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No. 4fi. 


Music and 
Music Literature 








Vocal Score, 8vo, paper cover, 2s. 6d.; String Parts, i8s. 6d. 
Full Score and Wind Parts, MS, 

Its constantly varied treatment is nearly always happy, and a series of 
brilliant aiusical pictures is submitted to the hearer, who may well feel almost 
overpowered by their number and quick succession. 

The earlier and more supernatural scenes are treated with a wealth and 
delicacy of imagination for which we might look in vain elsewhere, whilst, amid 
the human interest of the final section, and especially at that impressive moment 
when the knights advance in order to touch the unconscious Princess, he shows 
that he can be strong as a composer of dramatic music. 

Produced under such favourable circumstances, " The Water Lily " has every 
chance of finding its way in due course into all the principal musical centres in the 

Mr. Cowen's orchestration is of infinitely more important and finished a 
character than in " Sleeping Beauty," and the new Cantata contains some of his 
happiest melodic inspirations. 

There can be no question but that the composer has availed himself of his 
opportunities, and " The Water Lily " is undoubtedly entitled to rank high in the 
list of his compositions. . . . We do not think that his gifts have ever been 
exemplified to a greater extent than in the present Cantata. 

" The Water Lily " is not only the most ambitious, but, on the whole, the 
most successful of Mr. Cowen's works of similar calibre. ... In brief, " The 
Water Lily" is a remarkably clever and effective work, and well worthy the 
attention of our best choral societies, from whom alone it could receive justice. 

" The Water Lily " should certainly command attention wherever its merits, 
which are very great, can find proper attention. 








C. H. H. PARRY. ^ 

Vocal Score, paper cover, 2S. 6d. ; String Parts, 12s. 

Full Score and Wind Parts, MS. >*'' 

The whole monologue is an extraordinary exhibition of sustained power and 
iSect, such as very few composers of any period have surpassed. . . . The 
impression produced by the work was very great, and it must be said deliberately 
that recent years have not seen a composition more free from flaw or weak point 
of any kind. 

Having once more heard Dr. Parry's Oratorio, under the best possible con- 
ditions, I accept it as a masterpiece without the smallest qualification. . . . Nothing 
more interesting than this work could have been given to the Festival public. . . . 
" Job " is one of the greatest works of modern times, and does no little to lift our 
English art to the highest level. 

To describe the numberless changes of time, rhythm, and manner would be 
impossible. . , . Mention, however, must be made of an exquisite melody in D 
flat, given out by the violoncellos, and supported by the trombones pianissimo, at 
the words " Man that is born of woman." This is truly a bit of inspiration, such 
as only comes at rare intervals even to a gifted composer. . . , That " Job " will 
materially add to the composer's growing reputation may be said with con- 


His setting of the beautiful lines " Man that is born of a woman is of few days," 
to quote only one instance, is a marvel both of beauty and appropriateness. . . . 
The general verdict will no doubt declare " Job " to be Dr. Parry's masterpiece. 

It literally teems with beautiful phrases — in fact, the possession by Dr. Parry 
of the inestimable gift of melody has, I am inclined to think, never been so 
evident as in the verses commencing " Why died I not ? " and " Man that is born 
of woman." . . . From whatever point of view it may be criticised, "Job" is 
thoroughly worthy the composer of the stupendous " De Profundis." 

As for the music, it is worthy at all points of the composer of the " De 

That Dr. Parry has written nothing finer than " Job " is generally admitted, 
and his boldness in dispensing with set airs, fugal choruses, and an elaborate 
Finale is abundantly justified by results. 






This Collection of Studies is intended to illustrate the various 
elements of a complete course of pianoforte iechniqtce, and to 
provide students with the means of attacking and overcoming 
the different special difficulties which have to be encountered. 
With this view, the Studies have been arranged in groups, those 
in each group being placed in progressive order, and having 
reference to some one particular difficulty. The greater part of 
the Studies themselves have been selected from the standard 
works of the most eminent Study-writers, and with these are 
included numerous others, which, though of equally great practical 
utility, have hitherto been less generally accessible. 





Part I 
1. 2 

Part I 
.> 2 

Part I 
■> 2 
,. 3 
.. 4 
.. 5 

Part I 
•I 2 

.. 3 
.. 4 



M 3 

Part 1 

» 2 

.. 3 

.. 4 

.. 5 

„ 6 



AND OCTAVES .. .. Part i 


AND OCTAVES .. .. Part 2 

SHAKES Part i 









• • .,3 
.. Part I 


CHORDS Part i 










.. »_ .. 3 

. . Part I 





„ » . . „ 2 

RHYTHM Part t 





Edited by Sir JOHN STAINER and Dr. C. HUBERT H. PARRV. 






In Par. 








Of all musical instruments, the Pianoforte is decidedly the most popular, 
and, with but few exceptions, every composer of instrumental music has 
written longer or shorter works for it. The interest we take in a composer 
and performer is certainly enhanced by knowing the country and time of his 
birth or death, the names, respectively, of his teachers and pupils, what his 
appointments were, and the distinctions which were conferred on him. To 
give some short and concise information on these points is the aim of this 
book, which follows the scheme of the popular and useful *' Fach-Lexica," 
issued at Leipzig by the Bibliographical Institute. It is a special book, 
which deals only with the Piano, and thus the productions of composers in 
other branches of the musical art are not within its scope. 

A great difficulty in compiling a biographical book is to draw the line 
between names which should be mentioned and those which should be 
omitted. Although it was my earnest desire to act in the most impartial 
manner, I am fully prepared to be accused of injustice done to professors 
who, in a small sphere of activity, have helped to promote the progress of 
the art and to awaken interest in it. But to become acquainted with the 
names of musicians and teachers who have not published any of their works 
is exceedingly difficult. 

All articles marked * contain personal information. Complete lists of the 
works of classical composers are given according to the published thematic 

The pieces marked f have been pointed out either by the composers 
themselves or selected by myself, according to my experience as teacher, as 
worthy of notice. 

I have to express my sincerest thanks to the following persons who have 
assisted me in procuring important information. They are : — 

Baron A. Pachner-Eggenstorff, Messrs. E. Mandyczewski, E. Streicher, 
Epstein, Door, and Prosniz (Vienna) ; Dr. A. Dorffel, Messrs. Senff, Kistner, 
Rather, and Forberg (Leipzig) ; E. Bechstein, Bote & Bock (Berlin) ; 
J. Strauss (Munich) ; Dr. Carlo Weber and Signor Ricordi (Milan) ; 
Don Mariano Varquez (Madrid) ; Messrs. Neuparth & Co. (Lisbon) ; 
G. Hartmann, Leon Grus, Leduc, Weckerlin, Leon Langlois, Veuve 
Girod (Paris); Schott freres (Brussels) ; Mdlle. M. Stache (Liege) ; Messrs. 
W. Hansen, Henrik Hennings (Copenhagen) ; Lundquist (Stockholm) ; 
Warmuth (Christiania) ; Jiirgenson (Moscow); Belaieff (St. Petersburg). 
I am equally grateful for the kind help offered by Miss E. C. Stainer, Sir 
George Grove, and Mr. A. J. Hipkins. 

May my little work be found useful and interesting, and may it meet with 
the favour hitherto accorded to my publications. 

London, 1895. 


The following authorities have been consulted : — 

Neues historisch-biographisches Lexicon der Tonkiinstler, von E. L. 
Gerber (Leipzig, 1813). 

Encyclopaedie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften. Universal- 
Lexicon der Tonkunst, von Dr. Gustav Schilling (Stuttgart, 1835). 

Universal-Lexicon der Tonkunst, von Dr. F. S. Gassner (Stuttgart, 1849). 

Neues Universal-Lexicon der Tonkunst, von Dr. Eduard Bemsdorf 
(Dresden, 1856). 

Hand-Lexicon der Tonkunst, von Dr. Oscar Paul (Leipzig, 1870). 

Musikalisches Conversations-Lexicon, von Gathy (Reissmann) (Berlin, 

Schuberth's Musikalisches Conversations-Lexicon, herausgegeben von 
E. Breslaur (Leipzig, 1891). 

Musik-Lexicon, von Dr. Hugo Riemann (Leipzig, 1893). 

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, by G. Grove (London and New 
York, 1889). 

Biographic Universelle des Musiciens, par F. J. F6tis (Paris, i860), and 
Supplement de Pougin (Paris, 1878). 

Annuario Musicale, Storico-cronologico-universale, di Giovanni Paloschi 
(Milan, 1876). 

Nordisk Musik-Lexicon, H. V. Schytte (Copenhagen, 1888). 

Bouillet, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de geographic (Paris). 

Conversations- Lexicon, Brockhaus (Leipzig, 1851). 

Conversations- Lexicon, Meyer (Leipzig and Wien, 1890). 


W. A. Mozart, Thematisches Verzeichniss, von Kochel. 

Louis van Beethoven, Thematisches Verzeichniss, von G. Nottebohm. 

Franz Schubert, Thematisches Verzeichniss, von G. Nottebohm. 

Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken, von Friedrich W. Jahns 
(Leipzig, 1871). 

Thematische Cataloge von Mendelssohn, Chopin, and Liszt (Breitkopf 
and Hartel, Leipzig). 

Eitner, Robert, Verzeichniss neuer Ausgaben alter Musikwerke (Berlin, 

Prosniz, Adolph, Handbuch der Clavier- Literatur (Wien, 1884). 

Weitzmann, C. F., Geschichte des Klavierspiels und der Klavier- 
Literatur (1863). 

Whistling, C. P., Handbuch der musikalischen Literatur (Leipzig, 1842). 


Bach, Sebastian, by Forkel (1802), Hilgenfeldt (1850), Spitta (1873-80). 
Beethoven, Louis van, by Schindler (1840), Thayer (1866-79V Nohl 
(1864-79), Mensch (1870), Dr. Marx (1875). 

Handel, G. F., by Dr. Chrysander (1858-67). 
Haydn, Joseph, by C. F. Pohl (1875). 


Mendelssohn, Felix, by Reissmann (1867 ^^^ 1872), Lampadius (1848-86). 
Mozart, W. A., by Dr. Otto Jahn (1856-59 and 1862). 
Mozart and Haydn in London, by C. F. Pohl (1867). 
Schubert, Franz, by Kreissle von Hellborn (1865). 

Schumann, Robert, by Reissmann (1867 and 1872), Wasieliewski (1858 
and 1880). 

Weber, C. M. von, by Max M. von Weber (1866-68). 

History of the American Pianoforte, by Daniel Spillane (New York, 

Weltadressbnch der gesammten Musikinstrumenten-Industrie, Paul de 
Wit (Leipzig, 1890). 


Andre, C. A. (Frankfort o/M.). 

Augenerand Co. (London). 

Bote and Bock (Berlin). 

Belaieff, M. P. (St. Petersburg). 

Breitkopf and H artel (Leipzig). 

Chappell and Co. (London). 

Forberg, R. (Leipzig). 

Grus, Leon (Paris). 

Hainauer, Julius (Breslau). 

Hansen, Wilhelm (Copenhagen). 

Haslinger, Carl (Lienau), (Vienna). 

Hennings, Hendrik (Copenhagen). 

Hofmeister, F. (Leipzig). 

Jiirgenson, P. (Moscow). 

Kahnt, C. (Leipzig). 

Kistner, Friedrich (Leipzig). 

Leuckart, F. E. C. (Leipzig). 

Novello, Ewer and Co. (London). 

Peters, C. F. (Leipzig). 

Rahter, D. (Leipzig). 

Rieter-Biedermann (Leipzig). 

Schlesinger (R. Lienau) (Berlin). 

Schott, B. and Sons (Mayence o/R., London, and Paris). 

Schreiber (Cranz) (Vienna). 

Senff, Bartholf (Leipzig). 

Siegel, C. F. W. (Leipzig). 

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 




. Pianoforte. 

Ob. ... 

... Oboe. 


. Violin. 


... Bassoon 

Vcello ... 

. Violoncello. 


... Contra-Basso 


. Viola. 

Hn. ... 

... Horn. 


. Clarinet. 

Clav. ... 

... Clavichord. 


. Flute. 


... born. 

min. ... 

... minor. 


... died. 


... Conservatoire 


... major. 

Prof. ... 

... Professor. 




Abeille, Johann Christian Ludwig, b. 
Feb. 20, 1761, Bayreuth; d. 1832, Stutt- 
gart. Pupil of Boroni and Saemann. 
Composer of Concertos, Trios, Duets, 
&c. ; among them a Concerto (Op. 6) 
for 4 hands, which became very popu- 
lar. His compositions were respected 
for their gracefulness and melody, and 
greatly esteemed by C. M. v. Weber. 

Abel, Carl Friedrich, b. 1725, Cothen; 
d. Jan. 22, 1787, London. Pupil of 
Seb. Bach ( Leipzig) . 1759, in London, 
patronised by the Duke of York, who 
procured for him the appointment of 
chamber musician to the Queen. 1782, 
in Germany, but on account of his dis- 
sipated habits had to return {vid Paris) 
to London. His works were published, 
1760-84, in London, Paris, and Berlin. 
His principal instrument was the Viol 
da Gamba. Among his Clavecin works 
were : — 
Concertos, 6 Quartets, Trios, Op. 2 and 5 ; 
Sonata with Vln. ; Solo Sonatas. 

Abt, Franz, b. Dec. 22, i8ig, Eilenburg 
(district Merseburg) ; d. March 31, 1885, 
Wiesbaden. 1841, pupil at the Thomas 
School (Leipzig) ; studied theology, but 
soon devoted himself entirely to music. 
Conductor at Stuttgart and Ziirich ; 
1852, Hof-Capellmeister at Brunswick. 
Decorated by several Sovereigns, and 
Hon. Member of most of the German 
male choral societies. Composed 
Variations, Rondos, Bagatelles, and 
brilliant Dances. 

Adam (Johann), Louis (founder of the 
French school of Pf. playing), b. 
Dec. 3, 1758, Miettersholz (Lower 
Rhine) ; d. April 8 (14 ?), 1848, Paris. 
Pupil of the Organist Hepp (Strass- 
burg). 1775, in Paris, patronised by 
Gluck. With Edelmann (see that 
name) he published the standard work 

"Methode pour le Piano," after which 
publication he was appointed Prof, at 
the Conserv., which appointment he 
held for 35 years. Among his pupils 
were Henri Lemoine, Benoist, Kalk- 
brenner, Herold (father and son), and 
many excellent lady pianists. 1829, 
Knight of the Legion of Honour ; In- 
specteur en general des Classes de 
Piano, and Membre du Comite d'ex- 
amination. He was universally beloved 
and respected. 
Sonatas (9) ; Sonata dans le style dramatique, 

Op. 10; Sonata for 4 hands; Sonatas (3), 

with Vln. ; Variations, and many Studies. 
Adler, Vincent, b. April 3, 1826, Raab 
(Hungary) ; d. Jan. 4, 1871, Geneva. 
Pupil of his father, later of his uncle, 
Erkel (Pesth) ; he pursued his studies 
in Vienna and went later to Paris, 
where his performances and works 
were received with great favour. 1865, 
Prof, at the Conserv. at Geneva. His 
most popular compositions are : — 
Feuilles d'Album, Op. 13 ; Valse rococo, Op. 

11; 12 Etudes de style. Op. 16; Barcarolle, 

Op. 26 ; Grande Marche, Op. 24 : Allegro 

de Concert, Op. 15. 
Agrell, Johann, b. Feb. i, 1701, Loth 
(Sweden) ; d. Jan. 19, 1765, Niirnberg. 
1723, appointed Kammer-Musiker at 
Cassel ; 1746, after having visited Italy, 
he settled at Niirnberg. 
Concertos (7), with Quartet accompaniment ; 

Trios (7); Duos for Pf. and Vln., CI., or Fl. ; 

Solo Sonatas (6). 

Agricola, Johann Friedrich, b. Jan. 4, 
1720, Dobitschen (Altenburg) ; d. Nov. 
12, 1774, Berlin. 1738-41, pupil of Seb. 
Bach (Leipzig), as a Clavecinist con- 
temporary with C. P. E. Bach and 
Nichelmann. 1750, appointed Konigl. 
Hof-Compositeur, and, 1759 (after 
Graun's death), Konigl. Hof-Capell- 
meister at Berlin. His compositions 
are out of print. 


Ag^he, Carl Christian, b. 1762, Hett- 
stadt ; d. Nov. 27, 1797, Ballenstadt 
(Harz Mountains). Highly talented 
and promising ; his compositions were, 
in their time, admired for their agree- 
able melodies and solid structure. 

*Aguilar, Emanuel, b. Aug. 23, 1824, 
Clapham (London). Pupil of Charles 
Neate and John Goss. Went to Frank- 
fort o/M., where he had lessons from 
Schnyder von Wartensee (1786-1868) 
in Composition and Jacques Rosenhain 
in Pf. He resides in London. 
Sonatas (6), Overture, Overture-Scherzo- 
Fantasia (A min.), Caprice, Etudes, Ro- 
manzas, Melodies, Trios (4), Septuor for 
Pf., Via., Vcello, C.-Bass, Fl., Ob., and 
Hn.; Sextet for Pf., Fl.. Ob., CI., Hn., and 
Bssn. ; Duo for a Pf. ; Fantasia for Organ, 
2 Pf., and Vln. 

Albanesi, Luigi, b. March 3, 182 1, Rome. 
Pupil of Ernesto Coop. Composed 
about 50 pieces in various styles. His 
son — 

*Albanesi, Carlo, b. Oct. 22, 1856, 
Naples. Pupil of his father and Sabino 
Falconi (Composition). On the death 
of Thos. Wingham (1893) appointed 
Prof, at the R.A.M. (London). Excel- 
lent pianist, and composer of — 
Sei fogli d'Album, Op. 13 ; Trio, 2 Solo 
Sonatas, 12 Preludes, and about 40 smaller 

Albeniz, Don Pedro (founder of the 
modem Spanish Pf. school), b. April 14, 
1795, Logrono (Old Castile) ; d. April 
12, 1855, Madrid. Pupil of Henri Herz 
(Paris). 1830, Prof, at the (newly 
established) Madrid Conserv. ; 1834, 
attached to the Royal Court. Received 
all possible honours. Composer of a 
great number of Pf. works. Author of 
a Pf. School adopted by the Spanish 
music schools. 

•Albeniz, Don Isaac (grand-nephew of 
the above), b. May 29, i86i,Camprodon 
(Prov. of Gerona). Pupil of his sister, 
C. A., of Narciso Oliveras (Barcelona), 
Marmontel (Paris), Marchyabal (Ma- 
drid), Jadassohn and Reinecke (Leip- 
zig), L. Brassin (Brussels), and Liszt 
(Rome). Teachers of composition : 
Dupont and Gevaert (Brussels). Ex- 
cellent performer. Composer of about 
220 published pieces (Concerto fan- 
tastico). Pianist to the Queen of Spain. 
Commander of the Orders Carlos IIL, 
Isabella la Catolica (Spain), and Christ 
of Portugal. 

Albert, Emile, b. 1823, Montpellier ; d. 
Aug., 1865, at Bagneres-de-Bigorre. 
Trios, Sonatas with Vln., about 50 smaller 

Albert, Eugen d', b April 10, 1864, Glas 
gow. Pupil of the London National 

Training School, Newcastle and 
Queen's Scholar, where his teachers 
were Pauer, Sullivan, and Stainer. 

1880, in Vienna — met Liszt, who 
superintended his studies until 1883. 
Eminent performer, who created a 
great sensation in Germany, Holland, 
Belgium, Italy, Spain, &c. ; went twice 
to America (inclusive of Mexico) ; re- 
sides now at Berlin. Pianist to the 
Grand Duke of Saxe- Weimar. Knight 
of the Saxe-Coburg, Weimar (falcon), 
Spanish (Carlos V.), Dessau (arts and 
science) orders, &c. 

Composer of Concertos (2), Suite, Sonata 
(F sharp min.), and different smaller pieces. 
Alberti, Domenico (amateur, who re- 
sided in Venice), d. 1740, Formia 
(Caserta). Composer of 8 popular 
Sonatas and inventor (?) of the easy 
(broken chords) accompaniment, often 
adopted, and called " Alberti Bass." 
Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg, b. 
Feb. 3, 1736, Klosterneuburg (on the 
Danube) ; d. March 7, i8og, Vienna. 
1772, Kaiserl. Hof-Organist ; 1792, 
Organist of St. Stephen's (Cathedral). 
Eminent theorist ; teacher of Eybler, 
Beethoven, Gansbacher, Hummel, 
Umlauf, Weigl, Seyfried, &c. Com- 
poser of — 

About 80 Fugues; Concerto; Pf. Quartet 
(1792); Preludes and Fugues for 4 hands ; 
Method for Beginners For Fugues, see 
dementi's Practical Harmony. 

Alkan, Charles Henri Valentin, b. Nov. 
30, 1813, Paris; d. there March 29, 
1888. Pupil of Zimmermann (Paris 
Conserv.). First prize, when only ten 
years old ; 1831, hon. mention for the 
Grand Prix de Rome. Composer of 
ingenious, original, and exceedingly 
difficult pieces, his Etudes Senates pre- 
senting the highest possible degree of 
technical execution. 
Etudes-Caprices, Op. 12, 13, 16; L'amitie, 
grande Etude ; Le Chemin de fer. Etude ; 
3 grandes Etudes, Op. 15 : (a) Aime moi, 
(6) +Le Vent, (c) Morte ; Le Preux, Op. 17; 
Marche fundbre, Marche triomphale, Op. 
26, 27 ; tBourree d'Auvergne, Op. 29; Trio, 
Pf., Vln., and Vcello, Op. 30 ; 25 Preludes 
dans lous les tons, Op. 31 ; Recueil d'lm- 
promptus. Op. 32; Grande Senate, Op. 33 ; 
Etudes (12), Op. 35 ; Etudes (12 grandes). 
Op. 39. 
Ambros, Dr. August Wilhelm, b. 
Nov. 17, 1816, Mauth, near Prague ; 
d. June 28, 1876, Vienna. Studied law 
and psissed his exam. 1840 ; appointed, 
1850, Attorney-General (Staatsanwalt) 
at Prague ; 1872, Prof, of Mus. History 
at the University of Vienna. Wrote 
History of Music (4 vols.) ; finished 
by Dr. Langhans (Berlin). Composer 
of interesting Pf. pieces, somewhat 


influenced by Schumann. Excellent 
critic and recipient of many honours 
and distinctions. Author of — 
Die Grenzen der Musik und Poesie, 1856; 

Culturhistorische Bilder aus dem Musik- 

leben der Gegenwart, i860. 

Amerbach (Ammerbach), Elias Nicolaus, 
b. in Saxony (details are wanting). 
1570, Organist of St. Thomas's Church 
(Leipzig). Published, 1571, his "Tabu- 
latur," containing rules for fingering, 
including the use of the thumb, &c. 
An essay on this work was written by 
Wilh. Tappert, " Die alteste Clavier- 
schule," 1887. 

Amon, johann Andreas, b. 1763, Bam- 
berg ; d. March 29, 1825, Heilbronn. 
Composer of — 
Concerto, Op. 34 ; Trios, Op. 48, 58, and 76 ; 
Sonatas for 4 hands ; Solo Sonatas (6) ; 
Sonate dans le style dramatique, Op. 12. 

Anderson, Lucy {nee Philpot), daughter 
of Philpot, the Prof, and Musicseller, 
b. 1790, Bath ; d. Dec. 24, 1878, Lon- 
don. Pupil of Windsor (Bath). For 
many years instructress of Queen 
Victoria and her children. 

Andre, Johann Anton, b. Oct., 1775, at 
Offenbach o/M. ; d. there April 16, 
1842. Pupil of Vollweiler (1770-1847). 
Composer of many Sonatinas and other 
educational pieces. PubUsher of great 
importance ; owner of most of Mozart's 
autographs, bought for a trifling sum 
from his widow. Author of a large 
work on composition, edited by his 
pupil, M. Henkel, of Frankfort o/M. 
The sons of A. were — 

Andre, Carl (August), b. June 15, 1806, 
Offenbach o/M.; d. Feb. 15, 1887, 
Frankfort o/M. Musicseller ^Mozart- 
Haus), Pf. manufacturer (Mozart- 
Fliigel), and author of a work on the 
construction of pianos. 

Andre, Julius, b. June 4, 1808, Offenbach 
o/M. ; d. April 17, 1880, Frankfort o/M. 
Pupil of his father and Aloys Schmitt. 
Composer of educational pieces, editor 
of a valuable collection of classical 
works, arranged by him for 4 hands. 
He possessed a thorough knowledge of 
Mozart's works. 

Andre, Johann Baptist, b. March 7, 
1823, Offenbach o/M. ; d. Dec. 12, 
1882, Frankfort o/M. Pupil of Aloys 
Schmitt (Pf.), Kessler (Harmony), 
Frankfort o/M. ; later of Taubert (Pf.), 
Dehn (Composition), Berlin. Brilliant 
performer and elegant composer. His 
arrangements of Beethoven's Sym- 
phonies for 4 hands are very much 

Andreoli. Guglielmo, b. April 22, 1832, 
Mudena; d. i860, Nice. Pupil at the 

Conserv. of Milan. Eminent pianist, 
and composer of elegant drawing-room 
pieces. His brother — 
Andreoli, Carlo, b. Jan. 8, 1840, Miran- 
dola (near Modena). Pupil at the 
Milan Conserv., subsequently ap- 
pointed Prof. Composer of Nocturnes , 
Op. 4, 10, 12, 19; Romanzas (4), Op. 
16; ditto (4), Op. 17. 
Angelet, Charles Frangois, b. Nov. 18, 
1797, Ghent ; d. there, Dec. 20, 1832. 
Pupil of Zimmermann (1814) at the 
Paris Conserv. 1822, first prize. 1829, 
named pianist to King William of 
Holland. Excellent pianist, and com- 
poser of effective and brilliant pieces. 
Anglebert, Jean Henri d', dates of birth 
and death unknown. Clavecinist to 
Louis XIV. He published, 1689, a 
collection of — 
Pieces de Clavecin avec la maniere de les 
jouer, diverses chacones, ouvertures, et 
autres airs de M. de Lully, mis sur cet 
instrument. Livre I., chez I'auteur. For 
an AUemande from this collection, see 
Weitzmann's History of Pf. Playing. 
•Arensky, Anton Stepanowitsch, b. July 
30, 1862, Novgorod. 1879-82, pupil at 
the St. Petersburg Conserv. — his 
teachers were Johannsen and Nicolaus 
Rimsky-Korsakow. 1882, appointed 
Prof, of Harmony and Composition at 
the Imperial Conserv. of Moscow. 
Compositions (beginning to be very 
popular) are — 
6 pieces in the form of Canons, Op. 1 ; 
Concerto with Orchestra, Op. 2 ; 6 pieces, 
Op. 5 (No. 5, +Basso ostinato) ; Scherzo, 
Op. 8; Suite for 2 Pf., Op. 15; 3 pieces, 
Op. 19; tBigarrures, Op. 20; Silhouettes 
iSuite for 2 Pf.). Op. 23 ; 3 Sketches, Op. 24. 
Arne, Thomas Augustine, Mus. Doc, b. 
1 710, London ; d. there, March 5, 1778. 
Composer of Sonatas or Lessons. For 
Sonata in G, see Pauer's " Alte Clavier 
Musik," Leipzig. 
Arnold, Carl, b. May 6, 1794, Neukirchen 
(Wiirtemberg) ; d. Nov. 11, 1873, 
Christiania. Pupil of Aloys Schmitt 
(Pf.) and of Vollweiler and Joh. Andre 
(Composition), Frankfort o/M. Com- 
poser of a Sextet, Sonatas, Variations, 
Asantschewsky, Michael von, b. 1838, 
Moscow. 1861-62, pupil of Rietz and 
Hauptmann (Leipzig). 1866-70, he 
resided at Paris. 1870-76, successor of 
Anton Rubinstein as Director of the 
Imperial Conserv. of St. Petersburg. 
Composer of chamber music and solo 
pieces, mostly published at Leipzig. 
*Ascher, Joseph, b. June 4, 1829, Gronin- 
gen (Holland) ; d. June4, 1869, London. 
Pupil of Mendelssohn and Moscheles 
(Leipzig). Pianist to the Empress 


Eng^nie, and composer of many 
fashionable pieces, some of which 
became very popular (Fanfare Mili- 
taire, Mazurka des traineaux, Sans- 
souci, <ffcc.). 
*Asbton, Algernon, b. Dec. 9, 1859, 
Durham. Pupil at the Leipzig Con- 
serv., where Heinig, Coccius, and Rob. 
Papperitz were his teachers for Pf., 
Iwan Knorr, Jadassohn, and Reinecke 
for Composition. Teacher of Pf. at 
the RoyaJ College of Music (London). 
.\mong his Pf. works (reaching, 1893, 
the number Op. 63) are to be men- 
tioned — 
Duets ; Spanish, English, Scottish, and Irish 
Dances ; Suite for a Pf. ; Concerto (4 move- 
ments); Sonata; Chamber -music — several 

Asioli, Bonifacio, b. Aug. 30, 1769, Cor- 
reggio ; d. there. May 26 (18 ?), 1832. 
1782 (13 years old). Conductor in his 
native town. 1787-99, residing pjirtly in 

Turin and partly in Venice. 1 809, Prof, 
and Inspector of the Milan Conserv. 
1813, returned to Corr^gio, where he 
founded a music school. Composer 

Sextet, Pf., CI., Bssn., Hn., Via., and Vcello ; 
Sonata, Pf. and V'cello ; Solo Sonata, Ca- 
priccios for 4 hands, Capriccios, Fantasias. 
\uthor of a " Breve Metodo per Pf" 

Assmayer, Ignaz, b. Feb. 11, 1790, Salz- 
burg; d. Aug. 31, 1862, Vienna. Pupil 
of Michael Haydn. 1808, Organist of 
St. Peter's (Salzburg) ; 1815, pupil of 
Eybler (Vienna) ; 1824, Regens-chori of 
the Schottenkirche, Vienna ; 1825, 
Kaiserl. Hof-Organist, and, 1838, 
Kaiserl. Hof-Capellmeister. Composer 
of Trios, Sonatas, Rondos, &c. 

Attwood, Thomas, b. 1765, London ; d. 
March 28, 1838, CheyneWalk, Chelsea. 
1785-87, pupil of Mozart in Vienna. 
Composer of Sonatas and Lessons. 

Bach, Johann Christoph (son of Heinrich 
B., 1615-92), b. 1642. Arnstadt 
(Schwarzbtirg - Sondershausen) ; d. 
March 31, 1703, Eisenach. His com- 
positions consist of — 
12 Variations on a Sarabanda in G ; 15 Varia- 
tions on an Aria by Dan. Eberlin (1630-gi). 

Bach, Johann Christoph (eldest brother 
of Sebastian B.), b. 1671, Eisenach ; d. 
Feb. 22, 1721, OhrdrufF. Teacher of 
Sebastian B. in Clav. playing. 

Bach, Johann Ernst (son of Joh. Bern- 
hard B), b. 1722, Eisenach; d. 1777, 
Weimar. Capellmeister of the Court. 
Educated for the law, he devoted him- 
self later to music. Composer of — 
Sonatas (3) with Vln. ; Solo Sonatas (2) ; Fan- 
tasia and Fugue in A min. ; Sonata in A ; 
and Suite in E min. 

Bach, Johann Sebastian (son of the Stadt- 
Musikus, Ambrosius B), b. March 21, 
1685, Eisenach; d. July 28, 1750, Leip- 
zig. Being 9 years old when he lost his 
mother, and 10 when his father died, 
he was educated by his eldest brother, 
Toh. Christoph B. Studied at the Col- 
lege of Luneberg (Hanover). 1703, as 
\iolinist, member of the "Weimar Court 
Orchestra ; 1704, Organist at Arnstadt ; 
1708-17. Hof-Capellmeister at Cothen 
(Anhalt), and, from 1723 until his death 
in 1750, Cantor of the Thomas School 
(Leipzig). B. was twice married, and 
had II son3 and 9 daughters. Of the 

sons 5 survived him and the same 
number of daughters. It is unnecessary 
to speak about his transcendent and 
unsurpassed merits as a composer, but 
it may be of interest to mention the 
remarks of contemporaries with respect 
to his playing : ' ' Bach was imdoubtedly 
the greatest performer of his time. The 
chief feature of his playing was its ex- 
treme distinctness in the tones produced 
from the keys. He held his fingers bent 
in such a manner over the keyboard 
that they stood with their points in a 
downward vertical line, each finger at 
every moment ready for action. In 
taking a finger off the keyboard, he 
drew it gently inwards with a sort of 
movement very like taking up coin from 
a table. Only the end joint was moved, 
all the rest of the hand remained still. 
Each finger was equally well trained. 
The tranquil grandeur and dignity of 
Bach's playing were eminently remark 
able. Bach took quick times and yet 
rendered his performance so intelligible 
and interesting that it sounded like 
speech. Passionate passages he never 
expressed by violent or spasmodic 
movements, but solely relied on 
the power the composition itself 
possessed. His favourite instrument 
was the clavichord, on which he could 
give all the expression he desired. He 


often said that he found no soul in the 
clavecin, and that the pianoforte, then 
newly invented, was too clumsy and 
harsh to please him" (see Hilgen- 
feldt). His works for the Clavecin 
(Clavichord) are the following : 

Das wohltemperirte Clavier— 48 Preludes and 
Fugues in all maj. and min. keys; French 
Suites (6); English Suites (6); Suites in 
A min., E flat, and E min. ; Suite (Overture 
in the French style) ; Partitas (6) ; Sonatas 
(3) ; and Sonata in D ; Chromatic Fantasia 
and Fugue (D min.) ; Concerto in the 
Italian style; Fantasias and Fugues in A 
min., B flat, D (2), B min. (con imitazione) ; 
Fantasias in C min. (2), A min., and G min.; 
Toccatas and Fugues in E, F sharp, C, D, 
and G min. ; Toccata in G ; Preludes and 
Fugues, E flat (Lute or Clav.), F, G, 
A min., B flat (on the name of Bach), A 
min., D min., E min., A min. ; Fugues, B 
min. (subject Iw Albinoni), C min., C (2), 
D min., D, A, E min., A min., E min. (not 
finished), and in A (2) ; Petits Preludes pour 
les commen9ants (12) ; Kleine Praeludien 
(6); Inventions in 2 parts (15); Ditto in 3 
parts (15), sometimes called Symphonies; 
Duets (4) ; Menuets (3) ; Concerti (16), trans- 
cribed from Ant. Vivaldi's Vln. Concertos ; 
Aria con (30) Variazioni in G ; Aria variata, 
A min. ; -fCapriccio sopra la lontananzadel 
suo fratello dilettissimo ; Capriccio in E ; 
Overture in F ; Das musikalische Opfer ; 
Kunst der Fuge; Sonatas for Clav. and Vln. 
(5) ; Suite for Clav. and Vln. ; Sonatas for 
Clav. and Fl. (6) ; Sonatas for Clav. and 
Viol da Gamba (3) ; Concertos for Clavecin 
(with accomp. of Strings) (6) ; Concerto for 
Clav., Fl., and Vln. ; Concertanti (with 
accomp. of Strings) ; Concerto for Clav. 
and 2 Fl. (with accomp. of Strings) ; Con- 
certo for Clav., Fl., and Via. (with accomp. 
of Strings) ; Concerti for 2 Clav. (3) ; Con- 
certi for 3 Clav. (2) ; Concerto for 4 Clav. 
(Transcription of a Concerto for 4 Vln.. by 
Ant. Vivaldi). 

Bach, Friedemann (Wilhelm), the eldest 
and most gifted son of Seb. B. ; b. Nov. 
22, 1710, Weimar ; d. July i, 1784, 
Berlin. Pupil of his father. First 
Organist in Dresden, later in Halle, 
soon became very dissipated, and led a 
wandering life, until he died in a 
state of great misery at Berlin. Ac- 
cording to Bitter's biography he 
composed — 

Concertos (10) ; Fugues (10); Sonatas (10); a 
Fugue; Grand Fantasias (7); Short Fan- 
tasias (4); Polonaises (30?); Variations 
(12) ; Sonata for 2 Clavecins in F. 

Bach (Carl), Philipp Emanuel (second 
son of Seb. B.), b. March 14, 1714, 
Weimar ; d. Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg. 
Sometimes called the "Berlin" or 
' ' Hamburg ' ' Bach . Pupil of his father 
and at the Thomas School (Leipzig). 
Studied the law in Leipzig and Frank- 
fort o/Oder. 1740, Cembalist and 
Kammermusikus to Frederic 11. of 
Prussia (Berlin) ; 1767, appointed 
Musik-Director at Hamburg, where he 
remaiued until his death. Emanuel B. 

has often been called the founder of the 
modern instrumental music, and is 
decidedly the predecessor of Haydn 
and Mozart, by whom he was much 
admired. (" He is the father, we are 
the boys." — Haydn.) His best works 
were written in Hamburg, and his 
chief energy was devoted to the 
Clavecin (Clavichord). The Sonatas, 
Rondos, and Fantasias for connoisseurs 
and amateurs, and the so-called 
Wiirtemberg Sonatas, are decidedly 
the best. He was a very prolific 
Sonatas (6), Op. i, 1742-43 ; Sonatas (6), Op. 2, 
1743-44 ; Sonatas (6) and a Fantasia, 1753 ; 
Sonatas (6), with varied repetitions, 1760; 
Sonatas (12), 1761-63 ; Easy Sonatas (6), 
1766 ; Sonatas (6), for ladies, 1770 ; Sonatas 
(6), for the Harpsichord, 1776 ; Clavier 
Sonatas, Rondos, and free Fantasias for 
connoisseurs and amateurs, 1779-87; 6 
Collections, containing 18 Sonatas, 13 
Rondos, and 6 Fantasias; Sonatina nuove 
(6), 1780 ; Sonata in C min., 1785; Sonatas 
(2), 1786; Minuet with crossed hands, 1731, 
etched by the composer; 12 short pieces 
for 2 and 3 parts, 1770 ; Clavecin pieces of 
various kind, 1765 (19 pieces). 
Collections, edited and selected by Emanuel 
B. : I. CEuvres melees (1755-65); 3. Raccolta 
delle piu nuove composizioni di Clavicem- 
balo, 1756-57 ; 3. Musikalisches AUerley, 9 
books, 1760-63 ; 4. Musikalisches Vielerley, 
1762-65 ; 5. Collection recreative, 1760-61. 
Works for Clavecin and other instruments : 
Concerto in D (1745); in B flat (1753); in E 
(1763) ; 6 Concerti per il Cembalo concertato 
accomp. da 2 Violini, Violetta e Basso con 
2 Corni e 2 Flauti per rinforza, 1772 
(dedicated to the Duke of Courland), in 
F, D, E flat, C min., G, and C; 3 Sonatines 
for Clavecin, 2 French Hn., 2 Fl., 2 Vln., 
Via., and Basso (C, F, E flat), 1764; 2 Trios 
(Trii), dedicated to Count Schaumburg— the 
first describes the dialogue between " a San- 
guinicus and a Melancholicus " ; 6 Sonatas 
with accompaniment of a Vln. or V'cello, in 
2 collections, 1776-77 ; 6 Sonatas, with Vln. 
or V'cello, 1778. Theoretical works : Ver- 
such iiber die wahre Art das Clavier zu 
spielen (Essay on the true manner of playing 
the Clavecin) : First part (1753), second part 
(1761). Bitter, in his biography of Friede- 
mann and Emanuel B., mentions 146 
Sonatas (99 published) ; shorter pieces, 174 
(123 published); Concerti with accompani- 
ment, 52 (9 published); 28 Trios (12 
Sonatinas) and smaller pieces 44 (ip pub- 
lished). On the whole, 420 works for the 
Clavecin, of which 250 were published. 

Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich (the 

" Biickeburg " Bach), b. June 29, 1732, 

Leipzig ; d. Jan. 26, 1795, Biickeburg. 

Pupil of his father, Sebastijin B., 

Capellmeister to Count Schaumburg. 

Composer of — 

Sonatas with Fl. or Vln. (6), 1777 ; Easy Solo 

Sonatas (6), 1785 ; Concerti (2), Sonatas, 

and other pieces (16) in Emanuel B.'s 

" Musikalisches Vielerley." 

Bach, Johann Christian (the " Milan " 
or "London" Bach), youngest son of 
Sebastian B. ; b. 1735, Leipzig ; d. 


Jan., 1782, London. Pupil of his 
father, and, after his death, of his 
brother Emanuel B. (Berlin). 1759, 
he settled in London and became 
teacher of the Queen. Although he 
had received an excellent musical 
education, he preferred to write in a 
popular style and mostly for amateurs. 
20 Concerti ; Concerto in Tartini's manner; 
Sextet ; Quintets (2) ; Quartet ; Trios (about 
25); Sonatas with Fl. (6); Solo Sonatas (6) ; 
Sonatas (6), Op. 17 ; Fugue on the name 
Bach; Sonata for 4 hands; Sonata for 2 
Pf., and several other Sonatas. 
Bache (Francis), Edward, b. Sept. 14, 
1833, Birmingham; d. there, Sept. 14, 
1858. Pupil of Stemdale Bennett, 
London ; Plaidy (Pf.), Hauptmann 
(Composition), Leipzig. 
Andante and Rondo with Orchestra; Romanza 
for Pf. and Vln. ; Concerto (MS.), and a 
number of graceful, elegant, and effective 
Solo pieces. 
Bache, Walter (younger brother of the 
above), b. June ig, 1842, Birmingham; 
d. March 26, 1888, London. Pupil of 
Plaidy and Moscheles (Pf), Leipzig, 
and F. Liszt, Weimar and Rome. 
Prof, at the R.A.M. (London), and an 
enthusiastic and devoted admirer of 
Liszt, for the popularisation of whose 
orchestral and vocal works he worked 
with noble and indefatigable energy 
and perseverance. 
Bachmann, (Pater), Sixtus, b. July 18, 
1754. Kettershausen (Bavaria) ; d. 
1818, Vienna. Brilliant pianist, also 
composer of Sonatas and Fugues. 
He possessed a really phenomenal gift 
of memory. 
Badarczewska, Thekla, b. 1838, War- 
saw; d. there, 1862. Her reputation 
rests on a single piece, "La priere 
d'une Vierge," which made the round 
of the world, whilst her other pieces 
remained almost unknown. 
*Barmann, Carl,b. July 9, 1839, Munich. 
Son of the eminent Clarinetist, Carl 
B., and grandson of the friend and 
travelling companion of C. M. von 
Weber, Heinrich B. Pupil of Wanner 
and Wohlmuth (Pf), and Franz Lach- 
ner (Composition), of Munich. For 
some time pupil of Liszt (Weimar). 
Teacher at the Munich Conserv. (now 
Royal Academy). 1881, he went to 
Boston (U.S.), where he became a 
most successful teacher, public per- 
former, and influential authority. His 
technique is extraordinarily great. 
Syme of his effective and brilliant 
pieces were published by Andr6, Offen- 
bach o/M. 
Bagge, Selmar, b. June 30, 1823, Coburg. 
At first a pupil at the Prague Conserv., 

later of Sechter (Vienna). 1851, teacher 

at the Vienna Conserv. ; 1863-67, 

editor of the Allgemeine Musikzeitung 

(Leipzig). 1868, appointed Director 

of the Music School at Basel (Basle). 

He published — 

Exercises and Studies, Solo pieces, and an 

excellent Essay on the Minor Keys and 


Baillot, Pierre, b. Oct., 1771, Passy, near 
Paris; d. Sept. 15, 1842, Paris. Cele- 
brated violinist, who deserves to be 
mentioned as the composer of a very 
good Sonata for Pf. and Vln., Op. 32. 
♦Baker-Grondahl, Agathe, b. Dec. i, 
1847, Holmestrand, Norway. 1856, 
pupil of Froken (Miss) With, of Chris- 
tiania for 2 years ; afterwards of Otto 
Winter Hyelm ; i860, of Halfdan 
Kjerulf (Pf.) and L. M. Lindemann 
^Theory) ; 1863, pupil of KuUak 
(Berlin). Appeared, 1864, with great 
success in Christiania; returned to 
Berlin in order to take lessons in 
composition from Richard Wiierst. 
Before 1875 she spent three months in 
Florence under the guidance of Dr. 
von Billow. Afterwards she benefited 
by Liszt's advice (Weimar). 1875, she 
married the Prof, of Singing, O. A. 
Grondahl. Resides in Christiania, and 
is one of the most influential musical 
authorities. Her performances in 
Leipzig, Copenhagen, Stockholm, 
London, &c., were received with great 
warmth and unanimous approval. 
She is Hon. Member of the " Svendsen " 
Quartet Society, of the Choral Institu- 
tion for Sacred Music, Member of the 
Royal Swedish Academy, and reci- 
pient of the Royal Swedish gold 
medal, " Pro Literis et Artibus." 
The best knov^oi of her compositions 
are — 
6 Etudes de Concert, Op. 11 ; 3 Morceaux, 
Op. 15 ; 4 Sketches, Op. 19; Suite (5 move- 
ments). Op. 2o. A selection of her works 
is contained in the " Agathe Grondahl " 

Balakireff, Mily Alexejewitsch, b. 1836, 
Nishny - Novgorod. Studied at the 
University of Kasan (on the Volga), 
but is an entirely self-taught musician. 
Performed, 1855, for the first time 
at St. Petersburg. Founded, 1862, 
with Lamakin, the "Gratis" Music 
School. 1866, appointed Capellmeister 
of the Opera (Prague) ; returned to 
St. Petersburg, where he conducted, 
1867-70, the Concerts of the Imperial 
Musical Society, and introduced works 
of Liszt and Berlioz and of the 
younger Russian composers. Of his 
Pf . compositions, the Oriental Fantasia, 


" Islamei," created a certain sensation, 
while several of his shorter pieces 
(I'Alouette de Glinka) are often played 
in public. 
Balbastre, Claude, b. Dec. 8, 1729, 
Dijon; d. April 9, 1799, Paris. Pupil 
of Rameau. His pieces enjoyed great 
Pieces de Clavecin ; 4 Suites de Noels avec 
Variations ; Septuor, &c. 

•Banister, Henry Charles, b. June 13, 

1 83 1, London (son of the Violoncellist, 

H. J. B.). 1846, elected King's Scholar 

of the R.A.M. ; re-elected 1848. Pupil 

of Cipriani Potter. Since 1852, Prof. 

of Harmony and Composition at the 

R.A.M. Since 1880, Prof, at the 

Guildhall School. Examiner in Music 

and Member of the Board of Studies 

(Cambridge University). Composer 

of — 

Fantasia; Allegretto alia Marcia; Sonata 

for 2 performers ; and author of well-known, 

excellent, and highly - valued theoretical 


*Barbadette, (Hippolyte), Henri la 

Rochelle (Senateur de la Republique 

Fran9aise), b. 1827, Poitiers. Pupil 

of L. d'Aubigny. Resides at Paris. 

His name is well known through his 

biographies of Haydn, Gluck, Weber, 

Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, 

Schubert, Heller, &c., and by his 

excellent Essays on musical matters. 

Composer of — 

Sextuor for Pf. and Strings ; Sonatas with 

Vln. ; ditto, with V'cello ; Scenes d'enfants 

(12), Op. 113 ; 25 Etudes m^lodiques. Op. 

122 ; 125 Etudes expressives, Op. 125 ; 25 

Etudes de genre. Op. 136; Preludes et 

pieces fugu^es, Op. ii8; Esquisses musi- 

cales, Op. 95 ; Senates et Sonatines. 

Barbara, Pierre Henri, b. April 28, 1823, 
Orleans (Loiret) ; d. May 9, 1863, 
Libourne (Gironde). Pupil of Aloys 
Schmitt (Frankfort o/M.). 1843, he 
published solo pieces, which were 
favourably received and obtained 
considerable popularity. 

Barbot, Francois Cecile Paul, b. 1828, 
Toulouse, where he resides. With his 
children he gives Concerts on 6 pianos, 
performing with great success his 
effective arrangements of the best 
works of Beethoven, Weber, &c. 
Since 1846 he has published upwards 
of 100 pieces vrith characteristic titles. 

Bargiel, Woldemar, b. Oct. 3, 1828, 
Berlin. He is a half-brother of 
Madame Clara Schumann. Pupil of 
Moscheles (Pf.), Hauptmann, Gade, 
and Rietz (Composition), at Leipzig. 
For several years Prof, at the Cologne 
Conserv., afterwards at the Music 
School of Rotterdam. Since 1874, 

Prof, at the Berlin Hochschule. 1875, 
Member of the Senate of the Royal 
Academy of Arts and Science. Knight 
of the Prussian Order of the Red 
Eagle. Composer of— 
Trios (3); a Sonata, Op. 34; f Bagatelles, Op. 
4; Suites (2), Op. 8 and 31; Characteristic 
Pieces (3); -j-S pieces. Op. 32; ditto. Op. 41 ; 
Impromptu, Op. 44; Etude, and Toccata, 
Op. 45. His works are distinguished by 
clearness, melodiousness, and absolute 
*Barnett, Domenico, b. Aug. 25, 1846, 
London, son of John Barnett (1802-90). 
Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv. of Plaidy 
and Moscheles (Pf.), Richter and 
Hauptmann (Harmony), Rietz and 
Reinecke (Composition) . Principal 
Pf. teacher at the Ladies' College 
of Cheltenham. His pieces remain 
*Barnett, John Francis, b. Oct. 16, 1837, 
London. Pupil of the late Dr. Henry 
Wylde ; 1875, at the Leipzig Conserv., 
under Moscheles (Pf.), Hauptmann and 
Rietz (Composition). Since 1861, has 
resided permanently in London. 
Teacher at the National Training 
School, Royal College of Music, 
Guildhall School, and London Academy 
of Music (where he is Hon. Vice- 
President). Excellent performer, and 
successful composer of — 
Concerto (D min.) ; Trio (C min.) ; Sonata 
(E min.); Impromptus (3); Home Scenes 
(9 pieces) ; Tarantella ; Berceuse, &c. 
*Baroni-Cavalcabo, Julie (first married 
to the Imperial Councillor von. 
Webenau, secondly to the Brazilian 
Ambassador, Chevalier de Britto), b. 
Oct. 16, i8i3,Lemberg ; d. July 3, 1887, 
Graz (Styria). Pupil of W. A. Mozart, 
jun. Brilliant pianist and composer of 
effective Caprices, Sonatas, Drawing- 
room pieces, &c. Schumann had a 
high opinion of her musical attain- 
ments, and dedicated to her his 
" Humoreske," Op. 20. 
*Barth, Carl Heinrich, b. July 12, 1847, 
Pillau (district of Konigsberg). Son of 
a teacher, who was his first instructor. 
1856, pupil of L. Steinmann (Potsdam), 
later of Biilow, Bronsart, and Tausig 
(Pf.) ; Dr. Marx, Weitzmann, and 
Kiel (Composition). 1871, appointed 
Prof, at the Hochschule, Berlin. 
Pianist to the late Emperor Frederick ; 
and Royal Prof. His excellent quaUties 
as a musician and thoughtful pianist, 
commanding a vast repertory, are 
well known and warmly appreciated. 
Batta, Jean Laurent, b. Dec. 30, 1817, 
Maestricht (Holland) ; d. Dec, 1879, 
Nancy, Brilliant pianist and highly 
successful teacher. 



•Baumfelder, Friedrich, b. May 28, 
1836, Dresden. Patronised by the King 
of Saxony. He .was first a pupil of 
Julius Otto ; obtained later a Scholar- 
ship at the Leipzig Conserv., where 
Moscheles, Wenzel, and Hauptmann 
were his teachers. After leaving 
Leipzig he settled in Dresden. 1875, 
Director of the "Robert Schumann" 
Academy. Very successful teacher 
and popular composer. 
Confidence, Op. 48; Rondo mignon, Op. 49; 

Rococo, Op. 367; " Tirocinium musicas " is 

greatly esteemed. 

Baumgart (Expedit), Friedrich (Dr. 
Phil.), b. Jan. 13, 1817, Glogau ; d. 
Sept. 15, 1 87 1, Warmbrunn (Silesia). 
Principal teacher at the Matthias 
Gymnasium and Musical Director of 
the Breslau University. Excellent 
theorist ; carefully edited Phil. Eman- 
uel Bach's Clavecin works with a 
highly valuable preface. 

Beckmann, Johann Friedrich Gottlob, 
b. 1737, Celle ; d. there, April 25, 1792. 
He was one of the best performers of 
his time, and his improvisations were 
much admired. Composer of — 
Sonatas (12); Concertos (6), and many Solo 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, b. Dec. 16, 
1770, Bonn; d. March 26, 1827, 
Vienna. Pupil of Van den Eeden 
and Neefe (Bonn), and of Haydn, 
Salieri, and Albrechtsberger (Vienna). 
See Nottebohm's valuable works : 

. " Beethoven's Skizzenbuch," " B. 
Studien," " Beethoveniana," and 
"Neue Beethoveniana." For an ex- 
haustive biography of Beethoven, 
see Grove's Dictionary, Vol. I., p. 162. 
The following list mentions his 
compositions for Pf. : — 

Sonatas: Sonatas (3), composed in his nth 
year (1783); ditto (3), Op. 2 (1796); Grand 
Sonata, Op. 7 (1797) ; Sonatas (3), Op. 10 
(1798); Sonate pathfetique. Op. 13 (1799); 
Sonatas (2), Op. 14 (1799) ; Sonata, Op. 22 
(1800); Sonata, Op. 26 (1801); Sonatas 
Quasi Fantasias (2), Op. 37 (1801) ; Sonata 
(commonly called "Pastorale"), 1801 ; 
Sonatas (3), Op. 31 (1802); Easy Sonatas 
(2), Op. 49 (1805); Sonata (" Waldstein"), 
Op. 53, 1803 (appeared 1805) ; Sonata, Op. 54 
(1803) ; Grand Sonata (" Appassionata ' ), 
Op. 57(1804); Sonata, Op. 78 (1809); Sona- 
tina, Op. 79 (1810) ; Characteristic Sonata 
(I'Adieu, I'Absence, et le Retour), Op. 8ia, 
(1809); Sonata, Op. 90(1814); Sonata, Op loi 
(1815) ; Grand Sonata, Op. 106(1818); Sonata, 
Op. 109 (1821); Sonata, Op. no (1821); 
Sonata, Op. in (1822). Variations (with 
Opus number) : On an original air (6), Op. 34 
(1802); 15 and Fugue, Op. 35 (1802); 6, Op. 
76 (1810) : 33, on the " Diabelli " Valse, Op. 
120 (1823); Ditto, without Opus number: 
9 Variations on a March by Dressier (1782) ; 

. 9 on " Quant i piCt bello," by Paisiello 
(1796) ; 6 on " Nel cor piO non mi sento," 
by Paisiello (1793) ; 12 on Haibel's Minuet 

a la Vigano (1795) ; 12 on " Waldmiidchen," 
by Wranitzky (1796); 8 on " Une fifivre 
brulante," by Gretry (1798) ; 10 on " La 
Stessa," by Salieri (1799); 7 on "Kind willst 
du ruhig schlafen," Winter (1799); 8 on 
"Tandeln und scherzen," by Siissmayer 
(1799); 13 on " Es war einmal," by 
Dittersdorf (1794) ; 6 easy on an original 
air (1801); 6 easy on a Swiss air (1799); 
24 on " Vieni amore,'' by Righini (1790); 
7 on " God save the King" (1804); 5 on 
" Rule, Britannia " (1804) ; 32 on an original 
air (1807); 8 on " Ich hab' ein kleines 
Hiittchen nur." Rondos: 2 in C (1798) 
and G (1802) ; Rondo a capriccio, Op. 
129 (posth. work); Rondo in A (1784). 
Bagatelles : 7, Op. 33 (1782) ; 11, Op. 119 (1820- 
22) ; 6, Op. 126 (1821 ?). Fantasia, Op. 77 
(1809). Prelude in F min. (1805); Ditto {2), 
in all 12 maj. keys (1789). Dances: 6 rustic 
(1802); 7 ditto (1803); 12 German (1795); 6 
Contre-Danses (1802) ; Minuet in £ ilat 
(1805); 6 Minuets; 12 ditto (1795). Mili- 
tary March (1816). Polonaise, Op. 8g (1814). 
Andante favori (iSoi). For j^hands: Sonata, 
Op.6 (1797); Marches (3), Op. 45 (1801 or 1802); 
Variations, 6 (1800); ditto, 8 (1783). For 
Pf. and Vln.: Sonatas (3), Op. 12 (1798- 
99) ; Sonata, Op. 23 (1801) ; ditto, Op. 24 
(1801); Sonatas (3), Op. 30 (1802); Sonata 
(" Kreutzer"), Op. 47 (1803) ; Sonata, Op. 96 
(1810); Variations (12), 1793. For Pf. and 
V'cello: Sonatas (2), Op. 5 (1796); Sonata, 
Op. 69 (1809) ; Sonatas (2), Op. 102 (1815) ; 
Variations : 12 (1793) ; 7 (1801) ; Rondo 
(i8c7). These may also be played with 
Vln. For Pf. and Hn.: Sonata, Op. 
17 (1800). Trtos for Pf., Vln., and V'cello : 
3, Op. 1 (1791-92); 2, Op. 70(1808); Grand 
Trio, Op. 97 (i&ii); Short Trio (1812); 
Trio (1791) ; Adagio, Variations, and 
Rondo, Op. I2ia (1824) ; 14 Variations, 
Op. 44 (1802). Trio for Pf., CI, and 
V'cello, Op. n (1798). Quartet for Pf, 
Vln., Alto, and V'cello, arranged from the 

guintet for Pf., Ob., CI., Hn., and Bssn., 
p. 16 (1798). Quartets : 3, posth. works 
(1785), for Pf., Vln., Alto, and V'cello. 
Concertos : No. I, Op. 15 (1795) '< No. 2, Op. 
19 (1798) ; No. 3, Op. 37 (1800) ; No. 4, Op. 58 
(1804); No. 5, Op. 73 (1809). Concerto for Pf., 
Vln., and V'cello, Op. 56 (1804-5), Concerto 
(arr. from the Vln. Concerto), Op. 61 (1806). 
Fantasia with Solos, Chorus, and Orchestra, 
Op. 80 (1808). 
Beethoven's Sonatas, indeed almost all 
his Pf. works, offer the noblest objects 
of study for anyone who practises for 
the sake of the art and not for mere 
amusement. His Sonatas comprise 
every feature of characteristic expres- 
sion ; they pourtray every shade of 
human feeling, and their plastic 
perfection cannot fail to imbue the per- 
former with ideas of the highest and 
best style. The sphere of technique is 
here shown in its purest and loftiest 
range, for the noblest technical skill is 
devoted to the service of the noblest 
thoughts. In every one of his Pf. works 
we discern the deep interest the illus- 
trious and unrivalled composer took in 
the instrument itself ; and the imme- 
diate grand, inspiring and elevating 
effect they produce on the earnest and 
loyal interpreter has never been rivalled; 


indeed, in Beethoven's Sonatas and the 
Concertos, Op. 37, 58, and 73, we 
perceive the climax of all that is grand, 
noble, masculine, pure, tender, and 
intrinsically beautiful in the literature 
of the Pf. The following extract from 
an article by Carl Ludwig Junker, 
published Nov. 23, 1791, in Bossier's 
Musical Correspondence, gives a very 
quaint description of Beethoven's 
playing : — " ... I also heard one of 
the greatest players on the Clavier, 
that dear, good Bethofen [sic .'] of 
whom some things were published as 
early as 1783, which he composed 
when only 1 1 years old. It is true that 
he did not perform in a public concert, 
perhaps because the instrument did 
not satisfy him; it was a Grand by 
Spath, and he is accustomed, when 
in Bonn, to play only on one of 
Stein's. But still, and what I liked all 
the better, I heard him extemporise, 
and I was indeed asked myself to 
give him a theme for variations. The 
inexhaustible wealth of his ideas, the 
originality of expression in his playing, 
and the technical excellence of his 
performance render, in my opinion, 
an accurate estimate of the artistic 
greatness of this dear and modest 
man. ... I have frequently and for 
hours heard Vogler perform on the 
Fortepiano and always admired his 
extraordinary technique, but Bethofen's 
performance, technically quite as high, 
is much more important and expressive, 
and touches your heart infinitely more : 
he is, in consequence, as good at an 
Adagio as at an Allegro. Even all 
the members of the band, excellent 
players themselves, are his admirers, 
and all ear whenever he plays. And 
with all this he is modesty itself, and 
free from all pretension. He confessed, 
however, that his expectations were 
but rarely fulfilled when, during the 
journeys which the Prince allowed him 
to undertake, he met and heard some 
of the most reputed and best 
pianoforte players of the day. His 
performance, indeed, is so entirely 
different from the ordinary manner of 
playing the Pianoforte, that it seems as 
if he had been determined from the 
outset to choose a way quite his own, 
in order to reach the goal of perfection 
at which he has now actually arrived. 
Had I followed the pressing invitation 
of my friend Bethofen to stay another 
day in Mergentheim, in which he was 
supported by Herr Winneberger, I 
believe Herr Bethofen would have 

played to me for hours, and in the 
society of these two great artists I 
would thus have had an opportunity 
of enjoying another of the sweetest 
days of my life." 

Begue, Nicolas Antoine le, b. about 1630, 
Laon ; d. July 6, 1702, Paris. Among 
his works, "Pieces pour le Clavecin" 
were published 1677, at Paris. 

Behr, Franz, b. July 22, 1837, Lubtheen 
(Mecklenburg). He is one of the most 
prolific composers of easy, fashionable, 
and light pieces, which are written in a 
thoroughly practical manner, and 
therefore exceedingly popular. He 
publishes his compositions also under 
the names of Francesco d' Orso, William 
Cooper, and Charles Morley. 

Belleville-Oury, Emilie, b. 1808, at 
Munich ; d. there, July 23, 1880. 
Pupil of Charles Czerny. For many 
years resident in London. Brilliant 
and elegant pianist, popular composer 
(really arranger), and highly successful 

Benda, Georg (member of a very 

musical family), b. 1721, Jung-Bunzlau 

(Bohemia) ; d. Nov. 6, 1795, Kostritz 

(Reuss). His works are distinguished 

by agreeable melodies and general 


Solo Sonatas (12), Op. 1; 6 Ditto, Berlin 

(1772); 6 collections of various pieces, 

Gotha (1780-87) ; Sextet, Op. 3 ; Concertos 

(2) ; I Concertino (1779 and 1783). 

Bendel, Franz, b. March 23, 1833, at 

the Market-place, Schonlinde, near 

Rumburg (Bohemia) ; d. July 3, 1874, 

Berlin. Pupil of Proksch (Prague) 

and Liszt (Weimar). Exceedingly 

brilliant pianist, possessing a wonderful 

technique, and composer of highly 

effective, melodious, and, in a certain 

degree, fascinating pieces. 

Studies (6) ; Study in sixths (B flat min.), On 

the Lake of Geneva (6), Op. 139 ; Nocturnes, 

Romanzas, Transcriptions of Songs by 

Chopin, Rubinstein, Brahms, &c. 

Benedict (knighted 1871), Sir Julius, 
b. Dec. 24, 1804, Stuttgart ; d. June 5, 
1885, London. Pupil of Hummel and 
C. M. von Weber. Popular conductor 
and accompanist. Composer of Con- 
certos, Sonatas, Rondos, Fantasias, 
Variations, &c. Founder of the annual 
Monster Concerts. In his later years 
he received orders of Knighthood from 
Austria, Sweden, Portugal, Wiirtem- 
burg, Russia, &c. 

Bennett (knighted 1871), Sir William 
Sterndale (Mus. Doc, M.A., D.C.L.) 
b. April 13, 1816, Sheffield; d. Feb. i, 
1875, London. Pupil at the R.A.M., 


his teachers being Charles Lucas. Dr. 
Crotch, W. H. Holmes, and Cipriani 
Potter. 1836, he was in Leipzig, 
received with great kindness by Men- 
delssohn and Schumann. 1856-66, Con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society's 
Concerts; 1856, elected Prof, of Music 
at Cambridge University ; i866. Prin- 
cipal of the R.A.M. Soon after his 
election as Prof., the University of 
Cambridge conferred on him the hon. 
degree of Mus. Doc, and, 1870, he re- 
ceived from the University of Oxford 
the degree of D.C.L. As a pianist he 
belonged to the classical school. As a 
teacher he enjoyed great popularity 
in certain circles. His compositions 
(strongly influenced by Mendelssohn 
and Dussek) consist of — 
Concertos (4); Capriccio, Op. 2 ; Sextet for Pf. 
and Strings; Sonata (dedicated to Mendels- 
sohn) ; ditto (Maid of Orleans) ; Sonatina, 
Fantasia (dedicated to Schumann); Musical 
Sketches (3) ; Studies, Suite de Pieces, Toc- 
cata, Chamber Trio, Sonata for Pf. and 
V'cello, &c. 
Bentayoux (Ben-Tayoux), Frederic, b. 
June 14, 1840, Bordeaux. Pupil at the 
Paris Conserv., of Marmontel (Pf), 
Emile Durand (Theory), Carafa (Com- 
position) . Composer of a considerable 
number of effective and fashionable 
Berens, Hermann, b. April 17, 1826. 
Hamburg; d. May 12, 1880, Stockholm. 
At first pupil of his father, the flautist, 
Carl B., afterwards of C. J. Reissiger 
(Dresden), C. Czerny, and Sechter 
(Vienna). 1845, he travelled with the 
celebrated singer Marietta Alboni, and 
went. 1847, to Stockholm ; remained 
till 1849 Musik-Director at Orebro, 
and was appointed, i860, Capellmeister 
at the smaller theatre of Stockholm, 
and Prof, of Composition at the Royal 
Music School ; Member of the Royal 
Academy of Sweden. Excellent pianist, 
and successful composer of excellent 
Studies and many other Pf. pieces, as 
well as of Trios and Quartets. 
Berg, Conrad Matthias, b. April 27, 
1785, Colmar (Alsace) ; d. Dec. 13, 
1852, Straissburg. 1806-7, pupil at the 
Paris Conserv. He settled later in 
Strassburg, where he was for many 
years an influential, successful, and 
much respected teacher. One of his 
essays, "On the influence of modern 
Piano-playing on musical education in 
general " (Cacilia, Vol. 17, 1835), created 
a great sensation. Composer of — 
Concertos (3), Sonatas, Variations, Trios 
(10), and many effective pieces for 4 hands. 
•Berger, Francesco, b. June 10, 1834, 
London. Resided with his parents at 

Trieste, where he was a pupil of Luigi 
Ricci (Harmony), and later, when in 
Vienna, of Carl Lickl (Pf .) . Afterwards 
private pupil of Hauptmann (Har- 
mony) and Plaidy (Pf.) at Leipzig. 
Composer of a considerable number of 
elegant and effective pieces. Prof, of 
the Pf. at the R.A.M. and Guildhall 
School of Music. For several years 
hon. secretary of the Philharmonic 

Berger, Ludwig, b. April 18, 1777, 
Templin, near Frankfort o/Oder ; d. 
Feb. 16, 1839, Berlin. At first a pupil 
of Giirrlich; 1804, went to Berlin, 
where Clementi heard him and per- 
suaded him to go with him (1805) to 
St. Petersburg. John Field, a pupil of 
Clementi, had, however, greater influ- 
ence on the development of Berger's 
playing than the Italian Maestro. He 
left Russia in 1812, travelled for two 
years in Sweden and England, and 
settled (1814) in Berlin. The loss of 
his wife and child produced a state of 
mental despondency from which he 
could never free himself entirely ; added 
to this, a kind of apxDplectic stroke de- 
prived his right arm of its independent 
movement. Owing to these circum- 
stances he devoted himself entirely to 
teaching. Among his pupils were Felix 
Mendelssohn and his sister Fanny 
(Madame Hensel), Wilhelm Bach (no 
relation of the " Bach " family). Wil- 
helm Taubert, Greulich, the Ladies 
Zeidler, Laidlaw, and others. Berger's 
works are greatly respected, they are 
solidly constructed, full of expression, 
and of considerable originality. A 
collection of them has been published 
by Hofmeister (Leipzig). At present 
only his Studies, a Toccata, and Rondo 
are played. An exhaustive essay on 
his life and artistic activity was written 
by L. Rellstab, and printed in the 
Berlinische Zeitung of Feb. 21, 1839. 

•Bergson, Michael, b. 1820, Warsaw. 
Pupil of Schneider (Dessau) ; later of 
Rungenhagen and Taubert (Berlin). 
1840, he visited Paris, and went (1846) 
to Italy. 1850-53, he resided in Vienna; 
later, again in Paris. 1863, appointed 
du Piano" at the Conserv. of Geneva. 
1868, he returned to Paris, but had to 
leave on account of the war (1870), and 
settled in London. Among his most 
important works are — 
12 Grandes Etudes, Op. 62; 6coIe du m^ 

canisme. Op. 65 ; Concerto Symphonique ; 

Trio, Op. 5 ; Polonaise beroique. Op. 72 ; 

and a Sonata with Fl. 



*Beringer, Oscar, b. July 14, 1844, Fiirt- 
wangen (Grand Duchy of Baden) . He 
came (1849) to London. Studied from 
1864 to 1866 at Leipzig under Plaidy, 
Moscheles, and Reinecke, and later 
with Tausig, Ehlert, and Weitzmann 
in Berlin. 1869, Tauzig appointed 
him Prof, at the " Schule des hohern 
Clavierspiels." A similar establishment, 
under the name of " School for the 
higher development of Pianoforte 
Playing," was started by Beringer 
(1871) in London. As a composer, he 
turned his attention more towards the 
technical department of playing, and 
his compilation of technical exercises 
is a very useful book of considerable 
popularity, founded more or less on 
Tausig's principles. As a pianist, 
Beringer is noted for his absolutely 
correct and clear execution. 

Bernard, Moritz, b. 1794, Courland ; d. 
May 9, 1871, St. Petersburg. 181 1, he 
was Field's pupil in Moscow ; also 
had instruction in composition from 
Haesler. After having finished his 
studies, he travelled and gave con- 
certs. 1816, he was appointed by Count 
Potocky, Conductor of his orchestral 
band (South Russia). 1822, went to 
St. Petersburg, where he was one of 
the most popular teachers. 1829, he 
opened a music warehouse. He com- 
posed a quantity of smaller pieces. 

Bernard, Paul, b. Oct. 4, 1827, Poitiers ; 
d. Feb. 24, 1879, Paris. He was a 
most successful teacher, wrote a great 
number of Pf. pieces, and was the able 
critic of the Parisian musical journals 
Le Menestrel and La Revue et Gazette 

BernsdorfjDr. Eduard.b. March 25, 1825, 
Dessau. Pupil of Schneider (Dessau) 
and Prof. A. B. Marx (Berlin). Among 
his Pf. works are an "Allegro appas- 
sionato," Sonatas, Caprices, Fantasias. 
He is chiefly active, however, as a critic 
of new works and of the Leipzig con- 
certs ; he writes in the Signale fur 
die musikalische Welt, He completed 
Schladebach's " Musikalisches Konver- 
sations- Lexicon," in 3 volumes. 

Berthold, Carl Friedrich Theodor, b. 
Dec. 18, 1815, Dresden; d. there, April 
28, 1882. Patronised by the King of 
Saxony ; he received lessons in Com- 
position from Julius Otto, and in Pf. 
playing from J ohann Schneider. Went, 
1840, with a rich family to Russia; 
was appointed, 1843, principal teacher 
of the "Ladies' School" at Charkow; 
1849, similar appointment at the 

"Noble Ladies' College" at St. Peters- 
burg, from whence he returned, 1864, 
to Dresden. He published a Concerto, 
many smaller pieces, and wrote (with 
Fiirstenau) a book : " Die Fabrikation 
musikalischer Instrumente im Voigt- 
land" (Saxony). 

Bertini, Henri, b. 1798, London ; d. 
Oct. I, 1876, at his estate, Meylan, near 
Grenoble. Pupil of his brother, Benoit 
Bertini. As a composer he is particu- 
larly esteemed for his useful, practical, 
and thoughtful educational works, such 
as Studies, Rondos, Fantasias, which 
are well constructed and devoid of any 
triviality. His Studies are more or 
less introductions and supplements to 
similar works by J. B. Cramer and 
Czerny : — 
Etudes primaires, Op. i66; 25 Etudes elemen- 
taires, Op. 137 ; 25 Etudes faciles. Op. 100; 
25 Etudes preparatoires. Op. 175 ; +25 Etudes 
doigtees. Op. 29 ; Etudes intermediaires, 
Op. 276; +25 Etudes doigtees, Op. 32; 
25 Etudes speciales, Op. 177 ; 25 Etudes 
doigtees. Op. 134 ; ditto, Op. 13461$ ; 25 
Etudes classiques et normales, Op. 178 ; 25 
Etudes caracteristiques, Op. 66 ; 25 Caprice- 
Etudes, Op. 94 ; 25 Grandes Etudes artis- 
tiques, Op. 122 ; Seb. Bach's 48 Preludes 
and Fugues arranged for 4 hands. 

Besozzi, Louis Desire, b. April 3, 1814, 
Versailles; d. Nov. 11, 1879, Paris. 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv., where he 
obtained several prizes, and, 1837, the 
Grand Prix de Rome. Composer of 
a good many well-written and effective 

Beyer, Ferdinand, b. 1803, Querfurt 
(Prussia) ; d. May 14, 1863, Mayence. 
Prolific writer of popular Pot-pourris, 
Fantasias, and Arrangements of various 
Arias and Dances. 

Biagi (Biaggi ?), Alessandro, b. Jan. 20, 
1819, Florence. Pupil of his elder 
brother, Ludovico B. ; later of Geremia 
Sbolci and Palafuti. 1857, appointed 
Prof, at the Florence Academy. Com- 
poser of several eminent Pf. works. 

Bigot de Morognes, Marie {me Kiene), 
b. March 3, 1786, Colmar (Alsace) ; d. 
Sept. 16, 1820, Paris. 1804, she 
married Monsieur Bigot, librarian to 
Count Rasumoffsky. In Vienna she 
made the acquaintance of Haydn, 
Salieri, and Beethoven, all of whom 
passed highly flattering laudations on 
her playing. In i8og she introduced, 
with Baillot, Mozart and Beethoven's 
Violin Sonatas to a Parisian public. 
18 16, during Mendelssohn's stay in 
Paris, he received some lessons from 
her. It is not known whose pupil she 



•Bird, Arthur, b. July 23, 1856, Cam- 
bridge, near Boston (U.S.). His 
grandfather, a descendant of William 
Byrde, left England and settled in 
Boston. Bird went, 1881, to Berlin, 
and was a pupil of Haupt, Loschhorn, 
Urban ; 1884-85, of Liszt, in Weimar. 
1886, he was engaged to conduct 
the Milwaukee Festival ; since his 
return he has resided in Berlin, a 
highly successful teacher. Of his 
compositions the following deserve 
attention : — 
Variations and Fugue ; 3 Valses, Op. 12 ; 
Puppentanze (Dolls' dances), 4 pieces, Op. 
10 ; Slcetches ; 3 Suites, Ballet Music, Intro- 
duction and Fugue, Zwei Poesien, for 4 
hands; 3 Characteristic Marches, Op. zi. 

Bimbach, Heinrich (Joseph Benjamin), 
b. Jan. 8, 1793, Breslau ; d. Aug. 24, 
1879, Berlin. Son of Carl Joseph B. 
(1751-1805), who was his teacher. 
1809, he had become a successful Prof, 
at Breslau; 181 3, in Pesth, as con- 
ductor and pianist ; playing with great 
success at concerts ; 1815, he returned 
to Breslau, where he remained until 
1821, when he settled in Berlin. He 
composed Concertos, Sonatas, Fan- 
tasias, &c., which were very popular. 

Bischoff, Dr. Hans, b. Feb. 17, 1852, 
Berlin ; d. June 12, 1889, Nieder- 
schonhausen, near Berlin. Pupil of 
Dr. Theodor Kullak; studied Philo- 
sophy, Mathematics, and modern 
languages at the University of 
Gottingen, where he gained the degree 
of Dr. Ph. Created a well merited 
sensation as an excellent pianist ; 
1873-88, teacher at the Academy of 
Music, and, for a short time, at 
Stern's Conserv. Edited Bach's, 
Schumann's, Schubert's, and Mozart's 
Pf. works; published a new edition 
of Adolph Kullak' s " jEsthetik des 
Clavierspiels," and was greatly 
esteemed for his talent and rare 

Bizet, Georges (really Alexandre Cesar 
Leopold), b. Oct. 25, 1838, Paris; 
d. June 3, 1875, Bougival. Pupil of 
his father-in-law, Halevy. Possessed 
great talent as a composer ; his Pf. 
playing was admired for its brilliancy 
and musicianlike expression. Com- 
poser of several exceedingly pretty Pf. 
pieces — " Jeux d'enfants" (12 pieces) ; 
" Les chants du Rhin" (6 pieces); 
" Le Pianiste-chanteur " ; 150 pieces 
of all schools. 

•Blahetka (Plahetka), Marie L^opoldine 
(Composer and Pianist), b. Nov. 15, 
181 1, Guntramsdorf, near Vienna; 
d. Jan. 17, 1887, Boulogne-sur-Mer. 

Pupil of Joseph Czemy (no relation 
to Carl Czemy), Kalkbrenner, and 
Moscheles for the Pf., and of Simon 
Sechter for Composition. Brilliant 
performer and moderately successful 
composer of effective pieces. From 
1840 she resided in Boulogne, where 
she was very popular and successful 
as a teacher, and highly esteemed for 
her excellent and amiable character. 
Blassmann, Adolph Joseph Maria, b. 
Oct. 27, 1823, Dresden; d. June 30, 
1891, Bautzen. Pupil of Charles 
Mayer and Franz Liszt. Teacher at 
the Dresden Conserv. ; 1862-64, 
Director of the Leipzig Euterpe 
Concerts ; 1867, Hof-Capellmeister 
at Sondershausen, but soon after 
returned to his former appointment 
in Dresden. Ill health obliged him 
to retire into private life. 
• Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fannie, b. July, 
1866, Bielitz (Austrian Silesia). 
Received her first lessons at Chicago, 
and studied afterwards for 5 years with 
Th. Leschetizki (Vienna). Performed 
in her tenth year (1876) at Chicago, but 
made her first important appearance 
in the same town in Jan., 1884. Her 
performances in the United States, 
Germany, and Austria have been 
received with unusual applause, and 
there is a unanimous opinion that 
she is one of the foremost lady 
pianists of the present time. 
Blow, John (Mus. Doc), b. 1648, 
North CoUingham, Nottinghamshire ; 
d. Oct. I, 1708, Westminster 
(London). Composer of Harpsichord 
lessons. 1669-80 and 1695, Organist 
of Westminster Abbey. For his 
works, see the publication "Old 
English Composers," and a volume 
(British Museum), published 1700, 
"A Choice Collection of Ayres for the 
Harpsichord or Spinett," &c. In this 
collection the first " Sett " is by 
Blow (Almand, Corant, Minuett, Jigg). 
*Blumenthal, Jacques, Ij. Oct. 4, 1829, 
Hamburg. Pupil of Grund (Ham- 
burg) ; 1843, of C. W. von Bocklet 
(Pf.) and Sechter (Composition) in 
Vienna; afterwards of Halevy (Paris). 
1848, in London, where he settled. 
Brilliant pianist and successful com- 
poser of fashionable, melodious, and 
effective drawing-room pieces : — 
La Source ; Fleurs embl6niatiques (3) ; 
Lavisella ; Chant du Cygne ; Adagio 
sostenuto e Presto agitato ; R^ouka, Marche 
turque, Op. 80 ; Chant national des 
Creates ; M arches (2), Op. 17 ; La Caressante ; 
Les deux Anges; Mazurkas (3), Op. 5 (3), 
Op. 9; Nocturnes (2), Op. 10; tine nuit i 



•Blumenfeld, Felix, b. April 7, 1863, 
Cherson (Village Kowalewska). Pupil 
of Neuhaus (Elizabethgrad), 1881-85, 
of Th. Stein (Conserv. of St. Peters- 
burg.) 1885, he received the dip- 
loma and gold medal for Pf. playing, 
and was appointed Prof, at the St. 
Petersburg Conserv. 
Allegro de Concert (with Orchestra), Op. 7 ; 
Variations caracteristiques, Op. 8; 24 
Preludes, Op. 17, &c. 

•Blumer, Fritz, b. i860, Glarus (Switzer- 
land). At first (1871) a pupil at the 
Geneva Conserv. ; gained (1874) the 
first prize; 1875-77, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv., where Wenzel and 
Reinecke were his teachers for Pf . and 
E. F. Richter for Composition; 1877, 
he received the " Helbig" prize ; 1878- 
79, with Liszt in Weimar and Rome ; 
1884 and following years, gave suc- 
cessful performances at Pasdeloup's 
Concerts (Paris) and at the Crystal 
Palace Concerts; 1885, performed at 
the " Gewandhaus " Concerts (Leipzig); 
1886, appointed Prof, at the Strassburg 
Conserv. as successor to Paderewski; 
1888, performances at Lamoureux's 
Concerts (Paris). 

Boccherini, Luigi, b. Feb. 19, 1743, 

Lucca ; d. May 28, 1805, Madrid. 

1785, Composer to the Royal Court of 

Spain. Author of — 

3 Pf. Quintets (Op. 40); 6 ditto (Op. 46); 

6 ditto (posthumous works) ; 12 Trios ; a 

good number of Vln. Sonatas and Solo 

Sonatas (Op. 4). 

Bocklet, Carl Maria von, b. 1801, 
Prague; d. July 15, 1881, Vienna. 
Pupil of Zawora (Prague), Hummel 
rWeimar) for Pf., and Dyonys Weber 
(Prague) for Composition. Excellent 
pianist, much admired for his eminent 
talent of improvisation, and most suc- 
cessful teacher ; amongst his best 
known pupils are Louis Kohler and 
Jacques Blumenthal. 

* Bocklet, Heinrich von (son of the 
above), b. Nov. 7, 1850, Vienna. Pupil of 
his father and of Franz Krenn. From 
1878 till 1887, Prof, at the Imperial 
Institute for teachers ; since 1887, only 
private teacher. 
Popular method of Pf. playing and editor 
of Japanese melodies, harmonised, &c. 

Bohm, Carl, b. Sept. 11, 1844, Berlin. 
Pupil of Loschhorn (Pf.), Flodoaxd 
Geyer and Aug. Reissmann (Composi- 
tion) . Composed and published a great 
number of drawing-room pieces, but 
also important works, such as Sonatas 
and Trios. Received from the Duke 
of Anhalt-Dessau the gold medal for 
art and science. Op. 345, Mazurkas; 
Op. 348, Vorspielstiicke. 

Bohm, Georg, b. 1661, near Gotha; 
date of death unknown. He was con- 
sidered an excellent composer. 1700, 
Organist at Liineburg. Of his Clavecin 
works may be mentioned — 
3 Suites, an Overture, and a Fugue. 
Bohner, Johann Ludwig, b. Jan. 8, 1787, 
Tottelstadt (Gotha) ; d. there, March 
28, i860. A decidedly gifted but 
erratic musician, whom the well-known 
author G. T. A. Hoffmann took as 
model for his " Capellmeister Kreisler." 
1810-20, he travelled as a virtuoso, 
composed a great deal, accused C. M. 
von Weber of stealing his ideas. 
Sank — owing to dissipated habits — 
deeper and deeper, and died eventually 
in great distress. Before 1830 he had 
written 5 Concertos — 
After 1830 appeared a Sonata, Op. 15, a 
Fantasia-Sonata, Op. 130 (!) and a Grand 
Sonata, Op. 188. Of the intervening 
Opera scarcely anything is known. Be- 
sides these be published Fantasias, 
Bagatelles, Caprices, Variations (one set. 
Op. 3, has been re-published by Breitkopf 
and Hartel), Aquarellen, &c. He also wrote 
Studies in all keys, after A. E. Miiller's 
principles. A Fantaisie Romanesque for 4 
hands was lately published in a new edition. 
Bohrer, Sophie (daughter of the Violinist, 
Anton B.), b. 1828, Stuttgart; d. St. 
Petersburg. Excellent pianist. When 
only six years old she created an 
extraordinary sensation by her wonder- 
ful execution, prodigious memory, and 
eminent talent for improvisation ; at 
that time she was called "the female 
Liszt." Her first teacher was her 
mother [nee Dulcken, of Munich). 
After travelling for several years, she 
married, 1846, M. Bominghausen, 
proprietor of an estate in Westphalia. 
On account of nervous debility, she 
was treated in Paris by a magnetiser ; 
for reasons unknown she separated 
from her husband and married, later, 
an assistant of the magnetiser. Any 
information about her further life or 
career is entirely wanting ; neither 
her Munich nor Stuttgart relations 
are able to give it. Her memory was 
in every respect astonishing — nay, 
phenomenal. It is on record that at a 
concert given by her in Vienna she 
presented in the programme a list of 
not less than 80 pieces, offering to play 
any of these from memory at the choice 
of her audience. Among those present 
were Czerny, Thalberg, and other 
celebrated musicians, who accordingly 
selected several of the most compli- 
cated and difficult, all of which she 
rendered without hesitation and to the 
complete satisfaction of her critical 



Bolck, Oscar, b. March 4, 1839, Hohen- 
stein (East Prussia) ; d. May 2, 1888, 
Bremen. 1857, pupil of Moscheles 
(Pf.) and Jul. Rietz (Composition), in 
Leipzig; 1861, Prof, at a Music School 
in Wiborg (Finland) ; he returned, 1862, 
to Leipzig ; 1866-67, teacher in Liver- 
pool; afterwards again in Leipzig. 
1875, appointed Prof, at the Music 
School in Riga. Composed and pub- 
lished a good many characteristic 
pieces for Pf., some of which became 
well known. 

Bonewitz (Bonawitz), Johann Heinrich, 
b. Dec. 4, 1839, Durckheim (Bavarian 
Palatinate). Pupil at the Liege 
Conserv. ; then went to America, where 
he had to rely on his own studies. 
1861-66, in Wiesbaden; 1871, in New 
York, where he established and con- 
ducted the Popular Concerts. Returned 
to Europe and settled in London, 
where he gave Historical Pf. Recitals. 
Composed, among other pieces — 
A Grand Fantasia, " Sur la mer," Op. 28 ; a 
Concerto with Orchestra, Op. 36 ; a Sonata 
for Pf. and Vln. in A min.. Op. 40. 

Contempo, Joao Domingos, b. 1781, 
Lisbon ; d. there 1847. Details as to 
the instruction he received are wanting. 
1806, he settled as a teacher in Paris ; 
went, after a few years, to London, 
where he remained until 1818. 
Returned to Paris. At that time about 
22 of his works had been published 
there. Among them were 2 Concertos 
with Orchestral Accompaniments, 
Sonatas (Op. i and 5), and several 
Fantasias and Variations [Fandango). 
Returned, 1821, to Lisbon, where he 
founded a Conserv. and the Phil- 
harmonic Society. 1816, he published 
a method of Pf. playing (London). 

Boom, Jan van, b. Oct. 15, 1807, 
Utrecht ; d. April, 1872, Stockholm. 
Pupil of his father. From 1859-65, 
Prof, at the Royal Academy of Stock- 
holm. Composed — 
Pf. Duets, Trios, and Studies, which deserve 

♦Borwick, Leonard, b. Feb. 26, 1868, 
Walthamstow (Essex) . Pupil of Henry 
R. Bird. 1884, entered the Conserv. 
of Frankfort o/M. and remained till 
1890; pupil of Madame Schumann 
(1885-90), and of Dr. Bernhard Scholz 
and Iwan Knorr (Composition and 
Counterpoint). Appeared in London 
1890 and has performed since then 
with increasing success at the Popular 
and Crystal Palace Concerts, &c. 

Boulanger, Ernest Henri Alexandre, 
b. Sept. 16, 1816, Paris. Pupil of 

Alkan (Pf), Halevy, and Lesueur 
(Composition) . His compositions, 
mostly drawing-room pieces, are highly 
efifective and enjoy a certain popularity. 

Boyce, William (Mus. Doc), b. 1710, 
London ; d. there Feb. 7, 1779. Among 
his compositions for Clavecin, a Con- 
certo is to be mentioned. 

Brahms, Dr. Johannes, b. May 7, 1833, 
Hamburg. Pupil of Eduard Marxsen. 
For some time Conductor in Detmold ; 
settled (1862) in Vienna; resided at 
times in Hamburg, Zurich, Baden, 
Heidelberg ; but from i86g permanently 
in the Austrian capital, where he con- 
ducted, 1872-74, the Concerts of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. The 
University of Breslau conferred on 
him the diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil. ; 
the University of Cambridge offered to 
confer on him the diploma of Mus. 
Doc, Hon. caiisd; and Hamburg gave 
him the freedom of the city. He is a 
Member of the " Ordre pour le merite " 
(Prussia), Knight of the Imperial 
Austrian Order of Leopold (a distinc- 
tion never before bestowed on a 
musician), Member of the Bavarian 
Maximilian Order for Art and Science, 
and Knight of several other orders. 
His compositions are : — 
Sonatas, Op. i. Op. 2, and Op. 5 ; Sonatas for 
Pf. and Vln., Op. 78, Op. 100, and Op. 108; 
Sonatas for Pf. and V'cello, Op. 38, Op. 09 ; 
Trios for Pf , Vln., and V'cello, Op. 8, Op. 
40 (also for Vln. and Hn.), Op. 87, Oa loi ; 
Quartets for Pf., Vln., Via., and V'cello, Op. 
25, Op. 26 ; Quintet for Pf. and Strings, 
Op. 34 ; Concertos, Op. 15, Op. 83 ; Varia- 
tions on a theme of Schumann, Op. 9; 
Variations : i. On an original theme ; 2. On 
a Hungarian Melody, Op. 21 ; Variations 
for 4 hands on a theme of Schumann, Op. 
23 ; Variations on a theme of Handel, Op. 24 ; 
Variations (28) on a theme of Paganini, 
Op- 35 ; Variations for 2 Pf. on a theme 
of Haydn ; Ballades (4), Op. 10 ; Scherzo, 
Op. 4 ; Capriccios and Intermezzi, Op. 76; 
Rhapsodies (2), Op. 79 ; Fantasias, Inter- 
mezzi, and Capriccios, 2 books. Op. 116; 
Intermezzi (3), Op. 117 ; Intermezzi, 
Romanze. Op. 118; Intermezzi, Rhapsodie, 
Op. 119; Waltzes (16), for 4 hands. Op. 39; 
Hungarian Dances for 4 bands (2 books); 
Gavotte by Gluck, transcribed ; Study after 
Chopin (Op. 25, No. 2) ; Study after Weber's 
Moto perpetuo. Op. 24 ; Bach's Chaconne, 
arranged for the left hand ; 51 Studies (1893). 

♦Brambach, Carl Joseph, b. July 14, 
1833, Bonn -on -the -Rhine. 1851-54, 
pupil at the Cologne Conserv., as a 
"Mozart" Scholar, pupil of Hiller. 
1858-61, Prof, at the Cologne Conserv. ; 
1861-69, Musik - Director at Bonn, 
where he now resides as private teacher. 
Composer of — 
2 Pf. Quartets, a Sextuor, a Concerto, 

Sonatas, and a considerable number of 

Pf. Solo pieces. 



Brandes, Emma (wife of Prof. 
Engelmann), b. Jan. 20, 1854, near 
Schwerin. Pupil of Aloys Schmitt, jun. 
(Pf.), and of Goltermann, of Frankfort 
(Composition). Excellent performer. 
She was cordially received in London, 
1871 and 1872, as well as on the 
Continent. Resides in Utrecht. 

Brassin, Leopold (younger brother of 
Louis B.), b. May 28, 1843, Strassburg 
(Alsace). 1857, named Hof-Pianist to 
the Duke of Coburg. Teacher at the 
Music School of Berne ; went to St. 
Petersburg, from there to Constanti- 
nople, where he died, 1890. Composed 
Concertos for i and for a Pf. and many 
Solo pieces. 

Brassin, Louis, b. June 24, 1836, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; d. May 17, 1884, 
St. Petersburg. 1847, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv. of Moscheles ; 1866, 
Prof, at the Stern Conserv. (Berlin) ; 
1869, Prof, at the Brussels Conserv. ; 
1879, in the same capacity at the St. 
Petersburg Conserv. Excellent pianist 
and composer of — with regard to 
technical difficulties — interesting Solo 

*Breitner, Louis, b. March 22, 1854, 
Trieste. Pupil (took first prize) at the 
Milan Conserv. ; later, pupil of A. 
Rubinstein and Liszt. Has resided 
since 1876 at Paris. Composer of a 
Quartet and shorter pieces. Officier 
de I'instruction publique en France, 
and Knight of the Order of Charles HI. 
of Spain. President of the musical 
society "la Gallia." 

Breslaur, Emil (Prof.), b. May 29, 1836, 
Kottbus (district of Frankfort o/Oder) . 
He studied modern languages, the 
Hebrew grammar, Talmud religious 
code, &c., literature, and music, and 
was elected teacher of religion and 
preacher of the Synagogue of his 
native town. Settled, 1863, in Berlin ; 
was for four years pupil at the Stern 
Conserv., under Jean Vogt and Ehr- 
lich (Pf.), Kolbe, Weitzmann, and F. 
Geyer (Composition). 1868-79, Prof, 
at Kullak's Academy and musical 
critic to several Berlin papers ; Knight 
of the Order of the Prussian Crown, 
the Italian Order of St. Mauritius and 
Lazarus, the Brunswick Order of the 
Lion, &c., and editor of the journal 
Der Clavierlehrer. Of his works the 
best known are: " Technische Grund- 
lagen des Clavierspiels " (technical 
basis of Pf. playing, 4 editions), 
" Technische Uebungen " (technical 
exercises), " Methodik des Clavier- 

Unterrichts," " Clavierschule," 8 
editions, and many Solo pieces. 

Breunung, Ferdinand, b. March 2, 1830, 
Brockerode (Thuringia) ; d. Sept. 22, 
1883, Aix-la-Chapelle. 1844, pupil 
of Mendelssohn and Hauptmann, in 
Leipzig. 1855, Prof, at the Cologne 

. Conserv. ; 1865, Musical Director at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, where he did much 
for the improvement of the different 
musical societies and for public taste in 

♦Bright, Dora, b. Aug. 16, 1863, Sheffield. 
Pupil at the R.A.M. from 1881-88. 
From 1884, Sub- Prof, in the classes 
of Walter Macfarren (Pf.) and 
Ebenezer Prout (Harmony and Com- 
position). Among her compositions 
are 2 Pf. Concertos, a Quartet, 3 
Duets for 2 Pf. ; all of them were 
performed at public concerts with 
eminent success. 

*Brissler, Friedrich Ferdinand, b. July 
13, 1818, Insterburg; d. July 30, 1893, 
Berlin. He went, 1836, to Berlin, in 
order to complete his studies ; became 
teacher at the Stern Conserv., and 
made his name known by his excel- 
lent arrangements of classical works. 

Brisson, Frederic, b. Dec. 25, 1821, 
Angouleme (Charente). Since 1846, 
resident in Paris. Composer of a 
great number of fashionable pieces. 
In his piece, " La Roseet lePapillon," 
he was the first to introduce the 
device of engraving the melody in large 
and the accompaniment in smaller 
notes ; thus in the above piece all that 
concerns the Rose is in large notes, 
whilst the part of the Papillon 
(butterfly) is in smaller type. This 
piece was published in 1848. The 
same device has been adopted by 
Thalberg in his " I'Art du Chant." 

Bronsart von Schellendorf, Hans, b. 
Feb. II, 1830, Berlin. 1849, pupil of 
Dehn for Harmony, and of Theodor 
Kullak for Pf. 1854-57, with Liszt, 
in Weimar ; i860. Conductor of the 
Euterpe Concerts in Leipzig ; 1867, 
Director of the Royal Theatre of 
Hanover. He went, 1870, as a volun- 
teer to the French war and obtained 
the Iron Cross. 
Trio, Op. I ; various Solo pieces (Aus der 
Jugendzeit, Op. a) ; a Concerto in F sharp 
min. ; a Fantasia, &c. 

Bronsart, Ingeborg {nee Starck), wife of 
the above; b. Aug. 24, 1840, St. Peters- 
burg .At first pupil of Martinoff and 
Decker, later of Henselt ; and, 1858, of 
Liszt, in Weimar. 
Concertos, Sonatas, Studies, Fugues, and 
Diawing-rootn pieces. 



Bruch, Max, b. Jan. 6, 1838, Cologne. 
At first a pupil of his mother ; later, 
obtained the "Mozart" Scholarship of 
Frankfort o/M., and so was for three 
years pupil of Hiller. 1862, in 
Mannheim ; 1865, in Coblentz ; 1867, 
Hof-Capellmeister to the Prince of 
Sondershausen ; 1870, in Berlin ; 1872, 
in Bonn ; 1878, Director of the Stern 
Choral Society of Berlin ; 1880-82, 
Conductor of the Liverpool Philhar- 
monic Society ; 1882, of the Orchestral 
Society of Breslau ; 1889, he settled in 
Berlin and is now Royal Prof, of the 
" Akademische Meisterschule fiir Com- 
position," and, as such. Member of the 
Senateof the Royal Academy ; Member 
of the Royal Bavarian Maximilian 
Order for Art and Science, Knight 
of the Order of the Prussian Crown, 
Hon. Mus. Doc. of the Cambridge 
University (June 13, 1893). Among his 
Pf. compositions may be mentioned — 
A Fantasia for 2 Pf., Op. 11 ; 6 smaller pieces, 

Op. 12 ; a Romanza and Phantasiestiick, 

Op. 14, &c. 

•Briill, Igcaz, b. Nov. 7, 1846, Prossnitz 
(Moravia). Pupil of Julius Epstein 
(Pf.), Rufinatscha (Composition), and 
Dessoff (Instrumentation). Received 
the Wiirtemberg gold medal for Art 
and Science on the Riband of the 
"Friedrich" Order of Merit. Hon. 
Member of the " Societe Philhar- 
monique" of Athens; one of the 
Directors and principal Prof, of the 
Pf. at the "Horak" School (Vienna). 
Composer of — 

Concertos, Op. 10 and Op. 24 ; a Rhafsody, 
Op. 65, with Orchestral accompaniments ; 
a Suite, Op. 60 ; Studies (9), Op. 61 ; Theme 
and Variations, Op. 39 ; ditto. Op. 45 ; 
Scherzi (2), Op. 20 ; a great many Mazurkas 
(Op. 35, in G, a great favourite) ; Im- 
promptus, Romanzas, Album Leaves, 
Caprices, &c. For 2 Pf., he composed : 
Tarantella, Op. 6 ; Sonata, Op. 19 ; and 
Duo, Op. 64. 

Brunner, Christian Traugott, b. Dec. 12, 
1792, Briinlos, near Stollberg (Saxony) ; 
d. April 14, 1874, Chemnitz. He wrote 
a great number of educational works 
which still enjoy, in some parts of 
Germany, a deserved popularity owing 
to the correctness of their style and 
practicability of execution. 

Bruyck, Carl Debrois van, b. March 14, 
1828, Briinn (Moravia). 1842, pupil 
of August Mittag (Pf.^ ; 1850, of 
Rufinatscha (Composition) . His essays 
on Schumann created considerable 
interest, and his technical and 
aesthetical analyses of Bach's 48 
Preludes and Fugues were received 
with great favour. His pamphlet, 

" The development of Piano-music 
from Seb. Bach to Schumann," is 
written in a masterly style and deserves 
translation into English. Pf. compo- 
sitions : Variations in A, Op. 21, and 
Variations in D flat, Op. 22. 

Billow, Dr. Hans Guido von, b. Jan. 8, 
1830, Dresden ; d. Feb. 12, 1894, Cairo. 
At first a pupil of Mdlle. Schmiedel, 
afterwards of Wieck and Litolff (Pf), 
Max Eberwein and Hauptmann 
(Theory and Composition) ; 1846-48, 
pupil at the Stuttgart College ; 1848, 
student at the Leipzig University ; 
1850, at the BerUn University, in 
order to study law ; 1851, in Weimar, 
with Liszt ; 1854. principal teacher at 
the Stern Conserv. ; 1854, in Russia ; 
1865, in Munich as Court Pianist to 
the King of Bavaria ; 1866, went to 
Basle, but on receiving, Dec. 30 of the 
same year, the appointment as Royal 
Capellmeister and Director of the 
Royal Music School at Munich, he 
returned to the Bavarian capital and 
remained there until 1869, when he 
resigned on account of family dissen- 
sions. 1869-72, he resided in Florence. 
After 1872 he again gave public 
concerts in almost all European 
countries; 1875, he went to America; 
1876, he was in England ; 1877-80, he 
was Royal Capellmeister at Hanover ; 
1880-84, Intendant (Director) of the 
Meiningen Theatre and Orchestra. 
Latterly he conducted the Philhar- 
monic Concerts of Berlin and Ham- 
burg. His edition of Beethoven's 
Sonatas (beginning with Op. 53) is 
most valuable ; less so his edition 
of Emanuel Bach and Domenico 
Scarlatti's Sonatas, which suffers from 
anachronisms. The King of Prussia 
conferred on him the title of Pianist to 
the Court, which appointment he 
resigned ; the University of Jena made 
him Dr. Ph., hon. causd, and many 
sovereigns bestowed on him Orders of 
Knighthood. As a pianist he was 
universally admired for the acuteness 
of his imderstanding, phenomenal 
memory, extraordinary technique, aind 
lucidity of phrasing. Of his Pf. com- 
positions, only a few became generally 

Biirgel, Constantin, b. June 24, 1837, 
Liebau (Silesia). Pupil of Brosig 
(Breslau) and Kiel (Berlin). 1869-70. 
Prof, at the Kullak Academy in Berlin, 
where he now resides. Among his 
compositions, a Sonata in A, Op. 5 ; 
Suite, Op. 6; and Phantasiestiicke, 
Op. 13, became well known. 



Bungert, August, b. March 14, 1846, 
Miihlheim o/Ruhr. At first a pupil of 
H. Kufferath (Pf.) ; later, studied at 
the Cologne Conserv. He was after- 
wards for two years at the Paris 
Conserv., under Matthias. After 
leaving Paris he was for four years 
Musical Director at Kreuznach, but 
settled ultimately in Pegli, near Genoa. 
His compositions for Pf. enjoy a con- 
siderable popularity, particularly his 
" Pictures of Italian travel" (2 books). 

*Buonamici, Giuseppe, b. Feb. 12, 
1846, Florence. Pupil of his uncle, 
Ceccherini, in Florence, and of Dr. von 
Biilow in Munich. For three years a 
teacher at the Royal Music School of 
M unich. His compilations of technical 
figures found in Beethoven's Pf. and 
Chamber music (Passaggi estratti dalle 
opere per Pianoforte solo o con altri 
istrumenti, aggruppati, dileggiati e 
metti in forma di Studii giornalieri) , 
his edition of Bertini's Studies in 
graduating difiiculty, and of Bach's 
smaller Preludes and Fugues, are very 
much esteemed. He is also the editor 
of Ricordi's Biblioteca del Pianista. 
Only 3 of his original compositions are 

•Burchard, Carl, b. Sept. 21. 1818, 
Hamburg ; d. Feb. 12, 1896, Dresden. 
Pupil of Julius Otto and J. J. F. 
Dotzauer. Since 1842, has resided at 
Dresden. His name is well known by 
his successful, practical, and effective 
arrangements of classical pieces, more 
particularly for 4 performers on 2 

Burckhardt, Salomon, b. Nov. 3, 1803, 
Tripitis (near Weimar) ; d. Feb. ig, 
1849, Dresden. Greatly esteemed as 
an excellent teacher and as a composer 
of well-written and useful educational 

Burgmein, J. Sec Ricordi, Giulio. 

Burgmiiller, Friedrich, b. i8o5, Regens- 
burg (Ratisbon) ; d. Feb. 13, 1874, 
Beaulieu (France). His Studies — 
particularly Op. 100 and 105 — and 
smaller pieces are very popular for 
their practical and useful contents. 

Burgmiiller, Norbert (brother of the 
above), b. Feb. 8, 1810, Diisseldorf ; 
d. May 7, 1836, Aix-la-Chapelle. Pupil 
of Spohr and Hauptmann (Cassel). 
Composer of noteworthy works : a 
Concerto, Sonatas, and Quartets. The 
Sonata, Op. 8, and Rhapsody, Op. 13, 
are particularly esteemed. 

Burney, Dr. Charles, b. April 7 (? 12), 
1726, Shrewsbury; d. April 12, 1814, 
Chelsea College. Among his Clavecin 
works are 6 Sonatas, a Sonata Trio 
with accompaniment of Vln. and 
V'cello, and 2 books of Duets (4 hands), 

Burrowes, John Freckleton, b. April 23, 
1787, London; d. there, March 31, 
1852. Pupil of William Horsley. 
Author of a Pf. Primer and many Pf. 

*Busoni,FerruccioBenvenuto,b. Aprili, 
1866, EmpoU (Florence). Pupil of 
his mother ; was already giving 
Concerts when only 8 years old. 1880- 
81, pupil of Dr. Meyer-Remy, of Graz 
(Styria). He travelled for two years 
in Italy and received from his native 
town a gold medal, struck in his 
honour. 1888, principal Prof, at the 
Helsingfors College of Music. 1890, he 
received the "Rubinstein" Prize for 
composition ; has since become Prof. 
at the Moscow Conserv. Composed 
many works for the Pf. 

Bussmeyer, Hans, b. March 29, 1853, 
Brunswick. Pupil (now Prof.) at the 
Munich Conserv. and of Liszt 
(Weimar). Pianist of distinction, 
composer of a good number of pieces, 
editor of Studies (Kessler, &c). 

Bussmeyer, Hugo (elder brother of the 
above), b. Feb. 26, 1842, Brunswick. 
Pupil of Carl Richter and H. Litolff 
(Pf.) and Methfessel (Composition). 
i860, in South America ; after journeys 
to Monte Video, Buenos Ayres, Chili 
and Peru, he went, 1867, to New York 
and Paris ; in 1868, to South Mexico, 
and then settled permanently in New 
York, where he performs at concerts 
and teaches. His compositions for Pf. 
are not very numerous. 

*3uths, Julius, b. May 7, 1851, Wies- 
baden. Pupil of his father and Fr. 
Gernsheim (Pf.), at Freudenberg, and 
Hiller (Composition) at Cologne, and 
later of Fr. Kiel (Berlin). 1871-72, 
Conductor of the St. Cecilia Society 
(Wiesbaden) ; gained, 1873, the 
" Meyerbeer " Scholarship ; 1873-74, 
he sojourned in Milan and Paris; 
1875-79, Conductor in Breslau ; 1879-90, 
in Elberfeld; since 1890, Conductor of 
the musical societies of Diisseldorf. 
Brilliant pianist and composer of a 
Suite, Sarabande, and Gavotte, 
I Novelletten, Concerto, Quintet, &c. 



Buttstedt, Johann Heinrich, b. April 25, 
1666, Erfurt; d. there, Dec. 1727. 
Pupil of Pachelbel. He was noted for 
his excellent performEinces. Of his 
compositions, the " Musikalische 
Clavierkunst und Vorrathskammer " 
was published, 1716, in Leipzig. The 
work consists of 4 Preludes and 
Fugues, Aria with 18 Variations, and 
2 Parthien (Suites) of Clavecin pieces. 

Byrd (Byrde, Bird), William (performer 
on the Virginal), D. about 1538, London ; 
d. there, July 4, 1623. Pupil of Tallis. 
The "Virginal Book of Queen Eliza- 
beth " and " Lady Nevill's Virginal 
Book " contain his short pieces. Refer 
to " Parthenia " and Pauer's "Old 
English Composers." 


♦Calkin, John Baptiste, b. March 16, 
1827, London. Pupil of his father, 
James C. Prof, at the Guildhall School 
of Music. 
Sonatas, Studies (Concert Study in double 
notes), Minuets, Caprices M^Iodiques, 6 
Caprices, " Youth and Age," Op. 100 ; 
Pieces for 4 hands, &c. 
Callcott, William Hutchins, b. 1807, 
Kensington ; d. there, Aug. 4, 1882. Son 
of Dr. John Wall C. His composi- 
tions are written in a popular style 
and mostly for educational purposes. 
His "Half-hours with the best Com- 
posers " have had a large circulation. 
Carpentier, le. See Lecarpentier. 
Carreno, Teresa, b. Dec. 22, 1853, 
Venezuela. Pupil of her father, later 
of Gottschalk in New York and George 
Matthias in Paris. After having re- 
sided for some time in London, she 
travelled, 1889-90, in Germany, and 
obtained after 1891 a great reputation 
by her brilliant and effective per- 
formances. 1893, appointed Court 
Pianist of Saxony. 
Castello, Dario. Dates of birth and 
death not known. His pubUshed com- 
positions are — 
Sonate Concertante in stilo modemo per 
sonar nel Organo, owerro Spinetta con 
diversi stromenti. Libro Primo. In 
Venetia, 1639. Libro secondo sec, 1644. 
Castello, Giovanni, Dates of birth and 
death not known. He published — 
Neue Clavier-ijbung, bestehend in einer 
Sonate. Caprice, Allemande, Corrente, 
Sarabande, &c. Wien, 1721. 

Catel, Charles Simon, b. June, 1773, 
I'Aigle (Orne) ; d. Nov. 29, 1830, Paris. 
Pupil of Gobert and Gossec. 1795, 
Prof, at the newly-founded Paris Con- 
serv. ; 1810, Inspector ; retired, 1814 ; 
1817, elected a Member of the Academy. 
3 Sonatas, Op. i ; ditto with Vln., Op. 4 ; 

•Cavallo, Peter (son of the Royal 
Bavarian Court-musician, I. N. C), b. 
Dec. 23, 1819, Munich ; d. April 19, 

1891, Paris. Showed, when only in 
his tenth year, uncommon talent. At 
first a pupil of Madame GoUiet (Pf.) 
and Caspar Ett (Composition). 1836, 
at Vienna, pupil of Sechter (Composi- 
tion) ; and a highly successful teacher ; 
1842, he settled in Paris. His Pf. 
works number about 84. 
Chambonniferes, Andre (Jacques ?) 
Champion de, b. about i6oo ; d. 
1670 (?). Came from a musical family. 
Clavecinist to Louis XIV. ; teacher of 
Hardelle, Le Begue, d'Anglebert, and 
Fran9ois Couperin. 
Pieces de Clavecin, 2 books (Paris : Ballard, 

1670). Reprinted by Farreuc, in the " Tresor 

du Pianiste." 

*Chaminade, C6cile, b. Aug. 8, 1861. 
Paris. Pupil of Le Couppey and 
Savard. She is at the present time 
undoubtedly recognised as the foremost 
French lady composer. 
Concertos, Trios, and highly effective solo 
pieces ; Concert Studies ; " Automne," Op. 
35 ; " Fileuse," Op. 35 ; " Marine," Op. 38 ; 
'' Toccata," Op. 39 ; " Arabesque," " Les 
Sylvains," "La Morena," Op. 67; " Taran- 
telle," Op. 35 ; and a Gigue, Op. 43. 
Chaulieu, Charles (composer of educa- 
tional pieces), b. June 21, 1788, Paris; 
d. 1849, London. Pupil of Adam (Pf.) 
and Catel (Composition). 1840, he 
settled in London. Among his many 
educational works, a collection of 
Studies, " r Indispensable," enjoyed a 
certain reputation. 
Cherubini, Luigi Maria Carlo Zenobio 
Salvatore, b. Sept. 14, 1760, Florence ; 
d. March 15, 1842, Paris. Pupil of Sarti 
(Bologna). 6 Sonatas and a Fugue. 
Chopin, Frederic Fran9ois, b. March i, 
1809, Zelazowa Wola (near Warsaw) ; 
d. Oct. 17, 1849, Paris. Pupil of 
Zywny (Pf.) and Joseph Eisner 
(Composition). 1830, he travelled to 
Breslau, Dresden, Prague, Vienna, 
Munich, and to Paris, where he 
remained until his death, with excep- 
tion of 1838 when, on account of 



ill-health, he went to Majorca. A 
monument was erected to him, 1869, in 
Warsaw, and a second one has been 
erected (1894) in his native place. A 
collection of his letters appeared, 1877 
(Franz Ries, Dresden). His extra- 
ordinary merits, striking originality, 
and the impetus he gave to technical 
execution, romantic and poetic feeling, 
have often been recognised with sincere 
enthusiasm. He founded an entirely 
new school. The popularity of his 
Nocturnes, Ballades, Impromptus, 
Scherzos, Valses, and Polonaises be- 
comes greater with every year ; and the 
actual indispensability of his wonderful 
Studies as a means to become an 
accomplished pianist is now universally 
acknowledged. He is decidedly the 
most original of all composers for the 
Pf., his technical figures are entirely 
new, his ornaments graceful, at times 
almost ethereal, the basses noble and 
independent, the harmonies rich, the 
modulations free and natural, the 
rhythmical part fresh and fascinating, 
the melodies distinguished; indeed, 
many points of extreme beauty meet 
here, and it is therefore not astonish- 
ing that his works are among the most 
popular in existence : — 
Concertos : No. i in E min.. Op. 11 ; No. 2 in 
F min.. Op. 2i. Trio in G min., Op. 8. 
Sonatas : No. i in C min.. Op. 4 ; No. 2 in B 
flat min., Op. 35; No. 3 in G min., with 
V'cello, Op. 65; No. 3 in B min., Op. 58. 
Allegro de Concert in A, Op. 46. Ballades : 
No. 1 in G min., Op. 23 ; No. 2 in F, Op. 38 ; 
No. 3 in A flat, Op. 47 ; No. 4 in F min.. Op. 
52. Impromptus : No. i in A flat. Op. 29 ; 
No. 2 in F sharp. Op. 36; No. 3 in G flat, 
Op. 51. Scherzi : No. i in B min., Op. 20 ; 
No. 2 in B flat min.. Op. 31 ; No. 3 in C 
sharp min., Op. 39; No. 4 in E, Op. 54. 
Polonaises : No. i in C (arranged by 
Czerny), Op. 3 ; No. 2 in E flat (with orch. 
accomp.), Op. 22 ; Nos. 3 and 4 in C sharp 
min. and E flat min., Op. 26 ; Nos. 5 and 6 
in A and C min., Op. 40 ; No. 7 in F sharp 
min.. Op. 44 ; No. 8 in A flat, Op. 53 ; No. 9 
(Fantaisie) in A flat. Op. 61. Preludes : 
(24), Op. 28; Prelude in C sharp min.. Op. 
45. Mazurkas: (4), Op. 6, Nos. i, 2, 3,4; 
(5), Op. 7, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; (4), Op. 17, 
Nos. 10, II, 12, 13 ; (4), Op. 24, Nos. 14, 15, 
16, 17; (4), Op. 30, Nos. 18, 19, 20, 21 ; (4), 
Op. 33, Nos. 22, 23, 24, 25 ; (4), Op. 41, 
Nos. 26, 27, 28, 29; (3), Op. 50, Nos. 30, 31, 
32 ; (3), Op. 56, Nos. 33, 34. 35 • (3). Op. 59, 
Nos. 36, 37, 38 ; (3), Op. 63, Nos. 39, 40, 41. 
Valses : No. i in E flat, Op. 18 ; Nos. 2, 3, 4 
in A flat, A min., F, Op. 34 ; No. 5 in A flat. 
Op. 42; Nos. 6, 7, 8 in D flat, C sharp min., 
A flat, Op. 64. Variations: in B flat (La ci 
darem la mano). Op. 2 ; Variations in B flat 
(Je vends des Scapulaires), Op. 12; Varia- 
tions in E (Hexameron). Berceuse in D flat, 
Op. 57. Barcarolle in F sharp, Op. 60. 
Bolero in C, Op. 19. Nocturnes : Nos. 1, 2, 3 
in B flat min., E flat, B, Op. 9; Nos. 4, 5, 6 
in F, F sharp, G min.. Op. 15 ; Nos. 7, 8 in C 
sharp min. and D flat. Op. 27 ; Nos. 9, 10 in 
B and A flat, Op. 32 ; Nos. 11, 12 in G min. 

and G, Op. 37 ; Nos. 13, 14 in C min. and F 
sharp min.. Op. 48; Nos. 15, 16 in F min., E 
flat. Op. 55 ; Nos. 17, 18 in B and E, Op. 62. 
Rondos : No. i in C min.. Op. i ; No. 2 
in F, Op. 5 ; No. 3 in F, Op. 14 ( Krakowiak) ; 
No. 4 in E flat. Op. 16. Tarantelle in A flat, 
Op. 43. Fantasias : No. i in A (Polish 
melodies). Op. 13 ; No. 2 in F min.. Op. 
49 ; No. 3, Fantaisie Polonaise, Op. 61 (see 
Polonaises, No. 9). Etudes: (12), Op. 10; 
Etudes (12), Op. 25. Without Opus number: 
Duo Concertante, Pf. and V'cello ; Ma- 
zurkas, Nos. 42, 43. Posth. Works : Fan- 
taisie-lmpromptu in C sharp min.. Op. 66 ; 
Mazurkas (4), Op. 67; ditto. Op. 68; 
Mazurkas (5); Polonaises (3), Op. 71; 
Polonaises (2), G sharp min. and B flat 
min. ; Valses (2), Oj). 69 ; Valses (3), Op. 
70; Valses (2), E maj. and min.; Nocturne 
(No. 19) in E min., Op. 72 ; Marche funebre 
in C min. ; Ecossaises (3) ; Rondo for 2 Pf., 
Op. 73 ; Variations (Theme allemand). 
Chotek, Franz Xaver, b. 1800, Liebisch 
(Moravia) ; d. May 5, 1852, Vienna. 
Educational composer of great popu- 
larity in Austria. 
Christiani, Adolph Friedrich, b. March 8, 
1836, Cassel; d. Feb. 10, 1885, Elisa- 
beth (United States). Director of 
a Music School. His work, "The 
principles of musical expression in 
Pianoforte-playing," was translated 
into German by Dr. H. Riemann. 
Chwatal, Franz Xaver, b. June 19, 1808, 
Rumburg (Bohemia) ; d. Tune 24, 1879, 
Elmen (district of Magdeburg). Com- 
poser of many valuable educational 
Clasing, Johann Heinrich, b. 1779, Ham- 
burg, d. there, Feb. 8, 1829. Pupil of 
Schwencke. Trios, Sonatas, Fantasias, 
Rondos, which enjoyed in their time 
a considerable reputation. 
Clauss (Szarvady), Wilhelmine, b. Dec. 
13, 1834, Prague. Pupil of Proksch 
(Prague). Her brilliant, excellent, and 
musicianly performances were greatly 
admired. 1855, she married the Hun- 
garian author Szarvady, who died 1882. 
• For some years she has resided at Paris 
and occupies herself with teaching. 
Clementi, Muzio, b. 1752, Rome ; d. 
March 10, 1832, at his country house in 
Evesham (Worcestershire). Pupil of 
Buroni (Clavecin), Cordicelli and Car- 
pini (Composition). 1766-70, resided 
with Mr. Beckford on his estate 
in Dorsetshire. Played after this with 
enormous success in London, &c. ; 
1780, went to Paris; 1781, to Vienna; 
returned to London and remained 
there until 1802. John Baptist Cramer 
was (1783) for one year his pupil. In 
1802 he left for the Continent. Among 
his pupils was John Field, who went 
with him to St. Petersburg. As Field 
I decided to remain in Russia, Clementi 



took Zeuner as a pupil, and travelled 
with him to Dresden and Berlin. Aug. 
Alex. Klengel (Dresden) and Ludwig 
Berger (Berlin) became his pupils, and 
accompanied him on his return to St. 
Petersburg. After a sojourn of some 
time, Clementi came (1810) again to 
London. 1817, he published his well- 
known " Gradus ad Pamassum." 
1820-21, he left once more for the 
Continent, remained a long time in 
Leipzig, where two of his Symphonies 
were performed. From 1821 until his 
death he resided in England. His 
compositions are very numerous. 
Breitkopf and Hartel, of Leipzig, 
have published 64 Sonatas and 
Sonatinas ; these are : — 

Nos. I,* 2, 3, Op. 2; Nos. 4, 5, 6,* Op. 7 ; Nos. 
7, 8,9, Op. 9; Nos. 10, II, 12, Op. 10; Nos. 
13, 14, 15, 16,* Op. 12; Nos. 17, 18, 19,* Op. 
14; No. 20, Op. 17 (La Chasse); No. 21, 
Op. 19: No. 22, Op. 20; No. 23, Op. 21; 
Nos. 24, 25, 26, Op. 24 ; Nos. 27, 28, 29, Op. 
25; Nos. 30,* 31,* 32, Op, 26; No. 33, Op. 27; 
Nos. 34, 35, 36, Op. 30; Nos. 37, 38, 39, Op. 
33 ; Nos. 40, 41, Op. 34 ; Nos. 42, 43. Op. 35 ; 
Nos. 44, 45, 46, Op. 36 (Sonatinas) ; Nos. 47, 
48, 49, Op. 37 (Sonatinas) ; Nos. 50, 51, 52, 
Op. 38; Nos. 53, 54, 55, Op. 39; Nos. 56,* 
57, 58, Op. 40 J No. 59, Op. 46 (dedicated to 
Fr. Kalkbrenner) ; Nos. 60, 61, Op. 47 (No. 
61 was played before the Emperor Joseph 
II. in the presence of Mozart); Nos. 62, 63,* 
64* (Didone abbandonata), Op. 50 (dedicated 
to Cherubini). The Sonatas marked (*) are 
the most celebrated and best known. 7 
Sonatas for 4 hands; 2 Sonatas for 2 Pf., 
Op. 12 and 46 ; about 40 Sonatas with Vln. or 
Fl ^ between 30 and 40 Trios for Pf., Vln., 
(Fl.), and V'cello; Studies: Gradus ad 
Parnassum, ou I'art de jouer le Pianoforte, 
demontre par des Exercices dans le style 
severe et dans le style elegant. 3 vols., 100 
numbers. The ist part appeared 1817. 
Methodede Pianoforte, en 2 Parties (Paris) ; 
Introduction a I'art de toucher le Piano- 
forte, avec 50 le9ons (London, 1797); Pre- 
ludes et Exercices dans tous les tons majeurs 
et mineurs (1790); 8 Cadences; Grand 
Exercice doigte (Czerny) ; Caprices, Pre- 
ludes et Point d'orgue, composes dans le 
pout de Haydn, Mozart, Kozeluch, Merkel, 
Wanhal et Clementi, Op. 19; 5 Caprices, 
Op. 18, 35 (or 36), and Op. 47 ; Toccata in B 
flat; 6 Fugues; 12 Books of Variations, Op. 
48, Op. 19, Op. 43; Rondeaux, Divertisse- 
ments, and about 60 Dances (Minuets, 
Waltzes, Monferines). 

*Coenen, Willem, b. Nov. 17, 1837, 
Rotterdam. First taught by his father 
and sister, later by Ernst Lubeck and 
Sigismund Thalberg. Since 1862, 
resident in London. Travelled in the 
West Indies, North and South America. 
Among his compositions is a Caprice 
for 16 performers on 8 pianos. 

Colizzi, Giovanni Andrea, b. about 1740 
(where?); d. (when?). He lived for 
many years in England and Holland, 
a Concertos, Op. 2 (Hague and London); 

Sonatas with Vln., 3 with Via., and a 
Solo, "La bataille d'lvry" (Heckel, 
Concone, Giuseppe, b. 1810, Turin ; d. 
there in June, 1861. Although Prof 
of Singing, he composed a good many 
educational Pf. works, among which 
his Studies obtained popularity : 
25 Etudes melodiques. Op. 2 ; 20 Etudes 
chantantes. Op. 30; 15 Etudes expressives. 
Op. 44 ; 15 Etudes de genre. Op. 25; and 
15 Etudes de style, Op. 31. The whole 
collection is entitled, Ecole melodique. 
Coop, Ernesto Antonio Luigi, b. June 17, 
1802, Messina; d. Nov. i, 1879, Naples. 
His power as a composer was devoted 
to popular pieces, of which about 
130 are published by Ricordi and 
Lucca, of Milan. 
Cooper, William. See Behr, Franz. 
Corette (Corrette), Michel, called himself 
in his earlier works, Zipoli; b. 1685. 
He lived in Paris, and amongst his 
published works are — 
Sonata d'intavolatura per Organo o cembalo ; 
Toccate, versi, canzone, lic. (Roma, 1716); 
and Livre de Pieces pour le Clavecin, 
CEuvre 12 (Paris). 
Couperin, Armand Louis (nephew of 
Fran9ois C. le grand), b. Feb. 25, 1725, 
Paris; d. there, 1789. His wife {nee 
Blanchet) was an excellent Clavecinist, 
who enjoyed a great reputation as a 
2 Sonates, Op. i ; t Trios (2) for Clavecin and 
Vln. (Violins ?), Op. 3. According to 
Fetis, these compositions are very solid, 
but dry and uninteresting. 
Couperin, Francois (generally called Le 
Grand), son of Charles C. (1632-69) ; 
b. 1668, Paris ; d. there, 1733. Pupil 
of Chambonnieres ; and the most 
distinguished of the French Clave- 
cinists. Composer of the following 
works : Pieces de Clavecin, 4 Books : 
Livre I. (1713) ; Livre II. (1716, also 
1722); Livre III. (1722); Livre IV. 
(1730). Paris, grave par F. du Plessy. 
Their contents are — Liv. I., 1-5 : Ordre 
(Suites) and Explication of the Agre- 
mens (Gr&cesi et Signes. Liv. II., 
6-12 : Ordre (amongst them a piece 
for 2 Clavecins). Liv. III., 13-19: 
Ordre and 4 Concerts Royaux, with 
orchestral accompaniments. Liv. IV., 
20-27 : Ordre. The 27 Ordres (Suites) 
contain 208 short pieces £ind 4 Con- 
certos. Other works of C. are : "L'art 
de toucher le Clavecin" (Paris, 1716), 
almost the only copies of this valuable 
work are possessed by the National 
Library of Paris and the Royal Library 
of Berlin ; " L'Apotheose de I'incom- 
parable Lully" (Paris, 1724), "Les 
gouts reunis ou nouveaux Concerts, 
augmentes de I'Apoth^ose de Corelli, 



en Trio " (2 Vln. and Bass), Paris, 1717, 
also 1730. All the short pieces have 
characteristic titles, and in his preface 
he declares them to be musical portraits 
of distinguished, elegant, and amiable 
persons. See the preface to his Liv. I. 
The names of the pieces are as follows : 
I, I'Auguste ; 2, I. Courante ; 3, II. Courante ; 
4, La Majestueuse; 5, Gavotte; 6, La 
Mylordine; 7, Menuet ; 8, Les Sylvians; 
9, Les Abeilles; 10, La Nanette; 11, Les Sen- 
timents ; 12, Les Blondes ; 13, Les Brunes ; 
14, La Bourbonnaise ; 15, La Manon ; 
16, L'Enchanteresse ; 17, La Fleurie ou la 
tendre Nanette ; 18, 19, Les plaisirs de 
Saint Germain en Laye ; 20, La Laborieuse ; 
21, I. Courante; 22, II. Courante; 23, La 
Prude ; 24, L'Antonine ; 25, Gavotte ; 26, 
Menuet ; 27, Les Canaries ; 28, Passepied ; 
29, Rigaudon ; 30, La Charoloise ; 31, La 
Diane; 32, Fanfare pour la Suite de la 
Diane; 33, La Terpsichore; 34, La Floren- 
tine; 35, La Gamier; 36, La Babet ; 37, 
Les Id^es heureuses; 38, La Mimi; 39, La 
Diligente ; 40, La Flatteuse ; 41, La Volup- 
tueuse ; 42, Les Papillons ; 43, La 
Tendbreuse; 44, I. Courante; 45, II. 
Courante ; 46, La Lugubre ; 47, Gavotte ; 
48, Menuet ; 49, Les Pelerines ; 50, Les 
Laurentines ; 51, L'Espagnolette ; 52, Les 
Regrets; 53, Les Matelotes Proven9ales ; 
54, La Favorite ; 55, La Lutine ; 56, La 
Marchd des Gris-vetus ; 57, Les Baccha- 
nales ; 58, La Pateline ; 59, Le Reveille- 
Matin; 60, La Logiviere; 61, I. Courante; 
62, II. Courante ; 63, La Dangereuse ; 64, 
La Tendre Fanchon ; 65, La Badine ; 66, 
La Bandoline ; 67, La Flore ; 68, L'Ang^- 
lique ; 69, La Villers ; 70, Les Vandangeuses ; 
71, Les Agr^ments; 72, Les Ondes. Other 
pieces by Couperin are called : Les graces 
naturelles ; L'Artiste ; Les barricades 
myst^rieuses ; La Nointele, and Les 
Bergeries. Of new editions, that revised 
and edited by Johannes Brahms is the only 
complete one. 
*Cramer, Heinrich (Henri), b. Feb. 16, 
1809, Stuttgart; d. May 31, 1877, 
Frankfort o/M. Pupil of P. Lind- 
paintner and Molique (Stuttgart), and 
later of Say fried (Vienna). Chiefly 
known by his very popular Potpourris 
and Fantasias, &c., on airs of well- 
known operas. 
Cramer, John Baptist, b. Feb. 24, 1771, 
Mannheim; d. April 16, 1858, Ken- 
sington (London). Was the eldest son 
of the well-known violinist and com- 
poser, Wilhelm C. (1745-99). Pupil 
of Benser, later (1782-83) of Schroter 
and of Clementi (one year only) ; C. F. 
Abel (1725-87), a pupil of Seb. Bach, 
was his teacher for Composition. 1788, 
he travelled a great deal and became 
celebrated as an eminent performer. 
1832, he opened with Addison and 
Beale a business as musicseller ; the 
firm still exists in London (Cramer 
and Co.). After having lived from 
1832 till 1845 in Paris, he resided per- 
manently in London. His chief fame 
rests on the great merit of his useful, 

beautiful, harmonious, and generally 
original Studies — of which Nos. 1-42 
are the best known ; Nos. 43-84, 
although most excellent, are less 
popular; and the Nos. 85-100, very 
beautiful works, would never obtain 
the celebrity of the first instalment. 
Schumann wrote in 1831 a most inter- 
esting account of these 16 supple- 
mentary Studies. As a composer C. 
was very prolific : he wrote 105 Sonatas 
for Pf. solo, with accompaniment for 
another instrument (generally Vln.). 
Of the solo Sonatas about 60 have 
been published. Of these the best 
known are : — 
Grand Sonata, Op. 20, dedicated to Clementi ; 
a Sonata, Op. 23, dedicated to J. Haydn ; 3 
Sonatas, Op. 25, 27, 29; " La Gigue," Op. 39 
and Op. 40, which has been published by 
several firms. A Sonata which created con- 
siderable sensation is " La Parodie," Op. 43 ; 
also " L'Ultima," Op. 53; "Les Suivantes" 
(3 Sonatas, 57, 58, 59) ; " Le Retour de Lon- 
dres," Op. 62, and a Grand Sonata, Op. 63, 
dedicated to Hummel. For 4 hands he wrote 
2 Sonatas, a Duo Brillant, 12 Etudes en forme 
de Nocturne, and a few other pieces. With 
Orchestral accompaniment he produced 
(before 1828) 8 Concertos and a Concerto da 
Camera ; " Le Retour a Vienne," Grand 
Variations, Introduction and Andante Varie. 
Of chamber music, 2 Pf. Quintets and 1 
Quartet ; about 40 Trios for Pf., Vln., and 
V'cello ; 2 Serenades for Pf., Harp, Fl., and 
2 Hns. Besides these greater works, there 
are a large number of Variations, Rondos, 
Divertissements, Adagios, Impromptus, 
Toccatas, Valses, &c. 
None of these works, however, ob- 
tained anything like the great and 
well-deserved popularity his excellent 
and beautiful Studies enjoy even at 
present ; whilst in dementi's Gradus 
the technical part stands foremost, 
Cramer's Studies present the harmo- 
nious and melodious principle, and 
thus interest the student's mind and 
ear; indeed, it might be said that C. 
introduced the philanthropic and 
pleasing side of the study as a form. 
C. was a Knight of the Legion of 
Honour and Hon. Member of the 
Royal Academy of Stockholm. 

Crotch, William (Mus. Doc), b. July 5, 
1775, Norwich ; d. Dec. 29, 1847, 
Taunton. He was one of the most 
wonderful prodigies that ever existed, 
on whom Dr. Burney wrote in the 
Philosophical Transactions a ' ' Paper 
on Crotch, the infant musician." He 
received his first regular instruction 
from Prof. Knyvett, of Cambridge, and 
later at St. Mary's College, Oxford, 
where he received his Doctor's degree 
and became Prof, at the University. 
In London he gave lectures and 
lessons, and filled the post of Prof, 


Among his compositions for Pf. are 
Sonatas, which, however, are not so 
greatly esteemed as are his excellent 
arrangements of some of the instru- 
mental works of Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven. Other original works are- - 
A Concerto for the Harpsichord or Pf., with an 
accompaniment for 2 Vln. and Bass, dedi- 
cated to Dr. Burney ; Original Airs in various 
and familiar styles ; Divertimento (2 books); 
Introduction and Fugue on a subject of 4 
notes ; Fugue for Pf. on a subject of Muffat's ; 
Prelude and Air ; 12 Fugues (published 
1835-37 ; 30 Rondos, intended as an intro- 
duction to playing from score and reading 
the various clefs. 

♦Cui, Cesar Antonowitsch, b. 1835, 
Wilna. Pupil of Moniouszko. Before 
he devoted himself entirely to music, 
was an engineer, amd Prof, of the 
engineering sciences (Imperial appoint- 
ment) at St. Petersburg. Among his 
Pf. compositions, several obtained con- 
siderable popularity — 

Etude-Arabesque ; Tarantelle (transcribed by 
Liszt); Petite Suite for Pf. and Vln.; 3 
Valses, Op. 31 ; 3 Impromptus, Op. 35. 

Cumann, Harriet Johann Louise, b. 
Dec. 26, 1851, Copenhagen. Was, 
1872-75, one of Neupert's best pupils 
(Conserv.) and created in her country 
a decided sensation by her artistic and 
refined performances. She is con- 
sidered to be one of the foremost 
pianists of the present time. 

*Cusins, (since 1892, Sir) William George, 
b. Oct. 14, 1833, London ; d. Aug. 31,1893, 
Remonchamps (Ardennes). Entered 
the Chapel Royal as Chorister in 1842. 
Pupil at the Brussels Conserv. (1844), 
where Michelot was his Pf. teacher. 
Gained, 1847, the King's Scholarship 
at the R.A.M., London ; re-elected, 
1849 ; pupil of Bennett (Pf), Cipriani 
Potter (Composition), and Sainton 
(Vln.). After completing, in 1851, his 
studies at the R.A.M., he was for many 
years Prof, at that Institution. 1849, 
Organist at Covent Garden Opera and 
of Her Majesty's Private Chapel ; 
1867, appointed Conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society's concerts, which 
post he held until 1884 ; 1870, appointed 
Master of Music to the Queen, which 
appointment he resigned. May, 1893 ; 
1875, Prof, of Instrumental Music, 
Queen's College ; 1885, Examiner at 
the Royal College of Music ; 1885, 
Prof, of Pf. at the Guildhall School of 
Music. As a pianist he appeared in 
London, Leipzig, and Rome. In 1892 
he received the honour of Knighthood. 
Concerto (A min.) ; Septet for Pf. and Wind 

instruments ; Trio (E min.) ; Sonata, Pf. 

and Vln., and many smaller pieces, 

Czerny, Carl, b. Feb. 20, 1791, Vienna; 
d. there, July 15, 1857. Son of Wenzel 
Czerny (1752-1832). Pupil of his father, 
afterwards enjoyed the advice of 
Beethoven. He began to teach when 
in his 14th year, and became, by 
degrees, the most popular and suc- 
cessful Pf. teacher in Vienna. Among 
his most celebrated pupils were 
Franz Liszt (1818-21), Theod. Dohler, 
Theod. Kullak. Madame Belleville- 
Oury, Leop. von Meyer, Alfred Jaell, 
&c. His chief merit consists in having 
produced most excellent, useful, and 
practically written Exercises and 
Studies, which are actually indispens- 
able and have — with regard to their 
practicability — not yet been rivalled. 
Among the best known and universally 
used are — 

The School of Velocity, Op. 299 (40 Studies) ; 
The School of Legato and Staccato, Op. 
335 (50 Studies); The School of Ornaments, 
Op. 355 (70 Studies) ; The School of the 
Left Hand, Op. 399 (10 Studies) ; The 
School of Fugue Playing, Op. 400 (24 
Studies) ; The School of the Virtuoso, Op. 
36} (4 books); Die Kunst der Fingerfertig- 
keit. Op. 740 (50 Studies) ; The Higher 
Degree of virtuosity. Op. 834 ; Forty Daily 
Exercises, Op. 337. 

Besides these, there is a great variety 
of special Studies for the shake, runs, 
arpeggio, thirds, octaves ; indeed, for 
every imaginable feature of technique. 
In all, he wrote about 800 Studies. He 
composed a great number of Rondos, 
Fantasias, Divertissements, Sonatinas, 
Sonatas, and many pieces for 4 hands 
on I or 2 pianos. His collective 
works inclusive, the number of his 
opera reaches 1,000. To give an idea of 
his industry it may be mentioned that 
in his collective works, " Decameron " 
contains 30 pieces ; the ' ' Souvenir 
Theatrale," Collection de Fantasies, 
fills 90 books ; the " Musical Gallery 
of Flowers " gives 1,000 " tone-flowers " 
of celebrated composers ; and " Les 
plaisirs du jeune Pianiste " consists of 
160 recreations, &c. 

Czerny, Joseph (no relation of the above), 
b. June 17, 1785, Horritz, Bohemia ; 
d. Sept. 22, 1831, Vienna, where he 
resided. Was a teacher, musicseller, 
and composer. Among his best known 
pupils was L^opoldine Blahetka (5^^ 
this name). 

Czerwinski, Wilhelm, b. 1838, Vienna; 
d. Feb. 13, 1893, Lemberg. Pupil of 
Fischhof, Mikuli (Pf.), and Nottebohm 
(Theory). Was both excellent as a 
pianist and esteemed as a composer, 
He resided as a teacher in Lemberg. 




•Dachs, Joseph, b. Sept. 30, 1827, 
Regensburg (Ratisbon). At first, 
pupil of Kreutner (Pf.J and Metten- 
leiter (Harmony), of Regensburg. 
Went, 1884, to Vienna, became a 
pupil of Halm and Czerny (Pf.) and 
Simon Sechter (Composition). Per- 
formed with great success in Vienna 
and other towns, and was appointed, 
1 86 1, Prof, at the Vienna Conserv. 
Among his pupils may be named — 
Hans Schmitt, the late Joseph Rubin- 
stein (no relation of Anton R.), 
Vladimir de Pachmann, Madame Laura 
Rappoldi (nee Kahrer), Princess 
Bibesco, &c. Editor of several valuable 
educational works. 
Dalberg, Johann Friedrich Hugo von 
(Dean of the Cathedrals of Trier, 
Worms, and Speyer), b. May 17, 1752, 
Coblenz ; d. July 26, 1812, Aschaflfen- 
burg. Pupil of Ignaz Holtzbauer 
(1711-83), of Mannheim. Eminent 
pianist and composer. 
Quartet for Pf., Ob., Hn., and Bssn., Op. 25 ; 
Trios ; Sonatas with Vln. Solo ; Sonatas, 
Op. 9 and 20 ; a Sonata for five bands, 
Op. 19 ; and Sonatas for 4 hands, 
Damm, Friedrich, b. March 7, 1831, 
Dresden. Pupil of E. Kragen (Pf.) 
and Julius Otto ; later also of A. 
Reichel (Counterpoint and Composi- 
tion). His compositions, mostly 
intended for educational purposes, 
enjoy considerable popularity, whilst 
his activity as a teacher is highly 
appreciated and successful. 
Dandrieu, Jean Fran9ois, b. 1684, Paris ; 
d. there, Jan. 16, 1740. 
Premier livre de pieces de Clavecin, contenant 
plusieurs Divertissements dont les princi- 
paux sont les caracteres de la guerre, ceux 
de la chasse et la fete de village. Dedie au 
Roi (Paris, 1724). Also second and third 

♦Dannreuther, Edward, b. Nov. 4, 1844, 
Strassburg, in Alsace. Was taught by 
F, L. Ritter, at Cincinnati, U.S.A. In 
1856 he entered the Conserv. at 
Leipzig, and remained there till 1863, 
under Moscheles, Plaidy, Richter, and 
Hauptmann. Settled in London in 
1863, where he was the first to play 
the Concertos of Liszt, Brahms, Grieg, 
Scharwenka, Tschaikowsky, Parry, 
&c. Founded the Wagner Society in 
1872, and conducted its two series of 

concerts in 1873-74. Started concerts 
of chamber music in 1875, the twenty- 
third series of which was given in 1893. 
Wrote the articles on the principal 
pianists, from Couperin to Chopin, 
also the article on Wagner, in Grove's 
Dictionary of Music. He has re- 
peatedly lectured at the Royal 
Institution on matters connected with 
the Pf. and its precursors, and has 
published essays on Beethoven, Chopin, 
Bach, and a historical treatise on 
Musical Ornamentation, of which the 
first part covers the period extending 
from Diruta to J. S. Bach, and the 
second, from C. Ph. E. Bach to the 
present time. 

Daquin (Aquin d'), Louis Claude (Clave- 
cinist and Organist), b. July 4, 1694, 
Paris ; d. there, June 15, 1772. Pa- 
tronised by Louis XIV., he performed 
at Court, and received good appoint- 
ments. Premier livre de Pieces de 
Clavecin (Paris), 1735 (?). 

♦Davenport, Francis William, b. 1847, 
Wilderslowe, near Derby. Pupil of 
G. Macfarren. 1879, appointed Prof, 
at the R.A.M., and, 1882, at the 
Guildhall School of Music. 
6 pieces for Pf. and V'cello, 4 others ditto, 
and Trio in B flat. 

David, Felicien, b. Aprif 13, 1810, 

Cadenet (Departement Vaucluse) ; d. 

Aug. 29, 1876, Paris. Pupil at the Paris 

Conserv. Membre de I'Academie, 

Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur. 

Librarian of the Conserv. 

Short pieces ; " Les Brises d'Orient," Recueil 

de melodies pour Piano ; " Les Minarets,'' 

3 Melodies pour Piano. 

Davies, Fanny, b. June 27, i8~, Guernsey. 
In Birmingham, pupil of Miss Welch- 
mann and Charles Flavell (Pf.), Dr. 
Gaul (Composition). 1882-83, pupil at 
the Leipzig Conserv., of Reinecke 
and Paul (Pf.) and Jadassohn (Fugue 
and Counterpoint) ; 1883-85, pupil of 
Madame Schumann at the Hoch 
Conserv., of Frankfort o/M., where she 
also took lessons in fugue and com- 
position from Dr. B. Scholz. She 
appeared in London for the first time 
on Oct. 17, 1885, and since this time 
her success as a pianist in England, 
Germany , and Italy has been continual. 


Decker, Constantin, b. Dec. 29, 1810, 
Fiirstenau (Brandenburg) ; d. Jan. 28, 
1878, Holp (Pomerania). Pupil of 
Dehn. Resided, 1835-38, in Berlin, 
later at St. Petersburg (where Madame 
Ingeborg Stark-Bronsart was his 
pupil), and after 1859 at Holp. 
Souvenir de la Pologne, Op. 24 ; Lui et 
Elle, Op. 25, I., and Nocturnes, Op. 25, II. 

•Delaborde, Elie Miriam, b. Feb. 8, 
1839, Paris. Pupil of Henselt and 
Moscheles, but mostly self-taught. 1873, 
appointed Prof, at the Paris Conserv. 
as successor to Madame Farrenc. 
Received the Legion of Honour in 
1885. He is particularly well known 
for his excellent performances on the 
pedal piano. 
12 Petits Preludes, Cadences pour les Concerts 
de Beethoven, Etude de Concert, Valse, 
Menuet d'Arlesienne, Fantaisie sur Carmen, 
Morceau romantique pour Piano et instru- 
ments a cordes, Overture "Attila" for 4 

•Delioux, Charles de Savignac, b. April, 
1830, Lorient (Morbihan). Pupil of 
Barbereau (Harmony), Halevy (Com- 
position), and Le Couppey (Pf). 
Gained, 1846, the " Grand Prix pour 
Contrepoint . ' ' Composer of many effec- 
tive and popular pieces, published 
in France, England, and Germany. 
His " Cours complet de Mecanisme 
pour le Piano " is used in the Paris 
Marche Hongroise, FSte a Seville, Le 
Ruisseau, fMandoline, fCarnaval espagnol, 
Les Bohemiens, Les Matelots, 6 Pensees 
Musicales, and Allegro agitato. 

•Del Valle de Paz, Edgar (Samuel), b. 

Oct. 18, 1861, Alexandria. Pupil at 

the Conserv. of Naples, where B. Cesi 

(Pf.) and P. Serrao (Composition) 

were his teachers. He is at present 

Prof, of the Elementary Class of the 

" Istituto Musicale regio di Firenze" 

(Florence) ; and is the author of a 

" Scuola practica del Pianoforte" 

adopted by the Italian Music Schools. 

Prize Sonata, Pieces with Orchestra, Suite 

dans le Style ancien, and a great number of 

elegant and popular Solo pieces, which 

were published in London. 

Deppe, Ludwig, b. Nov. 7, 1828, Alver- 
dissen (Lippe-Detmold) ; d. Sept. 5, 
1890, Pyrmont. Pupil of Gensen- 
dorf for Pf. , and of Marxsen (Hamburg) 
and Lobe (Leipzig) for Composition. 
From 1849, ne resided in Hamburg as a 
teacher ; from 1874 until his death he 
lived in Berlin, where his system of 
teaching found many sympathetic 

Deprosse, Anton, b. May 18, 1838, 
Munich ; d. June 23, 1878, BerUn. 

1853-55, pupil at the Munich Conserv. 
of Werner (Wanner ? ) and Leonhard 
(Pf.), Dr. J. G. Herzog (Organ), 
Wohlmuth, Julius Mayer, and, later, of 
Stunz (Composition). 1861-64, teacher 
at the Conserv. ; settled, 1875, at 
Berlin. Composer of several Pf. 
works of distinction. 

Dessauer, Joseph, b. May 28, 1798, 
Prague; d. July 9, 1876, Modling (near 
Vienna). Pupil of W. Tomaschek 
(Pf.) and Dionys Weber (Composi- 
tion). His parents wished him to 
become a merchant, but yielded to 
his desire to study music only, and to 
devote his decided talent to it. Most 
of his works are vocal, but amongst 
his pieces for the Pf. are — 
Rimembranze di Napoli ; Composizioni sopra 

Motivi original! Napolitani, Op. 2 ; 

Caprices, Op. 30, 1., II. 

Dessoff, Otto, b. Jan. 14, 1835, Leipzig; 
d. Oct. 28, 1892, Frankfort o/M. 
Pupil of Moscheles (Pf.), Haupt- 
mann and Rietz (Composition). He 
was an excellent Conductor, and filled 
the post of Capellraeister at the 
Imperial Opera of Vienna, the Court 
Theatre of Carlsruhe (Baden), and, 
lastly, at the Opera of Frankfort 
o/M., with eminent success. Quartet, 
Quintet, Sonatas. 

Diabelli, Anton (Composer), b. Sept. 6, 
1781, Mattsee (near Salzburg) ; d. April 
7, 1858, Vienna. Pupil of Michael 
Haydn. His parents desired him to 
become a priest, but although he passed 
excellent examinations in several theo- 
logical seminaries, his love for music 
was so great that, on the recommenda- 
tion of Michael Haydn, he was 
allowed to devote himself to composi- 
tion and music. 1803, he went to 
Vienna, was kindly received by Joseph 
Haydn and succeeded, by giving 
lessons in Pf. and guitar-playing, in 
saving a little capital, with whicli he 
opened, with Cappi, a publishing 
business. 1824, he became sole pro- 
prietor of the firm, which was 
intimately associated with the names 
of Beethoven, Schubert, Czerny, 
Hummel, Moscheles, and other celebri- 
ties. 1854, the firm, Diabelli and Co., 
changed into that of C. Spina and Co. 
Diabelli's name, as a composer of solid, 
practical, and melodious Sonatinas for 
2 and 4 hands, is a very popular one ; 
his educational works are still appre- 
ciated by teachers and their melodious- 
ness and charming simplicity readily 
recognised by pupils. 



•Dimmer, Louis, b. Feb. 14, 1843, Paris. 
Pupil at the Conserv. of Marmontel 
(Pf.) ; obtained, 1856, the first Pf. 
prize; he had Ambroise Thomas and 
Bazin as teachers for Composition ; 
gained (1859) the first Harmony 
prize, the second Organ prize, and 
(i860) first prize for Fugue and 
Counterpoint. After having finished 
his studies, he appeared with great 
success as a performer at the Alard, 
Pasdeloup, and Conserv. Concerts. 

1887, he succeeded Marmontel as Prof, 
at the Conserv. ; performed at the great 
Colonne and Lamoureux Concerts 
pieces written for him by Widor, Lalo, 
Bernard, Saint-Saens, &c. As a pianist, 
his refined and distinguished playing, 
the simplicity of his style, and the irre- 
proachable purity of his technique have 
won for him a well-deserved reputation. 
1889, he was promoted to the rank of 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 

Concerto, Septuor for Pf. and Wind instru- 
ments, Characteristic pieces. Promenade 
pastorale (Op. 30), Quatneme and Cinquieme 
Orientale (Op. 38 and Op. 40), Deuxieme 
Caprice (Op. 84), Grand Valse de Concert 
(Op. 37). 
♦Dietrich, Albert Hermann, b. Aug. 28, 
1829, Golk, near Meissen (Saxony). 
1842-47, he was taught by Julius Otto 
(Dresden) ; 1847, pupil of Rietz and 
Hauptmann (Leipzig) ; 1 851, he went 
to Diisseldorf, where he enjoyed the 
friendship and advice of Robert 
Schumann. 1855, Conductor of the 
Orchestral Concerts in Bonn ; 1861, 
Conductor of the Court Theatre of 
Oldenburg, where he resides. Since 

1888, is a member of the Royal 
Academy of Arts (Berlin) ; received the 
Cross of Merit, ist Class, and Gold 
Medal of Art and Science (Oldenburg). 

4 Pieces, Op. 2 ; 6 ditto. Op. 6 ; Sonata for Pf. 
and Vln., Op. 15 ; Trios, Op. 9 and 14, and 
Sonata for 4 hands. 

Dietz, Kathinka von, b. 1816, Munich ; 
d. (no information to be obtained). 
Even in her sixth year she created a 
great sensation by her performances, 
which induced King Maximilian of 
Bavaria to send her to Paris in order 
to take lessons from Fr. Kalkbrenner. 
1838, she gave most successful Concerts 
in Paris, returned some time after to 
Munich, where she was highly esteemed 
for her amiable and sterling character 
and her finished and truly artistic 

Dobrszinsky, Felix (son of the eminent 
violinist, D.), b. 1807, Romanow 
(Volhynia) ; d. Oct. 10, 1867, Warsaw. 
1827, pupil of Eisner (Warsaw). He 

enjoyed a great reputation as a brilliant 
Rondos, Fantasias, Variations, Mazurkas, 
Nocturnes, Studies, mostly published by 
Hofmeister (Leipzig). 
D5hler, Theodore, b. April 20, 1814, 
Naples; d. Feb. 21, 1856, Florence. 
Pupil of J. Benedict (Naples) ; 1827, 
of Czerny (Pf.) and Sechter (Com- 
position), in Vienna. 1830, he received 
the title of "Court Pianist" to the 
Duke of Lucca, and was also deco- 
rated by him. 1837, in London and 
Paris ; after journeys in Holland, 
Denmark, Hungary, and Poland, he 
went, 1845, to St. Petersburg. On his 
return to Italy, Rossini instructed him 
in instrumentation ; 1846, he remained 
in Paris, but signs of a severe illness 
(consumption) showed themselves, and, 
1848, he took up his permanent 
residence in Florence. His composi- 
tions are written in an elegant and 
popular style ; his so-called Fantasias 
are copies of Thalberg ; indeed, it 
seems that he took him for his model. 
His playing was noted for extreme 
clearness, correctness, fluency, and 
brilliancy, but lacked warmth. 
Nocturnes, Op. 24, 25, 31 ; Tarantella, Op. 39, 
46; 12 Etudes de Concert, Op. 30; 50 Etudes 
de Salon, Op. 42 ; CEuvres posthumes 
(4 books) ; Fantasias, Variations, Valses, 
Op. 26 ; 6 Melodies sans paroles. Op. 44. 
♦Dorffel, Dr. Alfred, b. Jan. 24, 1821, 
Waldenburg (Saxony). Pupil of J. A. 
Trube (Pf.) and L. Mallder (Theory 
and Violin). 1835, he went to Leipzig, 
where he was for a short time a pupil 
of C. Kloss, and, later, of C. Giinther. 
1843, he established himself, warmly 
encouraged and recommended by 
Mendelssohn, as music teacher in 
Leipzig. 1865, appointed Custos ot 
the town library. 1885, the Leipzig 
University conferred on him the 
diploma of Dr. Phil., honoris causd. 
His reputation as a scholar, teacher, 
author, and musician is well deserved. 
•Doring, Carl Heinrich, b. July 4, 1834, 
Dresden. Became Prof, at the Royal 
Conserv. there. 1852-55, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv., where he had Plaidy 
and Moscheles as teachers of Pf., 
Rietz, Hauptmann, E. F. Richter, and 
Lobe, of Composition. 1864, Pope Pius 
IX. created him " Knight of the Golden 
Spur," the Duke of Saxe-Coburg - 
Gotha conferred on him the Gold 
Medal of Art and Science, and the 
King of Saxony named him, 1875, 
Konigl. Prof. 
25 Easy and Progressive Studies, Op. 8; 
Octave and other Studies, Op. 24 and 25; 
Rhythmical Studies, Op. 30; ao Shake 
Studies, Op. 33. 



*Door, Anton, b. June 20, 1833, Vienna. 
Pupil of Czerny (Pf.) and Sechter 
(Composition). Went, 1857, to Stock- 
holm, where he received the title of 
Pianist to the Royal Court, and was 
named Member of the Royal Swedish 
Academy. 1859, succeeded Nicolas 
Rubinstein as teacher at the Imperial 
Institute, and, 1864, became Prof, at the 
Imperial Conserv. of Moscow. Since 
1869 has been Prof, of the highest Pf. 
class at the Vienna Conserv., where 
Robert Fischhof, Mottl, Steinbach, 
Schwickerath, Sichel, Adele Mar- 
galies, Benno Schonberger, and Marie 
von Timoni were among his pupils. 
He is temporary President of the 
Society of Musicians (Vienna). His 
editions of classical and educational 
works are greatly esteemed. 

Dom, Alexander Julius Paul (son of 
the Composer and Hof-Capellmeister 
Heinrich D.,of Berlin), b. June 8, 1833, 
Riga. Pupil of his father. Resided, 
1855-65, at Cairo and Alexandria 
as a teacher and performer. 1865-68, 
Director at Crefeld ; settled, 1868, at 
Berlin as Prof, at the Kon. Hochschule 
(High School) ; received the diploma 
of Konigl. Prof. The Viceroy of Egypt 
gave him the Order of Medidjie. He 
IS the composer of many brilliant and 
effective pieces. 

Dorn, Edouard. See Rockel. 

•Dorrell, William, b. Sept. 5, 1810. 
Pupil at the R.A.M., London, where 
his teachers were Haydon and Cipriani 
Potter for Pf., Charles Lucas, Dr. 
Crotch, and Potter for Harmony and 
Composition. 1842, he gave under high 
patronage an orchestral concert, con- 
ducted by Sterndale Bennett, and 
played on several other occasions in 
public. 1844, he went to Paris to study 
under Kalkbrenner and Stephen Heller. 
After his return to London he was 
appointed Prof, of Pf. at the R.A.M., 
which post he filled for almost forty-five 
years. Out of modesty he never 
published any of his compositions. 
Respected and beloved by his pupils, 
he is not less a great favourite of^ his 
colleagues and of all who have the 
privilege of knowing him and his 
eminent qualities as a man and artist. 

D'Orso, Francesco. See Behr, Franz. 

Dotzauer, Justus Bernhard Friedrich 
(son of the well-known Violoncellist, 
Justus J. F. D.), b. May 12, 1808, 
Leipzig; d. Nov. 30, 1874, Hamburg, 
where he was esteemed as a most 
excellent teacher and successful 

•Draeseke, Felix, b. Oct. 7, 1835, Coburg. 
1852-55, pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., 
where he studied Composition with 
Rietz. 1862-67, in Dresden ; 1869-76, 
in French Switzerland ; between 
1867-69 he studied with Biilow in 
Munich ; since 1876, he has resided in 
Dresden as Prof, at the Royal Conserv. 
and Principal of the Theoretical 
Classes. Knight of the Royal Saxon 
Order of Albert and of the Saxe- 
Coburg Order, and Hon. Member of 
several societies. 
Sonata, O^. 6; Concerto, Op. 36; and 

shorter pieces, which bear the numbers of 

Op. 13, 14, 15, 22, 43, and 44. 
Dresel, Otto, b. 1826, Andernach on the 
Rhine; d. July 26, 1890, Beverly, U.S. 
Pupil of Hiller and Mendelssohn ; he 
went, 1848, to New York, where he 
established himself as a teacher ; 
remained there until 1851, when he 
left for Boston. Here he opened 
with great success a music school, and 
did much for the furtherance of the 
best music and the improvement of 
public taste. 
Arrangements of Schumann's String Quartets 

and Beethoven's Symphonies for 4 hands; 

Trios and Quartets for Pf. and Strings. 
Dreszer, Anastasius Vitalis, b. April 28, 
1845, Kalisch (Poland). 1859-62, 
pupil at the Dresden Conserv., where 
he studied with H. Doring, E. 
Leonhardt, and C. Krebs. After having 
resided for some time in Leipzig, Paris, 
and again in Leipzig, he settled, i868, 
in Halle, o/S., where he founded a 
music school. 
2 Sonatas, and a good number of effective 

smaller pieces. 
Dreyschock, Alexander, b. Oct. 15, 1818, 
Zack (Bohemia) ; d. April i, i86g, 
Venice. He appeared, when only in his 
eighth year, at Concerts, and created 
a great sensation. 1831, he went to 
Prague, and became a pupil of Wenzel 
Tomaschek. 1838, he made his first 
journey to North Germany. From 
1840-42 he was in Russia, visited (1846) 
Belgium, Paris, England, Holland, and 
Austria, and was everywhere successful. 
The great brilliancy and certainty of 
his technique, the wonderful facility 
and rapidity of his octave playing, and 
the till then unknown feat of playing 
with the left hand alone, created in 
every place the greatest sensation. J. 
B. Cramer used to say : " Dreyschock 
has no left hand, but two right ones." 
1862, he went to St. Petersburg, where 
he received the title of Pianist to the 
Russian Court, was appointed Prof, at 
the newly-established Conserv., and 
Director of the Music School of the 



Opera ; but in 1868 he had to leave 

the Russian capital, and was ordered 

to pass the winter in Venice, where he 

died. Dreyschock was Knight of many 

European orders. Pianist to the Courts 

of Austria, Russia, Hesse-Darmstadt, 

and Mecklenburg, and Hon. Member 

of many societies and academies. His 

compositions, mostly written to exhibit 

his wonderful technique, do not possess 

any intrinsical artistic value. 

Nocturne, Op. 28; I'lnquietude, Op. 29; 

Grande Senate, Op. 30 ; Salut a Vienna, 

Op. 32; Saltarello, Op. 43 ; Andantino et 

Allegro appassionata. Op. 47; Allegro 

spirituoso. Op. 57. 

b. Dec. 27, i860, Leipzig. Was a pupil 
of Grabau, Ehrlich, Taubert, and Kiel, 
of Berlin. His performances are much 
admired for their refinement, taste, 
elegance, and brilliancy, and his melo- 
dious, effective, and well-written pieces 
(particularly Op. 17) enjoy considerable 
popularity. At present he is Prof, at 
the Stern Conserv. (Berlin). 
♦Dubois, Theodore, b. Aug. 24, 1837, 
Rosnay (Marne). Pupil at the Paris 
Conserv. of Marmontel (Pf.), Bazin 
(Harmony), Benoist (Organ), and Am- 
broise Thomas (Fugue and Counter- 
point). 1861, he gained the Grand 
Prix de Rome. At present he is 
Conductor at the " Madeleine," and 
succeeded Saint-Saens as Organist of 
the same church. 1871, appointed Prof, 
of Harmony, succeeding Elwart ; and, 
1891, Prof, of Composition on the death 
of Delibes. He is also " Inspecteur de 
I'enseignement musicale," Chevalier 
de la Legion d'Honneur, Officier de 
rinstruction publique, and Officer of 
the Royal Order, Saviour of Greece. 
Choeur et Danse des Lutins; Scherzo in F 
sharp min. ; Scherzo et Choral ; Recueil de 
12 pieces; Chaconne; Reveil; Clair de 
lune ; Recueil de 20 pieces ; Poemes 
Sylvestres, and Concerto capriccioso. 

Dulcken (nee David), Louise, b. March 29, 
1811, Hamburg; d. April 12, 1850, 
London. Sister of the violinist, Fer- 
dinand David. Pupil of Schwencke 
and Grund (Hamburg). She gave her 
first Concert in Hamburg at the age of 
ten; appeared, 1825, with her brother 
in Leipzig ; married, 1828, and went to 
London, where she was very successful 
as a performer and teacher. 

Dumonchau, Charles Frangois, b. April 
II, 1775, Strassburg; d. Dec. 21, 1820, 
Lyon. Pupil of Baumeyer (Pf.) 
and Berg (Composition). Later, pupil 
at the Paris Conserv., taking also 
private lessons from Woelfl. 1809, he 

settled in Lyon, where he remained 
until his death ; most successful as a 
Grande Sonate et la Coquette, Op. 19; 3 
Senates and 3 Fugues dans le style de 
Mozart, Haydn, and Clementi, Op. 30; 6 
Bagatelles, Op. 36; and 3 Sonates de 
differents styles. Op. 32. 
Dupont, Auguste, b. Feb. 9, 1828, 
Ensival ; d. June 26, 1867, Haarlem. 
Pupil of Jalheau at the Conserv, of 
Liege. Returned, 1844, to Ensival, 
and studied with great industry and 
perseverance until he went, 1850, to 
Brussels, where he appeared in public; 
he visited also London and different 
towns of Germany, until he was ap- 
pointed Prof, at the Brussels Conserv., 
which post he held until his death. 
He was one of the most brilliant and 
effective performers, an excellent 
teacher, and successful as a composer 
of popular pieces of drawing-room 
music. The King of Belgium created 
him an Officer of the "Leopold" Order. 
Pluiede Mai, Op.2; Barcarolle, Op. 17; +Une 
Chanson de jeune fille, Op. 18; Chanson 
Hongroise, Op. 27; Danses caract£ristiques 
dans le style ancien. Op. 45 ; Roman en dix 
pages. Op. 48; 4 Esquisses, Op. 57; Fan- 
taisie and Fugue (for the right hand), Op. 41. 
Durante, Francesco, b. March 15, 1684, 
Frattamaggiore (Naples) ; d. Aug. 13, 
1755, Naples. 6 Sonate per Cembalo, 
divise in studi e divertimenti (Naples, 
Dusek or Duschek, Franz, b. Dec. 8, 
1736, Choteborky (Bohemia) ; d. Feb. 
12, 1799, Prague. Pupil of Wagenseil 
(Vienna) ; returned (1763) to Prague, 
where he settled, and was the most 
celebrated pianist and most successful 
teacher of Bohemia. Among his 
pupils were Leop. Kozeluch, Vincenz 
Maschek, J. N. Wittasek, Fr. von 
Nostic, &c. He was esteemed and 
beloved by every artist who went to 
Prague, and Mozart testifies in his 
letters (1787) how much he respected 
Duschek. Composed Trios, Quartets, 
Concertos, and Sonatas ; but only a 
Sonata (1773), several others (1774), 
a characteristic Sonata (1799), and a 
Concerto (Op. i) were published. 
Dussek, Johann Ladislaus, b. Feb. g, 
1761, Czaslau (Bohemia) ; d. March 20, 
1812, St. Germain-en-Laye. Studied 
at first Theology, then went as Organist 
to Malines, later to Bergen-op-Zoom ; 
1782, went to Amsterdam as tutor 
to the sons of the Governor (Hague). 
In Hamburg he made Emanuel Bach's 
acquaintance, who persuaded him to 
devote himself entirely to music. In 
Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Paris he 



was eminently successful as a pianist 
and performer on the harmonium. He 
lived for some time in Italy, returned 
to Paris, but left — on account of the 
Revolution — for London, where he 
began with Corri, his father-in-law, a 
music business. After failing as a 
publisher he went (1800) to Hamburg ; 
visited, after an absence of 29 years, 
his native town Czaslau ; and met in 
Magdeburg the genial Prince Ferdinand 
of Prussia, whose teacher he became. 
After the Prince's death, in 1806, he 
was appointed Pianist by the Prince of 
Ysenburg, and later by Prince Talley- 
rand of Paris. 
Sonatas for Piano Solo: Nos. i, 2, and 3, 
Op. 9; Nos. 4, 5, 6, Op. 10 ; Nos. 7, 8, g, 10, 
II, 12, Op. 20 ; No. 13, Op. 23 ; Nos. 14, 15, 
16, Op. 35 ; Nos. 17, 18, 19, Op. 39 ; No. 20, 
Op. 43 ; No. 21, Op. 44, dedicated to 
M. Clementi; Nos. 22, 23, 24, Op. 45 ; Nos. 
25, 26, Op. 47 ; No. 27, Op. 61 (Elegie 
harmonique sur la mort du Prince Louis 
Ferdinand de Prusse, en forme de Sonate) ; 
No. 28, Op. 69 ; No. 29, Op. 70 (Le Retour 
a Paris); No. 30, Op. 75; No. 31, Op. 77 
(L'Invocation) ; No. 32 (La Chasse). 
Sonatas for 4 hands : No. i, Grande Sonate, 
Op. 32 ; No. 2, Grande Sonate, Op. 48 ; 
No. 3, Grande Sonate, Op. 72 ; No. 4, Grande 
Sonate, Op. 73 ; No. 5, Grande Sonate, Op. 
-74. Sonatas for Pf. and Vln. : 3 Sonatas, 
Op. 4; 3 Sonatas, Op. 5 ; 3 Sonatas, Op. 8 ; 3 
Sonatas, Op. I2 ; 3 Sonatas, Op. 13 ; 3 
Sonatas, Op. 14; 3 Sonatas, Op. 17; 3 
Sonatas, Op. 18 ; 3 Sonatas, Op. 28 (easy) ; 
Grande Sonate, Op. 36 ; 6 Sonatas, Op. 46 
(easy); 3 Sonatas, Op. 51 (also for Fl.); 3 
Sonatas, Op. 69. Sonatas for Pf. and Fl, : 
3 Sonatas, Op. 7; 6 Sonatas, Op. 19; 6 
Sonatas, Op. 20 {also for Vln.) ; 3 Sonatas, 
Op. 25 (also for Vln.). Sonatas (Trios) for 
Pf., Vln. {or Fl.), and V'cello : 3 Sonatas, 
Op. 2 ; Sonata, Op. 21 (Pf., FL, and V'cello) ; 
3 Sonatas, Op. 24; 3 Sonatas, Op. 31; 3 
Sonatas, Op. 34. Sonate favorite. Op. 37 ; 
Grande Sonate for Pf., Fl., and V'cello, Op. 
65 ; Quartet for Pf., Vln., Alto, and V'cello, 
Op. 56; Grand Quintuor for Pf., Vln., Alto, 
v'cello (obbligato), and C.-Bass (ad lib.), 
Op. 41. Concertos : No. i. Op. 3 ; No. 2, 
Op. 14; No. 5, Op. 22; No. 6, Op. 26; No. 
7, Op. 29; No. 8, Op.40 (Concertomilitaire); 
No. 9, Op. 50; No. 10, Op. 63 (for 2 Pf.); 
No. II, Op. 66 ; No. 12, Op. 70. 12 Lecons 
progressives, Op. 16; the celebrated "(ion- 
solation," Op. 62 ; Recueil d'Airs connus 
varies (6), Op. 71 ; Fantaisie in F, Op. 76 ; 
Les Adieux : Air russe ; Alia tedesca ; 
I'Amusoire ; Anna ; Air varie ; Chanson de 
la Comtesse de Sutherland ; Partant pour la 
Syne, Variations; 3 Fugues i la Camera 
(for 4 hands.) 

Duvemoy, Henri Louis Charles, b. Nov. 
16, 1820, Paris. In his eighth year he 
entered the Conserv. as a pupil of 
Zimmermann (Pf.) and Hal6vy (Com- 
position). Composer of about 100 
popular, mostly easy, pieces. He is 
no relation of the well-known educa- 
tional composer, Jean Bapt. D., OflScier 
de I'Instruction publique. 

Duvemoy, Jean Baptiste. About this 
decidedly meritorious educational com- 
poser it is — in spite of inquiries ad- 
dressed to the original publishers of his 
works in Paris, and other publishers in 
Mayence, Berlin, and Leipzig — impos- 
sible to obtain any reliable information 
as to the details of his birth and death. 
There are no relations of D. 
A, B, C du pianiste. Op. 137; 6 petites Etudes 
elementaires. Op. 137; 25 Etudes primaires, 
Op. 176 ; 20 Etudes preparatoires de la velo- 
city, Op. 276 ; 25 Etudes progressives (pour 
les petites mains). Op. 298; 15 Etudes du 
m6canisme, Op. 120; 25 Etudes de moyenne 
force, Op. 299; 25 Etudes caract^ristiques, 
Op. 300 ; Gammes harmonisees, Op. 240A ; 
Exercices journaliers. Op. 240B; 20 Etudes 
speciales. Op. 240c ; 12 Etudes d'egalite et 
de gout. Op. 263. 

Duvernoy, Victor Alphonse, b. Aug. 
30, 1842, Paris ; Pupil at the Conserv. 
Excellent and brilliant performer. He 
founded, i86g, a Society for the per- 
formance of chamber music. 
Concerto and many characteristic pieces. 

Dvoirak, Anton, b. Sept. 8, 1841, Miil- 

hausen (Moravia]. Went, 1857, to 

Prague and studied in the School of 

Organists. He received from the 

Emperor of Austria a stipend, which 

enabled him to devote himself entirely 

to composition. The University of 

Prague conferred on him the hon. 

degree of Doc. Phil ; the University of 

Cambridge the degree of Mus. Doc. ; 

the Academy of Berlin elected him 

Hon. Member, and the Emperor of 

Austria made him a "Knight of the 

Iron Crown." At present he resides 

in the United States. 

Slavonic Dances, Op. 46 and 72 ; Waltzes, Op. 

54, Op. 59; Legends (arr.). Op. 65; Trio 

(F mm.). Op. 68 ; Aus dem Bohmerwalde, 

characteristic pieces. Op. 81 ; Quintet for 

P£. and Strings ; Op. 87, Quartet for ditto. 




Eberl, Anton, b. June 13, 1766, Vienna ; 
d. there, March 11, 1807. At first only 
an amateur, his decided talent for Pf. 
playing induced his father, a high 
Imperial functionary, to allow his son 
to devote himself entirely to music. 
He enjoyed Mozart and Gluck's friend- 
ship. 1796, he went to St. Petersburg, 
but returned (1800) to Vienna. His 
performances are described as effective 
and brilliant. The Sonatas, Op. 12, 
16, 27, 39, and 43 were much admired. 
The two sets of Variations on the air 
*• Zu Steffen sprach im Traume" and 
" The manly heart," which appeared 
with Mozart's name, are by Eberl. 
Eberlin, Johaftn Ernst, b. 1716, Jetten- 
bach (Swabia), died, 1776, Salzburg. 
Of his life and career little is known. 
It is, however, certain that he was (1747) 
Organist to the Prince Archbishop 
Sigismond, at Salzburg. 

Toccatas and Fugues, 1747 {see dementi's 
Practical Harmony). Besides these, 2 
Sonatas appeared in Haffner's CEuvres 
meles, 1760; and, lastly, a Prelude and 

Ebers, Carl Friedrich.b. March 25, 1770, 
Cassel ; d. Sept. 9, 1836, Berlin. En- 
tirely self-taught, he had to fight against 
many vicissitudes, and for this reason 
he had in later years to devote his 
decided talent to arrangements, pot- 
pourris, and other small pieces. Among 
his more important works may be 
mentioned — 
3 Sonates Brillantes, Op, 43, and a Grande 
Polonaise, Op. 62. 

Ebner, Wolfgang, Composer and Hof- 

Organist to the Emperor Ferdinand III. 

of Austria. Published, 1648, at 

Prague — 

36 Variations on an air by this Emperor. 

These variations were republished (1810) at 

Vienna, by Tobias Haslinger. All other 

information s wanting. 

*Echeverria, Jose Maria, b. Feb. 2, 1855, 
Lasarte, near San Sebastian (Spain). 
Pupil at the Conserv. of Madrid of 
Miguel Galiana (Harmony) and Manuel 
Mendizabal (Pf.). 1873, primer premio 
(first prize) for Pf. playing. Resides 
at present as teacher in San Sebastian. 
La Serenata Espaiiole, La Seconde Mazurka, 

La Gavota, Dos Habaneras, Enskal (Basque 

Air), Etudio Capricho. 

Eckard, Johann Gottfried, Clavecinist, 
&c., b. 1734, Augsburg; d. Aug., i8og, 
Paris. Too poor to have lessons from 
a master, he taught himself and 
achieved, through his marvellous 
industry and perseverance, decided 

success. The organ-builder, Stein, of 
Augsburg, took him (1758) to Paris, 
where he soon became one of the 
most popular teachers. 
6 Sonatas, CEuvre i, Paris, 1763 (also printed 
in Leipzig, 1773) ; 2 Sonatas for the Harpsi- 
chord, Op. 2, London; and Menuet with 
Variations, " Le marechal de Saxe." 

Edelmann (Edlmann), Johann Friedrich, 
b. May 6, 1749, Strassburg ; d. (under 
the guillotine) July 17, 1794, Paris. 
At first a Doctor of the Law, he finally 
devoted himself entirely to music, and 
performed with great success in Paris, 
where he settled, 1782. 
Concertos, a Quartet, Trios, Sonatas with 
Vln., and Sonatas for Pf. solo. 

*Eggeling, Eduard, b. July 30, 1813, 
Brunswick; d. April 8, 1885, Harzburg. 
Pupil of Griepenkerl. His educational 
works, published by Breitkopf and 
Hartel (Leipzig), are of decided value ; 
in particular his 
Studies for the higher development of Pf. 
playing, his Mechanical Studies, the Study 
of the Scale for children, ditto for advanced 
players. Of original compositions he pub- 
lished "Erhebung," a Fantasia, and 
another Fantasia called " Der Friihling.'' 

*Egghard, Julius (nom de plume for 
Count Hard egg, of the branch Hardegg- 
Glatz), b. April 24, 1834, Vienna; d. 
there, March 23, 1867. Pupil of 
Czerny (Pf.) and Preyer (Composi- 
tion). Composer of a great number 
of popular drawing-room pieces. 

Ehlert, Louis, b. Jan. 13, 1825, Konigs- 
berg (Prussia) ; d. Jan. 4, 1884, 
Wiesbaden. He studied in Leipzig, 
Berlin, and Vienna. After spending 
several years in travelling, he settled, 
1869, in Berlin, where he was, until 
1871, teacher at Tausig's Music-school ; 
was afterwards tutor to the sons of the 
Duke of Meiningen, who gave him the 
title of Prof. His literary works are : 
"Letters to a Friend about Music" 
(translated into several languages) 
and "Letters from the Tone -world" 
(Briefe aus der Tonwelt), essays, 
which were published in 2 volumes. 
Sonata in A min. ; Capriccio, Op. 3 ; Sonate 
romantique. Op. 5 ; Lyrische Skizzen, Op. 
12 (5 pieces); and Rhapsodies, Op. 15, 

Ehrlich, Heinrich, b. Oct. 5, 1822, 
Vienna. Pupil of Henselt, Booklet, 
Thalberg (Pf.), and Sechter (Com- 
position). For some time Pianist to 
King George of Hanover. 1864-72, 
teacher at the Stern Conserv., 
Berlin, from which appointment he 
retired, but resumed it again in 1886. 



Among his pupils were Felix Drey- 
schock, Mannstaedt, &c. He is musical 
critic to the Berliner Tageblatt and 
Die Gegenwart. Of his literary 
works, the books " Wie iibt man Kla- 
vier ? " (How does one practise the 
Piano ?) and " Musik-^Esthetik " are 
of considerable importance. 

12 Studies, a Concertstuck in ungarischer 
Weise, Lebensbilder, Variationen fiber ein 
eigenes Thema. Editor of Tausig's technical 
Studies, with the addition of a preface and 

Eichner, Ernst (Composer). According 
to Fetis, b. Feb. 9, 1740, Mannheim ; 
d. 1777, Potsdam. 

2 Concertos, Op. 5 (Amsterdam); ditto, Op. 9 
(Mannheim); Sonatas with Vln. and 
V'cello ; Sonatas with Vln., and Solo 

•EibenschUtz, Albert, b. April 15, 1857, 
Berlin. Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv. 
of Reinecke (Pf.) and Dr. (3scar Paul 
(Composition). The Leipzig Conserv. 
conferred on him the Diploma of 
Honour. 1867-80, Prof, at the Music 
School of Charkoff (South Russia) ; 
1880-84, Prof, at the Leipzig Conserv. ; 
1884, appointed Prof, at the Cologne 
Conserv. He resides at Cologne. 
Brilliant performer. 

Sonatas, Pieces for 4 hands (Op. 6-13), Staccato 
Study, Paraphrases, &c. Besides these he is 
the editor of several works of Emanuel 
Bach (Breitkopf and Hartel). 

• E ibenschiitz, Ilona(cousin of the above) , 
b. May 8, 1872, at Buda-Pesth. Even 
in her fifth year she showed uncommon 
talent, and played in a public concert 
with Liszt, who advised her to pursue 
her studies at the Vienna Conserv. 
From her 6th to 13th year she was a 
pupil of Hans Schmitt. After travelling 
in Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, 
France, and Germany, she went to 
Frankfort o/M., and, 1885-89, was pupil 
of Madame Schumann. During these 
years she retired from public hfe. 
1890, she resumed her journeys with 
great success and has chosen Vienna 
for her residence. Her performances 
in London have met with unqualified 

Eitner, Robert (musical Archaeologist), 
b. Oct. 22, 1832, Breslau. Pupil of 
Brosig. Settled, 1853, in Berlin. 1867, 
he obtained the prize for a Bio- 
graphical-Bibliographical Lexicon of 
Dutch composers, and received from 
the Government of Holland the order 
to write the history of Dutch musicians. 
From 1869, editor of the Monatshefte 
fur Musikgeschichte. 1873, he initiated 

the publication of works belonging to 
the 15th and i6th centuries.. 

Elewyck, Xavier Victor, Chevalier van 
(musical Historian), b. April 24, 1825, 
Ixelles les Bruxelles; d. April 18, 1880, 
Louvain. He published the work 
" Matthias van den Gheyn, le plus 
grand organiste et carilloneur beige du 
18 siecle." Besides this he published, 
at Brussels, 2 volumes containing 
Gheyn's and other Flemish composers' 
works, books of great interest and 
decided historical importance. The 
Kings of Holland and Belgium bestowed 
upon him high orders. 

Elkamp, Heinrich, b. 1812, Itzehoe 
(Holstein) ; d. 1868, Hamburg. Pupil 
of Clasing (Hamburg) and Zelter 
(Berlin). Settled in Hamburg and 
remained there until his death, with 
exception of the years 1842-52, which 
he spent in St. Petersburg. His com- 
positions are written for educational 
purposes, and consist of Sonatinas 
(Op. 7-12), Fantasias, &c. As a teacher 
he was most successful, and enjoyed a 
great reputation. 

Enckhausen, Heinrich Friedrich, b. 
Aug. 28, 1799, Celle ; d. Jan. 15, 1885, 
Hanover. His compositions, mostly 
easy pieces, are very popular and much 
used ; they are melodious, practical, 
well-harmonised, and, in their way, 
Progressive Studies, Op. 63 ; Sonatinas, Op. 75 
and 76 ; and Rondos. 

En gel, Carl (musical Historian), b. July 
6, 1818, Thiedenwiese (Hanover) ; d. 
Nov. 17, 1882, London. Pupil of 
Hummel (Pf.) and Lobe (Composition) 
of Weimar. 1846, he settled in London, 
active as a teacher and author. Among 
his works is a Pf. School for begin- 
ners, which appeared in 12 editions; 
author of "The Music of the most 
Ancient Nations," " Musical Myths 
and Facts," &c. 

•Epstein, Julius, b. Aug. 14, 1832, Agram 
(Croatia). Pupil of Lichtenegger of 
Agram, Halm (Pf.) and Rufinatscha 
(Composition) of Vienna. Eminent 
pianist and most successful teacher. 
Among his pupils are Ignaz Briill, 
Marcella Sembrich (at first pianist), 
&c. Since 1867, Prof, at the Vienna 

Erdmannsdorfer, Max, b. June 14, 1848, 
Niimberg. Pupil at the Leipzig Con- 
serv., and later of fUetz (Dresden). 
1 87 1, Conductor of the Sondershausen 
Orchestra as successor to Max Bruch ; 
1882, Conductor of the Concerts of the 



Imperial Musical Society of Moscow; 
at present (since 1889) Conductor 
of the Philharmonic Concerts of 
Bremen. Brilliant pianist and composer 
of highly effective solo pieces. 
Erdmannsdorfer {nee Fichtner), Pauline 
(wife of the above), b. June 28, 1851, 
Vienna. Pupil of Eduard Pirkhert 
(Pf.), later of Liszt (Weimar). Dis- 
tinguished pianist, on whom the 
Grand Dukes of Saxe- Weimar and 
Hesse-Darmstadt conferred the title 
of " Court Pianist." She resides at 
Eschmann, Johann Carl, b. April 12, 
1826, Winterthur; d. October 27, 1882, 
ZiJrich. Pupil of Moscheles (Pf.) 
and Mendelssohn (Composition), both 
of Leipzig. Among his most popular 
educational works are — 
The first, second, and third year of Pf. 
playing; loo Aphorisms ; Guide through the 
literature of the Pf , of which the newest 
edition is revised by Ruthardt (Leipzig); 
Technical Studies and excellent arrange- 
ments of classical pieces (Haydn, Mozart, 
and Beethoven). 

♦Eschmann, Carl Dumur (cousin of the 
abovej, b. July 6, 1835, Wadersweil, 
Ziiricn. Pupil of his cousin. Prof, 
of the higher classes of Pf. playing 
at the Musical Institute of Lausanne. 
His most important work is — 
" Guide du jeune Pianiste, classification 
methodique et graduee d'oeuvres diversees 

pour Piano " (second edition). He published 
also : " Rhythme et Agilitfi," Exercices 

Essipoff (Essipowa), Annette von, b. 
Feb. I, 1 85 1, St. Petersburg. Pupil at 
the Conserv., where Leschetizki, whom 
she married 1880, was her teacher. 
Brilliant pianist, who obtained every- 
where great success. 1885, she received 
the title of " Pianist to the Prussian 

Evers, Carl, b. April 8, 1819, Hamburg; 
d. Dec. 31, 1875, Vienna. Pupil of 
Jacques Schmitt (Pf.) at Hamburg. 
Zieger (Theory) at Hanover, Carl 
Krebs (Composition) at Hamburg, and 
of Mendelssohn (1839) at Leipzig. He 
never had a fixed appointment, until he 
established himself (1858) as a music- 
seller at Graz (Styria). As a pianist he 
possessed considerable technical execu- 
tion, and was everywhere favourably 
received. "Chansons d'amour," des- 
cribing the characteristic expression of 
the European national melodies. 

Eybler, Joseph von (Composer), b. Feb. 
8, 1765, Schwechat, near Vienna; d. 
July 24, 1846, Vienna, when Imperial 
Capellmeister. Pupil of Albrechts- 
berger, and a friend of Haydn and 
Mozart. He chiefly devoted himself 
to church music. 
Sonatas, Concertos, Trios, Dances, 4 Italian 
scenes, &c. 


Faisst, Dr. Emmanuel (Gottlob Fried- 
rich), Composer and Author; b. Oct. 13, 
1823, Esslingen (Wiirtemberg) ; d. 
June 5, 1894, Stuttgart. Pupil of Silcher 
(Tiibingen) and Dehn (Berlin). 1857, 
he assisted in the constitution of the 
Stuttgart Conserv., where he was 
active as Prof, and Director. From 
the University of Tiibingen he re- 
ceived the diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil, 
for an essay on the history of the 
Sonata. With Lebert he edited the 
" Cotta " edition of classical Pf. 
works. The King of Wiirtemberg 
bestowed upon him several distinctions. 

Farrenc, Jeanne Louise {nee Dumont), b. 
May 31, 1804, Paris ; d. there, Sept. 15, 
1875. Pupil of Hummel, Moscheles 
(Pf.), and Reicha (Composition). 
Married (1821) Jacques Hyppolite 
Aristide Farrenc, publisher of the 
" Tresor du Pianiste." She obtained 
great success both as a performer and 
teacher, and was elected (1842) Prof, at 

the Conserv. Madame F. is regarded 

as one of the best female composers of 


Sonatas, Quintets, Trios, Fugues, 30 Etudes, 

Op. 26; 12 Etudes brillantes, Op. 41; and 20 

Etudes de moyenne difficult^. Op. 42. 

Fasch, Carl Friedrich Christian (Com- 
poser, and founder of the Berlin Sing- 
Akademie), b. Nov. 18, 1736, Zerbst ; d, 
Aug, 3, 1800, Berlin. Pupil of Hertel 
(Strelitz). 1756, Cembalist to Frederic 
II. of Prussia, alternating with Eman. 
Bach. Among his works for Clavecin 
several Sonatas have been published 
in the collections — 
"Musikalisches Mancherley " (1762) and 
" Musikalisches Vielerley " (1770). 4 Posth. 
Sonatas were published by Rellstab. An 
Arietta with 14 variations, and other sets of 
Variations appeared at Berlin. A Concerto 
remained unpublished. 

Favarger, Rene, b. 1815, Paris; d. Aug., 
i868, Etretat (Havre). His fashionable 
compositions (mostly so-called Fan- 
tasias) enjoyed great popularity in 



England, France, and Germany ; and 
in London, where he resided for many 
years, he obtained considerable success 
as a teacher. 
Fesca, Alexander (Ernst), second son of 
the well-known violinist, Friedr. Ernst 
F. {1789-1826) ; b. May 22, 1820, 
Carlsruhe (Baden) ; d. Feb. 22, 1849, 
Brunswick. Pupil of Taubert (Pf.), 
Berlin, and of Schneider and Rungen- 
hagen (Theory). As a pianist he 
created (1839-40) a great sensation in 
Germany, Austria, and Hungary. As 
a composer he obtained considerable 
reputation ; his pieces are written with 
fluency and elegance, but lack finish 
and depth. 
Trios, Sonatas, Fantasias, Drawing-room 

Fitis, Fran9ois Joseph, b. March 25, 1784, 
Mons; d. March 26, 1871, Brussels. 
Pupil of Rey, Boieldieu, and Pradher 
(Paris). 1813, teacher at the Music 
School of Douai; he went (i8i8)to Paris 
and was appointed (1820) Prof, at the 
Conserv. 1826, he founded the journal 
La Revue Musicale. 1833, he became 
Director of the Brussels Conserv., 
which post he filled for 39 years. He was 
Gustos of the Royal Belgian Library, 
Member of the Academy, and Com- 
mander of high orders. For Pf. he 
wrote — 
Several Fantasias ; 3 Suites de Preludes pro- 
gressifs ; Fantaisie chromatique ; 3 Sonates 
faciles a quatre mains; grand Duo for Pf. 
andVln.; Marche variee ; Sextuor pour Pf. 
i. quatre mains, deux Violons, Alto, et 
Basse, Op. 5. He is the author of the 
" Methode des Methodes de Piano," of 
which Moscheles edited the practical part. 
Fibich, Zdengk, b. Dec. 21, 1850, Sebor- 
schitz, near Czaslau (Bohemia). At 
first instructed in Prague; 1865, at the 
Leipzig Conserv. ; later a pupil of 
Vincenz Lachner (Mannheim). 1876, 
second Capellmeister of the National 
Theatre (Prague) ; 1878, Director of the 
Choir of the Russian Church. 
Op. 7, 4 Ballads; Op. 8, Quartet; Op. lo, 
Romance for Pf. and Vln. ; Op. ii, Quartet ; 
Op. 19, Mignons for 4 bands: t. Valse, 2. 
Seine Orientale, 3. ***, 4. Rococo Gavotte ; 
the same for 2 hands, Op. 20 ; Vigilis, 2 
characteristic pieces for 4 hands. 
•Fiedler, August Max, b. Dec. 31, 1859, 
Zittau. Pupil of his father, the Pf. 
teacher, Carl Aug. F., and of G. 
Albrecht (Theory and Organ-playing). 
1877-80, pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., 
where he gained the " Holstein " 
scholarship. 1882, appointed teacher 
at the Hamburg Music School. 
S Pieces, Op. 2 (Phantasiestiick, Romanze, 
Gavotte, Phantasiestuck, Scherzo) : 4 pieces. 
Op. 6 (Phantasiestiick, F min. ; Waltzer, A 
flat ; Phantasiestuck, A flat ; Waldstiick, F 

Field, John, b. 1782, Dublin; d. Jan. ii, 
1837, Moscow. At first pupil of his 
grandfather, an Organist in Dublin ; 
later of Clementi, whom he accom- 
panied to St. Petersburg. When 
Clementi had left, good times began 
for Field. He was the favourite teacher 
of the aristocracy, and had plenty of 
engagements for Concerts ; but, owing 
to rather disorderly habits, he had to 
leave the Russian capital and settled in 
Moscow, where he met with an enthu- 
siastic reception. 183 1, he revisited 
Dublin, where he found his aged 
mother. Soon after he went to Paris, 
where his success was not so great 
as elsewhere. Disappointed in Paris, 
he went to Vienna, Milan, and other 
Italian towns, where he was much 
feted. In Naples a Russian family, 
sympathising with Field — now ill and 
feeble — took him (1834) to Moscow, 
where — suffering from a fearful cough 
and inflammation of the intestines — he 
died, 1837. He was a most excellent 
pianist — famous for his beautiful 
singing tone and sweet touch, admired 
for the independence of his fingers, 
the correctness and clearness of his 
execution, and the fascinating and 
captivating manner of his entire 
style of performance. Of the now 
highly popular form, "The Nocturne," 
Field may be called the inventor. 

Concertos, No. i, in E flat ; No. 2, in A flat; 
No. 3, in E flat ; No. 4, in E flat (very 
popular) ; No. 5,i n C ; No. 6, in C ; No. 7, in 
C min. ; Sonatas in A, E, and C min. ; Sonata 
in B ; 2 Airs en Rondeaux, Air russe. Air 
russe varie (4 hands). Chanson russe varie 
(D min.). Polonaise in E flat, " Reviens, 
Reviens," Romanza and Cavatine in E, 
Romance in E flat, 3 Romances, Rondeau in 
A, 2 Rondeaux Favori in £ and A, Rondeau 
with 2 Vln., Alto, and Bass; " Since then 
I'm doomed," Variation in C; "Speed the 
Plough," Rondo in B flat ; Divertissements, 
with 2 Vln., Alto, and Bass, in E and A; 
2 Fantasias, in A and G ; Exercise ; Exercice 
module dans tous les tons majeurs et 
mineurs; 18 Nocturnes, of which Nos. i-io 
appeared before 1828. 

Fischer, Johann Caspar Ferdinand 
(Composer and Conductor to the 
Margrave of Baden), lived about 1720. 
Gerber mentions that Fischer was one 
of the strongest executants on his 
instrument (clavecin), and to him 
belongs the merit of having made 
known in Germany the meaning and 
execution of the graces. 

Musikalisches Blumenbiischlein (Musical 
flowerbushlet) bestehend in (consisting of) 

8 Partien, u.s.w., Op. 2. The Musical Par- 
nassus, or an entirely new work, consisting 
of 9 Partitas (Suites) with the name of the 

9 Muses (Augsburg, 1738). 



Fischer, Michael Gotthardt (Composer) , 
b. June 3, 1773, Village Alach (Erfurt) ; 
d. Jan. 12, 1829, Erfurt. Pupil of 
Kittel (pupil of Bach). After having 
spent some years at Jena, Baron Dal- 
berg {see page 23) called him to Erfurt 
as Conductor of the Winterkonzerte. 
His works enjoyed in their time a great 
reputation and were praised for their 
solidity and excellent workmanship. 
A Clavier-Quartet, Op. 6 ; Sonatas, Op. 3 ; 

a Capriccio, Studies, and a Sonata for 4 

hands Op. 12. 
Fischhof, Joseph, b. April 4, 1804, Buts- 
chowitz ; d. June 28, 1857, Baden, near 
Vienna. His parents desired him to 
become a physician, but on his giving 
proofs of decided talent for music they 
allowed him to have Anton Halm as 
teacher of Pf. and von Seyfried as in- 
structor in Composition. 1833, elected 
Prof, at the Vienna Conserv. He was 
one of the musical authorities of 
Vienna, well acquainted with Robert 
Schumann, Liszt, Thalberg, Donizetti 
— in short, with every artist of dis- 
tinction who visited the Austrian 
capital. As a pianist he was esteemed 
for the musicianly qualities of his per- 
formances, and as a teacher respected 
for the thoroughness of his knowledge. 
He wrote an essay on the history of 
the Pf. 
Rondos, Op. 10, 12, 19; a Fantaisie carac- 

teristique. Op. 18. Editor of " Classiche 

Studien," pieces by Handel, Bach, Mozart, 

and Scarlatti. 

Fischhof, Robert (nephew of Joseph F.), 

b. 1857, Vienna. Pupil of Door, R. 

Fuchs, Krenn, and Bruckner (Vienna 

Conserv.) ; later of Liszt. 1874, he 

appeared for the first time in public 

and continued to give highly successful 

concerts in Austria and Germany. 

1884, appointed Prof, at the Conserv. 

(Vienna). A Concerto of his own 

composition was performed by him 

in Berlin and Paris. Other pieces 

appeared in Vienna, Berlin, and Paris. 

*Fissot, Alexis Henri, b. Oct. 24, 1843, 

Airaines (Somme). At Paris pupil of 

Marmontel (Pf.), Bazin (Harmony), 

Benoit (Organ), and Ambroise Thomas 

(Composition) ; he gained the first prize 

in every class. Since April, 1887, Prof. 

at the Conserv. (Paris). 

3 Feuillets d' Album, 12 Pieces de Genre, 12 

Preludes, 3 Morceaux (Op. 4), Adagio et 

presto, Fantaisie impromptu. Ballades (2), 

Arabesques (6), Caprice heroique (Op. 18), 

Allegro symphonique (Op. 20), Scherzi, 

I, 2, and 3. 

*FlUgel, Ernst, b. Aug. 31, 1844, Halle 

a/d/Saale. Pupil of his father, Gustav 

F., Loschhorn, Biilow, Geyer, and 

Kiel. 1879, he settled in Breslau, where 
he is Cantor of the Bemhardin Church 
and critic to the Silesian journal, 
Schlesische Zeitung. The King of 
Prussia conferred on him the title 
of Konigl. Musik-Director. The opera 
16, 31, 32 are considered by the author 
to be his best works. 
•FlUgel, Gustav (father of the above), b. 
July 2, 1812, Nienburg a/d/Saale. 
Pupil of Thiele (Altenburgj ; from 
1827-30, of Fr. Schneider (Dessau). 
1840, appointed Musik-Director at 
Stettin, which town he left (1850) for 
Neuwied, where he remained until 
1859, when he returned to Stettin as 
Organist and Cantor of the Schloss- 
kirche. 1856, he received the title 
of Konigl. Musik-Director. His prin- 
cipal works for Pf. are — 
5 Sonatas, Op. 4, 7, 13, 20, 36; his most 
popular pieces are decidedly " Nachtfalter" 
(Moths), Op. 14. 
Fodor, Anton (youngest brother of the 
violinist, Joseph F.), b. 1759, Venloo 
(Holland) ; d. Feb. 23, 1849, Amster- 
dam. He resided until 1790 in his 
native place, but settled later in 
Amsterdam. Appointed Conductor of 
the Concerts " Felix meritis." 
Concertos (published in Paris), Quartets for 
Pf. and Strings, Trios, Sonatas with Vln., 
a Sonata for 4 hands, one ditto for 6 hands. 
Solo Sonatas, Fantasias, Variations, &c. 
Fbrster, Alban, b. Oct. 23, 1849, Reichen- 
bach (Saxony). 1863-65, pupil of R. 
Blume; i866-6g, pupil, and, 1881-82, 
Prof, at the Dresden Conserv. ; 1882, 
Hof-Capellmeister of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz (at Neu-Strelitz). His com- 
positions are mostly of an educational 
Op. 12, Miniatures (20) ; Op. i3,Gedenkblatter 
(3) ; Op. 14, Musikalische Plaudereien 
(Musical chattings), 10 pieces ; Op. 32, 8 
easy characteristic pieces for 4 hands; Op. 
40, Album of Dances; Op. 41, Wander- 
Skizzen; Op. 53, Aus der Jugendzeit (8 
pieces) ; Op. 60, Trio in an easy style. 
Fbrster, Emanuel Aloys, b. i757,Neurath 
(Austrian Silesia) ; d. Nov. 19, 1823, 
Vienna. Received his musical educa- 
tion in Prague, from whence he went, 
1779, to Vienna; he received the title 
of Capellmeister, and was active as 
a teacher of Pf. and Composition. It 
is said that Beethoven respected him 
very much. His work, " Anleitung zum 
Generalbass" (Leipzig, 1805), is con- 
sidered a book of great merit. 
Sestet, Op. 9 (1796), 4 Quartets, Sonata for 4 
hands, Fantasia and grand Sonata, Op. 15 ; 
several other Sonatas, 50 Preludes in 3 
books, S'c. The 10 Variations in A maj. on 
Sarti'sair "I finti eredi," generally believed 
to be by Mozart, are by Forster, who pub- 
lished them (1802) in Vienna. 



Fontaine (Henri Louis Stanislas), 
Mortier de, b. May 13, 1816, Wies- 
riowiec (Volhynia, Russia) ; d. May 10, 
1883, Balham, near London. 1832, he 
performed for the first time at a concert 
in Dantsic ; went, 1833, to Paris, where 
he was warmly welcomed by Chopin ; 
and played in public with great success. 
1837, he travelled in Italy ; returned, 
1842, to Paris, and went, 1850, to Russia ; 
settled, 1853, in St. Petersburg, and 
remained there till i860 as a teacher ; 
from i860 till 1868 in a similar capacity 
at Munich. In 1873 he resumed his 
artistic journeys, and remained during 
the last years of his life in London. 
His accomplishments as a pianist were 
very considerable. 
Fontana, Jules de, b. 1810, Warsaw ; 
committed suicide in Paris on Decem- 
ber 31, 1869. He was a fellow-pupil of 
Chopin in Warsaw. After a sojourn in 
Paris, he travelled with the violinist 
Sivori in America, afterwards returning 
to Paris, where he published Chopin's 
posthumous works. There is a differ- 
ence of opinion about Fontana's loyalty 
in doing this. 
2 Caprices, Marche Fundbre and L'Inquietude, 
Op. I ; Reverie, Op. 2 ; Elegie, Op, 7 ; 12 
Etudes de Style, Op. 8 ; ditto, Op. 9 : and a 
Ballade, Op. 17. 

Forkel, Dr. Johann Nicolaus (the son of 
a shoemaker), b. Feb. 22, i749,Meeder, 
near Coburg ; d. March 17, 1818, 
Gottingen. 1762, appointed chorister 
at the principal church of Liineburg ; 
1766, Director of the Schwerin- Choir. 
1769, he entered the University of 
Gottingen, where he studied law ; 
but as he found that the historical 
studies of music afforded greater attrac- 
tions, he devoted himself entirely to 
music ; became (1778) Musical Director 
of the University; founded (1780) the 
so-called Winter Concerts, received the 
diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil., and re- 
mained active as a Conductor until 
1815, when he retired and devoted his 
time to teaching and writing. As a 
composer he was less successful than 
as an author. He published : 
6 Sonatas, 2 books (Gottingen, 1778-79); 3 
Sonatas, with accompaniment (London); 24 
Variations on " God save the King " ; Trios, 
Op. 2(1780); a Concerto (1782). According 
to his MS. catalogue he composed 22 Con- 
certos and a Duo for 2 clavecins. His book, 
"Joh. Seb. Bach's Life, Art and Works," 
was published at Leipzig, 1802. Only 2 
volumes of his General History of Music 
Franck, Cesar Auguste, b. Dec. 10, 1822, 
Liege; d. Nov. 8, 1890, Paris. Pupil 
at the Liege Conserv. until 1837, when 
he entered that of Paris and became a 

pupil of Zimmermann (Pf .) and Leborne 
(Counterpoint). 1838, first prize for 
Pf. ; 1839, second prize for Composi- 
tion. Remained permanently at Paris 
as a Pf. teacher ; was Prof, of Organ 
at the Conserv. and Organist of St. 
3 Trios, Op. 1; Trio, Op. 2; Eclogue, Op. 3; 
Duo for 4 hands. Op. 4 ; Sonata, Op. 6, &c. 

♦Franck, Dr. Eduard, b. Oct. 5, 1817, 
Breslau; d. Dec. i, 1893, Berlin. Re- 
ceived his general and musical educa- 
tion in his native town. Went, 
1843-46, to Italy, afterwards to Berlin, 
where he performed with great success 
at public concerts. Appointed Prof, at 
the Cologne Conserv., but accepted 
(1859) the post of Musik-Director at 
Berne, where the University conferred 
upon him the diploma of Hon. Doc. 
Phil. ; 1867-78, Prof, at the Stern Con- 
serv. ; since 1878, Prof, at the Breslau 
Conserv. of Berlin. He received the 
titles of Konigl. Prof, and Musik- 
Concerto, Op. 13 ; 2 Trios ; Quintet, Op. 45 ; 

Sextet, Op. 41 ; Sonata, with V'cello, Op. 42 ; 

Duo for 2 Pf., Op. 46; 6 Solo Sonatas, 

Op. 40, &c. 

♦Frescobaldi, Girolamo (Composer), b. 
1580, Ferrara; d. March 22, 1644, 
Rome. Pupil of Luzzasco-Luzzaschi, 
he went for further studies to the 
Netherlands. Became, 1607, Organist 
of S. Rombaut (Malines) ; returned to 
Italy, and was appointed, 1608, suc- 
cessor of Pasquini, Organist of S. 
Pietro (Rome) — according to Fetis he 
obtained this post only in 1614. 1628, he 
went to Florence for several years as 
Organist to Ferdinand II. of Toscana, 
but returned (1635) to ^is former post 
at Rome ; remained there till 1643 ; 
was for one year Organist of S. 
Laurentius in Montibus. Among his 
pupils, Froberger was decidedly the 
II prime libro di Fantasie a due, tre e 
quattro^ (in Milano. 1608). Ricercari e 
canzoni francesi, fatti sopra diversi oblighi, 
in partitura (Rome, 1637). Previous pub- 
lications of this collection appeared in 1615 
and 1627. II secondo libro di Toccati, 
Canzoni, Versi d'Hinni, Magnificat, 
Gagliarde, Correnti et altre partite d'in- 
tavoiatura di Cembalo ed Organo (Rome, 
1637). First edition, 1616. Fiori musicali 
di diverse Compositioni, Toccati, Kirie, 
Canzoni, Capricci e Ricercari in Partitura 
a Quattro, utile per Sonatori, Op. 12 
(Venezia, 1635). (See Pauer's " Alte 
Meister," Leipzig.) 

Freund, Robert, b. 1852, Buda-Pesth. 
Pupil of Huber. 1865, he entered the 
Leipzig Conserv., where Moscheles and 
Coccius (Pf.), Richter and Papperitz 
(Harmony) were his teachers. For 



one year he studied with Tausig 

(Berlin), and was (1870-72) a pupil of 

Liszt in Buda-Pesth. 1876, appointed 

Prof, at the Music School of Ziirich, 

where he resides. His performances 

are very much admired for their 

refinement and warmth of expression. 

Freystadtler(Freystadler), Franz Jacob, 

b. Sept. 13, 1760, Salzburg; d. about 

1836, Vienna. Pupil of Lipp (Organ 

and Clavecin), he was appointed 

Organist of St. Peter's, Salzburg; went, 

1784, to Munich, where he remained 

as teacher until 1786. From this year 

until his death he settled (owing to 

the invitation and encouragement of 

his townsman, Mozart) in Vienna, 

where he soon was actively engaged as 

a teacher. 

Easy Concerto ; Sonatas with Vln. ; " The 

Siege of Belgrad " and " The Siege of 

Valenciennes," with Vln. ; i8 original 

Valses for 4 hands; several Caprices and 

sets of Variations ; 50 Preludes, and the 

Fantasias " Mittag und Abend" (Noon 

and Evening) and " Der Friihlingsmorgen " 

(Spring morning). 

*Frickenhaus {nee Evans), Fanny 
(Pianist), b. June 7, 1849, Cheltenham. 
Pupil of George Mount, later of Aug. 
Dupont (Brussels). Appeared for the 
first time in 1879 in London, where she 
has played with continued success at 
the best public concerts (Philharmonic, 
Crystal Palace, Popular). She intro- 
duced many interesting works of living 
composers in her chamber music 
concerts, and is considered one of the 
foremost English pianists. 

♦Friedheim, Arthur, b. Oct. 26, 1859, 
St. Petersburg. Pupil of Rubinstein 
for one year. 1877, he went to 
Dresden, in order to finish an opera, 
already begun in St. Petersburg ; after- 
wards, for 8 years, a pupil of Liszt. 
Excellent performer, possessing a 
phenomenal execution, and a talented 
Conductor. He resides in New York. 

Froberger, Johann Jacob (Organist, 
Clavecinist, and Composer), b. 1605 (?), 
Halle (?) ; d. May 7, 1667, H^ricourt 
(Haute Saone). Pupil of Frescobaldi. 
The details of his life are very scanty 
and uncertain. According to Matthe- 
son (" Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte"), 
a Swedish Ambassador was so pleased 
with his singing, when 15 years old, 
that he took him to Vienna, where 
Ferdinand IIL commanded him to be 
sent to Rome to study under Fresco- 
baldi. On his return he was, 1641-45, 
and again, 1653-57, Court Organist at 
Vienna, when he was dismissed (for 
unknown reasons) from the Imperial 

service, and went to Mayence; later, 
he found a generous patroness in the 
Duchess Sybilla of Wiirtemberg, who 
appointed him her " Musikraeister 
und Musiklehrer." At what time he 
came to Hericourt, the residence of the 
Duchess, is unknown. It is also 
unknown whether he went (1657) from 
Vienna direct to England. S^^ Grove I., 
565, Fetis and Mendl, about a romantic 
incident which is said to have happened 
in Westminster Abbey. It is, however, 
certain that he lived during his later 
years in comfortable circumstances at 
the Court of the Duchess, who called 
him "her dear, honest, faithful, and 
industrious master." Of his works the 
following appeared : — 
Diverse curiose e rarissime Partite di toccate, 
ricercate capricci e fantasie dall' Eccelen- 
tissimo e Famosissimo Organista Giovanni 
Giacomo Froberger, per gli amatori di 
Cembali, Organi e Istrumenti (Mainz : 
Ludw. Bourgeat, 1693, 1695, 1699). Diverse 
ingegniosissime, rarissime e non mai piu 
viste curiose partite di toccate, canzone, 
ricercate, alemande, correnti, sarabande e 
gigue di cembali, organi e istrumenti 
(Mainz, 1714). Phantasia supra, ut, re, mi, fa, 
sol, la, Clavicymbalis accommodata, in 
Athan. Kircher's Musurgia, Rome, 1650. 
The Imperial Court Library of Vienna 
possesses the following works in MS. : 
1st vol., 8 toccate, 5 capricci e canzone per 
rOrgano ; and vol., Libro secondo di 
Toccate, Fantasie, Canzone, &c. (Con- 
tenente : Pezzi per il Cembalo, et a 4 voci, 
1649) ; 3rd vol., Libro terzo di Capricci e 
Ricercati ; 4th vol., Libro quarto di Toccate, 
Capricci, &c. (Pezzo per il Cembalo et a 4 
voci), Vienna, 1656 ; sth vol., Lamento 
sopra la dolorosa perdita della R.M. di 
Ferdinando IV., Re de Romani, Per il 
Cembalo, 1649. MS. of Fugues, Caprices, 
Toccatas, and Suites; MS., i vol., with 26 
Clavecin pieces. Suites by Froberger (but 
also by Biber and Schmelzer), 1681. 
♦Frugatta, Giuseppe, b. May 26, i860, 
Bergamo. Pupil at the Milan 
Conserv. of Antonio Bazzini (Com- 
position) and Carlo Andreoli (Pf.). 
Prof, at the " Collegio Reale delle 
FanciuUe " and at the Conserv. 
Sonata, Trio (both received prizes), Fantasia, 
Schizzi di Valzer, Polonaise de Concert, 
Moments poetiques, three Morceaux de 
Concerts, &c. 
*Fuchs, Robert, b. Feb. 15, 1847, 
Frauenthal. Pupil at the Vienna 
Conserv., where, 1875, he was ap- 
pointed Prof, of Theory, and, 1893, 
Sonatas, Sonata with V'cello, Trios, 2 Sonatas 
with Vln., Variations, very melodious 
pieces for 4 hands, a Concerto, &c. 

Fumagalli, Adolfo, b. Oct. ig, 1828, 
Inzago ; d. May 3, 1856, Florence. 
Pupil of Angeleri. Most excellent and 
highly distinguished pianist, who com- 
posed in a fluent style a good many 



elegant, graceful, effective, and well- 
written pieces, mostly published by 
Ricordi, of Milan, and Schott Sons, 
of Mayence. 

Fumagalli, Disma (elder brother of the 
above), b. Sept. 8, 1826, Inzago; d. 
March 2, 1893, Milan. Pupil at the 
Milan Conserv., where he was after- 
wards Prof. Prolific composer, who 
published above 250 pieces. 

Fumagalli, Luca (younger brother of 
Adolfo F.), b. May 29, 1837, Inzago. 
Also a pupil at the Milan Conserv. 
Played, i860, with great success in 
Paris, and puljlished many elegant and 
pleasing drawing-room pieces. 

Fux, Johann Joseph (the celebrated 
author of the ' ' Gradus ad Parnassum 
sive manuductio ad compositionem 
musicae regularem"), b. 1660, Hirten- 
feld, near St. Marein in Styria ; d. Feb. 
14, 1 74 1, Vienna, where he was Kaiser- 
licher Obercapellmeister. He served 
under Leopold I. (1640-1705), Joseph I. 
(1678-1711), and Carl VI. (1685-1740), 
and was greatly honoured and even 
beloved by each of these sovereigns. 
See Kochel's Biography of Fux 
(Vienna, 1871). His Gradus was pub- 
lished 1725. For Clavecin he wrote — 
Sei Sonate, Capriccio, Fughe. 


Gabler, Christoph August (son of a 
clergyman), b. March 15, 1767, 
Miihldorf (Voigtland, Saxony) ; d. 
April 15, 1839, St. Petersburg. He 
studied theology at Leipzig, but fol- 
lowed up with zeal his musical studies. 
1800, music-teacher in Reval, where 
his performances were very successful. 
1836, he settled in St. Petersburg. 
3 Sonatas, Op. 19 ; Sonata, Op. 26; Sonatine, 

Op. 46; Adagio and Rondo, Op. 50; and 

several sets of Variations, &c. 

Gade, Niels Wilhelm, b. Feb. 22, 1817 
(not Oct.), Copenhagen; d. there, Dec. 
21, 1890. Pupil of Weyse. 1841, he 
gained the first prize for the Overture 
"Nachklange an Ossian," which was 
soon performed under Mendelssohn in 
Leipzig. King Christian VIII. of Den- 
mark gave him a stipend, which enabled 
him to travel in Germany. 1843, he 
spent in Leipzig. 1845-46, he partici- 
pated with Mendelssohn in the direction 
of the Gewandhaus Concerts. 1848, he 
returned to Copenhagen, was appointed 
Conductor of the Musical Society, 
Hof-Organist, Hof-Capellraeister, and 
Prof. The amiable, harmonious, cor- 
rect, pure, and thoroughly sympathetic 
character of his compositions was 
everywhere acknowledged and wel- 
comed — in short, he was one of the few 
composers who had only friends and 
no enemies. The Danish Court re- 
cognised his merits by bestowing upon 
him the Commandership of the Dane- 
brog, and from several Academies and 
Societies he received the diplomas of 
Hon. Membership. He was Hon. 
Dr. Phil., Member of the Prussian 

order pour le merite; and, during his 
later years, Director of the Copen- 
hagen Conserv. His works are only 
slightly tinged with Scandinavian ex- 
Fruhlings-Phantasie for Pf., Orchestra, and 
4 solo voices; Trio, Op. 42, in F; Sonata, 
Op. 28, in E min. ; Sonata, with Vln., in A, 
Op. 6; ditto in D min., Op. 2i ; Aquarellen, 
Op. 19 (10 pieces) ; FrQhlingsblumen, Op. 2 
(3 pieces) ; Album leaves (3 pieces) ; Christ- 
mas pieces, Op. 36 (5 pieces) ; Arabeske, Op. 
27 ; Volkstanze, Op. 31. 

Gansbacher, Johann Baptist, b. May 8, 
1778, Sterzing (Tyrol) ; d. July 13, 1844, 
Vienna. 1796, he fought as a volunteer 
against the French and became first 
lieutenant ; but his desire to devote 
himself to music was greater than the 
wish to follow up his military career. 
1802, he went to Vienna, where Abb6 
Vogler gave him some advice. His 
patron. Count Firmian, and his pupil. 
Count Erdody, paid for his instruction 
by Albrechtsberger. 1810, he went to 
Darmstadt, where he was, with C. M. 
von Weber and Meyerbeer, a pupil of 
Vogler. 1823, appointed Principal 
Organist of St. Stephen's, Vienna, 
which post he filled until his death. 
For his merits as a soldier he received, 
1796, the medal for bravery, and, 1817, 
the great gold medal of merit. 
Trios, Sonatas with Vln.; Variations for 4 
hands. Op. 9; Divertissements, Op. 20 and 
29, and Sonate facile. Op 30. 

Gallenberg, Wenzel Robert, Count, b. 
Dec. 28, 1783, Vienna ; d. May 13, 1839, 
Rome. PupU of Albrechtsberger. With 
Barbaja he was co-administrator of the 
Vienna Opera, for which he had to 



furnish the ballet-music. He married 
Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, to whom 
Beethoven dedicated, 1802, the well- 
known Sonata, Op. 27, No. 2, commonly 
called the " Moonlight " Sonata. 
Several of Gallenberg's themes were 
used for variations — for instance, the 
" Gallenberg " Valse, by Charles 
Mayer, Moscheles, Czerny, and others. 
I'antasie, Op. 4; Rhapsody, Op. 5 ; Fantasie 
der Trauer, Op. 35 ; Grande Senate, Op. 15 ; 
Characteristic Marches for 4 hands, Op. 11 ; 
and a grand Triumphal March. 

Galuppi, Baldassare (called Buranello), 
composer ; b. Oct. i8, 1706, Burano ; 
d. Jan. 3, 1785, Venice. Pupil of Lotti. 
Lived, from 1741 till 1743, in London; 
was appointed, 1765, Capellmeister 
at St. Petersburg ; and went, 1768, to 
be Conductor of San Marco, at Venice. 
His Sonatas (of which several are 
reprinted in Pauer's "Alte Clavier 
Musik" and "Alte Meister ") are dis- 
tinguished by great freshness and 

*Ganz, Wilhelm, b. Nov. 6, 1833, 
Mayence on the Rhine. Pupil of 
C. Eckert (Berlin) and Anschiitz 
(Coblenz). Prof, at the London 
Guildhall School. Composer of 
fashionable pieces, and a popular Con- 
ductor. Received decorations from 
the King of Prussia and the Duke of 

Gaschin-Rosenberg, Countess Fanny 

(excellent pianist), b. 1818, Thorn. 

Pupil of Liszt, Thalberg, and Henselt. 

Although an amateur, she created a 

great sensation by her excellent and 

brilliant performances. 

Reverie (very popular) ; 2 pieces : Charme 

btisi, Poeme Harmonique ; Mazourka, and 

Bourrasque (fit of passion) musicale. 

*Gayrhos, Eugen, b. 1843, Kempten 
(Bavaria). Pupil of D. Pruckner (Pf.) 
and Dr. Faisst (Composition), of 
Stuttgart ; held appointments at 
Munich, 1862-67, later at Basle, as 
successor to Biilow, and is at present 
Prof, at Lausanne. 

Gebel, Georg, sen., b. 1685, Breslau ; 
d. there, 1749. Greatly respected for 
his organ performances. He made 
himself a name as the inventor of a 
clavichord with quarter- tones, and a 
clavicembalo with manual, pedal, and 
compass of 6 octaves. He published 
not less than 24 Concertos. His eldest 
son — 

Gebel, Georg, jun., b. Oct. 15, 1709, 
Brieg (Breslau) ; d. Sept. 24, 1753, 
Rudolstadt. Pupil of his father. Very 
clever executant on Hebenstreit's Pan- 
taleon (an improvement of the so-called 

Dulcimer). Although a very prolific 
composer for the orchestra (he wrote 
in six years not less than 100 Sym- 
phonies) he composed for the clavecin 
only a few Concertos and a Partita, 
published in Rudolstadt. 
Gelinek, Abbe Joseph (composer), b. Dec. 
3, 1757, Selcz, Bohemia; d. April 13, 
1825, Vienna. His first instruction he 
received from his father, a school- 
master, later from Segert. 1786, he was 
ordained. Mozart chanced to hear 
him, and was so struck by his gift of 
improvising that he recommended him 
to Count Kinsky, who, when travelling 
in Italy, appointed him house-chaplain 
and music-teacher of his family. On 
his return to Vienna he took lessons 
from Albrechtsberger. From 1795 until 
his death he was house-chaplain of 
Prince Esterhazy. Soon he became 
the most popular Pf. teacher and 
began to write his — in their time 
fashionable — Variations. 
Sonatas, Trios, Fantasias, Dances, Marches, 
and 120 Sets of Variations. 
Gerke, Anton, b. 1814, in Poland; d. 
Aug. 27, 1870, St. Petersburg. He was 
one of the most influential and success- 
ful teachers of the Russian capital. 
10 Characteristic Pieces, Op. 14 ; Amusement, 
Op. 19, I., II. ; Divertimento, Op. 22 ; 
Souvenir, Op. 23 ; and 12 Scherzi a la 
Gerke, Otto (really a violinist), b. Jan. 
13, 1807, Liineburg ; d. June 28, 1878, 
Paderborn. Pupil of Spohr and 
Sonata, Op. 32 ; Fantaisie et Rondeau, Op. 21 ; 
Invitation a la Danse, Rondeau Brilliant, 
Op. 3 ; Salut a la 'Nevfn, and several shorter 
*German, Edward, b. 1862, Whitchurch, 
Shropshire. Pupil at the R.A.M. 
(London). Although chiefly a com- 
poser for orchestra, his Pf. works 
deserve mention : 
Suite (1-6), Valse in D flat, Polish Dance, 
Intermezzo in A min., Valsette, Album 
Leaf, Graceful Dance, Minuet in G, Suite for 
4 hands. His other works for Pf. are arrange- 
ments from his highly successful music to 
" Richard III.," " Henry VIII.," and the 
Germer, Heinrich, b. Dec. 30, 1837, 
Sommersdorf (Province of Saxony). 
Pupil of the section for Composition of 
the Berlin Academy. After finishing his 
studies he settled in Dresden as a music- 
teacher, and is at present chairman of 
the " Musikpadagogischen Verein." He 
published " Rhythmical Problems," 
' ' TheTechnique of Pianoforte-playing, ' ' 
' 'The Musical Ornamentation," Studies, 
and a Method of Pf. playing. He 
edited some of Czerny's and Cramer's 
Studies and Beethoven's Sonatas; 


there is a great difference of opinion 
as to the necessity, propriety, and 
practicability of interfering with the 
originals, as it may be rightly main- 
tained that Beethoven, Czerny, and 
Cramer knew well what they meant 

Gemsheim, Friedrich, b. July 17, 1839, 
Worms. From 1847-49, pupil of Pauer 
(Mayence) ; 1849-52, Rosenhain (Pf.) 
and Hauff (Composition), Frankfort 
o/M ; 1852, at the Leipzig Conserv. ; 
1 861, appointed Musik - Director at 
Saarbriicken ; 1864, Prof, at the Cologne 
Conserv., and, 1874, Director and Prof, 
of the Conserv. of Rotterdam; 1890, 
Director of the Stern Choral Society, 
and artistic Director of the Stern 
Conserv. (Berlin). 1872, the Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha conferred on him 
the title of Prof., and the Grand 
Duke of Hesse the Order of PMlipp. 
His compositions are distinguished by 
excellent workmanship, practical 
writing, effective treatment, and a 
thorough absence of shallowness or 
Concerto, Trios (2) ; Quintet, Op. 35 ; Quartet, 
Op. 6; Sonatas with Vln. ; ditto with 
V cello; Dances (4 hands), Op. 30; 6 Pre- 
ludes, Op. 2 ; Variations, Op. 18 and Op. 22 ; 
Fantasia, Op. 27 ; Suite, Op. 8 ; Romanza, 
Op. 15, &c. 

Gheyn, Matthias van den (organist, 
carilloneur, and composer), b. April 7, 
1721, Tirlemont ; d. June 22, 1785, 
Louvain. His Sonatas and Divertisse- 
ments (2 vols.) were published by the 
Chevalier d'Elewyck (Brussels: Schott 
freres). The preface to the first volume 
contains a detailed description of his 

Giannini, Salvatore, b. Dec. 24, 1830, 
Naples. Pupil of Giuseppe Lillo. 
Ricordi and Lucca, of Milan, pub- 
lished about 270 of his pieces. 

Gibbons, Orlando, b. 1583, Cambridge ; 
d. Jime 5, 1625, Canterbury. His 
pieces are published in "Parthenia" 
and " Old English Composers." 

*Giehrl, Joseph, b. Sept. 18, 1857, 
Munich ; d. there, April 24, 1893. At 
first a pupil at the Munich Conserv., 
later a pupil of Liszt (for one year in 
Rome). Prof, at the Royal Academy 
of Music (formerly Conserv.) of 
Munich. He was considered one of 
the foremost performers of his time 
and was a leading artist of the 
Bavarian capital. 

Giordani (called Giordanello), Giuseppe, 
b. 1753, Naples ; d. 1794, Lisbon. Pupil 
at the Conserv. of Loreto of Naples. 
Resided for some years in London. 

Concertos, Quartets, and Quintets ; Sonatas 
with Vln. ; 3 Sonatas for 4 hands ; Le9ons 
pour les commen^ants et Preludes. 
*Glazounow, Alexander, b. July 29 
(Aug. 10), 1865, St. Petersburg. 
Pupil of Narciss Jelenkowski (Pf.) and 
Nicolai Rimsky- Korsakoff (Composi- 
tion). He holds no appointment. A 
medal for his compositions was 
awarded to him by the Jury of the 
Chicago Exhibition, 1893. 
Op. 2, Suite; Op. 22, 2 Morceaux; Op. 23, 
Walzer; Op. 25, Prelude et 2 Mazurkas; 
Op. 31, 3 Etudes; Op. 37, Nocturne ; Op.^i, 
Grande Valse de Concert ; Op. 42, Minia- 
Glinka, Michael Ivanowitsch de, b. May 
20, 1804, at the village Novo Spaskoie 
(Government Smolensk) ; d. Feb. 3, 
1857, Berlin. 1833, pupil of Dehn 
(Berlin). He returned to Russia, was 
appointed Imperial Capellmeister and 
Director of the Opera and of the 
Church Choir of St. Petersburg. 
1840-50, he spent in travels, visited 
also Spain, but resided mostly in Paris. 
1856, he went to Berlin, and studied 
with Dehn the East Roman Church 
Music. He died suddenly. 1870, a 
monument to Glinka was erected at 
St. Petersburg. 
Due Ballabile nel Ballette "Chao Kang," 
with Variations, a Rondino brillante, and 
several sets of Variations. 
Gobbaerts, Jean Louis (his compositions 
appear under the name " Streabbog ") 
b. Sept. 28, 1836, Antwerp ; d. April 28, 
1886, Saint Gilles. Pupil at the 
Brussels Conserv. Published a Method 
of Pf. playing, and a great number 
of easy, popular pieces (mostly 
published by Schott, of Mayence). 
Gobbi, Heinrich, b. June 7, 1842, Buda- 
Pesth. Pupil of Dunkl (Pf.), Robert 
Volkmann (Composition), and later of 
Liszt, whose private secretary he was 
for two years, i860, appointed Prof, 
of Pf. at the Pesth (Royal) Conserv. 
Was influential in making the composi- 
tions of Schumann and Brahms 
8 Waltzer, Sonata in the Hungarian style, 
Phantasiestijcke, Album leaves, and other 
Godard, Benjamin Louis Paul, b. Aug. 
18, 1849, Paris ; d. Jan. 9, 1895, Cannes. 
Pupil of Reber and Vieuxtemps. 
Trio, Concerto, various characteristic Studies, 
Mazurkas ; Contes de la veillee (6) for 4 
hands, Op. 67 ; Nocturnes, Op. 68 ; Premier 
Mai, Scenes italiennes (3), Op. 126. 
♦Goddard, Arabella, b. Jan. 12, 1836, 
St. Servan (Brittany). She studied 
under a local master, Mr. Louel, after- 
wards in Paris with Kalkbrenner, and 
when she came to London she received 
lessons from Thalberg, Mrs. Anderson, 



and J. W. Davison, the musical critic 
of the Times, to whom she was married 
in 1859. Her first appearance in public 
was at St. Malo, where she played at 
a charitable concert when four and a 
half years of age. She made her first 
appearance in London at fourteen, at 
the National Concerts conducted by 
Tullien. She was the first pianist to 
introduce the Grand Sonata in B flat 
(Op. 106) of Beethoven to the London 
public, at a concert of her own at 
Willis's Rooms, at seventeen years of 
age, entirely from memory. Some 
months later she made a tour through 
Germany and Italy. In 1872 she took 
part at the inauguration of the Royal 
Albert Hall, playing on that occasion 
Beethoven's Concerto in E flat (" Em- 
peror"), Sir Michael Costa conducted 
the orchestra. In June of the same 
year she was invited to play at the 
Boston Centennial Jubilee of the United 
States, and in February of the year 
following she bade farewell to the 
English public, and made a tour of 
three years round the world, visiting 
Australia, New Zealand, India, China, 
California, and America. She took 
part in the English concerts conducted 
by Sir Arthur Sullivan at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878, being the recipient 
on that occasion of a medal from the 
Musical Committee of the Exhibition. 
The Philharmonic Society presented 
her with a gold medal, bearing the 
bust of Beethoven on one side and 
an appropriate inscription from the 
Society on the other. Arabella Goddard 
has played before the Queen on several 
occasions ; the first time she did so was 
when she was quite a little girl, before 
she had appeared at the National 
Concerts, the Princess Royal being 
present . She has also played before the 
late German Emperor and the Empress 
William. When the Royal College of 
Music was founded she was asked to 
join the professorial staff. She resides 
now at Tunbridge Wells. 
Godefroid (Dieudonne Joseph Guil- 
laume), Felix (harpist), b. July 24, 
18 18, Namur; resides at Paris. Com- 
poser of a great number of elegant and 
popular drawing-room pieces, of which 
the best known are : 
Danse des Sylphes, Op. 31 ; Le Chamelier, 
Chanson arabe, Op. 32 ; Nuits d'Espagne, 
Op. 40 ; several Tyroliennes, and an educa- 
tional work (3 books) called Ecolechantante. 
Goethe (Wolfgang), Walther von (grand- 
son of Joh. Wolfgang von Goethe), 
composer ; b. April 9, 1817, Weimar ; 
d. April 15, 1885, Leipzig. Pupil of 

Mendelssohn and Weinlig (Leipzig), 
and later of Lowe (Stettin). He spent 
a long time (until 1850) in Vienna, 
where he came into contact with the 
best artists. He resided later, as 
Chamberlain to the Duke of Saxe- 
Weimar, in his native town, but 
abstained from following the direction 
which music took in Weimar when 
guided by Liszt. Several of his com- 
positions for Pf. have been published 
at Leipzig, such as an Allegro (Op. 2) 
and several shorter pieces. His essays 
on music, and correspondence about 
musical matters in towns he had 
visited, appeared, 1849, in the Berliner 
Musikzeitung, and are of great interest. 
Gotz, Hermann, b. Dec. 7, 1840, 
Konigsberg (Prussia) ; d. Dec. 3, 1876, 
Hottingen (Switzerland). Pupil of L. 
Kohler ; later, of Biilow (Pf.), Ulrich 
(Composition), and Stem (reading 
from full score). 1863, Organist at 
Winterthur; 1870, relinquished this 
appointment on accoimt of severe 
illness, from which he never recovered. 
For Pf . he published : 
Trio, Op. I ; 3 easy pieces, with Vln., Op. 2; 
Quartet for Pf., Vln., Via., and V'cello, 
Op. 6 ; Lose Blatter, 2 books of Pf pieces, 
Op. 7 ; 2 Sonatinas, Op. 8 ; 6 pieces, Op. 13. 
After his death appeared a Sonata for 4. 
hands and a Quintet for Pf., Vln., Via., 
V'cello, and C.-Bass. Among his most 
popular pieces are decidedly his charming 
Gotze, Heinrich, b. April 7, 1836, Wartha 
(Silesia). 1859-61, pupil at the Leipzig 
Conserv. of Plaidy and Moscheles (Pf.), 
Hauptmann and Richter (Composition). 
After having had appointments in 
Russia, Breslau, and Liebenthal, he 
became, 1885, music-teacher at the 
Seminary of Ziegenhals (Silesia). 1889, 
he received the title of Konigl. Musik- 
Trio and other pieces, and author of an 
essay on Pf. playing, and another book on 
"Musical Dictation." 

Goldbeck, Robert, b. 1835, Potsdam. 
Pupil of Lit olff (Brunswick), and later, 
following Meyerbeer's advice, of various 
Paris teachers. From Paris he went, 
armed with weighty recommendations 
from Alex, von Humboldt, to London, 
gave a concert at Devonshire House, 
and published several of his composi- 
tions. 1857-66, he was active as a 
teacher in New York ; 1867, in Boston, 
where he founded a Conserv., which 
he left to one of his assistants, and 
settled in Chicago, where he opened 
another Conserv. 
Concertos, Aquarellen (12), Sentiments 

poetiques (8 books). Nocturne (la Violette), 

3 Melodies, &c. 



Goldberg, Johann Gottlieb (?) . According 
to Reichardt, he lived between 1730 and 
1769. Nothing certain about the place 
or year of his birth is known, nor is 
any information to be got about his 
death. All that we know is, that about 
the middle of the i8th century he was 
Kammer-Musikus to Count Briihl, of 
Dresden. As he was Bach's best, most 
industrious, and talented pupil, he must 
have resided in Leipzig. Bach's well 
known Variations (30) in G were 
written for Goldberg, and are therefore 
known as the " Goldberg" Variations. 
Gerber relates that he suffered from 
melancholia and extraordinary ob- 
stinacy, from which his family had 
often to suffer. Of his works, 24 
Polonaises, a Sonata, Variations, two 
Concertos, Preludes and Fugues are 
mentioned, but did not appear in print. 

Goldmark, Carl, b. May 18, 1830, Kesz- 
thely (Hungary). 1847-48, pupil at the 
Vienna Conserv. Till 1857 he studied 
mostly by himself, and left, 1858, for 
Pesth; but not finding in the Hun- 
garian capital sufficient sympathy, he 
returned to Vienna, where he suc- 
ceeded in making the Viennese public 
acquainted with his chamber music. 
Trio, Op. 4 ; Sonata for Pf. and Vln., Suites for 
ditto, Dances for 4 hands, and 9 character- 
istic pieces : " Sturm und Drang," Op. 5. 

■"Goldschmidt, Otto, b. Aug. 21, 1829, 
Hamburg. Pupil of Jacob Schmitt and 
F. W. Grund, of Hamburg, where he 
played (1840) for the first time in public 
(11 years old). 1842, he was examined 
by Mendelssohn (Leipzig), who advised 
him to enter (1843) the newly-estab- 
lished Conserv. ; he remained in 
Leipzig until 1846 and studied under 
Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara Schu- 
mann, Hauptmann, Plaidy, and Hiller. 
1847-48, he established in Hamburg a 
series of Pf. Chamber Music concerts. 
1848, he went to Paris, in order to study 
with Chopin, but as, on account of the 
French Revolution, Chopin left Paris 
for England, this plan was frustrated. 
1848, he went to England, to Man- 
chester and London, played on July 31 
at the concert given by Jenny Lind in 
Her Majesty's Theatre on behalf of the 
Brompton Hospital for Consumption. 
1848-49-50, he continued the Hamburg 
Chamber Music concerts, played also 
at the Gewandhaus concerts of Leipzig, 
and in Ella's Musical Union Matinees 
(London). In May, 1851, he went to 
New York and replaced Jules Benedict 
as pianist and accompanist of Mdlle. 
Jenny Lifti's corcert-party in her tour 

through the North of the United States 
and Canada. Married Mdlle. Jenny 
Lind on Feb. 5, 1852, at Boston 
(Mass.), and returned with her to 
Europe. The years from 1852 until 
1863 were occupied by journeys in 
Austria, Germany, Holland, Ireland, 
and the English provinces, where the 
celebrated singer was successfully 
supported by her devoted husband. 
1863, Prof., and, from 1866-68, Vice- 
Principal of the R. A.M. (London) ; 1863 
and 1866, he conducted the Lower 
Rhenish Festivals ; 1866, the Hamburg 
Musical Festival ; 1876-85, Conductor 
of the Bach Choir; 1883-85, Examiner 
of the R.A.M., original Member of 
Council, Royal College, Member of 
the Philharmonic Society. 1864, 
Member of the Swedish Royal 
Academy of Music (Stockholm), Hon. 
Member of R.A.M., and Royal College 
of Organists, &c. ; 1870, Knight of the 
Swedish Vasa Order, Great Medal for 
Art and Literature with Commander 
Ribbon of Polar Star, Sweden, &c. 
12 great Studies, Op. 13; Concerto, Op. 10; 
Trio with Vln. and Vcello, Op. 12 ; Duets 
for 2 Pf., Op. 21 and 22, &c. 
Goldschmidt, Sigismund, b. Sept. 28, 
1815, Prague ; d. Sept. 26, 1877, Vienna. 
Pupil of W. Tomaschek . 1 845 -49, he re- 
sided in Paris, where his performances 
and compositions were received with 
great favour. After his return to Prague, 
he had, on the death of his father, a 
rich banker, to take charge of the firm, 
and consequently to give up his artistic 
career. He was a Member of the 
Stockholm Academy. 
12 Etudes de Concert, 6 ditto, Nocturne, Scene 
de Bal, Sonata's, Concertos, &c. 
Golinelli, Stefano, b. Oct. 26, 1818, 
Bologna; d. there, July 3, 1891. For 
many years active as Prof, at the 
Bologna Lyceum, and at the same time 
a prolific composer. His name is held 
in high respect by the Italians, while 
he received every kind of distinction on 
the part of his Sovereign. The number 
of his works reaches 200, mostly of a 
light, elegant, graceful, and highly 
effective character. 
Grande Senate, Op. 53; ditto, Op. 54; and 
Sonata in B min.. Op. 70: Fantaisie 
romantique, Op. 58; " Vittoria,' Morceau de 
Concert, Op. 59; Valse brillante, Op.6i ; 24 
Preludes, Op. 69 ; Fantasia elegiaca in C 
min.. Op. 75; second Fantaisie romantique. 
Op. 76; 12 Studies, Op. 15; and Prima 

Goria, Alexandre (Edouard), b. Jan. 21, 
1823, Paris ; d. there, July 6, i860. 
Pupil at the Conserv,, which he entered 
in his 8th year ; Laurent and Zimmer- 
mann were his teachers of Pf., and 



Dourlen and Reicha of Composition. 
1834, he received the second, and, 1835, 
the first prize for Pf. playing ; left the 
Conserv., 1839. 
Caprice Nocturne, Op. 6; Etude de Concert, 
Op. 7; and '■ Olga " Mazurka (made the 
round of the world). Etudes (some of them, 
Op. 15, 23, 39, 45, of great merit). Fantasias 
on operatic airs, RSveries, Nocturnes, 
and Transcriptions of Songs (Schubert's 
" Plaintes de la jeune fiUe," Beethoven's 
"Adelaide," "Les Adieuxde Maria Stuart," 
by Niedermeyer, &c.). 
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau (Maurice?), 
b. May 2, 1829, New Orleans; 
d. Dec. 18, 1869, Rio de Janeiro. 
From 1841-46, pupil of Halle and 
Chopin (?) at Paris; performed, 1847, 
for the first time in Paris ; travelled 
afterwards in France, Spain, Switzer- 
land, Italy ; and returned, 1853, to 
America. He settled in New York as a 
teacher ; went, 1866, to California and 
Brazil ; returned to New York, and 
died on a second visit to Brazil. He 
was an excellent executant— elegant, 
graceful, and brilliant. 
Le Bananier, la Bamboula, la Savane, le 
Mancenillier, la Moissonneuse (very 
Gounod, Felix Charles (composer), b. 
June 17, 1818, Paris ; d. there, Oct. i8, 
1893. Pupil of Reicha and Halevy. 
La Pervenche, le Ruisseau, le Calme, 
Chanson de printemps, I'Angelus, Menuet, 
les Pifferari, Musette, le Bal d'enfants, S6r6- 
nade, Menuet Royal, I'lnvocation, Marche 
Pontificale (Op. 43), Valse des fiances, le 
Rendezvous (Op. 46), Souvenance, &c. 
Some of these are Transcriptions of his 
Gouvy, Theodore, b. July 21, 1822 
(according to Fetis, 1819), Goffon- 
taine, near Saarbriicken. He first 
studied law, but devoted himself 
later entirely to music ; went to Paris, 
where Billard was his teacher, and 
Elwart instructed him in Composition. 
He went several times to Germany, 
where some of his works were per- 
formed at Leipzig, Cologne, &c. His 
compositions enjoy great esteem in 
2 Studies, appeared 1845, at Berlin ; Sere- 
nades, Op. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 27 (containing 3) ; 
Sonatas, Op. 17, 29, and 36 (for 4 hands) ; 
Trios, Op. 8, 18, ig, 22, 32 ; and Quintet for 
Pf., 2 Vln., Via., and V'cello, Op. 24. 
Graedener, Carl G. P., b. Jan. 14, 1812, 
Rostock ; d. June 10, 1883, Hamburg. 
He held the appointment of Musical 
Director of the Kiel University ; went, 
1851, to Hamburg, where he founded a 
music school ; left, 1862, for Vienna, 
appointed Prof, at the Conserv. ; 
returned, 1865, to Hamburg. He is 
also the author of different essays on 
musical matters. 
Concerto, Quintet, Op. 7 ; 3 Sonatas with 
Vln., Op. 11; Variations, &c.; several Trios. 

Graedener, Hermann, jun., b. May 8, 
1844, Kiel. Pupil of his father and at 
the Vienna Conserv. ; is at present 
Prof, at that Conserv., and enjoys 
considerable respect as a composer. 
Trios, Quintet, Sonata for 4 hands, and several 
shorter pieces. 

Grammann, Carl, b. June 3, 1844. 

Liibeck. 1867, pupil at the Leipzig 

Conserv., where he remained until 1871. 

He settled in Vienna. 

Trios, Sonatas, and a good many shorter 


Graun, Carl Heinrich, b. May 7, 1701, 
Wahrenbriick (Saxony) ; d. Aug. 8, 
1759, Berlin. Pupil of I. K. Schmidt 
(Dresden). 1725, appointment at 
Brunswick ; 1740, Capellmeister to 
King Frederic H. of Prussia. 
12 Concertos with accompaniment, 1114 books ; 
also a Gigue in B flat min. 

Graupner, Christoph, b. Jan., 1683, 

Kirchberg (Saxony) ; d. May, 1760. 

Pupil at the Thomas School, Leipzig, 

where he was instructed by Kuhnau. 

1706, went as cembalist to Hamburg ; 

1710, appointed by the Landgrave of 

Hesse, Capellmeister in Darmstadt. 

He became blind in 1750. He was a 

very prolific composer, as is testified by 

the Catalogue of the Darmstadt Court 

Library, which records not less than 

50 Concertos for different instruments, 

80 Overtures, 114 Symphonies, &c. 

8 Suites for Clavecin (1718), ditto (1726); 

Monatliche Clavier - Friichte (Monthly 

Clavecin fruits), 1722 ; Die vier Jahreszeitea 

(The Four Seasons), 4 Suites (1733). 

Grazioli, Giovanni Battista, b. about 

1755, Venice; d. there, 1820. There 

are no details about his education or 

musical career, except that he was 

appointed Organist of San Marco. 

6 Sonatas, Op. i, and ditto, Op. 2, for Solo 

Clavecin ; and 6 Sonatas with Vln., which 

appeared 1799. 

*Greef, Arthur de, b. Oct. 10, 1862, y'. ■ 
Louvain. Pupil of Louis Brassin. 
Since 1888, Prof, at the Brussels 
Conserv. Eminent pianist and a suc- 
cessful composer, to whom Liszt and 
Moszkowski dedicated some of their 

*Greis, Herbert, b. April 29, 1839, 
Maischoss a/d/Ahr. Pupil of Ferd. 
Hiller and Breunung (Cologne). Re- 
sides in Breslau, where he is active as 
a teacher and influential in furthering 
the interests of art. Of his composi- 
tions a good many shorter ones have 
appeared during the last few years. 

Greulich, Adolph, b. 1819, Posen ; d. 

1868, Moscow. Pupil of W. Fischer 

(Brieg). In Breslau he continued his 

studies with the greatest perseverance 




and industry until he succeeded in ob- 
taining the appointment of tutor in an 
aristocratic family of Warsaw. After 
having made the acquaintance of Liszt 
in Weimar, who gave him excellent 
advice, he was appointed teacher at a 
college at Schitomir, in South Russia, 
and finally Prof, at the Catharina 
Institute (for Ladies) in Moscow. His 
compositions enjoyed considerable 
Greulich, Carl Wilhelm, b. Feb. 13, 
1796, Kunzendorf (Silesia) ; d. 1837, 
Berlin. Pupil of his father, a Cantor 
and Organist , and of Kahl (Hirschberg) ; 
1816, of B. Romberg, Bemh. Anselm 
Weber (Composition), and L. Berger 
(Pf.) He was one of the foremost 
pianists of Berlin, highly successful as 
a teacher, and of some importance as 
a composer. 
Sonata, Op. 21 ; 5 Rondos, 12 Studies for 
the left, and both hands ; Variations, 
Divertissements, &c. 

Grieg, Edvard Hagerup, b. June 15, 
1843, Bergen (Norway). 1859-62, pupil 
at the Leipzig Conserv., where Wenzel, 
Reinecke, and Moscheles were his 
teachers ; 1863, pupil of Gade (Copen- 
hagen). 1867, he founded a Musical 
Society in Christiania for the promotion 
of a "Northern School"; 1879, he 
performed his Concerto, Op. 16, at the 
Gewandhaus concerts, Leipzig ; 1893, 
the University of Cambridge desired 
to name him Hon. Mus. Doc, which 
distinction he could only accept in 1894. 
His compositions have obtained 
unusual popularity, and their special 
national character created great atten- 
tion and curiosity, although it cannot 
be denied that moving in such a small 
circle as Norwegian music allows must 
sometimes lead to repetition. He is 
decidedly a most intensely national 
Lyric Pieces, Op. 12, 38, 43, ^7, 54, 57, 62; 
Humoresken, Op. 6; Nordiscne Tanze and 
Volksweisen, Op. 17 ; Aus dem Volksleben, 
Op. 19; Album leaves, Op. 28: Holberg 
Suite, Op. 40 ; Sonata, Op. 7 ; Romanze (4), 
Op. 10; Concerto in A min., Op. 16; Elegiac 
Melodies, Op. 34 : Norwegian Dances, Op. 
35 ; Sonata with Vln., Op. 8 ; Sonata with 
V'cello, Op. 36; Ballade. Op. 24. 
Griepenkerl, Friedrich Conrad, b. 1782, 
Peine (Brunswick) ; d. April 6, 1849, 
Brunswick, where he was appointed 
Prof, at the " Carolinum." Author 
of ".(Esthetics," and, with Roitzsch, 
editor of Bach's works. 
•Grimm, Dr. Julius Otto, b. March 6, 
1827, Pernau (Livland), the son of 
German parents. 1844-48, he studied 
Philology in Dorpat, and was, till 1851, | 

private tutor to a family in St. Peters- 
burg. After 1851, a pupil at the Leipzig 
Conserv., where Plaidy, Moscheles, 
David, E. F. Richter, Hauptmann, and 
Rietz were his teachers. 1855, he 
settled in Gottingen as a private teacher 
and Conductor of a Choral Society. 
Since i860. Conductor of the Oratorio 
and Symphony Concerts, Konigl. 
Musik-Director of the Academy, and 
Prof, at Miinster (Westphalia). Doc. 
Phil., hon. causd. 
4 pieces. Op. 2 ; 4 Scherzi for 4 hands. Op. 4 
and 5 ; 3 Elegies, Op. 6 ; 4 pieces in the form 
of free Canons, Op. 9; Sonata for Pf and 
Vln., Op. 14 ; also the arrangement of 2 
Orchestral Suites (in form of Canons), 
Op. 10 and 16; and of 2 grand Marches, 
Op. 17. 

Grtinfeld, Alfred, b. July 4. 1852, 
Prague; pupil of Hoger (Prague) and 
Kullak (Berlin). One of the most ex- 
cellent pianists of the present time. 
Travelled in Germany, France, United 
States, &c. He is pianist to the 
Imperial Courts of Austria and Prussia ; 
Knight of the Orders of Russ. St. 
Stanislaus and of Saxe-Coburg; also 
Officer of the Roumanian Crown. 
Octave-Study, Op. 15 ; Minuet, Op. 31 ; 
Humoreske, Op. 35 ; Spanisches Stand- 
chen. Op. 37; Barcarolle, Op. 38; Im- 
promptu, Op. 39. 

Grund, Friedrich Wilhelm, b. Oct. 7, 
1791, Hamburg; d. there, Nov. 24, 
1874. Pupil of Schwencke. His left 
hand having been disabled, he devoted 
himself to teaching. Founded, 1819, 
the Sing-Akademie ; became, 1828-62, 
Director of the Philharmonic concerts. 
Among his pupils were Berens, O. 
Goldschmidt. and Blumenthal. 
Sonatines (3), Op. 14 ; 12 grandes Etudes, 
Op. 21 (a good book) ; Grande Sonate, 
Op. 27; Rondo espressivo, Octet for Pf and 
Wind instruments. Sonatas with Vln., ditto 
with V'cello, Divertissement for 4 hands, &c. 
*Guelbenza, Don Juan Y Fernandez, b. 
Dec. 27, 1819, Pamplona; d. Jan. 8, 
1886, Madrid. Pupil of his father. 
When his talent developed in an 
astonishing manner, he was sent to 
Paris, where he studied with Emile 
Prudent ; entered, later, the Conserv. as 
pupil of Zimmermann and C. V. Alkan. 
Having the opportunity of hearing 
Chopin, Thalberg, and Liszt, he made 
extraordinary progress ; became, 1841, 
pianist to Dona Maria Cristina de 
Borbon, at that time a resident in 
Paris. She encouraged him to settle 
in Madrid, where he became, 1844, 
teacher of the King, and, on the death 
of Don Pedro Albeniz (1855), first 
Organist of the Royal Chapel. Soon 
after, he endeavoured to acquaint the 



public with the beauties of Haydn, 
Mozart, Beethoven and Mendelssohn's 
chamber music. At the time of 
creating (through Guelbenza's instru- 
mentality) a musical section of the 
"Academia de Bellas Artes de San 
Fernando ," King Alfonso XI I . besto wed 
upon him the Grand Cross of the Order 
of Isabel la Catolica, the King of 
Portugal the Order of la Concepcion, 
and the Academy created him a 
Member (Academicode Numero). His 
compositions, mostly elegant and 
graceful pieces, were published at the 
expense of the Infanta Doiia Isabel de 

Guglielmi, Pietro, b. May, 1727, Massa- 
Carrara ; d. Nov. 19, 1804, Rome. 
Concerto (pour les commen9ant), 6 Clavecin 
Quartets, 6 Sonatas with Vln., and 6 Solo 
Sonatas (London). 

Guiraud, Ernest, b. June 23, 1837, New 
Orleans ; d. May 8, 1892, Paris. Pupil 
of Marmontel ; since 1876, Prof, at 
the Conserv., Paris. Composed very 
effective solo pieces. 

*Gurlitt, Cornelius, b. Feb. 10, 1820, 
Altona. Pupil of Reinecke, sen. 
(Altona), Courlander and Weyse 
(Copenhagen). Received, 1857, the 
diploma of Prof, from the Papal Music 

Academy of Rome ; 1864, Organist of 

the principal church (Altona). 1874, the 

King of Prussia conferred on him the 

title of Konigl. Musik-Director. Knight 

of the Prussian Crown. Composer of 

a great number of instructive works, 

studies, characteristic pieces, valses, 

sonatinas for 2 and 4 hands, &c. 

Gutmann, Adolph, b. 1818, Heidelberg ; 

d. Oct. 27, 1882, Spezia. Son of a 

hotel-keeper of Heidelberg, where 

Chopin, when ill, was nursed with 

great care ; whereupon, recognising 

young Gutmann's decided talent, he 

took him to Paris and instructed 

him gratis ; indeed, treated him as a 

sincere friend. 

10 Etudes caract^ristiques, Op. 12 ; about 

10 Nocturnes; a Ballade, Op. 19; Marche 

Hongroise, Op. 22: several Mazourkas, 

Op. 9 and 14, &c. 

Gyrowetz, Adalbert, b. Feb. 19, 1763, 
Budweis (Bohemia) ; d. March 19, 1850, 
Vienna. With Ignaz Pleyel he was, 
in his time, a most popular composer 
among amateurs. From 1804-27 he 
was Conductor of the Imperial Opera, 
Concertos, almost 80 Trios, Sonatas, Diverti- 
mentos, Notturnos (La Chasse), Sonatas 
with Vln., a Sonata for a Pf., Solo Sonatas, 
and many Variations. 


*Haan, Willem de, b. 1849, Rotterdam. 
Pupil of S. de Lange, Woldemar Bar- 
giel, and C. Reinecke. 1873, appointed 
Musical Director at Bingen - on - the 
Rhine ; 1876, Conductor of the 
" Mozart " Society. Since 1878, 
Capellmeister of the Court Theatre, 
Pieces for 4 hands. Op. i, and 4 Idyls, ditto ; a 
Sonata with Vln., Op. 3 ; Fantasiestiicke, 
Pf. and Vln., Op. 15 ; and Sketches for 
Andersen's Picture Book without Pictures, 
Op. 5. 
*Haas, Alma {nee Hollander), b. Jan. 31, 
1847, Ratibor (Silesia). From 1857-62, 
pupil at the " Wandelt Institute " 
(Breslau), in which Logier's system 
was introduced. From 1862-68, pupil 
at Th. KuUak's Academy (Berlin) ; 
1872, married to Dr. Ernst Haas, 
libraricin of the British Museum. 
Performed with great success in many 
German towns, at the Popular Con- 
certs and Henschel's Concerts, London, 
in Scotland and the provinces. Prof, 
of Bedford and King's College. 

Haberbier, Ernst, b. Oct. 5, 1813, 
Konigsberg, Prussia ; died during a 

performance on March 12, 1869, 
Bergen (Norway). Pupil of his father. 
His method of dividing the most 
intricate and difficult figures between 
two hands and thus realizing an 
enormous, almost incredible speed, 
created a decided sensation. He was 
most successful in all his public 
performances, and his beautiful and 
original "Etudes Poesies," Op. 53, 
and a second series of them, will for a 
long time to come be much admired. 
From 1832 to 1850 he resided at St. 
Petersburg, where he was the favourite 
teacher of the Russian aristocracy. 

Handel, Georg Friedrich, b. Feb. 23, 

1685, Halle; d. April 13, 1759, London. 

Pupil of Zachau. His biography is so 

well known that any further notice is 

unnecessary. The original editions of 

his works are : 

Suites de pieces pour le Clavecin, comp. par 

G. F. Handel, Vol. 1. (London, printed for 

the Author, 1720). Suites de Pieces pour le 

Clavecin, Vol. II. (London, J. Walsh, 1733). 

Pieces de Clavecin (Amsterdam, Witvogel, 

1723). 6 Fugues or Voluntaries for the 

Organ or Harpsichord, 3me Ouvrage 

(London, Walsh, 1735). Six Concertos for 



the Harpsichord or Organ (London, Walsh, 
1738), G min., B flat, G min., F, F, B flat, 
Op. 4. Second Collection, appeared 1740, 
contains arrangements. Third Collection 
(B flat, A, B flat, D min., G, B flat), Op. 7, ap- 
peared 1760. Fourth Collection, published 
by Arnold, 1797, contains 3 Concertos, most 
likely arrangements. The Clavecin or 
Harpsichord pieces as published by the 
German Handel Society, in i volume, con- 
tains:— First Collection: 8 Suites: A, F, 
D min., E min., E, F sharp min., G min., F 
min. Second Collection: No. i. Prelude, 
Aria con Variazoni, B flat ; No. 2, Chaconne, 
G ; No. 3 (Suite), AUemande, Allegro, Air, 
Gigue, Menuetto, D min.; No. 4 (Suite), 
Allemande, Courante, Saraljande, Gigue, D 
min.; No. 5 (Suite), Allemande, Sarabande, 
Gigue, E min.; No. 6 (Suite), Allemande, 
Courante, Gigue, G min. ; No. 7 (Suite), 
Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue, 
B flat ; No. 8 (Suite), Allemande, Alle- 
gro, Courante, Aria, Menuetto, Gavotte, 
Gigue, G ; No. 9, Chaconne, with 62 
Variations in G. Third Collection : No. i, 
Suite in D min. ; No. 2, Suite in G ; No. 3, 
Capriccio in G min. ; No. 4, Fantasia in 
C ; No. 5, Chaconne in F ; No. 6, Lesson 
in A min. ; No. 7, Courante e due Menuetti ; 
No. 8, Capriccio in F ; No. 9, Preludio e 
Allegro; No. 10, Sonatina; No. 11, Sonata; 
and No. 12, Sonata. Fourth Collection : 
6 Fugues in G min., G, B flat, E min., A 
min., and C min. 

Hassler (Haesler), Johann Wilhelm, b. 
March 29, 1747, Erfurt; d. March 25, 
(29 ?), 1822, Moscow. Pupil of his 
uncle, Kittel, and Seb. Bach's last pupil. 
Excellent performer and good com- 
poser. He travelled a great deal, 
returned for several years to his native 
town, where he established (1780) Phil- 
harmonic concerts; 1782, he left Erfurt 
for St. Petersburg ; was appointed 
pianist to the Grand Duke Paul and 
teacher of the Grand Duke's children ; 
1791, he was in London, played at 
Court and in public ; particularly suc- 
cessful in performing Concertos by 
Mozart, whom he had met (1787) at 
Dresden. After leaving St. Petersburg 
he settled in Moscow, where he was 
a most successful and universally 
respected teacher. 
Sonatas (36), the set. Op. 13 and 14, are still 
known; Grande Gigue in D min. 

Halle, Sir Charles (Carl Halle), knighted 
1888; b. April II, 1819, Hagen (West- 
phalia). At first a pupil of his father, 
Capellmeister H. ; 1835, of Rinck and 
Gottfried Weber (Darmstadt). 1836. 
he went to Paris, where he became the 
friend of Chopin, of Sal vat or Cherubini 
(son of the celebrated composer), and 
also of Cherubini himself, of Berlioz, 
Stephen Heller, &c. ; 1842, he gave his 
first public concert in Paris, met 
Mendelssohn in Frankfort o/M. in the 
same year, and paid his first visit to 
England in 1843; 1847, he introduced 
(with Alard and Franchomme), Cham- 

ber Music concerts in Paris ; 1848, he 
settled in England, appeared in London 
and Manchester, and was appointed 
Conductor of the Gentlemen's Concerts 
(Manchester) in 1850; he established 
his own orchestral concerts in 1857; 
his chamber concerts in London and 
provinces were commenced in 1859, 
and continued with unabated success 
for many years. His numerous per- 
formances of classical music at his own, 
the Popular, and other concerts have 
convinced the public of his great merit 
not only as an excellent and thoroughly 
finished executant, but also as a 
thoughtful, appreciative, accomplished 
musician, endowed with liberal views — 
indeed, he was instrumental in ac- 
quainting English audiences with the 
most recent and interesting works of 
modern composers. He received the 
honour of knighthood in 1888, the 
University of Edinburgh elected him 
LL.D., and many societies named him 
Hon. Member. He founded the Man- 
chester Royal College of Music in 1893 ; 
edited Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues, 
Mozart and Beethoven's Sonatas, and 
published the well-known Practical Pf. 
School. Of his mostly short composi- 
tions, only a few were published at 
Leipzig and Manchester. 
Halm, Anton, b. June 4, 1789, Alten- 
markt (Styria) ; d. 1872, Vienna. Until 
his 22nd year he served in the army, 
and could devote himself only later to 
musical studies, which he did with so 
much perseverance and energy that he 
became one of the most respected 
musicians in Vienna. Among his pupils 
were Stephen Heller and Eduard Pirk- 
hert. He was an intelligent, thoughtful, 
and liberal-minded artist, who knew 
how to appreciate all that was good 
and deserving of praise. 
Trios (6), Op. 12 and Op. 58 ; Sonatas, with 
Vln.; Solo Sonatas, Op. 15, 43, 51 ; a good 
many other pieces. Grandes Etudes de 
Concert, Op. 59; Etudes melodiques. Op. 60; 
Etudes pathetiques. Op. 61 ; and Etudes 
h^roiques, Op. 62. 

''Handrock, Julius, b. June 22, 1830, 

Naumburg a/d/Saale ; d. Jan. 5, 1894, 

Halle o/S. He studied at the Leipzig 

Conserv. Since 1857 he has resided 

as a successful teacher at Halle. 

" Mechanical Exercises " and the Studies, 

Op. 99 and Op. 100. He published also 

Sonatas and shorter pieces. Of these the 

" Waldlieder," Op. 2, and the " Reiselieder," 

Op. 6, have obtained great popularity. 

Hansen, Agnes Charlotte Dagmar, b. 

Feb. 9, 1865, Copenhagen. Her first 

instruction she received from her 

fathec "^arl Emilias H., a distinguished 



violoncellist . For half-a-year a pupil of 
Neupert ; afterwards, for three years, 
instructed in the Conserv. (Copen- 
hagen), and finally by Aug. Winding. 
Since her first appearance in " Musik- 
foreningen," in 1882, she has been 
esteemed as one of the best Danish 
lady-pianists, equally successful in 
solo and ensemble performances. 
*Harmston, John William, b. 1823, 
London; d. Aug. 26, 1881, Lubeck. 
Pupil of Sterndale Bennett. Settled, 
1 84 8 , at Lubeck . After a very checkered 
career, first as a teacher of English, later 
as a photographer, he succeeded, by 
great industry and perseverance, in 
teaching himself composition. His 
Op. 14 to 24 were favourably received. 
His Op. 22 (the "Song of the Bird") 
became very popular, and his works 
were eagerly sought by the publishers 
of North Germany. About 230 of his 
(mostly drawing-room) pieces were 
Hartknoch, Carl Eduard, b. 1775 (?), 
Riga; d. 1834, Moscow. Pupil of J. 
N. Hummel. Excellent pianist and 
successful teacher. 
Solo Sonata; Sonata with Vln. ; Studies; 3 
Nocturnes (caracteristiques), Op. 8; and 9 
Grandes Valses, Op. 9. 
Hartmann, Johann, Peter Emilius, b. 
May 14, 1805, Copenhagen. Pupil of 
his father. He is one of the Directors 
of the Conserv. and Prof, of Organ and 
Theory. Amongst the Danish com- 
posers he is certainly one of the most 
eminent. Gade married one of Hart- 
mann's daughters. The King of 
Denmark conferred on him the 
"Dannebrog" Order, and from the 
University of Copenhagen he received 
(1874) the diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil. 
Grande Senate Concertante, with Vln., Op. 8 ; 
Little Characteristic Pieces, with Introduc- 
tory Poetry by Hans Christian Andersen, 
Op. 50 ; 6 Fantasiestiicke, Op. 54, and a 
Suite for Pf. and Vln., Op. 66. 
Hartmann, Emil (son of the above), b. 
Feb. 21, 1836, Copenhagen. Pupil of 
his father and his brother-in-law, Niels 
W. Gade. Since 1871, Organist of the 
Royal Castle. Like his father, he is a 
" Knight of the Danebrog." 
Pf. Concerto ; a Trio, Op. :o ; several 
Suites and other solo pieces ; " Nordische 
Tonbilder," Op. ii (very popular); 3 
Mazurkas, Op. 28. 

Hartog, Eduard de, b. Aug. 15, 1828 
( 1 826 ?), Amsterdam. Pupil of Dohler, 
Litolff, and Heinze. 1852, he settled 
in Paris, but took up his abode later 
at Wiesbaden. Among his numerous 
works, those written for children are 
very popular. 

" Aus dem Kinderlebeti," Op. 53 ; 7 pieces, and 
a second set (Op. 54), 5 pieces. He published 
likewise Suite de Chorals calibres de J. S. 
Bach, Graun, Mendelssohn, &c., for 4 hands; 
Impromptu Mazurka, with V'cello, Op. 55; 
la Danse des Willis, Op. 23; and Vilanelle, 
Op. 25. 

♦Hartvigson, Frits, b. May 31, 1841, 
Grenaae, lylland (Denmark). At first a 
pupil of his mother, later of Anton Ree 
(pupil of Chopin), of Gade (for the 
performance of Bach and Beethoven's 
works), and of Gebauer (Theory). In 
1858 he undertook a tour through 
Norway. Assisted by the Danish 
Government, he studied (1859-61) at 
Berlin under Dr. von Biilow. 1861, 
he played at one of the Gewandhaus 
concerts (Leipzig) and, 1863, under 
Gade's direction in Copenhagen. 1864, 
he appeared, under Bennett's direction, 
at a Philharmonic concert, and was 
re-engaged 1872. 1873-75, he resided 
at St. Petersburg, played there, in 
Moscow and in Helsingfors ; went after- 
wards to Munich, and settled (1875) in 
London. 1873, appointed pianist to 
the Princess of Wales ; 1875, Prof, at 
the Royal Normal College for the Blind 
(Upper Norwood), and, 1888, at the 
R.A.M. He has often appeared at the 
Crystal Palace and Richter concerts, 
and his performances have always been 
received with well-merited sympathy. 
Knight of the Dannebrog Order. 

*Hartvigson, Anton (brother of the 
above), b. Oct. 16, 1845, Aarhus (Den- 
mark) . First a pupil of his mother, later 
of Edmund Neupert and Carl Tausig. 
He visited England in 1873, and settled 
in London, 1882. In his annual Recitals 
he introduced many compositions of 

Hasert, Rudolph, b. Feb. 4, 1826, Greifs- 
wald ; d. Jan. 4, 1877, Gristow, near 
Greifswald. Intended for a lawyer, he 
studied music only as an amateur, but 
devoted himself later entirely to it. 
Studied, 1848-50, under Kullak and 
Dehn (Berlin). For several years he 
was unable to play on account of 
muscular pain. 1861, he settled in 
Berlin, where he was active as a teacher 
at KuUak's Academy, but decided to 
study theology ; passed ( 1 870) his 
examination, received a living first at 
Straussberg, and later at Gristow. 
Sonatas, Studies, Drawing-room pieces, 
Transcriptions, &c. 

Haslinger, Tobias, b. March i, 1787, 
Zell (Upper Austria) ; d. June 18, 1842, 
Vienna. He succeeded S. A. Steiner 
as proprietor of the well-known pub- 
lishing house, Tobias Haslinger, a 



firm intimately connected with Beet- 
hoven, Czerny, Hummel, Seyfried, 
Liszt, Joh. Strauss, &c. Among his 
compositions, mostly written for educa- 
tional purposes, his Sonatinas and 
Rondos obtained great popularity. 

Haslinger, Carl (only son of the above), 
b. June II, 1816, Vienna; d. there, 
Dec. 26, 1868. Pupil of Czerny and 
Seyfried. Excellent pianist and a 
talented composer. Succeeded his 
father, 1842, as sole proprietor of the 
publishing business, under the name 
Carl Haslinger, quondam Tobias. 
Among the works he published were 
some by Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, 
Thalberg, Dohler, Czerny, Bargiel, 
Strauss, Lanner, Labitzky, Kullak, 
Moscheles, and many others. During 
the winter he gave weekly Soirees, at 
which the most celebrated musicians of 
Vienna, and other European celebrities 
passing through the Austrian capital, 
assembled and listened to most exquisite 
performances. Haslinger was one of 
the most efficient musicians of Vienna, 
a friend and patron of young artists, 
and universally beloved for his innate 
kindness and delightful geniality. 

Hasse, Johann Adolph, b. May 25, 1699, 

Bergedorf (Hamburg) ; d. Dec. 16, 

1783, Venice. Of his compositions for 

clavecin were published. 

6 Sonatas (Paris) and Concertos (Favourite 

Concertos, London). 

Ilauk (Hauck), Wenzeslaus, b. Feb. 27, 
1801, Habelschwerdt (Glatz) ; d. Nov. 
30, 1834, Berlin. Pupil of the Organist 
Deutsch, later of Bimbach (Breslau), 
and, 1825, of Hummel (Weimar). 
Settled, 1828, in Berlin; much respected 
and esteemed for his excellent qualities 
and eminent performances. 
Sonatas, Rondos, Divertissements, Varia- 

Hauptmann, Moritz, b. Oct. 13, 1792, 
Dresden; d. Jan. 3, 1868, Leipzig. 
x8ii, pupil of Spohr (Cassel) ; 1812, 
appointed violinist at the Dresden 
Opera; 18 15, tutor to the children of 
Prince Repnin (Russia); 1822, violinist 
at the Cassel Opera ; 1842, Cantor of 
the Thomas School (Leipzig); and, 
later. Prof, at the newly founded 
Conserv. 1857, the University of 
Gottingen conferred upon him the 
diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil, and Arts 
(freie Kunste). He received numerous 
other distinctions. 
Sonatas with Vln., Op. 5, 6, and 23 ; Concerto 
facile, Op. 20; and 12 Pieces detachees, 
Op. 12. 

Haydn, Joseph, b. March 31. 1732, 
Rohrau (Lower Austria) ; d. May 31, 

1809, Vienna. Pupil of Porpora, but 

mostly self-taught. 1759, Capellmeister 

to Count Morzin ; 1761-90, in the same 

capacity to Prince" Esterhazy (Eisen- 

stadt, in Hungary) ; settled, 1790, in 

Vienna; 1790-92, in England; 1794, he 

paid his second and last visit to London. 

1 79 1 (July 8), he received the diploma 

of Hon. Mus. Doc. from the University 

of Oxford ; the Magistrate of Vienna 

conferred on him the great gold medal of 

St. Salvator and the freedom of the 

town. His Sonatas are always fresh, 

cheerful, and healthy, sometimes full 

of a sweet and charming expression, 

and at other times indicating a quaint 

humour and a playful spirit which is 

quite delightful. They are highly 

original, containing many traits and 

passages almost startling in their 

novelty. Although not so brilliant as 

those of Beethoven or Clementi, they 

are invaluable for teaching purposes 

and for inducing a healthy, vigorous, 

and natural train of musical thought in 

the mind of the student. His works 

for Pf . are very numerous : — 

Sonatas (34): +No. i in E flat, 4/4 (1790); 

No. 2 in E min., 6/8 (1777) ; +No. 3 in E flat, 

3/4 (1790) ; No. 4 in G min., 4/4 (1786) ; No. 

5 in C, 4/4 (1780) ; fNo. 6 in C sharp min., 4/4 

(1786) ; tNo. 7 in D, 4/4 (1780) ; No. 8 in E 

flat, 4/4 (1786) ; No. 9 in E flat, 4/4 (1780) ; 

No. 10 in A flat, 4'4 (1786) ; No. 1 1 in D, 4/4 

(1767); No. 12 in B flat, 2/4 (1767) ; No. 13 

in G, 6/8 (1784) ; No. 14 in B flat, 4/4 (1784) ; 

No. 15 in D, 3/4 (1784); No. 16 in C, 3/4 

(1786?); No. 17 in F, 3/4 (1789); No. 18 m 

G, 2/4 (1776) ; +No. 19 in C min., 4/4 (1771) ; 

No. 20 in D, 2/4 (1767); No. 21 in G, 4/4 

(1766) ; No. 22 in D, 2/4 (1777) ; No. 23 in G, 

2/4 (1780); No. 24 in E flat, 3/4 (1776); No. 

25 in F, 4/4 (1776) ; No. 26 in A, 2/4 (1767) ; 

No. 27 in E, 4/4 (1776); tNo. 28 in B min., 

4/4 (1776) ; No. 29 in C, 2/4 (1773) ; No. 30 in 

E, 4/4 (1774) ; No. 31 in F, 2/4 (1774) ; No. 32 
in D, 4/4 {1777); No. 33 in A, 2/4 (1776); 
No. 34 in E, 4/4 (1767). Smaller pieces: 
Andante vari6 in F min., 2/4 ; Arietta con 
Variazioni in E flat, 3/4 ; Arietta con 
Variazioni in A, 3/4 ; Tema con Variazioni 
in C, 2/4; Air vari^ in C min. (La Roxe- 
lane), 2/4 ; Adagio in F, 3/4; Fantasia in C, 
3/8; Capriccio in G, 3/4; II maestro e lo 
scoiare, Andante and Variations for 4 
hands. Sonatas with Vln. : No. i in 
G, 6/8; No. 2 in D, 3/4 ; No. 3 in E flat, 
4 '4 ; No. 4 in A, 4/4 ; No. 5 in G, 4/4 ; 
No. 6 in C, 6/8 ; No. 7 in F, 4/4 ; No. 8 
in G, 4'4 (for FI. or Vln.). Trios with 
Vln. and V'cello: No. 1 in G, 2/4; No. 2 
in F sharp min., 4/4 ; No. 3 in C, 4/4; No. 4 
in E, 4/4 ; No. 5 in E flat, 2/4 ; No. 6 in D, 
4/4 ; No. 7 in A, 4/4 ; No. 8 in C min., 2/4 ; 
No. 9 in A, 3/4 ; No. 10 in E min., 4/4 ; No. 
II in E flat, 4/4 ; No. 12 in E flat, 4/4; No. 
13 in B flat, 4/4 ; No. 14 in G min., 24 ; No. 
15 in E flat min., 2/4 ; No. :6 in G min., 4/4 ; 
No. 17 in E flat, 4/4 ; No. 18 in C, 6/8 ; No. 
19 in D min., 2/4 ; No. 20 in E flat, 2/4 ; No. 
ai in D, 2/4 ; No. 22 in B flat, 4/4 ; No. 23 in 

F, 4/4; No. 24 in A flat, 2/4; No. 25 in F, 
2'4; No. 26 in C, 4/4; No. 27 in F, 4/4; 
No. 28 in G, 3/4 ; No. 29 in F, 4/4 (for Fl. 



(Vln.) and V'cello) ; No. 30 in D, 4/4 (for Fl. 
(Vln.) and V'cello) ; No. 31 in G, 4/4 (for Fl. 
(Vln.) and V'cello). Concertos : No. i in F 
(1771, Le Due, Paris) ; No. 2 in G, published 
in Amsterdam and Paris ; No. 3 in D, pub- 
lished at Schott's (Mayence) and Artaria, 
1784 (Vienna). 

♦Heap, Swinnerton Charles (Mus. Bac, 
Mus. Doc), b. 1847, Birmingham. 
Pupil of Dr. Monk (York), and, as 
Mendelssohn Scholar (1865), of Mos- 
cheles, Richter, and Reinecke (Leipzig). 
Among his compositions are — 

Trio, Sonata for Pf. and CI., Quintet for Pf. 
and Wind instruments. Sonata for Pf. and 
Vln., Solo Sonata, 3 Valses, 2 Nocturnes, 
Romanza, &c. 

Hecht, Eduard, b. Nov. 28, 1832, 
Diirckheim (Rhine - Palatinate) ; d 
March 7, 1887, Manchester. Pupil of 
his father, a clever musician residing at 
Frankfort o/M., and Jacques Rosenhain 
(see this name) for Pf., Messer and 
Hauff for Composition. Excellent 
pianist and a highly talented and 
clever composer. Settled (1854) in 
Manchester, where he was a successful 
teacher and public performer. 
Pieces for Chamber Music, Caprices, Marches, 

and several very effective Drawing-room 


*Hegner, Otto, b. Nov. 18, 1876, Basle 
(Switzerland). Pupil of Dr. Hans 
Huber {see this name) for Pf . and Alfred 
Glaus for Harmony. As a child he 
created great and deserved attention 
by his extraordinary dexterity and 
thoroughly musicianly performances, 
which were heartily applauded in 
Germany, England, and America. At 
his own desire his compositions are 
not mentioned. 

Heinlein, Paul, b. April 11, 1626, Niirn- 
berg ; d. there, Aug. 6, 1686. A son of 
the celebrated physician, Heinlein, he 
received an excellent education ; was 
sent (1646) to Linz and Munich and 
(1647) to Italy, where he studied for 
three years. He was considered one 
of the best performers on the clavecin. 
Toccatas, Fantasias, Fugues, and Ricercaris 
(published at Niirnberg). 

Heller, Stephen, b. May 15, 1815. Pesth ; 
d. Jan. 15, 1888, Paris. 1824, pupil of 
Anton Halm, in Vienna, where he re- 
mained for two years, giving concerts; 
resided for several years in Augsburg, 
and settled, 1838, in Paris. He was a 
most excellent pianist, who appeared, 
however — owing to extreme nervous- 
ness — but seldom in public, and pre- 
ferred to teach and compose. Among 
Pf. composers he occupies a fore- 
most rank. All his compositions are 
distinguished by nobility of expression. 

correctness and clearness of style, and 
considerable originality. 
Studies, Op. 16, 43, 46, 47, &c. ; Character 
Pieces, Dans les Bois, Promenades 
d'un solitaire, Nuits blanches, Tarantellas; 
Blumen-Frucht und Dornenstiicke ; Valses, 
Sonatas, Preludes, Overtures, Barcarolles, 
Fantasias, Pens^es fugitives (written in 
conjunction with H. W. Ernst), 21 Technical 
Studies, Op. 154, preparatory to Chopin's 
works; Paraphrases of Schubert's Songs (la 
Truite, la Poste, &c.), Saltarello on an Air 
of Mendelssohn, Op 77 ; Concert Transcrip- 
tions of some of Mendelssohn's Songs. 
Henkel, Dr. Heinrich, b. Feb. 14, 1822, 
Fulda. Pupil of Aloys Schmitt (Pf.) 
and Andre (Theory) at Frankfort o/M. ; 
later (1846), of Julius Knorr (Pf), Leip- 
zig. Founded, 1849, a Music School in 
Frankfort o/M. A successful teacher 
and respected author. Obtained, 1883, 
the title of Konigl. Musik-Director. The 
University of Marburg gave him the 
diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil. ; the Grand 
Duke of Hesse and the Duke of Coburg 
conferred on him the gold medals for Art 
and Science, &c. Among his composi- 
tions. Op. 15, 16, 17, 19, 27, 38, and 51 
have obtained considerable popularity 
Author of a " Klavierschule " and 
highly useful technical Studies. 
Hennes, Aloys, b. Sept. 8, 1827, Aachen 
(Aix-la-Chapelle); d. May 8, 1889, 
Berlin. 1844-52, appointed a "Post- 
official," and therefore only able 
to devote himself later to the study 
of music. Studied under Hiller and 
Reinecke at the Cologne Conserv., 
and afterwards gained his living by 
giving lessons in Creuznach, Alzey, 
Mayence, and Wiesbaden. Settled, 
1872, in Berlin; appointed, 1881, a 
teacher at Xaver Scharwenka's Con- 
serv. Hennes obtained a good reputa- 
tion by the publication of his ' ' Clavier 
Unterrichtsbriefe " (was translated 
into English), and by his decidedly 
practical and useful Studies. 
*Henschel, Georg, b. Feb. 18, 1850, 
Breslau. Pupil at the " Wandelt " 
Institute (Breslau), of Moscheles, 
Richter, and Gotze (Leipzig) ; later 
(1870) of Kiel (Berlin). At first he in- 
tended to become a pianist, but devoted 
himself later to singing, without, how- 
ever, losing command over the key- 
board, a result of which is apparent in 
his masterly accompaniments, aided by 
a phenomenal memory. The " Maats- 
chappy tot Bevordering der Toonkunst" 
of Holland elected him an Hon. 
Pieces (3), Op. 2; ditto (2), Op. 5; an Etude 
Impromptu, Op. 6 ; Pieces in the form of 
Canons, Op. 9 and 18 ; 6 Pieces (nach 
Genrebildern), Op. 13 ; 2 Nocturnes, Op. 35; 
and a Mazurka, Op. 48. 



Hensel, Fanny Cecile (sister of Felix 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy), b. Nov. 14, 
1805, Hamburg; d. May 17, 1847, 
Berlin. Pupil of L. Berger. Several 
of her compositions (mostly songs) 
appeared under the name of her 
illustrious brother, but were published 
later with her own name. 4 Songs 
without words, Op. 8; Trio, Op. 11. 
Henselt, Adolph von, b. May 12, 
1814, Schwabach (Middle Franconia, 
Bavaria); d. Oct. 10, 1889,'Warmbrunn 
(Silesia). Was first a pupil of Madame 
de Fladt, an excellent amateur pianist 
of Munich, then received pecuniary aid 
from the Bavarian Court, and went to 
Weimar in order to study with Hum- 
mel, afterwards to Vienna to take 
lessons from Simon Sechter in Composi- 
tion. Settled (1838) in St. Petersburg; 
appointed pianist to the Empress and 
teacher of the Imperial children. The 
Emperor conferred on him the Order of 
St. Vladimir with the patent of nobility, 
named him Imperial Councillor with 
the title Excellency, and appointed 
him Chief Inspector of the Imperial 
Ladies' Colleges. His works for Pf. 
are very much admired, not only for 
their thoroughly musicianly qualities, 
roundness of form, beautiful harmoni- 
sation, ingratiating melodies, and con- 
siderable originality, but also for their 
entirely new (almost orchestral) effects. 
In his great Studies, Op. 2 and Op. 5 
(composed before he went to Russia), 
he was the first to introduce poetical 
mottos giving a clue to their character; 
whilst in his two sets of Variations, 
Op. I and II (" Elisir d'amore" and 
"Robert le Diable"), he produces a 
decidedly new technical treatment. 
By nature exceedingly modest and 
simple, he disliked appearing in public, 
and could only be prevailed on to play 
before a small, select circle. By 
Schumann he was called the ' ' German 
Chopin." His style of playing was 
extraordinarily fine, noble, and effec- 
tive ; he combined unusual physical 
force with the greatest suavity and 
delicacy, and a wonderful legato. In 
his transcriptions from Weber and 
other composers he succeeded in realiz- 
ing a fulness hitherto unknown. 
Concerto in F min., Op. 16; Duo for Pf. and 

V'cello ; Poeme d'amour ; Impromptu, Op. 

7 ; Pens^e fugitive, Op. 8 ; Scherzo, Op, 9 ; 

Toccata, Nocturnes, Spring Song, Valses, 

12 Etudes, Op. 2 ; i2 Etudes, Op. j. 
Hering, Carl Gottlieb, b. Oct. 25, 1766, 
Schandau; d. Jan. 3, 1853, Zittau. 
Pupil of Schicht. Since 1798, principal 
music teacher at the Stadt-Schule I 

(Zittau). He became well known by his 
excellent educational works. 
Instructive Variations (1802), Progressive 
Variations (1809), a Method for Children 
(Leipzig, 1804-7), 3°d a Practical School 
for inventing Preludes (1812-14). Studies 
for 4 hands, 6 Books (Peters, Leipzig). 

Herold, Louis Joseph Ferdinand (only 
son of Fran9. Jos. H., a pianist of 
Emanual Bach's School), b. Jan., 
1791, Paris; d. there, Jan. 19, 1833. 
1806, pupil at the Conserv., where 
Louis Adam (Pf), Catel and Mehul 
(Composition) were his teachers ; 
gained the first prize for Pf. playing and 
obtained, 1812, the " Grand Prix de 
Rome." 1814, pianist to Queen Caro- 
line (Naples). After a short stay in 
Vienna he returned to Paris. During 
1827 and the following years he com- 
posed a quantity of pieces for Pf. 
(about 59), of which may be named — 
3 Concertos, Sonatas, one in A flat ; another, 
" L'Amante disperato"; Variations, Rondos 
(" Le dernier soupir"), Andantes, &c. 

Herz, Henri (younger brother of the 
following), b. Jan. 6, 1806, Vienna ; d. 
Jan. 5, 1888, Paris. At first a pupil of 
his father and the organist Hiinten, at 
Coblenz. 1816, pupil of Pradher at 
the Paris Conserv., where he obtained 
the first prize. 18 18, his first com- 
positions were very favourably received. 
In company with the violinist Lafont, 
he travelled in Germany, and later in 
England. Very popular as a public per- 
former and an excellent teacher. 1837, 
Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur 
(later Officer ) and Knight of the Belgian 
Leopold Order. Appointed, 1842, Prof. 
at the Paris Conserv., which ap- 
pointment he held until 1874. He 
joined the Pf. maker (18251 Klepfa, 
in a Pf. manufactory, which specu- 
lation, however, turned out very 
disastrously and compelled him to 
undertake a journey through the 
United States, Mexico, California, and 
the West Indies, lasting from 1845 
until 1851. His experiences and ad- 
\'entures are described in the amusing 
book, " Mes voyages," &c. (Paris, 
1866). In his later established Pf. 
manufactory he was eminently success- 
ful {see Piano Makers). As a pianist 
he was admired for his elegant, fluent, 
correct, and brilliant performances ; he 
never occupied himself much with 
playing classical pieces, but relied 
more on the interpretation of his own 
works, of which he wrote a very large 
number : — 
Studiei: Etudes du Conservatoire (24), Op. 
151; ditto, Op. 152 (15); Op. 119, I.; ditto, 
Op. 119, II.; Grandes Etudes de Concert 



(18), Op. 153 ; Etudes de I'agilitfe, Op. 179 ; 
Collection des Gammes, 1,000 Exercices 
pour I'emploi du Dactylion, Fantasias, 
Variations, Souvenirs, Rondos, &c. 

Herz, Jacques Simon, b. Dec. 31, 1794, 

Frankfort o/M. ; d. Jan. 27, 1880, Nice 

(Nizza). 1807, pupil at the Paris Con- 

serv. under Pradher. He resided for 

many years, a highly successful and 

popular teacher, in Paris ; settled later 

in London. 

Valses (La Coquette, Op. 51; Valse bril- 

lante, Op. 57 ; La Fiancee, Op. 69) ; 

Mazurkas, Redowa brillante. Op. 60, Fan- 

taisies, and Variations on operatic airs. 

Herzogenberg, Heinrich von, b. June 
10, 1843, Graz (Styria). 1862-65, 
pupil at the Vienna Conserv., where 
Otto Dessoff was his teacher; remained 
from 1865 till 1872 in Graz, settled 
afterwards in Leipzig, where he 
became, 1875, Conductor of the Bach 
Society. 1885, appointed as a teacher 
at the BerUn Hochschule ; 1890, elected 
a Member of the Royal Academy of 

Fantasiestiicke, Op. 4 ; Fantasia for Pf. and 

Vln., Op. 15 ; Duos for Pf. and V'cello, Op. 

12; Quintet, Op. 17; Trio, Op. 24, and 

several shorter pieces. 

Hess, Charles Leon, b. Jan. 28, 1844, 
Lorient (Departement Morbihan). 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv. He is one 
of the most popular French writers 
of light and fashionable pieces. 

Hesse, Adolph Friedrich (son of an 
organ - builder), b. Aug. 30, 1809, 
Breslau; d. there, Aug. 5, 1863. 
Pupil of Berner and Ernst Kohler 
(Breslau) , and later of Hummel (Wei- 
mar). Although his reputation as an 
excellent organist was very great, he 
distinguished himself also as a brilliant 
pianist, and among his works for 
Pf. are- 
Sonata for 4 bands, Concerto, and several 
shorter pieces. 

Heuschkel, Johann Peter, b. Jan. 4, 
1773, Harres (Eisfeld) ; d. 1853, Bie- 
brich on the Rhine. 1797, appointed 
musician of the princely orchestra of 
Hildburghausen, where (1796- 1797) C. 
M. von Weber was his pupil. Weber 
writes of him : "I have to thank him 
for the true and firm foundation, 
the even development of both hands, 
and the future correct and charac- 
teristic style which he, the energetic, 
strict, and severe teacher, taught me." 

*Heymann-Rheineck, Carl August, b. 
Nov. 24, 1852, Castle Rheineck on the 
Rhine. Pupil of Rudorff, Isidor Seiss, 
and Ferd. Hiller (Cologne). 1869-71, 
pupil at the Berlin Hochschule, of 

Rudorflf (Pf.) and Kiel (Composition). 
Since 1875 Prof, at the Hochschule. 
Novelletten, Op. 5 ; Fantasiestiicke, Op. 3 ; 
and other highly effective pieces. 

Heymann, Carl (no relation to the above), 
b. Oct. 6, 1853, Amsterdam. Pupil at 
the Cologne Conserv. of Gernsheim 
(Pf.) and Hiller (Pf. and Composition). 
1879, Prof, at the Hoch Conserv. 
(Frankfort o/M.), which appointment 
he had to relinquish on account of 
a mental malady. Most excellent 
pianist, and graceful, elegant com- 
Concerto ; the popular " Elfenspiel " ; other 
short and highly effective pieces. 

Hiller, Ferdinand (von), b. Oct. 24, 1811, 
Frankfort o/M. ; d. May 10, 1885, 
Cologne. At first a pupil of Aloys 
Schmitt (Frankfort o/M.) ; 1825, of 
Hummel (Weimar). 1828-35, he lived 
in Paris, enjoying the friendship of 
Liszt, Chopin, Rossini, Meyerbeer, 
Bellini, Cherubini, Dohler; in short, of 
all the Parisian celebrities. 1836, he 
returned to Frankfort o/M. in order to 
conduct the "St. Cecilia" Society. 
1840, he spent in Leipzig and conducted 
(1842) the "Gewandhaus" Concerts; 
1847, Capellmeister at Diisseldorf; 
1850, elected Director of the newly- 
established Conserv. and Conductor 
of the "Giirzenich" concerts of 
Cologne. He paid repeated visits to 
London, where his performances and 
compositions found many admirers. 
His improvisations and the manner in 
which he played Bach and Mozart were 
most excellent. He was very prolific 
as an author, and his "Feuilletons" 
for the Cologne Gazette were much 
admired for their elegant style and 
amusing wit. The King of Wiirtem- 
berg ennobled him, the Prussian, 
Saxon, and other Sovereigns conferred 
orders of Knighthood upon him, and 
he also received the "Maximilian" 
Order for Art and Science (Bavaria) ; 
was a Member of the Berlin Academy, 
as well as of other non-German 
academies and societies. The Univer- 
sity of Bonn named him (1868) Hon. 
Doc. Phil., and the town of Cologne 
amply provided for his family. He 
composed largely for the Pf., and his 
works testify to the interest he took 
in the instrument. Among the best 
known of his Pf. works are — 

Concerto in F sharp min.. Sonatas, Suites, 
Sonatinas, Op. 95 ; Variations, Op. 98 ; an 
Operetta without words (for 4 hands), 
excellent Studies, Impromptus, Suite for 
Pf. and Vln.; 5 Trios, 5 Quartets, and many 
I shorter pieces (Op. 57, 59, 66, 191). 



Hiller (Hiiller), Johann Adam, b. Dec. 25, 
1728, Wendisch-Ossig (Gorlitz) ; d. 
June 16, 1804, Leipzig. Pupil of 
Homilius (Dresden). As a composer 
he chiefly devoted himself to operas 
and operettas ; was also Conductor of 
the " Gewandhaus " concerts of Leip- 
zig. For clavecin he published — 
Sonatas and short pieces (Leipzig, 1760 and 

1762), and a collection of small pieces called 

" Musikalischer Zeitvertreib." 

Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich (founder 
of the German " Singspiel "), b- 
Nov. 20, 1765, Treuenbrietzen (Bran- 
denburg) ; d. June 8, 1814, Berlin. In- 
tended to study theology, but his talent 
for playing and composing was noted 
by Frederic William II. of Prussia, 
who persuaded him to devote himself 
entirely to music, and allowed the 
necessary sums for furthering his 
studies. Pupil of Naumann (Dresden). 
1792, he went to Italy ; 1795, appointed 
Royal Capellmeister at Berlin. After 
short journeys to Stockholm and 
St. Petersburg, he remained, from 
1801, permanently in Berlin. 
Concertos, Sextet, Quartet (Leipzig) ; 3 Trios, 
Op. 16, and 6 others without opus number; 
Grand Sonata with Fl., Op. 14; Sonata 
for 2 Pf. ; another for 4 hands ; Fantasias, 
Variations, &c. (Peters, and Breitkopf & 
Hartel, of Leipzig). 

Hi*z, Franz, b. July 17, 1828, Aarau. 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv. of Zim- 
mermann and Laurent (Pf), Reber 
(Harmony). Composer of about 200 
short drawing-room pieces, of which 
the most popular are the Romances 
" Souviens toi " and " Bon soir," 
Op. 150. 
Hoffmeister, Franz Anton, b. 1754, 
Rothenburg on the Neckar ; d. Feb. lo, 
1812, Vienna. 1768, in Vienna, in order 
to study the law ; but his inclination to 
become a musician was so great that 
he devoted himself entirely to music. 
He opened a music business in Vienna, 
which he gave up in 1798 in order to 
travel. 1799, in Leipzig, where he 
founded (1800), with Kiihnel, the well- 
known Bureau de Musique, which 
was taken later by Peters. He 
returned after some time to Vienna, 
where he occupied himself entirely with 
composing. The Viennese gave him 
the nickname of the " Flute-Pleyel." 
12 Concertos, Quartets, 44 Trios, Sonatas 
with Vln. or Fl., Solo Sonatas, Rondos, 
Pieces for 4 hands, &c. ; 156 Quartets for 
Strings and Fl., 96 Duets for Fl. 

Hofmann, Heinrich, b. Jan. 13, 1842, 
Berlin. Pupil of Theodor Kullak 
(Pf.),Dehn and Wiierst (Composition). 
Highly successful as a composer. He 

is a Member of the Berlin Royal 
Academy of Arts, has received several 
decorations, and obtained the title of 
" Professor." A.mong his best known 
works are- 
Sonata for Pf. and Vln., Op. 67; Trio, Op. 
18 ; the solos : Der Trompeter von Sak- 
kingen, 6 pieces, Op. 52; Aus meinem 
Tagebuch, 12 pieces, Op. 46; Stimmungs- 
bilder. Op. 88. For 4 bands : English Songs ; 
Silhouetten aus Ungarn ; Chants and 
Danses russes ; Suite Hongroise, Op. 
16; 3 characteristic pieces. Op. 35; 6 
ditto. Op. 70 ; 2 Serenades, Op. 54 ; 
Ekkehard-Sketches, Op. 57 ; Italienische 
Liebesnovelle, Op. 19 ; Landler und Walzer, 
Op. 23 ; Norwegian Songs and Dances; new 
Hungarian Dances; Souvenirs d'autrefois, 
Op. 66 ; Am Rhein, 4 Sketches, Op. 43, &c. 
*Hofmann, Joseph, b. Jan. 20, 1877, 
Cracow (Austrian Poland). Pupil of 
his father. Played as early as 1882 at a 
charity concert in Warsaw, where he 
himself gave (1883) several concerts. 
1885, he performed Beethoven's Con- 
certo (Op. 37) and Liszt's arrangement 
of Weber's Polacca, with orchestra; 
and, with Michalowski, Schumann's 
Variations for 2 Pf. The sensa- 
tion he produced was unprecedented, 
and was repeated in Vienna, Paris, 
England, Germany, Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, and America. His extra- 
ordinary gifts and modest, amiable, 
and natural manners were everywhere 
admired. For three years he enjoyed 
Rubinstein's tuition, and after seven 
years' retirement resumed, on his 
advice, his career as a virtuoso. He 
also shows considerable talent as a 
composer, and several of his published 
works (Hainauer, Breslau) exhibit 
natural and correct feeling and a 
thorough absence of triviality. 
*Hol, Richard, b. July 23, 1825, Amster- 
dam. Pupil at the Amsterdam and, 
later, at the Leipzig Conserv. Since 
1862, Director of the Utrecht Music 
School ; Conductor of the Cecilia 
Society and "Diligentia" concerts of 
Utrecht; Conductor of the classical 
concerts given in the Amsterdam 
"Crystal Palace." Knight of the 
Orders " Crown of Oak " and " Lion," 
Ofl&cer of the French Academy. 
Sonatas, Sonatinas, Trios, Duets for 4 hands, 
Novelletten, and a Method of Pf. playing 

Holmes, William Henry, b. Jan. 8, 1812, 
Sudbury (Derbyshire) ; d. April 23, 
1885, London. Pupil at the R.A.M. 
under Cipriani Potter as early as 
1822, when he gained two gold 
medals; became, 1826, Sub-Prof, and 
subsequently Prof. He was a highly 
successful teacher ; among his pupils 
were Sterndale Bennett, George and 



Walter Macfarren, J. W. Davison, and 
others. As a pianist he was likewise 
successful, and many of his composi- 
tions show decided ability. 1880, he 
was appointed Prof, at the newly- 
established Guildhall School of Music. 
Like Potter, he had very liberal ideas 
about new composers and took great 
interest in the advance of modern Pf. 

*Holten, Carl von, b. July 26, 1836, Ham- 
burg. Pupil of Jacques Schmitt, Ave 
Lallemant, and Gradener. Went, 1853, 
to Leipzig, where he studied, until 1855, 
under Moscheles and Plaidy (Pf.), 
and Julius Rietz (Composition). Since 
1874, Prof, at the Conserv. of Hamburg. 
1857, he began to give an annual 
series of Chamber Music concerts at 
Hamburg and Altona. 
Sonata with Vln., Concerto, 6 Concert 

Studies, Children's Symphony, and several 

short solo pieces. 

Horn, August, b. Sept. i, 1825, Freiberg, 
Saxony ; d. March 23, 1893, Leipzig. 
Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., and one 
of the best instructed musicians of the 
present time. He made his name 
well known by his excellent arrange- 
ments of classical pieces for Pf. (2 
and 4 hands), which are particularly 
distinguished by their practicability 
and absolute faithfulness. His own 
compositions (Fantasias, &c.) became 
but little known, although they 
show in every instance the cultivated 
musician. His death was deplored by 
a large circle of sincerely attached 
friends, who understood how to value 
his sterling qualities. 

Horsley, Charles Edward, b. Dec, 

1822, Kensington ; d. Feb. 28, 1876, 

New York. Pupil of Moscheles in 

London ; 1839, of Hauptmann in 

Cassel, and, later, of Mendelssohn in 


Trio, Sonata for Pf. and V'cello in G, Op. 3; 

Sonata for Pf. and Vln. in F, Op. 14 ; 6 Lieder 

ohne Worte, Op. ii, &c. 

*Horzalka, Johann Evangelist, b. Dec. 
6, 1798 {not 1778), Triesch (Moravia) ; 
d. Sept. 9, i860, Penzing, near Vienna. 
Son of a schoolmaster and organist, 
his father sent him to Vienna, where 
he made the acquaintance of Moscheles, 
who gave him lessons gratis and intro- 
duced him to the musical circles of 
Vienna. From Emanuel Alois Forster 
he received instruction in composition. 
1819, he gave his first public concert, 
in which he introduced with decided 
success several of his own works. 
The critics praised his performances 

and spoke highly of his "free Fan- 
tasias." For many years he was one 
of the most successful teachers. 
Sonata, Op. 9; Fantasia Pastorale, Fan- 
tasia on themes of Beethoven's Sonata 
Pathetique, Op.6o; excellent Studies, many 
Rondos, a Fugue in E min., and a Fantasia 
for 4 hands. Op. 22. 

*Huber, Dr. Hans, b. June 28, 1852, 

Schoenewend (Solothurn). 1870-74, 

pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., under 

Ernst Wenzel, C. Reinecke, and Dr. 

Oscar Paul. 1874-76, private teacher 

at Wesserling (Alsace). Settled, 1876, 

in Basle (Switzerland). At present 

Prof, at the Basle Music School. 1892, 

the University of Basle conferred on 

him the diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil. 

Among his best known pupili are Otto 

Hegner and Schelling. 

2 Concertos, 3 Trios, 4 Sonatas with Vln., 

2 with V'cello, Sonata for 2 Pf., Quartet 

with strings, and several pieces for 2 and 

4 hands. 

Hiillmandel, Nicolaus Joseph, b. 1751, 
Strassburg; d. Dec. 19, 1823, London. 
After having learned the elements of 
Pf. playing and composition, he went 
to Hamburg, where he became a 
pupil of Emanuel Bach. 1775, he was 
in Italy ; 1776, in Paris, where his per- 
formances were much admired. 1787, 
for some time in London ; but returned 
to Paris, where he married a rich lady 
and retired from public life. His de- 
votion to the Royal family brought him 
into discredit with the Republicans, 
and he had to fly (1790) to London, 
where — although his confiscated estate 
was restored to him by the first Consul 
• — he remaine'd till his death, giving 
lessons and composing. 
6 Sonatas for Pf., Vln., and V'cello, Sonatas 

with Vln. {ad lib.), Solo Sonatas, Petits 

Airs Faciles and Progressives. 

Hiinten, Franz, b. Dec. 26, 1793, 
Coblenz ; d. there, Feb. 22, 1878. Son 
of the organist, Daniel H., teacher of 
Henri Herz, who, on his side, persuaded 
Daniel to send his son (18 19) to Paris, 
where he could assist him in his career. 
He became there a pupil at the Con- 
serv. under Pradher and Reicha, made 
astonishing progress as an executant, 
and succeeded in getting from the Pari 
sian publishers many orders for little, 
easy, and fashionable pieces, earning by 
them very respectable sums. Soon he 
disposed of his works not only in 
France, but also in Germany, Italy, and 
England, and after eighteen years' hard 
work he had earned sufficient to live 
quietly and comfortably with his rela- 
tions in Coblenz. His compositions 
are by no means interesting, but are 



correctly and practically written, and 

afforded pleasure to pupils and 

amateurs. None of them are so 

brilliant or effective as those of his 

friend Herz, but they are in their way 

useful and possess decided merit. 

j8 Studies, Op. 80; 12 melodious Studies, Op. 

81; and 25 Etudes progressives. Op. 114. 

About 200 other pieces consist of Variations, 

little Fantasias, Rondos, Sonatinas (3), 

Op. 6, and easy transcriptions of favourite 

French (Puget), German (Schubert, Proch), 

and Italian songs. 

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, b. Nov. 14, 
1778, Pressburg (Hungary) ; d. Oct. 17, 
1837, Weimar. For two years pupil of 
Mozart, he went (1788) with his father 
to different countries, giving successful 
concerts. 1795, he returned to Vienna, 
and studied with Albrechtsberger, 
Salieri, and Joseph Haydn. 1803-11, 
Capellmeister to Prince Esterhazy 
(succeeding Joseph Haydn) ; 1816, 
Hof- Capellmeister at Stuttgart; and 
from 1820 until his death (1837) Hof- 
Capellmeister at Weimar. He travelled 
much, and gathered honours and dis- 
tinctions in Russia, Holland, England, 
France, Austria, and Germany. Mem- 
ber of the Academies of Stockholm 
and Paris, decorated with the Legion 
of Honour and many other orders, and 
generally respected for his uprightness, 
constancy in friendship, and goodwill 
to his younger colleagues. According 
to Czemy, he was one of the most 
brilliant executants of his time ; 
admired for the beauty of his touch, 
his excellent legato style, great taste 
and elegance of ornaments — and, 
indeed, for the general harmonious 
quality of his style of playing. Many 
of his contemporaries testify that he 
was the only one who came near to 
Beethoven in his art of improvising. 
In his compositions the influence of 
Mozart is particularly recognisable in 
the beauty of his harmonies and the 
roundness of his forms ; the excellent 
qualities of his part-writing show the 
tuition of Albrechtsberger, whilst 
Salieri encouraged him in writing with 
elegance, and Haydn was his model 
for freshness. In his works there is, 
however, a strange absence of feeling, 
more conventionality — so to say, 
diplomatic politeness. Among his 
pupils are to be named Ferd. Hiller, 
Adolph Henselt, Julius Benedict, and 
Rudolph Willmers. 

Worki with Orchestra : Concerto (C), Op. 34 ; 
Concertino (G), Op. 73 ; tConcerto (A min.). 
Op. 85 ; tConcerto (B min.). Op. 89; Con- 
certo (Les Adieux in E), Op. 110 ; tConcerto 
(A flat), Op. 113; Concerto (posthumous) ; 

Concerto for Pf. and Vln. (G), Op. 17; 
tRondo (A), Op. 56; Rondo (B flat), Op. 
98 ; Rondo (D), called " Society Rondo," 
Op. 117; Rondo (F), " Le retour de Londres," 
Op. 127; Variations on "Castor and Pollux," 
Op. 6 ; Variations on an Air russe, Op. 97 ; 
Variations on the " Fest der Handwerker," 
Op. 115; -fGrande Fantasia, " Oberon's 
2auberhorn," Op. 116. Chamber music : 
tGrand Septuor for Pf., Fl.. Ob., Hn. 
Via., V'cello, and C.-Bass, Op. 74 (also 
arranged by the composer as Quintet 
with Strings) ; Septet militaire for Pf , 
Fl., Vln., CI.. Trumpet, V'cello, and 
C.-Bass (in C), Op. 114; +Quintet for 
Pf. and Strings in E flat min., Op. 87 ; 
Quartet in G (posthumous) ; 2 Grandes 
Serenades for Pf., Vln., Guitar, CI., and 
Bssn., Op 63 and 66 (these are also arranged 
as Trios with Fl. and V'cello) ; La Senti- 
nelle for Pf., Voice, Vln., and Guitar, or 
V'cello, Op. 71. Trios: +No. i (E flat). 
Op. 12; 2 (F). Op. 22; 3 (G), Op. 35; 
4 (G), Op. 65; +5 (E), Op. 83; t6 (E flat). 
Op. 93 ; 7 (E flat), Op 96, Adagio, Varia- 
t! ns, and Rondo on the Russian air 
'■ Schone Minka," for Pf., Fl., and V'cello, 
Op. 78. For Pf. and Vln. or V'cello: 3 
Sonatas, Op. 5 ; Sonata, Op. 25 ; 4 Sonatas 
with Vln. or Via. or Fl. ; Sonata with Vln. 
or Mandoline; grand Sonata with V'cello 
(A), Op. 104. Solo Sonatas and Fantasias : 
+No. I, Sonata in E flat, dedicated to 
Haydn, Op. 13 ; 2, Sonata in F min., dedicated 
to Magdalene von Kurzbeck; 3, Sonata in 
C, Op. 30(38); t*. Sonata in F sharp min.. 
Op. 81; +5, Sonata in D, Op. 106; 3 
Sonatas (G, A flat, and C ) without number ; 
Sonata (C), Op. 2, No. 3; tFantasia (E flat), 
Op. 18. For 4 hands : tGrande Sonate 
(A flat), Op. 92; Sonate ou Divertissement 
(E flat), Op. 51 ; +Notturno in F (with 2 
Hn. ad lib.), Op. 99; Introduction and 
Rondo for 2 Pf. (posthumous). Varia- 
tions : 3 Airs varies. Op. i ; 2 Airs varies. 
Op. 2 ; 3 Airs varies. Op. 3 (appeared 1794, 
when he was 16 years old). V'ariations on 
a Dutch Song, Op. 21 ; 3 Themes varies, 
Op. St ; Les charmes de Londres, 3 themes 
varies. Op. 119; Variations on an Air from 
Gluck's " Armide," Op. 57 ; Variations on 
an Austrian air in G, Op. 8; tVariations on 
an air from Rossini's " La Cenerentola " 
(C) ; Variations on the March from Cheru- 
bini's " Les deux journees," Op. 9. Rondos: 
tRondo (E flat). Op. 11 ; Rondo quasi Fan- 
tasia (E), Op. 19; Rondo (C), Op. 52; +Rondo 
brillant (B min.), Op. 109 ; Rondo La Galante 
(E flat). Op. 120; Rondo Villageois, Op. 
122. Several smaller Rondos. Studies : 24 
Etudes, Op. 125 ; Preludes dans tous les tons, 
maj. et min.. Op. 67; 60 Exercises from the 
great School. Fantasias, &c. : Fantasia on 
an air from Mozart's " Figaro," Op. 124 ; 
Fantasia (Recollection de Paganini); 
^Polonaise, La bella capricciosa (B flat). 
Op. 55; Caprice (F), Op. 49; Capriccio (E 
flat min.), CEuvre posthume ; Bagatelles, 
Op. 107 ; 7 Cadenzas for Mozart's Con- 
certos; Pieces faciles, Op. 42 and iti; 
Amusements, Op. 105 and 108 ; 3 Grandes 
Valses en forme de Rondeau.x, Op. 103 ; 
6 Polonaises, Op. 70 ; several books of 
German Dances. Grand Pf. School, with 
2,200 examples in music (German, Italian, 
and French). 
•Hummel, Ferdinand, b. Sept. 6, 1855, 

Berlin. Pupil of KuUak, Rudorff, 

Bargiel, and Kiel. 
Sonatas (4) with V'cello; Quintet, Op. 47; 
Concerto, Op. 35 ; Scherzo, Op. 34 ; Serenade 



("In the Spring"), Op. 37 (both for 4 
hands) ; 5 pieces for the left hand, Op. 43 ; 
and 3 pieces, Op. 44 (No. 2). 

Hurlebusch, Conrad Friedrich (son of 
Heinrich Lorenz H.), b. 1696, Bruns- 
wick; d. 1768 (date uncertain), Amster- 
dam. At first a pupil of his father, a 
sound musician; he went, 1718, to 
Italy; returned, 1721, to Germany 
(went to Munich, where he was received 
with great distinction), and went, 1722, 
to Stockholm, which town he left, 
1727, for Hamburg, where he settled 

for ten years as a teacher ; 1738, he 
received and accepted an offer of a 
post in Amsterdam. He was one of 
the most brilliant performers of his 
time, and an industrious composer. 
His contemporaries, however, thought 
more of his playing than of his com- 
positions, which they declared eccen- 
tric and not natural. 

6 Sonatas (1746), 12 Solo (?) Concertos, 
another collection of 12 Sonatas and 8 
Overtures, 6 Concertos with orchestral 
accompaniment, 18 Suites, &c. 


Indy, Paul Marie Theodore Vincent d', 
b. March 27, 1851, Paris. Pupil of 
Dimmer and Marmontel (Pf.), of 
Lavignac ( Composition) . An excellent 
executant and highly talented com- 

poser. Among his works for Pf. may 
be mentioned a — 

Quartet in A for Pf. and Strings, a Sym- 
phony on an Alpine air for Pf. and Orchestra, 
and several smaller solo pieces. 


Jadassohn, Salomon, b. Aug. 13, 1831, 
Breslau. Pupil (i848)at the LeipzigCon- 
serv., he went (1849) to Liszt (Weimar), 
but returned later to Leipzig to study 
under Hauptmann. 1867-69, Conductor 
of the Euterpe concerts; 1871, Prof, at 
the Conserv. ; and Hon. Doc. Phil, of 
theUniversity of Leipzig. Among his 
Pf. compositions, those written in the 
form of Canons have been very favour- 
ably received. They are — 
Serenade, Op. 8, and S^r^nade, Op. 35 (8 
Canons); Ballet Music, Op. 58 (6 Canons). 
Besides these he published a Quartet, Op. 
70; Trios, Op. 20 and 59; Improvisations, 
Op. 48 and 75 ; Bal masque, 7 Airs de Ballet, 
Op. 26; Variations serieuses, Op. 40; 
Capriccietto e Scherzo, Op. 21 ; Album 
leaves (6), Op. yi ; and a Serenade for 4 
hands. Op. 64. 

Jadin, Louis Emanuel, b. Sept. 21, 1768, 

Versailles; d. July, 1853, Paris. Pupil 

of his younger brother, Hyacinthe, and 

his successor as Prof, at the Conserv. 

He is the inventor of the so-called 

"Melanges" or "Potpourris," but 

besides these he wrote also — 

Concertos, Quintets, Quartets, Trios, &c. 

His Sonates faciles, Rondos, and Fantasias 

were very popular; one of the latter was 

called "La grande bataille d'Austerlitz, 

un fait historique." 

Jadin, Hyacinthe, b. 1769, Versailles; 
d. Oct., 1800, Paris. Pupil of Hiill- 
mandel. He was the first Pf. Prof, at 
the Paris Conserv. (1795). As an 
executant, teacher, and composer he 
was very popular. Several of his works, 

Concertos, Sonatas with Vln., Solo 
Sonatas, Studies, and 2 Sonatas for 
4 hands, were published at Paris. 
Jaell, Alfred, b. March 5, 1832, Trieste ; 
d. Feb. 27, 1882, Paris. Pupil of his 
father, he played when only in his 
eleventh year in public, and travelled 
almost all his life. 1852-54, he was in 
America, and resided, after his return 
to Europe, either in Paris, Brussels, 
or Leipzig. He was a most excellent 
pianist, had a beautiful touch, played 
with great refinement, taste, and 
elegance, and was, on the whole, a 
sound musician. Because of his rest- 
lessness he was called jokingly "Le 
PianisteVoyageur." His original com- 
positions consist of little Romanzas, 
Notturnos, Valses, &c. Besides these 
he published a great many (highly 
effective) transcriptions of Wagner, 
Mendelssohn, and Schumann's airs 
and songs. 
*Jaell-Trautmann, Marie (wife of the 
above since 1866), b. 1846, Steinseltz, 
near Weissenburg (Alsace). 1861, pupil 
of Henri Herz at the Paris Conserv., 
where she gained the first prize. 
Most excellent pianist. Of her com- 
positions the best known are — 
A Concerto; Waltzes for 4 hands; the pieces: 
Voix du Printemps, Sphinx, Prismes, 
Promenade nationale, Valses melancoliques, 
Valses mignonnes, &c. She is also the 
author of a new method, " Le toucher," 
which created considerable attention in 



Janko, Paul von, b. June 2, 1856, Totis 
(Hungary). Pupil at the Vienna Con- 
serv., where he was taught by Hans 
Schmitt. 1881-82, he attended the 
University Lectures on Mathematics 
at Berlin, and became a pupil of 
H. Ehrlich. He is the inventor of 
the new keyboard called the "Janko 
Claviatur," which ofifers to the 
executant a good many advantages ; 
his device consists of six keyboards, 
which are placed in rows one above 
the other. This arrangement allows : 
I, a smaller compass of the intervals 
(an octave on Janko's keyboard is but 
^ of that on another piano) ; 2, the 
same fingering for all the scales ; 3, 
greater facility for skips and great 
stretches ; 4, most surprising tonal 
effects, which are not to be realised on an 
ordinary instrument, such as glissando 
chromatic scales. The manufacturers, 
Bosendorfer of Vienna, Franke and 
Bliithner of Leipzig, have in many 
instances improved on Janko's original 
idea. He has explained in a book the 
whole system, has arranged several 
well-known works with his fingering, 
and has instructed several performers in 
order to exhibit in a practical manner 
his undoubtedly highly ingenious 

♦Janotha, Natalie, b. Warsaw. Studied 
at the Berlin Hochschule (Joachim, 
Rudoff), under Clara Schumann, Dr. 
Brahms (for short time), and Princess 
Czartoryska. In Harmony she was 
instructed by Prof. F. Weber (Cologne 
and W. Bargiel (Berlin). Pianist to the 
Court of the German Emperor ; highest 
diploma of the St. Cecilia Academy 
(Rome) , Hon. Member of the Academies 
of Cracow, London, Rome, &c. Victoria 
Badge from H.M. the Queen. 
Gavottes, Mazurkas, Mountain Scenes (dedi- 
cated to Madame Schumann), Ave Maria 
(dedicated to Leo XIII.), &c. 

Jedliczka, Dr. Ernst, b. June 5, 1855, 
Poltava (S. Russia). Pupil of his 
father. From 1872-77 he studied 
Physics and Mathematics (University 
of St. Petersburg). 1877, he went to 
Moscow (pupil of Klindworth and 
Tschaikowsky). Appointed Prof, at the 
Conserv. by Nicolaus Rubinstein ; left, 
1887, for Berlin as teacher of the 
upper class in the Scharwenka- 
Klindworth Academy. 

Jensen, Adolph, b. Jan. 12, 1837, 
Konigsberg (Prussia) ; d. Jan. 23, 1879, 
Baden-Baden. For two years only, pupil 
of Ehlert and Marpurg (Berlin) ; he 
mostly taught himself, and worked 

with such restless energy that his 
health suffered. His compositions for 
Pf. are throughout noble, full of ex- 
pression, and of considerable origi- 
nality. Among the pieces which have 
obtained great popularity are — 

Op. 2, Innere Stimmen ; +0p. 8, Romantic 
Studies; Op. 12, Berceuse; Op. 15, Jagd- 
scene ; Op. 16, Der Scheidenden (To the 
parting), 2 Romanzas; +Op. 17, Wander- 
bilder (2 books) ; Op. 19, Prelude and 
Romanza ; Op. 25, Sonata ; Op. 31, 3 Valses 
Caprices; +Op. 32, 25 Studies; iOp. 33, 
Songs and Dances (2 books) ; Op. 36, 6 
German Suites ; Op. 38, Nocturne ; +Op. 
43, Idyllen (particularly the charming 
" Dr>'ade ") ; Op. 44, Eroticon ; tOp. 45, 
Hochzeitsmusik (Wedding Music) a 4 
mains ; Op. 48, Erinnerungen (Recol- 

JoseflB, Raphael, b. 1852, Pressburg 
(Hungary). Pupil at the Leipzig Con- 
serv., where Reinecke was his teacher. 
After finishing his studies in Leipzig 
he became a pupil of Tausig (Berlin), 
and created considerable sensation in 
Germany and Austria by his eminent 
technical execution. For several years 
he has been established in New York, 
where he is an active teacher, and 
greatly admired as a performer. He 
composed and published several draw- 
ing-room pieces. 

*Jungmann, Albert, b. Nov. 14, 1824, 
Langensalza (Prussia) ; d. Nov. 7, 
1892, Vienna. Pupil of G. W. Korner 
(the well-known publisher of organ 
works) at Erfurt, and later, for several 
years, of Dr. I. A. Leibrock (Bruns- 
wick). He was for a long period active 
as a Prof, at the St. Cecilia Academy 
of Rome; settled, 1853, in Vienna; 
became manager of the music ware- 
house of C. A. Spina (formerly Diabelli 
and Co.), and established himself with 
Lerch, as the firm Jungmann and 
Lerch, C. A. Spina's successors. He 
published over 400 educational works, 
which became very popular, as they 
are, without exception, written in a 
practical manner, are melodious, and 
devoid of any triviality. Among these, 
" Heimweh " (Home sickness) made 
the round of the world. 

*Jungmann, Ludwig, b. Jan. 2, 1832, 
Weimar ; d. there Sept. 20, 1892. 
Pupil at the Teachers' Seminary 
(Weimar) ; later, of Dr. Topfer (Com- 
position) and Liszt (Pf.). Since i86g, 
Prof, at the Grand Ducal "Sophia" 
Institute for Ladies. Among his Pf. 
works the best known are — 

Scherzo (F min.). Variations on an origmul 
air, and Phantasiestiicke. He also composed 
several Trios. 




Kafka, Johann Nepomuk, b. May 17, 
1819, Neustadt (Bohemia) ; d. Oct. 28, 
1886, Vienna. At first intended to 
study law, but then resolved to devote 
himself entirely to music. His 
practically - written drawing - room 
pieces — particularly those on Austrian 
airs — are very popular, but devoid of 
merit in an artistic sense. 
•Kafka, Heinrich, b. Feb. 25, 1844, 
StraXowitz (Bohemia). Pupil of Joseph 
KrejKi and Prof. Mildner (Prague). 
He resides in Vienna. Composer of — 
Sonatas with Vln., ditto with V'cello, 

Trios, and a goodly number of shorter solo 

*Kahn, Robert, b. July 21, 1865, Mann- 
heim o/Rhine. Pupil of Ernst Frank, 
Vincenz Lachner (Mannheim), Kiel 
(Berlin), and Rheinberger (Munich). 
His compositions testify to uncommon 
talent, and excellent work may be 
expected from him. Since 1891 he has 
resided at Leipzig, and is now appointed 
teacher at the Hochschule (Berlin). 
He published — 
6 Solo pieces. Op. ii; ditto, 7, Op. 18; 8 

pieces for 4 hands, Op. 13 ; Sonata for Pf. 

and Vln., Op. 5 ; Pf. Quartet, Op. 14. 

Kalkbrenner,FriedrichWilhelm Michael, 
■fX^^- ^7^4' onajourney between Cassel and 
* ". Berlin, a son of the eminent musician 
Christian K. ; d. June 10, 1849, Enghien- 
les-Bains. Pupil of his father until he 
went (1798) to Paris, where he studied 
the Pf. with A. Adam and Composition 
with Catel . He gained several prizes at 
the Conserv. Published (about 1800) his 
first compositions, and gained his live- 
lihood by teaching. 1803, he went to 
Vienna, where he met Clementi, who, 
by his marvellous technical execution, 
made such a deep impression upon him 
that, on his return to Paris, he tried 
with the greatest energy and persever- 
ance to gain an equally high degree 
of technical efficiency. Not only 
dementi's, but also Dussek and Hum- 
mel's style of playing impressed him 
very much, and he was anxious to 
profit by their example. 1814, he went 
to London, where he was well received, 
and was very successful as a teacher ; 
indeed, the pecuniary results of his work 
in London enabled him to acquire a fine 
property at Rambouillet (France), 
where he annually spent a few months. 
In 1823 he undertook a great and long 
tour in Germany, and was highly suc- 

cessful in most of the larger towns. 
1824, te returned to Paris, became a 
partner in the Pf. manufactory of 
Pleyel, which business profited very 
much by his practical advice. Another 
tour, in 1833, in Germany and 
Belgium was not less successful than 
that undertaken ten years earlier. From 
1834 he remained permanently in Paris, 
busily engaged with teaching and com- 
posing. Among his most celebrated 
pupils was Madame Marie Pleyel. He 
was attacked by cholera in 1849, and 
died at Enghien-les-Bains on June 
10 of that year. A contemporary men- 
tions that Kalkbrenner's playing was 
most perfect with regard to technical 
execution ; his fingers were all equally 
strong, producing a rich, full tone, 
which he could exhibit in the most 
different gradations ; his conquering of 
the most intricate and complicated 
technical figures being no less admirable 
than the wonderful clearness and un- 
failing correctness with which they were 
exhibited. His style was graceful and 
elegant, at times full of energy and force ; 
but generally lacking real warmth, 
depth and natural feeling. His com- 
positions are solidly constructed, the 
part-writing is unexceptionable, and 
the melodies agreeable, but never 
original. On the other hand, he was 
happy in inventing new technical 
figures, and for this reason his Studies 
have decided merit and are of undeni- 
able interest to pianists. 

Studies : 24 Etudes dans tous les modes, 
Op. 20; 24 Preludes dans tous les tons. 
Op. 88 ; 12 Etudes preparatoires. Op. 126; 
+25 Etudes de style et de perfectionnement, 
Op. 143 ; 12 Etudes progressives. Op. 161 ; 
Etudes faciles et progressives. Op. 169; 
4 Toccatas, Op. 182; Ajax, grande Etude; 
Methode pour apprendre le Piano a I'aide 
du guide-mains. Op. 108. Sonatas: 3 
Sonatas, Op. 1 ; 3 ditto. Op. 4 ; Sonata, 
Op. 13; Sonata Fantasia, Op. 38; Sonata, 
A maj.. Op. 35; Sonata, A min.. Op. 48; 
Sonata, F min.. Op. 56; Sonata pour la 
main gauche principale, A flat. Op. 42 ; 3 
Sonatas, Op. 3, 79, and 80 for 4 hands. 
Concertos : -fD min.. Op. 61 ; E min.. Op. 85 ; 
A, Op. 107; A flat. Op. 127. For Two Pf: 
Op. 125, Gage d'amitie. Rondo, Op. 66; 
Fantasia and Variations, Op. 72, &c. 
Chamber Music : Septuors, Op. 15 and Op. 
132; Sextets, Op. 58 and Op. 135 ; Quintets, 
Op. 30 and Op. 81; Quatuors, Op. 2, 136, 
and 176; Trios (7); Duets with Vln. 
Of his smaller solo pieces (about 22), " Le 
Fou" and " La femme du marin" are the 
best known and have retained their 



Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel, b. March 21, 
1800, Prague ; d. Dec. 3, 1866, Carls- 
ruhe (Baden). Pupil at the Prague 
Conserv. From 1822 till 1853 Capell- 
meister to Prince Fiirstenberg at 
Donaueschingen. He was a highly 
talented composer, who wrote with 
great facility and smoothness ; but the 
inabiUty to hear other composers' 
works had a detrimental effect upon 
his productions, which showed by 
degrees merely a certain routine. Schu- 
mann dedicated his Intermezzi, Op. 4, 
to Kalliwoda. 
Rondos: Op. 10, 11, 23; 3 Marches (very good). 
Op. 26; Divertissement in F, Op. 28; and 
Valses, Op. 27 and 169. 
Kalliwoda, Wilhelm (son of the above), 
b. July 19, 1827, Donaueschingen ; d. 
Sept. 8, 1893, Carlsruhe (Baden). Pupil 
at the Leipzig Conserv., and an especial 
favourite of Mendelssohn. His pub- 
lished compositions are very pleasing 
and thoroughly well written. As a 
pianist he possessed many sterling 
qualities, such as excellent technical 
execution, a beautiful, singing touch, 
and exquisite refinement. His gift of 
memory was quite extraordinary, for 
he played Bach's Suites, the 48 Preludes 
and Fugues, and many other classical 
works with . ease, certainty, and cor- 
rectness without book. 1853-75, he 
was Hof-Capellmeister at Carlsruhe, 
but owing to feeble health he was 
pensioned, and retired in the year 
1875 from public life. 
Kanne, Friedrich August, b. March 8, 
1778, Delitsch (Saxony) ; d. Dec. 16, 
1833, Vienna. At first he studied medi- 
cine, and later theology, but gave up 
these studies in order to devote himself 
entirely to music. He went to Vienna 
in the first decade of this century, 
and made the acquaintance of Prince 
Joseph Lobkowitz, who took great and 
kindly interest in him. An almost in- 
vincible inclination to lead a disorderly 
life prevented his following up his 
studies, and zilthough many kind 
friends, who admired his rare gifts as 
a musician and poet, did their utmost 
to rescue him from poverty and misery, 
he died at last in great distress. 
Trio with Fl. and Via. ; several Sonatas 
with Vln.; 3 Solo Sonatas, Op. 18, 32, and 
100 ; Sonata for 4 hands, Op. 31 ; Rondos, 
Variations, and Marches His best known 
work is " Wellington in Wien," 6 Triumphal 
Marches, Op. 99. 
Karr, Henri, b. 1784, Zweibrucken ; d. 
Jan. 10, 1842, Paris. Pupil of L'Etendart 
( Pf . ) . Having lost his father very early, 
he lived in very distressed circum- 
stances, until his teacher, Etendart, 

succeeded (1808) in getting him an 
appointment in the firm Erard, where 
he had to try the instruments for in- 
tending buyers. He was the father of 
the celebrated litterateur, Alphonse 
Karr. His light, rather shallow but 
effective pieces were in their time very 
popular, and he was never without 
orders from publishers. 
Sonatas, many Fantasias, Divertissements, 
so-called Melanges (on motives from Operas), 
a good many drawiog-room pieces for 4 
hands. Duo for 2 Pf., &c. 
Kauer, Ferdinand, b. Jan. 18, 1751, 
Klein-Thaya (Moravia); d. April 13, 
1831, Vienna. Almost self-taught, as 
he had only a few lessons in Counter- 
point from Heidenreich (Vienna). 
Although always most industrious and 
modest in his life, he was throughout 
his career pursued by misery, and even 
the immense success of his Operetta 
"Das Donauweibchen " did not im- 
prove his income or his social position. 
For the Pf. he wrote — 
Dramatic Sonatas with the titles : La Prise 
d'Oczakow, the Battle of Wiirzburg, Nelson's 
Great Battle, &c ; Sonatas with Vln., Fan- 
tasias, Variations, Hungarian Air for 4 
bands, and a Method for Pf . 
Kellner, Johann Peter, b. Sept. 24, 1705, 
Grafenroda (Thuringia) ; d. there, 1788. 
Pupil of Nagel, Schmidt, and Quehl. 
Suites called " Manipulus musices, oder 
eine HandvoU Zeitvertreib vors Clavier" 
(Or a handful of pastime for the Clavecin) 
were published (1752) at Niirnberg, and 6 
Suites, "Certamen Musicum," were pub- 
lished at Arnstadt, 1748-49. 
Kellner, Johann Christoph (son and pupil 
of the above), b. Aug. 16, 1735, Grafen- 
roda; d. 1803, Cassel. Pupil of Benda 
(Gotha). Of his compositions, which 
were in their time highly esteemed, 
about 10 Concertos were published by 
Andre (Offenbach o/M.) and 6 Trios at 
Cassel. His principal instrument was 
the organ. 
Kelway, Joseph, b. 17 — , London ; d. 
there, 1782. Pupil of Geminiani. His 
extemporaneous performances on the 
organ and his playing of Scarlatti's 
lessons on the harpsichord were very 
much admired, but less so his published 
Sonatas, which are reproached with 
dryness, stiffness, and want of charm. 
Kerl, Johann Caspeir von, b. 1628, Gaimer- 
sheim, near Ingolstadt (Bavaria) ; d. 
1693, Munich, where a monument in 
his honour was erected in the Theatiner- 
Church. Pupil of Valentini (Vienna), 
later of Carissimi (Rome). 1658, Hof- 
Organist in Munich ; 1677, Organist of 
St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, 
from whence he returned to Munich 
His harpsichord compositions are — 



" Toccata tutta da salti " in C, published in 
Pauer's "Alte Claviermusik," and the Fugue, 
" Egypt was glad when they departed," 
which Handel appropriated in his " Israel 
in Egypt," published at Amsterdam, also in 
Hawkins's History, chap. 134. 

Kessler (Kotzler), Johann Christian, b. 
Aug. 26, 1800, Augsburg; d. Jan. 13, 
1872, Vienna. Studied in Moravia, 
and later at Vienna; was for several 
years music teacher to Count Potocki's 
family at Lemberg ; went to Breslau, 
Warschau, and settled (1857) in Vienna. 
He was an excellent pianist, which is 
testified by his ingenious (but very dry 
and musically uninteresting) Studies, 
Op. 20 and 51. These were strongly 
recommended by Liszt, and some of 
them were introduced in Moscheles 
Jind Kalkbrenner's Pf. Schools. The 
original edition of the Studies appeared 
at Vienna and Paris, but selections from 
them were lately published at Munich 
and London. 
Nocturnes, Variations, Preludes, Bagatelles. 

Ketten, Henry, b. March 25, 1848, Baja 

(Hungary) ; d. April i, 1883, Paris. 

Pupil of Marmontel and Halevy (Paris). 

Romance sans paroles. Tranquillity, Scher- 

zoso, Melancolie, Chasse au papillon. Op. 10. 

♦Ketterer, Eugene, b. 1831, Rouen ; d. 
Dec. 18, 1870, Paris. Pupil at the 
Conserv. He published not less than 
290 pieces, of which the following 
became the most popular : 
Grand Caprice hongrois. Op. 7 ; 1' Argentine, 

Op. 21 ; Grand Galop de Concert, Op. 24 ; 

"Oh, dites lui," Romance favorite, Op. 66; 

La Ch&telaine, Op. 90; Chanson espag- 

nole. Op. 100; Gaetana, Op. 101 ; and Rondo 

orientale, Op. 102. 

Kiel, Friedrich (son of a schoolmaster), 
b. Oct. 7, 1821, Puderbach on the 
Lahn ; d. Sept. 14, 1885, Berlin. 
Almost self-taught ; the teacher of the 
Seminary of Soest persuaded Kiel's 
father to allow his son to devote him- 
self entirely to music, more particularly 
to the Vln. After having received 
theoretical instruction from Kaspar 
Kummer of Coburg, he was appointed 
(1840) Concertmeister, and received 
from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. of 
Prussia a stipend for 3 years, which he 
used for taking lessons in Counterpoint 
from Dehn at Berlin, where he remained 
until his death. 1865, elected Member 
of the Royal Academy of Arts ; he re- 
ceived (1868) the title of Konigl. Prof. ; 
was, for 3 years, a teacher at the Stern 
Conserv. ; and, 1870, Prof, at the 
Hochschule and Member of the Senate 
of the Royal Academy. 
Concerto, Op. 30 ; 4 Sonatas with Vln. ; Sonata 
with V'cello, Op. 52; Sonata with Via, 
Op. 67 ; 7 Trios, Op j, 22, 24, 33, 34, 65 (2) ; 

3 Quartets, Op. 43, 44, 50; 2 Quintets, Op. 75 
and 76; 2 easy Sonatas for 4 hands. Op. 6; 

4 easy Fugues in 2 parts, Op. 10 ; 16 easy 
pieces for 4 hands, Op. 13 ; 2 Caprices, Op. 
26 ; 5 Gigues, Op. 36 ; Souvenirs de Voyage 
(4 pieces), Op. 38; Humoresques (4) for 4 
hands, Op. 42 ; 3 Valses, Op. 45 ; Tema con 
Variazioni, Presto, Romance sans paroles, 
Op. 71; 6 Morceaux, Op. 72. 

Kienzl, Dr. Wilhelm, b. Jan. 17, 1857, 

Waitzenkirchen ( Upper Austria). Pupil 

of Burva (Graz), Ignaz Uhl, Mortier 

de Fontaine, and W. A. Remy. 1875, 

he went to Prague and studied with 

KrejSi ; 1876, he attended the Lectures 

of Springer, Overbeck, and Paul. 1879, 

he received for his essay, " Musical 

Declamation," the diploma of Dr. 

Phil, from the University of Vienna. 

1881-82, he travelled as pianist, and 

acted as Capellmeister in Amsterdam 

and Crefeld; appointed (1886) Director 

of the Music School of Graz, and is 

now engaged as Conductor of the 

Hamburg Opera. 

Op. 7, Phantasiestiicke for Pf. and Vln. ; 

Op. 3, 9 Sketches ; Op. 15, From my Diary 

(3 pieces) ; Op. 10, Bunte Tanze (various 

dances) ; Op. 21, Tanzweisen (Dance 

Melodies), 30 pieces ; and Op. 30, Kinder- 

Liebe und Leben (Children's love and life), 

12 pieces. 

""Kirchner, Fritz, b. Nov. 3, 1840, Pots- 
dam . Pupil of Theodor Kullak (Pf . ) and 
Richard Wiierst (Composition) . From 
April, 1864, until Oct., 1889, teacher at 
the New (Kullak) Academy. After the 
dissolution of this popular College, was 
a teacher of Pf. and Theory in the 
school " Madchenheim " (Berlin). 
Composer of a great number of edu- 
cational and popular pieces; among 
them 24 Preludes, Ball Scenes, &c. 

Kirchner, Theodor, b. Dec. 10, 1824, 
Neukirchen, near Chemnitz (Saxony). 
Almost the first pupil at the Leipzig 
Conserv. After having finished his 
studies, was appointed Organist in 
Winterthur, where he remained until 
1862 ; 1862-72, Conductor and teacher 
of the Ziirich Music School ; 1872-73, 
in Meiningen, and, 1873-75, Director 
of the Wiirzburg Conserv. Since 1875 
he has resided in Leipzig. With re- 
gard to the beauty of his smaller 
works, he is considered to be a rival 
of Schumann, by whom and Mendels- 
sohn he was greatly patronised and 
esteemed. The following are his most 
popular works : — 
Op. 2, 10 pieces ; Op. 5, jGruss an meine 
Freunde ; Op. 7, +9 Album leaves ; 
Op. 8, Scherzo; Op. 9, tPreludes ; Op. 11, 
^Sketches; Op. 12, Adagio quasi Fantasia; 
Op. 13, Songs without words ; Op. 14, Phan- 
tasiestiicke ; Op. 16, Kleine Lust und Trauer- 
spiele ; Op. 17, jNew " Davidsbiindler " 



Dances; Op. i8, Legenden; Op. ig, Phan- 
tasiestucke; Op. 21, Aquarellen ; Op. 22, 
Romanzas ; Op. 23, Waltzes ; Op. 25, 
Nachtbilder; Op. 26, Album; Op. 27, Ca- 
prices ; Op. 28, Nocturnes ; Op. 29, +From 
my Sketch-book; Op. 30, Studies and pieces ; 
Op. 36, Fantasias; Op. 37, 4 Elegies; Op. 
38, 12 Studies ; Op. 39, Village Stories ; 
Op. 41, Verwehte Blatter; Op. 43, 4 Polo- 
naises; Op. 46, 30 Dances for children and 
artists; Op. 48, Humoresques; Op. 49, fNew 
Album leaves ; Op. 52, A new book for 
Pf. ; Op. 53, Florestan and Eusebius ; 
Op. 54, Scherzo ; Op. 55, New Scenes for 
children ; Op. 56, In quiet hours ; Op. 65, 
60 Preludes; Op. 70, 5 Sonatinas; Op. 71, 
100 small Studies. Kirchner's transcrip- 
tions of Songs by Mendelssohn, Schu- 
mann, Brahms, &c., belong to the very 
best. Among his Duets for 4 hands the 
collection of 36 pieces, called " Old friends 
in new dresses," is particularly to be re- 

Kirmair, Friedrich Joseph, b. 1770, 
Munich; d. 1814, Gotha. Pupil of his 
father, Wolfgang K. Travelled in 
Germany, Italy, Holland, France, and 
was everywhere favourably received 
and esteemed as one of the best per- 
formers of his time. 1795, teacher of 
the Prussian Crown Princess (Berlin) ; 
later, appointed in Cassel, and, from 
1803 until his death (1814), Concert- 
meister at Gotha. He published many 
Sonatas, Variations, &c. 
Kimberger, Tohann Philipp, b. April 24, 
1721, Saalfeld, district of Konigsberg 
(Prussia) ; d. July 28, 1783, Berlin. 
Pupil of Kellner (1705-88), Gerber 
(1702-75), and, 1739, of Sebastian 
Bach (Leipzig). 1751, he went to 
Dresden; 1754, to Berlin; appointed 
Capellmeister, and teacher of Princess 
" Clavieriibungen nach der Bach'schen Appli- 
catur " (Exercises with Bach's fingering), 
4 books, Berlin, 1762-64 ; 8 Fugues 
(1777); 24 pieces (1779). Several of his 
pieces have been republished in Pauer's 
" Alte Meister" and "Alte Claviermusik." 

Kittl, Johann Friedrich, b. May 8, i8og, 

Worlick (Bohemia) ; d. July 20, 1868, 

Lissa (PosenU Pupil of Tomaschek 

(Prague). On the death of Dionys 

Weber (1843), appointed Director of 

the Prague Conserv., which office he 

retained until 1863. 

3 Scherzi, Op. 6; Romanza, Op. 10; and a 

Grand Septuor for Pf., Fl., Ob., CI., Hn., 

Bssn., and C.-Bass, Op. 25. For his Dpera, 

" Bianca e Giuseppe," the libretto was 

written by Richard Wagner. 

Kjerulf, Halfdan,b. Sept. 17. 1818, Chris- 
tiania; d. there, Aug. 11, 1868. Pupil 
at the Leipzig Conserv. ; lived, highly 
esteemed and beloved, as music teacher 
in his native town, where, 1874, a monu- 
ment in his honour was erected. One 
of his pupils was Madame Baker- 

Grondahl. His reputation rests on his 

beautiful songs. 
Capriccio, Scherzo, Friihlingslied (Spring 
Song), Hirtengesang (Shepherd's Song), 
Polka, Idyl, Wuggewise (Cradle Song), 
Album leaf, Elfentanz (Dance of Elves), 
40 Norske Folkeviser (Northern people's 
Songs), Scherzino, Intermezzo, Berceuse, a 
Rondino (Op. 22), 6 Sketches, Polonaise 
(Op. 13), and March (Op. 21) for 4 hands. 
Their characteristic expression is notably 
a Norwegian one. 

Klauser, Carl, b. 1823, St. Petersburg. 
Has resided since 1850 in Farmington, 
Connecticut (U.S.). He made his name 
known by his excellent arrangements 
of works by Schumann (Symphonies) 
and Liszt, and also by his editions of 
Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, Schu- 
mann, and Weber's Pf. works. 

Klauwell, Adolph, b. Dec. 31, 1818, 
Langensalza (Thuringia); d. Nov. 21, 
1879, Leipzig. Well known as an excel- 
lent teacher and author of educational 
pieces, which obtained great and de- 
served popularity. Among them the 
" Golden Melody Album " is a favourite 
book in Germany. His nephew is — 

*Klauwell. Dr. Otto, b. April 7, 1851, 
Langensalza (Thuringia). 1865-70, 
pupil at the Schulpforta College ; he 
participated (1870) in the Franco- 
German war ; 1871, he studied Mathe- 
matics and Natural Science at the 
Leipzig University, but, 1872, devoted 
himself entirely to music. 1872-74, 
pupil of C. Reinecke (Pf.) and E. F. 
Richter (Theory) ; 1874, his essay, 
' ' The Historical Development of the 
Canon," brought him from the Univer- 
sity of Leipzig the diploma of Hon. 
Doc. Phil. 1875, appointed Prof, of Pf., 
History and Theory at the Cologne 
Conserv. Since 1885, Director of the 
Seminary of Teachers connected with 
the Conserv. 

Variations in D min.. Op. 22 ; ditto in B min.. 
Op. 27; Phantasiestiicke, Op. 17; sundry 
pieces, Op. 31 ; several works of chamber 
music. Among his literary works deserve 
to be known : " Der Vortrag in der Musik " 
(1883), "Der Fingersatz" (1885), " Musik- 
alische Bekenntnisse" (1891), " Forraen der 
Instrumental Musik" (in the Press). 

*Klee, Ludwig, b. April 13, 1846, 
Schwerin. Pupil of Th. KuUak (1864- 
68) in Berlin, and later, until 1875. 
teacher in Kullak's Academy. Since 
1875, Director of his own School. He 
has the title of Musik-Director to the 
Duke of Saxony . Author of ' ' Die Orna- 
mentik der Klassischen Klaviermusik " 
(The ornaments of classical Pf. music). 
In this book the ornaments or graces 
are described and explained from Bach 
up to Beethoven. Besides this book, his 



editions of ' ' Klassiche Vortragsstiicke," 
in 3 volumes, containing pieces by 
Heller and Mayer, Sonatas by Dussek, 
Diabelli, and Kuhlau, enjoy a good 
name in Germany and America. 
♦Kleeberg, Clotilde, b. June 27, 1866, 
Paris. 1876, pupil of Madame Emile 
Retz at the Conserv., where she re- 
ceived the first medal after her first 
year there. Later, a pupil of Madame 
Massart, and obtained the first prize 
although the youngest of thirty-five 
competitors. At the age of twelve she 
played at Pasdeloup's Concerts and 
created a sensational success. Since 
her fifteenth year she has visited Den- 
mark, Russia, Austria, Holland, and 
England, being everywhere received 
with genuine favour. Her teacher in 
reading chamber music was Mr. Mas- 
sart, and she studied harmony with Mr. 
Theod. Dubois. She is decidedly one of 
the foremost lady pianists of the present 
time and is equally well at home in the 
works of Bach or in those of Chopin 
or Liszt. Jan., 1894, named " Officier 
de I'Academie." 
Kleffel, Amo, b. Sept. 4, 1840, Posneck 
(Thuringia). Pupil (for one year 
only) at the Leipzig Conserv., more 
especially under Dr. Hauptmann, from 
whom he received private instruction. 
1863, Director of the Musical Society of 
Riga. He returned (1867) to Germany 
and held appointments as operatic 
Conductor in Cologne, Amsterdam, 
Bremen, Breslau, Stettin, Berlin ; 
resided at Cologne as Conductor of 
the opera, but is at present in Berlin. 
Une fete d'enfants, 8 characteristic pieces for 

4 hands, Op. 5 ; Valses and Landler, Op. 21 ; 

Ritornelles, Op. 26; Petite Suite, Op. 29; 

Impromptu in C min., Op. 27; Nuits itali- 

ennes, 6 pieces for 4 hands, Op. 28 ; Toccata, 

Lied, &c., Op. 37 ; Jungbrunnen, 30 short 

educational pieces, Op. 41. 
Klein, Bernhard Joseph, b. March 6, 
1793, Cologne ; d. Sept. 9, 1832, Berlin. 
Studied first at Cologne, but went (1812) 
to Paris and became a pupil of Cheru- 
bini. After returning to Germany he 
was appointed Conductor of the 
Cologne Cathedral ; 1819, Prof, at the 
newly founded Institute of Sacred 
Music at Berlin, and Music Director of 
the University. 
3 Sonatas, Fantasia (Op. 8), Variations, and 

Grand Sonata for 4 hands. 

Kleinheinz, Carl Franz, b. July 3, 1772, 

Mindelheim (Wiirtemberg) ; d. 1832, 

Pesth. Pupil of Albrechtsberger 

(Vienna). Composer of: 

Concerto, Sonatas with Vln. (1789), Fantasia 

with Vln. (Op. 19), Grand Sonata for 4 

hands (Op. 12), Sonata for 2 Pf., Toccata, 

and Solo Sonatas. 

Kleinmichel, Richard, b. Dec. 31, 1846, 
Posen. Pupil at the Conserv. of 
Leipzig. For several years teacher in 
Hamburg. 1876, Conductor of the 
Leipzig Opera, later of that of Magde- 
burg. He resides at present in Berlin. 
His Pf. works enjoy considerable 
popularity, and among them more 
particularly — 
8 Easy characteristic pieces. Op. 8j Album 
pour la jeunesse. Op. i^ ; Notturno-Serenade, 
Op. 16; tValse-Capnce, Op. 18; 10 Ara- 
besques, Op. 19; 9 Character-Bilder, 4 
hands, Op. 21 ; fKinder-Friihling, 18 pieces 
for 4 hands, Op. 42; Roses sans Opines (6 
Morceaux de Danse a 4 mains). Op. 45; 
Album de chants nationaux Franfais, Russes, 
Anglais. He has also arranged from the 
original scores not less than 34 old Italian, 
French, and German operas (Leipzig, 
Senfl); he also published an easier Pf. 
arrangement of Wagner's later operas. 

Klengel, August Alexander, b. Jan. 29, 
1784 (1783?), Dresden; d. there, Nov. 
22, 1852. Son of the celebrated land- 
scape painter, Prof. Joh. Ch. K. The 
names of his first teachers are not 
known. Clementi, who came (1803) to 
Dresden, heard the young artist and 
persuaded him to accompany him as 
pupil to St. Petersburg ; before, how- 
ever, going to Russia they travelled on 
the Rhine, in Bavaria, and Prussia. 
Clementi, who married (1804) in Berlin, 
went with his young wife to Italy, and 
parted with Klengel After losing his 
wife, Clementi returned to Germany 
and again went with Klengel to St. 
Petersburg. The latter remained in the 
Russian capital (1805-11), giving lessons 
and studying by himself. 1811, he 
went to Paris, where he remained till 
18 13, but left, on account of the warlike 
times, for Italy ; returned (1814) to 
Dresden, passed one year (1815) in 
England, and was appointed (1816) 
Organist of the Roman Catholic Hof- 
Kirche at Dresden. As a pianist he was 
famous for his splendid legato style, the, 
so to say, individual independence of 
his fingers, and the beautiful style in 
which he executed Canons and Fugues. 
Among his compositions are — 
48 Canons and 48 Fugues, published after 
his death by Dr. Hauptmann (1876-1881). 
A previous work, published before 1840, 
called " Les Avant-coureurs," consists of 
24 Canons; 2 Concertos, Quintet, Polonaise 
concertante with Orchestra, grand Trio, 
Solo Sonatas (Op. 2, 7, and 9), Variations, 
Rondos, Fantasias, Nocturnes, Romanzas 
(3) (Op. 34), Le depart et le retour (Op. 30), 
15 progressive lessons (Op. 21), and 16 
Klindworth, Carl, b. Sept. 25, 1830, 
Hanover. Pupil of Liszt ("Weimar). 
He resided from 1854 till 1868 in 
London as a teacher, and was also active 



as a Conductor. 1868, he went to 
Moscow, where he edited Chopin's 
works. Resides at present in Berlin, 
where he is Director of a Music School, 
now united with the Scharwenka 
School. At the same time he is Con- 
ductor of the "Wagner" concerts. 
He arranged Wagner's " Nibelungen " 
Trilogy for Pf., and also edited Beet- 
hoven's Sonatas. 
Knecht, Justin Heinrich, b. Sept. 30, 
1752, Biberach (Wiirtemberg) ; d. there, 
Dec. I, 1817. Pupil of Kramer and 
greatly patronised by the celebrated 
author, Wieland, who persuaded 
Knecht's father to allow his son to 
devote himself entirely to music. 1807, 
appointed Conductor of the Stuttgart 
Opera, which appointment he soon 
relinquished, on account of intrigues 
by which he was greatly harassed, and 
returned to his native place. His Pf. 
works are mostly educational — 
"Kleine praktische Clavierschule " (4 parts), 
" Kleine theoretische Clavierschule " (a 
parts) (1800-1802), 48 Preludes, Variations, 
Sonatinas, and easy Studies. 

Knorr, Julius, b. Sept. 22, 1807, Leipzig; 

d. there, June 17, 1861. At first a pupil 

of Neudeck (Pf.) . 1834, he founded, with 

Schumann and Schunke, the Neue 

Zeitschriftfur Musik. His educational 

works are very important. 

" Guide of Piano music," " Methodischer 

Leitfaden fiir Clavierlehrer," " Materialien 

fiir das mechanische Clavierspiel " (a most 

useful book), Guide for Pianists in the 

beginning. The most important artistic 

terms explained. Editor of Cramer's 

Studies, &c. 

Koczalski, Raoul, b. Jan. 3, 1885, War- 
saw. At first a pupil of his mother, later 
of Gadowski (Warsaw). When only 
in his fourth year he played at a Charity 
concert ; was very successful in Paris ; 
travelled through the greater part of 
Europe, and received many decorations 
and art medals. The Shah of Persia 
named him Court Pianist, with a per- 
manent pension of 3,000 francs a year. 
His wonderful performances of classical 
and modem works have everywhere 
created an extraordinary sensation, 
heightened by the modesty and natural 
manners of the richly gifted child. 
Among his greater compositions is a 
one-act opera, " Hagar." 
Gavotte, Waltzes, and several shorter pieces. 

Kohler, Louis, b. Sept. 5, 1820, Bruns- 
wick ; d. Feb. 16, 1886, Konigsberg 
(Prussia). Pupil of A. Sonnemann (Pf.), 
Chr. Zinkeisen, sen., and J. A. Leibrock 
(Theory) in Brunswick. 1839-43, he 
studied in Vienna with C. M. von 
Bocklet (Pf.), Sechter and Seyfried 

(Theory and Composition). 1847, he 
settled in Konigsberg, where he founded 
a highly successful school for Pf. play- 
ing and Theory. 1880, he received 
the title of Konigl. Prof. As a com- 
poser he was most successful in his 
useful Studies, the greater part of them 
is used in almost all the different 
Conservs. His Practical Pf. School, 
Op. 300; his School for the Left Hand, 
Op. 302; and his " Kinder-Clavier- 
schule" enjoy a good reputation. As 
an author he made himself well known 
by his "Der Clavierlehrer" (the Pf. 
Teacher, translated into English) ; 
" Systematische Lehrmethode fiir 
Clavierspiel und Musik," Vol. i, 2nd 
edition, 1872; and "Musiklehre, 
Metrik, Harmonik," &c., Vol. 2, new 
edition, 1883. This second volume 
was highly esteemed by M. Haupt- 
mann, who mentions its first appear- 
ance in his letters to Franz Hauser. 
His " Guide to Pf. literature" is, how- 
ever, somewhat one-sided, and written 
more in the interest of the publisher 
than in that of the student. He was 
for many years the industrious critic, 
and reviewer of new works which ap- 
peared, for the Leipziger Signale fiir 
die Musikalische Welt. As a critic he 
was thoroughly impartial, his style 
being distinguished by clearness, con- 
ciseness, and a total absence of bom- 
bastic expressions. He suggested (1859) 
the foundation of the "AUgemeine 
Deutsche Tonkiinstler - Verein," of 
which Liszt, Wagner, Von Biilow, Dr. 
Brendel, Dr. Riedel, Gille, Stern, and 
others became members. The bye-laws 
of this at present important society were 
written by Kohler. 

Preliminary Studies, Op. 151 ; "Little School 
of Velocity," Op. 242; First Studies, Op. 
50; Daily Studies, Op. 150; "New School 
of Velocity," Op. 128 ; Studies on English, 
Scotch, Irish, and Welsh Melodies, Op. 
289 ; Special Studies, Virtuosen-Studien, 
Op. 120; and besides these the Studies Op. 
47, 79, 1X2, 152, 175, 190, 270, and 280 are for 
furthering technical proficiency. 

*Koning, David, b. March ig, 1820, 
Rotterdam; d. Nov. 6, 1876, Amster- 
dam. Pupil of Aloys Schmitt (Frank- 
fort). 1840, appointed Conductor of 
the Choral Society "Felix meritis," of 
Amsterdam. Hon. Member of the 
Society St . Cecilia (Rome) , of the Dutch 
Society, " Bevordering der Toonkunst," 
and President of the (Dutch) Society 
St. Cecilia. 
7 Studies in the style of Schmitt, Clement!, 
Cramer, &c. ; Sonatas, Friedensmarsch, &c. 

Kontski, Antoine de, b. Oct. 27, 1817, 
Cracow. His wonderful execution 



created everywhere a sensation, but 
not in so great a degree his accom- 
plishments as a composer and musician. 
1854-67, he resided in St. Petersburg ; 
later in Paris, Berlin (appointed Pianist 
to the Prussian Court), and for some 
time in London. He was decorated 
by most of the European Sovereigns. 
He resides at present in Buffalo, State 
of New York. 
"Reveil du Lion," Op. 115; Valses, "La 
Victorieuse," Op. 89, and " Souvenir de 
Biarritz," Op. 278 ; Grande Polonaise, Op. 
271, and " La nuit sur la mer," Op. 259. 

Kowalski, Henri, b. 1841, Paris. For a 

short time a pupil of Marmontel (Pf.) 

and Reber (Composition). 

Polonaise de Concert, Op. 10 ; Marche hon- 

groise, Op. 13 ; 12 Caprices en forme 

d'Etudes, Op. 16 (of these the " Danse 

des Dryades is a great favourite) ; " Sur 

I'Adriatique " ; Barcarolle, Op. 9, " Sur le 

fleuve jaune " ; Barcarolle chinoise. Op. 68 ; 

and Serenade japonaise. Op. 79. 

Kozeluch (Kotzeluch), Leopold, b. 1753 
(1754 ?), Wellwarn (Bohemia) ; d. May 
7, 1811, Vienna. Pupil of his cousin, 
Joh. Ant. K. (1738-1814). 1778, he 
went to Vienna, where he became 
teacher to Princess Elisabeth of 
Wijrtemberg, later Empress of Austria. 
He was the favourite teacher of the 
aristocratic and court circles. 1792, 
appointed (as successor of W. A. 
Mozart) Composer to the Austrian 
Court. His daughter, Madame Cibbini , 
a clever pianist, was a highly influential 
lady at the Imperial Court, but was, 
like her father, suspected of intriguing 
against other artists. His many com- 
positions are now well-nigh forgotten ; 
they are shallow, cold, and unin- 
Of 40— nearer 50 — Concertos, only 12 were 
published ; 3 Concertos for 4 hands, i for 2 
Pf. ; about 80 (!) Trios; 40 Sonatas— of 
these the 3 Sonatas, Op. 51, 3 ditto. Op. 53, 
were popular; Sonatas (about 15) for 4 
hands; a great many Dances and smaller 
*Krause, Anton, b. Nov. 9, 1834, Geithain 
(Saxony). Pupil of Fritz Spindler 
and F'riedr. Wieck (Dresden). 1850-53, 
pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., where 
he studied the Pf.with Moscheles and 
Theory and Composition with Rietz, 
Hauptmann, and Richter. 1859, ap- 
pointed Music Director of Barmen, 
where he still resides ; received (1877) 
the title of Konigl. Musik-Director, and 
(1892) the Order of the Prussian Crown. 
As a composer of educational works 
he enjoys a well-merited reputation. 
His Solo Sonatas are Op. i, 10, 12, 19, 21, 24 
(18 in all) ; his Sonatas for 4 hands. Op. 3, 
18, 22, 26, 27, 30 (13 in all) ; a Sonata for 2 
Pf., Op. 17; his Studies (Shake), Op. 2, 
4i 5. 9. 15 (especially for strengthening the 

left hand) ; 10 melodious Studies for ad- 
vanced players. Op. 28 ; 12 Studies for young 
performers. Op. 31. Besides these original 
works, he edited Czerny's Studies, Op. 139, 
299, 636, and 740 ; published a collection of 
Sonatinas by classical composers, and the 
" Library for 2 Pf." (18 books). 
♦Krause, Dr. Eduard, b. March 15, 1837, 
Swinemiinde; d. March 28, 1892, Berlin. 
Pupil of Hauptmann (Leipzig) and F. 
KroU (Berlin). He resided for some 
years at Stettin, was appointed in 
August, 1875, first Prof, at the Conserv. 
of Geneva, but was obliged to relinquish 
his appointment on account of illness. 
Op. 80, School of the left hand; Op. 8i, Album 
leaves and Sketches; Op. 62, tCarmen, 
Paraphrase de Concert ; Op. 30, 8 Phan- 
tasiestiicke ; Op. 21, Berceuse; Op. 24, 
Grand Sonata. 
*Krause, Emil, b. July 30, 1840, Ham- 
burg. Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv. 
Settled, i860, in his native town as a 
teacher, composer, and critic. As a 
composer he chiefly devoted himself 
to educational works which are — like 
his Studies (Op. 38 and 57) — of con- 
siderable value. His pieces for children 
are melodious and practical. 
Op. 38, Beitrag zum Studium der Technik; 
Op. 70, Clavierschule ; Op. 57, Grundlage 
zur hohern Ausbildung; Op. 75, Ergan- 
zungen (Supplements) fur Op. 38 and 57 ; 
Op. 25, 8 Studies ; Op. 71, Cadences and 
Preludes in all keys ; Op. 67, 24 Studies 
in all keys; Op. 31, Variations; Sonatas, 
Op. 3 and 6 ; 15 works of shorter dimensions, 
for 4 hands, Op. 13, 28, 29, and 45. 

Krebs, Carl August (really Miedke), b. 
Jan. 16, 1804, Niirnberg ; d. May 16, 
1880, Dresden. Adopted by the singer, 
Krebs, he studied in Vienna with 
Seyfried; was appointed (1826) Capell- 
meister of the Imperial Opera (Vienna) ; 
1827, in a similar capacity at Hamburg ; 
and, 1850, Hof-Capellmeister of the 
Dresden Opera. His compositions for 
Pf. are mostly written in a popular 
style, but never obtained the popularity 
enjoyed by his songs. 

Krebs, Mary (Madame Brenning), 
daughter of the above; b. Dec. 5, 1851, 
Dresden. Pupil of her father. Ex- 
cellent pianist, who created a great 
sensation in Germany, Austria, and 
America. After returning from her 
travels, she was appointed Court 
Pianist to the King of Saxony, and 
devotes herself at present to teaching. 

Krebs, Johann Ludwig (the favourite 
pupil of Seb. Bach), b. Oct. 10, 1713, 
Buttelstadt; d. Jan. 4, 1780, Altenburg. 
Pupil at the Thomas School of Leipzig, 
where he enjoyed the private tuition 
of Seb. Bach. Appointed Organist at 
Zwickau, Zeitz, and Altenburg. His 
compositions for clavecin are — 



Clavierubung in 4 books, containing Chorales, 
Choral-Fugues, a Suite, 6 Sonatas (1743-49) ; 
6 Preludes (1740), Suite (1741), Overture 
(1741), Concerto (i743)) 6 Suites, Op. 4 ; 
Musikalischer Zeitvertreib (a Sonatas, and 
6 Sonatas with Fl.) ; 6 " Sonate da Camera 
per il Cembalo obligato con Flauto (o 
Violino) " (1762). 

Kreutzer, Conradin, b. Nov. 22, 1780, 
Messkirch (Grand Duchy of Baden) ; d. 
Dec. 14,1849, Riga. His talent developed 
very early, and although his father, a 
miller (who died 1797), intended him 
to become a physician, young Kreutzer 
resolved to devote himself entirely to 
music. He went (1804) to Vienna, 
where he was a pupil of Albrechtsberger . 
After having filled appointments as 
operatic Capellmeister — 1812, at Stutt- 
gart ; 1817, at Donaueschingen ; 1825, 
1829-32, 1837-40, at Vienna (Imperial 
Opera) ; 1832, 1837, ^^ t^s theatre in 
the suburb Josephstadt; 1840-46, at 
Cologne; 1846-49, again in Vienna — he 
went with his daughter, Cecilia, a 
distinguished singer, to Riga. His 
chief activity was devoted to Operas, 
of which he wrote no less than 24. 
3 Concertos, Quartet in E min., Trios (of 
which Op. 43 is for Pf., Clar., and Bssn.), 
several Duos, Pieces for 4 hands, 3 Solos 
for Pf., 2 ditto. Divertissements, Fantasias, 
Polonaises, Variations, and about 18 easy 
pieces, of which the " Celebrated Minuet " 
m G became a great favourite. 

Krieger, Johann, b. Jan. i, 1652, Niim- 
berg ; d. July 18, 1736, Zittau. At first a 
pupil of Schwemmer (Sebald's School), 
and later, for seven years, of Wecker. 
After having finished his studies at 
Niirnberg, he went to his brother, Joh. 
Philipp K. (Org. at Weissenfels), who 
taught him Counterpoint, &c. 1678, 
Capellmeister at Greitz ; 1681, Organist 
and Conductor at Zittau. Mattheson, 
in his " Vollkommene Capellmeister," 
calls him one of the best counterpoint 
scholars of his time. The titles of his 
works are here given in the original 
VI. Musikalische Partien, bestehend in AUe- 
manden, Couranten, Sarabanden, u.s.w., 
alien Liebhabern des Claviers, auf einem 
Spinet Oder Clavichordis zu spielen, nach 
einer ariosen Manier aufgesetzt. (Niirn- 
berg, 1697). Anmuthige Clavier-Ubungen in 
Ricei.:aten, Praeludien, Fugen, einer Ciac- 
cone und einer aufs Pedal gerichteten 
Toccata (Niirnberg, 1699). 

Kroll, Franz, b. June 22, 1820, Bromberg; 
d. May 28, 1877, Berlin. Pupil of 
Liszt (Weimar and Paris). Settled 
(1849) in Berlin, where he was greatly 
esteemed as a pianist. 1863-64, Prof, 
at the Stem Conserv. Well known as 
the editor of Seb. Bach's Preludes and 
Fugues, and of other classical pieces 

Krommer, Franz, b. Dec. 5, 1759, 
Kamenitz (Moravia) ; d. Jan. 8, 1831, 
Vienna. With the exception of a few 
lessons he received in the rudiments of 
music from his uncle, an organist, he 
was entirely self-taught. He held several 
appointments in Simonthum and Fiinf- 
kirchen (Hungary), accompanied Prince 
Grassalkowitz as Capellmeister to 
Vienna, and became (18 18) successor of 
L. Kozeluch as "Imperial Composer." 
His compositions, now entirely for- 
gotten, were in their time very popular. 
Quartet (Op. ps), 2 Trios (Op. 84 and 87), 

6 Sonatas with Vln., Polonaises, Marches, 

Valses, &c. 

Kriiger, Wilhelm, b. Aug. 5, 1820, Stutt- 
gart ; d. there, June 16, 1883. Pupil of 
C. Ziegele (Pf.) and Lindpaintner 
(Theory and Composition) . He resided, 
1845-70, a popular teacher and admired 
performer, in Paris, but he had to 
leave on account of the Franco-German 
war. 1870, appointed Pianist to the 
Court of WQrtemberg and Prof, at the 
Conserv. of Stuttgart. His composi- 
tions (they reach the number of 168) 
are mostly — 
Transcriptions, Illustrations, Fantasias, &c., 
of operatic works. Etudes (les six jours de la 
semaine. Op. 32), Caprices, Nocturnes, &c. 
Of his original works the " Harpe iEoIienne," 
Guitare, Polonaise-Bolero, Op. 97, have 
become very popular. A work of decided 
merit is his edition of Handel's Clavecin 
works, 2 vols. 

Krufft, Baron Nicolaus, b. Feb. i, 1779, 

Vienna; d. there, April 16, 1818. It 

was his father's wish that he should 

follow the career of an employe of the 

State, and he actually became before 

his death Imperial Councillor. Pupil 

of Albrechtsberger. Excellent pianist. 

3 Caprices, Op. 33 ; 12 Exercices en forme des 

Ecossaises ; 24 Preludes et F'ugues dans 

tous les tons, Liv. 1-4 (this work was much 

esteemed). Adagio and Variations, Sonata, 

and eleven sets of Variations on national 

airs and themes of Cherubini, Pleyel, 

Rossini, &c. 

•Krug, Dietrich, b. May 21, 1820, Ham- 
burg; d. there, April 7, 1880. Pupil 
of Melchert (b. 1810 at Altona), but 
mostly self-taught. 1840, he made the 
acquaintance of Jacques Schmitt, at that 
time a highly renowned artist, to whom 
he played, whereupon Schmitt advised 
him to call himself a pupil of his, as it 
might be useful to his career ; but he 
was not really his pupil. With regard 
to composition, he was entirely self- 
taught ; as a pianist (Hummel-Kalk- 
brenner period) he was very distin- 
guished and much admired for his 
delightful touch and brilliant execution. 
His educational works are very 



melodious, their style is correct and 
clear, and their technical part practical 
and brilliant, without ofifering any 
great difficulties. He published also a 
Method of Pf. playing, a Collection of 
Studies (School of Velocity), and a 
great many arrangements of classical 
works. His son — 
♦Krug, Arnold, b. Oct. 16, 1849, Ham- 
burg. Was a pupil of his father and of 
Cornelius Gurlitt of Altona. 1868, he 
went to Leipzig and became a pupil of 
C. Reinecke. After this he remained 
for several years in Berlin studying 
with Kiel and Eduard Frank, and 
was appointed teacher at the Stern 
Conserv. i86g, he obtained the 
Scholarship of the Mozart foundation 
(Frankfort o/M.), and, 1877, the 
" Meyerbeer " prize. He is now Prof, 
at the "Hamburg" Music School and 
Director of the Altona Sing-Akademie. 
As a composer he enjoys a well- 
deserved reputation. 
Trio, Op. I ; 4_ Phantasiestiicke, Op. 3 ; 5 
Impromptus, in form of Valses, Op. 4, for 
4 hands; Quartet in C min.. Op. 16; 3 
Clavierstucke, Op. 17 ; the Duets " Fahrende 
Musikanten," Op. 20; and Album leaves. 
Op. 31 (6 pieces). Besides these he arranged 
his " Roumanian Dances," Op. 22, for 4 
KiifTner, Johann Jacob Paul, b. 1713, 
Niirnberg; d. 1786, Regensburg(Ratis- 
bon), Capellmeister to the Prince of 
Thurn and Taxis. Excellent organist 
and clavecinist. 
2 Sonatas, Op. i (a second edition appeared, 
1762, at Niirnberg); 9 Sonatas with Vln; a 
collection of short pieces and Sonata for 4 
hands. 10 Concertos remained in manu- 

Kiindinger, Rudolph, b. March 2, 1832, 
Nordlingen (Bavaria). Pupil of his 
father. Settled (1850) in St. Peters- 
burg, where his performances were 
greatly admired, and led to the post of 
instructor to the Czaritsa and the 
children of the Grand Duke Constantin 
Trio, Op. 10; Mazurka-Fantaisie, Op. 16; 
Nocturnes, Concert pieces, &c. 

*Kufferath, Hubert Ferdinand, b. June 10, 
1818 (not 1808, as given by many 
dictionaries), at Miilheim a/d/Ruhr 
(Germany) . At first a pupil of his elder 
brother, Joh. Hermann (1797-1864), 
afterwards of Hartmann (Cologne) for 
Vln. ; later, of Ferd. David and of 
Mendelssohn (Vln. and Composition) in 
Leipzig. 1 84 1 -44 , Conductor of the Male 
Choral Society (Cologne); he settled 
(1844) in Brussels, where he became 
teacher of Princess Charlotte (later, 
Empress of Mexico), Count and 
Countess of Flanders, and other 

members of the Royal Belgian family ; 
1872, appointed Prof, of Counterpoint 
and Fugue at the Royal Conserv. of 
Brussels, and (1885) Knight of the 
Order of Leopold. His compositions 
for Pf. are — 
Capriccio, Op. i; Concerto, Op. 24; Trio, 
Op. 9; Quartet, Op. 12; Etudes de Con- 
cert, Op. 2, Op. 8, Op. 35 ; Characterstiicke, 
Op. 30; Valses (4 hands). Op. 40. 
His brother — 
♦Kufferath, Louis, b. Nov. 10, 181 1, 
Miilheim a/d/Ruhr; d. March 2, 1881, 
Brussels. Pupil of his elder brother, Joh. 
Hermann, later of Friedr. Schneider 
(Dessau). 1836-50, Director of the 
Conserv. of Leeuwarden (Holland) ; 
he settled (1850) in Ghent as a teacher, 
but removed later to Brussels. He 
was a brilliant pianist and excellent 
teacher. Only a few of his composi- 
tions were published. 
Trios, Morceaux de Salon, Variations. 
*Kuhe, Wilhelm, b. Dec. 10, 1823, 
Prague. Pupil of Proksch, Tomaschek, 
and Thalberg. With the singer Pischek 
he went (1845) to London; settled there, 
dividing his duties as a teacher between 
Brighton and London. 1870-82, he 
gave in Brighton very successful annual 
Festivals. 1886, appointed Prof, at the 
R.A.M., London. The King of Prussia 
conferred on him the Order of the 
Crown. His compositions consist of 
drawing-room pieces, operatic Fan- 
tasias, Romanzas, &c., some of which 
have obtained great popularity. 
Feu follet. Gondola, Etude de Concert, and 
Rosee du Soir. 
Kuhlau, Friedrich, b. March 13 (Sept. 
II ?), 1786, tjlzen (Hanover) ; d. 
March 18 (12?), 1832, Copenhagen. 
Pupil of Schwenke in Hamburg. He 
went (1810) to Copenhagen; was ap- 
pointed Flautist of the Royal Orchestra, 
and, later, promoted to a Professorship 
and to officiate as Composer to the 
Court. For the Pf. he composed — 
Sonatas, Op. 4, 5, 8 (12-15) ; Sonatas (3), 
Op. 52; Sonatas (3), Op. 60; Grande Sonate 
brillante, Op. 127 ; Sonatinas (16), Op. 20, 
55i 59 ; Sonatinas with Vln. ad lib.. Op. 88 
several Sonatas with Vln. (or Fl.) 
3 Quartets; Concerto, Op. 7; Allegro 
pathdtique. Op. 123 ; Sonatas and Sonatinas 
for 4 hands. Op. 8, 17, 44, 66 ; many Rondos 
and Variations. 
Kuhnau, Johann, b. April, 1667 (1666?), 
Geysing (Saxony) ; d. June 5, 1722, 
Leipzig. Pupil at the Kreuzschule 
(School of the Cross) in Dresden, but 
he left for his native place on account 
of the pestilence breaking out. For 
some time Organist in Zittau, he was 
(1684) successor of Kiihnel as Organist 
of the Thomas Church of Leipzig, and 
was elected (1700) Director of Music of 



the Leipzig University and Cantor of 
the Thomas School, where Seb. Bach 
succeeded him. He was not only an 
excellent musician, but a highly accom- 
plished scholar; he had studied the 
law, translated from the Greek, 
Hebrew, &c. With Froberger, Pach- 
elbel, and Buxtehude, Kuhnau was 
decidedly the most worthy predecessor 
of Bach. 
The "first" Sonata in B flat, 1695; Neuer 
Clavierubung erster Theil, bestehend in 7 
Partien aus dem Ut, Re, Mi oder Tertia 
majore eines jedweden Toni, &c., Allen 
Liebhabern zu sonderbarer Annehmligkeit 
aufgesetzet und verleget von J. Kuhnauen 
(Leipzig, 1689). Neuer Clavieriibung anderer 
Theil— das ist, 7 Partien, &c.; benebenst 
einer Sonata aus dem B (flat). See above. 
(Leipzig, 1695.) Frische Clavierfriichte oder 
7 Suonaten von guter Invention und Manier, 
auf dem Claviere zu spielen (Leipzig, 1696). 
Musikalische Vorstellung einiger bib- 
lischer Historien in 6 Sonaten, auf dem 
Clavier zu spielen : Sonate i. The fight 
between David and Goliath ; 2. Saul cured 
by David through music ; 3. Jacob's wed- 
ding; 4. The deadly ill and again healthy 
Hiskias ; 5. The Saviour of Israel, Gideon ; 
6. Jacob's death and funeral. 

KuUak, Dr. Adolph, b. Feb. 23, 1823, 
Meseritz ; d. Dec. 25, 1862, Berlin. 
Studied philosophy at the Berlin 
University ; was a pupil of Agthe and 
Dr. B. Marx. Appointed teacher at 
his brother's Academy, contributor to 
several musical journals, and author of 
the following important works : 
"Das Musikalische Schone" and "Aesthetik 
des Clavierspiels," of which the third edition 
was revised (1889) by Dr. Hans Bischoff. 
About 15 solo pieces, amongst them a Noc- 
turne (Op. 37), Ballade (Op. 38), Le Chant 
des Oc^anides (Op. 23). 

Kullak, Dr. Theodor, b. Sept. 12, 1818, 
Krotoschin; d. March i, 1882, Berlin. 
Through the interest of Prince Radzi- 
will (composer of the music to Goethe's 
"Faust," b. 1775; d. 1833) he played 
at Court when only eleven years old. 
Pupil of Agthe (Posen), Dehn (Har- 
mony) at Berlin ; 1842, pupil of Czerny 
(Pf.), Sechter and Otto Nicolai 
(Theory and Composition) at Vienna. 
After having finished his studies in 
Vienna, he travelled ; having settled in 
Berlin, he became teacher to the Royal 
Family, was appointed (1846) Court 
Pianist; founded (1850), with Julius 
Stern and Dr. Bernh. Marx, the Berlin 
(later, Stern) Conserv., dissolved 
(1855) the partnership, and started 

the eminently successful " Neue 
Akademie der Tonkunst," which 
existed for 25 years, and at which 
Xaver and Philipp Scharwenka, M. 
Moszkowski, Alfred Griinfeld, Sher- 
wood, Martha Remmert, Dr. Hans 
Bischoff, Dr. O. Neitzel, C. Sternberg 
Erica Lie, and Helen Geissler were 
pupils. KuUak's eminent qualities as 
a teacher were generally admired and 
his excellent performances enthu- 
siastically applauded . 1 86 1 , he received 
the title of Konigl . Prof ., was named Hon . 
Member of the Royal Philharmonic 
Academy of Florence, Knight of the 
Orders "Red Eagle" and "Prussian 
Crown," and of several other orders. 
As a composer he was very industrious. 
His son, Franz Kullak, b. April 12, 
1842, continued the Academy, but 
dissolved it, 1889. 
" Materials for Elementary Instruction " and 
" School of Octaves " (a highly important 
work) are considered very useful; Concerto, 
Op- 55 ; 7 Octave Studies, Op. 48 ; Pas- 
torales, Op. 75 ; Kinderleben, I., II. (a 
charming collection). Op. 62 ; Ballade, Op. 
54; Impromptu-Caprice, Op. 97; 2 Polo- 
naises caractdristiques, Op. 103 ; 4 solo 
pieces, Op. 104 ; Hymn, Op. 85, &c. His 
Transcriptions of national songs (Airs 
nationaux russes, Op. 108 ; Lieder aus alter 
Zeit ; Romances du vieux temps. Op. in) 
are very effective, and his " Arpdges " and 
" Gazelle " have often been played at 

Kunz, Conrad Max, b. Dec. 30, 1812, 
Schwandorf (Bavaria) ; d. Aug. 3, 
1875, Munich. Conductor of the Royal 
Opera Choir. Although his reputation 
rests principally on his works for male 
voices, his 200 short Canons (Op. 14) 
are too important to be passed over ; 
for with Seb. Bach's Duets and two-part 
Inventions they are the most practical 
introduction for a correct performance 
of Fugues. Actually intended only 
for beginners, more advanced per- 
formers will also derive great benefit 
from studying them with attention. 

■"Kwast, James, b. Nov. 23, 1852, Nijkerk 
(Holland). Pupil of his father, later of 
Reinecke and Richter (Leipzig), Kullak 
and Wiierst (Berlin), L. Brassin and 
Gevaerts (Brussels). 1874, appointed 
Prof, at the Cologne Conserv., which 
appointment he changed for a similar 
one at the Hoch Conserv. of Frank- 
fort o/M. 
Trio, Concerto, Romanza in F sharp, &c. 




Lachner, Vinzenz, b. July 19, 1811, 
Rain (Bavaria) ; d. Jan. 22, 1893, 
Carlsruhe (Baden). Like his brothers, 
Franz and Ignaz L., he was at first 
instructed by his father, a poor school- 
master, and had afterwards to depend 
entirely on his own exertions. In his 
17th year he accepted the appointment 
of tutor, in a Polish family living at 
Posen. Afterwards he came to Vienna, 
received the post of Organist of the 
Lutheran Church, and was (1836) 
called to Mannheim o/Rhine to succeed 
his brother Franz as Capellmeister of 
the Opera, which post he retained 
until 1873, when he retired and went to 
Carlsruhe (Baden), occupying himself 
with teaching and composing. He 
was one of the best and most widely 
instructed musicians of our age — well 
acquainted with history, taking lively 
interest in natural science, well read in 
poetry and literature ; he was, at the 
same time, an excellent and sharp, yet 
kind critic, from whom his pupils 
learned much by his explaining de- 
ficiencies in the plainest manner and 
showing the means for improvement. 
Of his compositions for Pf. not many 
have been published. These are : — 
tPrelude and Toccata in D min. ; tRustic 
Dances; 42 Variations on the C maj. scale, 
Op. 42 ; 7 Pieces in the form of Valses ; 
tlinpromptu and Tarantelle, Op. 52 ; Bunte 
Blatter ; Quartet (prize) with Strings, Op. 10. 

*Lack, Theodore, b. Sept. 3, 1846, 
Quimper (Finisterre). Pupil and 
Laureat of the Paris Conserv., where 
Marmontel (Pf.) and Bazin (Harmony) 
were his teachers. He has resided, 
since 1863, as a teacher in Paris. 1881, 
named Officier de 1' Academic ; 1887, 
Ofiicier de I'lnstruction publique. 

Op. 30, Etudes ^l^gantes ; Op. 85, Etudes de 
Mdlle. Didi, I., II. ; Op. 20, Tarantelle ; Op. 
27, Boldro ; Op. 40, Valse espagnole ; Op. 61, 
Scenes enfantines ; Op. 106, Souvenir 
d'Alsace. For 2 Pf. : Polonaise de Concert. 

Lacombe, Louis Brouillon, b. Nov. 26, 
1818, Bourges (Departement Cher) ; d. 
Sept. 30, 1884, St. Vaast-la-Hougue. 
1829, he entered the Paris Conserv., 
became at once a pupil of Zimmermann 
and gained, after two years, the first 
prize for playing. After leaving Paris 
he went to Germany and Vienna, where 
Czerny, Fischhof, and Sechter gave 
him lessons, and where he was able to 

become more thoroughly acquainted 
with classical music. In his concerts 
he was everywhere successful, for his 
playing was considered most satis- 
factory and highly interesting. When 
he returned to Paris he obtained a large 
circle of industrious pupils, to whom 
he was a sympathising and encouraging 
teacher. His best-known works are — 
Op. 8, 4 Nocturnes ; Op. 40, Etudes en 
Octaves ; Op. 45, Choral, Grande Etude de 
Concert ; Op. 50, 2 Nocturnes ; Op. 52, 
6 Romances sans paroles, and the charming 
Lullaby " Dors, mon enfant." 
Lacombe, Paul, b. 1837, Carcassonne 
(Departement Oude). Pupil of Teys- 
seyre in his native place, but mostly 
relying on his own exertions and 
industry. He made his name favourably 
known by — 
Sonatas for Pf. and Vln., Op. 8 and 17 ; 4 
Duos for Pf. and V'cello, Op. 10 ; a Trio, 
Op. 12; a Suite (A min.). Op. 15; Etudes, 
Op. 18 ; 5 Arabesques, Op. 16 ; and the 
"Aubade aux Marias," Op. 56. 

Ladurner, Ignaz Anton Franz Xaver, b. 
Aug. I, i766,Aldein(Tyrol); d.March4, 
1839, Paris. 1777, he went to the 
monastery of Benediktbeuren, where 
he began his first compositions and 
practised the clavecin with rare energy. 
1782, on the death of his father, he had, 
in order to sustain his mother, to accept 
the appointment of organist at Algund 
near Meran, until his younger brother, 
Joseph Aloys L., succeeded him. He 
went to Munich, continued his studies, 
and found in the Countess Haimhausen 
(a good pianist) a kind patroness, who 
took him to her Chateau Longeville 
(Champagne), where he remained until 
1788, when he went to Paris and soon 
found a large number of pupils. His 
industry must have been marvellous, 
for during 40 years he occupied 15 
hours out of the 24 with teaching. One 
of his pupils was Auber. 
Sonatas, 3, Op. i; 3, Op. 2; 3, Op. 4; 3 for 
Pf. and Vln., Op. 5 ; 3 ditto, Op. 7; Sonata 
for 4 hands, Op. 6 ; 3 Sonatas followed by a 
Caprice, Op. 11. Besides these he wrote 
Variations and Divertissements. 
*Laidlaw,AnnaRobena (Mrs.Thomson), 
b. April 30, 1819, Bretton, Yorkshire. 
She was educated at Edinburgh, where 
Robert Miiller was her musical teacher. 
1830, her parents took her to Konigs- 
berg (Prussia), where she made such 
rapid progress that it was decided to 
let her become an artist. 1834, she 



came to London and had lessons from 
Henri Herz ; 1836, she went to Berlin, 
where she enjoyed the friendship and 
advice of Ludwig Berger; 1837, she 
made in Leipzig the acquaintance of 
Robert Schumann, who was so 
fascinated by her performances that 
he inscribed to her his beautiful Phan- 
tasiestiicke, Op. 12. She then gave 
most successful concerts in Vienna, 
Breslau, Hanover (appointed Pianist 
to the Queen), and other towns. 1840, 
she returned to London and remained 
there for two years as a teacher. 1842, 
she started for a lengthened concert 
tour to Paris, Brussels, the Dutch 
towns, Frankfort o/M., &c., and was 
everywhere received by the crowned 
heads with unusual kindness and 
with the warmest sympathy and 
every mark of sincere appreciation by 
the public. Via Berlin she went to 
Konigsberg, giving in this town a 
concert in aid of charity, and returned, 
1845, to London, when she invited her 
parents (her father having failed as a 
merchant) to join her. She supported 
them until 1852, when she married a 
Scotch gentleman, Mr. Thomson, and 
retired into private life. All reports 
agree about the fine, correct, graceful, 
elegant, and thoroughly musicianly 
qualities of her interesting perform- 
ances, and the letters which Schumann 
addressed to her are the best proof of 
how high she stood in his esteem and 

Lalo, Edouard (Victor Antoine), b. 

Jan. 27, 1830, Lille ; d. April 23, 1892, 

Paris. Excellent violinist (also viola). 

Pupil of Baumann (Lille). 

2 Trios, Sonata with V'cello, ditto with Vln., 

and characteristic pieces with Vln. 

•Lamont, Frederic, b. Jan. 28, 1868, 
Glasgow. At first apupil of his brother, 
David L. ; 1882, pupil at the Raff 
Conserv., Frankfort o/M., where Max 
Schwarz (Pf), Urspruch (Composi- 
tion), Heermann (Vln.) were his 
teachers. 1884-85, he received lessons 
from Dr. von Biilow in Frankfort o/M., 
Berlin, and Meiningen ; 1885-86, pupil 
of Liszt at Weimar and Rome. He 
played with distinguished and decided 
success in England, Germany, and 
other countries, and is one of the 
foremost pianists of the day. 
8 Clavierstiicke, Op. i, and a Trio, Op. 2. 
Several other Chamber music works nave 
not yet been published. 

Lampert, Ernst, b. July 3, 1818, Gotha; 
d. there, June 17, 1879. Pupil of 
Hummel (Weimar), Hauptmann and 

Spohr (Cassel). 1844, appointed 
Concertmeister and (1855) Hof- 
Capellmeister at Gotha. From his 
Duke he received the Cross of Merit, 
and from the King of Prussia the gold 
medal for Art and Science. His com- 
positions for Pf. and Vln., and other 
string instruments, are well and solidly 
•Lange, Gustav, b. Aug. 13, 1830, 
Schwerstedt, near Erfurt ; d. July 19, 
1889, Wernigerode. Pupil of Wilh. 
Bach, Grell, and Albert Loschhorn. 
Composer of more than 400 light, easy, 
and effective pieces, which were in great 
demand and published in England, 
America, France, and Germany. Their 
style is correct, and nowhere suffers 
from vulgarity. His most popular 
pieces are — 
Message of the Swallow, Op. 58 ; Boatman's 
Serenade, Op. 61 ; Zither Echoes, Op. 67 ; 
Brahms's Cradle Song, Op. 190a ; In jungen 
Tahren, Op. 316 ; With flying flags, Op. 318 ; 
Mazeppa Galop, Op. 327 ; Farewell to the 
Aim, Op. 334 ; Love of long ago. Op. 335 ; 
The Dulcimer, Op. 355; Jean et Jeanette, 
Gavotte, Op. 362; Musical Box, Op. 384; 
Love on the Aim, Op. 393 ; Woodland round. 
Op. 406. Also, Op. 344, 347, 366, 371, 375, 
376, and 399. 
♦Lange, Samuel de, b. Feb. 22, 1840, 
Rotterdam. Pupil of his father, J. F. 
Dupont, Joh, J. H. Verhulst (Rot- 
terdam), Alex. Winterberger (Vienna), 
B. Damcke (Brussels), and C. Mikuli 
(Lemberg). 1856-57, he travelled with 
the famous violoncellist, Francois 
Servais, in Austria and Poland ; 1857- 
58, with his brother in Galicia; rSCo- 
63, active as a teacher in LeuiLerg ; 
1869-72, went as organist to the 
principal German towns, Paris, and 
Vienna; 1873-74, appointed teacher at 
the Music School of Rotterdam ; 1874- 
75, in a similar capacity at Basle; 
1876-85, at the Cologne Conserv., 
Prof, of Pf., Organ, and Harmony, 
and Conductor of the celebrated 
Male Choral Society ; 1885-93, Con- 
ductor of the Society " Promotion of 
Music " at The Hague. 
Concerto, 3 Sonatas with Vln., Sonata with 
V'cello, Sonata for Pf. solo, Trio and Quintet 
with strings. 
♦Lara, Adelina de, b. Jan. 23, 1872, 
Carlisle (her grandparents were 
Spanish). 1885, she went to Frank- 
fort o/M. in order to study with Clara 
Schumann, with whom she remained 
for five years. Before this she had 
lessons from Fanny Davies. Her 
teacher in Composition and Counter- 
point was IwanKnorr (Frankfort o/M.). 
Her appearances in London and the 
provinces were eminently successful. 



Lauska, Franz (Seraphinus), b. Jan. 13, 
1764, Briinn ; d. April 28, 1825, Berlin. 
Although his father intended him to 
become a gentleman farmer, his love 
for music was so great that he devoted 
almost all his time to its study and 
received permission to go (1784) to 
Vienna, where Albrechtsberger was his 
teacher. The Duke of Serbelloni en- 
gaged him to accompany him to 
Rome, and after his return the Palatine 
of Bavaria elected him Kammer- 
Musikus. 1794, he went, via Frank- 
fort o/M. and Hamburg, to Copenhagen, 
where he created a great sensation, and 
resided there as a teacher for four years. 
1798, he arrived in Berlin, where his 
name was already well known ; the 
Court engaged him as a teacher, and the 
number of his pupils was so great that 
he scarcely found time for composing. 
Among his pupils was Meyerbeer. His 
style of playing was elegant, fluent, 
brilliant, full of grace and refinement. 
His compositions were popular and 
much played. 
24 Sonatas (Op. i, in C min. ; Op. 4, Grande 
Sonata; Op. 43, Sonata path^tique). Sonata 
with V'cello, Op. 28. Several pieces for 4 
hands : Sonata, Op. 31, in B flat ; Polonaise 
in C ; 6 easy and agreeable pieces, &c. ; 
Rondeaux, Polonaise, and Variations for 2 
hands. With Beczwarsowsky he published 
a Method of Pf. playing. 
Lazare, Martin, b. Oct. 27, 1829, 
Brussels. Pupil of Van der Does 
(Hague) and Zimmermann (Paris). 
6 Concert Studies, 6 Etudes de genre, Sici- 
lienne (Op. 16), and some Valses de Salon. 
•Le Beau, Louise Adolpha, b. April 25, 
1850, Rastatt (Baden), daughter of 
an officer. Pupil of Wilh. Kalliwoda 
(Carlsruhe) and Clara Schumann in 
Baden. Composition and Counterpoint 
she studied in Munich with Prof. Sachs 
and J. Rheinberger; from Dr. Franz 
Lachner she received advice about 
Instrumentation. Up to 1885 she 
conducted a private school for Pf. 
playing and theory ; after 1885 she 
resided for a few years at Wiesbaden, 
and has lived, since 1890, permanently in 
Berlin. Her performances in Munich, 
Berlin, Leipzig, Baden, and Vienna 
were greeted with sincere cordiality and 
warm applause; but more than this, 
her excellent compositions, solidly 
constructed, melodious, and interesting, 
were an agreeable surprise for the 
critical public of these towns. 
Trio, Op. 15; Fantasia with Orchestra, Op. 25; 
Quartet with strings. Op. 28 ; Solo Sonata 
for Pf., Op. 8 ; Sonata with Vln., Op. 10 ; 
ditto with V'cello, Op. 15; Variations on 
an original theme. Op. 3 ; Improvisata for 
the left hand alone, Op. 30; and Gavotte, 
Op. 32 (very popular). 

Lebert (really Levy), Sigismund, b. 
Dec. 12, 1822, Ludwigsburg (near 
Stuttgart) ; d. Dec. 8. 1884, Stuttgart. 
Pupil of Tomaschek, Dionys Weber, 
Tedesco, and Proksch (Prague). He 
was, with great success, for several 
years active as a teacher in Munich, 
and founded (see Stark), with Dr. Faisst, 
Brachmann, Stark, and Speidel, the 
Stuttgart Conserv., in which he had 
many opportunities of exhibiting his 
rare accomplishments as a teacher. He 
published with Stark the great Method 
of Pf . playing, which has been trans- 
lated into English (3 editions), and an 
instructive edition of the Classics, 
although in several instances of 
doubtful merit. The University of 
Tiibingen conferred on him the 
diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil., and the 
late King of Wiirtemberg gave him the 
title of Konigl. Professor. For the 
" Method" he wrote many Studies. 
Le Carpentier, Adolphe Clair, b. Feb. 17, 
1809, Paris; d. there, July 14, 1869. 
Pupil of Lesueur and Fetis at the 
Conserv. (181 8) ; he gained several 
prizes and established himself (1833) as 
a teacher. His patience, experience, 
and general kindness as an instructor 
brought him numerous pupils, and his 
educational pieces were soon popular 
in France, England, Belgium, and 
His " Methode de Piano pour les enfants " is a 
standard work, and his 25 Etudes elemen- 
taires, Op. 59, are excellent ; likewise his 
collection, Le progres, 24 Etudes. His 
pieces (about 270) on operatic and national 
airs are very often used ; they are written 
with care, and not difficult. 

Le Couppey, Felix, b. April 14, 1814, 

Paris ; d. there, July, 1887. In his tenth 

year (1824) he entered the Conserv. as 

a pupil of Dourlen, whom he succeeded 

in 1843. When only in his seventeenth 

year Cherubini entrusted him with a 

preparatory class for Dourlen and 

Leborne. 1848, when H. Herz went to 

America, Le Couppey was selected as 

his substitute. A special class for ladies 

was arranged for him, and amongst 

his fair pupils we find the names of 

Madame Montigny-Remaury, Vidal, 

and Mdlle. Coudere. He received the 

Legion of Honour, and his pupils 

remember him with sincere affection. 

His educational works are well known : 

"£coledu m^canisme du Piano," 24 Etudes 

,primaires. Op. 10; L'art du Piano, 50 Etudes 

with remarks; and a pamphlet, "De I'en- 

seignement du Piano; conseils auxjeunes 

Professeurs " (1865). 

*Ledent, Felix Etienne, b. Nov. 17, 
1816, Liege; d. there, Aug. 23, 1886. 



Pupil at the Liege Conserv., 1827 ; later 
of Daussoigne-Mehul (Paris). 1843, 
he received the second prize of Rome. 
1844, appointed Prof, at the Liege 
Conserv., and received later the Order 
of Leopold and other distinctions. He 
was an excellent pianist, of whom the 
Liegois were very proud. As a com- 
poser he did not make any great mark. 
Leduc, Alphonse, b. March 9, 1804, 
Nantes ; d. June 17, 1868, Paris. 
Was a pianist, composer, teacher, and 
musicseller. His father, an excellent 
bassoon player, taught his son several 
instruments ; thus he could play in a 
concert on the bassoon, flute, or 
guitar. For several years a pupil at the 
Paris Conserv. 1841, he established 
the publishing and musicselling 
business, which still exists. He wrote 
above 1,000 small pieces. Of his 
educational works the best known 
are — 
M^thode ^l^mentaire de Piano, a I'usage des 
pensions (about 20 editions) ; 25 petites 
Etudes, &c.. Op. 156 ; Etudes ^Umentaires, 
Op. 128; Etudes m^lodiques. Op. 146; 
Etudes de m^canisme, Op. 100, &c. 
Lefebure-W61y, Louis James Alfred, 
b. Nov. 13, 1817, Paris; d. there, Jan. 
I, 1870. At first a pupil of his father, 
Antoine L.-W., Organist at St. Rochus 
Church ; later at the Conserv., where 
Benoist (Organ), Zimmermann (Pf.), 
Berton and Halevy (Composition) 
were his teachers. When only in his 
eighth year he acted as substitute for 
his father, and when only fourteen 
years old he became his successor. 
He received several prizes at the Con- 
serv., became in time Organist of the 
Madeleine (1847), but resigned (1858) 
this post in order to devote himself 
entirely to composition. 1863, he ac- 
cepted the post of Organist of St. 
Sulpice, as successor to his private 
teacher, Sejan, 1850, he received the 
Legion of Honour and (1859) the 
Spanish Order of Charles IH. 
50 Etudes ; 3 Etudes de Salon, Op. 44 ; Etude 
raoyen-4ge. Op. 76 ; Saltarelle, Etude, Op. 57; 
la Retraite militaire, Op. 68 ; la Garde 
montante. Op. 31 ; Larmes du coeur, Op. 84 ; 
Pens^es intimes. Op. 91 (3) ; Aprds la Vic- 
toire, Marche, Op. 87 ; les Cloches du 
Monast^re, la Chasse k courre. Op. 64 ; la 
Serenade du Gondolier, Op. 88. 
Leitert, Johann Georg, b. Sept. 29, 
1852, Dresden. Pupil of Kragen and 
Reichel (Pf), Rischbieter (Harmony). 
1865, he played with eminent success 
in Dresden ; 1867, he went to Engfend ; 
1869, to Liszt, with whom he remained 
for 2 years in Rome; 1871, he returned 
to his native town, Dresden, and accom- 
panied (1872) the violinist Wilhelmj 

on a tour to the towns of East Prussia 

and Russian Poland. 1879-81, was 

a teacher at Horak's Piano School 

(Vienna) . Of his merits as an executive 

artist, some critics speak in enthusiastic 

terms and declare his memory to be 

a phenomenal one. 

Esquisses, Op. 12; Chants du crdpuscule. Op. 

24 ; Rayons et ombres, Op. 31 ; Valse 

Capiice, Op. 43; Feuilles d'Amour, Op. 37; 

Lose Blatter, Op. 38. 

Lemoine, Henri (fourth son of the 
guitarist and music-publisher, Antoine 
Marcel L.), b. Oct., 1786, Paris; d. 
there. May 18, 1854. Pupil at the Con- 
serv., of Berton, Dourlen, and Catel ; 
he received prizes in 1805, 1806, 1807, 
1809. 1821 , he took lessons of Reicha, to 
whom he owes more than to his former 
teachers; 1817, he succeeded his 
father as a publisher. As a composer 
he made himself known by 
Sonate a 4 mains; Polonaise, Op. 5 ; Etrennes, 
Sonatines faciles; several books of Varia- 
tions; 36 books of " Bagatelles " ; 50 Etudes 
enfantines, Op. 37 ; several books of " Recre- 
ations." His principal work is " M^tbode 
pratique " and Tablettes du Pianiste, 
Memento du Professeur de Piano (1844). 

Lentz, Heinrich Gerhard, b. 1764, 
Cologne; d. Aug. 21, 1839, Warsaw. 
He was a pupil of his father, an 
excellent organist. 1784, he went to 
Paris, where he had the rare luck to 
perform one of his own Concertos at the 
Concerts spirituels. 1791, he went to 
London, where Clementi, Salomon, 
and even Joseph Haydn showed him 
every possible attention. 1795, he 
returned to Germany, went first to 
Hamburg, but then was (1796) in- 
vited by Prince Louis Ferdinand of 
Prussia to join him at Berlin. He was 
on intimate terms with the Prince 
until 1802, when Dussek appeared and 
put Lentz into the background. He 
left Berlin, went to Halle, Lemberg, 
and lastly to Warsaw, where he was 
appointed Prof, at the Conserv. (1826- 
31). He was a popular teacher, much 
sought after. 
3 Concertos (Paris), 9 Trios, Sonatas with 
Vln., Sonata for 4 hands, Preludes, Varia- 
tions, &c. 

•Leschetizki, Theodor, b. 1830, Langert < 
(Austrian Poland). At first a pupil of his 
father, an eminent and favourite teacher 
at Vienna; afterwards of C. Czemyand 
Sechter (Composition). He completed 
his studies at the College (Gymnasium) 
and attended the University in order 
to study Philosophy, but owing to the 
Revolution of 1848 the University was 
closed. He began when in his fifteenth 
year to teach ; and he appeared with 



great success in concerts (1842- 
48 and 1852). In 1852 he left for 
St. Petersburg, where he was (with 
but few exceptions) working for 27 
years, not only as a teacher — private 
and at the Conserv. — but also as a 
public performer and composer, and, 
during the absence of Rubinstein, as 
Maestro di capella to the Grand Duchess 
Helena. After having been married 
a first time — which union was dis- 
solved — he married (1880) his former 
pupil, Annette Essipoff (Essipowa). 
1878, his impaired health obliged him 
to leave Russia; he visited London 
(where he appeared at the Musical 
Union and New Philharmonic con- 
certs), Holland, Germany, and again 
Vienna, where he remained as a 
private teacher, receiving pupils from 
all parts of the world. His merits 
have been recognised by the Sovereigns 
of Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Rou- 
mania, who all conferred on him high 
Orders. Of his published compositions 
the best known are — 
Souvenirs d'ltalie (6 pieces), 4 Morceaux pour 
Piano, Suite a la Campagne, Menuetto 
capriccioso, Mazurkas (Op. 24), Las deux 
Alouettes (Op. 22), tValse chromatique, 
Second Nocturne (Op. 12), La Petite 
Coquette (Op. 12, VI.), Souvenir de St. 
Petersbourg (Op. 15). 

Lessmann, W. J. Otto, b. Jan. 30, 1844, 
Riidersdorfer Kalkberge (near Berlin). 
At first educated at Magdeburg, where 
his father had a music business ; pupil 
of A. J. Ritter ; in Berlin of H. von 
Biilow (Pf.) and Kiel (Composition). 
1866, teacher at the Stern Academy; 
later (until 1871) at Tausig's Academy 
of Pf. playing ; for a short time pro- 
prietor of a similar Academy; since 1872 
Director of the Musical Instruction at 
the Empress Augusta Institute for 
Ladies at Charlottenburg, and, since 
1 881 .teacher at Scharwenka's Academy . 
1882, he began to publish the y4W^^»tefM« 
Musik-Zeitung. He is known as an 
intelligent and impartial critic. 
Polonaise, Op. 13 ; Erinnerungen (Recollec- 
tions), 6 characteristic pieces, Op. 16 ; also 
Transcriptions (6) from Beethoven's Trios 
for String Instruments, and 6 ditto from 
Schubert's String Quartets. 
Leybach, Ignace, b. July 17, 1817, Gamb- 
sheim (Alsace) ; d. May 23, 1891, Tou- 
louse. He received his first instruction 
in Strassburg, afterwards in Paris, 
from Pixis, Kalkbrenner, and Chopin. 
1844, appointed Organist of the 
Cathedral of Toulouse. He was an 
excellent teacher and favourite com- 
poser of easy, unpretentious, and 
pleasing pieces (255 numbers). 
Of these the Nocturnes, Op, 3 and 4 ; Aux 

bords du Gange (Mendelssohn), Op. 42; 

Boldro brillant, Op. 64; Ballade, Op 19; 

Valse po^tique. Op. 216 ; and Les bateliires 

de Naples, are well known. 
*Liadow, Anatole, b. April 29, 1855, 
St. Petersburg. Pupil of Johansen 
(Counterpoint and Fugue), Rimsky- 
Korsakow (Musical Forms and Instru- 
mentation). Appointed teacher of 
theory at the St. Petersburg Conserv. 
and to the Imperial Chapel. 
Op. 3, 6 Morceaux, Books i and 2; Op. 4, 

Arabesques (4) ; Op. 7 and 8, Intermezzi ; 

Op. 13, Prdudes (4); Op. 20, Novellette; 

Op. 21, Ballade; Op. 27, Preludes (3); Op. 31, 

Deux Morceaux. Besides these. Mazurkas, 

Impromptus, Bagatelles, Valses, Idyls, 

Sketches, &c. 
*Liapounow, Sergi, b. Nov. 18, 1859, 
Jaroslaw. Pupil of Klindworth and 
Pabst (Pf.) and Hubert (Theory and 
Composition) at Moscow. At present 
Sub-Director of the Imperial Choir. 
Concerto, 3 pieces, &c. 
Lickl, Carl Georg, b. Oct. 28, 1801, 
Vienna; d. there, Aug 31, 1877. Pupil 
of his father. 
3 Sonatas, 8 Rondeaux, 4 books of Variations, 

+ the Ischler-Bilder (Op. 57), Gasteiner- 

Bliithen (Op. 59), 6 Elegies (Op. 63), 

Novellettes (Op. 66). Very popular. 
Lie, Erika (Madame Nissen), b. Jan. 17, 
1845, Kongsvinger (near Christiania). 
Until her fifteenth year she received 
instruction from her mother and sister. 
i860, Halfdan Kjerulf gave her lessons 
in Christiania ; 1861, she went vnth her 
sister to Berlin, and became a pupil of 
Theodor Kullak. During her stay in 
Berlin she lost her mother, and this 
determined her to remain longer, in 
order to profit as much as possible. 
Kullak engaged her as a teacher in his 
Academy, and persuaded her to give a 
concert, which was eminently suc- 
cessful, and encouraged her to extend 
her artistic journeys to other German 
towns, and to Copenhagen and Stock- 
holm (where she was elected Hon. 
Member of the Royal Academy). She 
was everywhere received with genuine 
applause. At present she resides in 
Christiania, where she teaches, and 
delights her countrymen with her 
artistic and refined performances. 
*Liebling, Max (Emil), b. Sept. 22, 1846, 
Hultschin (Upper Silesia). Pupil of 
Krug (Posen) and Heinr. Ehrlich (Ber- 
lin). 1878-79, he made with Wilhelmj 
(the celebrated violinist) a tournee to the 
West of the United States, and created 
a. furore by his brilliant performances 
and dazzling technique. He resides in 
New York. His compositions are light 
and popular. 
Silver Wedding, Polonaise, La Coquette, 

Polka, " On the wing." 



♦Liebling, Sally, b. April 8, 1859, Posen. 
Pupil of Fraxiz Bendel and Theodor 
Kullak (Pf), Wuerst and Weitzmann 
(Composition), Berlin. When only in 
his twelfth year he gave concerts in the 
principal towns of Germany, and went, 
1875, to North America, where he 
appeared in the orchestral concerts of 
Thomas; travelled in turn with Ole 
Bull, Wilhelmj, Rem6nyi, Clara Luise 
Kellog, and Emma Thursby, and re- 
mained until 1883, when he returned to 
Berlin, anxious to put himself under 
Bulow, who, however, declined to take 
him as a pupil, declaring that he had 
only to learn from himself, or, perhaps, 
to follow Rubinstein's advice. 1884, he 
went to Liszt (Weimar) , where he en- 
joyed, in company with M. Rosenthal, 
E. Sauer, A. Friedheim, and A. Siloti, 
the good advice of the illustrious master. 
1888, he founded the New Conserv. of 
Music at Berlin, 

♦Liebling, Georg (youngest brother of 
the above), b. Jan. 22, 1865, Berlin. 
Pupil of Theodor and Franz Kullak, 
H. Ehrlich (Pf.), Heinrich Urban 
(Composition) in Berlin, and of Liszt 
(Weimar). From his sixteenth to his 
twenty-first year he was teacher in 
KuUak's Academy. With Dengremont, 
A. Senkrah, Teresine Tua, A. Matema, 
Sembrich, Barbi, Nikita, and Mierz- 
winski he made j ourneys in all European 
countries. 1890, the Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha named him Pianist to 
the Court. His best known pieces 
are — 
Air de Ballet and Romance, Gavotte, " Lieb- 
ling's" Walzer, and Octave Study. 

Lindemann, Ole Andres, b. 1768, Suren- 
dalen (Norway); d. 1855, Trondhjem. 
Pupil of Wernicke, and himself teacher 
of Tellefsen. Farrenc, of Paris, pub- 
lished, in his "Tresor du Pianiste," the 
works of Lindemann. 

Liszt, Franz (von), b. Oct. 22, 1811, 
Raiding (Hungary); d. July 30-31, 
1886, Bayreuth. At the age of six he 
commenced to study the Pf. under the 
supervision of his father, progress being 
so satisfactory that the boy when nine 
years old made his debut at a concert 
in Oedenburg (Hungary). At another 
concert, at Pressburg, he so impressed 
several Hungarian noblemen that they 
granted him a sum of 600 florins (;^6o) 
annually, for a period of six years, 
towards the continuation of his musical 
studies. It was at once decided (1821) 
to send the boy to Vienna to study 
under Czerny, with whom his progress 
was marvellous. Beethoven was so 

enchanted with his playing that he 
publicly embraced him at the boy's 
Farewell concert (1823), on his leaving 
Vienna for Paris. Liszt's conscientious 
father intended him to continue his 
education at the Paris Conserv., but 
this was impossible, owing to the 
Director's (Cherubini) aversion to 
prodigies. He refused Liszt admis 
sion to the school, giving his foreign 
nationality as an excuse for his decision. 
Thus publicity became his chief in- 
structor. He was received in the most 
distinguished society and " le petit 
Litz " soon became the enfant gate of 
Parisian salons. After having electrified 
Paris audiences, father and son visited 
London twice. In 1827, when on a 
concert tour through the French 
provinces, the father died at Boulogne. 
From that day forth Liszt was respon- 
sible for his own and his mother's 
sustenance, private lessons enabling 
him to fulfil his filial duties. The 
presence in the French capital of 
artists such as Paganini, Chopin, 
Berlioz, &c., strongly influenced his 
artistic development and charac- 
teristics. In 1836, when Thalberg 
created a sensation in Paris, great 
rivalry existed between the two artists, 
Liszt, however, eventually proving 
victor in the contest. The following 
years (particularly 1839-47) witnessed 
his greatest triumphs as a performer. 
During this period he visited all 
important European countries. In 
1847 he accepted the post of Hof- 
Capellmeister at Weimar, and remained 
there until 1861 ; Weimar becoming, 
under his influence, a musical centre 
of great importance. 1861-70, he 
lived in Rome. It was here that 
Pope Pius IX., who had always 
manifested a keen interest in Liszt's 
artistic and personal qualities, conferred 
upon him (1865) the dignity of Abb6. 
This distinction was much prized by 
Liszt, who had always evinced a strong 
inclination towards clerical life. The last 
years of his life were spent alternately 
in Rome, Pesth, and Weimar ; the 
latter town, during his presence, being 
crowded with admirers and pupils from 
all countries. His last visit to London 
was paid in the year of his death (1886). 
He was the father of three children, who 
were the issue of his liaison with the 
Comtesse d'Agoult — known as an 
authoress under the name of Daniel 
Stern. His daughter, Cosima, has 
become celebrated by her marriage 
with Richard Wagner. Liszt occupies 



a unique position in the history of the 
Pf., his influence absolutely command- 
ing the modern phase of execution. 
As a performer, as well as a composer, 
he stands alone. Unrivalled up to the 
present day as an executant, and as an 
interpreter of all kinds and classes of 
music, he may be said to be the founder 
of modern Pf. playing. His composi- 
tions and transcriptions completely 
transformed the nature of the instru- 
ment, enriching its capacities to a 
degree hitherto unknown ; through him 
the Pf. has become a worthy repre- 
sentative of the orchestra (vide, for 
instances, his transcription of Beet- 
hoven's Symphonies) . It is impossible 
to enumerate the various qualities and 
characteristics of Liszt's playing ; 
suffice it to say that the King of Pianists 
is looked upon and honoured by all 
players as the unsurpassable ideal of 
an artist. Together with Rubinstein 
and Brahms, Liszt has received the 
highest distinctions possible from 
sovereigns, cities, universities, acade- 
mies, and learned societies ; indeed, 
the collection of his orders, presents, 
diplomas and addresses formed a little 
museum, which was, during his life- 
time, one of the sights of Weimar, to 
the Court of which he was attached as 
Chamberlain. A monument to him was 
erected (1893) at Oedenburg (Hungary). 

Etudes (12) d'ex^cution transcendante, Trois 
grandes Etudes de Concert, Grandes Etudes 
de Paganini (6), Ab-Irato, Etude de perfec- 
tionnement, Harmonies poetiques et re- 
ligieuses (lo), Annies de P^lerinage (g), 
ditto (5\ Sonata, Grosses Concerto Solo, 
Concerto (with orchestra), No. i in E flat, 
No. 2 in A ; " Todten-Tanz," Paraphrase on 
" Dies irae," Grand Duo for Pf. and Vln. sur 
"lemarin"; Scherzo and March, Ballades 
(2), Apparitions (3), Consolations (6), 
Heroischer Marsch (im ungarischen Styl), 
Fest-Marsch (1842), Polonaises (2), Mazurka 
brillante. Caprices - Valses (3), Valse-Im- 
promptu, Feuilles d'Album, Grand Galop 
chromatique, Waldesrauschen, Gnomen- 
tanz, Arbre de Noel (12 pieces), Romance 
oublide, Hymne du Pape, Venezia e Napoli 
(Gondoliera-Tarentelle) ; Impromptu (i), St. 
Francois d'Assise (2), St. Francois de 
Paul ; Liebestraume (3), Canzone napoli- 
tana, Hungarian Rhapsodies {15), Capriccio 
alia Turca, Rhapsodie espagnole. Fan- 
tasias: Les Huguenots, Robert lediable, La 
Juive, Don Juan, Somnambula, Norma, 
I Puritani (2), La Fiancee (Auber), Muette 
de Portici, Lucrezia Borgia (2), Lucia di 
Lammermoor, Illustrations du Prophete (s). 
Transcriptions : Tannhauser, Lohengrin, 
Flying Dutchman, Rienzi, Meistersinger, 
Parsifal, Nibelungen (Wagner), King Alfred 
(Raff), Benvenuto Cellini (Berlioz). Para- 
phrases de Concert: God save the Queen, 
Wedding March and Elfin Dance (Mendels- 
sohn), Gaudeamus igitur, Marche funebre, 
Dom Sebastian (Donizetti), Swiss melodies, 
Contrabandista, Cavatine de Pacini, La 

Serenata e I'or^ia (Rossini), Pastorella e li 
Marinari (Rossini), Hussiten Lied. Tran- 
scriptions of: Beethoven's Symphonies, 
Beethoven's Septuor, Episode de la Vic 
d'un Artiste, Harold en Italie (Berlioz). 
Overtures : Oberon, Jubel, Freischiitz 
( W eber), William Tell (Rossini), Les Francs- 
juges, Roi Lear (Berlioz), Tannhauser 
(Wagner). Transcriptions of Songs by 
Schubert (57), Beethoven, including " Liedep 
kreis" (15), Mendelssohn (7), Robert Franz 
(12), Schumann, Dessauer, Weber, Meyer- 
beer, Liszt. Other Transcriptions : Soirees 
musicales (12), Stabat Mater (2) de Rossini, 
Amusements (6) on Airs by Mercadante, 
3 ditto on Airs by Donizetti, Glanes de 
Woronince (3), Melodies russes (2), Melodies 
hongroises d'apr^s Schubert, Marches by 
Schubert and Glinka, Soirdes de Vienne on 
Valses by Schubert (9), Bunte Reihe by 
David (24), La Romanesca, 6 Preludes and 
Fugues, Fantasia e Fuga, by Bach. 
Litolff, Henri Charles, b. Feb. 6, 1818, 
London ; d. Aug. 5, 1891, Paris. His 
father, a violinist from Alsace, settled 
in London ; confided the musical 
education of his highly-talented son to 
Moscheles, under whose care he made 
such rapid progress that he played in 
public when only twelve years old. He 
was throughout his life somewhat 
erratic, and to this disposition must be 
attributed his marriage when only in his 
seventeenth year. This event forced 
him to leave London to find a living in 
Paris. However, he did not succeed, and 
had to content himself with a modest 
appointment in Melun, a small French 
town. It was in 1840 that he drew the 
attention of the Parisians to his splendid 
performances and interesting composi- 
tions. The idyl of his early life — his 
marriage — was destroyed; he left his 
wife and travelled in Belgium. 1841-44, 
he was Conductor in Warsaw, after 
which he travelled in Germany and 
Holland, passed the stormy days of 
1848 in Vienna, escaped the rigour 
of the military prosecutions, and 
arrived, somewhat broken-hearted and 
dispirited, in Germany. 1850, he 
settled in Brunswick, married the 
widow of the music publisher Meyer, 
and changed the name of the firm to 
H. Litolff, publishing cheap editions 
which found their way to all countries 
of Europe, i860, he transferred the 
business to his adopted stepson 
Theodor, and went again to Paris, 
where in the excitement and turmoil 
of the French capital he felt happy. 
Having made the acquaintance of the 
Countess Larochefoucauld, he dis- 
solved his union with his second wife, 
and married the Countess. His com- 
positions are interesting, in some 
degree even original, and for a while 
fascinating, but they have no lasting 



value ; he never got rid of a certain 
impetuosity, which prevented him from 
examining his works with discrimina- 
tion, and from using the pruning knife 
in order to eliminate many prolixities. 
Concerto-Symphonie, Op. 22 ; ditto. Concert 
National Hollandais ; Trios, Op. 47 in D 
min. and Op. 56 in E flat ; 3 Duets with 
Vln. (with Leonard), Op. 53 ; 6 Etudes de 
Concert, Op. 18; Opuscules, Op. 25, 1-6; 
Invitation a la Tarentelle, Op. 36 ; Noc- 
turne, Op. 62 ; 6 Characteristic Pieces, 
Op. 65; tSpinnlied. 

Lobe, Johann Christian, b. May 30, 1797, 
Weimar ; d. July 27, 1881, Leipzig. 
Pupil (as flautist) of Riemann, later of A. 
E. Miiller (Weimar). Appointed a viola 
player in the orchestra ; he left this post 
in 1842, when he established a music 
school, which he conducted until 1846 ; 
then left Weimar for Leipzig, where 
he remained until his death. He was 
a highly intelligent author and a 
thoroughly well-educated musician. 
Quartets (2) ; Caprice, Op. 15 ; Variations, Op. 

16 ; +Le Buflbn, characteristic piece, Op. 23 ; 

Blumen-Frucht und Dornstiicke, Op. 24 ; 

-f Rondoletto ungheriano. Op. 28 ; and 6 

pieces for 4 hands. 

*Loder, Kate (Lady Thompson), b. Aug. 
22, 1826, Bath. Daughter of the excel- 
lent musician, George Loder (who died 
at the age of thirty-three) and niece of 
John Loder, for many years leader of 
the Philharmonic Society. When only 
three years old she could tell any notes 
that were struck on the Pf . , and it was 
decided to train her for the musical 
profession. After having studied in 
Bath with Henry Field, she played 
there in 1838 for the first time in 
public ; came (1839) to London, 
where she studied the Pf. with Mrs. 
Anderson and Harmony with Charles 
Lucas; gained twice the King's Scholar- 
ship, and played each year at the 
Academy concerts. 1847, she appeared 
at the Philharmonic concerts and con- 
tinued doing so until 1854, when she 
made her last public appearance, 
having married (1851) the eminent Sur- 
geon, Mr. (now Sir) Henry Thompson. 
Trio, 2 Sonatas, 2 books of Studies, several 
smaller pieces, and Duets. 

Lbhlein, George Simon, b. 1727, Neu- 
stadt (Coburg); d. 1782, Leipzig. 
There is no information concerning his 
musical education, but it is related 
that in travelling (1743) to Copen- 
hagen, when passing through Potsdam, 
he was — owing to his extraordinary 
height — seized and forced into the 
Prussian grenadiers. He had to take 
part in the battle of Collin, was left 
among the fallen on the battlefield, 
but was attended to by the Austrians, 

who, after his recovery, allowed him 
to proceed to Jena in order to continue 
his studies. 1761, appointment in 
Weimar; 1763, left for Leipzig, where 
he soon made himself a reputation as 
a performer and talented composer. 
He published the following works 
(some of which he engraved himself on 
copper plates) : 

Clavecin School (the 6th edition revised by 
A. E. Miiller) ; 6 Partite, Op. i (1766) ; 6 
Senate, Op. 2; 6 Partite, Op. 3; 3 Trios, 
Quartet, Musical trifles, and Concertos 

Loschhorn, Albert, b. June 27, 1819, 
Berlin. Pupil (1837-39) of Ludwig 
Berger. Continued his studies with 
KoUitschgy, one of Berger's most 
experienced pupils, and in Harmony 
and Composition with Wilhelm Bach 
and Ed. Grell. 1851, he succeeded 
KoUitschgy as principal teacher at the 
Academical Institute for sacred music ; 
1847, he began to give, with the 
brothers Adolph and Julius Stahl- 
knecht, highly successful Trio Soirees, 
which were continued for many years, 
and which offered an opportunity of 
exhibiting his admirable qualities as 
pianist, one of them being more 
particularly a beautiful, varied, and 
carefully graduated touch. In 1853 
these excellent artists performed also 
with success in Russia. 1868, he 
received the title of Konigl. Prof., 
and, 1889, the "Red Eagle" Order. 
He is a member of the Royal Society 
of Examining Judges. He is un- 
doubtedly one of the most experienced 
educational composers of the present 
time, and the enumeration of his 
Studies is warranted : — 

42 easy Studies, Op. 192 ; 21 melodious Studies, 
Op. 193 ; Studies for beginners. Op. 65 ; for 
more advanced. Op. 66 ; for advanced, Op. 
67; characteristic Studies, Op. 118; 17 
melodious Studies, Op. 194 ; li ditto. Op. 
195 ; 12 ditto, Op. 196 ; Rhythmical 
Problems, Op. 197; melodious pieces for 
Study, Op. 186 ; Le trille, 14 Studies, Op. 
165 ; Universal Studies, Op. 185 ; La vdlo- 
cit^, Op. 136; Scenes from Childhood, Op. 
96 and Op. 100 (2 books each) ; melodious 
Studies, Op. 38 ; Studies for Children, Op. 
181. Besides these he published Technical 
Studies, Octave School, Op. 176 ; School of 
Scales; 3 Instructive Sonatas, Op. loi. Solo 
pieces: "La belle Amazone," Op. 25; 
Tarantelle, Op. 133 ; A V^nise (barcarolle), 
Op. 162 ; Trois Mazurkas, Op. 163 ; Deux 
Valses, Op. 161 ; 4 elegant pieces, Op. 109. 

Lttvenskjold, Hermann Severin (Baron 
de), b. July 30, 1815, Norway; d. 
Dec. 5, 1870, Copenhagen. 1829, he 
went to Copenhagen, where he received 
his musical education. 1841, the King 
appointed him Kammermusiker. 



Trio, Op. 2 ; Fantasias, Op. 3 and 5 ; Charac- 
teristic pieces. Op. 12; " Sogni d'ltalia " 
(12 pieces) ; Rondos, &c. 
Low, Joseph, b. Jan. 23, 1834, Prague ; 
d. there Oct., 1886. In 1854 he made a 
very successful tour through Moravia, 
Silesia, Galicia, and Buckowina. 1856, 
returned to Prague, where he estab- 
lished himself. Was a successful 
teacher and most industrious composer 
of light and popular drawing-room 
pieces, of which more than 450 were 
published. The best known are — 
Jugend-Album, Op. 142; Soir de printemps. 
Op. 326; Deux Impromptus romantiques, 
Op. 187; Maiengruss, Op. 413; Allegro 
brillant for 2 Pf., Op. 325. 
Lowe, Dr. Carl, b. Nov. 30, 1796, 
Lobejiin (Cothen); d. April 20, 1869, 
Kiel. Pupil of Tiirck (Halle). 1820, 
Cantor of St. Jacob's Church and 
Musical Director of the College at 
Stettin ; he held these appointments 
for 46 years, when a stroke of apoplexy 
obliged him to retire. The University 
of Greifswald conferred on him the 
diploma of Hon. Doc. Phil. In his 
earlier years he wrote a good deal for 
the Pf.— 
Sonatas, Op. 16, 33, 41, and 47; Evening 
Fantasia, Op. 11 ; " Mazeppa," tone-poem 
(after Byron), Op. 27 ; the " Brother of 
Mercy," tone - poem, Op. 28 ; Sonate 
^l^giaque, Op. 32 ; " Spring," a tone-poem. 
Op. 47 ; Fantasia of the Alps, Op. 53 ; 
tBiblical pictures. Op. 96 ; Gipsy Sonata, Op. 
107 ; 4 Fantasias, Op. 137 ; Trio, Op. 12. 
Logier, johann Bernhard, b. Feb. 9, 
1777, Cassel ; d. July 27, 1846, Dublin. 
In 1805 he went to Dulalin as flautist 
in an Irish regiment. When the regi- 
mental band was dissolved, he was 
appointed Organist at Westport 
(Ireland), where he invented the 
" Chiroplast," a device to regulate the 
position of the hands. 1816, he intro- 
duced his system of teaching several 
pupils at the same time — each playing 
on an instrument for her or himself. 
This system— a sort of wholesale in- 
struction — found great favour, and he 
was invited by the Prussian Govern- 
ment to superintend the use of his 
Chiroplast and his new system as ap- 
plied in the German schools. After 
some three years he returned to Ireland. 
His own compositions have no great 
merit (Concertos, Sonatas, &c.), but 
his books deserve much attention : 
An explanation and description of the Royal 
patent Chiroplast, or hand-director for 
Pf. (1816) ; the First Companion to the 
Chiroplast (1818), which work treats of 
the "Unisono " playing; Logier's practical 
thorough bass (1819). 

Louchet, Gustave, b. Oct. 4, 1840, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Pupil of Mar- 
montel ; resides at present in Paris. 

His short pieces, exhibiting a refined 

and elegant taste, are much in demand, 

more particularly — 

6 pens^es musicales. Op. 17 ; Improvisata, 

Op. 21; 3 Album leaflets. Op. 23, and the 

Valse caracteristique in A min., Op. 22. 

Louis, Ferdinand (really Ludwig Fried- 
rich Christian), Prince of Prussia 
(nephew of Frederic II.), b. Nov. 18, 
1772, Friedrichsfeldt (Berlin) ; was 
killed Oct. 10, 1806, in the battle of 
Saalfeld. At an early age he showed 
very superior talent for Pf. playing and 
composing, and it seems that his tutors 
developed these talents to such a 
degree that they forgot to look after 
his general education and more par- 
ticularly after the development of 
his moral character. His many 
romantic and erotic adventures and 
other escapades gave his family and 
himself many troubles ; but, on the 
other hand, it cannot be denied that 
he redeemed these shortcomings by 
his wonderful gallantry and intre- 
pidity as a soldier. His friendship 
with Dussek, who went (1800) to 
Berlin, is well known. That the 
Prince's talent was great is undeniable, 
for Beethoven, who made his acquaint- 
ance in 1796, said that he did not 
play like a Prince, but like a real 
musician. The Prince, on the other 
hand, was a warm admirer of Beethoven 
(who dedicated his Concerto in C min., 
Op. 37, to the Royal artist). A novel 
by Fanny Lewald, "Prince L. F. of 
Prussia," relates all the most note- 
worthy incidents of his life. 
Quintet in C min., Op. i ; Quartet in E flat, 
Op. 5, and +in F min., Op. 6 ; Trios, Op. 2, 3, 
and 10; Octet (Pf., CI., 2 Horns, 2 Via., 
and 2 V'cellos), Op. 12 ; Rondos with Or- 
chestra; Larghetto, Op. 11; Notturno, Op. 8 
(these two are with accompaniment of 
strings) ; Variations and Fugue, Op. 7. 

Ltibeck, Ernst, b. Aug. 24, 1829, The 
Hague (Holland); d. Sept. 17, 1876, 
Paris. Pupil of his father, he after- 
wards went to Paris. 1850-54, travelled 
in America ; 1854, settled permanently 
in Paris, and gave chamber concerts 
with Lalo, Armingaud, and Jacquard. 
He was a highly popular teacher and 
much admired as a performer. His last 
years were darkened by deep melan- 
cholia, which necessitated his being 
confined in a private asylum. Only a 
few of his pieces were published. 
Souvenir du P^ron, Tarantelle, Berceuse, and 

Lully, Jean Baptiste de, b. 1633, Florence ; 
d. March 22, 1687, Paris. Founder of 
the French National Opera. 



Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinet, 
" Almands, Corants, Sarabands, Airs, 
Minuets, and Jiggs" (Daniel Wright, of 
London, printed, and sold by him). The 
genuineness of these lessons is doubtful. 
*Lutter, Heinrich, b. March i8, 1854, 
Hanover. At first a pupil of C. Herner 
(Hanover), also enjoyed the advice and 
supervision of Dr. von Biilow. 1876-85, 
pupil of Liszt, in Weimar and Pesth. 
In the latter town R. Volkmann was 
his teacher for Composition. His ex- 
cellent performances are everywhere 
cordially received and admired ; and 
his visit to London gave him an 
opportunity of gaining the favourable 
opinion of a critical London audience. 

Lysberg (really Bevy), Charles Samuel 
(known under the nom de plume of 
Lysberg), b. March i, 1821, Geneva; 
d. there Feb. 15, 1873. At first he was 
educated in his native town, then went 
to Paris in order to take lessons from 
Chopin and from Delaire in Harmony. 
For some time Prof, at the Conserv. of 
Geneva. Many of his popular, pleasing, 
and, on the whole, correctly written 
pieces are to be found on the desks of 
lady amateurs. The greatest favourites 
are — 

Sur rOnde, Op. 94 ; Idylle, Op. 64 ; Menuet, 
Op. 60; Deux Nocturnes, Op. 29; La 
Napolitaine, Op. 26; Les Ondines, Op. 90. 


•MacDowell, Edward Alexander, b. Dec. 
18, 1861, New York. Pupil of Desver- 
nire and Madame Carreno (New York), 
Marmontel and Savard (Paris), Louis 
Ehlert, Joachim Raff, Carl Heymann 
and Liszt (Germany). He resides in 
Boston (Mass.), and is one of the fore- 
most American artists of our time. 
Among his compositions, which deserve 
great attention, are — 
Modern Suites, Op. 10 and 14 ; Concerto in 
A min., Op. 15 ; Concerto in D min. ; Sonata 
tragica ; and a considerable number of 
smaller pieces. 

•Macfarren, Sir George Alexander, b. 
March 2, 1813, London; d. there Oct. 
31, 1887. 1829, pupil at the R.A.M., 
under Charles Lucas, W. H. Holmes, 
and Cipriani Potter. 1834, became 
Prof.,and, 1875, Principal of the R. A.M. 
1875, P*rof. of Music at Cambridge 
University. Knighted 1883. His pub- 
lished compositions are : 
Quintet in G min. (for Strings and C.-Bass) ; 
Trio in E min.; Sonatas: No. i in E flat, 
No. 2 in A, No. 3 in Gmin. ; Romanzas : 6 for 
Pf , and 5 for Pf. and Vln. ; Sonata in B flat, 
for Pf. and Fl. (posthumous). Unpublished 
compositions : Concerto in C min. (with 
orchestra); 2 Sonatas (A and C) with Vln., 
and 7 solo Sonatas. 

•Macfarren, Walter Cecil, b. Aug. 28, 

1826, London. 1836-41, chorister at 

Westminster Abbey (under James 

Turle). 1842-46, student at the R.A.M., 

under W. H. Holmes, G. A. Macfarren, 

and Cipriani Potter. 1847, Associate; 

1862, Fellow; from 1848, Prof, of Pf., 

and 1873-80, Conductor of the orchestra 

and choir at the R.A.M. 

Concertstiick in E (with orchestra) ; Concerto 

in B min. (unpublished) ; Trios (3) in C min., 

E min., apd C sharp min. (unpublished) ; 

Sonatas (2) in C sharp min. and A (unpub- 
lished) ; Sonatas (z) in F and D, with Vln. ; 
Sonata in E min., with V'cello ; Suites de 
Pieces (3) ; Caprices (4) ; Allegro appas- 
sionato in A min. ; Allegro cantabile in B ; 
Rondoletto (La Primavera); Rondinos(4); 
Polonaises (2) in D flat and G min. ; 
Scherzos (2) in G and A min. ; Toccata in 
G min.; Illustrations of Tennyson's Heroines 
(6) ; Tarantellas (5) ; Saltarella in A min. ; 
Impromptus (3) ; Gavottes (5) ; Bourrees 
(4) ; Sarabandas (2) ; Valses (9) ; Mazurkas 
(5); Nocturnes (4); Songs; Berceuses (3); 
numerous Romanzas, Pastorales, Esquisses, 
&c. ; 12 Studies (2 sets) in Style and Tech- 
nique. For 4 hands : L'Appassionata in G 
min.. La Gracieuse (Rondo) in A, Andante 
and Bolero, Andante and Scherzo. Piano- 
forte Method, including 36 Original Pro- 
gressive Studies. Editor of Mozart's, 
Bennett's, Beethoven's Sonatas, and of 
Popular Classics (180 numbers), &c. 
'Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Campbell 
(Mus. Doc.), b. Aug. 22, 1847, Edin- 
burgh. At first educated at Schwarz- 
burg-Sondershausen, under Eduard 
Stein (Composition) and W. Ulrich 
(Vln). ; afterwards at the R.A.M. under 
Charles Lucas (Composition), F. B. 
Jewson (Pf.), and Prosper Sainton 
(Vln.). Successor of Sir G. A. Macfarren 
as Principal of the R.A.M. ; Conductor 
of the Philharmonic concerts. Mus. 
Doc. of the Universities of St. Andrew's 
and Cambridge. 1884, received the 
Hessian Gold Medal for Art and 
Science; and, 1893, the Cross of Merit, 
Coburg-Gotha. Knighted 1895. 
Op. 13, 5 pieces ; Op. 15, 3 Morceaux ; Op. 20, 
Hymnus, Ritornello, Reminiscence, Chasse 
aux papillons, Rgverie, Dance ; Op. 21, 
Rhapsodie ^cossaise ; Op. 23, Scenes in the 
Scottish Highlands ; Op. 24, Burns' Second 
Scotch Rhapsody ; Op. 37, 6 pieces with 
Vln. ; the same arranged for Pf. and V'cello ; 
Quartet in E flat, with Vln., Via., and 
V'cello ; Intermezzo (" On the waters ") lor 
4 hands. 



Magnus, D^sir6 (really Magnus Deutz), 
b. June 13, 1828, Brussels; d. Jan., 
1884, Paris. Pupil of VoUweiler 
(Heidelberg) ; later, at the Brussels 
Conserv., where he obtained the first 
prize. Gave concerts in England, 
Russia, Spain, &c. Settled in Paris as 
a teacher, composer, and reporter for 
several journals. Besides drawing- 
room pieces he also composed — 
34 Studies for Velocity and Melody, Op. 190; 
and Grande Senate, Op. 140. His M^thode 
elementaire (1879) became very popular. 

Mangin, Eugene Edouard, b. Dec. 9, 
1837, Paris. Pupil of Marmontel at 
the Conserv., where he gained the 
second prize, 1853, and the first, 1857. 
1872, he founded the Conserv. of Lyons. 

Marcello, Benedetto, b. Aug. i, 1686, 
Venice ; d. July 24, 1739, Brescia. 
Pupil of Lotti and Gasparini. 
Sonatas in C min., G min., F min., E flat, B 
flat, and A. Suites, Preludes, &c. 

Marchand, Jean Louis, b. Feb. 2, 1669, 
Lyons ; d. Feb. 17, 1732, Paris. Pupil 
of his father. 1697 °^ 1698, he went to 
Paris and was appointed Organist of 
the Jesuit Church. He was banished, 
1717, owing to his bad behaviour and 
dissipated habits, and went to Dresden, 
where, in the same year, the well- 
known competition took place between 
him and Sebastian Bach. Some time 
after this event he was allowed to 
return to Paris, where he became 
the most fashionable teacher of the 
Pieces de Clavecin, Paris (Ballard, 1705), and 
Deux Livres de pieces de Clavecin (1718). 

MarkuU, Friedrich Wilhelm, b. Feb. 17, 
1816, Reichenbach (near Elbing) ; d. 
April 30, 1887, Dantzig. Only in 1833 
could he devote himself entirely to the 
study of music. First a pupil of his 
father (an organist), later of Kloss, 
and, 1833-35, of Fr. Schneider (Dessau). 
1836, appointed principal Organist of 
the Marienkirche (Dantzig). He 
worked hard as a teacher, conductor, 
and composer ; was Konigl. Musik- 
Director and Conductor of a male 
choral society. His Pf. pieces testify 
to his being a thorough musician. 
9 pieces, called " Auf der Reise," Op. 45, are 
particularly valuable. His arrangements of 
classical works are very good. 

Marmontel, Antoine Francois, b. Jan. 18, 
1816, Clermont-Ferrand (Puyde Dome). 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv., under 
Zimmermann (Pf.) and Halevy and 
Le Sueur (Composition) ; gained, as 
early as 1832, the first prize. 1848, 
succeeded Zimmermann as Prof, at 
the Conserv., where, until quite lately, 
he was still working. Among his 

pupils were Guiraud, Paladilhe, Duver- 

noy, Jos. Wieniawski, Bizet, Dubois, 

and many others. For many years he 

was one of the authorities of France 

with respect to Pf. playing, and he 

received many distinctions (Legion of 

Honour, &c.). As a composer he was 

most successful in his educational 


La premiere ann^e de musique ; 30 petites 

Etudes m^lodiques. Op. 80; Etudes d'agilit^ 

et d'expression (24), Op. g; (24), Op. 45; 

Ecole de m^canisme. Op. 105, io(5, 107 ; 50 

Etudes de Salon, Op. 108 ; L'Art de d^chiffrer 

k quatre mains, Op. in ; Petite Grammaire 

populaire ; Vade-mecum du professeur de 

Piano ; L'Art classique et moderne dn 

Piano (Advice for young Professors) ; Les 

Pianistes c^lebres (Silhouettes, 1878). 

Marpurg, Friedrich "Wilhelm, b. Oct. i, 
1718, Seehausen (Altmark, Prussia) ; 
d. May 22, 1795, Berlin. 1746, went, 
as secretary of General Rothenburg, 
to Paris, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Rameau and studied his system 
of music. After having returned to 
Germany (Berlin and Hamburg) he 
received a Royal appointment. His 
reputation is chiefly founded on his 
various theoretical works (on thorough 
bass, the fugue, historical and critical 
essays, elementary principles of musical 
theory, &c.) and less on his Composi- 
6 Sonate per il Cembalo, 1756; Fughe e 
Capricci per il Cembalo, ded. to Eman. 
Bach, 1777 ; Die Kunst, das Clavier zu 
spielen, Vol. L, 1750, Vol. H., 1755 (3 editions 
published) ; Anleitung zum Clavierspielen, 
&c. (with 18 copper-plates), 1765 ; Clavier- 
stiicke fiir Anfanger und Geiibtere (Pieces 
for beginners and for those more advanced), 
3 parts, 1762-63. 

M arschner, Heinrich (August) , b. Aug. 16, 
1795, Zittau (Saxony) ; d. Dec. 14, 1861, 
Hanover. Pupil of Schicht (Leipzig). 
After having been appointed teacher 
and conductor in Pressburg and Leip- 
zig, he settled (1831) in Hanover as 
Hof-Capellmeister, where he worked 
for 28 years, and received (1859) his 
pension, with the title of General 
Musik-Director. His fame rests on 
his dramatic works; but as his Pf. 
compositions were in their time very 
popular, it is but right to mention 
them — 
Grande Sonate, Op. 6; 4 Polonaises (4 mains). 
Op. 13 ; 3 Grandes Marches (4 mains). Op. 
16; 3 Rondeaux agr^ables et progressives 
in C, G, and F, Op. 19-21 ; 3 Scherzi a 4 
mains. Op. 28 ; Premier grand Trio, Op. 29 ; 
Esquisses caracteristiques, Op. 49; "La 
Belle Prude," Introduction and Rondo, Op. 
57 ; Capriccio scherzando, Op. 59. 

Martini, Padre Gian-Battista, b. April 
25, 1706, Bologna ; d. there, Oct. 3, 
1784. Pupil of his father (Vln.), Padre 



Predieri (Clavecin and Singing), and 
of Riccieri (Counterpoint). 1725, 
Organist of the Franciscan Church. 
Member of the Accademia del Filar- 
monici (Bologna) and of the Arcadici 
12 Sonatas for Organ (Clavicembalo ?), Amster- 
dam, 1738-1742. Sonate d'intavolatura per 
rOrgano e Cembalo (Op. 2), Bologna, 1747. 
New editions appeared in dementi's 
" Practical Harmony " (4 Sonatas in Vol. II., 
gin Vol. IV.), and in Farrenc's " Tresor du 
Pianiste" (12 Sonatas). 
Martucci, Giuseppe, b. Jan. 6, 1856, 
Capua. Son of a bandmaster, who gave 
him his first instruction. 1867-72, pupil 
at theConserv. of Naples, of Cesi (Pf.), 
Carlo Costa (Harmony), and Paolo 
Serras and Lauro Rossi (Counterpoint). 
1875, he visited London and Dublin ; 
1878, went to Paris, where he intro- 
duced several of his works with great 
success. 1880, appointed Prof, at the 
Naples Conserv., Director of theSocieta 
del Quartette, and Conductor of the 
Orchestral Concerts. 1886, appointed 
Director of the Liceo Musicale of 
Bologna, which post he still holds. 
Sonata (prima). Op. 34; Fantasia for 2 Pf., 
Op. 32 ; Sonata with Vln., Op. 22 ; Trio in 
C, Op. 59 (which received the Milan prize, 
1883) ; Capriccio di Concerto, Op. 24 ; 
Fugues, Op. 14, 18, and 28 ; Studio di Con- 
certo, Op. 9 ; 7 Caprices, and about 20 
smaller pieces ; also Quintet with strings ; 
2 Concertos. 
*Marx, Berthe, b. July 28, 1859, Paris. 
Daughter of a violoncellist. Showed 
most remarkable talent when only 3 
years old. 1868, Auber (Director of 
the Conserv.) was so encnanted with 
her pla5dng that he admitted her as a 
pupil without the usual preliminary 
examinations — a favour rarely accorded 
to students. First a pupil of Madame 
Retz. Gained the solfege and harmonie 
prizes and medals for Pf. playing. 
Then the (favourite and last) pupil of 
Henri Herz. Gained the first prize of the 
Conserv. when only 15. Has appeared 
in France and Belgium with great 
success. Since 1885 has played in 
association with Senor Sarasate at 
some 400 concerts in Continental 
towns and at 75 concerts in America. 
For the last 5 years has appeared both 
in London and in the provinces at 
Senor Sarasate's recitals. 1894, she 
married Otto Goldschmidt, secretary 
and accompanist to Seiior Sarasate. 
Marxsen, Eduard, b. July 23, 1806, 
Nienstadten (near Altona) ; d. Nov. 18, 
1887, Altona. Pupil of Jacob Schmitt 
and Clasing (Hamburg), of Booklet for 
Pf. and Sey fried for Composition 
(Vienna). After having finished his 

studies, he settled at Hamburg, re- 
ceiving (1875) the title of Konigl. 
Musik-Director. Among his pupils 
were Johannes Brahms, H. Boje, and 
Louis Bodecker (b. 1845 at Hamburg). 
He composed and published a con- 
siderable number of Pf. pieces, some 
of which enjoyed a certain popularity 
between 1840-50, but are now almost 
Masek (Mcischek), Vincent, b. April 5, 
1755, Zwikovec (Bohemia) ; d. Nov. 15, 
1 83 1, Prague. Pupil of Franz Duschek 
(who must not be confused with Johann 
Ludwig Dussek) and Seeger- He was 
an excellent pianist and clever per- 
former on the " Harmonika " (Har- 
monium). Mozart, when visiting 
Prague, spoke with decided approval 
of Maschek's musical abilities. 
Concertos, Sonatas, and several pieces for the 

♦Mason, Dr. Wilham, b. Jan. 24, 1829, 
Boston ; third son of Dr. Lowell Mason 
(one of the founders of the well-known 
harmonium manufactory. Mason and 
Hamlin). He played as early as 1846 
at concerts ; continued his studies in 
America till 1849, then went to Leipzig, 
where he entered the Conserv. and had 
lessons from Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
and Richter. After leaving Leipzig he 
went to Alex. Dreyschock (Prague) and 
spent part of the years 1853-4 i° 
Weimar with Liszt, where H. von 
Billow, C. Klindworth and Dionys 
Pruckner were his fellow pupils. 1853, 
he played twice in London ; 1854, 
returned to America and gave Pf. 
recitals in Chicago and most of the 
larger cities. He settled eventually in 
New York, where he is a most suc- 
cessful, esteemed, and popular teacher. 
1872, he received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Music from Yale College. 
The following compositions are con- 
sidered his best by the composer him- 
Op. 4, Amitie pour moi ; Op. 6, Silverspring : 
Op. 12, Ballade in B; Op. 13, Monody 
in B flat ; Op. 20, Springdawn, Mazurka 
Caprice; Op. 24, Rgverie po^tique; Op. 34, 
Berceuse ; Op. 39, Serenata ; Op. 41, Scherzo. 
A Method for the Pf., by Mason and 
Hoadley ; System for Beginners, &c., by 
Mason and Hoadley : Mason's Pf. Tech- 
nics; Touch and Technic, in 4 parts, for 
artistic Pf. playing. 
•Massart, Louise Aglae (n«« Masson), b. 
June 10, 1827, Paris; d. there, July 26, 
1887. Pupil of Madame Coche (1838) 
and of Louis Adam (1839) at the Con- 
serv. 1875, appointed Prof, as suc- 
cessor of Madame F"arrenc. Was 
highly esteemed for her excellent and 



successful teaching. Madame Roger- 
Miclos and Mdlle. C. Kleeberg were 
among her pupils. With her husband, 
the eminent violinist, Lambert Joseph 
M. (1811-92), she composed — 
Duets on themes from Weber's " Freischiitz" 
and Rossini's " Comte Ory." 

Massenet, Jules (Emile Frederic), b. 
May 12, 1842, Montaud, near St. 
iitienne (Loire). Pupil at the Paris 
Conserv., of Laurent (Pf), Reber 
(Harmony), and Ambroise Thomas 
(Composition). 1863, he received the 
Prix de Rome. He is a Membre de 
I'lnstitut, Officier de la Legion 
d'Honneur, and, since 1878, Prof, of 
Composition at the Paris Conserv. 
(as successor of Bazin). His best 
known and most popular pieces are — 
Le Roman d'Arlequin; Aragonaisedu" Cid"; 
Sarabande espagnole, du XVI. siecle ; Im- 
provisations, 20 pieces en 3 livres; 7 pieces 
de genre, Op. 10; Scenes de Bal,7 morceaux 
a 4 mains. Op. 17; Scenes pittoresques ; 
Scenes hongroises (and Suite). 

'Mattel, Tito, b. May 24, 1841, Campo- 
basso (near Naples). Pupil of his 
father, Alfonso M., Luigi Maggoni, 
Parisi, Ruta, Conti, and Thalberg. 
1852 (when 11), was created "Professore 
deir Accademia di Santa Cecilia" in 
Rome; later, "Membro" della Societa 
dei Quiriti, Societa Filarmonica di 
Firenze e Torino. He received a 
" Medaglia speciale d'oro " for playing 
before Pope Pius IX. ; was named 
Pianist to the King of Italy, and 
received, besides other decorations, the 
Order of Knighthood of SS. Maurizio 
e Lazare. The most popular of his 
numerous compositions for Pf. — mostly 
intended for the drawing-room — is the 
well-known " Grande Valse." He has 
resided for some years in London. 
^ *Matthay, Tobias Augustus, b. Feb. 19, 
1858, Clapham (London). Pupil of. 
Sterndale Bennett, Sullivan, and Prout 
for Composition, and of Dorrell and 
Walter C. Macfarren for Pf. 1871, 
he was elected to the first Sterndale 
Bennett Scholarship; gained, 1879, 
the annual medal and the "Reed" 
prize for a Piano Quartet ; 1876-80, 
sub-Prof., and, 1880, Prof, at the 
R.A.M. Composer of a good deal of 
chamber music and a great number of 
solo pieces, of which the following 
have met with considerable success : 
17 Variations on] an original theme ; A 

Summer Day Dream ; Moods of a Moment ; 

A Waltz-Whim ; Love Phases (3) ; Mono. 

themes (6); Scottish Dances (4); Lyrics (7)_ 

Mattheson, Johann, born Sept. 28, 1681, 
Hamburg; d. there April 17, 1764. 
Pupil of Jacob Pratorius. 1697, he 

appeared as a tenor sitter; 1699, as a 
composer, singer, and conductor (?) in 
his opera, " Die Plejaden." 1705, 
tutor to the English Ambassador's son, 
with whom he travelled. 1706, ap- 
pointed Councillor of Legation, and, 
later, "Resident" (a kind of sub- 
Ambassador). 1715, Mus. Dir. and 
Canon (Canonicus) of the Hamburger 
Dom (Cathedral), which post he re- 
signed (1728) on account of increasing 
deafness. His marvellous industry is 
not only shown in his highly important 
literary works, but also in the number 
of Operas (8), Oratorios (24), Can- 
tatas, &c., that he composed. 
Sonate pour le Clavecin, dedieea qui lajouera 
le mieux, London, 1714 ; Monument-har- 
monique, 12 Suites pour le Clavecin, 
London, 1714 (a most important collection, 
which deserves entire re-publication). Die 
musikalische Fingersprache ; Fugues (2 
parts), 1735 and 1737; 9 Fughe per il 
Cembalo o fOrgano. 
'Matthias (Mathias), Georges Amedee 
Saint-Clair, b. Oct. 14, 1826, Paris. 
Pupil of Kalkbrenner ; later, for 4 
years, of Chopin ; also pupil at the 
Paris Conserv., under Halevy, for 
Composition. Was appointed Prof. 
(1862-87). Knight of the Legion of 
Honour, Commander (de numero) of 
the Spanish Order Isabella la Catho- 
lique, and the Saxe-Coburg medal for 
6 Trios for Pf., Vln., and V'cello, Op. i, 15, 
33, 36, 50, and 60 ; 5 morceaux symphoniques 
pour Pf., Vln., V'cello, Op. 30; Sonata for 
Pf. and Vln., Op. 68; Sonatas (Pf. solo) in B 
min., Op. 20 ; in F, Op. 35 ; Concerto, 
Op. 21 ; Second Concerto, Op. 57 ; Allegro 
appassionato. Op. 5 ; Allegro symphonique. 
Op. 51; 12 Pieces symphoniques, Op. 58; 
10 Etudes de genre. Op. 10; Etudes de style 
et de m^canisme. Op. 28 (2 books). The 
most popular of his shorter pieces are: 
Nocturne et Barcarolle, Op. 3 ; Feuilles du 
printemps. Op. 8 and i;? ; 2"° ScherzOi 
Op. 63 ; 2Pensees; Ballatina. 
Mayer, Charles, b. March 21, 1799, 
Konigsberg (Prussia) ; d. July 2, 1862, 
Dresden. His father, an excellent CI. 
player, was for four years Capellmeister 
in St. Petersburg, then went to Moscow, 
where his wife taught Pf . and singing ; 
she first instructed her highly-gifted 
son, but later entrusted his education 
to John Field, whose pupil he remained 
until 1814. He made his first tour in 
the same year, visiting Warsaw, Ger- 
many, Holland, and France with great 
success. 1819, he returned, being 
then at the height of his career as a 
performer and teacher, to St. Peters- 
burg. 1845, he made a second journey, 
which embraced Stockholm (where he 
was elected Hon. Member of the 
Royal Academy of Music), Copenhagen 



(where the King appointed him Pianist 
to the Danish Court), Hamburg, 
Leipzig, and Vienna. In 1846, dis- 
inchned to return to the Russian 
capital, where Adolph Henselt had 
meanwhile come to the front, he 
settled in Dresden, and remained 
there till his death, working as a com- 
poser, performer, and teacher. Of his 
playing a contemporary says: "His 
style was that of the older Pf. 
school, much resembling that of John 
Field ; his execution was exceedingly 
clear, delicate, even, and particularly 
brilliant in every technical detail." 
The same qualities distinguish his 
numerous and effective compositions, 
which are well and smoothly written. 
Studies: 6 Studies, Op. 31; 3 Grand Studies 
(No. 2, Tremolo ; No. 3, Fsharp, Le ruisseau). 
Op. 61 ; Grand Studies {3), Op. 91 ; (3), Op. 
92 ; 12 melodious Studies, Op. 93 ; 6 Etudes- 
Fantaisies, Op. 100; 12 Grand Studies (Fiir 
hohere Ausbildung), Op. 119; 6 melodious 
Studies, Op. 149; 40 Studies (4 books). Op. 
168 ; La Velocite, Op. 177 ; Ecole de la 
velocite (24 Studies), Op. 200 ; 20 technical 
Studies, Op. 271 ; L'Art de delier les doigts. 
Op. 305 ; 25 easy Studies, Op, 340. Other 
compositions: Grand Concerto, Op. 70; 
Concerto Symphonique, Op. 89 ; Allegro de 
Concert, Op. 51 ; (2nd), Op. 60 ; Allegro di 
Bravura, Op 102 ; Grand Fantaisie 
dramatique. Op. 54 ; Concert ' ..onaise. Op. 
238; Valses Etudes, Op. fr , 71, i83, 116, 
122, +131, ti33, 157 ; Toccata in E. Educa- 
tional Pieces: Op. 121, Jugendbliithen (24); 
Op. 140, Immortelles (24); Op. 165, Flora 
(100); Op. 166, Mosaique (24 romantic 
pieces); Op. 106, Myrthen (12). 
Megiio, Vincenzo de, b. April g, 1825, 
Naples. Pupil of Pasquale Mugnone ; 
later of Francesco Lauza. He com- 
posed a considerable number of elegant 
and effective pieces. 
Mehlig, Anna, b. July 11, 1840, Stutt- 
gart. Pupil of Lebert, and, 1869, of 
Liszt. She is decidedly the most suc- 
cessful and best-known pupil of the 
" Stuttgart" School. 1869-70, she met 
with great success in America, and was 
on various occasions received with 
great favour in England. Since her 
marriage with a merchant (Falk) of 
Antwerp she has more or less retired 
from public life. 
Mehul, Etienne Nicolas (not Henri), b. 
June 22, 1763, Givet (Ardennes) ; d. 
Oct. 18, 1817, Paris. Pupil of Wilhelm 
Hauser. Organist in the convent of 
Lavaldieu. 1778, he went to Paris. 
He is well-known as a dramatic com- 
3 Sonatas, Op. i, for Pf. solo: 3 for Pf. and 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (Jacob Lud- 
wig), Felix, b. Feb. 3, 1809, Hamburg; 
d. Nov. 4, 1847, Leipzig. 1812, his 

father changed his residence and settled 
in Berlin. At first a pupil of his mother, 
later of Ludvdg Berger (Pf.) and 
Zelter (Theory). 1818, he played for 
the first time in public ; accompanied 
his father, 1816, to Paris, where he had 
lessons from Madame Bigot. 1829, he 
visited England for the first time, and 
paid further visits in 1832, 1833, 1837, 
1840, 1842, 1844, and 1846. Mendels- 
sohn's beautiful, intellectual, and 
thoroughly musical Pf. playing was 
everywhere listened to with rapture, 
and his improvisations were not less 
admired. He was Member of the 
Academy of Science (Berlin), Member 
of the " Ordre pour le merite," and 
Hon. Doc. Phil, of the University of 
Leipzig (1836). 1843, he founded the 
Conserv. of Leipzig, in which he took 
an active part as a teacher. The King 
of Prussia conferred on him the title 
of Koniglich preussischer General 
With Orchestra : Concertos : Op. 25, in G mln. 
(1832); Op. 40, in D min. (1837); Capriccio 
in B min., Op. 22 (1832); Rondo brillant 
in E fiat. Op. 29 (1834) ; Serenade and 
Allegro giojoso in B and D, Op. 43 (1838). 
Chamber Music: Sextuor for Pf., Vln., 
2 via., V'cello, and C.-Bass, in D, Op. 
no (Posth.); Quartet for Pf., Vln., Via., 
and V'cello, in C min , Op. t (1822); ditto, 
in F min.. Op. 2 (1823); ditto, in B min.. 
Op. 3 (1824). Trios for Pf., Vln., and 
V'cello, in D min.. Op. 49 (1839); •" C 
min., Op. 66 (1845). Sonatas for Pf. and Vln., 
in F min.. Op. 4 ; for Pf. and V'cello (No. 
J), in B flat. Op. 45 (1838); (No. 2), in D, 
Op. 58 (1843); Variations concertantes for 
Pf. and V'cello, in D, Op. 17 (1829) ; Song 
without words for Pf. and V'cello, in D, 
Op. 109 (Posth.). Solo music: Sonatas in 
E, Op. 6 (1826); in G min.. Op. 105 (Posth.); 
in B flat. Op. 106 (Posth.). Capriccio in F 
sharp min., Op. 5 (1825); 7 Characteristic 
Pieces, Op. 7 (1824-28) ; Rondo capriccioso in 
E, Op. 14 ; rantasia in E, Op. 15 ; 3 Caprices 
or Fantasias in A min., E min., and E, 
Op. 16 (1829) ; Fantasia in F sharp min., 
Op. 28 (1833); 3 Caprices in A min. (1834), 
E (1835), and B flat min. (1833), Op. 33. 6 
Preludes and Fugues, Op. 35: No. i, m E 
inin.. Prelude (1837), Fugue; No. 2, in D, 
J'relude (1836), Fugue (1837) ; No. 3, in B 
min., Prelude (1836), Fugue (1832); No. 4, 
in A flat. Prelude (1837), Fugue (1835); No. 
5, in F min.. Prelude (1836), Fugue, 1834; 
No. 6, in B flat, Prelude (1837), Fugue 
(1836). Variations sdrieuses, in D min., 
Op. 54 (1841) ; 6 Christmas Pieces, Op. 72; 
Variations in E flat. Op. 82(1841); ditto, in B 
flat, Op. 83(1841); 3 Preludes, B flat, Bmin., 
and D, and 3 Studies, B flat min, F, and A 
min.. Op. 104 ; Albumblatt in E min.. Op. 1 17 ; 
Capriccio in E, Op. 118 ; Perpetuum mobile 
in C, Op. iiQ. Songs without words: Book 
I., Op. 19, E, A min.. A, A, F sharp min., 
G min. (1830); Book II., Op. 30, E flat (1834), 
B flat min., E, B min. (1834), D (1833), F 
sharp min.; Book III., Op. 38, E flat, C 
min., E, A, A min. (1837), A flat ; Book IV., 
Op. 53, A flat, E flat, G min., F, A min. 
(1841), A (1841); Book v.. Op. 62, G (1844), 
B flat (1843), E min. (1843), G (1843), A mm., 



A (1843); Book VI., Op. 67, E flat (1844), 
F sharp min. (1839), B flat (1845), C (1843), 
B min. (1844), E; Book VII., Op. 85, F, A 
min. (i8h4), E flat, D (1845), A (1845), B flat 
(1841); Book VIII., Op. loj, E min., D, C, 
G min., A, C. Prelude (1841) : Fugue in E 
min. (1827) ; Andante cantabiie and Presto 
agitato (1838); Study, F min., and Scherzo, 
B min. (1836); Scherzo a Capriccio, F sharp 
min. ; 2 Pieces, B flat and G min. ; Gondo- 
liera in A. For 4 hands: Andante and 
Variations in B flat. Op. 83 (1844 ?) ; Allegro 
brillante in A, Op. 92 (1841). 
"M enter, Sophie.daughter of the excellent 
violoncellist, Joseph M. (1808-56); b. 
July 29, 1848, Munich, where she was 
at first a pupil of Schonchen ; later, of 
L. Lebert (with Stark, founder of the 
Stuttgart Conserv.) and Niest. 1863, 
she appeared for the first time in 
public ; 1867, she created an unusual 
furore in Frankfort o/M ; in Leipzig ; 
the same year, she made the acquaint- 
ance of Charles Tausig, who persuaded 
her to become his pupil in Berlin. 
1869, she met Liszt in Vienna, who 
took the warmest interest in her career, 
encouraged and assisted her in every 
way, and often declared that " many 
call themselves my artistic children, 
but I recognise in Sophie Menter the 
only legitimate child of my muse." 
1872, she married the famous violon- 
cellist, Popper, which union was 
dissolved in 1886. The Prince of 
Hohenzollern appointed her Court 
Pianist; 1868, the University of 
Utrecht elected her Hon. Student, the 
King of Sweden bestowed a decoration 
on her, the Emperor of Austria ap- 
pointed her Imperial Court Pianist, 
and the Conserv. of Prague gave her 
the title of " Hon. Prof." 1878, she 
accepted the post of Prof, at the 
Conserv. of St. Petersburg, but resigned 
in 1 88 1. She is received with great 
enthusiasm wherever she appears. 
Her greatest merits are : never-failing 
clearness, accuracy and correctness of 
execution, nobility of feeling, tender- 
ness and warmth of expression. Her 
technical execution baffles description. 
She resides at her castle Itter, in the 
Tyrol. Her most distinguished pupil 
is Wassily Sapellnikoff. 
Mereaux, Jean Amedee le Froid de, b. 
1803, Paris; d. April 25, 1874, Rouen. 
Pupil of his father and Reicha. 1835, 
he settled in Rouen, and was most 
successful and popular as a teacher. 
Here he composed 5 books of Grandes 
Etudes, which were approved by the 
musical section of the Institut de 
France, and used at the Paris Conserv. 
1858, he was elected a Member of the 
Academy of Science, Rouen, and later 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
An excellent pianist, but best known 
as the editor of the valuable publica- 
tion — 
"Les Clavecinistes de 1637 k 1790. CEuvres 
choisies, classdes dans leur ordre chrono- 
logique, revues, doigtees et accentudes avec 
les agrements et ornements du temps, 
traduits en toutes notes." (Paris, 1867.) 
Merkel, Gustav Adolf, b. Nov. 12, 
1827, Oberoderwitz, near Zittau ; d. 
Oct. 29-30, 1885, Dresden. Pupil of 
Julius Otto (Counterpoint), Schneider 
(Organ), and Reissiger. R. Schumann 
also took great interest in his career. 
1864, Hof-Organist, and, since 1861, 
Prof, at the Dresden Conserv. 
Op. 81, Bagatelles (4) ; Op. 82, Tonbliithen (4) ; 
Op. 91, Haideroschen ; Op. 92, Tarantelle; 
Op. 112, Polonaise; Op. 113, Impromptu; 
Op. 119, Reigen; Op. 120, Lenz und Liebe 
(5 pieces, +Nos. 1 and 5); Op. 121, Canta- 
biie ; Op. 125, 4 easy Sonatinas ; Op. 126, 2 
Sonatinas; Op. 136, 2 instructive Sonatinas; 
Op. 154, 2 Rondos ; Op. 161, Lyrische Blatter 
(+Nos. I and 4); Op. 180, Skizzen; Op. 181, 
Miniatur bilder (3 pieces). 
•Mertke, Eduard, b. June 17, 1833, Riga. 
Pupil of his father, later of S. v. Lutzau 
(Pf.) and Agthe (Theory). He per- 
formed in public when only in his tenth 
year. 1850, he went to St. Petersburg; 
where \ 1 was well received by A. 
Henselt SnA the violinist, Maurer, his 
concerts in St. Petersburg and Moscow 
meeting with undoubted success. 1853, 
he went to Leipzig and entered the 
Conserv. David, recognising his ability 
as a violinist, placed him among the 
first violinists in the Gewandhaus 
Concerts orchestra. He retained this 
post for six years. 1859, he made a tour 
as a pianist in Scandinavia. After his 
return tp Leipzig he was appointed, 
i860, Mus. Dir. at Wesserling (Alsace). 
When he left this small town he settled 
in Lucerne for four years. 1865 (Sept.), 
he went to Freiburg, but musical affairs 
being in a very unsettled state there, 
he gladly accepted the invitation of 
Vinzenz Lachner to establish himself 
as a teacher and performer in Mann- 
heim. 1869, appointed Prof, at the 
Cologne Conserv., which post he still 
holds (1893). Taking great interest in 
educational matters, he published the 
valuable work — 
Technical exercises for mechanism, ornamen- 
tation, and rhythm, and School of Octaves. 
He edited the Concerted Pieces of Mendels- 
sohn, Weber, and Hummel, with a 
compressed score for second Pf. He also 
edited Chopin's works, and published para- 
phrases of Wagner's operas, 12 transcrip- 
tions of Songs by Schumann, Impromptus a 
la Valse on Songs by Schubert, " Ukrainische 
Melodien," &c. Composer of Op. 8, Suite 
in G min. ; Op. 7, 4 pieces ; Op. 23, Nocturne 
and Valse. 



Meyer, Leopold von, b. Dec. 20, 1816, 
Baden (near Vienna) ; d. March 5-6. 
1883, Dresden. Pupil of Czemy and 
Fischhof. His wonderfully graduated 
touch, delicacy, and elegance of per- 
formance created not only in Vienna, 
but also in Russia, America, &c., a 
great sensation. With regard to force 
he was unrivalled, without ever injur- 
ing his instrument. As a composer 
he is insignificant. His writings dis- 
play a lamentable want of correctness, 
which, however, did not prevent his 
Waltzes and Polkas, when played by 
him, electrifying his audiences in all 
parts of the world. As a performer 
he was demonstrative to such a degree 
that the risible muscles of the audience 
were frequently called into activity. 
His specialty being light music and 
dances, it is intelligible that the 
cljissical style should be entirely 
opposed to his nature. His most 
popular compositions were: — 
Op. 21, Nocturne ; Op. 22, Machmudier, Air 
guerrier des Turcs; Op. 23, Bajazeth, Air 
national des Turcs ; Op. 45, +Air boh^mien 
russe; Op. 124, Air turque de Nedjies 
Pasha; Op. 180, Souvenir de Vienne, Valse; 
the tGrillen and tPepita Polkas. 

•Micheux, Georges, b. 1805, Laibach 
(Illyria); d. Sept. i, 1892, at the 
Chateau de Villeroy, belonging to his 
patroness. Countess de Vaucouleur. 
He received his musical education in 
Vienna, where he enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Franz Schubert. 1848, he 
settled in Paris, teaching and com- 
posing, but having to contend with 
many adversities. His best known 
compositions, mostly elegant and 
showy drawing-room pieces, are — 
Echos de Hongrie, Op. 50 ; 6 Melodies 
sympathiques. Op. 112. 

Mihalovich, Edmund von, b. Sept. 13, 
1842, Fericsaucze (Croatia). Studied 
at the College of Pesth, had lessons in 
harmony from Mosonyi (1814-70). 
1865, went to Leipzig; was instructed 
in Composition by Hauptmann, and, 
later, by Biilow (Pf), at Munich. His 
compositions belong to the New 
German School ; his Ballades obtained 
a very considerable success. He 
resides at Pesth. 

•Mikuli, Carl, b. Oct. 22, 1821, Czemo- 
witz (Bukowina), where he was first 
educated. 1839, he went to Vienna to 
study medicine ; but his desire to 
become a musician was so great, and 
his talent for Pf. playing and Com- 
position so decided, he finally devoted 
himself entirely to the study of music. 
1844, he went to Paris, and became 

Chopin's pupil, while Reber instructed 
him in Composition. The political 
events of 1848 obliged him to leave Paris 
and to return to his native place. He 
then made several professional journeys 
through Russia, Roumania, and 
Galicia. His success in the latier 
country Wcis so great that, in 1858, he 
was appointed Director of the Lemberg 
Conserv., which post he held until 

1888, when he himself founded a music 
school which is attended by 172 pupils 

1889, the Emperor of Austria conferred 
on him the Order of Francis JosejJR. 
He published an edition of Chopin's 
works (Leipzig : Kistner) , for which he 
had the great privilege of using all the 
marks made by Chopin in Mikuli's 
copies. The preface to this edition is 
of great interest and undoubted im- 
portance with respect to Chopin's 
style of playing and method of teach- 
ing. Mikuli is an excellent pianist, 
and his compositions, although great'y 
influenced by his master, are of con- 
siderable merit and interest. 

Op. 2, 3, 4, 10, and II, Mazourkas ; Op. 8, 2 
Polonaises; Op. 9, 6 Pieces: i. Prelude; 
2, Agitato ; 3, +Etude ; 4, Lied ; 5, Scherzino ; 
6, Reverie. Op. 12, Etude ; Op. 13, 6 Danses 
allemandes ; Op. 18, Valses ; Op. 19, 2 
Nocturnes; Op. 20, Valse; Op. 21, Ballade; 
Op. Si, 10 pieces (2 books) ; Op. 14, Medita- 
tion, and Op. 15, tAndante con Variazioni 
(both for 4 hands) ; Op. 22, Serenade for Pf. 
and CI. Arrangements of orchestral parts 
for a second Pf. of Chopin's Op. 2, Varia- 
tions; Op. II, Concerto, No. i; Op. 13, 
Grande Fantaisie ; Op. 14, Krakowiak ; Op. 
21, Concerto, No. 2; Op. 22, Polonaise. 
The edition of the well-known Nocturne 
(Op. 9, No. 2, in E flat), with Chopin's 
authentic ornaments, is of great interest. 

Mills, Sebastian Bach, b. March 13, 
1838, Cirencester (Gloucestershire). 
At first a pupil of his father, later 
(1856-59) of Plaidy and Moscheles at 
the Conserv. of Leipzig. 1859, went 
to America, where his playing met 
with so much success that he resolved 
to settle in New York, where he is 
still one of the most popular and 
admired performers and, as a teacher, 
very successful. He published several 
effective pieces. 

Mockwitz, Friedrich, b. March 5, 1785, 
Lauterbach near Stolpen (Saxony) ; d. 
1849, Dresden. At first his parents 
desired him to study law, but soon 
yielded to his wish to devote himself 
to music. He settled in Dresden and 
was highly successful as a teacher. 
Since i8og his name has become 
favourably known as an experienced 
arranger of overtures, symphonies, 
quintets, and quartets of the classical 



masters. His arrangements are prac- 
tical, effective, and keep closely to the 
original text. 
Moniuszko, Stanislaus, b. May 5, i8ig, 
Ubiel, Minsk (an estate belonging to 
his father) ; d. June 4, 1872, Warsaw. 
Pupil of the organist Freyer, of "War- 
saw, and (1837-39) of Rungenhagen in 
Berlin. After struggling hard to earn 
a livelihood as a teacher, he became 
Organist in Wilna. Was afterwards 
appointed Conductor of the Opera, 
and lastly Prof, at the Conserv. at 
Warsaw. A Polonaise of his became 
generally known, and it may be men- 
tioned that Tausig (Op. 2) composed 
a Fantasia on his Opera " Halka." 

Montigny-Remaury, Fanny Marceline 
Caroline, b. Jan. 22, 1843, Pamiers, 
Ariege. Pupil of Le Couppey. Ex- 
cellent performer, who visited London 
on various occasions, where her per- 
formances met with as great a success 
as in Paris, where her name is well 

Mortier de Fontaine {see Fontaine). 

Moscheles, Ignaz, b. May 30, 1794, 
Prague ; d. March 10, 1870, Leipzig. 
Pupil of Dionys Weber. He was able 
to play a Concerto of his own compo- 
sition in public when only 14 years 
old. Soon after this first success he 
lost his father. With considerable 
reluctance his mother consented to 
send him to Vienna, where he was a 
pupil of Albrechtsberger and Salieri, 
whilst Beethoven took great interest 
in his progress. Sincere friendship 
connected him with Hummel and 
Meyerbeer, both at this time in 
Vienna. 1816, he undertook a pro- 
fessional tour to Munich, Dresden, 
and Leipzig. 1820, went to Paris, 
where he created a great furore. 
1821, he settled in London; became 
a Director of the Philharmonic Society 
and Prof, at the R.A.M. Repeated 
journeys to the Continent brought 
him into contact with Mendelssohn, 
Schumann, and almost all the leading 
artists. Mendelssohn's devotion to 
Moscheles is as well known as 
Schumann's respect for his admirable 
qualities. When Mendelssohn founded 
the Leipzig Conserv. he was anxious 
to secure Moscheles as a teacher. 
The latter complied with his friend's 
wish, left London (1846), and settled 
in Leipzig, where he was actively 
working until a few days before his 
death. His pupils were very numerous, 
and came from every European and 

American town to profit by his sound 
and vast experience. His playing was 
very brilliant, full of fire and energy, 
and sharply rhythmicized. His com- 
positions may be classified in two 
distinct categories — the popular and 
the educational. Of the first almost 
all the different works have been for- 
gotten, whilst the second form a most 
important contribution to the classical 
literature of the Pf. His best works 

Concerto (G min.), Op. 58; Concerto (C), 
Op. 87; Concerto Fantastique (B flat), 
Op. 90. Concertos less known are : Op. 45, 
56, 64, 93, and 96; Souvenir d'Irlande, Op. 
69; Sextuor for Pf., Vln., Fl., 2 Hns., 
V'cello, andC.-Bass, Op. 35; Sonata for Pf. 
and V'cello, Op. 121 ; Hommage a Handel 
(2 Pf.), Op. 92 ; Duo Concertante (2 Pf.) on 
Weber's "Preciosa" (with Mendelssohn), 
Op. 87b; Les Contrastes (2 Pf., 8 hands), 
Op. 115 ; Sonata in E fiat (4 hands), Op. 47 ; 
Sonata Symphonique in B min. (4 hands), 
Op. 112; 24 Characteristic Studies, Op. 70; 
12 Characteristic Studies, Op. 95; 50 Pre- 
ludes, Op. 73 ; 4 Etudes de Concert, Op. in ; 
2 Studies for the Beethoven Album, Op. 
105 ; 2 Studies I'Ambition, I'Enjouement ; 
Sonate Melancolique, F sharp min.. Op. 49; 
La Tenerezza, Rondo, Op. 52 ; Les Charmes 
de Paris, Op. 54 ; Cadenzas for Beethoven's 
Concertos. The works up to Op. 80 were 
published before 1830. His works reach the 
Opus number 142. 

Moszkowski, Moritz, b. Aug. 23, 1854, 
Breslau where he received his first 
instruction. His father took him later 
to Dresden, where he entered the 
Conserv., and afterwards to Berlin, 
where he became a pupil of Kullak 
(Pf.) and Wiierst (Composition). 1873, 
he gave his first Concert, in which he 
created an unusual furore by his ex- 
cellent, brilliant, technically finished, 
and elegant playing, and not less by 
the originality, freshness, and melo- 
diousness of his compositions, which 
at once procured for the highly gifted 
young artist a rare popularity. His 
most celebrated compositions are — 
Op. 5, Hommage a Schumann; Op. 15, 6 
Pieces : tSerenade, Arabeske, Mazurka, 
Canon, Walzer, +Barcarole; Op. 17, 3 
Pieces: Polonaise, tMinuet, and Walzer; 
Op. 18, 5 Pieces: Melodic, -fScherzino, 
+Etude, NIarcia, Polonaise; Op. 24,3 Con- 
cert Studies (+No. 2, Les vagues) ; Op. 27, 
Barcarole and +Tarantelle; Op. 28,5 Minia- 
tures; Op. 36, 8 Pieces: Pidce Rococo, 
Reverie, ^ Expansion, +En automne. Air de 
Ballett, tEtincelles, Valse sentimentale. 
Piece rustique ; Op. 37, Caprice Espagnol ; 
Op. 42, 3 Morceaux poetiques ; Valse in A flat ; 
Suite, Op. 50. Duets: tOp. 8, 5 Waltzes; 
lOp. 12, Spanish Dances; +Op. 21, Album 
Espagnol ; +Op. 23, From foreign parts ; 
Op. 25, German Rounds ; Op. 33, 4 Duets 
(Kindermarsch, tHumoreske, tTarantella, 

Mozart, Leopold, b. Nov. 14, 1719, 
Augsburg; d. May 28, 1787, Salzbuig. 



Son of a bookbinder. He devoted 
himself to music. 1743, became Hof- 
musikus to the Archbishop of Salz- 
burg, and (1762) Vice-Capellmeister. 
He was one of the best instructed 
musicians of his time, and the excel- 
lent education he gave his great son 
testifies to his intelligence and common- 
Der Morgen und der Abend, den Inwohnern 
der Hochfurstlichen Residenzstadt Salz- 
burg melodisch und harmonisch ange- 
kiindigt ; Oder 12 Musikstucke fur das 
Clavier. Augsburg, 1759. (The Morning 
and Evening, 12 pieces for the Clavier. 
Augsburg, 1759). Musikalische Schlit- 
tenfahrt (Musical Sledge Drive). (Peters.) 
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (really 
Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgang 
Gottlieb), b. Jan. 27, 1756, Salzburg ; 
d. Dec. 5, 1791, Vienna. When only 
in his fourth year he received instruc- 
tion from his father, Leopold M., and 
having reached his sixth year he made 
his first tour, with his sister, Anna 
Maria. In Munich, Vienna, (1763) in 
Paris and Brussels, ajid (1764) in 
London {see C. F. Pohl's "Mozart 
and Haydn in London ") the young 
artists were received with the greatest 
enthusiasm. 1765, he left London for 
Holland, and returned (1766) vid Paris 
to Salzburg. 1768, he went again to 
Vienna ; returned (1769) to Salzburg ; 
was appointed Concertmeister to the 
Archbishop, but left in the same year, 
and went with his father to Milan and 
Rome. In Rome the Pope conferred 
on him the Order of the (Solden Spur. 
He was elected a Member of the Phil- 
harmonic Society of Bologna, and 
made there the acquaintance of 
Padre Martini, and of Sammartini 
at Milan and Valotti at Padua. 1771, 
he was again in Salzburg, but returned 
(1771-72) to Italy. In spite of his 
great success as an artist, his pecuniary 
circumstances were in a deplorable 
state, and when he returned to Salz- 
burg he planned another tour, for 
which, however, the Archbishop re- 
fused his permission. Upon this, 
Mozart resigned his post, and went, 
accompanied by his mother, to Munich, 
Augsburg, Mannheim, and Paris. In 
Paris he lost his mother (1778) ; re- 
turned to Salzburg; was in Munich, 
1781 ; and settled afterwards in Vienna, 
where the Emperor Joseph II. appointed 
him Imperial Capellmeister, which 
post he retained until his death. 
Mozart's Pf. compositions are works 
of the greatest beauty and importance. 
For gracefulness, sweetness of expres- 
sion, never-ceasing euphony, he is 

unrivalled. Moreover, the study of his 
works is indispensable for all who 
would learn to play with fluency, 
steadiness, and natural expression. 
We find in his Pf . works an undeniable 
feeling for beauty and symmetry. 
Everything harsh and disconnected, all 
disorder, eccentricity, and rhapsodical 
excitement he regarded with antipathy. 
He did not care for mere technical 
playing. We observe everywhere the 
inclination to make the instrument 
sing ; even in his most rapid passages 
he is harmonious and melodious. We 
recognise in his best Pf. works his 
innate sense for order, nature, and 
beauty — qualities which were pre- 
dominant in his character. 
Sonatas: In C, 4/4 (1777); in F, 3/4 (1777); 
+B flat, 3/4 (1777) ; E flat, 4/4 (i777) : +G. 

3/4 (1777) ; D. 4/4 (1777) ; +c, 4/4 (1778); tA 

min., 4/4 (1778) ; 0,4/4 (1778) ; C, 2/4 (1779) ; 
f A, 6/8 (1779) ; +F, 3/4 (1779) ; B flat, 4/4 
(1779) ; tCmin. (preceded by the Fantasia), 4/4 
(1784); C (for beginners), 4/4 (1788) ; B flat, 
3/4(1789); 10,6/8(1789); tF, 4/4 (Allegro and 
Andante, 1788 ; Rondo, 1786). For 4 hands : 
Sonatas in G, 3/4 (1786) ; +B flat, 4/4 (1780); 
+D,4/4 (1781); F, 3/4 (1786); C, 4/4 (1787): 
Fugue in G min., 4/4 (1782). Fantasias: 
In tC, 4/4, with a Fugue (1782) ; C min., 
4/4 (1782); D min., 4/4 (1782); +C min., 4/4, 
followed by the Sonata (1785). For 4 hands: 
Fantasia, Adagio, 3/4, and Allegro, 4/^, in 
F min. and maj. (1790) ; iFantasie in F 
min. ,4/4(1791). Variations: In 0,2/4(1765); 
Willem von Nassau in D, 4/4 (1765) ; F, 2/4 
(1768); Minuet de Fischer in C, 3/4 (1773); 
" Mio caro Adone " in G, 3/4 (1773) ; 
"Lison dormait " in C, 2/4 (1776); "Ah 
vous dirai-je. Mama," in C, 2/4 (1776); 
Mariage des Samnites in F, 4/4 (1780); 
" La belle Fran9aise " in E flat, 6/8 (1780) ; 
"Je suis Lindor" in E flat, 2/4 (1780); 
Salve tu Domine in F, 3/4 (1782); t" Unser 
dummer Pobel meint " in G, 4/4 (1784) ; 
" Come un agnello " in A, 3/4 (178^) ; B flat, 
4/4 (1786); Minuet de Duport m D, 3/4 
(1789) ; +" Ein Weib ist das herrlichste " in 

F, 3/4 (1791). For 4 hands : ^Variations in 

G, 2/4 (1786). For 2 Clavecins : Fugue in C 
min., 4/4 (1783) ; fSonata in D, 4/4 (1784). 
For 3 hands: Rondo in D, 4/4 (1786); tA 
min., 6/8 (1787) ; in F, 2/4 (1791), originally 
written for a musical box; Suite in C, 4/4 
(1782-83); Allegro, G min., 3/4 (1778); B 
flat, 4/4 (1782); fAdagio in B min., 4/4 
(1788); tGigue in G, 6/3 (1789). Minuets: 
In G, B flat, F, and D (1761-62); in D 
(1780); Waltz, B flat. Sonatas with Vln.: 
4 (1763); 6 (1764); 6 (1765); 7 (1768); tSonata 
in C, 4/4 (1778); +G, 3/4 (1778); E flat, 3/4 
(1778); 0,4/4(1778); +E min., 4/4 (1778); A, 
6/8(1778); +D,4/4 (1778); +F, 4/4 (1781); F, 
4/4 (1781); tB flat, 4/4 (1781) ; G, 2/4 (1781); 
E flat, 4/4 (1781) ; +A, 3/4 (1782) ; C, 4/4 
(1783); 0,4/4 (1784); +B flat, 4/4(1784); +E 
flat, 3/4 (1785); +A,6/8 (1787); F,4/4 (1788), 
for beginners. Trios: For Clavecin, Vln., 
and V'cello : In B flat, 3/4 (1776) ; D min., 
4/4 (1783) ; G, 4/4 (1786) ; tE flat, 6/8 (1786). 
For Clavecin, CI., and Via. : In B flat, 4/4 
(1786); E. 3/4 (1788); 0, 4/4 (1788); G, 4/4 
(1788). Quartets and Quintets : +G min., 4/4 
(1785); +E flat, 4/4 (1786); E flat, 4/4, with 
Ob., Cl., Horn and Bssn. (1784). Concertos: 
In F, 4/4 ; B flat, 4/4 ; D, 4/4 i G, 3/4 (1767) ; 



D, 4/4 (1773); B flat, 4/4 (1776); C, 4/4 
(1776); \E flat, 4/4 (1777); F. 3/4 (1782); A, 
4/4 (1782); C, 4/4 (1782-83); E flat, 3/4 
(1784); +B flat, 4/4 (1784); D,4/4 (1784); G, 
4/4 (1784); B flat, 4/4 (1784); F,4/4 (1784); 
fD min., 4/4 (1785); tC, 4/4 (1785); +E flat, 
4/4 (1785); +A, 4/4 (1786); \C min., 3/4 
(1786) ; tC, 4/4 (1786) ; +D, 4/4 (1788) ; B flat, 
4/4 (1791). For 2 Clavecins : E flat, 4/4 
(1780). For 3 Clavecins : F, 4/4 (1776). 35 
cadenzas for his Concertos. 
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (second son 
of the above), b. July 26, 1791, Vienna ; 
d. July 29, 1844, Carlsbad (Bohemia). 
His early education was directed by 
Franz and Josepha Duschek and Prof. 
I'ranz Niemczek of Prague, intimate 
friends of his illustrious father. 1802, 
instructed by Andreas Streicher, in 
Vienna, published a Quartet and be- 
came, 1804, a pupil of Hummel, Vogler, 
and Albrechtsberger. 1804, he played 
at his own concert a Concerto in C 
(Op. 14) and Variations on the Minuet 
( Don Giovanni) of his own composition . 
181 1, he performed in Lemberg, was 
appointed teacher to the family of 
Count Baworowski. Was six years in 
Lemberg, then returned (playing in 
Warsaw, Konigsberg, Danzig, Prague, 
Leipzig, &c.) to Vienna, where he re- 
mained till 1822, when he settled until 
1838 in Lemberg, conducting the musi- 
cal society and highly respected as a 
teacher. 1838, he went again to Vienna, 
and remained there until June, 1844. 
His performances of his father's Con- 
certos and Sonatas were remarkable 
for sincerity of feeling and correctness 
of execution. During the winter even- 
ings (Tuesdays) of 1838-44, his two 
modestly furnished rooms were the 
meeting-place of the most celebrated 
musicians, poets, painters, &c., of 
Vienna, who listened to excellent 
(juartet playing by Jansa, Durst, 
Zach, and Borzaga. 
Sonata in G, Op. 10 ; Concerto, Op. 25 ; Rondo 
favori in F ; Variations, Op. 16 (Marche de 
Coriolan) ; Op. 20 (Russian air) ; and 4 other 
sets of variations. 
Miiller, August Eberhard, b. Dec. 13, 
1.767, Nordheim (Gottingen) ; d. Dec. 
3, 1817, Weimar. Pupil of his father, 
an organist, later of Joh. Christoph 
Bach (ninth son of Seb. B.), who 
resided at Biickeburg. As his father 
had a numerous family he was obliged 
to begin earning his living when only 
14 years old. His excellent perform- 
ances on the clavecin and flute procured 
him a modest income and the friendship 
of many influential people. 1789, he 
settled in Magdeburg, and was ap- 
pointed Organist of St. Ulrich's Church. 
1792, visited Berlin, where he was 

cordially received by Marpurg, Fasch, 
and Reichardt, the latter recommending 
him for the post of Organist of the 
" Nicolai " Church at Leipzig. Here 
he soon became the friend and assistant 
of Joh. Adam Hiller and was, on Killer's 
death (1804), unanimously elected 
Cantor of the Thomas School. 1807 
and 1809, he taught the Princess of 
Saxe-Weimar, and was appointed 
Capellmeister (1810), retaining this 
appointment until his death. His 
works for clavecin (later piano) are of 
considerable importance — 
Grands Caprices i6), Op. 29 (in +E min., +C, 
D flat, tC min., +B min., +G flat) ; ditto (3), 
Op. 31 (in A, +C, D min.); ditto (3), Op. 34 
(in IF min., fG sharp min., E flat) ; ditto (3), 
Op. 4t (in D, D flat, fG min.); 3 Sonatas, 
Op. 7 (in A, E flat, and C) ; Concerto in E 
flat, Op. 21 ; Trio, and several other 
Sonatas ; cadenzas for 8 Concertos by 
Mozart. Educational works : Pianoforte 
School (1804) ; the eighth edition was revised 
by C. Czerny. Small elementary book for 
pianists (new edition by C. Czerny). 
Miiller, Christian Heinrich, b. Oct. 10, 
1734, Halberstadt ; d. there Aug. 29, 
1782, when Cathedral Organist. He 
was one of the first who wrote sonatas 
for 4 hands. Three of them were 
published at Dessau in 1783. Their 
somewhat curious title is : 
" 3 Sonaten fiir's Clavier als Doppelstiicke, fiir 
2 Personen mit vier Handen." 
Miithel, Johann Gottfried, b. 1729, 
Mollin (Lauenburg) ; d. (date un- 
known), Riga. When only 17 years 
old, he was appointed Hof-Organist 
at Schwerin (Mecklenburg). After 
some years, received permission to 
become a pupil of Seb. Bach, in whose 
house he went to live. After Bach's 
death he went to Bach's son-in-law, 
Altnikol (Naumburg), and later to 
Emanuel Bach (Berlin). Returned to 
Schwerin for 2 years, and then became 
Director of an orchestra at Riga ; he 
was also appointed Organist of the 
principal church there. Miithel was 
one of the most distinguished per- 
formers of his time on the organ and 
2 Concert! per il Cembalo, with Orchestra 
(Riga and Mitau, 1767) ; Duo for s 
Clavecins or Pfs. (Riga, 1771) ; 3 Sonate 
e 2 Ariosi, con 12 Variazioni (Niirnberg, 

Muffat, Georg, year of birth unknown ; 
d. Feb. 23, 1704, Salzburg. He was 
for 6 years in Paris, where he made 
himself acquainted with Lully's style. 
Afterwards (up to 1675) Organist of the 
Strassburg Minster, which he resigned 
on account of the war. Went to Vienna 
and Rome, and was appointed (about 
1690) Organist and Kammerdiener 



(butler) to the Archbishop of Salzburg 
and (1695) Capellmeister of the Court 
at Passau, where he also officiated as 
tutor to the pages. In this situation 
he remained until his death. The 
following work is of interest to clave- 
cinists — 
"Apparatus Musico Organisticus" (Augs- 
burg, 1690). It contains 12 Toccatas, a 
Ciaccona, Passacaglia and Aria, and is dedi- 
cated to the Emperor Leopold I. (1640-1705). 
His son, 

MufTat, August Gottlieb (Theophilus), 
b. April 25, i6go, Passau; d. Dec. 
10, 1770, Vienna. Pupil of Fux, and, 

about 1727, Organist to the Imperial 
Austrian (iourt. His chief work is — 
"Componimenti musicali per il Cembalo," 
ded. to the Emperor Charles VI. (1685-1740), 
The Court Library of Vienna possesses, in 
M S., Preludes, Fugues,Toccatas, old dances, 
a Partita in C, &c. Farrenc has published 
the entire work " Componimenti," &c., in 
his " Trdsor du Pianiste." 
Murschhauser, Franz Xaver Anton, b. 
(about) 1670, Zabern (Alsace) ; d. 1733, 
Munich. Pupil of J. Caspar Kerl until 
his death (i6go). He succeeded him 
as Organist of the Frauen-Kirche. 
Aria pastoralis variata in G (Pauer's "Alte 
Clavier-musik "). His works for organ are 
of considerable importance. 


Naegeli, Johann Georg, b. 1768, Ziirich ; 
d. there Dec. 26, 1836. He received 
his education at Berne, his native 
town, where he founded (1792) a music 
publishing business. 1803, he began 
to issue the " Repertoire des Clave- 
cinistes," which consisted of works by 
dementi, Cramer, Dussek, Steibelt, 
Beethoven, and others. It is well 
known that he was not over- con- 
scientious in the publication of 
Beethoven's Sonatas, for — to cite only 
one instance — he added four bars 
towards the end of the first movement 
of the Sonata, Op. 31, No. i, which 
alteration offended the great composer 
in the highest degree. Of his Pf. 
compositions only 12 Toccatas were 
published. One of the most popular 
of his songs is "Life let us cherish," 
of which the melody, according to the 
latest researches, belongs to the South 
of France. His literary productions 
are held in great respect in Switzer- 
land, and it may be asserted that he 
alone, among his compatriots, in- 
fluenced the progress of music in his 

Napoleon (Napoleao), Arthur, b. March 
6, 1843, Oporto. Pupil of his father 
(who was of German extraction) and 
of Charles Halle. As early as 1845 he 
gave concerts, and created a great 
sensation. His compositions are 
popular and elegant. Since 1871 he 
has settled in Rio de Janeiro as a music- 
seller and agent of the foremost 
European Pf. manufacturers. 

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb, b. April 17, 
1741, Blasewitz, near Dresden; d. Oct. 
23, 1801, Dresden. Pupil at the 
Kreuzschule, Dresden, but mostly 

self-taught. A rich Swedish musician, 
Weestrom, heard him play Bach's 
pieces, and decided to take him as a 
companion to Italy ; but, owing to 
unexpected bad treatment, Naumann 
parted from Weestrom at Padua, and 
remained there alone, enjoying for three 
years Tartini's instruction in harmony ; 
he also met Hasse. Tartini recom- 
mended him to Padre Martini, in 
Bologna, who gave him lessons in 
Counterpoint. 1764, the Princess 
Maria Antonia of Saxony, widow of 
the Palatine, offered him the post of 
Church Composer, and (1765) he was 
appointed Court Composer. 
Concerto ; Quartet, Op. i ; and 6 Sonatas, 
Op. 4. 

Neate, Charles, b. March 28, 1784, 
London ; d. March 30, 1877, Brighton. 
Pupil of John Field. Resided in 
London. Was highly respected as a 
teacher and promoter of the best 
interests of musical art. 
A treatise on Fingering; Sonata in C min., 
Op. 2, published in Vienna. 

Neefe, Christian Gottlob, b. Feb. 5, 1748, 
Chemnitz (Saxony) ; d. Jan. 26, 1798, 
Dessau. His youth was a very melan- 
choly one ; although his talent for music 
was evident, his father, a tailor, was too 
poor to cultivate it. 1769, he resolved 
to study law at the University of 
Leipzig, but at the same time occupied 
himself with the theoretical works of 
Marpurg and Emanuel Bach. Joh. 
Adam Hiller, taking great interest in 
the young musician, gave him good 
advice and recommended him (1776) 
as Conductor of the "Seller" troupe, 
which played, till 1777, at Leipzig and 
Dresden. This company being dis- 
solved in 1779, he went to Bonn as 



Conductor of the " Grossmann-Hell- 
muth" company. Here he taught 
Beethoven. He remained there until 
1796, but had — as the Palatine Max 
Franz was obHged to dissolve his 
princely establishment — to struggle 
hard to earn sufficient to keep himself 
and his family. His daughter, Louise, 
a clever singer, was engaged at the 
theatre of Dessau (1796) and her father 
was appointed Conductor. The death 
of his beloved wife accelerated his end. 
Neefe was not only an excellent musi- 
cian, good composer, and admirable 
teacher, but also a man of sterling 
character and high intellectual capaci- 
Concerto for Clav. and Vln. (with orchestra' ; 
12 Sonatas (Leipzig, 1772) ; 6 new Sonatas 
with Variations (1774); Fantasia; Varia- 
tions ; 6 Sonatas with Vln. 
Neitzel, Dr. Otto. b. July 6, 1852, 
Falckenburg (Pomerania). Pupil at 
Kullak's " Neue Akademie der Ton- 
kunst " (BerHn). Studied Philosophy 
and Art History at the Berlin, Univer- 
sity, and received, 1875, the diploma of 
Doc. Phil. After having resided for 
some time in Weimar and received 
advice from Liszt, he accompanied the 
singer, Madame Lucca, and the cele- 
brated violinist, Sarasate, on their pro- 
fessional tours. Was appointed teacher 
at the Conserv. of Strassburg (Alsace), 
where he also conducted the Musical 
Society, and was for two years Capell- 
meister of the Strassburg theatre. 
1881-85, was Prof, at the Imperial Con- 
serv. of Moscow ; went afterwards to 
Cologne to be teacher at the Conserv., 
which appointment he resigned, July, 
1887, in order to act as musical reporter 
to the Cologne Gazette. He is an 
excellent pianist, and being well ac- 
quainted with piano literature his 
criticisms are full of interest and 
useful suggestions. At the present 
time he is again appearing as a public 
Neukomm, Sigismund, Chevalier de, b. 
July 10, 1778, Salzburg; d. April 3, 
1858, Paris. Pupil of Michael Haydn 
(Salzburg) and (1798) of Joseph Haydn 
(Vienna). 1808, he published, by 
Joseph Haydn's advice, his first com- 
positions, which were received with 
so much approval that both the 
Academies of St. Petersburg and of 
Stockholm elected him a Member. 
i8og, he went to St. Petersburg, and 
acted for some time as Capellmeister 
of the Imperial Opera ; but this work not 
being sympathetic to his more earnest 
and refined taste, he subsequently went 

to Paris, where he enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Gretry, Cherubini, the great 
zoologist Cuvier, and other renowned 
persons. The Princess of Lothringen 
Vauvemont, who took a motherly 
interest in the young and highly- 
accomplished artist, introduced him to 
Talleyrand, who took so great a liking 
to him that he invited him to occupy 
apartments in his own house. 1814, 
accompanied Talleyrand to Vienna, 
where he composed a Requiem in 
memory of Louis XVI., for which 
Louis XVIII. made him a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour and conferred 
the rank of nobility on him. 1816, he 
accompanied the Duke of Luxemburg, 
the French Ambassador, to Rio de 
Janeiro (Brazil), where he remained 
until 1821, when he left with the Duke 
for Lisbon, but soon returned to 
Talleyrand in Paris. After many years 
of travelling in Holland, Belgium, Italy, 
and visits to London and the German 
capitals, he divided his time between 
Paris and London, staying in the latter 
city with his friend. Chevalier de 
Sonata, Op. 14 ; Sonata, " Le retour a la vie," 
Op. 40; Fantasia-Sonata; Elegie har- 
monique sur la mort de J . L. Dussek ; ditto, 
sur la mort de la Princesse de Courland; 
L'amitie et I'amour ; 2 Esquisses, 12 Valses, 
Caprices, Polonaises, and an Elegy on 
Chopin's death. 
Neupert, Edmund, b. April i, 1842, 
Christiania; d. June 22, 1888, New 
York. 1858, pupil at Kullak's Conserv. 
(Berlin) ; afterwards travelled in 
Germany, Sweden, and Norway, where 
his performances were greatly admired. 
1868, he went to Copenhagen, where 
he was appointed successor of Ree 
{see this name). He went, later, to 
Moscow, but had to leave on account 
of the climate not agreeing with him. 
1883, he settled in New York. Neupert 
was certainly one of the best Scan- 
dinavian artists. 
Characterstiicke, Op. 21; Pieces, Op. 47; 24 
Concert Studies, Op. 17 ; 24 Octave Studies, 
Op. 18; 24 Studies for technique and 
expression, Op. 19 ; 10 Poetical Studies, 
Op. 25 and 51 ; 4 characteristic pieces. Op. 
45 ; 8 transcriptions of Studies by Cramer. 

■^Neustedt, Charles Frederic, b. 1834, 
Saumur (Maine et Loire), Pupil of 
his father and Thalberg. " Officier de 
r Instruction publique, ' ' one of the most 
popular teachers in Paris, and the 
Director of musical education in the 
convents. His compositions are effec- 
tive, not too difficult, and enjoy 
considerable favour. 
Carillon de Louis XIV., Fete romaine. 
Gavotte du bon vieux temps; Menuet 



d'enfants, Pavane, Gavotte favorite de 
Marie Antoinette, Pantomime, Minuetto 
dans le style ancien, Chanson des arciers. 

Nichelmann, Christoph, b. Aug. 13, 
1717, Treuenbriezen (Brandenburg) ; 
d. July 20, 1762, Berlin. At first in- 
structed by Cantor Bubal and the 
organists, Schweinitz and Lippe ; went 
(1730) to Leipzig, and entered the 
Thomas School, where Sebastian Bach 
taught him Composition and Friede- 
mann Bach, Clavecin-playing. 1733, 
went to Hamburg, where he enjoyed 
the friendship of Keiser, Telemann, 
and Mattheson. 1738, he returned for 
a short visit to his native town, then 
went to Berlin, and was appointed 
Secretary to Count Barfuss. In 
Berlin he seized the opportunity of 
improving himself in Counterpoint 
under Quanz, and also attempted some 
vocal compositions. 1744, he intended 
to go to London, but went only as far 
as Hamburg, where he heard that he 
was appointed Kammermusikus and 
second Cembalist of the Opera in 
Berlin. He resigned these posts (1756) 
and lived there in retirement until his 
Sei brevi Sonate da Cembalo, Op. 1 (1749) ; 
ditto. Op. 2 (1749); Clavecin pieces in 
Emanuel Bach's " Musikalisches Allerley" 
(1761-62) ; Sonaten and Fugen, edited by 
Emanuel Bach (1744); Concertos for 
Clavecin, with 2 Vln., Via., and Bass. 

•Nicodd, Jean Louis, b. Aug. 12, 1853, 

iersitz (Posen). At first instructed by 
is father and Hartkas, then entered 
the "Neue Akademie der Tonkunst" 
(Berlin), where his teachers were 
Kullak (Pf.), Wiierst (Composition), 
and Kiel (Counterpoint and Com- 
position). 1871-77, he taught at the 
above Academy; 1878-85, was teacher 
at the Conserv. of Dresden; 1885-89, 
Conductor of the Dresden Phil- 
harmonic concerts ; previous to this. 
Director of the Berlin Monday Popular 
concerts. With the celebrated singer, 
Madame Art6t-Padilla, he gave con- 
certs in Galicia and Roumania. He is 
Hon. Member of several important 
societies, and is held in great respect 
by his colleagues and the public. He 
is not only a very brilliant pianist, with 
command of an enormous technique, 
but also a highly distinguished com- 
poser, who in a very short time made 
himself a great reputation. His most 
popular works are — 
Op. 6, Souvenir de Robert Schumann (6 
pieces, I., II.) ; Op. 9, 2 Morceaux carac- 
teristiques ; Op. 13, Danses et Chansons 
Nationales Italiennes (Barcarole, Can- 
zonetta, and fTarantelle) ; Op. 18, Variations 
and Fugue; Op. 19, Sonata in F min. ; Op. 

21, 3 Studies (F sharp min., F,and +D min.) ; 
Op. 12, 2 Studies (Elfin dance) ; Op. 22, 
+Ein Liebesleben; Op. 28, tWalzer, 
tBurlesca, Scherzo. Duets: Op. 7, Mis- 
cellanees (Volkslied) ; Op. 19, tValses 
Caprices ; Op. 26, Eine Ball-Scene ; Op. 29, 
tBilder aus dem Siiden (I., II., III.); 
Sonata for Pf. and V'cello in G ; a second 
Pf. part for Chopin's Allegro de Concert, 
Op. 46. 

Niedermeyer, Louis, b. April 27, 1802, 
Nyon, on the Lake of Geneva; d. 
March 14, 1861, Paris. Pupil of 
Moscheles (Pf.) and Forster (Theory) 
in Vienna; later of Fioravanti and 
Zingarelli in Rome . Greatly patronised 
by Rossini, he commenced by writing 
operas, which, however, were not 
successful ; only two of his melodies — 
" Le Lac" and "Adieu done, belle 
France" — became very popular. 1844, 
he received in Paris, where he had settled 
since 1823, the decoration of the Legion 
of Honour and an annual allowance 
of 5,000 francs for the continuation 
and improvement of the Society for 
Sacred Music, foimded by Choron. 
He was an excellent teacher and 
accomplished musician. 
Introduction, Variations, et Finale sur la 
dernidre pens^e de C. M. de Weber, Op. 13; 
Le Bal, Divertissement, Op. 15 ; Divertisse- 
ment Espagnol, Op. 16 ; several other Fan- 
tasias and Variations on Italian opera airs 
are of small importance. 

*Norman, Ludwig, b. Aug. 28, 1831, 
Stockholm ; d. there March 25, 1884. 
At an early age he showed great talent 
for music, and was patronised by 
Prince (now King) Oscar of Sweden, 

ienny Lind, and the composer Lind- 
lad. 1848, he was sent to Leipzig, 
and entered the Conserv. as a pupil 
of Moscheles (Pf.), Hauptmann and 
Rietz (Harmony and Composition). 
Almost all the eminent Leipzig 
authorities, including Robert Schu- 
mann, took great interest in his pro- 
gress. 1857, he returned to Stockholm. 
Was appointed Prof, of Composition 
at the Royal Swedish Academy (1861), 
Conductor of the Royal Opera, and 
President of the Musical Academy. 
1864, he married the celebrated 
violinist, Wilhelmine Neruda (now 
Lady Halle). 1879, he retired on 
account of feeble health. It was then 
that King Oscar conferred on him the 
Orders of " Wasa " (Sweden) and 
"St. Olaf" (Norway), and likewise 
the title of Principal Capellmeister 
of the Swedish Court. 
Op. 54, ConcertstGck (with Orchestra) ; Op. 
3, Sonata in F, for Pf. and Vln. ; Op. 28, 
Sonata in D, for Pf. and V'cello ; Op. 32, 
Sonata in G min., for Pf. and Via. ; Op. 4, 
Trio in D, for Pf., Vln., and V'cello; Op. 



10, Quartet in E, for Pf., Vln., Via., and 
V'cello; Op. i and 2, tCharacteristic pieces; 
Op. 5, 4 Fantasiestiicke ; Op. 7, 3 pieces for 
4 hands ; Op. 8, Capriccio on 2 Swedish 
melodies ; Op. 9, +4 pieces; Op. 11, tAlbum 
leaves ; Op. 12, t3 pieces in the form of 
Scherzos. His 30 transcriptions of Swedish 
national songs are written in excellent 
♦Noszkowski, Zygmunt von(Sigismund), 
b. May 2, 1846, Warsaw. 1864-67, 
pupil at the Warsaw Musical Institute. 
The Musical Society sent him (1873) to 
Berlin, where he studied with Kiel 
(Composition) and Oscar Raif (Pf.). 
After leaving Berlin he became Con- 
ductor of the Bodau Society, in 
Constance (Switzerland). 1881, ap- 
pointed Director of the Musical 
Society and (1888) Prof, at the Conserv. 
of Warsaw. 
Op. 24, Impressions, 4 pieces; Op. 27, Images, 
6 Morceaux caracteristiques ; Op. 31, 
Chansons et Danses cracoviennes ; Op. 35, 
3 pieces (conte d'hiver) ; Op. 36, Moments 
mllodiques (4 characteristic pieces) ; Op. 
39, Petits rayons (4 pieces). For 4 hands : 
Op. 33, Melodies Rutheniennes (8 pieces) ; 
Op. 38, Mazury, Danses masoviennes. 
Nottebohm, Martin Gustav, b. Nov. 12, 
1 81 7, Liidenscheid (Westphalia) ; d. 
Oct. 30, 1882, Graz (Styria). 1838-39, 
pupil of Berger (Pf.) and Dehn (Com- 
position) in Berlin; went (1840) to 
Leipzig, where he continued his studies 
under the superintendence of Mendels- 
sohn and Schumann ; settled (1846) in 
Vienna, where he had lessons from 

Sechter, and earned his livelihood as a 
teacher. The great merits of Notte- 
bohm as an author are well known, 
and his works on Beethoven have been 
gratefully received by the musical 

A Sketch Book of Beethoven (1865)— 1855 is 
given as the date in Breitkopf and Hartel's 
Catalogue; Thematic Catalogue of Beet- 
hoven's Works (186S); Beethoveniana 
(1872) ; Neue Beethoveniana (1875) ; 
Beethoven's Studies (his studies with 
Haydn, Salieri, and Albrechtsberger, 1873) ; 
A Sketch Book of Beethoven from the year 
1803 ; A Thematic Catalogue of Schubert's 
Works (1874); Mozartiana (1880). Pf. 
Pieces : Op. 1, Quartet for Pf., Vln., Via., 
and V'cello ; Op. 4, Trios ; Op. 10, fFliegende 
Blatter (6 pieces); Op. 11, 3 Caprices; 
Op. 13, a lyric pieces ; Op. 14 and 15, 
Impromptus: La Serdna and La Contem- 
plative ; Op. 17, fVariations on an air by 
Seb. Bach for 4 hands. 

Nowakowski, Joseph, b. 1805, Mniszck, 
near Radomsk (Poland) ; d. 1865, 
Warsaw. Pupil of Wiirfel and Eisner 
in Warsaw. He was an excellent 
pianist, who travelled a great deal 
and gained everywhere considerable 
success. After returning to Warsaw 
he was appointed Prof, at the Alexandra 
College, where he remained until his 
death. The most popular of his 
compositions (about 60) are — 

Op. 14, Grande Polonaise path^tique ; Op. ig 
and 26, Mazurkas ; Op. 25, i2 Grandes 
Etudes (dedicated to F. Chopin). 


Oesten, Theodor, b. Dec. 31, 1813, 
Berlin ; d. there March 16, 1870. 
Pupil of Dreschker (Pf.), Rungenhagen, 
and Schneider (Composition). He was 
a most successful teacher, and his 
numerous educational compositions 
and arrangements found great favour. 
They are written in a correct, clear, 
and practical manner and are still 
much used. 

Oginski, Count Michael Cleophas, b. 
Sept. 25, 1765, Guron, near Warsaw; 
d. Oct. 31, 1833, Florence. He became 
well knovwi as the composer of 14 
Polonaises. One called the "Death" 
Polonaise made the round of the 
world ; popular fancy connected it with 
a romantic episode of his life, for it was 
said that Count Oginski, desperately 
in love with a lady who did not return 
his affection and married another 
gentleman, composed the Polonaise 
and committed suicide on the evening 

before her wedding. To make the 
incident more thrilling, it was reported 
that in a letter he had desired the 
Polonaise to be played during the 
wedding festivities. The sober facts 
are, however, that the "Death" Polon- 
aise was composed in 1793, several 
years before the wedding in question, 
and that Oginski died thirty-eight 
years after the supposed tragedy. 
Besides the 14 Polonaises he published 
3 Marches. 
♦O'Leary, Arthur, b. March 15, 1834, 
Tralee, County Kerry (Ireland) . Pupil 
at the Leipzig Conserv. under Plaidy 
and Moscheles (Pf), Hauptmann, 
Richter, and Rietz (Theory and Com- 
position). Returning to London, he 
entered the R.A.M. and studied under 
Sterndale Bennett (Composition) and 
Cipriani Potter (Pf.). He is a Prof, at 
the R.A.M. and a most successful 



Concerto in E min. (with Orchestra) ; +Theme 
in C min., with Variations (in 3 movements) ; 
Op. 3, 2 pieces j Op. 7, Im Gebirge, 3 
characteristic pieces ; +Toccata in F ; 
Romanza in E flat min., and various 
smaller pieces. 

Onslow, George, b. July 27, 1784, Cler- 
mont-Ferrand (Puy-de-D6me) ; d. there 
Oct. 3, 1852. Grandsonof Lord Onslow. 
Part of his youth was spent in London, 
where Hiillmandel, Dussek, and Cramer 
were his teachers. He returned later 
to his estate at Clermont, and used 
to play with some friends the best 
chamber music, taking the V'cello 
himself. It was there that he wrote a 
great number of works for string 

34 Quintets ; 36 Quartets; Sextet for Pf., FL, 
CI., Hn., Bssn., and C.-Bass, Op. 30; 
Sextet for Pf., with Strings, Op. 77bis ; 
Quintets, Op. 70 and 76; Trios (3), A min., 
C, G min., Op. 3; Trios (3), E min., E flat, 
D ; Trios: D min.. Op. 20; C min., Op. 26; 
G, Op. 27. Duoi, with Vln.: Sonatas (3), 
Op. 11; (3) Op. 16; Duo, Op. 15; and Op. 31. 
Pf. Solo : Sonata, C min.. Op. 2 ; +Toc- 
cata. Op. 6; Variations, "Charmante 
Gabrielle "; Sonatas for 4 hands : tE min., 
Op. 7; tF min.. Op. 22. 

Ordenstein, Heinrich, b. Jan. 7, 1856, 
Offstein, near Worms. 1871-75, pupil 
at the Leipzig Conserv., under 
Reinecke, Jadassohn, Coccius, and 
Dr. Oscar Paul. 1881, teacher at the 
New Academy of Berlin. Founded 
(1884) the Conserv. at Carlsruhe 
(Baden), which now numbers about 
400 pupils. The Grand Duke of 
Baden conferred on him the title of 
"Professor." He is the author of 
various essays on musical education. 

♦Osborne, George Alexander, b. Sept. 
24, 1806, Limerick (Ireland) ; d. Nov. 
17, 1893, London. He showed at an 
early age signs of uncommon musical 
talent. Went to Brussels, where 
Prince de Chimay took great interest 
in the young Irish musician, and 
allowed him to study the classical 
works in his library. He also made 
the acquaintance of Fetis, who gave 
him excellent advice. Prince de 
Chimay recommended him as teacher 
to the Crown Prince of the Netherlands, 
and the King conferred on him the 
Order of the " Crown of Oak." 1831, 
he went to Paris, formed a lasting 
friendship with Chopin and Berlioz, 
and took lessons from Pixis, and later 
from Kalkbrenner. 1848, he settled 
in London, where he had already been 
for artistic purposes in 1845. The 
abilities of the conscientious and ex- 
perienced teacher, and his sterling 
qualities, procured him numbers of 
pupils cmd devoted friends ; but 
seldom has an artist enjoyed so great 
and lasting a popularity and such 
sincere respect as fell to the lot of 
Osborne. He was a member of the 
Philharmonic Society, a Director of 
the R.A.M., and Vice-President of the 
London Trinity College. 
Quartet ; Sonata for Pf. and V'cello ; Sextet 
for Pf., string and wind instrimients ; a 
great number of elegant and brilliant 
drawing-room pieces, of which " La Pluie 
des Perles," "A Summer's Eve," "Evening 
Dew," " Marche Militaire," and " Nouvelle 
Pluie de Perles" are the most popular. 
His Duo (with De B6riot) on Rossini's 
"William Tell" gave pleasure to number- 
less amateurs. 


Pachelbel, Johann, b. Sept. 1, 1653, 
Niirnberg; d. there March 3, 1706. 
Pupil of H. Schwemmer. After a 
short stay in Vienna, as assistant to 

i. C. Kerl (Organist of St. Stephen's), 
e went, 1675, to Eisenach, 1678 to 
Erfurt, 1690 to Stuttgart, 1692 to 
Gotha, and 1695 back to his native 
town as Organist of the Sebaldus 
Church. His compositions were mostly 
for the Organ; for the Clavecin he 
wrote — 
A Ciaccona, with 13 variations; Fugues in 
E min. and C ; and a Fughetta in C. 

Pachelbel, Wilhelm Hieronymus, b. 
1685, Niirnberg ; date of death un- 
known. Either son or nephew of the 

Musikalisches Vergnugen bestehend in einem 

Preludio, Fuga, und Fantasia for Organ or 

Clavecin. Niirnberg, 1725. 

Pacher, Joseph Adalbert, b. March 28, 

1816, Daubrowitz (Moravia) ; d. Sept. 2, 

1871, Ischl. 1832, went to Vienna and 

became a pupil of Anton Halm ; was 

successful as a public performer and 

teacher, and very industrious as a 

composer of educational and popular 


Op. 29, Die Fundamente der Technik (I. and 

II.); Op. II, 6 Octave Studies; Op. 50, la 

Etudes melodiques; Op. 75, Der Pianist der 

guten Schule ; Op. 9. La harpe; Op. 15, El- 

tenreigen; Op. 18, GrSce et Coquetterie; 

Op. 30, Papageno Caprice; Op. 53, Ten- 


Pachmann, Wladimir von, b. July 27, 

1848, Odessa. Pupil of his father, and, 



1866, of Dachs in Vienna. He ap- 
peared in London for the first time in 
1882 ; travelled in Austria, Germany, 
and Denmark, where the king con- 
ferred on him the Order of the "Dane- 
brog." Went to America and, on his 
return, again gave concerts in England, 
where he is considered to be one of 
the best " Chopin " players. 

-^ Paderewski, Ignaz Ian, b. Nov. 6, 1859, 
Podolia. Pupil at the Warsaw Con- 
serv., of Raguski for Harmony and 
Counterpoint, later of Urban and 
Wiiefst (Berlin), and Theodor Les- 
chetizki (Vienna). He was appointed 
Pf. teacher at the Conserv. of 
Strassburg (Alsace). For the last 
three years his performances have 
created a great and fully deserved sen- 
sation in Paris, England, and America. 
He is undoubtedly among the foremost 
performers of the present time. 
Op. I, Prelude and Minuet; Op. 6, Introduc- 
tion et Toccata ; Op. 5 and 9, Danses 
polonaises ; Op. 10, Album de Mat, Scenes 
romantiques ; Op. 11, Variations et Fugue; 
Op. 14, Humoresques de Concert, I.: 
tMenuet; Sarabande, Caprice; II.: Bur- 
lesque, Intermezzo poUaco, tCracovienne 
fantastique ; Op. 15, Dans le desert ; Op. 
16, Miscellanse: tL6gende,+MeIodie,Th^me 
varie, Nocturne ; Op. 13, Sonate pour Pf. et 
Vln. ; Op. 17, Concerto ; Fantasia on Polish 
Airs, with orchestra. 

Paer, Ferdinando, b. June i, 1771, 
Parma; d. May 3, 1839, Paris. 1791, 
appointed Conductor in Venice ; 1797, 
in Vienna; 1802-6, in Dresden; 1812- 
27, in Paris; 1831, became Membre 
de I'Academie ; 1832, Director of the 
Royal Chapel. 
3 Grandes Sonates pour Pf., Vln., et V'cello, 

B flat, A, and E flat ; 6 Valses ; Variations 

and Marches. 

Paisiello, Giovanni, b. May g, 1741, 
Tarento ; d. June 5, 1816, Naples. 
Pupil of Durante. 1759, Assistant 
Teacher at the Naples Conserv. ; 1776- 
84, at St. Petersburg; 1784-1802, Court 
Capellmeister at Naples; 1802-3, Con- 
ductor in Paris ; but, after 1803, again 
in Naples. 
Concertos (6), Quartets (12) with Strings; and 

2 vols, of pieces for the Grand Duchess 

Marie of Russia. 

Papendieck, Hermann, b. Jan. 16, 1832, 
Magdeburg. 1848-51, pupil of J. B. 
Andre (Berlin) for Pf. and Composition, 
and 1856 of Ernst Liibeck (Paris). 
1858, he played for the iirst time in 
public (Paris, Berlin, &c.) ; 1855-70, 
was a teacher in Paris, then had to 
leave on account of the Franco-German 
war. A temporary engagement as 
teacher in Kullak's Academy kept him 
(1870-71) in Berlin; went afterwards to 

London, where he resides at present, a 

most successful teacher. 
Capriccio, Op. 3 (which obtained first prize, 
the judges being Moscbeles, Kullak, and 
Sechter) ; iz Etudes m^lodiques; Can- 
zonetta, &c. 

Paradies, Pietro Domenico, b. 1710, 
Naples ; d. there 1792. Pupil of Por- 
pora. He resided for the greater part 
of his life in London. Was an energetic 
teacher and also a dramatic composer. 
12 Sonate di gravicembalo dedicate a sua 

Altezza Reale la Principessa Augusta. 

Printed for the author by Blundell (London, 

1746). A second edition was published (1770) 

at Amsterdam. 

Paradis (Paradies), Maria Theresia von, 
b. May 15, 1759, Vienna; d. there 
Feb. I, 1824. She became blind in 
her third year (sec Jahn, "Mozart"). 
Pupil of Kozeluch, Salieri, and Abbe 
Vogler. As godchild of the Empress 
Maria Theresia, she received a pension 
of 200 florins, and her beautiful playing 
and sweet voice won for her the favour 
of the Viennese. It is said that she 
was able to play 60 Concertos correctly 
and with exquisite taste; indeed, her 
memory seems to have been quite 
phenomenal. In Germany, Paris, and 
London she was received with great 
favour, and reaped not only plenty of 
laurels, but also considerable sums of 
money. She dictated her composi- 
tions note for note. A sincere friend- 
ship bound her to Leopold Mozart, and 
his illustrious son, W. A. M., composed 
a Concerto for her. Compositions 
published during her lifetime — 
4 Sonatas, Amsterdam, 1778 ; 6 Sonatas, Op. i, 
Paris, 1791 ; 6 Sonatas, Op. 2 ; An meine 
entfernten Lieben, Fantasia, 1786. 

Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings, M.A. ; 
Mus. Doc, Cantab (1883); Mus. Doc. 
Oxon (1884) ; Choragus, Oxford Univer- 
sity (1883) ; Mus. Doc, Dublin Univer- 
sity; Prof, and Director (1894), Royal 
College of Music (London) ; b. Feb. 27, 
1848, Bournemouth. Educated at Eton 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
graduated Mus. Bac. in 1867 and B.A. 
in 1870. For a short time a pupil of 
Dr. (Sir) George Elvey, later of H. H. 
Pierson (Edgar Mannsfeldt) in Stutt- 
gart, of Macfarren (Composition) and 
Dannreuther (Pf.) in London. 

Sonnets and Songs without Words (3 books); 
Characterbilder ; Grand Duo for 2 Pf. in 
E min. ; Trio for Pf., Vln., and V'cello in E 
min. ; Quartet for Pf. and Strings in A flat ; 
Fantaisie Sonata for Pf. and Vln. ; Sonata 
for Pf. and V'cello; another in A; Theme 
and Variations in D min. ; Partita for Pf. 
and Vln. in D min. 

Pasquini, Bernardo, b. 1637, Massa 
Valnevola (Toscana); d. Nov. 22, 1710, 



Rome. Pupil of L. Vittori and A. 

Cesti, and teacher of Durante and 

Gasparini. Excellent performer. Little 

is known of his works for clavecin. 

Toccata (Amsterdam, 1704); Sonata per 

gravicembalo, 1702 ; Sonata per gravi- 

cembalo, 1732 (MS., British Museum). 

Pasterwitz, Georg von, b. June 7, 1730, 
Burchhiitten (Upper Austria) ; d. 1803 
in the Monastery of Kremsmiinster. 
Although he entered the Monastery of 
the Benedictines as early as 1744, he 
followed up his musical studies with 
rare energy, and enjoyed the friendship 
of Haydn, Mozart, Salieri, Albrechts- 
berger, and other celebrities. His 
compositions are but few, but they are 
written in the most correct and polished 
8 Fughe secondo I'ordine de tuoni ecclesias- 
tic! per il clavicembalo ; 8 Fughe secondo 
I'A, B, C, di musica per il clavicembalo, and 
8 Idem, Op. 3 (Vienna). 

Pauer, Ernst, b. Dec. 21, 1826, Vienna. 
The only son of the Very Rev. Ernst P., 
Superintendent-General of the Pro- 
testant Churches of Austria, Director 
of the Theological Seminary, &c. He 
was educated by private tutors. Until 
1839, pupil of TheodorDirzka; 1839-44, 
of W. A. Mozart, jun. (Pf.), and Simon 
Sechter (Composition) ; 1845-47, pupil 
of Franz Lachner (Munich); 1847-51, 
Director of the Musical Societies of 
Mayence o/Rhine. He visited London 
in the spring of 185 1 ; played at the 
Philharmonic and Musical Union 
concerts ; returned to Germany 
(Frankfort o/M.) and then to London, 
Dec, 1 85 1, in order to settle there. 
1859, he succeeded Cipriani Potter 
as Prof, at the R.A.M.; 1861, began 
his historical performances of Clave- 
cin and Pf. music in chronological 
order (3 series) ; 1862, was elected 
Juror of the International Exhibition 
for Austria and Germany, and com- 
missioned to write the official report 
for the German Governments. 1867, 
principal Prof, at the National Training 
School, and, 1883, at the Royal 
College of Music. 1858, he received 
from the Grand Duke of Hesse the 
title of " Concertmeister " ; 1861, the 
Austrian great gold medal for art and 
science ; 1866, the patent as pianist to 
the Imperial and Royal Court of 
Austria; i862,the Orders of the Prussian 
Crown and Albrecht of Saxony ; 1863, 
of Francis Joseph (Austria), St. George 
and Michael of Bavaria, House- 
order of Coburg - Gotha ; 1866, of 
Philip (Hesse) ; 1869, St. Stanislas of | 
Russia and Crown of Italy. Hon. j 

Member of the R.A.M. and of several 

other societies. His lectures on 

different musical subjects, delivered at 

the Royal and London Institutions, the 

South Kensington Museum, the Royal 

Institutions of Manchester, Liverpool, 

and other towns in the provinces (also 

in Ireland and Scotland) met with 


Author of the Primers : " The art of Pf. 

playing " ; " Musical Forms " ; " The beau- 

'tiful in Music," which obtained popularity. 

The Historical publications — Alte Clavier- 

musik (i2 books); Alte Meister (65 

numbers); Old English, Italian, French, 

and German composers — have been found 

useful. Educational publications : The 

New Gradus ad Parnassum (100 Studies 

of different composers) ; the Classical 

Companion (100 pieces) ; celebrated Concert 

Studies (50) ; Culture of the left hand 

(4 books). Original Studies : 24 easy 

and melodious Studies ; 20 progressive 

Studies, 20 Rhythmical Sketches; Mozart 

Studies (12); the Culture of the Scale (24) ; 

Characteristic Studies for the left hand (12). 

Educational pieces : 4 Sonatinas; 6 National 

Sonatinas; A Child's Life; Suite facile; 

Suite for the left hand; 20 Musical Sketches; 

Musical Scrap-book (100). Composer of 

Quintet for Pf., Ob., CI , Hn., Bssn., Op. 

44 (also arranged as Quartet for Pf. and 

Strings) ; Sonata for Pf. and Vln. ; Sonata 

for Pf. and V cello; Solo Sonatas ; Caprice, 

Op. 39; Passacaille, Op. 40; Valse de 

Concert, Cascade, Op. 37 ; Tarantelle, Op. 

30; I'Adieu du Soldat, Op. 36; Caprice 

hongrois, Op. 58, &c. Editor of the 

Pf. Classics, Children's Classics (9), Pf. 

Library for study and amusement (10 books). 

Besides these he arranged Beethoven's and 

Schumann's Symphonies for 2 and 4 hands, 

38 Overtures for ditto, and other classical 


Pauer, Max, b. Oct. 31, 1866, London. 
Son and pupil of the above. 1881-85, 
pupil of Vincenz Lachner (Composi- 
tion) ; at the same time appointed Prof, 
at the Conserv. (Carlsruhe). 1887, ap- 
pointed Prof, at the Conserv. (Cologne). 
He has taken extensive concert tours 
in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Russia, 
Holland , Belgium , &c. 1 893 , appointed 
Kammervirtuose to the Grand Duke of 
Hesse. Associate of the Royal College 
of Music. 
His arrangements of Mozart and Haydn|a 
Symphonies for 2 and 4 hands, and his 
Album Classique for 4 hands (6 books) have 
given great satisfaction. Gavotte, Taran- 
telle a 4 mains, Rhapsody, Waltz, 7 pieces 
(4 hands), 3 pieces. Miniatures, &c. 

Paul, Dr. Oscar, b. April 8, 1836, Frei- 
waldau (Silesia). 1858, pupil of Plaidy 
and Richter. Studied theology at the 
University (Leipzig), became Doc. 
Phil.; was elected " Privat Docent" 
in 1866; 1869, Prof, at the Conserv., 
and. 1872, Prof, of Music at the 
Author of a "History of the Clavecin," of a 
"Handlcxikon dcr Tonkunst" (2 vols., 



1869-73), and Editor of Dr. Hauptmann's 
posthumous work, " Die Lehre von der 

Paur, Emil, b. Aug 29, 1855, Czernowitz, 
Bukowina. Son of Franz P., a Con- 
ductor, who did not wish his son to 
devote himself to music. Emil went 
to Vienna and entered the Conserv. 
against the will and without the know- 
ledge of his father, who thereupon 
disclaimed any further interest in his 
career. But when he heard that his son 
had received the first prize, a recon- 
ciliation took place. 1869, he obtained 
the appointment of violinist in the 
orchestra of the Vienna Imperial 
Opera, and, after some years, decided 
to become a conductor. In this 
capacity he was Capellmeister in 
Mannheim, afterwards in Leipzig, 
and, in 1893, accepted an appoint- 
ment in Boston (U.S.). He is an 
excellent pianist as well as a good 
Solo Sonata, Sonata for Pf. and Vln., and 
solo pieces. 
Payer, Hieronymus, b. Feb. 15, 1787, 
Meidling (near Vienna) ; d. Sept., 1845, 
Wiedburg (near Vienna). His father, 
a poor schoolmaster, taught him the 
Vln., Organ, and to tune the Clavecin. 
With his modest savings he bought 
the works of Mattheson, Tiirck, Mar- 
purg, and Kirnberger, and tried, with 
admirable perseverance, to further his 
career. 1 800 (thirteen years old) , he suc- 
ceeded his father (who died that year) 
as organist, but resigned in 1816, when 
he was appointed Musical Director of 
the " New Theatre on the Wien " (a 
small river) in Vienna. 1818, he made 
a journey through Germany, became 
Capellmeister at Amsterdam, and went 
(1825) to Paris, where he was the first 
to perform in public on the Phys- 
harmonika (Harmonium). In Paris, 
and later in Vienna, he filled the post 
of Conductor of the Opera, and 
eventually retired to Wiedburg, near 
Vienna, where he died. 
Concertino for Pf. and Orchestra, Op. 79; 
Variations for Pf. and Orchestra, Op. 71 ; 
Variations for Pf. and Quartet, Op. 30, 47, 
88, 96, and 112; Trios for Pf., Vln., and 
V'cello; Sonatas; Rondos; Variations, &c., 
for 4 hands ; Variations for Pf. solo. 
Perabo, Ernst, b. Nov. 14, 1845, Wies- 
baden. 1852, his parents settled in 
New York, where they remained for two 
years. The publisher, Wilhelm Schar- 
fenberg (b. in Cassel), succeeded in 
finding the necessary means for sending 
the talented boy, first to Hamburg 
(1858), where he was instructed in the 
Ed ucational Institute of Prof . Andresen , 

and, 1862, to Leipzig, where Wenzel 

and Moscheles, Papperitz, Haupt- 

mann, Richter, and Reinecke were his 

teachers in the Conserv. 1865, he 

returned to New York, gave concerts 

in different towns of America, and 

settled in Boston, where he resides, an 

influential and successful pianist and 

teacher. Some of his compositions 

were published in America and 


Pescetti, Giovanni Battista, b. 1704, 

Venice; d. there 1784. Pupil of Lotti. 

After 1726 he went to London. It is 

not known how long he remained in 


9 Sonatas were published in London, 1739; 

they were also published in Haffner's 

" Raccolta Musicale " (Niirnberg). 

Petersen, Dory (Burmeister), b. Aug. i, 
i860, Oldenburg. Pupil of Julius 
Leven, later (for seven years) of Liszt. 
She gave concerts in Italy, Hungary, 
Germany, Paris, and London. 1883, 
she married the pianist, Richard 
Burmeister, and, since 1887, has been 
Prof, at the Women's College of 
Petersenn, Georg von, b. Sept, i, 1849, 
Welmjir (Livland). After finishing his 
studies at the University, he was a 
pupil at the Munich Conserv. 1875, 
appointed teacher at the Wiirzburg 
Music School. Afterwards took lessons 
from Billow in Hanover. Received 
the title of "Professor," and, since 
1884, has been Prof, at the Royal 
Hochschule of Berlin. 
6 Studies in C, A fiat, A min., E flat, C and F 

min., which are used in several German 

music schools. 

Pflughaupt, Robert, b. Aug. 4, 1833, 
Berlin; d. June 12, 1871, Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Pupil of Dehn (Berlin) ; 
then of A. Henselt (St. Petersburg), 
where he married ; and later of Liszt, 
at Weimar, where he resided from 
1857 until 1862 ; afterwards in Aix-la- 
Chapelle. He left his money to the 
General German Musical Society, 
which used it for a "Beethoven" 
Op. I, Theme original et Variations ; Op. 3, 
Petite Valse; Op. 6, Mazurka; Op. 9, 
Second Galop de Concert ; Op. 11, Invita- 
tion a la Polka. 

Pflughaupt, Sophie {nee Stschepin) , wife 
of the above, b. March 15, 1837, Diina- 
burg (Russia) ; d. Nov. 10, 1867, Aix- 
la-Chapelle. Pupil of Henselt and 
Liszt. Excellent pianist. 

*Pfeiffer, Georges, b. Dec. 12, 1835, 
Versailles. Pupil of his mother, Clara 
P., who was a pupil of Kalkbrenner 



and Chopin. His instructors in 
Harmony and Composition were 
Maleden and Damcke. Excellent 
pianist. 1862, gave his first con- 
cert in Paris, introducing a Trio and 
other smaller pieces. He is one of the 
directors of Pleyel and Wolffs Pf. 
factory, and also Vice-President of the 
French Society of Composers, of which 
Saint-Saens and Joncieres were Presi- 
dents (1890-91 and 1892-93). 
Concerto (No. i), Op. 11 ; Concerto (No. a), 
Op. 21; Trio, Op. 14; Sonatines, 1-3, Op. 
59 ; Quartet for Pf. and Strings ; Quintet for 
Pf. and Strings ; 25 Etudes preparatoires a 
celles de Cramer, Op. 70 ; Mazurkas, Op. 35 
and 88; Melodies (I.-II.), Op. 105. 

•Piernd, Gabriel, b. Aug. 16, 1863, Metz. 
Became in his eighth year (1871) a 
pupil at the Paris Conserv. 1879, first 
prize for Pf. playing (Marmontel's 
class) ; 1881, first prize for Counter- 
point and Fugue; 1882, "Grand Prix 
de Rome " (Massenet's class) ; also first 
prize for Organ (teacher, Cesar Franck) ; 
Member of the Jury for Competitions 
at the Conserv. 
Fantaisie-Ballet (with Orchestra), Concerto in 
C min. (with Orchestra), Scherzo-Caprice 
(with Orchestra), Collection of 2o melodies, 
and several smaller pieces. 

Pinto (really Sauters), George Frederic, 
b. Sept. 25, 1786, Lambeth (London) ; 
d. March 23, 1806, Little Chelsea. His 
education was directed by his grand- 
mother, Mrs. Brent, who placed him 
under Salomon for Vln. When fifteen 
years old he gave concerts in London, 
Bath, Oxford, Cambridge, Winchester, 
and went afterwards with Salomon to 
Scotland, later to Paris, everywhere 
creating a great sensation. But his 
Clavecin playing was also wonderful, 
and his Sonata, dedicated to his friend 
John Field, testifies to his great facul- 
ties. Several of his contemporaries 
declare that he might have been a 
second Mozart if he had led a more 
regular life. 

•Pirani, Eugenio de, b. Sept. 8, 1852, 
Ferrara. He studied at the College of 
Bologna and the Conserv. Rossini and 
pass^ excellent examinations. He 
intended to study law, but soon turned 
to the study of music instead. Dr. 
Kullak, of BerHn, wished to engage a 
competent teacher for the higher 
classes of his academy, and Pirani 
succeeded in getting the appointment. 
For ten years he worked there, and 
during that time he made concert tours 
through Germany, Russia, France, and 
Italy, and went several times to 
London, where he performed at St. 

James's Hall and the Albert Hall. He 
studied Counterpoint with Kiel. He 
is a successful author, and writes 
equally well in Italian and German. 
The Kuag of Italy named him Officer 
of the ItaUan Crown, the King of 
Prussia, Knight of the Prussian Crown. 
He is also a Member of the Academies 
of Rome, Florence, Bologna, &c. He 
resides at Heidelberg. The follow- 
ing compositions enjoy considerable 
popularity : 
Trios, Op. 24 and 48 ; Scena veneziana, with 
Orchestra (3 movements); Concert Studies, 
Op. 19 and 51 ; Fantasia, Op. 16; Serenade, 
Op. 16: Gavottes, Op. 25 and 34; Fughetta 
and Valse, Op. 30 ; Menuet, Op. 32, &c. 

Pirkhert, Eduard, b. Oct. 14, 1817, 
Aussee (Stsrria) ; d. Feb. 27, 1881, 
Vienna. Pupil of Anton Halm and 
Czemy (Vienna). 1855, appointed 
Prof, at the Vienna Conserv. He was 
an excellent pianist, who fully deserved 
the admiration bestowed on his truly 
artistic performances. 
Op. 3, 6 Etudes m^lodiques ; Op_. 6, Thdme 

original varie ; Op. 9, 6 Melodies ; Op. 10, 

12 Etudes de Salon. 

Pixis, Johann Peter, b. 1788, Mannheim; 
d. Dec. 20, 1874, Baden-Baden. Pupil 
of his father, Fr. Wilh. P., an organist. 
Even in his ninth year he was an 
expert performer, and travelled in 
company with his elder brother, Fr. 
Wilh. P. (1786-1842), an excellent 
violinist ; they obtained great success 
everywhere. 1803-8, he studied with 
perseverance in his native town, 
where he also taught ; went (1809) to 
Paris, and settled there, 1825. After 
many journeys with his adopted 
daughter, Francilla P. (Gohringer), an 
excellent singer, he established him- 
self (1840) in Baden-Baden, where he 
gave lessons, but no longer composed. 
Pixis was a performer of the school 
of Kalkbrenner and Herz — elegant, 
correct, jmd brilliant, but without 
deep feeling or enthusiasm. His 
compositions, some of which are not 
without merit, are scarcely known or 
played at the present time. 
Concerto, Op. 100; Trios for Pf., Vln., and 
V'cello, Op. 75 and 87; Quartet with Strings, 
Op. 4 ; Sonatas with Vln., Fl., V'cello, Op. 
14, 17, 24, 30, 35, &c. ; Solo Sonatas, Op. 3, 
10, and +85 (ded. to J. B. Cramer); Fantaisie 
militaire, Op. 121 ; Variations, Caprices, 
Polonaises, Valses, Rondos, Etudes en 
forme de Valses, &c. 

Plachy, Wenzel, b. Sept. 4, 1785, 
Klopotowitz (Moravia) ; d. July 7, 
1858, Prague. Pupil of his uncle, 
Anton P. 1811, he went to Vienna, 
obtained the appointment of Organist 



of the "Piaristen" Church, and was 
highly successful as a teacher. His 
educational compositions, practically 
and correctly written, are unpre- 
tentious, but pleasing and eiifective — 
Elementary Studies, Op. 25; First Studies, 
Op. 79; Revue Musicale en 24 Etudes, Op. 
10:; Short and Practical Studies, Op. no; 
Sonata, Op. 6; Rondeaux, Op. 2; 12 Pre- 
ludes, Op. 97; Variations; and several 
collections of opera airs arranged as solo 

Plaidy, Louis, b. Nov. 28, 1810, Werms- 
dorf (Saxony) ; d. March 3, 1874, 
Grimma (Saxony). Pupil of Agthe 
(Pf.) and Haase (Vln.) at Dresden. He 
hrst practised the Vln. as his principal 
instrument, but later the Pf., and 
studied with great attention the 
elementary and technical details. At 
the time of the opening of the Leipzig 
Conserv. (1842) Mendelssohn appointed 
him one of the Pf. teachers, and almost 
all English pianists who studied in 
Leipzig were his pupils, and recollect 
gratefully his patient and careful 
instruction. He retained this appoint- 
ment until 1865, and afterwards 
became a private teacher. His well- 
known educational work, "Technical 
Studies," of which many editions were 
published, and a little pamphlet, "Der 
Clavierlehrer " (The Pf. Teacher], are 
so much respected they need no 
further notice. Plaidy was universally 
beloved for his simple, modest, but 
thoroughly reliable character, and his 
retirement proved a great loss for the 

\ Plante, Francois, b. March 2, 1839, 
Orthez (Basses-Pyrenees). Entered, 
in his tenth year (1849), Marmontel's 
class at the Paris Conserv. ; obtained 
the first prize after seven months' 
tuition, and was selected by Alard and 
Franchomme as pianist for their Trio 
Soirees. 1853, he studied Thorough- 
Bass and Harmony with Bazin. 
He retired for ten years, then 
appeared as a most finished and brilliant 
performer, and was received by the 
public with great acclamation. His 
style is refined, graceful, elegant, 
his technique worked out with minute- 
ness, his runs smooth and clear ; but 
the whole is more fascinating for the 
amateur than for the musician, as the 
latter feels somewhat the absence of 
enthusiasm, grandeur, and what may 
be called the feu sacre. His tran- 
scriptions of classical pieces (Gluck, 
Mozart) are written with the greatest 
care. He is Chevalier de la Legion 

Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph, b. June i, 1757, 
Ruppersthal (near Vienna). The 
twenty-fourth child of a poor school- 
master, whose wife, the daughter of an 
aristocratic family, was disinherited on 
account of her mesalliance. Died Nov. 
14, 1831, at his estate, near Paris. 
He was patronised by several noble 
and highly influential persons. Amongst 
them was Count Krdody, who first 
gave him Wanhal as a teacher, and 
later paid Joseph Haydn ;^ioo a year 
for taking him as a pupil and boarder. 
He was five years with Haydn. 1777. 
the Count appointed him his Capell- 
meister, but allowed him to spend 
four years in Italy, so that he might 
make the acquaintance of the fore- 
most Italian artists. 1781, he re- 
turned ; 1783, he accepted the 
appointment of Assistant Capell- 
meister of the Strassburg Cathedral, 
where he was elected (1789) first 
Capellmeister. 1792, the Society of 
the " Professional Concerts," di 
London, invited him to come to 
England, where he composed and 
conducted some of his Symphonies. 
These concerts were in opposition to 
Salomon's, who had engaged Haydn 
in the same way. This rivalry did 
not interfere, however, with the 
friendship and mutual goodwill of 
master and pupil. 1795, Pleyel left 
London for Paris, where his elegant 
and light compositions were immensely 
popular. By degrees he became a 
thorough man of business. He estab- 
lished a music-publishing house, more 
or less for the publication of his own 
works, and somewhat later (1807) 
founded a Pf. manufactory, which 
still exists under the name of Pleyel, 
Wolff and Co. Later, he ceased to 
compose and retired to his estate near 
Concertos ; Trios (above 100, some of them 
being arrangements) ; many Sonatas for 
Pf. and Vln.; 6 great Solo Sonatas, Op. 15; 
easy Sonatas and Sonatinas ; Variations ; 
Rondos ; Dances ; +4 Rondeaux favoris ; 
Sonatas for 4 hands. With Dussek he 
published a Method, of which another 
edition was published with the co-operation 
of Clementi. 
Pleyel, Camille, b. Dec. 18, 1788 (1792?), 
Strassburg ; d. May 4, 1855, Paris. 
Pupil of his father, I. J. P., and 
Dussek. 1824, he undertook, vrith 
Kalkbrenner, the direction of the Pf. 
manufactory founded by his father, 
and also continued the music-publish- 
ing business. He was Knight of the 
Legion of Honour. An excellent per- 
former, of refined taste, he succeeded 



also in winning a certain success as 
a composer. 
Quartet, Op. 3 ; 3 Trios, Op. 1 ; Sonatas with 
Vln. ; and different solo pieces. 
Pleyel, Marie Felicite Denise {nee 
Moke),b. Sept. 4, 1811, Paris; d. March 
30, 1875, St. Josse-ten-Noode (near 
Brussels). Pupil of Jacques Herz, 
Moscheles, and Kalkbrenner ; also en- 
joyed the advice of Thalberg and Liszt. 
As Mdlle. Moke she was even in her 
fifteenth year one of the most excellent 
and distinguished of pianists, creating 
in Russia, Belgium, Austria, and Ger- 
many an unusual, but well-deserved 
sensation. 1848-72, Prof, at the 
Conserv. of Brussels. 
Poisot, Charles Emile, b. July 7, 1822, 
Dijon. Pupil of Senart, Louis Adam, 
Stamaty, Thalberg, Leborne, and, 1844, 
of Halevy. 1868, he founded the Con- 
serv. of Dijon, and is one of the founda- 
tion members of the Paris Society of 
Composers. He established also a 
Concert Society in his native town, 
Duo for Pf. and Vln. ; Trio (dedicated to 
Onslow); Fantaisie a 4 mains; Scherzo k 
4 mains ; Exercices de m^canisme. 
PoUini, Francesco Giuseppe, b. 1763, 
Laibach (lUyria, Austria] ; d. Sept. 17, 
1846, Milan. Instructed first in his 
native town, later in Vienna by Mozart , 
who dedicated to him a Rondo for 
Clavecin and Vln. 1793, he went to 
Milan, where, after having received 
instruction from Zingarelli, he became 
Prof, at the Conserv. He was a 
thoughtful and excellent performer, 
and was the first to use three staves, 
in order to distribute the melody 
between the two hands and to sur- 
round it with graceful figures {see his 
" Uno de '32 Esercizi in forma di 
Toccata," Op. 42). 
Toccatas, Op. 31, 50i and 67; tToccatina in 
G ; 3 Sonatas, Op. 26 ; Caprices, Op. 28, 
29; Rondo, Op. 43; Variations (6 books); 
^Divertimento pastorale. Op. 34; Method 
for Pf. playing. 
Potter, Cipriani, b. Oct. 3, 1792, London ; 
d. there Sept. 26, 1871. Pupil of his 
father, later of Wolfl (Pf.), Attwood, 
Crotch, and Callcott. 1818, went to 
Vienna, where he studied with Forster, 
and made Beethoven's acquaintance. 
1822, appointed Prof, of Pf. at the 
R.A.M., London, and (1832) succeeded 
Crotch as Principal, which post he 
resigned (1859). He was an excellent 
linguist, a man of liberal judgment, 
an eminent teacher, and, as pianist, a 
performer of considerable merit. Well 
acquainted with Continental ideas about 
music, he was always anxious to draw 
the attention of lus countrymen to 

foreign merit ; at a time when Schu- 
mann's works were scarcely known in 
England, and almost ridiculed by those 
critics who did know them. Potter was 
aware of their great beauty, and loudly 
proclaimed his admiration ; indeed, 
there has seldom been a man who filled 
his post with greater honour than he 
did. The following compositions, now 
scarcely known or used, deserve notice : 
Sonata, Op. 3 ; 3 Toccatas in G, +B flat, 
and E, Op. 9; Pezzi di Bravura en forme 
d'Etudes, Op. 15 (I.-III.); II Campiacente 
(Andante and Allegretto), Op. 16; fEtudes 
dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs, 
Op. 19; Fantasia, Marcia e Trio, in E flat ; 
tLaPlacidita, Divertimento in A; Rondeaux 
in F and C ; Sextuor for Pf., Fl., Vln., Via., 
V'cello, and C.-Bass, Op. 11; 3 Trios, Op, 
12, in E flat, D, and B flat min. ; Duo con- 
certante for Pf. and Vln., Op. 14, in A ; Duo 
for 2 Pf., Op. 6, in F; Introduction and 
Rondo (4 hands). Op. 8, in £ flat. 
Pradher (Pradere), Louis Barth^lemi, 
b. Dec. 18, 1781, Paris; d. Oct., 1843, 
Gray (Haute Sa6ne). Son of a vio- 
linist. Pupil of Gobert. 1797, he 
obtained, at the Paris Conserv., the 
second and (1798) the first prize for Pf. ; 
1802, he succeeded Hyacinthe Jadin as 
Prof. He was the teacher of Jacques 
and Henri Herz, Dubois, Lambert, 
and Rosellen. 1827, he left Paris and 
settled in Toulouse, and was appointed 
Director of the Conserv. He was an 
industrious composer. 
Concerto in G; Trio, Op. 17; 5 Solo Sonatas, 
Op. I, 2, 3, 13, and 16 ; Rondeau for 2 Pf. ; 
Variations, &c. 
*Praeger, Ferdinand Christian Wilhelm, 
b. Jan. 22, 1815, Leipzig; d. Sept. 2, 1891, 
London. Pupil of Hummel (Weimar) 
and Pape (Liibeck). For some time he 
resided at The Hague teaching, but 
settled (1834) in London, where he 
was a hard-working composer, teacher, 
critic, and author, 
Lamentation, Elfenmarchen, Crepuscule, 
R6ve de Bonheur, Impromptu, Caprice, 
Moments joyeux, Flocons de Neige. A 
" Praeger Album " was published at Leipzig. 
Preindl, Joseph, b. Jan. 30, 1758, Mar- 
bach (Lower Austria] ; d. Oct. 26, 
1823, Vienna. Pupil of Albrechts- 
berger. 1780, Choirmaster of St. 
Peter's (Vienna) and (1809) Capell- 
meister of St. Stephen's. 
2 Concertos ; Sonatas, Variations, Fantasias, 
which enjoyed a brief popularity. 
Prentice, Ridley, b. July 6, 1842, Paslow 
Hall, Essex. Pupil at the R.A.M., 
London, under George Alexander Mac- 
farren (Composition) and Walter C. 
Macfarren (Pf.). Prof, at the London 
Guildhall School. Composer of several 
solo pieces. 
Author of 6 books, entitled " The Musician," 
favourably received in England and 



Proksch, Joseph, b. Aug. 4, 1794, Reichen- 
berg (Bohemia) ; d. Dec. 20, 1864, 
Prague. Pupil of Kozeluch (Prague). 
When only in his thirteenth (seven- 
teenth?) year he became totally blind, 
but pursued his studies with admirable 
perseverance. 1825, he left Prague for 
i Berlin, where he became acquainted 
with the system of Logier ; returned in 
the same year and opened a school in 
his native town, where instruction was 
given according to Logier's system. 
This undertaking met with great 
success. He then transferred the 
management of it to his brother, Anton, 
and opened on a larger scale a similar 
" Logier " school at Prague in 1835, no 
less successful than the first. He was 
an excellent teacher and was highly 
•Prosniz, Albert, b. Dec. 2, 1829, Prague. 
Pupil of Proksch and Tomaschek. 
For many years Prof, of Pf. and 
Musical History at the Vienna Con- 
serv. He made his name favourably 
known by a — • 
Handbuch der Clavier Literatur (Vienna, 
1884). A second volume, comprising the 
works of modern composers, has been 

Pruckner, Dionys, b. May 17, 1834, 
Munich. Pupil of Fried. Niest and 
(1852-56) of Liszt, in Weimar. 1856-58, 
he resided in Vienna; 1859, in Munich, 
and was appointed the same year Prof, 
at the Stuttgart Conserv. 1864, he 
received the diploma of Hof-Pianist 
and (1868) the title of Konigl. Prof. 
From the King of Wiirtemberg he 
received the great gold medal for art 
and science on the riband of the 
" Crown " Order, the Order of 
Frederic, and the ' 'Jubilee' ' medal. 1861 , 
he founded, with the violinist, Singer, 
and the violoncellist, Goltermann, 
chamber-music evenings . He travelled 

in Germany and America, and also 
played in Paris. He is one of the best 
pianists of our time, the clearness, 
correctness, and rhythmical excellence 
of his playing have everywhere been 
admired. He is also a successful 

Prudent (Beunie), Emile, b. Feb. 3, 1817, 
Angouleme ; d. May 14, 1863, Paris. 
At an early age he lost his parents, and 
was adopted by a Pf. tuner. In the 
Paris Conserv. he was a pupil of 
Lecouppey and Zimmermann (Pf) 
and Laurent (Harmony). He obtained 
the second prize, 1831, and the first, 
1833. Thalberg, who came to Paris, 
1836, made a deep impression on him, 
so that he studied with restless energy 
in order to reach the point at which 
his model had arrived. 1840, he sur- 
prised the Parisians by his excellent 
performances, and the critics declared 
that he stood between Thalberg and 
Dohler. His performances were loudly 
applauded in Germany, Belgium, Eng- 
land, and France. His compositions 
are neatly constructed, elegant, and 
full of nice detail, but they lack 
grandeur, poetry, and, above all, 
Op. 9, Andante ; +Op. ii, L'hirondelle ; Etude ; 
Op. 12, La ronde de nuit; Op. i6, 6 Etudes 
de genre; Op. 30, -f-No. i. La Berceuse, 
No. 5, Chanson Sicilienne ; Op. 33, Faran- 
dole; Op. 40, Vilanelle; Op. 4r, fLe Reveil 
des Fees ; Op. 52, Sousles Palmiers ; Op. 60, 
6 Etudes de Salon ; Op. 64, Le rSve d'Ariel; 
Trio ; Concert Symphonique. 

Purcell, Henry, b. (about) 1658, West- 
minster (London) ; d. there Nov. 21, 
1695. Pupil of Cooke, Humfrey, and 
10 Sonatas for the Harpsichord, (London, 
1683) ; Lessons for the Harpsichord 
(London) ; " Musick's Handmaid," by Play- 
ford, 1689. See also F'arrenc, " Tresor du 
Pianiste " (27 pieces), and Pauer, " Old 
English Composers." 

'Quidant (Pierre Robert Joseph), Alfred, 
b. 1815, Lyons ; d. Oct. 9, 1893, Paris. 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv. and of 
Liszt. Being a brilliant performer, 
who understood how to exhibit all the 
best qualities of an instrument, and 
who possessed the talent of improvising 
in an interesting manner, the firm of 
Erard (Paris) entrusted him with the 
task of playing on their instruments in 
all the Exhibitions, beginning with the 
first Paris Exhibition, 1834, and ending 
with that of 1889. The London Exhi- 

bition of 1851 especially offered him 
the opportunity of showing not only 
his accomplishments as a pianist, 
but also the excellent qualities of 
the Erard pianos. He has received 
Orders of Knighthood on different 

" Mazeppa '' ; Royal Polka ; Le Roulis ; " Par- 
les-moi " ; La Chataine; La Marche du 
Prince Imperial; Hymn, played before the 
English Queen in the Exhibition, 1851. 
Educational works : Gymnastique dcs 
Pianistes devenu celebre; L'Ame du Piano, 
essai sur les deux Pedales. 




•Rachmaninoff, Sergei Wassiliewitsch, 

b. 1873, Novgorod. Pupil at the 

Imperii Conserv. of Moscow, where 

Arenski (Theory) and Siloti (Pf.) 

were his teachers. Received (1891) 

the great gold medal. 

Concerto, Op. I ; Morceaux de Fantaisie, 

Op. 3 ; Fantaisie pour 2 Pf., Op. 5 ; Trio 

elegiaque, Op. 9. 

Raff, Joachim, b. May 27, 1822, Lachen, 
on the lake of Ziirich ; d. June 24/25, 
1882, Frankfort o/M. Son of an 
organist, he was educated at Wiesen- 
stetten (Wiirtemberg), and went to 
the Jesuit College of Schwytz ; being 
too poor to attend a University, he 
became a teacher. His talent for 
composing showed itself at an early 
age, and several little pieces which he 
sent to Mendelssohn gained the latter's 
favour, and he recommended the young 
artist to Breitkopf and H artel, so that 
Raff had the satisfaction of seeing his 
first works engraved and printed. 
They are Op. 2 to Op. 14 ; and among 
them is a Scherzo (Op. 3), 12 Romances 
en forme d'Etudes (Op. 8), and a 
Sonata and Fugue (Op. 14). These 
pieces were received with so much 
favour, he resolved to devote himself 
entirely to music. Liszt and Biilow 
both encouraged him, and played his 
compositions in public. Having tried 
unsuccessfully to get an appointment 
in Stuttgart, he followed Liszt (1850) 
to Weimar, where he remained until 
1856, when he left for Wiesbaden, 
where he worked till 1877, and then 
accepted the Directorship of the newly- 
founded " Hoch" Conserv. of Frank- 
fort o/M. This post he filled loyally 
until his death. Raff was not only an 1 
experienced composer, but also an 
excellent teacher. He was also one of 
the most thoroughly instructed of men — 
a splendid linguist, well acquainted 
with history, geography, and the 
natural sciences. This general know- 
ledge brought him the flattering 
nickname of " the wandering Encyclo- 
paedia." His compositions (about 200 
works are published) are very uneven ; 
some of them are even trivial and 
shallow, others are manufactured to 
the order of the publishers, whilst 
others rank very high. 

With Orchestra: Ode an printemps, Op. 76; 
Concerto in C min.. Op. 185 ; Suite in 
E flat, Op. 200. Chamber Music : Quintet, 
Op. 107; Trios, Op. 102, 112, 155, and 158; 
Sonatas with Vln., Op. 73, 78, 128, 129, and 
145; Suite with Vln., Op. 210. Piano Solos — 
Suites : in A min., Op. 69 ; in C, Op. 71 ; 
tin E min.. Op. 72; in D min. and D, Op. 
91 ; No. 3, Landler in E flat, Op. 162 ; in G 
(Au soir, Rhapsodie, Idylle), Op. 163 ; fin B 
flat (Rigaudon and Tambourin), Op. 204; 
Aus der Adventzeit (8 pieces). Op. 216; 12 
morceaux (Fleurette, Fabliau, Babillarde), 
Op- 75; 12 morceaux (No. 12, tProcida, 
Tarantelle), Op. 82; Elegy, Romance, Valse, 
Op. 22 ; Capriccio (imitation of Mendels- 
sohn's Op. 14), Op. 64; Introduction and 
Allegro, Op. 87 ; tMessagers du printemps, 
Op. 55 ; Tanz-Capricen, Op. 54 ; Valse- 
Caprice, Op. 116; Valse in C, Op. 11 1 ; 
Impromptu Valse, Op. 94 ; tPolka de la 
Heine, Op. 95 ; Gavotte in A min.. Op. 125 ; 
Bolero, Op. 11 1 ; Valse brillante. Op. 169; 30 
Etudes progressives ; tEtude de Salon, Op. 
88 ; 2 Etudes melodiques. Op. 130 ; Fan- 
taisie-Polonaise, Op. 106; Cavatine, +La 
Fileuse, Op. 157 ; Nocturne, A flat. Op. 17 ; 
Vilanelle, Op. 89; Impromptu, Op. 196; 
Airs suisses, Op. 60; Chaconne (2 Pf. a 4 
mains). Op. 150; Marche brillante i 4 mains. 
Op. 132. 

•Raif, Oscar, b. July 31, 1847, The 
Hague (Holland). Pupil of his father, 
Carl R., and Tausig (Berlin). 1875, 
named Konigl. Prof. Teacher at the 
Hochschule, excellent pianist, and 
talented composer. 
Concerto, Sonata for Pf. and Vln. 
Rameau, Jean Philippe, b. Sept. 25, 
1683, Dijon ; d. Sept. 12, 1764, Paris. 
He was organist in Lille and Cler- 
mont, and went, 1721, to Paris, where 
Louis XV. conferred on him the title 
of " Compositeur de Cabinet." 
Premier livre de pieces de Clavecin, Paris, 
1706; 2me livre, 1721 ; 3me livre, 1731; 
Nouvelles Suites de pieces de Clavecin, 
avec des remarques sur les difierents genres 
de musique ; 3 Concertos pour Clavecin, 
Violon et Basse de Viole, 1741. Among 
the best known are the tSuite in A min. ; 2 
Gigues en rondeaux; fLa tendre Plainte ; 
fLa Poule ; fLes Niais de Sologne; 
-f Le Rappel des Oiseauz ; 2 Menuets ; 
Rappoldi, Laura (nee Kahrer), b. Jan. 14, 
1853, Mistelbach, near Vienna. In her 
tenth year she received her first instruc- 
tion in Pf. playing, and made such 
rapid progress that in 1864 she 
played before the Empress of Austria, 
who then defrayed the costs of her 
education at the Vienna Conserv., 
under Dachs (Pf.) and Dessoff (Com- 
position). 1867, she received the first 



prize, and began her journeys through 

Germany, Russia, &c. Afterwards 

profited by the advice of Henselt, 

Liszt, and Biilow. 1874, she married 

the distinguished vioUnist Rappoldi, 

and resides with her husband in 

Dresden, where both are Profs, at the 

Royal Conserv. 

Rasetti (Razetti), Amadeo, b. 1754, 

Turin; d. 1799, Paris. Pupil of the 

clavecinist Clement. He established 

himself (1781 ?) at Paris, where his 

compositions found many admirers 

and he himself friends and pupils. 

Concert arabe, Op. 14 ; 4 Trios; Sonatas with 

Vln. ; 6 Sonates dans les styles d'Eckard, 

Haydn, Clementi, Cramer, Steibelt, at 

Mozart (Op. 7). 

Ratzenberger, Theodor, b. April 14, 
1840, Grossbreitenbach (Thuringia) ; 
d. March 8, 1879, Wiesbaden. Pupil 
of Liszt (Pf.) and Cornelius (Com- 
position). Court Pianist of Schwarz- 
burg (Sondershausen). His technical 
execution and finished as well as 
refined performances were deservedly 
admired. 1864, appointed Prof, in Lau- 
sanne and (1868) in Diisseldorf. Only 
a few of his compositions — mostly 
drawing-room pieces — were published. 
Ravina, Jean Henri, b. May 20, 1818, 
Bordeaux. Pupil at the Paris Con- 
serv., where Zimmermann (Pf.) and 
Laurent (Theory) were his teachers. 
1832, second, 1834, ^''^t prize for Pf. 
playing, and 1836, first prize for 
Harmony. He continued his studies 
with Reicha and Leborne. 1837, he left 
the Conserv. Afterwards he performed 
not only in France, but also in Russia 
(1858) and Spain (1871), and was 
received with great cordiality, the 
neatness, correctness, and elegance of 
his style being everywhere admired. 
1861, made Chevalier de la Legion 
d'honneur. His pieces enjoy great 
Op. 14, 12 Etudes de style et de perfectionne- 
ment (I., II.); Op. 28, 25 Exercices Etudes 
(I., II.); Op. 50, 25 Etudes harmonieuses 
(I., II.); Op. 35, Simple histoire; tOp. 41, 
Douce Pens^e ; +Op. 55, Jour de Bonheur ; 
Op. 62, Petit Bolero, tConfidence, Noc- 
turne; Op. 71, Historiette; Op. 86, Calinerie ; 
Op. 78, 12 pieces intimes ; Op. 13, fNocturne 
in D flat. 

Reber (Napoleon), Henri, b. Sept. 23, 
1807 (Fetis, Oct. 21), at Miihlhausen 
(Alsace) ; d. Nov. 24, 1880, Paris. 
Pupil at the Paris Conserv. under 
Reicha and Lesueur. 1862, succeeded 
Halevy as Prof, of Composition. 1853, 
elected Membre de 1' Academic des 
Beaux- Arts; 1854, Chevalier de la 
Legion d'honneur. 

Op. 8, Trio ; 2nd Trio ; Op. 34, 6th Trio ; Op. 
36, Bagatelles (30); Op. 13, and Suite; 
Valses for Pf., and some tor Pf. and Vln. 

*Redon, Ernest, b. June 15, 1835, New 

Orleans. Pupil of Schad (Pf.) and 

Schaffner (Harmony) at Bordeaux, 

where he now resides. 

" Hommage a Schumann," " Reflets 

d'Orient," " Chants crtoles " (4). 

"Ree, Anton, b. Oct. 5, 1820, Aarhus, 
Jutland ; d. Dec. 20, 1886, Copenhagen. 
In his fifteenth year (1835) he went to 
Hamburg and was a pupil of Jacques 
Schmitt and Carl Krebs. 1839, he 
went to Vienna, and met with great 
success as a pianist ; 1841, he was in 
Paris, became a pupil of Chopin, and 
also enjoyed the advice of Kalkbrenner. 
1842, he settled in Copenhagen, where 
he worked as a teacher and as a 
reporter for the best German papers. 
Among his pupils were Aug. Winding, 
F. Hartvigson, and Mdlle. Th. Sanne. 
His compositions are mostly written 
for educational purposes. A book, 
" Musikhistoriske Momenter," and the 
exercises, " Bitrag tie Klaverspildets 
Teknik," are well known in Denmark. 
Sonatine, Op. g; 3 Danses caract^ristiques, 
Op. 17 ; Cadenzas to Mozart's Concertos in 
C and D min., and Beethoven's in C min. 

Rehberg, Willy, b. Sept. 2, 1863, Morges 
(Switzerland). Son and pupil of the 
music teacher and organist, Friedrich 
R. Later he went to the Ziirich Music 
School and then to Leipzig, where he 
entered the Conserv. He was ap- 
pointed teacher there in 1884. 1890, 
Principal Prof, at the Music School of 
Geneva. He is an excellent performer 
and his compositions evince taste and 
elegance. The Duke of Altenburg gave 
him the title of " Court Pianist." 
Op. 2, 3 Characteristic Pieces: Menuet, 
Chanson d'amour, and Gavotte ; Op. 4, 2 
Etudes de Concert ; Op. 3, Sonata in G 
min. ; Op. 10, Sonata in D for Pf.and Vln. 

Reicha, Anton, b. Feb. 27, 1770, 

Prague; d. May 28, 1836, Paris. Pupil 

of his uncle, Joseph R. 1794, went to 

Hamburg; 1799, to Paris. 1802-8, 

he resided in Vienna, where he was in 

friendly intimacy with Beethoven, 

Haydn, Albrechtsberger, and Salieri. 

1808, he returned to Paris ; 1818, 

appointed Prof, of Composition at the 

Conserv. (as successor to Mehul) ; 

1835, he succeeded Boieldieu as 

" Membre de I'Academie." He was 

also Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur. 

Quartet, with wind instruments; Trios; 

Sonatas with Vln. ; Solo Sonatas, Op. 40, 

43, and 46; 36 Fugues, according to a new 

system ; 6 Fugues, Op. 81 ; L'Art de varier, 

57 Variations, Op. 57; Etudes et Exercices, 

Op. 31 ; Etudes dans le genre fugue, Op. 97. 



Reinecke, Carl (Heinrich Carsten), b. 
June 23, 1824, Altona. Pupil of his 
father. 1843, in Leipzig, where he 
enjoyed Mendelssohn and Schumann's 
friendship and advice; 1846, Court 
Pianist to the King of Denmark ; 
1848-49, he resided at Leipzig, after- 
wards at Bremen; 1851, appointed 
Pf. Prof, at the Cologne Conserv. ; 
1854, Musik Director at Barmen; 
1859, in a similar position at Breslau ; 
i860, appointed Prof, at the Leipzig 
Conserv. and Conductor of the 
Gewandhaus Concerts, which ap- 
pointment he still holds. Among his 
pupils were many well-known and 
celebrated names, such as Max Bruch, 
J. Brambach, Arnold Krug, E. Rudorff, 
Arthur Sullivan, Svendsen, Edvard 
Grieg, Hans Huber, Ernst Perabo, 
Otto Klauwell, and Hugo Riemann for 
Composition ; L. Maas, James Kwast, 
August Winding, Rafael Joseffi, the 
ladies Schirmacher and Jeanne Becker 
for Pf. His merits have often been 
recognised. The King of Saxony gave 
him the title of Royal Prof., the 
Leipzig University conferred on him 
the diploma of Doc. Phil., hon. caiisd, 
he is Hon. Member of many societies, 
and many sovereigns bestowed high 
Orders on him. He is a prolific com- 
poser, as the following list will show — 
Concertos (with Orchestra), Op. 72 and 120; 
Quintet ; Quartet ; Trios (6) ; Sonatas for 
Pf. and V'cello (2); Sonatas for Pf. and 
Vln. (4); Fantasia for Pf. and Vln., Op. 160; 
Sonatas for 2 and 4 hands ; Sonatinas, Op. 
47 (3) ; Op. 98 (3) ; Op. 127a (6) ; Op. 136 (6) ; 
Fantasia in the form of a Sonata, Op. 15 ; 
Romanzas (3), Op. 28; Serenade, Op. 48; 
Old and New Dances (4), Op. 57 ; Marchen- 
Vorspiele a 4 mains, Op. 99; Maiden's 
Songs (10), Op. 88; Fantasiestiicke (10), 
Op. 17; Serious and gay (12), Op. 145; Aus 
der Jugendzeit (8), Op. 106; tEin neues 
Notenbuch fiir kleine Leute, Op. 107 ; 24 
Studies, Op. 121 ; 4 pieces. Op. 129 (+No. 3) ; 
4 characteristic pieces. Op. 13 (Nos. i and 
4) ; Nocturne, Op. 69 ; 6 pieces. Op. 123 
(N'os. I, 5, and 6); fBallade, Op. 20; Haus- 
musik (1-18), Op. 77; Variations on an Air 
of Handel, Op. 84 ; Duos for 2 Pf., +0p. 66 
("Manfred"); ditto, " La belle Griselidis," 
Op. 94. 

*Reinhold, Hugo, b. March 3, 1854, 

Vienna. Pupil at the Conserv. under 

Schenner and Epstein (Pf.), Bruckner 

(Harmony), Dessoff (Composition). 

Since 1874, when he left the Conserv., 

he has devoted his time entirely to 

composition. Excellent pianist. 

Suite, with Orchestra, Op. 7 (received the 

Beethoven Prize) ; Sonata for Pf. and Vln. ; 

2 Serenades for Pf. and Vln.; Bagatelles (5), 

Op. 12; flntermezzo. Op. 14; Jugend- 

Album (10), Op. 27 ; Impromptus (3\ Op. 28. 

♦Reisenauer, Alfred, b. Nov. i, 1863, 

Konigsberg (Prussia). Pupil of Louis 

Kohler and Liszt. Appeared for tha 
first time at Cardinal Hohenlohe's 
palace (Tivoli, Rome) with Liszt. 
1 88 1, he gave concerts in London and 
Leipzig ; 1881-82, he studied at the 
University of Leipzig. Since 1882 has 
made journeys in Austria, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, Germany, Russia, 
Siberia, Central Asia, &c. Eminent 
Reissiger, Carl Gottlieb, b. Jan. 31, 
1798, Belzig, near Wittenberg ; d. 
Nov. 7, i86g, Dresden. 181 1, pupil, 
at the Leipzig Thomas School, of 
Schicht ; 1822, of Winter (Munich) ; 
1826, engaged to organise a Conserv. 
at The Hague (Holland), but eventually 
engaged as Capellmeister in Dresden. 
His compositions enjoyed popularity 
with amateurs, and his Quartets, and 
particularly his Trios, were for a long 
time favourite pieces. The valse, 
generally called "Weber's last idea," 
is by Reissiger. 
Quartets: Op. 2g, in A min. ; Op. 70, in C 

min. ; Op. 108, in E flat ; Op. 138, in E flat; 

Op. 141, in E flat. Trios (15): Op. 33, 40, 

56, 75. 77. 85, 97. 103. 115. 125. 137. 150, i5«. 

167. Sonatas with Vln.: Op. 45, 94, 102; 

with V'cello : Op. 102, 152; Sonatas (3); 

Sonatas, for 4 hands (2) ; Rondeaux, Op. 27 

(4 hands). Op. 37, 39; Valses, Op. 49; 

Danses modernes et brillantes (12), Op. 38; 

.,12), Op. 46. 

Remmert, Martha, b. Sept. 13, 1854, 
in the village Gross-schwein, near 
Glogau. Pupil of Kullak, later of 
Tausig and Liszt. She is considered 
one of the best pianists of the present 

Rendano, Alfonso, b. April 5, 1853, 
Carolei, near Cosenza (Calabria). 
Pupil at the Conserv. of Naples, later 
of Thalberg, and (1871) at the Leipzig 
Conserv. During his visit to London 
he played with great success at the 
Philharmonic Society and Musical 
Union Concerts. He resides in Italy, 
where his works (mostly drawing-room 
pieces) are published. 

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel, b. March 
17, 1839, Vaduz, Liechtenstein (on the 
Swiss frontier). 1851-54, pupil at the 
Royal Music School of Munich, where 
he settled ; 1859, appointed Prof. ; 
1867, Royal Prof, and Inspector of the 
same school ; 1877, Konigl. Capell- 
meister of the Hofkirche. Member of 
the Bavarian Maximilian Order for 
art and science, Knight of several 
other Orders, and Member of the 
Royal Academy of Prussia. 
Concerto in A flat, Op. 94; tQuintet, Op. 
lis; tQuartet in E flat. Op. 38 ; Trios (2): 
fNo. 2, Op. 112; Sonatas for Pf. and Vln.; 



No. 2 in E flat, Op. 105; Solo Sonatas: 
Sonata Symphonique, Op. 47 ; Sonata, D 
flat, Op. 99 ; Sonata, E flat. Op. 135 ; 
Toccatas, Op. \i2, loi, 104, t"5; Preludes 
(24), in the form of Studies, Op. 14; Etude, 
Op. loi ; 6 Morceaux Fugues, Op. 39; ditto. 
Op. 68; Etudes (3), Op. 6; tHumoresques 
(4), Op. 28; tFrom Italy (3), Op. 29; 

52 Morceaux, Op. 45 ; t? petits Morceaux 
e Concert, Op. 5 ; jWaldmarchen, Op. 8 ; 
Theme with 61 Variations, Op. 61 ; Taran- 
telle. Rhapsody, and Rondoletto, Op. 53 ; 
fCapriccio, Menuet, and Fugue for the left 
hand. Op. 113; En vacances, 4 pieces for 
4 hands. Op. 72 ; fTarantelle, Op. 13. 
Riccius, August Ferdinand, b. Feb. 26, 
1819, Bernstadt, near Herrnhut 
(Silesia) ; d. July 4, 1886, Carlsbad. 
Until his fourteenth year he was 
instructed by Schonfeld ; attended 
(1833) the college of Zittau; 1840, 
studied theology at the Leipzig Uni- 
versity, but then resolved to devote 
himself to music. 1849, appointed 
Director of the Euterpe concerts; 
1855, Conductor of the Leipzig and 
(1864) of the Hamburg Opera. * 
Senate melancolique, Op, 16; 4 easy charac- 
teristic pieces, Op. 2 ; 5 melodious pieces 
(fNo. 4), Op. 25 ; A Christmas gift for the 
house (12 pieces), with descriptions and 
verses; 2 Marches a 4 mains, Op. 21; 
Allegro appassionato a 4 mains, Op. 41. 

♦Richards, Brinley, b. Nov. 13, 1817, 
Carmarthen (Wales); d. May i, 1885, 
London. His father, an organist, was 
his first teacher. Although intended 
to study medicine, his talent for music 
was so pronounced that he entered the 
R.A.M,, London, where he received 
(1835-37) t^he King's Scholarship. He 
soon gained distinction by his excellent 
reading and performance of classical 
Pf. music. After a visit to Paris, 
where he met Chopin, he was appointed 
Prof, at the R.A.M. His compositions, 
written in a iiuent, light, pleasing, and 
practical style, became very popular. 
His Andante con moto. Caprice in 
F min., and some others prove that he 
studied composition in an exhaustive 
manner. As a teacher he was sincerely 
beloved by his pupils and respected by 
his colleagues for his upright, frank, 
and excellent character. He belonged 
to the staff of the Guildhall School 
until his too early death. His name 
will be perpetuated by the composition 
of the beautiful National Anthem, 
"God bless the Prince of Wales" 
(produced for the first time on Feb. 14, 

Richter, Ernst Friedrich, b. Oct, 24, 
1808, Gross-Schonau, near Leipzig; 
d. April 9, 1879, Leipzig. Pupil of 
Weinlig. 1843, appointed Prof, at 
the Leipzig Conserv. ; 1868, Musical 

Director and Cantor of the Thomas 
School ; also Musical Director of 
the University. Received the title of 
Konigl. Prof. 

Op. 7, 3 Romanzas ; Op. 21, 3 Preludes and 
Fugues; Op. 26, Sonata with Vln. (A min.); 
Op. 27, Sonata (C sharp min.); Op. 30, 4 
characteristic pieces; Op. 31, 4 pieces; Op. 
33, Sonata (E flat); Op. 34, Variations on 
an original air for 4 hands. 

Ricordi, Giulio, b. 1835, Milan. He 
received an excellent musical educa- 
tion, and is the present proprietor of 
the well-known firm Ricordi, of Milan. 
His compositions — Studies, Fantasias, 
&c. — show considerable talent, while 
the pieces pubHshed under the tiotn de 
plume of Burgtnein are finished with 
much care and possess decided 
elegance and refinement. 

Rie, Bernhard (Bernard-Rie), b. Oct. 
25, 1839, Prague. Up to 1856 pupil 
of Alex. Dreyschock. He resides in 
25 Etudes spdciales and 2^ Etudes d'agilitd, 
Op. 37 ; " La belle Bateliere," and a Taran- 

Riemann, Dr. Hugo, b. July i8, 1849, 
Grossmehla, near Sondershausen. 
Pupil of Frankenberger (Theory), 
Barthel and Ratzenberger (Pf). 
1865-68, he studied at the Convent 
School of Rossleben, later at the 
University of Berlin. 1870-71, he had 
to serve in the army, and then resolved 
to devote himself entirely to music. 
For this purpose he became a pupil at 
the Leipzig Conserv. ; became (1873) 
Doc. Phil, of the University of 
Gottingen. For several years Con- 
ductor at Bielefeld, he went (1878) 
to Leipzig as " Privat Dozent " of the 
University ; 1880, as teacher to Brom- 
berg; 1881, to Hamburg as one of the 
principal teachers at the Conserv. ; 
1890, appointed Prof, at Sondershausen ; 
and at present is similarly occupied at 
Wiesbaden. He edited, with remarks 
and directions for phrasing, Mozart 
and Beethoven's Sonatas, Schubert's 
Impromptus, Bach's Inventions and 
48 Preludes and Fugues, and 
Clementi and Kuhlau's Sonatinas. 
Theoretical Works: Catechism of musical 
instruments; ditto of musical history; 
ditto of Pf. playing; Analysis of Bach's 
48 Preludes and Fugues ; Dynamik und 
Agogik (method of musical phrasing) ; On 
phrasing in the elementary instruction ; 
Dictionary of Music (4th edition, 1893). 
Pf. Compositions : Sonata ; 6 Sonatinas, 
Op. 43; Sonatina for 4 hands. Op. 49; 
Sonata with Vln.; Elementar-Schule ; 
Technical and other Studies, Op. 40 and 
41 ; 5 Pieces, Op. 2i ; Romanza in F sharp. 
Op. 7. 


Ries, Ferdinand, b. Nov. 29, 1784, Bonn 
on the Rhine ; d. Jan. 13, 1838, Frank- 
fort o/M. 1800-4, Beethoven's pupil 
at Vienna. Left Vienna 1805, went, 
vid Coblenz, to Paris, where he re- 
mained for two years, leaving afterwards 
for Russia. 1813, he arrived in London, 
where he succeeded admirably as a 
teacher, composer, and performer; 
1830, he left London and settled in 
Frankfort o/M. He was an industrious 
composer, but only a very few of his 
works were able to withstand the 
influence of time and altered fashion, 
and are thus almost completely for- 
gotten. The following is only an 
approximate list of his Pf. works : — 
Concertos: Op. 42 in E flat; tOp. 55 in C 
sharp min. ; Op. 115 in C min. ; Op. 120 
(Pastoral) in D ; Op. 123 in C ; Farewell 
Concerto, Op. 132, in A min. ; Op. 151, 
" Salut au Rhin," in A flat; Op. 177 in G. 
Chamber Music : Op. 25, Septuor in E flat ; 
Op. 100, Sextet in C ; Op. 142, Sextet ; Op. 
128, Octet ; Op. 74, Quintet in B min. ; 
Quartets, Op. 13, 16, 141 ; Trios, Op. 2, 28, 
63, 95, and 143 ; 24 Sonatas with Vln. ; 3 
Sonatinas with Vln. Solo Music: 52 
Sonatas ; 15 Fantasias ; Rondos ; Varia- 
tions ; Ballades tStudies, Op. 31 ; 40 
Preludes, Op. 60, &c. 

Rietz, Dr. Julius, b. Dec. 28, 1812, 
Berlin; d. Sept. 12, 1877, Dresden. 
Pupil of Romberg and Ganz. 1834, 
Conductor at D iisseldorf ; 1 847 , Capell- 
meister of the Leipzig Theatre ; 1848, 
Conductor of the Gewandhaus Con- 
certs; 1854, having given up the post 
of Capellmeister, he devoted himself 
entirely to the Gewandhaus Concerts 
and accepted the appointment of Prof, 
at the Conserv. ; 1859, the Leipzig 
University conferred upon him the 
diploma of Doc. Phil., hon.causd; i860, 
he succeeded Reissiger as Konigl. Hof- 
Capellmeister of the Dresden Opera, 
and was elected Director of the Royal 
Conserv. ; 1874, the King of Saxony 
gave him the title of " General Musik 

Sonata in A min., Op. 17; Sonata with Vln.; 
Sonata with Fl. ; Scherzo capriccioso, Op. 5 ; 
Arrangements of Haydn's Symphonies, 
Mendelssohn's Overtures, Marches, &c. 

Rimbault, Edward Francis, LL.D., 
London, Doc. Phil., lion, causd, Gottin- 
gen, b. June 13, 1816, London ; d. 
there Sept. 26, 1876. Pupil of his 
father and Wesley, he was, as early as 
1832, Organist in Soho; founded (1841), 
with E. Taylor and William Chappell, 
the Musical Antiquarian Society ; 
edited the book " Parthenia " ; pub- 
lished (i860) "The Pianoforte, its 
origin, progress, and construction." 
He was very industrious in arranging 

operas, oratorios, and in writing a great 
number of educational works. 

Rimsky-Korsakow, Nicolaus Andreje- 
witch, b. 1844, Tichwin (Russia). An 
officer of the Navy, he studied music 
only as an amateur, and had mostly 
to depend upon self-instruction ; but 
thanks to his perseverance and ad- 
mirable energy he was (1871) appointed 
Prof, of Composition at the Conserv. 
of St. Petersburg, and succeeded 
Balakirew as Director of the Free 
Music School. 
Op. 10, Valse, Intermezzo, Scherzo, Nocturne; 
Prelude et Fugue ; 6 Variations sur le 
thdme B-A-C-H ; Op. 11, 4 Morceaux; 
Berceuse; Tarantella; Menuetto; Caril- 
lon ; Fugue grotesque. The last 5 pieces 
are introduced in the collection "Bigar- 

Rinaldi, Giovanni, b. 1840, Reggio 
(Emilia). Biographical details are 
entirely wanting. 
Eantasias, Sketches, Novellettes, Nocturnes, 
and Barcarolles. 

Rinck, Johann Christian Heinrich, b. 

Feb. 18, 1770, Elgersburg (Thuringia) ; 

d. Aug. 7, 1846, Darmstadt. 1786-89, 

pupil of Kittel (Erfurt) ; 1790, organist 

atGiessen; 1805, at Darmstadt; 1813, 

Hof-Organist ; 1845, Doc. Phil., hon. 

causd, of the University of Giessen. 

Excellent organist and teacher. 

Trios : Sonates pour Pt., Vln., et V'cello, Op. 

32 (3), and one in E flat; Sonatas with 

V'cello; also for 4 hands ; Preludes, Op. 25 ; 

Two-part exercises (30), Op. 67 ; Exercises 

for beginners for 2 and 4 hands (I., II.), Op. 


Riotte, Philipp Jacob, b. Aug. 16, 1776, 

Trier; d. Aug. 20, 1856, Vienna. He 

was for several years conductor of the 

opera at Prague, afterwards in the 

same capacity at Vienna. In his time 

he enjoyed great popularity in Austria 

as a composer for the Pf. 

Concertos, Op. 8 and 15; Concerto for 2 Pfs. ; 

Trios, in F and E flat. Op. 9; Sonatas with 

Vln. (7); Solo Sonatas (13); Variations (12 

sets) ; Rondos (6). His best known work is 

"The Battle of Leipzig," a characteristic 

tone-picture, of which there were several 


♦Risler, Edouard, b. Feb. 23, 1873, Baden- 
Baden (of French parents). Pupil at 
the Paris Conserv. of L. Diemer (Pf.). 
1889, he received the first prize and 
travelled in Germany, profiting by the 
advice of Eugen d' Albert. His per- 
formances in London were very suc- 

Ritter, Theodore (Bennet), b. April 5, 
1841, near Paris ; d. April 6, 1886, 
Paris. Pupil of Liszt. Excellent 
pianist and a talented composer. Of 


his elegant, brilliant, and effective 
pieces, one became a great favourite — 
" Les Courriers." 
*R6ckel, Joseph Leopold, b. April ii, 
1838, London. Pupil of Eisenhofer 
(Wiirzburg) and Gotze (Weimar) for 
Composition, and of his father and 
brother, Eduard R., for Pf. For many- 
years has lived at Clifton (Bristol) and 
is highly respected as an excellent 
Air au Dauphin ; Allegretto pastorale ; 
"Gwendoline" (Idyl and Dance of the 
Sylphs). For his operatic Fantasias and 
easier pieces he uses the pseudonym 
" Edouard Dorn." 
Rbder, Martin, b. April 7, 1851, Berlin. 
1870-72, pupil at the Hochschule; then 
he received an appointment in Milan. 
Since 1880 he has resided at Berlin as 
a teacher of singing. 
Trio in F min. ; "Aus meinem Skizzenbuch " 
(2 books, each containing 6 pieces). 

Rontgen, Julius, b. May 9, 1855, Leipzig. 
Pupil at the Conserv., where Haupt- 
mann, Richter, and Reinecke were his 
teachers. Since 1S78 he has resided 
at Amsterdam as Prof, of the Music 
School. He is an excellent pianist and 
a talented composer. 
Sonata with Vln. ; Sonata with V'cello ; Solo 
Sonatas ; Op. 5, a Cycle of Pf. pieces ; 
Op. 6, Ballade ; Op. 7, Suite (4 movements) ; 
Op. 8, Fantasia; Op. 12, Julklapp (a Christ- 
mas piece) ; Op. 16, Introduction, Scherzo, 
Intermezzo, and Finale. 

*Roger-Miclos, Marie, b. May i, 1862, 
Toulouse. 1873, she became a pupil 
at the Paris Conserv. of Madame 
Massart. After having gained (1877) 
the first prize, she was appointed Prof. 
i8gi, and obtained the (for a lady) 
rare distinction of being made Officier 
de r Instruction publique. She is one 
of the most distinguished pianists of 
the present time, and has several times 
been heard and admired in London. 

Rohde, Eduard, b. 1828, Halle a/S. ; d. 
March 25, 1883, Berlin. Among the 
modern educational composers he is 
certainly one of the best ; his pieces 
are throughout solidly constructed, 
correctly and practically written, and 
their melodiousness and ingratiating 
qualities have made his name well 
Sonatinas ; Feuilles volantes, Op. 36, &c. 

Rolle, Johann Heinrich, b. Dec. 23, 
1718, Quedlinburg ; d. Dec. 29, 1785, 
Magdeburg. Pupil of his father, an 
organist. Studied (1736) at the Leipzig 
University ; went afterwards to Berlin 
as member of the Royal Orchestra ; 
remained there till 1746, when he was 
appointed Organist at the principal 

church of Magdeburg, and, after the 
death of his father (1752), Musik- 
Director of the town. 
3 Concertos, Op. 1 (Berlin); Sonatas (Leipzig); 

and shorter pieces, to be found in Em. 

Bach's " Musikalisches Vielerley und 

Allerley" (1760-62). 

♦RoUfuss, Bernhard, b. July 21, 1837, 
Goritzhain (Saxony). Pupil of Friedrich 
Wieck and Blassmann (Pf.), and of 
Julius Otto (Composition), of Dresden; 
later of Hauptmann and Julius Rietz 
(Leipzig). 1863-75, he played at his 
Chamber Music Concerts (Dresden). 
Founded (1875) a musical academy for 
ladies and an elementary school, in 
which sixteen experienced teachers are 
giving lessons. The King of Saxony 
conferred on him the title of Konigl. 
Melodious Finger Exercises ; Studies, Op. la 
and Op. 25 (to strengthen the fourth and 
fifth fingers) ; Drawing-room pieces, com- 
bined with Scale exercises ; Op. 23, Nocturne ; 
Op. 24, Scherzo ; Op. 26, Andante cantabile ; 
Op. 27, Intermezzo ; Op. 30, Prelude, 
Romanza, and Novellette. 

Rosellen, Henri, b. Oct. 13, 1811, Paris; 
d. there March 20, 1876. Pupil at the 
Conserv., where his teachers were 
Pradher and Zimmermann for Pf., 
Dourlen, Fetis, and Halevy for Com- 
position. After having left the Con- 
serv. he took lessons from Henri 
Herz (1835). Highly successful as a 
teacher and extraordinarily popular 
as a composer of easy, practically- 
written, and agreeably sounding 
drawing-room pieces. 
Trio, Op. 82, in F; 23 Etudes de moyenne 
force. Op. 133, which ought to precede the 
12 Etudes brillantes, Op. 60 ; Manuel des 
Pianistes, Op. 116; Nocturne et Tarantelle, 
Op. 92 ; -f-Reverie in G ; 3 Reveries, Op. 2S ; 
76 Fantaisies on operatic airs; n Rondos; 
and many sets of Variations. 

*Rosenhain, Jacob Qacques), b. Dec. 2, 
1813, Mannheim; d. March 21, 1894, 
Baden-Baden. Pupil of Jacob Schmitt 
(at that time residing in Mannheim) 
and of Schnyder von Wartensee, in 
Frankfort o/M. 1837, he went to 
London, where he gave a concert, and 
performed at one of the Philharmonic 
Society concerts. In the autumn 
(1837) he went to Paris, where he 
remained until 1870, when the Franco- 
German War obliged him to reside at 
Baden-Baden, where he had a villa. He 
was a hard-working teacher and com- 
poser, and had received decorations 
from Holland, France, Spain, Portugal, 
and Baden, and was elected Hon. 
Member of the St. Cecilia Society of 


Quartet for Pf. and Strings, Op. i ; Trios, Op- 
2i 32. 50, and 80; Sonatas for Pf. and 
V'cello, Op. 38 and t53 i Concertino, Op. 5 ; 
tConcerto, Op. 73 ; 12 Etudes caract^ris- 
tiques. Op. 17 (fNo. 2, Serenade du Pecheur ; 
tNo. 5, Danse des Sylphes); 24 Etudes 
melodiques. Op. 20 (Introduction to those 
of Cramer); Sonata in F min., Op. 41; 
tSonate symphonique, F min.. Op. 70; 
Sonata in D min.. Op. 74. Melodies carac- 

teristiques: I., Op. 25(tChant montagnard); 
II., Op. 31; III., Op. 37 (f Chants orientaux); 
IV., Op. 45 (tCalabraise et Ballade); V., 
Op. 67 (Chanson slave) ; VI., Op. 68 (Barca- 
rolle); VII., Op. 82 (Berceuse). Historiettes, 
Op- 97; tReveries, Op. 26; Sc^ne drama- 
tique. Op. 30. 
Rosenthal, Moriz, b. Dec. 18, 1862, 
Lemberg. Pupil (1873) of Mikuli, with 
whom he played, when only a child, 
Chopin's Rondo in C for 2 Pf. 1875, 
his parents settled in Vienna, where he 
studied with Rafael Joseffy. 1876, he 
gave a successful concert in Vienna, 
and his parents then went with him to 
Belgrade and Bucharest, where the 
youth of fourteen was named Pianist to 
the Roumanian Court. In the same 
year (1876) he was introduced to Liszt, 
who invited him to accompany him to 
Weimar. 1878, after having been in 
Weimar, he went to Paris and St. 
Petersburg, where he created a great 
sensation. In order to follow up his 
general studies he attended (for twenty 
months) the Staats - Gymnasium in 
Vienna, passed his "maturity" 
examination, and went to the Uni- 
versity lectures of Zimmermann, 
Brentano, and Hanslick ; in spite of 
this — with him an earnest and serious 
occupation — he continued his Pf. 
studies with the greatest energy. 
After six years' retirement he re- 
appeared (1882) in Vienna, and his 
marvellous performances were received 
with the utmost enthusiasm. Since 
then his reputation has increased in a 
wonderful degree, and in Berlin, 
Dresden, Cologne — indeed, every- 
where — he has astonished and 
bewildered the most experienced 
musicians by his unrivalled technique, 
and earned the most phrenetic ex- 
pressions of approval from crowded 
audiences. His playing is distinguished 
principally by his enormous virtuosity. 
It is not only his astonishing technique, 
but his marvellous endurance, which 
is really phenomenal, and puts into 
shade everything that has yet been 
known. The results of his technical 
studies are laid down in the work 
lately published. 
School of modern Pf. Virtuosity : " Technical 
Studies for the highest deeree of develop- 
ment." By Moriz Rosenthal and Ludvig 

Rosetti, Franz Anton, b. 1750, Leit- 
meritz, Bohemia — where he was called 
Roester ; d. June 30, 1792, Ludwigs- 
lust. His parents intended him to 
become a priest, and he took (1769) the 
first vow as lay-priest : but as he wished 
to devote himself entirely to music he 
went to Rome and obtained a dispen- 
sation. He was for some time 
conductor of the band of Prince 
Wallerstein, but received (1789) the 
appointment of Hof-Capellmeister at 
Schwerin. 1792, the King Frederic 
William III. of Prussia invited him to 
Berlin, where he conducted an oratorio 
of his own composition. 
Concerto; Trios; Sonatas for Pf., Vln., and 
V'cello (6), Op. i; (3), Op. 2; 3 Divertisse- 

Rubinstein, Anton Gregorowitsch, b. 
Nov. 30, 1830, Wechwotynecz, Bessa- 
rabia (this date was given by himself) ; 
d. Nov. 20, 1894, Peterhof, near St. 
Petersburg. Showed at a very early 
age extraordinary talent for music, 
and was first instructed by his 
mother. His parents taking up their 
abode in Moscow, where the father 
established a pencil manufactory, 
Anton's musical education was en- 
trusted to Villoing, who was the 
only master of the great artist. When 
he was ten years old Villoing took his 
pupil to Paris, where he introduced 
him to Liszt and Chopin ; both were 
so struck with the boy's eminent talent 
that they (particularly Liszt) strongly 
advised that he should be taken to 
Germany for further education . From 
Paris, master and pupil went to 
Holland, England, Scandinavia, Ger- 
many, and finally to Moscow. In 
all these countries the young artist 
gave Concerts with the greatest possible 
success. On their return (1843), 
Anton's younger brother, Nicolaus, 
also highly gifted, was just seven years 
old, so the mother decided to take 
both boys to Berlin, where Anton, on 
the recommendation of Meyerbeer, 
became a pupil of Prof. Dehn. All 
the Berlin musicians took great interest 
in the career of the genial youth, and 
Mendelssohn also felt the sincerest 
sympathy for him, 1846, the mother 
was obliged to return (with her youngest 
son Nicolaus) to Moscow, owing to the 
illness of her husband, whilst Anton 
remained in Berlin, only leaving for a 
short tour in Hungary with the eminent 
flautist, Heindl. Owing to political 
events, he returned (1848) to Russia, 
where he found a generous patron in the 



Grand Duchess Helena (Princess of 
Wiirtemberg) ; 1852, advised and 
assisted by the Grand Duchess and 
Count Wielhorski, he again went to 
Germany, where he found publishers for 
his numerous works. After having given 
Concerts in Paris and London he 
returned (1858) to St. Petersburg, was 
appointed Pianist to the Court and 
Conductor of the concerts. 1859, he 
accepted the direction of the Russian 
Musical Society; founded, 1862, the 
Imperial Conserv., and became its 
Director. 1867-70, he travelled through 
Europe, giving concerts, and being 
received with the greatest enthusiasm. 
1872-73, he was on a tour in America. 
After 1867 he had no fixed appoint- 
ment, but, 1887, after DavidofTs death, 
he again undertook the direction of 
the St. Petersburg Conserv., which he 
relinquished shortly before his death. 
He possessed one of the noblest 
characters imaginable, and was an 
artist in the full sense of the word — 
free from any envy or jealousy, a 
generous and liberal colleague, full of 
veneration for all that is good and 
grand, entirely devoid of vanity, or of 
the desire to put himself forward ; 
was indifferent to praise, and, in spite 
of his enormous successes, retained a 
simplicity and modesty rarely to be 
found. The Czar of Russia conferred 
on him the Vladimir Order, with the 
rank of nobility, and appointed him 
Imperial Director-General of Music, 
with the rank of Imperial Councillor 
and the title of "Excellency"; the 
French Republic named him Officer 
of the Legion of Honour ; he was also a 
Member of the " Ordre pour le Merite," 
the highest possible distinction an 
artist can receive in Germany, and 
nearly all the European Sovereigns 
decorated him. He was an Hon. 
Member of learned and musical 
societies, including the Royal Academy 
of Prussia —in fact, he received the 
greatest rewards which an artist can 
receive. Rubinstein was a serious and 
earnest artist. His book, " Music and 
its Masters," testifies to his thorough 
knowledge of musical history, and 
many of his articles in musical papers 
are full of original, correct, and ex- 
cellent ideas. At the same time he was 
one of the greatest of all pianists past 
and present, his execution was mar- 
vellous, his touch possessing all 
imaginable qualities and gradations of 
tone and expression. In his readings 
greater imporlance was attached to the 

general musical contents than to 
minute technical details — the emotional 
at times overweighting the intellectual 
Everything played by him appeared to 
the listener an intelligible musical 
speech. Even when not coinciding 
with our own opinions, his playing 
never lacked the charm of conviction 
and originality. 
Concertos : No. i, E min., Op. 35; No. 2, in 

F. Op. 35 ; f No. 3, in G, Op. 45 ; +No. 4, in 
D min.. Op. 70; fNo. 5, in E flat. Op. 94 ; 
Fantaisie in C, Op. 84 ; Caprice Russe, Op. 
102; ConcertstiJck, Op. 113. Chamber 
Music : Octet, Op. 9, m D, for Pf., Vln., 
Via., V'cello, Double Bass, Fl., CI., Hn.; 
Quintet in F, with wind instruments. Op. 
55 ; Quintet with strings, in G min.. Op. 99 ; 
Quartet in C, Op. 66. Trios : No. 1, in F ; 
No. 2, G min.. Op. 15; fNo. 3, in B flat. 
Op. 52; No. 4, in A, Op. 85; No. 5, in C 
min., Op. 108. Sonatas with Vln. : No. i, in 

G, Op. 13 ; No. 2, A min., Op. 19 ; No. 3, in 
B min., Op. 98; 3 Morceaux, Op. 11; 
Sonata with Via. in F min., Op. 49. 
Sonatas with V'cello ; fNo. i, in D, Op. 18 ; 
No. 2, in G, Op. 39. For 4 hands : (2 Pf.) 
Fantaisie in F, Op. 73; (Pf.) Character- 
Bilder (6), Op. 50; Sonata in D, Op. 89; 
tSal Costume, Suite, &c.. Op. 103. Solo 
Music : Sonatas: No. i, in E, Op. 12; No. 2, 
in C min., Op. 20 ; No. 3, in F, Op. 41 ; No. 4, 
in A min.. Op. 100. 2 Melodies, Op. 3 ; 
3 Pieces : Polonaise, fCracovienne, Mazurka, 
Op. 5; Kammenoi Ostrow (24), Op. 10 ; Le 
Bal (10 pieces : fPolka Mazurka, fPolo- 
naise). Op. 14 ; 3 Morceaux (No. 3, Serenade), 
Op. 16; 3 Caprices (No. 3), Op. 21; fS 
Etudes, Op. 23 ; 6 Preludes, Op. 24 ; 2 
pieces (fNo. i). Op. 26; 2 pieces (No. i, 
Barcarolle), Op. 30; (6) Soirees k St. 
Petersbourg (No. 3) ; 6 Morceaux (No. i, 
Melancolie in G min.), Op. 51 ; 5 Morceaux 
(tNos. 2 and 3), Op. 69; Album de Peterhof 
(fNos. 2 and 5), Op. 75 ; Fantaisies in E 
min.. Op. 77; in C, Op. 84; 6 Etudes, Op. 
81 ; fEtude in C (No. i) ; fin E flat (No. 3) ; 
tValse Caprice ; tBarcaroUe, No. 4, in G ; 
Miscellanees (Book 1-9); ■\RomaDza in E 
flat; fMelody in F. 

Rubinstein, Nicolaus, b. June 2, 1835, 
Moscow; d. March 23, 1881, Paris. 
Pupil of Villoing, Kullak, and Dehn. 
For some time it was thought that he 
possessed greater talent for Compo- 
sition than his brother Anton, but 
this supposition was not realised. 
1859, he founded the Russian Musical 
Society of Moscow, which Society 
opened (1864) the Conserv., of which 
Nicolaus was the Director until his 
death. 1878, he conducted, during the 
French Exhibition, three "Russian" 
concerts in the Trocadero, which 
were so successful that he gave a 
fourth, at which he also appeared as 
a pianist. His brother, Anton, declared 
Nicolaus to be the better performer, 
but this opinion was not shared 
by the general public. His playing 
was full of fire and impetuosity, 
and he particularly excelled in the 



performance of his brother's com- 
positions. Only a few of his pieces 
were published, but these are original 
and full of taste and elegance. 
Op. II, Mazurka, No. i, f Mazurka, No. 2 ; Op. 
13, +Bolero; Op. 14, tTarantelle; Op. 15, 
Polka; Op. 16, tValse de Salon; Op. 17, 
Polonaise, Scene de Bal; Deux feuilles 
d' Album. 

Rudolph, Johann Joseph Rainer, Arch- 
duke of Austria, Cardinal, Prince- 
Bishop of Ollmiitz, youngest son of 
the Emperor Leopold II., b. Jan. 8, 
1788, Florence; d. July 24, 1831, 
Baden, near Vienna. Pupil and friend 
of Beethoven, who dedicated the 
following important works to his 
Imperial pupil : 
Concerto, No. 4, in G, Op. 58 ; No. 5, in E flat, 
Op. 73 ; Sonata, " Les Adieux, I'Absence, et le 
Retour," in E flat. Op. 8ia ; Pf. score of the 
opera " Fidelio," Op. 72b ; Sonata with 
Vln., in G, Op. 96; Sonata in B flat. Op. 
106; Trio in B flat. Op. 97 ; Missa solennis. 
Op. 123; Fugue for Strings, Op. 133; and 
several smaller pieces. 
The Archduke's own published com- 
positions were — 
Sonata for Pf. and CI., Op. a; and a theme 
given by Beethoven, varied 40 times. 

Rudorff, Ernst Friedrich Carl (son of 
the Prof, and Privy Councillor 
(Geheimrath), Dr. Adolph R), b. 
Jan. 18, 1840, Berlin. At first a 
pupil of Bargiel (Pf.)., he passed his 
" Abiturienten " Examination, and 
intended to inscribe his name as 
student at the University, but left 
(1859) for Leipzig, where he entered 
the Conserv., and studied under 
Plaidy and Moscheles (Pf.) and J. 
Rietz (Composition), taking, later, 
private lessons from Hauptmann and 
Keinecke. 1865, appointed Prof, at 
the Cologne Conserv., and (1869) 
Principal Prof, at the Hochschule 
(Berlin). Among his pupils the most 
distinguished are Natalie Janotha and 
Bernhard Stavenhagen. For ten years 
he was Conductor of the Stern 
Choral Society. He received the 
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle and 
the Order of "Christ" of Portugal, 
and is a Member of the Royal 
Academy of Prussia. 
Variations for 2 Pf., Op. i; 6 pieces for 4 
hands, Op. 4. 

Riifer, Philippe Barthelemy, b. June 7, 
1 844 , Liege, where his father, a German , 
was appointed Prof, at the Conserv. 
Pupil at the Conserv. ; 1867, Musik- 
Director at Essen ; settled (1871) at 
Berlin, where he was teacher at the 
Stern Conserv., and then at the Schar- 
wenka Conserv. As a composer he 
made his name favourably known by — 

Sonata with Vln., Op. i ; Phantasiestiicke for 
4 hands. Op. 10 ; and solo pieces. Op. 14, 21, 
and 22; Op. 24, Scherzo; Op. 26, Scherzo; 
Op. 27, 6 pieces ; Op. 34, Trio (Bolero). 

•Rummel, Franz, b. Jan. 11, 1853, 
London. Pupil of Louis Brassin 
(Brussels). 1872, gained the first 
prize; 1877-78, he made a tour, with 
Minnie Hauck and Ole Bull, through 
Holland; 1878, made his first, 1886, 
his second journey to America ; 1884- 
85, teacher first in KuUak's, then in 
Stern's Academy (Berlin). 1889, the 
Kings of Sweden and Denmark con- 
ferred Orders on him. His excellent 
playing has everywhere been received 
with great favour. He resides at New 

Rust, Friedrich Wilhelm.b. July 6, 1739, 
Dessau; d. there Feb. 28, 1796. He 
studied law at the Leipzig University 
until 1762, but then devoted himself to 
music. Pupil of Hockh (Vln.) ; 1763, 
of Franz Benda (Composition). Prince 
Leopold III. of Anhalt-Dessau took 
Rust with him to Italy (1765-66), and 
appointed him (1775) Hof-Musik- 
Director. Rust was really a violinist, 
but his compositions for the Clavecin 
deserve recognition. 

6 Sonatas ; 24 Variations on a Song by Schulz 
(1782); Allegretto grazioso with Variations ' 
(1797); Grande Senate (posthumous). His 
grandson, Wilhelm Rust, has lately pub- 
lished two Sonatas (B flat min. and F sharp 
min.) by his grandfather. 

Ruthardt, Adolph, b. Feb. 9, 1849, Stutt- 
gart. 1864-68, pupil at the Conserv., 
where his teachers were Lebert and 
Speidel (Pf), Faisst and Stark (Com- 
position). After having finished his 
studies he went to Geneva, and re- 
mained there eighteen years (1886) 
actively promoting the classical and 
modern German music. 1886, ap- 
pointed Prof, at the Leipzig Conserv. 
Sonata for 2 Pfs., Op. 31; Trio pastorale for 
Pf., Ob., and Via., Op. 34; Schritt fiir 
Schritt (12 pieces for 4 hands). Op. 27 ; 
Menuet, Op. 4; Romanza, A flat, Op. 6; 6 
Morceaux de genre, Op. u ; 2 Preludes and 
Fugues, Op. 15 ; Serenade du Nord, Op. 16; 
Introduction et Scene du Bal, Op. 24 ; 6 
Valses, Op. 21. Editor of the new edition 
of Eschmann's " Guide." 
Rutini, Giovanni Maria, b. 1730, 
Florence ; d. there, 1797. Pupil at the 
Onofrio Conserv., of Naples. After 
having travelled through Germany, he 
resided for several years at Prague. 
1 786, he returned to Italy and was first 
appointed Capellmeister by the Duke 
of Modena, and then by the Grand 
Duke Leopold of Toscana. 
6 Sonatas, X3p. i; (6), Op. 2; (6), Op. 12; 
Sonata in C (HatTner's Kaccolta) ; Sonatas 
for Clavecin and Vln., Op. 10 and 11. 




Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gaspare, b. 
July 23, 1734, Puzzuoli (Naples) ; d. 
Oct. 7, 1786, Paris. Pupil of Durante. 
Operatic composer. For the Clavecin 
he composed — 
12 Sonatas with Vln , Op. 3 and 4 (Paris and 

Sachs, Julius, b. 1830, Meiningen; d. 
Dec. 28, 1887, Frankfort o/M. Pupil of 
Eduard Rosenhain (Pf.) and Kessler 
(Composition), of Frankfort o/M. (not 
J. C. Kessler, of Lemberg). Excellent 
pianist and a talented composer. 
Suite, Op. 40, F sharp min. ; 3 pieces, Op. 4 ; 
Berceuse, Op. 51. 

Saetta, Vincenzo, b. 1836, Naples. 
Pupil of Staffa and Mercadante. He 
devoted his talent almost exclusively 
to teaching. He published the esteemed 
book — 
" La Scienza estetica " and the well-written 
" Theoretical and Practical Piano Method." 

Saint-Saens, Camille (Charles), b. 

Oct. 9, 1835, Paris. Pupil at the 

Conserv. of Stamaty (Pf.), Maleden 

(Theory), Benoist (Organ), and Halevy, 

Reber, and Gounod (Composition). 

1855, Organist of St. Merry ; 1858, of 

the Madeleine, which appointment he 

resigned in order to devote himself 

entirely to Composition. He is not 

only an original composer, but also a 

most distinguished pianist and organist ; 

indeed, a most accomplished musician 

all round, such as we seldom meet 

with. His country conferred the 

highest honours upon him— viz., the 

Legion of Honour and the Membership 

of the Academy, whilst the University 

of Cambridge made him (June 13, 

1893) Mus. Doc, hon. caitsd. 

Concertos : No. i, D min., Op. 17 ; fNo. 2, G 

min., Op. 22 ; No. 3, E flat, Op. 29 ; +No. 4, 

C min., Op. 44. Quintet, Op. 14; Quartet, 

Op. 41; Trio, Op. 18; Suite for Pf. and 

V'cello, Op. 16; Sonata with V'cello, Op. 

32; Berceuse, Op. 38; Romanza with 

Vln., Op. 48; 16 Etudes, Op. 52; 

Gavottes, Op. 23 and 65 ; Mazurkas, Op. 21, 

24, and 66; Allegro appassionato. Op. 70; 

Marche heroique. Op. 34 ; fVariations for 

2 Pf., Op. 35 ; Polonaise for 2 Pf., Op. 77 ; 

Marche a 4 mains, Op. 25 ; Fueillet d'Album, 

Op. Si ; Album (6 pieces). Op. 72. 

*Salaman, Charles Kensington, b. March 
3, 1814, London. Pupil at the R.A.M., 
and afterwards private pupil of Charles 
Neate. His first public performance 
took place in 1828, after which he left 

for Paris, and took lessons from Henri 
Herz. 1833-37, he gave annual con- 
certs in London ; 1846-48, he resided 
in Rome, where he was made Hon. 
Member of the St. Cecilia Society and 
Hon. Member of the Philharmonic 
Academy ; 1855, he began his lectures 
on the history of the Pf. ; 1858, was 
one of the founders of the Musical 
Society of London, of which he was 
Hon. Secretary until 1865. Several 
of his numerous compositions for Pf. 
have met with great favour, and have 
been performed in public. 
Toccata; Saltarello; Prelude and Gavotte; 
Rondo alia G iga ; Remembrance (Capriccio) ; 
Capriccio in E flat; Nocturnes; Twilight 
Thoughts and Tranquillity; La Vivacita 
(Scherzo); Joy (Impromptu); 12 Voluntaries; 
6 characteristic melodies ; Crepuscule ; 
Reverie, &c. 

Sandt, Max van de, b. Oct. 18, 1863, 
Rotterdam. Pupil of his father (Pf.), 
Th. Verhey (Theory), and Gernsheim 
(Composition). After having success- 
fully performed in his own country, 
he gave concerts in Cologne (1884), 
and studied for two years with Liszt 
(Weimar). He travelled through Ger- 
many, Austria, Switzerland, France, 
&c., everywhere with great success. 
1889, appointed Prof, at the Stern 
Academy of Berlin, in succession to 
the late Dr. Hans Bischoff. 

*Sapellnikofr, V.'assily, b. Oct. 21, 1868, 
Odessa. His musical education began 
in his seventh year, when his father, 
an eminent violinist, gave him Vln. 
lessons, and soon after his mother 
instructed him on the Pf. His next 
Pf. teacher was Franz Kessler (Odessai. 
In his eleventh year he gave a concert, 
appearing as a pianist and violinist. 
He continued to study both instru- 
ments with equal industry, until, in 
his fourteenth year, Anton Rubinstein 
decided that the Pf. ought to be his 
principal instrument ; on Rubinstein's 
recommendation the town of Odessa 
gave him a scholarship, which enabled 
him to study for live years at the St. 
Petersburg Conserv., under Louis 
Brassin, and later, after Brassin's 
death, under Sophie Menter. 1888, 
he gave, in Hamburg, before a critical 
German audience, an excellent per- 
formance of Tscha'ikowsky's Concerto 




in B flat, under the composer's direc- 
tion. He is well known to the London 
Sarti, Giuseppe, b. Dec. i, 1729, Faenza; 
d. July 28, 1802, Berlin. Pupil of 
Padre Martini (Bologna). 1769, he 
was in London, where he published 
3 (6?) Sonatas for the Harpsichord, and 
Sonatas with Vln., Op. 1 and 2. 
Satter, Gustav, b. Feb. 12, 1832, Vienna. 
His father desired him to study medi- 
cine, but Gustav's undeniable talent 
for music, particularly for Pf. playing, 
made him concur with the son's wish 
to devote himself entirely to music. 
He undertook a tour in America; 
resided (1863) at Vienna, later at 
Dresden, Hanover, Gothenburg, Stock- 
holm, and is at present in America. 
Op. 104, Sonata in E ; Op. 107, in G min. ; 
Op. 157, in E; Op. 158, 6 grand Studies; 
Op. 162, 6 Studies ; Valses de Concert : 
No. I, A min., Op. in ; No. 2, in G flat. 
Op. 113; No. 3, in B min., Op. 114; No. 4, in 
E, Op. 117 ; Saltarello, Op. 147, 
"'^^ *Sauer, Emil, b. Oct. 8, 1862, Ham- 
burg. Pupil of his mother; 1879-81, 
of Nicolaus Rubinstein (Moscow) ; 
and, 1884-85, of Liszt (Weimar). Since 
1882 he has made highly successful 
journeys through Germany, Austria, 
Roumania, Russia (three times), Den- 
mark, Sweden, Spain, Italy, and 
England. He is considered one of the 
best pianists of the present time. 
Suite moderne (5 movements) ; Aus lichten 
Tagen (5 pieces) ; Concert Study j Romance 
sans paroles ; Valse de Concert. 
Scarlatti, Domenico, son of Aless. S. 
(1659-1725), b. 1685 (1C83?), Naples; 
d. 1757, Madrid (according to Padre 
Sacchi, at Naples). Pupil of his father 
and Gasparini (Rome). 1709, he met 
Handel at Cardinal Ottoboni's in 
Rome. Of his playing at that time 
Thomas Roseingrave relates: "After 
a pupil of Gasparini' s had sung one 
of his cantatas, which the composer 
himself accompanied, an earnest young 
man, dressed in dark clothes with a 
black wig, came from a comer and 
began playing. I thought ten hundred 
devils had taken possession of the 
instrument, for never had I conceived 
such execution or effect possible. The 
playing of this young man surpassed 
anything I could ever have imagined." 
1715, appointed Maestro di Capella of 
St. Peter's, in succession to Baj ; 1719, 
Maestro al Cembalo of the Italian 
Opera, London; 1721 (not 1716), the 
King of Portugal appointed him teacher 
to the Princesses at Lisbon ; and when , 
in 1729, Princess Magdalena Theresia 
married the Crown Prince of Spain 

(1746, became King Ferdinand VI.) he 
followed her to Madrid (having been 
decorated with the Order of San 
Giacomo), where he remained till 1754, 
when he retired with a pension, and 
died at Madrid ; but, according to a 
report in the Gazetta Musicale di 
Napoli (15/9/1838), he returned (1754) 
to Naples, where he died in a state of 
great poverty. He was a prolific 
composer — the Abbe Santini possessed 
no less than 349 of his pieces, and 
declared his collection not complete. 
New editions of his pieces were pub- 
lished by Czerny (200), Farrenc (130), 
Breitkopf and Hartel (60), Pauer (50), 
Banck (30), &c. The following is 
Schumann's opinion : " Scarlatti has 
much that is excellent, and that dis- 
tinguishes him among his contem- 
poraries. The mailed order (if we 
may say so) of a Seb. Bach's flow of 
ideas is not to be found in Scarlatti : 
he is far more shallow, rhapsodical, 
and superficial, and so quick in making 
and unmaking complications that it i.s 
difficult to follow him. His style is— 
for his time — short, piquant, and 
pleasing ; but although his works hold 
so important a place in musical 
literature, we confess that there is 
much in them that cannot now please 
us." ("Schumann," II., 91.) 

Schachner, Rudolph, b. Dec. 31, 1821, 
Munich. At first a pupil of Madame 
de Fladt, who also taught A. Henselt ; 
1837-38, of J. B. Cramer, at that time 
in Munich ; had lessons in Composition 
from Caspar Ett. 1842, he went to 
Vienna, where he played in public 
with considerable success. A few 
years later he visited Paris, where he 
had the rare opportunity of playing a 
Concerto of his own composition at 
a Conserv. concert, for which per- 
formance he received a gold medal. 
Returning to Germany, he was kindly 
received by Mendelssohn (Leipzig), 
who invited him to play at the 
Gewandhaus Concerts. 1853, he went 
to London, and remained there for a 
number of years, without appearing 
much in public. At present he resides 
in Vienna. 
Concerto, Op. 6; Poesies musicales. Op. 8 
and 9 ; Romance variee, Op. 11 ; Ombres et 
Rayons (6 books), Op. 13 and 17; La chasse. 
Op. 12; Phantasiestiick, Op. 15. 

Schad, Joseph, b. March 6, 1812, 
Steinach (Bavaria) ; d. July 4, 1879, 
Bordeaux. At first a pupil at the 
Wiirzburg Conserv. ; later of Aloys 
Schmitt (Frankfort o/M.). 1834, 



organist, teacher, and conductor at 
Morges (Canton Vaud) ; later Prof, 
at the Conserv. of Geneva, and, since 
1847, one of the most successful 
teachers of Bordeaux. His compo- 
sitions are melodious, practically 
written, and popular. 
Le Soupir, Op. 19 ; La Gracieuse (Valse), 
Op. 22; tLa Rose des Alpes, Op. 38; tFleur 
des .-Mpes, Op. 39; Tarentelle, Op. 55. 

Schaeffer, Dr. Julius, b. Sept. 28, 1823, 
Krevese, near Osterburg (Prussia). 
First studied philosophy and theology. 
Friendly intercourse with Rob. Franz 
strengthened his love for music, but 
circumstances obliged him to accept 
for two years an appointment as tutor 
in Jassy (Moldavia). Through Franz 
he became acquainted with Schumann, 
Mendelssohn, and Gade, and, following 
their advice, he resolved to devote 
himself entirely to music. 1850, he took 
lessons from Dehn (Berlin), and (1855) 
was appointed Musik - Director of 
Schwerin, where he founded the well 
known " Schloss Kirchenchor." i860, 
named Musik-Director of the Breslau 
University and Conductor of the Sing- 
Academie ; 1861, he received the 
diploma of Konigl. Musik-Director; 
1878, that of Prof. ; 1872, the University 
conferred on him the degree of Doc. 
Phil., hon. causd. 
Op. I, FantasicRtiJcke ; Op. 2, Fantasie 

Variationen ; Op. 4, Polonaise in A min. ; 

Op. 7, Barcarolle ; Op. 8, Notturno. 

Scharwenka (Ludwig), Philipp, b. Feb. 
16, 1847, Samter (Posen), where his 
father was a builder. 1859, the family 
moved to Posen , where he completed his 
studies at the "Gymnasium"; went 
with his parents to Berlin (1865). 
Here he entered Kullak's Academy 
as a pupil of Kullak (Pf.) and Wiierst 
(Composition), taking also private 
lessons from Dorn. 1870, appointed 
teacher of composition at Kullak's 
Academy, he is now (1893) director 
of the Klindworth-Scharwenka Con- 
serv. (Berlin). His educational com- 
positions are of great value, and his 
larger works are highly respected. 
Op. 34, Aus der Jugendzeit ; Op. 18, Mis- 
cellen; Op. 31, Humoresken (3); Op. 33, 
Album polonaise; Op. 54, Festklange fiir 
die Jugend; Op. 36, Bergfahrt (6); Op. 50, 
Scherzo ; Op. 64 and 68, Kinderspiele (8 
pieces, a series); Op. 60, Seestiicke (6); 
Op. 65, Romantische Episoden; Op. 72, 
Von vergansenen Tagen (5) ; Op. 61, Sonata 
in A, No. 1 ; No. 2, in F sharp min. ; Op. 85, 
Rhapsidieen ; Op. 55, Divertissements (10); 
Op. 27, Feuilles d' Album (5); Op. 32, In 
banter Reihe (6) ; Op. 46, Momens musicaux 
(4); Op. 47, Capriccio in D min.; Op. 26, 
Morceaux de Fantaisie (5). Duets: Op. 21, 
Tanz-Suite ; Op. 23, Wedding March, Valse, 

and Evening Music ; .Op. 30, AH' Ongarese 
and Valse ; Op. 38, Polish Dances ; Op. 54 
Songs and Dances; Op. 57, Stimmungs- 
bilder; Op. 59, Herbslbilder ; Op. 75, Dance- 
Scenes (5) ; Op. 91, Scherzi (3). 
Scharwenka (Franz), Xaver, b. Jan. 6, 
1850, Samter (Posen). His education 
was the same as that of his brother 
Philipp, only he gave greater attention 
to the study of the Pf. Kullak and 
Wiierst were also his teachers. His 
excellent performances, as well as his 
spirited, bright, and melodious com- 
positions, soon gained the attention of 
the musical public, not only of Berlin, 
but of other German towns. 1868- 
74, was teacher at Kullak's Academy. 
1 88 1, he opened the "Scharwenka" 
Conserv., which, after his departure 
for America, was directed by his 
brother, and was lately 1 1893) amalga- 
mated with Klindworth's Academy. 
Xaver S. is decidedly one of the most 
talented pianists and composers of the 
present time, and some of his pieces 
are universally known. 
Concertos: No. i, in B flat min.. Op. 35; 
No. 2, in C min.. Op. 56; Quartet for Pf. 
and strings ; Trios : No. i. Op. i ; No. 2, 
Op. (?) ; Sonata with Vln., Op. 2 ; Sonata 
with V'cello, Op. (?); Solo Sonatas (2): 
No. I, in C sharp min.. Op. 6; Studies and 
Preludes (6), Op. 27 (tNo. 3, Staccato 
Study) ; Im Freien (5), Op. 38 (No. 5, All' 
Ongarese); tWaltzes, Op. 44; tT heme and 
Variations, Op. 48 ; +Album (6), Op. 43 
(fNo. 6); Polish Dances, Op. +3,9,29,34, 
58(21 numbers: +Nos. i, 4, 5, 13, 15). 

Scheuenstuhl, Michael, b. March 3, 
1705, Guttenstetten, near Bayreuth ; 
d. (?) Hof (Saxony). Someof his works 
are remarkable for their quaint titles. 
" Gemijths- und Ohrenergbtzende Clavier- 
Uebung, bestehend in61eichten nach heuti- 
gem Gout gesetzten Galanterie-Partien, 
meistens fiir Frauenzimmer componirt." 
2 Theile. Niirnberg. (An ear and soul- 
pleasing Clavecin-Study, consisting of 6 easy 
fancy parts, composed in the taste of the 
day, mostly for ladies.) " Die beschaftigte 
Muse Clio, 3 Galanterie Suiten." (The busy 
Muse Clio, 3 Fancy Suites.) Clavier Senate, 
1736, and Clavier Concerte (2), 1738. 
Schiffmacher, Joseph, b. 1827, Eschau, 
near Strassburg. Pupil of Reber, 
Rosenhain, Prudent, Thalberg, Haber- 
bier, and others. He resides at Paris. 
His compositions are mostly short, 
elegant, and effective. 
Morceaux de Salon. 
*Schirmacher, Dora, b. Sept. x, 1862, 
Liverpool. Pupil of her father, later 
of E. F. Wenzel and Reinecke of 
Leipzig, where she gained the "Men- 
delssohn " prize. Her performances 
at the Leipzig Gewandhaus, Quartet 
and Euterpe concerts were received 
with great favour ; not less successful 
were her appearances in Frankfort 0/ M , 



(Museum), Wiesbaden, Amsterdam 
(Felix meritis), Dresden, Berlin, 
Cologne, and other large German 
towns. She obtained also much praise 
for her playing at the Popular and 
Crystal Palace concerts (London), Phil- 
harmonic concerts (Liverpool), Halle's 
concerts (Manchester), and concerts 
in numerous other English towns. 
Suite, Valse Caprice, Sonata, Tone-pictures, 
Evening Song, Serenade, &c., published 
on Rubinstein's recommendation at 
Schlosser, Adolph, b. Feb i, 1830, 
Darmstadt. Pupil of his father, Louis 
S. After having performed with de- 
cided success in Germany, he settled 
(1854) in England, where he is Prof, at 
the R.A.M., and was also elected Hon. 
Member. Knight of the Portuguese 
Order of Christ. 
Quartet (with strings), Trio, Studies, tSuite 
in D min., and a considerable number of 
shorter solo pieces. He edited several 
examples of older Clavecin music. 
Schlottmann, Ludwig, b. Nov. 12, 1826, 
Berlin. Pupil of Taubert (Pf.) and 
Dehn (Composition). He holds no 
public appointment, but is much 
occupied in careful, practical, and 
highly successful teaching. 1875, he 
received the title of Konigl. Musik- 
Op. 8, Trois Capricettes ; Op. 11, Polonaise 
de Concert ; Op. ig, Andantino and Varia- 
tions ; Op. 22, tjugendspiegel (6). 
Schmitt, Aloys (sen.), b. Aug. 26, 
1789, Erlenbach o/M. (Bavaria) ; d. July 
25, 1866, Frankfort o/M. Pupil of his 
father, later of A. Andre at Offenbach 
o/M. From 1816 he resided, with 
few exceptions, in Frankfort o/M. as 
a highly influential and successful 
teacher. 1820, he went for some time 
to Berlin, and (1825-29) was at Hanover 
as Court Pianist to the Duke of Cum- 
berland. His name is particularly 
well known by his educational works, 
which made the round of the world. 
Studies, Op. 16, 55, 62 (Rhapsodies), 67, and 
115 ; Method of Pf. playing, Op. 114 ; Sona- 
tinas and Rondos, and Concertos, Sonatas, 
and Variations, which are less known. 
Schmitt, Jacob (Jacques), younger 
brother and pupil of the above, b. Nov. 
2, 1803, Obernburg (Bavaria) ; d.June, 
1853, Hamburg. He settled in Ham- 
burg, where he was an active teacher, 
pianist, and composer. Of his com- 
positions (about 370), his Sonatinas are 
decidedly the most popular for their 
practical style, clearness, and melo- 
Sonatina in B flat. Op. 29 ; t3 Sonatines faciles 
et progressives. Op. 83; Sonatine, Op. 84; 
t6 Sonatines, Op. 207; Sonatine in A, Op. 
848; H Sonatinas in F, Op, 249. His 

" Musikalisches Schatzkastlein" (Musical 
Treasure-box), Op. 325 (133 short pieces), is 
of great value. His Rondos — La Coquette, 
Op. 113; Rondo militaire, Op. 88; and I'El^- 
gant. Op. 250 — and his Nocturnes (14)— espe- 
cially " Tendre reproche," Op. 123 — have met 
with great favour. For 4 hands : Sonatinas, 
Op. 65, Op. 31, 49, n8, and 208. 
Schmitt, Georg Aloys, son of A. S. {see 
above), b. Feb. 2, 1827, Hanover. 
Pupil of his father and of Vollweiler 
(Heidelberg). He travelled as a 
pianist with great success in Germany, 
Belgium, and France ; visited also 
London, Algiers, &c. After having 
filled the post of Capellmeister of the 
Opera at Aix-la-Chapelle and Wiirz- 
burg, he was appointed 11857) Hof- 
Capellmeister at Schwerin. Among 
his pupils was Emma Brandes {see 
this name). Several of his solo pieces 
met with considerable favour. 
♦Schmitt, Hans, b. Jan. 14, 1835, 
Koken (Bohemia). Was at first, as 
oboe-player, a pupil at the Prague 
Conserv. 1851, became a member of 
the orchestra of Bucharest; 1856, of, 
the Court Orchestra of Vienna; and 
(1867) of the Imperial Theatre and 
Royal Opera Orchestra; 1860-62, he 
enjoyed the tuition of Dachs (Pf.), at 
the Vienna Conserv.; became teacher, 
later Prof, there. Author of many 
educational works. 
His graduating classification of Stephen 
Heller's Studies, his essays on the use of 
the Pedal (1875), progressive order of edu- 
cational material, and the basis of Pf. 
technique ; 120 short pieces for tuition ; a 
School edition of dementi's " Gradus," and 
several other publications were received 
with great approbation. Compositions: 
Characteristic solo pieces, and Duets for 
Pf. and Vln. 
Schneider, Dr. Friedrich Johann Chris- 
tian, b. Jan. 3, 1786, Altwaltersdorf, 
near Zittau ; d. Nov. 23, 1853, Dessau. 
Pupil of his father, Gottlieb S., who 
was originally a weaver. Friedrich 
attended (1798) the Zittau College 
(Gymnasium) , and, 1805, the University 
of Leipzig; 1807, appointed Organist 
of the Pauliner Church ; later, of the 
Thomas Church; 1821, called to 
Dessau, where he officiated as Hof- 
Capellmeister, and opened (1829) a 
Music School, which obtained a great 
reputation. Until the opening of the 
Leipzig Conserv., the Dessau School 
was considered the princ^ai school of 
Germany. Although as a composer he 
was more occupied with sacred works 
(Oratorios, Masses, Psalms), he was 
also an industrious writer for the Pf. 
Quartets : for Pf. and Strings, Op. 24, in E flat ; 
Op. 34 in F ; Op. 36 in C min. Trios : Op. 
10 in B flat; Op. 38 in E flat. Duo wii'i 
Vln., Op. 31. Sonatas for 4 hands : Op. 8 



in E flat; Op. 8 in A; Op. 13, 29, and 78 in 
IJ flat. Solo Sonatas : 3 Sonatas, Op. i ; 
ditto, Op. 3, 5, 6, 14, 20 (2), 21, 26, 27, 30, 37, 
40 ; tSonata di Bravura, Op. 76 and 80. 

Schobert (Schubart) — his christian name 
is unknown — b. 1730, Strassburg ; d. 
1768, Paris. There are no details 
about his education. He was ap- 
pointed Organist in Versailles, but 
dismissed on account of his negligence. 
1760, the Prince de Conti employed 
him as his Clavecinist. The following 
compositions (which are not without 
interest) were publi.shed : 
6 Concertos ; 6 Symphonies for Clavecin and 
2 Hn.; 3 Sonatas for Clavecin and 3 
string instruments; 16 Sonatas for Clave- 
cin and Vln. ; H Solo Sonatas for Clavecin. 
A complete collection of his works, Op. i- 
17, was published in London for the benefit 
of his son. 
*3chbnberger, Benno, b. Sept. 12, 1S63, 
Vienna. Pupil at the Vienna Conser v. , 
of Anton Door, Bruckner (Counter- 
point), and Robert Volkmann (Com- 
position) ; later, pupil of Liszt, at 
Buda Pesth and Rome. His public 
performances began in Vienna (1874), 
he then travelled through the greater 
part of Europe, until 1880; 1888, he 
visited England for the first time. In 
Valencia and Madrid he was given the 
title of Hon. Prof., and also received 
decorations from Spain, Italy, Servia, 
and Roumania. 
3 Sonatas, Phantasiestiicke, Novelletten, 
Bolero, Polonaise, &c. 

*Scholtz, Hermann, b. June 9, 1845, 
Breslau. Pupil of Brosig. 1865, went 
to Leipzig, where he continued his 
studies with C. Riedel (Counterpoint) 
and L. Plaidy (Pf.). On Liszt's advice 
he went (1867) to Munich, where he 
became a pupil of Biilow in the Royal 
Music School, receiving at the same 
time lessons from Rheinberger in Com- 
position ; 1870-75, was teacher in the 
same school; 1875, he settled in 
Dresden, where (1880) the King of 
Saxony conferred on him the title of 
" Court Pianist." He is one of the 
foremost pianists of the present time, 
an admirable teacher, careful editor, 
and refined composer. His edition of 
Chopin's complete works is well known 
and very reliable. 
Tiio in F min., Op. 51 ; Sonata in G min.. 
Op. 44; 5 books of Variations; Traumbilder, 
Op. 22 ; Stimmunpsbilder, Op. 60 ; Ballade, 
Op. 6C ; Passacaplia in D min., Op. 73; 
5 Collections of Ij ric pieces (fAlbumblatter). 

*Scholz, Bernhard, b. March 30, 1835, 
Mayence o/Rhine. Pupil of E. 
Pauer, at that time (1847-51) Musik- 
Director of the Choral Societies, and, 
later, of Dehn (Berlin). 1856-57, he 

was teacher of Counterpoint at the 
Conserv. of Munich; 1857-58, Capell- 
meister at Ziirich ; 1858-59, at Niirn- 
berg; 1859-65, Hof-Capellmeister at 
Hanover; 1865-66, Director of the 
Cherubini Society of Florence ; 1 866-7 1 , 
he resided at Berhn ; 1871-83, Con- 
ductor of the Orchestral Society of 
Breslau ; 1883, appointed Director of 
the Hoch Conserv. of Frankfort o/M. 
He received the Hanoverian Order of 
the Guelphs, the title of Konigl. Prof., 
and the University of Breslau con- 
ferred on him the diploma of Doc. 
Phil., hon. causd. 
Op. 3 and 55, Sonatas for Pf and Vln. ; Op. 5, 
Sonata for Pf. and V'cello ; Op 25, 
(Quintet; Op. 41, Sonatinas; Op. 24, Valses 
a 4 mains; Op. 31, 6 Duets forPf and Vln.; 
Op 57. Concerto; Op. 35, Capriccio (with 

Schroter, Johann Samuel, b. 1750, 
Warsaw; d. Nov. i, 1788, London. 
1767, he began his tours through 
Holland and other countries. 1774. 
he went to London, where at first he 
had great difficulty in gaining a liveli- 
hood, until Joh. Christ. Bach became 
acquainted with his compositions and 
recommended him to the publisher, 
Napier (?). His works soon obtained 
public favour, and his playing was 
greatly admired. "He plays in a 
very elegant and masterly style ; his 
Cadenzas are well imagined, and if his 
penchant was not rather to play rapidly 
than al core, he would excel on the 
Pf." (A. B. C. Dario, p. 44). It is said 
that he was one of the first who under- 
stood how to treat the newly-introduced 
Pf. with due effect. The Prince of 
Wales gave him the title of Chamber- 
6 Sonatas for Pf , Op. i ; 3 Quintets for Pf., 

2 Vln., Alto, and Bass; 6 Trios, Op. 2; 

6 Concertos, Op. 3 ; 3 ditto (Berlin); 3 ditto; 

Op. 5 ; 6 ditto, Op. 6 (Paris); and 2 Trios. 

Op. 9 (1787). 
Schubert, Franz (Peter) (son of a poor 
schoolmaster), b. Jan. 31, 1797, District 
Lichtenthal (Vienna) ; d. Nov. 19, 1828, 
Vienna. He was one of nineteen children. 
At first a pupil of his father (on the 
Vln.), his pretty voice obtained for 
him a place in the Imperial Chapel 
and a scholarship in the Imperial 
" Convikt " (a college subsidised by 
Government). His teachers were 
Ruc'ziszka and Salieri (thorough bass). 
1813, he left the Imperial School, be- 
came assistant to his father, and taught 
in the elementary classes of the Lich- 
tenthal School until 1817. His friend, 
Schober, assisted him in every way, 
and he received (during the summer 


months, 1818-1824) the appointment 
of music teacher in the family of 
Count Esterhazy, in Zelesz (Hungary). 
Unsuccessful in obtaining fixed ap- 
pointments, he was obliged to gain 
his livelihood as a composer ; however, 
the sums he received for his splendid 
and immortal works appear to have 
been — viewing them from our present 
:.tate of payment for new works — quite 
ludicrous. Like Mozart, Schubert 
had during his whole life to fight 
against adversity. Although he never 
performed in public on the Pf., his 
works are a proof that he was a 
consummate master of the instrument. 
Quintet for Pf., Vln., Via., V'cello, and 
C.-Bass, Op. 114 (1819); Trios: No. i in 
B flat, Op. 99 (1827); No. 2 in E flat, 
Op. 100 (1827); Adagio and Rondo con- 
certant in F (1816); Nocturne in E flat, 
Op. 148 (appeared 1844). For Pf. and Vln.: 
Sonata in A, Op. 162 (1817) ; 3 Sonatinas (in 
D, A min., and G min.). Op. 137 (1816) ; 
Rondeau brillant in B min.. Op. 70 (1826); 
Fantasia in C, Op. 159 (1828). For Pf. and 
Fl.: Introduction and Variations, Op. i6o 
(1824); Arpeggione (a small harp) Sonata 
in A min. (1824). For 4 hands: Grand Duo 
in C, Op. 140 (1824) ; Fantasia in F min., 
Op. 103 (1829) ; Sonata in B flat. Op. 30 
(1824); Rondo in A, Op. 107 (1828); 
Andantino vari^ et Rondeau brillant. 
Op. 84 (1826) ; Rondeau, " Notre amitie 
est invariable," in D, Op. 138 (1835) ; 
Divertissement a la Hongroise in G min., 
Op. 54 (1824); Divertissement in the form 
of a March in E min.. Op. 63 (1826); 
Lebensstiirme, characteristic Allegro in 
A min., Op. 144 (1828); Characteristic 
Marches (2), Op. 121 (1830); Grande Marche 
heroique, A min.. Op. 66 (1825 or 1826) ; 3 
Marches heroiques. Op. 27 (1815, 1816, 
1824); 3 Marches militaires. Op. 51 (1826); 
6 Grandes Marches, Op. 40 (1826) ; Marche 
fun^bre, C min.. Op. 55 ; Kindermarsch 
(1827); 4 Polonaises, Op. 75 (1827); 6 
Polonaises, Op. 61 (1828); Overture in F, 
Op. 34 (1825); in C, Op. 170 (Italian style, 
1817); in D (1817); Fugue in E min.. Op. 
152 (1828) ; Variations in E min.. Op. 10 
(iSzr) ; in A flat (original theme), Op. 35 
(1824); in C (theme by Herold), Op. 82 
(1827). For Pf. solo: Sonatas in A min.. 
Op. 42 (1825); in D, Op. 53 (1825?); in G 
(Fantasia, Andante, Menuetto, and Alle- 
gretto), Op. 78 (1826) ; Sonata in A, Op. 120 
(1825 ?); in E flat. Op. 122 (1817); in A min.. 
Op. 143 (1823); in B, Op. 147 (1817); in A 
min.. Op 164 (1817) ; 3 (posth.) Sonatas in 
C min., A, and B flat (1828). Variations 
(Waltz by Diabelli), 1821 ; 13 Variations 
(theme by Hiittenbrenner), 1817; Adagio 
in E (1818); iAdagio and Rondo in E, Op. 
145 (1817?); Allegretto in C min. (1827); 
+3 Clavierstucke (Nos. i and 2, 1828; No. 3, 
before 1828); 5 Clavierstucke (1843); f4 
Impromptus, Op. 90 (1828) ; +4 Impromptus, 
Op. 142 (1838); ^Moments musicaux, Op. 
94 (1828); IKantasia in C, Op. 15 (1820); 2 
Scherzi (1817) ; 12 Landler, Op. 171 (1823) ; 
German Dances and Ecossaises, Op. 33 
(1823-24); Hommage aux belles Viennoises, 
Op. 67 (1826) ; Galopp and Hcossaisen, 
Op. 49 (1826); Grazer Walzer and Galopp 
(1827); First Valses, Op. 9 (1816-21); Last 
Valses, Op. 127 (1824); Valses nobles, 

Op. 77 (1827); Valses sentimentales. Op. 50 
(1826) ; Valses, Landler, Ecossaises, Op. 18 
(1816-21) ; 20 Landler (1824); 12 German 
Dances and 5 Ecossaises (1817); March in 
E (1840); Relic (unfinished Sonata), 1825. 
•Schiitt, Eduard, b. Oct. 10, 1856, St. 
Petersburg. At first a pupil at the 
Conserv. ; later of E. F. Richter and 
Jadassohn in Leipzig, and of Theodor 
Leschetizki in Vienna. 1882-87, Con- 
ductor of the Academical Wagner 
Society in Vienna. As pianist, he 
travelled with great success in Ger- 
many and Russia. Several of his 
compositions are included in the 
repertory of the most celebrated 
pianists of the present time. 1889-91, 
was in Paris, but since 1891 has 
lived in Vienna. 
Op. 7, Concerto (G min.); Op. 8, +5 pieces; 
Op.9,+Variationsfor2 Pfs. ; Op. 12, Quartet 
(F); Op. 3, Lose Blatter (1-12); Op. 15,3 
Morceaux (-Hdylle) ; Op. 16: i, +Etude 
mignonne ; 2, fValse mignonne ; Op. 17, 
Scenes de Bal (tValse lente, tRococo); Op. 
25, Bluettes en forme de Valse; Op. 26, 
Sonata with Vln.; Op. 27, Trio (C min.); 
Op. 28, 3 Morceaux (tScherzino) ; Op. 29, 
Theme varid et Fugato ; Op. 32, 2 Mor- 
ceaux ; Op. 35, f Preludes (8) ; Op. 36, Poesies 
♦Schulhoff, Julius, b. Aug. 2, 1825, 
Prague. His first Pf. teacher was 
Kisch, then J. Tedesco, £md in Theory 
and Composition, W. Tomaschek. 
1842, he went, via Dresden, Weimar, 
and Leipzig to Paris, where he per- 
formed with great success. On 
Chopin's advice, he gave (1845) his 
first public concert in Paris, and his 
elegant, brilliant, and graceful per- 
formance, and melodious, rhythmical, 
and agreeable compositions at once 
took hold of the Parisian public. Not 
less striking was his success in London. 
During the winter, 1850-51, he gave 
concerts in Warsaw, St. Petersburg, 
and Moscow; and 1852-53, in South 
Russia (Odessa, Crimea, Kieff, Char- 
kow, &c.). After residing for many 
years in Dresden, he settled perma- 
nently in Berlin. Some of his com- 
positions became exceedingly popular. 
Their chief merit lies in melodiousness, 
correct writing, practicability of execu- 
tion, and total absence of triviality. 
Op. 5, Mazurkas; Op, 8, 3 Impromptus (+No. 
2) ', Op. 13, Etudes de Concert (No. 6, Le 
'1 lille), tOp. II, 19, +28, Nocturnes; Op. 17, 
tGalop di Bravura ; Op. 20, Valse in D flat ; 
Op. 23 (No. 2) ; Op. 27 (No. 3) ; Op. 36 (No. 
2), Idylles; Op. 30, fSouvenir de Varsovie ; 
Op. 35, L'Ondine ; Op. 39, ISouvenir de 
Kieff; Op. 42, +Aubade; Op. 45, Chants 
d'amitie (No. i) ; Op. 49, 2 Romances sans 
paroles; Op. 53, t6 Morceaux de musique 
intime (Nos. 4 and 6). 
Schulz-Schwerin, Carl, b. Jan. 3, 1845, 
Schwerin. 1862-65, pupil at the Stern 


Conserv. of Berlin^ where Biilow, 
Geyer, Stem, and Weitzmann were 
his teachers. After finishing his 
studies, appointed principal teacher of 
Pf. at the Conserv. of Stettin ; later. 
Conductor of the Musical Society of 
Stargard (Pomerania). Since 1885 
has resided in Berlin. He published a 
considerable number of solo pieces, 
and arranged for orchestra several 
celebrated Pf. pieces, among them 
Mendelssohn's Rondo Capriccioso, 
Op. 14. 

Schumann, Georg Alfred, b. Oct. 25, 
1866, Konigstein (Saxony). Pupil of 
Baumfelder (Dresden), and, 1882-87, ^' 
the Leipzig Conserv., where Jadas- 
sohn, Reinecke, and Zwintscher were 
his teachers. After finishing his studies 
he received the " Beethoven " prize. 

Concerto with Orchestra, Quintet, Trio, 
several pieces for 4 hands, and solo pieces, 
of which the " Traumbilder " are the best 

Schumann, Gustav, b. March 15, 1815, 
Holdenstedt ; d. Aug. 16, 1889, Berlin, 
where he resided as a teacher and com- 
poser. The following are his best 
known works: 

Op. 2, Characteristic pieces; Op. 9, Im- 
promptu; Op. 10, 3 Fairy Tales (fNo. 3I; 
Up. II, Tarantella ; Op. 12, Valse brillante ; 
Op. 18, Scenes de Bal (Valse); Op. 19, 
Caprice. Most of his pieces have been 
revised and edited by Adolph Henselt. 

Schumann, Robert, b. June 8, 1810, 
Zwickau (Saxony) ; d. July 29, 1856, 
Endenich, near Bonn o/Rhine. His 
father, a bookseller, encouraged his 
musical studies (at first directed by 
the Baccalaureus Kuntzsch), and 
wrote to C. M. von Weber, asking him 
to undertake his son's education ; this 
plan was not realised, and the father 
dying (1826), the mother insisted upon 
her son's attending the Leipzig Uni- 
versity to study law. This study 
proved unsympathetic to his poetically- 
inclined nature, and, having spent a 
happy year in Heidelberg, where he 
attended the musical meetings in Prof. 
Thibaut's house, he returned to Leipzig, 
where Fr. Wieck examined him and 
advised him to devote himself entirely 
to music. He began (1830) his regular 
studies under Wieck (Pf.) and Dorn 
(Composition). In his eagerness to 
obtain the independent working of his 
fingers, he disabled his second (German 
fingering) finger entirely, and so was 
obliged to discontinue the career of a 
virtuoso. 1834, he founded, with his 
friends Julius Knorr, L. Schunke, and 

his teacher Wieck, the Neue Zeits- 
chrift fur Musik. 1835-44, he con- 
ducted alone this interesting journal, 
for which he wrote many instruc- 
tive, poetic, aesthetic, fanciful, and 
thoroughly original articles and essays, 
thus procuring for the journal a unique 
position in musical history. The 
articles on Mendelssohn, Beethoven, 
Chopin, Schubert, Bach, &c., have 
never been rivalled with regard to 
purity, elevated and romantic tendency. 
1838, he went to Vienna; 1839, re- 
turned to Leipzig ; 1840, received from 
the University of Jena the diploma of 
Doc. Phil., hon. causd, and married, in 
the same year, Clara Wieck. 1843, 
Mendelssohn made him a Prof, at the 
newly-founded Conserv. ; but this 
work did not prove attractive to his 
rather musing and self-absorbed dis- 
position, and he resigned the following 
year. He made a journey with his 
wife to St. Petersburg, and on his 
return settled at Dresden. 1850-53, 
Conductor of the Choral Society of 
Diisseldorf . Signs of deep melancholia, 
which had already appeared in 1833 
and 1845, 110 w showed themselves more 
frequently, and (1854) it was necessary 
to entrust him to the care of Dr. 
Richartz, of Endenich, near Bonn. 
The characteristics of Schumann's 
music are the union of the most fiery 
passion, the most sincere feeling, and the 
tenderest thoughtfulness, with a most 
refined and minutely finished execu- 
tion. His sentiment is everywhere 
sustained by strong intellectuality, and 
his feeling is the outcome of a high 
moral soul. The words spoken at his 
grave, by his friend Ferdinand Hiller, 
give a correct description of his cha- 
racter : "Thou hast been a genuine 
artist, and what is implied therein of 
powerful, incorruptible will, of devoted 
activity, of persistent courage — is not 
known to many ! And thou wert good 
and kind to others, and just, as far as 
it is permitted that any mortal being 
should be. Thy melodies glow with 
the gracefulness of a noble soul — they 
shine with the warmth of a loving 
heart. Quietly listening to the 
melodious waves of thine own soul, 
and to all the wonderful harmonies 
that dwelt there, like flowers on the 
bottom of a deep sea, thou wouldst 
never give way to a frivolous vanity, 
which tempts an artist's soul too often 
with seductive chords and melodies; 
thou didst not lend an ear to them ; 
perhaps they sought thee not, knowing 


that it was useless." The surest 
monument an artist can possess 
should be that his works are beloved 
and esteemed by his brethren. There 
is no doubt that the memory of Schu- 
mann is held sacred by everyone who 
loves the art and knows how to value 
the high principles which he possessed. 
The following is a complete list of 
Schumann's works for Pf. : 

Concerto in A min., Op. 54 (1841-45); Con- 
certstuck in G, Op. 92 (1849) ; Concert 
Allegro in D min.," Op. 134; Quintet in E 
flat, Op. 44 (1842); Quartet in h flat, Op. ^7 
(1842). Trios: In D min., Op. 63 (1847); in 
F, Op. 80(1847); i° G min.. Op. 110 (1851). 
Sonatas for Pf. and Vln. : In A min.. Op. 
105 (1851); in D min.. Op. 121 (1851). 
Fantasiestucke for Pf., Vln., and V'cello, 
Op. 88 (1842) ; 3 Romanzas for Pf. and Ob., 
Op. 94 (1849); Fantasiestucke for CI. and 
Pf., Op. 73 ( 1849) ; 5 easy pieces in a popular 
manner for Pf. and V'cello, Op. 102 (1849); 
Marchenbilder for Pf. and Via., Op. 113 
(1851) ; Marchenerzahlung for Cl., Via., and 
Pf., Op. 132 (1853 ?) ; Sonata in F sharp 
min., Op. 11(1835); Grande Sonate (Concert 
sans Orchestre) in F min, Op. 14 (1836); 
Sonata in G min., Op. 22 (1833 and 1838); 
Fantaisie in C, Op. 17 ■1836); Allegro in B 
min., Op. 8 (1831); Etudes symphoniques 
in C sharp min., Op. 13 (1834); Studien 
nach Capricen von Paganini, Op. 3 (1832); 
Etudes de concert d'apres des Caprices de 
Paganini, Op. 10 (1833) ; Variations (Abegg), 
Op. 1 (1830); Intermezzi, Op. 4 (1832); 
Papillons, Op. 2 (1829 and 1831 1; Carnaval, 
Op. 9 (1834 and 1835) ; Fantasiestucke (8), 
Op. 12 (1837) ; Davidsbiindlertanze (18). 
Op. 6 (1837); Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (1838); 
Novelletten (8), Op. 21 (1838) ; Nachtstucke 
(4), Op. 23 (1839); Faschingsschwank aus 
Wien in B flat, Op. 26 (1839) ; Scherzo, Gigue, 
Romanze, and Fughette, Op. 32 (1838) ; 
Humoreske in B flat. Op. 20 (1839); 3 
Romanzen, Op. 28 (1839) ; Studies for the 
Pedal Pf., Op. 56 (1845) ; Sketches for the 
Pedal Pf., Op. 58 (1845) ; 4 Fugues, Op. 72 
(1845); 6 Fugues on the name of Bach, ftp. 
60 (1845); 4 Marches, Op. 76 (18491; 7 
Fughettas, Op. 126 (1853) ; Waldscenen, 
Op. 82 (1848 and 1849); Arabeske in C, Op. 
18 (1839) ; Blumenstijck in A flat. Op. 19 
(1839) ; Toccata in C, Op. 7 (1830-33) ; Im- 
promptus in C, Op. 5 (1833) ; Bunte Blatter, 
Op. 99 (1836, 1838, 1841) ; Albumblatter, Op. 
124 (from 1842 till 1845); 5 Fantasiestucke, 
Op. 111(1851); Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15 
(1838); Album for the young. Op. 68 (1848); 
Gesange der Friihe, Op. 133 (1853 ?) ; 3 
Sonatas for the young. Op. 118 (1853). For 
4 hands: Bilder aus Osten, Op. 66 (1848); 
Children's pieces. Op. 85 (1849) ; Ball- 
Scenen, Op. 109 (1851); Andante and Varia- 
tions (2 Pf.), Op. 46(1843); Kinderball, Op. 

Schumann (n^^Wieck), Clara Josephine, 
wife of Robert S., b. Sept. 13, 1819, 
Leipzig. Daughter of Fr. Wieck. 
Showed very early extraordinary 
talent for music, and more particularly 
for Pf. playing. In her tenth year she 
performed for the first time in public, 
and when thirteen made a tour with 
her father. Her performances of 

Beethoven's Sonatas, Bach's Fugues, 
and Chopin's and Henselt's pieces 
created everywhere a great sensation 
Combined with a thoroughly correct 
execution were womanly tenderness 
and sincere feeling, which struck a 
sympathetic chord in the breasts of 
numberless hearers. But it was only 
in 1837, when she was betrothed to 
Robert S., that, owing to the in- 
fluence of his genial, romantic, and 
poetic nature, she fully realised the 
profound meaning and imperishable 
beauty of the classical composers' 
works. This influence awakened in 
her a conception of the art hitherto 
unknown to any lady pianist. Her 
appearances in Holland, Austria, 
Paris, and Germany were greeted 
with the utmost enthusiasm ; and 
admiration for her artistic perform- 
ances was enhanced by hearty affection, 
evoked by her touching devotion to 
her husband during the last years of 
his life. The English public — at all 
times strongly influenced by the 
critics' judgments, which were at first, 
from personal reasons, cold and 
unfavourable — learned by degrees to 
value, esteem, and at last venerate the 
rare talents and merits of the cele- 
brated artist, thus making her annual 
visits to England veritable epochs. 
1878-92, principal Pf. Prof, at the 
Hoch Conserv. of Frankfort o/M., 
and then worked as a private teacher. 
Amongst many different distinctions 
may be named the great gold medal 
for Art and Science (Prussia) and the 
title of " Pianist to the Imperial and 
Royal Court of Austria." The best 
known of her compositions are : 
Op. 7, Concerto; Op. 10, Scherzo; Op. 14, 
Second Scherzo; Op. 15, 4 Pieces fugitives; 
Op. 16, 3 Preludes and Fugues ; Op. 17, 
Trio in G min. ; Op. 20, Variations on a 
theme of Robert Schumann; Op. 21, 3 
Romanzas ; Op. 22, 3 Romanzas with Vln. 

Schunke, Carl, b. 1801, Magdeburg; d. 
(by his own hand) Dec. 16, 1839, Paris. 
At first a pupil of his father, Michael 
S. (1780-1821), later of Ferd. Ries, 
whom he followed to England. 1828, 
he went to Paris, where his elegant 
playing was received with so much 
favour that he was appointed Pianist 
to the Queen and obtained the Legion 
d'Honneur. Unfortunately a stroke 
of apoplexy robbed him of the power 
of speech, and, despairing of ever 
getting better, he threw himself out of 
the window and was killed. He was a 
popular composer, but most of his 
pieces are brilliant transcriptions of 



operatic airs and other popular melo- 
dies. The collection, " LePensionnat " 
(1-24), was, in its time, much liked. 

Schunke, Ludwig, son of Gottfried S. 
(1777-1840), b. Dec. 21, 1810, Cassel; 
d. Dec. 7, 1834, Leipzig. When only 
in his tenth year he played Mozart and 
Hummel's Concertos with ease, and 
was very successful when he appeared 
(1824) in Vienna and Munich. In the 
same year he went to Paris to study 
with Kalkbrenner (Pf.) and Reicha 
(Composition). 1830, he went to 
Stuttgart ; 1832, again to Vienna; later, 
to Prague, Dresden, and Leipzig. In 
Leipzig he made the acquaintance of 
Robert Schumann, for whom he had 
the warmest friendship and affection, 
which was heartily reciprocated 
(Schumann's Toccata, Op. 7, is dedi- 
cated to him). He became one of the 
collaborators of the Neue Zeitschrift. 
He delighted everyone by his beautiful, 
expressive, and intellectual perform- 
Op. 3, Variations; Op. 9, Caprice; Op. 10, 
second Capriccio; Op. 13, Characteristic 
pieces ; Op. 14, Variations. See Robert Schu- 
mann's remarks in his " Gesammelte 
Schriften," Vol. I., pp. 92, 325; Vol. II., pp. 
Schwalm, Robert, b. Dec. 6, 1845, 
Erfurt. Pupil of Pflughaupt, later, at 
the Leipzig Conserv., where Wenzel, 
Moscheles (Pf.), and Reinecke (Com- 
position) were his teachers. 1870-75, 
was a teacher at Elbing, and con- 
ductor of several musical societies. He 
is now Konigl. Musik-Director and 
Prof., and resides at Konigsberg 
(Prussia) . 
Excellent Studies, and Editor of the valuable 
collection, " Classische Hausmusik,"Op. 10. 

*Schwarz,Max,b.Dec. i, 1856, Hanover. 
Pupil of Franz Bendel, Hans von 
Biilow, and F. Liszt. 1880-83, teacher 
at the Hoch Conserv. of Frankfort o/M . ; 
since 1885, Directorof the Raff Conserv. 
in the same town. Excellent pianist, 
and a much respected teacher. 

♦Schweizer, Otto, b. May 26, 1846, 
Ziirich. 1857, his mother and step- 
father moved to Rudolstadt a/S. Pupil 
of his stepfather. 1863, went to 
Winterthur, where he enjoyed the 
advice of H. Gotz and Theodor 
Kirchner; 1867, pupil at the Leipzig 
Conserv., where "Wenzel and Mos- 
cheles (Pf.), E. W. Richter and Oscar 
Paul (Theory) were his teachers. 
Since 1870, he has resided in Edin- 
burgh, but is also Prof, of Pf. at the 
Athenaeum School of Music, Glasgow. 

Suite in C min. ; Polonaise brillante ; 
Romantic Studies (3) ; Morceaux populaires 
(3). Op. 3^ ; Suite, No. 2 (1-6) ; Sonata in 
A flat mm. ; Sonata for Pf. and V'cello, 
Op. 28. 

•Schytte, Ludvig, b. April 28, 1848, 
Aarhus, Jiitland (Denmark). He 
studied chemistry at first, but devoted 
himself from his twenty-second year 
(1870) to music. Pupil of Ree, later 
of Neupert (Pf.) and of W. Niels 
Gade (Composition), at Copenhagen. 
1884-85, resided in Berlin. Since 
1885, teacher of- the highest class in 
Horak's Music Academy of Vienna. 
Some of his compositions enjoy 
considerable popularity. 
Characterstiicke, Op. 12 ; Naturstimmungen, 
Op. 22 ; Concerto, Op. 28 (performed with 
great success by M. Rosenthal) ; Panto- 
mimes, a 4 mains. Op. 30 (a great favourite 
of Liszt) ; Danish Melodies, Op. 35 ; 
Swedish Songs and Dances (4 hands), Op. 
52; Sonata, Op. 53 ; Bojarentanze (4 hands), 
Op. 61 ; Studies, &c. With M. Rosenthal 
he published a Method for the higher 
development of Pf. playing (see Rosenthal). 

Sechter, Simon, b. Oct. 11, 1788, 
Friedberg (Bohemia) ; d. Sept. 10, 1867, 
Vienna. Pupil of Kozeluch and Hart- 
mann( Vienna) . 1 8 1 1 , teacher of music in 
the College of the Blind ; later. Member 
of the Imperial Chapel and Organist 
to the Imperial Court ; 1851, Prof, of 
Harmony and Composition at the 
Conserv. He was Harmony teacher 
of Thalberg, Dohler, Henselt, Vieux- 
temps, Berens, Bruckner, Rufinatscha, 
and other distinguished musicians. 
Although most of his works were 
written for the organ, he also pub- 
lished several interesting — with regard 
to scholarship — pieces for the Pf. 
Dances in Counterpoint, Op. 13 ; Fugue on 
Haydn's hymn, " God preserve ti.e 
Emperor" ; 12 contrapuntal pieces, Op. 62; 
Prose and Music, Op. 76. Very amusing 
are 24 Fugues for 4 hands on the most 
popular national and operatic airs. Op. 55 (4 
Seeling, Hans, b. 1828, Prague ; d. 
there May 26, 1862. On account of 
feeble health he went (1852) to Italy ; 
1856, to Constantinople, Syria, and 
Greece ; 1857, returned to Italy ; 1859, 
was in Paris ; then resided until his 
death in Germany. He was an excel- 
lent pianist, possessed a masterly 
technique, and his style was par- 
ticularly admired for sincere feeling 
and natural expression, combined 
with great elegance and refinement. 
fLoreley (Lurline), Op. 2 ; Nocturnes, Op. 2 
and 12; Idyl. Op. 6; 2 Poems, Op. 7; +12 
Concert Studies, Op. 10; Memoirs of aii 
Artist, Op. 13 (i-io). 
'Seifert, Uso, b. Feb. 9, 1852, Romhild 
(Thuringia). Pupil at the Dresden 



Conserv., where Dr. Wiillner, G. 
Merkel, A. Blassmann, and Nicode 
were his teachers. He resides at 
Dresden ; is Prof, at the Conserv. and 
Organist of the Reformed Church. 
Op. 2, Capriccietto ; Op. 3, Valse Impromptu: 
Op. 8, Polacca graziosa ; Op. 15, Grand 
Study, " Ohne Rast, ohne Ruh " ; 2 Christ- 
mas pieces; and Op. 18, Polonaise (D min.). 
Method of Pf. playing. Editor of Leuckart's 
" Salon-Album " (2nd vol.) and of many 
educational works. 

*Seiss, Isidor, b. Dec. 23, 1840, Dresden. 
Pupil of Fr. Wieck and L. Niedermeyer 
(Pf.), JuUus Otto and C. Riccius 
(Harmony and Composition) ; later of 
M. Hauptmann at Leipzig. 1861, 
appointed Pf. Prof, at the Conserv. 
of Cologne, where he still works. 
1878, he received the title of Konigl. 
Prof. ; 1892, the Order of the Prussian 
Crown. His performances of classical 
works (more particularly of Mozart's) 
are justly admired, whilst his reputa- 
tion as a careful and successful teacher 
is well recognised. 
Op. 8, Sonatinas ; Op. 10, Bravura Studies ; 

Op. II, Toccata; Op. 12, Preludes; Op. 

7 and 9, Clavierstiicke; tTranscriptions 

of Beethoven's Contredanses et Danses 


Seydelmann, Franz, b. Oct. 8, 1748, 

Dresden ; d. there Oct. 23, 1806. 

Pupil of his father; later of Weber 

{not C. M. von W.) and Naumann. 

At the expense of the Palatine he wcis 

sent to Italy. He returned 1770, was 

appointed " Kurfiirstlich Sachsischer 

Kirchencomponist," and (1787) Capell- 

meister. He was in his time a very 

popular composer, who contributed a 

great deal towards the literature of 

Clavecin music. 

3 Sonatas for Clavecin and Vln., Op. 3; 7 

ditto ; 6 Sonatas for 4 hands ; i ditto ; 6 

Sonatas for Clavecin and Flute; 3 Solo 

Sonatas; and a Sonata for z Clavecins. 

Gerber mentions also 6 Duet Sonatas, Op. 

I (1781), and 3 Sonatas (1787). 

Bgambati, Giovanni (Commendatore), 
b. May 18 (28 ?), 1843, Rome. Son of 
a lawyer. Pupil of Barberi, Natalucci, 
and Aldega. As a performer, his pro- 
gress was so extraordinary that Liszt 
took great interest in his musical 
education. His excellent performances 
were applauded not only in Italy, but 
also in England, Germany, Denmark, 
and Russia. Since 1877 principal 
Prof, of Pf. at the newly founded 
Liceo di Santa Cecilia of Rome. He 
has received several decorations, and 
is a. persona grata at the Italian Court. 
Quintets, Op. 4 (F min.) and Op. 5 (G min.); 
Concerto, Op. 15 (G min.) ; Prelude and 
if ague, Op. 6; 2 Etudes de Concert, Op. 10; 

Fogli Volanti, Op. 12 (iS) ; fGavotte, Op. 
14; 4 pieces, Op. 18; 3 Notturni, Op. 20; 
Suite in B, Op 21 (1-5). 

*Sharpe, Herbert Francis, b. March i, 

1861, Halifax (Yorkshire). 1876, 

gained a scholarship at the National 

Training School (London), where J. F. 

Barnett was his teacher. 1884, 

appointed teacher at the Royal 

College of Music. 

Deux Caprices brillantes, Op. 6 ; Variations 

for 2 Pf., Op. 46; Suite in C, Op. 58 ; and 

3 Symphonic pieces for 4 hands, Op. 59. 

*Sherwood, William H., b. Jan. 31, 1854, 
Lyons (New York). At first a pupil of 
his father, the Rev. L. H. S. (founder 
of the Lyons Musical Academy), after- 
wards of Ed. Heimburger, Pychowski, 
and William Mason, of New York (see 
this name). Went to Berlin, studied 
with Th. KuUak and Deppe, and later 
with Liszt (Weimar) ; for Theory, 
Counterpoint, and Composition was 
under Dr. Weitzmann, C. Doppler, R. 
Wiierst (Berlin) , and Richter (Leipzig). 
During his stay in Germany he played 
with great success in Hamburg, Leip- 
zig (Gewandhaus) , Bremen, Cassel, 
Berlin (at Court', Weimar, &c. Re- 
turning to America, he made his debut 
at the "Centennial," at Philadelphia 
(1876), and made his name known in 
all the principal towns of the United 
States and Canada. He is one of the 
founders of the American College of 
Musicians, also a member of the Music 
Teachers' National Association and 
member of the Societies of Boston, 
New York, and Chicago. He resides 
at Chicago and is Director of the Pf. 
department of the Conserv. there. 
Op. 5, Suite (5) ; Op. 6, 2 Mazurkas ; Op. 7, 
Scherzo ; Op. 8, Romanza appassionata ; 
Op. 9, Scherzo Caprice ; Op. 10, Gipsy 
Dance; Op. 12, Allegro patetico ; Op. 13, 
Medea; Op. 14, Suite (5). Besides these 
works, he edited a goodly number of com- 
positions by different masters. 

♦Siboni, Erik Anton Valdemar, b, Aug. 
26, 1828, Copenhagen. Pupil of J. P. E. 
Hartmann ; 1847, pupil of Moscheles 
and Hauptmann (Leipzigi; after 
1850, resided in Vienna, then until 
1865 in Copenhagen, as a teacher and 
composer, and now teaches in the 
Music Academy of Soroe (near Copen- 
Quartet, Op. 10; Impromptus (3); Caprice; 
Ablum leaves (6) ; Ballad and Cradle Song; 
Scherzo; Phantasiestiicke (3); Sonates 
faciles (2); 2 Sonatines for 4 hands; Con- 
certo (D min.). Op. 64; Quartet, Op. 6z, &c. 

Siemers, Carl Heinrich August, b. 
May 7, 1819, Goldenstedt (Oldenburg) ; 
d. Nov. 30, 1876, Dresden. Pupil of 
K. Arnold, at Miinster (Westphalia) ; 



1839, of Seyfried (Vienna). 1845, he 
went to Hamburg ; 1855, to Man- 
chester, as Orgcinist of the German 
Church. 1864, he settled in Dresden, 
where he was a highly successful 
teacher. Several of his compositions 
(on Hungarian airs, &c.) enjoyed at 
one time considerable popularity. 

'Silas, Edward, b. Aug. 22, 1827, Amster- 
dam. 1837, appeared for the first time 
as a pianist in Amsterdam. Pupil of 
Grua (Harmony) at Mannheim ; 1839, 
of Louis Lacombe (Frankfort o/M.) ; 
1842, of Kalkbrenner (Paris) ; he 
entered later the Conserv., where 
Benoist (Organ) and Halevy (Fugue 
and Studies for Opera -writing) were 
his teachers. He received two gold 
medals and (1849) the first prize for 
Organ. 1850, he settled in England. 
1866, he received the first prize, con- 
sisting of a gold medal and 1,000 
francs, from the Assemblee Generale 
des Catholiques en Belgique, for the 
composition of a Mass. There were 
seventy-six competitors from twelve 
different nations. He is Prof, at the 
Guildhall School and London Academy 
of Music. Among his many composi- 
tions for Pf., the following deserve 
particular mention — 
10 Romances sans paroles. Books I. and II. ; 
tAmaranth; Sonata, Op. 10 ; Caprice in F ; 
JGavotte, Passepied, andCourante ; Persian 
Serenade, Op. 44 ; a great number of 
Impromptus, Nocturnes, Mazurkas, Bour- 
rees, Valses, Gavottes (7), Romanzas, 
Barcirolles, &c. Among his greater com- 
positions are 4. Trios (in C min., A, C, and 
D): a Trio for Pf., CI., and V'cello; 6 
Duets for 4 hands, Op. 23 ; and a Concerto 
(performed at the Crj-stal Palace, London). 

'Siloti, Alexander von, b. Oct. 10, 1863, 
Charkow. At first a pupil of his 
father. 1873, ^^ went to Moscow, 
where he entered the Conserv., and 
was taught by Zwereff ; later (1876-81), 
by Nicolaus Rubinstein (Pf.) and 
Tschaikowsky (Theory). He received 
a diploma and the gold medal. 1883, 
he went to Liszt (Weimar) ; 1S87-90, 
Prof, at the Moscow Conserv. Since 
1890 he has lived in Paris. He 
belongs to the foremost pianists of the 
day, and has earned many laurels in 
Germany, Belgium, England, and 

*Sinding, Christian, b. Jan. 11, 1856, 
Kongsberg (Norway). He studied in 
Dresden and Munich, and in Leipzig 
with Reinecke, and settled as organist 
and teacher in Christiania, but does 
not hold any official appointment. 
Romanza and Suite for Pf. and Vln. ; Pf. 
Quintets (a); Concerto (1890); Sonata for 

Ff. and Vln. ; Variations for 2 Pf., 4 bands ; 
Buch der Lieder, &c. 
•Sjogren (Johann Gustav), Emil, b. June 
15 (16?), 1853. Stockholm. First an 
assistant in a music warehouse ; later, 
pupil at the Conserv. 1879-80, he had 
lessons in Counterpoint from Kiel and 
in organ playing from Haupt, of 
Berlin. Since 1890, Organist of the 
Johannes Church (Stockholm). 
Op. 15, Novelletten ; Op. 20, Stemninger 
(Stimmungsbilder) (8); +" Erotikon " (5); 
Op. 24, Sonatas for Pf. and Vln. (E min.) ; 
Op. 27, 2 FantasiestiJcke for Pf. and Vln. 
■'-Slivinski, Joseph von, b. Dec. 15, 1865, 
Warsaw. Pupil at the Warsaw Con- 
serv., under Strobel; afterwards went 
to Vienna, where he was pupil of 
Th. Leschetizki for four years, and 
later of Anton Rubinstein (St. Peters- 
burg). His merits as an excellent and 
refined pianist are well known. He 
has not published his compositions. 
Sloper, Lindsay, b. June 14, 1826, 
London ; d. there July 3, 1887. Pupil 
of Moscheles, on whose advice he went 
(1840) to Germany. Studied under 
Aloys Schmitt (Frankfort), and, later, 
with C. VoUweiler (Heidelberg). For 
several years he resided in Paris, 
where he formed a sincere friendship 
with Stephen Heller, to whom he 
dedicated 24 Studies (Op. 3). Leaving 
Paris, he settled in London, where he 
soon became popular as a teacher and 
much admired as a performer. 1880, 
appointed Pf. Prof, at the Guildhall 
School. His compositions are elegant, 
ably written, and well constructed. 
Smetana, Friedrich, b. March 2, 1824, 
Leitomischl (Bohemia) ; d. May 12, 
1884, Prague. Pupil of Proksch 
(Prague) ; later, for a short time, of 
Liszt (Weimar). He opened a music 
school at Prague; married the pianist, 
Katharine Kolar, and (1856) was 
appointed Conductor of the Musical 
Society of Gothenburg (Sweden) . His 
wife succumbed to the cUmate and 
died (i860). 1861, he gave concerts in 
Sweden, and returned afterwards to 
Prague. 1866-74, Conductor of the 
Opera (Prague) ; then resigned because 
he had entirely lost the faculty of 
hearing. He was essentially a national 
(Czechish) composer, and presents his 
works in a thoroughly national dress. 
Trio, Bohemian National Dances, +6 Mor- 
ceaux caracteristiques, and Album Leaves. 
♦Smith, Sydney, b. July 14, 1839, Dor- 
chester ; d. March 3, 1889, London. 
His father, a Prof, of music, was his 
first teacher. 1855-58, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv., under Plaidy and 



Moscheles (Pf.), Hauptmann, Richter, 
and Papperitz (Harmony and Com- 
position), and Griitzmacher (V'cello). 
1859, he settled in London, where he 
was highly successful as a teacher, and 
even more so as a composer of light, 
pleasing, popular, and practically- 
written pieces, of which some became 
very generally known. 

Sorge, Georg Andreas, b. March 29, 

1703, Mellenbach ( Schwarzburg) ; d. 

April 4, 1778, Lobenstein, while Hof- 

und Stadt-Organist, which post he had 

held since his nineteenth year (1722). 

His reputation chiefly rests on his 

theoretical and scientific works, of 

which he published a great number. 

6 Sonatas, Op. 1 (1738); 6 Sonatinas; Wohl- 

gewurzte Klangspeisen, bestehend in 6 

Clavier Parthien; Sonatas, composed 

according to modern taste ; 6 Symphonies 

for the Clavecin ; 12 Minuets with Vln. ; 

Toccata per omnem circulum xxiv.modorum 

for Clavecin. 

•Sormann, Alfred, b. May 16, 1861, 
Dantzig. 1879-84, pupil at the Hoch- 
schule (Berlin), where Rudorff, Barth, 
Spitta, and Bargiel were his teachers ; 
1885, he went to Liszt ; 1886, he 
appeared in public and gave successful 
concerts at most of the principal 
German towns ; 1889, the Grand Duke 
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz named him 
Pianist to the Court, and bestowed 
upon him the Golden Cross of the 
Mecklenburg Order. He is considered 
to be one of the foremost pianists of 
the present time. 
Trio, Concerto in C min., and several sma'ler 

Sowinsky, Albert Czyli Wojcech, b. 
1803 (?), Ladyzyn (Ukraine) ; d. March 
5, 1880, Paris. Pupil of Czerny, 
Leidersdorf, and Seyfried at Vienna. 
Author of the biographical work " Les 
musiciens polonais et slaves anciens et 
modernes." He was an excellent 
pianist and composer. 
Grandes Etudes de Concert, Op. 60 ; Taran- 

telle, Op. 67; Sicilienne, Op. 70; fBerceuse, 

Op. 73- 

Speidel. Wilhelm, b. Sept. 3, 1826, Ulm. 
Pupil of Ignaz Lachner, Wanner, and 
Kuhe, at Mimich. 1846-48, teacher at 
Thann (Alsace) ; 1848-54, at Munich ; 
1855-57, Musik - Director at Ulm ; 
founded later, with Lebert Stark and 
Faisst, the Music School at Stuttgart, 
where he was working until 1874, 
when he opened the " Kiinstler und 
Dilettantenschule fiir Clavier " on his 
own account. His talents as a teacher 
are unquestionable, and his Institute 
proved a great rival to the older 

school. For twenty-eight years Con- 
ductor of the Society " Liederkranz." 
The King of Wiirtemburg named him 
Konigl. Prof, and Knight of the 
Frederic Order; whilst the King of 
Prussia decorated him with the Order 
of the Red Eagle. He is Hon. 
Member of many musical societies. 
His excellent, correct, and brilliant 
performances were much admired, 
while his compositions are very popular. 
Trios; Sonata with V'cello (D min.); Concert 

Solo, Op. 4 ; 3 Morceaux de genre, Op. 32 ; 

Saltarello, Op. 20; Pictures from the 

Highlands ; Short scenes, &c. 

•Spindler, Fritz, b. Nov. 24, 1817, Wurz- 
bach, near Lobenstein. Pupil of the 
organist, W. loch. 1831, he attended 
the College at Schleiz, to prepare 
for the study of theology ; but his 
desire to study music was so great that 
his parents gave way to it. Pupil of 
Fr. Schneider, of Dessau. 1841, he 
settled in Dresden, where he soon 
became a favourite teacher. His com- 
positions are of moderate difficulty, 
melodious, well-constructed, and prac- 
tically-written. Several of his trifles 
have become universally known ; but 
although his popular pieces were more 
admired than his more serious works, 
he continued to write Symphonies 
(Op. 60 and 150), and never ceased 
following up his studies. The following 
are some of his best-known works : — 
Op. 5, "Frisches GrQn"; Op. 6, Wellenspiel; 
Op. 7, Under the Window ; Op. 140, 
Husarenritt; Op. 116, Le Carillon; Op. 66, 
Butterflies; Op. 171, Forest Hermitage; 
Op. 113, Murmuring of the Waves. Sona- 
tines. Op. 290, 294, and 157 ; Sonatines for 
4 hands, Op. 136 ; 3 easy Trios for Pf , Vln., 
and V'cello, Op. 305; Concerto in D min.. 
Op. 260; Trio, Op. 154; Quartet, Op. 108; 
Quintet for Pf , Ob., CI., Hn., and Bssn., 
Op. 360; Sonata for Pf. and Hn., Op. 347. 

Stadler, Abbe Maximilian, b. Aug. 4, 

1748, Melk (Lower Austria) ; d. Nov. 8, 

1833, Vienna. Son of a baker. Was 

educated in the Jesuits' College, 

Vienna ; 1772, entered the Benedict 

Monastery in Melk ; 1786, became 

Abbot at Lilienfeld ; 1789, at Krems- 

miinster ; and then resided in Vienna, 

being an intimate friend of both 

Haydn and Mozart. His compositions 

were mostly Masses, Psalms, and 


Sonata (1799), 2 Sonatas and a Fugue, 6 

Sonatinas (1796), Fugues, and a Fugue on 

the name of Franz Schubert (" Too soon 

lost"). He also finished the Fugue in G 

min. for 4 hands, by W. A. Mozart. 

Stamaty, Caraille Marie, b. March 23, 
1811, Rome; d. April 19, 1870, Paris. 
1 83 1, pupil of Kalkbrenner (Pf.), 



Benoit and Reicha (Organ and Com- 
position). 1835, he gave, with unusual 
success, his first concert in Paris ; was 
chosen by Kalkbrenner as assistant, 
lint became so great a favourite with 
his pupils that he over-exerted himself, 
and, 1836, went for a short rest to 
Leipzig, where Mendelssohn took great 
interest in his playing and composi- 
tions. On his return to Paris he gave 
concerts with the singer Delsarte, and 
introduced the Parisians to the works 
of Bach, Beethoven, and Mozart. 
1846, he lost his mother and retired 
to Rome for a year. Returning to 
Paris, he worked incessantly until his 
death. Among his most celebrated 
pupils were Gottschalk and Saint- 
Saens. He was a most excellent 
teacher, and his merits were not only 
recognised by his colleagues, but also 
by the Government, which conferred 
on him (1862) the Legion d'honneur. 
His educational works are of decided 
Etudes progressives, Op. 37; 25 Etudes pour 
petites mains, Op. 38 ; Chant et mecanisme, 
20 Etudes, Op. 39; 24 Etudes de per- 
fectionnement, Op. 46 ; Chant et mecanisme, 
12 Etudes a 4 mains ; 12 Etudes pittoresques, 
Op. 21 ; 6 Etudes caracteiistiques sur 
Oberon de Weber, Op. 33 ; Le Rhythme des 
doigts a I'aide du metronome. Op. 36 ; Con- 
certo, Op. 2 ; Solo Sonatas, Op. 8 and 14 ; 
Trio, Op. 12, Variations, Op. 5 and 19. 

Stanford, Charles Villiers, b. Sept. 30, 
1852, Dublin. Pupil of A. O'Leary 
and Sir Robert Stewart ; matriculated 
at Queen's College, Cambridge, as 
choral scholar. 1873, succeeded Dr. 
Hopkins as Organist of Trinity 
College ; 1874, graduated there in 
classical honours ; was appointed 
Conductor of the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Musical Society ; 1874-76, he 
continued his studies of Composi- 
tion with Reinecke (Leipzig) and 
Kiel (BerUn) ; 1877, he received the 
degree of M.A. ; 1883, of Mus. Doc, 
hon. causd, from the University of 
Oxford; 1885, he succeeded Otto 
Goldschmidt as Conductor of the Bach 
Choir ; 1887, elected Prof, of Music at 
Cambridge University; 1883, Prof, of 
Composition at the Royal College of 
Music, London. 
Suite and Toccata, Op. 2 and 3 ; Sonata for 
Pf. and V'cello, Op. 9; Sonata with Vln., 
Op. 11; 3 Intermezzi with Vln., Op. 13; 
Trio in E flat, Op. 35 ; Quintet for Pf. and 
Strings, Op. 25 ; Sonata for Pf. and V'cello 
(No. 2), Op. 39; Characteristic Pieces, Op. 
42 (MS.); Concerto in G min. (MS.). 

Stark, Dr. Ludwig, b. June 19, 1831, 
Munich ; d. March 22, 1884, Stuttgart. 
Pupil of Ignaz and Franz Lachner. 

Resided for some time in Paris. 
1856, he founded, with Dr. Faisst, 
Lebert, Brachmann, and Speidel, the 
well-known Stuttgart Music School, 
where he taught harmony, score- 
reading, and history of music. 1861, 
was in Weimar, enjoying the advice of 
Liszt ; 1873, he travelled in Italy to 
continue his studies. His principal 
work was "The Great Method of. 
Pf. playing," which was translated 
into French and English. As to his 
editions (with phrasing, fingering, and 
terms of expression) of classical 
works, there exists a great and serious 
difference of opinion. 

*Stavenhagen, Bernhard, b. Nov. 24, 
1862, Greiz (Principality of Reuss). 
Pupil of Rudorff at the Hochschule 
and of Kiel at the Meisterschule 
(Berlin). Gained the " Mendelssohn " 
prize of the Hochschule. 1885, he 
went to Liszt (Weimar), whose favourite 
pupil he became, and with whom he 
remained until Liszt's death, 1886. 
He settled in Weimar, where he 
assembles, after Liszt's fashion, a con- 
siderable number of pupils. On his 
journeys through Austria, Hungary, 
France, Holland, England, &c., he 
gained most enthusiastic receptions 
and acclamations, due to his excellent 
performances, representing all the best 
qualities of his illustrious teacher and 
friend, Liszt. 1890, the Grand Duke of 
Saxe- Weimar named him Pianist to 
the Court, and, 1892, he conferred on 
him the "Knighthood of the White 
Falcon." Of his compositions, only 
about six short pieces were published. 
Steffan, Joseph Anton, b. March 14. 
1726, Kopidluo (Bohemia) ; d. (?) at 
Vienna. Pupil of Wagenseil (Vienna). 
He remained in Vienna, and was 
appointed teacher of the Clavecin to 
the Archduchess Marie Antoinette 
(who became the wife of the unfortu- 
nate Louis XVL of France). 
6 Divertimenti per il Cembalo, Op. i (1756) ; 
6 Sonate, Op. z; 6 Sonate, Op. 3; .40 
Preludi per diversi tuoni, 1762; a collection 
of German songs for the Clavecin (1778-81); 
25 Variations on a Bohemian air (1802). 

Steibelt, Daniel, b. 1765, Berlin ; d. 
Sept, 20, 1823, St. Petersburg. Son of 
a Clavecin-maker. Pupil of Kirnberger. 
Endowed with great talent, he created 
a sensation by his excellent, brilliant, 
and fascinating performances ; but was 
e\eryvvhere disliked for his dissipated 
and extravagant habits, which often 
bordered on dishonesty. 1789, he 
began his tours; 1790, appeared at 



Paris, where his publisher, Boyer, suc- 
ceeded in procuring him numbers of 
pupils ; 1808, was obliged to leave 
Paris to escape numerous creditors. 
He went to St. Petersburg and suc- 
ceeded Boieldieu as Conductor of the 
Imperial Opera. Most of his com- 
positions are now entirely forgotten, 
and it is not necessary to enumerate 
them all. 
29 Solo Sonatas and Sonatinas; 37 Sonatas 
with Vln. ; 4 Trios; 5 Concertos, of which 
No. 3, in E (Op. 35), contains the well-known 
"Storm" Rondo: 15 Rondeaux; 18 Fan- 
tasias ; 6 Bacchanales ; +50 Studies, Op. 78 ; 
12 Studies from his " Method," and many 
Variations. A Duo for 2 Pf., the Elegy on 
the Death of Prince Soltykoff, and a Rondo, 
" Le Berger et son troupeau," in B flat, 
enjoyed considerable popularity. 

Stein, Nanette, b. Jan. 2, 1760, Augs- 
burg ; d. Jan. 16, 1833, Vienna. Wife 
of Johann Andreas Streicher, whom 
she married {1793). Highly talented 
performer, about whom W. A. Mozart 
wrote a very amusing letter (Augsburg, 
Oct. 23, 1777). Until her marriage she 
assisted her father, Georg Andreas 
Stein (1728-92), who was a pupil of 
Silbermann, in the manufacture of 
clavecins. After 1793 she settled in 
Vienna, and with her husband estab- 
lished the firm "Nanette Streicher 
geb. Stein." Being an excellent 
pianist, who, before performing in 
public, tuned the Pf. herself, and 
a very kind and generous woman, her 
house became the meeting-place of all 
the most celebrated composers and 
performers. She reckoned Beethoven 
amongst her truest and most faithful 
friends, and he was always deeply 
grateful for the care she took of his 
(sometimes unsettled) household. 

Steinkiihler, Emil, b. May 12, 1824, 
Diisseldorf; d. Nov. 21, 1872, Ghent. 
Pupil of his father, who taught him 
the Vln. and Pf . He profited much by 
Mendelssohn's advice when in Diissel- 
dorf. 1840, he went to Frankfort o/M. 
and became a pupil of Aloys Schmitt. 
1845, he visited Paris and settled after- 
wards in Lille, where he remained 
until the French war began (1870). 
Trio, Op. 35 ; Duos for Pf. and V'cello, Op. 12 
and 50; fiS Etudes mdodiques, Op. 58. 

"Stephens, Charles Edward, b. March 18, 
1821, London; d. there July 19, 1892. 
Pupil of J. M. Rost and Cipriani Potter 
(Pf.), of Rost, Smith, and Blagrove 
(Vln.), and J. A. Hamilton (Harmony 
and Composition) . 1 850, an Associate, 
and, 1857, a Member of the Philhar- 
monic Society ; 1865, Fellow of the 
College of Organists ; 1870, Hon. 

Member of the R.A.M. ; 1874, original 
member of the Musical Association ; 
and 1880-92, Hon. Treasurer of the 
Philharmonic Society. 
Quartet with Strings, Op. 2 ; Trio, Op. i ; Duo 

concertant for 2 Pfs., Op. 4; Sonata, Op. 8; 

Duo brillant for 4 hands. Op. 19, and several 

shorter pieces. 

Sterkel, Abbe Johann Franz Xaver, b. 
Dec. 3, 1750, Wiirzburg ; d. there 
Oct. 21, 1817. Pupil of Kette and 
VVeissmandel. He made such rapid 
progress that, in spite of his vocation 
as a priest, the Palatine sent him to 
Italy, where his brilliant performances 
were cordially received. 1778, before 
his journey to Italy, he was appointed 
Clavecinist and Chaplain to the 
Palatine of Mayence, who was 
residing at Aschaflfenburg. 1805, 
Capellmeister at Ratisbon (Regens- 
burg), but, owing to political events, 
he returned (1813) to Wiirzburg, 
where he died. In a letter, dated 
Nov. 26, 1777, Mozart speaks rather 
unfavourably about Sterkel's playing : 
"... came Sterkel. He played 
five Sonatas with Vln., but so fast that 
one could not understand it ; it was 
neither distinct nor in time." 
6 Concertos; about 30 Trios; many Duets; 
7 Solo Sonatas shorter pieces, including 
the once popular "Rondo comique"; and 
Sonatas for 4 hands. 

•Sternberg, Constantin (Ivanovitch 
Edler von), b. July 9, 1852, St. Peters- 
burg. Pupil of Moscheles and Kullak 
(Pf.), Reinecke and Wiierst (Com- 
position). 1871, Hof- Capellmeister of 
the Strelitz Opera; 1876, Court Pianist 
(Strelitz). Travelled through the 
whole of Europe, and settled finally 
in Philadelphia (U.S.). 

Op. 9, Hochzeits-Polonaise ; Op. 22, Al 
Fresco, 10 pieces ; Op. 24, 3 pieces ; Op. 38, 
Concert-Polonaise ; Op. 48, Italian Scenes 
(4); Op. 50, 3 pieces (No. 2,Historiette; No. 
3, Staccatella) ; Op. 57, Chasseresse ; Op. 58, 
Passepied; Trios, &c. 

Stiehl, Heinrich Franz Daniel, b. Aug. 
5, 1829, Liibeck ; d. May i, 1886, 
Reval. Pupil of Lobe at the Leipzig 
Conserv. 1853-56, Organist of St. 
Peter's Church and Conductor of the 
Choral Society of St. Petersburg. 
For artistic purposes, travelled after- 
wards in Germany, Italy, and England, 
and (1874-78) was Conductor of the 
St. Cecilia Society of Belfast ; 1878-80, 
he resided at Hastings as a teacher, 
but afterwards accepted the post of 
Organist of St. Olai and the direction 
of the Choral Society in Reval. He 
was an excellent musician, brilliant 
performer, and talented composer. 



Trios (3); Sonata with V'cello; several 
Sonatas with Vln. ; 5 Fantasiestiicke, Op. 
58; "In lonely hours" (4 pieces), Op. 75; 
4 Musical Portraits, Op. 166, &c. 

♦Stojowski, Sigismond, b. May 2, 1870, 
Strelce (Poland^. Pupil of L. 
Zelenski (Cracow). 1887, he went to 
Paris ; completed his education at the 
Sorbonne, and continued his musical 
studies at the Conserv., under Diemer 
(Pf.) and Leo Delibes (Composition). 
Since then he has studied with I. 
Paderewski. 1889, he received the 
first prize both for playing and com- 
position ; 1891, he gave an orchestral 
concert in Paris, at which he introduced 
a Concerto of his own composition. 
His appearance in London was highly 
successful, and the musical public 
follows his career with great attention. 
His published pieces are very graceful, 
elegant, and effective. 

Streabbog (see Gobbaerts). 

Streicher, Johann Andreas, b. Dec. 13, 
1761, Stuttgart ; d. May 25, 1833, 
Vienna. He was a fellow student of 
Schiller at the " Carlsschule " and 
assisted him in his flight from that 
institution. 1793, he married Nanette 
Stein and established with her a Pf. 
manufactory at Vienna He was a 
good and well-instructed musician, a 
devoted friend of Beethoven, and the 
teacher of Mozart's son and many other 
pianists — in short, one of the most 
influential men in the Austrian capital. 

Strelezki, Anton (nom de plume of an 
English composer), b. Dec. 5, 1859, 
Croydon. 1876, pupil at the Leipzig 
Conserv., later of Madame Schumann. 

The following are the most popular of 
his pieces : 
Valsette ; Menuet 4 I'antique (E flat) ; Sere- 
nade espagnole; Jagdstiick; Tarantelle (D 
min.); Valse-Souvenir. 
Szekely, Imre (Emeric), b. May 8, 1823, 
Malyfolva (Hungary). Was educated 
at Buda-Pesth ; travelled in 1846, and 
gave concerts in Paris and London. 
1852, established himself as a success- 
ful teacher and popular performer in 
Compositions de Salon, Op. 20-27 ; 30 Hun- 
garian Fantasias on National Airs (" Mag- 
yar Abrand's). 
*Szumowska, Antoinette, b. Feb. 22, 
1868, Lublin (Poland), the daughter of 
a Prof, of the Lublin College, who was 
banished to Siberia. After his return 
from exile, he settled at Warsaw, 
where his daughter worked at her 
musical studies under Strobel and 
Michalowski. Later she went to 
Paris and studied with Paderewski. 
Her performances in London, the 
provinces, and Paris met with great 
Szymanowska, Marie [nee Wolowska), 
b. 1790, Poland; d. 1831, St. Peters- 
burg. Pupil of John Field at Moscow. 
1815-30, she resided at Warsaw, where 
she appeared with eminent success. 
With the same success she played at 
Leipzig, Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg, and 
St. Petersburg, where she was appointed 
Pianist to the Court, and was much 
respected as a teacher. Schumann 
speaks very approvingly of her 
" Studies" ; and her 24 Mazurkas, as 
well as the Nocturne, " Le Murmure," 
all of which testify to considerable 


Talexy, Adrien, b. 1820, Paris ; d. there 
Feb., 1881. He composed a great 
number of light and popular pieces. 
20 Etudes expressives, Op. 80; and a Mdthode 
elementaire et progressive de Piano. 

Tappert, Wilhelm, b. Feb. 19, 1830, 
Ober-Thomaswaldau near Bunzlau 
(Silesia). 1856, pupil of Kullak and 
Dehn (Berlin). After finishing his 
studies, he lived until 1866 at Glogau, 
but then settled permanently at Berlin 
as a teacher of Pf. and Theory, and 
as a reporter to the Kleines Journal 
and the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung. 
jo Studies for the left hand, and AlLum-leaves, 
Op. II. 

Taubert, Ernst Hduard, b. Sept. 25, 1838, 
Regenwalde (Pomerania). Studied 
Theology and Philology, but then 
resolved to devote himself to music. 
Pupil of Dietrich (Bonn) and Kiel 
(Berlin). At present Prof, at the 
Stern Conserv. of Berlin, and reporter 
to the Post Journal. He is a dis- 
tinguished composer, and the following 
works deserve particular mention : 
Op. 8, Suite (5 pieces) for 4 hands; Op. 9,4 
easy pieces for 4 hands ; Op. 10, Novelletten ; 
Op. 13, Humoreske; Op. 27, Concert- 
WaUer ; Op. 28, 6 Arabesques; Op. 30, 
Polonaise ; and Op. 33, Waltzes for 4 hands, 
Taubert, Wilhelm (Carl Gottfried), b. 
March 23, 181 1, Berlin ; d. there Jan. 7, 


1891. At first a pupil of Neithardt, 
later (with Mendelssohn) of Ludwig 
Berger (Pf). Studied composition 
under Bernhard Klein. Worked for 
several years as a teacher ; 1831, 
he became Conductor of the Court 
Concerts ; 1842, Hof-Capellmeister of 
the Royal Opera, which appointment 
he held (from 1869 as first Hof-Capell- 
meister) until 1870. From 1875 till a 
few years before his death he was 
Chairman of the musical section of 
the Royal Academy of Arts. As a 
pianist he was unrivalled in his per- 
formances of older music, and his 
style was much admired for exquisite 
refinement, fine graduations of tone, 
irreproachable paxt-playing, absolute 
correctness, clearness, and tender ex- 
pression. All these qualities are 
represented in his Pf. works. 
Quartet in E flat, Op. 19; Trio in F, Op. 32; 
Duets (with Vln.), Op. i and 15; Sonatas, 
Op. 4, 20, 21 (2), and 35 ; Sonatinas, Op. 44 ; 
+ 6 Scherzi, Op. 8; 6 Impromptus, Op. 14; 
■j-An die Geliebte (8) ; Concerto, Op. 18 ; 
Camera obscura ; ti2 Etudes de Concert, 
Op. 40; -fLa Campanella, Op. 41a; Grace et 
Bravour, Op. 41b; +La Nayade, Op. 49; 
Silvana, Op. 60; fjugendparadies. Op. 84. 

Tausch, Julius, b. April 15, 1827, Dessau, 
where he was a pupil of Fr. Schneider. 
1844-46, attended the Leipzig Conserv. ; 
1853, acted temporarily instead of 
Schumann as Conductor of the musical 
societies of Diisseldorf, and, 1855, 
succeeded him. He is an eminent 
pianist and a clever composer. 
Fantasiestiicke, Sonata with Vln., &c. 

Tausig, Carl (son of Aloys T., who died 
1885), b. Nov. 4, 1841, Warsaw ; d. 
July 17, 1871, Leipzig. Pupil of his 
father (who was a pupil of Thalberg), 
and later of Liszt. His technical 
execution was stupendous, and he 
overcame, with the greatest ease, the 
most difficult and complicated in- 
tricacies ; indeed, his technique was 
not only irreproachable, but infallible. 
He owed his marvellous dexterity 
entirely to his systematic and per- 
severing study of technical figures of 
all kinds, which resulted in an inde- 
pendence of the fingers never before 
attained. These remarkable finger- 
exercises have been published by his 
friend Ehrlich, and are used by every 
pianist and in every music school. 
Tausig edited a selection from de- 
menti's" Gradus ad Parnassum," and 
added to the various studies a mode 
of fingering which appears at times 
almost tantalising, but tends to im- 
prove the strength and flexibility of 
the hands. Besides a few original 

compositions (Etudes de Concert, &c.), 
he transcribed, with more or less 
success — 
5 Sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti, Schubert's 
Military March, Hungarian Gipsy Melodies, 
Weber's Invitation to the Dance, Wagner's 
" Walkiirenritt," fSiegmund's Liebeslied, 
from the " Walkiire "; Bach's Organ Toccata 
and Fugue in D min., some of Strauss's 
Valses, as " Nouveaux Soirees de Vienne " ; 
and a Fantasia on themes of " Halka," by 
the Polish composer Moniuszko (1819-1S72). 
•Taylor, Franklin, b. Feb. 5, 1843, 
Birmingham. Pupil of the late C. E. 
Flavell (who was a pupil of Alo)s 
Schmitt) and of Thos. Bedsmore, late 
Organist of Lichfield Cathedral. 1859, 
went to Leipzig, entered the Conserv., 
and studied with Plaidy and Moscheles 
(Pf.t, E. F. Richter and Hauptmann 
(Theory). After leaving Leipzig he 
spent a winter in Paris. He appeared 
for the first time in London (Crystal 
Palace) in 1865. 1876, appointed Pf. 
Prof, at the National Training School, 
and, 1883, at the Royal College of 
Music (also a Member of the Board) . 
From 1891-94, one of the Directors of 
the Philharmonic Society ; also Member 
of the Associated Board of the R.A.M. 
and Royal College of Music for Local 
Examinations (established 1889). He 
translated three of Richter's theoretical 
works, wrote a Primer of Pf. playing 
(translated into German), a Pf. tutor for 
beginners, and many articles on tech- 
nical matters in Grove's " Dictionary 
of Music." Since 1883 he has given 
up playing in public. 
Tedesco, Ignaz (Amadeus), b. 1817, 
Prague ; d. Nov. 13, 1882, Odessa. 
Pupil of his father and Triebensee, 
later of W. Tomaschek, who also 
instructed him in Composition. In 
Vienna, and on his travels through 
Germany and Russia, he met with great 
success. For several years he resided 
at Odessa, where he had a great 
number of pupils. Afterwards went 
to Hamburg and Oldenburg (where he 
was named Pianist to the Court) and 
visited England. His playing was 
exceedingly elegant and brilliant, 
although his execution was not nearly 
so great and dazzling as that at pre- 
sent expected from pianists. His com- 
positions are light and popular, and 
his transcriptions of celebrated airs 
and classical movements are conscien- 
tiously written. 
Telemann, Georg Philipp (contemporary 
and great friend of Seb. Bach), one of 
the most prolific composers that ever 
existed, b. March 14, 1681, Magde- 
burg ; d. June 25, 1767, Hamburg. His 


father, a clergyman, superintended his 
first studies. 1700, he attended the 
University of Leipzig; 1704, appointed 
Organist of the Neukirche. Before 
this he had had to write every fort- 
night a new work for the Thomas 
Church, where Kuhnau was Cantor. 
He founded the historically interesting 
Collegium Musicum. 1708, he accepted 
an appointment at Eisenach; 1712, 
named Music Director of St. Catha- 
rine's Church, Frankfort o/M. ; and 
1 72 1, Musical Director of the town of 
Hamburg, where he remained until 
his death. 
Fantaisies pour le Clavecin, 3 douzaines ; 

6 Sonatinas, 1718 ; 20 short Fugues, 1731 ; 

6 Concertos and 6 Suites for Clavecin, Fl., 

V 'cello concertante; 6 Overtures, French, 

Polish, and Italian. 

Tellefsen, Thomas Dyke Acland, b. 
Nov. 26, 1823, Drontheim (Norway) ; 
d. Oct., 1874, Paris. Although he 
showed decided musical talent, his 
parents wished him to become a clergy- 
man, and he studied for this calling 
until his nineteenth year, when the 
desire to devote himself entirely to 
music (particularly the Pf.) became so 
strong that he went to Paris to take 
lessons from Chopin, to whom he 
proved a most devoted friend. After 
the outbreak of the French war (1870), 
he resided for some time in London. 
He was an excellent performer, who 
combined elegance and gracefulness 
with poetic expression. In his com- 
positions the national element is 
everywhere apparent, but never domi- 
nates over the forms and dogmas of 
the art. He was a Knight of the 
" Seraphine " Order of Norway. 
2 Concertos, Trio, Sonata for Pf. and Vln., 
Sonata with V'cello, Duets for Pf. and 
Vln., and a considerable number of 
Nocturnes, Mazourkas, Valses, &c. 

Ten Brink, Jules (or Brink, Jules ten), 
b. Nov., 1838, Amsterdam. Pupil of 
Heinze, later of A. Dupont (Brussels) 
and E. F. Richter (Leipzig). 1860-68, 
Music Conductor at Lyons, but settled 
(1868) in Paris, where several of his 
compositions were favourably received. 
Op. 8, six pieces a 4 mains. 

Thalberg, Sigismund (son of Prince 
Joseph Dietrichstein and the Baroness 
Wetzlar), b. Jan. 7, 1812, Geneva; d. 
April 27, 1871, Naples. Pupil of 
Sechter for Composition and of Mittag, 
first Bssn. player of the Imperial 
Opera at Vienna, for Pf. He never 
was a pupil of Hummel, as asserted 
by some of his biographers. In his 

fifteenth year he was already a very 
clever performer, and created a great 
sensation in private circles. 1830, he 
undertook his first journey to Germany, 
where he quickly made a lasting repu- 
tation ; 1835, 1^6 went for the first time 
to Paris, and carried everything before 
him ; 1836, he competed with Liszt, 
but as their style was an entirely 
different one, it was impossible to 
declare who was the greater performer. 
On the one hand, Liszt, genial, poetic, 
impetuous, and grasping everything 
with an iron hand; on the other, 
Thalberg, cool, collected, aristocratic, 
never losing sight of his principal 
object — to create an effect — it was not 
possible to compare them. 1836-55, 
he travelled through the whole of 
Europe, everywhere received with 
enthusiastic admiration ; 1855, he went 
to Brazil ; 1856, to N. America ; 1858, 
he retired for some years to Naples, 
where he took great interest in 
cultivating wines; 1862, he went again 
to Paris and London ; and, 1863, for a 
second time to Brazil. He was pianist 
to the Emperor of Austria and the 
King of Saxony, and decorated by 
most of the European Sovereigns 
and the Emperor of Brazil. The chief 
qualities of his playing were absolute 
correctness, clearness, and smoothness, 
faultless phrasing, polished execution, 
and most admirable graduations of 
tone. His careful use of the pedal was 
a study for every pianist, and his touch, 
from the softest to the loudest, was, 
without exception, full and round. 
But his style lacked warmth and 
spontaneity of feeling, and his posture 
and manner before the instrument 
were so quiet and motionless that the 
listener, although experiencing a feeling 
of comfort and reliance, could never be 
stirred up to a state of frenzy, as was 
often the case when listening to Liszt's 
playing. With regard to his innova- 
tion of dividing the melody in the 
middle of the Pf. between the two 
hands, so as to give the full bass and 
rich accompaniment to the left, whilst 
the right hand surrounds the melody 
with runs, broken chords, figures in 
octaves— it has to be observed that this 
decidedly striking method had already 
been used by Eli Parish-Alvars, a 
famous harpist, and was imitated not 
only by a number of pianists, but also 
by such a composer as Mendelssohn, 
who, in his second Concerto, Op. 40 
(first movement), employs it with 
excellent effect. 


Op. 5, Concerto in F min ; +Op. 15, Caprice 
in E min. ; Op. 19, Caprice in E flat ; 
Op. 16, 2 Nocturnes ; fOp. 21, 3 Nocturnes ; 
fOp. 26, 12 Studies; Op. 28, Nocturne in E ; 
Op. 31, Scherzo; fOp. 32, Andante; Op. 35, 
Nocturne (F sharp) • Op. 36, iLa Cadence, 
fStudy in E flat ; fOp. 38, Romance et 
Etude in A; +Op. 41, 3 Romances; fOp- 45i 
ThSme original et Etude in A min. ; Op. 56, 
Sonata in C min.; tOp. 60, Barcarolle; 
. fOp. 64, Les Capricieuses, Valses ; Op. 65, 
Tarantelle. Operatic Fantasias : fOp. 20, 
Huguenots; tOp-33i Moise ; Op. 40, Donna 
del Lago; Op. 51, Semiramide ; Op 52, 
Muette de Portici ; tOp- 66, L'Elisir 
d'amore ; Op. 67, Don Pasquale. 

Them, Willi, b. June 22, 1847, Ofen, \ 
Thern, Louis, b. Dec. 18, 1848, Pesth, ) 
sons of Carl T. (1817-86). Received 
their first instruction from their father, 
but studied (1864-65) with Moscheles 
and Reinecke in Leipzig. Both are 
excellent pianists and musicians, who 
won particular distinction by their 
wonderful ensemble playing, the even- 
ness and exactitude of which has never 
before been attained. They reside 
and are popular as teachers in Vienna. 

Thorn 6, Francois Lucien Joseph 
(Francis), b. Oct. 18, 1850, Port Louis, 
Mauritius. Entered (1866) the Paris 
Conserv. and studied with Marmontel 
(Pf.) and Duprato (Harmony). His 
elegant and graceful compositions have 
become very popular. 

Simple aveu. Op. 25 ; Menuet dans le style 
ancien. Op. 68 ; Sous la feuillee. Op. 29 ; 
Papillons bleus, Op. 59 ; Coquetterie, 
Illusion, Op. 60 ; 3 Valses, Op. 36 ; Agitato, 
Op. 50; Les Lutins, Op. 69. 

Thumer, Theodor, b. Dec. 13, 1833, 
Pfaflfersheim, Upper Rhine; d. May 20, 
1893, Marseilles. 1846, pupil at the 
Paris Conserv., under Zimmermann 
and Alkan (Pf.) and Bazin (Composi- 
tion). 1849, gained the first prize; 
1850, he established himself at Toulon ; 
1864-74, at Marseilles as Prof, of the 
Conserv. His Trio- Soirees were highly 
successful — indeed, he was an influen- 
tial agent in the interest of classical 
6 Romances sans paroles. Barcarolle, fTaran- 
telle, fSarah la baigneuse, 2 Valses dans le 
style de Chopin, and Etude-Toccata. 

Tietz, Hermann, b. March 8, 1844, 
District Driesen (Frankfort o/Oder). 
1859-63, he studied chemistry, but 
then resolved to make music the aim 
of his life ; 1865, pupil of KuUak 
(Berlin), who appointed him (1866) 
teacher of the junior classes of his 
Academy ; 1868, he went to Gotha, 
founded a Musical Society and (1880) 
the Conserv. Was named (1869) 
Pianist to the Court and (1888) Prof. 

Timanof, Vera, b. Feb. 18, 1855, Ufa 
(Russia^; Pupil of Ludwig Nowitzky. 
Played in her ninth year in public. 
1866, was, for a short time, a pupil of 
Rubinstein (St. Petersburg); afterwards, 
for two and a half years, of Tausig 
(Berlin). Returned to St. Petersburg; 
resided (1871) in Prague ; 1872, at 
Vienna; and went almost every year 
to Weimar, in order to profit by 
Liszt's advice. She is one of the 
foremost lady pianists of the present 
Tinel, Edgar, b. March 27, 1854, Sinay 
(Belgium). Pupil at the Brussels 
Conserv., where he was instructed by 
Brassin (Pf.], Kufferath and Gevaert 
(Theory and Composition). He pub- 
lished several pieces at Brussels, but 
his fame rests principally on his 
sacred works. 
Tinto, Michele, b. Feb. 10, 1822, Aversa 
(Caserta). 1831, pupil at the Conserv. 
of Naples, where Zingarelli, Lanza, 
and Nacciarone were his teachers. 
His pieces only appeared in Italy. 
Tischer, Johann Nicolaus, b. 1707, 
Bohlen (Schwarzburg) ; d. 1766, 
Schmalkalden. Pupil of the organist, 
Rauche; later of Graf. 1 731, Organist 
of the principal church at Schmal- 
kalden. The titles of his several 
works are highly amusing : 
The pleased ear and the refreshed intellect, 
in six elegant Partitas for the ladies' 
instruction; i, 2, and 3. Divertissement 
musical consistant en 3 Suites. Agreeable 
Clavecin fruits, consisting of 6 short 
Suites, for the service of beginners, but 
more especially of children. Musical 
twins, in 2 concerts of the same key 
(major and minor) for the Clavecin; first 
fruit in C and C min., second fruit in D 
and D min., &c., up to A and A min. ; last 
and easy concert as a finale of the musical 
twins ; Part No. 7. A lamenting Kyrie and 
rejoicing Hallelujah, or harmonious joy for 
the heart, represented in 2 Concertos in C 
and C min., in which the sentiment of 
several added passages in writing is a little 
expressed by pleasant melodies and well- 
applied modulations (Niirnberg). 

Tofano, Gustave, b. Dec. 22, 1844, 
Naples. Pupil of Castrucci (Pisa), 
Domenico Caldi (Turin), and Stefano 
Golinelli (Bologna). 1872, appointed 
Prof, at the Liceo (Bologna). He is 
considered one of the foremost Italian 
pianists of the present time. 

Tomaschek, Wenzel, b. April 17, 1774, 
Skutsch (Bohemia) ; d. April 3, 1850, 
Prague. 1787, he entered and was 
educated in the Monastery of Iglau, 
but had generally to pursue his musical 
studies by himself, with the aid of 
the works of Marpurg, Kirnberger, 



Mattheson, &c. Later he attended 

the Prague University as a student of 

the law, but found a generous patron 

in the person of his pupil, Count Georg 

Bucquoy, who, by providing sufficient 

means, enabled him to devote himself 

entirely to music. He was a successful 

teacher, and among his pupils were 

Kittl, A. Dreyschock, J. Schulhoff, 

I. Tedesco, W. Kuhe, S. Goldschmidt, 

Worzischek, Wiirfel, and others. His 

compositions somewhat crude and 

unsympathetic, are but Uttle known, 

but offer good material for teaching. 

Sonatas, Op. 14, 15, 21, 48; Sonata in B, 

without opus number ; Eclogues (6), Op. 35 ; 

(6), Op. 47; (6), Op. 51; (6), Op. 63; (6), 

Op. 66; and (6), Op. 83; Rhapsodies (6), 

Op. 40 ; (6), Op. ^1 ; 3 Ditirambi, Op. 65 ; 

Alleg^i capricciosi di Bravura (3), Op. 52; 

and (3), Op. 84. 

♦Tours, Berthold, b. Dec. 17, 1838, 
Rotterdam. Pupil of Verhulst (Amster- 
dam), Fetis (Brussels), Julius Rietz 
and E. F. Richter (Leipzig). Settled, 
about 1863, in London. Composer of 
small (exceedingly well-written) pieces, 
among which the "Juvenile Album" 
deserves particular mention. He 
arranged, in a very efficient manner, 
Gounod's sacred works, " The Redemp- 
tion " and " Mors et Vita," and is the 
careful editor of various albums. 

Tschaikowsky, Peter Iljitsch, b. Dec. 
25, 1840, Wotkinsk (Government 
Wiatka, Russia) ; d. Nov. 6, 1893, St. 
Petersburg. He studied law and 
entered the service of the Government, 
but soon after the foundation of the 
St. Petersburg Conserv. by A. Rubin- 
stein he became a pupil, and, 1866-77, 
Prof, of Composition. He resided in 
Russia, Paris, Italy, and Switzerland. 
He was considered one of the most 
typical composers of Russia, and some 
of his works have attracted great 
attention. June 13, 1893, the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge conferred on him 
the hon. degree of Mus. Doc. 

Op. 23, Concerto, No. i, in B flatmin. ; Op. 4^, 
Concerto, No. 2 ; Op. 56, Fantasia with 
Orchestra; Op. 50, Trio; Op. 2, ^Souvenir 
de Hapsal (3 pieces) ; Op. 5, Romance ; Op. 
9, 3 Morceaux ; Op. 10, 2 Morceaux ; Op. 19, 
6 Morceaux ; Op. 37, Sonata ; Op. 37a, The 
Seasons (12 characteristic pieces) ; Op. 39, 
Kinder-Album (24 pieces); Op. 40, +12 Mor- 
ceaux ; Op. 51, 6 Morceaux ; Op. 72, i8 
Morceaux. All other pieces are arrange- 
ments of orchestral or chamber music. 
Tiirck (Tiirk), Daniel Gottlieb, b. Aug. 
10, 1756 (1751 ? ), Claussnitz, near 
Chemnitz (Saxony) ; d. Aug. 26, 1813, 
Halle. At first a pupil of his father, 
later of Homilius (Dresden) ; 1772, of 
Adam Hiller (Leipzig), who became 
his warm and faithful friend. 1776, 
Hiller procured him the appointment 
of organist and teacher at the Protestant 
College of Halle ; 1779, he received 
another appointment as organist in 
Halle; 1808, the University made him 
Prof, and conferred on him the degree 
of Doc. Phil., kon. causd. His literary 
works are very important, and his 
works for Clavecin proved very useful. 
Method for teachers and learners (1789); 60 
Exercises (Handstiicke) for beginners; 30 
Sonatas in 5 collections (1789, 1793, 1798); 
120 easy pieces for 4 hands (4 books). 
Tyson-Wolff, Dr. Gustav, b. April 12, 
1840, Berlin. Pupil of A. Loschhorn 
(Pf.) ; 1862, pupil at the Leipzig Con- 
serv., where Plaidy, Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann, Richter, and Reinecke were his 
teachers. From 1866 he resided for 
several years in Bradford (Yorkshire), 
where he established a music school and 
arranged concerts for chamber music. 
Received from the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury the diploma of Mus. Doc, 
hon. causd. 1884, he returned to 
Germany, and has resided since i886 
in Berlin as a teacher of Composition, 
Theory, and Pf. The following com- 
positions deserve notice : 
Op. 17, Trio; Op. 19, 32 Etudes; Op. 26, 36 
Morceaux m^lodiques ; Op. 11, 2 Sonatinas; 
Op. 12, 2 Sonatinas ; Op. 4, 2 Morceaux 
caract^ristiques a 4 mains ; Op. 5, Barcarolle ; 
Op. 25, " Fiir kleine Leute " ; Op. 27, " In 
the Woods." 




Uhl, Edmund, b. Oct. 25, 1853, Prague. 
Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., where 
Richter, Reinecke, Jadassohn, and 
Wenzel were his teachers. Received, 
1878, the " Helbig" prize. At present 
he resides in Wiesbaden and is Prof, 
at the Freudenberg Music School. 
Trios, Sonata for Pf. and V'cello, Variations, 
and several smaller pieces. 

Ulrich, Hugo, b. Nov. 26, 1827, Oppeln 
(Silesia) ; d. May 23, 1872, Berlin. He 
was a richly-gifted artist, a thorough 
musician, and gave promise of be- 
coming a distinguished composer. 
Pupil of Mosewius (Breslau) and 
(1846) of Dehn (Berlin). 1859-63, Prof, 
of Composition at the Stern Academy 
(Berlin). Being very poor he had to 
earn his livelihood by working as a 
corrector and arranger for the pub- 
lishers. Only a Trio of his own com- 

position was published, but his name 
will be gratefully remembered for his 
most excellent arrangements of Beet- 
hoven's Symphonies (for 4 hands), 
works of Schubert, &c. 
Urbach, Carl Friedrich, b. Sept. 26, 1833, 
Burg (Magdeburg). He made himself 
favourably known by a Method of Pf. 
playing (which received a "prize") 
and a second practical Pf. school. 
Since 1857 he has been a teacher at 
Egeln (Province Magdeburg). 
Sonatinas, Studies, and various short pieces. 
*Urspruch. Anton, b. Feb. 17, 1850, 
Frankfort o/M. Pupil of Wallenstein 
(Pf.) and Ignaz Lachner (Composition), 
later of Liszt and J. Raff. 
Quintet ; Sonata for Pf. and Vln. ; Sonata 

for Pf. and V'cello; 5 Fantasiestiicke, Op. 

2 ; Sonata for 4 hands ; Concerto ; Trio ; 

Variations and Fugue on a theme of Seb. 

Bach, for 2 Pf., &c. 


Van den Gheyn, Matthias, b. April 7, 
1721, Tirlemont (Belgium) ; d. June 22, 
1785, Lou vain. Probably a pupil of 
the Abbe Raick (Louvain). 1741, he 
received the appointment of Organist 
of St. Peter's (Louvain). He was the 
foremost Carilloneur of his time, and 
every Sunday, for forty years, charmed 
the people of the town, who used to 
crowd into the adjacent streets in 
order to admire his excellent per- 
formances. His works for Clavecin 
were published by Xavier van Elewyck, 
who also wrote his biography. 
12 petites Senates, 6 Divertissements; and a 
collection of Preludes, Rondos, and Fugues, 
&c., 2 vols. (Schott and Co., Brussels). 

Van der Does, Charles, b. March 6, 
1817, Amsterdam ; d. Jan. 30, 1878, 
The Hague. At first instructed in his 
native town ; afterwards a pupil of 
Rummel (Wiesbaden). On his return 
to Holland, the King named him 
Pianist to the Court, and the Dowager 
Queen conferred on him the Orders of 
the Crown of Oak and the Lion of the 
Netherlands. He was Prof, at the 
Royal School (Hague) and Inspector 
of the Dutch Music Schools. According 
to various reports, he was an excellent 

Van Elewyck, Chevalier Xavier Victor, 
b. April 24, 1825, Ixelles-les-Bruxelles ; 
d. April 28, 1880, Louvain. Pupil of 
Boutmy (Pf.) and Bosselet (Harmony). 
He attended the Louvain University, 
became Secretary and finally President 
of the Louvain Music Academy, 
founded the Society of St. Cecilia, 
and took the greatest interest in 
everything which could promote the 
progress of music in Belgium. His 
chief merit consists in the publication 
of Van den Gheyn's works, which 
were, up to the time of Elewyck's 
researches, entirely unknown. The 
Kings of Belgium and Holland showed 
their appreciation by conferring on 
him high classes of their Orders. He 
was also a Member of the St. Cecilia 
Society (Rome) and of many other 
learned academies. 

Verger, Virginie du (nee Morel), b. 
1799, Metz ; d. 1870, at the Chateau du 
Verger, her husband's property — a 
Lieut. -Colonel of the Staff — whom she 
married in 1829. 1814, she became a 
pupil at the Paris Conserv., was patro- 
nised by Mehul, and received important 
and useful advice from dementi ; for 
some time she was also a pupil of 



Hummel. The Duchesse de Berry 
named her " Pianiste." Other details 
are wanting. 
Vienot, Edouard, b. 1825, Paris (?). 
Composed a great number of popular 
light pieces of considerable brilliancy. 
The only information to be got from 
his principal publisher is that he was 
an officer in the Cuirassiers, and dated 
his letters from different garrison 
towns, but that lately the correspond- 
ence has entirely ceased. 
Etudes, Galop, Carillon, Berceuse, Gel^es 
blanches, Barcarolle, Op. 23 ; Mazurka 
russe, and Galop des Guides. 
Vierling, Georg, b. Sept. 5, 1820, 
Frankenthal (Palatinate). Pupil of 
Neeb (Frankfort o/M.) and Rinck 
(Darmstadt). 1842 - 45, he studied 
Composition with A. B. Marx (Berlin) ; 
1847, Organist at Frankfort o/Oder ; 
1852-53, Conductor of the Choral 
Societies (Mayence on the Rhine); 
settled, 1853, at Berlin, where he re- 
ceived (1859) the title of " Konigl. 
Musik-Director." He is an expe- 
rienced composer, whose works have 
met with considerable success. 
Capriccio with Orchestra, Trio, Fantasie- 
stiicke for Pf. and V'cello ; Fantasia for Pf. 
and VIn., Sonata, Op. 44 ; Valse Caprice, 
Op. 43; 3 Impromptus, Op. 53, &c. 
Vilbac (Alphonse Charles), Renaud de, 
b. June 3, 1829, Montpellier ; d. March 
19, 1884, Paris. Pupil at the Paris 
Con ser v., where Lemoine, Halevy, and 
Benoit were his teachers. 1844, he 
received the Grand Prix de Rome and 
went to Italy ; 1856, Organist of St. 
Eugene (Paris). Excellent performer 
and a popular composer of easy, plea- 
sant, melodious, and practically written 
3 Morceaux de Salon, Op. 23 (tNo. 3, Corri- 
colo); 3 Caprices, Op. 25 (tNo. 2, Delia 
Notte; +No. 3, La 2iza); Les Amazones, 
Galop ; Duos a 4 mains on Donna del Lago, 
Op. ig; tElisir d'amore. Op. 24. The col- 
lection : Beaut^s des Operas (Rossini, 
Weber, Donizetti, Gounod, Wagner, 
HaltSvy); Method of Pf. playing. 
Villoing, Ale.xander, b. (information 
wanting), St. Petersburg; d. there 
Sept., 1S78. His fame rests on being the 
sole teacher of Anton and Nicolaus 
Rubinstein, and on having written the 
excellent book "I'Ecole Pratique du 
l^iano," in which the system on which 
he instructed the famous brothers is 
explained. He is the composer of a 
Concerto and of some shorter pieces. 
Viole, Rudolph, b. May 10, 1815, Schoch- 
witz (Mansfeld) ; d. Dec. 7, 1867, Berlin, 
where he resided. A careful and 
industrious teacher, but little known, 
until he became a pupil of Liszt, who 

warmly recommended his compositions. 
Since 1857, contributor to the Neue 
Zeitschrift fi'ir Musik. 
II Sonatas, Op. i and 21-30; "Die musika- 
lische Gartenlaube," 100 Studies, Polonaise, 
Ballade, Caprice h^roique, Poesies lyriques. 
Vogler, Abbe Georg Joseph, b. June 15, 
1749, Wi'irzburg ; d. May 6, 1814, 
Darmstadt. For a very short time 
pupil of Padre Martini (Bologna) and 
Valotti (Padua). Ordained a priest in 
Rome; received the title of " Proto- 
notar," the dignity of Papal Chamber- 
lain, and the Order of the " Golden 
Spur " ; he was also elected a Member 
of the Arcadians. 1775, at Mannheim, 
where he established a music school ; 
1781, at Munich; 1783, in Paris; 
1786, in Stockholm, from whence he 
returned (1799) to Germany. 1807, 
appointed Hof-Capellmeister at Darm- 
stadt, where he established a school, 
at which C. M. von Weber, Meyerbeer, 
and Gansbacher were the most dis- 
tinguished pupils. Many of his con- 
temporaries declared him to be a 
charlatan ; it is certain that he under- 
stood how to make the most of his 
Concertos (he called them Symphonies), 
Quartet, ' The matrimonial quarrel," 
Sonata with accompaniment of strings; 
Polymelos ou caracteres de musique de 
diffdrentes nations, 6 Sonatas for 2 Pf., 
Variations, Preludes. 

Vogt, Johann (Jean), b. Jan. 17, 1823, 
Gross-Tintz, near Liegnitz ; d. July 
31, 1888, Berlin. Educated at the 
Seminary of Bunzlau. 1845, went to 
Berlin, where Wilhelm Bach and 
Grell were his teachers ; later to 
Breslau, where Hesse and Seidel 
instructed him. Henselt advised him 
to go to St. Petersburg, and he settled 
there in 1850. 1855, he made tours 
through Germany, England, France; 
1857, to Leipzig, Vienna, Berlin, &c. ; 
1 861 , he established himself at Dresden ; 
18G5-71, was a teacher at the Stern 
Academy (Berlin) ; then lived for 
two years in New York ; afterwards 
returned to Berlin, 
Pf. Quartets and Trios; Prelude and Fugue 

for 2 Pf,, Op. 18; Prelude and Toccata, Op. 

19; Preludes and Fugues (3 books). Op. 20; 

12 Grandes Etudes, Op. 26; Valse brillante. 

Op. 39; 3 Impromptus, Op. 6g ; Salonstiicke 

(6), Op. 73- 
Volkmann (Friedrich), Robert, b. April 
6, 1815, Lommatzsch (Saxony) ; d. 
Oct. 29/30, 1883, Pesth. At first a 
pupil of his father (a Cantor) ; after- 
wards of Anacker (Freiberg) and K. F. 
Becker (Leipzig) . During his sojourn 
at Leipzig, Robert Schumann had 
great influence on the development of 



his talent, and it may be asserted 
that there is considerable affinity of 
character in Schumann's and Volk- 
mann's compositions. 1839, music 
teacher at Prague ; 1842, working in 
Pesth ; 1854-58, he Uved in Vienna, 
but returned to Pesth, and was 
appointed teacher of composition at 
the National Music School. His com- 
positions axe throughout noble and 
distingmshed, his melodies are interest- 
ing and fascinating, his harmonisation 
euphonious and without any harshness. 
His contributions to the Uterature of 
the Pf. are very valuable. 
2 Trios, Op. 3 and 5; Allegretto capriccioso 
for Pf. and Vln., Op. 15 ; Rhapsody for Pf. 
and Vln., Op. 31 ; Concertstuck with 
Orchestra, Op. 42 ; Solo Sonata, Op. i2 ; 
Variations on a theme of Handel for 2 Pf., 
Op. 26. Shorter pieces are: +" Grandmother's 
Songs," Op. 39 ; Morning, noon, evening, 
and night ; Op. 60 and 61, Sonatinas ; f Op. 
21, Visegrad ; fOp. 23, Wanderskizzen ; 
Op. 22, 4 Marches; Op. 20, Hungarian 
Melodies. For 4 hands: " Musical Picture- 
Book," Hungarian Sketches, and 3 Marches. 

Vollweiler, Carl, b. 1813, Offenbach 
o/M. ; d. Jan. 27, 1848, Heidelberg. 

Pupil of his father. He lived for 
several years at St. Petersburg, but 
returned during the last years of his 
short life to Germany (Heidelberg). 
Trios, Op. 2 and 15 ; a " prize " Sonata, Op. 
3 ; Lyric Studies, Op. 9 and 10; 6 Etudes 
melodiques, Op. 4. He also published 
Fantasias on operatic airs. 
Voss, Charles, b. Sept. 20, 1815, 
Schmarsow, near Demmin (Pome- 
rania) ; d. August 28/29, 1882, Verona. 
1846, went to Paris, and soon made 
himself a name as an elegant performer 
and careful teacher; remained there 
until i860, when he varied the places 
of his residence. The number of 
his Fantasias, Transcriptions, Para- 
phrases, easy and more difficult 
arrangements of operatic, national, 
and lyric music is very great. The 
style of his pieces (effective without 
being difficult) became so popular 
that his works were eagerly bought by 
German, French, English, Russian, 
and Italian publishers, thus tempting 
the otherwise talented author to devote 
his time to mere trifles, lightly written 
and heavily paid. 


•Wachs, Paul, b. Sept. ig, 1851, Paris. 
Pupil at the Conserv., where Victor 
Masse, Marmontel, Cesar Franck, and 
Duprato were his teachers. 1872, he 
gained the first prize for Organ. His 
pieces, generally short, elegant, grace- 
ful, and piquant, quickly gained 
considerable popularity. 
" Tiens, c'est gentil ! " Valse des Myrtes ; 

Capricante ; " Aujourd'hui, autrefois," Valse 


Wagenseil, Georg Christoph, b. Jan. 15, 
1715, Vienna; d. there March i, 1777. 
Pupil of Fux (author of the " Gradus ad 
Pamassum"). Teacher to the Empress 
Maria Theresia and her children, with 
whom he was a decided favourite. 
He composed a considerable number of 
works, written in a formal, conven- 
tional, and somewhat empty style. 
Suavis artificiose elaboratus concentus 
musicus continens VI. parthias selectas ad 
clavicembalum compositas, 1740; 6 Sonatas, 
Op. I ; 4 Symphonies for Clavecin with 
strings. Op. 4; 30 Suiters; 27 Concertos; 
Divertissement for 2 Clavecins ; Quartets ; 
Trios ; Sonatas with Vln. ; " The bells of 
the Vatican at Rome," for Clavecin. 

•Waley, Simon, b. Aug. 23, 1827, 
London ; d. there Dec. 30, 1875. Pupil 
of Moscheles (Pf ). W. Horsley 
(Harmony), later of Sterndale Bennett 

I and B. Molique. Although an amateur, 
his endeavour to do his best in music 
warrants his name being included in 
this book. He was an expert and 
brilliant performer, and his com- 
position ; show sound and conscientious 
learning. 1852-60, he was an active 
member of the Amateur Musical 
Society, of which Henry Leslie was 
conductor, and his house was a 
meeting-place for artists, who met with 
the kindest reception from him and 
his family. 
Concerto, with Orchestra, Op. 16 ; Trios, Op. 
15 and 20. 

Wallace, William Vincent, b. July i, 
1814, Waterford (Ireland); d. Oct. 12, 
1865, Touraine (Pyrenees). Pupil of 
his father. Frc m his eighteenth year 
he travelled a great deal, visiting 
Australia, New Zealand, India, South 
America, the United States, and 
Mexico. 1841-42, he conducted the 
Opera in Mexico ; 1843-53, he resided 
in New York, afterwards in England ; 
1863-65, in Paris. He had great 
faciUty in writing, his melodies having a 
popular character ; his style resembles 
that of the later works of Henri 
Herz, and might be called "gushing." 
His most popular pieces are — 



La Gondola, Op. 18; 3 Nocturnes, Op. ao; 
Nocturne m^iodique, Op. 30 ; Melodie 
irlandaise, Op. 53 ; Valse brillante dc Salon ; 
Tarantelle ; Andante and Variations ; 
t" Music murmuring in the trees." 

•Wallenstein, Martin, b. July 22, 1843, 
Frankfort o/M. Pupil of his father, 
later of A. Dreyschock (Prague), 
Hauptmann and Rietz (Leipzig). His 
performances have been greatly ad- 
mired, but he excels more particularly in 
refinement of taste and in working out 
in detail the ornamental part, &c. He 
received the title of Konigl. Musik- 
Director and is Pianist to the Hessian 
Concerto, D min.; Studies; Solo pieces. 

Wanhal (Vanhall), Johann Baptist, b. 
May 12, 1739, Neu - Nechanitz 
(Bohemia) ; d. Aug. 26, 1813, Vienna. 
Being the son of a peasant he had to 
teach himself, until Countess Schaff- 
gotsch took him to Venice, introduced 
him in the best families, and afforded 
him the opportunity of profiting by 
excellent masters. Later he went to 
Vienna, where he married and lived in 
comfortable circumstances until a 
temporary mental disease — originating 
in religious scruples — interfered with 
his composing in his usual industrious 
manner. Getting better, he re-com- 
menced to compose, although Haydn, 
Mozart, and Beethoven's creations put 
his former reputation into the shade. 
In his day he was the favourite com- 
poser of amateurs. The following 
(partial) list may give an idea of the 
number of his compositions : — 
2 Concertos; 8 Concerts faciles ; 8 Quartets; 
many Trios; Sonatas with \ In., Fl., CI., 
Guitar; 6 Solo Sonatas (congratulatory 
Sonatas); Sonate militaire ; "The Battle 
of Wiirzburp," Sonata; "The Battle of 
Trafalgar," Sonata ; many Sonatinas ; 70 
books of Variations ; fis Sonatinas ; short 
and easy pieces (of which many editions 
were published). 

Weber, Carl Maria (Friedrich Ernst), 
Baron von, b. Dec. 18, 1786, Eutin 
.Oldenburg) ; d. June 5, 1826, London. 
At first a pupil of his step-brother, 
Fritz ; 1796, of Heuschkel (Hildburg- 
hausen) ; 1797, of Michael Haydn 
(Salzburg) ; 1798-1800, of Kalcher 
(Theory) ; 1801, for the second time a 
pupil of Michael Haydn; 1802, at 
Hamburg; 1803, at .\ugsburg and 
Vienna, where Joseph Haydn declined 
to take him as a pupil ; 1803, had lessons 
from Abbe Vogler ; 1804, Capellmeister 
at Breslau ; 1806, Musical Director 
of the Prince Eugen of Wiirtemberg's 
orchestra at Carlsruhe (Silesia;. 
After having resided for some time at 

Stuttgart, he was appointed (1813) 
Capellmeister at Prague and (1816) 
Hof-Capellmeister of the German 
Opera at Dresden. He was a most 
excellent pianist — original, impetuous, 
tender, romantic, and fascinating. His 
hands were so large, he could strike 
twelve notes (duodecime) with ease. 
His Pf. works contain, consequently, 
a much wider distribution of chords 
than had hitherto been known ; and it 
was this innovation which created an 
extraordinary sensation, and connects 
his Pf. works more closely with the 
present style of writing, with that of 
Beethoven and others. It may be 
asserted that he brought effects of 
orchestral instruments like the Fl., CI., 
Vln., Bssn., and V'cello within the 
domain of the keyed instrument. 
Although the style of his Sonatas is 
sometimes rather fragmentary, dis- 
jointed, and rhapsodic, these defects 
are in themselves so charming and 
fascinating that they appear, in their 
decided originality, so many merits. 
Concertos: No. i in C, Op. ii ; No. 2 in E 
flat. Op. 32; Concertstiick in F min.. Op. 
79. Sonatas: No. i in C, Op. 24 (1812); 
No. 2 in A flat. Op. 39 (1816) ; No. 3 in D 
min.. Op. 49 (1816) ; No. 4 in E min.. Op. 70 
(1822). Trio for Pf , Fl., and V'cello in E 
flat, Op. 63 ; Quartet for Pf. and Strings in 
E flat ; Duo for Pf. and CI. in E flat. Op. 48. 
Duets with Vln.: No i in F, No. 2 in G, 
No. 3 in D min., No. 4 in E flat. No. 5 in A, 
No. 6 in C. Variations : (6) on an original 
theme in C, Op. 2 ; (8) on " Castor and 
Pollux " in F, Op. 5 ; (6) on " Samori " in B 
flat, Op. 6i ; (7) on f" Vien qua Dorina bella " 
in C, Op. 7; (7) on an original (?) theme in 
F, Op. 9; (9) on a Norwegian theme in D 
min , Op. 22 ; (7) on " Silvana" in B flat. 
Op. 33; (7) on "Joseph" (Mehul) in C, 
Op. 2$ ; (9) on " Schone Minka" in C min.. 
Op. 40. Momento capriccioso in B flat 
(1808); Polonaise in E flat. Op. 21 (1808); 
Rondo brillante in E flat. Op. 62 (1819); 
Auflorderung zum Tanze in D flat. Op. 65 
(1819); Polacca brillante in E, Op. 72 (1819); 
6 favourite Waltzes (1812); Original Waltz 
(1815); 12 Allemandes, Op. 4 (1801); 6 
Ecossaises (1802). For 4 hands: 6 petites 
pieces faciles, Op. 3; (6) Op. 10; (8) Op. 60. 

Wehle, Carl, b. March 17, 1825, Prague ; 

d. June 3, 1883, Paris. Pupil of 

Moscheles (Leipzig) and Kullak 

(Berlin). His journeys extended to 

Asia, America, Africa, Australia, New 

Zealand. 1853, he settled in Paris. 

He was a brilliant and excellent 

pianist, who understood how to combine 

a popular manner of playing with a 

firm musical foundation. In a pleasant 

manner he related the events of his 

journeys in the Leipziger Si^nale. 

Fete bohemienne ; " Marche cosaque"; 

t" Berceuse javanaise " ; " Un songe k 

Vaucluse"; 2 Sonatas, Op. 38 and 58; 

Suite, Op 86. 



Weitzmann, Carl Friedrich, b. Aug. i8, 
1808, Berlin; d. there Nov. 7, 1880. 
Pupil of Hauptmann and Spohr. 1832, 
Director at Riga ; 1836, at St. Peters- 
burg ; 1846, in London and Paris ; he 
settled {1848) at Berlin as a teacher of 
Composition and author; 1863, he 
wrote a history of Pf. playing and 
literature, which was supplemented 
(1880) by a history of the Pf. 
Valses nobles, pieces for 2 and 4 hands, Riddles 
(Canons) for 4 hands, and not less than 
1,800 Preludes and Modulations, of which 
the iitst book is called '* Classical," the 
second " Romantic." 
Wenzel, Ernst (Ferdinand), b. Jan. 24, 
1808, Walddorf, near Lobau (Saxony); 
d. Aug. 16, 1880, Kosen (District 
Merseburg). He attended the Uni- 
versity of Leipzig, where he studied 
Philosophy. As a pupil of Fr. Wieck 
(Pf.) he formed an intimate friendship 
with Schumann. 1843, was appointed 
by Mendelssohn teacher of Pf. at the 
Conserv., which post he filled with 
uninterrupted success. Almost all 
English pianists who studied in Leip- 
zig were pupils and also devoted 
friends of the highly intelligent, witty, 
and somewhat eccentric little man. 
His critical remarks were caustic and 
sharp, but correct, and uttered in a 
manner which could not oflfend. 
Wermann, Friedrich Oscar, b. April 30, 
1840, Neichen, near Trebsen (Saxony). 
Pupil of J. Otto, Kragen, Fr. Wieck 
(Dresden) ; later at the Leipzig Con- 
serv. Was Conductor at Wesserling ; 
later Prof, of the Seminary of Neuf- 
chatel; 1868, appointment in Dresden; 
1876, Organist and Cantor of the 
" Kreuzschule " and Musik-Director 
of the three principal Protestant 
churches (Dresden). His educational 
works are of great merit. 
24 easy melodious studies, Op. 6 j 10 easy 
characteristic pieces for playing in a small 
circle. Op. 7 ; 6 easy characteristic pieces. 
Op. 8 ; (3) Leaves of Recollection, Op. 9. 
Werner, August, b. 1841, St. Petersburg. 
Son of Swiss parents. He received his 
instruction in Germany, and has re- 
sided for many years in Geneva as 
Prof, and Member of the Committee 
of the Conserv. 
Etudes(io),Op. i8;ditto(6). Op. 34; 2 Idylles, 
Op. 37; Nocturne a 4 mains. Op. 25 ; Marche 
hongroise. Op. 23, &c. 
Wesley, Samuel, b. Feb. 24, 1766, 
Bristol; d. there Oct. 11, 1837. For 
detailed biography see Grove's " Dic- 
tionary," Vol. iv., pp. 445-47. 
8 Harpsichord Lessons (1777), 11 Sonatas, 2 
Sonatinas, 16 Rondos (mostly on popular 
airs>, 7 sets of Variations, Preludes, Polacca 
in G, Grand Fugue, 4 Marches, Tiio for 3 
Pf., 4 Waltzes. 

Wesley, Samuel Sebastian, b. Aug. 14, 
1810, London; d. April ig, 1876, 
Gloucester. Educated at the Bluecoat 
School ; 1824, Chorister at the Chapel 
Royal ; 1827, Organist, St. James's 
Church, Hampstead Road ; 1829, at 
Camberwell ; 1832, Organist of Here- 
ford Cathedral; 1835, at Exeter; 1842, 
at Leeds Parish Church ; before 1842, 
Mus. Doc, Oxon ; 1849, Organist of 
Winchester Cathedral ; 1865, until 
his death. Organist of Gloucester 
Air and Variations, March in C min.. Rondo 
in C. 
*Westlake, Frederick, b. Feb. 25, 1840, 
Romsey, Hampshire. 1855, he entered 
the R.A.M. (London), and was taught 
by the brothers Macfarren, but profited 
also by the advice of Sterndale 
Bennett, Charles Lucas, and Dorrell. 
1863, appointed Prof, there, and is 
still one of their most experienced, 
careful, and successful teachers. 
Member of the Associated Board for 
Local and School Examinations. 
Duo concertante for Pf. and V'cello; 9 Epi- 
sodes ; a Fugue in Octaves. He is also 
editor of the valuable collection, "Lyra 
Weyse, Christoph Ernst Friedrich, b. 
March 5, 1774, Copenhagen ; d. there 
Oct. 4, 1842. His first teacher was his 
grandfather, J. A. P. Schulz (1747- 
1800). Under his superintendence he 
published his first work, Allegri di 
bravura per il Clavicembalo del Signor 
Weyse publicate per i maestri di 
Capella Schulze e Reichardt (1796). 
He was an excellent teacher, who was 
proud of being able to call the dis- 
tinguished Danish composer, Gade, his 
4 Sonatas ; Studies (much respected by 
Schumann) ; several Allegri di bravura, 
Op. 50; and some included in the Reper- 
toire des Clavecinistes. 
Wider, Charles Marie, b. Feb. 24, 1845, 
Lyons. The son of an Alsatian, whose 
family came originally from Hungary. 
Pupil of Fetis (Brussels) and Rossini 
(Paris). His organ performances were 
so much admired in Lyons and other 
French towns that he was appointed 
(1869) Organist of St. Sulpice in Paris. 
Concerto in F min. (1876); Trio, Op. 19; 
Quintet, Op. 7 ; Serenade for Pf., Fl., Vln., 
V'cello, and Harmonium, Op. xo ; Suite 
Polonaise, Op. 51 ; Dans Ics Bois (5), Op. 
44; Valse en R6 b^mol, Op. 11, L; Chant 
d'Avril, Aubade ; fMarche Americaine, 
Op. 31, XL ; 6 Morceaux de Salon, Op. 15, 
rOrientale, Scherzo, Op. 8. 
Wieck, Clara {see Schumann). 
Wieck, Friedrich, b. Aug. 18, 1785, 
Pretzvch, near Torgau ; d. Oct. 7, 1873, 
Loschwitz, near Dresden. After 



having completed his studies in the 
College of Torgau, he attended the 
University of Wittenberg, in order to 
study Theology, but his desire to 
become a musician vkras so great that 
he preferred to accept situations as 
private tutor in the families of Baron 
Seckendorf (Querfurt) and Madame 
von Levezovv, so as to have sufficient 
time to study music. He established 
a Pf. manufactory and circulating 
library of music in Leipzig, and was 
also a teacher. He was twice married 
— Clara, Alwin, and Gustav were his 
first wife's children, and Marie, his 
second wife's child. Foremost among 
his pupils were his daughter Clara, 
Robert Schumann, H. von Biilow, 
Anton Krause, Fritz Spindler, J. Seiss, 
Rollfuss, and G. Merkel (see these 
names). He published several Essays 
on musical education, and 2 books of 

*Wieck, Marie, b. Jan. 17, 1835, Leipzig. 
Pupil of her father (see above) . Showed 
at an early age signs of considerable 
talent, and played as early as 1843 at 
concerts (Dresden). 1858, the Prince 
of Hohenzollern named her " Pianist 
to the Court." She gave many 
concerts in the principal towns of 
Germany, Sweden, &c., and appeared 
also with great success in London. 
At present she conducts at Dresden a 
school for Pf. playing, after the 
principles of her late father. 

Wiedeburg, Michael Johann Friedrich, 

b. 1735, Halle, a/d/Saale ; d. about 

1790. Organist at Norden (East Frisia). 

He wrote one of the earliest Methods 

of Clavecin playing under the quaint 

title of 

" The self-instructing Clavecinist, or clear and 

easy instruction in Clavecin playing " (first 

part, 1765 ; second part, 1767 ; third part, 

1775I. Also additional contributions to the 

self-instructing Clavecinist, or twice 24 

easy and 24 more difficult Preludes, 1776. 

He also published Musical Card-playing for 

Clavecinists (first game, 1788). 

Wiel-Lange, Frederick Johannes, b. 
Jan. 20, 1849, Viskinge (Seeland). 
1874, Licentiate of Theology of the 
University of Copenhagen, and entered 
the Conserv. the same year as pupil of 
Gade and Hartmann, who took such 
warm interest in his rare talent that they 
soon promoted him to a Professorship. 
1877, he married the pianist, Minna 
Fries (b. Aarhus) , whose delicate health 
obliged him to reside in the country. 
At present he is clergyman at Broost, a 
"jmall town near d'Oester-Svenstrup 

(Jutland). His Pf. works are, so to 
speak, musical illustrations of Ander- 
sen's fairy tales : — 
Skovblomster (3 pieces), Ved Lowfald (4), 
I Skumringen (6). Besides these he pub- 
lished : " Recits d'aventures," five stiort 
pieces, Stimmungsbilder (2). 

Wieniawski, Joseph, b. May 23, 1837, 
Lublin. 1847, entered the Paris 
Conserv. under Zimmermann, Mar- 
montel,and Alkan (Pf . ), and Le Couppey 
(Harmony) ; 1850, he returned to 
Russia, and gave concerts with his 
brother, Henri W. (the famous vio- 
linist) ; 1855-58, in Germany, studied 
with Liszt in Weimar ; and, 1856, 
with Marx, in Berlin. After this he 
returned to Paris; left, 1867, for 
Moscow, where he was appointed Prof, 
at the Conserv. ; went later to 
Warsaw as Director of the Musical 
Society, resided there for some years, 
and then settled in Brussels. He is 
a most excellent performer, able to 
satisfy all the high demands of the 
present time. He possesses a mar- 
vellous technique, noble and refined 
expression, and musicianly feeling. 
He received decorations from Russia, 
Persia, Holland, &c. 1875-78, was 
member of the Jury for the public 
examinations of the Paris Conserv., 
and Hon. Member of the Lemberg 
Society. He invented the Piano a 
double clavier renverse (exhibited at 
the Paris Exhibition of 1878). 
Concerto, Op. 20 ; Trio, Op. 40 ; Sonata, Op. 
22; Sonata with Vln., Op. 24; Sonata with 
V'cello, Op. 26 ; Fantasia for 2 Pf., Op. 42. 
Studies: Romance Etude, Op. 10; Etudes 
de Concert, Op. 33 and 36; 124 Etudes, Op. 
44; Polonaises, Op. 13, 2i, 27,48. Valses: 
fOp. 3, 7, 18, 30, 46 ; -fMazurkas, Op. 23 ; 
Fantaisie et Fugue, Op. 25, and a good 
many shorter pieces. 

Willmers, Rudolph, b. Oct. 31, 1821, 
Berlin ; d. (insane) Aug. 24, 1878, 
Vienna. Pupil of Hummel (Weimar) 
and Fr. Schneider (Dessau). For some 
time he taught at the Stern Academy 
(Berlin), but afterwards resided in 
Vienna, where the Emperor named 
him Imperial and Royal pianist, and 
where he was highly respected. His 
specialty was a most perfect shake ; 
indeed, the great beauty of a shake — ■ 
its swelling and diminishing — and 
the wonderful evenness in the per- 
formance of the so-called "Triller- 
ketten" had never been exhibited 
before with such supreme mastery as 
by him. But his technique was 
equally remarkable in all other points. 
His compositions, although well- 
constructed, are somewhat dry and 



uninteresting ; the wonderful way in 

which they were performed, however, 

made these blemishes appear less. 

tSehnsucht am Meere, Op. 8 ; Un jour d'et^ en 

Norvege, Op. 27 ; 2 Etudes de Concert 

(+No. I, La Pompa di Festa), Op. 28 ; 6 

Etudes, Op. I ; Serenade drotique (left 

hand). Op. 5 ; La Sylphide, Op. 49 ; Northern 

National Songs, Op. 29 ( JNo. i) ; tTriller- 

ketten, Op. 69; Tarantella giocosa. Op. 35. 

♦Wilm, Nikolai von, b. March 4, 1834, 
Riga (Livland). His first studies were 
superintended by his father, an accom- 
plished amateur, later by Weller, 
Marx, Markus, and Willmans (Riga). 
1851-56, pupil at the Leipzig Conserv., 
under Hauptmann, Richter, Rietz, 
Plaidy, &c. After leaving Leipzig he 
travelled, but accepted (1857-58) the 
post of second Conductor of the Riga 
Opera ; 1858, went to St. Petersburg, 
where, on the recommendation of 
Henselt, he received the post of teacher 
at the Imperial Institute, "Nicolai"; 
1875, he went to Dresden, but has lived 
since 1878 at Wiesbaden. His com- 
positions enjoy a great reputation and 
begin to be very popular. 
For Pf. and Vln.: Sonatas, Op. 83 and 92; 
Suite, Op. 88 and 95. For Pf. and V'cello : 
Sonata, Op. in. For 2 Pf.: Prelude and 
Sarabande, Op. 62 ; Theme and Variations, 
Op. 64 : Waltzes, Op. 72. For 4 hands : 
tReisebilder aus Schlesien, Op. 18 ; Suites, 
+25. +30> +44i +53t and 100 ; Suite of Waltzes, 
Op. 86, 90, 93 ; Calendarium (4 books), Op. 
39. Solo Pieces: 10 Characteristic pieces, 
Op. 24 ; People and times in the mirror of 
their dances, +Op. 31 (5 books); Fantasia, 
Op. 68 ; Theme and Variations, Op. 89 ; 
Valse brillante. Op. 13 (No. 2); Valse 
Impromptu, Op. 45 ; In the Russian village. 
Op. 37 (No. 2); and several collections of 

Wilms, Jan Willem, b. March 30, 1772, 

Witzhelden (Province Berg) ; d. July 19, 

1847, Amsterdam. Pupil of his father, 

an organist. Influential teacher at 

Amsterdam, where he was elected 

Member of the Academy of Holland 

and Hon. Member of the society 

" Toonkunst." His playing was much 

admired and he was universally 

respected for his admirable qualities. 

Concertos, Quartets, Trios, Sonatas with Vln., 

Sonatas for 4 hands. Grand Sonata (1793), 

tSonatinas (Op. 16), "The Battle of 


•Winding, August (Henrik), b. March 24, 
1835, Taaro, Isle of Laaland (Den- 
mark). Pupil of his father, Reinecke, 
and Ree (Copenhagen); also of A. 
Dreyschock (Prague) and Niels W. 
Gade (Copenhagen). Director and 
Prof, of the Copenhagen Conserv. and 
Knight of the Order of Danebrog. He 
is a highly talejated and original com- 
poser, whose works deserve close 

acquaintance in order to be fully 

Concerto, Op. 16; Concert Allegro, Op. 29; 
Quartet, Op. 17; Ho Clavierstiicke in form 
of Studies, Op. 18 ; Preludes in all keys. 
Op. 26; Sonatas for Pf. and Vln., Op. 5 and 
35 ; Studies, Op. 25 ; Duets (for 4 hands). 
Op. 32, I. and II.; +Contrasts (2 Books); 
Phantasiestiicke for Pf., Vln., or CI., Op. 
19; Reisebilder, Op. 3; Genrebilder, Op. 
15; Landliche-Scenen (10); Valses (3); 
Humoreske; Toccata, Op. 34, &c. 
*Wingham, Thomas, b. Jan. 5, 1846, 

London ; d. there March 24, 1893. 

Pupil of Sterndale Bennett (R.A.M.). 

He was a highly-successful teacher, and 

warmly appreciated by his colleagues 

for his simplicity, amiability, and 

Barcarolle (F min.), Concert-Capriccio, Elegy 
on the death of Sterndale Bennett, and 
several other smaller pieces. 

♦Winkler, Louis, b. Sept. i, 1813, 
Brunswick; d. there Sept. 16, 1885. 
- He was organist of one of the prin- 
cipal churches, a successful teacher, 
and his name is favourably known by 
his excellent arrangements of classical 
works (notably those of Beethoven) 
for Pf. (2 hands). 
Winterberger, Alexander, b. Aug. 14, 
1834, Weimar. 1848-49, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv.; later of Liszt. 1861, 
he went to Vienna ; 1869, he succeeded 
A. Dreyschock as Prof, at the St. 
Petersburg Conserv. Since 1872 has 
resided at Leipzig. He is considered 
one of the best pianists of the present 
Alinen-Dances (Valses, Mazurkas, Menuets, 
&c.). Op. 20; 3 pieces. Op. 25; Concert- 
Study and Valse Caprice, Op. 27 ; Concert- 
Adagio, Op. 63 ; 23 instructive and charac- 
teristic pieces, Up. 72 ; 2 Sonatinas, Op. 93. 

Wittasek, Johann Nepomuk August, 

b. Feb. 22, 1770, Horzin (Bohemia) ; 

d. Dec. 7, 1839, Prague. At first a 

pupil of his father (a schoolmaster) ; 

afterwards Princess Lobkowitz made 

him a pupil of Franz Duschek (Clavecin) 

and Kozeluch (Composition), Prague. 

1814, appointed Organist of the 

"Domkirche"; 1826, Director of the 

Organ School. His performances of 

classical Concertos (notably Mozart's) 

were greatly admired, and Mozart 

himself expressed his gratification at 

hearing his playing. As a composer 

he was less known. 

Concerto, Sonatas with Vln., Favourite 

pieces (3 books), fRondeaux, Romanza — 

all of them now completely forgotten, but 

in their time popular in Prague society. 

•Witte, Georg Henri, b. Nov. 16, 1843, 

Utrecht. Son of a well-known organ 

builder. 1859-62, pupil at the Royal 

Music School at The Hague, where 



Van der Does (Pf.), Liibeck (Vln.), 
and Nicolai (Organ and Theory) were 
his teachers; 1862-65, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv., under Plaidy and 
Moscheles(Pf.), Hauptmann (Counter- 
point), and Reinecke (Composition). 
1865-67, taught in Leipzig; 1867-70, 
teacher in Alsace; 1871, appointed 
Director of the Musical Society of 
Essen (Westphalia). Received (1882) 
the title of Konigl. Musik-Director. 
Quartet with Strings, Op. 5; Sonata with 
V'cello, Op. 15, and 3 pieces with V'cello, 
Op. 14 (these obtained a prize) ; Wahzes, 
Op. I, 3) 7 (a 4 mains) ; 4 Impromptus, Op. 4 ; 
Sonatina a 4 mains, Op. 8; 2 characteristic 
pieces, Op. 13. 

Wolfl (Wolffl, Woelfl), Joseph (at one 

time an admired composer and rival (?) 

of Beethoven), b. 1772, Salzburg; d. 

May II, 1812, London. Pupil of 

Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn 

(Salzburg). Created a great sensation 

with his improvisations, which by 

some connoisseurs (?) were preferred 

to those of Mozart and Beethoven. 

1792-94, he resided at Warsaw; 

1794-98, at Vienna; 1801, went to 

Paris. A few years later he travelled 

with Elmenreich, an actor of very 

doubtful character, who tempted him 

to become his associate in dishonest 

card-playing, which, being detected, 

they were obliged to leave Brussels 

in great haste, and seek refuge in 

London; there he found himself 

ignored, where before he had received 

a splendid reception. Although he 

appeared again in public he had lost 

his former popularity. The events 

of his last years are shrouded in 

mystery. It is said that he died in a 

state of great poverty in a suburb of 


6 Concertos, Op. 20, 26, 32, +0p. 43 ; Concerto 

militaire, Op. 49 (Coucou) ; Le Calme and 

a Concerto da camera; 18 Trios; 30 Duos 

with Vln. Sonatas: Op. i (3); Op. 6 (3, 

dedicated to Beethoven) ; Op. 15 (3, dedicated 

to Prince Louis Ferdinand); fOp. 4 i,Non plus 

ultra; fOp. 50, Lediable a quatre; Sonatas 

(2) in C min. ; 14 books of Variations ; Ron- 

deaux ; Fantasias ; Sonatas for 4 hands ; 

Sonata for 2 Pf. ; Methode de Piano (with 

100 Studies), Op. 56; 24 Preludes. 

Wohlfahrt, Heinrich, a highly respected 
educational composer and practical 
teacher, b. Dec. 16, 1797, Kossnitz, 
near Apolda ; d. May 9, 1883, Con- 
newitz, near Leipzig. He attended 
the Seminary at Weimar, where Haser 
was his teacher ; had several appoint- 
ments as private teacher and Cantor 
in small towns of Thuringia, until he 
retired to Jena. 7867, settled at 

Method for children (about 30 editions) ; the 
First Tuition, Op. 50; Der Klavier-freund 
(36 Studies for children); Kleine Leute, 
Op. 86 ; 3 Sonatas for children ; instructive 
pieces, Op. 74 ; Anthologic method of Pf. 
playing. Op. 47, &c. 
Wolf, Ernst Wilhelm, b. 1735, Gross- 
behringen, near Gotha; d. Dec. 7, 1792, 
Weimar. 1755, he attended the Uni- 
versity of Jena, but then decided to 
devote himself to music. 1761, ap- 
pointed teacher to the Duchess of 
Weimar; 1786, Hof-Capellmeister. He 
published essays, descriptions of artistic 
journeys, &c. 
7 Concertos ; 4 Quintets for Pf., Fl., Vln., Via., 
and V'cello; 7 books of 6 Sonatas each, and 
other Sonatas (4 with affection). 
Wolff, Edouard, b. Sept. 15, 1816. War- 
saw ; d. Oct. 16, 1880, Paris. Pupil of 
Zawadski (Pf.) at Warsaw, and (1828) 
of Wiirfel at Vienna. After his return 
to Warsaw, he had lessons in Harmony 
from Eisner (Chopin's teacher) ; 1835, 
went to Paris, where he remained until 
his death, with the exception of some 
journeys to Germany, the provincial 
towns of France, and the Danubian 
principalities. He was an admirable 
performer, a well educated musician, 
and a favourite teacher. His com- 
positions are influenced by the genius 
of his friend and countryman, Chopin. 
24 Etudes, Op. 20; +24 nouvelles Etudes, Op. 
50 ; I'Art de I'expression ; 24 Etudes faciles, 
Op. 90; I'Art de I'ex^cution: 24 Improvisa- 
tions en forme d'etudes. Op. 100; I'Art de 
chanter sur le Pf., 48 Etudes, Op. 189 ; La 
Favorite, Valse, Op. 63 ; Chansons 
polonaises originales. Op. 139 ; Tarantelle, 
Op. 148 ; tChansons bacchiques. Op. 164 
and 186. 

Wollenhaupt, Heinrich Adolph, b. 
Sept. 27, 1827, Schkeuditz (district 
Merseburg) ; d. Sept. 18, 1863, New 
York. Pupil at the Leipzig Conserv. 
1845, he went to New York, where he 
was admired for his excellent playing 
and pleasant, popular compositions; 
and warmly beloved for his admirable 
qualities as son, brother, and friend. 
It is but seldom that the loss of a 
young and talented artist is so sincerely 
deplored as was the case with him. 
In his compositions there is much 
natural, spontaneous feeling, and a 
great deal of rhythmical charm. 
Marches militaires, fOp. 19 and 31 ; Valses 
styriennes, +0p. 27 and 47; Nocturne, Op. 
32 ; Galop di Bravura, Op 24 ; Improvisa- 
tion, Op. 30 ; tScherzo brillante. Op. 72 ; and 
Valse hdroique in E flat. 
Worzischek (Johann), Hugo, b. May 11, 
1791, Wamberg (Bohemia); d. Nov. 
ig, 1825, Vienna. He was — after 
receiving elementary tuition from his 
father, a schoolmaster — a pupil of 
W. Tomaschek (Prague). He went to 



Vienna to obtain a State appointment, 
but his love of music was so great he 
finally devoted himself entirely to it. 
and was fortunate enough to receive 
the post of Organist at the Imperial 
Chapel. He was a richly-gifted com- 
poser, and a general favourite in the 
musical circles of Vienna. 
12 Rhapsodies, Op. i ; Variations : la Senti- 
nelle.Op. 6; 3 Impromptus, Op.7; Fantaisie, 
Op. 12; IRondeau Espagnol, Op. 17 ; Grande 
Senate, Op. 20 ; and several other smaller 

Wouters (Franfois), Adolphe, b. May 
28, 1841, Brussels, where he was a 
pupil at the Conserv. Since 1871, 
Prof, there, and conducts the class for 
ladies. His edition of classical works, 
" Repertoire du Conservatoire de 
Bruxelles," is considered a standard 
work, and his technical Studies are 
much used in Belgium. 

♦Woycke, Eugen (Adelbert), b. June 19, 
1843, Dantzig. 1864-67, pupil at the 
Leipzig Conserv. under Plaidy and 
Moscheles (Pf.), Hauptmann (Com- 
position) ; also Reinecke (Pf) and 
E. F. Richter (Harmony, Counter- 
point, and Fugue). After leaving 
Leipzig he settled in Edinburgh, where 
he is a teacher. 
Sonatas : " Dramatique," " Romantique,'' 
" PoStique," " Capricieuse," " Heroique," 
" Fantastique," and " Sentimentale" — the 
last two are with Vln. ; 8 Novellettes, Op. 
41 ; 6 characteristic pieces. Op. 42 ; " Au 
Rouet," Op. 23 ; " L'Oisillon, ' Op. 35 ; and 
Andante (U flat), Op. ig. 

Wraniczky (Wranitzky), Paul, b. Dec. 
30, 1756, Neureisch (Moravia) ; d. Sept. 
28, 1808, Vienna. Received his musical 
education, first in a monastery near 
his native place, later at Iglau and 
Olmiitz. 1776, he went to Vienna and 
entered the Seminary so as to study 
Theology, but his qualities as a 
violinist were so remarkable he was 
elected Musik-Director. He continued 
his studies of composition in Vienna 
with the Swedish composer, Joseph 
Kraus. With every year his pro- 
ductivity became greater, and his music 
being that of a regular ' ' Viennese" com- 
poser — cheerful, light, for a short 
time fascinating — he soon became the 
favourite musician of the Austrian 
capital. Amongst other operatic works 
he wrote the music to the Ballet " Das 
Waldmadchen," the Russian dance of 
which Beethoven took as theme for 
his charming Variations in A. 
Sonatas, some of them with Vln.; 3 Trios, 
Op. 21; and fLa Chasse, with accompani- 
ment of wind instruments. 

*Wrigley, John, b. Sept. 29, 1830, 
Ashton-under-Lyne. 1849, entered the 
R.A.M. (London), where he received 
(1852) excellent testimonials from the 
principal Professors ; 1853, named 
A.R.A.M., and, 1887, F.R.A.M. His 
useful work as a teacher is acknow- 
ledged by all who profited by it. He 
resides at Manchester. 

2 Sonatas, Allegro de Concert, Tarantella, 
Presto scherzando, Waltz, and the " Sprites' 

Wiillner, Dr. Franz, b. Jan. 28, 1832, 
Miinster (Westphalia). Pupil of A. 
Schindler (Beethoven's friend) and 
Ferdinand Kessler (1793-1856), of 
Frankfort o/M (must not be confused 
with Joseph Chr. K., of Lemberg) ; 
later of Grell and Dehn (Berlin). 
1854, appointed Prof, at the Royal 
Munich School ; 1858-65, Conductor 
of the Musical Societies of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. After 1865, he returned to 
Munich as Principal of the vocai 
classes of the Music School ; 1870, 
Director and Prof, of the Royal 
Academy (formerly School) of Munich 
and Conductor of the Opera; 1877, 
appointed Director of the Conserv. 
(Dresden), Hof - Capellmeister ; and 
Conductor of the Catholic Church 
choir and orchestra ; 1884, Principal 
of the Conserv. of Cologne ; Conductor 
of the Giirzenich concerts and the 
Town Orchestra ; Member of the Royal 
Academy of Arts (Berlin) ; Doc. Phil., 
hon. causa, of the University of 
Munich ; Knight of several Orders, &c. 
Solo Sonatas : Op 6 (D min.) and Op. 10 (E) ; 
Trio (D), Op. 9; Sonata with Vln. (E min.), 
Op. 30 ; Variations on themes of Bach, 
Op. 23 ; Schubert, Op. 39 (with V'cello) ; on 
an original air. Op. 19 ; and several Duets 
for 4 hands. Op. 11 and Op. 27. 

WUrfel, Wilhelm, b. 1791, Planian 
(Bohemia) ; d. April 22, 1852, Vienna. 
At first instructed by his mother, he 
had later to depend entirely on his 
own exertions. Chopin, when in 
Vienna, met Wiarfel, and spoke with 
gratitude of the assistance he gave in 
arranging his concert. 1815, appointed 
teacher at Warsaw ; returned to 
Vienna, and received (1826) the post 
of Sub-Conductor of the Opera. He 
was an admirable pianist and a highly 
successful teacher. 
Concerto, Op. 28 ; Allegro and Rondo carac- 

tdristique ; Fantaisie, Op. 45 ; Rondeaux ; 

Variations, &c. ; "Wellington's Victory"; 

Op. 13, for 4 hands. 

♦Vi^urm, Marie, b. May 18, i860, 
Southampton. Pupil at the Stuttgart 



Music School, under Dr. Stark (Har- 
mony) and D. Pruckner (Pf.). 1878-80, 
pupil of Madame Mehlig, Mary 
Krebs, I. Wieniawski, F. Taylor, and 
Madame Montigny-R^maury ; 1880, of 
Madame Schumann and Dr. Joachim 
Raff (Frankfort o/M). 1884, she 
gained the Mendelssohn Scholarship, 
and became a pupil of Sir Arthur 
Sullivan, Dr. V. Stanford, and Dr. 
F. Bridge; 1886, of Dr. Reinecke 
Tanzweisen, 4 hands ; Valse de concert ; 
Barcarolle ; Gavotte and Pastorale (by 

Reinecke), arranged for a Pf. ; Concerto; 

Sonata ; Sonata for Pf. and Vln. ; Sonata 

for Pf. and V'cello ; Prelude and Fugue for 

2 Pf. Ballades for 2 Pf. are still in MS. 

Wylde, Henry, Mus. Doc, b. 1822, 

Hertfordshire; d. March 13, 1890, 

London. Pupil of Cipriani Potter. 

1 852, Director of the New Philharmonic 

Society ; 1863, Prof, at Gresham 

College ; established (1867) the London 

Academy of Music. Among his 

numerous pupils was John Francis 


Concertos, Sonatas, Rhapsodies, Fantasias, 



♦Zabalza, Don Dimaso, b. Dec. 11, 
1833, Irurita (Province Navarra) ; d. 
Feb. 25, 1894, Madrid. Pupil of Don 
Casimiro Sagabeta, later of D. Luis 
Vidaola and of D. Mariano Garcia 
(Harmony). Settled (1858) at Madrid, 
where he made himself known by 
giving successful concerts ; soon after 
appointed assistant teacher at the 
Conserv. He received the Cross of 
Charles III. and various Academical 
Sonatinas, Studies (adopted by the schools of 
Paris, ^Iadrid, Barcelona, and Milan). 

Zarembski (ZaremskiJ, Jules de, b. 
Feb. 28, 1854, Zitomir (Russian 
Poland) ; d. there Aug., 1885. Pupil of 
Dachs (Vienna) , later of Liszt (Weimar) , 
who warmly recommended his studies 
and procured for him the appointment 
of Prof, at the Conserv. of Brussels, 
which he held for five years. Return- 
ing for a holiday to his native place, 
he suddenly died, only thirty-one 
years old. His compositions are 
original, quaint, and full of national 
Op. 23, A travers Pologne (6); Op. 27, 

Etrennes(6); Op. 25, Serenade espagnole; 

iOp. 7, Trois Etudes de Concert; Op. i8. 

Ballade ; Op. 20, Serenade burlesque ; Op. 

22, Berceuse in A. 

*Zarzycki, Alexander, b. Feb. 21, 1834, 
Lemberg (Austrian Poland). Received 
his first musical education in Lemberg ; 
1856-61, he resided at Paris, taking 
lessons in Theory from Henri Reber ; 
played with eminent success in con- 
certs, visited (giving concerts) Germany, 
Austria, and Poland. 1870, he under- 
took the direction of the Musical 
Society of Warsaw; 1879, appointed 
Director of the Conserv. His merits 

as a brilliant pianist were everywhere 

warmly admired, and his effective 

compositions deserve recognition. 

Op. 7, Grande Polonaise (with Orchestra); 

Op. 17, Concerto (with Orchestra) ; Op. 37, 

Suite Polonaise (with Orchestra) ; Op. 34, 

3 Morceaux ; Op. 18, Grande Valse ; Op. 19 

and tOp. 20, Mazurkas ; Op. 24, Serenade 

and Valse Impromptu ; +0p. 10, 2 Nocturnes. 

*Zichy, Giza, Count, b. July 22, 1849, 
Sztara (Hungary). From his child- 
hood devoted to music and studied the 
Pf. with rare industry, but had the 
misfortune to lose his right arm in 1866 
(when seventeen years old) ; in spite of 
this calamity he threw his whole energy 
into the study of playing with the left 
hand only, and reached so wonderful 
a degree of facility and technical per- 
fection that his performances were 
received with bewildered astonishment 
and phrenetic acclamations. All critics 
unite in describing his playing as 
unrivalled and wholly unique. His 
teachers were Mayrberger, Volkmann, 
and Liszt (Pesthj. He was Director 
(Intendant) of the Royal and National 
Opera of Pesth. 
Collection of Studies and Pieces for the left 
hand (Paris). 

Zimmermann, Agnes, b. July 5, 1847, 
Cologne o/Rhine. Went at an early 
age to London, where she was a pupil 
at the R.A.M. of Cipriani Potter, and 
later of Pauer (Pf.), of Dr. Steggall and 
George Macfarren (Composition). She 
twice obtained (i860 and 1862) the 
King's Scholarship, received the silver 
medal two years in succession and did 
full honour to the R.A.M. Her merits 
as a pianist were often recognised and 
praised by the audiences at the Crystal 
Palace and the Popular concerts, £is 



well as in Germany and the English 
Provinces. At her own concerts she 
provided excellent programmes, and 
showed every year continued progress. 
Trio, Op. 19; 3 Sonatas for Pf. and Vln., Op. 

16, 21, and 23 ; Suite, Op. 22 ; 2 pieces, Op. 

18 ; and a number of shorter pieces. Editor 

of Beethoven and Mozart's Sonatas and 

of pieces by Schumann. 
Zimmermann, Pierre Joseph Guillaume, 
b. March 19, 1785, Paris ; d. there 
Nov., 1853. 1798, entered theConserv. 
as pupil of Boieldieu, Rey, Catel, and 
Cherubini. 1816, appointed Prof, and 
continued working until 1848, when 
he received the Legion of Honour and 
his pension. Amongst his most cele- 
brated pupils were Alkan, Prudent, 

Marmontel, Ravina, Lacombe, and A 
Encyclop^diedu Pianiste ; 24 Etudes, Op. 31; 

2 Concertos (with Orchestra) ; Sonata, Op. 

5 ; a great number of Variations, and several 


*Zwintscher, Bruno, b. May 15, 1838, 
Ziegenhain, near Meissen (Saxony), 
son of a clergyman. For two years 
pupil of Julius Otto (Dresden) ; 1856- 
59, at the Leipzig Conserv., where 
Plaidy and Moscheles (Pf.), E. F. 
Richter, Hauptmann, and Rietz (Har- 
mony and Composition) were his 
teachers. 1875, appointed Prof, there. 
" Technical School," " School of Ornaments,'' 

with a supplement about the " Metronome 

and its use." 





Babcock, Alpheus, established (1829) in 1 
Philadelphia, the inventor (1825, in I 
Boston) of the complete metal frame, 
with hitchpin plate, in one casting 
(Babcock's iron ring) ; it was applied 
to square pianos. In 1830, he took 
out another patent for " cross- 
stringing." The business was after- 
wards carried on in Boston, Mass. 

*Bacon, Francis, late Raven and Baconi 
of New York. The history of this 
house is as follows: 1789, Jan. 10, 
I. Jacob Astor, of 81, Queen Street, 
had for sale imported pianos from the 
best makers in London ; 1802, Astor 
retired, and was succeeded by John 
and William Raff, 127, Broadway, 
N.Y. ; 1815, they were succeeded by 
William Dubois, 126, Broadway ; 1836, 
the firm became Dubois and Bacon, 
and (1841) Bacon and Raven ; 1856, by 
the death of the senior Bacon, the 
firm became Raven and Bacon; 1871, 
Bacon and Karr ; they were succeeded 
(1880) by Francis Bacon. "Bacon" 
pianos were manufactured as early as 
1789. 1876, the highest awards were 
granted at Philadelphia ; 1856, by the 
Franklin Institute of the State of 
Pennsylvania, by the Metropolitan 
Mechanics' Institute (N.Y. ), and (1893) 
by the Columbian Exposition, Chicago. 
The firm produces squares, uprights, 
and grands. 

♦Baldwin, D. H., and Co., of Cincinatti, 
Ohio, U.S. Founded (1863) as retail 
and wholesale dealers. The factory 
(of uprights) was started 1891. The 
firm is composed of D. H. Baldwin, 
Lucien Walsin, A. A. van Buren, 
George W. Armstrong, jun., and 
Clarence Wulsin. "The factory of 
The Baldwin Piano Co. is planned on 
the best modern models, and there are 
added to these many new ideas that 
individualize the plant and give it a 
certain distinctive character." 
Bechstein, Carl, of Berlin, founder of 
the celebrated firm, manufacturer to 
the German Emperor, the Empress 

Frederick, Queen of England, Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, &c., was born 
June I, 1826, at Gotha. He worked in 
several factories ; 1848-52, was manager 
of Perau's piano business (Berlin) ; 
studied also in London, in Paris (Pape 
and Kriegelstein) , and began with very 
modest means, in 1854, his present 
great and highly influential business. 
Almost all continental pianists use the 
Bechstein instruments for their public 
performances, and the beauty of their 
tone, elasticity of touch, and excellent 
mechanism have obtained for them 
universal favour. The instruments are 
made in Berlin in three distinct 
factories, in which above 500 workmen 
are employed, producing about 3,500 
instruments per year, the greater 
number being grand pianos. The 
factory furnishes five styles of grands 
and four styles of uprights. Bechstein 
is assisted by his three sons, who take 
active parts in different departments. 
The King of Prussia decorated him, 
and named him Counsellor of Com- 
merce ; other European Sovereigns 
also decorated him, and the Guild of 
German musical instrument makers 
elected him chairman. 

•Becker, Jacob, of St. Petersburg, 
founder of the firm, was born in 
Neustadt a/d/Haardt ; d. 1884, St. 
Petersburg. Received diplomas as 
"Fournisseur de S.M. I'Empereur" 
(Russia), and of the Emperor of 
Austria, King of Denmark, the Grand 
Dukes Vladimir, Constantin, and 
Nicolai, of Russia. After his retire- 
ment from the business (1871), Michael 
Bietepage became the proprietor ; he 
is hereditary hon. citizen of St. Peters- 
burg, Commander of the St. Stanislas 
Order, &c. The firm's specialty is 
grand pianos. 

Behning and Son,of NewYork. (1864, 
Behning and Klix ; 1873, Behning and 
Diehl ; 1880, Behning and Son.) Henry 
Behning (b. in Hanover) served his 
apprenticeship in the factories of 



Gercke and Helmholtz (must not 
be confused with the eminent scientist 
of the same name) ; arrived (1856) 
in New York, entered the factory 
of Lighte, Newton and Bradbury, 
and remained there until 1857. 
1864, he started business with Klix, 
continued (1873) with Diehl, and, after 
the latter's retirement, with his own 
son Henry (b. Nov. 26, 1859, Bridge- 
port, Conn.). Another son, Albert (b. 
1866), is in charge of the book-keeping, 
and the youngest son, Gustav(b. 1868), 
superintends the factory. The firm's 
chief patents are a "compensating 
agraffe" (1874), "sounding-board ex- 
tension for uprights" (1882), and 
"concave name-board" (1875). A 
new bijou instrument, the "General 
Tom Thumb" piano, has been added 
to their various kinds of instruments. 

Behr Brothers, of New York (Henry, 
b. 1848, and Edward, both b. in 
Hamburg). They founded their busi- 
ness in 1881. 1889, they took out 
patents for their " hammer compen- 
sating lever " in grand piano actions 
and for their "new stringing device." 
The firm was joined by Siegfried 
Hansing, from Biickeburg, Germany 
(b. June 12, 1842), who arrived (1884) 
in America. At present the business 
is a close corporation : Henry and 
Edward Behr, Emil Hartzig, Charles 
L. Burchard, and Siegfried Hansing. 

Bent, R. M., and Co., of New York. 
The firm was founded (1868) by Richard 
M. Bent (b. 1834, New York, of 
English parents) and James F. Beames 
(d. Dec, 1889). Patents were taken 
out by R. M. Bent for "detachable 
arms and key bottom," for "bushed 
tuning-pins in full iron-frame," and 
for "practice pedal or muffler." 

•Biese.Wilhelm, of Berlin, manufacturer 
to the Prussian Court, b. April 20, 
1823, Rathenow, near Potsdam. He 
served his apprenticeship with Schulz, 
and Giinther (of Magdeburg), Eck 

fof Cologne), Kisting and Stocker 
of Berlin). He founded the firm in 
Berlin (1851). Has now 120 workmen, 
and turns out about 800 instruments 
(uprights) per year. In 1893 the 
15,000th instrument left the workshop. 
Gold medals: Stettin, 1865; Cassel, 
1870; Moscow, 1872; Berlin, 1879; 
Melbourne, 1880; Niirnberg, 1882, &c. 
The firm is well known and greatly 
•Billberg, C. H., of Goteborg (Gothen- 
burg), Sweden. The bubiness was 

founded 1868. After his death, 
William Nilsson become proprietor 
(1886). The factory makes pianinos 
and grands {see J. G. Malmsjo), and 
received fifteen medals and diplomas. 
Gold medal, 1872, at Moscow; silver 
medal, 1891, Gothenburg. 

•Bliithner, Julius Ferdinand, b. March 
II, 1824, Falkenhain, near Merseburg. 
Piano manufactory at Leipzig. He 
founded the firm (Nov. 7, 1853) with 
three workmen. 1856, he introduced 
a new mechanism and the "symmetri- 
cal " pianos, and (about 1873) the far- 
famed ' 'Aliquot "system . The business 
flourished so much that in 1880 (scarcely 
seventeen years after its foundation) 
the 15,000th, and, in 1882, the 20,000th 
instrument was sold. 1,800 pianinos 
and 1,200 grands are made per year. 
The factory is worked by two steam- 
engines and covers an area of 24,250 
square metres ; branch establishments 
in London, Berlin, Hamburg, and 
other towns. The following are the 
medals and diplomas received : Gold 
medals and first prizes — Merseburg, 
1865; Paris (first prize), 1867; Chem- 
nitz, 1867; Cassel (1867, centennial 
medal) ; Philadelphia, 1876 ; Puebla, 
1880 ; Sydney, 1879 (2) ; Melbourne, 
1881 (2) and 1889. Diplomas of honour — 
Vienna, 1873 ; Brunswick (as Juror), 
1877 ; Amsterdam, 1883 i Teplitz (as 
Juror), 1884. Personal decorations: 
Knight of the Order of Saxe-Coburg- 
Ernestine House, the Dannebrog, 
Albrecht of Saxony, Griffin of Meck- 
lenburg-Schwerin ; gold medal with the 
crown, Saxe-Altenburg ; gold medal 
of the Royal Italian "Bellini" Club 
of Catania ; patent of manufacturer 
to the Kings of Saxony and Greece; 
Counsellor of Commerce, &c. The 
excellence of his instruments is every- 
where acknowledged and appreciated. 

Boardman and Gray, of Albany, U.S. 
The firm was founded (i 835) by William 
Boardman (b. 1800, Albany; d. 1881), 
James Gray (b. 1815, New York), and 
Hazelton {see this name), the latter 
working in the business. 1850, Gray 
went with several instruments to 
England, and introduced his patented 
" Dolce Campana," insulated iron-rim 
and frame, and the corrugated sounding- 
board. 1877, his son, William, was 
admitted as partner. 

*Bosendorfer, Ludwig, of Vienna, b. 
April 10, 1835. The firm was founded 

(1828) by his father, Ignaz Bosendorfer 
b. 1795, d. 1859, Vienna), a pupil of 



Brodmann, who soon succeeded in 
making his name known and respected. 
After his death his son, Ludwig, intro- 
duced great improvements, and adapted 
the construction of his pianos more to 
American and English principles, 
while adhering to the so-called Vienna 
mechanism. His concert grands, 
however, are made with the English 
action. He introduced the "Piano 
Imperial" (compass, 8 octaves). The 
firm received the highest medals and 
several diplomas, but exhibits now as 
fiors concours. Received the patent 
as Kaiserl Konigl.-Hof und Kammer 
Pianoforte Fabrik. Ludwig was deco- 
rated with the Golden Cross of Merit 
with the Crown, and received the title 
of Imperial Counsellor of Commerce. 
1872, he opened a concert-room, in 
which nearly all the chamber concerts 
are given. The beauty of his pianos, 
their elastic touch, excellent treble, 
sonorous bass, and singing quality of 
the middle registers is recognised by 
all the pianists who perform in the 
Austrian capital and provincial towns. 
He is well known as a generous and 
liberal patron of young and striving 

♦Boisselot, fils et Cie, of Marseilles. 
This eminent firm was founded (182S) 
by Jean Louis Boisselot (b. 1788) and 
his son, Louis (b. 1810, d. 1850), as 
Boisselot et fils. It was continued by 
the son Xavier. Since 1865, it has 
been Boisselot, fils et Cie., and is 
under the direction of Jean Louis's 
grandson, Marie Louis Franz (b. 1845). 
1844, the firm received the patent as 
" Foumisseur du Roi"; 1838, as 
" Fournisseur de I'lnstitut" ; 1855, the 
Cross of the Legion d'honneur. Gold 
medals, 1844 and 1849, Paris ; silver 
medals, 1834 and 1839 ; medal of the 
first class, 1859, Paris ; prize medal, 
1862, London ; diplomas and medals at 
the " Expositions regionales." The 
firm patented pianos with "pedal 
tonale," " Clediharmonique a queue," 
&c. The factory is worked by steam, 
and the instruments are greatly 

•Bord, A., et Cie., of Paris. This well- 
known factory was founded (1840) by 
Jean Denis Antoine Bord (b. 1814, d. 
March 4, 1888, Paris). The firm 
employs 300 workmen (up to 1893 
had made 84,000 instruments, mostly 
pianinos), uses steam power in the 
chief factory at St. Ouen (Seine), and 
makes ten instruments per day. Bord 

was Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
member of the Jury at Paris (1878), 
Rouen, and Bordeaux. Gold medal, 
Lyons, 1872 ; Melbourne, 1880 ; Bor- 
deaux, 1S82; Amsterdam, 1883; Rouen, 
1884 ; Paris, 1889 ; prize medal, London, 

Desert and Schomaker, of Phila- 
delphia. (See Schomaker and Co.) 

•Bretschneider, Alexander, of Leipzig. 
Founded 1833, by Ludwig Alexander 
Bretschneider (b. 1806, Gera ; d. 1870, 
Leipzig). He was succeeded by his 
son, Robert. The firm makes grands 
and uprights, and enjoys a good 
reputation for solidity of construction, 
evenness of tone, and elasticity of 

Briggs and Co., of Boston, Mass. C. 
C. Briggs entered (1854) the business 
of Emerson, soon became foreman, con- 
tributed materially to the improvement 
of the Emerson pianos [see Emerson), 
and, entering (1861) into partnership 
with George M. Guild [see this name), 
founded the firm Guild and Co. After 
some years he entered into business 
with his son, C. C. Briggs, jun. 
Briggs and Co. were among the first 
to develop the resources of the upright 
in America for general use. 

*3rinsniead,John,and Sons, of London. 
Founded (1837) by John Brinsmead, 
in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square; 
moved from there to Tottenham Court 
Road, and eventually to Kentish Town ; 
the warehouse is in Wigmore Street, 
Cavendish Square. The firm turns out 
about 2,000 instruments per year, and 
patented a perfect check repeater. 
Has exhibited in European and 
Colonial towns, and received many 
medals and diplomas. The principal 
of the firm was decorated with the 
Legion of Honour (1878) and a 
Portuguese Order (1883). His son, 
Edgar, is the author of a " History of 
the Piano." Medals: London, 1862, 
1884, 1885; Paris, 1867, 1870, 1874, 
1878; Jamaica, 1891; Edinburgh, 1890; 
Barcelona, 1888 ; Calcutta, 1884 ; New 
Zealand, 1882 ; Melbourne, 1881 ; 
Naples, 1886, &c. 

*Broadwood, John, and Sons. Ware- 
houses : 33, Great Pulteney Street ; 9, 
Golden Square ; and Bridle Lane, 
London. Manufactory : Horseferry 
Road, Wood Wharf, Grosvenor Road, 
Westminster. Founded (1732) at Great 
Pulteney Street, by Burkat Shudi 
(Burkhard Tschudi). Shudi (b. 1702, 
^- 1773)1 harpsichord maker, took 



John Broadwood (b. 1732, d. 1812) 
into partnership (known as Shudi 
and Broadwood) in 1770. Shudi's 
patent for the Venetian swell in 
harpsichords (No. 947, 1769) was 
for an invention subsequently trans- 
ferred to the organ. After Shudi's 
demise John Broadwood continued the 
business with Shudi's son, Burkat — 
an arrangement which lasted about 
nine years, and then left John Broad- 
wood sole proprietor. After the elder 
Shudi's death, John Broadwood de- 
voted himself to the improvement of 
the newly introduced pianoforte. His 
patent (No. 1379, 1783) was for the 
invention of the loud and soft pedals, 
and an entire remodelling of the square 
piano. About 1788 he divided the 
belly bridge, the lower section to carry 
the bass strings. As he did not patent 
this invention, it was at once univer- 
sally adopted. 1795, he took his son, 
James Shudi (b. 1772, d. 1851) into 
partnership, and the firm became 
John Broadwood and Son ; 1808, by 
the admission of another son, Thomas, 
the firm became Broadwood and Sons. 
The most important invention intro- 
duced by James and Thomas Broad- 
wood was the metal string plate, first 
applied in 1822, and patented in com- 
bination with metal bars (No. 5,485) 
in 1827. 1834, Henry Fowler Broad- 
wood (b. iSii.d. 1893) joined the firm, 
and for more than fifty years was the 
leading partner. 1847, he invented 
the grand piano in a complete iron 
frame, combined with a diagonal bar. 
Averse to patents, he took no steps 
to protect this or any improvement 
effected during his control, with the 
exception of an iron pin-piece and 
screw tuning-pins (No. 1,283, 1862). 
1843, Walter Stewart Broadwood and 
Thomas Broadwood, jun., became 
partners; 1857, George Thomas Rose, 
Fr. Rose, and, until 1861, John Reid ; 
1881, Henry John Tschudi Broadwood!; 
1883, Geo. Daniel Rose ; 1890, James 
Henry Tschudi Broadwood ; and (1894) 
W. C. Dobbs, grandson of H. F. 
Broadwood and, in direct descent, of 
the sixth generation, counting from 
Shudi. The last four, with Fr. Rose, 
form the present firm (1895). Recent 
patents are (No. 1,231, 1888) for a steel 
frame piano without baas, taken out 
by H. J. Tschudi Broadwood, and 
(No. 7,665, provisionally, 1893) for an 
improvement in the repetition grand 
action, by G. D. Rose. The medals 
awarded to the firm in connection with 

Exhibitions are dated 1851, 1862 ; 
Paris, 1867 (first gold medal for 
England) ; and in the last important 
piano competition, which took place at 
the Inventions Exhibition, 1885, a gold 
medal, and, in addition, the further 
honour of the gold medal of the Society 
of Arts. A gold medal was also 
received from the Tasmanian Exhibi- 
tion, 1892. From 1740, and, it may 
be, earlier, this house has had the 
patroucige of the English Court. It 
is the oldest pianoforte business in 
the world, and is probably the oldest 
existing in England of any kind still 
located in the original premises. 

[Besides the great merits this firm 
may honourably claim as manufac- 
turers, there is another, and not the 
least, which they could not themselves 
advert to, but may be justly added; 
and that is the most generous manner 
in which they have assisted some of 
the foremost English musicians to 
pursue their studies in Germany, and 
have foimd opportunities for removing 
otherwise almost insuperable difficul- 
ties for young artists in the early days 
of their career.] 
Brown and Hallett, of Boston, Mass., 
established 1835. Edwin Brown took 
out patents for several important im- 
provements. {See Hallett, Davis & Co.) 

Brown, Simpson & Co., of Worcester, 
Mass. Founded Aug. 10, 1883, by 
Theodor Brown (b. Oct. 2, i860. 
Maiden, Mass.). The specialty of their 
instruments is " first-class in every 
respect." A gold medal was granted 
at New England Fair, 1889. 

•Browne, Justin, piano manufacturer, 
London; b. Dec. 21, 1838, London. 
He served his apprenticeship with 
Messrs. Ennever and Son, and was sub- 
sequently with Messrs. Broadwood ajid 
Sons, and Erard. He started his own 
business in 1864, and is now in the 
first rank of English piano makers. 
The secret of his success was the intro- 
duction of a new iron frame, which 
was registered under the number of 
32,924. His uprights are built on 
exactly the same lines as horizontal 
grand pianos, and thus stand equally 
well in tune ; they combine all the im- 
provements which produce delicacy 
and responsiveness of touch, perfection 
of repetition, &c. During the last 
thirty years above 16,000 instruments 
have been sold in the home and foreign 
markets. Prize medal, London, 1885 ; 
gold medal, Liverpool, 1886 ; highest 



award, New Zealand Exhibition, 1890- 
These are the only exhibitions where 
his instruments were shown. Vice- 
President of the Musical Trades Asso- 

ciation, and elected by the London 
Chamber of Arbitration as Arbitrator 
to settle disputes in connection with 
the music trade and profession. 


*Challen and Son, of London. Founded 
(1804J by Thomas Butcher, who retired 
(1830) and was succeeded by William 
Challen (associated with him since 
1816). He died 1861, having retired 
in favour of his son, C. Challen. 1862, 
C. Challen entered into partnership 
with the publishers, Duff and Hodgson ; 
after the death of Duflf (1863) and 
Hodgson (1873), C. H. Challen was 
admitted as partner, the style of the 
firm being altered to Challen and Son. 
Their upright pianos enjoy a well- 
merited and extensive reputation. 
Among many medals received in 1862, 
1877, 1881, 1885, 1886, is the "Medaille 
d'honneur" awarded at the Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1878. One of their specialties 
is the " Dulcephone," or piano lone 

•Chappell & Co., of London (warehouse, 
53, New Bond Street ; factory, Belmont 
Street, Chalk Farm Road.N.W.). The 
firm commenced 1861 and has, up to 
the present time (1893), made up- 
wards of 30,000 instruments. Thomas 
Chappell, as head of the firm, takes 
great interest in the improvement of 
the instruments and the enlargement of 
this successful business. The special- 
ties are "Student's Piano" (five 
octaves), school pianinos, cottage 
oblique, overstrung and horizontal 
grand pianos, the Eolian piano (a com- 
bination of piano and harmonium), 
and yacht pianinos with folding key- 
board. The latest improvement is the 
" upright grand." Since 1862, the firm 
has received nine medals. 

*Chickering and Sons, of Boston and 
New York. This far-famed factory 
was founded in April, 1823, by Jonas 
Chickering (b. April 5, 1798, Mason, 
New Hampshire; d. Dec. 8, 1853). 
At present, Geo. H. Chickering is 
president ; Henry Saltonstall, vice- 
president ; and C. H. W. Foster, 
treasurer of the very extensive 
business. At first Jonas Chickering 
only made square pianos ; these 
were succeeded (1830) by uprights, 
and (1840) by grands. Of square 
pianos three different kinds are made, 

of uprights the same number, and of 
grand pianos the firm makes small 
parlour grands, semi-grands, and full 
concert grands. Up to March, 1894, 
84,000 instruments had been sold. 
Medals were obtained — 1876 (gold), 
Paris ; 1875 (first grand gold), Santiago 
de Chili; 1876 (gold), Philadelphia; 

1883, Cork ; 1884, London, Crystal 
Palace; three first gold medals at 
exhibitions in the United States during 

1884. " In all a total of 128 first 
medals and awards." Cross of the 
Legion of Honour, 1867 (Paris). The 
factory, in Tremont Street, Boston, 
has about five acres of floor space. 
The beauty and solidity of the instru- 
ments have been acknowledged by the 
most celebrated artists of the present 

♦Collard and Collard, of London. The 
founders of this celebrated firm were 
the publishers, Longman and Broderip, 
located, since 1767, at 26, Cheapside, 
London. They were joined (1798- 
1800) by Muzio Clementi, who invested 
part of his money in the factory, and 
succeeded by degrees, in company 
with F. W. and W. P. Collard, in 
gaining a lasting reputation for their 
instruments. 1798-1800, the firm was 
Clementi and Co. Clementi did not 
possess any practical knowledge of piano 
construction, but suggested all possible 
advantageous points for the performer, 
whilst F. W. Collard took out (as early 
as 1 811) patents for important improve- 
ments. After the retirement of Cle- 
menti, the firm became Collard and 
Collard. On the decease of F. W. 
Collard and the retirement of F. W. 
Collard, jun. (1859), Charles Lukey 
Collard, who was left sole remaining 
partner, determined to remove the head- 
quarters of the firm to the West-End 
(Grosvenor Street), when an enormous 
expansion of trade followed. Charles 
L. Collard died at his Bournemouth 
residence (Ravensworth) on Dec. 9, 
1 89 1. The names of the present 
partners are William Stuartson Collard, 
John Clementi Collard, and Cecil 
Collard. The world-wide fame which 



the Collard and Collard pianos have 
obtained through their solidity of 
construction, extraordinary durability, 
brightness and sweetness of tone, is so 
great as to need no further comment. 

Conover Brothers, of Kansas City and 
New York (J. Frank Conover, b. 
Jan. 31, 1843, and George H. Conover, 
b. June 20, 1844). The firm was estab- 
lished (1870) in Kansas and (1880) in 
New York. The Kansas business was 
sold in Jan., 1889. Patents have been 
taken out since 1878 : 1884, for a 
"duplex bridge with auxiliary vibra- 
tors." According to reports, the 
accuracy of which cannot be vouched 
for, the business was given up in 1893. 

♦Cramer and Co., of London. The 
business was started (1865) by George 
Wood, in connection with the well- 

known music warehouse established 
(1824) in Regent Street. Specialties 
are pianettes, uprights, and grands, 
also table and yacht pianos. Silver 
medal, 1885, in London. 

Cristofori, Bartolommeo di Francesco 
(b. 1651 ; d. 1731), a harpsichord 
maker, of Padua, afterwards of 
Florence, in the service of Prince 
Ferdinand dei Medici, and, at last, of 
the Grand Duke ; the inventor of the 
pianoforte. In 1709, Cristofori had 
made four pianofortes, three being of 
the usual harpsichord or grand form, 
the other not described. Two grand 
pianos by him are still existing in 
Florence, dated respectively 1720 and 
1726. The action of these instruments 
is complete, with escapement, check, 
and damper. 


Decker Brothers, of New York (David 
and Johann Jacob, both born in 
Germany). "They have, from 1862 
to 1890, kept well in the front rank," 
and are known and esteemed for their 
intelligence, self-confidence, practical 
skill, and sympathy with musical art. 
David retired several years ago. The 
firm has taken out five patents. 

Decker and Son, of New York. Founded 
by Myron A. Decker (b. 1823, Man- 
chester, Ontario, C. of New York), 
who arrived {1844) ^ New York; 
" served four years' apprenticeship in 
the shop of Van Winckle"; accepted 
(1849) an offer to go to Albany, to the 
firm of Boardman and Gray ; started 
(1856) his own business in Albany, 
and opened (1864) his house in New 
York. Since 1875 his son, Frank C. 
Decker (b. 1858), has been partner. 
The firm enjoys great popularity, and 
the Decker pianos have a ready sale. 

•Domer, P., and Son, of Stuttgart. 
The firm was founded by Fr. Dorner 
(b. 1806, Stuttgart ; d. there Jan. 21, 
1882) in 1830, and soon obtained the 

patronage of his countrymen, and, 
later, of the public of other countries. 
The firm obtained twelve first medals, 
the patent as manufacturers to the 
Court of Wurtemberg and to H.R.H. 
the Prince of Hohenzollern, and the 
principal was decorated with the 
"Friedrich" Order. Their pianinos 
and grands are solidly constructed, 
and possess all the most important 
improvements of recent date. 

*Duysen, Jes Lewe, of Berlin, b. Aug. 
I, 1 82 1, Flensburg. He served his 
apprenticeship in the factory of 
Hansen (Flensburg). i860, he estab- 
lished himself at Berlin, and was soon 
successful, the construction, tone, 
touch, and solidity of his instruments 
being much admired. The factory 
turns out 250 pianinos and 200 grands 
per year. Manufacturer to the German 
Emperor and Graod Duke of Saxe- 
Weimar ; Counsellor of Commerce ; 
Knight of the Prussian Crown and of 
a Tunisian Order. First medal: 
Vienna, 1873; Santiago, 1875 ; Utrecht, 
1876; Berlin, 1879. 




♦Eavestaff, W. G., and Sons, of 
London. The factory was founded 
by William Eavestaff (1823) and carried 
on, since 1851, by his son, William G. 
Eavestaff. The specialty of their 
uprights is full and rich tone, excellent 
repetition, and evenness of registers. 
1855, the firm introduced entire cast- 
iron frames. The Eavestaflf pianinos 
belong to the best manufactured in 

♦Eck and Lefdbvre (late of Cologne). 
This, for a short time (1840-44), cele- 
brated and valued firm, was founded 
by Jacob Eck (b. 1804), who was 
joined by Lefebvre. Without any 
fault of theirs, the business had to be 
liquidated, and Eck retired to Ziirich, 
where he died about 1849. 

Emerson Piano Company, of Boston, 
Mass. Founded (1849) by William P. 
Emerson. 1854, C. C. Briggs (see this 
name) entered the shop, became fore- 
man at once, and contributed materially 
towards the reputation of the company. 
Briggs left (1861), and joined G. M. 
Guild in the establishment of the firm 
M. Guild and Co. 

Erard, of Paris and London. This 
world-wide knovim firm was founded 
by Sebastian Erard (Erhard), b. April 
5, 1752, Strassburg ; d. Aug. 5, 1831, 
at his chateau, near Passy, Paris. 
About 1772 he established himself 
with his brother, Jean Baptiste, in the 
Rue de Bourbon (Paris) . The branch 
establishment in London was opened 
1786, and the firm obtained both in 

England and France a great reputation 
and permanent success. 1821, the 
highly important repetition action was 
invented. After Sebastian Erard's 
death the business passed into the 
hands of his nephew, Pierre Erard (b. 
1796, d. Aug. 18, 1855), who published 
(1834) " Perfectionnement apport^s 
dans le m^canisme du piano par les 
Erard depuis I'origine de cet instrument 
jusqu'a I'exposition de 1834." Pierre 
was succeeded by the nephew of his 
wife, Pierre Schaffer (d. 1878), and the 
proprietor of the business is now 
Comte de Franqueville. The London 
manufactory has been discontinued 
since 1890. The Erard firm has been 
connected with all the foremost pianists 
(Chopin excepted) of our time. Piano 
maker to H.M. Queen Victoria, the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, the 
Queens of Spain and Belgium. Only 
Council medal, London, 1851 ; Grand 
Prix de Paris, 1889 ; gold medal, Paris, 
1819, 1823, 1827, 1834, 1839, 1844, 1851, 
1855, 1878 ; and medals (2), Sydney, 
1879 ; Melbourne (3), i88o ; Kimberley, 

Estey Piano, The, formerly known as 
" Arion " piano, manufactured by 
Simpson and Co., which is now the 
" Estey" Company (New York). The 
manager is at present Stephen Bram- 
bach (brother of the celebrated com- 
poser of Bonn on the Rhine), whilst 
another brother, Carl, also entered 
the business. R. Proddow and J. B. 
Simpson are the principals. 


"Fischer, J. and C, of New York. This 
iirm, at first established in Naples 
(Italy), was started (1840) in New York 
by John N. and Charles S. Fischer, 
both born in Naples. They manu- 

facture grand and upright pianos, and 
have received, among other medals, 
those of the Exhibitions at Montreal, 
1881 ; New Orleans, 1885 ; and Chicago, 




Gale, A. H., and Co., of New York (see 
New York Piano Co.). Their pianos 
were familiar features of the American 
trade for upward of thirty years ; but 
the firm disappeared about 1870. 

Geib, John, probably a German, was a 
square pianoforte maker in London, 
and is known to have made such 
instruments for Longman and Broderip, 
in Cheapside. His claim to permanent 
record rests upon his having invented 
the "hopper," a form of escapement 
lever that was employed in square 
and upright pianos for many years. 
He patented this invention in 1786. 
He transferred his business to New 
York, John and Adam Geib appearing 
as piano makers in the directory of 
that city in 1807. He appears to have 
died before 1809, but the name has 
been carried on in different American 
firms until a recent date. 

•Graf, Conrad, of Vienna, b. Nov. 17, 
1782, Riedlingen (Wiirtemberg) ; d. 
March 18, 1851, Vienna. At first a 
cabinet maker. 1799, had to serve in 
the Voluntary Rifle Corps of Vienna ; 
1802, he entered the business of 
Schelkle (Vienna) as a workman, and 

developed such remarkable talent for 
mechanical works that, in 1804, he was 
able to establish himself as piano 
maker. Being a man of great energy, 
perseverance, and industry, he has 
succeeded in gaining, since 1830, a 
great reputation for his pianos, which 
were used by Thalberg, Liszt, Dohler, 
Willmers, Sophie Bohrer, and other 
eminent performers. On the occasion 
of the marriage of Clara Wieck with 
Robert Schumann, Graf presented the 
bride with an excellent piano of his 
manufacture, which Robert Schumann 
liked so much that he used it until his 
death, after which it came into the 
possession of Johannes Brahms, who 
presented it to the Museum of the 
" Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde " 
(Vienna). Graf received the patent 
as manufacturer to the Imperial and 
Royal Court of Austria, and several 
gold medals. The great reputation of 
the " Vienna" pianos rests principally 
on those made by Streicher and Graf, 
and, in later years, by Bosendorfer. 
Guild, George M., of Boston, Mass. 
The pianos made since i86i {see 
Briggs) "are well known for their 
modest price." 


*Hagspiel and Co., of Dresden 
Founded (1851) by Gustav Hagspiel 
(b. 1820, d. 1879), and is at present 
under the direction of his son, Oscar 
(b. 1852). The specialty is the so- 
called " semi-grand." These instru- 
ments have obtained considerable 
fame, and brought to the fijrm medals 
— Dresden, 1871 and 1875 ; Chemnitz, 
1867; Vienna, 1873; San Jago, 1875; 
Graz, 1880; and London, 1884. The 
King of Saxony named him manufac- 
turer to the Court. 

Haines Brothers. Napoleon J. Haines 
(b. 1824, London) and Francis W. 
Haines (d. Sept. 18, 1887), of New 
York. The brothers worked from 
1839 in the shop of the New York 
Piano Manufacturing Company, and 
started business on their own account 
in 1 85 1. The firm soon gained a 
foremost place. Since 1870 they have 

directed their chief attention to the 
manufacture of uprights, and have left 
off making square pianos. 

Hallet, Davis and Co., of Boston, 
Mass. ; followed the firm of Brown 
and Hallet (see this firm), under the 
direction of Russell Hallet and George 
Davis. The latter died in 1879, when 
the firm was changed into Hallet and 

Hallet and Allen (later, Hallet and 
Cumston). 1839. Cumston took out a 
patent for a damper improvement in 

*Hals Brothers, of Christiania (Norway). 
Manufacturers to the King of Sweden 
and Norway. The firm was established 
on Nov. 3, 1847, t>y the brothers Karl 
and Fetter Hals. The latter died 1871, 
and Karl carried on the business alone 
(b. April 27, 1822) on the family estate. 



Willberg, near Christiania. His sons, 
Thor and Sigurd, entered later as 
partners. The firm employs 100 work- 
men ; produces 10 to 12 instruments 
per week — concert grands, semi-grands, 
and uprights. A music warehouse is 
connected with the manufactory ; and 
in the adjoining concert-room (holding 
600 persons) the principal concerts of 
native and foreign artists are given. 
The principal is Commander of the St. 
Olaf Order (Norway), Danebrog (Den- 
mark), and Knight of the Legion of 
Honour ; also gold medalist of King 
Oscar II. Medals received: London, 
1862; Stockholm, 1866; Paris, 1867, 
1878, and 1880 ; Drammen, 1873 ; 
Christiania, 1874 and t88o; Melbourne, 

Hardman, Peck and Co., of New York. 
Founded, 1842, by Hugh Hardman ; 
later, the firm consisted of John 
Hardman (son of Hugh Hardman, 
who retired) and Leopold Peck. John 
Hardman died Nov. 10, 1889, but the 
name of the firm remains unaltered. 
Among the patented improvements 
used are a "key frame support" and 
a "harp stop." 

Hawkins, John Isaac, an Englishman, 
who, by the way, invented ever-pointed 
pencils, has the great merit of having 
invented the modern upright piano- 
forte, with the strings descending 
below the keyboard and the bottom 
of the instrument resting upon the 
floor. Before his, upright pianos were 
either grand or square pianos turned 
up on end, and resting upon a stand 
or framed support. He patented his 
invention for a "portable grand," as 
he called it, at Philadelphia, U.S.A., 
where he was living at the time, in 
Feb., 1800, and in the same year he 
patented it in London, through his 
father, Isaac Hawkins. The specifica- 
tion contains a remarkable bundle of 
inventions, some of which have since 
been developed with important results. 
Hawkins's "portable grand" is the 
modern cottage piano, but with the 
instrument independent of the case, 
in an iron frame, and the wrest-plank 
resting upon a metal support. It has 
an equal length of string throughout, 
tuning by mechanical screws, and a 
system of iron rods at the back to 
resist the tension ; also metal supports 
to the action, which, in its principle, 
anticipated Wornum's famous action ; 
finally, a folding keyboard and a 
"volte subito," or leaf-turner. Other 
ideas in his patent are not carried out 

in the specimen Messrs. Broad wood 
possess. One was coiled strings in the 
bass, to do away with tension ; another 
a sostenente, to be attained by a rapid 
reiteration of the hammer blow. He 
introduced this sostenente by means of 
a ring-bow mechanism in an instrument 
he called the " claviol," resembling 
a cabinet piano, in a concert at Phila- 
delphia, June 21, 1802. He removed 
to Bordentown, New Jersey, and, in 
1813, went to England to exhibit his 
inventions, which had been, however, 
to a certain extent, already appro- 
priated. He subsequently became a 
prominent member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers. The years of his 
birth and death do not appear to be 

Hazelton Brothers, of New York. 
The firm was founded by Henry 
Hazelton (b. 1816, New York). 1831, 
he served seven years' apprenticeship 
in the factory of Dubois and Stodart. 
May 19, 1838, he went, in company 
with James A. Gray and other young 
piano makers, to Albany, and entered 
the business of William G. Boardman ; 
but soon after he engaged in the 
manufacture of the " Hazelton " 
pianos, having as partners A. G. Lyon 
and Talbot. 1841, he removed to New 
York, and associated (1850) vdth his 
brothers Frederick and John, when 
the name of the firm became Hazelton 
Brothers. They build grands, squares, 
and uprights, the excellence of which 
has won a high reputation for the 

*Herz, Henri, of Paris. This celebrated 
manufactory was founded 1825, and 
obtained, after a comparatively short 
time, a European reputation. The 
fine, rich tone, evenness of registers, 
and excellence of touch were every- 
where admired, and won for their 
grands and uprights the following 
distinctions : — Gold medals : Paris, 
1844, 1878, Medals of honour : Paris, 
1855; Oporto, 1865; Melbourne, 1880, 
1 88 1, 1B89; London, 1862. Diplomas 
of honour: Metz and Nantes, 1861 ; 
Bordeaux, 1865 ; Amsterdam, 1869 ; 
Paris, 1875. Hors concours: Paris, 
1867; Lyons, 1872. 1864, he received 
the patent as " Fournisseur de I'lm- 
peratrice des Frangais." (For other 
distinctions, see Henri Herz.) Up to 
the present (1893) 33. 5°° instruments 
have been sold. After Herz's death 
(Jan. 5, 1888) the business was con- 
tinued by Amedee Thibout et Cie. 
Thibout is " Officier de 1' Academic." 



•Hopkinson, J. and J., of London. 
Founded by John Hopkinson, b. Dec. 
5, 1811, Chatham; d. April 4, 1886, 
Criccieth (North Wales). 1835, he 
began to make pianos at Leeds, but, 
taking his brother James into partner- 
ship, moved (1846) to London, and 
opened warerooms in Soho Square, 
employing six workmen and two ap- 
prentices. 1851, he took out a patent 
for a repetition and tremolo action on 
an entirely new principle. 1853, anew 
factory was built in Diana Place, Euston 
Road, but destroyed by fire in 1856 : 
during the rebuilding of the factory, 
the warerooms were removed to 235, 
Regent Street, where the business was 
carried on for twenty -six years. James 
Hopkinson, who had, till 1856, 
managed the business at Leeds, came 
to London, leaving another brother, 
Thomas Barker Hopkinson, as his 
successor at Leeds. 1866, a new 
factory was built at Fitzroy Road, 
Primrose Hill. i86g, John Hopkinson 
retired, and two sons of James 
Hopkinson (John and James) were 
(1874) admitted as partners. The 
warerooms were moved to 95, New 
Bond Street. 1883, James Hopkinson 
(sen.) retired, and William Wood, a 
trusted superintendent of the business, 
was taken as partner. The firm re- 
ceived the following medals: — 1851, 
prize medal, London ; 1855, gold medal, 
Paris ; 1862, prize medal, London ; first 

class medals were gained at Wakefield, 
Dublin, and York (1885 and 1886) 
Dublin and Leeds (1872 and 1875) 
Only gold medal for England, 1878 
Paris ; prize medal, York, 1879 ; Edin 
burgh, i886; gold medal, London 
1885, and Melbourne, 1888. The ware 
rooms are at present (1892) at 34-36 
Margaret Street, Cavendish Square 

"Hornung and MoUer, of Copenhagen, 
manufacturers to the Danish Court. 
The manufactory was founded (1827) 
by Conrad Christian Hornung, b. July 
I, 1801, Skjelsbor, Island of Seeland 
(Denmark), who transferred it (1851) 
to his former assistant, Hans Petter 
Moller (b. May, 1802, Copenhagen). 
It was still called Hornung and Moller. 
1842, the firm introduced the entire 
cast-iron frame. The factory is worked 
by steam aud employs about 100 work- 
men. The excellence of the instru- 
ments is generally acknowledged. 

^Hiiniand Hiibert, of Zurich. This once 
highly successful firm was founded by 
Hiini, a native of Switzerland, and 
Hiibert, a German ; their successors 
were the brothers Bourry from Alsace. 
After a conflagration in 1885, which 
destroyed the factory, the business was 
given up. The pianos exhibited (1862) 
in London showed extreme solidity 
and general beauty and excellence of 
tone and touch. 


♦Ibach, Rudolf Johann, of Barmen, 
Schwelm, and Cologne. This cele- 
brated firm was founded (1794) by 
Johannes Adolph Ibach (b. 1766, Bar- 
men ; d. there 1848) ; he was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Rudolf (1804-63), 
who was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Rudolf (1843 - 92), who was 
succeeded on his death by his sons. 
Manufacturers to the King of Prussia, 
Duke of Meiningen, &c. The beauty 
and solidity of their grand pianos, 
uprights and school instruments are 
well known, and won diplomas and 
medals of the highest class in the Exhi- 
bitions of Diisseldorf, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
London, Altona, Dresden, Vienna, 
Philadelphia, Melbourne, and Sydney. 
Branch establishments in London, 
Berlin, and Cologne. 

*Irmler, sen., J. G., of Leipzig. The 
business was founded 11818), by Joh. 
Christian Gottlieb Irmler, b. Feb. 11, 
1790, Grumbach, near Dresden ; d. 
1857, Leipzig. His successors were 
his sons. Otto and Oswald, and his 
grandson, Emil Irmler. Manufacturers 
to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. The excellence of their 
pianos was recognised by several 
medals and diplomas, and (1842) a gold 
medal for special merit from the King 
of Saxony. 

Ivers, Pond and Co., of Boston, Mass. 
The business was started (1872) by 
William H. Ivers, a graduate of the 
Chickering Factory (Boston. Since 
1872 he has patented many improve- 



James and Holstrom, of New York. 
This successful firm was founded in 
1873, and, according to Spillane, the 
historian of the American piano, 


*Kaim und Sohn (formerly Kaim and 
Giinther), of Kirchheim and Teck, 
near Stuttgart; founded, 18 19, by 
Franz Kaim. Their grand pianos, 
uprights, and square pianos for hot 
climates received medals wherever 
they were exhibited. The firm holds 
appointments to the Kings of Bavaria 
and Wiirtemberg and other princely 
houses. Branch establishments in 
Munich, Augsburg, and Stuttgart, 
whilst their instruments are sold in 
London (84, New Bond Street). 
Kaps, Ernst, of Dresden, manufacturer 
to the Court of Saxony, b. Dec. 6, 
1826, Dobeln (Saxony); d. Feb., 1887, 
Dresden. After having visited the 
best factories of Copenhagen, Stock- 
holm, Paris, Italy, and London, and 
worked in several of them, he estab- 
lished himself (1859) in Dresden, and 
succeeded after a short time in getting 
many orders for his (now well-known) 
short grands. He patented a " Re- 
sonator Patent Fliigel," a " Pianino n it 
Ton-Refiektor," and advertised the 
" Piano a pittura " and the " Resonator 
Mascagni Fliigel." He was succeeded 
by his sons. 
Keller Brothers and Blight Co., 
The, of Bridgeport, Ct. The firm was 
founded by Joseph Keller (b. Sept., 
1856, New York) in 1882. The 
specialty of the firm is upright pianos, 
for which they have received several 
State Fair medals. 
Kirkman and Son. This firm was 
founded by Jacob Kirchmann (the c has 
been dropped and the h altered into k 
in the present century 1 in the neigh- 
bourhood of Golden Square, London, 
before 1740, and is one of the two 
oldest houses in the pianoforte trade 
now existing. 

Whereas Mr. Hermann Tabel, late of 
Swallow Street, the famous Harpsichord 
maker, dead, hath left several fine Harpsi- 
chords to be disposed of by Mr. Kirckman, 
his late Foreman ; this is to acquaint the 
Curious, that the said Harpsichords, which 
are the finest he ever made, are to be seen at 
the said Mr. Kirckman's, the corner of 
Pultcney Court in Cambridge Street, over 
against bilver Street, near Golden Square. — 
Daily Gazetteer, May 8, 1739. 

their instruments have come to be 
known as reliable in every sense. 
They have a good musical connec- 

According to the parish books of 
St. James's, he rented a house in 
Great Pulteney Street East, on the 
opposite side of the way to his rival, 
Shudi, from June, 1739, to the end of 
1749. The rate book of 1750 is not 
forthcoming, and in the next year 
he had gone elsewhere. Jacob 
Kirckman acquired a great repu- 
tation as a maker of spinets and 
harpsichords; in the time of Dr. 
Burney his business was carried on at 
the sign of "The King's Arms" (now 
No. 19, Broad Street, Soho), which 
testifies to the patronage he was 
honoured with from George II. and 
George III. He married the widow 
of his former master, Tabel, a harpsi- 
chord maker in Swallow Street, Picca- 
dilly, and having no children by this 
marriage, he ultimately took (about 
1770) his nephew, Abraham Kirkman, 
into partnership with him. He died, 
according to Burney, about 1778. 
Towards the end of the century a 
Joseph Kirkman owned the business 
alone. There is a harpsichord of his 
make existing dated 1798. The Kirk- 
mans began to make pianofortes as 
early as 1774, and the development of 
the instrument, in their hands, followed 
on similar lines to those adopted by their 
contemporaries. The second Joseph 
Kirkman (who died, aged eighty-seven, 
in 1877) became the head of an im- 
portant pianoforte business, which was 
much advanced by his second son, 
Henry, who, however, predeceased 

'After 1877 it was continued for his 
eldest son, Joseph, and, since 1883, 
has been controlled by his grandson, 
Henry Reece, representing the fifth 
generation of the same family. Kirk- 
mans removed from Broad Street to 
No. 3, Soho Square, in 1820, and, in 
1893, to George Street, Hanover 
Square, premises formerly the well 
known Edwards Hotel. The manu- 
factory has been at Hammersmitli 
since 1866. Two of Kirkman's patents 
deserve notice : — (i) For the use of 



wrought steel tension bars and wrest- 
plank for horizontal grand pianos, 
taken out in i8fo, and renewed in 
1877; and (2) the "Melo" attach- 
ment for grand pianos, an Italian 
invention bought by them in 1875 
(relinquished in 1882). Influenced by 
the German school of pianoforte 
making, they early adopted the " over- 
strung" system, but, after careful 
trial, abandoned it. They, however, 
aim at a compromise between the 
German and English systems, and 
also use the Herz-Erard action in 
their grand pianos. In exhibitions, 
the Kirkman firm has been awarded 
a silver medal in 1851 and a prize 
medal in 1862, the medal of progress 
at Vienna in 1873, and a gold medal 
at the Inventions Exhibition, 1885. 

Knabe, William, of Baltimore, b. 1803, 
Kreuzburg, district Oppeln (Prussia) ; 
d. 1864, Baltimore. On his arrival in 
America he worked in Hartye's factory, 
and then started a business (1839) with 
Henry Gaehle. The partnership was 
dissolved in 1854. i860, the great 
excellence of the Knabe pianos was 
generally recognised and willingly 
acknowledged. He was succeeded by 
his sons, William (1841-1889) and 
Ernest, and a relative, Charles Keidel. 

♦Knake, Gebriider, of Miinster, West- 
phalia. The firm was founded (1808) 
at Heiden (Westphalia), by Joh. Bern- 
hard Knake (b. July 18, 1774, Heiden ; 
d. there Aug. 10, 1856). After 1840 
the factory removed to Miinster, 
where it is carried on by J. B. 
Knake's son and grandsons. The 
excellence of their small grands and 
uprights has been acknowledged for 
many years, and the firm is decidedly 
successful. Medals were received in 
London, 1862 ; Paris, 1867 ; and 
Barcelona, 1888. 

•Knauss, Sohne, of Coblenz o/Rhine 
(proprietors, Emil and Rudolph 
Knauss). The manufactory was 
founded 1821. Received the Govern- 
ment gold medal and patent as 
manufacturer to the German Emperor. 
The factory is worked by steam, and 
turns out 1,600 uprights and short 
grands (cross-stringed). The firm has 
an agency in London. 

Krakauer Brothers, of New York. The 
business was started in 1878. Krakauer, 
sen., was once a teacher of music of 
some note. He arrived (1853) with 
his family in New York. The son, 
Daniel, is an experienced pianist. 

*Kranich and Bach, of New York. 
Established (1864) by Helmuth Kra- 
nich and Jacques Bach (both b. 1833, 
in Germany). The specialties of their 
instruments are : styles of cases, patent 
action rack, patent spiral temperature 
spring, patent sounding-board, patent 
dampers, and patent music or note 
rack ; also patent grand action (' ' the 
best used") and sustaining pedal. 
Medals were received at Philadelphia, 
1876; Boston Mechanics' Fair, 1887; 
Piedmont Exposition and Atalanta 
Government, 1891 and 1892 ; and 
World's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 

♦Kriegelstein & Co., of Paris. Founded 
(1831) by Jean Georges Kriegelstein 
(b. 1801, Riquewihr, Upper Rhine; 
d. Nov. 20, 1865, Paris). He estab- 
lished himself with Arnaud, and re- 
ceived, as early as 1834, medals for 
great improvements : in square pianos 
for hammers striking from above; 
1839, for a grand piano with improved 
dampers ; 1841, for introducing 
"agraffes de precision pour faciliter 
I'accord"; 1844, for a simplified 
"double echappement," &c. 1842, he 
invented a Mignon pianino of only 
42 J inches height, which created 
general admiration, and was the 
theme of great praise in the London 
Exhibition of 1862. It is an elegant 
and delightful instrument, rich in 
tone and even in the registers. 1858, 
he transferred the business to his son, 
Charles (b. Dec. 16, 1839, Paris). The 
firm makes ten different pianos. Silver 
medals: 1834, 1839, 1867, 1878 (Paris); 
gold medals : 1844, 1849, 1855, 1875 
(Paris); Bordeaux, 1859, 1865, 1882; 
Havre, 1868; Altona, 1869; Antwerp, 
1885. Prize medal, 1862, London; 
1876, Philadelphia; Medaille unique, 
1893, Chicago, hors concours; 1872, 
Lyons, diplom^ d'honneur. The well- 
merited reputation of his instruments 
is based upon their extreme solidity 
and rich tone. 

""Kroeger, Henry, and Sons, of New 
York. Founded by Henry Kroeger 
(b. Nov. 1, 1827, Hamburg). Associated 
with him were his sons, Henry (b. 
May 24, 1859, New York ; d. there 
Aug. 17, 1890) and Otto (b. March 25, 
1863, New York). Henry, sen., served 
his apprenticeship (1847-55) ^^ Ham 
burg. He arrived (1855) in New York, 
and was employed in the factory of 
Steinway and Sons. The firm's 
principal patents relate to a Capo 



d'astro (1866) and an acoustic patent 
for a method of sounding-board 
adjustment. The business is a very 
thriving one. 
♦Kurtzmann, C, and Co., of Buffalo, 
New York. Founded (1848) by 
Christian Kurtzmann (now deceased), 
and is at present directed by L. S. 

Kurtzmann and A. Ge6ger. They 
make upright pianos (high grade), 
employing 150 workmen in a large 
factory (corner of Niagara Street and 
Penn Avenue). "They ship to all 
parts of the United States, and have 
an established reputation for first-class 

Lindemann, William, and Sons, of 
New York. Founded (1835) by William 
Lindemann (b. in Dresden ; d. Dec. 24, 
1875, N. York), who was succeeded by 
his son, Henry (b. Aug. 3, 1838, New 
York). The firm exhibited (1847), in 
the Mechanics' Institute , a square which 
met with great approval, i860, they 
took out a patent for the "Cycloid" 
piano, in some respects a precursor of 
the bijou grand. "They have always 
aimed at making instruments of an 
artistic grade, and their efforts have 
deservedly won emphatic recognition 
at the hands of the musical press and 
impartial connoisseurs." 

*Lipp, Richard and John, of Stuttgart. 
Founded 1831, and makes concert and 
drawing - room grands, horizontal 
Mignon instruments, and uprights. 
The excellence of their pianos was re- 
cognised by awards of sixteen medals, 

several diplomas, the patent as manu- 
facturers to the Court of Wiirtemberg, 
and the gold medal for art and 

Loud, Thomas, an English pianoforte 
maker, who followed Hawkins in 
making the modern upright pianos with 
the strings descending below the key- 
board. 1802, he patented in London 
an upright piano with a "diagonal," 
since called oblique, scale of stringing, 
portability being " the leading inten- 
tion and feature." This instrument 
anticipated William Southwell's ver- 
tical " cabinet" piano of 1807. Loud 
settled in New York about 1816, and 
died there in 1834. A firm in Phila- 
delphia, styled Loud Brothers, was, 
according to Daniel Spillane, in 1824, 
the most extensive for pianos in the 
United States. 


"Malmsjo, J. G., of Goteborg (Gothen- 
burg (Sweden). Founded, Dec, 1843, 
by Johan Gustav Malmsjo (b. Jan. 14, 
1815, Lund, South Sweden; d. Sept. 
13, 1891, Goteborg); he served his 
apprenticeship with Marschall, of 
Copenhagen. For several years he 
was one of the magistrates (Stadtrath) 
of Goteborg, and greatly respected for 
his many excellent qualities. The 
manufacture is now the greatest and 
most important of Sweden, and the 
only one which makes grand pianos. 
Up to 1893, when the firm celebrated 
its fifty years jubilee, 5,600 instruments 
had been sold ; latterly, about 135 
pianos have been made per year, 
concert and semi-grands, larger and 
smaller pianinos. Manufacturer to 
the Swedish Court. First prizes at 
the Exhibitions of Stockholm, 1851, 
1S66; Goteborg, i860, 1871 ; London, 
18C2 ; Paris, 1867 ; Copenhagen, 1872 

and 1880 ; Malmo, 1865 and 1881 ; 
Karlsbad (Sweden), 1862 ; Vienna, 
1873; Philadelphia, 1875, &c. (total, 
nineteen first prizes). 1891, a special 
prize of honour was awarded in 
Goteborg. After Malmsjo's death, 
his son-in-law, Vilhelm Seydel, was 
appointed Director. 

*Mand, Carl, of Coblenz, manufacturer 
to the Prussian Court. The business 
was started in 1835, ^■nd is eminently 
successful. The excellence of the 
instruments (grand pianos and uprights) 
has been recognised by medals con- 
ferred — 1880, in Diisseldorf ; (2), 1881, 
Melbourne; 1883, Amsterdam ; 1885, 
Antwerp ; 1886, Coblenz ; 1888, 
Brussels; and 1889 (2), Cologne. 
Many of the leading artists have 
testified their approval of the beauty 
of tone, elasticity of touch, and decided 
solidity of construction. 



*Martin et Cie , of Toulouse. Founded 
(1810) by Jean Bapt. Martin, the 
specialty of the firm being grand 
pianos. The firm received twenty-five 
gold medals and several diplomas, and 
(with Boisselot, of Marseilles) is 
decidedly the foremost provincial 
factory of France. 

Mason and Hamlin, of Boston, Mass., 
started their piano business in 1883, 
and introduced a patented system of 
stringing and tuning, which, although 
sceptically received by the American 
piano makers, has been retained with 
success by the firm. 

Matushek (Matuschek), Frederic, and 
Co., of New Haven, Connecticut. Fr. 
Matashek (b. June g, 1814, Mannheim 
o/Rhine) went (1848) to America, 
having studied in the principal factories 
of Germany, Austria, Russia, and 
Paris (Pape). 1855, associated with 
Spencer Driggs ; he dissolved partner- 
ship in 1870, and started on his own 
account the firm Matashek and Co. His 
patents for inventions are numerous. 

*Mayer, J., and Co., of Munich. 
Founded, Oct. 18, 1833, by Joh. Jacob 
Mayer (b. March 23, 1805, Altenburg, 
Wurtemberg), and is at present the 
foremost piano factory of Bavaria. 
Medals were received — 1876 (Munich) ; 
1881 (Melbourne) ; 1882 (Numberg) ; 
1883 (Amsterdam) ; 1884 (London) ; 
1888 (Barcelona and Munich). 1876, 
the Bavarian King named Mayer 
manufacturer to the Court, and (1893) 
the Prince Luitpold conferred the same 
distinction on him. Specialties are 
grands (overstrung) and pianinos. 
The present principal and proprietor 
of the business is F. Schmidt, son-in- 
law of Mayer. 

Mehlin and Sons, of New York — Paul 
Mehlin (b Feb. 28, 1837. Stuttgart) 

and his sons, Paul and Charles. Paul, 
sen., served his apprenticeship in the 
factory of Fr. Domer {see this name) ; 
went (1854) to New York, where he 
was employed in the factories of 
Raven and Bacon, Light and Brad- 
bury, E. Gabler and Brother (1865), 
with whom he remained for sixteen 
years. 1881, he started his own busi- 
ness. Among his most important 
improvements are his grand plate and 
scale for uprights (1889), hammer 
scale (1885), and his touch-regulator 
(1887). In all, the firm took out 
twelve patents. 

Meyer, Conrad, of Philadelphia. C. 
Meyer (b. Marburg, Hesse Cassel) 
went (1819) to Baltimore, where he 
was an apprentice in the factory of 
Jos. Hiskey. About 1830 he estab- 
lished himself in Philadelphia. Great 
differences of opinion exist about his 
being the first to introduce the full 
iron plate, and some judges maintain 
that the priority of this invention 
belongs to Babcock {see this name). 
One of Meyer's pianos was exhibited 
(1878) in Paris, where it attracted 
considerable attention . 

Miller, Henry F., and Sons, of Boston, 
Mass. The founder of the firm was 
bom Sept. 4, 1825, Providence, and 
died Aug. 14, 1884, Wakefield, Mass. 
He first intended to become a pianist 
and organist, but later studied piano 
making, and joined the firm of Brown 
and Allen (Boston). Having worked 
for five years with Emerson, he started 
(1862) his own business, being associated 
with N. M. Lowe and J. H. Gibson. 
After a comparatively short time, he 
became sole proprietor, and at present 
his five sons represent the very 
successful and greatly respected firm. 


'Neumeyer, F., of Berlin, manufacturer 
of grand pianos and uprights. The firm 
was founded (i86i)by F. Neumeyer (b 
April 4, 1837, Eilhausen, Waldeck) 
and employs 150 workmen ; up to 1893 
held sold about 19,300 instruments. 
The factory is worked with steam 
and turns out about 1,200 instruments 
per year. Branch establishment in 

Newman and Brothers, of Baltimore. 
1850-60, the firm was, with those of 
Charles M. Stieff and J. T. Stoddard, 
highly respected in Baltimore. Founded 
(1850) by Joseph Newman, who, after 
1853, was associated with W. R. Talbot, 
took out a patent for improvement in 
sounding-boards. Talbot died 1884, 
after having assisted to bring the firm 
into greater repute. 



New York Piano Manufacturing 
Co., The, began business between 
1837-38. Haines Brothers were 
apprentices in the Company, which 
was started by some twenty of the 
best workmen of Nunns and Clark. 
The firm soon changed into that of A. 
H. Gale & Co. 

Nunns and Clark, of New York (1838). 
See Nunns, Robert and William. 

Nunns, Robert and William, of New 
York, arrived (182 1 ) from England and 
started (1824) in business. 1831, a 

patent was granted them for a square 
action ; they had already bought (1827) 
the " scale " of Charles S. Sackmeister. 
1833, they admitted John Clark as 
partner, the firm's style then being 
Robert Nunns, Clark and Co. William 
Nunns withdrew from the business 
and began a factory of his own, 
later associated with J. and C. Fisher. 
1851, Nunns and Clark purchased the 
hammer covering invention, patented 
by Rudolf Kreter, and greatly improved 
by Alfred Dolge. 


Pape (Johann), Heinrich, of Paris (b. 
July I, 1789, Sarsted, Hanover; d. 
Feb. 2, 1875, Paris). He was one of the 
most prolific inventors of recent times. 
After having visited England in 1811, 
he went to Paris ; assisted Ignaz 
Pleyel {see this name) in the formation 
of his factory ; started his own estab- 
lishment in 1815, and produced almost 
every year something new, without, 
however, obtaining a lasting success 
or influence by his decidedly interesting 
innovations. An exhaustive account 
of his inventions and innovations is to 
be found in " Notice de M. H. Pape " 
(Benard, Paris, 1862). He received 
the Legion of Honour and other 
French distinctions. See Grove's 
Dictionary, Vol. II., page 647. 

Peck and Son, of New York. They 
opened their business in 1851. Since 
1878 the firm has made great strides, 
and now enjoys general confidence. 

•Pleyel, Wolff and Co., of Paris. 
Founded by the composer, Ignaz 
Pleyel (pupil of Jos. Haydn). 1824, 
his son, Camille (husband of the 
celebrated pianist, Marie Pleyel, nee 
Moke), succeeded him as principal, 
and was much assisted by Kalk- 
brenner. Camille, who died May 4, 
1855, was succeeded by Auguste 
Wolff (principal from 1855 until his 
death in Feb., 1887), who brought out 
the "Pedalier" and "Clavier trans- 
positeur." Since 1887, Gustave Lyon 
has been Director of the firm, now 
formed into a company. Under his 
direction were introduced : La Pedale 
harmonique ; Balance digitale (Taffanel- 
Pleyel); leMolliphoneandleDurcisseur. 

The firm makes pianinos, semi-grands, 
and concert grands ; employs 600 
workmen. 1889, their 100,000th in- 
strument was sold. Distinctions and 
rewards : 1810, Ignaz Pleyel was made 
manufacturer to the King of West- 
phalia ; 1827, Louis Philippe, Due 
d' Orleans, conferred the title of 
" Fabricant de Piano a queue " ; 1829, 
King Charles X. conferred the title of 
"Fournisseur de sa Majeste " ; 1831, 
King Louis Philippe conferred the 
same title. Gold medals : 1827, 1834, 
1839, 1844, 1855, 1878 (all from Paris) ; 
i86i,Metz; 1875, ChiU ; 1881, Milan. 
The firm was hors concours, 1849 and 
1867, Paris ; 1872, Lyons ; 1873, 
Vienna ; 1883, Amsterdam ; 1887, 
Toulouse; 1887, Hjlvre; 1888, Brussels; 
1888, Melbourne and Copenhagen. 
Grand Prix, 1889, Paris. Diplomas of 
honour: 1861, Metz; 1875, Blois ; 
1885, Antwerp. 1834, Camille Pleyel, 
Knight of the Legion of Honour; 
1862, Auguste Wolff, Knight of the 
Legion of Honour. Gustave Lyon 
received the Belgian Order of Leopold, 
Legion of Honour and Danebrog. 
Branch establishments in London, 
Brussels, and Moscow. 
*Pohlmann and Sons, of Halifax, York- 
shire. Founded (1786) by Johannes 
Pohlmann, who was, it is believed, 
the maker of the first pianofortes 
constructed in England. The firm in 
Halifax was opened (1823) by Henry 
Pohlmann, the firm oeing Pohlmann 
and Pohlmann, later Pohlmann and 
Son . The present principal is Frederick 
Pohlmann. The firm possesses a 
great number of valuable patents and 
has received nine medals. 




•Rachals and Co., of Hamburg. This 
well-known firm was established by 
Matthias Ferd. Rachals (b. June 4, 
1801, Milan; d. Sept. 6, 1866, Ham- 
burg). He worked (1821) as apprentice 
with Brix (St. Petersburg) ; 1827, with 
Sachsossky (Cassel) ; 1828-31, with 
Wagner (Hamburg). 1832, he estab- 
lished (with one workman) his own 
factory, and had the satisfaction of 
selling (1845) his i.oooth instrument. 
His son, Adolph Ferd. Rachals, who 
studied in the principal factories of 
North America, succeeded (1866) his 
greatly esteemed father. The firm 
makes grands, obliques, and squares. 
Among their specialties is a piano 
packed in four cases a 80-go, or in six 
cases a 60 kilos weight. The Jury of 
the Chicago Exhibition (1893) published 
a highly flattering report about the 
tone and action of these pianos, and 
the ingenuity of facilitating transport, 
which was declared "an entirely new 

Raven and Bacon, of New York. On 
the dealh of George Bacon (1856), his 
son, Francis, became a partner until 
1871, when the partnership was dis- 
solved, and Karr took his place ; but 
retired in 1880, whereupon Francis 
re-entered the firm. "Their instru- 
ments are well spoken of" {see Francis 

•RitmUller,W., and Sohn, of Gottingen. 
Established (1795) by Andreas Georg 
Ritmiiller. Hisson,Wilhelm, succeeded 
him, and was joined by his sons, 
"Wilhelm and Martin, the firm being 
W. Ritmiiller and Sons. When the 
elder son left (in i860) it was altered to 
W. Ritmiiller and Son. Another son 
became partner of W. Ritmiiller, sen., 
and was, until 1891, sole proprietor. 
Since 1891, the business has belonged 
to Bernhard Schroder. For their 
grand pianos and uprights twelve 
medals and diplomas were received in 
Germany and (1884 and 1885) in 
London. The instruments are solidly 
constructed and enjoy a merited and 
considerable popularity. 

•Romhildt, L., of Weimar. The busi- 
ness was founded by Ludwig Romhildt 
(b. Sept. 7, 1 81 7, Elsterberg, Saxony ; 
d. Feb. 20, 1864, Weimar). He was 
succeeded by his son, Ludwig (b. 
April 28, 1849, Weimar ; d. there 

May 31, 1890). Up to 1855 only 
squares were built, and, owing to 
bad health, Romhildt almost entirely 
gave up piano making, devoting 
himself to selling other makers' instru- 
ments; but when the son took the 
business (1869) he began to make 
instruments, and had the satisfaction 
of selling, up to 1880, 500 pianos, 
which number was increased, in 1883, 
to 1,000. After the death of Ludwig 
Romhildt, jun., his cousin, Theodor 
Vetterling, became director of the 
manufactory, in which 100 workmen 
are employed. Ten to eleven pianinos 
are finished per week. The firm 
received ten gold medals, and possesses 
testimonials from the most celebrated 
artists. The instruments are sent to 
all parts of the world and enjoy a 
most excellent reputation. 

*Ronisch, Carl, of Dresden (b. 1814, 
Goldberg, Silesia; d. July 21, 1894, 
Blasewitz, near Dresden). He founded 
(1845) his factory, which grew rapidly 
into large dimensions. He was the 
first to build short grands in Dresden. 
Up to 1892, 20,000 of his instruments 
liad been sold ; 300 workmen are 
employed, and the business is steadily 
increasing. He was manufacturer to 
the Court of Saxony, Royal Counsellor 
of Commerce, Knight of several orders, 
and the recipient of first-class medals. 
The yearly production is 1,500 instru- 

♦Rogers and Son, of London (60, 
Berners Street). Founded (1843) by 
George Rogers. Turns out: i. Cupola 
steel frame, allowing great freedom 
and richness of tone. 2. Stud-top 
bridges, helping to give clearness and 
penetration of tone. 3. Sound-boards 
of large size and great reflecting free- 
dom, given them in the adaptation of 
the strengthening ribs or bars. 4. Front 
escapement check-action, combining 
great delicacy and power in the touch 
and perfection of repetition. 5. Over- 
stringing, so as to obtain the greatest 
length of string. They are now 
building horizontal grands. 

Rosenkranz, Ernst, of Dresden. The 
firm was founded 1797. Has received 
fifteen prize medals, and produces 
grand pianos of different sizes and 
pianinos with the usual and "Janko" 
keyboards. Their smallest horizontal 
instruments enjoy great favour. 




*Scheel, Carl, b. Feb., 1812, Cassel ; 
d. there Jan. 25, 1892. Son of a poor 
cabinet maker. After having served 
his apprenticeship with his father, he 
left (1832) his native town, after old 
German fashion, with knapsack on 
back, and walked to Frankfort o/M., 
where he served for nine months as 
assistant in the business of the cabinet 
maker, Wulff. Being very fond of 
music, he turned his attention to the 
manufacture of pianos, and went to 
Darmstadt, where he was (1833-37) 
assistant of the piano maker, Vier- 
heller. He then proceeded on foot 
to Strassburg, as his modest means 
only allowed him to take from there 
the "Diligence" to Paris, where, being 
an excellent tuner, he soon found 
employment. Erard's firm detected 
the great gifts of the young German 
and (1837-46) employed him as a work- 
man. A few years after his entrance, 
he was promoted to the responsible 
post of " Chef d'atelier." 1845, when 
on a visit to Cassel, he determined to 
start a business on his own account, 
and began at Easter, 1846, to build his 
first pianino. Soon the remarkable 
excellence of his instruments became 
known and (1854) he was able to 
move to a much bigger house. 1859, 
his factory was burnt down ; but his 
great energy and general assistance 
from his townsmen enabled him to 
conquer all obstacles, and, with even 
greater success than before, he enlarged 
his factory. 1877, the Crown Prince 
of Prussia (Emperor Frederick) named 
him manufacturer to the Court ; 1880, 
his son, Carl Heinrich, and (1888) his 
son, Fritz, were admitted partners. 
The solidity and general excellence of 
the "Scheel" pianinos are proverbial, 
and in Germany and adjoining 
countries are unconditionally recog- 

Schiedmayer, of Stuttgart. This firm 
was started (1854) by Julius and Paul 
Schiedmayer, for the manufacture of 
harmoniums; i860, for that of pianinos 
also ; and, somewhat later, of grand 
pianos. Julius Schiedmayer died Jan., 
1878, and the firm now consists of 
Paul Schiedmayer and his son-in-law, 
Oscar Forster. Their instruments 
enjoy a good reputation and are, like 
those of Schiedmayer and Sohne, well 
known in England. The firm holds 

the patents of manufacturers to the 
Queen of England, the German 
Emperor, and the Kings of Wiirtem- 
berg and Italy. Julius Schiedmayer 
acted as juror at the Exhibitions of 
London (1862), Paris (1867), Vienna 
(1873V Philadelphia (1876), Stettin 
(1865), and received for his services 
as such Orders of Knighthood from 
Austria, Italy, Wiirtemberg, &c. Paul 
Schiedmayer acted as juror in the 
Exhibitions of Zurich (1883) and 
Antwerp (1885). 

♦Schiedmayer und Sohne, of Stuttgart. 
Founded (1781) by Johann David 
Schiedmayer, at that time in Erlangen. 
The business was continued by his son, 
Johann Lorenz (b. Dec. 2, 1786, Er- 
langen ; d. March, i860, Stuttgart). 
1809, he associated himself with Dieu- 
donne (d. 1825), afterwards remained 
sole proprietor till 1845, when his sons 
entered the firm. These were Adolph 
(b. 1819, d. Oct. 17, 1890) and Hermann 
(b. 1820), the firm now being Schied- 
mayer und Sohne. 1842, the firm 
began to make pianinos. 1854, the 
King of Wiirtemberg conferred on it 
the great gold medal for art and 
science, whilst a gold prize medal 
was received at the London Exhi- 
bition (1851) and in Munich (1854); 
1873, diploma of honour at the 
Vienna Exhibition, and (1881) the same 
distinction at Stuttgart. 1881, the 
eldest member of the firm, Adolph 
Schiedmayer, received the title of 
" Counsellor of Commerce," whilst the 
patents of Court manufacturers to the 
Kings of Wiirtemberg and Roumania 
were obtained (1877 and 1888). After 
the death of Hermann Schiedmayer, 
jun. (1891), his brother, Adolph (b. 
1847), became the principal of the 
house. In all, the firm received six 
diplomas, nineteen medals, and took 
out six patents. It is the oldest firm 
in Wiirtemberg. 

Schomaker (Schumacher) & Co., of 
Philadelphia. Founded (1838) as 
Bosert and Schomaker (Schumacher, b. 
1800 in Germany ; d. 1875, Philadel- 
phia). Bosert retired (1842), when the 
firm took its present name. 1846, the 
business was formed into a stock com- 
pany in Philadelphia, U.S.A., with 
Colonel H.W. Gray (b. 1830, Ephrata, 
Lancaster County) and H. S. Scho- 
maker, jun., as principal oflficer and 



secretary. The chief specialty of the 
firm is the use of electro-plated piano 
strings in gold (patented 1876). A 
similar patent was taken out (1851) by 
H. J. Newton, of New York, and 
(1862) by Martin Miller. Colonel Gray 
admits that coating strings had been 
tried previously, but not "wrapped 

'Schroder, C. M. (piano manufactory at 
St. Petersburg). Founded by Johann 
Fr. Schroder (b. 1785, Stralsund ; d. 
1852, St. Petersburg) ; succeeded by 
his son, Michael (b. 1828, St. Peters- 
burg; d. there 1889) ; succeeded by the 
present head of the firm, Carl Nicolai 
Schroder (b. 1862, St. Petersburg). In 
order to recognise the importance of 
the firm (then seventy-five years old), 
the Czar conferred on C. N. Schroder, 
in 1893, the title of " Manufacturratfi." 
The grand pianos are made in six, the 
uprights in three, dififerent sizes. The 
grands are built after the American 
system, seven and one-third octaves, 
repetition action, &c. The firm em- 
ploys 250 workmen and turns out 
1,000 instruments per year. Gold 
medals : Moscow, 1872 ; Paris, 1878 ; 
London, 1885. Silver medals : St. 
Petersburg, 1839 ; Moscow, 1865. 
Hon. diplomas: St. Petersburg, 1861 ; 
Cassel, 1870 ; Antwerp, 1885 ; Chicago, 
1893. Medal for progress : Vienna, 
1873. Orders of knighthood : Francis 
Joseph (Austria) ; Legion of Honour 
(France) ; Leopold (Belgium) ; Im- 
perial Eagle (Russia) ; St. Stanislzis 
(Class III.), St. Anna (Class III., 1877, 
Class II., 1883), Vladimir (Class IV). 
Manufacturer to the Emperors of 
Russia, Austria, Germany, and the 
Kings of Denmark and Bavaria. 

♦Schwechten, G., of Berlin, manufac- 
turer to the Court. Founded 1854, 
and employs at present 120 workmen. 
The specialty is uprights, of which 
(1893) not less than 22,000 have been 
sold. Medals have been awarded in 
London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, 
Melbourne, &c. 

•Schweighofer, J. M., und Sohne, of 
Vienna. Founded (1792) by Michael 
Schweighofer (b. about 1765, in 
Bavaria ; d. 1809, Vienna) ; succeeded 
by his widow, and, 1832, by his son, 
Johann Michael (d. 1852) ; the busi- 
ness was then left to the latter' s sons, 
Carl and Johann. The excellent 
qualities of their grands (three models) 
and pianinos have been generally 
acknowledged. The firm re/:eived 

many medals and diplcmas, and, at 
the date of the centenary of the 
foundation (1892), the Emperor of 
Austria conferred on the senior partner 
the title of Imperial Councillor and 
the Golden Cross of Merit with the 
Crown, whilst the Vienna magistrate 
declared the brothers " tax freie 
burger" (tax-exempted citizens). The 
firm was also honoured with the 
patent as manufacturers to the 
Imperial and Royal Court of Austria. 

*Shoninger (Schoninger ?), B., and Co., 
of New Haven. Founded March (1850) 
by B. Schoninger (b. 1828, in Bavaria). 
"Their piano has many special im- 
provements and patents ; is especially 
adapted to withstand all climatic 
changes; is of the greatest durability." 
Medals awarded by: New England 
State Agricultural Society, 1868 ; 
Philadelphia, 1876 ; Paris, 1878 ; 
Rotterdam, 1883; New York State 
Fair, 1886; also many State Fairs. 
The firm has warerooms in Chicago 
and New York. 

Silbermann, Gottfried, originally an 
organ builder (b. 1683, d. 1753), of 
Kleinbobritzsch, near Frauenstein, 
Saxony; settled at Freiberg, 1709, and 
subsequently Dresden. As early as 
1726 he submitted two pianofortes to 
the judgment of J. S. Bach. About 
1746 he supplied pianofortes to 
Frederick the Great, three of which 
are still preserved at Potsdam, in the 
Stadtschloss, Sans Souci, and the 
Neues Palais. Mr. A. J. Hipkins's 
examination of these instruments in 
1881 proved them to be built upon 
Cristofori's model. Silbermann has 
the credit of being the earliest German 
pianoforte maker. His instruments, 
from the specimens above-mentioned, 
were undoubtedly good. 

Sohmer and Co., of New York. The 
founder and principal of the firm is 
Hugo Sohmer (b. 1846, in the Black 
Forest , Baden) . He received a classical 
education, studied piano playing as 
well as piano making, and went (1862) 
to America, where he worked as 
apprentice in the factory of Schutze 
and Ludolf, of New York; paid, 1868, 
a temporary visit to Germany, where 
he studied piano making from the 
European point of view ; returned, 
1870, to New York and opened, in 
1872, his business, vdth Joseph Kuder 
as partner, the new firm being 
successors to J. H. Bornhaft, who in 
his turn had succeeded the old house 



of Maxschall and Mittauer. Kuder is 
a native of Bohemia. 1876, the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition authorities awarded 
high honours to the firm. 1883, an 
additional factory was taken and was 
enlarged in 1886. The firm has taken 
out fifty-one patents. The Sohmer 
"pianissimo" pedal is an improved 
attachment for producing refined and 
artistic piano effects, and is used in 
combination with the ordinary soft 
pedal. Their pianos are held in high 

*Sprecher-Wirth, Theodor (formerly 
Sprecher and Sons), of Zurich. Founded 
(1847) by Christian Sprecher (b. 1810). 
Makes grand and upright instruments. 
Received fifteen diplomas and first 
medals, and is the principal firm of 

Steck, G., and Co., of New York. The 
founder of the firm, George Steck (b. 
July 19, 1829, Cassel), was apprenticed 
m the factory of Carl Scheel {see this 
name). 1853, he arrived in New York, 
and ' ' worked for four years in the 
best shops," until he started (1857) 
his own business. 1865, he opened 
the "Steck Hall." 1884, the business 
was formed into a company (Rob. C. 
Kammerer, Fr. Dietz, and Nembach). 
Popular nicknames of his instruments 
are " The Little Giant" (upright) and 
"The Steck Baby Grand." His 
pianette, a novel instrument, is said 
to " weigh only 178 pounds, and is 
considered to have a grand future 
before it." 

Stein, Johann Andreas, of Augsburg (b. 
1728, Heidesheim (Palatinate) ; d. 
Feb. 29, 1792, Augsburg). Pupil of 
Silbermann. 1758, he was in Paris, 
and remained there for some years. 
On his return he settled as an organ 
builder in Augsburg, and began also to 
make pianos, introducing several im- 
portant improvements, about which 
Mozart speaks in a letter (Oct., 1777) 
to his mother. Stein is really the 
founder of the Vienna School of piano- 
forte making, and if not the absolute 
inventor, certainly the improver of a 
mechanism, generally called the 
"Vienna mechanism." He intro- 
duced the " genouilliere," or knee- 
pedal for raising the dampers. In one 
of his pianos, described by Gerber, he 
applied the Saitenharmonica (1789), a 
pedal shifting the keyboard, and thus 
carrying the hammers from three 
strings to one {una corda). He called 
this instrument t'i.e " Spinettchen." 
He had two sons and a daughter — 

Matthaeus Andreas, Friedrich, and 
Maria Anna, generally called Nanette 
{see Streicher). Matthaeus Andreas (b. 
Dec. 12, 1776, Augsburg; d. May 6, 
1842, Vienna) succeeded, with his 
sister, to the business of his father, 
accompanied her to Vienna, and 
established himself there in 1802 ; his 
son, Karl Andreas (b. Sept. 4, 1797, 
Vienna; d. there Aug. 28, 1863), was 
his pupil in piano making, but dis- 
tinguished himself also as a pianist 
and composer. He devoted, however, 
his chief energies to the factory, took 
out a patent in 1829, and was made 
Manufacturer to the Court in 1844. 
He published a book " On the Playing, 
Tuning, and Preservation of Stein 
*Steinway and Sons, of New York, 
Hamburg, and London. This world- 
renowned house was founded by 
Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (the 
name Steinway was taken when estab- 
lishing the business in New York), b. 
Feb. 15, 1797, Wolfshagen, in th« 
Hartz Mountains, Brunswick, Ger- 
many; d. Feb. 7, 1871, New York. 
He had learned cabinet making and 
organ building in Goslar ; tried, 
later, his luck in making guitars and 
cithers. Opened a piano business 
(1835) ^•t Seesen, but, having settled 
in Brunswick, resolved to build square, 
upright, and grand pianos. The busi- 
ness soon increased ; but, owing to the 
political events of 1848, he was obliged 
to emigrate (1850) to America, with 
his four sons: I., Charles (b. Jan. 4, 
1829, Seesen, Brunswick ; d. there, 
March 31, 1865, while on a trip to 
Germany). II., Henry, jun. (b. Oct., 
1829, Seesen; d. March 11, 1865, New 
York). III., William, present head 
of the house (b. March 5, 1836, Seesen). 
IV., Albert (b. June 10, 1840, Seesen; 
d. May 14, 1877, New York). The 
eldest son, Theodore (b. Nov. 6, 1825, 
Seesen; d. March 26, 1889, Brunswick), 
remained in Europe, in order to con- 
tinue the Brunswick business; but 
transferred it (1865) to Grotrian, 
Helfferich, and Schulz, the firm be- 
coming Theodor Steinweg Nachfolger 
{see Steinweg) . The New York house, 
founded 1853, after Steinway and 
several of his sons had worked in 
other American factories, soon took 
the lead in New York — indeed, in 
America. A factory of grand dimen- 
sions, to which was added the Steinway 
Hall for concerts, was built, but soon 
found insuflScient, and at present the 



different factories are : Steinway, 
Astoria (opposite New York), covering 
twelve acres, and employing 650 work- 
men ; the factory of New York, covering 
the square between the Park and Lexing- 
ton Avenue, where about 60 instruments 
per week are finished and 650 workmen 
employed; the Steinway Hall, which 
had room for 2,400 seats, but since 
1890 has been used for purposes of 
manufacture; and the warerooms, 
offices, &c., where about 250 persons 
work. 1880, a factory was opened 
in Hamburg (Neue Rosenstrasse, 20-24) • 
in which 300 workmen are employed ; 
the pianos sent from New York are 
finished there. Of the five sons of 
the founder, Theodor and William 
took the most important part in 
furthering the progress of the firm. 
Theodor was Member of the Academies 
of Paris, Berlin, and Stockholm ; 
whilst William is the founder of 
different institutions for the benefit of 
his workmen. He built a school, in 
which 800 children are taught ; opened 
a library ; erected a fine church, vnth 
a good organ ; opened bath-rooms ; and 
laid out a fine garden. Among the 
rewards given to the firm are — Gold 
medals: 1854 3^^ 1855, ^o^" squares. 
Prize medal, with particular mention 
of excellence, London, 1862 ; Paris, 
1867; Stockholm, 1868; Philadelphia, 
1876; London, 1885, with an especial 
gold medal of the Society of Arts. 
The firm received the patent as manu- 
facturer to the English and German 
Courts, and the German Emperor 
received William Steinway in a private 
audience, and conferred on him the 
Order of the Red Eagle. The present 
active members of Steinway and Sons 
are : WilUam, head of the firm ; 
Charles H. (b. June 3, 1857, New 
York), and Fr. T. (b. Feb. 9, i860. New 
York), both sons of the late Charles 
Steinway; Henry Ziegler (b. Oct. 30, 
1857, New York), nephew of William ; 
George A. (b. June 4, 1865, New York), 
son of William; Charles F. Tretbar 
(b. Feb. 13, 1832, Brunswick); and 
Nahum Stetson (b. Dec. 5, 1856, 
Bridge water, Mass.). The London 
warehouse, with an adjoining concert- 
room for 700 persons, is in Lower 
Seymour Street. 
♦Steinweg, C. F. Th. Nachfolger (suc- 
cessor), of Brunswick. Founded 
(1859) by Theodor Steinweg as a 
branch of the firm Steinway and Sons, 
of New York. The American firm 
altered the German name Steinweg 

into Steinway. 1865, the Brunswick 
business was taken over by Grotrian, 
Helfferich, and Schulz, as G. H. 
and S. Theodor Steinweg Nachfolger 
(registered 1869). The firm produces 
grand and upright pianos, and has 
received many (everywhere the highest) 
medals. Among these are the medal 
and diploma of honour at the Chicago 
Exhibition, 1893. The excellence and 
solidity of construction, beauty and 
evenness of tone, and perfection of re- 
petition mechanism of the Brunswick 
firm are everywhere recognised. 

Stodart and Sons, a firm of eminent 
pianoforte makers in London, from 
1776 to 1861. Robert Stodart, the 
founder of the business, was a pupil of 
John Broadwood, and,with him.assisted 
Americus Backers in the invention of 
the so-called English action. In 1777 
Stodart took out a patent, in which 
"grand," as applied to a pianoforte, 
first appears. In 1795 William Stodart 
took out a patent for an upright grand 
in the form of a bookcase. The most 
importzmt patent acquired by this firm 
was that of James Thorn and William 
Allen, taken out in 1820, in which 
metal was for the first time successfully 
introduced in the framing. This 
patent gave a great impulse to the 
Stodart business, and, yet more, it 
entirely revolutionised pianoforte 

Stodart, Worcester, and Dunham, of 
New York. Founded, about 1836, by 
Adam Stodart, Horatio Worcester, 
and John B. Dunham, successors of 
John Osbom. Adam Stodart was a 
nephew of Robert Stodart ; John B. 
Dunham (b. 1799, d. 1873) settled 
(1834) in New York, and was first 
employed by Nunns, Clark, and Co. as 
case maker. Horatio Worcester left 
the association, the firm being then 
styled Stodart and Dunham. 1849, 
Stodart withdrew, when the firm 
became (1867) Dunham and Sons. 
Their " boudoir grands " are widely 

Streicher, J. B., und Sohn, of Vienna. 
This celebrated manufactory was 
originally founded in Augsburg by 
Johann Andreas Stein (see this name), 
organ builder, a pupil of Silbermann. 
Stein's daughter, Nanette, an excellent 
piano player, to whom Mozart refers 
m his letters, was also taught piano 
making by her father (see Stein, 
Nanette), married (1794) Andreas 
Streicher, and settled with him in 
Vienna. For many years she was 



alone in the supervision of her small 
business ; but when this increased, she 
was joined by her husband, who gave 
up his work as a teacher. The firm 
was, from 1794, Nanette Streichergeb. 
Stein. When she had instructed her 
only son, Johann Baptist (b. 1796), for 
ten years (1812-22) he, having also 
extensively travelled and gathered rich 
experiences, was taken, in 1822, as 
partner, the firm becoming Nanette 
Streicher und Sohn. After the death 
of his parents (1833) he remained sole 
proprietor until his death, March 28, 
1871, although the firm was, from 
1857, J. B. Streicher und Sohn (Emil). 
The firm was intimately connected 

with famous musicians, such as Beet- 
hoven, Hummel, Cramer, Moscheles, 
Henselt, Kullak, &c., whilst both 
Mozart and Beethoven early speak of 
the excellent qualities of Stein's pianos. 
The eminent qualities and great 
solidity of the Streicher pianos were 
almost universally acknowledged. 
Gold medals and different diplomas 
were received. The patent as Kaiserl. 
Konigl.-Hof und Kammer Piano 
Fabrikant and the Order of Francis 
Joseph was bestowed by the Emperor 
of Austria on both father and son, and 
it may be asserted that the name 
"Vienna" pianos was formerly 
synonymous with that of Streicher. 


Vose and Sons, of Boston, Mass. 
Founded (1851) by J. W. Vose (b. 1818, 
Milton, Mass.), now consists of the 
founder, Irving B. Vose (b. 1850), 

Willard A. Vose (b. 1852), and Julian 
W. Vose (b. 1859). The firm's instru- 
ments enjoy great popularity. The 
partners are all practical piano makers. 


•Waters, H., and Co., of New York. 
Founded (1845) by Horatio Waters ; is 
now a company, and his son, J. Lands 
Waters, is president . ' ' The specialty of 
the firm is high-grade upright and small 
grand pianos." 

VVeber, A., of New York. The firm was 
' founded by Albert Weber (b. 1829, 
in Bavaria ; d. June 25, 1879, New 
York). He went (1845) to America, 
worked in the shops of Holder and 
Van Winckle, then started his business, 
and achieved such eminent success 
that (i860) he was able to open the 
great Weber warerooms. His instru- 
ments enjoy a great and well-deserved 
reputation. He was succeeded by his 
son, Albert (b. 1858, New York), who 
started a branch establishment in 
Chicago. He built the Weber Hall in 
1883, and this enterprise proved in 
every respect a successful one. 1887, 
he exhibited in London, and his 
popular bijou instrument, called the 
" Baby Grand," excited general 
curiosity and obtained general appro- 
bation. The Weber Hall proving 
inadequate, he opened a much larger 
hall in Wabash Avenue. The firm 
received a great number of exhibition 

*Westermayer, Edouard, of Berlin. He 
founded the business, 1863 (b. Aug. 
20, 1824, Meiningen, Bavaria ; d. Jan. 
6, 1 8g I ) , Berlin . He studied at Vienna, 
Paris, Berlin, and Philadelphia, and 
resided for some time as a tuner in 
Buenos Ayres. The specialty of his 
grands and uprights is a patent repeti- 
tion mechanism, entirely different to 
that of Erard and other makers. His 
adopted son, Paul Westermayer, is at 
present principal of the firm. 

*Wheelock, William E., and Co., of 
New York. The business was started 
(1877) under the supervision of Charles 
Borst, and soon grew to considerable 
importance. 1880, W. Lawson, of 
Brooklyn, became a partner, and (1890) 
D. Lazelle was taken as a partner for 
the retail trade. Branch establish- 
ment in Chicago. " Their instruments 
hold a high position." 

♦Womum, Robert, and Sons, of 
London. This eminent and well- 
known firm, founded (1777) by Robert 
Wornum, attained its celebrity under 
the guidance of Robert Wornum, jun. 
(b. 1780, London; d. there 1852), who 
took out the first patent for a small 
upright piano with oblique stringing 
in 181 1. He was associated with 



George Wilkinson, but the partner- 
ship was dissolved (1812). 1813, he 
introduced a small upright with 
vertical strings (called the " Har- 
monic "), now generally termed 
" Cottage " piano. 1829, he made the 
" Piccolo " pianoforte ; for this the 
patent had already been taken out in 
1826, and vastly improved by the 
introduction of the double -check 
action, used at present by the piano- 
forte makers of France and Germany. 
After the death of Robert Wornum, 

jun., he was succeeded by his son, 
A. N. Wornum, who made great im- 
provements in the grand pianoforte. 
He died 1888, his successors being 
his son-in-law, Augustus Mongredien, 
in conjunction with the former manager 
of the works, A. J. Brown. Patents 
were taken out in 181 1, 1820, 1826, 
1828, 1842, 1862, 1867, 1871, and 1875. 
Prize medals were awarded in 185 1, 
1862, 1867, and 1878. The London 
manufacture of upright pianos began 
with Wornum's invention in 1811. 

Zeitter und Winkelmann, of Bruns- 
wick, manufacturers to the Court. 
The firm was founded in 1837 ^^^ ^^.s 
adopted the "Stein way" system for 
their grands and uprights. Medals 
were received in London, 1851, 1884, 
and 1885 ; Brunswick, 1877 ; Mel- 
bourne, 1 88 1 and 1889; Porto Allegre, 
1882; Amsterdam, 1883; Calcutta, 

Zutnpe, Johann, the inventor of the 
square pianoforte, as known in this 
country for tnany years. According 

to Burney he had long worked for the 
harpsichord maker, Shudi, and was the 
first to construct small pianos of the 
size and shape of the virginal. There 
are several of these instruments still 
existing, the oldest in Messrs. Broad- 
wood's possession, dated 1766. In 
1769, the firm had become Zumpe and 
Buntebart ; in 1776, it was Zumpe and 
Mayer. No personal record remains 
of Zumpe, his birth, death, or country ; 
but that he was a German, as many of 
the early pianoforte makers in England 
were, there can be no doubt. 




Bargiel, Woldemar (see page 7). 1896, 
Prussian Order (Class III.) of the 
Red Eagle. 

'Bernard, Jean Emile Auguste, b. Nov. 
28, 1843, Marseilles. Entered the 
Paris Conserv. 1855. Pupil of Mar- 
montel, Laurent, and Ravina (Pf.), 
H. Reber and Clapisson (Harmony), 
Benoist (Organ), Reber (Fugue and 
Composition). ist prize for Pf., 
2nd prize for Harmony, ist prize 
for Organ ; gold medal from the 
Society of Composers; " Chartier " 
prize from the Institute. Knight of the 
Spanish Order " Isabella the Catholic." 
For many years " Maitre de 
Chapelle " and Organist, since 1859 
" demissionaire " of the great Organ 
de ' ' Notre Dame des Champs ' ' (Paris) . 
Orchestral Suites arr. for Pf. (4 hands), 
Op. 23, 38 ; Trio for Pf.,VIn., and V'cello, Op. 
30 ; Fantaisie (Pf. and Orchestra), Op. 31 ; 
Concertstiick (Pf. and Orchestra), Op. 40; 
Suite for Pf. and Vln., Op. 34; Studies, Op. 
16, 17, 19 ; Prelude and Fugue, Op. 14 ; Fete 
Napolitaine (4 hands). Op. 18 ; 4 Morceaux 
caracteristiques (4 hands), Op. 39 ; Im- 
promptus, Op. 12 and 32 (2) ; Valse 
Fantaisie, Op. 42, &c. 

Cui, Cesar Antonowitsch (see page 22). 

1895, Commander of the Legion of 

Dannreuther Edward (see page 23). 

1896, Professor of the Royal College of 
Music (London) as successor of E. 
Pauer (retired). 

♦Debefve, Jules, b. Jan. 16, 1859, Liege. 
From 1866 to 1873 instructed in the 
" Maitrisede la Cathedrale." Entered 
afterwards the Conservatoire, where he 
received in 1882 the " diplome avec 
grande distinction " in Ledent's class 
(see page 67), and after his death be- 
came a pupil of Delaborde in Paris, 
ist prize for solfeggio, harmony, 
counterpoint, and fugue. 1884, 
appointed Prof, of the Liege Conserv. 
Of his published works the " 12 Etudes 
d'une difficulte transcendante" have 
been received with great favour. 

Dieupart, Charles. French Claveciniste 
and Composer. 1707, in London as 
cembalist ; d. 1740 in straitened 

Six Suites de Clavecin mises en Concert 
pour un Violon et une Flute, avec une Basse 
de Viole et un Archiluth. Also several 
other Suites. 

*Dietz, Kathinka von (see page 25), b. 
1815. 1823, Pupilof Hummel (Weimar). 
Returned, 1825, to Munich. 1829, pupil 
of Kalkbrenner (Paris). After success- 
ful Concert tours she settled in Paris, 
where she married Mr. William 
Mackenzie. Pianist of the Queen of 
Bavaria and the Queen of France. 
Honorary member of several Academies 
and President of the "Societe Osmanie." 
Resides in Paris. 

Duo for 2 Pianos. Caprices (2). Duo : " la 
Pluie des Notes." Studies, Nocturne, 
Valses, &c. 

Donzelli, Ulissa (daughter of the once 
famous tenor, Domenico D., b. 1790, 
Bologna; d. 1873, Florence), b. 1857, 
Bologna; d. there, June, 1895. Suc- 
cessful pianist and teacher. 

*Genss, Hermann, b. Jan. 6, 1856, 
Tilsit. Pupil of L. Kohler (Konigs- 
berg), later of Hahn. After leaving 
the "Gymnasium" he went, 1874, to 
Berlin as pupil at the " Hochschule 
and Meisterschule." Pupil of Dr. 
Kiel and A. Grell (Composition). After- 
wards for two years pupil of Liszt 
(Weimar). 1879, Director of private 
music schools at Liibeck and Ham- 
burg ; 1890, Director of the " fiirst- 
lichen " Sondershausen Conserv. ; 
1891-92, of the Conserv. of Mayence 
o/Rhine ; 1893, of the Klindworth- 
Scharwenka Conserv. (Berlin) ; 1894, 
Conductor of the Philharmonic Society 
(Potsdam) ; 1892, Hon. Member of the 
Royal Academy of Bologna. 

Two " Nachtgesange," Op. 8; Concert 
Walzer, Op. 15; Sonata for Pf. (F min.), 
Concerto (E flat), and Concerto (D min.); 
Mazurkas, &c. 



Ghymers, Jules Eugene, b. May i6, 1835, 
Liege. Pupil of Ledent (Pf.) and 
Daussoigne-Mehul (Composition) . Prof, 
of the Liege Conserv., contributor for 
many years to the Guide Musical. 
His Pf. works and a History of the 
Pf. are not published. 

Gregoir, Jacques Matthieu Joseph, b. 

Jan. 18, 1817, Antwerp ; d. Oct. 29, 

1876, Brussels. Pupil of H. Herz and 

Christian Hummel (Wiesbaden). 

Concerto, Op. 100 ; Concert Studies, Op. 53, 

56, 66 ; also Duets for Pf. and Vln., also 

V'cello, with Vieuxtemps, Leonard, and 


Grieg, Edvard (see page 42). 1895, 
created Knight of the Legion of 

Groningen, S. van, b. June 23, 1851, 
Deventer (Holland). Studied first 
Mathematics and Chemistry and 
received the diploma as " Technolog." 
Resolved to become a musician, went 
to Liszt (Weimar), and became after- 
wards a pupil at the Berlin Hochschule 
(Raif and Barth for Pf., and Dr. Kiel 
for Composition). 1893, elected 
Director of the Music School of 
Leyden (Holland). 
3 Morceaux, Humoresken (4 hands), several 
series of Morceaux, Bagatelles, &c. 

Griinberger, Ludwig, b. April 24, 1839, 
Prague. Pupil of F. Skraup and Jos. 
Kisch; 1855, pupil of Reichel and 

Hall6, Sir Charles (see page 44), d. Oct. 
25, 1895, Manchester. 

Hamerik, Asger, b. April 8, 1843, 
Copenhagen, was son of a Prof, of 
Theology. Pupil of Mathison-Hanson 
and Gade (Harmony and Composition), 
and Haberbier (Piano). 1862, pupil of 
Billow (Berlin) ; 1864, in Paris, where 
Berlioz took great interest in him ; 
1868, member of the Jury (Paris Exhi- 
bition). Since 1872, Director of the 
Musical Section of the Peabody Insti- 
tute (Baltimore). 
Quartet (Pf. and Strings), Op. 6 ; Fantasia for 

Piano and V'cello ; Opera without 

words, &c. 

Hartmann, Johann P. E. (see page 45). 
1895, Grand Cross of the Dannebrog 

Heinze, Sarah (nee Magnus), b. 1839, 
Stockholm. Pupil of Kullak, Drey- 
schock, and Liszt. Resides in 

Herzberg, Anton, b. June 4, 1825, 
Tamow (GaHcia). Pupil of Bocklet 

(Pf.) and Preyer l(Composition) at 

Vienna. He resides in Moscow. 

Nocturnes, Op. 10 and 103; Grand Galop 

infernal. Op. 24 ; Fantaisie sur des theinea 

polonais. Op. 35 ; Impromptus (3), Op. 71 ; 

Mazurkas (2), Op. gi. 

Hill, Wilhelm, b. March 28, 1838, Fulda. 
Pupil of Henkel and Hauff (Frank- 
fort o/M.). 
Vln. Sonatas, Op. 20, 28 ; Trios, Op. 12, 43 ; 
Pf. Quartet, Op. 44. 

Hoffmann, Richard, b. May 24, 1831, 
Manchester. Has resided, since 1847, 
in New York. Eminent pianist and 
composer of many brilliant pieces. 

Hollander, Alexis, b. Feb. 25, 1840, 
Ratibor (Silesia). After leaving the 
' ' Gymnasium ' ' of Breslau he went to 
Berlin, became a pupil at the Hoch- 
schule and studied privately with K. 
Bohmer. 1861, teacher at Kullak's 
Academy ; 1864, Conductor of a Vocal 
Society; 1870, Director of " Cecilia," 
a society for performing great choral 
Pf. Quintet, and several Solo compositions. 

Krantz, Eugen, b. Sept. 13, 1844, 
Dresden. Pupil at the Dresden Conserv. 
of Doring, Leonhard, Reichel, Rietz, 
&c. At present, professor of piano, 
director and proprietor of the Conserv. 

Krause, Martin, b. June 17, 1853, 
Lobstadt (Saxony). 1874-76, pupil at 
the Leipzig Conserv. Founder of the 
" Liszt Verein." Eminent pianist. 
The Duke of Anhalt conferred on him 
the title " Professor " and the Cross of 
the " Albrecht " order. 

♦Kronke, Emil, b. Nov. 29, 1865, Danzig, 
(Prussia). 1883-84, he studied in 
Leipzig (Reinecke and Oscar Paul), 
later with Nicode and Theodor 
Kirchner in Dresden. Received, 1886, 
the prize of the Dresden Conserv. 
(grand piano) ; 1887, the " Ehren- 
Diplom. ' ' He devotes himself entirely 
to the study of Liszt's works, and 
is preparing a complete edition. 

Gavotte, Valse Impromptu, Bagatelle for the 
left hand. Scherzo, Intermezzi (2), 
Hungarian Sketch, Valse favorite, &c. 

Labor, Joseph, b. June 29, 1842, Horo- 
wic, Bohemia. Became blind early in 
life. Pupil of Pirkhert (Pf.) and 
Sechter (Composition) in Vienna. 
Eminent pianist. 
Pf. Quartet and Quintet and some smaller 

Laurent, Edmond, b. Nov. 10, 1852, 
Bergerac (Dordogne). Pupil of Jules 
Duprato and Ernest Guiraud. He 



resides at Paris. Among his most 
popular pieces are : — 

Arabesques (6), Mascarade (10), A travers 
champs (12), Silhouettes feminines, 4 pieces 
with Orchestra, Scherzo for Pf. and Vln. 

♦Major, Julius J., b. Dec. 13, 1858, 
Kaschau (Hungary). Pupil of Raab, 
Neubner, Schweida, F. Erkel, and F. 
Liszt (Pf.), Robert Volkmann (Compo- 
sition). Since 1889 Prof, at the 
" Landeslehrer " Seminary and other 
Colleges. With Kaldy and Nikolics 
he founded the Hungarian Music 
School, and became the principal 
teacher there. 

Concert Syniphonique(with Orchestra), Trios, 
I. and II., Sonata for Pf. and Vln., Im- 
promptu and Minuet, Capriccio, Charac- 
teristic pieces, Hungarian Rhapsody, Pf. 
Quintet, two Sonatas (not yet published). 

Massenet, Jules (see page 77). 1895, 
Commander of the Legion of Honour. 

Melgunow, Julius von, b. 1846, Russian 
Government of Kostroma. Pupil of 
Henselt, Anton and Nicolaus Rubin- 
stein. Editor of a Collection of Bach's 
Preludes and Fugues, with indication of 
the rhythmical accentuation according 
to Westphal's system. 

Mertke, Eduard (see page 79), d. Sept. 25, 
1895, Cologne o/Rhine. 

Mickwitz, Harald von, b. May 22, 1859, 
Helsingfors. Pupil at St. Petersburg 
Conserv. of Ark, Brassin, Rimsky- 
Korsakow ; 1880-83, of Leschetizki 
(Vienna). 1886, Prof, at the Conser- 
vatoire of Carlsruhe, and since 1893 at 
that of Wiesbaden. 

Naprawnik, Eduard, b. Aug. 24, 1839, 
Bejest, Koniggratz (Bohemia). 1853- 
54, pupil at the Organ School (Prague). 
1855-61, teacher at the "Maydl" Music 
School (Prague). Afterwards Capell- 
meister to Prince Yussupow (St. Peters- 
burg). 1869, Conductor at the 
Imperial Opera (St. Petersburg). 
Trio, Pf. Quartet ; Fantasia (with Orchestra), 
Op. 39; Concerto Symphonique, Op. 27. 

Pauer, Ernst (see page 90). Resigned 
Roy. Coll. of Music, 1896. 
Beethoven Studies (50), Traditional Hebrew 
Melodies (28). 

Petersen, Paul, b. (?) ; d. 1895, St. Peters- 
burg. Pupil of Henselt, excellent 
pianist and highly esteemed as a 
teacher. Afterwards proprietor of one 
of the foremost Russian firms of piano 

•Philipp, Isidor, b. Sept. 2, 1863, Paris. 
Pupil at the Conservatoire of G. 
Matthias, Stephen Heller, and 

Theodore Ritter. Performed with 
eminent success in the Concerts of the 
Conservatoire, of Lamoureux, Colonne, 
&c. ; also, 1890, in the London Phil- 
harmonic Society's Concerts. In his 
" Seances " he introduced the works of 
Widor, Faur^, Saint-Saens, Brahms, 
Arensky, Glazounovv, Lalo, Gernsheim, 
and others. Officier de I'instruction 
Valses Caprices, Barcarolle, Novellettes, 
Serenades, Capriccio, Pastels, Etudes pour 
la main gauche seule, Exercices prepara- 
toires, &c. 

Prentice, Ridley (see page 94), d. July 
15, 1895, London. 

*Reimann, Dr. Heinrich, b. March 14, 
1850, Renzendorf (district of Glatz). 
Pupil of his father Ignaz R. and 
Moritz Brosig, Capellmeister of the 
Breslau Cathedral. 1877-1886, teacher 
at the Berlin "Gymnasium." Since 
1887 Librarian of the Royal Library, 
teacher at the Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Conserv., and Organist of the 
" Emperor William " Memorial 
Church (Berlin). 

Hommage a Chopin (3 Valses),Op. 17 ; Bolero, 

Op. 20, &c. 

*Rieffel, Amalie, b. 1822, Flensborg ; 
d. Aug. 10, 1877, Christiania. Eminent 
pianist. 1839, she gave successful 
concerts at Copenhagen. 1840-42, she 
resided in Leipzig, where Schumann 
and his wife took great interest in her 
studies and performances. After 
leaving Leipzig she performed in 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, and 
married, 1850, Mr. L. Wage, from 
Hamburg. Schumann dedicated to her 
his Op. 32 (Minuet, Gigue, Romanza, 
and Fughetta). 

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel (see page 
98). Received, 1895, the Order of the 
"Bavarian Crown" conferring the 
rank of nobility. 

Roder, Martin (see page loi). Left 
Berlin to settle in Dublin, and finally 
went to Boston (U.S.), where he died 
June 10, 1895. 

Rudorff, Ernst Friedrich Carl (see page 
104). 1896, Order (Class III.) of the 
Prussian Crown. 

Schumann, Clara Josephine (see page 
112), d. May 20, 1896, Frankfort o/M. 

Tausch, Julius (see page 120), d. Nov. 11, 
1895, Bonn o/Rhine. 

Zarzycki, Alexander (see page 133), d. 
Nov. I, 1895, Warsaw. 



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(to be continued.) 

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JUl 3 ^uuu 



Cj — „ j^ „„. 

Cherubini — 'Requiem Mass, in C minor. 

Third Mass, in A (Coronation). 

Fourth Mass, in C. 

Costa, Sip M.— The Dream. 
Cowen, F. H. — A Sonq op Thanksoivinq. 
Ounkley, F. — The Wreck op the 

Ellicott, Rosalind F.— elysium. 
Franz, Robert. — praise ye the Lord 

(117th Psalm). 

Haydn. — Thb Creation (Pocket Edition) 

Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. 

*FiRST Mass, in B plat. 

First Mass, in B flat (Latin). 

Second Mass, in C (Latin). 

Third Mass (Imperial). (Latin). 

'Third Mass (Imperial). 

'Te Deum. 

Hiller, Dr. — a Sonq of Victory. 

Hofmann, H. — sono of thb Norns 

(Female Voices.) 



AA 000134146 o ->jA-i- 

, ^ I 3 1205 01237 8061 

ORATORIOS, CAUt AT AS, &c.—conU>iucU. 

Hummel. — First Mass, in B flat. 
Second Mass, in E flat. 

Third Mass, in D. 

HnSB) H. H. — Ave Maria (Female Voices). 
Iliffe, F. — St. John the Divine. 
Jensen, A. — The Feast of Adonis. 
KilbUPn, N. — The Lord is my Shepherd. 
King, Oliver. — The Sands o' Deb. 
Leo, Leonardo. — Dixit Dominus. 
Lloyd, C. Harford. — The Sono op 

MacGunn, H. — lord Ullin's Daughter. 
Macfarren, G. A. — Outward Bound. 
May Day. 

Mackenzie, A. C. — Thb Bride. 

Hasser, J. T.— Harvest Cantata. 
Mee, J. H. — Horatius (Male Voices). 

Delphi (Male Voices). 

Mendelssohn. — St.Paul (Pocket Edition). 
Elijah (Pocket Edition). 


Hymn op Praise. 

As the Hart Pants. 

Come, let us Sing. 

When Israel out OP Egypt came. 

Not unto us. 

Lord, how long. 

Hear my Prayer. 

The First Walpurgis Night. 

Midsummer Night's Dream. 

Man is Mortal. 

Festgesang (Hymns of Praise), 

Festgesang (Male Voices). 


To the Sons op Art. 

*AvE Maria (Saviour of Sinners). 

♦Three Motets (Female Voices). 

Meyerbeer. — gisT Psalm (Latin Words). 
gisT Psalm (English Words). 

Mozart. — King Thamos. 

"First Mass. 

Seventh Mass (Latin). 

Twelfth Mass (Latin). 

♦Twelfth Mass. 

Requiem Mass (Latin). 

*Requiem Mass. 

Mundella, E. — Victory of Song (Female 

Parker, H. W. — The Kobolds. 

Parry, C. H. H. — Blest Pair op Sirens. 

The Glories of our Blood and State. 

Pergolesi. — Stabat Mater (Female V.). 
PinSUti, C. — Phantoms. 

The Works marked • have 

Prout, E. — Freedom. 

The Hundredth Psalm. 

Purcell. — Te Deum and Jubilate, in D. 
Read, J. F. H.— In the Forest (Male V.). 

Romberg. — The Lav of the Bell. 
The Transient and the Eternal. 

Rossini. — 'Stabat Mater. 

Sach, Ed. — Water Lilies. 
Sangster, W. H. — Elysium. 
Sawyer, F. J. — The Soul's Forgiveness. 

Schubert. — Sono of Miriam. 

Mass, in A flat. 

Mass, in B plat. 

Mass, in C. 

Mass, in F. 

. Mass, in G. 

Schumann. — Thb Pilgrimage of the 

The King's Son. 

Mignon's Requiem. 

Advent Hymn, "In Lowly Guise." 


New Year's Song. 

Schutz, H. — The Passion op our Lord. 

Silas, E. — Mass, in C. 

Smith, Alice Mary. — The Song op the 
Little Baltung (Men's Voices). 

Ode to the North-East Wind. 

The Red King (Men's Voices), 

Spohr. — The Last Judgment. 

God, Thou art Great. 

The Christian's Prayer. 

Hymn to St. Cecilia. 

Such, E. C. — God is our Refuge (Psalm 46). 

Sullivan, A. — Exhibition Ode. 

Festival Te Deum. 

Thomas, A. Goring. — The Sun Wor- 

Thorne, E. H. — Be Merciful unto me. 

Yan Bree. — St. Cecilia's Day. 

Waller, Hilda. — The Singers (Female 

Weber, C. M. von. — Preciosa. 

*Mass, in G. 

'Mass, in E flat. 

- Jubilee Cantata. 
Three Seasons. 

Wesley, S. — Dixit Dominus. 

Wesley, S.S. — olord, Thou artmtGod. 

Wood, C. — Ode to the Wbst Wind. 
Latin and English Words. 






This Collection of Studies is intended to illustrate the various 
elements of a complete course of pianoforte iechniqiie, and to 
provide students with the means of attacking and overcoming 
the different special difficulties which have to be encountered. 
With this view, the Studies have been arranged in groups, those 
in each group being placed in progressive order, and having 
reference to some one particular difficulty. The greater part of 
the Studies themselves have been selected from the standard 
works of the most eminent Study-writers, and with these a'^e 
included numerous others, which, though of equally great practical 
utility, have hitherto been less generally accessible. 


Part I 

3. SCALES Part I 







Part I 

■ .1 2 

.. 3 

.. 4 

.. S 

Part I 
■ ■ 2 
.. 3 

.. 4 

Part I 

.. 5 
M 6 
.. 7 

Part 1 

SHAKES I'art i 

, I 

,. ■• 3 

DOi BLK NOIES .. .. Parti 

„ 2 


It .. ■■ .. 4 

OCTAVES .. Part i 

„ „ 2 

CHORDS Patt i 

39. STACCAlt) 




Part I 

r 1 2 



., 3 


. . Part I 


. . I'n' t I 



RHYTHM I'art i