
Omn. noct. . . Omni nocte .... Every night. 

Os Osmium. 

Ov Ovum An egg. 

Oz Uncia Ounce. 

P Phosphorus. Pulse. 

Part, xq, . . . Partes aequales . Equal parts. 

Pb Plumbum 

P. c Post cibum . 

P. C Poiidus civile 


. Quantum placeat 

. After meals. 
. Avoirdupois weight. 


Phar Pharmacopeia. 

Pil Pilula 

Pocul Poculum 

Pond. .... Pondere 


, Pill. 
. A cup 
By weight. 

Potio Potion ; potassa. 

Ppt Preparala . 

P. rat. aetat . Pro rata aetalis 

P. r, n Pro re nata . . 


Pulv Putvis . . . 

Q. d Quater in Hit- 

Q. I (Ji'^ntum lilift 

I'recipitate ; Prepared. 
, In proportion to age. 
, When required. 
. Pint. 
, Puwder. 

I'^our times a day. 
. According as required. 

Q.p. . 
Q. s. . 
Qt. . . 

Q. V Quantum vis 


K Recipe . . . 

Rad Radix 


R. D 

Rect Reclificatus . . . . 

Rep Repetatur .... 

S Semis 

S Signa 

S. a Secundum ariem . 

Sb Stibium 

Scr Scrupulum .... 

Sig Signetur 

Sig. n. pr. . . Signa nomine 


Sing Singnlorum . . . . 

Si non val. . . Si non valeat . . . 
Si op- sit . . . Si opus sit .... 

Solv Solve 

Sp.,orSpir. . Spiritus 

Ss Semi, semissis . . 

St Stet 

Su Suraat 

S. V Spiritus vini . . . 

S. V. r. . . . . Spiritus vini 

rectificatus . . . 

S. V. t Spiritus vini tenuis 

Syr Svrupus 

T ' 

T. d Ter in die 

Tr.. Tinct. . . Tinctura . . . . . 

Ung Unguentum . . . . 


Vesic Vesicatorium . . . 


V. s. b Venesertio braclui 

)\\ Minimum 

5 Drachma .... 

9 Scrupulum . . . . 

5 Uncia 

At will. 

A sufficient quautitv. 


As much as ynu wish. 

Reaumur's thermometer. 



Reaction of degeneration. 
Let it be repeated. 
Half ; Sulphur. 

According to art. 
Let it be labeled. 

Label with common name. 
Of each. 

If it does not answer. 
If requisite. 
Specific gravity. 
Let it stand. 
Let him take. 
Alcoholic spirit. 

Rectified spirit of wine. 

Dilute alcohol, proof-spirit. 



Three times a day. 




A blister. 


Bleeding from the arm. 






A'ames of Diseases. 

Bctasis Bronchiectasis. 

B^bea Brnnchorrhea. 

B^is Bronchitis- 

G. K Granular Kidney. 

G. P General Paralysis. 

Phth.,OT 4>d,OT<tt. Phthisis. 

t^^^ Pneumonia. 

t^^^ Pneumothorax. 

R^*^ F Rheumatic Fever. 

Rh®'" Rheumatism. 

Set F Scarlet Fever. 

Syph., or (rv<it. . . Syphilis. 

Names of Regions or Organs. 

Clavr Clavicular. 

I. C. F Infraclavicular Fossa. 

InfrasC" .... Infrascapular. 

IntersC Interscajiular. 

Mamy Mammarv. 

S. C. F Supraclavicular Fossa. 

Sp. C Spinal Cord. 

S. S. F Supraspinous fossa. 

V. C. or V. B. . . Vocal Bands. 

Names of Signs and Symptoms. 

C / Cough. 

Cephgia Cephalalgia. 

Hgc Hemorrhage. 

Ngia Neurp.igia. 

N. S NigV.t-sweats. 

Spm Sputum. 

T Tongue. 

Vg Vomiting 

Vt Vomit. 

In Physical Examination^ Etc. 

H. C Humid Crepitations. 

R. S Respiratory Sound. 

V. F Vocal Fremitus. 

V. S Voice-sounds. 


Acc Accommodation. 

Ah Hyperopic Astigmatism. 

Am Myopic Astigmatism. 

As Astigmatism. 

Ax Axis. 

B. D Base (of prism) down. 

B. I *' " " in. 

B. O " " " out. 

B. U " " " up. 

cm Centimeter. 

Cyl Cylinder, Cylindric Lens. 

D Diopter. 

E Emmetropia, Emmetropic. 

F Formula. 

H Hyperopia, Hyperopic, Horizontal. 

L, E Left Eye. 

M Myopia. Myopic. 

mm Millimetei". 

CD Ocnlus dexter— Right Eye. 

O. S Oculus sinister— Left Eye. 

P. p Punctum proximum, Near Point. 

P. r Punctum remotum, Far Point. 

R. E Right Eye. 

Sph Spheric, Spheric Lens 

Sym Symmetric. 

V Vision, Visual Acuity, Vertical. 

+ , — , = Plus, Minus. Equal to. 

00 Infinity. 2o ft. distance. 

■3 Combined with. 

^ Degree. 



a Applied to or in contact with Auricle. 

A. C Air-conduclion. 

A. D Auris dextra — Right Ear. 

A, S Auris sinistra — Left Ear. 

B. C bone-conduction. 

c Contact. 

d Dentes — applied to Teeth. 

P Tuning-fork. 

g;l. Glabella— applied to Forehead. 

h Hearing Power. 

L Left Ear. 

>n Applied to Mastoid. 

Meat. Aud. Ext. ; 

M. E External Auditory Meatus. 

Meat. Aud. Int ; 

M. I Internal Auditory Meatus. 

Men. dis M^ni^re's disease. 

M. flac Menibranaflaccida ; Shrapnell's membrane. 

M. T. ; Mt Membrana tympani. 

Myring Myringitis. 

O Complete Lack of Perception of Sound. 

ot. ext. ac Otitis externa acuta. 

ot. ext. chron. . . otitis externa chronica. 

ot. ext. diff. . . . Uliiis externa diffusa. 

ot. med. sup ac. . Otitis media suppurativa acuta. 

ot. med. sup. 

chron Otitis media suppurativa chronica. 

Pol Pohtzer's. 

Pol. Ac Pohtzer's Acoumeter. 

R Right Ear. 

S Susurrus— a Whisper. 

t Applied to Temple. 

Tymp Tympanum. 

Jib Ubique— when applied at all points. 

:.' Voice. 

V Applied to Vertex. 

vib Vibration. 

z Applied to Zygoma 

' P'oot. 

" Inches. 

00 Heard, but ?iot Understood. 

+ R Rinn^'s Test Positive. 

— R Rinn^'s Test Negative. 


A., or An Anode. 

Amp. Amp&re- 

A. C Anodal Closing. 

A. C. C Anodal Closure Contraction. 

A. C. O Anodal Closing Odor. 

A. C. P Anodal Closing Picture. 

A. C. S Anodal Closing Sound. 

A. D Anodal Duratioti. 

A. D. C Anodal Duration Contraction. 

A. M Ampere-meter. 

A. O AiHidal Opening. 

A. O. C Anodal Opening Contraction. 

A. O. O Anodal Opening Odor. 

A. O. P Anodal Opeiiing Picture. 

A. O. S Anodal Opening Sound. 

B Magnetic Induction. 

B. A. U British Association Unit. 

C Centigrade; Current; Cathode. 

C. C Cathodal Closure. 

C. C. C Cathodal Closure Contraction. 

C. C C." Various Degrees of Contraction. 

C. C. T Cathodal Closing Tetanus. 

C. G. S. Units. . . Centimeter- gram-second Units. 

CO Cathodal Opening. 

C. O. C Cathodal Opening Contraction. 

C. S Current-strength. 

D Duration ; Density. 

De. R Reaction of Degeneration. 

E Earth ; Electromotive Force. 

E. M. D. P. ... Electromotive Difi'erence of Potential. 

E. M. F Electromotive Force. 

F. M Field Magnet. 

H Horizontal Intensity of the Earth's Mag- 
netism ; One Unit of Self-induction. 

H Intensity of Magnetic Force. 

I Intensity of Magnetism. 

J Joule. 

K Electrostatic Capacity. 

K Kathode. 

Kl Klang (sound). 

K. C Katliudal Closing. 

K. C. C Cathodal Closing Contraction. 

K. C. T ICathodal Closing Tetanus. 

K. D. ..... . Kathodal Duration (or Period of Closure oi 


K. D. C Kathodal Duration Contraction. 

K. D. T Kathodal Duration Tetanus. 

K. W Kilo-watt. 

L Inductance (Coefficient of) ; Length. 

M Strength of Pole. 

Ma Milliamp&re. 

Mfd Microfarad. 

N North Pole. 

O Opening of Circuit. 

P. D Potential Difference. 

Q Electric Quantity. 

R Ohmic Resistance. 

S South Pole. 

T Time. 

Te Tetanic Contraction. 

U Unit. 

V X'olume; Velocitv. 

V Volt, 

V. A N'oltaic Alternative. 

V. M Volt-meter. 

W Work; Weight; Watt. 

Z Contraction (Zuckurig). 

Z. Z.' Z." Increasing Strengths of Contraction. 

K Magnetic Susceptibility. 

fx. Magnetic Permeabilitv. 

oi Ohm. 

P Specific Resistance. 

ii Megohm (one-millionth part of an ohm). 

H> Battery. 

-f- Anode or Positive Pole. 

— Kathode or Negative Pole. 

>. Greater than, as K > A. 

< Less than. 


Am- indicates the group NH2. 

AzQ-. diazo-. and hydrazo- indicate compounds in which nitro- 
gen atoms are linked in various ways. 

Di- is applied as a prefix to signify two. 

Im- indicates the group NH. 

Ket- indicates the molecule CO in certain structural re- 

Mon- is employed as a prefix to signify one. 

Nitro- indicates the group NOo. 

Pent- is applied as a prefix to signify A?-^. 

per- denotes in a rather vague sense an indefinitely large 
amount of the body to which it is prefixed, or to which 
it is referred. 

Sesqui- indicates the proportion o^ two to three. 

Sub- is emplo>-ed in a rather vague sense to indicate defi- 
ciency of the body to which it is prefixed. 

Tetr- is applied as a prefix to siyuify yb«r. 

Thio- indicates sulphur, especiallv replacing oxygen. 

Tri- fsometimes " t'^r-") is applied as a prefix to signify three. 

-al indicates aldehydic structure. 

-an is applied to a class of bodies related to the starch and 
sugar group. 

-ane indicates a saturated hydrocarbon. 

-ase indicates an enzyme, or non-organized ferment, (T.^., dias- 

tase. Tliis termination is at present restricted gener- 
ally to enzymes of vegetable origin, but it should also be 
used with animal enzymes — which, Iiowever, usually end 
in "in." It would thus be better to s^y pepsase and 
trypsase, rather than pepsin anil trypsin. 

-ate. A suffix to nouns in chemistry signifying an>' salt formed 
by an arid acting on a base ; e. .^., sulphate, phosphate. 

-ic denotes the higher of two valencies assumed by an element, 
and incidentally in maiu' cases a larger amount of oxv- 

-in is oi no precise significance, and is mostly applied to bodies 
the structure of which is not yet known. 

-yl, -ene, -enyl, and -ine indicate hydrocarbons. According 
to the American system of orthography, the only case in 
whicli " m^' " is used is as a termination for a series of 
.hydrocarbons, beginning with Ethine, CoHo. English 
writers and some .*\merican chemists use it to signify basic 
properties, regarding -/« as the proper term for non-basic 
bodies. They thus distinguish between salicin. which 
forms no salts with acids, and morphin (which under such 
system is spelled "* morphine"), which does. It must be 
noted that such methods are not in accordance with the 
tendency of modern chemic nomenclature, which seeks 
to express structure, not properties. The organic bases 



or alkaloids are not all of the same type, and whcTi 
their structure is elucidated systematic names will be 
found for ihtrin. Until then there is no particular gam 
in indicating them as a group. 

-id is similar to " in." 

-ol indicates alcoholic structure, i. e.. presence of the group 
HO (hydroxyl), *•. ^ , alcohol, glycerol, plienol. 

• one is applied lo bodies related lo the suuclies and sugars. 
it is, however, not used witli this siguihcance in "pep- 

tone," which word is not formed according to any estab- 
lished system. 

-ose nidicates a carbohydrate, e. jf., glucose, although it is 
also occasionally applied to the results of digestion o( 
proleids, e.g., albumose. 

-ous denotes the lower of two degrees of valency assumed 
by an element and incidentally indicates, in many cases, 
a small amount of oxygen. 

The word snlphonic indicates the group HSO3 


Advt Ad\'ertiseineiit. M. M. 

A. O Abatement Order. M. O. . 

a. p Ashpit. M. O. H. 

B. H Board of Health. N. O. . 

B. L By-Law or By-Laws. O. . . . 

C. A Conlirming Authority. O. C. . . 

C, C County Council. O. R. . . 

C. G S Court of General Sessions. p. . . . 

CO Closing Order. P. A. 

C. P Contributorv Place. P. C. 

C. P Cattle-plague. P. L E. 

c. p. . . .... Cesspits. P. O. . . 

C. Q. S Court of Quarter Sessions. Prov. O. 

C. S Commissioners of Sewers. P. P. . , 

C. S. J Court of Summary Jurisdiction. P. S. A. 

D. L D Dangerous Infectious Disease. P, S. C. . 

D. O Demolition Order. Q. S. . . 

D. P Daily Penalty; < not exceeding; > not R. A. . . 

less than. R. D. 

d. p Dungpit. Rg. - 

e. c Earth-closet. R. P. C. 

F. M. D Foot and Mouth Disease. R. S. A. 

G. O General Order. R. S. D. 

I Inspector. S. A. . . 

I. A Infected Area. 

I. D Infectious Disease. 

I. P Infected Place. 

I. S Improvement Scheme. 

j. P Justice of the Peace. 

L. A Local Authority. 

L. B Local Board. 

Lf. C. C London County Council. 

L. E Local Enquiry. 

L. G. B Local Government Board V. L . 

L. S. A Local Sanitary Authority. w. c. 

M. A. B Metropolitan Asylums' Boards. W. Co. 

M. A. M Metropolitan Asylums' Managers. W. W. 

S. L . . 

s. o. . 

s. s. . . 

U. A. . 
U. D. 
U. H. H. 
U. S. A. 
U. S. D. 

. Medical Man. 

. Medical Officer. 

. Medical Ofiker of Health. 

. Nuisance Order. 

. Owner ; Occupier. 

. Order in Council. 

. Official Representation. 

. Privy. 

. Public Analyst. 

. Privy Council. 

. Private Improvement Expenses. 

. Prevention Order. 

. Provisional Order. 

. Pleuro-Pneumonia. 

. Port Sanitary Authority. 

. Pett\" Sessional Court- 

. Quarter Sessions. 

. Rural Authority. 

. Rural District. 

. Regulations. 

. Rivers-pollution Commission. 

. Rural Sanitary Authority. 

. Rural Sanitary District. 

. Sanitarj- Authority 

. Sanitary Convenience. 

. Sanitary Inspector. 

. Special Order. 

. Secretary of State. 

. Urban Authority; I'nhealthy Area. 

. LTrban District. 

. L'nfit for Human Habitation. 

. Urban Sanitary Authority. 

. I'rban Sanitary District. 

. Veterinary Inspector. 

. Water-closet. 

. Water Company. 

. Water Works. 


A. A 

C. B. A. 

C. D. (A.I A. 

C. L. H. A. 

D. C. M.O. . 

F. W. A. . 
H. W. C. A. 

I. D. (N.l A. 
I. D. (P.) A. 
L. C. rc.) A. 
L. G. A. . . 

. Alkali Acts, 1S63, 1874 (Consolidated), 18R1. 
. Canal Boats Acts. 1877-S4. 
. Contagious Diseases (Animal) Act, 1R78. 
. Common Lodging Houses Act, iRst.etc. 
. Dairy, Cowshed, and Milk Shop Order, 

, Factories and Workshop Act, 1878. 
. Housing of Working Classes Act, 1890. 
. Infectious Diseases • Notification) Act, 1889. 
" " (Prevention) Act. 1890. 

, Land Clauses (Consolidation) Acts, 1S45. 
. Local Government Act, 1888. 

M. L. M. A. . 

M. W. C. A. . 

P. H. A. ... 

P. H. (A.) A. . 

P. H.{LiA. . 

P. H. (L.I A. . 

P. H. (S.I A. . 

P. H. (W.) A. 

P. W. L. A. . 

R. P. A. ... 

S. F. D. A. . . 

S.J. A 

Metropolis Local Management Act, 1855. 

" Water Companies Act, 1871. 

Public Health (England) Act, 1875. 
" " (.Amendt.) " 1S90. 

(Ireland) *' 1878. 
" " (London) *' 1891. 

(Scotland) " 1867. 
(Water) " 1878. 
Public Works Loans Act, 1879. 
Rivers Pollution Act, 1876 
Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1875. 
Summary Jurisdiction Act. 


o Feet. 

' Inches. 

" Lines : each one-twelfth of an inch, or about 

two millimeters. 

\ A mark of affirmation or authentication. 

? A mark of doubt. 

- Figures or words separated by a short dash 

indicate the extremes of variation, as 
5-10" long, few-many flowered : i. e.. 
varying from 5 to 10 lines in length, and 
with few to many flowers. 

c.c Cubic centimeter. 

cm. Centimeter. 

mm Millimeter. 

/x. The Micron. Micromillimeter. or unit of 

Microscopic Measurement. For conven- 
ience of reference, the following table of 
comparative measurements is given : — 

^ InchfS. \l Inches. Inches. p. 

1 000039 6 000236 

2 000079 7 000276 

3 0001 18 8 000315 

4 000157 9 000354 

5 000197 '° 000394 

Tninnj . . . • 2.5399 

TnVn 25-.^997 

yAn ■ 253.9972 

One Meter . 39.370432 in. 

X Used to express magnification, thus X 1000 

indicates a magnification of loco diame- 
ters. The improper fraction ^^^^ indi- 
cates the same thing, but is rarely used. 

(D An annual Herb. 

(D A biennial Herb. 

% A perennial Herb. 

& An Undershrub, deciduous. 

Id An L'^ndershrub, evergreen. 

O A Shrub, deciduous. 

O A Shrub, evergreen. 

*► A Tree, deciduous. 

D A Tree, evergreen. 

V^ An herbaceous Vine, annual or bienniaL 

yp A woody Vine, deciduous. 

"^ A woody Vine, evergreen. 

Uky A trailing Herb, annual or biennial. 

Uj A trailing Herb, perennial. 

CJJ An aquatic plant. 

5 Flowers perfect. 



(f A male animal, or a plant or flower bear- 
ing only stamens or anlheridia. 

9 A lemaie animal or a plant or flower 

bearing only pistils or archegonia. 

C A young animal of undetermined sex, thus 

cfo, young male, or $ygfor youngfemale, 
but O/"^ {juvenis, young). 

A nionocarpic plant. 

0=" Cotyledons accumbent. 

Ol Cotyledons incumbent. 

A pla?u introduced and naturalized. 

A plant cultivated for ornament. 

A plant cultivated for use. 

8 .Monecious. 

cf 9 Diecious 

<f 5 9 Polygamus. 

o Wanting or none. 

CO Numerous or indefinite : more than twenty 

when applied to stamens. 

<r The. microsecond represents .ooi second or 

the unit of time in experiments or psycho- 
physic reactions 

Authors* names are abbreviated in the following Manner:^ 

Ait., Alton. Bech., Bechstein. Cham., Chamisso. Dum., 
Uum^ril, etc. 

Nupt, signifies in ornithology, breeding plumage. 

horaot, means a bird of the year. 

-acese, a suffix used in botany to designate a family, the name 
chosen being one of the principal genera. Ex., Rosa, Ros- 
acece. Ranunculus, Ranunculacece. Cf., icecr, ide^E, inet^, 

-ana, preferably used as a suffix to the name of a species 
around which others naturally cluster, in the naming of 
subsections or groups of species; **..?".. the group of 
species of Helix related to H. pomaiia may be indicated 
by the term Potnatiana. 

•ensis, a termination given to the names of species only when 
derived from the name of their habitat; e.g., Teenia 
madagascariensis, Daphne chinensis, Draceena brasili- 

Eu-, employed as a prefix in forming the names of genera, sub- 
genera, or sections of genera before a Greek derivative. 

Excl. gen., exclusit genus. 

Excl. sps., exclusit species. 

Exc). var., exclusit varietas, when following an onym, indi- 
cates that the group has undergone revision, and the 
name does not cover the original ground to the extent 

-ia, -ius, -ica, -icus, -ina, -inus, -ita, -itus, terminations 
used in making specific names which are derived from 
the name of a river or other body of water, a province, 
a country, or a kingdom ; e. g., arabicus. 

•iceae. -idese, -ineae, suffixes used in botany to designate a 
family when the name taken ends in Latin -i.v or -is 
(genitive ids. idis, iscis): e.g., Salicine^ from Salix, 
Berberidecs from Berberis, Tamariscineee from Tamarix. 

-eae, as a rule, these suffixes, together with eeB, are employed 
to designate botanic sub-families, tribes, and sub-tribes; 
e. g., RosecT from Rosa. 

-idae. -inee. the suffixes added to the name of the earliest 
known or most characteristic genus, to designate zoologic 

families or sub-families; e. g., Sirix, Strigis, StrigidiT, 
Bucerotis, Bucerutidce. 

-ites, -itis, frequently employed to designate fossil organisms 
analogous to the living form whose generic name is the 
radical to which ites is appended. They are rarely used 
with specific names 

Mutatis char., mutatis tharacteris, when following a specific 
name signifies a change in the diagnostic characters of a 

-astrum, -oidea or -oides, -oidalis, -otdeum. -opsis, termina- 
tions employed in forming generic, sub-generic, or 
specific names after a Greek derivative. Bourguinat 
suggests that astrum be reserved to be appended to the 
name of a genus to indicate its typical sub-division. 
Opsis and oides s\\o\x\d be reserved for sub-divisions of a 
genus which resemble another genus, by adding them to 
the name of that other genus when it is of Greek origin. 

-oides is preferably reserved for specific names of Greek or 
barbarous (never Latin) origin 

(a) When the radical of the specific name is the name of a 
genus which it resembles, *•. g., Salix myrtilloides, 
Bupleurum ranunculoides, Malva abutiloides, Thuja 

(b) When the radical is the name of another species which 
the new one resembles. Helix carascaloides, a species 
like H. carascalensis. 

(c) When the radical of the specific name is a Greek word 
signifying an animal, organ, part, object, as Potentilla 
arachnotdea, Prenanthes deltoidea. Jungemiannia zooP' 
sis^ icthyoides, rhomboidale, pterigoideus, paraboloides^ 

Only one apparent exception to the compounding of Greek 
and Latin has been consecrated by usage; viz. : ovoides 
from ovum and €c6o? ; this has arisen from the absence of 
euphony in the correct form, ooides (titoi-, and ei5o?i. 

pro-parte, for a part, when following a specific name indi- 
cates that since its first application the group has been 

Pseudo-, a prefix employed in forming specific names before 
a Greek derivative. 

-pteris, a termination frequently employed in the generic 
names of ferns, for the purpose of recalling the affinities 
of the genus. 

sp. ii) In zoologT,', abbreviation of species, written when the 
specific name is not known or is wanting, or if placed 
after the name of the authority, as Crania cranio/aris. 
Linn^ sp., indicates that Linn^ is only to be credited 
with the specific name. 
(2) In botany, species or specimen. 

Sub-, a prefix employed in forming specific names before a 
Latin derivative- It may also be used in designating a 
new species before the name of another with which the 
first was in intimate relation. It is also used in the sense 
of nearly, less, someivhat. slightly. It has, moreover, a 
few legitimate Latin compounds which may be used for 
specific names ; e.g., subterran^'us. sttbalpinus-a-um, sub- 
cutn^ens, subcutaneus, subdimidiatus^ subject us, sub- 
niersus. subrolundus, substrains. 

Sub-sp., subspecies. 

gen., genus. 

var., variety, placed before the name of a plant or animal, 
indicates that it is a hybrid of doubtful origin. 


Adj Adjective. 

Adv Adverb. 

Am American. 

Arab Arabic. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

Bot Botany. Botanic. 

B. Ph British Pharmacopeia. 

Celt Celtic. 

Cf. Confer, see. 

Chem Chemistry, Chemic. 

Colloq Colloquial. 

Comp Compounded, Compound. 

Dim Diminutive. 

e. g {Exempli gratia), For example. 

Elec Electricity. 

Eng. ....... English. 

Etym EtymoIog>-, Etymologic. 

/. Feminine. 

Fr French. 

Geog Geography, Geographic. 

Geol Geolog>-. Geologic. 

Geom Geometry, Geometric. 

Ger German. 

G. Ph German Pharmacopeia. 

Gr Greek. 

Heb Hebrew. 

Hind Hindustani. 

Ichth Ichthyology. 

i. c (id est), that is. 

It Italian. 


L., or Lat Latin. 

Masc. _ Masculine. 

Math Mathematics. 

Med Medicine, Medical. 

M. E Middle English. 

N. F National Formular>'. 

Nat. Hist Natural Histor>'. 

Neg Negative. 

Obs Obsolete. 

O. F Old French. 

Ophth Ophthalmolog>-, Ophthalmologic. 

Path Patholog>-, Pathologic. 

Phil Philosophy, Philosophic. 

Phys Phvsiology, Phvsiologic. 

pi Pliiral. 

priv Privative. 

Pron Pronounced, Pronunciation. 

o. 7- (Quod vide) which see. 

Sax Saxon. 

Sing Singular. 

Sp Spanish. 

Surg Surgerv, Surgical. 

Unof. I'nofficial. 

U. S. Ph I'nited States Pharmacopeia. 

V Verb. 

V. i Intransitive verb. 

vide See. 

V. t Transitive verb. 

Zool Zoologj', Zoologic. 




A-, an-, called alpha privative (Gr. a, av, or afx), the equiva- 
lent oJ'our prefix, un-, or /«■, denotes an absence or want 
ol the thing or quality expressed by the principal; t'. .y., 
adynamia, anaerobic, aphasia, apraxia, apyrcxia, 
asli,^maitsm, aiony, etc. a is used before consonants, 
an belore vowels, and, rarely, aw before W or dr. (To 
be distinguished from ana.) 

Ad- (ad>, to, at, t<iward, as, adduction, adhesion. The d is 
often changed in the coin|iound to correspond ;o the next 
Iftlcr, as accretion, appendix. 

Al-(Arab.) article the; e.g., alchemy, the secret art; alcohol, 
the \er>' subtle. 

Amphi- (or amph-) (a/i'tO.upo" both sides, in two ways, as in 
amphiarthrosis, amphibia, etc. 

Ana- [aya). Up, tiirough, again; e. £■., anabolis/n, anasarca, 
anatomy, etc. 

Anti- (or ant-) {octi}. Against, opposed to. opposite of; as 
antaphrodisiac , antibrachium, antipyretic, antiseptic, etc. 

Ape- (airof. Uff, away, upon ; /'. g., aponeurosis, apoplexy, etc. 

Auto- (aOrb?). Self; zs autopepsia, autopsy. 

Bary- Oapii?}. Heavy, difficult ; as barymezia, baryphonia, etc. 

Bi-, bin- (bis). Twice, twofold ; e. g., bicuspid, bivalent , binoc- 
ular, binaural. 

Bio- Oio?). Life, e.g., bioplasm, biolugv, biolysis. 

Brach- (Spax'**"')- Arm, pertaining to the arm ; as brachialgia, 

Broncho- (^pbyxo^l- Pertaining to the trachea; as bronchor- 
ilnigia, btonchotomy. 

Cardi-, cardie- (xapfita). Pertaining to the heart, as cardio- 
gt am, ca> dialgia. 

Celio-. ccelio- (xotAiaj. Pertaining to the belly, as celiotomy, 

Chiro- (,\«(p). The hand. Chiragra, chiropodist. 

Co-, con-. Together, along with ; e.g., coitus, congenital. 

Dacryo- (Saxpi^oc^. A tear, pertaining to a tear ; as dacryoid, 

Dactyl- \66.Krv\o<;). A linger; pertaining to the fingers; as 
dactylitis, dactylion. dactylate. 

Dermo-, dermato- (Sipua). The skin ; pertaining to the skin ; 
/• g., dermotomv, dertnatolysis. 

Di- (5tc). Twice, double ; as dimorphism, digastric. 

Dia- {&id). Thrf)ugh. Examples: diabetes, diagnosis, dia- 
phragm, diarihea, etc. 

Dyn- [tvvay.i.<;) . Force, power ; dvnamogeny, dynamograph- 

Dys- (5u?). Difficult, defective, painful; e.g., dysentery, dysp- 
nea, dysitria. 

Eg-, ex-, ecto- (ew, ef, eVros). Out, outside, away from ; as 
in ecchymoses, ecdemic, eclampsia, exostosis, exanthema, 
ectropion, ectoderm. 

En-, em- (ei*, e^-) In, within; as in embryo, embolism, en- 
demic, etc. 

Endo-, ento- (efroy). Within, internal ; e. g., endarteritis, 
endoscope, entoblasi, entoptic. 

Entero- (et-Tepoi*). The intestine ; as in enterocele, enter- 
ostomy, etc. 

Epi- {itJii). I'pon, over, above; e. g.. epiblast, epicraninm, 
epistaxis, epidemic, etc. 

Extra- (Lat.). Outside; e.g., extravasation, extroversion. 

Galact- (yoiAct). Milk : asgalactocele, galactosemia, galacturia. 

Gastro- (yaa-T»jpl. The stomach; relation to the stomach; 
''•g-. gastrocele, gastrocnemius, gastroenterostomy, etc 

Genio- (■ycceloi'). Pertaining to the chin ; e. g., genioHyoglos- 
sus. geniohyoid. 

Glosso- fyAiucro-ai. Pertaining to the tongue. See glossology, 
filossoplec'ia. glossophytia. 

Haema-, haemato-or hemo- (Aijua). The blood; pertaining to 
theblnnd, Si:i^ hematemesis, hematoma, hemorrhage, etc 

Hemi- (»)/u.i-jj/jit<Tii?). Half; as in hemiachromatopsia, hemi- 
crania, hemif>legia. 

Hepat- (rin-ap). The liver: pertaining to the liver. See hep a t- 
emphraxis, hepatization, hepat opostema. 

Hetera- (eVeTros). Different; opposite; e. g., heteroinfection, 
heterologous, heteropathy- 

Hydro-, hydr- {v^taps. Water ; resembling or relating to water, 
dropsy, etc. ; as in hydremia, hydragogue, hydrate, ■ 
hydrocephalus, etc. 

Hyper- (I'Trep). Excess; exaggerated abnormality in anmutit. 
size, quality, etc. See hyperesthesia, hypermetropia , 
hvperpyrexia, hypertrophy, and others. 

Hypno- [i'mvoi). Siee|). See hypnopathy, hypnotism 

Hypo- (un-n). Diminution as to degree, amount, size, qnalit\-, 
etc.. or tliat located under or beneath ; e. g.,hyposthenia. 
hypoblast . hypochondriac, hypodermatic , hypoglossal. 

Hystera-. hystero- (uo-repa). The uterus or womb; relation 
to the uterus; e.g., hysterectomy, hystero- epilepsy, 
hvateropexia, etc 

Il?o- ifl'-um). Pertaining to the ileum- e.g., ileo-colitis, ileo- 
ty pints. 

Ilio- ( Ilium). Pertaining to the ilium ; e. g., ilio femoral, ilio- 

Im-, in- {In). Privative, negative; as imperforate, incarcer- 
ation, insane, incontinence. 

In- {iv). In, within, ufjon, b\' ; as incubation^ infarction, in- 
Jlammation, inoculation, etc. 

Infra- (Infra). Beneath, below; e. g., infraniaxillaty, in- 
frascapular . 

Inter- {Inter). Between. See intercellular, intercostal, inter- 
trigo, and others. 

Intra- {Intra). Within, inside of, as intra-articular, intra- 

Iso- (Icro?). Equal, like; e.g., isometric, isothermal, isopathy. 

Kata-, kath- (Kara). Down, through ; as katabolisni, Catatonia, 

Leuko- (AeuKos). Whiteness ; e. g., leukemia, leukocyte, 
leukomain, leukorrhea. 

Lith-, litho- {Atdo«). Pertaining to stone, calculus, or lithic 
acid. See lithemia, lithiasis, lithotripsy, etc 

Macro- (fiaKpos). Largeness, hypertrophy ; as in macroglossia, 

Mai- {Mains). Bad ; as malformation, malpractice, malaria 

Mclano- (jitAa?). Blackness, pigmentation ; e g.^ melancholia, 
m ela n o-s arcom a . 

Meso- (/J.CCT09). The middle ; e.g., mesoblast, mesocolon, etc. 

Meta- (M«Td). With, after; e. g,, metabolism, metatarsus. 

Micro- {ti.LKpo'i). Smallness; e.g., micrococcus, microglossia, 

Mon-, mono- (^oi-os). Singleness. For example, monamin, 
fnonoinania, monorchis. 

Morpho- (ju.opi/»iy). Shape, form ; e.g., morphography., morphol- 
ogy, morphometry. 

Multi- \multus). Number, many ; e. g., multilocu/ar, multi- 

Myelo- (MyfAos). Referring to the brain or spinal cord; as 
myeloid, myelitis. 

Myo- (niOy). Pertaining to a muscle or to muscularity. See 
myocarditis, myoma, myopathy. 

Neo- (ceo?). New, recent, young; as neogala, neo-membrane, 

Nephr- (i'e<^po?). Pertaining to the kidney ; e. g., nephra- 
postasis, nephria. nephritis. 

Neuro- (i/efpoi')- Relatingtoanerveortc neurology. Intheori- 
ginal Greek the word meant a cord or X^uAow,— neurosis, 
the stringing of the bow. It is now applied only to 
nerve-structure; as, e. g., neuralgia, neurasthenia, 
neurilemma, neuroglia. 

Ob- {Ob). In front ol, against, denoting hindrance or ob- 
struction ; e. g., obstruent, obturator, occlusion^ op- 

Odonto- (060U?). Of the teeth ; as odontology , odontalgia. 

Oligo- (oAt'yo?). Fewness or lack of, as oligocythemia. 

Ophthalmo- (fw^^aA^ogj. Pertaining to the eye, as ophthal- 
mia, ophthalmoplegia. 

Ortho- (opfds). Straight, upright, correct. See orthoscope, 
orthopedia, orthopraxis. 

Osteo- (offTeof ). Referring to bone. See osteoblast, osteomyel- 
itis, osteoplastic. 

Oto- (ous). Pertaining to the ear, as otorrhea, otophone. 

Oxy- (y^v?). Denoting the presence of oxygen, or acidity; as 
oxygen, oxyhemoglobin. 

Pan-, Pant- (iras, n-ar). All. every, universal; as pancreas, 
fianirenesis, pantomorphic. 

Para- (■ Through, near, by, by the side of. abnormality. 
Examples: paracentesis^ paresthesia, parenchyma, par- 

Peri- (TTepO- About, around. See, e. g., pericardium, peri- 
meter, perilymph, periosteum. 

Pod- (TToiic). Pertaining to the foot, as podalgia, podedema. 

Poly-, pol- (rroAil?). Many, much ; e.g., polycorta, polygalac- 
tia, polyuria. 

Prae-. pre- {Prcr\. Before ; e- g., prctcordia, prepuce. 

Pro- (TTpo). Before, down ; as in process, procidentia, prolapse, 

Proc-, procto- (n-pwKTo^V The anus, pertaining to the anus; 
e. g., proctitis, proctoplegia. 

Pseudo- f>i/eu5i7?). False, spurious ; as in pseudarthtosis, pseudo- 

Pyo- (TTvof). Pertaining to pus or purutency ; e. g.. Pyogenic, 

Pyr-, pyro- fn-yp). Conrerniner fire or heat, or infiammation ; 
^- S- pyrogenous, pyrexia. 

Retro- {Retro). Backward, behind; e. g., retrofiex, retro- 

Rhin-, Rhino- (pi?). Pertaining to the nose, as rhinoplasty, 

Semi- iSemis). Half, partly, almost, as semicapium, semi- 


Sphyg- (a<itvyiJ.6i). Pertaining to the pulse, as sphygmometer, 

sph vgntotechny. 
Sub- \Sub\. Beneath, under; and also partially or deficiency 

q\, as subclavian, subluxation. 
Super- [Super). Above, upon; excess of; e.g., superciliitm, 


Supra- [Supra). Above, upon, superior to, as supraorbital, 

Sym-, syn- [aw). With, together, same. See, e. j-., symbleph- 

aron, symphysis, synalg-ia, sytichondrosis. 
Zoo- {^iaov). Animal. See zoology., zoochemia. 


-ago (agere)- Gives the idea of activity, presentation, etc.; as 

-agogue lay€cc. to bear off, carry away). Signifies an agent 
stimulating the function of excretion or secretion of the 
product. Thus, emmruagogue, hvdragogue, sialagogue. 

-agra 'aypa, an attack, sti;:iirei. Denotes an acute attack of 
pain in the part, as arthragra. podagra. 

-algia (izAyos, pain). Pain in a part, expressed by the chitf 
word; e.g., cephalalgia, gastralgia. 

-atresia (aTprjaia). Imperforate, as '\\\ prociatresia. 

-cele («>)A7)). A tumor, hernia, or protrusion. See cystocele, 
hydrocele, meningocele, 

-cele, coele («otAta). A cavity, ventricle; e. g., tnesocele. 

-ectomy (exreiuc^iv). Excision, exsection; as in oophorectomy, 
nephrectomy, splenectomy. 

-emia, (ai|ua, blood). Denotes a condition of the blood, or an 
ingredient in the same, expressed by preceding word ; 
e.g., hydremia, lithemia, pyemia, uremia. 

-etin (prjTtt'Tj) Used in the names of certain resins, 2Aabielin. 

-fuge (fugare, to expel). Driving out. an expeller, as vermi- 
fuge, febrifuge, etc. 

-graph, graphy iYpo'i»ei»'. to write). An instrument ; a treatise 
or description ; e. g., sphygmograph, demography. 

-ia, often contracted to-v, denotes the quality of the root-word 
as an abstract noun, as akromegalia, akromegaly. 

-idae (-i6»j5). The sufllix to the name of a genus forming the 
name of a family ; bovidis, equidce. 

-igo. A variation of -ago; e. g., prurigo, vertigo. 

-is, -sis. Present the abstract idea of activity of the root-word. 

-ism (-tcTiuo?)- Implies the doctrine, practice, or theory of the 
principal word ; Dat~ivinism, tribadism. 

-ite {-ir7]5). Of the nature of. In anatomy, denoting a constit- 
uent part of an organ ; as sergite, stemite. In chemistry, 
any salt of an -ous acid ; as sulphite, phosphite. 

-itis (-iTi?). Originally the feminine ending of Greek substan- 
tives and denotes an especial activity of the root-word. 
By habit and general use it is now limited to inflam- 
matory activity ; as gastritis, otitis, etc. 

-logy (Aoyo?. discourse). A treatise upon; as bacteriology, 
dermatology, pathology. 

-lysis (Au(Ti5, a loosening). A separation into constituent parts, 
or the setting free of some |>art ; as hydrolysis, analysis. 

-malacia tVaAa«os, soft). Abnormal softness; as in osteo- 

-mania ^/xai-ia, madness). The chief wnrd denotes the principal 

symiitom of the mental affection; e. g., erotomania, 
kleptomania, etc. 

-meter (jLierpof, a measure). An instrument for measuring; 
e. g., aerometer, minometer. 

-odynia o&vfq, excessive pain). The principal word denotes 
the seat of great pain, as eoccygodynia. 

-oid {ilfto^, form). Similar in shape, etc.; as in choroid, cuboid, 
sphenoid, xiphoid. * 

-oma (uj/ACL). A tumor, e.g., glioma, sarcoma. 

-opia (tij*). Pertaining to the eye or vision ; as in amblyopia, 
myopia, etc. 

-orium, -torium. -sorium (T^ptoi-). Designate places, tools, 
etc.; as tentorium, auditorium, etc. 

-osis, -osus, derived from Greek words in -dw. and usuall) 
denote fulness, redundancy, excess. 

-pathy (Tra^os). A condition of disease, and also a method of 
cun-; as adenopathy, psychopathy, homeopathy, hydro- 

-phobia (0o)3o?, fear). Morbid or exaggerated fear or dread, 
as agoraphobia, photophobia. 

-plasty (irAatro-eir, to form). Surgical plastic operation upon 
a part; e.g., blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty. 

-rhagia (pij-yi'v^ti, to burst forth). A hemorrhage or excessive 
discharge; eg., blennorrhagia, metrorrhagia. 

-rhaphy {f}a<i>j}. a suture). A stitching or suturing of a part ; as 
rnteror/haphy, perineorrhaphy. 

-rhea (peeti',to flow). An excessive discharge or excretion ; as 
blennui-rhea, diarrhea, leukoi-rhea. 

-scope (<T»coJTeu', to look). An instrument for making an exam- 
ination ; as laryngoscope, microscope. 

-scopy {cKOTtiiiv). An examination ; as ophthalmoscopy . 

-stomy ((TTo/^a, mouth). A suffix seen in the names of those 
surgical operations in which an artificial opening or pas- 
sage is formed, as enterostomy. 

-tas, -ty. Derived originally trom the Greek -njs, denote ab- 
stract quality or idea, as immunity, acidity. 

-tio, -atio, -tion. " A suffix of verbal roots denoting an action 
or function as taking place — an occurrence. The n was 
added to the original -Ho by Roman and French in- 

-tomy (Tefiretr, to cut). Incisiou ; e.g., laparotomy, tenotomy. 

-ulus, -ula, -ulum, -ola, -ion, -ellus, -illus, -leus. Diminu- 

-uria (oi'peeif, to urinate). Abnormalities of the urine or of 
urination ; as albuminuria, polyuria. 

A. A. S 

A. B. or B. A. . 

A. M 


D, D. S 

D. P. H 

D. S. M 

D. S. S 

F. B. S. . . . 
F. B. S.Ed. . . 

F. C. S 

F. E. S 

F. F. P. S. G. 

F. K. Q. C. P. I. 

F. L. S 

F. R. C. P. L. . 

F. R.C. P. Ed. . 

F. R. C. P. I. . . 

F. R. C. S. E. . 

F. R. C. S. Ed. . 

F. R. C. S. I. . . 

F. R. S 

F. R. S. E. . . 
F. R. S. L. . . . 

L. A. H 

L. D. S 

L. F. P. S. G. . 

L. K. Q. C. P. I. 


. Fellow of the American Academy. LL. B Bachelor of Laws. 

Bachelor of Arts. LL. D Doctor of Laws. 

, Master of Arts. L. R.C. P. L. . Licentiate of the Royal College of Physi- 

. Master in Surgery. cians of London. 

, Doctor of Dental Surgerv. L. R. C. P. Ed. . . Licentiate of the Royal College of Physi- 

, Diploma in Public Health. cians of Edinburgh. 

. Diploma in State Medicine. L. R. C. S. Ed. . . Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons 

. Diploma in Sanitary Science. of Edinburgh. 

, Fellow of the Botanical Society. L. R. C. S. I. . . . Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons 

. Fellow Botanical Society of Edinburgh. in Ireland. 

Fellow of the Chemical Society. L. S. A Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society of 

. Fellow of the Entomological Society. London. 

, Fellow of the Facultv of Physicians and L. S. S Licentiate in Sanitary Science. 

Surgeons of Glasgow. M. A Master of Arts. 

. Fellow of the King and Queen's College of M. B Bachelor of Medicine. 

Physicians of Ireland. M. D Doctor of Medicine. 

, Fellow of the Linncean Society. M. K. Q. C. P, I. . Member of the King and Queen's College 

. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Physicians of Ireland. 

of London. M. P. S Member of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

. Fellow of the Roval College of Physicians M. R. C. C. ... Member Koyal College of Chemistry. 

of Edinburgh. M. R. C. P. L. . . Member of the Royal College of Physicians 

. Fellow of the Roval College of Physicians of London. 

of Ireland. ' M. R. C. P. Ed. . Member of the Royal College of Physicians 

. Fellow of the Roval College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. 

of England. M. R. C. P. I. . . Member of the Royal College of Physicians 

. Fellow of the Roval College of Surgeons of Ireland. 

of Edinburgh. M. R. C. S. E. . . Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 

. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 

in Ireland. M. R. C. S. Ed. . Member of ihe Royal College of Surgeons 

. Fellow of the Royal Society. of r.dinbnrgh. 

. Fellow of the RAyal Society of Edinburgh. M. R. C. S. I. . Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 

. Fellow of the Roval Society of London. in Ireland. 

. Licentiateoflhe Ai)othecaries' Hall, Dublin M. R. C. V. S. . . Member of the Royal College of Veterinary 

. Licentiate in Dental Surgerv. Surgeons. 

. Licentiateoflhe Faculty of Physicians and M. S Master in Surgen.-. 

Surgeons of Glasgow. Ph B Bachelor of Philosophy. 

. Licentiateoflhe King and Queen's College Ph. D Doctor of Philosophy. 

of Physicians of Ireland. V. S Veterinary Surgeon. 




Abscesses, l8 

Acids 24 

Anesthetic 69 

Arch, 89 

Arteries, 94 

Asthma, 101 

Bands 112 

liaths 115 

liismuth 12; 

Body, 128 

liones, 129 

Calcium 143 

Canal, 148 

Cancer, 149 

Cartilage 155 

Cataracts, 1 58 

Cells l6t 

Center 165 

Corpuscle 191 

Cysts, 202 

Diarrhea, 215 

Disease 222 

Ether, 249 

Ethyl, 250 


Eascia 257 

Eevers, 261 

Eiber, 262 

Eold, 266 

Fossa, 268 

Insanity 310 

Law, 329 

Layer, 331 

Ligament, S3S 

Line, 337 

Lobe, 341 

Muscles 367 

Nerves 377 

Nucleus, 383 

Oils 3S6 

Operations, 392 

Plexus 421 

Pulse, 439 

Serum 467 

.Signs and Symptoms, 469 

Stains, 486 

Tests 528 

Theories 54' 

Treatments, 549 




Abasia. (See IIIus. Diet.) A. atactica, a form 
marked by a\vkwardne5s and uncertainly of move- 
ment. A., Choreic, tliat due to choreic cramps in tlie 
legs. A., Paralytic, that form in which the legs 
give w."'y under the weight of the body and w-alking is 
impossible. A., Paroxysmal Trepidant, a form of 
astasia-abasia in which trepidation similar to that of 
spastic paraplegia stiffens the legs and prevents walk- 
ing. A., Trembling, incapacity to walk on account 
of trembling of the legs. 

Abatage {ah-bah-tazh) [Fr.]. I. The slaughter of an 
animal to prevent the infection of others. 2. The art 
of '* casting" an animal preparatory to an operation ; 

Abatardissement ((ih-bah-tar-dees-moiil^gY) [Fr.]. 
The gradual degeneration or deterioration of a breed 
or race. 

Abbe's Test-plate. An instrument designed by Abbe 
for testing microscopic objectives for spherical and 
chromatic aberration. It is composed of a microscopic 
slide with six cover-glasses ranging from 0.09 to 0.024 
millimeter in thickness, and silvered on one side. 
Delicate, parallel, ruled lines are cut through the sil- 
ver film, thus making a kind of micrometer with trans- 
parent rulings. 

Abdomen. (See Illus. Diet.). A., Accordion, Kap- 
lan's term for a swelling of the abdomen attended 
with flattening of the arch of the diaphragm and in- 
creased respiration. It is not due to the presence of 
gas nor to tumor, and disappears under anesthesia ; 
nervous pseudotympany. A., Boat-shaped, A., 
Carinate. See A.^ Scaphtnd. A. obstipum, con- 
genital shortening of the rectus abdominis muscle. 
A., Scaphoid. See under ScaplioiJ (Illus. Diet. I. 
A., Uncinate, one in which the segments 
and those next to them are turned under the others. 

Abdominocystic {ab-dom-in-o-sis' -tik) \abdomen : 
M crrif, bladder]. Relating to the abdomen and blad- 

Abdominous {ab-dom'-in-iis). Same as Abdominal 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Abducens-facialis (ab-dii-senz-fa-sf-a' -Us). Pertaining 
to the abducens and facial nerves. See, 
Table of (\\\\x<,. Diet.). 

Abenteric ((7i>-^H'-/^r-rt) [«*, from; ei'Tf^wi, intestine]. 
Outside the intestine ; involving or pertaining to or- 
gans or parts other than intestinal. A. Typhoid. 
See under Typhoid. 

Aberratio (ab-er-a'-she-o'). See Aberration. A. hu- 
morum, an abnormal tendency or direction of 
blood or other fluid to a part ; as in vicarious menstrua- 
tion. A. lactis, milk metastasis. See Galattoplania 


(Illus. Diet.). A. mensium, A. menstruorum. 
See Menstruation, Vicarious (Illus. Diet.). 

Aberration. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Dioptric. See 
A., Spherical (Illus. Diet.). A., Distantial, indis- 
tinct vision due to distance. A., Lateral, a deviation 
of a ray in any direction from the axis measured in the 
focal plane perpendicularly to the axis. A., Longi- 
tudinal, a deviation of a ray from the focus, measured 
along the axis above or below the focal plane. A., 
Newtonian. Same as A., Chromatic (Illus. Diet.). 

Abiaba [Peruvian name]. See Luctima caimito. 

Abietate iah-i'-e-tal). A salt of abietic acid. 

Abiogenetic, Abiogenous [ab-i-o-jen-et'-ik. abi-oj'-en- 
us). Pertaining to abiogenesis; characterized by spon- 
taneous generation. 

Abiogeny (ab-i-oj'-en-e). See Abiogenesis (Illus. Diet.). 

Abionarce {ab-i-o-jiar^-se) [«, priv,; jSio^, life; vapKJ], 
numbness]. Torpor due to infirmity. 

fib'iosis (ab-i-o' -sis) [n,priv.; ^luaff , life]. The absence 
of life. 

Abiotic inb-i-ot'-ik). Opposed to or incapable of life. 

Abiotrophy (<7A-!-o/'-;-(7-yi-) [a, priv. ; /3iof, life; 'poor;, 
nourishment]. Degeneration or decay due to defec- 
tive vital endurance. 

Abiotus (ab-i-o'-tus) [a.3iuToc, insupportable]. Inca- 
pable of vitality. Non-viable ; approaching death. . 

Abipsia [ab-ip'-se-ah). See Adipsia (Illus. Diet.). 

Ablactate (ab-lak'-tat) \_nblactare, to wean]. To ac- 
custom a nursling to food other than mother's milk ; 
to wean. 

Ablateur (ab-lat-itr) [Fr.]. See Ablator (Illus. Diet.). 
A. vulcanique. a cauter}'-iron employed in the castra- 
tion of domestic animals. 

Ablation. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The abatement or dimi- 
nution of the acute symptoms of a malady. 

Ablepharia. (See Illus. Diet.) Cf. Microblepharia, 
Schizoblepharia, Cryptophthalmos. A., Partial, a 
congenital defect in one or more of the eyelids. A., 
Total, a congenital condition in which there is either 
a total absence of eyelids or the interpalpebral fissure. 

Ablepharus {ab-lef -ar-us). An individual affected 
witli ablepharia. 

Abluentia {ab-lii-en'-she-ah) [abluere, to wash away]. 
Cleansing applications, abstergents. 

Abolitionism yab-o-lish'-un-izm) \abotitio, an abolish- 
ing]. .\ movement originating in England to abolish 
the regulation and control of prostitution by the health- 
officers. Also applied to the movement to abolish 

Abomasus iab-o-ma'-sus). See Abomasum [\\\vi^. Diet.). 

Abortion, Abortus. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. An aborted 
fetus. 3. In botany and zoology the partial or complete 




arrest of development of an organ. A., Accidental, 
abortion due to accident. A., Ampullar, tulial abortion 
from the ampulla of the oviduct. A., Chronic. See.-/., 
//a/?i/itii/ {U\u)i. Did.). A. crebroredeuns. See.-/., 
Habiliial (Illus. Diet.). A., Epidemic, one of many 
cases occurring about the same time, due to widespread 
distress, e.xcitement, or privation, or lt> some fornr of 
poisoning such as ergotism. A., Induced, one inten- 
tionally brought about. A., Partial, the premature 
loss of one fetus in a case of multiple gestation. A., 
Provoked. See A., InUucfil. A., Spontaneous, 
abortion not attributable to .accident or purposive inter- 
ference. A., Tubal, the escape of a fertilized ovum 
through the abdominal opening of tlie oviduct into the 
jjerituneal cavity. 

Abortive. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A drug for inducing 

Abraham (<:'-/';■<?■/«;;«). To sham ; to feign sickness or 
lunacy. A. -man, I. A mendicant lunatic from the 
Abraham Ward of Bethlehem Hospital, London ; they 
bore a distinctive badge. 2. An impostor who feigned 
to be a lunatic and begged in the guiseof an Abraham- 

Abranchiate [^iih-bram;' -ke-af). Having no gills. 

Abrastol i,?/'-;-,:.!/'-!'/). 'it^ Asaprol {IWvls. Diet.). 

Ahreshain. Finely divided white silk, said to be used 
in the East Indies as an aphrodisiac. 

Abroma angusta, L. (.See Illus. Diet.) Olutkombul. 
The bark yields a glutinous sap which is used as an 
emmenagog. Dose 2 grams (grs. 30). 

Abrosia (a/'-ro'-ze-ah) [dfipuaia, fasting]. Want of 
food ; fasting. 

Abscess, Abscessus. (See lUus. Diet.) Syn., F.e- 
fyem.i : AJJlc : Galhering. A., Acute, one resulting 
from an acute inflammation of the part in which it is 
formed ; abscessus per fiuxum. A., Amebic, a variety 
of abscess found in the liver and lung and containing 
amebas. A., Anorectal, one of the celluloadipose tis- 
sue near the anus. A., Antemammary. See ^., .S"«- 
prainanintarv. A., Arthrifluent, a wandering abscess 
having its origin In a diseased joint. A. arthriticus, 
Musgrave's term for Intestinal ab.scesses due to *' gouty 
dysentery." A. articuli. See Ar/hiitis, Snppittd- 
live. A., Bartholinian, an abscess of Bartholin's 
gland or its duct. A., Bicameral, one with two 
pockets. A., Biliary, one connected with the gall- 
bladder or a bile-duct. A., Brodie's, chronic abscess 
of bone, most frequently of the head of the tibia. 
A. capitis sanguineus neonatorum. See Cephal- 
/iemiU,»iiii (Illus. Diet.). A. carniformis, Severinus' 
name for a hard sarcoma of the joints. A., Cheesy. 
See A., Caseous (Illus. Diet.). A., Circumscribed, 
one that is limited by an exudation of lymph. A., 
Collar-button. See .-/., .SV;(V/-//W (Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Consecutive. See .4., 0-//;V(;/ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Dental. See A., Alveolar (Illus. Diet.). A., Der- 
moid, a small cutaneous abscess characteristic of the 
scrofiilide p/ile«-moneiisedescr\hed by Hardy. A., Dia- 
thetic, one due to a diathesis. A., Diffuse. See /«• 
Jillratioii, Purulent. A., Douglas, one formed in 
the peritoneal folds of Douglas' sac. A., Dry, one 
which disappears without discharging. A., Emphy- 
sematous. See A., Tympanitic. A., Epithelial, 
one located In epithelial tissues. A., Fixation, an 
abscess produced by the subcutaneous Injection of an 
irritant, as a treatment of grave septicemia. A. 
flatuosus. See .■/., Tympanitic-. A., Follicular, 
inflammation of single follicles of the mucosa. A. 
frigidus scrofulosus. See A., Scrofulous. A. 
gangraenescens, A. gangraenosus. See Anthra.x 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Gas. See A., Tympanitic, A., 
Glandular, one formed about a lymph-gland. A., 

Gravitation, one in which pus formed In one part 
of the body tends to migrate, usually to portions deeper 
or lower down. In the direction gravity would take it. 
A., Hematic, one due to an extrava.sated blood-clot. 
A., Hemorrhagic, one containing blood. A., Hep- 
atic, abscess of the liver. A., Hypostatic. See .-5., 
Wandering. A., Idiopathic, one not attributable to 
any other di.sease. A., Iliac, a wandering abscess 
of the iliac region. A., Infecting Mitral, one due 
to a lymph embolus caused by endocarditis. A., 
Interlamellar, of the Membrana Tympani, one fol- 
lowing myringitis or otitis media, and occurring 
between the laminas of the substantia projiria of the 
tympanic membrane. A., Intramastoid, one of the 
mastoid j^rocess of the tem]ioral bone. A., Ischio- 
rectal, one of the l.schlorectal fossa. A., Lacrimal, 
one of the lacrimal sac. A. lactis. See A., Milk 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Lumbar, a wandering abscess 
of the lumbar region. A., Lymphatic, i. The sup- 
puration of a lymphatic gland. 2. An enlarged bursa 
mucosa. A., Mammary, Subcutaneous. See A., 
Stiprainaiiiniarv. A., Marginal, one located near 
the anal oritice. A., Mastoid, suppuration occurring 
in the cells of the mastoid portion of the temporal 
bone. A., Mediastinal, su])puratlon in the mediasti- 
num. A., Metastatic, an ab.scess secondary to pye- 
mia and ulcerous endocarditis, but not occurring through 
septicemia. They are usually of embolic origin and 
generally located In the lungs and liver. A., Micro- 
scopic, any minute collection f>f necrosed cells. A. 
mucocarnosus botryoides labii vulvae, a lobulated 
outgrowth of the labium pudendi majus. A., Mural, 
one forming In the abdominal wall. A. nucleatus. 
See />(?•««<«//(,( (Illus. Diet.). A. oculi. ^ee Pan- 
ophthalmitis pitritlcuta. A., Osteopathic, one due to 
disease of a bone. A., Otic Cerebral, A., Otitic Cere- 
bral, an abscess of the brain, following a purulent dis- 
ease of the Inner ear. A.. Paget's. See ./., Residual 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Parametric, A., Parametritic, 
a form occurring frequently between the fohls oi the 
broad ligament of the uterus or In the neighboring 
cellular tissue. A., Paranephric, A., Paranephritic, 
one occurring in the tissues about the kidney. A. 
pectoris. See Empyema (Illus. Diet.). A. per con- 
gestum, A. per decubitum. .See A.., Wandering. 
A. per fiuxum. See A., Acute. A., Perimetric, 
A., Perimetritic, ]3us within the peritoneum origi- 
nating from inflammation of the peritoneal covering 
of the uterus. A., Perinephric, one occurring in the 
region immediately surrounding the kidney. A., Peri- 
pleuritic, one that occurs beneath the parietal pleura 
as the result of pleurisy, a diseased rib, or an injury. 
A., Periproctitic, one in the loose areolar tissue sur- 
rounding the lower part of the rectum. A. perisinuo- 
sus,one resulting from infection of the region about a 
sinus. A., Peritoneal, a collection of softened exu- 
date which has become encysted In cases of peritonitis. 
A., Peritonsillar, one that forms In acute tonsillitis 
around one or both tonsils. A. pneumococcalis, one 
due to Infection by pneumococcl. A., Postcecal, one 
located back of the cecum. A., Postfascial. See 
A., Subfascial. A., Postmammary. See A., Sub- 
mnmmarv. A., Postpharyngeal. See A., Retro- 
pharyngeal. A., Posttyphoid, chronic abscess fol- 
lowing typhoid. A., Prelacrimal, an abscess due to 
carles of the lacrimal or the ethmoid bone, producing 
a swelling at the inner canthus immediately below the 
upper margin of the orbit. A., Preperitoneal. See 
A.., Subperitoneal. A., Primary, one arising at 
the seat of infection. A., Progressive Ulcerative, 
of the Cornea. See Keratitis of Reapers (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Puerperal, a variety seen in Infants in 




which cutaneous nodules become softened and painful. 
A., Retroesophageal, one situated dorsad of the 
esophagus. A., Retromammary. See A., Sub- 
maininary. A., Retroperitoneal. See A., Siib- 
feritoneal. A., Retropharyngeal, one formed 
between the vertebral column and the posterior 
wall of the pharynx ; postpharyngeal abscess. A., 
Scrofulous, one due to tuberculous degeneration of 
bone or lymph-glands : abscessus frigidus scrofulosis ; 
strumous abscess. A., Secondary. Same as A., 
E/nholii: (Illus. Diet.). A., Septicemic, one result- 
ing from septic infection or accompanying septicemia. 
A., Spermatic, one involving the seminiferous tubules. 
A., Spinal, one due to necrosis or disease of a verte- 
bra, A., Spirillar, Verneuil's name for an abscess 
containing spirilla from the saliva. A. spirituosus. 
See Aneurystn (Illus. Diet.). A., Stitch, one formed 
about a stitch or suture. A., Strumous. See A., 
Scrofulous. A., Subaponeurotic, one beneath an 
aponeurosis or fascia. A., Subareolar, one beneath 
the alveolar epithelium of the nipple. A., Subfas- 
cial, one beneath a fascia ; postfascial abscess. A., 
Submammary, one lying between the mammary 
gland and the chest- wall. Syn., Poslniainniary or 
RctrcmanuHtiry abscess. A., Subpectoral, one be- 
neath the chest muscles. A., Subperitoneal, one 
arising between the parietal peritoneum and the abdom- 
inal wall. Syn., Preperitoneal abscess. A., Sub- 
phrenic, one located beneath the diaphragm. A., 
Sudoriparous, an abscess due to inflammation of ob- 
structed sweat-glands. A., Supramammary, one in 
the subcutaneous tissue over the breast. A., Sym- 
pathetic, a secondary or metastatic abscess at a dis- 
tance from the part at which the exciting cause has 
acted (e. g., a bubo). A., Temporosphenoidal, one 
situated in the temporosphenoidal lobe. A., Thora- 
cis. See £«//ir/«(: (Illus. Diet.). A., Tympanitic, 
one containing gas generated by putrefaction. Syn., 
Abscessus Jlatuostis, Gas abscess. A., Urethral, i. 
Suppuration of a urethral lacuna, a lacunar abscess. 
2. One involving the circumurethral tissue. A., 
Urinary, one resulting from extravasation of urine. 
A., Urinous, one containing urine mingled with the 
pus. A., Verminous, A., Worm, one containing 
intestinal worms, from communication with the intes- 
tines. A., Wandering, one in which the pus has 
traveled along the connective-tissue spaces and points 
at some locality distant from its origin. Syn. , Hypostatic 
abscess., Abscessus per congestum, A. per decubitus. 

Abscessed [ab^-sesil ). Affected with or caused by an 
abscess, as "abscessed teeth." 

Abscission. (See Illus. Diet. ) 4. The .suppression of 
a physiologic function. 

Absinthiate (ab-sin'-the-af). A salt of absinthic acid. 

Absinthiated (ab-siii'-tlie-dt-ed). I. Mixed witli ab- 
sinthe. 2. Containing wormwood. 

Absinthiatum (nb-sinth-i-a'-tum) [I..]. Absinthe; 
wormwood wine. 

Absinthic {ab-sintli'-ik). Due to the action of absinthe. 
Cf. Epilepsy, .4bsinthic. 

Absolute (<;/''-.w-/«/) [fffoofoc;-?, to complete]. Perfect, 
entire, unconditional. A. Temperature. See Tem- 
perature. A. Zero. See Zero. 

Absorbefacient [ab-sorb-e-fa'-s/ient] \_absorptio, absorp- 
tion ; facere, to make]. Favoring or tending to 
produce absorption. 

Absorbent. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. T.aking up by suc- 
tion, imbibing. 

Absorptio (ab-sorp'-she-o). See Absorption. A. mor- 
bosa. Siee Absorption, Excreiiieiititial {2). A. pul- 
monalis. 'see Absorption, Pulmonary (Ittus. Diet.). 
A. Sana. See Absorption, Physiologic. 

Absorption. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Chylous, the 
act or process of the entrance of the oil globules of 
the chyle into the central canals of the intestinal villi. 
A., Coefficient of, that number which represents the 
volume of a gas absorbed by a unit volume of water 
at 0° C. and at a barometric pressure of 760 mm. 
A. of Decomposition, A. of Dissimilation. See 
.-/. , Internal. A., Excrementitial, i. The absorp- 
tion of fluid excretions by the mucosa. 2. The ab- 
sorption of excretions or morbid products by the blood 
(bile, pus). Syn., Pathologic Absorption, Absorptio 
morbosa. A., External. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The 
introduction of pabulum or medication applied to the 
exterior of the body or of an organ. A., Internal, 
I. The absorption of waste products by the tissues ; 
absorption of decomposition, of disassimilation. 2. 
The taking up of pabulum by the tissues ; absorption 
of nutrition ; molecular, nutritive, organic absorption. 
A., Lymphatic, that which occurs in lymphatic ves- 
sels. A., Molecular, A., Nutritive, A., Organic. 
5te .4., Internal \2). A., Pathologic, ^ee A., Ex- 
crementitial [2). A., Physiologic, a phenomenon form- 
ing an important part of the digestive process, caused 
in part by the vital activity of the epithelial cells and in 
part by the physical laws of imbibition, diffusion, and 
osmosis. Syn., .Absorptio Sana. A., Purulent, i. A., 
Excremeyititial (2). 2. Pyemia. A., Recrementitial, 
the absorption of surplus secretions. A., Respiratory. 
See A., Pulmonary (Illus. Diet.). A. Spectrum. 
See under Spectrum (Illus. Diet.). A. Tube. See 
under Tube (Illus. Diet.). A., Ulcerative, that by 
which an ulcer forms or extends its area. 

Abstersion [ab-stert-shun] \_abstergere, to remove]. 
The act of purifying or cleansing. 

Abstractive \ab-stract'-iv). An expressed juice or ex- 

Abuse (ab-iis') \^abusus, a using up]. Rape. A., 
Self-, masturbation. 

Acacanthrax [ak-ah-kan' -thraks) [a, priv. ; koko^, 
bad; infl^juf, a carbuncle : pi., acacanthraces"]. Non- 
malignant anthrax. 

Acantha. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The spinal column. 
3. Spina bifida. 

Acanthabolus. See Acantliobolus. 

Acanthobolus (ak-an-thob'-ol-us) [iinnvfta, a thorn ; 
f3a'/-/.ea', to strike]. Forceps resembling the volsella, 
for removing foreign bodies from the soft parts. Syn., 
Aca/itbabolus, .4canfba;'ola. 

Acanthoma. (See Illus. Diet. ) A., Alveolar, a form 
in which an alveolar structure marks the new growths. 
A. simplex. See Hyperacanthosis. A., Warty, a 
variety forming wart-like elevations of the skin. 

Acanthotheca {ak-an-tho-the' -ka) [a/iar^a, a spine; 
'<;,ii/;, a case]. See Parasites, Table 0/ Animal (Illns. 

Acanthulus (ak-an'thu-lus). An instrument for re- 
moving thorns from wounds. 

Acardiacus. (See Illus. Diet.) A. acephalus, one 
in which the is wanting, the thorax nidi- 
mentaiy, the pelvis and contiguous parts perfectly 
formed. A., Amorphous, a shapeless lump with 
only rudiments of organs. Cf. Acephaius, Acormus, 

Acardinate (ak-ar'-Jin-at) [a, priv.; cardo, a hinge]. 
Lacking a hinge. 

Acardius iah-tar'-de-us). Affected with congenital 
absence of the heart. An acardiac monster. 

Acarodermatitis. (See Illus. Diet.) A. autumnalis, 
that variety jiroduced by I.eptus autumnalis. See 
Parasites, Table of Animal (\\\\.\s. Diet.). 

Acarophobia ((?X'-(fr-o-/(>'-/)ir-n/;) [«ko^(, a mite ; do,3of, 
fear]. Morbid fear of the itch. 




Acarpia [ah-karp' -t-ali) \a,Kap-ia\. Sterility, barren- 
ness, unfruitfulness. 

Acatalepsia ((;//-y<«/-rt/-(;/>'-jc'-rt//). Same as Ai:ii/alf/<sy 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Acataleptic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A person affected 
with acatalepsy. 

Acathectic (n/i-kalli-ei'-tik) [dKaflf/crof, ungovernable]. 
Not able to retain. A. Jaundice. Seejauiiiiice. 

Accelerator {^lik-sel^-t'-ro-for] \^itcifUriir/, to has- 
ten]. I. A nerve carrying motor impulses to the 
heart. 2. A muscle which hastens a physiologic 
discharge. A. partus, an abortifacient or ecbolic 

Accentuated (a/c-siiit'-ii-a-tt'ii^. Abnormally or un- 
usually distinct, as respiratory or heart sounds. 

Accessispinal {ai-sc\<-f-s/>i'-nti/). Coues' name for a 
muscle which is accessory to a spinal nmscle. 

Accessorii Willisii, Accessory Nerves of Willis. 
See under A'erz't's. 

Accessonus (ni-sfs-o'-re-us) [p\.,afcessoni"j. i. Con- 
tributory in a secondary degree ; accessory. 2. An 
accessory. See Muscles, Tabls i^" (Illus. Diet.); and 
under Xen'fs. 

Accipenserin {ak-se-pen' -sur-iit). See Aciptnserin. 

Accipiter. (See Illus. Diet.) A. quinqueceps, a 
tive-headed occipiter bandage. A. triceps, a three- 
headed occipiter bandage. 

Accommodation. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Amplitude 
of. See A., Rnnge of. A., Asthenopia of, sub- 
normal power of the function of accommodation, or 
the pain or discomfort from accommodative effort. 
A., Binocular, the combined accommodation of the 
two eves. A., Breadth of. See A., Rangt of. 
A.. Line of. See Z/«,-,(, Tli/Vf ,./■ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Mechanism of. See A. of the Eye (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Negative, the opposite of positive accommo- 
dation, the refractive power of the eye being les- 
sened. A., Positive, that when the eye being 
focused for a more distant object is required for fixa- 
tion upon a nearer point. A., Range of Relative, 
the range of accommodation at the command of the 
eye for any particular degree of convergence. A., Re- 
gion of, tlie extent controlled by the eye within which 
it distinguishes objects clearly from the state of rest to 
that of maximum accommodation. A., Spasm of, a 
term used to express ekcessive or persistent contrac- 
tion of the ciliary muscle, following the attempt to 
overcome error of refraction. It simulates myopia. 
A., Helmholtz's Theory of, that the increased con- 
vexity of the lens is produced by a relaxation of the 
suspensory ligament, thus removing the influence 
which tends to (fatten the lens and permitting the lat- 
ter by its elasticity to become more convex. A., 
Schoen's Theory of, that the contraction of the 
ciliary muscle produces the same effect on the lens as 
is produced upon a rubber ball when held in both 
hands and compressed with the fingers. A., Tschern- 
ing's Theory of, by the contraction of the ante- 
rior part of both the radiating and circular fibers of 
the ciliary muscle the ciliary processes are drawn 
backward, and the suspensory ligament pulled 
backward and outward ; pressure of the anterior por- 
tion of the muscle causes the increased convexity of 
the lens. 

Accommodative (ak-om' -o-da-tiv) \accommodare, to 
adjust]. Pertaining to the function of accommodation, 
or resulting from it. 

Accretion. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. An accumulation of 
foreign matter in any cavity. 

Accubation (ak-ti-ba'-shun') [aceu/iare, to recline]. 
J. A reclining posture ; the taking to one's bed. 2. 
The act of lying in bed with anotlier person. 

Accumulation (nk-u-»iu-la'-slitin) \accumulare, to 
heap up]. I. An amassing or collecting together. 
2. \ mass, heap or aggregation. A., Fecal, an ex- 
cessive aggregation of feces in the large intestine ; 

Acelia, Accelia {ah-se^ -le-a)i) [a, priv. ; aot/ua, a cavity]. 
The absence of a natural cavity. Syn. , Ace/osts. 

Acelomate, Acelomic, Accelomate, Acoelomic (ah- 
sel' -om-dt, -ik). Destitute of a proper bodv cavity. 

Acelosis, Accelosis uih-sel-o'-sis). See Acelia. 

Acephalia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. spuria. See Hemi- 

Acephalocyst, Acephalocystis. (See Illus. Diet.) 
.A. hydatid consisting only of a membranous sac con- 
taining flui<l. A. endogena, a sterile echinoeoecus 
cyst proliferating endogenously. A. eremita, a soli- 
tary sterile hydatid. A. sterilis. A. exogena, a 
sterile echinoeoecus cyst proliferating oxogenously. 
A. granulosa, a sterile echinoeoecus cyst with gran- 
ular walls. A. multifida, a sterile echinoeoecus 
cyst with branch-like prolongations. A. ovis tra- 
gelaphi (Cobbold). See Ecliiuococais homiitis. 
A. ovoidea, Laennee, a variety studded with 
whitish spheroidal bodies. A. plana, Laennec's 
name for certain concretions found in the sheaths of 
tendons and in muscles. A. prolifera, a multiple, 
sterile echinoeoecus cyst. --/. socialis. A. socialis. 
See A. prolifera. A. sterilis. See A. eremi/a. 
A. surculigera, a sterile echinoeoecus cyst with 
sucker-like prominences. 

Acephalophorous [,,iii-sef-al-cf'-or-tis) [a, priv.; Kcpa/.i;, 
head ; of/)f/r, to bear]. Destitute of a distinct 

Acephalorrhachus (a/i-scf-al-or-a'-kiis) [a, priv.; 
K€ipa/.i/f head ; />fi,v'r» spine]. A monster destitute 
of head and vertebral column. 

Acephalos (n/i-sef'-al-os). See Acephahis. 

Acephalostoma (ah-sef-al-os' -to-malt). Same as .Aceph- 
(7/(i.t/('w/«.( (Illus. Diet.). 

Acephalothorax (ah-sef-al-o-tlio'-rais). A monster 
destitute of head and thorax. Syn., Acephnlot/ionts. 

Acephalus. (See Illus. Diet.) A. dibrachius, an 
acephalus with two upper limbs in a more or less rudi- 
mentar)' state. A. dipus,an acephalus with two more 
or less developed lower extremities. A. monobra- 
chius, one with one upper extremity, a cervical verte- 
bra, and one or two more or less developed lower ex- 
tremities. Syn., Aiephalohrackia. A. monopus, 
one with only one lower extremity, more or less de- 
veloped. Syn., AcephalopoJus. A. paracephalus. 
See Paracef<haltts and Hemiacephaltts. Cf. A/ylace- 
phaliis, Aneitcephaliis. A. sympus, one in which 
the trunk ends in a long conical point at the end of 
which are attached one or two feet. 

Acephaly (ah-sef'-al-e). Set Acephalia (Illus. Diet.). 

Acerate (as'-er-st) [acer, sharp]. I. A salt of acerie 
acid. 2. Sharp-pointed, aeieular. 

Acerbous {ah-serb'-iis). See Acerb (Illus. Dict.V 

Acercus {ah-stir'-kiis) [a/itp/tof, without a tail]. A 
monstrosity without a tail or the coccygeal vertebra. 

Acerdol [as'-ttr-dol). MnO^KjKOH, an oxidation 
product of potassium and manganese. It is used as 
an oxidizer and disinfectant. 

Aceritous (ah-ser'-e-tus). See Acerotiis (Illus. Diet.). 

Acerode (as'-er-od). See Aceride (Illus. Diet.). 

Acervuloma [ah-ser-Tu-lo'-mah) [acerfulus, little 
heap; pi., acerz'ulomas, acer-vitlomata\ See Psam- 

Acervus (ah-ser'-vtis) [L., aheap]. Brain-sand. See 

■ Accniiliis (Illus. Diet.). 

Acesodyne, Acesodynous (ah-ses'-o-din, -us) [qkccu- 
Svvoc'\. Allaying pain, anodyne. 




Acesphoria {ah-sis-fo'-re-ali\ [u«<7ir, a remedy; ^tjtuv, 
to bear]. A cure, a healing. 

Acesphorous {ah-ses' -for-iis). Healing, curing. 

Acestoma ias-es'-lo-miili) [nMorof, curable]. The 
in.iss of young granulation tissue which later forms the 

Acestrum (as-es'-trum') [d/iEor/jor]. A remedy. 

Acetabulose (ai-<'/-a/>'-«-/6i). See Acetaiiili/orm (lUus. 
Diet. |. 

Acetabulum. (See Illus. Diet.) A. cotyle, the ar- 
ticular cavity of the innominate bone. A. humeri. 
See Glenoid Cavity (Illus. Diet.). A. uterina, a pla- 
cental cotyledon. 

Acetacetate (as-el-as'-el-nt). See Acrloacetate. 

Acetal. I See Illus. Diet.) 2. A mixture said to con- 
sist of acetic ether and oils of cloves, bergamot, lav- 
ender, lemon, menthol, orange, ro.semary, thyme, 
and absolute alcohol. A. Dimethyl. See Methylal 
(Illu*. Diet.). 

Acetaldehyd Oxira. See Aldoxim (Illus. Diet). 

Acetaldoxim i^as-et-al-doks' -iiii). See Aldoxim (Illus. 

Acetamidoantipyrin (as-et-am-id-oan-ti-pi'-riti). A 
crvstalline compound used as antipyrin. 

Acetamidobenzoyleugenol (iis-ct-tim-id-o-ben-zo-il-ii'- 
jt-fi-ol I. See Acetaminol. 

Acetamidophenol (as-el-ani-id-o-fen'-ol). CjHjOH . - 
NH . CjHjO. An oxidation-product of acetanilid ; 

Acetaminol (as-^t-am'-in-ol). C,»H2,NO,. A reac- 
tion-product of paranitrobenzoyl chlorid with eugeuol- 
sodium, followed by reduction and acetylization. It 
occurs as white scales or crystalline powder, soluble in 
alcohol and insoluble in water, and melting at i6o° C. 
It is used in pulmonary tubeiculosis. Syn. , Paraacet- 
amido-benzoyleu^enol : Acetamido-bcn zoyL 

Acetanilid. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Ammoniated, a 
mixture of acetanilid, 25 p-irts ; ammonium carbonate, 
10 parts ; sodium bicarbonate, 5 parts ; sugar of milk, 
60 parts. It is recommended as causing less depres- 
sion than acetanilid alone. A., Monobromated. See 
Autiiipsin (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetaria {as-et-a'-re-ah) [pi. of ac/tariuiii, a pickle]. 
Articles of food prepared with vinegar. 

Acetarious (as-et-a'-re-us) \ttcelanutit^ a pickle or 
salad]. Suited to making salads or pickles. 

Acetas (as'-et-as\. An acetate or salt of acetic acid. 

Acetated (as'-ft-a-ted). Containing an acetate, acetic 
acid, or vinegar. 

Acetic. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Acid Amide. See 
Acelamid (Illus. Diet.). A. Acid Esters. See 
Methyl Acetate, and Ether, Acetic. A. Acid Salts, 
(l) readily soluble crystalline salts formed from the 
bases; (2) basic salts formed from iron, aluminium, 
lead, and copper; sparingly soluble in water; (3) 
alkali salts, which have the property of combining 
with a molecule of acetic acid to produce acid .salts. 
A. Aldehyd. See under Aldehyd. A. Anhydrid, 
CjHjO.,, a colorless, mobile liquid, highly refractive 
and with an odor of acetic acid. Sp. gr. 1.080 at 
15° C; boils at I36°-I38° C. Syn., Acetyl oxid : 
Acetic oxid ; so-called Anhydrous acetic acid. A. 
Ether. See under £c//c/- (Illus. Diet). A. Fungus, 
any one of several minute fungoid organisms capable 
of inciting and maintaining acetic fermentation, as first 
proved bv Pasteur in lS64.' Cf. Bacteria, Table of 
(111ns. Diet.). 

Acetica (as-ef ik-ah) [L.]. Medicated vinegars. Syn., 
Acetica medicata. 

Acetidin (as-ef -id-in). See Ether, Acetic (Illus. 
Diet. 1. 

Acetification (as-et-e-fi-ia'-shiin) [acetiim, vinegar ; 

facere, to make]. The production of vinegar by 

acetic fermentation. 
Acetify (as-et'-i-fi). To transform into vinegar. 
Acetimeter, Acetimetric, Acetimetry. See Acet- 

ometer ; Acetometry (Illus. Diet.) ; Acetometric. 
Acetis [ah-se'-tis) [L.]. See Acetite. 
Acetite (as'-et-lt). I. An acetate. 2. See Mannitan 

Acetmethylanilid (as-et-nieth-il-an' -il-id). .Same as 

Exafym (Illus. Diet.). 
Acetoacetate [as-et-o-as'-et-dt). A salt of aeetoacetic 

Aeetoacetic Esters. CH, . CO . CHj . COjR. Liquids 

possessing an ethereal odor, produced by the action of 

metallic sodium upon acetic esters ; they dissolve with 

difficulty in water and can be distilled without decom- 
Acetoarsenite {as-et-o-ar'-sen-it]. A salt composed of 

an acetate and an arsenite of the same base. 
Acetobenzidin (as-et-o-ben'-zid-in). See Benzidin 

(IlUis. Diet.). 
Acetobromid {as-et-o-brom'-id). An acetic-acid salt in 

which part of the hydrogen of the acid radicle has been 

replaced by bromin. 
Acetocaustin [as-et-o-kaws'-iin). A 50% solution of 

trichloracetic acid ; it is used as a caustic for corns. 
Acetochlorid (as-et-o-ilor'-id). A salt composed of an 

acetate and a chlorid of the same base. 
Acetodibromoxalid [as-et-o-di-brom-ois'-al-id). See 

Xylidin (Illus. Diet.). 
Acetoglycocoll (as-ct-o-gli'-io-kol). 

CH2<J-,. ii * ' ' A substance resembling a mon- 
obasic acid, obtained from the action of aeetylehlorid 
on glycocoU silver and of acetamid on monochloraeetic 
acid; it is soluble in alcohol, melts at 206° C. Syn., 
Acetamidoaccticacid ; Accttiric acid ; Glycocineacetyl. 

AcetoglycoUate (as-et-o-gli' -kol-at'). A salt of aceto- 
glycollic acid. 

Acetoguanamin (as-et-o-gwan'-am-iii). See Melhyl- 
guanamiu (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetoiodid (as-et-o-i'-od-id). A double .salt containing 
the acetate and iodid of the same radicle. 

PLCelQ\(as'-cl-ol). I. See Acetylcarbincl. 2. A remedy 
for toothache, said to consist of acetic acid, 8.46'^ ; 
alum, 3.07% ; water, 88.5^, with a small proportion 
of essential oils of sage, clove, and peppermint. 

Acetolactate (as-et-o-lak'-tal). A salt of acetolactic 

Acetolic, Acetolicum (as-ef -ol-ik, as-el-ol'-ii-um). 
Prepared with vinegar. 

Acetoluid (as-et-ol'-u-id). See Tolylacetainid. 

Acetomel (as-ef -o-mel). See Oxymel [XWwi. Diet.). 

Acetometric (as-et-o-mef -rick). Pertaining to acetom- 
etry; acetimetric. 

Aceton. i. .See Acetone (Illus. Diet.). 2. A pro- 
prietarv- remedy for headache and influenza. 

Acetonal (ai-t'/'-oH-ff/). Aluminium and sodium acetate. 

Acetonamins (as-el-on-am'-ins). A series of basic 
substances obtained by the action of ammonia on 

Acetonasthma (as-et-on-az'-mab) [^aceton: asthma']. 
Attacks of dyspnea similar to uremic asthma, accom- 
panied with restlessness, headache, nausea, vomiting, 
transient amaurosis, and acetonuria, apparently in con- 
nection with the last. 

Acetonate 1 as-el'-on-al). A salt of acetonic acid. 

Acetone, Aceton. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Mesitic 
alcohol: Mesityl alcohol : Methyl acetyl : Acetylmethyl. 
It is used as an anesthetic and anthelmintic. Dose, 
15-20 n^,. A.chloroform, ilO . C( CH3).^CCl3, a 
compound formed by the addition of potash to equal 



weights of acetone and chloroform. It occurs as white 
crystals sparingly soluble in water, more freely in 
alcohol and glycerin. Its Ifc aqueous solution is 
called Atusoti. It is used as a hypnotic and anesthetic. 
Dose, 15-20 gr. Syn., Chloietom ; Trichhrlcr- 
tiary butyl alcohol ; Triihlorpsettdobutyl alcohol. 
A.diethylsulfon. See 5«j^/io«rt/ ( Illus. Diet.). A., 
Monochlorated, C3H3CIO, a colorless liquid having 
a pungent odor obtained by chlorinating acetone. It has 
a sp. gr. 1 1 . 1 62 at 1 6° C. ; boils at 1 19° C. ; miscible in 
alcohol, ether, and chloroform ; insoluble in water. 
A.phenylhydrazon, (CH3)2C : NjHCjH^, one of the 
nitrogen derivatives of the ketone. It melts at 16° C. 
and boils at 165° C. (91 mm.). A.resorcin, 
CjjHigOj -\- HjO, a combination of resorcin with 
acetone and fuming hydrochloric acid added hot. It 
occurs in small anhydrous prisms, soluble in alkaline 
solutions, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and 
chloroform. It melts at 2I2°-2I3° C. It is used as 

Acetonin (as-ef -on-iii). I. A body produced by the 
action of ammonia on acetone. 2. Dehydrotriaceton- 
amin [ij. z\ ). 

Acetonitrate (iii-il-o-ni'-tral). A double salt, the ace- 
tate and iodid of the same radicle. 

Acetonitril (ns-tZ-o-ni'-tril ). CH3 . CX or CjHjX'. 
A liquid having an agreeable odor, prepared by dis- 
tilling acetamid with Fj^s- ^^ ™^y ^'^" ^^ produced 
from prussic acid and diazomethane. It melts at — 41° 
C, boils at 81.6° C, and has a sp. gr. of 0.789 (15° 
C. ). Syn., A/clhyl cytiniJ : Ethannitril. 

P>.ze.Xany\\ai-et'-on-it). CH, — CO — CH,. A univ- 
alent radicle obtained from acetone by taking away 
one atom of hydrogen. 

Acetoorthoamidochinolin {as-ct-o-or-tho-am-id-o-kin' ■ 
cl-iii). CoHgX^NHCHjCO). A colorless, crystalline 
compound supposed to have antipyretic properties. It 
melts at 102.5° C. 

Acetophenetidin (as-el-o-fcii-ft'-iJ-in). See Phenacetin 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Acetophenoneorthooxyquinolin (as-et-o-fen-on-ortho- 
oks-f-huin'-ol-in). CjHjXO . CH, . CO . C5H5, abase 
obtained by interaction between a halogen compound of 
acetophenone and orthoquinolin in the presence of sol- 
vents and an alkali. It forms well-defined salts, is 
soluble in volatile solvents, melts at 130° C. It is said 
to have hypnotic and antineuralgic properties ; is odor- 
less, tasteless, and nonirritating. 

Acetophenonphenetidin {as-el-o-fcn-on-fe-nel'-id-iti). 
A condensation-product of acetophenone and para- 
phenetidin. A. Citrate, 

•-s^'^-N =C(CH3)(C5H5) . H3C, 
lemon-yellow needles, soluble in ether and hot alcohol, 
insoluble in water ; melts at 88° C. It is antipyretic 
and antineuralgic. Dose, 0.5-1 gm. (8-15 gr. ). 
Syn., Malarin. 

Acetopropionate [as-tt-o-pro-pi'-on-at ). A salt of 
acetopropionic acid. 

Acetopyrin, Acetopyrina {as-et-o-pi'-riiiy -ah). A 
mixture ol antipyrin and acetyl salicylic acid occurring 
as a whitish cr)'slalline powder soluble with difficulty 
in cold water, ether, and petroleum ether, readily 
soluble in warm water, alcohol, chloroform, and warm 
toluol. It is antipyretic. Dose, 7 gr. 6 times daily. 
Syn., Antipyrin acctylsalicylatc. A. Acetosalicylate, 
antipyretic, analgesic, sedative ; employed in influenza, 
bronchitis, rheumatic headache, sciatica, hemicrania, 
and acute articular rheumatism. 

Acetorthoamidotoluol. See Acetorthotoluid. 

Acetorthotoluid {as-et-or-tho-tol'-u-id). C5H,(CH3) 
XH . COCH3, or CjH,, . XO. AntipyTetic, colorless. 

acicular crystals, slightly soluble in water. Soluble in 
alcohol and ether, melting at 107° C. and boiling at 
296° C. Dose, 0.1-0.3 gni- (yViS g^O- %"•> 
Acetorthoamidotoluol ; Ortho-tolylacelainid. 

Acetose [as'-et-oz). See Acetous (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetosity (as-ct-os'-e-t^). The state of being acetous 
or sour ; sourness, acidity. 

Acetosodacetate (as-el-o-sod-cis'-et-at). An acetoace- 
tate in which an atom of hydrogen is replaced by an 
atom of sodium. 

Acetosodethylacetate {as-et-o-sod-eth-il-as'-et-at). An 
acetoacetale in which 2 atoms of hydrogen are replaced 
by an atom of sodium and a molecule of ether. 

Acetospirin [as-et-o-spi'-rin). See Acopyrin. 

Acetosuccinate (as-et-o-sui'-si/idt). A double salt 
of acetic acid and succinic acid. 

Acetosulfid i^as-nl-o-sul'-fid). A double salt composed 
of an acetate and a sulfid of the same base. 

Acetosyl (as-tl'-o-sit). See ^<v/i'/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetotoluid [as-ct-o-tol'-u-id). See Tolylacetamid. 

Acetoxyl (as-et-oks'-il). See Acetyl (Illus. Diet.). A.- 
amid. See AcetamiJ {\\\-as. Diet.). A. Hydrate. 
See Acid, Acetic (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetoyl \as-et'-o-il). See Acetyl (\\\\i%. Diet.). 

Acetozone (as-et'-o-zdn). See Benzoylacetylperoxid. 

Acetparaamidosalol (as-el-par-ah-am-id-o-sal'-ol). 
See Salphen (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetparamidotoluol [as-el-par-am-id-o-iol'-u-ot). Same 
as Acetparatoluid. 

Acetparaphenetidin (as-el-par-a-fe-net'-id-in). Same 
as Phenacetin (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetparatoluid {ai-el-par-a-tol' -u-id). CjH,,NO. An- 
tipyretic, colorless crystals, slightly soluble in water, 
moderately soluble in alcohol ; melts at 149° C. 
Dose, 1-2 gm. (15-30 gr.). Syn., Acelparamido- 
tolttol : Paratolvlacetatnid. 

Acetphenetidin [as-et-fe-net'-id-in). See Phenacetin 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Acettoluid (as-et-tol'-ti-id). See Tolylacetamid. 

Acetyl. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Acetosyl ; Acetoyl ; 
Accto.ryl : Othyl. A. Anhydrid. Stt Acetic Anhy- 
drid. A. benzene. See Acetophenone (IWus. Diet.). 
A.bioxydamid. See Acetamid (Illus. Diet. ). A. 
Bromid, CjH3BrO, a reaction-product of acetic acid 
with phosphorus pentabroniid ; it is a fuming liquid 
which turns yellow in the air; boils at 81° C. It is 
used as a reagent. A.carbinol, CH, . CO. CHjOH, 
a saturated ketol produced by the action of water and 
barium carbonate upon chloraceton, also by fusing cane- 
and grape-sugar with caustic potash. It is a colorless oil 
withafeeble, peculiar odor; boils at 145°-! 50° C. Syn., 
Pvroracentic alcohol ; Aceton alcohol ; Oxyaceton ; 
Sfethylketol ; Acetol. A. Chlorid, CjHjClO, a reaction- 
product of acetic acid with phosphorus trichlorid ; it is 
a colorless, highly refracting fuming liquid ; sp. gr. 
1 . 1305 at 0° C. ; boils at 55° C. It is used as a reagent. 
A.ethoxyurethane. See Thermcdin (Illus. Diet.). 
A.ethylphenylhydrazin, Ci^H^jX.O,, colorless 
needles obtained by heating a solution of ethylene- 
phenylhydrazin with an excess of acetic anhydrid. It 
is recommended as an antipyretic. .Syn., Phenylhydraz- 
inacetylethyl. A.formyl. See Aldehyd, Pyroracemic. 
A. Hydrate, acetic acid. A. Hydrid. Same as Acetic 
Aldehyd. See under Aldehyd (Illus. Diet.). A. 
Iodid, CjHjOI, a reaction-product of acetic acid with 
iodin and phosphorus ;' it is a brown fuming liquid ; sp. 
gr. 1.98 at 17° C. ; boils at io5°-lo8° C. A.isocy- 
anid, (CjHjO) — X=C, a liquid in its simple form, 
but capable of polymerization as a crystalline solid. It 
boils at 93° C. Syn., Acetic isocyanid: Cyanacetyl. 
A.isoeugenol, the direct antecedent of vanillin in 
the manufacture of the synthetic product, and is used 




as a substitute for vanillin. A.leukomethylene- 
blue. A colorless form of melhyleiie-blue Un internal 
use. A. methyl. See Ace/oiu (Illus. Diet. i. A.naph- 
thalin, A.onaphthalene. See Attiiaphllune (Illus. 
Diet). A. Oxid. i^sivne ^s Acflic AnhyJri,/. A.para- 
amidophenylsalicylate. See Salopli n {\\\ms. Diet.). 
A.-paraethoxyphenylurethane. See Thtrmodin 
t Illus. Diet.). A.phenylhydrazid, A.phenylhy- 
drazin. Same as Hvdracetin (Illus, Diet.). A.- 
tannin, a grayish-yellow, slightly hygroscopic, odor- 
less, tasteless powder, soluble in alcohol, dilute so- 
dium phosphate, s. carbonate, or s. borate ; slightly 
soluble in hot water and ether ; insoluble in cold 
water ; melting at 190° C. It is an astringent and is 
used internally in chronic diarrhea. E.xternally, it is 
used in chronic pharyngitis. Dose, 3-7 '2 grs. (0.2- 
o. 5 gm. ). Application 3 ^ solution in 5 fc .sodium phos- 
phate. Maximum dose, 60 grs. (39 gm.) daily. Syn. , 
Tannigen. A. thymol, CjjHuO,, a colorless antisep- 
tic liquid with a pungent taste having a specific gravity 
of 1.009 at 0° C. and boiling at 244.4° C. Syn., 
Thymyl acetate. A.tribromsalol, fine, white acicular 
crystals which melt at 108.5° ; insoluble in water, 
soluble in alcohol Syn., Corjyl. A.urethane. See 
Urtt'ianr (Illus. Diet.). 

Acetylite (as-et'-il-li). A salt of acetylcus acid. 

Acetylization [as-et-ii-i-za^-shiin). The act of combin- 
ing with or producing compounds of acetic acid or 

Ache. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. To be afifected with pain. 

Acheilus [a/i-ti'-lus) [«, priv. ; ;i;Ef/.of, a lip]. A per- 
son affected with acheilia. 

Acheir (fzA'-^/;-) [«, priv. ; ,vf ''p» t^e hand] . I. Acheir- 
ous. 2. Said of fishes lacking pectoral fins. 

Achilleate iakil-e'-at). A salt of achilleic acid. 

Achillein, Achilleinum {ak-il-e'-in, -i'-num). C^qHjs- 
XjtJjj. A glucosid, obtained from AchilUa milUfo- 
liiiin and A. moschata. It occurs as a brownish-red, 
amorphous mass of a strongly bitter taste, soluble in 
water, less soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether. It 
is stated ( Pappi ) that divided doses up to 30-75 grains 
cause marked irregularity of the pulse. 

Achilleius (ai-il-li'-us). The tendo Achillis. 

Achilles-jerk. See Jerk. 

Achilletin uik-il'-et-in). C„H,;XO,. A dark, red- 
dish-brown powder, .soluble with difficulty in alcohol, 
insoluble in water, obtained with sugar from achillein 
by continued boiling in dilute sulfuric acid. 

Achillobursitis {ak-ilo-biir-si'-lis) [AehiUes-teiidon ; 
tuna, a purse]. Inflammation of the bursas lying 
approximate to the .Achilles-tendon. 

Achillorrhaphy (ak-it-or'-af-e) {^AchilUs-tendon ; poor/, 
suture]. Suture of the Achilles-tendon ; practised by 
C. Bayer instead of achillotomy for the sake of 
lengthening the tendon. This is exposed, the length 
divided in half, the upper end of one side, the lower 
end of the other, cut across, and both the cut surfaces 
united by a suture. 

Achillotenotomy (ai-il-o-ten-oi'-o-me). Same as Achil- 

Achillotomy {ak-il-ot'-o-mc) \^Achil!ts-tendon ; riuveiv, 
to cut]. The subcutaneous division of the Achilles- 

Achilus [a/i-ki'-liis) [n, priv. ; xi'o^, green fodder]. I. 
Deficient in nourishment. 2. [«, very ; Xt'^or, green 
fodder] Abundantly nourished. 3. [u, priv. ; ^i;ff/-or, 
a lip] Lacking lips (see Aiheilits). 

Achlorhydria (ah-ktor-hi' -dre-ali) [n, priv. ; \'/up6(,, 
green; viup, water]. A lack of hydrochloric acid 
in the gastric secretion. 

Achne. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Froth; frothy sputum. 

Acholia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Any condition ob- 

structing the escape of the bile into the small intestine. 
3. Asiatic cholera. 4. A mild temperament. A., 
Pigmentary, that in which there is a deficiency of 
the bile, lack of color in the feces, but no jaundice. 

Acholic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Able to cure jaimdice. 
3. Due to acholia. 

Acholuria (ah-kol-u'-re-ah) [u, priv. ; ,vo/.j/, bile ; ovpov, 
urine]. The absence of bile pigment in the urine. 

Acholuric {ah-kol-u'-rik). Relating to acholuria. 

Achor. (See Illus. Diet. ) ?!\n.. Tinea; Tinea mueif- 
tiia : Sordes capitis. A. barbatus. See Sycosis (Illus. 
Diet.). A. favosus. See Favtis (Illus. Diet.). A. 
granulatus, that forrainga crust with a granular appear- 
ance. Svn., Tinea grannlata : Intpttigo a granulatis. 
A. in facie, incrusted eczema of the face. A. lac- 
tuminosus, A. larvalis, A. larvatus. See A. in 
facie. A. mucifluus, I. Favus. 2. Eczema char- 
acterized by a mucous discharge. A. mucosus. See 
A. mucifluus. A. scutellatus. See Seborrhcea sicca 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Achores. PI. ol Achor. A. capitis. See Scabies cap- 

Achoria [ah-kor' -e-ah') [L.]. See Achoresis. 

Achoresis [ah-kor-e'-sis) [n, priv. ; x^P^'^^ to make 
room; pi., ackoreses']. Grossi's term for the dimin- 
ished capacity of a hollow organ, as of the bladder. 
Syn., Achoria. Cf. Stenochoria. 

Achras {ak'-ras) [a.vp«C, the wild pear]. A genus 
of arboraceous plants of the order Sapotaceir. A. 
sapota, Linn. \j:ochitzapott, Mex.], the Sapodilla 
plum ; a species indigenous to South .America. The 
fruit is edible, sweet, cloying ; said to be beneficial in 
strangury. The seeds are laxative and diuretic ; they 
are exhibited in emulsion in cases of gravel and renal 
colic. The bitter astringent bark (corte.x Jamaicensis) 
has been used as a substitute for cinchona bark. The 
bark and seeds yield the glucosid sapotin. The sap 
yields chicle gum. 

Achroacytosis [ah-kro-ak-si-lo'-sis) [axpoitv, to be col- 
orless ; KvTOf;, cell]. Abnormal development of lymph- 

Achroiocytosis [ah-kroi-o-si-lo'-sis). Same as Achro- 

Achroma. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Achromasia ; 
.-Ichrotnatia ; Achioinatosis ; Achrontodermia ; Leu- 
koderma. A. vitiligo. See Vitiligo. 

Achromacyte (ak-kro'-ma-sit ) [a, priv. ; ;tfp(Juo, color ; 
niroc, cell]. A degenerated, decolorized erythrocyte, 
a *• phantom '' or shadow corpuscle ; also called Pon- 
fick's sliado-M corpuscles, Bizzozero' s blood-platelets, 
Ilavcm^ 5 corpuscles or liematoblasts. 

Achromatia [alt-kro-ma'-she-ali). See Achroma (Illus. 

Achromatic. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Relating to achro- 
matin. A. Spindle. See Nuclear Spindle (Illus. 

Achromaticity {ah-kro-mat-is'-it-e). The state of being 

Achromatistous {ah-kro-mat-is'-tus) [a vpuudnorof , 
uncolored]. Deficient or unhealthy in color (as in 
cachexia ) . 

Achromatization {ak-kro-mat-iz-a'-shun). The act or 
process of rendering achromatic. 

Achromatize {ali-kro'-mat-iz). To render achromatic. 

Achromatophile [ak-kro-mat'-o-fil) [a, priv. ; xpijua, 
color ; (fuxLv, to love]. I. Showing no affinity for 
stains. 2. A microbe or histologic element which 
does not stain readily. 

Achromatopsia, Achromatopsy. (See Illus. Diet. ) 
A., Partial, a form in which only one pair of colors, 
which to the normal eye are complementary, appear 
gray or white. A., Total, that in which all the colors 




appear as white or gray. Cf. Acyanoblepsia, Anerylhrop- 
iui, Chromatodysopsia, Dallonismus, Xaulhocyanopsia. 

Achromatopsis (ti/i-k)o->iiai-op'-sis). Color-blindness ; 

Achroinatosis. (See lUus. Diet.) A. acquisita, ac- 
quired achromatosis. Cf. Vitiligo and Ciuiities pn- 
maliira. A. congenitalis, congenital achromatosis. 
Cf. .Vbinisiiius and Poliosis, 

Achromaturia (afi-i-ro-iiui-tu'-ri-ah) [o, priv. ; ,v/'"/'"> 
color ; iiifiiir, urine]. A colorless state of the urine. 

Achronizoic \ah-l;roti'-c-zo-ik) [n, priv. ; xpovt^civ, to 
hold out]. A term applied to drugs which are inca- 
pable of remaining unchanged for any length of time. 

Achroodectin i^ah-kro-o-Jek' -tin") [uj/'onf , colorless ; 
ii>K,taHai, to receive]. A carbohydrate obtained from 
the mucin of snails. Syn. , Ac/irooi;/yiogen. 

Achrooglycogen (^ih-kro-o-gli'-ko-jen). ^te. Achroodtc- 

Achroous {ah'-kro-iis'). Devoid of color. See Achro- 

Achylia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. gastrica, Einhorn's 
term for a condition of the stomach marked by destruc- 
tion of the glandular structures with resulting ab.sence 
of chyme, ferment, and even mucus ; called anadenia 
gastrica by P-wald. 

Achymous (,ih-ki'-mus) [o, priv.; ^i'/iof, chyme]. I. 
Deficient in chyme. 2. Achylic. 

Achyranthes. (See Illus. Diet.) A. aspera, Linn., 
a shrub of India, where the seeds, flowers, and leaves 
are esteemed in the treatment of hydrophobia, snake- 
bites, ophthalmia, and cutaneous diseases. A. fruti- 
cosa. Lam., same distribution and uses as the fore- 
going species. 

Aciamid (ns-i'-am-id) [ncid ; amid']. A body formed 
on the ammonia type, but possessing an acid character. 

Acibromid (as-c-l'ro'-mid). See Oxybromid. 

Acichlorid {as-e-klor'-id). See Oxychlorid. 

Aciculate (as-ik'-ii-/at) [aciis, a needle]. Needle- 
shaped; acicular, aciculiform, acitbrm. 

Aciculiform [as-ik-u'-U-form). See Aciculate. 

Acid. I See Illus. Diet.) 2. Sour. 3. Possessing the 
chemical properties or exhibiting the reaction of an acid. 
A., Abietinic. Same as A., Al>ietic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Absinthic, an acid obtained by Braconnot from 
wonnwood ; it is said to be identical with succinic acid. 
A., Acetosulfuric. See.-/., TJtioacctic. A., Acetyl- 
formic. .Same as A., Pyruvic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Acetylsalicylic. See Aspirin. A., Achilleic, an 
acid obtained from .IchU'ca millcfoliuiii, identical with 
aconilic acid. A., Adenylic, a primary* nucleinic 
acid obtained from animal glands and supposed by 
Kossel to contain only adenin as a nucleinic base, but 
now known to contain also guanin and a third basic 
substance termed cytosiii. A., Adhatodic, an acid 
found ill combination with an alkaloid, -■usiciii, in Ad- 
hatoda vasica (</. t.). A., Agaric, A., Agaricinic. 
Sa.niea^A.,Agaricic (Illus. Diet. ). A., Ailanthic, A., 
Ailantic, a bitter nitrogenous acid isolated from the 
bark of Ailanthtis cxceisa. Said to possess medicinal 
virtue. A., Alantic. See .-/., Ataiithic (Illus. Diet.). 

A. s. Alcohol, C„Hjo<^„p^ „ monobasic acids having 

t e properties of the monohydric alcohols. They are 
distinguished as primary, secondary, and tertiary accord- 
ing as they contain, in addition to the carbo.wl group, 
the group — CH.OH, the radicle =CHOH, or the 
group=C . OH. Svn., Oxvacids, Hydroxvfallv acids. 
Cf. A., C/i<-i.///<- (Illus. Diet.). A.s, Aldehyd, bodies 
which combine the properties of a carboxylic acid and 
of an aldehyd. Cf. A., Formic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Aliphatic. Same as A.. Fatty. A., Alizaric, A., 
Alizarinic. See A., Phthahc (Illus. Diet.). A., 

Alkali. Same as Amido-acid. A., Allantoic, I. 
CjIIgX^O^. A monobasic crystalline acid obtained 
from allantoin by the addition of the elements of a mole- 
cule of water. 2. A name formerly given to allantoin 
under the belief that it was a true acid. A., AUantu- 
ric, CgH^NjOg, obtained from allantoin cm warming 
with baiyta- water or with Pb(Jj and by oxidation of hy- 
dantoin. Syn. , Lantanuric acid. A., Allituric, C5H5- 
NjO,, yellowish-white crystals, soluble with difficulty 
in water, obtained from alloxantin by treating it with 
hydrochloric acid. A., Allomaleic. Same as A., 
Fiimaric. A., Aloetic, A., Aloetinic,C,jH,NjO|D, a 
yellow amorphous powder, soluble in alcohol and 
slightly in water, obtained from aloes by action of nitric 
acid; it explodes on heating. Syn., Tctraiiitroaiit/ira- 
qitition : Polychromic acid ; Aiog purple ; Artificial 
bitter of aloes ; Aloitinic acid. A.,Aloitinic. See.'/., 
Aloetic. A. of Amber. See A., Succinic (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Ambreic, an acid obtained from ambrein 
by action of nitric acid with heat. A., Amic, any 
one of a class of nitrogenized acids produced by the 
substitution of amidogen (NHj) for a hydroxyl mole- 
cule in the acid characteristic of a polybasic acid. A., 
Amidacetic. See Glycin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amid- 
isethionic. See Tauriii (Illus. Diet.). A., Amido-. 
See under .Imidoacid (Illus. Diet.). A., Amidobar- 
bituric. Same as L'ramil (XWm. Diet.). A., Amido- 
caproic. See Leucin (Illus. Diet. ). A., Amidoethyl- 
enlactic. See &;■/« (Illus. Diet.). A., Amidoethyl- 
sulfonic. Same as TIhw/h (Illus. Diet. ). A., Amido- 
glutaric. See^., Glutamic. A., Amidoglycollic. 
.See Glycin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amidohydracrylic. 
See Serin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amidoisethionic. 
.See Taurin (Illus. Diet.). A., «-Amidoisobutyla- 
cetic. Same as Leucin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amido- 
lactic. .See Alanin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amido- 
oxyethylsulfonic. Same as Taurin (Illus. Diet.). 
A.,<i-Amidopropionic. Same as^/<;«/« (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Amidopyrotartaric. See A., Glutamic. A., 
Amidosuccinic. See y-/., .^.v/ii»//V (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Amidosulfethylic. See Taurin (Illus. Diet.). A., 
a-Amidothiolactic. Same as Cystein. (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Aminoethan. -See Glycin (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Ammonchelidonic. See A., Chelidonaniic. A., 
Amniotic. See Allantoin (Illus. Diet.). A., Amyg- 
dalic, C,,j,H.jpOj3, a crvslalline acid obtained from 
amygdalin by action of alkalies. A., Amylic. .See 
A., Valeric {IWui. Diet.). A., Anacardiac, C,,!!.,.^- 
O3, a tetratomic acid obtained by .Stadler from the 
frail o{ Anacardium occidcntale (cashev: nut), occur- 
ring in white, radiating, inflammable crystals, with aro- 
matic, slightly burning taste, soluble in alcohol and 
ether, insoluble in water, melts at 26° C. It is used 
as an anthelmintic in the form of ammonium anacar- 
date. A., Anchoic. Same as A., Azelaic. A., An- 
chusic. .See Alkunnin (Illus. Diet.). A., Anhy- 
drosulfaminbenzoic. See Succliarin (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Anhydrous. See .•/w/rciV/i/ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Anilic. See A., Jl/ononitrosalicylic. A., Anilotic, 
A., Anilotinic, CjHjXOj+HjO, colorless needles 
soluble in alcohol and ether and slightly .soluble in 
water, melting at 125° C. It is an oxidation product 
of salicin or salicylic acid by action of nitric acid. 
Syn., fi-Xitrosalicylic acid. A., Animal, an acid 
characteristic of or obtained from animal tissues or 
products. A., Anisuric, C,„H,,\Oj, an acid formed 
by the action of anisyl chlorid on the silver compound 
of glycocoll ; it also occurs in the urine after the in- 
gestion of anise. A., Anisylous. See Aldehyd, 
Anisic (Illus. Diet.). A., Anthemic, A., Anthe- 
midic, an acid found by Pattone in the bloom of An- 
Ihemis cotula, L., and A. arvinsis, L. It forms silky 




needles in taste and odor resembling chamomile. It 
is soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, and ether. 
A., Antimonous, Anhydrous. Same as An- 
timonv Oxuiy A}itimc}ioii3. A., Antirrhinic, a 
volatile acid existing in the leaves of Di;^italis pur- 
purea ; it resembles valerianic acid. A., Antitartaric. 
See A., Mesotartaric. A. of Ants, formic acid. A., 
Apocrenic, Berzelius' term for a brown amorphous 
substance obtained from the sediment of chalybeate 
waters. A., Apple, A. of Apples. See A., Malic 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Arabinic. .Same as.J/i7^/« l Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Arachic, A., Arachidic, A., Arachinic, 
Cj^H^Oj ^ CjjHjg . COOH, a monobasic fatty acid 
obtained from oil of peanut, Arac/iis hypogiia ; it 
forms smooth, shining laminas, with pearly luster, sol- 
uble in alcohol and ether, melting at 75.5° C. A., 
Argentic, silver monoxid. A., Aromatized Fatty. 
.Same as A., Aromatic (Illus. Diet. ;. A., Arsenious, 
Vitreous, the vitreous mass obtained by the resubli- 
mation of the " flowers of arsenic" obtained by sub- 
liming arsenical pyrite. Cf. Arsenic G/ass, ll7iite. 
A., Arsenous. Same as A., Arsenious (\\\us. Diet.). 
A., Arsinic, any one of a class of acids formed by the 
oxidation of arsines or arsonium compounds. Cf. A.^ 
Dimethyltirsinic. A., Arsenic. .See A., Arsinic. 
A., Artanthic, a crystalline acid obtained by Mar- 
cotle from niatico, the leaves of Pipe-- angusttfolium. 
A., Arthanitic. See Cyclamin. A., Arvic [L. anum, 
tilled soil], an acid obtained from garden-soil. A., 
Aseptic, an antiseptic solution consisting of an aque- 
ous solution of 5 gm. of boric acid in 1000 gm. of 
hydrogen peroxid (1.5%); 3 gm. of salicylic acid 
may be added. A., Asparagic, A., Asparaginic. 
Same as A., Asparlic (Illus. Diet.). A., Asparamic. 
See A., Aspartic (Illus. Diet.). A., Aspartic, In- 
active, NHjCjHjiCOjH)^, formed by heating aspar- 
tic acid with water or with alcoholic ammonia to 140*^- 
150° C, or with HCl to i7o°-l8o° C. Syn., Aspara- 
ceiiiic acid. A., Avivitellinic, the paranuclein constitu- 
ent of ovovitellin. A., Avorninic, an acid obtained 
by Kubly from the decomposition of avornin, said to 
be identical with frangulinic acid. A., Axinic, 
C,gII,jO, (?), a saponification product of axin occurring 
as a brownish oily substance. A., Azelaic, A., Aze- 
lainic, C,H,^0,, an oxidation product of oleic acid, 
Chinese wax, castor oil, or cocoanut oil ; it occurs in 
thin plates, soluble in water, alcohol, and in ether, melts 
at I06°-I07° C. and boils at 360° C. Syn., Anclioic 
acid: Lepiirgylic acid ; Azelic acid; Azeloinic acid. 
A., Azelic. .Same as A., Azelaic. A., Azeloinic. 
See A., .Azelaic. A., Azocarbonic. See A., Picric 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Azoleic. See A., Enanlhylic 
(Illus. Diet). A, Baldrianic. See ^4., Valeric 
( Illus. Diet. 1. A.. Beni;. See .4., Belienic, Table of 
Fatty Acids {\\\ai.Vi\a.\. A., Benzamic. See.-/., 
Aniidobenzoic (Illus. Diet.). A., Benzamid- 
acetic. A., Benzamidocetic. See .-/., Ilippuric 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Benzenetetracarbonic. See 
A., Prehnitic (Illus. Diet.!. A., Bibasic. See 
.icids. Dibasic, under Acids (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Bilianic, C^jHjjOg, a tribasic acid obtained after 
dehydrocholalic acid by the oxidation of cholalic 
acid. A.s, Biliary, those obtained front bile. See 
A., Chenotauroc/tolic ; A., Glvcocholic ; .-/., liyo- 
glycocholic : A., Hvotaurocholic : .-/., Taiirocholic . 
A., Bilicholinic. See A.. C/ioleic. A., Biliful- 
vic. Same as Bilifulvin (Illus. Diet.). A., Bili- 
rubinic. Same as Bilirubin flllus. Diet. i. A., 
Biliverdinic, CgH,,NO,, an oxidation product ob- 
tained by Kiister from biliverdin. A., Blattic. See 
Anliiiydropin ( Illus. Diet. ) and Taracanin. A., 
Boletic. See A.^ Fumaric. A., Boracic. Same 

as A., Boric. A. of Borax, orthoboric acid. A., 
Borocitric, a combination of boro-acids and citric 
acids forming a white powder which is used as a sol- 
vent for urates and phosphates in urinary calculi, gout, 
etc. Dose, 0.3-1.3 gm. (5-20 gr.). A.,Borophen- 
ylic, CjH^BOj, obtained by the action of phosphorus 
oxychlorid upon a mixture of boric acid and phenol. 
It is an antiseptic white powder with a mild aromatic 
taste, not easily soluble in water, melting at 204° C. 
It is fatal to lower forms'of life, but does not affect the 
higher forms ; phenylboric acid. A., Borosalicylic, 
B(OH)(OCjH, . COjH),, a combination of boric and 
salicylic acids in molecular proportion. It is used ex- 
ternally instead of salicylic acid. A., Botulinic, 
Buchner's name for the active principle of poisonous 
sausage, now known to be a toxic albuminose known 
as botulismustoxin, the product of Bacillus botulinus. 
Van Ermengem. A., Brazilic. See Brasilin (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Brom-, one in which bromin has replaced 
one or more atoms of hydrogen in the acid radicle. 
A., Bromacetic. See A., Monobroniacetic. A., 
Bromhydric, hydrobromic acid. A., Bursic, A., 
Bursinic, a yellow hygroscopic mass obtained from an 
aqueous extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris by the action 
of lead acetate and ammonia and evaporating. Its 
aqueous solution is used as ergotin hypodermically, 
and also internally. A., Butic, A., Butinic. See 
A., Arachidic. A., Cacodylic. 'iee A., Dimethyl- 
arsenic. A., Cahincic, A.,Caincic. See Cahincin. 
A., Calumbic, CjjHjiO;, a yellow amorphous con- 
stituent of calumba, the root of Jateorhiza columba, 
found by Bodeker ; it is soluble in alcohol and alka- 
line solutions, nearly insoluble in water. A., Cam- 
bogie, Cj|,HjjO,, the red-yellow acid resin obtained 
from gamboge ; soluble in alcohol and ether. A., 
Camphoglycuronic, Cj^HjiOg, an acid found by 
Schmiedeberg and Meyer in urine after the ingestion 
of camphor. There are 2 isomerids, a- and 3-cam- 
phoglyctironic acids, the first of which is levorotary. 
The action of dilute acids converts them into glycu- 
ronic acid and campherol. A., Carballylic. See 
A.,Tricarballylic. A., Carbocinchomeronic. See 
A. , Pyridintricarboxylic . A., Carbolic, Camphor- 
ated, a mixture of carbolic acid I part and camphor 
3 parts. A., Carbolic, Chlorinated. See Trichlor- 
phenol (Illus. Diet.). A., Carbolic, Iodized, a solu- 
tion of 20 parts of iodin in 76 parts of carbolic acid 
with the addition of 4 parts of glycerin. It is used as an 
antiseptic and escharotic. A., Carbolsulfuric, a mix- 
ture of equal parts of cnide carbolic acid and concen- 
trated sulfuric acid. It is used as a disinfectant in z^c 
103'?^ solution. A., Carbonaceous. See Carbon 
Dio.xid. A., Carnic, CjdHjjNjOj, a sulfurfree com- 
pound resembling antipeptone obtained by Siegfried 
from milk and muscles. It is soluble in water and 
warm alcohol and gives several crystalline salts. 
AMiether it is a physiologic constituent of muscle or 
only an elaboration product is unsettled. A., Caseic, 
1. Lactic acid {q. v.). 2. Of Proust — shown by Bra- 
connot to be a modification of acetic acid combined with 
an acrid oil. A., Catechinic, A., Catechuic. See 
Catechin (Illus. Diet.). A., Catechuinic, a decom- 
position product of catechin by action of caustic pot- 
ash. A., Catechutannic, C|5ll„f\ (J. Lowe), red- 
dish-brown lumps, .scales, or powder extracted from 
Acacia catechu, Willd., by water. It is soluble in 
alcohol and slightly in water and is used as an astrin- 
gent. Ferric salts color it a dirty green. A., 
Cathartic. Same as A., Gz/Zwr/w/V (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Cerasinic. See Cerasin (Illu-s. Dict.l. A., 
Cerebric, \'auquelin and I'remy's name for impure 
cerebrin. A. of Chalk, A., Clialky, carbonic acid. 




A., Chamber, crude dilute sulfuric acid found in the 
lead clianibcis in the formation of sulluric acid from 
sulfur. A. -characteristic, tlie replaceable hydro- 
gen and the elenients immediately hound to it in the 
molecule of an acid, as the CO. Oil of organic acitls. 
A., Chelidamic. Same as A., ChdiJoitamii. A., 
Chelidonamic, CjlKNOg, an acid derived from chcl- 
idonic acid by heating with ammonia. Syn., Chili- 
damuacid; Aminoiu/u-lidoiiic acid. A., Chelidoninic, 
an acid isolated from C/u/iduniiiiit iimjiis by Zwenger, 
but believed to be identical with succinic acid. A., 
Chenocholalic, A.,Chenocholic, C.^;Hj,0,, a yellow- 
ish powder or amorphous mass, soluble in alcohol and 
ether, obtained from taurochenocholic acid of goose bile 
by boiling with baryta-water. A., Chenotaurocholic, 
CjjH^.jNSOj, an indistinctly crystalline acid found in 
goose-bile, of which it is the most important biliary 
acid ; it is soluble in water and alcohol. Syn., Taiiro- 
chciiocliolic iiiid. A., Chinic. See^., Qiiinic \\\\\x%. 
Diet.). A.,Chinovic. See .4., Quiiioiii-. A.,Chloro- 
phenic. See C/;/<«'(i/'/;iv/tf/(lllus. Diet.). A., Chloro- 
phenisic. See7/7V/;/«;/i/;c«.'/(Illus. Diet.). A.,Chlor- 
ophenylic, A., Chlorphenylic. See CJiIorf'liiiiol 
(lllus. Diet ). A., Chlorrhodic, A., Chlorrhodinic, 
a compound of rhodimii scsijuioxid with chlorin ; it is 
said to be formed in the decomposition of pus. A., 
Choleic, C2,H|||(),| (Lassar-Cohn), a cholalic acid 
named by Lat.schinoff which always occurs in small 
amount in ox-bile, and is probably identical with des- 
oxycholalic acid. On oxidation choleic acid first yields 
dt'hydrockoicic acid, Cg^Ha^O^, and afterward cliohutic 
acid. A., Choleinic, I. C.jH^./J,, an acid found 
by Latschinoft" in small amount in ox-bile, forming 
neetlles or tablets. 2. Taurocholic acid. A., Cho- 
lesteric, Cj^IligO,, an acid obtained by Tappeiner 
from the oxidation of cholalic acid with potassium bi- 
chromate and sulfuric acid. This nuist not be con- 
founded with cholesterinic acid. A., Cholesterinic, 
CgHjyO^, a dibasic acid obtained from cholesterin and 
from cholalic acid by action of nitric acid ; it occurs as a 
gum-like, vellow, hvgroscopic body with an acrid taste. 
A., Cholic. (.See lllus. Diet.) 2. See.-/., Glycocholic 
(lUus. Diet.). A., Cholodinic, C.,jH.,/J„ obtained 
from the dehydration of cholic acid ; it occurs as a resi- 
nous mass, devoid of color, soluble in alcohol, insoluble 
in water. A., Choloidanic, C,5H.,,Oj, obtained from 
ciiolalic acid by action i^f nitric acitl with heat ; it forms 
filifunn prisms almost insoluble in cold water. A., 
Choloidic, C.^.H^p,. See .-/., Clwloidinic (lllus. 
Diet.). A., Chondroidinsulfuric. See.-?., iSJion- 
droi/insit/fiiric. A., Chondroitic. See A., C/ion- 
droilinsulfuric. A., Chondroitinsulfuric, Cj^Hj;- 
NSOj, (Schmiedeberg), occurs, according to Morner, 
in all varieties of cartilage and in the inner coats of 
the arteries j it has also been found in amyloid livers. 
It appears as a white amorphous powder, easily solu- 
ble in water, forming an acid solution. Syn., Chon- 
droitii acid: C/iondroiiitisii/fitric acid : Chondrosc ; 
Ciioiidrog/vcosc ; Cliondroi;hicose. A., Chrysinic. See 
Chi-viiu (lllus. Diet.). A., Chrysophanic, Medi- 
cinal. See Clnysarohin (lllus. Ilict.). A., Cilianic, 
C.joH,„,0,|,, an oxidation product of cholalic acid. A., 
Citnicic, CuHj^O.^, a monobasic acid forming yellow 
crystals obtained from a fetid oil produced from the bug 
l\haphic;aslcs piiitctipeiiiiis. Lap. A., Cobric, Blvth's 
name for a very poLsonous crystalline substance he 
claims to have separated from cobra venom. A., 
Colombic. See A., Ca/iiin/'ic. A., Colopholic, A., 
Colophonic, an acid obtained from turpentine ; it is 
used in plasters. A., Columbic. See A., Ca/iim/iic. 
A., Comosic, an acid obtained from the bulbs of li/iis- 
cari comosiim and believed to have physiologic prop- 

erties similar to saponin. A., Copahuvic. ^ee A., 
Cofaivic. A., Copaivic, C^qI Ij^l )^, an almost color- 
less, coarsely crystalline powder, obtained from co- 
paiba ; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, and benzene. 
A., Comic. See Coniiii (lllus. Diet. ). A., Cotar- 
nic, Cj(II,,^<.>5, a dibasic acid derived iiom cutarnin by 
action of dilute nitric acid. A., Cresotic, A., 
Cresotinic, CgHgOj, an aromatic hydroxy acid 
of which 3 isomeric comjiounds may be formed 
by the action of sodium and carbonic anhydrid on 
the 3 modilications of cresol. They all occur in 
acicular crystals. The para compound, melting at 151° 
C, is used as an antipyretic in the form of .sodium cre- 
solate. Dose, 2-20 gr. ; max. dose, 60 gr. Syn., (In'Ai- 
luic acid ; Hontosalicylic acid. A., Cresylsalicylic, 
found in the mother liquor accompanying salicylic 
acid when prepared by Kolbe's process. A., Crith- 
mic, an oxidation product of the volatile oil of Cril/i- 
miitn marilimum, I.. A., Crocic. See A., Cioconic 
(lllus. Diet.). A., Crotonic, CH, .CH:ClI.CO.^H, 
a monobasic acid forming monoclinic crystals or trimet- 
ric plates soluble in water and ligroin, melting at 72° 
C. and boiling at 185° C. It is obtained from crude 
wood-vinegar, or produced by the oxidation of croton- 
aldehyd. A., Crotonoleic. Same as A., Tiglic. 
A., Crotonolic. See A., Tiglic. A., Cryptophanic, 
C,|,H|j,X.j(_)jj|, an acid found by Thudichum to exist in 
small quantities in human urine. A., Cubebic, C,3- 
Hj^O^ (?), a white waxy mass, turning brown on ex- 
posure, obtained from cubeb berries, the tniripe fruit 
of Piper ctilicba, soluble in alcohol and ether and alka- 
line solutions, and used as a diuretic. Dose, 5-10 
gr. in pills several times daily. A., Cumaric. See 
.-/., Cotimaric (lllus. Diet.). A., Cuminuric, a ni- 
trogenous acid found in urine and produced in the 
body by the conjugation of glycocoll with cumic 
acid. A., Cyanilic. See ,-?., Tricyanic (lllus. Diet.). 
A., Cyanurmonaraic. See Ainniclid (Illu.s. Diet.). 
A., Cynurenic, CmH^NC),, a decomposition product 
of prt)teids, found by Liebig in dogs' uiine ; it is a 
dibasic crystalline acid, soluble in alcohol and melts at 
253° C. 'Ssy\.,Ky>iiirc>iic acid. A., Dammar,C,|,H3(,0,, 
a crystalline resinous acid the chief constituent of Aus- 
tralian dammar (kauri gum). A., Dammaric. See 
A.., Daiiitiiarylic. A., Dammarylic, C^jH^gOj, a 
constituent of East Indian dammar, according to 
Huchsohn forming 80^ of it; it is insoluble in weak 
alcohol, but soluble in absolute alcohol. A.,Damolic. 
Same as A., Damalic (lllus. Diet.). A., Dehydro- 
cholalic, CjHjjOj -|- 3H2O, an oxidation product of 
cholalic acid with permanganate. A., Dehydro- 
choleic. See under .-/., Choleic. A., Delphinic, 
an acid first obtained in 1817 by Chevreul from the 
oil of the dolphin, identical with .■/., J'alcric (lllus. 
Diet.). A., Dephlogisticated Marine. Same as 
C/;/()r/K (lllus. Diet.). A.,Desoxycholalic, C,jHjjO„ 
a redaction product of cholalic acid occurring during 
putrefactive changes. A., Dextrocamphoric, cam- 
phoric acid prepared from ordinary camphor, which is 
dextrorotary. Cf. A., Levocamphoric. A., Dex- 
trolactic. .See A., Sarcolactic (lllus. Diet. I. A., 
Dextropimaric, one of the three acids found by Ves- 
terberg in pimaric acid ; it is dextrorotary, melts at 
2lo°-2li° C, is insoluble in water, easily soluble in 
hot alcohol and in glacial acetic acid, from which it 
crystallizes in large plates. A., Dextrotartaric, tar- 
taric acid. A., Dialuric, C^H^OjN,, a monobasic 
acid obtained by the reduction of alloxan with zinc 
and hydrochloric acid, occurring in needles or prisms; 
shows a veiy acid reaction, and forms salts with I or 2 
equivalents of the metals. It becomes red cm expo- 
sure, absorbs oxygen, and is converted into alloxantin. 




Syn., Tartronylurca. A., Diatomic, one which con- 
tains 2 atoms of replaceable hydrogen. A., Dibrom- 
gallic, A., Dibromogallic, A., Dibromotrioxyben- 
zoic. Same as C(7//i>^ri)Wii/. A., Dichloracetic, CH- 
Clj . COjH, produced when chloral is healed with CXIC 
or potassium ferrocyanid and water. It occurs as a caus- 
tic, colorless liquid at ordinary temperature, but crj'stal- 
lizes at alow temperature. Sp. gr. 1.522 at 15° C.; 
boils at 189°— 191° C; soluble in water and alcohol. 
It is used as an escharotic in skin diseases. A., 
Digitalic, a fi.xed acid obtained by Morin from the 
leaves of Digitalis purpurea, L., occurring as white 
needles of acid taste and reaction and peculiar insipid 
taste, very easily soluble in alcohol an<l water, less 
soluble in ether. A., Dihydrated, o[ie which is com- 
bined with 2 molecules of water. A., Dihydric. 
Same as A., Diatoniic. A., Dihydroxy, A., Dioxy, 
acids formed by replacing 2 of the hydrogen atoms of 
any acid radicle by 2 molecules of hydroxyl. A., 
Di-iodosalicylic, C-H^L^Oj, a white crystalline 
powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble 
in water, and melting at 220°-230° C. It is antipy- 
retic, analgesic, and antiseptic, and is used in rheuma- 
tism and gout. Dose, 8-20 grains three or four times 
dailv in wafers. Maximum dose, 30 grains. A., 
Diiodparaphenolsulfonic. See Sozoiodol (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Dimethylarsenic, As(CH3)200H, a 
substance Ibrmed by the oxidation of cacodyl, occur- 
ring in large permanent prisms, odorless and slightly 
sour. It is soluble in water and alcohol and melts at 
200° C. It is considered not to be toxic, and because 
of its solubility is easily absorbed. S)n. , Cacodytic acid ; 
Kakodylic acid. A., Dimethylprotocatechuic. See 
A.,V'eratric {\\\\xs.\y\c\..). A., Dioxybenzoic. See.-/., 
Protocatcclniic (Illus. Diet, 1. A., Dioxyphenylacetic. 
See A., Hoiiwgen/isinic. A., Ditartaric. See.-/., TJir- 
tralic. A., Ditartrylic. See A.,Tarlraiic. A., Dithi- 
ochlorsalicylic, SQH . CI . OH . COOH, a reddish- 
yellow powder obtained by heating a mixture of salicylic 
acid and sulfur chlorid to 140° C. It is recommended 
as an antiseptic. A., Dithiosalicylic, C„H,„S,j05, 
obtained from salicylic acid and sulfur chlorid heated 
to 150° C. , and existing in two modifications diftering 
in the solubility of their salts. It is an antiseptic, an- 
algesic, antipyretic yellowish-gray powder, partly solu- 
ble in water. Its lithium and sodium salts only are 
used in medicine as substitutes for salicylic acid. A., 
Dracic, A., Draconic, A., Draconylic. See.-/., 
Auisii (Illus. Diet. i. A., Elaic. See A., Elaidic 
(Illus. Diet.). A.. Elaiodic. .See.-/., A'/^ho/,/,- (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Eleodic, A., Elasodic. See A., Micino/cic 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Ergotic or Ergotinic, a volatile 
principle obtained from ergot of rye, occurring as a 
yellowish-brown, hygroscopic powder, .soluble in water 
and dilute alcohol. It is oxytocic. A., Erythric. I. 
Same as Eryf/irin (Illus. Diet.). 2. Brugnatelli's 
name for alloxan. A., Ethanethiolic. See.-/., 'J'/tic- 
acetic. A., Ethidenelactic. See .-/., Lactic (Illus. 
Diet). A., Ethmethacetic. See.-/., Melhylcthylacelic. 
A., Ethylacetic. See .-/., j5«/i77c (Illus.' Diet.). A., 
Ethylenelactic, CH2((JH) . CH, . CO.^H = C3Hg(_),, 
an acid isomeric with ethidene lactic acid or the lactic 
acid of fermentation, is obtained from acrylic acid by 
heating with aqueous sodium hydroxid to 100° C. and 
in various other nays. It is a thick uncrystallizable 
syrup ; on heating it loses water and is converted into 
acrylic acid. Syn., Hydracrylic acid : ii-Oxypropioiic 
acid; fi-Hydroxyprcpiciiiic acid. A., Ethylene- 
phenylhydrazinsuccinic, Cj(,H„2N,0(., an acid ob- 
tained from an alcoholic solution of ethylenephenyl- 
hydrazin and succinic anhydrid by boiling. It occurs 
in acicular crystals soluble in water. It is used as an 

antipyretic. A., Etbylidenelactic, lactic acid. A., 
Excretolic, Marcet's name for an oily body found 
in human feces. A. of Fat, Crell's name for an acid 
distilled from fat, and subsequently proved to be acetic 
acid. A., Fellanic, Cj^H-jOg -|- 3HjO, an acid ob- 
tained by Berzelius from putrescent bile by action of 
hydrochloric acid. A., Fellic, C,;,II,|,0,, a crystalline 
cholalic acid oVjtaiuedby Schotten from human bile ; it is 
due to admixture with this acid that cholalic acid from 
human bile differs in appearance from that obtained 
from other sources. A., Fellinic. Same as A., Fellic. 
A., Ferrihydrocyanic, HjF^Cyg, lustrous, brownish- 
green needles, gradually decomposing in the air, 
formed from the decomposition of lead ferricyanid by 
means of dilute sulfuric acid. It is soluble in water 
and alcohol. Syn., A.,Fcrricyanic ; Ilydroferricyanic 
acid ; Hydrogen cyanid ; I/ydroferricyaiiliydrie acid, 
A., Ferrohydrocyanic, HjFjCvj, a white crystalline 
powder turning blue in moist air; soluble in water. Itis 
the product of potassium ferrocyanid and dilute hydro- 
chloric acid. Syn . , .-/. Ferrocyanic ; Hydrogen ferrocy- 
anid. A., Ferulaic. See A., Fenilic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Formylic, formic acid. A., Frangulic, A., Fran- 
gulinic, C'ljlI^O, + I^'-^HjO, obtained from frangulin 
by boiling with dilute acids. It occurs as yellowish- 
brown needles or tablets, soluble in alcohol, melting 
at 252°-254° C. It is used as a laxative. Syn., A. 
Avorninic. A., Fumaric, C,H,0„ a dibasic acid ob- 
tained from Funiaria officinalis, L., several species of 
fungi and other plants, and also from decomposing 
malic acid. It forms small needles, or scales, soluble 
in water, subliming at 200° C. It is a feeble tonic. Syn., 
Allomaleic acid ; Bolclic acid : Glaticic acid ; Lickenic 
acid : Parainaleic acid ; Phenaconic acid. A., Fur- 
furacrylic, C^HgOj, a ciystalline acid obtained by 
oxidation of furfuracrolein and isomeric with salicylic 
acid ; it crystallizes from hot water in long brittle 
needles melting at 135° C. A., Furfuracryluric, an 
acid excreted in the urine and foi-med in the body by 
the conjugation of glycocoll with furfuracrylic acid. 
A., Gadic, A., Gadinic, Cj^H^^O,, a peculiar fatty 
acid obtained by Luck (1857) from turbid cod-liver 
oil. It forms crystals melting at 6o°-63° C. A., 
Gaeidic, A., Gaeidinic, CjjIIj^O,, a monobasic acid 
isomeric with hypogeic acid and obtained from it by 
warming with nitric acid, occumng in colorless crys- 
tals melting at '^%° C. Soluble in alcohol and in 
ether, insoluble in water. A., Gallamic, an acid ob- 
tained from tannin by the action of a mixture of am- 
monia and ammonium sulfite. A., Gallotannic, the 
tannin of nutgalls. A. of Galls, gallic acid. A., 
Gaultheric. .See Methyl Salicylate. A., Gelsemic, 
a fluorescent acid obtained by v. Wormsley from Gelse- 
miuin scmpervirens ; it occurs in tasteless, odorless, 
acicular crystals, soluble in 100 parts of cold water 
and readily in warm water, ether, and chloroform. A., 
Glucuronic. See .-/. , Glvcuronic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Glutamic, A., Gluta'minic, CHj.CHj.CH- 
(NHj) . (C(J()H)„, a diba.sic acid produced by boiling 
albuminous substances with dilute mineral acids. It 
forms small shining crystals soluble with difficulty in 
cold water, more readily .soluble in boiling water, but 
separating out on cooling, melting at 193° C. Syn., 
Aiiiidoglutaric acid. A., Glutanic. See A., Glu- 
tamic. A., Glycerinocarbolic, an antiseptic and 
disinfectant substance obtained t'rom carbolic acid and 
glycerin. It is soluble in water and alcohol. A., 
Glycerinophosphoric, A., Glycerinphosphoric, 
C^HgPt^g, a dibasic acid in combination with the fatty 
acids and cholin as lecithin in the yolk of eggs, in 
bile, in the brain, and in the nervous tissue. It is 
formed by mixing glycerin with metaphosphoric acid. 




It is a pale yellow oily liquid, without odor but having 
a sour taste, soluble in water and alcohol, and is used 
in treatment of neurasthenia, tabes, etc. Dose, o. i- 
o.j gni. ( I ',-5 gr.) three times daily. A., Glycerin - 
sulfuric, CjH^SOg, a monobasic body fonning a series 
of salts called glycerosulfates. Syn., .-/., Siil/cglyccric. 
A., Glycerolphosphoric, A., Glycerophosphoric. 
See A., GlyccrinpliosphorU. A., Glycerolsulfuric, 
A., Glycerosulfuric. See A., Glyccriiisiilfia-i:. A., 
Glyceryhricarbonic. See A., 7'ricnri>ii//r/u\ 
A., Glycoluramic. See A., Glycohiric (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Glycosuric, an acid first found by Marshall in 
alcaptonuric urine and again recently. It is now be- 
lieved to be identical with homogentisinic acid. A., 
Glycyrrhizic, an amorphous, brown yellow, resinous 
substanc: with a sweet taste, obtained from the root of 
Glyiyrr/iha glabra, L., and G. echiiiala, L. ; it is a tri- 
basic acid and the active constituent of licorice ; it 
swells in cold water without dissolving, but in hot 
water forms a clear yellow jelly, readily soluble in weak 
alcohol but scarcely soluble in absolute alcohol and in 
ether. A., Glyoxal. See .-?., C/)'o.n'/;V (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Glyoxalic. See A., Glyoxylic (Illus. Diet.). A.- 
green. See Pigments, Table of. A., Guaiacic, i. 
C'ljH.O:,, obtained by Righini (1S37) from guaiacum 
wood or resin ; it crj'stallizes in colorless needles, sol- 
uble in alcohol and ether. 2. See A., Giiniaresiiiic. 
A., Guaiacolcarbonic, A., Guaiacolcarboxylic, 
CjH^O,, a monobasic crj-stalline acid, melting at 150° 
C. It is antiseptic and antipyretic. A., Guaiaconic, 
C,,Hj„05 (Hadelich, 1S62), a constituent of guaiac 
resin in the proportion of 7o^f, occurring as a light 
brown amorphous substance fusing at 100° Q, ; readily 
soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform, insoluble in 
water. Its solutions are levorotary. A., Guaiac- 
resin. See A., Gtiaiaresinic. A., Guaiaresinic, 
A., Guaiaretic, CjuIL^gO^, a dibasic acid extracted by 
Hlasiwetz (1859) from guaiac resin, of which it fonns 
about 10 J^^, by the action of alcoholic potash or by 
quicklime. It fomis a crystalline salt with the fomier 
and an amorphous compound with the latter. The 
crystals are soluble in ether, alcohol, benzol, chloro- 
fomi, carbon disulfid, and acetic acid, in.soluble in am- 
monia and water, melt below 80° C , and volatilize 
without decomposition. It gives a colora- 
tion with ferric chlorid. A., Gummic. See Arabin 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Gurjunic, C,.,H,jO,, a constituent 
of gurjun balsam occurring in opaque crystalline masses 
of weak acid reaction, melting at 220° C, soluble in 
absolute alcohol or in ether, slowly in benzene ; insol- 
uble in water and dilute alcohol. A., Gymnenic, 
Q'^ao'^ii' ^ greenish- white amorphous powder with a 
harsh acid taste, soluble in alcohol and chloroform and 
slightly soluble in water and ether. It is obtained 
from the leaves of Gvtnnena sylveslre, R. Br., and ob- 
tunds the taste for bitter or sweet things, but not for 
sour, pungent, or astringent ones. It is used as a 
moutli-wash in 12^/ hydro-alcoholic solution before 
taking nauseous medicines. A., Helvelic, C,.>H„pO;, 
an acid obtained from fresh belladonna, occurring as a 
yellow transparent syrupy liquid of strong acid reac- 
tion. A., Helvellaic, an acid which destroys red 
blood-corpu.scles, obtained by Bohm from juice of the 
nni>hrooms belonging to the genus Hebella. A., 
Hematic, A., Haematic, a yellow crystalline body 
derived by Treviranus from carbonized red blood-cor- 
puscles by action of sodium carbonate and washing 
with alcohol. A., Hematoxylic, A., Haematoxylic. 
See Heiihitoxylin (Illus. Diet.). A., Hendecatoic 
or Hendecoic. See A., Undecylic, 'J'abte 0/ Fatty 
Aeids (\\\vis. Diet.). A., Heptoic. See A.. Euan- 
tliylic (Illus. Diet). A., Heptylacetic. See A., 

Pelargonic (Illus. Diet.). A., Heptylcarbonic. See 
A.,Caprylic (\\\Mi. Diet.). A., Heptylic. See ^., 
7^«(2;;//n7/c (Illus. Diet.). A., Hexabasic, an acid 
containing 6 atoms of hydrogen replaceable by bases. 
A., Hidrotic, CjHjNtJ-, a noncrystallizable acid ob- 
tained by Favre from perspiration, soluble in water 
and alcohol and evolving ammonia when heated. A., 
Homosalicylic. ^ee A., Cresolie. A., Homotoluic, 
A., Homotoluylic. See A., Hydrocinxamic (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Hydantoin-hydroparacumaric. Same 
as A., TyyosinJiydaiitoinic. A., Hydra-. See A., 
Ifydrogi-n. A., Hydracrylic, CjllgO,, an acid iso- 
meric with lactic acid. See A., EthyUiuiactic. A., 
Hydrantoic. See .-V., C/iro/w/vV- (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Hydrated, one united with the elements of water. 
A., Hydrochinonsulfuric, an ethereal acid found in 
small quantities in the urine after phenol-poisoning. 
A., Hydrocyanic, Aqueous, the hydrocyanic acid 
obtained by distillation, which contains a certain per- 
centage of water before removal by fractional distilla- 
tion and desiccation. A., Hydrocyanic, Inhalation 
of. See .(4., Hydrocyanic, K^/ur (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Hydrocyanic, Syrup of, a preparation consisting of 
dilute hydrocyanic acid, I part ; syrup, 125-200 parts. 
A., Hydroferricyanhydric. See A., Ferrihydrocy- 
anic. A., Hydroferricyanic. .See ./. , Fcrrihydrocy- 
anic. A., Hydrofluosilicic, H.^SiFg, a diba.sic acid 
obtained from silicon tetrafluorici by dissolving it in 
water. Its aqueous solution is a colorless, transparent, 
acrid, fuming liquid ; it volatilizes at 40° C. without a 
residue. Syn., A., Siliiofliiorii. A., Hydrogen, an 
acid containing hydrogen A., Hydroparacumaric, 
CgH^jOj, a derivative of tyrosin and formed in the 
human system during the process of intestinal putre- 
faction ; It may be prepared from paracoumaric acid by 
action of sodium amalgam, forming small prisms, solu- 
ble in alcohol, water, and ether, and melting at 125° 
C. ?j'jn., Oxyphcnylpropioiiic acid. A., Hydrospi- 
roylic, the volatile oil of Spiraa iilmnria. A., Hy- 
drotic See A., Hidrotic. A., Hydroxyacetic. See 
.-;., Glycoltic (Illus Diet.). A., Hydroxyoleic. See 
A., A'iiiiiolcic (Illus. Diet.). A., Hydroxyphenyl- 
amidopropionic. See Tyrosin (Illus. Diet). A., 
Hyoglycocholic, C.j-HjjXOs, a crj-stallizable glyco- 
cholic acid found in pig's bile, usually occurring as a 
resinous mass, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water. 
A , Hyotaurocholic, CgH^-NSOg, a biliary acid, 
which as a sodium salt is found in small amount in the 
bile of swine; it is analogous to hyoglycocholic acid. 
A., Hypogeic, A., Hypogeeic, CigH^jOj, a mono- 
basic acid found by Gossmann and Scheven (1855) in 
peanut (.Arac/iis /lypogcni) oil, occurring as fine color- .stellate groups of needles which melt at 33° C. and 
solidify again at 28-30° C; soluble in alcohol and 
ether; insoluble in water. A., Hypoxanthylic. See 
A , Sarcylic. A., Ichthulinic, a substance obtained 
by Levene from the ichthulin of codfish eggs, similar 
in composition to avivitellinic acid. A., Ichthyolsul- 
fonic, C2sHj,S30|;, an acid produced from Tyrolean 
bituminous mineral by the action of sulfuric acid; it is 
strongly acid and contains about lit-i,'/: of sulfur. It 
is antiphlogistic and astringent, and is used in the 
form of its salts, chiefly "ichthyol," the ammonium 
salt. A., Indigosuifonic, A., Indigosulfuric, 
CjgH,QS.,N.,Og, obtained from indigotin by the action of 
15 parts of fuming sulfuric acid; it occurs as an amor- 
phous blue solid or paste, soluble in water or alcohol. 
Syn., Indigotindisulfonic acid; Sitlfoiudylic acid ; 
Snlfoiitdigotic acid ; Snlfindylic acid : Soluble itidigo- 
bliie. A., Indigotic. See .4., Moiionilrosnlicylic. A., 
Indigotindisulfonic. See .4., Iiidigosiil/oiiic. A., 
Indigotinmonosulfonic, C,5H5N.^02 . SO3H, a purple 




powder, soluble in water and alcohol, obtained from 
indigotin by action of 7-10 parts of fuming sul- 
furic acid. Syn. , Sulf\^puypuyic acid : Phcniciitsul- 
ftiric aciJ, A., Indoxylsulfonic, A., Indoxylsul- 
furic, C5H5NO . .SO3K, indoxyl sulfate of potas- 
sium, derived from indol of the intestine by oxida- 
tion and excreted normally in small amount in the 
urine but increased by putrefactive changes in the 
body ; it occurs in colorless gleaming tablets and plates 
easily soluble in water. Syn., Animal inUiian ; Indi- 
can of urine. A., Inorganic, a mineral acid or one 
in which the carboxyl group CO . OH is absent. A., 
Inosinic, C,„H,3N,(\P, a primary nucleinic acid oc- 
curring in muscle lis-ue and containing hypoxanthin 
as a base. A., lodoboric, a compound of boric and 
iodic acids. A., lodoortho-oxybenzoic. See A., 
Alonoiodosalicylii . A., lodosalicylic. See A., Mo- 
noiodosalicylic. A., lodosobenzoic, CgH, . OI . CO- 
OH.„ a compound analogous in action to iodoform. 
A., iodotannic. See /('(/(»A;««/« (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Isethionuric. See .-/., Taurocarhamic, A., Iso- 
butylcarbonic, A., Isobutylcarboxylic. See A., 
J'a/ci-ic, .Vorma/. A., Isobutylformic. See A., 
Jsm'aleric. A., Isolactic, lactic acid. A., Iso- 
propylacetic. See A., Isovaleric. A., Isotar- 
taric, Laurent and Gerhardt's name for tartralic 
acid. A., Isouric, C5H^X^03, an acid, isomeric with 
uric acid, obtained by boiUng alloxanthin and cyan- 
amid, forming a heavy insoluble powder. A., Iso- 
valeric,] (CHj), . CH . CHj . COjH, an isomer of 
valeric acid, obtained from oil of valerian or from ox- 
idation of amyl alcohol, occurs as a transparent, color- 
less, oily liquid with odor of valerian and old cheese ; 
melts at 51° C, boils at 174° C. Sp. gr. 0.9470 at 
0° C. Used in nervous affections. Max. dose, 10 drops ; 
per day 40 drops. Syn., Monohydratcd valerianic 
acid; Valerianic acid ; Primary pentoic acid ; Isobiitvl 
carboxyl ; Isopropylacetic acid. A., Jatrophic. See^., 
Crolonic, in Table of Fatty Acids (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Jecoleic, an acid forming one of the essential con- 
stituents of cod-liver oil and isomeric with doeglic 
acid. A., Jervic, C^^li^J3^.^, a tetrabasic crystalline 
acid found in the root of Veratrum album, L. A., 
Kakodylic. .See A., Dimethylarsenic. A., Karabic, 
A. karabique. See A., Succinic. A., Ketonic, 
one derived from a ketone by substituting the acid 
characteristic CO . OH for an atom of liydrogen. A., 
Kinic. See .-/., Quinic (lUus. Diet.). A., Kinovic. 
See A., Quinotic. A., Kombic, a compound ob- 
tained by Fraser in the lead precipitate from an 
aqueous solution of alcoholic extract of strophanthin. 
It is freely soluble in water and of strongly acid reac- 
tion. A., Kresotic. See A., Cresotic. A., Kres- 
ylic. See Cresol (Illus. Diet.). A., Kynurenic. 
See A., Cynurenic. A., Lactolactic. SeeA.,/.ac- 
tylolactic. A., Lactylolactic, Cglli^Oj, a monobasic 
acid obtained from a solution of lactic acid heated to 
130° to 140° C. It occurs as an amorjihous, pale yel- 
low mass, soluble in alcohol and water, soluljle with 
difficulty in water. Syn., f.actyl lactate; Lactolactic 
acid' Lactic anhydrid ; Lactyl anhydrid. A., Lano- 
ceric, C3„H|5dOj, an acid resulting from the saponifica- 
tion of lanolin ; it melts at 104° C. A., Lanopal- 
minic, CigHj^O^, resulting from the saponification of 
lanolin. It melts at 87°. A., Lantanuric. See 
A., .Allanturic. A., Lapachoic, Cj^ll^O,, Paterno's 
name for the coloring-matter of lapacho wood, a 
species of Bignonia. It forms yellow prisms melting 
at 138° C, giving a beautiful red color with alka- 
lis and with sulfuric acid a blood-red coloration. 
A., Leucamic. See Leticin (Illus. Diet.). A.s, 
Leucinic, acids obtained by oxidation of leucins. A., 

Levocamphoric, A., Laevocamphoric, camphoric 

acid prepared from m.ilricaria camphor ; it is levorotary. 
A., Levopimaric, A., Laevopimaric, a modification 
of jiimaric acid crystallizing in rhombic pyramids 
which melt at I40°-I5o^ C, soluble in alcohol. Its 
levorotation is at times as great as the dextrorotation of 
dextropimaric acid. A., Levotartaric, the levorotary 
variety of tartaric acid. A., I^ichenic. See A., 
Ftimaric. A., Lithenic, A., Lithic, uric acid. A., 
Lithobilic, a bile-.icid found in bezoar stones. A., 
Lithofellic, A., Lithofellinic, Cj^H^gO,, a crystalline 
acid and chief constituent of the bezoar stones from a 
Persian antelope ; melting-point 204° C. A., Lith- 
uric, CjjHjciXO,, an acid obtained in only one instance 
from the urine of the ox. A., Lizaric, Cj^K,,,©,, a 
crystalline acid obtained by Debus from the coloring- 
matter of madder. A., Lobelic, a crj-stalline acid 
found in Lobelia injiata, L. , forming small yellow 
needles soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. A., 
Loco, the toxic principle of loco weed, Astragalus 
mollissimus. A., Lokainic, A., Lokaonic, C^2Hjg- 
Oj-, a dibasic acid found by v. Kayser ni lokao (Chi- 
nese green), occurring as a powdery blue-black mass 
which assumes a metallic gleam on pressure; it is in- 
soluble in water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, or ben- 
zene; soluble in alkalis, with a clear blue color. Syn., 
Lokain. A., Lokanic, C35H350.^,, a glucosid obtained 
from lokainic acid by action of dilute sulfuric acid with 
heat ; insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and cliloro- 
form. Its alkaline solution is violet-blue, which by dilut- 
ing becomes rose-red. Syn., Lokaetin. A., Lupa- 
maric, the bitter acid of hops. A., Lysuric, CgH,,- 
{C0C8H3)2N202, a substance obtained by Drechsel 
from lysin by action of benzoyl chlorid and homolo- 
gous with ornithuric acid. A., Maleic or Maleinic, 
C^H^O^, obtained from malic acid by distillation ; it 
occurs in prisms, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, 
melting at 130° C, boiling at 160° C. A., Mar- 
garic. A., Margarinic, Cj^Hj^Oj, an acid apparently 
not existing in the fats, as was supposed, obtained by 
boiling cetyl cyanid with alcoholic potasli ; it occurs as 
transparent crystals or white amorphous powder, melts 
at 59°-6o° C. and boils at 227° C. at too mm. Syn., 
Heptadecoic acid. A., Margaritie. See A., Ricino- 
stearic. A., Margarous, Chevreul's name for stearic 
acid. A., Marine, hy^lrochloric acid. A., Melan- 
urenic. A., Melanuric. See Ammelid (Ilhts. 
Diet. I. A., Mephitic, carbon dioxid. A., Mesity- 
lenuric, C,jHj.jX(.),, a nitrogenous acid found in urine 
and produced in the body by the conjugation of glyco- 
coU with mesitylenic acid. A., Mesotartaric, inac- 
tive tartaric acid obtained by heating 30 parts of tar- 
taric .acid with 4 parts of water for 2 hours to 165° C. 
A., Mesoxalluric. See A., Allo.xanic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Metaboric, IIBO.^, a monobasic acid formed from 
boric acid bv heating it to 100° C. A., Metachlor- 
hippuric, C^HjCI . CO . XHCII, . CO . OH. a tena- 
cious ainorplious substance, somewhat soluble in boil- 
ing water, excreted in the urine after the ingestion of 
monochlorbenzoic acid. A., Metacopaivic, Cjj- 
HjjO,, an acid found by Strauss in Maracaibo copaiva 
balsam occurring in white flakes, melting at 205°— 
206° C. , easily soluble in alcohol, in ether, in caustic 
potash, and in annnonia, insoluble in water. A., 
Metaiodoorthooxyquinolinsulfonic. See Lorclin. 
A., Metallic, an inorganic acid in which the acid 
radicle is a metal or metiiUic oxid. A., Metanitro- 
salicylic. Asymmetric, C^HjXOj, a nitroderivative 
of salicylic acid occurring in colorless needles soluble in 
alcohol and 1475 P-iits of hot water at 150° C. , melting 
at 228° C. Syn., u-.Vitrosalicylic acid. A., Meta- 
phosphoric, Diluted, a solution of 780 grains of 




metaphosphoric acid in distilled water sufficient to make 
l6 fluidounces. A., ,J-Methylalphaindolcarboxylic. 
See A., Siiitoharboitii. A., Methylamidoacetic. 
Same as Sanosin (Illus. Diet.). A., Methylami- 
doanisic, CgH,(NII. CHjjO,, an isomer of tyro>iii. 
A., Methylcrotonic. See A., Tiglic. A., Methyl- 
ethylacetic, CH^ — CjHs — CH . COOH, an isomer 
of valeric acid, occurring as a liquid, boiling at 1 75° C. ; 
sp. gr. 0.9410 at 21° C. Syn., A., Et/imtt/iacetii ; ji- 
Butyl Ldrbonii tuiJ ; a-Mt^lhyl bittyric ai'iii. A ., 
Methylguanidinacetic. See Creatin (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Methylguanidoacetic. See Creatiiiin (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Methylhydantoic, A., Methylhy- 
dantoinic, C^H^X./ )3, a uraniic acid appearing in 
the urine after the ingestion of sarcosin or methylgly- 
cocoU ; also obtained by prolonged heating together 
of urea and sarcosin in baryta-water. A., of Milk, 
lactic acid. A., Mineral. See A., Inorgnnii. A., 
Motiatomic, one whicli contains one atom of replace- 
able hydrogen. A., Moniodosalicylic. See A., 
Moiwiodoialicylic. A., Monobroraacetic, CjH^BKJj, 
produced by heating acetic acid with bromin ; it oc- 
curs as white shining tablets, rapidly deliquescing and 
strongly coiTOsive on the skin. It is soluble in water, 
melts at 51° C, and boils at 2oS°C. It isescharoticand 
antiseptic. Ssn., A., Bromacetic. A., Monohydrated, 
an acid combined with one molecule of w.iter. A., 
Monohydric. Same as A., Monatoniic. A., Mono- 
iodoortho-oxybenzoic. See -•/., Monoioiiosalicylii. 
A., Monoiodosalicylic, C-H^IO,, produced by boil- 
ing salicylic acid with iodin and alcohol ; it occurs as 
long needles or white crystalline powder, soluble in 
alcohol and ether and very slightly in water ; it melts 
at 198° C. It is used in acute articular rheumatism. 
Dose, 15-45 grains per day. A., Mononitrosalicy- 
lic, CjH3(NOjiOH. CO.^H,an acid obtained by action 
of nitric acid on indigo, or on salicylic acid. Syn., A., 
/ndigotic ; XttrospinyliL aciU : Xilro-anilic acid ; An- 
ilic acid. A., Monosulfindigotic. See A., Indit^o- 
sulfonic. A., Morinic. See Morin (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Morintannic. See Maclurin (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Morphoxylacetic, C|-H,sN03 . C. HjCOjH, a nar- 
cotic similar to morphin but weaker. A., Muriatic, 
Dephlogisticated, chlorin. A., Muriatic. Oxy- 
genated, chlorin. A., Muriatic, Superoxygen- 
ated, chloric acid. A., Myoctonic, A., My- 
octoninic, an acid found by Peckolt in Psy- 
chotria ruai\;^ra~i'ii, occurring as a yellowish, oily 
narcotic and extremely poisonous liquid. A., /3- 
Naphthalinsulfonic, C|jH, . SO3H, an acid occur- 
ring in white opalescent scales with generally a tinge 
of red, freely soluble in water and alcohol, slightly 
in ether. It is a sensitive reagent for albumin. 
A., Naphthionic, C^IIjfNHj). SO3H, an acid ob- 
tained from naphthylamin by action of ammonium 
sulfite, occurring as a white powder dissolving in 
about 4000 parts of cold water, but more freely solu- 
ble in alkaline liquids. Solutions fluoresce deep red- 
dish-blue. It is recommended as an antidote for 
nitrite poisoning ; also in the treatment of acute 
iodism and in troubles of the bladder originating 
in the alkalescence of the urine. Dose, 3-4 gm. (40- 
60 gr. ) daily. Syn., a-Naphthylamin-suIfonic acid. 
A., Naphthoic, C„HgOj, a crystalline substance of 
which 2 i.someric compounds may be formed by sa- 
ponification of the 2 modifications of naphthoiiitril. 
A., a-NaphthylaminsuIfonic, A., Naphthylamin- 
alphasulfonic. See .4., .Vaphlhionic. A., Naphtoic. 
See A., Xafhthoic. A., Narcotic. See Karcotin 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Naucleic. See Catechin (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Neurolic, Cj^HjoPO,;, a decomposition 
product of myeloidin, analogous to oleophosphoric 

acid and to cerumen, occurring as a viscous red sub- 
stance with rancid odor. Ssn.. Acidc uevroliqut. A., 
Neurostearic, CigHj^Oj, a fatty acid obtained by 
Thudichum in brain-tissue, isomeric with stearic acid 
but melting at 84° C. A., Neurotic, a sticky, red 
phosphoreted compound, obtained from treating a com- 
bination of myeloidin and lead oxid with sulfureted 
hydrogen. .Syn., Acidc nivroliijue. A., Nitric, 
Alcoholic, a distillate of I part of nitric acid with 3 
parts of alcohol. A., Nitric, Anhydrous, nitrogen 
pentoxid. A., Nitric, Monohydrated, pure nitric 
acid. A., Nitro-, an acid produced from another 
acid by replacing the hydrogen with nitryl (NO,). 
A., Nitroanilic. Same as A., iMononilrosalicylic. 
A., Nitrogenous, one containing nitrogen. A., 
Nitrohydrochloric, Dilute, nitric acid, 40 parts ; 
hydrochloric acid, iSo parts; distilled water, 780 
parts. A., a-Nitrosalicylic. See A., Metaiiilro- 
salicylic. A., ,}-Nitrosalicylic. See A., Anihtii. 
A., Nitrosonitric, fuming nitric acid. A., Nitro- 
spiroylic. .See .7., Muiicuitrosalicylic. A., Nord- 
hausen, brown fuming sulfuric acid first manufactured 
at Nordhausen. A., Nucleic or Nucleinic, any one 
of a group of organic acids containing C, H, O, N, 
and a large proportion of P. The nucleinic bases are 
present in the nucleinic acid radicles as organic com- 
pounds. The nucleinic acids occur in nature, free or 
in combination with albumins, when they are called 
primary acids. On decomposition they yield nucleinic 
bases, and according to their origin are termed sperma 
nucleinic acid, thvmonucleinic acid, yeast-nucleinic 
acid, etc. According to Kossel, there are in reality 
only 4 true nucleinic acids, viz., adenylic acid, guan- 
ylic .icid, sarcylic (hypoxanthylic) acid, and xanthylic 
acid. On decomposition the primary acids give rise to 
secondary acids which contain more phosphorus than 
the primary acids and may or may not give rise to 
xanthin bases on further decomposition ; according to 
Simon, they may be divided into acids of the type of 
flasminic acid and of //;r7//;>nV(;i-/(/ respectively. A., 
Oleophosphoric, Fremy's name for the phosphoreted 
fat found in brain-substance. A., Oleoricinic. See 
A.y RicinoUic (Illus. Diet.). A., Omicholic, C^Hj,- 
NO^, a red resinous substance extracted by Thudichum 
from urine, soluble in ether and alcohol, and showing 
a green fluorescence. A., Opheliac, A., Ophelic, 
CijHjgOjo, an acid isolated by v. Hohn from chiretta, 
the leaves of Swertia chirata, occurring as a yellow- 
brown acid syrup with a bitter taste and odor charac- 
teristic of gentian, and readily soluble in water, in 
alcohol, and in ether. A., Orceic. Same as Orcein 
(Illus. Diet.). A.,Orthoamidosalicylic,C,H3(NH,)- 
(OH)COOH, a gray, amorphous, slightly sweet, in- 
odorous powder obtained by reduction of orthonitro- 
salicylic acid and insoluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether. It is employed in chronic rheumatism. Dose, 
0.25-0.5 gm. (3-7 gr.). A., Orthoboric. See 
Boron (Illus. Diet.). A., Orthocholic, Cj.Hj^Os 
-(- H3O, a name given by Thudichum to the form of 
cholic acid produced by the decomposition of magne- 
sium with hydrochloric acid, occurring in prisms. A., 
Orthocresotic, CgHjO,, an acid obtained from ortho- 
cresol by reaction with sodium and carbon dioxid, 
forming long white needles, soluble in alcohol, in ether, 
and in chloroform, melting at 164° C. S\n.,Ortio/iomo- 
salicylic acid: Orthoo.xymetatoUtic acid. A., Or- 
thohydrazinparabenzoic. A., Orthohydrazin- 
parahydroxy benzoic, A., Orthohydrazinpara- 
oxybenzoic. See Orlhin (Illus. Diet.). A., Or- 
thohydroxybenzoic, salicylic acid. A., Orthooxy- 
metatoluic. %e& .4., Orthoiresolic. A., Orthooxy- 
phenolsulfonic. A., Orthophenolsulfonic, A., 




Orthophenolsulfuric. See ^ity»/c/ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Orthosilicic, H^SiO, ^= SiO.^ . 2H./J, a tetrabasic 
acid, known only in aqueous solution, produced by dia- 
lyzing a solution of an alkaline silicate previously treated 
with HCl ; it forms a colorless liquid which coagu- 
lates to a gelatinous mass on standing. Syn., Si/uic 
add. A., Orthosulfocarbolic. See Aseptol (Illus. 
Iiict.). A., Orthoxybenzoic, salicylic acid. A., 
Orthoxyphenylsulfurous. See .-/^ty>/tf/ (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Oxacetic. See .-i., (Jlycollic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Oxalacetic, Dumas' name for tartaric acid. A., 
Oxuric, Vauquelin's name for impure alloxanic acid. 
A., Oxygen, an acid which contains more oxyj^n 
than is requisite for saturation. A., Oxymandelic, 
CgHjOj, an acid found by Schultzen and Riess in 
urine in a case of acute yellow atrophy of the liver, 
forming shining flexible needles, easily soluble in alco- 
hol, in ether, and in hot water, slightly soluble in cold 
water, melting at 162" C. A., Oxymuriatic, I. Hy- 
drochloric acid. 2. Chloric acid. 3. Chlorin. A., 
Oxynaphthoic. See A., Alphaoxvnaphlhoic (Illus. 
Diet.). A., 3-Oxynaphthoic, CjjHgOj, obtained 
from sodium 3-naphthol by the action of carbon 
dioxid with heat. It is a surgical antiseptic. Syn., 
^-XaphtholcartwxvUc acid: ^-CarbonapltthoHc acid. 
A., Oxynaphthylorthooxytoluylic. See Epicarin. 
A., Oxyphenylamidopropionic. See Tyrosin (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Oxyphenylsulfuric. ^ee A., Siilp/tocar- 
bolic (Illus. Diet.). A., i-Oxypropionic. .See A., 
Ethylcnclaclic. A., Oxyquinolin Carbonic. See 
A.,C vniircnic. A.,Oxytoluic. See .^., Ovjo//r. A., 
Oxytoluyl, substances formed by oxidation of tolu- 
ene. A., Palicourican acid found by Peckolt in Psy- 
chotria marcgravii, occurring in stellate groups of 
odorless needles, with acid taste, soluble in water, in- 
soluble in alcohol, and having no poisonous properties. 
Cf. Myoclonic Acid. A., Paraamidobenzolsulfonic. 
See A., Sulphanilic \yA\x?,. Diet.). A., Parabanic. 
'fi^eOxalylurea (Illus. Diet.). A., Paracamphoric, 
an optically inactive variety of camphoric acid prepared 
by mixing camphoric acid from ordinary camphor (1//1-- 
Irocamphoric acid) with that made from matricaria 
camphor (levocamphoric acid). A., Paraellagic. 
Same as A., Riifiga/lic (\\\vi%. Diet.). A., Parafu- 
maric. See .4., A/alcic. A., Paraoxyphenylacetic, 
C^H^Oj, a decomposition product of proteids in the 
intestine, found in minute quantities in the urine. 
A., Paraoxyphenylglycolic, an acid found in urine 
under pathologic conditions, as in acute yellow 
atrophy. A., Paraoxyphenylpropionic, CjH,- 
(OH ) . C^H, . COOH, an acid formed from tyrosin in 
the putrefactive changes of proteids in the intestine 
and iound in small quantities in the urine. A., Para- 
phenolsulfonic. See A., Siilphocarbolic ( Illus. Diet. ). 
A., Pararosolic. See .Aiirin (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Paratartaric. See .-/., Racemic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Parilinic, A., Parillinic. See Sinilucin (Illu.s. 
Diet.). A., Paroxyphenyleneamidopropionic. See 
Tyrosin (Illus. Dict.j. A. of Pearls, acid phosphate 
of sodium. A., Pentabasic, one containing 5 car- 
boxyl groups. A., Penlatomic, one containing 5 
atoms of replaceable hydrogen. A., Perbromic, 
BrO- . OH, an oily colorless liquid formed from per- 
chloric acid by action of bromin. A., Periodic, 
HIO, ^ 2H,0, an acid obtained from iodin by the 
action of concentrated perchloric acid occurring in 
white deliquescent crystals which turn yellow on ex- 
posure to the air. It is soluble in water and alcohol, 
slightly in ether, and melts at I30°-I33° C. It is a 
powerful oxidizer. Syn., Ncp/aiodic acid. A., Phena- 
ceturic, C,oH„X63 = C^H^ . CHjCO . NH . CH, - 
COOII, an acid produced in the animal body by a 

grouping of the phenylacetic acid, C5H5. CH.^ . COOH, 
formed by the putrefaction of the proteids with glyco- 
coll. It has been prepared by Salkowski from horse's 
urine, and probably occurs in human urine. [Ham- 
marsten and Mandel.J A., Phenic, A., Phenylic. 
See A., Carbolic (Illus. Diet.). A., Phenicinsulfo- 
nic. A., Phenicisulfuric. See A., Indigolinmono- 
stilfonic. A., Phenol, carbolic acid. A., Phenol- 
sulfonic. See ,-/., .V/////;o<(7)-<io/«V (Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Phenylaceturic. ^te A., Phenacctiiric. A., Phenyl- 
hydrazinlevulinic. Ste Anlit/icrmin (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Phenylic, carbolic acid. A., Phenylsalicylic, 
CijHjdOj, a white antiseptic powder, soluble in alcohol, 
ether, and glycerin, but very slowly in water ; it is used 
as a surgical dressing as iodoform. Syn., Orthoxy- 
diphcnylcarbolic acid; PhcnyUrtliooxybetizoic acid. 
A., Phenylsulfuric. See A., Sulphocarbolic (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Phocenic. See A., Valeric (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Phcenicinsulfonic. See ./. , Indigoliumonom!- 
fonic. Pl. , Phosphoantimonic, a yellowish, very acid 
substance obtained from antimonium pentachlorid by 
the action of concentrated aqueous solution of sodium 
phosphate (Schulze). It is used as an alkaloid reagent. 
A., Phosphoric, Anhydrous, P-^O^, obtained from 
phosphorus by complete combustion, occurring as a 
bulky, light, white deliquescent powder, soluble in 
water. It is used as a chemical agent. A., Phos- 
phoric, Glacial, A., Phosphoric, Monobasic. See 
A., Metaphosphoric (Illus. Diet.). A., Phosphoric, 
Trjbasic, ordinary phosphoric acid. A., Photosan- 
tonic. See Fkotosautoniti (Illus. Diet.). A., Phy- 
setic. A., Physetoleic, an isomer of hypogeic acid 
and contained in the spermaceti oil found in cavities 
of the head of the sperm whale ( Physetcr macroccpk- 
a/iis). It melts at 30° C. It differs from hj-pogeic 
acid in not yielding sebacic acid on distillation. A., 
Picroacetic, a saturated solution of picric acid in I 'r 
acetic acid. A., Picrochromic, a mixture of picric 
acid (solution saturated in water) 10 vols.: I'^r chromic 
acid solution 25 vols.; water 65 vols. A., Picrohy- 
drochloric, a mixture of water 100 vols.; hydro- 
chloric acid (of 25 ?» HCl) S vols. ; picric acid as much 
as will dissolve. A., Picronitric, a mixture of water 
100 vols.; nitric acid (of 25% NjOj) 5 vols.; picric 
acid as much as will dissolve. A., Picronitro- 
chromic, a mixture of i part of picronitric acid and 4 
parts l<e chromic acid. A., Picronitroosmic, a 
mixture of picronitric acid 6 vols.; 2^r osmic acid I 
vol. A., Picrosulfuric, a mixture of distilled water ICX3 
vols.; sult'uric acid 2 vols.; picric acid as much as will 
dissolve (about 255*). Syn., .•/., Concoitratcd or un- 
diluted picrosulfuric. A., Pimaric, CjdHjdO^, an acid 
obtained from powdered gallipot resin by action of dil- 
ute alcohol, very similar to sylvicacid and passing into 
it when distilled in -■aciio. It occurs in crusts of micro- 
scopic crystals, soluble in boiling alcohol and ether, 
melting at 210° C. Recent investigations show that 
pimaric acid consists of tliree isomerids, one of them 
the pimaric acid described by Laurent, dextropimaric 
acid, and levopimaric acid (^. v.). A., Pimentic. 
See Ettgenol (Illus. Diet.). A., Pipitzahoic, A., 
Pipitzahoinic, Cj^H^jO,, a purgative principle dis- 
covered by Rio de la Loza in species of Perczia, and 
also obtained from Tri.vis radialc, occurring in glossy 
golden scales, soluble in alcohol and ether, melting at 
103°-I04° C. It is used as a mild drastic. Dose, 
0.2-0.3 g™- (3~5 »■■• ' A., Pivalic. See A., 
I'aleric, Tertiary. A., Plasminic, a secondary nucle- 
inic acid obtainable from yeast. It is soluble in water 
and precipitates albumins in acid solution. Its phos- 
phoric acid radicle is capable of forming a true organic 
iron compound containing I ^', of iron. It docs not 




give Millon's nor the biuret reaction and contains no 
sulfur. t)n decomposition svith mineral acids by boil- 
ing it yields nucleinic bases and phosphoric acid 
[Simon]. A., Podocarpinic, C^-H^U,, an acid 
found as the principal constituent of the resin of 
Podocarfiiis ciiprcssina, R. lir. A., Polyatomic, one 
containing several atoms of replaceable hydrogen. 
A., Polybasic, acids containing several carbo.\yl 
groups. A., Polychromic. See A., Aloetic. A., 
Polyhydric. Same as ./., Polyatomic. A., Pro- 
penyltricarboxylic. See A., TiuarbattylU. A., 
Propionic, L'^H^O^, an o.tidation product of propylic 
alcohol ; it is a clear colorless liquid with an odor like 
butyric and acetic acids and a specitic gravity of 1.013 
at 0° C. ; it is miscible with water and boils at 141° C. 
A., Propionylsalicylic, a compound obtained from 
salicylic acid by action of anhydrous pro[)ionic acid. 
It is used in gout and rheumatism. A., Pseudacetic, 
A., Pseudoacetic. '6ee A., Pro/>ionii. A., Purreic, 
A., Purrheic. Same as.-/., Euxaiilliu (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Pyridincarbonic, picolinic acid. See under 
Picolinii (Illus. iJict.). A., Pyridintricarboxylic, 
A., Pyridintricarbonic, CglljNt >5, an oxidation jjrud- 
uct of cinchona alkaloids; it is a white crystalline 
powder, soluble in water and alcohol, and melting at 
250** C. It is antipyretic, antiseptic, and anliperiodic, 
and is used in whooping-cough, typhoid and intermit- 
tent fevers, etc., and externally as an injection in ure- 
thral inflammation., lograins 5 times daily. .Syn., 
W., Carboiinchofncronic. A., Pyro-, an acid formed 
from another acid by action of heat. A., Pyroglucic. 
See Py rode. xt nil (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyroguaiacic. 
See Giiaidiol (\\\\\%. Diet.). A., Pyrolactic. See 
Z(7<-//./ (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyroleic. See A., .Se- 
hacic (Illus. Diet.). A., n-Pyrolidincarbonic, 
CjHyNOj, a product of proteid cleavage differing from 
all others in having a nitrogen-containing ring. A., 
Pyrolithic. .See A., Trii\'atiii (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Pyrolivilic, A., Pyroolivilic, an oily liquid ob- 
tained by Sobrero by dry distillation of olivil having 
the composition and properties of eugenol, and is 
either identical with this or with isoeugenol. A., 
Pyronecarboxylic. .Same as .-/., Comanic (Illus. 
Diet. I. A., ii-Pyronedicarboxylic. iiee A., C/ie/i- 
donic (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyroracemic. See A , 
Pyruvic (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyrosorbic. See A., 
Milcic. A., Pyrouvic. See A., J'yruric (\\\\if,. Diet.). 
A., Quassic, Cj^II^^Oj^, a dibasic crystalline acid ob- 
tained by decomposing quassin with hydrochloric acid. 
A.,Quercetic, A.,Quercetinic, C,5H,„0, + jH^O, an 
acid obtained from quercetin by action of caustic pot- 
ash, forming silky needles, easily soluble in alcohol 
and in ether, sparingly soluble in water; it reduces .sil- 
ver solutions and with ferric chlorid gives an intensely 
blue-black color. A., Quercitric. See Qiicrcilrin 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Quillayaic. See A., Qtiillaic (Il- 
lus. Diet.). A., Quinethonic, C^H^O,, an acid found 
in the urine after administration of phenetol. A., 
Quinolincarboxylic. See A , Cinchoninic (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Quinopicric, a mixture of quinin and 
cinchonin picrates, occurring as a brownish powder ; it 
was proposed as a. .succedaneum for quinin sulfate. 
A., Quinovic, C.^H^Oj (HIasiweU and Gilm.), a de- 
composition product of quinin; a tasteless, white, 
crystalline powder ; dextrorotary ; soluble in ether and 
chloroform, slightly in alcohol, insoluble in water. 
Syn., A'iiunic Had. A. Radicle. See under yP(7<//V/^. 
A., Rapic, A., Rapinic,C,,l I,,0,, an acid found in rape 
oil as glycerol ester. A. -reaction. See under Pcac/ion. 
A., Regianic, C5H5O;, a black amorphous acid ob- 
tained by Phipson from the shells of unripe butternuts, 
Jtiglam cinerea. With alkalis it forms soluble purple 

salts and with lead oxid an insoluble brown-violet sah. 
A., Resorcindisulfonic, CgH^S.^Og + 2lljO, ob- 
tained from resorcin by the action of sulfuric acid, oc- 
curring as deliquescent needles, soluble in water and 
alcohol. A., Ricinic, an acid obtained from castor oil 
by dry distillation or by saponification. A., Ricino- 
stearic, an acid produced in the saponihcalion of cas- 
tor oil. Syn.. ./., .l/.;i;;'(/)7//, . A., Sabadillic. See^^., 
Tiglic. A., Saccharinic. See .4., Sncclinric (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Saccharblactonic, an aldehydic acid 
midway between gluconic acid and saccharinic acid 
occurring in the animal body as a transformation prod- 
uct of the latter. A., Salicylacetic, A.. Salicylo- 
acetic, CgllgOj, a reaction product of .sodium salicyl- 
ate in a soda solution with sodium monochlor- 
acetate, occurring in lustrous leaflets, soluble in boil- 
ing water and alcohol ; slightly in cold water, ether, 
chloroform, and benzene; melts at 188° C. It is an- 
tiseptic and used as salicylic acid. Syn., Acelosalicylic 
acid : Safuyloxyacetic acid ; Salicylhydroxyacelic acid. 
A., Salicylhydroxyacetic. See A. , Salicylacclic. 
A., Salicylous. See Aldchyd, Salicylic (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Salicyloxyacetic. .See A., Salicyl- 
acetic. A., Salicylsulfonic. A., Salicylsulfuric. 
See -■/., Sulfosalicylic. A., Santalic. S.ime as Saii- 
talin (Illus." Diet.'). A., Santoic, C.jH,/),, yellow, 
granular or rhombic crystals, isomeric but not identical 
with santoninic acid, obtained by boiling santonin 
with baryta- water. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
chloroform, and melts at 171° C. A., Santonic. 
See.-/., Saiitotiinic (Illus. Diet.). It is also applied 
to .-/., Santoic. A., Satitous, C^HjuO.,, a product of 
the reduction of santonin with hydriodic acid ; it is 
dextrorotary and meltsat 179° C. A., Sarcylic, a pri- 
mary neucleinic acid yielding hypoxanthin on decom- 
position. Syn., A., //y/o.raiitliylic. A., Sclerotic. See 
A., Sclerotiiiic (Illus. Diet.). A., Scoparic. See 
Scoparin (Illus. Diet.). A., Scymnolsulfuric, an 
acid found in the bile of the shark [Siytiinus bore- 
alis). A., Scytodephic, A., Scytodepsic, tannic 
acid. A. of Sea Salt, hydrochloric acid. A., Seba- 
cinic. A., Sebacylic, sebacic acid. See under .Scbacic 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Selenous, A., Selenious, H^SeO,, 
a diatomic, diabasic acid obtained from selenium by 
the action of hot nitric acid, crystallizing in colorless, 
long, transparent prisms, soluble in water with heat. A., 
Selinic, a peculiar acid found by Peschier in the roots 
cti Pcuccdaiiton f'alu.^tre. A., Septic, nitric acid. A., 
Shikiminic, CjHj^Oj, a monoba.sic acid obtained from 
the fruits of Illicium attisatum, L. It is a crystalline 
powder melting at i78°-l8o° C. It is converted into 
protocatechuie acid on fusion with potash. A., Sili- 
cic, I. SIOj, a snow-white bulky powder obtained 
from a solution of silicates by the action of mineral 
acid. It is soluble in a hot alkali solution ; precipi- 
tated silica. 2. See .-/., Orlhosilicic. A., Silico- 
fiuorhydric. A., Silicofluoric. See A., Ilydro- 

Jliioiilicic. A., Skatolacetic, C,H5(CH3)N . CH^ . - 
COjH, a product of the decay of albuminates, melting 
at 134° C. A., Skatolamidoacetic, according to 
Xencki, an acid existing preformed in the proteid 
molecule. A., Skatolcarbonic, A., Skatolcarboxylic, 
C,„H,NOj, an acid formed during the process of albu- 
minous putrefaction, and a normal constituent of human 
urine. It meltsat 165° C. Syn.. A., 3- Afetliylal/>!iain- 
dolcarbo.rylic. A., Skatolsulfuric, C^HgNSOjH, an 
acid appearing as the potassium salt in the urine after 
administration of skatol. It has been obser\-ed in con- 
siderable quantity in diabetic urine. A., Skatoxyl- 

. glycuronic, a substance formed in the body by conju- 
gation of skatol and givcocoll and eliminated in the 
urine. A., Skatoxylsulfuric. See A., Skalolsulfu- 




ric. A., Sozoiodolic. See Sozoiodol (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Spermanucleinic, C^H^iX,/.),, . 2l'jO-, a pri- 
ixiary imcleinic acid occumng in semen ; it contains xan- 
thin, hypo.\anthin, anil adeiiin as bases, and gives rise 
to levulinic acid. A., Spbacelinic, an acid, regarded 
as the constituent of ergot, wiiicii causes gangrene and 
develops the cachexia of the disease. A., Spiraeic, 
A., Spiroylous. See Aldchyd, Salicylic ( Illus. Diet. ). 
A., Stearophanic. See .-/., Stearic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Stearoricinic. ?tee A., A'iiiiiostearic. A., Stib- 
ious, Sb^Oj, white or grayish crystalline powder used 
as an expectorant and emetic. See Antifnoniitm oxiU 
(Illus. Diet.). Syn. , Anhydrous autimonious acid ; 
An'imonious oxid of antimony ; Antimony trioxid. A., 
Stibous, C,-H,,0., iGmelin), a crystalline substance 
from oil of bitter almonds by action of fuming sulfuric 
acid. A, Strychninie. Same as .-/., /J5'<;i«;7<- (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Styrolic, A., Styrylic. See A., Onna- 
w;;V ( Illus. Diet.). A., Sudoric. See A., //idrotic. 
A. of Sugar, oxalic acid. A., Sulfaminbarbituric. 
See A.^ 'J^iii^nttric. A., Sulfazoiized, a class of acids 
formed from potassium nitrite by action of sulturous acid. 
A.,Sulfindigotic, A. , Sulfindylic. See A , Indi^^om!- 
fonic. A., Sulfo-. See A.. Tliio-. A., Sulfoanilic. 
See A., Sutplianilu (Illus. Diet ). A., Sulfocarbo- 
vinic. See.-/., Xanthic (Illus. Dicl.i. A., Sulfoehc- 
leic. .See .-/., 7<J«r(7r^o/;V (Illus. Diet. ). A., Sulfocy- 
anhydric. A., Sulfoeyanic, CNHS, rliodanie acid 
(Illus. Diet i. A., Sulfoindigotic. See A., Indigostil- 

fonic. A., Sulfoindylic. See A., Indigosulfonic. A., 
Sulfonilie. See A., Sulphanitic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Sulfophenic. .See.-/., Sulphocarbolic \\\\vLi. Diet). 
A., Sulfophenolic, phenolsulfonic acid. See under 
Plicnohu^phonic (^VAwi. Diet. I. A., Sulfopurpuric. 
See A., /ndi<;otinmonosiilfiiric. A., Sulfosalicylic, 
C-H5SU5, an acid obtained from salicylic acid by the 
action of sulfuric anhydrid, occurring as white crystals 
soluble in water and alcohol, melting at 120° C. , and 
colored an intense violet-red by ferric ehlorid. It is 
used as a test for albumin in urine. Syn., A.^Salicyhtd- 

fonic. A., Sulfothiocarbonic. See A.^ Xamhogcnic. 
A., Sulfotumenolic. See Tumcnol (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Sulfuric, English, ordinary sulfuric acid. A., 
Sulfuric, Fuming, HjSO, . SO3, an oily liquid, fum- 
ing in the air, obtained by roasting ferrous sulfate. 
Syn., Xordhau-en oil of vitriol ; Xordhauscn acid. A., 
Sulfurocarbolic, a combination of sulfuric and car- 
bolic acids, used as an antiseptic. A., Sumbulic, A., 
Sumbulolic. See.-/., .-///j-f/Zf (Illus. Diet. . A., Syl- 
vic, A., Sylvinic, Cj^Hj^Oj, a constituent of col- 
ophony which appears after much research to be a 
mixture of two acids, one dexlrorotary, the other 
levorotary. A, Tanningenic, A., Tanningic. See 
Catechin (Illus. Diet. ). A., Tartaric, Inactive. 
See A., Mesolartaric. A. of Tartar, lartaric acid. 
A., Tartarous, tartaric acid. A., Tartralic, CsH^- 
0,1 (Schiff ), Freniy's name for a dibasic acid, oc- 
curring as an amor[)hous deliquescent mass t)btained by 
heating ordinary tartaric acid to 140°-! 50° C. Syn., 
A., Ditarlrylic : hotartaric acid : Ditartaric acid A., 
Tartrelic, CjH^O,^, is produced when tartaric acid is 
heated for some lime to 180° C. It forms deliques- 
cent crystals. A., Taurocarbamic, CjH^N^SO,, a 
uramie acid ap[)earing in the urine after the ingestion 
of taurin. A., Taurylic, Stadeler's name for a sub- 
stance discovered in cow's urine which proved to 
be eresol. A., Temulentic, C,.^H,,NO|„, a crystal- 
line acid isolated from seeds of Lolittnt tcmulcntitm, to 
which the vertigo produced bv the ingestion of this 
grass is attributed. A., Tetraboric, HjB,Oj, boric 
acid heated to 160° C. , forming a glassy mass. Syn., 
Pyroboric acid. A., Tetrahydric. Same as.-/., 7>//'d- 

lomic. A., Tetrathiodichlorsalicylic, (Sj : C^HCl- 
[OH]COOH).„ obtained from salicylic acid by the 
action of sulfuryl ehlorid and heat ; it occurs as a red- 
dish-yellow powder, soluble in aqueous alkalis. It is 
antiseptic and used as a dusting-powder. A., Telra- 
tomic, an acid having 4 atoms of replaceable hydro- 
gen. A., Thebolactic, an acid found as a constant 
ingredient of opium, but later identified as ordinary 
lactic acid. A., Thiacetic. See .-/., Thioacetic. A., 
Thiacetylenic. See A., Thioacetic. A., Thio-, an 
acid in which sulfur is .substituted for oxygen. A., 
Thioacetic, C,H^OS, a clear, pungent, sour liquid 
with a sulfureted hydrogen odor, obtained from glacial 
acetic acid and phosphorus pentasulfid. It boils at 
93° C. ; sp gr. 1.074 at 10° C. It is used as a substi- 
tute for sulfureted hydrogen in analysis. Syn., Etlianc- 
thiolic acid ; Thiacetylenic acid; Thiacetic acid ; Ace- 
tosulfuric acid. A., Thiocyanic. See A., Jihodanie 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Thiolinic, a dark mass, con- 
sisting of linseed oil and sulfur dioxid, used in skin 
diseases. Syn., Siilfurated linseed oil ; lliiolin. A., 
Thioncarbonthiol. See A.y Xanthogenic. A., 
Thionuric, A., Thiouric, CjH^NjSOj, a dibasic crys- 
talline acid obtained from heating alloxan with ammo- 
nium sulfite. Syn., Stclfaminbarhituric acid. A., 
Thiophenic, C.HjS.COOH, an oxidation product 
of thiophen and analogous in properties to benzoic 
acid. A., Thiophenuric, C.H-.NSOj, an acid 
formed in the body b\- the conjugation of glycocoll 
with thiophenic acid and eliminated in the urine. A., 
Thiosalicylic, C^HgSO.^, a brownish yellow ob- 
tained from amidobenzoie acid by the successive action 
of nitrous acid and sulfureted hydrogen ; a surgical 
antiseptic. A., Thymic. See TXi-wp/ (Illus. Diet.), 
A., Thyminic, C,5H.,3X,0,.^P3, a secondary nucleinic 
acid obtained from adenylic and other primary nucleic 
acids after the separation of the nucleinic bases. On 
decomposition with strong sulfuric acid it yields a crys- 
talline substance called tliymin. A., Thymolsul- 
fonic, C,„H,,SO,, obtained from thymol by the action 
of stdfurie acid. It occurs in pearly crystalline i:)lates, 
soluble in water and alcohol, melting at 9I°-92° C. 
A., Thymonucleinic, C.i-H.,gN/).^„P3, a primary nu- 
cleinic acid occurring in the thymus gland and con- 
taining adenin and guanin as bases ; it gives rise to 
levulinic acid. A., Tiglic, A., Tiglinic, CjHgOj, 
an acid found in croton oil and Roman cumin oil, is a 
mixture of glycerol e.sters of various fatty acids, crys- 
tallizes in trielinic tablets soluble in hot water, melts 
at 64.5° C, boils at 198 5° C, and has an aromatic 
odor. S\n.^ A. ^n-Methvlc rolonic ; Crotonolic acid. A., 
a-Tolui'c, A., «-Toluyiic. See A. , Pheny'aeetic ( Illus. 
Diet.). A., Toluric, C|(,H,|NO„ a nitrogenous acid 
found in the urine and derived from the conjugation 
of glycocoll with toluic acid. A., Toncic. See 
Conmnrin (Illus. Diet.). A., Toxicodendric, ac- 
cording to Maisch, the active toxic princi|.'le contained 
in Rhus toxicodendron. A.. Tribasic, an acid hav- 
ing 3 replaceable hydrogen atoms. A., Tricarbal- 
lylic, C.,Hj(C( ).,M I3, is obtained as a by-product in the 
manufacture of beet-sugar and forms rjiombic cry-stals 
soluble in alcohol and water, melting at 158° C. 
Syn., A., CarballyHe : Propenyltricarboxylic acid; 
Glyceryltricarbonic acid. A., Trichlorbutylglycu- 
ronic, an acid occurring in the urine and pro- 
duced in the body bv conjugation of trichlorbuivl 
alcohol and of butyl chloral hvdrate with glvcuronie 
acid. A., Trichlorcarbolic. See Trichlorphencl 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Trichlorphenic. ."see Trichior- 
phenol (Illus. Diet.). A.. Trimethacetic, A., Tri- 
methylacetic. See ./., Valeric, Tertiary. A., Tri- 
methylcarbincarbonic. See A., Valeric, Tertiary. 




A., Tuberculinic, Ruppel's name for the micleinic 
acid conlameil in tlie lubercle bacillus to wliicli sub- 
stance its to\ic action is attributed. A., Tumenol- 
sulfonic, a substance obtained from tunieno! by action 
of iuniing sulfuric aciti ; used as a dusting-i)o\vder. 
A., Tyrosinhydantoinic, * ,o'^io-^2":i + HjO, one of 
the uraniic acids t'ormiug large transparent crystals and 
occurring in the urine after the administration of tyrosin. 
Syii , .4., /Iviiiintoin /lyc/rn/xifiiiiimnrii-. A., Ulmic 
or Ulminic, t-j,,! 1,(1,0,3 (')> ^ brown amorphous mass 
obtained from decomposing vegetable matter ; it is 
slightly soluble in alkaline solutions. A., Umbellic. 
(See lllus. Uict.) 2. Persoz's name for anisic acid, 
A., Umbellulic, an acid obtained from the seeds of 
California laurel, Uiiilhlliilaria (alifoniiai. A.s, 
Uramic, a .series of carbamid, — CONH compounds 
occurring in the urine after the ingestion of amido- 
acids. They comprise methyl-hydantoinic acid, tauro- 
carbamic acid, uraniido-beiizoic acid, and tyrosin- 
hydantoinic acid or hydaiitoin hydroparacumaric acid. 
They are found after the ingestion of sarcosin or 
methvlglycocoll, of taurin, amidobenzoic acid, and 
tyrosin res|)ectively. [Simon.] A., Uramidoben- 
zoic, CgHgN.^Oj, a uramic acid appearing in the urine 
after the ingestion of amidobenzoic acid. A., Uranic. 
See Uranium OxiJ, K>il. A., Ureous. See 
Xiinlhiii (lllus. Diet.). A. of Urine, I. Phos- 
phoric acid. 2. L'ric acid. A., Urobenzoic. See 
A., Hippiirii (lllus. Uict.). A., Urobutylchloric, 
(',i,H|5<.'l,< );, or ('iijUi-LljO;, a substaiice found in the 
urme after achninislration of butyl chloral. A., Uro- 
canic, A., Urocaninic, CijliijXjf),, an aromatic 
acid found in dog's urine. A., Urochloralic, an acid 
found in the urine after ingestion of chloral and formed 
in the body by conjugation of chloral with glycuronic 
acid. A., Uroerythric. See I'roeryllinit (lllus. 
Diet.). A., Uroleucinic. See.-/., Uroleiicic (lllus. 
Diet.). A., Uronitrotoluic, Cj^HuNOj, an acid 
found in die urine alter ingestion of orthonitiotoluene, 
occurring as a crystalline mass resembling asbestos 
with strong acid reaction and very soluble in water and 
alcohol. A., Uroproteic, t."„5H[|„N.,(|S; Ijj -i- nll/J, 
an acid found in the urine of dogs that had been fed 
exclusively upon meat. A., Urosulfic. Same as A., 
'riiiouric. A., Uroxanic, C-jH^\,0|(, a dibasic acid 
obtained from an alkaline solution of uric acid exposed 
{o\ some months to the action of air free from car- 
bon dioxid. A., Urrhodinic, A., Urrhodonic, a 
highly aromatic substance isolated from urine, forming 
brown stellate aggregations of soluble crystals. A., 
Urushic, a monobasic volatile acid obtained from 
Rhus veinicifi'ra. A., Uryllic. Same as A., Uric 
( lllus. Diet'.). A., Uvic, A., Uvinic. See A., 
Rai\mic (Ilhts. Diet). A., Valeric, Active. See 
A , MelhyUlhyUn,-tic. A., Valeric, Normal, C\\^- 
(CH.j)3C02U, an isomer of valeric acid, first prepared 
by Lieben and Rossi from pentonitril (C,H,,CX), is a 
liquid with o<ior of normal butyric acid, boiling at l86° 
C, melting at 59° ('.. Sp. gr. 0.9568 at 0° C. ; Syn., 
Pentoic aciii : Xormal propylacetic acid : hohutvl car- 
bonic acid. A., Valeric, Tertiary, (CHjljC . C'Oj,H, a 
fatty crystalline acid containing a tertiary alcohol radicle 
discovered by Hutlerow, who obtained it synthetically 
from tertiary butyl alcohol ; melts at 35° C, boils at 
163° C. Syn.,. -y.,/VTv; //,-,• Trimclltylacctic acid ; Pseii- 
dcnnileric acid ; Trimcthacefic acid ; Pinalic acid ; Tri- 
methylcarliincarbonic acid. A., Vanadinic. See I'an- 
adium Bronze, Tahle of Pii^nicnts {\\\m?,. Diet.). A., 
Vanillic, A., Vanillinic,' C^H, . O4 . OCH.COOH, 
an oxidation product of vanillin, forming colorless 
needles soluble in water, in alcohol, and in ether, 
melting at 211° C. Syn., A., Mcthylprotocatechuic. 

A.s, Vegetable, acids found in vegetable juices or struc- 
ture. A., Viburnic, ordinary valeric acid discovered 
in I'ihitrnittn of^nlns. A., Vieric. See I'icnn. A.s, 
Vinic, aci<ls obtained from alcohol by actitui of acids. 
A., Vitriolic, sulfuric acid. A., Xanthogenic, IIO . - 
CS . ,SH, an acid not existing in the free state ; the xan- 
thates are obtained from it. Syn., Sitlfothiocavbonic ; 
Thioncarbonthiol acid. A.s, Xanthoproteic, nitrogen- 
ous substances obtained from .solutions of proteids by 
action of nitric acid. A., Xanthylic, a primary nu- 
cleinic acitl yielding xaiuhin on decomposition. A., 
Xanthylicnucleinic. See A., Xanlliylic. A., 
Xeronic, CHuO,, a pyrocitric acid known in the 
form of its anhydrid as a liquid with peculiar smell, 
with sweet-bitter taste, sparinglv soluble in water, and 
boiling at 242° C. A., Xylonic, an oxidation product 
of x)lose. A., Yeast-nucleinic, L",„H5,|N„.O.^j. 2P,- 
O5, a primary nucleinic acid occurring in yeast ; it con- 
tains a carbohydrate group, as Kossel was able to ob- 
tain from it a hexose and a pentose. A. -yellow. See 
Pii^mcnls, 'J'abic cf (lllus. Diet ). A., Zizyphic, 
Latour's name for a crystalline acid found in an aque- 
ous extract of the wood of the jujube tiee, '/.izyplttis 

Acidifiant {as-id-if ' -i-ant^ \jicidtnn, acid ; Jieri, to 
become]. Acid-forming. 

Acidifier (as-id-if-i'-iir). One who or that which con- 
fers the properties of an aci<l upon a substance. For- 
merly oxygen was regarded as the essential "acidi- 
fying principle" or element. 

Acidify (as-id^-i/-i). I. lo convert into an acid. 2. 
To render sour, to acidulate. 

Acidifying Principle. See under Acidifier. 

Acidimetric (aside-mct'-rik). Pertaining to acid- 

Acidity. (See lllus. Diet.) A. of the Stomach, 
sourness of the stomach due to oversecretion of acid 
or to fermentation of the food. 

Acidness [as'-id-)tcss). ^ame as Acidi^'. 

Acidobasic, Acidobasigenous [as-id-o-ba'-sik, as-id- 
p-ba-ji/'-cn-iis) [acidiim, acid; Same, a foundation; 
jfr-rar, to produce]. Combining acid and basic char- 

Acidometer (as-id-oni'-c/-ur). See Acidimeter (lllus. 

Acidometric (as-id-o-met'-ri/;). See Acidimetric. 

Acidopeirastica. See Aiidopeirastica. 

Acidophil, Acidophile (as-id'-o-fil) [acidiim, acid; 
(^(/'K, loving]. I. .Susceptible of imbibing acid stains. 
2. A substance having an affinity for acid stains. 

Acidophilic, Acidophilous (as iii-o/'-i/-ii, -iis). Hav- 
ing special alhnity lor acid stains. Cf. Acidophil. 

Acidosis [as-id-o'-sis) \cicidiiin, acid]. A condition of 

Acidoxyl (as-id-oks'-i/). A compound of an acidyl or 
acid radicle with oxygen. 

Acidulant ias-ia'-ii-/an/). Capable of imparting acidity 
or sourness. 

Acidulate (as-id'-ii-/al) [cicidulare, to make sour]. To 
render acid or sour. 

Acidulum [as-id'-u-hint) [L. dim. of acidimi']. An 
acid salt. 

Acidyl (as'-idi/). The radicle of an organic acid, par- 
ticularly those hydrocarbons of the formula C„H2|,_|. 

Acidylated ias-id'-i/-a-/ed\. Combined with the res- 
idue of a fattv acid (acidyl). 

Acies. (See lllus. Diet.) 4. A ridge occurring at the 
intersection of two jilanes — as of bones. A. digitorum 
manus, the phalanges of the fingers taken together, 

■ from their resemblance to a line of spears A. diurna. 
See //e-w/t-rnA'/w (lllus. Diet.). A. vespertina. See 
A'yclalofia (lllus. Diet.). 




Aciesis (tis-i-e'-sis). See Acyesis. 

Aciform (as'-e-forni) [«««, a needle; forma, form]. 
Needle-shaped ; acicular, aciculate, aciculiform. 

Acin (as' -in). See Acinus (Illus. Did.). 

Acinal {as'-in-nl). Pertaining to an acinus; acinous. 

Acineses. See Akineses. 

Acinesic, Acinetic. See Akinetic. 

Acinosa tunica. See Tunica acinosa. 

Acinose {^as'-in-oz). See Acinous. 

PlCiuosus [as-iii-o'-siis) [L.]. Resembling grapes, acin- 

Acinotubular (as-in-o-tii'-hu-lar) \iiciniis, a grape ; 
liilnilii;, a tube]. Applied to a gland or other struc- 
ture having tubular acini or secreting sacs. 

Acinous [as'-iiiKs) \juinus, a grape]. I. Relating to 
an acinus or having acini. 2. Resembling a grape or a 
cluster of grapes; composed of granular concretions; 

Acipenserin yns-e-pcn'-sur-in'). CjsHjjNjgOj. A pro- 
t.imiii obtained from the sturgeon, Acipenser steltalus. 

Acleidian ^ah-kli'-de-an) [a, priv.; x/.eif, the collar- 
bone]. Without clavicles. 

Acme (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Acne; an acne papule; 
a wart. 

Acmeochlorosis, Acmaeochlorosis {akme-o-klor-o'- 
sis). See Chlorosis atltillorum. 

Acmeopimelorrhea, Acmaeopimelorrhoea (ak-me-o- 
pim-c/'Or-c'-a'i). See Sci'orr/iaa oleosa (Illus. Diet.). 

Acmeopolysarcia, Acmaeopolysarcia (ak-mc-o-poi-e- 
sai'-sc-alt\. See Polysai cia 

Acna {ak'-nah). See Acne. 

Acne. (See Illus. Diet. ) ?isr\.. Acne varus : Whelk; 
Stone pock : Acne houtoniieuse ; Acne eruptive. A. 
albida. See Milium (Illus. Diet.). A., Arthritic, 
a form common in adults, especially in women at the 
climacteric and thought to be connected with the ar- 
tliritic diathesis. A. artificialis e bromio, A. arti- 
ficialis e pice, A. artificialis ex iodinio. See .4., 
Broiiiin-: .4.. Tar-: A., loa'in-. A. boutonneuse. See 
Acne. A., Bromin-, A., bromata, that due to in- 
ternal use of bromin. A. cheloidienne. See Derma- 
titis papillaris capillilii I Illus. Diet). A., Chlorin-, 
a form described by Her.xheimer, occurring among 
men engaged in manufacturing hydrochloric acid. 
The skin of the face was pigmented, comedones and 
pustules of varying size were thickly scattered over the 
face, brow, scalp, neck, back, upper thora.\. genitals, 
and inner surface of the thighs. Atheromas and 
curious cornifications resembling those of Darier's 
disease were present on the scalp. A. coagminata, 
a form of bromin-acne in which the groups of closely 
aggregated pustules form thick patches covered with 
scabs of dried pus, presenting beneath a dusky red and 
often moist surface. A., Concrete. See Seborrhaa 
sicca (Illus. Diet.). A., Congestive. See .-icne 
rosacea (Illus. Diet.). A. contagiosa, an inoculable 
pustular disease of horses, said to dilfer from horse- 
pox A. cornea. Same as Ichthyosis follicularis 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Elephantiasic. See Rhinophynia 
(Illus. Diet.). A. ephebica, a form peculiar to 
puberty. A., Epileptic, acne in an epileptic ; it is 
sometimes due to ingestion of bromin. A. eruptive. 
See .-^i/;!^ (Illus. Diet.). A. ex usu picis. See .■/<//,-, 
Tar-. A., Fluent-. See Scliorrhoa oleosa (Illus. 
Diet ). A. granulosa. See .-/., caehecticoruin ( Illus. 
Diet. 1. A. hordeolans, A. hordeolaris, a form with 
the ]ju>tules arranged in linear groups. A., lodin-, A. 
iodata, A. jodata, acne due to internal use of iodin or 
its compounds. A. luposa. See A. telangiecloiies. A. 
medicamentosa, acne due to the internal administr.a- 
tiiin of certain drags — as iodin, bromin, etc. A. 
miliaris, I. Milium. 2. A pustular variety of A. 

rosacea. A., Miliary Arthritic. See A. caehecti- 
coruin (lUus. Diet.). A., Miliary Scrofulous, a va- 
riety of the disease usually occurring on the forehead ; 
the pustules are small, discrete, or couHuent, and often 
arranged in geometric tigures. A. moUuscoidea, A. 
moUuscum. See Molluscuin contagiosuin (Illus. 
Diet. I. A., Penicilliform. See Tinea asbestina and 
seborrhcea umianthacca (Illus. Diet.). A., Pilous, a 
variety of the disease in which the pustules involve the 
hair-bulbs. A., Pilous, Umbilicatid, a variety of 
the disease in which each ]>u>tule is umbilicated and 
pierced by a hair. A. psydracia, term used by Sau- 
vage to designate pustular acne. A. punctata 
albida. See Milium (Illus. Diet). A., Pustulous 
Disseminated, the name given by Bazin to A. sim- 
plex. A. rhinophynaa. Same as A. hypcrlrophica 
(Illus. Diet. ). A. rosacea congestiva. See .-/. /nyt^;-- 
trophica (Illus. Diet.). A. rosacea hypertrophica. 
See A. hypertrophica (Illus. Diet.). A. rosacea 
pustulosa. See Rosacea pustulosa. A. scorbutica, 
that associated with scurvy. Syn., Purpura maculosa. 
A. sebacea cornea. See Daricr's Disease (Illus. 
Diet.). A. sebacea moUuscum. See Atheroma 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Sebaceous, Crusty. See Sebor- 
rhcea sicca (Illus. Diet. i. A., Sebaceous, Dry, A. 
sebacea exsiccata. .See Xeroderma (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Sebaceous, Fluent. See Seborrhaa oleosa (Illus. 
Diet.). A. secretante, a comprehensive terai used by 
Bazin for anomalies of sebaceous secretion, including 
acne punctata and acne sebacea. A. Solaris, a form 
due to exposure to the sun, marked by red papules 
that seldom suppurate, occurring on the nose, lower 
evelids, and cheeks. A., Squamous, a form described 
bv .A.struc. perhaps seborrh'X'a sicca. A. strophulosa. 
See Milium (Illus. Diet.). A., Syphilitic, A. 
syphilitica, a form with inflammation in the lollicles 
appearing in scattered, pointed pustules with copper- 
colored base. Syn., Acnei/orm syphiloi/crm. A., Tar-, 
that due to prolonged application of tar to the 
skin, marked by red inflammatory papules with black 
points in the centers. Syn., Acne ex usu picis. A. 
telangiectodes, A. teleangeiectodes, Kaposi's name 
for a nonpustular disease having its origin in the hair- 
follicles and presenting smooth, shining, circumscribed 
hemispheric nodules, pale-pink to brownish-red in 
color, from a pinhead lo a cherrystone in size. Epi- 
thelial cyst formation and degeneration of the hair- 
follicle attends it. Syn., Disseminated follicular lupus 
simulating acne; Acne luposa; Lupus miliaris; 
Lupus follicularis acneiformis ; Acute disseminated 
nodular tuberculous lupus. A., Tennesson's, a 
disseminate variety of acne cornea. A. of the 
Throat. See Pharyngitis, Follicular (IWus. Diet.). 
A. tuberata, A. tuberculosa. See .-/. indurata 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Tuberculoid. See Mollusciivi 
contagiosum (Illus. Diet.). A., Tuberculous, Um- 
bilicated. See MoUuscum conta)^iosutn (Illus. Diet. i. 
A. umbilicata. See Mollttscitm contagiosum (Illus. 
Diet). A., Varicose, a form described by Astruc 
characterized by dilated superficial capillaries. A. 
varioliformis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. See MoUuscum 
(W//rt;'w,(«/K I Illus. Diet. ■>. A. varus. See .-/(Hr' (Il- 
lus. Diet.). A. vulgaris indurata. See .4. indurata 
(Illus. Diet.) A. vulgaris simplex. See.-/, sim- 
plex (Illus. Diet.). A. vulgaris tuberata. .'^ee./. 
indurata (Illus. Diet.). 

Acneform, Acneiform [ak'-ne-form, ak-ne'-e-form). 
Resembling acne. 

Acnemia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A condition marked 
by total absence of legs. 

Acnemous ((?/(■'-«(■- ///Hs) [o, priv.; k)//,u//, leg]. Having 
imperfect calves ; having nolegs. 




Acoathed {,ik-dtlii1'). A Dorsetshire term for sheep 
nlk-ctcil with liver disease. 

Acocantherin. See uinler Acokanlhem venenata. 

Acoccygeus \ah-kok-siy-e-us') [«, priv.; KoKuvi, coc- 
cyx]. Uestitute of a coccyx. 

Acodin (nk'-o-Jin). A preparation used in <ientistry 
said to consist of aconite, iodin, tannic acid, and 

Acoesis (a/;-<i-,''-sis). See AiiJitioii (Illiis. Diet.). 

Acoeton, Acoetos, Acoetus \ak-o'-e-ton, -tos, -tits). 
See a>;i7//,7 (Ulus. Diet.). 

Acognosia (•t/ikn^'-iio'-zd-u/i). See Aceognosia (Illus. 

Acography [ak-Of;'-ra/-f) [iikoc, a remedy ; jpaiptn', to 
write]. A description of remedies. 

Acoin C. (•ik'-o-in). Hydrochlorate of di-para-anysil- 
mono-para-pheiietyl-giianidin, a white powder, used 
in I % aqueous solution as a local anesthetic. It is a 
powerful disinfectant and first introduced into medical 
practice by Darier for anesthesia of the eye. 

Acoitus (iik-y-i/-iii). See Oxyinel (\\[us,- Diet.). 

Acokanthera (ak-o-kan-Z/n-'-ra) [oKWK//,a point; avt>t)p6(, 
blooming]. A genus of plants of the order Apotyn- 
acete, A. abyssinica yields an African arrow-poison, 
ms/ian:^n^ secured from a decoction of the branches, the 
toxic property due to a crystalline glucosid, C.,3M^g().j, 
described by Brieger in 1902. A. deflersii anil A. 
schimperi are used as arrow-poisons in Africa. The 
poisonous jjrinciples are crystalline glucosids. A. 
venenata, (j. Dtjn. , a species indigenous to southern 
Africa, where a decoction of the bark is used by the 
natives to poison arrows. The poi-sonous principle is 
a glucosid, aiOcantkerin^ similar to or identical with 

Acolabis (ak-o/''a/>-is) ['i»'c, a point; 7.aj3i^, forceps]. 
.\ double-toothed artery forceps devised by Puppi. 

Acolyctin (ak-o-/ik'-tin). Htibschraann's name for an 
alkaloid derived from Actmifum Ivfoctontim^ Linn. 
.'\ccording to Wright and Luff, it is identical with 
aconin and jiseudaconin ; but according to Dragendorff 
and S[)ohn, it is a decomposition product of lycaconitin 
and myoctonin. 

Acomus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. See Acosmiis. 

Acone {ak'-on C-) [L.]. I. A whetstone. 2. A levi- 
galion appliance. 3. A mortar. 

Aconitate [ak-on'-i/dl). A s.alt of aconitic acid. 

Aconitin (<;/!• !'«'-//-/«). (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. C,,|H,j- 
XO|., { Duustan), an intensely poisonous alkaloid from 
.-i?r(^/;/V//w //(?/(■////.« and other species ; it occurs as wliite 
flat crystals of slightly bitter taste, soluble in alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, and hot water; melts at i84°-i86° 
C. Dose, i,\^ gr. (O.OCX)3 gni.). .Syn., AcoiiiliLiim ; 
AcoiiHintiin ; AiOnilinm. 3. See AiOiiitina. A., 
Amorphous, a mixture of several bases found in the 
bulbs of .lioititiint napclltts. Its principal constituent is 
aconitin and picroaconitin. It is about 15 to 20 times 
less poisonous than pure crystallized aconitin. A., 
British, C,i;H,,,NO,.; (Wright), the alkaloid prepared 
by Morson from Atonitia/i fc-rox^ Wall. It is a yellow- 
ish-white crystalline powder, .soluble in hot water, 
sliglitly solulile in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. 
Dose, jij gr. (0.00026 gm.). Also called English 
Afonitin^ Ai-raconitin^ Moysoti" s XapelUn or Pure 
Afonitin^ Hithuhniann'' s Pscittfaconitin^ P/iiri-rgt-rs 
-Wpa/in. A. Bromhydrate. See A., -Hydiobroma/e. 
A., Duquesnel's. See A. Ki/rale. A., English. 
See A , British. A. Hydrobromate, C^iHj.jNOi^- 
HBr -I- 2j^H,0 (Jiirgens. ), from cryst.alline aconitin, 
occurring as small white tablets, soluble in water and 
alcohol ; melts at 163° C. Dose, the same as the crys- 
talline alkaloid- A. Hydrochlorate, CyH^NO,.;- 
HCl -|- 3H2O (Jurgens. ), a white crystalline powder 

from crystalline aconitin, soluble in water and alcohol. 
Dose, about the same as the alkaloiil. .Syn., Atonitin 
ciilorhyiiratr, .4. /lyi/rihh/nrit,: A. Nitrate, C^jH^- 
NO,.^UN().,, fine white prisms or rhombic crystals, 
soluble in alcohol, slightly in water; it is iiighly poi- 
sonous and is used in neuralgia and rheumatism. Dose, 
about the same as the alkaloid. Syn., DiK/iiesneP s 
aconitin. A. Phosphate, a .salt of aconitin. It occurs 
as while crystalline jjowder, or as a yellowish-white 
amorphous powder. Soluble in water and alcohol. A. 
Salicylate, a salt of aconitin occurring as a white ciys- 
talline |)owdcr or as a yellowish-white amorphous pow- 
der. Soluble in w.ater and in alcohol. A. Sulfate, 
(C,|.|ll^.,N(_)|.;).,H.;SOj, a salt of aconitin occurring as a 
crystalline powder, in glass-like lumps, or as a yellow- 
ish-white amorphous powder. It is soluble in water 
and in alcohol. 

Aconitina {nk-on-it-i'-ii:///). An impure aconitin, or 
combination of principles obtained from the root of 
Atonititiii n<rpc////s, Linn., as prepared bv Morson. It 
occurred in white grains free trom oiior. with a sharp 
bitter taste, not volatile, easily fusible, soluble in alco- 
hol and ether and in 60 parts of water at 60° F. or 
too parts at 212° F. Its salts do not crystallize, but 
form gum-like masses. It was regarded by the eclec- 
tics as *' too powerful a poison to be used internally," 
but was recommended externally in form of tincture 
or ointment in neuralgia or rheinnatism. 

Aconitium Uik-o-nc'-slic-uin). See .honitin. 

Aconitum. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A genus of herbs of die 
natural order Ktinuncnlaceir. A. anthora, Linn., a 
species native to Europe and the < >rient, and northern 
Asia. The roots have been employed in the treatment 
of thoracic affections. A. cammarum, Linn., a 
species native to Europe. Used as a source of aconi- 
tin. This is probably the species employed by Barou 
Stoerk, of Vienna, who introduced aconite into moflern 
practice in 1762. A. ferox, Wall., a species indige- 
nous to the Himalayan region. The root is employed 
externally, in tincture, for the treatment of rheuma- 
tism ; it is the source of British aconitin or pseiiJacon- 
itin, and of the arrow-poison known as Biilsnali-hish, 
bikh, bish, biskh, or Vis/ia, employed in killing tigers 
and other troublesome animals. It is regarded as the 
most formidable poison of India. A. fischeri, Reiehb. , 
a species indigenous to Siberia, but .said to grow in- 
the mountains of the western United States. It differs 
but little from ,7. napcllus in phy.siologic action. A. 
heterophyllum. Wall., a shrub, native of the Hima- 
layan region. The root, known as Attcs, Atis, or Utees, 
is sold in fine white powder as a tonic and febrifuge. 
It is intensely bitter and slighdy astringent, and con- 
tains considerable starch, which is prepared as food. 
It yields the nonpoisonous alkaloid atisin. A. japoni- 
cum, Decne., a Japanese species {tsaof/7iu'o), the rhi- 
zomes of which are kept in Japanese drug stores along 
with those of some six other species, usually preserved 
in vinegar, in urine, or by drying. Several alkaloids 
have been separated, of which Ja/>ae-onitin is said to- 
be the most poisonous of all aconite alkaloids. A. 
luridum. Hook, til., a Himalayan species occurring in 
connnerce with .-/. /?ro.r. A. lycoctonum, Linn., a 
species indigenous to Europe and ni>rthern .\sia. The 
leaves are said to be eaten as a potherb, though 
avoided by cattle. The root yields 4 alkaloids : /yra- 
{■onitin, mvoctonin, lyca^ouin^ and ncolytin. A. pal- 
matum, D. Don., a species indigenous to the Hima- 
layan region. The root is bitter and cont.ains a well- 
defined alkaloid the toxic properties of which are in 
dispute. A.paniculatum, Lamarck, a European spe- 
cies said to serve as a source of aconitin, although it is inert. 




Aconityi (<;^'-o«'-//-//). CJH3O3. The trivalent radicle 
of aconiiic acid. 

Acopos {ah' -ko-pos\ [a, priv. ; ^o-ot;, pain, that is to say 
calmative]. I. .\ class of anodyne medicines. 2. 
Tlie *' refreshing" stone, described by I'liny as ** like 
niter in appearance, porous and starred with drops of 
gold ; gently boiled with oil and applied as an un- 
guent it relieves lassitude." 3. Aiuigyris Jaliila, 
Linn. (</. v."). 4. .Applied by Apuleius to manna. 

Acopria (iih-iop'-re-n/i). See .-/iv/zm/j- ( Illus. Diet.). 

Acoprous {ah-kop'-rits). Characterized by the absence 
uf e-xcrement in the bowels. 

Acopyrin (ak-o-p't'-rin). A combination of aspirin and 
antipyrin ; it is used in rheumatism. Dose, 05 gm. 
5 or 6 times daily. 

Acoria. (See Illus. Diet ) 2. Temperance in eating. 
3. .\ nervous affection of the stomach characterized by 
a sense of satiety. 

Acorn-chocolate. See under ChocoUile. A. -sugar. 
See Qiunit \\\\ui. Diet.). 

Acorum {ak'-or-tim) [(m<;/<cmi]. The root of the sweet- 
flag, At'onts calamus, Linn. 

Acorus (ak'-or-iis) [I'lwi mr, the sweet-flag], .\ genus 
of herbs belonging to the natural order Aroiileir, A. 
calamus, Linn., sweet flag, a species common in 
swamps throughout Europe and the United States ; the 
rhizome is used as a carminative and aromatic. It 
yields acorin and calamus oil. 

Acostnia. (See Illus Diet.) 3. .Ataxia. 4. Bald- 
ness. 5- -■'^"J" deformity giving rise to irregularity of 
the features. Syn., Actumr. 

Acosmus [iik-oz'-mus). Affected with acosmia. Syn., 

Acosmy (ak-oz'-iiw). See Acosmia. 

Acouoraeter. (.See Illus. Diet ) 2. An instrument 
devised by Marage arranged to give a typical sound of 
a vowel, which may be used as a standard to which 
other sounds may be referred. 

Acouphonia [ah-koo-fo' -nc-ah). See Acouophonia 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Acousia (ah-koo'-se-ah) [anovaia, constraint]. Involun- 
tary action 

Acousmetric, Acousmometric [ah-koos-tml'-rik, ak- 
koos-mo-met' -rik'). Pertaining to the auditory sense or 
to the power of estimating the relative distance of 
sounds. .Syn., Acusmetricits : Acusmo/tic/ricHs. 

Acoustica (ah-ioos'-tc-ka). Remedies for impaired hear- 

Acousticon {a/i-koos'-tik-oii). An ear-trumpet. 

Acoutometer {ah-koo-tont'-et-cr). Same as Acoiimefer 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Acquisitus (a/i-hoi-zi'-liis) [aaiiiirire, to acquire]. Ac- 
quired, said of habits, diseases, etc., not congenital or 

A.ZT3iZ\\o\\3i {ak-ra-ko'-ie-ah) \^aKpaxo'/-in~\. A tit of pas- 
sion ; passionateness. 

Acraconitin (ak-ra-kon'-i/-in). See Aconi/iii, Briiish. 

Acracy {ak'-rase\. .See Aciasia (Illus. Diet.). 

Acraldehyd [ak-rat'-Je-hiil). Bauer's name for croton 
aldehyd. .See under Croton (Illus. Diet.). 

Acranius [ah-kra'-nc-tts) \tt, priv. ; Kfmvim\ cranium]. 
.A monster wholly or partly destitute of cranium. 

Acratotherm {ah-ki\U' o thurni) [«, priv. ; xfinroc, 
mixed ; Qqitiij. heat]. I. .A hot spring yielding water 
pure and soft through absence of mineral cou'-lituent.s. 
2. The water of a hot spring having a low percentage 
of saline constituents. 

Acratothermal {ali-krat-othurni'-al^. .Applied to baths 
l)re()ared from mineral water of high temperature but 
with low percentage of solid constituents 150 gr. to a 
gallon). See under A/M. 

Acribometer (akre-bom'-et-tir) [anptSij^^ accurate ; 

lifrpuv, a measure]. .A device for measuring minute 

Acridity {ak lid'-il-c) [acer, sharp]. I. The quality of 
bemg acrid, cutting, pungent, bitter, irritative or cor- 
rosive. Syn., Acritiide : Aciidncss ; Acriiy, 

Acridophagy (ak- rid- o/'-a -Je) [ovj'C, the locust; 
oir.cir, to eat]. I. The practice of feeding u|>on 
locusts. 2. All Ethiopian su])po.'-ed 10 be due 
to immoderate diet of locusts or to the penetration of 
the skin by these or other insects. 3. The condition 
of sores infested with maggots. 

Acrisis, Acrisy (ak'-ris-is, ak'-ris-e). See Acrisia 
I Illus. Diet.). 

Acritude [ak'-rit-ud). See Acridily. 

Acrity (ak'-rit-e). See Acridity. 

Aero iak'-ro). See Acroii. 

Acroblast (ak'-ro-Hast) [iiK/jof, extreme ; ,3/oar6c, a. 
germ]. Kollmann's term for that part of the germi- 
nal membrane of the embryo which gives rise to blood- 
vessels filled with blood and probably connective 
tissue. Cf. Poreutes. 

Acroblastic {ak-ro-l'ias'-tik) [a/i/wr, extremity ; S/.QnTOf;^ 
a germ]. Germinating at the end. Monocotyledonous. 

Acrobustitis [nk-rolnis-ti'-tis). .Same as Acrobyslilis. 

Acrobystia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Circumcision. 

Acrobysticus [iik-ro-Hs'-lii-iis). Preputial. 

Acrobystitis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Inflammation of 
the sheath of the penis in the horse. 

Acrocheiron (ak ro-ki'-ron). See Acrocheir (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Acrochordus (ak-ro-kord' -us). See -•^f/crAon/oH (Illus. 

Acrocolia {ak-ro-ko'-!e-a/i) [pi. of aKpOKu'/jor'\. The 
extremities of the body, especially of the lower 

Acrocomia {ak-ro-ko' -me-ah) \_fiKpo\\ the lop ; koiitj^ 
hair]. A genus of plants of the order Palvitr. A. 
lasiospatha. Mart., a species native of the West 
Indies. The pulp of the fruit is edible and the bitter 
nuts yield a valuable oil. A. sclerocarpa. Mart., 
the great macaw tree, a species native throughout 
tropical .America. One of the most highly prized 
palms of Brazil, Guiana, and the Antilles. The wood 
is useful for construction, and vields an alimentary 
farina resembling sago. The fibers are of value for 
textile uses. The young leaves foim one of the best 
of palm cabbages and a fine salad with oil and vinegar. 
The nut yields a valuable oil having the consistency of 
butter and an odor like violets. It is largelv used in 
soap-making and is deemed a sovereign remedy by the 
natives in affections of the joints, "bone-ache," etc. 

Acrocyanosis {ak ro-si-an-o'-sis) [^aKfmVy an extremity; 
Kiainr, blue]. Blueness of the extremities due to 
vasomotor disturbance. 

Acrodactylum (ak-rodak^-lil-iiiii) [a/iymr, apex ; 6nK- 
-I'/i'i;, a finger]. The apex, tip, or upper aspect of a 

Acrodynia. (See Illus. Diet.) -Syn., Pedionalgia epi- 
deiaica : Erythema cpidcmiciim. 2. Claras' term for 
a rheumatic disorder of the nerves. 

Pkcroiyvty (ak' ro-diii-e). See .■4crodynia. 

Acroganglion (ak-ro-i^^a/n.^'-g/c-ott* [^iinpnc, apex; }ijy- 
;>/"!. ganglion]. The vertical brain of invertebrates. 

Acrokinesis (ak-ro-kiit-e'-sis). See Acrocinesis (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Acrol (ak'-rol). CjH,. Acrolein (CjH^O) deprived 
of its oxygen. 

Acroleate (ak-ro'-/c-a/). See Acryiatc. 

AcTomia I ak-ro'-rac-ah) faK/jwH/d, the shoulder]. I. The 
acromion. 2. The withers of a horse. 

Acromis, Acromium {ak'-ro-mis, ak-ro'-me-um). 
Same as Acromion ^Illus. Diet.). 




Acromphalium, Acromphalum. See Acrotiiplujitis. 

Acromphalus. (See llliis. Diet.) 3 The remains of 
the umljilical cord attaclied to the child. 

Acromyle (nk-rom'-il-e) [u/c^jor, a point ; /iM;?, patella]. 
The patella. 

Acron (<!/!■'- MiH I [L. pi. airoins']. I. The apex or ex- 
tremity of a structure or organism. 2. An irritating 

Acronarcotic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An agent which 
combiner an irritating and obtunding etVect ; acting 
either directly upon the peripheral nerves when ap- 
plied externally, or upon the brain and spinal cord, 
producing paralysis, convulsions, and narcosis. 

Acronychia \ttk-ro-ne'-ki:-ah) \j.iK^im\ point ; uvii, nail]. 
The tip of the nail. 

Acronychous {ak-ron'-ikus) \niif>urvx'»:\ Furnished 
with claws, nail.s, or hoofs ; achronychous. 

Acropinacon (iik-i-o-piii'-,ikoii] [mro/L'in : /'inaconc']. 
Cpll„<.)„. A substance obtained from acrolein by ac- 
tion of nascent hydrogen. Syn., Atrylu pinacon, 

Acroplethysmograph \ok-ro-pleth-iz'->no-graf). See 
/'Ll/:vsmo^i<iph (Illus. Diet.). 

Acrosaline (,ik-ro-sa'-liii) [i'<v/-, sharp; sal, salt]. 
HavMig acrid and saline properties. 

Acrosarcous {^nk-ro-sar'-kus) [fjhywr, apex ; (rw/J^, 
flesh]. Having a fleshy extremity or apex. 

Acrose \tik'-id-A. A substance isolated from the con- 
densation jiroducts of glycerose (an oxidation product 
of glycerol | and formaldehyd and forming the starting- 
point for the synthesis of fruit-sugar, grape-sugar, and 

Acrostichum [ak-ros'-lik-iim) \_aKpoi\ a point ; arixn^, 
a line of writing]. A genus of ferns of the order 
Pol\poJiiti<:it. A. aureun», Linn., a tropical species ; 
the rhizome is used in decoction, for dysentery and dis- 
ease of the spleen. A salt prepared from the leaves 
is ai)plied to ulcers. A. dichotomum, Forskal, an 
Arabian species \_niedjabe f or !}u'jaliOi-st''\ ; the leaves 
are applied to burns. A. flavens, Humb. and Bonpl., 
a South .American species, used as a laxative. A. 
furcatum, Korster, an Australian species having edi- 
ble rhizomes. A. huacsaro, Ruiz., a Peruvian spe- 
cies ; the rhizomes enter commerce as a substitute for 
the true Riidix calagitahi. [Cf. PolypoJiitin cala^^unhjy 
Ruiz.] It is said to be sudorific and anthelmintic. 
A. sorbirolium. Willd., a West Indian species. The 
juice is mixed with oil, ginger, and pepper, and used 
as a cataplasm in sick headache. 

Acroteriasis [ak-ro-tt'-ri-a'-sjs) [d/f/iwr/?/>/nCf"', to cut 
oft' the extremities]. . Mutilation by the loss of an ex- 
tremity, especially a hand or foot. In teratology, the 
absence of such a part. 

Acroteriasmus (ak-ro-fc'-n'-os'-mus). Same as Am- 

Acroteric (ak-ro-ter'-ik) [(iKpuTr/pm, the extremities]. 
Relating to the extremities; applied to conditions in 
which the extremities are most affected. 

Acroterion {ak-ro-le'-re-oii). See Acroteria (Illus. 

Acroteriosis ink-ro-te-ri-o'-sis). See Acro/ennsh. 

Acrothorax ( nk-ro-fhor^-nks) [^I'jKpnHupni. slightlydnmk]. 
I. Easily intoxicated. 2. On the point of intoxication. 

Acrothymiosis, Acrothymium (nk-ro-t/ii-iiu-o'-sis, ak- 
ro-(hi^-nie-ton) [('(/./lor, pointed ; Qviuov, a large wart]. 
See Condylovut aciimiii<ttitm. 

Acrotrophoneurosis \n k-t-o-lro-fo-nu-ro' -sis) \aKpov, an 
extremitv ; rpntiii/, nourishment ; vtvpni\ nerve]. A 
trophic disturbance of the extremities of central origin. 

Acrozymus [ak-ro-zim'-its) \aKp6^v^iOf^, slightly leav- 
ened]. Impregnated with leaven. 

Acryl [iik'-ril \. .See Allyl (Illus. Diet.). 

Acrylate [ak'-ril-at). A salt of acrylic acid ; acroleate. 

Act ((T/f/) [ageif, to put in motion]. The fulfilment of 
a purpose or function. A., Imperative, the act of an 
insane person in response to an imperative morbid im- 
pulse. A., Sexual. See Coi/iis (Illus. Diet.). 

Actinesthesia {ak-lin-es-ilit'-se-ah) [axWf, a ray; 
o((7^;/rr/r, sensation]. 'l"he capacity of certain larvas 
which are destitute of any appaient visual organ for 
perceiving light and distinguishing the direction in 
which it appears. 

Actiniform (ak-liii'-c-forw) [a/iWf, a ray; ftn-ma, 
form]. Kay-shaped; radiate. 

Actinism. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The radiation of 
heat or light, or that blanch of science which tre.its 
of it. 

Actinium {ak~tin'-e-iifti^ \JiKT'tv, a ray]. A supjiosed 
element discovered by I'hipson in 18S1 in a.ssociation 
with zinc. It is metallic and is said to resemble 

ActinobacUlosis {ak-tin-o-has-il-o'-sis') [asr/c, ray ; ha- 
ciUus\ A disease of cattle and other domestic animals 
due to a bacillus which produces radiate structures in 
the affected tissues. It is of frequent occurrence in 
Argentina. Pota-ssium iodid acts almost as a specific. 

Actinobolia (ak-tin-o-ho'-U-ah) \iuiTivn(io'/-iiv, to radi- 
ate]. I. A term formerly used to express the process 
by which the impulses of the will are conveyetl to the 
different jjarts of the bodv. 2. \'an Helmont's term 
for the j)henomena now included under hypnotism. 

Actinobolism, Actinobolismus (ai-tin-ol>'-o-/izm, ak- 
tiit-ob-o-liz' -utus). See Aitinoholia. 

Actinocerate, Actinocerous {ak-tin-os'-ur-al, -us) 
[oKr/f, a ray; Kipar, a horn]. Having horn-like pro- 
cesses radiately arranged. 

Actinochemistry [ak-tin-o-koii'-is-tre') [n/iT/f, a ray; 
Xi}mi(i, chemistry]. Chemistry which deals with the 
decomposition of substances by light. 

Actinodermatitis {iik-li>i-o-iiiir-iija--li'-/is) [rtKri^, a 
ray ; ty^piui, the skin]. Cutaneous lesions produced by 
application of the x-rays. Syn., Radiodernuititis. 

Actinogram (nk-tiii'-o-grnm) [ai^vir, ray; }paipeiy, to 
write]. The record made by the actinogiaph. 

Actinograph (nk-/iii'-o-gi(if). An apparatus to meas- 
ure the actinism of sunlight. 

Actinography. .See Ac/i/io/i'xy. 

Actinology. (See Illus Diet.) 2. The science of the 
chemic action of radiant light; actinography. 3. 
The part of zoology which treats of the Kadiala. 

Actinolyte {ak-tin'-o-ht\\_aK-ii;, a ray; '/.i-uv, to loose]. 
.■\n ai)paratus designed for use in actinotherapy. 

Actinomeris [ak-Ziii-otu^-nr-is) [nK7/f, a ray ; l^spi^, 
a portion]. A genus of plants of the order Coniposi/a. 
A. helianthoides, Nutt. , a North American .species, 
said to be beneficial in cases of gravel and dropsy. 

Actinometer [nk-lin-om'-et-er) [fiKr/r, a ray ; fiirpnv, 
mea.sure]. An ap]iaratus for determining the intensity 
of the solar heat-rays. 

Actinometry (ak-tiji-flin'-et-re). The measurement of 
the intensity of the radiation of the sun. 

Actinomycotic I nk-tin-o-mi-kot'-ik). Dependent upon 
or jjertaining to actinomycosis. 

Actinophthalmic \nk-tiii-of-lliaI'-mik) [iJATir, a ray; 
h'Mii'/ 11'";, the eye]. Furnished with eyes the choroidal 
tapetum of which has a high capacity for reflecting 

Actinotherapy (ak-tin-o-llwi-' -ap-e\ [nK'ir , a ray ; f^epa- 
Tviia, therapy]. The therapeutic use of actinic rays. 

Action, (See Illus. Diet. ) A., After-, the brief persis- 
tence of negative variation of the electric current in a 
-tetanized muscle. A.s, Animal, voluntary move- 
ments. A. of Arrest. See Inhibition (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Automatic. See A., Reflrx I Illus. Diet.). A., 
Capillary. See Allraction, Capillary (Illus. Diet.). 




A., Catalytic, A., Contact. See Gj/irfvsis (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Cumulative. See under L'liimilalive 
(Illus. Diet.). A. -current. See under Current (Il- 
lus. Diet. I. A., Diastaltic. See.-/., /iV//..r (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Electrocapdlary, eleetric phenomena 
resulting from chemie reaction between dissimilar fluids 
connected by a capillary medium. A., Inhibitory. 
See Inhibilion (Illus. Diet. 1. A., Local, the produc- 
tion of currents between different parts of the same cell 
of a galvanic batter)'. A.s, Natural, the vegetative 
funetion.s. A., Peristaltic. See Ptriitahis (Illus. 
Diet. ). As, Private, those which eojicern only indi- 
vi<lual parts. A.s, Pseudomotor. lleidenhain's term 
for phenomena resulting from stinmlation of the chorda 
lympani alter section of the hypoglossal nerve ; move- 
ments due to vascular or lymphatic engorgement. 
A.s, Public, those that concern the body as a whole as 
contrasted with private action. A.s, Respective. Same 
as A., PrivttU. A., Safety-valve, the incomplete 
closure of the tricuspid valve, especially in cases of re- 
sistance in the pulmonary circulation. A., Sexual, func- 
tioning of the generative ai)paratus. A.s, Vital, those 
essential to the continuance of vitality, as of the heart 
and lungs. 

Activate \:tk'-liv-at) [actitare, to act]. To render 

Active, Optically. Possessing optic rotatory power. 

Activital {n/t-tiv'-it-ul >. Relating to activities. 

Activity. (See Illus. Diet. 1 A., Optic, the property (dis- 
covered by Biot in 1815) of certain chemie molecules 
to rotate the plane of polarization, due to the jjresence 
of one or several asymmetric carbon atoms in the mol- 
ecule of every optically active body. Cf. Rotatorv 
Powt-r. A., Sense of Muscular. See Muscular 
Soise, under Muscular (\\\\x?,. Diet.). 

Actol Uik'-lol), The commercial name for silver lac- 
tate (,/. v.). 

Acaate (iii-'-u-a/) [ncucre, to sharpenl. I. Sharp. 2. 
To render sharp, pungent, or corrosive. 

Acuclosure {(i^-u-l'lo'-zur) [iicux, needle; clautlcrc, to 
close]. A method of arresting hemorrhage by the aid 
of a needle whicii holds the artery closed for a day. 
It embraces acupressure and acutorsion. 

AcudactOT iai-u-ilui'-Zor) [ncus, a needle; ttucere, to 
lea<l]. A needle conductor. 

Acuition (ak-u-!slt'-un\ [iicuerc, to sharpen]. In- 
creased effect of a drug's action by the addition of 
aiii>thrr drug. 

Aculeatociliatus (ak-u-lc-at-o-sil-e-at' -its') [acuUtis, a 
sting ; cilium, an eyelash]. Beset with stiff bristles or 

Aculeous i^nk-u'-If-us). Having the form of a spine, 
prickle, or sting. 

Acumen a/i-ku'-mcn) ['L.'\. A tapering point, a sting ; 
a bony projection applied espeeiallv to the tuberosity 
of the ischium. A. nasi, the pointed contraction of 
the nose preceding death. 

Acumination [ak u-min-a^ -shuii\ \_ncufiiiuarc^ to 
sharpen]. The state of being taper-ix)inted, or the 
process of becoming so. 

Acuophonia. See Acouof^honia (Illus. Diet.). 

Acupunctation (ak-u-punk-ta' -shun^. See Acufunc- 
lure (Illus. Diet.). 

Acupunctural (ak-u-punk' -tu-rnl). Used for acupunc- 

Acupuncture. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Electrolytic. 
See Elect' oputitturc. A., Multiple, the operation of 
making a number of punctures. 

Acusia {ah-k<^o' -se-ah) \Iikqvuv, to hear]. The faculty 
of hearing; audition. 

Acusimeter, Acusiometer (ah-koo-sim'-ct-cr, ah-koo- 
sc-om'-et-ei). Same as .•/<-<)«/«<■/«■/• (Illus. Diet.). 

Acustica {ah-koos'-lik-ah). See Acoustics (Illus. Diet.). 

Acutangulatus i^ak-utang-ula'-tus). Having acute 

Acuticostal {ak-u-tekos'-lsl) [acutus, sharp; coitn, a 
rib]. Having projecting ribs. 

Acutissimus {ak-u-tis'-im-us) [superlative of aculus, 
acute]. Exceedingly acute, malignant. 

Acyanobleptic (ali-si-nn-o-tilep'-lik). Affected with or 
pertaining to aeyanoblepsia. 

Acyclia [ali-sik'-le-ak) [«, priv.; kvk'.-uv, to circulate]. 
An arrest of the circulation of body-fluids. 

Acyclic {ali'Sik'-likj. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Not 
characterized by a self-limited course. Cf. Cvclic. 

Acyesis, Acyisis. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Incapacity 
for natural deliver)'. Syn., Acicsis. 

Acyeterion i^<is-i-et-c'-rc-ou) [(i/viTz/^j/or, an abortive 
drug]. .\n aborlifacient procedure, drug, or instru- 
ment. Syn., Acylerion; Acyteriwii. 

Acyoblepsia {as-i-o-blep' -se-ali). Same as Aeyanoblep- 
sia I Illus. Diet.). 

Acystonervia, Acystoneuria [ahsisto-ntir'-ve-ak, 
■iiu'-re all). See Acystiiiei-'ia (Illus. Diet.). 

Acysturotrophia {ak-s/it-u-ro-tro'-/e-ali} [i/, priv.; 
KvoTir^ the bladder ; o/yjor, urine ; -/wof/i', to nourish]. 
.Atrophy of the urinary bladder. 

Adaemonia. See AJeiitonia | Illus. Diet.). 

Adaggregated (ail-ng'-re-ga-teii) [<?(/, to ; aggregare, to 
adhere to]. Attached by some part of the body. 

Adamantoblast (adam-ant'-o-blast). See Ameloblast 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Adamicus {ad-am^ -Ik-US'). Pertaining to or resembling 
.\dam ; said of any red earth (owing to the myth that 
.Adam was made of red earth) Cf. Terra adamica. 

Adamkiewicz's Serum. See Cancroin (Illus. Diet.). 

Adanto blaka. A malady common among the negroes 
of the gold coast and of frequent prevalence in the 
tropic zone, due to an animal parasite. 

Adapter (ad-ap'-ter) [adaptare, to adjust]. I. .Any- 
thing which ser^'es the purpose of fitting one thing to 
another. An instrument by means of whicli the direct 
electric current may be adapted to the various forms of 
eleclrotherapeutic treatment. 2. .A piece of tubing 
used to connect the neck of a retort with a receiver. 
3. .A microscope attachment for centering or decenter- 
ing the ilhiininating apparatus. 4. A collar used to fit 
an objective to a different nose-piece than that for which 
it was made. 

Adaption [ad-ap'-skuit]. See Ada/if a/iiin (Illus. Diet.). 

Adarcion, Adarcis, Adarcos (ad ar'-seon, adar'-sis, 
ad-ar'-k^-'s). See ,■/</,//-.<• (Illus. Diet.). 

Adarenalin. See Adrenalin. 

Adclivitas (ad-kliv'-it as) [aeclivitas, an ascent ; pi., 
adelfT'itates]. .A prominence, pmjeeticn, or elevation. 
A. tibiae, the irregular tract (spinous process, spina 
media, eininentia intercondyloidea I between the articu- 
lating facets on the head of the tibia. 

Add -add {ad' -ad). '1 he Abyssinian name for the leaves 
of Celastrus serratus (5?. 7'.)- 

Adde {<rd'-e\ [imperative sing. o( adderc, to add]. Add; 
a direction used in prescription writing. 

Addephagous. See .4depkagous 1 Illus. Dict.V 

Addiment (ad' -im-ent) [ada'ere, to add]. Ehrlich and 
Morgenroth's term (1899) for an active thermolabile 
substance (destroyed by a temperature of 56° C. ) con- 
tained in normal serum and capable of rendering the 
immune body of Ehrlich active, and .setting up b.icleri- 
olysis and hemolysis. .See Complement. 

Addimentary (adim-ent'-ar-e). Pertaining to addi- 

Additamentum. (See Illus. Diet.) A. ad sacro- 
lumbalem. See .Muscles. A. neeatuni, the olecra- 
non. A. suturae lambdoidalis, the occipitomastoid 




sulure. A. ulnae, the radius. A. uncatum ulnse, 
the olecranon. 

Addition {ihi-is/i'-tin) \, to add]. Tlie formation 
of a molecule by the direct union of two or more difl'cr- 
ent molecules wiiiiout decomposiiion. A., Com- 
pound. See under CompL'iinj, A. Product. See 
under Priuliiit. A. -reaction. See under Kiii^lion. 

Addle [tjJ'l) [-^S., (/.//, diseased]. A provincial name 
for abscess. 

Adduct (iiil-iikt') \iiJJucn;\ to bring toward]. To 
draw toward the median line of a body. 

Adductorius (tul-ukt-o'-rc-iis) [luljiua-c, to lead to]. 
Adducent. Adductoria fila. See /'rus/'/iysfs. 

Adelodermatous, Adelodermous [,!ii-i-/-o-iiiii-'-mii/-iis, 
aii-dl-o-iiit>' -niii^^ [n(^///rir, not seen; i^tjtiia, skin]. 
Having concealed integument; as invaginated tracLs. 

Adelos, Adelus (luZ-f'-los, -/us) [«(!;//.»;■, not seen], i. 
Inappreciable, not apparent, insensible (said of tiermal 
transpiration). 2. Obscure, ill-delined (said of symp- 

Adelostomatous (aif-ei-o-sfo'-iii,i/-iis) [(i(I;/?,or, not 
seen ; nvi/ua, the mouth]. Having the mouth con- 

Adelphia. (See Illus. Diet ) 2. .-K form of monstrosity 
characterized by the union of two organisms above, 
the lower portions being separated. 

Adelphism {<ul-d'-fizm). ^ee A,llfi/iia (Illus. Diet.). 

Adelphixia, Adelphixis {ad-d-fiks'-c-ah, ail-fl-fiki'-ii) 
[>'uV'/o(5";, brotherhood]. The sympathy or relation- 
ship of tlie tlilferent parts of the body in dise.ise. 

Adelphotaxy \<ul'ii-fo-tiiks'-c) [aiSfZoof, brotherhood; 
Tannuv, to arrange]. The tendency of motile cells to 
arrange themselves into definite positions. 

Adenandra [tui-i it-an' -iirah) \_!uMji\ a gland; hvi/p^ a 
man]. A genus of plants of the order Riitincu'. A. 
uniflora, \Villd., a species native of southern Africa. 
The leaves are u.sed for sophistication of buchu. 

Adenanthera (ad-en-an-thc' -riih] ['i'i;/r, a gland ; 
aftiiifxir, blooming]. A genus of plants of the order 
Ligumiiwsu-. A. pavonina, Linn., a species indigen- 
ous to tropical Asia A decoction of the leaves 
is used in rheumatism, the root as an emetic, 
and the scarlet lenticular seeds are used as weights 
(averaging 4 grains) and in treatment of hydrophobia 
and epik'i^sy. The wood yields a red dye. 

Adenasthenia {ad-en-as-Ihe' -ne-ah') [ri'5'/i', gland ; 
(iGtitirfa, weakness]. A disorder of the stomach 
characterized by diminished and enfeebled secretion 
without anatomic lesion. 

Adendric {uh-doi'-dri/;) \n, priv. ; 6ivfi[mv, tree]. 
Unprovided with dendrons. 

Adendritic [ii/i-d,n-dri/'-ik) [a, priv.; (V rd/ioi^, tree]. 
Without dendrites. 

Adenectomy (ad-en-ek'-lo-mc) [n(''/r, a gland ; 
fi<Teiii-Fii\ to cut out]. The e.xcision of a gland. 

Adenectopic (ad-cii-ck-top'-ik). Pertaining to adenec- 

Adenemphratic (od-i-n-em-frat'-ik). Pertaining to 

Adenia. (.See Illus. Diet.) A.s, Angibromic, Piorry's 
term for diseases of the glandular adnexa of the 
digestive tract. A., Leukemic, that form accompanied 
by mcrease in the number of the white blood-corpus- 
cles. A., Simple, that form which is unaccompanied 
by any increase in the number of the white blood-cor- 

Adeninhypoxanthin (ad-enin-hipo-zait/h'-in). C5H5- 
Nj + CjIIiN.O. ,A compound of adenin and hypo- 
.xanthin first observed bv Kossel and isolated by Bruhns, 
occurring in thick, starch-like, semitransparent masses, 
becoming white and chalkv. 

Adenitis. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., PhUgiiiasia adt-n- 

osa ; Phftgmasia gliiiidiiloui. A. axillaris, infiamma 
tion of the axilKary glands. A. cervicalis syphil- 
itica, an engorgement of the cervical lymphatic glands ; 
a sign of syphilitic infection. A.. Chancrous. See 
Biilh\ \'irii/cnl. A. cubitalis, Griinfeld's term for 
intiamniation of the epilrochlear lymphatic gland. A. e 
blennorrhoea. See Buho, Ci'itori liml. A. e scle- 
rosi. See Aiuitost/t'rosis 1 Illus. Diet.) and HiiIh\ In- 
dol.ul. A. exulcerata, Griinfeld's term for ulceration 
following suppurating bubo. A. ex ulcere contagi- 
osa. See Bii/'<\ rini/i-nt. A. femoralis, (iiiinleld's 
term for inllammation of the lymphatic glands in the 
subinguinal triangle. A. gangraenosa, Griinfeld's 
term for inllannnalion of a hinpliatic gland resulting in 
gangrene. A. hyperplastica, (_irLiiifeld's term for a 
bubo in which plastic exudation prcdoniinates. A. 
inguinalis. See /Ww (Illus. Diet 1. A.. Lymph- 
atic. See Lyinpluidt-iiilis (Illus. Diet ). A. 
Meibomian, inriammation of one or more Mc:ibomian 
glan<ls. Cf. Chalmion. A., Mesenteric, inflamma- 
tion of the lym|)hatic glands of the mesentery. A. 
palpebrarum contagiosa. See Conjiiitclhiln, Pnru- 
Uiit. A. pubica, bubo of the pubic region, often 
accompanied by suppurative lymphangitis of the dor- 
sum of the penis. A. scrofulosa equorum. See 
Strangles (Illus. Diet ). A., Syphilitic, Primitive. 
.See Bubo, Sy/'hilitic. A. universalis, a widespread 
induration of the lymphatic glands accompanying pri- 
mary syphilis. A. venerea. See I'liitiral Bubo 
(Illus. Diet.). A. vulvovaginalis, inflammation of 
the vulvovaginal gland. 

Adenoblast. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. Haeckel's name 
for an embryonic cell which forms a gland. 

Adenocellulitis [,i,i-,ii o-srl u-li'-tis) [lifSz/i', a gland; 
i-,.'/ii/ii, a small cell]. Inflammation of a gland and the 
surrouniling cellular tissue. 

Adenochondrius [ad-en-o-kon' -dre-us) \nfiiiv, gland ; 
loj'fi(», caitilage]. Involving both glands and carti- 
lage. Cf. AylUrophviihi ndenockofidriu/ti, a swelling 
of the glands and cartilage of a joint. 

Adenocyst {nd-vn'-o-sist) [li'''/!', a gland; kvuti^, a 
bladder]. .A cystic lymphatic gland ; a glandular cyst, 
(-'f. Aiiiiiivystomti (Illus. Diet.). 

Adenodermia (ad-en-odur'-me-n/i) [hiM/v, a gland ; 


skin]. Disease of the glands of the skin. 

Adenofibrosis {iid-cn-o-fi-bro' -sis) [n'!//i', a gland ; 
Jil'i'd, a fiber]. Fibroid degeneration of a gland, par- 
ticularly the inflammatory neoplasms involving sudor- 
iparous glands, due to infection with Botryoniyces. 
(_T. B:'/ryoiii]u osis. 

Adenographer (nd-cn-og'-ra-fuy). A writer on glands. 

Adenographia. Adenography (ad-en-o-gr,if'-e-nli, ad- 
en-og'-nij c) [('»';/r, a gland; -jpaipeiv, to write]. A 
treatise on glands. Cf. Adenologv (Illus. Diet.). 

Adenohypersthenia (ad-en-o-hi-piir-sthe'-iic-ali') \ni^)iv, 
a gland; /'ta/i, over; atihv^, strength]. Excessive 
activit)' of the glands. A. gastrica, a condition 
characterized by the secretion of gastric juice aljnor- 
mally rich in hydrochloric acid or excessive in qxiantity. 

Adenoid. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Cancer. See . -/</(•«(>- 
<<jirfihVf/<f I Illus. Diet.). A. Face. See /vztv. A. 
Growth. See A. lege/a/ioiis (Illus Diet.). A. 
Muscle. See T/iyroadenoideus, under Muscle. 

Adenoids. Set Adenoid vegetalions (WW^. Diet.). 

Adenolipomatosis (ad-en-o-lip-o-mat-o'-sis) [(iri//i<, 
gland ; '/.'i':7<k, fat]. A diseased condition of the lym])h- 
atie system characterized by fattv deposits in the 
neighborhood of the neck, axillas, and groins. It is 
generally unattended with pain. Syn., Multiple lipo- 
tihis : Syiunh'trii lipomas of nervous origin. 

Adenolymphatocele (ad-en-o-lim-fat'-o-sll). See 
Lymfi/iatoeelc (_Illus. Diet.). 




Adenolymphitis (ad-m-o-lim-fi' -tii). See Lymph- 
adenitis (lllus. Diet.). 

Adenolymphoma (tKl-en-o-lim-fo'-mah) [nrf//!', gland ; 
Ivnipiiti^ lymph]. A combined adenoma and lymph- 
oma. See Lyinpkadenonta (IIIus. Diet.). 

Adenoma. (See lllus. Diet. ) 2. Any tumor which has 
as its characteristic feature, tubes or spaces lined with 
epithelium, whether or not it arises from or is con- 
nected with a gland (White). A., Acinous, that in- 
volving acinous or racemose glands. A., Alveolar, 
one that contains alveolar or acinous gland-structure. 
A., Blepharo-. Sec Bkpharoadenonia (lllus. Diet. ). 
A. carcinomatodes renis (Klebs), a renal neoplasm 
probably derived from aberrant adrenal tissue in the kid- 
ney. Cf. /iesls. Adrenal, and Slruiiue lipomalodes aber- 
ra/te renis (Grawitz). A. carcinomatosum, A., Car- 
cinomatous. See Ad'tiaiarcinoma (lllus. Diet.). 
A., Cylindric. See A., Tuhular. A., Cylindro- 
cellular. See Cystoma proliferum^ glandulare and 
C. p. papitlare. A., Cystic. See Adenocystoma 
(lllus. Diet.). A. diffusum, hyperplasia of the 
mucous membrane with predominance of glandular 
elements. A. fibromatosum. See Adenofibroma 
(lllus. Diet.). A. fibrosum, a fibrous growth in the 
stroma of a gland. A., Keteropodous, one arising 
from the metastasis of normal glandular tissue. A., 
Lupiform. See Lupus erythematosus ^ lllus. Diet. I. 
A., Muitiglandular, one composed of an aggregation 
of small glands. A. myomatosum. .See Adeno- 
myoma (lllus. Diet.). A. rayxomatosum. See 
Adenomvxoma (lllus. Diet.). A., Papillary, A. 
papilliferum, a form arising from either tiie alveolar 
or tubular adenoma through stronger growth of the 
epithelium and the formation of papillas of connective 
tissue. A. polyposum, polypous formations which 
consist of overgrown glands. A., Racemose. See 
A., Acinous. A., Renal, glandular carcinoma of the 
kidney. See Strunue lipomatodes aberratiz renis 
(Grawitz) and Rests, Adrenal. A. sarcomatosum. 
See .-Idenosareoma (lllus Diet.). A. simplex, simple 
hyperplasia of glandular tissue. A. sudiparum, 
multiple papule-like cystic growths of the sweat- 
gland. Syn., Epithelioma adotoides cysticuin. A. su- 
doriparum, a cutaneous tumor involving hyperplasia 
of the sweat-glands. Cf. Hidrosadenitis (lllus. Diet.). 
A., Tubular, one after the type of tubular gland.s. 
A., Umbilical, a tumor at the navel originating 
through the coalescence of Meckel's diverticulum with 
the umbilical ring through which the intestinal mucosa 
appears in the navel. Syn., Intestinal ectropia. Cf. 
Cystadenoma, .Xeoplasma\}\\\is. Diet.). A., Uniglan- 
dular, an adenoma involving but a single gland. 

Adenomatome {ad-en-o' -mat-otu) \_adenoma ; row//, a 
cutting]. Cutting forceps or scissors for use in the re- 
moval of adenomatous grftVths. 

Adenomatous {ad-en~o'-mat-us). Pertaining to an 
adenoma ; characteristic of glandular hyperplasia. 

Adenomeningeal (ad-cn-o-men-in'-je-al ) [(i'S/yi', a 
gland; ,u//iij;, a membrane]. Pertaining to or affect- 
ing the glands of a membrane. Cf. Fever^ Aden- 

Adenomyoma. (See lllus. Diet.) A., Branchio- 
genic, cyst-formation in consequence of the inflamma- 
tion of tliL- mucous bursa in the median line of the neck. 

Adenomyxosarcoma {ad-en-o-miks-o-sar-ko'-mah\. A 
rare combination of malignant tumor fonns (observed 
in the cervix uteri ) ; a primary adenoma with secon- 
dary sarc<^ma and finally myxomatous degeneration of 
the stromas. 

Adenonervous {ad-en-o-nun't -us). See Adenoneurolic 
(lllus. Diet. I. 

Adenonkos, Adenonkosis (ad-en-ong' -kos, ad-en-ong- 

io'-sis). See Adenoncus and Adenoncosis (lllus. 

Adenopathia, Adenopathy. (See lllus. Diet.) A., 
Angibromic. See Adcnias, .-ingibromic. A., Pri- 
mary, the lymphadenitis resulting from primary syph- 
ilitic infection. A.s, Syphilitic, the enlarged and in- 
durated cervical, inguinal, and cubital glands sympto- 
matic of syphilitic infection. A., Tracheobronchial, 
A., Tracheobronchic, hypertrophy of the |ieribron- 
chial lymphatic glands observed in the course of various 
diseases, causing spasmodic cough. A., Tracheo- 
laryngeal, inflammation and hypertrophy of the 
tracheolary ngeal lymphatic glands. 

Adenopharyngeal (f7(/-('«-<j-/W;'-/«'yV-/7/) [«'i//i*, gland; 
olipv}^, pharyn.x]. I. Pertaining to the thyroid gland 
and the pharyn.x. 2. See under Muscles. 

AdenophoTSL (od-en-o/'-or-a/i) [air/v, a gland; Ofpeiv, 
to bear]. A genus of plants of the order Canipanulaceit. 
A. tracheloides, Maxim., a species indigenous to 
China, where the root is used as an expectorant and 
emollient. A. verticillata, Fischer, a species found 
in Japan and northern Asia ; it has properties similar 
to the foregoing. 

Adenosarcorrhabdomyoma {ad-en-o-sar-ko-rab-do-mi- 
o'-mah). .\ neoplasm composed of the elements of 
sarcoma, adenfima, and rhabdomyoma. 

Adenosis. (See lllus. Diet.) A. scrofulosa. See 
Scrofula (lllus. Diet.). 

Adenostyles {ad-en-os' -til-ez\ \h<^rp', a gland ; ori'/M, a 
pillar]. A genus of plants of the order Composite. 
A. alpina. Kern., and A. viridis, Cass., two species 
indigenous to Europe, are employed in infusion for 
the treatment of coughs. 

Adenosynchitonitis (ad-en-o-sin-ki-ton-i'-tis') \afiijv, 
gland; oir, with; v'""'- a covering]. I. Inflamma- 
tion of the Meibomian glands. 2. Ophthalmia neo- 

Adenotome {ad'-en-o-tom) {adrjv, a gland ; Toni/, a cut- 
ting]. An instrument for incising a gland. 

Adenotomic (ad-en-o-loni'-ik). Pertaining to aden- 

Adenotyphus (ad-en-o-ti'-fus). See Typhoid Fei'er 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Adeps. (See lllus. Diet. ) 2. Fatness. 3. Animal fat. 
A. anguillae, the fat of eels. A. anseris. goose- 
grease. A. colli equini, the fat of the neck of the 
horse, used in veterinary practice. A. curatus, a 
preparation of lard, 48 parts, and I part of Peruvian 
balsam. A. ex fele, cat's grease. A. lanae hydro- 
sus. See Lanolin. A. medullae bovis, beef mar- 
row. A. mineralis. See /'<•/;•(>/,//«;« (lllus. Diet.). A. 
ossium. See Ossalin. A. ovillus, A. ovis, mutton 
tallow. A. oxygenatum, oxygenated lard. A. 
pedum tauri, neat'sfoot oil. A. petrolei. See 
Petrolatum (lllus. Diet.). A. porci, A. porcina. 
See A. suillis (lllus Diet.). A. taxi, badger's 

Adermogenesis, {ahdur-mo-jen'-es-is) [11, priv.; df/ifin, 
skin ; yinaic, generation]. Deficient cutaneous de- 

Adesmia. (See lllus Diet.) 2. A genus of plants of 
the order Lcguminosa: A.balsamica, Bert., and A. 
balsamifera. Hook., are indigenous toChili and yield 
a balsam used as a vulnerary. 

Adgenic, Adgenicus (ad/en'-ik, ad-pen'ik-ns) [ad, to ; 
j^ena, the chin]. Attached to the genial tubercles or 

Adhatoda {ad-hn-to'-da") [from the Tamil name]. 
.\ genus of plants of the order .-Icanthace,-. A. hys- 
sopifolia. Sees., a species native of South Africa; 
the willow-leaved Malabar nut ; bitter, aromatic. A. 
vasica, Nees. , a species native of tropical Asia. The 




Malabar nut. The juice of the leaves is used as an 
expectorant. The leaves, flowers, and root are con- 
sidered antispasmodic and are given in asthma and 
intermittent fever; also in rheumatism. The fresh 
flowers are hound over the eyes in cases of ophthalmia. 
In decoctiim the leaves witli other remedies are used 
as an anlluhnintic. The nut is eminenagog and used 
to exprl the dead fetus. [Boerhaavc.] 

Adhesion Figures, ^ee under /•^'■v;v. 

Adhesive. (See Illus. iJict.) 2. Resulting in or at- 
tended with adhesion. 

Adhesiveness (ml-Zif'-sw-nes) \_iuf/ucrfn\ to adhere]. 
I. That power, state, or quality of a sulistance which 
enables it to adhere to some dissimilar substance. 2. 
In phrenology, the faculty or organ that is the seat of 
the desire for companionship. 3. The faculty of per- 
tinacity, referred to the upper occipital convolutions. 

Adhesol [lui-Zw'-sol ). A surgical dre.ssing said to con- 
tain copal resin, 350 parts ; benzoin, 30 parts ; oil of 
thyme, 20 parts ; «-naphthol, 3 parts ; tolu balsam, 
30 parts ; ether, looo parts. 

Adhibition [iiJ-/iil>-is/i'-o)i) \_adhHiirc, to employ]. The 
use or administration of a remedy. 

Adhyoid \aJ-lii'-oid). Adherent to the hyoid bone. 

Adiaphora (ah-tii-iif -or-ah). Neutral or inert sub- 
stances. Cf. .■/(//«/>//wo«.f (Illus. Diet.). 

Adiaphorosis {(i/i-tii-iif-or-o'-sis). See AJiiip/ioresis 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Adiaplast (ml-i'-a-plnst) [lididTrXacrof, not yet formed]. 
.\n abortion. 

Adiarthrotos (ah-di-ar-lhro'-tos) [iiil/ii/(f)u7or, not 
jointed]. I. Without joints, unjointed. 2. Inarticu- 
late (applied to speech). 

Adiathermic {ah-,ii-a-lhur'-niik'] [<?, priv.; iVii, through; 
th ,iiuin'tn\ to lu-'at]. Impervious to ladiant heat. 

Adiemorrysis, Adiaemorrhysis [ij/i-di-i-->iioi-'-e-sis) 
[n, priv.; dm, through; a'liia, blood; /""'f, flowing]. 
Failure of the circulation of the blood through the 
veins, due to some obstruction. 

Adietetic (itk-di-ct-cl'-ik) [u, priv.; (^min/viKnr, relating 
to diet]. I. Unwholesome for food. 2. Unmiuiirul 
of dietetic requirements. 

Adin \iid'-iii). See Bi//>o (Illus. Diet.). 

Adipalis (iid-i/>'-a/-is) [^(tde/s, fat]. Belonging to or 
derived from fat, greasy. 

Adipatum {iid-i/>'-(i-fiim). An ointment base said to 
consist of lanolin, vaselin, paraffin, and water. 

Adipatus (itd-i/>'-a/-us) [L.]. Adipose. 

Adipid {ad'-i/i-id) \iidepi, fat]. Any fatty proximate 
principle derived trom animal matter. 

Adipocele (nd'-ip-o-sl!) [iidt'/i.i, fat, v'/''). rupture]. 
A true hernia with hernia sac, containing only fatty 

Adipocellular (^ad-ip-o-sel'-u-hir). Made up of fat and 
connective tissue. 

Adipocera [ad-ip-o-se'-rnh). .See Adpotrrc (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. cetosa, spermaceti. 

Adipocira [nd-ip o-si'-njh). See Adipoct've (Illus. 
Diet ). 

Adipociriform ( ad-ip-o-si)''-e-form\. Resembling adip- 

Adipofibroma [ad ip-o-fi-bro'-viah\. A combined fatty 

anil flbruvis tumor. 
Adipolysis ind-ip-o/'-is-is) \adeps, fat; /'o/f, dissolu- 
tion]. The cleavage or hydrolysis of fats in the pro- 
cess of digestion by the action of a fat-splitting 
enzyme. Cf. Stcnpshi. 
Adipolytic (ad-ipo-lit'-ik'). I. Efficacious in the di- 
gestion or cleavage of fats. 2. -\n agent efficient in 
fat-digestion. Cf. Strtipsiii. 
Adipometer ((7i/-;/-r)H/'-i'/-«''l [ndeps, fat; inrpm\ a 
measure]. An instrument for the estimation of fat. 

Adiposis. ( See Illus. Diet. ) A. dolorosa, a dystrophy 
of the subcutaneous connective tissue, somewhat re- 
sembling my.xedema, and characterized by formation 
of noj.lules of soft tis.sue throughout the connective 
tissue of the body ; persistent pain and bronchitis ; 
I )cicum' s disease. 

Adipositas. (See Illus. Diet. ) A. cordis, a fatty con- 
dition of the heart. 

Adiposuria (<ia-t/-o-st/-rt'-tt//). Sec Pimcbtria and 
Lipiiria (Illus. Diet.). 

Adipsa (iid-iji'-sa/i) [neut, pi. of adipsiis, without]. 1. Remedies to allay thirst. 2. Foods which 
do not produce thirst. 

Adit [(id'-il) \_iidi/us, entrance]. An entrance, an- 
tonym of exit. 

Aditus. (See Illus. Diet.) A. ad antrum, the outer 
side of the attic, opening upwartl, backward, and out- 
ward into the mastoid antrum. It gi\cs lodgment to 
the head of the malleus and the greater part of the 
incus. A. ad aquseductum Sylvii, the entrance to 
the ventricular aqueduct situated at the lower posterior 
angle of the third ventricle of the brain. A. ad in- 
fundibulum, a smaller canal extending from the third 
ventricle into the int'undibulum ; it is also called vulva. 
A. ad laryngem. See A. Utrriigis (Illus. Diet.]. 

Adjuster. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A device for holding 
together the two ends of a silver wire sutin'e, to .secure 
approximation of the parts without strains on the tis- 

Adjusting-cone (ad-jiisl' -ing-koii'). An instrument for 
a.^cerlaining the distance between the axes of the eyes 
when they are parallel. 

Admaxillary (ad-tii,iks'-il-a-re). Pertaining to maxib 
larv structures. Cf. Gland, Adiiiaxillai y. 

Admove, Admoveatur (ad'-iiw-ve, ad movt-n'tiir) 
[iinpt-r. sing, and 3d pers. sing., subj., pass., ai ad/no- 
i-fit; to apply]. Apply ; let there be applied ; direc- 
tions used in prescription-writing. 

Adnasal (ad-iia'-sal) [ad, near to; iiasiis, the nose]. 
I'ert.iining to the nose. See under Bone. 

Adnexopexy iad-iic-is'-o-peks-f). Surgical elevation of 
the proiaj>sed ovary and tube. 

Adnexum (<i.A«i/(-.f'-«"/) [L \>\.,adii,:xa']. An apjien- 
dage. Adnexa oculi, the appendages of the eye, 
as the lids and lacrimal apparatus. Adnexa uteri, 
the ovaries and fallopian tubes. 

Adonidin. (See Illus. Diet.) A. tannate, yellowish- 
brown powder soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in 
water; it is used as the glncosid. 

Adonin (ad'-on-iti). Same 2A Adonidiu (Illus. Diet.). 

Adonis [ad-o'-iiis) [Adoii/i, a youth loved by Venus]. 
A genus of European herbs belonging to the order 
Kannnctilatcir A. flammea, Jacq., a species native 
of Europe and the Orient. The leaves are used as a 
vesicant. A. vernalis, E., a species indigenous to 
Europe and northern Asia. The root aflords a red 
dye, and adonit {q. v.'). A. vernalis, Tincture of, 
it is used as a cardiac stimulant, aiuipyrelic, and diu- 
retic. Dose, 3-20 tT)^. Poison. Antidotes: emetics, 
tannin, brandy, ammonia, and opiimi. 

Adonit \ad'-o-nil\. Q.^\.\0\\-^). An optically inactive 
pentite occurring in .-tdoiiis -vcnia/is, forming trans- 
parent needles, .soluble in alcohol and water, melting 
at 102° C. 

Adopter I .((Ao/'-Av). See .Adapler. 

Kdox\>\Xi\{ad-oiii'-it-al) [<!(/, near to; oiliifa, orbit]. 
Pertaining to the orbit. See under Bo>if. 

Adosculation. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. \n articulation 
in which one part is inserted into the cavity of 

Adoxa \ad-oks'-ali) [a, priv.; tio5«, honor]. -V genus 
of plants of the order Capri/oliaceie. A. moschatel- 




Una, Linn., a species found in Europe, norlhern Asia, 
and N'orlli America. It has been used as a detergent 
ami anlispasnuidic. 

Adracanthin, Adracaiitin [ad-ra-kan' -thin, -tin). See 
BaiLonll (lllus. Uict. ). 

Adraganthin [^ad-ra-;.^an' -thin). See Bassorin. 

Adrenalin (nJ-ren'-til-in). C'l^HuNOj (Takaniine). The 
active principle of the suprarenal gland, isolated and 
named by Jokichi Takamine in 1901. It occurs as mi- 
nute white crystals soluble in water slightly acidulated 
with hv^irochloric acid. A. chlorid, used in solution 
of I : 10,000 to I : 1000 in surgical operations on the 
eye, ear, nose, urethra, etc.; it acts as a powerful 
astringent, hemostatic, and heart tonic. 

Adrenitis (ad-ren-i' -tis\. Inflammation of the adrenals. 

Adrenoxin (ad-reit-ois'-iii) [^adrenal; oj|j.'t7;]. Sajous' 
name fur an organic compound or oxidizing substance 
formed in the lungs by the internal secretion of the ad- 
renals combined with the atmospheric o.xygcn. He 
claims that this substance endows the blood-plasm 
with its oxidizing properties. 

Adsternal (itd-stiin!'-(il)\_ad, near to ; sUriiuiii^ Per- 
taining to or situated near the sternum. 

Adstrictio i^ad-slrik'-slie-o) [ads/riiix'i're, to draw to- 
gether; pi., adstnclionef^. i. The retention of any 
natural excretion. 2. The action of an astringent. 
3. The ligation of a blood-vessel. A. alvei, consti- 

Adstrictory (ad-strikt'-or-e'). Astringent. 

Adulterant {ad-tU'-tur-ant). I. The .sub.stance used 
in tlic process of sophistication. 2. One who adul- 

Advancement. (See lllus. Diet.) A. of the Round 
Ligaments, an operation for replacement ot the uterus 
by taking up "the slack of the round ligaments." See 
under Operations. A. of Tenon's Capsule. See 
./., Gipstilar [\\\v.i. L)ict. ). 

Adventitia. (See lllus. Diet.) A. capillaiis. See 
Pcrilli,-!iuni (lllus. Diet.). 

Adventitial {ad-vcn-tish' -al). See Adventitious (lllus. 
Diet. I. 

Adynamia, Adynamy. (See lllus. Diet.) A. uteri, 
atony of the uterus. A. virilis. See Impotence 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Adynamicoataxic (ad-iit-aiii'ik-o-nl-nks'-ik). Per- 
taining to or characterized by adynamia and ataxia. 

Adynamon, Adynamum [^ad-in'-amon. ~itm) [«fii rn- 
)iiir, without strength]. A preparation of must resemb- 
ling sterilized grape-juice. 

Adynasia, Adynatia (ad-iii-a'-ze-u, adin-a'-she-a). 
See .■Idviifrmii! (lllus. Diet.). 

Aedes [u-e'-dez] [ri'/'t'/c, unpleasant]. A genus of dip- 
terous insects (mo.squitos) founded by Meigeu 1 1818), 
belonging to the suborder Xemoeera and to the family 
CiilieidiC. Palpi in both sexes less than one-half as 
long as the ]>roboscis ; upper side of thorax without a 
line of bluish scales [Coquillet]. A. fuscus, O. S., 
the only species found in the United States, and that 
rare ; color brownish with golden-yellow scales on the 
thorax and crown ; white bands on the abdomen. 

.^gle {e'-:;/e) [«(}-///, splendor]. .\ genus of nilaceous 
l»i:uits. A. marmelos, the baei or bel tree, is a 
native of India, where the root, leaves, flowers, fniit, 
and bark are used in medicine. It furnishes the fruit 
known as IJengal quince, a nutritious fruit used in 
dyspepsia and constipation. A decoction of the dried 
unripe fruit is used in diarrhea ; the rind furnishes a 
yellow dye. 

Aerate (a'-er-at). To supply with air ; to cKarge with 
gas; to oxvgenate. carbonate, etc ; to arterial ize. 

Aerated. 1 See lllus. Diet.) 2. Charged with oxygen ; 
oxygenated, arterialized. 

Aeration. (See lllus. Diet.) 2. The act or operation 
of providing with pure air. Syn., Aerosis. 3. E. 
Darwin's term for arterialization. 

Aerator ( a'-er-n-tor). A machine for forcing gas or air 
int*> liquids. 

Aerelaterometer {a-er-el-at-ur-om'-et-tir). See Elut- 

Aeremotoxia, Aeraemotoxia (aer-em-o-toks' e-a/i). 
.See .■ieyheinoetouiit (lllus. Diet. ). 

Aerenterasic [^a-er-en-titr-a' -sik) [«///), air; kvrepoy, 
the intestine]. Flatulent, tympanitic. 

Aerenterectasis [a-ei-en-tur-ek'-ta-sis). See Aeren- 
/tr:it,isiii (lllus. Diet.). 

Aerethmia (a-er-eth'-me-ah). See Eiiip/ivsema (lllus. 

iEreus (e'-re-us). Pertaining to copper, brass, or 
bronze ; bronzed. Cf. Cutis area. 

Aerhematoxia [n-er-/iem-a-loks'-e-a/i). ^e Aerkemoc- 
t.'iiia ( lllus. Diet.). 

Aerhydrous {(i-er-hi'-drus) [a')p, ait; iiiup, water]. 
(Containing air and water. 

Aerie ( a-er'-ik). Capable of oxidation. 

Aericolous {a-er-ik'-oi-us) [<ifr, air ; ro/f/-^, to inhabit]. 
Inhabiting the air. 

Aerifer {a-ei'-if-ur). See Aeriferous (lllus. Diet.). 

.ffirifer {e' -re-fur) \ces, brass; fine, to bear]. Contain- 
ing co]iper, brass, or bronze. 

Aeriform Ka-er'-i-firm) \jter,2\x\ finita, form]. Air- 
like, gaseous. 

Aerify («-£»■'-«;/?) \oer, air ; fieere, to make]. I. To 
fill with air; to combine with air. 2. To change to a 
gaseous slate. 

Aerivorous((7-t;--/z''-»;-«j) [<7iv, air; vorare, to devour]. 
Living upon air. Cf. Aerobiotic. 

Aerize (a'-er-iz). I. To aerate or aerify. 2. To con- 
\ert into the gaseous state. 

Aeroanaerobic [n-er-o-an-a-er-o'-bik). Applied to or- 
ganisms which are both aerobic and anaerobic. 

Aerobia. (See lllus. Diet.) A., Obligate, organisms 
dependent upon free oxygen at all times ; never anaero- 

Aerobian (n-er-o'-be-an). I. Same as Aerobe. 2. 
Ferlaining to an aerobe ; requiring free oxygen. 

Aerobion (n-er-o' -be-on). Same as Aerobe (lllus. 
l)iet. ). 

Aerobioscope (a-er-o-bi'-o-stop) [aiiii air ; /?'nf, life ; 
akii-ui\ to examine]. Of Sedgwick-Turner, an ap- 
paratus, consisting of a glass tube of special form for 
collecting and liltering the bacteria from the air 

PLeTohious(a-er-o'-6e-us). See Aerobiotie (IWui. Diet.). 

Aerocele (ff-^'-ii-rf/) [u;yp, air ; ;i;//'^. rupture]. A rare 
affection, consisting of a tumor varying w ith respiration, 
found in the thyroid region, usually unilateral, with 
walls resembling mucosa and containing mucous or 
muce>puRilent matter. It is sometimes congenital, but 
oftener the result of violent coughing or straining. 'I he 
acquired cases may disappear spontaneou.sly. Syn., 
Aerial bronclioeele ; Aerial goiter; Pneumatocele ; 
Tracheocele: Hernia of the trachea : Luftkropf. 

Aerocolpos {a-ero-kot'-pos)\itii)>, &n\ «»/..TOf, vagina]. 
Dilation of the vagina by means of air. 

Aeroconoscope (a-cr-o-kon'-os-kdp\. See Aeroconiscope 
(lllus. Diet. ). 

Aerocystoscope (a-er-o-sist'-o-skip). .Same as Aero- 

Aerocystoscopy (a-er-o-sist-os'-ko-pe). See Aeroure- 
Ihroscopy (lllus. Diet. ). 

Aerodensimeter [a-er-o-den-sim'-et-er). See Man- 
ometer (lllus. Diet. 1. 

Aerodiaphanometer {a-er-o-di-af-an-om'-et-er). See 
Lactoiiiclcr ( lllus. Diet.). 

Aerodiaphthoroscope Uier-o-di-af-tlw'-ro-skdp) [li'/p. 




air ; inio6npd, comiption ; CKo-iiv, to examine]. An 
apparatus for estimating the purity of the atmosphere. 
Smj. , Dialhoroscopiiini. 

Aeroductor (^n-ero-iliik'-lor) \j)tr, air ; ductte, to 
ieatij. An apparatus to prevent aspliy.xia in the fetus 
when the aftercoming liead is retained. 

Aerodynamic {n-tr-o-tti-nam'-ik). Of or pertaining to 

Aerodynamics [a-i'r-d-iii-nam'-iis) [n'//i, air; iivauic, 
energy]. 'I'lie science wliicli treats of llie laws reg- 
ulating tlie motion of elastic Huids, their properties and 
mechanical eftccts when in motion. 

Aerogoniscope {a-cr-o-gon'-is-kop). See Aeroconis- 
cofi (lUus. Diet.). 

Aerographer (a-tr-og'-iti/-ii>) [ii'ip, air; j/MJof/r, to 
write]. One who treats of the air and its properties. 

Aerography (,/ crog'-mf-t). \ telegraphy. 

Aerohydrotherapy. See Anoliydropalhy (Illus. 

Aerologia (^a-er-o-lo'je-ab). See Aerology (Illus. 

Aerologic (a-er-o-loj'-ik). Of or pertaining to aerology. 

Aerologist (ii-ir-o/'-ojist). One versed in aerology. 

Aeromechanics (a-er-o-me-kan'-iis). See Pneiima- 
ti.s (Illus. Diet.). 

Aerometric (n-fi-o-iiu/'-rik). Of or pertaining to 

Aeromicrobe, Aeromicrobion {a-er-o-mi'-ktoh, -kro'- 
he-,n). See .l,r,'/',- (Illus. Diet.). 

Aeroniscope (^ii-e>-on'-is-kdJ>). See Aeroconiscope 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Aeroperitonia. Siee Afriperi/onin (Illus. Diet.). 

Aerophagy (a-er-of'-a-je\ [«'//), air; (jiayiiv, to eat]. 
1 lie imbibing and swallowing of air, especially ob- 
served in hysteric patients ; called cribbing or crib-bit- 
ing in horses. It occurs among some lower animals 
wlien iVigiitened. 

Aerophane (a-cr'-o-faii) [iirip, air; ipaveiv, to show]. 
Thin or transparent as air. 

Aerophil {a-er'-o-fil) [«///i, air; 6i/.tn; to love]. An 
ojien-air loving person or creature. 

Aerophilous (a-cr-o/'-i/-iis). Fond of the open air. 

Aerophobe ((i-cr'-o-/i>l>) [«;//), air; oo im;, fear]. One 
who dislikes or dreads the open air ; aerophobus. 

Aerophobic {a-fr-o-Jo'-hik). Afraid of a draft, or of 
cont.ict with the open air. 

Aerophobus {ii-cr-o-fo'-bits). An aerophobe. 

Aerophorous {n-tr-o/'-ur-iis) \ai/p, air ; pipTiv, to 
bear]. Containing or conducting air ; aeriferous. 

Aerophthora («-<7'-o/'-//;t>;--<7/;) [«^/), air ; oWop.i, corrup- 
tion]. X'itiation of the air. Syn., Aerodiaphthora. 

Aerophthoricus ia-erof-lkor'-ik-its) [ai/p, a.\r ; ^Wo/m, 
comiptiiin]. Relating to or affected by vitiated air. 

Aerophysic {n-t-r-o-fis'-ik) [«';/», air; ouffav, to blow]. 
Inflated; distended with air ; flatulent. 

Aeropleuria [a-er-o-p/u'-ye-ah). See Pnnimothorax 
I Illus. Diet.). 

Aeropneumonasia {a-er-o-fitt-moti-a'-sf-ak). See Em- 
pkysi-iiitt , /'uliilouitry (Illu.s. Diet.). 

Aeroporotomy {a-er-it-por-oi'-o-vte) ["/y^j, air ; ~opor^ 
a |i<ire ; ro//;}, a cutting). The operation of admitting 
air to the lungs, as by intubation or tracheotomy. 

Aerosis. i See Illus. Diet.) 2. Refrigeration by means 
of an air-current. 

Aerosphere \i>'-ii-os/ei) \aiip, air; coaipn, a globe]. 
The atmosphere. 

Aerostathmion i a-er-o-slath' -nw-oit^ ["'}/'. air ; arnfiiiinv, 
a balance]. An instrument for estimating the varia- 
tions of temperature and weight of the atmosphere. 

Aerostatic {,i-i-r-o stn/'-ik). Of or pertaining to aero- 
statics ; airy, pneumatic. 

Aerostatics (a-er-o-stal'-iks) [u'lp, air ; arariKO^, caus- 

ing to stand]. That branch of pneumatics which 
treats of the e(juilibriuni, pressure, and mechanical 
properties of tjuiescent air or gases. 

Aerothermotherapy {aer-o-tkiir-iiw-l/ier'-ap-e) [ni/p, 
air ; »'P!"/, heat ; Uepa-eia, therapy]. Treatment with 
hot air. 

Aerotractor {a-ti-o-lrak'-lor) \aer, air ; Irahen, to 
draw]. See Tim/or, Air-. 

Aerotympanal (ii-er-o-tiiii'-pn>ial) [«///>, air ; ri /i77avm; 
a drum]. Pertaining to the air and the tympanum. 
( r Air, hiiinlc. 

Aerourethroscope ^a-er-o-u-reth'-ro-skop) \aiip, air; 
III l>i/Hliii, urethra ; osoirei)', to examine]. An instru- 
ment modified from the endoscope used in acroureth- 
roscopy. Syn., Aeroiystosi-ope. 

Aeroxerotes (o-cr-o-zer'-o-llz) \aiip, air ; ff/i<>f, dry]. 
Dryness of the air. 

Aeroxerotic, Aeroxeroticus (a-er-o-zer-ot'-ik, -us). 
Relating to or caused by the dryness of the air. 

Aerozol la-cr-o-zo/') [jiiip, air; b^en; to smell]. A 
mixture of essential oils containing 75 ^f of ozone ; it 
is used by inhalation in catanhal affections. 

Aerva [a-t-r'-i'tt/i) [.Ar, ]. A genus of plants of the order 
Aniitraiiliuedc. A. lanata, , a species native of 
tropical .\sia and .Vrabia. It furni.shes chaya root, 
which contains a mucilaginous principle and has been 
used as a diuretic, in strangury, and as a depurative. 

.ffiscigenin trs-ij'ai-in]. See Esiigeiiiii. 

iEsciorcin, ySsciorsinol. See Esaorsin. 

iEsculetin. See Escii/c/in (Illus. Diet.). 

iEsculus (t's'-k/i-/tis) [L., the Italian oak]. A genus 
of sapindaceous shrubs and trees ; buckeye. A. 
glabra, <Jhio buckeye. The bark is tonic, astringent, 
and antiperiodic. Dose, of fluid extract, 10-20 tt\^ 
(0.6-1.2 c.c. ). A. hippocastanum, horse-chestnut. 
The bark is tonic, astringent, antii>eriodic. Fluid ex- 
tr.act.dose, 20-60 Tt\^ (o 12-3. 7 c.c). A. pavia, red 
buckeye. The bark has been used as a febrifuge. The 
fruit is said to be an active convulsant. 

.ffisthema {ei-tlic'-niah) [aiatii/ua ; pi. asthemales^. 
A percei)tion, .sensation, sense. 

.ffithal. See £■//;<;/ (Illus. Diet.). 

^thomma [c/k-oin^-ti/i] [oJ^or, of a burnt color; oiiun^ 
the eye]. I. Fare's term for a pigmented condition 
of the humors and tunics of the eye. 2. KUhn's term 
for a morbid conilition marked by flashes of light and 
flame appearing before the eye. 

.ffithusa [e-thu'snh) [oiWfn-, to light up]. A genus of 
umbelliferous herbs. A. cynapium, I.., fool's pars- 
ley. It is stomachic, diuretic, and emmenagog. 

Affection. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Parainfectious, 
one in which the symptoms or conditions are only in- 
directly related to the disease named ; a by-condition 
or accessory infection of certain diseases characterized 
by the appearance of symptoms attributable to a side 
or secondary infection, as in the case of noma occur- 
ring in cases of measles and due to infection with 
diphtheria. A., Pneumogastropituitous. Sec Per- 
tussis (Illus. Diet.). A., Polyuric. See Lilhiiria 
(Illus. Diet). A., Primary, one indejiendent of any 
preceding disease. A., Secondary, one that is a 
complication or sequel of a preexisting disease. A., 
Vaporous. See I'apors (Illus. Diet, 1. 

Affectus. (See Illus. Diet.) A. flatulentus, hypo- 
chondriasis, melancholia, vapors. A. hyderodes, 
dropsy. A. hystericus, hysteria. A. implicatus, 
a complicated disease. A. magnus [Hippocrates], 
epilepsy. A. melancholicus, melancholia. A. 
mirachialis, abdominal pain or disease. A. prse- 
cordialis. See J/vt'or/ioitdrinsis ; or Mt-ltiiuht'lia 
I Illus. Diet. \. A. spasmodico-convulsivus labio- 
rum. See Tic douloureux 1 Illus. Diet.). 




Affinitas (i7/-/h'-//-.w). See <4^«//j' (Ulus. Diet. ). A. 
adjuta. See Affinity, Medintiiig. A. animalium, 
pliylogenetic relationship among animals. A. ap- 
propriata, A. approximata. See Affinity, Mediating. 
A. compositionis. See Affiinity of Composition. 
A. divellens. See Affinity, DivelUnt. A. mix- 
tionis. .See Affinity of Composition. A. producta. 
See Affinity, DirviiopcJ. A. quiescent. .See --Iff'n- 
ity of Aggregation. A. reciproca. ^ee Affinity, Re- 
ciprocal. A. synthetica. See Affinity, Cliemic 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Affinity. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. In biology, morphologic, 
physiologic, and pliylogenetic relationship between 
organisms. A. of Aggregation, cohesive attrac- 
tion ; llie mechanical atifinity of similar molecules 
tending to the formation of masses. Syn., A., Quies- 
cent; Affinitas quiescens. A., Alternating Elective. 
See A., Reciprocating. A., Appropriate. .See A., 
Mediating. A., Complex. See A., Double. A. 
of Composition, the tendency of substances to unite 
directly without previous decomposition. Syn., Affini- 
tas compositionis; .A. mi.xtionis; .4., Simple; A., 
Single; A., Compound; .A., Mixing. A., Com- 
pound. See A. of Composition. A., Compound 
Elective. See A., Dotihle. A., Developed, tli:it ex- 
hibited by compounds, but which was not possessed 
by the constituents separately. Syn., .Affinitas pro- 
ducta ; Resulting affinity; Secondary affinity. A., 
Divellent, the tendency to form new compounds at 
the expense of decomposition of those previously ex- 
isting. Syn., .Affinitas dii'cllcns ; Separating affinity. 
A., Double, A., Double Elective, that in which 
two new compounds result from a double decomposition. 
Syn., A., Comple-x ; A., Compound elective. A., 
Elementary, i. That which exists between the ele- 
ments of two or more compounds. 2. Physicochemic 
relationship of elementary substances. A. of Heat, 
the tendency of certain bodies to absorb heat with 
consequent decomposition, and recomposition on 
cooling. A., Imparted, A., Intermediate. .See 
A., Mediating. A., Indirect. See .A., Elective 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Inducing, A., Inductive. See 
A., Mediating. A. of an Intermedium. See A., 
Mediating. A., Mechanical. See .A. of -Aggrega- 
tion. A., Mediating, that by virtue of which a sub- 
stance lacking the power of combination with a cer- 
tain substance secures it by preliminary combination 
with another. .Syn., .A., .Appropriate ; A., Imparted; 
A., Intermediate ; .A., Inducing; .A., Inductive; A. 
of an Intermedium ; .Affinitas adjuta ; .A. appropriata ; 
A. approximata. A., Mixing, A. of Mixture. See 
A. of Composition. A.. Morbid, the tendency of 
certain affections to exist synchronously or as se- 
quels. A. for Oxygen, inflammability. A., Quies- 
cent. Same as A. of Aggregation. A., Recip- 
rocal, cheniic attraction between the elements of 
a secondaiy compound ; tending, under altered 
conditions, to the reformation of the primary com- 
pound. Syn., .Alternating elective affinitv ; .Affinitas 
reciproca. A., Resulting, A., Secondary. See A., 
Developed. A., Separating. See .A., Divellent. 
A., Simple. See .A. of Composition. A., Simple 
Elective, that exhibited by a simple body for a single 
element of a comi>ound. Syn., .4., Single elective. 
A., Single. See .A. of Composition. A., Single 
Elective. See .-/., Simple Elective. A. of Solu- 
tion, that existing between a dissolved substance and 
its solvent. A., Vital, the selective action or chemio- 
taxis exhibited by the several tissues of an organism 
for their peculiar pabulum. 

Affion, Afiioni [Turkish]. Crude opium ; it contains 
regularly lOJf of morphin; offium. 

Affixion (af-ik'-shun\ [(t^^'ivv, to fasten]. Adhesion. 

Affuse laf-uz') \_affiindere, to pour upon]. To sprinkle 
or pour upon from a height ; to shower. 

Affusio \af-u'-se-o) [L. pi., a!ffusiones\ I. An affusion. 
2. .\ suffusion. 3. An infusion. 4. \ cataract. A. 
frigida. See Affusion, Cold. A. oculi, cataract. A. 
orbicularis. Set Rlacenta ulerina (Illus. Diet.). 

Affusion. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Cold, Currie's 
metliod of treating fevers by pouring cold water over 
the patient. Syn., Affusio frigida. 

AftbTotna I a/i-fi-6ro'-mali) [n, priv. ; y?(ir«, a fiber]. .\ 
mass of fibrous tissue which is not arranged so as to 
form a tendon or fascia. 

Afim, Afion, Afioun, Afiun. Same as Affion. 

Aforous {a/t'-fo-rus) [a, priv.; forare, to pierce]. 
Without an opening. 

African Horse-sickness. See under Horse. 

Afrodyn <//'-'-('-<//«) [licporf'Cn, venery]. An aphro- 
disiac, the principal ingredient of which is said to be 
the tincture of Moyrapuama. 

Afros (af'-ros) [00/105]. .Scum, foam, froth. 

Aftannin inf-tan'-in). A liquid used in veterinary 
practice and said to be a combination of 5 % of gly- 
cerin, 1.$% of formaldehyd, and an infusion of 

After-action. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Inner, that in- 
volving the whole muscle or muscular fiber. A., 
Terminal, that affecting only the ends of the muscu- 
lar fibers. 

After-current (af-ter-iur'-ent). See under Current 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Aftergilding \af-ter-gild'-ing'). A term introduced by 
Apathy to designate the process of treating nerve-tissues 
with salts of gold after fixation and hardening. Cf. 

After-image. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Colored, a reti- 
nal impression of an object seen, whicli remains after 
the object has left the field of vision ; it may be either 
of the natural color or of a complementaty color. A., 
Positive-complementary, a retinal impression of a 
color complementary to that of the original object. 

Afterproduction (aftcr-pro-duk'-s/tun). A new growth ; 

After-shaft. See Hyporhachis (Illus. Diet.). 

After-sound [af-ter-sownd). An auditory sensation 
or impression remaining after the causative vibrations 
have ceased. 

After-vision (af-ter-vizh' -on). The perception of an 

Afthom (aft'-hom). See Cornu, Posterior (Illus. 

Afyun [Ar.]. See Affion. 

Agalactos (ali-gal-alc'-tos) [li-o/OKror, without milk]. 
A woman without milk in her breasts. 

Agalactous. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Capable of dimin- 
ishing the secretion of milk. 4. Suckled at the same 

Agal-agal. See Agar-agar (Illus. Diet.). 

Agalasia ia/i-gal-a'-ze-ah). See .Agalactia (Illus. Diet.). 
A. contagiosa, an epidemic, contagious disease of 
sheep and goats, marked by drying-up of the milk. 

Agalax (a/i-gal'-ats) [a;a>uif]. See .Agalactous. 

Agaric. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A temi broadly applied 
to fungi of several genera. A., Astringent. See 
Polyporus fomentaritts, L.; and P. igniarius, L. A.. 
Bug. See Amanita musearia, L. A., Larch. See 
Polyporus officinalis, WW. A.. Purging. See Polyp- 
orus officinalis, Vill. A., Surgeons'. See Polyporus 
fomentaritts, L. ; and P. igniarius, L. A., White. 
See Polyporus officinalis, Vill. 

Agariciform (ag-aris'-e-form). Mushroom-shaped. 

Agaricin. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An alkaloid identical 




with amanitin. 3. An impure alcoholic extract of the 
agaric^ Polvponis officinalis. It has been used in 
liosos of I to 3 gr. (0.065 to o. 195 gm, ) three times a 
day, against colliiiuative sweats. It is a valuable 
remedy, free from danger and effective. 

Agaricinous (ax'-ny-is'-iii-us). .See Axaric (IIlus. 
Uict. ). Resembling or relating to an agaric. 

Agaricoid (/?;' ar'-ik-oid). Resembling a mushroom. 

Agaricon, Agaricum {ag-ar'-ik-on, -iiiii). White 
aLjaric, Folyponis officinalis, Vill. 

Agaricus {ag-ar'-ik-iis) \!iyni)iK<>v oi Dioscorides, from 
Agaria, a former district of Poland or .Sarmatia, whence 
the Greeks derived the larch agaric]. A large genus of 
hymenomycetous fungi ; muslirooms and toadstools. 
Cf. Polyponis amanila. A. chirurgorum. See Poly- 
porus fomcnlarius, L.; and P. igniarius, L. A. 
rubra, O. C, and A. sanguinea, \iu\\. These spe- 
cies, indigenous to France, were formerly included un<ler 
A. nihcy, D. C They yield the alkaloid agarylhrin, 
and the rose-red coloring-matter ruberin. 

Agarythrin {n^^-ar' -ith-rin). A yellowish-white alka- 
loid extracted by ether from At^aric/is ruhra, D. C. , 
and .-/. sanguinea, Hull. It has a bitter taste and leaves 
a burning sen.sation in the mouth. 

P^ga^5X.U3L {a/i-gas'-/ic-ak) [a, priv. ; )nfyr//p, the stom- 
ach]. Organisms having no internal digestive cavities. 

Agastronomia [ahgas-tron-o'-inc-ah^. See Agastro- 
nciiiia (IIlus. Diet.). 

Agathis (ag'-a//i-is) [rirnftV, a heap]. A genus of 
plants of the order Conifcric. A. australis, Steud., 
the Kauri tree of New Zealand. It atfurds Kauri- 
copal or Australian dammar. A. loranthifolia, Salisb. , 
a lofty tree of Malay Peninsula, Sunda Islands. Moluc- 
ca.s. and Philippines. It is one of the chief sources 
of East Indian or Indian dammar. 

Agavose [ag'-av-oz], Cj.^ITc^Oi,. v\ saccharobiose ob- 
tained from the stalks of Agave ameiicaii.i. 

Age. (See Illus. Diet.) A. of Consent, in meilico- 
jurisprudence the age at which a minor is considered 
capable of consenting to sexual intercourse ; it is usu- 
ally tliat of 12 years in girls, and 14 years in boys. A. 
critique, the climacteric. A., Marriageable, A., 
Nubile. See Xuhilily (Illus. Diet.). A. of Pu- 
berty. See /'«/)(V7'i' (illu.s. Diet.). 

Agenesia, Agenesis. (See Illus. Diet.) A. corti- 
calis, inconii)lcte develo|)ment of the cortical gray 
cells. A. dysspermia. See Bradyspermatisin (Illus. 

Agennesia, Agennesis (ah-jcn-e'-sc-ali, a/i-jen'-c-sis). 
See .Agenesia (Illus. Diet.). 

Agenosomia (a/i-jen-o-so'-me-a/i) [a, priv. ; ytmnv, to 
beget ; ooi./n, body]. Defective development of the 

Ager [a'-/iir] [L., pi. agri']. I. A field. 2. Growing 
in fields. A. chymicus. the field of the chemist ; 
water. A. naturae, the uterus. 

Agerasy ((//'-/r' (w-t). ^ee .4gcrasia (Illus. Diet.). 

Ageusia, Ageusis. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Central, 
that due to lesion of the cerebral centers of the gusta- 
tory nerves. A., Conduction, that due to lesion in 
the nerves between their origin and distribution. A., 
Peripheral, that due to disorder of the ends of the 
nerves of taste. 

Agger. I See Illus. Diet.) A. perpendicularis, A. 
ponticulus. Same as Eminence of the Seapha. A. 
valvularum venarum, a small projection at the 
UTnoii of llii- valves of a vein with the vessel-wall. 

Agglutinability ya'^^-lii-tin-ah-liil'-it-e). Capacity for 

Agglutinant. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A remedy pro- 
moting the repair of wounds by favoring nutrition. 

Agglutinantia i^ag-gln-tin-an'-sJie-ah). Agglutinants. 

Agglutinatio [ag-Zii-tiii-a'-she-o). Agglutination. A. 
maxillae inferioris, trismus. A. pilorum, the re- 
placement of ingrowing eyelashes by means of vis- 
cous matter on a probe. 

Agglutination. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A coagulative 
phenomenon accompanying hemolysis or bacteriolysis, 
thought by Gruber to be due to some deleterious effect 
on the membrane of the bacteria or blood-corpuscles 
which makes them sticky. 

Agglutinin (ag-/n'-tin-in) [agg/uiinare, to ])aste to]. 
A specific principle occurring in the blood-serum of an 
animal aflected with a disease of microbic origin and 
capable of causing the clumping of the bacteria jn'cu- 
liar to that disease, as exemplified in the Wiilal re- 
action. It was first described by Grubc-r and iJurham, 
in 1S96. 

Agglutitio (ag-glu-/ish'-e-o) [ad, against ; g/iitire, to 
swallow]. Difficult deglutition ; an obstruction to swal- 

Agglutogenic {ag-glii-/ojen' -ik) [agglutinin : generare, 
to produce]. Relating to substances from which ag- 
glutinins originate. 

Aggregated, Aggregatus (ag'-re-ga-ted, ag-rc-gn'-liis). 
See .-{ggregate ( Illus. Diet. ). 

Aghil [ Indian]. Aloes-wood. 

Agila-wood. Aloes-wood. 

Agillochum [ah-gil^-o-kiitn). Aloes-wood. 

Aginin («/'-;'«-/«)■ A yellow substance derived from 
decomposition of axinic aci,d. 

Agitator [a/'-il-a-/or) [agi/are, to excite]. Any ap- 
])aratus for .stirring or shaking substances ; a glass rod 
u-sed for stirring. 

Aglactation (ag-lak-la'-sluin). Same as A^^alaclia 
(Illus. Diet.).' 

Aglossia. (See Illu.s. Diet.) 2. Dumbness; senile 
impairment of speech. 

Aglossostotnatographia [ah-glos-o-sto-mal-o-graf'-e- 
ali)[a, pri\'.; ; /(TjfjfTrf, the tongue; OTfiiin, the mouth ; 
^jiaotir, to write]. A treatise on aglossostomas. 

Aglossostomia [ak-i^les-o-s/o'-nie-a/i) [», (jriv. ; j/ijirffr/, 
tongue ; fjruiiri, the mouth]. The condition of a 
mc'Uth without a tongue. 

Aglossostomographia [ah-glos-o-sto-tno-gyaf ' -e-ali^. 
See Aglossostoniatographia. 

Aglottia (a/i-glol'-e-a/i). See Ag/ossia (Illus. Diet.). 

Agmina (ag'-min-a/i) [pi. of agmen, a troop]. A 
multitude. A. digitorum manus, the digital phalan- 

Agnoia [ng-tioi'-a/i). See Agnea (Illus. Diet.). 

Agnolin (ag'-no-lin). Purified wool fat ; adeps lanre. 

Agnosia {ag-iio'-se-a/i) [u, priv.; yvijmc, a recogniz- 
ing]. of the perceptive faculty which gives 
recognition of persons and things. 

Agnus (ag'-ni/s) [L.]. A lamb. A. christus. See 
A'iciiii/s comwiinis. A. scythicus. See Cibolinm 
I'aroinetz and Pengawalir dijtiiiil'i. 

Agonal (ag'-oii-al ) [agon, a struggle]. .Struggling; 
relating to the death-struggle. 

Agoniadin. (See Illus. Diet.) It is used in inter- 
mittent fever. Dose, 2-4 gr. (o. 12-0.25 gm. ). 

Agonious (ng-o'-ne-ns) [n., priv. ; yuria, an angle]. 
Williciut an angle. 

Agonistic {ag-o-nis'-tik) [dyuvin. a struggle]. Relating 
to, due to, or occurring at the time of the death-agony. 

Agopyrin (ag-o-pi'-rin). An influenza remedy said to 
contain salicin, 4 gr. ; ammonium chlorid, 'j' gr. ; 
cinchonin sulfate, y-^ gr. 

Agot (.;;,>•'-()/). See Cagot (Illus. Diet). 

Agraphia. (See Illus. Diet. ) A., Absolute, a variety 
in which no letters can be formed. A., Acoustic, 
of capacity to write from dictation. A. amnemonica, 
a form in which letters can be written, but without 

AGRA ri lie 



conveying any meaning. A. atactica, that form in 
wliicli letters cannot be formed from lack uf muscular 
coordination. A., Literal, A. literalis. .See ^., 
Al'salnte. A., Optic, inability to copy writing, but 
ability to write from dictation. A., Verbal, a v.ariety 
in which a number of words without meaning can be 
written. Cf. Parngi-ii/t/iia. 

Agraphic ((;f-/-«/'-//;). Pertaining to agraphia. 

Agrippinus \ah-grip-i'-ntis). Relating to fi)0t presen- 
tation. Cf. Pivlu! agrippinus. 

Agron [East Indian]. A disease which occurs in 
India, marked by roughening of the tongue, with fis- 

Agrophyma. See Agriip/n'mn (IlUis. Diet.). 

Agrostemmin [iig-ros-/t'/j/-in) [f(}/i(i(;, afield; CTifiiKi^ 
a garland]. An alkaloid isolated from seeds of corn- 
cockle, I.vckiiis githiigo. 

Agrosteography, Agrosteology. See Agros/ograp/iy, 
.<;'/toAi/..^,i' (Illus. Diet. ). 

Agrypnia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. excitata, insomno- 
lence from mental excitement. A. pertaesa, that due 
to external disturbing influences. A. senilis, in- 
somnia of the aged. 

Agrypnic {ah-gripZ-nik^. Affected with sleeplessness; 

Aguadura {nh-g-ihih-lliu' -rah) [Sp.]. Rheumatism or 
a spasmodic contraction of the leg-muscles affecting 
horses and mules. 

Aguaja, Aguajas. See Ajiiagas. 

Ague. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn. , Inlermiltent fever; 
I\riotlic fei'er ; Malarial fever ; A/arsli fever ; Palu- 
dal fever: Miannatic fever. A., Dead. See A., 
Dumb [XWwi. Diet.). A., Face, tic douloureux. A., 
Fever and, intermittent fever. A. -fit, a 
of shivering. A. -grass, A. -root, Aletris farinoia. 
A., Irregular. See A., Dianh (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Partial, ague attended with pain which is limited to 
some or organ. A. -proof, not susceptible to 
malaria. A., Quartan, intermittent fever in which the 
paroxvsms recur every fourth day. A., Quintan, in- 
termittent fever in which the paroxysms i)ccur every 
fifth day. A., Quotidian, intermittent fever with 
daily paroxysms. A. -spell. See A. Jit. A. -struck, 
sufl'ering from an onset of ague. 

Agued (d'-guJ). Affected with ague. 

Aguish (a'-gu-is/i). Resembling or relating to ague ; 
atfected with ague. 

Aguishness (a'-gu-is/i-ness): The condition of being 
affected with ague. 

Agurin (ax'-u-n>i). A compound of sodium theo- 
bromate and si;)dium acetate; it is recommended as a 
diuretic, in doses of 1.5 gm. (24 gr. ). 

Ail (al) [M. E., £yle]. I. To be out of health. 2. 
A slight indisposition. 3. Garlic. A., Horn, an 
anemic disease of cattle marked by coldness of the 
horns. A., Wetherbee, a popular name for progres- 
sive muscular atrophv, from having affected several 
successive generations of a Massachusetts family of 
that 'name. 

Ailanthus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of shrubs 
ami trees of the order Simariiieie. A. excelsa, a 
large tree of India; it furnishes an aromatic bark used 
by the natives in dyspepsia. A. nralabarica, D. C, 
a tree of India; the bark is tonic and febrifugal, and 
yields a resinous juice, Muttee-pal, which is used in 
dysentery and bronchitis. 

Aiodin (ali-i'-o-iliii). .\ preparation of the thyroid 
gland and tannin. It is a tasteless powder, of which 
each gram is said to represent 10 gm. of the 
glands and to contain 0.4'^ of iodin. It is used in 

Aipathia, Aipathes. See Aeipathia (Illus. Diet.). 

Aipi [S. A.]. The cassava plant. See Maiiiliol. 

Air. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Artificial, of Boyle, 
the mixture of gases generated by vegetable fermen- 
tation. A., Breathing. See A., Tidal (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Complementary. See .'/., Comple- 
?«e'H/(7/ (Illus. Diet. ). A., Controllable. See lital 
Capaeity 1 Illus. Diet. I. A., Dephlogisticated Ni- 
trous, nitrogen monoxid. A., Empyreal, oxygen. A., 
Expiratory. Same as A., p,.\pired (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Factitious, carbon dioxid. A., Heavy Com- 
bustible, A., Heavy Inflammable. See Methane 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Hepatic, hydrogen .sulfid. A., 
Inflammable, hydrogen ; also methane. A., Innate, 
the air contained in the tympanic cavitv. Svn., .-ier 
ingeiiitus; Aer innatus. A., Nitrous, Priestley's 
name for nitrogen dioxid. A., Solid, of Hales, car- 
bon dioxid ; .so called because of its property of form- 
ing solid carbonates with metallic oxids. A., Sup- 
plementary. .See A., Preserve (Illus. Diet. 1. A., 
Vitriolic, A., Vitriolic Acid, Priestley's name for 
sulfur dioxid. 

Air-break Wheel, Air-breaking 'Wheel. .\n ar- 
rangement by means of which the sparks may be 
promptly extinguished when using a Iio-voit contin- 
uous current to excite a coil ; the spark formed at the 
contact-brushes when the coil is energized is blown out 
instantaneously by the air-blast. 

Airing-court. .\ patients' garden connected with an 
asylum or sanatorium. 

Airoform [ar'-o-foriii). Same as Airol. 

Airogen (ar'-o-jen). See .4irol. 

Airol [ai-'-ol]. See Bimmth Podosubgallate. 

Aisthesia, Aisthesis. See Esthesia (Illus. Diet.). 

Aitch-bone (ae/i'-boit) \_iiatis, rump]. The bone of 
the buttock ; the rump-bone. Syn. , Ae/i-bone ; Ache- 
bone; A^aehe- or A'age-bone ; JIaitneh-bone. 

Ajacol, Ajakol (ali'-ja-kol). Same as Guaethol. 

Ajava-seeds. See Ajo-uan {\\\\xi. Diet.). 

Ajouain, Ajowaen, Ajowains. See Ajenvan (Illus. 

Ajuagas {ah-vjali'-gaz) [Sp.]. .\n ulceration affecting 
the hoofs of horses and mules. 

Akatamah [ak-ah-tah'-iiiah). The native West Central 
African name for an endemic peripheral neuriti.i of ob- 
scure origin marked by numbness and intense jirickling 
and burning in the presence of cold or damp. 

Akathisia (ah-kat/i-iz'-e-ah) [n, priv. ; Knfli'nr, to be 
seated]. .\ name given by Lnd Ilaskovec to a form 
of rhythmic chorea in which the patient is unable to 
remain seated ; the aflection resembles astasia-abasia. 

Akebia {ak-e^-be-ah) [Tap., ahebi"]. A genus of plants 
belonging to the order Berberaeeic. A. quinata, a 
Japanese species, the fruit of which is emollient. 

Akestoma (ak-e/-to-niah). See .Aeesloma. 

Akidopeirastica (ak-id-o-pi-ras' -tik-ali) [aKii;, a point; 
-f/fxian', to make a trial of]. Exploratory incision or 

Akineses (a/i-kin-e'-slz) [a, priv.; laviiv, to move]. 
Neuroses characterized bv loss of power of motion. 

Akinesis. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Cerebral, that in 
which the le.sion is in the cerebrum. A., Crossed, a 
motor paralysis on the side opposite thai in which the 
lesion exists. A. iridis, rigidity or immobility of tlie 
iris. A., Reflex, impairment or loss of reflex action. 
A.. Spinal, motor impairment due to a lesion of the 

Akinetic (a/i-kin-et'-ik). See Aeinetic (Illus. Diet.). 
2. Diminishing niuscnlar power. 3. An agent lessen- 
ing nuiscular action. Syn., Akiftesic. 

Aknemia. See Aenemia. 

Aknemous. See Aencnious. 

Akoulalion (<!/;-X"<w-/rt'-/i?-o« ) [aicoi'f/i', to hear ; /ri/.of. 




speech]. A mechanical contrivance to aid defective 
audition used in training the deaf antl duniii to speak. 

Akouphone i^a/i^-/coo f'on ^ [aiii>vtii\ to hear; lyXJiv/, 
sound]. .\ meclianism to aid defective hearing. 

Akratotherm. See Aii-aloliicnii. 

Akratothermal. .See AcralothcniiaL 

Aktinography ^aktin-og'-raf-i:). See Aitiiiograpliy. 

Ala. (See Ulus. Diet.) 2. The arm or sliouldcr ; in 
animals, the shoulder-hlade. A. alba lateralis, the 
nucleus of the glo.s.sopharvngeal nerve. A. alba me- 
dialis, the hypoglossal nucleus. Alse atlantis, the 
transverse processes of the atlas. A. auriculae. 
See A. luiris (Illus. Uict. ). A. descendens, the 
pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. Alae dia- 
phragmatos, the lateral segments of the diaphragm. 
A. ethmoidalis, the expansion at the end of the crista 
galli of the ethmoid. A. fornicis, the posterior pillar 
of the fornix. Alae internse clitoridis, the labia mi- 
nora. Alae laterales, i. The great wings of the 
sphenoid bone. 2. Wing-like processes on each side 
of the nasal spine of the frontal bone. A. lobus 
centralis, a lateral part of die central lobe of the 
cerebellum. A. magna, one of the greater wings of 
the sphenoid. Alae magnae ossis sphenoidei or 
sphenoidis. Same as A/iV tiuijorcs i Illus. Diet.). 
Alae minimae ossis sphenoidei, two small bony pro- 
tuberances on each side of the ethmoidal sjiine of the 
.sphenoid. Alae minores clitoridis, the labia minora. 
See LnhiiiiJi i/iinor (Illus. Diet.). Alae minores 
ossis sphenoidei, the lesser wings of the s|>heiioid. 
Alae muliebres minores, the labia minora, Alae 
narium. See./, //.m/ (Illus. Diet.). Alje orbitales 
ossis sphenoidei, llie lesser wings of the sphenoid. 
Alae ossis sphenoidalis, the greater and lesser wings 
of the sphenoid. Alae ossis sphenoidei descen- 
dentes, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid. A. 
palatina, A. pterygoidea, the pterygoid ]3rocess of 
the sphenoid. Alae parvae ingrassiae, Alae parvae 
ossis sphenoidei, the lesser wings of the sphenoid. 
Alae processus vermiformis lobuli centralis, the 
lamellas of the superior vermiform process of the cere- 
bellum, connected w'ith its central lobe. Alae ptery- 
goideae, the i^terygoid processes of the sphenoid bone. 
Alae pudendi muliebris, the labia majora and labia 
minora. Alae septi cartilagineae narium. .See .-/. 
nasi (Illus. Diet.). Alae spinae nasalis, the pro- 
cesses seen on each side of the nasal spine of the fron- 
tal bone. Alae temporales ossis sphenoidei, the 
greater wings of the sphenoid. Alae uvulae, a medul- 
lary layer running from the posterior part of the uvula 
of the cerebellum to the amygdalas. A. vomeris, 
the lateral projections of the superior thick border of 
the vomer. 

Alabastrine (<?/(7-(')(rj'-/;r«'). i. Relating to or resem- 
bling alabaster. 2. Naphthalene. 

A\SiCre3i\.m ((i/-a-krc'-nt-iii) [a/aiiiii : crenliii~\. '-'I'ls- 
N-jOj. A base isomeric with creatin obtained from 
a coinbination of alanin and cyanamid by action of 
ammonia. Syn. , Guanidopropionic ai-id. 

Alacreatinin {nl-a-kre-at'-in-in'). C^HjNjO. A crys- 
talline body i.someric with creatinin, formed by the 
dehydration of alacreatin. Syn., Ladylgiiniiidiii. 

Alact'ia {ah-hi/y-tc-ah). See Agalactia (Illus. Diet.). 

Alalia. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Mental, form observed 
in children, which consists in inability to speak through 
excessive stammering. Cf. Lalofhohia, Dvilalia, 
Mogilalia, Paralalia (Illus. Diet.). A., Relative. 
Same as A., Menial. 

Alangin, Alanginum (al-aii'-jiii, -urn). An amor- 
phous principle from Alant;iiim lainarckii, soluble in 
alcohol, in ether, and in chloroform ; it is used as a 
febrifuge and emetic. 

Al^ngium [al-an'-Ji-iiiii) \^AIaiigi, Malabar name]. A 
genus of trees of the natural order Ci>rnatt\r, growing 
in India. A. lamarckii, sage-leaved alangium ; a 
tree growing in rocky places in Malabar. The juice of 
the root is anthelmintic. The root is cathartic, emetic, 
and antipyretic. 

Alanin. (^See Illus. Diet.) A., Mercuric. See 
Miiriti y aniidoproprionalc. 

Alant (a'/i-laiil) [Ger.]. The genus ////;/i.'. A., True, 
Inula /u'lcniiiiii ; elecampane. 

Alanthol (al-an'-l/iul). See Alan lol {UUii. Diet.). 

Alantic [al-an'-lii) [Ger., alanl, elecampane]. Per- 
taining to or derived fi'oni elecampane. A. Anhydri J, 
L'l.Jl.^jOj, a crystalline substance derived from the root 
ot elecampane, melting at 66° C. 

Alantois. See Allanloii (Illus. Diet.). 

Alantotoxicon i^al-an-to-lel-i'-t'-ion). .See Allantotoxi- 
con (Illus. Diet.). 

Alar. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Relating to the shoulder 
or axilla. 

Alares [I'l. of alaris\ (See Illus. Diet.) I. The 
pters'goid muscles. 2. The wings of the sphenoid. 

Alaris. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. See under il/;«.7<'.t. 

Alation (al-a'-s/nni). The state of being winged; the 
arrangement and disposition of the wings. 

Alatus (al-a'-lKs). I. Winged. 2. An individual in 
whom there is a marked backward projection of the 

Alba. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Reticular, the reticu- 
lated layer of alba on the anterior half of the uncinate 
gyrus. Syn., Snhlatilia yeliailaiis alba. 

Albaras, Albarras [Ar. ]. A skin di.sease character- 
ized by the fonnation of white, shining patches. Syn., 
IVhilc leprosy ; Baras ; Barras. 

Albargin (al-bar'-jin). A l^'/r compound of silver 
and gelatose (a transformation product of glue). A 
yellow powder, freely soluble in water, used in treat- 
ment of gonorrhea in injections of o.2'/t solution 4 or 5 
times daily. 

Albation [al-ia'-s/iitii). See Albefaction. 

Albefaction [al-Oe-fa/i'-s/iini] \itlliu$, white ; /"wcivr, to 
make]. The act or process of blanching or rendering 

Albiceris, Albicerus {al-bis'-er-is, -us) \\..\ Pale or 
light yellow. 

Albification (al-bif-ik-a'-shun). See Albcfartion. 

Albinism, Albinismus. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Al- 
pluisis : I.eukiZtliiopia : Ac/ironialesis: Lcukopalliia ; 
Albitudo. A., Acquired, A. acquisita. See I'ililigo 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Partial, congenital absence of 
pigmentation in certain parts of the skin, appearing in 
irregular, white, sharply defined spots. Especially 
characteristic are the changes of color in the hair, often 
observed in negroes. The hairs aVe white and grow 
upon skin devoid of pigment, or normally colored. 
Syn., Poliosis ciirumscripla. 

Albinistic (al-bi-nis'-tik). Relating to albinism. 

Albinoism (al-bi'-no-nm). See Albinism (Illus.- 
Dict. ). 

Albitudo {al-bi-iii'-da). See Albinism (Tllus. Diet.). 

Albizzia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. amara, Willd., a 
species of India, where the bark is used as a tonic and 
in astringent lotions. A. anthelmintica, IJrongn., 
the Abyssinian tree which furnishes musenna. A. 
lebbek, Willd., the labach of the .■\iabians, the sirissa 
tree of India, a native of upper Egypt, but cultivated in 
the East and West Indies. It furni.shes a variety of 
gum arable. The wood is the blaik wood of Mau- 
ritius. The leaves are used in baths and fomentations 
for rheumatism and in ophthalmia ; the powdered bark, 
in ulcers and snake wounds ; the seeds, as an astrin- 
gent, and an oil expressed from the seeds is taken ia 




leprosy. A. myriophylla, an E.i-t Indian species, 
where the natives make a kind ot" beer from the bark. 
A. odoratissima, an East Indian tree bearing white 
fragrant Huwers. The juice of the bark, with lime- 
juice and turmeric boiled in cocoanut oil, is used as an 
external application in leprosy and chronic ulcers. 

Alboferrin [al-lio-fir'-iii). An odorless, light-brown 
powder readily soluble in cold water. It is said 
to consist of albumin, (jt.n'c; iron, o.(&'/i\ phos- 
piiorus, 0.324 'f ; amidonitrogen, o. 13'^fc; and mineral 
substances, g.SJ^c. It is indicated in chlorosi.s, ane- 
mia, etc. Dose, 1-3 gm. (gr. 15-45) for children ; 3- 
5 gm. (gr. 45-75) for adults, per day. 

Alboflavescent (al-Oo-Jla-zW -enl ) [^ii/ius, white ; 
ihivciCcrc, to turn a light yellow]. Vellowish-white. 

Albolactescent {itl-bo-Uik-tes'-^nt) [(?/^//j, white ; lac- 
tescere, to turn to milk]. Milk-white. 

Albolin (<i/'-6o/-iii). See Alboh-ne (Illus. Diet.). 

Albor ( «/'-(5or) [<;//</«, white]. I. A whiteness. 2. Egg- 
albumin. 3. [Ar. , al bul.'\ Urine. A. cutis, A. 
nativus, albinism. A. ovi, white of egg. 

Albuginea. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A layer of white 
fibrous ussue investing an organ or part. Syn., 
Tunii'a albttginea. 

Alhuginean (a/-bii-yi>i'-e-/in). Resembling or belong- 
ing til the albuginea. 

Albugineous. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Belonging to the 
albuginea, particularly the A. oculi. 

Albuginous [al-bii'-jin-iis) [albiis, white]. Albu- 

Albukalin (al-bti'-kal-in). Cfi^^.,0^. A substance 
found in leukemic blood. 

Albulus (iil'-bii-lus) [dim. of a/biis'\. WHiitish. 

Album [al'-buiii) [albiis, white]. A substance charac- 
terized by whiteness. A. candiense, bismuth subni- 
trate. A. canis. See A. gmcutn. A. ceti, sperma- 
ceti. A. grascum, the dung of dogs fed upon bones, 
and whitened by exposure. It was formerly used in 
medicine. A. hispaniae. A. hispanicum, blanc 
d'Espagne, bismuth subnitrate. A. nigrum, the dung 
of rats and mice, formerly used as a diuretic and piu"- 
gative. A. ovi, white of egg. 

Albumen. Solution of. A filtered solution of the 
white uf an egg triturated in 4 ounces of distilled 
water. A., Test Solution of, a solution of the 
white of an egg triturated in too c.c. of distilled water 
and filtered. A. -water, cool water into which the 
white rjf an egg has been stirred, with Havoring. 

Albumenize yal-bii'-nien-iz). To cover with the white 
of egg^ 

Albumin. (See Illus. Diet. ) ?iyn., Coa'^ii/able animal 
lymph ; Coagitlable lymph of the serum. A., Acid. 
See Syntoiiin (Illus. Diet.). A., Alkali. See .4/(5;,- 

■ minale (Illus. Diet.). A., Animal, that occurring 
in animal tissues and fluids. A., Cerebral. See 
Neurin (Illus. Diet.). A., Coagulated, albumin 
modified by heat or by means of chemic substances so 
as to be insoluble in water, in dilute acid or alkaline 
solutions, or in neutral salt solutions. A., Crystal- 
line, a crystalline form of albumin found bv Griibler 
in pumpkin seeds and by Rittenhausen in hemp and 
sesame seeds ; the two findings differ in composition. 
A., Floating. See A.y Circulating (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Fuhs's Tests for. See under Tt'sls. A., 
Hematinic. See .SV/-«/«-/7/i*«;«/« (Ilius. Diet.). A., 
Imperfect, one which fails to give all the ordinary 
reactions. A., Incipient, Front's name for imperfect 
albumin occurring in chyle. A., Insoluble, i. See 
A., Coagulated, 2. .\x\ acid or alkali albumin, be- 
cause it cannot be dissolved in distilled water. A., 
Lacto-, an albumin occurring in milk and distin- 
guished from serum-albumin by its degree of action 

upon the plane of polarization. A., Meta-. See 
under Paralbumin (Illus. Diet.). A., Nonretractile, 
albumin which coagulates in a stale of uniform diffu- 
sion. Cf. .-/., A'etraitile. A., Para-. Sec Paralbu- 
min (Illus. Diet.). A., Retractile, albumin which on 
coagulation does not remam suspended in a state of diffu- 
sion, but forms concrete particles. A., Salivary. See 
Plyalm (Illus. Diet.). A., Soluble, one that is solu- 
ble in distilled water. A., Storage, albumin stored in 
the tissues. A., Whey, an albuminous substance ob- 
tained from whey. 

Albuminas (al-bu'-min-as) [L.]. An albuminate. 

Albuminate. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Peplon anhy- 
liriii. A., Acid. See Syntonin (Illus. Diet ). A., 
Alkali-. See Albuminate. 

A\huvninid (al-bii'-min-i</). Acid albumin, syntonin. 

Albuminiforra i^al-bu-min' -e-forin). Resembling albu- 

Albuminimetry {al-bii-min-im'-et-re). The quantita- 
tive e.stiniation of the albumin in a liquid. 

Albuminization [al-bu-min i-za'-shun). The act or 
process of conversion into albumin. 

Albuminize [al-bu'-min-iz). To convert into albumin. 

Albuminocasein {al-bii-min o-ia'-:e in). See Amyg- 
dalin I Illus. Diet.). 

Albuminochlorid {al-bumin-oklo^-rid). Albumin- 
combined with a chlorid. 

Albuminofibrin [al-bu-tnin-o-Ji^ -brin). A compound 
of albumin and fibrin. 

Albuminofibrinous, Albuminofibrous (al bii-min-o- 
Ji'~brin-u:-, -brus). Consisting of albumin and fibrin. 

Albuminogelatinous (albumin-ojelat'-inus). Com- 
posed of albumin and gelatin. 

Albuminoglutinous (al-bu-mino-glu'-iin-us). Com- 
posed of albumin and gluten. 

Albuminoidal (al-bu-min-oid'al). See Albuminoid 
(2) (Illus. Diet.). 

Albuminometry. See Albuminimetry. 

Albuminopurulent {al-bii-min-opur'-u-lent). Contain- 
ing albumin and pus. 

Albuminosa (al bu min-o'sa). Remedies or dietetics 
containing albumin. 

Albuminosic (albumino'-sii). Relating to albumin- 

Albuminuretic {nl-bu-niinii-rel'-ii). I. Causing albu- 
minuria. 2. A drug which causes albuminuria. 

Albuminuria. (See Illus. Diet.) A. acetonica. A., 
Anoxemic, albuminuria due to asphyxia. A , Acute, 
acute Bright's disease. A., Bamberger's Hem- 
atogenic, albuminuria occurring during the later 
stages of severe anemia. A., Cachectic, albuminu- 
ria due to cachexia. A., Cantharidic, that due to 
poisoning by cantharides. A., Cardial. See A , 
Cardiac (Illus. Diet.). A., Catarrhal, albuminuria 
due to distribution of or changes in the renal epithe- 
lium. A., Chronic, chronic Bright's disease. A., 
Cicatricial, a fonn in which epithelial desquamation 
is assumed to be replaced by tissue incapable of re- 
straining the transudation of albumin from the blood. 
A., Colliquative, that due to great disassimilation of 
the blood-coipuscles or adipose tissue. A., Con- 
sumptive. .See A., Colliijuative. A., Dystrophic, 
that dependent upon imperfect formation of the blood- 
corpuscles. A., Emulsion, that in which the urine 
has a milky turbidity due to minute corpuscular ele- 
ments. A., Exudative, Gubler's name for albumin- 
uria partially due to the filtration of albumin through 
the membranes of the kidney and also to the presence 
in the urine of products of inflammation, as in cases 
of nephritis. A., Fatty. See Cliyluria (Illus. Diet. ). 
A., Globular, that due to destruction of blood-cor- 
puscles or dependent upon the presence of blood in 




the urine. A. longa, chronic albuminuria. A., 
Normal. See ,-/., P/iysio/ogir (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Orthostatic, a form depetulent upon an upright pos- 
ture. A., Partial, a form in which it is a.ssumed that 
only certain tubules are afifected. Syn., .-/. parct-Uairt'. 
A., Pathologic, that distinguished from physiologic 
albuminuria by being due to disease. A., Per- 
manent, that due to a lasting disease which makes 
the albuminuria a permanent condition. A., Per- 
sistent. .See ./., Pcriihinciil. A., Phosphatic, 
albuminuria accompanied by phosphaturia. A., Pre- 
tuberculotis, a condition observed in young per- 
sons as a [iremonitory stage of tuberculosis, believed 
to be due to the congestive action of the tuberculous 
virus upon the renal structure. A. renalis. See A., 
Nephrogenous (Illus. Diet.). A., Residual, a form 
in which a small amount of albumin may persist, fol- 
lowing an att.ack of nephritis. A., Saturnine, that 
due to lead-poisoning. A., Scarlatinal, that due to 
scarlatina. A., Sero-, A., Serous. See ./., 'line 
(Illu.s. Diet.). A., Spastic, that due to a convulsive 
attack. A., Toxic, that due to the presence of a 
toxin. A., Transitory. See A , Temporary (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Transudative, that due entirely to fil- 
tration of albumin through the membranes of the kid- 
ney. A. vera. See,-/., '/'/v/t- (Illus. Diet.). 

Albuminurious [nl bn-niin-u'-re-ns). See Albninin- 
nrii ( Illus. Diet.). 

Albumoscope [iil-/>n'-nio .W:op) [tj//'nniin : OKOTzhv, to 
examine]. An appliance for determining the presence 
and amount of albumin in urine. 

Albumosuria. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Bence-Jones'. 
See A., Myelopixlliie. A., Myelopathic, a condition 
marked by persistent occurrence of albumose in the 
urine accompanied by softening of the bones owing to 
multiple myelomas. 

Alburnoid [^al-bnrn^ -oid^. Having the appearance of 

Albus \al'-bns] [L.]. White. 

Alcaligen [nZ-in/'-ij-en). I. See Alkalisrenous (Illus. 
Diet.). 2. Nitrogen. 

Alcar (ii/'-kiir) [a/icn/i, a defense]. A remedy. 

Alcargen \ii/-hir'-jen). See .-/<■/</, Dinulliylarsenie. 

Alcarnose (iil-knr'-noz). A nutrient preparation con- 
taining maltose combined with albumuses. 

Alchemilla [al-ke mil'-n/i) [.\.x., iilkein,lyeh\. A genus 
of rosaceous plants. The root and leaves of A. vul- 
garis, ladies' mantle, a common Eurojiean species, 
have been used as an astringent, diuretic, and vul- 

Alchornin. See Aleornin (Illus. Diet.). 

Alchymy (nl'ke-me) [Ar., A!-A'iinia'\. f. Alchemy. 
2. .Vn alloy of copper and arsenic having the appear- 
ance of silver. 

Alcoate [cil'-ko-n/). See Alcoholale (Illus. Diet."). 

Alcogel [al'-kfl-jel). A jelly-like combination of alco- 
hol and silicic acid. 

Alcogene [n/'-ko-jen) \aleohol; yivvav, to bring forth]. 
The cooler of a still. 

Alcohate ((;/'-/!■<)-/;«/). See .-//Mi/id/fz/c (Illus. Diet.). 

Alcohol. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Aceton-. .See 
Aeetylearbinol. A., Albuminous, a solution of 
the white of egg stirred into ordinary alcohol. A., 
Aldehyd, a body possessing at the same time the 
properties of an alcohol and an aldehyd. A., AUylic. 
See A., AkyI (Illus. Diet.). A., Ammoniated, 
spirit of ammonia. See under Anniii'iuuin (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Amylic, Tertiary. See Amylene hy- 
drate (Illus. Diet.). A., Anisic, A., Anisylic. See 
A., Anisvl (Illus. Diet.). A., Aqueous. See,-?., 
Hytlriited. A., Bornyl. See j9<>/-»,c/ (Illus. Diet.). 
a'., Butyric. See ,/., Bnlyl (Illus. Diet.). A., Cam- 

pholic, A., Camphyl. See Borneo/ (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Caproic, A., Caproil, A., Caproilic. A^ 
Caproyl, A., Caproylic. See ./., Ilexyl (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Capryl, A., Caprylic. See.-/., Oelyl 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Caustic, sodium ethylate. A., 
Cerotyl. See,-/., C'lvi-/ (Illus. iJict.). A., Cetic, 
A., Cetyl-. See Ellla! (Illus. Diet.). A., Chlor- 
ethy], (/..HjOCl, a substitution product of ethyl al- 
cohol in which I atom of hydrogen is replaced by 
I atom of ehlorin. A., Cinnamic, A., Cinnamyl, 
A., Cinnamylic, C,|I1,„(_). yellowish needles or crys- 
talline masses obtained fnjm the distillation of styracin. 
It is soluble in alcohol, ether, water, glycerin, and ben- 
zin; melts at 30°-33° C; boils at 250° C. It is anti- 
septic and is a deodorizer in a 12.5 '> glycerin solution. 
Syn., Slyriiie aleohol ; Crystallized slvione. A., Cin- 
nylic. ^ee A., Chinamie. A., Common, ethyl alco- 
hol. A. of Crystallization. See under Crystallizu/ion. 
A., Cymyl. .See./., Cn in i n \l\\us. Diet.). A., Deo- 
dorized, ethyl alcohol filtered through eliareoal to re- 
move coloring and odorous matters. A., Diacid. See 
A., Diiiloinie (Illus. Diet.). A., Dibromopropylic, 
CiHgBr.^O, a colorless liquid obtained from allyl alco- 
hol by action of bromin. It boils at 219° C A., 
Dietbylene, A., Diethylenic, C,H|„()3, diethylene 
oxyhyilrale, a l)i|uid Ijoiling at 250° C. A., Drug- 
gist's, ordinary elliyl alcohol pre])ared by distilla- 
tion. A., Eth'alic. ' See Et/ial (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Ethylene, A., Ethylenic. See 6'/ri('/ (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Ethylic. See ,-/., Ethyl (Illu.s. Diet.). A., 
Fatty, one obtained from a hydrocarbon of the 
fatly series. A., Furfuryl-, A., Furfurylic, C,H.,0. - 
CH^OII, an alcohol, not yet obtained in the free slate, 
of which fnrfurol is the aldehyd. A., Glyceric, 
A., Glyceryl, A., Glycyl. See Glyeerin (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Hecdecatylic. See A//;,?/ '( Illus. Diet.). 
A., Hendecatyl. See ./., L'nd,r,ity/ (Illu.s. Diet.). 
A., Hexabasic, A., Hexacid, A., Hexatomic. .See 
A., //.'i,;//!',/;/,- (Illus. Diet. ). A., I'-Hexone. See 
Dnleitol (Illus. Diet.). A., Hydrated, elhyl alcohol 
containing water from which it cannot be freed by dis- 
tillation. A., Iso-, an alcohol derived from a hydro- 
carbon containing carbon atoms which directly unite 
witlr more than 2 other carbon atoms. A., Isopen- 
tylic. See ,^., .-/wi'//,- (Illus. Diet.). A., Isopropylic, 
CjHgO, a colorless mobile liquid obtained trom iso- 
propyl iodid by action of lead hydroxid. Sp. gr. 
0.791 at 15° C. ; boils at 82°-83° C; mixes with water, 
alcohol, and ether. Syn., Secondary propyl aleohol ; 
Psendopropyl alcoJwl. A., Lactuceryl, C,|,H3„0, 
white needles fusing at 162° C, derived from lactu- 
cerin by action of potash ; it is soluble in ether, in 
chloroform, and in hot alcohol. A., Ligneus. See 
A., Methyl (Illus. Diet.). A., Melicyl. .See A., 
Ji/ellissvl (Illus. Diet. ). A., Melinic-, A., Melissic-, 
A., Melissylic. See A., Mellissyl ( Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Mentholic, A., Menthyl, A., Menthylic. See 
Ar-:nthol (Illus. Diet.). A., Mesitic, A., Mesityl, 
Kane's names for acetone. A., Methylic-, Triethyl- 
ated. See Triethvlcarhinol. A., Methylic-, Tri- 
methylated. See lyhiiethvlearbinol. A., Mon- 
acid. A., Monad, A., Monobasic. See A.s, Mono- 
'■a/ent (Illus. Diet. I. A., Monochlorethyl, A., Mon- 
ochlorethylic. .See /illiylene ehlorhydrin. A., 
Myricic, A., Myricyl. See .-/., Mellissyl (Illu.s. 
Diet.). A., Myristic, CjJIjdO, a substance obtained 
from spermaceti. A., Octoic, A., Octylic. See 
A., Oetyl (Illus. Diet.). A., Orthooxybenzylic. 
-See Sah\'enin (Illus Diet.). A., Paraoxymethyl- 
benzyl. ' See A., Anisyl (\\\m. Diet.). A., Per- 
fumers', deodorized ethylic alcohol. A., Phellyl, 
Siewert's name for cerin, a crystalline preeipilale ob- 




tained from an aijueous extract of cork by action of 
hot alcoliul. A., Phenallyl. See .-/., Citniamic. 
A., Phenethyl, QlCeHjjH^ . OH, ethyl alcdiol in 
wliich phenyl replaces hydrogen. A., Phenyl, car- 
bolic acid. A., Phenylallylic. See A., Ciitiiamic. 
A., Phytosteryl. See I'liyloslcrin (lUus. Diet.). 
A., Pinacolic. See A., Ih-xyl (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Propenyl, tjlyceriii. A., Pyroligneus, niclhyl alco- 
hol. A., Pyroracemic. See Antyliarbiiiol. A., 
Quebrachyl. See {^inliraihol. A., Styrilic. Same 
as .1., Ciniuiiuic. A., Styronyl, A., Styryl. See 
A., Cinntintii'. A., Sycoceryl [aj'/ior, fig; ntjpoc, 
wax], C,„I 1.5^,0, an alcohol obtained from the resin of 
Ficus nibii^inosa of New South Wales. It crystallizes 
in silky needles ; melts at 90° C. A., Tertiary Tri- 
chlorbutyl. See AccUmecldorofonn. A., Tetryl, 
A., Tetrylic. See .-/., >^/;/i'/ (Illus. Diet. ). A.,Thio-. 
See i1/t7vv;/i/(r« (Illu.s. Diet.). A., Toluylic. See./., 
Tw/i'/ (Illus. Diet.). A., Triacid, A.,Tribasic. See 
A., Triatomic (Illus. Diet. ). A., Trichloramidoeth- 
ylic. See Chlortiltinifnoniij. A., Trichlorbutidene. 
See Clihiralhiilylititm (Illus. Diet.). A., Trichlor- 
pseudobutyl. See Acctonechloroform. A., Tri- 
chlortertiary-butyl. See Acetoiiechlorofonn. A., 
Trimethylene, C3H5(OH).^, a thick, sweet liquid. 
Syn., I'riiiiiiry propyli'iie glycol. A., Vanillyl. See 
I'liiiH/iii (iflus. Diet.). ' A., Wood. See A., 
Afct/iy/. A., Xylenic. See .J., /I/,///!'/ ( Illus. Diet. ). 

Alcoholated (nl-ko-liol-a'-lcJ ). Subjected to the action 
of alcohol ; prepared with alcohol. 

Alcoholdyscrasia ( nl-ko-hol-dis-kni'-si-nh ) \iilcohol : 
dyscrasin']. The characteristic form of chronic 

Alcoholeum {iil-ko-ho'-U-uiit). A tincture, particularly 
one prejiared from the dried plant. 

Alcoholicity [nl-ko lu<l-ii'-il-c). The alcoholic strength 
of any -.ubstance containing alcohol. 

Alcoholist (iii'ko-hol'-ist). An individual affected with 
alcohol ism. 

Alcoholmeter [n/-ko-/iol'-:iie-ti-r). See Alcoholonteler 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Alcoholomania [ttl-ko-)u>l-o-ma'-nc-cth). Morbid crav- 
ing for intoxicating beverages. 

Alcoholosis {al-ko-hol-o'-sis). See Alcoholism (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Alcoholparalysis {al-ko-hol-par-al' -is-is). A disease 
of conhrmed inebriates accompanied by ]>aralytic ap- 
pearances, tremor, disturbances of coordination, and 
anesthesia. Its prognosis is relatively favorable. 

Alcoholpseudoparalysis (nl-ko-kol-su-i/o-piir-<tl'-is-is). 
Same as Alroltolparitlysis. 

Alcohometer [nl-ko-liojii'-cf-iir). See Alcoholometer 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Alcometrical (iil-ko-iiic/'-nk-nl). Relating to the 
estimation of the amount of alcohol in a liquid. 

Alcoolature {nlko-o-la-chiir) [Fr.]. Filtered ]nepara- 
tions made from fresh ]>lants macerated in alcohol. 

Alcor i^iiF-kor). Calcined copper. 

Alcornoc, Alcornoco. .See Alconioijiic (Illus. Diet.). 

Aldehyd. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Acetic, A., Acetyl-. 
See .-/,-,'A;/,/,//i'./ (Illus. Diet. ). A., Acr-. See (V,). 
/<!H(i/(A7m'(/ (Illus. Diet.). A., Acryl, A., Acrylic. 
See .7(V»/tv'« (Illus. Diet.). A. -alcohol. See under 
Alcohol. A.-alcoholate, C^IIjjO; an addition com- 
pound of acetic acid ami ethyl alcohol. A., AUyl-. 
See Acrolein. A. -ammonia, CjH^NO, small rhom- 
bic cry.stals which turn brown on exposure, obtained 
from aldehyd by action of dry ammonia; soluble in 
water, slightly soluble in ether ; melts at 70°-So° C. ; 
boils at 100° C. It was found by Dobereiner, and 
named by l.iebig. .Syn., .liiiiiioitiatcil clliylic nldehyj : 
Ace/ylomnioiiiuiii ; Aiiiiiio>tinin olclcliviitile : Elhiilene 

hydramin. A., Aromatic, an aldehyd obtained as 
an oxidation product of a primary aromatic alcohol and 
in turn giving rise by oxidation to a monobasic aro- 
matic acid. A. -base. See Aldiii (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Benzoic. See i?d-H=rt/(/,7/v(/ (Illus. Diet.). A. -blue, 
the coloring-matter obtained from a solution of rosan- 
ilin in sulfuric acid by action of aldehyd. A., 
Brom-, a substitution compound of ethylene in which 
one or more atoms of hydrogen are replaced with 
bromin. A., Campholic. See />("•;/<■()/ (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Caprylic, Cj,Il,gU, a colorless liquid with a 
pungent odor, obtained by distillation of sodium 
ricinoleate and sodium hydrate, boiling at 171° C. ; sp. 
gr, o.9iSat20°C. Hyn., Acloic aldehyd. A. Char- 
acteristic, the univalent radicle C( H ) ^ O common 
to the aldehyds. A., Chlor-, one of a class of substi- 
tution compounds of ethylene in which one or more 
atoms of hydrogen are replaced by chlorin. A., 
CoUidine, A., Collinic, an oxidation product of al- 
buminoids and gelatin ; a colorless, viscid oii with 
odor like oil of cinnamon. A., Crithmic, an oily, 
pungent liquid obtained with crithmic acid from vola- 
tile oil of CrilliiuuiH mariliniunt by action of nitric 
acid ; it dissolves in alcohol and in ether. A., Cro- 
tonic. See CrotoiiaUchyd (Illus. Diet.). A., Dihy- 
droxybenzoic. See A., Pro/ocntechiiic {IWus. Diet.). 
A., Ethalic. See .•/., He.xdecolylic (Illus. Diet.). 
A. -ether. .See Crotoualdchvd (I'llus. Diet.). A., 
Ethylic. See .7<v/,(/,/,7y'fr' (illus. Diet.). A., Ethyl- 
methylprotocatechuic. See Elhylvanillii). A., 
Euodic-. .See .4., Aromatic. A., Furfurancar- 
boxylic. See //^yi/ra/ (Illus. Diet. ). A., Glycolyl, 
CHj(OH) . CHO, an oxidation product of tartaric acid 
when digested with water at 5o°-6o° C. A. -green. 
See Pigments, Table of (Illus. Diet.). A., Heptoic, 
A., Heptylic. See ./., Enanlhylic (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Isobutylic, A., Isobutyryl, CjH„0, a transpar- 
ent, colorless, highly refracti\e, pungent liquid ; sp. 
gr. 0.797 at 15° *-"• ; soluble in alcohol; boils at 61° 
C. A., Isopropylbenzcic. See ./., Ciimic (Illus. 
Diet). A., Isovaleral, A., Isovaleric, QHi^O, a 
pungent, oily liquid, wiUi an odor of apples, obtained 
from oxidation of amyl alcohol ; sp. gr. 0.804 ^^ '5° 
C. ; miscible in alcohol and ether ; boils at 92.5° C. 
A., Mannitic-. See A/annitote (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Mesitic, a substance isomeric with acrolein produced 
by Kane by action of nitric acid on acetone. A., 
Meta-. See Mctaldchyd. A., Methoxybenzoic, 
A., Methyloxybenzoic, CuHjO(CH,)C(JH, a com- 
pound occurring in two varieties : ( I ) Orthomethyl- 
oxybenzoic aldehvd, an oily liquid boiling at 230° C. 
(2) See A., Anisic (Illus. Diet.). A., Methylpro- 
tocatechuic. See Vanillin (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Methylsalicylic. See.-/., Mcthyloxybcnioic. A., Oc- 
toic. See A., Caprylic. A., CEnanthic, A., CEnan- 
thylic-. See A.,' Enanthylic (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Orthohydroxybenzoic-, A., Orthoxybenzoic-. 
See Aldehyd, Salicylic (Illus. Diet.). A.. Oxybu- 
tyr-. A., bxybutyric. .See >-//</c/ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Para-. See Paraldehvd (\\\\m. Diet.). A., Para- 
ethylic. See /'<"v!/,/,//iv/' (Illus. Diet.). A., Para- 
methyloxybenzoic. See .-/., Anisic- (Illus. Diet. V 
A., Paramucic. See /■'iirfnrol (Ilhis. Diet. V A., 
Phenylacetic, QH„0, a liquid boiling at about 207° 
C. aTid becoming a resinous mass. A., Piperomylic-. 
See Pipcronal [\\\\i^. Diet. 1. A., Propylic or Pro- 
pyl. See A., Propionic (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyro- 
mucic. See Fiirfurol (Illus. Diet.). A., Pyrora- 
cemic, CH, . CO . CHO, a yellow volatile oil ob- 
tained by boiling isonltrosoaceton with dilute sulfuric 
acid. i^yn. , .■Icetylformvl : Ji/ethylglyoxal : Propanalon. 
[Richter. ] A. -radicle. See Radicle. A. -resin, a 



brownish resinous body obtained by heating acetalde- 
hyd wiili alkalis. A., Rutic-, C,„ll2„<\, a sub- 
stance contained in oil of rue. A., Succinic, 
CjHjO.;, a colorless liquid obtained from succinic acid. 
A., Thiacetic, C2H,.S ; ethylidene sulfid, a substance 
not yet completely isolated. A.,Thio-, an aldehyd in 
which the oxvgen in the aldehy^l cliaracteristic is re- 
placed with sullur. A., Thioacetic-. See .-/., Tlii- 
ai'.V/.-. A., Thioformic, A., Thyoforinic. See 
MelhyUm sulfij. A., Toluic, A., Toluylic, CgH^O, 
a substance occurring in three isomeric forms, all of 
which are liquids. A., Tribrom-, A., Tribromated. 
See Brumal (lUus. Diet.). A., Trichlor-. See 
Chloral i Illus. Diet.). A., Trichlorbenzoic, CgU.,- 
CI3. CHO, a solid substance occurring in two isomeric 
forms. A., Trichlorinated. .See Chloral (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Vanillic. See Vanillin (Illus. Diet.). 
A.. Vinic. See .-/iv/rtA/i/m/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Aldehydase (nl-Je-hi'-daz). An oxydase occurring in 
the liver, capable of oxidizing salicylic aldehyd to the 
correspondingacid and supposed to be closely concerned 
in the functions of that organ. 

Ale-hoof (dl-huf) [ale: AS., h<a_foJ, head]. The 
ground-ivy, Nipi'ta glcchoma, which was used in 
making ale before the introduction of hops. 

Aleipsis (al-i'-psis) [(i>.£n/'(f, an anointing]. .Steatosis, 
fatly degeneration. A. aucta. See J/yperslealosis. 
A. diminuta. See Asten/osis (Illus. Diet.). 

Alembroth. (See Illus. Diet.) A. -salt. See Mer- 
ttirv-amniontttin thlorid^ Fusible. 

Alepbanginus [al-e-fan-ji'-niis). See Aloetric (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Aleptic {al-ep'-tik). S&e Aliplic (Illus. Diet.). 

Alepton. P. [al-e//-ion). Colloidal ferromanganese 

Alepton, S. Colloidal ferromanganese saccharate. 

Aletris. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. [ii'/.trpir, a female 
grinder of corn]. A genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Hicntodoraceie. 

Aleukocytosis (ah-lii-io-si-t(/-sis') [n, priv. ; '/.evKor, 
white ; KvTor, cell]. A diminished or insufficient 
formation of leukocytes. 

Aleurites {al-ii-ri'-le:\ [li/.f fp/77/f, made of flour]. A 
genus of euphorbiaceous plants. The seeds of A. 
cordata, Steud., the tung-tree of China and Japan, 
yield an oil called Chinese wood-oil. which is exten- 
sively used in the arts, and in medicine in skin dis- 
eases, ulcerations, and carbuncles. A. triloba, Forst., 
the cand!e-nut tree of India and the South Pacific islands 
and planted in the West Indies ; yields from its seeds 
a fixed oil called Spanish or Belgaum walnut oil, 
which has mild cathartic properties acting as castor oil. 

Aleiaron (f7/-//^-;'(7«) [a/ft'/)(n']. I. Wheat flour. 2. See 
Ahiiroiie (l\\\x%. Diet.). A. -crystals, A. -grains, A.- 
granules. ^Amt&s Aleuroue, 

Aleuronic (al-ii-ron'-ik). Relating to aleurone ; also 
to wheat flour. 

Alexeterium (al-eks-t-le' -re-urn') [af^^tiriip, a defender: 
pi., alfxe/t'ria'^. An external defensive remedy against 
poison or infection, as distinguished from aU-xiphar- 
mac, an internal remedy. The plural alexeteria was 
formerly used to designate remedies in general, but 
applied later to those used against the poisonous bites 
of animals. 

Alexia. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Cortical, a variety of 
Wernicke's sensory aphasia produced by lesions of the 
left gyrus angularis. A., Motor, inability to read 
aloud what is written or printed, although it is com- 
prehended. A., Optical, inability to comprehend 
written or printed words. A., Subcortical, that due 
to interruption of the direct connection between the 
optic center and the gyrus angularis. 

Alexipharmac. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Acting as an 
internal antidote. 

Alexipharmaceutic (^al-cks-e-far-ma-su'-tik). See 

Alexipharmatic {al-eks-e-far-mat' -ik). See Alexiphar- 
nia '. 

Alexipyretic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Acting as a feb- 

Alexocyte (al-eks'-o-s'it) [n/.fftii', to ward off; Kiro^^ 
a cell]. Ilankin's name for an amphophil leukocyte. 

Alfalfa (al-/al'-/ah)\_At., nlj'ac\ 'fiee Mediiai^o salivij. 

Alfontin (al-Jon/'-in). See ^^yHj/;/ (Illus. Diet. ). 

Algal \al'-gal) [«/;'«, a seaweed]. Relating to ..44w. 

Algaroba (al-i,'a-ry-/'a) [Ar., Al-Kharrubah, the carob 
tree]. I. The Mezquit \xee, Prosopis julijiora. 2. 
The carob bean, the pods of Ccralouia siliqiia, L. 

Algarobia {al-ga-r</-he-ah). I. See Prosopis. 2. 
Mezc|uit, the resin of Prosopis jiiliflora. 

Algarobilla, Algarrobilla [nl-f^ar-o-tiil'nh). The pods 
of Cusalpijiia bri-ifi'ha^ Baill., and Prosopis jiili- 
Jlora. This drug contains over 60^ of tannin and a 
large amount of ellagic acid. 

Algedon. See Al.i;c-do (Illus. Diet.). 

Algefacient {al-jc-fa'-shciit) \algor, cold ; facere, to 
make]. Cooling, refrigerant. 

Algen [al'-gi-n] [«/yv?, a seaweed], ^m^^\f^n< ^n o''y 
substance resembling furfurol, derived from seaweeds 
by di>tillation. Syn., Fuctisol. 

Algeology (all-Je-ol'-o-je). See Algohgy (Illus. Diet. ). 

Algeoscopy (alje-os' -kop-e). Synonym of Cryosiopy. 

Algesia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Hyperesthesia as re- 
gards the sensation of pain ; also neuralgia. 

Algesimeter. (See Illus. Diet. ) A., Bj6rnstr6m's,one 
to test the sensibility of the skin. A., Boas, an instru- 
ment for determination of the sensitiveness over the 

Algia (al'-feah). See Algesia. 

Algid. (See Illus. Diet.) A.-state, the cold stage of a 

Algidism, Algidity (al'-jid-izm, aljid'-it-e) [algidus, 
cold]. A marked sense of coldness ; chilliness. A., 
Progressive. See Sclerema neonatorum (Illus. Diet.). 

Algidness (al'-jid-nes). See Algidism. 

Algific (al-ji/'-ik) [algidus, cold]. Relating to or caus- 
ing cold. 

Alginate (al'-jin-at) [alga, a seaweed]. Any salt of 
alginie acid. 

Alginoid ((//'-/■;■»»-('/(!') [<?/;;»»,• f!(!of, likeness]. Resem- 
bling algin ; applied to metallic compounds of alginie 

Alginuresis (al-jin-u-re'-sis). See Algeinuresis (Illus. 

Algiomotor (al-je-om' -o-lor) [ap; of, pain; mo7'ere, to 
move]. Causing movements attended with pain. 

Algiomuscular [al-je-o-miis'-iii-lar) [<"i/;or, pain ; mus- 
(uliis, a muscle]. Causing pain in the muscles. 

A\gogSTi\c (al-go-i'en'-ih) [iOyor, pain; > Eiiar, to pro- 
duce]. I. Causing neuralgic pain. 2. [algidus, cold; 
generare, to generate]. Lowering the body-temper- 
ature below the normal. 

Algogenin (al-go/'-en-in). A body derived from fer- 
mented animal matter, which produces a fall of tem- 
perature when administered to animals. « 

Algoid (n/'-;wV/) [<?/(,'", seaweed ; (kSoc, likeness]. Re- 
sembling the group Ali^'ic (see Illus. Diet.). 

Algolagnia (al-go-lag'-ne-ah) [n'/ync, pain; /a;jf/n, 
venery]. Sexual perversion in which pain enjoined 
or endured plays a part. CL, .Sadism : Masochism. 

Algometry. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Electric, a com- 
parative estimation of the pain produced by an induced 
electric current. 

Algopsychalia (algo-si-ka' -le-ah). See Psychoalgalia. 




Algose {al'-goz) \_ii.\'iJiii, cold]. Extremely cold. 

Algospastic, Algospasticus (al-go-s/'ast'-ii!. -us) [a/- 
yi)c, pain ; (7.Trt07/hy^% a pulling]. Resembling or of 
the nature of painful cranips. 

Algous {ii/'-;^us). Pertaining to Algii:. 

Alnandal {al-luin'-dal ) [Ar., Ar liandkal\ Colo- 
cyiitli. A., Trochisci-, troches consisting of 5 pans 
of colocynth pulp and I part of gum arable. Dose, 
3-12 gr. 

Alicyclic (al-i-siJi'-lit) [a'/eiQitp, fat; /crx/or, a circle]. 
Pertaining to any hydroaromatic derivative having a 
ring-formation, carbocyclic, but approaching the ali- 
phatic derivatives in chemic behavior. Svn., Alipluilic 

Alienated {al-yen-a'-tcd) [iilienarc, to withdraw], i. 
Insane. 2. Gangrenous. 

Alienatio lal-ycii-n'-s/ic-o). See Alienation (lUus. 
Diet. ). A. partis, gangrene. 

Alienation, Mental. A term embracing every aberra- 
tion from normal mental activity. 

Alienism (al'-yen-izm) \_aHeiiarc, to deprive of reason]. 
The study and treatment of mental disorders. 

Alima (iil-i'-mah) [a>.i/i«r, without hunger]. Nutritious 

Aliment. (See lUus. Diet.) A., Accessory, A., 
Adjective, a condiment. A., Substantive, a food 
with nutritive value as distinguished from a condi- 

Alimental. ?iee Alimcn/ary (\\\\is. Diet.). 

Alimentary, Curative. See Aliinentollicrupy. 

Alimentation. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Artificial. 
See Fc-ding, Ai-tificial {\\\\i%. Diet.). A., Artificial-, 
Forced. See Feeding, Forced (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Iodic-, the administration of iodin with the food. A., 
Voluntary-, the nourishment of those who are willing 
to be fed, but are incapacitated. 

Alimentative {^al-im-ent' -a-tii'). Relating to nourish- 

Alimentativeness, Alimentiveness {nl-im-enl'-a-liv- 
nes, al-i-menC^-iz'->tes). The natural instinct for taking 

Alimentotherapy (al-im-ent'-o-tlier' -ap-e). The treat- 
ment of disease by systematic feeding. 

Alinite (<;/'-/«-!/). A commercial pure culture of A;- 
cilliis ellenbac/iiensis, claimed to have the power of 
fixing free nitrogen and of producing nitrogenous com- 
pounds in soil. 

AUnjection i^al-in-jeiy -shun') \_alcoliol : inicere, to in- 
ject]. .\ process of preserving anatomic specimens by 
repeated injections of alcohol. 

Aliphatic [al-c-fat'-ik) [(J/hou/;, fat]. Fatty. A.- 
cyclic. See Alicyclic. 

Alisphenoidalia (al-is-fe-noid-a'-le-a/i). The greater 
wings of the sphenoid. 

Alizaramid [al-is-ar'-am-id ). Cj^H^O.^ •; ^.r • A 

brown crjstalline substance obtained from boiling a 
dilute solution of alizarin in ammonia. Syn., Ai/iido- 

Alizarein [al-iz-ar'-e-in). See Alizarimid. 

Ali-zari. The oriental name for madder. 

Alizaric (iil-iz-iii-'-il:). Relating to or having the 
nature of alizarin. 

Alizarimid [al-iz-ai-'-im-id). C,,H.N02. A violet- 
red substance obtained from tlocculent precipitated 
alizarin by action of ammonia with heat; it becomes 
nearly black on drying. Syn , Alizarein. 

Alizarin. (See IIIu^. Diet. I A., Blue-green. See 
under Pigment. A. -bordeaux. See under Pigment. 
A. -green. See Pigments, Conspectus of (Illus. 
Diet. ). A.-indigo-blue. See under Pigment. 
A.-yellow. See Galhicctophenon (Illus. Diet.). 

Alk [.\r., Ulk'\. A gum resin from the terebinth tree, 
Pistiiciij lerebinthits, L. 

Alkadermic (^al-kadui'-mik) [altnli : iipun, skin]. 
iVrtaining to or containing an alkaloid used in sub- 
cutaneous injection. 

Alkahol. See Alcohol. 

Alkalescence. (See Illus. Diet.) A. of the Humors, 
a tendency of the system to alkaline or putrid fermen- 

Alkalescentia [nl-ial-es-ent'-slte-ah). i. Alkales- 
cence. 2. Alkalinizing drugs or agents. 

Alkali. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Acetated Vegetal, 
potassium acetate. A., Acetited Volatile, ammo- 
nium acetate. A., Aerated, a combination of an 
alkali with carbonic acid ; potassium, sodium, or am- 
monium carbonate. A., Aerated Fixed Mineral-, 
sodium carbonate. A., Aerated Fixed Vegetal, 
potassium carbonate. A., Aerated Volatile, anmio- 
nium carbonate. A. -albuminate, a soluble powder 
used as a culture-medium in bacteriology-. A., Ani- 
mal-, ammonia. A., Deliquescent, potash. A., 
Effervescing-, a carbonate of an alkali. A., Effer- 
vescing Fixed Mineral, sodium carbon.ile. A., 
Effervescing Fixed Vegetal, potassium carbonate. 
A., Effervescing Volatile, ammonium carbonate. 
A., Marine, soda. A., Mephitic Volatile, ammo- 
nium carbonate. A. -metal, a metal of which the oxid 
combines with water to form an alkali. A., Mineral-, 
any inorganic alkali. A., Organic, one forming an 
essential constituent of an organism. A., Prussian-, 
a cyanid of an alkali-metal. A., Urinary-, ammonia. 
A., Vegetal, potash ; also applied to the alkaloids. 
A., Volatile, ammonium ; also ammonium carbonate. 

Alkalifiable {al-kalif-i'-a-bl). Capable of being con- 
verte<l into an alkali. 

Alkalify ^a!-kai'-ij-i). To transform into an alkali. 

Alkalimetric {at-kal-i-met' -rik). Relating to alkalim- 

Alkalious (nl-kal'-e-us). Alkaline. 

Alkalithia (nlkal-ith'-e-ah). An effenescent prepara- 
tion used in rheumatism, said to contain I gr. caffein, 
5 gr. lithium bicarbonate, 10 gr. sodium bicarbonate, 
in each heaping teaspoonful. Dose, I heaped tea- 
sjjoonful 3 times daily in a large glass of water. 

Alkalizate yal-knl'-iz-at). I. To render alkaline. 2. 
.Vikaline. 3. An alkaline substance. 

Alkaloid. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Animal. See Leu- 
komain (Illus. Diet.). • A.. Artificial, one produced 
synthetically. A., Cadaveric 01 Putrefactive. See 
Ptomain (Illus. Diet.). A., Glucosid, a substance 
which exhibits the characteristics of an alkaloid, but 
is capable of decomposition into sugar and another 
substance when acted upon by dilute acid. A., Nar- 
cotic, an alkaloid having narcotic properties. 

Alkaloimeter (alk,ilo-ini'-et-ur). \ modificaiion of 
the alkalimeter for estimating the amount of an alka- 
loid in a solution. 

Alkaloimetry {nl-kal-o-im'-et-re). The quantitative es- 
timation of alkaloids. 

Alkaluretic. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A drug rendering 
the urine alkaline. 

Alkametric (al-ka-mel'-rik) [alkali: /lirpnr, a meas- 
ure]. Pertaining to a metric dose of an alkaloid. 

Alkane (al'-kan). See Paraffin (2) (Illus. Diet.). 

Alkanin. See Alkannin (Illus. Diet.). 

Alkargen {al-kar^-jen) \_alkarsin : jfi-ivir, to produce]. 
Dimeihylarsenic acid, obtained from alkarsin by the 
action of water. 

Alkasal (al'-ka-zal). See Ahiininiumpotassiunt sali- 

Alkatrit (al'-ka-lrit) [alkali : trilurare, to nib together], 
A triturate made from an alkaloid. 




Alke'ines (<il'-l:c--iiiz). A collective name for the ethers 

I'ornieil from the alkines. 
Alkekengin {a/-iv-i;>i'-yin). See P/iy:a/in. A., 

Silicated, a conipouiul uf alkekengin and silica. 
Alkekenji {al-ke-i\->i'-ii) [Ar.. AUahnJI. The fruit 

of the common winter cherry, Fhyuilis alkekengi 

('!■ -.). 

Alkene (,ii'-kiii). See OUfui (Ulus. Diet.). 

Alkermes (al-km-' -iiiiz). See Kcniiei (Illus. Uict.). 

Alkine (,il'-k'tn). Any member of the acetylene series 
of liydrocarbons. Syn., Alkniniii. 

Alkylamin yal-kil'-am-iii\. One of those bodies which 
reMill from the introduction of univalent alkyls into 
ammonia for its hydrogen ; one, two, or three hydrogen 
atoms of the ammonia molecule may suffer this replace- 
ment, thus yielding /'fimuiy or iiioiiii/ky/'i"ii"s having 
the general formula NHj(C„H2„+,); s^ioiii/ivy or <//- 
alkyliimiiis having the general formula NIl(C„H.j|,.).j) 


and tcr/iiirv or truilkvlaiiiins of the 

general formula N"(C„Hj„+,) (CpH.^i,+,) (C,,H.^,_,). 

Alkylate {al'-kil al\. A compound derived from a mon- 
aloniic alcohol by replacement of the hydroxyl hydro- 
gen Ijy a metal. 

Alkylation (i)/-ki/-ii'-skii)i). The exchange of hy- 
drnxvlic hvdrogen atoms for methyl groups. 

Alkyle'ne {al'-ki/iii). See OUfin (Illus. Uict.). 

Alky lie [al-kil'-ik). Pertaining to or of the nature of an 

Alkyiogen \til-kil'-o-jin). A haloid salt of an alcohol 

Allachesthesia (nl-ah-ki-s-l/ie'-se-ah) \_a/'/ax>i, in an- 
otlier place ; oiuHz/mr, sensation]. Erroneous localiza- 
tion of tactile impressions differing from allochiria in 
the respect that the sensation is felt on the same side of 
the body, but in a different place from that in which 
the irritation occurs. 

Allanate (n/'-Dii-al). A salt of allanic acid. 

Allantis {al-aii'-lis). The allantois. 

Allantoate yal-an' -to-a! ). .\ salt of allantoic acid. 

AUantodes. See Allantoitlcs. 

Allantoic. (.See Illus. Uict.) A. Fluid. See Li- 
i^lii'r nnlllii splti'ill.^, 

AUantoid. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. The allantois. A. 
Animal. See W/ZkhAvV/wh (Illus. Diet.). A. Liq- 
uid. See Litjuor iiz/ini/ sptirius. 

AUantoides (al-an-lo'-ui-ez) [L.]. I. AUantoid. 2. 
.\ sausage. 3. The great toe. 4. The allantois. 

Allasia (nZ-n'-u-in'i) [liz/nr, a sausage]. A genus of 
plants belonging to the order Ciiiiiy/n/difit. A. payos, 
an -\frican species the leaves of which are used as a 
piiultice to hasten parturition. 

Allaxis [ii/aks'-is) [aMinnni; to vary]. Metamoiphosis, 
transformation ; the act or process of conversion into 
some other condition or thing. Syn., Allage. 

Allay (,;/■<;'). See Alley (Illus. Diet.). 

Allectuary (,d-c-k'-tii-a-t\). See EUctiiary. 

Allen's Fusible Cement. A composition for cement- 
ing (lorcelain teeth to a plate. 

Allen's (Charles W.) lodinTest. See under /■//i-;/- 
iH'is Vt't'sicolor. 

Allene ((?/-«/ ). CHj^C^CH^. An isomer of allyl- 
ene. Syn., fl-Allylcne : Isoallyltne. 

Alleotic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A remedy or agent 
having an alterative action. 

All-heal. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A panacea. 

Alliarius [al-i-a' -re-its') \_,il/iiim, garlic]. Garlicky. 

Alliatus [al-i-a'-tiis). Made with garlic. 

Allidene [al'-'tJ-in). QH,. A bivalent radicle found 
in acrolein. 

Alligation {,i!-ig-,i'-skii>i). ?,te Alloy (Illus. Diet.). 

Alligator \<il-f-i;ii'-/oi-) [Sp., el legurlo, the lizard]. A 
genus of reptiles. A. sinensis, the Chinese alligator, 

the scales of which are used in the treatment of 

AU'iotic (itl-c-of-ik). See Alleotk (Illus. Diet.). 
Alliturate yul-il'-ii-rat). .\ salt of allituric acid. 
Alio-. I. A prefix used in chemistry to designate a body 

which has been rendered more stable by heal ; also 

used to represent isomerism when there is " relative 

AUochesthesia. See Allachesthesia. 
AUochroism {al-ok'-iv-hm) [ii/./or, other; XP"!'") 

color]. I. ^'ariation in color. 2. A change of color. 
Alloeomorphia, AUoeotnorphosis. See Allomorphism 

(llhis. Diet. ). 
AUoeopathy. See Allopathy (Illus. Diet.). 
Allogotrophia (al-o-go-tro' -fe-ah) [a/./'of, other ; 

Tjicurn-, lo nourish]. The nourishment of one part 

of the body at the of some other part. 
Alloiosis, AUoiotics. See Alleosis, Alleotic (Illus. 

AUomorphic, AUomorphous, Allomorphus {al-o- 

inor'-fii, -lis). Affected with allomorphism. 
AUomorphosis [al-o-iiior-fo'-sis). See Allomorphism 

(Illus. Diet.). 
Allopalladium [al-o-pal-a' -de-iint). A crystalline va- 

riet)" of palladium. 
AUophanamid (al-o-faii-aiii'-id). See Biuret (Illus. 

Allophanate (al-o/'-aii-at ). A salt of allophanic acid. 
Allophanic [al-o-faii'-ik) [n//0(;5ai7/(-, ai)pearing olher- 

wi-e]. Changing in color or appearance. A.- 

amid. See Biuret (Illus. Diet.). 
AUotherm (ul'-o-thitnii) [ii//.of, other ; Wtp/zn, heat]. 

An organism whose temperature is directly dependent 

on its culture-medium. 
Allotrieccrisis. See ^//o/;vV(V7jm (Illus. Diet.). 
Allotriolith (al-o-tri'-o-lith) {IO'/utjiidc, strange; //flof, 

stone]. A calculus composed of unusual material or 

formed in an abnormal situation. 
Allotriophagist {al-o-tri-of -a-jisf) . A person addicted 

to allotriophagy. 
Allotriophagous (al-o-tri-o/'-ci-giis). Relating to a 

depraved appetite for innutritious substances. 
Allotriophagy. (.See Illus. Diet.) Syn., J'elhicia. 2. 

The eating of innutritious and indigestible substances. 
AUotriotectic, Allotriotecticus (al-o-tri-o-tek'-tik, -us). 

Relating to allotriotexis (Illus. Diet.). 
Allotropic ((;/-(>/'-;vi-///')[a//of, other ; r^jo-;/, a change]. 

Relating to or marked by isomerism. 
Alloxamid (al-oks-um'-iil ) [alloxan,- ammonia'\. .\ 

substance, C,,HjN,Oj, obtained from alloxan by the 

action of ammonia. 
Alloxanate (nl-oks'-aii-at). A salt of alloxanic acid. 
AUoxanic (al-oks-aii'-ik). Obtained from or having the 

nature of alloxan. 
Alloxanthin. See Alloxaiitiu (Illus. Diet.). 
Alloxin (al-oks'-iit) [allaiitoiii'\. Any of a series of 

xanthin bases, the result of the s]jlitting up of chroma- 
tin, and which on oxidation produce uric acid. 
Alloxur, Alloxuric {al-oks'-iir, al-oks-ii'-rik). A term 

applied by Kossel and Kiiiger to the xanlhin bases, 

from the fact that these, like uric acid, contain alloxan 

and urea groups. A. Bases, A. Bodies, .\anthin, 

hypoxanthin, guanin, paraxanthin, adenin. 
Alloxuremia (al-oks-ure'-iiie-ah) [iillojcur ; uremia']. 

Toxemia due to the resorption of the xanthin or alloxur 

AUoxuria (<r/-c^.r-«'-;v-rt/;) [u//of, other ; offf, sharp; 

nvji'fiv, to urinate]. The pathologic secretion of alloxur 

bodies (uric acid, xanthin, hypoxanthin, paraxan- 
thin, adenin, carnin, etc. ) in the urine. 
Alius (al'-iis) [L.]. The great toe. A. pollex, the 





AUyl. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Alh/iiiii; Acryl; Pro- 
pylenyl. A. Acetate, I. C3H5.CJH3O, an aromatic 
liquid with sliarp taste, boiling at I03°-I04° C. 2. A 
salt of allylacetic acid. A. Acid Sulfate. See A. 
Stilftiti. A.-aldehyd, acrolein. A. Borate, (Cj- 
HjjjBOj, a liquid giving off pungent irritating vapors 
winch cause a flow of tears; it boils at l68°-I75° C. 
A. Bromid, C-jH-Br, a liquid with pungent odor ; sp. 
gr. 1.436 at 15° C; soluble in alcohol and ether; boils 
at 70°-7l° C. ^sn. , Broiiiopropylciit-. A. Carbamin, 
CN . CjH^, a liquid obtained by heating allyl iodid 
with silver cyanid; it has an extremely foul and pene- 
trating odor; boils at 96°-io6° C. Syn., Allyl cyanid ; 
Allyl isocyixnid. A. Carbimid, CO . NC3H5, a foul 
liquid causing tears, found by Cahours and FLofmann 
in silver cyanate by action of allyl iodid. Syn., Allyl 
isihyaiiii/c.- Ailyl carboxylaniin; Allyl psaiiUnyanale. 
A.-carboxylamin. See A. Carbiiiiut. A. Chlorid, 
C3H5CI, a pungent liquid; sp. gr. 0.937 at 20° C; 
boils at 45° C. Syn., Chlorolrityhii. A. Chloro- 
bromhydrin. See Ctilorobroinkydrin. A. Cyan- 
amid. See Sinamiu (Illus. Diet.). A. Dioxid, Cj- 
Hj^Oj, a colorless liquid obtained from allyl alcohol 
by action of glycerin and o.xalic acid ; sp. gr. 1. 16 at 16° 
C; boils at I7I°-I72° C; soluble in water, alcohol, 
and chloroform. Hyn., Diallyl o\ id. A. -ethyl. See 
Amylene (Illus. Diet.). A. ethyl Oxid, A.ethylic 
Oxid. See Ether, Altyhthyl. A.ethylic, containing' 
both allyl and edier. A. Formate, CjH^O.j, a liquid 
having the odor of mustard, boiling at 82°-S3' C, 
formed in the preparation of fomiic acid from gly- 
cerol and oxalic acid. A. and Glyceryl Oxid. See 
Tnullylm (Illus Diet.). A. Hydrate, allyl alcohol. 
A. Hydrid. )x^ Propylene (Illus. Diet.). A. and 
Hydrogen Sulfate. See A. SitlpUe. A. and Hy- 
drogen Sulfid. See A. Hydromlfid. A. Hydro- 
sulfite, A. Hydrosulfid, C3H5. SH, a mercaptan ob- 
tained by Cahours and Hofmann from an alcoholic solu- 
tion of potassium hydrosulfid by action of allyl iodid ; 
it is a liquid boiling at 90° C. Syn., Allyl mercaptan; 
Allyl and hydro;^en sulfid. A. Iodid, C3H-I, a pun- 
gent liquid; sp. gr. 1.848 at 12° C; soluble in alco- 
hol ; boils at loo°-i02°C. It is a reaction product of 
phosphorus, iodin, and allyl alcohol. A. Isocyanate. 
See.-/. Cart>i/Nid. A. Isocyanid, See A. Carbamin. 
A. Isosulfocyanate, A. Isosulfocyanid. See A. 
Mustard Oil (IWiis.. Diet.). A -mercaptan. See .4. 
Hydrosulfid. A. methyl, a radicle composed of allyl 
and methyl. A.methyl Oxid, A.methylic Oxid. See 
Ether, All\^.methvL A.methylic. composed of 
allyl and methyl. A. Monobromid. See .-/. Bro- 
mid. A. Monochlorid. See A. Clilorid. A. Mono- 
iodid. See .-/. Jodid. A. Mustard-oil. Syn., A. 
pseudosiilfocyanate ; A. pseudothiocyanate : A. isolliio- 
cvanate : A. isosttlfoeyanate : A. Ihiocarbiinid. A. 
Nitrate, C3M5 . NO,, a mobile liquid of pungent odor, 
boiling at 106° C, formed from silver nitrate by action 
of allyl bromid. A. Oxalate, CjH,d()j, an oily liquid 
with odor of mustard. A. Oxid. See Ether, Allyl. 
A. -phenol, C^Hi^O, a body obtained from anisic 
aldehvd bv action of potash ; it forms laminar crystals. 
A. arid Phenyl Oxid. See Ether, .4l.'ylphenyl. A.- 
phenylic. cuniaining allyl and phenyl. A.phenylic 
Oxid, A.phenyl Oxid. .See Elh,r, Allylphenyl. 
A.-piperidin. C.II15X. a liquid boiling at 140° C. 
A. Pseudocyanate. See .-/. Carbimid. A. Pseu- 
dosulfocyanate, A. Pseudothiocyanate. See .-/. 
.!/;«/.;/■./ tW( Illus. Diet. ). A. Rhodanate. See.-/. 
Thiocyanate. A. Sulfate, C3ll5HS<J,, a substance 
acting as a monobasic acid and forming salts called 
allylsulfates. Syn., .4llvlsul/uric acid : .Allyl and hy- 
dr'ogen sulfate. A. Sulfid. ' (See Illus. Diet. ) It'is 

stomachic and sedative. Dose, J tablespoonful of a 
I : 600 mixture every U hour. It is also used as an 
enema in cholera and subeutaneously in o.^'r solution 
in sterilized olive oil in tuberculosis. A. Sulfocar- 
bamid. See Thiosinamin (Illus. Diet.). A. Sulfo- 
cyanate, A. Sulfocyanid. See A. Thiocyanate. 
A.-sulfourea, A.-sulfurea. See Thiosinamin 
(Illus. Diet. ). A. Thioalcohol. See A. Hydro- 
sulfid. A. Thiocarbamid. See Thiosinamin (Illus. 
Diet.). A. Thiocarbimid. See A. Mustard Oil 
(Illus. Diet.). A. Thiocarbonate, a salt of allyl- 
thioearbonic acid. A. Thiocyanate, NC.SC3H5, a 
colorless, strongly refracting oily liquid with odor of 
garlic and hydrocyanic acid, isomeric with allyl mustard 
oil and producing headache, nervous excitement, and 
nausea when inhaled. Syn., Artificial oil of mustard; 
Allyl sulfocyamid. A. -thiourea. See Thiosinamin 
(Illus. Diet.). A. Trichlorid. See Trichlorhydrin. 
A. -urea, CO. X.,H3(C3llj), large prismatic crystals, 
easily soluble in water, and melting at 241° C. 

AUylene (al'-il-en). CH3 . C = CH. A gas with 
strong odor, taking fire readily and burning with a 
smoky flame ; was first obtained by Markownikow by 
heating propylene bromid with alcoholic potash. 
Syn., Propine ; Methylacetylene. 

AUylenic (al-il-en'-ik). Relating to allylene. 

Allylic [al-il'-ik). Relating to allyl. 

AUylid (al-il-id). A direct combination of allyl with a 

Alnus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of shrubs and 
trees of the order Cupuliferecc. A. glutinosa. Medic., 
common European alder ; has astringent bark and 
leaves, which are used in intermittent fever and as 
an application in wounds and ulcers. A. serrulata, 
Willd., smooth, American, or tag alder, and A. 
incana. Medic, have similar qualities. The latter is 
recommended as a hemostatic. Fl. Ext. oi A. serru- 
lata : Dose, 30-60 n\, (1.8-3.7C.C.). 

Alocasia (al-o ha'-ze-ali). A genus of plants belong- 
ing to the order Aroideic. The juice of A. montana, 
a native of the East Indies, is used as a stimulant and 

Aloe. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants be- 
longing to the lily family. A. succotrina,, A. 
vera, L., A. spicata, L. , and A. perry i. liaker, yield 
the bulk of the commercial aloes. A. -bitter, a bittei 
principle obtained from aloes by evaporation of the 
aqueous extract from which the aloe-resin has been 
extracted. A. -bitter. Artificial, a body obtained 
from aloes by action of nitric acid. A. -resin, an 
amorphous resinous constituent of aloes obtained as a 
deposit from a hot aqueous solution of aloes on cool- 

Aloephanginus {,il-o-e-fan-ji'-nus). See Aloelic (Whis. 
Diet. ). 

Aloes ial'-dz). The plants of the genus .-//c.-- and also 
the inspissated juice of a number of the species. A., 
Barbadoes, that derived from .4loe vera, L. It is 
imp' rted from the Barbadoes Islands. A., Bethels- 
dorp, the finest Cape aloes, which is collected at the 
Bethelsdorp Mission. A., Bitter of. See .-liiin 
(Illus. Diet.); a]iO Aloe-bitter. A., Cape, that de- 
rived from Aloe spicata, L., A. fero.x. Mill., anil 
other species growing abundantly at Cape of Goo<l 
Hope, whence it is imported. A., Cura<;oa, re- 
sembles Barbadoes aloes, but has a different odor and 
appears to be produced by Aloe vera, .4. spicata. and 
A. succotrina, and partly by A. chinen<is, Steud. 
A., East Intlian. See A., Socotrine. A., Horse. 
See A., Caballine (Illus. Diet.). A., Jafferabad. 
the product of .4loe abyssinica. Lam. ; it is also called 
Mocha aloes. A., Mineral, bitumen. A., Musam- 




bra, aloes made in liulia from Alof 7'ern^ L. A.- 
purple. See Acid, Aloetic. A., Shining, Cape 
aloes. A., Socotrine, that obtained from Alof pt-tryi 
and A. siucotrina ; it is tonic and cathartic. Fid. 
Ext., dose, 1-6 gr. (0.065 -0.4 gm.). A., Zanzi- 
bar. See A. , Sototritu. 

Aljetamid (nl-o-fl'-nm-U). C„H,(NH.j)(NOj),. A 
body obtained from aloetic acid by action of dilute 
ammoniacal gas. 

Aloetic. (See Illiis. Diet.) 2. A preparation con- 
taining aloes. 

Aloetica {a/-o-ft'-ik-ah). Preparations containing aloes. 

Alogy. ?>ee A/ogia (Illus. Diet.). 

Aloid (,i!'-oii/). Resembling the genus Aloe or aloes. 

Aloisol (,!!-o-h-o!'). An oily liquid obtained from the 
distillation of aloes with quicklime. 

Alopecia. (See Illus. Diet.) .Syn., Lapsus capiUonifn; 
Lapiii^ pilontin : De/htxio capil/ontin ; I'ulpis moiiut^. 
A., Accidental, A. area. See A. areata (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Cachectic, that due to general malnu- 
trition. A. eczematodes, baldness due to eczema. 
A., General. See y/. loiiversalis (Illus. Diet.). A. 
leprosorum, the falling of the hair occurring in 
leprosy. A. localis congenita, congenital baldness 
limited to circumscribed regions. A., Natural, con- 
genital baldness or that due to old age. A. neuri- 
tica. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Falling of the hair from 
neuritic atrophy. A. normalis, infantile and senile 
baldness. A. pityrodes, a gradual lessening of the 
hair with abundant desquamation of epithelium and 
sebaceous matter. A. praematura, A., Premature, 
Idiopathic. .See.-/., I'lesetiih-. A. praesenilis. A., 
Presenile, baldness resembling senile alopecia in gen- 
eral character, but occurring at an earlier age. A., 
Symptomatic, loss of hair through local causes, and 
in circumscribed regions. A. unguis, A. unguium, 
the falling of the nails. Syn., Oity li,pt,nis. A. uni- 
versalis congenita, congenital baldness affecting the 
whole body. 

Alopeciatus {al-o-pf-s/w-n'-tiis). Characterized by or 
affected with alopecia. 

Alopecic (al-o-pc-'-sii). I. Relating to alopecia. 2. 
.■\n individual affected with alopecia. 

Alopecy (a/'-o-pf-sy). ^ee AAptvia (Illus. Diet.). 

Alpenstich [a/p^-en-sti/c) [Ger.]. A form of severe 
pleurisy or pleuropneumonia with typhoid symptoms 
peculiar to mountainous regions. It occurred as an 
epidemic in the Swiss Alps in 1771 and in north Ger- 
many in 1832. See Alpjlcckcii. 

Alpestris [al-pfs'-tris) [L.]. Applied to organisms 
growing on mountains below the snow line. Syn., 

Alpfiecken (alp-flek'-en') [Ger.]. Blue spots some- 
times occurring on the skin after Alpenstich. 

Alpha. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The fiber of esparto 
grass. A.eigon, a compound of iodin and albu- 
min containing \^% of iodin and soluble in water. 
A.eunol. See under Eiiitnl. A. leukocyte, one 
disintegrating during blood-coagulation. 

Alphabet i^al' ■fa-br't) [(j/0rt, MiTn, tirst and second 
letters of the Greek alphabet]. The letters forming 
the elements of a written language. A., Braille-, a 
system of letters consisting of elevated points, for the 
use of the blind. A., Chemic, Lnlly's .system, in 
which each letter of the alphabet had a symbolic 

Alphabetum chymicum (al-fa-hc'-tiim kim'-ik-um'). 
See Alph.ih^t, C/nmic. 

Alphasol {a/^-fii'So/ ). A commercial preparation used 
as an antiseptic iir rhinology and larvngology. 

Alphene {a/-/ln'). NjHjC. A hypothetic radicle. A. 
Sulfid. See Ammonium Sulfocyanale. 

Alphenols [aI-fe-iioh'^. A class of compounds having 

the characteristics of both alcohols and phenols. 
Alphodeopsoriasis [aZ-fo-de-o-so-ri-a'-sis) [a/^cirfjyf, 
leprous ; ipuipiaair, psoriasis]. A form of psoriasis 
, resembling leprosy. 

Alphodermia (nl-l'o-t/uy'-me-a/i) \jOifi6c, white ; lU/ifia, 
the skin]. Achromatosis ; any disease marked by 
lack of pigmentation. 

Alphodes (a/'-foi/ez). .See Alphoid. 

Alphoid [a/^~foid). Resembling alphos ; leprous. 

Alphol ((;/'-/;>/). C,;1I,.;03. The salicylic ether of a- 
naphlhol, a white crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol, 
in ether, and in fatty oils, insoluble in water ; melts at 
83° C. It is an internal antiseptic. Dose, 8-15 gr. 
(0.52-1 gm.) 3 times daily. .Syn., Bctol. 

Alphous [ii/'-/iis). Relating to alphos. 

Alphus. See Alphos ( Illus. Diet.). A. confertus, a 
scrofulous form of impetigo with clustered lesions at- 
tended with formalitin of white crusts. A. leuce, 
Plenck's name for a skin disease marked by white spots, 
which penetrate the skin deeply and involve the hairs, 
and if pricked a milky water exudes. Syn., Vitiligo 
Ifiiif : J.i'tiif. A. simplex, Plenck's name for a skin 
disease marked bv white patches not involving the 
hairs and wandering from one j>art to the other, with 
roughening of the skin. A. sparsus, a scrofulous 
disseminated ecthyma attended with formation of white 

Alpigenous {al-pii'-fii-iis). See Alp/stris. 

Alpine (al'-pin). Inhabiting regions above the forest 
line, or among perpetual snow on mountains. 

Alpinin \^Alpiiiia\. C,jH,.,()j. A constituent of the 
coloring-matter of galangal root. 

Alsidium (al-sid'-e-uiii) [H/i7<J((;/f, woody, bushy]. A 
genus of AlgiT, belonging to the order Flo7-ide<?. A. 
helminthochortus, Agardh., a species found in the 
Adriatic and Mediterranean and especially on the coast 
of Corsica. It chiefly constitutes the Corsican moss 
(y. v.") of commerce. Cf. Gigartiiia acicularis, L., 
and Desmaretia aculcata^ L. 

Alsol [al'-sol). Aluminium acetotartrate. 

Alstonamin (al-sto-iiani'-iit). See Alslonin. 

Alstonia (al-stc'-ii,-a/i) {^Charles Alston, 1 683-1 760; 
Scotch physician and botanist]. A genus of apocyna- 
ceous trees and shrubs. A. constricta, F. Muel., the 
Australian fever-tree, yields the alkaloid alstonin. 
The bark is tonic, antiperiodic, and antipyretic, and is 
used in intermittent fevers. Fl. Ext., dose, 30-60ITL 
(1.8-3.7 c.c. ). A. scholaris, R. Br., the devil-tree, 
a native of the East Indies, furnishes dita bark ; it is 
tonic, astringent, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic. 

Alstonicin (al-stoii'-is-in). An alkaloid obtained from 
Alstofiia constricta. 

Alstonidin (al-ston'-id-iii). An ^alkaloid isolated from 
Alstonia constricta ; it is soluble in ether and in 

Alstrcemeria [al-strnni-e' -rc-ah^ \_Claiidius Alstrome- 
riiis, a Swedish botanist]. A genus of herbs of the 
order Aniarvllidace^r. A. ligtu, a South American 
plant, furnishes Talcahuana arrowroot. 

Alteration. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Castration. 

Alterative. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Changing; alterant; 
reestablishing healthy nutritive processes. 3. Pro- 
ducing thirst. 

Alternator (a-i<l'-ttir-na-tor^. An apparatus for con- 
verting the direct dynamo current into an alternating 

Althaea. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants of 
the order MalvacciC. The root of A. rosea, hollyhock, 
is used as a substitute (or A. officinalis. Unguentum 
Althaese, an ointment composed of marshmallow 
root, 2 parts ; turmeric, flaxseed, and fenugreek, each 




I part ; water, 70 parts ; lard, 44 parts j yellow wax, 
6 parts. Syii., DiaUhiCas. 

Althain {ai'-lha-iii). A substance found by Bacon in 
maislimallow root, identical with asparagin. 

Althionate (al-thi'-on-at) [alcoliol ; tiuov, sulfur]. 
A salt of althionic acid. 

Alum. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. To treat with alum. A., 
Alumina-, a mixture of alum antl aluminium sulfate. 
A., Aluminium-, an alum composed of a double sul- 
fate of aluminium and another radicle. A., Burnt, 
alum dried by heat ; a spongy, pulverizable substance. 
It is used as an astringent and on fungous growths. 
Dose, 5-30 gr. (0.333 -1.944 B'"-)- ^y"-. CalitmJ 
alum: A'unien e.vsiccafitm; Aluinen ustnm. A., Cae- 
sium. See AliiininiutH and ccesiuin sulfate. A., Cae- 
sium and Rubidium. See Aluminium, msium, and 
rubidium sulfate. A. -cake, impure aluminium sulfate 
containing aljout \2% of alum anti soluble in Wiiter. 
A., Calcined. See .4., Burnt. A. -cataplasm, A. 
Curd, an ai:>plication for sore e\'es consisting of white of 
egg coagulated with alum. A., Chrome, A., Chro- 
mic, A., Chromium. .See Chromium and potassium 
sulfate. A., Compound Powder of, a combination 
of 2 parts of crude alum and I part of kino. -Syn., 
.Alttmen kinosatum. A., Concentrated, aluminium 
sulfiite. A., Copper. See Copper, .4tuminated. A., 
Cubic, tluit occurring in crystalline cubes. A., Dried. 
See .7., Burnt. A., English, ordinary alum. A., 
Feather, A., Feathered, I. .•Vlum occurring in a 
fibrous form. 2. .-Vsbestos. A., Ferric. .See A., 
Iron. A., Flowers of, that occurring in a white 
efflorescent layer upon minerals which have been sub- 
jected to heat. A., Hairy. Same as A., Feather. 
A. -hematoxylin, a purple stain for tissues obtained 
from an alcohoHc solution of hematoxylin l)y addition of 
an aqueous solution of potassium alum. A. Hydrate, 
aluminium hydrate. A., Ice. See .7., Roman. A., 
Indium, indium and ammonium sulfate. A., Iron, 
iron and potassium sulfate or a double sulfate of iron 
and another radicle. A., Liquid, combined alum, 
, alumina, and iron oxid. Syn., Rock butter. A., 
Manganese, a double sulfate of manganese and 
another radicle, particularly manganese an<l potassium 
sulfate. A., Manganic Ammonium. %it .Manganese 
and .-immonium sulfate. A. -meal, alum in the form 
of a very fine powder. A., Melian, alum fron^ Melos. 
A., Muriated, aluminium chlorid. A. -ointment, an 
unguent composed of lard, alum, and turpentine. A., 
Plumose. See .7 , Feather. A., Porous, alumin- 
ium sulfate rendered porous by treating the solution 
from which it crystallizes with sodium bicarbonate. 
A., Potash-, A., Potassa, A., Potassic, A., Potas- 
sium-, an alum containing potassium, particularly or- 
dinaryalum, or aluminium and potassium sulfate [<j. 7'.). 
A. -poultice. See .4.. -cataplasm. A., Roach, A., 
Roche, A., Rock, a pure alum tinged with pink, 
brought from Rocca in Syria. A. -rock. See .-ilunite. 
A., Roman, an alum obtained from Tolfa, Italy, 
where it is made from alunite ; it forms crystalline 
cubes, often of orange-red hue. A., Round, that 
shaped into round masses by liand. A., Scissile, 
native alum occurring in efflorescent form. A , Scotch, 
a form of ammonia-alum containing ]?otash, made near 
Paisley. A., Soluble. See .7., Concentrated. A.- 
stone. See .Alunite. A., Thallic, A., Thallium, 
aluminiutn and thallium sulfate Al,,| S(_)^)-5 . Tl.jSO^- 
+ 2411,0. 

Alumeniferous. S^c^ .iluminiferoiis (Illus. Diet. V 

Alumenized (al-u'-men-izd). Treated or mi\ed with 

Alumia. See Alumina (Illus. Diet.). 

Alumil {al^~u-mih. Alumina in combination with acids. 

Alumin. See Alumina (Illus. Diet.). 

Aluminaris, Aluminarius (al-u-ntin-tt'-ris,-a'-re-us). 

See .Aluminous. 

A\uminated (al-u-min-a'-teJ). Combined with alum, 
alumina, or aluminium. 

Aluminatum {al-u-min'a^-tum). A decoctif)n of ^ oz. 
of alum in a pint of lemon juice, used in treatment of 
])u>lules on tlie face. 

Aluminatus. See Aluminated. 

Aluminic, Aluminicus {al-u-min'-ik, -us). Relating 
to or having the nature of alum. 

Aluminiform {al-u-min'-e-form). Resembling alum in 
form and appearance. 

Aluminite [al-u'-min-it). Native hydrous sulfate of 
aluminium occurring in small snow-white or yellowish 
roundish masses. 

Aluminium. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Acetate, AIjO.- 
4CJH3O.J -^ 4H2O, a white granulated ])owder or a 
gummy mass, insoluble in water. It is used as an 
internal and external di.sinfectant. Dose, 5-10 gr. 
(0.3-0.6 gm.) 3 times daily. A. Acetoborate, 
translucent hygroscopic scales or granules, soluble in 
water ; it is antiseptic and disinfectant. A. Aceto- 
glycerinate, glycerite of aluminium acetate, a white 
powder of vinegar-like odor, not easily soluble in 
water and having one-fifth the strength of aluminium 
acetotartrate ; it is u.sed in SO^r solution in diseases 
of the nose, throat, and ear. A. Acetotartrate, 
an energetic nontoxic disinfectant and astringent, oc- 
curring in yellowish granules or transparent scales, 
with a sour taste ; it is slowly but easily soluble in 
water, insoUible in alcohol, ether, and glycerin. It is 
applied in 0.5% to 2% solutions in diseases of the air- 
passages; for chilblains 50'V^ solution. A. -alum. 
See under Alum. A. -amalgam, an alloy of alumin- 
ium and mercury. A. and Ammonium Salicylate. 
See .'Salicylate, Ammcnia/ed. A. and Ammonium 
Sulfate. ' See A. .Ammoniie (Illus. Diet.). A. 
Arsenate, Al AsgO.^,, a combination of aluminium and 
arsenic acid. A. Benzoate, Al,( CjHjO, ),, a white 
crystalline powder. A. Bichromate, AljCr,0-, red 
crystals soluble in water. A. Borate, 2.^120311203 
-|-3H.,0, a white granular powder soluble in water. 
A. Boroformate, shining, pearl like, colored crystals, 
with sweet, faintly astringent taste; soluble in water 
and dilute alcohol, prepared from freshly precipitated 
aluminium hydrate dissolved in 2 parts of formic acid, 
I part of boric acid, and 7 parts of water. It is used 
as an astringent and antiseptic. A. Borolannate, a 
reaction-product from tannic acid with borax and 
aluminium sulfate containing 76% tannin, 13.23% 
alumina, Io.7I';r boric acid ; a light-brown powder, 
soluble in dilute tartaric acid, insoluble in water ; used 
as a disinfectant and astringent in skin diseases, aj^plied 
pure or attenuated in ointment or dusting-powder. Syn., 
Culal ; Cutol. A. Borotannotartrate, a compound of 
aluminium borotannate and tartaric acid; it is soluble 
in water and is used externally in skin diseases 
and in gonorrhea in 0.5(7 to \oll, solution. Syn., 
Soluble cutal or eutol. A. Borotartrate, white 
crystals, with astringent taste; soluble in water. 
An energetic, astringent, nonirritant antiseptic, used 
externally in inflaminatorv diseases of the throat 
and nose, and aj^plied in substance or in solution 
with the addition of glycerin. Syn., Boral A. 
Bromid, AloBr,., white shining plates; soluble in 
water and alcohol ; melts at 93° (.'. In combination 
with aluminium chlorid it is used as a gargle in 
diphtheria or taken internally. A. -bronze, a hard, 
malleable, yellow alloy of I part aluminium with 9 
parts of copper. A. and Ceesium and Rubidium 
Sulfate, AUCsRb(SO,), + 24H.,0, soluble in water. 




Syn., OrsiiiMi niiJ rulihliiim alum. A. and Caesium 
sulfate, Al5(SO,)3Cs^SOj + 24H2O, octohedral crys- 
tals soluble in water. Syn., Ctcsiutn <iht»t. A. 
Carbid, .-VIC^, soluble in hot concentrated nHric acid. 
A. Caseinate, an intestinal astringent. Dose, 4-5 
gr. (0.25 -0.3 gm. ). A. Chlorid, AljClg, colorless 
hexagonal plates, which fume in moist air. It is solu- 
ble in water, alcohol, and ether, and melts at lSo°- 
185° C. It is astringent and antiseptic, and is also 
used in bleaching teeth. A. Citrate, a comjjound of 
aluminium and citric acid forming a white powder if 
the acid is in excess or a gummy body soluble in water. 
It is astringent and antiseptic. A. Fluorid, •■M..,I''l6, 
a reaction-product of alumina, fluorspar, and hydro- 
chloric acid gas with lieat, forming colorless cry.stals 
slowly soluble in cold water, but readily in hot water. 
It is antiseptic. A. Gallate, Basic, a brown anti- 
septic dusting-powder made by precipitating a solu- 
tion of aluminium sulfate with a solution of gallic 
acid to which sodium hydrate had been added. Syn,, 
Gallol. A. -gold. See A.-bron-.e. A. Hydroxid. 
See A. llyji-iile (lUus. Diet.). A. Hypophosphite, 
AL(PO.^II.^)5, a white powder soluble in water. A. 
lodid, .-Vl.^Ig, a reaction- product of aluminium and 
iodin at a high temperature in sealed tubes, forming 
colorless crystals, soluble in water and in alcohol and 
carbon bisulfate, and melting at 185° C. -It is used 
as an antiseptic. A. and Iron Sulfate, Al,( SO, l^- 
FeSO, -)- 24HjO, a crystalline, astringent substance. 
Syn., Ffrtoioahiminic sulfate. A. Monohydrate. 
See A. OxyililiYilrnle. A. Naphthol Disulfonate, 
A. Naphtholsulfonate. See .-\luintiol (Illus. 
Diet.). A. Nitrate, Al._,( N03)|5, light prismatic 
crystals decom|)osing at 150° C. Syn., Aixil/n- 
ct'ous niter. A., Oleate of, .\l(C|gH3.,0j).,, a yellow- 
ish mass soluble in alcohol, in ether, in benzene, and 
in oleic acid. It is used as an antiseptic in skin dis- 
eases. A. Oxalate, AU(Cj,Oj)3 + H^O, a white 
powder, with sweet astringent taste, formed from 
aluminium trihydrate by action of oxalic acid. A. 
Oxid, alumina, AI.^O,, a white, amorphous powder 
C)btaine(l bv ignition of alimiinium hydrate. A. Oxid, 
Precipitated. See ./. Hyilnile (Illus. Diet.). A. 
Oxydihydrate, .\l.,02(OH)2, a substance occurring 
native as a mineral. A. Palmitate, AI(C|5H.,|0,,)2, 
white or yellow'ish granular masses, soluble in alcohol, 
turpentiiii-. and petroleum. A. Paraphenolsulfon- 
ate, A. Phenolsulfonate. See .■/. .Sulfoiaibolate. 
A. and Potassium Paraphenolsulfonate, .VI^K.,- 
( [C'gH^J ( H !.S( >,, ),,, a combination of paraphenolsul- 
furic acid with potassium aluniinate ; colorless crystals 
soluble in water. It is used as an antiseptic and 
astringent wash in indolent ulcers. A. -potassium 
Salicylate, a highly astringent s ibstance with anti- 
septic properties, obtained by action of potassium 
acetate on K. salicylate. Syn., Alknsol. A. and 
Potassium Sulfate. See .'Hum (Illus. Diet.). 
A. and Potassium Sulfocarbolate, AIjK2(C5Hj- 
H-^'^ils» an antiseptic, astringent, and stvptic ; it is 
used externallv in a 5',^ to 2c)'> aqueous solution in 
cases of cancer and putrid ulcerations, and as a mouth- A. Rhodanid. See ./. Sulfmyanate. A. 
and Rubidium sulfate, .M.^Rb,! SO,'), + 24ILO. 
Soluble in 44 parts of water at 17° C. A. Salicylate, 
A^CjMjO., )„ a reddish-white antiseptic powder used 
in nasal catarrh and ozena. Syn., Sn/umin. A. 
Salicylate, Ammoniated, a yellowish-white powder 
Used as aii antiseptic and astringent in inflammation of 
the nose and throat by dry insufllations or painting 
with a 20% solution in 50^r of glycerin and 30'r of 
water. Syn., .Sotub/e sn/uiiiin. A. -salts, combi- 
nations of aluminium with acids, particularly with 

oxyacids. A. Silicate, .•Vl.^(Si03),„ white masses. 
A. Silicofluorid, AljF^. 3SiFI,, a white powder. A.- 
silver, a haid white alloy of aluminium and silver. 
A. and Sodium Silicate, Na2Si03Al,(SiO,)3, ob- 
tained by adding aluminium hvdrate to a boiling 
solution of sodium silicate and sodium hvdrate. It is 
used in surgical dressings. A. and Sodium Sulfate. 
See Alum smlit (Illus. Diet.). A. Sozoiodolate, 
light needles very soluble in water and in alcohol. 
It is used as an antiseptic wash in 2^4 to y', solu- 
tion. A. Stearate, Al(C,gH3.0j).,, a white mass 
soluble in warm alcohol, turpentine, and benzene. A. 
Sulfate, Ab,(SO,)., + iSH^O. white, odorless, crys- 
talline lumps or powder with a sweet astringent taste, 
soluble in 1.2 of water. It is an external antiseptic, 
caustic, and astringent. Applied in concentrated .solu- 
tion or I : 20 to I : 100 .solutions. A. Sulfid, 
AI,.S,, bitter yellow crystals obtained by heating 
aluminium in the presence of sulfur. A. Sulfocar- 
bolate, .■\1.^(C5H,HS0, )g, white cry.stals with slight 
phenol odor and astringent taste ; soluble in water, in 
glycerin, and in alcohol. It is a recommended antisep- 
tic in cystitis and suppurating sores. Syn., Sozal. A. 
Sulfocyanate, a white crystalline delii|uescent solid, 
Sf)luble in water. A. Tannate, a comjioimd of alu- 
minium and tannic acid. A. Tannotartrate, yel- 
lowish-white plates or powder soluble in water ; used 
as an astringent and antiseptic insufllation or gargle in 
laryngeal or catarrhal troubles. Syn., Soluble taniial. 
A. Tartrate, .\1.,C,H,0„. a white powder. A. Ter- 
sulfate, normal aluminiuiri sulfate. A. Trihydrate. 
See A. Hyilrale ( Illus. Diet. ). A. and Zinc Sul- 
fate, .\l.^(SO, jjZnSO,, a white crystalline powder, 
soluble in water. It is used as a caustic. 

Aluminol. .See .■////■/««(>/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Aluminous (al-u'-min-ui). Relating to or containing 
alum, aluniinia, or aluminium. A. -chalybeate, a 
tenii aj>plied to mineral waters containing alum and 

Aluminum [al-u'-mi-nuiu). See .Aliinihiium (Illus. 

Alumish, Alumy (al'-uin-ish, nl'-uiii-e). Having the 
pro|»erties of alum. 

Aluniferous (al-un-i/'-ur-us). SeeAlumiii/erous (Illus. 

Alunite (nl'-uii-it) [Fr., nlun, alum]. Aluminium and 
potassium subsulfate ; a grayish or yellowish-white 
substance first found at Tolfa, Italy. Syn., Alum- 
roch : .-ilum-stonc. 

Alunogen [(il-u'-iiojeii) [Fr., <?/««, alum]. Native 
aluminium sulfate. 

Alunol {ill' iin-ol). An ointment said to consist of 
ichthyol. sulfur, oil of cade, lanolin, and oleates of zinc 
and alinninium. 

Alutel. See .-//^lA/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Alveated [iil' -ve-n-ted) \_alviatH.'i, hollowed out like a 
trough]. Honeycombed; channeled; vaulted like a 

Alveola [al ve' -o-lah) [ulveus, a trough]. .\ little de- 

Alveolarectasia (alzr-o-lar-ek-tn'-ze-ali). See Em- 
pliyii-nni. Pitlnionnry (Illus. Diet.). 

Alveolaris, Alveolary [al-ve-o lu'-fis, al-ve'-o-la-re). 

Alveoliform (al-z'e' -ol-e-form'). Shaped like an alveolus. 

Alveolin \nl ve'-o-lin). A chemic substance obtained 
by Frenzel from the alveolar network in the deutomer- 
ites of gregarines. 

Alveolomaxillary [al-ve-o-io-maks'-il-a-re). The buc- 
cinator muscle. 

Alveolus. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn,, Phainc: Pliciliiia; 
J'luitiiion ; Phntnium. 2. A cavity, depression, pit. 




cell, or recess. A. laryngeus. See Pouch, Laryn- 
geal (lUus. Diet.). 

Aiveus. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A cavity or excavation. A. 
ampuUascens, A. ampullescens, A. ampullosus. 
See RtCtplactdum chyli i Illus. Diet.). A. cornu 
ammonis. See A. hippocampi (Illus. Diet.). A. 
urogenitalis. See Uteitis masciiliiius (Illus. Diet.). 

Alvinus (<i/::7"-H«j). i. See ^/f/w^ (Illus. Diet. ). 2. 
SuHering from intestinal disorders. 

Alvus [pi. and gen. 17/r/]. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Diar- 
rhea. A. adstricta, A. astricta, a greater degree of 
constipation than alvus dura. A. cita, diarrhea. A. 
coacta, constipation. A. compacta, A. compressa, 
A. constipata. See A. iidilricla. A. dura, constipa- 
tion. Alvi excretio, defecation. Alvi fluxus, diar- 
rhea. A. fluens, A. fluida, A. fusa, A. liquida, A. 
mollis, diarrhea. A. renis, the pelvis of the kidney. 
A. segnis. See A. nJslrida. A. soluta, diarrhea. 
A. suppressa, constipation. A. tarda, delayed or 
nonfrequent defecation. A. tenax, con>tipation. 

Alyssum \ah-lis'-uiii\ [a, priv. ; '/.raan, madness]. .\ 
genus of annual herbs belonging to the order Cnici- 
t'rc-u-, many species of which are called madwort from 
their former use in the treatment of insanity. 

Alyssus \al-is'-us). Preventing or curing rabies. 

Alyxia {til-US' -c--iih) [a'/.v;i(;, a shunning]. A genus of 
apoeynaceous evergreen shrubs of tropical Asia and 
.\u3tralia. A.-camuhor, a crystalline exudate occur- 
ring on the inner surface of alyxia bark. It has an 
aromatic taste and the odor of tonka beans ; readily 
soluble in alcohol and in ether, moderately so in hot 
water. A. stellata, Roxb., a climbing shrub of Java, 
the bark of which (cortex aly.rite) has a bitter, aro- 
matic taste and the odor of tonka beans, is used in 
the East Indies in pernicious fever and in Europe as a 
perfume. It contains a volatile oil, an acrid aro- 
matic resin, bitter extractives, and gum. 

Alyxis. See .-//wot (Illus. Diet.). 

Ama (ah'-iiiii) [li/"/, a water p.ail]. An enlargement 
at the end opposite the ampulla of a bony canal of the 
labyrinth of the internal ear. 

Amacrine (ah-mak'-rin) [a, priv.; uaKpnr, long; ii-of, 
of a nerve or fiber]. A term applied by Ramon y Cajal 
to a nerve-cell absolutely devoid of axis-cylinder pro- 
cesses. A. Cells. See under Cell. 

Amadou. i.See Illus Diet. 1 A., Nitrated, amadou 
rendered indammable by saturating with a solution 
(if niier. A. de Panama, a hemostatic prepared 
fium tlie leaf-hairs o{ Micouia holosericea, D. C. 

Amalgam. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Any soft alloy. 3. 
A compound of different things. A., Dental, com- 
pounds of a basal alloy of silver and tin with mercury, 
used for filling teeth. Gold, platinum, copper, zinc, 
and bismuth are frequently added as third metal to the 
basal alloy. 

Amalgamate [am-al'-gain-al). To unite a metal in an 
alloy with mercury. To unite two dissimilar sub- 
stances. To cover the zinc elements of a galvanic bat- 
tery with mercury. 

Amanita (iim-an-e'-fah) [aimvlrai, a sort of fungi]. A 
genus of fungi. A. muscaria, fly-fungus, fly agaric, 
bug agaric, a very poisonous S|ieeies used in killing 
flies, has marked excitant and narcotic properties. It 
has been used topically in cancerous tumors and ulcers 
and internally in epilepsy, skin diseases, as an excitant 
in paralysis, and as an antihidrotic in tuberculosis. 
It contains the alkaloids muscarin and amanitin. 

Amara. tSee Illus. Diet.) 2. The bitter alkaloids. 
3. \_niini>n, a trench.] A sewer, drain, or stream. 
In the plural, nmcirct, the hollows of the outer ear. 

Amaracinus [nm-ar-as'-in-us) [L.]. Relating to or 
containing marjoram. 

Amaranthus (ant-ar-nn'-lhiis) [nuopnirof, unfading]. 
\ genus of annual herbs belonging to the natural order 
Amaranlaceic, containing many edible and medicinal 
species, A. blitum, a European species used as an 
emollient, iyn., Herha bliti. A. campestris, Willd., 
a native of India, is given for relief in strangury. 
Amarantous (aiii-ar-an'-tus). Unfading; relating to 

a member of the genus Amaranthus. 
Amarescent (am-ar-es'-cnt). Growing bitter; slightly 

Amaril [nm'-ar-il') [Sp., oOTrt;77/i!), yellow]. Thepoison 

induced by Bacillus icleroidcs. 
Amarillic (am-ar-il'-ik). Pertaining to yellow fever. 

Cf. Scrum antiamarillic and Amarylism. 
Amaroids (itm'-ah-roi<ls). .-Ml distinctly bitter vege- 
table extractives of definite chemic composition other 
than alkaloids and glucosids. Their names end in in 
or inum. Also called '• bitter principles." [White.] 
Amarol i<im'-ar-ol). ?>ee Ingeslol. 
Amarulence {aiii-ar'-u-lenz) [timarulcntus, full of bit- 
terness]. Bitterness. 
Araarulent {am-ar'-u-lcnt). Bitter. 
Amarum [ain-a'-nim] [amarus, bitter]. I. A bitter. 
2. Magnesium sulfate. A., Genuine, magnesium 
sulfate. A. purum, any simple bitter. 
Amarylism (am'-ar-il-izm) [Sp., amarillo, yellow^]. 

Yellow fever. 
Amarythrin (a»2-aA-r//A'-r/«). See Picroerythrin (Illus. 

Amastesis (am-as-te'-sis). See Amascsis (Illus. Diet.). 
Amathia [am-ah' -tlie-ah). See Amazia (Illus. Diet.). 
Amaurosis. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Paropsis amau- 
rosis : Gulta scrcna : Cataracta nigra. A., Alcoholic, 
that due to misuse of alcohol. A., Amblyopic, am- 
blyopia. A. a myosi, A. a synchisi. See Synizcsis 
(Illus. Diet.). A. atonica, that due to physical de- 
bility. A., Burns', .-^ee .A., Postmnnial (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Cat's Eye. See under --//«<?«/£>//c (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. centralis, that due to disorder of the cen- 
tral nervous system. A. compressionis, cerebral 
amaurosis caused by pressure upon the optic nerve. 
A. congestiva, that due to cerebral congestion. A. 
dimidiata. See Hcmiopia (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Diurnal. See Xvclalopia (Illus. Diet. i. A. epi- 
leptica, that occurring during an epileptic seizure. 
A., Epileptiform, A., Epileptoid, sudden blindness 
not confined to epileptics, but considered by some to 
be epileptic in its nature. Dilation of the retinal veins 
has been noted, but no changes m the retinal arteries 
have been obser\-ed. Syn., Retinal epilepsy: Oplithal- 
memicrania. A. exanthematica, that attending 
eniptive diseases. A. ex haemorrhagia, A. ex hy- 
peropsia, an incurable, inexplicable blindness occur- 
ring suddenly after hemorrhages, especially of the 
stom.ach. A., Glycosuric. See .(.. Diadetic (Illus. 
Diet.). A. intermittens larvata, a blindness, often 
unilateral, occurring with mild intermittent fever, 
which is frequendy folhiwed by atrophy of the optic 
nerve. A., Intermittent, amaurosis occurring as a 
complication of intemiitlent fever. It usually begins 
with the chill and endures until the sweating stage. 
A. luminis. See //emcralopia (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Muscular. See Asthenopia, Accommodaliie (Illus. 
L)itt. I. A., Narcotic, that due to the use of narcotics. 
A., Neuralgic. See .-/., .^.-/i'f.r (Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Nocturnal. See Hcmeralopia (Illus. Diet.). A. 
partialis fugax. See Tcichopsia (Illus. Diet.). A. 
pellagrosa, blindness attending p^lKagra. A., Pro- 
gressive, the progressive atrophy of the intra- 
ocular optic nerve-endings. A., Quinin, that due to 
large doses of quinin. A. reflectoria, A. reflexa. 
See A.. Reflex (Illus. Diet.). A., Rachialgic. 




See A., S/>inij.', A., Saturnine, a form whicli ap- 
pears lo be due to the direct action of lead upon tlie 
substance of tlie optic nerve ; in many cases moditicd 
by optic neuritis arising from it or the partial aiipear- 
ance of enccphalopathia saturnina. Cf. .Vt/'/iri/is 
iiilcrsfifia/is. A., Simulated, feigned blindness. 
A., Spasmodic, blindness due to convulsions. A., 
Spinal, tliat caused by atrophy of the optic nerve, due 
to lateral or multiple sclerosis. A. sympathica, A., 
Sympathetic, fuiKtioual di.sorder of one eye from re- 
lie.\ transmission of disease of the other eye. A., 
Symptomatic, that due to disease located away frcjm 
the eye. A., Syphilitic, that due lo syphilis. A., 
Tobacco. See .■4//i/>/vo/>jir niiotiitiui. A., Toxic, a 
term including all forms due to sy.stemic intoxication. 
A., Traumatic, that due to injury. A., Trifacial, 
retlex amaurosis due to irritatitju of the triLjeminus. 
A. uraemica. A,. Uremic, sudtlen transitory blindness 
occurring as a synrptom in renal diseases. A. vene- 
nata. See A., To\i<-. A. venerea. See .•/., 

Amaurotic Family Idiocy. See under /diorv. 

Ambelania [ain-hcl-ah'-ne-nh) [from the South Amer- 
ican name]. .A genus of plants of the order A/'oiv- 
iiacea. A. acida, .Aubl., a species growing in 
Guiana, the pared fruit of which is edible. The 
skin i> mildly purgative and is used in dysentery. 

Amber. (See lUus. Diet.) Syn., £■</<' c A.. Apples 
of. See Poiiuittdcr (Illus. Diet.). A. -balsam, the 
residue left in the retort after rectilication of amber oil. 
A., Black. See Amhru nii^ni. A., Colophony of. 
.See A.-hiilsiiiii. A., Factitious, fraudulent substitu- 
tions for amber. A., Gray, ambergris. A., Liquid, 
the gum of the tree I.itjtiiilaiiibci- slyriu-ijhin. A., 
Soluble, a cement consisting of equal amounts of 
amber ami linseed oil. A., Spirit of, the sour liquid, 
consisting chiefly of succinic acid, produced in the dis- 
tillation of succinum. 

Ambergrease, Ambergreese (^ain'-bur-c;i-cs\. See 
AiiilHi-gris (Illus. Diet. i. 

Ambia \ain'-lie-ah). Bitumen. A. monard. a liquid 
bitumen with odor and properties of tacamahac ob- 
tained fr(«n a spring near the Indian Ocean. 

Ambidexious. 'iee AinhiilcMtrons y\\\v.%. Diet.). 

Ambidexterity (tiiii-hc-ilcks-lcr'-it-t'). Ability to use 
both hands equally well ; ambidextrousness. 

Ambilevous [ain-b-lt-'-vus') \_iimlio, both; Arrv/.t, on the 
left side]. Unskilful in the use of both hands. 

Ambiopia (am-be-o'-pc-ah). See Diplopia (Illus. 
Diet, I. 

Ambitus (am'-bil-us\ \^nmbi>;\ to surround]. A cir- 
cumference. A. cerebelli, Burdach's term for the 
cerebellum, pons, and oblongata taken together. 

Amblotic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An abortifacient drug 
or agent. 

Amblotica [am-b/ot'-ii-a/i). Abortifacients. 

Amblyope (nm'-b/e-op). A person affected with am- 

Amijlyopia. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Obfimcalio : 
Offiiscntio. A., Amaurotic, that due to atrophy of 
the optic nerve or destruction of the centers of vision. 
A., Anemic, that due to anemia. A., Asthenic, 
that due to weakness either local or general. A., 
Blockade, a peculiar anemic condition affecting the 
eyesight, due to unhygienic conditions. A. centralis 
simplex, slight hyperemia of the disc, with dimin- 
ished acuity of vision, without distinct scotoma or 
disordered color-perception, and with normal per- 
ipheral field. A., Cerebral, diat due to disease of the 
brain substance. A., Congestive, that due to con- 
gestion, frequently attending insufficient action of the 
skin or kidneys. A. crapulosa, that due to alcoholic 

excess. A., Crossed, A. cruciata, amblyopia al- 
ways occurring through lesion of the brain, in which a 
dimness of vision with contraction of the held of vision 
exists in the eye on the side opposite to the lesion. 
A., Diabetic, that accompanying diabetes. A. di- 
midiata. See Hemianopsia (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Diurnal, nyctalopia. A. erethica, impaired vision 
sometimes attending hyperesthesia of the genitals. 
A. ex abusa, A. from Abuse, defective vision due 
to any excess. A. from Nonuse. See A. ex anop- 
sia (Illus. Diet.). A. fugax. See A., Transient. 
A., Glycosuric. See .-/., Diabetic. A. irritabilis. 
See A. eielhica. A., Lead, that due to lead-poison- 
ing. A. luminis. See llcuicralopia (Illus. Diet.). 
A. luscorum, amblyopia with a central scotoma. A. 
meridiana. See Nyctalopia (Illus. Diet). A. 
nicotiana, A. of Smokers, that due to excess in 
tobacco. A., Nocturnal. ':^te llcnicralopia (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. potatorum, that due to alcoholic excesses. 
A., Quinin. See Amaurosis, Qiiinin. A., Satur- 
nine. .See A., LcaJ. A. tenebrarum. See Xyctal- 
opia (Illus. Diet.). A., Toxic, blindness due to any 
form of systemic poisoning. A., Transient, A. 
transitoria, a temjjorary blindness occtirring at times 
with acute maladies in which there is im|)overishment 
of the blood. A., Uremic, 'iee Amaurosis, Uremic, 

Amblyopsa, Amblyopsia {am-ble-op'-sah, am-ble-oj/- 
!c-ab). See Amblyopia (Illus. Diet.). 

Amblyopy (am-blc-o'-pc). See Amblyopia. 

Amblyoscope (am'-blc-os-lcop) \_ani/vi,)-M, dimness of 
vision ; ahu-in', to look]. Claud \Vortirs instrument 
by means of which an amblyojjic eye is trained to take 
its share in vision. 

Amboceptoid [nm-bo-scp'-toiil ). A degenerated am- 
bocejHor which has lost its binding group (haptophore) 
on the one hand for the cell, or on the other hand for 
the complement. 

Amboceptor ( am-bo-srp'-tor) \_ambo, both ; capere, to 
receive]. In Khrlich's lateral-chain theory, an immune 
body having two uniting processes. Syn., Inter- 
meiliary body (Ehrlich); Copula (Miiller); Sensitizer: 
Substance sensibilisatrii e ( Bordet ) ; Desmou ( London ) ; 
Pliilocytase ; Phtnotoxic sensitizer (MetchnikoiT). 

Ambra (am'-bra) [1.]. I. Amber. 2. Ambergris. 3. 
Spermaceti. A. alba, i. .Spermaceti. 2. A light- 
coloretl variety of amber olitained in Brazil. A. 
atrum. See ./. nix'ra. A. cineracea, A. cinera- 
ceus, A. cineria, A. cineritia. .See Ambergris 
(Illus. Diet.). A. flava, A. fulvum. See Siiccinnm 
(Illus. Diet. ). A. nigra, general name for any dark- 
colored amber or ambergris or dark resinous substance, 
also lignite and jet. Ambrse poma. See Pomander 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Ambrain (am'-bra-ia). A nonnitrogenous body, the 
chief constituent of ambergris ; it is insoluble in water 
and not changed by boiling alkalis ; soluble in alco- 
hol, ether, and oils. 

Ambreate (am'-bre-at). A salt of ambreic acid. 

Ambreic (am'-bre-ii). Relating to ambrein. 

Ambulacral. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Relating to loco- 
motion or its functions. 

Ambulance. (See Illus. Diet. ) 3. In Europe a port- 
able militarv hospital audits equipments accom]ianying 
the army in its movements. A. chaser, a "shyster" 
lawyer who drums up accident damage cases against 
firms and corjjorations. 

Ambulant (am'-bu-lant). See Ambulatory (Illus. 

Ambulatorium (am-bu-la-lo'-re-um) [L.]. A dis- 

Ambuliped (am-bii'-lip-ed) \ambnlare, to walk ; pes, 
a foot]. Furnished with feet fitted for walking. 




Ambustial (aiii-iitsf-ski-al) [ambiirert; to scorch]. 
Caused by a burn. 

Ambustum {uiii-i'ml'-iiHi). See Ambitslion (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. ex frigore, frost-bile. 

Ame [lap.]. I. Japanese maltine, a nutrient of honey- 
like consistency and color and of a sweet taste, pre- 
]).ircd from rice, barley-malt, and water. 

Amebaenteritis (am-e-bah-cii-ti-r-i'-tis). Chronic enter- 
itis due to invasion oi Atnaba coH. 

Amebiform {^a>ii-t/-bi-l'tirm). ^ce AmeboiJ. 

Amebism, Amoebism, Amebaism, Amoebaism 
[ii}i:'-i--bizm, <im-e'-bci-iziii\. -\ pathologic condition 
due to the invasion of amebas into the system. 

Amebula, Amoebula (aiii-c'-bti-hb). E. Ray Lan- 
ke^ter's name for the amebiform parasite which de- 
velops from the exotospore of the malaria jjarasite. 

Ameburia {am-e-bi^-re-ah). The occurrence of am- 
ebas in the urine. 

Amelia. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. See Amekia (Illus. 

Amelia (<;ot'-c/-/</). See AmmeliJ (Illus. Diet.). 

Amelin \iim'-t-/-in). 'Hee Ammc/in (Illus. Diet.). 

Ameliorator (iiiii-il'-yo-i-ii-tnr) [ml, to; ///tZ/o/, bet- 
ter]. .\n animal of superior quality selected for prop- 
agation, to improve the breed. 

Amenomonomania [ah-men-o-iiion-o-ma'-ne-ah). See 
Anwnoinauni (Illus. Diet.). 

Amenorrhea, Amenorrhcea. (See Illus. Diet.) Syii., 
Fariiiiwniii obslyuctionis : Antoiia. A., Accidental. 
See A., Secondaiy (Illu.s. Diet.). A. chlorotica, that 
associated with chlorosis. A., Congenital. See./., 
Primilive (Illus. Diet.). A., Constitutional, that 
caused by some constitutional disorder. A. destilla- 
toria, in retention of the menses, the di.--charge drop 
by drop of the menstrual flow. A. difficilis. See 
Dysmenonliea (Illus. Diet.). A. emansionis. See 
A., Primitive (\\\\i=,. Diet.). A., Functional, that 
not due to a structural disease. A. hymenica, re- 
tention of the menses through imperforation of the 
hymen. A., Idiopathic. See .-/., Fioulional. A., 
Organic, that due to atrophy of the utenis or some 
other structural disease.' A., Ovarian, A., Radicle, 
that due to nonovulation. A., Simple, that not due 
to incomplete development. A. suppressa, A. sup- 
pressionis, suppression of the menses. A., Symp- 
tomatic, that due to a morbid condition of the body. 

Amenyl {ani'-en-il^. CjHg. A radicle, being amyl 
with 2 atoms of hydrogen removed. 

Amerind (iim'-iir-iiid ) [America; InJiati]. An in- 
clusive term for the aboriginal race of American In- 

Amerindian {am-ur-ind' -yaii'). Pertaining to an 
.\merican autochthon. 

Ameristic (it/i-mer-is'-iik) [a, priv. ; uiftnr, a part]. 
Not segmented. 

Amertume. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Bitterness. 

Amesial (iih-me'-:e-a/) [«, priv.; /ifaoc, middle]. 
Tlirown out of the middle line. 

Amesiality (ak-me-ze-al'-it-e). The throwing of a 
part, as the pelvis, to one side of the mesial line of 
the tigure. 

Ametamorphosis (ah-met-ah-mor' -fo-sis) [n, priv. ; 
inriinuiiOiMjir, change]. The absence of metamor- 

Amethane (iiw-i'-Moh') [ii;«/c,- el/ur']. An ether of an 
amic acid. 

Amethystin {am-e-tfiis'-fin). A violet pigment ob- 
t.rined from cacothelin by action of hydrogen sulfid. 

Ametra (ub-mef-rijli). See Ame/riti (Illus. Diet.). 

Ametria. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. [a, priv.; iifrpnv, a 
measure.] Immoderation ; asymmetry. [Galen.] 

Ametrohemia, Ametrohaemia {ah-mel-ro-lie'-me-a/t) 

[n, priv.; urjrii'i, womb; «i,ua, blood]. A defective 

uterine blood supply. 
Ametrope (a/i'-mel-n/i) [a, priv. ; //(r^mi', a measure; 
<jc/r, sight]. An individual affected with ametropia , 
Ametrous \ah-niel'-rus). Lacking a uterus. 
Amianthinopsy (am-e-an-l/tin-o/^-se). [a, priv. ; 

iarf'aor, violet-colored ; bilnc, sight]. Violet-blind- 
ness ; incapacity to distinguish violet rays. 
Amiantinus (^nm-i-an-te'-nus). Greenish-white irk 

Amid. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Acid, I. An amido- 

acid. 2. An amid a^ distinguished from an amin or 

alkamid. A., AUophanic. See Biuret (Illus. 

Diet. ). 
Amidated {am'-id-a-ted). Converted into an amid; 

compounded with amidogen, 
Amidethane (nm-id-et/i-dn' ). See El/tylnmin {WXui. 

Diet. ). 
Amidic (am-id'-ik). See ^/w/c ( Illus. Diet.). 
Amidin. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Tegumentary. See 

Amidinus (am-id-e'-nus^. See Amvliti. 
Amidoacetal (am-id-o-as'-et-cil). 'SWfiVi^ip.C.n.X.- 

A poisonous body boiling at 163° C. ; it paralyzes the 

respiratory center. 
Amidoacetophenetidin (am-id-o-aset-o-fe-itet'-id-in'). 

See /V/tv/orti.'/ ( Illus. Diet.). 
Amidoanthraquinone (am-id-o-aii-l/ira-/ni.'in'-dn) . See 

Amidoantipyrin (am-iJ-o-on-te-pi'-rin). Yellow aci- 

eular crystals, melting at 109° C. It is antipyretic. 
Amidoazobenzene [,im-id-o-az-oben' zlit). SeeAiii/iii 

I'tv'/iTi', in n^'wfii.'s, Conspectus of (Illus. Diet.). 
Amidobenzene, Amidobenzol [ami-do-ben' :in, -zo/). 

See AiiiViii (Illus. Diet.). 
Amidocaffein (am-iJ-o-ka/'-e-in). Ci,\l^{mi.^)'^fi. 

Fine acicular crystals obtained by heating brom-caffein 

with alcoholic ammonia. 
Amidocamphor (am-id-okam'-for). C,oH„(XHj)- 

(OH). A strongly basic substance obtained by re- 
duction of nitrocamphor. 
Amidochromic (am-id-o-kro'-mik). Containing ami- 
dogen and chromium as a trivalent radicle. 
Amidocumene, Amidocumol [amido-ku'-men, 

-me/}. See Cumidin (Illus. Diet.). 
AmiAocymene (am id dsim-en'). C,„H,jN. A hom- 

olog of toluidin. Syn., Cymidene. 
Amidodimethylbenzene (am-id-o-di-meth-il-ben'-zin). 

See Xy/idiit (Illus. Diet.). 
Amidoethane (amid-oet/i-dn'). See Elhylamin 

(Illus. Diet.). 
Amidoguaiacol (amid-ogu>i'-ak-ol^. A product of 

acetoanisidin, by nitration and reduction. It melts at 

184° (_'. The salts are employed in the preparation of 

colors and medicines. 
Amidoguanidin {am-idog-ivan'-id-in') . 

NH:C <XH Produced by the reduction of nitro- 

guanidin and nitrosoguanidin with zinc dust and 
acetic acid. It forms crystalline compounds with dex- 
trose, galactose, and lactic acid, but decomposes readily 
when in a pure condition and breaks down when 
boiled with acids. 

Amidolica (ani-id-ol'-ii-a!i) [Fr., amidon, starch]. 
Any pharmaceutic compounds made with starch. 

Amidomalonylurea (am-id o-malon-il-u'-re-ab). See 
Murcxiiii or L'ramil (Illus. Diet.). 

Amidomesitylene (am id-omes-if-il-in^. C^Hi-jN. A 
li(|ui<i boiling at 230° C. Syn., Amidotrimelhylben- 
zcnc : Mesidin. 

Amidcmethane {amid-o-met/i-an'). See Methylamin 
(Illus. Diet.). 




Amidosuccinamid (aiii-iJ-o-siik-shi-ain'-iJ). See As- 
f.n-a^iii \ lUus. Uict.). 

Amidosulfonal [iiiii-iti-o-siil'-foit-al). Amido-acetone- 
L-th) l-(li.sulfon, a sedative. 

Amidosulfonate («w-/(/-o-i«/'-/b«-a/). A saltofamido- 
sul Ionic acid. 

Amidoxylene [nm-iJ-o-zi'-lin). See Xylidcn (Illus. 

Amidum (am'-it/-iim). ?iee AiitiJogen (Illus. Diet.). 

Amil [itiii'-il). See Amyl. 

Amimid (nm-im'-id). iiee Amicfin (Illus. Diet.). 

Aminicus [nm-in'-ik-us). See Amic (Illus. Diet.). 

Aminoform (nm-in'-o-/orm). See Urotropiii. 

Amisatin (nm-is'-at-in). C,^H.,,|N,|0,, . A yellow 
powder obtained from the decomposition of isatin with 

Ammi. (.See Illus. Diet.) A. majus, L., a European 
species ; the pericarp of the seeds is carminative and 
stimulant. Syn., St-moi nwm/os : Semen miijoris. A. 
visnaga, Lam., the kcllnh of the Arabs, furnishing 
ki'llin. The fruit is used in a tonic antl astringent 
lotion ; the seeds are antipyretic, the leaves emollient. 

Ammic (am'-ii). See Ammoiiint. 

Ammion (niii'-i-on). See Minium, under Pigments, 
/no>\':inii (Illus. Diet.). 

Ammodytes (am-Mi'-il-ez) [aiiiior, sand; i^iiir, to get 
inH)]. X'egelable organisms growing in sand. Syn., 

Ammon (nm'-on^. A compound of anhydrous am- 
monia with an anhydrid. 

Ammonanamid [iim-on-nu-ti/n'-iii). See A/nn/o//o/. 

Ammonemia, Ammonsemia. See Ammonii-miti (Illus. 
Diet. 1. 

Ammonia. (See Illus. Diet) A. -alum. See .l/nm 
iiiiniieiii,,- (Ilhis. Diet.). A., Anhydrous, XH.., am- 
monia gas li(|uefietl bv cold and pressure, producing 
intense cold by its evaporation. It boils at 38.5° C, 
at 760 mm. A. Bihydrosulfate. See Ammonium 
Sitlfhydrate. A., Caustic, an aqueous .solution of 
ammonia of sufticient strength to produce vesication. 
A., Mustard Oil. See Thiosinamin (Illus. Diet.). 

Ammoniac. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Relating to am- 
niuiiia. 3. Kelating to ammoniacum. 

Ammoniferous ( am-on-if'-nr-m^ \_ammoniainm; /crrCy 
to l)ear]. Yielding ammoniacum. 

Ammonimeter. See -•////OTcwMWf/tV (Illus. Diet.). 

Ammonioaluminic (am-o-ni-o-al-u'-min-ik). Con- 
taining ammonia and aluminium. 

Ammoniometer. See AmDioniameter {\\\\i%. Diet.). 

Ammonionitrometry {am o-ni o-ni-lrom'-el-ic) \_itm- 
moninm : ni/ioi;c'n ; ftirpnv, a measure]. .\n analytic 
method of estimating separately the amount of ammo- 
nia, nitrogen, and nitric acid contained in a compound. 

Ammonium. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Anacardate, an 
ammonium compound of the resinous acids of cashew 
nut, Anacai-diiim oaidenlnlc, L. It is a doughy 
mass, soluble in alcohol and used as a hair-dye. A. 
Arsenate, (NII,).^H.\sO^, white crystals soluble in 
water, u.sed as an alterative in skin diseases., 
y^ gr. (0.003 ""1)1 gradually increased, 3 times 
daily. A. Arsenite, XHj.\si).j, a white powder 
soluble in water. A. Biborate. .See A. Boralc. 
A. Bichromate, (XII, )„<>.,(>-, orange-colored prisms, 
soluble in water. A. Bifluorid, X'H,F . HF, color- 
less rhombic prisms, soluble in water, easily volatile ; 
its vapors are acrid. A. Bimalate, NH,HC,H,0-, 
large rhombic prisms without color, soluble in 3 parts 
water. A. Binoxalate, A. Bioxalate, XlI,IIi '.,(), 
4- II.,0, colorless prisms, soluble in water. A. Bi- 
phosphate, (XH,).,HPO,, white transparent prisms, 
soluble in water. A. Bisulfate, NH,H.SO,, rhombic 
crystals, soluble in water. Dose, IO-30 gr. (0.65- 

1.9+ gm.). A. Bisulfite, NH,HSO.„ a soluble 
crystalline powder. It is antiseptic and used in- in fermentative dyspepsia, externally in skin 
diseases. Dose, 10-30 gr. (0.6-1.9 B"'-)- A. 
Bitartrate, NH,HC^H,Og, a white crystalline acid 
powder. It is used in the manufacture of baking- 
l)owder. A. Borate, 2(NH,HI!,0,) -J 3H.p, semi- 
transparent, rhombic, etilorescent crystals of alkaline 
taste and reaction, .soluble in water. It is used in 
renal colic ; in combination with codein it is used in 
tuberculosis of the lungs., I0-20 gr. (0.65- 
1.3 gm.) every hour in water with licorice. A. 
Borobenzoate, a white powder used as an intestinal 
antiseptic. A. Carbamate, NH,NH.jCO.„ a white, 
crystalline, volatile powder, a reaction-product of car- 
bon dioxid and ammonia gas. It is a stimulant. S_\ii., 
Anhydrid of ammonium tar/'ona/t\ A. Carbazotate. 
See'.-/. Piinitc- (Illus. Diet.). A. Carbolate, ^.\U,^- 
O.NH,, crystalline masses, soluble in water; it is 
antiseptic and antipyretic. Dose, 2-6 gr. (o. 13- 
0.39 gm. ). Syn., Ammonium pht-nale ; A. pln-nvlatc, 
A. Chromate, (NHj),CrOj, yellow needles, solu- 
ble in water. A. Citrate, (XHj)3CgH50,, a whitish 
soluble powder. Svn., JW'utrai ammonium ciiralc. 
A. Citrate with Iron Phosphate, a tonic, astringent, 
and emmenagog use<l in dyspejisia and amenonhea. 
Dose, 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 gm. ). A. Citrate with 
Iron Pyrophosphate, light green scales with sweet 
taste, soluble in water. It is tonic, emmenagog, and 
chalybeate. Dose, 3-8-15 gr. (0.2-0.52-1 gm. ). 
Syn., Robiquet'' s soJubh' ferric pyrophosphate. A. 
Cyanate, NH^OCN, obtained from vapor of cy- 
anic acid in contact with dry ammonia ; forms a 
llocculent mass soluble in water. A. Cyanid, NII,- 
CN, an extremely poisonous substance produced from 
heating sal ammoniac and dry potassium ferroc)anid , 
it decomposes into azulmic acid. The vapor is in- 
flammable, burning with a vellow flame- A. Di- 
thiocarbamate, CHi-X^.S,, yellow hygroscopic prisms, 
a reaction product of ammonia and carbon disulfid. 
A. Dithiocarbonate, CO(SNH^).„ a yellowish liquid 
with an odor of ammonia. It is proposed as a substi- 
tute for sulfureted Indrogen and sulfid of ammonia in 
the quantitative analvsis of the metals. A. Embel- 
ate, the ammonium salt of embellic acid, XI!,C,,II,.,- 
O., ; a tasteless red powder, soluble in dilute alcohol. 
It is a teniacide. Dose, children, 3 gr. (0 2gm.); 
adults, 6 gr. (o.4gm. ). A. Ethylsulfate, NH,CjII,- 
H.SO,, a reaction-product of barium ethylsulfate and 
ammonium sulfate. A. Ferricyanid, (XH,)jFe- 
(CX )^ -^ 3H2O, shining red prisms, .soluble in water. 
A. Ferrocyanid, ( XH.,)^Fe(CX)g -)- 6H.,0, white 
or giecnish crystals turning blue when exposed and 
solulile in water. A. Fluorid. (See Illus. Diet.) 
It is recommended in dyspeptic flatulence, 16 grains 
dissolved in 10 fluidounces of distilled water, I table- 
spoonful to be taken after each meal. A. Formate, 
NlI^CIIOj, colorless cry.stals, soluble in water, .sp. 
gr. 1. 271 ; it is used in chronic paralvsis. Dose, 5 gr. 
(0.32 gm.). A. Gallate, KH^QHs + H.p, small, 
colorless, acicular cr\stals, soluble in water. A. 
Glycerinophosphate,' ( XH<)2POjC,H,(OH ).„ solu- 
ble in water. It is used in neurasthenia, Addison's 
disease, etc. Dose. 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.25 gin.) several 
times daily. A. Hippurate, XEI,H(C,,H,XO,,1,^ -+- 
H._,0, small colorless prisms, soluble in water and 
alcohol, slightly -soluble in ether. A. Hydrosulfid. 
See A. Sulfhydrnle. A. Hypophosphite, XH,l'H.j- 
O2 -!- H.p, white laminate crystals, soluble in water. 
Dose, 10-30 gr. (0.65-2 gm.) 3 times daily. A. 
Hyposulfite. See A. Thiosulfite. A. Ichthyolsul- 
fonate. See Ichlhyo! (Illus. Diet.). A. and Iron 




Tartrate, a reddish-brown substance. Dose, 10-30 
gr. (0.65-1.9 gm. ). A. Lactate, XH^CjH^Oj, a 
clear, colorless, syrupy liquid, soluble in water and 
alcohol. It decomposes when wami. A. Melli- 
tate, (XH, ).^C,.^H,0,j -t-4HjO, a white powder or 
prisms, soluble in water ; obtained by boiling pow- 
dered melUte in ammonia solution of ammonium car- 
bonate. A. Metavanadate. See A. ]'iinaJa/e. 
A. Molybdate, (NH,).jMoOj, colorless prisms ; de- 
composes by water, efflorescent in the air, soluble in 
dilute solution of ammonium chlorid. A. Mucate, 
(NH^j^CgH^O,, white crystalline powder, soluble in 
water. A. muriate. See .7. Cliloml (Ulus. Diet.). 
A. Nitrite, NH^XO^, indistinct crystals or clear yel- 
low liquid, soluble in water, decomposes with heat. 
A. Oleate, XHjCjgHjjOj, a jelly liquefying with heat, 
soluble in alcohol and ether. Syn., Ammonia soap. A. 
Oxalate, ( XHJ^C.O^-t- H,( ), shining rhimibic prisms, 
soluble in water. A. Oxalurate, XHjCjU.jX.^O,, silky 
needles, soluble in hot water, obtained from ammonium 
parabanate with hot water. A. Oxaminate, XH^C,- 
HjXOj, obtained from ammonia with an alcoholic 
solution of ethyl o.xalate. A. Palmitate, XH^C,,;- 
H3,0.,C,gH^._,0.,, a hard, white, soapy mass, soluble in 
hot alcohol and ether, insoluble in cold water, and de- 
composing by much water. A. Perchlorate, XH,- 
CIO4, large colorless crystals, soluble in 5 parts of 
water.. A. Persulfate, (XHJjSjOg, colorless crys- 
tals, soluble in water with turbidity. It is a disinfect- 
ant and deodorizer. Application, 0.5 'V to2'V solution. 
A.Phenate. See A. Oir/h^/n/c: A.Phenylacetamid. 
See Ammono/. A. Phosphate, Dibasic, (Xll^)„- 
HPO^, colorless, odorless prisms, soluble in 4 parts of 
water. It is used in rheumatism and gout. Dose, 
5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 gm.) 3 or 4 times daily in }i 
oz. water. A. Phosphate, Tribasic, (XH,),PO^- 
3H^t). semisolid crvstalliiie mass, or short needles, 
soluble in water. A. Phosphite, ( XH,).JiPO;, — 
H._,0, colorless crystals, soluble in water. A. Picra- 
mate, XHjCgH^XjOj, dark orange-red crystals, 
soluble in water. A. Picrocarminate, dark-red 
powder, soluble in water. A. Picronitrate. See A. 
Picrale ( Illus. Diet.). A. Purpurate. See Miii- 
exid (Illus. Diet.). A. Pyrophosphate, (XH,)- 
P.,0.. crystalline powder or crystals, soluble in water. 
A. Rhodanid. See A. Siilfocyamite. A. Salicyl- 
ate, XH,C;H3i),j, colorless prisms, soluble in water. 
It is an antirheumatic, antipyretic germicide, and ex- 
pectorant. Dose, 2-10 gr. (o. 13-1.3 gni. ). A. 
Selenate, XH,HSeO„ colorless crystals. A. Sele- 
nite, ( XH, ).,Sc03, colorless crystals, soluble in water. 
A. Silicofluorid, sX^H^F. SiF^, a white crystalline 
powder, soluble in water and an energetic antiseptic 
and reconstituent. It is used by inhalation in 
of the nose and throat. A. Stearate, XHjCj^Hj^rij, 
a hard, white, soapy mass, soluble in hot alcohol, in- 
soluble in cold water. A. Succina'e, ( XH,)'",H,(!)j, 
colorless prisms, soluble in water ; recommended I 
part in 120 parts of water as a specific in cramp colic. 
Dose, I tablespoonful every 15 minutes. A. Sulf- 
ethylate. See A. Elhyh'ulfale. A. Sulfhydrate, 
NH,HS, colorless crystals \vhich grow rapidly yellmy 
on exposure to the air. It is soluble in water. A. 
Sulfite, |XH^t.,SO.,, deliquescent crystalline powder, 
soluble in water. It is an antiseptic used in fermen- 
tative dyspepsia. Dose, 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 gm. ). 
Applied externally in skin diseases. I part in 10 parts 
of water A. ' Sulfocarbolate, XH,CsH,IIS(J,. 
\vhite crystalline powder, soluble in water ; antiseptic. 
Dose. 1-5 gr. (0.06-0.3 gm.). A. Sulfocyanate. 
A. Sulfocyanid, XH,CXS, large, colorless, deliques- 
cent crystals, a reaction-product from carbon disulfate. 

alcohol, and concentrated ammonia water. It is solu- 
ble in alcohol and water. A. Sulfoichthyolate. 
See Ichthycl-ammonium. A. Sulforicinate, brown 
ointment-like masses, soluble in alcohol and water. 
It is antiseptic and deodorant and applied in 20% 
solution in skin diseases or on ulcerated mucous mem- 
branes. A. Sulfovinate. See A. Ethyhuljale. A. 
Tartrate, (XH,).^C,H,r)„, clear crystals, soluble in 
water. It is an expectorant. Dose, 5-30 gr. (0.3- 
2 gm. ). A. Tellurate, (XHj)jTeO,, white amorphous 
powder, soluble in dilute acid. A. Thiocyanate. 
See A. Sulfocyaiiitle. A. Thionurate, (XH,).;C,H3- 
NjSOg + HjO, white crystals, soluble in water. It 
is a reaction-product of alloxan boiled with am- 
monium carbonate and A. sultite. A. Thiosul- 
fate, (XH,).;SjO.,, soluble in water; antiseptic. Dose, 
5-30 gr. (0.3-1.9 gm. ) in water. A. Tungstate, 
fine white crystalline powder or needles, soluble in 
water. A. Uranate, a reaction-product from sodium 
uranate by ammonium chlarid or sulfate, (XH^)U.,0; ; 
a yellow amorphous powder. A. Urate, (XH^jC-Hg- 
X^,03, white ciystalline powder, slightly soluble in 
water. It is antiseptic and used in 4^^ ointment in 
chronic eczema. A. Vanadate, XH^VO,, yellow or 
white crystals or white ]iowder, soluble with difficulty 
in water. A. Wolframate. .See A. Tungstale. 

Ammoniuria (nm-o-ni-ii'-re-n/i) \jiiiiiiionin: olpnv, 
urine]. A condition marked by excess of ammonia in 
the urine. 

Ammonol [am'-oit-ol). CgH^NHj. Ammoniated 
phenylacetamid ; pale yellow crystals, said to be anal- 
gesic and antipyretic. Dose, 5-20 gr. (O.3-I.3 gm. ). 
A. Salicylate, a remedy for headache. Dose, 8 gr. 
(0.5 gm. ). 

Ammonoxyl {am oii-oks'-il) [ammonia; 0xygen'\. A 
imjyalent radicle of the formula XH^. 

Amnesia, Amnesis. (See Illu.s. Diet. ) A. a pathe- 
mate. that due to emotional excitation. A. a tem- 
ulentia, that due to inebriety. A., Auditory 
Verbal, loss of memory as regards spoken words. A. 
plethorica, that due to plethora. A., Retrograde, 
the loss of the memory for incidents and events which 
occurred a shorter or longer time before the attack of 
the disease. Besides that which results from severe 
infectious disease and from forms of epilepsy, it may 
be traumatic and hysteric. Cf. Lagopal/ty. A., 
Tactile, destruction of the t.actile memory-images due 
to disease of the tactile perceptive area. A. Verbal, 
loss of memory as regards words. 

Amnial (am'-ne-al). See Amniotic (Illus. Diet.). 

Amnic {am'-uik). See Amniotic. 

Amnicolous [am-nif-oZ-iis) [amnis, a stream; colere, 
to inhabit]. Applied to organisms growing in or 
dwelling beside a river. 

Amniocleptic, Amnioclepticous {am-ne-o-kkp' -lik , 
-//.>) [/i/iifor, amnion ; K/i~-fa\ to steal away]. Relat- 
ing to the unmarked escape of the liquor amnii. 

Amniomantia (am-nc-o-man'-slic-ah) \anviov, a young 
lamb; «arrf /a, divination]. Prophesying according to 
the relation of the amnion to the new-born child. 

Amnion. (See Illus. Diet.) Ssx\., Agnina mcmbrana; 
A^nina pellicula: Membrana agnina: .Agitina tunica; 
Ah^as; Abghas. 2. See Sac, Embryonic (Illus. 
Diet.). 3. Red sulfid of mercury. Amnii Liquor. 
See under Liquor (Illus. Dict.V 

Amnios [am'-ne-os). i. The liquor amnii. 2. The 

Amoebism. Amceboism. See .Amebism. 

Amoebula. See .Imchiila. 

Amoeburia. See .4meburia. 

Amok [am-oiy) [Malay, to run]. See .4muck (Illus. 




Amoo (ii/i-wcn/). A New Zealand litter consisting of 
a netted hammock attached to somewhat tlexilile side 
poles, which are connected near their ends hy cross- 
pieces. It is recommended as a conveyance for the 

Amor (iiiii'-or) [I..]. Love. A. insanus. See 
Er.itomaniti (Illus. Diet.). A. sui, love of self; 
vanity. A. veneris, L'olnnibns' term for tile clitoris. 

Amorpha (ii/i-iiini'-J'ii/i) \_ii, priv.; /"</)«//, shape]. I. A 
cutaneous eruption having no definite form. 2. A 
macula. 3. Apparent di.seases in which no lesions can 
be discovered. 4. Intertrigo. A. infantilis, A. 
lactantium, infantile intertrigo. A. vulgaris, inter- 

Amorphogranular {ah-iuor-Jo-giaii'-u-lar). Composed 
of .^hapL■le-~-^ gianules. 

Amorphopygagra {ah-mor-fo-pi-gag' -rah ) \_afmp(fnc, 
without form; ~^",i|■, the rump; «)/)«, a seizure]. 
Sjxtsniodic attacks of pain in the anus. 

Amorphosis ( ah-inor-fo'-zh ). See Anamorphosis 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Amparthrosis [uiii-par-thry-sis). See Aniphiarlhrosis 
(lUus. Diet.). 

Ampelin (aiii'-pc!-in) [see Aiiipclilc'\. A ini.\ture of 
various oils found in coal-tar; it is a liquid resembling 

Ampelite {aw'-pi-!-l/) [aun-c/jrfc, relating to a vine, 
because it was u.sed to destroy insects upon vines]. A 
bituminous earth. 

Ampelography (rtw-/£*/-('^'-/-rt!-yd')[au-£/(>r,agrape-vine; 
ypuipeir, to write]. A description of grape-vines or a 
treatise upon their growth and cultivation. 

Ampelology i^ain-pft-ol'-o-jc'). The science of vines 
and their cultivation. 

Amperomettr (aHipc-r-oin'-ii-iir). Same as Ampire- 
iiu-k-r (Illus. Diet.). 

Amphamphoterodiplopia { nm-fam-fo-tcr-o-dip-li/-pe- 
.///). i^'tit AinphotiipU'pia {\\\wi,. Diet.). 

Ampharkyochrome [aiii-far-te'-o-/;rdiii) \_(iiiif>i, around; 
ojii^vr^ net ; i/)(7j//n, color]. Applied by Nissl to a 
form of arkyochrome nerve-cells in which the intensely 
stainable radiating nodal points of the network are 
joined in the cell-body by darkly stained, thick bridges. 

Amphauxesis, Amphauxis (am-/'a'j/:s-f'-sis, aiii- 
fa'.oks'-is) [«//(>/, around ; (;r^fa/f, ina'ease]. Growth 
or increase by concentric circles. Syn., Ainphipltya. 

Amphemerina. (.See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Lnlica ; 
Metheiiu-rina . A. hungarica. See Trp/iiis Fever 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Amphemerinus {.i/N-fi-m-er'-in-ns). Quotidian. 

Amphemeros, Amphemerus ((;w-y;-w'-«;--iii, -iis). I. 
Quotidian. 2. A i;|uotidian fever. 

Amphiarkyochrome (am-fe-ar-he'-o-hrdiii). See Am- 

Amphiastral (<!'«-_/;'-. zr'-//'.;/). Relating to an amphi- 

Amphibiology [aiii-fe-bi-ol'-o-je) [«.ui^', both ; /?/of, 
lifc;>(l;or, discourse]. The science of the nature, 
structure, and life-history o{ Amphibia. 

Amphicentric {am~/i-sen^-trik) [a,«^', both ; Kh'Tpo}\ a 
point]. Originating and ending in the same vessel. 

Amphicroic (am-fe-iro'-i/;) [r;//o/, on both sides; 
Kportii', to test]. Having the power to turn blue lit- 
mus-paper red and red litmus-paper blue. 

Amphicytula ((r«/-/<'-i/("-«-/((//) [n,"i^', on both sides; 
KiToc, cell]. The parent cell of an amphiblastic ovum. 

Amphid. (See Illus. Diet.) 2, Having a twofold 

Amphidesmic, Amphidesmous (am-pe-iies'-mih,-mt/s] 
I'liiip', on both sides ; (iKT/zoi;, a band, a fetter]. Fur- 
nished with a double ligament. 

Amphigastrula {^am-fe-gas'-lru-!ah) [«u^(, on both 

sides; }(iB-i/p, belly]. The gastrula of an amphiblas- 
tic ovum. 

Amphigenous. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Amphoteric. 

Amphigonic (a m-/-:-goii' -i/c)[iiuOi , on both sides ; ydvof, 
off>prin^f]. Relating to bisexual generation. 

Amphimerinos {am-/e-me>-'-iii-os). See Amp/iemeriiios. 

Amphimicrobian (am-fc-mi-kru'-be-an\ \iinip\ on both 
sides ; //(/./lof, small ; /iioi', life]. Both aerobian and 

Amphiphagia [am-fe-faf-e-ah) [«//(()/, on both sides ; 
on; (//•, to eat]. Cajjacity for eating all kinds of foods. 

Amphiphya [am-fe-ji'-ah) \_(iiii})i<pm, tlie growth of 
suckers around a tree]. See Aiiiphaiixcsis. 

Amphitrichous (am-/i/'-rih-iis) [riii^i, on both sides; 
tlpii. a hair]. Applied to the type of flagellation in 
bacteria which has a single flagellum at each pole. 

Amphodontous [am-fo-c/oii'-tiis) [li/'v'. o[i both sides; 
iJiWir. . a tooth]. Having teeth in both jaws. 

Amphogenous (am-J'o/-eii-iis). See Aiiipholeric. 

Amphophil. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A sub.stance readily 
stainetl by both acid and basic dyes. 

Amphore. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A two-handled vessel 
for holding lii|uids; ajar, bottle. 3. .•V Roman meas- 
ure containing 40 liter.s. A Greek measure containing 
26 ',j' liters. 

Amphoteric. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Neutral, double, 
twofold ; partaking of the character of two opposites ; 

Amphoterous {am-jV-icr-iis^. See Amplio.'cric. 

Amplexus [aiii-pieis'-tis) [L., an embrace]. I. An 
euiljracing; coitus. 2. Embraced, surrounded. 

Amplicollis (nm-ptc-kol'-is) (amp/iis, large ; eol/is, 
neck]. Having the neck or constricted part of an or- 
gan abnormally large. 

Amposis [aiii-po'-sis) [d,«7ru(7(f]. See Ampotis. 

Ampotis {^am-po'-tis^ [ri//77wr/{', the retiritig of a 
stream]. I. The return of hmnors inwartl from the 
surface of the body. 2. A normal or morbid absorp- 
tion of a body-fluid. 

Ampulla. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A bidla or blister. 
A., Galen's, a dilation of the vena magna galeni 
occimingin the middle of Bichat's fissure, between the 
splenium and the (luadrigeminal bodies. It receives 
the two basilar and several small cerebral and cere- 
bellar veins A., Henle's, I. The fusiform dila- 
tion of the vas deferens near its junction with the 
seminal vesicle. 2. The expanded oiitei' half of the 
fallopian tube. A. lorenzini, the dilated internal end 
of Lorenzini's tubes. 

Ampullaceous (ffw-/«/-(;'-.i/«M). l- Flask-shaped, big- 
bellied, gibbous. 2. Relating to an ampulla. 3. At- 
tended with the ftjrmation of bullas or blebs. 

Ampullar, Ampullate (<7w/-/>«/'-<7'-, am'-piii-iil). Re- 
lating to an ampulla ; shaped like an ampulla. 

Ampullitis (am-pii/-i'-/is). Inflammation of an am- 
pulla, more es])ecially that of the vas deferens. 

Amputation. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Intrapyretic. 
Same as .-/., hilcrinediary (Illus. Diet.). A., Medi- 
otarsal, i. Chopart's amputation. See Tabic of 
Opera/ions (Illus. Diet.). 2. An amputation through 
the tarsus, preserving the .scaphoid bone. A., Sub- 
astragalar, a partial amputation of the foot, leav- 
ing only the astragalus. A., Supracondylar. See 
Gri/li's Ampii/a/ioii, in Tabic of Opera /ions (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Tertiary, that performed after the 
inflammatory reaction stage has passed. 

Amputatus [am-pii-/a'-/iis) [ampii/are, \.o cu\ oK"]. I. 
Amputated, cut off. 2. An individual who has under- 
gone amputation. 

Amurcarious (am-iir-ha'-rc-us). Containing amurca 
or related to it. 

Amurga (ain-iii-'-gah). See Am urea (Illus. Diet.). 




Amussis [nm-us'-is) [L., a carpenter's rule or level ; 
pi., <7 /;««.'«]. One of two portions into which a 
median fissure divides the posterior commissure of the 

Amyasthenia. ?tet Aniyos/heiiin (Illus. Diet.). 

Amyasthenic. Si:e Amyost/ienii (IWui. Diet.). 

Amyctic [^<im-ik^-/ik) ^^iiuvktikik:^ nianglinj^]. I. Caus- 
tic, irritating. 2. A caustic or corrosive drug. 

Amydriasis {^ah-mid-ri'-ah-sis]. See Mvdrimis (Illus. 

Amyelic (ah-nu'-t'l-it). Relating to amyelia ; lacking 
a spinal cord. 

Amyelonic (a/t-mi-e!-oii'-ii). I. Amyelic. 2. With- 
out marrow. 

Atnyelous (c/i-wi'-i-'-ns). See Amyelif. 

Amygdala. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. See TuhcVilc, Aiiiyg- 
.iitl.'id (Illus. Diet.). Amygdalae cerebelli. See 
Tiil'crcU, AmvgdaUnd (Illus. Diet.). Amyg- 
dalae persicae cortex, peach-tree bark. A homeo- 
pathic remedy for vomiting of infants and of preg- 
nancy, and also in whooping-cough. l)ose of tincture, 
10-30 drops. 

Amygdalate {nui-ig'-Jal-at]. I. A salt of amygdalic 
acid. 2. A pharmaceutic emulsion made with ah:ionds. 
^. C't^ntaining almonds. 

Amygdalectomy (nin-ig dal-ek'-io-me) [nfivyi'>n'/ri, 
an almond ; inTour/, a cutting out]. Excision of a 

Amygdalia (am-ig-d,i'-\--iiJi). The tonsils. 

Amygdalin, Amygdalina. (See Illus. Diet.) A., 
Amorphous, a very hygroscopic, yellow, transparent 
resinous mass obtained irom cherry-laurel leaves ; it is 
very bitter ; soluble in water and ether. Syn., Lmiro- 

Amygdalitis. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Quinsy ; cynanche 

Amygdaloglossus ((7'«-(f-«'n/-tf-^'Aij'-«j). See Muscles, 
Tabic <./ (Illus. Diet.). 

Amygdalophenin. See Aiiiygdophenii). 

Amygdaloplethora ( am-ig-dal-o-plelh'-or-ah ) [a,«- 
i';()ii/v, an almond; -'/i/fiuii//, fulness]. Tonsillar 

Amygdalotomy. (.See Illus. Diet.) A. Rash. See 
under /uisli. 

Amygdophenin (■im-i^-i/of'-i-it-in). C„H,(()CjH5')N- 
H. OC. CH(OlI)C,H., 'a grayish-white crystalline 
powder, derived from paraniidophenol. It is antirheu- 
matic. Dose, I gm. (15 gr. ) from I to 6 times daily, 
in powder. Syn., Phenylglycolphenetniin. 

Amygmus {ntii-ig'-mus) [ri/H);//of]. Scarification. 

Amyl. (See Illu.s. Diet.) A. Acetate, C.H^O^. a 
colorless, transjiarent liquid, with aromatic odor ; sp. 
gr. 0.876; soluble in alcohol and ether; boils at 
138=' C. A. Alcohol, Tertiary. See Amylene Hy- 
drate (Illus. Diet). A. Amidoformate. See A. 
Ciirbttmate. A. Benzoate. t-Y'^^iti^ *•■» ^ transparent 
liquid ; sp. gr. 1.004 ^t °° C-; soluble in alcohol ; boils 
at 260.7° t". A. Bromid, CjIIiJir, a transparent, 
colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol ; sp. gr. 1. 219 at 
15° C; boils at 120° C. It is antiseptic and germi- 
cidal. A. Butyrate, QHjj^Oj, a clear liquid soluble 
in alcohol ; 0.882 at 0° C. ; boils at 178° C. 
A. Carbamate, Cjlli^NOj, a reaction ]iroduct of 
cyanic acid and amyl alcohol ; it occurs in white acic- 
ular crystals, soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly 
in water ; boils at 220° C; melts at 60° C A. Car- 
bamid. See A. Pietidocvanate. A. Carbamid, Ter- 
tiary. See A. Vreu, tertinrv. A. Carbolate, C,,- 
HjpO. white plate-like crystals, soluble in alcohol ; 
melts at 90°-95° C. ; boils at 220° C. A. Chlorid, C5- 
Hj^Cl. a colorless liquid obtained from isoanivl and 
hydrochloric acid ; soluble in alcohol; boils at 100° 

C; sp. gr. o.SSo at 15° C. A. Chlorocarbonate, 

CjHijClO.j, a liquid reaction-product of phosgene and 
isoamyl alcohol; sp. gr. 1.03231 15° C; boils at 
154.3° C. A. Colloid, a fluid preparation consisting 
of amyl hydrid, 480 parts ; aconitin, I part ; veratrin, 
6 pans; collodion, to 960 parts. It is painted on the 
skin in neuralgia, sciatica, etc. Syn., Anodyne eolhud. 
A. Cyanid, CgHjjN, obtained from heptoic acid amid 
and bromin in sodium hytlrate solution ; boils at 150°- 
155° C. A. Formate, CgHjO^j, a colorless liquid, 
the reaction-product of glycerin, oxalic acid, and iusel 
oil ; sp. gr. 0.S74 at 21° C; soluble in alcohol ; boils at 
123° C. A. Hydrid, a fractional product of petroleum 
ether ; it is an antiseptic. Syn., jjydramyl: Peulylene: 
Pentylhydrid. A. lodid, CjH^I, an oily liquid, the 
reaction-product of isoamylic alcohol, iodin, and phos- 
phorus; 1.467 at 0° C; .soluble in alcohol ; boils 
at 148° C. It is sedative and antiseptic, and is used as 
an inhalation in dyspnea. A. Mercaptan. See A. 
SiilfhvdmU'. A. Nitrate, CjH,,N<.ij, a reaction-pro- 
duct of isoamyl alcohol, urea nitrate, and nitric acid. 
A heavy, colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol ; sp. gr. 
0.999 at 20° C; boils at 148° C. A. Nitrite, Car- 
bonated, amyl nitrite saturated with carbonic oxid ; it 
is used as amvl nitrite \i\ inhalation. A., Nitrite, 
Carbureted, amyl nitrite saturated with caiboii mon- 
oxid. It is suggested as a substitute for pure amyl 
nitrite, to obviate pressure in the head and other 
secondary objectionable properties. A. Oxid, C',,)! l^jO, 
a malodorous liquid; sp. gr. 0.799 ato°C.; boils at 
1 70°- 1 75 °C. Syn., Amyl ether: Amylic ether; Diamyl 
ether. A. Phenate. See A. Carbolate. A. Phos- 
phate, a combination of amyl and phos|>horic acid. 
Syn., .Imylphosphoiie acid. A. -phosphate, a .salt of 
amvlphosphoric acid. A. Propionate, Cj.H,gt^2- ^ 
liquid soluble in alcohol ; boils at 160° C; sp. gr. 0.8S7 
ato°C. A. Pseudocyanate. O^C=iN — C=,H,5, a 
liquid boiling at 100° C. A. Salicylate, a comjiound 
obtained from the action of chlorin on a saturated 
solution of salicylic acid in amylic alcohol. It is a 
colorless liquid, almost insoluble in water, and is said 
to have the sedative properties of the amylic derivatives 
as well as antirheumatic qualities. It is used in acute 
rheumati-'m. Dose, to capsules of 3 gr. each, daily. 
A. Sulfhydrate, C^Hjj.S, a clear, foul-smelling 
liquid ; so. gr. 0.835 3' 2'° C.; boils at about 120° C. 
A. Sulfid, (CjII,,).^.^, obtained by reaction of amyl 
chlorid with alcohtilic potassium sulfid. It is a clear 
liquid with the odor of onions; sp. gr. 0.843 at 20® C; 
boils at 2l3°-2i6° C. A. Sulfocyanate, CglTiiNS, 
a clear liquid obtained as a reactii>n-product from 
potassium amyl sulfate and jiola^sium sulfocvnnate ; 
boils at 197° C. A. -urea. Tertiary, f„H|,X..O, acic- 
ular ciystals, slightly soluble in water and melting at 
about 151° (_". A. Urethane. Same as ^. Var- 
hamatc. A. Valerate, A. Valerianate, C,„Hj„<),, a 
clear liquid, soluble in alcohol and ether ; boils at 
l88°-I90° C. It is a cholesterin .solvent and is used 
as a sedative in gall-stone colic. Dose, 2-3 gr. 
(0.15 gm. ). Syn., Apple oil. 

Amylacea [am-il-a'-se-ak) [nmyliim, starch]. Starchy 

Amylamid {am-il'-am-id). See Isoaiuylamin (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Amylamin {am-il'-am-in'). See Tsoamylamin (Illus. 
Diet.). A. Hydrochlorate, CjHjjNCl, a reaction- 
product of amvl cyanate, potassium hydrate, and 
hydrochloric acid, occurring as deliquescent scales or 
crystals. It is an antipyretic. Dose, 7-15 gr. (0.45- 
I gm.). 

Amylate {am'-il-at'\. I. A combination formed by the 
replacement of the hydrogen of the hydroxyl mole- 



cule in amyl alcohol with a metal or basic radicle. 

2. A compound of starch with a radicle. 
Amylene. iSee Illus. Diet. ) A. Bromid, C^HjuBr, an 

oilv liquid; boils at 170^-175° C. with decomposition. 
A.'-chloral, CCI3 . CH . OH . O . C . (CH,), C.Hj, 
dinielhvl-ethyl-carbinol-chloral, an oily liquid with 
odor of camphor, obtained by fusion of equal parts of 
chloral and amylene hydrate. It is insoluble in cold 
water, but miscible with alcohol, ether, acetone, and 
fatty oils ; sp. gr. 1. 24. It is hypnotic. Syn., Doiiiiiol. 
A. lodid, CjHjjI,, a liquid derived from amylene 
dimethyl keton by hydroiodic acid with heat ; boils at 
i82^C. with decomposition. 

Amylenization (^am-H-cn-h-a' -shun). The production 
of anesthesia by means of amylene. 

Amylidene {mit-it'-iJ-en) [uwj/oi', starch]. C,Ifj. 
.A. bivalent radicle isomeric with amylene. Syn., Peii- 

Amylin [a'/i'-iV-in). The insoluble tegumentary por- 
tion of a starch granule. It does not differ in composi- 
tion from the soluble interior part. Syn., F'lrinose; 
Tegumentary ainidin ; Starch cellulose; Amvlocellu- 

Amylistn [am'-il-hm). The toxic condition produced 
by amyl alcohol. 

Amylobacter l^am-il-o-bal/~tur) [duf/.oi', starch ; ^hk- 
T/,ii::}f, a little rod]. A genus of Schhomyce/es estab- 
lished by Trecul and characterized by a period of 
development in which it contains starch in its interior. 

Amylocarbol {am-il-o-l'ai-'-iol). An antiseptic solu- 
tion said to consist of crude phenol, 9 parts ; amyl alco- 
hol, mo parts ; soap, 150 parts ; water to make a liter. 

Amylocellulose (am-il-o-se/'-u-loz'). See Amylin. 

Amyloform (ain-il'-o-form). An odorless white pow- 
der ]5rn(luced by the chemic combination of starch 
with formaldehyd. It is nontoxic, quite insoluble, 
and is not decomposed under 183° C. It is recom- 
mended as a surgical antiseptic. 

Amylohydrolysis ( atn-i'-o-hi-drol' is-is ) \aiiv'/.ov, 
starch; iili.iji, water; /.I'lrif, solution]. The hydroly- 
sis of starch. 

Amylohydrolytic (am-il-o-hi-dro-Ut'-ik'). Relating to 
the hydrolysis of starch. 

Amyloid. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A starchy substance. 

3. Glycogen. 4. Virchow's name for a waxy body 
found in animal tissue as a result of disease and re- 
sembling .starch, only in the one particular that it was 
stained by iodin. Cf. Amyloid Degeneration (Illus. 
Diet. ). 5. A carbohydrate derived from cellulose by 
action of concentrated sulfuric acid; like starch, it is 
colored blue by iodin and is used in the manufacture 
of parchment paper. 

Amyloidosis (avi-il-oid-iy'-sis). See Amyloid Degen- 
erjti.m ( Illus. Diet.). 

Amyloiodoform [am-il-o-i-t^ -do-form'). A blue-black 
powder consisting of a mixture of iodin and amylo- 
form. It is used as a substitute for iodoform. 

Amylon (am'-il-on) [L ]. I. Starch. 2. Glycogen. 
3. .\ principle found in grape-juice. 

Amylophosphin {ain-il-o-fos'-fin). A., Primary. .\ 
phnsphin in which the hydrogen is replaced by 
amyl. A., Secondary. See Diamylphosphin. A., 
Tertiary. .See Triamylph^sf-hin (Illus. Diet.). 

Amylosclema (an-ii-o-stle'-mah] [auv7.ov, starch ; 
a\'/i/itii, dryness]. The bran of starch. 

Amyon iai-mi'-on) [u/zior, not muscular]. An emaci- 
ated limb showing the muscles indistinctly. 

Amyos [a/i-mi'-os). See .-Imyoiis (Illus. Diet.). 

Amyostasia {ah-mi-o-sta'-se-ah I [n. priv.; m-r, muscle ; 
r,7ar,ir, a Staying]. A morbid tremor of the muscles, 
as in chorea. 

Amyotaxia {ah-mi-o-taks' -e-ah) [n, priv. ; /ii)f , muscle; 

niffc, arrangement]. Motor disturbance of the mus- 
cles, of spinal or cerebral origin. 
Amyus (ali'-me-us). See Amyous (Illus. Diet.). 
Amyxis (ali-miis'-is) [^iiuiaaeii; to scarify]. Scarifica- 
Amyxodes (ah-miis-ot-dez) [n, priv. ; /liia, mucus]. 

I. Deficient in mucus; relating to amyxia. 2. Scari- 

fie<l ; relating to amyxis. 
Anacampsis ( au-ah-l;ampt-sis^ [draK(i«T7e-/i', to bend 

back]. A flexure. 
Anacamptometer (an-ah-liamp-tom'-et-ur) [avaKnu-- 

zen\ to bend back ; iiiTitnv, a measure]. .\n appara- 
tus for measuring reflexes. 
Anacar [an'-ak-ar) [<li'«ft:rtp]. Up to or toward the 

Anacathartic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An expectorant, 

emetic, or sternutatory drug or agent. 
Anacephaleosis [an-ali-sel'-a/-e-o^-sis) [(7('«K£pa/a/u(T/c, 

a summary]. Fienns' term for man regarded as the 

microcosm of the animal kingdom. 
Anacestos, Anacestus (an-ali-ses'-tos, -tus) [n, priv.; 

iiKinTiir, curable]. Incurable. 
Anachlorhydria {nn-ali-i-lor-l/i'-dre-ali). The lack of 

hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice. 
Anacid [an-as^-id) [ar, priv.; acidum^ acid]. Slightly 

acid ; subacid ; not liaving the normal amount of 

Anacidity (an-as-id'-il-e). The lack of normal acidity ; 

subaciility ; inacidity. 
Anadenia. (.See Illus. Diet.) A. gastrica, Ewald's 

name for achylia gastrica. A. ventriculi. See Acliylia 

Anadesma [an-ali-dez'-mali) [avniMnuJi, a fillet]. A 

band or fasjia. 
Anadosis. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Chylificatlon. 4. The 

distribution of nutrient fluids in the organism. 
Anadrome (an-ad'-ro-me) [rirarl^jo"//, a running up]. 

1. .\n upward determination of the blood. 2. A pain 

ascending from the lower to the higher ])ortion of the 

body. 3. The .ascent of sap in plants. 4. See Glo- 

iii\ ln's/erictf (Illus. Diet.). 
Ansemasia, Anaemasis. See Anemia (Illus. Diet.). 
Anaerobe (nii-a'-er-oli). See AnaeroHon. 
Anaerobion (an-a-er-o'-i<e-on) [nr, priv.; (li/p, air; 

i'lir , life]. Pasteur's term for an organism capable of 

living without air or free oxygen. 
Anagoge, Anagogia [an-a-gcZ-je^ an-a-got-je-ali) \hva- 

■)tj}'/, a bringing up]. Vomiting. A. haematis, A. 

sanguinis, a rush of blood to the head. 
Anagyrin. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Hydrobromate. 

C,jll,,N.,O.^HBr. Small, while, shining scales, 

soluble in water and alcohol, melting at 265° C. It is 

used as a heart stimulant. 
Anagyris (an-n-ji'-ris) [ni'ii, backward; Jf/Jiif, curved]. 

A genus of leguminous plants. A. fcetida, L. , a shnib 

of southern Europe, contains anagyrin and cytisin, an 

acid and a fatty oil. The leaves and seeds are purga- 
tive and emetic. 
Anakhre. Synonym of Goun'lou (q. v.). 
Analdia (an-al'-de-ali ) [u, priv.; a'/.iatvetv, to nourish]. 

See .Marasmus ( Illus. Diet. ). 
Analepsis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Suspension, as in a 

swing. 3. Epilepsy with gastric aura. 
Analeptol (an-al-ef^-tol). A tonic prep.aration said to 

contain phosphorus, y^jgr. ; nux vomica extract, igr. ; 

cinchona, 2gr. ; coca leaves, i gr. , and the addition ot 

Analgesia. (See Illus. Diet. ) A. panaris, synonym 

i»f M'ri'an's disease. 
Analogy (an-al'-o-je) [(!i'n>.o)of, conformable]. Simil- 

aritv in function or origin between parts or organs, 

without identity. 




Analosis [an-ai-o'-sis) [aid'/xjai^, expenditure]. A 
wasting away ; atropliy. 

Analtos {an-al'-los) [a, pnv. ; a/r, salt]. Not salted. 

Analysis. (See lUus. Diet. ) A., Absorptiometric, 
the determination of the composition of gaseous bodies 
by observation of the amount of absorption which oc- 
curs on exposure to a liquid in which the coefficient oi" 
absorption of dift'erent gases is already known. A., 
Clinical, a thorough examination of symptoms, le- 
sions, and history to determine the nature of a disease 
and its cause. A., Colorimetric, analysis by means 
of comparison of the colors of solutions with those 
of standard test-solutions. A., Dry, that by means of 
blowpipe, etc.; also spectral analysi.s. A., Eudiomet- 
ric. See A., Gaiomelric (Illus. Diet. ). A., Immed- 
iate. See A., Proximate (Illus. Did.). A., In- 
direct, a quantitative estimation of the elements of a 
compound obtained not by isolating them, but by 
causing them to form new combinations and observing 
the relation of the molecular weight of these to that of 
the original bodv. A., Inorganic, that of inorganic 
matter. A., Microchemic, chemic analysis with the 
aid of a microscope. A. per menstrua, analysis by 
successive subjection of the substance to various sol- 
vents. A.,PoIariscopic, analysis conducted with the 
polariscope. A., Prismatic, spectral analysis. A., 
Radiation, a method of analysis based upon dis- 
coveries of Becquerel and taking advantage of the 
comparative radioactivity of various metals. A., 
Spectrometric, A., Spectroscopic. See A., Sfec- 
/<-<// (Illus. Diet.). A., Thermometric, analysis by 
means of observation of the varying temperature pro- 
duced by the interaction of substances mixed or com- 
bined together. A., Titration. St;e A., l''liimt-fnc 
(Illus. Diet.). A., \A^eight, A. by Weight. See 
A., Grarimelrii (Illus. Diet. |. A., Wet, analysis 
conducted by means of solutions and precipitations. 

Analyst {an'-al-ist). The person who makes an analy- 
sis ; analyzer. 

Analyzer. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. An analyst. 3. An 
apparatus for recording the excursions of tremor move- 

Anamid (an'-am-id) [n, priv.; ammonia'^. A com- 
pound formed from an amid by abstracting the ammo- 

Anamirta {an-am-ir'-ia) [East Indian]. A genus of 
menispennaceous plants. A. paniculata, Coleb. , a 
climbing shrub of the East Indies, contains picrotoxin 
and cocculin. It has powerful action on the central 
nervous system. It is used as an insecticide and fish 

Anamnestics [an-am-nes'-tiks) [ avafivi/aic, a recalling 
to mind]. The investigation of a patient's history and 
its relation to his condition. 

Anamorphism {an-ah-tnof^ -Jizm'). ?i^^ Anamorphosis. 

Anamorphosis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. In optics, that 
process by which a distorted image is corrected by 
means of a curved mirror. A., Catoptric, correction 
of a distorteil image by means of a conic or cylindric 
mirror. A., Dioptric, correction of a distorted image 
by means of a pyramidal glass. 

Ananabasia [ati-an-afi-a'-ze-ah) [a, priv ; ai'o^aff'C, 
ati ascending]. A form of aboulia manifested by in- 
capacity to ascend heights. 

Ananastasia ((7//-(7«-(7.r-/(7'-:('-<7^) [a, priv.; avacraai^, 
a rising up]. A form of aboulia characterized by in- 
ability to rise from a sitting posture. 

Anandrous. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Unmarried; im- 

Anaphia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A state of abnormal 
sensitiveness to the touch. 3. A stale in which noth- 
ing can be learned by palpation. 

Anaphora {an-a/'-or-ah) [aviiooi>d, a bringing up]. 
I . A bringing up, as by coughing. 2. Recovery from 
illness. 3. Rush of blood to the head. 4. A violent 
inspiration or respiration. 

Anaphoresis (an af-ort-'sis) [a, priv.; onpiiv, to 
carry]. A diminution in the activity of the sweat- 

Anaphoretic (an-ah-for-ef -ik"). i. Checking perspira- 
tion. 2. An agent that checks the secretion of sweat. 

Anaphoria (an-a/o'-re-a/t) [aru, up ; ipnpitv, to bear]. 
All upward tendency of the eyes and of the visual 

Anaphrodite (an-a/'-ro-dit). An individual affected 
witli anaphrodisia. 

Anaphroditism \an-af-rod'-it-iz7u). See Anaphro- 
duia ( llhis. Diet.). 

Anaphylactic (an-ali-Jil-ak'-tik) [a, priv.; ^i'/.of, a 
guardian]. I. Having the property of diminishing 
immunity instead of reinforcing it. 2. A serum which 
diminishes immunity. 

Anaplasis [an-a/i-/>/a'-sis). See Anaplasty (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Anaplasm (a>i'-ah-plasm). See Anaplasty (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Anarthria. (See Illus. Diet. ) Absence of vigor. A. 
centralis, partial aphasia due to central lesion. A. 
literalis, stammering. 

Anarthrous. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Lacking vigor. 
3. Inarticulate. 

Anasalpin (an-ali-sal'-pin). See Ade/>s lana: 

Anasarca. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Catasarta ; Epi- 
sariiidiiim ; Hydrodermus ; Jntercns ; Hydnps cellu- 
laris. A., Acute, a form in which the flesh preser\'es 
its normal color and the depression made by the finger 
disappears quickly. A. a fluxu, that due to loss of 
bodv-fiuids, as in diarrliea or diabetes. A. ameri- 
cana, a South American disease marked by sleepiness, 
headache, debility, and swelling of the abdomen, said 
to be due to the ingestion of sea-crab-. A., Essential, 
that due to malnutrition. A.exanthematica, that at- 
tributed to the suppression of an exanthem, especially 
erysipelas. A. urinosa, that due to suppression of 
urine. Syn., Urinary lenkophU^masia. 

Anasarcin [aiia/i-sai-'-sin). A remedy for dropsy, 
said to consist of the active principles of Oxydendron 
ariioreumy Sambutus ni^ra^^nd L'rgiuea scilla. 

Anasin (an'-as-in). See Aneson. 

Anasomia [an-ah-sy-me-ah) [a in, upon ; cruwn, body]. 
A deformed condition in which the limbs are abnor- 
mally adherent to the body. 

Anaspadiac {analtsfa'-di-ak) ["'«, up; orar, to 
draw]. A person afl'ected with anaspadias. 

Anaspasis [an ah spa' -sis) [aiua-av, to draw up]. I. 
A contraction. 2. Revulsion. 

Anaspasmus {an-ahspaz' miis). See Anaspasis. 

Anastasis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An upward afflux 
of the body humors. 3. Resuscitation of one appa- 
rently dead. 4. The rising of a patient from his bed 
nr evils resulting from it. 

Anastatic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A restorative remedy. 

Anastigmatic {aii-ah-stiifmat'-ik). Free from astig- 
matism ; said especially of photographic objectives 
which are corrected for astigmatism as well as for 
spherical and chromatic aberration. One or more of 
the lenses are usually composed of Jena glass. 

Anastomosis. (See Illu.s. Diet. ) 2. A whetting of the 
appetite. A. Button. See Murphy's Button {IWwi. 
Diet.). A. par canal collateral, that of an artery 
rejoining its trunk. A. by Convergence, the junc- 
tion of two parallel arteries tt> form a common trunk. 
A., Elliptic, that between approximate nerve-trunks 
in which the uniting fibers I'orni part of an ellipse. A., 




Entero-, intestinal anastomosis. A., Hyrtl's, the 

transection of two arteries. Syn., Dehisicntia Jecus- 
saniiitm. A., Jacobson's, the tympanic plexus. 

Anastomotic. (ScelUus. Diet.) 2. Sharpeninj^ tlie 
appetite. 3. Aperient. 4. Causing dilation of the 
peripheral bloodvessels. 5. A communicating artery or 
vein. See Tables of Arteries and Veins (Illiis. Diet.), 

Anastomotica {an as-to-mot^ -ik-ah^. I. A communi- 
cating artery or vein. 2. Tonic, aperient, ordeobstru- 
ent medicines. 

Anastomotris {^an-as-io-mo' -tri^^ [L._ pi. auastomot- 
ride^\ Any kind of a dilating instrument. 

Anaslrophe [an-as^-iro/e) [araffr/if^f/j-, to turn up- 
side down]. Inversion, particularly of the viscera. 

Anatipes [an-at'-e-pez) \_<inas, duck ; /t'j, foot]. Duck- 
footed . 

Anatomicochirurgic {an-a-tom-ik-o-ki-rur^-jik). Re- 
lating to anatomy and surgery. 

Anatomicomedical ( an-ut-o/n-ik-o-med^-ik-al). Re- 
lating tn ni(:-dicine and anatomy or to medical anatomy. 

Anatomicopathologic [an-at-om-ik-o-pa//i-o-io/-ik). 
Relating to pathologic anatomy. 

Anatomicophysiologic {an-a(-om-ik-0'Jiz-€-0'io/-ik). 
Relating to anatomy and physiology. 

Anatomicosurgical {an-at-om-iko-sur^-je-kal^. Re- 
lating to anatomy and surgery. 

Anatomiless {an-al-om'-il-es). Structureless, amor- 

Anatomize [an-at'-om-'iz). To dissect. 

Anatomography (an-at-o-m 'g^~ra-fe) [drnro/^/a, an- 
atomv ; ;/>(('itf/r, to write]. A treatise on anatomy. 

Anatomophilus {an-at-o-mof^-il-us) [(h-aro/^/;, anato- 
my ; (p!/.hi\ to love]. A lover of anatomy. 

Anatomy. (See 1 11 us. Diet.) 1. The science of or- 
ganic structure. 2. The structure of an organism wiih 
reference to its parts and functions. 3. A treatise on 
or manual of dissection. 4. The minute examination 
or analysis of the properties or parts of a thing. 5. A 
skeleton. A., Analogical. See ^., Comparafi-,-e. 
A., Anomalous, the science of anatomic monstrosities 
or anomalies. A., Artistic, that branch of anatomy 
treating of die external form of men and animals, their 
osseous and muscular systems, and the relative size of 
different parts and members of their bodies. A., Gen- 
eral, that branch of descriptive anatomy treating of the 
stnicture and physiologic properties of the tissues and 
their arrangement into systems without regard to the dis- 
position t)f the organs of which they form a part. A., 
Medical, the application of anatomy to a studv of tlie 
causation and symptomatology of nonsurgical diseases. 
A., Physiologic, an anatomic study of tissues in re- 
spect to their functions. A., Practical, dissection. 
A., Transcendental, anatomy as related to theories 
of type, and evolution. A., Vegetable, the branch 
of botany which treats of the relative position, t'orm, 
and structure of the organs of plants. 

Anatresis [anat-re'-sis^ \avaT(Tpa\\ to bore through]. 
Perforation ; trephining. 

Anatripsiology {<in-ah-trip-si-oF -o-je^. See Anafrip- 
so/oi^y ( Ilius. Diet.). 

Anatripsis. (See Ilhis. Diet.) 2. A crushing, as of 
calculi. 3. Itching ; scratching to allay itching. 

Anatropia ( au-af-rt/ -pe-ah) [ort?, up ; T\n:~u\\ to turn]. 
The condition of the ovule when completely inverted. 

Anaxone [an ak^-on) [</«, priv,; o^wr, an axle]. A 
neurone entirely devoid of axis-cylinder processes ; 
called also amacrine eell. 

Anazotic {an-az-(/-tik) [nr, priv., azotum^ nitrogen]. 
Without azote or nitrogen. 

Anazyme {an'-a-tim). The commercial name for a 
combination of carbolic and boric acids ; it is a substi- 
tute for iodofonn. 

Anceps {an^-seps) [E.]. I. Twodieaded. 2. Doubtful, 
uncertain, dangerous. 

Anchietin [an-ke^-et-in). A crystalline organic base 
isolated from the bark of Anchietea salittaris. 

Anchlorhydria {an-klor-hi* -dre-ah). See Anaehlor- 

Anchoate {ang'-ko-dt) [ajv^n-, to strangle]. A salt 
of anrhoic acid. 

Achone yan<f-ko-ne^ [a; jf^/i', to strangle]. A spas- 
niotiic constriction of the tliroat observed in hvsleria. 

Anchorage. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. In dentistry, the 
means adopted for the retention of a dental tilling, 
particularly its initial portion. 

Anchoralis {an-ko-ra'-Hs) \^aneoray an anchor]. The 
coronoid process of the ulna. 

Anchyroides (an-kir-oid^-ez). See Anchoralis. 

Ancistropodous ( an-sis-irof^ -o-dus ) [«) KifiTpo\\ a 
hook ; tok;, a foot]. Furnished with hooked claws or 

Ancistrum {an-sis'-irum^ [«}K'(77/wr, a fish-hook]. A 
surgical hook. 

Ancyra [an^-si-rah) \a)Kvpa^ an anchor]. A hook. 

Anda, A.-acu, A.-Assu. The fruit and seeds of the 
plant Joannesia princeps. It is used in diseases of 
the liver. Dose, 2 seeds in emulsion. 

Andar-tap \j'eTer 7ci//iin the body'\, A vernacular 
term in India for tr)'panosomiasis. 

Andirin [an-di^-iin). A brown coloring-matter ob- 
tained from the wood oi Andira anthelminthiea\ it is 
soluble in water and in oils. 

Androgeneia {an-dro-jen-i^-ah) [ovi^po^iiein, a manly 
race], i. The development of man. 2. The genera- 
tion of males, descent by the father's side. 

Androlepsia {an-dro-lep^-se-ah) [_nn'^jio/rj\\ua, a seizure 
of men]. The process of fecundation in the female. 

Androme {an'-dro>n-e\. See Andrum (Illus. Diet.). 

Andromedotoxin. See Androfnetoxin. 

Andrometoxin [an-drom-et-oks^-in) [Andromeda : to^- 
iKoi\ poison]. A poisonous anodyne principle found 
by Elugge { 1883) in Andromeda japonica^ occurring in 
Kaliiiia lati folia and some other ericaceous plants, and 
found in poisonous honey from Trebiztmd. The toxic 
property of that mentioned by Xenophon was probably 
due to it. It forms acicular crystals, soluble in alcohol, 
in ether, in chloroform, and is more soluble in cold 
than in hot water. It inhibits the respiratoi*y centers. 

Andronia {^an-drc/'Hc-ah] [(ir/?^, a man]. The stronger 
principle of a compound. 

Andronym [an^-dro-nini) \^avr,p^ a man ; bvvua^ a 
name]. A word derived from a man's name ; eponym. 

Androsymphysia, Androsymphysis {an-dro-sitn-fiz'- 
e-ah^ an-dro-sim' -fiz-is') [aiT//), a man ; <yv\\ together ; 
(pieiVy to grow]. I. A monstrosity formed by the 
fusion of two male fetuses. 2. The growing together 
of the male genitalia. 

Anebous [an-e^-lms] [ar^.'Jof]. Not come to man's 
estate ; not having reached puberty. 

Anecestus (an-e-ses^-t/ts). See Anacestus. 

Anecpyetous [an-ek-pi-e^-tus] \_hveK-ij]Tiic;']. I. Not 
suppurating. 2. Preventing suppuration ; insuppur- 

Anectasin (an-ek^-ta-sin) \jiv^ priv.; fA-, out of; Tkven\ 
to stretch]. A product of bacterial action with an in- 
fluence on the vasomotor nerves contrary to ectasin 
{./ -.:). 

Anedeus {an-e^-de-ns) [rt, priv. ; n}6n/a, the genitals]. 
Eacking genital organs. 

Aneilesis [an-i-le^-sis] [(irf^/hr, to roll together]. I. 
See Aneilema (Illus. Diet.). 2. Twisting of the body 
in athletics. 3. Evolution. 

Anelectric. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A good conductor ; 
a substance which readily parts with electricity. 



Anelectrotonize i^an-el-ek-try -ton-tz) [ai\ priv. ; ?j}.£k- 
Tf}oi\ electi icily ; ruivt;^ tension]. To render anelectro- 

Anemasia, Anemasis (aii-e-ma-/-e-a/iy an-e-maz'-is). 
See Anemia. A. epizooiica, a disease of young 
mules marked by jjroslralion, sliglu, rapid pulse, and 
hardness of the abdomen, usually proving fatal in from 
6 to 24 hours. Autopsy reveals pale lungs and thin 
blood deficient in iibrin. 

Anemia, Anaemia. (See Illus. Diet. ) A., Addison's, 
A., Biermer's, pernicious anemia. A., Bothrio- 
cephalous, that caused by Bolhricicefhalns laltis. A., 
Cerebral, a lack of blood in the brain. A., Chlorotic. 
See ChL'rancniia (Ulus. Diet.). A., Cytogenic. 
See A., Idiopathic (Illus. Diet.). A., Essential 
Febrile. See.-/., Pro.rressive PernicioKs [\\\\if,. Diet.). 
A., Essential Malignant, A., Essential Perni- 
cious. See./., PiLigrcssive Pei-)nt:iinis (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Fecal. See Stercoreinia (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Globular, a form marked by diminution of the number 
of red blood-corpuscles. A. infantum pseudoleu- 
kxmica, a form of primary anemia described by v. 
Jaksch as peculiar to the young child. Morse holds 
that chlorosis is a condition wlioUy foreign to infantile 
life and that v. Jaksch' s disease does not represent a 
distinct clinical entity. [DaCosta.] A., Miners'. 
See Uncinariiisis. A.^ Myelogenous, anemia at- 
tended with hyperplasia of myelogenous tissue. A., 
Paludal, anemia associated with or caused by malaria. 
A., Pernicious, Runeberg's Type of, a form of 
pernicious anemia with remissions. A., Pseudoleu- 
kemic (of v. jakscli). See A. iii/aii/nm pseiidoleu- 
kizmica. A., Spinal, a deticient blood-supply to the 
spinal cord. A., Splenic, chronic anemia with en- 
larged spleen, blood-changes, chloraneniia, leukoj:)enia, 
hemorrhages from the stomach, and pigmentation of 
the skin. A. spuria acutissima, Winternilz's term 
for profound anemia due trj trauma in which no blood 
was lost, but a stasis of blood occurred in the larger 
vessels. A., Tropic. See Unciiiariiisis. A., True, 
anemia caused by hemorrhages. A., Tunnel. See 

Anemious [an-gm'-e-us] [ai-fuor, the wind]. Growing 
in windy exposures. 

Anemochrous ( an-em'-ok-rjis^ [avntuo^, bloodless ; 
Xpo'<i, the skin]. Pallid, without color. 

Anemonism \aii^em'-.yn'izm) [ai't/uf?/, wind-flower]. 
Poisoning from ingestion of fresh ingredients of ranun- 
culaceous plants (ranunculus, anemone, clematis), 
which yield anemonol. Ii gives rise to inflammation of 
the mouth, stomach, intestines, and kidney. 

Anemopathy {an eiti-op/-ath-e) \_avzfio<:^ wind ; n-d^oc, 
disease]. Therapeutic treatment by inhalation. 

Anemosarcous {an-ein-o-sar' -kus^ \livaiaor, bloodless; 
na^iZt flesh]. Having while flesh. 

Anemoscope {an-em^ -o-ikop) [aiT//or, wind; cuarzitv, to 
look]. .\n instrument to determine the speed of wind. 

Anemydria, Anaemydria (an-em-iil'-re-ah) [n, priv.; 
a'liia, blood; I'lti.)/'. water]. Insuflnciency of the 
watery eleniL-iit in blood. 

Anencephalemia {au-en-sef-al-e'-me-ah). See Anen- 
ctphah hernia (Illus. Diet.). 

Anenterate (an-eii'-lnr-dl). Same snAnenlerous (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Aneronomatic'-ik'). See Andronym. 

Anesime (an-is'-im-e). ^ee Anesoit. 

Anesin i a/i'-t's-in). Same as Aneso/i. 

Aneson {an'-cs-ou). 1. An old name for dill. 2. 
The commercial name of a walerv solution containing 
I % of acelonechloroform, recommended as a local anes- 
thetic instead of cocain. As a hypnotic it is used in 
doses of 8 gr. 

Anesthecinesis, Anaesthecinesis {an-es-the-siii-e'-iis) 
[a, priv.; aictliinir^ feeling; Kiff/Gir, movement]. A 
condition marked by loss of sensibility and motor ca- 

Anesthesia. (See Illus. Diet.) A.. Central, that 
due to disease of nerve-centers. A., Cerebral, that 
due to <!isease of the cerebrum. A., Dolorous, of 
Liebreich, the transient but painful anesthesia pro- 
duced by the injection of water in sufficient quantity 
to edematize the papillary layer of the derm and subja- 
cent layers. The pain is due to the inhibitory swell- 
ing of the cells. A., Efferent, that due to disorder of 
the nerve terminations, disturbing their conductivity. 
A., Electric, anesthesia caused by the passage of an 
electric current through a part. A., Facial, anesthesia 
of those parts to which the .sensory branches of the fifth 
cranial nerve are distributed. A., General, that of 
the whole body ; loss of perception and consciousness. 
A., Genital, the absence of the sensation attending 
coiius. A., Girdle, a zone of anesthesia encircling the 
body, due to circumscribed disease of the spinal cord. 
A., Gustatory. Same as Wxc/w/rf (Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Hemiplegic. See Hemiancslhcsia ( Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Infiltration, local anesthesia effected by subcuta- 
neous injections. A., Javanese, that produced by 
pressure ujxin the carotid>. A., KorfTs. See under 
Aneslhetir. A., Mixed, that partially produced and 
prolonged by the administration of morphin or other 
cerebral anodyne before the anesthetic is given. A., 
Muscular, absence of muscular sensibility, as in loco- 
motor ataxia. A., Olfactory. See Anosmia (Illus. 
Diet. I. A., Optical. See .-/wrt«;<j.iM ( Illus. Diet. ). 
A., Primary, temporary insensibilitv to slight pain in 
the beginning of anesthesia. A., Rectal, local an- 
esthesia induced by means of an anesthetic placed 
in the rectum. A., Regional, the suppression of all sen- 
sorial impressions made ujion a region by blocking their 
path in the nerve-trunks, paralyzing the peripheral 
nerve-endings, or anesthetizing the senson,- centers in 
the cerebral corte.x itself. A., Schleich Infiltration. 
See under Anesthetic. A., Schneiderlin's. See 
under .Anesthetic. A., Spinal. See under .Ane.thetic, 
Corning- Bier Method. A., Subarachnoid. See under 
Anesthetic, Coming-Bier Method. A. by Sugges- 
tion, hypnotism. A., Tactile, loss or impairment of 
the sense of touch. A., Thermic, loss of the percep- 
tion of heat ; thennoanesthesia. A., Unilateral. 
See Hemianesthesia (Illus. Diet.). 

Anesthesin (an-es-the'-sin). 
C5Hj<^p ^,S„ pj E. Ritsert's name for paramido- 

benzoic acid ester ; a white, tasteless, odorless powder, 
soluble with difficulty in cold water, more soluble in 
hot water, readily in alcohol, ether, acetone, chloro- 
form, and fatty oils ; it is used as a local anesthetic. 

Anesthesis (an-es-fhe'-sis). .See Anesthesia. 

Anesthetic, Anaesthetic. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. Re- 
lating to, attending, or producing anesthesia. Bsg- 
ol's Local Anesthesia Mixture, cocain hydro- 
chlorale, 0.04, and spartein sulfate. 0.05 ; this is dis- 
solved in I or 2 c.c. of boiled water. Bernard's 
Method. See .\'iissl>aitm's Method (Illus. Diet. t. 
Bonain's Mixture for anesthesia of the external sur- 
face of the tympanic membrane. Phenol, menthol, 
cocain hydrochlorate, aa I.O; or phenol 2.9, menthol 
0.5, cocain hydrochlor. i.o. Ceci's Mixed Mor- 
phin-cocain ; the local anesthetic action tif an 
analgesic drug is preceded or supplemented bv the 
action of morphin or other cerebral anodvne. Chloro- 
,form -oxygen. See Wohlgemuth' s MelhoJ. Cole's 
Method, the use of ether preceded bv nitrous oxid 
gas. Corning-Bier Method, the spinal subarach- 



noid method. It consists in the injection of a solution 
of cocain hydrochlorate into tile subarachnoid space 
throuijh a puncture made in the lumbar or lumbosacral 
region. Crile's (Geo. W.) Blocking Method, 
identical in principle and technic with the L'orning-Bier 
metliod except that it is applied at a higher level, by 
injecting the brachial plexus in the supraclavicular 
space. Cushing's Method, the niorphin-cocain- 
chloroform-anestlioia ; in .addition to a preliminary 
hypodermic of morphin the local anesthetic action of 
cocain or other local analgesic is preceded or supple- 
mented by the effectsof a general inlialation-anesthetic, 
such as chloroform. Edinburgh Method, consists 
in giving as little chloroform as will linng about rapid 
and complete narcosis as evince<l by lack ol retlexes 
and muscular excitability. Franck-Rosenberg's 
Method, the preliminary cocainization of the nares be- 
fore the use of chloroform. Gerster's Method. Same 
as /■'riiit, /c- A'(iseii/v/-<;' s Method. Heinze and Braun's 
Solution for general infiltration ; )-eucain, o. I ; 
sodium clilorid, o.S ; distilled water, loo. High- 
frequency Currents are used in dental surgery ; 300,- 
000 alterations jier second and 150 to 200 milliamperes. 
Hydrogen Dioxid iniected un^ler the epidermis is re- 
commended fur complete and immediate .anesthesia. 
Infiltration, Neural Method, preliminary inliltia- 
tion of the derm |)recedes the cocainization of the nervc- 
Hliers which supply the area of the operation. Intra- 
neural Method, after preliminarv anesthesia of the 
skin the Large nerve-trunks that supply the region are 
brought to view by dissection, and are directly injecletl 
with the needle. Isotonic Solution, in anesthesia, 
any solution of the same specific gravity and the same 
freezing ]>oint as the normal tissue ; it can be employed 
without causing ]iain from osmotic disturbances. 
Kocher's Method. Same as Poitou-Duplasy' s 
ISkthod. Korff's Method, a modification of Schneider- 
lin's, in that the use of liypodermic injections of scopo- 
lamin hydrobromate, 4 dmg. ( I-l6l gr.l, and 
morphin, I eg. (1-7 gr. ), is followed by the adminis- 
tration of a few iliops of chloroform by the mask. 
Krogin's Method. Same as Oherst's Method. Kum- 
mer's Method of local anesthesia, the application of 
an elastic constrictor to intensify the action of ether 
spray. Lohmann's (W.) Solution, 4'^ if-eucain 
solution with 8'* of sodium chlorid. Luxenburger's 
Solution, a 2 '■^ solution of nirvanin. M. S. Mixture, 
ether, 57 ]iarls ; chloroform, 43 parts. Oberst's 
Method of inducing local anesthesia : the injection of 
a weak solution of cocain along the nerve-trunks sup- 
plying the parts. Paraneural Method, ihe anes- 
thetizing solution is injected in the vicinity of the nerve- 
trunk or as closely as possible to the nerve supplying 
the area of operation. Poitou-Duplessy's Method, 
the use of ethyl bromid as a preliminary to etherization. 
Reclus' Solution, a 2/ i-eucain solution. Schleich 
Infiltration Method, local anesthesia jiroduced by 
the hvpodermic injection of cocain, combined with a 
weak salt solution, and by the addition of a little 
morphia the anesthetic action is prolonged. (Co- 
cain hvdrochlorate, I '2 gr. ; morphin hydrochlorate, 
y^ gr. ; common salt, 3 gr. , dissolved in 3 ounces 
and 3 drams of sterilized water. ) Schleich Method 
for General Anesthesia, the administration of small 
doses of chloroform, petroleum ether, and sulfuric ether. 
Schneiderlin's Method, the use of a combination 
of scopolamin hydri>l)r<^tnate (hvdrobromate of 
hyoscin), 3 dmg. (=-I-200 gr. ), and morphin. I eg. 
{^1-7 gr.l. To be administered hypodermically and 
repeated after I or 2 hours. It is asserted to be !^- 
solutely free from danger to life. Scopolamin-mor- 
phin. See fCorff' s Method. Spinal Subarachnoid 

Method. See Coriiing-Bier Method. Tait and 
Caglieri's Method, spinal cocainization bv injection 
of cocain in the sixth cervical intervertebral space. 
Tuffier's Method. See Coming-Bier Method. 
Wohlgemuth's Method, the use of oxygen combined 
witii chlorolorm by means of a special apparatus. 

Anesthyl [uii-es-thil'), a local anesthetic said to con- 
sist of ethyl chlorid, 5 parts ; methyl chlorid, I part. 

Anestrous (aii-es'-tiin,). Pertaining to the long period 
of sexual quiescence [anestntm) characteristic of some 
female animals. Cf. Proestrous ; Mete.stroits ; J-hestrous. 

Anestrum [ati-es^-triini) [a, priv.; o/rTr/mr, ga<l-fly]. 
Ileape's term for the period of sexual rest i]i which the 
generative organs lie fallow and which intervenes be- 
tween the sexual seasons. Cf. Estriis (Illus. Diet.); 
Metestrum .■ Proestritni : Diestroiis : A/ofrestro»s. 

Anethated (aii'-e-tha-led) [or;/Wor, dill]. Containing 
dill or anise. 

Anethol. (.See Illus. Diet.) A. Liquid, an isomeric 
modification of anethol ; it is an antiseptic, oil-like 
liijuid Syn., Isanethoi. 

Anetholquinin. See Quitiin Anisnte. 

Anethoxylon [aii-eth-ois'-i/on) [di'i^flov, dill ; I'v't.nv, 
wood]. DiU-root, the root of Peueedanton gnweolens. 

Anetodermia (an-et-o-diii-'-iiie-ah) [avtro^, relaxed; 
Mlifia, skin]. Relaxation of the skin. 

Aneurism (<iii'-u-ri:m). See Aiieiitysm. 

hneuros {^ah'iiii'-ros) [ai<tvpo^, without sinews]. Feeble, 
inelastic, relaxed. 

Aneurosis (ah-nii-ro'-sis') [11, priv.; rfrpor, a nerve]. 
.■V lack of nerves. 

Aneurysm, Aneurysma. (See Illus. Diet.) .Syn., 
.-J/iseessus spiritiiosiis. A., Active, cardiac dilation 
with hypertrophy. A., Acute, an ulceration of the 
heart-wall which by communicating with one of the 
chambers of the heart forms an anemysmal pouch. A., 
Axillary, that affecting the axillary artery. A., Bell's, 
aneurvsMial varix. A., Bone. See Os/eotTueniy^ni 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Capillary. See .-/., v1////(j;;r. A., 
Circumscribed, an aneurysm, either true or false, in 
which the contents are still within the artery though 
there mav be rupture of one or two of its coats. A. 
cirsoides arterise lienalis, cirsoid aneurysm of the 
splenic artery. A. cordis, aneurysmal bulging of the 
heart-wall. A., Cystic. See A., Saeeii/nted (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Cystogenic, one formed by the rupture 
of a cvst into the lumen of an artery. A., External, 
I. One remote from the great body-cavities. 2. One 
in which the cavity of the tumor is entirely or chiefly 
outside of the inner coat of the artery. A. of the 
Heart, i. See A., Acute. 2. Any dilation of the 
heart. A., Hernial, one in which the internal coat of 
the artery, with or without the middle coat, forms the 
aneurysmal sac which has forced its way through an 
opening in the outer coat. A., Idiopathic, one not 
due to anv of the usual causes. A., Innominate, 
that of the innominate artery. A., Internal, an an- 
eurvsm situated within one of the great body-cavities. 
A., Lateral, an aneurvsm projecting on one side of a 
vessel, the rest of the circumference being intact. A., 
Miliary, a sac-like dilation of an arteriole, often the 
size of a pin's head. A., Osteoid, a pulsating tumor 
of a bone. See Osteoaneitrvsjti (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Partial. I. See A.. Lateral. 2. An aneurysmal 
dilation of a portion of the heart. A., Passive, A., 
Passive Cardiac, cardiac dilation with thinning of the 
heart-wall. A., Peripheral, A., Peripheric, one in- 
volving the whole circumference of an artery. A., 
Racemose. See A., Cirsoid (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Rasmussen's, dilation of an artery in a tuberculous 
cavity ; its rupture is a frequent cause of hemorrhage. 
A., Spontaneous, any aneurysm not due to trauma. 




A., Subclavicular, an aneurysm of the axillary artery 
at a point too high to admit ol" ligation below the 
clavicle. A., Surgical. See .-I., Exli;rnal. A., 
Varicose. See--/., Artt-iin'i'itoii: (Ulus. Diet.). 

An&UTysTn\xs [aii-ii-riz^-mus). I. A dilation ; the for- 
mation of an aneurysm. 2. -Aneurysm. 

Anex {^an^-fks). --Vn abbreviation of anode excitation. 

Anfractuosity. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Any spiral turn 
or winding ; an interruption ; a detour. A., Ethmoi- 
dal, an ethmoidal cell. 

Angectasia yan-jec-la'ze-ak). See A)/^iei/asis (Illus. 

l)Kt. ). 

Angei. See An','i. 

Angelate {an'-Jel-dl) [angfliais, angelic]. A salt of 
angelic acid. 

Angelicate (an-jel'-iA-at). See Aiigc-la/f. 

Angelicin (an-jel'-is-in) \angelicus, angelic]. C,„H,|,- 
IJ. -\ tine, colorless, crystalline substance from the 
root of Art/tange/ii-a officinalis ; has an aromatic taste, 
is soluble in alcohol and ether, and melts at 126.5° C. 

Angi I. ?//'•/>). Inguinal buboes. 

Angidiospongus (an-je-di-o-spon'-gtis') [dyjf/iSinr, a 
liule vessel ; (jTd;;oc, a sponge]. See Angioniyct's. 

Angiectasia, Angeiectasia (aii-ji-eA-(a' -:/ie-a/t) . See 
/'ric'iaugetcittisis (Illus. Diet.). 

Angiectatic i^an-je-ek-tat'-ik). Relating to angiectasia. 

Angiectopic {an-je-ek-top'-ii). Relating to angiectopia. 

Angielcosis i^an-ji-el-ko'-sis). See Angielcus (Illus. 

Angieurysm i^an-ji' -tt-rizni) \ayyiLioi\ a vessel ; evpi'veiv, 
t(i widen]. See A/rgi^tMsis (Illus. Diet.). 

Angileucitis {^an-je-lu-si'-tis'). Same as Aitqio/eucitis 
[ Illus. Diet.). 

Angina. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Accessory. See 
Al'scess^ Retropharyngfal. A. anginosa. See Scar- 
latina anginosa (Illus. Diet.). A. aphthosa. A., 
Aphthous, a form attended with the formation of 
ajihth.e in some part of the throat. A. aquosa cede- 
matosa, edema of the glottis. A. arthritica. See 
CvnaiiLlw dvsarthritica. A. bronchialis. A. bron- 
chiorum, chronic bronchitis. A., Cachectic, a form 
occurring in cachectic subjects marked by whitish ap- 
pearance on the upper layers of the epithelium of the 
larynx. A. cantatorum. See Pliaivngilis, Giaiiii- 
/i7r { Illus. Diet.). A. carbuncularis, A. carbun- 
culosa, a form of anthrax attended with erysipelas, 
arteeting the throat of swine. A., Cardiac, angina 
pectoris. A., Catarrhal, a pharyngitis in which the 
increased secretion from the phar\'nx ancl tonsils is at 
first mucous, but changes to mucopurulent and finally 
becomes purulent. A., Chancriform. See 7oiisil- 
litis. Herpetic (Illus. Diet.). A., Chronic, A. 
clericorum. See Pharyngitis, Granular (Illus. 
Diet. ^. A., Croupous. See Croup {\\\wi. Diet.). 
A. cruris, iiuermittent lameness. A. cum tumore, 
quinsy. A., Diphtheric, A.. Diphtheritic, diphtheria. 
A., Diphtheroid. See Tonsilliiis, Ilopclic ( Illus. 
Diet. I. A., Dry, chronic dry catarrh of tlie throat. 
A. ductus aerei, A. ductus aerii, a form marked by 
painful respiration. A., Epiglottidean, edema of the 
glottis. A., Erythematous. See ./., Catarrhal. A. 
exanthematica, that attending anv eruptive disease. 
A. exsudativa, croup. A., Fibrinous, a noninfec- 
tious disease of the throat simulating di[)htheria, 
marked by the formation of a laver of fibrinous exuda- 
tion which is chierty confined to the tonsils. The 
constitutional symptoms are slight. A., Follicular, 
clergyman's sore throat. See Pharyngitis.^ Granular 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Gangrenous, any disease of the 
throat producing gangrene. Syn., Latjiteus gutturis. 
A., Glandular, A., Granular. See Pharyngitis, 
Granu/iir {^lUus. Diet.). A., Guttural, inflammation 

of the mucosa of the isthmus of the fauces. A., Her- 
petic, angina observed in connection with sniailpox 
and herpes, maiked by formation (jf vesicles in the throat, 
whicli may be attended with patches of exudation. A. 
hippocratis, scrofulous disease of the cervical verte- 
bras ; so called because it often interfered with swallow- 
ing and breathing. A. humida, croup. A., Infec- 
tive. See A. scrpiginosa (Illu.s. Diet.). A. lacu- 
naris, infectious tonsillitis marked by the presence of 
Staphylococcus all'us and S. aureus in the follicles. 
Syn. , Pharyngotonsillitis lacunaris. A. linguaria. See 
Glossitis (Illus. Diet.). A. loweriana, e<leinn of the 
glottis. A. ludovici. See A., Luilwig's (IWu?.. Diet.). 
A., Lymphatic. See A., Catarrhal. A. maligna 
[Heredia, 1673]; synonym of /)//////;i'/7'<z. A. maxil- 
laris, mumps. A. morbillosa. A., Morbillous, 
that which aecoinpanles measles. A. nasalis, eoryza. 
A. notha. See A., Catarrhal. A., Oidial, A. 
oidiea, angina due to the fimgus Oiilittin. A. Pas- 
tils, pastils consisting of cocain and antipyrin. A., 
Pharyngeal, angina limited to the walls of the 
pharynx. A., Phlegmonous, I. An inflammation of 
the mucous and submucous tissues of the throat, with 
a tendency to extend more deeply, attended by edema- 
tous swelling. 2. .\eute inflammation of the deep- 
seated structures of the throat, with a tendency to pus- 
formation. A. pituitosa. Same as A., Catarrhal. A. 
puerorum epidemica [Bartholinus, 1646]. A 
synonym of /'(//////f-r/i;. A. pulposa. See A., Pul- 
taceous. A., Pultaceous, one marked by the presence 
of whitish or grayish patches which are easily detached, 
as they are not true exudations. A., Putrid. See A., 
Gangrenous. A., Rheumatic, a form of catarrhal 
angina in rheumatic persons, marked by sudden onset 
of intense pain in swallowing. A. scirrhosa, diffi- 
cult deglutition due to a scirrhous tumor. A. serosa, 
A., Serous, I. Catarrhal angina. 2. Edema of the 
glottis. A. sicca. See .-/., Dry. A. squirrosa. 
See A. scirrhosa. A., Streptococcous, angina due 
to streptococci. A., Stridulous. See Laryngismus 
stridulus (Illus. Diet.). A. suffocatoria. Synonym 
of Membranous Croup. A., Superficial. See A., 
Catarrhal. A. synochalis, quinsy. A., Thymic, 
I. Laryngismus stridulus. 2. Bronchial asthma. A., 
Toxic, that due to sjstemic poison. A. ulcerosa, 
A., Ulcerous, A. ulcusculosa, inflammation and 
ulceration of the throat. A.uvularis, iiillammation of 
the uvula. Syn., Starhylitis. A. varicosa, dyspnea due 
to enlarged tonsillar vessels. A. variolosa, the angina 
of smallpox. A. vera, A. vera et legitima, quinsy. 
A., Vincent's, diphtheroid angina (ulceromembranous 
angina ) due to Bacillus p^eudodiphtheritc. 

Anginal ( an'-jin-al). Relating to angina. 

Anginophobia {an-ji-no-fo' ke-c/i) [angina; 9d/3of, 
fear]. -Morbid fear of angina pectoris. 

Anginose \an'-/in-dz). AITected with angina. 

Angioataxia {an-je-o-at-ahs^-e-ah) [njjfior, vessel; 
aT<i~in, want of order]. An irregularity in the tension 
of the bloodvessels. 

Angioblast (an'-/e-o-l'last) [ii;;E(or, vessel ; .V/naroc, 
a germ]. --Xn embryonic cell developing into vascular 

Angiocardiokinetic {an-je-okar-de-o-kin-ef-H^ [a;- 
}f/or, a vessel; Ktiftfiia, heart; Ktvth\ to move]. I. 
Stimulaling or afi'ecting the action or movements of the 
heart and bloodvessels. 2. A drug whicli .stinmlates 
or affects the movements of the heart and bloodvessels. 

Angiocavernous (an-je-o-kaz^'-ur-nus). Relating to 
angioma cavernosum. 

Angioceratodeitis. See Angiokeraloditis. 

Angiocheiloscope (an-Je-o-hi'-lo-shop) [ojjfM)i', a ves- 
sel ; \M>o<:, a lip ; CKO-e'iv, to look]. An Instrument 



by means of which the Ijlocid circulation in the capil- 
laries of the mucosa of llie lips is magnified for obser- 

Angiocinesis. See .l>!i;i, iirun's. 

Angiodystrophia, Angiodystrophy (iin-ji'-p-(/is-/ro'- 
Je-ah, Jis'-tio-J't') [a))e.Uif, a vessel ; dir, bad ; rfioifi/, 
nourishment] . Defective nutrition of the vessels. 

Angioelephantiasis [aii-i<--ot'/-efan-ti'-iii-i.>). See 
lUiphaiUia^is Itliiiv^iectoiic's (Illus. Diet. I. 

Angiofibroma lyaii-jc-o-fi-bio'-iisah). A fibrous degen- 
erating; angioma. 

Angiohelcosis. ?iee Angielais (Illus. Diet.). 

Angiohemia [(in/c-o-/ie'-me-a/i). f'ee Aiigiemia. 

Angiohydrography i^an-jf-o-hi-drog'-ra-J\'). See Hy- 

Angiohydrotomy i^au-Je-o-hi-iirot^-o-nic^. See Jlydran- 

Angioitis [an-je-o-i'-tis'). See ^h^hV/j (Illus. Diet.). 

Angiokeratoditis (aii-Je-o-iv-iil-o-i/i'-tis) \Jiyycim', ves- 
sel ; hfpiif, cornea]. \'ascular keratitis. 

Angiokinesis (tm-jf-o-tiii'-c-sis) [lijjfior, a vessel; 
Kii'in\ to move]. E.\citation or action of the blood- 

Angioleukasia [an-ge-o-!ii-/:a'-she-t!/i) [^rqye'iov, vessel; 
'/ivhiir, white; furaoif, dilation]. Dilation of the 

Angioleukectasia (^an-j(-o-lii-l;ek-lii'-shc-oh'). See 

a vessel; '/trun;, white; t/ip/)«.;if, a stoppage]. Ob- 
struction of the lymphatics. 

Angioleukography (an-je-o-lu-ko<^'-raf-e') [(i;;rior, a 
vessel ; /fiviui-, white ; j/xiijfvr, to write]. Lymphan- 
giography ; a description of the lymphatics. 

Angioleukology (aii-jv-o-lu-kol'-o-ji'). See Lymphan- 
;'7i'/.',;r ( Illus. Diet.). 

Angiolipoma yaH-je-o-lip-</-mah). See Angioma, 

Angiolith iiin'-je-o-li/A') [a;jrior, vessel ; /.I'Soi;, stone]. 
.\ venous calculus, phlebolith. 

Angiologist [^au-Je-oi^-o-jisf) [a;;f?oj', vessel; /6)o^, 
science]. A person devoted to the study of blood- 
vessels and lymphatics. 

Angioma, Angeioma. (See Illus. Diet.) A. arte- 
riale. >ce Au<ii)y^ni hv Anastomosis (Illus. Diet.). 
A. arteriale racemosum. See Aiu'tiiysm, Cirsoid 
(Illus. Diet.). A. capillare. >ee Xevits (Illus. 
Diet.). A. cavernosum renis. ^ee S/iimm lipo- 
maioJfs obcrratie renis (Illus. Diet.). A. circum- 
scriptum. See A.., Cavernous (Illus. Diet.). A. 
congenitum. .See Nez'iis (Illus. Diet.). A. con- 
junctivae, one in the conjunctiva, where it may be de- 
veloped primarily or occur as an extension of a palpe- 
bral angioma. A., Fissural, Virchow's name for a 
nevus which he judged, from its location correspond- 
ing to that of a fetal fissure, might be due to a disposi- 
tion to form anomalies on the part of the region adja- 
cent to the fissures. A., Flat. See XtC7'ns flomnwus 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Lipogenous. See A., Titherotis. 
A., Lymphatic. See Lymf'han-^ioma (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Plexiform, one consisting of enlarged, tortuous 
capillaries I'urming a patch varving in coK^r from claret 
to steel-blue ; if there is great increase of blood- 
vessels, the growth has the character of a tumor, and 
large examples of this variety are lobular in structure. 
A. proliferum mucosum. See Cvlindroma (Illus. 
Diet.). A. prominens. See S\f:-us -asiularis 
tiiherosus. A., Racemose Arterial. See Aneurysm, 
Cirsoid (Illus. Diet.). A., Telangiectatic, one 
composed of dilated bloodvessels. A., Tuberose, 
A., Tuberous, one occurring in subcutaneous tissue 
and presenting the appearance of a lipoma as it gradu- 

ally replaces the adipose tissue, or it may be accom- 
(laiiied by a true fally growth. A., Varicose, A. 
venosum, A., Venous. See A., Caxrmoiis (Illus. 

Angiomatosis {an-Je-o-maZ-o^-sis). A condition favor- 
ing the production of angiomas. 

Angiomyces \an-;e-o-mi'-s,:) \_ny^fiin\ a vessel ; utKr/c, 
a luiigus, an excrescence]. A fungoid or spongy dila- 
tion of the capillaries. 

Angiomyocardiac (an-ie-o-mi-o-/:ar'-dt--ak) [(ijjfior, a 
vessel; iiif, muscle ; miptSm, the heart]. Pertaining 
to the muscles of the vessels of tlie heart. 

Angiomyopathy {an-je-o-mi-op'-alli-e) [n;)fior, vessel; 
/;i< , imiscle ; -aih^, affection]. Any aftection of the 
vessils involving the musculature. 

Angiomyosarcoma \an-/e-o-mi-o-sar-ii/-ma/i). A 
tumor containing elements of angioma, myoma, and 

Angioneurectomy (lUi-je-o-nu-ir/y-Zo-me) [n;}f(Oi', a 
vessel; rtii>'>r, nerve; tKrniii/, excision]. Resection 
of all the cord-eloments of the prostate except the vas, 
with its atlcry and vein. 

Angioneuroedema ( an-je-o-nu-ro-e-dc-^-niah ) [nj ) finv, 
a vessel; vi'c^ov, ner\e ; o/fU'/r, to swell]. Acute edema 
due to increased irritability of the vasoclilators. 

Angioneurosis. (See Illus. Diet. ) A., Cerebral, 
that due to lesion in the vasomotor centers of the cere- 
bral cortex or in the conducting paths connecting them 
with vasomotor centers in the oblongata. A., Cuta- 
neous, I. (.)ne that leaves on certain cutaneous surfaces 
a corresponding pallor or flush according as the inner- 
vation of the superficial arteries is augmented or di- 
minished. 2. See JJt-rmaiosis, A'etirofie, A., Per- 
ipheral, one afi'ecting the peripheral nervous svstem ; 
it may lie either direct or reflex. A., Spinal, that due 
to a lesion of the spinal cord or oblongata. 

Angionitis yan-je-o-ni'-tis). See Angiitis (Illus. Diet.). 

Angionosis ( an-ji'-o-no'-sis) [n; ; fior, a vessel ; I'ooof, a 
disease]. See .-/«;,■ /I'/fl/Zn' (Illus. Diet.). 

Angiopancreatitis ( an-je-o-pan-Are-at-i'-tis). Inflam- 
n]alion of the vascular tissue of the pancreas. 

Angiophorous um-je-of'-or-us) [rtjjt/or, a vessel; 
on, III r, to bear]. Applied to tissue which accompanies 
and Mi[)|K.irts vessels. 

Angioplegmus [a/t-Je-o-p/eg^-mus) . See rt-rplicalion 
(Illus. Diit.). 

Angioplerosis (nn-je-o-pler-o'-sis) [(ijjfio), a vessel; 
77/ t/f'<.'nn\ a filling up]. Engorgement of the vessels. 

Angioplerotic, Angeicpleroticus (aii-je-o-pler-ot'-ik, 
-m). Relating to vascular engorgement. 

Angioploce [tui-Jt'-op^-io-se) [«;;f/or, a vessel; n'/oarj, 
a twilling]. See ]'crplieation (Illus. Diet.). 

Angiopressure (an-je-o-pres/i'-iir). The production of 
hemo^tasis by means of angiotribe and forceps without 

Angiopyra, Angeiopyretos (an-je-o-pi'-rah, -re-los) 
\^i'rytinr, vessel; "iy, fever]. Inflammatory fever. 

Angiorhigosis (an-je o-ri gp'-sis) [irj-,e'im, a vessel; 
/";'";> cold]. Rigidity of the vessels. 

Angiosclerosis [an-Je-o-st/er-o'-sis) [ayyunr, a vessel ; 
OK/ 1, pur, hard]. The induration and thickening of the 
walls of the bloodvessels. 

Angioscopy ( an-je-os'-Jto-pe) [n; ; f /or, a vessel ; can-e'iv, 
to look]. In.spection of the capillaries with an angio- 

Angiosteogenic, Angiosteogenous ( nn-je-o-ste-oj'- 
en-ik, an-jc-o-slt'-oi' ■,ti-its\ [(i;;fioi, a vessel; barrnv, 
a bone; ;trrnr, to produce]. Relating to, producing, 
or produced by calcification of the vessels. 

Angiosteogeny (an-je-os-te-o/-en-e). Calcification of 
the vessels. Syn., Angiosieosis; Angioslosis. 




Angiosymphysis [an-jt-o-sim' -fiz-is) [ayyctov, vessel ; 
oir, together ; (j/veiv, to grow]. The growing together 
of vessels. 

Angiosynizesis [an-je-o-sin-e-ze^-sis) [«; jtior, a ves- 
sel ; avi't^ai'eti\ to collapse]. The collapse of the walls 
of a vessel and subsequent growing together. 

Angiotelectasis. See AiigioUkctasia or Teleangiectasis 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Angiotenic {^an-je-o-ten' -ik') \Q.yytifn', a vessel ; Tuvta\ 
to stretch]. Due to or marked by distention of the 

Angioteria {^uii-je-o-le'-re-ah) [ajjeior, a vessel ; 'ipa;, 
a wonder]. An abnormal development of the vas- 
cular system. 

Angiotblipsis (^an-je-o-thlip' -sis) \a)yiinv, a vessel ; 
f*/.(Jf(r, to rub, to gall]. The abrasion of a vessel. 

Angiotitis yan-je-o-ti' -lis) [rij^fior, a vessel ; orr, ear]. 
I. Inflammation of the bloodvessels of the ear. 2. 

Angiotome, Angeiotome (an'-Je-o-tom, an'-jio-tom ) 
[a}'}'f(Oi% vessel; rou//, a cutting]. The vascular tissue 
of an embryonic metamere. 

Angiotomist {an-je-ot'-o-mist) [ayye'mv, a vessel ; tcu- 
veiv, to cut]. One devoted to the anatomy of the 
vascular system. 

Angiotomy. ( See lllus. Diet. ) 2. That branch of 
anatomy relating to the vascular system. 

Angiotribe {an'-je-Li-/nb] [a;;, e/or, a vessel ; Tpi^rn\lo 
grind or bruise]. .\ clamp furnished with powerful 
jaws used by Tuffier in vaginal hysterectomy to occlude 

Angiotripsy (/7«-y<?-o-/r2/>'-jf) [ayytlov, vessel; Tpi,3ttv, 
to rub]. Vascular torsion and compression by means 
of the angiotribe. 

Angiouromalacia ( an-je-o-u-ro-nml-a' -she-ah ) \ayytiov, 
vessel ; or,)"'', urine; wa/.a/c/a, a softening]. Softening 
of the vessels of the urin.iry tract. 

Angiouropathy [an-;e-o-u-rop^-ath-e) [^ay/tiov^ vessel; 
oi pot\ urine; -d^of, disease]. Any disease of the 
urinary vessels. 

Angiourostenosis {an-je-0-u-ri>-s/en-o'-sis) [ajjfior, 
vessel; oiVor, urine; orkvuai^, contraction]. Con- 
striction of the urinary vessels. 

Angitis (an-ji'-/is). See .■/«j-«Vm (Tllus. Diet). 

Angle. (See lllus. Diet.) A of Aberration. See A. 
of Deiiittion (lllus. Diet.). A., Basiopic. See .-7., 
Basilar (lllus. Diet.). A.s, Distal, the angles 
formed by the union of the other surfaces of the tooth 
crown with the distal surface. A., Great, of the Eye, 
the inner angle of the eye. A.s, Incisal, in dentistry, 
the angles of the various lateral surfaces of the tooth 
crowns at their junction with the incisal surface. A.s, 
Labial, i. See .-/.^ of the Lips (lllus. Diet.). 2. 
In dentistry, the angles of the labial surface of the tooth 
crown which join the other surfaces. A., Mesial, 
the angles formed at the junction of the mesial surfaces 
of a tooth crown with the other surfaces. A., 
Nasal (of the eye), the inner angle of the eye. 
A., Pelvivertebral. Same as A. of Inilina'ion (of 
pelvis) (lllus. Diet. ). A., Principal, the angle fonned 
by that side of a prism receiving the incident ray with 
the side from which the refracted rav escapes. A., 
Rolandic, the acute angle formed by the fissure of 
Rolando with the superior border of the cerebral 
hemisphere. A. of Supination of the Hand, A. of 
Supination of the Radius, the extent to which the 
hand is capable of being supinated ; about l8o°. A., 
Sylvian, tlie angle formed by the posterior limb of the 
Sylvian fissure with a line perpendicular to the superior 
border of the hemisphere. A., Temporal (of the 
eye), the outer canthus of the eye. A.. Tubal. See 
A. of the Uterus (lllus. Diet.). 

Angola Seeds (an-gy-lah) [Angola, a province in 
western .\frica]. Jequirity beans, the seeds of Abrus 
precaloriui, L. A. -weed, the lichen Roccella tinc- 
toria furnishing litmus. 

Angor. (See lllus. Diet.) A. animi, a sense of immi- 
nent dissolution. A. pectoris, angina pectoris. 

Angosturin \ang-gos-tu'-rin\. See Cuspariti. 

Angraecum i an-gre'-kum ) [.Malay, angrek\ A genus of 
orchids. A. fragrans, 1 hou., an East Indian species, 
has peculiarly fragrant leaves, with pungent, aromatic 
taste, and is used under the name of fa/iam as a sub- 
stitute for Chinese tea, and has a similar effect on the 

Angu [West Indian], i. Cassava bread. 2. A Malay 
name I'or asafetida. 

Anguicidal \ang-gwi-si'-dal). Destructive to snakes. 

Anguicide {ang'-gwi-s'td ) \_anguis, a snake ; ciidere,\o 
kiUJ. Anything destructive to snakes. 

Anguiform [ang'-g-wi-forni) [^anguis, a snake ; forma, 
f'-rnij. .Serpent-shaped. 

Angular. (See lllus. Diet.) 2. A bone which, to- 
gether with the supraangular, strengthens the upper 
or articular part of the jaw in birds and reptiles. Syn., 

Angulate, Angulated (ang'-gu-lat, ang'gu-la-ted) 
\angulus, an angle]. Furnished with a definite number 
of angles. Cf. Angiilose. 

Angulation {ang-gii-la'-shiin). The formation of an- 
gular loops in the intestines. 

Angulilabialis (an-git-le-la-ie-a'-lis). See Depressor 
aitgiilioiis, J/nselfS, 7'aile of {\l\\is. Diet.). 

Anguliscapulohumeral ( ang-gii-le-skap-u-lo^ii' -7nur- 
al). See Teres major. Muscles, Table of (lllus. 

Angulose, Angulous (ang-gu-los, -us) [angulus. an 
angle]. Full of angles ; furnished with an indefinite 
number of angles, as opposed to angulate. 

Angustation (ang-gus-ia'-s/iun) [angustare, to nar- 
row]. A narrowing, a stricture ; stenosis. 

Angustimanous {ang-gus-ti///-an-us) \_angustus, nar- 
row ; iiiaiius, a hand]. Furnished with narrow 

Angustura. (See lllus. Diet.) A., False, Strychnos 
nux-voinica. the bark of which is often mixed with the ■ 
cusparia bark. 

Angyomyces (an-je-o-mi'-ses). See Angiomyces. 

Anhaemasia, Anhaemia. See .-///(-ww (lllus. Diet.). 

Anbalonin \an-hal-o' ■tiin\ \^Anlialonium. a genus of 
cacti]. CjjHj^NO,. A poisonous alkaloid from An- 
haloniuni Icwini, Henning, fonning colorless needles, 
soluble in a large quantity of water, sery soluble in 
ether, alcohol, chloroform, benzin, and petroleum 
ether. It forms salts with the ordinary acids. A. Hy- 
drochlorate, CijHi-NOjIiCl, white crystalline pow- 
der, soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform ; melts 
at 85° C. It is a cardiac and respiratory stimulant and 
is used as strychnin in angina pectoris, asthma, and 

Anhedonia [an-he-do^ -ne-ah) \(iv, priv. ; iifiovi}, de- 
light]. .\ complete loss of the sensation of pleasure 
in acts normally pleasant. 

Anhelator ( an-lul-a'-tor) \anhelare, to pant]. A per- 
son atTected with dyspnea. 

Anhelitus(.7;;-/;<7'-;/-H.rl [L.]. I. Respiration. 2. Diffi- 
cult respiration ; asthma. 

Anhelose, Anhelous \an'-hel-bs, -us). Panting, out of 

Anhemasia, Anhematosia. See .-^hcww (lllus. Diet.). 

Anhomomerous {an-ho-nioni'-ur-us) [«, priv.; bun^, 
the same ; uipo^, a part]. Composed of dissimilar 

Anhydration {an-/ii-dra'-shun) [<i,priv. ; iiufi, water]. 




1. See Dfhydra!ion (Illus. Diet.). 2. The state or 
condition of not ijeing hydrated. 

Anhydric (nii-Zii'-i/rii). See Aii/iyi/rous (IWrn. Diet.). 

Anhydrite (an-/ii'-Jrit). Anhydrous calcium sulfate. 

Anhypnia {^aii-ltip'-ne-ah'). See Anypnia (Illus. 

Anianthinopsy ((/«-£"-rt//-/'/////-(7A'-jf') [ai', priv. ; \(ivihvoCy 
violet-colored; 6i/vf, sight]. An inability to recognize 
violet tints. 

Anidros, Anidrus (an-ii/'-ro!, -iis) [antViuf]. Marked 
h\ the absence of perspiration. 

Anidrosis. (See lUus. Diet. ) A. crystallina. See 
Uriiirosis tiy^tallina (Illus. r)ict. ). 

Anile [an'-il) \aiius, an old woman]. Imbecile; like 
an old woman. 

Anilema {an-il-e'-iiia). See Aiwilciiui (Illus. Diet.); 
and AneiU^is. 

Anilesis [iin-il-e''Sis]. See AiieiUsis. 

AniJevator (aii-i-U'-va'-lor). The levator ani. See 
J//«./eM, Tabic of {\\\\x%. Diet.). 

Anilidmetarsenite ^an-il-iti-iiiet-ar'-sen-it). CgH^- 
NOjASCjHjNlIAsOj. A white, odorless powder with 
slight saline taste, containing 37.69% of arsenic, 
about half as much as arsenious acid. It dissolves in 
water up to 20 '"r, and is used by subcutaneous injec- 
tion in skin disease. Dose, -^4-3 gr. of 20% solution 
per day. .Syn., Ato.xyl. 

Anilin. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Pheiiylamin : Beii- 
ziJtini : Ciy</,://i)ie ; Cyaiiol. A. Acetate, CgHuXOj, 
a thick oil without color, soluble in water and alcohol. 
A. Camphorate, (CjHsNHjIjCioH,/^, white ur 
reddish crystals, soluble in 30 parts of water, lo parts 
of glycerin; readily soluble in alcohol and ether. It 
is antisi)asmodic. A. Hydrobromate, Cgll,. NBr, 
white crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. A. 
Hydrochlorate, CjII^NCI, needles or lamellas, sol- 
uble in water and alcohol, melting at I9O°-I02° C. 
A. Hydrofluorate, CjHjNFI. A. Hydrosilicofluo- 
rate, a reaction-protluet of water and anilin silicotluo- 
rate. A. Nitrate, CjH,N.,(_)j, white aeieular crystals 
or prisms, soluble in water and alcohol ; deconi]K>ses 
at 190° C. A. Orange, CjHsNji IsK, potassium or am- 
monium salts of dinitroorthoeresol and dinitroparacre- 
sol. It is a reddish-yellow powder, soluble in water. 
It is used in dyeing fabrics, and imjiroperiv in coloring 
butter, etc. A. Oxalate, Cj,H„0,N, small white 
prisms, soluble in water antl slightly in alcohol. A. 
Pink, A. Rose. See Safranin (Illus. Diet.). A. 
Purple. See Maiivein (Illus. Diet.). A. Tri- 
bromid, CgH^Br.,N, long colorless needles, melting at 
119° C, boiling at 300° C, obtained from anilin by 
action of bromin. .Syn., Trihronioiiuilin. A. Yellow. 
See Aitvin: Chrvsanilin ; and Pigments^ Conspectus 
of (Illus. Diet.)'. 

Anilinophile. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A tissue or ele- 
ment staining readilv with anilin. 

Anilipyrin (on-il-i-pi'-riit). \ feebly toxic white pow- 
der, consisting of acetanilid, I part ; antipyrin, 2 parts, 
melted together. It is more .soluble in water than 
either of its constituents. Dose, S-16 gr. 

Anima. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. A current of air ; the 
breath; the mind; consciousness. In the plural, 
Animic, the swimming-bladders of herring, used as a 
diuretic. A. aloes, refined aloes. A. brutalis, the 
blood. Animae deliquium, syncope. Animae grav- 
itas, an offensive breath. A. hepatis, iron sulfate, 
from its supposed efficacy in liver disease. Animae 
pathemata, mental affections. A. stahliana, A., 
Stahl's, the vital principle of plants or animals. 

Animalculist. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. One skilled in 
the study of animaleula. 3. One who supports the 
theory of animalenlisni. Cf. Animist. 

Animalculovism (ati-im-al-ku-lo'-vizm') \animalculuin, 
a little animal ; utiiiii, an egg]. The theory that the 
embryo is produced conjointly by the spermatozooid and 
the ovule. 

Animalculovist {an-im-al-kii-lo'-vist). One who holds 
the doctrine of anim.alculovism. 

Animalist (an'-im-a!-isl). See Animalcutisl. 

Animality (mi-im-ul'-it-c). The state of having an 
ammal nature. 

Animiferus (ini-im-if'-ur-iis) \animc : fore, to bear]. 
\ielding anime. 

Animirtin. See Anamirliii (Illus. Diet.). 

Animist [an'-im-isl). One who holds the doctrine of 
animism. Cf. Aninialcidist. 

Animus {aii'-im-iis) [L.]. The mind ; the soul; the 
bieath ; life. 

Aniodol (aii-i'-o-dol). A glycerin solution of trioxy- 
methylene, useful as an antiseptic in 1 '/', solution. 

Aniridism, Aniridismus ((;«-»-/</'-/;«/, -iz'-nius). See 
AiiiiiJiit (Ilhis. Diet.). 

Anisalol (aii-is'-crZ-el). C6H,(OCH3)COjCgH5. The 
phenyl ester of anisic acid forming colorless crystals. 
It is antirheumatic and analgesic. Dose, S-15 gr. 
(0.5-1 gm.). 

Anisalyl (tf«-//-<7 .'-//) [anisic; alco/io!^. C„I1„0. The 
univalent radicle of anisic alcohol. A. Hydrate, 
anisic alcohol. 

Anisamate (aii-is'-am-a/) \_anisiim, anise]. A salt of 
anisamic acid. 

Anisamid (an-is'-a»i-id). CgH^NOj. The amid of 
anisic acid; anisyl amid. 

Anisate [aii^-is-dt) [anist/m, anise]. A salt of anisic 

Anisated {an-is-a^-tcd). Containing anise. 

Anise. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Bengal, .\jo\van seed, 
the seed of t'arum cofticuni. A., China, star 
See llliciuni aiiisattivt. A.. French, fennel, For)ti.- 
ititon vulgarc. A., Orinoco. See Xcclandntrn cvfn- 
I'anini. A., Siberian, A., Star. See ///iciiini 
anisatiiiii. A. -tree, Florida. See llliciiim Jloiida- 

Anisette {aii'-is-e/) [o«m««, anise]. A liqueur prepared 
by the distillation of the seeds of star anise, foiuirl, 
and coriander with water and alcohol and the addition 
of sugar. 

Anishumin iau-is-hu^-iiiin') \a}tisuf}i^ anise; huvijis, 
the groutid]. A dark substance derived from the action 
of acetyl chlorid upon anisic aldehyd. It is insoluble 
in water, ether, and alcfjhol. 

Anishydramid (ait-is-hi'-drant-iJ "). C.^Hj^N^O.,. 
Snowv crystals obtained by the action of ammonia upon 
anisic aldehyd. 

Anisidin (</«-//-/(/-/«). N(C-H;0)H2. A base ob- 
tained from nitranisol by action of ammonium sulfid in 
alcohfilic solution; with acids it forms crystalline com- 
pounds. Syn., Mctiivlphcnidin : Mclhylatnidopkcuol. 
A. Citrate, an analgesic similar to phenetidin citrate. 

Anisoate {<in-i/ -o-at) \_anisuin, anise]. A saltofani- 
soic acid. 

Anisochromatic [an-is-o-/;io-iiiat'-ik) [aviaor, unequal ; 
;\pfjini. color]. Not having the same color through- 
out; said of solutions containing two pigments used in 
testing for color-blindness. 

Anisodactylus (an-is-o-i/ak'-tiZ-us) [aivonr, unequal; 
dai<Tf'/nr, a finger]. With unequal digits. 

Anisoin (an-is-o'-in). I. A substance isomeric with 
anethol, produced by action of a combination of chlorin 
and iodin on oil of anise. 2. C,,,. H15O,, a crystalline 
substance obtained from anisic aldehyd by prolonged 
action of alcohol and potassium eyanid. 

Anisomelia ian-is-o-ntc^-ic-ah) [divfror, unequal ;i/ivo^, 
limb]. An inequality between corresponding limbs. 




Anisomeria (an-is-o-me'-re-ah) [iiviam:, unequal ; //fpor, 
part]. The condition of having unequal organs or 
parts in successive series. 

Anisometrope (an-is' -o-m(-lrdp) [avicof, unequal ; 
utTpor, measure ; ui<f>, the eye]. A person with dis- 
similar relVactive power of the two eyes. 

Anisotachys [an-is-ol' -a-iis) [armof, unequal ; ra\ir, 
quick]. Applied to an accelerated pulse of varying 

Anisotrophy (an-is-i/'-ro-fe) [dwcor, unequal ; rpi-civ, 
to tur[i]. The quality of being doubly refractive or of 
being unequally refractive in different directions ; the 
state or quality of being unequally responsive to e.\- 
ternal influences. 

Anisotropy (aii-is-ol'-ro-pi;) [divcof, unequal ; z/iozi/, 
a turning]. In embryology, Pfluger's term for the 
presence of a predetermined a.xis. 

Anisphincter [an-i-sfiiik'-lur). See Sp/iiiiiU-r aiii, 
Ex/enial, TabU of 'Muscles (lUus. Diet.). 

Anisyl. (See Illus. Diet.) A. chinin, C^H, . OCH, . - 
CO . O . C,,aH.;,N%0, a quinin ester, in.soluble in 
water, readily soluble in alcohol ; melts at S7°-SS° C. 
A. Hydrate. See .•/</</, Anisic (Illus. Diet.). 

Anitin ((7«'-//-;«). .\ brownish, hygroscopic powder, 
ichthyosulfonic acid, obtained from ichthyol. Its 33% solution combines with phenols, etc., to form 

Anitol (an'-i/-ol). Any one of the soluble compounds 
formed by anitin with phenols, cresols, etc.; they pos- 
sess germicidal properties. 

Ankle. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Tailor's, a ganglion 
or synovial sac over the external malleolus in tailors, 
due to their constrained posture when at work. A., 
Valgus, a debilitated condition of the ankle-joint due 
to laxity of the internal lateral ligament, permitting 
the foot to act as in talipes valgus. 

Ankola (an-ko' -Ink) [Hind.]. The bitter, emetic root- 
bark of Alaiffiiim lamarckii, Thwaites, a tree of tropi- 
cal .Asia and Africa. It is used in India in skin dis- 
eases and leprosy. 

Ankyla, Ankyle [ang'-kil-ci/i, -e) \ayKv7.ii, anything 
bent]. I. An angular part, particularly the elbow. 
2. Ankylosis of a joint with flexion. 3. Abnormal 
adhesion of parts. 

Ankylenteria (rtKj,'--.*//-CH-/e^-rf-<7/i). See Ankylenteron 
I Illus. Diet. I. 

Ankylocheilon, Ankylochilon. See Ankylocheilia 
I Illus. Diet. ). 

Ankylodeire, Ankylodere, Ankyloderis {ang-kil-o-di- 
rc, 'i/c-rc, -/. ) \_n-^tci/.oi^j crooked; dsipi], the neck]. 
Wryneck ; torticollis. 

Ankyloglossum (ang-kil-o-glos'-u/ri). I. Tongue-tie. 
2. Adhesion of the tongue to any part of the mouth. 
Syn., Oloflionia lingiccv frenala. 

Ankylomele i^ang-kil-o-vte'-U) [d)Kr/.j'/, a loop ; iii'/nc, 
a limb]. I. The abnormal growing together of limbs 
(as of the fingers and toes). 2. Relating to or af- 
fected with abnormal adhesion of the limbs to each 

Ankylosed (ang'-kil-dzd). Fixed by ankylosis. 

Ankylosis. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Capsular, that 
due to cicatricial shrinking of the joint capsule. A., 
Cartilaginous, a form observed as a sequel of sub- 
acute coxitis in the young, marked with great muscle 
tension, and absence of suppuration ; the cartilages may 
remain intact for a long time although the shrunken 
synovial membrane has ceased to secrete. A., 
Central, that due to causes present within the joint. 
A., Extracapsular, that due to causes exterior to the 
joint. A., Fibroid, A., Fibrous. See A., /.igm/ioi- 
/oils (Illus. Diet.). A., Generalized, ankylosis af- 
fecting many joints, or a tendency toward it. A., In- 

tracapsular, adhesion of the joints through masses of 
bone, connective tissue, or cartilage within the joint 
proper. A., Muscular, that due to muscular contrac- 

Ankylourethria (ang-til-o-ti-re'-t/irt'-aA). See Aniyl- 

Ankylurethra, Ankylurethria (ang-kil-u-re' -Ihralt, 
■rc'-tUre-ak) [«; Ki/.//, a noose ; mfii/f)pa, the urethra]. 
Urethral stricture or atresia. 

Annectant {an-c/y-iani) [<?</, to; neclere, to bind]. 
Connecting, linking. 

Annularis (an-ii-lar'-ii) [L., relating to a ring]. 1. 
Ring-shaped. 2. The ring finger. 3. The cricoid 
cartilage. A. ani. See Sphincter ani. Tabic of Ahts- 
cles. A. posterior, the fourth dorsal interosseous 
muscle. A. prior, the second palmar interosseous 
muscle. See Aliiscles, Table of 

Annulate (nn'-i<-lal). Characterized by, made up of, 
or surrounded by rings. 

Annuliferous (aii-it-lif'-iir-iis) [aiinulus, a ring ; ferre, 
to bear]. Marked with rings. 

Annuliform (an-ii'-le-form) [^anttitlas, a. ring ; fon/ia, 
shape]. Ring-shaped. 

Annulus [pi., aitntili']. (See Illus. Diet. 1 Annuli, 
Bottcher's. See A'ings, Bollchcr:,. Annuli carti- 
laginei, the incomplete cartilaginous rings of the 
trachea. A. cartilagineus. See A. tcnditiosus. A. 
cruralis, the femoral ring. A. enans. See A. tiii- 
graiis. A. fibrosus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Firm 
connective tissue containing elastic fibers surrounding 
the auriculoventricular openings of the heart. Syn., 
Atniu/iis t'brosus atriorcntricitlaris. A. inguinalis 
abdominalis, the internal abdominal ring. A. in- 
guinalis cutaneus, the external abdominal ring. A. 
interauricularis. See A. o-calis (Illus. Diet.). A. 
migrans, a disease of the tongue marked bycrescentic 
bands of rash spreading over its dorsal surface and 
sometimes affecting the sides and under surface. Syn., 
Annulus errans. A. papillarum ling^x, the annular 
margin of the depression in which the circumvallate 
papillas are situated. A. senilis. See Arcus senilis 
(Illus. Diet). A. tendineus, A. tendinosus. I. 
See Jiiiig, Arnold sTcndinous. 2. The anterior bor- 
der of the ciliary ligament. A. tympanicus. See 
king. Tympanic (Illus. Diet.). A. ventriculi, 
the pvlorus. A. vulvae. See Ostium, Vaginal 
(Illus.' Diet.). 

Anocavernosus (an-o-iav-ur-no' -sus). See Bulbo- 
,-avcrn,'ius (Illus. Diet.). 

Anocelia, Anocoelia (an-o-se'-le-a/i) [avu, upward ; 
i,ifi/i<}, a cavity]. The thorax. 

Anoceliadelphous (an-o-se-le-ah-del' -fiis^ \a\u, up- 
ward ; Kiii'/ia, a cavity ; ddf/oiir, a brother]. United 
by the thorax or upper part of the abdomen. 

Anocheilum. Anocheilus. See Anocliilon. 

Anochilon, Anocheilon, Anochilos (an-o-ki'-lon, 
-A) I [<nu/, upward; \n'/ ot , a lip]. I. The upper 
lip. 2. An individual having a large upper lip. 

Anochiloschisis (an-o-ii-los-ii'-sis) [liru, upward; xe'i- 
/i)f. a lip; ffV'sfi', to split], .^ii operation of split- 
ting the upper \\\\ for reducing its size. 

Anodal. (.See Illus. Diet.) A. Closure, the closure 
of an electric circuit with the anode placed in relation 
to the muscle or nerve which is to be affected. A. 
Closure Clonus, A. Closure Contraction. See Con- 
tra, linn. Anodal Closure. A. Duration, the duration 
of an anodal cKmus contraction. 

Anode. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Soluble, Sprague's 
term for an anode fonned of the metal which is de- 

Anodermous (an-o-aur'-mus) [a, priv. ; iMpiia, the 
skin]. Without the appearance of an epidermis. 




Anodic. (See Illii'^. Diet.) 2. Ascending. 3. Ano- 

Anodinia ( itii-o-Jiii'-i-it/i ) [i;, priv. ; o(!(f , tlie pain of 
childbirlh]. Absence of labor pains. 

Anodinous { nn-n/'-in-us). Without labor pains. 

Anodont, Anodontous, Anodous (aii'-i>-cio>i/, aii-o- 
Jonl' 'ti:^ an' -od-tti) [<:, priv.; t'fJorf, a tooth]. Tooth- 

Anodyne. (See Illus, Diet.) 2. Relieving pain. 

Anodynin [an-o-di' -nin). See An/ipyrin (Illus. Diet.). 

Anceodochium [an-e-o-do'-ie-um) [iu'imr, without 
understanding; fio.vof, a receptacle]. A lunatic asy- 

Anoesia, Anoetia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. adstricta, 

Anoint (aii-oin/') \_iiiiiiigHeit\ to besmear]. To rub 
with oil or with an oily substance. 

Anomalism [an-om' -al-izm) [ai'wu«/.o^, strange]. 
Deviation from the normal order or standard. 

Anomalology {an-om-til-ol'-o-je) [ai'fj/ia/.or, strange; 
/«;. o, science]. The science of anomalies. 

Anomalonomy [an-ciiH-aZ-on' -o me) [nvDuti/in^ iiregu- 
larity ; lujur, a law]. The science of the laws govern- 
ing anomalism. 

Anomaloporous (an-oni-al-ol^-or-its') [(irij/za/o^, 
strange; ~6pni, a pore]. Having pores of unequal 

Anomalotrophies (an-:vn-al-ol'-ro-fez) [di'ijun/or, 
strange ; rinvjii. nourishment]. Diseases consisting in 
anomalies of nutrition. 

Anomalotrophy {aii-om-al-of -ro-fe). An anomaly of 

Anomeomeria, Anomoeomeria (an-om-e-o-me' -re-ah') 
\_aviiiimtr, unlike; [i^vx;, a part]. The condition of 
being heterogeneous. 

Anomia {««-(/-w;<^-a/i). i. See /^Kw/m/i' (Illus. Diet.). 
2. [c;, priv.; bro'in, name.] Loss of ability to name 
objects or to recognize names. 

Anommatoas {an-o'/Z -af-m) [</, priv. ; o/i/ia, the eve]. 
Without eves. 

Anomocardiasthenia {an-o-mo-kar-de-as-the'-nc-ah ) 
[<i, priv.; I'or/or, a law; lai/n^ia, the heart; ofki'or^ , 
strength]. Irregular heart action; palpitation. 

Anomocephala ^an'O-mo-sef'-al-ah) [a, priv. ; vtuoc^ 
law ; Hfoari), the head]. .A general term for monsters 
marked by anomalies of the head. 

Anomoiont, Anomodontous (an-oiii'-o-don/, an-om- 
O'donl' -us) [*7, priv.; vimnv^ law; niSmn-^ a tooth]. 
Having the teeth specialized into canines, incisors, and 
molars. It was once regarded as characteristic of 
mammals, but it begins among reptiles, e. g., Diade- 

Anomogangliotrophy ( an-o-mo-.;a>f:;-gle-ot'-ro-fe ) 
[liivt'/nr, irregular; jfi; j/mi', a knot; r/jorror, a turn]. 
.\ny irregular formation in the ganglia. 

Anomous yan'-om-m) [n, priv.; (juor, the shoulder]. 
Without shoulders. 

Anomus {an-i/-//iiis) [L]- I. Anomalous. 2. Ano- 

Anona (an-o'-itah) [Malay, niauoa'\. A genus of 
shrubs and trees of the order Anoiiai-eir, native of 
tropic America. A. ambotay, Aubl., a native of 
French Guiana. The bark is applied to malignant 
ulcers. A, glabra, 1.., a species growing in the West 
Indies. The juice of the unripe fruit is applied to 
ulcers. A. muricata, L., sour-.soj), rough anona, an 
.American tree, but cultivated in all tropic countries, 
where the ripe fruit is a f.ivorile fond and used in a 
cooling drink for fevers. The astringent unripe fruit is 
used in intestinal atony. The bark is astringent and 
irritant ; the root-bark is used in cases of disease result- 
ing from ingestion of poisonous fish ; the leaf is anthel- 

mintic and externally a suppurant. A. obtusifolia, 
D. C, the edible fruit is used in South America and in 
the West Indies by the natives as a narcotic. A. reti- 
culata, L., sweet-sop, bullock's heart, a West Indian 
tree, but cultivated throughout the tropics. The un- 
ripe dried fruit and seeds are used as an intestinal 
astringent ; the kernels of the seeds are verv poisonous ; 
the leaves are anthelmintic. A. spinescens. Mart., of 
Brazil ; the seeds are used to poison vermin ; the fruit 
as a poultice. A. squamosa, L., custard-apple; an 
American tree cultivated throughout the tropics for its 
fruit, which is used medicinally as A. miiiiiala. The 
seeds are used to destroy insects ; the bark is employed 
by the Malays and Chinese as a tonic. 

Anonal {un-o'-iial ). Relating to the genus Anona. 

Anonychosis {iin-o-nil:-o'-sis). i. See Aiwiivtiin 
(Illus. Diet.). 2. Decrease of nail-formation. 

Anonymos (ait-o>i'-im-iis) [a, priv.; oro/w, a name]. 
The cricoid cartilage. 

Anoperineal (««-o-/'<'7--/k'-c-<?/). Relating to the anus 
and the perineum. 

Anopheles [an-o/'-c/-lz) [ai'w^eX/}c, harmful]. A genus 
of dipterous insects (mosquitos) founded by Meigen 
(1818), belonging to the family Ciilicidi,-. The palpi in 
both sexes are at least almost as long as the ])roboscis ; 
proboscis straight or nearly so; colors of body brown 
and yellowish. [Coquillet.] A. albimanus, Wied- 
Neuwied, of Europe, is unrecognized in the United 
States. It has .snow-white tarsi. A. argyritarsis, 
Desr. , a very beautiful species, with hinfl teet largely 
snow-white on the a])ical half, occurs in Cuba. A. 
bifurcatus, I,., occurs in Canada. A. christopherse, 
of India, harbors sjjorozoits, and in districts where 
fircsent the endemic index of malaria varies from 40% 
to 72^. A. claviger. Fab.; this supposed species 
has been shown by Osten Sachen to have no ex- 
istence. It never existed either as a type specimen 
or as a scientific concept of a species. [Howard.] A. 
crucians, Wiedemann ; scales of last wing vein 
white marked with three black spots; jialpi marked 
\\\[]\ while at bases of last four joints. A. maculi- 
pennis (Meigen), Hoffinannsegg ; scales of last wing 
vein wholly black ; palpi wholly black. This is 
the common form of northern and central Europe 
and America, and the common agent in the trans- 
mission of the malaria jiarasite. Syn., A. qtiadrima- 
cii/atiis. Say. A. nigerrimus, of India, Is found 
quite apart from human habitations, breeding onlv in 
marsh water. A. nigripes, Staeger, a European 
species unrecognized in the United Slates. A. pictus, 
of Eurf)jie, not recognized in the United States. A. 
punctipennis. Say, black mosquito, the handsomest 
species found in the United States. Ithas a yellowish- 
white spot occupying three-fourths of the length of the 
front margin of the wing ; the scales of the last wing 
vein are white, those at each end black. Syn., A. 
Iiii'malis^ Filch. A. Rossii, the most widelv dis- 
tributed species in India, breeding in foul water ; does 
not carry the parasite of benign nor of malignant tertian 
fever, and in Calcutta, where this is the prevalent 
species, the endemic index of malaria is O. 

Anophresia. See y:/«o//;raj/« (Illu.s. Diet.). 

Anopisthius {an-o-pi/'/he-us) [t, priv.; oTriaf^mr, be- 
longing to the hinder part]. Having a contiguous 
mouth and anus ; with no distinct anal extremity. 

Anoplognathus (aii-o-p/o'-iia//i-iis) [("oo/nr, unarmed; 
; v'll'nr, the jaw]. Having unarmed jaws. 

Anoptous (iiii-op'-/us) \_avii:77iir, unseen]. Invisible. 

Anopubic (an-o-pu'-bik). Relating to the anus and the 

Anorchidia, Anorchidiasis (an-or-kid'-i-ah, -i-a'-sis). 
S^e A/ionJiis?H (Illus. Diet. j. 




Anorectal {aii-o-rf/y-ta/). Pertaining to tlie anus and 
liie rectum. 

Anorexis, Anorexy. ^qq Aiiore.xia (Illus. Did.). 

Anorganochemistry (an-or-'^aii-o-ieiit'-is-/re) \_a, priv. ; 
bpyavov^ an organ ; x'fl'^"'t chemistry]. Inorganic 

Anorganogenesis (<7n-or-:;an-o-ii-n'-i'-sii) [a, priv.; 
dfr.avoi', an organ ; ;trrrti', to produce]. I. The forma- 
tion of iiiorganic bodies. 2. The production of defi- 
nitely formed bodies otherwise than by procreation. 
Syn. , Annri^'iiiiDj^f/iia. 

Anorganography [an-or-gan-o/ -raf-c) [a, priv.; bfiya- 
voi\ an organ ; yjidiiifiv, to write]. The description of 
inorganic botlies. 

Anorganology (an-pr-gan-o/'-o-ji) [", priv. ; bpyavov, 
an organ ; Aoyof, science]. The science of inorganic 

Anorgic (iin-or'-/ik). See Anorganic (Illus. Diet.). 

Anorhinus (rtH-w-(-'-«;«). .See .-/«("•/;/« (Illus. Diet.). 

Anoria [d/t-or^-e-d/i) [f/cw/j/a, untiineliness]. Imma- 

Anormal (a/i-inv'-Wfi/) [n, priv.; iwriiin, a rule]. Ab- 

Anorous {/lu^-or-ns). Immature, untimely. 

Anorrhorrhea (an-or-or-c'-a/i) \_it, priv.; lippo^, serum ; 
pom, a tlow]. A diminished or defective secretion of 
serous suijslance. 

Anorthography (^an-or-tJiog' -raf-e') [n, priv.; 'opOoc_, 
straight ; ;p/(/)f7v, to write]. Incapacity to write cor- 
rectly ; motor agraphia. 

Anorthoscope i^an-or'-lho-skdp') [n, priv.; iiiiHnr, 
straight; GKoTelv^ to look]. An apparatus invented by 
Plateau for (!6nnecting in one perfect visual image dis- 
connected and incomplete pictures. It consists of two 
cylinders, the partial pictures on the outer wall of the 
smaller and inner cylinder being apparently united 
when seen through vertical slits in the larger and outer 
cylinder, the two rotating on the same axis. Cf. Deda- 
Ictiin, Stroboscope, Thauniatrope. 

Anoscope (an^-os-kop) \_times : tjKOTTe'tv, to look]. .\n 
instrument for examining the first two inches of the 

Anoscopy (nn-os'-iop-c). Inspection of the anus by 
means of the anoscope. 

Anosmabic (an-os-mab'-i/;) [av, priv.; bnul/, .smell]. I. 
With small olfactory lobes. 2. Not having a keen 
sense of smell. 

Anosmatic (aii-oz-mat'-ik). See .hipsiiia/'ic. 

Anosmia. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Afferent, that due 
to the loss of the conductivity of the olfactory nerves. 
A., Atonic, that due to impaired nervous power. A., 
Central, that tlue to cerebral disease. A., Lithic, 
that due to a calculus in the nose. A., Organic, that 
due to disease of the nasal pituitary membrane. A., 
Peripheral, that due to disease of the peripheral ends 
of the olfactory nerves. 

Anosmic, Anosmous ian-oz'-mik, -miis). I. With- 
out odi^r. 2. Having no sense of smell. 

Anostotnosis [iin-os-tom-y-sis). See Anastomosis. 

Anotous (,tn-o'-/us) [a, priv.; ovc, ear]. Devoid of 
eais ; eiirless. 

Anotta, Anotto. See Annol/o (Illus. Diet.). 

Anourous \,iii-u'-nis) [a, priv.; oi'yjd, a tail]. Desti- 
tute of a tail. 

Anoxemia, Anoxasmia ((;«-o/C'i-/-OT<'-a/;)[a, priv.; ofi'f, 
sharp ; a'lfia, blood]. I. A Lack of oxygen in the 
blood. 2. See Ano-rvcmia (Illus. Diet.). 

Anoxidic (nn-o/cs-ii/'-i/.-) [a, priv.; o;ix, sharp]. Not 
capable of oxidation. 

Anoxoluin, Anoxolyin (an-ots-o/'-ii-in, -i-in) [o, 
priv.; fiirr, sharp; '/ rnv, to dissolve]. The substance 
opposed to oxolyn, which according to Le Gonte exists 

with it in fibrin, albumin, globulin, and casein, and 
which is not soluble in glacial acetic acid. 

Anoxycausis {tin-oks-c-ka7i/-sis) [a, priv.; ofir, sharp; 
/.[i;n», a burning]. Combustion without the presence 
of oxygen. 

Anoxyocausis. See Ano.vycausis. 

Anozol (an'-o-zol). .\ combination of iodoform and 
tlninol ; deodorous iodofomi. 

Ansa. (See Illus. Did.) A. atlantis, the uppermost 
cervical ansa. A., Cervical, one of the intercomnuj- 
nicating branches of the anterior cervical nerves. A., 
Coccygeal. See ^. jatvaA'x (Illus. Diet. ). A., Gal- 
vanocaustic, the wire loop of a galvanic cauleiy, 
Syn., Ligatura cancieiis. A. lenticularis, a bundle 
of fibers proceeding froin the neural laminas between 
the divisions of the lenticular nutle\is. Syn., Ansa 
lenlifoniiis ; Lentinilar loop. A. lentiformis. See 
.4. lenlicidaris. A. lumbalis, A. lumbaris, one of 
the connecting ramitications between the branches of 
the lumbar nerves. A. peduncularis. See .4. of Jieit 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Sternal, the interclavicular notch. 
A. subclavialis. A., Subclavian. See A. of V'ieus- 
scns (Illus. Diet. ). A. supramaxillaris, one of com- 
munication between the ventral and dorsal superior 
dental nerves. 

Ansatus i^au-sa^-fns) \_ansa^ a handle]. Furnished with 
a pedicle. 

Ansiform {an'-sc-form^ \_ansa, a handle ;yi>;'W(7, shape]. 

Antacidin {an/-as^-iii-in) [^anfi, against; acii/us, sour], 
(/alcium saccharate. 

Antaeneasmus [an-/a-cn-e-az'-niiis). See An/cneas- 

Antanacathartic i^ant-an-ah-kath-ar'-tik) [niv/, 
against; ord, up; inifhipGfc, purgation]. I. Checking 
expectoration. 2. An agent which checks exjsectora- 


Antanemic {an/-an-c^-/nik) [rtj'7/, against; n. priv.; 

a'lua, blood]. I. Correcting anemia. 2. A remedy 

efficient in anemia. 
Antaphroditic (an/-ap-ro-di/'-ik). See Antap/irodisiac 

I lllus. Diet.). 
Antasphyctic {an/-as-/ik'-/ik) [aivi, against; aaipvKroc, 

jnilseless]. I. Etticient in preventing asphyxia. 2. 

.An agent efficacious in preventing asphy.\ia. 
Antecardium. See Anliconiium (Illus. Diet.). 
Antecornu {an-le-kor'-nu^. See Precornii (Illus. 

Antectoparasitic (ant-ek-to-far-as-it' -ii) [liiri, against ; 

turur outside ; ~npnntTf><;, a parasite]. An antipara- 
sitic remedy for external use. 
Antecubital {an-/c-kii'-/iit-a/) [ante, before; cuhilum, 

the rlhiiw]. Situated in front of the elbow. 
Anledonin (an-tcti'-on-in). A pigment obtained from 

the crinoid Antcdon rosacea:. Link., and other 

Antefixatio uteri. The operative suturing of the uterus 

in retroflexion. 
Antemingens {an-tc-miii'-jcnz\ [(7;;/<', forward ; inin- 

,i;j-, to urinate]. A descriptive term applied to 

certain female animals which in urinating project the 

stream forward. 
Anteneasmum, Anteneasmus (an-ten-e-a-J -mtim, 

-miis). P. Zacchias' term for a form of dementia 

marked by restlessness and a suicidal tendency. 
Antenergia (rt«-fr//-H)-'-y('-rt/;) [(icr/, against; ivepylif, 

toad]. I. Resistance, counteraction. 2. Reciprocal 

Antennary (an-fen-ar'-e). Relating to antennas. 
Antennate {an-fen^'tit). Provided with antennas. 
Antenniform [an-lcn'-c-/orm) [an/cnna, a sail yard ; 

forma, form]. Like an antenna in shape and nature. 



Antephialtic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A remedy against 


Antepyretic (an-te-pi-ict'-ik') [aw/f, before ; -vpcTo^, 
fever]. Prior to the development of fever. 

Antereisis {ant-er-i^-sis) [^avr^pticu:^ resistance]. The 
resistance opposed by a dislocation during its reduc- 

Anterior. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. In the lower animals, 

Anterodorsal [an-U-ro-i/or'-sal ) [iinlerior, before ; lioi-- 
sii'ii, the back]. Pertaining to the ventral aspect of 
the (lorsuni. 

Anlerointerior (an-te-ro-in-te' -re-or) \anterior, before ; 
interior, inner]. Located ventrally and internally. 

Anterointernal ( aii-lc-ro-iii-titr'-nal ) \jinlirior, before ; 
i/i/oiiiiis, inwanl]. Situated in front to the inner side. 

Anteromedian [an-te-i'o-tne'-de-an^ \jjuii-rior, before; 
iiuJiiis, the middle]. In front and toward the middle. 

Anteuphorbium (mtt-u-for'-hc-iim) ['irr.-, against; 
Eiil^ht'ihia\ .\ remedy or drug efficient against the 
poison of Euphorbia. 

Anteversiofiexion [an-te-viir-se-o-jhk'-ihun'). See 
Aiilmnion (Illus. Diet. ). 

Anthectic (aii-thok'-lik ox ani-lu-lt'-lik) [hit/, against; 
tk-ikiir, hectic]. I. Efficacious against tuberculosis. 
2. An agent or remedy efficient against tuberculosis. 

Anthema (<iii'-the-mah') [nrWvr, to bloom]. An ex- 
aiitht^m ; a skin eruption. 

Anthemen (r7H'-//;c/«-,'«). C|„H|j. A crystalline sub- 
stance oliiained from the flowers of chamomile, Antlie- 
niii lio/'i/isy L. 

Anthemidin [aii-llu-iit'-iii-in). I. A tasteless crystal- 
line principle, probably a glucosid ; insoluble in alco- 
hol, ether, and chloroform ; obtained from German 
chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla. 

Anthemin (an'-them-in). A crystal lizable base said to 
be li'und by Pattone in .-hit/iemis coliila. 

Anthemis. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A genus of i)!anis 
of the order Coniposilie. A. cotula, L. , mayweed, 
cotula, dog's chamomile, madders, morgan, an acrid 
annual herb naturalized from Europe, where it is 
used in infusion for nervous diseases. It was the favor- 
ite ]janacea of Morgan 'I'ud, physician to Arthur and 
his knights of the Round Table. 

Anthemol (nn'-llwm-ol). C'loHigO. The angelic or 
tiglic ether in cumin oil ; a thick liquid with odor of 
camphor. Syn., Anlheiiiyt alcohol. 

Antheneasmus {aii-theii-ca-J-mus). See Anlr-neasnun. 

Anthereon \an-thc'-re-oii) \av»t(tiuv, the chin]. That 
portion of the face on which beard grows. 

Antherous (an'-fhur-iis) [(ir%)ijr, full of bloom]. 
Bright, florid; applied to drugs having a metallic 

Antherpetic (an//ter-pe/'-ik) [iivri, against; rn^K, 
herpes], i. Efficient against herpes. 2. An effica- 
cious remedy for herpes. 

Antherythrin [anth-fr'-e-lhriit) [ni'floc, a flower; ipv- 
"/"". red]. The red coloring-matter found in flowers. 

Anthiarin {an-thi'-ar-in). See Aiiliarin (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Anthine (an' -then) [fii'ftif, a flower]. Containing 
flowers ; prepared from flowers. 

Anthion (an'-thi-on\. Potassium persulfate. 

Anthocephalous, Anthocephalus {aii-t/w-se/'-al-iis) 
['ir"')., a flower ; Kron'tr/, a head]. Having a flower- 
sha|)ed head ; f. _f., Tania anthocephala. 

Anthocoma {an-lho-ko'-tnah). See Anihra.x (Illus. 
Did. I. 

Anthogenesis, Anthogeny. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. 
The production of flowers. 

Anthoid (an'-thoid) [hvdoc, a flower; fMor, likeness]. 
Like a flower. 

Anthokirrin (an-l/io-kir'-in) [liiWof, a flower ; Kipp6(, 
tawny]. The yellow coloring-matter contained in the 
flowers of toadflax, Ainaria 7'ii/;^aris. 

Anthomania [an-tho-ina'-ne-ah) [uuflor, a flower; 
/mini, madness]. .\ morbid desire for flowers. 

Anthophagus (an-tho/'-aj,'-!is) [ui'Wof, a flower; ffia- 
;.'.')■, to eat]. Eating flowers. 

Anthophein, Anthoph2ein (an-tho-ft'-in) [aiflof, a 
flower; onicjf, dim, dusky]. The brown pigment iso- 
lated by Moebius ( 1900) from the black spots in the 
corolla of I'iiia /a/'a and from the petals of species of 
Delphi)titnn. It resembles phyeophcein occurring in 
brown seaweeds, but, unlike it, is dissolved in the 
cell-sap instead of being present in the solid state 
in the chromatophores. 

Anthorism, Anthorisma (an'-thor-izin, an-thor-iz'- 
Diah) [iii'7(, against; i/(>/<7//ij, a boundary]. A diffuse 

Anthosperm (an'-t/io-sfiinn). See Telraspore (Illus. 
I)ict. ). 

Anthracemia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Asphyxia due to 
carbtin nionoxid poisoning. 

Anthrachinolin. See .■inlhraquinoliii. 

Anthrachinon. 'see Anlliraijuino}u- {\\\\\%. Diet.). 

Anthrachryson t(7«-////v?-//-/i-f«'') [nrW/jaf, a coal ; ,17"'"" 
atar, golden]. C,j . II^Oj. A substance forming red- 
dish-yellow needles, nearly insoluble in water, more 
easily soluble in alcohol and ether. 

Anthraciferous (an-thras-i/'-iir-iii) [nirt/jof, carbon ; 
o^ntiv, to bear]. Carbonaceous. 

Anthraciform (an-thras'-t-forin). See Aiithra.oid. 

Anthracin {an' thros-in). i. A poisonous jHomain 
which Hofta claimed to obtain from cultures of Baci/- 
liis anthraiis. 2. See .'Inthraicne (\\\us. Diet.). 

Anthracina {ini-thra-^-c'-na). Melanotic carcinoma. 

Anthracine, Anthracinus {an'-tkras-en, an-thras-e'- 
nn^ ). C'oal black. 

Anthracion {an-thras'-e-oji) \a\'dpQKtov, a small carbun- 
cle or ruby]. Contagious anthrax. 

Anthracoid (an'-l/irak-oid ) \anlhrax ; fMof, likeness]. 
Resembling carbon, anthrax, or the gem carbuncle ; 

Anthracolemus, Anthracoloemus {an-tlira-kol-e' - 
lints) [('o'Wpo^, a carbuncle ; /.0(/i(if, a plague]. Con- 
tagious anthrax. 

Anthracolepis (an-thrak-ol'-cp-is) [difflpn, coal ; ?.fT/f, 
a scale]. Purnished with dark-colored scales. 

Anthracoma (««-///;<7/'-<)'-«/rt/;) [oifl^mf]. A carbuncle. 

Anthraeopestis (an-thrak-o-pes'-tis) [^iuHpa^, carbun- 
cle ; postis, a ])lague]. Malignant anthrax. 

Anthracophlyctis {an-fhrak-o-/iik'-tis) [arfpai, a car- 
buncle ; li'/vKTir, a pustule]. Malignant anthrax. 

Anthracosia, Anthracosis. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A 
malignant or corroding ulcer ; a carbuncle. 

Anthraflavon (an-thra-fai'' -on') [anthracene ; JlaTus, 
yellow], C,,HgO,. A substance acting as a dibasic 
acid, forming yellow needles subliming without fusion 
at temperatures above 300° C. 

Amhragallol (ff«-M;<7-;W-i'/). C, iH^Oj. A reaction- 
product of benzoic, gallic, and sulfuric acids. It occurs 
as a dark-brown paste or orange-red acicular crystals, 
soluble in alcohol ; melts at 310° C. Sublimes at 290° 
C. It is used in dyeing, .'syn., Trio.vyanthraqiiinon. 

Anthrahydroquinon {an-thra-hi-dro-k-<oin-dn'). Q.y^- 
H,„0... A yellow substance differing from anthraqui- 
non in having two more atoms of hydrogen. Syn., 

Anthranilate \an-thran'-il-nt) \anthra.x : ani/in']. A 
salt (if anthraiiilic acid. 

Anthraphenol, Anthraphenon {an-thra-fen'-ol, -on). 
C,,H,,C^)H. A hydrate of anthracene. There are two 
isomeric varieties — anthrol and anthranol. 




Anthrapurpurin (an-tJiia-f'iir'-pii-rin) \anthracene ; 
puipiii iit\. CijHgOj. A derivative of anthratiavic acid 
and an isomer of purpurin and of flavopurpurin almost 
identical with the latter; it forms orange colored 
needles. A. Acetate, A. Diacetate, a fine yellow, 
tasteless powder, freely soluble in glacial acetic acid 
and xylol, sparingly so in alcohol ; insoluble in water; 
melts at 175° C. It is used ns an aperient and laxative 
(it colors the urine red). Dose, 0.5 gm. (jyi gr.). 
Syn. , Purgatin ; Pursralol. 

Anthraquinolin (an-lhra-kwin' -ol-in') \_antliyax, coal ; 
(/iiina, bark]. C,,Hj,N. A crystalline substance 
melting at 170° C, boiling at 446° C; its solutions ex- 
hibit an intensely blue fluorescence. 

Anthrarufin [an-thia-ru'-fui') [mii/nax, coal; riifus, 
red]. C,,II„0,. An isomer of alizarin obtained from 
/J-anthratjuinon sulfonic acid; melting-point 280° C. 

Anthrax. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Splenic fever ; 
Splenic apoplexy : II 'ool- sorters' disease ; Siberian callle 
plague : "Jaswa" : Horse sickness ; Blackliain; J\/ih- 
brand : Plaga ignis ; Acacanthrax ; Mai vat ; Mai de 
Cliabert : Abscessus gangrcenescens ; Abscessus gangrccn- 
osiis : Pvra : Loodiana plague (India). A., Ab- 
dominal, of Camels. See Diarrhea, Febrile Inter- 
iiiillent. A. abdominalis. See .-i«//;/v^r (2) (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Apoplectic, a very acute and virulent 
form of malignant andirax coming on without premoni- 
tor)' symptoms and chiefly affecting horses and cattle. 
A., Contagious, malignant anthrax. See under An- 
thrax (Illus. Diet.). A. of Fruit Trees, a disease 
caused by Bacillus butyricus. See Table of Bacteria 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Hemorrhoidal, a contagious form 
affecting the rectum of animals and marked by evacua- 
tions of dark-colored blood. A. malignus esthoni- 
cus, a form of malignant anthrax said to be prevalent 
in Esthonia, Russia, during llie summer and autumn. 
Syn.. Piistiita esthoniic : Puslula livida esthcmiic. A., 
Pulmonary, gangrene of the lungs. A., Sympa- 
thetic. See i9/«c-X--Ay (Illus. Diet.). 

Anthraxiferous {^an-thraks-if -ur-iis). See Ant/ira- 

Anthropepiphyte ((?«-////'d-/ty*'-£'-y i^) \avflpL>i7oc, a man ; 
!-/, upon ; orrur, a growth]. An exanthem or growth 
from the skin. 

Anthrophlogosis [an-thro-Jlo'^-o^-sis^, See Antritis 
( Ilhis. Diet. ). 

Anthropic, Anthropinic [an-throp'-ik, an-tliro-pin'-ik) 
[(n'^/xj-T'ic, man]. Relating to man; human. 

Anthropithecology [an-tltro-pith-e-kol'-o-je'] [arW^juTof, 
man; -ith/Mr, an ape; /'i;or, science]. The doctrine 
of the evolution of man from the a]>e. 

Anthropochemistry ( an-f/iro-po-keni'-is-tre) [lirrt/iu-nr, 
man ; );/i/ni', chemistry]. Chemistry asapplied to the 
constituents of the human body. 

Anthropoform (an-tkrop^-o-for/n) [ai'flpw-of, man; 
forma, form]. Man-like. 

Anthropoglot («H-//;''y/'-o-,vA'') [arW^juTor, man ; ;/(j(T- 
nii, tongue]. An animal having a tongue like a 
human being. 

Anthropognosy (an-tkro-pog'-no-se). See Anthropol- 
ogy ( Illus. Diet.). 

Anthropohistography (au-tkro-po-his-tog'-ra-fe) [av- 
iijH.r-u< , man ; ictoc, a web ; ■)paipEiv, to write]. Human 

Anthropolite, Anthropolith {an-tkrop'-o-lit, -litli") 
[iir"/;c.j-(ic-, man; '/illor, stone]. I. A calculus in the 
human body. 2. .-V jietrified human body. 

Anthropology. ( See Illus. Diet. ) A., Somatic, that 
treating of the ph\sieal tiualities and conditions of man. 

Anthropomagnetism (an-tkro-po-mag'-net-iziii). See 
.!/( iw, r/,(w and Hypnotism (Illus. Diet.). 

Anthropomorphism i^an-tkro-po-inoi-'-fzm) [ajO/juTOf, 

man; /lopipi/, form], i. Anthropomorphosis (^. v.), 
2. The theory which ascribes human attributes to the 

Anthropomorphograpny (an-tkro-po-mor-fog'-raf-e) 
[^iiillfHjzor, man; iJopOf/, form; ypdipen', to write]. 
The anatomy of the human organs. 

Anthropomorphology {cin-tkro-po-mor-fol'-o-je) \av- 
Hpu-ni;, man ; anp^ii, form ; AoyoQ, science]. I. 
Human anatomy. 2. Anthropomorphosis, 

Anthropomorphosis [an-tkro-po-n:or-fi/-sis)\avffi-}0)voi;, 
man ; inipuij, form]. The development of the human 
figure ; a change into the shape of a man. 

Anthroponomatic (an-tkro-po-no-mat'-ik) [di-flpu-of, 
man ; iifu/ia, a name]. See Kponymic (Illus. Diet.). 

Anthroponomy {au-tkro-pou' -otn-e) \hvi^p(ji—oc, man ; 
ioi/or, a law]. The sum of what is known concerning 
the laws which control the fonnation and functions of 
the human body. 

Anthroponym, Anthroponymic (an' -Ihro-po-nim , an- 
thro-po-iiiiii'-ik) [i'ii"/JW""f, man; bvoua, a name]. 
See liponym (Illus. Diet.). 

Anthropopathy (««-/'///'t)-/(i/'-t?//;-<') [n{flp6)7rcif, man; 
-iiHi], snfi'ering]. Human capacity for .sufieringorfeel- 

Anthysteric. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A remedy against 

Antiabrin (an-ti-a'-briii) [anti, against; abrin"]. Ehr- 
lich's tertn for a hypothetic alexin in the blood of ani- 
mals rendered immune against abrin. 

Antiades (an-ti'-ad-ez) [pi. of airinc, tonsil]. The 

Antiagglutinin (an-ti-ag-glu'-tin-in). A substance 
opposed in action to an agglutinin (1/. j'. ). 

Antiagra, Antiagri (an-tc-ag'-rak, -re) [arriac, a ton- 
sil ; u}iM, a seizure]. See Antiadonctis (Illus. Diet.). 

Antiarsenin (an-tc-ar'-sen-in). The name given by 
Besredka to an antitoxin produced in rabbits as the 
result of the administration of arsenic. 

Antiarthrin (an-te-ar'-tkrin). The commercial name 
for a ]>reparation said to consist chiefly of the extrac- 
tives of horse chestnut, with salicin, saligenin, dex- 
trose, and hydrochloric acid. It is said to be a spe- 
cific for gout. Dose, i gm. 

Antiautolysin [an-te-au<-to-li'-sin) [air/, against ; or- 
Tur, self; '/von;, solution]. A substance developed in 
the blood having the power to restrain the solvent ac- 
tion of autolysin. 

Antibacillare [an-te-bas'-il-ar-e). A mixture said to 
consist of creasote, balsam of tolu, glycerin, codein, 
and sodium arsenate. It is used in tuberculosis. 

Antibacterial. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Opposed to or 
restraining bacterial action. 

Antibacterian [an-te-bak-te'-re-an). See Antibacte- 

Antibacterin (an-le-bak'-ter-in). I. A pale yellow 
fluid said to consist of boric acid, 6.25 parts ; iron 
chlorid solution, 1.5 parts ; ether chlorate, to make 
100 parts. It is used by inhalation in tuberculosis, be- 
ginning with 150 gr. daily and increasing to 1(5 times 
that quantity. 2. Crude alujninium sulfate mixed with 


Antibodies {an-le-bod'-ez). Characteristic constitu- 
ents of the blood and fluids of the immune ani- 
mal ; .substances antagonistic to the harmful action 
of bacteria; (■. ^:,^, antitoxins, agglutinins, i>recipi- 
tins, etc. They cause the envelope surrounding 
the bacterial bodies to swell, and on this .ac- 
count they are called by (Iruber glabia/icins. This 
swelling of the bacteria renders theiu amenable to the 
action of the alexins, through which their death en- 
sues. Syn., AnIikSrper. Cf. Antitoxin; Antikem- 




Antibrul: {an'-li-l'iu/). A proprietary analgesic, anti- 
septic, nncl keratoplastic. 

Anticachectic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A remedial 
agent against cachexia. 

Anlicacochymic {uit-fi'si-ai-o-^im'-ii) [hit/, against; 
Kdi.or, had; 1 i-Hoi/, juice]. Anticachectic. 

Anticancrin (niiti-Aniig'-iriii). See Catteroin (\\\ms. 

Anticarnivorous {an-le-karnh''-or-us) [ah//, against ; 
caro, flesh; vorai;-, to devour]. Opposed to flesh- 
eating ; vegetarian. 

Anticausodic {iin-le-^aw-so'-tHi). See Aiiticaiisntic 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Anticausticon (an-le-kaws'-lii-oii) [oi'7/, against; 
KavG7'i\'>r^ Ijurning]. A preparation of soluble water 

Antichlor {aii'-Ze-i'/or). 1. Sodium thiosulfate. 2. 
I'otassium sulfite. 

Antichlorin (aii-te-ilo>''-iii]. A preparation used in 
anemia and said to consist of glucose, basic bismuth 
fdrmate, and sodium bicarbonale. 

Antichloristic (aii-fc-i/or-is'-tii) [<?;;//,• chh'i-iii'\. 
(/a|iai>le of neutralizing chlorin. 

Anticipation [^aii-tis-ip-a'-shuu^. See Prolcpsis (Illus. 
l)icl. ). 

Anticnesmatic (aii-tt'-iies-nuil'-ii) [liir/, against ; ki7/(t- 
«"' , ilchiug]. I. Efficient against itching. 2. A 
remedy \<>r itching. 

Anticoagulant (iiii-lt'-io-ng'-u-lant) \an/i ; coa^^uliini'\. 
I. <!)pposed to or preventative of coagulation. 2. \ 
substance preventing coagulation. 

Anticoagulin {tiii-/i--Av-ir^'^-u-/i>i). A substance formed 
in the Ijcnly antagoni.stic in its action to that of a coag- 
ulin {//. :■. ). 

Anticobrachialis (an-/e-io-l>ra'-ti-a-!is'). See Braclii- 
alh aiilitin, TiiHc of Mitsrks (Illus. Diet.). 

Anticomma {an-U-iom'-a/i) [nvri, against; Koinin, im- 
pression of a coin]. See Aulicope. 

Anticomplement [an't,:'kom^ -p!e-»ient\ \atiti : complc- 
iii,nt"\. .\ sul)stance held by Ehrlich in his lateral- 
chain iheoiy to enter into the composition of an anti- 
hemcjlvsin {q. 7'.). Cf. Antiininttim Body ViwA^x Body. 

Anticontagionism {^aii-lc-kon-ta'-je-on-hiii ) \jinti, 
against; coiilaposiis, contagious]. L'nbelief in con- 

Anticope [an/if -op-e) [av-iKo-ij, a beating back]. 
Resonance ; reaction ; repercussion ; counterstroke. 

Anticoposcope, Anticoptoscope (nntckop'-os-kop, 
an-U-kop^ -loi-kop) ['/jT/'v-nT//, a beating back ; ffKo—fii', 
to examine]. .\ plessiineter. 

Anticornutin (nn-lt'-tor-nii'-tiii). I. Topasol G. II, 
an antiseptic combination of zinc and copper ferro- 
sulfates. 2. Topasol G. IV, a combination of iron, 
zinc, and calcium sulfate. 

Anticoroin (an-lc-k</-io-in'). Topasol G. V, an anti- 
septic combination of zinc, iron, and magnesium sul- 

Anticrisis (r7H-/(--/v7'-.c/.t) \anti ; crisis'^. An agent or 
j^henomenon preventing a crisis. 

Anticteric (nii/'ilc'-tiir-ii) [nnii : icterus]. I. Effi- 
cient .against jaundice. 2. An efficient agent against 

Anticytolysin [an-te-si-to-li'-sin). See Anticyfoloxiii. 

Anticytotoxin {a>i-/<'-si-/o-foks'-ht). A substance an- 
tagonistic in its action to a cytotoxin [q. <•. ). 

Anticytoxin (aii-te-si-lots'-iii). See Anticytoto.xiii. 

Antidartrous [an-le-dar^-tnis') [anti ; dnr/iv]. Effi- 
cient against tlie hypothetic dartrous diathesis of 
French writers. 

Antideixis {an-te-diks'-is') [ni'r/, against; (If'^/f, an ex- 
hibition]. .\ contraindication. 

Antidenutritive i^an-te-de-nit' -tre-tiv) \anli, against ; 

</<•, from ; nutvirc, to nourish]. Preventing or op- 
posed to a waste of tissue. 
Antideperditive [an-le-de-piir^-dit-iv). See Aitlide- 

Antidesma {mi-U-dt-y-ma/i) [lii'*', equal to; (hn/ui, a. 
bend]. A genus of plants of the order J-liipIiorhiact'tC. 
A. alexiteria, L. , an evergreen tree native in Malabar, 
but growing in the Antilles ; the root-bark is used in 
dysentery and the leaves in decoction fitr snakebites. 
A. bunius, Spreng, a species of India, has a fruit used 
as a refrigerant, and the leaves are diaphoret-c. A. 
zeylanicum, 1,., a tree of Ceylon, used as a specific fur 
the bite of ihe cobra. 

Antidiabetic [uii-tc-di-ah-el'-ik) \iinli : dialhlci\. I. 
Klticient against diabetes. 2. A remedy for diabetes. 

Antidiabeticum {an-le-di-a-l>t-t'-ik-iim\. i\. prepara- 
tion recommended for diabetes, said to consist of wheat 
starch, sugar of milk, sulfur, ])0\vdered senna leaves, 
and fennel. Syn., Glyfosok'eol ; Glyt'osoh'ol. 

Antidiabetin (an-le-di-ab-e'-liii). A mixture of sac- 
charin and mannit, used instead of sugar by diabetics, 

Antidiastole [oti-tc-di-as'-to-U) [arr/fWrtcrcj///, distinc- 
tion]. Differential diagnosis. 

Antidiphtherin (ait-te-dif'-thur-iii'). A .solution con- 
taining cvdtures of Bacillus dip/it/icri.c with o. 2 % 
of orlhocresol and some glycerin. It is used externally 
and subcntaneously in diphtheria. A., Klebs', a Jirep- 
aration obtained by precipitation with alcohol from 
the cidture fluid of Bacillus diphlluriic after removal 
of the bacilli. 

Antidiphtheriticon (a?i-le-di/-llicr-i/'-ik-o!i). A diph- 
theria remedy said to consist of alcohol 90 parts ; oil 
of birch, 5 parts; oil of beech, 3 parts; potassium car- 
bonate, I part ; pota.ssium sulfid, 5 parts. 

Antidiscratic [an-te-dis-kral'-ik). See Aniidyscratic 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Antidotary (iiii-/e-do'-lar-c) [aiitidofariuiii'\. A col- 
lection of drugs ; dispensary ; a dispensatory ; a person 
will) dispenses drugs. 

Antidotism (tjii-fid'-o/-iz>ii) [drr/dorof, given in ex- 
change]. Therapeutic or physiologic antagonism; 
the possession of antidotal properties ; the act of giv- 
ing antidotes. 

Antidromal, Antidromous [an-tid'-io-nial, -mus) 
[•1171, against ; (^pfiiinr, to nm]. Running in a con- 
trary direction ; applied in botany to a spiral arrange- 
ment running in the opposite direction from another. 

Antidyne, Antidynous (nn'-ti-diii, aii-tid'-iu-us) 
['li "', against ; orWi-;/, pain]. Anodyne. 

Antidysentericum [nn-tedis-cn-lci-'-ik-uin^. A pro- 
prietary remedy for dysentery and chronic diarrhea, 
said to consist of myrobalans, pelletierin, extract of 
rose, and gum arable. 

Antienzym {aii-lc-en'-zim) [anti; eitzynie']. A sub- 
stance found by Frenzel to be secreted by h'legiuiiiii; 
which enables them to neutralize the action of the 
digestive enzymes of their host. 

Antiephialtic (an-ti-ef-c-al'-tik). See Antephialtic 
illlu^. Diet.). 

Antiepilectic (un-te-ep-il ck'-tik). See Anicpilectic 
(Illus. Dict.1. 

Antierotic (iiii-tc-er-ot'-ik). .See /!/«/m>//r( Illus. Diet. ). 

Antifarcinous (a»-te-far'-siii-us). Efficient against 

Antifermentative (on-te-fur-mcitt'-a!-i-,''] [<7////, against; 
fcriiuntuiii, leaven]. I. .Arresting fermentation. 2. 
An agent which arrests fennentation. 

Antiflatulent {aii-te-fiat'-u-lcnt). I. Efficient against 
flatulence. 2. A remedy for flatulence. 

Antifungin {au-te-fun'-jin'). Magnesium borate. 

Antigalactin (an-U-galak'-tin). See .-iiitigalactic (2) 
llllus. Diet.). 




Antigermin (iDt-te-jitr'-min). A compound of copper 
and an acid, fonning a yeilowish-green, tenacious mass 
soiuble in 200 pans of water. It is said to be disin- 
fectant, deodorant, and bactericide. 

Antigerminal {an tt-jtir'-niin-al) \anti, against ; ^f- 
meii. germ]- Relating to the pole of the ovum op- 
posed to tlie germinal pole. 

Antihelmintic, Antihelminthic. See Anthelmintic 
I lUus. Diet. |. 

Antihemagglutinin (an-t£-hema:^-!;lu' -tin-in). A sub- 
stance opposed in action to tlie hemagglutinins {q. v.). 

Antihemolysin {an-tc-hein-o-li'-sin) \avTiy af^ainst ; 
aiua^ blood; / ('(7(^, solution]. A complex substance 
developed in the blood-serum as the result of inocula- 
tions with hemolysins. It is composed of anticomple- 
ments and antiimniune bodies. 

Antihemolytic i^an-tehctno-lit'-ik). Relating to an 
antiliemolysin ; not capable of dissolving blood-cor- 

Antihemoptic, Antihemoptyc. See AtUhemoptyc 
I lilus. Diet. ). 

Antihemorrhagic (an-te-/tfm-or-iiJ'-i/i). See Hemo- 
static ( Illus. Diet.). 

AntihemorrhDidal (<?«-fe-//^'«-o7'-o;V-(7/). 1. Effective 
against hemorrhoids. 2. A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

Antihumoralist {an-te-hii'-mor-al-ist) [anti, against; 
Ittiiiior, moisture]. One who considers the life of the 
organism as the sum of the life of all the cells making 
up its various organs. 

Antihydriasis (an-ti-Ai-dri-a'-sis). See Antkydriasis 
I Illus. Diet. ). 

Antihypnotic. See .'/«rtr/»ii//r (Illus. Diet.). 

Antihypo [an-t^-hi'-po). See Potassium Percarbonate. 

Antihypochondriac. See Antliypochondriac (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Antiimmune Bodies. See under Body. 

Antikathode ( '/H-/e-.^(;///'-oi/) \anti : kathode'\. Apiece 
of platinum foil so placed in a Crookes tube as to inter- 
cept the kathode rays ; being thus rendered fluorescent, 
it becomes a source of x-rays. 

Antilabium (an-te-la'-be-um). Ste .4ntetabium [IWns. 
Diet. ). 

Antilactaceous, Antilactescent, Antilactic (an-te- 
lak-ta'-shus, -tes'-snl, -tik). See Antigalactic (Illus. 

Antilactoserum {an-te-lai-to-se'-niin). A substance 
antagonistic in its action to lactoserura {g. v.). 

Antilepsis. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A taking root. 3. 
A taking effect. 4. .^ seizure ; an attack. 5. The 
support of a bandage. 

Antileptic. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Supporting, assisting. 

Antilethargic ( iin-te-l-:th' -ar-jik ) . I. .Arresting lethargy ; 
hindering sleep. 2. An agent efficacious against leth- 

Antilithemic (an-te-lith-i'-mik) [anti; lilhemia\. Cor- 
recting liihemia. 

Antilithotropist {an-te-lilh-ol' -ro-pist) \hvTi, against ; 
/(rio., a stone; rpiSEir, to rub]. A person opposed to 
the operation of lithotripsy. 

Antilypyrin [an'-te-/e-pi'-rin). .\n antipyretic and 
analgesic substance obtained by heating acetanilid, I 
part, with antipyrin, 2 parts. Dose. 0.462-0.594 gm. 
7-8 gr.). 

Antilysin (an-te-lt'-sin) [anti, against; '/A ate, a loos- 
ing]. .\ substance opposed to the activity of a lysin. 

Antilysis (an-li/' is-is). The condition due to the 
.-ictivity of antilysins. 

Antilytic. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Relating to the action 
of an antilysin. 

Antimellin (an-te-mel'-in). A remedy employed in 
diabetes purporting to be a glucosid separated from the 
fniit of Eugenia jambolana, L. 

Antimercurialist [an-te-mur-iu'-re-ai-ist) [anti ; mer- 
i:uyy~\. One opposed to the therapeutic use of mercury. 

Antimere. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A homotype. 

Antimerology (iin-te-mer' -ol-o-je) [aiv/, against ; /<ipof, 
a part ; /.o;.«i, science]. The science of homotypic 

Antimetropia (an-le-inet-rt/-pe-ak) [anti: metropid]. 
.\ condition characterized by the existence of myopia 
in one eye and hyperopia in the other. 

Antimicrobic iyan-te-mi-kr</ -bik) [anti ; miciobe'\. Ar- 
lesting the development of microbes ; antibacterial. 

Antimigrain (an-te-mig'-ran). .\ proprietary prepara- 
tion said to consist of cafl'ein, antipyrin, and sugar. 
Dose, 1.5 gm. ^yn., A ntikemitranin. 

Antimonate (an'-te-won-a/). .\ salt of antimonic acid; 
a combination of antimony pentoxid with the oxid of 
another radicle. 

Antimonid {an'-le-mo-nid). Any binary combination 
of antimony. 

Antimonite (an'-te-mon-lt). .\ salt of antimonious 

Antimoniureted i^an-tc-ino'-ni-u-ret-ed'). Containing 

Antimonosoantimonate ( an-te-mon-o-so-an'-tim-on- 
at). A combination of an antimonate and an anti- 

Antimony i^an'-ti-iiio-ne). See Antimonium (Illus. 
Diet.). A. Alginoid, a white powder containing 
4.S% of antimony obtained by precipitating antimony 
chlorid with sodium alginate. A. Arsenate, a heavy 
white powder ; it is used in syphilitic afi'ections of the 
skin. Dose, -'^^ gr. (0.0013 g™ ) 4 times daily. A. 
Arsenite, a fine white powder ; it is used in skin dis- 
eases. A., Black. See Antimcniiim Siilphid ( Illus. 
Diet.). A. Bromid, SbBrj, a deliquescent crystalline 
mass, soluble in carbon disullid : melts at 90^-94° C. 
A. Chlorid, Antimonic, SbClj, a yellowish liquid 
with foul smell, which solidifies by absorption of 
moisture ; sp. gr. 2.346 at 20° C. ; soluble in water; 
melts at — 6° C. .Syn. , A. penlachlorid : A. pei chlorid. 
A. Chlorid, Antimonous. See A. Chlorid (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. Chlorid, Basic. See A. O.xychlorid. 
A., Diaphoretic. See Potassium Antimonate. A. 
Fluorid, SbBj, white crystals soluble in water. A.- 
glass, a dark vitreous mass made by fusing crude 
antimony. Syn., Anlimonial glass. A. lodid, Sbl,, 
red crystals, decomposed by water, soluVile in carbon 
disulfid; melis at 167° C. It is alterative. Dose, 
X-l gr. (0.016-0.065 gni.), in pills. A. nitrate, a 
compound of antimony and nitric acid formed from 
antimony trioxid by action of the acid. Syn . .Vitras 
stibiius. A. Oxalate, Sbj()(C.jOj).„ a white powder. 
A. Oxid, Antimonic, Sb.Oj, white or yellow pow- 
der, slowly soluble in hydrochloric acid ; reduced to 
tetroxid at 300° C. A. Oxid, Antimonous. See 
Antimoniiim 0.xid (Illus. Diet. ). A. Oxyiodid, 
( SbOI )., Sb,0, , light yellow crystals. A. Oxysulfid. 
See Antiinonium sulphtiratum (Illus. Diet.). A. 
Penlachlorid, A. Perchlorid. See./. r///iv/(/ (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. Pentasulfid, A. Persulfid. See A. Sul- 
fid. Golden. A. Pentoxid. See ./ O.xid, Antimonic. 
A. and Potassium Oxalate, SbK-(C.,0,)3 -j- ofl^G, 
colorless crystals. A., Red. See .Antimonium snl- 
phuratuiit i Illus. Diet. ) . A. Sulfate, Sb,( SO, ),. white 
powder or long, shining, acicuhir crystals. A. Sulfid, 
Golden, Sb,S^, fine odorless, orange yellow |>owder ; 
soluble in alkaline solutions. It is alterative, dia- 
phoretic, emetic, and expectorant. Dose. '6-l'igr- 
(o.oi 1-0.097 gf"- ) several times daily. A. Sulfid, 
Red. See .-Infimouium sulphtiratum (Illus. Diet. 1. 
A. Sulfid, Vitreous. See A. glass. A., Tartarated, 
or Tartarized. See Antimonium et Potass tartras 




(Illus. Diet.). A. Tartrate, (SbO),C,H,0, + H,0, 
while cnstalline powder. Used interiially as a sub- 
stitule for arsenic in aftections of the skin. I Jose, 
■jlj gr. ( J5 gm. ) 3 to 5 times daily. A. Tet- 
rasulfid, Sb.^S^, an or.inge-colored powder obtained 
from antimony trichlorid by precipitation with sulfu- 
reted hydrogen. A.Tribromid. See .'/. BromiU. A. 
Trichlorid. See Anli/iioujuni Chioriti {\\\\xs. Diet.). 
A. Triiodid. See .-/. fodid. A. Trioxid. See An- 
timoniiim OxiJ ^lllus. Diet.). A. Trisulfid. See 
Anlimonium Sulphid (Illus Diet.). A., Vegetable, 
boneset. See Eupatoriuin perfoliiittint (Ilhir?. Diet.). 
A., Vitreous. See A. -glass. A., White Oxid of. 
See Poltissium AntitnonaU. 

Antimonyl {an'tim-on-il). SbO. The univalent 
raclicle of antimonous compounds. 

Antimorphin [an-U-m >r'-fin). \ name given by 
Frommc to a compound containing salicylic acid, sul- 
furic acid, glycerin, and morphin in the primary slate, 
not in moditied form, as dionin, heroin, etc. It is 
recommended as a remedy for the cure of tlie morphin 

Antimucorin (an-U-nni'-ior-iii). Topasol G. Ill, an 
antiseptic preparation of iron and zinc sulfate. 

Antimycetic \ii)i-lt-mi-sc'-lik) [lirr., against; /linr/c, 
fungus]. I. See Airtinomycotk (Illus. Diet.). 2. A 

Antimydriatic (an-te-ini-dri-nt'-it) [nvri, against ; fivi- 
/;/firt^";, mydriasis]. I. Opposetl to or arresting dilation 
of the pupils. 2. A drug efficacious against mydri.isis. 

Antinausea (an-li-mnu' se-a/i). .\ remedy for seasick- 
ness, said to consist of cocain and antipyrin. 

Antineuritic [nn-fc-niiril'-i/!). i. Efficient in neuri- 
tis. 2. .-V remedy against neuritis. 

Antineuropathic iaii-U-nii-ro-pnth'-ik) ["in, against ; 
ivi'/joi', nerve ; -atttit;, a disease]. I. Efficient against 
nervous disorders. 2. A remedy* efficient in nervous 

Antinonnin (nn-li'-ni'it'-in) \jui/i, against ; A'oiiiun- 
Vijitp^'^ the German name for the caterpillar, Liparis 
iiiontiri/i'\. Sodium orthodinitr<x:resyIale ; an <Klor- 
less, nonvolatile paste, antiseptic and bactericidal, 
first introduced for the destruction of caterpillars. It is 
used as a wood preservative and insecticide. 

Antinosin {an-/ir-ftt/-zin) [^ni-Ti, against; voan^^ dis- 
ease]. Tetraiodophenolphthalein, the .soluble sodium 
salt of nosophen ; it is a greenish-blue antiseptic pow- 
der, used in powder or in solutions of I : 1000, for irri- 
gations or gargle. 

Antiobesic [aii-U-n-iy-sii) [tin/i : ohesily']. I. Effi- 
cient against corpulence. 2. -^ remedy for corpulence. 

Antiopathic (.;«-/c-()A'-<;//;-/,*). Siee Anlipathu (Illus. 

Antiophthalmic. See Anlophthalmic (Illus. Diet.). 

Antiopiumist (an-le-i/ -fe-um-isl) . One disapproving of 
the use of opium. 

Antiotomia, Antiotomy {nn-le-o-to'-me-ah, anle-ot'- 
om-,\ [ii:7((if, a tonsil ; ri/iveiv, to cut]. Excision of 
the tonsils. 

Antipaludean ( a>i-h'-pi7/-ii'-dc'-fi>i) [<;«//, against ;/<:/;«, 
a marsh]. Efficient against malarial diseases. 

Antiparalytic [an-tf-par-nl-il'-il!) [jiiiti ; paralysis'^. 
I. Efficient against paralysis. An agent or remedy 
efficacious in paralysis. 

Antiparastata {aii-lt'-par-as' -lat-aK) [avr/, against ; 
-a^tan-ii-iic, testicle]. Cowper's glands. 

Antipathic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Antagonistic. 3. 

Antipathy. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Morbid disgust or re- 
j)ugnance for particular objects. 3. Allopathy (^. -'.). 

4. An object exciting morbid dislike or aversion. 

5. Chemie incompatibility. A., Insensile, morbid 

repugnance excited by the presence of some object 
which was not perceived by any of the senses. A., 
Sensile, morbitl aversion aroused by some appreciable 
i|uality of the exciting object. 

Antipediculous {an-le-pedik'-u-liis) \anli, against; 
pt-dicitlits^ li>use]. Efficient against lice. 

Antiperistasis (i/wVc/t-/- /i-/</'-j/i)[niT/,against ; Trepia- 
ziinir, a crowd standing round]. i. The supposed 
accumulation of the fluids and forces internally in the 
body as efl'ected by cold or other agent. 2. Opposi- 
tion of qualities or the intensification of one property 
by an opposing i)roperty or quality. 

Antiperonosporin [afi-lf-pt-r-o-nos'-por-ift). Topasol 
<i. I, an antiseptic preparation of zinc and copper 

Antiphlogistic. (See Illu.s. Diet.) 3. Applied to the 
pneumatic theory of Lavoisier as having supplanted 
-Stahl's phlogistic theory. 

Antiphlogistin (aii-U-fio-jis'-tin). A paste said to con- 
sist of kaolin, glycerin, and antiseptics ; it is an effi- 
cient substitute for poultices. 

Antiphlogosis (aii-ic-/lo-g</-sis) [aiTi, against; <fi/.6yu- 
air, inflaininatory heat]. I. The reduction of inflam- 
mation. 2. Inflammation purposely excited to counter- 
act other inflammation. 

Antiphthiriac, Antiphtheiriac {an-tc-tlii'-reak^ ["i"', 
against; iVIm^i, a louse]. I. Efficient against lice or 
the condition caused by them. 2. An agent effective 
.against lice. 

Antiphthisic (an-letiJ-ik^ [lirr/, against; Mcir, a 
wastint;]. Efficient against phthisi.s. .An agent check- 
ing phthisis. 

Antiphthisin (an-le-th'-in'). Dilute tuberculin, made 
from the slight residue after precipitation with sodium 
bisnmth iodid. 

Antiphysiologic (an-l,-fiz-e-o-lo/-ik) \anti ; physi- 
ology\. Opposed to physiology. 

Antiphytosin \,an-leji-t</-zin). A preparation resem- 
bling tuberculin. 

Antipiasis [an-le-pla'-sis). See Antiplasm. 

Antiplasm i,aii'-t<'-plazm) [nrn, equal to; ir'/Maua, a 
thing molded]. I. Formation according to a pattern. 
2. Remolding into the normal form. 

Antiplastic (an-tc-plas'-lik). (See Illus. Diet.) 3. 
Pertaining to antiplasm. 4. Preventing or checking 
[>lastic exudation. 

Antipodal iaii-lip'-od-al) [arri, opposite ; ~oi(, a foot]. 
Situated directly opposite. A. Cone, the cone of 
astral rays opposite to the spindle-fibers, [v. Beneden. ] 

Antipreeipitin'-il-in). A substance an- 
tagonistic to a precipitin (</. ?■. ). 

Antiprostatitis ian-tc-pros-/a/-i'-tis) [oit/, before ; 
-l>oar<i-a, the prostate]. Inflammation of Cowper's 
glands. Syn., Autiparnstatitis. 

Antipurulent {an/t-pur'-u-lfitt). See Antipyic (Illus. 

riict. I. 

Antipyonin {an-tt'-pi'-on-in'). Sodium tetraborate. 

Antipyraetic [an-te-pi-rak'-lik] [fii-/, against ; -t/hik- 
rwi, to burn]. Incombustible. 

Antipyrin. (See Illus. Diet. 1 A. Acetylsalicylate. 
.See Acetopvrin. A. Amygdalate. See ./. Slandc- 
late. A. Bichloral, a trituration product of 94 parts 
of antipyrin with 165.5 parts of chloral hydrate; it is 
hypnotic and analgesic. Maximum dose, 3 gm. (45 
gr. ). Syn., Diihloialanlipyrin. A. Carbolate, an 
oily, colorless, odorless fluid, insoluble in cold water ; 
prejjaretl from equal pans of antipyrin and phenol. 
Syn., Plunopyiin. A. Iodid. See lodopyriti (Illus. 
Diet. ). A. Mandelate, a crystalline compound of 
antipyrin and amygdalic acid, used as a remedy for 
whooping-cough. Do«c, '4-S gr. Syn., Tiissol : 
Phcnylglycollatc. A.metaoxybenzoate, a liquid ob- 




tained from a combination of a concentrated alcoholic 
solution of metaoxybenzoic acid with an aqueous solu- 
tion of anlipyrin. A.paraoxybenzoate, a crystalline 
substance formed by mixing a concentrated alcoholic 
solution of paraoxybenzoic acid with an aqueous solu- 
tion of antipyrin ; soluble in 130 parts of cold water, 
slightly soluble in ether, readily suluble in alcohol and 
boiling water. A. Salicylate. Ste Salipyrin (Illus. 
Diet. ). A.salol, a bri.>wn liquid obtained by fusing 
together equal parts of salol and antipyrin. It is recom- 
mended as an antiseptic and as a hemostatic in uterine 
hemorrhage, applied by means of cotton tampons. A. 
Tannate, a yellow, flaky, nearly t.asteless powder, 
having a luster like raolher-of pearl ; soluble in alcohol 
and readily decomposed by mineral acids ; prepared 
from antipyrin and tannin, and said to contain 37 '.'r of 
the former and by/f. of the latter. Dose, 1.5-3 g™- 
(24-45 gr. ). A. Tartrate, 1 SbO j-^C^HjOj, white 
powder. Dose, j'j gr. 3 times daily. 

Antipyrinomania \nn-Upinn-o-nia'-neali) \aiTi, 
against ; Tiofrof, fever ; //fiiva, madness]. A condi- 
tion similar to morphinism, due to excessive use of an- 
tipyrin. It is marked by nervous excitement. 

Antirennene 1 an-l^-ren'in). Morgenroth' s name for the 
principle which appears in the blood of an animal fol- 
lowing the introduction of rennet. It has the power 
of impeding the action of rennet on milk. 

Antirheumaticum {an-te-rumat' -ik-um). A com- 
pound of sodium salicylate and methylene-blue. It 
occurs in blue prismatic crystals, soluble in water and 
alcohol. Dose, I-I 'i gr. 10.06-0.09 gm. ). 

Antirheumatin {an-te-ni '-mat-in). .\n ointment used 
in treatment of rheumatism, and said to contain fluor- 
phenetol, I part; difluordiphenyl, 4 parts; vaselin, 10 
]jart3 ; wool-fat, 85 parts. 

Antiricin {an-te-ris'-iii). The antibody to ricin. Its 
action is inhibited by cold and accelerated by heat. 

Antirrheoscope \aii-te-re'-o-skbp) \ai-i'p(>mn, a flowing 
back; nim-iiv^ to view]. J. J. Oppei's device for ob- 
serving the manifestations of visual vertigo. 

Antirubeolous •yan-tc-rti-de'-o-ltii) \anti ; rubeolii\. 
Efficient against measles. 

Antisbestic (nit-fis-hes'-tik) [aiv/, against; c,3f<7/f, ex- 
tinction]. Augmenting strength. 

Antiscabin {an-te-ska'-bin\. A preparation said to 
consist of J-naphthol, balsam of Peru, soap, glycerin, 
boric acid, and alcohol. It is used in the treatment 
of scabies. 

Antiscabious (itn-leska' -be-iis) [<;«//, against; scabi{s\. 
Effective ag,-((nst the itch. 

Antiscarlatinal (an-te-skar-laf -iii-al^ \anli, against ; 
siar/atiii<i'\. EflScient against scarlet fever. 

Antiscirrhous (an-tt'-skir'-us). Efficient against scir- 

Antisensitizer (an-ti-sen'-sit-i-ziir^. In Ehrlich's side- 
chain tlieory, a substance antagonistic in its action to 
that of the intermediary body or sensitizer. 

Antiseptin. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A proprietary 
preparation said to consist of sodium or potassium sili- 
cate, 2 parts ; and a o. I % solution of mercuric chlorid, 
I part. 

Antsiideric {an-le-siil-er' -ik'\ [arri, against; aiihpn^, 
iron]. I. Incompatible with iron, and counteracting 
its effects ; impoverishing the blood. 2. An agent or 
drug opposed to the action of iron ; one which im- 
pfjverislies ti)e blood. 

Antispasmin {aii-fe-sfiaz'-min). C.,,H,|.NO,Na 4- 3^3- 
C;1I/).,. A compound of I molecule of narcein sodium 
united with 3 molecules of sodium salicylate, occurring 
as a white, slightly hygroscopic powder containing 
about 50^ of narcein. It is sedative and hypnotic. 
Dose, 'yi-iyi gr. (o.oi-o.l gm.). 

Antispermotoxin (an-te-spiir-mo-toki'-ui^j. A substance 
opposed in its action to spemiotoxin. 

Antispirochetic ( an-u-spi-ro-ke' -lik) \anli, against ; 
Spiroclmte, a genus of bacteria]. I. Arresting the 
action of bacteria of the genus SpirocJueU. 2. An agent 
having this power. 

Antistaphylolysin (an-te-staf-il-o-li'-sin') [ovri. 
against ; Staphylococcus, a genus of bacteria ; /ifjtr, a 
loosing]. A substance antagonistic to the toxic prod- 
ucts of staphylococci, contained in healthy blood- 

Antistathmesis (an-ti-stat/i-mc'-sis) [(nriaTaffuTjai;, 
conipen.'ation]. See Aiitisccosis (Illus. Diet.). 

Antistatic Kaii-tis-lat'-ik) [aiTiorariKOf, fit for resisting]. 

Antisternum (an-te-stiii'-nunt) [oic/o-tproi]. The 
part of the back opposite the breast. 

Antistreptococcic {an-te-strcp-to-kok'-sik) \anli, 
against; 5"//'t//f<Vf(-:/.j, a genus of bacteria]. Antago- 
nistic to or preventing the action of streptococci. 

Antistreptococcin (an-te-strep-lo-kol^-sin'). I. The 
streptococcus-antitoxin. 2. A serum used in erysipelas. 

Antisudorin (an-tc-su'-dor-in) [aiiti, against; sudor, 
sweat]. A proprietary mixture said to consist of 
boric, citric, and salicylic acids, borax, glycerin, alco- 
hol, distilled water, and several ethers ; it is used to 
diminish sweating of the feet. 

Antitetraizin (aii-tc-lct-ra'-iz-iii). A derivative of 
quinin used in neuralgia. Dose, 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.25 


Antitonic (an-te-ton'-ik). Counteracting the effects of 
a tonic. A drug having opposite effects to those of a 

Antitoxin. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The commercial 
name for a fine white powder said to be a coal-tar 
product and used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Dose, 
10-15 g^- from I to 4 hours. A., Artificial, an anti- 
toxin prepared by passing an electric cunent through 
a toxic bouillon. A., Diphtheria, one prepared from 
the blood-serum of an animal inoculated with Bacillus 
iliplillitiiii. A., Tetanus, one prepared from the 
blood-serum of an animal inoculated with Bacillus 
tclaui. A. Unit, 10 times the amount of senim requi- 
site to neutralize completely 10 times the minimum 
fatal dose of diphtheria toxin in a half-grown guinea- 
pig ; or the amount of antitoxin which, when inocu- 
lated into a guinea-pig of 250 gm. weight, will neu- 
tralize 100 times the minimum fatal dose of toxin of 
standard weight. 

Antitrismus (aii-tc-lris'-mus) [ai-ri, against ; Tpi(7fi6c, a 
creaking]. A condition in which the open mouth 
cannot be closed. 

Antitussin {an-te-lus'-i>i\ [/i«//, against ; tussis, cough]. 
.\n ointment consisting of difluordiphenyl (C^HjFjj. 5 
parts ; vaselin, lo parts, and lanolin, 85 parts ; used 
as an application in catarrh. 

Antitype. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A form not in con- 
forniilv with a type. 

Antityphoid (««-(■<■-//'-/<>/(/). Opposed to typhoid. A. 
Extract, a preparation obtained by injecting repeatedly 
cultures of typhoid bacilli of increasing virulence into 
the peritOTieal cavity of rabbits The animals are 
killed as soon as thev do not react to poisonous doses, 
and extracts are made of the thymus, spleen, bone- 
marrow, brain, and spinal cord, by soaking these or- 
gans in a solution of salt, glycerin, and alcohol, with 
the addition of some pepsin. The filtrate is injected 
in tvphoid cases. 

Antitypic {aii-tc-tip'-ik) \hi'-i. against; ri-or. a type]. 
I . Efficient against the periodic recurrence of a parox- 
ysm or fever. 2. Irregular; not conformable to a 
type. 3. An antiperiodic. 




Antiuratic (((H-/<--K-r<i/'-/i('). 1. Efficacious against the 
<le|Kisitioii of urates. 2. An agent tliat prevents tlie 
de|)osit of urates. 

Anti vaccinationist (aii-tf-vak-sin-a'-s/iiiii-ist). See 

Antivaccinism (an-te-vni'-siiiizm). The behef that 
vaccination is useless as a preventative of smallpox, 
ami that it is harmful in ilsell. 

Antivaccinist (nn-/^--viii'-sin-ht). One who repudi- 
ates the efficacy of vaccination. Svn., Aiilhattiiia- 

Antivariolic {an-lc-T<jr-c-ol' -ik , [<ih//, against; z'ayiol<i\. 
Enicicnt against smallpox. 

Antivenen, Antivenene. See Anti-.yniii. 

Antivenin \,iii-l, -iii' -in) \_iiii/i, against; vciitniim, 
poison]. A serum perfected hy Cahnette by injecting 
col)ra venom mixed with solutions of calcium hypo- 
chlorite into horses. It is used in doses of 10 to 20 
c.c. in bites of venomous serpents. Syn., Aitln^ncne. 

Antivenomous [an le--j:ii'-om-us). Antagonistic to 
venom ; a term applied to iuununized animals, to cer- 
tain serums, and to antitoxins. Cf. Antivenin. 

Antivermicular (an-te-vni-inik'-H-lar) \iiHli, against ; 
-■t-riiiis, a worm], .\iuhelminlic. 

Antiverminous (nn-li-vin-'-min-us). See Aitlivermic- 

Antivirulent (.in-te-vir'-u-Ient') [<j«/^, against ; viyiis, 
a poison]. Eflective against viruses. 

Antivivisectionist {<in-lc-viv-isek'-shun-isl). A per- 
son ()[>posed to vivisection. 

Antocular (ant ok'-ii-lar) [ante, before; ociitus, the 
eye]. Situated in front of the eye. 

Antorbital yant-orb'-it-als \tinte, before; oi-bita, the 
oiijil]. Located in front of the orbit. 

Antrocele [an'-lro-sil). See Antracele (Illus. Diet.). 

Antronalgia [an-tron-al'je-ah) [dir^jor, cave; li/.JOf, 
pain]. Pain in the antrum. 

Antrophore (an'-tro-for). Cacao-butter bougies, con- 
taining tannin, 5't ; resorcin, SCi; thallin sulfate, 2% 
to 5 'I'r ; zinc sulfiite. o. 5 % . 

Antrophose (<f«'-/r()-/o:) [tVurpoi', a cavity; our, light]. 
.-\ pilose having its origin in the central ocular mechan- 

Antrorrhonchus (a n-tror-rong' -kits) [avrpov, a cave ; 
pir 1'"', a snoring]. See Hale, Cavernous (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Antroscope (an'-.'ro-sko/') [rii'-pov, cave ; aKo-iiv, to 
look]. .An instrument for examining the maxillarj' 

Antioscopy iaii-tros'-ko-pe). Inspection of the antrum 
bv means of an antroscope. 

Antrotome {nn'-tro-toin) [iiyrpov, a cavity; viiiveiv, to 
cut]. -An instrument for the performance of mastoid 

Antrotomy \,in-trot'-o-mc). Incision of an antrum. 

Antrotympanitis (an-tro-tim-pan-i' -tis) [urr/joi', a cave ; 
7, /Tiir.n , a drum]. Chronic purulent otitis media. 

Antro version (an-lro-viir'-s/inn). See Antci'ersion 
(Illns. Diet.). 

Antrum. ( See Illus. Diet.) A. auris, the tympanum. 
A. buccinosum, the cochlea. A., Cardiac, Lusch- 
ka'sname for a dilation sometimes found in the esoplia- 
gus immediately above its passage through the dia- 
phragm. A., Dental, the pulp-cavity. A., Duodenal, 
the nonnal dilation presented by the du<idenum near 
its origin. A. genae, the antrum of Highmore. A. 
olfactivum, the ethmoidal A. pylori, A. 
pyloricum, the pyloric part of the stom.ach. A., 
Sphenoid. See Sinus, Sp/ienoiii (\\\u?,. Diet.). A. 
tubae, a sac-like dilation of the fallopian tube about 
an inch from the fimbriated extremity, regarded by 
some as a sign of pregnancy. 

Anulus (««'-«-/««) [L.]. I. A ring. 2. The rectum, 

Anury (an'-u-re). See Anitn'a (Illus. Diet.). 

Anus [pi. and gen., ani]. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn.. 
Fin/rx; I'otex : Anulus. 2. The ventral opening of 
the Sylvian aqueduct. A., Accidental. See .-/., Ai- 
tifieia/ (Illus. Diet.). Ani incontinentia, involun- 
tary evacuation )f tlie feces. A., Infundibuliform, 
a relaxed condition of the anus with destruction of the 
natural folds. A., Preternatural, an abnormal aper- 
ture .serving as an anus, whether congenital, made by 
operation, or due to disease or injury. Syn., J-ecal 
fistula : A. pitcln naliiralis. A., Preternatural, 
Ileovaginal, A., Preternatural, Vaginal, A. prae- 
ternaturalis vestibularis, the rare aljn(irnialit\- of 
the rectum oj)ening through the vvilva. A., Rus- 
coni's, the bla.^topure. A., Trumpet-shaped. !^ee 
A. , Infuniiilntliform. A., Umbilical, a |)reternalural 
anus located in the umbilical region. A. vulvovagi- 
nalis, an anal opening communicating with the vulva. 

Anusol {an^-u-so/}. Suppositories recommended in 
rectal diseases, which are said to contain cacao-bulter, 
zinc oxid, resorcin, bismuth oxyiodid, and balsam of 

Anxietas. (See Illus. Diet.) A. tibise, A. tibiarum, 
I. An annoying sensation of restlessness in the mus- 
cles of the legs noted in neurasthenia. 2. An irregu- 
lar movement of the legs. Syn., /"'ii/^ets, 

Anytin (an'itin). See Anitin. 

Anytol \an'-il-o/). See Anitol. 

Aorta. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Anterior, the smaller 
of the two branches of the common aoria in many 
quadrupeds. It is distributed to the anterior half of 
the trunk. A., Ascending. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. 
See A., Anterior. A., Cardiac, that part of the 
embryonic vascular system giving rise to the aortic 
arches. A., Caudal. See Artery, Sacral, Middle 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Common, in many quadrupeds 
that part of the aorta extending from its origin at the 
heart to the point where it branches into the anterior 
and posterior aortas. A., Dorsal, I. The embryonic 
vessel formed by the junction of the two primitive 
aortas. S\r\., A,, primordial ; .-l., Sulnrrteli; al. 2. The 
thoracic aorta. A., Inferior, the abdominal aorta. 
A., Left, the embryonic division of the vascular sys- 
tem which finally becomes the aorta. A., Main, the 
embryonic vessel formed by the junction of the two 
primitive aortas. A., Pectoral, the thoracic aorta. 
A., Pelvic, the middle sacral arterv. A., Pericar- 
diac, the ])art of the aorta within the ]>ericardial 
cavity. A., Posterior, that branch cH the common 
aorta in many f|nadrupeds which is distributed tf) the 
posteriar half of the trunk and to the abdominal 
limbs. A., Primitive, that part of the .aorta extend- 
ing from its origin to the point where it first branches. 
A.s, Primitive, two embryonic branches of the car- 
diac aorta extending through the first visceral arch and 
uniting to form the dorsal aorta. A., Primordial. 
See .•/., Dorsal (I ). A., Right, the emliryonio divi- 
sion of the aortic bulb which finally forms llie pultno- 
nary artery. A., Root of, the origin of the anrla, at 
the heart. Syn., Radix aorlor. A., Sub vertebral. 
See A., Dorsal (l). A., Superior, the thoracic 
aorta. A., Systemic. See A., Left. 

Aortasia (a-or-ta'-:e-ak). See Aortectasia (Illus. 

Aortitis. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Nummular, that 
characterized by white, circular patches in the inner 

Aortoclasia, Aortoclasis {a-or-to-kla'-ze-ah, -sis) [aor- 
ta .■ K'/onir. a linaking]. Rupture of the aorta. 

Aortolith, Aortolite {a-or'-to-lilh, -lit) [aorta; t.'So^, 
a stone]. A calculus formed in the aorta. 




Aortolithia (a-or-to-lith'-e-a). A calcareous deposition 
in llie aorta. 

Aortopathy {a-ort-op' -ath-e) \<iorla ; —aHo;, disease]. 
Any disease of the aorta. 

Aortosclerosis (a-ort-o-skley-o'-sis^ \aorta ; CK'/.j/po^^ 
haidj. Induration of the aorta. 

Apallagin i.;^'»-.j/-iy'-/«) [a-a//ri;;/, deliverance]. An 
antiseptic mercury salt of nosfiphen ((/. r'. ). 

Apenta {^ah-pcn' -tah^. A Hungarian a[>erient water. 

Apeptous [ah-pc-p'-lus) [n, priv.; -t-rsiv, to digest]. 
I. Crude, indigestible, uncooked, 2, Apeptic. 

Aperception [a/>-itr-st'p'-s/mn). See Appiraption 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Aperiodic (ah-pe-re-oa'-ik) [n, priv.; rrt/jorlof , a cir- 
cuit]. Not periodic. 

Aperitive. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Deobstruent. 3. 
Stimulating the appetite. A., Hygienic, hygienic 
measures lor stimulating the appetite. 

Apertonneter {^ap-iir-toni'-et-ur) ^apt'r/itre ; fiirpov^ 
measure]. An optical device for determining the 
angle of aperture of microscopic objectives. The 
apertometer of Abbe, which is mostly used, consists 
of a semicircular piece of thick glass with the straight 
edge beveled at 45 degrees. Light entering the 
curved edge is reflected upward by the beveled edge. 
This is received by the objective of the microscope. 
By means of two metal slides moving on the curved 
edge the exact angle of the light required to fill the 
back lens of the objective is indicated on the curved 
edge and can be read oft' directly. 

Aphasia. (See Illus. Uict.) A., Amnemonic, A., 
Amnesic, A., Amnestic, verbal amjiesia. A., An- 
eural, motor aphakia. A., Broca's, motor aphasia. 
A., Commissural. See .-/., Conduction (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Cortical (Wernicke), A., Pictorial 
(Wyllie), A., True (Dejerine), destruction of the 
function of the auditory speech-center. A., Func- 
tional, that in which there is no manifest lesion, but 
it occurs as a result of excitement in hysteria, or 
in severe constitutional disorders. A., Grashey's, 
aphasia due to diminished duration of sensory impres- 
sions, with consequent disturbance of perception and 
association; it is seen in concussion of the brain and 
certain acute diseases. A., Insular, that in which 
the lesion is confined to the insula. A., Jargon, a 
form of transcortical aphasia in which the speech is 
confused, words or syllables being transposed or jum- 
bled together, due to disruption of the tracts associat- 
ing cortical speech-centers. A., Kussmaul's, volun- 
tary mutism, simulating aphasia, which sometimes 
afiects the insane, jiarlicularly paranoiacs, with mystic 
ideas. A., Lethologic, verbal amnesia. A., Mixed, 
combined motor and sensory aphasia. A., Motor 
Vocal. See Apheniia (Illus. Diet.). A.. Motor- 
writing. See Agniphia (Illus. Diet.). A., Optic, 
inability to give the names for objects .seen, due to 
interrupted connection between the centers for vision 
and speech. A., Opticosensory, combined optic 
and sensory aphasia. A., Pure or Isolated f Dejer- 
ine), A., Subcortical (Weriiickei, A., Subpictorial 
(Wyllie), aphasia arising from a lesion interrupting 
impulses toward tlte aft'erent tracts ]>roceeding to the 
auditory speech-center. A., Supracortical, A., Su- 
prapictorial, that form of a lesion completely sever- 
ing the connection of the auditory center with the cor- 
tical center, but not destroying the auditor\" speech- 
center, the afferent tracts proceeding to it or the effer- 
ent tracts passing from it to the motor speech-center. 
A., Tactile, inability to recognize objects by the sense 
of touch, due to lesion in the central parietal lobule. 
A., Total, A. universalis, inability to utter a single 
word. A., Wernicke's, cortical sensory aphasia. 

Aphemesthesia {ahfem-es-t/it'-ze-ah) [n, priv.; otjut;, 
voice : at^lUiCtc, sensation]. Word blindness ; word 

Aphemetric {^nf-e-vtet'-rik). See Haphemelric (Illus. 
liict. I. 

Aphengescope (af-en'-je-skop^. See Episcopf. 

Aphidious yaf-id'-e-tis) \j>pliis, a plant-louse]. Re- 
sembling a plant-louse. 

Aphidivorous {af-id-h'-or-iis) \^np/iis, a plant-louse ; 
z-oiijn; to devoui]. Subsisting on plant-lice. 

Aphleous, Aphlceous {af'-U--us, ali-Jh'-us) [o, priv.; 
o'/i)iw;, bark]. Destitute of bark. 

Aphlogistic (a/i-Jlo-ji.'i'-ik) [n, priv.; o/u;, a flame]. 
I. Noninflammable. 2. Burning without flame. 

Aphonetic. See Aphonic (Illus. Diet.). 

Aphonia, Aphony. (See Illus. Diet.) A. cleri- 
corum, clergyman's sore-throat. A., Paralytic. 
See J'lira/, Phonetic (Illus. Dicl.j. A. para- 
noica, stubborn silence in the insane. A., Spastic. 
See D\sphonia spastica (Illus. Diet.). 

Aphorama, Aphorema {af-o-ra^-vtfjy -re^-ina) [r/oo^ifir, 
to have in full view]. The state of having projecting 
eyes, enabling one to see at a distance on each side 
without moving the head. 

Aphoria. (See Illus. Diet.) A. impercita, that 
attributed to aversion. A. impotens, that due to im- 
pairment of conceptive power. A. incongrua, that 
attributed to nonresponsive condition of the conceptive 
power to the seminal fluid. A. paramenica, that 
due to menstrual disorder. A. polyposa, that at- 
tributed to the existence of a uterine polypus. 

Aphoric, Aphorous (a/'-or-i/:, at'-cr-us 1 [iicni oj-, ster- 
ile]. I. Relating to, causing, caused by, or affected 
with sterility. 2. Unbearable, insufferable; aphore- 

Aphose {ah'-foz) [ (i, priv.; 0wf, light]. A subjective 
sensation of shadow or darkness. Cf. I'hosc. A.s, 
Norton's. See Phases, Bo'cudilch's. 

Aphrasia. (See Illus, Diet.) A., Paralytic, that due 
to paralysis of the ideation faculty. A., Supersti- 
tious, the voluntary- avoidance of certain words from 
scruples of nicety or religion. 

Aphrenic, Aphrenous, Aphraenous {a/i-fren'-ik. ah'- 
/'ren-iis, ah-fre'-ntis) {a, priv. ; o;j'/r, the mind]. In- 

Aphrodescin. Aphrodsescin {af-ro-des'-in) [ao;w(';/r, 
foamy]. C',,,lip.< t,,,. A glucosid constituent of the 
cotyledons of horse-chestnut. It is a colorless amor- 
phous powder, soluble in alcohol and water, its watery 
solution frothing like soap. Boiled with alkalis it 
yields butyric and escinic acids. 

Aphrodisiasm {nf-ro-diz'-e-ttzfn) [ae-fodictnGuo^, sex- 
ual inlercciurse]. I. Puberty. 2. Satyriasis. 

Aphrodisiography (nf-ro-diz-c-eg' 1 a-fe) [h<;)im/tiain, 
venery ; )i)oonr, to write]. A study or description 
of the physiology of venery or of syphilis. 

Aphroditism (^af-ro'-dit-izni). See Hcrmap/iiodisin 
; Illus. Diet.). 

Aphronesis (nh-fro-ne'-sis^ [n, priv.; opovrjaic, good 
sense]. Foolishness, silliness, madness. 

Aphronia i,ih-f'r,^-ne-ah) [</, priv.; Piii,r, the mind]. 

Aphtha, Aphthae. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Acaeos ; Aca- 
ciis : Ophlyctis ; Morlnis aphthosus ; Thrush : Sprue : 
Ani^ina nphthosa ; Aphthous stomatitis. A. anginosa, 
a form of sore throat attended by slight fever, redness 
and enlargement of the fauces, with the formation of 
small whitish specks on the tongue and mucosa of the 
throat. It usually occurs in cold, damp weather and iti 
women and children. A.. Cardarelli's. See A., 
Cachectic (Illus. Diet.). A. epizootica. See Foot 
and Mouth Disease (\\\\\%. Diet.). A. febrilis, ulcer- 




ation of the mouth, extendhig to the esophagus ami 
stomach, and accompanied by fever. A. serpens, 
Aph'.hse serpentes. See Cancrum oris {lUus. Diet. ). 
Aphthae trjpicae, a disease of tlie tro[)ics ntarked by 
epigastric fulness, pain, vomiting, tUarrhea, and red- 
ness of the tongue, with the formation of small, white, 
painful spots on it. Syn., Tropical sprue; J'silosis ; 
Gastroentc-rilis aphlhosa itidica ; Phlt-gmasitj niem- 
bnitur mttcosie ^^tstropulntoiuilis. A., Valleix's. See 
./.. Bc.iii.n's (IlUis. Diet.). 

Aphthongia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. laryngea spas- 
tica, ^ee Dyspiioniii spaslica (Illus. Diet.). 

Aphthous. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. Presenting the ap- 
pearance of a surface covered with little ulcers. 

Apiaceous ((ip-c-u'-s/iiis) \_apiiim, jiarsley]. Pertain- 
ing to or resembling the genus Apiitiii. 

Apicatous (iip-it-a'-lus) \_iipex, the top]. Having a 
weil-dcfnied apex. 

Apicicurved (:ip-is-e-ini-'ii' ). With a curved apex. 

Apicifixed (^ip-is-e-fi/tsii'). .Altached by the apex. 

Apiciform [ap-is'-e-fornt) [<//t'.r, the top ; fonntiy 
form]. Sliarp-pointed. 

Apicilar (ap-is'-il-nr) \_i!p,x, the top]. Attached to or 
located upon an apex. 

Apigenin ((//-//■*'«-///) \_apiiim^ parsley; jfj'r/ii', to pro- 
duce]. CjjHidO,. .\ decomposition product of apiin. 

Apiin {ap'-e-iit) \_,ipiiiiii, parsley]. ^•jtHj./),^. A 
giueosid obtained by Braeonnot from the leaves, stems, 
and seeds of parsley, Cantnt pclroscliiiuui. It is a 
yellowish- white, crystalline povvder, soluble in hot 
water and alcohol, slightly soluble in cold water, in- 
solulile in elher. 

Apiol. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Green, crude ethereal 
oil from seeds of parsley, Cnritni pt-lrosclittuni. It is 
a greenish oil, soluble in alcohol and ether, and used 
as an emmenagog and anliperiodic. Dose, in dys- 
menorrhea, 5-10 rn_ (o.3-o.6c.c.| 2 or 3 times daily ; 
in malaria, l5-JOTl\, ( 1-2 c.c.). A., Liquid, an alco- 
holic extract of parsley seed. A., White. .See 
///«/<>/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Apiolin (ap-f'-ol-iii). Rectified essential oil of parsley, 
a yellow neutral liijuid boiling at about 300° C. , solu- 
ble in alcohol. It is used as an emmenagog. Dose, 0.2 
gm. 2 or 3 times daily. 

Apion (ap'-,'-oii) \jipium, parsley]. A substance ob- 
tained from apiolic acid by heating with dilute sulfuric 
acid ; melts at 69° C. 

Apiphobia (<ip-e-/o'-l>e-ah) [.//*«, a bee; (ioior, fear]. 
Morliid terror of bees and of Ijeing stung by them. 

Apirin \,i/>'-ir-c-ii). See A/iyri/t. 

Apiropodous \of>-ir-o/>'-oii-iis) [!i-t:ifmc_, infinite; Toif, 
a loot]. Having many feet. 

Apisin I .;/■'-«-/«) [,//■/.(, a bee]. Bee-poison. 

Apisination [,ip-is-in-it'-s/iiin). Poisoning from the 
slings of bees. 

Apivorous (np-i-y-or-us) [iifiis, a bee ; vonirf, to de- 
vour]. Feeding upon bees. 

Aplanasia (iili-pUtn-ii'-zc-nh] [a, priv.; -'/.avhv. to 
waiKler]. Entire or nearly entire absence of spheric 

Aplanatio corneae. See Applaiinlio (Illus. Diet.). 

Aplanatism (.i/i-p/.m'-iit-izm). See Ap/iritusia. 

Aplastic. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. Relating to aplasia. 
4. Defective in fibrin. 5. Applied to inflammations 
unattended with organizable exudation. 

Aplestia yahpUs'-le-nh) \!i-'/.i)BTia, insatiate desire]. 
Insatiable hunger ; acoria. 

Aplysiopurpurin (ap-lis-e-o-pnr'-pur-in) \_Aplysia, L. , 
a genus of molluscs (nT/ra/rt, filthiness) ; piirpitrin~\. 
A pigment obtained from the sea hare, AMvsia depil- 
aus^ L., and other species of tectitjranchiate molluscs. 

Apnea. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Cardiac, the period 

of apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration. See under 
Kespirntioit (Illu.s. Diet.). A., Nervous, that due to 
disorders of the centers of respiration. A., Placen- 
tal, placental tuberculosis. A., Uterine, a form of 
dyspnea observed in hysteric patients, due to no mani- 
fest disease. Syn., Vtcrine tt^i/inia. 

Apneasphyxia, ApncEasphyxia {apue-m-jiks'-cnh). 
'ate Aipliyxiii (Illus. Diet.). 

Apneic, Apnoeic 1 ap'-ue-ik, ap-iu-'-ik) [lis-i'Sof, breath- 
less]. Relating to or affeetecl by apnea. 

Apneology, Apnoeologia (Dp-iif-ol'-o-je; ap-iie-o-lo'-je- 
alt) [arrroor, breathless ; /(ijoe, science]. The sum cf 
what is known concerning apnea. 

Apnous \np'-nits). See Apneic. 

Apoaconin [up-o-ak'-on-in) [nrrd, from ; (7 iox/h]. Cjj- 
lI^-< IjQ. A base derived from aconin. 

Apoatropin. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Hydrochlorate, 
Ci.H._,,MO.^Ht.l, white ery.stalline substance, soluble 
in water and alcohol ; melts at 237°-239° 1 '. A. Sul- 
fate, (C|,H.^,NOjiHjSO, -f 5H.P, white crystals, 
slightly soluble in water. 

Apocaffein [ap-o-kaf'-c-in) [nirii, from; caffaii^ 
(_"-li-X,(.>5. A crystalline derivative of eafl'ein. 

Apocarphology (iip-o-knr-fo/'-o-jc). See Carphology 
{ Illus. Diet.). 

Apocenosis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A partial evacua- 
tion. In the plural, apocenoses, Cullen and .Swediaur's 
tenn for diseases marked by fluxes and unattended by 

Apochroinatism [^ap-o-kro' -vtat-iztii) \iir.O^ away ; xpi^~ 
till, color]. Decolorization. 

Apocodein. iSee Illus. Diet.) A., Hydrochlorate, 
C|^II|,,XOjIlCI, a yellow-gray, very hygroscopic 
powder, soluble in water. It is expectorant, sedative, 
and hypnotic. Dose, 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.26 gni.) daily in 
pills Injection, J^-ji gr. (0.01-0.03 gm.) of 2'/c 
solution in water. 

Apocopous (np-ok'-o-piis) [o-<SKOjn'f, cut off]. Cas- 

Apocoptic [iip-o-kop'-/ik) [lin-odd-rr/i', to cut off']. Af- 
fected by or occurring from the removal of a part. 

Apocrenate {op-o-krcji^-dt). A .salt of apoerenie acid. 

Apocrenic [ap-o-kreji^-ik) [a-d, from ; k/'Z/jv/, a spring]. 
Derived from a spring or fountain, as opocrenic oiitf. 

Apocynein (np-o-sin'-e-iii). A giueosid from Apocy- 
iiitiH cautialiinttm, similar in character to digitalein, 

Apocynin. (See Illu.s. Diet.) 2. A resinous substance 
obtained from Apocyjiutii canuiiiitiuui : soluble in 
alcohol, in chloroform, and in elher ; insoluble in 
water. It is emetic and expectorant. 

Apodal (ap'od-al). See ApoJvus (Illus. Diet.). 

Apolysin (,ip-o/'-is-iii). Cf\\,{OC^'i\)^U.Cf)f^. A 
compound of citric acid and phenetidin, forming a yel- 
lowish crystalline powder, soluble in hot water, in 
alcohol, and in glycerin, melting at 72° C. It is anti- 
pyretic and analgesic. Dose. 8.24-QO gr. (0.5-5 
gm. t daily. Syn., Monophciictitiin citric acid. 

Apomorphin. (See Illus. Diet.) A. Sulfate, (C|-H,,- 
NO./l,H2SI ),, white crystalline powder, very slightly 
soluble in alcohol and water. 

Apomorphosis {iip-o~ii:or/'-,''-sis\ [h-nunponvr, to 
change the form]. A chemie change by which one 
substance acting upon another takes something away 
from it. 

Apomythosis. See Apo»iy//osis (WXas. Diet.). 

Aponeurosis. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., iMemlnana 
aponciirolica ; Proiiervntio ; Fascia. For kinds, see 
under Fascia. 

Apophyllate {ap-of'-il-a/) [nrrii, from ; O/'v/or, a leaf]. 
A salt of apophyllic acid. 

Apophysate {np-of'-is-at) \_a-ii, from ; pvai^, growth]. 
Furnished with an apophysis. 




Apophysiform (np-o-fh'-e-foriu) \apopliysis ; forma, 
form]. Having the form of an apophysis. 

Apophysis (See Illus. Diet.) [PI., apofhyscs.'\ For 
kinds, — .\ncyroid, .Articular, Basilar, Clinoid, Cora- 
coid, etc., — see corresponding words under Protess 
{Illus. Diet.). Apophyses, False. See Epiphyses 
(lUus. Diet.). Apophyses, Ingrassias', tlie lesser 
wings of the sphenoid. Apophyses, True, those 
whicli have never been epiphyses. A., Vitelline. 
Same as Pedu-tt-, I 'it.'llim. 

Apoplexia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. exquisita, A. 
fortis. See Apoplexy, Entotii. A. fortissima, ful- 
minant apoplexy. A. intestinalis neonatorum. See 
Mt'Una neonaloriivt (Illus. Diet.). A. myelitica. 
See Apoplexy, Spinal (Illus. Diet.). A. temulenta, 
that due to inebriety. A. vera. See Apoplexy, San- 

Apoplexy. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Poplcsy. A., 
Amphiblestroid, retinal apoplexy. A., Asthenic, 
that due to vital depression. A., Atonic, that which 
comes on gradually and does not attain a high degree 
of development. A., Atrabilious, deep nielaneholy 
attributed to resorption of bile. A., Bulbar, that 
due to hemorrhage into the substance of the oblongata, 
causing paralysis of one or both sides of the body, ia- 
ability to swallow, difficulty in protruding the tongue, 
dyspnea, gastric disorders, and tumultuous action of 
the heart. A., Cardiac, extravasation of blood into the 
heart-substance. A., Cerebral, that due to hemor- 
rhage into the brain. A., Chorioid, A., Choroid, 
hemoirhage into or upon the tunica choroidea. A.; 
Congestive, an apoplectoid condition due to cerebral 
congestion. A., Consecutive, that due to the arrest 
of some habitual discharge or eruption. A., Cuta- 
neous, 1. See Purpura luvmorr/tagiea (Illus. Diet.). 
2. A sudden effusion of blood to the skin and subcu- 
taneous tissue. A., Dysarthritic, a form accompany- 
ing arthritic diseases, in which the pain disappears 
from the joints, and vertigo, pain in the head, etc., 
appear. A., Embolic, apoplectoid symptoms and 
loss of consciousness due to cerebral emboly. A., 
Entonic, a form marked by sudden and severe symp- 
toms. ^\-n., Apoplexiii forlis. A., Epileptic, coma 
with epileptoid symptoms, sometimes obser%ed in 
cerebral and acute inflammatory diseases. A., Feb- 
rile, paroxysmal fever attended with deep sleep and 
stertor. -^yn., Apoplexia fet>ricosa. A., Fulminant, 
a sudden and fatal apoplexy. A., Heat, sunstroke. 
A., Hemorrhagic, that due to extravasation of blood 
into or upon tlie brain. A., Hepatic, hemorrhage 
into the liver-substance. A . Hydrocephalic, coma 
due to hydrocephalus. A., Hysteric, an apoplectoid 
condition due to hy>teria. A., Imperfect. See A., 
Atonic. A., Intermeningeal. See A.. Meningeal. 
A., Inverted. See Cilalepsy (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Meningeal, an escape of blood within the skull or 
vertebral canal, but not into the brain substance or 
spinal cord. A., Mephitic, a.sphyxia from the inha- 
lation of carbon dioxid or other noxious gas. A., 
Milk, a form attributed to a metastasis of the milk. 
A., Muscular, an escape of blood into the muscular 
tissue. A.. Narcotic, an a|ioplectoid condition due to 
narcotic poison. A., Nervous, i. Acute anemia of 
the brain. 2. .\ condilifm marked bv svini>toms of 
cerebral congestion and hemorrhage which are due to 
functifinal disturbance of the nervous svstem. A., 
Nodular Pulmonary, escape of blm.d into the air- 
cells of the lungs. A. of the Ovary, A., Ovarian, 
hemorrhage into the stroma of the ovary, through the 
rupture of a follicle, converting the organ into a cyst 
or hematoma. The blood is gradually absorbed, 
though it gives rise to great pain ; the cause is un- 

known. A., Pancreatic, extravasation of blood into 
the parenchyma of the ])ancreas, possibly due at times 
to hysteric neurosis, [llolth. ] A., Parturient. See 
Collapse, Pariuritul ilWus. Diet.). A., Phlegmon- 
ous, a condition attributed to inflammation of the brain 
and its membranes ; it is marked by delirium, fever, 
severe headache, conjunctival injection, lacrimation, 
and a har<l pulse. A., Pituitous, serous apoplexy. 
A., Placental, A., Placentary, escape of blood into 
the placental substance. A., Primary. See.-^.,AVr- 
Toiis (2). A., Prcgressive, that in which there is a 
very gradual increase of the paralysis and other symp- 
toms. A., Puerperal. See Collapse, Parturient 
(Illus. Diet). A., Pulmonary, Vascular, very 
acute and extensive congestion of the lungs leading to 
apoplectic appearances and a fatal termination. A., 
Renal, escape of blood into the renal substances. A., 
Retinal, hemorrhage into the substance of the retina. 
A., Rheumatic, rheumatic meningitis. A., San- 
guineous, hemorrhage into or upon the brain. A., 
Serous, that due to an effusicvn of serous matter into 
or upon the brain. A., Spasmodic, slight transitory 
paralysis. A., Splenic. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Escape 
of blood into the substance of the spleen. A., Sub- 
conjunctival. etTusion of blood beneath the conjunc- 
tiva. A., Suppurative, that due to purulent jirocesses 
and fever. A., Symptomatic, that attributed to an- 
other disease or to the arrest of some habitual evacua- 
tion. A., Uncircumscribed PulmonEry, a diflTuse 
effusion of bkxtd into the intervesicular tissue attended 
with rupture of the pulmonary texture and at times of 
the pleura. A., Uterine, escape of blood into the 
muscular tissue of the uterus. A., Uteroplacental, 
hemorrhage into the decidua serotina. A., Venous, 
that due to congestion of the veins. A., Verminous, 
an apoplectoid condition due to intestinal worms. A., 
Vitular. See f'c//<7/.tf, /",:;/•//»•;>«/ (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Weak, that due to the action of depressing causes 
upon an exhausted eneephalon or a reduced condition 
of the general system. 

Apopseudaconin (ap-o-su-ilai'-ou-in). C.^-Yl^'SO^. 
An amorphous base derived from pseudaconin by de- 

Apopseudaconitin (ap-o-su-dak-on' -il-in). CgHj^XO,,. 
A product of pseudaeonitin by dehydration. 

Apoquinamin {ap-o-L-viii'-am-in\. C^Hj^X^O. An 
artificial alkaloid occurring as a white amorphous sub- 
stance derived from quinamin, conquinamin, or quin- 
amidin by action of hydrochloric acid. 

Aporocephalous (ap-e-ro-sef'-nl-us) [airnitnc, difiFicult 
to distinguish ; KFcn'/i;, the head]. With a head 
scarcelv distingui>hable. 

Aposcenosis {ap-cs-sen-</-sis). See .Apocenosis (Illus. 

Aposthume [ap'-os-thfini). See Apostem (Illus. Diet. ). 

Apothermous {ap-o-tkur'mus) [a-6, away from ; 
"'i""/. heat]. Lacking heat. 

Apothesis. (See Illus. Diet.) A. funiculi umbili- 
calis, the reposition of an abnormally protruded um- 
bilical cord. 

Apous iali'-pus). See Apoiious (Illus. Diet.). 

Apparatus. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. A collection of 
pathologic phenomena. .J. Cystotomy. 5- The stage 
]'receding eru[>tion in an exanthcnralous fever. A., 
Absorbent, the blood-vessels and lymphatics. A., 
Acoustic, A., Auditory, the external and internal 
ear, the auditory canal, the tympanum, and the eusta- 
chian tube. A. magnus, A. major, median cystot- 
omy. A. minor, lateral lithotomy. A., Segmental. 
See .\>M;7<//« ( Illus. Diet). A., Sound-conduct- 
ing, a collective term for the auricle, external auditory 
canal, tympanum, eustachian tube, and mastoid cells. 




A., Sound-perceiving, that part of the organism con- 
cerned ill tlic perccplioM of sound, consisting of the 
auditory nerve, and its center of origin anil periplieral 
distribution, or the organs of tlie labyrinth. A., 
Urinary, llie l;i<incys. ureters, bl.adder, and urethra. 
A., Uropoietic, tlie iiidneys. 

Apparition. iScelllus. Diet.) 2. The sudden aggre- 
gation of scattered principles into an element or cor- 

Appendage. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Auricular. (See 
Illus. llict.) 2. Virchow's name for a round or 
elongated cartilaginous prominence in front of the 
tragus A.s, Cutaneous, A.s, Dermal, the nails, 
hair, .sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. A.s, 
Fetal, the placenta, anniion, chorion, and umbilical 
cord. A., Pineal, the e|)i|)hysis. A., Pituitary, 
the hypophysis. A.s, Uterine, the ovaries and ovi- 

Appendalgia (ap-c-nJ .il'-jv-a/i) [appi-iii/ix ; u'/.yor, 
pain]. I'ain in the appendicial region. 

Appendectomy [al'-i:n-iiek'-to-me). See Appendicec- 

Appendical, Appendicial {apen'-dik-al, apen-dish'- 
iil I. See Ap/:'i:di,ii/iv ( lIlus. Diet.). 

Appendicectomy (np-i-n-dh-t'/y-to-me) \_appc-ndi.x ; 
ihTiiiijj, excision]. Excision of the vermiform appendix. 

Appendiciform [i!p-fii-dis'-c--/t>yiii) \_app,ndix ; forma, 
form] Having the form of an appendage. 

Appendicitis. i.See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Ecphyadilis : 
Skolikoidilis : Pnialrpltlilis : F./'i/ip/i/i/is : X/isen-n- : 
Alis<-ess of iliac form. A., Gangrenous. See Ap- 
pendix, Gan^^rcnoits, A. larvata, an incipient or 
latent form of a])pendicitis. A. obliterans, that re- 
sulting in the obliteration of the luincn ol the appendix. 

Appendicostomy. See Operation, Hur^s. 

Appendiculate {iip-i'ii-di/y-ti-id.'). Having append.ages 
or protruding accessf>ry jiarls 

Appendix. (See Illus. Diet.) A. epididymidis, the 
vas aberrans. A. fallopianse. See .V. .■/•//•Aj/.vr ( Illus. 
Diet.). A., Gangrenous, that in which the appen- 
dix is found gangrenous and sloughing, usually with 
one or more ])erforations and free leakage, a large sec- 
tion of the right groin full of lemon-colored or septic 
fluids, a puddle of filth underneath the cecum and 
ileum, the omentum fixed with a cluster of bowel ad- 
hesions beneath. [Price.] Syn., Grffn ;';w'//. A. 
lobularis, the flocculus. A., Suprasphenoid, A. 
ventriculi, the hy]Mpliysis. 

Apple. '(See Illus. Diet.) A. -head, limad, thick 
frontal regions. The name applied to the skull in 
dwarfs. Cf. Cat-iifaJ, A. -scab, the fungus Fin^icla- 
diittii dfndriticunt. 

Applicate, Applied [ap'-lik at, ap-lid'). See Ap- 


Apposition. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An addition of 
)>arts. 3. Development by accretion. 

Appressed {ap n'st' ] \_appriiiieri\ to press to]. Having 
a suifaee laid closely to .something, but without adhe- 
sion, Syn., Appliiatt' ; Applied; Adpli.atiis ; Ad- 


Appropriation. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The chemic 
combination of two substances. 

Approximation {ap-roks-ii//-a'-sltuti) \jjpproximare, to 
ai>proach]. .-V pretense of delivering a patient from 
disease and of causing him to comnuniicate it to some 
other organism brougtit cU)Se to him. 

Apron. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Masonic, a .support, 
attached to the waist, for the ]^enis and testicles in 
gonoiTheal cases. A., Pudendal. See .-/., Hotten- 
tot (Illus. Diet). 

Apselaphesis {ap-se!-a/'-e-sis). See Apselaphesia 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Apsyxia [ap-siks'-eah). See Apsychia (Illus. Diet.). 

Aptyalia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Psychic salivation; 
debility and general disorder from loss of oxydases due 
to excessive expectoration. 

Apyknomorphous (ali-pik-iio-iiior/'-ns^ [n.priv. ; ttvi^- 
rof, compact ; /I'l/iOt,, form]. .\pplied by Nissl to 
feebly stained cells, or in which the stainable 
portions are not arranged in close proximity. 

Apyous [ali^-pitts] [«, priv.; Ttvnv, jius]. Nonpuru- 
lent ; wanting in pus. 

Apyrectic {ah - pir- ek'- tit;). See Apyrelic (Illus. 

Apyrenus [ah-pir-e' -nits) [n, priv.; -i'p;/r, the stone of 
a fruit]. Without a stone or pit. 

Apyrin [alt-pi'-rin). An alkaline substance said to be 
contained in cocoanuts. 

Apyrous (a/i'-pir-iis) [n, priv.; -fyj, fire]. I. Un- 
changed by extreme heat ; refractory to heat. 

Aqua. ^See Illus. Diet.) A. ferrata, a chalybeate 
water. A. levico, water from springs at Levico in 
the Tvrol, containing arsenic, iron, and copper. A. 
nivalis. A. nivata, snow water. A. oculi, the 
aipieous humor. A. omnium florum, a liquid distil- 
lation-product of cow dung collected during tlie month 
of Mav ; it was used in jiulmonary tuberculosis. A. 
putealis, A. puteana, well-water. 

Aquapuncture. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The hypoder- 
mic injection of water as a placebo. 

Aquate (aiy-ti-at) [^aiptatns, mixed with water]. I. 
(Combined with water ; watery. 2. The molecular 
combination of an element or radicle with water. 

Aqueduct, Aquaeductus. (See Illus. Diet.) A., 
Communicating, Aquaeductus communicationis, 
a small canal sometime'- lound at the junction of the 
mastoid part of the temporal bone with the, 
which transmits a venous branch to the end of the 
transver-se .sinus. A., Temporal, an inconstant canal 
at the dorsal part of the superior angle of the petrosa, 
transmitting the squaiiKisapetrosal sinus. A., Ventric- 
ular. See.-/. ii/rvV (Illus. Diet.). 

Aqueoigneous {ak--i>e-o-ii^'^ -ti'-us] \_aipia,\\^{e\' ; 'X'nis, 
fire]. Relating to or obtained by the action of water 
antl heat, or superheated water. 

Aquiferous [ak-'niij'-iir-iis) [ai//ia, water; ferre, to 
bear]. Carrj'ing water. 

Aquiform [ak'-ti'i-f'ortn) [i7f^//r/, water ; forma, form]. 
Like water. 

Aquigenous (ak--oi/'-en-iis) \_n:jiia, wMer ; gignere, 
to produce]. Growing in the water. 

Aquiparous. (See Illus Diet.) 2. Depositing ova 
or bringing forth ofl'spring in the water. 

Aquomembranitis [ak-'uo-tnem-bran-i' -tis). See Aqito- 
rapsiilitis (Illus. Diet.). 

Aquosity. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A watery liquid. 

Aquozon [ak'-'^oo-zoit^. Ozonized, distilled, and steril- 
ized water, containing 3''f by volume of ozone. 

Aquula. (See Illus. Diet.) A. acustica, A. auditura, 
A. labyrinthi, A. labyrinthi externa, the jieri- 
lyni]ih. A. labyrinthi interna, A. labyrinthi mem- 
branacei, the endolymph. 

Arachamid yar-ak' -ant-id ) \Araeliis. a genus of ]:)lants ; 
am>iionia'\. { C,„H.,/>._,Nj)N. A compound obtained 
from oil of peanuts by action of ammonia. 

Arachidate [ar-ak' -id-at\. A salt of arachidic acid. 

Arachin [ar'-<ik-iii\. t-'„„Hj/\. A glycerid of arachic 
.icitl. It occurs as the chief constituent of Rambutan 
tallow obtained from the seeds of Xepheliiim lap- 
paceutn, L 

Arachnitis. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Leptomeningitis 
exteriia : Araelmcdeitis : Araehuoditis ; Arachni^idei- 
tis : Arachnoitis. A., Rhachidian, A., Spinal, 
spinal meningitis. 




Arachnodeitis, Arachnoditis (ar-ak-no-iii'-lis). See 
Ai;n'iiii/:s ( Illus. l)ict. )• 

Arachnodermous {^ar-ak-no-ditr^-mits^ \Jiiiaxvrj, a 
spider's web ; iMipua, the skin]. Having a very thin 

Arachnoid. (See lUus. Diet.) 2. The arachnoid 
membrane. Syn., Mfmbrana media cerebri : Menin- 
gion ; MeningiivH ; Meninx arachnoidea ; Meninx 
media : Meiiiiix serosa. 3. Pertaining to a membrane. 
4. Thready, feeble, araneous; said of the pulse. 

Arachnoideitis \ar'ak-noi-di'-tis). See Arachnitis 
(Illus. Diet ). 

Arachnoitis i^ar-ak-no-i'-tis). See Arachnitis (Illus. 

Arachnology (ar-ak-nol'-o-je^ \apaxrr), a spider; 
Xo;or, science]. The study or science of spiders. 
Syn., Aran-cylogy. 

Arachnolysin [ar-ak-iiol'-is-in) [apaxvij, a spider ; 
?,vatgy a loosing]. A very active hemolytic sub- 
stance extracted from spiders. It is destroyed by 
heating to 70° or 72° C., and is probably identical 
wilh Robert's toxalbumin of spiders. 

Arachnophilous {ar-ak-nof -il' -its') [apa,^!-;/, a spider ; 
^/Anj', to love]. Applied to fungi growing upon dead 

Aralietin [ar-ai-i'-et-iii'). See Aj-aliretin. 

Araliin \ar-a'-it-ifj). A glucosid found by v. Holden 
in the bark of Aralia sfiinosa. A white crystalline 
powder, soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in 
ether, benzol, and chloroform. 

Araliretin {ar-al-ii-^ -e-tin). A decomposition-product 
of araliin. 

Arana picacaballo. Ilorse-biter, a poisonous .species 
of Mv^^alc or bird spider found in Central America. 

Araneiform \ar-au-e'-i-form) \jiranea^ a spider ; y^?;- 
«/(!, form]. Shaped like a spider. 

Aranein i^ar-aii' -e-in) \_aranea, a spider]. A liquid 
obtained from the punctured abdomen of spiders. It 
is used as an embrocation in homeopathic practice. 

Araneoid [ar-aii'-e-oiJ) \aranea, a spider ; eiiiof, like- 
ness]. Spider-like. 

Araneology \ar-ati-e-ol'-o-Je) [_aranea, a spider; Ao;. of, 
science]. See Arachnology. 

Araneous. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Applied to a thready, 
feeble pulse. 3. Consisting of separate filaments. 

Ararabin [ar-ai-'-ab-in). See Anibin (Illus. Diet.). 

Aratacio. The South American name for Sago/ia ra- 
cemt'Srt. Baill., a euphorbiaceous plant used as a tonic 
and aphrodisiac. 

Araucaria [ar-aw-ka^-re-ah) \_Araitco, a province in 
Cliili]. A genus of plants of the order Coiiifent. 
A. braziliana, A. Rich., yields part of the gum 
dammar (q. v. | of commerce. 

Arbacin {ar'-bas-in) ^Arbacia, Gray, a genus of the 
/ichiiiideir .(arbacia, similar)]. A histon like body 
obtained from spermatozoa of the sea-urchin, .-irbacia 
icquitubc 'Ciilatciy Blains. 

Arboricolous iar-bor-ik'-ol-iis') \arbor, a tree ; colere, 
to inhabit]. Growing upon or living in trees. 

Arborization. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Terminal, i. 
A branche*! end of a sensory nerve. 2. A motor end- 
plate. A., Vascular, a treelike branching of blood- 

Arbutose * ar'-bii-tdz). .\ crystalline substance con- 
taining glucose, 35 "^c ; arbiitin, 55 fir ; and water, lo'r. 
It is obtained in the extraction of arbutin from Arc/o- 
sUiphylos U7'a iirsi. 

Arc. (See Illus. Did.) 2. A segment of a circle 
A., Bigonial 1 of lower jaw \, a measurement nrnund 
the anterior margin of the jaw. A., Diastaltic Ner- 
vous, Marshall Hall's term for the nerves concerned 
in a reflex action. A., Frontal, the measurement 

from the nasion to the bregma. A., Maximum 
Transverse, the measurement across the face from 
points just anterior to the external auditory meati. A., 
Nasomalar, measurement between the ouler margins 
of the orbits over the nasion. A., Occipital, measure- 
ment from the lambda to the opisthion A., Parietal, 
measurement from tlie bregma to the lanrbda. A., 
Voltaic, the band of light formed by the passage of a 
strong electric current between two adjacent carbon 

Arcade [ar-kad' ) \jirciis, an arch], i. A series of 
arches; anarch. 2. The bow of a pair of spectacles. 
A., Crural, I'oupart's ligament. A., Flint's, the 
arteriovenous arch about the b.ise of the renal pyra- 
mids. A., Temporal, A., Temporal, Inferior, the 
zygoma. A., Temporal, Superior, the orbital arch. 

Arcatura (ar-ka-tn'-rnh) [^arcus, a bow]. A condi- 
tion of horses marked by the undue outward curvature 
of the forelegs. 

Arcein (ar'-se-in). Arecolin hydrobromate ; it is an 
active myotic. 

Arch. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A part of a circle. A., 
Abdominothoracic, the lower boundary of the front 
of the thorax. A., Alveolar, that marking the out- 
lines of the alveolar processes of the jaw. A., Anas- 
tomotic, one uniting two veins or arteries. A., Ante- 
rior (of the arm), a plexus anterior to and above the 
elbow, formed by a division of the anastomotic artery of 
the arm and divisions of the ulnar and radial recurrent 
arteries. A., Anterior hyoid, a general term which 
includes the tym{)anohyal, epihyal, stylohyal, and 
ceratohyal arches. A.s, Aortic, a series of pairs of 
vascular arches situated in the branchial arches of the 
vertebrate embryo and the adult Branchia/ir, uniting 
the cardiac and dorsal aortas. They are five in the 
human embryo, the first and second pairs of which 
disappear at an early stage ; the carotid arteries are 
formed from the third j^air, the arch of the aorta and 
the subclavian arteries from the fourth pair; the fifth 
disappears on the right side, but on the left forms the 
pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus, and the aorta. 
A. of the Atlas, Anterior, that part of the atlas lying 
ventrad to its articular surfaces. A. of the Atlas, 
Posterior, the part of the atlas lying dorsad to its ar- 
ticular surfaces. A.s, Axillary, twigs of the latis- 
simus dorsi sometimes passing over the vessels and 
nerves to the anterior part of the axilla, where they 
disappear in the tissues. A., Carpal, Anterior, a 
network on the anterior aspect of the wri>t, composed 
of little branches of the carpal divisions of the radial 
and ulnar arteries A., Carpal, Dorsal, one formed 
on the dorsum of the wrist by the junction of the pos- 
terior carpal branch of the radial artery, and a similar 
one of the ulnar. A.s, Cephalic. See A , Fostoral 
(Illus. Diet.). A.s, Cervical, the fourth and fifth 
postoral arches. A. of the Colon, the transverse 
colon. A., Cortical, that portion of the renal sub- 
stance which stretches from one column to another and 
surrounds the liase of the pyramids. A., Costal, the 
arch of the ribs A., Cotylopubic, the pubic arch. 
A., Cotylosacral, one formed bv the sacrum and the 
osseous structures extending to the coxofemoral joints. 
Syn., Standing arch. A., Cricothyroid, a curved 
artery extending across the cricothyroid ligament, 
formed by the junction of a branch from each superior 
thyroid arterw A.. Crural. Deep. See .-/., Femoral, 
/J-r/. A., Cubital, the arched end of the anterior 
carpal arterv- at the knee of manv quadrupeds- A., 
Dental, I . The parabolic curve formed bv the cutting- 
edges and masticating surfaces of the teeth. 2. The 
alveolar arch. A., Dorsal lof the arm), a plexus 
above and below the elbow on the dorsal aspect of the 




arm, formed by divisions of the anastomotic artery and 
the profunda, radial, and ulnar recurrent arteries. A., 
Dorsal (of the fool), one on the dorsum of the foot, 
wliich iniitos the tarsal and metatarsal branches of the 
dorsal artery of the foot. A., Dorsal Vertebral, the 
neural arch. A., Epencephalic, the bones lying 
over llie epencephalon, uniiiiii^ in man to form the oc- 
cipital bone. Syn., Neurooccipilal atch. A., Facial, 
the first postoral arch. A. Femoral, Deep, a band of 
fibers originating apparently in the transverse fascia, 
arching across the crural sheath and attached to the 
middle of Poupart's ligament and the pectineal line. 
Syn., Deej' crural arc/i. A.s of the Foot, certain 
arches formed by the bones of tile foot ; the most dis- 
tinct is the transverse in the line of the tarsometatarsal 
articulations. 'I'he inner longitudinal is composed of 
the OS calcis, the astragalus, the navicular, the three 
cuneiforms, and the first three toes, and the outer lon- 
gitudinal is made up by the os calcis. the cuboid, and 
the fourth and fifth toes. A., Gluteal, an opening in 
the gluteal fascia transmitting the gluteal vessels and 
nerves. A., Hemal, Owen's term for the inferior 
loop of the typical vertebra. It is so called because it 
surrounds the essential portion of the vascular .system. 
It is formed dorsally by the centrum, laterally by the 
pleurapophyscs and hemapophyses, and inferiorly by 
the hemal spine. Syn., A., Infravertebral ; A., Sub- 
central ; A., I'erlchral -eiilral. A., Hyoid, the 
second branchial arch of vertebrates. Syn., .-/., Lin- 
gual : A. of longuf ; A., rariilohemal. A., Infra- 
vertebral. See .■/., Heiiuil. A., Inguinal, Pou- 
part's lig.iment. A., Ischiadic, the space include<l 
between tlie dorsal borders of the ischia of the horse. 
A., Ischiopubic, that formed by the pubis and the is- 
chiopubic branches. A., Ischiosacral, one formed 
by the sacrum, the descending branches of the ischia, 
and the ilia lying between. Syn., Siltin:^ arch. A., 
Jugal, the zygoma. A., Langer's Axillary, the 
thickened border of fascia wliich f<:>rnis a bridge across 
the bicipital groove. A., Laryngeal, Cailender's 
term for one in the embryo composed of a membranous 
plate extending from the lower portion of the skull 
and developing into the inferior constrictor muscle, the 
cartilages of the laryn.x, the superior portion of the 
trachea, and the thyroid body. A.s, Lateral Inferior 
(of the skuUl, the bones encircling the mouth, nose, 
and larynx A.s, Lateral Superior, the bones encir- 
cling the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the oblongata. 
A.s, Limb, the pectoral and pelvic arches. A., Lin- 
gual, the hyoid arch. A.. Mandibular, the first 
branchial arch, developing into the lower jaw. Syn., 
A., Maxillary. A., Maxillary, I. See A., Mati- 
dibular. 2. See A., Palatomaxillary. A., Meck- 
el's Crural, Poupart's ligament. A., Mesenceph- 
alic, one formed by the basisphenoid, alisphenoid, 
parietal, and mastoid bones. Syn., .4.. Neurt}f>arictal. 
A., Nasal, one uniting the two frontal veins. A., 
Neural, the superior loop of the typical vertebra in- 
closing the neural canal. A., Neurofrontal. See 
A., I'rosencephalic. A., Neuronasal. See .-/., 
RhinencephaHc. A., Neurooccipital. See A., 
Epencephalic. A., Neuroparietal. %&t A., Mesen- 
r/phalic. A., Occipitohemal. See Girdle, Shoul- 
der (VAm. Diet.). A., Orbital, the superior margin 
of the orbit. A., Osteoblastic, those formed im- 
perfectly or completely by the osteoblasts, arising from 
the bony trabeculas alreatlv developed and finally be- 
coming bony. A., Palatal, the concavity of the hard 
palate when seen in transverse section. A. of the 
Palate, Posterior, that formed by the posterior pillars 
of the fauces. Syn., A., I'alatopharyngeal. A., 
Palatine, that formed by the anterior pillars of the 

fauces. ?t\n.. Anterior an h of the palate. A., Pala- 
tomaxillary, one formed by the palatine, maxillary, 
and premaxillary bones or their analogs ; it is looked 
upon as the hemal arch of the nasal \eitebra. Syn., 
.-/., Maxillary. A., Palatopharyngeal. See A. of 
Palate, Posterior. A., Palmar, Deep. See A., 
Palmar (Illus. Diet.). A., Palmar, Superficial, 
the continuation of the tdnar artery across the palm. 
A., Parietohemal. See .-/., J/void. A., Pectoral. 
See Girdle, Shoulder (Illus. Diet.). A., Pelvic, the 
bones of the pelvis considered as the hemal arches of 
the .sacral vertebras. A., Pharyngeal, the fifth pair 
of branchial arches. A., Posthyoid, the lourlh and 
fifth of the postoral arches. A.s, Postoral. Visceral, 
A.s, Poststernal. See A., J'ost-oral (Illu.s. Diet.). 
A.s, Preoral. (See Plates, Facial Illus. Diet.). A.- 
prop, a support for coirection of flat-foot. A., Pros- 
encephalic, one considered as the neural arch of the 
frontoinandibular vertebra ; it is formed by the frontal, 
]ires[)henoid, aiifl orbitosphenoid bones. Syn., ,-/., 
Xcurofroiital. A., Radial. .See ./., Palmar (Illus. 
Diet. >. A., Rhinencephalic, the neural arch of the 
nasal vertebra, fmned by the vomer and the ]irefiontal 
and nasal bones. Syn., A., A'euronasal. A., Rio- 
lan's, the arch of the mesentery which is attached to the 
trans\erse mesocolon. A., Scapular, A., Scapulo- 
clavicular, A., Scapulocoracoid. See Girdle, 
Shoulder (Illus. Diet.). A., Senile. See Anus 
senilis (Illus. Diet.). A., Sittirg. ."^ee A., Ischio- 
sacral. A.s, Skeletal. See A., Post-oral (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Standing. See A., Cotylosacral. A., 
Stylohyoid, the hemal arch of the parietal vertebra 
formed by the stylohyal. e])ihyal, cerntohyal, basihyal, 
glos.sohyal, and urohyal bones. A.s, Subaxial. See 
./., /V.tAiv,;/ (Illus. Diet.). A., Subcarpal, in many 
quadru})eds the analog of the palmar arch in man. 
A., Subcentral, the hemal arch. A., Subocular, 
A., Suborbital. See A., Zygomatic {W\u^. Diet.). 
A., Subpubic. See ^. <y' /";//'« (Illus. Diet. ). A., 
Superciliary. See A'idge, Superciliary (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Supracarpal, in quadrupeds the analog of the 
superficial palmar arch of man ; it is formed by the 
junction of the epicondylar artery and branches of the 
posterior radial arteries. A., Supravertebral, the 
neural arch. A.s, Tarsal, the arches of the i)alpebral 
arteries. A., Temporal, the zygon:atic arch. A., 
Tergal. Same as ,•/.. Dorsal. A., Thyrocartilag- 
inous, a communicating branch between the superior 
thyroid arteries of the two sides, lying at about the 
level of the angle of the thyroid cartilage. A., 
Thyrohyal, A., Thyrohyoid, the third of the post- 
oral arches ; it develo[)S into the hyoid body and the 
greater cornua of the hyoid bone A. of Tongue. See 
.7., //iwV/ (Illu.s. Diet. ). A., Tonsillar, ^ee Isth- 
mus of the Fauces (Illus. Diet.). A., Trabecular, 
one formed hv the junction of the middle tr.Tbeculas 
of the skull, containing the h}pophysis ami the infun- 
dibulum. A.s, Vascular, the postoral arches. A., 
Vertebral, i. .\ neural arch. 2. A hemal arch. 
A., Vertebral, Ventral. See A., J/emal. A., Vis- 
ceral. See .4., {IWvis. Diet.). 

Archaeism (ai'-ke-izm). The theory of the archa:u5. 

Archjeus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. v. Helmont's name 
for the vital principle of an organism. 

Archelogy {ar-iel'-o-je) [iip\ij,a beginning; /ttjuf, 
science]. The .study of the foundation ])rinciples of 

Archetype. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. That essential 
spirit or substance which, according to the cabalistic 
theory, gave rise to all the events of life and all the 
phenomena of nature under the influence of gods, 
devils, or stars. [Park.] 




Archigony. See Archegoiiy (Illus. Diet.). 

Archimorphic [ar-ke-morf'-ik) [«/>,^'o^-, a chief ; fiop^rj, 
line formj. Dominant by virtue of superiority. A. 
Races, the dominant active races ; civilized races 

Archineuron [ar-ke-uii'-roit) [apf//, beginning; v£v- 
l>m\ a nerve]. I. .\ primitive neuron. 2. The neu- 
ron at wliieli the impulse starts in any physiologic act 
involving the nervous system. 

Architype [ai'-ke-tip). See Archetype. 

Archocystosyrinx [ar-ko-sisl-o-sir' -inks) [a/3 ,^dr, anus ; 
KiGTii;, bladder; aviii',;, fistula]. A retrovesical fis- 

Archoplasm, Archoplasma {ar'-ko-pIa~m, ar-koplaz'- 
j!iah\ [M()\ur, a ruler; -'/nfjun^ a thing formed]. 
Boveri's term for the substance from which the attrac- 
tion sphere, the astral rays, and the spindle-fibers 
of mitosis are derived and of which they consist ; also 
called A'iiiop/iism, 

Archyle (i7;'-^;'-/t) ["/),v'/. a beginning; 10. ij, matter]. 
See Pro/yle (Illus. Diet.). 

Arcocele (ar'-ko-sil). See Archocele (Illus. Diet.). 

Arctation. (See Illus. Diet. ) 3. Constipation ; con- 

Arctura (arktii'-r,i/i) [aic/iiSy pressed close together]. 

1. The condition resulting from an ingrowing nail. 
Syn., A. unguiiy A. unguium; Onychosis arctura. 

2. See .4rctiition (Illus. Diet.). 

Arcturin {ark'-tii-rin). A bitter substance obtained 
from arijutin. 

Arctuvein, Arctuvin (ark-tii'-ve-in, ark'-tu-vin). A 
substance derived from arbutin by action of sulfuric 
acid with heat. 

Arcula {ark'-it-lah') [^ircii/a, a casket]. The orbit. 
A. cordis, the pericardium. 

Arcus. (See Illus. Diet ) A. atlantis anterior. 
Ste Arch 0/ l/ic Atlas, Anterior. A. atlantis pos- 
terior. See Arch of the At/as, Posterior. A. faucium, 
A. glossopalatinus. See .4rch, Palatine. A. med- 
uUaris. See J-'ornix I Illus. Diet.). A. senilis 
lentis. See Cataract, Incipient. A. tendineus. 
See White line (of pelvic fascia) (Illus. Dict.j. A. 
unguium. See Lunula (Illus. Diet.). A. vasculosi 
renales, arches at the bases of the Malpighian pyr.a- 
mids, formed by anastomoses of tiny ramifications of 
the renal artery. They give off vessels supplying the 
cortex of the kidneys, the Malpighian corpuscles, and 
the capillary plexuses about the uriniferous tubules. 
Syn., Forniccs vasculosi wnuni. 

Area. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. .\pplied by Celsus to any 
form of baldness. A., Alisphenoid, the surface of 
the great wing of the sphenoid. A., Anesthetic, a 
region of the body naturally destitute of sensory 
nerves ; one which has become abnormally anesthetic. 
A., Anteroparietal, the outer surface of the parietal 
bone lying in front of the parietal eminence. A., 
Auditory, the cerebral center for hearing. A., 
Broca's. the medial portion of the anterior olfactoiy 
lube. Syn. , .4. parolfacloria ; Gyrus olfactorius 
mctiialis. A., Broca's Olfactory, the posterior end 
of the gyrus rectus lying anteriorly to the mesial root 
of the olfactory tract. Syn., 'J'rigoniim olfactorium. 
A. Catchment, the district or water-shed over which 
the rainfall is impounded for purposes of water-supply. 
A., Cord, that part of the cortex in which lesions 
would produce degeneration of the spinal cord. A. 
cribrosa. See Macula crilirosa 1 Illus. Diet.). A., 
Crural. .See Sf'ace, IntcrpeJuncular. A., Crypt, in 
a collection of crypts the area surrounding one of the 
crypts. A. diffluens, alopecia areata. A., Diffrac- 
tion, a clear area seen in the microscopic image around 
all bodies of greater or less refractive power, and 

which by Nageli and Schwendener was referred pardy 
to the direct reflection of the incident light at the edge 
of the body in question, partly to the interference of 
this reflected light which comes through unrefleeted. 
[Biitschli] A., Fetal, A., Germ, A., Germinal. 
See A. germinatira (Illus. Diet. 1. A., Frontal, the 
convex surface of the frontal bone. A., Frontcpar- 
ielal, that included in the frontal lobe .of the cere- 
brum and the ascending parietal gyrus. A., Glove, an 
area of anesthesia observed in cases of multiple neu- 
ritis embracing hand and wrist. A., Intercalated. 
See A., XonnucleateJ. A., Intercrural. .See Space, 
Interpeduncular (Illus. Diet.). A. johnstoni ( Joh.). 
See.'/., Celsus (Illus. Diet.). A., Martegiani's, the 
slight widening of the hyaloid canal at it^ beyiuning in 
front of the optic disk. A., Midfrontal, the mesal 
portion of the frontal area. A., Motor, the gyri on 
each side of the Rolandic fissure containing the cen- 
ters for voluntary motion. A., Nonnucleattd, one 
of the clear spaces found at times between the endo- 
thelial cells of blood-vessels ; they have no nuclei, are 
smaller than endothelial cells, and are considered to 
be due to the removal of parts of the surrounding en- 
dothelium. A. nummulata, coin-shaped patches of 
alopecia areata. A., Occipital, the portion of the 
brain below the occiput. A., Opaque. See A. 
opaca (Illus. Diet.). A., Parietal, the part of the 
brain below the parietal bone. A., Placental, that 
part of the uterine wall to which the placenta is at- 
tached. A., Posteroparietal, the part of the exter- 
nal surface of the parietal bone lying behind the pari- 
etal eminence. A., Rolandic, the excitC)motor area 
of the cerebral hemispheres, comprising the ascending 
frontal and ascending parietal convolutions. A., Sep- 
tal, the inner surface of each of the laminas which 
make up the septum lueidum. A., Serpens. See 
Ophiasis (Illus. Diet.). A. serpiginosa, alopecia 
areata with a tendency to spread peripherally. A., 
Spencer's, a cortical area in the frontal lobe just out- 
side of the olfactory tract and anterior to the point 
where it joins the teniporo>phenoid lobe, as indicated 
by the crossing of the Sylvian artery. Faradie stimu- 
lation of this area influences the respiratory move- 
ments, causing stoppage of the respiration when suffi- 
ciently intense. A., Superofrontal, the upper part 
of the frontal area. A., Transparent. See A. pel- 
lucida (Illus. Diet.). A. ventriculi quarti, the floor 
of the fourth ventricle. A.s, Viscerocutaneous, 
areas of skin and viscera corresponding to different 
spinal segments, useful in electrotherapy. A., Visual, 
the occipital lobe and the angular gyrus. A., vitel- 
lina, I he yolk area outside the area vasculosa in nieso- 
blastie eggs. A., Vocal, the jiortion of the glottis 
lying between the vocal bands. 

Areca \ar-e'-kah). A genus of East Indian palms. 
A. catechu is extensively distributed throughout the 
tropics of Asia, where it has been cultivated from 
earliest times. It furnishes the betel-nut yq. f. ) ; the 
]iowtlered nut is used as a vermifuge. 

Arecaidin (ar-e-ka'-iil-in). C.H„!vOj. An acid 
contained in areca-nut, of which arecolin is its methyl 

Arecain (ar-e'-ia-in). C;H,|XO., + H.^O. A poison- 
ous teniaeidal alkaloid obtained from areca-nut. form- 
ing colorless crystals soluble in water, insoluble in 
alcohol, in ether, and in benzol. 

Arecolin. (See Illu.s. Diet.l A. Hydrobromate, 
CsHijNtX.llBr, white crystals soluble in water and 
alcohol. It is used as a myotic, applied in I'r solu- 
tion, and in treatment of glaucoma. In veterinary 
practice it is used as a cathartic and anthelmintic. In- 
jection for horse, }i—l gr. 




Areflexia ((ir-('-/f<'/<-j'-<--<j//) [<7, priv. ; refli-ctere, to bend 
li:\il<]. The failure of a reflex ; areflexion. 

Areflexion. See Artfttxia. 

Arenarious yar-c-na'-re-us) \_arcna, sand]. Growing 
in Mind. 

Areniferous (iirfni/'-iir-iis) [arenn, .sand ; f/rrc-, to 
l)r;ir]. Containing sand ; contaminated by sand. 

Areniform y,ti-cii'-€-fonii^ \^incna, s?incl; /ornm, shape]. 
Like sand. 

Areola. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Chaussier's, the 
areola of intlammatory induration of a malignant pus- 
tule. A., Primary, cell-spaces still containing carti- 
lage cells ill the m.Urix of ossifying cartilage-bone. 
Svn., Primary marroiv cavities : Medullary sfacs. 

Areosis, Arseosis (ar-e-o'-sis) [a/m/usff]. The process 
of becoming less compact ; dilution. 

Argental {ar-Jcn'-tal) \_argeiiliim, silver]. Containing 

Argentamid [ar-JL-n' -tarn-id). An antiseptic liquid 
prcpar.itioM of silver. 

Argentamin {.ir-jcn'-Zam-iii). .\ colorless alkaline 
li.|uid consisting of an 8''^ solution of silver pliosjOiate 
in a 15'^ acnieous solution of ethylenediamid. It is 
applied in gonorrhea and conjunctivitis in I : 4003 so- 
lution. Syn. , Elhylencdiaiiiid silver phosphate. 

Argentan (<(/-'-/W/-/<7«). An alloy of copper, 16 parts; 
zinc, 3-10 parts; nickel, 4-12 parts, witli traces of 
tin, iron, and lead. -Syn., German sil-rer : Paek- 

Argentate (ai'-jen-tat).- A salt of argentic acid. 

Argentation. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The act of sil- 
vering. 3. The process of injecting mercury into the 
vessels of an anatomic specimen. 4. Argyria. 

Argentiferous [ar-Jeii-ti/'-iir-its) [argeiitiim, silver; 
ferre, to bear]. Producing or containing silver. 

Argentific (iir-jen-tit''-ik) [argeuliim, silver; faeere, 
to make]. Transforming into silver. 

Argentine. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A mineral composed 
of calcium carbonate and silica. 3. Metal coated with 

Argentol {.»■'->«-/<'/). CjHjX. OH . SO.,.\g Silver 
quinaseplol, a yellow powder sparingly soluble in 
water ; used as a surgical antiseptic and astringent in 
ointment I : 100 or 2 : 103, in solution 1 : 1000 to 
3 : 1000. 

Argentous [ar-jeii'tiis\. Containing silver; applied 
to a compound containing a relatively larger amount 
of silver than an ordinary silver compound (argentic 
comi)t)und ). 

Argentum. (See Illus. Diet.) See also Siilver. A. 
coUoidale. .See Silver, Colloidal. A. corneum, 
horn-silver, silver chlorid. A. factum, wrought sil- 
ver. A. finum. See .-/. /v,'m. A. foliatum, silver 
leaf. A. fagitivum, quicksilver; mercury. A. ful- 
minans, A. fulminicum, fulminating silver. A. 
fusum, I. MiTiniry. 2. Fused silver nitrate. A. 
purissimum, A. purum. pure metallic silver. A. 
regis, coin-silver, cnnlaining in 24 parts 2; of ]Uire 
silver A. repurgatum, relined silver. A. sophis- 
ticum, copper arsen.ite. A. vivum, quick-ilver: 

Argil (ar'-jil) [dp;//./.™;, white clay]. Aluminium 

Argillaceous (ar-Jil-a'-shiis) [apyi'/'/.o;, white clay], 
(lav-like; composed of clay. 

Argiriin {ar'-jin-iii). C„II,jN,0.,. A highly nitrogen- 
ous substance discovered by E. Schultze in etiolated 
seedlings of lupin, artichoke tubers, and malt ac:o- 
spire. It resembles creatinin in its chemic character. 
Svn., Giianidiii (i-amido-valerie acid. 

Argon (<2;-'-;vh) [<!,->;"',, idle, inactive]. .\n inert gas- 
eous element discovered in the atmosphere by Lord 

Rayleigh and Wm. Ramsay {1894K Its symbol is A ; 
atomic weight, 19.7. 
Argonin \ar'-i;o->un\. Silver casein. 
Argyrescetin, Argyrsescetin ar-Jir-es'-e-tiii). Cj, . - 

ll,„()i; (?i. .\ dissociation product of argyrescin. 
Argyrescin, Argyraescin (/i;-/;>-«'-/«) [(i^)jiy)fof, sil- 
very ; .■Eseiihis Uj. -■.{]. C.;,H„0,j. A bitter gluco- 
sid found by Rochleder in the cotyledons of the 
horse-chestnut. It is readily soluble in alcohol, acetic 
acid, and alkalis It is insoluble in ether and forms a 
frothy mixture with water. 

Argyric {ar-jir' -ik\ [iVp) i/mr, silver]. Silvery; relat- 
ing to silver or its effects ; argentic. 

Argyrol (nr'-jir-ol ). A very soluble silver salt ob- 
tained by Barnes and Hille (1902) by combining a 
proteid of wheat with 30'*- of silver. It is used in 
gonorrhea. Syn., .Silver ritelliit. 

Arhinencephalia. See Arrhineiieefhalia. 

Aribin [ar'-ili-iii). C.,,Hj„N,. A bitter, crystalline 
alkaloid found by Rieth (1861) in arariba bark, from 
the llraziliau tree .Siehin^ia riilra. 

Arica Bark. See Cnseo Bark (Illus. Diet.). 

Aricin, Aricina (ar'-is-iii, nr-is'-iii-ah) [.-///(V;. a Peru- 
vian province]. An alkaloid discovered by Pclletier 
(1S29) in Arica bark. 

Aridura. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Hectic fever. 

Aristocardia (ar-is-to-kar'-de-ah) [tiiiwrrpiir, left; 
/i.i/K'/n, heart]. Deviation of the heart to the left side. 

Aristolochia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. rotunda, a spe- 
cies of southern Europe, with offensive odor and bitter 
taste, enijiloved as an emnienagog and in gout. 

Aristophagy (ar-is-to/'-a/-e) [ap((77m;. best ; ori;f(r, to 
eat]. The eating of the best ; term proposed by 
Josiah Oldfield as a substitute for vegetarianism. 

Arki. See .hsa. 

Arkyochrome (nr'-ke-o-krom) [n/wir. a net ; ^itufia, a 
color]. A somaloclirome nen'e-cell. in which the 
stainable |)ortion of the cell-body a|)pears in the form 
of network. 

Arkyostichochrome (ar-ke-ostik'-o-krdm) [li/ni'C. a 
net; f^''\*><:. a row or rank; ,vpw/'rt, a color]. Ap- 
]ilie<l by Nissl to a nerve-cell in which the chromo- 
jihilic particles of its cell-body present a combination 
of both the striated (stichochromel and network 
(arkyochrome) arrangements, so that it is difficult to 
decide which dominates; e.g.. the Purkinje cells of 
the cerebral i-ortex. 

Arm. (Sec Illus. Diet.) A., Milk, phlegmasia alba 
dolens in the arm. 

Arma (ar'-mah) [I.., amis], .\ppendages or equip- 
ments of an organism .serving as a means of defense or 
any other S])eeial purpose. A. ventris, the male 
generative organs. 

Armagnac ( ar-maii-yak). A variety of French brandy. 

Armamentarium. (See Illus. Diet.) A. lucinae, an 
outfit of obstclrir instruments. 

Armature. iSee Illus. Diet. ) 2. Any protective in- 
vestment of an organism. 3. A condenser. 

Armillate (ai-'-mil-al) [armilln, a brjicelet, a ring]. 
Furnished with rings. 

Armipes {nr'-mip-ez) \ariiia, arms; pes, the foot]. 
Having the feet furni.shed with means of defense; 
e. g., claws or spines. 

Arnatta, Arnatto (arit-at'-ah, -c). See Annotto (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Aromatize [ar-o'-mat-tz) \h[K)itn, spice]. To make 
aromatic ; to spice. 

Arophene {ar'-o-ftn\. A proprietary dental anesthetic. 

Arrest. (See Illus Diet.) 2. A disease of a mangy 
cliai.acter affecting the hind leg of horses between the 
ham and postern. A., Action of, inhibition I </. 7-.). 

Arrhenal {ar'-en-al). A moiiomethyl sodium arsenate; 




recommended in treatment of tuberculosis. Dose, 
3^ gr. daily. 

Arrheumatic {ar-ti-tnat^-ik) [rt, priv. ; pt'vua^ 3. flux]. 
Free hum .i flux or from rheumatism. 

Arrhinencephalia i^ar-in-c-n-sff-al'-e-a/i) [n, priv.; /Vc, 
nose; i)Ktoa/Mc, the brain]. A form of partial 
anencephalia in which there is malformation of the 

Arrosion (ar-o'-shtin) [ai roJcre, to gnaw]. The 
gnawing or destruction of vessel-walls by ulcerous' 

Arsa [Tartar]. A rectified spirituous liquor made from 
kumyss. It is called araai before it is rectified. 

Arsenamin yar'sen^-atji-iti). See Hytiro^^en Arsenid. 

Arsenate. (See lUus, Diet.) A., Acid, a nionohy- 
dric or dihydric arsenate. A., Basic, an arsenate 
combined with the o.\id or hydrate of a base. A., 
Dihydric, I. An acid arsenate containing 2 atoms of 
hydrogen. 2. See Pyroarsenic Atid (Illus. Diet. J. 
A., Monohydric, l. An acid arsenate containing I 
atom of hydrogen. 2. Metarsenic acid, HAsUj, a 
crystalline substance obtained from arsenic acid by 
heating above 200° C. A., Neutral, i. .\ nonnal 
arsenate. 2. A pyroarsenate. A., Trihydric, arsenic 

Arsenauro (ar-sen-a7v' -ro). A double bromid of gold 
and arsenic ; lo n\, contains j'.r gr. each of gold and 
arsenic bromids. It is alterative and tonic. Dose, 
5-15 n\^ (0.3-9.9 c.c.) in water 3 times daily. 

Arsendiethyl [ar-sen-di-elh'-il). As(CjH.)2. A univ- 
alent radicle. A. lodid, As(CjH5)jI, an oily yellow 
liquid, insoluble in water. 

Arsendimfethyl {ar-sen-di-meth' -W). See Cacodyl 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Arsendiphenyl {ar~sen-di-fin'-il). .■\s(C3Hg'l2- -^ 
univalent or trivalent radicle. A. Chlorid, .\s(C^- 
HjijCl, an oily liquid. A. Trichlorid, a solid, de- 
composing by water into diphenylarsenic acid. 

Arsenethyl (ar-sen-etk' -il ). As^CjHj). A bivalent or 
quadrivalent radicle. 

Arsenhemol (ar-seii-hem'-ol). A compound of hemol 
and I ^'c of arsenious acid, forming a brown powder. 
It is used as a substitute for arsenic as an alterative 
and hematinic. Dose, o. i gm. 3 times daily. 

Arsenic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Arsenious acid. 3. 
Containing arsenic. A., Butter of. See A. Chloiid. 
A. Caseinate, a soluble arsenic compound for inter- 
nal administration. A. Chlorid, .\sCl3, a colorless, 
oily liquid decomposed by water; sp. gr. 2.205 ^' °° 
C; boils at 130° C; soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
oils. Dose, 5ff-jV g"^- (0.001-0.004 gm. ). Syn., 
Butler of arsenic ; Chlorid of caustic arsenic. A. 
Disulfid, AsjSj, occurs native as realgar, forming 
orange yellow rhombic prisms with resinous luster. 
Syn., iandaraca; Red sulfid of arsenic: Red arsenic. 
An artificial disulfid of arsenic is prepared in the 
arsenic works and contains about 15% of arsenic and 
27 ^J of sulfur. Syn., Red arsenic glass; Riihy 
sulfur; Red orpiment. A. Flowers, a fine white 
powder formed by the sublimation of arsenious acid. 
A. Glass, term applied to the vitreous mass obtained 
either by heating arsenical pyrites with sulfurous ores, 
or by the resublimation of the " flowers of arsenic " ob- 
tained by subliming arsenical pyrites. Syn., White 
arsenic glass. A., Red. See A. Disulfid. A. Sulfid, 
Red. See A. Disulfid. A. Sulfid, Yellow. See A. 
Trisulfd. A. Trichlorid. See A. Chlorid. A., Tri- 
oxid. A., White. See .4cid, .Arsenious (Illus. Diet.). 
A. Trisulfid, AsjS,, translucent, lemon-colored, rhom- 
bic prisms, occurring in nature ; sp. gr. 3.46 ; a cor- 
rosive and depilating agent recommended for removal 
of warts. Syn., Or^i/uent; Aiiri Jrigmenluin ; Yello^u 

sulfid of arsenic; Arsenicum (Pliny); Arse/tii sul- 
fiduni citrinuni ; King' s yellffw. 

Arsenicalism [ar-sen' -ik-al-izm) . See Arsenism (Illus. 
I'itt, I. 

Arsenicate [ar-sen'-ii-at). To impregnate with ar- 

Arseniciasis {ar-sen-is-i-a' -sis). See Arsenism (Illus^ 

Arsenicophagus (ar-sen-i/:-of'-a-gus) [apatvtKuv, ar- 
senic ; on] in-, to eat]. One addicted to arsenic eating. 

Arseniomolybdate (ar-sen-e-o-mol-ili'-dat). A salt of 
arseniomolybdic acid. 

Arseniophosphate \ar-sen-e-o-fos'-fat). A compound 
of a base with both arsenic and phosphoric acids. 

Arseniophthisis (ar-sen-e-o-tis'-is). See Arsenism 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Arseniotungstate (ar-sen-eo-tung'-stat). A salt of 
arseniotungslic acid. 

Arsenmethyl (ar-sen-weth'-il). As(CH3). A biva- 
lent or quadrivalent radicle. 

Arsenmethylate {ar-sen-meth'-il-at). A salt of arsen- 
methylic acid. 

Arsinyl (ai'sin-il). The proprietary name for diso- 
diummethyl-arsenate, a nontoxic substance allied to 
cacodyl and free from its garlicky odor. It is said to 
be a powerful tonic. Dose, y, gf- twice daily. 

Arsitriol iar-sit'-re-ol). A calcium glycerophosphate. 

Arsonvalization [ar-son-val-iz-a' -shun ) \ji' .Arsonral, 
a French physiologist and physicist]. The therapeutic 
application of Tesla currents. Syn., Teslaization. 

Arsycodile iar-siiod'-il-e). A chemically pure caco- 
dylate of sodium (.sodium dimethyl arsenic), a non- 
toxic salt indicated in emaciating diathesis. Dose, 
'2 gr. (0.025 g"'- ) 4 times daily. 

Artanitin (ar-tim'-it-in). See tyclamin. 

Artar Root {^ar'-tar rcot). A drug from west Africa, 
[)robably the root of Xantho.xylum senegalense. 

Artarin [ar" -tar-in). An alkaloid, C,(|H].XOj, from 
arLir root ; it is a cardiac stimulant, with action simi- 
lar to veratrin. 

Artate (ar'-lat) [artare, to compress]. Constricted, 

Artemisia. (See Illus. Diet. ) A. abyssinica, an Afri- 
can species yielding the dnig zerechtil, applied to re- 
lieve cramps in the final stages of malaria. A. arbores— 
cens, L., of southern Europe, is stomachic and tonic, 
and is used as A. absinthium. A. chinensis, L., of 
Asia, is employed by the Chinese as a tonic and em- 
menagog, and the down covering the leaf-surface in 
the preparation of moxa. A. frigida, \Villd., wild 
sage, mountain sage, sieiTa salvia. An herb of west- 
ern United States introduced as a substitute for quinin 
in the treatment of jjeriodic fevers. Also of service 
in diphtheria, rheumatism, and scarlet fever. Dose, 
of the fluid extract, 3J-ij. Unof. A. mexicana, 
Willd., an .American species, is said to be a stimulant, 
emmenagog, and anthelmintic. A. pontica, L. , 
Roman wormwood, a perennial growing in Europe 
and .Asia, has a pleasant odor and taste and is used as 
a tonic and stimulant ; it is burned in Eg%pt during^ 
the plague to ward off contagit>n. A. santonica, L., 
a species of Persia and Tartary, a variety of wormseed 
sometimes imported from Russia. A. spicata, an 
Alpine species with strong aromatic properties. A. 
tridentata, Nutt., sage brush, a shrub of the elevated 
portion of western North .America, containing a pun- 
gent volatile oil. It is diaphoretic and stimulant. 
The use an infusion of the plant .as remedial 
for colds and headache and as a vermifuge. A. 
trifida, Xutt., a kind of sage-bnish found in the 
valleys of L'tah and Wyoming, with properties similar 
to .4. tridentata. 




Artereurysm (ar-ter' -u-rizm). See Aneurysm (Illus. 

Arteriasis i^ar-tt-ri-a' -sis) [^apri/pia, an artery]. De- 
generation of an artery ; it may be either calcareous 
or tatty. 

Arteriitis {nr-le-re-i'-tis). See Arleritis. 

Arteriochalasis (arte-rt-okal-a'-sis^ [a/jrr/p/a, artery; 
\n'/.unir, a slackening]. Arterial atony. 

Arteriodialysis {ar-h'-re-o-iii-al'-is-is) \ap-);pia, artery ; 
dia'/.vGi^f dissolution]. Attenuation of the arterial 
walls with or without rupture. 

Arteriodiastasis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. See Ar/en'o- 
iclofia (Illus. Diet.). 3. The divergence of two ar- 
teries that lie near each other normally. 

Arteriodiplopiesmus i^ar-te-rc-o-Jip-lo-fii-c-z'-niiis) [^ap- 
rt/,)u, artery; (^i-/6or, twofold; -leaiiuc, pressure]. 
D Etiolles' procedure for obtaining rapid coagulation 
of the blood in that part of an artery lying between 
two pt>ints upon which simultaneous pressure is made. 

Arterioid (ur-le'-re-oiti) [apr;,Yj;a, artery ; £«(of, like- 
ness]. Resembling an artery. 

Arteriolith [ar-Ze'-ri'-o-lil/i) \_apTr)pin, artery; '/.it^nr, 
stone]. A calculus in an artery from calcification of a 

Arteriomalacosis (arte-re-o-mal-ak-o' -sis). See Aite- 
riomahiiia (Illus. Diet.). 

Arteriometer (ai-h--re-om'-et-ur) [iiprrip'a, artery; 
/itrpoi', measure]. An instrument lor me.asuring the 
changes in the caliber of a i:)ulsating artery. 

Arteriopalmus {ar-tc-'rc-o-pal' -intis) [d/jr/)/j'«, artery; 
rrd/ '/'»(■, palpitation]. Throbbing of the arteries. 

Arterioperissia, Arteriop^rittia i^ar-tt-re-o-per-is'-t'- 
ah^ -tt' -c-ah ) [ii/)r/;/rrt, an artery ; ~spiGaot-, excessive]. 
Abnormal or excessive arterial development. Syn. , 
Pri iltarteria ; Porissoar/eria. 

Arteriopituitous (ar-lf-n-o-pil-u'-ii-tis] [^arteria, ar- 
tery ; piltiila, mucus]. Applied to the blood-vessels 
of the nasal passages. 

Arterioplegmus [ni-lf-re-o-fileg'-miis') [hn-rjpn, an 
artery; -/.'jy/a, anything twined or plaited]. Perpli- 

Anerioploce [ar-te-rt-of'' lose) \a.pTT)pia, an artery ; 
-'/miij, twining]. Perplication. 

Artenorrhaphy. See Operation, Matas'. 

Arterioscenographia \,ir-le-re-o-sen-o-graf'-e-ah') \ap- 
-IIP a. an artery; r!i^i/iu-,pn0ia, the art of scene paint- 
ing]. Delineation of arteries. 

Arteriosteogenesis {nr-le-re-o-sle-o-jeii'-e-sis) \ap7i)pM, 
an artery ; <'iff7-M)i', a bone ; jeptuif, production]. Cal- 
citication of an artery. 

Arteriosteosis, Arteriostosis (ar-te-re-os-le-(/-sis, ar- 
tt.--yc'-o^-fo'-sis). See ArUriosteogenesis. 

Arteriotrepsis [nr-te-re-o-trep'-sis) \hp-j]p'ta, an artery ; 
r/ifiivc, torsion]. See Arterioslrepsis (Illus. Diet.). 

Arteritis. iSee Illus. Diet.) 2. Inflammation of the 
external coat of an artery. A. syphilitica, endar- 
teritis deformans caused by syphilis. A. umbilicalis, 
septic inflammation of the umbilical arteries in the 

Arteriversion (ar-le-rt-viir' -ihini) \arteria, an arterj' ; 
venere, to turn]. The correct term for rtt-r/fr/c'rrri/oi. 

Artery. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Abdominal. See.-/., 
Circumflex [line. Deep (Illus. Diet. ). A., Abdom- 
inal, External or Subcutaneous, i. See A. Epi- 
gailrie, Siiperfiiuil \\\\\\i. Diet.). 2. Si^e A.. Pudie, 
Extertiitl or S/ipenor {Illus. Diet.). A.. Abdom- 
inal, Posterior. See A., Epignstrie, Deep (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Acetabular, a branch of the internal 
circumflex artery distributed to the hip-joint. A., 
Alar. I. %ee A., Alar, Thoracic (Illus. Diet.). 2. 
See .-/., Axillary. A.s, Allantoic. See A., Umbil- 
ical \\\\\is,. VhcX.)^ A., Alveolar, Inferior. See ^., 

Mandibular (Illus. Diet. ). A., Alveolar, Posterior. 
See .7., Denial. Posterior (Illus. Diet.). A., Alve- 
olar, Superior. See ./., Dental, Superior (llhis. 
Diet.). A.s, Anastomotic, those which connect 
other arteries more or less rcnujte from eacli other. 
A., Anastomotic (of the thigh). See .Inasloiiutica 
nia^na (of superticial femoral) (llhis. Diet. ). A., An- 
astomotic, Transverse, a division of the anterior 
peroneal artery wliieh anastomoses with a branch of the 
posterior tibial artery. A., Anastomotica magna 
(of the thumb), a branch of the radial aneiy running 
between the metacarpal bone of the tlunnb and the 
muscles lying over it and branching into the palmar 
collateral arteries. A., Anonymous. See .7., In- 
nominate (Illus. Diet.). A., Aortic Uterine, a 
branch of the abdominal aorta, which arises a little 
below the renal artery, descends upon the psoas 
muscle ; is distributed to the ovary, the oviduct, and 
the side of the uterus, and anastomoses with the hypo- 
gastric uterine artery. It is the internal sjiermatic 
artery of the female. Syn., A., iterocnanan. A., 
Apoplectic, the carotid artery. A.s, Articular (of 
the arm). See ./., Circuni/lex, Anterior and /Posterior 
(of axillary) (Illus. Diet.'). A., Articular (of the 
head of the fibula), a branch of the anterior tibial 
arterv, extending beneath the fibula to the tibiofibular 
articulation ; it is covered by the origins of the peroneus 
longus and extensor digitorum mu^eies. A., Articular 
(of the maxilla), a branch of the superficial tenii>oral 
arterv, distributing a twig to the leni[>oromaxillary 
articulation and others whieh enler the ear with the 
facial nerve. A.s, Articular. Inferior (of the knee), 
the internal and external artieular arteries of the knee. 
A., Articular, Inferior External (of the knee), that 
branch of the popliteal artery anastomosing with 
the other articular arteries, at the forepart of the knee- 
joint. It passes beneath the outer head of the gastroc- 
nemius muscle, the external lateral ligament of the 
knee, and the tendon of the bicei)s femoralis nui.scle, 
and rests upon the external semilunar cartilage. A., 
Articular, Inferior Internal (of the knee), a branch 
of the ])opliteal artery distributed to the outer part 
of the knee and connecting with the other artieular 
arteries of the knee after running downward and 
inward along the upper border of the popliteus 
muscle. A., Articular, Middle (of the elbow), 
a small divisionof the ulnar artery, and sometimes of the 
radial, extending to the radioulnar (orbicular ligament. 
A., Atloidomuscular, in veterinary anatomy an in- 
constant branch of the occipital artery, given off 
beneath the transverse process of the atlas and dis- 
tributed to the surrounding parts. A., Auditory, Ex- 
ternal, a division of the first part of the internal maxil- 
larv artery ; it enters the t\'mpaiuim by the Cilaserian 
fissure and is distributed to the tyni])anum. A.s, 
Auricular, Anterior, a varving number of branches 
of the temporal artery, distributed to the anterior 
portion of the auricle, the lobule, and to a portion of the 
external meatus, and connecting with branches of the 
posterior auricular. A., Azygos (of the tongue), a 
small artery formed by the junction of branches of the 
dorsal arteries of the tongue ; it extends along the 
median line of the dorsum of the tongue. A., Bra- 
chial. Common. See .4., Subclavian (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Brachial, Deep. See .7., CircumJIex, /'os/erior 
(of the axillary I (Illus. Diet.). A.s, Bronchial, 
Anterior, branches of the internal niannnaiy artery 
supi)lying the bronchi. A.s, Bronchial, Inferior 
Posterior, branches of the thoraeie aorta distrib- 
uted to the bronchi. A.s, Bronchial, Left, two 
branches given ofi" bv the left side of the thoracic aorta, 
supplying the dorsal surface of the left bronchus and 




the tissue of the left lung. They are called the upper 
and lower or superior and inferior left bronchial arteries. 
A., Bronchial, Right, a branch of the aortic inter- 
costal artery ; or, in common with the upper left 
bronchial, of the thoracic aorta. It is distributed to 
the right lung. A., Bronchial, Superior. See 
A., Bronchial, Anterior (Ilius. Diet.). A., Bron- 
choesophageal, in veterinary anatomy a branch of 
the posterior aorta given oit' to the right of the first 
intercostal arteries and extending forward to the bifur- 
cation of the trachea, between the aorta and the esoph- 
agus, where its division makes tlie bronchial arteries. 
A., Bulbourethral, a branch of the artery of the 
penis or of the artery of the cavernosum distributed to 
the bulb of the urethra. A., Cardiac, Left. See.-/., 
Coronary, Left (lUus. Diet.). A., Cardiac, Right. 
^^^ Artery, Coronary, Ri^ht ; and .>^., Pyloric (Illus. 
Diet.). A.s, Carpal, Dorsal, the posterior radio- 
carpal and posterior ulnocarpal arteries. A. of the 
Cavernous Sinus, Posterior, a branch of the internal 
carotid artery given off within the carotid canal and 
supplying the posterior clinoid process, the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth cranial nerves, and the adjacent dura. 
A.s, Cecal, in veterinary anatomy branches of the great 
mesenteric artery distributed to the walls of the cecum. 
A.s, Central System of, Heubner's and Duret's 
term for the primary or secondary branches of the 
circle of Willis; they are distributed, to the centra! 
ganglions of the brain. A., Cerebellar, Inferior 
Posterior, a branch of the vertebral or of the basilar 
artery, originates near the pons, extends backward and 
outward to the forepart of the vallecula, and tliere 
divides, distributing to the lower and back portion of 
the cerebellum. A., Cerebral, Anterior Middle. 
See//., 7>r//M//<- (Illus. Diet. ). A., Cerebrospinal, 
in veterinary anatomy one of the end-branches of tlie 
occipital artery ; it passes into the spinal canal by the 
anterior foramen of the atlas and forms t\\T) branches, 
the anterior one of which united with its fellow of the 
opposite side forms the basilar artery, and the posterior 
one joining in a similar manner makes the anterior 
median spinal artery. A., Cervical. (See Illus. Diet.) 
2. -See .■/., Basilar (Illus. Diet.). A., Cervical, 
Posterior, a branch of the cervicoscapular artery 
which connects with the superficial cervical artery 
ami supplies the levator anguli scapul.e an<l the 
splenius colli muscles. A., Cervical, Superior, A., 
Cervicomuscular, in veterinary anatomy a branch of 
the axillary artery supplying the first intercostal space 
and the lower cervical muscles. A., Cervicoscap- 
ular. See A., Cervical, Transz'erse (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Charcot's, the artery of cerebral hemorrhage, 
one of the lenticulostriate arteries that parses through 
the outer part of the putaraen. A.s, Choroid, Su- 
perior Anterior, branches of the posterior rerebrul 
artery distributed to the choroid ple.xus. A., Choroid, 
Superior Posterior, a branch of the sujjerior cere- 
bellar artery which connects witli the anterior choroid 
arteries. It is distributed to the valve of \"ieussens, 
the epiphysis, and the quadrigeminal bodies. A., 
Circumflex (of the coronary cushion), a superficial 
vascular arch around the coronet of the horse's hoof, 
made up of the anterior branches of the coronary 
circle. A., Circumflex (of the heart), the dorsal 
branch of the left coronary artery of the heart dis- 
tributed to its dorsal surfaces. A., Circumflex, In- 
ferior (of the foot), a loop of the preplantar artery of 
the horse's foot; it sends off several small branches 
to the villous tissue of the foot. A., Circumflex, 
Scapular, a division of the subscapular arterv. passing 
between the subscapularis and teres muscles to the 
infraspinous fossa of the scapula. A., Coccygeal, 

Lateral, in veterinary anatomy the continuation of the 
lateral sacral artery extending along each side of the 
sacrum. A., Coccygeal, Middle, in veterinary anat- 
omy that branch of tiie sacral artery which passes 
along the inferior surface of the caudal vertebras, 
between the two depressor muscles, to the extremity 
of the tail. A.s, Cohnheim's Terminal, terminal 
arteries without anastomoses. A., Colic, Direct, in 
veterinary anatomy a branch of the superitjr mesenteric 
artery extending along the colon ; unites with the retro- 
grade colic artery and forms an arterial arch. A., 
Colic, Posterior, in the horse an artery extending 
along the free margin of the colon. A.. Colic, Retro- 
grade, in veterinary anatomy that branch of the 
superior mesenteric artery which ascends the colon and 
anastomoses with the direct colic artery. A., Colic, 
Superior. See .J.. t'o//V, J//r/,//f (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Colic, Superior Right. See A., Colic Right (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Collateral lof the cannon). See v/., 
MetatarsopeJal. A.s, Collateral (of the knee), the 
articular arteries of the knee. A., Collateral, Deep, 
A., Collateral, Radial, Anterior, a branch of the pro- 
funda radial artery accompanying the upper part of the 
radial nerve for a short distance and distributed to the 
back part of the arm. A., Collateral, External. 
See A., Kadial Pro/iimia (Illus. Diet.). A., Col- 
lateral, External (of the armi. See A. profunda 
.f«/<v7w- (Illus. Diet. ). A., Collateral, Great. See 
A. profunda superior {\\\ms. Diet.). A., Collateral, 
Internal. See A. profunda inferior (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Collateral, Middle, a division of the superior 
profunda artery of tlie arm supplying the triceps 
muscle. A., Collateral, Superior External (of 
the knee). See A., Arliculntor, Superior Exl-rnal 
(of the knee) (Illus. Diet.). A., Communicating, 
one establishing communication between two arteries. 
A., Communicating, Anterior (of the brain), one 
uniting tlie anterior cerebral arteries at the entrance of 
longitudinal fissure of the brain. A., Communi- 
cating, Inferior (of the foot), in the horse any one 
of the several branches of the plantar arch. A. -con- 
strictor, an instrument for compressing an artery. A., 
Coracoradial, in veterinary anatomy a division of the 
humeral artery running to the biceps muscle. A. of 
the Corpora quadrigemina, Middle, a branch of 
the dorsal cerebral artery terminating in fine divisions 
in the quadrigeminal space. A.s of the Corpus 
striatum, External. See.-/., Lnticulostriate {XWrn. 
Diet). A.s, Cortical System of, Heubner and 
Duret's term for the arteries distributed to the cerebral 
cortex and the parts immediately beneath it. A., 
Crotaphite. See.-/., 7>/«/t>;-,// (illus. Diet. ). A.s, 
Curling (of the placenta), twisted ramifications of the 
umbilical arteries supplying the surface of the placenta. 
A.s, Digital, Collateral, those extending along the 
margins of the fingers and toes. A.s, Digital, Dorsal, 

1. Divisions of the dorsal interosseous arteries of the 
foot distributed to the sides of the dorsum of the toes. 

2. The dorsalis poUicis, the dorsalis indicis, and the 
divisions of the interosseous arteries of the hand dis- 
tributed to the sides of the dorsum of the fingers. A.s, 
Digitofibular, the digital arteries on the fibular side 
of the toes. A.s, Digitoradial, the digital arteries 
on the radial side of the fingers. A.s, D:gi:otibial, 
the digital arteries on the tibial side of the u>es. A.s, 
Digitoulnar, the digital arteries on the ulnar side of 
the fingers. A., Dorsal (of the clitoris), one of the 
end-branches of the internal pudic arterv of the female ; 
it is distributed to the glans and prepuce of the clitoris. 
A., Dorsal ( of the little toe ), a branch of the dorsalis 
pedis or the metatarsal artery given off on the fibular 
side of the dorsum of the little toe. A., Dorsal (of 




the nose), a branch of ihe internal maxillary or of the 
ophtlialmic artery extending down from the internal 
angle of the eye on the dorsai aspect of the nose. 
A., Dorsal, Inner (of tlic thumb), a branch of the 
radial artery which is given olT opposite to the base of 
the metacarpal b(->ne of the thumb ; it su]5plies the 
radial side of the dorsum of the thumb. A., Dorsal, 
Posterior (of the ]jenis), in veterinary anatomy the 
analog of the dorsal artery of the penis in man. A.s, 
Dorsocarpal. See .-l.s. Carpal, Dorsal. A.s, 
Dorsointerosseous. See A., Interosseous, Dorsal 
(lUus. iJict. ). A.s, Dorsoradial, the dorsal digital 
arteries on the radial side of the fingers. A., Dorso- 
ulnar, the dorsal digital arteries on the ulnar aspect of 
the fingers. A., Esophageal Aortic, branches of the 
thoracic aorta distributed to the esophagus, pericardium, 
and pleura. A., Externoarticular, Superior. See 
A., Articular, Superior Ex/ ( Ulus. Diet. i. A., 
Femoropopliteal, in veterinary anatomy a branch of 
the popliteal artery distributed to the dorsum of the leg 
and thigh. A. -forceps, a hemostat. A., Frontal, a 
branch of the ophthalmic artery ; it ascends the inner 
pait of the orbital arch and supplies the periosteum, 
muscles, ami integument \A the middle foreheail. A.s, 
Frontal, External and Inferior, a division of the 
middle cerebral artery ; it is distributed to the outer 
third of the lower surface of the third frontal gyrus. 
A.s, Frontal, Posterior and Internal, branches 
of the anterior cerebral artery distributed over the 
precuneus. A., Funicular. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. 
See A., Deferential : and .-/., Spertnatie, K.xtertial 
(Illus. Diet. ). A., Gastric, Great, Left. See 
A., Gaslrie (Illus. Diet.). A., Gastric, Left. 
See A., Gar.lroef'ifloie, Left (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Gastrohepatic, Superior. See A., Gastric (Illus. 
Diet.). A.s, Gastroomental, the right and left 
gastroepiploic arteries. A.s, Gill-arch, the aortic 
arches. A., Glossofacial. See ./., I-'aeial (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Guttural, Inferior. See A., Thyroiit, 
Inferior {\\\\\*. Diet.). A., Hepatic, Biliary. See 
A., Hepatic. Ri,:;ht (Illus. Diet.). A., Hepatic, 
Left, a right-angled branch of the hepatic artery, 
entering the liver at the left end of the transverse 
fissure ; it gives off branches to the Spigelian lobe. 
A., Humeral, Deep, in veterinary anatomy a branch 
of the brachial artery supplying the extensor muscles 
of the front leg and the parts adjacent to the olecranon. 
A., Hypogastric, Uterine. See ^., Uterine (Illus. 
Diet). A., Iliac, Posterior. See .-/., Gluteal 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Iliacofemoral, i. In veterinary 
anatomy, a branch of the internal iliac artery supplying 
the muscles of the dorsum of the thigh. 2. In the 
plural, applied to some insignificant rami of the obtu- 
rator artery in man. A., Iliomuscular. See .7., 
Ilioluiiihar (Illus. Diet.). A.s, Intercostal, Col- 
lateral, the rami of the aortic intercostal arteries lying 
on the superior margins of the ribs. A., Interno- 
articular, Superior. See .-/., Articular. Superior 
Internal (Illus. Diet). A., Interosseous, First 
Dorsal (of the foot). See .-/. dorsalis liallticis (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Ischiadic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A 
branch of the lateral sacral artery, which occurs in some 
quadrupeds ; it passes under the upper part of the 
vastus longus muscle and supplies the ischiotibial 
muscles. A., Ischioclitorian. See A. of the Clitoris 
(Illus. Diet. ). As, Laminal, Anterior,. in the horse, 
divisions of the plantar arch a.'^cending into the laminar 
tissue. A., Maxillomuscular, in veterinary anatomy 
a branch of the external carotid artery suiJplying the 
internal pterygoid and masseter muscles. A., Medio- 
colic. See -J., Colic. Middle (Illus. Diet). A.s, 
Medullary, I. Those supplying the medullary sub- 

stance of the brain. 2. The nutrient arteries. A., 
Mesenteric, Great, in veterinary anatomy the ana- 
log of the superior mesenteric artery in man. A., 
Mesenteric, Small, in veterinary anatomy a branch 
of the abdominal aorta supjilying the lower part of the 
colon and rectum. A., Mesentericoduodenal. .See 
.A.. Pancreaticoduodenal. Inferior (Illus. Diet.). 
A.s, Metacarpal, Interosseous, Posterior, in 
veterinary anatomy two branches of the radiopalmar 
artery supplying the jiosterior parts of the metacarpus. 
A., Metatarsopedal, in ungulates one of the two ter 
minal branches of the pedal arter\' ; it follows the 
metatarsus and divides into the collateral arteries of 
the digits. A., Muscular, Great Anterior (of the 
thigh I. See A.. Femoral, Superficial (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Muscular, Great Posterior (of the thigh). See 
A., femoral. Deep (Illu.s. Diet.). A., Muscular, 
Superficial (of the thigh), a branch of the femoral 
artery supplying the muscles of the dorsum of the 
thigh. A., Nasal, Lateral, Great. See .7. , .S//;c«o- 
palalinc (Illus. Diet. ), A., Nutrient (of the fibula), 
a small branch of the peroneal arterv tiistiibuted to the 
fibula. A., Nutrient, Inferior (of tiic fenun), a branch 
of the third perforating artery of the thigh, entering the 
femur above the middle. A., Occipital. (See Illus. 
Diet. ) 2. A branch of the posterior cerebral artery 
distributed to the occipital gyri and surrounding parts. 
A., Occipital, Retrograde. See A., Atloidomuscu- 
lar. A., Occipitodorsal, a branch of the cervicopul- 
monary arleiy supfilving the dorsal peclt)ral and the 
lateral cranial regions in the toad. A., Occipito- 
muscular, in many of the lower animals one of the 
terminal branches of the occij-iital artery sup[>lying the 
occiput. A., Optic, External Dorsal, a division of 
the posterior cerebral artery ascending through the 
substance of the cms and distributed to the adjacent 
part of the thalamu.s. A., Palatine, Anterior, the 
continuatK>n of the pterygr>palatine arter\' distributed 
to the anterior pillars of the fauces and the adjacent 
gums. A., Palatolabial. See.-/., Facial: and./., 
Palatine, Superior [\\\ui. Diet.). A.s, Palpebral, 
Internal, the palpebral Ijranches given off by the 
ophthalmic artery A., Parietal, Middle, that branch 
of the middle cerebral artery which, a.scending the fis- 
sure of Rolando, is distributed to its convolutions and 
at times to the anterior ptirticm of the first parietal 
gyrus. A., Parietal, Posterior, a branch of the mid- 
dle cerebral artery supplying the inferior parietal and 
first temporal gyri. A.s, Perforating, Anterior (of 
the fool), inconstant connniuiicating blanches between 
the dorsal digital arteries of the foot and the plantar 
arch. A., Perforating. First (of the thigh), that 
branch of the deep fi'inoral artery which arises at the 
lower border of the pcctineus muscle, perforates the 
adductor brevis and magnus muscles, to which it gives 
oft' branches; it is distributed to the semitendinosus, 
semimejnbranosus. and the gluteus maxiimrs muscles. 
A., Perforating, Fourth ( of the thigh t, a division of 
the deeji femoral artery sup|>lying the shoit head of 
the biceps muscle. A.s, Perforating, Inferior (of 
the hand); branches of the dorsal interosseous arteries 
connecting them widi the palmar digital arteries. A., 
Perforating, Middle (of the thigh 1. See.-/., Perfo- 
rating, Second (of the thigh). A., Perforating, 
Second (of the thigh), that branch of the deep femi> 
ral artery which arises just below the lower bortler of 
the pectineus muscle and which after j>erforating the 
adductor magnus and longus muscles supplies the mus- 
cles of the posterior portion of the thigh. Also called 
Middle perforating artery of the thigh. A., Per- 
forating, Superior (of the hand), the three branches 
of the palmar arch which, passing through the upper 




part of the three inner interosseous spaces of the hand, 
anastomose witii the dorsal interosseous arteries. A., 
Perforating, Superior (of the thigh). See .J.. Ptr- 
forattn^, firsl (of the thigh). A., Perforating, 
Third (of the thigh ), that branch of the deep temoral 
which is distributed to the adductor magnus muscle. 
Also called Inferior perforating artery of the thigh. 
A.s, Pericardiacophrenic, the pericardiac divisions 
of the internal mammarj- artery connecting witli sternal 
ramifications of the same artery and with branches of 
the superior plirenic, bronchial, and intercostal arteries 
to form the subpleural mediastinal plexus. A., Peri- 
cephalic. See .•/. , Carotid, External {XW^ii. Diet.). 
A., Perineal, i. Same as A., Perineal, Superficial, 
or the trunk from which the superficial and transverse 
perineal arteries have their origin. 2. See A. of the 
Corpus cavernosuin ( Ulus. Diet.). A., Perineal, 
Deep. See A. of the Corpus eavernosum (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Placental. See I'ein, Uniiilieal ylWus. 
Diet.). A., Plantar, Superficial. See A., A/eta- 
larsopedal. A., Pollicar. .See A. prineeps pollicis 
(Illus. Diet ). A., Popliteal Articular, the articular 
arteries of the knee A. , Postcribral. See -J, Perfo- 
rating;. Posterior (Illus. Diet.). A., Precribral. See 
A., Perforating Anterior \\\\tx%. Diet.). A., Prehu- 
meral, in veterinary anatomy that branch of the brachial 
artery which descends between the heads of the coraco- 
humeral muscle and supplies the mastoidohumeral and 
other muscles of the shoulder-joint. A., Preplantar, 
A., Preplantar Ungual, in veterinary anatomy that 
branch of the digital artery which descends through 
the preplantar fissure, and supplies the bulb of the 
heel and the villous and laminal tissues of the foot. 
A., Prepubic, in veterinary anatomy that brancli of the 
e.xternal iliac or femoral artery which, after passing 
through the crural ring, is divided into two branches. 
They are the analogs of the superficial epigastric, 
the epigastric, and external pudic arteries of man. 
A., Prevertebral, in veterinary anatomy that branch 
of the occipital artery which is distributed to the men- 
inges and to the rotator muscles of the head. A., 
Pudic, E.xternal, Middle, an inconstant branch of 
the superficial epigastric artery distributed to the in- 
tegument of the lower part of the abdomen, to the 
scrotum of the male, and the labia of tlie female. A., 
Pudic, Subcutaneous External. See A., PuJie, 
External Superior i Illus. Diet. ). A., Pudic, Super- 
ficial, the superior external pudic artery. A-, Radio- 
carpal. See -•/., Radial Carpal A.s, Retinal, the 
central artery of the retina and the upper and lower 
arteries on the nasal side and on the temporal side of 
the optic nerve. A., Rough, the trachea ; a term 
used by Fabricius and other writers of the Middle 
Ages. Syn., Arteria aspera. • A., Sacral, Anterior. 
See.-/., Sacral, Middle [W\\i=,. Diet ). A.s, Sacro- 
lateral. See A., Sacral. Lateral [\\\w%. Diet ) A., 
Sacromedian. See A., Sacral, Middle (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Saphena, in veterinary anatomy that branch of 
the I'einoral artery which descends the leg along with 
the sa}>henous vein, and which supplies the hollow of 
the back and the integuniental tissues of the anterior 
lower third of the leg. A., Saphenous, Great. See 
A., Saphenous (Illus. Diet.). A., Scapular, Com- 
mon. See A., Subscapular ( I) (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Scrotal, Anterior. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The end 
of the inferior external jiudic arterv on th'e ventral 
part of the scrotum. A.s, Segmental, arteries dis- 
tributed to the embryonic segments. A. of the Sep- 
tum narium, I. The nasopalatine artery. 2. .\ 
branch of the coronary artery of the upjier lip dis- 
tributed to the nasal septum. A., Spermatic, Inter- 
nal. In the male it is the spermatic artery proper ; 

in the female it is the aortic uterine artery [<j. v. ). A., 
Spinal, Dorsal. See A., Spinal, Posterior (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Spinal, Ventral. See A , Spinal., An- 
terior (Illus. Diet. I. A.s, Spiral. See A.s, Uleropta- 
eental i Illus. Diet. ). A.s, Straight (of the kidney), 
those branches of the renal aner)' which, arising at the 
bases of the pyramids of Malpighi, terminate at their 
apices in venous plexuses. A., Subaponeurotic Ex- 
ternal Pudic. See .-/., Pudic, External, Z'<v/( Illus. 
Diet. ). A.s, Subpontine, branches of the basilar 
arter)' to the pons. A., Subzygomatic, in veterinary 
anatomy a branch of the external carotid artery, supply- 
ing the masseter muscle. A., Superficial (of the ab- 
domen). See.-/., Piidi.. External, .S'upeificial {lUas. 
Diet.). A., Suprarenal, Aortic. See J4., Capsular 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Sural, Superficial, branches of the 
sural arteries suj^plying the integument of the calf of the 
leg. A., Sylvian, the middle cerebral arterv. A., 
Tarsal, Transverse, the internal and external tarsal 
arteries taken together. A., Thyroid, Accessory, in 
veterinary anatomy the analog of the middle thyroid 
artery in human beings. A., Tympanic, Anterior, 
See A., Auditory, External. A.s, Ulnar, Digital, 
any or all of the digital arteries on the ulnar sides of 
the fingers. A., Ulnar profunda (of the h.indi, the 
deep terminal portion of the artery just before 
the formation of the superficial palmar arch. A., 
Ulnocarpal, Posterior, that branch of the ulnar ar- 
tery extending across the back of the wrist, and, 
uniting with a similar branch of the radial artery, aids 
in forming the posterior carpal arch. A.s, Umbili- 
cofetal, those arteries of the fetus which convey 
fetal blood through the umbilical cord to the chorionic 
villi of the placenta ; they arise from the hypogastric 
arteries. A., Urethral. See A. of /he Buli' i Illus 
Diet.). A., Uterine, Aortic, A., Uteroovarian. 
Same as A., Aortic Uterine. A. of the Vas deferens. 
See A., Deferential (Illus. Diet.). A.s, Vertebral, 
Inferior, the embryonic aortic arches. A., Volar (of 
the little finger), that branch of the superficial palmar 
arch of the ulnar artery which passes to the radial side 
of the palmar surface of the little finger. A.s, Volar 
Digital. See A.s, Volar A'adial, and A., Volar 
Ulnar. A.s, Volar Interosseal. See A., Interos- 
seous, Palmar {\\\ni. Diet). A.s, Volar Perforant, 
Inferior, tlie inferior perforating arteries of the hand. 
A.s, Volar Radial, all or any of the digital arteries on 
the radial side of the palmar surface of the fingers. A., 
Volar Ulnar (of the little finger), that branch of the 
deep palmar arch or of the ulnar artery which passes 
to the ulnar side of the palmar surface of the little 
finger. A., Zinn's, the central artery of the retina. 

Arthanita (ar-lhan-it'-ah) [I..]. The plant Cyclamen 
europieum and also an ointment from it. 

Arthanitin (ar-than'-it-in). See Cyclamin. 

Arthragrosis {ar-thrag-ro^ -sis') [rtp/*/jor, a joint ; oypa, 
seizure (pi., arthragroses)']. Gout. In the plural, 
gouty disorders affecting the skin. 

Arthralgia. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn.. .Irthroneuralgia : 
-■irticular neuralgia. A. saturnina, pain in the 
joints and rigiditv and cramps in the aj^proximate 
muscles ; it is symptomatic of lead-poisoning. 

Arthrectasia, Arthrectasis (ar-lhreh-ta'-ze-ah, ar- 
threk-ta'-sis) [iiiiftpov, a joint; kuratsu;, dilation]. 
Dilation of a joint-cavity. 

Arthredema, ATthTcedeTna (ar-thred'-e-mah) [anft/inr, 
a joint; (>.''V//;«, a swelling tumor]. Edema affecting 
a joint. 

Arthremphyte (ar-threm'-fit) [^apfipof, joint ; fi', in ; 
oir/i, til grow]. See .4rihrolilli. 

Arthrentasis iar-thren-ta'-sis) [<i,iftioi', a limb ; irraai(, 
a stretching]. Distortion of the limbs due to gout. 




Arthric {^ar'-thrik) [apHpov, a joint]. Pertaining to a 

Arthrifluent {ai-t/iri-Jiii'-eiil) [«/)H/)Oi', a joint ; y?/«vv", 
to liow]. Applied to abscesses proceeding from a dis- 
eased joint. 

Arthritic. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. Relating to a joint. 

Arthritis. (See lUus. Diet.) A. aberrans, retro- 
cedenl gout. A., Acute, acute jointinllamination, 
particularly that due to gout. Syn., A. 7Yra. A., 
Acute Serous, acute synovitis. A. alba. See 
Liilciitis, P^tiidoinembranotis (Illus. Diet). A. 
americana. See /■>•<(«//'£«(; (lUus. I)ict.). A. arthro- 
dynia, gout. A., Asthenic, A., Atonic. See Gout, 
Aloitii. A. asthmatica, a form observed in elderly 
persons suljject to astlinia, and mitigated by an attack 
of the latter. A., Atrophic. Synonym of C/i.ii;o/'s 
Joint Dtii'ase. A., Atypic, gout deviating from the 
noimal course. Syn., Aiwiiiiilotis art/iii/is. A., Blen- 
norrhagic, gonorrheal rheumatism. A. calida, acute 
arthritis. A., Chronic, a form in which ihc joints are 
not so nuuh affected as are tither parts of the body. 
A., Chronic Atrophic. Synonym of Charcot's Joint 
Disease. A., Chronic Rheumatic (.\dams). See 
Osteoarthritis (Illus. Diet). A., Chronic Strumous. 
See A. fuiigosa (Illus. Diet ). A., Diaphragmatic, 
angina pectoris. A., Dry. See Osteoart/irilis (Illus. 
Diet. ). A., Erratic, retrocedent or metastatic gout. 
A. febricosa, a mild form attending remittent fever. 
A. febrisequa, a form occurring as the sequel of a 
lever. A. fixa, that confined to the joint first attacked. 
A. frigida. See.-/., Chronic. A., Gelatinous. See 
A. Jiin^'osii (Illus. Diet.). A., Gonorrheal, gonor- 
rheal synovitis. A. hiemalis, winter gout, a form 
occurring less frequently in summer than in other sea- 
sons. A. hydrarthros. See I/yiirarthros (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Internal. .See A., I'isiera!. A., In- 
tervertebral. See Spondylarthritis (Illus. Diet.). 
A. ischias, gout in the hip. A. larvata. A., Latent, 
a masked form not manifested by the usual symptoms. 
A, maxillaris, rheumatoid arthritis of the temporo- 
maxillary joint. A., Melancholic, a mild form due 
to debility. A.. Metastatic, Retrograde, retrocedent 
gout. A. nodosa. See Oitcoarthrilis ( Illus. Diet.). 
A. planetica, retrocedent gout. A. podagra, gout 
in the feet. A., Retrograde, suppressed gout. A. 
rheumatismo superveniens. See Osteoarthritis 
(Illus. Diet. ). A. sicca, Arthrite seche [Fr.]. See 
Osteoarthritis (Illus. Diet. |. A., Strumous. &e .4. 
fungosa {\\\\!i%. Diet.). A., Subdiarthrodial, a fonn 
of fungous arthritis in which fleshy granulations occur 
between the bone and the cartilage of the joint. A., 
Suppurative, arthritis attended with purulent joint 
infiltration; purulent arthritis. Syn., .-lifseessi/s artie- 
uii. A. syphilitica, gonorrheal rheumatism ; also 
the nocturnal pains of syphilis. A. tabidorum 
atrophica. Synonym of Chariot's Joint Disease. 
A., Tuberculous, tuberculosis of a joint. A. typ- 
ica, acute arthritis. A., Uratic. See A. iiriea. A., 
Urethral, gonorrheal rheumatism. A. urica, gout 
attributed to excessive formation of uric acid. Syn., 
A. nraliea : Panarthritis uriea : L'arthritis. A. 
vaga, metastatic or retrocedent gout. A. venerea. 
See A. syphilitica. A. vera. See .-/., Acute. A. 
vertebralis, a breakdown of the intervertebral disks. 
A., Visceral, gout aft'ecting an internal organ, with 
alternating attacks in the joints. 

Arthritolith \ar-thril'-o-lith). See Artholilh. 

Arthroarctia {ar-thro-arf-te-ah). See Arthrosteno- 

Arthrobacterium (ar-thro-haik-te'-re-ii'ii) [iipftpnv, 
joint; Bacterium'^. A bacterium forming arthrospores. 
See Bacteria, Table </ (Illus. Diet.). 

Arthrocace. (See Illus. Diet.) A. agniculorum, 
a disease observed in lambs, pigs, calve-, and colts 
soon after birth and attribute<l to blood-poisoning from 
inflammation of the umbilical vein. A. coxarum. 
See Coxa/gia (Illus. Diet.). A. puUorum equino- 
rum. See A. agniculorum. A., Senile, changes in 
the joints occurring in the aged. A. vitulorum. See 
.-/. a.;niculoriiin. 

Arthrocarcinoma (ar-thro-tar-sin-o'-mah) [apftpor, 
a joint; KapKivuua, carcinoma]. Carcinoma affecting 
a joint. 

Arthrocenchriasis (ar-thro-sen-kri'-as-is) [u/'"^'"'', a 
joint ; \f; 17""'.', like a grain of millet]. A miliary 
eruption occurring about a joint. 

Arthrocleisis (ar-thro-i'li'-sis) [a/jWpoi', a joint ; K/.eieiv, 
to shut]. See Arthroilesis [lUus. Diet.). 

Arthrodactylous (ar-thro-daiy-til-us ) [iiiiH/mi; a joint ; 
thmrv'/oi;, a finger]. Having articulated digits. 

Arthroectasia, Arthroectasis (ar-thro-ek-ta'-ze-ah, 
■el.-'-la-iis). See Arthrectasis. 

Arthrohyal (ar-thro-hi'-al). See Stytohyal (Illus. 

Arthrohydrin {ar-thro-hi'-drin). See Synmin (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Arthrolith {ar'-thro-lith) [iififtpiiv , a joint; //flof, a 
stone]. One of the free bodies which occur in joints 
arising from the segmentation of warty outgrowths of 
joint cartilage or of synovial membrane. Syn., Arthro- 
phyte : Arthremphyte ; Joint-hodies : Joint-mice ; 
Mures articulares ; Corpora inobilia articuloriim ; Cor- 
pora libera articuloruni ; Tophus arthriticus. Ar- 

Arthrolithiasis {^ar/hro-lith-i'-as-is) [ap6pov, a joint ; 
/'''"';, a stone]. Gout. 

Arthrology [ar-throl'-o-je) [iijfipov, a joint; /ojof, 
science]. The science of joints. 

Arthromeningitis. (See Illus. Diet.) A. chronica. 
See Itydrarlhrosis (Illus. Diet.). A. crouposa, syn- 
ovitis with membranous exudate; a rare attection de- 
scribed by Bonnet. A. gonorrhoeica, gonorrheal 
rheumatism. A. prolifera. See Arthritis fungosa 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Arthronempyesis (^ar-thron-em-pi-e'-sis). See Ar- 
throempyc.iis (Illus. Diet.). 

Arthroneuralgia (ar-thro-nu-ral'-je-ah). See Ar- 
thralgia (Illus. Diet.). 

Arthroparalysis ( ar-thro-par-al'-is-is') [apflpox, a limb ; 
paralrsis']. Paralysis of a limb. 

Arthropathology (ar-thro-path-ol'-o-je) [apfipov,y>mi; 
-iiiini;, disease ; /•";'«;, science]. The branch of 
pathology dealing with joint-diseases. 

Arthropathy. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Ataxic, A., 
Tabetic. See ^;//in'/>(7///r ( Illus. Diet. ). A., Ver- 
tebral, arthropathy with depressions and rugosities 
of the vertebras. 

Arthroperissia {ar-thro-per-isf-e-ah') [a/jflpoii, a joint ; 
-tftir,r,iir, unusual]. An abnormal number of limbs or 

Arthroperittia [ar-thro-per-it'e-ah). See Arthro- 

Arthrophlogosis. (See Illus. Diet. ) A. deformans, 
chronic osteoarthritis. A. externa, inflammation 
around a joint. A. fibrosa. See Arthritis fungosa 
(Illus. Diet.). A. interna, inflammation within the 
joint. A. synovialis. See Syno'iiitis ilWus. Diet.). 

Arthrophlysis ( ar-throf'-lis-is ) [opM^mi', a joint ; o/iCf , 
an eruption]. Gout accompanied with a cutaneous 
eruption. A. cardiaca. See .Miliaria arthritica. A. 
vulgaris. See Eczema arthriticum. 

Arthrophyma (ar-thro-fi'-mah) [ciifipov, a joint; 
cjyim, a tumor]. .\ tumefaction of a joint. A. adeno- 
chondrium. See Arthritis fungosa {\\\us. Diet.). 




Arthrophyte {ai-'-t/iro-ftl) [afApuv, a joint; ijiVTiv, a 
growth]. See Arf/iroiith. 

Arthropyosis \ai-thro-pi-</-sis). See Pyarthrosii 
illlus. Diet.). 

Arthrorrhagia (ar-thro-iaf-e-ah) [apfl/joi', a joint; 
ptr^vrnHm, to bur>t forth]. Hemorrhage into a joint. 

Arthrorrheumatism [ar-t/iro-rii'mnt-izm) [a/iW^jof, a 
joint; rhetttnatism^. Articular rheumatism. 

Arthrosia. (See Ilius. Diet. ) A. coxendicis, sciatica. 
A. hydrarthrus. See Arlhrilis J'linx'i'sa ( Illus. 
Diet. I. A. podagra complicata, relroeedent gout. 
A. podagra larvata, atonic gout. A. thoracis. See 
rLidoJynia I Illus. Diet. ). 

Arthrosteitis ( nr-lhro-ste-i'-tis) [a^jflpoi', a joint ; oartor, 
bone]. Intlainmation of the bone about a joint. 

Arthrostenosis (ar-zhro-stcii-o'-sis) [aptipov, a joint; 
erniunir, a narrowing]. Contraction of a joint. 

Arthrosteophyma (ar-t/iro-sle-o-Ji'-mah) [afidpov, a 
joint; oariov, bone; pi'uo, tumor]. A tumor of the 
bone in a joint. 

Arthrosteresis {arthro-slere'-sh) [hi>ftfmv, a limb ; 
ryrtwio'ir, loss]. The absence of a limb or limbs. 

Arthrostitis (ar-lhro-sti'-tis). See ArlhrosUilis. 

Arthrosymphysis [tir-f/i rosin/ -Jiz-is) \ap6poi\ joint; 
(jiuoinif, a growing together]. See Ankylosis (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Arthrotophus [nr-Z/iro-to'-fus). See Arthrolith. 

Arthrotrauma {<ir-thro-lra-,i''-mah) [n/>'>/)or, a joint; 
-:_niiii'i, an injury]. An injurj' to a joint. 

Arthrotropia uir-thro-lri/-pc-tth) \_<'ii)ilpov, a limb; 
->io-/;\ a turning]. Torsion of a limb. 

Arthrotyphoid iyiir-lliro-ti' -foi<l). Typhoid fever with 
articular involvement. 

Arthroxerosis {ar-thro %er-</-sis) [a/)fl/;or, a joint ; 
^fpurrif, a dry state]. Chronic osteoarthritis. 

Article (aii'-ikl) \j-iiiicu!us, a little joint]. A joint; a 
segment of a jointed series. 

Articularis [ar-iik-ii /a'-ris). Articular. A. genu. 
See Snlnriir^iis, in Table of Muscles (Illus. Diet.). 

Articulary [ar-li//-ii-l(tr-e). Articular. 

Articulatio(<(/-///6-«-/<i'-j/;t'-o) [L.]. SeeAr/iciilation. 
A. cardiniformis. See 0'ini,'lym/is, under Diar/lirosis 
(Illus. Diet.). A. chopartii. See Join/, Choparfs. 
A. dubia. See Anifhiarthrosis (Illus. Diet.). A. 
lisfrancii, the tarsometatarsal articulations. A. 
notha. See Aiiieulnlion, False. A. plana. See 
AilhroJi,! (Illus. Diet.). 

Articulation. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. The articu- 
lating contact of tlie cusps in the positions of 
mastication. A., Abnormal, A., Accidental. 
See A., False. A., Amphiarthrodial. See Am- 
phiarthrosis (Illus. Diet.). A., Arthrodial. See 
Arthi-odia (Illus. Diet.). A., Ball-and-socket. 
See Enarthrosis (Illus. Diet.). A., Band, ."^ee 
5i'«(fa/«(w/y (Illus. Diet.). A., Bicondylar, that of 
two condyles separated by a biconcave tibrocartilage. 
A., Bitrochlear, one in which two fibrocartilages inter- 
vene between the articulating surfaces. A. by Con- 
tiguity. See Di irlhrosis i Illus. Diet.). A. by Con- 
tinuity. See Anif'hiarthrosis (Illus. Diet). A., 
Cup-and-ball. See £'«<j;///nw.r ( Illus. Diet. ) . A., 
Diarthrodial. See Diarthrosis ( Illus. Diet. ). A., 
False, a false articulation formed between the end of 
a dislocated bone and the contiguous parts or between 
the parts of a broken bone. Syn., Pseiidarlhrosis. A., 
Ginglymoid. See Giir^'vnitis, under Diavthrosis 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Immovable. See Synarthrosis 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Mixed. See Amphiarlhrosis 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Mobile, A., Movable Sre 
Diarthrosis (Illus. Diet.). A. by Mutual Recep- 
tion, that form of ginglynius in which a shallow eur\ed 
groove articulates with a curved ridge. A., Neutral. 

See Amphiarlhrosis (Illus. Diet.). A., Obsolete, 
an articulation which is not apparent. A., Semi- 
mobile. See Amphiarlhrosis (Illus. Diet. 1. A., 
Supernumerary. See .-/., False. A., Supple- 
mentary, a false articulation in which the ends of the 
fragments become rounded and covered with a fibrous 
capsule. A., Synovial, a joint lubricated with syn- 
ovia. A.s, Tarsometatarsal, the articulations, ex- 
ternal, internal, and niiddle, between the cuboid and 
metatarsal bones. Syn., Lisfrane s. joint. A., Tro- 
choid, A., \A^heel-and-axle. See Cyclarthrosis 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Articulatory {ar-tik'-ula-tor-e). Relating to utter- 

Articulus (ar-tik'-ii-liis\ [dim. of artiis, a joint ; pi. and 
gen., rf/-//W^//]. I. A joint, a knuckle. 2. A segment, 
a part, a limb. 3. ,\ moment of lime. A.aqua articu- 
lorum, the synovial fluid. Articuli coarctatio. See 
Arthrostenosis. Articuli dilatatio. >ee Arthreeta- 
sis. Articuli of the Lenticular Nucleus, the divi- 
sions of the lenticula, the outer one known as the 
piitatiien, the two or three others constituung the 
f;lohiis pallidns. A. notus, A. novus. See Psctid- 
arthrosis (Illus. Diet.). A. prsenaturalis, A. spu- 
rius. See Fseudart/iiosis [\\\\ii. Diet.). 

Artificial Respiration. (See Illus. Diet.) Braun's 
Mtihod : The injection of 5 or 6 drops of brandy or 
whisky into the anus. Calliano's Method : A modifi- 
cation of Sylvester's ; the arms are drawn up so as to 
expand the thora.x and then fixed above and behind 
the head by fastening the wrists together. Pressing 
with the hands upon the thorax some iS to 20 times a 
minute induced respiration. Cooke's Method: The 
introduction of the lubricated finger into the rectum. 
Laborde' s Method. See under 7>v<f/;//<-H/ (Illus. Diet.). 
RosenthaP s Method : Compression of the knees, hips, 
and spine in rapid succession in order to induce expi- 
ration ; inspiration is favored by stretching the body. 

Artistomia [ar-te-sto^-me-ah) [«/'"', exactly ; croua, a 
mouth]. I. Distinctness in utterance. 2. The con- 
dition of an aperture, especially in surgical incisions, 
in which the size is perfectly adapted to the purpose. 

Artiyls {ar'-te-ils) \apTior, complete]. Lowig's name 
for hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH.^n. 

Artocarpus (ar-to-kar'-pus) \apTm:, bread; nap-ic, a. 
fruit]. A genus of trees of the order L rtieaeetr, in- 
cluding the breadfrait-tree, A. ineisa. A. blumei, an 
East Indian species with an edible fniit, the oil of 
which is used in diarrhea ; an ointment from the buds 
and leaves is applied to buboes A. integrifolius, L., 
Indian Jack-tree, a species native in India; prized for 
its wood ; the root is used in diarrhea and as an exter- 
nal application in leprosy; the root-bark is used as a 

Artopta (ar-top'-tah) [apriof, ready, sound; o-7df, 
visible]. H. Deventer's term for puerperas having 
easy, rapid labor. 

Arundo {ar-nii'-do) [L.]. I. -\ reed, 2. A surgical 
splint. 3. A genus of grasses. A. donax, L., Provence 
cane, a species native in southern Europe, cultivated 
in England ; the rhizome is used as a diuretic, diapho- 
retic, and aniigalactic. 

Arycorniculatus (ar-e-korn-ik-n-la'-tits). See under 

Arysantorinianus (ar-e-san-to-rin-i-a^-nt/s). See under 


Arysyndesmicus (ar-e-sin-dez'-mii-its). See under 

Arytenectomy ( ar-e-ten-ek'-to-me) [nplrnnn. a pitcher; 
f\ro///,, a cutting out]. Removal of an arytenoid car- 
tilage, usually the left, in the horse to counteract roar- 




Arytenoid. (See lUus. Diet.) 2. Pertaining to the 
arylciuiiil cartilages. 

Arytenoidectomy (dr-t'-tfii-oiil-ek'-to-iiie) \_iiiylfii0i(i ; 
eKTo/ii/, a cutting out]. Removal of an arytenoid car- 

Arytenoiditis {(tt-,'-/,-ii-i>i</-i'-/is). Inflammation of 
the arytenoid cartilage or nuisclfs. 

Asab [Ar. ]. An African venereal disease said to difi'er 
from >yphilis. 

Asarene [irs'-nr-fti). CjuHjg. A terpene found in oil 
of Asnniin cattadeitse. 

Asarin [as'-nr-in). C^^M^fi^. See .-Isdrom (Illus. 

Asbestiform {iis-lu-st'-e-form) [asbestos']. Fibrous in 

Asbolic, Asbolicous, Asbolicus (as-iol'-ik, -us) 
[.'j(7 j«/i«, soot]. Sooty; due to soul; e. ^'., CareiHonia 
Si roti tishoiu'uin. 

Asbolin (as' -hol-iii') [off,3o/.nf, soot]. A bitter, acrid, 
yellow oil extracted from soot ; it is used in tuberculo- 

Aschistodactyly {^as-kisl-o-Jak'-til-c'). See Aschislo- 
d.ulylism ^ Illus. Diet.). 

Ascidiate (iis-iJ'-t--at). Shaped like or furnished with 
an ascidium. 

Ascidiform, Ascidioid [as-iii'-e-form, as-iJ'-eoiJ). 
.See . l^iiform. 

Asciform (as'-e-fonii) [«<T/>or, a wine skin]. Shaped 
like a sac, pouch, tlask, pitcher, vase, ascus, or as- 

Ascites. (See Ulus. Diet.) Syn., Hvdropt-i'itoneiiiii ; 
Jlvdi'ops pt:7-iloitai ; Alnivmiital dropsy. A., Landou's 
Sign of. See under iVs.'//. A., Active, A., Acute, 
that in which there is a sudden large effu^ion due to 
e.xposure or cold. A., Chronic, that in which the 
efliusion is very gradual in progress. A- cruentus, 
hemorrhage into the ]:)eritoneum. A., Encysted. 
See .7. saccii/iis. A. exquartana, that due to quartan 
intermittent fever. A., Hydremic, that caused by or 
accompanying a watery state of the bkjod. A. inter- 
cus, an effusion occurring between the skin and the 
peritimeum. A. intermuscularis, edema of the ab- 
dominal muscles. A., Mechanical, A., Passive, 
that due to diseases which retard the blood-current in 
the portal vein. A. oleosus. See A. adiposiis [IWws. 
Diet.). A., Purulent, an accumulation of pus in the 
peritoneum. A. saccatus, I. A form in whicli the 
eftusion is prevented by adhesions or inflammatory exu- 
date from entering the general peritoneal cavity. Syn., 
EitcysU'd dropsy of the peritoneum, 2. An ovarian 
cystoma. A. sanguineointurcus, a hemorrhage 
under the peritoneum, between it and the abdcmiinal 
muscles. A. sanguineoperitonjeus, a hemorrhage 
into the abdominal muscles. A., Sanguineous, a 
bloody form affecting sheep and lambs. Syn., Diar- 
rhemia. A. sanguineouterinus. See Ileiifatoiiietra 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Subcutaneous, edema of the 
abdominal walls. A. urinosus, an effusion of urine 
into the peritoneum. A., Uterine, A. of the Uterus. 
.See Jlydroiiictra i Illus. Diet). A. vaginalis, a 
collection of litjuid within the sheatli of the rectus 
abdominis muscle. A., Visceral. .See .■/., Mce/ian- 
ical. A. vulgatior, a form apparentlv due to dis- 
ea.sed kidneys and jireceded by scanty, highly colored 

Asclepias. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants 
of the order AsclepiadeiC. A. longifolia, Michx., of 
the western United States, is diaphoretic. 

Asclepidin {as-ilrp'-id-hi). A proprietary deobstruent 
preparation said to be obtained from Asclepias tuberosa. 
Dose, 1-5 gr 11.3-3.7gm.) 

Asclepidora (as-ile-pe-o-dot-rah) ['AtTK/.^TfOf, .Escu- 

iapius, tlie god of medicine; fiufiov, a gift]. .A genus 
of plants of the order .-Ist/epiadeu'. A. decumbens. 
Gray, a species of New Mexico, is used in the treatment 
of snake-bites. ' 

Asclepion (as-i/e'-pe-on). Cj„H,„Oj. .\ substance 
f^)rming o<iorless, tasteless crystals isolated by List 
(18491 {\'on\. Ase/fpias syriaea^ L. 

Ascobacillus [as-Av-bas-i/'-m). See Bacteria, Table 
of (IWnr.. Diet.). 

Ascoidium (as-io-id'-e-uiii) [uff/tof, a sac; fitW, like- 
ness]. .-V genus of Infusoria found in the urine and 
feces of typhoid fever patients, in sewage, in the excre- 
ment of rattle, and in the cecum of swine. 

Ascyphous. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. Without a head 
(applied to nionstersi. 

Asebotoxin (alt-se-io-tots'-in) \a, priv. ; sebum, fat; 
to.xiiuni, poison]. A poisonous glucosid found by 
I'lugge (18S3) in Pieris japouica. 

Asellin. See Ptomaius, fable of (Illus. Diet.). 

Asemia. (See Illus. Diet ) A. mitnica. 'See Aiiiimia 
(Illus. Diet.). A. spuria. See Parasemia (Illus. 

Aseptolin {ah-sep'-tol-iu). A preparation of i)iloearpin 
(o.olS'^ ), in an aqueous solution of phenol (2.74'/ ) ; 
it is used in tuberculosis and in malaria. Dose, 50-70 
n\^ daily, injected subcutaneously. 

Ash. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The incombustible residue 
(»f an organic substance that has been burned. 3. A 
tree of the genus Fraxinus. 

Asialochia [ali-se-al-ot-ie-ali). See Asialia (Illus. 

Askelia (ali-ske'-le-ab) [n, priv. ; ani'/o^, leg]. Non- 
development or deficiency of the legs. 

Askolin [as'-ko-liii). A compound of glycerin and sul- 
furous acid. 

Asonia [ali-so'-ue-ali) [(?, j)riv. ; sonus, a sound]. 
T<)ne deafness. 

Asparagin, Asparaginum. (See Illus. Diet.) A., 
Biliary. See 'J'auriti (Illus. Diet.). A. -mercury. 
See .^lercurv aspanigiuate. A. Sulfate, C^H^NjOj- 
HjSOj, a syrupy liquid soluble in water. 

Asparagus. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. A genus of plants be- 
longing to the order Lilaceic. A. acutifolius, a 
species of southern Kurope having properties similar to 
A. officinalis, but said to l)e more efficient medicinally 
than the latter. A. adscendens, is used in India as 
a substitute for salep. A. aphyllus, indigenous to 
A.sia, is diuretic. A. racemosus, Willd., and A. 
sarmentosus, of the old world tropics, are employed 
as salep ; an infusion of the root of the latter is used to 
prevent the confluence of smallpox pustules. 

Asparamid [as-par'-ani-id). See Asparagin (Illus. 

Asparmate [as-par'-mat). See Aspartate. 

Asparol {as'-par-ol). A liquid extract of Asparagus 

Asparolin (as-par'-ol-in). A brown lii|uid said to con- 
sist of guaiac, asparagus, parsley, black haw, and 
henbane. It is used as an antispasmodic uterine tonic. 
Dose, 2-4 drams in hot water. 

Aspartate [fis-par'-tat). A salt of aspartie acid. 

Aspergillin (as-pur-jil'-in) [aspcrgere, to scatter]. A 
pigment obtained by Linossier from the spores of As- 
pergillus niger. Syn., J'egetable hematin. 

Aspergillosis (as-pur-Jil-o'-sis). Pseudotuberculosis; 
morbid lesions due to some species of Aspergillus. 

Aspergillus-keratitis (as-pur-;il-us-ker-at-i'-tis). Cor- 
neal inllammation due to invasion of a fungus belonging 
to Ihe genus .-I •pcrgillus . Syn., Keratoiiiycosis asper- 

Aspermasia. Aspermia {ah-spur-ma' -ze-ah, ah-spur'- 
nte-ah). See Aspermatism (Illus. Diet.). 




Asperous [as'-piir-iis) [^ns/'^r, rough]. Uneven ; hav- 
ing a surface with distinct minute elevations. 

Aspersus [as-put-' -sus) \^aspergtTi\ to sj)rinl\le]. Cov- 
ered with scattered dots or punctures. 

Asphalgesia [as-fal-je'-zc-ah) \iw<!)i, their own ; a/.yiian:, 
pair]]. Pitres' term for a condition observed in liyp- 
notism, in which intense pain follows the touching of 
certain articles, and prolonged contact produces con- 

Asphyctic. (See lUus. Diet.) 2. Pulseless. 

Asphyxia. (See Ulus. Diet ) Syn., Aholitio pulsus ; 
A/ot's apparens. A., Algid, loss of .sensibility from 
cold. A. a carbone, iliat caused by inhaling the 
fumes of burning charcoal. A., Cataleptic, cata- 
lepsy. A. cataphora, that with brief incomplete re- 
missions. A., Cholera, A., Choleraic, a comlition of 
asphv-xia occurring in .V--iatic clioiera. A. electrica, 
that due to electricity or lightning. A. a fumis, that 
due to the inhalation of a poisonous gas. A., Heat-, 
sunstroke. A. immersorum, apparent death from 
drowning. A., Lethargic, deep sleep accompanying 
mental and physical torpor. A. livida, the st.age of 
asphyxia in which the vessels of the skin are turgid 
with blood, imparting a dusky red or blue hue, and 
the muscles preserve their reflex contractility. A., 
Local. ^t<i MwA^'c Sphac'.-'odcniia i Illus. Diet.). A. 
localis cum gangrsena symmetrica, Raynaud's 
disease. ^^^ Spkiuelodenna {\W\.\%. Diet.). A. me- 
phitica, A. musta. See A. a fumis. A. pallida, 
that stage of asphyxia in which there is loss of the re- 
flex contractility of the muscles and the skin is cold 
and pale. Syn., Mors pu/atk'u . A. pestilenta, A., 
Pestilential, Asiatic cholera. A. sideratoram, of consciousness from lightning-stroke. A.. Solar, 
A. Solaris, sunstroke. A., Syncopal, a form of 
asphyxia in which the heart-cavities are found vacant. 
A. Valsalviana, syncupe due to disturbance of car- 
diac functions. A. Vigil. .See Co'iui I'i^il (Illus. 

Aspidin {as^-pid-in) [_Aspidiut/i, a genus of ferns]. 
CfHjjO;. .\ substance obtained from male-fern. 

Aspidiopsoriasis (iis-piJ-e-o-so-ri-,i'-sis) [aiT-i(V»r, a 
little shield ; psoriiisis~\. \ form of psoriasis marked 
by the formation of scutiform scales. 

Aspidiotus (as-pid-e-o'-tus\ \!in-n\iu7j]r^, shield-bearing]. 
A genus of plant-lice of the family Coccidic. A. nerii, 
Bonche, a species that infests the oleander, found liy 
Vincent to act as the transmitting agent of the hema- 
tozoon of malaria. 

Aspidiscos, Aspidiscus (as-pid-is'-kos, -kus) [orr-itS/'o- 
KO' . a little shield]. The sphincter ani. 

Aspidol {iis'-pid-ol ) [.•/,>/>/(/////«, a genus of ferns]. C,„- 
H34O. A substance isolated by Daccomo from male- 

Aspidospermin. (See Illus. Diet.) A respiratory 
stimulant and antispasmodic. Dose. 1-2 gr. 

Aspilia (iis-pi/'-e-,i/i) [iin-i'/og, stainless]. .\ genus of 
plants of the order Composilee. A. latifolia, hemor- 
rhage plant, an .\frican herb, has remarkable hemo- 
static power imputed to it when applied topically, and 
an infusion is given in jmlmonary hemorrhage. 

Aspirin [<is'-pi)--ifi). Tlie acetic acid ester of salicylic 
acid; small needles without color or taste, used as an 
antipyretic and analgesic as sodium salicylate. Dose, 
I gm. Syn., Acetyl salicylic acid. 

Asporous (<;//-j;>o'-r/«) [o, priv. ; (jTopof, seed]. With- 
out spores. 

Assacou, Assacu. Native names for the South .Ameri- 
can tree llura crepitans, or its bark and juices used as 
a remedy in ele]ihantiasis. 
Assai. The South .-\merican name for a beverage made 
from the fruit of the palm Euterpe edulis. Mart. 

Assamar (as'-am-ar) \^iissare, to roast ; amarus, bitter]. 
.\ bitter principle obtained by Reichenbach from roast- 
ing together gurti, sugar, starch gluten, etc. 

Assanation {as-an-a*-shun) \jid, to; sauare, to make 
sound]. The improvement of sanitary conditions. 

Assay I (?-(-(?') [Fr., assayer'\. i. The testing or analysis 
of a metal or drug to determine the relative proportion 
of its constituents. 2. The substance thus tested. 3. 
The process oT assaying. 

Asselin. 'Ace Asellin, 'J'alili: 0/ Ptoiiiains (IWvci.Xi'xcl.). 

Assonance {as'-o-iians) [^assoiiare, to respond to]. A 
morbid tendency to employ alliteration. 

Assuefaction [as-we-fak' -shuu') [assuefacere, to ac- 
custom to something]. Assuetude or the establish- 
ment of it. 

Assuetude (as'-we-tild). Habituation to disturbing in- 
fluences ; the condition of the organism in which it has 
acquired such tolerance for a drug or poison that the 
efl'ect it once had is lost. 

Astaragazza. An Ethiopian nervous delirium re- 
sembling lycanlhropy. 

Astereognosis (a/i-ste-ree!^-?tc/-sis) [o.priv.; orepfdf, 
solid; ^^vtltGi^, knowledge]. Inability to recognize 
objects by the sense of touch, due to lesion in the 
central parietal lobule. Syn., Stereoagnosis. Cf., 
Aphasia, Tactile. 

Asterion. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A poisonous species 
of spider (Latlirodectus conglcluitus) mentioned by 
Xikander and other early writers. 

Asteroid (as'-ter-oid) [^ac-por, a star; e'ldor, likeness]. 
I. Stellate. 2. .See Astrocyte. 

Asterol {aj'-ter-ol). A .soluble preparation of mercury 
sullVicarbolate ; it is used as a surgical antiseptic and 

Asthenia. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Lipap.'yc/iia. 2. 
An infectious disease of fowls, also called " Goiiig- 
li^/it,^^ due to Bacterium astheniir, Dawson. A., 
Subrenal. See Addispifs Disease (Illus. Diet.). 

Asthenogenia, Asthenogenesis [as-thcn-o-je'-ne-ah, 
as-tlu'ii-o-jcii' -cs-is) [rj, priv.; cHnor, strength; jfr- 
f'tr, to produce]. The production of asthenia. 

Asthenology [as-lhen-ol'-o-jc) [asthenia; toyor, 
science]. The science of asthenia. 

Asthenopyra ( as-lhcn-op'-ir-ah) \jisthenia ; ■Kvptro^, 
fever], lever with asthenia. 

Asthma. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., A., Bronchial; 
A., Dynamic; A., Essential; A., A'ei-'ous ; A., 
.Spasmodic ; A., Spasmodic bronchial ; A., Sample ; 
A., True. A., Abdominal, that due to some abdomi- 
nal affection. A. acutum periodicum infantum. 
See Laryngismus stridulus {Illus. Diet. 1. A., Alve- 
olar, asthma marked by dilatit)n of the pulmonary 
alveoli. A., Arthritic, i. That due to gout. 2. 
Angina [lectoris. A., Bilious. See A. dyspepticum 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Bronchial. See Asthma. A.,. 
Cardiovascular, asthma-like attacks in aged persons, 
due to cardiovascular changes. A., Catarrhal, that 
attended with increased bronchial secretion. A., 
Central, that due to influence of the nervous 
system. A., Cheyne-Stokes, dypsnea due to pul- 
monarv congestion in an a<lvanced stage of chronic 
myocarditis. A.. Congestive, that attributed to 
congestion of the dige.«tive organs. A. cultrariorum, 
grinder's asthma. See hihroid Phthisis (Illus. Diet."). 
A., Dartrous. See A., Exanthematous. A. dentien- 
tium, Pagenstecher's name for lan-ngismus stridulus. 
A. diaphragmaticum, A. dolorificum, angina pec- 
toris. A., Diathetic, that due to some diathesis. 
A., Diurnal, that in which the paroxysms occur in 
the daytime. A., Dry, that without sputum. A., 
Dynamic. See Asthma. A., Emotional, that in 
which the paroxysms are caused by emotional excite- 




ment. A., Emphysematic, ihal accom])anieii willi 
emphysema of ilie luiiys. A. equinum, the dyspnea 
of broken-wiiiile<l Inures. A., Essential. See 
Asllima. A., Exanthematous, lliai due lu the reces- 
sion of an exaulhem. A. ex foenisicio, A. ex foeno. 
See /vrw, //i;!' (Illus. Diet.). A., Flatulent, dy^l)llea 
from llatus. A., Fuller's, A.fuUorum, a puliiumary 
affection due to inhaliuj,' particles of wool and dust in the 
manufacture of cloth. A. gypseum. See FihyoiJ 
/'/;////.(/,( 1 1 llus. Diet.). A., Hemic. See.-/., Toxic. 
A., Herpetic, that accompanying cutaneous eruptions. 
A., Humid, A. humidum, A. humorale. See .-/., 
Ctitarrhiil. A., Hysteric. See Ttuliypiua ( Illus. 
Diet.). A., Idiosyncratic, that in which the paro.\- 
ysm is due to the [presence of some substance or thing 
conci-rninij; wliich the patient has an iiliosyncrasy. A. 
infantum, A. infantum spasmodicum, A. laryn- 
geum infantum, .^cc /.arvn^isuiits slndtilus (Illus. 
1 >ict. ). A. Intermittent, of Children, laryngismus 
stridulus. A., Intrinsic, that due linlircct irritation of 
the lungs. A., Laryngeal, laryngisnms stridulus. 
A. metallariorum, A. metallicum, luiners' asthma. 
See Antliracosis (lUus. Diet.). A., Metastatic, that 
attributed to the metastasis of some other disorder. 
A., Moist, that attended witli expectoration of [)uru- 
Icnt s[)uluni. A., Nephritic. See.-/., Uronit. A., 
Nervous, A., Neuropulmonary. .See Asthma. 
A., Nonorganic, that not depemiing upon some other 
disease. '>s\\.^ .-\.. IJiopalliic : .i.y i'riiniiry; .-l. s/^on- 
tani-niH. A. occultum. See -*/., Willis' Coniuilsn'e. 
A, Organic, asthma of cardiac origin. A., Paper-, 
niter-paper. A., Paralytic Bronchial, a rare form 
atlrihutetl to a rela.\e«l condition of the bronchioles. 
A., Peptic. See .-/. ,lvsp,-pli,iim (Illus. Diet.). A. 
pituitosum. See .-/ , Cutunhnl. A., Plethoric, 
that clue to plethora or the retention of some habitual 
flux. A., Pneumobulbar, See's term for a form 
attributeil to pulmonary irritation transmitted to the 
bronchioles by reflexes through the vagus. A. pneu- 
modes, a fc)rnt in which the sputum is solid or solidi- 
ties after expectoration. A. pneumonicum. See 
A., Catan-kal. A. a polypo cordis, dyspnea with 
palpitation of the heart, attriliutcd to cardiac concre- 
tions. A., Potter's, emphysema occurring among 
the worUinen exposed to the dust of potteries. A. 
pressoriodolorificum, angina pectoris. A., Pri- 
mary. See ./., Xo}ior^iiiiii'. A. puerorum, IJocr- 
haave's name for lai-yngismus stridulus. A. pulver- 
ulentorum, grinder's asthma. See Fihroiil Plit/iisis 
(Illus. Diet.). A. purulentum, that due to an ab- 
scess in the lespiratory passages. A., Renal. See 
A., L'l-imic. A., Rheumatic, asthma attributed to a 
rheumatic diathesis. A. sanguineum. See .-/. , 
Plcttioii<\ A., Saturnine, asthma due to chronic 
plunibism. A., Secondary. See .-/., .^vinplomatic. 
A. siccum. See./, /;;i'. A., Simple, A., Spas- 
modic. See Astlima. A. of Solipeds, pulmonary 
emphysema in horses, with dyspnea and pulsation in 
the flanks. Syn., y'l/ninns ; Poiisse ; Astliinc des 
solipfjes. A., Spasmodic Bronchial. See Astlimn. 
A., Spasmodic, of Children, laryngismus stridulus. 
A. spasmodicoarthriticum inconstans, angina jiec- 
toris. A. spasmodico flatulentum. See .i . . /-'/a/it- 
lent. A. spasticum, A. spasticum adultorum. 
I. See .-/. , /)rr. 2. Spasm of the glottis. A., Spit- 
ting. .See A., Moist. A. spontaneum. See A., 
A'oiiorgaiiif. A., Stomachic. See .-/. ity^pt-plicuin 
(Illus. Diet.). A., Symptomatic, that occurring as a 
symptom of some functional or organic disease. A. 
syncopticum, angina pectris. A. thymicocyanoti- 
cum, Ivussmaid's name for laryngismus stridulus. A. 
thytnicum, Kopp's name for laryngismus stridulus. 

A., Thyroid, asthma attributed to enlargement of the 
thyroid. A., Toxic, that due to disorders of the 
nervous system through some specirtc toxic substance. 
A., Typic, periotlic asthma in which the i)aroxysms 
recur at definite intervals. A., Uremic, A. urino- 
sum, that tretjuently aceomiJanying Driglu's disease 
and often due to edema of the lungs. .Svn.. v/.. 
Nephritic ; A., Renal. A., Urticarial, that attend- 
ing urticaria. A. vaporosum. See Fibroid Phthisis 
(Illus. Diet.). A. venereum, that attributed to 
syphilis. A., verminosum, that attributed to intes- 
tnial worms. A., Wichmann's, of the glottis. 
A., Willis' Convulsive, asthma with sudden onset 
attributed to an affection of the intercostal nerves. 

Asthmaticoscorbutic (az-mat-ih-o-skor-bu'-tik). Re- 
lating to asthma and scurvy. 

Asthmatophthisis (as-iuat-o-tiz'-is). Pulmonary- tuber- 
culosis attended with asthma. Syn., .-Isthntatic phthisis. 

Asthmatorthopnea, Asthmorthopnea (az-niat-or- 
thop* -}ic-ah, aZ'tuortlup^ -lic-ah ) \_asthiiia ; orthop- 
nea'^. Orthopnea due to asthma or resjiiratoiy ob- 
struction located in the chest. 

Asthmogenic [nz-mo-jen^-ih) [(icrfl/za, panting ; jn'rai', 
to produce]. Causing asthma. 

Astigmatism. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Abnormal 
Irregular, that arising from defective corneal curva- 
ture or abnomiality in jiosition or structme of the 
crystalline lens and producing metamorpln.j>sia. A., 
Normal Irregular, that due to irregularities in the 
crystalline lens, causing an aberration of rays as they 
traverse the different sectors, and a defective coincidence 
of the images. 

Astigmia (ah sti,^'-mc-ali) [ii,priv.; nvr.iii/, a mathe 
inalieal point]. See Astii^viatism (Illus. Diet.). 

Astigmic (ah-stis^'-iiiih). See .-tstix'iiatic (Illus. Diet.). 

Astomatous [ah-st<>^-///at-i/s'). See AstotHous (Illus. 

Astomia (ak-slo'-nic-ah) \i\, priv.; CTuiin, a mouth]. 
The eond;:ion of having no mouth. 

Astragalar [as-trag^-al-ar). Relating to the astragalus. 

Astragalocalcaneal (as-trax'-al-o-ial-ha'-ne-al ). Re- 
lating to the astragalus and the calcaneum. 

Astrictive, Astrictory, Astrictus (as-lrik'-tiv, -tor-e, 
-us) \_as/rin^.;crc. to bind]. Sly]:)tic, astringent. 

Astroblast (as'-lro-hlast) [iiavimv, a star; if/oavAr, a 
germ]. A variety of glia-cell less differentiated than 
the endyma-cells and astrocytes. 

Astrocyte [as^-tro-sit] [nffr/jor, a star; kotoc, cell]. 

1. One of the cells derived from the endyma of the 
embiyonic cerebrospinal canal that, in the course of 
develo])ment, wander toward the ])eriphei-y, undergo 
modification, and fomi one of the two chief divisions 
of glia-cells, the other divisions being the original 
endvmal cells. They are also called Deiters's cells. 

2. A stellate 'oone-corpuscle. 

Astrophobia (as-tro-fo'-bc-ah) [nurpor, a star; (pd/So^, 
fear]. Fear of the stars and celestial space. 

Astrophorous [aS'tro/'^-orus) [urrr/jor, a star; tpopeh'j 
to bear]. Having stellate processes. 

Astrosphere {as'-tro-.,/er) [licr/mr, star ; a^iaipa, sphere]. 
I. The radially arranged protoplasmic filaments sur- 
rounding the centrosome in a dividing cell. 2. The 
central mass of the aster, exclusive of the filaments or 
rays, in which the centrosome lies. [.Strasburger.] 3. 
Theentire aster exclusive of the centrosome. [Boveri.] 
See .Sphere of Attraction (Illus. Diet.). Centrosphere. 

Asturian {as-ti/-re-an). Relating to Asturias, an old 
province of Spain. A. Rose. Syn , J\osa asttirica ; 
/\osa astiirioiiis. I. I'ellagra. 2. Leprosy. 

Astysia [ah-sliz'-e-ah) [n, priv.; ari'Fiv, to make erect]. 
Incomplete power to erect the jienis. 

Asymmetral, Asymmetric i^ah-siiii'-et-ral, -et'-rik). 




Having sides unequally developed ; having an organ 
on one side without the corresponding one on the 

Asymmetry. (See Illus. Diet, i A., Meridional. 
See .-li/i^w,i/ism, Regular (Illus. Diet. ). A., Uni- 
lateral. See //e7«//'i'/fv/;-o/>//_i' lIUus. Diet.). 

Asymphytous \ah-siin' -Jit-us) [acruocror]. Distinct; 
not grown together. 

Asynclitism (ii/i-siit'-/ili/-izm) \_a, priv. ; civ, together; 
K/ACt^, an inclination]. The condition of obliquity 
of two or more objects to each other; e.g., an ob- 
lique presentation of the fetal head at the superior 
strait of the pelvis. 

Asynechia \ah-sin-ek' -e-ali) [a, priv.; ct' r, together; 
f;/;'., in a row]. Absence of continuity in structure. 

Asynechic [u/i-sin-ei'-ii). Affected with or due to 

Asynergic [ah-r^in-ur^-jik). Not acting simultaneously 
or in harmony. 

Asynergy (ti/i-sin-w'-Je). See Asyt^i-gia (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Progressive Locomotor, A., Mo- 
torial. See .-//.;. 1/^;, Lotoinolio- (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Verbal, defective coordination of speech, as in aplia- 
sia. A., Vocal, faulty coordination of the muscles 
of the laryn.v due to chorea. 

Asynetic, Asynctous (ah-sin-et'-ik, ah-sin' -et-us). 
Affected with asynesia. 

Asynovia [it/i sin-o'-7'^-<i/i') [a, priv.; synoi'ia'^. A 
deficiency of the synovial fluid. 

Asynthesis [dh-sifi' -tkc'-sis) [«, priv,; uh-ftt'jir, a 
putting together]. A faulty connection of parts. 

Asyntrophy ^uk-sin'-lro-fe) ['j, priv.; cvrT/iooni, a 
growing up together]. Absence of synnnetry in 
growth and development. 

Asystole, Asystolia. (.See Illus. Diet.) A., Car- 
diataxic, tran.^itory asystole due to accelerated heart- 
action. A., Cardioplegic. See Amyocuruia (Illus. 

Atavus (irt'-,!7'-iis) [L ]. An ancestor. 

Ataxia. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Abortive Locomotor. 
See Tii/ii-s Jotorosa. A., Acute, tabes of rapid de- 
velopment. A., Alcoholic. .See I'ayaplegia, Alco- 
holic (Illus. Diet.). A., Bulbar, tabes due to a lesion 
in the pons or oblongata. A., Cardiovascular, 
Fereol's name for ei^ophthalmic goiter. A., Central, 
tliat due to disorder of the centers of coordination. 
A., Cerebellar, that due to some lesion of the cere- 
jDellum ; it is manifested by staggering from side to side. 
A., Cerebral, that due to disease of the cerebrum. 
A., Choreic, the incoordination accompanying chorea. 
A., Diphtheric, a sequel of diphtheria preceding 
diphtheritic paralysis and in which the chief phe- 
nomena of locomotor ata.xia are present. A., Hered- 
itary Cerebellar, Marie (1893); a form of ataxia 
that resembles Friedreich's in being hereditary, occur- 
ring in families; the gait, hovrever, is not the stagger- 
ing gait of tabes, but the reeling gait of cerebellar 
disease ; the kneejerk is increased instead of being 
diminished, and there are no deformities. A., Juve- 
nile. Synonym of Fricireicli' s Disease i Illus. Diet.). 
A., Leyden's, pseudotabes. A. mensium. A., 
Menstrual, A. menstruum. See .Meitstruation, 
Vicarious (Illus. Diet. 1. A., Moral, the inconstancy 
of ideas and will, attended with convulsions and pain, 
observed in hysteric .subjects. A. motus. See Takes 
(Illus. Diet. I. A., Muscular, muscidar incoordina- 
tion. A., Paralytic, of the Heart, a condition 
marked by dyspnea, weakness of cardiac sounds, pal- 
pitation, edema, and dropsy, without anv organic 
heart-disease. A., Progressive Locomotor. .See 
Tabes ( Illus. Diet. i. A., Sensory, a form regarded 
as due to disturbance of the nerve-tracts lying between 

the periphery and the centers of coordination ; its ex- 
istence is denied by some authorities. A., Spinal. 
See Tai'cs (Illus. Diet.). 

Ataxiagraph (atais'-e-a-graf) [arafm, want of order ; 
•yliiiutir, to write]. An instrument for recording the 
swaying in ataxia. 

Ataxoadynamia (alaks-oah-di-nain'-e-ah). Advna- 
mia combined with ataxia. 

Ataxodynamy {nl-nis-o-Uiii'-aiii-e) [araiia, want of 
order; duvauif, power]. Abnormality in the move- 
ments of a part or organ. 

Ataxophobia 1 at-aks-o-jo'-he-ah ) [orn^m, want of order ; 
'j'lii":, fear]. Excessive dread of disorder. 

Ataxospasmodic {at-aks-o-spas-tiiod'-ik). Affected 
with ch'>reic ataxia or relating to it. 

Atechnia, Atechny (al-ek'-ne-ah, ai-ek'-ne) [anxvia, 
unskilfulness]. Want of skill ; lack of technical 

Atechnic (at-ek'-iiik). I. Unskilful; lacking technical 
knowledge. 2. An individual lacking technical knowl- 

Atecnia [at-ek'-ne-aA) [n, priv.; tskvov, chili]. The 
state of being childless or barren ; impotence. 

Atees {al-e:,'). See Acoiiitnm helerofhylliiin. 

Atelectasis. (See Illus. Diet.) a!, Absorption, 
acquired atelectasis in which the air has been removed 
by absorption from within, resulting from the plugging 
of the bronchial tubes. A., Compression, acquired 
atelectasis due to pres.sure. A., Obstructive, that 
due to obstruction of a bronchial tube. See^., Ab- 

Ateleiosis [at-el-i-o'-sis') [iirt'/.eiuaic, not arriving at per- 
fection]. A disease first de.scribed by Schaalt hausen, 
of Bonn (1868), characterized by abrupt onset, the 
ab.sence of any perceptible cause, conspicuous infantil- 
ism with retention of unimpaired intelligence, and 
marked tardiness in development of the sexual svstem. 
Cf. , Progeria. 

Atelencephaly (a!-el-en-sef'-al-e') [lirf/.i^f, incomplete; 
f'^kirjn'/iic, brain]. Imperfect development of the 

Ateleplasia (at-el-e-fla'-se-ah). See Alelia (Illus. 

Atelic (at'-el-ik) [o-f/jyc, incomplete]. Functionless. 

Atelo- [at'-el-o). A prefix signifying imperfect devel- 

Atesin (at'-esin). See Atisin. 

Athamantin {alh-aiii-an'-liii). C,,H,„0,. A cnstal- 
line substance contained in the root and ripe fruit of 
Peiiccdanuiii oreoseliiuiiii, Monch. 

Athermal (ali-lliar'-iiial) [«, priv.; ftpu;?, heat], 
tool ; applied to spring-water of a temperature below 
15° C. 

Athermancy (ah-lhui-'-iiian-se') [^iiHipfiav7n(, not 
heated]. The state of being impervious to radiant heat. 

Athermanous (a/i-l/ii/i~'-man-i/s). Impervious to 
radiant heat. 

Athermic, Athermous {alilhur'-mik, -i/s). i. ^Vith- 
out fever. 2. See Atliermatioiis. 

Athermosystaltic (a/i-l/iur-mo-sist-al'-tik) [a, priv. ; 
Hipio/, heat; niara/.riKiir, drawing together]. Ap- 
plied to muscles which do not contract under the in- 
fluence of heat. 

Atheroma. (.See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Acne sebacea 
mol/tisciiiii : Piillalio : Slcaloma ; Sebaceous cyst; 
Liis-ia : Talpa. A., Capillary, the formation of fatty 
granules in the walls of the capillaries. 

Atherosis ia/ii-er-y-sis). See .4theromasia (Illus. 
I lict. i. 

Atherospermin {a/h-er-o-spiirm'-in). C^jHjoNO. 

(Zeyer). An alkaloid isolated from the bark of Ath- 
erosperma mosciiaiutit. 




Athoracocephalus (nh-lhor-ak-o-se/'-al-as). See Ceph- 

,i/i>^ii>nr y Illus. Diet.). 
Athyrea, Athyria {n/i-t/ii'-re-a/i) [«, priv. ; i/iYiou/'\. 

The coiuliliuii arising from absence of the thyroid 

gland or ehniination of its function. Syn. , A/y.rciitiiui. 

a. 1 hywof'riviis. 
Athyreosis (ii/i-//ii-re-o'-sis). Atrophy or ab.sence of 

the thyroid gland and the pathologic condition conse- 

<|iient upon elimination of its function. 
Athyroidea yah-lhi-roid'-e-ah). Absence of the thy- 
roid glatl<l, 
Athyroidemia (ali-tlii-roid-e'-me-aJi). Davel's name 

for myxedema. 
Athyrosis \ii/i-fhi-r</-sis^. See Athyreosis. 
Atisin [itt'-h-tn] \_Atis^ Indian name for Ai'ouitnin'^. 

Cj,d L,\.,< ).. An alkaloid derived from Aioiiiliim 

h,'u-i\'pJnlliim, Wall. 
Atloaxoid \itl lo-aks'-oid). Relating to atlas and axis; 

Atmiatria, Atmiatrics. See .//w/a/'/i' (THus. Diet.). 
Atmic \iU'-mil;) [ar/«if, vapor]. Relating to, due to, 

C()nsisting of vapor. 
Atmidalbumin iyaf-niiil-al'-hii-niiit). .\ substance 

standing between the albuminates and the albumoses, 

obtained by Xeuraeister at the same time with atmid- 

Atmidalbumose (nt-iiiid-n/'bii-mdz'). Neumeister's 

name for a body obtained by the action of superheated 

steam on tibrin. 
Atmidometrograph {nf-mid-o-met'-ro-graf) [«-//<!;•, 

vapor; ii.rpur^ a measure; }/j«Ofir, to write]. A 

sel f registering atmidometer. 
Atmiometer [(iliNi-om'-et-iir). A closed cabinet with 

apparatus for treating diseases by means of atmiatry. 
Atmismometer (nl-mis-mom'-it-ur). See Atmomelcr 

( Illus. Diet.). 
Atmisterion i^at-mis-le're-on). See frt/fl/vjr(H/« (Illus. 

Diet. ). 
Atmocausia, Atmocausis {at-mo-ka-,i<'-se-ah, -sis) 

[i/r*/r<r, vapor; udinr^ a burning]. Therapeutic cau- 
terization with steam by means of an atmoeautery. 
Atmocautery [iit-//ii>-/.\iii''-/ur-f). A double-channeled 

intrauterine catheter provided with fenestras in both 

Atmography ((7/-w<>;'''-r^/^(') [(ir/zdr, vaix>r ; ypdotiv^ to 

write]. .\ description of vapors and evaporation. 
Atmokausis, Atmokautery. See A/moiatisis, A/i/ik- 


Atmology (at-mol'-oj-e) [lir/idf, vapor; Uyoc, science]. 
The science of vapors and evaporation. 

Almolysis {tt/-tno/^-is-is) [lirudr, vai)(>r; /.i-Gir, loosing]. 
.V method discovered by T. Graham 1I808-1869) of 
separating the ingredients of mixed gases or vapors by 
means of their ditVerent diffnsibility through a porous 

Atmolyzer (at-iiiol-i'-ziii). .\n apparatus for sepa- 
rating gases by diflfusion. 

Atmosphere. (.See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Aerosf'here. 
2. The pressure exerted by the earth's atmosphere at 
the level of the .sea; it is about 15 pounds to the 
.square inch or I kilogram to the square centimeter. 3. 
In chemistry, any special gaseous medium encircling a 
body. 4. The climatic state of a locality. 

Atmospherilia, Atmosphaerilia (a/mosfi'r-i/'-ea/i). 
A collective name for the chemic con.stituents of the 

Atmospherization [al-mosfer-iz-a'-shtin). The con- 
version of venous into arterial blood by the assumption 
of oxygen. (, f. Dcarti^rialization. 

Atmospherology [al-mos-fer-ol'-o-je) \atmosphere ; 
'/uytr science]. The science of atmospheres. 

Atmcstatics {^at-mo-stat'-iks) \aTu6';^ vapor ; trrnr/Kof, 

standing]. The sum of what is known concerning 
gases in equilibrium. 

At motherapy((//-Wi'-///i' /•'-(//-(') [(/r/yiir, vapor ; fkpa~£in, 
therapy]. A name given by Pitres to the treatment of 
certain tics by methodic reduction of respiration. 

Atomician (,i/-omis/i'-(in). See Alomist. 

Atomism yul'-oin-iziii) [n, priv.; ri/jveiv, to cut]. I. 
The science of atoms. 2. The theory that the universe 
is composed of atoms 

Atomist (at'-oiH-ist). One who believes in atomism. 

Atomistic [ot-om-is'-tik), I. Relating to or consisting 
of an atom. 2. Relating to atomism. 

Atomistics [iit-o/ii-is'-/>ks]. See Atomism. 

Atomology (al-om-ol'-oji') [(i7i<//oi-, an atom; /d;"f, 
science] . The science of atoms ; atomism. 

Atony. ( See Illus. Diet. ) A. of the Uterus, 
Wigand's second degree of diminished actit)n of the 
uterus in parturition, marked by too infrequent, weak, 
and imperl'ect contractions. Syn., Adyiiomia iihri, 

Atoxogen (u/i-toks'-o-jcii) [n, priv.; roliKuv, poison; 
jfi-ivir, to produce]. A defensive substance resem- 
bling the enzymes and chemically allied to toxins and 
antitoxins prepared from the adrenals and spleen of 
the horse. 

Atoxyl itit-oks^-i/). See Ani/idmt'tcjrstfii/t'. 

Atrabilarian (n/-ra-liil-a'-rf-iiii) [<f/<v, black; lulis, 
bile]. -A melancholy person, subject to biliary dis- 

Atrabilarious, Atrabilious (iit-ra-Hl-a'-rc-us, at-ra- 
hil'-vKS). ^ee Aliahiliary yXWwi. Diet.). 

Atrabilin (al-ra-hil'-iii). A |5reparation of suprarenal 
capsule ; it is used in 

Atrability [ii/-ra-i>il'-i/-e). The state of being atra- 

Atrachelia {ah-liak-e'-U'-ah) [n, priv.; Tpax'l'/nr, the 
neck]. .'Absence or exceeding shortness of the neck. 

Atrachelocephalus [ii/i-/i(ik-e/-o-Sf/'-ai-iis)[ii7im \>// or, 
without a neck ; «^«/.;/, the head]. 1. Affected with 
atrachelia. 2. A monster with no neck or an abnor- 
mal U- short one. 

Atrachelous (ak-/i;tk'-,/-iis). Having no neck or only 
a verv short one ; also, beheaded. 

Atractenchyma \^iit-yiikt-c'u'-ki-mah) [nr/jahTOf, a 
spindle ; fr, in ; xiii\ to pour]. A tissue consisting 
of spindle-cells. 

Atractoid {iit-riik/'-o<d). Spindle-shaped. 

Atractylate (at-rakl'-il-al\. A salt of atractylic acid. 

Atractyligenin {al-rakl-il-ij'-cn-iii). A dis.soeiatio8- 
prolucl ul atraetylin by action of dilute caustic potash 
with heat. 

Atraetylin \al-rakt'-il-in\ ("2i,Hj„Og. A glueosid, 
obtained from the poisonous root of Alraclylis giim- 
mifeni, \.. It is a sweet, gum-like substance, .soluble 
in water and in alcohol. 

Atramentaceous, Atramentarious, Atramentous. 
See Alromcnlnl \ Illus. Iiict.i. 

Atretocephalus \oh-li\!-o-scf'-at-tis\ [<irp;/7os-, imper- 
ii .rate ; Kfoii'/ii. the head]. A monster with imper- 
forate nostrils or mouth. 

Atretocormus [ah-tret'O-konn'-us) \hTintTii(^. imper- 
forate; wi/wuf, the trunk]. A monster having one or 
more imperforate openings on the trunk. 

Atretogastria (^ah-trct-o-gns'-lrt-ah) [«-/)7/rof, imper- 
forate; '^nariip, stomach]. Imperforation of the 

Atretolemia, Atretolaemia (ali-lrcl-o-lf'-me-ah\ [iir/i;/- 
M). . imperforate; '/niiiuf, the gullet]. Breschet's name 
for imperloration of the esophagus or pharynx. 

Atretorrhinia \ah-lret-or-i)i'-e-ah) [«r/j?/Tof, imperfo- 
rate; /«r, the nose]. Na.sal atresia. 

Atretostomia {ah-lrel-o-sto'-me-ah) [nrpii-nr, imperfo- 
rate ; GTotia, the mouth]. Imperforation of the mouth. 




Atreturethria (a/i-tret-u-iy'-t/tre-a/i) [arp^rof, imper- 
forate; iiiyiz/ripa, the urethra]. Imperforation of the 

Atria. Plural of .-//m(w (lUus. Diet.). 

Atrichiasis (a/i-trii-i'-us-is). See Atric/iia (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Atriplex (at'-ri-/>/ets) [L.]. A genus of plants of the 
order iJltenopoJiaceie. A. hortensis, L. , garden- 
oraehe, a species indigenous to Siberia, cultivated in 
Europe, where it is eaten as spinach ; the seeds are 
emetic and purgative. A. littoralis, L. , the sea- 
orache, an annual growing in Europe and on the 
shore of the Great Lakes of the United States. The 
leaves are eaten, and the plant yields soda. 

Atriplicism ((i/-rip'-lis-iz»i] \_Al>-ipli:.x, a genus of 
plants]. A form of poisoning from eating uncooked 
sea-orache, Alnplc'x liltoralis. It is characterized by 
painful infiltration of the backs of the hands and fore- 
arms and a sensitiveness to light. 

Atrium. (See Illus. Diet.) A. anteritis, A. cordis 
dextrum, the right auricle of the heart. A. cordis 
sinistrum, the left auricle of the heart. A. dextrum 
cordis, the right auricle of the heart. Atria mortis, 
the halls of death; a name for the organs nio.^t con- 
cerned in vital activities — the heart, lungs, and oblon- 
gata. A. posterius cordis, A. sinistrum cordis, 
the left auricle of the heart. A. vaginae, the vestibule 
of the vulva. 

Atrolactyl (,it-ro-lak'-li.'). CgH^O.^. The radicle of 
atrolactic acid. A. tropein. See Atonitin, British. 

AXTono^iil'-ron-ol). C,gH,,. A substance formed by dry 
distillation of a-isatropic acid. Syn., Plunyldihydro- 

Atrope itU'-rof). See Ortholropotis (Tlhis. Diet.). A. 
line. See Aiiifs, Tui/a u/" (Illus. Diet.). 

Atrophia. (See Illus Diet.) A. ab alvi fluxu, ema- 
ciation resulting from diarrhea. A. ablactatorum, 
emaciation due to weaning. A. acuta jecinoris, 
acute yellow atrophy of the liver. A. a crmibus, 
emaciation of infants ascribed to the presence of prick- 
ing hairs on their backs. A. a fascino. See .-'. r'-.r- 
miiti'Sii. A. anglica. See .4. ii-.riosn. A. cacho- 
chymica, that due to indigestible food. A. cutis 
linearis, acute linear atrophy of the skin. A. cutis 
propria. See .-liiesmosis (Illus. Diet. I. A. fameli- 
corum, emaciation from hunger. A. glandularis. 
See Tiibfs }nesenterica (Illus. Diet.). A. inana- 
torum, emaciation from diarrhea. A. ingravescens 
musculorum, progressive muscular atrophy. A. me- 
saraica. See Tabes mescnU-fiia (Ulus. Diet.). A. 
musculorum ingravescens, progressive muscular 
atrophy. A. musculorum Hpomatosa. See Pa- 
ralysis, P>c:ia'o/iypi-rlr,ipitii- i Illus. Diet. ). A. mus- 
culorum lipomatosa pseudohypertrophica. See 
Atrophy, Progressive Mitseular (Illus. Diet.). A. 
musculorum progrediens, A. m. progressiva, pro- 
gressive muscular atrnpliy. A. musculorum pro- 
gressiva pseudohypertrophica. .See Paralysis, 
PseuJohypertrophiea (Illus. Iiict). A. nervea, 
atrophy of the nerves A. nervosa, gr.idual emacia- 
tion with loss of appetite due to unwholesome and de- 
pressing environment. A. nova, facialis, progres- 
sive facial atrophy. A. verminosa, emaciation due 
to intestinal worms. A. virginiana. See ,-/. ner- 

Atrophodermatosis (at-ro-fo-dtir-mat-o' -sis") \jiTpiK>ia, 
atrophy ; i'f'/)»o, skin]. A class of skin-diseases, in- 
cluding atrophoderma, ulodermitis, and scleroderma, 
characterized by atrophy of the cutis. 

Atropholysis [at-ro-t'o/^-is-is) [^itr/iftoiii, atrophy; '/.'rai^, 
a loosing] .\ tlabby. weak, or ulcerated condition 
due to insufficient nutrition. 

Atrophy. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. To become atrophied. 
A., Accidental, that of a part from compression or 
cutting otf its blood-sui^ply. A., Amphiblestroid, 
retinal atrophy. A., Amyloid, that due to amyloid 
degeneration. A., Angibromic, decrease in the size 
of the lumen of the alimentary canal. A., Bros- 
sard's Type of, ** type femoral avec griffe des or- 
teils.'' See ./., Riehkorst^ s J'ype. A., Buchwald's, 
idiopathic, diffuse progressive atrophy of the skin. 
A., Cerebral, with Delusions. See Paralysis, 
Geiiei al (o{ ihe insane) i Illus. Diet.). A., Charcot- 
Marie's Type of, the neurotic type of progressive 
muscular atrophy; progressive neural muscular atro- 
phy, commencing in the muscles of the feet and the 
peroneal group. A., Charcot-Marie-Tooth's Type 
of. See A., C/'iareol-.l/arie' s Type. A., Chronic 
Spinal Muscular. Synonym of .-1., /'ro^'ressi7'e 
J/usiiilar {U\us. Diet.). A., Compression, atrophy 
of a part from constant compression. A., Concen- 
tric, that proceeding frcjm without inward and tending 
to lessen the capacity of a hollow organ. A., Con- 
centric, of the Uterus, that which is evidenced by 
a marked diminution in the size of the uterus. A., 
Congenital, that due to arrested development. A., 
Cruveilhier's. See Disease, .4raii-P>iielieiiiie' s (Illus. 
Diet.). A.. Cyanotic (of the liver), atrophy of 
the parenchyma of the hepatic lobules due to stasis in 
the venous circulation, causing dilation and congestion 
of the central veins and adjacent capillaries. A., De- 
jerine-Soltas' Type of, hypertrophic interstitial neu- 
ritis of infancy. A., Duchenne-Landouzy's Type 
of. See.-/., Laiitlouzy-Dejeritte^ s Type. A., Eccen- 
tric, that proceeding from within toward the jjeriphen.". 
A., Eccentric (of the uterus), that in which the atro- 
phy is slight and manifested onh- by a thinning of the 
uterine walls. A., Eichhorst's Type of, the femoro- 
tibial type of progressive muscular atrophy. A., Erb's 
Juvenile Form of, the scapulohumeral type of pro- 
gressive muscular atrophy. A., Fuchs' Optic, 
peripheral atrophy of the bundles composing the optic 
nen'e. A., Gastrointestinal. See Marasmus and 
Atlirepsia (Illus. Diet.). A., General, emaciation. 
A., Granular, a form ol;served in the liver and kid- 
neys, causing diminution in size and attended with 
excess in formation of connective tissue, with copious 
supply of granular matter. A., Granuloproteic, 
that due to replacement of proper cell-structure with 
fine graiuilar masses. A., Halisteretic, atrophy of 
bone manifested only by gradual thinning of the 
lamellas of tlie spongy tissue. A. of the Heart 
with Contraction, increased thickness of the heart- 
walls with diminution of the capacity of the cavities. 
A. of the Heart with Dilation, diminished thick- 
ness of the heart-walls with diiatit>n cjf the cavities. 
A. of the Heart, Simple, diminished thickness of 
the heart-walls without marked change in the size of 
its cavities. A.. Hemi-, atro])hy of a lateral half of 
the body. A., Hoffmann's Type of. See .-/., tV/ar- 
eot-Marie's Type. A., Inactivity, disappearance of a 
muscle from disuse. A., Individual, Charcot's name 
for atrophy of individual muscles in different parts, the 
proximate muscles not being affected. A., Infantile. 
See Tabes mesefiteriea [Yllw?,. V)\c\..'). A., Landouzy- 
Dejerine's Type of, the facio.scapulohunieral tyjie of 
progressive muscular atrophy. A., Leyden-Moe- 
bius' Type of, a type of progres,S!ve nmscular atrophy 
commencing in the calves and often a.ssuniing the 
character of I)nchenne*s pseutiohvpertropliic paraly- 
sis. A., Linear lof the skint. See Tinea albieantes, 
in Lines, Table ol' llllus. Dict.i. A.. Mesenteric. 
See Tabes mesenteriea (Illus. Diet.). A., Muscular, 
Fatty, A., Muscular, Juvenile, A., Muscular, 




Pseudohypertrophic, Progressive. See Pcirii/yu'j, 
PiL-u,li'liypiitrof<ln. ilUus Did.). A., Myopathic, 
of Adolescents, Erb's juvenile hereditary fomi of 
primary inu.-5cular <ly,strophy. A., Myopathic Mus- 
cular, lliat clue lo disease of the muscles, and not to 
spinal lesion. A., Necrobiotic. See A., A'limcrital. 
A., Nervous, Progressive. See A., J'logirssive 
A'^n'ous. A., Neural, wasting of a nerve due to 
neuritis and sclerosis. A., Neurotic, of a 
part from disease of the trophic nerves. A., Numer- 
ical, atrophy of a part with destruction of some of its 
elements. A., Parrot's, of the New-born, athrep- 
sia ; primary infantile atrophy or inarastnjs. A., 
Partial, of the Face. S«e ./. , Progrtuhe L'nilateial 
Fitiiiily Illus. 1)11,1. ) A., Pathologic, that due to dis- 
ease. A., Peroneal. See ./., Chaiiol-Maiii s Ty/'c. 
A., Physiologic, the natural atrophy of an organ 
after it.s functional activity is concluded. A., Primary 
Muscular, in Children, primary inu.scular dystrophy. 
See ./., /iiiop,!t/uc Miistiiliir (Illus. Diet). A., 
Progressive Muscular, of Children, Erb's juvenile 
hereditary form of jiriinary muscular dystrophy. A., 
Progressive Muscular, of the Tongue, Palate, 
and Lips. .Synonym of /V//v7.''r.'7-f, Bulbar (Illus. 
Diet.). A., Progressive Nervous, Jacccjud's name 
for atrophy of the spinal nerve-roots due to pressure 
from a deposit of fibrous substance on the spinal arach- 
noid. A., Pure. See .-/., .!)V«/>/t' ( Illus. Diet.). A., 
Qualitative, degeneration. A., Quantitative. See 
A., SiiiipU (Illus. Diet. I. A. with Rarefaction, 
atrophy of an organ with increase in size or without A., Sclerotic, a name for Connective tissue 
found at times deposited in the heart-substance after 
myocarditis. A., Senile, of the Lungs ( Dechambre, 
1S35), atrophic emphysema. A., Simple Brown, 
a condition of the heart in which the muscle-fibers re- 
tain their striated appearance, but the muscle-cells are 
small and contain yellow granules of pigment. A., 
Simple Infantile. See AAimsmiis (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Spinal. See Tjtt.s (Illus. Diet.). A., Sub- 
acute Red (of the liver), acute cirrhosis of the liver. 
A., Sympathetic, atrophyof the .second member of a 
pair of organs following that of the first. A., Tooth's 
Type of. See A., Ch,ir<ot-Miiri,' s Tyf'c. A., 
Varicose. See A., Cvmio/ir. A., Vulpian's Type 
of. See Dinase, Aiiin-Duchenni' s (Illus. Diet.). 
A., White, nerve atrophy, leaving only white con- 
nective tissue. A., Zimmerlin's Type of, the scap- 
ulohumeral type of progressive muscular atrophy dis- 
tinguished from Erbstypebytiie absence of secondary 

Atropia (al-ro'-pt-ah). See Atiopin (Illus. Diet.). 

Atropic («/-ro/'-;';f). Relating to the genus ^/ro/rt or 
to atropin. 

Atropidin {nl-rop'-idin). See Hyoscyamin ( Illus. 
Diet. |. 

Atropin. (See Illus. Diet.") A. Acetate, C,.Hj,- 
NO, . CjH,02, stellate, pearly prisms, very soluble in 
water. A. Arsenate, (C,.Hj3\0,i,ll3.\s( ),. a white 
powder containing 19.72 V of arsenic and 80 28'/ of 
atropin, .soluble in water and in alcohol. A. Borate, 
(C,;Hj.,N0j).^I5,0., white scales soluble in water and 
alcohol, melting at 113°-! 15° C. It is used in oph- 
thalmic practice. A. Hydrobromate, C,;H.,,X03- 
HBr, white crystals soluble in water and in alcohol. 
It is used as atropin. A. Hydrochlorate, C,-H.,,- 
N'OjHCl, white crystals soluble in water and alcohol, 
slightly in ether. L'sed as .itiopin. I )ose. jTra-^T g""- 
(0.CO065-0.001 gm. ). A. Hydroiodate, Cjlllj;,- 
NO. HIO3, is employed in ophthalmic practice in 
o.S% to i.s% solution. A. Nitrate, Cji'L^^NOjU- 
NOj, white crystals soluble in alcohol and water. A. 

Oleate, a 2^ solution of atropin in oleic acid ; it is 
soluble in ether, benzene, chloroform, and oils. It is 
a mydriatic, sedative, and anodyne, and is used a.s an 
inunction where remedies cannot be administered by 
the mouth. A. Salicylate, C,-Ilj3NOjC.H/)„ a 
colloidal mass, used as atropin. A. Santonate, a 
compound of atropin and santonic acid forming a 
nonhygroscopic amoqjlums powder, recommended as 
a mydriatic. A. Santoninate, C,-IIjj(i3C,jIl..,|( ),, a 
white powder .soluble in water, melting at II3°-1I5° 
C. It is used in ophthalmic practice. A. Stearate, 
C^HjjNOjCplljjCO. on, fine white needles, greasy 
to the touch, melting at 120° C, beginning to decom- 
pose at 170° C, and containing 50. 43;^ of atropin. 
It is soluble in ether and in alcohol. Applied in 
I : 500 oily solution as substitute for oil of belladonna 
oroil of hyoscyamus. A. Sulfate, (C,.llj3>.'().,ljllj- 
S(-)^, white masses of neutral reaction, soluble in 0.4 
part of water and in 6 parts of alcohol, melting at 
lS9°-i9i° C. It is used as atropin. Dose, j^b— 5V 
gr. (0.00065-0.0013 gm.). A. Tartrate, (t',-llj,- 
NOjl.^CjHji ij, amorphous plates, soluble in water and 
in alcohol, melting at II3°-II5°C'. It is used as 
atropin. A. Valerianate, (Ci^lL^jNOjCjIIjiiO,), -f- 
IIjO, while crystals soluble in water, in alcohol, and 
in ether, melting at 1 13°-! 16° C. 

Atropinization {u/ro-piiii-^a'-s/iiin). The production 
of the physiologic effect of belladonna. 

Atropinum, Atropium [a/ropi'-niim, al-ro'-pi-tim'). 
See A:ropin (Illus Diet.). 

Atroscin yal'-io>-in). Cj-H^iJsTi^. An alkaloid iso- 
meric with hyoscin, obtained from Siopn/in caiitiolica, 
Jacq. It has a higher rotary power than hyo-cin and 
is from 2 to 4 limes stronger in mydriatic action. 
Syn., Atrositi. 

Attaint (al-aiiil') \attingere, to touch by striking]. \n 
injury to a horse's leg caused by overreaching. 

Attenuant. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. Increasing the 
fluidity of the blcx)d or other secretions. 3. Lessening 
the eflect of an agent. 

Attenuation. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The state of being 
thin. 3. -\ system of dietetics for correction of obe- 
sity. 4. The reduction of the toxicity of a pathologic 
microorganism or a virus by successive cultures or re- 
peated inoculations. 5. The virus or medicine which 
lias undergone attenuation. 

Atticoantrotomy {at-ik-o-au-lrol' -o-me) \attic ; ati- 
frill)! : rifimi; to cut]. The opening of the attic 
and mastoid process. 

Atticomastoid (,i/-ik o-inas'-loid). Relating to the 
attic and the mastoid. 

Atticotomy (iit-ik-ol'-oiii-e\ \attic ; jifivtiv, to cut]. 
Surgical incision of the attic. 

Attidz {al'id e). A family of jumping spiders, several 
species of which are held to be venomous. Cf. I'liid- 

Attitude. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Devergie's (de 
Combat), a posture of a <lead body marked by flexions 
of the elbows and knees, with closure of tile fingers 
and extension of the ankles. 

Attraction-sphere. -See Sphere of Attraction (Illus. 
Diet. i. 

Attractoelectric {al-rakt-o-e-lek'-trik). Having the 
power to attract an electric current. 

Attractor {at-rak'-lor). .See AUrahens (Illus. Diet.). 

Auchen (mf'-ktii) ['ii'v'/''. 'he neck]. The neck or 
throat or the constricted part of any organ. 

Aucheniatria (ini'-itn-t-:)t'-r,-ti/i\ [rn'i'/', the throat; 
tnrtnid, a healing]. The therapy of throat 

Audition. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn.. Aiiisia: Amsis : 
Atot'^is. A., Active, the hearing which occurs during 
the act of listening. A., Chromatic. See A., 




Coloree (lUus. Diet.). A., Centre, the perception by 
one ear of the vibrations of a tuning-fork placed on 
the mastoid process on the other side. A., Mental, 
the formation of an idea or mental impression from a 
remembered sound. A., Passive, the perception of 
sounds without any effort being made to hear them. 
A., Verbal-Mental, mental audition in which the 
remembered sounds are words. 

Auditory Sand. See under S:tti,l. 

Aura. (See Illus. Diet.) A., Electric. See Mind, 
EUclric (Illus. Diet ). A., Epigastric, a localized 
epileptic aura. 

Aurade, Auradin {aw' -rail, uw'-raJ-in). A fatty body 
obtained from oil of orange flowers by I'lisson, who 
regarded it as analogous to ambrein, myricin, ethal, 
and cerasin. It crystallizes in tasteless, pearly, odor- 
less .scales, melting at 131° F.; soluble in water, in- 
soluble in alcohol. Syn., \ero/i camp/wr. 

Aural. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Relating to the air or 
to an aura. 3. See Aurade. 

Aurammonium [aw-ram-y-ne-um^ \_attnint : antmo- 
niiiiii']. A compound in which there is replacement 
of the hydrogen in ammonium with gold. 

Aurantia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An orange or 

Aurantiamarin {aii>-ran-ti-am'-ar-in^. A bitter glu- 
cosid obtained by Tanret from orange peel. 

Aurantiin (au>-rnn'-ie-in). See Aiiranlin (Illus. 
Diet. 1. 

Aurate ( a-u'-ral"). A salt of auric acid. 

Aurea alexandrina (a-tv'-ic-ak al-eks-an' -drin-ah). A 
preparation of opium. 

Aureol ( aw-riZ-ol ). The commercial name of a hair- 
dye said to contain menthol, i "r ; amidophenol-chlor- 
hydrate, 0.3'/-; monoamido-diphenylamin, 0.65^; 
dissolved in 50^(3 alcohol which contains 0.5^'^ sodium 

Aureola (aw-re'-o-laK). See Areola (l) (Illus. Diet. |. 

Aureolary (aw-n'-ol-ar-i). Pertaining to the areola 
of the nipple. 

Aureolin [aw-re'-ol-iti) [aiiriim, gold]. \ yellow 
pigment obtained by heating paratoluidin with sulfur 
and treating with fuming sulfuric acid. Syn., Primti- 
line yellfno ; Carnotin ; Sulpliin ; Polyckromin ; 

Aureosin (aw-re'-o-sin'). The commercial name for a 
combination of chlorin and tiuorescin. 

Auric ya-i.''-rik) \auntnt, gold]. Pertaining to gold. 
A. Anhydrid, gold trioxid. A. Hydrate, gold tri- 
hydroxid. A. lodid, gold triiodid. A. Oxid, gold 

Auricle. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An ear-shaped ap- 
pendage. 3. A kind of ear-trumpet. A. -camphor, 
a stearoptene obtained by Hiinefeld from root of 
Printtita auricula, L. A., Cervical, congenital car- 
tilaginous remains of the neck, arising about the mid- 
dle of the sternomastoid as symmetric bodies, occur- 
ring in man occasionally and almost constantly present 
in the goat. 

Auricled (a-;u'-rii-ld). See Aurictilate. 

Auricoaramonic (atu-rik-o-am-on'-ik). Containing 
gold and ammonium. 

Auricobarytic (a-.o-rik-o-bar-it'-ik). Containing gold 
nuil barium. 

Auriculare [aw-rii-u-lar'-e). See Auricular Point 
Illus. Diet.). 

Auricularis {aw-rii-u-lar'-is). I. See Auricular (Il- 
lus. Diet.). 2. The extensor minimi digiti. See 
Muscles, Table of (Illus. Diet.). See also Kcn'es, 
Table of (Illus. Diet.). 

Auriculate, Auriculated (aw-rik'-u-lat, -ed). Fur- 
nished with cars or ear-like appendages ; auricled. 

Auriculiform {aw-rik-u' -te-form'). Shaped like alittle 

Auriculocranial (aw-rik-u-lo-kra'-ne-al). Pertaining 
to both tlie auricle and the cranium. 

Auriferous {aiv-rif'-ur-us) \iiuruni, gold ; ferre, to 
bear]. Containing gold ; yielding gold. 

Aurific \tm-rif'-ik). Containing gold. 

Auriginosus {aw-rij-in-o' -sus). I. Having the color 
of gold. 2. Relating to jaundice. 

Aurinasal (aw-re-na'-sal) [auris, ear ; nasus, nose'\. 
Pertaining to the ear and the nose. 

Auris. (See Illus. Diet.) A. ceti, the cochlea of the 
whale, once used as a remedy. A. externa, the outer 
ear. A. interna, A. intima, the internal ear. A. 
media, the middle ear. Aurium tinnitus, ringing in 
the ears. 

Auriscopy {aw-ris'-ko-pe). See Otoscopy (Illus. Diet.). 

Aurobromid (aw-ro-bro'-mid). Gold and potassium 

Aurum. (See Illus. Diet.) For salts see under Gold. 
A. vegetabile, pipitzahoinic acid. 

Auryl {a-.y-ril). \ — Au = 0. A univalent radicle 
contained in metaurie acid. 

Auscultator (aws-kull' -a-tor). An adept in ausculta- 

Auscultoscope {aws-kult' -o-skop"). See Phonendoscope. 

Australene {nws'-tral-en) [Pinus australis, the source 
of American turpentine]. C,(,II,g. Braconnot's 
name for a liquid, dextrorotar)' hydrocarbon, the chief 
constituent of English and American oil of turpen- 
tine ; it is also found in oils of wormwood and spear- 
mint, ^wn., Dextropine7te ; Austropyrolene ; Austro- 
terebentheiie ; Aiistroterebettthine. 

Austroterebenthine \aws-tro-ter-e-ben' -theti). See 

Autecic, Autoecic (oTu-te'-sik). See Autecioiis (Illus. 

Autetnesia (azo-tem-e' -she-ah) [avr&^, self ; ifieiv, to 
vomit]. \"omiting*without manifest cause. 

Autilytic (aw-til-it'-ik). See Autolytic. 

Autoambulance (a-c-toam' bu-lanz) [oirof, self; 
ambu/iiiiee']. An ambulance containing its own mo- 
tive power. 

Autoaudible (aw-to-azad' -i-bl) [alroc, self ; atidire, 
to hear]. Applied to cardiac sounds audible to the 

Autoblast (a'iu' -to-blasi) [niriSf, self; p/Martic, a germ]. 
.\n independent bioblast. 

Autocheir (aw'-to-klr) [avrtx;, self; x"Py hand], A 
jicrson who has taken his own life. 

Autocheiria (a7v-lo-ki'-re-a/i). .Suicide. 

Autoclinic (aw-to-klin'-ik) [rn'roi, self; k/hikoc, per- 
taining to a bed]. I. The study of disease in the stu- 
dent's own person. 2. Relating to the study of dis- 
ease in one's own person. 

Autoconduction (aw-to-kon-duk'-sliun) [niViif, self ; 
conduction'^. A term used in electrotherapy for a 
method of using high-frequency currents, by having 
the patient or part to be acted upon placed inside of 
the solenoid, without any direct connection with any 
part of the circuit, [jacoby.] 

Autocracy, Autocrasy {au> tok'-ras-e) [orroc, self; 
x/inrfn, to rule]. I. The vital principle of an organ- 
ism. 2. The etfort of the vital powers toward tlie 
preser\ation of the organism. 

Autocystoplasty (aw-to-sis-to-plas'-te) [niroc, self; 
mcrie, bladder ; —/.aaaeiv, to form]. Plastic surgery 
of the bladder with grafts from the patient's body. 

Autocytotoxins [aw-to-si-to-loks'-ins) [iii'n/r, self; cy- 
toto-xin']. Cytotoxins prcxiuced in the bcKly of the indi- 
vidual by abnormal retention and absorption of the 
products of degenerated and dead cells. 




Autoendoscopy (a-w-fo-i-n-Uiti'-ko-fe) [aiiTiif, self; <•«- 
liosco/'v]. .Sell-examination by means of the endo- 

Autoepidermic {lUU-lo-ef-e-ilunit' -ik'\ [«iV(if, self; 
(l'ulcriiiis\ Pertaining to or taken from the skin of 
the person concerned. A form of skin-tjrafling (y. t'. ). 

Autoepilation (niv-to-fp-i/a' -s/iiiii) [_avTuc, self; <///«- 
tu'ii]. The pulling out of one's own hair. 

Autofundoscope {^aw-lofiin'-do-skop) [aiVof, self; 
JunUiis, the bottom; nnu-iir, to look]. An instru- 
ment for self-examination of the vessels about the mac- 
ular region of the eye. 

Autogenia [ii7v-/o-J^'-ite-ii/t). See Att/oi^cnesis (Illus, 
llict. ). 

Autogenial (nw-lo-jc-n'-c-n/). See Aii/o^eiions (Illus. 
llict, I. 

Autogenous. (See Illu.s. Diet ) 2. Having a dis- 
tinct center of development, as parts of bones. 

Autognosis {^tnv-to^-no^ -sis) [(iirof, self; j CfjT/r;, 
knowledge]. Knowledge obtained by self-observa- 

Autognostic (nw-ht^-iios'-lii-). Relating to autogno- 

Autogony {a-w-loj'-oii-e) [nirojdi'of, self-produced]. 
The rise of the simplest protoplasmic substances in a 
forin.uive lluid. [Haeckel ] 

Autohypnotic {tt-o-lo-liip-iiot'-il;). i. Relating to auto- 
hypnotism. 2. An individual who can put himself 
into a hypnotic state. 

Autoimmunization (mu-Zo-im-ii-ni-za'-s/iiiii) [iii'toc 
self; iiiiuiiiiii-,atioii'\. Innnunization obtained by 
natural ])ri)cesses at work within the body. 

Autoinfection {itw-to-in-fck' -slnin) \_ii'vTiir, self ; infi- 
<-crc, to infect]. Infection by virus originating within 
the body or transferred from one part of the body to 

Autoinfusion [aw-/o-in-fii'-shiin) [ni'rdi;, self; iii/iiii- 
(iiir, to pour in]. Compulsion of the blood to the 
heart by bandaging the extremitfes, compression of the 
abdominal aorta, etc. 

Autointoxication. (See Ilhis. Diet.) A., Endogen- 
ous, that due to the action of excessive, unneutrali/ed, 
or moditied discharges from the cells of anv tissue acting 
upon the other tissues without previous discharge from 
the body ; or, that due to the action of [jroducts of 
decomposition and necrosis of any tissue acting in a 
similar manner ; or, that due to microendoparasites or 
macroendoparasites. A., Exogenous, that due to the 
action of poisons entering the system from without, 
through the skin, the digestion, the respiratory or geni- 
tourinary tr.act, as by the absorption of retained 
excreta, or of decomposition- and fermentation-prod- 
ucts developed in the external secretions thnnigh the 
action of those secretions [.^dami]. A., Indirect, 
that caused by the absorption of retained excrements. 

Autoisolysin [mu-lo-is-o-li'-sin) [^nhrur, self; innc, 
equal ; 'rnir, a loosing]. A serum which dissolves 
the corpuscles of the individual from which it was ob- 
tained and also those of another individual of the 
same species, 

Autolavage (aio-to-lav'-a/i/) [niVor, self; lavagil. 
The washing out of one's own stomach. 

Autolithotomist (aw-to-/it/i-ot'-om-ist) [oiTOf, self; 
> /Woe, a stone ; rf,«rc/i', to cut]. i. An individual who 
has pr,acti.sed lithotomy upon himself. 2. An auto- 
matic instrument for performing lithotomy. 

Autology [iiiv-tol' -o-;^) [f/j-roc, self; '/oyoq^ science]. 
The scientihc study of self. 

Autolysin (niii-to-li'-shi) [fuVdf, self ; Arff/f, a loosing]. 
A lysin cajiable of dissolving the red blood-corpuscles 
of the animal in the serum of which it circulates. Cf. 
Hetc-rolysin ; Isolysin ; Ih-iiiolysin. 

Autolysis [mu-tol-is'-is) [nrror, self; //u/r, a loosing]. 
I. Self-digestion of inflammatory exudates and necro- 
tic material within the living body. [Jacoby and Con- 
radi.] 2. The chemic splitting up of the tissue of an 
organ by the action of an enzyme peculiar to it ; de- 
scribed by Mathes as occurring in the i)lacenta. 3. 
The hemolytic acticm of the blood-serum of an animal 
uiM)n its own corpuscles. 

Autolytic [ii-ci-to-/il'-U-). Relating to autolysis. 

Autonomic, Autonomous [aw-/on-om'-ii:, loii'om- 
iis). Intlepeiulent in origin, action, or function. 

Autonosographia, Autonosography {,iw-lo-no-so- 
grnf'-e-ali, nw-lo-iios-ii;' -rof-c) \_m-:i<;, self; I'ooof, 
sickness; )^nii,triv, to write]. A description of an in- 
dividnars own disease. 

Autoophthalmoscope (ii-,i'-/o-o/-t/uil'-ni(i-sid/>). See 
.lii/op/i//i(i/mos,-,>/'i- (Illus. Diet.). 

Autophagism {iiw-lo/''-aj-!sm). See Autofhagy {Illus. 

Autophia (aw-lo' -fe-ah). See Autopsy (Illus. Diet.). 

Autophonia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. [niTor, self; 
i/mi'iK, murder.] Suicide. 

Autophony. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. The altered reso- 
nance of the ])atient's voice as hear<l by himself. 

Autophthalmoscopy (,iii'-/i>/'-//iii/-i)irs'-ko-pif), Self- 
exaniiiialion ol the interior of the eye. 

Autophysiotherapeia, Autophysiotherapia {a~v-to- 
fiz-e-o-ther-ap-e' -ah) [r/j'-ror, self; V^'^^'f* nature; 
ikfia-r'in, therapy]. Cure by means of nature's restor- 
ing power without medicaments. 

Autopsychorrhythmia (a-o-lo-si-kor-ritli'-mc-nh) \iim- 
Toi^, self; il'i-\/,\ mind; /ji'ft//(if, rhythm]. -^ morbid 
rhythmic activity of the brain ; it is a symptom of 
grave insanity. 

Autoptic, Autoptical [<>-v-/op'-/ik, -til). Relating to 

Autorrhinoscopy (imi-tor-rin-os'-kopf) [niTiic, self; 
/'"'c, the nose ; cn(i~tlv, to look]. Self in.spection with 
the rhinoscope. 

Autospeculum (aw-lo-spek' -ii-him) \iw7<ti-, self; spec- 
iilitni']. A vaginal speculum for self-examination. 

Autospermotoxin (ini'-/i'-sp:iriii-p-/oks'-iii) [iierdf, 
self; n~tpfin^ seed; nt^tuav^ poison]. A specific sub- 
stance produced in the blood-serum of an animal by 
intravenous injection of spermatozoa of another animal, 
and which renders the serum of the treated animal 
toxic for the spermatozoa of both. 

Autosterilization (irii'-/i>-s/i-i--i/-iz-ii'-s/iiin) [lUTof, self; 
s/,r//i:,!/n'ii]. Sterilization effected by the normal 
fluids of the body. 

Autostylic (:i'ii-fn-s/i'-lik) \_uv76c, self; ari'/nr, a pil- 
lar]. .\pplied to a mandible in which the palatoptery- 
goid articulates directly with the cranium. 

Autotelic (i;«'-A'/''-<7-//') [dirdi', self ; rj/or, end]. Ex- 
isting for its own end or sake. Cf. HtUrolelic. 

Autotemnous (nw-lotciii'-nus) [niviir, self; ri/iveiv, 
to cut]. Capable of .spontaneous division. 

Autotoxicosis. See under '/o.iiit'sis (Illus. Diet.). 

Autotoxicus (nw /ott'ks'-ik-iis) [^I'rrtir, self; To^mor, 
]ioison]. P'hrlich's term for selfpoisoning through 
the formation and action of autocjtotoxins in conse- 
quence of absorption by the animal of its own degen- 
erate and dead cells. 

Autotyphization [im'-to-ti-Jiz-a' -shun) [nj-rdt", self; 
lvplund\ The production of a condition resembling 
typhoid fever from faulty elimination of waste mate- 

Autoxemia. .See Autoloxeniin (Illus. Diet.). 

Autoxenous (ii-v-Zoks'-i-ii-iis] [ni'rdr, the same ; Ifi'Of, 
host]. .See Auhcious (Illus. Diet.). 

Auxanogram (tuvks-an'-o-gram) [nrinrnv, to grow ; 
ypaifieiv, to write]. A pure plate culture of microbes 




which has been prepared by Beyerinck's auxanographic 
method in whicli the colonies indicate which one of 
several nutrient media is best suited to their growth. 

Auxanography (au>i-s-an-og'-ra-/^). A method de- 
vise<l by Beyerinck for ascertaining which nutrient 
media are suitable for a growing microbe. Plate cul- 
tures of bad media {e.g.^ \o'/( gelatin or 2J^ agar- 
agar in distilled water) are .stippled with drops of solu- 
tions, the nutrient properties of which are to be tested. 
The species of microbe under examination wilt then 
develop strong colonies only on those spots where the 
requisite pabulum is present. 

Auxemeter [iiwis-cw'-^'l iir). See Aiixometer. 

Auxenometer, Auxesimeter (aivks-en-oin' -et-iir, awks- 
es-iiii'-c'l-iir). See Ati.xotiuler. 

Auxiliaris utwks-il-i-a'-ris). I. 'ist^ Auxiliary (lUus. 
Diet.). 2. See under J/«j("/e'j". 

Auxiliary. (See lUus. Diet.) 2. An adjuvant. A.s 
of Respiration, those muscles concerned in difficult 

Auxiometer [^iiwks-e-om' -et-ur\. See Aiixometer. 

Auxometer (iiiuks-om'-et-ur) [av^ew, to grow ; ui-rpov, 
a measure]. 1. A device for estimating the magnify- 
ing power of lenses. 2. See Aiixanomelir (lUus. 
Diet.). 3. A dynamometer. Syn., Auxemeter ; 
Auxenometer ; Auxesimeter ; Auxiometer ; Auzoitie- 

Auzometer [aw-zom' -et-ur'). See Auxometer. 

Avaisme [nh'-vuh-izm). A malady from abuse of 
kava resembling absinthism. 

Aval [a'-val) \jivus, an ancestor]. Relating to grand- 

Avalanch (av'-al-ansli) \ad, to; vallem, ace. ol vallis, 
valley]. The phenomenon following two similar ex- 
citations of a motor nerve, one near the muscle which 
it supplies, the other at a distance, the last causing the 
more active contraction of the muscle. 

Avalent (ah-i'a'-lent) [n, priv. ; valere, to be strong]. 
AVithout valency. 

Avalvular [ah-val-y -u-lar) [a, priv.; valvula, a valve]. 
Lacking valves. 

Avascular I a/z-rrtZ-^K-Zizr) [n, priv. ; 2/im^u/u///, asmall 
vessel]. Not vascular ; bloodless. 

Avascularization \^ah-x'ns-ku-lar-iz-a^-shuii). The 
act of rendering a part bloodless, as by compression or 

Avascularize (ah-vas'-kular-iz). To render blood- 

Avenain [nv-e'-na-iii). See .^-reiiiii (Illus. Diet.). 

Avenalin [<i7'-eu^-(i/-in). The proteid of oats. 

Avenious, Avenous {ali-ve'-ne-us, ah-ve'-nus] [a, 
priv.; T't'«(7, vein]. Lacking veins or nerves. 

Avenolith yai'-en'-ol-itli) \ave)ia, oats; >.(flof, stone]. 
An intestinal calculus formed around a grain of oats. 

Aversion (az>-ur^'Skuii) [trz'ertere, to turn aside]. A 
turning aside, as in the displacement of an organ or in 
metastasis. 2. Nausea. 

Avicularia {rtt'-//i-«-/(/-/v-<;/;) [a-'M, a bird]. A genus 
of giant spiders of the TherafihosidiC, the so-called 
trap door, mining, or mason spider. A. vestiaria 
(de Geer), bird spider, the nhandu-guacu of Brazil 
and tropic America, a poisonous giant spider. 

Avirulent (ah-vir'-u-lent) [a, priv.; virus, a poison]. 
Without virulence. 

Avornin i<;r-('r«'-;H). C^Hi^O^. A glucosid obtained 
by Kubly from the bark of avornus, Rhamnus fraii- 
gula, L. It is perhaps identical with impure frangulin. 

Avulsio, Avulsion. (See Illus. Diet.) A. of the 
Bulb, A. bulbi, separation of the pupil from its at- 
tachments in conse<;[uence of complete or almost com- 
plete rupture of the tendons of the optic muscles and 

Axanthopsia {ah-zan-lhop' -se-ali) [a, priv. ; ^dvSof , yel- 
low ; ''".vr, vision]. Vellow-blinuness. 

Axes \iiks'-ez). i. Plural of Axis. 2. A provincial 
name for ague or its paroxysms. 

Axiform {^aks^-e-form) [axis ; forma, form]. Shaped 
like an axis. 

Axifugal (aks-i/'-u-gai) [axis ; fiigere, to flee]. Cen- 

Axiniform {aks-in' -e-form^ [afiiv/, an ax ; forma, 
form]. Shaped like the head of an ax. 

Axiobliquus yaks-e ob-lik'-wus). See Obliquus capitis 
iuUrioris, m A/uscles, 7>i/'/f (>/' (Illus. Diet.). 

Axioplastn (aks'-e-o-plaziu) [axis; -'/ucitn, a thing 
molded]. 2. Waldeyer's term for the delicate stroma 
of reticular substance holding together the fine fibrillas 
of the axis-cylinders. Syn., Xeitroplasm. 

Axioscotic [aks-e-o-sko'-tik). See Isochromatic (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Axipetal, Axipetus (aks-ip'-et-nl, aks-ip' -et-iis) [axis; 
pt'lcre, to seek]. Centripetal ; applied to the trans- 
mission of impulses toward an axon. Syn., Axope- 

Axirectus (aks-e-rei'-tiis). See Rectus capitis posticus 
major, in Muscles, Table ^{Illus. Diet.). 

Axis. (See Illus. Diet.) A. -band. See A.-cylin- 
a<'r (Illus. Diet.). A., Basibregmatic. See Line, 
Basiobregiiuitic (Illus. Diet). A., Brain, the isth- 
mus. A. of the Brim of the Pelvis, a line imag- 
ined to pass through the center of the plane of the 
pelvic inlet in a direction perpendicular to the plane. 
A., Celiac. See Artery, Celiac (Illus. Diet.). A., 
Central. See A.-cylindr (Illus. Diet.). A. -cord. 
See Primiti-.'e Streak (Illus. Diet ). A. -corpuscle. 
See Corpuscle, Axile. A., Craniofacial, in compara- 
tive anatomy the bones making the floor of the cranial 
cavity. A. -cylinder Process. .See under Process 
^Illus. Diet.). A., Electric, a line connecting the 
two poles of an electric body. A., Encephalomy- 
elonic, A., Encephalospinal. See Xeiiraxis. A. 
of the Eye. See A., Optical, A., Usual (Illus. 
Diet. 1. A. -fiber. See A. -cylinder (Illus. Diet.). 
A., Hemal, the aorta. A., Magnetic, a line con- 
necting the two poles of a magnet. A., Neural. 
See A., Cerebrospinal (Illus. Diet). A., Noto- 
chordal. See Kotochord (Illus. Diet.). A. of the 
Outlet of the Pelvis, a line imagined to pass 
through the center of the plane of the pelvic outlet in 
a direction perpendicular to the plane. A., Pelvic, 
an imaginary line passing through all the median ante- 
roposterior diameters of the pelvic canal at their centers. 
A. -tractor, a forceps for making traction in the pelvic 
axis A. -tube. See Axis-cylinder (Illus. Diet.). 
A. uteri, i. The long diameter of the uterus. 2. .-V 
line imagined to transversely through the uterus 
near its junction with the cervix, on which it is said to 
turn in retroversion. 

Axite (iiks'-it) [axis, axis]. Gowers' name for the 
terminal filaments of the axis-cylinder. 

Axodendrite (aks-o-dcn'-dril) [a.\is ; dfid^wj, a tree]. 
Lenhossek's term for a nonmedullated, axopetally 
conducting side fibril on the axons, as distinguished 
from a cytodendrite or one of the true medullated, 
celiulifugal collaterals. 

Axoid (aks'-oid) [ii.;ui', axis; fiiiof, likeness]. I. 
Shaped like a pivot. 2. Relating to the second cer- 
vical vertebra. 

Axolemma. See .4xilemma iTUus. Diet.). 

Axolotl. A Mexican name for tailless amphibians of 
the genus Amblystoma. The flesh is considered ana- 
leptic, and a decoction of the skin made into a syrup is 
used as a remedy in pulmonary affections. 

Axometer [aks-om' -et-ur) [iiui', an axis ; fierpov^ 




measure]. An instrunieiit used to adjust properly the 
axes of s])ectacles to the eyes. 

Axon. (See IHiis. Diet.) 2. The cerebrospinal axis. 
3. Kulliker's term for neurite. 

Axoneuron (akso-nti'-ioii ) \h^uv, axis ; vcvfmv, 
nerve]. A neuron the cell-body (nerve-cell) of which 
lies in the interior of the brain or the cord. 
The axoneurons are classified as rhizoneurons and 

Axonia ((;/•-(-(/-«<■-«/;) [n^uK, axis]. Organisms having 
definite axes. 

Axonometer ((j,(v-c-«c«;'-c/-(v) [(ifui', axis; /i/r/wr, a 
measure]. I. An in.stnmient used for locating the axis 
of astigmatism. 2. An apparatus for determining the 
a.xis of a cylinder. 

Axopetal [ots-o/i'-el-a/). See A.xipetal. 

Axoplasm (nks'-o-plnziii). See Axiop/tism. 

Axospongium ( aks-o-spun'-jc-itiii] \_h^ui\ axis ; trrrfij-jor, 
a spiingci. Ileld's term for the reticular structure of 
the axis-cylinder. 

Axungia. (See Illus. Diet.) A. anatis, the fat of 
ducks. A. anguillae, eel's fat. A. anguium, the 
fat of snakes. A. anserina, A. anseris, goose- 
grease. A. ardeae, fat of herons. A. articularis, 
synovia. A. aschiae, A. aschii, A. asciae, A. ascii, 
the oil of the grayling, Sulmo ihymallns. A. canis, 
dog's fat. A. caponis, capon's fat. A. castorei, the 
fat obtained from the oil-sacs of the beaver. A. 
castoris, beaver's fat. A. cati silvestris, wild- 
cat's fat. A. cetaria, whale oil. A. ciconise, A. 
ciconii, fat from storks. A. colli equi, the fat from 
the neck of the horse. A. coturnicis, iiuail's fat. 
A. cuculi, fat of the cuckoo. A. cuniculi, r-ibbit's 
fat. A. curata, lard. A. de mumia, Ijune-niarrow. 
A. equi e colic, A. equi e juba. See A. colli cqiii. 
A. erinacei, hedgehog fat. A. gadi, cod-liver oil. 
A. gallinae, chicken-grease. A. gruis, crane's fat. 
A. hominis, human fat. A. leporina, A. leporis, 
hare's fat. A. lucii piscis, oil of pike. A. lunae, 
a variety of calcium carbonate. A. lupi, wolf's fat. 
A. lutrae, otter fat. A. mineralis, vaselin. A. 
pavonis galU, fat of jjeacocks. A. pedis tauri, 
neafs-foot oil. A. phasiani, the fat of pheasants. 
A. phocae, A. phoci, the fat of seals. A. piscina 
marina, cod-liver oil. A. porci, A. porci depurata, 
A porci lota, A. porcina, lard. A. soils terra 
sigillata, a yellow clay from Silesia. A. suilla, A. 
suis scrofae, lard. A. taxi, badger's fat. A. truttae, 
turkey grease. A. ursi, bear's grease. A. vitri, salt 
of glass; a scum forming on the surface of molten 
glass. It is applied as a desiccative and detergent. 
A. vulpis, fat of foxes. 

Axungious {•iks-un'-jc-iii). Greasy, lard-like. 

Ayapana, Ayapano. The South .-American name for 
the leaves of the herb Enpaloriiiin Iri/'lhicny, \'ahl., 
of tropic America. It is stinmlant, diaphoretic, and 
tonic, and is used in infusion externally for wounds and 
abscesses, internally for gastric disorders, and is recom- 
mended as a substitute for tea, coffee, and cocoa. 

Aydendron (ali-t-Jcn'-tiroit) [«/, S. A. name for the 
sloth ; fin'(^/K>i.', tree]. A genus of trees of the order 
Lauriiu-iC. A. cujumary, a native of Guiana, yields 
an aromatic nut known as cujumaiy beans, esteemed 
as a tonic and stimulant. A. floribundpm, Meisen, 
the swamp cinnamon-tree. The abacte cinnamon-tree 
of Brazil. The powdered seeds are used in leukorrhea ; 
a tincture as a tonic ; the pulp of the fruit as an 
astringent ; and a decoction of the leaves for wounds. 

Azadirin (nz-nd'-ir-in). A bitter alkaloid obtained from 
Aftliii azedarech; it has been used as a substitute for 

Azoamyly [ah-zo-a7ii' -il-e^ [(?, priv. ; Cf->or, animal ;\ starch]. The inability of the cell (hepatic) 

to store up as much glycogen as in the normal state. 
Azobenzid, Azobcnzidin, Azobenzin, Azobenzol. 

See Azohi'tizene (Illus. Diet.). 
Azobenzoid [az-o-bfti'-zo-ul ). An amorphous white 

powder derived from oil of bitter almonds by action of 

Azobenzoidin {nz-o-lv/i-zc'-iil-in). Hexagonal white 

prisms obtained from oil of bitter almonds and isomeric 

wilii azobenzoid. 
Azobenzoyl {ciz-o-fit-n'-zo-il). C.;jH,5N,. A crystal- 
line substance obtained from crude bitter-almond oil by 

action of ammonia. 
Azocodein {<rz-o-ky-i/i--!>i). An artificial alkaloid ol)- 

tained from nitrocodein by action of ammonium sulfid. 
Azoconydrin [az-o ionid'-n'n). Cgll,„\/J. A yellow 

aromatic oil obtained from coniin by united action of 

nitrous anhydrid and water. .Syn., Xi/rosorotiiift, 
Azodifune [iiz-o-i/i-filii'). See Azolvinfin- (Illus. 

Diet ). 
Azodiphenyl (az-o-(li-fcn'-il\. I. See Azobeuzene 

(Illus. Diet). 2. C.^,U|j,N.j, an oxidation-product of 

hydrazodiphenyl forming orange-red taminas. 
Azoic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Relating to nitrogen ; 

azotic ; nitric. 
Azoindol (az-o-iii'-ilol I. A red jiigment obtained from 

h)(lrazoindol by action of acids and alkalis or from 

indol by action of fuming nitric acid. 
Azomarate (>iz-om'-ar-ai). A salt of azomaric acid. 
Azomethane [az-o-mc//i-d>i'). Hydrocyanic acid. 
Azoodynamia (az-o-o-din-ain'-f-nh) [n, priv. j Cu^, 

life ; iSvvdinr, power]. Lack of vital power. 
Azoogenia, Azoogonia {az-o-o-je'-nc-ah, nz-o-o-go'- 

nr-tili). See .-hcoi^r/jy, 
Azoogeny {tiz-o-c/'-iu-f) [o, priv.; Cw//, life; •■/tvvi'ir^ 

to produce]. I. The generation of an organism lack- 
ing vital power. 2. The regeneration of an organism 

having defective vitality. 
Azoology [nz-o-ol^-oj-t') [«, priv.; Cw/, life; ^(J;of, 

science]. The science of inanimate things. 
Azoresorufin (az-o-rez-o-ru'-ftii). CjjHigN.jO,. An 

amorphous reddish-brown powder or prismatic crystals 

obtained from azoresorcin by action of sulfuric acid. 

With alkalis it gives a cimiabar-red color and is a very 

sensitive reagent for alkalis. 
Azotation (iiz-o-la'-s/iiiii). The assimilation of nitrogen 

fidm the air by organisms. 
Azotid [tiz^-o-titl ). I. A nitrid. 2. An amid or amin. 
Azotiferous (az-o-tif'-ur-us). Containing nitrogen. 
Azotiodic (az-ol-i-o'-Jik). Containing nitrogen and 

Azotite (iiz'-o-ti/). A nitrite. 
Azotization {iiz-o/i-za'-s/uiii). The combination of a 

sul)>tance with nitrogen. 
Azotized (az'-o-/izJ). Combined with nitrogen. 
Azotoluene [az-o-tol'-n-ln). C,,H,,N2. An oxidation 

product of toluidin. 
Azotometry iaz-o-tom'-et-fe) \jjzotufii^ nitrogen ; ^^tpnv, 

measure]. The determination of the amount of nitro- 
gen i^resent in a substance. 
Azoturia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A disease of horses 

marked by paralysis of the hindquarters. Syn., 

Azulmate (nz-iil'-md/). A salt of azulmin. 
Azulmin (az-i/l'-iiiin) [ME., nziire, blue; tilmin 

((/.?'.)]. CjHsNjO. A brown body separated from 

solutions of cyanogen on standing. Syn., Aziilmic 

fjcid : Aziitntinic nrid ; Azotulniic arid. 
Azyges (a'/ij-iz) \_a^vylir, unwedded]. The .sphenoid 

Azymous (az-i'-mus) [a, priv.; C^i'//^, a ferment]. Un- 






Bablabs, Bablah (/lah'/ahz, -/a/i). The pods ol Acacia 
araliicci and several olher species ; they are used in 
coughs ; the seeds contain 20% of tannin. 

Babool, or Babul Bark (ba-bool'). The astringent, 
tonic bark of the babul tree, Acacici arcibica, of India. 

Baccelli's Method. See under Trcaliitciit. 

Baccharin (Ixi/Z-ar-in). A poisonous alkaloid obtained 
from Bticc/iitris coridifolia, D. C 

Baccharis. (See Illus. Diet.) B. coridifolia, D. C, 
niioniio, a South American species very poisonous to 
cattle and sheep. B. pilularis, V>. C, kidney plan!, 
a native of the Facitic coast of the United States, is 
used in cystitis. 

Bacciform {bak'-si-fonii) \_bncca, a berry ; forma, form]. 
Berry shaped. 

Bacillemia, BacillEemia (bas-il-e'-mc-ah') \_Bacitlus ; 
aunt, blood]. The presence of bacilli in the blood, 

Bacilliparous {bas-i/-i//-iir-its) \_Bacillus; panirc, to 
produce]. Producing bacilli. 

Bacillogenous [bas-iZ-oJ^-tu-us) \_Bacilh13 : ^<^encfarc, 
to beget]. Due to bacilli ; producing bacilli. 

Bacillol (bns'il-ol). A coal-tar distillation-product re- 
sembling lysol, its active property being due to cresols. 
of which it contains <fZ% . It is an oily fluid of 
faint alkaline reaction, dark brown color, and odcjr of 
pitch, readily soluble in water, with sp. gr. of I.Ico, 
and bactericidal in dilute .solution. In veterinary prac- 
tice it is used in 2^^, solution in the treatment of in- 
flannnation of the scabbard. 

Bacillophobia (bas-il-o-fo'-be-ah) \_Bacillus ; ij>u,inr, 
fear]. Morbid fear of microbes. 

BaciUosis (bas-il-o'-sis) [Baci//iis'\. The condition 
caused by infection with bacilli. 

Bacillotuberculosis (bas-il-o-/u-biir-/:ii-/o'-s!s). Tuber- 

Back. (See lUus. Diet.) B. -airing, a term used in 
hygiene to designate the admission of fresh air to tra])s 
by means of a separate ventilating pipe of small 
diameter. B., Bicycle, the rounded shoulders due to 
riding a bicycle. B.-knee. See Knee. B.-rest, a 
cloth-covered frame adjusted to any height by means 
of braces and ratchets, designed to relieve bedridden 
patients. B.set, a relapse of a disease. 

Bacteriaceous (liak-te-rc-a' -Sims') \_Bi>ctcrium'\. Re- 
lating to bacteria. 

Bacterian, Bacteric {bak-ic' -re-an, bak-tei-'-ik). See 
AV(,Av7,(/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Bacteridial {bnk-ler-id'e-al). Relating to the genus 

Bacteridium [bak-Zer-ici'-e-unt] [iiaKTi/fu/iior, a little 
staff]. A genus of jSff</<';7'<?. See Buc/en'a, Table of 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Bacteriform [bak-ler'-e-form') \^Bacterit(m ; forma, 
form]. Shaped like a bacterium. 

Bacteriogenic [bak-te-re-o-jeii'-ik] \_Bactenuni ; gene- 
rare, to produce]. Caused by bacteria. 

Bacteriohemagglutinin (bak-te-re-o-heiii-ag-hi'-tiit- 
ill). A hemagglutinin produced in the body by the 
action of bacteria ; it is very unstable, being destroyed 
at 58° C. 

Bacteriohemolysin {bak-te-re-o-hem-o-li'-sin). A very 
un>table hemolysin formed in the body by the action 
of bacteria ; it is destroyed at 58° C. 

Bacteriolysin [bak te-re-ol'-is-iii). A complex sub- 
stance containing a peptic ferment combined with a 
bacterial derivative. 

Bacteriolysis (buk/e-re-ol'-is-is) \_Bacterinm: '/ion:, a 
loosing] . A fermentative process, discovered by Pfeifl'er 

(1894), in which specific ferments act only on certain 
cells, jubt as certain yeasts act only on sugars of certain 
detinite constitution. [X'aughan and Novy.] .Syn., 
Pfeifer^ s pkeiiomenon. 

Bacteriolytic [bak-tere-o-lil'-ik). Possessing a disin- 
tegrating actitju upon living bacteria. 

Bacteriopathology ybak-le-re-o^palh-ol'-o-je) \^Bac- 
leriiivi ; patholog}^. The science of diseases due to 

Bacteriophytoma (bnk-te-re-o-fi-to'-mak) \^Baclerium ; 
orrrir, a growth]. A new-growth caused by bacteria. 

Bacterioplasmin (ybak-te-re-o-pla'J-iniii) \^Bacleriitm ; 
~'/.aGija, anything formed or molded]. One of several 
toxic principles or toxalbumins extracted from patho- 
genic organisms, as of cholera or typhoid fever, by 

Bacterioscopist (bak-Ze-re-os'-ko-fis/') [Bae/eriiim ; 
Chit-tir. to look]. A person devoted to the investi- 
gation of bacteria. 

Bacteriosis [hnk-fe'-re-o-sis] [Bacterium'^. The action 
of bacteria in the system ; infection by bacteria. 

Bacteriospectrograin (bak-/e-re-o-sfek'-/io-gram)[Bac- 
teriiiiii : spectrum; ) i>a(titiv, to write]. Engelniann's 
name for a preparation of chromophorous bacteria to 
demonstrate that the attractive force of a given color 
of the spectrum is greater in proportion as the latter is 
retained by the coloring-matter. 

Bacteritic (/'ak-Zer-i/'-ik). Relating to or due to bac- 

Bacteruria [bak-/er-n'-re-a/i). See Bacleriiiria (Illus. 

Bactridium (bak-trid'-e-iim) [^jiaKTiipi^iov, a little rod]. 
.-V genus of fungi. 

Baculiform (bak ' -ii-Ie-foriii) \_baciiluiit, a stick ; forma, 
form]. Rod-shaped. 

Bael, Baele (ba'-ei). See Bela (Illus. Diet.). 

Baffine (^baf'-ln). A hair-dye consisting of a 2^ solu- 
tion of potassium permanganate. 

Bag. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Air-, a soft rubber bag 
which can be inflated with air. B., Honeycomb-, a 
name for the reticulum of a ruminant. B., Intragastric, 
an elastic rubber bag which, when folded over a tube 
which runs through it, occupies less space than an 
ordinaiy stomach-tube, and which has the exact shape 
of the stomach when it is inflated within that organ. 
It is employed to obtain the contents of the duodenum. 

Bakers' Stigmata. Corns on the fingers from kneading 

Balance. (See Illus. Diet 1 B., Electromagnetic, 
an apparatus for estimating the intensity of electric cur- 
rents. B., Induction, an apjjaratus for finding vari- 
ations in the composition of metals by means of the 
currents generated i)y them. B., Thermic. See 
Bo/omeler. B., Torsion, an instrument lor estimating 
magnetic attraction and repulsion. 

Balaneomphalus {ba/aii-e-om'-/',!/-i/s) \_3a?Mrlior, a 
bath ; ompa/.ue, the navel]. I. Furnished with a boss or 
a round bottom like that on an ancient bath. 2. See 
.^fesomphalion (Illus. Diet.). 

Balaneum ( bal-an'-e-uni\ \fla/.nviicn', a bath]. A bath. 

Balanocele \boZ-aii'-o-sf/) [.^n/nroc, the glans penis; 
hii'/ii. a hernia]. The protrusion of the glans through 
an opening in the prepuce, as occurs in gangrenous 

Balanopreputial [ba/-aii-o-pre-pii'-s/ie-a/) f .iii/ni'or, the 
glans penis; pnepiitiiim, jirepuce]. Relating to the 
glans penis and the prej^uce. 

Balatin (bal'-at-in). The creamy sap from a South 




American tree, Miiinisol'S kaiiki ; it is used as a vamisli 
and vehicle in .skin-diseases. 

Balbul. Kast Indian name for Balnd. 

Balbutiate (l>al-/iii-slif'-ai ) [/W/'«/, stammering]. To 
slaiinner ; to stutter. 

Balenic, Balaenic i/niZ-eii'-ii) \^ba/<riia, the whale]. 
t)btaine*.l iVoin a whale ; made of whalebone. 

Ball. (See Illus. I>icl.) 2. In anatomy, any globular 
part. B., Bichat's Fat-, the buccal fatpad; a mass 
of fat lying in the space between the buccinator and 
the anterior border of the masseter ; is especially well 
developed in infants. B., Gascoigne's, pulverized 
Oriental l)ezoar formed into ball>. B., Martial, balls 
made of 2 parts of cream of tartar and I part of iron 
filings; they were used in the preparation of ferru- 
ginous baths. Syn., fioti maftis : Glohttli ntartii, 

Ballista (A///./-/<//(| [I..]. .-X military engine. Ball- 
istse, Os, the astragalus, from having been used as a 
mi--»ile in the ballista. 

Balloon. (See Illus. Diet.) i. To distend a body- 
cavity bv means of air-bags or water-bags. 

Ballotternent. (.See Illus. Diet. I B., Abdominal, 
that perceived through the abdominal wall. B., 
Cephalic, the rebound of the fetal head against the 
hand when deiiressed through the abdominal wall. 
B., Direct. See BallolUnunt (Illus. Diet. |. B., 
Indirect. See f!., Ahdomiiuil. B., Ocular, the 
falling of opacpie particles in a fluid vitreous humor 
after movements of the eyeball. B., Vaginal. See 
BiillollaiunI [ Illus. Diet.). 

Balm. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Horse. ?,te Colli iisonia 
tiDi'itleiisis (Illus. Diet.). 

Balmies (hnl'-iniz). Half-witted criminals. 

Balneal [iMil'-ne-nl) \liiilnciim, a bath]. Relating to 

Balneation (hilnf-a'-s/iiiii) \_lialneum, abath]. i. The 
act of bathing. 2. IJalneotherapy. 

Balneologic [b,tl-ne-o-loj'-ik) [luilneiim, abath; /ii;or, 
science]. Pertaining to the science of baths and 

Balneophysiology {^bal-iic-o-fiz-e-ol' -o-je) \Jmliieum, a 
bath; o/t/i, nature ; /"jof, science]. The jjhysiology 
of bathing ; the science of the effects of baths upon 
the sv^te^l. 

Balneotechnics {/•al-ne-o-tek'-niki) [/uiliteiiiii, a bath ; 
rt^^i'V, an art]. The art of properly preparing baths 
as to constituents and temperature and the administra- 
tion of them. 

Balsam. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Acouchi, a resin- 
ous substance obtained from the inspissated juice of 
Protitini ann-onrliiin\ a tree of Guiana. It is used 
externally as a vulnerary. B., Amber, the residue 
left after rectilication of oil of -amber. B., Bectliba, 
B., Bicuhiba, B., Bicuhyba. See Bciiiilni (Illus. 
Diet. ). B. of Berne, conipoun<l tincture of bezoin. 
B., Bengue's Anodyne, a compound consisting of 
menthol, 2'2 drams; methyl salicylate, 2'i drams; 
wool-fat, 3 drams. B., Calaba. See Taiamahac, 
Bniirlwit. B., Carpathian. .See B., A';>rt. B., 
Giirjun. See Giirjtin (Illus. Diet.). B., Houmiri, 
B., Humiri, the fr.tgrant exudate from the trees 
Humiria balsamifiTa and //. /lorihioiila^ natives of 
South America. It is used as an expectorant and ver- 
mifuge. Syn., Ciiiiie. B., Jagulaway. See B., 
Ta^lavay. B., Mecca, an exiulate from Commi- 
phora opobahiimiini. B. of Quinquino. .See B., 
ll'/iilt-. B., Riga, a turjieutihe fiom J^iniis tc-mhnt or 
from Pitiiis palnslris. B., Samaritan, a mi.xture of 
equal parts of oil and wine, heated together, and a 
tenth part of rosemary leaves. B., Stimulant, a 
mixture of 8 parts of turpentine and I part of mustard 
flour. B., Storax. See .S/i-ra.r (Illus. Diet. ). B., 

Sulfur, a mixture of 8 parts of olive oil and i part of 
sublimed sulfur heated together. B., Syriac. .See 
y>'. , -lA'iKz. B., Tagulavay, B., Tagulaway, a 
yellow oil prepared in the Philippines by boiling the 
bark and twigs of the ccbu, I'ayamt-riu -iithuraritt^ 
Kadkl., in cocoanut oil ; it is used as a vulnerary and 
in skin-diseases. Syn., Ct-bur ; Jti^i^iilu'viiv balsam, 
B., Tamacoari, a dark brown substance obtaine<l 
from Caraifia I'asiiiulata, a tree of Ciuiana. It is used 
in the treatment of itch. B., Traumatic, B., Tur- 
lington's. See Friar's Balsavi {.XWwi. Diet. i. B., 
Umiri. .See A'. , /////«/;/. B., White, I. .V semifluid, 
somewhat granular substance obtained from fruit of 
Myroxylon pcreiriv. 2. A desiccant prepared of e(]ual 
parts of inspissated vinegar of lead and oil of roses. 

Balsamiferous (ba7cl-sam-i/'-ur-iis] [^/•alsamuiii, bal- 
sam; ferre, to bear]. Yielding balsam. 

Bambouc \baiii'-buk). See Baiiibiit. 

Bambuc, Bambuk. The tree yielding banibuk butler. 
B. Butter, a substance resembling butter, obtained 
by boiling the kernel of the fatty seeds of the -African 
tree Butvyosptrmtiin parkii^ Kotschy. It was first 
brought info notice by Mungo Park. Syn., Slwa but- 
ter ; Galai/t bulttr. 

Bananina [baii-aii-iii'-a/i). Banana flour, |>Iantain 
flour ; the fruit of J/rtsa sapicnlitim^ I.., dried and 

Banausea (ban-aw'-ze-alt\ [/Sai'mw/n, handicraft]. 
Mechanical work as opposed to mental achievement ; 
Hippocrates' term for the practice of medicine regarded 
from a commercial standpoint rather than as an art ; 

Bancoul. The candlemit-tree. .See AUiirilfs triloba. 
B. Nut, the fruit of the candlenut-tree. 

Band. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Absorption. See 
S/'fitriim, Absorption (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Acci- 
dental. See B.s, AiiDiiolii. B.s, Acoustic. See 
Stria. Ai-oiistii: (IWui. Diet.). B.s, Adventitious. 
See B.s, .-Imniotii. B.s, Amniotic, bands lormcd 
by drawn-out adhesions between the fetus and the 
amnion where the cavity has become distended through 
the accunuilation of fluid. Syn., Stmonaif s bands. B., 
Anogenital, the rudiment of the jjerinetmi ; a trans- 
verse band of integument compK-ting the division of 
the cloaca in the embiyo. B., Articulation. See 
SynJcsiiiosis (Illus. Diet.). B., Axis. See Streak, 
Primitive (Illus. Diet.). B.s of the Brain, the 
commissures of the brain. B., Baillarger's. See 
Layer, Baillarger' s. B., Broca's Diagonal, a band 
of cinerea forming the posterior ])art tjt the anterior 
perforated space and extending from the subcallosal 
gyrus to the anterior end of the hii>iiocampal gyrus. 
B. of the Colon, Anterior. See Li^anuiil, Ante- 
rior (of the colon). B. of the Colon, Inner, a 
band-like thickening of the muscular coat running 
along the inner surface of the ascending and descend- 
ing colon and the inferior aspect of file transverse 
colon. B. of the Colon, Posterior. See /,/;■(/- 
inent. Posterior (of the colon). B.s, Constricting, 
the intercellular substance at the nodes of Kanvier. 
B., Dentate. See Fascia dentata (Illus. Diet.). 
B.s, Eyelid. See^amenl, Palpebral, Jixternal 
and Internal (Illus. Diet.). B., Fallopian. .See 
Li^^ament, Poiiparl's {IWwi. V>\q\.). B.s, Fetal. See 
B.s, Petoainniotic. B.s, Fetoamniotic. B.s, Foeto- 
amniotic, amniotic bands i:)roducing deformities or 
intrauterine am])Ufafion. B.s, Fontana's, the wavy 
arrangement presented by nene-iibers, which lie 
alongside each other in loose spirals, in places where 
considerable mobility is possible. B., Frontal. See 
B.. Head (Illus. Diet. i. B., Furrowed, a small 
band of cinerea uniting the uvula cerebelli with the 




tonslllas. B., Giacomini's, a grayish band continu- 
ous with the dematc gyiu>, whicli passes from the cleft 
between the hip|K>canipal and uncinate gyruses trans- 
versely over the latter and disappears on its ventricu- 
lar surface. B. of the Glans Penis, the frenuin of the 
penis. B.s, Glenohumeral. See Ligament, Cleno- 
humeral (Illiis. Diet. I. B., Hippocampal. See 
Corpus Jintbriatuin \\\\w>.\y\<i\..]. B., Hyaline. .See 
Layer, Culieidar. B., Iliotibial, the ilioiibml liga- 
ment, ^itt Maissiat' s Baud (\\\\\i. Wk\.) B., Kra- 
mer's Frontal, a head band with ap|)liances to hold 
a eustachian catheter in place so that the surgeon's 
hands may be free. B., Maissiat's. See under 
ilaissiat (Illus. Diet. '. B., Mesoblastic, a band of 
mesoblaslic cells which extends the entire lenglh of 
the embryo. B. -nucleus. See c7./«->/r«w (Illus. 
Diet. ). B.s, Parachordal, the rudiments of the 
parachordal cartilages in the embryonic cranium. B., 
Perioplic. See Perio[>lf. B.s, Phonatory, the 
vocal cords. B., Primitive. See Axis-ey/iiu/er 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Primitive Vertebral. See 
/'/((/,', La/eral Mesolilastie (Illus. Diet.]. B., Pu- 
pillary. See Li\',iiiieii/, Ciliary (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Ranvier's Constricting. See B., Constrielin^. B., 
Reil's Covered, the lateral longitudinal strias ; the 
longitudinal hliers which cross tlie traiiverse strias 
beneath the fornicate gyrus. B., Houghton's, col- 
lapse, from atrophy of the tissues, of the zone corre- 
sponding to the junction of the aUe nasi with the 
lateral cartilages. The resulting contact of this zone 
with the septum causes obstruction during inspiration. 
B.s, Simonart's. See B.s, Amiiiotie. B., Solly's 
Arciform. See Fibers, Ro'aiul.i's Arcif^trin. B., 
Soret's, an a!>sorption band in the extreme violet end 
of the spectrum of bK)0t.l ; it is characteristic of hemo- 
globin. B., Striated Hyaline. See Layer, Cntieii- 
lar. B.s, Supraorbital, the embryonal thickenings 
above the eyes and to the outer side of them. B., 
Tooth, the involution of epithelium into the substance 
of the -embryonic jaw, from which the enamel or- 
gans of the teeth have origin. B.s, Ventricular (of 
the larynx). See B.s, I'oeal, Superior, under I'oeai 
(Illus. Diet). B., Vicq d'Azyr's. See L.ayer, 
Baii/ari^er^ s. B.s, Vocal. See vmder I'oeal (Illus. 
Diet.).' B.s, Vocal, False. See IWal B.s, Supe- 
rior ( Illus. Diet. ). 

Bandage. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Abdominal. See 
.S/«</f;- (Illus. Diet.). B., Borsch's, a bandage for 
one eye. B., Esmarch's, an elastic rubber bandage 
to |)revent hemorrhage in amputations. B., Martin's, 
an India-rubber bandage for varicose veins. B., Rib- 
ble's, the spica bandage for the instep. B., Startin's, 
a bandage impregnated with a mixture of paraffin and 
stearin. B., Velpeau's, a bandage for the shoulder. 

Baphiin {/>a/''-e-iit) [iti-Tur, to dye]. Ci2H,|,C.\. A 
crystallme substance soluble in alcohol and ether, 
obtained from cam-wood, the wood ol Baphia tiitida, 
a shrnii of tropical .\frica. 

Baphinitin ( A;/'-//;'-//-/;/). C,HjO. A jirecipitate ob- 
tained bv boi^ing baphiin with aqueous potash. 

Baphiniton (l'af-iii'-i/-oii). C„f\\.,J.^^. A substance 
obtained from boiling baphiin with caustic potash in a 
closed vessel. 

Bar [OE., /wdy]. i. A band or stripe. 2. The part 
of the upper jaw of a horse destitute of teeth. 3. 
An arch. 4. A prominence of the symphysis pubis 
projecting into the pelvic cavity. 5. See Periople. 
B., Articulomeckelian. See Carfila^e, .Meeiet s. 
B.s, Hyoid. the pair of cartilagini>us plates forming the 
second visceral arch. B., Interureteric. See B., 
Mereier' s. B., Mercier's, the transverse curved 
ridge joining the openings of the ureters on the inner 

surface of the bladder ; it forms the posterior boundary 
of the trigone. Syn., Interureterie bar: Bar of the 
bl.ideler ; Plica ureleriea. B. of the Neck of the 
Bladder. See B., Mercier's. B.s, Parachordal. 
See under Parachordal (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Tra- 
becular, B.s, Visceral, First. See Trabecules 

Barb. (See Illus. Diet.) j. In veterinary anatomy, a 
fold on each side of the frenum of the tongue at the 
opening of the duct of the sublingual gland. 4. A 
beard-like tuft of long hairy processes. 

Barbadoes Distemper. Synonym of Vello-o fei'er. 

Barbel (imr'-iel ) [/'ar/'ir. a beard]. The Cyprinus 
i>ari'/ts : the roe is u.-,etl as a purgative in some coun- 
tries, and causes vomiting and puiging if eaten to ex- 
cess. B. cholera, an epidemic of lisli-ptjisoning from 
eating diseased barbels. The symptoms are identical 
with those of cholera nostras and are due to a ptomain. 
S\n., Giis'ric ichtitvoto.xisr/i. 

Barber-surgeons, Association of (France). Estab- 
lished under Louis XI\', abolished by gi>vernmental 
edict 1743. B., Company of (Great Britain), founded 
under Henry VIII; the barbers being restricted to 
bloodletting and extracting teeth and the surgeons 
prohibited from "barbery or shaving." In 1745 the 
two callings were separated by Act of Parliament. 

Barium. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Acetate, liaiC^H,- 
"vlj + II;". white pri.smatic crystals soluble in water. 
B. Acrylate, Ba(C3H.,<)j)j, a compound of barium 
and acrylic acid. B. Adipate, Bat'^ll.C^, a com- 
])oundof barium and adipic acid. B. Allylate, iC.^l!,j- 
0).^liaO, a combination of barium and all\l alcohol, 
occurring as an amorphous mass. B. Amidosul- 
fonate, BaNjIl^S.^O^, long pri.sms .soluble in water. 
B. Amylosulfate, Ba(C5H„SU,), - 2H,0. lustrous 
crystals soluble in 10 parts of water. B. Antimonate, 
Ba( SbO.,j,, a compound of barium and antimonic acid. 
B. Arsenate, Baj(AsOj)2. a white powder almost in- 
soluble in water. It is used in tuberculosis and in 
skin-diseases. Dose, ■ij',-% gr. (0.004-0.016 gm. ). 
B. Arsenite. .See B. .Tle/arseiri/e. B. Benzene 
Sulfate, B. Benzol Sulfate, l!a(ruH5SO.,i2 . ll,0, 
pearly tablets soluble in alcohol. B. Benzoate, Ba- 
(CjHjOj).; + 2HjO, small colorless plates; it is used 
instead of digitalis as a heart stimulant. B. Bichro- 
mate, BaCr^O, -)- 2lIjO, deliquescent cry.-talline 
masses of a red-brown color, soluble in water contain- 
ing chromic acid. B. Binoxalate, Ba, HC"./J, ), -^ 
2H2^', white crystals soluble in water. B. Borate, 
BaBjO, ~ loHjO (Berzelius), white, light masses. 
B. Borotungstate, 2 Mat.iB.PagWOj + iSH.p, 
quadratic octahedral crystals soluble in water. B. 
Bromate, Ba(BrO.()j^ II„0, white crystalline powder 
soluble in hot water. B. Bromid, BaBr^ + 2HjO, 
colorless, crvstalline tablets soluble in water and 
alcohol. B.' Chlorate, Ba(CI0s).2 + ^P- colorless 
prisms soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol. 
B. Chromate, BaCrO^. yellow crystals insoluble in 
water; it is used as a pigment. Syn., YeHo-v ul/ra- 
marine. B. Citrate, P.a,,i CjHjiX),, white amorphous 
powder or crystals B. Cyanate, I!a(CNOj.j, fine 
white crystalline powder slightly soluble in water. 
B. Cyanid, Ba(CN)j, white lustrous scales, decom- 
posing to carbonate in the air, soluble in waler. B. 
Deutoxid. See B. Dio.xid. B. Dichloropropionate, 
Ba(C"^n.(ri,'X2).2 -1- H^O, a compound of barium and 
dichlorpropionic acid forming lustrous tubular cr)-stals. 
B. Dichromate, BaCr.,0, -f-"2ll..(), yellow needles. B. 
Dioxid or Peroxid, BaO.,, heaw, gray-while powder, 
soluble in dilute acids. B. Fluorid, BaFI.., white, 
finely granular crystalline powder, melting at about 
908° C. B. Formate, Ba(CO.^H)2, colorless, trans- 




parent ilioinhic prisms soluble in water. B. Hydrate, 
B. Hydroxid, caustic baryta; Ba(()H)j8H2( t, wliile 
quadratic tablets solul)le in 20 parts of water at 15° C. 
Itabsorbs carixmic aciil iVoni the air. B. Hypophos- 
phite, liad'l I./ ),, ).^ + II._,(), white crystals sc.lulile in 
water. B. Hyposulfate, liaSjO,- -\- 2I I.^( ), transparent, 
colorless, rlionibic crystals soluble in water. B. Hy- 
posulfite. See /i. '/Viiosn//,i/,: B. lodate, Bal I( ) ,1.,, 
white crystalline powder sohible in hot water. B. 
Lactate, lia^C.iHjOj).^ + 4II2O, white crystalline 
hygroscopic powder soluble in water ami ililute alcoliol. 
B. Loretinate, Neutral, l!a( I . Oil . C,jH,N . SO.,1.^ 
^ 2 ' . 11 ,< ►, orani^e-colored crystals soluble in water. 
B. Malonate, l>a( C.,!!,,' 1^), a compound of barium 
and malouic acid. B. Manganate, IJa.MnO,, emerald- 
green powder of microscopic prisms or si.x-sideil plates ; 
it has been used as a pigment. B. Meconate, a com- 
potind of bariimi and mec(mic acid ; it is used as an 
anthelmintic. B. Metarsenite, Ba(As()2).^, a gela- 
tinous mass becoming on drying a lieavy i)owder. B. 
Methylsulfate, Iia(Cll,,Sb,).j + 2llj(), colorless, 
transparent, deli'|uescent crystals, soluble in water and 
alcoliol. B. Molybdate, HaMoO,, crystalline, while 
powder soUible with dilhcully in acids. B. Mono- 
sulfid. .Same as B. Snijht B. Monoxid, baryta. 
B. Nitrate, lia(NO,,).j, colorless, regular, octahedral 
crystals solulile in water. B. Nitrite, liatNOj)., -|- 
H.;'), white crysiallifie powder or colorless prisms, 
soluble in water and alcohol. B. Oleate, Ba( C,„l I.,,- 
( )j),;, white granular masses or white crystalline powder, 
soluble in alcohol and ether. B. Oxalate, BaC.,'!^- 
-f- 11,0, white powder very sliglitlv soluble in water. 
B. Perchlorate, BaiCKJJj + 4Hjl>. col.)rless, hygro- 
scopic crystals soluble in water and alcohol. B. Per- 
manganate, lia(MnO|),, large orthnrliombic crystals 
of a very deep-red color with a violet reflection, soluble 
in water. B. Phosphate, Baill'O,, fine white 
powder soluble in water containing ammonium salts, 
phosphoric and dilute nitric acids. B. Phosphid, 
BaP,, a gray mass. B. Phosphite, 2BaHI'(), — 
11.^0, soft white powder soluble in boiling water. B. 
Propionate, Ba(C.,H.pj).„ soluble in water. B. 
Protoxid, baryta. B. Pyrosulfate, BaS.O., obtained 
by treating barium sulfate with fuming sulfuric acid. 
B. Salicylate, Ba(C,II.().,)j -f- H.O, white, stellate, 
shining needles. B. Selenate, Ba.SeO^, a heavy 
white powder ; it decomposes in hydrochloric acid. 
B. Sulfhydrate, Ba(SH).,, transparent colorless 
prisms which on exposure change to barium tliiosui- 
fate and barium sulfate; it is soluble in water. B. 
Sulfid, BaS, a white phosphorescent powder soluble 
in water; it is used as an alterant. Dose, '<-! gr. 
(0.032-0.065 gm. ) in keratin-coated pills, B. Sulfite, 
BaSO.j, white |)owder soluble in warm sulfurous acid. 
B. Sulfocarbolate, Ba(CgH.,SO, ).^, colorless crystals 
soluble in water; it is antiseptic. B. Sulfocyanate, 
B. Sulfocyanid, Ba(.SCNl.;, long, shining, white, 
delii|uescent, aricular crystals, .soluble in water and 
alcohol. B. Sulfovinate, BaiCjH,SO,)2 -f 2H,,(), 
prismatic crystals siluble in water and alcohol. Svn., 
B. Elhylsii'lf.iU-. B. Tartrate, BaC,H,n„, a white 
granular powder soluble in water. B. Thiosulfate, 
BaS./.)j -|- H/.), a white crystalline powder with diffi- 
culty soluble in water. B. Tungstate, Ba\VO„ a 
white powder or lustrous colorless crj'stals. 

Baroelectroesthesiometer ( bar-o-e-lt-ktro-fs-lhe-ze- 
om'-t-t'itr) [f^(//j«H;, weight ; ///PKr/jor, amber ; (unHi/air^ 
perceiJtion ; iiironr, a measure]. .An apparatus to 
determine the amount of jjressure when electric sensi- 
bility to pain is felt. 

Barology {Ixii'-o/'-o-je) [.?"^)0f, weight ; /<i; or, science]. 
The branch of physics dealing with gravitation. 

Barometer. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Air, a barometer 
with air or gas imprisoned above the column of 
liquid ; the variations of atinosjjheric pressure are 
indicated by the changes in the volume of this air. 
B., Boiling-point, an instrument for determining the 
atmospheric pressure through tjbservation of the boil- 
ing-i)oint of water. Syn., Jlypsonu'ltr ; T/u-fmointro- 
nul^r : Sarothennomelt'r. 

Barometric [hiro-iiul'-rif:). Relating to atmospheric 
pressure, to a barometer, or to barometry. 

Barometry (har-om'-et-i-f). 'I'he science of atmos- 
]>heric jiressure and the use of the barometer. 

Barometz, Baronetz {hai'-o-mctz, -ncit) [Tartar, hor- 
tinfiii, a lanil^]. .See Ciholium Barofftetz. 

Barothermometer (bui-o-l/iiir-mom'-el-iir). SeeBur- 
i>mt-/t'r, Boiliiii^-point. 

Barrel {bitr'-ci) [(). F., hiiil'\. I. The body or trunk 
of a cow or horse. 2. The tymj>anum. 3. The 
quill of a feather. 

Barringtonia (/Hir-!n<;-to'->ii'-(i/i) [75. Bairiiii^lon, an 
English naturalist]. .\ genus of jilants of the order 
jMvr/itft'ir. B. acutangula, Gaertner, a tree growing 
in Australia and India. The juice from the leaves 
mixed with oil is used in skin-diseases; the root is 
bitter, cooling, and aperient, and is said to be similar 
to cinchona ; the seeds pr<q»are(l with sag<j and butter 
are used in diarrhea. B. butonica, Forst., a tree of 
Australia and India. The outer portion of the fruit is 
used to stupefy fish. B. racemosa, has properties 
similar to B. aiiitaiignia. 

Barsati [bar-snl-f'). A disease affecting horses, con- 
sidered analogous to cancer. -Syn., Alrophic carcino- 

Baryencephalus (liny-i'-eii-sty''-n!-iis) [.'id/H'r, heavy ; 
f; A.- on/Of, within the]. .\ person with dull 

Baryglossus (l>ar-e-g/os'-iis) [;?«^j/'(', heavy ; y/.uaaa, 
the tongue]. An individual suffering from bary- 

Baryglottic, Baryglotticus {bar-e-,^/ot'-ii,' -us). I. 
Relating to baryglo.ssia. 2. A person affected with 

Barymetry ibiir-im'-et-ri'). f^ee Raromel>y. 

Baryta, Barytes. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Caustic. 
See Hiuiiiin Jlyiii\ile. B., Synthetic. See Barium 


Baryticoargentic (luv-il ik-i>-ar-jiii'-lil;) \_biirylii : cir- 
i^oitinii^ Containing baryta and silver. 

Baryticosodic (hiv-it-ik-o-so'-dtk) \_bniy/a ; soJium']. 
Containing baryta and sodium. 

Barytin (//,?)■'-//-/«) [.id/jif, heavy]. I. Native barium 
sidfate. 2. See Jc-i-'iii. 

Basalia (/w-.w?'-/.-;;/;) [.Jiio^f, a base]. The metacarpal 
bones. [Huxley.] 

Base. /See Illus. Diet.) B., Acid-forming, B., 
Acidiliable, one which forms an acid bv uTiiiing with 
water. B., Aldehyd. See .//,//« I Illus. Diet.). B., 
Animal, a |)tomain. 

Basella (bus-r/'-obt [Malabar name]. A genus of 
plants of the order C/i<iiflpi>Ji,rt<r. ■ B. rubra, I.., 
Malabar nightshade ; an esculent herb cultivated 
throughout India, where the juice of the leaves is 
given in infantile catarrh and an infusion of the leaves 
is used as tea. 

Basibranchiostegal (bi!s-i'br,ri!f;-ki'-os'-/i--,^'ii/) [iiimt, a 
base; ;i/w;,v"'. ''""gi'ls of fishes; <;-f)'£a', to shelter]. 
1. Located behind or at the base of the branchiostegal 
membrane. 2. The branchiostegal bone. 

Basichromatin (bas-i'-kro'-iniil-iii\ \3aatc, a; 
X,n,ii:ii, color]. Accordingto Heidenhain, that portion 
of the nuclear reticulum stained by basic anilin dyes. 

Basidiomycetes (lias-uZ-c-o-iiii-se'-tez) \lHisiiiiiini, a 




spore-producing cell ; uuK>/g, a fungus]. A division 
of fungi comprising genera which produce spores upon 

Basidiophore {l>asid'-c'-o-for') [basiitiiim, a spore-pro- 
ducing cell ; (poiilii; to bear]. Furnished with basidia. 

Basification \bas-if-ik-a'-sluiii) \p»sis, a base ; /a^d'/'^, 
to make]. The change of a substance into a base. 

Basifier [luis-ifi'-itr) \J>(isis^ a base ; fticdrf^ to make]. 
A suljstance capable of converting a body into a base. 

Basigenic ( Ims-e-jiHi'-ik) [,}«cif , a base ; yivvav, to 
produce]. Producing bases. 

Basihyobranchial \bas-e-ln-o-brang'-ke-al^ [3d<T£f, a 
base; vikuM/c, the hyoid ; 3imyx"'< the gills of fishes]. 
Relating to the basihyal bones and the branchiae. 

Basilemma {has-il-ein'-ah^ [ ^(icr/r, a base; /.t/z/fa, a 
husk]. .V basement membrane. 

Basilopharyngeal i^bas-it-o-far-in'-jc-al). Relating to 
the process of the occipital bone and to the 

Basilosubnasal (bas-il-o-siib-na'-zal). Relating to 
the b.ision and the nasion. 

Basioalveolar {bas-t-o-al-ve'-o-liir). Relating to the 
basion and to the alveolar point. 

Basioccipitosphenoidal ( bas-e-o-ok-sipil-o-sfi-noid'- 
al). I. Relating to the b.isioccipital bone and the 

Basiodeltoideus [bas-e-o-dc'/-/oui'-e-iis) [Jiimf, a base ; 
'^:-/Ta, tlie fourth letter of the Greek alphabet; clioc, 
likeness]. See under Muscles. 

Basipresphenoid [bas-e-pre-sfe'-noid). I. Relating 
to the basisphenoid and presphenoid bones. 2. The 
basipresphenoid bone. 

Basophilia \ biis-o-fi/' -e-ab) [.3«<7/f, base; oi/.liv, to 
love]. Increase in the number of basophiles in the 
circulating blood. 

Basophilic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Any histologic 
structure whiclt stains with basic dyes. 

Basophobia (hns-o-fo'-be-n/i) [ 3i«r/f, a step, walk; 
ooinr, fear]. Complete loss of the abilitv to walk or 
stand erect, due to emotional causes, although the 
muscles concerned are not appreciably impaired. 

Basophobiac \bas-o-fo'-be-ak). i. .\ person affected 
witli basopliobia. 2. Relating to or affected with 

Bassia (ba\' -e-ah) \_Bassi, an Italian pliysician]. A 
genus of plants of the order SnpotaLCic. B. buty- 
racea, Roxb., the Indian butter tree, furnishes from 
its seeds a pure vegetable butter called Choorie, 
esteemed as an application in rheumatism, as an emol- 
lient for the hands, as a dressing for the hair, and to 
adulterate ghee ; it is also used for soap-making and 
for illumination. The fruit is edible and the flowers 
furnish a sugar equal, if not superior, to dale sugar. 
B. latifolia, Roxb., the malnvah tree of central 
India, where the flowers are eaten by the natives and 
an intoxicating liquor is distilled from ihem. The 
seeds yield a concrete oil in large quantities, which is 
used for illuminating and to adulterate ghee ; the .■^eeds 
also yield stearic acid on saponitication. B. longifolia, 
L., a tree of India, yielding from the bark a gummy 
exudate which is employed in rheumatism ; the bark 
is astringent and emollient. \\\ oil is expressed from 
the ripe fruit. B. oleifera, A. D. C, an African species 
the seeds of which furnish an oil used in the Gaboon re- 
gion as a food and an application for rheumatism. B. 
serica, Blunie, a Java species yielding a kind of gutta- 

Bassiate {bas'-e-df). A salt of bassic acid. 

Bassorin. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A term for all vege- 
table mucilages. 

Bastard. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. A hybrid species. 4. 
A person of illegitimate birth. 

Basylous (bas'-il-tis) [(idci^, a base; l/.//, matter]. 
See Basii^enit. 

Bath. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. A medium, such as sand, 
water, oil, or other substance, interposed between the 
fire and the vessel to be heated, in chemic manipula- 
tions. B., Acid-, Scott's. See B., Nilrohydro- 
(hloric. B.s, Acratothermal, baths prepared from 
natural mineral waters of high temperature, but in 
which the gaseous and saline constituents are but 
small in quantity and of feeble therapeutic action. 
Syn., SimpU therntat baths ; Unmixed Iht^iniat baths ; 
Indifferent thermal baths. B., Air, Medicated, a 
vapor-bath charged with a medicamenl. B., Air, 
Moist-. See B., Vapor (Illus. Diet.). B., Aludel, 
in chemic work a succession of aludels disposed in the 
form of a chain on a slightly inclined surface. B., 
Alum, a solution of alum in water applied to burns. 
B., Ammoniacal, B., Ammoniated, one containing 
annnonia or some salt of ammonium. B., Animal, 
I. One prepared from dung of cattle or the contents 
of the first stomach of a freshly slaughtered ox. 2. 
The introduction of the whole body or the pan affected 
with rheumatism into the body-cavity of an animal 
just slaughtered. B., Ant-, one containing 1-2 kg. 
of crushed ants. B., Antimonial, one containing 1-2 
oz. of tartar emetic ; it is used in skin-diseases. B., 
Antirheumatic, one containing, in sufficient water for 
the purpose, 100 gm. of oil of turpentine, 10 gm. of oil 
of rosemary^ 50 gm. of sodium carbonate. B., Anti- 
syphilitic, a solution of 15 gm. of mercury bichlorid 
in 500 gni. of water, to be added to the bath at the 
time of using. B., Aromatic, one to which is added 
an infusion of aromatic herbs, such as lavender, mint, 
sage, thyme, chamomile, hyssop, rosemaiy, etc. B., 
Artificial, one prepared to imitate some natural min- 
eral spring or the sea-water. B., Ash-, immersion in 
dry ashes. B., Astringent, one prepared with tannin 
or other astringents to control sweating or in treat- 
ment of skin-diseases. B., Astringent, Most's, a 
bath for extensive burns, consisting of a solution of 200 
gm. of alum in 6 to 8 pailfuls of cold water and I 
pailful of curdled milk. B., Balsamic, one contain- 
ing tar, turpentine, or the buds and bark of terebinth- 
aceous plants. B., Box-, introduction of the body, 
except the head, into a cabinet supplied with hot-water 
pipes. B., Brine-, one prepared from mineral waters 
containing sodium chlorid in such quantity tliat the 
specific gravity exceeds 1050. B., Buff-, one in 
which the bather is nude. B., Camphor-, an in- 
halation of volatilized camphor. It is used as a seda- 
tive and diaphoretic. B., Carbolized, a solution of I 
part of carbolic acid in 600 parts of water. It is used 
to rid animals of ticks. B., Carbonic-acid, B., Car- 
bonic, one containing free carbonic acid. B., 
Caustic, one containing some caustic alkali. B., 
Cold, Moderately, one having a temperature of from 
15° to 20° C. B., Cold, Very, one with temperature 
below 10° C. B., Cold-air. exposure of the body- 
surface to cold air. B., Composite, B., Com- 
pound. See A'., .lA(//,v;/<-,/ (Illus. Diet.). B., Con- 
ferva-, a mud-bath containing a great amount of the 
silicious shells of alg.e. B., Cool, one ranj^ing in 
temperature between 20° and 25° C. B., Corrobo- 
rant. See B., Stimiilatitii;. B., Diluted Mud-, a 
form of bath much employed at Riga, Pernan, and 
Hapsal, Russian Baltic resorts. The mud conies 
from the sea or from boggy ground. B., Dipolar, 
a hydroelectric bath in which the patient does not 
come in contact with either of the electrodes, but 
these are immersed in the water at each end of the tub. 
[Jacoby.] B., Dish-water, local application of the 
greasy water in which dishes have been washed. B., 




Douche. See /Aw</;,' (llhis. Diet.). B., Dry, one 
in ,1 nieiliiini wliicli is nol liquid and dues not liquefy 
on ap[)iic;itii)ii. B., Dry-air, a bath in air that is not 
chaigeil with excess of moisture. B., Dung-, one 
containing dung, particularly horse-dung ; used in 
treatment of syphilis. B., Earth-, an inniicrsiun of 
the body in earth. B., Eastern, an Kgyptian or a 
Turkish bath. B., Effervescent, a li(|uicl bath con- 
taining a tree gas which is given off wiili etiervescence. 
B., Egyptian, a nKidilicution of the liirkish bath, 
with rise of temperature to the maximum point, fol- 
lowed by lowering of temi)erature to the initial point. 
B., Elbow-, immersion of tlie elbow-joint in running 
cold water of 8° to 14° C. for from 10 to 20 minutes. 
B., Electric, l. One in which ihc medium of the bath 
and the bather's person are included in the circuit of a 
galvanic current. 2. A batii in which an electric cur- 
rent is generated by the decompnsitiou of the chemic 
constituents of the medium. B., Electrothermal, 
a hot bath combined with exposure to the influence of 
electricity. B., Emollient, any bath exerting a 
soothing action upon the skin. See /?., Bran: B., 
Geliiliitoiis (Illus. Diet.). B., Excitant, a stimu- 
lating bath. B., Faradic. See B., Ehrtric. B., 
Fecula-, one containing a fecula ; <■..?■., .i bran-bath. 
B., Ferruginous. See A'., /;■('«( Illus. Diet.). B., 
Ferruginous, Artificial, one pre|)ared by dissolving 
iron tartrate in the form of martial balls in the water. 
B. -fever. .See under Fever. B., Finnish, a modi- 
ficati(>n of the Russian batli marked by higher temper- 
ature. B., Fir-needle, one to which a decoction, ex- 
tract, or oil of the needles of the Kr-tree or Norway 
spruce, ri-t;i exre/sir, is added as a stimulant to tlie 
skin. B., Fucus-, one containing seaweed or a de- 
coction of it, imparting sodium chlorid and a small 
percentage of iodin. B., Galvanic. See B.. Elec- 
tric ( I ). B., Gas-, one in w hich a gas is applied to 
the entire body or an affected part by means of a closed 
cabinet. B., Gelatinosulfurous, a bath containing 
1000 gni. of gelatin and 100 gm. of potassium sullid. 
B., Gelatinous. See B., Gelatin (IHus. Diet.). 
B., Glycerin-, I. .\ vapor bath or water bath to which 
glycerin has been added. 2. In chemic manipulation, 
a bath of glycerin for immersion of substances to be 
heatetl tcj a certain degree. B., Grape-lees, B., 
Grape-marc, immersion in the fermenting marc of 
grapes after expression of the juice ; it is employed in 
rheumatism. B., Hot, Very, a bath having a tem- 
perature above 42° C. (107.6° F. ). B., Hydro- 
chloric-acid, a bath containing 2^'^ pounds of con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid of sp. gr. I.lS added to 80 
gallons of water. B., Hydroelectric, a waler-balh 
charged with electricity. B., Hydrostatic, a variety 
of permanent water-bath in which the patient is sup- 
ported without total immersion. B., Hydrosul- 
fureted, a .sulfur-bath with the addition of 2 or 3 
drams of hydrochloric acid. B., Ice-cold, a bath in 
water of a temperature between 0° and 5° *-'• B-» 
Immersion, the sudden immersion of a patient in 
water. B., Indian, massage in combination with a 
Turkish bath. B., Indifferent. .Sec />'.. .■leru/it/liermal. 
B. by Insolation. See />., Sun (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Internal, lavage of the stomach or rectum. B., 
Iodin-, fine to which is added a solution of 8 gm. of 
iodin and 16 gm. of potassium iodid in 600 gm. of 
water. B., Irritant, one which induces irritation of 
the surface. B., Kineto-therapeutic, a water bath 
in which specified movemetits are carried out. B., 
Lamp. See A'., Hot-air (Illus. Diet.). B., Light-, 
I. See .5, .SwH (Illus. Diet.). 2. Exposure of aflected 
parts to rays of liglit by means of various apparatus ; 
also of the whole body for inducing perspiration. B., 

Lime-, a bath to which 3 pounds of slaked lime are 
addetl at time of u.sing ; it is used in gout and in treat- 
ment of itch. B., Liquid-, one in which the medium 
is liquid. B., Lukewarm. .See A'., '/'eiii/>rrate. B., 
Malt-, one containing malt. B., Marine-air, the 
inhalation of sprayed sea-water. B., Marine-mud, 
immersion in sea-be.ich mud with friction ; in .Scandi- 
navia it is consiilered tonic and alterative. B., Med- 
icinal. See A'., J/,,//,wAv/ (Illus. Diet.). B., Med- 
icinal, Natural, a bath or water of a spring which 
holds medicaments in suspension. B. of Medium 
Temperature, a bath ranging in temperature between 
35^^ ami 37° (". , which neither raises nor reduces the 
temperature of the human body. B. of Mercuric 
Chlorid. See A'., Aniisyflnlitic. B., Metal-, 
B., Metallic, in chemic manipulation a bath of molten 
metal or alloy in which substances are iimnersetl in 
order to regulate the degree to which they are 
healed. B., Mineral, 1. The water of a mineral 
spring used as the medium. 2. One to which a solu- 
tion of mineral substances has been added. B., Min- 
eral, Artificial, f^ce B., Mineral (2). B., Mono- 
polar, a hydroelectric bath in which the wall of the 
metal tvd> is utilized as a large electrode. The cur- 
rent entering here is conducted to the entire surface of 
the body that is in contact with the water and passes 
out 1)V means of a large metal electrode the edges of 
which are covered by a rubber jiillow so placed that 
the patient can lie upon it without coming in contact 
with the metal. [Jacoby.] Cf. A'., Dipolar. B., 
Mud-, Sulfureted, a mud-bath consisting of the 
deposit from sulfur springs. B., Must-. See A. , 
Grape-lees. B., Narcotic, one to which narcotic in- 
gredients have been added. B., Natural, mineral 
siirings. B., Natural Mud-, term applied to the 
baths of Saki and other Crimean re.sorts. B., Nau- 
heim, a natural thermal effervescent (gaseou> muri- 
ated) bath. B., Nitrohydrochloric, B., Nitro- 
muriatic-acid, B., Nitromuriatic, a bath containing 
1-2 oz. of nitrohydrochloric acid to a gallon of water ; 
it is used as a foot- and sponge-bath in liver-diseases. 
B., Nutritive, cme containing wine, milk, or any 
nutritive ingredient. B., Oak-bark, one containing a 
decoction of oak-bark and used as an astringent douche. 
B., Oil-, I. \n emollient bath of oil. 2. .\ bath of 
liot olive oil impregnated with a variety of spices and 
aromatic substances ; used as a prophylaxis against 
plague B., Oriental. See B., Ei^yplian : A., In- 
liian : B, Turkish. B., Oxygen-, an inhalation of 
oxygen to correct inadequate aeration of tlie blood ; 
also a local application f»f oxygen gas to gangrenous 
ulcers. B.. Ozone-. .See B., Fucns-. B., Peat-, 
an application of bog-earth containing much vegetable 
matter and used in gout and rheuniatiMn. B., Pine-, 
B., Pine-leaf, B., Pine-needle, a bath containing a 
decoction, extract, or oil of pine-needles ; it is used as 
a stimulant in rheumatism. B. of Plombieres, a 
bath to which a solution of too gm. of powdered gel- 
atin in hot water is first a<lded and afterward a mixture 
of 100 gm. of sjnlium carbonate, 20 gm. each of sodium 
chlorid an<l sodium bicarbonate, aTid 60 gm of sodium 
sulfate B., Plunge-, a cold bath into which the 
patient plunges B., Pneumatic. See A'., Air 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Potassium Sulfid, B., Potas- 
sium Sulfuret, a water-bath with roogm. of sulfnialed 
potassa dissolved in it. B., Saline, B., Salt-, B., 
Salt-water. See A., Brine-. B., Saline, Effer- 
vescent, a bath to which a mixture of 500 gm. of 
sodium bicarbonate and looo gm. of sfxlium chlorid is 
added first, followed bv the addition of a mixture of 
500 gm. each of water and hydrochloric acid. B., 
Scott's. See A., Xitro/ivlrochloric aciJ. B., Sea- 




mud. See B., Mariiu'-iiuid. B., Seaweed. See 
B.. Fuiiis-. B., Snow, iniiner.sion of the l^ody or 
pan of it in snow. B., Soap-, one conlaining soap 
dissolved in it. B., Solid-, one consisting of solid or 
semisolid material covering or suiiomuling the body. 
B., Spout-. See Douche (Illiis. Diet.). B., Steam-, 
Mexican, a form of vaporbalh used in Mexico, in 
which the bather reclines on a bench in a small 
chamber beneath the floor of whicli the steam is gene- 
rated and passes into the chanibci. B., Steel-. See 
B., Iron (Illus. Diet.). B., Still-water, a bath in 
quiet water, as opposed to surf-bathing. B., Stimu- 
lating, one containing tonic, astringent, or balsamic 
substances and believed to have a stinnilating efiect on 
the body or part. B., Sulfuret of Potassium. See 
B., Potassium Siilful. B., Sulfureted. See B., 
Politssium Sii/fii/. B., Sulfureted Hydrogen, a 
gas-bath consisting of hydrogen suUid ol>taincd lrt)ni 
decomposition of the sulfids in sull'ur springs. B., 
Sulfuric-acid, a chemic bath for immersion of sub- 
stances to be heated to teni[)eratincs below lSo° C. 
B., Sulfurous, B., Sulfur-vapor. See B., Sii/- 
/>luirous-,inJ (Illus. Diet.). B., Surf-, a bath taken 
in the surf of the sea ; the exercise and motion of the 
waves constitute the chief benetit. B., Sweat-, B., 
Sweating, a bath to induce a free flow of perspiration ; 
e.^.^ a Turkish bath. B., Tan-, an astringent bath 
containing tan. B., Tank-, a large tank or recc])- 
tacle in which a number of persons bathe at once. B., 
Temperate, one in which the temperature of the 
medium is from 25° to 30° C. {77°-So° F.). B., 
Therapeutic. See iS., iJ/f./Ziv^Av/ 1 Illus. Diet. ). B., 
Tonic, a cold bath or one which .stimulates. B., Tub, 
one taken in a tub large enough to immerse the entire 
person. B., Tumble-, a shower-bath. B., Tur- 
pentine-, B., Turpentine-vapor. .See B., Anti- 
rheiiiuatic. B., Vacuum, the treatment of ]jarts by 
subjecting them to a partial vacuum. B., Vapor-, 
Medicated, a vapor-bath charged with some medica- 
ment. B.. Vichy, Artificial, a bath containing 500 
gm. tif sodium bicarbonate dissolved in the water. B., 
Whey-, one consisting of whey, used as an emollient. 
B., Wine-, one consisting of wine and used in fevers 
as a stimulant and to reduce tenijieratnre. B., Zinc- 
chlorid, a chemic bath of molten zinc chlorid for im- 
mersion of substances not to be heated beyond 700° C. 

Bathmodont (/((///'-wo-fA'W/) [ JnM/ior, threshold; hioni, 
toolli]. Having the molars obliquely ridged. 

Bathmotropic {Ihtth-mo-tro'-pik^ [,J(ifl//of, threshold; 
Tpi-tiv, to turn]. .Applied by T. W. Engelmann to a 
supposed set of fibers in the cardiac nerves, which 
affect the excitability of the cardiac muscle. Cf. Ino- 
tropic^ Droniotropic. 

Bathycolpian (/int/i-c-to/'-pe-aii) [ iii/'rr, deep ; /iii/'-or, 
the bosom], I)ee]i-bo^c>med. 

Bathyesthesia, Bathysesthesia [fiat/i-e-cs-t/ic'-ze-n/i] 
[S'/"ir. deep; iiinH//aic, sen.sation]. Oppenheim s 
term for the muscle sensations. 

Bathymetry [Ihith-im^-et-rc] [/Jn/^/r, dee]); inTpov, a 
measure]. The measurement of the deeps of the .sea 
or of any body-cavity, natural or abnormal. 

Batrachocephalus {h,it-r,!l:-o-sff'-a/-ics) [.Wr^in vf, a 
frog; (.fu'i///, (he head]. Having a frog-like head. 

Batracin i/i,it'-iir-siii) [.W7/OTV"f. a frog]. .^ poisonous 
secretion obtained from the cutaneous pustules of toads. 
.According to Calmeil. the poison of toads contains 
mclhyl carbylamin and isoc^■anacetic acid. 

Batracosi i/ii!/i-trii-/:o'-sc] [It ]. See luiniiln (Illus. 
Diet.). B. sottolinguale, B. sublingual, a form of 
diphtheria supposed lo l)o contracted from fowls and 
characterized by swelling of the submaxillary and sub- 
lingual glands. 

Batracosioplasty. See Batrackoplasly (Illus. Diet.). 

Battery. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Cautery, a galvanic 
baltery with high electromotive force, Inr heating a wire 
used as a cautery. B., Galvanic Cautery, B., Gal- 
vanocautery. See B., Catilciv. B., Hare's, a 
battery of cells marked by low resistance. Two large 
plates of zinc and copper, separaled from each other by 
cloth or some indifferent substance, are rolled on a 
wooden cylinder and immersed in acidulated water. 
See Dcflaiy ti/or. 

Bauchan, Bauchee. Names given in India to the seeds 
of Bsoru/cii cory/ifoiia, used as a tonic and in skin-dis- 
eases. Syn., Bii-ivc/ice ; Ba-ocJi'ocm : Bai'.'chan. 

Bauhinia {l>o-/iiii'-c-n/i) [Jean Bauliin (154I-1613) 
and Kaspar Baiihin (1560-1624), physicians of 
Basel]. A. genus of plants of the order l.cgiimitwsi€. 
B. variegata, L. , a tree of India; the bark is astrin- 
gent and used as a tonic in fevers; the buds are used 
in diarrhea and as a vermifuge. 

Baumann's Coefficient. See Coefficient. 

Bavarol {inn-'-ar-oI ). A proprietary brown aromatic 
liquid used in $'/^ solution as a disinfectant. 

Bay (I'a' \ [ME., l>ave'\. A recess of land or water. 
B., Lacrimal, the dejiressitm at the inner canthus of 
the eye holding the lacrimal canaliculi. 

Baycurin [bi-koo^-rin'). An alkaloid from baycuru, the 
root of Stntice braziliensi^. 

Bayonet-leg {ba'-on-ct-leg^. A backward displace- 
nunt of the leg bones. 

Bdallopadous (iiaI-op'-aii-ns'\ [.?(5ri/./f/r, to suck ; — of'f, 
the foot]. Having feet furnished with suckers. 

Bdella. (."^ee Illus. Diet.) 2. A varicose vein. 

Bdellepithecium (del-ep-e-t/ie'-se-uni) [,Mf//n, a 
leech ; i-iriHivai, to put on]. A tube for applying 

Bdellium. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Sicilian, B. sicili- 
anum, B. siculum, that obtained from Dauciis gin- 

Bead (I'c.i ) [ME., bei/e. a prayer]. A small bubble, 
ball, drop, or globule. B.s, Lovi's. i^te B.s. Specific- 
i^ra'^itv. B. -proof, I. A method of testing the alco- 
holic strength of liquors by shaking in a bottle and 
observing the size, number, and persistence of the 
bubbles fonned. 2. Applied to liquors of such a 
qualilv or standard of strength that the mass of buljbles 
formed on the surface bv shaking will remain for a 
time. 3. 0( a certain standard as indicated by lieads. 
B.s, Specific-gravity, hollow glass globules for 
ascertaining the strength of alcoholic spirits. The 
globules are numbered according to their specific 
gravities, and the number marked on the heaviest one 
that remains suspended in the liquor, neither lising to 
the surl'ace nor sinking to the bottom, indicates its 
specific gravity. B.-tree, Ale/ia azedaraeh. 

Beading \liett'-ing'). The adulterating of spirits with 
some substance which under the bead-proof will give 
it the appearance of greater alcoholicity. 

Beak. (See Illus. Diet. | B., Coracoid, the beak of 
the coracoid process of the scapula. B. of the En- 
cephalon. See Beak (3) (Illus. Diet. ). B. of the 
Sphenoid Bone. See /Nostrum sphenoidale. 

Beaked \l>c!;d \ [1 lE., Iiecke, a beak]. Ending in a pro- 
longed lij). 

Beaker. (See Illus. Diet.) B.s, Taste-. See Tas/e- 
l>nds (Illus. Diet.). 

Beat. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Apex-, the .stroke of 
the heart-apex against the chest-wall. B., Heart-, 
a pulsation of the heart. B., Pulse-, an nrlerial pul- 
sation which can be felt. 

Bebeerin. (See Illus. Diet.) .Syn., Bebeatin : Be- 
becria : Bebeerina ; Bebeerintitn ; Beberia : Bebenn : 
Bebeiina ; Bebiiin ; Bitxin. B. Hydrochlorate, 




C,,|H.jiNO.,HCl, reddish-brown scales soluble in alco- 
hol aiul water, and used as an antipyretic and tonic. 
iJo-so, ,',-I^^ gr. (0.005-0.097 gni. ) 3 or 4 limes daily. 
B. Sulfate, (C,„Il.^,NU.,l2lljSO,, reddish-brown 
scales soluble in water and alcohol ; uses anil dose as 
in B. hviirocltlortttt\ 

Becuibin {ink-'i't'^-liin). A crystalline substance ob- 
laine<l tVoin the bark ol' A/yristit'ti hitiii/ui. It is odorless, 
tasteless, soluble in hot alcohol, in boiling water, and 
in chloroform. 

Bed. (.See llUis. Diet.) B., Arnott's (Neil), a rubber 
mattress idled with water, designed to jirevent bed- 
sores. B., Bandeloux's, an air bed lurnished witii 
a vessel for urine and surmounted with a gauze covered 
cradle. B.-day, the miuinnun stay of a patient in a 
hospital is a full 24 hours antl is usetl as a unit of 
standard hospital ward work. B., Fracture-, an 
especial device for the use of a patient confined with 
a fractiue, composed of sections forming a double or 
triple inclined plane with an aperture to allow of the 
ejection of urine and feces. B. -hoist, a device for 
lifting a patient from bed. B., Hydrostatic. See 
B., li'at^r (Illus. Diet.). B., Protection-, a bed 
arranged for the confinement of maniacs in a recumbent 
posture. B. -swing, an appliance like a hammock for 
swinging a patient clear of the bed. B. -warmer, a 

Beeley's Square and Plumb-line. .\n instrument 
to measiu'e degrees of deformity. 

Behen, Behmen, Behn, Ben. .Arabian names for 
roots of various plants. 

Behenic (/'.-//■«'■//•). Derived from behen. 

Bel. The Aegle inarvitlos. See under Bt'la (Illus. 

Bela. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. %ee Jasminum sambac. 

Belgaum Walnut. .See Aleuritfs lii/obu. 

Beli. See AV/.; (Illus. Diet.). 

Belladonna. (See Illus. Diet ) B., Japanese, .?<<>- 
/oiiii lOinio/Uii : in its physiologic action it is hardly 
to be distinguished from belladonna, though the domi- 
nant alkaloids are not identical. 

Bell-crowned (lie/'-irtnciiii). Applied to a tooth- 
crown which is largest at the occlusal surface and 
tapers to the gum. 

Bellite (/'i /'-(/) [/'(■//««/, war]. An explosive employed 
both in war and in blasting. A principal element in 
its manufacture is nitrobenzole. 'Hie most prominent 
symptoms induced by its inhalation and absorption are 
headache, mental confusion, dvspnea, pallor, blueness 
of the lips, general lividity, coma, in.sensibility. 

Bellonia t/i,/-o'-n,-a/i) \_Peler Bcloti (1499-1564), a 
French naturalist]. ,\ genus of plants of the order 
Gesiti-rittt'tC^ B. aspera, L. , a shrub of the West 
Indies; the bark is u>ed in inlernnttent fever and in 

Bellows. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Richardson's, a 
double balIo(jn with a connecting tube emiiioyed lor 
the injection of vapors into the middle ear. 

Belly. (See Illus Diet) 2. .Vny belly-like enlarge- 
ment of a part. B. of a Muscle, the lleshy part of a 
muscle. B., Pendulous. .See Alnhvitiu, Pendu- 
lous (Illus. Diet.). B. -sweetbread, the pancreas of 
the calf. 

Belonospasis {lu-l-oit-os' pa-sis) [;?*■/ 017/, a point; G-nntc^^ 
a drawing]. Irritation by means of needles or metallic 

Belted Uiell'-i-ii) [AS., /'<■//, a band]. 1 laving a stripe 
or band of color. 

Benario's Method (for the fixation of blood-films). 
It consists in the use of a I J^ alcoholic solution of for- 
malin for ! minute. 

Bends [/iiiidz) [ME., bend']. Term used by miners 

and caisson laborers for a condition ])roduced by too 
sudden a reduction of the high air-pressure ; it is indi- 
cated by swellings or small bubbles under the skin. 

Benic (b,/i'-ii). See Bt/uiiic. 

Benincasa (bin-in-i-n'-zu/i) [Bciiiiintsa, an Italian 
nobleman]. A genus of plants of the order Ci/fur- 
bifattit. B. cerifera, Savi, a perennial species of the 
East Indies, with large greenish fruit often more than 
a foot long, the seiils of wliieli are used in dysuria and 
colic, the rind in tuberculosis, asthma, and chills, and 
the plant in fevers, vertigo, etc. 

Benomargarate {bi'iio-mni'-iitir-a/). A .salt of bene- 
margaric acid, a crystalline fatty acid from oil of ben. 

Bensolyptus (b^n-so-liJ>'-liis). A |)roprietary alkaline 
fiuid used as a wash in catarrhal aftection.s of the 
nnicosa and as an intestinal antiseptic. Dose, I tea- 
spoonlid in a wineglass of water. 

Benzacetin [b,ii-iiis'-,/-iii]. t'gH.,((K'2H5)(NlI . - 
CHjCO )C'0( )H. Colorless crystals .soluble in alcohol, 
slightly soluble in water ; melt at 205° C. It is used 
in neuralgia. Dose, 8-15 gr. (o. 52-0.97 gm.). .Syn., 
Ai-ettiiiiidtniiethyl sn/icyfu' atid. 

Benzacetosulfophenamid (ben zas-et-o-stil-fo- fin-am' - 
id). C|,,II|.,NS( ),. .\ derivative of benzamid. 

Benzaconin ( hen-zal; '-on-in ). An alkaloid from .aconite 
with action similar to aconitin, except that it lacks its 
anlip)retic power and has little effect on the .sen.sory 
nerves, while it depresses the motor group and also the 

Benzalcohol (ben-%al'-ko-hol). .See Aho/iol, Bcmvl 
( Illus. Diet.). 

Benzaldid {ben-zal'did). See Benzaldehyd (Illus. 

Benzamile (/'i;;'-:!//;/-;/ ). Cj^Hj^XDj. A distillalion- 
produci of oil of bitter almonds. 

Benzanalgene [lien-zan'-al gen). See .-///f//^i*«^ (Illus. 

Benzaurin (bt-n-za'H^-rin). C,,, 11,^0,. Red crystals 
melting at 100° C. Syn., I henyldipJtenol earbii^ol. 
B. Anhydrid, a colorless substance dissolving in 
alkaline .solutions with a violet color. 

Benzene. (See Illus. Diet.) .Syn., Benzol; Phene ; 
Plunvl livdrid. B., Collas', connnon benzene intro- 
ducevl in I.S48 by Collas as a cleansing agent. B.- 
diazoanilid. Sec Diazoaiiiidol'euzene. B. Hexa- 
bromid, t'^H^Hr,;, an addition com[joinul of benzene 
and bromin occurring as a solid. B. Hexachlorid, 
CpUgClg. from benzene by action of chUirin with heat; 
transparent nionoclinic crystals melting at 157° C. ; 
boiling at 288° C. B. Hexahydrate. See I'henose 
(lUu.s. Diet. ). B. Hexahydrid. C„H,.„ an addition 
compound of benzene and h)<li"ogen occurring as a 
licinid boiling at 69° C. B., lodated, C,,II-1. from 
benzene by action of iodin chlorid with aliuninimn 
chlorid. It occurs as a colorless transparent liquid 
which becomes red on exposure to light ; sp. gr. I.S33 
at 15° C. ; .soluble in alcohol ; boils at iS7°-l88° C. 
.Syn., MonoiiMlolbenzot. B., Monobromated, CgH^- 
Br, a clear, colorless liijuid obtained Irom benzene by 
action of bromin with iodin ; boils at 154.4^-155.5'^ C. ; 
S]i. gr. 1.5258 at 0° C. ; soluble in alcohol; used in 
albuminuria. Syn., Moitobrofnobenzol. B., Mono- 
chlorated, CgH.,Cl, a clear, colorless, fragrant li(|uid 
obtained from benzene by the action of chlorin ; boils 
at 132° C; sp. gr. 1. 1284 at 0° C; becomes .solid at 
40° C. Syn. , Monoehloyobenzol. B. Sulfamid, C|.1 1^ . - 
SOjNHj, the amid of benzene sulfonic acid, forming 
cr\stals soluble in alcohol. Syn., ^-Sttlti'iianiid. B. 
Sulfochlorid, ('5H5S1 ),^CI, an oily lic|uid obtained 
from an aqueous solution of benzene sulfinic acid by 
action of chlorin ; it is soluble in alcohol and ether, 
boils at 247° C; slowly solidifies at 0° C. to large 




rhombic prisms. Syn., BinzolsulfocliloriJ ; Phenyhiil- 
fockloriJ. B. sulfonate, a salt of benzene sulfonic 
acid. B. Sulfonic Chlorid. See B. Siilfoclilorid. 
B., Tribromated, C^HjErj [1:3: 4], colorless acicular 
crystals soluble in hot alcohol ; melting at 40°-44° C. ; 
boiling at 2^^°-^^il= C. B., Trichlorated, CjH.jClj 
[1:2:4], transparent rhombic crystals which melt at 
16° C, boil at 213° C. B. Trichlorhydrin, B. 
Tricblortrihydrate, C5Hg(OH),ri„ an addition com- 
pound of benzene, chlorin, and hydroxyl ; colorless 
crystals melting at 10° C. 

Benzenin \l>en'-zen-in). See Benzinin. 

Benzenobacillin \ben-zen-o-biis' -il-in). See Bitizinin. 

Benzenyl \l>en'-z-n-il). See Phenyl. B.amidothio- 
phenol, CjjHgN.S, acicular crystals witli fragrance of 
roses, obtained from amidophenylmercaptan by benzoic 
aldehyd and heat ; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, 
carbon disulfid, and dilute hydrochloric acid. Syn., 
Benzenv/amiJophenyimercaptan. B. Trichlorid. See 

Benzerythrene (hen-zer' -ith-yen\. An orange-colored 
product of destructive distillation of benzene. 

Benzhydramid (^benz-hi' -dram-id ). See Nydrobeiiz- 
iimid (IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzhydrocyanid [benz-lii-dro-si ' -an-id ). See Benzi- 
riiiJ ( IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzhydrol(*f«3-/i<'-<^/-tf/). CeH^— CH(OH)— C5H5. 
An alcohol occurring as silky acicular crystals slightly 
soluble in water, obtained from an alcoholic solution of 
benzophenone by action of sodium amalgam. Syn., 
DiphenykarbinoL B. Acetate, a thick liquid obtained 
by heating benzhydrol with acetic acid. 

Benzilidene [ben-zil' -id-en). See Benzylidene. 

Benzilim iben'-zil-im). See Benzilimid. 

Benzilimid {ben-zil' -im-id). Q.,^.,.^^.^. White 
silky needles obtained from an alcoholic solution of 
benzil by action of dry ammoniacal gas. 

Benzin. (See IIlus. Diet.) B., Coal-tar, benzin ob- 
tained as a by-product in preparing benzene and tol- 
uene from coal-tar oil by action of acids and alkalis. It 
differs chemically and physically from petroleum benzin, 
and is used as a cleansing fluid and as a solvent for 
resin, caoutchouc, etc. 

Benzinin {ben'-zin-in). A toxin extracted by Auclair 
from tubercle bicilli. Syn., Benzinobacillin. 

Benzite ; ben'-zit ). A solution of sulfur in 2 or 3 parts 
of hot coal-tar. 

Tienzo&iuze\A(b,n-zo-i/i-u'-re-id\. C^W^^^fii- Tiny 
needles obtained from benzoic aldehyd by action of urea. 

Benzoglycollate {ben-zo-i;/i'-iol-iU). .\ salt of ben- 
zoglvcollic acid. 

Benzohelicin {ben-zo-hel' -is-iii). C.qHjoO^. A com- 
bination of benzoyl and heiicin. .Syn., Beitzovl helicin. 

Benzoic {ben-zi/-ii). Relating to or obtained from 
benzoin. B. -acid-benzyl-ester. .See /'eniscubiit. 
B. Anhydrid, C,^H,gO,, the anliydrid of benzoic .acid 
occurring as white rhombic prisms soluble in alcohol 
and ether, melting at 42° C. , boiling at 360° ('. Syn., 
Anhydrous binzoic acid : Benzoyl oxid. B. Bromid. 
See Benzoyl Bromid. B. Chlorid. See Benzoyl 

Benzoin. (See IIlus. Diet.) 2. CuHi^O,, a reaction- 
product of an alcoholic solution of potassium cyanid on 
benzoic aldehyd, forming yellowish fragrant prisms 
soluble in hot alcohol, melting at I35°-I37° C. It is 
used as an external antiseptic. I part in 5 of lard. 
Syn., Phenvlbenzovl earbinol : Bitler almond oil cam- 
phor. B., Flowers of, benzoic acid obtained by the 
sublimation of benzoin. 

Benzoinam {hen-zo'-in-am\. C,gH5,N.,0. A crystal- 
line powder derived from benzoin (2) by action of alco- 
holic solution of ammonia with heat. 

Benzoinamid (ben-zo-in'-am-id ). C,jH.^N',. A 
white piiwder, without taste or odor, obtained from 
benzoin (2) by action of an aqueous solution of am- 

Benzoinated {ben-zo'-in-a-led). Combined or pre- 
pared with benzoin. 

Benzoinol (ben-zo'-in-ol). An oily liquid said to con- 
sist of albolene with gum benzoin in .solution ; it is 
used as an e.vcipient for menthol, camphor, etc., in dis- 
eases of the nose and throat. 

Benzoiodohydrin (ben-zo-i-o-do-hi'-drin). (C3H5)- 
Clli C^H^Oj ). .\ brownish-yellow oily mass, .soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and petroleum ether, insoluble in gly- 
cerin. It decomposes at 100° C, ioclin being liberated. 
It is a succedaneum for potassium iodid and is given in 
the same doses. Syn., Chlovoiodobenzoie-glycertnester; 

Benzolactate (ben-zo-lak'-tal). A salt of benzolactic 

Benzole, Benzoleum (bin'-zol, ben-zot-e'-nm). See 
Ben-.eire (IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzolguaiacol (ben-zol-gwi'-ak-ol). See Benzosol 
(IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzolin (ben' -zol-in). i. See Ligroin (IIlus. Diet.). 
2. CjHj^, a substance named by Graebe. 3. See 
Anuiriii (IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzolism [ben'-zol-izm). Benzol-poisoning, from in- 
haling the vapor or swallowing it. It is marked in 
light cases by dizziness and loss of consciousness and 
anesthesia ; in severer cases by hallucination, epileptic 
paroxysms, and coma. 

Benzolsulfochlorid (ben-zol-sul-fo-klor' -id ). See Ben- 
zene Sulfoehlorid. 

Benzolum (ben'-zol-iim). See Benzene. 

Benzonaphthalin (ben-zo-naf -thai in"). See Xnph- 
fbn'in Beiizutte. 

Benzone. Benzonum (ben'-zbn, ben-ztZ-niim). See 
BenzopiunoH: i IIlus. Diet.). 

Benzoparacresol (ben-zo-par-ah-kre'-sol). See Ben- 
zo\ Ipar.ieresol. 

Benzophenid yben-zo-fen'-id\. Phenyl benzoate. 

Benzopinacone, Benzopinakone (beit-zo-pin' -ak-on^. 
C,,gH .gf >2. A crystalline substance obtained from ben- 
zophenone by action of nascent hydrogen. 

Benzopyrin (ben-zo-pi'-rin). Aniipyrin benzoate. 

Benzosolguaiacol {ben-zo-sol-gzui'-ak-ol ). See Ben- 
zos-l illius. Diet.). 

Benzosulfate [ben-zo-s»/'-/di). A salt of benzosulfuric 

Benzotrichlorid (ben-zo-lri-ilo'-rid). C-HJC\,. A 
colorless, transparent, highly refractive liquid with 
penetrating odor, obtained from boiling toluene by 
action of chlorin ; sp. gr. 1.38 at 14° C; boils at 213°- 
2 [4° C. Syn . Benzenyl trichlorid. 

Benzoyl. (See IIlus. Diet.) B. Acetoacetate, an 
acetoacetate in which an attim of hydrogen i< replaced 
by a molecule of benzoyl. B.-acetylperoxid, C^Hg- 
<>,, an oxidized product of the mixed anh\drid of .acetic 
and benzoic acids, a crystalline body slightly soluble in 
water and very unstable. '!'o prevent explosion by 
sudden heating or grinding, it is diluted with an equal 
quantity of inert absorbent powderand called acetozone. 
It is used as an intestinal antiseptic. Dose, 4-5 gr. 3 
times daily. Syn.. .-leetyl nenzoylperoxid. B.aconin. 
See .-tconilin (the alkaloid I. B.-amid. See Benz,intid 
(IIlus. Diet.*. B.-anilid. See Benzanil.d (IIlus. 
Diet. I. B.-apoaconin. See .-/Avz<o«///h (IIlus Diet.). 
B.-apopseudaconin, CjjH^^NO,, a b.ase formed from 
pseudoaconin by replacement of hydrogen with ben- 
zoyl. B.-apopseudaconitin, Cj^H,,J t'^HjCO iXO,,, 
a base obtained from ap<»pseudaconilin by action of 
benzoic aldehyd. B.-azotid, C|jH,,N".,, a white crys- 




talline ])0\v(ler devoid i)f color or taste, obtained from 
oil of bitter aliiioiuls by action of aiinnonia. B. Ben- 
zoate. So: J>'<i!:iiii- .■iii/tvi/r/,/. B. Bromid, C^ll^ . 
CO. Ur, a colorless, pungent liquid. B. Carbamid. 
See B.iiiYii. B.chinin. See /i.i/iiiiiin. B.-chin- 
olin. See B.-o.xyi/iiiiw/iii. B. Chlorid, CJljOCl, a 
transparent, colorless, pungent oil witli a specific gravity 
of 1. 21 at 19° C; it is soluble in ether and carbon 
disulfale; lK)ils at I94°-I9S° C When acted on by 
alcoliolic ammonia it gives dibenzylainin. It is used 
as a reagent in organic analysis and syntlie>i5. -Syn., 
Clihrobcnwyl thlori<t. B.-ecgonin-ethylic Ester. 
See Cocaflliylin. B.-eugenol, Cj-HjgOj. a substance 
forming large, transparent, colorless prisms or small 
white crystals, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, 
and acetone; melts at 69°-7o.5° C. It is used in 
tuberculosis. Dose, 7.5-15 gr. (0.5-1 gni. ). B.- 
glycocin, hippuric acid. B.-guaiacol. See A.//- 
:«!>/( lllus. Diet.). B.helicin. See Biiizoluluiii. 
B. Hydrate, ben/.oic acid ; also improperly applied 
to liciuoic aldehyd. B., Hydrated, benzoic acid. 
B. Hydrid. See BeiizalJ,-hyd (Ilhis. Diet. ). B.- 
metaoxyquinolin. 'Aee B.-oxyi/iiinoliii. B.methid. 
See Aiiloplunoiii- (Illus. Diet.). B.morphin. See 
Peroniit. B.- i-naphthol. See Av/oi>»;-?;^/////<)/ (Illus. 
Diet.). B.-nicotin, C,oH,,(CjIl5. 0)X, a, 
slightly viscid, noncrystalline alkiUoid, insoluble in 
water and soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. B.- 
orthoxyquinolin. See B. ox\yiiino/in. B.-oxy- 
quinolin, a substitution compound of quinolin in which 
hvdrogen is replaced by o.xygen and benzoyl. B.- 
paracresol, C||II,202, a body occurring in prisms 
with pleasant otlor. It is soluble in ether, chloroform, 
and liot alcohol, and insoluble in water; melts at 
70^-71° C. It is an antiseptic and used insteatl of 
B.-guaiacol. Dose, 4gr. (o. 25 gm. I. ^yn.^ Bt'jizo/><im- 
crt:so/. B.Peroxid,a Ixactericide and disinfect.ant sub- 
stance. B. Persulfid, CnU|,|i-)2S,, an oxidation- 
product of thiobenzoic acid. B.-phenylhydrazin, 
Cj.,II,.,N.,i ), an antiseptic. B.-piperidin, Cj^HuNi ', 
a substitution-product of piperidin. occurring in color- 
less crystals. B.-piperylhydrazin, C|,^1I|5N'.^0, 
shining laminas. B.-pseudotropein. .See Tfopa- 
cocain (Illus. Diet. 1. B.quinin, C^HsCO . O . Q,,- 
H.^,N.,0, a (juinin ester; melts at 139° C. ; taste not 
unpleasant. B.resorcin, a liighly colored oily liquid 
obtained from benzoyl ami resorcin. It is soluble in 
alcohol, forming a yellow solution with a green fluor- 
escence B.salicin. See Popiilin (Illus. Diet.). 
B.salicylamid, C],H|[XO|, an amid formed 
from salicylamid by action of benzoyl chlorid. B.- 
salicylol, C„ll,„(>5, a thick oil obtained from 
sodium salicvli<l by action of benzoyl chlorid. B.- 
salicylonitril, C|,lI,,\lX, a body obtained from sali- 
cylamiil by action of benzoyl chlorid. B.sulfoni- 
cimid. .See Saccharin (Illus. Diet, 1. B. Tannate, 
a yellow gramdar ]>owder. B.tetrahydroquinolin, 
CjjHijN'f), large colorless crystals. B.tropein, C„H,,- 
(CjHsCOjNU, silky .icicular needles; it is a local 
anesthetic, B. -tropin, a crystalline body formed 
from tropin by the replacement of hvdrogen with ben- 
zoyl. B.urea, C8lI,N.,0.„ a crystalline body obtained 
from urea by action of benzovl chlorid. Svn.. Bcnzii- 
reiiie : Benzoyl caihamid. B.ureid, C.H.^X^O,, a 
white powder without taste or odor, obtained from urea 
by action of benzoic aldehyd. B. vinyldiacetonalka- 
min. See Eiuain-B. 

Benzoylate {benzo'i/at). See Benzoale. 

Benzoylic {hen zo-il'-ii). See Bf/tzoic. 

Benzureid [hcn-zii'-re-itt). See Benzovlurea, 

Benzydrol \l>e>t-zid'-rol\. See Benzhydrol. 

Benzyl. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Benzylinuiir B. 

Acetate, C,.!!, . CH,, a liquid boiling at 210° C. B.- 
alcohol. .See under .-//.ii/zc/ (Illus. i)ict.|. B.amin 
C;II„N, obtained from thiobenzamid by re<luction with 
nascent hydrogen ; it is a colorless liquid with a 
strongly alkaline reaction ; sp. gr. 0.99 at 14° C; 
soluble in water, alcohol, and ether ; boils at 184° 
C. B.anilin, t'|,ll,,N, a cryslallii\e reduction-product 
of thiobenzanilid soluble in alcohol ; melts at ^^° C 
Syn., Bciizy/fiuiiy/aiiiin. B. Benzoate, <- , ,1 lijO.,, 
a crystalline substance occurring in the fluid ]>art 
of balsam of I'eru. B. Bromid, (.'jllj . (. 1 l.Iir, a 
litiuid giving oiT very iiritalntg vajjors. B. Car- 
bamate. See B.tirclhanc. B. Carbamid, C„ll,|j- 
N.,( ). long colorless needles derivetl Irom benzyl 
chlorid by action of potassium cvanale in alcohol ; 
soluble in water and alcohol ; melting at 147° C. 
Syn., B.urea. B.chinolin. See B.ijiiinolin. B. 
Chlorid, C'.ll-Cl, obtained from boiling toluene by 
action of chlorin ; it is an oily liquid with aromatic 
odor; sp. gr. 1.107 "' M" t ■ ; I'oils .at 178° C. 
Syn , u-Clilori'loliicne. B. Cinnamate. See Lniiia- 
iiicin. B. Cyanid, C^ll.N, a liquid occurring natu- 
rally in cress {Xasltirlitiin ijjiciiia/e, R. Br. ) and other 
plants, and obtained synthetically from benzyl chlorid 
with potassium cyanid ; sp. gr. I.OI46 at 18° C; boils 
at 232° C. ; soluble in alcohol. .Syn., A'itril of 
f'lieiiv/acctic aciJ. B. Ester, a compound ether or a 
salt formed bv the combination of benzyl with an acid. 
B.-ethylanilin, (^',.I1,.N, a juoduct of ethylanilin and 
benzvl chlorid. B. Hydrate. See AUolul, Benzyl 
(Illus. Dict.i. B. Hydrid. See Toluene (Illus. 
Diet.). B. Hydrosulfid. See B. Mercaflan. B. 
lodid, C'-IKI, crystals obtanied from benzyl 
chlorid by action of hydvoiotlic acid ; soluble in ether, 
slightly sellable in alcohol; melt at 241° C. B. 
Mercaptan, C|.H, . CH„SH, a veiy refractive liquid 
with udi.r of gariic. Syn., B. Ilyihosiiithiil. B.- 
methylacetone. See B.niclJiylt.cline. B. -methyl- 
benzene. See B.lolnene B.-methylether, ('5- 
II. . CIlj — O — *-Hs> ^ liquid isomer of elliyl jihenyl 
etiier, boiling at about 168° C. B.methylketone, 
C'gHj . CIl., — CO — CH.T a ketone converted into ben- 
zoic and acetic a* i<ls on oxidation ; it boils bi-tueen 214° 
and 210° C. B. Nitrate, C^IK . CH, . .\T)„ a com- 
bination of benzyl and niirit acid. B.phenylamin. 
See Benzrlanilin. B.quinolin, C|jll,,N. an oily 
liquid. B. Sulfid, t nHjjS, a body obtained from 
benzyl chhirid w ith jiotassium sulfui ; soluble in ether ; 
melts at49°C. B.-thioalcohol. See B. Mr,a//an. 
B.toluene, C^H,,, a liquid obtained by heating tolu- 
ene and benzyl cldorid. B.urea. .See />'. Carliam/il. 
B.urethane, C^lLiNO,, a crystalline body obtained 
from benzyl alcohol by action of solid cyanogen chlorid. 
S\-n., B. Carhainale. 

Benzylene (ben'-zil-in). See Bcnzylulene (Illus. 
1 )iet. I. 

Benzylic [hen-zil'-ik\. Relating to or prepared with 

Benzylidene. 1 See Illus. I)ict.) B. acetone, C||,Il|„n, 
a substance obtained from calcium eimianiaie and cal- 
cium acetate by heat, foniiing plates soluble 
in alcohol, ether, benzene, and chlorofoim. slii^htly 
soluble in petroleum benzin ; melts at 42° C. ."--wi., 
Melhyhlvrvlkelon : Aeelocinnanione. B. Chlorid, 
C-HjCl, an oil with aromatic odor, obtained from tol- 
uene by the actitm of phosphorus pentachlorid with 
heat; soluble in alcohol and ether; sp. gr. 1.27 at 0° 
C; boils at 204° C. B. Sulfid, C^H^ . CHS, color- 
less laminas. 

Berberia [hur-ht'-rf-ah'). See Beri-heri (Illus. Diet.). 

Berberin. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Carbonate, C^H^,- 
NOj], crystalline powder soluble in hot water ; it is 




antiperiodic, stomachic, and tonic. Dose, antiperiodic, 
8-15 gr. (0.52-1 gm. ); stomachic, and tonic, ji-i gr. 
' (0.032-0.065 gm. ) 3 times daily. B. Chlorid. See i?. 
Hydrochloiate. B. Citrate, yellowish, bitter, crystal- 
line powder soluble in water. B. Hydrochlorate, 
B. Hydrochlorid, aCj^HuNO^HCl + 5H,i 1. very 
small yellow needles soluble in water. B. Phos- 
phate, C,jH|;XOj2H3PO,, a yellow crystalline powder 
soluble in water. B. Sulfate, Cj^HijNO.HjSO., 
yellow acicular crystals soluble with difficutty in water, 
almost insoluble in alcohol. 

Berberis. |See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants of 
the order Berb^ride^c, 

Berbin ihur'-hin\. See Oxyaeanthin (Illus. Diet.). 

Bergaptene (/'ur-i^iifr'-ten). C|.,HjO,. A solid greasy 
compound obtained from bergamot oil, being the lac- 
tone of burgaptenic acid. It melts at 188° C. Syn., 
Berg-tmot camphor ; Bergantihtti. 

Bergenin iliiir'-j,n-in) [^Bemfitia, a genus of plants]. 
CgfljOjH.jO. A bitter crystalline substance, obtained 
from various species of saxifrage, melting at 140° (.'. 
It is said to be a nerve tonic with action intermediate 
between salicylic acid and quinin. 

Beriberi. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., ParapUgia iiu- 
fhitica : Myelopathia tropica. Cf. Phascolus radiatus. 
B., Dropsical. See Uncinariasis. B., Pseudo-, 
Gibbs' name for a disease endemic in the Singapore 
Lunatic .\sylum prevailing during the wet season and 
attacking Asiatics onlv. It is not contagious and i^ 
marked by slight anemia, considerable soft anasarca, 
and a tendency to sudden death from shock. The 
softness of the ederaa, the lack of spastic and paralytic 
conditions and the rapidity of recovery distinguish it 
from beriberi. The period of incubation is apparently 
from I to 2 days. B., Web, that marked by anemia 
and dropsy without paralysis. 

Bernardin yber-nard'-in) [Bernard, a French physi- 
ologist]. See Glycogen (Illus. Diet.). 

Bernard's Puncture. The puncture of a definite spot 
in the floor of the fourth cerebral ventricle for the pr'>- 
ductioii of artihcial diabetes. 

Betain. (.See Illus. Diet.) .Syn., TrimelhylglycoU. 
B. Hydrochlorate, CjH^NOjHCI, colorless tablets 
soluble in water. 

Betam [be'-tam). An alkaloid from cotton-seed oil. 

Betulase {bel'-u-laz) \^Bc/iila, the birch]. See Gau!- 

Betulinar [bet-it'-lin-ar) . X proprietary antirheumatic 
solution, said to consist of salicylmentholbetulin, 11 
parts ; boroglycerin, 19 parts ; tincture of birch, 20 
parts; aromatic birch- water, 50 parts. 

Betulol (bel'-udol). An application for the treatment 
of rheumatism, said to be more quickly absorbed than 
oil of wintergreen. Syn., Methyl oieosalicylate. 

Bhuphalia (boo-/al'-e-ah). See Corchoriis fascicii- 

Biacuminate {bi-ai-u'-min-at) [bis, twice; acumin- 
attts, pointed]. Having two diverging pointed ends. 

Bialate [hi-a'-ldt ) [ids, twice ; <;/.;, a wing]. Furnished 
with two wings or wing like appendages. 

Bialuminate (bi-al-n'-inindt ) [bis, twice ; alnminiiwi\ 
A salt of aluminium containing two equivalents of alu- 
minium combined with one of acid. 

Biangulate (bi-ang'-git-lat) [bis, twice; angiilus, an 
angle]. With two angles. 

Biapiculate ( bi-ap-ik'-ii-lat 1 [bis, twice ; apex, the 
summit]. With two .summits. 

Biarsenate {bi-ar'-sen-at) [bis, twice; arseiiiel. An 
acid arsenate containing two atoms of hydrogen. 

Biarticulate {bi-ar-tiJk'-u-ldt) [bis, twice; articuitts, a. 
joint]. Having a double joint. 

Biasteriac, Biasterial, Biasteric (ii-as-ler'-e-ai, bi- 

as-tet -re-at, bi-as-ter^-ik) [bis, twice ; aslerion, a era* 

niometric point]. Relating to the aslerion on each 

side of the skull ; extending between the two asteria. 
Biatomic {bi-al-om'-ii). See Diatomic (Illus. Diet.). 
Biaurite (bi-aio'-rit } [bis, twice; tiitn's, the ear]. 

Furnished with two ears or ear-like projections. 
Biaxial [bi-ais'-e-al) [bis, twice; axis'\. Furnished 

with two axes. 
Bib. A portion of a red blood-corpuscle adherent to the 

crescent bodies observed in the blood of remittent-fever 

'Biha.sic [bi-ba'si/!) [to, twice ; basis, a base]. Having 

two hydrogen atoms replaceable by bases, as certain 

acids ; dibasic. 
Biberin (bib'-iir-in). See Bebeerin. 
Bibirina [bib-ir-i'-na/i). See Bebeerin. 
Biborate \bi'bo^-rdt\. See Pyroborate. 
Bibrin {bib'-rin). See Bebeerin. 
Bibromid (bi-bn^-mid). A compound of bromin with 

a radicle or element, containing twice as much bromin 

as another similar compound. 
Bicalcarate (bi-ial'-kar-dt) [to, twice ; i-a/rar, aspur]. 

Furnished with two spurs or spur-like projections. 
Bicalcic \bi-k,i/'-sil:\. See Dicalcic. 
Bicallose, Bicallous (bi-kal'-os, -tis) [to, twice ; col- 

lostii, callous]. W'ilh two callous prominences. 
Bicameral (bi-iam'-ural) [bis, twice; camera, a 

vault]. Having two compartments. 
Bicapitate [bi-kap'-it-dt) [bis, twice; caput, a head]. 

Having two heads; bicephalous; dicephalous. 
Bicapsular {bi-iap'-sii-lar) [bis, twice ; capsula, a cap- 
sule]. Having two capsules 
Bicavitary ( bi-kai-'-it-a-re') [bis, twice ; cavitas, a cavity] . 

Having two cavities. 
Bicellular [bi-sel'-n-lar) [bis, twice; cella, a cell]. 

< "omposed of two cells. 
Bicephalic, Bicephalous (bi-se/'-al-ik, bi-sef'-al-us). 

See Dicephalous | Illus. Diet.). 
Bicephalus See Dicephalous (Illus. Diet.). 
Bichat's Fat-ball. See under Ball. 
Bichlorinated (hi-klo'-rin-a-ted ). Combined with two 

atoms of chlorin. 
Bicinctus, Bicingulatus (bi-sink'-tus. ii-sin-gti-la'-tus) 

[bis. twice; an^ere, to gird]. Having two zones or belts. 
Bicipital, Bicipitous (hisip'-it-al, -us) [biceps, double- 
headed]. I. With two heads. 2. Relating to one of 

the biceps muscles. 
Biclavate (bi-kld'-idt) [bis, twice ; claia. a club]. 

Clubbed at each end. B.-bihamate. with the two 

club-shaped ends bent toward each other. B.-cyl- 

indric. cylindric and with clubbed ends. 
Bicolorin {bi-knl'-or-in). Marlins' name for esculin. 
Bicoronial [bi-ko-ro'-ne-al) [bis, twice; corona, a 

crown]. Relating to the two koronia. 
Bicorporal, Bicorporate, Bicorporated ( bi-kor' por-al, 

■at, a-tcd \ [bis, twice ; crpus, a body]. Consisting of 

two bodies. 
Bicrescentic (bi-kres-en'-tik) [bis, twice; crescere, to 

ijrow]. .-Vpplied to a tooth having two ridges in the 

ft inn of a double crescent. 
Bicrural {bi-kru'-ral\ [bis, twice; cms, a leg]. 

Having two legs or leg-like proce.sses. 
Bicuhyba, Bicuiba (bik-ioe'diah). See Becuiba (Illus. 

Bicuspis {bi-iiis'-pis) [bis, twice ; cuspis, a point]. A 

tooih with two cusps. 
Bicyanate (bi-si'-an-dt) [bis, twice ; cyanogen\ A salt 

having two equivalents of cyanic acid and one of a 

Bicyanid (bi-si'an-id) [bis, twice ; cyanogen'^. A 

cyanid containing twice as much cyanogen as the lower 

member of the cvanid series. 




Bicyanuret ihi-si-nn'-ii-ret). See Biiyajiid. 

Bidacryc [I'i-i/at'-rii) [/>«, twice; dacryoii'^. In cra- 
n.iiiiictry, relating to the two dacryons. 

Bidactylate (hi-i/ni'-tildl) [l>is, twice; tiaxTT/of, a 
liiij;er]. See Bii/i:;i/ate. 

Bidental (/li-Jtii'-tut ) [/'/f, twice; </<•/«, a tooth]. 
Ila\in^ two teeth or tixith-hke prominences. 

Bidigital (/'i-i/ij'-i/-a/) [i'is, twice; digitus, a finger]. 
KclVrring to the tip of a linger of each hand. 

Bidigitate {hi-dif-il-at ) [/'m, twice ; digitus, a finger]. 
Having two fingers; liidactylate. 

Biduous (/lid'-u-us) [I,., l'iiluus'\. Continuing for two 

Biduum (liid'-u-um) [I-.]. A period of two days. 

Bifacial (Id-fa'-shal ) [/<«, twice; fades, a face]. 
Having tlie surfaces similar. 

Bifarious {hi-fa'-re-usS \bij'arius\ Twofold; ar- 
rani^ed in two more or less regular series or rows. 

Bifemorocalcaneus {hi-ffiit-o-ro-kal-kti'-m-us) \pis, 
twice : l\mni\ the thigh bone ; caUaneum, the heel]. 
See antler MuscUs. 

Bifissile {/>i-fi/-l) [/'/.t, twice; /fm/trc, to split]. Part- 
ing naturally into halves. 

Bifistular. Bifistulous [lii-fis'tu-hir, -his) SJ'is, twice ; 
fi^/tt/ti, a l>ipe]. With two lubes. 

Biflagellate {Id-flaj'-cl-at ) \ltis, twice ; flagetlum, a 
whi|)]. Furnished with two flagella. 

Biform, Biformis (lii'-form, hi-fonii'-is) \_his, twice ; 
foniut, form]. See Dimorphous (Illus. iJict. ). 

Biformity (bi-Jonii'-it-e). The condition of being di- 

Biforous [lii'-for-us) [hlforus']. I. See Biforate (Illus. 
Did.). 2. Having two valves. 

Bigaster (i*/-<,'(7j' -/«/-). See .S/Vvw/tV (Illus. Diet.). 

Bigeminal, Bigeminous {bi jdin'-in-nl, -us) [*«, twice ; 
■^tniiitiirc, to double]. Occurring in two pairs. 

Bigibbose, Bigibbous (hi-gib'-6s, -us) [^iis, twice; 
gil'l'us, a lunn|j]. Having two gibbosities. 

Biglandular (/•i-glniid'-u-hr) [ids, twice; glandula, 
a gland]. Furnished with two glands. 

Bihamate (id-ham' -at ) \Jds, twice ; haiualus, hooked]. 
With a hoi^k at l)olh extremities. 

Bihastate, Bihastatus {hi-has'-tat, -/«'-//«) [(S/j, twice; 
luisla, a lance]. With two laiice-shaped processes. 

Bihydrate {id-hi'-drat). See Dihydiate. 

Bihydric (Id-hi'-diik). -See Di/iydric. 

Biischiatic (bi-is-kiat'-ii). See Bisischiadic (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Bilamellar, Bilamellate, Bilamellated Ud-lam-el'- 
ar, -at, -a'-tL-d) \Jiis, twice; lanulla, a plate]. Con- 
sisting of two thin plates. 

Bilaminar, Bilatninate ( bi-lam'-in-ar, -at) [bis, twice ; 
lamina, a sheet]. Composed of two layers. 

Bilate ybil'-at). See Gh'fo<holat<: 

Bilaterality (ii-lat-ur-al'-it-,-) [//;>, twice ; latus, the 
side]. The condition of being bilateral. 

Bilberries \,bill>ly'-lz). See i'aainiuni iiivrtillus. 

Bile. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Aeruginous, bile having 
the color of verdigris. B., Azure. B., Blue. See 
B., G/astiite. B., Crystallized, Planner's name for 
sodium taurocholate. B., Cystic, bile contained in 
the gall-bladder as distinguished from that which is 
transmitted directly from the liver to the duodenum. 
B., Glastine, that of a bluish color, so called from 
glaslum, or woad (Is.itis tiuctoria), used for dyeing 
blue. B., Hepatic, that which is transmitted directly 
from the liver to the duodenum without entering the 
gall-bladder. B., Inspissated. See Feb boT'is in- 
spissalum (Illus. Diet. i. B. -resin. See Biliii (Illus. 
Diet.). B.-stone. See 6^,;//-i/iiKf (Illus. Diet.). 

Bilharziasis (bil-harz-ea'-sis). See Bi/harziosis (IWui. 

Bilianic Anhydrid. Cj^H^^O,, -f- 4HjO. The an- 
hydriil of bilianic acid, occurring in small rhombic 

Biliation (bi/-c-a'-shnn) [bi/is, bile]. The excretion 
of bile. 

Bilification (Inl-if-ik-a'-shuii) [bilis, bile ; /acere, to 
make]. The formation of bile. 

Biligulate, Biligulatus (bi-lig'-u-lat, bi-lig-u la' ■ 
His] [bis, twice ; ligula, a little tongue]. F'ormed 
like two tongues, or having two tongue-like pro- 

Bilinguis [bilin'-i^wis). See Biligulate. 

Biliousness (bil'-yus-ttt's) [bilis, bile]. The condition 
marked by malaise, constipation, headache, and an- 
orexia, with a furred tongue, attributed to disorders in 
the secretion and flow of bile. 

Bilixanthin {bil-ezan'-thin). See Choletelin (Illus. 
Did. ). 

Bill of Health. .See under Health. 

Bilobate (bi-lo'-biit] [bis, twice; /<j.?(jf, a lobe]. With 
two lobes; divided into two lobes; bilobed ; bilob- 

Bilobation (bi-lo-lia'-shun). The condition of being 
divided into two lobes; a division into two lobes. 

Bilocular (bi-Iok'-u-lar) [bis, twice ; loculus, a little 
place]. Having two cells; divided into two com- 
partments ; biloculate. 

Bilophodont (bi-lof'-o-doiit) [bis, twice; /ooof, a 
crest ; iHovr, a tooth]. Having the teeth with two 
transverse ridges on the cutting surface. 

Bimaculate (Id-mai'-u-lat) [bis, twice; macula, a 
spot]. Marked with two spots. 

Bimalar (hi-ma'-lar). Extending between the two 
malar bones. 

Bimalate {bi-mal'-dt). In a series of malates, that one 
which contains twice the amount of malic acid that the 
fir^t one of the series does. 

Bimanous {bi-ma'-iius) [bis, twice; maims, a hand]. 
Having two hands. 

Bimargarate (bi-mar' gar-at). A salt of niargaric 
acid containing twice as much of the acid as a normal 

Bimarginate (bi-mar' -jin-a!) [bis, twice; marginatus, 
bordered]. Having two borders. 

Bimaxillary (bi-mak^-il-a-re). Extending between the 
two niaxillas. 

Bimeconate (bi-mef-on-at). A meconate containing 
tuicc as much meconic acid as is contained in the cor- 
responding normal meconate. 

Bimembral (bi-iium'-bral \ [bis, twice; membrum, a 
member]. With two limbs. 

Bimestral (bi-mcs'-tral) [bis, twice; iiiciisis, mondi]. 
Two months old ; continuing two months. 

Bimolybdate \bi-m,'l'-ib-dat). A molybdate contain- 
ing twice as much molybdic acid as the corresponding 
normal molybdate. 

Bimucate (bi-mu'-kat ). A salt of mucic acid contain- 
ing twice as much acid in proportion to the base as a 
normal muoate. 

Bimucous (bi-mii'-kus) [ids, twice; mucus, mucus]. 
Relating to two mucous surfaces. 

Bimus [bi'-mus] [L.]. Two years of age; continuing 
two years. 

Bimuscular (bi-mus'-ku-lar). Having two muscles. 
.Svn., Diiiivarious. 

Binal (Id'-nal). See Binary (WVk. Diet.). 

Binocular. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Relief. See under 

Binoleate (bin-o'-le-at) [his, twice; oleum, oil]. An 
oleate containing twice the amount of the oleic acid 
element that is contained in a normal oleate. 

Binotic (bin-ot'-ik). ?^e Binaural [IWus. Diet.). 




Binoxalate (6111-06/ -nl-at). A salt of oxalic acid 
containing twice as mucli oxalic acid as a normal oxal- 

Bioblastic (bi-o-d/ast'-ik). Relating to bioblasts. B. 
Theory, Altmann's, according to which leukocyte 
granules are considered as detinite biologic entities, 
which affect through oxygen-transmission both reduc- 
tion and oxygenation, and in this manner accomplish 
the disunions and the syntheses of the economy without 
sacrificing their own individuality. Cf. Color-analysis. 

Bioculate, Bioculatus (bi-oi'-ii-ldt, -us) [^bis, twice ; 
oni/iis, an eye]. Marked by two spots of color differ- 
ent from the chief color. 

Biod (/'/'-«/ ) [Jfoi;, life]. I. Animal magnetism. 2. 
See Prolyl (Illus. Diet.). 3. Vital force. 

Biodesmus (lii-otl-,-'z'-mus) [ <"if, lite; <SfCu«c, abond]. 
The vital principle regarded as a bond between or- 

Biogen (bi^-o-Jen') l_3ioCf life; jevvdv, to produce]. I. 
See Prolyl (Illus. Diet.). 2. See Bioplasm (Illus. 
Diet.). 3. 'ii^t .Magnesium Dio.xiil. 

Biogenetic (bi-o-jen-cl'-ik). Relating to biogenesis. 
B. Law. See under Lan', 

Biograph {I'i'-o-graf) [iiof, life; -jpni^Eiv, to write]. 
.\ii apparatus for securing photographs of animals in 
motion. Syn., Kinematograpli. 

Biology. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Somiology ; Or- 
gaiiontv : Organology ; Zooitomy. B., Dynamic. 
See .^Viwow/i' (Illus. Diet. ). B!, Static. See Bio- 
statics (Illus'. Diet.). 

Biomagnetic (bi-o-mag-ni-t'-ik) [,3/of, life; fia^vK, 
magnet]. Relating to animal magnetism. 

Biomantia [I'i-o-man'-slie-ali ) \_;iior, life ; /lapviin, 
divination]. The pretended art of prophesying tlie 
length of a person's life, from observation of pulse-rate 
and other vital phenomena. 

Biometer. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. An instrument of the 
nature of a tuning-fork, invented by Dr. Collongues 
for the reproduction and increase of sounds of the body 
ordinarily perceived by auscultation. 

Biometrics [bi-o-mcl'-riis) [inn, life; /lerpov, meas- 
ure]. The science of the body-sounds perceived by 

Bion \l>i'-oii) [ J/oiT, to live]. .\ definite physiologic 
individual element or organism. Cf. Morphon (\\\us. 

Bionomics {lii-o-uo'-miiks') [3/'of, life; vdfioc, law]. 
That branch of natural history which treats of the 
relations of organisms among themselvgs and to their 

Biontic (hi-on'-tik) [,3<6ui', to live]. Individual as op- 
posed to phyletic. 

Bionuclein (bi-o-nu'-kh-iti) [ ?/oc, life ; nucUiii^. -A. 
term suggested by Sacharoff 1 1902) for the hypothetic 
substance composed of a combination of iron and 
nuclein which exists in all enzymes, holding that all 
vital processes depend upon decomposition of living 
substance set up by them. 

Biophagism, Biophagy (bi-of'-aj-ismy bi-of'-aj-e) 
[ jw, life; cia;f(r, to eat]. The capacity of absorbing 
living matter. 

Biophilia {hi-o-fil'-e-ah) [ ?<of, life; Oi/.eiv, to love]. 
The instinct for self-preservation. 

Biophthorous [bi-of'-thor-us) [.3'of, life; ^o^ii, de- 
struction]. Ruinous to life. 

Biophytum [bi-of'-it-um') [J/oc, life ; ipirm; plant]. .A. 
genus of plants of the order Ct-raniaceiC, B. sensiti- 
vum, D. ('. , a native of the East Indies, where the root 
is used in inflammations, in gonorrhea, and in pulmon- 
ary affections. 

Biopsy, Biopsia. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. .A name coined 
by Besnier for the e.xcision during life of an eruptive 

lesion or fragment of a new-growth to establish the 
diagnostic histology of a malady. 

Bios (bi'-os) [:i-or, lile]. The term applied by the 
father of natural history, .-Vristotle, " to the whole world 
of living" as opposed to the lifeless forms, the abion. 

Biosophia i^bi-o-so^ -fe-ali). Troxler's name forbionomy. 

Biostatistics (bi-o-stnt-is'-tits) [/iiof, life; status,' a. 
state]. Vital statistics. 

Biotics (bi-ot'-iks) [.i/on/aJc, vital]. The science of 
vital functions and manifestations. 

Bioxalate (bi-ois'-al-at). See Binoxalate. 

Bipalatinoid [hi-pal-at'-in-oid). A gelatin capsule with 
two compartments. 

Bipartition (bi-part-isli'-cnt) [bis, twice; pars, part]. 
.Separation into two parts. 

Biphorous (bi'-for-us). See Biforate (Illus. Diet.). 

Biplumbic {bi-'fluni'-bik) [/<«, twice ; plumbum, lead]. 
( 'ontaining two atoms of lead. 

Bipocillated (bi-po¥-il-a-te,t ) \_bis, twice; pocillum, a 
little cup]. Having two cup-like appendages. 

Bipolarity (bi-po-lar'-it-c) [/>/>, twice ; p.ilus, a pole]. 
The condition of having two processes from opposite 
poles, as a ner\e-cell ; or of having different electric 
properties existing at the two poles. 

Bipotassic (bi-po-tas'-ik). Having two atoms of 

Bipunctate {bi-punk'-tat') {bis, twice; punctum, a 
point]. Having two dots or points. 

Bipupillate (bi-pu'-pil-dt ) \his, twice ; pupilla, pupil 
of the eye]. Marked with spots which contain two 
pupil-like dots. 

Biramose, Biramous {bi-ram'-o-:, -us) \_iis, twice; 
ramus, a branch]. Having two branches. 

Birdpox (burii'-poks). A blastomycetic dermatitis of 
birds. Syn., Gefliigelpocken ; Taubenpocken ; Pocken 
der Taiiben ( Ger. ) . 

Birefractive {bi-re-frak'-tiv) \his, twice; refrangert, 
to break]. Doubly refractive. 

Birefringent (bi-re-friu'-jent) \l'is. twice ; refringere, to 
breakback]. Doubly refractive ; anisotropic. 

Birimose {hi-ri^-moz) \_bis, twice; rima, a cleft]. 
Having two clefts or slits. 

Birth. "(See Illus. Diet.) B., Cross-. See Presen- 
tation, Transverse (Illus. Diet. 1. B., Virgin-. See 
Parthenogenesis (Illus. Diet.). 

Bi-salt (bi'-salt). .See 5<z//, ^<7,/ ( Illus. Diet. ) . 

Bische [bis/i) [East Indian name]. Endemic dys- 

Biseptate (bi-sep' -tat) \_bis, twice; septum, a hedge]. 
Having two septums. 

Bisferious (bis-fe'-re-us) {bis, twice ; /c/vVr, to strike]. 
Having two beats ; dicrotic. 

Bisilicate (bi-sil'-ik-at). A silicate having twice the 
amount of silicic acid that a nonnal silicate has. 

Bismal \biz'-mal ). See Bismuth Methyleuedigallate. 

Bismutal. Bisrauthol '.biz'-mutal, -thol). See Bis- 
muth and Sodium Phosphosaliev'ate. 

Bismuth. ( See Illus. Diet.) B. Acetate, Bi(C;H3- 
Ojl,, a white powder soluble in acetic .-icid. It loses 
acetic acid when exposed. B. Albuminate, a light 
gray or white powder containing Q', of bismuth : it is 
used in stom.ichic or intestinal cramp. Dose. 5-15 gr. 
(0.32-0.97 gm. ) 3 or 4 times daily. B. Alginoid, a 
compound of bismuth nitrate and sodium alginate ; a 
yellow powder containing 32 '^^ of metallic bismuth. 
B. Arsenate, Bi4' .\s.,0. i,, a white substance insoluble 
in water. B. Benzoate, Hi( C-HjC )., jj.a white, tasteless 
powder containing 27 ^/ of benzoic acid, soluble in min- 
eral acids and in.soluble in water. It is an internal and 
external antiseptic. Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 gm. ). 
B. Bilactomonotannate, an odorless, tasteless, yel- 
low powder, insoluble in water. It is used in dianhea 




of infants. Dose, 2-3 };m. (30-45 gr. ).■ Syn., 
Liu/itiiiii. B. Bismuthate, Bi/jj -p Bi.O,, a gray- 
ish-wliile, heavy jxiw.ler which is deconi|OTse(l by acids. 
It loses oxygen by heat. B. Borate, HiBoj, a white 
powder, used as an intestinal antiseinic. Dose, 5-40 
gr. (0.32-2.6 gm. ). B. Borophenate, Bi/JjBiCjHj)- 
(COj,) -f- 3^^2*'- ^^ *^ recunnnended as a surgical 
dressing u.sed as a dusling-powder, or in burns or 
scalds applied as a paste (25% to 50% in glycerin) on 
lint. Syn., .l/;;-.<',Kii/. B. Borosalicylate, an amor- 
phous, grayish- white iwwdcr, which is decomposed by 
water. B. Bromid, Bilir,, yellow deliquescent crys- 
tals or crystalline nnsses decomposing by water, sol- 
uble in ether. B., Butter of. See B. Chlon,i. B. 
Butyrate, Hi.^(C,„ri,,(J,l.„ a while powder. B. Cam- 
phorate, Bij(Cj„ll,/J,)3, a white powder. B. Car- 
bolate, Bi(OH)^,CgH5() (B. Fischer), a 
powder, nearly odorless and tasteless, containing 80% 
of bismuth o.xid and x^"^', to 19% of phenol. It is an 
intestinal antiseptic and is used externally as a substi- 
tute for iodoform. Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 gm.). 
Syn., B. f'lienati- : B. phmylitU : I'ltcnol bismiitli. 
B. and Cerium Salicylate, a white or |)ink powder 
used as an antirheumatic antl antiseptic. Dose. 
5-15 gr. (0.32-1.0 gin). B.-chinolin Rhodanate. 
See Qiiinolin-hisiinith Sii'/oiyanid. B. Chlorid, 
BiClj, very deliipiescent while crystals, soluble in small 
quantities of water; melts at 227° C. Syn., Biilltr 
of Bismuth. B. Chromate, Bij032Cr03, an orange- 
yellow amorphous powder. B. Chrysophanate, 
Bi(C,3H.jO,).;Bi./)3 (Trojescer), a ydlow amorphous 
powder insolul>le in ordinary solvents, but soluble in 
nitric or sulfuric acid ; it is used as a siccative in 
psoriasis. Application: 5fi to 20^4 ointment. Svn., 
Dermol. B. Cinnamate, Bi(CjH.O.;i3B.;03. Syn., 
Heloform. B. Cresolate, an odorless, tasteless, gray- 
ish-while powiler insoluble in water and alcohol ; it is 
an internal and external antiseptic. B. Dithiosali- 
cylate, a bulky yellow powder without odor, used 
as a wound antiseptic, and in ophthalmic practice, 
in diseases of the nose and throat, and in dentistry. 
Syn., Tliioform. B.ethyl, Bi(C2H.), a bivalent rad- 
icle. B., Flowers of, the product of the sublimation 
of bismuth with water. B. Hydrate, B. Hydroxid, 
Bi(OH)3, a white amorphous ]K)wder soluble in acids. 
B. lodate, Bi(IO,)„ a heavy white powder slightly 
soluble in nitric acid. B. lodid, Bilj, grayish-black 
shining ciy-tals soluble in potassium iodid solution. B. 
lodosubgallate, C5H.^(()H IjCOOBil, a grayish-green, 
bulky powder without odor and taste, changing to red 
when damp ; it is soluble in alkali and dilute mineral 
acids, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and chloro- 
form. It is an antiseptic and used as a dusting-powder 
on wounds. Syn., Airol : B. oxyioJoi^al/alf. B. 
Isovalerate. See B. Vahrianate. B. Lactate, 
BiH(C3H,0i3)„ a white crystalline powder, slightly 
soluble in water; used as an internal and external 
antiseptic. Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 gm. 1. B. 
Lactophosphate, white microcrv'stalline powder vcrv 
slightly soluble in water. B. Lactotannate. See 
B. ' Bilaclomonolaniialc. B. Loretinate, a combi- 
nation of bismuth and loretin, used as a surgical and 
intestinal antiseptic, and also in ophthalmology. Dose, 
7 "4 gr. (0.5 gm. ). B., Magistery of. See' B. Siih- 
«//;-,//(•( Illus. Diet.). B. Metacresol, an intestinal 
antiseptic consisting of a combination of 75 '; of bis- 
muth with 17.5 'r of metacresol. B. Methylenedi- 
gallate, 4C,5H|jO,„ -^ 3Bi(()H)3, a gray-blue bulky 
powder soluble in alkali and insoluble in water. It 
is used as an internal astringent. Dose, 0.1-0.3 
gm every three hours. Syn., Bismol. B.-naph- 
thalin Benzoate, an intestinal antiseptic. Dose, 

0.5-1.0 gm. ?>\n., Iii/isiin. B. Naphthoglycerite, 
a remedy for gonorrhea. B. i Naphtholate, 2Hi- 
(C,„H,0)j -r BijOj (Thomas), a light brown, odorless, 
insoluble powder containing 80% bismuth trioxid. It 
is an intestinal antiseptic., 15-30 gr. (0.97-1.94 
gm.). Syn., Orpiiol : B. unplilliulnli-' : .Xiiphlhol 
liismiith. B. Nitrate, Bi(N(>,l3 -V- 5ll.p, clear, 
shining, hygroscopic crystals, without color and with an 
acid taste, sijluble in acids and glycerin ; it is used as an 
astringent and antiseptic. Dose, 5-10 gr. (0. 32-0.65 
gm. ). B. Oleate, a mixture of bismuth oxid an<l oleic 
acid, forming a yellowish-brown, soft, gramilar mass 
soluble in ether. B. Oleopalmitate, a compound of 
oleic and palmitic acids with a bismuth salt. B. Oxa- 
late, Bi,(C/J,)5 . 15H/J, a white granular powder. 
B. Oxybromid, BiOBr, a yellowish- white powder in- 
soluble in ordinary media. It is recommended in the 
treatment of nervous dysjiepsia and hysteria accom- 
panied by gastric pains and vomiting. Dose, 0.3-O.4 
gra. several times daily. B., Oxycarbonate of. See 
jS. .S«('v</;/'i)H,;/'t(Illus. Diet ). B. Oxyiodid. See A 
SiibioiiiJ (Illus. Diet). B. Oxyiodcgallate. See 
B. loiiosiihs^allali. B. Oxyiodomethylgallol, CgH^- 
COOCIl3('<)ll)/J . BitJil . 1, a daik gray powder con- 
taining 23.6'r of iodin and 3S.4', of l;isnmtli. used as 
a surgical antiseptic. Syn., /«/(';«//;</«. B. Oxy- 
iodopyrogallate, B. Oxyiodopyrogallol, a combi- 
nation of bismuth oxyiodid with pyrogallol ; it is an 
amorphous yellowish-red powder, permanent in air 
and light and insoluble in the u.sual .solvents. It is 
reconmiended as a surgical antiseptic. B. Oxyiodo- 
tannate, a fine, odorless, tasteless, greenisli-gray 
powder, used as a wound antiseptic. Syn., Ibil. B., 
Pancreatinized, a yellowish-white powder said to 
contain loj/^ of bismuth trioxid,<l in dvspepsia. 
Dose, 15-75 gr. (1-5 gm. ). B. Pentoxid, Bi^Oj, an 
unstable brown powder. Syn., Biniiiilhic o.xid ; Bis- 
miit/iir iinhyjrid. B., Peptonized, B. Peptonate, 
a greenish-yellow, soluble bismuth cr»mpound, used in 
dyspepsia and gastralgia. Dose, I-5 gm. Syn., Bis- 
vmlhnli;l peptone. B. Permanganate, Bi(Mn(J,)3, 
a black, bulky powder .soluble in dilute acids. It is 
used as a dry dusting-powder for wounds and ulcers. 
B. Peroxid. .See B. Bisniulliatc. B. Phenate, B. 
Phenylate. .See B. Carholale. B., Phenol-, a com- 
pound of bismuth, 27.5^ with phenol, 22 ^^^ ; it is 
used as an intestinal antiseptic. B. Phosphate, 
Bil'O,, a white powder obtained by fusing together 
bismuth oxid, sodium hydrate, and phosphoric acid, 
and jiulverizing the resultant mass ; it is an intestinal 
disinfectant. Dose. 3-8 gr. {0.2-0.5 g'"-)- B. and 
Potassium Tartrate, BiKC,Il,' 1,5. a white powder 
soluble in water. B. Propionate, l!i(C3H50,)3 (?), 
a white amorphous powder. B. Pyroarsenate. See 
B. Arsennle. B. Pyrogallate, (CjH3[OII.,]0),- 
BIOH, a yellow, tasteless, odorless [)ow<ler, ins<jlub1e 
in water and alcohol, slightly .soluble in very dilute 
hydrochloric acid. It is an antiseptic, used internally 
in doses of 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.07 gm. |. Applied for in lO'T, to 20V (■iiitnienl or dusting- 
powder. Syn., Plelcosol. B.-quinolin Sulfocyanid. 
See Qiiinolinbistmilh. B. Resorcinate, a yellow- 
ish-brown powder containing alxmt 4^^ of bismuth 
trioxid. It is used in catarrh of the stomach. B. 
Salicylate, (C.H/ljl.jBi^Oj, a salt obtained by Thi- 
bault from bismuth oxid, instead of the hydroxid as is 
customary. It is a crystalline, grayish-red powder, 
slowly decomposed by cold water, and more rapidly 
by hot water. It is used as an external and internal 
antiseptic. Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 gm. ). B. 
and Sodium Benzoate, a white powder used as an 
intestinal antiseptic. B. and Sodium Iodid, Bilj- 




4NaI, ret] cryslals decuniposed liy water, soluVjIe in 
dilute acids. It is alterative and antiseptic. B. and 
Sodium Phosphosalicylate, a white, odorless, crys- 
talline powder used as an external antiseptic and astrin- 
gent in 1% to 4'o solution or in lo'^ to 30j^ ointment 
or dastin^-[iowtler. Syn., BisniiUal : Bismutltol. B. 
and Solium Salicylate, a white powder used as an 
intestinal disinfectant and in rheumatism. B. Sub- 
benzoate, basic benzoate of bismuth ; a white powder 
used as a wound antiseptic. B. Subbromid. See B. 
Oxvlifoiniil. B. Sulfate, Bi^fSO, Ij, an amorphous 
white pou'der decomposed by water, soluble in nitric 
acid. B. Sulfid. Bi^S.,, blackish -brown powder, sol- 
uble in nitric acid and in boiling, concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid. B. Sulfite, a combination of sodium sul- 
fite and bismuth trinitrate. It is an intestinal anti- 
septic. Dose, 5-40 gr. (0.32-2.6 gm.). B. Sulfo- 
cacodylate. See B. Thiocacodylale. B. Sulfocar- 
bolate, B. Sulfophenate, B. Sulfophenylate, a 
pale reddish powder partly soluble in water, used as a 
general intestinal disinfectant. Dose, 0.2-0.5 gm. 
(31^-8 gr. ) 3 or 4 times daily. B. Sulfuret. See /). 
Sulftd. B. Tannate, a yellow powder used as an 
intestinal antiseptic. Dose, 10-30 gr. (0.65-1.94 
gm. ). B. Tartrate, Bi^^C^H/)^), + 61^20, a white 
powder. B. Ternitrate, B. Trinitrate. See B. 
.Vilrn/e. B. Tetroxid, an oxidation-product of bis- 
muth trioxid, Bia' *4: a heavy yellow-brown powder; 5.6. B. Thiocacodyiate, (As[CH,],;)3SsBi, 
golden-yellow llakes, insoluble in water, slightly sol- 
uble in alcohol and ether. B. Tribromid. See B. 
Broiniil. B. Tribromocarbolate, B. Tribromo- 
phenate, BLPjiCaH^BrjOH) (B. Fischer), a yellow, 
odorless, tasteless, insoluble powder containing about 
(>o% of Bij03. It is used as an antiseptic in cholera 
and intestinal disorders. Dose, 8-15 gr. (0.52-0.97 
gm. ). Maximum dose per day, 90 gr. (5.85 gm.). 
Svn., Xci\ifjr,ii. B. Trichlorid. See B. Chloiid. 
B. Trihydrate, B. Trihydroxid. -Same as B. Hy- 
t/nih: B. Trinitrate. See B. Nitrate. B. Trioxi'd, 
Bi^03, a heavy, yellow powder, soluble iir acids. It is 
incompatible with alkalis and water in excess. It is 
antiseptic and astringent. Dose, 5-40 gr. (0.32-2.6 
gm. ). Syn., Bhniutlutis oxid. B. Tungstate, B. 
Wolframite, a white powder easily undergoing de- 
composition. B. Valerate, B. Valerianate, a 
white powtler with the odi>r of valerianic acid, sol- 
uble in dilute hydro.hloric or nitric acid, insoluble 
in water or alcohol ; it is used as a sedative and an- 
tispasmodic in neuralgia, chorea, epilepsy, etc. Dose, 
1-3 «'■• (0.065-0.149 gm.). 

Bismuthal (/ih-iiiii'thul). Containing bismuth. 

Bismuthate {hiznm'-thdt]. A salt of bismuthic acid. 

Bismuthic [hh-iiiu'-thik). Relating to bismuth ; con- 
taining bismuth in its higher valency. 

Bismuthosis ( (>iz-iituth-(^-sis]. The absorption of bis- 
muth into the system. 

Bismuthous {/>iz-iiiu'-t/tiis). Containing bismuth as a 
trivalent radicle. 

Bismuthyl (A/!:-w«'-//i;7). BiO. A univalent radicle. 
B. Bromid. See Bismuth Oxybromid. B. Chlorid. 
See Bisinulh Oxychlorid (Illus. Diet.). B. lodid. 
See Bismtttit Oxyiodid. 

Bismutose (/'/^'-w/w-Zo:). A bismuth and albumin com- 
pound, equivalent in action to bismuth subnitrate. 
Useful in gastrointestinal affections of infectious char- 
acter. For children under 6 months the dose is 1-2 
gm. (16-30 gr. ) ; for those over 6 months it maybe 
given in i-dram doses. 

Bisol (/'/'-.?(?/) . Soluble bismuth phosphate containing 
about 20% of bismuth oxid. It is used in gastralgia. 
Dose, I-tYz gr. 

Bispep/i5/c'-/</rj. A proprietary preparation containing 
bismuth, pep.sin, ammonium carbonate, and aromatics. 

Bissection {^Ois-seK'-s/iiiii). See Biaction (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Bistearate {bi-sle'-ar-sf). A stearate containing twice 
as much of the stearic-acid constituent as is con- 
tained in normal stearate. 

Bistratal (bi-stra'-t,il) {l/is, twice; statiim, layer]. 
Arranged in two layers. 

Bistriate (l>i-stn'-d^ ) [^I'is, twice; stria, a furrow]. 
Marked with two lines or streaks. 

Bisuccinamid (in-sui sin'-nm-ia). CglljOjX. A 
crystalline substance obtained from succinic acid by 
action of ammonia. 

Bisulfuret {bi-sul'-fu ret). See Bisii/J'/iid (Illus. 

Bite (bit ) [AS., bltan]. I. The corrosion of a sub.stance 
witli an acid. 2. The more or less perfect coaptation 
of the upper and lower teeth. Open bile, that in which 
the upper and lower incisors do not close together. 
Undcrluiiii; /'ite, that in which the upper incisors over- 
reach the lower, 

Bitonal (bi-tcZ-nal) \_bis, twice; tonus, a tone]. 
Double -toned. 

Bitterin (bil-ttr' -in). See Qiiassitt (Illus. Diet.). 

Bituberculate (bi-tti-ber'-ku-lal ) \l>is, twice, Itiber- 
culnin, a tubercle]. Furnished with two tubercles. 

Bituminization (bi-tti-mtu-iz-a' -shun). A conversion 
into bitumen. 

Biurate [bi-u'-rdt). An acid urate; a urate contain- 
ing twice as mueh of the uric-acid constituent as an 
ordinary urate. 

Bivanadate {bi-van'-ad-at). A vanadate containing 
twice as much vanadic acid as a normal vanadate. 

Biventer. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A digastric muscle. 

Bivittate (bi-vit'-dl ) \_bis, twice ; -jitta, a fillet]. Marked 
by two longitudinal .stri]}es. 

Bivoltine (iii-roll'-in) \bis, twice; volta, a turn]. 
Bringing forth offspring twice in the year. 

Bixa (bi/;s'-ah) \biehe, Brazilian name]. A genus of 
plants of the order Bixnceit. B. orellana, L., the 
annotto-tree, a native of South America and now dis- 
persed throughout the tropics, furnishing from the pulp 
surrounding the seeds the annotto of commerce. The 
pulp is used as a remedy for dysentery and the seeds 
are said to be astringent and antipyretic. 

Bizincic \bi-zink'-ik). Containing two atoms of zinc. 

Bizirconic (bi-sir-kou'-ik). Containing two atoms of 

Black. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Assizes, that held at 
Oxford, [uly 6, 1 577, wdien a putrid pestilence broke 
out, B.bain [OE.]. Synonym of Anthrax. B. 
Precipitate. See Mercury Oxid, Block. B.water, 
I, Synonym of Texas fever. 2. See Azoluria. 

Bladder. ( See Illus. Diet. ) 2. The sacculated con- 
nective tissue under the eyes, seen in old persons and 
in cretinoid affections. B., Bilobed, B., Bilocular, 
a sacculated bladder having two pouches. B., Brain-, 
the cerebral vesicle. B., Columnar, B., Columni- 
form. See ^., /<7.r<-/,v//,;ta/ (Illus. Diet.). B., En- 
cysted, a urinary bladder with communicating cysts 
connected with it. B., Eye-, the optic vesicle. B., 
Gall-. See C<7//-W,;,/,/,v- (Illus. Diet.). B.-gastrula. 
See Peri-^astruta (Illus. Diet.'. B.-germ. See 
Blastula (Illus. Diet. 1. B., Multilocular, a saccu- 
lated bladder having many pouches. B., Stammer- 
ing, Sir James Paget's name for that condition observed 
in young males who are unable to micturate when 
under observation or surrounded by unusual conditions 
or objects. It is due to spasm of the compressor 
urethni; muscle. B,, Stammering, False, a con 
dition in which there is some mechanical or patho- 




logic interference witli urination. B., Sterile, a 
hydatid cyst without secondary cysts, lieads, or liroad 
capsules. B., Supplementary, a diverticulum caused 
by sacculation of the urinary bladder. Syn., Paruro- 

Blanchinin (blaiiit'-htht). See Aiiiiii (Illus. Diet). 

Blaps. See T,il'/^ of P>iiasiU-s (Illus. Diet.). B. 
polycresta, Eorskal, an Egyptian sjjecies used as an 
article of food and as a remedy for earache and scor- 

Blast yl<l<!it) [.\S., tiUh-sl\ i. See Exolospore. 2. 
See /y,'i\;/i/. 3. Inllunnnation. 4. A disease of sheep. 

Blastema. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An undiffercnliatcd 
prolopla.sniic layer in certain ei^gs or embryos. B., 
Ossific, B., Ossifying, B., Subperiosteal. .See 
Osf,ii^\'iu-/ic Layer (Illu^. Did.). B. pili, a hair 

Blasticle {bias' -lik-l). The vitelline nucleus. 

Blastidium {bias-lid' -c-Km) [ J/dtinif, a bud]. An 
ludospore or cell of endogenous origin. 

Blastidule {bins' -tid-nl) [ i/narw, a bud]. .\ conidium 
..r uth.jr asexual body. [McXat). ] 

Blastocelis {blas-to-sc'-lis) [i/arrni;-, a germ; *:'//'i-, a 
-poi]. Wagner's name for the germinal spot. 

Blastocystinx {blas-ti^-sisl'-iiiks) [ foiCTnii;, germ ; 
Krariy:, a little bladder]. The germinal vesicle; 

Blastoderm. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Blastodt'rniic 
miiiibrane ; Genu membrane; Germinal membrane. 
B., Bilaminar, the blastoderm when it consists only 
of the ectoderm and the entoderm. B., Discoid. 
See D/i:i>-af/ni/,i (Illus. Did.). B., Trilaminar, 
tiR' blasioderjn after the formation of the mesoiilast. 

Blastogenesis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Rejjroduclion 
Ijy buds. 

Blastoma. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. One of a peculiar 
group of true tumors which originate from embryonic 
cell-rests; e.g., c/wndromas, gliomas, etc. Syn., 

Blastomyces {blast-o-mi'-sez)\^rQ-amu<;, & bud; ni'Kiic, 
a ^ungu^]. .\ genus of budding fungi {Blas/omyce/es) 
usually referred to 7'orn/a or Saeeliaromyeeles. B. 
dermatidis (liilchrisl, 1894), a yeast-like organism 
producing a scrofuloderma in man. .See Dermatitis, 

Blastomycetes (blaslo-mi-se'te:) [,?>(ifTri)r, a bud; 
/iiKi/r. a fungus]. Single-celled thallophylcs destitute 
of chUirophyl, which reproduce by yeast-like buds or 
by endogenous cell formation, liy some authors used 
as synonymous with .Saeeliaromyeetes. 

Blastomycetic (blast-o-mi-se'-tik). Pertaining to or 
caused by budding fungi {Blaslomyeetes). B. Der- 
matitis. See under Dermatitis. 

Blastomycosis Iblas-to-mi-ltt/sis). An affection due 
to budding-fungi ( Blaslomyeeles). Cf. Blastomyces ; 
Saeeliaromyees : Torula. 

Blastoprolepsis {hlast-o-pro-lefi'-sis) [,?/,nari5r, a germ ; 
-l}ii/ii<l'tr^ an anticipating]. Hastening of develop- 

Blastostroma {blast-o-strot-mali) [T/naror, a germ ; 
nTjx.iun. anything spread out]. See Embryonic Area 
(Illus. Did). 
Blastous {blast'-ns). Relating to a blastema. 
Blastzellen [Cler.]. Primitive cells from which are de- 
veloped all other kinds of cells. Tliey are seen in the 
embryo before any beginning of differentiation and are 
characterized by their large size, richness in cytoplasm, 
and large nuclei. 
Blatta. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A clot of blood. Tinc- 
tura Blattarum Orientalium, used in whooping- 
cough. Dose, 1-2 drops in water at intervals of 2 

Bleeders. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Physicians given to 
blooilletting ; aLso professional bloodletters. 

Blenmetrorrtiea {blen-mel-ror-c' -ah). See Mctroblen- 
nori lua (Illus. Diet.). 

Blennisthmia { blen-ist/i'-me-a/i) [.jj/rin, mucus; 
'inihiKi, a throat]. Pharyngeal catarrh. 

Blennocele {b/en'-o-sil ] [,i/trra, mucus; ni/'/.ti, a 
tumor]. Gonorrheal epididymiti-S. 

Blennochesia, Blennochezia ( blcn-o-ke'-ze-ah ) 
[,j/(i'i'n, mucus ; ;f((Tfa', to want to go to stool]. See 
Blcnnenteria (Illus Diet,). 

Blennocystitis {blcH'0-sist-i'-tis\ [.'^^/rrrr, mucus; kigtic, 
bladdei]. Catarrh of the urinar) bladder. 

Blennometrorrhea, Blennometrorrhcea {blen-o-mct- 
ror-t' -all). See Mclroblcnnorrliea (Illus. Diet.). 

Blennophlogisma, Blennophlogosis {blen-ojlo-jis'- 
iiiah, blen-oJlo-go'-sis\ [ji'/trva, mucus; f/6)uc!ir, in- 
flammation]. Inflammation of a nuicosa. 

Blennorrhagia. (See Illus. Diet.) B. analis. See 
J'roctorr/ica (Illus. Diet.). B. arthritica, a dis- 

ease similar to gonorrhea, but attributed tn ^oul. B. 
balani. See Balanitis (Illus. Diet.). B. Balano- 
preputial, gonorrheal balanoposlliitis. B., False, B, 
notha. See Balanitis (Illus. Diet.). B. ocularis. 
See 0/>litlialmia, Gonorr/ical (Ilhis. I)ict. ). B., 
Partial, gonorrhea alTt-cting only a \rA\\ of the urethra. 
B., Pulmonary, B. pulmonum. See Bronchorrhea 
(Illus. I>ict. ). B. rheumatica, that attrilnUed to 
rheumatism. B. sanguinea, gonorrhea with bloody 
discharge. B. scorbutica, that attributed to scurvy. 
B. spuria. See Balanitis (Illus. Diet.). B. syph- 
ilitica, gonorrhea comliined with chancre. B. ure- 
thralis, gonorrhea confined to the urethra. B. ure- 
throvaginal, gonorrhea affecting both the urethra and 
the vagina. 

Blennorrhea, Blennorrhoea. (See Illus. Diet.) 
B., Alveolar, a chronic alTection of the alveolodcnlal 
jHMiosteum resulting in hyjierplasia and suppurative 
degeneration and the loss of the teeth. B., Chronic. 
See Gleet (Illus. Diet.). B. ciliaris, iiitknnination 
of the eyelids and glands opening on the ciliaiy margin. 
B. conjunctivae, intlanniiation of the conjunctiva with 
formation of pus. B. infantum. .See Ophthal- 
mia nconatornm (Illus. Diet.). B. intestini recti. 
See Proctorrhea (Illus. Diet.). B. nasalis, covyza. 
B. neonatorum. See Ophthalmia neena'oi inn (Illus. 
Diet./. B. oculi, purulent ophthalmia. B. oculi 
gonorrhoica, gonorrheal ophtbahnia. B. oculi 
neonatorum, B. purulenta infantum. Sec Ophthal 
mia neonatorum (Illus. Diet.). B., Stoerk's, pro- 
fuse chronic suppuration and consequent hypertrophy 
of the mucosa of the nose, phaiynx, and larynx. B. 
torpida, B. urethralis, B. venerea. See Gleet 
(Illus. Diet.). B. urinalis, vesical catarrh; cy.s- 
tirrhea. B., Venereal. See Gleet (Illus. Diet.). 
B. ventriculi. See Blennemesis (Illus. Diet.). B. 
vesicae, vesical catarrh. 

Blennorrhoic (blen-or-o'-ih). See Blennorrhea/ (Illus. 

Blennostasin {blen-o-sta'-sin). The proprietary name 
for a yellow solid body .said to be cinchonidin hydro- 
bromid, ('|,|lI.^„N.,0(IIBr).;, a nontoxic va.somotor con- 
strictor and blennostatic. It is used in influenza, 
colds, night-sweats, etc. Dose, I-4 gm. ( 15-60 gr.) 
Blennostatic. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. An agent capable 

of suppressing mucous discharges. 
Blennostrumous (hlen-o-stru'-inus). Relating to 

gonorrhea and to scrofula. 
Blennurethria {blen-ii ret-thre-ah) \jQfvva, mucus; 

iii'ia/llliii. the urethra]. Urethral gonorrhea. 
Blennymenerysipelas {blen - e-meii - er - e- sip' -e- las) 




r;3/fi'i'rt, mucus ; iuz/v, membrane ; erysipelas\. Ery- 
sipelas attacking a mucosa. 

Blepharadenitis. (See Illus. Diet.) B. tarsalis. See 
Iloidcoliim (Illus. Diet.). 

Blepharhelosis {^bUf-ar-hel-o'-sis). See Entropion 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Blepharides (litef-ar'-id-ez). V\\i.xa\oi BUpharh (Illus. 

Blepharis. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants 
of the order Acanlhaccu:. B. capensis, a species of 
South Africa ; used in blood-poisoning from anthrax 
and in treatment of snake-bites. Dose, 3-4 Hd. oz. of 
a I : 100 decoction. 

Blepharitis. (See Illus. Diet.) B. angularis. See 
B. intermnrginnlis. B. erysipelatosa, erysipelas 
attacking the eyelids. B. gangraenosa, carbuncle of 
the eyelids. B. glandularis, B. glandulosa, inllani- 
mation of the meibomian glands. B. intermargin- 
alis, irritation of the intermarginal part of the lids due 
to prolonged lacrimatioa and secretion of conjunctival 
inflammation. B. interna, palpebral conjunctivitis. 
B. lymphatica. See B. iiniplex. B. pediculosa. 
See Phthiijiis ciliontni. B. phlegmonosa, inflam- 
mation of the cellular tissue of the eyelid. B. scrofu- 
losa. See B. simplex. B. simplex, mild inflam- 
mation of the borders of the eyelids with formation of 
moist yellow crusts on the ciliary margins, gluing 
together the eyelids. B. squamosa, that attended 
with the formation of scabs. B. variolosa, inflam- 
mation of the skin and subcutaneous ti^-iue of the eye- 
lids accompanying variola. 

Blepharoblennorrhea, Blepharoblennorrhcea {blcf- 
ar-o-blen-or-i^-ah). See Ophtkalntia^ P 11 r uUnit [XWw^, 
Diet.). B. gonorrhoica, B. maligna, gonorrheal 
ophthalmia. B. neonatorum, ophthalmia neonato- 
rum. B. urithritica, gonorrheal ophthalmia. 

Blepharocarcinoma {^blef-ar-o-kLir-sin-o'-iHiih ) \_hhph- 
aroit : i,vi-nu>m,i'\. Carcinoma affecting the eyelid. 

Blepharocatochus l^blef-ar-o-kal-o' -ckiis) \ji'Ai(^af)av , 
the eyelid ; wiro^^of, holding fast]. See Blepharoslat 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Blepharochalasis [hUf-ar-o-kal-a' -sis) \T'iiiiapm\ the 
eyelid; j-a/affir, a slackening]. A method of treating 
trachoma, consisting in excision of oval slices from the 
upper and lower palpebral conjunctiva with incision 
of the outer canthus. 

Blepharoclonus i^blef-ar-o-klo'-nus') [.^^.f^apov, the eye- 
lid ; /./oivir, commotion]. Spasm of the orbicularis 
palpebrarum muscle. 

Blepharocoloboma {blef-ai-o-ioi-o-bo'-mah). See 
CoL>boiii(i pif/p'brur. 

Blepharoconjunctivitis [blef-ar-o-kon-junk-tiv-i'-tis). 
See Conjunctivitis, Palpfbral. 

Blepharoemphysema. See Blepharemphysetna (Illus. 

Blepharohematidrosis [blef-ar-o-hem-al-id-ro'-sis) 

[;3/f Oa/j'ji', the eyelid ; atua, blood; \<^ftbm>, to sweat]. 
The rare occurrence of sweating blood from the skin of 
the eyelid. 

Blepharohyperidrosis (blef-ar-o-hi-piir-iii-ro'-sis) 

[ i/.M:ia/)"(', the eyelid; i'Trip, over; i'S^JWf, sweat]. 
Hyperhidrosis affecting the eyelid. 

Blepharomelasma [bh-f-ar-o-nwl-az'-malt) [i/fOi/pm', 
eyeliil ; lu'/ac, black]. Seborrhoea nigricans occurring 
on the eyelid. 

Blepharomelena (bUf-ay-o-mel-e'-nah). %&& Blephar- 
Ot iironiiiirosis. 

Blepharoncosis [blef-ar-ong-ko'-sis') [fl'.fiSnp'"', the eye- 
lid ; i>)Kor, an enlargement]. The formation of a 
blepharoncus, or the condition of suffering due to such 
a growth. 

Blepharonysis [b/:/-iir-on-is'-is) [ ?/.fOi!por, the eyelid ; 

vionfiv, to prick]. Operation for entropion by means 
of GaiUard's suture. 

Blepharophlegmasia {blef-ar-o-Jieg-ma'-ze-ah). See 
BUpiiori.'ii (Illus. Diet.). 

Blepharophthalmia ( bUf-ar-of-thal' -mc-ah) \ji't,i<^pm\ 
eyelid ; ooHu'/muc, eye]. Combined palpebral and 
ocular conjunctivitis. 

Blepharophthalmic {bUf-ar-of-lliiil'-7nik). Relating 
to the eyelids and the globe of the eye, or to blephar- 

Blepharophthalmostat (bkf-ar-of-lhal'-mo-stal') [/3'f- 
ipai'Uf, the e)elid ; ogfki/.^o^, the eye ; arartKOr, caus- 
ing to stand]. An appliance for holding the eyeball 
and the lids immovable. 

Blepharoplast (^blef -ar-o-plasf) \_^'/.yoapic, a cilium or 
eyelash; -'/.arsctiv, to form]. An individualized cen- 

Blepharorrhaphy. (.See Illus. Diet.) B., Median. 
See:'. Arlt s Tarsoryiiaphy,'\n Operations, Table of. 

Blepharosphincterectomy {blc/-ar-o-sjink-ti</-ek'-to- 
ntf) \_,'i/ iijapoi , the eyelid; trtptyKTf/i), sphincter; eKToui/, 
incision]. An operation to lessen the pressure of the 
upper lid upon the cornea ; it consists in making an in- 
cision the entire length of the lid about 2 mm. above 
the lid border ; by a second incision a small oval flap 
of skin, 2-4 mm. broad, is removed along with all the 
underlying muscle-fibers. The wound is closed with 
two or three sutures. [M. E. Mulder.] 

Blepharosymphysis (blef-ar-o-sim' -Jiz-is). SeeBleph- 
arosynfibia (Illus. Diet.). 

Blepharosyndesmitis {blef-ar-o-sin-des-ini' ■lis') [3/i- 
0*//xM', the eyelid ; oivAtautj^y a bond]. See Conjttne- 
tn-itii. Palpebral. 

Blepharydatis (ble/-a r-id' -it-is) [T/iiiapnv, the eyelid; 
idar/f , a vesicle]. A hydatid affecting the eyelid. 

Bletting (blef-iiig). A transformation of vegetable 
tissue and the assumption of a brown color without 

Blight. (.See Illus. Diet.) 2. A fungus-disease of 
plants. The term was first applied by J. Burrill to a 
disease of apple-trees and pear-trees which he ascribed 
to a bacterium. B., Sandy, a form of ophthalmia at- 
tended with photophobia and a sensation of grittiness 
due to the formation of pus in the openings of the 
meibomian glands. 

Blighted {bli'-ted). Withered, blasted; affected with 

Blindness. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., BIue,acyanopsia ; in- 
abilitv tc) recognize blue, bluish-green, or violet colors. 
B., Bright's, partial orcomplete loss of sight, which may 
be temporary, independent of any change in the optic 
disk or retina ; it is seen in uremia. B., Electric-light, 
a condition similar to snow-blindness due to exposure 
of the eyes to intense and prolonged electric illumina- 
tion. B., Gold, a forrn of retinal asthenopia at times 
affecting dentists, owing to which there is inability to 
distinguish the filling from the tooth. B., Green, ina- 
bility to distinguish green or its complementary color, 
purplish-red. B., Hen, hemeralopia. B., Intellectual, 
B., Mental, inability to interpret visual impressions ' 
with correctness though sight is unimpaired. B., Ner- 
vous. See .^w/(;«r<).t/-( ( Illus. Diet. ). B., Nocturnal, 
hemeralopia. B., Red, B., Red-green. See .hterv- 
t/iropsia (Illus. Diet. ). B., Soul. See A'.. I'iycitie 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Transient, temporary amblyopia. 
B., Violet, inability to distinguish purple from red 
and orange colors. 

Block. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. To obstruct the path of 
all sensor)' impressions in the nerve-trunks and roots in 
the spinal cord which connect the area of surgical op- 
eration with the sensorium. 

Blocking (blok'-ing). F. Franck's term for the transi- 




tory sensory paralysis of tlie entire periph»ral distrihu- 
tion of a nerve Ijy the iiililtralion of the sectional area 
of a nerve-trunk in any part of its course with cocain 
or a similar analgesic. 

Blood. ( Sie lllus. Diet. ) 2. In veterinary practice, to 
hliod. B.,Acid. SeeCV/.</(/</.w/,;(Illus. Diet. ). B.- 
boil. .See llrniiit,>ni,t \ lllus. Diet. ). B.-cell, a liloixl- 
corpnscle. B., Chylous. See /.//»(■«//.;( IHus. Diet.). 
B.-clot, a coaguUnn. B. -clyster, an enema prepared 
from the hlooil of animals and employed in acnle ane- 
mia. B. -coagulation, Hammarsten's Theory of, 
that paraglobulin lakes no part in the process, there being 
only two factors, fibrinogen and fibrin-ferment. The ac- 
tion of the ferment splitsthetibrinogen into fibrin, which 
is insoluble, and into librin globulin, which remains in 
solution. [Raymond.] B. -coagulation, Lilienfeld's 
Theory of, this attributes to the nucleuproleid the 
power of splitting the fibrinogen into globulin and 
thrombosin, which latter unites with lime to form 
fibrin. [R.ayniond.] B. -coagulation, Pekelharing's 
Theory of, supposes that thrombin (the fibrinferuient 
of Schmidt) is composed of nucleoalbumin and calcium 
and that the calcium le,ive< the nucleoproteid and 
unites with fibrinogen, the compound of the two being 
fibrin. The amount of lime being the same in fibrino- 
gen as in fibrin, this theory cannot be sustained. [Ray- 
mond] B. -coagulation, Schmidt's Theory of, the 
proteid now known as paraglobulin, termed by 
Schmidt fibrinoplastin ; this substance, under the inllu- 
ence of fibrin-ferment, was held to enter into combina- 
tion with fibrinogen, the result being fibrin. [Ray- 
mond. ] B. -count, the estim.ation of the number of red 
corpuscles antl leukocytes per cubic centimeter of 
blood. B.-crasis, the mixture of the constituents of the 
blood. B.-cyst. See Ihmaloma and llcmittocth' ( lllus. 
Diet). B.-disc. See B.-filalcht (lllus. Diet.). 
B.-dust. .Synonym of /^vwdA'///,;. B.. Hepatic, that 
of the hepatic vein. B., Inflammatory. See 
Btiffy Coal (lllus. Diet.). B.-iron. See H.-moffr- 
riiin. B., Lake-colored, B., Laky, that in which 
the hemoglobin is free in the serum, the red corpuscles 
being dissolved. B. -lancet, a specially devised in- 
strument for obtaining blood for examination. B. -let- 
ter. See 5/<r</iv ( 2 ) . B. -motes. See //i^moioiiiii. 
B. -murmurs. .See Afiirmiir, //(■/«;'<■ (lllus. Diet.). 
B. -pigments. See Hemoglohin : llemalin : and 
Jlc-malocvaiiiii (lllus. Diet.). B.-rain. See Bacillus 
prodigiosiis, \n BairUria, TaliU of (IWas. Diet.). B.- 
spaces. See Laciimt, Inlen'itloiis (lllus. Diet.). 
B. -stroke, apoplexy. B.-tube. Same as BlooJ- 
Vissfl. B. -vascular, relating to or containing blood- 
vessels. B. -vesicles, the red blood-corpuscles. B., 
White. See A-//,WH.i (lllus. Diet). 

Bloodcorpuscles. (.See lllus. Diet., under Blood and 
under CorpuscUs. ) B., Colorless, B., Pale, B., 
White. See Leiiko ylc : also Cor/'iisclcs, While 
(lllus. Diet.). B., Granular, bodies described by 
Erb in blood of mannnals and supposed to be transi- 
tional blood corpuscles. 

Bloodletting. (See lllus. Diet.) Syn., Blooding. 
B., Revulsive, that performed for arresting internal 
hemorrhage. B., Spoliative, bleeding to reduce the 
number of blo^d-corpuscles. 

Blotch. (See lllus. Diet.) B., Milk-. See Achor 
\ lllus. Diet.). 

Blown. (See lllus. Diet. ) 2. Contaminated with a de- 
posit of ova of flies. 

Blue. (See lllus. Diet. ) B. Spot (of the integument). 
See Sf-ol. 

Boak [--Xr. ]. Leprosy. 

Board of Health. See under Health. 

Boas Stool-sieve. See Stool-sieve. 

Boasi. Surinam name for leprosy. 

Boast [.\ngola name]. An ulceration occurring in ele- 
Bocca-root {J>ok'-ah-rut'). See under Tiibenupmoit- 

Bocconia (ioi-o'-ne-ah) [5. Paul Boceoni, an Italian 
botanist (1633-1704)]. .\ genus of plants of the or- 
der Pa^'iverateie. B. frutescens, L., a native of the 
West Indies ; the juice is purgative and anthelmintic. 

Bocyl (lio'-sil\. A mouth-wash consisting of an alcoholic 
solution of boric and cinnaniic acids. 

Bodik. .\ Malay liquor made from rice. 

Body. (See lllus. Diet.) 3. .'V mass of matter. B., 
Adenoid. I. The prostate. 2. A melanotic tumor. 
B.. Adrenal. See Cafisule, Sufraniinl (\\\ui.. Diet). 
B.,Alloxur. See under .-///<i.r«;-. B.s, Amylaceous, 
B., Amyloid, a term applied by Virchow (1856) to 
bodies found in the central nervous system of adults 
and young people dying of various diseases (not alone 
diseases of the nervous system). They are concen- 
trically striated, stain deep brown with l.ugol's .solu- 
tion, blue with iodin and sulfuric acid, and give the 
characteristic amyloid color with the anilin stains. 
B.. Anococcygeal, a mass of fibrous and muscular 
tissues hing between the anus and tip of the coccyx. 
B., Antiimmune, a substance held by Khrlich in his 
lateral chain theory to enter into the composition of an 
antihemolysin [g, 7'.). Cf. Anlieompleiitent. B., 
Arantius'. See Cor/o/vj .^/v?/;//'/ (lllus. Diet. ). B., 
Axile. See Corpuscle, Axile. B.s, Babes-Ernst's, 
binlies found in biicteria, especially iho.-e derived from 
animal bodies or secretions ; they are sup|)ose<l to be 
condensations of the enchromalic substances of the 
bodies of bacteria. B., Bence Jones', peculiar bodies, 
consisting of albumose, found in the urine in certain 
affections of the bone-marrow, especially neoplasms. 
B., Bigeminal. See Cvr/ora quadrigemiiut (Ilius. 
Diet. ). B., Bigeminal, Anterior, the anterior pair of 
tlu- (|uadrigeminal bodies. B., Blackwell, a special 
form of sensory nerve termination in epidermal tissues. 
B., Browne's, a special variety of sensory nerve ter- 
mination in epidermal tissue. B.s, Buchner's Albu- 
minoid, defensive proteids (</. v.). B., Callous. See 
Corpus callvfuiii (lllus. Diet.). B.s, Catalytic, the 
ferments. B. -cavities. See Spaces, IiUcrincsoblaslie 
(lllus. Did. ). B. -cavity. See Celoma (lllus. Diet.). 
B.s, Central, peculiar corpuscles, which are perma- 
nently present near the nucleus in protoplasm during 
cell-division. B., Central, the nucleus. B.s, Chro- 
matin, bodies of various fonns found in the retifulum 
of a cell undergoing mitosis. B., Ciliary, the ciliary 
'.nuscle and processes. B., Colostrum. See Colostrum 
Corpuscles (lllus. Diet. 1. B., Coming down of the, 
prolapse of the rectum. B., Concentric. See Ilassall, 
Concentric Corpuscles of (\\\ui. Diet.). B., Crystal- 
line. See /..njc, 0:r.t/«///;/<' illlus. Diet. 1. B., Den- 
tate, the olive. B.s, Direction or Directive, the 
minute abortive cells extruded by the egg-cell as the 
final phenomenon in the ]irocess of maturation ; polar 
bodiis. B., Embryoplastic. See Cells, Embryof'laslic. 
B., Fallingof the, prolapse of the rectum. B., Fibro- 
plastic. See Cells, Embryoplastic. B., Fimbriated. 
See Corpus fimbriatum (lllus. Diet.). B., Foreign, a 
bodv which has gained entrance to the organism from 
without and which is likely to be a source of irritation. 
B.s, Fuchsin, B.s, Fuchsinophil. See under 
/■uehsii! (lllus. Diet.). B., Ganglionic, nerve-cells. 
B., Geniculate. See Corpora -cn'cii'iifa and (ieiiicu- 
late Bodies [\\\wi.\y\c\..). B., Geniculate. External. 
See Pres:cnieulum (lllus. Diet.). B., Geniculate, 
Inner. See Post'^eniculum (lllus. Diet.). B., Genic- 
ulate, Internal. See Postgeniculum (lUus. Diet.). 




B., Geniculate, Outer. See Prii^enictiluiii (Illus. 
Diet. I. B.s, Guarnieri's Vaccine. See Cytorvilcs. 
B.s, Hassall's. See H.iriiiU's CorfiiscUs (Illus. 
Diet). B., Highmore's. i^i:e Corpus hightiiorianum 
(Illus. Diet. ). B., Hoggan, a special variety of 
sensor)' ner\'e tenninatioii in epidermal tissues. B., 
Hyaloid. See Vitifoiis Humor (Illus. Diet. i. B., 
Immune, a name given by Pfeifter to one of the two 
substances of a hemolytic serum. It is thermostabile 
and has two affinities, a stronger one for the red blood- 
cell and a weaker one for the complement. Having 
two uniting processes, it is an amboceptor. B., In- 
nominate, of Giraldes. See Gira'densian Organ 
(Illus. Diet. I. B., Intercarotic, the aggregation of 
bloodvessels, nerves, and ganglia lying between the in- 
ternal and e.\ternal carotid arteries. B., Interme- 
diary, B., Intermediate. See B., Immune; and 
Amhoccplor. B., Intravertebral, the centrum of a 
vertebra. B.s, Joint. Isee Arlhrolilli. B.s, Lalle- 
mand-Trousseau's, gelatinous masses found in the 
secretions of the seminal vesicles. B.s, Landolt's, 
small, elongated, clavate bodies lying between the rods 
and cones and resting upon the outer nuclear layer of 
the retina. B.s, Langerhans', the centroacinous cells 
of the pancreas. B., Laveran's. See Pliismodiuni 
malarite (Illus. Diet. . B. of Lays. See Liiys' 
Body (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Malpighi's. See under 
Malpighian (VAws. V)\iA.). B.s, Meissner's. See 
Corpuscles, Tactile, of Wagner (Illus. Diet. i. B., 
Melon-seed. See .4r,'kolilli. B.s, Metachromatic. 
See B.s, Babes-Ernst's. B., Muriform. See Morula 
(Illus. Diet.). B.s, Nissl's, chromopliil corpuscles. 
The chromophilic bodies of a nerve-cell ; finely gran- 
ular bodies, of various sizes and shapes, brought out 
between the eytoreticulum by staining with Xissl's 
stain ( metliylene-blue). Syn. , Tigroid masses. B., 
Oken's. See .lV<'io«t-M/-o.c (Illus. Diet. ). B.s, Oli- 
vary. See under Oli<'e. B.s, Olivary, Accessory. 
See Olives, Accessory, External and Internal. B., 
Optostriate, tiie thalamus and striate body taken as 
one. B.s, Organic, compounds of animal or vegelal 
origin. B.s, Organized, organisms. B.s, Pacchi- 
onian. See Pacchionian B.s (Illus. Diet.). B.s, 
Pacinian. See Corpu:cles, Pacinian (Illus. Diet. i. 
B., Papillary, the papillary layer of the skin. B.s, 
Parenchymal, the lobules of the lacrimal gland. B., 
Perforate, Intermediate. See Space, Posterior Per- 
Joi-ated (\\\ui. Diet.'. B.s, Perles' Anemia. See 
under /V/-/t'j\Il]us. Diet. 1. B., Pineal. See Epiphysis 
(Illus. Diet. ). B., Pituitary. See //i'/i>/-^/«> (Illus. 
Diet.). B.s, Plimmer's, intracellular bodies observed 
by Plimmer in cancerous tissue. B.s, Polar. See 
Polar Globules { Illus. Diet. ). B., Postpyramidal, 
the posterior pyramid. B., Prepyramidal, the anterior 
pyramid. B., Psalloid. See Lvra of the Fornix 
(Illus. Diet. ). B., P3Tamidal, an eminence on the 
interposterior surface of the fibroeellular and adipose 
plantar cushion in the Equidic. B., Restiform. See 
under Restiform (Illus. Diet.). B., Rhomboid, the 
fourth ventricle. B., Rosenmiiller's, the parovarium. 
B.s. Russell's. See Fuchsin Bodies (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Sand. See Corpora arenacea. B.-sarcode, the 
protoplasm of the cell-body. B., Semilunar. See 
Cell, Demilune (Illus. Die't.). B., Striated. See 
Corpus striatum (Illus. Diet.). B., Suprarenal. 
See Capsules, Suprarenal (Illus. Diet.). B., Thyroid, 
the thyroid gland. B.s, Touch-. See Corpuscles, 
7(7</// (Illus. Diet. ). B., Trapezoid. See Trapeziuoi 
(2) (Illus. Diet. 1. B.s, Turbinal, B.s, Turbinated, 
the turbinal bones with their covering of vascular mu- 
cosa. B.s, Vaccine. See Cytoryctes. B.s, Virchow- 
Hassall's. See IlassalT s Corpuscles (Illus. Diet.). 

B., Vitreous. See I'itreous Humor (Illu-.. Diti. j. 
B.s, Winkler's, s|>ln:ric bodies ob.ser\-ed in lesions of 
syphili-. B., Wolffian. See under If'olffian (Illus. 
Diet. ). B., Yellow, See Corpus luteum (Illus. 
Diet. ). 

Boeck's Lotion. For dry, itching, inflammatorj' dis- 
eases. Talc and starch, each 50; glycerol, 20; lead- 
water, 100. The bottle to be well shaken ; the lotion 
diluted with twice the volume of water and applied 
with a brush. 

Boil. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Blind, one of brief con- 
tinuance and not attended by the fonnation of a core. 
B., Blood-. See Hematoma (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Bulam. Seeunder A//(/«/ (Illus. Diet.). B., Cat-. 
See />., Blind. B., Gum. See Abscess, Alveolar. 
B., "Wasp's-nest. See Furunculus vespajus. 

Bolbomelanosis (bol-bo-mel-an-o'-sis) [iio'/.fiur, a bulb ; 
/iF/ni-uija, blackness]. The process of formation of a 

Bole. (See Illus. Diet.) B., \Vhite, a white clay com- 
posed mainly of aluminium silicate. 

Boletate (bo'-let-dt). A salt of lx>letic acid. 

Boletic (lio-let'-ik). Relating to or derived from the 
genus Boletus. 

Boletiform [bo-let' -e-forni). Shaped like a mush- 

Boletivorous (bo-let-ii/ -or-us) [Boletus; vorare, to 
devour]. Subsisting on fungi. 

Boliformin (bol-e-form'-inu A compound of formal- 
dehyd and aluminium silicate occurring as a whitish- 
gray powder ; it is used as a dusting-powder. 

Bollingera {bol-in'-jer-a/i) ^Bollinger, the discoverer]. 
A genus of bacteria. See Bacteria, Table of (Illus. 

Bolometer [bo-lom' -et-ur) \_M'/li, a throw ; ftirpoi; 
measure]. A device for measuring minute differences 
in radiant heat. Syn., Thermic balance. 

Bolus. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A mass of masticated 
food ready to swallow. B. alba. See Bole, llVtite. 
B. hystericus. See Globus hystericus (Illus. Diet.) 

Bombate, Bombiate (bom' -bat, bom'-be-al). A salt of 
bombic acid. 

Bonducin (/>o«'-fl'«-«'«). CjjHijOj. A bitter principle 
from bonduc seeds; a white powder soluble in alcohol, 
chloroform, fats, and oils, used as a febrifuge. Dose, 
0.1-0.2 gm. n.5-3gr.). 

Bone. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Acetabular. See B., 
Cotyloid. B., Adgustal, Li. St. Ililaire's name for 
tlie pterj'goid bone of (Jwen in fishes. B., Adnasal, 
G. St. Hilaire's name forOwen's premaxillary bone of 
fishes. B., Adorbital. i. See Lacrymal Bone (Il- 
lus. Diet.). 2. 'The malar bone in fishes. B.s, 
Air-. See B.s, Pneumatic. B., Alisphenoid, in 
comparative anatomy a cartilage lying anterior to 
the auditor)' capsule and corresponding to the greater 
wing of the spI»enoid in man. B., Angular, in 
comparative anatomy one that aids in the formation 
of the lower and back part of the mandible. Syn., 
Operculoangular bone. B., Ankle-. See Astragalus 
(Illus. Diet^^. B., Antor'oital. See B., Suborbital. 
B., Apohyal, G. St. Ililaire's name for the eeratohyal 
bone of mammals. B., Articular. I. That element 
of the mandible or lower jaw which is formed from the 
condylar portion of the cartilaginous rudiment in 
Meckel's cartilage. Syn., Os articulare ; Os condyloid- 
eum vifixillie infcrioris ; Os articulaire, submalleal 
(in fishes), .tK(i;-////rt/(incrocodile). 2. That portion of 
the osseous tissue of a bone which lacks haversian 
canals and lies immediately beneath the articular carti- 
lage. B.s, Asymmetric, bones lying on one side 
of the median plane of the bodv and not divided by it 
into two equal parts. B., Back-, the vertebral col- 




umn. B., Bar, the pubic bone. B., Basal. See 
B., BiisisflicitciJ ; and />. , Buiioccifital. B., Basi- 
branchiostegal. See /?. , ^ Vc/; iv;/. B., Basidigital, 
a iiaiiif lor llic metacarpal and metatarsal buiies licc.iuse 
tliey lie at tlie liase ui the plialan!,'es. B., Basihyal. 
See' Basihyal (lUus. Diet.). B., Basilar. I. The 
splienoid and occipital bones rej^ardcd as one. 2. The 
sacrum. 3. llie last lumliar vertebra. 4. The basi- 
occipital bone. 5. The basisphenoid bone in birds. 
B., Basioccipital, tlie basilar part of the occipital 
bone. B., Basioccipitosphenoidal. ^ccB..Paru- 
ipluiiiiiil. B., Basipresphenoid, in comparative 
anatomy a bone resiillinj; from tlie junction of the l)asi- 
sphenold and presplienoid bones. B., Basisphenoid. 
I. In lunnan embryoloijy, that part of the splienoid 
bone from which the posterior |)art of its body and the 
sella turcica originate. 2. In comparative anatomy, a 
cartilage bone lying between tlie liasioccipital and 
presplienoid bones. B., Basitemporal. I. A mem- 
brane bone underlying the ba^ispheniild and a part of 
the basioccipital bones In birds. 2. The lingula of the 
sphenoid. B.s, of Berlin. See B.s, Splunoiilal 
TarhiiiaUd (\\\\\>. Diet. I. B., Blade, the scapula. 
B., Boat-like, llie scapliold bone. B., Breast-, tlie 
sternum. B., Calf-, the libula. B., Canal-, tlie 
clavicle. B., Cancellated, B., Cancellous, bone 
consisting clilelly of spongy tissue. B., Cannon-. See 
Caniiiiii/hntc (illus. Diet.). B.s, Cartilage, those 
having intracartilaginous ossification. B., Cavalry, a 
calcllicalion of the tendon of the adductor ni.agnus 
muscle of riders. B., Ceratobranchial, the bone of 
a branchial arch situated between the hypobrancliial 
and the cpibranchial bones. B., Ceratohyal. I. The 
epihyal bone of mammals. 2. In comparative anat- 
omy, one corresponding to the lesser cornu of the hyold 
bone in man B., Channel, the clavicle. B., Cheek-, 
the malar bone. B.s, Chevron. See Cliivron-ln»ii's 
(Illus. IJict. ). B. -chips. See Sennas Bone Plalis 
(Illus. Diet.). B.s, Chondrogenous. '&ee Car/ilage 
Bones (Illus. Diet.). B., Cloacal, one in fishes 
running from the symphysis ischii to the ventral 
wall of the clo.aca. B., Cockal, the astragalus. 
B., Coffin, the ungual phalanx of .sollpeds. B., Col- 
lar-, the clavicle. B., Coracoid, an independently 
ossified element of the ventral portion of the shoulder 
girdle. In reptiles it Is usually broad and often fenes- 
trated (lizards), and is connected by a ligament at the 
cartilaginous end with the precoracold (turtles). In 
crocodiles, together with the scapula it makes up the 
shoulder girdle. In birds it is strong and united to the 
curved scapula at the glenoid cavity. Among mam- 
mals it is complete only among monotreiiies ; in the 
others its only vestige Is the process (coracoid 1 of the 
scapula in front of the glenoid process. B., Coronal, 
the frontal bone. B., Coronary, In veterinary anat- 
omy the mitldle phalan.x of the iiiamis. B., Coronoid. 
I. In comparative anatomy a bone on the Inner aspect 
of the mandible, corresponding to the coronoid ])rocess 
of the inferior maxilla of man. 2. The supraaiigular 
bone. B., Cotyloid, in lower vertebrates a Utile bone 
in the .acetabulum lying next to the os pubis. B.s, 
Covering. See Memhraite-tHmes (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Coxal, the coccyx and ilium. B., Crazy. See Funny 
Bone (Illus. Diet.). B., Cribriform, the ethmoid 
bone. B., Cross, the .sacrum B., Crow-beak, the 
coracolil bone. B. -crumb. See Giii>!ii/,s, Osseons. 
B., Crupper, the coccyx. B., Cuneiform, Great, 
or Large, the middle cuneiform bone of sollpeds. B., 
Cuneiform, Small, In veterinary anatomy a bone 
located on the inner side of the tarsus and a represen- 
tative of the union of the Internal and middle cunei- 
form bones of man. B.s, Cylindrical. See B.s, 

Long. B.s, Dermal, (Owen's name for bones belong- 
ing to the cutis and which are ossifications of it. B., 
Dermalethmoid, B., Ectethmold, B., Ectoeth- 
moid. See />'., Piefronlal. B., Ectocuneiform. 
See /)'., CiDiiiform, Exlernat illlus. Diet.). B., 
Ectopterygoid, in comparative anatomy a bone ex- 
tending from the superior maxilla to the pterygoid 
bone. B., Ell, the ulna. B.s, Elongated, long 
bones, like the ribs, devoid of a medullar)- cavliy. B., 
Endochondral, such true bone as originates from 
osteoblastic centers in fetal cartilage, and not from 
periosteum. B., Entocuneiform, the iniernal cunei- 
form bone. B., Entoglossal, the glossoliyal bone. 
B., Entohyal. St:eB., G/osso/tya/. B., Entoptery- 
goid. In comparative anatomy a thin layer of bone 
lying against the inner borders of the palatine and 
pterygoii.1 bones. B.s, Epibranchial, several small 
bones lying between the ceratt)h)-al and the superior 
pliaryngeal bones and extending horizontally from the 
margins of the latter. B., Epiceratohyal. See B., 
RpiliViil. B., Epihyal, in comparative anatomy a 
small bone situated between the ceratohyal and stylo- 
hyal bones. B., Epiotic. I. An embryonic cartilage 
bone corresponding t»> the lower portion ol the mastoid 
process of the temporal bone. 2. In comjjarative 
anatomy, a bone forming the posterointernal portion of 
the auditory capsule. B., Epipterygoid, In compara- 
tive anatomy a slender bone lying anterior to the outer 
side of the prootic bone and articulating with the 
latter and with the pterygoid bone. B.s. Epipubic. 
'^HK B.s, Marsupial. B., Episternal. I. The urohyal 
bone. 2. The interclavlcle. 3. "^i^^t B., Sttprasternal. 
B., Ethmoid, Lateral. See B., Piefionlal. B.s, 
Ethmoturbinal, the lateral masses of the ethmoid 
bone. B., Exercise, an ossification occurring in the 
left arm of soldiers and attributed to constant pressure 
of a musket upon it. B., Exoccipital, a cartilage 
bone forming in the fetus the side of the loramcn mag- 
num and the occipital condyle of the occipital bone. It 
unites with the occipital bone about the sixth year, but in 
many of the lower vertebrates It remains distinct through 
life. B., Extrascapular. See B., .Siipiasiapiilar. 
B., Face, the malar bone. B., Falciform, in the mole 
and allied mammals a falcate sesamoid bone situated on 
the radial side of the manus. B.s, Flat, bones in which 
the length and breadth exceed the thickness. B., Fore- 
head. See B., Frontal. B., Fork. See B., Fiir- 
enlar. B., Frontal, Anterior. See B., Prefrontal. 
B., Frontal. Posterior. .See B., Postjrontal. B., 
Frontonasal. See B.. X.tsal (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Frontoparietal, one formed by the junction of the 
frontal and parietal bones. B., Furcular, the united 
clavicles of a bird ; the wish-bone. B., Hamate. See 
B., Uneiforni (Illus. Diet.). B., Hammer. See 
Malleus (Illus. Diet.). B., Haunch. .See .Mteli- 
bone. B., Heart. See Os cordis. B., Heel, the 
calcaneum. B., Hip-. See B., Innominate (Illus. 
Dicl.l. B., Hook. See B., Uneiforni (\\\\ii. Diet.). 
B., Huckle-. I. The astragalus. 2. The coccyx. B., 
Hyomandibular, in certain fishes the uppermost bone 
in llie manillbulatory su.spensorlum, representing the 
incus of higher vertebrates. B.. Hyosternal. See 
B., Ceintolnal. B., Hypohyal, the body of the hyold 
bone. B.. Hyposternal. See B., Epihyal. B., 
Hypotympanic. See Quadrate (2) (Illus. Diet.!. 
B., Hypsiloid. 1. See jS., //iw,/ ( Illus. Diet. ). 2. 
In ihe plural, the last coccygeal vertebras, on account 
of their (J shape. B., Iliac, the ilium. B. of the In- 
cas, the interparietal bone when It persists through life 
as a distinct bone. B., Incisive, B., Incisor. See />'., 
/nterma.rillarv. B., Infraorbital, in coni])arative anat- 
omy one forming an arch on the lower rim of the orbit. 




B., Ingrassial, ihe orbitosphenoid bone in fislies. B., 
Interclavicular. See /K/evr/a-vWi' | Illus. Diet. ). B., 
Intercuneiform, an inconstant bone in tlie human 
loot occupying a lossa between the proximal ends of tile 
internal and middle cuneiform bones, where they rest 
against the scaphoid. B., Interhyal. See /?., 
SlvUthviiI. B., Interischial, the tuberosity of the 
ischium when it preserves its distinctness through life. 
B., Intermaxillary, a bone of the middle front part 
of the upper jaw and becoming fused with it in adult 
life; in many of the lower vertebrates it remains dis- 
tinct, or, uniting with its mate of the opposite side, 
forms one bone bearing the incisor teeth. B., Inter- 
parietal, in tlie fetus tlie tabular part of the occipital 
bone, sometimes persisting thr».)ugh life as a distinct 
bone. B., Intestinal, the ilium. B.s, Investing. 
See i'L-mbrane-boiu illlus. Diet.). B.s, Irregular, 
those of such irregular shape that they cannot be classed 
as long, flat, etc. B., Jaw-, Upper. See Maxilla, 
Superior (Ilhrs. Diet.). B., Jugal. See B., Lacry- 
«;,r/(Illus. Diet.). B., Jugular, B., Key, the clavi- 
cle. B., Knuckle, the coccyx. B., Lacrimal, 
Lesser, the unciform process of the lacrimal bone ar- 
ticulating with the superior maxilla when it persists 
through life unconnected with the lacriinal bone. B., 
Lambdoid. See B., In/erf>,iri,/a/. B., Lenticular. 
See B., Orbiiitlar. B., Lepidoid, the stjuamous por- 
tion of the temj3i>ral bone. B.s, Lid. See Membrane- 
boiie (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Ligament. .See B.s, 
SisamoiJ (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Long, those in which 
the length greatly exceeds the breadth, and which are 
furnished with a medullary canal. B., Lower Jaw. 
.See /)'., Mixi/lary, Inferior (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Lunar, B., Lunate. See j^., .S'tv«/7;/«<z; (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Mandible, B., Mandibular, B., Mandibulary. 
See B., Maxillary, //zA/vo/- (Illus. Diet. ). B., Man- 
ual Exercise. See B., Exercise. B.s, Marsupial, 
B.s, Prepubic, two slightly curved bones articulating 
with the anterior margins of the pubic bones and di- 
verging into the layers of the abdominal parietes. They 
occur in the Alarsupialia. B., Mastoid. I. The 
.squamosal bone. 2. The epiotic bone. 3. The hyo- 
mandibular bone. 4. The opistholic bone. B., Mas- 
totympanic. See B., Prootic. B., Maxillary 
Turbinated. %ee B., Maxillolurbinal. B., Maxil- 
lojugal. See Maxilla, Superior (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Maxilloturbinal, in comparative anatomy the homo- 
log of the inferior turbinated bone of man. B.s, 
Membrane. See under Membrane (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Mentomeckelian, in some lower vertebrates a 
bony nodule lying beside the symphysis menti. B., 
Mesethmoid. See .Meselhmoiii (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Mesocuneiform, the middle cuneiform bone. B., 
Mesopterygoid. See B., Entoplerygoid. B., 
Mesotympanic. See B., Symplectic. B., Meta- 
carpal, Principal, in veterinary anatomy the larger of 
the two metacarpal bones. B.s, Metaplastic. See 
B., Periosteal. B., Midfrontal. See B., Frontal 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Midjaw. See P., IiiteniiaxiUary. 
B., Multiform, the si>henoid bone. B., Nasoturbi- 
nal, in comparative anatomv the rejiresentative of the 
superior turbinated of the ethmoid in man. B., 
Navicular, in veterinary anatomy a sesamoid bone in 
the tendon of the flexor digitorum profundus behind 
the third phalanx. B.s, Nonpneumatic, bones c<m- 
taining no air-sacs. B.. Occipital, External. I. The 
opistholic bone. 2. The exoccipiial bone. B., Occi- 
pital, Inferior. See B., Basioccipital. B., Occi- 
pital, Lateral. I. See P.. Exoeeipital. 2. See B., 
Epiotic. B., Occipital, Pneumatic, Hyrtl's name 
for an inconstant ossicle situated at the occipital inser- 
tion of the rectus capitis lateralis muscle and communi- 

cating with the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. 
B., Occipital, Superior. See P., Supraoeeipital. 
B., Odontoid, the odontoid process of the axis when 
it is a distinct bone. B., Olfactory. I. The ethmoid. 
2. See Mesettunoid illlus. Diet.). B., Operculo- 
angular. See B., Angular. B, Opistholic, a bone 
in some of the lower vertebrates forming the postero- 
ventral part of the auditory capsule and represented in 
the human subject by the lower part of the petrosa, the 
fenestra rotunda, and the inferior half of the fenestra 
ovalis. B., Orbicular, the orbicular process of the 
incus, represented in some ot the lower vertebrates by a 
small bony disc attached to the long crus of the incus. 
Syn., B., Lenticular, Lcnticitlus. B., Orbitosphenoid, 
in comparative anatomy a bone situated above and ante- 
rior to the optic foramen, a homolog of the lesser wing 
of the sphenoid in man. Syn., /ngrassial l>one\niishes. 
B., Otocranial, Anterior. See P., Prootic. B., Oto- 
cranial, Posterior. See B., Opistholic. B., Oto- 
cranial, Superior. See B., Epiotic. B.s, Over- 
lapping. See Membrane-bone (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Palatal, B., Palatine. See P., Palate [IWM'i. Diet.). 
B., Palatomaxillary, in comparative anatomy one 
formed by the junction of the palate bone and the 
upper jaw. B., Palatopterygoid, in comparative 
anatomy one formed by the junction of the palate bone 
with the pterygoid. B., Papyraceous, the ethmoid 
bone. B., Parasphenoid, B., Parasphenoidal, a 
long membrane bone found at the base of the skull in 
some of the lower vertebrates. In the bulk of the 
fishes and .Amphibia forming the chief i)art of the base 
of the skull, and apparently replacing in function the 
basisphenoid and presphenoid bones. In higher ver- 
tebrates it is often confused with the basisphenoid bone. 
B., Parethmoid. See B., Ethmoturbinal. B., 
Paroccipital. See B., Epiotic. B., Pastern. -See 
under /'astern (Illus. Diet.). B., Pastern, Small, 
in veterinary anatomy the middle phalanx of the nianus. 
B., Pea-shaped. See P., Pisiform illlus. Diet.). 
B., Pedal, in veterinary anatomy the third distal pha- 
lanx of the inanus. B., Pelvic, Anteroventral, the 
OS pubis. B., Penial, a membrane bone occunring in 
the septum of the penis of some mammals. B., Per- 
iosteal. See under Periosteal (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Periotic, one formed by the junction of the epiotic, 
prootic, and opistholic bones and repre.senling the 
petrosa and mastoid portion of the temporal bone in 
man. B., Peroneal, the hbula. B., Petromastoid. 
See P., Periotic. B., Petrosal. See wwtXex Petrosal 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Petrotympanic. See P., Tym- 
panoperiotic. B., Ploughshare. I. Applied to the 
vomer, from its sha]ie. 2. See /Vi.'r>.i/r/t' (Illus. Diet. ). 
B., Pneumatic, those containing many air-eells or 
air-sacs. B., Postfrontal, B., Postorbital, in com- 
parative anatomy a membrane bone lying dorsad to the 
orbit and above the alisphenoid bone. B., Posttem- 
poral. See P., Suprascapular. B., Precoracoid. 
I. A bony nodule lying anterior to the ventral end of 
the coracoid bone. [Gegenbaur. ] 2. The coraeoid 
process of the scapula. [Sabatier.] B., Prefrontal, in 
comparative anatomv a bone Iving in front of the nasal 
capsule and bounding the exit of the olfactory nerve 
externally ; the united prefrontal bones of the lower 
vertebrates are represented in man by the ]3erpendicu- 
lar plate of the ethmoid. B., Prefrontonasal, one 
formed bv the junction of the prefrontal and nasal 
bones. B., Premaxillary. See P., Intermaxillary. 
B., Prenasal, one located at the anterior end of the 
pig's nasal se|)tum and inclvided in the cartilage run- 
ning around the nostrils. B., Preorbital. See B., 
Suborbital. B., Presphenoid, in comparative anatomy 
a bone found at the base of the skull articulating an- 




teriorly wilh the mescllinioid bone and the vomer, and 
posteriorly witli the basisphcnoid bone ; it is represent- 
ed in man by that iJart of the body of the sphenoid 
lying in front of the lesser sphenoid and the olivary 
eminence. Syn., /imi/uioiJei. B., Primitive Key. 
See A, Piciroiacoii/. B.s, Primordial. Sec ('.//- 
Iila-;e Bones (Illiis. Diet.). B., Prootic, in compara- 
tive anatomy one forming the anteroventral part of the 
auditory capsule and corresponding to the upper part 
of the petrosa, a part of the mastoid process of the 
temporal lione, and the greater part of the labyrinth in 
man. B., Propeller. .See B., Innoiiiiintlc (IlUis. 
Diet.). B., Pterotic, in comparative auatomy a small 
inconstant bunc situated between the jirootic and epi- 
otic bones on the iipi)er and external sitlc of the auditory 
capsule. B., Pterygoid, in comparative anatomy a 
bone running from the palatine to the ijuadrate regions 
and in man represented by the internal pterygoid plate 
of the sphenoid. B., Puboischiadic, B., Pubois- 
chiatic, the os pubis and the isciiium taken as one. 
B., Pyramidal. See B., Cuneiform (lllus. Diet.). 
B., Quadrate. See ^«(;,/nj/t- (2) (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Quadratojugal, in comparative anatomy a bone run- 
ning backward from the malar bone to the quadrate. 
It is represented in man by the zygomatic process of 
the temporal Ijone. B., Raven. See />'. , Corueoid. 
B.s, Rickety, those of rachitic subjects, deficient in 
earthy matter. B, Rider's. See />'. , Ci/tw/ri'. B.s, 
Roof, membrane bmies. B., Rooting-. Sec B., 
I'reniis.i/. B., Rudimentary Metacarpal, in veteri- 
nary anatomy two small bones shaped like an inverted 
pyramid on the inner anil outer sides of the posterior 
surface i>f the chief metacarpal bone ; they are the rudi- 
ments of the metacar|)al Ijones of man. Syn., Sf>lint 
/loiiis. B., Rump. I. The coccyx. 2. The sacrum. 
B., Scaphocuboid, a bone formed by the union of the 
scaphoid and cuboid bones. B., Scapholunar, a 
bone formed by the union of the scaphoid and semilu- 
nar bones. B.s, Scleral. See B.s, Deniutl. B., 
Sclerogenous. See Membrane-bone (Illus. Diet.). 
B.s. Sclerosteous. See B.s, Sesitmoiil (\\\\i^. Diet.). 
B., Sclerotal, B., Sclerotic, in some of the lower 
vertebrates the bony plates found in the sclera of the 
eye. B., Scooping. Seej5., Prenasa!. B., Seat. 
See Isehiitm (Illus. Diet.). B.s, Secondary. See 
JMenibraiie-bone (Illus. Diet.). B. -segment, a 
sclerotoma. B., Septal, in some vcrtelirates the ossi- 
fication occiuTing in the ventricular septum of the heart. 
B., Septomaxillary, in manvc)f the lower vertebrates 
a bony plate or nodule alt.iched to the side of ihe nasal 
septum near its anterior end. B., Sesamoid, Small, 
the n.avicuKar bone of the horse. B., Share, i. The 
ilium. 2. The OS pubis. B. -shave, femoropopliteal 
neuralgia. B., Shin, the tibia. B.s, Short, those in 
which the length does not exceed the breadth in a 
marked degree. B.s, Skin. See B.s, Dermal. B., 
Sieve-like, the ethmoid bone. B., Sling, the astrag- 
alus. B., Sphenoid, Posterior. .See B., Bnsi- 
s/>/ieii,vJ. B., Sphenotic. See B., Posl/'ron/a/. B., 
Splanchnic, tho-.e developed within the visceral tis- 
sues. B., Splenial. I. In comparative anatomy one 
found on the inner surface of the mandible between 
the angular and dentary bones. B.s, Splint. See 
B.s, Melaearf^al, Pmiimenlary. B., Splinter, the 
fibula. B., Spoke, the radius. B.s, Spongy. See 
/>'..(, Caneclloiis; and />. f, Turbinate (Ilius. Diet. I. 
B., Spongy, Inferior, the inferior turbinate bone. B., 
Squamomastoid, one formed by the junction of the 
squamous and mastoid bone.s. B., Squamosal, B., 
Squamous, in comparative anatomy a scale-like bone 
situated above and anterior to the auditory capsule 
representing the squamous part of the temporal bone 

an<l the zygomatic process in man. B., Squamoso- 
parietal, one formed by the junction of the squamous 
and parietal bones. B., Squamosotympanic, one 
formed by the union of the si.iuaniosal and tvmpanic 
Viones. B., Square. See ('«.:</'/ </A- (2) (lllus. Diet.). 
B., Stirrup. See .S/,;A\s (Illus. Diet.). B., Stylo- 
hyal, in comparative anatomy a slentler bone connect- 
ing the hyoitl ajiparatus with the skull aiul represented 
in man by the styloid process of the temporal bone. 
B.s, Subcaudal. Skk B.s, Clirrron. B.s, Subder- 
mal, membrane bones. B., Subjugal. .See />'., 
i>iipraan:;iiiar. B., Suboccipital. .See B., Basi- 
oecipiltit. B., Suborbital, in comparative anatomy 
the largest of the bones et)nq>osing the infraorbital ring, 
represented in man by the lacrimal bone. B.s, 
Superadded. See Membrane-bone (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Supercarpal, the pisiform bone of the horse. B., 
Superficial Ethmoid. See B., Prefrontal. B., 
Supermaxillary, the -su|)erior maxilla. B.s, Super- 
numerary, sucli as arise from independent osteoblastic 
centers and fail to fuse with contiguous masses in the 
normal way. as the parietal bones at the lambda. B., 
Superorbital. See B., Supraorbital. B., Supra- 
angular, in lower vertebrates a bone lying on the outer 
side ami dorsal margin of the mandible. B., Supra- 
clavicular, in some of the lower vertebrates a slender 
biiue articulating with the eoracf)id bone and with the 
suprascapular. B., Supraethmoid, in comparative, 
anatomy a bone s^imelinies overlying the upper part of 
the nasal ca|)sule. B., Supraoccipital, B., Surocci- 
pital, the squamous pari of the occii)ital bone. B., 
Supraorbital, in some of the vertebrates a bene form- 
ing the rim of the orbit. B.s, Supraorbital, one or 
two rows of bones C(»mposing the rim ol the orbit. B., 
Suprascapular, B., Surscapular, a bone connecting 
the scapular arch with the skull. B.s, Suprasternal. 
See Cartilages, Bree/it's. B., Supratemporal, in 
comparative anatomy a bone situated above and poste- 
rior to the squamosal bone and wilh which it is 
sometimes confluent. B.s, Sutural, the wormian 
bones of the skull. B.s, Symmetric, those, like 
the sternum, which are divided equally by the me- 
dian plane of the body. B., Symplectal, B., 
Symplectic, in comparative anatomy a .small bone 
articulating with the lower border of the hyomandibular 
bone and with the inner face of the quadrate bone. 
B., Syzygy. See B., Fiireiilar. B.s, Tabular, 
those having flat tabular surfaces. B., Tail, Ihe coc- 
cyx. B., Tegumentary. See Membrane-bone 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Temple, the temporal bone. B.s, 
Thyrohyal, the greater eornua of the hyoid bone. 
They persist as distinct bones throughout the life of 
many of the lower vertebrates. B., Tongue. See 
B., Ilyoitl : and B., Urohyal. B., Tricuspid, the 
sixth cervical vertebra. B.s, Tubular, the long bones. 
B., Turbinal, the inferior turbinate bone. B., Tur- 
binated, Anterior. See />'. . 'Jiirbinate, Superior 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Turbinated, Posterior. SeeZf., 
Turbin,ile, Inferior 1 Illus. Diet.). B., Tympano- 
hyal, in lower vertebrates a bone connecting the stylo- 
hyal bone with the posterior margin of the tympanic 
bone. B., Tympanomalleal. I. The 
bone. [.\gassiz. ] 2. The quadratojugal bone. 
[Duges. ] B., Tympanoperiotic, a bone formed by 
the junction of the periotic and tympanic bones. B., 
Urohyal, in comparative anatomy a bone extending 
backward from the basihyal bone and blending with 
the median elements of the branchial arches. B., 
Vertex, B., Vertical. SeeB., Parietal{U\us. Diet.). 
B.s, Vesalius'. See B.s. Sesamoiil (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Vomeropalatine, one formed by the fusion of the 
vomer and palate bones. B.s, Wedge-shaped, the 




cuneiform bones. B., Whistle-, the coccyx. B., 
Wish-. See B., /■'ii>Yii/<ir. B.s. Wrist. See B.s, 
Mdacarpul | lllus. Diet. i. B., Yoke, the malar bone. 
B., Zygomatic, the malar bone. 
Boracite {^bi/ -ras-it). Native magnesium borate. 
Boral if>t/-rai). See Aluminiittn borotartmtg. 
Boralid \bc/-riil-id). A propriclary wound antiseptic 
said to contain equal parts of boric acid and acetanilid. 
Borated {^btZ-ra-led ). Containing boric acid. 
Borax. (See lllus. Diet.) B. carmin, a solution of 

bora.x and carmin in water; it is used as a stain. 
Bordeu's Doctrine of Vitalism. See under I'ititlisnt. 
Border (borj'-iir) [ME.]. In anatuniy, the boundary of 
an area or surface. B., Basal, B.. Cuticular, B., 
Striated. See Layer, Cutuiilor. B.. Bright, the 
margin of a ciliated cell. B., Vermilion, the line of 
union of the mucosa of the lip with the skin. 
Bordet's Specific Test for human blood is based upon 
the fact that the blood-serum of an animal subcutane- 
ously injected with the blood of another animal of a 
different species rapidly develops the property of ag- 
glutinating and dissolving the erythrocytes similar to 
those injected, but has no effect upon blood derived 
from any other source. [DaCosla.] 
Boric (bcZ-rik). Relating to boron ; containing boron. 
B. Anhydrid, B. Oxid, B^Uj, a transparent, brittle, 
hard glass obtained iVom boric acid by expulsion of 
water by heat. 
Boricin i^tZ-r/j-/;/). A proprietary mixture of borax 

and boric acid used as an antiseptic on mucosas. 
Borid (bo'-riJ). A compound of boron with a radicle or 

Borine \b(/ ren). I. A compound of I atom of boron 
and 3 atoms or 3 molecules of a univalent radicle. 2. 
A proprietary antiseptic said to contain boric acid and 
aromatic stearoptens. 
Borism \h</-rizm). Poisoning with boric acid. 
Borneene (bor'-meii). Cmllig. A peculiar volatile 
oil, the chief constituent of oil of camphor. It is iso- 
meric with oil of turpentine and holds in solution bor- 
neol and resin. 
Bornesite (bor'-mslt). C;H„Og. Monomethyl ether 
of darabose-glycose, a glucosid occurring in caoutchouc 
from Borneo ; it forms rhombic prisms soluble in water, 
melting at 175° C, subliming at 205° C. 
Borneyl (/li»-'-«t-//). CjqH,,. The radicle of Borneo 

Borobenphene [bor-o-br'ii'-fin). The proprietary name 
for an antiseptic solution said to contain glycerin, boric 
acid,- benzoic acid, and phenol. It is nonpoisonous 
and pleasantly aromatic. 
Borocalcite (bo-ro-ial'-s'it). Native calcium borate. 
Borocarbid (bo-ro-kar^-bid). A compound of borax and 

Borocitrate {bo-ro-sil'-rdt). A compound of both citric 

and boric acid with an element or radicle. 
Borofluorin \bo-ro-tht'-or-in\. A proprietary antiseptic 
and germicide said to contain boric acid, sodium Huorid, 
benzoic acid, and f<jrnialdehyd. 
Boroformalin, Boroformol {bo-ro-form'-al-in, bo-ro- 
/orii/-oh. A proprietary antiseptic said to consist of 
borosalicylic glycerol, benzoresorcinol, menthol, thymol, 
eucalyptol, andfonnalin. 
Borogen f(^(/-7v-/W/). Boric acid ethylester. It is used 

by inhalation in diseases of the air-passages. 
Boroglycerol (bo-ro-i;iis'-er-o!). Boroglycerid dissolved 

in glycerin by healing. 
Borol ( bi/- rol ) . Pi ita.ssium borosul fate. 
Borolyptol {bo-ro/ip'-tol). A proprietary internal and 
external antiseptic said to contain acetoboroglycerid, 
fornialdehyd, and the antiseptic constituents of /'inns 
pitimlio, eucalyptus, myrrh, storax. and benzoin. 

Borometz [btZ-ro-fttetz). See Ciboliitnt barometz. 

Borophenol {bo-ro-fe'-noi). A soluble disinfectant com- 
pound of borax and phenol. 

Borosalicyl. Borsalyl {bo-ro-sal' -is-il, bor'-sal-il). 
Sodium borosaiicvlate. 

Borosilicate \bo-ro-sil'ik-al). A compound of boric 
and silicic acids with a base. 

Borosol {btZ-ro-sol). A proprietary liquid used as a 
wash for perspiring feet and said to contain aluminium 
tartrate, boric and salicylic acids, glycerin, and free tar- 
taric acid. 

Borotartrate (bo-ro-/ar'-tral). A combination of boric 
and tartaric acids with a base. 

Borotartrol {bo-ro-tai^-troi). A mixture of neutral 
sodium tartrate and boric acid. 

Borsyl (boi-'-si/). A proprietary dusting-powder for 
perspiring feet, said to consist of borax, boric acid, 
talcum, and spermaceti. 

Bosom (/'!)<»:'-«/«) [AS.,^oi/«]. The breast of a human 

Boss. (See lllus. Diet.) B., Parietal. See £////- 
«e-«<v, r.irielal (lllus. Diet |. B., Pott's. See 
Ciirza/im-, Poll's (lllus. Diet.). B., Sanguineous. 
1. A swelling due to a contusion and containing extrav- 
asated blood. 2. See Caput stuccdaneuni (lllus. 

Bossed (bosd'). Having a prominent center on a cir- 
cular flat surface. 

Botanophagous (bot-aii-of'-ag-us) [^oravj), a plant ; 
o<(; >it\ to eat]. Subsisting wholly on vegetables. 

Botanophagy [bol-an-o/^-aJ-e). \'egetarianism. 

Botch {bolsit'). See Blotch (lllus. Diet.). 

Botelliferous [bot-el->f'-iir-us\ \bote!his, a sausage; 
Unr, to bear]. Having sausage-shaped processes or 

Botellus I ^()-/i'/'-«j) [L.]. I. A sausage. 2. A bowel. 

Bothrenchyma [both-reii' -ke-mnh) \^.iuOpoc, a pit; iy- 
X^'n\ to j.iour in]. Pitted tissue. 

Bothrioid \both'-re-oid) [3o/?/?o<-, a pit; ufior, likeness]. 
Pitted, foveolaled; covered with pit-like markings. 

Bothryops (both' -re- ops) [,?oC/jor, a pit; <Ji;', an eye]. 
A genus of serpents. B. lanceolatus, a deadly snake 
of Martinique causing great mortality. 

Botryococcus (bot-re-o-kok'-iis\ \_.i6rpvc, a bunch of 
grapes; kokkoc, a berry]. The name given by Poucet 
and Dor to the supposed specific organism of botryo- 
mycosis as seen in that following the castration of 

Botryomyces (bot-re-o-mi'-sez) [j^urpir, a bunch of 
grapes: uiKt/r, a fungus]. A general term for those 
I'ungi which occur in grape-like clusters. 

Botryomycoma'-titah) [ Jiir^jir, a bunch 
of grapes; uiKi/i;, a fungus]. A tumor due to botryo- 

Botryomycotic [bot-re-o-mi-iol'-ik). Relating to or 
affected with botryomycosis. 

Botryophyma [bot-re-o-fi' -inaW) [.3o7-/>rc, a bunch of 
grapes; orua, a growth]. .\ vascular, fungus-like 
growth from the skin. B. caeruleum, a form having 
a blue coloration. B. rubrum, a form having a red 

Botulin ibi>/'-ii-/in). See Boliilismotoxin. 

Botulismotoxin (bot-ii-lh-mo-toks'-in). A toxic al- 
bumose of poisonous meat produced by Baallus 
bolu/inus,\a.n Ermengem. Svn., Botulin: Botulinic 

Bouchard's Coefficient. See Coefficient. 

Bougie. ' See lllus. Diet. ) 2. A suppositorv-. B., 
Acorn-tipped, one tipped with an acorn-shaped ex- 
pansion. B. a empreinte, one with a waxy sub- 
stance adherent to its point, by means of which an im- 
pression of the stricture may be taken. B., Bellied, 




one with an expansion in some part of its sliali. B., 
Bulbous, one with n bulbous tip. B., Caustic, B., 
Cauterizant. See />.,.///«<■</ (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Conical, tme tapering uniformly frtiin one end to llio 
otiier ur from some point in the shaft to the end. B., 
Corrosive. See B., Aniie</ (Illu.s. Diet.). B. de 
baleine, a wjuilelione bougie. B., Dilatable, B., 
Dilating, one wiiich can be expaiulrd in <lianKHcr, 
and IS designed for <liIation of strictures. B., Elec- 
trolysis, :i metal bougie with an insulated siiafi, used 
in electrolytic treatment of stricture. B., Emplastic. 
I. See B. a empifinlf. 2. A tlexiljle bougie coated 
with a mixture of wax, diachylon, and olive od. B., 
Eustachian, a piece of catgut for insertion through a 
callicttr into the eustachian lube lor dilation or medica- 
tion. B., Exploring, one for use as a probe in diag- 
nosis. B., Flexible. See B., Giiiiiclaslii-. B., 
Fusiform, one wiili a spindle shai'>e<l shaft. B., 
Gum-elastic, one made of stune faliric rolled into a 
cylinder anil coated witli India-rubber, linseed oil, or 
other substance. B., Medicated, i. A bougie charged 
with some medicament. J. .\ medicated suppository. 
B., Ointment, one carrying ointment. B., Olive- 
tipped, a kind of bulbous bougie. B., Plaster. .See 
/>'., Eniplaidc (2). B., Rigid, one that does not 
bend. B., Rosary, a beaded bougie used in a stric- 
tured urethra. B., Salve. See B., Oiiitnienl. B., 
Soluble, a suppository composed of substances dissolv- 
ing at boily- temperature. B., Wales' Rectal, a flexi- 
ble bougie m.ide of soft rubber. B.. Wax, one made 
of tine silk or other material soaked in melted wax and 
rolled into a cylindric .shape. B., Whip, one with 
tilifonn end gradually increasing in thickness. 

Boundou. See .//!■<;:;'•.; (lllus. Diet.). 

Boutron. .\ Hawaiian name for intluenza. 

Bovillae (/'<> rv/'-f) [L.]. Measles. 

Bowdichia (/lO-Jh/i'-i'-n/i) ^Ed-wnrd Bowtliih, an Eng- 
lish naturalist]. .\ genus of plants of the order Li- 
giiminosir. B. virgiloides, H. et B., a South .\meri- 
can tree, of which the bark (alcliornoque or alcorno^pie 
bark) is diaphoretic, roborant, and antisyphilitic. It 
contains alcornin and tile glucosid sicopirin. 

Bowel. (See lllus. Diet.) B. -complaint, diarrhea. 
B., Lower, the rectum. 

Bowman's Sarcous Elements. See under Sarcoiis 
I lllus. Diet.). 

Bracelets {bras' -lets). Transverse lines across the 
anterior aspect of the wrist. 

Brachiation (bia-/ti'-a'-s/iii>i) \Jiiachiiiiii, arm]. .\ 
form of locomotion by means of the arms, as seen in 
a pes. 

Brachiform (hia'-kt'-form) \l)racliiiim, arm; /(iniia, 
form], .\rm-shaped. 

Brachiocrural [hra-if-o-trii'-ral') \j'ra<:hium, the arm ; 
inis, the leg]. Pertaining to or aft'ccting the arm and 

Brachiofacial (^bra-kc-o-fa'-slial). Pertaining to both 
arm au<l face. 

Brachiofascialis (brn-kc-o-fus-e-ii'-lis') \Jiia(lnitm, the 
arm ; fiiscia, a bundle]. See under AMitscles. 

Brachiometrum (/mik-e-o-mel'-niiii) [•ijmx'<''^\ 'he 
arm ; iu7f>ni\ a measure]. An apparatus for measur- 
ing the thickness of the arm. 

Brachiorrhachidian ( brnk-t'-or-dk-iii'-f-an^ [.?/)a;f/'wj', 
the arm; /"MT. the spinal column]. Relating to the 
arm and the spinal cord. 

Brachium. (See lllus. Diet.) B. anterius. See 
Pr, bra,- hi mil ( Illus. Diet.). B. conjunctivum, B. 
conjunctorium. See /"/v/rt/^wf/t- ( lllus. Diet. ). B. 
conjunctivum anterius. See Pivbnir/iiiini (lllus. 
Diet). B. conjunctivum posterius. See Post- 
biachiiiin (lllus. Diet. i. B. copulativum, the 

superior peduncle of the cerebellum. B. corporis 
bigemini inferioris, B. corporis bigemini supen- 
oris, B. inferius. See Poslbi;i,/iiiiiii (lllus. Did i. 
Brachia fornicis, the pillars of the fornix. Brachia 
lateralia, the prebraehium and poslbraehiuni. B. 
movens quartus, the latissimus dorsi muscle. B. 
pontis. See .I/.<///.</»«i-/£- (lllus. Diet.). B. pos- 
terius. B. quadrigeminum inferius. See /'osl- 
biiiihiiiiii (lllus. Diet.). B. quadrigeminum 
superius. See Piibnic/iiiim (lllus. Did. ). 

Brachyauchen ( /'ink-t'-n-w'-kfii ) [.i/mj i < , short ; «' I'/J', 
neck]. .\ short neck; a short-necked individual. 

Brachycheirous, Brachychirous (brnk e ki'-nis) 
\_-^l>u\i-^^ short; X^'Rt ^'ic hand]. Having short 

Brachycnemic, Brachyknemic {briik;--iti'-iiiik) 
[,J/iiiV".' short; )ivi,ui/, the leg]. A term applied by 
Sir W. Turner to a leg proportionately shorter than the 

Brachyfacial (^brak-e-fa'-shal'). See Chaiiieprosopic 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Brachyglossal {brak-e-glos'-a!) [0paxi%, short; j/iiffira, 
tongue]. Having a short tongue. 

Brachygnathous, Brachygnathus [briik-e->i<i'-//ius). 
Having short jaws. 

Brachyhieric (bnik-e-hi'-e-rik) [jipaxh, short; itpov, 
saennn]. Having a short sacrum. Cf. Dotitltohicrie. 

Brachykerkic (bniit-kiiik'-H) [.</if;,i"', short ; /.»/«>, 
a shuttle]. Having the forearm <lisproportiouately 
short, as compared with the upper arm. 

Brachynin. Hee Biai/iiniii (lllus. Diet. ). 

Brachynosis, Brachynsis (bnik-iii-o'-sis, bmkiii'-sis) 
[,.?/^«|rr, short; I'lTfjc, disea.Se]. The contraction or 
shortening of an organ or part by disease. 

Brachyntic {bnik-in'-tit). Related to or aflected with 

Brachyotus (brtik-c-o'-liis) \_jipaxid short; oi'r, the 
ear]. .Short-eared. 

Brachypneuma [bi;ik-e->ni'-i>i(i/i). See Biinlivpnca 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Brachystaphylic (brak-e-slaf'-il-ik) [,J/'n,V'f. short; 
aTii0r/i,, the palate]. Having a short alveolar arch. 
Cf. Lcploiliipliylic; Mesosl<iphyli(. 

Brachystelma \brak-e'Sli;i'-iiinli) [J^JfM'fi short; btIi'/^ii, 
ct>hmui]. A genus of plants of the order Asi'lc-piotituc. 
B. fringeri, a native of the Freneli Soudan, where the 
edible tubers form an important p.irt of the food; it is 
called fikoii^o. 

Brachystomus (brak-e-s/p'-inus) [jipnxir, short ; aniua, 
mouth]. Having a short mouth. 

Brachyuranic (bnik-t'-ii-iaii'-ik) [,J/<n;yiV, short; oh- 
pnvor, the palate]. See Brnchyslaphylic. Cf. Doliclio- 
uriinic : lilesuraiiic. 

Bracket (hmiy-et) [OF., brai]uef\. An apparatus for 
supporting or rendering a joint immovable. 

Bradycausis {I'rtid-e-kttii/ sis) [,^/)rff)rr, slow ; navnic^ 
a burning]. A .slow burning; the application of a 
slow caustic. 

Bradycinesia. See Biadykinesia. 

Bradydiastole (hrad-e-di-iis'-io-lf) [/3pnrh'r, slow ; iSkw- 
rn'/ij^ a drawing apart]. A prolongation of the dias- 
tolic pause; it is generally a.s.soeiated with myocardial 
lesions. Syn., Bradvdiastolia. 

Bradyfibrin (hrad-e-Ji'-brin). See Pseudoji/niii {IWai. 

Bradyglossia (brnd-e-glos' -c-ah) \_^ptuV\c, slow ; j/.wccn, 
tongue]. .Vbnormal slowness of speech. 

Brain. (See lllus. Diet, i B., End. See Tcl.n- 
(iphalon (lllus. Diet.). B. -energy of Cullen. See 
Fonw Aniiiiiil. B., Great, the cerebrum. B., Soft- 
ening of. See under Softciiiii:; \\\\v.*. Diet.). B., 
Twixt. See Dieiuephalon and TAalaiiuncip/ui/oit 




(lUus. Diet.). B. -wasting, Chronic, Crichton 
Browne's terra for mental disturbance marked b/ con- 
fusion, loss of memory, and inertia. B., Water on 
the. Synonym of Itydiocel'haliis. 

Branchiogenic, Brancbiogenous \^brang-ke-o-jcn' -ik, 
bran;^-hc-oi'-en-its) [.3/jfi; .\-m/, gills; ytwiiv, to pro- 
duce]. Fonned fr<jm a branchial cleft. 

Brand [.AS., hrinnaii, to burn]. A disease of wheat and 
other cereals due to the parasitic fungus C'rah ctirbo. 

Brasilein {bnt-zU'-i-in). C,„H,.,05 -- H.p. The red 
coloring matter produced by the o.xidation of brasilin. 
Syn. , lirazilein. 

Brassicon {bins' -^i-on). A proprietary local applica- 
tian for headache, said to consist of 2 gni. oil of pep- 
permint, 6 gm. camphor, 4 gm. ether, 12 gra. alcohol, 
6 drops mustard oil. 

Brassy-eye. See Chnlkitis. 

Brayera. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. A genus of plants of 
the order Rosacea. 

Brayerin (braf-yer-iit). See Koiissiii. under Brayera 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Brazil Wood. See Casalpinia echinata. 

Brazilein [hra-zil' -c-in^. See Brasilein. 

Bread. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Bleeding, a bloody ap- 
pearance in bread due to the presence of Bacilhts 
prodigiostis. B., Famine, bread made from other and 
less nutritious substances than flour, as the sawdust of 
nonresinous woods like beech and birch mixed with 
beans and flour and used in time of famine to eke out 
the limited supply of flour. B., Guarana. See O'w;?- 
rana (Illus. Diet.). B., Indian, bread fruit, the fruit 
of the tree Arlocarpits inte:^rifolia. B., Pulled, fresh 
bread pulled apart longitudinally and rebaked until 
brittle. B., St. John's, the pods of Ceraioitia siliqua. 

Break. (See Illus. Diet.) 3. To change suddenly 
and involuntarily from the natural voice to a shrill one 
or to a whisper, as with boys at puberty, or with 
adults under strong emotion. 

Breast. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Cooper's Irritable, 
neuralgia of the breast ; mastodynia neuralgica. B., 
Funnel, a depression of the chest-walls at the sternum 
resembling the bowl of a funnel; it is like shoemaker's 
breast onlv it mav occur at any point. Svn., Funnel- 
ckest. B.,' Gathered. See A'.', j5n>/fc-H (Illus. Diet.). 
B., Hysteric, a form of mastodynia due to hysteria. 
B., Shoemaker's, a depression of the sternum in shoe- 
makers due to the pressure of tools against it and the 
xiphoid cartilage. 

Breastings ibreast'-in::s). See Colostrum (Illus. Diet.). 

Breath. iSee Illus. Diet.) B., Shortness of, dysp- 
nea. B. -sounds, Veine Fluide Theory of : "Ac- 
cording to which a blowing sound is generated when- 
ever a fluid (whether liquid or gas) passes suddenly 
and with sufficient momentum (/. e., for the same fluid, 
velocity) from a narrow space into a much wider one. " 
[Fagge and Pye-Smith.] 

Breathing. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Capacity. See 
/■//,;/ Lapaeily (Illus. Diet.). B., Cheyne-Stokes". 
See Rti^iration, Cheyne-Stokes' (Illus. Diet.). B., 
Indeterminate. See Respiration^ Broneho7'esieu/ar 
(Illus. Diet. I. B., Jerky. See B.. Infernifted 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Spurious, sighing. B., Sub- 
tubular, B., Transitional, B., Vesiculotubular. 
See Respiration, Bronrhmiesieiilar (Illus. Diet.'. B. 
■Volume. See .-/;>, r/</<(/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Breeze. (See Illus. Diet. 1 B , Electric. See .?/«//<- 
Breeze (Illus. Diet.). 

Breidin (bre'-iii-in\. S. constituent of elemi. 

Brein {bre'-in). A glucosid isolated from Bryonia 
alba. It is a powerful stimulant to the arterioles and 
useful in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and 
other metrorrhagias. 

Breisky's Method of measuring the dimensions of the 
pelvis at ilsoutlel. consisting in measuring externally the 
distance between the tuberosities of the ischia, and also 
in taking the distance from the junction of the sacrum 
and coccyx to the lower border of the arcuate ligament. 

Bremer's Color-test for diabetic urine. See under 

Brenzcain ihrenz'-ka-in). See Guaiacol-benzyl Ester. 

Brenzkatechinuria (brenz-kat-e-kin-u' -re-ah). See 
.4il-iiptontina (Illus. Diet.). 

Brephydrocephalus [bref-id-ro-sef ' -al-tis) {fipioo^, an 
inl'ant; idijoia^u'/.ue, hydrocephalus]. Hydrocephalus 
in infants. 

Bresilein tbres-il'-e-in). See Brasilein. 

Bresilin [I/res' -il-in). See Brasilin (Illus. Diet.). 

Breviceps (bre-^-e-seps) [bmis, short; caput, head]. 
I laving the head short. 

Brevisupinator i^brcv-e-sii'-pin-a-tor). See under Mus- 

Bridge. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Intercellular, slender 
protoplasmic processes connecting proximate cells. 
Syn., Internuclear bundles. B., Jugal. See Arch, 
Zygomatic (Illus. Diet.). 

Brightism (br'it'-i:ni) [^Bright, an English physician]. 
Chronic nephritis. 

Brimstone. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Cane, sublimed 
sulfur molded into the form of solid cylinders about an 
inch in diameter; called also roll-sulfur. B., Vege- 
table, the spores of Lveopodiion claxfatum. 

Broca's Cape. The dividing point of the fossa sylvii. 

Bromalbacid [bro-inat'-bas-id ). A compound of bro- 
min and albumin used as a sedative. Dose, 15-30 
gr. 1 1-2 gni. I. 

Bromalbumin {bro-mal' -bu-miti). See Bromoalbumin. 

Bromaldehyd i bro-mal'-de-Ald). A compound of bro- 
min and aldehyd. 

'BromaWn I bro'-mal-in). CjHjjX.CHjBr. A substance 
occurring as a white crystalline powder, soluble in 
water, melting at 200° C. It is a ner\e sedative and 
antiepileptic, used as a substitute for potassium bromid. 
Dose, 30-60 gr. several times per day. Syn., Bro- 
methylforntin ; Ilexumethylenet^ traininbroniethylate. 

Bromaliyl ibri/mal-il'). See Allyl Bromid. 

Bromallylene {bro-mal' -il-ln). CjHjBr. A compound 
of broniin and allylene. 

Bromaloin {bro-mal-o'-in'\. C^^Wy^rjO-. A deriva- 
tive of barbaloin by the action of bromin. Syn., Tri- 

Bromamyl {brc^-mam-il\. See Amyl Bromid. 

Bromanilin ibroin-an'-il-in). I. A substitution com- 
pound of bromin and aiiilin. Syn., Bromainidobenzene. 
2. .\ proprietary antipyretic and aseptic. Syn., 

Bromanisate (bro-inan'-is-at). A salt of bromanisic 

Bromanisol {bro-inan'-is-ol). CjjH^OjBrj. .\ erystal- 
lizable compound obtained from anise camphor by 
action of bromin. 

Bromantifebrin (bro-mante-feb'-rin). See .4ntisepsin 
(Illus. Diet. ). 

Bromargyrite (bro-mar'-jir-it). Native silver bromid. 

Bromate ( brcZ-rndt). A salt of broniic acid. 

Bromateccrisis (bro-niat-el-' -ris-is) [ J^jijun, food ; 
i-:nHiiicic. excrement]. The pas.«age of undigested food. 

Bromated ybrot -ma-ted). Impregnated with broniin. 

Bromatometer (bro-mat-om'-et-ur) [Sijijun. food; 
ui-T,uii\ measure]. An instrument used in bromatom- 

Bromatometry (i^r(7-/«<7/-o«;'-^/-r(f). The estimation of 
the daily amount of food requisite for an individual. 

Bromatotoxicon (bro-maf-o-tois^-il--on). A general 
term lor the active agent in food-poisoning. 




Bromatotoxin [Itiomal-o-loki' -inX A basic poison 
ge]ierair<l in food by the growth of microorganisms. 

Bromatotoxistn (liro-nial-o-loks'-iziii) [ j/j<j//n, food ; 
zn-iKiif, poison]. Poisoning with infected food. 

Bromaurate (/';(/-/«rt7i'-ra/ ). i. A salt of bromauric 
acid. 2. .\ double bromid of gold and another radicle 
or element. 

Bronnben2oyl {l>rom-l>en' zo-il). C^HjO. Br. A crys- 
talline .substance obtained from oil of bitter almonds by 
action of bromin ; it is soluble in alcohol and ether. 
Svn. , Hrombenzoylic acid. 

Bromcaffein (hromkaf-e'-in\ CjH,jBr\,0.;. A 
compound tirst obtained by Schultzen by mixing I part 
of cafi'ein with 5 parts of bromin ; melts at 20'j° C. 

Bromelin (hi-y-melin) [^;-iiwt'//<7, a genus of plants]. 
A dige.stive principle, allied to trj-psin, found in juice 
of pineapples. It will digest 1500 times its weight of 

Bromethylformin {byo-melh-il-form' -iii). See Bro- 

Bromhemol (brom'-Zw-mol). A compound of hemol 
and 2.7'^ of bromin. It is used when continued 
elTect of bromin is desired. Dose, 15-30 gr. (l-2gm. ). 
Syn. , Bi'omofwmoL 

Bromhydrate (bi6m-/ti'-didl). See Hydrobromate 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Bromhydric [brom-hi'-drik]. See Ilydrobromic (lllus. 
Diet. I. B., Ether, hydrobromic ether. 

Bromic (brc/-»iii). Containing or compounded with 

Bromid. (See lllus. Diet.) B., Arsenous, or Ar- 
senious, arsenic bromid. B., Basic, a compound of ' 
a bromid with the o.vid of the same base. B., Bis- 
muthyl, bismuth oxybromid. 

Bromin. iSee lllus. Diet.) B. Acetate, CH,COjBr, 
acetohypobromous anhydrid ; it is isomeric with raono- 
bromacetic acid. B , Bibron's Mixture. See Bib- 
ron's Antidote (lllus. Diet.). B. Blocks, porous 
blocks of dialomaceous earth incinerated with calcium 
saccharate and imjiregnated with 3 times their weight 
of bromin, which is gradually given off by them. They 
are used as disinfectants. B. Chlorid, BrCI (below 
10° C. ), a reddish-yellow, mobile, very volatile liquid. 
It is used as an internal and External caustic in cancer. 
B. Cyanid, BrC\, colorless needles or cubes with 
pungent irritating odor, soluble in water, melting at 
about 52° r. B Disulfid, S.^Br,, a red liquid. B. 
Hydrate, Br.sHjO, an unstable crystalline compound 
obtained by dissolving bromiti in water just above the 
freezing-point. B. lodid, IBr-, a dark brown liquid, 
soluble in water; it is irsed as a gargle in diphtheria, 
in o.iCj; solution. B. Pentachlorid, BrClj, a caus- 
tic liquid. 

Brominated, Brominized (bro'iiiina-tid, -izd). Com- 
bined with lnotnin. 

Brominium. Brominum [bro-min'-e-itntybyL/'ininuni^. 
See Bromin (lllus. Diet.). 

Bromiodid \ bro-iiii'-oil-id). .\ compound fomied from 
the bromid and the iodid of the same base. 

Bromiodoform ;^ra-/«;-(/-r/y-/o/-w). CHBr.jI. A sub- 
stitution compound of bromin and iodoform. 

Bromipin {bity'-rni-f>in). \ liquid compound of bromin 
anil sesame oil containing 10'^^ of bromin. It is used 
as a sedative in epilepsy. Dose, 1-3 teaspoonfuis 

Bromite (bro' -mil). I. Native silver bromid. 2. A 
salt of bromous acid. 

Bromium ihri/-me-uni). Bromin. 

Bromoacetate (bro-mo-us'-el-at). See Acetobromid. 

Bromoalbumin {bro-mo-al'-bti-niin). .\ compound of 
bromin {lo^'r) and albumin; it is used in epilepsy. 
Svn., Bromalbitntin ; Broinosin. 

Bromocamphor [bro-mo-kam' -for). See Camphor, 
Monobromnltd {\\\\is. Diet.). 

Bromocoll (bro'-tno-kol). A product of the condensa- 
tion of bromin, tannin, and gelatin; a light brown, 
odorless, almost tasteless powder containing 20% of 
bromin, soluble in alcoholic fluids. It is indicated 
when other bromids are not well borne. Dose, 15-75 
g""- ('-5 g'"-) Pf ^l^) ; '" epilepsy, 8 gm. Syn., Di- 
brofnolanni^' ^Itu. 

Bromocuminol (bro-mo-ku' -min-o!\ C,„H||BrO. A 
heavy oil obtained from cuminol by action of bromin. 

Bromoform. (See lllus. Diet.) Syn., formobromid; 
Formylbromid : Mtthinyl Iribromid : Tribrominclhanf. 
B. Water, an aqueous solution of bromoform (3 grains 
to I liter of distilled water) which has been allowed to 
stand for some time with occasional shaking. The 
fluid contains about 5 cgm. (gr. |) of dissolvcti bromo- 
fonii per tablespoonful. It is used as a sedative. 
Dose, 50-300 gm. i>er day. 

Bromoformism [bro-mo-form'-ism). Poisoning with 

Bromohematin (l)ro-mo-hem' -at-in). Ilematin hydro- 

Bromohemol. See Bromhemol. 

Bromohydrate. See Nydrobronialf (lllus. Diet). 

Bromohydric. See Hydrobromic (lllus. Diet.). 

Bromohyperidrosis ( bro-mo-hi-per-idro'-sis I [;9pwwor, 
a stench ; /t^^>, over; (()/»jr7v(;, a perspiring]. A con- 
dition marke<l by excessive and offensive perspiration. 

Bromolithia ( bro-mo-lilh' -e-ah). A proprietary remedy 
for gout. 

Bromomania (bro-mo-ma' iie-ali). Insanity from ex- 
cessive use of bromids. 

Bromomenorrhea, Bromomenorrhoea (bro-mo-men- 
or-i-^-ah\ [.?/(f;>'/or, slerKli ; ////i, nioiuii ; /'f/J', to flow]. 
Disordered menstruation marked by otifensiveness of 
the flow. 

Bromomethane [bro-moinct/i-an'). See Mtthyl Bro- 

Bromopan (bro' -mo-pan). .\ patented bread for use 
in hysteria and epilepsy, each loaf containing i gm. of 
a bromid. 

Bromophenol (/w-wo-/;''-;/;;/). i. See .Stooto/ (lllus. 
Diet. I. 2. CgH,BrOH. .-^ violet-colored liquid ob- 
tained from ]jhenol by action of bromin. It is used 
in a I '^ to 2*^ ointment in treatment of erysipelas. 
Syn. . Orthobrt mphcnol. 

Bromophtharin [bro-fno-tknr^-in). A proprietary dis- 
infect. mt and deodorant said to contain zinc oxid. cal- 
cium oxid, calcium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and 5^ 
of sand. 

Bromopin. See Bromipin. 

Bromoplatinate ybro-mo-plat ' -in- al). See Platinibro- 


Bvomopiopylene {bro-mo-pro'-pii-tn). See .4l!yt Bro- 

'Bromopyrin {bromo-pi'-rin). I. C, , 1 1,, BrXjO, a sub- 
stance used as antipyrin. occurring in white needles, 
soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and hot water, melting 
at 114° C. Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.3-01 gm. ). .Syn., 
Monobroinoantipvrin. 2. A proprietary mixture said 
to consist of antipyrin, caflfein. and sodium bromid. 

Bromoseltzer (bro-mo-sc/f -zcr). A proprietary head- 
ache remedv. 

Bromoserum (bro-mo-se'-riim). A solution of 6 parts 
of sodium bromid and 1.5 parts of sodium chlorid in 
looo parts of water. It is used by injection as a sub- 
stitute for bromids. 

Bromosin [bro' -mo-sin). See Bromoalbnmin. 

Bromosoda {bro-mo-scZ-das. A proprietary remedy for 

Bromphenols [brom'-fi-nolz'). A series of bromated 




phenols occurring at times in the precipitates of tested 

Bromum (/iro'-uiiim). See Broinin. 

Bromurated (br</-mu-ra-ted). Containing bromin or a 
broinin salt. 

Broncheopyra (hrom^-ke-o-pi' -rah) \_jiii6yxia, the end 
of the windpipe joining the lungs; ffi)/j, fire] . A suffo- 
cative cough. 

Bronchiadenoscirrhus [/iroiig- iv - ad en - o- skir' - us) 
\_,ipu} ,\oi: , the windpipe; n(i;/i', a gland; aappdr, 
hard]. Scirrhus of the bronchial glands. 

Bronchiarctia {brong-ke-ark'-slie-ali) \broiultus ; ar/an', 
to contract]. Hee Bronc/iostenosis [^iWu^. Diet.). 

Bronchic (lirong'-ii/e). Bronchial. 

Bronchiectasis. (See lUus. Diet.) B., Cylindric, 
dilmion involving the whole circumference of the bron- 
chial tube. 

Bronchiocrisis [brong-ke-o-kri'-sis) \_bronchits ; crisis'^, 
Parox\>mal coughing in tabes dorsalis. 

Bronchiolectasis (broiig-kc'-o i^i-fa'-sis) \bronchioU ; 
tKTarut,, dilation]. Rare form of bronchiectasis dif- 
fused to all parts of the lung, making it appear as if 
riddled with small cavities. 

Bronchiolitis. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Asthmatic. 
See />'., E.MidiJiii'c (Illus. Diet.). B. fibrosa obliter- 
ans, B. obliterans, B., Obliterating Fibrous, 
bronchiolitis resulting in obliteration of the finest 
bronchi by connective-tissue plugs. 

Bronchiospasmus [broiig-ke-o-spas'-miis] \^3p6yxin, 
bronchial tubes; a~aau6c, spasm]. Spasm of the 

Bronchismus ibroiig-kiz'-mns). Marshall Hall's term 
for surtbcative bronchial spasm due to spinal paralysis. 

Bronchitis. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Puirri/is broin//i- 
ti/i<. B., Accidental, catarrh of the bronchial tubes. 
B., Acute, B., Asthenic. See Peiipmumonia notlui. 
B., Catarrhal, Chronic. See B., Chronic (Illus. 
Diet.). B., Cheesy, cheesy degeneration sometimes 
accompanying pulmonary tuberculosis. B., Convul- 
sive, whooping-cough. B., Epidemic, influenza. B., 
Ether, that due to the irritating effects of ether. B., 
Exudative, B., Membranous. See B., Plastic 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Phthinoid, tuberculous bronchitis 
with copious expectoration of purulent sputum. B., 
Polypoid, B., Pseudomembranous. See B., Plastic 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Septic. Sec B., Putrid (Illus. 
Diet.). B., Suffocative, B. suffocans. See B., Acute 
Capillary (Illus. Diet.). B. synochica, bronchitis not 
complicated with other disorders and attended with 
high fever. B., Tracheo-, that attended with tracheal 
catarrh. B., Verminous, an affection of cattle and 
sheep due to the presence of Sirongylus filaria in the 
bronchial tubes. Syn., Noose; Sheep cough. 

Bronchoalveolitis {brong-ko-al-ve-odi'-tis'). See 
Bri'fi, lupitrunu'iiia (Illus. Diet.). 

Bronchocavernous [brong-ko-kav'-er-nics'). Both 

bronchial and cavernous; it is a]')plied to respiration. 

Bronchocele, Bronchoccele. (See Illus. Diet.) B., 
Aerial. See Acrocele. 

Bronchocephalitis (brong-ko-sef-al-i' -lis). Whooping- 

Bronchoconstriction (brong-ko-kon-slrik'-shtin). The 
narrowing ol the caliber of the pulmonary air-passages. 

Bronchoconstrictor (brong-ko-kon-strik'-tor). Con- 
stricting the caliber of the air-passages of the lungs. 

Bronchodilator (brong-ko-di-la'-tor). Dilating the 
caliber of the air-passages of the lungs. 

Bronchohemorrhagia (broiig-ko-hei»-or-a;'-e-ah). 

Extravasation of blood from the lining membrane of 
the bronchial tubes. 

Broncholite [brong' -ko-ht). See Broncholith (Illus. 

Broncholithiasis {brong-ko-lilh-i' -a-sis) \3poyxoi, 
the windpipe ; >.(Hor, .stone]. The formation of calculi 
in the bronchial apparatus. 

Bronchomotor (brong-ko-mo' -tor). Affecting the cali- 
ber of the bronchial apparatus. 

Bronchophonism (brong-kof -on-izvi). See Bron- 
chophony I Illus. Diet.). 

Bronchophony. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Accidental, 
that due to disease. B., Pectoriloquous. See Pei- 
A'/v/<Y«i' (Illus. Diet.). 

Bronchoplegia ( broHg-ko-ple'-Je-ah)[3i)6yxoc:, bronchus; 
-'/if.ij, a blow]. Paralysis of the bronchial tubes. 

Bronchopleurisy (brong-ko-plu' -ris-e). Bronchitis ex- 
isting with j)leurisv. 

Bronchopleuropneumonia (brong-ko-plu-ro-nunio'- 
nc-ali). Coexistent bronchitis, pleurisy, and pneu- 

Bronchopneumonia. (See Illus. Diet.) Syn., Bron- 
chiopncunionia ; Bront hoptieitmonitis ; Bronchoalveo- 
litis; Catarrhal pneumonia ; Jijicrobi-onchitis. B, 
bovis, a disease among .American cattle due to infec- 
tion by an ovoid belted organism. Syn., Infections 
bronchopncitvionia ; Corn-stalk disease, 

Bronchopneumonitis {brong- ko-nn-mon-i' -lis). BroD- 

Bronchopulmonary (brong-ko-pul'-mon-a-re). Relat- 
ing to the bronchi and lungs. 

Bronchorrhea, Bronchorrhoea. (See Illus. Diet.) 
Syn., Bronchoblcnitorrhca ; Bloinorrhagia pulmonum. 
B., Serous, a form first described by Laennec in 
which the sputum is serous. Syn., Phlegmorrhagia 
puhncnalis ; Pituitary catarrh; Asthma humida. 

Bronchorrhoncus (brong-kor-ong^-kus). A bronchial 

Bronchoscope (irong'-ko-skop) [,'3po>^/n, the bronchial 
tubes; cuoTTin; to look]. An instrument employed 
in bronchoscopy. 

Bronchoscopy [brong-kos^ -ko-pe\. Inspection of the 
bronchial tubes through a tracheal opening. 

Bronchospasm {brong^-ko-spazm) [,'?poj^of, bronchus; 
a-titjiioc, spasm]. Bronchial spasm. 

Bronchus [pi., bronchi]. (See Illus. Diet.) Bronchi, 
Eparterial, the bronchi situated above the pulmonary 
artery. Bronchi, Hyparterial, those situated below 
tlie pulmonarv arter\'. 

Brow. (See Illus. Diet. ) B. -ache, B. -pang, supraor- 
l)ital neuralgia. B.-spot. See Clan, I. Jnterocular 
I Illus. Diet.). 

Brucamarin (bru-kam'-a-i-in). An alkaloid from the 
fruit u{ Brucea sumatrana. 

Brucea (brti-set-ah) [Bruce, the Abyssinian explorer 
(1730-1794)]. A genus of plants of the order A'/«- 
arubeic. B. ferruginea, an Abyssinian species; the 
bark and root are used in dysentery. B. sumatrana, 
a species of the .-Asiatic tropics and of Australia; all 
parts of the plant are bitter, tonic, febrifuge, vermifuge, 
and antidysenteric. Syn., Kosam ; Ayntpadoo. 

Brucin. (See Illus. Diet.) Dose, 0.005-0.03 gm.; 
max. dose, 0.05 gm. (3^ gr.). single; 0.2 gm. (3 gr.) 
per day. Antidotes, chloral, chloroform, tannic acid. 
Syn., I'omicin ; Pseudangustin ; Brucinum : Bru- 
ciufn ; Brucia. B. Acetate, a cr\*stalline compound 
of brucin and acetic acid. B. Bromhydrate, B. 
Hydrobromate. Cj,HjgX,0, . fIBr, a substitute for 
slrvchnin in ophthalmic surgerx' ; it is fort\' times less 
poisonous. B. Hydrochlorate, C,,Hj„X.X\ . HCl, 
small white crvslals, sfiluble in water; used as brucin. 
B. Nitrate, C,.,II,,.,\.,(1, . IINO3 -|- 3H^O. white crys- 
talline jiowder soluble in water ; used as brucin. B. 
Phosphate, (C,,3lI.^gN.p,).,H.,PO,, white crystalline 
poW'der soluble in water ; use and dose as brucin. B. 
Sulfate, (C23H._,gNjOJ.Jl2SO, -r- 3'iH.p, white 




microscopic ciyslals, soIuIjIl- in water aiul alcohol ; use 
and dose a'i l>riR:iii. 

Brucinum, Brucium [In ii-ii'-iiiiiii, lini'-sc-iiin). See 

Bruit. (See lllus. Diet.) For kinds, — Am/'/uii-ii; A'o/n- 
/WT, etc., — see A/iirmiii: B., Leudet's.a line crack- 
ing sound in the ear, audible to both the observer and 
the patient, in catarrhal and nervous alVections of the 
ear. It is attributed to spasm of the external peri- 
sIaphyliIUl^ nniscle. B., Verstraetin's, a bruit hoard 
over tile lower border of the liver in some cachectic 

Brun's Airol Paste. For sealing wounds and prevent- 
ing stitch-abscess ; consists of 20 gin. each of airol, 
bolus albus, and glycerin. 

Brunfelsia {/iniii-/</'-.v-ii/i) [0. Biniifils, a botanist of 
Metz ^I464-I534) ]. .-V genus of jjlants of the order 
S<i/>ii?i<u\'(i\ B. americana, a West Indian .species. 
A syrup made from the fruit is used as a tonic in re- 
covery from diarrhea. B. uniflora, of lirazil, is pur- 
gative, emetic, and eminenagog. ,Syn., Miirurio 

Brunn's Cell-nests. See Xisls, Bninii's KpitlicUal. 

Brunonian. (See lllus. Diet.) 2. A believer in 
Brownism or the lirunonian theory. 

Brush. (.See lllus. Diet. ) B., Terminal. See yl/o/o;- 
J-'.iiJ /-/.III- (lllus. Diet.). 

Brushing. See Inhifcie (lllus. Diet.). 

Bryogenin ibri-oi'-en-in'). \ yellow amorphous resin 
obtained from bryonin by boiling in dilute snlfincc 

Bryoidin (ln-i-oiu'-iii). 2(C,oH,6) + i^hp. A crystal- 
lizable, bitter, acrid constituent of eleini. 

Bryonidin {liri-oii'-i^f-iii). A glucosid isolated from 
/irw'iiiti ti//iii, more active than bryonin. 

Bryonitin {liri-on'-il-in). See Bryonin (Illu.s. Diet.). 

Buaycura (lui-ali-e-ku'-rah'). A South American name 
for the root of StatUe brasiliensis. 

Bubo. (See lllus. Diet.) Syn., Syinpatluiic ubscess, 
Inguinn! luknilis ; Aiiiu. B., Abdominal, one 
occurring above the fold of the groin. B., Absorp- 
tion. See />., I'inilcnt. B., Acute. See B., Sup- 
piini/in'^. B., Bullet. See Clianii-c (lllus. Diet.). 
B., Chancroidal. See />'., Vinihnl. B., Chan- 
crous. See A., Svf'hililic. B., Chronic. See />'., 
JnJoh'nL B., Common. See />., Symput/u-tic- 
(lllns. Diet.). B., Consecutive, the .syphilitic bubo 
following a chancre. B., Creeping. See B., Ser- 
pi\'inoiis. B., Crural, B., Femoral, one located 
below the fold of the groin. B., Gonorrheal, a simple 
bubo caused by gonorrhea. Syn., Ailenilii <■ bh-nnoi- 
yliini. B., Indolent, one with enlargement and hyper- 
plasia without tlie formation of pus or any teiulency 
to break down. Syn,. A.unilii ,• siic'osi : Ai/fnilis c- 
bUiinorrlKen. B., Inflammatory. See B., Sympa- 
llictic (lllus. Diet.). B., Inguinal, one situated in 
the groin. B. insons. .See B., Sympnlhctic (lllus. 
Diet.). B., Nonconsecutive. See /?., rrimmy 
(lllus. Diet.). B., Nonvenereal, B., Nonvirulent. 
See B., Sympi)llu-/ic (IlUis. Diet. 1. B., Pestilential, 
that acconi|)anying plague. B., Phagedenic, viru- 
lent bubo with phagedena. B., Primitive. See 
B., Priniiiry (IlUis. Diet.). B., Pubic, a bubo 
occurring near the pubes. B., Rheumatic, a hard 
lump occurring oftenest on the b.ack of the neck 
as a sequel of acute .articular rheumatism. B., Ser- 
piginous, an ulcerated bubo which changes its seat 
or in which the ulceration creeps serpiginously. B., 
Simple. See /?., Synipathclic (lllus. Diet.). B., 
Strumous, hypertro])iiied glands forming a large in- 
dolent swelling in a scrofulous subject. B., Suppurat- 
ing, one attended with formation of pus. B., Syph- 

ilitic, that which appears in .syphilis, a few days later 
than the primary le.sion. It runs a slow course of 6 
months or more. Syn., Iiigucn inJiiraluin : I. syphil- 
iliciim : Biimi/h'e syplnlilic atknilis. B., Syphilo- 
strumous, a syphilitic bubo marked by scrofulous de- 
generation. B., Venereal. See under I'enciful 
(lllus. Diet.). B., Virulent, an ulcerated, suppurat- 
ing bubo due to absorption of the virus of a chancre. 
Syn., Ingtu-n -'irulcnluni ; Chani-roits iidcnilii ; Atii-n- 
i/ii i'.v iilit'rt' contagiosa. 

Bubophthalmia (bti-bof-lhal'-me-ah). See Keralo- 
g/obiis (lllus. Diet.). 

Bubrostis (hu-bios'-tis) [L. ]. Bulimia. 

Bubulin [bn' btil-in) \_biibiiliis, relating to cattle]. An 
uneiystallizable substance obtained from cow's dung 
I IV action of alcohol. 

Buccellation [bnh-sil-a' -sJiiin) \_bitit-tiia^ a morsel]. 
Ilemostasis by a lint-compress. 

Buccilingual {biii-si/-in:;'-g-u'a/) [biicta, the cheek; 
/ini^iia^ the tongue]. Relating to the cheek and the 

Buccinatolabialis (bii/;-sinn/-o-labi-ii'-/is). The bnc- 
eiiKilor and orbicuhiris oris regarded as one. 

Buccobranchial [buk-o-brang^ -A't'-ai ). Relating to the 
mouth and the branchial cavity. 

Buccolingually (biik-o-tin' -g^ual-e). From the cheek 
toward the tongue. 

Buccopharyngeus [bttk-o-far-in'-jf-us). See under 

Buchner's Humoral Theory. See under Immiinily. 

Bucinal (/v/-.i/«-,;.'). See 79«.< /;;<;/ (lllus. Diet.). 

Bucnemia indica. See Biirnr/nia (lllus. Diet.). B. 
sparganotica. See Phiigniasia alba dolens (lllus. 
Diet. ). 

Bud. (See lllus. Diet. 1 B., Gustatory, B., Taste. 
See 7'<7j/6--(''W (lllus. Diet.). 

Bufonin (bii' ■fon-in'). ^n^^ifi.^- A crystalline sub- 
stance isolated by Faust (1902) from an alcoholic ex- 
tract of the dried skins of toads; it is clieniieally re- 
lated to cholesterin. 

Bufotalin (bii-fi/-/a!-in). C,,„n,,|0.j5. A toxic sub- 
stance isol.ated by I'liisalix and Berlrand from the 
parotid gland and skin of the comnnui toad, Biifo 
7-n/gitris : it is a transparent resin, soluble in chloro- 
form, alcohol, and acetone. It acts on the heart and 
does not affect the nervous centers. 

Bufotenin [btt-fV-ten-in). A toxic body found widi 
bufotalin (</. v.)\ it exerts a jHAverfully j)aralyzi]ig 
action on the nervous centers 

Bugantia (bu-gan'-shc-aJi) [1-.]. A chilblain. 

Bukardia \bii ka>''-de-ah) \^flovKap{i'w, ox heart]. I ly- 
]>ertrophy of the heart. 

Bulamize (bn'-lam-iz). To infect with Bulain fever. 

Bulb. (See lllus. Diet.) B., Arterial, the anterior 
part of the embryonic heart from the division of which 
the aortic and pulmonary stems have their origin. B., 
Brachial, B., Brachiorhachidian, the expansion of 
the sjiinal cord at the jilace of di^tl■ibution of the nerves 
f.irming the brachial plexus. B. of the Corpus 
spongiosum. See B, of iJir i'lilhra (lllus. Diet.). 
B., Crural, the dilation of the spinal cord in the lum- 
bar region. B., Dentinal, a dentinal pa|iilla. B., 
End. See i^W-ZW/M lllus. Diet.). B. of the For- 
nix. See Spleniinn (.lllus. Diet.). B.s, Four, the 
corpora quadrigemina. B., Gustative, B., Gusta- 
tory. See TJw/t'-^/a'j (lllus. Diet. ). B.s, Krause's. 
See Corpuscles, Kratisc' s (lllus. Diet, I. B., Lum- 
borrhachidian. See /?., Crural. B., Nerve. See 
Kn.l-bicl and Motorial End-plate (lllus. Diet.). B. 
of the Ovary. See B., A'ortgct's. B., Postcornual. 
.See Occipital Eminence (lllus. Diet. 1. B., Rhachid- 
ian, the oblongata. B., Rouget's, the bulb of the 




ovary; a plexus of veins lying on the surface of the 
ovary and communicating with the nterine and pam- 
piniform plexuses. B. of the Spinal Cord or Marrow, 
the oblongata. B., Terminal Nerve. See Curpiis- 
cUs of A'laiisd (lUus. Dict.j. B.s, Tonsillar, the 
lobules of the cerebellum. Syn. , Biilbi toiintlarcs. 
B., Vestibular, B., Vestibulovaginal. See B. of 
i/ie I'd^'iii,: (lUus. Diet.). 

Bulbocapnin ybul-bo-kup'-nin). <Z^^\-^.f)^ (Freund). 
The principal alkaloid from Cory,ialis tubcrosa, D. C, 
occurring as a white crystalline powder, soluble in 
alcohol and chloroform and melting at 199° C. B. 
Hydrochlorate, C„H.,5N./J, . HCI, white crystalline 
powder, soluble in hot water. 

Bulbonuclear ybnl-bo-nu'-kle-ar). Relating to the 
oblongata and its nerve-nuclei. 

Bulbopetal y^bnl-bo-pct'-al ) \biilbHS, bulb; petere, to 
seek]. Moving toward the buli>; said of nerve im- 

Bulbosin (bid' -bo-sin). A syrup-like sulistance of 
strong alkaline reaction obtained by E. Boudier from 
the fungus Amanita phalloides, Fr. 

Bulbus [pi., i^«/iii]. (See Illns. Diet.) B. cinereus. 
See Bulb, Olfactory (Illus. Diet. ). B. crinis, a hair- 
bulb. B. oculi, the globe of the eye. B. pili. See 
Bulb of a Hair (Illus. Diet.). Bulbi priorum cru- 
rum fornicis. See Corpora inainmillaria (Illus. Diet. ). 
B. venae jugularis internae inferior, an enlarge- 
ment ot the jugular vein immediately abtjve its union 
with the subclavian vein. B. venae jugularis in- 
ternae superior, an enlargement of the internal jugular 
vein at the point of exit from the jugular foramen. B. 
vestibuli, the bulb of the vagina. 

Bulimia, Bulimiasis, Bulimy. (See Illus. Diet.) 
B. canina, B. cynorexia, B. emetica, bulimia with 
vomiting after eating. B. cardialgica, bulimia at- 
tended with gastralgia. B. syncopalis, that attended 
with fainting. B. verminosum, excessive hunger 
due to intestinal worms. 

Bulla. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Auditory. See B., 
Tympanic. B. dolentissima, a small, very painful 
cutaneous ulcer, which jjersists for a long time. B. a 
frigore, a blister from the efiect of cold. Bullae 
gangrcEnosae. those occurring in moist gangrene of 
the skin. B., Mastoid, in comparative anatomv a 
hollow eminence on the posterior portion of the mastoitl 
part of the periotic bone in some of the mammals. B., 
Petrotympanic. See B., Tympanic. B., Supra- 
tympanic. See B., Mastoid. B., Tympanic, in 
comparative anatomy a round, hollow projection on the 
inner and inferior aspect of the tympanic bone of some 
of the lower mammals. 

Bullation (/)«/-</-j7;««) [(5«//(jr<?, to bubble]. I. Infla- 
tion. 2. Division into small compartments. 

Bundle. (See Ilhis. Diet.) B., Aberrant [v. Bech- 
terew]. See Tract, Cowers'. B., Arnold's, the libers 
which fi)rm the inner third of the crusta of the cerebral 
peduncles. B.s, Association, the association fibers 
of the cerebrum. B., Comma-shaped. See Tract, 
ScAiil!:e's. B., Gierke's Respiratory. See B., 
Krausc' s Respiratory. B., Gowers'. See Column, 
GOTfe'/T' (Illus. Diet.). B., Gratiolet's. See Pallia- 
tion, Optic I IWas. D\ct.). B., Ground. ?,ee Grouml- 
bundlc. B., v. Gudden's Hemispheric, one in the 
optic tract passing over to the must lateral portion of 
the base of the peduncle and thence to the cerebral 
hemisphere. B. of the Gyrus fornicatus. See 0'«;'«- 
/«/«. B., Helweg's Triangular. See Fillet, Olivary 
(Illus. Diet.). B., Hemispheral, the posterior one 
of the two bundles composing the anterior commissure. 
It originates in the pyramidal cells of the temjioral 
lobe and amygdaloid nucleus, passes through the ex- 

ternal capsule and lenticula, unites with the mesial 
part of the commissure at the point of he decussation 
of its fibers, and radiates to the opposite temporal lobe. 
B., Inferior Longitudinal. See Tascicultis, Longitu- 
ilinal Inferior. B.s, Internuclear. See Bridges, 
Intercellular. B., Krause's Respiratory, the soli- 
tary fascicle of the oblongata. B., Lenhossek's. 
See under Lentiossek (Illus. Diet.). B., Longitu- 
dinal, a bundle of fibers outside of the optic radiation 
passing from the occipital to the temporal lobe. B., 
Meynert's. See under il/iMWivY (llhis. Diet. ). B., 
Muscle. See under Muscle (Illus. Diet.). B., Oval. 
See B., Tiirck's. B., Pick's, an anomalous bundle 
of nerve-fibers in the oblongata connected with the 
pyramidal tract. B., Primitive, B., Schwann's 
Primitive, a muscular fiber. B., Solitary, B., 
Trineural. See mider Solitary (Ilhi.s. Diet. I. B., 
Spitzka's, a tract of nerve-fibers which passes from 
the cerebral cortex through the i)\Tainidal region of 
the pes peduneuli to the oculomotor nuclei of the 
opposite side. B., Stilling's, the solitary fascicle of 
the oblongata. B., Turck's, a tract of nerve-fibers 
passing from the cortex of the temporosphenoid lobe 
through the outer portion of the crusta of the cerebral 
peduncle and the pons into the internal geniculate 

Bunioid tbuii'-e-oid) [.Joi'rdf, a hill; fiilor, likeness]. 
Having a round form ; applied to tumors. 

Bunogaster (bnn-o-gas'-tiir) \_.itniur, a little hill; 
-^uariij), stomach]. Having a protruding abdomen. 

Buphane [bit-fin-e' ) [/^I'f, ox ; 9017/, slaughter]. .\ 
genus of plants of the order AinarvUideic. B. disticha, 
a native of the Cape of Good Hope ; the juice of the 
bulb is used as an arrow-poison liy the Hottentt)ts. 

Bur. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Dental, an instrument 
with a rounded, pointed, cylintlric, or oval head and 
a cutting blade, used in the dental engine for excavat- 
ing carious dentine, and for other purposes. B., 
Surgical, an in.strainent similar in form to a dental 
bur, but larger, designed for surgical ojierations upon 
the bones. 

Buranham, Buranhem (biir-abn'-ya/im -yeiii) [Port.]. 
See .Uonea'a (Illus. Diet.). 

Burkism (/»//; /{■'-/:/«). See Burking (IWus. Diet.). 

Burmah Head. A disease of the Burmese territory 
marked by loss of memory, idiocy, homicidal mania, 
and inability to walk. 

Burn. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Brush, a lesion present- 
ing the appearance of a burn, but due to friction. 

Bursa. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Accidental, B., Ad- 
ventitious, one resembling a bursa imieosa-, but due 
to friction or pressure. B., Acromial, External, 
one beneath the acromion, between the eoraeoid process, 
the deltoid muscle, and the capsular ligament. B., 
Acromial, Internal, one lying above the acromion, 
between the tendon of the infrasjjinatus and the teres 
major. B., Anconeal, one between the olecranon 
and the tendon of the triceps extensor cubiti. B., 
Beyer's, the subhyoid bursa. B. calcanea, one lying 
between the tendo .^chillis and the caleaneum. B., 
Capituloradial, one lying between the head of the 
railius and the common tendon of the extensor carpi 
radialis brevis and the extensor communis digitorum. 
B., Clavicular, one lying between the clavicle and 
the coracoid process of the scajiiila. B.. Coraco- 
brachial, one lying between the tendon of the coraco- 
brachialis muscle and the capsular ligament. B. 
coracoidea, one near the root of the coracoid process. 
B. epicondyli. a bursa sometimes found between the 
skin and the outer condvie of the humerus. B. epi- 
trochleas, one found between the skin and the inner 
condyle of the humerus. B., External (of the teres 




major), one lying between tlie head of llie luunerus 
and (lie teres major. B., Fleischmann's, a bursa 
lying in the sul^linyual >i)ace beneath tlic frcmnn iin- 
giiiv; its existence is <lispnte(l. B., Gluteofascial, 
B., Gluteotrochanteric, one lying between tlie tro- 
clianter major ami tlie glut.cus maximus. B., 
Gruber's, tlie synovial cavity of the tarsal sinus. B., 
Humerobicipital, one tying within tlie bicipital groove 
of the humerus. B., Iliac, i. One lying between 
the lendim of the iliacus nmscle and the trochantin. 
2. One between the ])elvic brini and the iliopsoas 
muscle. B., Iliopuberal, one lying between the 
capsular ligament ai the hii>-joinl and the iliacus inter- 
nus and psoas m.agnus nui-.cles. B., Infragenual. 
See B. palelUe. B., Internal lof the teres major), 
one found within the teres major at the point of diverg- 
ence of its fibers. B., Luschka's, a crypt, larger 
and more defined than the neighboring crypts, fre- 
quently located in the lower part of the [iliaryngeal 
tonsil, an<l reganled as a vestige of the coninninication 
existing during early fetal hfe between llie pharynx 
and the hypophysis. B., Obturatory, one lying 
between the capsular ligament of the hip-joint and the 
obturator internus and gemelli muscles. B., Omen- 
tal, B. omentalis, a large cavity formed by the peri- 
toneum back of the stomach and in the great omentum. 
It is dividetl into tile bursa of the great omentum and 
the bursa of the lesser omentum. B. omenti majoris, 
the bursa of the greater omentum. B. omenti 
minoris, the bursa of the lesser omentum. B. patellae, 
B. patellaris, one lying between the patella and the 
skin. B. patellaris lateralis externa, one lying 
between the patella and tire external lateral dilation of 
the tentlon of the quadriceps extensfjr cruris; it is 
rarely found. B. patellaris lateralis interna, one 
between the ])atella and the inner lateral tiilation of 
the quailriceps extensor cruris; it maybe cither deep 
or superlicial. B., Pectineal, one lying between the 
femur aii<l the peclineus muscle. B. of the Pecto- 
ralis major, one lying between the head of the hu- 
merus and the inner surface of tlie pectoralis ni.ajor. 
B. pectoralis minoris, one beneath the tendon of 
the pectoralis minor. B., Pharyngeal. See under 
Pltaryiyjeal [\\\^xi. Diet.). B., Rider's. See under 
Riiier dllus. Diet ). B. sacralis. one found in the 
aged over the sacrococcygeal articulation or over the 
spine of the fourth or fiftli sacral vertebra. B., Sterno- 
hyoid, one lying between the hyoid bone and tlie iii- 
serlion of tlie sternohyoid muscle. B., Stylohyoid, 
one beneath the insertion, of the stylohyoid muscle. 

Bursalis (hiir-su'-lis). The obturator internus muscle. 

Bursattee. A disease occurring in India resembling 
equine mycosis. 

Bursera. (See Ilhis. Diet.) B. depechiana, Pois., 
furnishes oil of Mexican lignaloes. B. gummifera, 
L., a native of South America; the resin, cliiboii or 
cachibou, is used in ]>lasters and salves and internally 
in diseases of the lungs and kidney. The leaves are 
vulnerary, the bark is anthelmintic and antigonorrheic, 
and the root is used in diarrhea. 

Burserin [btii-'-stT-in) \_Bnrserti^ a genus of plants]. A 
resinous constituent of opobalsam. 

Bursin [httf^-sin). .\n alkaloid isolated from Cnp^elhi 
hitrsa-pastoris^ Moench. It is a yellow deliquescent 
powder, used as an astringent, tonic, and styptic, 
instead of ergot, and hypodermically in aqueous solu- 

Bursitis. (See Illus. Diet.) B., Omental, inflamma- 
tion of the omental bursa. B., Retrocalcaneal. See 
A.hillodynia (Illus. Diet.). 

Burst. In veterinary practice, a hernia. 

Bush-tea. The leaves and tops of Cyclopia genistoideSy 

Vent., and C. suhlernaia, Vog. , used at Cape Colony 
as a substitute for tea. They contain a glucosid, cyclo- 


Butane (bii'/dn). C,.H,„. An anesthetic substance 
isolateil from petroleum. Syn., Butyl hydiui. 

Butin (liu'-tin\. CjH^. A liquid hydrocarbon fouml 
in coal-gas; boils at 20° C. S)n.. I'itivlfthyliic. 

Butter. (See Illus. Diet. ) B., Bambarra. B., Bam- 
bouc, B., Bambuk. See Bomlioui BulUr. B. of 
Canara, a .solid body obtained from the fruit of ]'i)teriii 
/«,//<,;, L. B., Chi, B., Galam. 'r^ee BuiiboKi Biitkr. 
B.-cyst. See CV.t/. B.-fly. i See lllu.s. Ilict.) 2. 
Wing-shaped skin (laps. B., Kokum, oil of Garcinia. 
B., Palm. See Oil, Piilm. B., Shea. See 
/i.'iic JSiittc-r. B.-tree. See Biilynnpermiiin parkii. 
B., Vegetable. See B. of Cacao (Illus. Diet.). 

Buttermilk yhiil' -iir-tnilk). The liquid left after ex- 
tr.icting the butter from cream. B. -belly, a distended 
abdomen; pot-belly. 

Button. (.See Illus. Diet.) B., Chlumsky's, an in- 
testinal button made of pure m.agiiesiuni alter the jiat- 
tern of the Murphy butlcm. It remains undissolved 
for 4 weeks, only the outer part becoming softer. 

Buttress \liiil' -ra). The inflexion of the hoof-wall at 
the heel in solipeds. 

Butyl. (See Illus. Diet.) B. Acetate, CjI!,jO.,, a 
liquid isomer of caproic acid. B.-carbinol, amyl 
alcohol. B. Hydrid. See Biilaiic. B.-hypnal, a 
combination of butyl chloral and antipyrin. forming 
transparent needles soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
chloroform, and in 30 parts of water; melts at 70° C. 
It is hypnotic and antipyretic. B. lodid. Secondary, 
C^H^l, a colorless liquid obtained from eiytlnite by 
distillation with hydroiodic acid; boils at Ilt>° C, sp. 
gr. 1.632 at 0° C. B., Iso- (compounds). See 
under Iso. B. Nitrite, (CIl3)3C : N()j, a liquid; sp. 
gr. O.S914; melts at 63° C. 

Butylic \hu-til'-ik\. Containing butyl or related to it. 

Butylidene (bii-til'-id-eii\. C^II„. A bivalent radicle 
isomeric with butylene. B. Oxid, butyl aldehyd. 

Butyphus \hii-li'-fiii\ [,3'jrc, an ox; riifof, stupor]. 
The cattle-plague. Syn., Rinderpest. 

Butyraceous [liut-ir-a' -situs] [liiityyiim, butter]. Re- 
sembling or containing butter. 

Butyral (Im/'-ir-al). CjiH.Oj. A colorless, mobile 
liquid obtained from the distillation of barium butyrate. 

Butyrate {luil'irdt) \biityrum, butter]. A salt of 
butyric acid. 

Butyrchloral Hydrate. See Chloral biitylicum (Illus. 
Diet. I. 

Butyric (^kA/V-/^). Contained in butter ; derived from 
butter. B. Anhydrid, so-called "anhydrous butyric 
acid,'' C^H,,!)^, obtained by the action of butyryl 
elilorid on a cirv alkali butyrate. It has a specific 
gravity of 0.978 at 12.5° C. and boils at I9I°-I93° C. 

Butyroid [but'-ir-oid). Having the consistency of butter. 

Butyrolein [biit-ir-o'le-iii). A substance found in but- 
ter which differs from olein in not yielding sebacic acid 
when distilled. 

Butyromel [btit-irt-o-inel). The projjrietary name for a 
mixture of 2 parts of fresh butter and I part of honey, 
rubbed together until a clear yellow mixture is obtained. 
It is used in preparing palatable i:)re]iarations of cod- 
liver oil and other nauseous oleaginous substances. 

Butyrometer \but-iy-oin'-el-iir) [ -io/iTtipi)/', butter; jih- 
piir, measure]. An apparatus for determining the 
proportion of fatty matter in milk. 

Butyroscope (btil-ii'-o-skop) [.Jorrr^ov, butter; rrno-eiv, 
to look]. An instrument for estimating the proportion 
of fat in milk. 

Butyrospermum {biit-ir-o-sjmr'-mum) [lini-nifiov, but- 
ter; anipna, seed]. A genus of trees of the order 




Sapolaceit. B. parkii, the shea tree, baml)uc or but- 
ter tree, a species of the African tropics, furnishes 
barabuc butter yq. -:) from its fatty seeds. 

Butyrous (biit'-ir-us). See Butynueoiis. 

Butyryl [biit'-ir-ii). C^H,. A h)-pothetic radicle of 
butyric acid. 

Buxinidin (duk-sin'-id-in). An alkaloid obtained with 
buxin from the bark of Biixiis semfen^irens. 

Bychorcho. The Russian name for the poisonous 
spider GaUodes araneoidcs. 

Bynedestin yhbi-e-des'-tin) [^ivi], malt; ifitoTuq, 
edible]. A globulin obtained from malt. 

Bynin (fe/'-/«) [in;/, malt]. I. A proteid, insoluble 
in water, found in malt. 2. A proprietary li(|uid ex- 
tract of malt made in England. B., Amara, a com- 

bination of bynin (2) with the phosphates of iron, 

quinin, and strychnin. 
Bynocascada (bin-o-kas-kad'-ah). A proprietary 

preparation consisting of liquid malt, cascara sagrada, 

and frangula. Dose, as an aperient, yi fluid ounce ; 

as a laxative, I fluid dram. 
Bynol (bin'-ol). A combination of malt extract and 

cod-liver oil. 
Byrolin (bir'-ol-in). A combination of boric acid, 

glycerin, and lanolin, used in skin diseases. • 

Byssal [bis^-ai). Relating to byssus. 
Byssoid \bis'-oid ). Consisting of a filamentous fringe 

of which the strands are of unequal length. 
Byssopbthisis \bis-o-tiz'-is). iiee Byssinosis (lllus. 


Cabal {ka-ba!'") \^\x., kaba/a, tradition]. A pretended 
system of medicine, carried out by the agency of super- 
natural powers ; the cabalistic art. 

Cabalistic Theory. That all the events of life and all 
the phenomena of nature proceed from influences which 
gods, devils, or the stars exercised on the "archetype" 
— that is, on the essential spirit or substance. [Park.] 

Caballine [kab' -al-eii) iKaia'/'/j/c, a horse]. Relating 
to or u>ed for horses ; applied to a variety of aloes. 

Cabanis' Pallet. A shovel-shaped instrument consist- 
ing of two plates of perforated silver, jointed and 
movable on each other ; it is used to seize the extrem- 
ity of the nasal probe in Mejeans operation for lacri- 
mal fistula. 

Cacabay. The name for lepra in the .\ntilles. 

Cacaerometer [ia/:-a-er-om'-(-/iir) [kokoq, bad; ai/p, 
air; //tVpoi', measure]. An apparatus for determining 
the impurity of the air. 

Cachexia [pi., cachexiiE, cachexias\. (See lllus. Diet.) 
C, Alcoholic, the disordered condition of health due 
to abuse of alcohol. C, Alkaline, that due to alka- 
linity of the blood. C. aquosa. (See lllus. Diet.) 
2. A form of cachexia obsened in cattle and sheep, 
believed to be caused by a species of Distoma. C, 
Arsenical, chronic arsenical poisoning. C, Can- 
cerous, C. canceratica, C, Carcinomatous, a con- 
dition marked by weakness, emaciation, and a muddy 
or brownish complexion, due to carcinomatous disease. 
Syn., Citncerous diathesis. C, Cardiac, a condition 
resembling chlorosis with blueness of the mucosa, 
observed in subjects of chronic heart-disease. C. cel- 
lulose hydatigena. See Measles (2) (lllus. Diet.). 
C, Chlorotic, chlorosis. C, Drunkard's. See C, 
Aleoholic. C. exophthalmica, exopluhalmic goiter. 
C. intumescentia, that accompanied by swelling of 
some part. C, Lead, the disordered condition due 
to chronic plumbism. C, Lymphaticosplenic. See 
Lyinphadenoiiia ilUus. Diet. I. C, Malarial, C, 
Malarious, C, Marsh. See under J/fr/./rw/ (lllus. 
Diet. i. C. mercurialis, a cachectic condition caused 
by continued use of mercury. Syn., Mercurial dialhe- 
sis. C, Miners'. See Cneinariasis. C, Osteal, 
profound cachexia seen in children and accompanied 
by painful swelling of one of the long bones, with 
hematinuria or extravasation of blood into a tissue, and 
often by rachitic phenomena. C. ovium hydropica. 
See J?y/(b) (lllus. Diet.). C. Paludal. See Ma- 

larial Cachexia (lllus. Dict.V C, Periosteal. See 
C, Osteal. C, Saturnine. See C, Lead. C, 
Splenic, C. splenica et lymphatica, C. splenico- 
lymphatica, C. splenetica. See Lymfhadenoma 
(lllus. Diet. ). C, Strumous, that due to scrofula or 
causing its development. C, Suprarenal, -Addison's 
disease. C, Tuberculous, the disordered condition 
preceding the development of tuberculosis. C. uteri, 
C. uterina, leukorrhea. C. venerea, syphilis. C. 
venosa. See Veuosity (lllus. Diet.). C. vermin- 
osa, C, Verminous, that due to intestinal worms. 
C. virginum, chlorosis. 

Cachibou. See nnAtr Biirsera giimmi/era, L. 

Cacillana Bark (kas-il-aii'-ah). See Coceillana (lllus. 
Diet. I. 

Cacochymic. (See lllus. Diet.) 2. One affected with 

Cacodiacol (kak-o-di'-ak-ol). Guaiacol cacodylate. 

Cacodylate (kak-od'-il-at). A salt of cacodylic acid. 

Cacoethes. (See lllus. Diet.) 2. A malignant 

Cacoethic (kak-o-eth'-ik) [xoMif, bad; ffer, habit]. 

Cacopharyngia ikak-o-far-iii'-je-ah] [xoKOf, bad ; pap- 
1 : ;, the pharynx]. Gangrene of the pharynx. 

Cacoplasia {kak-o-pla'-se-ah) [xoKof, bad; ■n'/.tiaativ, 
to form]. The formation of diseased structures. 

Cacopneumonia [kak-o-nii-iro'-ite-ah) [/iOKfif, bad; 
piici(nio>ua~\. Gangrene of the lung. 

Cacopraxis {kak-o-praks'-is). See Cacopragia (lllus. 
Diet. I. 

Cacosplanchnia {kak o-splaiigk'-ne-ah) [xoKOf, bad; 
G-'/ayxvn, the viscera]. A diseased condition of the 
digestive tract and consequent emaciation. 

Cacothesis (kak-otli'-es-is) [anKoi, bad; ft'ffif, a plac- 
ing]. A faulty position of a part or of the entire 

Cacotrichia (kak-o-lri¥-e-ah) [xaitdf, bad; flpi'f, hair]. 
.\ diseased condition of the hair. 

Cactin ( iak'-tin). I. .\n acrid resinous glucosid obtained 
from Cereus grandijiortis. 2. A red coloring-matter 
obtained from the fruit of Cereus variabilis, Pfeiff., and 
other species. 

Cacur (kak'-ur'). A small gourd, the fruit of Cucumis 
mrriocarpus, which is used in an unripe state as an 
emetic by the Kaffirs. Twenty grains of the fresh 
pulp produces in man nausea and slight purgation. 




Cacurgia {kuk-iii-'-je ah) [/;a;.oi,i)(«, hurtful ness]. 
I'liiiclicmal disorcicrs. 

Cadinene \kii<l-in-iii). CjjH.j,. A sesquiterpene boil- 
ing at 274° C. 

Cadmiferous, Cadmiferus (knU-mi/'-ur-iis). Con- 
taining cadmium. 

Cadmium. (See lllus. Diet.) C. Acetate, Cd(C2Hj- 
*-*>)3 t" 3H^(), colorless crystals soluble in water. C. 
Bromid, CdBr.j j- 4H,jO, colorless etilorescent needles 

• soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. C. Carbonate, 
CdCO;;, wliite amorphous powder. C. Chlorate, 
Cd(C103).„ colorless deliquescent crystals, soluble in 
water. C. Chlorid, Cd("l2, small white crystals solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. C. Chromate. See C. 
Vflloiv, under J'ix'ment (lllus. Diet.). C. Citrate, 
Cd.j(CgH50,)2, while crystalline powder, soluble in 
Witter. C. Ethid, C. Ethyl, Cd(C.,H5)2, a colorless 
liquid. C. Ferricyanid, CdjFejfCjNj)^, a yellow 
powder. C. Fluroid, CdF.j, a white powder soluble 
ill hydrotluoric acid solution; slightly soluble in water. 
C. Hydrate, C. Hydroxid, Cd(OH).^, while amor- 
phous solid or powder, soluble in ammonia. C. Hy- 
driodate. See C". /i)</<;/c (lllus. Diet. ). C. Monoxid. 
See C. Oxui. C. Nitrate, CdtNOj)^ + 4HjO, while 
mass or deliquescent fibrous needles, soluble in water 
and alcohol. C. Oxid, CdO, an amorphous dark- 
brown powder, soluble in acids. C. Paraphenol- 
sulfonate. See C. Sulfocarbohite. C. Salicylate, 
Cd(C,H50.,).j, white needles soluble in water and 
alcohol. It is used in purulent ophthalmia, etc., and 
is said to be a more active antiseptic than other cad- 
mium salts. C. Suboxid, Cd^O, a greenish powder. 
C. Sulfarsenite, Cd.AsjSj, a yellow salt. C. Sulfo- 
carbolate, Cd(CjlI^.SC), Ij, white crystals, soluble in 
water; it is antiseptic and astringent. C. Sulfo- 
phenylate. See C. Sitlfocarbolale. C. Valerian- 
ate, C,'(1(C5H., 0.^)2, occurring in small white scales with 
an (xlor of valerian ; it is antispasmic. 

Caduca. (See lllus. Diet. ) C. crassa, C, External, 
C, External Uterine, C, Parietal. See Decidita 
vfi-ii (lllus. Diet. ). C, Hunter's, the decidua. C, 
Intermediary, C., Interuteroplacentar, C, Sec- 
ondary, C, Uteroplacentar. See Decidua serotina 
(lllus. IJict.). C, Internal. See Decidua reflexa 
(lllus. Diet.). 

Caesalpinia. (See Illu.s. Diet.) C. bonduc, Roxb. , a 
prickly, trailing shrub of most tropical coasts. The 
seeds, Molucca beans, and the whole plant are anthel- 
mintic and emmenagog; the oil of the seeds is used in 
rheumatism. It contains bonducin. C. brevifolia, 
Baill., a native of Chili. The fruit (balsamocarpon) is 
used as divi-divi and contains 67 1> of tannin and 11% 
of resinous substance. C. coriaria, Willd. , American 
sumach, divi-divi, a South .American shrub cultivated 
in India, where the dried powdered pods are used as 
an anli|)eriodic. Dose, 40-60 gr. A decoction of the 
pods is used as an injection in the treatment of bleed- 
ing piles. C. echinata. Lam., a tree of Brazil, fur- 
nishes Hrazil wood ; the bark, rich in tannin, is used 
as an astringent, roborant, and febrifuge. C. sappan, 
L., a tree of India; the brownish-red wood, sapjian 
wood, contains sappanin and is used as an astringent; 
it furnishes a red dye and the root a yellow dye. 

Caesar {se^-zar^. An individual born by Cesarean sec- 

Cafeone [kaf'-e-'on). See Caffeone. 

Caferana (kaf-iiy-an'-ah). See Tachia giiianensis. 

Caffeidin (caf-e' -id-in). C,H,,NjO. A decomposition- 
product of caflTein, occurring as an oily liquid soluble 
in water. 

Caffein. (See lllus. Diet.) Dose, 1-3 gr. (0.06-0.2 
gm.). Syn., T/iein; Gtiaranin ; I'soralin; Methyl- 

theobiomin ; Trimc/hylxaiilhin. C. Acetate, C„H,(|- 
NjOj( Cjll,(l.^).;, a true but unstable salt, forming 
fine white needles, soluble in water with decomposi- 
tion. It is used as catl'ein. C. Arsenate, a combina- 
tion of catTein and arsenic acid occurring as a white 
powder, soluble in hot water. C. Benzoate, Cgll,,,- 
N,' )j . C, lljOj, a white crystalline [lowder decompos- 
ing in water. Uses and doses as caffein. C. Boro- 
citrate, iC|,H,„N,0, jjBt.),, a white crystalline pow- 
der, soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform ; it de- 
composes in water. It has the elit-ct of calfein com- 
bined with the antiseptic action of boric acid. C. 
Bromid. '>fte C. Hydrobromale. C. Carbolate, C^H,,- 
N^( )2 . IlOC'gll^, a white crystalline mass, soluble in 
alcohol and water with decomposition. It is an anti- 
septic, diuretic and stimulant, having the combined 
action of caffein and carbolic acid, and is used subcu- 
taneously. C. Chloral, C„H,„N,(),^-CCl3CO!l, a 
molecular combination of caffein and chloral, occur- 
ring in soluble crystals. It is scilative and analgesic. 
Dose, 3-5 gr. (0.2-0.3 gni. ). C. Cinnamate, C^[I,„- 
NjOj . C,H„0.^, a true salt occurring in white crystal- 
line masses, soluble in water with decomposition; its 
uses and dosage as caffein. C. Citrate, (C„IIn,N^02)3- 
CgligO-, a true salt, forming a white crystalline jjow- 
der, used as caffein. It is soluble in water and alcohol 
with decomposition. C, Citrated, this is improperly 
called caffein citrate and is prepared by tiissolving 
equal weights of caffein and citric acid in double the 
quantity of hot distilled water. Dose, 3-8 gr. (0. 2- 
0.52 gm. ). C, Citrated Effervescent, a white 
granular powder effervescing on the addition of 
water and containing i % of caflein. Dose, 60 gr. (3. 88 
gm.). C. Citrobenzoate, (C,^H,„N,(_)., j^CjlijO, -f 
(CjHjdNjOj . C, IljOj),, a crystalline powder, decom- 
posing in water ; its uses and dosage the same as 
caffein. C. Citrosalicylate, (C„l l,(,N,( i.j)3C8H„0, -f- 
(C„11,|jN,0._, . CjHjUj).,, a true salt occurring as a 
white crystalline powder, decomposing in water. It 
is antiseptic and is used as caffein. C. Diiodid. See 
C Triiodid. C, Ethoxy-. See F.thoxycaffein 
(lllus. Diet.). C. Hydrobromate, caB'ein bromid, 
a true salt, CgH,(|N,0.jHBr, occurring as large crystals, 
reddish or greenish on exposure, soluble in water 
on decomposition. It is u.sed as a diuretic in in- 
jections of 4—10 TTL of a solution of 10 jiarts caffein 
hydrobromate, I part hydrobromic acid, and 3 jiarts 
distilled water. C. Hydrochlorate, C. Hydrochlorid. 
C^IIjjNjO^ . HCl -f ^HjO, a true salt occurring as 
large rhombic prismatic crystals, becoming greenish on 
exposure. It is soluble in water with decomi)usition. 
Its uses and dosage as caffein. C. Hydroiodate, C^- 
H,„N,0, .HI, a true salt occurring as white, easily 
decomposed crystals, soluble in watei- with decomposi- 
tion ; uses and dosage as caffein. C. Hydroxyl, a com- 
]>ound similar to ethoxycaffein. C. Lactate, C„II|„N,- 
Oj . CjIlgO.,, white crystalline masses soluble in alco- 
hol with decomposition ; its uses and dosage as caffein. 
C.Malate, (C8H,|,N,0,)2C,H„0,-, a true salt occur- 
ring in white deliquescent masses, .soluble in alcohol 
with decomposition ; uses and dosage as caffein. C. 
Muriate. See C. Hydrochlorate. C. Nitrate, CgH,„- 
N/l, . UNO., + HjO, a true salt .soluble in water with 
decomposition ; its uses and dosage as calfein. C. 
Oxalate, a true salt forming a white crystalline pow- 
der, C^HidNjO^H.^COj. It is soluble in water and 
alcohol with decomposition. C. Phenate, C Phenyl- 
ate. See C. Carholate. C. Phosphate, cy I, „N,i 1.^- 
II.,I'0,, white crystalline mass, soluble in alcohol with 
decoinposiiion ; its uses and dosage as caffein. C. 
Phthalate, (C,„H,,N/\)j . CgHp.'-j- a true salt 
occuiTing as white crystalline masses, soluble in 5 




parts of water willi decomposition ; its uses and dos- 
age as cafi'ein. C. Platinichlorid, ( C^il||,X/)„ . - 
HCl)2PtClj. Small yellow crystals. C. Salicylate, 
CgH,gN,0._, . CyH|.03, a true salt occurring as white 
crystalline masses, soluble in water and alcohol widi 
decomposition. It is used instead of cafTein with sali- 
cylic acid. Dose, as catTein. C. and Sodium Ben- 
zoate, a white powder containing 45.S;f of catt'ein, 
soluble in 2 parts of water. It is used instead of caf- 
fein by subcutaneous injection. Dose, about double 
that of caflein. Svn.. L\i[fciiuiin iiatriolH-nzonufn. C. 
and Sodium Cinnamate, a white powder containing 
62.5'/^ of caffein with 37.5'/ of sodium cinnamate. 
It is soluble in 2 parts of water. It is used instead of 
caffein with sodium cinnamate. Dose, ' ^ more than 
that of cafi'ein. C. and Sodium Hydrobromate, a 
white powder soluble in water and containing 52'/ of 
caft'ein with \%':'o of sodium bromid. It is used instead 
of caffein with bromids. Dose, about double that of caf- 
fein. C.and Sodium Salicylate, a white powder sol- 
uble in 2 parts of water and containing 62. 5 '^.r of caf- 
fein. It is used in rheumatism, etc., instead of caffein 
by subcutaneous injection. Dose, about double that of 
caffein. Syn., Cij/f'eifitiiri natriosaUi-ytitiiin. C. and 
Sodium Sulfonate, a diuretic. Dose, 15 gr. (i gm. |. 
Syn., Syiiiphorol. C. Succinate, (CgH,|,N'jO._, ).jQHg- 
O^, white crystals soluble in alcohol and water with 
decomposition. C. Sulfate, Ci,Hj„NjO,, . H.^S( >,, 
white crystals soluble in water with decomposition ; 
uses and dosage as caffein. C. Tannate, a yellow 
powder more astringent than caffein ; uses and dosage 
as caffein. C. Triiodid, (CjH.nNjO^Ij . HI j^ -4- 3H.,0, 
dark-green prisms, of a metallic luster, soluble in al- 
cohol. It is a diuretic and alterative, used instead of 
potassium iodid, and said to be nondepressing. Dose, 
2-4 gr. (0. 13-0.26 gm. ). Svn., Diioi/oca/fiin /ivdrio- 
,ial,\ C. Valerianate, Cj,H,„N,02 • C^ff^Oj, ' small 
lustrous needles, soluble in alcohol with decomposi- 
tion. It is used in nervous headache, whooping-cough, 
etc. Dose, 2-5 gr. several times a day. 

Caffeiniodol {kaf-e-in-i'-o-dol). See lodol, Caffeinaled. 

Caffeism [kaf'-e-izm). See Caffeinisin (Illus. Diet.). 

Caffeol (iaf'-e-ol). See Caffeonc. 

Caffeone \k,if'-e-d>t) [oifea, coffee]. C,H,„0.,. A 
volatile aromatic oily principle ( empyreumatic oil) pro- 
duced by the torrefaction of coffee. Svn., Cafeone; 

Caffolin (kaf'-o-liit). C^II„X,0,,. A crystalline sub- 
stance formed when hypocaffein is warmed with 
baryta water ; melts at I94°-I96° C. 

Cahincetin. See Caittcetin. 

Cahincigenin. See Caincig/nin. 

Cahincin. See Oiintin. 

Cailcedrin (kah-il sed'-rin). A very bitter resinous sub- 
stance isolated by Caventou from the bark of Khaya 
senegiih-iisis, and recommended by him as a substitute 
for quinin ; it is soluble in alcohol and ether. 

Caincate (Aah-in'-kal). A salt of caincic acid. 

Caincetin {kah-in'sd-hi). C2.,I1„0.|. A derivative 
of caincin obtained by prolonged boiling with alcoholic 
hydrochloric acid. 

Caincigenin {kah-in-sij'-en-in). CnH.,,Oj. A product 
<if caincetin formed with butyric acid by the action of 
caustic potash. 

Caincin (k,i/:-iii'-sin) [Caincii or Oi/iinea, Ihe South 
-\merican name for several species of C/iio(-occi>~\. C,,,- 
'^64*^is' -^ glucosid from Chiococca nicemosa and C. 
hrachiata. It occurs in white, odorless, crystalline 
flakes, with a bitter astringent taste, soluble in alcohol 
and ether and slightly in water. In small doses it is 
diuretic and cathartic and an emetic in large doses. It 
is used in dropsy. Dose, diuretic and cathartic, 2-4 gr. ; 

emetic, 8-15 gr. Maximum dose, 15 gr. (i gm. ). 
Syn., Canuic acid. 
Cajuputene. (See Illus. Diet. ) C. Hydrate, cajuputol. 
Calabarization [kal-a-bar-iz-a'-fliuii). The act of 

bringing a person under the effects of calabarin, 
Calaguala [kaU-lnh-gii'ah'-liili)\\'exw\\?crt\. The com- 
mercial name for several ferns of the order Polypodi- 
accu:^ especially Pvlypodiiiin ialaguala^ a native of 
Peru, where it is esteemed as an excellent resolvent 
and diaphoretic remedy. It is used in chronic affections 
of the respiratory passages and in whooping-cough, in 
powders, 32-64 gr. per day. A decoction is used ex- 
ternally as a dressing for wounds. 
Calamine ykal'-aiii-in). An alkaloid from Acorns 

Calaya >^kal-a'-yali). A fluid extract of the fruit of 
Anncilca fcbiiftiga (?), used in m.alaria. Dose. 30 gr. 
(2 gm. ) every 2 hours. 
Calcaneotalar [ial-ka->ie-o-ta/'-ai]. See Cahaneo- 

aili.r^dlar (Illus. Diet.). 
Calcaneotibial ( kal-ka-iie-o-tili' -e-al) \_calcaneum, the 
heel ; tibia, tibia]. Relating to the calcaneum and 
Calcar. (See Illus. Diet.) 4. The styloid process of the 
temporal bone. C. avis, the hippocampus minor; the 
calcar. C. femorale, a plate of hard tissue around 
the neck of the femur. 
Calcarate (ka/'-karai) [caicar, a spur]. Spurred; 

furnished with spurs or spur-like processes. 
Calcarea [kal-kn'-re-a/i) [tn/.i-, limestone]. Lime. 
Calcareous. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. Having a chalky 

appearance or consistency. 3. Growing in chalk. 
Calcaria (kai-ka'-rc-ah). Lime. 
Calcariform (kal-kni-'-e-form) Icii/cnr, spur; foniia, 

form]. Spur-shaped. 
Calceolate (ka/'-sc-o-ldt). See Calceiforiii (Illus. 

Calciferous (kal-si/'-ur-us). Containing lime, chalk, or 

Calcific (kal-sif'-ik) [co/.r, lime]. Forming lime. 
Calcinol (kal'-siii-ol). See Ca/ciiim lodnlc. 
Calciomonohydric [kal-sc-o-vion-o-ki'-drik). Contain- 
ing calcium and one atom of hydrogen. 
Calciotetrahydric ( kalsc-o-rct-m/u'-drik) . Contain- 
ing calcium and 4 atoms of hydrogen. 
Calcium. (See Illus. Diet.) C. Acetate, Ca(C.,H,,0„)2, 
a white amorphous powder soluble in water. It is 
used in tuberculosis and psoriasis. C. Acetoglycol- 
late, CallijCgOj -(- 2H.^O, small prismatic crystals. 
C. Albuminate, an alterative and nutrient used in 
rachitis. C. Arsenate, Ca3(AsO)4, fine white prisms 
or powder. C. Arsenite, Ca3(.'\s03)2, a white granu- 
lar powder. C. Bichromate, CaCr^O;. coarse, brown- 
ish-reil, deliquescent, crystalline powder, soluble in 
water. C. Bisulfite, Liquid, a solution of calcium 
sulfite (CaSO.,) in an aqueous solution of sulfurous 
acid. It is used, when diluted with 4 to 8 limes its 
amount of water, as an antiseptic gargle or wash. C. 
Bitartrate, Ca(lIC,H,0„)._„ colorless rhombic crystals 
soluble in water. C. Borate, a veiy light white pow- 
der. It is used as an antiseptic and astringent, inter- 
nally in children's diarrhea and externally in fetid per- 
spiration and weeping eczema. Dose. 1-5 gr. 3 times 
daily, .\pplication, lO'V to 20'^ ointment or dujting- 
powder. C. Boroglycerid, an anti.septic substance 
prepared by heating together calcium borate and gly- 
cerin. It forms a transparent, hygroscopic mass, solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. C. Bromate, Ca(Br03)j, a 
crvstalline compound of calcium and bromic acid. C. 
Bromid. CaBr.,, very deliquescent white granules with 
a sharp saline taste, soluble in water and alcohol. It is 
a nerve sedative. Dose, 10-30 gr. 2 times daily. C. 





Bromoiodid, Cal^ + Calirj, a mixture of calcium 
ioilicl and bromid in molecular proportions, forming a 
yellow powder soluble in water. It is alterative and 
sedative. Dose, 5-10 gr. (O.32-0.65 gni. ) 3 times 
daily. C.Butyrate, Ca(C,Il,Uj).^ i ll^O, transparent 
scales soluble in water. C. Carbid, Cat",,, obtained 
from lime with carbon, by the electric furnace. It oc- 
curs in gray to Ijluish-black, irregular lumps, decom- 
po.iing with water, evolving acetylene, and leaving a 
residue of slaked lime ; .sp. gr. 2.22. It is used in the 
jiailiative treatment of cancer of the vagina and uterus. 
C. Carbolate, Ca(OC5H-)j, a red<lish antiseptic pow- 
der, Used a* a disinfectant and internal and external 
antiseptic. Dose, 2-5 gr. (o. 13-0.32 gm.). C. Car- 
bonate, Ca(OC^H5i^, a reddish powder used as an 
internal and external antiseptic. Dose, 2-5 gr. {0.13- 
0.32 gin. ). C. Chinovate. See C. Quintna/f. C. 
Chlorate, Ca(Cl()3).^ -^ ^llji ), deliquescent colorless 
crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. C. Chlorau- 
rate, Ca(AuCl,).^ 4- H,;0, a compound of goM and 
calcium chlorid, fonning crystals soluble in water. 
C. Chromate, CaCrO,, a fine lemon-yellow powder. 
C. Cinnamate, CaiCjH.O.J^ + SH/"". colorless 
needles soluble in hot water. C. Citrate, Ca.,- 
(Cgll^tJ,)., -(- 4H2O, a crystalline powder, soluble in 
1733 parts of water at 90° C; more soluble in cold 
water. A solution is recommended for the treat- 
ment of burns. C. Cresylate, a syrupy fluid ob- 
tained by treating calcium hydrate with cresol. It is 
useil as a disinfectant instead of carbolic acid. C. 
Cyanid, Ca(CN)2, crystalline cubes soluble in water. 
C. Enanthylate,'(C/H,.,O.JCa -f HjO, a comjiound 
of calcium and enanthylic acid, forming crystals. C. 
Eosolate, Ca.,|C,jHjS.jO|,).;, a sulfosalt of aliphatic 
creasote esters containing 25 % of creasote and occur- 
ring as a gray powder soluble in 10 parts of water. 
Dose, 4-10 gr. 4 or 5 times daily. C. Ethylate, 
Ca(C.jn5)3, a reaction-product of calcium carbid and 
absolute ethyl alcohol. C. Ethylsulfate, Ca(C,Hj- 
SO,)j -J- H./J, transparent, colorless tablets or cry.stals 
soluble in water. C. Ferrophospholactate, is used in 
the treatment of tuberculosis and rachitis. Dose, 
0.2-0.5 g'"- (3-7 '2 gi^-l- C. Fluorid, CaF\„ a white 
powder, luminous when heated, soluble in an aqueous 
solution of ammonium salts. C. Formate, Ca(ClK).^)j, 
colorless crystals or white crystalline powder, soluble 
in water. C. Gluconate, (CjH^t^jj./.a -j- 2H./"), a 
combination of calcium and gluconic acid forming ag- 
gregated needles. C. Glycerate, C. Glycerolate, 
(CjlI:.0^),Ca -f- 2ir,(-), a crystalline compound of cal- 
cium and glyceric acid, moderately soluble in water. 
C. Glycerinophosphate, C. Glycerophosphate, 
CaC.,H-P<)|;, a white crystalline powder soluble in cold 
water, almost insoluble in boiling water ; it is a nerve 
tonic. Dose, 2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 gm ) 3 times daily. 
In treatment of enuresis, dose, for adults. 8 gr. (0.5 
gm. I twice daily. C. Glyceroarsenate, Calcii 
glyceroarsenias, a crumbling white p<iwder insoluble 
in water and alcohol, freely soluble in mineral and or- 
ganic acids, especially in dilute citric acid. It is used 
in treatment of tuberculosis. Daily dose, O.OI gm. 
(gr. ^). C. Glyceroborate, an antiseptic compound 
of equal parts of calcium borate an<l glycerin. C. 
Glycolate, Ca(CjH,(),)j, acicular crystals occurring 
in stellate groups, slightly soluble in water. C. Gly- 
oxylate, (C^ll^f >,)„ . ("a. a compound of calcium and 
glyo.xylic acid. C. Heptoate. See C. Eiiaiitltylate. 
C. Hippurate, Ca(C,,il,,NO.^).j, a while crystalline 
powder slightly soluble in hot water. It is alterative. 
Dose, 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.972 gin.). C. Hydriodate. 
See C. fodate. C. Hydrophosphate, monohydric cal- 
cium phosphate. C. Hydrosorbate, (CjHjOjjjt.a -j- 

II.,0, a crystalline combination of calcium and hydro- 
sorbic acid. C. Hydrosulfate. See (.'. Stil/liy,liale. 
C. Hydroxid, calcium hydrate, slaked lime. C. 
Hypoantiinonate, a compound of calcium oxid and 
antimony tetroxid. C. Hypochlorite, Ca(('ll))j, 
white cubes decompo.sing readily. It is an antisejnic 
and is used as a (.lisintectant ami strong bleaching 
agent. C. Hypophosphate, Cal'O,, • U^O, a gelat- 
inous precipilale, becoming griinular, obtained from 
sodium hypophosphate by action of calcium chlorid ; 
in.soluble in water, .soluble in hydrochloric acid. C. 
Hypophosphite, Ca(l'llj02l.„ hyi)opliosi)liile of 
lime ; a white crystalline powder, lustrous scales, or 
transparent crystals, soluble in 7 parts of water, de- 
composing and giving out intlammable gas alx)ve 
300*^ C. It is used in treatment of tuberculosis, chloro- 
sis, etc. Dose, 10-30 gr. (0.65-1.94 gm.). Syn., C. 
hypophosphoi-osuiii. C. Hyposulfite. See C. 'J'Inosul- 
fitk. C. lodate, Calcii lodas, Ca( lO,), -f 61IjO, a 
while crystalline pttwder soluble in 400 parts of water, 
insoluble in alcohol. It is used internally to check fer- 
mentation (dose, 0.2-0.3 gm.) and also as a succeda- 
neum for iodoform. .Syn., CtiUinnl. C. lodid, Calj, a 
white i)Owder or yellowish-white hygroscopic mass, 
soluble in water and alcohol. It is an alterative used 
instead of potassium iodid. Dose, 2-5 gr. (0. 13-0.32 
gm.) 3 times daily in .syrup. Maximum dose, daily, 15 
gr. (0.97 gm. ). C. lodobromid, a ciiiii]«Mmd of 
iodin and broinin. C. and Iron Lactophosphate, a 
yellowLsh powder used in treatment of rachitis and 
tuberculosis. Dose, 3-8 gr. (0.194-052 gin.) several 
times daily. C. Isosuccinate, ( ',11/ ),Ca -- Il./J), a 
comp()Uiid of calcium and isosucciiiic acid. C. Kino- 
vate. See C. Qiiiitm'alf. C. Lactate, Ca(C,,Il5()3).^- 
-\- 511^0, white, opaque, granular masses soluljle in 
water and hot alcohol. It is usefl in treatment of 
rachitis and tuberculosis of children. Dose, 3-10 gr. 
(0.2-0.65 gm.) in syrup. C. Lactonate, (CjII^Og),- 
Ca -^ 7H.,<}, a crystalline cf)nibination of calcium and 
lactonic acid. C. Lactophosphate, a crystalline com- 
pound of calcium lactate and calcium phosphate con- 
taining I ^/i of phosphorus ; soluble in water. It is 
stimulant and nutrient. Dose, 3-10 gr. (0.2-0.65 gm. ) 
3 times daily. C. Levulinate, C. Laevulinate, 
(C5H-0,).jCa, silky needles, soluble in water. C. 
Loretinate, Basic, t a(I . U. C.jII,N . SO^), cream- 
colored needles, nearlv insoluble in water. C. Loreti- 
nate, Normal, Ca('l . (JH . C,H,X . SO^VJI./), an 
orange-red, crystalline ])Owder, slightly soluble in water; 
it is used as an antiseptic. C. Meconate, C'aC^II.^- 
O- -|- H.,0, a yellowish or whitish powder obtained 
from extract of oi)ium by the action of a solulion of 
calcium salt. C. Monosulfid. See C. Sulfni. C. 
Muriate. See C C/;/u//</ (Illus. Diet.). C". Naph- 
tholmonosulfate. See Asafrol ( Illu.s. Diet.). C. 
Nitrate, Ca NO,)^ -f- 4H./), a deliquescent crystal- 
line mass, soluble in water and alcohol. C. Nitrite, 
Ca(XOj)j -~ HjO, prisms or yellowish, solu- 
ble in water, C. CEnanthylate. See C. Jiiwii- 
thylalc. C. Oleate, Ca( C, JI.ijO,)^, a gran- 
ular powder, soluble in alcohol, ether, and turpentine. 
C. Oxalate, CaC/J,, white friable masses or powder, 
soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid. C. Oxysulfid, 
a compound of calcium, oxygen, and sulfur, forming a powder used in washing scrofulous ulcers. 
C. Paralactate. See C. Sardiladalc. C. Pentasul- 
fid, CaS^. a compound prepared from sulfur bv boiling 
it with milk of lime. C. Permanganate, Ca(Mn(),L- 
-^ 5ll„0, deli([ue5cent, brown crystals with violet 
luster, .soluble in water. It is used internally in diar- 
rhea of children and externally as a mouth lotion. 
Dose, 3/ -2 gr. (0.049-0.13 gm. ). C. Peroxid, 




Calcii peroxidum, CaO, -f- 4HjO, an antiseptic, used 
in acid dyspepsia and summer diarrhea. Dose (chil- 
dren), 34-2 gr, (0.049-0.1; gm. ). C. Phenolsul- 
fonate, C. Phenylsulfate. See C Stilfocarliulnlc. 
C. Phosphate, Antimoniated, a mixture of precipi- 
tated calciuui phuspluuc (67 parts) and antimony oxid 
^2t2) P*i''t^J, occurring as a dull white, gritty po'vder with- 
out odor or taste, soluble in boiling water. It is altera- 
tive, purgative, and emetic, and is used in acute rheu- 
matism and febrile diseases. Dose, 3-8 gr. (0.2-0.52 
gm.) 4 to 6 times daily. Syn., Anlinioiiia/ pmi'iA-r, 
C S. P.: James' febrile pinuder. C. Phosphate, 
Dibasic, Ca(H.^PO,).2 or CaHPO^, a white powder 
soluble in acids, insoluble in water. It is u.sed in dis- 
eases of bone, chlorosis, etc. Dose, 8-20 gr. (0.52-1.3 
gm. ). .Syn., Bualdi phosphate : SecoiiUaiy taleiiim 
phosphme. C. Phosphate, Monobasic, CaH,(PO,)2- 
-r H . O, the chief constituent of the so-called " super- 
phosphate of lime," a decomposition product of tri- 
calcic or dicalcic phosphate and sulfuric acid, occurring 
as white, delitjuescent, strongly acid crystals. C. 
Phosphate, Precipitated. See C, Phosphate, Tri- 
basic. C. Phosphate, Primary. See C. Phosphate, 
Monobasic. C. Phosphate, Tertiary. See C. Phos- 
phate, Tribaiii-. C. Phosphate, Tribasic, Ca^- 
(POj)j,a light, white amorphous powder without odor 
or taste, soluble in acids, insoluble in water. It is used 
as the dibasic. C. Phosphid, Ca.,Pj, a gray mass, de- 
composing in contact with water. C. Phosphite, 
CaHPOj -f H/), small white crystals slightly soluble 
in water. C. Phosphoglycerate, PO^CjIL, a white 
crystalline powder, slightly soluble in cold water. The 
solution is rendered turbid by heat and the salt is al- 
most insoluble in boiling water. C. Phospholactate. 
See C. Laitophosphate. C. Phthalate, rai_\ll^i 1, — 
HoO, dull rhombic prisms soluble in water. C. 
Pi'crate, C. Picronitrate, Ca(CjH.2(XO, l/J )j. an 
explosive reddish or yellowish powder. C. Plumbate, 
a flesh-colored powder, soluble in acids. C. Propi- 
onate, Ca(C.,H50„).j, white powder, soluble in water. 
C. Pyroracemate. See C. Pyruvate. C. Pyrophos- 
phate, Ca.,r.X)., a white powder. C. Pyrothio- 
arsenate, Ca^As^S;, a salt. C. Pyrothioarsenite, 
C?i.^Ki,.p^-^, a salt. C. Pyrovanadate, 21 a^V./J. ^ 
5H.2O, a white amorphous body. C. Pyruvate, 
(CjH303)Ca, a crystalline compound of calcium and 
pyruvic acid converted into a gummy mass by warm- 
ing. C. Quinate, Ca(C,H„U|;)2 + loll/J, white 
crystals .soluble in water. C. Quinovate, a compound 
of calcium and quinovic acid used in malarial fever 
and dysentery as a tonic., \-\ gr. (0.013-0.032 
gm.).' C. Racemate, C^HjOgCa + 4H,0, a crystal- 
line compound isomeric with calcium tartrate, but less 
soluble. C. Saccharate. a compound consisting of a 
large quantit\- of caKiuni hydrate dissolved in a solu- 
tion of sugar. C. Salicylate, CaC;H/:)3 -f \\.p, a 
white crystalline powder with alkaline reaction, .solu- 
ble with difficulty in water. It is used in intestinal dis- 
eases. Dose, S-20 gr. (0.52-1.3 gm.). C. San- 
tonate, C. Santoninate, Ca(C|5ll,5|0,).,, a while, 
odorless, insipid ]:)0\vder, insoluble in water or chloro- 
form. It is anthelmintic. Dose, 'i-i 'j gr. (003-01 
gm. ). C. Sarcolactate, 2Ca(C,H^03)2 -r 9H./I, a 
crystalline comjiound of calcium and sarcolactic acid 
isomeric with calcium lactate. C. Selenite, CaSeOj -|- 
2H2O, a white powder. C. Succinate, CaC,H,0, -f- 
H.jO, fine colorless cr\'stals, soluble in water. C. 
Sucrate, a compound of calcium and saccharose 
formed by dissolving lime in cane-sugar ; it occurs in 
syrup of lime. C. Sulfate, 2CaS04-|-HjO, a fine 
white, odorless and tasteless powder, used in making 
plaster bandages for fractures Syn., Plaster of Paris : 

Gypsum. C. Sulfhydrate, CaS . n.,S, transparent 
crystals decomposing in the air; it is used as a depila- 
tory. C. Sulhd, CaS, a compound of calcium and 
sulfur, a yellow-white substance with odor of hydro- 
gen sulfid and i'orming a large percentage of calx sul- 
furata. It is reconnnended in treatment of influenza 
(dose, I gr. 4 times hourly) and in treatment of diph- 
theria (dos^, \ gr. every hour under I year of age, 
every y^ hour between the ages of I and 3, and every 
15 minutes between the ages of 3 and j). Syn , C". 
monosuljid. C. Sulfid, Hydrated, CaS ; it is used as 
a depilatory. C. Sulfite, CaSOj, white powder, solu- 
ble in sulfurous acid and in 800 parts of water. It is 
antiseptic and is used in flatulent diarrhea. Dose, 
To"5 S""- (00065-0.32 gm. ). C. Sulfocarbolate, 
Ca(C5HjSO,).2 -^ 6HjO. a white, odorless, astringent 
powder or scales, soluble in w^ater. It is an internal 
antiseptic and astringent. Dose. 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 
gm.) in \'/c solution. C. Sulfophenate. See C. Sul- 
focarbolate. C. Thiosulfate, C aS^f 1,, white antisep- 
tic crystals soluble in water ; it is an internal antisep- 
tic. Dose, 3-10 gr. (0.194-0 65 gm.). 

Calcoglobulin [ka/-ko-glob'-ti-liu). A combination of 
soluble calcium salts with an albuminous base. It has 
a distinct and definite form and is probably the basis of 
all the calcic tissues of the body. 

Calcospherites, Calcosphserites (kal-ko-sf/'-rttz) 
\_cal.x, lime ; sphu-ra, a sphere]. Hartig's term for the 
granules or globules formed in embryologic dental 
pulp and in tissues like bone and shell by calcium 
salts brought by the blood into loose proteid combina- 
tion and modified b)' the cytoplasm. 

Calculus. (See Illus. Diet.) C, Adherent, one 
that has become adherent to the wall of the organ 
in which it is located. C, Alternating, one com- 
posed of alternate layers of the substances of which 
it is nia<le up. C, Alvine. See C, Intestinal. 
C, Articular. See C., .Arthritic (Illus. Dict.k 
C, Aural, hardened cerumen in the external audi- 
tory canal. C. biliaris, C. biliarius, C. biliosus, 
a gallstone. C, Blood, a fibrinous calculus con- 
taining remains of blood-corpuscles. C, Breast. 
See C, Lacteal (\\\\\%. Diet.). Calculi Cancrorum. 
See .Astacolith (Illus. Diet.). C, Cardiac, a lIoI in 
the heart which has become calcified. C, Chalky, 
one made up mainlv of calcium carbonate and calciiun 
phosphate with small amounts of magnesium carbon- 
ate, water, and organic matter, and frequently having 
a foreign body as a nucleus. C, Cystic. I. A vesical 
calculus. 2. A gallstone. 3. One composed of cystin. 
C, Cystic-oxid, C, Cystin, a urinary calculus, 
r.irely found and composed largely of cystin. C, 
Encysted, a vesical calculus which has become in- 
vested in a pouch springing from the wall of the blad- 
der. C. enterolithus. See A'h/cv,-///'// ( Illus. Diet.). 
C, Essential, one having its origin within the tissue 
of an organ and not from a foreign body. C, Fatty, 
a vesical calculus having a nucleus of fat or sajjona- 
ceous matter. C. felleus, a gallstone. C, Fibrin- 
ous, a vesical calculus made up of dried co.agulated 
albumin. C, Gastric. See C, Stomachic. C, Hemic, 
a concretion of coagulated blood. C, Hempseed, 
the smooth variety of mulberry calculi. C, Hepatic, 
C, Hepaticocystic, one situated in a bile-duct in the 
liver. C. Impacted, one arrested in its passage 
through a canal. C, Incarcerated. See C, Encysted. 
C. intestini, C, Intestinal. See Enterolith and 
i^fconr (Illus. Diet.). C, Joint. See C, Arthritic 
(Illus. Diet.). C, Lacrimal. .See Z>rt<>-r<)//M (Illus. 
Diet.). C, Laminated, one made up of layers of 
different materials C. Meibomian, the hardened se- 
cretion of the meibomian "lands that may accumulate 




on the inner surface of the eyelids. C, Nephritic. 
See C, /^i-iKi/ \,1\\kis. bict. ). C, Organic, one with 
a nucleus furmeil of epithelium, blood, etc. C. pan- 
creatis, C, Pancreatic, one found in the pancreatic 
duct ; it is generally nniltiple and made up of calcium 
carbunateorcalciuin phosphate. C, Parotid, oneoccur- 
ring in the parotid gland or its duct. C, Pineal, hrain- 
sand. See Aifivii/its (Illus. Diet. -. C, Pisiform, a 
pea-shaped calculus, usually multiple. C, Podagric. 
See C, ArlhiilH \ Illus. Diet. I. C., Preputial, a con- 
cretion of calcified smegma or deposit from decom- 
posed urine formed between the prepuce and the glans 
penis. Syn., Poslholilh. C Prostaticovesical. 
See C, I'esicoprostatic. C, Pulmonary, a chalky 
mass formed in the lung or in the bronchial gland. 
C, Salivary. (See Illus. Diet. ) 2. The tartar depos- 
ited on teeth. C, Sanguineous. See C, Blood. 
C, Saponaceojs. .See C'., falty. C, Scrotal. 
I. A vesical or i)roslalic calculus which has maile its 
way to the scrolum. 2. One formed in the scrotum 
from calcareous degeneration. C, Secondary, a vesi- 
cal calculus formed in consequence of a diseased ctm- 
dition of the mucosa of the urinary tract. C, Semi- 
nal. See C, .S)»e-/«w//( . C, Spermatic, one occurring 
in the seminal vesicles. C, Stercoraceous, one 
made up chiefly of hardened fecal matter. C, Sto- 
machic, a concretion found in the 5tom.ich, usually 
consisting of hair or other material swallowed. C, 
Sublingual, a salivary calculus occurring in the sub- 
lingua! glaml. C, Subpreputial. See C, /'/v/«//i;/. 
C, Tonsillar, one formed in a tonsillar follicle. C, 
Urinary, a concretion composed of concentric layers 
of crystallized substance cemented together by mucus 
or other organic, occurring in the bladder. 
Urinary calculi (sand, gravel, or stones, according to 
their size) consist of: ( I ) .\ mixture of uric acid with 
urates, with either little or no phosphates; (2) mi.xed 
calculi, those containing more phosphates than uric 
acid; (3) calcium oxalate calculi; {4) phosphatic 
calculi — coiniKi^ed either of calcium jihosphate, triple 
phosphate, or a combination of calcium and magne- 
sium phosphates; (5 ) calcium carbonate calculi ; (6) 
cystin calculi ; (7) xanthin calculi ; (8) fibrinous calculi, 
consisting of fibrin or inspissated albumin. C, 
Venous. See Phlebolith (Illus. Diet.). C, Vesico- 
prostatic, one situated partly in the bladder and 
partly in the prostate. C, Xanthic, C, Xanthic 
Oxid, C, Xanthin, a gray or brown greasy urinary 
calculus of rare occurrence, consisting of xanthin and 

Calcusol [i<i/'-iii-so/). A proprietary remedy for gout, 
said to consist of piperidin parasulfamin-benzoate and 
potassium bicarbonate. 

Calentura (ka/-cii fii'-ia/i). I. See Cahtittir (Illus. 
Diet.). 2. .\pplied to an epidemic disease of horses 
in the rhilij^pines. It is caused by a species of Spi- 
rilliini. Camarilla, C. vomito-negro, yellow fever. 

Cali Nuts. The fruit of a s])ecies of Mticuna or 
Dioclea growing on the west coast of .Africa, in which 
physostigmin has been found. 

Calibrate ykal'-ihiat) [Fr., itilidi-e, the bore of a gun]. 
I. To estimate the exact size of an opening, as of in- 
testines to be united by anastomosis. 2. To graduate 
the tubes of a tiiermometer .so that it will indicate the 
temperature correctly, or to determine the errors of the 
gradation when made ; also, to determine the indica- 
tion of the reading after the correction of the errors. 

Calibration [kal-e-hra' -shnn^. The act, process, or re- 
sult of calibrating. 

Calibrator \kal'-e-bra-tor']. An instrument for deter- 
mining the exact diameter of the lumen of an open- 
ing, as of the urethra. It may consist of a truncated 

cone supplied with a scale or some form of dilating 

Caliche (kah-le'-ilie) [S. A., a fleck of lime from a 
wall]. The South American name for crude sodium 
nitrate ; Chili saltpeter. 

Californin {kul-e-foru' -iii). A bitter, yellow, amor- 
phous, friable substance of neutral reaction obtained 
from Ciisiarilla licjcliniia, Wedd., and other allied 

Caliginous [kn/ ij' iii-m). Relating to or affected with 

Calisayin {^kai-e-sa'-y^ft). An amorphous base consist- 
ing mostly of quinin obtained from cinchona bark. 

Calix [k„l''-iks) [pi. <<7/;V«]. See Oilyx (Illus. Diet.). 

Calliandra [kai-c-an'-t/ra] [/vvj/df , beautiful ; oi'iy/^, a 
man — (stamen)]. A genus of leguminous shrubs and 
herbs natives of tropical America. C. gr^diflora, 
Benth., the yerba del angel, tlacoxil, oxociiitl, xiloxo- 
chitl. or cabellos de angel of Mexico, where it is used 
as a febrifuge. It contains the glueosid calliandreina. 

Calliandreina [kal-eaii dre' iii-ah). A glueosid ob- 
tained iVoni Catliaitdra ^randijlora. It causes vomit- 
ing, purging, prostration, and collapse in doses over 
90 centigrams. 

Callisection (kii/csek' shun) \calliiiii, insensibility; 
.<>■./.'(', a cutting]. \'ivisection of anesthetized animals. 

Callososerrate ykal-ososer'-al) [^lal/osiis, hard; ser- 
rains, saw-shaped]. Having senated callous projec- 

Callus. (See Illus. Diet. ) Syn., Oil/iiiii. C, Defini- 
tive.C, Interposed. SeeC, /'<■;•«/««<•«/( Illus. Diet). 
C, Ensheathing, C, External, C, Temporary. 
See t', Piovnuniul (Illus. I.ict. ). C, Interior, C, 
Internal, provisional callus of a fractured bone de- 
posited in its medullar)' canal. 

Calluxanthin [ka/ii-znii'-l/iiin. C„H,|,0;. A 
yellow pigment contained in heather, Cn/haia vtti- 
xarii, I, 

Calmin (ka/'-mht). A compound of anlipyrin and 
heroin ; it is u.sed in asthma, etc. 

Calolactose \ialo-lak'tdz). An intestinal disinfectant 
said to consist of calomel, I part ; bismuth .subnitrate, 
I part ; lactose, 8 parts. 

Calorescence (kii/-or-fs^-t'nz). Tyndall's name for the 
phenomenon produced by focusing the invisible heat- 
rays from some apj^ropriate source upon a piece of 
charcoal by means of a lens or niin'or ; the charcoal 
will be heated to incandescence, thus converting, by 
its interposition, nonluminous rays into luminous rays. 

Calorimeter. (See Illus. Diet.) C, Respiration 
( .•\t\\ater's), an apparatus used to determine the calorie 
values of various foods and their effect on metabolism. 

Calorimetry. (See Illus. Diet.) C, Direct, a 
method of estimating the amount of heat pro- 
duced and given off by an animal inca.-ed in a ven- 
tilated cabinet, and indosed in another cabinet filled 
with air or water, by gauging the amount imparted to 
the air or water in the second cabinet. C, Indirect, 
that an'ived at by an estimation of the calorific value 
of a known quantity of food ingested by an animal in 
a given time. 

Calory. (See Illus. Diet.) C. Small, the amount of 
heal required to raise the tcmjierature of one gram of 
water one degree centigrade. C. . Great, the amount 
of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilo- 
gram of water one degree centigrade. 

Calot's Method. See Trealmeiit. 

Calvaria. (See Illus. Diet.) C, Natiform, Parrot's 
term for a sign of congenital syphilis consisting of the 
]>resence of four eminences on the bones forming the 
sides of the anterior fontanel. Cf. Parro/' s .Vodet. 

Calvarium. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. The entire skull. 




Calvities, Calvity. (See Illus. Diet.) C. adnata, 
congenital baldness. C. febrisequa, baldness due 
to an acute fever. C. juvenilis. See Alopecia 
pri€seiiiiis. C. palpebrarum, loss of the eyelashes. 

Calvitium \kal-i'e'-she-um). See Calvities. 

Calvous kal'-i'us) \jcalvus'\. Bald 

Calyciform {kal-is'-e-form] \t:alyx ; fortiia^ shape]. 
L up-shaped, resembling a calyx. 

Calyculus (ial-ik'-u-lin) [pi., inlyciili]. See CalycU 
(illus. Diet. ). Calyculi gustatorii. See Taste-buds 
(Illus. Diet.). 

Calystegia {kalis-tej'-e ah) \^a/.vi, calyx; a-iyri, a 
roofj. A genus of plants of the order Coni'oh'ttlactE. 
C. sepium, L. , great bind^veed, Gennan scamraony, 
found in Europe, Asia, and America ; the root is a 
purgative. C. soldanella, R. Br., a European spe- 
cies ; the plant and root are purgative an<l diuretic. 
Dose of powdered extract, 3-4 gm.; of resin, I-5 gm. 

Camara (/('.;/«'-«/■-«/(). i. See C<;/«t';a (Illus. Diet. ). 2. 
The fornix of the brain. 3. The hollow of the exter- 
nal ear. 

Camera. (See Illus. Diet.) C. septi lucidi, tlie fifth 
ventricle of the brain. 

Camisia [kani ii'-e-ah) [L., a night-gown, a shirt]. C. 
foetus, the chorion. 

Campanian Disease. See under Disease. 

Camphate \kam'-fdt). A salt of caniphic acid. 

Camphenol [ku/n^-fe-nol ). A compound of camphor, 
cresols, and phenols ; it is a disinfectant. 

Camphimid ykam'-fini-id^. See Cainpliorimid. 

Camphin \kam' fin). Cj^Hj. A colorless oil obtained 
In- tile distillation of camphor with iodin. 

Camphocarbonate (iam'/o-kai'-bon-al). A salt of 
cann>hocarbonic acid. 

Camphol \kam'-fol). See ^arwAi/ (Illus. Diet.). 

Campholactone (kamfo lak'-tbii). C^W^^^. .\ dis- 
tillation-product of camphanic acid occurring as a 
solid, melting at 50° C. 

Campholate { kani' -ful-dt). A salt of campholic acid. 

Campholene (A/w'^Z-^/z). C^Hj^. An oily liquid ob- 
tained from campholic acid by action of phosphoric 

Campholic {iam-fol'-ik). Relating to camphol. 

Campholyptus [kain-fo-lip'-tui]. A proprietary exter- 
nal anodyne said to consist of eucalyptol, camphor and 
h)'drou^ chloral. 

Camphone \karn' -fori). See Cvmene (Illus. Diet.). 

Camphopyrazolon [kum-fo-pir-az' -o-lon). C,;H.,|,N..O. 
.\ crystalline compound of campiiocarboxylic acid and 
phenylhydrazin, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether 
or water, ni^lts at 132° C. It is used as camphor. 

Camphor. (See Illus. Diet.) 2. See Campliors (Illus. 
Diet.). C, Alant. See iVt-Av;/;; ( Illus. Diet. ) C, 
Aldehyd, an oily liquid produced by shaking cam- 
phor in a solution of aldehyd. C, Alyxia. See under 
Alyxia. C, Anemone. See Anemonin (Illu.s. 
Diet.). C, Anise. See .-/wMo/ ( Illus. Diet. ). C, 
Artificial, C,(|H,-HCI, a terpenehydrochlorale ob 
tained from oil of turpentine by action of hydrochloric 
acid ; it is a solid very similar to camphor. C., Asara- 
bacca, C, Asarum. See Asaroiie (Illus. Diet.). 
C, Auricle. See under Auricle, C, Barosma. See 
Diosphenol. C, Barus, borneol. C, Benzoated, 
an external antiseptic mixture of camphor and benzoic 
acid ; a white powder soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
chloroftjrm. C, Bergamot. See BergaMeue. C, 
Birch, ^ee Bc/til/n (Illus. Diet.). C, Bitter Al- 
mond Oil. .See AV«0('/« ( 2i. C, Blumea. See .X'^'i?/ 
C. (Illus Diet.). C, Bromated. C. Brominated. 
C, Bromid, C, Brominized, C, Bromized. See 
C. , M>no6i-a/ii(7/eJ (IWus. Diet.). C, Cantharides. 
See Qinthandin (Illus. Diet. ). C, Castoreum. See 

Caslorin (Illus. Diet.). C, Cedar, Cj^H.^jO, obtained 
from ethereal oil of Juniperus virginiana : silky 
needles melting at 74° C, boiling at 282° C. C, 
Champaca. 'see C/ianipucol. C, China, C, Chinese. 
See Cainplijr (Illus. Diet.). C.,Citrated, a compound 
of citric acid and camphor ; a white powder, anti- 
septic, antispasmodic, and stimulant. Dose, 3-10 gr. 
(0.2-0.65 gm. ) several times daily. C. of Cubebs, 
C,5H.,g<_), large rhombic crystals melting at 67° C, 
which are sometimes formed from oil of old samples 
of cubebene. C. cymene, cymene derived from 
camphor. C, Dextro-, ordinary camphor. C, Di- 
bromated, C. Dibromid, C,„H||.OBr,, a compound 
of camphor and bromin ; white crystals, soluble in 
alcohol and ether, melting at 115° C. It is antiseptic. 
C. Dichlorid, CidlligCl.^. a combination of camphor 
and phosphorus pentachlorid, occurring as fine white 
needles, soluble in alcohol and ether and melting at 
155° C. It is antiseptic. C. Dihydrochlorid, 
CjqHj^HCI.^, a crystalline compound formed Irom cam- 
phor by action of phosphoric chlorid. C, Dryobal- 
nops, borneol. C., Dutch, ordinary camphor. C, 
Elecampane. See //./i-h/h ( Illus. Diet. ). C, Facti- 
tious. See C, Artificial . C, Feverfew. See C.,. 
Matricaria. C, Flowers of, powdered camphor ob- 
tained by condensing sublimed camphor. C., For- 
mosa, ordinary camphor. C, Hard, borneol. C. 
Hydrochlorate, C. Hydrochlorid, C||,H|, . HCI, a 
compound of camphor and h\drochloric acid. C, 
Inactive, any one of the camphors which has no 
action on the plane of polarization. C, Inula. See 
Heloiiii (Illus. Diet.). C, Iodized, a mixture of 100 
parts of camphor and I part of iodin, used by inhala- 
tion. C, Japan, the commercial variety brought from 
Japan ; it is also called Tub Camphor from the recep- 
tacle in which it comes, or Dutch Camphor from its in- 
duction into the market by that people. C, Laevo-, 
C, Laevogyre. See C, Matricaria. C, Laurel, or 
dinaiy camphor. C Ledum, C,5H._,gO, a stearoptene 
forming silky needles, obtained from oil of Ledum 
falustic, melting at 104°-I05° C. C, Left, C, 
Levorotary. See C, Matricaria. C, Liquid, 
oil of camphor. C, Liquid Artificial, CjdIIijIICI, 
a liquid isomer of solid artificial camphor obtained 
from oil of turpentine by action of gaseous hydro- 
chloric acid at high temperatures. C, Malayan, 
borneol. C, Matico, C,.,l I3/J, a homolog of ordinary 
camphor occurring in leaves of Piper angustifolium. 
C, Matricaria, a camphor made from oil of Chry- 
santhemum parthenium, isomeric with ordinary cam- 
phor and in all respects identical with it except 
that it is levorotaiy. C, Mint. See Menthol (Illus. 
Diet.). C, Naphthol. See under Aa/Z/Mc/ (Illus. 
Diet.). C, Neroli. See .4uraae. C Ngai. See 
.\;;'-a/ (Illus. Diet. ). C, Parsley. See .Apiol, White. 
C, Patchouli. See Patchouiiii. C, Peppermint, 
menthol. C, Phenol. C, Phenylated, a combina- 
tion of camphor and carbolic acid in varying propor- 
tions, used as an antise[>tic. C, Pichurim, a body 
contained in pichurim beans, said to be identical with 
ordinary camphor. C. Pulsatilla. See .liicmonin 
(Illus. Diet. ). C. -resin, C^Hj,/!^, a yellow resinous 
body obtained from camphor by heating it with an 
alcoholic solution of caustic potash. C, Resorcin- 
ated, a compound of equal ^parts of camphor and