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Geology, Stratigraphical . R. ETHERIDGE, F.R.S. 

,, Practical Aids . PROF. GRENVILLE COLE . 

Open Air Studies . $2.50 

Mining Geology . . . PROF. JAMES PARK, F.G.S. . $2.00 

Prospecting for Minerals. S. HERBERT Cox, A.R.S.M. . $2.00 

Ore and Stone Mining. . FOSTER AND BROUGH . . $10.00 
Elements of Mining . . SIR C. LE NEVE FOSTER . 

Coal Mining . . . H. W. HUGHES, F.G.S. . . $7.00 

Practical Coal Mining . G. L. KERR, M.INST.M.E. . . $4.00 

Elementary ,, . $1.25 

Elect. Colliery Practice . D. BURNS . . . . $2.00 

Mine-Surveying . . . BENNETT H. BROUGH, A.R.S.M. $2.25 

Mine Air, Investigation of. FOSTER AND HALDANE . . $2.00 

Mining Law . . . . C. J. ALFORD . . . , $3.00 

Blasting and Explosives . 0. GUTTMANN, A.M.I.C.E. . . $3.00 

Testing Explosives . . BICHEL AND LARSEN . . $2.00 

Shaft Sinking . . . J. RIEMER ... . . . $3.50 

Mine Accounts . . . J. G. LAWN, A.R.S.M. 
Mining Engineers' Report- 
Book . . . E. R. FIELD, M.INST.M.M. . . $1.50 
Petroleum . ' * . .SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD . . $13.50 
A Handbook on Petroleum THOMSON AND REDWOOD . . $3.00 
Metallurgical Analysis . MACLEOD AND WALKER . . $4.00 
Micro. Anal, of Metals . F. OSMOND & J. E. STEAD, F.R.S. $2.50 
Metallurgy (Elementary) . PROF. HUMBOLDT SEXTON . $2.25 
Getting Gold . . . J. C. F. JOHNSON, F.G.S. . . $1.50 
Cyanide Process . . PROF. JAMES PARK, F.G.S. .- $2.50 
Cyaniding .... JULIAN AND SMART . . . $6.00 

Electric Smelting . . BORCHERS AND MCMILLAN . $7.00 

Assaying . . . . J. J. & C. BERINGER . .. $3.00 

Metallurgical Analysis 

(Tables for) . . J. J. MORGAN, F.C.S. . -. . $1.75 

Metallurgy (Introduction to) SIR W. ROBERTS-AUSTEN, K.C.B. $5.50 

Gold, Metallurgy of . . DR. KIRKE ROSE, A.R.S.M. -*" $6.00 
Lead and Silver, Metal- 
lurgy of . . . . H. F. COLLINS, A.R.S.M. 2 vols. each $4.50 

Iron, Metallurgy of . . PROF. THOS. TURNER, A.R.S.M. $5.00 

Steel, Metallurgy of . . F. W. HARBORD . . . $9.00 

General Foundry Practice . MCWILLIAM AND LONGMUIR . $4.50 

Iron-Founding . . PROF. THOMAS TURNER . . $1.50 

Precious Stones . . .DR. MAX BAUER . . . $15.00 
















^' OF THE 






THE author has endeavoured, by the copious use of cross- 
references, to make this work as useful as possible. 

All provincial terms are, where possible, referred back to 
standard terms, under which lists of synonyms, and equiva- 
lents in French, German, and, in some instances, Portuguese, 
are given. In short, no pains have been spared to make the 
dictionary as complete as possible, and it is hoped that it 
will supply a long-felt want. 

For the mining terms used in Spain, the author is largely 
indebted to the standard treatises of Ezquerra del Bayo 
and Manuel Malo de Molina, and the smaller text-books of 
Moncada y Ferro, F. Gillman and Luis Carrion. 

For the metallurgical terms used in Spain, the works of 
Jeronimo Ibran, Barinaga y Corradi, and Sanchez y Massia 
have been consulted. 

As the author resided for some years in Mexico and 
Colombia (South America), the terms used in those Republics 
are naturally more fully represented in this work than those 
of other Spanish- American countries. 

For the sake of English readers, words beginning with, or 
containing, the letters Ch, LI, and N are arranged alpha- 
betically under C, L, and N respectively. 

The Supplement, consisting mainly of provincial terms, 
was prepared while the rest of the work was being printed. 




February 1908. 




ACADEMIA, " Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana por la Real Academia 

Espanola," 13th ed., Madrid, 1899. 
" Anales del Ministerio de Fomento de la Republica Mexicana," Mexico, 10 vols., 

1877 to 1888. 
Ansa, Jose Vicente de, " Informe al excelentisimo Senor Ministro de Guerra y 

Hacienda de Indias," MS., 1793 (a Report on the Mines and Mills of Tasco 

Guerrero, Mexico). 

BARCENA, Mariano, " Tratado de Geologia," Mexico, 1885. 

Baretti, see Neuman. 

Bertolio, S., " Manuel del Minero y del Buscador de Minas," traducido de la 

2 a edicion italiana, por Carlos Huelin, Madrid, 1903, pp. 389 (pocket). 
" Boletin de Agricultura, Mineria y Industrias," Mexico, 1891 et seq. 
" Boletin de la Sociedad Nacioiial de Mineria," Santiago de Chile (monthly). 
" Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru," Lima, 1902 et seq. 
" Boletin del Institute Geologico de Mexico," Mexico, 1895 ct seq. 
Burkart, Joseph, " Aufenthalt und Reisen in Mexico in den Jahren 1825 bis 

1834," 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1836. 

CARRION, Luis, " Curso de Explotacion de Minas," Pachuca (Mexico), 1889. 
Chalon, Paul F., " Aide-Memoire du Mineur," Paris, 1895 (contains a small 
Glossary of French, English and Spanish terms). 

DAHLGREN, C. B., " Minas historicas de la Repiiblica Mexicana," Mexico, 1887, 

pp. 241, 20 Maps and Plates (a translation of the American work " Historic 

Mines of Mexico "). 
Duport, St. Clair, " De la Production des Metaux Precieux au Mexique," 

Paris, 1843. 

Duque, Antonio J., " Memorandum de Bolsillo," Medellin (Colombia), 1896. 
Dwight, A. S., " A Glossary of Spanish- American Mining and Metallurgica 

Terms " (Trans. Am. Inst. M.E., vol. xxxii, 1902, 29 pages). 

ELWES, A., "A Dictionary of the Spanish Language including a large number 

of Technical Terms used in Mining, Engineering, etc.," London, 1882. 
"A Dictionary of the Portuguese Language," 4th ed., 1898. 

Ezquerra del Bayo, Joaquin, " Elementos de Laboreo de Minas," 2nd ed., Madrid, 
1851, pp. 584, with Atlas of 16 Plates. NOTE. The first edition was 
published in 1839. 

GAMBA, Fortunate Pereira, " Riqueza Mineral de la Republica de Colombia," 
Bogota (Colombia), 1901, pp. 256. 



Gauiboa, Francisco Javier, " Comentarias u las Ordenanzas de Mineria, etc.," 

Madrid, 1761. (This work contains a valuable glossary of mining terms 

used in Mexico.) 
Garcia, Andres, J. R. V., " Dictionary of Engineering Terms in English and 

Spanish, London, 1906, 150 pp. (pocket). 
Gillman, F., " Elementos de Mineria 6 Laboreo de Minas y Preparacion mecanica 

de las Menas " (tirado aparte de la " Enciclopedia Popular Ilustrado de 

Ciencias y Artes "), 9 Plates, Madrid, 1885, pp. 193. 
Guim, J. B., " Nuevo Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana," 2nd ed., Paris, 1864. 

HUELIN y ARSSU, Carlos, " Technological Dictionary in the English, Spanish, 
German and French Languages," Madrid, 1906, pp. 609. 

Humboldt, Alexander von, " Essai politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle- 
Espagne," Paris, 1811. 

" Vues des Cordilleres," etc. 

" Relation Historique du Voyage aux Regions equinoxiales." 

IBRAN, Jeronimo, "Album de Metalurgia General," Madrid, 1872, 4to, pp. 630, 
with Atlas of 87 Plates (includes mechanical preparation). 

LUCAS, Frederick, " Spanish-English Dictionary of Mining Terms," London, 

1905, pp. 78 (pocket). 
Lyon, G. F., "Journal of Residence ... in Mexico . . . with some Account 

of its Mines," 2 vols. 1828. 

" MINING Glossary, English and Foreign, to which is added the Smelting Terms 

used in France, Spain and Germany," published by the Mining Journal, 

London, 3rd ed. 1871 (138 pp.). 
Molina, D. Manuel Malo de, " Laboreo de Minas," 2 vols, 1557 pages, with 

Atlas of 102 Plates (1192 figures), Cartagena, Spain, 1889-1893. 
Moncada y Ferro, " Gines, Elementos de Laboreo de Minas," Cartagena, 1893, 

357 pp., 15 Plates; 2nd ed. 1903,346pp., 16 Plates. 

" Elementos de Preparacion Mecanica de les Menas," 2nd ed. Cartagena, 
1902, 189 pages, 14 Plates. 

Munoz, Francisco de P., " Tratado de la Legislacion de Minas de Antioquia y 
Nociones generales sobre Minas," Medellin (Colombia), 1886, pp. 155, 
45 Figures in text (31 pp. on mining). 

NEUMAN and Baretti, " A Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages," 
ed. M. Sevano, London, 2 vols., n.d. 

PONCE DE LEON, "Technological Dictionary, English-Spanish and Spanish- 
English," 2 vols. New York, n.d. 

RAMIREZ, Santiago, " Noticia de la Riqueza Minera de Mexico," Mexico, 1884. 
Restrepo, Vicente, " Estudio sobre las Minas de Ora y Plata de Colombia," 
Bogota (Colombia), 1888, 2nd ed., pp. 332. 

TILMANN, E., " Der Bergbau . . . von Guanajuato en Mexico," Minister, 1886, 

pp. 73, 5 Plates. 
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, of the (British) 

Institution of Mining Engineers, and of the Institution of Mining and 

Tschudi, Dr. J. J. von, " Travels in Peru, during the Years 1838-1842." Trans. 

by Thomasina Ross, London, 1847. 



URIBE, A. J., see Velez. 

Uribe, R. Uribe, " Diccionario abreviado de Galicisnios, Provincialismos y 
Correcciones de Lenguaje," Medellin (Colombia), 1887, pp. 376. 

VENATOR, Max, " English-German-Spanish-French Dictionary of the Terms 

employed in Mining, Metallurgy, and Chemistry, with the respective 

Auxiliary Sciences," Leipzig, 1897, pp. 126. 
Velazquez, Mariano Velazquez de la Cadena, " A New Pronouncing Dictionary 

of the Spanish and English Languages," revised and enlarged by Edward 

Gray and Juan L. Iribas, London, 2 vols. (1900). 
Velez, Fernando, y Antonio Jose Uribe, " Codigo de Minas colombiano con- 

cordado y anotado," 2nd ed., Medellin (Colombia), 1904. 
Viala, L. Fernand, " Les Filons d'Or de la Guyane fran9aise ; formation 

geologique ..." Paris, 1886. 

WARD, H. G., " Mexico in 1827," 2 vols., London, 1828. 


Barinaga y Corradi, Luis, " Curso de Metalurgia Especial," Madrid, 1879, 

pp. 891, 2 Plates and 110 Figures in text. 
Calogeras, Joao Pandin, " As Minas do Brasil e sua Legislagao," Rio de Janeiro, 

1904, 3 vols. 

Ferrand, Paul, " L'or a Minas Geraes, Bresil," Paris, 1894 (two parts published). 
Hermosa, Francisco de P., " Manuel de Laboreo de Minas y Beneficio de Me- 

tales," Paris and Mexico, 1905, pp. 394 (relates chiefly to Mexican practice). 
Michaelis, H., " A new Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages," 

2nd ed., 2 vols., 1906. 
Rainiondi, Antonio, " El Pern," vol. iv, Lima, 1902 (the first volume published 

of the geological and mining portion of Raimondi's great work). 
Sanchez y Massia, Manuel, " Metalurgia del Plomo," Madrid, 1893, pp. 376, 

with Atlas of 8 Plates. 



A. del M. de F. . 

adj. . 

alluv. m. . 

And. Sp. . 

Ant. Col. . 

arch. . , 

Ar. Sp. . 


assay. . , 

b. constr. . 
blast. "v .- 

Boi. : . . 

Bol. de A. M. e I. 
Bol. del C. de I. 

de M. . 
Bol. de la S. N. 

de M. . 
bor. . 

Braz. ' ^ 
Gal. . " ,- 

carp. . . 

cb. m. .,' 

c. eng. ^. _ . 
Cent. Am. 

Col. . 
dm. . 
Dur. . 
el. . 
Estr. Sp. 

FT. . 


Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy. 

" Anales del Ministerio de Fomento," Mexico. 

adjective. (NOTE. This is always placed before the 

corresponding substantive.) 
alluvial mining. 
Andalusia (Province), Spain. 

Antioquia (Department), Republic of Colombia, S. America, 

Aragon (Province), Spain. 
Argentine Republic, 

building construction, 
blasting (hand-boring). 
Bolivia (Republic), S. America. 
" Boletin de Agricultura, Mineria e Industrias," Mexico. 

" Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru." 

" Boletin de la Sociedad Nacional de Mineria," Chile. 

" Boletin del Institute geologico de Mexico." 

boring (deep). 


California (U.S.A.). 


cubic metres. 

civil engineering. 

Central America. 

Chihuahua (State), Mexico. 


coal mining. 

Colombia (S. America). 




Durango (State), Mexico. 



equivalent or equivalents. 

Estremadura (Province), Spain. 






gold-mill. . 


hydr. eng. 
hydr. m. . 
k. or kg. . 
km. . 
L. Cal . 
leg. . . 
lit. . 
mas. . 

mech. prep, 

ing. . 


Min. Ind. . 


M. J. Gloss. 



Mure. Sp. . 



obs. . 






pp. . 



pr. p. 


quarr. . . 

rail. . 

Sant, Sp. . 

S. Am. 


S. L. Pot. 

Sp. . . 


Span. Am. 

S. Sp. 

st. eng. 


syn. . 




gramme or grammes. 

Guanajuato (district), Mexico. NOTE. If after name of 

district or place = Guanajuato State. 
Guerrero (State), Mexico. 
Hidalgo (State), Mexico, 
hoisting (or winding), 

hydraulic engineering, 
hydraulic mining, 

Lower (Baja) California (Territory), Mexico, 
legal (term), 

masonry (includes walling), 
mechanics (applied), 
mechanical preparation (of minerals), 
Mexico. NOTE. After name of place or district = 

Mexico State, 

" Mineral Industry " (New York annual), 

Glossary published by The Mining Journal (1871). 
metal mining. 
Murcia (Province), Spain, 
nautical (term). 

Pachuca (district), Mexico. 

present participle, 
railroad or railway. 
Santander (Province), Spam. 
South America. 
Sinaloa (State), Mexico. 
San Luis Potosi (State), Mexico. 

Spanish America. 
South Spain, 
steam engine, 

synonym or synonyms, 



top. . . . topography, 

transp. . . transport. 

u. . . under, 

u. haul. . . underground haulage, 

var. . . . variety or varieties. 

Venez. . . Venezuela, 

vent. . . ventilation, 

vulg. . . vulgarly (miners' expression). 

Zac. . . . Zacatecas (district), Mexico. NOTE. After name ot place 
or district = Zacatecas State. 


ABACA, (1) the Musa textilis of the banana family, a native of the Philip- 
pines ; (2) inner fibre of (1) or Manila-hemp (canamo de Manila or 
giiembe), comp. cabulla (2) ; (3) rope or any fabric made of (2). 
ABACO, trough (artesa) in which ores are washed, particularly gold (Acad.), 
comp. gamella (2). 




Page 65, line 26 from top, for " uchanachacado " read 

1 ' uchanchacado. ' ' oned 

Page 82, line 3 from bottom, for " carbon " read " coal or 

. sem- 


Page 200, line 7 from top, for " JAMARACI6N "read r (7), 


Page 364, line I, for " (2) " read " (3)." neu _ 

J (2). 

ABATAJE, (from Fr. abatage), breaking ground, syn. abatimiento. 

ABATIMIENTO, see abataje. 

ABEDUL, common birch-tree. 

ABERTA, see u. hendedura. 

ABERTURA, (1) fissure, see hendedura ; (2) driving of levels, opening 

out ; a. de galeria, driving, tunnelling ; (3) a. de la quebrantadora, 

width of the mouth of a stone-breaker or "crusher" the aperture 

(apertura) ; (4=) re-opening of a vein, see abra (1). 
ABETO, pine, see oyametl. 

ABIGARRADO, DA, adj. variegated in colour, see u. cobre (2). 
ABOCARDO, drill [barrena (1)] for making the tubes of mine pumps 

(Acad.) ; counter-sinking drill (Velazquez). 
ABOCHORNARSE, see u. bochorno. 
ABOCINADOR, a. de tubos, tube-expander (Ponce de Leon). 

1 A 


ABACA, (1) the Musa textilis of the banana family, a native of the Philip- 
pines ; (2) inner fibre of (1) or Manila-hemp (canamo de Manila or 
giiembe), comp. cabulla (2) ; (3) rope or any fabric made of (2). 

ABACO, trough (artesa) in which ores are washed, particularly gold (Acad.), 
comp. gamella (2). 

ABAJADOR, (1) one who carries tools to miners working in shafts, etc., 
syn. fierrero, comp. atajador, barrenero, buque, hatero, pepe, piquetero, 
rata, zorra ; (2) stable-boy. 

ABAJO ! lower 1 (signal for letting down the kibble, etc.) syn. Pachuca, 
Hid. Mex. cachani ! comp. arriba ! sota ! 

ABANADOR, mining bellows (Ponce de Leon), see fuelle (1). 

ABANDONADO, DA, pp. of abandonar ; mina abandonada, abandoned 
mine, syn. castana, mina desierta, see u. despilado, da. 

ABANDONAMIENTO, ABANDONO, abandonment (of a mine), see desem- 
paro ; see u. sistema. 

ABANDONAR, a. una mina, to abandon a mine, see comer (2), cortar (7), 
desamparar, u. despilado, da, despueble. 

ABANICO, (1) mech. small crane, derrick, see grua ; (2) rail, switch- 
stand, see cambio (1) ;' (3) min. ventilator, fan, syn. ventalle ; a. neu- 
matico, suction-fan (Ponce de Leon), sze ventilador. 

ABASTO, (1) supply ; abastos, provisions ; (2) output, see extraction (2). 

ABATAJE, (from Fr. abatage), breaking ground, syn. abatimiento. 

ABATIMIENTO, see abataje. 

ABEDUL, common birch-tree. 

ABERTA, see u. hendedura. 

ABERTURA, (1) fissure, see hendedura ; (2) driving of levels, opening 
out ; a. de galeria, driving, tunnelling ; (3) a. de la quebrantadora, 
width of the mouth of a stone-breaker or "crusher" the aperture 
(apertura) ; () re-opening of a vein, see abra (4). 

ABETO, pine, see oyametl. 

ABIGARRADO, DA, adj. variegated in colour, see u. cobre (2). 

ABOCARDO, drill [barrena (1)] for making the tubes of mine pumps 
(Acad.) ; counter-sinking drill (Velazquez). 

ABOCHORNARSE, see u. bochorno. 

ABOCINADOR. a. de tubos, tube-expander (Ponce de Le6n). 

1 A 


ABONO, (1) security given for the performance of a contract ; (2) receipt 

in full or part ; (3) com. allowance, discount ; (4) manure, e.g., nitrates. 
ABORTOS DE ORO, Panama, rich alluvial gold found in the deposits 

known as hucicas a kind of nugget, see pepita. 
ABOVEDADO, DA, adj. arched, vaulted, see u. boveda (3) and (4). 
ABRA, (1) bay or haven ; cove or creek ; (2) dale or valley ; (3) fissure 

in mountains, gorge, geol. break, syn. cuarteadura, comp. hendedura ; 

(4) re-opening of a vein, see abertura (4). 
ABRAZADERA, (1) ring [anillo (1)] ; a. de hierro, iron ring, cleat, clamp 

used in looping the end of a wire-rope, see mordaza (2) ; (2) abrazaderas, 

hoist, sliding-pieces, shoes, slippers or ears which embrace the guides, 

or the guide-rod or conductors of cages, syn. manos (5), salientes, 

equiv. Fr. main de fer, Ger. Leitschuh ; (5) strap of an eccentric cam 

(Fr. etrier) ; (4) sierra a., see u. sierra (2) ; (5) Huelgayoc, Peru, timb. 

a second cap-piece [capa (4)] placed a short distance below the first, 

to prevent the frame being crushed inwards. NOTE. In this district the 

cap-piece is not jointed to the leg-pieces ; see mensula, comp. tiple (2). 
ABRAZADOR, a hook [gancho (1)] used in connection with the pole of a 

noria (1) ; a clip (Dwight). 
ABRE EL BANG, see bano (2). 
ABREVADERO, Ant. Col. alluv. m. mina de hoyos [see hoyo (3)] filled 

with water at the time of exploitation (Uribe). 
ABRIDURA, Mex., enlargement of a space, so that miners may work 

freely (Dwight). 
ABRIGO, Mex., (1) the width of a vein (Dwight), see anchura (1) ; (2) a. 

del carbon, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, argillaceous rock forming roof and 

floor of coal seams (E. D. Canseco). 

ABRILLANTADOR (1) diamond- cutter, lapidary ; (2) tool used by (1). 
ABRILLANTAR (Port, abrilhantar), to cut diamonds or other precious 

ABRIR, (l)to drive or open up, see avanzar ; a. una galeria or un pozo, 

to d if b or sink ; a. un tunel, to tunnel ; (2) a. el terreno (2), to 

bore, see sondar ; a. un barreno (1), to bore a blast-hole; (3) see 

zanja (3). 
ABRONZADO, Mex. (1) copper pyrites, see u. pirita ; (2) very rich grey 

copper ore (tstrahedrite), syn. negro (3), see cobre (2), comp. cobrizo. 
ABSORCI6N, absorption, see u. valvula. 
ACALABROTADO, see u. esparto. 
ACAMPANAR, Ant. Col., to clean a placer right down to the pay-dirt 

(Uribe), see campana (3). 
ACAMPANILADA, see u. vena (2). 
ACANALADA, see u. polea (2). 
ACANELADOS, Zac. Mex. black, brown and yellow blende very finely 

disseminated, and very rich, being mixed with ruby silver and argentite, 

see bbnda [Span, acanelado = cinnamon-coloured]. 
ACANTERADO, see u. piedra porfido. 



ACANTILADOS, natural vertical sections on the flanks or summit (cima) 
of a mountain (Barcana) ; precipices or cliffs, see, cantil, precipicio, 
comp. bufa, sombrerete. 

ACARDENILLADA, ore with a greenish stain (due to carbonate of copper), 
see. cardenillo (1). 

ACARREADOR (Port, acarretador), carrier, porter, wagoner [see carretero 
(3)] ; Mex. wood-carrier, comp. tenatero. 

ACARREO (Port, acarretadura, acarreto), (1) carriage or conveyance (of 
minerals, etc.), -see transporte ; a. por arrastre (1), seen, rastra(l) ; acar- 
reos, supplies ; cosas de a., goods forwarded ; (2) minerales or metales 
de a., derived or secondary ores, as ochres, etc., e.g., estano de a., stream- 
tin ; acarreos, float-rocks (Dwight) ; (3) geol. drift ; a. acuifero, rock 
composed of rounded blocks, pebbles and gravel (Molina). 

ACCIDENTADO (from Fr. accidente), rough or broken (of ground), hilly. 

ACCION (Port, accao), (1) share in a mine, etc. ; a. industrial, share ; 
a. librada, paid-up share ; (2) leg. action, lawsuit, right or ground of 
action in a suit (Dwight) ; a. posesoria, possessory action, action-at-law 
for establishing possession ; (3) stock, capital in a company ; (4) mech. 
action ; a. directa, direct action. 

ACCIONISTA, shareholder, stockholder. 

ACEITE, (1) oil, whether of vegetable or mineral origin ; a. de arder, 
a. de linaza, linseod oil ; a. comun, a. de comer, olive oil ; a. de carbon, 
coal oil ; a. de petroleo, see u. petroleo ; a. mineral, mineral oil or 
naphtha ; (2) resin which distils from the fir-tree, etc., a. de palo, 
balsam copaiba ; (3) a. de tierra, see u. betun ; (4) a. de azufre, 
a. vitriolo, concentrated sulphuric acid ; (5) Col. a kind of timber, of 
which boards are made. 

ACEITERA, ACEITERO, oil-cup (Fr. godet a huile), see engrasador (2). 

ACENDRAR, to refine, see afinar. 

ACEPILLADURA, (1) planing, see cepillo (1) ; (2) shavings, 

ACEPILLAR, to plane, see u. banco (1), cepillar. 

ACEQUIA, ditch or leat, equiv. Bra-,, rego (2), see arbollon (2), balate (2), 
canal (1)> canalejo, cauce (2), cava (1), cequion, corriente (2), montar, 
presa (2), toma, tragante (2), comp. principal (1), zanja (1). 

ACEQUIADOR, one who constructs ditches or leats, see, acequiero (2). 

ACEQUIAR, to construct ditches or leats. 

ACEQUIERO, (1) a man in charge of a ditch or leat j (2) Ant, col. a 
peon who makes a ditch or leat, see acequiador. 

ACERA, (1) side-walk, see ce~a (2) ; (2) the stones which form the face 
of a wall (Velazquez). 

ACER ADO (steely), (1) Peras, Oaxaca, Mex. massive iron pyrites, (en 
pegaduras) gold-bearing and occurring in compact milk-white quartz, 
wh.3n in crystals known as acuescado or arris:ado. Both varieties are 
known by the generic name of bronces (S. Ramirez), see oro, u. pirita. 
(2) Guidalcazar, S. L. Pot., Mex. a variety of cinnabar containing 
7 per cent, of mercury (S. Ramirez) ; H. F. Collins says it appears to be 



guadalcazarite, but see riolita, see cinabrio ; (3) Mex. steplianite ; for 

petlanque a., see u. petlanque ; (4) Potosi, Bol. jamesonite, a. bianco, 

a. lejizo, and a. zebroso are whitish, slaty and fibrous varieties respec- 
tively (M. Roberts), sze paja (4) ; (5) Mex. grey copper ore, or any grey 

steely ore (Dwight) for plata azul acerada, see u. plata (2) ; (6) Arg. 

sulphide of silver mixed with iron in notable proportions (Hoskold). 
ACERDESA, wad or bog manganese (Fr. acerdese), see manganesa (2). 
ACERILLO, Peru, galena in small crystals of a granular structure, see 

ACERO, steel ; a. afinado or refinado, charcoal steel, shear steel ; a. colado 

or fundido, cast steel ; a. de lupia, bloom steel ; a. de rosa, rose steel ; 

a. soldable or para calzar, welding steel ; a. trabajado, wrought steel ; 

a. vejigoso, blistered steel (Ponce de Leon). 
ACHAPARERA, Mex. long-handled adze (Dwight), see azuela. 
ACHICADOR, Mex. orig. workman employed in removing the water in 

leather buckets [cubes (1)], and conducting them to piletas (1) or wooden 

cisterns [cajas (2)] of the shaft (Gamboa), syn. achicinque ; see atecas ; 

any one who bails a mine. 
ACHICAR, to bail water out of a mine, to clear it of water, to drain it. 

In Mexico botas are still sometimes used for this purpose. See atecas, 

baldear, chicar, desagiie (2), jamurar. 
ACHICARRONADA, see u. tosca (4). 
ACH1CHINQUE, see achicador. 
ACHIQUE, bailing water out of a mine, see achicar. 
ACHUA, Chile, a small earthenware dish used in making tests in the 

patio process, see chua, u. ensayador, comp. u. tentadura (1). 
ACHUPALLA, Peru, a shrub used as fuel in smelting in rudimentary 

ACIDO, (1) acid ; a. carbonico, carbonic acid, see bochorno (1), humpe ; 

(2) a. negro, Pachuca, Mex. in the patio process, spent mother-liquor 

from the crystallising vats. 
ACODADO, tubo a., bent tube or tube with an elbow (codo), see also u. 


ACODALADA, timb. stayed (Ponce de Leon). 
ACODALAMIENTO, timb. propping, staying (Ponce de Leon). 
ACODAR, to square timber or stone. 

ACOMODANA, Peru, ore-deposit (Dwight), see deposito (1). 
ACOPE, timb. the inclination given to leg- pieces in frames or sels. 
ACOPIOS, waste heaps or dumps (Chalon), see vaciadero. 
ACOPLADO, adj. fitted, adjusted, mech. coupled, see u. horno (2). 
ACOPLADURA, carp, and mech. coupling. 
ACOPOLADO, (1) metal a., Sain Alto, Zac. Mex. fine yellow tinstone 

obtained by washing the tierras (4), 52? estano (2) ; (2) Sultcp^c, Mex. 

ore containing fifty to sixty ounces of silver per ton. 
ACOSTADO, see u. monton (3). 



ACOSTAR, to incline to one side (of buildings) ; to take a horizontal dip 
(Ponce de Laon) ; acostarse, to dip in some new direction, see metal (5). 

ACREEDOR, creditor. 

ACRISOLAR, to refine in a crucible, see afinar. 

ACTIVAR, Mex. to quicken the chemical reaotions in the torta (Dwight). 

ACUEDUCTO, aqueduct, see u. servidumbre ; conduit, see alcantarilla, 
arcaduz (2), caneria (1). 

ACUESCADO, see u. acerado (1). 

ACULLICO, Peru, resting-hour (Dwight). 

ACUMULADOR, (1) a. de mineral, large deposit for ore, see almacen (2) ; 
(2) hyd. accumulator, syn. cumulador, regulador de presion ; mech. 
ac3umulator, syn. condensador de fuerzas ; (3) el. accumulator. 

ACUNACION, coining, milling ; coinage, syn. amonedacion. 

ACUNADOR, coiner. 

ACUNAR, (1) to coin, syn. amonedar, monedar ; (2) to wedge or fasten 
with wedges, syn. calar (2). 

ACUOSO, SA, adj. watery, aqueous. 

ADARAJA, see diente (5). 

ADARME, half a dram, or one-sixteenth part of a Spanish ounce, 1^ dwts . 
nearly; 1 adarme = 3 tomines = 36 grains = 1-792238 grammes. An 
ore yielding 1 adarme of gold per carga contains about half an ounce of 
gold per ton of 2000 Ib. 

ADELGAZAMIENTO, (1) thinning out (of lode--, etc.) ; (2) thinning or 
robbing (of pillars), see despilada. 

ADELGAZAR, (1) to thin out (of lodes, etc.) ; (2) to thin or rob (pillars), 
see despilar ; (3) Ant. Col. to separate gold and concentrates [jaguas 
(3)] from sand and small stones, in order to facilitate the final washing. 

ADEMA, a piece of timber (madera), usually rounded, and more or less 
long and thick, used in supporting mine? [comp. madero (1)] ; prop, 
shore, strut ; a. rolliza, round timber ; a. auxiliar, auxiliary timber for 
supporting others, see carrera (8), estribado, jabalcon (2), riostra (1). 
sopanda (2), tornapunta ; (2) see ademe ; (3) see dema (1). 

ADEMACI6N, t mber'ng ; see entibacion ; a. perdida, lost timbering. 

ADEMADOR, (1) timber man, see palero (4) ; planker, shorer ; (2) mine 
carpenter, syn. palero (5), see carpintero. 

ADEMAR, (1) to timber, see entibar. NOTE. It is sometimes spelt demar. 
(2) Ant. Col. to make the sides of an artificial drain or ditch, see dema ( 1 ). 

ADEME, " coverings or wooden linings, securing and preserving the 
shafts, pillars and works " (Gamboa, 1761) ; any lining of timber used 
in supporting underground works ; syn. adema (2) ; a. de anillo cerrado, 
solid crib -timbering ; a. de cincha y estacada, prop crib- timbering [see 
also encubado (1), corral (2)] ; a. de cajon, prop crib- timbering, but with 
the frames or rings [anillos (2)] inclined at an angle equal to the comple- 
ment of the general inclination of the strata ; a. de marco y estacada, 
see u. marco (3) ; a. de prestado, provisional timbering, as camada (3), 
puente (3). 



ADINTELADO, see u. estemple. 

ADMINISTRACI6N, (1) management ; (2) trusteeship, administration ; 

en administration, in trust ; (3) a. de correos, post-office. 
ADMINISTRADOR, (1) manager, see superintendente (1) ; (2) trustee, 

see tenedor (1). 
ADOBE, (1) a brick made of straw, earth and dung, baked in the sun, but 

not burnt. Adobes are usually three-quarters of a vara long, half a 

vara wide, and from three to four inches thhk, comp. ladrillo. (2) Met. 

smalls, when mixed with limestone and water, form a paste, which is 

mada into cubes, called adobes, of from five to six centimetres side. 

These are allowed to dry and harden before being put into the furnace 

(S. Ramirez), see u. tierra (4). (3) U.S.A. reddish brown material 

covering basin-deserts, comp. caliche (4) or tepetate (6). 
ADOBERA, a mould for making adobes (1). 
ADOBERlA, adobe kiln or yarl, comp. ladrillera (1). 
ADOBIO, front portion of a blast-furnace (Acad.), see horno (2). 
ADOQUlN, (1) paving stone ; (2) adoquines, hydr. m. block riffles, see 

lendido (5). 

ADOSADOS, see u. testera (3). 
ADUANA (Port. id. or alfandega), custom, custom house ; en la aduana 

com. in bond (Velazquez). 
ADUANAR, (1) to enter goods at the custom-house ; (2) to pay duty, to 

put in bond (Velazquez). 
ADUANERO, custom-house official. 
AEREO, transporte a., see u. transpose. 
AEROFORA, pneumatophore or portable self-containing apparatus for 

breathing fresh air or oxygen in noxious gases, e.g., Fleuss and 

Walcher's apparatus (Fr. aerophore), see. respirador ; for parts of, see. 

careta, colchon, moderador, tapaboca. 
AFILADERA, whetstone, see muela (4). 
AFILAR (Port, afiar), to sharpen tools, see aguzar ; piedra de a. (Port. 

pedra de afiar), grindstone or whetstone, see muela (4). 
AFINACI6N, refining, syn. anno, refinacion, refinadura ; a, por cristali- 

zac on, Pattinson process (Ponce de Leon). 
AF^NADOR, refiner, syn. refinador. 

AFINAR, to refine gold aid silver, etc., syn. acendrar, refinar, see acrisolar. 
AFINO, refining, see afinac'.on. 
AFIRMACI6N, metalling, ballasting, see firme. 
AFIRMAR, to metal a road ; rail, to ballast, syn. ballastar. 
AFLOJADERO, Hex. soft part of a vein (Dwight). 
AFLOJAR EL CANAL6N, Ant. Col. alluv. m. treating the stuff which 

has accumulated in the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] by washing away the 

lighter and allowing the heavier material to settle (Uribe) [Span, aflojar, 

to loosen]. 
AFLORAMIENTO, geol. outcrop, outcropping, cropping, syn. asomo, 

Peru, eflorescencia (2), Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. salida (de carb6n), 



equiv. Fr. affleurement, Ger. Ausstrich ; see brotazon, u. cogollo, creston, 

AFLORAR, geol. to crop out, outcrop, equiv. Fr. affleurer, Ger. ausstreichen, 

sez afloramiento. 
AFORAR, hydr. to measure the quantity of water in a stream or current 

in a unit of time. 

AFORO, gauging, appraisement, see aforar. 
AFRECHERA, Peru, finely divided amalgam produced with insufficient 

mercury (Dwight), see amalgama (afrecho, prov. Span. = bran). 
AFRENTAR UN HILO, Ant. Col. to make a perpendicular cut in a vein 

to ascertain its thickness, dip and strike, see frente (4). 
AGA, red marl (Ponce de Leon), see marga. 

AGACHADERO, Mex. place in a level where the roof is low (Dwight). 
AGARRADERA, see u. mandibula. 

AGARRADERO, the holder of a mine lamp (Molina), see lampara. 
AGATA, agate, see cuarzo ; a. de cinta, ribboned agate (Ponce de Leon), 

sze moloquita, prasma. 
AGAVE, American aloe (Agave americana), syn. cabulla (or cabuya) (1) 

henequen (1), ixtle (1), pita (1) ; see cucuiza, linches, maguey, mecate (1). 
AGENTE, (1) agent [sez enganchador (2)] ; a. de mineria, Mex. under the 

new mining code the mining agent appointed by the Government in 

each district to receive denouncements, give possession, etc., see arancel, 

despacho (4), u. junta (6) ; (2) solicitor, attorney ; (3) broker, a. de 

cambios, bill-broker ; (4) a. de correos, Mex. postmaster. 
AGIO, AGIOTAJE, (1) com. premium on exchange, discount on bills, etc. ; 

(2) stock-jobbing ; U.S.A. " ring " (Velazquez). 

AGIOTADOR, AGIOTISTA, bill-broker, money-changer, stock-jobber. 
AGLOMERADO, (1) briquette; patent fuel; (2) geol. agglomerate. 
AGLOMERADOR, a furnace for producing partially calcined ore in large 

blocks, see horno (2). 
AGOJIA, channel or rivulet for the waste waters of mines (Acad.), comp. 

cuneta (2). 
AGOTADO, DA. (pp. of agotar) ; mina agotada, an exhausted mine, see 

agotar (1) ; vapor agotado, exhaust steam, see u. vapor (1). 
AGOTADORA, bomba a. pump, drawing-lift, see u. bomba (1). 
AGOTAMIENTO, (1) a. del mineral, pinching out of ore, comp. estrecha- 

miento ; (2) pumping, draining (Ponce de Leon), see desagiie. 
AGOTAR, (1) agotarse del mineral, to pinch out or lose the ore, see u. 

agotada, comp. estrecharse ; (2) to drain off waters, see desaguar (1). 
AGRAMIZA, see tasco (1). 
AGRIETADURA, crack, fissure, see hendedura. 
AGRIMENSOR, land-surveyor, se > apeador, geometro ; a. de minas, 

mine surveyor, syn. Almaien, Sp. delineador, equiv. Fr. arpenteur de 

mine, Ger. Markscheider. 
AGRIMENSURA, art of surveying land ; a. de minas, mine -surveying, 

see geometria, levantamlento (1). 



AGRIO, IA, adj. (1) acid or sour ; (2) brittle (applied to metals and ores), 
for plata ag.ia, &ee u. plata (2) ; (3) rough, (applied to roads). 

AGUA, (1) water ; a. arrimada, Ant. Col., water brought along the base 
of a barranca to facilitate the work (Uribe) ; a. de alimentation, st. eng. 
feed water ; a. de cantera, natural moisture in stones when first taken 
out of the quarry (Acad.) ; a. de descarga, waste water ; a. delgada, 
water containing a small quantity of salts in solution ; a. de manantial 
or de pie, spring water ; a. dulce, fresh water ; a. gorda, water con- 
taining a large quantity of salts, principally gypsum, in solution, syn. 
a. sosa (Acad.) ; a. llovediza, rainwater; a. potable, drinking water; 
aguas, mineral waters in general ; aguas artesianas or de corriente 
f orzada, artesian waters ; aguas de cabeza, Peru, waters filtering into a 
mine from rains ; aguas de superficie libre, superficial waters ; aguas 
termales, thermal waters ; aguas vertientes, waters from a mountain 
or sierra ; (2) aguas, tides ; a. chifles, a. muertas, neap tides ; a. vivas, 
spring tides ; (3) aguas madres, mother-liquors, syn. Chile, aguas 
viejas, see madre (2) ; (4) lustre of diamonds or other precious stones ; 
(5) acid, e.g., a. fuerte, nitric acid, a. regia, aqua regia. 

AGUADA, (1) flood of water which totally or partially inundates the 
workings of a mine (Acad.), see aguarse ; (2) aguadas, Chile, indications 
of subterranean waters in the form of meadows or marshes, springs or 
sources, and, in the Cordillera region, of arroyos or vertientes (Bol. de la 
S. N. de M.), see manantial. 

AGUADOR, (1) water-carrier ; (2) aguadores, binders or horizontal cross- 
pieces of the vertical wheel of a noria (1), which carry the rope or chain 
and jars [cangilones (2)] (Acad.) ; (3) bucket of a water-wheel, see 
caja (23). 

AGUARSE, to drown out (of a mine), syn. anegarse, inundarse, see aguada 
(1), comp. u. ahogado, da. 

AGUATOCHA, pump, seebomba (1). 

AGUILA (eagle), piedra del a., see u. piedra. 

AGUIL6N, jib of a crane (grua), syn. brazo (3), flecha (3). 

AGUJA, (1) pointed peak of a mountain, see pico (6) ; (2) joint, see jun- 
tura(2); (3) compass -needle, see brujula (1) ; (4) needle, blast, shooting- 
needle, syn. espingueta (Venator), varilla (1) (Chalon), comp. desatacador ; 

(5) rail, switch -rail ; agujas, transp. switches ; see cambio (1) ; 

(6) Ant. Col., a small branch vein or stringer of ore ; Sp. a small 
vena, see u. hilo (3) and veta (1) ; (7) a. infernal, plug and feathers, 
equiv. Fr. aiguille-coin, aiguille infernale, Ger. 1 Federkeil ; see u. curia 
(1) ; (8) compass, see brujula (2). 

AGUJERO, (1) blast-hole, drill-hole, see barreno (2) ; a. de sonda, bore- 
hole (deep), see sondeo ; (2) timb. a hitch or stemple-notch, see huida 
(1) ; (3) fissure, see hendedura ; (4) a. de hombre, manhole (of a boiler, 
etc.) ; a. de paso, manhole of a dam, see boca (7) ; (5) mouth, boca (3) 
or brocal (3) of a well. 

AGUJ6N, Mex. surveying instrument with compass (Dwight). 



AGULHAS, Braz. oxides of titanium associated with diamonds of par- 
ticular deposits, called also cericorias, captivo de chumbo (Port. = 

AGUZADERA (Port, aguc.adeira), whetstone, see muela (4). 

AGUZADURA (Port, aguc.adura), sharpening (of tools). 

AGUZAR, to sharpen (drills, tools, etc.), see afilar. 

AHERRUMBRARSE, (1) to acquire the colour or taste of iron, said 
especially of water which has passed through ferruginous formations 
(Acad.) ; (2) to be covered with rust of iron (herrumbre). 

AHOCINARSE, to run (of rivers) between valleys and mountains by 
narrow passes, or narrow and deep ravines (Acad.). 

AHOGADO, DA, adj. suffocated or drowned ; veta ahogada, a vein covered 
by water, comp. aguarse, u. sofocado, da ; mina ahogada, Ant. Col. a 
placer whose exploitation is rendered difficult by being partially or 
wholly covered by a fall of ground (revenidero or volcan) or the tonga 
of which has been obstructed by the same cause, or which has been 
covered by gravel or tailings from a mine situated above it (Uribe). 

AHOGAR, (1) see u. cal (1) ; (2) ahogarse el oro, Ant. Col. to lose gold 
by its being carried or dragged away by water (Uribe). 

AHAGO, see atufamiento. 

AHONDADURA, AHONDAMIENTO, sinking, excavation, digging, see 
ahonde (1). 

AHONDAR, to sink, see u. abrir (1), cavar (2), colar (2), comp. profundizar. 

AHONDE, (1) sinking, syn. ahondamiento, comp. profundizacion ; (2) 
Span. Am. depth of seven varas which a mine must reach in three 
months in order to establish ownership (Acad.) ; a shaft to establish 
mining title (Dwight), see pozo (2). 

AHORCADA, a drill [barrena (2)] is said to be ahorcada (lit. hung up) 
when it sticks in the borehole [barreno (1)]. 

AHORQUILLADO, DA, adj. forked, see horquilla. 

AHORQUILLAR, to stay, to prop up with forks. 

AHUESADO, see u. panizo (3). 

AHUMADO, see u. panizo (3). 

AIRE, (1) air or wind ; (2) fire-damp, explosive air, inflammable air, see 
grisii ; (3) a. viciada, foul air, see u. acido (1), bochorno (1), humpe, 
mofeta (1), vapor (5). 

AISLADOR, el. insulator. 

AJORNALAR, see jornalar. 

AJUSTADO, see u. cable. 

AJUSTE, (1) agreement, contract, see contrato (1) ; (2) 
ajustes, couplings ; (3) timb. joint or connection made 
by notching or scarfing, syn. enlace (2), ensambladura, 
sez empalme (1), camp, costura (1); a. a inglete, 
see Fig. 1 ; a. alternado, see F^g. 2 ; a. de cucmllo or a. 
de tejado, see Fig. 3, and u. jabalcon (2) ; a. de hungara, see hungara ; 
a. de liso ; see asiento (1), a. de oreja, see oreja (2) ; a. de trasdos, see 




Fig. 4, syn. garganta de lobo (Fr. gorge de loup), pie demulo ; for other 
timber joints used in mining, etc. see cola (3) de rata, combona, entrada 
(8), horquilla (3), mediacana (3), patillo, sobaco. 

FIG. 4. A juste (3) de trasdus. 

FIG. 3. 
FIG. 2. Ajuste (3) alternado. Ajuste (3) de cucliillo. 

ALA, (1) mech. pinion, see 

pinon ; (2) leaf of a hinge, 

door, etc., see u. aleta ; (3) 

rim or flange, see u. cono (1), 

and Fig. 6 [alma (4)] ; (4) a. de 

mosca, CeiTo de Pasco, Peru, 

very fine-grained granite (0. F. 

ALABANCA, see alavanca. 
ALABANDINA, (1) hyaline quartz, see cuarzo ; (2) alabandite or man- 

ganblende [MnS.], see manganese (2). 
ALABE, (1) mech. float-board of a water-wheel, see paleta (3) ; (2) cam, 

fee cama (3). 
ALACRAN (scorpion), (1) Sonora, Mex., a wheel or pair of wheels with 

which the lama is sometimes turned ove : in the patio process (see Dr. 

Percy's Silver, Fig. 91), see repaso ; (2) swivel, see torniquete. 
ALAJITES, Mex. altered rhodonite (D wight), see manganeso (2). 
ALAMBIQUE, still or condenser, see u. vasija. 
ALAMBRADO, wire cloth, wire work (Ponce de Leon). 
ALAMBRE, (1) obs. copp3r or bronze ; (2) coppsr wire ; (3) iron or steel 

wire wires are made into strands (cordones or ramales) to form a rope ; 

a. de cercar, galvanised wire-fencing ; a. de puas para cercar, barbed 


ALAMBRE, Port, amber, see ambar. 
ALAMO, poplar, used in timbering. 
ALARGADERA, a. de sonda, bor. lengthening-rod (Ponce de L:6n), see 

varilla (1). 
ALARIFE, (1) obs. architect, builder ; (2) mine-mason, syn. a. mam- 

postero, comp. albanil, asen'ador, mampostero, pedricero, pretilero. 
ALARMA, alarm, a. de grisu, fire-damp alarm or indicator. 
ALAVANCA, Braz. a tool used for splitting the harder rock ; it is a 

bar of iron from three to four feet long, terminated at one end by a 

wedge and at the other by a pick formed of a quadrangular pyramid 

(Saint-Hilaire he spells it alabanca), see barra (1). 



ALBACEA, administrator of a will, estate, mining property, etc. 
ALBANIL, (1) mason, syn. mampostero, see alarife (2) ; (2) bricklayer. 
ALBANILERIA, masonry or walling, see mamposteria (2) ; a. de bovedas, 

arch masonry ; a. de cimiento, foundation walling ; a. en hileras, 

coursed work (Ponce de Leon). 

ALBARADA, wall of stones without mortar (Ponce de Leon), see muro (1). 
ALBARDA, pack-saddle, see aparejo (3) ; bestia de a., beast of burden. 
ALBARDILLA, small pack saddle, see u. torno (2). 
ALBARDILLADO, DA, adj. shaped like a pack- 
saddle ; for rodillo albardillado, see Fig. 5 ; 

see u. torno (2). 
ALBARRAD6N, a mound or dike [dique (1)] 

erected to prevent inundation. 
ALBERCA, (1) pond, pool [charco (1)], or reservoir, see estanque (1); 

(2) tank, see estanque (3). 
ALBERC6N, large pool or pond, comp. charcon. 
ALBERO, whitish earth (Velazqusz), comp. blanquizal. 
ALBIN, " bloodstone " variety of hematite, see dionisia (2). 
ALBINA, (1) albite or soda felspar ; (2) a variety of apophyllite of a 

beautiful white colour, found at Marienberg, Bohemia ; (3) a. de 

marisma, white coating (madre de sal) left by salt marshes and lakes 

when they d^y up, see madre (2) ; (4) geol. deep ground, covered by 

water in win'er, and which whitens in summer. 
ALBRICIAS (reward given for good news), Mex. blow-holes left by founders 

in the upper part of the mould so that the air can escape when the 

mstal enters (Acad.). 

ALCABALA, excise ; duty on sales of real estate ; derechos de a., octroi. 
ALCABOR, Mure. Sp. funnel, flue of a chimney, see humero. 
ALCACENA, adj., see u. talla (1). 
ALCACHOFA (artichoke), pump, snore-piece or strainer of a wind-bore 

(aspirante), syn. Mex. chupador, solvadera. 
ALCALDE, (1) justice of the peace ; (2) mayor of a city, or chairman 

of a council (of town government). NOTE. In Spanish America, 

under early Spanish domination, the Alcalde Mayor was the Governor 

the Alcalde is now the jefe municipal, as distinguished from the jefe 

politico or prefect. 
ALCANCE, (1) balance, balance due or deficit ; (2) a. de un golpe, mech. 

sweep (Ponce de Leon), see carrera (5) ; (3) extent of underground 

workings, etc. 

ALCANClA, Pachuca, Mex. ore-shoot or -pass, see paso (2). 
ALCANTARILLA, underground aqueduct (acueducto) or drain. 
ALCAPARROSA, see caparrosa (1). 
ALCARATO, Panama, a tree whose wood may be counted on for a life 

of two or three years (E. G. Williams). 

ALCARRAZA (unglazed jug), Mex. water-can used in drilling (Dwight). 
ALCAYATA, mech. hook or bent pin (Fr. goupille de crochet). 



ALCOBA, see caja (26). 

ALCOHOL, (1) galena ; a. de alfareros, pottern-ore or cubical galena, syn. 

alquifol (3) ; a. de hoja, Linares, Sp. almost pure galena, containing a little 

silver (D3 Mesa y Alvarez), set galena ; (2) antimony, see antimonio. 
ALCOTANA, mas. tool shaped like an ad:e at one end and an axe at 

the other (Acad.) or one extremity (gurlet or pick-axe) or both [pick, 

see pico (2)] may be poin ed. 
ALCRIBIS, twyerC see tobera. 

ALDEA, small village, hamlet, equiv. Brazil, quintal, comp. pueblo. 
ALEAC:6N, (1) art of alloying metals ; (2) alloy, see Hga (1). 
ALEAR, to alloy. 
ALERCE, (1) larch (Pinus larix), syn. larice ; (2) a species of Chilian cedar 


ALERO, eaves of a roof, see tendido (1). 
ALETA, (dim. of ala, wing), hoist, the sliding-piece or slipper of a cage, 

see abrazadera (2) ; aletas, leaf of a hinge [see ala (2)], teeth of a pinion, 

blades of the screw-propeller (helice), etc. see u. guijo (2), trepano. 
ALETORI A, rotary pump used in mines of shallow depth, see u. bomba ( 1 ). 
ALFAJIAS, ALFARJIAS, pieces of wood, 14 cm. wide and 10 cm. thick, 

used in making frames and jamb-posts of doors and windows, wooden 

guides in the hoisting shaft, etc. 
ALFARDA, thin beam (see viga) ; Ant. Col. long sloping poles used in 

roofing houses, a pair forms a tijera or tijeras (2). 
ALFARD6N, prov. washer, see empaquetadura (2). 
ALFARERO, potter, syn. barrero (1), ollero (1), see u. alcohol (1). 
ALFILERES DE ORO, Ant. Col. gold in filaments, or acicular gold 

(Uribe), see oro. 

ALGEZ, ALEGEZAR, see aljez, aljezar, respectively. 
ALGOD6N, cotton ; cotton-plant ; algodon-polvora, cotton powder 

or tonite, syn. algodon-polvora nitrato ; a. explosible, gun-cotton 

[C 12 H 7 22 NJ. 

ALGUAZA, prov. hinge, see bisagra. 
ALICATES, pliers, nippers, see mordaza (1), tenazas (2). 
ALIJADOR, lighter, see lanchon. 
ALIMENTAClON, mech. prep, feeding of a stamp-mill, etc. ; a. de un 

horno, met. charging of a furnace ; aparato de a. automatic, st. eng., 

self-acting feed apparatus ; see u. agua (1), bomba (1). 
ALIMENTADOR, mech. prep, ore feeder of a stamp battery, comp. 

cebachores ; a. mecanico or automatico, automatic feeder ; a. de 

un horno, furnace charger ; a. de la caldera, boiler feeder. 
ALIMENTAR, to feed a mill, etc., a. un horno, to charge a furnace, see 

cargar (2). 
ALIMENTO, (food), (1) mech. feed ; (2) alimentos, Span. Am. a certain 

allowance made by the workers of a mine to the proprietors until the 

mine becomes profitable. 



ALIMONADOS, sulphides and other salts of silver (Molina). 
ALINEACI6N, laying out a line, alignment ; surv. draft or measurement 

made between two stations. 
ALINEAR, to lay out by line, to line out, align. 
ALISADOR, bor. regulating tool, syn. calibrador, equiv. Fr. alesoir, 

Ger. Bohrlehre. 

ALISAR, to plane, see u. garlopa. 
ALISO, alder-tree ; a. bianco, common alder. 

ALJEZ, (ALGEZ, Acad.), gypsum in its crude state, syn. aljor, yeso (1). 
ALJEZAR, ( ALGEZ AR, Acad.), pit of gypsum, see yesar. 
ALJIBE, (1) cistern, see estanque (3) ; (2) Ant. Col. fountain, spring, 

drain (Uribe). 
ALJOR, see aljez. 
ALLANAR, to level a road, railroad, etc. see explanation. 

ALMA, (1) the core of a wire-rope, some- , 

,. j , ., , , t ,. 313 alma .ala 

times made ot pitched hemp, sometimes , . ' 

of wire (alambre), see u. maroma ; (2) 
body of a prop or other piece of timber ; " 
(3) mech. scaffolding pole, syn. a. de .* ala 

andamio ; (4) the centre portion of a 

, , i r ,^>T Fiu. . A I ma (4) de srato (2). 

bent bar or cramp-iron [gato (2)], see 

Fig. 6 ; (5) central portion of a dam, etc. ; (6) core of a casting. 
ALMACEN, (1) storehouse or warehouse, see bodega (1), deposito (6), 

despensa (1), comp. alpende ; (2) large deposit for mineral on or near 

a wharf, syn. deposito (8) ; if covered with a roof = acumulador (1) 

de mineral. 

ALMACENJE, warehouse rent, storage. 
ALMACENAR, to store ; to keep in bond ; almacenarse una bomta, 

pump, to get choked (Ponce de Leon). 

ALMACENDADORA, capacidad a., storage capacity (of a reservoir, etc.). 
ALMACENISTA, store-keeper, comp. aperador (u. apero) ; the person 

who sells goods in a warehouse. 
ALMADANA, ALMADENA, ALMADINA, large heavy hammer of from 

12 to 20 Ib. in weight, see martillo. 
ALMADANETA, (1) stamp, consisting of head [calzadura (2)] and stem 

[mango (2)], see pilon (4) ; (2) die, see dado ; (3) small hammer for break- 
ing stones (Ponce de Leon), see martillo. 

ALMADEN (Arabic, almadin), obs. mine or mineral deposit, see mina (2). 
ALMADENA, ALMADINA, see almadana. 
ALMAGRA, see almagre. 
ALMAGRAL, place where almagre abounds. 
ALMAGRE, a mixture of alumina, etc., with oxides of iron, forming red 

ochre or red earth, ruddle or raddle, syn. almagra, almazarrcn, see 




ALMAINA, mas. tool used for trimming stones (Molina) ; wooden mallet 
with iron hoops ; large iron hammer (Ponce de Leon). 

ALMARTAGA, ALMLARTEGA, litharge, see litargirio. 

ALMAZARRON, see almagre. 

ALMENADA, see u. barra (4). 

ALMENDRA, almond ; diamond of an almond shape. 

ALMENDRILLA, (dim. of almendra), (1) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot., Hex. 
in the quicksilver deposits a mass of small fragments of limestone, 
generally siliceous, and roughly the size of an almond, which are some- 
times loosely cemented by calcite and gypsum from solution, oftener 
by a tough clayey substance which has evidently been derived from 
the solution of the original limestone (H. F. Collins) ; cuesco (1) is a 
variety, but harder and with more clay (S. Rimirez), see mercuric (2) ; 
(2) Asientos Aguascalientes, Mex. quartz sometimes forming the 
matrix of copper ve : ns, see cuarzo, duros, matriz (1). 

ALMENDRILLO, kind of flexible wood used for making ropes of norias, 
wells, etc. 

ALMIJARA, oil-tank formerly used in the Almaden mines for lighting 
purposes (Acad.) ; lighting (alumbrado). 

ALMIJARERO, the man in charge of the almijara 
(Acad.) or lighting (alumbrado). 

AMILLA, tenon, see espiga (2). 

ALMOCAFRE, Col. in gold-washing a curved and 
pointed hoe or rake used by the natives for 
loosening the gravel, see Fig. 7 ; Port, pick or 
mattoc\ used in working mines (Elwes). 

ALMOHADILLA, see u. careta. 

ALMOJAYA, put-log or cross-piece used in scaffold- 
ing (andamio). 

FIG. 7. Almocafro 

ALMONEDA, an auction, see subasta. (after c . Buiim.-m). 

ALMUD, a measure for grain, usually one twel-th 

of a fanega. In Spain 1 almud = gallon or 14*085 litres ; in Col. = 18 

litres (see pucha), see almuda. 
ALMUDA, Port, an almud, or 16' 739 litres. 
ALPENDE, cabin or shed for keeping mining implements in (Acad.), comp. 

almacen (1). 
ALQUEIRE, Port. -380 bushel dry (in Lisbon also = l'842 gal. wet) 

Azores '329, Bahia, '825, Madeira -387, Oporto '469, Rio Janiero 1-100, 

bushel dry (Spon). 
ALQUIFOL, (1) galena or pottern-ore, see galena ; (2) black-lead or 

plumbago, see grafita. 
ALQUILAR, to hire ; to let, to rent. 

ALQUILER, wages, hire, letting, rent ; a. de una casa, house-rent, 
ALQUITRAN, tar or liquid pitch ; a. de hulla, coal-tar ; a. mineral, 

see betun. 



ALTA, the hanging-wall of a vein or roof of a bed, syn. Mex. alto (2), 

pendiente (4), tapa (2), techo (1), equiv. Fr. toit, Ger. Hangende, see u. 

respaldo, comp. bajo (3) ; in New Almaden, Cal. U.S.A. the layer of 

clay on the hanging- wall of quicksilver deposits (Becker) ; see alto, ta. 
ALTAR, (1) st. eng. arch of the boiler, water-bridge ; a. de caldera or 

paila, bridge of a boiler, boiler-plate ; a. de humo, flue-bridge (Ponce 

de Leon) ; met. bridge of a re verb?ratory furnace (Acad.), see u. puente 

(2) ; (2) Vizcaya Sp. single stope, (Acad.), see grada (2). 
ALTERNADOR, alternator, see u. dinamo. 
ALTIPLANICIE, top. plain at a high altitude, see llano. 
ALTITUD, height ; height above the horizon ; height above sea-level ; 

a. aparente, a. meridiana, a. verdadera, apparent, meridian, and true 

altitude respectively. 
ALTO, TA, adj. high, elevated ; alta horno, blast-furnace, see u. horno 

(2) ; minas altas, Ant. Col. alluvial mines situated above ordinarily 

available water ; they are known as those of sabana and sobresabana, 

aventaderos, criaderos and cerros ; comp. minas bajas 

(u. bajo, ja). 
ALTO, (1) the upper part of a vein, bed or mine, comp. 

bajo (1) ; (2) Mex. the hanging- wall of a vein, see 

ALTURA, height or summit ; altitude (altitud) ; height of 

a gallery, etc. ; a. de presion del agua, hydr. m. head, 

see caida (4) ; cortar alturas, see cortar (5). 
ALUDEL, an earthen condenser for quicksilver, see Fig. TA FI(J ?A 

(after Umlauff) ; horno de aludeles was invented by Lopez (after L'mlauff >. 

de Saavedra Barba, in use in Huancavelica, Peru, since 

1663 (Umlauff), see alvecas, cerracho, u. ichu, levante (1), mercuric (2 , 

solera (11). 

ALUMBRADO, lighting, see almijara. 
ALUMBRAR, to light ; a. aguas, see iluminar. 
ALUMBRE, alum ; a. de roca, rock-alum, see jebe ; piedra a. or de a., 

a. de piedra, alumstone or alunite. 
ALUMBRERA, alum-pit or mine. 
ALUMBROSO, SA, adj. aluminous, see u. tecacolote. 
ALUTACION, nugget (pepita) or layer of gold in grains found at the 

surface in mines (Acad.). 
ALUVIAL, geol. alluvial. 
ALUVI6N, (Port, alluviao), geol. alluvium ; alluvion, wash, silt, syn. 

aterramiento, llena, see derrubio, u. terromontero, comp. bateque ; 

tierra de a. (Port, terra, terrenos d'alluviao) alluvion, estuaiine deposit ; 

a. metallfero, placer, syn. criadero detritico ; oro de a., alluvial gold, 

see u. oro. 
ALVECAS, Peru, name given to the three tubes leading from Barba's 

furnace to the lines of aludeles (Umlauff). 



, ( 1 ) bed or channel of a river, syn. canal (11), cauce ( 1 ), Peru, hoya (3), 

lecho (1), madre (1), equiv. Port, leito, see corredero ; (2) source of a river. 
ALZA, (1) a. de bomba, pump, lift (Ponce de Leon) ; (2) Peru, roof, 

see techo (2) ; (3) alzas, Peru, upper portion of a mine, as distinguished 

from the planes (1). 
ALZAPRIMA (Port. alc.aprema), lever, see palanca (1); a. en forma de 

L or J_, pump, quadrant ; mech. fulcrum. 
ALZAR, to draw, hoist ; erect, construct. 
AMAGAMIENTO, Ant. Col., drain, brook, pool, spring, fountain, arroyo, 

Canada (Uribe) ; it is almost the same as Canada (2), but of still smaller 

extension and importance (F. de P. Munoz). 
AMAINADOR, c.m. banksman, m.m. lander, syn. Mex. cajonero (2), 

equiv. Fr. receveur du jour, moulineur, decrocheur, Ger. Abzieher, 

comp. enganchador (1). 

AMAINAR, to unload, kibbles, skips or cages at the surface. 
AMAINE, c.m. unloading or changing kibbles, cages, etc., at the bank or 

AMALGAMA, amalgam, see afrechera, bollos (1), caja (1), copos (2), 

copella, cuerpo (1), debil, diario, estrujon, fuerte, pasilla, pasta (2), 

pella, pina (1), polveo. 

AMALGAMACI6N, (Port., amalgamation. 
AMALGAMADOR, amalgamator, syn. Mex. cazeador. 
AMALGAMAR, to amalgamate. 
AMAMOR, Col. a tree, the heart of which is veined like tortoise-shell, 

and used for making walking-sticks and cabinets (Uribe). 
AMANOS, tools and implements, see herramienta (1), comp. apero. 
AMARILLO, LLA, adj. yellow ; amarillo de montana, yellow earth, 

ochreous clay (Ponce de Leon), see u. ocre ; amarillos, Mazapil, Zac. 

Mex. gossan, see colorados. 
AMARRAR, to tie ; a. las aguas, Ant. Col. to free the excavation [hoyo (3)] 

made in the placer from the infiltration of water through the permeable 

pay-dirt [cinta (3)] by means of trinchos or dikes (Uribe) ; a. tonga, 

Ant. Col. alluv. m. to lessen the tonga of a mine. 
AMASADO, see u. chimenea (4). 
AMASIJO, mixture of plaster ; a. ligero, light mixture, a. trabado, strong 

mixture "; certain quantity of mortar ; mas. lime paste, puddling, 

pugging (Ponce de Leon), see cimiento (3). 
AMATISTA, AMETISTA, AMETISTO (Port, amethista, amethisto), 

(1) amethyst, see cuarzo ; (2) amatista oriental, violet- coloured 

corundum (corindon). 
AMBAR, (1) amber, syn. a. amarillo,"jjee electro (1) ; (2) a. negro, jet, 

see azabache. 

AMETISTA, AMETISTO, see amatista. 
AMIANTA, AMIANTO, (Port, amiantho), amianthus of fine silky variety 

of asbestos (asbesto). 
AMIGDAL6IDEA, see u. estructura. 



AMIGO, horizontal stick, tied to the end of a rope, on which men sit 
when ascending or descending shafts, etc., see bajada, caballo (3). 

AMO, (1) overseer, see capataz (3) ; (2) Mex. owner of a mine, etc., see 
propietario, u. tequio (2). 

AMOJONAMIENTO, setting landmarks, syn. mojonacion ; marking the 
limits of a claim, see mojon (1). 

AMOJONAR, to set landmarks, syn. mojonar ; to mark the limits of a 
claim, see mojon (1). 

AMOLADERA, grindstone or whetstone, syn. piedra a., see muela (4). 

AMOLADOR, (1) grinder or whetter ; (2) steel for sharpening grindstone 
[muela (4)]. 

AMOLADURA, (1)- sharpening, grinding; (2) amoladuras, fine sand 
which comes from the grindstone when sharpening tools (Acad.), 

AMOLAR, to whet or grind, see u. muela (4). 

AMOLINAR, Ant. Col. (1) to collect ore spalled in different points in 
order to send it to the mill ; (2) in minas de saca, to collect the ore in 
order to wash it [cernir (2)] in the ground sluice [canalon (2)] ; (3) to 
wash auriferous alluvium in a wooden box or gutter (Uribe.) 

AMONEDACI6N, coinage, see acunacion. 

AMONEDAR, to coin, see acunar. 

AMONTONAR, to pile up, make into heaps. 

AMPARADO, DA, pp. of amparar, mina a., mine maintained in possession 
by payment of tax not necessarily worked. 

AMPARAR, to cover (title) (Dwight) ; a. en la posesion, leg. to maintain 
in possession (Velazquez). 

AMPARO, protection ; leg. the maintenance of the legal right of owner- 
ship by continual possession. 

AMPELITA, (1) cannel-coal, see hulla (2) ; (2) a. grafica, lithographic stone. 

AMPERIO, el. ampvre (Acad.). 

AMPLIACI6N, AMPLIFICACI6N (enlai^gement), increase in number 
(of mining claims), comp. reduction. 

AMPOLLOSA, rock structure containing cavities (Dwight) [from am- 
polla, blister or bubble]. 

ANCHO, (1) width, see anchura (1) ; (2) a. de la via, transp. gauge, syn. 
anchura (2), entrevia ( 1 ), equiv. Port, bitola, Fr. largeur, Ger. Spurweite : 
a. interior, gauge measured from inside the rails ; a. entre ejes, gauge 
measured from the centres of the rails, comp. entrevia (2). 

ANCHURA, (1) width or thickness of a bed or mineral deposit, syn. Mex. 
abrigo (1), espesor, grueso (1), poder (2), potencia (2), equiv. Port, 
espessura, Fr. epaisseur, puissance, Ger. Machtigkeit ; (2) transp. 
gauge, see ancho (2) ; (3) widening (of a vein, etc.), see ensanche (1) ; 
(4) width of a gallery, etc. for width of timber, see tabla (3). 

ANCHURON, (1) a large chamber [camara (5)] made in working large 
masses in chambers (Ger. Stockwerksbau), or in working a chamber 
deposit, see salon (2), tabique (1), comp. fornilho ; (2) a plat, see con- 
cava ; a. de enganche, on-setting plat. 

17 B 


ANCLA, anchor ; hook. 

ANCLACION, Almeria, Sp. station on wire ropeway, the object being to 

divide the rope into two lengths (Molina). 
ANCLAR, see encallar. 

ANC6N DE TIERRA, Mex. projecting or salient corner of a claim (Dwight). 
ANDALUCES, miners from Andalucia, Spain, who are famous for the 

excellent way in which they separate lead-ore underground (Molina). 

They also manipulate the garbillo (,1). 
ANDAMIADO, ANDAMIAJE, scaffolding, see andamio. 
ANDAMIO, scaffold, scaffolding, syn. andamiado, andamiaje, see alma 

(3), almojaya ; a. colgante, a. volante, c.m. cradle, scaffold or walling- 

stage, see descanso (4). 
ANDAR, to act, applied to machines ; a. de una maquina, speed of an 

engine ; a. en carguero, see carguero (1). 
ANDARAJE, wheel of the noria (1) to which the rope is fixed which 

carries the buckets or jars (arcaduces) (Acad.). 
ANDARIVEL, wire -rope tramway or cable way, see u. ferrocarril, and 

via (3). 
ANDIiN, (1) path of a horse or mule round the draw-wells, floor of a 

horse-whim, etc. [see piso (8)] ; (2) side-walk (of a road) ; tow-path 

of a canal ; bank of a railway ; (3) rail, platform, syn. desembar- 

cadero (2). 

ANEGADA, drowned out, see aguarse. 
ANEMIA DEL MINERO, miners' anaemia. 
ANEM6METRO, vent, anemometer or instrument for measuring the 

velocity of an air-current. 
ANGELAN, see u. candeia (2). 
ANGOSTURA, (1) narrowness, see estrechez ; (2) narrow pass (of a 

mountain or river), see paso (4). 

ANGULO, angle or corner ; carp, cant or edge (Ponce de Leon). 
ANILADO, cobre a., indigo-coloured ore of copper, see u. bronce (3). 
ANILLA, buckle, loop or ring, see anillo (1). 
ANILLO, (1) ring of metal [see abrazadera (1), anilla] ; link (eslabon) of 

a chain ; bor. boring-bit or crown [see corona (1)] ; mei-h. prep. 

shell of crushing rolls ; a. del embolo, a. para piston, st. eng. piston 

ring ; see argolla ; (2) anillos, Zac. and Pach. Mex. continuous frames 

or rings of timber in a shaft, e.g., solid crib -timbering, ayn. Guan. 

marcos (3), see u. ademe ; (3) knobs in wire-ropes in Otto's system 

of wire ropeways ; (4) a. de empaque, washer, see empaquetadura (2) ; 

a. de empaquetado, see u. empaquetado ; (5) a. libre, bor. swivel ; 

(6) each one of the two series of segments [camones (2)] forming the 

rim or periphery of a water-wheel, syn. cerco (6) ; rim of any wheel, 

see aro (3), pina (2). 
AN IMA, see alma (1), maroma. 
ANIME, Col. wood suitable for making boards- 
ANODO, anode, comp. catodo. 



ANQUERIA, Peru, silver ore looking like cubical galena (Dwight). 

ANTA, Peruvian word for copper ; a. chacra, copper mine. [Huni- 
boldt thought the name Andes came from this word, but Raimondi 
derives it from Anti, the name of a tribe of Indians.] 

ANTECRISOL, met. fore-hearth of shaft-furnace, comp. reposador ex- 

ANTEPECHO, see. banco (2). 

ANTIGOS, Braz. " old man " or old workings, comp. antiguos. 

ANIIGUO, see u. trabajo (1) ; antiguas, antiguos, Mex. Indian or Spanish 
mines or mines of Colonial times, comp. antigos. 

ANTIMONIAL, for plata a., see u. plata (2). 

ANTIMONIO, (1) antimony (metal), syn. alcohol (2) ; (2) ore of antimony ; 
a. bianco, valentinite ; a. gris, grey antimony ore or stibnite, syn. 
diente (4) ; a. rojo, kermesite ; see antimonioso ; noli, u. pinta (1). 

ANTIMONIOSO, metal a., Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. livingstonite, an ore 
of antimony and mercury [2Sb2S3HgS], comp. hebrudo, see mer- 
curio (2). 

AN TORCH A, torch made of the branches of resinous pine, sometimes 
used in mining, see hacha (2), mecha (3). 

ANIRACITA, anthracite, syn. hulla brillante, hullita. 

ANUNCIO, advertisement j com. statement, advice ; Col. announce- 
ment of a denuncio by publication in the official gazette (periodico 

APAGAR, to quench, extinguish ; mech. to make dead, deaden ; a. la cal, 
to slake litne ; a. un horno, to blow out a furnace, see descarga (4). 

APALANCAR, (1) to move with a lever ; (2) to get ore, see arrancar. 

APARATO, apparatus, appliance, engine, machine ; a. de alimentacion, 
st. eng. feed apparatus ; a. de caida libre or corredera, bor. free-falling 
apparatus, see u. junta (5) ; a. de caida libre por reaction, de punto de 
apoyo, and corredera por presion de agua (Fr. coulisse a pression 
d'eau) are three free-falling appliances invented by L. Dru ; a. de 
distribution, distributing apparatus of a water-pressure engine ; a. 
de extraction, hoisting engine ; a. soplante, met. blower, see soplante ; 
aparatos, see jaula (2). 

APAREADO, coupled in pairs, e.y., cilindros apareados or conjugados, 
cylinders in couples. 

APAREJAR, to furnish, rig or tackle ; to prepare timber or stones for 
a building ; a. la madera, carp, to dress. 

APAREJO, (1) tackle, block and fall, syn. polipastos ; a. diferencial, 
differential pulley; (2) harness for beasts of burden, see arnes (1); 
(3) pack-saddle, syn. albarda, basto (1), see enjalma ; (4) mas. bond 
(Ponce de Leon), see trabazon ; (5) aparejos, tools, implements or 
materials, see apero, comp. arnes (2). 

APARINAR, S. Am. to disclose indications of pay-ore (Lucas). 

APARTADERO, rail, siding or turnout, see desvio (2) ; c.m. pass-bv (Fr. 
voie d'evitement) ; widened space in canals. 



APARTADO, (1) ir.ech. prep, sorting, cobbing; a. a mano, hand-sorting, 
syn. estrio, pepena (3), comp. monda ; (2) assay, parting of gold and 
silver ; casa del a., parting establishment ; (3) a. de correos, post- 
office box ; (4) smelting house. 

APARTADOR, (1) ore-sorter, ore-picker, cobber, syn. Mex. despuntador 
(1), estriador, limpiador, partidor (2), Mex. pepenador (or pepenadora), 
Mex. quebrador (1), equiv. Braz. escogedor ; (2) a. de metales, smelter. 

APARTAR, (1) mech. prep, to hand-pick, or sort ; to cob or break, see 
escojer, estriar, limpiar (1), pepenar, ccmp. mondar ; (2) a. polvillos, 
see u. jalsontles ; (3) assay, to part ; (4) a. un tren, rail, to shunt. 

APEADOR, land-surveyor, see agrimensor, geometro. 

APEADURA, surveying, see apeo (4). 

APEAR, (1) to brace, prop, shore ; (2) to survey, seemedir (2). 

APELACI6N, leg. appeal. 

APELMAZADO, DA, pp. compressed. 

APEO, (1) timbering, see entibaciori ; a. por estacas, piling or spilling 
[see u. labor (3)] ; (2) pulley-frame, see horca (1) ; (3) tubbing, see 
encubado (1), u. cuna (1) ; rueda de a., crib or curb ; (4) surveying, 
see apeadura. 

APERADOR, see u. apero, capataz (4). 

APERICADO, see u. pinta (1). 

APERO, " everything necessary for the running of shafts, norias, the 
construction of ore-sheds (galeras), etc., connected with underground 
workings" (Gamboa, 1761); the whole of the tackling, gear or 
implements for carrying on mining operations. The aperador (comp. 
almacenista) is the man in charge of the apero, and who distributes 
the same. See aparejo (o), arnes (2), comp. amanos, avios (4). 

APERTURA, see abertura ; a. de toveda, span of an arch, see luz (4). 

APETLANCADOS, see u. petlanque. 

A PICO, vertically, see pique (2). 

A PIQUE, see pique (2). 

APIQUE, Ant. Col. (1) shaft, see pozo (2) ; (2) winze, see clavada ; 
(3) alluv. m. point where the pump is placed in working minas de 
saca (Uribe). 

APIRE, (1) trammer, see carretero (1) ; (2) Peru, miner's assistant, see 
hapire (2). 

APIREO, Chile, extraction of ore on men's shoulders, see u. hapire (2). 

APISONAR, to ram with a rammer [pison (1)], syn. pisonear. 

APIZARRADA, see u. arcilla, ulla. 

APLANADERA, beetle, rammer, see pison (1). 

APLANADOR, (1) blacksmith's natter (Dwight) ; (2) ingot hammer 
(3) riveter. 

APLANTILLAR, to dress stones, wood or other material according to 
pattern [plantilla (1)]. 

APLASTAMIENTO, c.m. crushing (of pillars, etc.) (Molina). 



APLOMADOS, Michoacan, Mex., lead-coloured copper ores, or those 

composed of bornite, chalcocite and tetrahedrite, syn. metales de 

labor, see cobre (2), comp. dorados. 

APLOMAR, to plumb or adjust with a plumb-line or plummet. 
APLOMO, plumb-line, plummet, see plomada. 
APODERADO, attorney, syn. poder habiente. 
APODERAR, to grant a power of attorney. 
APOLVILLADO, DA, see u. azogue (2), tierras (4). 
APOLVILLADO, Guan. Mex., second class of rich ore from the veta 

madre, yielding about 750 ounces of silver per short ton (E. Tilmann) 

first class = polvillos y jabones, third class = blonco bueno, fourth class 

APOSENTO, Col. among guaqueros underground room (subterraneo) of 

similar shape to that bearing the same name in habitations (Uribe). 
APOYO, prop, stay, see empenta, entibo (1), estantal (2), estribadero, 

puntal (1), quicio (2), tanganillo. 

APRECIACION, APRECIO, valuation, estimation (Fr. appreciation). 
APRETON, Asturias, Sp. name given to the sudden rush of deads 

obtained from the roof by blasting, and used as filling (Molina). 
APRIETA, piedro a. or piedra azul, a variety of limestone, see u. piedra. 
APRIETANARICES, see u. careta. 
APUNTADO, see u. cobijas (2). 
APUNTALAR, to prop, place props [puntales (1)] ; a. los cimientos, to 

underpin (Ponce de Leon) ; timb. to stay, syn. obs. apuntar, comp. 


APUNTAR, see apuntalar. 
APUNTE, eng. rough sketch. 
APUNTILLADO, small wedge, or pointed pieces of wood [puntillas (2)] 

or spiles driven into the wedges in wooden tubbing. 
APURADOR, RA, adj. see u. batea and pila (2). 
APURADOR, Mex. (1) one who looks for particles of ore in the waste 

waters (derrames) of amalgamation works (Gamboa, 1761) ; (2) a 

man who re-washes the ore from the tinas apuranderas are old 

women who do the same thing. 
APURADORA, (1) apuradoras, blast, the long drills used for finishing 

a bore -hole, and after the guias (3) and medias, in Guan. Mex. they are 

divided into apuradoras grandes, apuradoras and medias apuradoras, 

see barreno (2) ; (2) in the patio process, a large vat, partially filled with 

water, in which the bateas, containing sediment from the bottom of 

the tinas, are washed, see pila (2). 
APURANDERAS, see u. apurador (2). 
APURAR, (1) to purify metals ; (2) to clean up ores ; (3) to consume, 


APURO, cast-iron settling-pot used in the patio process. 
AQUILATACI6N, (1) com. alloying mixture ; (2) assay (Ponce de Leon), 

see ensaye (1). 



AQUILATAR, (1) to alloy ; (2) to assay precious metals, see quilatar ; 
(2) to weigh precious stones (Ponce de Leon). 

ARANA, see u. malacate (2). 

ARANCEL, tariff; a. de aduanas, custom-house tariff; Mex. fee-bill of 
mining agent. 

ARANDELA, mech. washer, see empaquetadura (2) ; rivet-plate, collar- 
plate, see u. valvula. 

ARBITRADOR, leg. arbitrator, syn. arbitro, tercero. 

award of an arbitrator. 

ARBITRAR, to arbitrate, adjudge, award, syn. terciar. 

ARBITRIO, (1) means, expedient ; propios y arbitrios, ways and means ; 
(2) arbitration ; (3) a. de juez, discretionary power of a judge in cases 
not clearly decided by law (Velazquez) ; (4) arbitrios, duty or taxes 
imposed in provisions exposed for sale (Velazquez). 

ARBITRO, arbitrator, see arbitrador. 

ARBOL. (1) tree ; (2) the barrel of a windlass [torno (2)], etc., syn. cilindro 
(2), huso, maza (4) ; (3) the vertical axle of a horse-whim ; the vertical 
post or frame of a crane (grua) ; the axle of any wheel or series of wheels, 
see eje (2), guijo (2), pernete, principal (2) ; (4) en arbol, said of veins 
which unite in depth like the branches from the trunk of a tree ; 
(5) Linares, Sp. rich zone or column (Moncada), see clavo (2). 

ARBOLILLO, side of a blast-furnace (Acad.), see cuba (4). 

ARBOLL6N, (1) floodgate, see compuerta (2) ; (2) sluice, conduit, channel, 
d ; tch, leat, see acequia. 

ARCA, chest or box ; a. de agua, reservoir ; cistern, see estanque (3). 

ARCADUZ, (1) tube or pipe for conveying water, see tubo (1) ; (2) kind 
of aquedu:t (acueducto) ; (3) each one of the earthern vessels, jars or 
buckets of a noria (1), equiv. Port, alcatruz, see cangilon (2). 

ARCE, maple-tree. 

ARCILLA, clay, syn. barro (1), Ant. Col. urgue (1) ; arcilla may include 
kaolin, lithomarge, and other clay-like minerals ; for varieties see 
calocar, cantara, caolin, chile (1), greda (4), lama (3), moya, leche (2), 
soleta, soquete (2), tapatinga, tasconia, terrosas, u. tierra, tofo, tosca (1) 
and (4) ; for " country " altered to a clay, see formacion (3) ; a. apizar- 
rada, slaty clay ; a. aluminosa, soap-earth (Ponce de Leon) ; a. aurifera, 
gold-bearing clay ; a. endurecida, clay stone (syn. piedra arcillosa) ; 
a. figulina, a. para alfareia, potter's clay (syn. barro de olleros) ; 
a. inflamable, rock with a bituminous base of a brown colour, mixed with 
ordinary clay (Guim) ; a. refractoria, fire clay ; a. violacea, lithomarge 
(Ponce de Leon). 

ARCILLOSO, SA, adj. argillaceous ; hierro arcilloso, clay ironstone, see 

piedra del aguila (u. piedra) ; piedra arcillosa, clay stone, see u. arcilla. 

ARCO, mas. arch, or extended arch or vault, see boveda ( 1 ) ; see arranque (2), 

asentar (5),asiento (8),bajada (2), bolson (1) and(2), boquete (2), cabecea- 

dero (2), camon (1). cargar (3), cimbra (1), clave, ccdal (4), ccntracla\e, 




contrafuerte (1), corvadura, cuadrado (3), dovela (1) and (2), fundamen- 
tals, intrados, luz (4), mamposteria (2), provisionales, punta (5), sagita, 
salmer, trasdos (1) ; a. ciego, blind arch sometimes put in, in every 15 to 
20 m., over the fundamentals to diminish the weight on the latter ; 
a. en descarga, Linares, Sp. see Fig. 8 
(after Molina) ; a. rebajado, arch whose 
rise is less than half the span (Acad.). 

ARDOSIA, Port, slate ; slate quarry (ardo- 
sieira), see pizarral. 

AREA, a square of 10 m. side, equivalent 
to a little more than 143 square varas 
(Acad.), see u. caballeria (2). 

ARENA, (1) sand or grit (Port, areia) ; 
a. aurifera, a. de oro, gold-bearing sand ; 
a. bruja, Mure. Sp. finest sand from clean- FIG. 8. Arco en descarga (after 

Molina), as used in Linares, 
Spain, a, sandstone arch (arco ) ; 
b, trasdosado or sobrecarga, of. 
brick or concrete ; c, coronacion 
of dressed ashlar ( sillarejo), sand- 
stone ; d, cortina, of g-ranite or 
sandstone masonry. 

ing ditches (Acad.) ; a. de carboncillo, 
sand burnt by the sun and almost an 
earth ; a. de cava, fosa,hoyo, or mina, sand 
from any hole in the earth ; a. de guija, 
sand taken from the guijarrales (Guim) ; 
a. gorda, a. gruesa, coarse sand or gravel 
[see cascajo (1)] ; a. muerta, sand unmixed with earth ; a. pomosa, 
sand formed of fragments of pumice-stone ; arenas, alluv. m. auriferous 
sands or gravels ; for arenas frias, see frio, ia (5) ; arenas acuiferas, 
arenas movedizas, arenas sueltas movedizas, quicksand, see revenidero 
(2) ; see meteoricos, tepetate (2) ; (2) metal or mineral finely reduced 
by nature or art (Acad.) ; arenas gruesas, mech. prep, all grains com- 
prised between \ and 3 mm. ; arenas finas, grains less than \ mm. but 
whose size can be recognised by touoh (Ibran), comp. u. granza (1), and 

ARENAL (Port, areial), a deposit of sand covering a large space, comp. 
rambla (1). 

ARENILLA, (1) fine sand, see lama (4) ; (2) arenillas, saltpetre refined 
and reduced to grains as small as sand ; (3) Venez. black magnetic 
ironsand (Dr. Foster) ; (4) Ant. Col. titaniferous iron ore (Uribe) ; 

(5) Zimapan, Hid. Mex., smalls from ore-sorting, see u. tierra (4) ; 

(6) arenillas, Mex. tailings, sand carbonates (Dwight) ; (7) Chile, met. 
copper matte mixed with slag. 

ARENISCA, sandstone, syn. asperon, piedra arenisca, piedra de mollejon, 

see arkosa, calon, glauconia, gres, losero, macino, molasa, recincho, 

tepetate (1). 

ARENISCO, CA, ARENOSO, SA, adj. sandy ; gravelly ; gritty, arenaceous. 
ARENOSA, freestone, syn. piedra arenosa. 
ARGAMASA (Port, argamassa), mortar, syn. forja (3). masa (1), mezcla (1), 

mortero (4), see. u. tras, comp. cemento, hormigon ; (2) a. hidraulica, 

cement mortar or hydraulic cement, see cemento. 



ARGAMASAR (Port, argamassar), (1) to make mortar; (2) to cement 

with mortar. 
ARGAMASOSO, SA, adj. materia argamasosa, cementing material (of 

rocks, etc.), see cemento (2). 
ARGIRITAS, marcasite " found in silver mines " (Velazquez), see marca- 


ARGIROSA (from Fr. argyrose), dark ruby silver, see plata (2). 
ARGOLLA, any thick ring [anillo (1)], or hoop [aro (1)] of iron or other 

metal ; collar (collar) ; staple [cerradero (1)] ; see cerco (1). 
ARGUE, capstan, see cabrestante. 
ARIETE, mech. ram it may consist simply of a suspended beam, see u. 

cheque ; a. hidraulica, hydraulic ram. 
ARISTA, (1) line of intersection of two planes ; boveda de aristas, groined 

arch, cross -vaulting ; (2) carp, cant edge, arris (external angle or edge) ; 

(3) see cresta (2). 

ARKOSA, arkose, a feldspathic sandstone, or one consisting of quartz and 
felspar, the latter in rather coarse, cleavable grains (James D. Dana) ; 
some varieties of the rock called losero in Guanajuato, Mex., may be 
referred to this type (M. Barcena) ; arkose includes also a porphyritic 
quartzite (James D. Dana) ; syn. metazita, see arenisca. 

ARLEQUINES, see u. opalo. 

ARMA, ARMAS, surv. movable arms of a hanging compass ; armas de 
la briijula, frame [armadura ( 1 )] of a miner's 

ARMADIA, see maderada. 

ARMADURA, (1) frame; e.g., pulley-frame, see 
horca (1) ; frame of a crane, see u. castillete ; 
timb. complete frame, see boveda (4), cuadro 
(1), a. en cuchillo, see Fig. 9 ; see armazon ; (2) 

truss, see u. puente (1) ; (3) el. armature; FIG. 9. Annadm-a (i) 
, , . * * en cuchillo. 

(4) mech. setting, fitting ; (5) Mex. " country 

(lit. setting) of metalliferous veins or other ore-deposits, syn. armamento, 
see roca (4). NOTE. Veins, arman, in such and such a rock. (6) Pro- 
tecting rods of a safety-lamp (lampara de seguridad). 

ARMAJ AL, see marjal. 

ARMAMENTO, see armadura (4). 

ARMAR, mech. (1) to adjust, stt, fit or mount machinery, see montar ; 
(2) to truss or frame ; (3) see u. armadura (5). 

ARMAZ6N, framework, frame, e.g., pulley-frame [see horca (1)], frame of 
an engine (Fr. bati), see armadura (1). 

ARMELLA, staple or ring, see cerradero (1). 

ARNES, ( 1 ) harness ; a. de caballo, gear, trapping or furniture of a horse, 
see aparejo (2), arreos, guarnicion (3) ; (2) arneses, necessary tools, 
utensils, furniture used in a trade, etc., comp. aparejo (5), apero, 



ARO, (1) hoop of wood or metal (see argolla) ; aros, hoops used in hoop 
or bridle timbering (Ger. Bugelzimmerung) ; (2) iron staple, see cerra- 
dero (1) ; (3) rim of a pulley, see u. anillo (6) ; (4) a. de sujecion, pump, 
staple, gland and nuts, used in securing a set-off or off-set [brazo (2)], 
see, bomba (1). 

AROEIRA, see. u. candeia. 

AROZA, master-smelter (Ponce de Leon) ; foreman in ironworks or forges 

ARPEO, timb. hitch (Ponce de Leon), see huida (4). 

ARQUEADAS, branches which form an arch and are again united to the 

ARQUERO, hierro a., see hierro (1) cellar. 

ARRANCACLAVOS, nail-puller ; it generally consists of a clawed crow- 
bar, seepaia (2). 

ARRANCAR, (I) to break ground, win or get, syn. apalancar, derribar, 
tumbar (1), see desvenar, comp. desfrutar ; a. el carbon, to break down 
the coal ; (2) to commence an arch or vault, see arranque (2). 

ARRANCASONDAS, bor. tool extractor (e.g., crow's-foot, bell, beche or 
socket-bar), equiv. Ger. Fanginstrumente. 

ARRANCATQBOS, bor. tube -extractor, equiv. Fr. crochet d'arrachage, 
Ger. Rohrenheber, Rohrenzieher, see naveta. 

ARRANQUE, (1) breaking ground, winning or getting, syn. Peru, ataque 
(3), derribo, Mex. tumbe, equiv. Fr. abatage. NOTE. It is sometimes 
equivalent to Fr. depilage, e.g., a. segiin la direction = depilage en long or 
en chassant, a. segun la inclination = depilage en travers or en montant ; 
see desmonte (5), despojo, comp. disfrute. A. mecanico, rock-drilling by 
machinery ; trabajo de a., working-place ; (2) arranques, mas. springers 
or reins of an arch (arco) or the voussoirs which rest on the imposts, 
abutments or piers ; in a rampant arch (as frequently used in mining) 

' the upper springer = cabeceadero (2), and the lower one = rafa (1). 

ARRASTRA, see arrastre (3). 

ARRASTRADOR, (1) trammer, see carretero (1) ; (2) met. slag-pot puller 
(D wight). 

ARRASTRAR (to drag along the ground), (1) to haul or convey, see 
arrastre (1) ; (2) to unite as veins and form one ; (3) a. el agua, pump, 
to almost completely exhaust the water in a sump or working (Chism), 
to fork. 

ARRASTRE (1) haulage or conveyance ; a. interior, underground haulage, 
see u. rastra (1), transporte ; a. mecanico, see traction ; (2) slope (talud) 
or inclination of the sides of a shaft, etc. ; tiro (1) de a., inclined shaft ; 
a. de un criadero, foot-watt or floor of an ore-deposit, see bajo (3) ; (3) 
molina de a. (often incorrectly spelt arrastra), a drag-mill in Mexico 
arrastres are commonly driven by mules, elsewhere by water, or even by 
steam or electricity, syn. Nicaragua, molinate, comp. maray ; a. de 
cuchara, spoon-arrastre or tahona, or one driven by a rough impact- 
wheel, the blades of which = cucharas (5) ; a. de marca, a large arrastre ; 



a. de mula, an arrastre worked by a mule ; a. de mano, a hand-arrastre. 

for sampling purposes ; see arrollarse, asentar (4), asiento (5), barrera 

(3), camones, cepo (1), contraraspa, cruz, cuchara (5), espeque, u. fondo 

(4), granzon, gualdra, guijo (2), lia, maimona, peon (2), raspa, retajar, 

ripio (3), rodete, taco (5), taza (1), u. tejuelo (1), tosa, voladera. 
ARRASTRERO, one who works an arrastre (3). 
ARRATE, a pound of 16 ounces ; see arratel. 
ARRATEL, Port, one pound weight = 1-011 Ib. avoir, or 458-58 grammes, 

see arrate. 

ARRAYAN, myrtle, often used as a mine timber in Mexico. 
ARRAYANAL, plantation of myrtles. 
ARREADOR, Mex. driver of a mule- whim, etc., muleteer, see arriero ; 

a. de caballos, pony-putter (Ponce de Leon). 
ARREAR, to drive horses, mules, etc. 
ARREBANAR LA CAPA, Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. c.m. to take 

down pillars of coal previously left for support (Molina), comp. despilar 

(Span. = to glean, gather). 
ARREBOL, Mex. the jerking of a rope as a signal to miners underground 


ARRECIFE, geol. ridge of rock. 
ARREOS, horse trappings, harness, see arnes (1). 
ARRETRANCA, broad crupper for mules. 
ARRIERO, a muleteer, see arreador, atajador (2) or sangrero. 
ARRIMADA, see u. agua (1). 
ARRIMO, b. constr. a wall having no weight to support, idle wall, see 

muro (1). 

ARRINONADO, DA, adj. botryoidal, nodular. 

ARRIOSTRADA, timb. a support placed obliquely, a diagonal, see riostra. 
ARRISCADO, see u. acerado. 
ARROBA, (1) a weight of 25 Ib. Spanish, or 25-361 Ib. avoir., or 11-506159 

k., (the a. of Castile or Madrid = 25-4025 Ib. ; the a. marina = 31 or 

32 Ib.) ; in Brazil and Portugal = 14-6872 k. ; in Chile = 11-5032 k. ; 

in Cuba = 11-5059 k. ; in Paraguay = 11-34 k. ; in Argentina - 11 -4838 

k., in Venezuela = 11-5223 k. ; in Col. (a. granadina) = 12-50 k. ; a. 

inglesa = quarter (28 Ib. avoir.) ; (2) a Spanish measure, a. mayor 

= 3-551 gals., a. menor = 2-765 gals., in Chile = 7'749 gals. (Spon). 
ARROLLAMIENTO, aparato de a., apparatus for winding ropes, etc., as 

drums and bobbins, see u. tambor (1). 
ARROLLARSE, said of an arrastre (3) when too much water is used, 

and the granza (1) accumulates in front of the voladoras (3) (B. del I. G. 

de M.). 
ARROYADA, ARROYADERO, (I) see arroyo (2) ; (2) channel of a 

rivulet or arroyo (1). 
ARROYO (Port, arroio), (1) rivulet or stream, see curso (2), comp. corrego 

(3) ; (2) dale or glen down which (1) runs, syn. arroyada (1), comp. 

barranca (2), canada (2). 



ARROYUELO, brooklet, streamlet, rivulet, see hilo (5). 

ARRUGACION, ARRUGAMIENTO, gcol. crumpling, folding. 

ARRUGAR, geol. to crumple, fold. 

ARRUGIA, mine, see mina (2) ; according to Pliny (Hist. Nat. 1. 33, 
c. 21) deep gold mines were called arrugiae. 

ARRUGIA, Port, small canal or pipe for the conveyance of water in mines 
(Elwes), syn. aruga. 

ARRUMBAMIENTO, strike, see rumbo (3). 

ARSENICO, arsenic. 

ARTEFACTOS, manufactured articles (as plate, etc.). 

ARTESA, vat, launder, dish for washing gold sand ; a. de lavadero, 
buddling-dish, buddling-trough, see abaco, gamella (2) ; a. para la 
lejia, lixiviation vat or trough. 

ARTESIANO, NA, adj. artesian ; pozo artesiano, artesian well. 

ARTESON, trough (Ponce de Leon), see gamella (2). 

ARUGA, see arrugia, Port. 

ASA, handle of a basket, etc., comp. astil (1). 

ASBESTO, (1) asbestos ; a. lenoso, ligniform asbestos ; a. de corcho, 
mountain cork, see amianto, palo (5) ; (2) asbestos-cloth, etc. 

ASCENDENTE, see u. exploration. 

ASCUA, piece of any solid and combustible substance penetrated by 
fire (Acad.), e.g., red-hot coal, syn. brasa (1). 

ASENTADO, see asentar (5). 

ASENTADOR, (1) stonemason, stonecutter, comp. albanil ; (2) mech. 
prep, settler, a. de combination, combination settler, see lavadero (2). 

ASENTAR, (1) Col. alluv. m. preliminary operations in minas de saca of 
making the level uniform between the tonga and the point of exploitation 
(Uribe), see campana (11) ; (2) a. el hoyo, Col., alluv. m. to sweep off the 
upper layers of sand by means of water (Uribe) ; (3) a. planes, Col. gold- 
mill. to place dies or other resisting material below the stamps prelimi- 
nary to crushing ; (4) a. el arrastre (3), Mex. to prepare the surface of 
the arrastre (3) by grinding tailings (jales) thereon, until a very firm 
surface is obtained (S. Ramirez) ; (5) asentarse, mas. when an arch (arco) 
has acquired its position of equilibrium, se ha asentado ; (6) asentarse, 
to settle (of broken ground), see asiento (9) ; (7) see sentarse. 

ASERRADERO, (1) sawpit ; (2) horse, etc., on which timber is sawn, 
see burro (2). 

ASERRADOR, sawyer ; a. de arriba, topman ; a. de fosa, bottom sawyer, 
syn. Ant. Col. colero (2). 

ASERRADURA, (1) sawing ; (2) aserraduras, sawdust, see serrin. 

ASERRAR, to saw, syn. serrar. 

ASERRIN, sawdust, see serrin. 

ASERRIO, madera de a., sawn timbei 

ASF ALTO, asphaltum or asphalt, see betun. 

ASFIXIA, vent, asphyxia. 



ASIENTO, (1) a. de liso, timb. a joint used with round timber, formed by 
notching the cap, see Fig. 10, see ajuste (3), comp. mediacana (3) ; (2) 
pump, seat of a valve, see recubrimiento, u. valvula ; (3) Mex. in the 
patio process, the metalliferous schlich or concentrates in panning, see v. 
tentadura (1) ; (4) a. de minas, a. mineral, mineral region, see real (1) ; 
(5) lower surface of the muller of an arrastre (3), see 
u. voladora (3) ; (6) sediment ; tanquede a., settling- 
tank, seetanque ; (7) tierras de a., Calamahi, L. Cal., 
Mex. fine sand in which fine gold is found, with a 
maximum thickness of O30 m. : it is found below a 
conglomerate with a lime cement up to 2 m. thick, 
which latter occurs below a cap of vegetable earth 
0-25 to 0-55 m. thick. Below the tierras de a. are FlG 10 

the cascajos (5) and (6) in the cascajo blando the Asiento tie Hso. 
gold penetrates to 30 c.m. (J. M. Ramos) ; (8) bed 
of a furnace [horno (2)], of an arch (arco), bedding of a boiler [caldera 
(2)] ; a. de los durmientes, rail, bed ; a. de una maquina, bedplate, see 
cama (4) ; (9) settling of broken ground (Fr. tassement), see asentar (6) ; 
b. constr. settling ; (10) a. de via, rail, laying of rails ; (11) madre de a., 
timb. bearer, see u. cuadro (1) ; (12) asientos, met. bottoms (copper- 
smelting) ; (13) timb. hitch, see huida (1) ; (14) site of a building or 

ASNA, see u. asnado. 

ASNADO, Almaden, Sp. large piece of timber with which the sides of the 
mine are secured a large stull (estemple) (asnas, Span. = rafters of a 
house), see entibacion. 

ASOMBRARSE, a. un filon, Ant. Col. to become flatter (of a vein), or to 
approach a veta de sombra or manta in inclination ; " Un mismo filon 
puede tener partes en que sea de cajon, 6 de resbalon, 6 en que se 
asombra " (F. de P. Munoz). 

ASOMO, see afloramiento. 

ASPA, (1) gold-mill, tappet, see leva (2) ; (2) medias aspas, timb. laths 
(Chalon), see pilote (2) ; (3) La Mancha, Sp. two timbers in the form of a 
cross, which, with the peon (3), moves the wheel of a noria (1) ; (4) wing 
of a windmill [molina (1) de viento] ; (5) horizontal float of a water- 
wheel, see u. tahona ; (6) arms [brazo (1)] of a bobbin ; (7) Peru, 
intersection or junction of two veins (Dwight), see intersection. 

ASPEREZA, ASPERIDAD, vent, roughness of the sides of a gallery or 
shaft, syn. rugosidad. 

ASPER6N, (1) grindstone, see muela (4) ; (2) flagstone, see cobija (2), 
losa ; geol. sandstone (arenisca), grit ; a. carbonifera, coal grit, car- 
boniferous sandstone or millstone grit. 

ASPIRACI6N, suction, syn. suction ; altura de a., height of suction ; 
tubo de a., suction-pipe ; tuberia de a., set of suction-pipes ; valvula 
de a., suction-valve. 

ASPIRADOR, vent, aspirator, exhauster. 



ASPIRANTE, pump, wind-bore ; for snore-piece, see u. alcachofa ; see u. 

bomba (1). 
AST A, (1) mech. shaft, spindle, see eje (2) ; (2) mas. curb-stone ; (3) a. 

de bomba, pump, rod or spear, see tirante (1) ; (4) a. de bandera, flag- 
ASTERIA, (1) asteria or asteriated sapphire or star-stone, see zafiro (1) ; 

(2) cat's-eye, a variety of chalcedony (calcedonia). 
ASTIAL, see hastial. 
ASTIL, (1) handle or helve, syn. cabo (1), mango (1), manija, manubrio 

(1), see maceta (1), comp. asa ; (2) a. de balanza, beam of a balance, of 

a steelyard, etc., see brazo (1). 
ASTILLA, (1) chip of wood, splinter of timber ; a. de madera, batten or 

scantling ; astillas grandes, see rachas ; astillas, Col. split polings ; (2) 

astillas, Province of Pataz, Peru, particles of gold sometimes met with 

in the mud accumulating in the gutters of the streets after heavy rains, 

see oro ; (3) irregular fragment of flint, etc., comp. lasca. 
ASTILLERO, Mex. placa in the forest where firewood is cut 

(Acad.) ; open forest ; pastures for mules, etc. 
ASTILLOSA, see u. pizarra. 
ATABACADO, cobre a., Asientos, Aguas Calientes, Mex. 

copper ore of the colour of tobacco (S. Ramirez). 
ATACADERA, blast, tamping-bar, rammer, stemmer or 

beater, syn. atacador, taco (3), Ant. Col. taqueador (2), equiv. 

Fr. bourroir, Ger. Stampfer ; for a. de lodar, of Almaden, 

Sp., see Fig. 11 (after Moncada). 
ATACADOR, see atacadera. 
ATACDURA, blast, tamping, see ataque (1). 
ATACAMITA, Atacama and Antofagasta, Chile, name given Atacadera de 

to various combinations of cupric oxide and cupreous and lodais as used 

cupric ch'oride of copper. According to Dana atacamite is an a 

oxychloride of copper [CuCJ., + 3CuO,HJ, syn. cobre salino. 
ATACAR, (1) blast, to tamp ; (2) Mex. to express mercury from a canvas 

bag by beating it with a stick (D wight). 
ATAGUIA, hydr. eng. dam of watertight material, coffer-dam, see u. 

represa (1). 

ATAHONA, see tahona. 
ATAHONERO, see tahonero. 
ATAJADERO, sluice-gate, see compuerta (2). 
ATAJADOR, Mex. (1) boy (mozo) who brings the mules or horses at the 

change of a shift for the tahonas, mills and pumps (Gamboa, 1761) ; 

(2) mule -driver who prepares the meals for the rest on the road, see 

ATAJE, Ant. Col, alluv. m. a natural obstacle which obliges the water to 

change its direction or velocity, forming an encierro or otherwise (Uribe). 
ATAJO, short cut j trail. 



ATANOR, water-tube, see tubo (1). 

ATAQUE, (1) tamping, syn. atacadura, taco (2) ; (2) ataques, rubbish, 

deads, see desecho (3), u. retaque. NOTE. Attaques in Tunisian Atlas = 

diggings. (3) Peru, breaking ground, see arranque (1). 
ATARJEA, (1) brick covering to protect pipes, etc. ; (2) c.m. undercut, 

see regadura (2). 
ATARRAJAR, see aterrajar. 
ATARUGAR, (1) carp, to secure a joint with wedges, etc. ; (2) mech. to 

plug or stop up, see tarugo. 
ATECAS, Mex. men who empty water from the bottom workings [planes 

(1)] of a mine in botas, in order that it can be pumped out of the shaft 

(Gamboa, 1761), see achicador, achicar, desagiie (2). NOTE. In Spain' 

ateca is old name for espuerta or two-handled basket made of esparto, 

palm, etc. 

ATENOR, see aludel. 
ATEPOZTELADO, see u. tepostel (2). 
ATERRAJAR, ATARRAJAR, to cut the thread of a screw ; to tap with 

the die. 

ATERRAMIENTO, alluvium (Ponce de Leon), see aluvion. 
ATERRAR, ATERRERAR, to dump or tip, see vaciar. 
ATESADOR, mech. stretcher, line -tightener, tensor, take-up. Brace-pin 

(Velazquez), see u. rodillo, tensor. 
ATIERRE, Mex. attle or waste rocks [desecho (3)] resulting from a cave or 

run of ground [hundimiento (1)] (Acad.) ; atierres, deads [tierras (5)J 

which impede the use of labour, and which must be taken out and 

thrown on the dumps [terreros (3)] (Gamboa, 1761). 
ATfNCAR, tincal refined tincal = borax of commerce (borax). 
ATINCONAR, to secure the walls provisionally with stulh (estemples) 

in order to avoid " runs " [hundimientos (1)] (Acad.). 
ATIVAClON, c.m. stowing or packing, see relleno (2). 
ATIVADO, c.m. waste or goaf, see relleno (3). 
ATIVAR, c.m. to stow or pack, see rellenar. 
ATIZ, ATICES, Ant. Col. timb. poles for lagging, generally from 3 to 5 

inches in diameter, see revestimiento. 
ATIZADERO, coal-mouth of a blast-furnace (Ponce de Leon), see horno 

ATIZADOR, (1) poker (see hurgon) ; stoke-bar ; (2) furnace-man or 

stoker, see fogonero ; (3) Mex. dresser of magistral (G. F. Lyon, 1828) ; 

(4) Col. battery -feeder, etc. ; (5) wick-raiser of a lamp (lampara). 
ATOLLADERO, Peru, swamp (Tschudi), see pantano (1). 
ATORAR, Cartagena, Sp. to pack with attle (atoro). 
ATORNILLADOR, screw-wrench. 
ATORNILLAR, to screw, to fasten with screws. 

ATORO, Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. attle-packing (Molina), see relleno (3). 
ATRACADO, attle-packing, see relleno (3). 



ATRANCAR, Mex. blast, to drill a hole at a very acute angle (Dwight), 

see barrenar (1). 
ATRAVESADA, see atravesado. 
ATRAVESADO, DA, adj. labor atravesada, transverse working or cross-cut 

ATRAVESADO (or atravesada), (1) timb. sole-piece, see solera (3) ; (2) 

timb. dividing-piece of a shaft-frame, syn. Pachuca, Hid. Mex., partido 

(4) (solid division), Za3. Mex. pasamano (3), tabique, travesano (3), 

traviesa (2), equiv. Fr. traverse, Ger. Einstrich ; (3) see cruzada (1). 
ATRAVESANO, see travesano. 
ATRAVESANTES, see cruzantes. 

ATRAVESAR, a. un filon, to cut across a lode, see cruzar. 
ATRICI6N, attrition, rubbing, abrasion, syn. {rotation (2), (geol.) roza- 

miento (2). 
ATUFAMIENTO, stifling an underground fire by damming, by carbonic 

a?id gas or other means, syn. ahogo. 
ATURDIR, Mex. to subdivide, mechanically, the quicksilver in a torta 

so as to quicken its action upon the mineral treated (Dwight). 
ATLJTIA, tutty or oxide of zinc mixed with protoxide of iron, oxide of 

lead, cadmium, etc. formed as a crust on the chimneys of furnaces. 
AUQUIS, Peru, rook-drillers in mines (Dwight), comp. barretero. 
AUMENTO, see hinchazon. 
AUREOLA AZUL, vent, the cap, show or blue " top," halo or aureola 

of the flame of a candle or lamp in an atmosphere containing fire-damp. 
AURIFERO, RA, adj. auriferous. 
AUTOS, see expediente. 
AUXILIARES, see u. labor (1). 
AVALUAR, to appraise, value, estimate. 
AVALUO, valuation, appraisement. 
AVANCE, mech. lead, lap (Ponce de Leon) ; a. del cilindro, cylinder head 

(Fr. tete du cylindre) ; labor en a., see u. labor (3). 
AVANTRIiN (limbers of a gun-carriage), blast, the four small wheels of a 

Dubois-Frangois drill-carriage, to enable it to be pushed over curves 

of small radius. 

AVANZAR, to drive, syn. abrir (1), Mex. colar (1), dar cuele (1). 
AVELLANADO, counter-sinking for bolts, rivets, eto. 
AVELLANADOR, countersink-bit, rose-bit ; rimer. 
AVELLANAR, to countersink. 
AVENA, oats. 

AVENADO, see u. campanil and vena (2). 
AVENIDAS, see u. verano. 
AVENTADERO, (1) Ant. Col. a placer higher than a sabana (2) or sobresa- 

bana : " Estas minas son como botaderos 6 embestidores de los rios, 

para servirnos de los expresiones originales con que las designan " 

(Fray Pedro Simon, 1625), comp. hucica ; (2) Peru, name given by the 

country people to an auriferous deposit or placer, see placer : according 



to Lock " a slide of loose ground containing alluvial gold " ; (3) aven- 
taderos, Arg. shallow placers of Quaternary age including (a) placers 
in loco formed by the degradation in place of the vein material, 
(b) bottoms of present valleys and beds of rivers, (c) abandoned beds of 
actual rivers in the drift- terraces of the valleys (V. Novarese), comp 
venero (3). 

AVENTADOR, (1) pump, leather valve in upper part of suction- 
tube (Acad.), corresponds to clack-valve (chapeleta) of Cornish lift 
(2) blower, fan ; a. de agua, trompe, see trompa ; (3) see placer. 

AVENTURERO, adventurer, see u. socavon (1). 

AVETADO, DA, adj. veined, seamed. 

AVIADO, DA, pp. of aviar, see u. aviador. 

AVIADO, Span. Am. one supplied with money or other articles to work a 
silver-mine (Velazquez). 

AVIADOR, RA, adj. see aviadoras. 

AVIADOR, Span. Am. (1) one who pays the cost of mine workings (Acad.) ; 
(2) a person who "habilitates" a mine, i.e., who furnishes the money 
for working it by a contract with the proprietors (R. E. Chism), syn. 

AVIADORAS, Span. Am. barras a., shares paying assessment ; barras 
aviadas, or viudas, shares paying no assessment, limited liability shares. 

AVIAR, Span. Am. to lend money or effects for working a mine. 

AVINGE, Ant. Col. a tree whi?h yields a very strong wood for construction 

AVfO (1) preparation, provision ; (2) Mex. advances originally made, at 
the disrretion of the Tribunal, to mining proprietors, who required 
funds in order to complete their works (Ward), see also u. rescatador (1) ; 
contrato de a., habilitation [habilitacion (1)] or funds advanced for the 
^ orking of mines ; banco de avios, a bank which advances funds for 
the working of mines ; (3) hereditary lease ; (4) avios, mine implements, 
but see u. partido (3) ; mine materials, as powder, fuse, candles, etc., 
comp. apero. 

AVISADOR, a machine for giving notice, see indicador. 

AVISAR, rail, to s'gnal. 

AVISO, (1) rail, signal ; a. de alarma de Shaw, vent. Shaw's signalling 
apparatus ; (2) Mex. announcement on the Bulletin Board, outside 
the Mining Agency, of applications for claims, etc. ; Col. notice of 
denouncement given before an Alcalde. 

AY ATE, Mex. thin fabric made of the thread of the agave (Acad.) ; coarss 
fibre-cloth for carrying ore, dirt, etc. (Dwight). 

AYEMADO, see u. pinta (1). 

AYUDA, (1) metal de a., ore containing lead used to assist the smelting 
of other ores ; ferruginous ores are sometimes so named, syn. metal 
de jugo, see fundente, u. soroche (2) ; (2) Mex. a small bonus to tributors 
who fail to make expenses (Dwight). 



AYUDANTE, assistant (Fr. aide) ; a. de fundicion, master smelter ; primer 
a., surv. follower, segundo a., surv. leader (Ponce de Leon) ; Ant. Col. 
assistant millman, see molinero. 

AYUNQUE, anvil, see yunque. 

AYQSTAR, to splice a rope, see empatar (2). 

AYUSTE, splicing (of a rope), see empate (2). 

AZABACHE (Port, azeviche), jet, syn. ambar (2) negro, see u. ulla. 

AZADA (Port, enxada), (1) spade, syn. 
azadon (2), Cuba, guataca, Aragon. Sp. 
jada (jadiar, to dig up with a spade), 
comp. pala (1) ; (2) hoe, see azadon (1). 

AZAD6N, (1) hoe, syn, azada (2), see coa, 
endchada, lengua (8) ; (2) spade, see 
azada (1) ; (3) scraping shovel or (Derb.) FlG 12 ._ Azad6u (3) (aftcr 
scraper, see Fig. 12 (after Moncada), syn. Moncada). 

batidor (1), equiv. Fr. grattoir, Ger. 

Kratze the chankol of Sumatra is similar, see legon, comp. mecapal (2), 
raedera, rastro ; (4) pickaxe, see zapapico. 

AZANCA, subterranean spring (Acad.), see manantial. 

AZARC6N (Port, azarcao), red lead, syn. minio ; a. native, minium. 

AZIMUT, azimuth -bearing, see also u. cenital, direccion (2). 

AZOGADO, Mex. poisoned by mercury (Dwight). 

AZOGAMIENTO, (1) overlaying with quicksilver ; (2) slaking lime ; 
(3) mercurial poisoning. 

AZOGUE (Port, azougue), (1) quicksilver or mercury, syn. a. en caldo, 
mercuric, see desecho (1), empleo, lista (1) ; (2) ore amenable to 
amalgamation, free-milling ore ; a. apolvillado, a. comun or a. ordinario, 
a. razonable, very good, ordinary and middling ore for amalgamation 
respectively ; mineral or metal de a., ore capable of being amalgamated ; 
azogues, Pachuca, Hid. Mex. second-class ore separated in the mine, 
see calichal ; Sinaloa, Mex. silver ores chiefly composed of sulphide of 
silver and plata verde, which, accompanied by silicate of copper, gives a 
green colour to the ore (metal verde), in a quartz matrix (A. Moreno) ; 
Batopilas, Chih. Mex. ore containing visible silver. 

AZOGUERIA, (1) amalgamating works, syn. hacienda de beneficio ; 
(2) Mex. the room set apart for separating amalgam from the active 
mercury, weighing the pella (2), and forming it into cuerpos (1) (G. F. 
Lyon, 1828) ; (3) amalgamation process. 

AZOGUERO, (1) Mex. the amalgamator, or person who superintends the 
process of amalgamation, syn. beneficiador ; (2) Sp. a dealer in quick- 

AZOLVAMIENTO, see azolvo. 

AZOLVARSE, (1) to become obstructed (of pump-tubes, etc.) ; (2) 
Almaden, Sp. miner's term, meaning to be out of one's wits (Velez de 
Aragon, Diccionario, 1891). 

33 c 


AZOLVO, the blocking of pumps or water-pipes, syn. azolvamiento ; 
azolvos, obstructions in mine galleries, etc., produced by water. 

AZUCAR (sugar), Ant. Col. a soft white granular rock in which calcite 
predominates, forming the gangue [matrix (1)] of native gold (Uribe). 

AZUCARADO, see u. guija (2). 

AZUD, (1) dam with a sluice or flood-gate, seepresa (1) ; (2) Persian wheel, 
see azuda. 

AZUD A, Persian water-wheel, syn. azud (2), zua, zuda, comp. noria (1). 

AZUELA, adze, syn. Mex. hachazuela, see achaparera. 

AZUFRADO, (1) Ant. Col. yellow ochre found in the veins, see u. ocre ; 
(2) azufrados, Peru, sulphide ores (Dwight), see azufron (2). 

AZUFRAL, geol. solfatara. 

AZUFRE (Port, enxofre), (1) sulphur or brimstone ; a. native, a. vivo, 
native sulphur, see machays ; (2) Ant. Col. a yellow stone of great 
hardness, frequently found in gold placers ; (3) piedra a., metal de a., 
sulphur rock ; (4) aceite de a., oil of vitriol, see aceite (4). 

AZUFR6N, (1) pyritic mineral in a pulverulent condition (Acad.) ; 
(2) azufrones, Mex. sulphide ores, see azufrado (2). 

AZUL, adj. blue, for piedra a., see u. piedra ; for plata a. see u. plata (2). 

AZUL, (1) lapis lazuli ; (2) a. acerado, Zac. Mex. stephanite, see u. plata 
(2) ; (3) a. plomillosa, Zac. Mex. argentite, syn. Guanajuato, Mex. 
molonque relumbroso (Dahlgren), see u. liga and plata (2) ; (4) azules, 
Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. a deposit (bed) occurring in a slatey formation, 
containing disseminate i galena and impregnated with silicate of iron, 
which gives it a greenish blue colour (Molina), see galena, u. manto (1) 
and pizarra ; (5) azules, Mex. sulphide ores (silver-bearing), comp. 
azulaque (4). 

AZULADO, metal a., selbite, see u. metal (3) and plata azul de Catorce. 

AZULAQUE, (1) bitumen, see zulaque ; (2) Zacualpan, Mex. argentite, 
see u. plata (2) ; (3) a. y cardenilla, Guerrero, Mex. copper ores of blue 
and green colours, rich in silver (S. Ramirez), see cobre (2), plata (2) ; 
(4) azulaques, Fresnillo, Zac. Mex. ore derived from the country which, 
for some distance from the veins, is impregnated with fine particles of 
i:on pyrites, argentite, silver and chloride of silver (Burkart), see plata 
(2), comp. azules (5), negro (6). 
AZURRONADO, Tlalpujahua, Mich. Mex. cubical iron pyrites containing 

some silver (S. Ramirez), see pirita, plata (2). 
AZUTERO, sluice-master. 

BACILAR, adj. fibrous texture (of minerals). 

BACISCO, see vacisco. 

BAETA, see u. bayeta. 

BAGAZO, Mex. (1) mech. prep, waste from hand-jigging (Dwight) ; 

(2) blast, mud from drill-hole (Dwight). 
BAHIAS, see cincora. 



BAJA, (1) com. fall or diminution of price; depreciation; (2) b. (== 

bajada) de metales, Peru, lowering of ores from mine to mill (Dwight) ; 

(3) see bajo (3). 
BAJADA, (1) descent, see baja (2) ; ladder- way ; b. y subida, descent and 

ascent, see amigo, barzon, caballito (2), caballo (3), fiador (3), honda ; 

(2) inclination of an arch (Velazquez), see arco. 
BAJAR, (1) to descend ; (2) to reduce the price, see baja (1). 
BAJIO, (1) a shoal, sandbank, shallow or flat (Velazquez), syn. bajo (4) ; 

(2) bajios, S. Am. ravine (Ponce de Leon), see barranca (2). 

BAJO, JA, adj. low ; bajo de ley, base (of metals) or low grade (of ores) ; 
minas bajas, Ant. Col. alluv. m. low-lying mines which have to be un- 
watered by artificial means ; generally deposits forming the present 
beds of rivers, syn. minas de labor or de saca (4), comp. minas altas, 
u. alto, ta. 

BAJO, (1) lower part of a vein, bed or mine, comp. alto (1) ; (2) Mex. in 
the patio process, the base on which the platillo (1) rests ; (3) Mex. 
( = baja), footwall of a lode, or footwall side of an inclined shaft, syn. 
arrastre (2), muro (2), piso (3), Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. soleria 
(Molina), yacente ; equiv. Port, lapa, Fr. mur, Ger. Liegende, see u. 
respaldo, comp. alia (1) ; (4) shoal or sandbank, see bajio (1). 

BALAJ, BALAJE, balas-ruby (a rose-red variety of spinel), see rubi (1). 

BALANCE, com. balance of accounts, balance-sheet. 

BALANCIN, bor. spring-pole, mech. walking-beam or working-beam (syn. 
b. de vaiven Fr. balancier) ; b. de contrapeso, pump, balance-bob, see 
contrabalanzon ; b. angular, L-bob or a V- or angle-bob ; any small 
lever or balance ; see baos, volante (4). 

BALANZA, (1) b. seca (Fr. balance-seche), balance used for lowering 
timber, stores, or ore ; b. de agua, b. hidraulica (Fr. balance hydraulique) 
water-balance for raising stones, slate, etc. ; (2) Espiel, Cordoba, Sp. 
a winze or staple called so because a balance is used therein, see clavada ; 

(3) small scales ; b. para ensayos, assay-balance, see cruz (7). 
BALANZON, (1) Mex. pump, balance-bob, see contrabalanzon ; (2) copper 

pan used by silversmiths (Velazquez). 
BALASTAR, rail, to ballast, see afirmar. 
BALASTO (from Engl.) transp. ballast; una tongada de b., a layer of 

ballast ; see cascajo (11), casquijo (2), lastre (2), ripio (2). 
BALATA, Venez. a hard wood used for mining purposes (B. B. Ashmore 

and C. Scale). 
BALATE, (1) a boundary-mark (heap of stones, etc.), see rnojon (1) ; 

(2) a border of a trench or ditch (acequia). 
BALCONCILLO, see descanso (2). 
BALDE, wooden pail or bucket for raising water from wells, etc. (Guim), 

see cubo (1), herrada ; Bilbao, Sp. bucket used in ropeways : syn. Mex, 

canastillo, Cartagena, Sp. vagoneta. 

BALDEAR, to bail (bale) with buckets (baldes), comp. achicar. 
BALDIOS, see u. terreno (1). 



BALDOSA, (1) a fine square tile, see cobija (1) ; (2) flat paving-stone, 
comp. cobija (2). 

BALSA, (1) pool, pool of stagnant water in a mine, lake, see charco (1), 
cienaga (2), era, estanque (1), tanque (2) ; (2) raft used for conveying 
persons or goods across or down rivers, comp. maderada ; (3) Mex. 
movable cradle or platform used in timbering shafts, syn. tabladillo (1) 
movil, Pachuca, taranguela (1), comp. descanso (3) ; (4) b. de clarifica- 
tion, b. de deposito, settling- tank, see u. estanque (3). 

BALSAR, Span. Am. marshy piece of ground with some brambles (Acad.), 
see pantano (1). 

BALSEAR, to cross rivers on floats or rafts [balsas (2)]. 

BALSERO, ferryman, see balsa (2). 

BALTROTE, see bantrote. 

BANASTA, a large basket generally made of osier twigs, and long in shape 
(Guim), see canasta. 

BANASTO, large round basket (canasta) ; 12 banastos = 1 carga of 

BANCA, (1) bench, see banco (1) ; (2) see banco (2) ; (3) Phil, a kind 
of boat or canoe (see Acad.) ; (4) com. brokerage (corretaje). 

BANCADA, stope, see escalon (2). 

BANCO, (1) bench, carpenter's bench, syn. banca (1) ; b. de acepillar, 
planing-bench ; (2) solid bed [capa (1)] of mineral having two faces 
exposed, one (the upper) horizontal, the other vertical, bench, under- 
hand stope, syn. Linares and Marbella, Sp. antepecho (Acad.), comp. 
testero (3) ; for escalon de b., see u. grada (2) ; labor en bancos, trabajo 
de banca (2), or de banco, underhand stoping; b. invertido, see testera (3) ; 
b. recto, see u. recto, see rebajo ; (3) b. de piedra, quarr. any one bed 
of stone, a bed, seam or layer, geol. any thick bed [comp. lecho (2)], syn. 
capa gruesa, manto (1), see capa (1), nivel (4) and (5), u. taco (5) ; (4) b. 
de tierra, ground-sill, mud-sill, see muertos ; (5) Mex. hard rock which 
throws and narrows a vein, or makes it take another direction (Gamboa, 
1761), see dique (5); horse [caballo (5)], or cross-course [crucero (2)], 
(Dwight) ; (6) Mex. crucible of a blast-furnace, see crisol (2) ; (7) b. 
de herrar, Mex. horse-shoeing shop (Dwight) ; (8) row of stones (Ponca 
de Leon), see camada (2) ; (9) bancos plateros, Sinaloa, Mex. argenti- 
ferous pyrites, see pirita, plata (2) ; (10) b. de arena, sandbank ; b. de rio, 
sandbank in a river, bar, see barra (8). 

BAND A, (1) strap or belt ; (2) see cinta (1) ; (3) tire of a wheel, see 
llanta (1) ; (4) bank (of a river), see ribera ; (5) see zona (2). 

BANDEADA, see cinteada. 

BANDERA, surv. flag, syn. banderola, see asta (4). 

BANDERILLA, blast, paper cone kept in position by a piece of clay, used 
to mark position of drill-holes. 

BANDEROLA, surv. flag, see bandera. 




BANG, (1) Mex. in the patio process, the last portion of mercury some- 
time? added to a torta when the amalgam is very dry (seca), or 
when there is much flouring (desecho) of the mercury ; (2) abre 
el b., Mex. in cupellation, when the lead begins to melt in the furnace 
(Ramirez) ; (3) banos, Mex. water collected in old works, etc., syn. 
depositos (4), comp. estanque (4) ; (4) b. de arena, chem. sand-bath. 

BANQUE, underhand stoping, see u. banco (2). 

BANQUEAR, Ant. Col. to level earth for building purposes, for a road or 
ditch, or for depositing ore, etc. 

BANQUEO, (1) Ant. Col. ground levelled for building purposes, for deposit- 
ing ore, etc., comp. echadero ; (2) Serrate de Lorca sulphur mines, Sp. 
breaking down a portion of the floor, which is solid, in order to gain the 
necessary height (Molina) ; (3) underhand stoping, see u. banco (1). 


FIG. 13. Banqueta (2) 
used in quarrying. 

FIG. 14. Banqueta (2) 
Jor kibble. 

BANQUETA, (1) a small bed or bench, see banco (2) ; (2) bench or flat 
surface, e.g., quarr., see Fig. 13, bench or resting-place for the kibble, 
see Fig. 14, step of an underhand stope [meseta (3)], bed or support of a 
wedging-curb [rodete (3)] of masonry tower constructed on cutting- 
ring [corona (2)], etc. 

BANQUETE, see u. meter. 

BANQUILLO, (1) banquillos, Mex. in the patio process, the stools on which 
the bars of lead bullion (marquetas) are placed (G. F. Lyon, 1828) ; 
(2) a small bed, see banco (2). 

BANTROTE, timb. a long head-piece, wall-piece or lid (strap of Australians), 
serving for two or more stemples (estemples), syn. baltrote, see galapago 

BAGS, b. de la maquina, engine-beam (Elwes), see balancin. 

BARANDA, BARANDILLA, railing of timber, iron, etc. ; fencing round 
shafts, etc., railing round platform of a man-engine (escala movil), etc., 
see pasamano (1). 

BARBA (beard), Mex. fire-bridge (Dwight), see puente (2). 



BARBACOAS, Peru, zigzag roads made with stulls (estemples) bearing 

on the walls of the deposit ; on these are longitudinal timbers of less 

diameter on which small waste is put to form the piso (Santolalla). 

" Estas barbacoas avanzan con los frentes de las galerias y communican 

entre si, por maderos dispuestos segun los peldanos de una escalera, 

que se apoyan en les cajas colocados a golpe de comba " (Santolalla). 
BARCAL, Huelva, Sp. flat box strengthened with iron hoops, used instead of 

espuerta(Acad.); thebarcal is no longer used in any mine in Spain (Molina). 
BARCAZA, BARCAZO, large boat, barge, lighter, see barco, charlana. 
BARCO, boat or barge ; this and barcazo (barcaza) are sometimes used 

in canal-levels. 
BAREQUEAR, Ant. Col. alluv. m. to extract as much of the pay-dirt as 

possible, without method, leaving the overburden untouched, syn. 

Panama, burbuscar or gurguscar, mazamorrear. 
BAREQUEO, Ant. Col. the extraction of the pay-dirt by crude means, syn. 

Panama, burbusco, gurgusco, mazamorreo, see barequear. 
BAREQUERO, Ant. Col. an itinerant and empirical stream-washer, who 

occupies himself in crude methods of alluvial washing, syn. Panama, 

burbusero or gurguro, mazamorrero, see barequear, lavadcr (1). 
BARILLA, see barrilla ; for piedro de b., see u. piedra. 
BARITEL, seemalacate (1). 

BARITINA, tarytes or heavy spar, see espejuelo (9), guijo (3). 
BARNIZ, (1) varnish, b. de copal, copal varnish ; (2) Mex. mineral coating 

a joint, syn. embije, embijete. 
BARQUIN, BARQUINERA, large bellows used in ironworks (ferrerias) 

(Acad.), see fuelle (1). 

BARQUINA, S. Am. large furnace (Ponce de Leon), see horno (2). 
BARQUINERA, see barquin. 
BARRA, (1) crow or crowbar, see alavanca, barren, descalzador ; b. 

azuela, bar with a chisel- bit ; b. de punta or 

b. pica, bar with a diamond -shaped point ; 

b. de una, claw-bar for spikes (D wight) (syn. 

Mex. chiva) ; barras, Col. iron bars used in 

gold-washing ; (2) quarr. jumper, equiv. Fr. 

barre a mine, Ger. Steinbohrer ; the method 

of boring with the jumper is known as a la 

barra, a la vizcaina, or barreno (3)de viento, 

see u. barrena (1) ; (3) a bar or ingot of 

gold, silver, copper, etc., see changote, u. 

hierro (1), lingote, riel (1), metal en barras, 

bullion ; plata en barra, silver bullion, comp. 

oroche (1), u. oro, pifia (3) ; barra de plata, FlG 15 ._ Ba rra (9) (after Mou- the patio process, a silver bar weighing cada). a, pies dereclios (mon- 

135 marks or 1080 ounces (Lyon, 1828) or 75 tantes > ; 6 ' cruzde San Andres ; 

/T , , , > , , j ,. ' , j c, preusa (tirante) ; d, barra 

Ib. (Dahlgren), syn. plata de patio, plata de ( tirante); e, pies derechos cortos 

pie, see ladrillera (2) ; (4) mech. rod or bar, (pilaretes) ; /, muertos. 



e.g., boring-rod, see varilla (1) and u. vastago ; b. de connexion, con- 
necting-rod, see biela (1) ; b. de echar or de andar, starting-bar ; b. de 
embolo, piston-rod ; barras de almenadas, bars used in the construction 
of reverberatory f jrnaces ; barras de asiento, foundation-rods (Fr. 
barres de fondation) ; (5) Mex. orig. the twenty-fourth part of a mine 
(comp. acciones) ; for barras viudas or aviadas, see u. aviadora ; (6) capitan 
de barras, Mex. boss -miner who marks the spot where the boring is to 
be made with the chuzo (1), giving it the proper inclination this 
operation is called trazar el barreno (S. Ramirez), see u. tumbe ; 
(7) geol. bar of rock ; (8) sandbank, bar, see banco (10) ; (9) Cartagena, Sp. 
the lower horizontal tie (Fig. 15 d) of a pulley-frame [horca (1)], c = 
prensa ; the back stays are the diagonales [or tornapuntas (3)], while 
the timbers tying them to the uprights are the tornapuntas (4), see 
tirante (2); barras, in the pulley-frame of a malacate (1), the hori- 
zontal ties which carry the pulleys, see u. crucero (10); (10) barras- 
carriles, bar-rails or flat iron placed on edge (de canto), equiv. Fr. rail 
meplat, see carril (3), comp. rielera. 

BARRACA, hut or (S. Staff.) hovel at the pit's mouth for the convenience 
of the banksman, syn. galera (4), comp. bartolina, jacal (1) and (2). 

BARRAJE (from Fr. barrage), dam or weir, see presa (1). 

BARRAL, Port, clay-pit, see barrero (3). 

BARRANCA, (1) a deep break or hole made by heavy falls of rain, syn. 
barranco (1), comp. carcava (2) ; (2) ravine or (U.S.A.) gulch, syn. 
S. Am. bajios (2), prov. freo, hondonada (1), hoz, quebrada (1), quebra- 
dura, quebrantura, equiv. Port, barranco, bayanca, corrego (1), see 
barranco (4), derrame (3), esbarancado, rambla (2), comp. arroya (2), 
canon (5) ; (3) pre:ipice (Port, barranco), see precipicio ; (4) see 
barranco (2). 

BARRANCAL, place abounding in barrancas (1). 

BARRANCEIRA, Port, bank of a river, see ribera. 

BARRANCO, (1) a barranca (1) ; a fissure, see hendedura ; (2) Ant. Col. 
alluv. m. a vertical cut or face made artificially on the surface, or pro- 
duced naturally by a landslide (Uribe), syn. barranca (4), barranquera, 
see frente (3) ; (3) barrancos, Venez. small round pits, about four feet 
in diameter, sunk to work lodes at surface, or to reach pay-dirt, see cata 
(4) ; (4) dell, a narrow valley ; a barranca (2). 

BARRANCO, Port, ravine ; precipice, see barranca (2) and (3). 

BARREDURA (sweeping), Ant. Col. (1) the conjunction of operations on 
a certain portion of a placer mine, having for their object the catching 
of the gold in the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] (Uribe), see tajo (5) ; 
(2) sacar la b., to clean up [limpiar (2)] the gold as above ; (3) inguaca 
mining, taking the earth away in thin layers with a sort of spatula 
(paleta de hierro), see barrer. 

BARRENA, (1) carp, drill or auger ; b. de diminucion, taper auger, b. de 
guia, centre-bit, see broza (1) ; b. de gusano, wimble ; b. de mano, auger 
with a handle ; b. grande, auger or borer ; b. pequeno, gimlet ; see 


abocardo, barreno (4) ; (2) blast, drill or borer, s-yn. S. Am. barreta 
(3), taladro (2) ; b. de cincel, ordinary chisel borer ; b. de 
percusion, jumper [syn. barra (2), barreno (3), barreta (3)] ; 
b. muerta, a dull drill, b. viva, a sharp drill, see ahor- 
cada, apuradora (1), cachorros, guia (3), media ; bor. 
cutting-tool, boring-tool, see u. taladro (2), trepano ; 
b. de aletas, see Fig. 16, syn. trepano de aletas ; (3) bor. 
open auger, see u. trepano, comp. tientaaguja ; (4) b. de 
ensanchar, bor. reamer or rounder (for widening bore-holes), 
equiv. Fr. elargisseur. 

BARRENADOR, (1) see barretero ; (2) see u. pico (3). 

BARRENAR, (1) to drill, syn. taladrar, see atrancar, per- Fir 
forar ; (2) to fire a round of holes (Dwight) ; b. una roca uarrena <V> 
or mina, to blast a rock or mine (Velazquez), see tirar (2) ; de aletas 

(3) barrenarse, Mex. to communicate, hole through (of ^^e) G U " 
two mines or workings), see barreno (6). 

BARRENERO, (1) borer or driller, see barretero ; (2) Almaden, Sp. a 
boy who attends with the boring -tools, comp. abajador. 

BARRENO, (1) blast, bore-hole, blast-hole or drill-hole ; syn. agujero (1), 
cana (3), Mex. cohete (2), taladro (4), Chile, tiro (9), equiv. Port, (Brazil) 
buraco (2), Fr. trou de mine, Ger. Sprengbohrloch ; b. ascendente, a 
chulano or seco, upward hole ; b. descendente, a estaca or de agua, 
downward hole ; b. horizontal or de pecho, horizontal hole ; b. a techo, 
drill-hole in the roof ; b. tendido, drill-hole in the floor ; see campanela, 
candelero (3), culo, pistola, pistolete (2), solayo, zapatero (2) ; (2) b. de 
sonda, (deep) bore-hole, equiv. Fr. trou de sonde, Ger. Tiefbohrloch ; 
barrenos de flor, small exploratory bore-holes, see u. sondeo ; (3) large 
borer or auger ; b. de viento, jumper, see barra (2), u. barrena (2) ; 

(4) carp, large auger, see barrena (1> , (5) carp, hole made with an auger 
or gimlet : mech. hole made with a drilling-tool ; (6) communication 
between two mines or workings, holing-through, see barrenar (3) ; 
(7) cross-cut, see crucero (1). 

BARRER (to sweep), Ant. Col. alluv. m. b. por pena, to rake off the gold 
from the bed-rock [pena (4)] with hoes (azadas) or almocafres, in order 
to carry it to the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] ; b. un hoyo, a similar 
operation applied to a more limited area in minas de saca ; b. el canalon, 
analogous operation in the ground sluice ; b. por planes, to rake above 
the pay-dirt [cinta (3)], when it is not possible to clean up the bed- 
rock itself (Uribe), see barredura (1) and (2). 

BARRERA, (1) clay-pit, see barrero (3) ; (2) mound or heap of earth 
from which saltpetre is extracted ; (3) circumference of boards or 
stones surrounding an arrastre (3) ; (4) c.m. barrier, barrier-pillar ; 

(5) c.m. hoist, barrier, sliding-gate, or (Australia) bird-cage for closing 
the mouth of a shaft, or at the onsetting place (concava), syn. puerta (2), 
valla, equiv. Fr. barriere, comp. guairona ; (6) rail, barrier at a level 
crossing (paso a nivel), see guardabarrera. 



BARRERO, (1) potter, see alfarero ; (2) Extr. Sp. height, eminence, a 
high ridge of hills, see serrania ; (3) clay-pit ; place full of clay and 
sand, or clay and mud, syn. barrera (1), barrizal, equiv. Port, barral ; 
(4) barreros, Buenos Ayres, Arg. salt-licks (Humboldt). 

BARRETA, (1) small bar, crowbar, see barra (1), barren ; (2) jumper, 
see barra (2) ; (3) S. Am. drill, see barrena (2) ; b. perdida, dead-work 
in unprofitable prospecting (Dwight) ; (4) media b., Peru, gallery 
[galeria (1)] inclined at an angle of 45 degrees (a media pendiente) or 
thereabouts, but according to the new regulations must nowhere exceed 
40 degrees, comp. chiflon (4). 

BARRETERO, miner properly speaking, borer or driller (see barrenero), 
syn. Guan. Mex. barrenador (1), see herramienta (2), minero (2), u. raya 
(3), tequio (2) ; Cerro de Pasco, Peru, miner who breaks the ore with 
the bar [barreta (1)], gad [curia (1)] or pick [pico (2)], his assistant is 
called apire (2) or hapire (2), see cholo barretero, comp. auquis. 

BARRETILLA, small bar [barreta (1)]. 

BARRET6N, large bar, crowbar, see barren. 

BARRETONGILLO, small bar. 

BARRICA, small barrel, see tonel (1) ; a cask containing sixty gallons 

BARRIL, (1) cask or barrel, see tonel (1) ; b. de amalgamation, amalgama- 
tion barrel ; (2) b. de extraction, c.m. corf, m.m. kibble, see tonel (2) ; 

(3) Fr. Guiana, a weight equiv. to 100 kilogrammes (L. Levat). 
BARRILERO, (1) man in charge of barrel -process of amalgamation ; 

(2) barrel-maker, cooper. 

BARRILETE, carp, hold-fast, dog, clamp, syn. siete (1). 

BARRILLA (Port, barrilha), (1) plant of the genus Salicornia, from the 
ashes of which a mineral alkali a extracted, see barrillar ; (2) impure 
soda called in commerce " barilla," extracted from (1), syn. mazacote (1) ; 
b. de Alicante, com. Spanish or Alicante soda, see natron, sosa (1) ; (3) 
Bol. native copper disseminated in grains in copper ores, see cobre (2) ; 

(4) Bol. copper-ore concentrates ; (5) Bol. tin-ore concentrates, said 
to average 60 to 70 per cent, of metal, see estario (3) ; (6) barrillas, Ant. 
Col. gold-mill, wooden divisions of blanket-strakes, copper-plates, etc. ; 
(7) piedra de b., see u. piedra. 

BARRILLAR, barilla-pits, where the plants from which the " barilla " is 
extracted are burnt, and collected at the bottom in a stony mass called 
rocheta ; it is the barilla ashes of commerce (Neuman and Baretti), see 

BARRIO, (1) d ; strict or ward of a town or city ; (2) suburb ; (3) Mex. 
a settlement (Lucas). 

BARRIZAL, see barrero (3). 

BARRO, (1) clay, loam, mud, earth ; b. de olleros, potter's clay, vaso 
de b., earthen vessel, see ar cilia, blanquizal ; Chile, mud or pulp (patio 
process), see lama (2) ; (2) geol. argillaceous marl [marga (1)] ; (3) 
barros, Col. the overburden of auriferous alluvial deposits, see montera 



(3) ; (4) Braz. variously coloured layer of fine sand mixed with clay 

in which the cascalho of the valley-deposits rests it is distinguished 

from the latter by being bedded, but it also contains diamonds (Bauer). 

BARR6N, large bar, crowbar, syn. barra (1), barreta (1), barreton, palanca 

(2) de hierro, see pie (2) ; b. de compuerta, hydr. sluice-bar (Ponce dc 

BARROTE, (1) batten or scantling, see liston ; escalera de b., see escalera 

(3) ; (2) rail, fish-plate (Ponce de Leon), see eclisa. 

BARTOLINA, Mex. watchman's house at mine entrance (Dwight), comp. 

BARZC^N, strap used for tying a man to a rope when descending a shaft, 
and having one foot in a loop, see bajada, u. caballo (3). (NOTE. In 
Spain = strap with which oxen are yoked to the plough-be im.) 

BARZONAZOS, see latigazos. 

BASALTO, basalt. 

BASCULA, (1) lever, pole, staff, see palanca (1) ; (2) reciprocating motion ; 
palanca (6) de b., rock-shaft or rocker-shaft ; vagon de b., see u. vagon ; 
(3) platform scale ; met. scale for weighing charges ; rail, weighbridge. 

BASCULADOR, transp. c.m. tippler, Molina very properly confines the term 
to apparatus for tipping wagons at a sufficient angle to discharge their 
contents revolving tipplers being known as volcadores, see u. vagon. 

BASTARDA, bastard file, see lima. 

BASTARDO, DA, adj. bastard, used in the same sense as in English, e.g., 
bastard lode, rock or working. 

BASTIDOR, (1) frame or carriage of a rock-drill (perforador), syn. carro (4), 
soporte (3) ; (2) frame carrying the body of a wagon or tub [carro 
(2)] ; (3) hoist, a vertical frame for 'carrying wagons suspended by 
hooks, syn. estribo (5) replaced by cage [jaula (2)] ; (4) pump, see u. 
horquilla (1) ; (5) timb. frame (Ponce de Leon), see cuadro (1) portada, 

BASTIMENTO, Mex. miner's luncheon (Dwight). 

BASTO, (1) pack-saddle, see aparejo (2) ; (2) mech. prep, coarseness of 
screens (Gamba), see criba (2). 

BASTONES, Palencia, Sp. c.m. timb. thin branches used in lagging [reves- 
timiento (1)]. 

BASURA DE PLOMO, Mex. lead-dross (Dwight) (Span. = sweepings). 

BATAN, (fulling-mill), tierra de b., fuller's earth, see greda (1). 

BATANE DE PIEDRA, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, stone plate for grinding 
simples (0. F. Pfordte). 

BATEA (Braz. bateia), Span. Am. a concave wooden vessel used in gold- 
washing, about 20 inches in diameter and 2^ inches deep, the dulang of 
Malaya and the halagay of the Mysore Province of India are eastern 
varieties ; b. apuradora, Mex. in the patio process, a wooden bowl 
floating in the pila apuradora to receive the cabecilla (2) (G. F. Lyon, 
1828), which is re- washed ; b. larga, see tepestate ; in Ant. Col. the 
following kinds are used : (a) b. vetadora, 1 foot in diameter, with 
ears or handles ; (6) b. lavadora, generally 16 inches in diameter by 



2 inches deep, of spherical segment, and without handles ; (c) b. corta- 
dora, similar to (b) but shallower and well polished in the concave 
part, used in cleaning up blanketings, amalgam, etc. ; (d) b. zambulli- 
dora or zambullida, oblong or elliptical, 3 to 4 feet long, 14 to 18 inches 
wide, and having a handle half a yard wide, used by gold-washers (see 
zambullidor) ; see ceja (2), chicar, cortar (1), jamurar, jumos, tocsr, 
zambullir, comp. achua, chua, cuchara (1), gamella (2), jicara, platillo 
(1), platon, platoncito, poruna, puruna, tecornate (1). 
BATEADA, Port, the portion of gold contained in a batea (Elwes). 
BATEADOR, see u. cacho (2). 
BATEADORA, a woman who uses a batea. 

BATEAR, Port, to wash gold (auriferous gravel) in a batea (Elwes). 
BATEIA, Braz. batea. 

BATEQUE, L. Cal. Mex. deposit formed by a spring of water (comp. 
aluvion). " Llaman bateque en la Peninsula a los depositos formados 
por los veneros, en el centre de un arroyo, u al pie de la sierra " (A. del 
M. de F.). 

BATERIA, mech. prep, battery ; elect, battery. 
BATIBOLIiO, Mex. company of miners working a stope of high-grade ore 


BATIDOR, mech. prep. (1) a kind of rake (Derb. " scraper "), see azadon 
(3) ; (2) beater (Fr. agitateur) of a dolly-tub, syn. molinete (4), see 
tina (1). 

BATIENTE, jamb or post of a door, see jamba. 

BATIR (to beat), (1) Ant. Col. to break up and carry away auriferous 
gravel by means of water (Muiioz), see desarenar, chocar, desmontar (3) ; 
(2) b. el monte, to explore the mountains. 
BAULEAO, Ant. Col. iron pyrites in the form of cubical crystals (Uribe), 

see pirita. 

BAYANCA, see barranca (2). 

BAYETA, BAYET6N, coarse woollen cloth or baize, " blanket " of blanket- 
tables or blanket-strakes, equiv. Port, baeta, Braz. bietta, faizada 
(blanket), see pano (1). 

BAZOFIA, Peru, waste rock (Dwight), see desecho (3). 
BENEFICIADOR, see azoguero. 
BENEFICIAR, (1) to work or improve a mine ; (2) to derive profit from 

working a mine ; (3) met. to reduce the ores of a mine. 
BENEFICIO, (1) the working of mines, see laboreo ; (2) profit derived 
from working a mine, return, syn. reparto j (3) met. reduction, extrac- 
tion, treatment (tratamiento), process ; Mex. b. de cazo, the cazo, 
caldron or hot amalgamation process, see cazo ; b. de curtido, see cur- 
tido ; b. de hierro, amalgamation reduction with the addition of frag- 
ments of iron ; b. de colpa, the patio process with colpa (colcothar) in 
lieu of magistral ; b. de pella de plata, amalgamation reduction with 
the addition of silver amalgam ; b. de patio, the patio or cold amalga- 
mation process, see patio (2) ; b. de toneles, the Freiberg or barrel- 



amalgamation process ; b. por amalgamation, amalgamation process ; 
b. por cianuracion, cyanide process ; b. por cloruracion, chlorination 
process ; b. por fuego, reduction by smelting ; see cocimiento, u. oficina 
(3) ; (4) b. de metales, mechanical preparations of ores, ore-dressing ; 
(5) labores de b., winning workings ; (6) Arg. and Chile, productive 
ore ; Chaiiarcillo, Chile, the richest part of a lode (Domeyko) ; primer 
b., first productive ore met with ; cuerpo de b., ore-body. 

BERBIQUf, carpenter's brace, ratchet brace, syn. carraca, chicarra ; 

BERILO, beryl ; b. verdemar, aquamarine, see esmeralda. 

BERLINGADO, poling or method of refining tin by burning green poles 
in a bath of the molten metal, the process also being known as " boiling," 
see estano (1). 

BERMELL6N (vermilion), cinnabar ; an earthy variety of cinnabar 
(cinabrio) in stains and grains ; Guadalcazar, S. L. Potosi, Mex. bright 
to dull red powdery ore, which is found in stringers running through the 
gypsum, and spotted through many of the larger ore-bodies, especially 
those of chamber form (H. F. Collins). " El mineral dominante es el 
cinabrio oscuro y subido que los practices distinguen con los nombres de 
bermellon y granate,cuyo segundo denominacion reservan para el cristali- 
zado " (A. del M. de F.). See mercuric (2), comp. granate (2), negro (2). 

BERNALEJO, see sombrerete (3). 

BERROQUENA, piedra b., coarse-grained granitic stone, granite, see 
granite (1). 

BETA, Port, a lode or vein of metal, see veta (1). 


BETIJN (Port, betume), bitumen or asphaltum, syn. alquitran mineral, 
asfalto, azulaque, betun judaico, Mex. chapapote, pez mineral, see brea, 
tembladeras, copey, zulaque ; b. marga, bituminous marl ; alquitran 
de tierra, species of bitumen from the East Indies which floats on water. 
NOTE. Formerly spelt betum, betume, betumen. 

BIBORO, botryolite (Ponce de Leon), a variety of datolite which is 
botryoidal and columnar within. 

BICA, Braz. (1) inclined portion of the sluice used by river-washers 
(Calogeras), comp. cabeceira (1) ; (2) sleeping-table, see u. mesa (1). 

BICHARRA, Peru, small furnace with inclined stack (Dwight), see 
homo (2). 

BIELA, (1) connecting-rod, syn. barra (4) or biela de conexion, biela 
motriz ; b. de coplamiento, coupling-rod ; b. articulata, link motion 
(Ponce de Leon) ; (2) crank, see manubrio (3) ; (3) brace-strut ; (4) 
axle-tree, see eje (2). 

BIETTA, Braz. baize, see bayeta. 

BIFURCACI6N, (1) branching of a vein when following it along the 
strike, see also encuentro (1) ; (2) transp. branch-road, see u. desvio (2). 

BIFURCAMIENTO, branclr'ng (of a ve.'n), see bifurcation (1). 

BIFURCARSE, see se bifurca. 



BIGORNA, Port, anvil, see yunque (1). 

BIGORNETA, small anvil ; silversmith's anvil, see yunque (1). 

BIGORNIA, anvil, see yunque (1). 

BIGOTE, (1) semicircular tap-hole of a furnace [homo (2)], syn. pecho 
(1) del homo, see sangradrera (2) ; (2) bigotes, flames coming out of 
(1) (Acad.) ; (3) bigotes, infiltrations of metal in the cracks or crevices 
of the inside of a furnace [homo (2)] (Acad.). 

BILCA, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, raw -hide trough into which mercury from 
the manga (2) drops (0. F. Pfordte). 

BILITRONES, S. Am. communication between washing -troughs (Lucas). 

BILLOTO, Port, log, block ; b. de madeira, log timber. 

BIMBALETE, Peru, crude ore-mill operated by two men. The grinder 
is a large stone with transverse bar by which a rocking motion is given, 
syn. quimbalete (Dwight), see boliche (4), comp. maray. 

BINCHES, Arg. " The gold-bearing conglomerate composed chiefly of 
pebbles of Silurian grauwacke and slate is further characterised by 
cubical crystals of pyrites locally termed binches, the abundance of 
which is regarded by the miners as an indicator of the richness of the 
conglomerate (this, however, is not invariably a safe guide), and by 
the presence of an extremely fine magnetic black sand which is always 
found in the washings to accompany the gold " (V. Novarese). See pirita, 
lama (5). NOTE. The above word appears to be a corrup- 
tion of Engl. benches. 

BISAGRA, hinge, syn. prov. alguaza, charnela (1), gozne, 
see quicio (1). 

BISALHO, Port. com. a bundle of rough diamonds (Elwes). 

BISAUTOMOTOR, plan inclinado b. = Fr. plan incline bis- 

BISARMA, Port. com. two-edged hatchet, see u. machado. 

BISEL, (1) bevel, bevel edge, chamfer, see cortar (2) ; (2) 
cutting edge of any tool ; blast, bor. bit of a borer, syn. 
boca (6), broca (2), corte (1), cuchareta, filo, mecha (5), 
tajo (8), taladro (3), equiv. Fr. ctseau, Ger. Bohrschneide ; 
b. en cruz, bor. cross-bit, see Fig. 17, equiv. Ger. Kreuz- FIG. 17. liisel 
meissel,^ corona (1). 

BISMUT, BISMUTO, (1) bismuth ; (2) bismuto-blenda, euly- 

tite, an ore from Chihuahua, Mex., containing from 9 to 29 per cent, 
of bismuth, and associated with copper pyrites, galena and blende 
(the last two occasionally). NOTE. According to Dana, eulytite is a 
bismuth silicate from Johanngeorgenstadt. 

BITES, Ant. Col. slime produced by the grinding or stamping of ore, see 
also fango, lama, lodo, comp. mamaja (2). 

BITOLA, Port. (1) standard measure, rule ; (2) rail, gauge, see ancho. 

BLANCO, CA, adj. white, for plata blanca, see u. plata (2) ; metal bianco, 
cerargyrite or horn silver (plata cornea) ; en bianco, hemp rope in its 
natural state, i.e.. without a coating of pitch, see canamo. 



BLANCO, (1) mark [marca (2)] made on the side of a level, etc.. when 
setting a bargain, see guardaraya, machote ; (2) mixture of whiting, 
lime, etc., to size or lay the first coat for painting ; b. de estuco, stucco 
whiting (Velazquez). 
BLANDOS, see pastosos (2). 
BLANDURA, soft, crumbly ground. 
BLANQUEAR, to whitewash, see encalar, enjalbegar, enlucir, cnyesar, 

jalbegar, revocar. 
BLANQUIZAL, BLANQUIZAR, whitish clay, pipe-clay (Velazquez), see 

barro (1), comp. albero. 

BLENDA (Port, blende), zinc blende or blende, syn. esmanil, Mex. metal 

negro ; b. amarillo, yellow blende, b. parda, brown blende ; see acane- 

lados, carne de vaca (2), chumbe, congo (2), copalillo, espejuelo (6), 

estoraque, gallinazo, ojo (4). 

BLINDADO (ironclad, armoured), ground secured by metallic supports, 

see blindaje. 
BLINDAJE (armour-plate), securing ground by metallic supports, equiv. 

Fr. blindage. 
BLONCO BUENO, Guan. Mex. third class of rich ores from the veta madre, 

yielding 400 ounces of silver per ton (Tilmann), comp. apolvillado. 
BLOQUI, block, ingot, see lingote. 

BOBINA, (1) hoist, bobbin or reel (for flat ropes), syn. carrete, carrete), 
equiv. Fr. bobine, see nucleo (1), comp. tambor (1) ; (2) el. coil, syn. 
carrete ; b. de induccion, induction coil. 

BOBA, BA, adj. veta boba, Chile, large sterile vein, see u. carrancho (2). 
BOCA (mouth), (1) the first opening made on a vein; (2) mouth, brace, 
collar, or (N. Engl.) eye of a shaft (c.m. pit-top), syn. boca de pozo, 
brocal (3), Mex. cajonero (1), equiv. Fr. orifice au jour, Ger. Miindung, 
Miindloch, see corte (4), comp. contratiro ; mouth of a well [see agujero 
(5)] or adit ; b. mina, mouth of a shaft or adit ; in Mex. boca minas 
are very irregular openings independent of the shaft, or communicating 
with it at a lower level ; in Peru boca minas are openings or entrances 
to mines. "Many of them are exceedingly shallow and not more than 
500 of them deserve the name of shafts" (Tschudi, 1847). B. mejora, 
Mex. the shaft or boca communicating with the estaca fija, and facili- 
tating the interior workings of mines (Gamboa, 1761) ; (3) bank or 
pit-mouth, equiv. Fr. margelle, Ger. Hangebank ; (4) see u. Have (14) ; 
(5) see u. viage ; (6) mouth of a shovel, point [punta (1)] of a pick, bit 
[bisel (2)] of a drill, mouth of a plane, lip of an auger, face [cara (1)] 
of a hammer ; (7) mouth of a furnace (see cebadero), charging-hole, 
or door or fire-door of a furnace [horno (2)], manhole [agujero (4)] or 
mudhole [registro (2)] of a boiler, etc. ; (8) b. de regadera (1), pump, 
snore-piece or strainer of a wind-bore ; (9) b. de rio, mouth of a river, 
see desembocadero ; (10) see Have (13) ; (11) b. del volcan, crater, see 



BOCACAZ, opening left in the weir or dam of a river, sluice- or flood-gate, 
see compiler ta (2). 

BOCADO, see u. derecho (2). 

BOCAHORNO, furnace with an open mouth. 

BOCARTE, stamp-mill, syn. molino, molino de pilones, pisones or estam- 
pillas, equiv. Fr. bocard ; b. californiano, seco or humedo, Californian, 
dry or wet crushing stamp-mill, respectively ; for parts of stamps, see 
almadaneta (1), cabeza (5), calzadura (2), cama (3), dado (1), leva (2), 
mango (2), pison (2), zapato. 

BOCARTE ADO, pounding (Ponce de Leon). 

BOCARTEAR, to crush, stamp or grind the ore (Ponce de Leon). 

BOCARTEO, crushing, stamping or grinding of the ore (Ponce de Leon). 

BOCAZA, b. de alto horno, throat of a furnace ; b. de carga de un homo, 
mouth of a furnace (Ponce de Leon). 

BOCAZO, blast, explosion through mouth of bore-hole without producing 
effect (Acad.), comp. chiflarse, desbocarse ; dar bocazo, to be "blown 
out " (of a shot), comp. mechazo. 

BOCEL, see it. cepillo (1). 

BOCHORNO (hot sultry weather, scorching heat) ; Mex. (1) excessive 
heat which puts out the lights in mines, produced by want of ventilation, 
cross-cuts, etc., and which is increased by the effluvia from workmen, 
etc. (Gamboa, 1761), see u. acido (1), comp. vapor (5) ; (2) after-damp, 
see mofeta (2). 

BOCINA, mech. bushing, thimble or sleeve, seeboquilla (5). 

BODEGA, (1) storeroom, see almacen (1) ; (2) chamber-deposit, see u. 
galeron ; (3) S. Am. village or small town. 

BODOQUE, Batopilas, Chih. Mex. chloride of silver (horn silver) found 
near the surface (Dahlgren), see also u. plata (2). NOTE. Dwight gives 
argentite in Spain = pellet of clay. 

BOINA, Mex. miner's cap (Dwight), see vestido. 

BOLA (ball), (1) mech. ball ; bolas del regulador, st. eng. governor-balls ; 
valvula de b., ball-valve ; (2) b. de grasa, met. slag-ball (Dwight) ; 
(3) bolas, Guadalupe y Calvo, Zac. Mex. more or less rounded masses 
of rich argentiferous [see plata (2)] and auriferous [see oro] ores, found 
at a certain depth ; at Catorce, bolas are sometimes kidney-shaped, 
comp. boleo (1), bolones ; (4) bolas, Almaden, Sp. small ore of mercury 
moulded into bricks, see u. vaciscos ; Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. residues 
from the quicksilver reduction-furnaces mixed with clayey smalls 
[tierras (4)], and made into balls ; these are reduced in smaller 
furnaces, the resulting burnt balls being known as tierras quemadas, 
see u. mercuric (2) ; (5) bolas, geol. spherulites ; (6) blast, round ball of 
cl'ay or gypsum used in tamping, syn. boliche (2). 

BOLEA, swing-tree bar used in a horse-whim [malacate (1)], when two or 
more horses are used at one beam, comp. u. horquilla (1). 



BOLEO, (1) loose stone from a vein generally rounded like a ball, float- 
mineral ; nodule or kidney of iron, copper, or other ores [comp. bola 
(3)]. " Estos minerales estan a veces, ordenadcs concentric amente, 
formando nodulos 6 como se dicen en boleo " (Zarate on veins of Zaca- 
tecas). L. Cal. Mex. in the Boleo copper mine, peculiar globular con- 
cretions of copper oxide and carbonate, sometimes several inches in 
diameter ; any rounded mass of concretionary origin, whether solidified 
from fusion, due to decomposition or growth, e.g., cocade- or ring-ores 
(Ger. Cocardenerze, Ringerze), see haba ; (2) name sometimes given to 
bunches of ore when small and occurring close together, see clavo (2) ; 
(3) Mex. a dump-pile for waste roak (Chism), see vaciadero. 

BOLETA, schedule ; boletas, tickets of sale of ores ; cheque tickets ; 
account of charges and produce of an amalgamation operation (M. J. 
Gloss.) ; boletas, Mex. vouchers, proving the pay- 
ment of the mining tax by means of cancelled 

BOLICHAR, Mex. to treat or reduce ore in the 
boliche (4). 

BOLICHE, (1) Mex. in the patio process, a bowl 
concentrator, see Fig. 1?A, see u. polvillo (3) ; (2) see 

bola (6) ; (3) Peru, dolly-tub, see tina (1) ; (4) Mex. 

-11 vi i> i- 1 j. /T^ i Vx /r-v T FIG. 17A. -Boliche (1) 

small ore-mill like a bimbalete (D wight) ; (5) Las (after Eg-ieston). 

Alpujarras, Sp. met. small reverberatory furnace 

with two floors, for smelting lead ores, see I bran, p. 435 ; (6) Cerro de 

Pasco, Peru, mill in which the repaso is performed by Indians 


BOLINETE, Braz. a kind of large sluice [canoa (2)] made of planks, the 
width is 1 m. at the head-board (cabeceira) and 0-9 m. at the opposite 
extremity, the length being from 1 '50 m. to 3 m. In the narrowest part 
are wooden riffles for collecting the concentrates (A. Pereira), syn. 

BOLIVAR, Venez. a coin equal to 1 peseta or franc = 20 cents. U.S.A. 

BOLLO, (1) bollos, Mex. formerly, in the patio process, triangular bricks of 
amalgam or segments of amalgam (amalgama) each weighing about 
30 lb., syn. cuerpos (1), marquetas (3). NOTE. The term was also 
applied to the complete circular cakes or discs of the same, a pile 
of these, from its resemblance to a pine -apple, being termed pina (3) ; 
(2) Peru, pocket of ore (Dwight), seebolsa (1). 

BOLO, (1) Phil, large knife like a machete ; (2) Ant. Col. anhydrous red 
ochre of placers (Angel), comp. carmin ; b. amarillo, yellow ochre ; 
b. Colorado, red ochre, see ocre. 

BOLONES, Chile, large rounded pieces of copper ore, comp. bola (3). 

BOLSA (purse), (1) in gold mines the part in which the purest gold is 
found (Acad. 1783 and in latest editions) ; a rich patch, bunch or 
pocket of ore, syn. Peru, bollo (2), bolsada (1), bolsonada (1), Venez. 
bomba (2), equiv. Port. (Braz.) olho (2), Fr. poche or nid de mineral, 



Ger. Erznest, Erzputzen, see bolsilla, bolson (4), cangrejera, cascajo (4), 
clavo (2), mantilla, masa (1), matera, nido, ojo (1), remolino (2), tope 
(6) ; (2) a small, irregular deposit, see u. bolsada (3) ; (3) druse or vug, 
see drusa ; (4) cistern or tank, see estanque (3) ; (5) com. exchange or 
place where merchants, bankers and brokers meet, syn. lonja ; b. de 
valores, stock exchange, comp. cambio (3) ; (6) Peru, see capacho (2). 

BOLSADA, (1) rich pocket of ore, see bolsa (1) ; (2) druse, see drusa ; 
(3) hi a general sense, an irregular deposit [see criadero (1)], if large = 
masa (3), if small = bolsa (2), nido or rinon (1) ; bolsadas entrelazadas, 
stockwork [see cumulo (2)] ; mineral de bolsadas, pockety or bunchy 
ore, comp. bolsonada (2). 

BOLSILLA, little bunch or pocket of ore, see bolsa (1). 

BOLS6N, (1) iron ring in a vertical bar to which horizontal tie-rods are 
attached for strengthening arches (Acad.), see arco ; (2) stone on which 
an arch (arco) or vault is sprung (Velazquez) ; (3) a basin desert -plain, 
see llano ; (4) large pocket of ore, see bolsa (1). 

BOLSONADA, (1) bunch or belly of ore, see bolsa (1) ; (2) bolsonadas, 
Peru, pockety veins (Dwight), comp. u. bolsada (3). 

BOMBA, (1) pump, pumping- engine ; b. alimenticea, feed-pump (of a 
boiler) ; b. aspirante, or chupadora, suction-pump (Ger. Saugpumpe) ; 
b. aspirante y elevadora, b. aspirante e impelente or agotadora, drawing- 
lift or bucket-set or -lift (sometimes called b. elevatoria, but, strictly 
speaking, the latter is an inverted force-pump), syn. b. de cabo (6), 
equiv. Fr. pompe elevatoire, Ger. Hubpumpe ; b. centrifuga or rotatoria, 
centrifugal pump ; b. de action directa, direct-acting pump ; b. de ali- 
mentation, feed-pump, donkey-pump ; b. de cadena or de rosario, 
chain-pump, see cadena (6) ; b. de doble efecto, double-acting pump ; 
b. de mano, hand-pump ; b. de piston aspirante impelente, ordinary 
piston- pump ; b. de piston inmergente, b. impelente or de presion, b. 
forzadora, force- or plunger-pump, equiv. Fr. pompe foulante, Ger. 
Druckpumpe ; b. de simple efecto, single-acting pump ; b. de ventila- 
tion, air-pump ; bombas gemeles, duplex pumping-engine ; b. hidraulica 
or maquina de columna de agua, water-pressure engine ; b. movil, b. 
colgante, or b. suspendida, sinking-pump ; b. neumatica, air-pump ; 
b. rotatoria, see b. centrifuga and aletoria ; b. volante, drawing-lift 
which is not fixed, but suspended by chains, etc. 

For parts of pumps or pumping apparatus, see aro (4), borracho (1), 
brazo (2), caja (4) and (5), camisa (3), campana (2) and (6), chapalete, 
contrabalanzon, cuerno (2), cuerpo (8), embolo, u. juego (1), tirante (3). 
For varieties of pumps, see cangilon (3), fuelle (2), see u. cargada, it. 
desagiie (2), escalonada ; (2) Venez. rich patch or pocket of ore, see 
bolsa (1) ; (3) geol. volcanic bomb ; (4) b. marina, water-spout, syn. 
tromba, see manga (6) ; (o) retort made of sandstone (Velazquez), see 
retorta ; (6) lamp chimney (Velazquez), see u. tubo (1). 

BOMBEAR (to bombard), Ant. Col. (1) alluv. m. to bring a strong volume 
of water to the channel [brecha (2)] or ground-sluice [canalon (2)] in 

49 D 


order to break up the contents and wash them (Uribe) ; (2) gold mill, 
a battery is said to bombear when a large spout of water issues from a 
hole in the screen ; (3) vulg. to discharge or expel, e.g., a miner or 
peon, see despedir. 

BOMBERO, (1) fireman ; (2) pitman or pumpman ; (3) engine-man 
(Ponce de Leon). 

BOMBILLA, see u. candil. 

BOMBILLO, (1) lamp chimney, see u. tubo (1); (2) small pump [bomba 
(1)] ; (3) tube to draw off liquids ; (4) Mex. cartridge (as of dynamite) 
(Dwight), see cartucho. 

BOMBO, see u. tambor (1). 

BONANZA (fajr weather, prosperity), Span. Am. a large deposit of good 
ore : " La concentration de la mena en la masa " (Molina) ; syn. ennoble- 
cimiento, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, boya, comp. borra (3), borrasca (l\ en 
frutos. NOTE. This word has long been adopted by Anglo-Saxons ; 
its use is generally restricted to deposits containing one of the precious 
metals. A mine is said to be "in bonanza" when it is paying large 
profits. In Mexico bonanzas usually occur in the richest zone, or in 
that containing sulphide of silver with black antimonial sulphide. 

BONETE, Mex. hat used to catch very rich ore as it is picked down with 
a sharp bar (Dwight). 

BONGO, (1) Cent. Am. species of canoe (Acad.), see bungo ; (2) Ant. Col. 
wooden box in which the sands from the mill are deposited for subse- 
quent treatment (Uribe). 

BONIGA, cow-dung or ox-dung ; mixed with mud it is used for plastering 
houses in S. America. 

BONO, com. bond, certificate. 

BOQUETE, (1) gap, narrow entrance, pass, see paso (4) ; (2) boquetes de 
paso, Almaden, Sp. intermediate arches (Molina), see arco, comp. 
fundamentales ; (3) b. del descansillo, manhole of the platform or 
sollar of a ladder-way, see descanso (1). 

BOQUILLA (little mouth), (1) hole for wick or oil in a lamp (lampara); 
(2) chisel for mortising, see cincel (1); (3) hydr. m. Chile, nozzle 
of a monitor, see pi ton (1) ; (4) mas. verge, course, see camada (2) ; 
(5) mech. bushing, bush, see bocina. 

BORATERA, Chile, borax deposit. 

BORATO CALCINADO, Chile, ulexite, after being desiccated in reverbera- 
tory furnaces, but still containing from 10 to 15 per cent, of water, see tiza. 

B6RAX (or borraj), borax, syn. atincar, crisocola (3), see borra (5), ccmp. 
tiza (3). 

BORDE, (1) bank of a river, seeribera ;( 2) seebordo(l); (3) seebordo(S). 

BORDETA, a small pillar in a mine, see pilar (3). 

BORDO, (1) ore left untouched in a previous working in an old mine- 
work (M. J. Gloss.), syn. borde (2), see macizo (1) ; (2) pillar left to 
support vein-matter (Dwight), see pilar (3) ; (3) block of ground ready 
for stoping (Dwight), syn. borde (3), see macizo (2) ; (4) see L.A.B. 



BORNEADOR, blast, the man who turns the drill, comp. piqueador. 

BORNEAR, blast, to turn the drill [barrena (2)], comp. piquear. 

BORRA, (1) Mex. vein-matter or matrix, see matriz (1) ; (2) Mex. barren 
rock, see esteril (2) ; b. de veta, soft rotten rock (Dwight) ; (3) en borra, 
Mex. in poor or unproductive ground (of a mine or vein) ; (4) Mex. 
lead-dross (Dwight) ; (5) refined borax (borax) ; (6) Chile, Peru, 
sediment deposited in the chulladores, comp. ripio (8). 

BORRACHO (intoxicated), (1) borrachos, Ant. Col. vertical pieces of wood 
connecting a water-wheel with the pumps used in unwatering trinchos 
(2) or tapas (4), and which oscillate at the lower end (Munoz) ; the rocker 
of a Cornish pump when driven by a water-wheel, see bomba (1) ; 
(2) Mex. in the patio process, a globule of mercury (cuerpo) which has 
a sluggish or irregular movement in rolling about the vanning -horn. 

BORRADOR, (1) rough draft ; (2) day-book, syn. libro b. 

BORRAJ, see borax. 

BORRASCA (storm, tempest), Span. Am. (1) an unproductive mine, or a 
mine in an unproductive state: "La difusionde la mena en la masa " 
(Molina) ; comp. bonanza ; dar or caer en b. (Chile, enbroceo), to become 
unprofitable (of a mine or vein), see emborrascarse, comp. borra (3) ; 
(2) barren rock, syn. piedra bruta (2), see esteril (2), roca (2) ; (3) b. de 
la capa, see dispersion. 

BOSADO, oro b., Ant. Col. alluvial gold, see u. corrido, da. 

BOSQUE, wood, forest, grove. 

BOTA (small leather wine-bag), Mex. a large bag made of ox-hides and 
used for drawing water from the shafts ; they hold from 70 to 200 
gallons of water, and are worked by a winch [torno (2)] or mule-whim 
[malacate (1)]. The hoop at the top = aro. A bota grande, made from 
2 to 2% hides, will hold up to 200 gals, of water, a bota of 1| hide holds 
up to 125 gals., a bota of 1 hide from 37 to 75 gals. ; see botilla, desagiie 
(2), saco (1), u. soga, comp. zaca ; a bota chica is a small leather bag. 

BOTADERO, (1) shallow of a river, ford, see vadera ; (2) dumping- 
ground for ore or waste (Ger. Halde), see vaciadero. 

BOTADOR, (1) punch (for driving out nails), comp. punzon (3) ; 
(2) furnace-bar, fire-iron ; (3) b. de horno, tapping-bar (Ponce de 
Leon), syn. espeton (1). 

BOTAFUEGO, linstock, match, see mecha (1). 

BOTAMIENTO, fault or dislocation, see salto (1). 

BOTAO (button), Minas Geraes, Braz., screw-nut, see also porca, tuerca. 

BOTE, (1) gallipot ; (2) canister ; (3) boat ; (4) Mex. ore-bucket (Dwight), 
see tonel (2). 

BOTELLA, (1) bottle, flask ; una b. de azogue, one flask of quicksilver, 
see frasco ; (2) botellas, bell-pits (Molina), syn. grandes camaras. 

BOTILLA (dim. of bota), b. de burro, Mex. a sack or bag of neat hide, and 
worked by a burro (3) or hand- whim ; b. de lomo, a small sack made of 
one-third of a hide to carry water out of small sinkings on men's backs 
(M. J, Gloss.), see bota, saco (1), soguilla. 



BOTILLEROS, men who carry botillas. 

BOTIQUIN, travelling medicine- chest. 

BOT6N, (1) crank-pin, syn. b. de manubrio (3), turrion (2) ; (2) carp, 
dowel ; (3) knob or handle of doors, locks, etc. 

BOTRITES, burnt cadmia which adheres to the upper part of a furnace 
(Velazquez), see cadmia (2). 

B^VEDA, (1) cave or cavern, see cueva (1) ; (2) a chamber-deposit, 
see clavo (2), u. criadero (2), salon (1) ; chloride of silver sometimes 
occurs in camaras abovedadas (Dahlgren) ; (3) extended arch or 
vault of masonry (see arco) ; arch of a furnace ; (4) b. de madera, 
timbering of an oval-shaped gallery formed either of a number of short 
logs with their axes generally at right-angles to the excavations, or of 
longer ones parallel to the same, syn. armadura (1) en boveda, equiv. 
Fr. voute en bois. 

BOVEDAL, see criadero (2). 

BOVED6N, Peru, (1) a chamber- deposit, see salon (1) ; (2) enormous 
cavity left in working (1), see salon (2). 

BOYA, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, rich vein or pocket of ore, a bonanza : 
"During the boyas the labourers receive, instead of their wages in 
money, a share of the ore" (Tschudi, 1847) ; see huachacas, maquipuros. 

BOYERO, ox-driver. 

BRACERA, see u. sierra (2). 

BRAGUERO, see u. serrucho. 

BRAGUETILLA, Peru, smelting-furnace ; the simplest being merely a 
hole 'n the ground (Dwight), see horno (2). 

BR AM ANTE, pack-thread, see u. hilo (4) ; strong thread made of hemp 
[see u. chimenea (4)] ; thin hempen rope, comp. cordel (2). 

BRASA, (1) red-hot coal, etc., see ascua ; (2) Almaden, Sp. met. the 
distillation of the mercury by the combustion of the sulphur in the ore, 
forming the second stage of the process, when firing is discontinued 

BRASCA, met. brasque, a mixture of charcoal powder and damped refrac- 
tory earth which is rammed down (apisonado) in the bottom [reposadero 
(3)] of the crucible of a blast-furnace with iron tools called espetones (2) 
(Ramirez) ; in tin-smelting, brasca is made of four parts of charcoal 
powder to one of clay. 

BRASERO, (1) brazier, firepan ; (2) Hex. hearth, fireplace, see hogar (1). 

BRAUNA, see u. candeia. 

BRAVO, see u. cobija (2). 

BRAZA, a fathom ; Arg. = T894 yards, Brazil = 2' 437 yards, Port. = 
T853 yards (Spon) ; in Zac. Mex. = 2 varas X 4 varas X 1 vara. 

BRAZO (arm), (1) arm of a lever, arm of a bobbin [see aspa (6)], etc., beam 
of a balance [see astial (2)] ; (2) pump, set-off, see bomba (1) ; (3) jib of 
a crane, see aguilon ; (4) brazos, hands (labour). 

BRAZUELAS, Mex. cogs of the master-wheel (Lyon, 1828), comp. 
dientes (1). 



BREA, (1) pitch or tar ; (2) sackcloth ; (3) a hydrocarbon, a variety of 
asphaltum (asfalto) ; brea mineral is a brown viscous natural oil ; laguna 
tie la brea, the celebrated Pitch Lake of Trinidad, see betun. 

BRECHA, (1) ball of pebbles ; (2) geol. breccia, syn. piedras conglutinadas, 
526 canga (tapanhoacanga), frailesca, giiedales ; (3) Ant. Col. a trench 
or cutting made in search of a lode, see zanja (1) ; (4) Ant. Col. alluv. 
m. small channels by which the pay-gravel is led to the ground-sluice 
[canalon (2)] from the different cuts [tajos (5)] of a clean-up [barredura 
(1)] (Uribe) ; (5) Ant. Col. the open trench or cutting leading to the 
mouth of an adit, day-level or tunnel, comp. zanja (1). 

BRELHO, Port, pebble, small stone, see guija (1). 

BRIDA, (1) bridle or reins of a bridle ; (2) rail, fish-plate, see eclisa ; 
brida-escuadras, cojinete-bridas, broad chair for double br'dge-rails 
acting as fish-plates (Molina) ; (3) flange, see reborde ; (4) bridas, iron 
rings or sleeves sometimes used for forming joints of tubes for lining 
boreholes, syn. mangas (9), manguetas (2), manguillas, manguitcs (1). 

BRIGADO DE SOCORRO, ambulance corps. 

BRILLANTE, adj., for ulla brillante, see u. ulla. 

BRILLANTE, brilliant, a diamond cut in triangular faces. 

BRILLO, lustre. 

BROCA, (1) bit, carpenter's bit ; conical bit for drilling metals ; (2) b. 
de un cincel, bor. boring-bit, see bisel (2). 

BROCAL, (1) timb. upper-, surface- or day-frame (Fr. cadre a oreilles), 
see Fig. 18 ; (2) first shaft-frame or (Cornw.) 
collar ; (3) b. del tiro, mouth or eye of the 
shaft, brace ; b. del pozo (1), well-curb or c 
curbstone, mouth of the well, see boca (2). t 

BROCATEL, marmol b., marble having spots 
and veins of various colours. 

BROCEADOR, see u. manto (1). 

BROCEO, Chile, sterility (of a deposit), see FIG. 18. Brocal (i). 

u. manto (1) ; en broceo = en borrasca. 

BRONCE, (1) bronze ; b. de aluminio, aluminium bronze ; b. fosforado, 
phosphor bronze, see u. campanil, adj. ; brass, see metal (2) ; (2) cast- 
iron, see u. hierro (1) ; (3) any mineral like bronze or brass in appear- 
ance, e.g., (a) ordinary iron pyrites, syn. b. amarillo (1), b. apretado, 
b. bianco (1), b. chino (1), Guan. Mex. b. malo ; (b) b. bruno, Zac. Mex. 
iron pyrites, having the colour of polished bronze, it is highly argenti- 
ferous, containing up to 12 or 15 marcos of silver per quintal ; b. bueno, 
Guan. Mex., b. platero, silver-bearing pyrite, see plata (2) ; (c) Peru, 
auriferous pyrite, see oro ; (d) bronces, Peru, ores found below the 
pacos, and so called from the presence in them of iron and copper 
pyrites, the first is more abundant than the second, the ore being rich 
in silver according to the proportion that it bears of the latter (Fuchs 
and De Launay), see pacos, pavonado (2), plata (2), u. verde, adj. ; 
(e) b. bianco (2), Potosi, Bol. and Mex. mispickel ; (/) mina de b., bell- 



metal ore, sijn. pirita de estano ; (g) b. amarillo (2) or nochistle (2), b. 
chino (2), b. de cobre, b. dorado, copper pyrites, see u. pirita ; (k) b. 
anilado, Peru, covellite or indigo copper (CuS) ; (i) b. plateado, Chile, sub- 

f^sulphide of copper (ore) ; (/) b. morado, bornite. 

BRONCO, Mex., wild, loose ; roof -rock liable to fall (Dwight). 

BRONQUEAR, Mex. to hammer or pry with a hammer or gad in rock 
which is loose and liable to fall (Dwight). 

BRONZADO, DA, adj. Peru, containing bronces (3) (d). 

BROTAR, to issue (of a spring, see manar) ; to crop out (of a vein, nee 

BROTAZ6N DE VETA, Mex. apex of vein ; croppings (Dwight), see 

BROZA, (1) centre-bit, syn. barrena (1) de guiaorguia (16) ; fierros de b., 
drills for centre-bit ; (2) Batopilas, Chin. Mex. native silver dissemi- 
nated in thick leaves ; the ore consists of one-third calclte and two- 
thirds natvie s'lver, while chispeada is two-thirds calcite and one-third 
silver (Dahlgren), see plata (2) ; (3) Mex. stones or ore of the size of an 
egg or apple, syn. gabarro ; (4) Chile, waste, rubbish, see desecho (3) ; 
(5) Peru, very poor (silver or copper) ores which generally do not repay 
extraction (Dwight), see desecho (4), plata (2) ; mineral de b., ores for 
the beneficio as distinguished from ores for exportation ; (6) vein- 
matter, gangue, matrix (Ponce de Leon), see matriz (1) ; (7) thicket, 
brushwood, on mountains (Velazquez). 

BRUJA, see u. arena (1). 

BRtijULA, (1) compass needle, syn. aguja (3), calamita (2) ; (2) compass 
or miner's dial, syn. aguja (8), compas (2) ; b. colgada or minera, hanging 
compass or German dial, see muletilla, transportador. 

BRUNIDOS, see u. cincel (2). 

BRUNO, NA, adj. of a dark brown colour ; bruno esparto, brown spar or 
rhomb spar, a variety of dolomite. 

BRUTO, TA, adj. coarse, unpolished ; diamante en bruto, rough diamond ; 
for piedra bruta, see borrasca (2), for plata bruta, see u. plata (1). 

B'JCHE, Col. belly of ore, equiv. Fr. ventre, see ensanchamiento. 

BUENO ! (bu-e-e-e-e-no !) call in shaft up to 200 feet deep, when kibble or 
other vessel has reached the bottom, comp. oye ! 

BUEY, (1) ox or bullock; (2) buey de agua, approximate hydraulic 
measure, used in some localities for estimating the volume of water 
that passes along a ditch, or that gushes from a spring, when the quantity 
is large (Acad.). 

BUFA, Mex. (1) the crown of a precipice or cliff (acantilado) which is of 
some extension (Barcena) ; a narrow ridge of rock, standing above the 
general surface, the sides being very steep. The bufas of Guanajuato 
are formed of rhyolite and rhyolitic tufa, those of Zacatecas of rhyolite, 
comp. sombrerete (1) ; (2) Mazapil, Zac. brown iron ore and malachite 
occur in deposits called bufas or rebosaderos (3) (Ramirez). 

BUFADOR, c.m. a blower or sudden outburst of gas. 



BUFARSE, c.m. to swell up (of the floor of a level) the effect being known 
as creep (S. Wales), heave or packing. 

BUGRE, see bolinete. 

BLJITRON (trap, net or snare), (1) a furnace formerly used in the Almaden 
mine for reducing mercury ores (Le Play) ; Span. Am. low blast-furnace 
(horno de manga) for smelting silver ores, see horno (2) ; (2) Mex. fire- 
box (D wight), hearth {see hogar (2)] ; met. ashpit (cenicero) (Acad.) ; 
(3) sand-bath furnace (Ponce da Leon) ; (4) Bol. Peru, amalgama ing 
circle or patio, see cerco (4). 

BUJE, axle-box, bush-box, iron ring ; pillow of a shaft [eje (2)], collar of 
a shaft (Ponce de Leon). 

BUJIA, (1) wax candle, see u. vela (2) ; (2) candlestick in which (1) is 
put ; (3) candle-power ; in France stearine candles of five to the pound 
are used, the consumption being 9' 6 grammes per hour ; in England 
sperm candles aro used, equivalent to 0'9 of the stearine candle (Penot), 
see vela (2). 

BULTO, com. package, parcel. 

BLJNGO, Nicar. flat boat, about 40 by 9 feet (Velazquez), see u. bongo. 

BLJQLJE, (1) ship ; (2) Mex. boy employed in a mine (D wight), see abajador. 

BUR AGO, Port. (1) hole, cavity or cavern, see cueva (1) ; (2) Braz. bore- 
hole ; b. d'agua, water-hole (lower borehole in a drift) ; b. en secco, 
upper do., see barreno (1). 

BURBUJA, bubble ; bleb ; blister. 

BURBUSEO, see barequeo. 

BURBUSERO, set barequero. 

BITRGA, prov. hot spring of mineral waters, see manantial. 

BURIL (engraver's burin), buriles, the burins or toothed tools of a Blanzy 
excavator (Molina), equiv. Fr. traceuse ; see burilada. 

BURILADA, assay, sample chip from silver, taken with a burin (buril), 
to test it by the standard (parragon). 

BURNONITA, bour.ionite or wheel ore (Ger. Schwarzspiessglanzerz). 

BLJRO, prov. (1) chalk, see creta ; (2) marl, see marga (1). 

BURRADA, (1) Mex. a jackass (Lyon, 1828) ; (2) drove of asses. 

BURREAR, Espiel and Belmez mines, Sp. to carry ore, etc., on the 
shoulder?, see, u. costilla. 

BURRERO, Mex. donkey-boy (Dwight). 

B JRRO, (1) ass ; (2) jack or horse of sawyers, syn. aserradero (2), b. para 
aserrar, caballete (1), caballo (2), camillon, comp. tijera (1) ; (3) hand- 
whim or windlass, see torno (2) ; (4) Ant. Col. the frame supporting the 
axle [principal (2)] of a water-wheel, or the axle of a native mill. The 
frame consists of the crown-piece [cabeza (4)], two legs [patas (1) or 
CDlumnas (4)], and the ground-sill [banco (4) de tierra], into which the 
legs are mortised. (5) Col. one cubic vara of firewood (lena), 30 cubic 
feet or '85 cubic metre, see u. cuerda (5) ; (6) Bilbao, Sp. the standard 
of a wire ropeway, see caballete (5) ; (7) Col. alluv. m. in river bar- 
washing, stones thrown back up stream by women, and forming the 



three sides of a rectangle. The bateas are washed over the burro (C. 

BUSCA (search), (1) Mex. the right to employ buscones (1) ; it is frequently 
claimed by the administration and persons employed in mines (M. J. 
Gloss.) ; (2) buscas, Mex. ore taken out by buscones (1) ; (3) paradas 
de b., see u. parada (1) ; (4) b. y descubrimiento de los criaderos, search 
and discovery of mineral deposits. 

BUSCADOR, 'searcher for gold or other ore ; b. de oro, prospector, see 
cateador, comp. buscones (1). 

BLJSCAR, to search for mines, etc., to prospect, see catear. 

BUSCONEROS, see buscones (1), u. senorial. 

BUSCONES, Mex. (1) searchers or explorers ; those who search for ore in 
abandoned mines, or who give notice of it in order to claim a reward 
(Gamboa, 1761), syn. Peru, busconeros, Mex. poquiteros, comp. bare- 
quaro, buscador, cateador, catero, faiscador, gambucino (1), garimpeiro 
(1), mazamorrero, raspadores, rebotalleros, rumbeadores, see rascar ; 
(2) tributers or miners who work on part proceeds (M. J. Gloss.), see 

BQZAMIENTO, inclination or dip, see echado. 

BUZAR, to dip, see hundirse (3). 

BUZO, diver. In Cauca and Antioquia, Col. a class of divers (mineros- 
buzos) get alluvial gold from the bottom of rivers with bateas. Some 
are provided with a diving-dress (escafrando), ccmp. mergulhadcr, u. 
trincho (2). 

BUZ(3N, (1) lid or cover of cisterns, etc., comp. tapa (1) ; (2) in foundries, 
hooks to take off the lids of melting-pots (Velazquez) ; (3) sluice of a 
water-course at a mill, see esclusa ; (4) funnel-shaped op ning of a 
hopper (Molina), see tolva (1); (5) winze, see clavada ; (6) S. Sp. 
subsidence in upper workings produced by a funnel-shaped cave of 
ground below (Molina), see revenimiento. 

CABALGADURA, (1) baggage-horse or cargo-mule, beast of burden, see 
caballo (1), comp. caballeria (1) ; (2) saddle-beast, see caballeria (1). 

CABALGARES, Chile, belonging to horses. 

CABALLERANGOS, horse -keepers. 

CABALLERIA, (1) saddle-horse or mule, riding-beast, syn. montura (1). 
see caballo (1), cabalgadura (2), comp. cabalgadura (1) ; (2) land measuic 
equal to 60 fanegas or 3863 areas ; c. de tierra, Cuba, 1343 areas, 01 
33-3 acres ; Puerto Rico, 7858 areas ; (3) cobalt glance (Ponce de Leon), 
or smaltite (Ger. Glanzkobalt). 

CABALLERO, spoil-bank, see vaciadero. 

CABALLETE, (1) jack, horse, trestle or frame of sawyers, syn. c. de 
aserrador, c. de aserrar, see burro (2) ; (2) ridge of a house, ridge-beam, 
rafter, syn. asna, costanera ; (3) c. de chimenea, chimrey-top, cow], 
syn. caperuza (2) ; (4) support or saddle of the one-rail system of 
transport ; (5) the standard of a wire ropeway, syn. Bilbao, Sp. burro 



(6), columna (9), pie (7) derecho ; (6) c. de tension, Mex. tension-station 
of cable tram (Dwight) ; (7) bor. shear-legs, tower, derrick, syn. cabria, 
castillete, torre, trucha, equiv. Fr. chevalement, Ger. Bohrgeriist, see 
machina (1) ; (8) c. de molinete, frame of the windlass, see soporte (2) ; 
(9) Mex. horse of rock ; in wide veins caballetes are beds of sterile 
matter separating the bands [cintas (2)] of ore, syn. tabiques (2), see 
caballo (5) ; (10) see u. puente (1). 

CABALLITO, (1) nag or pony ; (2) caballitos, Guan. Mex. men who 
formerly carried the mine captains or others underground in a saddle 
fixed to the shoulders, see u. mandon, comp. carguero (1). 

CABALLO, (1) horse, c. de silla, saddle-horse, see caballeria (1) ; c. de 
carga, packhorse, see cabalgadura (1) ; (2) jack or horse of sawyers, see 
burro (2) ; (3) the horse or thick piece of wood at the end of a rope 
by which men ascend and descend shafts, syn. amigo, comp. barzon ; 
Mex. a kind of lasso in the form of a sling by which men descend or 
ascend shafts one below the other, see bajada (1), u. mandon ; (4) c.m. 
the horse or horseback sometimes replacing portions of coal-seams, 
or mass of rock intercalated with same, parting, equiv. Fr. laye, Ger. 
Bergi-nittel, see nervio (2) ; (5) m.m. the horse, (N. Engl.) rider or mass 
of country sometimes occupying portions of a lode, or splitting it into 
two or more branches, syn. Mex. caballete (9), curia (2), Mex. tabique 
(2), equiv. Fr. coin, Ger. Gebirgskeil ; c. de tepetate, Mex. (syn. Ant. 
Col. c. de pena) mass of " country " or barren rock in a lode or vein, 
see u. meter, comp. banco (3), puerta (5) ; (6) caballos de piedra, Amo- 
lanas, Chile, bash intrusions in quartz-porphyry, barren of ore (copper), 
but which may be regarded as the true ore-carriers (A. Endter) ; (7) Mex. 
miner's candlestick (Dwight), see candeleja ; (8 Mex. cross-course 
(Dwight), see crucero (2) ; (9) Ant. Col. alluv. m. crossed poles, driven 
into the bed of a river, and united by beams and battens, with the 
object of diminishing the force of the current so as to produce smooth 
water in order to allow the divers (buzos mineros) to descend to the 
bottom (Uribe) ; it is a sort of coffer-dam [represa (1) encofrada], see u. 
tapon ; (10) grinding-stone of an arrastre, see voladora (3) ; (11) c. de 
vapor, horse-power, or the force necessary to raise 75 kilogrammes 1 
metre in 1 second, equiv. Fr. cheval-vapeur, Ger. Pferdekraft ; caballo 
hora, h.p. per hour, see u. fuerza. 

CABECEADERO, (1) timb. hitch made for the head [cabeza (1)] of a 
st3mple (estemple), comp. huida (2) ; (2) see u. arranque (2), and funda- 

CABECEAR, (1) timb. to make a hitch, see cabeceadero (1). 

CABECEDO, Mex. obs. end-line of claim (Dwight). 

CABECEIRA, (1) Braz. horizontal portion of the sluice [canoa (2)] used 
by river-washers (Calogeras), comp. bica ; (2) Ouro Preto, Braz. level 
or heading (J. L. Tonkin), see galeria (1). % 

CABECERA, (1) head- waters, source of a river ; (2) capital of a province, 
district or nation, see cabeza (11) ; (3) summit (cima) of a hip or ridge ; 



(4) de cabecera, across the vein, see u. hilo (1) ; (5) heads of copper- 
plates, etc., c. de canalon (2), Ant. Col. the highest or richest part of the 
ground-sluice, comp. cola (6) ; (6) blast, chief of a pare or gang of 
drillers (Acad.), see u. parada (3). 

CABECERO, lintel, see dintel. 

CABECIL, Sant. Sp. timb. cap-piece, see capa (2). 

CABECILLA, Mex. (1) ore coarser than the lama (2), and which is re-ground 
or treated in a bath of molten lead ; polvillo (3) is treated in the same 
way. Cabecilla is used for filling up the small interstices of the arrastre 
bed, when grinding gold ores, which serve to collect the amalgam, and 
are termed therefore criaderos (5) (Ramirez). (2) In the patio process, 
the residue after washing the torta, see u. relave. 

CABEZA (head), (1) timb. upper end or head of a stull (estemple), comp. 
culata (3) ; (2) end of the driving-beam or sweep [espeque (1)] of a 
horse-whim, etc., to which the mules are attached ; (3) mech. head, 
c. en cruz, cross-head, syn. c. en T ; (4) Mex. outcrop, see crestcn ; 

(5) boss of a stamp-head, see calzadura (2) ; (6) trabajo de c., overhand 
stoping, see u. testera (3) and trabajo ; (7) c. de la sonda, bor. stirrup 
or temper screw, syn. estribo (3), equiv. Fr. tete de sonde a vis, Ger. 
Stellschraube ; (8) c. de ingenio, Peru, shaft of a vertical water-wheel 
(Dwight), see eje (2) ; (9) Ant. Col. upper extremity of a placer mine, 
comp. cola (5) ; (10) the principal town of a province, district, etc., syn. 
c. de partido, see cabeceira (2) ; (11) diameter of a column (Velazquez) ; 
(12) c. de la silla, Mex. pommel of a saddle (Velazquez) ; (13) c. de 
monte or sierra, top of a mountain, see cima ; ( 14) c. de mina, entrance 
(entrada) or mouth [boca (2)] of a mine (Ponce de Leon) ; (15) cable 
de c., undergr. haul, main rope, see u. cable (1) ; (16) aguas de c., see 
u. agua (4). 

CABEZADA, (1) the most elevated part of any land, territory or region ; 
(2) Mex. timb. end-piece, see crucero (3). 

CABEZAL, (1) Zac. Mex. timb. end-piece of a shaft- frame, see crucero (3) ; 
(2) Zac. Mex. timb. cap-piece, see capa (4) ; (3) Pachuca, Hid. Mex. 
timb. upper wall-plate of the shaft-frame of an inclined shaft, see lar- 
gueros (2) ; (4) Ant. Col. crown-piece, see u. burro (4) ; (5) Ant. Col. the 
cross-tie of a trestle aqueduct [mampuesto (3)] ; (6) c. de choque, rail, 
buffer-block (Ponce de Leon) ; (7) lintel, see dintel ; (8) see u. ensambladc. 

CABEZO, summit of a hill, see cima. 

CABEZ6N, Ant. Col. (1) the point at which a current of water loses its 
velocity and deposits the material it carries (Uribe) ; (2) part of a 
river forming an inclined plane down which the water runs rapidly 
(Uribe) ; rapids (raudales). 

CABEZOTE, rubble stone, small ashlar (Ponce de Leon), see mampu- 
esto (1). 

CABEZUELA, (1) San Dimas, Dur. Mex. concentrates rich in gold and 
silver, comp. marmaja (2) ; (2) Mex. mineral crushed to less than one- 
quarter of an inch in diameter (Dwight), comp. n. granza (1) 



CABILLA, (1) c. de la ciguena, crank-pin (Ponce de Leon), see bo ton 
(2) ; hierro c., round bar-iron thicker than varilla (6) (Acad.). 

CABILL6N, step of a ladder (Ponce de Leon), see escalon (1). 

CABIO, (1) flooring- joist, see can (1), u. viga ; (2) see cabrios. 

CABIO, lintel of a door, see dintel. 

CABLE, (1) cable, rope, see cabo (2), cuerda (1), gumena, scga, tiro (8); 
(a) cables metalicos, ropes made of metal (iron or steel), (b) cables vege- 
tales, ropes made of vegetable material, as canamo, esparto, (c) cables 
de cuero, see rejo (3) ; c. aereo, see u. via (3) ; c. ajustado, locked coil 
wire -rope ; c. cilindrico, round rope ; c. conico, conical rope ; c. de 
alambre, wire-rope; c. de cabeza (15); main rope (Fr. cable- te te ); 
c. de cola (11), tail-rope (Fr. cable-queue) ; c. de extraction, hoisting 
rope ; c. de porte, Mex. carrying rope ; c. de traction, de motor, movil, 
haulage rope, travelling rope ; c. empatado, spliced rope ; c. piano, 
flat rope ; c. piano de section decreciente, flat rope made of conical 
strands ; c. rastrero, haulage rope ; c. rastrero discontinue, main- and 
tail-rope system (Fr. systeme corde-tete et corde-queue) ; c. rastrero sin 
fin, endless-rope system (Fr. cable sans fin) ; (2) c. electrico, electric 
cable or wires ; (3) cablegram, see cablegrama. 

CABLEAR, to cable. 

CABLEGRAMA, cablegram, syn. cable (3). NOTE. " These two words 
are really barbarisms, and have not received official sanction " (Velaz- 

CABO, (1) helve or handle, see astil (1) ; (2) small rope or cord, see cuerda 
(1); (3) Mex. boss or foreman; cabo de minas, Peru, head foreman, 
see capataz (3) ; (4) Mex. stump of a candle [vela (2)] (Dwight) ; (5) c. 
de pison, Ant. Col. wooden stem or lifter of a stamp, see mango (2) ; 

(6) bomba de c., pump, drawing-lift or bucket-pump, see u. bomba (1) ; 

(7) forebreast, see fronton (1). 

CABOTAJE, coasting trade ; Chile, remittances of metal sent by sea or 

land from one place to another in the country (i.e., not exported). 
CABRESTANTE, capstan or vertical windlass, syn. argue, see u. malacate 

(2), comp. torno (2). 
CABRIA, (1) axle-tree, see torno (1) ; (2) windlass, see torno (2) ; 

(3) bor. shear-legs, see caballete (7). 

CABRIAL, (1) obs. beam, see viga ; (2) charter (Ponce de Leon). 
CABRIOS, CABRIOLES, b. constr. inside rafters of a roof, syn. cabics 

(2), contrapares, see viga, comp. correa (4), par (1). 
CABRION, rail, chock, wedge, skid (Ponce de Leon). 
CABUJ6N, rough unpolished ruby (Velazquez), see rubi (1). 
CABULLA (or cabuya), Span. Am. (1) American aloe, see agave (1) ; 

(2) fibre of (1) or sisal hemp, syn. henequen (2), comp. abaca (2) ; 

(3) cord [cuerda (1)] or rope made of (2) ; in Mexico cabuya is used 
in making cinchones (for cargoes), cinchas (for tying enjalmas), 
lassoes, etc. The cinchon and the rope attached to it is called sobre- 
carga ; (4) dar c., S. Am. to tie (amarrar). 



CACAXTLE, Mex. wooden frames for carrying things on the shoulders 

CACAXTLERO, Mex. Indian who carries merchandise, etc., in cacaxtles 

CACER6N, see casaron. 

CACHANI! seeabajo! 

CACHETEAR, Mex. to loosen a gad by striking it alternately on each 
side (D wight). 

CACHI, (1) Potosi, Bol. chalybite, siderite or spathic iron, see siderosa ; it 
occurs in crystals, needles, etc., and sometimes augurs well for the presence 
of rich fahlerz (M. Roberts) ; (2) Peru, a " quechua " word, meaning salt ; 
also applied to all kinds of white gangue rocks (Dwight) ; a kind of ala- 
baster (Ponce de Leon) ; Chaiiarcillo, Chile, white calcareous spar a bed 
of this, a few inches thick, occurs in the third limestone (Henwood). 

CACHIMBA, Sinai. Mex. miner's oil-lamp, see candil. NOTE. Cuba, a 
smoking pipe (Velazquez). 

CACHO, (Span. Am. horn), Ant. Col. (1) a piece of horn in which the allu- 
vial miners (lavadores) collect the gold ; (2) caches, a pair of convex 
tools of wood, 9 to 10 inches long, and about 5 inches wide ; with these 
the alluvial miner, holding one in each hand, extracts sand, earth, and 
small stones from the alluvion, ditches, etc., syn. c. de bateador, see 
panar ; (3) mina de c., a placer in which the stones are sufficiently 
small to be extracted by hand, or in caches (2). 

CACHOEIRA, Port, waterfall, see salto (3). 

CACHORROS, Peru, blast, small drills, used together with wedges, in 
bringing down the vein in the operation known as llauca, see barrena (2). 

CACHUCHA, Mex. miner's cap (Dwight), see vestido. 

CACHUCO, Peru and Chile, a wrought-iron tank, 20 feet long, 6 feet wide, 
and 6 feet high, in which caliche (1) was evaporated directly by steam 
the dissolved liquid passed to the chullador, see estanque (3). 

CACHUPIN, see gachupin. 

CACIQUE, (1) name given to aboriginal American chief, prince, or noble- 
man ; (2) caciques, human figures made of burnt clay or gold found in 
the Indian guacas (1). 

CACO, Braz. a white and sugary quartz (cuarzo) ; at Morro Velho mine 
" an exceedingly hard, jaspery mixture of carbonate and quartz, 
banded black and white, and comparatively free from sulphides, which 
envelops the mass of structureless ore " (0. A. Derby). 

CADENA, (Port, cadeia), (1) chain ; c. de enganche, coupling chain, 
c. flotante, c. sin fin, endless chain (Fr. chaine flotante) ; (2) cac!er]5, 
Mex. pump-rods, see tirante (3) ; (3) any jointed frame for supporting 
the lining of a well, etc. ; cadenas, Zac. Fresnillo and Pachuca, Mex. 
timb. pieces which are set vertically in order to sustain frames [anillos 
(3)] interrupted in plats and in re-timbering old workings (Luis Carrion), 
syn. Guan. puntales (5) ; (4) c. de montanas (Port, cadeia demontanhas), 
chain of mountains, see cordillera (6); (5) seesuppl. ; (6) c. de cangilones 



(2), chain-pump, see bomba (1) ; (7) boom of floating timber in rivers, 
etc. ; (8) mortise (Velazquez), see muesca (1) ; (9) buttress of hewn 
stone (silleria) for strengthening a wall, see contrafuerte (1) ; 
( 10) c. de rocas, ledge or ridge of rocks. 

CADENERO, surv. chaimnan. 

CADINHO, Braz. crucible, etc., see crisol (1). 

CADMIA, (1) electric calamine, see calamina (1) ; (2) tutty, impure 
oxide of zinc, collected from a furnace, or a crucible (Velazquez), see 

CADO, top. deep bend of a river (Ponce de Leon). 

CADOSO, top. deep part of a river, where the water is stagnant (Acad.), 
see remanso. 

CADUCACI6N, expiration of rights in a claim, etc., by lapse of time. 

CADUCAR, Mex. to forfeit a title through non-compliance with the stipu- 
lations contained therein (Dwight). 

CADUCIDAD, Mex. the act of forfeiting a title, loss of mining property. 
In Mexico the default of payment of the tax constitutes the only loss. 

CAER DE CRUZ, Mex. the beginning of the action of the quicksilver in 
the process of amalgamation (Dwight). 

CAGAFIERRO, scoria, dross of iron, syn. moco (1), see escoria (2). 

CAGUI, Ant. Col. large tree, the wood of which is used for timbering 
shafts, etc. 

CAIDA, (1) fall or lift of a hammer, see carrera (5) ; gold mill, drop (of 
stamps), syn. golpe (4) ; (2) caida libre, see junta (5) ; (3) waterfall, 
see salto (3) ; (4) head of water (Lucas), see u. altura ; (5) geol. land- 
slip, see derrumbe (2). 

CAIDOS, Mex. ground that has fallen, or has caved in, a " run," see 
derrumbe (1). 

CAILLAPOS, Hualgayoc, Peru, timb. polings used in lagging from 3 m. 
in length and O'l m. in diameter (Santolalla), see revestimiento ; are 
used also for covering stulls. 

CAIMAN (alligator), (1) Sinai. Mex. shoot for ore, see paso (2) ; (2) Mex. 
mech. stilson wrench (Dwight) ; (3) caiman-rana, see u. suiche. 

CAJA (box or case), (1) body of a wheelbarrow, etc., see cajon (1) ; (2) 
wooden cistern (see u. achichador), any cistern or tank, see estanque 

(3) ; (3) c. de agua, sump, well or lodge at the bottom of shaft, syn. 
caja del tiro, camara (10) de agua, deposito (2) para agua, plan (3) del 
tiro, recipiente, sumidero, Peru, tintero, Almaden, Sp. torno (5), equiv. 
Fr. puisard, Ger. Gesenk, Sumpf, see caldera (5), campana (3), pocillo (3) ; 

(4) c. de valvula, pump, door-piece of a drawing-lift, clack-piece, syn. 
camara (6), capilla, see registro (4), see bomba (1) ; c. de distribution, 
valve-chest, see distribuidor (3) ; (5) c. de estopas, stuffing-box of a plunger - 
pump, sj/tt. prensaestopas, -see'bDmba (1) u. capillo ; (6) hoist, bucket or 
kibble, see tonel (2) ; c. de agua con valvulas, water-barrel ; (7) c. de 
extraction, hoist, cage, see jaula (3) ; cajas guiadas, cages in guides 
(8) c. de sebo or grasa, transp. grease-box of a wagon ; c. de aceite, oil- 



box, oil-cup ; c. de compression, dash-pot (Fr. boite a compression) ; 
(9) c. del pozo, Cataluiia, Sp. cutting-ring, see corona (2) ; (10) Mex. 
housing of crusher (Dwight); (11) Mex. met. water-jacket; c. chica, 
furnace-tap jacket ; c. fundida or quemada, burnt-out furnace-jacket 
(Dwight) ; (12) see mechinales (2) ; (13) wall of a vein, see respaldo ; 
(14) encasement of a deposit, its entire filling or width between walls 
or between roof and floor (Molina), see relleno (4) ; (15) c. del criadero, 
rocade c., " country rock," seeroca. (4) ; (16) c. real, treasury (tesoreria) ; 
Cajas Provinciales, Mex. obs. Provincial Treasuries, the King's Fifth 
(quinto) was paid into these ; (17) c. de musgo, moss-box of Kind and 
Chaudron's system of tubbing ; (18) c. de limpia, Huitzuco, Guerr. 
Mex. low-grade quicksilver ores packed underground, and walled round 
with deads (tecoral), see u. limpia (2) ; (19) cash ; libro de c., cash-book ; 
(20) c. de aire, c. de ventilation, vent, air-box or pipe, (Derb) fang, see 
huaira (2), comp. cano (2) ; (21) c. aleman, mech. prep. German 
chest, a kind of buddle, see cajon (5) ; any kind of strake or tye ; (22) c. 
de fuego, st. eng. firebox, see hogar (2) ; (23) c. de rueda, bucket (of 
a water-wheel), see aguador (3), comp. cangilon (2) ; (24) c. de vapor, 

steam dome (Ponce de Leon), see u. cupula ; (25) mortise, see muesca 

(1) ; (26) case of a balance [balanza (3)] or steelyard [romana (1)] in 

which the needle or pivot (fiel) enters when the weight is in equilibrium 

(Acad.), syn. alcoba. 

CAJERA, mech. socket, journal bearing (Dwight), see chumacera. 
CAJERO, cashier, cash-keeper. 

CAJETE, Mex. walled receiver for the ground slimes, see lamero (3). 
CAJ6N (box or chest), (1) body of a wheelbarrow [carreta (2)], wagon 

[carro (2)], etc., syn. caja (1), see cama (1) ; (2) 

hand-barrow, see carreta (2) ; (3) mech. prep, hutch 

of a jigger (see tinanco), mortar of a stamp ; (4) c. de 

punta, mech. prep, pointed box ; (5) c. aleman, 

c. cernidor (2), mech. prep. German buddle, syn. 

caja (21), lavadero de c., Ant. Col. molino (3) ; 

in patio process, a rectangular box 3^ m. long, 

0'65 m. wide, and 0'25 m. deep for washing the 

scrapings (raspaduras) from an arrastre (Ramirez) ; 

(6) c. inclinado, mech. prep, inclined table ; (7) c. 

de granza, Mex. a pit to receive crushed ore 

(Lyon) ; (8) c. eng. crib, caisson (Velazquez) ; 

(9) a measure of ore ; in Bolivia 50 quintales, FIG. 10. Trozos de 

in Peru 60 q., in Chile 64 q. One marco of gold corona 6 P r .i es 

per cajon of ore = 2 ozs. 14 dwts. 10 grns. per (18) (after Moncada) ' 

ton. (10) Vetade c., Ant. Col. a more or less ' c udrV 5' 

vertical lode or one that dips from 45 to 90 ; fundamental ; rf, ban- 
(11) Zac. Fresnillo and Pachuca, Mex. the ^^ 2) 6 saliente 
first portion (tramo) of timbering sustaining the 
walls of a shaft, comp. forro (2) ; (12) Mex. dry-goods store ; (13) 



Zancudo mine, Ant. Col. a clayey material which forms the contact 
between the coal formation and hornblendic schists (Gamba) ; (14) c. 
del tiro, Mex. shaft compartment (Dwight), see compartimiento (1) ; 
(15) shoot for ore, see paso (2) ; (16) drain ; (17) see forro (2) ; (18) por 
cajones (or por trozos de corona), method of taking down the founda- 
tion rock [banqueta (2)] below the wedging curb [rodete (3)], when the 
solidity of the rock is questionable, see Fig. 19 ; (19) portion of a wall 
between buttresses, etc. (Acad.). 

CAJONERO, Mex. (1) shaft's mouth (Lyon), see boca (2) ; (2) lander or 
banksman (c. exterior), see amainador ; (3) man in charge of a mala- 
cate (1). 

CAL, (1) lime, c. apagada or muerta, slaked lime ; c. viva, quick or un- 
slaked lime ; pared de c. y canto, wall of rough stone and mortar, see 
cal y canto ; ahogar la c., to slake lime ; (2) piedra de c., c. en piedra, 
chalk or limestone ; (3) c. de estano, calx of tin (i.e., oxide of tin). 

CALA, see u. cata. 

CALABAZA, see guaje. 

CALABROTE, see u. esparto ; c. del malacate, whim-rope (Ponce de Leon). 

CAL ADO, draught of vessels. 

CALADORA, see u.- pena (4). 


CALAMACO, Mex. large piece of rock difficult to break up (Dwight), syn. 
calavera (skuli). 

CALAMINA, (1) (U.S.A.) calamine, (G. Brit.) electric calamine, syn. c. 
silicea, piedra calaminar, cadmia ; (2) (U.S.A.) smithsonite, (G. Brit.) 
calamine, syn. c. blanca ; (3) Peru, zinc roofing ; smelted zinc. 

CALAMITA, (1) obs. loadstone, see iman (1) ; (2) compass-needle, see 
bnijula (1) ; (3) siderite or spathic iron (Ponce de Leon), see siderosa. 

CALAVERA, see calamaco. 

CALAR, (1) to pierce, penetrate ; (2) mech. to wedge, see acunar ; 
(3) to draw r (of vessels), see calado. 

CALAR, adj. calcareous, see calizo, za. 

CALCAR, to take a copy of a drawing ; to trace, see trazar (1). 

CALCE, (1) tire of a wheel, see llanta (1) ; (2) piece of iron or steel added 
to drills, picks, etc., when they are worn ; (3) a wedge, see cuna (1). 

CALCEDONIA, chalcedony ; piedra de mcco is a very transparent variety 
of a white colour with black or brown spots in the form of plants = 
mocha-stone or moss-agate, see cuarzo. 

CALCIN, Mex. roasting furnace (Dwight), see u. horno (2). 

CALCINA, concrete, see hormigon. 

CALCINACION, calcination, see chamuscar, quema (2), reverberation, 
torrefaccion (1) ; comp. desecacion, tueste ; c. en pilar al aire litre, 
roasting in heaps (Ponce de Leon). 

CALCINAR, (l)to burn limestone,' etc., reducing it to quicklime ; (2) to 
calcine, syn. quemar"(2), see tases, r corap. tostar. 



CALCO, a tracing, see calcar. 

CALDEAR, (1) to weld iron ; (2) to heat (a furnace) ; (3) to glow with 

heat ; (4) caldearse, una veta se caldea al respaldo, a vein is frozen (lit. 

welded) to the wall ; veta caldeada, see u. veta (1), 
CALDEIRA, see caldera (2). 
CALDEIRAO, CALDEIRdES, Braz. (1) large masses of alluvial gold 

(J. A. Phillips), see pepita ; (2) large pot-holes in river-beds filled 

with diamantiferous cascalho (Port, large kettles). 
CALDERA, (1) caldron or kettle, see caldero (1), calderon, cazo (1) ; 

(2) c. de vapor, boiler, steam-boiler, syn. paila (2) de vapor, equiv. 
Port, caldeira ; c. de hogar interior, Cornish boiler, c. tubular, tubular 
boiler, see vaporizador ; see u. asiento (8), durmiente (3) ; (3) Zac. 
Mex. common iron pyrites, see pirita ; (4) a winze, syn. Linares, 
Sp. calderilla, see clavada ; (5) the bottom or sump of a shaft or well, 
syn. fondo (3), comp. boca (2), costados. NOTE. The sump or well at 
the bottom of a shaft = caja (3) de agua or pocillo (3), but the word 
caldera is often used synonymously with either ; trabajo or labor a 
caldera, sinking proper as distinguished from rising (trabajo or labor a 
cielo) ; (6) Teneriffe, crater of a volcano (Humboldt). 

CALDERILLA, winze, see u. caldera (4), clavada. 

CALDERERO, (1) brazier, coppersmith, blacksmith ; (2) tinker ; (3) one 

in charge of a boiler ; (4) Mex. boiler-maker, syn. calderista (Dwight). 
CALDERISTA, see calderero (4). 
CALDERO, (1) caldron in the form of a bucket, see caldera (1) ; (2) wrought- 

iron kibble, see tonel (2) ; (3) c. de salinas, salt-pan. 
CALDER6N, large caldron or kettle, see caldera (1). 
CALECERO (calesero), Mex. man who rides on hoisting-cage and gives 

the signal (Dwight). 
CALENTADURA, (1) Mex. the first cake beneficiated in the furnace 

[horno (2)], (Gamboa, 1761), [comp. descarga (2)] ; hence, (2) Mex. 

putting a furnace into blast, or the first heating of the furnace this 

may occupy the first two or three days of a campaign, comp. descarga 

(5) ; (3) mech. heating (of grease-box, brake-shoe, etc.) (Ponce de 

CALENTAR, to heat ; c. los cuerpos (2), Peru, the turning yellow of 

mercury in patio amalgamation (Dwight) ; c. un horno, to put a 

furnace into blast, to blow in a furnace, see calentadura (2), u. dar and 

horno (2). 
CALENTURA, Mex. an excess of chemical activity in the patio process 

the rapid formation of mercurous chloride due to an excess of cuprous 

sulphate, see u. torta. 
CALERA, (1) lime-pit or deposit; (2) lime-kiln, see u. horno (1) ; 

(3) receptacle in which wood is burnt for charcoal [carbon (1)] 

(4) caleras, see tases. 

CALERO, RA, adj. calcareous, see calizo, za. 



CALERO, (1) man who extracts the stone for making lime ; lime-burner ; 

(2) Mex. roaster-man (Dwight). 

CALESA, Mex. bucket for ore or water (Dwight), see cubo (1). 

CALESERO, see calecero. 

CALHAU, CALHAO, Port, flint-stone, pebble, see guija (1). 

CALIBRADOR, bor. tool for equalising the sides of the borehole. 

CALICANTO, see cal y canto. 

CALICATA, (1) see u. cata (4) ; (2) trench (Gillman), see zanja (1). 

CALICHAL, Mex. second-class silver ore (carrying from 150 to 1000 ounces 
per ton) (Dwight) ; Pachuca, Hid. best or first-class ore separated in the 
mine, the second class being known as azogues. 

CALICHE, (1) Peru and Chile, impure native nitrate of soda or a saline 
material, composed principally 'of nitrate of soda, common salt, salts 
of magnesia and various sulphates, among them gypsum, mixed, more 
or less, with earth. In Chile it is not found on the surface of the plains, 
but is covered by two layers, (a) chuca, or light surface soil from a few 
inches to several feet thick, and (6) costra, salt with lime and magnesian 
earthy matters and fragments of stone, sometimes conglomeratic, but 
may be missing altogether. Caliche may be from a few inches to 20 feet 
thick ; 5 feet is a good working average. Below the caliche is cova, 
a loose, sandy, gravelly soil. Average caliche contains 35 per cent, 
nitrate, the best 75 per cent. ; huesudo has hard masses of lime in it ; 
jaboncillo has streaks of lime running through it ; macizo is hard milky 
white, chrome yellow or blue (sulphate of copper) ; negro has a dark 
colour and close texture ; poroso is soft, whitish and sometimes granular ; 
uchanachacado is the more common variety, with dark brown tinge, 
and granular surface ; Arg. in the salt-marshes [salinas (3) grandes] 
boracic nodules [papas (2)] are sometimes cemented together by, and 
impregnated with, a hard material called caliche by the workmen ; 
this consists largely of sodium nitrate, gypsum, glauberite, pickeringite, 
and rock-salt (H. Buttgenbach) ; (2) Uco, Peru, a thin layer of clayey 
soil capping auriferous veins ; Chile, whitish clay in the selvage of 
veins (Dwight) ; Durango, Mex. white decomposed clay, see arcilla ; 

(3) Mex. felspar, see calichosc, sa (2) ; (4) Guan. Mex. a compact tran- 
sition limestone (Dahlgren), comp. frijolillo ; calcite (see u. esparto) ; 
calcareous tufa or travertine, or snow-white carbonate of lime covering 
basin-deserts ; Mex. and S. Arizona, U.S.A. : " A calcareous formation 
of considerable thickness and volume found a few inches, or a few feet, 
beneath the surface soil, upon the broad, dry, gravelly plains and mesas. 
It is practically a continuous sheet, from 3 to 15 feet thick, of earthy 
limestone or travertine, through which the smaller plant-roots find 
their way with difficulty. The formation is clearly the result of the 
upward capillary flow of calcareous water, induced by constant and 
rapid erosion at the surface in a comparatively rainless region " (W. P. 
Blake) ; syn. tepetate (6), tierra blanca, see toba (2), ccmp. adobe (3) ; 
(5) Ant. Col. a mineral vein, recently discovered : " Me encontre un 

65 E 


caliche " (Uribe) ; (6) Ant. Col. decomposed calcareous quartz (Uribe) ; 
(7) c. negro, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, miners' name for rich sulpho-arsenides 
and sulphides of copper ; (8) Col. alluv. m. a bank composed of clay, 
sand, pebbles and small boulders indiscriminately mixed and roughly 
stratified, usually in four layers top, yellow ; second, white or grey ; 
third, red; and bottom, blue. The cinta( 3) generally occurs in the last, 
but may be a few inches from surface. Caliche gold is very fine and 
flaky (C. Bullman). 

CALICHERA, Chile, deposit of caliche (1). 

CALICHERO, RA, adj. relating to caliche (1) ; carro calichero, nitrate 

CALICHOSO, SA, adj. calcareous, see calizo, za ; (2) felspathic ; metal 
calichoso, felspathic ore. 

CALIDO, DA, adj. hot ; minerales or metales calidos, Chile, silver ores 
consisting of silver, native or combined with mercury, as arquerite, 
amalgam, etc., chloride, bromide, iodide and sulphide of silver, fit for 
amalgamation by the Tina process ; when chlorides predominate, 
forming a grey and ochreous earth = pacos (2), when malachite or 
azurite predominates = colorados (2), comp. u. calientes, frio, ia (2), 
metales de cazo [u. cazo (4)]. 

CALIENTE, adj. warm, hot, see u, curtir, torta. 

CALIENTES, Mex. silver ores, generally colorados (1), with some sulphate 
of iron, the result of decomposition (Hermosa), comp. u. calido, da, frios. 

CALIZA, limestone, syn. cal en piedra, piedra de cal ; c. carbonifera, 
carboniferous limestone ; c. fetida, stinkstone or anthraconite ; c. 
hidraulica, limestone which yields hydraulic lime on burning ; for other 
varieties, see calon, u. cantera, cebo (7), conchifera, lechecilla, u. manto 
(1), mesa (9), u. piedra, tabaire, tajon, tenestal, tiatales. 

CALIZO, ZA, adj. calcareous, syn. calar, calero, ra, calichoso, sa. 

CALLANA, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, a government smelting-house or mint 
(Tschudi), see u. casa. 

CALLAO, pebble, see guija (1). 

CALLAPOS, Peru, rude wooden steps at the mouth of a mine (Dwight). 

CALLEJ6N, (1) long narrow lane between two walls, see carrera (3) ; 
(2) narrow pass between mountains (Velazquez), see paso (4) ; (3) c.m. 
narrow space or bay between pack-walls. 

CALOCAR, kind of white earth or clay (arcilla). 

CAL6N, Huelva, Sp. sandstone (arenisca) or limestone (caliza), impreg- 
nated with oxide of iron (Molina). 

CALOR DE FRfO, Mex. in the patio process, the steam caused by the 
difference between the heat of the pile and the air (T. Egleston). 

CALORIA, Fr. calorie, or the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kil. of 
water from to 1 C. 

CALORIFERO, vertical tabular boiler used in Piccard's method of obtain- 
ing salt (Molina), see cyclogeno, extractor, obturador, recalentador, 
vaporizador ; c. de vapor, kind of stove with tubular boiler. 




CALVERO, see gredal. 

CAL Y CANTO (lime and stone), (1) Mex. rubble masonry, syn. calicanto, 
mamposteria (1); (2) (calicanto), Chuquibamba, Peru, auriferous con- 
glomerate (Dwight), see conglomerado. 

CALZA, shim, liner (Dwight) ; stone for scotching a wheel. 

CALZADA, causeway, a paved highway ; high road ; ballasted road. 

CALZADERA, hempen cord, see canamo (2). 

CALZADURA, (1) wooden tire of a wheel (llantas orpinas de madera) ; 
(2) stamp-head, i.e., including boss (cabeza) and shoe (zapato), syn. 
Mex. mano (4), maza (1), mazo (3), mortero (1), see almadaneta (1), 
u. molino (1), pilon (4), pison (2). 

CALZAR, (1) to strengthen with iron or wood ; (2) to scot or scotch a 
wheel, see u. calza ; (3) Mex. to sheathe or face with metal (Dwight) ; 
(4) to shim ; to tamp (Dwight) ; (5) c. con zoquetes (1), timb. to 
sprag (Ponce de Leon). 

CAMA, (1) floor of a cart, syn. lecho (5), see cajon (1) ; (2) felloe of a cart- 
wheel, see pina (2) ; (3) cam, cog, catch, tooth, see leva (1), paleta (5), 
sobarbo (1) ; c. del bocarte, cam of a stamp, syn. alabe (2), lengua (3), 
tope (2). turrion (3), una (2), equiv. Fr. came, Ger. Hebling, ccmp. diente 

(1) and (2), triangulo ; (4) bed-plate, base, see u. asiento (8) ; (5) geol. 
layer, stratum, see capa (1) ; (6) Pachuca, Hid. Mex. timb. a stull or 
bunding, see camada (3) ; (7) camas, Mex. lagging in the roof of a 
gallery, see encamadas, u. retacar ; (8) Arg. gold-mill, plates, see planch a 

(2) ; (9) mech. prep, filtering bed or " bedding " used in certain jigs, 
syn. fondo de granza or tamiz, equiv. Fr. fond filtrant. 

CAMADA, (1) geol. bed or stratum, see capa (1) ; (2) mas. bed, layer or 
course (Ponce de Leon), syn. boquilla (4), capa (3), carrera (6), hilada, 
hllera (1), mampuesta (I), see banco (8) ; (3) c. de madera, timb. plat- 
form, stull, sollar or bunding, syn. Pachuca, Hid. Mex. cama (6), Linares, 
Sp. fajado (2), plataforma (1), piso (5) de madera, Mex. tapestle (1), 
equiv. Ger. Kastenzimmerung ; see also cobija (2), encajonamiento, 
encamacion (2), tabladillo (1), tablero (2), tarango, taranguela, tinqueria, 
zarzo (2), comp. descanso (1). NOTE. In Spain, strictly speaking, a 
sollar formed of stemples only, with other timbers crosswise on them = 
encamacion (2). 

CAMARA (hall or chamber), (1) c. para el torno, plat for windlass, see 
concava ; (2) ore-shoot or chamber deposit, see clavo (2) ; (3) camaras 
de condensation, met. condensing chambers ; (4) blast, chamber at the 
bottom of a borehole ; (5) large chamber in a mine, syn. grandes camaras 
or anchurones, see u. labor (3) ; (6) camaras, chambers of a pump, see 
caja (4) ; (7) c. de equilibrio, equilibrium chamber of Triger's method of 
sinking against water, etc. ; (8) cierre de pozo de extraction por camaras, 
a chimney provided with sliding-doors at the unloading (Molina), comp. 
compuerta (3) ; (9) st. eng. steam-chest, syn. caja (4) de vapor ; (10) c. 
de agua, sump, see caja (3) ; (11) c. de los hornos, st. eng. stokehole 
(Ponce de Leon) ; (12) camaras Braz. municipal councillors (Henwood). 



CAMARTELLO, Port, quarryman's hammer (Elwes), see martillo. 
CAMBIADOR DE AGUJA, pointsman, syn. cambiavia (3), Span. Am. 


CAMBIAMANO, rail, switch, see cambio (1). 
CAMBIAR, Mex. to switch (Dwight). 

CAMBIAVIA, (1) switch, see cambio (1) ; (2) Mex. turntable (Dwight), 
see u. placa ; (3) man who operates switch (Dwight), see cambiador de 

CAMBIO, (1) transp. switch or movable rails which connect one line 

with another, syn. agujas (5), cambiamano, cambiavia (1), Cuba,chucho, 

Col. suiche, varilla (2), equiv. Fr. aiguille, aiguilles, or rails mobiles, 

Ger. Weiche, see abanico (2), corazon (2) and (3) ; (2) c. de via, transp. 

siding, see desvio (2) ; (3) com. exchange, rate of .exchange, see curso 

(4), comp. bolsa (5) ; (4) alteration, change ; c. de naturaleza, \ ariation 

in the quantity and class of material forming the sediment of a deposit ; 

c. de potencia, change in the thickness of a deposit. 

CAMELL6N, carpenter's horse, see burro (2). 

CAMILLA, small bed, cot or stretcher, see parihuela (2) ; c. gotera, stretcher 

provided with a metallic support for the whole body. 
CAMILLEROS, stretcher-carriers. 

CAMINO, (1) road, syn. via (1) ; c. carretero, road for carriages and 
wagons ; c. de fuerza de sangre, barrow road or horse road ; c. de 
herradura, path (senda), bridle road ; c. real, high road ; c. de hierro or 
via ferrea, railway, railroad (ferrocarril) ; c. de rieles, track ; see callejon 
(1), carrera (1), (2) and (3), carretera, carril (2), rurnto (2) ; (2) drift 
or gate ; any gallery or shaft used for general transit, see galeria (1), 
pozo (2) ; (3) caminos (Mex.), costales or ore-sacks (Gamboa, 1761). 
CAMISA (shirt), (1) st. eng. jacket, case, casing ; c. de agua, met. water- 
jacket, see chaqueta ; c. de caldera, boiler- jacket ; c. de cilindro, steam- 
jacket, see cubierta (1) ; (2) internal refractory lining of a furnace 
[horno (2)] ; (3) c. de bronce, thin lining of bronze in pumps (Molina) ; 
(4) Cabeza de Vaca, Sp. a provisional dam against fire, made of boards 
nailed against a timber sst (Molina), see cerramiento ; (5) see capa (4). 
CAM6N (large bed), (1) frame of canes or laths for forming the arch (arco) 
known as boveda encamonada or fingida (Acad.), ccmp. cimbria (1); 
(2) each of the curved pieces or segments composing the double rim or 
periphery of a water-wheel, see anillo (6) ; segment or section of the 
crown-wheel [corona (3)] of a Chilian mill, etc., comp. pina (2) ; (3) 
camones, thick pieces of evergreen oak (encina), used as a tire on cart- 
wheels (Acad.) ; iron tire of mill-wheel (Dwight), see llanta ; (4) Mex. 
in patio process, a duct leading from the torta to the lavadero (3) ; (5) 
camones, Mex. pine-boards forming the sides of an arrastre (3), syn. 
duelas ; (6) camones, Mex. oak-boards, 0*305 m. wide, 0*051 m. thick, 
and T829 m. long used for dragging (by means of horses or mules) the 
lama to the patio (Bol. del I. G. de M.). 



CAMPANA (bell), (1) piedra de c., clinkstone or phonolite ; (2) c. de aire, 
Mex. pump, air-vessel, see deposito (7) ; (3) bottom of a we'l made in 
the form of a bell, see caja (3) ; (4) see capellina ; (5) Mex. adobe hood 
of a cupella* ion furnace [vaso (26)]; (6) valvula de c., double -beat valve, 
see bomba (1) ; (7) c. de valvula, bor. ball-valve sludger, equiv. Fr. 
cloche a boulet ; (8) c. de tuerca, screw-bell, equiv. Fr. cloche a vis, 
cloche a ecrou, Ger. Falsschraube ; (9) bell-shaped cave produced 
in hard rocks, comp. embudo (3), revenimiento ; (10) c. pneumatica, an 
improved form of Harz blower, see u. ventilador ; (11) Ant. Col. 
alluv. m. in minas de saca (3), unmineralised ground which remains 
after it is levelled up [asentado, see asentar (1)]; (12) c. de chimenea, 
flue, see humero. 
CAMPANA, (1) campaign, level country, see llano ; (2) met. campaign ; 

(3) working shift (Ponce de Leon), see relevo. 
CAMPANELA, Mex. upper drill-hole (Dwight), see barreno (1). 
CAMPANERO, Mex. bellman or station tender (Dwight). 
CAMPANIL, adj. metal c., bell -metal, see bronce (1). 
CAMPANIL, Bilbao, Sp. hematite of a reddish colour, fairly compact, 
and presenting very frequently the characteristic fracture of siderite 
(J. D. Kendall). " Red hematite of a purple colour, with beautiful 
rhombohedrons of spathic iron, less ferriferous but less silicious and 
less hydrated than the other varieties. It is at the base of the forma- 
tion, and intercalated between two limestone beds" (Goupilliere). See 
hematita, comp. rubio, vena (2) ; c. avenado, intermediate ore (Molina). 
CAMPERO, (1) tribute, see campista ; (2) the fireman in charge of 

campos (2) (Dwight). 

CAMPISTA, (1) tribut3r, syn. buscon (2), campero (1), campo (2), 
gambucino (2), Chile, pirquinero, equiv. Ger. Halthauer, Lehnhauer, 
comp. destajero. 

CAMPO (country, field or ground), (1) Mex. a pitch, a working in posses- 
sion of buscones, or allotted to the proprietors or others (M. J. Gloss.), 
a tribute-pitch, equiv. Fr. limite de la tache, Ger. Arbeitsgrenze ; (2) 
tributer, see carnpista ; at Pachuca and Real del Monte, Hid. Mex., 
it is customary on Saturdays and Sundays, when the miners do not 
work, for the campos to enter and work for forty-eight hours ; they 
are paid one-eighth in ore [see u. partido (3)] ; (3) c. de labor (a), any 
long and wide working, see tajo (4) ; (4) c. de labor (b), cuartel or 
compartimientos, sections of work formed by main roads and cross or 
diagonal ones (Molina) ; (5) c. de explotacion, in a deposit worked 
by two shafts = half the distance separating the shafts in direc- 
tion and inclination (Molina) ; (6) Mex. mining camp, see real (1) ; 
(7) campos, Braz. undulating tableland and low rounded hills, 
between 2000 and 3000 feet above the sea (Kenwood), see capoes, 
comp. meseta (2). 



CAN, (1) canes, Ant. Col. cross-sills or joists on which the flooring rests, 
e.g., 11 feet X 5 inches X 5 inches, see cabio, u. viga ; (2) arch, 
bracket or modillion, shoulder-piece or corbel, comp. repisa. 

CANA, (1) cane or reed ; c. dulce, sugar-cane ; c. brava, bamboo ; (2) 
mine gallery ; Huelva, Sp. a gallery 2 m. wide and 2 m. high (Molina), 
see galeria ; (3) blast, borehole, see barreno (1) ; (4) Poza salt mines, 
Burgos, Sp. a shaft [pozo (2)] O84 in. square, lagged or lined with 
planks (Molina). 

CANADA, Port, a measure = -307 gal., at Pernambuco = 1*357 gal. 

CANADA, (1) glen or dale between hills ; glade, comp. arroyo (2), barranca 
(2) ; (2) Span. Am. stream or current of water with a narrower bed than 
a quebrada (5), and which disappears completely in the dry season 
(F. de P. Muiioz), comp. amagamiento. 

CANAHUATE, Col. a species of lignum-vitae, comp. guayacan. 

CANAL, (1) any artificial gutter, channel, drain or leat, see acequia ; 
Mex. waterspout for the tina (G. F. Lyon) ; (2) c. del oro, gold-tearing 
channel, see cascajo (6) ; (3) c. de polea, the groove of a pulley or sheave, 
see garganta ; (4) hydr. m. sluice, see canalon (3) ; ground-sluice, see 
canalon (2) ; (5) flume, seecaz ; (6) canales, Ant. Col. alluv. m. channels 
or flutings (estrias), formed originally in the solid beds (lechos) of rivers, 
by the friction of water, or by the sand or rocks which they carry 

(Uribe) ; (7) canal or artificia 1 watercourse ; (8) c. de humo, Mex. 
flue (Dwight), see humero ; (9) canales superpuestos, the name given 
by Molina to the spout o the Newcastle coal district ; (10) hemp 
(canamo) which has been once hackled (Velazquez), comp. cerro (3) ; 
(11) channel or bed of a river, see alveo ; (12) tel. pole of copper 
(Velazquez) ; (13) canales, Cartagena, Sp. deposits of manganiferous 
oxide of iron, formed by filling of crevices (grietas) in limestone and 
conformable to its stratification (Moncada) ; (14) Cartagena, Sp. 
name sometimes given to true lodes, see filon, veta (1) ; (15) long and 
narrow plain between two parallel mountains (Acad.), see llano. 

CANALEJA, (1) Mex. timb. lower wall-plate of the frame of an inclined 
shaft, see u. marco (2) ; (2) see u. ensamblado ; (3) Arg. inclined bed 
of a lavadero (3), or gold- washing apparatus. 

CANALEJO, leat (Ponce de Leon), see acequia. 

CANALETE, small spout or gutter, see canal (1), canalon (1). 

CANALIZO, vent, outside opening or narrow channel of a fan leading 
to the stack, comp. oido (2). 

CANAL6N, (1) large gutter or spout, syn. canal (1), canalete, canelon ; 
(2) Ant. Col. ground-sluice used in native gold washings, or the place 
where the sands are collected for separating them from the gold, syn. 
canal (4) para lavar oro, see cabecera (5), chocar, demas (1), u. grueso 
(4), mangar, mazamorra (2), plan (3), u. tapon (3), u. tonga ; (3) Col. 
hydr. m. sluice, syn. canal (4) esclusa, tragante (1), equiv. Fr. lavoir a 
couloir, Braz. bolinete, comp. ingenio (4) ; (4) Col. gold-mill, channel 



forming the continuation of the tables (mesas), provided with stoppers 
(tapones) at intervals, for holding the sands and jaguas intended for 
the arrastre (3) ; (5) Col. a depression of the earth, natural or 
artificial, in the form of a channel with two sides and a bottom, by 
which rain-water runs away (Muiioz), syn. guaico (2). 

CANAMAZO, (1) tow of hemp, see estopa (1) ; (2) coarse canvas made 
of (1). 

CANAMO (Port, canhamo), (1) hemp (for Manila hemp, see abaca; for 
Chilian hemp, see henequen ; for Paraguay hemp, see caraguata) ; 
(2) twine or rope made of hemp ; cuerda plana de c., flat hemp-rope, 
cuerda redonda de c., round hemp -rope, see u. bianco, ca, calzadera. 
canal (10), cerro (3), chorron, tasco (1). 

CANASTA, CANASTRO, basket; see banasta, ' banasto, capacho (1), 
cebadera (2), cesta, ceston, charco (5), chiquichuite, colote, espuerta, 
gamela (2), gavia, jaba, jorongo (1), sera. NOTE. In Span. Am. 
the name is sometimes improperly applied to the skip [chalupa (1)]. 

CANASTILLO, Mex. tramway- bucket (Dwight), see u. balde. 

CANASTRO, see canasta. 

CANCEL, wooden screen at the side of a water-wh^el, to prevent the 
water splashing into the mill, see u. guaca (1). 

CANCHA, (1) ore-bin, see deposito (4) ; (2) place for drying slimes or 
sorting ore ; (3) Peru and Chile, mine-dump ; metal en cancha, ore 
on the dump or at grass, comp. vaciadero ; (4) Chile, dressing-floors, 
see hacienda (4). 

CANCHAL, rocky or stony place, see pedregal. 

CANCHERO, Peru, person in charge of dumping and sorting of ores 

CANCHO, large rock in mountain* or on heights (Acad.), see penasco. 

CANDADO, padlock. 

CANDEA, CANDEIA, (1) Port, lamp, see lampara ; (2) Braz. a very 
strong timber which supplies polings for lagging sets : it has a dis- 
agreeable odour. Other Brazilian woods used for lining-up sets are 
angelan, aroeira, brauna, sucopora, ipe-jacaranda (H. K. Scott). 

CANDELA, (1) candle, see vela (2) ; (2) candlestick ; (3) piedra de c., 

CANDELEJA, Ant. Col. candle-holder with spike, used in mines, syn., 
Sp. candelero de mina, see caballo (7), u. mechero. 

CANDELERO, (1) candlestick or candle -holder, syn. velador (2), see 
candeleja, cubo (4) ; (2) mech. coupling-case, socket, fork, crotch, 
etc. (Ponce de Leon) ; Mex. a socket deeper than the chumacera, 
and used for the same purpose (Lyon), see cubo (4), cuenca (4) ; (3) 
Mex. part of drill-hole remaining after blasting (Dwight), see barreno 
(1) ; (4) Peru, piece of clay on which retort-silver is laid for final 
heating (Dwight), see plata (1) ; (5) lamp, see lampara. 



CANDIL, an oil-lamp (lampara) used in mines, syn. Sinai. Mex., cachimba, 
Linares, Rio Tinto, Sp. churro ; c. de bombilla, Almaden, Sp. a 
simplified oil-lamp ; c. frances de estribo or de cebolla, flat oval 
lamp, provided with a stirrup, syn. Linares, etc., tortuga. 

CANDILEJA, (1) small oil-lamp, see lampara ; (2) oil- vessel of a lamp, 
see u. lampara. 

CANELO, (1) cinnamon-tree or cinnamon-laurel (Laurus cinnamomum) ; 
in Tolima, Col. the wood of a tree of this name is much prized 
and used for making furniture, trunks, etc., and for general mining 
purposes ; (2) piedra de c., see u. granate (1). 

CANEL6N, see canalon (1). 

CANERIA, (1) aqueduct (acueducto), water-pipe, see tubo (1) ; (2) series 
of water-pipes, see tuberia ; c. de descarga, water discharge (Lucas) ; 

(3) gutter of an adit, etc., see cuneta (2). 
CANESDA, Mex. a tree of a yellow colour. 

CANGA, Braz. a kind of auriferous glacial rock, in reality an iron breccia. 
In the province of Minas Geraes the deposit consists of angular frag- 
ments of magnetite, iron slate, iron glance, and brown ironstone, 
together with small quantities of quartzite, itacolumite, and other 
rocks. It varies from 1 to 4 yards thick, extends for a great distance, 
resting on iron schist, mica schist, talc schist, clay-slate, or ita- 
columite as a bed-rock (J. A. Phillips). At Passagem the itabirites are 
overlaid by a crust of canga, a brown porous conglomerate ; this 
is made up of fragments of the underlying rock, bound together by 
a ferruginous arg'llaceous crust (E. Hussak) ; syn. tapanhoacanga, 
see brecha (2). 

CANGALLA, Chile, stolen ore (metal robado). 

CANGALLI, Tipuani, Bol. a ferruginous quartz-conglomerate, a false 
bed-rock [roca (7) falsa] overlain by a bed of very rich gold-bearing 
sand from 12 to 40 inches thick (Frochot), see conglomerado. 

CANGILON, (1) earthen jar or pitcher ; (2) oblong earthen jar 
fastened to the rope of a draw-well [noria (1)], or to a wheel for 
lifting water, syn. arcaduz (3) ; (3) cadena de cangilones (2), elevator 
pump, see u. bomba (1), noria (1). 

CANGREJEROS, CANGUEREJOS (crabs), Ant. Col. bunches or small 
pockets (bolsillos) of gold occurring in the smaller veins or venillas 
(Uribe), see bolsa (1). 

CANGREJO (crab), rail, trolley, see vagoneta (1). 

CANGUEREJOS, see congrejeros. 

CANILLA, blast, a small cane or reed for conveying the fire to the 
charge, see mecha (1). 

CANO, (1) obs. mine ; (2) pipe or tube, see tubo (1) ; c. soplante, c.m. 
vent, air-tube, comp. caja (20) ; (3) S. Am. rivulet, see riachuelo ; 

(4) obs, gallery, see galeria. 



CANOA (canoe), (1) Ant. Col. a flume, see caz ; (2) Braz. a sort o long- 
torn or sluice used by river-washers ; orig. a rectangular trench, 1-1*5 
m. long, 0-5-0-7 m. wide, and 0-1-0-6 m. deep, nearly horizontal, 
forming the cabeceira ; below is the bica, 2 m. long, inclined from 
15 to 25, on which blankets or hides are placed ; it is made of 
stone when required to be permanent, when of wood = bolinete 

CAN6N, (1) cylindrical tube or pipe ; c. de engrasa, grease-tube covering 
an axle ; c. de vidrio, glass chimney of a lamp, etc., see tubo (1) ; 

(2) level or horizontal gallery ; c. a hilo de veta, level on the strike of 
a vein ; c. de guia, (a) level or gallery driven along a vein, shoot or 
deposit ; (6) an exploratory level (c. de indigacion), see galeria ; 

(3) met. an inclined flue ; c. de chimenea, flue or smoke-stack, see 
humero ; (4) c. de corrida, pump, working barrel of a drawing-lift, 
see cuerpo (8) ; (5) a deep valley, ravine or gorge, U.S.A. canyon, 
syn. Peru, mala, see desfiladero, comp. barranca (2) ; (6) barrel of a 
safety-pistol (pistolete de seguridad) ; (7) c. defuelle, nozzle of bellows, 
blast-pipe (Ponce de Leon), comp. piton (1). 

CANONAZO (report of a shot), dar c., blast, to make a great noise on 
exploding, showing the useful effect of the shot to be low ; when 
the noise produced is small, the hole is said to be sordo (silent) and 
the useful effect is great (Molina). 

CANTAL, (1) stone, pebble, see canto (3) ; (2) see cantizal ; (3) stone 
ashlar (Ponce de Leon), see sillar. 

CANTARA, Durango, Mex. white decomposed clay, see arcilla. 

CANTARO, Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot., Mex. clay-retort (retorta) used for 
reducing mercury ores, see mercuric (2). 

CANTERA, (1) stone quarry, syn. obs. canteria (1), pedrera, pedriza, 
equiv. Port, canteira, pedreira, Fr. carriere, Ger. Steinbruch ; c. de 
marmol, marble quarry ; c. de pizarra, slate quarry, see pizarral ; 
en cantera, working open-cast, see tajo (3) ; labores de c., open-cast 
workings, see tajo (2) ; (2) quarry-stone (Ger. Bruchstein) ; Durango, 
Mex. an unstratified stone, apparently of volcanic origin, sometimes 
in immense vertical, hexagonal or octagonal columns, composed of 
particles of all sorts of rock ground up and mixed together, often 
honeycombed, very light and soft, but hardening in the atmosphere. 
It caps many of the higher hills (W. H. Glennie). According to 
Aguilera, generally andesitic tuff, sometimes passing into a true 
andesitic breccia ; in some places it is a trachytic tuff ; Chile, Mex. 
phosphoric and cretaceous limestone resting on primary formation 
in the whole region of the north ; St. Eulalia, Chih. Mex. a ferru- 
ginous rnetamorphic rock in horizontal beds, 1700 feet thick, resting 
on fossiliferous cretaceous limestone (Dahlgren) ; according to R. T. 
Hill, an altered or metamorphosed quartz-porphyry cinder, con- 
solidated and cemented by the influence of air and percolating waters ; 



Sinai. Mex. white porphyry banded in a direction parallel to the 
veins ; Atacama, Chile, a light sandy tuff, 100 to 150 feet thick, 
forming the hanging wall of the Elisa vein at a depth of 1620 feet 
on the dip (O. Nordenskjold), comp. manto negro ; comp. canteria (4) ; 
(3) Venez. small veinules of quartz, which detach themselves from 
the principal vein (L. F. Viala) ; " surface lodes without defined 
walls " (G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale) ; gold from cantera is generally 
high grade, and is known as oro de cantera, see veta (1) ; (4) Almaden, 
Sp. underground quarry ; c. de explotacion, chamber of excavation. 

CANTERIA, (1) obs. quarry, see cantera (1) ; (2) stone-cutting ; quarry- 
ing [see cielo (3)] ; (3) mas. ashlar work or rough masonry, see silleria ; 
Almeria, Sp. squared stone (silleria) used in mamposteria por hundi- 
miento ; (4) Mex. an igneous tufa (toba) or conglomerate rock which 
had a certain fluidity by means of water or steam (Barcena), comp. 
u. cantera (2). 

CANTERO (Port, canteiro), (1) stone-cutter, see pedrero ; (2) quarry- 
man, equiv. Port, cavouquiero, Fr. carrier, Ger. Steinbrecher. 

CANTIDAD, quantity. 

CANTIL, steep rock ; precipitous mass of stone, see acantilados. 

CANTIZAL, stony ground, place full of stones, syn. cantal (2), see pedregal. 

CANTO, (1) end, edge, or border ; de canto, on edge, edgeways, edgewise 
(Fr. de champ) ; (2) thickness of anything ; Zac. Mex. the thickness 
of rectangular timbers, comp. tabla (3) ; (3) stone, pebble, syn. 
cantal (1) ; fragment of flint (pedernal) ; cantos erraticos, geol. erratic 
blocks (Ponce de Leon) ; cantos rodados, pebbles or boulders, see 
guijarro (1) ; (4) mas. quarry- stone, block, dressed ashlar, syn. 
piedra de canto, see sillar. 

CANTONERA, surv. plate of metal at the ends of rods, used in measuring 

CANTURRON, Ant. Col. oxide of manganese, syn. c. mineral, Chaparral 
and Lerida, Tolima, neme (canturron = bee-glue or tanca). 

CANUTILLO, CANUTILLO (small tube or pipe), (1) c. de trigo, blast, 
match, see mecha (1) ; (2) Boyaca, Col. fine emerald (esmeralda) 
suitable for use as a gem, comp. morallion ; (3) carbon de c., see u. 
carbon (1). 

CAOBA, CAOBANA, mahogany-tree (Swietenta maliogani], or mahogany- 

CAOLIN, kaolin, china-clay, see arcilla, jaboncillo (3), pataz (1), u. 
tierra (3), u. tosca (1). 

CAPA, (1) bed. layer, seam or (geol.) stratum (estrato), see banco (3), 
cama (5), camada (1), capita, filon (4), lecho (2), vena (2), venero (4), 
veta (2) ; capa de carbon, coal seam, see dispersion ; capas, interstra- 
tified deposits. NOTE. In Port, capa = roof or hanging wall, as well 
as layer or stratum. (2) C. de filon, bedded vein ; (3) mas. bed or 
course, see camada (2) ; (4) timb. cap or cap-piece, (Somers.) bar, 
(N. Eng. and Austral.) crown or crown-tree, syn. Santander, Sp. 



cabecil, Sevilla, Sp. and Zac. Mex. cabezal (2), Col. capiz, cumbrera (2), 
puente (7), Peru, sombrero (4), tinea (1), travesano (2), umbral (3), 
equiv. Fr. chapeau, Ger. Kappe, see abrazadera (4), tiple (2) ; (5) mech. 
prep, shell of rolls [cilindros (4)], syn. camisa (5). 

CAPACHEN, Peru, car-boy, see carretero (1). 

CAPACHERO, Peru, man who carries the capacho (2) ; c. de barreta (4), 
one who carries the same up the media barreta (see u. medio, dia), he 
also assists the barretero in drilling, holding and rotating the same. 

CAPACHO, (1) large basket, see canasta ; (2) Peru and Chile, raw-hide 
bag, attached by cords to the arms, the hand being free to carry a 
lamp, capacity 2 to 4 arrobas, syn. bolsa (6), see u. hapires, rongueros ; 
(3) c. de albanil, bricklayer's hod ; (4) mina de c., Ant. Col. a poor 
capricious or patchy mine. 

CAPARROSA, (1) copperas, iron or green vitriol or melanterite 
[FeS0 4 + 7 aq.], the result of the decomposition of pyrites, marcasite 
or pyrrhotite, syn. alcaporrosa, Peru, colpa (2), copaquiras (Barba), 
see ocre, comp. sori ; tierra de tinta or de caparrosa, ochreous earth 
containing peroxide of iron and sulphates of iron (Humboldt) ; (2) 
artificially formed vitriol composed of sulphate of iron (green), copper 
(blue) or zinc (white), (c. verde, c. azul, and c. blanca, respectively), 
see vitriola. 

CAPATAZ, (1) overseer or superintendent, see superintendente ; (2) in 
mints, the official who receives the marked metal to be coined ; (3) 
" captain," foreman or boss, see amo (1), cabo (3), capitan (2), contra- 
maestre, u. jefe, mandon, manigero, mayordomo (2), obrajero, u. 
portero, comp. capitan (1), mayoral, mayordomo (1), sobrestante ; 
c. mayor, chief or head captain, or (c.m.) underviewer ; (4) the 
aperador, see u. apero ; (5) c. de fundicion, master- smelter (Ponce de 

CAPAZO, Cartagena, Sp. espuerta holding 30 to 60 k. (Moncada). 

CAPELA, Mex. strap passing over a man's shoulders from the handle 
of a wheelbarrow (Dwight), see carreta (2). 

CAPELLA, S. Am. cupelling-furnace (Lucas), see cppola (1). 

CAPELLINA, Mex. in the patio process, the bell-shaped hood [campana 
(4)] of copper or iron beneath which the amalgam (bollos) is distilled, 
see caperuza (1). 

CAPERUZA, (1) Peru, sheet-iron or earthen cylinder, placed over 
amalgam in distilling, see capellina ; (2) c. de chimenea, chimney cap 
or cover, cowl, see caballete (3) ; (3) horno de c., Peru, hood-furnace, 
see horno (2). 

CAPILLA, pump, valve-chamber, see caja (4). 

CAPILLO, cover or bonnet of a valve, bearing, etc. ; c. del prensaestopas, 
st. eng. gland of the stuffing-box [caja (5)], packing-gland (Ponce de 
Leon), see casquillo (2). 

CAPIM SAPE, see u. taquara. 

CAPIS, see capiz. 



CAPITA, a band, small seam or layer, e.g., c. del carbon, a band of coal, 

see capa (1). 
CAPITAL, capital of a department, state or country ; com. capital ; 

c. no exhibido, uncalled capital (Lucas). 

CAPITAN, Span. Am. (1) captain or (c.m.) overman or deputy overman, 
comp. capataz (1), colero, rayador (1), sobrestante ; (2) foreman or 
boss, surface-boss, see capataz (3) ; c. de galera, Mex. the boss of the 
sheds under which the tahonas work (Lyon) ; c. de patio, the chief 
ore-dresser who has charge of the amalgamation floors (Lyon) ; under 
his direction the ore is broken up, and the waste separated therefrom 
and formed into montones (1) ; c. del esporal, the chief stableman 

CAPITANA, (1) see u. espeque (1) ; (2) Cerro de Pasco, Peru, hemi- 
spherical stone vessel, 2 feet, in diameter, for washing the pulp [masa (8)] 
(A. F. Pfordte). 
CAPITEL, (1) arch, capital of a column or pilaster ; (2) lid of a refining 

furnace (Velazquez), see horno (2). 
CAPIZ (or capis), Ant. Col. timb. cap-piece, see capa (4). NOTE. A 

corruption of the English word. 

CAPOEIRAS, Braz. wooded tracts formed by the small trees and shrubs 

which spring up in lands that have been prepared for cultivation by 

destroying the virgin forests (matos virgens) (Henwood), comp. 

capoes, carrascos, catingas. 

CAPOES (orig. caapoano, an island), Braz. natural clumps of shrubs 

and trees dotting the tablelands [campos (7)], com.p. capoeiras. 
CAPONAZO, Mex. blow on the hand of man holding drill, due to fault 

of striker (Dwight). 

CAPORAL, keeper of horned cattle ; foreman of a farm having the latter. 

CAPOTE (cloak), (1) Mex. the bell-shaped iron cover fitting over the 

campana (4) or capellina in order to confine the heat ; in Pachuca the 

cover is of boiler-plate, lined with firebrick, a space of one foot being 

left between the two ; (2) Mex. a piece of blanket [manta (1)] wrapped 

round a candle in mines ; (3) Ant. Col. superficial layer of vegetable 

earth (Uribe). 

CAPOTERA, mina c., Ant. Col. a placer in which the pay-dirt is at a 

very shallow depth (Uribe) ; a shallow placer (placer). 
CAPSULA, blast, cap or detonator, syn. c. fulminante, Mex. casquillo 
(1), cebo (4), fulminante, piston (3) ; c. sencilla is the ordinary kind, 
c. reforzada has the fulminate covered by a little metallic plate with 
a hole in it. 

C APT ADO, conduction of water or gases in a mine (Fr. captage). 
CAPTIVO, Braz. pseudomorph, e.g., anatase altered to rutile ; for c. de 

chumbo, see agulhas. 
CAPURI, Venez. kind of timber used in mining (G. P. Ashmore and 

C. Seale). 

CAQUEXIA DE MINEROS, miners' cachexia or emaciation. 



CARA (face), (1) face or " pane " of a hammer or anvil, see u. boca (6) ; 
(2) face of a valve (valvula) ; (3) upper surface of a piston [embolo 
(1)] 5 ( 4 ) tread or bearing surface of a wheel ; (5) quarr. panel of a 
stone, syn. paramento (1), comp. liso (1) ; face of a brick, see Fig. 38 ; 
(6) miner, facet of a crystal ; (7) c. de crucero, miner, face of cleavage ; 
(8) caras, sides of a fissure, see labio (2). 
CARABE, amber, see electro (1). 
CARACOA, Phil, small row-barge (Velazquez). 

CARACAS, Ant. Col. a thin and hard layer of grey or reddish clay 
between the bed-rock [pena (4)] and the pay-dirt [cinta (3)], and in 
which gold is found in some alluvial mines (Uribe). 

CARACOL, (1) Mex. a structure often exhibited by silver ores in certain 
districts, as in San Dimas, Durango, so called from its curved, spiral 
or shell-like appearance (metal caracol), see plata (2) ; (2) bor. crow's- 
foot or crow, syn. caracola, gancho (1), equiv. Fr. caracol ; (3) esca- 
lera de c., a ladder- way that winds spirally around a shaft, see 
escalera (1). 

CARACOLA, see caracol (2). 

CARACOLI, (1) Col. a tree with a very thick trunk used for making 
canoes it has a rapid growth, attaining great height and bulk (Uribe) ; 
(2) metallic composition resembling pinchbeck (Velazquez). 
CARAGUATA, Paraguay, a kind of hemp from a plant of the same name 
(Velazquez), see canamo (1). NOTE. The name is also given to the 
wild pine -apple. 
CARAMACATE, Venez. green-heart, used for mining purposes, and 

supposed to be an indicator for gold (G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale). 
CARANIOMACHO, Venez. timber, the best for all underground work 

(G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale). 

CARB6N, (1) charcoal, syn. c. de lena (Port, carvao de lenho) ; c. de 
arranque, charcoal made from the roots of trees ; c. de canutillo, 
charcoal made from thin branches of oak, etc., see calera (3), ebo, 
caunce, tizo ; (2) coal, syn. c. de piedra (Port, carvao de pedra), c. de 
tierra, c. fosil, c. mineral ; c. craso, c. graso or de cok, caking coa 1 
(NOTE. C. craso also = bituminous coal) c. de gaz, c. de bujia, 
cannel or gas-coal ; c. granado or c. almendrillo, nuts or nut-coal 
(see also galletas) ; c. grueso, large coal ; c. menudo, small coal [see 
also carbonicillo (1)] ; c. pardo, lignite or brown coal (also sometimes 
called c. de piedra, c. fosil) ; c. seco or magro, non-caking coal, see 
hulla ; (3) cinder, c. de piedra pasada, coke (cok) ; (4) graphite, 
see grafito ; (5) black pencil, see carboncillo (2). 

CARBONADO, Braz. " carbonate " or black diamond ; it occurs gene- 
rally in irregular rounded nodules varying in size from a pea to a 
mass exceeding one pound in weight ; S.G. = 3-3'42 (diamond = 
3-48 to 3-55), see diamante. 

CARBONATO, carbonate ; c. de hierro, spathic iron, see siderosa. 



CARBONCILLO, (1) small coal, coal-dust, culm, dross, syn. cisco (2); 
(2) black crayon, see carbon (5). 

CARBONEAR, to make charcoal [carbon (1)]. 

CARBONEO, making charcoal [carbon (1)]. 

CARBONERA (Port, carvoaria), (1) pile of firewood covered with clay 
for making charcoal (Acad.) ; place where charcoal is made (Velaz- 
quez), comp. tizonera ; (2) coal-hole or coal-cellar ; (3) colliery or 
coal-mine, see hullera. 

CARBONERIA, (1) coal-yard ; (2) coal-shed ; (3) coal-mine, see 

CARBONERO, (1) carrier, maker or seller of charcoal [carbon (1)] ; 
(2) collier or coal-miner, syn. hullero, see minero (2) ; (3) coal- 
merchant ; (4) coal-ship or collier ; (5) Mex. coke- or coal-wheeler 
(Dwight) ; (6) colliery or coal-mine, see hullera (1). 

CARBONILLA, pressed coal-dust, a mixture of two parts of coal-dust 
and one of earth for making crucibles (Ponce de Leon), see crisol (1). 

CARBONIZAClON, carbonisation, charring, coking, see carboneo. 

CARBONIZAR, to char, to make coke. 

CARBUNCLO, CARBUNCULO, carbuncle, see u. piropo. 

CARCAMO, (1) drain or conduit which carries off earthy matters from 
the tinas, when washing the amalgam ; it is frequently cleared out 
and washed for mercury (Lyon, 1826-28) ; it is arched over and the 
bottom has riffles [tendidos (5)] ; (2) drain in mines ; (3) wheel-pit, 
syn. carcavo, equiv. Port, inferno ; (4) flume, see caz ; (5) Fresnillo, 
Zac. Mex. slime-pit (Dr. Percy) ; (6) Mex. penstock of turbine 

CARCAO, Port, matrix of gold in gold mines (Elwes), see matriz. 

CARCAVA, gully made by torrents of water (Velazquez), comp. 
rambla (2). 

CARCAVO, see carcamo (3). 

CARCEL, (1) timb. frame of a shaft, see cuadro (1) ; (2) Zac. Mex. 
timb. stemple-notch, see huida ; (3) carceles, pump, guides of spear- 
rods, see u. guia (4) ; (4) mech. wooden clamp, holder or collar ; 
(5) unity of measure for sale of firewood in Segovia, Sp. = 100 cubic 
feet, in Valsain = 160 (Acad.), see cuerda (5) ; (6) groove or channel 
of a sluice-gate [compuerta (2)] (Acad.). 

CARCOMA, (1) wood-borer, the larva of various beetles which burrow 
in wood, see comejen (2), comp. comejen (1) ; (2) dust made by the 
wood-borer, comp. caries seca. 

CARCOMAR, to erode (of the banks of a river), see derrubiar, comp. 

CARDENILLA, Batopilas, Chih. Mex. proustite, syn. metal de cardenillo, 
see u. pinta (1), plata (2). 

CARDENILLO, (1) gold-mill, verdigris, see verdete ; (2) see cardenilla. 

CARENA, Mex. upright stanchion for supporting machinery, see mon- 
tante (1). 



CARETA, mask of a pneumatophore ; it is provided with spectacles 
(gafas Fr. lunettes garnies), and apparatus for closing the mouth 
(tapaboca Fr. ferme-bouche), and nostrils (aprietanarices Fr. 
pincette), having at the back an inflatable rubber cushion (almohadilla 
Fr. reservoir). 

CARGA, (1) load, freight ; c. util, useful load ; bestia de c., cargo beast ; 
(2) a mule-load or 380 lb., in Mex. 300 Ib. Spanish or 12 arrobas = 
304-332 lb. avoir., in Peru (generally) 250 lb. or 10 arrobas, in Col. 
usually 200 lb. or 8 arrobas ; in Guan. Mex. 1 carga of ore = 14 
arrobas ; see cocha (3), tercio ; (3) Castile, Sp. a corn measure con- 
taining 4 fanegas or bushels, elsewhere 3 fanegas ; in Mex. (generally) 
12 fanegas of 12 almudes =18 bushels ; Guan. Mex. = 2 fanegas ; 
1 carga of charcoal contains 12 banastas ; (4) blast, charge, syn. cargo 
(2) ; met. smelting charge, see carguero (3), cebo (2), lecho (4), mezcla 
(2), plancha (8), revoltura (1) ; c. de arrastre, charge for an arrastre 
usually about 200 lb. avoir. ; (5) impost, duty, toll, tax, see derecho 
(2) ; c. real, king's tax, land tax ; (6) Ant. Col. pebbles and other 
stones, or gravel, occurring in placers, see u. cargado, da, guijarro (1) ; 

(7) Ant. Col. stones, sand and vegetable material brought down by 
floods and sometimes deposited on the banks (Uribe), see guijarro (1) ; 

(8) loading or filling, e.g., c. a la pala, c. a la tolba, see cargo (1), 
cargamiento, carguio (2); (9) c. motriz, see depresion ; (10) cargo, 
the loading of a ship ; (11) Sandia, Peru, overburden of an ordinary 
placer [aventadero (2)], see montera (3). 

CARGADERO, (1) loading or unloading place ; (2) lintel, see dintel. 

CARGADO, DA, adj. loaded ; bomba cargada, pump full of water ; mina 
cargada, Ant. Col. a placer containing many large stones (Uribe), see 
carga (6). 

CARGADOR, (1) Mex. in the patio process, the man who carries the 
amalgam to the tinas, and cleans them out (Lyon) ; (2) any man 
who carries burdens, see faenero (1), tamen ; freighter, comp. arriero, 
carguero (1) ; (3) Ant. Col. the rope or girdle by which bultos are 
raised ; (4) one who loads a wheelbarrow, etc., comp. alzador. 

CARGADORA, Mex. charging- vat, see tina (1). 

CARGAMIENTO, loading or filling, see carga (8). 

CARGAR, (1) to load ; (2) mech. prep, to feed a mill ; met. to charge 
a furnace, etc.,' see alimentar, cebar (2) ; c. el barreno, blast, to charge 
a blast-hole ; (3) c. la boveda, mas. to load waste on the top of an 
arch (arco), or to fill it with masonry ; (4) cargarse, c. la rueda de un 
molino, Ant. Col. said of a wheel when weighted in its lower portion 
by water which has soaked into it, whereby it will not work. 

CARGO, (1) burden, loading, see carga (8) ; (2) blast, charge, see carga 
(4) ; (3) Peru, the. first portion of mercury added to an amalgamating 
charge (Dwight) ; (4) load of stone, approximately equal to one-third 
of a cubic metre (Acad.) ; (5) Granada, Sp. measure = one cubic 



vara ; (6) com. total amount of what has been received in a genera 
account (Velazquez). 

CARGUERO, (1) Col. man (generally Indian) who carries travellers 
in a kind of saddle over bad roads, mountain passes, etc. he will 
bear 6 or 7, and even up to 9 arrobas (Humboldt) ; andar en c., 
to travel in the way described, comp. caballito (2), cargador (2) ; 
(2) Ant. Col. alluv. m. deposit of stones, pebbles, etc., taken from the 
placer in order to isolate the gold (Uribe) ; (3) Mex. met. charge 
(D wight), see carga (4). 

CARGUlO, (1) a load ; (2) loading (into wagons, etc.), see carga (8). 
CARIADO, DA, adj. rotten ; cuarzo cariado, rotten quartz. 
CARIES SECA, timb. dry-rot, comp. carcoma (2). 

CARMIN, Ant. Col. red ochre, from the decomposition of pyrites, 
found in veins (Angel) ; mineral highly charged with oxide or 
carbonate of iron (Uribe) ; according to Gamba identical with 
colorados (1) or gossan. 

CARNE DE VACA, (1) Potosi, Bol. a coarse variety of galena in big 
crystals, it is relatively a low-grade silver ore (M. Roberts), and is 
generally mixed with grey copper ore (Dwight), see galena, plata (2), 
comp. chini-liga ; (2) Hualgayoc, Peru, red amorphous blende 
(blenda), phosphorescent on fracture (Santolalla). 
CAROMBE, Braz. alluv. m. a shallow wooden box, with sloping sides, 

for carrying gra\el, and also for use in draining workings. 
CARPINTERIA, (1) carpenter's shop ; (2) carpentry. 
CARPINTERO (Port, carpentein, carpinteiro), carpenter, syn. maderero 
(2), see ademador ; c. de carretas or de prieto, wheelwright ; segundo 
c., carpenter's mate. 
CARRACA, ratchet brace, see berbiqui. 
CARRANA, Peru, light rawhide shovel for throwing taquia into a 

furnace (Dwight), see pala. 

CARRANCHO, Remedies, Ant. Col. (1) decomposed country (gene- 
rally granite) from 2 to 4 feet thick, carrying auriferous iron pyrites 
and a little free gold between the vein and its walls, and sometimes 
in the vein itself (F. Owen) ; the miners sometimes call it cascajo 
(12) (for origin of term see carranchoso), comp. formacion (2) ; 
(2) soft shaley or schistose " country " in which the veins are 
unproductive, syn. pena (5) boba. 

CARRANCHOSO, SA, adj. Ant. Col. rough, scaley, harsh (Uribe). 
CARRASCAL, Mex. honeycombed quartz, generally barren (Dwight), 

see cuarzo. 
CARRASCOS, Braz. close- growing shrubs about 3 or 4 feet high, found 

on more elevated tracts than the catingas. 

CARRERA, (1) high road, see camino (1) ; (2) Madrid, Sp. a broad 
and long street, see camino (1) ; (3) alley, see camino (1), comp. 
callejon (1) ; (4) kind of joist, see u. viga ; (5) c. del embolo, stroke 
of the piston (pistonada) ; c. de valvula, travel of the valve, see 



corrida (1) ; c. de la excentrica, throw of the eccentric ; lift of a 
hammer, see alcance (2), u. caida (1), curso (1) ; (6) c. de ladrillos, 
piedras, course, layer of bricks, stones, etc., see carnada (2) ; (7) anillo 
de c., piston- ring, equiv. Fr. bague de carriere ; (8) carreras, timb. 
longitudinal pieces of timber used (a) in spilling in connection 
with the leg-pieces of the frame, see u. labor (2), (6) in tunnelling 
by the English method, (c) common to a row of props, and supported 
by the latter (comp. estribado), (d) in the subsidiary supports of a 
large set for levels, see hilera (2) ; (9) Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. 
gallery (galena) used by gavias. 

CARRERO, charge-wheeler (Dwight) ; trammer, see carretero (1) ; 
mas. stone-carrier (Ponce de Leon). 

CARRETA, (1) long narrow cart, wagon, see carro (1) ; (2) Span. 
Am. wheelbarrow, hand-barrow, syn. Sp. carretilla de mano, carreton 
de una rueda, carrillo de mano, equiv. Fr. brouette, Ger. Laufkarre, 
Schubkarre, see cajon (1) and (2), capela, carro (5), parihuela (1), 
vara (3). 

CARRETADA, (1) cart-load, wagon-load = 120 arrobas or 1380 k. 
(Ponce de Leon), see carro (7) ; (2) wheelbarrow load, hand-barrow 

GARRET AJE, cartage. 

CARRETAL, ashlar or rubble-stone roughly dressed, comp. mam- 
puesto (1), sillar. 

CARRETE, CARRETEL, see bobina (1) and (2). 

CARRETERA, high road, see carnino (1). 

CARRETERO, RA., adj. camino carritero, road for carriages, etc., see u. 
camino (1), carril (1). 

CARRETERO, (1) wheeler or trammer, syn. apire (1), arrastrador (1), 
Peru, capachen (boy), Mex. and Peru, carrero, Mex. and Col. 
cochero, vagonero, equiv. Fr. rouleur, (Belgium) herscheur, Ger. 
Schlepper, Fordermann, comp. tenatero ; (2) cartwright ; (3) carter, 
wagoner, syn. carruajero, see acarreador. 

CARRETIL, hierro c., see u. hierro (1). 

CARRETILLA, (1) wheelbarrow, see carreta (2) ; (2) rail, bogie (Ponce 
de Leon), see carreton (4). 

CARRETILLERO, wheelbarrow-man, barrow-man. 

CARRETON, (1) small cart [carro (1)] in the shape of an open chest ; 
(2) wheelbarrow, etc., see carreta (2) ; (3) truck, dray or van ; 
(4) rail, bogie or bogie-frame, syn. carretilla (2). 

CARRETONERO, driver of the carreton (1) ; drayman, truckman. 

CARRIEL, Col. a kind of satchel or large purse (guarniel) covered 
with skin (generally the otter's) and containing several compart- 
ments for carrying paper money, tobacco, etc. 

CARRIL, (1) rut, cart-rut ; (2) narrow road where one cart only can 
pass at a time, see camino (1) ; (3) rail, rail, syn. riel (2), via (7), 
equiv. Port, trilho, see cuello (3), ferrocarril, suiche ; c. americano, 

81 F 


c. de patin, flat-bottom rail (Fr. rail a patin, rail Vignole) ; c. de 
aguja, switch-rail ; c. de canal, de crucero or en H, tram-rail ; c. de 
seta, bridge-rail (Fr. rail a champignon) ; c. de doble seta, double 
bridge-rail (Fr. rail a double champignon) ; for flat iron rails, see 
barra (10) ; (4) c. de alambre, wire tramway. 

CARRILERA, S. Am. railroad track (Ponce de Leon), see via (1). 

CARRILERO, ore-carrier. 

CARRILLO, (1) small cart, see carro (1) ; (2) c. de mano, wheelbarrow, 
see carreta (2) ; (3) block pulley, see polea (1) ; (4) mech. slide-rest, 
drill-stock (Ponce de Leon). 

CARRITO, (1) carritos guias, on automatic inclined planes, a pair of 
small cars in front of the wagon when descending, to which the wire- 
rope is attached (Molina) ; (2) c. contrapeso, see u. contrapeso (1). 

CARRIZO, Mex. small hole in rock for wooden plug (D wight), comp. 
huida (1). 

CARRO, (1) cart, see carreta (1), carreton (1), carrillo (1), carromato, 
carruaje, carruco, comp. galera (8) ; (2) wagon or mine-car, c.m. box, 
corf, (S. Staff.) skip or skep, (S. Wales) tram, tub, syn. coche (1), vagon, 
equiv. Fr. wagon, wagonnet, berline, Ger. Forderwagen, Grubenwagen, 
see bastidor (2), cajon (2), comp. perro ; c. de volcar, c. volcador, 
dumping-car or tippler, c. de volteo, c. vaciador, ordinary discharging- 
car ; (3) railroad-car, see coche (2), trueque ; (4) c. de perforadoras, 
bor. drill-carriage, see bastidor (1) ; (5) c. de mano, large hand- 
barrow worked by three men, see carreta (2), parihuela ; (6) Mex. 
charging -buggy (Dwight) ; (7) cart-load, see carretada (1) ; (8) Sant. 
Sp. unit of superficial measure equal to 44 square feet (Acad.). 

CARROMATO, a long narrow cart with two wheels and tilt, for trans- 
porting goods, etc. (Velazquez), see carro (1). 

CARRUAJE, all sorts of vehicles for transporting persons or goods 
(Velazquez), see carro (1). 

CARRUAJERO, carrier, carter, wagoner, see carretero (3). 

CARRUCO, small cart used in mountainous parts of the country for 
transporting salt and other things, with solid wheels and turning 
axles (Velazquez), see carro (1). 

CARTA, (1) letter ; (2) royal ordinance ; (3) c. geografica, map ; c. 
hidrografica, chart, see mapa, plan (5) ; (4) c. de referencia, surv. 
bench-mark ; (5) c. poder, power of attorney by letter, see poder (1). 

CARTAB6N, (1) plott. triangle or set square ; (2) angle of a roof ; 
(3) surv. optical square. 

CARTEL, placard, handbill, poster. 

CARTUCHO, cartridge (Fr. cartouche), syn. cohete (1), see bombillo (4) ; 
cartuchos de cal grasa viva, lime cartridges (u:ed for bringing down 

CARVAO, Port, carbon, see u. carbon (1) and (2). 
CARVOARIA, see u. carbonera. 

CARVOEIRO, Port, coal-man, coalheaver. l 




CASA, house ; c. de fundicion (Port, casa de, smelting-house, 

in the patio process, casting-house ; c. de moneda (Port, casa de 

moeda), mint, syn. ceca, comp. callana. 
CASAR METALES, Peru, to mix ores for amalgamation or smelting 

(D wight). 
CASAR6N, CASER6N, grandes caserones huecos, Chile, large hollow 

chambers left in winning deposits, syn. rajos ; casarones, Arg. in the 

Gualilan mineral in the Tontal range, vast chambers, over 100 feet 

high and often 50 feet wide, worked out of an immense mineral vein, 

attaining a width in places of 30 feet or more. They were accidentally 

discovered in 1751 by a Chilenian cattle-herder (A. Hausmann), comp 

sacados, salon (2). 

CASCADA, cascade or small waterfa 1 !, see salto (3). 
CASCAJAL, CASCAJAR (Port, cascalheira), place full of gravel or 

pebbles, see guijarral. 
CASCAJEAR, (1) to win cascajo, syn. tumbar el cascajo ; (2) Ant. 

Col. to take up the small 

stones from a ground-sluice 

[canalon (2)] with cachos 

(2), in order to get it into 

running order [see colgar 

(2)] (Uribe). 

CASCAJEO, see cascajear (1). 
CASCAJERO, Ant. Col. an 

alluvial mine already 

worked but which still 

contains gold (Uribe). 
CASCAJO, (1) aggregation of 

small stones, gravel (see u. 

arena), syn. casquijo, grava, 

guijo (1), equiv. Port, cas- 

calho (1), comp. guijarro (1) ; 

(2) El Caratal, Venez. alluv. 

m. decomposed schist, form- 
ing the bed-rock [roca (6)], 

see Figs. 20 and 21 ; (3) El 

Caratal, Venez. vein-mining, 

FIG. 20. Cascajo (2) (after Dr. Foster). 

a tender argillaceous red hierro") with pieces of quartz and a little clay; 

or yellow stone above the ', W cks of vein <l uartz ' often auriferous; /, 
.... . t , "greda, or pay-dirt, a yellow ferruginous clay 

Qiorite (piedra azul), and con taining- nuggets and small grains of gold; 
passing insensibly into it g, "cascajo," or decomposed schist, forming the 
(C. Monchot) ; bluish clay, bed-rock. 

often mixed with quartz in the salbandes, in upper decomposed 
portion of the " country " ; a bluish felspathic rock of fine grain, 
often schistose near the vein, classed by Cumenge among diorites 
(Fuchs and De Launay), see Fig. 22, comp. carrancho, cuarache, 




formation (3) ; (4) cascajos, Peru, pockets of ore of enormous size, 
consisting of a kind of quartz, mixed with a yellow ochreous clay, 
which contain 0'19 per cent, of finely disseminated native silver 

FIG. 21. Cascajo (2) (after Dr. Foster). 

1, "cascajo "(schist), or felstoue, forming the bed-rock of 2, a ferruginous 
gold-bearing gravel (" moco do hierro ") ; 3, " tierra de flor," or red ferru- 
ginous earth containing nuggets of gold a superficial gold-bearing rain- 
wash from denudation of 2. 

(Domeyko) ; at Cerro de Pasco, contain from 50 to 85 per cent, of 
native silver, the rest sulphides and antimoniates, or with lead car- 
bonate (R. T. Mason) ; according to Raimondi, the cascajo of Cerro 
de Pasco is a sandstone, profoundly altered by eruptives ; see bolsa 
(1), for pacos y cascajos see u. pacos (1), comp. colorados ; (5) c. 
blando, Calamahi, L. Cal. Mex. soft talcose 
schist, the bed-rock [roca (6)] of gold placers ; 
(6) c. duro is a harder clay-slate than (5), 
which forms natural dams, and in which the 
coarse gold occurs in the canadas while the 
finer particles are found in (5) ; at the inter- 
section of the dam with the soft rock is 
found the gold channel (el canal de oro) (J. 
M. Ramos), see u. asiento (7) ; (7) French 
Guiana, highly altered rock, consisting of red 
earth, argillaceous at the surface, and rocky 
at the bottom (Fuchs and De Launay) ; (8) 
Durango, Mex. ferruginous quartz, see cuarzo ; 

(9) Chile, depression and valleys in granite 

frequently contain horizontal beds of cascajo, shingle, gravel, sand 
and clay they are coarse auriferous gravels, comp. cascalho (2) ; 

(10) Mex. waste rock (Dwight), see desecho (3) ; (11) mas. chips 
from dressing stones ; rail, ballast material, see balaste ; (12) see 
carrancho (1). 

CASCALHEIRO, Port, place full of stones or gravel, see cascajal. 

CASCALHO, (1) Port, pebbles, gravel, syn. rebo, see cascajo (1) ; (2) 
Minas Geraes, Braz. sand, gravel, pebbles and subangular rocks of 
large size, imbedded in ferruginous clay. All these, as well as the 
particles and grains of gold mixed with them, may be traced to their 
parent strata in the neighbouring serras (Kenwood) ; diamond fields, 
Braz. a mixture of clay and quartzose gravel found in the beds of 
rivers and containing diamonds, etc ; sometimes = grupiaras ; a 
kind of auriferous and diamond-bearing gravel ; it is a cement gravel 


b c a c 

FIG. 22. Cascajo (3) 

(after Dr. Foster). 

, quartz lode; b, "por- 

flro " ; c, cascajo (3). 


of quartz pebbles found underlying drift clays, gravels and sands 
of rivers ; c. virgem, the deeper and older gravel of a river-bed (Spix 
and Martins), comp. cascajo (9). 

CASCARA, (1) bark of trees, see corteza ; (2) Huelva, Sp. copper 
precipitates obtained from mine water ; cement copper (Lucas). 

CASCARILLA, see u. tequezquite. 

CASCOS, see u. section. 

CASCOTE, rubble-stone, see mampuesto (1). 

CASERfO, village or very small town, comp. pueblo (1). 

CASER6N, see casaron. 

CASQUIJO, (1) see cascajo (1) ; (2) ballast material, see balaste. 

CASQUILLO, (1) Mex. detonator (Venator), see capsula ; (2) c. del 
prensaestopas, st. eng. gland of the stuffing-box (Ponce do Le6n), 
see u. capillo, empaquetado ; (3) ferrule, socket, see regatdn (3). 

CASTANA (chestnut), an abandoned mine (Velazquez), see u. abandonado, 

CASTANO, chestnut-tree (Fagus castanea), sometimes used in timbering, 
see madera. 

CASTELLANO, (1) ancient Spanish coin ; (2) one-fiftieth part of a 
mark [marco (1)] of gold ; 1 castellano = 96 granos or 8 tomines ; 
the value of the c. of gold of 22| carats (quilates) was fixed at 17 
reales 11 maravedis on October 25, 1649 (Fonseca and Urrutia) ; in 
Colombia 1 c. = 2 pesos, 1 peso = 4 tomines, 1 tomin = 12 granos, 
100 c. = 1 libra ; 6*76 c. = 1 ounce troy, 6*25 c. = 1 onza ; see u. 
dineral, comp. oitava ; (3) Mex. met. furnace about 48 inches high 
and 10 inches square, used for lead-smelting, syn. horno (2) castellano. 

CASTIGAR, Mex. to smooth or plane surfaces of rock or board (Dwight). 

CASTiLLETE, hoist, pulley-frame, see horca (1) ; bor. shear-legs, see 
caballete (7) ; c. grua, crane pulley-frame (Fr. chevalement-grue). 

CASTILLO, (1) Mex. the frame of the stamper [pi!6n (4)] ; (2) hoist, 
pulley-frame, see horca (1). 

CASTINA, fluor or flux, see fundente ; calcareous flux used when the 
ore contains much clay (Acad.). 

CATA, (1) a mine [mina (2)] denounced for trial ; (2) a mine of shallow 
depth, see mina (2) ; (3) a placer (placer) ; the first placers in Brazil 
were called catas (A. J. Bowie) ; on the Gold Coast, West Africa, 
place where women wash gold (Dr. Karl Futterer) ; (4) a pit made 
in quest of a vein, a costeaning-pit, or test-pit ; in Ant. Col. an arti- 
ficial pit in aventaderos (1) and labores (4) bajas, made in order to 
examine the richness and depth of material (Uribe) ; a cata or calicata 
or excavation in Spain must not exceed 10 m. long or deep ; at Minas 
Geraes, Braz. a cata is a rounded pit sometimes dug to the depth of 
15 to 20 in. (cata, Port. = a view, a search) ; syn. Venez. barranco (3), 
corte (5), comp. picado ; cala is very similar (hacer cala y cata, 
to examine a thing for the purpose of ascertaining it* quantity 
and quality, hence calicata) ; catatita or piquete (1) is a small cata ; 



(5) Mex. subsidence (Venator), see revenimiento ; (6) boring-auger 
(Ponce de Leon), see barrena (1). 

CATACORTE, Ant. Col. (1) opening or trench made to examine the 
structure and quality of a formation, see zanja (1) ; (2) open cut of 
large size made for the passage of a ditch, or for cutting a vein (Uribe), 
comp. brecha (3), zanja (1). 

CATAR, see catear. 

CATARATA, (1) cataract or large waterfall, see salto (3) ; (2) cataract 
of a pumping-engine. 

CATATITA, see u. cata (4). 

GATE, Phil, the tenth part of chinanta, or a weight equiv. to 1 Ib. 6 oz. 
Spanish, or 632'63 g. (Acad.), see pico (7). 

CATEADO, DA, pp. of catear ; una mina cateada, or una veta cateada, 
a mine or vein that has catas (4) sunk on it. 

CATEADOR, prospector, syn. buscador, catero, Fr. Guiana, merodeador, 
Mex. pintista, comp, buscones (1), explorador, faiscador. 

CATEAR, (1) to search for minerals or new mines, to prospect, syn. 
catar, buscar, comp. explorar, faiscar ; (2) Col. to make a small pit 
[cata (4)] to prove the probable richness of a mine ; (3) Col. to pan ; 
(4) Col. to dolly. 

CATEO, prospecting, etc. 

CATERO, prospector, see cateador. 

CATINGAS, Braz. forests of trees generally small and deciduous, form- 
ing a connecting-link between the virgin forests (matos virgens) and 
the carrascos (Kenwood), see capoeiras. 

CATODO, el. cathode or negative pole. 

CATRINES, Mex. name given by Indians to foreigners generally, and 
includes Spaniards (gachupines), French (gavachos), and Germans, 
English and North Americans (gringos) (Brackel-Welda). 

CAUCE, (1) top. the channel of a river, see alveo (1) ; (2) leat, see 

CAUCHO, india-rubber, rubber, syn. goma elastica, hule (2), Peru, 
jebe (2). 

CAUDAL, c. de un rio, discharge of, or quantity of water in, a river, 
syn. venaje, see descarga (3). 

CAUDALOSO, SA, adj. carrying much water (of rivers, lakes, springs, 

CAUNCE, Ant. Col. tree of highly resisting and fibrous wood, with 
oblong leaves and flowers of a beautiful golden yellow colour its 
roots produce excellent charcoal for smiths' shops (Uribe). 

CAVA, (1) obs. ditch, see acequia ; (2) cavas, Reocin, Santander, Sp. 
in the calamine quarries, successive cuts or slices made in the deposit 
on either side of a central shaft or winze and following the natural 
talus of the rock. The cut is made with a cortadera (2), a kind 
of shovel [pala (1)] provided with a long handle (Molina), comp. 
tajos (5). 



CAVERNA, (1) cavern, cave, see cueva (1) ; (2) hollow in a rock, (Derb.) 
swallow, comp. drusa. 

CAVIDAD, (1) cavity, excavation ; (2) c. de un filon, hole or vug 
(Ponce de Leon), see drusa. 

CAVOUCAR, Port, to dig stones from a quarry (Elwes). 

CAVOUCO, Port, the hollow made in a quarry (Elwes). 

CAVOUQUEIRO, Port, quarryman, see cantero (2). 

CAZ, flume, syn. canal (5), Ant. Col. canoa (1), carcamo (4), chiflon (2), 
saetin, see mampuesto (3), prensa (1), rega, talabordones (1). NOTE. 
Caz also = canal, trench or ditch near rivers for irrigation (see u. 
tambre), and mill-race, conduit or leat, see conducto, desaguador, 
presa (2). 

CAZADERA, Mex. timb. hitch, see huida (1). 

CAZAR, Mex. to ram with a piece of timber (Dwight). 

CAZEADOR, Mex. amalgamator, see amalgamador. 

CAZO, (1) large kettle or boiler, see caldera (1) ; (2) Mex. a caldron or 
vessel with a copper bottom (fondo) for heating and amalgamating 
the ore, syn. fondo (1) ; (3) beneficio de c., the cazo, caldron or hot 
amalgamation process invented by Alonso Barba, at Potosi, Bolivia, 
in 1590, syn. amalgamation en caliente, see polveo, u. prueba (1) ; 

(4) metales de c., Mex. ores containing silver in a state of chloride, 
bromide or iodide (generic name =-= plata verde), comp. calidos. 

CEBA, see cebo. 

CEBACHORES, Mex. in the patio process, the men who feed the stamps 
and are paid 6| reales per day (Lyon, 1826-8), comp. alimentador. 

CEBADA, barley ; paja de c., barley-straw given with maize to mules 
and horses working malacates (1) etc., comp. cebo (5). 

CEBADERA, (1) horse-bag, see cebo (5), comp. morral ; (2) a sort of 
basket (canasta) or bucket for feeding furnace [horno (2)]. 

CEBADERO, met. feed-opening or mouth of a furnace, etc., see boca (7). 

CEBADO, see cebar (4). 

CEBADURA, Hid. Mex. surface ore or metal flor (A. del M. de F.). 

CEBAR, (1) Mex. to smelt rich ore in a refining-furnace, see cebo (1) ; 
(2) Mex. to feed or supply a furnace with materials for smelting, to 
charge, see u. cargar (2) ; (3) Mex. to add more mercury to the torta, 
etc., see cebo (3) ; (4) c. el barreno (1), blast, to prime the drill-hole ; 

(5) c. la bomba, to prime a pump or fill it with water in order to 
drive out the air ; (6) generally to start an engine, etc. 

CEBO, (1) metal de c., Mex. very rich silver ore run down in refinery 
furnaces (Gamboa), syn. mogrollo, see cebar (1), comp. molonque ; 
(2) charge for a smelting-furnace, see u. carga (4) ; (3) Mex. in the 
patio process, the second addition of mercury to the torta in the 
incorporo, syn. ceba ; (4) blast, priming as of gunpowder ; cebo or 
c. fulminate, percussion cap (capsula) ; (5) a feed, as oats for horses, 
see cebadera (1), comp. cebada ; (6) cart-grease (Velazquez), see 
sebo ; (7) Ant. Col. pure or dolomitic carbonate of lime deposited in 



veins by infiltration (M. U. Angel), see caliza ; (8) pump, priming, 
see cebar (5). 

CEBOLLA (onion), round part of a lamp (lampara) into which oil is put ; 
for candil de c., see u. candil. 

CECA, a mint, see casa (3). 

CEDAZO, (1) hand-sieve, small sieve for assay purposes, syn. zaranda 
(1) de mano, comp. cernidor (1), criba, harnero, sano-sano ; (2) 
jigging-sieve, see tamiz ; c. oscilante, brake-sieve, jigging-sieve (Ponce 
de Leon). 

CEDRO, cedar (cf various species), syn. Peru, cibru, see tuya. 

CEDULA, decree, order, bill, schedule or writing ; warrant, share, 
scrip ; c. de aduana, a permit ; c. de cambio, bill of exchange ; c. 
real, royal letters patent (Newman and Baretti). 

CEGAR (to blind), c. un pozo de mina, to cover a shaft (Ponce de Leon), 
see u. hundido, da. 

CEJA (eyebrow), (1) Mex. in testing the torta in the patio process, the 
silvery white crescent of amalgam that forms at the head of the 
vanning product. The amalgam in this very finely divided con- 
dition is known as Hmadura (4) ; (2) hacer la c., Ant. Col. to form 
the gold into a half-moon or eyebrow by inclining the batea, giving it 
a slight movement with one hand, and dropping a little water on it 
from the other. Gold washers in Colombia are very expert at this, 
see also lengua (4). 

CEJO, angle formed by the intersection of two galleries (Ponce de Leon). 

CELADOR, see revisador (1). 

CELEMIN, dry measure = one-twelfth of a fanega ; half a celemin = 
maquila (4). 

CELLAR, hierro c., see u. hierro (1). 

CELOSIA, lattice-work, see u. puente (1), and tirante (1), viga. 

CEMENT ACl6N, beneficio por c., met. cementation process, see u. 
cemento (4). 

CEMENT AR, met. to put iron bars in solutions of salts of copper in 
order to precipitate the latter metal. 

CEMENTO, (1) very hydraulic lime or cement, syn. cimento, cimiento 
(2), see argamasa (2), betun (2) ; (2) geol. cementing material of a 
breccia or conglomerate, see u. argamasoso, sa ; (3) any uniting 
composition which is plastic when applied, but hardens in place ; 
(4) met. brown deposit obtained in the precipitation tank by the 
addition of sulphate of iron to the solution (chlorination process) ; 
(4) met. material in which the metal is embedded in the cementing 
furnace [horno (2) de cementation]. 

CENDRA, (1) met. paste of bone-ash or other material for making 
cupels [copela (1)] or tests [copela (2)] ; (2) cupel, see copela (1). 

CENDRADA, (1) Mex. the bottom of the refining or cupelling furnace, 
made of very fine earth or ashes of plants, which have been lixiviated, 
the test, syn. copela (2) ; (2) Mex. materials of which a cupelling test 



is made, see cendra (1) ; (3) Chile, crucible of a copper-smelting 

furnace, see crisol (2). 
CENDRADILLA, Mex. small vessel or refining furnace (reverberatory) 

for rich ores, syn. galeme (3). 

CENICERO, ash-hole, ashpit, ashpan, see u. buitron (2). 
CENICILLA, Mex. black earthy residue obtained in reducing quicksilver 

ores in the old Mexican gallery furnace (J. Mactear), comp. ceniza (2), 

see mercurio (2). 

CENIDO, Mex. narrowed (Dwight). 
CENIT, surv. zenith. 

GENITAL, surv. angulos cenitales, zenith or vertical angles, as dis- 
tinguished from horizontal angles (azimutes). 
CENIZA, (1) ashes, cinder ; c. de hueso, bone-ash, see cendra (1) ; 

(2) Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. a black ash, or mixture of antimony 

oxide, soot, and mercury (30 per cent.) obtained from the condensing 

chambers, comp. cenicilla, see mercurio (2). 
CENIZO, ZA, adj. ash-coloured or resembling ashes ; for plata ceniza or 

metal (3) cenizo, see u. plata (2). 
CENIZO-NEGRO, region de, Chafiarcillo, Chile, the second zone still 

containing chloride of silver, but in which ruby silver first appears ; 

it is a transition zone, gradually merging into the negros (5) zone 

CENOTE, deposit of water found in Mexico and elsewhere in America, 

generally at a great depth in the centre of a cavern (Acad.), see cueva 


CENSO, quit-rent ; census. 

CENTRO, (1) centre ; (2) height and depth of a thing ; (3) axis (of 
a stream, etc.), see eje (1). 

CEPILLAR, carp, to plane, see acepillar. 

CEPILLO, (1) carpenter's plane, syn. juntera, repasadera ; c. bocel, 
moulding- plane ; c. grande, planer, c. chico, shaper ; c. de ranurar, 
rabbit-plane, see garlopa, guillame ; (2) mech. prep, a brush, e.g., a 
horse-brush used for washing tables and screens, see escobilla (1). 

CEPO, (1) Mex. a cylindrical post fixed into the bottom of an arrastre 
(3), and upon which the vertical post or peon (3) revolves (S. Ramirez) ; 
(2) a notch in which timber is fixed (Dwight), see huida (1) ; (3) the 
cross-sill of a battery-frame ; there are usually two in the native mills 
of Ant. Col., known as the c. superior (upper), and c. inferior (lower) ; 
(4) c. de tornillo, u. haul., screw-grip used in tightening the tail-rope 
(Molina) ; (o) block of an anvil (yunque), syn. macho (10), tajo (7). 

CEQUIA, CEQUI6N, obs. see acequia. 

CERA, (1) wax ; c. fosil or mineral, mineral wax or ozocerite ; 
(2) tapers and candles of wax ; (3) side- walk, see acera (1). 

CERBATARA, see u. macana (2). 

CERCA, (1) fence, enclosing wall or hedge, see also cierro, estacada 
(1) ; (2) Chile, bed-rock, see roca (6) it' is sometimes spelt circa. 


CERCAR, to fence, enclose, see cerrar (2), vallar. 

CERCHA, (1) a thin and flexible wooden rule for measuring convex 
or concave surfaces (Acad.), see galibo ; (2) name given to the 
compound sill [solera (3)] used in tunnelling by the English method 

CERCO, (1) hoop or ring, see argolla ; (2) c. depuerta or ventana, frame 
of a door or window, see marco (4) ; (3) Marmato, Cauca, Col. mine 
timber (madera) 10 feet X 9 inches X 3 inches (Gamba) ; (4) Peru, 
a circular floor, closely paved with stones and cement, and bounded 
by a wall from 3 to 4 feet high, syn. buitron (4) it corresponds to 
the patio (1) of Mexico ; (5) Braz. a sort of coffer-dam [represa (1)] 
used in alluvial river workings, comp. tapon (3), trincho (2) ; (6) see 
anillo (6). 

CERICORIAS, see agulhas. 

CERNEDOR, Ant. Col. buddler, see cernidor (2), cernir (1). 

CERNER, see cernir. 

CERNIDERO, Ant. Col. the place where the buddling operation takes 
place in minas de saca, syn. renidero (cock-pit). 

CERNIDOR, Ant. Col. (1) a concave wooden screen for sifting the 
fine from the coarse gold, see cedazo (1) ; (2) mech. prep, a buddle, frame 
or sleeping-table, usually 1 foot high, 1 foot wide and 2 yards long, 
used for getting rid of the waste and poorer sands. At the Zancudo 
mine the cernidores are 9 feet long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches 
high. Below the cernidor is a tablero ( 10), see u. cajon (5), gandinguero, 
u. mesa (1), planilla. (3) A buddler; (4) Mex. moving screen, 
trommel (Dwight), see u. criba (2). 

CERNIR, (1) to sift or separate with a sieve, syn. cerner, see cribar ; 
(2) Ant. Col. to buddle, syn. renir, see cernidor (2). 

CERRACHO, Huancavelica, Peru, smalls or granza of mercury ores, 
forming the top charge in the Barba furnace (Umlauff), see aludel. 

CERRADERO, (1) staple which receives the bolt (cerrojo) of a lock, 
staple, syn. argolla, armella, aro (2), cerradura (2), gozne (2), picolete ; 

(2) any hole made to receive the bolt of a lock. 

CERRADURA, (1) lock of a door (Fr. serrure), syn. cerraja, cierre ; 

c. de golpe or de muelle, spring-lock ; (2) staple (Ponce de Leon), see 

cerradero (1). 

CERRAJA, lock of a door, see cerradura (1). 
CERRAMIENTO, a mine dam (Fr. serrement), syn. dique (2), encunado, 

muro (3), tapon (4), see camisa (4), presa (1) ; c. de un pozo (Fr. 

plate-cuve), shaft dam ; c. esferico, c. en boveda, spherical dam ; 

c. piano, flat dam. 
CERRAR, (1) to lock or fasten with a bolt or latch ; c. un lampara, to 

lock a lamp ; (2) to fence or enclose a piece of ground, see cercar ; 

(3) cerrarse, to close up (of a vein), see se cierra. 

CERRAZ6N, Ant. Col. a portion of a placer (placer) abounding in large 
stones (Uribe). 



CERREJ6N, hillock, see cerro (1). 

CERRIL, adj. rough, uneven (of a country). 

CERRO, (1) hill or highland, generally a rocky hill or mountain, all 
heights superior to lomas and colinas ; Mex. " toda protuberacion 
aislada 6 que se levante en los accidentes de los montaiias " (Barcena) ; 
syn. montana (1), monte (1), see cerrejon, cuesta (1), mambla, morro (1), 
muela (5), promontorio (1), resbalo, terromontero ; (2) mina de c., 
Ant. Col. placer occurring near mountain-tops, or on the high table- 
lands where water is scarce (Uribe), see hucica, placer ; (3) flax or 
hemp (canamo) which is hackled or cleaned (Velazquez), comp. 
canal (10). 

CERROJO, bolt, bolt or bar of iron for fastening doors, etc., syn. pasador, 
pestillo, see cerradero (1), perno (2) ; c. de sujecion, hoist, bolt used 
in a certain type of safety-cage [jaula (2)]. 

CESTA, CESTO, basket or pannier ; c. de minero, miner's basket, see 

CHABETA, see chaveta. 

CHACHAL, Peru, graphi e, plumbago (Velazquez), see grafito. 

CHACRA, (1) see u. anta ; (2) Peru, a small tract of land owned by 
Indian miner " where his wife can grow corn and vegetables, a 
portion of which is bartered for coca with these and a little llama or 
sheep's-wool his necessities are fully supplied (A. L. Pearse) ; (3) Peru, 
Indian village (Tschudi). 

CHACUACO, Mex. (1) low-blast furnace [horno (2) de manga] for smelting 
silver ores (Acad.) ; (2) see galeme (1). 

CHACURRUSCAR, Peru, to mix several kinds of ore (Dwight). 

CHAFARRETA, Cartagena, Sp. mode of suspending wheelbarrow by 
strap to shoulders (Moncada). 

CHAFLAN, bevel or edge, see u. corte (1) ; blade of a pick perpendicular 
to the line of handle (arista). 

CHAGUALA, Col. gold ear- and nose-rings found in the guacas, syn. 

CHALANA, a scow, lighter ; square boat ; a kind of barge sometimes 
used for conveying minerals in canals, etc., see barcazo. 

CHALCO, Port, chalk, see creta. 

CHALCHIGUITE, see chalchihuitl. 

CHALCHIHUITL, Mex. " several minerals were included under this 
name (by the Aztecs), amongst them a green quartz or prase, some 
of the deep green varieties of tecal or Mexican onyx (so called) and 
probably turquoise ; but the precious chalchihuitl has now been 
proved to be jadeite " (G. F. Kunz) chalchigiiite and chalchuites 
appear to be variations in the spelling, see jade, quitzalitztli. 

CHALCHUITES, Mex. jade (called emeralds by Prescott), see chalchihuitl, 

CHALUPA (sloop), Mex. (1) hoist, skip, equiv. Fr. cuffat prismatique, 
comp. tonel (2) ; ch. de seguridad, safety-skip. NOTE. Cages [jaula 



(2)] are sometimes incorrectly termed chalupas. (2) A canoe for one 
or two persons only, used in the chinampas (or " floating gardens ") 
of Mexico City (Acad.). 

CHAMBA, Col. pit or trench, see zanja (1). 

CHAMBRANA, (1) Ant. Col. fence round boiler-houses, etc. (2) carp, 
door-case or window-frame, see marco (4) ; (3) hoop of wood or iron 
on upper portions of doors and windows (Guim), see dintel. 

CHAMBURGO, Ant. Col. dike of poles, branches and earth, behind 
which the water extracted from the alluvial excavation is thrown 
(Uribe), syn. chicadero, jamuradero, see dique (1), comp. virada de rio. 

CHAMPA, Peru, turf, see turba (1). 

CHAMP AN, S. Am. a vessel of from 70 to 80 tons burden used for carrying 
freight up rivers ; it is propelled by long poles on the same principle 
as a punt, and is covered with a large toldo. 

CHAMUSCAR (to singe or scorch), Peru, a superficial roasting or calci- 
nation to facilitate the grinding of ore (Dwight), see calcination. 

CHANCA, Chile and Peru, ore-sorting or spalling, comp. machaqueo, 
maquina de ch., ore-crushing machine ; operario de ch. spaller , see 

CHANCACA, Sayapullo, Cajabamba, Peru, oxidised ore or limonite 
(Santolalla), see colorados (1). 

CHANCADOR, Chile and Peru, spaller, see machador, comp. pallador. 

CHANCADORA, rock-breaker, see quebrantador. 

CHANCADOS, Peru, ores spalled to a uniform size (0. F. Pfordte). 

CHANCADURA, Chile, crushing with a rock- breaker. 

CHANCAL, the moraine of a glacier (Velazquez). 

CHANCAR, Chile, Peru, to cob ores, see chanquear, comp. machacar. 

CHANGOTE, an oblong bar of iron ; met. bloom, see barra (3). 

CHANQUEAR, to break the ore (Ponce de Leon), see chancar. 

CHANTO, prov. Gal. quarr. slate-rock in large sheets, see pizarra. 

CHAPA, (1) thin metal plate, see lamina (1) ; (2) mech. prep, bucking- 
plate, see plancha (3) ; (3) mech. prep, die, see dado (1) ; (4) mech. 
prep, battery-lining, see forro (1); (5) Mex. foliated structure 

CHAPA, Port, plate ; c. de juncao, Minas Gera:s, Braz. fish-plate (J. L. 
Tonkin), see also tala. 

CHAP ADA, Port, level ground, a plain ; chapadas, Braz. elevated plains 
or small plateaux, usually consisting of horizontal deposits, and 
separated by deep valleys of erosion (C. F. Hertt), see llano. 

CHAPADAO, Braz. a chapada of great extent. 

CHAPALETA, CHAPELETA, pump, clapper, clack, clack-valve, see 
aventador, u. valvula (sometimes spelt clapete, from French clapet). 

CHAPAPOTE, Cuba, Santo Domingo and Actopan, Vera Cruz, Mex. 
asphaltum (betun asfalto Ramirez) or mineral pitch. According 
to Humboldt the mineral tar of Trinidad is also called chapapote, see 



CHAPARRA, (1) see chaparro ; (2) Am. bramble-bush. 
CHAPARRAL, (1) plantation of evergreen oaks ; (2) Am. thick bramble- 
bushes entangled with thorny shrubs in clumps (Velazquez). 
CHAPARRO, evergreen oak-tree, syn. chaparra, see encina. 
CHAPETON, see gachupin. 

CHAPOLA (butterfly), Ant. Col. name sometimes given to the rouncl- 
buddle, see gandinguera (1). 

CHAQUETA (jacket), ch. de agua, met. water-jacket, see camisa (1) ; 
ch. de caldera (2), boiler-casing ; ch. de cilindro, cylinder- jacket ; ch. 
de vapor, steam-jacket. 

CHAQUIRES, see hapires (2). 

CHARCO, (1) pool of standing water ; small lake, see balsa (1), comp. 
alberca (1), chiflon (1), chilanco, cienaga (2), encharcada, jagiiey (1), 
raudal, remanso, remolino ; (2) ch. de cuajar sal, Campeche and 
Yucatan, Mex. ground which is evaporated by the heat of the sun, 
comp. pila (3) ; (3) Ant. Col. the deepest and quietest part of a river, 
comp. cilanco, gorfe, remanso ; (4) see cueva (4) ; (5) a basket, see 

CHARC6N, Ant. Col. a big pond or tank of water, comp. albercon. 

CHARNELA, (1) hinge ; hinge-joint, knuckle, see bisagra (2) ; 
(2) bloque de ch. mech. guide (Fr. coulisseau). 

CHARQUEADOR, (1) cart-filler ; (2) Mex. blast, the striker in two- 
handled drilling ; (3) the helper who, under the old system, sorted 
the material from ground worked down by the miner (Dwight). 

CHARQUEAR, see u. charqueo. 

CHARQUEO, (1) filling baskets [charcos (5)] by hand, see canasta ; 
(2) ch. interior, the cleaning out of the small reservoirs [piletas (1)] 
or pools of water in order to direct them by channels to the shaft 
(Gamboa, 1761). 

CHARQUERO, channel which connects water from the distant part of 
a mine to the sump [caja (3)] (Ansa's MS. 1793), see cuneta (2). 

CHARQUIERA, Chile, metallics contained in the ores (G. V. Hopkins), 
comp. jagua (3). 

CHARQUILLO, small pool or puddle, see charco (1). 

CHATO, TA, adj. flat ; for valvula chata, see u. valvula. 

CHAT6N, kind of coarse diamond (Velazquez), see diamante. 

CHAVERA, see u, laja. 

CHAVETA, collar or key (Fr. clavette) ; key-bolt or cotter-bolt, see u. 
pasador ; gib, see perro (2). NOTE. Often spelt chabeta. 

CHICADERO, see chamburgo. 

CHICAR, Ant. Col. to bail water out of pits, in minas de saca and vein 
mines, by means of large bateas or other vessels (Uribe), see achicar, 

CHICARRA, ratchet-drill (Venator), see berbiqui. 



CHICHARR6N, Ant. Col. a nugget of gold (aug. of chicharo, a pea), see 

CHICHICLE, CHICHITLE, Mex. a miner's term for rock crystal or 
amethyst (Barcena). In Guanajuato such crystals are localised in 
natural geodes (Ramirez), see cuarzo. 

CHICUITE, see chiquichuite. 

CHIFLADERO, Mex. ore-hopper (Dwight), see tolva (1). 

CHIFLARSE, Mex. blast, to waste itself (as the force of an explosion) 
through a fissure in a rock (Dwight), comp. bocazo. 

CHIFLE, (1) whistle, see silbato ; (2) tide, see u. agua (5). 

CHIFL6N, (1) channel through which water discharges itself with 
force (Acad.) ; Ant. Col. a bubbling spring [hervidero (1)] or pool 
[charco (1)] into which the waters of a current fall with noise (Uribe), 
comp. balsa (3), charco (1) ; (2) a current of air passed through a 
narrow place ; a strong draught of air ; (3) a wooden flume, see caz ; 
(4) Span. Am. an inclined gallery (Mex. empatillado) ; c.m. dook or 
dip dr'ft ; m.m. inclined winze ; Chile, an inclined shaft or pit 
sunk obliquely at angles seldom more than 60 or less than 40, and 
averaging about 50 from the horizon (Kenwood), comp. barreta 
(4) ; trabajar a ch., to open up, making way in length and depth ; to 
drive an inclined gallery or shaft ; (5) Mex. cave of loose stones in 
the interior of mines (Acad.), see derrumbe (1). 

CHIGRE, (1) winch, see torno (2) ; steam- winch. 

CHILANCO, see cilanco. 

CHILE, (1) Mex. refractory clay, see arcilla ; (2) Peru, greatest depth of 
a mine (Dwight), comp. fondo (3), profundidad ; (3) Peru, descending 
gallery following the dip of the vein, see galeria, comp. chimenea (5). 

CHILENO, molino ch., edge-mill, syn. Mex. rastron, see u. solera (1), 
volandera (1). 

CHILLA, (1) clavo de ch., tack, a small nail with a broad head, see 
tachuela ; (2) tablas de ch., thin boards of split deal, battens, see u. 
tabla (1). 

CHILLADO, prov. roof of shingles or chillas (2). 

CHILL6N, nail, tack [chilla (1)]; ch. real, spike used to fasten large 
timbers or planks (Velazquez). 

CHILUCA, Mex. a hornblendic variety of trachyte (traquita) used for 
building purposes (Barcena) ; a trachy-andesite (Bol. del I. G. de M.). 

CHIMALTIZATL, Mex. an Aztec name for a kind of talc (talco), which, 
on calcining, yields a fine plaster, used by the Mexicans to whiten 
their paintings (Clavijero). 

CHIMBO, Honduras, smelting furnace (W. A. Thacher), see horno (2). 

CHIMENEA, (1) chimney, see campana (12), canon (3), cintura ; 'chimney 
or stack of a smelting-furnace, etc., see pivote (1), ch. de ventilacion, 
ventilating stack, see trompa (3) ; (2) hearth, fireplace, see hogar (1) ; 
(3) a winze, see clavada ; (4) S. Sp. vent, a kind of brattice [tabique 






\ sT* 

i/ / ' ' '-.j 




/ - 

/ ' 

FIG. 23. Chimenea (4) 

(after Molina). 
a 6, chiinenea gcmela : 

c, chiinenea de rincon ; 

d, chimenea de tragante. 

(3)] : (a) ch. gemela, battens (listones de madera) (a b, Fig. 23) are 

placed across the shaft 1 metre apart ; the brattice, made of reeds 

(canas) tied together with pack-thread (hilo bsamente), forming what 

is called a zarzo (3), i? nailed or tied to the 

battens, and covered with 1 to 2 c.m. of kneaded 

gypsum (yeso amasado) ; sometimes a little 

dry earth or roya is added (Molina) ; (b) ch. de 

rincon (see Fig. 23 c) ; (c) ch. de tragante, 

ventilating chimney excavated in the 

" country " (see Fig. 23 d) (5) Algamarca, 

Cajabamba, Peru, ascending gallery, following 

the dip of the vein, see galeria, comp. chile 

(3) ; (6) narrow excavation opened in the 

roof of a mine-working or a hole in same 

resulting from a fall of ground (Acad.), see 

derrumbe (1). 
CHINA, (1) generic name for any small stone 

or fragment of stone, pebble, see guijarro (1) ; 

(2) Almaden, Sp. poor quicksilver ore, comp. 

metal (4), requiebro (2), vacisco ; (3) porcelain, china, see porcelana (1). 
CHINANTA, Phil, a weight = 6'326 k., or one-tenth of a pico (7). 
CHINARRO, a large pebble, boulder-stone, see guijarro -(I). 
CHINATEADO, Almaden, Sp. met. layer of small stones over the large 

ore in the distilling furnaces (quicksilver) (Acad.). 
CHINAZO, a large pebble, see guijarro (1). 
CHINGANA, Peru and Bol. a tunnel, underground gallery (Velazquez), 

see galeria (also = U.S.A. " dive "). 
CHINI-LIGA, Potosi, Bol. a finer variety of galena (galena) than carne 

de vaca (1), and always richer in silver (M. Roberts). 
CHINILLA, a small pebble, see guijarro (1). 
CHINO, NA, adj. for pasta china, see u. pasta (5). 
CHINO, (1) iron pyrites ; (2) copper pyrites, see pirita. 
CHIQUICHUITE, Mex. basket (canasta) without a handle used for 

carrying rubbish, etc., out of mines, and made of guilocote (sometimes 

spelt chicuite). 
CHIQUERO (pig-sty), name given to cribbing, or chocks (U.S.A. pen, 

Australia, pig-sty) used in timbering wide seams or lodes. 
CHISPA, (1) spark; ch. electrica, electric spark ; (2) very small diamond 

(diamante) ; (3) nugget of gold, see pepita ; (4) piedra de ch., flint 

used with steel [eslabon (2)] for striking fire, see pedernal (2) ; 

(5) chispa-chispeada, Batopilas, Chih. Mex. native silver in small thin 

leaves, but visible to the eye ; ore containing one-third native silver, 

syn. chispeada, chispeado, comp. broza (2). 
CHISPEADA, CHISPEADO, see chispa (5). 
CHISPERO. spark-arrester ; alambre, wire cap of a chimney (Ponce 

de Leon).' 



CHISPIADOR, Peru, gold-washer in river-placers (Dwight), see lavador 

CHIVA (kid), Mex. bar with claw for drawing spikes (Dwight), see u. 

barra (1). 
CHOCAR (to knock or jostle), Ant. Col. alluv. m. to break up (batir) the 

pay-dirt with water, using bars and other tools, in order to conduct 

the loosened material to the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] (Uribe), see 

CHOCLO DE ORO, Peru, a mass of native gold (say 1 oz. or more) in its 

matrix (Dwight), see pepita. 
CHOCOL6N, Mex. (1) the part of the hole [barreno (1)] remaining in the 

rock after a blast (Dwight) ; (2) timb. hitch in a rock (Dwight), see 

CHOLLA, Mex. opening or hollow space. A small space filled with soft 

ore (Dwight), see drusa. 
CHOLO, LA, adj. civilised (of Indians). 
CHOLO, Peru and Bol. half-breed of European and Indian parentage ; 

Cholo barretero, Indian miner, see minero (2). 
CHOQUE DE ARIETE, pump, water-hammer, water-ram, or (U.S.A.) 

knock, syn. golpe de ariete, equiv. Fr. coup de belier. 

CHORCA, prov. pit or hole dug in the ground (Velazquez), see hoyo (1). 
CHORLO, schorl or common black tourmaline (turmalina) ; c. negro, 

L. Cal. Mex. tourmaline crystals (Lucas). 
CHORREADERO, Mex. (1) shoot for ore, see paso (2) ; (2) loose or 

running ground (Dwight), comp. chorrera (3). 
CHORREAR, Mex. in the patio process, after the rendida, the liz or 

ceja (1) is said to drop (chorrear). 
CHORRERA, Mex. (1) chorreras, old or abandoned stopes, comp. 

sacados, salon (2) ; (2) sho:>t of ore, see clavo (2) ; (3) a run of loose 

rock (Dwight), comp. chorreadero (2) ; (4) rapids of a river, see 

CHORRO, (1) jet of water, see hilo (5) ; ch. de vapor, steam-jet ; (2) 

spring of water found in mines (Dwight), see manantial ; (3) chorros, 

Atacama Prov. Chile, dikes of diabase traversing the calcareous 

marl country, or sheets injected between the beds of same, the silver 

veins are enriched in a vertical sense by the chorros (E. B. Dorsey), 

see dique (5), comp. u. manto (1) ; the name is also given by the miners 

to any sterile fault. 

CHORR6N, hackled or dressed hemp (canamo). 
CHORTAL, fountain or spring at the surface, see manantial. 
CHOZA, Mex. hut, see jacal (1). 
CHUA, Chile, small round dish or saucer of black unglazed earthernware, 

4 inches in diameter and ^ inch deep, syn. achua, comp. batea. 
CHUCA, Chile, a friable layer of sand and gypsum overlaying costra and 

caliche (1) ; also described as dull brown and powdery soil frequently 

strewn with angular fragments of reddish black porphyry rock, and 



sometimes broken by small pit-like depressions lined with saline 

CHUCHERO, S. Am. rail, pointsman (Ponce de Le6n), see cambiador de 

CHUCHO, (1) Cuba, rail, switch, see cambio (1) ; (2) siding, see desvio 


CHUGA, see puruna (2). 

CHULANO, barreno a ch., upward drill-hole [barreno (1)]. 
CHULLADOR, Peru and Chile, a wrought-iron settler, formerly used in 

evaporating caliche (1), see cachuco, estanque (3). 
CHUMACERA, an iron socket for spindles of shafts, bearing, journal 

bearing, syn. cajera, see cojinete (1), pedestal, soporte (1), comp. 

candelero (2), quicio (4), tejuelo (1). 
CHUMBE, (1) Potosi, Bol. zinc-blende, syn. Peru, chumpe, see blenda ; 

(2) Ant. Col. strap of coloured wool for carrying the carriel. 
CHUMBO, Port. (1) lead, see plomo (1); (2) plummet, see plomada ; 

(3 ) see u. agulhas ; (4) Ouro Preto, Braz. pyrites ( J. L. Tonkin), see 

CHUPADOR, see alcachofa. 

CHUPADOR, RA, adj., bomba chupadora, suction-pump, see u. bomba 

(1). , 

CHUPON, (1) pump, plunger, pole or ram (Ponce de Leon), see u. 
embolo (1) ; (2) c. de bomba, pump, valve-bucket (Ponce de Le6n) ; 

(3) opening at surface due to caving-in of ground in mine workings 
(Molina), see buzon (6), embudo (3), revenimiento. 

CHURRO, see candil. 

CHURUMBELA, Ant. Col. micaceous and talcose schist, yellow and 
reddish, resulting from the decomposition of felsite ; this kind of 
country sometimes forms the walls of veins, when it is an unfavour- 
able sign (Uribe) ; according to Angel " esquisto talcoso llamado 
piedra de c., reconocido come el mejor respaldo de las minas de oro." 
In Amain it is a complex hornblendic material forming here and 
there the false wall of the gold-bearing vein (Gamba), see esquisto, 
pena (5). 

CHUZA, Mex. mech. prep, a washer or settler [see u. estanque (3)] ; 
catch- basin for mercury (D wight) ; in the patio process, circular 
washer, settler or settling- tank for the raspa (2), 3 m. in diameter 
and 0'5 m. deep, see reposadero (4), comp. lavadero (3), tina (2). 

CHUZO (pike), (1) blast, a stick with an iron point, see u. barra (6) ; 
(2) Cauca, Col. long, wooden, iron-tipped sounding-rod for locating 
shafts in alluvial mines (low flats with bed-rock near or below the 
level of the stream) ; (3) pala de ch., round-pointed shovel, see pala ; 

(4) Chile, pointed tool used in washing gold in sluices, in extracting 
borax (ulexite) in large pieces, etc., syn. picota (2). 

CIANURO, cyanide, see u. beneficio (3). 
CIBRU, see cedro. 

97 G 



CIEGO, GA, adj. piedra ciega, see u. piedra. 

CIELO, (1) roof, ceiling of a room, etc., see cimborio, cupola ; (2) roof 
of an adit, or of any mine-working, see techo (2) ; (3) a c. abierto, 
quarrying, ayn. a roza abierta, encantera, equiv. Fr. abattage a ciel 
ouvert, Ger. Steinbruchbau, Pingenbau, see corta (2), tajo (2) abierto ; 
(4) trabajar de c., to stope overhand, ayn. Mex. rebajar del c., trabajar 
de cabeza (6) ; trabajo de c., overhand or overhead stoping, syn. 
Mex. rebaje del c., see u. testero (3) ; (5) trabajo a c., rising, syn. 
labor a c., see contracielo ; (6) labrado de c., see comido. 

CIIiNEGA, (1) marsh, moor, comp. cieno, estero (1) ; (2) S. Am. lake 
or lagoon, see laguna (1), pantano (1), comp. balsa (1), charco (1). 

CIENMILESIMO, see u. diezmilesimo. 

CIENO, mud, mire, marshy ground, comp. cienaga (1). 

CIERRE, (1) hoist, locking of doors of cages ; light, locking of safety- 
lamps ; (2) lock, c. de seguridad, hoist, 
lock for closing door of cages, see Fig. 24 
(after Molina) ; c. a tornillo, light, 
screw-lock of safety-lamp ; c. con 
marchamos, lock with marks for ditto 
(Molina) ; (3) valvula de c., stop-valve, 
see u. valvula. 

CIERRO, enclosure, see cerca (1). 

CIGONAL, machine with which water is 
drawn from wells by a crank ; wind- 
lass, syn. cigiienal (1), see torno (2). 

CIGtJAIRO, Peru, peacock-coloured, syn. 
civairo (D wight). 

CIGtJENA, (1) handle of a windlass 
[torno (2)], syn. manigueta, mani- 
vela (1), manubrio (2) ; c. de piedra 
de amolar, iron winch of a grind- 
stone ; (2) windlass, see torno (2) ; (3) bell-crank, crank, see manu- 
brio (3) ; cigiienas de las valvulas de vapor, crank arrangement of the 
valves of a Corliss engine (cut-off), equiv. Fr. secteurs. 

CIGtJENAL, (1) see cigonal ; (2) crank, see manubrio (3) ; c. de cam- 
pana, bell-crank ; c. de bomba, brake or sweep of a pump (Ponce de 

CIGUENUELA, dim. of ciguena. 

CILANCO, a deep pool in bends, or slack water, of rivers (Velazquez), 
syn. chilanco, comp. charco (3). 

CILINDRO, (1) cylinder or roller ; c. estriado, fluted cylinder ; (2) 
barrel of a windlass, see arbol (2) ; (3) mech. cylinder of a steam- 
engine, etc., see culata (1) ; (4) cilindros, cilindros trituradores, mech. 
prep. Cornish crusher, (U.S.A.) rolls ; cilindros de fino, rolls for fine 
crushing ; cilindros de grueso or cilindros granceadores, rolls for 
coarse crushing, see u. resorte. 


FIG. 24. Cierre (2) de seguridad 

(after Molina). 

a, Picaporte ; b, nrxriz ; c, fall alia ; 
rf, pitones ; e, anillo ; f, eje. 



CIMA, summit (of a hill or mountain), sijn. cabecera (3), cabeza (13), 
cabezo, ceja (3), cresta (1), cumbre, punta (8), equiv. Port, coroa, see 
cuerda (8), cuspide. 

CIMBORIA, CIMBORRIO, cupola, dome, roof, see cielo (1). 
CIMBRA, (1) wooden frame or scaffolding on which an arch (arco) is 
constructed known as the centre or centering, see camon (1), galapago 
(4) ; (2) Ant. Col. primitive stamps worked by manual labour. At 
either end of a wooden axle-tree, and perpendicular to it, is a circular 
wheel or wooden frame, 8^ feet in diameter, provided with round 
pieces of wood 12 inches from centre to centre. A man stands at 
each wheel and works it by hauling on to the rungs. Three heads 
are used. 

CIMBRIA, see u. puente (1). 
CIMENTACI6N, foundation, see cimiento (1). 
CIMENTO, cement, see cemento (1). 

CIMIENTO, (1) ground- work or foundation of a building, syn. cimen- 
tacion, see fundacion ; c. de hormigon, concrete foundation ; (2) 
cement, see cemento (1) ; c. real, royal cement, a composition of salt, 
vinegar and brick-dust, for purifying gold (Neuman and Baretti), see 
u. granalla ; (3) mas. puddle, puddling (Ponce de Leon), see u. amasijo. 
CINABRIO, cinnabar, syn. llimpi (of Mexican Indians), mercur blenda, 
see acerado (2), bermellon, granate (2), u. mancha, mercuric (2), 
negro (2). 

CINC (zinc, zinque), (1) zinc (metal) ; (2) calamine or smitnsonite. 

CINCEL, (1) chisel, syn. carp, escoplo, formon, see boquilla (2), cortadera 

(1), cortafrio, escopa, gradino, gubia, puntero, rompedera, trincha (1), 

uneta ; (2) c. del Indio, Col. a very hard and resisting stone fashioned 

like a common chisel, by which the indigenous Indians worked their 

mines, and cut various substances (Uribe), sometimes found in guacas 

(1), syn. brunidor (burnisher), see Angel, PI. IX. Fig. 3 ; (3) Peru, 

native silver in large masses 

(Dwight), see pepita. 

CINCELAR, to chisel. 

CINCHA, girth, cinch, see u. 

cabuya (2). 

CINCHO, (1) belt or girdle 
used by labourers ; (2) 
tire of a wheel, see llanta 
(1) ; (3) Zac. Mex. timb. 
horizontal timber used for 
wedging stemple (estemple) 
against plank on hanging- 
wall see Fig 25 see oreia 
(2); (4) cmchos, Mex. shaft- 
frames or cribs which are separated from each other as in open crib 
timbering, see cuadro (1), comp. anillo (2). 


FIG. 25. Cincho < 3) (after Luis Carrion). 
Galapago (2) or plank serving as head-piece 
&, riostraoresteiuple(stull) ; c, cincho(3),usedfor 
wedging- & against a (ajuste de oreia). 


CINCORAS (Sincoras), Braz. diamonds from the Serra de Cincora, to 
distinguish them from the Diamantina stones (Bauer). 

CINCH6N, see u. cabuya (2). 

CINTA (ribbon, tape), (1) surv. measuring-tape, tape-line, tape-measure, 
syn. cuerda (2) metrica, Col. guasca (2), lienza (2), see metro (2) ; (2) 
Mex. a layer or band of mineral in a vein, pay-streak, syn. banda (2), 
Mex. cordon (2), faja (1), guia (17) defilon, hilera (4) costeable, ramaleo, 
veta (3), zona (1), see cinteado, da ; (3) Col. the auriferous layer in 
gravel deposits, the pay-dirt or pay-gravel, see cintarron, cueva (3), 
greda (4), u. hervida, sepe, tosca (3), vena (7), venerillo, venero (6) ; 

(4) Col. small poling used in sloping roof, and tied by guasca (1) ; 

(5) frena de c., hoist, band-brake, see u. freno (1) ; (6) trepano de c., 
bor. worm auger, see u. trepano. 

CINTARR6N, Col. a layer of pay-dirt of unusual thickness, see cinta (3). 
CINTEADO, DA, adj. estructura cinteada, Mex. banded or ribboned 

structure of veins, syn. Sp. estructura bandeada or fajeada, see cinta (2). 
CINTERO, hoist, rope made of hemp or esparto, see cable (1). 
CINTURA (waist), narrow part of a chimney [chimenea (1)] between the 

campana (12) and the flue or stack [canon (3)]. 
CIP6S, Braz. see u. taquara. 
CIRCA, (1) see cerco (2) ; (2) Peru, breaking down the " country " 

at the side of a vein, and leaving the ore for subsequent extraction, 

see desanchar (1), comp. llauca. 
CIRCAR, Peru, to break down the " country " or wall of a lode, see 

circa (2). 

CIRCO, see cerco (4). 
CIRC6N, zircon, see jacinto (1). 
CIRCULAR, see u. transporte. 
CIRCULO, (1) circle ; c. de la brujula (2), compass circle or card [naut. 

rosa (2)] ; (2) district, see distrito (1). 
CISALLAMIENTO, see desgarre. 
CISCO, (1) coal broken into small bits, broken coal ; (2) coal-dust, syn. 

polvo de carbon (2), see carboncillo (1). 
CISTERNA, (1) cistern, see estanque (3) ; (2) reservoir, see estanque 


CITACION, summons, judicial notice. 

CITAR, to cite, to summon before a judge ; to give judicial notice. 

CITARA, wall of the thickness of an ordinary brick, see muro (1). 

CIUDAD, (1) city, town ; (2) corporation, civic body. 

CIVA, Mex. stump of candle (Dwight), see cabo (4). 

CIVAIRO, see cigiiairo. 

CLAMA, large clamp iron (Ponce de Leon), see egrena. 

CLAPETE, see chapaleta. 

CLARO, (1) an open space in the lode from which ore has been taken 
out (M. J. Gloss, and Elwes), comp. salon (2) ; (2) c. de una criba, 
de las mallas, mech. prep, size of mesh, or " mesh " ; (3) hoist. 



space left in a ring, hook or link, split in a ring, etc. ; (4) space between 
standards of a ropeway, etc. 

CLASIFICACION, mech. prep, classifying. 

CLASIFICADOR, mech. prep, classifier. 

CLASIFICAR, mech. prep, to classify. 

CLAVADA, m.m. winze, c.m. staple, syn. Ant. Col. apique (2), Espiel, 
Cordoba, Sp. balanza (2), buzon (5), caldera (4), Linares, Sp. calderilla, 
chimenea (3) (if used for ventilation), coladero (1) (if used as a shoot), 
pocillo (2) interior, Cartagena, Sp. pozaco, Mex. pozo (3), pozo de 
comunicacion, pozo interne or interior, Almaden, Sp. profundidad (2), 
Mex. rebaje (3) [see rebajo (3)], Asturias, Sp. servicio, Las Alpujarras 
and Sierra Almagrera, Sp. tiro (2), equiv. Fr. puits interieur, Ger. 
blinde Schacht, comp. chiflon (4), contracielo (1). 

CLAVADO, DA, adj. veta clavada, Ant. Col. a vertical or nearly vertical 
vein, comp. u. echado, da. 

CLAVAR, to nail, see enclavar ; to drive a stake. 

CLAVAZ6N, (1) set of nails ; (2) c. de ferrocarril, railway spikes 
(Ponce de Leon), see perno (1). 

CLAVE, keystone of an arch (arco), syn. Have (9), see contraclave. 

CLAVEQUE, rock-crystal in the form of pebbles, see u. cristal (1). 

CLAVETE, tack, small nail, see clavillo, tachuela. 

CLAVIJA, (1) pin or peg ; c. de cigiiena, crank-pin, see pasador, perno 
(3) ; cotter or key, see u. curia (1) ; c. y contraclavija, cotter and gib, 
see perro (2) ; (2) rueda de clavijas, mech. sprocket-wheel or rag-wheel ; 

(3) quarr. lewis, syn. castanuela de cantera. 
CLAVILLO, CLAVITO, dim. of clavo. 

CLAVO, (1) nail or spike ; c. de ala de mosca, nail with a flattened head 
like a tack [c. de chilla, see chilla (1)], see espiga, hita, hiton, perno (1), 
prego trabal, puntilla, tachuela ; (2) Span. Am. a rich pay-chimney, 
column or shoot, i.e., an ore-body having more or less continuity in a 
vertical sense, but with horizontal limits, syn. carnara (2) (but includes 
chamber deposit), Mex. chorrera (2), clavo de metal, clavo rico, columna 

(4) rica, Ramos, Zac. Mex. cocinera, macizo (4) mineralizado, tramo 
rico (but includes course of ore), equiv. Fr. colonne metallifere, colonne 
riche, Ger. Erzfall, Erzsaule, comp. arbol (5), boleo (2), bolsa (1), 
boveda (2), criadero (2), cuerpo (6), moscas, ojo (1), rameos, remolino, 
salon (1). NOTE. The term clavo is often applied to any bunch of 
ore, or even to the pay-streak [cinta (2)] of a vein. (3) Ant. Col. a 
piece of gold which crosses a stone from one side to the other (Uribe) ; 
for plata de clavos, see u. plata (2) ; (4) the vertical bar of a perro de 
mina (Ger. Hund), equiv. Fr. clou (Molina) ; (5) point of a rake or 
other tool, see punta (1) ; (6) clavos, geol. inclusions of igneous rock 
in a sedimentary one. 

CLIVAGE, CLIVAJE, cleavage, see crucero (4). 
CM. = cienmilesimos, see u. diezmilesimos. 



COA, Mex. a kind of hoc [azadon (1)], see u. macana (1). 

COBALTO, (1) cobalt ; (2) cobalt ore ; c. arsenical, grey cobalt ore or 
smaltite ; c. brillante or c. gris, cobaltite ; flores de c., cobalt bloom. 

COBIJA, (1) gutter-tile, see baldosa (1) ; (2) cobijas, Linares, Sp. flags 
or thin flat stones of sandstone (lajas de arenisca), sometimes used to 
form a kind of bunding, stull or platform [camada (3)] ; they are 
usually placed flatly side by side (de piano) ; when one flagstone 
forms the roof = de bravo ; if two are placed in the form of a cuchillo 
[see u. armadura (2)] = de apuntado (Gillman and Molina), see baldosa 
(2), laja, losa. 

COBRE, (1) copper ; c. en plancha, sheet copper ; c. negro, black or 
blister copper ; c. roseta, rose copper ; ingot copper, syn. c. bruto en 
plancha ; (2) copper ore ; c. abigarrado, c. morado, c. piritoso hepa- 
tico, bornite, erubescite or " horseflesh ore " ; c. amarillo, c. piritoso, 
chalcopyrite or copper pyrites (see u. pirita, sotlanque) ; c. azul, 
azurite or blue copper ore ; c. gris, c. gris antimonial, tetrahedrite, 
syn. cochizo, esmaltina (2), pasta (5), pavonado (1) ; c. gris arsenical, 
tennantite ; c. rojo, red copper ore or cuprite [Cu.,O] ; c. salino, 
atacamite, see atacamita ; c. sulfurado vidrioso, c. sulfureo, c. vidrioso, 
chalcocite, redruthite, copper glance or vitreous copper ore ; c. verde, 
malachite ; c. virgen, native copper ; cobres, Asientos, Aguascalientes, 
Mex. copper ores which are smelted and come generally from the 
so-called mantos (3), and composed of oxides, carbonates and silicates 
of copper, accompanied by oxides of iron, carbonate and silicate of 
zinc, with a matrix composed of quartz, clay, calcite, fluor spar, and 
piedra radian te (a var. of hornblende) (S. Ramirez) ; for other ores 
of copper see abronzado (2), anilado, aplomados, atabacado, azulaque 
(3), barrilla (3), cobrizo, cochizo, cori-bronce, coro-coro (1), dorados, 
duros (1), famatinita, giiedales, lamosos, llamperas, llampos (1), 
negrillos (6), u. pastoso, sa, pastosos, polvorilla (2), rameos, sotlanque, 
verdiones, yesosos. 

COBRESE AL ENTREGAR = C.O.D. (collect on delivery) (Ponce de 

COBRIZO, ZA, adj. coppery, cupreous, copper-bearing. 

COBRIZO, Mex. copper ore, inferior to abronzado (2) (G. F. Lyon). 

COCCI6N, burning of lime ; roasting of ores ; baking of bricks, etc. 

COCER, to burn lime ; to roast ores ; to bake bricks, etc. 

COCHA, (1) small reservoir of water or cistern, see estanque (3) ; Peru, 
crude settling-tank, built of stones [see noque (1)] ; c. de clarification, 
Mex. settling-tank ; (2) Peru, lenticular deposit, see lenteja ; pocket ; 

(3) Echandia, Cauca, Col. = carga (2). 
COCHANO, Venez. nugget, see pepita. 

COCHE (coach), (1) wagon used in mines, see carro (1) ; (2) rail, car, 
see carro (2) ; (3) Mex. rock-crusher (Dwight), see quebrantador ; 

(4) Mex. large anvil (Dwight), see yunque (1) ; (5) Peru, timb. stull, 
syn. tinea (2), see estemple. 



COCHERO (coachman), Mex. and Col. trammer, see carretero (1). 

COCHINA (sow), Mex. (1) rock-crusher, see quebrantador (1) ; (2) large 
anvil (D wight), see yunque (1). 

COCHIZO, Peru and Bol. tetrahedrite or fahlerz, one of the most abun- 
dant silver- bearing ores, and contains up to 17^ per cent, of silver ; 
it is generally massive, and in small patches and specks in the pyrites 
(M. Roberts), see cobre (2). 

COCIMIENTO, (1) Peru, obsolete method of extraction by boiling the 
ores (Dwight), see beneficio (3) ; (2) Chile, method of treating nitrates 
[caliche (1)]. 

COCINERA, Ramos, Zac. Mex. the rich part of a mine, see clavo (2). 

COCO, Ant. Col. alluv. m. a vessel made of the fruit of the cocoanut, or 
of a totuma, which the zambullidores carry attached to the waist 
to deposit auriferous sands therein, taken out of the zambullida 
(V. Restrepo), see also fruta de mono. 

CODAL, (1) frame of a hand-saw, see sierra (2) ; (2) codales, a car- 
penter's square, see escuadra (1) ; (3) timb. stay, strut, see torna- 
punta ; stay-bolt ; (4) brick arch (arco), the ends of which bear on 
mineral, and provisionally made to withstand the pressure of the 
walls (Acad.). 

C6DIGO, code of laws ; c. civil, civil code ; c. de minas, mining code, 
law of mines, see derecho (1), fuero (3), ordenanzas, 

CODO (elbow), (1) cubit or measure taken from the 
elbow to the end of the middle finger ; c. geometrico, 
418 mm. ; c. real, 574 mm. ; (2) carpenter's rule, 
see regla (1) ; (3) c. de hierro, angle-iron, see u. 
hierro (1) ; (4) c. de palanca, crank, see manubrio 
(3) ; (5) pump, abrupt angle or elbow (of tubes, 
pipes, etc.) ; c. de empalme, see Fig. 26. 

COESILLOS, see u. obsidiana. 

COGEDOR, collector ; c. de maestras, mech. prep, 
sampler, syn. Mex. mostrador. 

COGOLLERA, see u. cogollo. 

COGOLLO, c. de la cinta (3), c. del hilo, Ant. Col. the 
upper part of the pay-dirt and vein respectively; 
cogollos, superficial part of an ore-deposit ; cogollos 
de las vetas, outcrop, see afloramiento ; mina cogollera, a mine 
which has produced good profits on the outcrop or superficial part, 
and which becomes impoverished on sinking (Uribe), see descogollar. 

COHETAZO, Mex. a method of blasting rock by wrapping gunpowder in 
paper which is bound with palm, or other flexible herb, and com- 
pressed with white sifted earth, a portion of the small tube remaining 
outside, in order to put the wick [mecha (1)], and fire it (Gamboa, 
1761) ; a shot with a match or squib, a shot with a cartridge 



COHETE, (1) blast, cartridge, see cartucho ; (2) Mex. blast-hole, see 

barreno (1) ; (3) c. de luz, torch, see hacha (2) ; (4) rocket, syn. 

voladora (4) ; cohetes para senates, signal rockets (Velazquez). 
COHETERO, see u. golpeador. 
COJINETE, (1) bearing, pillow-block, pedestal, see chumacera ; (2) 

spindle of a windlass, see u. sombrero (3) ; (3) transp. chair of a rail 

(Fr. coussinet), see u. brida (2) ; (4) die of screw-stock, see terraja ; 

(5) in wire ropeways, the carrier or " hanger " which holds the bucket or 

" skip " (balde) ; c. de afuera, out-end carrier (Fr. palier exterieur). 
COK, COQUE, coke, see hulla (3), trincha (3). 
COLA (tail), (1) Mex. part of a vein which terminates in depth (Carrion) ; 

tail-end of a vein ; (2) c. de rata, rat-tail file, see lima ; (3) c. de 

rata, Mex. timb. one method of joining cap and leg-piece, see Fig. 27 ; 

(4) mech. prep, stamp stem or lifter, see mango (2) ; (5) Ant. Col. 

lower end of a placer-mine, comp. * 

cabeca (9) ; (6) Ant. Col. lower end 

of a ground -sluice, very poor in gold, 

see cabecera (5) ; (7) colas, mech. prep. 

tailings, syn. colillas, Mex. desecho (2), 

deslave, see despaje, jales, rabos ; (8) in 

the patio process, the poor brown sul- 
phides left above the rich concentrates 

r i MI /o\i A.I -L. i F IG - 2 '- Cola (2) de rata. 

[polvillo (3)] m the bowl concentrator 

[boliche (1)]; (9) the bottom layer of slags below the charge in the 
smelting furnace [horno (2)] ; (10) c. de milano or de pato, carp, 
dove-tail tenon, see corte (11), espiga (2) ; (11) cable de c., u. haul, 
tail-rope, see u. cable ; (12) c. de espeque (1), free end of the driving- 
beam of a horse- whim ; (13) glue ; c. de pescado, isinglass, syn. 

COLADA, met. tapping of a blast-furnace, see deposito (10), sangria (4). 

COLADERA, Mex. rather coarse screen (Dwight), see criba. 

COLADERO, (1) winze (used as an ore-shoot), see clavada ; (2) Ant. 
Col. shoot for ore, ore-shoot or pass, see paso (2). 

COLADOR, c. de bomba, pump-sieve, pump-strainer (Ponce de Leon). 

COLADO, hierro c., cast iron as distinguished from wrought iron (hierro 
dulce), see also u. acero. 

COLAR, Mex. (1) to drive, see avanzar ; (2) to sink, see ahondar ; 
(3) to pump, see desagiiar (1). 

COLCH6N DE AIRE, air-mattress of a Fleuss apparatus, see aerofora. 

COLECTOR, see fango (3). 

COLERO, (1) Mex. assistant to underground captain (capitan) in charge 
of the peonada, or account of daily labour (Lyon) ; boss over 
peons, see u. minero (3) ; (2) Ant. Col. bottom -sawyer, see u. 

COLGADO, DA, adj. suspended, see u. colgar (3) and mamposteria (2). 




FIG. 2* 

Colgadores del 


COLGADORES DEL REGULADOR, st. eng. the short levers attached 
to the pendulum of the governor, see Fig. 28 c. 

COLGANTE, hanging, see u. andamio, bomba (1), and 
puente (1); colgantes, Mex. timb. hanging-bolts or 
hangers for suspending sets in shafts. 

COLGAR, Ant. Col. (1) alluv. m. to utilise the available 
drainage (meter tonga) of a labor baja or aventadero 
(1) in order to win it (Uribe) ; (2) c. el canalon (2), 
to put a ground-sluice in running order by taking 
out the small stones [cascajear (2)], and making the 
sands (arenas) run (Uribe) ; (3) c. el mineral, to open 
out a vein by driving levels upon it ; metal colgado, 
Chile, ore in sight (a la vista), ore-reserves ; (4) c. 
el molino, to start a mill running, comp. parar. 

COLILLAS, tailings, see cola (7). 

COLINA, top. hillock, hummock ; a small hill with an 

altitude of from 150 to 250 m. (Barcena), see terromontero, comp. 
cerro (1), collado, loma (1). 

COLINDANTE, adj. mina c., adjacent mine, or mine bounding another 
mine, see confin, confinante, adj. 

COLLADO, hill, fell, a small eminence (Velazquez), comp. colina. 

COLLAR, mech. collar ; c. de suspension, oval collar or ring for sus- 
pending bore-tubes ; c. de retention, collar for retaining same ; see 
argolla, collarin, cubrejunta, garganta (2). 

COLLARIN, mech. hoop, collar, ring, gland, see collar ; c. del eje, axle- 
collar ; c. del vastago del embolo, st. eng. piston-gland ; c. de la caja 
de estopas, stuffing-box cover (Ponce de Leon). 

COLMAR, to overfill (a wheelbarrow, etc.) ; colmarse, to fill up (of a 
river, canal, etc.). 

COLOCAR (to arrange, place), c. una maquina, to set an engine ; 
c. viguetas, carp, to joist (Ponce de Leon). 

COLMILLOS (eye-teeth), Ant. Col. protuberant pieces of rock, the result 
of denudation by water-currents. 

COLOCACI6N, timb. fixing of timbers, frames, etc., in place. 

COLOR, (1) "colour" (U.S.A. and Australia "color") of gold; 
colorcito, slight colour (color), see u. pinta (5) ; (2) earth, rock or 
gangue stained with mineral. 

COLORADA, Pataz, Peru, boulder-clay and glacial conglomerate (Felipe 
de Lucio). 

COLORADOS, (1) Mex. red oxidised ores or gossan found at or near the 
surface. At Pachuca, Hid. Mex. this zone is sometimes covered by 
black oxidised ore, containing much manganese (quemazon), and is 
succeeded by the sulphide zone (pinta azul). Silver occurs in this 
zone as native silver, or as chloride, or chloro-bromide. In gold as 
well as in some silver mines native go!d is present. At Fresnillo, 
Zac. Mex. yellowish and very friable ores, containing much hydrated 



sesquioxide of iron, metallic sulphides in small quantity, native silver, 
and bromide of silver (Burkart). Syn. Mazapil, Zac. Mex. amarillos, 
Huelva, Sp. montera (2), Peru, pacos (1), Mex. pardo, sombrero de 
hierro, equiv. Fr. chapeau en fer, Ger. eiserner Hut, Ital. cappello di 
ferro, bruccione, see carmin, cascajo (4), chancaca, espuma (2), ixta- 
jales, pacos (1) and (2), tepostel (1), comp. azulaque (4), negros (5) 
and (6) ; (2) Peru and Chile, oxidised silver ores coloured by copper 
or in which malachite or azurite predominates, see u. calido, da. 

COLOTE, Mex. a special basket used for handling earth, etc., by carga- 
dores ; it is slung on the back, and usually provided with a short 
tail-rope for quick dumping (D wight). 

COLPA, (1) Mex. in the patio process, a natural mixture of sulphate and 
peroxide of iron (colcothar), sometimes used in lieu of magistral, and 
then known as beneficio de la colpa (Humboldt). It was introduced 
by Lorenzo de la Torre. (2) Peru, iron sulphate or copperas, see 
caparrosa (1) ; (3) colpas, Chile, ore in lumps ; colpas de lignita, 
lumps of lignite (Hoskold) ; (4) Peru, an ore containing galena, tetra- 
hedrite and native silver (Dwight). 

COLPEZ, isinglass or fish-glue (Velazquez), see u. cola (13). 

COLUMNA, COLUNA (column), (1) timb. upright, post or studdle sup- 
porting shaft-frames, syn. Mex. hembra (2), mono (1) ; (2) timb. 
leg-piece, see peon (4) ; (3) mech. prep. Col. uprights of a battery-frame, 
see montante (1) ; (4) Col. leg of a burro (4) ; (5) c. rica, c. inclinada, 
c. recta, ore-shoot, shoot pitching in one direction of the strike, shoot 
following the dip, respectively, see clavo (2) ; (6) c. ascensional, pump, 
column of pumps, pipes or tubes ; c. perdida, lost column ; (7) in 
winning mineral deposits, pillar which is subsequently removed ; 
metodo de columnas, Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. method of winning the 
azules (6) by means of irregular pillars and stalls [huecos (4)], the 
former being subsequently removed (Molina), see pilar (1) ; (8) ma- 
quina de columna de agua, water-pressure engine, equiv. Fr. machine 
a colonne d'eau, Ger. Wassersaiilen Maschine ; (9) Mex. standard for 
cable-tramway (Dwight), see caballete (5) ; (10) Mex. vertical damper 
(Dwight), see registro (3). 

COLUNA, see columna. 

COMALILLO, Mex. (1) double-hearthed reverberatory furnace for 
making magistral ; at Guadalcazar, a furnace for calcining mercury 
ores, having a capacity of 40 arrobas in six hours, see horno (2), comp. 
comillo ; (2) damper in a furnace-flue (Dwight), see registro (3). 

COMARCA, (1) territory, district ; c. minera, mining district, see real 
(1) ; (2) border, boundary, limit, see lindero. 

COMAYA, large basket, pannier, see canasta. 

COMBA, (1) curvature or bending of timber ; bending of iron bars, 
rails, etc. ; (2) see combo (1). 

COMBAR, to bend, to curve ; to warp, see comba (1). 

COMBAZO, Chile, large maul, see combo (1). 



COMBO, Peru, cobbing- or sledge-hammer, maul that for double- 
handed boring weighs 12i Ib. (sometimes spelt comba), see maza (3). 

COMBONA, Ant. Col. a joint used in timbering, see 
Fig. 29, see ajuste (3). 

COMBUSTIBLE, fuel, syn. fomento (1) ; c. de madera, 
firewood , see carbon, ichu, lena, quenua, taquia, u. 
tarea, turba, yareta. 

COMEJEN, (1) in tropical America a kind of termite or 
white ant destructive to all kinds of timber, with 
few exceptions (see comino, punte), see tueca ; (2) FlG . 2 o. 

sort of wood-borer which pierces pipe-staves Coinboua. 
(Velazquez), see carcoma (1). 

COMER (to eat), (1) comerse los pilares, Mex. to rob pillars, thereby 
letting down the hanging-wall or roof [comp. despilar], hence (2) to 
abandon a mine, see abandonar. 

COMERCIO, commerce, trade, negotiation. 

COMIDO, Mex. space excavated in a mine, syn. labrado de cielo (6), 
comp. salon (2). 

COMILLO, a reverberatory furnace, see horno (2), comp. comalillo. 

COMINO (cumin), Ant. Col. the classical wood of Antioquia ; it is 
incorruptible, not being attacked by the white ant (comejen), etc. 
There are two kinds, liso and crespo, the latter is a beautifully 
marked wood used for making boxes, cabinets, etc. (Angel). It is 
a laurel (Aniba perutilis, Kew), but is now scarce in the mining 

COMPANIA, company, see sociedad. 

COMPARTIMIENTO,"(1) compartment (of a shaft, etc.), see cajon (14) ; 
(2) see campo (4) ; (3) c. de aire, c.m. vent, brattice, see tabique (3). 

COMPAS, (1) pair of compasses ; calipers ; c. de calibres, inside calipers ; 
c. de espesores or de gruesos, bow calipers ; c. de proportion, pro- 
portional compasses ; c. de puntas curvas, bow compasses ; c. de 
vara, beam compasses ; (2) surv. compass, see brujula ; (3) size ; 
(4) sal de c., rock-salt, see u. sal (1). 

COMPASAR, to measure with a rule and compass. 

COMPENSADOR, compensator ; c. hidraulica, pump, hydraul'c com- 
pensator or counterpoise, comp. contrabalanzon. 

COMPRESI6N, compression ; c. del vapor, st. eng. cushioning (Ponce de 

COMPRESORA DE AIRE, air-compressor. 

COMPROMISO, (1) a private engagement or undertaking ; (2) joint- 
stock undertaking (M. J. Gloss.), see sociedad. 

COMPUERTA (Port, comporta), (1) door of an ore-pass or shoot, trap- 
door, see ventanilla (2) ; (2) lock or sluice, flood-gate, syn. arbollon (1), 
atajadero, bocacaz, ladron (1), ladronera, paradera (1) ; c. de caz, 
flood-gate ; c. de desagiie, hydr. waste-gate ; c. de esclusa, hydr. 
sluice-gate, penstock (Ponce de Leon), see carcel (6), fraile, gata ; 




(3) vent, sliding-gate, cover or covering used in up-cast pit, see Fig. 

30, comp. camara (8) ; (4) Ant. Col. gold-mill, battery-screen in 

native mills, including the 

wooden frame or shutter 

above it, syn. lamina (2), 

see criba. 

COMPUESTO, TA, adj. com- 
pound (of veins, etc.), see 

u. filon (1), and trepano. 
COMUN, adj. usual, general, 

ordinary (of ores, etc.) ; 

metal c., Pachuca, Mex. 

silver ore having less than 

10 marcos per monton of 

30 quintales, which is 

treated locally, comp. 

primera (u. primero, ra) FJG - 3 - Compuerta (3) (after H. w. Hughes). 

and SCgUnda, (u. seglindo "* a P a d e la ventanilla, or movable shutter; b, re- 
^ sortes (springs) ; , contrapesos (counter-weights). 

COMUN, Peru, average ore ; c. general, ore of general average. 

COMUNA, Chile, commune or parish. 

C6NCAVA, C6NCAVO (concavity, hollow), m.m. plat, ore-plat, (Shrop- 
shire) lodge, (Lake Superior) pocket, (Sandhurst, Austral.) station, 
c.m. inset, hanging-on, (S. Staff.) mouthing, syn. anchuron (2), corta- 
dura (2), Mex. despacho (3), enganche (2), estacion (1), plaza (1) de 
enganche, punto (2) de enganche, reception, ventanilla, equiv. Fr. 
chambre d'accrochage, chambre de recette, Ger. Fiillbank, Fiil!ort, 
(Austria) Fassstatt, see camara (1). 

CONCAVIDADES, top. regions which are lower than the sea-level, 

C6NCAVO, see concava. 

CONCEDER, to grant ; c. una pertenencia, to grant a claim (Ger. ver- 
leihen), see registrar. 

CONCENTRACI6N, mech. prep, concentration. 

CONCENTRADOR, CONCENTRADORA, mech. prep, concentrator or 
separator, an ordinary inclined table ; c. de rodelas, round- buddle 
(Lucas), see gandinguero ; c. en seco, dry concentrator. 

CONCENTRADOS, mech. prep, concentrates, syn. Mex. reconcentrados, 
see despaje. 

CONCENTRAR, mech. prep, to concentrate, see despajar. 

CONCERTADA, see u. mamposteria (2). 

CONCESI6N, (1) concession, grant, syn. Mex. merced ; grant of claims, 
see privilegio (1) ; (2) a claim, see pertenencia. 

CONCESIONARIO, grantee, holder of a claim (Fr. concessionaire). 




CONCHIFERO, Mex. a variety of shell-limestone, probably identical 

with lumachello of Italians, see caliza. 
CONCRECION, concretion ; c. calcarea, calcareous sinter ; concreciones 

esferoidales, spheroidal concretions, see concrete. 
CONCRECIONADO, DA, adj. see u. estructura. 
CONCRECIONADOS, deposits formed by chemical precipitation. 
CONCRECIONAR, to form concretions. 
CONCRECIONARIO, I A, adj. concretionary. 
CONCRETO, concretion (concrecion) ; concrete, see hormigon. 
CONDENSACI6N, condensation ; maquina de c., condensing engine. 
CONDENSADOR, st. eng. condenser ; c. de superficie, surface con- 
denser ; el. condenser ; c. de chispa, spark condenser (Ponce de Leon) 
c. de fuerzas, mech. see u. acumulador (2). 
CONDENSAR, to condense. 
CONDRIN, Phil, a weight for precious metals, one-tenth of a mas = 

0-3768 g., see u. tael (2). 

CONDUCCI6N, carriage, conveyance, transport, see transporte. 
CONDUCTA, (1) number of mules or horses conveying remittances, 
bullion, etc., under convoy ; bullion-train ; (2) remittances, bullion, 
etc., conveyed. 
CONDUCTO, drain, conduit (see u. caz), pipe ; c. de aire, air-pipe ; c. de 

vapor, steam-pipe, see tubo. 

CONDUCTOR, conductor, electrical conductor, etc. 
CONECTAR, mech. to connect, couple up. 

CONEXI6N, (1) connection, coupling, clutch; c. de arbol, c. de eje, 
shaft coupling ; c. dentada, toothed clutch (Ponce de Leon), see 
embrague (1), enganche (4) ; (2) c. terrestre, el. earth. 
CONFIN, limit, boundary, see lindero. 

CONFIN, CONFINANTE, adj. bordering upon, see colindante. 
CONFITILLO, see u. tequezquite. 
CONFLUENCIA, meeting of roads or rivers ; vent, meeting of two or 

more air-currents. 

CONGLOMERADO, geol. conglomerate, syn. pudinga, see cal y canto (2), 
cangalli, costra (1), frijolillo, gurgulho, losa (2), u. moco de tierra, u. 
tapatinga, comp. almendrilla (1), canga ; c. aurifero, auriferous 
conglomerate or "banket" ; c. rojo, Guan. Mex. red conglomerate 
found at and near the surface with a cement of ferruginous clay 
(Ramirez), see u. frijol. 
CONGLUTINADO, DA, adj. conglutinated or glued together, see brecha 


CONGO, Ant. Col. (1) iron ore in small fragments or pebbles (guijarros) 
which accompanies gold in placers, and is difficult to separate from 
it (Uribe) ; it is a kind of coarse black-sand or iron-sand, see hierro 
(4) ; (2) vein. m. oxide of iron, comp. jagua (2). NOTE. The name 
is sometimes improperly applied to blende (blenda) by the miners, 
see hierro (4). 



CONMUTADOR, el. electric switch, telegraph key, cut-out, commutator 
(Velazquez), see cuadro (5). 

CONO (cone), (1) c. de extraction, Catalufia, Sp. a tool used in walling 
shafts in watery strata (mamposteria por humdimiento) ; it consists 
of a spiral, with one turn, having a rim [ala (3)], and pointed at the 
lower end (punzon) ; the upper portion of the tool forms a cone for 
the reception of the debris (Molina), see Fig. 31 ; 

(2) c. de friction, mech. friction-cone, friction-clutch ; 

(3) c. truncado, conical drum, see tambor (1). 
CONOCIMIENTO, (1) com. bill of lading; (2) com. 

identification paper ; (3) Am. a check for baggage. 
CONSIGNACION, com. consignment, cargo of goods. 
CONSIGNADOR, com. consignor. 
CONSIGNAR, com. to consign goods or merchandise to 

a foreign correspondent [consignatorio (3)] to be sold 

for account of the consignors (Velazquez). 
CONSIGNATORIO, (1) trustee, see tenedor (1) ; (2) 

mortgagee ; (3) consignee, see u. consignar. 
CONSOCIO, partner. 
CONSTRUIR, to build or construct, syn. edificar, eregir Fio gi 

(2), fabricar. Cono de Cxtraeci6n 

CONSUMIDO, Mex. mercury chemically lost in the (after Molina). 

patio process, see u. lis, comp. perdida. 

CONSUMO, consumption (of fuel, etc.) ; expenditure, see gasto (1). 
CONTABILIDAD, book-keeping, the art of keeping accounts ; auditing, 

comp. teneduria. 

CONTABILISTA, accountant ; book-keeper ; auditor, comp. tenedor (2). 
CONTADO, al contado, with ready money, for cash see contante. 
CONTADOR, ( 1 ) accountant ; auditor (see revisor de cuenta) ; clerk ; 

purser of a ship ; see tenedor (2) ; (2) mech. counter, tell-tale ; indi- 
cator ; (3) meter for measuring water, gas or electric current. 
CONTADURlA, (1) accountant's or auditor's office ; (2) auditorship. 
CONTANTE, adj. dinero c., ready money, cash, see contado. 
CONTENCI6N, c. de aguas, damming up waters. 
CONTINGENTE, call made on shares, etc. 
CONTRA, (1) see contracajonero ; (2) see u. malacate (1). 
CONTRABALANZA, see contrapeso. 
CONTRABALANZ6N, Mex. pump, balance-bob or pump-bob, syn. Sp. 

balancin de contrapeso, contrapeso (2), volante (2) de bomba, 

equiv. Fr. contre-balancier, Ger. Balancier, see u. bomba (1), com- 


CONTRABISAGRA, plate of a hinge (Ponce de Leon). 
CONTRACAJ6N, Mex. branch or off-shoot of a vein or lode, see ramal (3). 
CONTRACAJONERO, Mex. the workman who carries away the stuff 

sent up the shaft (Lyon), syn. contra (1). 

CONTRACANA, counter-gallery (Ponce de Leon), see contracanon. 




FIG. 32. Contracieli 

CONTRACANAL, channel or conduit leading from another one ; 

counter-channel (Velazquez). 
CONTRACANON, Pachuca, Mex. a gallery (galeria) driven in the country 

on the foot wall side of the vein, see contracana. 

CONTRACARRIL, transp. check-rail, guard-rail, safety-rail, wing-rail, 
guide-rail, see u. corazon (2). 
NTRACIELO, (1) rise or (U.S.A.) raise, upraise, (Australia) jump-up, 

syn. contrapozo, lumbrera (2), Col. tambor 
(4), tiro (3), equiv. Port. (Braz.) remon- 

tagem, Fr. montee, Ger. Ueberhauen, 

comp. clavada, chiflon (4), realce (1); (2) 

Mex. roof-timbering which supports rock 

or waste, see Fig. 32, equiv. Ger. Firsten- 

verziehn, Firstenzug, comp. tapestle. 
CONTRACLAVE, the voussoir next to the 

keystone (clave) of an arch (arco). 
CONTRACLAVIJ A, mech. gib. see u. clavija ( 1 ). 
CONTRACORAZ6N, see u. corazon (2). 
CONTRADIQUE, counter-dike, a second dike- 
CONTRAEJE, counter-shaft, see eje (2). 
CONTRAFIL6N, counter-lode, side-lode (Ponce de Leon), syn. contra- 

CONTRAFUERTE, (1) mas. buttress or pillar of masonry which supports 

a wall ; abutment or pier of 

an arch, syn. botarel, estribo 

(2), macho (8), machon, re- 

machon, see cadena (9), pila 

(7), salmer, comp. pilar (1) ; 

(2) Ant. Col. the portion of a 

lode between the main level 

and the intermediate level 

[zapa (2)] left intact as a 

support to the former, see 

Fig. 33, syn. curias (3), see u. 

zapa (2) ; (3) see estribo (1). 
CONTRAGUIA, (1) Mex. hoist. 

movable guide-pulley over 

shaft (Dwight) ; (2) in a pair of draught animals, the one which goes 

forward, to the left, see guia (6). 
CONTRAMADRE, Mex. timb. a second pair of bearers, placed on the 

first pair, in shafts of large section, see traviesa (4). 
CONTRAMAESTRE, overseer or foreman, see capataz (3) ; c. fundidor 

master-smelter (Ponce de Leon). 
CONTRAMINA, (1) communication between two or more mines by 

which the waste or minerals can be extracted (Acad.) ; (2) an adit, 

see socabon (1). 



FIG. 33. Coiitrafucrtc (2). 
o, contrafucrtc ; gi, g-uia (9) or galeria superior > 
<j\ g-uia (9) or g-aleria inferior ; f, tamJjor (4) ; 
z, zapa ; *, zapa alta. 



CONTRAMUELLE, mech. a duplicate spring (Velazquez). 
CONTRANATURAL, Guan. Mex. a vein having a contrary dip to other 

veins of the same system, e.g., Melladito, in La Luz district, dips 

S.E. the others N.W. (Tilmann). 
CONTRAPALANCA, lateral beam for strengthening the horse -arm or 

sweep of a horse-whim, see palanca (3). 
CONTRAPAR, b. constr. rafter, see cabrio. 
CONTRAPESO, (1) counterpoise, counterweight, counterbalance, syn. con- 

trabalanza, equiv. Fr. contrepoids, Ger. Gegengewicht ; counterweight 

used in lowering or raising men in shafts ; carrito c., counterweight 

in a simple automatic inclined plane (Fr. chariot-contrepoids) ; (2) 

pump, balance, bob, see contrabalanzon ; (3) st. eng. load, governor- 
balls, balance, back balance (Ponce de Leon). 
CONTRAPOZO, see contracielo (1). 
CONTRAPUNTA, contrapuntas, timb. in spilling, movable struts which 

keep the breast or closing-boards in place, 

and which rest against the legs of the 

frame (Fr. contrefiches mobiles), syn. con- b 

trapuntal, see Fig. 34. 
CONTRAPUNTAL, counter-stay (Ponce de 

Leon), see contrapunta. 
CONTRAPUNZ6N, puncheon for driving in 

nails, etc., see punzon (3). 
CONTRARASPA, in the patio process, the 

second scrapings obtained in cleaning up 

the bed of an arrastre (3), comp. flor (1). 
CONTRARESGUARDO, Pachuca and Real del Monte, Hid. Mex. the 

timbers (bearers) which carry the winch below a pent-house, see Fig. 

68, u. resguardo. 
CONTRARUEDA, Ant. Col. in an overshot water-wheel, with water 

applied on the shoulder, the wooden channel or flume to prevent the 

water from splashing over the sides. 
CONTRASENA (countersign), Mex. bell-signal (Dwight). 
CONTRASTAR, (1) to assay (ensayar), verify and fix the standard, 

weight and value of coins, and other gold and silver objects, and to 

mark the latter ; (2) to examine measures and weights. 
CONTRASTE, (1) assayer of the mint, see ensayador ; (2) Government 

assayer's office, where gold and silver are tried and marked, see 

ensaye (3) ; (3) examiner of weights and measures. 
CONTRATA, deed of contract or agreement, see contrato (2). 
CONTRATANQUE, Mex. a second settling-tank. 
CONTRATIRO, Mex. an auxiliary pit, contiguous to the main pit or 

shaft, to serve as a footway, or for ventilation (M. J. Gloss.) ; division 

of a shaft for the above purpose (Ansa's MS. 1793), syn. copola (2), 

comp. boca (2) de mina, tiro (1). 

CONTRATISTA, contractor ; c. a destajo, task-master. 


FIG. 34. Contrapuuta 

(after (ioupillit-re). 

a, contrapuntas ; b, escudo or 

shield (Fr. bouclicr). 


CONTRATO, (1) contract, agreement, see ajuste (1), convenio, iguala (1), 
pleito (1) : c. a destajo, contract by the job ; (2) contract, a deed 
in which the terms of a contract or bargain are set forth, see 

CONTRAVENA, see contrafilon. 

CONTRETE, mech. angle-tie, angle-iron, prop, stay ; c. de doble reborde, 
channel iron, see u. corchete (Ponce de Leon). 

CONTRIBUCI6N, contribution, tax, impost ; c. directa, assessed tax ; 
c. de renta or unica c., income tax ; c. extraordinaria, levy ; c. terri- 
torial, land tax, see impuesto. 


CONTRIN, Phil, a weight or 0-39 g., comp. condrin. 

CONVENIO, agreement, contract, see contrato (1). 

CONVERSION, met. conversion, e.g., of matte into bars. 

CONVERTIDOR, met. converter. 

COPA, (1) c. de aceite, mech. oil-cup ; c. de grasa, tallow-cup, see 
engrasador (2) ; (2) c. de homo (2), roof of a furnace. 

COPADOR, Mex. blacksmith's fuller (Dwight), see martillo. 

COPAIBA, (1) copaiba-tree, from which the copaiba gum or balsam 
distils, syn. copayero ; (2) balsam copaiba, syn. gamelo (Indian 

COPAL, copalite or mineral resin. 

COPALILLO, (1) Batopilas, Chih. Mex. zinc blende, see blenda some- 
times spelt copelilla ; (2) Zac. Mex. cerussite, see plomo (2). 

COPAQUIRAS (Barba) = caparrosa. 

COPAYERO, see copaiba (1). 

COPELA, (1) assay, cupel, syn. cendra (2), see tasco (2) ; (2) met. test 
of a cupelling-furnace, syn. cendrada (1), see cendra (1) ; (3) oro 
de c., fine gold ; (4) horno de c., see u. horno (2). 

COPELACI6N (Port, copellacao), assay, and met. cupellation. 

COPELAR (Port, copellar), (1) to assay by cupellation ; (2) met. to 

COPELILLA, see copalillo. 

COPELLA, Mex. in the patio process, dry amalgam (amalgama) remain- 
ing in the canvas bag after draining, comp. pasilla. 

COPEY, EC. a bitumen (betun), employed in repairing ships (Velazquez). 

COPIADOR, com. letter-book, syn. libro c. 

COPIAR, to copy, draw, trace. 

C6POLA, (1) cupelling-furnace, see capella, horno (2) ; (2) see 

COPOS, Mex. (1) in the patio process, little globules of quicksilver formed 
too quickly in amalgamation ; (2) amalgam (amalgama) in the form 
of little globules or dry particles, see pasilla. 

CORAL, (1) carp, red sandal ; (2) madera de c., Andaman redwood 
(Ponce de Le6n). 

CORAZA, cuirass or shield of a safety-lamp (Molina), see u. lampara. 

113 H 


CORAZON (heart, core), (1) pith of a tree, heartwood ; (2) transp. 
point where two rails meet at an acute angle (see Fig. 35 a), syn. 
punta (2), b = contracorazon or pata de 
liebre, c = contracarril (Fr. contre-rail), 
comp. cambio (1), rana ; (3) c. de tres 
ramales, rail, three-throw switch (Ponce de 
Leon), see cambio (1) ; (4) excentrica de c., 
eccentric which moves the Riedler valves 

CORCHADO, the twisting of threads [hebras 
(1)] and strands [cordones (2)] of hempen rope 
(canamo), comp. filastica [u. hebra (1)]. 

CORCHE, cork, see corcho. FlG - 85.-Coz6u (2). 

CORCHETE, (1) bench-hook or cramp of a ^ 

carpenter's bench, comp. gato (2) ; (2) c. de c , contracarril ; rf, carrii. 
doble reborde, channel iron, see contrete. 
CORCHO, cork, syn. corche ; serron de c., cork sawdust ; for asbesto 

de c., see u. asbesto. 

CORDADA, surv. cord or distance between two stations. 
CORDEL, (1) cord, a rope of several strands, see cuerda (1) ; (2) strand 

of a hempen rope, see cordon (2). 

CORDILLERA (Port, cordilheira), top. a chain, ridge or range of moun- 
tains ; the Andes, in some parts of S. America, are divided into 
three ranges known as the eastern, central and western cordilleras 
respectively, see cadena (4), gajo (2) ; comp. cuchilla, paramilla. 
CORD6N, (1) cord or string, see cuerda (1) ; (2) cordones, strands of 
a hempen rope made of various threads [hebras (1)], syn. cordeles (2), 
ramales (1) ; strands of a wire-rope, syn. ramales (1) ; (3) Mex. a 
rib or band of ore in a vein, see cinta (2) ; (4) c. mineralizada, a 
feeder (Chalon). 

CORI-BRONCE, Potosi, Bol. copper pyrites ; it is not uncommon, 
but when found is taken as a sign of rich mineral being met with 
(M. Roberts), see pirita. 
CORIND6N, corundum, syn. corundo, see amatista (2), tibe (1), topacio 

(2), zafiro (1). 
CORNALINA, cornelian or a red var. of chalcedony, (calcedonia) syn. 

cornelina, cornerina (1). 

CORMANO, Mex. loading-chute (Dwight), see paso (2). 
CORNAMUSA, Peru, earthen retort (retorta) with movable cover 


CORNELINA, see cornalina. 

C6RNEO, EA, adj. horny ; piedra cornea (Port, pedra de corno), horn- 
stone, see u. cuarzo, pedernal (1), porfido (2), u. tecpatl ; plata 
cornea, horn silver, see u. plata (2). 

CORNERINA, (1) see cornalina ; (2) onyx, a kind of agate, see onix (1). 
COROA, Port, crown, top of a mountain, see cima, 



CORO-CORO, Bol. (1) crude native copper pyrites, seepirita ; (2) dressed 
product of copper works = grains of native copper mixed with pyrite, 
chalcopyrite, mispickel and earthy minerals (Dr. Raymond). 

CORONA (crown), (1) the boring-bit or crown of a diamond border, 
see bisel (2) ; (2) c. cortante, cutting-ring used in passing 
through watery strata in the method known as mamposteria por 
hundimiento, syn. anillo (1) cortante, Cataluna, Sp. caja (9) del pozo, 
Almeria, Sp. marranete, see u. banqueta (1) ; (3) crown-wheel of a 
Chilian mill ; coronas, Ant. Col. wooden bevel-wheels used in native 
mills ; comp. rodezno (2) ; (4) wedging crib, see rodete (3). 

CORONACI6N, see Fig. 8 (u. arco). 

CORRAL, (1) yard, enclosure ; c. de madera, timber-yard ; (2) Real del 
Monte, Hid. Mex. a complete set of prop crib-timbering, see u. ademe 
and encubado (1) ; (3) S. Am. = 5857 hectares or 13,997 acres (Ponce 
de Leon). 

CORRALERO, stableman or person in charge of a corral or stable. 

CORREA (Port, correa, correia), (1) leather strap or thong ; c. de cincho, 
girth strapping ; (2) leather belting, syn. c. de transmision ; c. de 
friccion, friction band ; c. en aspa, crossed belt ; c. sin fin, endless 
belting (Ponce de Leon), see correaje, faja (4) ; (3) metal de c., S. L. 
Potosi, Mex. nearly pure cassiterite (J. P. Manzanos), see estano (2), 
comp. plomillo ; (4) correas, b. constr. horizontal timbers which tie 
the rafters of a roof together, see cabrio. 

CORREAJE, mech. shafting, shaft-leather ; c. de alambre, goma, cuero, 
wire, rubber or leather belting, respectively (Ponce de Leon), see 
correa (2). 

CORREDERA, (1) runner or upper grindstone, see muela (1) ; (2) st. 
eng. slide-valve, syn. valvula de c. ; c. del cortavapor, cut-off valve or 
slide ; c. de Stephenson, Stephenson's link-motion (Fr. coulisse de 
Stephenson) ; (3) mech. tongue, rail, guide, runner ; (4) c. de Oeyn- 
haussen, bor. Oeynhaussen's sliding-joint (Fr. coulisse), jar or links, 
see also u. aparato, junta (5) ; (5) Cartagena, Sp. a guide of H form, 
used in hoisting kibbles or esportones, with flat ropes of Manila 
hemp (abaca) ; (6) puertas de c., sliding-doors (Fr. portes a 

CORREDERO, Ant. Col. the ancient bed of a river, syn. cauce (1) 
antiguo, madre (1) vieja, see alveo. 

CORREDOR, broker ; c. de acciones, stockbroker ; c. de cambio, 
exchange broker. 

CORREGO, Port. (1) ravine, see barranca (1) ; (2) channel of an alluvium ; 
(3) corregos, Braz. streams where the auriferous cascalho is washed, 
comp. arroyo (1). 

CORREO, (1) postman, mailman, mail-carrier ; (2) post office ; (3) mail, 
mail matter. 

CORRER, (1) to flow (of liquids) ; (2) mech. to travel, slide. 

CORRETAJE, brokerage, p syn. banca (3). 



CORRIDA, (1) mech. travel, sweep, play of a valve, etc., see u. carrera 

(5) ; (2) strike, see rumbo (3). 
CORRIDO, DA, pp. of correr ; metal corrido, alluvial ore ; oro corrido, 

alluvial gold ; veta corrida, continuous vein (Dwiglit) ; see torno (3). 
CORRIENTE, (1) course or flow of rivers, current of a stream, syn. 

corrimiento (3) ; (2) c. de agua, water-course, leat, see acequia ; 

(3) el. current ; c. alternative trifaciado, three-phase alternating 
current ; c. de aire, vent, air-current ; (4) Peru, all the operations 
required for extracting metal on a large scale from one class of ore 
(D wight). 

CORRIMIENTO, (1) hydr. delivery, flow, discharge, see descarga (3) ; 

(2) c. de tierras, geol. landslip, landslide (Ponce de Leon), see derrumbe 

(2) ; (3) course or flow of rivers, see corriente (1). 
CORRIVACI6N, a diversion of streams, etc., in order to unite their 

discharge (caudal). 

CORTA, (1) felling of trees, see corte (10) ; (2) open-cut, see tajo (2). 
CORTADA, (1) Ant. Col. alluv. m. a straight cut made to communicate 

two bends of a river, in order to work the bed of the river at the bend 

(Muiioz) ; (2) Chile, cut or drivage on a vein ; (3) Chile, any working 

driven to cut a vein, e.g., cross-cut, see crucero (1). 
CORTADERA, (1) chisel [cincel (1)] for cutting hot iron, comp. cortafrio ; 

(2) kind of shovel, see u. cava (2). 
CORTADOR, RA, adj. batea cortadora, see u. batea ; estacadas corta- 

doras, see u. pilote (2). 
CORTADOR, (1) c. del regulador, st. eng. governor cut-off ; c. de vapor, 

steam cut-off, see cortavapor ; (2) c. de lena, wood-cutter, see lenador. 
CORTADORA, drilling machine, see perforadora. 
CORTADURA, (1) top. pass, see paso (4) ; (2) plat, see concava. 
CORTAFRIO, cold chisel ; chisel [cincel (1)] for cutting cold iron, syn. 

cortahierro, tajadera (2), comp. cortadera (1). 
CORTAHIERRO, see cortafrio. 
CORTAR (to cut), (1) c. un arbol, to fell a tree, see corte (10) ; (2) c. en 

bisel (1), carp, to bevel, to chamfer ; (3) c. el vapor, to cut off steam ; 

(4) c. la corriente, el. to break contact ; (5) c. alturas, to cut a trench 
[zanja (1)] at the outcrop of a deposit, and afterwards deepen it as 
far as practicable by underhand stoping, the sides being supported 
by timbers and masonry (Molina) ; (6) c. pilar, Mex. to form a pillar 
in a mine for use as a sollar or bunding [camada (3)] and in order to 
form a cross-passage (Gamboa) ; (7) c. sogas (to cut the ropes), to 
abandon mines and their shafts (Gamboa), see abandonar ; (8) c. el 
oro, Ant. Col. to separate gold from the jaguas (3) in a batea ; poderse 
cortar a cincel is a phrase used figuratively of a rich mine (Uribe) ; 
(9) c. cuentas, com. to balance accounts ; (10) cortarse, see se corta. 

CORTATUBOS, bor. tool for cutting tubes (Fr. coupe-tuyaux). 
CORTAVAPOR, st. eng. cut-off, see u. cortador (1), corte (13). 
CORTAVIDRIOS, glazier's diamond. 



CORTE, (1) edge of any cutting instrument, cutting edge of a borer, 
etc., see bisel (2) ; (2) cut or opening in a mountain, see tajo (1) ; 
(3) c. vertical, plott. section ; (4) Peru, opening to an ore-deposit, 
either a shaft or drift (Dwight), see boca (2) ; (5) shaft made in 
searching for a vein of mineral (Velazquez), see cata (4) ; (6) Peru, 
pay-streak left clear so that ore can be knocked down without becoming 
mixed with waste (Dwight), see desanchar, desanche ; (7) Ant. Col. 
working of a portion of a placer or of a vein at surface ; (8) Ant. Col. 
stope, see grada (2) ; cortes, stopes or block of ground ready for 
stoping, see macizo (2) ; (9) oro de c., Ant. Col. gold extracted from 
placers worked on a large scale ; (10) c. de madera, felling of trees, 
syn. corta (1), tala ; dressing ; (11) timb. scarfing, formed of the 
" scarf " or " face " (if short) and the " cut," syn. entrada (7) ; 
c. en cola de milano, carp, dovetailing ; c. en chaflan, bevel cut ; 
(12) c. de piedra, stonecutting ; (13) c. del vapor, cutting off the 
steam, see cortavapor ; (14) c. de traves, carp, cross-cut ; (15) c. 
transversal, cross-opening in mines ; (16) c. en escalones, mining by 
banks (Ponce de Leon) ; (17) c. de caja, com. balance-sheet of accounts 

CORTERO, Ant. Col. peon who works in the stopes [cortes (7)]. 

CORTEZA, (1) bark of a tree, syn. cascara (1) ; (2) c. terrestre, earth's 
crust, comp. costra (2). 

CORTINA (curtain), mas. layers or dry wall [muro (1)] of stone, resting 
horizontally on masonry (Molina), see Fig. 8, u. arco ; c. de muelle, 
quay- wall on banks of a river or on sea-shore. 

CORUNDO, corundum, see corindon. 

CORVADURA, bend of an arch (arco) or vault. 

COSTA, see costo. 

COSTADO (side), side of a pit, gallery or shaft, syn. tabla (2), see 
hastiales (2), pared (2), comp. boca, caldera (5), piso (4), techo (2) ; 
costados, the long sides of a shaft, comp. testeros (4) ; costados 
laterales, see costero (2). 

COSTAL, sack or large bag ; in Mex. an ore-sack made of the thread 
of the aloe [pita (2)], each sack contains 150 Ib. ; a costal de jarcia 
(cordage) is generally used, but if the ore is very rich and contains 
tierras (4), a costal of leather or hemp is employed, syn. Mex. camino 
(3) or saca, see saco (1). 

COSTALERA, ore-sacks (collectively) (Dwight). 

COSTANERA, (1) see u. cuesta (1) ; (2) rafter, see u. viga. 

COSTE, see costo. 

COSTEABLE, Mex. workable or payable (of mines, etc.). 

COSTEAR, to pay the cost ; costearse, to pay for itself (Dwight). 

COSTERO, (1) slab or outside piece taken from round timber in sawing 
it into planks, syn. costilla (3) ; costeros, timb. slabs used as lagging, 
equiv. Fr. dosses, Ger. Schwarten, see revestimiento (1), u. revestir ; 
(2) costeros, met. lateral sides of the shaft of a furnace, syn. costados 



laterales, see cuba (4) ; (3) side of a mineral deposit (Acad.), see 

hastial (1). 
COSTILLA (rib), (1) stave of a barrel, see duela (2) ; (2) b. constr. 

strengthening-piece of joists, see u. viga ; (3) slab, see costero (1) ; 

(4) Mex. timb. lagging-board, see estaca (6), Fig. 18 u. brocal (1), 

revestimiento (1) ; (5) lagging of a drum, windlass, etc., see u. torno 

(2) ; (6) sacar a c., or a espalda, to carry out ore, etc., on the shoulders, 

see burrear. 

COSTILLAR, see encostillado. 
COSTO, COSTA, COSTE, (1) cost or price ; c. neto, net cost ; al costo, 

at cost price ; (2) cost, expense ; working cost ; c. de beneficio, cost 

of reduction, see gasto (1), presupuesto. 
COSTRA (crust), (1) Chile, a conglomerate (conglomerado) of clay, 

gravel, and felspar immediately overlaying caliche (1) ; (2) scale or 

portion of a lode or rock, which breaks off in scales or flakes, comp. 

corteza (2). 
COSTURA, (1) carp, a joint between two pieces of wood (naut. = seam), 

comp. ajuste (3) ; (2) splice (of vegetable ropes), see empate (2). 
COTA, surv. a number indicating the height of a point above the sea 

or some other level (Acad.) ; c. de referenda, bench-mark. 
COT ANA, mortise, mortise-hole, see muesca (1). 
COTE, Port, whetstone, see muela (4). 
COTENSE, Mex. (1) coarse brown linen wrapper (Velazquez) ; (2) 

Calamahi, L. Cal., a piece of blanket, about one metre square, used 

by the gambucinos (1) or gold prospectors (J. M. Ramos) ; (3) miner's 

sash-cloth or breech-clout (Dwight), see patio, u. vestido. 
COTICULA, Port, touchstone (piedra de toque). 
COTIZACI6N, com. quotation ; price-list ; current price. 
COTO, (1) surv. landmark of rough stone, see mojon (1) ; (2) prov. 

territory, district, see distrito ; (3) c. minero, a group of mines (Ger. 

Grubencomplex) (Venator) ; (4) hand-breadth, see u. tabla (1). 
COUTARA, see u. guayacan. 
COVA, see u. caliche (1). 
COVACHA, a small cave, see cueva (1). 
COYOTE, S. Am. (1) native, of the country ; domestic ; (2) Mex. a 

kind of wolf, coyote ; (3) Mex. a man who buys or sells mining shares 

COZ, (1) Pachuca, Hid. Mex. timb. a hitch for stemples, etc., see huida 

(1) ; (2) Ant. Col. pointed end of a leg-piece. NOTE. Vertical 

posts, with pointed ends, have been in use for at least twenty years 

in the Remedies district, as well as at Marmato, Cauca. 
CRAS, see craza. 

CRASAS (Fr. crasses), (1) slag, see escoria (1) ; (2) dross, see escoria (2). 
CRATER, crater of a volcano; syn. boca (11) del volcan, Tencriffe, 
caldera (6). 



CRAZA, Mex. in the patio process, an iron cup [cage] or frame into which 
the burnt silver is put, with a quantity of charcoal, for its final process 
of melting from the craza it falls into the jantilla (Lyon) ; a receptacle 
for melted metal (Velazquez). NOTE. Lyon spells it eras. 

CR, Port, chalk, see creta. 

CRECIDA, freshet, swollen state of rivers in consequence of heavy falls 
of rain (Velazquez) ; c. grande de agua, sudden flood, see avenida, 
creciente, venida. 

CRECIENTE, swell, freshet of waters, flood, see crecida, u. verano ; for 
luna c., see u. menguante. 

CREDITO, (1) credit ; (2) note, bill, order for payment ; creditos 
activos, assets ; creditos pasivos, liabilities (Velazquez). 

CREMALLERA, mech. rack ; toothed bar, see u. ferrocarril. 

CREMINEL, Brit. Guiana, alluv. m. a peculiar shaped shovel [pala (1)] 
used by the natives for removing the overburden [montera (3)]. It 
is shaped something like a spade, but much narrower, and is kept 
sharpened to a keen cutting edge (H. Tweddle). 

CRESPO, PA, adj. crisp, curled ; oro crespo, fino or de monte, Ant. Col. 
gold which has come from a distance, and which is known by its being 
more or less rounded, and having a polish (Uribe) ; for comino crespo, 
see u. comino. 

CRESTA, (1) crest or top of a ridge or mountain, see cima ; (2) axis 
of an anticlinal or synclinal fold, syn. arista (3), eje (1). 

CREST6N (crest of a helmet), outcrop, strictly speaking the portion of 
a mineral deposit which stands up above the general surface, and 
becomes detached thereon syn. Mex. cabeza (3), Peru, farallon (2), 
montera (1), reventadero (2) or reventazon, Ant. Col. vomito, see 

CRETA, chalk, syn. prov. buro (1), greda (3), tizate, Ant. Col. toba (3), 
equiv. Port, chalco, ere, see tiza (1). 

CRIADERO, (1) ore or mineral deposit, syn. mina (1), venero (7), yaci- 
miento (1) ; includes capa (1), filon, masa (1), etc. ; c. de contacto, 
contact deposit ; c. detritico, see u. aluvion ; c. en arbol, ramification ; 
c. en filon, vein-deposit of considerable extension, preserving a certain 
uniformity in length, depth and thickness ; c. en veta, vein-deposit, 
not necessarily of great length, and variable in depth and thickness ; 
c. en capa, stratified deposit ; c. en manto, bedded vein ; c. en masa, 
c. irregular or bolsada (3), irregular deposit ; c. en rinones, small ir- 
regular deposits, see masa. (1) ; (2) Mex. a deposit like a bag [bolsa (1)] 
or cave [boveda (2)] in which the ore is loose ; a chamber-deposit, syn. 
bovedal, see clavo (2), salon (1) ; (3) origin of ore-deposits, genesis 
(genesis) ; (4) Ant. Col. alluv. m. gold found in the heads of rivers or 
streams, see oro ; (5) see u. cabecilla (1) ; (6) obs. creation or growth 
of ores ; " the Decree [1741] ends by declaring the district of Arizona 
to be Royal Property, as a ' Criadero de Plata ' (a place in which, by 
some natural process, silver was created) ; an idea to which the 



flexibility of the metal, when first extracted, seemed, in those times, 
to give some colour of probability " (Ward) ; (7) Chile, matrix, see 
matriz (1). 

CRIBA (Port, crivo), Mex. orig. perforated leather, used as a screen ; 
ore falls through the holes in the criba (or harnero) into pits below 
(Lyon) ; a sieve, syn. cribo ; grizzly, see parrilla (2) ; jigger, jigging- 
sieve ; c. cilindrica, c. conica, c. giratoria, c. rotatoria, c. tromeliforme, 
revolving screen or trommel, syn. cernidor (4), tambor (2), tromel ; 
c. con piston, c. de piston, plunger or piston-jigger ; c. de vaiven, 
shaking-screen or sieve ; c. hidraulica, jigger ; c. movida, c. de 
percusion, percussion- jigger ; c. movil manual, hand-jigger, see 
riquitrum ; c. movil mecanica, machine-jigger ; c. plana de percusion, 
flat shaking-screen ; see basto (2), cedazo (1) and (2), coladera, com- 
puerta (4), lamina (3), reja (1), rejilla (1), tela (2), zaranda (1). 

CRIBACI6N, see cribadura. 

CRIBADO, (1) see cribadura ; (2) Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. 
screened coal from 30 to 100 mm. (Molina), comp. grancilla, u. 
grueso (2). 

CRIBADOR, ore-screener. 

CRIBADURA, mech. prep, sieving, jigging or screening, syn. cribacion, 
cribado (1), equiv. Fr. criblage. 

CRIBAR (Port, crivar), mech. prep, to screen, jig or sift, syn. harnear, 
Peru, tamizar, zarandar, equiv. Fr. cribler, see cernir (1). 

CRIBO, see criba (2). 

CRIC, jack-screw, lifting-jack, see gato (1) ; c. de cremallera, rack-jack ; 
c. de palanca, lever-jack ; c. hidraulica, hydraulic jack (Ponce de 

CRIS6COLA, (1) chrysocolla ; (2) gold solder ; (3) borax (borax). 

CRISOL, (1) assay crucible, equiv. Braz. cadinhos ; c. de arcilla refrac- 
taria, fire-clay crucible ; c. de grafito, black-lead crucible ; c. embras- 
cado, crucible lined with charcoal (Ponce de Leon), see tasco (2) ; 
(2) met. crucible of a large furnace, syn. c. de horno (2) ; crucible of a 
blast-furnace, syn. banco (6), pileta (3), taza (2), vaso (4), see cendrada 
(3), comp. obra (5) ; (3) met. slag-pot. 

CRISOLADA, (1) crucible full of molten metal ; (2) crucible charge. 

CRISOLERO, Mex. slag-pot puller (Dwight). 

CRISTAL, (1) crystal ; c. de roca (Port, crystal de rocha), rock crystal, 
syn. claveque ; c. mineral, salt dissolved in its water of crystallisation 
and mixed with a little potassic sulphate ; c. tartaro, cream of tartar ; 
(2) flint-glass. 

CRISTALILLO, (1) hyaline quartz (cuarzo) ; (2) salts crystallised out 
from their mother liquor ; Moctezuma, S. L. Potosi, Mex. the Tapado 
salt lagoon contains in solution, chloride of sodium, with sulphate, 
carbonate and borate of sodium, which give, in the first crystallisation, 
the salt called cristalillo (A. del M. de F.), composed of the above. 

CRISTALIZACI6N, crystallisation. 



CRISTALIZADORA, apparatus for crystallising salt ; vessel in which 
salt is crystallised. 

CRONOTAQUIGRAFO, see tachografo. 

CROQUIS, sketch, rough draft. 

CRUCE, see cruzamiento (3). 

CRUCERO, RA, adj. veta crucera, cross- vein, see crucero (2). 

CRUCERO, (1) m.m. cross-cut, syn. barreno (7), Chile, estocada, trabajo 
transversal. NOTE. A cross-cut in " country " or dead rock = 
crucero (Ant. Col. cruzada) or travescajas, equiv. Fr. galerie a travers- 
bancs, Ger. Querschlag, Querort, while a cross-cut in a mineral deposit, 
but perpendicular to its direction = transversal, Asturias, Sp. 
transversal de recorte [see recorte (2)], Col. travesia or traviesa (1), 
equiv. Fr. transversal, galerie traverse, Ger. Durchzug, see cortada (3), 
u. galeria (1), sangria (3). Metodo de cruceros, transverse working or 
cross-cut method (Ger. Querbau), see traves ; (2) cross-course, cross- 
vein or lode, syn. veta transversal ; c. de cuarzo, cross-spur ; see banco 
(5), caballo (8), u. crucero, ra, cruzador, cruzante ; (3) cruceros, 
timb. end-pieces, end-plates or end-timbers of a shaft frame [cuadro 
(1)], syn. Mex. cabezadas (2), Zac. Mex. cabezales (1), Pachuca, Hid. 
Mex. hembras (1), Guan. Mex. Haves (12) or puntales (4), equiv. Ger. 
Pfandungen, Hauptholzern, comp. largueros (2) ; (4) mineral, and 
geol. cleavage, see cara (7), clivaje, exfoliation ; (5) piece of timber 
which lies across the rafters in a building (Velazquez), see u. viga ; 
(6) crossing of roads ; railway crossing, see cruzamiento (1) ; (7) 
crossing of air-currents, see cruzamiento (2) ; (8) crossing of two 
veins, see cruzamiento (3) ; (9) cruceros, Chile, minute veins, oblique 
both in direction and dip to the lodes, the latter being largest and 
richest at the junction (Henwood) ; (10) cruceros, Cartagena, Sp. 
hoist, the two cross-beams of the pulley-frame of a malacate (1), on 
which the barras (9) rest which carry the pulleys, comp. u. pastores. 

CRUCETA, mech. cross-head (Fr. traverse de tete) of an engine. 

CRUDO, DA, adj. raw, unroasted, see u. fundicion (2). 
CRUZ (cross), (1) crossing of two roads, see cruzamiento (1) ; (2) crossing 
of air-currents, see cruzamiento (2) ; (3) crossing of two veins, see 
cruzamiento (3) ; (4) see u. espeque (1) ; (5) piedra de c., cross-stone 
or harmotome ; (6) c. de San Andres, cross-stays, diagonal stays, 
see Fig. 15, u. barra (9) ; (7) Mex. arms of a scale (D wight) ; balance 
beam, see balanza (3) ; (8) see caer de cruz ; (9) met. wall which 
divides the bed of Spanish reverberatory furnaces (Acad.), see horno 
(2) ; (10) cruces, in tahonas (flour mills worked by horses) the four 
sticks (palos) which, in two directions at right-angles to each other, 
embrace the axle and secure the crown of the principal wheel (Acad.). 
CRUZADA, Ant. Col. cross-cut, see crucero (1). 
CRUZADILLAS, CRUZADILLOS, see u. cumulo (2) and monton (3). 
CRUZADO, DA, adj. filon cruzado, veta cruzada, a lode or vein which 
is crossed by another, syn. atravesado (3), comp. cruzante. 



CRUZADO, see u, cruzador. 

CRUZADOR, Ant. Col. a cross- vein or lode, see crucero (2) ; a vein 
crossed by another = cruzado, or veta cruzada. 

CRUZAMIENTO, (1) transp. crossing of galleries or underground roads, 
syn. crucero (6), cruz (1), equiv. Fr. croisement ; railway crossing, 
syn. encrucijada ; (2) vent, crossing of air-currents, air-crossing, 
overcast, bridge, syn. crucero (7), cruz (2), equiv. Ger. Wetterbriicke ; 
(3) crossing of two veins, syn. cruce, crucero (8), cruz (3). 

CRUZANTE, a vein which crosses another and is therefore more modern, 
syn. atravesante, see padrastal, comp. cruzador. 

CRUZAR, to cross a lode, see atravesar ; cruzarse, to cross (of veins, 
dikes, etc.). 

CUADERNO, see u. ordenanzas. 

CUADRA, (1) stable, underground stable, syn. establo ; (2) Am. a 
block of houses ; (3) one-quarter of a mile (milla) ; in Arg. = about 
128 m., in Chile = about 130 m., in Col. (c. granadina) = 80 m., in 
Paraguay = 72-15 m., in Spain = 83'59 m. 

CUADRADO, (1) a square, see escuadra (1); (2) timb. a frame, see 
cuadro (1) ; (3) de cuadrado, adv., mueve de c., mas. said of an arch 
(arco) whose imposts are in a normal or horizontal position, comp. u. 

CUADRAL, carp, angle brace, truss ; mech. diagonal tie (Ponce de Leon). 

CUADRANTE, quadrant, syn. cuarta (1). 

CUADRAR, to square, to square timbers ; to regulate, adjust. 

CUADRILLA, (1) gang, crew; c. de operacion, a "pare" or gang, 
see parada (3) ; (2) Mex. a settlement, comp. pueblo (1). 

CUADRO, (1) timb. frame, syn. armadura (1), bastidor (5), marco (2), 
equiv. Fr. cadre, Ger. Geviere ; a shaft frame, set or crib, syn. carcel 
(1), see Have (12) ; c. de asiento or fundamental, bearing-frame, see 
cincho (4), crucero (3), largueros (2) ; a square set for stopes (see 
tranca), etc. ; a complete frame or set for a level, see portada, puerta 
(4) ; c. falso, c. provisional, false set ; (2) laboreo por cuadros, c.m. 
panel-working, see cuartel (2) ; (3) a block of ground read/ for 
stoping, seemacizo (2) ; (4) Ant. Col. a balk or " bunton," also timber 
from 5 inches to 20 inches square, comp. u. cuarton (1), listen ; (5) c. 
de distribution, el. switch-board, see conmutador, tablero (8). 

CUADROCLAVE, in tubbing, the frame or curb which rests on the 
lowest wedging-curb (rodete), equiv. Fr. clef. 

CUAJADO, Mex. (1) argentiferous carbonate of lead, which serves as 
metal de ayuda (A. del M. de F.) ; (2) Zimapan, Hid. coarse galena, 
see plomo (2). 

CUAJAR, to evaporate brine. 

CUAJE, total evaporation of brine or salt water, see era. 

CUARACHE, Guan. Mex. a layer of unctuous clay, more or less thick, 
occurring between the vein and the "country" (A. del M. de F.) ; 
clay selvage or flucan, sec guarda (1), urgue (2). 



CUARCITA, quartzite, see molix. 

CUARTA, (1) quadrant, see cuadrante ; (2) piece of timber of square 
section ; (3) Mex. riding- whip. 

CUARTEADOR, Ant. Col. in the Zancudo mine, the miner who works 
cuarteo (3). 

CUARTEADURA, S. L. Potosi, Mex. fissure in rocks, see abra (3). 

CUARTEAR, to break up large stones with a sledge-hammer. 

CU ARTEL, (1) Ant. Col. barracks for miners, peons, etc. ; (2) under- 
ground section or district, see campo (4) ; vent, panel, district or 
group of workings, see cuadro (2). 

CUARTEO, (1) Ant. Col. transitory suspension of the rains in winter 
(i.e., the rainy season) (Uribe) ; (2) Ant. Col. night work in which 
" pares " [paradas (3)] of peons alternate in the adits (Uribe) ; 
(3) Zancudo mine, Ant. Col. a system of working by which the ore is 
bought of the miners by the company at a certain price the former 
feed themselves, while the latter sells them candles, powder, etc. 
(Gamba), comp. partido (3) ; (4) Mex. work on drill-holes, paid for by 
the foot, yard, metre, etc. (Dwight) ; (5) the breaking up of large 
stones with a sledge-hammer, see cuartear. 

CUARTILLA, one-fourth of an arroba, one-sixteenth of a quintal. 

CUARTILLO, one-fourth of a fanega ; one-fourth of a real (4). 

CUARTO, (1) quarter ; c. menguante, last quarter of the moon, see 
menguante ; (2) room in a mine for keeping tools, lights, etc. ; c. de 
maquinas, engine-room ; (3) Mex. a shift, c. primero, c. segundo, 
and c. tercero, day, afternoon and night shift, respectively (Dwight), 
see relevo ; (4) minero de c., Mex. underground captain, see u. minero 
(3) ; (5) cuartos, Ant. Col. overtime, each cuarto (which may be a 
few hours' work only) being paid for at the rate of half a day's wages 

CUARTC^N, (1) a large joist or girder, see viga ; in Madrid, Sp. a beam 
16 feet long, 9 inches wide and 7 inches thick ; in Pachuca, Mex. 22 
feet long, 18 inches wide, and 1^ to 4 inches thick [see u. partido (4)] ; 
in Ant. Col. squared timber 3 inches by 3 inches ; (2) cuartones, 
Mex. a quarryman's term for the many-sided pieces of volcanic rock 
(Barcena) ; (3) cuartones, Mex. divisional planes or joints in rocks, 
see juntura (2). 

CUARZO, quartz, syn. Mex. guija (2) ; c. ahumado, smoky quartz ; c. 
citrine, occidental topaz ; c. ferruginoso, ferruginous quartz ; c. 
hialino, see cristal de roca ; c. hialino verde, sinople ; c. lechoso, milky 
quartz ; c. macho, Col. quartz of bad appearance, generally sterile ; 
c. porfidico, Peru, hornstone (Dwight) (piedra cornea) ; c. radiado, 
cross-course spar ; c. rosado, rose quartz ; c. tabular, laminar quartz, 
the plates of which are generally separated by material from the walls 
(Gamboa) ; see agata, alabandina, amatista, caco, calcedonia, u. 
cariado, da, carrascal, cascajo (8), chichicle, u. corneo, ea, cristalillo 
(1). diente, ezteri, ?/. guija (2), guijarro (2), listado, lizote, jacinto (3),, 



mulata, nicle, ojo (3), panal de rosa, pedernal (1), porfido (2), prasio, 
rayado (2), resinita (2), risco (2), roca (1) and (2), rubi (3), sardio, 
sardonico, teguilote (1), topacio (2), venturina, zafirita. 

CUARZOSO, SA, adj. quartzose. 

CUBA (cask), (1) mech. prep, keeve, (Cornw. kieve) or vat, see u. tina 
(1) ; (2) hoist, kibble, see cubilete, tonel (2) ; (3) c. de amalgama, met. 
amalgamation barrel ; (4) met. shaft, fire-room or tunnel of a blast- or 
shaft-furnace, syn. latoratorio, vaso (3), see arbolillo, costero (2), ojo 
(11), pecho (1), plaza (2), trabera ; horno de c., shaft-furnace (often = 
blast-furnace) ; (5) met. fire-room of a coke-oven, etc. 

CUBERTURA, roof, see techo. 

CUBETA (small barrel or cask), (1) mech. prep. " kieve " or vat, see tina 

(1) ; (2) bucket, see cubo (1) ; (3) c. chata, hydr. bucket (Ponce de 
Leon), see paleta (3). 

CUBIERTA (covering), (1) mech. casing ; c. de cilindro, cylinder casing, 
steam-jacket, see u. camisa (1) ; (2) met. outer lining of a furnace 
[horno (2)] ; (3) hoist, bonnet of a safety-cage [jaula (2)], see gorra 

(2) ; (4) alluv. m. overburden, see montera (3). 

CUBILETE, Cartagena, Sp. hoist, kind of short kibble (" forma de 
media cuba ") (Moncada). 

CUBILOTE, cupola smelting-furnace ; smelting-pot, see u. horno (2). 

CUBO, (1) Mex. leather or other bucket (Lyon), see achicador, balde, 
calesa, cubeta (2), timba (2) ; (2) kibble, "see tonel (2). NOTE. The 
term is sometimes applied to a skip [chalupa (1)] or even safety-cage 
[jaula (2)]. (3) Nave or hub of a cart-wheel ; boss or nave of a car- 
wheel ; cast-iron boss or centre of a pulley, etc. ; (4) socket of a 
candlestick [candelero (1)] ; mech. coupling, socket, shaft-case (Ponce 
de Leon), see candelero (2), encaje (2) ; (5) among masons, a hodful 
of mixed mortar (Velazquez) ; (6) mill-pond, see estanque (1). 

CUBREJUNTA, mech. joint-coverer, e.g., a collar (collar). 

CUBRIR (to cover), (1) c. el fuego, to bank up a fire ; (2) to roof a 
building ; c. de pizarras, to slate ; (3) c. la cuenta, com. to balance 
an account. 

CUCHARA (spoon), (1) c. de cuerno, Mex. in the patio process, a small 
horn bowl in which the earth of tortas is washed to test the process of 
amalgamation (Lyon), see u. planillero ; c. de cacho, Col. is similarly 
made of horn, cut near the base, and polished on both sides, syn. Chile 
and Arg. poruna (a bull's horn cut in two) ; (2) bor. auger, see u. 
trepano ; (3) Mex. turf-cutter, a gran cuchara has two wings, and 
can cut 3 or 4 puntas (4), or 0'9 to 1*2 m. in height at a time, see pala 
(2) ; (4) blast, scraper, syn. cucharilla, sacabarro ; (5) hollowed 
spoon -shaped float of a wheel that drives an arras tre (3) or tahona ; 
ladle-board of a water-wheel ; (6) mas. trowel ; (7) c. de draga, 

CUCHARETA (small spoon), bor. boring-bit, see bisel (2). 

CUCHARILLA (little spoon), barrenero, blast, scraper, see cuchara (4). 



CUCHILLA (knife), S. Am. (1) a range of mountains less voluminous 
than a cordillera, with steeper sides, and narrow along the top ; 
(2) the steep side of a hill or mountain, especially when it forms a 
narrow ridge or knife-edge. 

CUCHILLO, assemblage of pieces of wood or iron, which, fixed vertically 
over supports, sustains the roof of a building, or 
floor of a bridge (Acad.) ; armadura en c., timb. 
see Fig. 9, u. armadura (1) ; c. invertido, see Fig. 36 ; 
see Fig. 3. 

CUCOS, nickname given in Castile to the stone-cutters 
who come from Asturias. 

CUCUIZA, Am. thread of the agave (Velazquez), see 
pita (2). 

CUCURUCHO (cornucopia), Mex. leather cover to FIG. 36. 

protect miners at work from falling water or rocks Cuchillo iuvertido. 

CUELE (from colar, to strain, to pass through a narrow place), Mex. (1) 
the driving of galleries, etc. ; dar cuele, to drive, see avanzar ; (2) de 
cuele, the distance driven, measured along the bottom of a gallery, 
drift or level, see rasgo ; (3) bottom of a shaft (S. Ramirez), see 
fondo (3). 

CUELGA, c. de una corriente, Ant. Col. the unevenness, fall or inclination 
of a stream. 

CUELLO (neck), (1) trabajo a c. torcido, c.m. undercutting, lying on the 
side (Fr. travail a col tordu) ; (2) neck or journal of a shaft, see lucha- 
dero ; (3) c. de un riel (2), or del carril (3), rib of a rail, web (Ponce 
de Leon) ; (4) flange, see reborde. 

CUENCA (wooden bowl), (1) basin of a river ; (2) top. territory sur- 
rounded by heights or mountains ; (3) geol. basin or trough ; c. car- 
bonifera, coal-basin, see also u. hoya (2), hoyada (1) ; (4) mech. 
socket, see candelero (2). 

CUENTA, (1) account; (2) see u. tequio (2); (3) a lenticular mass 
of ore, see lenteja ; (4) rueda de c., pulley, see polea, u. rueda (1). 

CUENTO, prop, support, see puntal (1). 

CUERDA, (1) cord or small rope, syn. cabo (2) ; c. acalabrotada, see u. 
esparto ; c. de alambre (or cable de alambre) de acero, steel wire- 
rope ; c. de alambre de hierro, iron wire-rope ; see abaca (3), cable (1), 
cabulla (3), canamo, cordel (1), cordon (1), esparto, hebra (1), lia, 
maroma, pita (2), reatas, reatilla, u. saco (1), soga, u. trecho ; (2) c. 
metrica, measuring- tape, see cinta (1) ; (3) Mex. limits of a mining 
property (Dwight) ; (4) Mex. row of men who pass blocks of ore, etc., 
from hand to hand, comp. trecheo ; (5) cord of firewood, syn. monton 
(4) de lena, see carcel (5), u. tarea (3), comp. estereo, mecate (2) ; in 
Col. = 128 cubx feet or 4^ burros (5) ; (6) blast, match, seemecha (1) ; 
c. mecha, slow match ; (7) geom. chord ; (8) conspicuous summit 
(cima aparente) of mountains (Acad.). 



CUERNO (horn), (1) cuchara de c., see cuchara (1) ; (2) cuernos, pump, 
catches, catch-pieces or wings, syn. paracaidas (2), topes (4), equiv. 
Fr. parachutes, Ger. Fangfroschen. 

CUERO (Port, coiro, couro), (1) hide, generally of oxen, cows, etc. ; c. al 
pelo, c. crude, raw hide, syn. piel (1) ; (2) leather ; c. adobado, dressed 
hide, syn. piel (2) ; c. cocido, waxed leather ; c. curado, cured hide ; 
c. curtido, tanned hide ; c. de suela, sole leather ; c. verde, rough 
leather ; medio cocido (Ant. Col.), half -tanned leather ; medios 
cueros, sides ; vaqueta, sole-leather, tanned cow-hide [curtido (1)] ; 
(3) Mex. leather bucket (Dwight), see embolo (3). 

CUERPO (body), (1) Mex. in the patio process, a wedge-shaped mass 
of hard amalgam formed in a mould preparatory to burning a pile 
of cuerpos forms a pina (Lyon), see amalgama, bollos (1) ; (2) Mex. 
globule of mercury, see u. calentar ; in the patio process, the torta is 
said to proceed en el cuerpo, when silver amalgam does not appear 
in the ceja (1) ; (3) see torta ; (4) Mex. the lode mass or filling, see 
relleno (4) ; (5) c. de fil6n, c. de veta, Mex. a branch, forming a portion 
of the main body or mass of a lode, thus in Guanajuato the veta 
madre is said to be divided in places into three bodies (cuerpos) or 
branches [ramales (3), or encajes (4)], which, according to their 
relative positions, are known as c. del alto (hanging- wall branch), c. del 
enmedio (centre branch), and c. del bajo (foot-wall branch), see ramal 
(3) ; (6) Peru, ore-body (Dwight), see clavo (2) ; (7) a stockwork, 
see cumulo ; (8) c. de bomba, pump, barrel of a pump, working- 
barrel, syn. canon (4) de corrida, see u. bomba (1) ; (9) c. de polea, 
hoist, pulley-frame, see horca (1) ; (10) c. de mineros, personnel of a 
mine, syn. ensamble de mineros. 

CUESCO, (1) see u. almendrilla (1) ; (2) Mex. coarse ore (Dwight). 

CUESTA, (1) hill, mount, see cerro (1) ; any ground rising with a slope, 
syn. costanera (1) ; (2) slope, gradient, see pendiente (2). 

CUEVA, (1) cave, grotto (gruta), a subterraneous cavity, syn. boveda (1), 
caverna (1), socavon (3), equiv. Port, antro, buraco ; in Zavala, 
Catorce, S. L. Potosi, Mex. some caves, filled with earth, yielded two 
large bonanzas, paying at the rate of 1 peso the pound weight, and 
producing more than $7,000,000 of silver (A. del M. de F.) ; see cenote, 
covacha, resumidero, salon (1), tiales, comp. u. saco (2) ; (2) Huelva, 
Sp. old Roman shafts and headings, sometimes full of water and 
running sind or mud (D. Tyzack), comp. hoyo (1) ; (3) mina de c., 
Ant. Col. alluv. m. pay-dirt [cinta (3)] covered by large blocks of 
granite [mani (1)], making its extraction very laborious ; (4) c. vieja, 
salt mine of Minglanilla, Sp. a huge chamber, measuring 334 m. by 
50 m. and 62 m. high (Molina), syn. el charco. 

GUI, Fr. Guiana, hemispherical vessel made of tin-plate, used in 
draining placers, etc. (L. Levat). 

CULATA, (1) lower end of a cylinder [cilindro (3)], etc., back part of 
anything, comp. culo ; (2) forebreast or end of a level, see fronton (1) ; 



(3) timb. lower end or foot of a stull (estemple), the upper end = 
cabeza (1). 
CULO, blast, lower or inner part of a drill-hole [barreno (1)], comp. 

culata (1). 

CUMBRE, top or summit of a mountain or hill, see cima. 
CUMBRERA, (1) b. constr. ridge-pole, tie-beam, syn. hilera (3), see u. 
tirante (2) ; (2) Cadiz, Sp. and Canaries, piece of wood 24 or 
more feet long, and 10 inches by 9 inches section (Acad.), see viga ; 
(3) timb., see Fig. 49 c, u. riostra (3) ; (4) timb. cap-piece, see capa (4). 
CLJMULADOR, see acumulador. 

CUMULO (heap), (1) an irregular deposit or mass, see masa (3) ; (2) a 
stockwork (Ger. Stockwerk), syn. cuerpo (7), masa (4) entrelazada, 
monton (4) entrelazado, rebosadero (5), red de vetas, venas or cruza- 
dillas reticuladas, -see u. bolsada (3). 
CUNA, cradle used in gold-washing. 

CUNA (Port, cunha), (1) wedge or gad, syn. calce (3), Peru, famulia 
(D wight) ; c. hidraulica, hydraulic wedge ; c. con agujas, plug and 
feathers, see aguja (7) ; cunas de apeo (3), tubbing wedges, see encu- 
bado ; c. de empalme, cotter, see clavija (1) ; comp. lengiieta (2), 
piquete (2), puntero (2), punterola, punzon (3), tajadera (3) ; 
(2) "horse" of ground, see caballo (5) ; (3) cunas, Ant. Col. pillars 
left in stopes for supporting the main levels, etc., see contrafuerte (2). 
CUNEIFORME, cuneiform, in the form of a wedge, see u. filon (1). 
CUNETA, (1) a small trench, see zanja (1) ; (2) the drain or gutter of 
an adit-level or gangway, syn. caiieria, desaguadero, equiv. Fr. canal 
or rigole d'ecouler, Ger. Quale, Quele, Sohlenritz, Wasserseige, see 
charquero, comp. agojia, zanja (1). 
CUNO, mark put on silver, see marca (1). 

CUPANO, Phil, a large tree used for building, the bark yields a dye- 
stuff (Velazquez). 

CUPULA, CUPOLA, dome, roof, see cielo (1), dombo ; cap or dome of 
a reverbaratory furnace, steam dome of a boiler, etc., syn. caja (24) 
de vapor, dombo, domo. 
CURADOR, (1) overseer, see sobrestante ; (2) guardian, trustee, see 

tenedor (1) ; (3) curator, administrator, see administrador (2). 
CURI, Ecuador, gold, hence Curaray river, see oro. 

CURSO, (1) mech. travel, stroke or sweep, see carrera (5) ; (2) stream, 
current, see arroyo (1) ; (3) c. de un rio, course of a river; (4) c. 
de cambio (3), course or rate of exchange. 

CURTIDO, (1) see u. cuero ; (2) Mex. a variety of the patio process, in 
which the mercury is added some days after the salt and magistral ; 
it is now abandoned, comp. curtir. 

CURTIR (to harden), Mex. in the patio process, to add copper precipitate 
(formerly lime) to the torta when it is hot (caliente), and magistral 
when it is cold (frio), see u. torta, comp. curtido. 
CUSPIDE, sharp-pointed summit of a mountain or cerro, see cima. 



CYCLOGENO, circulating apparatus used in Paccard's method of 
extracting salt, see calorifero. 

CH. Words with this letter will be found arranged alphabetically under C. 

DACITA, dacite, see u. mocheta. 

DADO, (1) mech. prep, die of a stamp-mill (bocarte), syn. almadaneta 

(2), chapa (3), Ant. Col. plan (7) ; (2) stone on which a horse-whim 

[malacate (1)] works ; see u. terraja. 
DAMA, met. dam or stone at the end of the fire-hearth of a blast-furnace, 

see horno (3). 
DAR, to give ; d. bocazo, see bocazo ; d. canonazo, see canonazo ; d. 

cuele, see avanzar, u. cuele ; d. fuego, (1) blast, see tirar (1); met. 

to blow in (a furnace), see u. calentar ; d. mechazo, see mechazo ; 

d. taco, see tirar (1). 
DARDO, jet of air, etc. 
DATA, (1) an aperture or orifice in reservoirs in order to let out a 

definite quantity (Velazquez) ; (2) Braz. a mining claim about 169 J 

acres in extent, see pertenencia. In the eighteenth century 80 x 40 

Portuguese yards ; one data, was assigned to discoverer, one to crown, 

one to mine governor, and the rest distributed by lots (H. K. Scott). 
DATO, surv. datum. 
DIiBIL, adj. weak, Mex. a term applied to amalgam (amalgama) when 

very fluid, comp. u. fuerte. 
DECLINACI6N, surv. declination ; d. de la aguja (3) or magnetica, angle 

made by the magnetic meridian with the true north. 
DECLIVE, (1) inclination, slope, see pendiente ; (2) rail, gradient, grade, 

see pendiente (2). 
DECRETO, judicial decree. 
DEDO, the twelfth part of a palm (palmo) or the twenty-eighth part 

of a Spanish yard [vara (1)] = 18 mm. 

DEJAR RESPALDO, Peru, to leave valuable ore in the wall-rock (Dwight). 
DELANTAL, leather apron worn by miners, syn. devantal, see u. vestido. 
DELANTERA, met. front of a furnace [horno (2)], etc., see u. testera (7). 
DELEGACI6N, see diputacion. 

DELEZNABLE, adj. brittle, fragile (of ores or ore-deposits). 
DEMA, Ant. Col. (1) alluv. m. the side of a ground-sluice [canalon (2)], 

leat (acequia), etc. (2) timb. lagging, see ademe, revestimiento (1) ; 

(3) a dry-stone wall, syn. mamposteria (2) seca. 
DEMAR, see ademar. 
DEMASIA (excess), Mex. a fractional portion of ground left between two 

claims not large enough to admit of a separate denouncement (i.e., less 

than a pertenencia in extent) ; gore (R. E. Chism), syn. hueco (3), 

equiv. to the Oberschar or Ueberschaar of the Germans. 
DENTE, Port, tooth, see diente. 

DENUDACI6N, geol. denudation or erosion, see erosion. 



DENUNCIACI6N, see denuncio. 

DENUNCIADOR, Mex. denouncer of a mine, see denunciante, u. denuncio. 

DENUNCIANTE, Col. denouncer of a claim or mine, claimant, see denun- 

DENUNCIAR, to denounce, under the old mining code of Mexico, implied 
that process by which a legal right of possession was obtained to a 
particular portion of any vein, worked or un worked, known or un- 
known, which a miner chose to select for his operations (Ward, 1827) ; 
under the new code the term is no longer in legal use, although still 
employed colloquially, syn. solicitor una concession, poner un registro ; 
S. Am. to denounce a claim or mine (still in use in many parts). 

DENUNCIO (or denuncia), denouncement of a claim (pertenencia) before 
the proper authorities, in order to have it adjudged to the applicant. 
A person has the power of denouncing a claim which has been aban- 
doned, or which has never been previously denounced. In Mexico 
formerly its depopulation (despoblada) for more than four months was 
sufficient ground for its re-denouncement, but by the new code the 
non-payment of the tax constitutes the only cause ; comp. pedimento. 

DEPART AMENTO, department, a province, district, or subdivision cf 

DEPENDIENTE, Mex. inferior officer or clerk (Lyon). 

DEPOSITO, (1) geol. deposit, generally sedimentary ; d. de minerales, 
mineral deposit ; d. de metal, ore deposit, syn. Peru, acomodana ; 
(2) pump, cistern or (U.S.A.) tank, see u. estanque (3) ; d. para agua, 
see caja (2); (3) d. de aguas, pond or reservoir, see estanque (1); 

(4) depositos, Mex. water collected in old workings, syn. banos (3) j 

(5) Mex. ore-bin, syn. Sp. cancha (1) ; (6) large storeroom or ware- 
house, see almacen (1) ; (7) d. de aire, pump, air-vessel, syn. Mex. 
campana (2) ; (8) en deposito, com. in bond ; (9) chem. deposit ; 
precipitate ; (10) d. de colada, met. deposit for molten metal, etc., 
after tapping, see colada, reposador (2). 

DEPRECIAClON, depreciation, decrease in price or value. 

DEPRESION, vent, depression, diminution of pressure or water-gauge, 
syn. carga motriz. 

DEPRIMOGENOS (Fr. deprimogenes of Murgue), centrifugal ventilators, 
or those which, putting into rapid rotary movement the molecules 
of air from a mine, utilise the centrifugal force so generated by throw- 
ing such air outside the mine, e.g., fans of Guibal, Kley, Schiele, Waddle, 
Pelzer, Moritz, Geisler and Ratteau ; they are divided into two classes 
(a) ventiladores centrifuges cilindricos, or those in which the pallets 
are in meridian planes, and (b) ventiladores centrifuges conicos, those 
with pallets oblique to those planes (Molina), comp. volumogenos. 

DERECHO, HA, adj., straight ; pie derecho, timb. leg-piece, see peon (3). 

DERECHO, (1) law, equity ; d. civil or comun, the civil (Roman) law ; 
(2) derechos, taxes, dues, customs ; in Mexico the duties formerly 
payable on silver were the quinto (in 1716 reduced to a tenth diezmo), 

129 I 


the d. del uno por ciento, the derechos de monedage y senoraje, and, if 
gold was combined with the silver, the derechos de la casa del apartado, 
but in 1822 the d. de bocado, the uno por ciento, the senoraje and the 
quinto were abolished, in lieu of which a duty of 3 per cent, on the 
real value of gold and silver raised was substituted (H. G. Ward). 
At present in Mexico " the taxes on ores of gold or silver comprise 
2' 6 per cent, of gross value as State and Federal extraction- tax 
[derechos de fundicion y ensaye], plus 4' 5 per cent, as mintage- tax 
[derechos de acunacion], or in all, 7'1 per cent, on the gross assay 
value, to which must be added the stamp- tax on the factura of O6 
per cent, on the net value " (N. H. Emmons). 

In Colombia derechos are fees paid to Government officials and 
experts (peritos) for giving possession of a mine, granting titles, 
etc. ; the Government taxes on the mines are called impuestos or 
derechos de estaca, see estaca (3). 

In Chile, derechos are tributary dues paid to the mine owners, amount- 
ing to 15 to 30 per cent, of the net value of the mineral or metal raised. 
Derechos de aduana (Port, direitos de alfandega), customs, customs 
duties ; derechos de importation, import duties. See carga (5), cobos, 
gabela, impuestos, marca (1), u. mazamorero, patente, saca (1), senorial, 
tequio (1), veinteno, comp. derrama ; (3) timb. leg-piece (pie derecho), 
see peon (4). 

DERRAMA, assessment of a tax [derecho (2)], duty, or impost (Velaz- 

DERRAME, (1) leakage, waste waters, see apurador (1) ; (2) declivity, 
see pendiente (1) ; (3) subdivision of a ravine [barranca (2)] or valley 
in narrow outlets (Velazquez) ; (4) d. de veta, Ant. Col. shoad-stones, 
see riego (3) ; (5) geol. sheet of volcanic rock. 

DERRIBAR, to break ground, see arrancar. 

DERRIBO, breaking ground, see arranque (1). 

DERROCADO, Mex. a mine is said to be derrocado (derrocar, obs. to 
tumble), when the workings have fallen in, comp. derrumbe (1). 

DERRUBIAR, to gradually wear away or undermine the banks (of a 
river, stream, etc.), see carcomar. 

DERRUBIO, the loose earth or alluvium resulting from the gradual 
wearing away of the banks of a river, comp. rumbon (3). 

DERRUMBABLE, see sollamadizo. 

DERRUMBADERO, (1) precipice, see precipicio ; (2) see derrumbe (2). 

DERRUMBAMIENTO, see derrumbe. 

DERRUMBAR, (1) to sink or tumble down (of buildings) ; (2) to cave 
in (of mines or mine- workings), see derrumbe (1). 

DERRUMBE, DERRUMBAMIENTO, (1) a " cave " or " run," syn. Mex. 
chiflon (5), desmoronamiento, hundido, equiv. Fr. eboulement, effronde- 
ment, Ger. Einsturz, Zusammenbruch, see caidos, u. chimenea (6), der- 
rocado, u. desplome, hundimiento, sentazon, socarras ; (2) landslide 
or landslip, syn. caida (5), corrimiento de tierra, Ant. Col. derrumbo 



or derrumbadero (2), Mex. desliz (2), desprendimiento (1), Santander, 
Sp. fana, freita, Mex. reliz (2), Ant. Col. volcan (2), equiv. Fr. eboule- 
ment de terre, Ger. Erdsturz, Bergsturz, see desvolcanarse, comp. venido. 
DERRUMBO, (1) Ant, Col. landslip, see derrumbe (2) ; (2) Peru, a 

small narrow mountain pass (Tschudi), see paso (4). 
DESAGOTAR, see desaguar. 

DESAGREGADO, DA, adj. fine, disintegrated (Ponce de Leon). 
DESAGUADERO (Port, desaguadeiro), drain or drainage gutter of 
an adit or gallery, see cuneta (2) ; any small channel or drain, see 
tijera (3). 

DESAGUADOR, a water-pipe, channel or conduit for water, see u. 

DESAGUAR, (1) to drain, pump or un water, syn. desagotar, desaguazar, 
desangrar, sangrar (1) ; d. una mina, to drain a mine, see also agotar 
(2), colar (3), extraer (2), sacar (2) ; (2) to empty or flow into the sea 
(of rivers), syn. desembocar, vaciar (3), see entrar. 

DESAGUAZAR, to drain the water from any part, see desaguar (1). 

DESAGUE, (1) channel, drain, outlet ; water-pipes in general, see 
tuberia ; (2) drainage, mine drainage ; d. artificial, artificial drainage 
(by machines) ; d. natural, natural drainage (by means of levels, etc.), 
see achichar, atecas, bomba (1), chicar, ziquitumba. 

DESAHOGO, see w. valvula. 

DESAJUSTE, disagreement, breaking of a contract (Velazquez). 

DESAMPARAR, to abandon (a mine), see abandonar, u. despueble, 

DESAMPARO, abandonment (of a mine), see abandono. 

DESANCHAR, (1) d. la veta, Mex. to take down the soft wall of a vein 
and leave the lode standing for subsequent extraction, similar to 
U.S.A. gouging, syn. despejar, comp. circa, corte (6), ensanchar, llauca ; 
(2) c.m. to undercut, see entaller, socavar. 

DESANCHE, (1) the gouging of a vein, see desanchar (1) ; (2) c.m. under- 
cutting, see regadura (1). 

DESANGRAR, to drain, see desaguar (1). 

DESAPODERAR, to repeal or revoke a power of attorney [poder (1)]. 

DESARENAR (to take away sand) ; Ant. Col. in minas de saca, to 
break up and carry away by water (batir) the poor alluvium (arenas 
frias), utilising tonga (Uribe). 

DESARROLLO, development, 

DESATACADOR, blast, pricker, comp. aguja (4). 

DESATERRAR, Mex. to clear out the rubbish or deads, see limpiar (3). 

DESATIBAR, see desatorar. 

DESATIERRE, Mex. (1) the clearing out of the rubbish or deads (atierres) 
from workings, see limpia (1) ; (2) waste dump (Acad.), see vaciadero. 

DESATORAR, to clear away the rubbish from any mine -working, syn. 
desatibar, descombrar. 

DESATORNILLADOR, see destornillador. 

DESAVENENCIA, disagreement. 



DESAZOGADERA, S. Am. receptacle for the condensed quicksilver 

resulting from retorting. 
DESAZUFRAR, to desulphurise. 

DESBARRANCARSE, Ant, Col. to be damaged or destroyed. 
DESBASTAR, (1) to plane boards ; (2) to trim stones. 
DESBASTE, (1) planing boards ; (2) trimming stones. 
DESBOCARSE EL BARRENO, (1) Peru, blast, to remain (as a drill-hole) 

practically intact after firing (D wight), comp. bocazo. 
DESBORDAR, Mex. to stope underhand, see rebajar ; (2) to rob mine 

pillars (D wight), see despilar. 

DESBORDE, Mex. underhand stope, see u. grada (2). 

undercutting, see regadura ; making vertical cuts or "cutting ends " 

(Fr. rouillures) ; (2) mech. unwedging (Ponce de Leon) ; (3) eng. 

undermining (Ponce de Leon). 
DESCALZADOR, mas. crowbar, see barra (1). 
DESCALZADORA, undercutting machine. 
DESCALZAR, (1) to undercut, see socavar ; (2) mech. to un wedge ; 

(3) eng. to bare the foundation, to undermine (Ponce de Leon). 
DESCANSILLO, see descanso (2). 

DESCANSO, (1) Mex. sollar or bunding of a ladder- way in a climbing 
shaft, syn. tapextle (3), see boquete (3), comp. camada (3) ; (2) the 
platform of a man-engine, syn. balconcillo, descansillo ; (3) timb. a 
bearer, see traviesa (4) ; (4) d. movil, a cradle, scaffold or stage used 
in walling coal-pits or shafts, see andamio, patilla (1), plataforma (2), 
tablero (3), comp. balsa (1) ; (5) dia de d., Mex. in the patio process, 
the day on which the tortas are left to rest (G. F. Lyon) ; (6) mech. 
rest, support. 

DESCANTEAR, to smooth angles or corners ; quarr. to chamfer (Ponce 
de Leon). 

D3SCAPOTAR, Ant. Col., to clear away a thin layer of earth [capote 
(2)] in order to construct a ditch, or make a barredura (1) (Uribe). 

DESCARGA, DESC ARGUE, (1) d. de aduana, com. .clearance at the 
custom-house; see despacho (1); (2) unloading a ship; (3) gold-mill, 
discharge, altura de la d., height or depth of discharge ; pump, discharge, 
see u. valvula ; hydr. delivery, discharge, see caudal (1), corrimiento ; 

(4) Mex. the last cake of metal [plancha (1)] from the furnace, 
which is the largest one (Gamboa) [comp. calentadura (1)], hence 

(5) Mex. drawing off the last contents of the furnace, blowing out 
the furnace, see u. apagar, comp. calentadura (2) ; (6) Mex. open-cut, 
see tajo (2) ; (7) arco en d., see u. arco. 

DESCARGADERO, wharf, unloading-place. 
DESCARGADOR, unloader, lighterman. 

DESCARGADORA, Mex. discharging- tank, from which the slimes are 
run off last (T. Egleston), see u. estanque (3). 



DESCARGAR, (1) to unload a ship, etc. ; (2) to discharge, see descarga 
(3) ; (3) Ant. Col. to take away the stones and make the gold-bearing 
sands run, when they become much heaped up, making the operation of 
breaking up (chocar) the pay-dirt difficult (Uribe) ; (4) d. un homo, 
Mex. to tear down a furnace (Chism) ; (5) see u. tentadura (1). 

DESCARGUE, see descarga. 

DESCARRILAMIENTO, transp. derailment of cars. 

DESCARRILAR, transp. to derail a train ; to run off the track. 

DESCENSO (descent), subsidence, see revenimiento. 

DESCENSOR AUTOMATICO, a method of loading ships by lowering 
and automatically turning over a wagon, box, etc. (Molina). 

DESCLAVADOR, straight, wide and blunt chisel (cincel), nail-pull. 

DESCLAVAR, to draw out nails, see desenclavar. 

DESCOGOLLAR, Ant. Col. to take away the upper part (cogollo) of a 

DESCOMBRAR, to clear away rubbish, syn. desescombrar, see limpiar 

DESCOSTRADORES, men employed taking down any fragments which 
may remain after blasting (M. J. Gloss.) from descostrar, to take off 
the crust. 

DESCUBRIDOR, RA, adj., mina descubridora, the mine in which a vein 
has been discovered. Under the old Ordenanzas, the discoverer 
(descubridor) was entitled by law to two pertenencias if in a district 
already worked, and to three if in a new district (M. J. Gloss.), see u. 
mina (2), medida. 

DESCUBRIDOR, discoverer, see u. descubridor, ra. 

DESEMBRIMIENTO, discovery (of mines, etc. ), see hallazgo. 

DESCUBRIR, to discover (mines, etc.). 

DESCUENTO, com. discount. 

DESECACI6N, desiccation or simple drying of ores and minerals, com/), 
calcination, tueste. 

DESECHADEROS, men who clear away attle or deads [desechos (3)], 
see zafrero. 

DESECHO (refuse), (1) Mex. in the patio process, flouring of the 
mercury (azogue), see lis, u. tentadura (1) ; (2) desechos, Mex. 
mech. prep, residual ores or refuse after sorting, skimpings or toppings, 
tailings, see cola (7), recortes (6), comp. macos ; (3) rubbish from 
the mines, waste rock, attle or deads, syn. Mex. atierres, ataques (2), 
Peru, bazofia, Chile, broza (4), Mex. cascajo (10), Mex. and Chile, 
desmontes (6), escombros (2), limpia (2), materias esteriles, Ant. Co 1 , 
ripios (5), Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. tecoral, Mex. tepetate (1), terreros 
(2), tierras (5), zafra (2), equiv. Fr. deblais, decombres, Ger. Berge, 
taubes Gestein ; when packed in a mine forms attle-packing, gob or 
goaf [relleno (3)], see trincha (2) ; (4) very low grade or poor ores, syn. 
Peru, broza (5), desmontes (5), comp. despinta (2), u. despoblado, da ; 
(5) met. lead dross ; assay waste (Dwight). 



DESEMBARCADERO, (1) dock, quay, seemuelle (3) ; (2) rail, platform, 

syn. anden (3), see muelle (4). 

a river or canal, syn. boca (9), de rio, embocadura, ria. 
DESEMBOCAR, see desaguar (2). 
DESENCLAVAR, see desclavar. 
DESENCIELAR, Ant. Col. to extract the portion of a vein which remains 

between two adits (Uribe). 
DESENFANGAMIENTO, mech. prep, cleansing from mud, a preliminary 

washing, comp. desenlodamiento. 
DESENFANGAR, mech. prep, to cleanse ore from mud, syn. desfangar, 

deslamar (1), comp. desentarquinar. 
DESENGANCHAR, to unhook, see desganchar. 
DESENGANCHE, disconnection. 
DESENGRANAR, mech. to throw out of gear, to uncouple ; to get out 

of gear. 

DESENLODAMIENTO, mech. prep, washing or cleaning of ore, a pre- 
liminary washing to get rid of clay, syn. deslodadura, comp. desenfan- 

DESENLODAR, mech. prep, to separate the clay from any mineral or 

ore, syn. deslodar, see desenlodamiento. 
DESENTARQUINADO, mech. prep, trunking. 

DESENTARQUINAR, to free a ditch or trench from mud, etc. (Velaz- 
quez), comp. desenfangar. 
DESFANGAR, see desenfangar. 
DESFILADERO, top. defile or narrow pass [paso (4)] ; deep valley or 

gorge, see canon (5). 
DESFRUTAR, see disfrutar. 
DESFRUTE, see disfrute. 
PESGANCHAR, to unhook, syn. desenganchar ; to unfasten (the kibble, 

etc.) ; to uncouple, to disconnect, comp. enganchar (1). 
DESGARRE, rending or tearing (of the roof of a working, etc.), syn. 

cisallamiento (Molina). 

DESGASTE, waste, wear and tear (Fr. degat), see deterioro, gasto (5). 
DESGOTAR, to drain off water, see agotar. 
DESGOZNAR, to unhinge, disjoint. 
DESGRETE, met. in cupellation. the separation and weighing of the 

two classes of litharge formed (green and yellow). 
DESGUACHAR, Ant. Col. alluv. m. to take the small gravel out of the 

channel [principal (1)], see guache (2). 
DESIERTO, TA, adj. see abandonado, da. 
DESIERTO, desert, see desplobado ( 1 ), traversias. 
DESINTEGRADOR, mech. prep, disintegrator. 
DESINTEGRAR, mech. prep, to disintegrate. 

DESISTIMIENTO, Mex. withdrawal of the application for a mining 
claim, etc. 



DESLAMAR, (1) to clear of inud, see desenfangar (2) ; see u. estanque 

DESLAVE, tailings, see cola (7). 

DESLINDADOR, surv. one who marks boundaries (linderos). 

DESLINDAMIENTO, DESLINDE, act of making boundaries (linderos), 

DESLINDAR, surv. to mark boundaries (linderos). 

DESLINDE, see deslindamiento. 

DESLIZ, DESLIZAMIENTO, (1) geol. slip, slipping, syn. escurrimiento ; 
(2) Mex. landslip or landslide, see derrumbe (2) ; (3) Mex. in the patio 
process, when, through want of sulphate of copper, the mercury does 
not form a lis or liz (flouring). 

DESLIZARSE EL AZOGUE, Peru, to flour (of mercury), see lis, liz. 

DESLODADURA, see desenlodamiento. 

DESLODAR, see desenlodar. 

DESLODAJE, mech. prep, washing away the clay from any mineral 
or ore. 

DESMENUZABLE, friable (as of ore). 

DESMONTAR, (1) to fell or cut down wood ; (2) to clear away rubbish, 
comp. limpiar (3) ; (3) to clear the surface of the ground preparatory 
to making a road, etc. ; alluv. m. to remove the overburden [montera 
(3)], to strip ; (3) Ant. Col. alluv. m. when working overcast, to clear 
away the first beds by means of water, see batir. 

DESMONTE, (1) felling timber; (2) clearing the surface; stripping, 
see desmontar (2) ; (3) trabajar por d., Ant. Col. to exploit an alluvial 
mine by putting on water, in order to wash down the alluvium from 
the top ; (4) Ant. Col. alluv. m. the superficial layer above the .pay- 
dirt, the overburden or cap, see montera (3) ; (5) breaking down ores, 
see arranque (1) ; (6) desmontes, Mex. poor ores, see desecho (4) 
(7) desmontes, attle or rubbish, see desecho (3) ; metal en desmontes, 
ore in the dump (i.e.. interspersed in the dump). 

DESMORONAMIENTO (crumbling away), see derrumbe (1), rumbon (3). 

DESMORONOS, Col. surface-damage, caused by working mines, for 
which the exploiter has to pay indemnification. 

DESNIVEL, unevenness, inequality of the ground ; slope, gradient, see 
pendiente (2). 

DESNIVELADO, DA, adj. sloping. 

DESNIVELAR, to make uneven ; to unlevel. 

DESPACH ADORES, Mex. (1) men employed in filling the rnantas (1) 
with ore, etc. (M. J. Gloss.) ; (2) two persons, seated at a table, with 
a book before them containing the names of all the tenateros. Two 
balances are suspended before them to weigh the loads if required 

DESPACHO, (1) office or counting-house, syn. oficina (2) ; (2) shipment, 
see embarque ; (3) Mex. a plat, see concavo ; (4) commission, warrant 



or patent, thus, in Mexico, the mining agents (agentes de mineria) 

must have a despacho for this office ; (5) d. de aduana, clearance (at 

the custom-house), see descarga (1). 
DESPAJAR (to winnow), Mex. to remove waste rock by concentration 

(Dwight), see concentrar. 
DESPAJE (winnowing), Mex. concentration-tailings (Dwight), see con- 


DESPEDIR, to discharge or dismiss workmen, etc., see bombear (4). 
DESPEJAR LA VETA, see u. desanchar (1). 
DESPENADERO (Port, despenhadeiro), precipice, see precipicio. 
DESPENSA, (1) storeroom for materials and tools, mercury and even 

bullion, syn. almacen (1), see jacal (1) ; (2) storeroom for provisions 

and meat ; (3) Mex. a room, well secured, for keeping rich ores, that 

for ordinary ores being known as galera (2) (Gamboa). 
DESPENSERO, official in charge of the despensa. 
DESPERDICIOS, waste, offal. 

DESPEZO, diminution of one end of a tube or pipe. 
DESPILADO, DA, pp. of despilar ; mina despilada, a mine robbed of its 

pillars ; an abandoned mine, see u. abandanado, da, comer (2). 
DESPILAR, Mex. to take down or rob the pillars of a mine, syn. Mex. 

desbordar (2), despilarar, see adelgazar (2), arrebanar, comer (1). 
DESPILANAMIENTO, the robbing of pillars. NOTE. Some engineers 

use the word as equiv. to Fr. depilage, see u. arranque (1). 
DESPILARAR, see despilar. 
DESPINTA, (1) Chile, silver ore assaying under 50 diezmiles'imos, comp. 

pinta (3) ; (2) Arg. the poorest ore, containing much iron pyrites, etc. 

(Hoskold), comp. desecho (4). 

DESPLATACI6N, DESPLATE, met. desilverisation. 
DESPLATAR, met. to desilverise. 
DESPLATE, see desplatacion. 

DESPLAZAMIENTO, geol. displacement, see salto (1). 
DESPLOMAR, to deviate from a perpendicular line, to sag (of a wall). 
DESPLOME, bulging or sagging ; sistema de d., Peru, old method of 

working by which the chambers got out of plumb, giving rise to caves, 

etc., see derrumbe (1). 

DESPLOMO, the bulging or jutting out of a wall. 
DESPOBLACI6N, DESPOBLADA, depopulation, see u. denuncio. 
DESPOBLADO, DA, adj. metal despoblado, Mex. ore with much gangue, 

syn. despoblado, comp. desecho (4) ; Huitzuco, Guerr. low grade or 

ordinary quicksilver ore, containing about 1 per cent, of mercury, 

syn. metal ordinario or metal comun, comp. granza (4), u. pepena (1), 

u. tierras (4) ; mina despoblada, a mine with an insufficiency of 

workmen, see despoblar. 
DESPOBLADO, (1) desert (desierto). an uninhabited place ; (2) see u. 

despoblado, da. 

DEvSPOBLAR, d. una mina, Mex. to have a less number of workmen 



in a mine than that required by law (i.e., under the Ordenanzas 

and old mining code, but see u. denuncio) ; to suspend work in a mine. 
DESPOJO, d. de un filon, Ant. Col. the extraction of the ores from a 

vein (Uribe), see arranque (1). 
DESPRENDIMIENTO, (1) landslip, landslide, see derrumbe (2) ; (2) tubo 

de d., condensing-tube of a retorting apparatus ; (3) d. de un gas, 

DESPUEBLE, Mex. the abandonment (desamparar) of a mine without 

doing any inside or outside work with the four workmen (operarios) which 

the Ordenanzas demand (Gamboa, 1761), see abandonar, u. denuncio. 
DESPUNTADOR, Mex. (1) sorting hammer, see martillo ; (2) sorter, 

see apartador (1). 

DESTAJADOR, a kind of smith's hammer (Velazquez), see martillo. 
DESTAJE, see destajo. 

DESTAJERO, DESTAJISTA, labourer working by the piece, bargain- 
taker, tut workman, see destajo, comp. campista. 
DESTAJO, DESTAJE, (1) job ; a destajo, by the job, by the lump, see 

u. parada (3) ; (2) undertaking the completion of a work within a 

certain time (Velazquez) ; undertaking any work at a fixed price ; 

piece or contract work at a certain amount for each yard, metre or 

fathom driven (de cuele), tutwork. 
DESTIERRE, see limpia (1). 
DESTILAR, to distil, see evaporar ; destilarse el mineral, to distil ore 

(of quicksilver). 
DESTORNILLADOR, screw-driver, wrench, turnscrew, syn. desator- 

nillador, volvedor (1). 

DESTORNILLAR, to unscrew, syn. desentornillar. 
DESTRAL, a small axe or hatchet, see hacha (1). 
DESTRANCAR, Ant. Col. to remove obstacles which prevent the 

unwatering of mines (Uribe). 

DESVENAR, to extract mineral from a vein or lode, see arrancar (1). 
DESVIACI6N, (1) variation of the magnetic needle ; (2) rail, shunt ; 

(3) S2edesvio(l). 
DESVIADERO, railway switch, siding, side-track, passing-place, see 

desvio (2). 

DESVIADOR, d. de las correas, mech. belt-shifter (Ponce de Leon). 
DESVIAR, (1) rail, to switch, to shunt, syn. Mex. enchuchar ; (2) mech. 

to shift (belting, etc.). 
DESVIO, (1) a vein which, crossing another, follows the direction of the 

latter for a certain distance before resuming its normal direction, syn. 

desviacion (3) ; (2) transp. a parting or junction of two roads, a 

siding, syn. cambio (2), cambio de via, Cuba, chucho (2), desviadero, 

equiv. Fr. evitement, see apartadero ; if two roads part = bifurcation 

(Fr. bifurcation), if three roads part = trifurcacion (Fr. trifurcation) ; 

(3) vent, separation of air-current (parting) by passing one above or 

below, or to the right or left of another. 



DESVOLCANARSE, Ant. Col. to be covered by a landslide [derrumbe 
(2)] ; to be damaged, ruined (Uribe). 

DESZAFRAR, to carry away the waste [zafre (2)] from an excavation, 
see limpiar (3). 

DETECTOR (from Engl.), fire-damp detector, etc. 

DETENER, d. la corriente, el. to break current, 

DETERIORO, deterioration, wear, use, wear and tear, see desgaste. 

DETRITICO, CA, adj., composed of detritus ; detrital. 

DETRITO, geol. detritus, syn. escombros (3) ; d. aluvial, alluvial detritus. 

DEUDA, debt ; deudas activas, assets ; deudas pasivas, liabilities. 

DEUDOR, debtor. 

DEVANTAL, see delantal. 

DEYECCIC^N, geol. ejection (of volcanic material) (Acad.). 

DIABLO (devil), (1) Mex. rail-bender (Dwight), see gato (3) ; (2) Mex. 
kind of barrow [carreta (2)] used for moving heavy weights (Dwight) ; 
(3) Col. lifting- jack or -screw, jack-screw, see gato (1) ; (4) d. fuerte, 
Libano, Tolima, Col. kind of hard wood used in mines (W. J. Pierce) ; 
other woods used are dinde, diomate. 

DIAGONAL, Cartagena, Sp. and Ant. Col. backstay of a pulley-frame 
[horca (1)], see u. barra (9), tornapunta (3) ; any inclined stay or 
brace, see gallo (1). 

DIAMANTE, diamond ; d. brillante, brilliant ; d. bruto or d. en bruto, 
rough diamond, syn. naife ; d. falso, false diamond ; d. negro, bort ; 
d. rebolludo, rough diamond of a rounded form (Acad.) ; d. rosa, rosa 
(1), rose diamond ; d. tabla, table diamond ; d. tallado, cut diamond ; 
see carbonado, chaton, chispa (2), cincora, fondo (7) ; for minerals 
and rocks of diamond fields see agulhas, barro (4), caldeiroes, cascalho 
(2), favas, feijoes, formacao (2), grupiaras, gurgulho, poc,ao. 

DIAMANTINO, Guanajuato, Mex. veinstone formed of splintery horn- 
stone and crystallised felspar (Dahlgren), see matriz (1). 

DIARIO, (1) diary, a daily account ; libro d., com. diary ; (2) Col. 
daily quantity of amalgam produced by a mill or mills ; (3) Col. 
mill diary, including hours lost, tonnage of ore milled, etc. 

DlASPERO, DIASPRO, name of some varieties of jasper, see jaspe (1). . 

DIBUJO, drawing, design, draft. 

DIENTE, (1) mech. tooth or cog (Port, dente de roda) ; d. de engranaje, 
ratchet, see u. fiador (2) ; d. de sierra (Port, dente de serra), tooth of 
a saw ; dientes, Mex. cogs on the large wheel which receive those on 
the smaller one, syn. dientes de rueda ; (2) dientes, Col. teeth or cams 
on the axle [principal (2)], which raise the lifters [aspas (1)] of the 
native mill stamp-stem [cabo (5)], comp. cama (3) ; (3) d. de perro or 
dienteperro, Ant. Col. crystallised and opaque quartz (cuarzo) occur- 
ring in geodes (Angel) ; Uribe says it is imperfectly crystallised and 
has the aspect of a dog's tooth ; (4) d. de murcielago (bat's tooth), 
Ant. Col. stibnite (antimonio gris) in cavities in veins (Angel) ; (5) 
dientes, projecting stones left to continue a wall, syn. adarajas, see 



mechinales (1) ; (G) Mex. mas. bond, bond-stone (Dwight), syn. 

DIENTEPERRO, see diente (3). 

DIEZMILESIMO (DM.), Chile, O'OOl g. of metal in 10 g. of ore - 
3*2666 ozs. per ton, used for silver ores ; cienmilesimo (CM.) O'OOOl 
g. of metal in 10 g. of ore = 0'3266 oz. per ton, used for gold ores. 

DIEZMO, tenth, see u. derecho (2). 

DIFERENCIA, difference ; d. de latitud norte, northing ; d. de latitud 
sur, southing ; d. en longitud, meridian distance ; d. en nivel, fall, 
difference of level (Ponce de Leon). 

DIFUSI6N, see dispersion. 

DIFUSOR, vent, a casing to a fan provided with from six to twelve 
orifices, having movable doors, the sum of whose areas is equal to 
the stack of Guibal's fan (invented by Harze). 

DILATACI6N, dilatation, expansion (of rails, etc.). 

DILIGENCIA, (1) return of a writ, judicial formalities, procedure ; 
(2) d. de posesion de minas, Col. legal notice of the possession of a 
mine ; (3) stage-coach. 

DILUIR, to dilute. 

DILUVIO, deluge, overflow, inundation, flood. 

DINAMITA, dynamite; dinamitagoma or gelatina explosiva, blasting 
gelatine (86 per cent, nitro -glycerine, 10 per cent, cotton powder, and 
4 per cent, of camphor). 

DINAMO, el. dynamo. 

DINDE, see u. diablo (4). 

DINERAL, coin, standard for assay ers, the dineral of gold is a weight of 
one castellano, divided into 24 quilates (carats), and each quilate into 
4 granos (grains) ; the dineral of silver is a weight of one marco, 
divided into 12 dineros, and each dinero into 24 grains. 

DINERQ, (1) money, a d., al d., a d. seco, a. d. contante or efectivo, end. 
efectivo, in cash ; (2) standard of silver, the twelfth part of a dineral. 

DINTEL, lintel of a door or window, si/n. cabecero, cabezal (7), carga- 
dero (2), carguero (3), see chambrana (3), comp. jamba. 

DIOMATE, see u. diablo (4). 

DIONISIA, (1) a black stone, stained with red spots, bloodstone (helio- 
trope, a var. of jasper), see ezteri, jaspe (1) sanguinaria (1) ; (2) a 
well-polished var. of hematite, syn. hematites, sanguinaria (2), see 

DIORITA, diorite ; d. compacta, aphanite ; d. esquistosa, greenstone 
slate (Ponce de Leon), syn. Guadalcazar, S. L. Potosi, Mex. piedra 
mora, Col. sabanera, see piedra azul (b), u. roca (3), tosca (1). 

DIPUTACI6N DE MINERIA, Mex. a local board, formerly elected in 
each district for the administration of all matters relating to the 
mining industry, see u. mineria, tribunal ; abolished by the Law of 
1892, and substituted by Agencies, see agentes ; syn. Peru, delegation 
de mineria. 1 J 



DIQUE, (1) dike, dam, mole or mound to prevent inundations, see 
albarradon, chamburgo, u. trincho (2), virada ; (2) dam, mine-dam, 
see cerramiento, presa (1) ; d. lateral, wing of a dam ; (3) dock ; d. de 
construction, or d. seco, dry dock ; (4) canal, thus in salinas of 
Torre vie j a, Alicante, Sp. = a canal with two branches, the sides of 
which are walls of squared stone (silleria) ; on the banks are 
the eras or open deposits (Molina) ; (5) geol. dike, syn. filon (3) de 
roca, macho (9), see banco (5), chorro (3), u. roca (3), testera (1), 
tosca (5). 

DIRECCI6N, (1) geol. strike, see rumbo (3) ; d. local, d. media, d. prin- 
cipal, local, average and chief strike, respectively ; (2) surv. azimuth 
DIRECTOR, director, manager or superintendent (superintendente) ; 

d. de la Casa de Moneda, Master of the Mint. 
DIRIGIRSE, geol. to strike. 

DISCO, (1) face of the sun or moon, dis3 ; (2) lens (of a telescope, etc.) ; 
(3) rail, semaphore ; (4) d. de cuero, leather washer, see empaqueta- 
dura, volandera (2). 

DISFRUTAR (or desfrutar), to enjoy or have the benefit of a mine ; 
d. una mina, to work a mine, see trabajar ; d. de la veta, to exploit 
(explotar) or mine, comp. arrancar. 
DISFRUTE (or desfrute), working or mining a vein or deposit, syn. 

rebajo (1), comp. arranque (1) ; obras de d., stopes, etc. 
DISLOCACI6N (Port., fault, throw or slide ; d. ascendente, 

up-throw ; d. descendente, down-throw, seesalto (1). 
DISLOCADOR, RA, adj. veta dislocadora, a vein which passes through 

another, and heaves or throws it. 

DISLOCAR (Port, deslocar), geol. to displace (of a fault), to fault. 
DISPARAR, to blast or shoot, see tirar (1). 
DISPARO, discharge, explosion, see tiro (6). 
DISPERSARSE, to die out in the " country " (of veins). 
DISPERSI6N, d. de la capa (1), see Fig. 37, syn. borrasca (3), difusion 
or emborrascamiento de la 
capa (1). 
DISTRIBUCI6N, see u. aparato, 


DISTRIBUIDOR, (1) mech. prep, 
distributer or head-board, see 
taco (10) ; (2) st. eng. slide-bolt, 
distributing regulator (Ponce de Fl - 37.-Di 8 pcreion de la capa (i) 

(after Moucada). 
Leon) ; (3) mech. valve-chest, 

see u. caja (4) ; (4) hydr. m. distributer, syn repartidora. 

DISTRITO, district, syn. circulo (2), prov. coto (2), see marca (3), partido 
(1), real (1). 

DIVIDENDO, dividend ; d. activo, dividend, profit ;, d. pasivo, assess- 
ment (Ponce de Leon). 



DIVI-DIVI, Venez. a plant extensively used in boilers as an anti-incrus- 
tation (G. P. Ashmore and C. Scale). 
DIVISI6N, (1) geol. joint, see juntura (2) ; (2) vent, bratticing, see 

tabique (3). 
DM. = diezmilesimos. 
DOBLA, Peru, night-shift, see relevo ; Chile, a double shift, " una 

d. de 24 horas." 
DOBLAR (to double), to work two shifts in succession, see endoble, 

DOBLE, adj. double ; d. excentrica, st. eng. link motion ; d. via, rail. 

double track (Ponce de Leon). 
DOCIL, adj. (1) docile (of ores), easily treated, free-milling ; (2) 

malleable, ductile (of metals). 

DOCIMASIA, DOCIMASTICA, the docimastic art, the art of assaying. 
DOCUMENTO, document, voucher ; d. anexo, schedule ; d. de venta, 

bill of sale. 
DOLOMIA, dolomite. 

DOMBO, DOMO, dome, cupola ; steam dome, see cupula. 
DONAS, a present made every year to the miners who work in the iron 

mines of Spain, see gratification. 
DORADOS, Michoacan, Mex. yellow copper ores or those in which 

copper pyrites predominate, comp. aplomados. 
DORMENTE, Port, sleeper, see durmiente (1). 
DORMIENTE, see durmiente (1). 
DORNAJO, d. de los mineros, mech. prep, miner's trough (Venator), 

see gamella (2), noque (2). 
DOTACI6N, complement of a crew ; number of horses or mules required 

in a day for working a horse- whim [malacate (1)], etc. 
DOVELA, (1) any one of the arch-stones or voussoirs of an arch (arco) ; 

ladrilla en forma de d., see Fig. 38 ; (2) the 

curved sides of an arch (arco), see in trades 

(1) andtrasdos (1). 

DOVELAR, to hew stones in curves for an arch, 

or arched dam. 
DRAGA, (1) dredge, dredger, syn. excavadora ; 

(2) bor. dredge used for withdrawing debris FlG ' 38< 
when boring shafts by Kind's method; (3) 

miner's shovel [pala (1)]; d. de minador, ( . card (5) . ^ lecbo (6) . 

miner's drag, crooked shovel (Ponce de Leon). /, iutrados ; t, trasd6s. 
DRAGAR, to dredge, syn. excavar. 
DRAGONERA, Peru, met. passage of the flame into the furnace [horno 

(2)] at the fire-bridge (Dwight). 
DROMOGRAFO, see tachografo. 
DRUSA, druse, drusy cavity, (Derb.) lough, swallow, (Cornw.) vugh 

(vug), syn. bolsa (3), bolsada (2), cavidad (2), geoda (2), Col. gongora, 

hueco (2), Peru, laque (2), Mex. soyote, eqwi Braz. (Port.) olho (1), 



Minas Geraes, Braz. panella, Fr. druse, four, poche, Ger. Erzdruse, 

Drusenraum, see cholla, comp. caverna (2), soplado. 
DtiCTIL, adj. ductile ; for plata d., see u. plata (2). 
DUELA, (1) stave of a barrel or cask, syn. costilla (1) ; (2) see camon 

(2) ; (3) stone of a floor or flooring-board (Dwight). 
DUE NO, (1) owner of a mine, see propietario ; (2) shipper of ore (Dwight). 
DUREZA, hardness, solidity. 
DURMIENTE, (1) transp. engine-bearer or sleeper, syn. Ant. Col. polin 

(2), solera (7), trasversa, traviesa (3), travesano (3), equiv. Port. 
. dormente, Minas Geraes, Braz. salipa, Fr. traverse, Ger. Eisenbahn- 

schwelle, comp. larguero (5) ; (2) thick board, see tablon ; (3) d. de 

la caldera (2), bedding of a boiler ; (4) girder (Fr. longrine), stringer, 

see viga ; (5) Mex. timb. sole-piece, see solera (3). 
DURO, RA, adj. hard ; for piedra dura, see u. piedra. 
DUROS, (1) Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. hard copper ores in which 

quartz [almendrilla (2)] predominates in the matrix (Ramirez), comp. 

lamosos (1), pastosos, yesosos ; (2) met. badly calcined ores (Ponce 

de Leon). 

EBANO, ebony- tree ; ebony wood. 

EBO, Nicaragua, a tough, hard and oily wood, good for making charcoal 

(C. J. Mixer). 
ECHADERO, Mex. a level place on the hill to load mules, to spread out 

ores, and to clean and weigh them (Gamboa), syn. patio (1), comp. 

banqueo (1). 
ECHADO, DA, adj. veta echada, an inclined vein, syn. veta recostada, 

comp. u. clavado, da. 
ECHADO, inclination or dip (of a deposit), syn. buzamiento, hundimiento 

(6), inclination (1), Mex. manteo (2), pendiente (3), recueste or recuesto 

(2), tendido (2), vertiente, equiv. Port, pendor, Fr. inclinaison, pendant, 

plongement, Ger. Einfallen, Fallwinkel, Neigung, Ital. pendenza ; 

e. local, local dip ; e. media, average dip (Ger. Generalf alien) ; e. 

principal, principal dip. 
ECHAR, (1) e. una retreta, Murcia, Almeria, Jaen, Sp. to knock or give 

blows (of entombed miners) in order to attract attention (Molina) ; 

(2) e. planilla (3), Mex. to gob, pack or fill, see rellenar ; (3) e. barro, 

mas. to clay ; (4) e. carbon, st. eng. to coal. 
ECLIMETRO, surv. clinometer. 
ECLISA (from Fr. Pelisse), transp. fish-plate, syn. barrote (2), brida (2), 

escarpa (3), mordaza (3), placa (1) de junta or de union, Mex. plan- 


EDIFICAR, to build, see construir. 
EDUCCI6N, see u. valvula. 
EFECTIVO, cash ; e. en caja, cash in hand. 
EFECTO, (1) e. util, mech. useful effect ; (2) efectos, assets ; effects, 

goods ; com. drafts or bills. 



EFLORESCENCIA, (1) chem. efflorescence ; (2) Peru, outcrop (Dwight), 

see afloramiento. 

EGRENA, an iron clamp, see clama, comp. abrazadera (1). 
EIXO, see eje. 
EJE (Port, eixo), (1) axis of a wheel or shaft ; axis of a stream, etc., see 

centro (3) ; axis of a gallery or shaft ; geol. axis of a fold, etc., see 

cresta (2) ; (2) axle, axle-tree, shaft or spindle, syn. arbol (3), asta (1), 

biela (4), guijo (2), see buje, cabeza (8), gorron (1), marrana, tachon ; 

e. acodado or acodillado, mech. crank shaft (Fr. arbre de couche) ; e. 

intermedio, intermediate or counter-shaft (contraeje) ; e. montado, fixed 

axle (of a wagon) ; e. motor or e. principal, driving shaft, main shaft ; 

(3) ejes de cobre, Chile, met. copper matte (containing 40-60 per cent. 

copper), or double sulphides of copper and iron, comp. barra (3). 
ELECTRO, (1) amber (Greek elektron), syn. ambar amarillo, carabe 

(Fr. carabe), sucino, or succino ; (2) electrum, a native alloy of gold 

and silver, syn. oroche natural ; (3) artificial alloy, containing four 

parts gold to one of silver. 
ELECTRODO, el. electrode, see anodo, catodo. 
ELECTROIMAN, electro-magnet. 

ELEVACI6N, (1) elevation ; (2) rise, ascent, height ; (3) altitude. 
ELEVADOR, (1) a pump on the pulsometer or injector principle, see 

inyector ; (2) hoist, cage, see caja (7) ; (3) lift or (U.S.A.) elevator, 

see montacargas ; (4) e. hidraulico, hydr. m. hydraulic elevator. 
ELEVADORA, see u. bomba (1). 
ELEVAR, to raise or hoist ; maquina de e. el agua, water-raising engine, 

maquina de e. pesos, hoisting engine, see extraer (1). 
ELEVATORIA, see u. bomba (1). 

EMBALAJE, packing (machinery, etc.), equiv. Fr. emballage. 
EMBANQUES, Mex. met. the wall accretions of a water-jacket smelter ; 

these are chiselled off, or " barred out " (0. H. Hahn). 
EMBARCADERO, (1) wharf or quay, see muelle (3) ; (2) port, harbour, 

see puerto (1) ; (3) rail, goods station or (U.S.A.) freight depot, see 

estacion (2). 

EMBARCADOR, shipper, loader. 
EMBARCARSE LA VETA, Peru, to be lost (as a vein) by reason of a 

fault or intersecting dike (Dwight). 
EMBARQUE, shipment, syn. despacho (2), Mex. remision, comp. 


EMBASTE, inech. prep, dry concentration product of the garbillo (1). 
EMBESTIDOR, see u. aventadero (1). 
EMBIJE, EMBIJETE, Mex. thin coating of mineral on a joint, etc., see 

barniz (2). 
EMBOCADERO, EMBOCADOR, mouth of a channel, by which water is 

conveyed through a mill-dam (Velazquez). 
EMBOCADURA, mouth or entrance by a narrow passage ; e. de un rio, 

mouth of a river, see desembocadero. 



EMBOLO, (1) st. eng. piston, see varilla (2) ; pump, piston (Port, zoncho 
or plunger ; e. macizo or solido, pump ram or plunger, syn. chupon 
(1), see cara (3), estopero ; a bomba de e. may be a draw-lift or plunger- 
pump, see bomba (1) ; (2) sucker of a pump, see valvula ; (3) bucket 
of a drawing-lift or bucket-set, see cuero (3). 

EMBONIGAR, to plaster (walls of houses, etc.) with cow-dung (boniga). 

EMBOQUILLAR, to make the beginning of a borehole, shaft, gallery, 
etc., to mark or start it, syn. pintar (2). 

EMBORRASCAMIENTO, Hex. impoverishment (of a lode, etc.). Ac- 
cording to St. Clair Duport, the general limit of profitable working in 
depth in Mexico is about 359 '20 m., or 500 m. according to P. Laur 
see dispersion. 

EMBORRASCARSE, Mex. to become impoverished or barren ; " to 
meet a hard flinty rock (pedernal duro) instead of ore, or to lose the 
vein " (Gamboa), see borrasca, comp. empobrecerse. 

EMBOVEDAR, to cover with an arch or vault. 

EMBOZADO (lit. muffled), Mex. rich mineral entirely imbedded and 
concealed in barren rock (Dwight). 

EMBRAGADA, see u. viga. 

EMBRAGUE, (1) transp. clutch, coupling, shaft-coupling, see conexion 

(1) ; (2) e. de inversion, mech. reversing motion (Ponce de Leon) 
(3) e. ranurado, mech. slot (Ponce de Leon), see u. ranura. 

EMBREAR, to coat with pitch, syn. empegar. 

EMBUDO, (1) funnel or pipe ; (2) Mex. hopper (Dwight), see tolva (1) ; 

(3) the funnel-shaped cave of ground produced in soft rocks, comp. 

campana (9), chupon (3), revenimiento. 
EMPALADO, see zarzo (2). 

EMPALANCAR, Col. to timber (Gamba), see entibar. 
EMPALMADURA, see empalme. 
EMPALMAR, (1) to scarf, to dovetail ; to join timber, see empatillar, 

empotrar (2) ; (2) to clamp, to couple, see u. juntar ; (3) to splice (a 

rope), see empatar (2) ; (4) Chile, to join (of veins), see u. juntar. 
EMPALME, EMPALMADURA, (1) carp, scarf, timber joint, see ajuste 

(3) ; e. de caja y espiga, mortise and tenon, see muesca (1) and espiga 

(2) ; e. de cola de milano, dovetail joint ; (2) splice (of a rope, etc.), 
see empale (2) ; (3) rail, junction of a branch with the main line ; 

(4) c.m. level or branch setting off sideways from a gallery (Venator) ; 

(5) curia de e., see u. curia (1). 

EMPANIZADA, Cochas, Cajabamba, Peru, said of a vein-wall which is 

altered or decomposed (Santo'alla). 
EMPAQUE, packing. 
EMPAQUETADO, st. eng. and pump, packing or gasket, syn. empaque- 

tadura (1), relleno (1), Mex. rondana (2) ; anillo de e., packing-ring of 

a piston (Fr. bague d'emballage) ; e. de canamo (hemp) gasket ; e. de 

casquillo, gland packing. 



EMPAQUETADURA, inech. (1) packing, see empaquetado, guarnicion 
(2) ; (2) washer, syn. prov. alfardon (1), anillo (4) de empaque, aran- 
dela, Mex. rondana (3), volandera (3), see disco (4), radochin, rodaja 


EMPAQUETAR, to pack (goods) ; to pack pistons or pumps. 
EMPAREJAR, (1) to level or square up ; (2) to harness oxen, mules, 

etc., see aparejo (2) and. (3). 
EMPATAR, (1) mech. to couple or join ; (2) to splice a rope, syn. 

ayustar, empalmar (3). 
EMPATE, (1) mech. coupling, joint ; (2) splice (of a rope, belt, etc.), 

syn. ayuste, costura (2), empalme (2), injerto. 
EMPATILLADO, Mex. an inclined gallery, see chiflon (4). 
EMPATILLAR, Col. to join timber, see empalmar (1). 
EMPEDRADO, pavement. 
EMPEDRADOR, paver or pavier. 
EMPEDRAR, to pave, to floor with stones. 
EMPEGAR, to pitch, to cover with pitch, see embrear. 
EMPELLAR, Mineral del Oro, Mex. in extracting gold by the patio 

process, after the granza (1) has been ground in the arrastre (3) from 

six to eight hours, to add silver or copper amalgam in the proportion 

of 1'84 to 2'76 k. with double its weight of cabecilla (2), spreading 

the whole equally over the bottom (Ramirez). 
EMPENTA, obs., prop, stay, shore, see apoyo. 
EMPENTAR, to unite the excavations or supports of a mine so that 

they remain without interruptions (Acad.). 
EMPIEDRO, paving ; a dry wall (Velazquez), see muro (1). 
EMPLANCHADO, see u. tapestle. 
EMPLEO, Mex. in the patio process, the total quantity of mercury added 

to the torta, from this is obtained a certain quantity of amalgam 

[pella (2)] and filtered mercury, the difference being loss. In the 

retort (or capellina) a certain quantity of silver [rosca (3)] and mercury 

is obtained. The verification of the results is called reconocimiento 


EMPLOMADA, lead-poisoning. 

EMPOBRECERSE, to become poor (of lodes), comp. emborrascarse. 
EMPROBECIMIENTO, impoverishment (of veins, etc.), comp. enrique- 


EMPOTRAMIENTO, scarfing two timbers together. 
EMPOTRAR, (1) to mortise, to join with a mortise [muesca (1)], syn. 

endentar (1) ; (2) to scarf, to splice, see empalmar (1). 
EMPRESA, enterprise, undertaking ; management ; company (sociedad). 
EMPUJADOR, mech. face of a piston, equiv. Fr. gachette. 
EMPUJE, EMPUJO, thrust, pressure. 
ENAJENACI6N, alienation, the act of transferring property, see tras- 

paso ; expropriation (expropiacion). 

ENAJENAR, to alienate, transfer or give away property, see traspasar. 

145 K 



: i / r- r> e i -r \J 


EN ARBOL, see arbol (4). 

EN BOLEO, see u. boleo. 

EN BONANZA, Span. Am. yielding profitable returns, see bonanza. 

ENCADENADO, a method of timbering sometimes used in winzes, 

rises, or stopes, see Fig. 39. 
ENCADENAR, see encadenado, encadene. 
ENCADENE, Mex. in the patio process, the 

physical change that takes place in the 

mercury before it contains silver in testing 

the ceja (1), the minute globules adhere to 

one another and form a kind of chain 

ENCAJE, (1) groove, see muesca (1) ; (2) socket, 

see cubo (4) ; (3) mech. gearing, see engranaje 

(2) ; (4) see u. cuerpo (5). 
ENCAJONADO, mud-walling with tapiales, see 

tapia (1). FIG. 89. Enoadenado 

ENCAJONAMIENTO, timb. sollar or bunding, (after Ezquerra). 

see camada (3). 

ENCAJONAR, to encase (sometimes used of rocks which enclose deposits). 
ENCALADURA, whitewashing. 
ENCALAR, (1) to whitewash, see blanquear ; (2) to cover with plaster 

or mortar. 
ENCALLAR, to jamb, or get anchored (used of sinking masonry), syn. 

ENCAMACI6N, (1) Almaden, Sp. timb. lagging in the roof and sides 

of the main galleries (cafias) and branch drifts (hurtos), syn. e. enfajado, 

or enfajadas, see revestimiento (1) ; (2) timb. lagging in the roof or 

floor, comp. encostillado, encofrado ; (3) timb. a sollar or bunding 

which has other timbers crosswise on it to sustain deads, etc., see 

camada (3). 
ENCAMADOS, Mex. timb. lagging in the roof of a gallery, see guarnicion, 

revestimiento (1). 
ENCAMONADA, see u. camon (1). 
ENCAMP ANAR UNA MINA, to cut off the workings of a mine on the 

underlay by working on the lowest workings from a neighbouring 

mine (M. J. Gloss.). 
ENCAMP ANE, Peru, amount of ground opened up on the underlie of a 

vein ; difference of level between any gallery and the surface, comp. 

ENCANADOS, Ant. Col. small horizontal polings used in roofing houses, 

comp. solera (5). 
ENCANALAR, ENCANALIZAR, to convey (water, etc.) through pipes 

or conduits, see encanar (2). 
ENCANAR, (1) to enclose a plantation with a hedge of cane ; (2) to 

convey water through conduits or pipes, see encanalar. 



ENCAPADO, DA, adj. cloaked ; encapados, Peru, deposits covered by 

vegetable earth (Santolalla) ; applied to a mine when the deposit 

does not crop out (Acad.). 
ENCAPILLADO, blast, manhole. 
ENCAPILLAR, to enlarge a mine-working [labor (2)] in order to start 

another from it (Acad.). 
ENCARGADO, Mex. (1) superintendent, see superintendente ; (2) e. 

de negocios, agent, commissioner (Velazquez). 

ENCARNADO, DA, adj. for petlanque encarnado, see u. petlanque. 
ENCENTRAR, to enter a hill (of a vein), either on the line of strike or 

ENCERADO, (1) oilcloth, oilskin, see hule (1); (2) tarpaulin, see u. 


ENCHARCADA, pool of water, see charco (1). 
ENCHUCHAR, rail, to switch (Ponce de Leon), see desviar (1). 
ENCHUFADO, ENCHUFE, pipe-coupling, pipe-joint ; tongue or groove 

joint used in joining wooden boring-rods, syn. enlace a enchufe (Fr. 

assemblage a enfourchement) ; e. de media madera, plain joint, see u. 

tubo (1). 

ENCHUFAR, to couple pipes, wooden rods, etc. 
ENCHUFE, see enchufado. 
ENCIERRO (enclosure), Ant. Col. configuration of the surface which 

has stopped the currents of streams, obliging them to deposit the 

gold-bearing alluvium (Uribe), see u. ataje. 
ENCIMADA, top. plateau, see meseta (2). 

ENCINA, evergreen oak or holm (Quercus ilex), syn. chaparro, see roble. 
ENCINTAR, carp, to bind boards, etc., with cross-pieces of wood. 
ENCLAVAR, to nail, see clavar. 
ENCOFRADO, DA, pp. of encofrar ; for represa encofrada, see u. represa 

ENCOFRADO, (1) timb. lagging with planks, see revestimiento (1) ; 

(2) a gallery (galeria) completely lagged with timber, comp. enca- 

macion (2), encostillado. 
ENCOFRAR, to plank, to line with sheeting (Velazquez), to lag, see 


ENCOMANDITA, see u. sociedad. 
ENCOMIENDA, com. charge or commission. 
ENCONTRAR, to meet (of veins), see encuentro. 
ENCOSTA, (1) Port, declivity, slope, see pendiente (1) ; (2) encostas, 

Braz. alluv. m. hill-sides, etc., on which benches are found. 
ENCOSTILLADO, timb. lagging on the sides of a gallery, syn. Guan. 

Mex. costillar, Pachuca, Hid. Mex. tupidos, see u. guarnicion, revesti- 
miento (1), comp. encamacion (2), encofrado (2). 
ENCOSTILLAR, to connect with staves, strips or ribs ; timb. to lag 

props laterally for the support of waste, etc. 



ENCRUCIJADA, crossway, cross-road ; railroad crossing, see cruza- 

miento (1). 

ENCUARTADORES, see u. llenador (1). 
ENCUBADO, (1) tubbing, syn. entubacion (2), cquiv. Fr. cuvelage ; e. 

de madera, wooden tubbing (entibado) ; e. de hierro, iron tubbing 

[entubado (2)] ; e. de mamposteria, stone tubbing or coffering, syn. 

revestimiento (1) de piedra ; see u. cuna (1); (2) e. con puntales, 

prop crib- timbering ; e. lleno, solid crib- timbering ; (3) e. filtrante, 

filtering tube, sometimes used in Artesian wells, invented by Lippman 

ENCUENTRO, (1) meeting another vein 6 when 

following a, see Fig. 40, see bifurcation (1), 

ramification arqueada ; (2) meeting of two 


ENCUNADO, dam in a mine, see cerramiento. 
ENCUNAR, to wedge. 
ENOCH AD A, Braz. a kind of hoe [azadon (1)J 

used by gold- washers. 
ENDENTAR, (1) carp, to join with a mortise, 

see empotrar (1) ; (2) mech. to gear, to throw 

FIG. 40. Eucuentro. 
into gear, see engranar. 

ENDOBLE, double shift, to enable miners and 

smelters to change shifts at the end of each week, see doblar, relevo. 

EN EL CUERPO, see cuerpo (2). 

ENFAJADAS, see encamacion (1). 

ENFANGAMIENTO, see enlodamiento. 

ENFERMAR, to " sicken " (of quicksilver) used by Gamba. 

ENFRIADERO, cooler. 

ENFRIAR, Mex. to add to the torta substances which reduce cupric to 
cuprous salts (Dwight), see frio (1), torta. 

EN FRUTOS, in produce, producing ores, etc., comp. bonanza. 

ENGABARRADO, DA, adj. criadero engabarrado, a deposit having ore 
very disseminated throughout, comp. gabarro. 

ENGANCHADOR, (1) c.m. onsetter, hanger-on, hooker-on, bottomer 
or bridger, m.m. filler, syn. minero cargadero, comp. amainador, llenador 
(2), mantero, pocero (3) ; (2) Peru, agent [agente (1)] who, in the 
interior agricultural towns, contracts men for the mines ; the miner 
advances money to the enganchador, who is also a merchant, who 
in turn furnishes provisions and liquor, and is responsible for his work 
(R. T. Mason), comp. lazador (2). 

ENGANCHAR, (1) to fasten or hook on the bucket, kibble, etc., to 
couple, connect, comp. desganchar ; (2) Peru, to engage miners, see 
enganchador (2). 

ENGANCHE, (1) c.m. onsetting, m.m. filling, see enganchador (1) ; 
(2) c.m. inset, m.m. plat, see concavo ; (3) hooking-on of wagons 
to ropes, chains, etc. (Fr. attelage) ; (4) transp. connecting-link 



or hook, coupling, see conexion (1) ; aparato de e., Mex. grip 

(D wight). 

ENGATILLAR, to bind with a cramp-iron (Velazquez), see gato (2) 
ENGENHARIA, see ingenieria. 
ENGENHEIRO, see ingeniero. 
ENGENHO, see ingenio. 
ENGRANAJE, (1) gearing, throwing into gear; (2) gear, gearing, syn. 

encaje (3), u. fiador (2) ; e. de friction, friction gearing. 
ENGRANAR, to throw into gear, to gear, see endentar. 
ENGRASADOR, (1) man who lubricates machinery ; (2) lubricator, 

see aceitera, u. copa (1), engrasadura, grasera. 
ENGRASADURA, Mex. grease-cup (Dwight). 
ENGRASAR, to oil, lubricate. 
ENGRASE, oiling (Fr. graissage). 
ENJALBEGAR, to whitewash walls, see blanquear. 
ENJALMA, kind of pack-saddle, see aparejo (2), jalma. 
ENJAULAR, to load a cage ; see jaula (2). 
ENLACE, (1) union or junction of galleries, inclined planes, roads, 

etc. (Fr. raccordement) ; (2) joint for timbers, etc., connection, see 

ajuste (3) ; e. a rayo de Jupiter, e. a tope (5), butt-joint ; (3) con- 
nection, link, lacing. 

ENLADRILLADO, brickwork, see mazoneria. 
ENLADRILLADOR, see ladrillador. 

ENLATAR, timb. to drive in laths [latas (2)], see pilote (2). 
ENLATONADO, see u. tapestle (1). 
ENLAZAR, to join (timbers, etc.), see ensamblar. 
ENLISTONAR, to lath, to batten. 

ENLODADURA, blast, claying of a borehole (Ponce de Leon), see lodar. 
ENLODAMIENTO, ENFANGAMIENTO, c.m. clay-dabbing to prevent 

fire spreading ; pack- walls so covered = (N. Engl.) wax- walls. 
ENLODAR, to clay, see lodar. 

ENLUCIR, to whitewash a wall, to plaster, see blanquear. 
ENMACHEMBRAR, to scarf pieces of timber together (Velazquez). 
ENMADERACI6N, timbering, see entibacion. 
ENMADERADO (Port, enmadeiramento), (1) timbering, see entibacion ; 

(2) see zarzo (2) ; (3) timb. lagging, see revestimiento (1). 
ENMADERAMEN, see entibacion. 
ENMADERAR (Port, enmadeirar), (1) to roof a house with timber ; 

to floor with boards ; (2) to timber, see entibar. 
ENMECHAR, carp, to rabbet. 
ENMEDIO, see u. cuerpo (5). 
ENNOBLECIMIENTO, see bonanza. 
ENRACHADO, see u. tapestle (1). 
ENRAMADO, see u. tapestle (1). 
ENREJADO, grate ; e. de hierro, firegrate, syn. fogon de rejas, see 

hogar (1). 



ENRIELAR, (1) to make ingots of gold or silver; (2) to lay rails; 

(3) to make rails. 

ENRIPIADO, rubble- work, see mamposteria (1). 
ENRIPIAR, see ripiar. 

ENRIQUECERSE, to become rich (of a mine). 

ENRIQUECIMIENTO, enrichment (of veins), comp. empobrecimiento. 
ENROLLIZADO, see u, tapestle (1). 

ENROLLIZAR, timb. to prop with logs (Ponce de Leon). 
ENSACADURA, loading into sacks. 
ENSACAR, to load into sacks. 
ENSALMORAR, Mex. to add salt, see, ensalmoro. 
ENSALMORO, Mex. in the patio process, the operation of adding salt 

(sal marina or saltierra) to the heap of lama (2), the quantity varies 

from 4 to 7 per cent, of ore. 
ENSAMBLADO, Mex. in inclined shafts, timbering covering the footwall 

to facilitate the movement of the mantas (1). The cross-pieces to 

which the longitudinal ones are attached by a mortise joint and nails 

= canalejas (2) [Pachuca, cabezales (8)] ; the pieces of boards at the 

side to avoid the separation of the mantas = quijadas (3) (Carrion). 

ajuste (3) ; (2) ensamble de m'neros, see u. cuerpo (10). 
ENSAMBLAR, to join or unite pieces of wood, syn. enlazar ; to scarf, 

to dovetail, to mortise, see machihembrar. 
ENSAMBLE, see ensambladura. 
ENSANCHADOR, bor. enlarging or widening tool or reamer, equiv. Fr. 

elargisseur, Ger. Nachbohrer. 
ENSANCHAMIENTO, see ensanche. 
ENSANCHAR, (1) e. el hilo, Ant. Col. to cut down the soft wall of a 

lode, when the latter is not of sufficient width to carry the gallery 

or drift, comp. desanchar, llauca ; (2) to enlarge a borehole ; (3) 

ensancharse, to widen or make (of a lode, etc.). 
ENSANCHE, ENSANCHAMIENTO, (1) e. de un filon, the widening, 

making or swelling (of a lode, etc.) ; bunch, blow or belly, syn. an- 

chura (3), buche, comp. estrechez ; (2) e. de pozo, widening of the shaft ; 

(3) metodo de e., see u. grande ; (4) mech. boss or swelling (5) mech. 

reaming or enlarging a hole with a reamer ; enlarging a borehole, 

etc. ; (6) cutting down the soft wall of a lode, see ensanchar (1). 
ENSAYADOR (Port, ensa'ador), (1) assayer, see contraste (1), quilatador ; 

(2) Chile, in the patio process, the man who makes the tests in the 

achua, comp. tentadurero. 

ENSAYAR (Port, ensaiar), to assay, see contrastar (1), quilatar. 
ENSAYE (Port, ensaio), (1) assay, fire-assay, syn. e. docimastico, 

ensayo (1), see aquilatacion (2), ijada (1), tentadura (2), toque (2) ; 

(2) in gold- washing, a trial made by the batea or pan ; in the patio 
process, a test made of the torta, see prueba (1), tentadura (1) and (2) ; 

(3) assay-office (Dwight), see contraste (2). 




ENSAYO, (1) assay, see ensaye (1) ; (2) e. real, Peru, assay made by 
bringing low-grade bullion to the assay of coin silver or gold. Pre- 
assay (D wight) ; (3) com. sample. 

ENSILLAR, to saddle. 

ENSOGAR, to fasten with a rope. 

ENTABLADO, DA, pp. of entablar, see u. tapestle (1), 

ENTABLADO, floor made of boards, syn. tillado. 

ENTABLADURA, flooring with boards, syn. entable. 

ENTABLAR, to cover with boards ; to floor with boards. 

ENTABLE, see entabladura. 

ENTALLA, Peru, notch or groove cut in timber, see muesca (1). 

ENTALLADURA, (1) c.m. undercut, see regadura (2) ; (2) e. vertical, 
c.m. vertical cut or cutting-end (Ger. Geschlitz). 

ENTALLAMIENTO, carp, mortise, see muesca (1). 

ENTALLAR, c.m. to nick or undercut (Fr. entailler), see socavar. 

ENTARIMAR, see tillar, and u. tablero (2). 

ENTIBACION, timbering of mines, syn. ademacion, apeo (1), enmadera- 
cion, enmaderado (1), enmaderamen, fortification con madera, equiv. 
Fr. boisage, Ger. Zimmerung ; e. con estacas 6 tablas, lagging, see 
revestimiento (1) ; e. de organo, timbering with props in the method 
known as grandes tajos ascendentes ; see adema (1), ademe, ajuste (3), 
anillo (2), asnado, balsa (3), bantrote, brocal (1), caja (12), cajon (11), 
cama (6) and (7), camada (3), carcel (1) and (2), carrera (8), cincho (3) 
and (4), cola (3), columna (1) and (2), contracielo (2), contramadre, 
corral (2), costilla (4), coz (1) and (2), crucero (3), encamacion (1) and 
(2), encamados, encanados, estaca (5) and (6), estacada (1) and (2), 
forro (2) and (3), gualdrilla, jabalcon, Have (3), marco 
(2), mono (1) and (2), puente (2) to (5), riostra (2) 
and (3), viage, comp. reforze. 

ENTIBADO, wooden tubbing (Chalon), see encubado (1). 

ENTIBADOR, timberman, see palero (4). 

ENTIBAMIENTO, propping, shoring (Ponce de Leon). 

ENTIBAR, to timber, syn. ademar (1), Col. em 
palancar, equiv. Fr. bolser, Ger. verzimmern, comp. 
apuntalar, reforzar. 

ENTIBO, (1) stay or prop, see apoyo ; single prop, 
see mono (2) ; (2) timb. leg-piece, see peon (4) ; 
(3) mas. buttress, see estribo (2). 

ENTRADA, (1) entrance to a mine, see u. boca (2), 

cabeza (14); (2) shift or core, see relevo ; (3) e. de FlG . 4 o A .-Aju S te 
aduana, custom-house entry ; derechos de e. (Port. < 3) de entrada 
direitos de e.), import duty, customs dues, see u. (after Ezquerra). 
derecho (2) ; (4) mech. admission (Ponce de Leon) ; 
(5) see mechinales (2) ; (6) point of timber in a wall, etc. (Acad.) ; 
(7) see corte (1) ; (8) ajuste de e., see Fig. 40A. 



ENTRAR, to join (of rivers), or to fall into the sea, see desaguar (2). 

ENTREGA, putting in possession of a mine, etc. 

ENTREGARSE, see se entrega. 

ENTRELEZADOS, see u. bolsada (3), and monton (3). 

ENTREPISO, (1) intermediate level, see zapa ; (2) space between two 
main galleries (Acad.). 

ENTRESUELO, Mex. intermediate level, see zapa. 

ENTREVIA, transp. (1) gauge, see ancho (2) ; e. comun, standard 
gauge ; (2) distance separating two parallel lines of railway (Molina). 

ENTROMPARSE, Mex. met. to form a "nose" of slag in the blast- 
furnace, see trompa (2). 

ENTUBAClON, (1) bor. lining of boreholes with tubes ; (2) tubbing 
see encubado (1). 

ENTUBADO, (1) bor. tubing, see u. tuberia ; (2) iron tubbing (Venator), 
see u. encubado (1). 

ENTUBAR, (1) bor. to line a borehole with tubes ; (2) to tub. 

ENTUCAR, Ant. Col. to overfeed a stamp-mill. 

ENVAINADO (lit. sheathed), Mex. lost or left to one side (as a vein) 

ENVIO, remittance, consignment of goods, see remesa. 

ENVOLVENTE, casing, e.g. (vent.), of a fan (ventilador). 

ENXADA, Port, hoe, see azada. 

ENXADAO, Port, large hoe or mattock, see azadon (1). 

ENXOFRE, Port, sulphur, see azufre. 

ENYESAR, to plaster, to whitewash, see blanquear. 

EQUILIBRAR, to balance, to counterbalance ; motor equilibrado, 

EQUILIBRIO, balance ; counter- balance ; e. de los cables, counter- 
balance of hoisting ropes 

EQUIPAJE, baggage. 

ERA, reservoir or pool in which salt water is evaporated by exposure 
to air and the sun's heat, see balsa (1), cuaje, comp. tajeria. 

ERECClON, erection of machinery, plant, etc., see montaje. 

EREGIR, (1) to erect machinery or plant, see montar ; (2) to build 

EROSION, geol. erosion, see denudation, gastar, u. roedura. 

EROSIVO, VA, adj. Ant. Col. undermining (of water). 

ESBARANCADO, Braz. huge irregular ravine, due to decomposition of 
micaceous and talcose schist (H. K. Scott), comp. barranca. 

ESCAFANDRO, diving-dress, see u. buzo. 

ESCALA, (1) ladder, syn. escalera (3), equiv. Port, escada, Fr. echelle, 
escalier, Ger. Leiter, Fahrt (miner's ladder) ; e. de cuerda, rope-ladder ; 
e. de escapulario, vertical ladder, used in shafts and winzes ; e. rnixta, 
ladder with cheek-pieces of wood and rungs of iron, see escalera (2) 



and (4) ; for parts of ladder, see escalon (1), lana (2), largueros (1) ; 
(2) e. movil or movediza, man-engine, equiv. Fr. echelle mobile, 
Warocquiere, polka, Ger. Fahrkunst ; (3) plott. scale, syn. escalon 
(3), equiv. Fr. echelle, Ger. Scala. 

ESCALAR, (1) to climb by the help of ladders ; (2) to raise the flood- 
gate [compuerta (2)] of a sluice, etc. 

ESCALERA, (1) staircase, see huella (2), peldano ; e. de caracol, see 
caracol (3) ; (2) ordinary ladder, syn. Mex. e. de barrotes, e. de galli- 
nero, see escala (1) ; step-ladder, or ladder similar to a sump-ladder, 
syn. escala de peldanos pianos or gradilla ; Mex. round timbers of 8, 
10 or more yards in length, with notches [muescas (1)] cut in them, 
which serve as steps [escalones (1)] a sollar or bunding [descanso 
(1)] being placed between two of these, syn. e. de muesca, often called 
" Mexican ladder " ; e. de papagayo (parrot), Jacob's ladder (made by 
cross-pieces fastened in centre to longitudinal piece hung vertically), 
see esparrago (2). 

ESCALON, (1) step, round, rundle, rung or (U.S.A.) cross-piece of a 
ladder, syn. cabillon, paso (1), peldano, travesero (2), equiv. Fr. echelon, 
Ger. Sprosse, comp. grada (2) ; step made of cross- timber in inclined 
shafts or galleries, syn. Almeria, Sp. tranco, see trancada ; (2) stope ; 
e. de banco, e. recto, underhand stope ; e. de cielo, e. de testero, e. 
inverse, overhand stope ; see bancada, banco (2), corte (8) and (16), 
grada- (2), testero (3) ; (3) scale, see escala (3). 

ESCALONADO, DA, adj. bombas escalonadas, pumps in several lifts ; 
filon escalonado, see u. filon (1). 

ESCALONAR, to form into steps [escalones (1)], e.g., an inclined shaft 
or gallery for ingress or egress of personnel. 

ESCAMA, scale ; oro de e., Ant. Col. native gold in brilliant scales, 
spangle gold. 

ESCANTILL6N, (1) gauge, pattern, templet rule, see plantilla (1) ; in 
Mex. wooden ruler used by timbermen (Dwight) ; (2) angle formed by 
two walls (Velazquez) ; (3) S.E. Sp. in a rectangular shaft, a frame 
of timber in the sump [caldera (5)], and placed vertically below the 
day-frame (Molina). 

ESCAPE (escape), e. de vapor, st. eng. leakage ; e. de agua, pump, 
leakage ; e. de grisu, c.m. blower or outburst of fire-damp. 

ESCAPULARIO, see u. escala (1). 

ESCARCHA, (hoar-frost) Peru, native silver (A. Raimondi), see plata 

ESCARPA, (1) steep slope, syn. escarpadura, escarpe, see pendiente (1) ; 
(2) escarpas, Huancavelica, Peru, walls of stone and lime, arranged 
step-fashion, to prevent subsidence ; built by Marroquin at the end 
of the eighteenth century, but failed in their object (3) transp. 
fish-plate, see eclisa. 

ESCARPADURA, ESCARPE, see escarpa (1). 



ESCARPIA, transp. large spike [espiga (1)] used on railroads, equiv. Fr. 

ESCLUSA, sluice, see buzon (3), surtidero ; compuerta de e., flood-gate, 

see sangradera (1) ; hydr. m. sluice, see canalon (3). 
ESCOBA, broom. 
ESCOBILLA, (1) brush, see cepillo ; (2) small broom (escoba) ; (3) 

sweepings of assay-offices, etc. 
ESCOBIO, Santander, Sp. narrow and deep valley (Sullivan and O'Reilly), 

see valle ; narrow pass (Acad.), see paso (4). 
ESCOBO, brushwood, briers, brambles. 

ESCODA, an edged hammer (martillo) used by stone-cutters (Velaz- 

ESCODAR, to hew stones with an edged hammer (escoda). 
ESCOFINA, carp, rasp or coarse file (lima). 
ESCOGEDOR, Braz. ore-picker, sorter, see apartador (1). 
ESCOGER, (1) mech. prep, to pick ore ; (2) Ant. Col. to separate ore 

from rock in the mine itself, syn. apartar. 
ESCOGIDO, (1) mech. prep, ore separated by hand ; (2) ore-picking 

or separating. 

ESCOMBRA, ESCOMBRAMIENTO, removal of rubbish or attle. 
ESCOMBRAR, to remove rubbish. 
ESCOMBRERA, place where waste from a mine is thrown, dump, see 

ESCOMBRO, (1) rubbish, fragments of materials used in building ; 

quarr. fragments, waste, see ripio (3) ; (2) escombros, waste rock or 

attle, see desecho (3), u. zarzo (2) ; (3) escombros, geol. detritus 


ESCOPA, a kind of chisel [cincel (1)] for chipping or cutting stones. 
ESCOPETA (gun) ; piedra de e., flint, see pedernal (2). 
ESCOPETAR, to dig out the earth from gold mines (Acad.). 
ESCOPLEADURA, mortise, or groove, see muesca (1). 
ESCOPLEAR, to chisel, to cut with a chisel (escoplo). 
ESCOPLO, carp, chise 1 , see cincel (1), comp. formon. 
ESCORIA, (1) slag, syn. crasas (1), grasa, Mex. natas (2), see minon (1), 

plomillo (2) ; (2) scoria, dross of metals, syn. crasas (2), hez, horrura, see 

cagafierro, hoja (4) ; (3) geol. spongy lava of volcanoes, see lava (2). 
ESCORIADERO, met. front plate of the hearth, slag-plate (Ponce de 


ESCORIAL, slag-heap, slag-dump, see grasero. 
ESCORIFICACI6N, assay, scorification. 
ESCORIFICADOR, see escorificatorio. 
ESCORIFICAR, assay, to scorify. 
ESCORIFICATORIO, ESCORIFICADOR, (1) assay, scorifier ; (2) furnace 

for scorifying. 
ESCOTA, a kind of pick [pico (2)] used in mines ; N. Sp. a kind of mattock 

or grubbing-axe (Velazquez). 



ESCOTAR, to draw water from a river or brook by a ditch (acequia) 
or by other means. 

ESCRITURA, deed, instrument, bond, contract ; e. de venta, bill of sale, 
deed of sale ; e. de seguro, policy of insurance ; e. privada, private 
contract or deed (in Mex. if consideration less than $200) ; e. publica, 
recorded deed or deed drawn out by a public notary. 

ESCUADRA, (1) square, carpenter's square, see codal (2), cuadrado (1) ; 
(2) e. de agrimensor, or e. optlca, surv. optical square ; (3) plott. set 
square ; (4) e. falsa, or falsa e., false square. 

ESCUDO (shield), timb. in spilling, the shield formed of breast-boards 
[tableros (1)], syn. mampara, equiv. Fr. bouclier ; see Fig. 34 6. 

ESCUELA DE MINAS, school of mines. 

ESCURRIMIENTO, see desliz. 

ESE, S-link of a chain. 

ESFERICO, CA, adj. spherical, see u. valvula. 

ESLAB6N, (1) link of a chain, syn. anillo (1) de cadena ; connecting- 
link ; e. de seguridad, safety-link ; e. giratorio, mech. swivel, see 
torniquete ; movimiento de e., link motion ; (2) steel to strike fire 
with flint ; e. pneumatico, blast, pneumatic firer (e.g., Bourdon's). 

ESLAMOSA, foliated tellurium or nagyagite (Venator), see telurio (2). 

ESLIQUE, schlich (Venator), comp. marmaja (2). 

ESMALTINA, (1) smaltite ; (2) grey copper ore (cobre gris), syn. 
pasta (3). 

ESMANIL, blende (blenda). 

ESMERALDA, emerald, see canutillo (2), morallion ; for other varieties 
of beryl, see berilo ; for blemish in emerald, see jardin, yerba ; e. 
oriental, corundum (corindon). 

ESMERIL, (1) emery; (2) see u. techichil. 

ESMOLADERA, whetstone, see muela (4). 

ESP ADA, the piece by which the cross-lever [e peque (1)] of a Chilian 
mill articulates with the vertical post [peon (3)]. 

ESP ALTO, met. spalt or fluor spar used as a flux, see u. espato. 

ESPARRAGO (asparagus), (1) mech. holding bolt (Ponce de Leon) ; 
(2) Jacob's ladder, see u. escalera (2). 

ESPARTO, feather-grass ; leaves of ditto used for making ropes ; Spanish 
grass, hemp. The Romans used it for cordage, and called cords of it 
spartium (Weale) ; it is abundant in S. Spain, and was used almost 
exclusively for ropes up to about 1870, and to a depth of 200 m. ; it 
is now largely replaced by hemp, abaca, and steel-wire ropes ; 
calabrote or cuerda acalabrotada is a specially prepared esparto rope, 
used for raising and lowering personnel, see cintero, hiscal ; for 
basket^ made of esparto, see u. atecas, espuerta. 

ESPATO, spar ; bruno e., brown spar (a var. of dolomite) ; e. azul or 
e. fluor, blue-John, or Derb. var. of fluor spar (espalto) ; e. calizo, 
calcite, syn. caliche (4), espejuelo (4), guija (4) ; e. de hierro, e. ferri- 
fero, sparry iron (siderite), see siderosa ; e. de Islandia, Iceland spar 



(a var. of calcite) ; e. de manganese, rhodocrosite or diallogite ; 
e. en tablas, wollastonite ; e. pardo, brown spar ; e. pesado, heavy 

Jjr'epar, syn. tierra pesada. 

ESPATULA, spatula. 

ESPECIFICACION, specification. 

ESPEJADO (mirror-like), Peru, galena (Dwight), see galena. 

ESPEJO (looking-glass), (1) mech. part of cylinder carrying the ports 
(luces), equiv. Fr. glace ; (2) Ant. Col. slickenside, see piano (4) ; 
(3) see obsidiana. 

ESPEJUELO (dim. of espejo), (1) a transparent leaf of talc (talco) ; 
(2) mica, see mica (1) ; (3) selenite or gypsum in transparent plates, 
see u. yeso (1) ; (4) Guerrero, Mex. and Chile, calcite, see u. espato ; 
(5) Real del Monte, Hid. Mex. galena in large crystals, generally poor 
in silver, see galena ; (6) Real del Monte, Hid. Mex. blende in large 
crystals, generally poor in silver, see blenda ; (7) Peru, lead car- 
bonate, mixed with galena and grey copper (Dwight) ; (8) Mex. 
slickenside, see piano (4) ; (9) Huelgayoc, Peru, barytes (baritina). 

ESPEQUE, (1) Mex. the cross-lever of the noria, tahona or malacate to 
which the mules are harnessed, the horse- or driving-beam, horse-arm 
or sweep, syn. palanca (3), viga, see espada ; the shorter lever is 
called the cruz (4). When two mules are attached to one extremity of 
the espeque, that portion is called the cabeza del e., the free end = 
cola del e., the outside mule is known as the capitana, and the inside 
one as the rueda (Ramirez) ; (2) any wooden lever, see palanca (1). 

ESPERKISA, spear pyrites (a var. of marcasite), see marcasita. 

ESPESOR, thickness (of a vein or bed), see anchura (1). 

ESPET6N (spit), (1) met. tapping- bar, see botador (3) ; (2) see u. 

ESPIGA, (1) spike (of wood or metal), syn. espigon, see escarpia, perno 
(1), comp. estaca (7) ; (2) tenon, syn. almilla, equiv. Port, fixa, see 
cola (10), u. empalme (1), empatar (1) and pison (2), comp. muesca 

(1) ; (3) e. de una viga, web of a girder (Ponce de Leon). 
ESPIG6N, spike, see espiga (1). 

ESPILITA, spilite, a chloritic and amygdaloidal diabase (J. D. Dana), 

equiv. Ger. Porphyrmandelstein. 

ESPINGUETA, blast, a shooting- needle, see aguja (4). 
ESPIOCHA (from Fr. pioche), kind of pickaxe, see zapapico. 
ESPIRA, mech. helix, spiral line. 

ESPODIO, calx found in copper furnace (Velazquez). 
ESPODITO, whitish ashes of volcanoes (Velazquez). 
ESPOLETA, Mex. (1) the blasting charge for a small blast (Dwight) ; 

(2) primer or blasting-fuse (Dwight). 
ESPOLON, spur (of a mountain), see estribo (1). 

ESPONJA (sponge), (1) a network of narrow ferruginous veins ; (2) 
Mex. spongy bullion after retorting and before melting (Dwight), 
see u. plata (1) J (3) see obsidiana. 



ESPORAL, see u. capitan (2). 

ESPORT6N, a large espuerta. 

ESPUELA (spur), Mex. in the patio process, additional quantity of 
magistral added to complete the reduction. 

ESPUERTA, a large and strong basket made of esparto grass, provided 
with two small handles (asas), see canasta, capazo, esporton. In 
the sulphur mines of S. Spain, baskets are attached, 10 to 12 feet 
apart, to endless wire rope which goes down to the bottom of the 

ESPUMA (froth or foam), (1) meerschaum, syn. e. de mar, piedra de 
pipas ; (2) gossan (colorados), e. blanca, e. colorada, e. negra, etc. ; 
(3) magnesia (Aragon) ; (4) oro de e., Ant. Col. float-gold, see nino ; 
(5) e. de nitro, a crust formed by this salt on the surface of the ground 
when it is extracted, or when it crystallises ; (6) e. de la sal, the soft 
and blackish substance left on the beach, rocks, etc., by the sea ; 
(7) e. de plata, litharge ; (8) dross of metals, etc., see granza (2) ; 
e. de plomo, lead slag, lead fume (Ponce de Leon) ; (9) see 
hierro (5). 

ESPUMERO, place where salt water is collected to crystallise (Velaz- 

ESPUMILLA, see u. tequezquite. 

ESQUINA, outside corner of a building, etc., comp. rincon. 

ESQUINAL, corner plate, angle-iron. 

ESQUISTO, shale, schist or slate ; e. b'tuminoso, bituminous shale ; 
e. corneo, hornslate (see pizarra) ; see cascajo (2), churumbela, greda 
(5), hoja (1) and (2), negro (3), solapa (3). 

ESQUISTOSO, SA, adj. schistose ; arcilla esquistosa, shale. 

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE MINERIA, Mex. Establishment of Mining, 
superseded by the Junta de Fomento y Administracion. 

ESTABLO, stable, see cuadra (1). 

ESTACA (1) stake; e. fija, Mex. the post driven into the ground from 
which the claim or pertenencia was originally measured ; (2) estacas, 
divisions or partitions made in mines ; (3) derecho de e., Col. mine 
tax (impuesto), see u. derecho ; (4) Col. an individual who works a 
mine solely to retain proprietorship (Australia, shepherding) ; the 
owner of a mine who pays the tax but does not work it ; una mina 
en estaca, an idle mine ; (5) estacas, timb. spilling laths or piles, see 
pilote (2) ; (6) estacas, timb. laggings or lagging-boards, syn. Mex. 
costUlas (4), tablas (1), see u. entibacion, guarnicion ; (7) estacas, 
carp, clamp nails, comp. espiga (1) ; (8) wooden peg, see u. voladora 
(3) ; (9) barreno a e., blast, downward drill-hole, see u. barreno (1). 

ESTACADA, (1) paling or fence, see cerca (1) ; (2) Mex. the lagging of 
the sides of a shaft in open crib- timbering, see guarnicion ; (3) esta- 
cadas cortadoras, timb. spilling laths, see pilote (2). 

ESTACAR, (1) to stake, to fence with stakes ; (2) surv. to stake out a 
claim, road, etc. 



ESTACI6N, (1) season ; e. de las aguas, e. de las lluvias, wet season ; 
e. de la seca, e. seca, dry season ; (2) transp. station, U.S.A. depot, 
syn. paradero, see embarcadero (3) ; e. de descarga, the loading station 
of wire ropeway ; e. de descarga or de llegada, the unloading station of 
ditto ; e. intermedio, auxiliary station of ditto ; (3) Col. length of 100 feet 
in lining out a railroad ; (4) surv. station, syn. punto (8) de marca ; 
(5) plat, see concavo. 

ESTACON (aug. of estaca), large stake, see u. tapon (3) and trincho (2). 

ESTADAL, land measure of 4 varas, or about 3' 34 m. ; e. cuadrado, 
16 square varas or 11-16 sq. m., see u. fanegada. 

ESTADfA, (1) transp. demurrage of a ship in port ; (2) cost of (1) ; 
(3) Mex. surv. levelling rod (Dwight). 

EST ADO, (1) a statement or account ; (2) ordinary height or stature 
of a man, sometimes used for measuring depths, etc., in Peru = 
2| varas (Dwight) ; (3) State (of a country). 

ESTAMPILLA, (1) S. Am. revenue or postage stamp, see sello ; 
(2) estampillas, mech. prep, stamps, see bocarte. 

ESTANCAR, to store water (in a reservoir, etc.). 

ESTANCIA, (1) mansion or dwelling ; (2) S. Am. farm, country-house, 
see hacienda (1). 

ESTANCIERO, (1) overseer of a farm, mansion or domain (Velazquez) ; 
(2) S. Am. small farmer. 

ESTANCO, CA, adj. air-tight, water-tight, or steam-tight (Fr. etancl-e). 

ESTANCO, (1) store for selling privileged goods ; a monopoly ; (2) tank, 
see estanque (3). 

ESTANO, (I) tin ; e. en lagrimas, tear-shaped tin, produced by poling 
(berlingado) ; (2) tin ore ; e. acarreo, e. de aluvion, e. de arroyo, 
e. de placeres, e. en grano, stream tin ; e. de Cornuallis, e. vidrioso 
tinstone or cassiterite ; see acopolado (1), correa (3), giiijoles, hueso 
(2), lipta, llicteria, plomillo (2), polvorilla (7), rubi (2), u. tierra, venero 
(5), vitriofido ; (3) tin concentrates, see barrilla (5) ; (4) e. de escoria, 
met. slag-tin. 

ESTANQUE, ESTANQUE DEAGUA, (1) pond, basin or reservoir, syn. 
alberca (1), cisterna (2), cubo (6), deposito (3), reservatorio, reservorio, 
surtidero (2) de agua, prov. zafareche, see balsa (1), jagiiey (2) ; 
(2) dam of water, see presa (1) ; (3) cistern or tank, syn. alberca (2), 
aljibe (1), area de agua, cisterna (1), balsa (4), caja (2), deposito (2), 
Mex. tanque (1), see cachuco, pila (2), pileta (1) ; e. de clarificacion 
or de deposito, cocha or balsa de clarificacion, Mex. tanque de asiento, 
settling-tank, see chullador, chuza, descargadora, reposadero (4) ; 
e. de deslamar, in the patio process, the tank in which the lama (2) is 
dried (Humboldt), comp. lamero (1) ; (4) natural underground reser- 
voir of water, syn. lago interior, equiv. Fr. amas d'eau, bains, see 
caja (2), comp. bano (3), torrente. 

ESTANQUERO, (1) keeper of reservoirs ; (2) retailer of privileged 



ESTANTAL, (1) buttress, see estribo (2) ; (2) timb. prop, stay, see apoyo. 

ESTANTILLOS, Ant. Col. vertical poles, -used in building houses, e.g., 
15 feet long and from 6 to 8 inches in diameter, see u. punte. 

ESTEATITA, steatite or soapstone, see jabon (1). 

ESTELlON, ESTEL6N, toad-stone (olivine-dolerite), equiv. Fr. crapau- 
dine, Ital. chelonite. 

ESTEMPLE, timb. according to Ezquerra, any timber which opposes 
longitudinal pressure (i.e., in direction of the fibres), and in any posi- 
tion but vertical [when = peon (5)], comp. puente (4) ; stull-piece, 
stull or stemple, syn. Peru, coche (5), Zac. Mex. riostra (3), Ant. Col. 
taco (6), Peru, tinea (2), equiv. Fr. etanc.on, Ger. Stempel, see asnado, 
u. barbacoas, cabeza (1), culata (3), lancera, remendado, templado, 
tornapunta (2), comp. freno (3) ; e. adintelado, stull-piece or timber 
which sustains both lateral and longitudinal pressures (Ezquerra). 

ESTEMPLILLO, timb. a small stull-piece, see estemple. 

ESTEOS; Mex. vertical beams supporting the pulley of a hoist (Dwight), 
see u. gualdra. 

ESTEPA, top. steppe, see llano. 

ESTEREO, stere or cub. m. (of firewood), comp. cuerda (5). 

ESTERIL, adj. sterile, barren, see u. macho (4), and materia, niegas. 

ESTERIL, (1) veinstone, see matriz (1) ; (2) barren rock, see borra 
(2), borrasca (2), garduja. NOTE. Often used in plural. 

ESTERILIDAD, sterility or barrenness of veins, rocks, etc. 

ESTERO, (1) a large lake near the sea, a salt marsh (Velazquez), comp. 
cienaga (1) and (2) ; (2) channel or arm connecting a river with the 
sea, and subject to tides. 

ESTIAJE, the lowest stage of water in a river, in the summer season 
(estio), or season of drought (Acad.). 

ESTILETE (dim. of estilo), style of an indicator, etc. 

ESTIO, summer, see u. estiaje, and verano. 

ESTOCADA (stab), Chile, crosscut, see crucero (1). 

ESTOPA, (1) refuse of flax or wool used for packing, "hards" (Fr. 
etoupe) ; tow, the coarsest part of hemp and flax, comp. estopilla ; 
e. de canamo, hemp tow, syn. canamazo (1) ; (2) cotton waste 
(Dwight) ; (3) oakum. 

ESTOPERO, that part of the piston [embolo (1)] of a pump round 
which tow is wound (Velazquez). 

ESTOPEROL, match or wick made of tow, see mecha (1). 

ESTOPILLA, the finest part of hemp or flax, comp. estopa (1). 

ESTOPON, coarse tow. 

ESTORACADA, see u. estoraque. 

ESTORAQUE (gum of the storax-tree), Guerr. Mex. blende (blenda), 
brown blende ; pinta estoracada, ore containing yellow zinc-blende 

ESTOVERCA, see u. monton (3). 

ESTRANGULACI6N, narrowing (of a vein), see estrechez. 




ESTRANGULADO, see u. vapor (1). 

ESTRATIFICACI6N, geol. stratification. 

ESTRATIFICAR, geol. to stratify. 

ESTRATIFORME, adj. disposed in strata. 

ESTRATO, geol. stratum, layer, bed, syn. hebra (3), lecho (2). 

ESTRECHAMIENTO, e. del filon, nip or squeeze of the vein, see estrechez, 

comp. agotamiento (1). 
ESTRECHARSE, to thin or become narrow (of a lode or vein), comp. 

agotar (1). 
ESTRECHEZ, ESTRECH6N, ESTRECHURA, narrowness of a vein or 

bed, syn. angostura (1), see estrangulacion, estrechamiento, estrellarse, 

comp. ensanche. 

ESTRECHO, (1) geog. strait ; (2) narrow pass [paso (4)]. 
ESTRELLARSE LA VETA, Peru, to " peter out " or become lean, 

especially by scattering (Dwight), see estrechez. 
ESTRIADOR, ore-sorter, see apartador (1). 
ESTRIAR, to sort (mineral), see apartar (1). 
ESTRIBAClON, see estribo (1). 
ESTRIBADERO, prop, stay, see apoyo. 
ESTRIBADO, timb. longitudinal timber common to a row of props, and 

on which the latter rest, comp. carrera (8). 
ESTRIBO, (1) lateral ramification of a sierra or mountain chain, spur 

(Barcena), syn. contrafuerte (3), espolon, estribacion ; (2) buttress, 

abutment, arch, pillar ; buttress in a mine, see contrafuerte (1), 

entibo (3), estantal (1) ; (3) bor. stirrup, see cabeza (7) ; (4) Sevilla, 

Sp. timb. long timber joining or binding together the leg-pieces of 

door-frames (Molina) old rails are sometimes used for this purpose ; 

(5) see bastidor (3) ; (6) any stirrup or iron 

hoop ; e. de guia, guide-stirrup for holding 

the end of a wire-rope. 

ESTRlO, e. de mineral, sorting, see apartado (1). 
ESTRUCTURA, structure ; e. bandeada, banded 

structure, see cinteado, da ; e. concrecclonada, 

concretionary structure ; e. amigdaloidea, 

amygdaloid structure, see Fig. 41. 
ESTRUJAR, to press or squeeze (amalgam, etc.). 
ESTRUJ6N, Mex. in the patio process, amalgam 

strained from the mercury condensed in the 

quemadero (1) ; it is more pasty than pella 

(2) (Chism). 

ESTUCHE, see tubo-estuche. Fic 4] 

ESTUFA, a stove ; Mex. in the patio process, a Estrnctul la < ami< ? da](',idea 

chamber with flues under the floor for heating (after Moucada). 

the torta. 
EVAPORAClON, evaporation ; for that of salt, see charco (2), pila (3) ; 

e. del oro, Ant, Col. retorting of amalgam, see quema (3). 



EVAPORAR, to evaporate (salt water, etc.) ; e. el oro, Ant. Col. to retort 
amalgam, syn. Peru, refogar, see destilar, quemar (3) ; oro evaporado, 
retorted gold, syn. oro quemado. 

EVICCION Y SANEAMIENTO, Mex. a deed which warrants the titles of 
a mining property or real estate. 

EXCAVACI6N, excavation, see u. cata (4), labor (2) ; e. a cielo abierto, 
quarry or open cut, see tajo (2) ; for excavaciones auxiliares or excep- 
cionales, see anchuron (1), concava ; excavaciones subterraneas, 
underground workings or mines. 

EXCAVADOR, RA, (1) rock excavator; (2) dredge (draga) ; e. de 
cuchara, spoon-dredge. 

EXCAVAR, (1) to excavate, comp. perforar ; (2) to dredge, see dragar. 

EXCENTRICA, mech. eccentric (Fr. excentrique). 

EXFOLIACION, cleavage, or foliated structure, see crucero (4). 

EXHIBICI6N, Mex. assessment (Dwight). 

EXPEDIENTE, dispatch, writing issued from public Boards and offices, 
docket (R. E. Chism), syn. autos (but latter principally used in connec- 
tion with the expedientes compiled during a law-suit), equiv. Fr. proces- 

EXPLANACION, levelling of a railroad, see allanar. 

EXPLORACI6N, (1) exploration, prospecting ; (2) a prospect. 

EXPLORADOR, explorer, prospector, comp. cateador. 

EXPLORAR, to explore, prospect, comp. catear. 

EXPLOSION, explosion. 

EXPLOSIVO, VA, adj. explosive. 

EXPLOTABLE, workable, that can be mined. 

EXPLOTACI6N (Fr. exploitation), exploitation, working, or winning, see 
laboreo ; e. ascendente, working upwards ; e. por gradas al reves or por 
testeros (Fr. exploitation par gradins reverses), overhand stoping, see 
testero (3) ; e. por gradas derechas, (Fr. exploitation par gradins droits)' 
overhand stoping, see rebajo (2) ; e. por rellenos, see u. relleno (2). 

EXPLOTADOR, adventurer, lessee, owner (Ponce de Leon). 

EXPLOTAR (Fr. exploiter), to exploit, work or win ; e. una mina, to 
work a mine, see trabajar. 

EXPORTACI6N, exportation, see saca (1). 

EXPROPIACI6N, expropriation ; in Mex. the legal transfer of the 
surface from surface-owner to mine-owner. For method pursued for 
obtaining forcible expropriation, consult Chism, see enajenacidn. 

EXPROPIAR, to expropriate. 

EXPULSAR, e. el vapor, st. eng. to blow off steam (Ponce de Leon). 

EXTRACCI6N, (1) extraction, winding or hoisting (Fr. extraction), see 
cuerpo (0), despojo, manteo (1), saca (2), comp. transporte ; e. en 
rosario, Sierra de Gador, Sp. (sulphur mines), extraction by a string 
of baskets attached to an endless rope (Molina) ; e. por cuerda, rope 
extraction ; aparato de e., hoisting-engine ; (2) output (Venator), see 
abasto (2), production, saca (3). 

161 L 


EXTRACTO, extract ; extractos, Mex. summary of an application for a 

mining concession, published on the Bulletin board ; excerpts. 
EXTRACTOR, extractor ; e. de carbon, coal-getter ; apparatus for 

extracting the precipitated salt in Paccard's method, see calorifero ; 

e. Koerting de vapor, Koerting's injector. 
EXTRAER, (1) to extract, wind or hoist (Fr. extraire), syn. elevar, sacar 

(1) ; (2) to pump, syn. sacar (2) agua, see desaguar ; maquina de e. 

agua, pumping-engine. 

EXTREMIDAD, e. de la galeria, end, forebreast, see fronton (1). 
EZTERI, green jasper with reddish veins, like bloodstains, found in 

S. America ; a kind of bloodstone, see jaspe (1). 

FABRICA, (1) fabric, structure, building ; (2) brickwork, stonework ; 

pared de f., wall made of brick or stone. 
FABRICAR, to build, construct, see construir. 
FACTURA, bill, invoice ; way-bill, bill of sale (ore -buying). 
FAENA, (1) work, labour, task, see trabajo (1) ; (2) Mex. dead-work, as 

putting up an air-shaft, driving a cross-cut or unwatering, syn. muerta, 

see u. obra (2) ; (3) trabajar a f., Mex. to receive less wages, and to 

share the ore equally with the owner (Gamboa), see tequio. 
FAENERO, (1) rubbish carrier, syn. cargador (2) ; (2) common labourer, 

see trabajador. 
FAGINA, see fajina. 

FAISCA, Port, flake ; auriferous sand ; particle of gold. 
FAISCADOR, Port, a gold- washer, placer-miner ; Minas Geraes, Braz. 

batea washer, syn. faisqueiro, comp. buscones (1), cateador. 
FAISCAR, Port, to search for gold sand (Elwes), comp. catear (1) ; f. 

nas minas, to gather gold sand. 
FAISQUEIRA, Port, a place where gold sand is found (Elwes), see 


FAISQUEIRO, see faiscador. 
FAIZADA, see bayeta. 
FAJA, (1) band of mineral in a vein, see cinta (2) ; (2) band or belt of 

rock, see zona (2) ; (3) a horizontal cut (tajo) in a vein, see labra (2) ; 

fajas horizontales longitudinales, a method of working veins of small 

thickness by horizontal cuts, syn. galerias de disfrute, equiv. Fr. 

methode horizontal, mode en long ; another method is by fajas 

horizontales ascendentes or plantas (2) horizontales (Molina) ; (4) mech. 

belt or belting, see correa (2). 
FAJADO, (1) large timber or plank, used in making sollars (Acad.), see 

camada (3) ; (2) Linares, Sp. timb. sollar, see camada (3) ; (3) round 

timber used in supporting shafts (Acad.), see rollizo. 
FAJEADO, DA, adj. banded (of structure), see cinteado, da. 
FAJINA, fascine ; fagot, see haz (1) ; fajinas (faginas), Burgos, Sp. 

bundles of boxwood, used for supporting levels driven round large 

blocks of salt (Molina). 



FALDA, (1) top. the slope or declivity of a mountain or hill : Velazquez 
gives " brow of a hill, that part of an eminence which slopes into the 
plain," syn. loma (2) ; (2) geol. the wing or leg of a saddle, see sillar 
(4) ; (3) mech. lap, see solapa (2). 

FALDEAR, eng. to cut a road on the slope of a mountain (Ponce de 

FALHA, Port, fault, see falla (1). 

FALLA, (1) geol. a fault, syn. Ant. Col. liso (3), quiebra (2), equiv. Port, 
falha, Fr. faille, Ger. Stoning, see junta (3) ; f. falsa or falsa falla, a 
pseudo-fault or interruption in a bed or seam, a "horse," see caballo 
(4) ; for throw of a fault, see salto (1) ; (2) Mex. vein of soft rock at 
right angles to drift (Dwight). 

FALSO, SA, adj. false, counterfeit ; f. matriz, false or pseudo-matrix ; 
falsa pefia, see pena (6) ; falso salto (Fr. faux rejet), false throw, a vein 
which, meeting an older one, follows the direction of the latter for a 
certain distance, and then pursues its normal course ; falso, Mex. 
treacherous (of ground), see flojo, ja. 

FAMATINITA, famatinite, a copper ore [cobre (2)] containing 43 '84 to 
44-87 per cent, of copper, 2*93 to 4'01 per cent, of arsenic, 23' 10 to 
23'65 per cent, of antimony, and 28' 55 to 29' 05 per cent, of sulphur. 
It is found at Famatina, Province of La Rioja, Arg. 

FAMULI A, Peru, wedge, gad (Dwight), see cuna (2). 

FANA, see freita. 

FANAL DE VIDRIO, light, a glass shield for protecting the globe of an 
incandescent safety-lamp, see u. lampara. 

FANEGA, a measure for grain that of Castile =12 celemines and is 
equiv. to 551 litres, it varies provincially as well as in the various 
countries of America ; f. de tierra, see fanegada. 

FANEGADA, or fanega de tierra, that of Castile = 576 estadales cuad- 
rados, equiv. to 64*596 areas (Acad.). 

FANGO, (1) slime, see lodo ; (2) Carmen Island, Gulf of Cal., Mex. here 
a 5 to 8 inches layer of salt (containing 98 per cent, of NaCl), alternates 
with a 3 to 5 inches layer of black earthy salt called fango, weathering 
to white, and containing 60 per cent, of NaCl. The total thickness 
of the salt layers is 15 feet, 2 feet of solid salt [sal (1)] being found at 
the bottom ; (3) colector de f., Mex. mud-drum (Dwight). 

FANGOSO, SA, adj. muddy, miry ; mech. prep, containing much slime. 

FARALL6N, (1) small rocky island in the sea ; farallones, masses 
of rock in the beds of rivers ; (2) Peru, projecting outcrop of a 
vein or other deposit, see creston. NOTE. The name is sometimes 
applied to a mountain crest, e.g., " el Gran Farallon " (sandstone) of 

FAROL, a large lantern [linterna (1)] used in mills ; the frame is generally 
of wood, having a socket for the candle it is usually covered with 



FAVAS (broad beans in Port.), Braz. in the diamond fields, brown 
pebbles, consisting of a hydrated phosphate, or of titanium and zir- 
conium oxides (Bauer), and regarded as good indicators, comp. feijoes. 

FAZENDA, see hacienda (3). .,, 

FEIJOES (black kidney beans in Port.), Braz. in the diamond fields, 
black rounded pebbles of tourmaline (Bauer), or tourmaline rocks, 
and looked upon as good indicators, comp. favas. 

FEITOR, Braz. overseer, see sobrestante. 

FELDESPATO, felspar ; f. nacarado or opalado, aiuLuia [var. of 
monoclinic potash felspar or orthoclase] ; f. sodico, albite [soda 
felspar-triclinic] ; f. verde claro, amazon stone [var. of triclinic 
potash felspar or microcline] ; f. vitreo, sanidine [var. of orthoclase] 
(Ponce de Leon). 

FELSITA, felsite. 

FENDA, Port, fissure, see hendedura. 

FERREA, see u. via (1). 

FERRERIA, (1) ironworks ; (2) foundry, see fundicion (3). 

FERROCARRIL, railway, railroad ; f. aerio, ropeway, see andarivel ; 
f. de cremallera, rack railroad, or one with pinions and geared rails 
(e.g., Righi railway) ; f. de cremallera de escalera, Riggenbach's rack 
and pinion system ; f. de sangre, horse railroad or horse tramway ; 
f. de via angosta or estrecha, narrow gauge railroad, see u. camino (1), 
via (1). 

FETIDO, DA, adj. fetid ; piedra fetida,'stinkstone. 

FIADOR, (1) bondsman, guarantor, surety, see fianza ; (2) safety-catch, 
detent, etc. ; f. de im engranaje (2), catching lever ; f. de rueda, dog ; 
f. de rueda dentada, ratchet pawl ; f. de trinquete, click, pawl, detent 
(Ponce de Leon), see remarks u. trinquete ; see diente (1), linguete, 
reten, seguro (3) ; (3) supplementary rope used in shaft for men to 
hold on to when ascending and descending, syn. Sierra de Gador, Sp. 
giiejo, huejo (Molina), see bajada (1). 

FIANZA, bond, security or bail given by a fiador ( 1 ). 

FIBRA (fibre, filament), ( 1 ) yarn, see hebra ( 1 ) ; (2) vein of ore (Velazquez) ; 
fibras, Parral, Chih. Mex. small veins which cross and intersect each 
other in many directions (N. Dominguez), a kind of stockwork, see u. 
monton (3), veta (1), vetilla. 

FIBRAZ6N, the whole of the ore- veins of a mine (Velazquez), see veta (1). 

FIEL, mech. needle of a balance, pivot of a steel-yard (romana), see 
lengua (6). 

FIERRERO, workman who receives and distributes the tools, etc., see 

FIERRO, see hierro. 

FIERROSO, see hierroso. 

FIGULINA, see u. arcilla. 

FIJO, JA, adj. fixed, stationary ; motor fijo, stationary motor. 

FILA, (1) line or row ; f. de peones, timb. row of props ; (2) prov. unity 




FIG. 42. Filon en escalera. 

of measurement for estimating water in leats, varying from 46 to 86 
litres per second (Acad.), see teja (3). 

FILADA, phyllade, a var. of slate (pizarra). " Minute scales may 
develop along the cleavage-planes, and a wrinkling of the latter at 
the same time produces the link with mica-schist, called ' phyllade ' 
by^ d' Aubuisson " (G. A. J. Cole). 

FILASTICA, see u, hebra (1). 

FILETE (fillet), f. de tornillo (1), or de rosca, thread of a screw, screw- 

FILO, see bisel (2). 

FIL6N, (1) a vein or lode (Fr. filon), see remarks u. veta (1) ; f. capa 
or capa de f., bedded ve'n ; f. compuesto, compound vein ; f. cunei- 
forme, gash vein, or vein whose transverse section affects the form of 
a wedge ; f. de contacto, contact vein ; 
f. doble, two veins which meet and run 
alongside of each other, the filling of 
each remaining distinct ; f. en escalera 
or f. escalonado, see Fig. 42 ; f. en 
rosario (Fr. fi'on-en-chapelet), beaded 
vein ; f. metalifero, f. mineral, metal- 
liferous vein or lode ; f. simple, ordinary 
vein of simple structure ; f. sin crestones, 

blind vein ; f. transversal, cross vein ; (2) Mex. small stringer ; inter- 
secting vein (Dwight), see vetilla ; (3) f. de roca, a dike or channel, 
see dique (5) ; (4) mineral layer (Velazquez) ; f. de carbon, coaJ 
measure (Ponce de Leon), see capa (1) ; (5) gangue, see matriz (1). 

FIM DE CABECEIRA, Minas Geraes, Braz. end or face of a level, see 
fronton (1). 

FINCA, (1) property, especially land ; S. Am. a large farm, see hacienda 

(1) ; (2) building, house, real estate. 
FINGIDA, see u. camon (1). 

FINO, NA, adj. see precioso, sa. 

FINOS, Mex. fine ores, " fines " (Dwight), comp. grueso (2). 

FINQUITA, S. Am. small farm, see finca (1). 

FIRME DE UN CAMINO, ballasting, metalling of a road, see afirmacion. 

FISURA, geol. fissure, see hendedura. 

FIXA, (1) Port, tenon, see espiga (2) ; (2) f. de trilhos, Minas Geraes, 

Braz. fish-plate, see juneta, mordaza (3). 
FLANCO, see pendiente (1). 
FLAQUEZA (leanness), Peru, (1) shaly structure ; (2) the overhanging 

section of a precipice (precipicio) (Dwight). 
FLECHA, (1) plott. arrow indicating north, the current of rivers, etc. ; 

(2) var. of hydroxide of iron called " love's dart " (Velazquez) ; (3) 
f. de una grua, jib of a crane (Ponce de Leon), see aguilon ; (4) Mex. 
machinery-shafting (Dwight), see guijo (2) ; (5) height of an arch 
(arco), see sagita. 



FLEJE, hoop ; f. de hierro, iron strap, band or hoop. 

FLETE, (1) carriage or freight ; S. Am. usually freight by mules or 
oxen ; (2) freight charges ; (3) pump, set of pumps, see u. juego (1). 

FLOJO, JA, adj. weak, blast, applied to a weak explosive, comp. it. 
fuerte ; loose, terreno flojo, loose or treacherous ground, see also u. 
falso, sa. 

FLOR (flower), (1) Mex. in the patio process, the richest scrapings from 
the bed of the arrastre (3), syn. raspadura (3), comp. contraraspa ; (2) 
flores de antimorro, va'entinite or whits antimonial ore ; flores de 
cobalto, cobalt bloom ; flores de niquel, nickel green or annabergite ; 
(3) surface of the earth, see u. tierra (3) ; for barrenos de f., see u. barreno 
(2) ; (4) f. amarillo, Venez. best wood for battery-posts, mortar-blocks, 
sills, etc. (G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale) ; (5) dross (hez) of metals 
which comes off in thin scales when heated and put into water, see 
escoria (2) ; (6) flos, resulting from the sublimation of minerals, etc. 

FLORIMBO, FLORIMBORDE, see tabloncillo. 

FLUJO, met.) flux, see fundente. 

FLUOR ESPATO, fluor spar. 

FOCO, (focus), Mex. electric arc or incandescent lamp (Dwight). 

FOGANA DE HORNO, Peru, firepit of a furnace (Dwight), see hogar (1). 

FOGATA, blaze, light of a flame ; Mex. fumes from blasting (Dwight). 

FOG6N, (1) hearth, see hogar (1) ; (2) firebox of a locomotive, see 
hogar (2). 

FOGONERO, fireman or stoker, syn. atizador (2). 

FOMENTO, (1) fuel, see combustible ; (2) protection, support, encourage- 
ment ; Junta de F. y Administracion, Board of Encouragement and 
Administration (of Mining), see Establecimiento, Ministerio, Secre- 
taria ; (3) st. eng. priming (Ponce de Leon), or carrying over of water 
with the steam into the cylinder. 

FONDA, inn. 

FONDEO, timb. pent-house, see resguardo ; temporary staging in a shaft 

FONDO, (1) Mex. a cazo (2), called so because the bottom (fondo) is made 
of copper ; Chile, iron cauldron used in the system of paradas (5) 
(2) see reposadero (2) ; (3) bottom of a mine {comp. chile (2)], of a 
shaft [caldera (5)], of a river, hill, valley, etc. [see hondo] ; (4) bed of 

FIG. 43. FIG. 44. 

Fondo (6) de barco. Fondo (6) dc barco invcrtido. 

a furnace, etc. see reposadero (3) ; piedras de f., stones forming the bed 
of an arrastre (3) ; (5) f. flotante, diaphragm or false-bottom (Fr. 
cuvette) used in the Kind-Chaudron method of shaft-sinking ; (6) f. 



de barco, geol. inflections of strata like the bottom of a ship (Fr. fond 
de bateau en place) as seen in longitudinal section, see Fig. 43 ; f. de 
barco invertido (Fr. fond de bateau renverse), see Fig. 44 ; (7) thick- 
ness of a diamond (diamante) ; (8) f. de granza, see cama (9) ; (9) stock, 
fund, capital effects ; fondos publicos, State securities (Velazquez). 
FOND6N, Mex. a large cazo (2), see St. Glair Duport, PI. III. Fig. 2. 
FORASTERO, RA, adj. veta forastera, Chile, newly discovered vein. 
FORASTERO, stranger to a town or place, not necessarily a foreigner. 
FORJA (1) forge, sijn. herreria (3), see fragua ; place where silver is 
beaten into form (Velazquez) ; f. catalana, Catalan forge ; see taca ; 
(2) forging ; (3) mortar, see argamasa (1). 
FORJAR, (1) to forge, see fraguar (1) ; (2) mas. to fill with mortar and 

rubbish (Ponce de Leon). 

FORMAgAO, (1) Ouro Preto, Braz. ore, see metal (2) ; (2) formacaos, 
Braz. minerals occurring in cascalhos (2) with diamonds, as rutile, 
octahedrite (anatase), brookite, menaccanite (titanic iron), hematite, 
magnetite, quartz, cyanite (disthene), tourmaline, gold, chloro- 
phosphates, garnet, zircon, topaz, titanite (sphene), cassiterite, etc. 

FORMACI6N, (1) geol. formation ; (2) distribution, position and 
general state in which any mineral presents itself ; (3) Col. altered 
"country" forming the filling of a lode, sometimes with stringers of 
quartz or other mineral, and sometimes consisting of clay alone, 
analogous to "mullock" of Australia, and "bluff" of U.S.A., comp. 
carrancho (1), u. cascajo (3), jaboncillo (2), terrosas. 
FORMAL, adj. regular ; Mex. undisturbed (of strata, etc.). 
FORM ALIZAR, Mex. to formalise a contract or other legal paper (D wight). 
FORMENO, marsh gas, see hidrogeno protocarbonado. 
FORMON, carp, paring- chisel, see cincel (1), comp. escoplo. 
FORNILHO, Port, chamber of a mine (Elwes), comp. anchuron (1). 
FORRO, (1) any lining ; f. de vapor, steam lining ; forros, linings of a 
stamps battery [see chapa (4)], met. linings of a converter [see revesti- 
miento (2)], etc. ; (2) Zac. Fresnillo and Pachuca, Mex. second and 
third portions of timber sustaining the walls of a shaft, syn. Guan. 
cajon (17), tramo (3), comp. cajon (11) ; (3) Mex. timb. lagging, see 
revestimiento (1) ; ponerun f., to re -lag timber, or put new timber 
on the inner side of old timber. 

FORTIFICACI6N, supporting of mines, includes timbering, masonry, 
etc., syn. Peru, releje, sostenimiento, equiv. Fr. soutenement, Ger. 
Grubenausbau ; f. con madera, timbering, see entibacion. 
FORTIFICAR, to support mines by timter, etc., syn. Peru, relejear. 
FORZADOR, RA, see u. bomba (1). 

FOSA (obs. pit, hole), (1) f. de reconocimiento, trench (Venator), see 
zanja (1) ; (2) pit at bottom of inclined plane for the platform or 
counterweight to rest in when loading or unloading (Molina). 
F6SFORO, phosphorus. 



F6SIL, (1) geol. fossil ; (2) any mineral or rock. 
FOSO, pit, see hoyo (1). 

FRACTURA, (1) geol. fracture; f. sencilla or junta (2), simple fracturo 
or joint, see juntura (2) ; f. rellena, fracture with filling between ; 
(2) surg. fracture. 
FRAGA, see u. maza (3). 

FRAGUA, smithy or smith's shop ; forge, see forja (1). 
FRAGUAR, (1) to forge, see forjar (l) ; (2) to unite in a mass : applied 

to clay and mortar (Velazquez). 

FRAILE, the upright post of a flood-gate [compuerta (2)] in water-mills 
y (Velazquez). 

FRAILESCA, Almaden, Sp. a metamorphosed breccia [brecha (2)] 
consisting of grains of quartz, calcium carbonate, dolomite, and 
fragments of schist, cemented by dolomitic calcite (G. F. Becker) 
it forms lenticular masses in schist, composed of breccia, of fragments 
of schist and serpentine, grains of quartz, calcite, etc., cemented by 
an amorphous felspathic paste (De Prado) so called because it gene- 
rally has the grayish colour of the habit of Franciscan friars (frailes), 
syn. piedra frailesca or franciscana. 
FRANCISCANA, see frailesca. 

FRANCO, CA, adj. free, for piedra franca, see u. piedra ; exempt from 
charges, freight or duty ; f . a bordo, free on board ; f . de porte, postage 
free ; puerto franco, free port. 
FRANQUEO, see u. labor (3). 

FRASCO, flask, one frasco or botella of quicksilver contains 75 Ib. avoir. 
FREITAS, Santander, Sp. great landslips, syn. fanas, see derrumbe 
(2). " Natural and constant landslips which occur in certain localities 
where the rock is so shivered and crumbling as not to be able to sustain 
its own weight on the highly inclined mountain side, and where their 
loose structure being acted upon by infiltrating waters, peculiar to 
the surface ground, a portion of the mountain side has been brought 
down. The gap thus opened continues to increase little by little, 
extending itself from the foot of the mountain to the top, its appear- 
ance being most imposing on account of the whiteness of the sandstone 
and the absence of all earth and vegetation " (G. Schultz). 
FREJOL, see frijol. 
FRENERO, brakesman, syn. Mex. garrotero, guardafrenos, Sp. Am. 

retranquero, equiv. Fr. serre-frein, Ger. Bremser. 

FRENO, (1) bridle, or bit of the bridle ; (2) hoist, brake, syn. Mex. 
garrote, Span. Am. retranca (2), equiv. Fr. frein, Ger. Bremse ; f. de 
cinta, band-brake, or ordinary brake ; f. de seguridad, safety-brake ; 
see zapato (2) ; (3) frenos, Palencia, Sp. c.m. horizontal posts used in 
supporting the salient angles of the coal in overhand stoping (Molina), 
comp. estemple. 

FRENTE (forehead, front), (1) fore-breast or end, syn. f. de ataque or 
de arranque, see fronton (1) ; (2) f. de guia, Mex. main or guiding level 



in a mine (Dwight) ; (3) Ant. Col. alluv. m. the vertical cut [barranco 
(2)] where the gold-washing barredura (1)] is concluded ; (4) Ant. Col. 
vertical cut made in a vein, see afrentar un hilo. 
FRENTERO, miner or peon who works in the fore-breast or face [frente 

FREO (naut. narrow channel), prov. gorge, canyon, ravine, between 

mountains (Velazquez), see barranca (2). 

FRESNO, ash-tree. 

FRICACION, FRICCI6N, friction, syn. frotacion (1), roce, rozadura (1), 
rozamiento (1), see u. engranaje, manguito (2) and rodillo. 

FRIJOL (frejol, frisol), kidney bean ; piedra de f. (" bean-rock "), 
Guan. Mex. miner's name for the red conglomerate, see u. conglome- 
rado, comp. frijolillo, frisol. 

FRIJOLILLO, Guan. Mex. round fragments of limestone and calcareous 
cement, a conglomerate, see conglomerado. 

FRIO, IA, adj. cold, (1) Mex. in the patio process, what is known as frio 
is characterised by the yellow and sometimes black colour of the 
quicksilver, due to insufficient strength of the cuprous solution to 
produce the sulphuric acid, with which the oxide of mercury must 
combine to remedy the defect more bluestone must be added (M. V. 
Ortega), see u. curtir, enfriar, u. torta ; (2) metales frios, Chile, smelting 
ores, or ores not suitable for the amalgamating process, and which are 
met with at a depth of from 80 to 150 m. ; when sulphides predominate 
= mulatos ; if complex, e.g., sulpho-arseniates and antimoniates = 
negrillos (1), see plata (2), comp. u. calido, da ; (3) arenas frias, Ant. 
Col. alluv. m. the poorest sands forming irregular deposits upon or 
among th? pay-dirt [cinta (3)], see u. desarenar, hervezon (1). 

FRIOS, Mex. in the patio process, negros, or ores containing no decom- 
possd metallic substances ; they are pyritic and leady, or consist of 
ruby silver (Hermosa), comp. calientes. 

FRISADA, Mex. a woollen covering used by the tenatero, to prevent his 
shoulders from being hurt, see vest'ido. 

FRISOL (see frijol), Ant. Col. any stone, polished by water, and imitating 
the form of a kidney bean (judia) ; it is an almost inseparable accom- 
paniment of gold (Uribe), comp. mulata. 

FRISOLITO, see u. mulata. 

FRONTERA, frontier. 

FRONT6N, (1) rn.m. fore-breast or end, c.m. face or breast, U.S.A. front, 
syn. cabo (7), culata (2), extremidad, frente (1), rampa (1), raya (1), 
testera or testero (2), equiv. Fr. front de taille, front de galerie, Ger. 
Ort, Stollnort, Ortsstoss, see fim, comp. levante ; ,(2) level or gallery, 
see galeria ; (3) top. cliff, bluff (Ponce de Leon), see preciplcio. 

see fricclon ; (2) attrition, see atriclon. 

FRUTA (fruit), f. de mono, Ant. Col. a cup of a semi-elliptical form cut 

"from the hard resisting fruit of this name, of variable capacity, and 



used by gold-washers (zambullidores) in the same way as the coco 

FRUTOS, (1) produce, product or yield, see producto ; (2) ore, see metal 
(3) ; veta en frutos, Mex. vein carrying pay-ore. 

FUEGO (fire), (1) dar f. al barreno, to blast, see tirar ; (2) bomba de f., 
steam-pump, see bomba (1) ; (3) metales de f., smelting ores, syn. 
metales de fundicion ; (4) hearth, fireplace, see hogar (1). 

FUELLE, (1) bellows ; in Mex. bellows are used in the fundicion of the 
patio process, and also for sharpening bars and picks, see abanador, 
barquin, giiijola, mozo (2), pava (1) ; f. de cuero, f. barquin, leather 
bellows ; (2) fuelles-pistones, double-acting force-pumps, made of 
leather (Ramirez), see bomba (1) ; (3) f. de valvulas, mine ventilator 
(Ponce de Leon). 

FUENTE (fountain), spring of water, see manantial ; f. burga or carga, 
boiling spring (Ponce de Leon), see burga. 

FUERA, adv. out ; f. de juego, mech. out of gear (Ponce de Leon). 

FUERO, (1) statute law of a country ; (2) jurisdiction, judicial power ; 
(3) a compilation of laws, comp. codigo. 

FUERTE, adj. strong, applied to amalgam which is too hard and needs 
more mercury, comp. debil ; blast, applied to a powerful explosive, 
comp. u. flojo, ja. 

FUERZA (force, strength), mech. power, force ; resistance due to 
friction, etc. ; f. bruta, gross power ; f. de agua, water power ; f. de 
caballo, horse power ; f. de flexion, bending strain ; f. de sangre, 
animal power (Mex. mule power) ; f. electromotriz, electromotive 
force ; f. motriz, motive power ; f. nominal, nominal h.p., see caballo 


FULGURACI6N, f. de la plata, met. " brightening " of the silver. 

FULMINANTE, detonator or blasting-cap, see capsula. 

FUMOROLAS, geol. fumaroles of fissures about a volcano or a volcanic 
region, giving out spent vapours, etc., the greater number of which 
open upward into the air, but some into cavernous places in the crater 
or in lava-streams (James D. Dana). 

FUNCIONAR, to work (of a pump, etc.). 

FUNDACI6N, foundation, see fundamento. 

FUNDAMENTAL, adj. piedra f., foundation stone, syn. piedra grani- 
gorda, piedra perdida. 

FUNDAMENT ALES, Alniaden, Sp. an arch (arco) of brick for supporting 
excavations normal to the deposit ; the chord is normal to the walls, 
the segment is usually 1 by 100 of the chord, and the thickness is 
constantly 0'836 m. ; the lower buttress or impost [rafa (1)] is opened 
on the footwall, and the upper one [cabeceadero (2)] on the hanging 
wall (Molina). 

FUNDAMENTO, foundation, syn. cimiento (1), fundacion. 

FUNDENTE, met. fusing ore, flux, see castina, flujo, liga (4), magistral, 
metal de ayuda (1). 



FUNDICION (Port, fundi^ao), (1) Mex. the process of melting burned 
silver into bars (G. F. Lyon) ; (2) sistema de f . or por via seca, smelting 
process ; f. en crude, smelting direct or without a preliminary calci- 
nation or roasting ; (3) smelting-house, foundry or assay-offices, 
see u. casa, ferreria (2), comp. ingenio (3), fuslina ; (4) casting ; 
(5) metales de f., see fuego (3) ; (6) f. gris, foundry pig- or cast-iron 
(Ponce de Leon). 

FUNDIDOR, smelter, founder, melter. 

FUNDIR, to melt, smelt, or cast metals ; f. en crudo, see u. fun- 

FUNDO, leg. hereditament ; f . minero, Mex. all the pertenencias embraced 
under one title (Dwight). 

FUQUE, Mex. deepest point of excavation (Dwight). 

FURG6N, (covered) freight or box-car, G. Brit, goods-wagon. 

FUSIL, gun ; piedra de f., flint (pedernal). 

FUSI6N, fusion, liquation, melting. 

FUSLINA, smelting- works (Velazquez), comp. fundicion (3). 

FUSLOR, smelting-ladle, a vessel for melting (Velazquez). 

FUSTINA, place for fusing metals (Velazquez). 

GABARRA, lighter, barge, see lanchon. 

GABARRO, any fragment of rock or ore, either loose or occurring ao a 
nodule [nodulo (1)] ; metal g., large ore, coarse ore, from the size of 
an egg to that of an orange [see broza (3)] ; first-class ore ; large piece 
of slag, comp. engabarrado. 

GABELA, tax or duty paid to government, see derecho (2). 

GACHUPIN (Cachupin), Mex. a native of Spain, syn. Lima, Peru, Chape- 
ton, Buenos Ayres, Arg. Maturrango (Velazquez). 

GAFA, see u. careta. 

GAJO, (1) branch of a tree, see rama (1) ; (2) chain (cordillera) of hills 
proceeding from a principal mountain (Acad.). 

GALAPAGO, (1) saddle (English type), see silla (1) ; (2) timb. head- 
piece, head-board, (Australia) heading or strap, lid, wall-piece, syn. 
zapata, comp. bantrote, marranillo ; (3) pig of copper, lead, or tin, see 
lingote ; (4) small frame or cimbra (1). 

GALEMADOR, (1) Peru, small furnace [horno (2)] for roasting silver 
ores ; (2) Mex. silver smelting-furnace [horno (2)]. 

GALEMAR, to reduce ores in a Mexican furnace (Dwight). 

GA T .EME, Mex. (1) cupelling- furnace [horno (2)] with absorbent hearth, 
syn. chacuaco (2) ; (2) smelting-furnace [horno (2)] in which the 
buscones and poquiteros reduce from 1 to 3 arrobas of ore (Ramirez) ; 
(3) reverberatory furnace [horno (2)], syn. cendradilla ; for piedra de 
barilla, used in construction of above furnaces, see u. piedra. 

GALENA, galena, syn. alcohol (1), alquifol (1), Peru, espejado, Potosi, 
Bol. liga (2), Mex. plomo~(2), see acerillo, r azules (4), carne de vaca 
(1), chini-liga, espejuelo (5), mole'(l), u. soroche (2). 



GALE6N, a galleon or armed Spanish ship, from 400 to 700 tons burden, 

that used to carry silver, etc. from New Spain (Antillas) to Cadiz. 
GALERA, (1) Mex. the long shed on each side of the patio (1), comp. 
rancho (3) ; (2) storeroom for ordinary ores, see u. despensa (3) ; (3) 
grinding-mill or mill-house ; g. de la amalgamaci6n= patio (1) roofei in, 
seemolino (1) ; (4)seebarraca ; (5) carp, a large jack-plane (garlopa) ; 
(6) a kind of irregular ore-deposit, see galeron, masa (3) ; (7) furnace 
[horno (2)] for distilling sulphur ; a row of reverberatory furnaces, 
containing various retorts, all heated by the same fire (Acad.) ; (8) 
wagon, a heavy covered carriage for burdens (Velazquez), comp. 
carro (1). 

GALERIA, (1) gallery, level, syn. camino (3), obs. cano (4), canon (2), 
Peru and Bol. chingana, fronton (2), Col. guia (9), nivel (3), piso (1), 
planta (1), via de comunicacion, equiv. Ouro Preto, Braz. cabe- 
ceira (2) Fr. galerie, Ger. Strecke, Austria and Hungary, Lauf, see 
barreta (4), cana (2), carrera (9), chiflon (4), chile (3), chimenea (5), 
contracanon, hurto, manga (3), media luna (u. medio, dia), mequines 
(1), pasillo, plan (1), ramal (2), real (2), realce (1), socavon (2), testera 
(5), trancada (2), vertiente (5) ; g. auxiliar, Huelva, Sp. auxiliary 
gallery, running parallel to the main gallery, the two forming twin- 
galleries (galerias gemelas) ; g. de avance, g. de direction, heading or 
gallery following the strike of the deposit, syn. Linares, Sp. testera 
(5) de guia ; g. de desagiie, adit, see socavon (1) ; g. de disfrute, see u. 
faja (3) ; g. de fondo, g. fundamental, g. general, g. maestra, g. princi- 
pal, g. sobre el filon, main gallery, syn. salt mines, Pozo, Burgos, Sp. 
paso real (as distinguished from the others or pasos laterales) ; g. de 
roca, Peru, cross-cut [crucero (1)] or adit [socavon (1)] driven in 
country ; g. de rodaje, rolley-way ; g. de ventilation, air-way ; g. 
intermedia, intermediate gallery, see zapa ; galeria trancada, see 
trancada (2) ; galerias, apiques y travesias, c.m. post and stall, syn. 
galerias y pilares ; galerias gemelas, twin-galleries, a pair of main 
roadways ; (2) Bilbao, Sp. a var. of hematite, see vena (2). 

GALERON, a kind of irregular deposit of large size, see galera (6), 
masa (3). 

GALGAS, (1) the uprights (pies derechos) supporting the barrel [arbol (2)] 
of a windlass, see torno (2) ; some consist of two inclined timbers, the 
upper parts of which rest on the walls of the excavation (Acad.) ; 
(2) torno de g., see u. torno (2). 

GALIBO, rail, iron rule [cercho (1)], in the form of an inverted U> used 
for ascertaining if wagons, with their maximum load, can pass through 
tunnels, etc. (Acad.). 

GALLEO, met. inequalities formed in the surface of certain metals 
when cooled rapidly, after melting, when, the crust breaking, the 
interior mass escapes (Acad.), see gallo (4). 

GALLERA (Phil, cock-pit), Ant. Col. round-buddle, see gandinguera. 

GALLETAS, small nuts (coal), see u. carbon (2). 



GALLINAZO, (1) Titiribi, Ant. Col. blende (M. U. Angel), see blenda ; 
(2) Ant. Col. (generally), spout conducting water to an overshot 

GALLO, (1) pie de g., Mex. diagonal brace, see u. diagonal ; (2) gallos, 
Mex. rich ore with needles or grains of gold and silver (Gamboa), see u. 
pinta (1) ; (3) gallos, Mex. small particles of silver which appear in the 
shape of spherules on the surface of certain ores after strongly heating 
them (M. J. Gloss.) ; (4) gallos, Mex. the spurting out of the silver 
from the assay button on cooling (M. J. Gloss.), see galleo ; (5) Mex. 
lump of native metal or nugget, see pepita ; a gallo of silver from 
Batopilas, Chihuahua, in 1883, weighed 318 marcos and was valued 
at $2862 (Ramirez) ; (6) carp, ridge-pole, see hilera (3). 

GAL(3N, gallon (Engl. liquid measure). 

GAMBUCINO, (1) a prospector or searcher for gold, see buscones (1), 
cotense (2), u. sabado ; (2) tributer, see campista. 

GAMELA, kind of basket, pannier or hamper, see canasta. 

GAMELLA, (1) yoke for oxen or mules ; (2) a large wooden trough or 
bowl for panning out gold ; Braz. a wooden bowl, made of the wood 
of the fig-tree (gamelleira), about 2 feet wide at the mouth, and 5 or 6 
inches deep, used for washing gold out of the auriferous matter collected 
in sluices or in river sands (Spix and Martius), comp. abaco, artesa, 
arteson, batea, capitana (2), cargadora, dornajo, maestro (2), noque (2). 

GAMELO, see copaiba (2). 

GAMUZA, chamois leather, used in the incorporo (patio process), see 
also soche. 

GANANCIA, profit, syn. provecho, utilidad. 

GANCHO, (1) hook, transp. hook for attaching two wagons ; hook with 
a long handle, used by on-setter (enganchador) ; g. de cadena, chain- 
hook ; hoist, g. de seguridad, safety-hook ; g. de resorte, spring hook 
(ordinary safety-hook), (U.S.A.) snap-hook ; g. de serpentina, serpen- 
tine hook ; see abrazador, garabato, garfio, grampa, grillete, lana (2), 
paleta (4), timon ; (2) bor. crow's foot, see caracol ; (3) g. ensanchador, 
bor. a hook for extracting tubes ; (4) met. dog used for extracting 
tapping-bars from furnace (Dwight) ; (5) small and light pick [pico 
(2)] with a very long handle (Ezquerra) ; (6) ganchos, native silver 
in the form of hooks. 

GANDINGAS, (1) S. Sp. mech. prep, fines concentrated on a round - 
buddle, concentrates, see marmaja (2) ; Sierre de Cartagena, all 
material jigged from 1 mm. to the finest powder, comp. u. granza, 
and garbillo (3) ; (2) see u. vacisco. 

GANDINGUERA, S. Sp. (1) rouni-buddle, syn. chapola, Ant, Col. 
gallera, mesa conica fija or redonda [u. mesa (1)], Almeria and Carta- 
gena, Sp. rumbo (4) ; (2) German buddle, see gandinguero. 

GANDINGUERO, Cauca, Col. buddling-table or flat-buddle, syn. gandin- 
guera (2), comp. cernidor (2), u. concentrador, planilla. 

GANG A, gangue or matrix, see matriz (1), u. meter. 



GARABATO, a curved iron bar used in smelting silver ores, etc., or used 
by enganchador, etc., see u. gancho (1) ; suspension hook of a mine- 
lamp (lampara), syn. gancho (1). 

GARBILLAR, mech. prep, to concentrate with the garbillo (1). 

GARBILLO, (1) Sierras de Gador y de Cartagena, Sp. hand-sieve, made 
of a curved wooden hoop, the sides of esparto, and the bottom of 
canvas, used for dry concentration (Moncada), see u. andaluces, 
embaste ; (2) rectangular or square wire sieve, used for screening 
tierras (4) ; (3) garbillos, Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, products 
of jigging from 1 mm. to 1 cm. (Moncada), comp. gandingas (1), u. 

GARDUJA, Almaden, Sp. barren stones containing no quicksilver, see 
esteril (2). 

GARFIO, (gaff) hoist, the bent end of a hook [gancho (1)] ; met. drag-hook. 

GARGANTA (throat), (1) g. de polea, pulley-groove, syn. canal (3), equiv. 
Fr. gorge ; (2) mech. collar (collar) or neck, see u. valvula ; (3) moun- 
tain flood, torrent ; (4) top. narrow pass, see paso (4) ; narrow part of 
rivers, etc. ; (5) g. de lobo, see ajuste de trasdos [u. ajuste (3)]. 

GARIMPEIRO, Braz. (1) a gold-seeker (Lock), comp. buscones (1) ; 
(2) illicit diamond buyer (Bauer). 

GARITERO, Ant. Col. peon who assists in the mine-kitchens, Cjmp. 

GARLANCHA, see u. garlancheros, comp. hurga. 

GARLANCHEROS, Remedios, Ant. Col. men who pass ore down the 
shoots, using a two-pronged tool with a handle of wood (garlancha). 

GARLOPA, bench-plane, syn. cepillo de banco ; g. de alisar, jack-plane, 
see galera (5). 

GARNIEL (guarniel), sec carriel. 

GARRA, mech. claw, catch, clutch ; garras, hoist, claws of safety- 
appliances, see paracaidas ( 1 ) ; g. de cangrejo, catch-block (of Corliss 
valves), equiv. Fr. pince d'ecrevisse. 

GARRAPATA, Mex. clamp [grapa (2)] for stretching wires (Dwight). 

GARROTE, Mex. hoist, a brake, see freno (2). 

GARROTERO, Mex. brakeman, see frenero. 

GARRUCHA, (1) pulley, see polea (2) ; g. combinada, fija, movible, 
simple, combined, fixed, movable or single pulley of tackle [aparejo (1)]. 

GAS, gas ; g. de las hulleras, see grisu ; g. de pantanos, see u. hidrogeno. 

GASTAR, geol. to erode, syn. roer, see erosion. 

GASTO, (1) expenditure, cost, see consume, costo (2) ; (2) gastos, ex- 
penses, outlay ; (3) the quantity of water which a spring will yield 
in a given time ; (4) vent, volume of air introduced in one second ; 
(5) wear, see desgaste. 

GATA, a toothed bar from which is suspended the flood-gate [com- 
puerta (2)] of a dam (Velazquez). 

GATILLO, (1) trigger of a pistolete de seguridad, etc. ; (2) cramp-iron, 
see gato (2). 



GATO, (1) jack-screw, see eric, diablo (3), tornillo (2) ; (2) cramp or 
cramp-iron, syn. gatillo (2), grapa (1), lana (1), plancha (9), see alma 
(4), comp. corchete (1) ; (3) Mex. rail-bender, see diablo (1). 

GAUCHO, Arg. and Uruguay, Indian of the pampas, herdsman. 

GAVIA, Las Alpuj arras, Sp. a primitive method of carrying ore in baskets 
on men's shoulders up inclined shafts having long steps (trancos) cut 
in the side (Gillman) ; group of ore-bearers, each component being 
called muchacho de gavia (Molina) ; " cuadrilla de operarios que se 
emplea en el trecheo " (Acad.), see carrera (9), u. paseo, trancada, 
vasija, comp. cuerda (4), talla (3), trocar, zagalones ; operario de g. 
== portador. 

GELATINA EXPLOSIVA, see dinamita goma. 

GEMELO, LA, adj. cilindros gemelos, twin-cylinders ; motor gemelo, 
twin-motor ; see u. bomba (1), chimenea (3). 

GENERADOR, generator ; g. electrico, electric generator ; g. de vapor, 
steam generator, see generatriz. 

GENERATRIZ, maquina g. , el. generator, dynamo, comp. receptora. 

GENESIS, genesis, origin (of ore deposits), see criadero (1). 

GEODA, (1) geode, or rounded nodule [nodulo (1)] containing a small 
cavity, usually lined with crystals ; (2) vug, see drusa. 

GEOMETRIA SUBTERRANEA, obs. mine surveying, see u. agrimensura. 

GEOMETRO, surveyor, see agrimensor. 

GERENTE, com. manager, business manager, comp. superintendente. 

GIGANTE (giant), hydr. m. monitor, syn. hidrolanza, see piston (2). 

GIRASOL (sun-flower), fire-opal, syn. g. de fuego, opalo de fuego. 

GIRO, com. draft, see u. libranza. 

GLANDULA, pump, gland or cover of a stuffing-box. 

GLAUCONIA, glauconite ; the name of a green silicate of iron more or 
less abundant in " green sand." 

GLEBA, Alicante, Sp. (salt-works) thin layer (plancha) of precipitated 
salt, see paleta (4), volvedor. 

GO A, pig iron, see u hierro (1). 

GOGO, Phil, a plant whose juice is said to catch fine gold (Lock), comp. 

GOLPE, (1) Mex. sledge-hammer, see maza (3) ; (2) mech. prep, small 
hammer (martillo) used in cobbing, syn. pico (4), comp. quebrador (2) ; 
(3) stroke of a piston or pump, see pistonada ; (4) lift of a hammer, 
drop of a stamp, see caida (1) ; (5) g. de ariete, pump, water-hammer, 
see cheque ; (6) g. de agua, abundance of water. 

GOLPE ADOR, Mex. blast, the striker ; he generally charges the drill- 
hole and is then the cohetero, see u. pico (3). 

GOMA, gum ; g. elastica, india-rubber, see caucho ; g. grisu, grisoutite 
or dynamite mixed with sulphate of magnesia (Molina). 

GONGORA, Col. cavity or vug in a lode, see drusa. 

GONGORADO, DA, adj. mineral gongorado, Col. ore containing vugs, see 



GOPIARAS, see grupiaras. 

GORDO, DA, adj. sal gorda, see u. sal (1) ; see u. tabla (1). 

GORFE, a deep hole in a river forming a wlr'rlpool or eidy (Velazquez), 

comp. charco (3). 
GORGUERA, blast, felt, straw or esparto guard at the mouth of the 

borehole to prevent water splashing against the borer. 
GORGULHO, see gurgulho. 
GORRA (cap, bonnet), (1) Mex. miner's hat of felt, stiffened with pitch, 

see u. vestido ; (2) g. de metal, bonnet of a safety-lamp (lampara), 

bonnet of a cage [cubierta (2)], etc. 
GORR6N, (1) spindle or pivot at the end of a vertical axle [eje (2)] ; 

pivot of the tree [arbol (3)] of a horse-whim, syn. pivote (2), varilla (3) ; 

(2) a round smooth pebble, see guijarro (1). 
GORRONAL, see guijarral. 
GOTA (drop), (1) g. de sebo, rounded ends of bolts, nuts, etc., (2) small 

portion of bar of bullion, etc. for assaying ; (3) a var. of topaz called 

" water-drop " (Velazquez), see topacio (1). 
GOTEAR, to leak. 
GOTEO, leakage. 

GOTERA, (1) leak ; (2) stretcher, see Camilla. 

GOZNE, (1) hinge, see bisagra, u. union ; (2) staple, see cerradero (1). 
GRADA, (1) step of a staircase, syn. grado, comp. escalon (1) ; (2) a single 

stope, syn. Vizcaya, Sp. altar (2), gradin, Ant. Col. corte (8), escalon 

(2) ; g. al reves (Fr. gradin renverse), g. invertido, overhand stope, see 

testero (3) ; g. derecha (Fr. gradin droit), g. recta, underhand stope, 

syn. Mex. desborde, see rebajo (2). 
GRADERIA (series of steps), see terraplen (1). 
GRADILLA, step-ladder, see u. escala (1). 
GRADIN (Fr. gradin), stope, see grada (2). 

GRADING, chisel, an edged tool used by stone-cutters, see cincel (1). 
GRADO, (1) step of a staircase, see grada (1) ; (2) surv. degree. 
GRADUADOR, Mex. manometer for measuring blast of air. 
GRAFITO, graphite or plumbago, syn. alquifol (2), carbon (4), chacal, 

lapiz (1), lapiz plomo, mina de plomo, plombagina, piedra mineral de 


GRAF6METRO, surv. circumferentor, comp. plancheta. 
GRAMEAR, S. Am. to triturate the ore (Ponce de Leon). 
GRAMPA, hook, see gancho (1). 

GRANADA, (1) pomegranate, see u. se abre ; (2) garnet, see granate (1). 
GRANADILLO, (1) mech. prep, grain, syn. granado, grano (1), granito (3), 

comp. granalla ; (2) Col. tree, furnishing wood for making cabinets, etc. 
GRANADINO, NA, adj. native of or belonging to the Republic of 

Colombia (formerly New Granada) ; 1 legua g. = 5 km. or 5000 m. 

or 62|- cuadras of 100 varas each ; 1 libra g. 500 g. ; 1 onza g. = 

31-25 g. ; 1 arroba g. = 12*5 kg. ; for tonelada g., sec u. tonelada. 



GRANADO, (1) see granadillo (1) ; (2) Gerona, Sp. coal 20-40 mm. 
the rest is menudo (smalls) ; (3) Hualgayoc, Peru, ore the size of a 
walnut (San to 1 alia), tee also nuzco and pachapampa. 

GRANALLA, grains of metal, comp. granadillo (1) ; small grains or 
filings (limaduras) of gold that assayers and goldsmiths put in the 
purifying composition (cimiento real) in order to fine it more easily 
(Uribe) ; Col. grains of melted gold found in the Indian graves, see 
guaca (1). 

GRANATE, (1) garnet, syn. granada (2) ; almandina or g. almandino, 
almandite, an iron alumina-garnet, syn. g. comun (opaque), g. noble, g. 
oriental, g. precioso, g. sirio (transparent) ; g. de hierro, iron-garnet ; 
g. de cromo, chrome-garnet ; piedra de canelo = cinnamon stone, a 
var. of lime alumina-garnet or grossularite, see jacinto (2) ; for magnesia 
alumina-garnet, see piropo ; (2) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. crystal- 
lised cinnabar, see mercurio (2), comp. bermellon, negro (2). 

GRANCEADOR, RA, adj. molino granceador, grinding- mill, as Blake's 
ore-crusher, Chilian mill, etc. 

GRANCEO, Mex. operation of reducing ore to the size of granza (1), or 
to fragments about the size of a pea, more or less, and effected by 
stamps, crusher or Chilian mill (Ramirez) ; the crushing is usually 
dry and is followed by the molienda (1), see pulverization, comp. 

GRANCERAS, Guari. and Real del Monte, Mex. women who separate 
granzas (1) and guija (2) without pinta. 

GRANCERO, Mex. place, house or bin, where the granzas are kept, syn. 
rezago (3). 

GRANCILLA, Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. fine coal from 15-30 mm. 
(Molina), comp. cribado (2), u. grueso (2). 

GRANDE, adj. great ; grandes camaras, bell-pits, seebotella (2) ; grandes 
tajos (Fr. grandes tallies) or metodo de ensanche ; grandes tajos 
ascendentes = Fr. grandes tailles montantes ; grandes tajos segun la 
direction = Fr. grandes tailles chassantes ; grandes tajos diagonales 
= Fr. grandes tailles diagonales, see tajo (2). 

GRANIGORDA, see u. fundamental (1). 

GRANITO, (1) granite, see ala (4) de mosca, berroquena, huevo (2), mani 

(1) and (2), piedra de remendar (u. piedra), tosca (5), tucurababi ; 

(2) hairs, streaks or points which diminish the brilliancy and price 
of diamonds (Velazquez) ; (3) granites, little grains, see granadillo (1). 

GRANO, (1) a grain, see granadillo (1) ; granos de oro, grains of gold, 
small nuggets, see pepita ; (2) the grain of wood ; (3) grain, a weight, 
see u. quilate. 

GRANZA, (1) Mex. rnech. prep, originally, in the patio process, ore which 
had passed through holes in a sieve of hide, this was pulverised in the 
arrastre (3) or tahona ; fragments of ore about the size of a pea [see 
granceo, comp. cabezuela (2)], but may include ore from the size of rice 
to that of a hen's egg ; in Pachuca, ore which remains on sieves of 

177 M 


f of an inch mesh, tAat which passes being called tierras (4) ; coarse 
sand crushed dry from the stamping-mill and generally poor ; granza 
and tierras ordinarias from the Veta Madre of Guanajuato form the 
fourth class of ore, and yield about 80 ounces of silver per ton ; comp. 
apolvillado ; g. de yunque, San Dimas, Dur. Mex. third-class ore or 
smalls from the cleaner, see u. metal (3) and tierras (4) for first, second 
and fourth classes ; fragments resulting from cobbing the ore (Dahl- 
grea), syn. tierras de labor or de yunque ; Huitzuco, Guerr. middlings 
or chips of mercury ore (limestone with livingstonite) broken off when 
smashing up large pieces of ore with a sledge-hammer, it contains 
about 1 per cent, of quicksilver, comp. u. despoblado, da, pepena (1) 
and tierras (4) ; Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot., coarse ore ; granzas, Sp. 
all materials, which, after trituration, fail to pass through holes 
of 3 mm. diameter (Ibran), comp. u. arena (2) and polvo ; Sierra de 
Cartagena, Sp. in jigging, products larger than 1 cm. (Moncada), syn. 
gravas, comp. gandingas (1), garbillo (3), granzon (1) ; (2) dross of 
metals, see espuma (8). 

GRANZEAR, Mex. to break up ore into fine powder by two large stones 
(G. F. Lyon), comp. moler a mano. 

GRANZITA, Almaden, Sp. coarse-grained ores, of from 1*2 to 3'2 cubic 
inches, comp. u. tierras (4). 

GRANZ6N, (1) mech. prep, fragment of ore which does not pass through 
the screen (Acad.) ; granzones, screenings, comp. granza (1) ; Mex. 
coarse particles obtained by sifting tierras (4), they are ground down 
by the voladoras (3) in order to remove the asperities of the bottom 
of the arrastre (3) ; this operation succeeds that of asentar (4) el arrastre, 
and is followed by the grinding of the granza (1) ; (2) Venez. pisolitic 
brown hematite (C. Le Neve Foster), see hematita. 

GRAPA, (1) cramp-iron, see gato (2) ; (2) carp, clamp, see garrapata ; 
(3) bor. lifting-dog, see u. Have (1) ; (4) hoist, in capping, a socket for 
embracing the loop of a wire-rope. 

GRAPIN, aug. of grapa. 

GRASA, slag, see escoria (1) ; Mex. slag or clinker which is separated from 
the metal when tapped into the basin [pileta (2)] from the smelting 
furnace. This sets at liberty the particles of lead (Gamboa). 

GRASERO, slag-dump, slag-pile, syn. escorial. 

GRASO, SA, adj. unctuous ; cuarzo graso, greasy quartz, see u. rayado 
(2) ; tierra grasa, pipe-clay ; hulla grasa, fat-coal, see u. hulla (2). 

GRATIFICACI6N, reward, gratuity paid to miners, etc., see premio (1), 

GRAVA, see cascajo (1) ; g. arcillosa, loam ; gravas, see u. granza (1). 

GRAVAMENES, Mex. encumbrances, or charges on a mine from avio or 
other contracts. 

GRECAS (Grecian frets in arch.), confused irregular workings, syn. 
laberintos (2). 

GREDA, (1) fuller's-earth a soft friable clay which absorbs grease, used 



by fullers, syn. greta (1), jaboncillo (2), tierra (2) de batanero, de batan 

or de manchas ; (2) marl, see marga (1) ; (3) chalk, see creta ; (4) El 

Caratal, Venez. alluv. m. pay-dirt (Fig. 20 /) or yellow ferruginous 

clay covering cascajo (2), see cinta (3) ; plastic clay or barro (1) ; kaolin- 
like clay, e.g., Sierra Moreno, Sp. " in the granite, which is rich n 

felspar, the veins are filled with kaolin-like masses known as gredas ' ' 

(A. O. Wittelsbach) ; (5) g. dura, Titiribi and Heliconia, Ant. Col. 

carboniferous schist (esquisto) ; it contains globular pieces of iron ore ; 

(6) oro greda, Venez. alluvial gold, see u. oro. 
GREDAL, adj. geol. of the nature of fuller's-earth, or containing fuller's- 

earth ; place abounding in greda (1) (2) or (3). 
GREDOSO, SA, adj. marly ; containing fuller's-earth ; tierra gredosa, 

clay-marl (1). NOTE. Sometimes = clayey. 
GRELLA, grate ; g. movil, g. de vaiven, mech. prep, shaking grate ; g. 

para deslodar minerales, mech. prep, grizzly (Venator), see parrilla (2). 
GREMIO, society, guild, corporation ; g. de mineros, Per a, association 

of miners originally founded by the Spanish Crown. 
GRES, generic name for rocks of a granular texture, e.g., sandstone, see 

GRETA, (1) fuller's-earth, see greda (1) ; (2) Mex. impure litharge formed 

in a reverberatory furnace, see litargirio. 
GRETA, Port, fissure (Span, grieta), see hendedura. 
GRETOSOS, Chico, Hid. Mex. silver-bearing sulphides occurring in 

gossan (A. del M. de F.). 
GRIETA, (Port, greta), geol. narrow fissure, more or less long and deep, 

which may be formed naturally in fissile rocks (Guim), see hendedura, 

labio (2). 
GRIETARSE, to crack in the form of a star, said of ingots or metal plates 


GRIETEO, formation of fissures (Venator), equiv. Ger. Spattenbildung. 
GRIFO, GRIF6N, stop-cock for water ; faucet, spigot. 
GRILLETE, hoist, shackle, or U -shaped hook fastened by a bolt and nut, 

see gancho (1). 

GRIS, adj. grey ; for plata g., see u. plata (2). 
GRISOLITAS, Braz. chrysolite. 
GRISU, (Fr. grisou), fire-damp, syn. aire (2), gas de las hulleras, Mex. 

toro, equiv. Ger. Grubenfeuer, Grubenluft, comp. hidrogeno proto- 

carbonado, mofeta ; mina con g., fiery mine. 
GRISUMETRO (Fr. grisoumetre), fire-damp measurer. 
GRUA, mech. crane, syn. cabria (4), pescante (1), trucha, equiv. Fr. 

grue, Ger. Krahn, see abanico (1), aguilon, u. arbol (3), u. castillete (1). 
GRUESO, SA, adj. thick, bulky ; canalon (2) grueso, Ant. Col. ground 

sluice with a considerable thickness of sand and stone covering the 

bed-rock, see colgar (2) ; coarse (of mineral, etc.). 
GRUESO, (1) thickness (of a bed or vein), see anchura ; (2) Villanueva 

del Rio, Sevilla,JSp. large coal 600 mm. in size, comp, cribado (2), 



grancilla ; in the quicksilver mines of California, U.S.A. grueso = 
lump ore, comp. finos. 
GRUMO, see u. sal. 

GRUPIARAS, Minas Geraes, Braz. higher bench deposits or placers (see 
placer) on the slopes of hills, due to the erosive action of water, and 
the precipitation of materials transported in geological periods more 
remote than the taboleiros, syn. gopiaras, guapiaras, gupiaras ; accord- 
ing to Bauer, valley-deposits formed of the same material as river- 
deposits, sometimes constituting river-terraces, see cascalho, gurgulho 
comp. veias (2). 

GRUPO, a group of deposits, syn. haz (2). 

GRUTA, grotto or cavern, see cueva (1). 

GUACA, Peru, Costa Rica, Col. (1) ancient Indian grave, often containing 
gold and pottery, syn. huaca ; in Col. there arc nine principal kinds, 
(a) de cajon or cuadrados, (6) de resbalon or con escala, (c) de tambor 
or redondos, (d) de cancel or con pared de piedra, (e) de triangulo, (/) 
de media luna, (g) de trastos, (h) osarios, and (i) de pabellon (Angel) ; 
these are worked by guaqueros, a nomad set of Antioquians, see apo- 
sento, barredura (3), cacique (2), chaguala, cincel (2), u. granalla, u. 
muerto, ta, pared (4), pueblo (3), regaton (2), salon (4) ; (2) a narrow 
tunnel or lead in a hill. 

GUACHE, Ant. Col. (1) alluv. m. a mineral layer between the pay-dirt 
and the overburden, rather hard and seldom rich (Uribe) ; (2) alluv. 
m. loose stones from the bed-rock (Munoz) ; (3) gold-mill, in milling 
tailings, coarse sand or stones that collect in the boxes without being 
properly ground up, and which have to be removed from time to time. 

GUAICO, Ant. Col. (1) hole (hoyo) or excavation of indigenous origin 
(Uribe); (2) see canalon (5). 

GUAIRA, Peru, wind-furnace [horno (2)] made of clay, used by the 
Indians for smelting silver ores, see huayres. 

GUAIRONA, Peru, guard-rails at mouth of a shaft (Dwight), comp. 
barrera (5). 

GUAJARAS, fastnesses, the roughest part of a sierra (1) (Velazquez). 

GUAJE, Mex. calabash, syn. calabaza, syn. Cuba, giiiro, Peru, mate 
(Velazquez), see huacal, hueja, jicara (2). 

GUALDA, Peru, chalcopyrite, see u. bronce (3) and pirita. 

GUALDRA, Mex. large cross-beam of the arrastre (3), etc., this is supported 
at either end by big vertical posts known as esteos ; pump, beam, 
supported by the Haves (4) (Gamboa) ; gualdras, hoist, largest timbers 
used for head-frame [puente (3)] of a mule- whim [malacate (1)] of 
40 X 40 cm. section, comp. gualdrilla. 

GUALDRILLA, Mex. timb. bearer of bearing-stemple, may be 30 X 30 
cm. section, see tirante (4), traviesa (4), comp. gualdra, viga, vigueta, 
tirante (5). 

GUANfN, adj. oro g., gold under legal standard ; metal of which 
Columbus found some fragments in Espanola, composed of eighteen 



parts of gold, six of silver, and eight of copper (Guim) ; "el valor 
del oro guanin (sic) 6 muy bajo " (Historia General de Real Hacienda, 

GUANTE (glove), Sierra Almagrera, Sp. a strong board placed at an 
angle of 60 over the winch, and used as a pent-house (resguardo). 

GUAPIARAS, see grupiaras. 

GUAQUERO, Col. one who searches for treasures in Indian graves or 
guacas (1). 

GUARACHE, Peru, work in over- time, generally at night (D wight). 

GUARACU, Ant. Col. basalt, diorite, or greenstone, comp. sabanera. 

GUARDA, (1) a rib formed on the side [hastial (1)] of a vein, and sepa- 
rating it from the " country " : " se ven las guardas marcando la linea 
de separacion entre el cuerpo de la veta y la roca en que arme, forte- 
mente impregnado de mineral " (Ramirez) it appears to be analagous 
to the capels or " backs " of Cornwall ; g. de arcilla, salband, flucan 
or selvage, syn. orilla (2) de barra or de arcilla, Guan. Mex. cuarache, 
salbanda, Ant. Col. urgue (2), equiv. Fr. salbande, Ger. Besteg, see lu 
jagua (1), lama (1), comp. carrancho (1), cascajo (3) ; (2) Ant. Col. in 
native mills, timber frame in front of the battery and above the 
screens, which keeps the latter from being taken out ; guardas, blocks 
of timber just above the cepo (3) inferior, acting as guides to the 
stampers, see u. guiaderas ; (3) Pachuca, Mex. timb. lagging, see 
guarnicion, revestimiento (1) ; (4) mine guard, see guardaminas. 

GUARDAAGUJAS, transp. pointsman, switchman, see agujas (5). 

GUARDAALMACEN, storekeaper, see almacenista. 

GUARD ABARRERA, rail, custodian of a level-crossing (paso a nivel.). 

GUARDAFIERROS, Mex. toolman (Dwight). 

GUARDAFRENOS, transp. brakesman, see frenero. 

GUARDAMATERIALES, official who purchases materials for a mint. 

GUARDAMINAS, (1) mine guards, see quitapepena, velador ; (2) under 
the old Ordenanzas, intelligent and practical miners or experts (peritos). 

GUARD APIE, Zac. Mex. timb. sole-piece, see solera (3). 

GUARD APOLVO, transp. dust-guard of a wagon, etc. 

GUARD ARAYA (guardarraya), Mex. (1) landmark or boundary made of 
stone and lime, or stone and mud, see mojon (1) ; (2) the end- and side- 
line of a mining claim (Dwight) ; (3) surv. mark used underground 
for measuring work, syn. marca (2), see bianco (1), comp. machete. 

GUARDATINA, Mex. the man who superintends the working of amalga- 
mation in vats or tinas (G. F. Lyon). 

GUARD ATIRO, Mex. the man who keeps an account of the stuff brought 
up the shaft (G. F. Lyon). 

GUARDAVIA, rail, signalman. 

GUARDAZAPA, Ant. Col. a working complementary to that of the 
zapa (3). 

GUARNICION, (1) Mex. timb. lagging, see revestimiento (1); if on the 
sides of a gallery = encostillados, if on the roof = camas (7) or enca- 



mados, if on the floor = pisos (7) ; in shafts, with open crib timbering 
= estacadas (2) ; in running ground = estacadas (3) cortadoras (spilling 
laths) ; in soft rocks and drifts, without filling, use vigas for the frames 
[marcos (2)] and viguetas for the lagging ; in those which need filling, 
frames of viga doble or tirante (5), and lagging of viga and vigueta 
alternately ; in shafts and winzes, in moderately loose ground, use 
vigas for the cinchos (4) and viguetas for the estacadas (2), in less 
consistent " country" put continuous anillos (2) of viga, and, in very 
broken ground, vigas dobles or tirantes (5) (Louis Carrion) ; (2) st. 
eng. packing (Ponce de Leon), see, empaquetadura (1) ; (3) guar- 
niciones, harness, see arnes (1 ). 

GUARNIEL (or garniel), see carriel. 

GUASCA, Col. (1) plant from the rind of which is made very strong 
girdles in roofing houses it is used for tying the small polings [cintas 
(4)] to the encanados ; (2) measuring-tape, see cinta (1). 

GUATACA, Cuba, spade, see azada (1). 

GUAYACAN, GUAYACO, lignum- vitae tree (Guaiacum officinale), syn. 
lodonera ; g. coco and g. polvillo occur in Antioquia, Col., g. baho and 
g. tonie in Tolima, Col. and g. contaro and g. negro in Panama, see 
canahuate, comp. vera. 

GUAYRAS, see huayres. 

GUBIA, gouge, syn. escoplo de media cana, see cincel (1), trincha (1). 

GtlEDALES, Inguaran, Mich. Mex. irregular contact-veins of copper 
ores occurring in a porphyritic conglomerate and in a felspathic 
porphyry (J. C. Haro) ; cupriferous masses occurring in a belt of 
microgranulite, some 2250 and 2550 feet wide, and 5 or 6 miles long, 
which intervenes between the andesite and granite from base to summit 
of the mountain Inguaran. They are brecciated masses of altered 
microgranulite whsrein the chalcopyrits forms the cementing material 
(E. Cumsnge), seemasa (3). 

Gt)EJO, see fiador (3). 

GttEMBE, manila-hemp, see abaca (2). 

GUIA, (1) a piece of wood attached to the highest part of th3 beam of a 
noria (1) ; the horse or mule, which drives the latter, is attached to 
this by a rope ; (2) soil or mark indicating the proximity of any vein, 
and the greater or less abundance of the latter ; the mark directing 
to the richest part of a vein, see indicaciones ; (3) blast, a Bhort drill 
used in commencing the borehole, and before the medias and apura- 
doras (1), see barrena (2) ; (4) guias, mech. guides in machinery, as 
guide-rods of steam-engines ; bor. guides for rods, equiv. Fr. guides, 
Ger. Bohrlehren ; hoist, cage-guides, see guiaderas ; pump, guides of 
spear-rods, see carcel (3) ; mech. prep, guides for lifters [mangos (1)] 
of stamps, see u. guarda (2) ; (5) guias, Chile, little veins, filled by 
more or less siliceous iron ore and containing gold (Fuchs and De- 
launay) ; at Chafiarcillo, small lateral veins, which are metalliferous 
only in the neighbourhood of the large lodes ; Peru, mineralised joints 



in the country, and small veins and deposits forming stockworks, see 
veta (1) ; (6) guias, horses or mules which go before the wheel-horses 
or mules, leaders, see contraguia (2) ; (7) guias, guide-lines for the 
leader-horses ; leather straps for horses and mules, those for horses 
now termed reins (riendas), and for mules pendon ; (8) guias, Mex. 
in the patio process, marks put on the ore-heaps [montones (1)] in the 
incorporo, in order to know their condition (Gamboa) ; (9) Ant. Col. 
main level, gallery or ad.t, see galeria, comp. u. canon (2), zapa ; (10) 
Asturias, Sp. c.m. intermediate level, see zapa ; (11) Ant. Col. pre- 
liminary excavation made in planning the direction of a ditch (Uribe) ; 
(12) Ant. Col. the first water brought along a ditch, and which serves 
as an indication to the proper level required ; (13) Peru, blast, fuse; 
rollo de g., coil of fuse, see mecha (2) ; (14) carritos guias, see carritos ; 
(15) a permit or docket from the Custom authorities ; Braz. a certifi- 
cate from the authorities (Henwood) ; (16) carp, centre-bit, see 
broza (1) ; (17) g. de filon, leader in a lode, guide, feeder or pay- 
streak, see cinta (2) ; (18) Vizcaya, Sp. piece of timber, 12 to 14 feet 
long, 7 inches wide and 6 inches deep (Acad.), see viga. 

GUIADERAS, hoist, wooden guides of a shaft or pit, syn. guias (4), see u. 
via (4) ; mech. prep, guides of a stamp-mill, etc., see guarda (2). 

GUI ADO, DA, adj. guided ; cajas (7) guiadas, cages in guides. 

GUIJA, (1) pebble, pebble-stone, cobble, coarse gravel (Velazquez), 
equiv. Port, brelho, calhan, calhao, (see callao), see guijarro (1) ; (2) 
Mex. quartz, see cuarzo ; Guerr. amorphous quartz, comp. teguilote ; 
Peras, Oaxaca, pure white greasy or milky or yellowish quartz, in 
general barren, sometimes contains gold, not exceeding 1 adarme per 
carge, when it is called guija, comp. metal rayado ; g. de oro, Guan. 
gold quartz, or quartz containing somewhat coarse grains of native 
gold (St. Clair Duport) ; (3) gangue or matrix (matriz), thus in Col. 
any gangue (piedra de veta) that contains gold ; (4) Batopilas, Chih. 
Mex. calcite, see u. espato. 

GUIJARRAL, place full of pebbles, gravel, etc. ; syn. cascajal, gorronal, 
lleira ; a heap of pebbles ; comp. pedregal. 

GUI JARRE NO, NA, adj., pebbly, gravelly. 

GUIJARRO, (1) pebble or boulder, syn. canto (3) rodado, morrillo, 
see chinarro, chinazo, chinilla, guija (1), matatena, peladilla, rollo (2), 
comp. cas^ajo (1), china (1) ; (2) any siliceous stone, e.g., g. ferruginoso, 
impure and variously coloured rock-crystal (Barcena). 

GUIJARROSO, SA, adj. pebbly. 

GUIJENO, NA, adj. full of pebbles or coarse gravel, see guijoso, sa. 

GUI JO, (1) small pebbles or gravel for roads (Velazquez), see cascajo (1) ; 
(2) iron spindle, shaft or gudgeon, syn. munon (2), turrion (1), see eje 
(2) ; varieties of gudgeons are guijos de letra L or T, and guijos de 
aleta ; Mex. in the arrastre (3), a piece of steel in the form of an 
inverted cone, which fits into the tejuela (3) or die, the upper part is 
broadened out into the form of a cross, by which it is applied to the 



vertical post [peon (3)] (Ramirez), see flecha (4) ; (3) Sierra Alma- 
grera, Sp. heavy spar (baritina) silver-bearing galena is associated 
with this mineral in slates. 

GUIJOLA, Tepezala, Aguascalientes, Mex. double bellows used for 
supplying blast to small copper-smelting furnaces (Ramirez), see 
fuelle (1). 

GUIJOLES, Dur. Mex. kidney- shaped pieces of cassiterite found in 
rhyolite (C. Patoni and W. R. Ingalls), see estano (2). 

GUIJOSO, SA, adj. gravelly, full of pebbles, see guijeno, na ; Mex. 

GUILLAME DE ENSAMBLAR, carp, dovetail plane, see cepillo (1). 

GUILOCOTE, see u. chicuite. 

GUINAR (to wink, naut. to yaw), to change in direction (of a vein, etc.), 
" en el punto de Alamos la caliza esta cruzada por vetas de tosca (1), 
que cortan a las metalicos y las hacen guinar " (A. del M. de F.), 
see also Duport the "squinting " of veins by loadstone (Derb. Engl.) 
is analogous. 

GUINGARO, see huingaro. 

GUIRO, see guaje. 

GtiMENA, cable, see cable (1). 

GUPIARAS, see grupiaras. 

GURGUARO, see barequero. 

GURGULHO (gorgulho), Braz. material of the plateau-deposits ; it 
occurs usually in horizontal beds, and is built up of coarse blocks of 
the surrounding rocks, with a more or less red clayey earth ; in this 
the diamond and associated minerals are imbedded (Bauer) ; according 
to Fuchs and De Launay, a pudding-stone (conglomerado) formed 
of large gravel and red earth, see diamante. 

GURGUSEAR, see mazamorrear. 

GURGUSEO, see barequeo. 

GURGUSERO, see mazamorrero. 

HABA (bean), piece of ore, more or less rounded, encased in gangue ; 
sometimes met with in veins (Acad.), see u. boleo (1). 

HABER, property, income, assets ; com. = Cr. 

HABILITACI6N, (1) fitting out, equipment ; funds, etc. see avio (2) ; 
una compania refaccicnaria or de habilitacion y avios, a company that 
furnishes funds for mining operations, etc., see sociedad ; (2) h. de 
bombas, pump-gears (Ponce de Leon), see u. juego (1). 

HABILITADOR, outfitter, see aviador (2). 

HABILITAR, to supply, equip ; to furnish funds for a mine, etc., see 
avio (2). 

HABITACI6N, abode, lodging ; underground room for men to rest in, etc. 

HACENDADO, land-holder, farmer, syn. Cuba, estanciero, Mex. ranchero, 
Cuba, sitiero (cattle-raiser), equiv. Braz. ro^eiro. 

HACENDERO, (1) Span. Am. superintendent of the hacienda (3) ; 



(2) Almaden, Sp. day-labourer (jornalero) on account of the hacienda 

HACER, h. adelantos, com. to advance money : h. asiento, mas. to settle ; 
h. balance, com. to balance accounts ; h. funcionar, mech, to work an 
engine, etc., h. Us, see lis ; h. mezcla, h. mortero, to temper mortar ; 
h. mina, to make a mine ; h. muescas, to mortise ; h. saltar un barreno, 
to blast or shoot, see tirar (1) ; h. tierras, Mex. alluv. m. the conjunction 
of operations including desmontar (2), planear and cascajear (1). 

HACHA, (1) axe or hatchet, syn. segur, see destral ; h. de tumbar, felling- 
axe ; see Fig. 45 for axe used by timbermen in 
Almaden, Sp. ; (2) h. de viento, h. encendida, a 
torch, see antorcha, cohete (3). 

H ACHAZUELA, Mex. adze, see azuela. 

HACHERO, woodcutter, etc. 

HACHUELA, small hatchet or axe. 

HACIENDA, (1) farm or estate ; landed property, 

see estancia (2), finca (1), rancho (2) ; (2) H. Real FIG. 45. 

or Real H., Exchequer or Public Treasury, now Hacha(l)deAluiaden 

called H. Nacional or Publica ; Ministro de H., (after Ez 'iuerra). 

(S. Am. Secretario de H.), Chancellor of the Ex- r ' 

chequer, Secretary of the Treasury, Minister of 

Finance ; (3) Span. Am. smelting or reduction works ; h. de bene- 

ficio, amalgamation works ; h. de beneficio maquiladora, amalgamation 

reduction works ; h. de fundicion, smelting works, equiv. Braz. 

fazenda, see u. oficina (4) ; (4) mill or dressing floors, see cancha (4), 

lavadero (1), laveria, molino (1), u. oficina (4), taller (3), comp. cancha 

(2) ; h. de maquila (1), custom-mill. 

HALLAZGO, discovery (of a deposit), see descubrimiento. 

HAPIRE (apire), (1) trammer, see carretero (1) ; (2) Peru, labourer who 
assists the miner ; hapires, Cerro de Pasco, labourers who bring up the 
ore from the shaft ; each load consists of from 50 to 75 Ib. of ore, which 
is carried in a very irksome and inconvenient manner in an untanned 
hide called a capacho (Tschudi, 1847) ; the Chilian apire carries nearly 
200 Ib. weight of ore in a leathern bag on his shoulders (Kenwood), 
syn. chaquires, see apireo, rongueros, comp. refaccionero, tenatero. 

HARINA (flour), (1) h. fosil or h. silicea, infusorial earth or tripolite 
(diatomaceous) ; (2) fine powder of metals, etc. ; harinas del bocarte, 
gold-mill, pulp, syn. Peru, masa (8), see u. polvo. 

HARNEAR, mech. prep, to screen, see cribar (1). 

HARNERERO, Mex. operator of a hand- jig (Dwight), see riquitrum. 

HARNERO, Mex. orig. a slope covered with leather perforated with small 
holes over which the crushed ore slides (G. F. Lyon) ; sieve, screen, 
see criba ; Mex. hand-jig (Dwight), see riquitrum. 

HASTIAL (astial), (1) the surface of either wall or roof or floor of 
a deposit, but often used synonymously with wall (respaldo) ; side 
of a deposit, syn. costero (3), pared (3), comp. guarda (1), reliz (1) 



(2) hastiales, sides of a gallery (costados), of a shaft (paredes), or of 

any excavation. 

HATERO, carrier of provisions to mines, quarries, etc. comp. abajador (1). 
HAYA, beech- tree, beech. 
HAZ, (1) fascine ; fagot, a bundle of brushwood or straw, syn. fajina, 

see u. salchichon ; (2) a group of deposits, see grupo. 
HEBILLA, a buckle. 
HEBRA, (1) a thread or yarn of a hempen or other rope, syn. fibra ; a 

number of these grouped together, but not twisted = filastica (Molina), 

comp. corchado ; several twisted together form the hilo (4), comp. 

cordon (2) ; (2) a vein of minerals or metals, see veta (1) ; (3) layer or 

stratum, see estrato. 
HEBRUDO, Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. barcenite. an antimoniate of lime 

and mercury, see u. mercuric (2), comp. antimonioso. 
HECTARA, hectare (Fr.) or 10,000 square metres. 
HEDIONDO, DA, adj. piedra hedionda, see u. piedra. 
HEMATITA, hematite, syn. hierro oligisto, hierro rojo, hierro rojo fibroso, 

see campanil, dionisia (2), granzon (2), madre (5) del oro, rubio, vena (2). 
HEMATITES, see dionisia (2) 
HEMBRA, (1) Pachuca, Hid. Mex. timb. end-piece of a shaft frame, see 

crucero (3) ; (2) timb. post (Dwight), see columna (1) ; (3) nut of a 

screw, see tuerca. 
HENDEDURA, HENDIDURA, fissure, crevice, crack or rent, syn. aber- 

tura (1), agrietadura, agujero (3), barranco (1), fisura, raja (2), prov. 

rajadura, resquebrajadura, resquebrajo, equiv. Port, aberta, fenda, 

greta, racha, Fr. fissure, Ger. Spalt, Kluft (of a vein), comp. abra (3), 

grieta, quebrada (3), quiebra (2), ventanilla (3). 
HENDER, to split. 
HENDIBLE, fissile. 
HENDIDURA, see hendedura. 
HENEQUfiN, (1) the American aloe, see agave ; (2) fibre of (1), syn. 

jeniquen, see cabulla (2) ; fibre of Agave rigida. 
HERRADA, wooden pail, see balde. 
HERRADO, DA, adj. agua herrada, water in which red-hot iron has been 


HERRADURA, horse-shoe, shoe for mules, etc., see herraje (2). 
HERRAJE, (1) shoeing ; (2) shoes (herraduras), and nails for shoeing ; 

(3) mech. ironwork, syn. obs. herramienta (4). 
HERRAMIENTA, (1) tools, mining tools, syn. Col. utiles, see amanos, 

hierro (2), instrument (1) ; (2) blast, a borer or hammerman, see 
barretero ; (3) una herramienta, Guan. Mex. a pare, see parada (3) ; 

(4) obs. iron-work, see herraje (3). 

HERRAR, (1) to shoe horses ; (2) to brand cattle, see hierro (3) ; 

(3) mech. to bind, strengthen or adorn with iron. 

HERRERIA,(l)smith'swork or office; (2) ironworks; (3) forge, seeforja(l). 
HERRERO, smith, blacksmith. 



HERRUMBRE, rust of iron, see orin. 

HERVEZ6N, Ant. Col. (1) alluvium confusedly intermingled with poor 
sands (arenas frias) or superficial earth ; (2) hole made in the lower 
part of dams (tupias) in rivers or quebradas (Uribe). 

HERVIDERO, (1) boiling spring (manantial), making a characteristic 
noise ; (2) Cent. Am. mud-volcano, syn. Mex. hornito (3). 

HERVIDO, DA, adj. mina hervida, Ant. Col. alluv. m. pay-dirt [cinta 
(3)] deposited by a whirlpool (Uribe), comp. u. soplado, da ; pena 
hervida, see u. pena (4). 

HEZ, (pi. heces), dross of metals, see escoria (2). 

HICHU, see ichu. 

HIDRAULICO, CA, adj. hydraulic. 

HIDR6GENO, hydrogen ; h. protocarbonado, marsh-gas or light car- 
buretted hydrogen [CHJ, syn. formeno, gas de pantanos, metano, 
equiv. Fr. gaz de marais, Ger. leichte Kohlenwasserstoffgas, Gruben- 
gas, Sumpfgas, Methylwasserstoffgas ; a mixture of this with air in 
explosive proportion = fire-damp, see grisu. 

HIDROLANZA, see gigante. 

HIERBA, see yerba. 

HIERRO, (1) iron ; h. afinado, puddle-iron, refined iron ; h. cabilla, see 
cabilla (2) ; h. carretil, bar-iron, 1 cm. wide by 2 cm. thick, syn. h. 
de llantas ; h. cellar, bar-iron 5 cm. wide by 1 cm. thick, syn. h. 
arquero, h. planchuela ; h. cochino, pig-iron ; h. colado, h. de fundi- 
cion, h. fundido, bronce (2), cast-iron ; h. cuadradillo, h. cuadrado, 
iron 2 cm. square ; h. de canal, channel-iron ; h. de doble T, double 
T-iron ; h. dulce, soft iron ; weld iron ; h. en angulo, angle-iron, see 
codo (3) ; h. en flejes, hoop-iron ; h. forjado, forged iron ; h. labrado, 
h. de fragua, wrought-iron ; h. laminado, h. en planchas, sheet-iron ; 
h. palanquilla, iron 4 cm. square ; h. platina, flat iron ; h. tocho, iron 
7 cm. square ; h. tochuelo, iron 5-6 cm. square, syn. h. medio tocho ; 
h. varttla, round bar of small diameter. (NOTE. Formerly spelt fierro. ) 
(2) An iron tool, see herramienta (1) ; (3) iron for branding, see herrar 
(2) ; (4) iron ore ; h. acicular, gcthite ; h. arcilloso, clay ironstone, 
see u. siderosa ; h. arsenical, h. bianco (or ferro bianco), arsenopyrite ; 
h. brillante, h. especular, h. espejado, specular iron ore ; h. cromado, 
chrome iron ore ; h. espatico, spathic iron, see siderosa ; h. limoso, 
de praderas, de pantanos, or de los estanques, bog- iron ore ; h. mag- 
netico, magnetite ; h. parda, brown iron ore ; h. rojo, hematite, see 
hematita ; h. viejo, Peru, silver ores consisting mainly of iron oxide 
(Dwight) ; hierros secos, Cartagena, Sp. ores carrying 50 per cent, 
of metallic iron (R. Oriol) (hierros manganetiferos = those carrying 
up to 28 per cent, of manganese), see arenilla (3) and (4), u. bronce 
(3), min6n (2), moco (2), oligisto ; (5) hierros (fierros), Mex. stein, 
iron matte or regulus, syn. hierros de planchera, espumas (9), mata 
(1) ; (6) hierros del vaso, " Abzug " and " Abstrich " from refining 
lead ; (7) hierros (fierros), Mex. low-grade silver ores (from 20 to 35 



ounces per ton) ; (8) steel, see acero ; (9) h. especular, spiegeleisen ; 
(10) madera de h., iron wood. 

HIERROSO, SA (fierroso, sa), adj. metal hierroso, (a) Peras, Oaxaca, 
Mex. masses of iron ore, generally in cubical fragments, comp. tepostel 
(I); (6)eeriolita(2). 

HIGADO (liver), (1) Peru, Dep. Amazonas, an oxide of iron, sometimes 
found with nusco and panal de rosa in small isolated masses the 
gold is scarcely ever visible as it is disseminated through the whole in 
imperceptible dust (Sir C. Mansfield), see oro ; (2) lenticular deposit 
of gold, see manto (3), oro. 

HIJUELA, (1) small thread of ore or mineral, see u. hilo (2) ; (2) hijuelas, 
Mex. in the patio process, a small sized torta made up as a sort of assay 
on a large scale, with from 1 to 5 kg. of argentiferous mud (Chism), 
see tentadura (1). 

HIJUELOS, Ant. Col. alluv. m. lateral drainage from the principal (1). 

HILADA, row, line or course of bricks or stone in a building ; line of 
masonry in a shaft, etc., see camada (2). 

HILERA, (1) mas. bed, course ; h. de cantos, course of stones (Ponce de 
Leon), see camada (2) ; (2) timb. a board or pole forming the joint, 
between two inclined props, syn. carrera (8), see Fig. 50, u. jabalcon (2) ; 
(3) b. constr. ridge-pole, tie-beam, syn. cumbrera (1), gallo (6) ; (4) h. 
costeable, pay-streak (Lucas), see cinta (2) ; (5) wire-plate, see hilo (5). 

HILO (thread), (1) h. de la veta or h. del criadero, direction of the vein or 
deposit, see rumbo (1) ; a. h. de veta, along the vein (de cabecera = 
across) ; (2) small vein or thread of ore in a lode, e.g., hilos altos, 
threads falling into or proceeding from the hanging wall, hilos bajos, 
threads proceeding from or falling into the footwall ; hilos del despo- 
sorio, Santa Cruz mine, Villalpando (Guerrero), Mex. small veins of 
clay crossing the Veta Madre, and containing much gold in impalpable 
powder (Humboldt) ; (3) Ant. Col. a vein or lode, a thin vein, branch 
or thread being known as aguja (6) ; in the Cauca, the name is applied 
to small veins of gold-bearing quartz ; h. de cajon, vertical vein ; (4) see 
u. hebra (1) ; h. bramante, pack-thread, syn. bramante ; (5) wire or 
metal drawn through a wire -plate [hilera (5)] ; (6) h. de agua, small 
jet of water ; streamlet, see arroyuelo. 

HINCHARSE, to swell (of certain clays or argillaceous schists) ; to rise 
(of rivers, etc.). 

HINCHAZ6N, increase in volume of a rock broken off in underground 
workings (Molina), syn. aumento, equiv. Fr. erfoisonnement. 

HIPOTECA, mortgage. 

HISCAL, an esparto rope of three strands [ramales ( 1 )]. 

HITA, small headless nail ; stub-nail, see clavo (1). 

HITO, landmark ; h. de esquina, corner stake, see u. jalon, mojon (1). 

HIT6N, large square nail without a head (Acad.), see clavo (1). 

HOCINO, (1) bill for cutting firewood (lena) ; (2) narrowness (angostura) 
of rivers between mountains (Acad.), see hoz. 



HOGAR, (1) hearth, fireplace, syn. Mex. brasero (2), chimenea (2), fogon 
(1), fuego (4), Mex. mesa (6), see enrejado, fogana, sabalera ; (2) fire- 
box of a locomotive, syn. Mex. buitron (2), caja (22), fogon (2) ; 
(3) vent, furnace. 

HOJA, (1) h. de pizarra, slab of slate ; h. de libro, Guan. Mex. a schistose 
rock of a black colour, and of a slatey texture (Ramirez) = ampelite, 
see esquisto ; h. de papel, finely laminated clay, slate or talc ; (2) h. de 
lata, tin-plate, tinned sheet-iron, syn. hojalata ; h. de lata negra, iron 
plate ; h. de laton, sheet-brass ; (3) carp, thin board sawn from 
mahogany (caoba) or other wood ; (4) thin scale which separates from 
a metal plate when heated and struck with a hammer, see escoria 
(2) ; (5) de dos hojas, de tres hojas, two-ply, three-ply (of belting) ; 
(6) batir h., to reduce gold, silver and other metals to thin plates. 

HOJALATA, tin-plate, see u. hoja (2). 

HOLGAR, to strike work, see huelga. 

HOMBRO (shoulder), transporte a h., see paseo de tierras, and u. trans- 

HONDA (sling naut. parbuckle), Mex. rope-chair for descending shaft 
(D wight), see u. bajada (1). 

HONDO, prov. bottom, see fondo (3). 

HONDONADA, (1) any deep ground, prov. ravine, see barranca (2) ; 
(2) geol. trough, comp. silla (4). 

HONDURA, (1) depth, profundity, see profundidad (1) ; (2) Ant. Col. 
alluv. m. a sudden and extraordinary depression in the surface of the 
bed-rock, which may make the working of the claim very difficult for 
want of drainage facilities (tonga), or on account of the quantity of 
stuff to be extracted (Uribe). 


HONTANAR, place in which springs (manantiales), rivers, etc., have their 

HORA, hour ; horas de pueble, see u. tequio (2). 

HORCA, (1) c.m. hoist, gallows-frame, pit-head, pulley-frame or head- 
gear, m.m. poppet-heads, syn. apeo (2), armadura (1), armazon (1), 
castillete, Mex. castillo (2), cuerpo (9) de polea, equiv. FT. chevalet des 
molettes, charpente de molettes, chevalement de puits, belle- fleur, Ger. 
Fordergeriist, Seilscheibengeriist, see barra (9), tornapunta (3) and (4) ; 
(2) see horcon, horqueta. 

HORMA, dry wall, syn. pared h., see u. muro (1). 

HORMIG6N, concrete, syn. calcina, concrete, mazacote (2) ; h. hidraulico, 
cement concrete (as used in tubbing, etc.). 

HORMIGUILLAR, Peru, in the patio process, the second repaso, see 
hormiguillo (2). 

HORMIGUILLO, (1) line of people who pass materials, etc., from hand 
to hand, comp. trecheo ; (2) Peru, in the patio process, the second 
treading or repaso, for working in the magistral, before mercury is 
added (incorporo). 



HORNACERO, person who assists with, or is in charge of, the hornaza. 

HORNACHO, (1) shaft of a mine, see pozo (2) ; (2) digging for ochre, 
sand, etc., or excavation made in the sides of hills in looking for ores, 
etc., see zanja (1). 

HORN AD A (batch of bread), met. one complete smelting operation 
in any one furnace. 

HORNAGUEAR, to dig for pit-coal. 

HORNAGUERA, pit-coal, hard coal ; terreno de h., coal measures ; h. 
apizarrada, slate-coal, see hulla (2). 

HORNAGUERO, RA, adj. applied to formation containing pit-coal. 

HORNAZA, small furnace [horno (2)] for melting and casting. 

HORNERO, furnace -man ; practical smelter. 

HORNIJA, small fire-wood (lena) for lighting purposes (Acad.). 

HORNILLO, HORNITO, (1) stove, small oven or small furnace [horno 
(2)] ; assay, portable furnace ; Mex. furnace of the vaso type, see 
vaso (2 a) ; (2) blast, chamber used in large blasts (voladuras) ; 
(3) Mex. a mud-volcano (Velazquez), see hervidero (2). 

HORNO, (1) a kiln ; h. de cal, lime-kiln, see calera (2) ; h. de ladrillo, 
brick-kiln, see ladrillera (1) ; (2) a furnace ; alto h. or h. alto, blast- 
furnace (Fr. haut fourneau) ; h. acoplado, double hearth- furnace ; 
h. castellano, low shaft furnace, see castellano (3) ; h. cubierto, jacket- 
furnace ; h. de afinacion, h. de refinar, finery or refinery furnace ; 
h. de calcination, calcining furnace ; h. de copela or de copelar, assay, 
muffle-furnace ; met. cupelling-furnace, see copola (1) ; h. de cuba, 
shaft-furnace, generaUy a blast-furnace ; h. de cubilote, shaft- 
furnace ; h. de fundicion, smelting furnace ; h. de gran tiro, high 
shaft-furnace (draught-furnace); h. de magistral, Mex. furnace for 
roasting copper pyrites (Lyon) ; h. de manga, blast-furnace 
(generally low) ; h. de pava, see pava ; h. de reverbero, or de tostadillo, 
reverberatory furnace ; h. de soplete (2), tuyere (twyer) furnace or blast- 
furnace ; h. de tiro de aire caliente 6 frio, hot or cold blast-furnace ; 
h. de tostar, roasting furnace, syn. Mex. calcin ; h. en actividad, 
furnace in blast, see u. calentar ; h. parado, furnace out of blast ; h. 
soplante, blast-furnace ; h. subterraneo, c.m. vent, furnace ; hornos, 
Mex. adobe furnaces ; for varieties see aglomerador, u. aludel, bar- 
quina, bocahorno, boliche (5), braguetilla, buitron, caperuza (3), 
castellano (3), chacuaco, chimbo, comalillo (1), comillo, copola (1), 
galemador (1) and (2), galeme (1), (2) and (3), guaira, hornaza, u. hornillo 
(1), huayres, mufla (2), oficina (3), pachamanca, quemadero (1), semi- 
altos, tocochimbo, vaso (2) ; for parts of furnaces, see adobio, u. 
asiento (8), atizadero, bigote (1), u. boca (7), bocaza, botador (3), camisa 
(2), capitel (2), chacuaco, comalillo (2), copa (2), copela (2), crisol (2), 
cruz (9), cuba (4), cubierta (2), dama, delantera, escoriadero, gancho (4), 
giiijola, hogar (1), labio (1), ojo (14), pecho (1), pileta (2), piquera, pivote 
(1), planchera, planta (5), rejilla (3), reposadero (1), (2) and (3), sifon (2), 
tabla (2), timpa,tobera,tragante (4) and (5), vaso (2), vientre; for furnace 




operations, etc., see apagar, bigote (2) and (3), calentadura (1) and 
(2) cola (9), descarga (4), dragonera, embanques, entromparse, espodio, 
fuslor, lampazo, lecho (3) and (4), morro (3), picador (2), picar (2). 
HORQUETA, HORQUILLA (dim. of horca), (1) mech. fork ; h. de cabeza, 
st. eng. fork-head ; see u. trepano ; fork of a horse- whim [malacate (1)] 
to which the horses are attached, comp. bolea ; u. haul, fork attached 
to wagon, and used in endless-chain system it is sometimes like a row- 
lock (postiza), see Fig. 46, after Molina, comp. tenaza (2) ; pump, forked 
end of a spear or main-rod, syn. bastidor (4) ; (2) Mex. coke-fork (Dwight), 

FIG. 46. 
Horqueta (after Molina). 

FIG. 47. 
Horquilla (3) (after Luis Carrion). 

see trincha (3) ; (3) Zac. Mex. timb. a method of joining vertical and 
horizontal props, see Fig. 47 ; horquillado = conjunction of several of 
these, see ajuste (3) ; (4) Ant. Col. sawn timber united at an angle. 

HORQUILLADO, see u. horquilla (3). 

HORRURA, scoria, dross, see escoria (2). 

HOYA, (1) hollow or excavation, more or less deep, made in the earth, 
comp. hoyo (1), socabon (4) ; (2) geol. basin, e.g., h. de carbon, coal- 
basin, see cuenca (3) ; (3) Peru, bed of a river, see alveo (1) ; (4) de- 
pression in the centre of a whirlpool [remolino (1)] or eddy ; 
(5) top. extensive plain (llano) surrounded by mountains (Acad.). 

HOYADA, (1) depression, basin, see cuenca (3) ; (2) veta de h., see u. 
trabajo (2). 

HOYO, (1) cave or hollow in the earth, either natural or artificial ; pit, 
syn. prov. chorea, foso, see guaico, zanja (2), comp. cueva (2), hoya (1) ; 
(2) Ant. Col. deposit exploited with a few peons in aventaderos (1) and 
minas de tonga (Uribe) ; (3) Ant. Col. alluv. m. excavation made with 
many peons at once in minas de saca (5) (Uribe), see abrevadero, 
asentar (2), jamuracion. 

HOZ, narrowness (angostura) of a deep valley, or of a river running 
between two mountains (Acad.), see hocino (2). 

HUACA, Peru, burial-place, ruins, etc., of the ancient Indians, see guaca. 

HUACAL, Mex. bowl ; drinking- dipper made of the gourd (Dwight), see 



HUACHACAS, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, portions of ore which are distributed 

among the Indians at the time of the boyas (bonanzas), instead of 

their wages being paid in money (Tschudi) ; portions of ore paid to 

tributors, see u. partido (3). 

HUAILLARIPA, Peru, thief of gold-ore (Dwight), see ladron (2). 
HUAILLARIPEAR, Peru, (1) to steal gold ore ; (2) to extract gold from 

tailings by means of a sheepskin in a gentle current of water (Dwight). 
HUAIRA, Peru, (1) vent, brattice, generally of wood, syn. huairacanon, 

see tabique (3) ; (2) vent, air-box, see caja (20). (NOTE. From 

Quechua word meaning wind. See huayres. 
HUAIRUNA, Peru, small earthen retort (retorta), used for retorting 

amalgam, extracting from 5 Ib. to 15 Ib. silver (Dwight). 
HUAQUERO, Peru, a pitcher of fine earthenware found in the huacas. 
HUAYCO, see llapana. 
HUAYRES, Bol. clay furnaces formerly used by the Indians of Potosi, 

syn. guayras, see guaira, horno (2), huaira. 
HUECO, (1) mech. notch or nick of a wheel into which the leaves of a 

pinion or the teeth of a wheel hitch, or set it in motion (Velazquez) ; 

(2) a vug, see drusa ; (3) see demasia ; (4) a mortise, see muesca (1) ; 

(5) huecos y pilares, ordinary pillar and stall (Scotch, stoop and room), 

equiv. Fr. piliers tournes. 

HUEJA, Mex. bowl made from a gourd (Dwight), see guaje. 
HUEJO, see fiador (3). 
HUELGA, a strike of workmen, see holgar. 
HUELLA, (1) Mex. a trace of gold or silver in assaying (Dwight), see ves- 

tigio ; (2) flat portion of the steps of a staircase (Acad.), see escalera (1). 
HUESO (bone), (1) part of limestone remaining unburnt in the kiln ; 

(2) Sain Alto, Zac. Mex. wood-tin, see estano (2). 
HQESUDO, see u. caliche (1). 
HUEVO (egg), Ant. Col. (1) huevos, in a beaded vein, the name given to 

the bellies or swollen portions of ore, see u. tope (6) ; (2) large boulder of 

granite or other hard rock in soft country; (3) pajarito,see w.mulata. 
HUIDA, (1) timb. stemple-notch, egg-hole, hitch or step, syn. agujero 

(2), arpeo, asiento (13), Zac. Mex. carcel (2), Mex. cazadera, cepo (2), 

chocolon (2) or cholcon, Pachuca, Mex. coz (1), Peru, muesca (2), 

Guan. Mex. solera (4), equiv. Fr. nass, potet, Ger. Biihnloch, comp. 

canizo, mechinales (2) ; (2) timb. hitch made for the foot [culata (3)] 

of a stemple, comp. cabeceadero (1). 

HUIDERO, Almaden, Sp. workman who makes the hitches, see huida (1). 
HUINGARO (or guingaro), Mex. pick, pick-axe, see pico (1). 
HULE, (1) oil-cloth, oil-skin, syn. encerado (1) ; (2) caoutchouc, see 

caucho. NOTE. The rubber-tree = ule. 
HULLA (or ulla), (1) pit-coal, black bituminous coal ; (2) generic name 

for all fossil coals ; h. apizarrada, slate-coal ; h. brillante (Fr. houille 

eclatante), anthracite ; h. de llama (Fr. houille flambante), bituminous 

coal ; h. grasa (Fr. houille grasse), fat coal, bituminous coal, caking 



coal ; h. magra (Fr. houille maigre), lean coal, non-caking anthracitic 
coal ; h. para gas, gas-coal ; h. piciforme, jet (see azabache) ; h. seca 
(Fr. houille seche), dry coal, coal little bituminous or non-bituminous, 
yielding metallurgical coke ; see ampelita (1), antracita, carbon (2), 
hornaguera ; (3) h. carbonizada or destilada, coke (cok). 
HULLERA (or ullera), (1) coal-mine, colliery, syn. carbonera (3), car- 
boneria (3), carbonero (6), mina de carbon (2), mina de hulla (2) ; 

(2) geol. coal formation. 

HULLERO (or ullero), coal-miner or collier, see carbonero (2). 
HULLITA (or ullita), see antracita. 
HUMEDAD, moisture. 

HUMEDAL, humid soil, a marsh, see pantano (1). 

HUMERO, flue, funnel or shaft of a chimney, generally vertical ; 
chimney-flue, syn. Mure. Sp. alcabor, Mex. canal (8) de humo, canon 

(3) de chimenea, comp. tragante (5). 

HUMIENTO, metal h., Guadalcazar, S. L. Potosi, Mex. complex silver 

ores, as plata agria, gris and antimonial (S. Ramirez). 
HUMILDES METALES, Peru, silver ores which amalgamate readily 

without sickening or flouring the mercury (Dwight). 
HUMO (fume or smoke), damp or damps in a mine (Fr. fumee), see 

bochorno, gas de pantanos. 

HUMORES, L. Cal. Mex. traces (Lucas), see vestigio. 
HUMPE (or umpe), Peru, carbonic acid gas in mines, choke-damp, see u. 

acido (1). NOTE. Spelt also jumpe. 
HUNDIDO, DA, pp. of hundir, caved in ; in Spain a mine which is caved 

in (hundido) is said to be cegado (blind). 
HUNDIDO, cave or run, see derrumbe (1). 
HUNDIMIENTO, (1) cave or run of ground, see derrumbe (1) ; falls of 

roof, etc. ; (2) letting down the roof (e.g., in longwall working), syn. 

sistemapor h., equiv. Fr. eboulement, ecrasee, effondrement, foudroyage, 

tombee ; (3) geol. subsidence, see subsidencia, comp. revenimiento ; 

(4) labor por h., c.m. longwall, see u. labor (3) ; (5) mamposteria por h., 
see u. mamposteria (2) ; (6) geol. dip, see echado. 

HUNDIRSE, (1) to cave in or run ; (2) geol. to subside ; 

(3) geol. to dip, see buzar. 
HUNGARA (Hungarian), ajuste a la h., timb. see 

Fig. 48, and patillo. 
HURGA, transp. a long pole or rod [vara (1)] used for 

loosening obstructions in shoots (chutes), winzes, 

etc. (Molina), comp. garlancha (u. garlancheros). FIG. 48. 

HURG6N, poker, syn. atizador (1); h. de punta A juste (S) A la 

curva, met. rabble (Ponce de Leon). 
HURTO, Almaden, Sp. a gallery (galeria), driven on 

one side of the main road in order to facilitate the extraction of 

ore, and for ventilating purposes, etc. (Acad.). 
HUSO, barrel of a windlass, see arbol (2) 

193 N 


IBIRIPITANGA, Braz. Brazil-wood, see u. pao. 

ICHO, ICHU (or hichu), Peru, the grass which grows spontaneously 
on the heaths of the Andes (Velazquez) ; at Apurimac, the roots of 
ichu are placed on hurdles in inclined channels in order to catch the 
flakes of gold ; at Huancavelica, paja or ichu and guano form the 
fuel (combustible) used in the Barba furnace (Umlauff), see u. 

IGUALA, (1) agreement, contract, see contrato (1) ; (2) commutation of 
taxes ; (3) level used by masons, see u. nivel (1). 

IGUALAR, see recortar. 

IJADA (flank), (1) ijadas, Mex. assays of from 2 to 5 lb., see ensaye (1) ; 
(2) piedra de (h)ijada, jade (Kunz). NOTE. Used in 1565, see jade. 

ILUMINAR, i. aguas or alumbrar aguas, to search for and discover 
subterranean waters, and to bring them to the surface by artificial 
means (Acad.). 

IMAM, (1) loadstone, syn. obs. calamita (1), piedra i. ; (2) magnet, syn. 
i. artificial ; (3) electro-magnet ; (4) mariner's compass. 

IMANAR, IMANTAR, to magnetise. 

IMANTACI6N, magnetisation. 

IMANTAR, see imanar. 

IMBIBICI6N, desilverising rich ores, lead matte, etc., in a bath of metallic 

IMPEDIMENTOS, leg. disqualifications. 

IMPELENTE, see u. bomba (1). 

IMPORTACI6N, importation ; derechos de i., or de internacion, import 
dues ; see u. derecho. 

IMPORTE, amount, value ; i. del flete, cost of freight. 

IMPOSICI6N, tax or duty, see impuesto. 

IMPUESTO, tax, impost, duty ; i. minero, mine tax, mining tax ; in 
Mexico, concession mines, other than those of silver, gold and plati- 
num, pay $2. 50 in stamps for title-deed, and $2.50 per annum in taxes 
for each claim ; gold, silver and platinum mines pay $10 in stamps 
for title-deed, and $10 per annum in taxes for each claim or perte- 
nencia ; in Col. $5 must be paid for each alluvial claim, and $2 for 
each vein claim ; for Spain, see canon (suppl. ), for Chile, see patente ; 
i. de minas, royalty ; i. sobre la renta, income tax, see contribution, 
derecho, imposition. 

IMPULSI6N, columna de i., pump, delivery or discharge column as distin- 
guished from suction column (columna de aspiration), see u. valvula. 

INAGOTABLE, adj. inexhaustible (of a mine or mineral deposit). 

INCENDIO, fire. 

INCLINACI6N, (1) dip, see echado ; i. magnetica, the angle of magnetic 

ISPclip ; (2) top. declivity, see pendiente (1) ; (3) rail, gradient, see pen- 
diente (2) ; (4) mech. bending, flexion ; (5) i. de un techo, pitch of a 

INCLINARSE, to dip, syn. pisar (1), recostar, 



INCORPORADERO, Mex. place, yard or large shed [galera (1)] where 
the mercury is incorporated in the ore-piles [montones (1)] with the 
other ingredients of the beneficio de azogue (Gamboa), see patio (1). 

INCORPORAR, Mex. to mix magistral and mercury in the lamero (2), 
comp. cebar. 

INCORPORO, Mex. in the patio process, the mixing of the magistral and 
mercury with the salted ore in the lamero (2) (afterwards known as 
torta) ; chamois leather (gamuza) is used in order that the quicksilver 
may fall in the form of rain over the whole of the torta. The quantity 
of mercury used is six times the weight of silver in the latter applied 
in three portions : (a) at the beginning of the operation = incorporo, 
(6) during the operation in order to preserve the fluidity of the pella (2) 
= ceba, and (c) at the end (when " la torta esta rendida ") to catch 
all the particles of pella (2) and to render it perfectly fluid = bano 
(comp. llapar), comp. hormiguillo (2). 

INCRUSTACI6N, incrustation ; scale (of boilers, etc.). 

INCUARTACI6N, assay, inquartation or quartation. 

INDAGACI6N, search, examination. 

NDICACIONES, indications, syn. senates (1), see guia (2) ; for favourable 
indications in alluvial mines, see azufre (2), binches, favas, feijas, 
mulata, pajaro minero, segullo, tibe ; for those of vein mines, see 
azufre (3), caramacate, guia (2), lizote, u. moco (3), palo (5), u. pinta 
(6), porfido (2), u. roca (3), vitriofido. 

INDICADOR, indicator, gauge, see avisador ; vent, gas- indicator ; i. de 
agua, water-gauge (of a boiler) ; i. de cristal, glass water-gauge ; 
indicator for gold ore, etc., see indicaciones. 

INDICO, CA, adj. Indian, see u. pala (3). 

INDIO, see u. trabajo (2). 

INDUCCI6N, cl. induction. 

INFECUNDO, DA, adj. barren or sterile (of rocks, etc.), equiv. It. 
infecondo, da. 

INFERNO, Port, wheel-pit, see carcamo (3). 

INFLAMACI6N, mech. priming or lighting of gas-engines (Fr. allumage). 

INFLEXION, sec u. pliegue. 

INFORME, report. 

INGA, piedra i., pyrites, see u. piedra. 

INGENIERIA (Port, engenharia), engineering. 

INGENIERO (Port, engenheiro), engineer ; i. civil, civil engineer ; i. de 
minas, mining engineer ; i. mecanico, mechanical engineer. 

INGENIO (Port, engenho), (1) engine, see maquina ; (2) Zac. Mex. 
'stamping- mill, see u. molino (1) ; Cerro de Pasco, Peru, horizontal water- 
wheel and Chilian mill combined, the latter below the grindstone (O. F. 
JPfordte), comp. tabladillo (2) ; (3) smelting- works, comp. fundicion (3) ; 
'(4) S. Am. a kind of sluice or channel, the sides of which "are walled, 
"and the bottom made of stone. There is a cavity at the entrance, then 
^a plane part covered with a thick cloth, rolls of moss and a network of 



reeds. At the end of the day these are washed with great care in order 

to collect the gold adhering to them (Goupilliere), comp. canalon (3). 
INGLETE, carp, square joint, mitre, diagonal, see u. ajuste (3). 
INJERTO, TA, adj. ingrafted ; simple i., the end of a rope spliced round 

an eye (Molina). 

INJERTO (graft), splice (Moncada), see empate (2). 
INMERGENTE, adj. submerged, as the pole of a plunger pump, see u. 

bomba (1), piston (1). 

IMSPECCI6N, inspection, survey ; superintendence. 
INSPECCIONAR, to inspect, examine (a mine, etc.). 
INSPECTOR, surveyor, viewer, inspector, underviewer, overseer. 
INSTALACI6N, see u. preparation (1). 
INSTRUMENTO, (1) tool [see herramienta] or instrument ; (2) com. 

INTENDENCIA, (1) administration, management ; (2) the province over 

which the jurisdiction of the intendente extends, intendancy. In 

Mexico, under Spanish rule, the country was divided into intendencias, 

each of which was subdivided into diputaciones de mineria or distritos 

INTENDENTE, intendant or public officer in charge of the public treasury 

of a province, see intendencia. 
INTERNS, (1) interest ; (2) share ; (3) i. del oro, Ant. Col. the highest 

sale value of gold, containing $1.60 (gold) to the castellano (Uribe). 
INTERIOR, adj. interior, underground; for transporte i., see u. trans- 


INTERNACI6N, see u. importation. 
INTERRUMPIR, el. to break contact. 
INTERRUPCI6N, el. break. 

INTERSECCI6N, intersection or junction (of veins), syn. Peru, aspa (7). 
INTERVENTOR, (1) controller, inspector, superintendent ; (2) in 

actions relating to proprietorship of a mine, a receiver or trustee, 

appointed by the judge, to take charge of the mine, and even to work 

it, until the right of ownership is settled. 
INTRAD6S, (1) inner side, concave face or soffit of an arch (arco), syn. 

sofito ; (2) surface, corresponding to (1), of a hewn stone or brick, see 

Fig. 38. 
INTRUSI6N, leg. the workings of a mine which have entered those of an 

adjoining one, see invasion. 
INUNDARSE, see aguarse. 

INVASI6N, Mex. a mining trespass (Dwight), see intrusion. 
INVENTARIO, inventory. 

INVIERNO, winter ; mina de i., Ant. Col. alluv. m. a mine which can 
only be worked in the rainy season, on account of the scarcity or 
absolute want of water in the dry season, comp. u. verano. 
INYECTOR, mech. injector, see elevador (1). 
IPE-JACARANDA, see u. candeia (2). 




IR (to go, etc.), ir a pena, Ant. Col. alluv. m. to strike the pay-streak, 
to touch bottom, see pena (4). 

ISP ABE, Darien, Col. sort of bastard white cedar of large size ; Spaniards 
made segments of their wheels of ispabe (E. W. Woakes). 

ITABOS, Brit. Guiana, natural canals, connecting rivers ( J. H. Powell). 

ITAMBAMBA, Braz. a plant (? Solanum species) whose juice is thought 
to catch fine gold (Lock), comp. gogo. 

ITZTLI, ITZTLE, Mex. Aztec name for obsidian (obsidiana), of which 
knives and mirrors were made (Clavijero). " Se beneficiaba en grande, 
segun aparece por el sin niimero de tiros abiertos, en el Cerro de las 
Navajas, cerca del pueblo indio de Atolonilco el grande " (Humboldt). 

IXTAJALES, Tasco, Guerr. Mex. oxide of iron of an earthy aspect; at 
Zacualpan, Mex. sulphide of silver is often disseminated in it ; at 
Sultepec, Mex. native silver in fine threads and leaves, associated 
with gypsum, hornsilver and argentite, disseminated in oxides and 
hydroxides of iron, copper and manganese, see colorados (1), tepostel 
(1), plata (2). 

IXTETE, see obsidiana. 

IXTLE, (1) American aloe, see agave ; (2) fibre of the lechuguilla (Agave 
heterocanta), see u. saco (1) and trecho ; fibre of the Maguey manso 
or Agave ixtle, (U.S.A.) " Tampico fiber." 

J ABA, Cuba, a basket made of the leaves of yarey (Velazquez), see canasta. 

JABALC6N, JABAL6N, (1) strut, purlin (horizontal timber supporting 
the rafters used in roofing) ; (2) timb. an inclined strut supporting 

a stemple, see Fig. 49, see tin- 
queria, comp, riostra (1), torna- 
punta ( 1 ) ; sometimes two inclined 
stemples are used supported 
against a plank [hilera (2)] in the 

FIG. 49. Jabalcoii (2). 

c, cutubrera ; e, esteiuple or riostra (3) ; 

j, jabalcon. 

FIG. 50. Jabalcon (2) or Ajuste (3) 

de cuchillo. 
h, hilera or board. 

centre, the combination being known as ajuste (3) de cuchillo or de 

tejido, or rafter timbering, see Fig. 50 ; (3) Ant. Col. fissure or broken 

ground in bad roads (Uribe). 
JABALCONAR, JABALONAR, to support the roof of a house with 

brackets (Velazquez). 
JABI, a hard- wood tree of Yucatan, Mex., incorruptible hi water, syn. 

quiebrahacha (1). 



JAB6N (soap), (1) j. de montana, soapstone (saponita) or steatite, si/n. 
Guan. Mex. jaboncillo (1) ; (2) jabones, Guan. Mex. a friable talcosc 
rock, which swells and falls to pieces on exposure to air, and is very 
finely scattered with silver ores. It forms the chief mass of the 
pockets (Ger. Nester), and the chief riches of the veins of La Luz 
district ; jabones also occur in the Veta Madre, but of a white colour 
and more calcareous (Tilmann). (3) Villa Nueva, Hond. an extremely 
friable whitish grey, talcose, clayey rock, containing small fragments 
of broken, highly siliceous rock, and charged with a quantity of gold 
and silver sulphides ; it occurs in veins traversing trachyte (A. J. 
Bourdariat) ; (4) Ant. Col. slickenside, see piano (4) ; (5) piedra de 
j., Mex. talc, see talco. 

JABONCILLO, (1) Mex. steatite, see jabon (1) ; (2) fuller's-earth (Ponce 
de Leon), see greda (1) ; (3) generally clay, resulting from the altera- 
tion of " country " rich in ore, thus, that of Tetela del Oro, Puebla, 
Mex. is fine silver ore (polvorilla) mixed with clay (A. del M. de F.), 
see formation (3), u. pinta (1), terrosas ; (4) Potosi, Bol. kaolin (caolin) 
found in small deposits, coating vugs and joint planes (M. Roberts) ; 
(5) Chile, nitrate of soda containing streaks of lime, see u. caliche (1). 

JACA, pony. 

JACAL (formerly xacal), Mex. (1) hut (choza), either covered with straw, 
and with a shingle roof (tejido de tejamanil), or with pine boards 
(tabletas) in which tools and ore are kept 
until taken to the haciendas de azogueria 
or fundicion (Gamboa), see, despensa (1), 
galera (2) ; (2) hut or covering (cubierta) 
placed over the shaft, to keep the rains 
therefrom, and as a protection to the 
workmen (Gamboa), comp. barraca ; (3) 
ademe de j., timb. a method of keeping 
up waste in an inclined lode, see Fig. 51. 

JACARANDA, Braz. rose-wood tree, used in 

construction, see u. candeia (2). FIG. r>i. Ademe dc J;ic;ii 

jACENA, girder or beam on which joists (after Luis Carrion), 

rest (viga maestre) ; Alicante, Sp beam 
36 palmos (about 25 feet) in length 
and 18 inches square (Acad.) ; Baleares, Sp. spruce beam (Acad.). 

JACINTO, (1) hyacinth, a transparent red var. of zircon (circon) ; (2) 
cinnamon-stone, a var. of garnet, see granate (1) ; (3) j. de compostela, 
crystallised quartz (cuarzo) of a dark red colour (Acad.) ; (4) j. 
occidental, topaz, see topacio (1) ; (5) j. oriental, ruby, see rubi (1). 

JACUTINGA, Braz. iron ore associated with gold ; the vein matter of 
true fissure veins containing specular iron ore either with granite walls 
or with slate footwall and granite or porphyry hanging walls. The 
general appearance of the vein matter is black with white spots, comp. 
pedra de ferro ; "the jacutinga is composed of micaceous iron ore, 



brown iron ore, saccharoid quartz, oxide of manganese, iron pyrites, 
iron glance, and clay in beds striking E. and W., and dipping N. 40 
the gold occurs in shoots which pitch irregularly E. 30 " (E. M. 
Touzeau) ; " consists of sandy micaceous and hydrated iron ore, 
associated with some yellowish talc and an earthy oxide of manganese, 
the whole having an unctuous touch, and running conformably to the 
enclosing itabiritic rock, in lines between 2 and 20 cm. thick " (H. K. 
Scott). Ely. From two Tupi Indian words, jacu, bird, and tinga, 
white the game bird of Brazil, corresponding to the American quail, 
is black with white specks, and is called jacu tinga (A. M. Gibson). 

JADA, see azada. 

JADE, jade, syn. piedra nefritica, see chalchihuitl (jadeite), chalchuites, 
nefrita, quitzalitztli (nephrite), tecpatl, comp. majagua (2) (prehnite) ; 
for origin of name, see u. ijada (2). 

JADIAR, see u. azada. 

JAGUA, Col. (1) a fine powder, of heterogeneous composition, but 
generally consisting of sulphides ; Dr. T. Magin, writing of the veins 
of Vilachi, Cauca, says : "la arcilla de los respaldos que es el 
jagua de los mineros Colombianos muestra al lavado en la batea 
mucha pirita y oro libre, el cual proviene de la decomposicion de esta," 
see u. guarda (1) ; (2) alluv. m. metalliferous sands, composed for the 
most part of oxide of iron and titaniferous iron ore (V. Restrepo), 
hence = black sand, comp. congo (1) ; (3) jaguas, mech. prep, concen- 
trates, chiefly pyritic, and more or less rich in gold ; jaguas de recorte, 
residues in separating the gold from the concentrates, these are usually 
ground in an arrastre (3), producing moles (2), see podrir jaguas, comp. 
charquiera, marmajas (2). 

JAGUERO, Col. alluv. m. vessel for depositing the gold, together with some 
jagua (2), after washing and before the final separation [see cortar (1)]. 

JAGUEY, (1) Mex. and Peru, a large pool or lake, see charco (1) ; (2) 
reservoir for rain water, see estanque (1) ; (3) Cuba, the matador liana, 
a climbing plant which kills the tree which it clasps (Velazquez). 

JALBEGAR, to whitewash, see blanquear. 

JALBEGUE, whitewashing. 

JALCA, Peru, elevated plain, occupying the upper part of the mountains, 
see llano, comp. pampa. 

JALES, Mex. tailings, see cola (7) ; " very fine ore, but which must be 
reduced to lama (2), as it contains particles of ore unaltered in com- 
position, although exceedingly small " (Ramirez) ; Fresnillo, in the 
patio process, the ore-mud from the lavadero, containing O03 per cent, 
of silver (Duport), comp. jalsontles. 

JALMA, a kind of pack-saddle, see enjalma. 

JAL6N, surv. stake with iron ferrule [regaton (3)] ; ranging-pole ; j. de 
esquina, corner stake (of claims), see u. hito. 

JALSONTLES, Mex. in the patio process, the parts of ore badly ground 
and which must be re-ground to form lama (2) (Gamboa) ; in Guan. 



rich ore is reduced to coarse sand (jalsontle), the metalliferous grains 

are then separated by washing and smelting direct, the operation being 

called apartar polvillos. 
JAMBA, jamb or jamb -post of a door or window, syn. batiente, mon- 

tante (4), pie derecho [see u. pie (5)], quicial, comp. dintel. 
J AMBAJE, frame of a door or window, see marco (4). 
JAMARACI6N, JAMUREO, Ant. Col. the operation of unwatering 

hoyos (3), see u. saca (5). 
JAMURAR, Ant. Col. to extract water with a batea, see chicar, comp. 


JAMUREO, see jamuracion. 
JANTILLA, Mex. in the patio process, the double -handled ladle into 

which the melted silver falls from the craza (Lyon). 
JARCIA, cordage ; Mex. fabric or cordage of ixtle fibre (Dwight), see u. 

costal, manto (1), u. rosca (2). 

JARDIN, spot which disfigures an emerald (esmeralda), comp. yerta. 
JASPE, (1) jasper, syn. piedra jaspe, porfido (3), see diaspero, dionisia 

(1), ezteri ; j. negro, Lydian stone, touchstone (piedra de toque) j. 

veteado, riband jasper ; (2) j. opalo, see u. opalo ; (3) veined marble 

JASPEADO, DA, adj. spotted, like jasper ; marbled, mottled, variegated 

JAULA, (1) drum of a horse-whim [malacate (1)], see u. tambor (1) ; 

(2) j. de extraction, hoist, cage, syn. Pachuca, Mex. aparatos, caja (7), 
elevador (2), equiv. Fr. cage d'extraction, cage guidee, Ger. Fbrder- 
gestell, Forderkorb, see u. cerrojo, cubierta (3), piso (6), comp. bastidor 

(3) ; j. de seguridad, safety-cage, see paracaidas (1). 

JEBE, (1) rock-alum, the purest kind of alum (alumbre) ; (2) Peru, 

caoutchouc or rubber, see caucho. 
JEFATURAS DE HACIENDA, Mex. Sub-Treasury Offices, before which 

every mine-owner must present his title-deeds, etc. 
JEFE, chief or head ; j. de construction, foreman, see capataz (3) ; 

inspector of works ; chief engineer ; j. de estacion, station-master ; 

j. de maquinaria, chief (mechanical) engineer (Ponce de Leon) ; j. 

municipal, mayor (alcalde) ; j. politico, prefect (prefecto). 
JENIQUIiN, sisal hemp, see henequen. 
JERGA, coarse cloth ; a blouse of woollen cloth used by miners, see 

jfCARA, (1) gourd-tree (Crescentia cujete), Aztec, xicalli (Velazquez) ; 

(2) (chocolate cup) Mex. a small vessel or bowl [usually made from 

(1)] in which the assay sample is washed and then amalgamated (T. 

Egleston). In Michoacan the Indians paint them black inside and 

red outside in use in the Guanajuato haciendas in 1895, see guaje, 

pilche, u. pileta (2), u. tentadura (1), comp. batea. 
JITO, the channel by which melted metal runs, and the hole where it 

enters the mould (Velazquez) ; gate in casting (Dwight). 



JORFE, (1) retaining-wall, generally of dry stones, see muro (1) ; 

(2) a high solitary rock ; a tor (Velazquez), see penasco. 
JORNADA (day's journey), (1) a day's work ; (2) a day's wages, or pay 

(paga), syn. jornal (2), Mex. raya (2) ; (3) shift, see relevo. 
JORNAL, (1) day-work, day-labour ; a jornal, by the day ; trabajo 
a j., day-labour, comp. tarea (1) ; (2) day's wages, see Jornada (2) ; 

(3) shift, see relevo ; (4) daily product of a mine by each peon ; 
(5) com. journal or diary. 

JORNALAR, JORNALEAR, Ant. Col. to arrange with some one to work 
by the day, syn. ajornalar. 

JORNALERO, RA, adj. mina or veta jornalera, Ant. Col. a mine or vein 
which covers expenses and produces only insignificant profits (Uribe). 

JORNALERO, day-labourer, syn. Mex. rayado, see u. trabajador. 

JORONGO, (1) a small basket, see canasta ; (2) a blanket, see mania (I). 

JUAGADA, Ant. Col. alluv. m. a deposit in which there is neither sand 
nor gold, only stones (Uribe). 

JUAN BLANCO, Col. (1) platinum (platino) found in gold placers ; 
(2) mica, see mica (1). 

JUEGO, (1) set or gear ; j. de barrenas (2), blast, set of drills ; j. detubos, 
pump, a column or set, syn. flete (3), playa (2) ; j. de bomba, pump- 
gear, see habilitacion (2) ; (2) mech. motion or play ; j. de la via, 
transp. the play of a pair of wheels between rails, see leva (2) ; (3) j. 
de nuez, mech. ball and socket joint (Velazquez) ; (4) manner of acting 
of an engine (Velazquez). 

JUEZ, judge ; j. de primera, segunda, 6 tercera instancia, judge of the 
first, second or third court of claims, respectively. 

JUGO, see ayuda (1). 

JUICIO, law-suit. 

JUMOS, Ant. Col. scarcely visible particles of gold found in a batea after 
panning. " No haber ni jumos de oro-locucion de los cateadores cuando 
el cateo no da pinta alguna " (Uribe). 

JUMPE, see humpe. 

JUNETA DE TRILHOS, Port, fish-plate, see also fixa. 

JUNTA, (1) each lateral surface of a square-hewed stone (Velazquez) ; 
(2) a nearly vertical joint in stratified rocks (Fr. pied-droit) ; piano de 
j., joint-plane, see juntura (2), u. piano (2) ; (3) j. de terrenes, a fault 
or break in coal-beds, etc. (Fr. crain), see falla (1) ; (4) carp, and mech. 
joint ; coupling ; j. de compensation, j. de dilatation, pump, com- 
pensation-joint, expansion- joint ; (5) j. libre, bor. free joint, free- 
falling apparatus, syn. aparato de caida libre, corredera (4), see u. 
aparato, lengua (1); (6) a Board, Congress, Assembly or Council; 
J. de Comercio, Board of Trade ; juntas, Mex. conciliatory meetings 
called by the Mining Agents to settle disputes about mining property, 

JUNTAR, to join, mech. to couple, see empalmar (2), enganchar ; to 
join (of veins), see empalmar (4). 



JUNTERA, carpenter's plane, see cepillo (1). 

JUNTURA, (1) scarf, joint, see junta (4) ; (2) j. de estratificacion, geol. 

divisional plane or joint, syn. aguja (2), Mex. cuarton (3), division (1), 

see fractura (1), junta (2). 

JUQUERO, Peru, thief [ladron (2)] who takes ore from the vein (Dwight). 
JUSTIPRECIAR, to estimate, value, appraise. 
JUSTIPRECIO, appraisement, just valuation. 
JUZGADO, court of justice. 

L.A.B., " libre a bordo," free on board (f.o.b.). 

LABERINTO, (1) mech. prep, labyrinth, syn. rigola (2) confused irregular 
workings, see grecas. 

LABIO, (1) lip of a furnace [horno (2)] ; (2) labios, sides of a fissure 
(grieta), syn. caras (8). 

LABOR, (1) work, see trabajo (1) ; (2) mine working or work, syn. ex- 
cavation, 1. de mina, 1. minera, 1. subterranea, see minado, obra (2), 
trabajo (2) ; working-place, syn. trabajo de arranque ; labores de 
beneficio, winning workings ; labores de cantera, stone- quarries ; 
labores de hacienda, all workings in a mine not let to tributers ; labores 
de reconocimiento, exploratory workings ; labores preparativas or 
auxiliares, development, fore winning workings ; (3) a particular 
method of working in mines, see u. faja (3), rnetodo, laboreo ; 1. a 
cielo abierto, quarrying, see cielo (3) ; 1. atravesada or a traves, trans- 
verse working, cross- working or cross-cut method (Ger. Querbau) ; 
1. de portadas unidas, Altenburg method of spilling as distinguished 
from theSilesian ; 1. detesteros (3) orderealce (2), overhand stoping ; 
1. en anchurones or en camaras, working large masses in stages, equiv . 
Fr. methode des cloisons et estaus, Ger. Stockswerksbau, see u. piso 
(1) ; 1. en avance or de franqueo, spilling, equiv. Fr. poussage, see 
u. apeo (1), carrera (8), u. portada ; 1. en bancos or rebajo (2), under- 
hand stoping ; 1. en grandes tajos, longwall method, see u. tajo (4) ; 
1. en pilares, pillar-working ; 1. mixta, mixed method, e.g., that em- 
ployed for working the Almaden quicksilver deposits (Molina) ; 1. 
por hundimiento, English longwall (Ger. Bruchbau) ; 1. somera, 
costeaning (Venator) ; (4) labores altas, Col. placers above the level 
of the waters ; labores bajas, Col. placers situated at the highest or 
lowest level of the waters ; (5) minas de labor, see u. bajo, ja ; (6) one 
thousand tiles or bricks. 
LABORAAO, see laboreo. 
LABORAR, Port, to work mines, see trabajar. 

LABORATORIO, laboratory, see taller (2) ; Peru, conical shaft of aludel 
furnace ; shaft of blast-furnace, see cuba (4) ; part of reverberatory 
furnace from bridge [puente (2)] to flue [tragante (4)]. 
LABOREO, mining or the art of mining (1. de minas), syn. beneficio (1), 
explotacion, mineria (1), equiv. Port., Fr. exploitation des 
mines, Ger. Bergbaukunde ; " arte de explotar las minas, haciendo las 



labores 6 excavaciones necesarias, fortificandolas, disponiendo el 

transito por ellas, y extrayendo las menas aprovechables " (Acad.) ; 

" el conjunto de preceptos que deben seguirse para aprovechar la 

riqueza mineral terrestre, con la debida seguridad personal y con la 

mayor economia y prontitud posible " (Molina) ; particular method 

of working in mines, see labor (2) ; 1. a cielo abierto, quarrying, see 

cielo (3) ; 1. de crestones, surface working ; 1. por cuadros, panel 

LABRA, (1) working or chiselling stone ; (2) cut or slice in working away 

pillars, see faja (3). 
LABRADO, DA, pp. of labrar ; labrado de cielo, see comido ; plata 

labrada, wrought silver. 
LABRADOR, piedra de 1., greenstone. 
LABRAR, (1) to work a mine, see trabajar ; (2) to work metals ; 

(3) to dress stones ; (4) to hew wood ; (5) to construct buildings. 
LADERA, (1) declivity, see pendiente (1) ; (2) Mex. side-track (Dwight) ; 

(3) laderas, geol. sides or wings of a saddle [silla (4)] when highly 

inclined (Fr. dressants), comp. planicie (2). 
LADO (side), Mex. side or lateral superficial limit of a vertical lode, comp. 


LADRILLADOR, bricklayer, syn. enladrillador. 
LADRILLAL, LADRILLAR, (1) brick-field ; (2) see ladrillera (1). 
LADRILLERA, (1) brick-kiln, syn. ladrillal (2), ladrillar (2), see u. horno 

(1), comp. adoberia ; (2) Mex. in the patio process, the iron or stone 

mould in which the silver is poured to form the bar [barra (3)] (G. F. 

Lyon), see rielera. 
LADRILLERO, brick-maker. 
LADRILLO, brick ; 1. de arcilla, clay brick ; 1. de fuego, fire-brick ; 

comp. adobe. 
LADR6N, (1) lock or sluice-gate, syn. compuerta (2) ; (2) gold-thief, etc., 

see huaillaripa, juquero, longanas. 
LADRONERA, sluice-gate, see compuerta (2). 
LAGA, a large black bean of the Orient which serves for weighing gold 


LAGARTO, Guan. Mex. timb. prop, single-prop, see mono (2). 
LAGE, (1) Port, flag, freestone (piedra franca or de talla) ; lages, Braz. 

loose masses of rock of a peculiar flaggy appearance, considered as an 

indication of manganese ores near the surface ; consist of thin and 

usually regular alternations of hard black bands of iron oxide with soft 

yellow ochreous bands (H. K. Scott), see u. pedra. 
LAGO, lake, " una gran masa permanente de agua depositada en hon- 

donadas del terreno, con comunicaoion al mar 6 sin ella " (Acad.), see 

laguna, lagune ; 1. salado, salt lake or marsh ; 1. interior, see estanque 

LAGUENA, alteration and degradation of argillaceous schists by air and 

water (Molina). 



LAGUNA, (1) pond, lake (lago), lagoon, marsh, " deposito natural de 
agua, generalmente dulce y por lo comtin de menores dimensiones que 
el lago " (Acad.) ; in Span. Am. practically synonymous with lago, see 
cienaga (1) and (2), marisma ; 1. de la brea, see chapopote ; (2) an 
uneven country, full of marshes (Velazquez). 

LAGUNE, Hex. a small lake (lago). 

LAJA, thin flat stone [lancha (1)], bed, layer or sheet, see u. cobija (2), 
comp. losa (1) ; estructura en lajas, geol. flaggy structure ; 1. chavera, 
Cartagena, Sp. highly decomposed schist (pizarra) used for filling 

LAMA, (1) dust or ore in mines (Velazquez) ; Pachuca, Hid. Mex. ore 
occurring in the veins in a fine state of powder, generally much more 
common on the walls, then forming guardas (1) ; (2) mech. prep, 
slimes (Ger. Schlamm) ; Mex. in the patio process, slimes or ore ground 
into fine paste by the tahonas or arrastres (3), see u. barro (1), u. 
jalsontle, lamero (1) and (2), lodo, tepestate, comp. u. relave ; (3) moist 
clay used by miners for sticking candles to their hats, etc. ; (4) Anda- 
lucia, Sp. fine sand [arenilla (1)] used for mortar ; (5) Tipuani, Bol. 
rough pebble-beds forming a false bed-rock to gold-bearing alluvial 
deposits, and known locally as " lama-benches " (M. Frochot), see 
roca (7), comp. binches. 

LAMERO, Mex. (1) slime-pit, walled receiver or circular walled space 
for the ground slimes or lamas (2), syn. cajetes ; in the patio process, 
after grinding, the ore is deposited in the lameros (1), where, by evapora- 
tion, the lamas acquire the proper consistency ; from the lameros 
the lama is carried to the patio, where it is made into a heap [see lamero 
(2)] ; (2) lama (2) merely thickened by admixture with sal tierra ; 
when magistral and mercury have been added to the mud-heap it is 
called a torta, comp. u. monton (1). 

LAMINA, (1) thin plate or sheet of metal, see chapa (1), placa, plancha 
(2) and (3) ; 1. de hierro, sheet-iron ; laminas, gold-mill, copper plates ; 
(2) gold-mill, screen, see compuerta (4) ; (3) scale of gold ; (4) 1. de 
pizarra, slab or plate of slate, a slate, comp. laja. 

LAMINADOR, met. rolling-mill. 

LAMINAR, to roll or beat metal into sheets. 

LAMOSO (adj. slimy), (1) lamosos, Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. 
copper ores in which clay and jaboncillo (1) or steatite abound as the 
matrix (Ramirez), comp. duros, pastosos, yesosos ; (2) Mex. in the patio 
process, ore -mud which is very sticky and clayey, comp. u. seco, ca. 

LAMPA, Peru, shovel, see pala. 

LAMP ADA, Peru, shovelful. 

LAMP ADA, Port, lamp, see lampara. 

LAMPARA, lamp, equiv. Port, candeia, candea, lampada, Fr. lampe, 
Ger. Lampe ; 1. de mina, 1. del minero, miner's lamp, equiv. Fr. lampe 
a feu nu, Ger. Grubenlampe, syn. candelero (5), mariposa (1), see candil, 
candileja (1), machina (4) ; for parts of, see agarradero, atizador (5), 



boquilla (1), cebolla, u. mechero, u. tubo (1) ; 1. de seguridad, safety- 
lamp, equiv. Fr. lampe de surete, Ger. Sicherkeitslampe ; for parts of, 
see armadura (6), candileja (2), coraza, fanal, u. garabato, gorra (2) ; 
comp. linterna (1). 

LAMPAREROS, c.m. lamp-men (in charge of the safety-lamps). 

LAMPAZO, Mex. an instrument formed of green branches, which, placed 
at the end of a long pole, serves to modify the excess of flames in a 
smelting- furnace [horno (2)] (Garnboa). 

LAMPISTERIA (from Fr. lampisterie), c.m. lamp-station. 

LANA, (1) cramp-iron, see gato (2) ; (2) iron hook for joining ladders 
[escalas (1)] together (Venator), see gancho (1). 

LANAR, to fasten two things together with a cramp-iron [lana (1)]. 

LANCERA, Mex. timb. an inclined stull (Dwight), see estemple. 

LANCHA, (1) a thin and flat stone, see laja ; (2) a sort of hard freestone 
(piedra arenosa) ; (3) barge or lighter, see lanchon. 

LANCHAR, quarry yielding flat stones [lanchas (1)]. 

LANCHE, Huelgayoc, Peru, kind of timber used in mines average 
duration in moist places is fifteen years (Santolalla), see also quinual. 

LANCHERO, bargeman, lighterman, see lanchonero. 

LANCH6N, lighter, syn. alijador, gabarra, lancha (3), lastra (1). 

LANCHONERO, lighterman, syn. lanchero. 

LANDA, level and sandy plain (llano), with scarce vegetation (Barcena). 

LAPA, Port, footwall, see bajo (3). 

LAPIZ, (1) black lead or plumbago, syn. lapiz plomo, see grafita ; 
(2) black chalk ; 1. encarnado, 1. rojo, red chalk or red ochre ; see u. 
ocre ; (3) black-lead pencil. 

LAPIZAR, plumbago mine or quarry. 

LAQUES, Peru, (1) deposits of water in a vein ; (2) druses, see drusa. 

LARGUERO, (1) cheek-piece of a ladder [escala (1)], syn. montante (2) ; 
(2) largueros, Zac. Mex. and S. Am. timb. wall-plates, (Nevada, U.S.A.) 
sill- timbers or sills, syn. Pachuca, Hid. Mex. cabezales (3) or machos 
(8), maestras (2), Guan. Mex. puentes (6), equiv. Ger. Jochern, comp. 
cruceros (3) ; (3) lintel of a door or window, see dintel ; (4) 1. dur- 
miente, mud-sill of a pulley-frame, etc., see muertos ; (5) transp. 
longitudinal sleeper, comp. durmiente (1). 

LARICE, larch-tree, see alerce (1). 

LASCA, small and thin fragment of stone, comp. astilla (3). 

LASTRA, (1) lighter, see lanchon ; (2) Serrata de Lorca, Sp. bed of native 
sulphur (azufre), upper one = 1. de arriba, middle one = 1. de abajo 
or de fuego, lowermost (not worked) = 1. de agua (Molina). 

LASTRE, (1) stone of bad quality, and in cracked and broken sheets 
(lajas), found at the surface of quarries, and suitable only for rabble- 
work (mamposteria (1)] (Acad.) ; (2) ballast, see balaste. 

LAT A, (1) tin-plate, tinned sheet-iron, syn. hoja (4) de lata ; (2) 
carp, lath, batten, equiv. Port, tala, see listen ; poner latas en las 
techumbres, to lath (Velazquez) ; latas, timb. laths, see pilote (2) ; 




(3) beam, generally round and unpolished, of less size than the 
cuarton (1) (Acad.), see viga. 

LATIGAZOS, hoist, and u. haul, brusque movements or " jerks " given 

to rope whether of oscillation or traction, syn. S. Sp. barzonazos 

LATITUD, (1) breadth, width ; (2) total extension of any kingdom, 

province or district ; (3) geogr. latitude or distance of any point 

from the equator ; (4) surv. latitude (northing or southing), comp. 

longitud (3). 
LATON, (1) brass ; 1. bianco, German silver ; 1. en hojas or en planchas, 

sheet-brass ; (2) latones, timb. large and irregular branches of oak 

used for lagging and making platforms or sollars, etc. (Gillman), see u. 

tapestle, comp. u. rama (1). 
LAUREL, (1) laurel ; (2) laurel-comino, see comino ; (3) Col. a wood 

of this name used for making boards. 

LAVA, (1) see lavadura ; (2) geol. lava, see escoria (3), tetzontle. 
LAV ADA, see lavadura. 
LAVADERO, (1) any site for washing ore or mineral [Braz. lavra (1)] ; 

place where gold is separated from the sand; dressing-floor, see 

hacienda (4) ; Mex. washing-house containing one or more tinas 

(Dr. Percy); (2) Peru, Chile, placer _ __ -^ 

(placer) ; lavaderos auriferos, golcl- 

placers ; (3) Mex. mech. prep, in the 

patio process, the box-settler, which 

replaces the tina (1) in some haciendas, 

see Egleston, I. 298, comp. chuza ; 

(4) mech. prep, any appliance for 
dressing minerals, e.g., amalgam- washer, s 
buddle, settler ; 1. cernidor, jig, see u. 



FIG. 52. Lavadero (4) 

(after J. Miunairt;. 

1, 2, 3, 4, tazas inovibles ; 

5, 5, 5, caiialejas (3). 

criba ; 1. de bascula, sleeping-table, see 

u. mesa (1) ; 1. de carbon or mecanico, 

coal-washer ; 1. de oro, gold-washer ; 

1. inclinado, strip ; for the lavaderos 

used in the Arg. see Fig. 52 (after 

J. Minnairt), see u. artesa, u. cajon (5) ; (5) the act of washing or 

dressing ores, etc. ; 1. de oro, alluvial gold-washing, see lavadura. 

LAVADO, see lavadura. 

LAVADOR, RA, adj. see u. batea. 

LAVADOR, (1) man employed in cleansing amalgam, etc. ; 1. de mine- 
rales, ore-washer ; 1. de oro, gold-washer, see barequero, or maza- 
morrero, chispiador, playero ; (2) Mex. blast, a rod, used in drilling, 
to keep a wet hole clean. The rod is made by striking the end of a 
long fibrous stick against a harder substance until it is flat and soft 

LAVADURA, washing, gold- washing, syn. lava (1), lavadero (5), lavada, 
lavado, lave. 




LAVAR, to wash ores, etc. ; Ant. Col. alluv. m. to collect and work the 
whole product of a barredura (1) (Uribe). 

LAVE, Mex. in the patio process, washing the torta, see lavadura. 

LAVERIA, dressing-floors, see hacienda (4). 

LAVRA, Braz. (1) place where the operation of washing is conducted, 
see lavadero (1) ; (2) small placer, see placer. 

LAZADA, slip-knot, see lazo (1) ; running noose. 

LAZADOR, (1) he who catches with the lasso [lazo (2)] ; (2) lazadores, 
Mex. persons employed to collect workmen for a mine on account of 
their scarcity, syn. recogedores, comp. enganchador (2). 

LAZAR, Mex. to catch with a lasso. 

LAZO, (1) bow, a slip-knot, see lazada ; (2) lasso, a light cord of fibre 
used in catching cattle, etc., syn. mangana. 

LECHADA, very fine mass of lime or gypsum, or ol lime and sand, or of 
gypsum and earth (Acad.) ; lime slaked or dissolved in water ; white- 
wash, syn. revoco, revoque (2). 

LECHE (milk), (1) Mex. blanching of coined silver ; (2) 1. de luna, 
calcareous clay (Ponce de Leon), see arcilla ; (3) 1. de tierra, magnesia ; 
(4) 1. fosil de luna, mineral agaric (Ponce de Leon), or deposit of 
carbonate of lime, formed in fissures of limestone. 

LECHECILLA, Tasco, Guerr. Mex. a kind of limestone (caliza), see u. 
techichil, comp. tenestel. 

LECHEDOR, (1) Peru, huantajaite, containing 11 per cent, of AgCl and 
89 per cent, of NaCl (Domeyko) ; " when a stone impregnated with 
the mineral is moistened, there is formed on the surface a milky 
substance, which blackens in the light ; and hence the miners of Peru 
designate it lechedor (Dr. Percy) ; (2) Atacama, Chile, a decomposed 
mass of vein-stuff and country-rock, highly impregnated with chlorides, 
iodides, and other salts of silver (G. Berg). 

LECHO (bed), (1) bed of a river, see alveo ; (2) thin bed, layer or stratum 
(estrato), see capa (1), comp. banco (3); (3) 1. de fusion, met. fusion- 
bed or area in a furnace [horno (2)] ; (4) met. smelting-mixture as 
distinguished from fuel (coke or charcoal), see carga (4) ; (5) floor 
of a wagon or cart, see cama (1) ; (6) surface of a stone or brick 
against or on which another one is placed, see Fig. 38. 

LECHOSOS, see u, opalo. 

LECHUGUILLA, see ixtle (2) u. saco (1). 

LEGAMO, slime, see lodo. 

LEGAMOSO, SA, adj. slimy, see lodoso, sa. 

LEGITIMAS, Real del Monte, Hid. Mex. veins having an east and west 
trend (vespertinas of the Germans) ; those having a north and south 
trend are called transversales (septentrionales of the Germans). 

LEG6N, a small scraping-shovel or scraper [azadon (3)] used under- 
ground, syn. rable. 

LEGUA, league ; in Sp. = 5572'7 m. or 3'462 Engl, miles ; in Mex.= 



4190 m. or 2'604 Engl. miles ; in Cuba = 4240 m. or 2'635 Engl. 
miles ; in Braz. = 3| Engl. miles ; for Col. see u. granadina ; see topo. 

LEITO, Port, bed of a river, etc., see alveo. 

LEJIA, lixiviation or leaching, syn. lejivacion, lixiviacion, see u. artesa ; 
1. madre, mother-liquor or lye. 

LEJIVACION, see lejia. 

LEJIVAR, to leach or lixiviate. 

LENA (Port, lenha), firewood, syn. combustible de madera, see burro (5), 
hornija, macate (2), madrona, u. medida, raber6n, rastra (2) ; wood, 
timber, main trunk of a tree. 

LENADOR (Port, lenhador, lenheiro), (1) woodcutter or woodman, syn. 
cortador de lena ; (2) dealer in wood or firewood, see lenero (1) ; (3) 
Mex. workman who supplies firewood to the smelting-furnace (Gamboa). 

LENAR, to cut wood ; to square timber. 

LENAZGO, pile of wood or timber. 

LENERA, (1) wood-shed or place for firewood ; (2) timber-yard, see 
lenero (2). 

LENERO, (1) timber-merchant, etc., see lefiador (2) ; (2) timber-yard, 
syn. lenera (2). 

LENGUA (tongue), (1) bor. the lower portion of a slide-joint, or the 
upper portion of a free-falling cutter (Gillman), see junta (5) ; (2) 
mech. prep, the movable part of a Blake's crusher (quebrantador), 
comp. mandibulas ; (3) mech. prep, the cam [cama (3)] of a stamp, 
or the tooth [diente (2)] of an axle [principal (2)] in native mills ; (4) 
Ant. Col. in the ceja (2), a considerable portion of gold which forms 
in the shape of a tongue (Uribe) ; (5) Mex. in a patio formed of boards, 
a tongue or long narrow strip of wood, O'OIS m. thick and 0'052 m. 
wide, introduced between two adjoining planks to form a joint ; (6) 
assay, tongue or needle of a balance, syn. fiel, lengiieta (1) ; (7) clapper 
of a bell ; (8) 1. de buey, broad hoe (Ponce de Leon), see azadon (1). 

LENGUEBUEY, Ant. Col. a rock whose form and roughness imitates 
the tongue of an ox (Uribe) (?) trachyte (traquita). 

LENGOETA, (1) needle of a balance, see lengua (6) ; (2) mech. feather, 
thin wedge, see cuna (1) ; (3) 1. movil, surv. slide-rule at one end of a 
rod for measuring a base-line ; (4) see u. ranura. 

LENO (Port, lenho), (1) block, log, trunk [tronco] of a tree ; any piece 
of firewood or timber ; see madera, punta (10) ; (2) woody fibre. 

LENOSO, SA, adj. woody, ligneous, see u. asbesto. 

LENTE, lens ; geol. lenticular mass, see lenteja. 

LENTEJA, lenticular mass [masa (1)] of ore or mineral, syn. Peru, 
cocha (2), cuenta (3), lente, seemanto (3), pez (3). 

LENTO, TA, adj. slow ; explosives lentos, blast, explosives which burn 
slowly (e.g. gunpowder), comp. u. vivo, va. 

LESI6N, leg. damage caused by the price of a property being too low, 

LETRA, letter ; 1. de cambio (3), bill of exchange. 



LEVA, (1) mech. cam, see cama (3) ; (2) 1. del bocarte, tappet of a stamp- 
mill, syn. aspa (1), sobarbo (2), equiv. Fr. mentonnet ; (3) play of a 
piston, see juego (2). 
LEVADIZO, see puente (8). 
LEVADOR, mech. cam, see cama (3). 
LEVANTADA, geol. upheaval, see levantamiento (2). 
LEVANT AMIENTO (elevation), (1) 1. de pianos (1), surveying, see agri- 
mensura ; (2) geol. upheaval, uplift, syn. levantada, solevantamiento, 
sublevacion ; (3) c.m. creep. 
LEVANTAR, (1)1. pianos, to survey, see medir (2) ; (2) 1. vapor, to get 

up steam. 

LEVANTE, (1) met. operation of taking up the tubes (alvecas), and lines 
of aludeles, in order to clean them out and collect the mercury (Acad.) ; 
(2) Mex. breast of a stope ; al levante, overhand stoping (Dwight), 
see u. testero (3). 

LEY, (1) law ; 1. de minas, 1. minera, law of mines, see codigo, derecho (1), 
ordenanzas ; (2) proportion of metal in any ore ; 1. de oro, 1. de plata, 
proportion of gold or silver in the ore, yield or grade, syn. 1. de metal, 
contenido metalico ; 1. media, average grade ; (3) legal standard of 
quality, weight or measure ; 1. de oro fino, fineness of gold or standard ; 
plata de 1., oro de 1., standard silver or gold, see obrizo, u. tenor, comp. 
toca (2). 

LEYENDA, geol. legend (Fr. legende). 

LI A, thin bass -rope ; in Mex. rope or material used to attach the 
mullers [voladoras (3)] to the espeque (1) and cruz (1) of the arrastre 
(3), see cuerda (1). 

LIBRA, (1) one pound (weight) ; one 1. castellana or Span, pound = 
1-0143 Ib. avoir.; the libra of Castile- 1-0161 Ib. avoir.; (2) 1. 
esterlina, one pound sterling. 
LIBRAMIENTO, warrant, order for funds ; warrant for payment for 

bars of gold or silver delivered at the mint ; com. draft, see libranza. 
LIBRANZA, bill of exchange, warrant, order of payment ; com. draft, 

cheque, syn. giro, see u. libramiento. 

LIBRAR, ro give a warrant or order of payment ; com. to draw. 
LIBRE, adj. free ; 1. de agua, pump. " in fork " ; see L.A.B. 
LIBRETA, memorandum -book ; surv. note-book ; 1. de gabinete, office 

note-book ; 1. de mina, mine note-book ; see libro. 

LIBRO, book, see libreta ; 1. borrador, see borrador ; 1. copiador, copying- 
book ; 1. de agrimensor, surv. field-book ; 1. de caja, cash-book ; 1. de 
cuentas, account-book ; 1. de facturas, invoice-book ; 1. de inven- 
tarios, inventory-book ; 1. de memoria, memorandum-book ; 1. diario, 
diary ; 1. maestro, 1. mayor, ledger, syn. Port. Hvro mestre, Fr. grand 
livre, Ger. Hauptbuch ; see u. matricula (1). 
LIENZA, (1) narrow strip of any cloth ; (2) surv. measuring-tape, see 

cinta (1). 
LIENZO, linen ; canvas ; 1. alquitranado, vent, brattice -cloth. 

209 o 


LIGA, (1) alloy for gold and silver ; 1. de metales, alloy, see aleacion 
tumbaga ; (2) Mex. smelting-ore ; the sulphides of lead are called 
plomoso, relumbroso, soroche, reluciente, tescatete, and azul plo- 
milloso, iron pyrites is known as bronce and bronce chino, copper 
pyrites* as bronce dorado, and both are named polvillos (Dahlgren) ; 
(3) Potosi, Bol. galena (M. Roberts), see carne de vaca, chini-liga, 
galena ; (4) Mex. any ore that can be used as a flux, thus iron ores 
in some localities are known as ligas, see fundente. 

LIGADURA, mech. an iron wire which binds the strands of a wire cable 

LIGAR, to alloy gold or silver for coinage. 

LIGNITO (Port, lenhite), lignite or brown coal, syn. carbon pardo, madera 
fosil ; 1. lenoso, lignite proper. 

LIMA, file ; see bastarda, cola (2), escofina, limaton, raspa (1) ; 1. de 
media cana, or media cafia (2), h^ilf-round file. 

LIMADURA, (1) act of filing ; (2) limaduras, filings, see granalla (2) ; 
(3) Mex. in the patio process, refined silver, syn. secas (2) ; (4) Mex. 
in the patio process, silver amalgam in a finely divided condition, see 
ceja (1), u. tentadura (1), comp. polveo. NOTE. Floured quicksilver 
is known as Us, sometimes, however, quicksilver appearing in globules 
at the edge of the amalgam in the tentadura is called limadura. 

LIMAR, (1) to file ; to cut with a file ; (2) see u. pasilla. 

LIMATON, coarse round file (lima). 

LIMITE, boundary, see lindero. 

LIMO, slime, mud, see lodo. 

LIMOSO, SA, adj. slimy, see lodoso, sa. 

LIMPIA (cleansing), (1) clearing out rubbish or deads from workings, 
syn. destierre de labores (2), see limpiar (3) ; (2) deads or low-grade ore, 
see desecho (3) ; caja (18) de 1., space filled with deads or> low-grade 
ore, or walled with deads ; salon de 1., see jacal (3). 

LIMPIADOR (cleanser), (1) mech. prep, cobber, ore-sorter, see apartador ; 
(2) bor. tool for cleaning borehole, e.g., auger (cuchara (2)], ball-valve 
sludger [campana (7)]. 

LIMPIAR, (1) mech. prep, to cob [see apartar (1)], clean or cleanse ; (2) 
gold-mill, to clean up, see barredura (2) ; (3) to clear out the rubbish 
of a mine, syn. desaterrai, descombrar, deszafrar, comp. desmontar (2). 

LIMPIEZA, see registro (2). 

LIMPIO, I A, adj. clean, free ; tierra limpia, even, flat, country. 

LIMPIO, mech. prep, cobbed ore, picked ore, see pepena (2). 

LINCHES, Mex. saddle-bags made of the fibre of the maguey (Velazquez) 
or agave. 

LINDAR, to bound. 

LINDE, see lindero. 

LINDERO, boundary ; boundary or limit of a claim or mine, syn. co- 
marca (2), limite, linde, linea (3), termino (2), comp. guardaraya (1), 
mojon (1). 



LfNEA, (1) line ; 1. de base, surv. base-line, comp. piano (6) ; 1. dedemar- 

cacion, boundary-line ; 1. de peones (5), timb. line or series of props ; 

1. neutra, surv. neutral line, as determined by the declination needle 

(Molina) ; equator, equinoctial line ; (2) 1. ferrea, see via ferrea ; 

(3) line or twelfth part of an inch, ordinary Span, line = 1*63 mm. 

line of Burgos, Sp. = 1'935 mm., see vara (1). 
LINGOTE, ingot, a mass of gold or silver ; 1. de plorno, sow or pig of 

lead, see barra (3), bloque, galapago (3), marqueta, metapiles (2), 

palacra (2), plancha (1). 
LINGOTERA, ingot-mould, see rielera. 
LINGUETE, mech. pawl or ratchet, see u. fiador (2). 
LINTERNA, (1) lantern ; 1. de sajonia, Saxon miner's lamp, see farol, 

lampara ; (2) mech. lantern-wheel, see linternilla (3). 
LINTERNILLA, (1) small lantern; (2) drum of a malacate (1) or 

horse- whim, see u. tambor (1) ; (3) lantern-Avheel or large vertical 

wheel of a stamping apparatus, syn. linterna (2). 
LIPIS, blue vitriol, copper sulphate, syn. piedra 1. 
LIPTA, Bol. ash-coloured or grey silver ores accompanying tin lodes 

(Dwight), see u. estano (2), plata (2). 

LIRIO, Choc 6, Col. timber, useful for making barrows, etc. 
LIS, Mex. in making trials (tentaduras) in the patio process, the name 

given to the " flouring " of the quicksilver, or its subdivision into 

minute globules, syn. desecho (1), see u. pasilla. 
LISO, SA, adj. see u. comino. 
LISO, (1) the flat and extensive face of a rock, comp. cara (5) ; (2) 

slickenside, see piano (4) ; (3) Ant. Col. fault, see falla (1) ; (4) Ant. 

Col. slide, see salto (1). 

LISTA, Mex. in the patio process, a tail of impure mercury (T. Egleston). 
LIST ADO, DA, adj. striped ; cuarzos listados, ribboned quartz, or 

quartz in thin layers (Fr. rubane or rubanne). 
LIST6N, lath, batten, see barrote (1), lata (2), tablilla ; listones, Ant. 

Col. pieces of timber smaller than a cuadro (4), being about 4 to 5 inches 

thick ; Marmato, Cauca, Col. timbers 12 feet long and 2 inches by 
3 inches section. 
LISTONAR, to batten, to lath. 
LITARGE, LITARGIRIO, litharge, syn. Peru, almartaga, Mex. greta (2), 

nata (1), see temescuitate (2) ; 1. native, native litharge or lead ochre. 
LIXIVIACION, leaching, see lejia. 
LIXIVIADORA, leaching-vat. 
LIZOTE, Sinai. Mex. quartz (cuarzo) with blue specks, considered a 

good sign of silver, and very often rich. 

LLAMA, (1) flame ; for ulla llama, see u. ulla ; (2) S. Am. wool-bearing 
quadruped of the camel family, comparatively small in size, and used 
as a beast of burden in Peru, etc., see taquia. 

LLAMADA, (1) com. notice, entry ; (2) hacer la 11., to call or signal, see 



LLAMAR, to call, signal, see llamada (2) ; Mex. to signal for the cage or 
bucket (D wight). 

LLAMPEROS, Chuquicamato, Chile, a multitude of small fissures filled 
with cppper ores (atacamite), traversing the rocks (granites, pegma- 
tites and syenites) in every direction (C. G. Avalos), comp. llampo (1). 

LLAMPO, (1) Chile, fine ore or coal-dust ; llampos, Chuquicamato, Chile, 
ground copper ore (low grade), comp. llamperos ; (2) llampos, Peru, 
see u. pacos (1). 

LLANA, trowel (for spreading mortar), see trulla. 

LLANADA, a plain, see llano. 

LLANO, a plain or land more or less horizontal and with few elevations 
(Barcena), syn. llanada, llanura, planada, planicie (1), see altiplanicie, 
bolson, campana (1), canal (15), estepa, hoya (5), jalca, landa, medano 
(3), meseta (2), pampa (1), sabana (1), comp. paramo. 

LLANTA (or yanta), (1) tire (oif tyre) of a wheel, wheel-tire, covering 
the rim [anillo (6)], syn. bandaJS), calce (1), cincho (2), see calzadora 
(1), camon (3), pina (2), comp. loriga ; (2) piece of iron very wide in 
proportion to its thickness (Acad.). 

LLANURA, top. a plain, see llano. 

LLAPA, Peru, (1) an additional quantity of mercury added, see llapar ; 
a gratuity given to the buyer (Velazquez). 

LLAPANA, Peru, avalanche of rocks, stones, gravel, clay, etc., produced 
by occasional heavy rains in quebradas which are usually dry, syn. 

LLAPAR, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, in the patio process, to add more quick- 
silver to the pulp, i.e., after the incorporo, comp. bano (1). 

LLAUCA, Peru, taking down the vein, when softer than the wall, and 
subsequently extracting the latter for this purpose rods from 7 to 10 
feet long are used, see cachorros, ensanchar (1), comp. circa (2). 

LLAUCAR, Peru, to perform the operation known as llauca. 

LLAVE (Port, chave), (1) key ; 11. maestra, master-key ; 11. depaso, vent, 
self-acting key for closing doors ; (2) stop-cock, tap of barrels, water- 
pipes, etc. ; 11. de alimentacion, feed-cock ; 11. de escape, st. eng. 
blow-off cock ; 11. de humero, damper, see registro (3) ; (3) mech. 
wrench ; 11. inglesa or de tuerca, monkey-wrench ; 11. para tubos, 
tube-wrench ; (4) 11. de maniobra, bor. tiller, syn. manivela (2), equiv. 
Fr. manche de manoeuvre, manivelle ; (5) 11. de retention, or de reten, 
bor. nipping-fork or " tiger," equiv. Fr. clef de retenue ; (6) 11. de 
suspension, or grapa, bor. lifting-dog, equiv. Fr. pied-de-bceuf ; (7) 11. 
de seguridad, hoist, safety-hook, safety-catch, self-detaching hook 
(e.g., Walker's) to prevent overwinding, equiv. Fr. crochet de surete, 
evite-molettes, Ger. Seilausloser, comp. paracaidas (1) ; (8) 11. de 
sujeccion Baumann, hoist. Baumann's conical piece of metal for 
capping ropes ; (9) key-stone of an arch, see clave ; (10) portion of 
ground too poor to work, or arch of ground left as a support in mines, 



or an artificial structure made for the same purpose, syn. traba (2), 
see testera (6), comp. pilar (3) ; 11. corrida, Linares, Sp. in underhand 
stoping, an arch of ground 2 m. thick left as support to upper and 
lower levels ; (11) Haves, pump, the two timbers which support the 
gualdra ; (12) Mex. timb. an entire shaft-frame made of round oak 
(Gamboa), see cuadro (1) ; (13) Haves, Guan. Mex. timb. in inclined 
shafts, the two end-pieces which support the cabezal (3) on the hanging 
and the caneleja (1) on the footwall (Carrion), syn. bocas (10), see 
crucero (3) ; (14) Zac. Mex. the transverse timber (Guan. puntal) in 
timbering levels, if on one or more leg-pieces = cabezal (2) (cap-piece), 
if mortised from above downwards = Have, properly speaking, if an 
inclination of more than 45 = Have lanura (Pachuca, palo lancero), 
if short = boca (4) (Carrion) ; (15) Mex. in timbering galleries of large 
section in soft ground (spilling), the first frame = Have de apuntar, 
the second = Have de re ten, and the third = Have de recibir (Carrion) ; 
(16) b. constr. strut or key, beam or angle-tie ; (17) try-square for 
truing angles. 

LLEIRA, place full of pebbles or coarse gravel, see guijarral. 

LLENA, alluvion (aluvion) ; overflow of rivers. 

LLENADORES (fillers), (1) Alicante, Sp. in the salinas, workmen who 
pile up the salt in the eras ; they are assisted by the encuartadores : 
the heaps (montones) are from 200 m. to 300 m. long, 40 m. wide, and 
from 10 m. to 12 m. high (Molina) ; (2) Minas Geraes, Braz. bucket- 
fillers, see enganchador (1). 

LLENAMIENTO, filling (of veins, etc.), see relleno (4). 

LLEVADA, carriage, transport, see transporte. 

LLEVADOR, carrier, conductor. 

LLEVAR, to carry, convey, transport, see transportar. 

LLICTERIA, Bol. franckeite [5PbS + 2SnS s + Sb,S 3 ], an ore invari- 
ably accompanied by polvorilla (silver sulphide). It is found in 
the district of Animas, a short distance south-east of Chocaya, and 
about 13,000 feet above sea-level (A. W. Stelzner), see estario (2), 
plata (2). 

LLIMPE, according to Humboldt, the name given to cinnabar (cinabrio) 
by the Mexican Indians ; llimpi, Peru, ores of red colour, generally 
cinnabar (Dwight). 

LLINQUI, Sandia, Peru, alluv. m. sterile zones, 15-20 cm. thick, com- 
posed of very argilaceous material, occurring in the large detritic 
deposits of glacial origin (L. Pflucker). 

LLOVEDIZO, ZA, adj. agua llovediza, rain-water, see u. agua (1). 

LOBO, see garganta (5). 

LOCO, CA, adj. poleas locas, loose pullies. 

LODAR, blast, to line wet holes with clay, syn. enlodar, see enlodadura ; 
for atacadera de 1., see u. atacadera. 

LODO, mud or slime, syn. fango (1), lama (2), legamo, limo, see rabos, 



LODONERO, see guayacan. 

LODOSO, SA, adj. muddy, slimy, syn. limoso, sa. 

LOMA, (1) top. any rise of ground up to 100 m. or 150 m. (Barcena) ; 

a hillock in a plain, sometimes gold-bearing, comp. cerro (1) colina, 

playa (1) ; (2) slope, syn. falda (1) comp. pendiente (1). 
LONA, canvas ; 1. para encerados, tarpaulin ; see encerado (2). 
LONGANAS, Guan. Mex. cylinders of clay containing rich ore, or long 

sausage-like pieces of ore which the miners stole by sticking them in 

the anus (Humboldt and Tilmann). 
LONGITUD, (1) length (of a gallery, etc.) ; (2) geogr. longitude ; (3) surv. 

departure (easting or westing), comp. latitud (4). 
LORIGA, nave-band or hoop, surrounding hub or nave [cubo (3)] of a 

cart-wheel, comp. llanta (1). 
LORITOS, Asturias, Sp. holes or vacant spaces left in the filling or stowing 

(Molina), see relleno (3). 
LOSA, (1) flat stone, flag-stone, flag, see cobija (2), comp. laja ; 

(2) Coquimbo, Chile, a mass of rock, about 20 feet thick, formed of 
fragments of recent shells, with a few whole ones, and with small 
pebbles firmly cemented together (C. Darwin), see conglomerado. 

LOSERO, a quarry for losa (1) ; Guan. Mex. extensive quarries (canteras) 
of sandstone (arenisca), very consistent and of beautiful colours, used 
for building purposes (Ramirez) ; a grit near the base of the bufas 
[consisting of rhyolitic tuff], containing fragments of crystals of 
felspar, and resting on a coarser grit of a red colour (St. Clair Duport) ; 
Humboldt calls it felspathic conglomerate, and says it is composed of 
grains of quartz, small fragments of slate, and crystals of felspar in a 
ferruginous clay cement ; it is divided up into very thin leaves (hojas) ; 
it is a recent argillaceous sandstone the new dam of Guanajuato, 
capacity 6,000,000 gallons, is made of this rock, called cantera. 

LOZA, (1) pottery ; (2) Peru, alluv. m. bed-rock, see roca (6). 

LUCHADERO, mech. neck or journal (portion of shaft which rests in 
the bearings), syn. cuello (2), manga (5) del eje, peon (2). 

LUMBRE, piedra de 1., (1) flint, see pedernal ; (2) firestone, see tizar. 

LUMBRERA (skylight), (1) air- or adit-shaft ; shaft for ventilating 
tunnels, etc., see u. pozo (2), comp. sopladero ; (2) a rise, see con- 
tracielo (1) ; (3) Mex. port-hole in furnace (Dwight), see horno (2), 
ojo (14). 

LUZ, (1) light ; 1. descubierta, c.m. naked light ; 1. de arco, el. arc light ; 
1. incandescente, el. incandescent light ; (2) clearance of a piston ; 

(3) port of a cylinder, etc. (Fr. lumiere) ; (4) span of a bridge, syn. ojo 
(12), tramo (4) ; span of an arch (arco), syn. apertura de boveda ; 
(5) mech. prep, mesh, see malla ; (6) section of a shaft, well, etc., "de 
una 1. de 2 por 3 m." 

LL. Words with this letter will be found arranged alphabetically 
under L. 



MACANA, (1) wooden weapon of war of the Indians, shaped like a 
scimitar in 1554 the Indians of Buritica, Col. worked gold veins by 
means of macanas and coas (V. Restrepo), the latter was a kind of hoe ; 
(2) Col. split wood, made from the trunks of palm-trees and tree-ferns, 
used for fencing and other purposes ; it is very hard and durable, the 
Indian blow-gun (cerbatana) is made of macana (Uribe). 
MACEO, Mex. stamping and crushing as distinguished from pulverising 

(pulverization), comp. granceo. 

MACERO, Mex. man in charge of stamping and crushing (maceo). 
MACETA, (1) handle of some kinds of tools, see astil (1) ; (2) two-clawed 

hammer, see martillo ; (3) hammer with head of two equal faces and 

a short handle, used by stone-cutters for striking the chisels (Acad.). 
MACHACADO, Peru, ore containing visible native silver or gold (Barba, 

1640) syn. metal m. 

MACHACADORA, mech. prep, rock-breaker or crusher, see quebrantador. 
MACHACAR, to crush or break up ore ; to buck, spall or stamp ore, syn. 

machar (to spall), machucar, majar, comp. chancar, moler, (1), pistar. 
MACHADA, see machaqueo. 

MACHADERO, Ant. Col. mech. prep, spalling place or shed. 
MACHADO, hatchet ; Port. id. ; m. com duas bocas, Minas Geraes, Braz. 

two-edged hatchet, syn. bisarma. 

MACHADOR, Ant. Col. mech. prep, spaller, see chancador, comp. majador. 
MACHADORA, mech. prep, stone-breaker, see quebrantador. 
MACHAQUEO, mech. prep, spalling, syn. Ant. Col. machada, machuca- 

dura, machucamiento. 

MACHAR, mech. prep, to spall, yee machacar. 
MACHAYS, Quito (Ecuador) and Peru, porphyritic caverns of little 

depth, lined with sulphur, and with enormous openings the name is 

Indian (Humboldt), see cueva (2). 

MACHETE, cutlass, chopping-knife, cane-knife, comp. bolo (1). 
MACHETERO, one who clears away bushes with a machete. 
MACHIHEMBRAR, to dovetail, or join with tenon or tongue and groove, 

syn. ensamblar a cola de pato or de milano. 

MACHINA, (1) shears, for those used in bor. see caballete (7); (2) pile- 
driver, see martinete ; (3) machinas, Linares-Carolina, Sp. very thick 

pine-timbers used underground (Molina), a kind of stull (estemple) ; 

(4) Peru, iron or bronze lamp (lampara), using a mixture of colza oil 

and kerosene, etc. (Santolalla). 
MACHO, HA, adj. see u. macho (4). 
MACHO, (1) any male animal, particularly a he-mule, the offspring of a 

horse and ass, or of donkey and mare ; (2) hook to catch hold in an 

eye ; (3) screw-pin ; male screw ; tap (see u. terraja) ; (4) Ant. Col. 

an unproductive mineral vein, syn. machorro, matacho (Uribe) ; 

cuarzo m., sterile quartz (cuarzo esteril) ; (5) Pachuca, Mex. timb. 

sole-piece, see solera (3) ; (6) Pachuca, Mex. timb. wall-plate, see 

largueros (2) ; (7) geol. dike (Chalon), see dique (5) ; (8) mas. buttress 




or pillar, syn. machon, see contrafuerte (1) ; (9) sledge-hammer used 

by smiths, see martillo ; (10) block on which a smith's anvil (yunque) 

is fixed, see cepo (5) ; (11) square anvil, see yunque. 
MACH6N, see macho (8). 
MACHONGA, Col. iron pyrites, hard and shining, of the colour of bronze 

or gold (Uribe), see marmaja (4). 
MACHORRO, see macho (4). 
MACHOTE, Mex. mark (usually a stake driven in a hole), used in mines 

to measure the contracts (destajos), syn. senal (2), see bianco (1) ; 

mark distinguishing various piles [montones (1)] of ore, see partido (2). 
MUCHUCADOR, Mex. crusher (Dwight), see quebrantador. 
MACHUCADURA, MAC HUC AM) EN TO, Calling or crushing, see 


MACHUCAR, see machacar. 
MACINO, a var. of sandstone (arenisca), analogous to molasa, but 

containing less quartz and more felspar (Barcena). 
MACIZO, ZA, adj. compact, solid, hard (in a miner's sense), see u. panino ; 

for piedra maciza, see u. piedra ; met. solid, well melted. 
MACIZO (massiveness, bulk), (1) the solid untouched part of a vein- 
virgin ground, see sano, 

comp. bordo (1) ; (2) 

block of ground ready 

for stoping ; block of 

ground between levels 

[pisos (1)] and shafts, 

see Fig. 53, syn. borde 

(3), bordo (3), Col. 

cortes (8), cuadro (3) ; 

(3) pillar of ground, 

syn. pilar (3) ; m. de 

proteccion, safety block 

or pillar; (4) m. 

mineralizado, ore-body, see clavo (2) ; (5) macizos, c.m. longwall 

system (Chalon), see u. tajo (4) ; (6) see u. caliche (1). 
MACOS, Cartagena, Sp. residues from ancient washings (Molina), ccmp. 

desecho (2). 
MADERA, wood, timber, lumber, see adema (1), guarnicion (1), leno (1), 

maderaje, madero, u. madrina, morillo (3), palo (2), rollizos ; m. de 

hilo, timber worked on all four faces ; m. de sierra, sawn timber ; 

m. en rollo, timber with the bark still on ; m. enteriza, the largest 

squared beam that can be taken from the trunk of a tree, for other 

kinds consult Acad. ; for proper time of cutting in tropical countries, 

see menguante ; for different kinds used in timbering or for other 

mining purposes (marked *), in construction, etc., see aceite (5), alamo,* 

alcarata, amamor, anime, arrayan,* balata,* cagiii,* candeia,* caoba, 

capuri,* caracoli (1), caramacate,* caraniomacho, * castano,* caunce 


FIG. 53. Macizos (2) (after Molina). 


(charcoal), comino,* copaiba (1), cupano, diablo (4) fuerte,* dinde,* 
diomate,* ebo (charcoal), encina*, flor (4) amarillo, fresno,* guayacan,* 
haya,* ispabe, lanche*, laurel (1), lirio, majagua (1), mangle, mapurri, 
maquimaqui, mezquite, mora, muzo, nipa, nispera, nispero, ocote,* 
oyamel*, palo (3)*, u. pao, pinabete,* roble,* rodeno (2), tejo (1), 
tepeguaje, trapichero (2), vera, zahino*, zapatero (1)*. 

MADERADA, raft or float of large timbers for conveyance down rivers, 
etc., syn. armadia, maderero (3), comp. balsa (2). 

MADERAJE, MADERAMEN, timber (madera) necessary for a building ; 
a house in frame (Velazquez) ; carp, carpentry work (Ponce de Leon). 

MADERERIA, wood-yard, timber-yard, lumber-yard. 

MADERERO, (1) timber-merchant, lumber-dealer ; (2) carpenter, see 
carpintero ; (3) man in charge of rafts or floats of timber, see made- 

MADERO, (1) long piece of timber whether squared or round ; m. 
barcal, round timber, 12 or more inches in diameter (Acad.) ; (2) b. 
constr. squared timber, beam, see viga ; m. cachizo, large sawn timber ; 
m. de a diez, de a ocho, de a seis, squared timber T ^, J, and J of a 
vara deep (see Acad. for other dimensions) ; media m., squared timber 
10 feet long, 10 dedos wide, and 8 dedos deep (Acad.). 

MADRE, (1) bed of a river, see alveo (1) ; (2) mother (of liquors) ; m. 
del sal, near El Carmen, in the Rio Negro, = sulphate of soda crystal- 
lised out, crystals of selenite being called padre del sal (C. Darwin), see 
agua (6), albina (3) ; (3) Mex. timb. bearer or bearing- stemple, syn. 
m. de tirante, see traviesa (4) ; (4) m. del oro, Ant. Col. alluv. m. 
hematite, or pebbles of ironstone (Uribe) ; (5) madres, Ant. Col. 
stones met with re-united with the gold on concluding the washing 
(Uribe) ; (6) madres, Ant. Col. smooth surface rocks, sometimes 
spherical, sometimes flat (Uribe), see roca (1) ; (7) Braz. see veia (2). 

MADRINA, prop, stanchion ; Ant. Col. (madrino), thick and resisting 
timber (madera) on which dams (tupias) are made in rivers, etc. (Uribe). 

MADRONA, Mex. certain plant used for firewood (lena). 

MAESTRA, (1) mas. lath-rule, generally used vertically, as a guide 
in constructing walls, etc. ; (2) maestras, timb. wall-plates, see 
largueros (2). 

MAESTRAER, to level the surface of a wall with a maestra (1), see 
nivelar (2). 

MAESTRO, RA, adj. main or principal, e.g., galeria (1) maestra, main 
gallery, pozo (2) maestro, main shaft. 

MAESTRO, (1) master, master- workman, boss ; m. albanil, master- 
mason ; m. carpintero, master carpenter ; m. del bocarte, mill-man ; 
m. de obras, contractor or builder ; superintendent of construction ; 
m. fundidor, practical smelter ; m. herrero, master- blacksmith ; m. 
mecanico, master-mechanic ; m. palero, head timberman, see oficial 
(2) ; (2) Peru, the principal trough in patio amalgamation, in which all 
i*' the amalgam is gathered (Dwight), comp. gamella (2). 



MAGISTRAL, met. flux, (fundente) or reagent (reactive) for preparing, 
hastening or effecting the smelting or treatment of ores (Acad.) ; Mex. 
in the patio process, ore of sulphide of copper and iron which is roasted 
and pulverised, and mixed with the lama (2) to decompose the ores of 
silver (G. F. Lyon) ; copper pyrites or roasted copper pyrites if 
pure sulphate of copper is used, the proportion is 5 to 8 Ib. per monton 
(2) of 30 quintales (S. Ramirez) ; mines of magistral occur at Asientos, 
Aguascalientes, and elsewhere ; see piquete (4). 

MAGISTRALEROS, Mex. men who burn the copper ore or magistral. 

MACRO, RA, adj. lean ; for ulla magra, see u. ulla. 

MAGUEY, Agave mexicano, see agave, u. ixtle (2) 

MAIMONA, cross-beam of a tahona ; Mex. piece fixed to the cross-beam 
(gualdra) of the arrastre (3), and which has a circular aperture for the 
introduction of a cylindrical tenon [espiga (1)] fastened to the top of 
the peon (2) or vertical post (Ramirez). 

MAIZ, maize or Indian corn, the principal food used on the Mexican, 
Central and S. American mines. 

MAJA, MAJADERO, pestle of a mortar [mortero (2)], syn. majador (2), 
mano (2), maza (6), Mex. pilon (6), pistadero, Mex. tejolote, equiv. 
Port, mao, Fr. pilon, Ger. Mdrserkeule. 

MAJADOR, (1) pounder or bruiser of ores, comp. machador ; (2) pestle, 
see maja. 

MAJAGUA, (1) Cuba and S. Am. a tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus), from the 
bark of which the strongest and most durable cordage is made (Velaz- 
quez) ; (2) prehnite, often called jade (jade). 

MAJ ANO, small heap of stones sometimes used as a landmark, seemojon ( 1 ). 

MAJ AR, to pound or beat in a mortar ; to pound ores, see machacar. 

MALA, Peru, top. gorge, see canon (5). 

MALACATE, Mex. (1) mule- or horse-whim for hoisting ore, waste rock 
[tepetate (1)], or water, syn. m. de caballerias, m. de sangre, Chile, 
piquetorno, equiv. Fr. baritel a chevaux, manege, Ger. Pferdegcipel ; 
for parts of a malacate, see arbol (3), bolea, dado (2), espeque (1), ?/. 
horqueta, piso (5), u. poste, puente (3), salerillo, linternilla, u. viga, 
comp. mequines (2) ; m. de rosario, Sierra de Gador, Sp., one working 
endless rope to which esportones are tied ; m. doble, one having bags 
(botas) of two ox-hides, holding 1250 Ib. of water ; m. sencillo, one 
having botas of one ox-hide, holding 625 Ib. of water (M. J. Gloss.) ; a 
malacate with two palancas requires twenty-four horses per day, each 
working two to two and a half hours in the twenty-four, one man in 
charge [cajonero (3)], two drivers (arreadores), and six peons or 
contras (2), the last receive the manta (1) at the mouth of the shaft, 
. carry ore to the patios, and waste to the dump. With a malacate 
working to a depth of 300 m., 190 tons can be extracted in twenty- 
four hours, eight horses being necessary ; (2) any hoisting-machine, 
whether driven by steam, water, etc. ; m. de arana, Pachuca, Hid. 
Mex. ordinary capstan (cabrestante). 



MALACATERO, whim-driver. 

MALAQUITA, (1) malachite, syn. m. verde, cobre verde ; (2) m. azul, 
azurite, syn. corbre azul. 

MALECON, (1) dike, embankment, see presa (1); (2) levee, jetty; 
ore- wharf (Chalon), see muelle (3) ; (3) coffer-dam, see represa (1) ; 
(4) rail, stage, bank (Ponce de Leon), see terraplen (1). 

MALGAMA, see amalgama. 

MALLA, mech. prep, mesh of sieves, see luz (5), ojo (13) ; vent, mesh 
of the screen of a safety -lamp. 

MALLO, mallet, see mazo (1). 

MAL-PAIS, N. Mex. ground covered with lava (J. Marcou). 

MALTA, asphalt, mineral pitch, see asfalto. 

MAMA, Col. alluv. m. mallet [mazo (1)] for driving in stakes (estacones), 
see u. trincho (2). 

MAMBLA, isolated rounded hillock, see cerro (1). 

MAMPARA (door-screen), shield (Ponce de Leon), see escudo (1). 

MAMPOSTEADO, mas. pointing (Ponce de Le6n). 

MAMPOSTEAR, to build with rubble and mortar ; to cement with 

MAMPOSTERIA, (1) rubble-work masonry or rough stone-work, syn. 
Mex. cal y canto, enripiado, see lastre (1), mampuesto (1) ; (2) masonry 
or walling in general, equiv. Port, alvenaria, cantaria, Fr. magonnerie, 
Ger. Mauerwerk ; masonry or walling in mines, equiv. Fr. muraille- 
ment, Ger. Mauerung ; m. colgada, masonry held in place by iron rods 
suspended from masonry, or from beams at the mouth of the shaft ; 
m. concertada, masonry made of stones roughly dressed ; m. por hun- 
dimiento, method of walling shafts in watery or incoherent strata, see 
u. canteria (3), cono (1), corona (2) ; m. seca, m. en seco or pedriza (3), 
walling without mortar, dry- walling, see dema (3) ; m. trabada or m. 
ordinaria, masonry set with mortar ; see albanileria, arco, mazoneria, 
mocheta, (1), muro (1), obra (3), pircas, u. revestimiento (1), tabaire. 

MAMPOSTERO, mason, stone-mason, see albanil. 

MAMPUESTA, (1) row or course of bricks or stones, see camada (2) ; 
(2) stack of stones for rough work (Ponce de Leon). 

MAMPUESTO, (1) ashlar, rubble, rubble-stone, rough stone or material 
used in walling or rough stone-work, syn. cascote, morillo (1), ripios 
(1), see cabezote, comp. carretal, sillar ; (2) stone or brick, placed over 
others (overlapping) in masonry work ; (3) Ant. Col. a trestle aqueduct 
for flumes, see cabezal (5), presa (2), talabordon (1). 

MANANTIAL, source, spring, syn. fuente, m. de agua, mina (5), mineral 
(3), nacimiento, ojo (2) de agua, venero (1), veta (4), equiv. Port, 
manancial, nascente, Fr. source d'eau, Ger. Quelle, see agua (1), aguada 
(2), amagamiento, azanca, burga, chorro (2), chortal, hervidero (1). 
hontanar, vena (4), vertedero (3), vertiente (2), comp. puquio (1) ; m. 
caliente or ojo termal, hot spring. 

MANAR, to issue (of a spring), see u. brotar. 



MANCHA, stain or spot of ore, syn. m. or peca de metal ; tierra de 
manchas, see u. greda (1) ; flaw in a crystal, etc. 

MANCHADO, DA, adj. spotted (of ore, etc.). 

MANCH6N, m. de turba (1), turbary, see turbera. 

MANDADERO, Mex. daily messenger (Lyon) ; errand-boy. 

MANDIBULA, any metallic jaw used for holding a rope or chain from 
which a weight is suspended, syn. agarradera ; mandibulas, mech. 
prep, jaws of a stone -breaker, etc., comp. lengua (2) ; polea de mandi- 
bulas, hoist, clip-pulley (e.g., Fowler's). 

MAND6N, Mex. master-miner, overseer or foreman [capataz (3)], working 
under the minero (3) and sotomineros, thus, in the Valenciana mine, 
Guan. in the time of Humboldt, the administrador had under him one 
minero, three sotomineros and nine mandones, these officials were 
carried into the mine on a sort of saddle [caballito (2)]. 

MANERO, Mex. single-handed miner's hammer (Dwight), see martillo, 
comp. maza (3). 

MANGA, (1) Mex. the capote de monte of the Spaniards, the poncho of 
S. Am. and the ruana of Col., comp. scrape ; (2) Mex. in the patio 
process, a conical bag, the upper part of strong well-sewn leather, and 
the lower or pointed end of thick closely woven canvas for draining 
amalgam, or for separating the quicksilver from the pella ; (3) a level or 
gallery (galeria) divided for ventilation ; (4) canvas sail (" wind-sail ' ), 
sometimes used for ventilating shallow shafts ; (5) axle arm or spindle 
of wagons, etc. ; m. del eje, mech. journal, see luchadero ; (6) m. de 
viento, whirlwind, syn. torbellino ; m. de agua, waterspout, see bomba 
(4) ; (7) Somorrostro, Sp. inclined shoot, see vertedera ; (8) hose, syn. 
manguera ; vent, wooden tube, see caja (20), u. tubo ; m. de cuero, 
hydr. m. leather tube ; met. tuyere-sack (Dwight) ; (9) mech. sleeve, 
see brida (4), u. taco (1) ; (10) Ant. Col. meadow, pasture-land, corral ; 
(11) horno de m., see u. homo (2). 

MANGANA, lasso (Acad.), see lazo (2). 

MANGANESA, peroxide of manganese, see u. manganese (2). 

MANGANESO, (1) manganese ; (2) manganese ore ; m. negro, black 
manganese or pyrolusite, syn. manganesa negra ; m. gris, manganite ; 
see alabandina (2), alajita, canturron. 

MANGAR, Ant. Col. alluv. m. to scrape the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] 
with a hoe from above downwards, in order to collect the gold at a 
certain point (Uribe). 

MANGLE, mangrove-tree ; m. Colorado, Panama, red mangrove (E. G. 

MANGO, (1) handle or helve of a pick, etc., see astil (1) ; (2) Mex. mech. 
prep, lifter or stem of stamps, syn. Ant. Col. cabo (1), cola (4), 
Mex. mazo (2), equiv. Fr. fleche, see pilon (4) ; (3) Indian mango- 

MANGUERA, hose, see manga (8). 



MANGUETA, (1) mech. lever, see palanca (1) ; (2) mech. sleeve, see 

brida (4). 

MANGUILLA, mech. small sleeve, see brida (4). 
MANGUITO, (1) mech. small sleeve, see brida (4) ; (2) mech. clutch, 

shaft coupling ; m. conico, cone-clutch ; m. de friccion, friction-clutch. 
MANf, Ant. Col. (1) alluv. m. large fragments of amphibolite, syenite or 

granite (Uribe) ; see u. cueva (3) ; (2) vein. m. " granite " or granitic 

" country," generally hornblendic some porphyries are so called. 
MANIFIESTO, com. freight-list, manifest. 

MANIGERO, foreman or boss of a gang (Velazquez), see capataz (3). 
MANIGUA, Cuba, thicket, jungle (Velazquez), see monte (2). 
MANIGUETA, mech. handle or crank, see cigiiena (1). 
MANIJA, handle or helve, see astil (1). 
MANILA, see abaca (2). 

MANIOBRA, work with the hand, see u. Have (4). 
MANIOBRAR, to work with the hands. 
MANIVELA (from Fr. manivelle), (1) handle of a winch, crank, see 

cigiiena (1) ; (2) bor. tiller (Fr. manivelle), see Have (4). 
MANIZAL, Ant. Col. a place where mani abounds. 
MANO, (1) hand, span ; m. de obra, hand labour ; (2) pestle, see maja ; 

(3) Mex. and S. Am. grinding -stone of an arrastre (3), syn. piedra de 
m. ; m. de hierro, muller of an amalgamating pan, see voladora (3) ; 

(4) Mex. stamp-head, see calzadora (2) ; (5) manos, hoist, sliding- 
pieces of a cage, see abrazadera (2) ; (6) cover or coat, e.g., m. de 
alquitran, brea, cal ; (7) quire of paper ; (8) a. m. limpia, carrying 
blocks of ore, etc., in the arms (Molina). 

MAN6METRO, manometer, an instrument for measuring the elastic 
forces of gases or steam ; vent, gauge for ascertaining the depression 
of air-currents ; m. de agua, water-gauge, or ordinary U-tube if 
tubes of different lengths = m. diferencial ; see graduador. 

MANTA, (1) woollen blanket ; Mex. blanket [see jorongo (2)] or horse- 
cloth used for hoisting ores by the malacates ( 1 ), now replaced by sacks 
made of pita (2), mecate, jarcia (cordage) or leather ; a manta of one 
hide costs $6.50 to .$7.00 (silver), lasts from three to four weeks, and 
will hold from 20 to 30 arrobas of ore or waste, see despachadores (1), 
ensamblado, saco (1) ; (2) a bedded vein or deposit, a blanket deposit, 
see manto (3) ; (3) veta de m. or de sombra, Col. a vein which approxi- 
mates to the horizontal, or which is more or less parallel to the surface 
of the ground, whose sinuosities it follows, see asombrarse ; practical 
miners call veins dipping from 15 to 40 vetas de manta, if nearly or 
quite horizontal = vetas de sombra ; on the other hand, according 
to Gamba, when the dip varies between 20 and 60 = veta de sombra, 
when it is less than 20 = veta de manta (or manto), corresponding 
to the " flat lodes " of the English ; (4) Nicar. a surface deposit of 
broken quartz, worked for gold (Lock), see oro. 

MANTEADO, DA, adj. flat, like a blanket, see u. veta (1). 



MANTEAR, Mex. to hoist ore in bags or mantas (1). 

MANTECA, lard, fat. 

MANTEO, Mex. (1) hoisting, see extraction (1) ; (2) dip of a deposit, see 

MANTERO, Mex. one who, with scraper [azadon (2)] and baskets, fills 
the mantas (1), ties them up and hooks them on to the rope four 
men perform the operation very quickly, comp. enganchador (1). 

MANTILLA, Texas, U.S.A. pocket or bunch of ore, see bolsa (1). 

MANTO (cloak or mantle), (1) bed, layer or circumscribed stratum, see 
capa (1) ; mantos broceadores, Atacama, Chile, sterile beds, see u. 
mesa (8) ; mantos pintadores, Atacama, Chile, beds which are them- 
selves metalliferous, or in which the silver veins are enriched, may be 
calcareous marls or sheets of diabase which enrich the veins in a 
horizontal sense (E. B. Dorsey), see chorro (3) ; mantos de azules, 
Cartagena, Sp. beds containing azules (4) ; (2) a stratified mineral 
deposit ; (3) a bedded or blanket vein, lenticular deposit or pocket, 
syn. manta (2) ; Aguascalientes, Mex. " numerosos clavos 6 boleos 
de minerales de oxido de cobre afectando la forma de platos 6 la de 
lentes, conocidos localmente con el nombre de mantos, estan in- 
crustados en la capa de caliza, en la ladera sur de los cerros de 
San Inan, San Miguel, y la Leja " (Ramirez), see higado (2), lenteja ; 
(4) a vein, generally flat (veta plana), see u. manta (3) ; (5) Atacama, 
Chile, a great crush-zone, 6 to 13 feet thick (G. Berg) ; m. bordos, the 
vein-stuff of the Elisa mine, it is a perfectly soft, greasy rock, extremely 
like talc-schist, never more than 10 feet thick ; m. negro, amygda- 
loidal augite-porphyrite, at most 7 feet thick, forming the footwall 
of the Elisa mine at a depth of 1620 feet on the dip (0. Nordenskjold) ; 
(6) Copiapo, Chile, capel, rich in silica and alumina, leached out of 
rocks (A. Endter). 

MANUBRIO, (1) handle of an instrument or tool, see astil (1) ; (2) winch 
handle or crank, see cigiiefia (1) ; manubrio-volante, wheel-handle ; 
(3) crank of a steam-engine, etc., syn, biela (2) v ciguena (3), cigiienal 
(2), seeboton (1), codo (4), ojo (7). 

MAO, see maja. 

MAP A, map, see carta (3), plan (5). 

MAPULA, a precious stone mined near Popayan in Colombia (Velazquez). 

MAPURRf, Darien, Col. timber formerly used by Spaniards, now scarce 
(E. R. Woakes), comp. ispabe. 

.QUILA (toll-corn), (1) Mex. rate paid to the proprietor of a mine, 
mill or reduction-works for mining, milling or reducing ore applied 
chiefly to reduction by amalgamation, but is similar to custom-milling, 
see u. hacienda (4) ; (2) Mex. in the patio process, fixed cost of treat- 
ment (paid by the miners) as distinguished from the variable cost 
depending on the quantity of mercury consumed (St. Clair Duport) 
it includes all cost of " beneficiating " with the exception of that of 
the lost mercury, any excess of salt used above 2 per cent., and of 



the expenses of any repasos exceeding fourteen in number (Dr. Percy) ; 

(3) Mex. in selling ores, the cost of treatment and profit for the smelters ; 

(4) half a celemin. 
MAQUILADORO, RA, adj. see u. hacienda (3). 

MAQUILAR, Mex. to work ore for its owner on shares, or for a money 
payment (Chism). 

MAQUILERO, (1) Mex. one who dresses ore on hire (M. J. Gloss.) ; 
(2) Peru, ore-buyer (Dwight), see rescatador (1). 

MAQUIMAQUI, Ant. Col. a timber used for making axle-trees, beams, 
etc., the wood and bark are extremely bitter ; it is said to be identical 
with quassia. 

MAQUINA, machine or engine, syn* ingenio (1), see u. bomba (1), comp. 
motor ; m. de barrenar, rock-drill, see perforadora ; m. de campana, 
Hartz mine-pump (Ger. harzer Wettersatz), see u, ventilador ; m. de 
desagiie, pumping-engine ; m. de extraction, hoisting-engine ; m. de 
traction, de tiro or de arrastre, traction-engine ; m. de vapor, steam- 
engine ; m. exploradora, diamond-drill machine ; m. soplante de 
piston, a blower adapted to ventilation. 

MAQUINARIA, (1) mechanics, syn. mecanica ; (2) machinery. 

MAQUINISTA, (1) engine-man, engine-tender ; (2) mechanic, see 

MAQUIPUROS, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, a class of workmen who make 
only temporary visits to the mines when they are attracted by the 
boyas (bonanzas) " most of them come from the distant provinces* 
and they return to their homes when the boya is at an end " (Tschudi). 

MARAY, Arg. a kind of hand-arrastre consisting of two stones, the 
under one is 3 feet in diameter and slightly concave, the upper one is 
a large spherical boulder of syenitic granite, about 2 feet in diameter, 
having in its upper part two iron plugs fixed oppositely, to which is 
secured, by lashings of hide, a transverse pole of canelo wood, about 
10 feet long. Two men, seated on the extremities of the lever, work 
it up and down alternately, so as to give to the stone a rolling motion, 
which is sufficient to crush and grind the material placed beneath 
(Miers), comp. arrastre (3), bimbalete. 

MARCA (mark), (1) Mex. royal arms (formerly) stamped on the silver 
as a sign that the duties (derechos) had been paid to the reigning 
monarch (Gamboa) ; by the present Code, the Government mark 
stamped on bullion, etc., see cuno, marchamo ; (2) surv. mark, see 
bianco ; (3) province (provincia), or district (distrito). 

MARCASITA, marcasite, syn. argiritas, margajita, Ant. Col. marmaja, 
marquesita, see u. pirita ; for var. see esperkisa, polvorilla (3). 

MARCHAMO, mark (marca) put on safety-lamps, etc., see u. cierre (2). 

MARCO, (1) a weight of 8 onzas - 8-1184 ozs. avoir, or 7 '3995 ozs. troy ; 
1 m. de plata contains 8 onzas or 64 ochavas or 128 adarmes or 384 
tomines or 4608 granos, see u. dineral ; 1 m. de oro contains 50 castel- 
lanos or 400 tomines or 4800 granos ; Mexican assays were formerly 



reported as marcos and onzas per carga, quintal or monton (2000 Ib. 
Mexican), but the decimal system has been compulsory for some 
years ; (2) timb. frame or set for a level or shaft, see cuadro (2) ; in 
Mex. am. de tiro de arrastre (inclined shaft frame) consists of two Haves 
(13)orbocas(10), one cabezal (3), one caneleja (1), and one pasamano 

(1) or board as a divider ; ademe de m. y estacada (2), open crib- 
timbering ; (3) marcos, Guan. Mex. continuous frames of timber in a 
shaft, see anillo (2) ; (4) carp, door-frame or window-frame, syn. cerco 

(2) de puerta or ventana, chambrana (2), jambaje, see dintel, jamba ; 
(5) determined measure, as to length, breadth and thickness, that 
large timbers (maderos) should have, according to their class (Acad.). 

MAREJADAS (swells of the sea), geol. cross-bedded structure or current- 

MARGA, (1) marl (geologically, a clay containing a large proportion of 
carbonate of lime, but any fertilising bed of clay or sand is often called 
marl), syn. barro (2), buro (2), grada (2), tierra gredosa (clay-marl), 
see arga (1), tosca (2) ; (2) Titiribi, Ant. Col. spathic iron, see 

MARGAJAS, see marmaja (2). 

MARGA JIT A, see marcasita. 

MARGEN, bank of a river, see ribera. 

MARGOSO, SA, adj. marly, loamy. 

MARGUERA, marl-pit. 

MARIPOSA (night-taper), (1) lamp (lampara) with a naked light (Chalon) ; 
(2) pump, butterfly valve, see u. valvula. 

MARISMA, lake formed by the overflow of the tide (Velazquez) ; salt 
lake or marsh (Ponce de Leon), see cienaga (1) and (2), laguna (1), 

MARITATA, see noque (2). 

MARJAL, fen. marsh, syn. Mure. Sp. armajal, see pantano (1). 

MARMAJA, (1) Mex. iron pyrites, see pirita comun u. pirita ; (2) mar- 
majas, Mex. in the patio process, the pyritic residue or schlich obtained 
in separating the argentiferous amalgam by washing [on the planilla 
(1)] consists chiefly of FeS 2 , and contains from 0'08 to 0'25 per cent, 
of silver (Dr. Percy) ; sometimes spelt margajas, comp. bites, cabe- 
zuela (1), eslique, gandinga, jagua (3), mole (2), plomillo (1), polvillos 
(3), recorte (5) ; (3) Ant. Col. marcasite, see marcasita ; (4) marmajas, 
Ant. Col. pyrite, frequently rich in gold and silver, syn. marmato, 
see machonga. 

MARMATO, see marmaja (4). 

MARMITA, met. metal pot (olla de metal) or kettle into which molten 
lead, etc., is poured, comp. reposadero (2). 

MARMOL, marble ; m. brecha, breccia marble ; m. brocatel, marble 
with spots and veins of various colours ; m. estatuario or de estatuas, 
statuary marble (e.g., from Carrara, Italy) ; m. lumaquela, shell 
marble ; m. mejicano, see tecali ; m. pintado, spotted marble ; m. 



rayado, streaked marble ; m. serpentine, serpentine marble ; see 

jaspe (3), puebla. 
MARMOR, obs. marble ; Almaden, Sp. " black porphyry " or mela- 

pliyre, see u. porfido (1). 
MAROMA, a large hempen rope made with a hempen core [alma (1)], 

see cuerda (1). 

MARQUESITA, see marcasita. 
MARQUETA (crude cake of wax), (1) Mex. bar of lead bullion, see lingote ; 

(2) Peru, retort silver (Dwight) ; (3) marquetas, Mex. bricks of amalgam, 

see bollos (1). 

MARRANA (sow), axle of the wheel of a noria (1), see eje (2). 
MARRANETE, see corona (2). 
MARRANILLO, timb. a piece of timber, corresponding to the head-piece, 

placed at the foot [culata (3)] of a stemple (estemple), see galapago 

MARRANO (hog), (1) timber connecting the aspas (3) of a water-wheel ; 

(2) each of the timbers forming the frame [cadena (3)] supporting the 
lining of a well ; (3) rafter or wood- work which supports a floor or 
cistern, see u. viga ; (4) Tolima, Col. stone -breaker, see quebrantador. 

MARRO, (1) And. and Mure. Sp. blast, ordinary sledge [maza (3)] 
for double-handed boring ; trabajo a m., double-handed boring, 
comp. u. martillo ; (2) Mex. sledge-hammer weighing 20-25 Ib. 
(Ramirez), see martillo. 

MARTILLO, hammer, equiv. Port, martello, Fr. marteau, Ger. Hammer ; 
for var. used in mining, quarrying, etc., see almadana, aplanador (2), 
camartello, maceta (2), manero, marro (2), martinete (1), maza (3), 
mazo (2), vaiven (2) ; for stone-cutters' hammers, see escoda, maceta 

(3) ; for smiths' hammers, see aplanador (1), copador, destajador, 
macho (9), pena (3), porrilla ; for those used in mech. prep, see alma- 
deneta (3), despuntador (1), golpe (2), quebrador (2) ; for parts of 
hammer, see cara (1), ojo (9) ; trabajo a m., blast, single-handed boring, 
comp. u. marro (1) ; de martillo, wrought metal. 

MARTINETE, (1) hammer (martillo) in copper-works (Velazquez) ; 

(2) eng. pile-driver, drop-hammer, syn. machina (2), maza (5) de fraga, 
see pilon (5), pilote (1). 

MAS, Phil, a weight for gold or silver, equal to 3'768 g. = one-tenth of 

a tael (2). 
MASA, (1) mortar, see argamasa ; (2) mass of gold, silver or other metal ; 

(3) irregular deposit or mass, syn. cumulo (1), Mex. promontorio (3), 
equiv. Fr. amas ; m. echada, irregular deposit more or less parallel 
to the stratification ; m. levantada, irregular deposit, more or less 
vertical, and with major extension independent of the rock (Gillman), 
the latter appears to correspond to m. derecha of Peru ; see bolsa (2), 
bolsada (3), criadero (2), galeron, guedales, monton (3), rebosadero 

(4) ; (4) m. entrelazada, stockwork deposit, see cumulo (2) ; (5) masas 
filonianas, very wide portions of veins ; (6) m. del criadero, substance 

225 p 


enclosed in the walls of a deposit, filling, see relleno (4) ; (7) any 
deposit, whether stratified or otherwise, regular or irregular, and, 
according to the degree of hardness, etc., divided into : (a) masas 
flojas, sueltas or movedizas, as sand, peat ; (6) masas blandas, as clay, 
coal ; (c) masas quebradizas, as certain argillaceous schists or slates 
limestones, sandstones with argillaceous cements ; (p) masas firmes 
or duras, as sandstones, and, in general, rocks which contain much 
quartz ; and (e) masas muy firmes or muy duros, as pure quartz, 
chert, porphyry, granite, gneiss, pyrites, etc., comp. classification u. 
panino (1) ; (8) Cerro de Pasco, Peru, mech. prep, pulp (0. F. Pfordte), 
see harina (2). 

MAT A, (1) met. matte ; m. azul, " blue metal," see hierro (5) ; (2) see u. 

MATACHO, see macho (6). 

MATATENA, Mex. small pebble, see guijarro (1). 

MATE, adj. unpolished, oro m., unpolished gold ; tempered, slaked, 
yeso m., see u. yeso (2). 

MATE, see totuma. 

MATERA, Ant. Col. bunchy mine, or one in which the gold is found in 
abundance in reduced spaces called matas (2) de oro or topes (6), the 
adjacent parts being barren (Mufioz), syn. mina de tope (6) or de clavos 
(2), seebolsa (1). 

MATERIA, matter, material ; m. esteril, deads, see desecho (3) ; alluv. 
m. overburden, see montera (3). 

MATERIAL, material ; m. movil, transp. rolling-stock (Fr. materiel 

MATOS VIRGENS, Braz. virgin forests, which include the capoes or 
" island woods," comp. capoeiras, carrascos, catingas. 

MATRICULA, (1) register, list; libro de m., book of registration; 

(2) matriculas, Ant. Col. mech. snap (riveting-tool). 

MATRIZ, (1) gangue, matrix, or veinstone, syn. Mex. borra (1), broza 
(6), Chile, criadero (7), esteril (1), filon (5), ganga, guija (3), panino (2), 
piedra de veta, quijo, roca (5) madre, soroque, tepetate (4), tierra (6), 
zafra (1), equiv. Port, ganga, Fr. gangue, roches de filons, Ger. Bergart, 
Gangart, Ganggestein, for var. see almendrilla (2), azucar, u. cachi 
(2), diamantino, panizo (1) ; (2) nut or female screw, see tuerca ; 

(3) mould, see molde (2). 
MATURRANGO, see gachupin. 

MATUTINAS, morning veins (after Germans), comp. septentrionales, 

vesper tinas. 

MAYORAL, Peru, head overseer or boss, comp. mayordomo (2). 
MAYORDOMO, (1) Mex. in the patio process, the chief of the arrieros 

or muleteers (Lyon), see u. puntas, comp. capataz (3) ; (2) Peru, foreman 

or boss, see capataz (3), comp. mayoral. 
MAYORIA, majority ; en mayoria, in majority (as of shareholders in a 




MAZA, (1) stamp-head for pounding ores, see calzadura (2) ; (2) m. del 
martinete (2), monkey of a pile-driver, see pilon (5) ; (3) blast, sledge, 
maul or (Cornw.) mallet, syn. Peru, combo, Mex. golpe (1), And. 
and Mure. Sp. marro (1), Mex. pico (3), porra, equiv. Port, martello 
grande, Fr. massette, Ger. Faustel, see martillo ; for single-handed 
hammer, see manero, comp. marro (2) ; for sledge used in mech. 
prep, see quebrador (2) ; for ditto used by smiths, see macho (9) ; 
(4) barrel of a windlass, see arbol (2) ; (5) m. de fraga, see martinete 
(2) ; (6) pestle, see maja. 

MAZACOTE, (1) see barrilla (1) ; (2) concrete, see hormigon. 

MAZAMORRA, Col. (1) alluv. m. imperfect and accidental working ; 

^ (2) insignificant part of the ground-sluice [canalon (2)] abandoned 

^. to poor people, who get what gold they can out of it (Uribe). NOTE. 

f-. In most parts of Colombia mazamorra is maize ground down in a 

t|[pil6n (7), and afterwards washed or boiled with a little wood-ashes 

$$ it is taken with milk. 

MAZAMORREAR, Col. to wash gold, see barequear, mazamorrero. 

MAZAMORREO, see barequeo. 

MAZAMORRERO, Col. a gold-washer, who works on his own account, 
see lavador ( 1 ) ; in the Choco, numbers of mazamorreros occupy every 
river, stream, etc., each one paying $4 annually for the right to wash 
gold (1821) ; a very considerable part of the gold of Antioquia is 
extracted by mazamorreros (V. Restrepo). 

MAZAROTA, mass of metal left as a residue in the upper part of a 
vertical mould (Acad.). 

MAZO, (1) mallet or wooden hammer, syn. m. de madera, mallo, Col. 
mama, equiv. Port. mac,o, macete, malho, Fr. maillet, Ger. Schlagel, 
see martillo ; (2) Mex. stem, shank or lifter of a stamp (Lyon), see 
mango (2) ; (3) stamp-head, see calzadura (2). 

MAZONERIA, (1) masonry, syn. albanjleria, see mamposteria (2) ; 
(2) brickwork, syn. enladrillado. 

MECANICA, mechanics, syn. maquinaria (1). 

MECANICO, mechanic, syn. maquinista (2). 

MECAPAL, Mex. (1) broad band of raw hide, used by tenateros for 
carrying loads on the shoulders : it rests on the forehead, see vestido ; 
(2) mech. prep, sheet-iron scraper used by ore-sorters, comp. azadon (3). 

MECATE, Mex. (1) thread, coarse twine, cord or rope made of the fibre 
of the agave, syn. pita (2) ; (2) Sain Alto, Zac. measure of firewood 
(lena) 25 m. long, 1 m. high and 1 m. wide, or 25 cb.m., costing $4 in 
1895, comp. cuerda (5). 

MECH A, (1) blast, tallow wick (torcida de sebo) which the cohetero or 
golpeador makes of his trousers or shirt, generally to fire the cartridge 
(Gamboa) ; match or fuse, see botafuego, canilla, canutillo, cohetazo, 
cuerda (6), pajuela, sulfonete ; (2) blast, safety-fuse, syn. canuela, 
Peru, guia (13), mecha comun, media de seguridad, seguro (4), Col. 
siete (2), zafre ; var. are m. de cinta, with covering of tarred cotton, 




and m. de goma, with rubber covering ; (3) Guan. Mex. a torch) 

(antorcha) made of six tallow candles wrapped round with suitable 

material and corded outside ; (4) wick of candle, lamp-wick ; 

(5) boring-bit, see bisel (2). 
MECHAZO, blast, a miss fire; darmechazo, to miss fire, i.e., by the 

burning of the fuse without exploding the charge, comp. bocazo. 
MECHERO, tube for the wick of a lamp (lampara), wick-holder ; socket 

of candle-holder (candeleja). 
MECHINALES, (1) mas. square stones left projecting in a wall to be 

continued, see dientes (5) ; (2) mas. holes left in walls or sides of shaft 

for scaffolding, putlog holes ; timb. cavities made in rock for bearers, 

or holes in walls for the same purpose, syn. cajas (12), entradas (5), 

comp. huida (1). 
MEDANO, MEDANO, (1) sand-bank on the seashore, dune; (2) mound 

of sand covered by 

shallow water ; (3) Chile, fffa A 

plain of loose sand, in 

some cases 20 kilometres 

long, see llano. 
MEDIA, blast, a medium - 

sized drill, used after the 

guias (3), and before the 

apuradoras (1), see bar- 

rena (2). FIG. 54. FIG. 55. 

MEDIACANA, (1) carp. Ajuste (3) demediacana. Ajuste (3) de inediaiiiadera. 

gouge ; (2) half-round file, 

see lima (2) ; (3) ajuste (3) de m., timb. a joint for round timber 

only, made by notching the leg, see Fig. 54, comp. asiento (1). 
MEDIAMADERA, joint for square timber, see Fig. 55, comp. u. ajuste (3). 
MEDIDA, measure ; measurement ; syn. obs. mesura ; standard gauge. 
MEDIO, I A, adj. half ; media aspa, timb. lath, see pilote (2) ; media 

barreta, Peru, a gallery or slope at an angle 

of 45, see Fig. 56 and barreta (4) ; media 

luna, Belmez, Sp. the circular gallery which 

surrounds the shaft (Molina), see u. trans- 

porte ; media pepena, Mex. medium rich 

ore ; media portada, timb. one leg and 

cap-piece only, syn. medio marco, equiv. 

Fr. cadre d'un seul montant, demi-cadre, 

boisage a mi-porte, Ger. halbes Geviere ; 

medio cocido, see u. cuero ; medio marco, 

see medio portada ; medio punto, un arco de 

medio punto, semicircular arch, see punto (5). 
MEDIOS, see u. rabos. 
MEDIR, (1) to measure : (2) m. una mina, to survey a mine, see apear 

(2), levantar (1). 


FIG. 56. Media Larreta. 

f/, g'alerias ; m m, media 
]>;uTet;is : j>, pozo (main 


MEJORA, MEJORAMIENTO, improvement ; m. de boca (2), improve- 
ment or alteration made in the entrance to a mine (M. J. Gloss.). 

MELLA, notch or nick in edged tools. 

MELODRENA, see u. muela (4). 

MEMORIA, (1) Mex. list of the raya (2) or pay-roll ; (2) Mex. weekly 
account of disbursements or mine expenses ; (3) see u. libro. 

MEMORIAL, memorandum-book, syn. libro de memoria. 

MENA, (1) vein of ore (Velez de Aragon), see veta (1) ; (2) ore ;"" mineral 
metalifero, principalmente el de hierro, tal como se extrae del criadero, 
y antes de limpiarse " (Acad.) ; "mineral util 6 aprovechable " 
(Molina) ; m. crude or bruto, raw ore ; m. grueso, ore in large lumps 
m. recio, massive ore, see metal (3). 

MENGUANTE, (1) ebb-tide ; (2) decrease of the moon ; m. de la luna, 
last quarter of the moon ; in tropical countries, timber, palm for thatch- 
ing, etc., are always cut during the last quarter of the moon the best 
time for felling is considered in Col. to be five days before the new moon, 
and two or three days after the new moon. At El Callao, Venez. 
" there is an infallible rule, viz., deciduous trees cut when the moon 
is decreasing (menguante), and non-deciduous when it is at the 
creciente or increasing " (G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale). 

MENSULA (arch, bracket), timb. a bar of wood or iron placed immediately 
below the cap-piece [capa (4)], and secured to the leg-pieces (Molina), 
see abrazadera (5). 

MENUCOS, N. Patagonia, Arg. dangerous bogs, "usually hidden by a 
luxuriant growth of herbage (J. v. Siemoradzki), see pantano (1). 

MENLJDO, DA, adj. small, carbon menudo, smalls or small coal, syn. Peru, 
nuzco ; mineral menudo, mech. prep., smalls or small ore, syn. metal 
granza, tierras, see vacisco. 

MEQUINES, (1) Almeria, Sp. inclined gallery, the floor of which is not 
in steps, but covered with boards for the espuertas (Molina), comp. 
trancada (2) ; (2) Sierra Almagrera, Sp. winch worked by horse, by 
means of toothed wheels and levers, see torna (2), comp. malacate (1). 

MERCED, reward (premio) or recompense given for work done, especially 
to the day-labourer (Acad.), premium ; grant. 

MERCURIC, (1) mercury or quicksilver, syn. azogue ; (2) mercury 
ore ; m. corneo or dulce, calomel or horn quicksilver [HgCl] ; m. 
hepatico, liver ore (var. of cinnabar) ; for ores and deposits, see 
acerado (2), antimonioso, bermellon, cinabrio, granate (2), hebrudo, 
negro (2), riolita, tinaja (3), troja ; for rocks associated with quick- 
silver deposits, see almendrilla (1), u. panino (1), veta (2) ; for metal- 
lurgical appliances and processes, see aludel, bola (4), cantaro, 
cenicilla, ceniza (2), chinateado, pila (4), quema (2), quemador (2), 

MERCURBLENDA, see cinabrio. 

MERGULHADOR, Braz. alluv. m. diver, see mergulho, buzo. 

MERGULHAR, Braz. to work alluvial sands by diving, see mergulho. 



MERGULHO, Braz. method of diving for auriferous river-sands employed 
by poor miners, see u. buzo. 

MERIDIANO, NA, adj. linea meridiana, meridional line ; surv. meridian, 
syn. meridiano. 

MERMA, waste, leakage ; loss of quicksilver in amalgamation ; loss of 
metal in melting, smelting, retorting, etc. 

MERODEADOR (marauder), Fr. Guiana, prospector (L. Levat), see 

MESA (table), (1) mech. prep, generic name for table ; m. conica fija, 
round-buddle, see gandinguera ; m. conica giratorio, revolving round- 
buddle ; m. de apartado (1), sorting-table ; m. de arroyo, S. Sp. small 
kind of sleeping-table, syn. cajon de arroyo, royo, comp. cernedor (2) ; 
m. de lavado, frame nicking- buddle (Ponce de Le6n) ; m. de sacudi- 
mientos, m. movida, or de vaiven, percussion- or bumping-table 
(Ger. Stossherd) ; m. del molino, Ant. Col. blanket-table ; m. de tela 
sin fin, endless-belt vanner (e.g., Frue vanner) ; m. durmiente, 
sleeping-table [Braz. bica (2)] ; m. giratorio, revolving table (Ger. 
Rotirendeherd) ; m. inclinada, inclined table ; m. redonda, round- 
buddle, see u. m. conica. NOTE. The tables used in mech. prep, 
are divided into mesas llenas (Ger. Vollherde), and mesas vacias (Ger. 
Leerherde). (2) See meseta (1) ; (3) m. de revolver, transp. turntable, 
see tornamesa ; (4) the complete frame of a windlass [torno (2)] ; 
(5) each half of the frame of a windlass [torno (2)], united above by 
the pastores, and below by the muertos ; (6) Mex. hearth of furnace 
(Dwight), see hogar (1) ; (7) see meseta (2) ; (8) m. de piedra, Chanar- 
cillo, Chile, the smooth and polished face of a sterile limestone, which 
separates the latter from the metalliferous limestones occurring above 
it, see u. manto (1) ; (9) principal facet of a diamond or other precious 

MESETA, (1) landing-place of a staircase, syn. mesa (2), mesilla ; 
(2) plain on the top of a mountain, elevated plain or plateau, table- 
land, syn. encimada, mesa (7), equiv. Port, rechano, see llano, ccmp. 
campos (7) ; (3) step of an underhand stope, syn. banqueta (2). 

MESILLA, see meseta (1). 

MESURA, obs. measure, see medida ; "las particulars reciben del rey 
la concession de un cierto numero de mesuras en la direccion de una 
veta 6 un manto " (Humboldt). 

METAL, (1) metal ; m. nativo or virgen, native or virgin metal ; m. en 
barras, bullion, see barra (3) ; (2) alloy, as brass, latten, see bronce (1) ; 
m. bianco, white metal ; m. campanil, bell-metal ; m. de imprenta, 
type-metal ; (3) ore, syn. frutos (2), mena (2), mineral (2), piedra 
mineral, equiv. Port, minerio, Ouro Preto, Braz. formacao (1), Fr. 
mineral, Ger. Erz ; m. azul, galena ; m. azul de plata, argentiferous 
lead ore ; m. azulado, selbite, see azul de Catorce, u. plata (2) ; m. 
calichoso, Mex. f el spathic ore ; m. cenizo, chloride of silver, syn. plata 
ceniza ; m. comun, third class or ordinary ore, see u. despoblado, da ; m. 



de crudo, Peru, ore composed of oxides, chlorides, etc. ; m. de beneficio, 
San Dimas, Dur. Mex. second-class ore worked by the patio process ; m. 
de color, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, oxidised ore of copper {comp. m. 
negro (b) below]; m. de exportation, San Dimas, Dur. Mex. first -class 
ore or prill, see u. granza (1) and tierras (4) for third and fourth ; 
m. de labores, smalls from mine workings ; m. de pie, Mex. ore 
amenable to the patio process ; m. de pinta, silver-bearing ore ; m. 
de primera (clase), first-class ore, syn. broza, gabarro ; m. de quema, 
Peru, sulphide ore (Dwight) ; m. de segunda, second-class ore ; m. 
en piedra, ore in the rough, crude ore ; m. flor, see cebadura ; m. 
gabarro, large ore ; see gabarro ; m. granza, smalls, see menudo ; m. 
hecho, selected ore, prill, see pepena (2) ; m. jugoso, Mex. wet ore, 
i.e., lead ore (Dwight) ; m. machacado, native gold or silver in thin 
leaves sometimes occurring in veins (Acad.), see machacado ; m. 
negro, (a) blende (Dwight) ; (b) Cerro de Pasco, Peru, sulphuretted 
ores of copper ; m. negro argentifero, see cobre (2) gris ; m. noble, 
free-milling ore, or ore which can be treated by the patio process ; 
m. ordinario, see u. despoblado, da ; m. pepena, see pepena (2) ; m. 
plomoso, leady ore ; m. plomoso reluciente, see u. soroche (2) ; m. 
verde, embolite, syn. plata (2) verde (a) ; metales de labor, see aplo- 
mados ; metales de patio, see negros (4) ; metales de fundicion, see 
fuego (3) ; see acerado, acopolado, ayuda (1), azogue (2), azurronado, 
blanca (1), calido, cardenilla, cazo (4), cebo (1), correa (3), china (2), 
corrido, despoblado (3), frio (3) and (4), fuego (3), hierroso (1), negrillo, 
negro, pastoso, rayado (2), tonel (4), verde, also u. names of metals, etc. ; 
(4) Almaden, Sp. rich ore of quicksilver, comp. china (2), requiebro (2), 
vacisco ; (5) acostarse el metal = acostarse la vena, see u. acostar. 

METALADA, Mex. discovery of ore in barren working (Dwight). 

METAUCA, METALURGIA, metallurgy, syn. obs. mineralurgia. 

METALURGICO, CA, adj. relating to metallurgy. 

METALURGICO, metallurgist, syn. obs. mineralurgista. 

METANO, see u. hidrogeno. 

METAFILES, Mex. (1) grindstones (e.g., used in the tahonas), see voladora 
(3) spelt also metlapiles ; (2) pigs of copper used in hot amalgamation 
(Elwes), see lingote. 

METATE, Mex. (1) a curved stone, in the shape of an inclined plane, 
resting on three feet, used for grinding maize for tortillas, or cacao for 
chocolate from Aztec, metlatl (Velazquez) ; in prehistoric times 
these and metapiles (1) were used by Indians for grinding ore (Brackel- 
Welda), comp. u. moler ; (2) iron bucking-board for grinding ore- 
samples (Dwight). 

METAZITA, see arkosa. 

METER, m. el ramal (3), Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. c.m. to make 
the upper half of an inclined plane, the lower half or banquete being 
opened up afterwards (Molina) ; m. tonga, see colgar (1) ; meterse 
en ganga, to take horse, see caballo (5). 



METLAPIL, see metapiles (1). 

MIiTODO, (1) particular method of working deposits, syn. labor (3), 
trabajo (3) ; m. ascendente, opening out a shaft by rising ; m. descen- 
dente, ditto, by sinking ; m. a traves, see traves ; m. cuadrado, square 
method of cutting peat ; m. hidraulico, hydraulic mining ; m. hori- 
zontal ascendente, see u. faja (3) ; m. horizontal descendente, see u. 
tajo (4) ; m. inclinado, see u. testero (3) ; m. longitudinal, longitudinal 
method of cutting peat ; m. por hundimiento, long wall, see u. labor 
(2) ; m. vertical = Fr. methode vertical ; method of tunnelling, e.g., 
m. ascendente 6 ingles, ascending or English method, m. descendente 
6 belga, descending or Belgian method, m. mixto, mixed method ; 

(2) met. and chem. method or process, see via (6). 

METRO, (1) metre = 3-280869 feet or 39-370432 inches ; (2) surv. 

metrical measuring-tape, see cinta (1). 
MEZCLA, (1) common mortar, see argamasa (1) ; hacer m., to temper the 

mortar ; (2) Mex. furnace-charge (Dwight), see u. carga (4). 
MEZCLAR, to temper mortar. 

MEZCUITLATL, Mex. Aztec name for the opal (opalo). 
MEZQUITE, the mezquite shrubs of Mexico, (1) the honey-mezquite 

(Prosopis juliftora) yielding the algarroba pods ; (2) the screw-bean 

(Prosopis pubescens) (Velazquez). 
MICA, (1) mica, syn. espejuela (2), Ant. Col. juan bianco (2) ; (2) Venez. 

miners' term for small crystals of iron pyrites (Dr. Foster), see pirita ; 

(3) Ant. Col. miners' term for molybdate of lead ; (4) magnetic 
pyrites, see u. pirita. 

MICA-PIZARRA, micaceous schist. 

MICASQUISTO, mica-schist. 

MICHE, Fresnillo, Zac. Mex. a mixture of galena, blende and iron pyrites, 
the two first silver-bearing ; it is not liked by the miners ; in Santa 
Cruz de Alaya, Sinai, dry black stuff found in veins, of the colour of 
toasted coffee, disliked by the miners, see plata (2). 

MILLA, mile. 

MILL6N (million), Mex. an ore-pile (Dwight), see monton (1). 

MILREIS, Braz. 100 reis, 1 rei is about one -ninth of a cent, a milreis 
= 1 1.1 2, or worth 2s. 3d. of our money. 

MIMBRES, osier-twigs, see u. banasta, cesta. 

MINA, (1) deposit of mineral, see criadero (1) ; (2) mine, syn. obs. alma- 
den, arrugia, obs. minera, mineral (3), equiv. Port, mina, Fr. mine, 
Ger. Grube, see cata (1) and (2), contramina ; m. de carbon, coal mine 
(Ger. Steinkohlengrube) ; in Mex. under the old Ordenanzas, the 
descubridora was the first one on the vein, or on a new vein in the same 
mountain, the rest were minas ordinarias (Gamboa), see descubridoro, 
ra ; for alluvial mines, see placer ; see u. agotado, da, amparado, da, 
asiento (4), cogollero [u. cogollo (2)], jornalera, matera, tonga (2) ; 
(3) ore, see metal (3) ; m. de bronce, bell-metal ore ; m. de plumo, 
plumbago ; m. aurifera de Transilvania, graphic tellurium ; (4) sub- 



terranean passage, open artificially, to conduct waters or establish 
other communication (Acad.), see tunel ; (5) spring, see manantial. 

MINADO, underground working, see labor (2) ; minados antiguos = 
" old man." 

MINADOR, miner, see minero (2). 

MINAL, adj. belonging to a mine. 

MINAR, to mine, equiv. Port, minerar. 

MINEIRO, Port, miner, see minero (2). 

MINERA, obs. mine, see mina. (2). 

MINERAAO, see mineraje. 

MINERAJE, mining (" labor y beneficio de las minas," Acad.), equiv. 
Port. minera<;ao, see laboreo. 

MINERAL, adj. aguas minerales, mineral waters ; piedra m., ore, see 
metal (3). 

MINERAL, (1) mineral or ore, see metal (3) ; (2) spring of water, see 
manantial ; (3), mine, see mina (2) ; (4) mining district, see real (1). 

MINERALIZAR, to mineralise ; mineralizarse, to be charged with mineral 
substances (of subterranean waters). 

MINERALURGIA, see metalurgia. 

MINERALURGISTA, see metalurgico. 

MINERAR, Port, to mine, see minar. 

MINERIA, (1) art of mining, see laboreo ; mining industry ; diputacion 
de m., Span. Am. under the Ordenanzas, a tribunal cognisant of mining 
matters, elected in most cases by the mine-owners of the district, see 
diputacion ; (2) personnel of a mine, etc. 

MINERIO, Port, ore, see metal (3). 

MINERO, RA, adj. pertaining to the art or industry of mining, see pajaro 

MINERO, (1) a mine (under the old laws), see mina (2), or mineral deposit, 
see criadero (1) ; (2) miner, syn. minador, equiv. Port, mineiro, Fr. 
mineur, Ger. Bergmann, see carbonero (2), comp. barretero, operario ; 
m. al destajo, tut-workman ; for miner's dress, see u. vestido ; one 
who possesses a theoretical and practical knowledge of the art of 
mining ; (3) Mex. chief miner, underground captain or agent, syn. 
minero mayor, comp. mandon, sotominero ; mineros de cuarto, under- 
ground captains or shift- bosses, their assistants are coleros and traza- 
dores ; (4) Cerro de Pasco, Peru, mine-owner, see propietario. 

MINETA (little mine), (1) Peru, small mine chamber or cavity (Dwight) ; 
(2) rock composed of felspar and biotite mica, sometimes with chlorite, 
quartz and hornblende, a mica-syenite or minette (Fr.). 

MINIO, red lead or minium, see azarcon. 

MINISTERIO, ministry ; M. de Hacienda, Ministry of the Exchequer 
or Treasury (in Mex. corresponds to Treasury Department of U.S.A.) ; 
M. de Fomento, Sp. Ministry of Public Works and Instruction, Span. 
.Am. Ministry of Encouragement or Promotion, see fomento (2), 



MI RON, (1) prov. slag of iron, see escoria (1) ; (2) Vizcaina, Sp. iron ore 
of an earthy aspect (Acad.), see hierro (4). 

MIRA, (1) sight of surveying instruments, etc. ; (2) miras, uprights 
(reglones) used in levelling a course of bricks or stone, etc., comp. u. 
nivel (1) ; (3) surv. graduated rule used for levelling. 

MITA, (1) under Spanish rule, obligation imposed on the Indians to work 
the mines, and enforced from 1548 to 1729, when it was suppressed. 
They were drawn by lots, one in seven being taken [mitayo (1)]. The 
mita was used largely in Chile, Peru, Colombia and other S. American 
countries, but not in Mexico, syn. quatequil, tanda (2) ; (2) Peru, 
tribute paid by the Indians. 

MITAYO, (1) Indian chosen by lot to serve his turn of compulsory labour. 
see mita (1) ; (2) Peru, Indian who collects the tribute or mita (2). 

MIXTO, TA, adj. mixed ; plata mixta or "mixta," Mex. silver alloyed 
with gold ; for metodo mixto, see u. metodo. 

MOBRE, piedra de m., flint, see pedernal. 

MOCA, see u. calcedonia. 

MOCHETA, m. blanca, Pachuca, Hid. Mex. rhyolitic tuff used in masonry 
work, see riolita ; m. morada, dacite, similarly used, see dacita. 

MOCHUELOS, see u. taraja. 

MOCO, (1) scoria of iron, syn. m. de hierro, see cagaferro ; (2) m. de 
hierro, El Caratal, Venez. brown iron ore, see Fig. 20 c, d ; ferruginous 
gold-bearing gravel, see Fig. 21 ; highly ferruginous rock, viz., (a) con- 
glomerate, (6) grit, (c) breccia, (d) pisolitic brown iron ore (Dr. 
Foster). When m. de hierro occurs as a ferruginous conglomerate it 
is regarded as an indicator for gold (G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale). 

MODELO, model, standard, pattern, see plantilla (1). 

MODERADOR, the regulator of a pneumataphore (aerofora). 

MOFETA, (1) pernicious gas found in mines, generally CO., or CH^ 
(Acad.); (2) c.m. after-damp, syn. bochorno (2), comp. u. acido (1), 
grisu, u. hidrogeno. 

MOGINO, metal m., Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. miners' term for a 
mixture of argentiferous galena, plata agria (argentite ?) chloride of 
silver, and telluride of silver (A. del M. de F.), found in the mine of 
San Juan, see plata (2). 

MOGOTE, see templador. 

MOGROLLO, Mex. silver ores composed of sulphides ; " lo mismo que 
metal de cebo, por ser muy rico, y no se funde en homo, sino que 
asegura en el bano de el vaso " (Gamboa), see cebo (1), plata (2), comp. 

MOHO, rust, see orin. 

MOJC^N, (1) landmark, used to mark limits of pertenencias, generally 
a stone pillar, see balate (1), coto (1), guardaraya (1), hito, majano, 
mojonera, monumentos, termino (1), comp. pilar (2) ; (2) heap or pile, 
see monton (2). 

MOJONA, survey of land ; the setting up of landmarks, 



MOJONACI6N, see amojonamiento. 

MOJONAR, see amojonar. 

MOJONERA, landmark, or place where landmarks are set, see mojon (1). 

MOLASA, a var. of soft sandstone (arenisca), formed of fine grains of 
quartz, felspar, carbonate of lime and mica (Barcena), comp. macino. 

MOLDE, mould, pattern ; m. de lingote, ingot -mould, see planchera (1) 
and (2), plantilla (1), vacio (2). 

MOLE, Ant. Col. (1) galena ; (2) moles or molis, sulphides or concen- 
trates consisting principally of galena ; "la parte mas pesada y rica 
de las concentrados, generalmente la galena, cobre gris y sulfuros 
pesados de la mena " (G. F. Gamba), see jagua (3). 

MOLEDORA, Peru, upper millstone (Dwight), see muela (1). 

MOLER, to grind or crush ore with rolls, to pulverise, comp. machacar, 
majar ; m. a mano, Ant. Col. to grind ore on a stone having a flat or 
concave surface [comp. metate (1)], or to break it up into small frag- 
ments in a wooden pilon (7), or in an iron mortar (Uribe), comp. 
granzear ; m. en seco, Peru, dry grinding ; m. por sutil, Peru, wet 
grinding (Dwight) ; piedra de m., grindstone, see u. piedra. 

MOLERO, see u, tierras (4). 

MOLIENDA, (1) grinding or pounding ores, etc. ; wet grinding or 
pulverising in the arrastre (3), pan, etc., it follows the (usually) dry crush- 
ing known as granceo, comp. maceo ; (2) " la molienda," ores ground. 

MOLINATE, see arrastre (3). 

MOLINERA, Sierra Almagrera, Sp. carbonate of iron (siderosa). 

MOLINERO, Mex. man employed in crushing ore with stamps or molinos 
(Lyon) ; Ant. Col. mill-man or one in charge of mill. 

MOLINETE, (1) Ant. Col. a kind of windlass, used with a pulley, for 
raising weights, e.g., stamp stems, see torno (2) ; (2)m. del cabrestante, 
barrel of the capstan, comp. tambor (1) ; (3) m. de friction, friction 
roller, syn. rodillo de friction ; (4) beater of the dolly-tub, see batidor 

(2) ; (5) float-board brake-regulator in automatic inclined planes, 
see u. regulador ; (6) m. de acero, steel-mill or disc used in collieries 
for lighting purposes in latter half of eighteenth century, equiv. Fr. 
rouet a silex. 

MOLING, (1) mill, strictly speaking a pulverising-mill only, but in 
Mex. = stamp-mill or crusher, and may be any ordinary mill, see 
galera (3), hacienda (4), taller (3), zangarro ; m. chileno or de muelas 
verticales, edge-mill ; m. de agua, water-mill ; m. de arrastre (3), 
arrastre ; m. de aserrar, saw-mill ; m. de bolas, ball-mill ; m. de 
cilindros, crusher or rolls ; m. de estampar, stamping-mill, see 
ingenio (2) ; m. de herreria or de fragua, forge-mill ; m. de mano, 
hand-mill ; m. de mineral, ore-mill ; m. de muestra, sample-grinder ; 
m. de pisones (2), Col. stamp-mill ; m. de sangre, mill turned by men or 
animals ; m. de viento, wind-mill, see vela (5) ; (2) ore sent to the mill ; 

(3) Ant. Col. truk or buddle, see, cajon (5) ; (4) Ant. Col. alluv. m, sands 



extracted from the cuts [tajos (5)] and accumulated in the ground- 
sluice, or canalon (2) ; (5) piedra de m., millstone grit, see ?/. piedra. 

MOLLEJ6N, piedra de m., sandstone, see arenisca. 

MOLONQUE, Mex. a stone of ore, equally rich as mogrollo, but which 
contains more silver than gangue [tierra (6)] or, at least, in equal 
proportions (Gamboa) ; according to Guillemin-Tarayre = ductile 
argentite ; m. relumbroso, Guan. stephanite, syn. Zac. azul acerado, 
plata negra prismatica, psaturosa, see plata (2). 

MOLOQUITA, a var. of agate (agata) of dull green hue (Velazquez). 

MONDA, mech. prep, a further separation by hand of mineral already 
hand-picked, see apartado (1) ; banco de m., seat or bench for above, 
containing anvil for breaking up pieces with a hammer ; taller de m., 
sorting-floors for above. 

MONDAR, (1) mech. prep, to sort hand-picked ore, comp. apartar ; 
(2) to clean out a ditch (acequia), etc. 

MONDEO, Braz. large reservoir, built of masonry, for collecting gold 
sands which are washed down the hill-side by water, from an upper 
reservoir (Paul Ferrand) ; Minas Geraes, settling-pit (H. K. Scott). 

MONEDA, money, coin ; casa de m., mint. 

MONEDAJE, duty on coinage, see u. derecho (2). 

MONEDAR, MONEDEAR, to coin, see acunar (1). 

MONO, (1) Mex. timb. studdle or post, see columna (1) ; (2) Zac. Mex. timb. 
single prop, syn. Guan. Mex. lagarto, Serrata de Lorca, Sp. (sulphur 
mines) palo (4), Guan. Mex. pausa, peon (5), pie (6) derecho, puntal (3), 
comp. entibo (1), pilar (4), testera (6) ; (3) frutadem., see u. fruta. 

MONTACARGAS, met. apparatus for raising loads, usually an elevator, 
see elevador (3). 

MONTADO, DA, pp. of montar ; eje montado, see u. eje (2). 

MONTAJE, erection or mounting (of machinery, etc.), syn. erection, 
montura (3), equiv. Fr. montage. 

MONTANA, (1) mountain, see cerro(l); Peru, inter- Andean region of 
forests (Raimondi) ; (2) minerales dem., Mex. ores scattered through 
country-rock [roca (4)] and not found in deposits of any appreciable 

MONT ANTE, (1) carp, upright or post ; montantes, uprights or main 
posts of a battery-frame, syn. Col. columnas (3) ; uprights or standards 
of a pulley-frame, syn. pies (7) derechos, comp. pilaretes, see carena. 
ramplon ; (2) montantes, cheek-pieces of a ladder (Ponce de Leon). 
see largueros (1) ; (3) timb. leg-piece, see peon (4) ; (4) b. constr. 
jamb or jamb-post, see jamba. 

MONTAR, (1) to erect machinery or plant, syn. armar (1), eregir (1), 
plantar ; (2) m. el agua, Ant. Col. to establish ditches or leats for 
mining purposes (Uribe). 

MONTE, (1) mountain, see cerro (1) ; for oro de m., see u. crespo, pa ; 
(2) wood, forest, see manigua. 

MONTE ADOR, Ant. Col. prospector who searches for mines in forests 
and mountains, comp. buscones. 



MONTERA, (1) outcrop (Moncada), see afloramiento, creston ; (2) 
Huelva, Sp. gossan, see colorados ; (3) alluv. m. overburden or cap, 
syn. Col. barros (3), Sandia, Peru, carga (11), cubierta (4), Ant. Col. 
desmonte (4), materia esteril, equiv. Fr. ciel, Ger. Ueberlagerung, see 
creminel, desmontar (2) comp. segullo. 

MONT6N, (1) heap or pile, see terrero (1), tinada ; Mex. small heap of 
ore-mud for amalgamation, comp. lamero (2) ; pile of ore, syn. Mex. 
millon, mojon (2), Mex. pila (6) de mineral, pilada (2), Mex. trilla (1), 
see tequio (4), telera, torreras, trinchera (2), comp. tases ; (2) Mex. a 
weight varying from '75 to 1'62 tons (T. Egleston) ; in Bolanos = 
15 quintales, in Aguascalientes, Catorce, Fresnillo, Ramos and Som- 
brerete = 20 quintales, in Pachuca, Real del Monte, Sultepec and 
Tasco = 30 quintales, in Guanajuato = 32 quintales. NOTE. The 
metrical system is now compulsory. (3) Ant. Col. an irregular mass 
or deposit ; m. acostado, a mass intercalated in a sedimentary forma- 
tion ; m. recto, a wide vein between a stratified and non-stratified 
formation, see masa (3), saco (2) ; (4) montones entrelazados, stock- 
works (F. de P. Munoz proposes the name estovercas for these), sec a 
fibra (2), cumulo (2) ; (4) m. de lens, cord of wood, see cuerdr. (5). 

MONTURA, (1) see caballeria (1) ; (2) saddle and trappings, see silla (!) 
(3) see montaje. 

MONLJMENTOS, Mex. landmarks or monuments ; in mining claims 
usually built of masonry, and put at each corner of the mine or 
individual claim, see mojon (1). 

MORA, Brit. Guiana and Hond., a tree, a species of fustic. 

MORADO, DA, adj. violet, see u. cobre (2), porfido (2). 

MORALLION, Boyaca, Col. inferior emeralds (esmeraldas), comp. canu- 
tillo (2). 

MORDAZA, (1) mordazas, nippers (alicates) or pincers, [tenazas (2)] ; 
(2) hoist, clamp used in looping up the end of a wire-rope, see abraza- 
dera (1) ; (3) fish-plate (Ponce de Leon), see eclisa ; (4) Mex. a mortise 
(Dwight), see muesca (1). 

MORILLO, (1) ashlar, rubble, rubble-stone, see mampucsto (1) ; (2) m. 
tallado, dressed ashlar, see sillar ; (3) Mex. round timber, from 5 to 7 
inches in diameter, see madera ; (4) m. de descanse, c.m. hoist, keps or 
keeps, see taquetes (1). 

MORO, RA, adj. colour of red wine, for pena mora, see u. pena (4). 

MOROMORO, Moquegua, Peru, argillaceous and impervious rock (H. C. 

MOR6N, hill, hillock, see cerro (1). 

MORRAL, small corn-bag hung to the mouth of mules, comp. cebadera 

MORRILLO, pebble, syn. morro (3), see guijarro (1). 

MORRO, (1) a more or less pyramidal or conical hill, headland, 
bluff, see promontorio (2) ; (2) met. furnace wall -accretions (Dwight), 
see pegadura (4) ; (3) pebble, see morrillo. 

MORRONGO, see zorra. 



MORTAJA, mortise, see muesca (1) ; m. y lengiieta, see ranura. 

MORTERO, (1) Mex. mech. prep, stamp or stamper, see calzadura (2) ; 
(2) mech. prep, mortar of a stamp ; (3) assay, mortar, comp. perol, 
for pestle, see maja ; (4) mortar ; m. comun or mezcla, ordinary mortar, 
see argamasa ( 1 ) ; m. de tras, see tras. 

MOSCAS (flies), Mex. spots of black ore (usually sulphide of silver) 
disseminated in a quartzose gangue, see mosqueado, da. 

MOSCORROFIO, I A, adj. oro moscorrofio, Ant. Col. gold in wire form 
or in filaments, of inferior colour and grade, and accompanying 
guijas (1) or pebbles ; angular gold and little rounded (Uribe). 

MOSQUEADO, DA, adj., spotted ; metal mosqueado or "mosqueada," 
Taviches, Oaxaca, Mex. name given to dark ruby silver (petlanque 
oscuro) occurring in separate grains or spots in quartz or other matrix, 
see moscas, plata (2). 

MOSTRADOR, Mex. sampler (Dwight), see u. cogedor. 

MOTOR, motor or prime-mover, syn. primer movil ; el. motor ; m. de 
vapor, steam-motor, see maquina. 

MOVEDIZO, ZA, adj. movable, see u. terreno (2). 

M6VIL, adj. movable, see u. bomba (1). 

M6VIL, motor, see motor. 

MOVIMIENTO, movement ; mech. motion. 

MOYA, volcanic clay (Ponce de Leon), see ar cilia. 

MOZO, (1) boy, man-servant, man-of-all-work, (U.S.A.) roustabout 
(2) min. support on which the lever of a bellows [fuelle (1)] turns 

MUELA, (1) upper millstone or runner, syn. corredera (1), Peru, mole- 
dora, voladora (2), volandera (2), comp. solera (2) ; (2) grinding-stone 
of an arrastre (3), see voladora (3) ; (3) m. vertical, runner of a Chilian 
mill, see volandera (1) ; (4) grindstone or whetstone, syn. afiladera, 
aguzadera, asperon (1), esmoladera, piedra amoladera, piedra de 
afilar, piedra de amolar, piedra melodrefia, equiv. Port, cote, pedra de 
rebolo, Fr. meule, pierre a aiguiser, Ger. Miihlstein, Schleisstein ; 
(5) top. hill, steep at the top, and with a flat summit (Acad.), comp. 
cerro (1) ; (6) water sufficient to set a mill-wheel in motion " una 
muela de agua." 

MUELLAJE, wharfage, dockage or harbour dues. 

MUELLE, (1) mech. spring, syn. resorte ; muelles, springs fixed below 
the bearings of the axles of pulleys in order to neutralise sudden jerks 
in hoisting cages, see u. resorte ; (2) muelles, tongs used in mints 
(Acad.) ; (3) quay or wharf ; m. de descarga, load-wharf, syn. des- 
embarcadero (1), embarcadero (1), see malecon (1) ; (4) rai 1 . high 
platform [desembarcadero (2)], covered or uncovered, for loading and 
unloading goods (Acad.). 

MUERA, natural salt-water or brine, syn. agua muera, salmuera, see u. 
sal (1). 



MUERTA, see faena (2). 

MUERTO, TA, adj. dead ; cal muerta, slaked lime ; obras muertas, 
see u. obra ; punto muerto, mech. dead point ; tierra muerta, Col. 
earth of a guaca which has been disturbed at some period more or less 
remote compact earth which has not been disturbed is known as 
tierra virgen (Uribe). 

MUERTOS, the horizontal cross- timbers which unite the lower portions 
of the frame of a windlass, see mesa (5) ; mud sills or any horizontal 
timbers which are practically on a level with the ground, or with the 
floor of plats, etc., see banco (4) de tierra, larguero (4), plancha (6). 

MUESCA, (1) carp, mortise, groove, notch, see cadena (8), caja (25), 
cotana, u. empalme (1), empotrar (1), encaje (1), entalla, entalla- 
miento, escopleadura (1), hueco (4), mortaja, ranura, comp. espiga (2) ; 
m. triangular, (Professor Thompson's) triangular notch for measuring 
water ; muescas, notches of a Mexican ladder [escalera (2) de m.] 

(2) Peru, timb. hitch, see huida. 

MUESTRA, sample ; specimen ; oficina de muestras, sampling-works. 

MUESTRARIO, bor. collection of samples obtained by boring. 

MUEVE (from mover), m. de cuadrado, see cuadrado (3) ; m. de salmer, 

see salmer. 
MUFLA, (1) assay, muffle ; (2) Mex. a crude cupel-furnace [horno (2)] 

for treating rich ore on a bath of lead (Dwight), comp. vaso (2 &) ; 

(3) tuyere (twyer), see tobera. 

MULA, she-mule, comp. macho (1) ; m. de repuesto, sumpter mule. 
MULATA, Ant. Col. compact quartz, charged with lime and other 

matters, and rounded by friction, it is considered an inseparable 

accompaniment of gold, the miners say " mulata no duerme solo " ; 

huevo de pajarito is a small and ovoid mulata stone, frisolita is still 

smaller (Uribe), see frisol. 

MULATERO, mule-driver, muleteer, syn. muletero, mulero. 
MULATO, Span. Am. silver ore of a dark or coppery green colour (Acad.) ; 

mulatos, Peru, ores with sulphides predominating, they are transition 

oxysulphides ; Atacama, Chile, simple sulphide ores below the pacos 

and above the negrillos (1) ; see frio, ia (2), plata (2). 
MULERO, MULETERO, see mulatero. 
MULETILLA, surv. nail in the form of a cross, for attaching cord of 

hanging compass, see brujula (2). 
MULTA, fine or penalty. 
MUNON, (1) met. trunnion of a Bessemer converter, etc. ; (2) gudgeon, 

see guijo (2) ; pin or gudgeon on the upper end of the vertical axle 

of a horse-whim, working in the bearing or pedestal [cojinete (1)] ; 

(3) the hard metal casing, usually steel, of a pillow-block, comp. 

tejuelo (2). 

MUNONERA, (1) trunnion-socket ; (2) mech. gudgeon- socket. 
MURALLA, wall, see muro (1) ; murallas abovedadas, walls connected 

by an arch or vault, see puquios. 



MURETE, (1) slight wall for an aqueduct ; (2) muretes, vent, small 
walls used for supporting tube for passing air-current from one drift 
to another, see muro (1). 

MURO, (1) wall, syn. muralla, pared (1), see arrimo, citara, cortina, u. 
mamposteria (2), rnurete (1) and (2) ; m. de revestimiento, retaining-wall 
or wall to resist lateral pressures (Ezquerra), see jorfe(l); m. desoz- 
tenimiento, wall to resist vertical pressures (Ezqueira) ; m. seco, dry 
wall, syn. albarada, horma, empiedro, seepedriza (3); (2) floor of a deposit 
or footwall of a vein, see bajo (3) ; (3) a mine-dam, see cerramiento. 

MUSGO, moss. 

MUZO, Col. wood of a tree, veined black and red, used for making 
furniture (Velazquez). 

NACIENTE, Chile, east, (oriente or este). 

NACIMIENTO (birth), place where a spring gushes out ; spring or source 
(manantial) ; n. de un rio, head of a river. 

NAFTA, naphtha or crude petroleum, see petroleo. 

NAIFE, diamond in the rough, see diamante. 

NARIZ (nose), (1) projecting point of a bridge or pier which breaks the 
violence of the current (Velazquez) ; (2) nozzle of a bellows, pipe, 
twyer, etc. ; (3) see Fig. 24 b, u. cierre ; (4) in smelting tin-ore, etc., 
the nose or appendix which forms in front of, and is attached to, the 
twyer, comp. trompa (2) ; (5) tubo de n., met. section of pipe, with 
connected orifice, which joins the blast-pipe to the twyer (tobera). 

NARRIA, a sledge, see rastra (1). 

NATA (cream), Mex. (1) litharge (litargirio) ; (2) natas, slag, see escoria (1). 

NATIVO, VA, adj. native ; for plata nativa, see u. plata (2). 

NATR6N, natron or 1 native hydrous sodium sesquicarbonate, syn. sosa 
(2), trona, urao, see u. barrilla (2), tequezquite. 

NAVETA, bor. screw-plug or Kind's plug, equiv. Fr. arrache-luyc.ux, 
navette, see arrancatubos. 

NAYFE, Port. adj. rough (of a diamond). 

NEFRITA, nephrite or jade, see jade. 

NEFRITICO, CA, adj. piedra nefritica, jade, see jade. 

NEGOCIACION, negotiation, management ; commerce ; Mex. a number 
of mines, worked as one undertaking by an individual, or association 
of individuals, whose quota of expenses and profits is divided into 24 
barras (5), as they would be in working a single mine (Ward, 1828). 

NEGOCIO, business, enterprise. 

NEGRILLO, (1) negrillos, Chile, ores in which complex sulfarseniates 
and antimoniates of silver predominate, syn. Peru, pavanadcs (2), 
see u. frio, ia (2) ; (2) Caracoles, Chile, sulpho-iodide of silver 
(Domeyko), or a mixture of chloro-iodide of silver, with sulphide of 
silver, sulphide of lead and carbonate of lead (Dr. Percy), see plata (2) ; 
(3) native silver of a black colour (Guim), see plata (2) ; (4) Mex. and 
Arg. argentite, see plata (2) ; (5) stephanite (Velazquez), see plata (2) ; 



(6) negrillos, Huelva, Sp. ores rich in copper, and which are exported 
(R. Oriol) ; (7) Span. Am. ore of cupriferous silver of very dark colour 

NEGRO, GRA, adj. black ; metal negro, Mex. blende, see blenda ; 
piedra negra, Venez. greenish grey felstone ; plata negra, argentite, 
see u. plata (2) ; plata negra prismatica, stephanite, see u. plata (2). 
NEGRO, (1) Peru and Chile, caliche (1), of a dark colour and close 
texture ; (2) Guadalcazar, S. L. Potosi, Mex. hepatic cinnabar of a 
lead-grey colour, compact, and of a slatey texture (A. del M. de F.), 
see mercuric (2) ; (3) Mex. very rich tetrahedrite, see abronzado (2) ; 
(4) negro-negro, Col. black micaceous schist silver veins in this kind 
of " country " are decomposed and sterilised (Uribe) ; Tolima, Col. 
negro = aluminous schist (Gamba) ; (5) negros, Mex. sulphuretted 
ores of silver, syn. metales de patio, Chile, prietos, see plata (2), comp. 
cenizo-negro, colorados ; (6) negros, Fresnillo, Mex. iron pyrites 
containing very finely disseminated native silver and argentite 
(Burkart), see plata (2), comp. azulaque (4), colorados ; (7) Charcas, 
S. L. Potosi, Mex. antimonial grey copper ore, blende and galena, 
mixed with copper and arsenical iron pyrites, most of the silver 
occurring in the first two (Dr. Percy), see plata (2). 

NEME, Ant. Col. oxide of manganese, see canturron, manganese (2). 

NERVADURA DE MINERAL, leader, see vetilla (1). 

NERVIO (nerve), (1) longitudinal rib or strengthening- piece of a cylinder ; 
nervios, strengthening-pieces of cast-iron tubbing, etc. ; (2) parting 
in a seam of coal, etc., equiv. Fr. nerf, see caballo (4). 

NETO, TA, adj. peso neto, net weight ; producto neto, net produce. 

NICLE, a var. of chalcedony (calcedonia) with some stripes darker than 
others, see cuarzo. 

NIDADA, n. de oro (lit. nestful of gold), nest, see nido. 

NIDO, nest (of ore, etc.), syn. nidada, comp. bolsa (1), bolsada (3), nodulo 
(1), rinon (1). 

NIEGAS, Cartagena, Sp. miners' name for the sterile parts (esteril) of a 
deposit (Moncada). 

NINO, NA, adj. oro nino, Ant. Col. float gold, syn. oro de espuma. 

NIPA, Phil, kind of palm-tree ; from the leaves are made mats and 
thatches for roofs (Velazquez). 

NIQUEL, (1) nickel ; n. bronce, nickel-bronze ; (2) ore of nickel ; n. 
arsenical, niccolite [NiAs] syn. niquelina, see u. ocre. 

NIQUELINA, niccolite, see niquel (2). 

NISPERA, Nicarag. a timber-tree, Achras sapota, syn. zapote. 

NISPERO, Panama, a hard red-wood of great durability. 

NITRAL nitre-bed or deposit. 

NITRERIA, saltpetre-works. 

NITRO, (1) nitre or saltpetre, syn. nitro potasico, salitre ; (2) nitrate 
of sodium, nitrate, see caliche (1). 

241 Q 


NIVEL, (1) surv. level or levelling instrument ; n. de agua, water-level ; 
n. de aire, air-level ; n. de albanil, mason's level, see iguala (3), region 
(1), comp. mira (2) ; (2) level ; n. del agua, water-level ; n. del mar, 
sea-level ; (3) level or gallery, see galeria (1) ; (4) niveles, watery 
strata, syn. capas (1) de agua, equiv. Fr. niveaux ; (5) Sant. Sp. beds 
[bancos (3)] in quarrying calamine (Molina). 

NIVELACI6N, (1) levelling ; (2) surv. levelling, grading. 

NIVELADOR, leveller. 

NI VELAR, (1) surv. to level ; (2) to make even or level, see maestrear ; 
n. los tajos (4), to square up the faces with a pick. 

NIVELETA, (1) surv. le veiling-staff (Ponce de Leon) ; (2) boning-stick 
(of builders), equiv. Fr. nivelette. 

NOBLEZA, richness (of a vein). 

NOCHEROS, Ant. Col. men who work on the night shift, see relevo. 

NOCHISTLE, (1) Tasco, Guerr. Mex. light ruby silver, see petlanque, 
rosicler ; (2) Mex. copper pyrites, see u. bronce (3). 

N6DULO, (1) nodule, see u. gabarro, geoda (1), papa (2) ; (2) Ant. Col. point 
in which the ore of a mine appears very abundant, syn. nido, rinon (2). 

NOGAL, NOGUERA, (1) walnut-tree ; (2) wood of (1). 

NOLI, Ant. Col. miners' terms for oxysulphide of antimony resulting from 
decomposition of stibnite (Angel), see antimonio (2). 

NOQUE (tan-pit), (1) Peru, crude settling- tank, built of stone for pulp, 
between mill and patio (Dwight), syn. cocha (1) ; (2) Chile, large stone 
receptacle for the calcination of ores, exposed to the air ; in the patio 
process, stone trough in which the amalgam is washed, syn. dornajo 
de piedra, maritata. 

NORIA, (1) an endless chain, with buckets attached, revolving round a 
wheel, commonly 20 feet in diameter, when used for raising water out 
of wells, etc. It was used inside mines for drawing water out of sinks, 
which were carried down to a greater depth than the shafts, but the 
noria is no longer used in the mines of Spain (Molina). In salt-works 
cordage is sometimes used instead of chain, and the buckets are made 
of tanned hide or wood. The wheel sometimes has pegs, and is moved 
by men's feet. (2) Draw-well, deep well, see pozo (1) ; (3) any wheel 
for drawing water with a long rope. 

NORIERO, man who drives horses or mules working a noria (1). 
NUCLEO, (1) hoist, iron cylinder of a bobbin or reel, see bobina (1) ; 

(2) n. de roca, bor. core, syn. testigo. 

NUDO, (1) knot (of ore, etc.) ; (2) knot of mountains ; " punto donde 
se unen 6 cruzan dos 6 mas sistemas de montanas " (Acad.); "e 
punto de union superior de varias cuchillos, cordilleras 6 contrafuertes 
que se separan divergentemente en varias direcciones " (Mufioz) ; 

(3) Mex. knot or button on traction-rope of tramway (Dwight). 
NUEZ (nut), (1) juego de n., mech. ball and socket joint, see juego (3) ; 

(2) transp. in the endless-chain system of haulage, a kind of covered 
pulley, having six faces, worked by compressed air. 



NUSCO, Amazones, Peru, a mixture of oxide of iron and. manganese 
with foliated talc and quartz, containing gold the richest in mineral 
and the easiest to work (Sir C. Mansfield), see oro, comp. higado (1), 
panal de rosa. 

NLJZCO, (1) Peru, small coal, see u. menudo ; (2) Hualgayoc, Peru, ore 
spalled to the size of a walnut, see granado (3) and pachapampa. 

N. Words with this letter will be found arranged alphabetically under N. 

OBLICUO, UA, adj. oblique ; veta oblicua, a vein coursing obliquely 
through a mountain. 

OBRA, (1) work, see trabajo (1) ; o. de manos, hand-labour ; (2) mine 
working, see labor (2), trabajo (2) ; obras de desfrute, workings on ore ; 
obras muertas, dead workings or workings on dead rock, see faena 
(2) ; see u. prestado, da ; (3) obras, Almaden, Sp. masses of solid 
masonry, used for filling (Molina), see mamposteria (2), u. reservas (2) ; 
(4) o. de fabrica, bridge, viaduct, culvert or other similar structure in 
ways of communication (Acad.); (5) met. narrow and prismatic part 
of a blast-furnace immediately above the crucible (Acad.), the "hearth." 

OBRADOR, (1) workman (trabajador) ; mechanic ; (2) workshop, 
machine-shop, see taller (1). 

OBRADORA, (buena 6 mala), Mex. rock that breaks well or badly 

OBRAJERO, foreman, overseer, see capataz (3). 

OBRERO, workman, day-labourer, see trabajador. 

OBRIZO, ZA, adj. pure, refined, of high standard (of gold) ; obrizo is 
sometimes used as a substantive, and is then synonymous with oro 
de ley, see ley (3), oro. 

OBSIDIANA, obsidian or volcanic glass (vidro volcanico), syn. espejo 
de los Incas ; it is the esponja (3) of the Incas (Humboldt), ixtete, 
itztli or itztle, of the Aztecs, and tzinapu of the Tarascans (Orosco 
y Berra) ; var. are o. azulada, o. dorada, o. negra, o. plateada or 
argentina, o. roja or de Penjamo (much prized by the ancient 
Mexicans, for fragments of it are found in their coesillos or tombs), 
o. verde. Besides Navajas (see itztle), it is found near Tulancingo, 
Mex. It occurs in trachyte formations generally ; pitchstone (piedra 
pez) and pearlite are often associated with it, see pomez, u. riolita (1). 

OBTURADOR, OBTURATRIZ, (1) mech. trap or plug ; o. para tubos, 
tube plug or stopper ; see u. valvula ; (2) plate for collecting salt in 
Paccard's system, see calorifero ; (3) o. conico, mech. mitre valve ; 
o. neumatico, valve used for shutting off boiler for tube-collector in 
case of cracking or breaking of tubes (invented by Naissant, and 
applied by Remaux to hoisting engines). 

OBTURAR, to stop or plug. 

OCHAVA, eighth part of anything ; 1 ochava = 2 adarmes or 72 granos, 
^emarco (1). 



OCINADO, see u. tiro (1). 

OCONAL, Peru, swampy pasture-land, comp. pantano. 

OCOTE, (1) Mex. a very resinous kind of pine, used for lighting furnaces, 
etc. ; (2) Span. Am. name generally given to a kind of laurel used for 

OCRE, ochre ; see u. amarillo, lla, azufrado (1), bolo (2), u. caparrosa (1), 
carmin, sil ; o. almagro, Colorado or rojo, red ochre, see almagre, 
lapiz (2) ; o. amarillo, or o. amarillo de hierro, yellow ochre, see teco- 
zahuitl ; o. de niquel, nickel ochre or annabergite, see niquel (2). 

OFICIAL, (1) workman, see trabajador ; (2) o. de albanil, journeyman 
or master-bricklayer ; o. de carpintero, journeyman or master- 
carpenter, see maestro (2) ; (3) official or boss. 

OFICINA, (1) workshop, see taller (1) ; (2) office, counting-house, syn. 
despacho (1) ; (3) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. a furnace [horno (2)] 
containing twelve or more clay-retorts, six on a side, for reducing 
quicksilver ores ; (4) Peru, Chile, nitrate -works, syn. o. de beneficio ; 
o. de concentration, concentration -works ; o. de fundicion, smelting- 
works, see hacienda (3) and (4). 

OHMIO, el. ohm (Acad.), 

OIDO, (ear), (1) blast, orifice left in the tamping for the insertion of the 
fuse ; (2) vent, inner opening of a fan (ventilador), comp. canalizo. 

GIRO, see ouro. 

OITAVA, Port, one dram or the eighth part of an ounce (onQa) ; in 
Braz. = '1111214 oz. troy or 55'34 grains, see vintem. 

OJAL (button-hole), hoist, loop used in capping ropes, etc. ; loop tied 
to rope of a hand-winch, when used for raising or lowering men, etc. 

OJO (eye), (1) bunch or small spot of ore in a lode, small irregular deposit, 
equiv. Port, olho (2), see clavo (2) ; o. de polvillo, spot of rich ore ; 

(2) o. de agua, spring that spouts in a plain (Acad.), see manantial ; 

(3) o. de gato, cat's eye, see cuarzo ; (4) o. de vibora, Zac. Mex. yellow 
blende, see blenda ; (5) o. de muerto, Cauca, Col. blue porphyry, so 
called because of the large size and dead-white colour of the crystals 
(Granger and Treville), see porfido (1) ; (6) opening in the wall of certain 
wells for the passage of the water which drives the wheel (Acad.) ; 
(7) o. de una ciguena (3), eye of a crank, see manubrio (3) ; (8) hole 
through the centre of a wheel for the axle, axis or shaft ; (9) eye of a 
hammer (martillo), see olho (3) ; (10) ojos, hoist, eyes of a kibble 
[tonel (2)], usually four in number, for hooking on to a chain. NOTE. 
In Engl. the small handle at the base, for convenience in tipping, is 
sometimes called the " eye." (11) O. del horno, met. eye of the furnace, 
or bottom opening of the shaft or tunnel, see cuba (4) ; (12) span of a 
bridge, see luz (4) ; (13) mesh, see malla ; (14) met. peep-hole or 
port-hole of a blast-furnace (Ibran), see lumbrera (3). 

OLHO (eye) (1) Braz. vug or druse, see drusa ; (2) Braz. swell or bunch 
of ore, see bolsa (1), ojo (1) ; (3) Port, iron ring in which the helve of 
an axe is fixed, eye of a hammer, etc., see ojo (9). 



OLIGISTO, specular iron ore (Fr. fer oligiste) ; o. micaceo, micaceous 
iron ore ; o. rojo, hematite. 

OLLA, (1) round earthen pot ; Mex. clay water- jar ; (2) Mex. slag- 
pot (Dwight) ; (3) whirlpool, see remolino. 

OLLAR, adj. piedra o., a var. of serpentine (serpentina), composed 
principally of talc and chlorite, and from which vases are cut in certain 
places (Acad.) ; pot-stone. 

OLLERO, (1) potter, see alfarero ; (2) Mex. slag-pot puller (Dwight). 

OLLETAS, Ant. Col. spherical, cylindrical or tubular cavities (geol. 
pot-holes) formed in the solid bottoms of rivers by the friction 
of water, or by that of the rocks and sands which it carries 

OLMO (Port, olmeira), elm-tree, or wood of the elm. 

ONDULACIONES, see undulaciones. 

6NICE, ONIQUE, 6NIX, (1) onyx, see cornerina (2) ; (2) o. mexicano, 
Mexican onyx or lime alabaster, see u. puebla, tecali. 

ONZA, (Port. on<ja), ounce, 1 onza = 1'0148 oz. avoir, or 0*925 oz. troy 
about 442' 72 grains or 28 '75 grammes the onza of Castile is divided 
into 8 dracmas and 16 adarmes. 

OPAL ADO, DA, adj. see u. feldespato. 

OPALO, opal, the mezcuitlatl of the Aztecs ; del Rio names the following 
var. : o. fino, o. comun, semiopalo, xilopalo (wood opal), jaspe opalo 
(opal jasper), hialita (hyalite or Muller's Glass), menilia (menilite) ; 
o. de fuego or girasol (fire opal) is a var. of o. comun ; other var. are 
opalos hungaros, arlequines, lechosos, etc. ; opalos nobles are the rare 
or precious opals. The opals of Esperanza, Quer. Mex. occur in a 
brownish red quartz porphyry (porfido) as opalos finos, arlequines, 
girasoles de fuego, semiopalos, etc. 

OPCI6N, option, (on a mining property, etc.). 

OPERARIO, workman, labourer, see trabajador ; working miner, comp. 
minero (2) ; o. de gavia, bearer of loads, see portador. 

OQUEDAD, empty space, concavity, hole, pore, cavity ; channel of 
communication between irregular deposits of ore. 

ORAL, ser un oral, Ant. Col. phrase relating to the richness of a 

ORDENANZAS, laws, ordinances ; those of Philip II. of Spain, Gamboa 
calls O. del Nuevo Cuaderno (Pamphlet), to distinguish them from 
the O. del Antiguo Cuaderno (E. A. Baca). The O. de Mineria, or 
Mining Ordinances, came into operation in Mexico in 1784, and were 
replaced by the (first) Codigo de Minas in 1884 ; the 0. de Nueva 
Espana were used in Peru from 1786 until the end of 1900. 

OREJA (ear), (1) mech. lug, flange, ear, wing, e.g., trepano de orejas, 
bor. bit or chisel with wings ; (2) ajuste de o., Mex. timb. a joint 
between horizontal timber [cincho (3)] and stemple (estemple), see 
Fig. 25. 



ORGANAL, Ant. Col. auriferous alluvial intercalated among stones or 
boulders, rendering its exploitation very diffi- 
cult and dangerous, see Fig. 57, after Mufioz. 

6RGANO, see u. entibacion. 

ORIFICIO, orifice, mouth, aperture ; st. eng. 
port. o. de admision, o. de entrada, mech. 

inlet ; o. de salida, mech. outlet, see FIG. 57. Orgtinal (after 
registro (2) ; o. equivalente, vent, equiva- Munoz). 

lent orifice (Fr. orifice equivalente) of 
Murgue, who divides all mines into three 
categories, (a) minas anchas (Fr. mines larges), with orifice greater 
than unity (1 square metre), (6) minas medianas (Fr. mines moyennes), 
about equal to unity, and (c) minas estrechas (Fr. mines etroites), sen- 
sibly less than unity ; for o. de paso, and o. de perdidas, consult Molina. 

ORILLA, (1) shore of the sea, bank of a river, see playa (1) ; (2) o. de 
barro or de arcilla, flucan or clay selvage, see guarda (1). 

ORILLAJE, Mex. timb. sheet lagging (Dwight), see revestimiento (1). 

ORfN, rust of iron, syn. herrumbre, moho, robin (rust of any metal). 

ORITO (dim. of oro), Ant. Col. traces of gold found in the batea. 

ORO, gold, syn. Ecuador, curi, equiv. Port, oiro, ouro, Fr. or, Ger. Gold ; 
o. bajo, see tumbago ; o. cristalizado, crystallised gold ; o. de aluvion, 
alluvial or placer gold, see u. corrido, da, greda (6) ; o. de barranca, 
Ant. Col. gold from the cerros-of Santa Rosa ; o. de lavadero, wash 
gold ; o. de ley, gold of high standard, see obrizo ; o. de molino, gold 
obtained in trunking ; o. de monte, gold extracted from the gold 
mines of Angostura, Antioquia, Colombia ; o. de veta, vein gold ; 
o. en hojas, leaf gold ; o. en pasta, bruto or virgen, bullion, see barra, 
(3), oroche ; o. en polvo, or o. empolvado, gold dust ; o. libre, free 
gold ; o. molido a mano, gold obtained by hand-grinding and dis- 
tinguished by its form, the particles being similar to little cylinders 
sharpened at their extremities ; o. negro, Venez. gold covered by a 
deep black to brownish red crust of iron oxide and organic matter 
which will not amalgamate (G. C. Dubois), equiv. Braz. ouro preto ; 
o. verde, gold of a green colour ; see acerado (1), alfileres, astilla (2), 
u. bola (3), u. bronce (3), u. cantera (3), u. colorados, congo (1) and (2), 
copela (3), corte (9), crespo, pa, criadero (4), u. escama, espuma (4), 
evaporado, frisol, granalla (2) and (3), guanin, u. guija (2), higado (1) 
and (2), interes (1), jabon (3), jacutinga, jagua (2), jumos, lamina (3), 
madre (4) and (5), manta (4), moscorrofio, mulata, u. nino, na, nusco, 
obrizo, orito, palacra (1) and (2), panal de rosa, panizo (1), piedra azul 
(u. piedra), polvorilla (2), porfido (2), quilate (1) and (2), rayado (2), 
recogida, secadora, segullo, sil, tapanhoacanga, tepostel (2), tibir. 

OROCHE, (1) Mex. bullion containing both gold and silver, either of 
which may predominate in weight or value, dore, see u. oro, comp. 
barra (3), palacra (2) ; (2) o. natural, native auriferous silver or 
electrum, see electro (2). 



OROYA, Span. Am. hanging-basket or sling for carrying passengers 
and goods over rope-bridges ; it is generally made of leather (Velaz- 
quez), see u. puente (1), tarabita. 

OSARIOS, Ant. Col. Indian remains found in clay vases, etc., c-omp. guaca. 

OTERO, top. isolated hill in a plain, comp. cerro (1). 

OTORGADO, grantee. 

OTORGANTE, grantor. 

OTORGAR, leg. to declare, execute, grant. 

OURO, Port, gold, syn. oiro ; o. amoedado, coined gold ; o. em po, gold 
dust ; o. lavado, wrought gold ; o. preto, Braz. black gold or gold 
discoloured by ferric oxide, see oro negro u. oro. 

OYAMEL, OYAMETL, Mex. white pine (Chism), syn. abeto ; it is the chief 
wood used for timbering in the mines of Pachuca ; abeto cornun = 
Norway fir ; abeto de California = Douglas pine (Ponce de Leon). 

OYE ! (O-O-O-O-YE !), Mex. word used to call attention in a hoisting- 
shaft up to 200 feet deep, comp. bueno ! 

PA, Port, shovel ; pa de ferro, iron shovel, see pala, shaula. 

PABELLON, p. de entrada, vent, large chamber leading to the inner 
opening [oido (2)] of a fan (ventilador) such as Ratteau's. 

PABILO, wick of a candle, see torcida. 

PACA (from Engl. pack), com. bale, pack, package. 

PACHAMANCA, horno (2) de p., Peru, a small reverberatory furnace, 
of ancient origin, with a shallow basin like that of a cupelling-furnace 
(0. F. Pfordte), see u. senorial. 

PACHAPAMPA, Hualgayoc, Peru, ore picked out of the waste, the size 
of a walnut, see granado (3) and nuzco. 

PACOS, (1) Peru, silver ores, with oxide of iron, generally of a reddish 
colour ; red ores, rich in oxides, which take the name of llampos, if 
they are earthy, and pedernales, if formed of a siliceous sand im- 
pregnated with oxide of iron (Fuchs and De Launay) ; on an average 
they contain about 500 grammes of silver to the ton (De Launay), 
syn. cascajos (4) ; P. F. Chalon divides the silver ores of Span. Am. 
into two classes : 

PACOS. Minerals de plata blanca, galenes, cuivre gris, pyrites et 
limonites. Minerals calidos, chlorures, bromures, iodures et 

P AVON ADOS. Minerals frios. Sulfures et rosiclers. 
In certain districts of Peru paco occurs in limestone, and is rich in 
oxide of iron and silver, mixed with raw sulphide low in silver it fluxes 
the ore and furnishes silver for the matte (R. T. Mason) ; see colorados 
(1), comp. bronces (6), frios (4), mulatos (1) and (2), pavonados, pecos ; 
pacos y cascajos, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, general name given to the sili- 
ceous, ferruginous and argentiferous mass of rocks having a detritic 
aspect ; (2) Chile, silver ores in which chlorides predominate, forming 
a gray and ochreous earth, see u. calido, da, colorados (1). 



PADRASTAL, a sterile vein which crosses another (Moncada), see 

PADRE DEL SAL, see u. madre (2). 

PAGA, payment, fee, salary ; wages, pay, see Jornada (2), jornal (2), 
comp. merced. 

PAILA, (1) large pan ; p. de amalgamation, amalgamating pan ; p. de 
espurgue, clean-up pan, see tina (2) ; (2) boiler, see u. altar, caldera (2). 

PAJA (straw), (1) p. con polvora, blast, match, see mecha (1) ; (2) S. 
Am. leaves of various palm-trees, used for thatching purposes ; (3) p. 
de agua, Ant. Col. hydr. water that will pass an orifice in a thin plate 
of 12 lineas (23'22 mm.) diameter, under a pressure, at the centre, of 
24 lineas (46'44 mm.), equiv. to 21'964 cb.m. per 24 hours ; in Me- 
dellin = 19 '20 cb.m. per 24 hours (A. J. Duque) ; (4) paja-quemada, 
Potosi, Bol. plumosite or a capillary var. of jamesonite, resembling 
fine burnt straw. It occurs in vugs, and is argentiferous, giving as 
much as 0'6 per cent, silver, although generally much poorer (M. 
Roberts), see acerado (4), plata (2). 

PAJARO MINERO, Venez. miner-bird ; " some of the natives have a 
strong belief that the miner-bird is a sure indicator of alluvial gold " 
(G. P. Ashmore and C. Seale). 

PAJUELA, (1) blast, slow-match, see mecha (1) ; (2) glittering ore 
(Ponce de Leon) ; (3) pajuelas, p. de hierro, iron scales ; p. de oro, 
grains of gold (Ponce de Leon). 

PALA, (1) shovel, syn. Peru, lampa, equiv. Port, pa, Minas Geraes, Braz. 
shaula, Fr. pelle, Ger. Schaufel, comp. azada ; p. con mango, shovel 
with handle ; p. de chuzo, Mex. round-pointed shovel (Dwight) ; p. 
cuadrada, square-pointed shovel ; see carrana, cortadera [u. cava (2)], 
creminel, draga (3), paleta (1) and (2) ; (2) p. del turbero, peat- or turf- 
cutter : p. grande, large ditto, syn. gran p. de orejas ; p. grande doble 
or cuadruple, still larger sizes, see cuchara (3) ; (3) palas indicas (lit. 
Indian shovels), special apparatus for excavating below water, in 
tubbing shafts (Gillman) ; (4) blade (hoja) of axe, hatchet, etc. 

PALACRA, PALACRANA, (1) piece of native gold, nugget, see pepita ; 
(2) ingot of pure gold, see lingote. 

PALADA, shovelful (Fr. pelletee). 

PALANCA, (1) lever, see alzaprima, bascula (1), espeque (2), mangueta ; 
p. de aguja, rail, switch-lever ; p. de balancin, beam-lever ; p. de 
freno, brake-lever ; p. de manguito (2), clutch-lever ; (2) p. de hierro, 
crowbar, see barra (1), barron ; (3) horse-beam of a horse-whim or 
malacate (1), see espeque (1) ; (4) p. de campana, hoist, knocker or 
signalling apparatus in shafts ; (5) Mex. toggle of rock-crusher 
(Dwight), see quebrantador ; (6) see u. bascula (2) ; (7) Col. timb 
leg-piece, see peon (4). 

PALANQUE, Mex. blast, barring after shots have been fired (Dwight). 

PALANQUERO, (1) driver of stakes, pile-driver; (2) palanqueros, machine- 
men or men in charge of machinery, syn. palanquistas, see revisador 



(2) ; (3) Ant. Col. timberman, see palero (1) ; (4) man who works the 
bellows in iron-works (Acad.). 

PALANQUILLA, hierro p., see u. hierro (1). 

PALANQUIN, Cartagena, Sp. lever or brake of a hand- jig (Ibran), see 


PALANQUISTA, see palanquero (2). 
PALASTRO, plate of iron ; sheet-iron, iron rolled or beaten into sheets 

(hierro laminado). 
PALEADOR, man who works with the shovel, shoveller, syn. palero 

(3) ; coal- trimmer. 

PALEADURO, PALEAJE, shovelling. 
PALEAR, to shovel, syn. apalear. 

PALERO, (1) maker or seller of shovels ; (2) ditcher, drainer ; (3) 
shoveller ; coal -trimmer, see paleador ; (4) timberman, syn. ademador 
(1), entibador, Ant. Col. palanquero (3), Astur. Sp. volante (5), equiv. 
Fr. boiseur, Ger. Zimmerhauer, Zimmerling ; (5) mine carpenter, 
see ademador (2). 

PALETA, (I) small shovel, fire-shovel, see pala (1) ; (2) vent, vane of a 
ventilator (ventilador) ; (3) bucket or float-board of a water-wheel, 
syn. alabe (1), voladera, see cubeta (3) ; (4) Alicante, Sp. (salt-works), 
kind of hook [gancho (1)] for breaking up and lifting the thin layers 
of precipitated salt (Molina), see gleba, volvedor ; (5) mech. catch, 
cam, wiper (Ponce de Leon), see cama (3) ; (6) mas. trowel, see trulla. 

PALETADA, trowelful of mortar, see paleta (6). 

PALLACO, Peru, a piece of ore of good quality found on the waste-heaps 
[desechos (3)] sometimes left at the mouth of an abandoned mine 
(Guim), see rebotalleros. 

PALLADOR, Peru, ore-sorter, as distinguished from the chancador. 

PALLAQUEAR, PALLAR, Peru, to sort or pick pallacos from the dumps, 
see rebotalleros. 

PALLON, (1) assay, button of gold or silver in cupellation, assay-button ; 
(2) assay of gold when incorporated with the silver after cupellation, 
and before parting with nitric acid (Acad.). 

PALMO, palm, handbreadth, one-quarter of a Spanish yard or vara (1). 

PALO, (Port, pao), (1) stick, pole, see tocho (1) ; (2) timber (madera) ; 
Zac. Mex. any timber used in a mine, whether round or rectangular ; 
p. lancero, see u. Have (14) ; palos labrados, hewn timber ; palos 
redondos, round timber ; (3) p. hierro, Sonora, Mex. small tree of hard 
wood, used in mines ; (4) timb. single prop, see mono (2) ; (5) piedra palo, 
La Serena, Chile, asbestos this mineral, together with calcite, is the 
principal gangue of a copper lode it is regarded as a good indication. 

PALUSTRE, mas. trowel, see trulla. 

PAMPA, (1) S. Am. an extensive plain, covered with grass, see llano ; 
Peru, elevated plain occupying the base of mountains, comp. jalca ; 
(2) Phil, a tree, the wood of which is used for making chests, etc. 



PAN (from Engl.), pan, see tina (2). 

PANAL DE ROSA (rose honeycomb), Amazonas, Peru, quartz, more or 
less intersected with fissures, and, in places, containing gold in visible 
quantity ; it is of far less value than nusco, as being more difficult to 
extract and harder to crush (Sir C. Mansfield), see oro, comp. higado (1). 

PANAR, Ant. Col. alluv. m. to collect in the caches (2), or curved wooden 
diggers, the sands destined for the ground-sluice [canalon (2)], and to 
deposit them in the bateas (Uribe). 

PANELLA, Minas Geraes, Braz. miners' term for druse, see drusa. 

PANINO, (1) Mex. country-rock, country, formation or ground, syn. 
Chile, panizo (3), see roca (4) ; classified by Mexicans into : (a) p. muy 
blando, very soft rock, (b) p. blando, soft rock which can be won by 
pick, bar and wedge, but which requires to be timbered, (c) p. favorable, 
ordinary ground which can be won by drilling, (d) p. macizo, hard 
rock ; (e) p. muy macizo, the hardest rock met with in mining the 
above corresponds, more or less, to the classification of the Spaniards, 
see masa (7) ; p. cenizo, Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. occurs in 
stringers or pipes, is soft and sandy, resembling bone-ash somewhat 
moistened and gently pressed together without drying. The direction 
of the stringers is most erratic at first sight, but appears to be connected 
in some way with a complicated system of fissures ; [the ore] bodies 
(cinnabar, etc.) are always closely connected with these stringers of 
panino (H. F. Collins), see mercuric (2). (2) Matrix or gangue, see 
matriz ( 1 ). 

PANIZO, ( 1 ) Hualgayoc. Peru, felspathic gangue [matriz (1)] comp. guijo ; 
Pataz, Peru, a whitish felspar rock, or kind of kaolin, with occasional 
veins of talcose clay, with which gold is sometimes associated (Sir 
C. Mansfield), see oro ; (2) Hualgayoc, Peru, trachyte " country " 
(Raimondi) ; Chile, "country," see panino (1) ; p. verde, Chaiiarcillo, 
sheets of melaphyre and diabase which are intercalated in limestones, 
see chorro (3) ; p. ahuesado or ahumado, name given to a similar 
sheet, which is 100 m. thick, and which separates the second from 
the third silver zone. 

PANO (cloth, any woven stuff), p. de cabecera, or de la mesa, Ant. Col. 
baize (bayeta) or the upper part of a blanket-table, top blanket ; 
panos, blankets, blanketing. 

PANTALLA, lamp-shade ; screen for the light of a candle or lamp, 
reflector, syn. reverbero (1). 

PANTANO, (1) swamp (Peru, atolladero), morass, pool of stagnant 
water, fen, moor, see balsar, cienega (1), humedal ( 1 ), marjal, menucos, 
templaderas (2), tremedal, turbera, comp. oconal ; (2) reservoir or lake 
for the purpose of irrigation (Velazquez). 

PANTANOSO, SA, adj. marshy, fenny, boggy. 

PAO, Port, stick ; piece of timber, wood (Span, palo) ; p. da rainho, 
Braz. Brazil-wood (Ccesalpinia brasiliensis), very hard and heavy, 
yields a fine red dye and takes a beautiful polish. 



PAPA, (1) nugget of gold or silver, see pepita, comp. reventon (2); 
(2) nodule of mineral, see nodulo (1) ; papas, Salinas Grandes (salt- 
marshes) of Arg. nodules of ulexite, generally about the size of a 
man's fist (H. Buttgenbach) ; see u. caliche (1). 

PAPAGAYO (parrot), see u. escalera (1). 

PAPEL (paper), p. cafiuela, blast, special kind of paper used for a 
" match " or " fuse," see media (1) ; for hoja de p., see hoya (2). 

PAR, (pair), (1) pares, b. constr. end or outside rafters of a roof, comp. 

cabrios ; (2) two struts [riostras (1)] // / / / /-/y 

strengthening an upright post, see Fig. 58. 

PARA, Mex. leather apron worn by miners 
(Venator), see vestido. 

PARACAIDAS (parachute), (1) hoist, safety- 
appliances for bringing the cage quickly 
to rest in case of fracture of rope, see u. 
cerrojo, garra, jaula (2), comp. Have (7) ; 
(2) pump, catch, see cuerno (2) ; (3) bor. 

parachute, fixed to boring-rod, to prevent IG * 

, . . ., * r i i "n par (de riostras). 

the velocity of the fall in case of breakage. 

PARADA, (1) relay or change of mules or horses, syn. remuda ; (2) Mex. 
relief or change of men, see relevo ; (3) Mex. a gang or crew ; una 
parada may consist of four men = Cornw. a pare, syn. Guan. una herra- 
mienta ; paradas a destajo, see destajo ; paradas a la carga, a pare 
paid by the load (12 to 14 arrobas) of ore won, its assay value being 
taken into account ; paradas a partido, see partido (3) ; paradas de 
busca, a pare paid a certain proportion of ore which they extract, 
tributers ; paradas de hacienda or de obra, a pare working by day ; 
paradas rayadas, a pare (generally two) paid by the day of eight hours ; 
see cabecera (6), u. cuadrilla (1), pareja, partido (3), punta (6), u. rescate 
(1), tandd (3), comp. destajo ; (4) dam (presa (1)], bank ; (5) sistema 
de paradas, Chile, old method of obtaining nitrate of soda by evaporat- 
ing caliche (1) in an iron cauldron [fondo (1)], see ripio (8), comp. 

PARADERA, (1) sluice, flood-gate, see compuerta (2) ; (2) u. haul, a 
long and thick pointed or forked bar, known as the backstay, attached 
to wagons in automatic inclined planes, to prevent the car running 
away in case of breakage, syn. tentemozo (2) ; (3) hoist, rope used for 
tying up one handle of the windlass. 

PARADERO (halting-place), rail, station, depot, see estacion (2). 

PARAFUSO, Port, screw [rosca (1)]; bolt (cerrajo). 

PARAL, (1) scaffolding-pole, syn. p. de andamio ; carp, standard, prop, 
stay ; (2) parales, Ant. Col. timb. leg-pieces [see peon (4)] or uprights. 

PARAMENTO, (1) mas. face of a hewn stone, see cara (5) ; (2) face of a 
wall, of a dam, etc. ; (3) lining of a blast-furnace, see revestimiento (2). 

PARAMERA, region or vast extent of territory where paramos abound 



PARAMILLA, Chile, low range of mountains, comp. cordillera. 

PARAMO, flat, elevated and desert country, open to all winds, without 
cultivation and inhabitants (Acad.), syn. Peru, Bol. puna, see jalea, 
comp. llano. 

PARAPETO, breastwork, see pretil, u. trincho (1). 

PARAR, to stop ; p. la bateria or el molino, to stop the battery or mill, 
comp. colgar (4). 

PARARRAYO, PARARRAYOS, lightning-rod or conductor. 

PARCHE, geol. patch of rock (Gamba). 

PARCIONERO, partner in a business ; Mex. partner in mines, or in a 
mining contract. 

PARDO, DA, adj. of the colour of the earth, intermediate between black 
and white, and with a yellowish red tint, darker than grey (Acad.) ; 
pardo blanquizco, silver-grey ; for plata parda, see u. plata (2). 

PARDO, Mex. oxidised or surface ore (Dwight), see colorados. 

PARED, (1) wall of stone, brick, etc. syn. muro (1) ; p. medianera, 
party-wall, see tabique (1) ; (2) wall or side of a level, drift or shaft, 
see costado ; (3) side or wall of a vein or bed, see hastial (1), respaldo ; 
(4) Col. sides of earth, very compact and resisting, in excavations of 
Indian graves or guacas. 

PAREDERO, waller (Ponce de Leon). 

PAREJA, pair, couple ; pare of men, see cuarteo (2), parada (3). 

PARIHUELA, hand-barrow, see carreta (2), carro (4) ; (2) litter or 
stretcher, see Camilla. 

PARRAG6N, assay, standard silver, see u. burilada. 

PARRILLA, (1) grate of a furnace, see rejilla (3) ; (2) parrillas (gridiron), 
mech. prep, sizing-bars or grizzly, see u. criba, u. grella, reja (1), rejilla 
(1), u. tamiz, zaranda (2). 

PARTIDANOS, Cartagena, Sp. men who work manganiferous iron ore 
by opencast, or by a number of shallow shafts, to a depth of 20 m. only 
(Fuchs and Delaunay). 

PARTIDO, (1) district [distrito (1)] of a province, see provincia ; (2) Mex. 
division of ore, (a) among partners (socios), (6) by barreteros of what- 
ever they get over and above the tequio (2), which is the portion they 
have to deliver in so many hours, see rescate (3) ; (3) Mex. portion of 
ore (a) paid by the miners to the owner of the adit or of the desagiie 
general for taking out waste (desmontes), ores and for pumping 
(Gamboa), (6) paid to the miners ; in Pachuca the tutworkmen are 
paid one-eighth of best ore (primera) which they sort out underground, 
over and above the contract price, or tributers are paid one-eighth 
of all ore which they sort out, besides $0.50 per day, and each pare 
of two barreteros is allowed two peons paid by the mine, with necessary 
candles. The " avio " of the barreteros is for their own account, but 
materials, as lime, mocheta, etc., iron- work and necessary tools are 
provided by the mine (Bol. de I. G. deM.), see campo (2), huachacas, 
machote (1), u. parada (3), comp. cuarteo (3) ; (4) Pachuca, Mex. timb. 



dividing-pieces built up of cuartones (1) one on top of the other so as 
to form a solid division isolating the compartment, see atravesada (2). 

PARTIDOR, (1) see u. taller ; (2) ore-sorter, see apartador (1). 

PASADOR, pin or bolt, see cerrojo, clavija (1), perno (3) ; p. con clavija, 
collar-pin, cotter-pin ; p. de articulacion, wrist-plate of Corliss valves 
(Fr. planche d 'oscillation,) ; p. de chaveta, key-bolt or cotter-bolt, see 
chaveta ; p. del enganche, rail, coupling-pin ; p. de tornillo, screw-bolt. 

PASAJERO, see u. prestado, da. 

PASAMANO, (1) balustrade or railing, see baranda ; rail, hand-rail ; 

(2) pasamanos, a rope used by men to assist them in walking up 
and down inclined galleries or shafts provided with steps (Molina) ; 

(3) Zac. Mex. timb. divider or dividing-piece, see atravesada (2) ; 

(4) Potosi, Bol. native silver in a wiry interlaced form ; when found 
it curiously enough is considered a bad omen, as experience appears 
to have taught that it is a sure sign of the lode becoming poor 
(M. Roberts), see plata (2). 

PASEO (walk), p. de tierras, S. Sp. transport on the backs of men, etc- 
(transporte a hombros) ; a man can carry 15 to 25 kg. at a speed of 
31 to 63 cm. per second (Gillman), see gavia. 

PASILLA, Mex. in the patio process, silver amalgam pressed into a dry 
mass, or in a dry condition, " una liz [lis] lima, cuando restregandola 
con el pulgar contra las paredes de la jicara abandona pella seca 
' pasilla ' " (Bol. dell. G. deM.), syn. copos (2), see amalgama, comp. 
copella, pella (2). 

PASILLO (small, narrow passage), c.m. thirl, thurling, bolt-hole, cut- 
through, (S. Wales) cross-hole, a short cross-cut between two parallel 
roadways or headings for ventilation, or for winning the coal, see 
galeria (1). 

PASO, (1) step or rung of a ladder [escala (1)], see escalon (1) ; (2) ore- 
pass or -shoot (U.S.A. ore-chute or -slide), syn. Pachuca, Mex. alcan- 
cia, Sinaloa, Mex. caiman (1), cajon (15), Mex. chorreadero, Ant. Col. 
coladero (2), pocillo (4), resbaladero, Ant. Col. rumbadero or rumbon 
(2), tolva (2), equiv. Fr. cheminee, puits de chute, Ger. Rolle, Rollloch, 
see cormano, trampilla, vertederas ; (3) rnech. passage or way ; p. de 
hombre, manhole ; p. a nivel, rail, level-crossing ; (4) top. pass 
(between mountains), syn. cortadura (1), puerto (2), see angostura (2), 
boquete (1), callejon (2), derrumbo (2), desfiladero, escobio, estrecho 
(2), garganta (4), portezuela, quebrada (2) ; pass of a river, ford ; 
(5) any underground passage, drift or gallery ; p. real, main road or 
gallery, see galeria (1) ; (6) mech. pitch of the tooth of a wheel ; p. de 
un tornillo, pitch of a screw. 

PASTA (paste), (1) Mex. argentiferous ores, as blende, galena, etc., but 
not of high grade, see plata (2) ; (2) Ozamatlan, Mich. Mex. argentite, 
see pla,ta (2) ; (3) Guerr. Mex. and Chile, grey copper ore or tetra- 
hedrite (cobre gris), rich in silver, see plata (2) ; (4) Zacualpan, Mex. 
silver- bearing iron pyrites, see plata (2) ; (5) Sinaloa, Mex. metallic 




coating on rock, generally silver ore ; p. china, in rounded pieces, p. 

morada, purple ditto, p. mantecosa, lead-coloured ditto, are not con- 
sidered good by the miners, whereas p. negra is liked by them, see 

plata (2) ; (6) bullion or uncoined silver ; p. mixta, silver bullion, for 

plata p., see u. plata (1) ; (7) Mex. amalgam of gold or silver 

(Dwight), see amalgama. 
PASTORES, two pieces of wood for uniting and strengthening the 

horizontal supports of a windlass, see Fig. 59, 

see torno (2) ; lower horizontal ties of the 

pulley-frame of a mule-whim, comp. crucero 

PASTOSO, SA, adj. metal pastoso, Mex. bourno- 

nite (Guillemin-Tarayre) or wheel-ore, equiv. 

Ger Schwarzspiessglanzerz. 
PASTOSOS, Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. 

copper ores in which the matrix of quartz, 

calcite or fluor spar is scarce, syn. blandos, 

comp. duros, lamosos (1), yesosos, see cobre (2). 
PATA, (1) patas, legs of the frame [mesa (4)] 

of a windlass, see torno (2) ; legs of the 

frame supporting the axle of a water-wheel, 

etc. ; (2) p. de cabra, crowbar, nail-puller, 

see arrancaclavos ; (3) p. de liebre, see u. 

corazon (2). 
PATENTE, Chile, annual tax on mines, amount- 

FIG. 59. Pastores (after 

m ?, mucrtos ; 

d*irv / -i- s a > su-bol (2), cilindra (2) or 

mg to f 10 (Chilian) per ann. per hectare, see niaza (4) .' &> C0 stiii a s (5) 

derecho (2), impuesto. or lagging; cc, cojiuetes 

PATILLA, (1) Mex. movable platform or 
cradle, see descanso (4) ; (2) pozos y patillas, 
see u. pozo (3). 

PATILLO, Col. timb. joint between cap and leg, see Fig. 60, it is a var. 
of that known as ajuste a la hungara, see Fig. 48. 

PATfN (skate), (1) patines, runners of a sledge, see 
rastra (1) ; (2) patines, pump, wings or catches 
attached to the spear-rod [tirante ( 1 ) maestro] ; 
(3) carril de p., flat-bottom rail, see u. carril (3) 
and remarks u. seta. 

PATfO, Mex. a square or rectangular piece of 
white linen, used by the miners ; it is doubled 
diagonally, and the ends are tied round the neck 
or hips (Ramirez), see vestido. 

PATIO, (1) yard, court or floor ; p. de amalgamacion, amalgamation 
court or floors, syn. galera (3) de amalgamacion, see echadero, galera 
(1), incorporadero, comp. cerco (4) ; (2) beneficio de p., cold amalgama- 
tion processor American heap-amalgamation, syn. amalgamacion 
en frio. It was invented by Bartolome de Medina, of Pachuca, Mex, 


FIG. 60. Pjitillo. 


in 1557, introduced into Peru in 1574. In 1793 mules and horses were 
first used in the process, saving 75 per cent, in labour cost. See achua, 
acido (2), activar, alacran (1), apurador (2), apuradora (2), apuro, 
asiento (3), aturdir, bajo (2), bano (1), banquillos (1), u. barra (3), u. 
batea, boliche (1), bollos (1), borracho (2), cabecilla (2), caer de cruz, 
calentar, calentura, calor de frio, camon (4), canal (1), capellina, 
caperuza (1), capote (1), carcamo (1), casa de fundicion (u. casa), 
cebachores, cebo (3), ceja (1), chorrear, u. cola (8), colpa (1), con- 
sumido, contraraspa, copella, copos (1), craza, cuchara (1), cuerpo (1) 
and (2), curtido (2), curtir, descanso (5), desecho (1), empellar, empleo, 
encadene, enfriar, ensalmorar, ensalmoro, u. ensayador, 11. estanque 
(3), estrujon, u. estufa, frio (1), fries, fuerte, gamuza, granza (1), guia 
(8), hijuela (2), hormiguillar, hormiguillo (2), incorporar, incorporo, 
u. jales, jalsontles, jantilla, ladrillera (2), lama (2), lamero (l)and(2), 
lamoso (2), lavadero (3), lave, lengua, (5), limadura (3) and (4), Us, 
lista, llapar, maestro (3), magistral, manga (2), maquila (2), marmaja 
(2), mayordomo, noque (2), pasilla, pella, pelo (4), perdida, pila (1) 
and (2), pina (1) and (2), piquete (4), pir, u. planilla (1), platillo (1), 
polvillos (3), precipitado, puruna (2), quema (1), quesos, raspa (2)^ u. 
relave, rendida, rendir, repasadores, repasar, repaso, reposadero (4), 
reposar, rescate, rosca (3) and (4), saltierra [u. sal (1)], sangrar (2), 
ii. seco, ca, suadero, tajadera (3), tapaojos, techichil, templador, tenta- 
dura (1), tentadurero, tepestate, tina (2), u. tocado, da, torta (1), 
traspaleo, voltear ; metales de p., see negros ; plata de p., see u. plata (1) ; 
(3) trabajar por p., Ant. Col. to quarry or make an open cut, see tajo (3). 

PATR6N, (1) overman, see sobrestante ; (2) design, pattern, templet, 
see plantilla (1). 

PATRONA, see u, sobrestante. 

PAULISTAS, Minas Geraes, Braz. natives of Sao Paulo, who first dis- 
covered alluvial gold in the neighbourhood of that city (H. K. Scott). 

PAUSA (rest), Guan. Mex. timb. prop, single prop, see mono (2). 

PAVA, (1) met. large bellows, generally double ; (2) S. Sp. blast-furnace, 
syn. horno (2) de p. 

PAVONADO, (1) Peru, tetrahedrite, or cobre gris, frequently highly 
argentiferous, see plata (2) ; sometimes = tennantite or enargite ; 
p. fino = malinowskite (Raimondi) ; (2) pavonados, Peru, rich zone, 
below the bronces (3 d), composed principally of sulphides and sulpho- 
antimoniates of silver, and yielding 8 to 9 kg. of silver to the ton 
(De Launay), see negrillo (1), u. pacos, plata (2). 

PEAJE, PEDAJE, bridge-toll, ferriage. 

PEAJERO, toll-gatherer. 

PECA, see mancha. 

PECE, clay wetted for making mud walls (tapias). 

PECES, see pez (3). 

PECHERA, Mex. leather or cloth worn by labourer packing ore, to 
protect neck and back (Dwight), see vestido. 



PECHO, (1) met. front wall of a shaft-furnace, see cuba (4) ; (2) barreno 

(1) de p., blast, horizontal drill-hole ; (3) p. de paloma, Peru, phillipsite 
(Raimondi), see polvorilla (2). 

PEDAJE, see peaje. 

PEDAL, sort of lever for actuating a valve. 

PEDERNAL, (1) flint, a massive compact var. of quartz (cuarzo), syn. 
piedra de candela, de chispa, de escopeta, de fusil, de lumbre or de 
mobre, (Aztec) tecpatl (in part) ; hornstone [corneo (1)] or chert ; 

(2) pedernales, Peru, silver ores formed of siliceous sand impregnated 
with oxide of iron, see u. pacos (1). 

PEDESTAL, mech. plummer-block, pedestal, shaft-bearer, see chumacera. 

PEDIMENTO, petition ; Chile, written petition for piece of mining 
ground to public notary, comp. denuncio, solicitud. 

PEDRA, Port, stone ; p. de cantaria, freestone, syn. pedraria ; p. de 
cevar, loadstone ; p. de corno, hornstone ; p. hurna de rocha, rock- 
alum ; p. pomes, pumice-stone ; p. de ferro, Braz. ironstone or quartz 
of itabirite replaced by oxide of iron, forming a very pure iron ore ; 
p. dos lages, Minas Geraes, Braz. flagstone of schistose quartzite used 
for building purposes (H. K. Scott). 

PEDREGAL, place full of stones, syn. pedriza (2), see canchal, cantizal, 
comp. cascajal, guijarral. 

PEDRERA, (Port, pedreira), quarry, stone-pit, see cantera (1). 

PEDRERO (Port, pedreiro), stone-cutter, syn. cantero (1). 

PEDRICERO, Sierra de Cartagena, Sp. mason who constructs dry walls 
[pedrizas (3)], see alarife (2), albanil (1). 

PEDRIZA, (1) quarry, see cantera (1) ; (2) see pedregal ; (3) Sierra de 
Cartagena, Sp. dry wall [muro (1) en seco] or dry arch [boveda (3) en 
seco], see pedricero. 

PEGA, act of firing a blast, see pegar. 

PEGADOR, blast, man who fires the match ; blaster, or man who loads 
and fires the blast-hole. 

PEGADURA, (1) pitching, daubing with pitch ; (2) metal en pegaduras, 
massive ore, see u. acerado (1), u. rasposo ; (3) pegaduras, stickings 
in old mines ore sticking to or coating the walls ; (4) met. " scaffold," 
seemorro (2). 

PEGAR, p. el barreno (1), to fire a blast-hole, see tirar. 

PEINE (comb), S. Sp. mech. prep, the inclined grating or screen at the 
head of the distributor of a mesa (1) de arroyo. 

PELADILLA, small pebble, generally white (quartz), see guijarro (1). 

PELDANO, step of a staircase [escalera (1)] ; rung of a ladder, see 
escalon (1), u. escalera (2). 

PELLA, (1) mass of metal in its crude state, comp. pina (2) ; (2) Mex. 
amalgam left after the mercury has been squeezed out, syn. pelleta, 
pina (1), see u. incorporo, comp. pasilla ; beneficio de p. de plata, 
see u. beneficio ; plata pella, silver amalgam ; p. natural, native 



PELLETA, see pella (2). 

PELO, (1) opaque streak in gems, etc. ; (2) split in metals ; (3) grain of 
wood ; (4) cueros al p., see u. cuero (1) ; (5) Mex. in the patio process, 
the surface of the ore-mud (torta), comp. suadero ; (6) p. de veta, Chile, 
stringer or mere joint-plane. 

PEN A (Port, penha), (1) large stone or rock, unworked, in its natural 
form and state ; p. desprendida, geol. boulder, see guijarro (1) ; p. 
viva, stone not yet quarried, see puerta (5) ; (2) see penasco ; (3) 
largest sledge-hammer used in a smithy (Guim), see martillo ; (4) Col. 
alluv. m. bed-rock or bottom, see roca (6) ; p. hervida, picadora or 
caladora, fissured and porous bed-rock, which has allowed gold to 
enter the cracks and interstices ; p. mora, carmine-coloured bed-rock 
with white and black spots ; p. subidora, soft, almost liquefied and 
elastic bed-rock (Uribe), see ir a pena ; (5) Col. vein m. " country.'' 
country-rock, see roca (4) ; for p. boba, see carrancho (2) ; for p. 
churumbela, see churumbela ; p. sarabiada, gneiss ; (6) p. falsa, alluv. 
m. false bed-rock or bottom, fragments of ordinary bed-rock [pena 
(4)], found between two layers of pay-dirt, syn. p. tapa, see roca (7). 

PENADO, see penasco. 

PENASCAL, rocky hill or mountain, see cerro (1), penon (2). 

PENASCO, (Port, penhasco), a large rock ; a bare rock, without vegeta- 
tion, of very precipitous form and visible from a long distance ; an 
escarpment of rock, syn. pena (2), penado, penol, penon (1), see cancho, 
jorfe (2), risco (1), roca (1), teotines, tormo, torre-torre. NOTE. If 
double = tetilla. 

PENDIENTE, (1) top. slope or declivity, syn. declive (1), derrame, flanco, 
inclination (2), ladera (1), recuesto (1), repecho, equiv. Port, encosta 
(1), Fr. pente, penchant, Ger. Abschussigkeit, Abhang, see escarpe (1), 
u. resbalo, comp. loma (2) ; mech. inclination, slope or steepness (of 
an inclined plane) ; p. limite a la rodadura, p. limite al resbalamiento, 
p. de equilibrio, p. de igual resistencia, limiting slope (or angle) or 
rolling, of sliding, slope (or angle) of repose, slope (or angle) of 
equal resistance, respectively ; (2) transp. grade, gradient, syn. cuesta 
(2), declive (2), desnivel, inclinacion (3) ; (3) geol. dip, see echado ; 
(4) hanging wall or roof, see alta (1). 

PEND6N, reins of the leading mule, see u. guia (7). 

PENDOR, Port, dip, see echado. 

PENITENTES, penitents of the French, or men formerly employed to 
explode fire-damp in a mine ; they were clothed in leather, and had 
a hood of the same material (hence name). 

PENOL, a large rock, see penasco. 

PENON, (1) a large rock, see penasco ; (2) rocky mountain, see penascal ; 
(3) Huelva, Sp. a mixture of quartz, jasper, etc., which always contains 
a considerable quantity of iron pyrites, found in manganese deposits. 

PEON, (1) native labourer or assistant, day-labourer, common labourer 
see trabajador ; p. de albanil, hodman : p. suelto (U.S.A.) roustabout 

257 R 


(Dwiglit) ; (2) mcch. journal, see luchadero ; (3) Mcx. movable vertical 
post of an arrastre (3) [syn. Col. perpendicular (2)], of a Chilian mill 
(see u. espada), noria (2), etc. ; (4) timb. leg-piece, leg, syn. columna 
(2), derecho (3), entibo (2), montante (3), Col. palanca (7), paral (2), 
pie (5) derecho, puntal (2), taco (7), equiv. Fr. montant, Ger. Bein ; 
(5) timb. single prop or prop, see mono (2) ; a stull-piece (estemple) 
placed vertically (Ezquerra). 

PEONADA, day-work of a labourer, see u. colero (1). 

PEONAJE, total number of peons working in a mine, etc., gang. 

PEPA, Chile, nugget, see pepita. 

PEPE (pet name for Jose), Mex. the. boy who lights the barretero so 
that he can work, and who assists him at his work in certain hours, 
see abajador (1), comp. zorra. 

PEPENA, Mex. (1) rich ore (metal rico) in some parts of the Republic, 
and smelting ore (metal de fuego) in others (Ramirez) ; media p., 
medium rich ore ; pepenas, leady silver ores in the state of sulphides 
(comp. cuajados) ; Huitzuco, Guerr. best mercury ore, containing 
10 to 12 per cent, of metal, comp. u. despoblado, da, granza (1) and 
tierras (4) ; (2) picked ore, syn. limpio, metal (3) hecha ; (3) the act of 
picking, sorting or cobbing, see apartado (1) ; tosca p., coarse picking ; 
(4) patio de p., cobbing-floors. 

PEPENADO, Mex. cleaned or cobbed ore. 

PEPENADOR, Mex. cobber, sorter, see apartador (1). 

PEPENADORAS, Guan. and Real del Monte, Mex. women who pick 
out the rich pieces of ore, ore-sorters, see apartador, comp. separadoras. 

PEPENAR, Mex. to cob, to sort, see apartar (1). 

PEPERITA, volcanic sand or peperino, comp. puzol. 

PEPITA, nugget, usually of gold, but may be of silver or platinum, syn. 
Col. chicharon, chispa (3), Venez. cochano, Mex. gallo (5), Peru, papa 
(1), Chile, pepa, rodado (2), equiv. Fr. pepite d'or, Ger. Goldklumpen, 
comp. abortos de oro, alutacion, caldeirao, choclo de oro, cincel (3), 
u. grano (1), palacra (1). 

PERDERSE, see se pierde. 

PERDIDA, loss ; in the patio process, a loss of mercury besides the 
consumido, a mechanical loss, see u. lis ; p. de propiedad minera, see 

PERDIDO, DA, pp. of perder, lost, for piedra perdida, see fundamental 
(1) ; for vapor perdido, see u. vapor (1). 

PERFIL, profile, side-view, side-elevation (of a machine, etc.). 

PERFORACI6N, perforation ; p. de pozo (1), well-boring ; p. de un 

tunel, tunnelling. 

PERFORADOR, PERFORADORA, rock-drill, syn. maquina de barrenar, 
or de taladro, p. de roca, see bastidor (1), cortadora, comp. socava- 

PERFORAR, to bore a deep borehole, see barrenar (1), comp. excavar ; 
p. un tunel, to tunnel ; maquina de p., drilling-machine. 



PERITO, (1) Span. Am. scientific or practical arbitrator or expert ; in 

Mex. must be a graduate, or, at least, practical ; the peritos measure 

the claims, etc. ; (2) valuer, appraiser; (3) a skilful workman. 
PERLA (pearl), (1) p. espato, pearl-spar ; (2) Mex. assay-bead (Dwight). 
PERNETE, pin, gudgeon, see arbol (3). 
PERNO (pin), (1) large nail or spike, see clavazon (2), clavo (1), espiga (1) ; 

(2) bolt, see cerrojo ; (3) mech. joint-pin, crank-pin, see clavija (1), 

PEROL, Ant. Col. small iron pan in which some sort of pestle works, 

used for grinding and amalgamating pyrites, comp. mortero (3). 
PERPENDICULAR, (1) Mex. the part of a working-place [labor (2)] 

below the miner (Gamboa) ; (2) Col. the vertical post of an arrastre 

(3), see peon (3). 
PERRO, (1) p. de mina = Ger. Hund, Fr. chien de mine, comp. carro 

(2) ; (2) mech. gib, syn. contraclavija [see u. clavija (1)], see u. chaveta 
and pasador. 

PERSONAL, Fr. personnel. 

PERTENENCIA, orig. in Sp. a plot or set of ground 300 x 200 varas 
allotted to the discoverer of a lode, a post was erected at the corner 
of each pertenencia, which had to be kept whitewashed ; in Mex. 
according to the old Ordenanzas, 200 varas on the strike of the vein 
by 112^ to 200 varas in width, according to the dip, but now in both 
countries 1 pertenencia of a vein mine = 1 hectare or 100 m. square, 
in Peru = 2 hectares or 200 m. long by 100 m. wide, in the Arg. = 
300 m. x 200 m. to 300 m. according to the dip, in Colombia = 600 m. 
x 240 m., a vein mine having three of these. In Mexico 1 pertenencia 
of gold-placers and irregular mineral deposits = 300 m. x 300 m. ; 
in Peru, coal-placers, etc., = 4 hectares ; equiv. Port. (Brazil) data 

PESADOR, weigher of ore, coke, etc., weigh-master. 

PESCANTE, (1) crane, see grua ; (2) p. de hierro, 
pump, set-off, or appliance used in joining pump- 
rods to main rods, see Fig. 61, comp. taco (9), u. 

PESO, (1) weight, gravity ; p. bruto, gross weight ; p. 
neto, net weight ; p. muerto, dead weight ; (2) 
balance, scales ; p. de muelle, spring balance ; 

(3) one dollar ; in some countries of S. Am. there 

are two kinds, the hard dollar, p. fuerte or duro or IG< 

j i t -if\r\ j j.i IM. i 11 Pescante de hierro. 

p. de ley, of 100 cents, and the soft dollar, or p. 

sencillo, of 80 cents ; (4) p. de oro, Col. half a castellano (2). 
PESTANA, flange of a wheel, see reborde. 
PESTILLO, bolt, see cerrojo. 
PETANQUE, see u, petlanque. 
PETLANQUE, Mex. p. acerado, encarnado or oscuro, dark ruby silver 

or rosicler oscuro. NOTE. P. acerado in TIalpujahua = polytasite or 



plata agria, while, in Temascaltepec, p. encarnado = light ruby silver, 
and p. acerado oscuro = dark ruby silver. P. Colorado or rojo, red 
arsenical or light ruby silver ore (nochistle or rosicler claro) ; p. negro, 
argentite. NOTE. Petlanque often = argentite, but in Tlalpajahua = 
pyrargyrite. Petlanques (sometimes spelt petanques), high-grade silver 
ores, as ruby silver, silver glance, brittle silver, etc. ; apetlancados, ores 
rich in petlanques, see plata (2). 

PETO, see u. zapapico. 

PETR6LEO, petroleum, see nafta. 

PEZ, (1) pitch, tar ; (2) p. mineral, asphalt, see asfalto ; (3) peces, 
Espiel and Belmez, Sp. more or less isolated lenses of coal, see lentejas. 

PIA, see u. poQO (2). 

PIC, Minas Geraes, Braz. pick, see picarete (2), pico (2). 

PICA (pike), c.m. a kind of pick [pico (1)], used in deep undercutting, 
equiv. Fr. rivelaine, see regadera (2). 

PICACHO, top. pointed summit or peak (of a mountain), see pico (6). 

PICADEIRA, Port, pickaxe, see azadon (1). 

PICADO, Peru, surface opening on a vein, comp. cata (4). 

PICADOR, (1) c.m. holer or undercutter ; (2) Mex. met. man who punches 
two holes in the top crust of slag in a cast-iron matte or overflow 
pot or " settler " (O. H. Hahn) ; one who taps a furnace (Dwight) ; 

(3) p. de limas, file-cutter. 
PICADORA, see u. pena (4). 
PICAPORRO, a kind of pick, see pico (2). 

PICAPORTE, spring bolt or latch ; catch-bolt (Ponce de Le6n), see u. cierre. 

PICAR, (1) c.m. to hew ; pico de p. hewing-pick ; (2) Mex. met. to tap 
a furnace for slag or bullion (Dwight) ; (3) p. un agua, Ant. Col. to 
seek the level a ditch should have in order to work any mine (Uribe) ; 

(4) p. un hilo, Ant. Col. to discover or uncover, in any given point, a 
known vein (Uribe). 

PICARETE, Port. (1) a sort of hammer ; (2) a pick, see pic. 

PICIFORME, for ulla p., see u. ulla. 

PICO (1) pickaxe, see zapapico; (2) miner's pick, syn. Mex. guingaro, 
huingaro, equiv. Port, picarete (2), Fr. pic, Ger. Keilhaue ; they are 
divided into picos sencillos, and picos dobles ; p. de cavar, see piocha ; 
p. de descalzar (1) or de socavar, ordinary pick used in undercutting, 
see alcotana, escota, gancho (5), pica, picaporro, u. picar (1), piqueta 
(2), regadera (2), zapapico ; (3) Mex. sledge-hammer, divided into 
picos golpeadores or barrenadores (2), from 8 to 12 Ib. in weight, and 
picos quebradores, for breaking up ore, from 3 to 6 Ib. in weight, syn. 
golpe (1) ; (4) Mex. small hammer used in ore-sorting, see golpe (2) ; 

(5) beak iron of an anvil, (yunque) ; (6) peak of a mountain, syn. 
picacho, picota (1), see aguja (1) ; (7) Phil, a weight of 137^ Ib. or 
63-262 k. = picul ; in Siam the picul is 135J Ib., in China 133J Ib. 
avoir., see cate, chinanta, tael (1) ; (8) a pico, vertically, see apique (3), 
u. vagon. 



PICOLETE, staple, see cerradero (1). 

PICONADA, for piedra p. see u. piedra. 

PICOTA, (1) top or peak of a mountain, see pico (6) ; (2) see chuzo (4). 

PIE, (1) the foot or base of a mountain ; (2) p. de cabra, claw-ended 
crowbar, see barren (1) ; (3) p. de arnigo, timb. an inclined strut or 
prop ; p. de gallo, a diagonal brace ; (4) p. de mulo, Mex. timb. a kind 
of joint, see u. ajuste (3) ; (5) p. derecho, timb. leg-piece, see peon (4) ; 
build, constr. jamb or jamb-post, see jamba ; (6) p. derecho, timb. 
single prop, see mono (2) ; (7) p. derecho, standard of a wire ropeway, 
see caballete (5) ; upright or standard of a pulley-frame, see montante 
(1) ; (8) pies derechos cortos, see pilaretes ; (9) trunk of trees, see 
tronco (1) ; (10) foot, measure of length, in Castile = 27'85 cm. or 
about 11 inches ; (11) metal de p., see u. metal (3) ; plata de p., see u. 
plata (1); por p., Mex. patio process ; (12) p. de labor, Algamarca, 
Cajabamba, Peru, blast, exposing a new face so as to increase the 
effect of the explosion ; it is done by firing lower holes first, and the 
upper ones afterwards (Santolalla). 

PIEDRA (Port, pedra), stone, rock or mineral ; p. acanterada, Durango, 
Mex. rhyolite, see riolita (1) ; p. afiladera or aguzadera, see p. de 
afilar ; p. alumbre, alum -stone or alunite ; p. amoladera, see p. de 
amolar ; p. angular, corner-stone ; p. aprieta, see p. azul (a) ; p. 
arcillosa, clay-stone ; p. arenosa, freestone ; p. azufre, sulphur rock ; 
p. azul (a), Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. limestone ; Huitzuco, Guerr. 
Mex. hard and dark grey limestone, syn. p. aprieta, (6) Caratal, Venez. 
hard diorite, next to the veins, sometimes mineralised, and containing 
a notable quantity of iron pyrites and visible gold (C. Monchot), 
see also cascajo (3), (c) blue vitriol, see vitriolo ; p. berroquena, granite ; 
p. bornera, black stone, used for making millstones (Acad.) ; p. bruta, 
Mex. (a) country-rock, see roca (4), (6) barren rock, see borrasca (2) ; 
p. calamina, calamine ; p. caliza, limestone, see p. de cal ; p. ciega, 
hard precious stone, without transparency, as heliotrope, agate, etc. ; 
p. cornea, hornstone, see u. corneo, ea (1) ; p. de acarreo, geol. erratic 
block (Ponce de Leon) ; p. de alumbre, seep, alumbre ; p. de afilar or de 
amolar, p. afiladera, p. aguzadera, p. amoladera, grindstone or whet- 
stone, see muela (4) ; p. de barrilla, Tamaulipas, Mex. rock consisting 
of an oblong nucleus of limestone, covered with an argillaceous crust, 
more or less thick, making it refractory, it is used in the construction 
of galemes ; p. de cal, chalk or limestone (p. caliza) ; p. de campana, or 
p. sonora, clinkstone or phonolite ; p. de candela, de chispa, de escopeta 
or de fusil, flint, see pedernal (1) ; p. de canto, see canto (4) ; p. de 
churumbela, see churumbela ; p. de cruz, (a) cross-stone (harmotome), 
(6) staurolite ; p. de cuenta, mas. ashlar ; p. de jabon, Mex. talc ; 
p. de labrador, greenstone ; p. del aguila, eagle-stone, a var. of argil- 
laceous iron ore in nodules ; p. de la luna or de la Amazonas, p. del 
Labrador, labradorite ; p. de lumbre, flint, see pedernal (1) ; p. de 
luna, moonstone, a var. of oligoclase or orthoclase ; p. de mano, (a) 



see voladora (3), (6) Mex. good specimens of ore, sometimes carried 
by hand and often assigned to pious purposes (M. J. Gloss.) ; p. de 
mobre, flint, see pedernal (1) ; p. de moca, see u. calcedonia ; p. de 
moler (a) grindstone, (&) Ant. Col. syenite ; p. de molino, (a) stone-mill, 
(6) millstone grit ; p. de mollejon, Ant. Col. sandstone, see arenisca ; 
p. palo, see palo (5) ; p. de pipas, meerschaum (espuma de mar) ; p. 
de pulir, see tizar ; p. de remendar, (a) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. 
big fragment of granite ; (&) San Nicolas, Tamaulipas, Mex. black 
basaltic rock, (c) Mazapil, Mex. felspathic porphyry ; p. de silleria, 
see u. silleria ; p. de talla, freestone, ashlar ; p. de toque, touchstone 
(jaspe negro), equiv. Port, coticula ; p. de yeso, gypsum rock ; p. 
dura, any hard flint-like stone, as chalcedony, opal, etc. ; p. fetida, 
stinkstone ; p. fina, see p. preciosa ; p. frailesca, see frailesca ; p. 
franca, any stone easy to work, freestone (p. arenosa), see lage (1), 
lancha (2) ; p. fundamental or granigorda, foundation stone ; p. 
hematitis, hematite ; p. hidiondo, Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. blackish 
and hepatic limestone (H. F. Collins) ; p. iman, loadstone, see iman 
(1) ; p. inga, pyrites ; p. jaspe, jasper ; p. labrada, dressed stone ; 
p. lipis, blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) ; p. litografica, lithographic 
stone, a somewhat argillaceous var. of marble (marmol) ; p. loca, 
meerschaum (espuma de mar) ; p. maciza, stone without defects ; 
p. marmol, marble ; p. mineral, ore ; p. mineral de plomo, plumbago ; 
p. mora, Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. diorite ; p. nefritica, jade ; 
p. negra, Venez. greenish grey felstone (Dr. Foster) ; p. ollar, pot- 
stone, see ollar ; p. oniquina, onyx ; p. palmeada, stone whose fracture 
shows striae like the leaves of a palm (Acad.) ; p. perdida, foundation 
stone : p. pez, pitchstone retinite, see u. riolita ; p. piconada, stone 
worked only with a pick ; p. podrida, rotten stone ; p. pomez, pumice- 
stone ; p. preciosa, or p. fina, gem or precious stone ; p. radiante 
actinolite (var. of hornblende) ; p. ripiada, rubble -stone ; p. rodada, 
any round stone or rock, see canto rodado ; p. sarabeada or sarabiada, 
Ant. Col. miners' term for decomposed gneiss or granite ; piedras 
conglutinadas, breccia, see brecha (2) ; piedras de fondo, see u. fondo 
(4) ; piedras de tope, mas. capstones ; p. seca, stone placed without 
lime or clay ; p. tabaire, see tabaire ; p. tosca, (a) pumice-stone ; (6) 
unworked stone ; p. viva, very hard stone ; p. voladora, round stone 
used in oil-mills, etc. 

PIEL (Port, pelle), (1) raw hide or pelt, see cuero (1) ; (2) hide, cured and 
dressed, leather, syn. cuero (2) ; p. de gamuza, chamois (leather). 

PIERNO (leg), piernos, legs of compas (compas), etc. 

PIEZA, (1) timb. any piece of timber ; (2) p. en H, Pachuca, Hid. Mex. 
pump, aitch-piece (H-piece) ; (3) piezas vivas, mech. working parts 
(Ponce de Leon) ; for piezas moviles and piezas fijas, see u, aguja (5). 

PILA, (1) Mex. in the patio process, a large stone basin or trough, having 
a very smooth inner surface, in which the washed amalgam is kept, 
see Fig. 62, after Tilmann ; San Dimas, Dur. hide trough for catching 



the mercury which has drained through the manga (2) (Chism) ; (2) 

p. apuradora, Mex. in the patio process, tank to receive the residues 

from the washing-troughs (Egleston), see apuradora (2), estanque (3) ; 

(3) salt-works, a large vessel for evaporation, 

large pilas are 25 yards by 10 yards, and from 

one-third to half a yard deep, the water being 

2 to 4 inches deep, comp. charco (2) ; (4) pilas, 

met. cemented tanks for the treatment of dust 

from quicksilver furnaces, see mercuric (2) ; 

(5) Col. alluv. m. a pit or reservoir, dug out 

. - _ . I l(jr. Oi.' "A lid \L ) 

or made by damming a creek, etc., used in (after E. Tilmanu). 
caliche (8) or gravel bank washing. The 

average pila will contain 2000 cubic feet of water (C. Bullman), see 
placer. (6) P. de mineral, pile of ore, see monton (1) ; (7) pilas, the 
buttresses which support the two contiguous arches of a bridge 
(Acad.), see contrafuerte (1) ; (8) el. galvanic or voltaic pile. 

PILADO, (1) quantity of mortar ready mixed, comp. pilon (3) ; (2) pile 
of ore, see monton (1). 

PILADOR, Ant. Col. a wooden instrument, moved by the stamps, when 
ore is short in the battery, a tell-tale. 

PILAR EL MOLINO, Ant. Col. mech. prep, said of noise produced by 
stamps when ore is short in the mortar-boxes. 

PILAR, (1) pillar, column of stone, post, comp. contrafuerte (1) ; (2) 
stone or mound for a landmark on roads, comp. mojon (1) ; (3) a pillar 
(usually of mineral) left in a mine for support, syn. bordeta (if small), 
bordo (2), macizo (3), pilarejo (if small), Ant. Col. tapestle (4), see 
contrafuerte (2), curia (3), retenida, testera (6), u. zapa (2), comp. 
Have (10) ; sistema por pilares or huecos y pilares, c.m. pillar and stall, 
see hueco (5) ; p. de seguridad, safety-pillar ; (4) Zac., Fresnillo and 
Pachuca, Mex. timb. a vertical prop, receiving the extremities of two 
or more pieces at the meeting of two galleries, comp. mono (2). 

PILAREJO (dim. of pilar), see u. pilar (3). 

PILARETES, hoist, small uprights of a pulley-frame for supporting 
the pulley, syn. Cartagena, Sp. pies (8) derechos cortos, see Fig. 15 e, 
u. barra (9), comp. montante (1). 

PILCHE, Peru, cup [jicara (2)] or wooden bowl (Acad.) 

PILETA (dim. of pila), Mex. (1) small tank or reservoir underground for 
collecting the water of infiltration, see charqueo (2), estanque (3) ; 
(2) met. the cup [jicara (3)] or hollow basin [vaso (5)] in front of the 
furnace into which the melted metal falls (Gamboa), see reposador 
(2) ; (3) met. crucible of a blast or reverberatory furnace, see crisol (2) ; 
(4) piletas, riffles, see tendidos (5). 

PIL6N, (aug. of pila), (1) stone trough, see abaco ; (2) p. de romana (1), 
drop-ball or counterpoise of a steelyard ; (3) pyramidal heap of 
mortar, ready for use, comp. pilada (1) ; (4) stamp or stamper, consist- 
ing of stem or lifter [mango (2)] and stamp-head [calzadura (2)], syn. 



almadaneta (1), see Castillo (1), pison (2) ; (5) monkey or rammer of 
a pile-driver [martinete (2)], syn. maza (2), equiv. Port, macaco ; 
(6) Mex. pestle of a mortar (Dwight) ; see maja ; (7) Col. large wooden 
mortar used in grinding maize, see u. mazamorro (2), u. moler. 

PILOTE, (1) pile used in pile-driving, see martinete (2) ; (2) pilotes, timb. 
spilling laths, spills or fails, syn. estacadas (3) cortadoras, estacas (5), 
latas (2), medias aspas, tabletaca, equiv. Fr. palplanches, Ger. Pfahle, 
Getriebepfahle, comp. piquete (2). 

PIMPL6N, Asturias and Sant. Sp. natural waterfall, see salto (3). 

PINA, (1) high conical mound of earth ; (2) segment (felloe or felly) 
of a cart-wheel, syn. cama (2) ; a certain number of these forms the 
rim [anillo (6)] on which the tire [llanta (1)] is placed, comp. camon 

PINA (pine-apple), (1) Mex. in the patio process, pressed amalgam, see 
pella (2) ; (2) Mex. in the patio process, a cylindrical column or pile 
of amalgam discs, see bollos (1), cuerpo (1) ; (3) Mex. in the patio 
process, a spongy or porous cone of silver left after retorting, the 
mass being shaped like a pine-apple, comp. barra (3), pella (1) ; " silver 
was called in its rough state plata pifia or plata pasta " (H. G. Ward) ; 
(4) Chile, bullion ; plata de p., Peru, unstamped silver ; plata p., 
Bol. bullion ; (5) Mex. cone for sample grinder (Dwight). 

PINABETE, spruce, fir-tree (Pinus abies), syn. pino abete. 

PINGA, Phil, pole, generally 1 in. long, for carrying loads on the 
shoulders (Acad.). 

PINGAS D'AGUA, PINGOS D'AGOA (lit. water drops), Braz. colourless 
topaz pebbles, syn. minas novas (after the district), see topacio (1). 

PINO, pine ; p. abete, spruce pine, see pinabete ; p. albar, Scotch pine ; 
p. alerce, white larch ; p. cedro, cedar of Lebanon, see rodeno (2). 

PINON, mech. pinion, syn. ala (1). 

PINTA (spot or mark), (1) Mex. the appearance of an ore by which is 
known its greater or less value, according to its colour, grain, weight, 
etc., good pintas are the gallos (2), or filaments of silver or gold in 
the stones, the ores called apericado, ayemado, cardenilla, cobre (2), 
jaboncillos (3), plomo (2), and polvorilla (4) ; the bad are antimonies (2) 
and marcasitas, but it is always necessary to assay and test 
them (Gamboa) ; p. revuelta, silver ores mixed with iron pyrites, 
blende, galena, etc. ; p. de metal, indications of ore ; (2) p. azul, 
Pachuca, Hid. Mex. the lower zone of the silver veins in which the 
quartzose matrix is either of a grey or bluish colour, owing to the 
presence of various silver ores as sulphides, comp. quemazon (1) ; 

(3) Chile, silver ore assaying over 50 diezmilesimos, comp. despinta ; 

(4) Venez. alluv. m. when gold is sufficiently abundant to make a 
washing pay, the miners say they have found a pinta ; (5) " colour " 
in a batea, see color (1). 

PINTADORES, see u. manto (1). 

PINTAR, (1) to exhibit pintas (1) or indications of ore ; " mantos que 



hacen pintar la veta," Chanarcillo, Chile, certain beds which make 
the veins metalliferous, see u. manto (1) ; (2) see emboquillar, u. tumbe. 

PINTISTA, see catero. 

PINULA, surv. sight of an instrument, see mira (1). 

PINZAS, (1) bor. pinchers or tool for extracting small objects that have 
fallen down the borehole, equiv. Fr. accrocheur a pinces, syn. tenazas 
(3), see tirabuzon (1) ; (2) mech. pincers, see tenazas (2). 

PIOCHA, pick used for digging (pico de cavar), and is either single- or 
double-pointed [con una 6 dos puntas (3) 6 bocas (6)], see pico (2). 

PIPAS, piedra de, meerschaum, see u. piedra. 

PIPERA, see u. pipos. 

PIPOS, Serrata de Lorca, Sp. (sulphur mines) temporary blindness 
produced by bad ventilation, gases, etc., " quedandose pipos los pica- 
dores " ; the pipera or blindness disappears naturally by remaining in 
pure air for some hours in the dark (Molina). 

PIQUE, (1) bottom or ground ; (2) a pique, Mex. vertical ; clavo a pique, 
see u. clavo (2) ; trabajar a pique (or a pico), Mex. to sink in a vertical 
direction ; (3) Chile and Peru, shaft, see pozo (2) ; p. maestro, main 
shaft ; (4) pique torno, Chile, horse-whim, see malacate (1). 

PIQUEADOR, blast, the man who strikes the drill, the striker, comp. 

PIQUEAR, blast, to strike the drill, comp. bornear. 

PIQUERA, met. tap-hole of a blast-furnace, etc. syn. Mex. piqueta (3), 
puerta (6), see sangradera (2). 

PIQUETA, (1) mattock or pickaxe, see zapapico ; (2) p. con cabeza, poll- 
pick (having one end formed into a hammer), equiv. Fr. pic-a-tete, 
pic-a-roc, Ger. Hammerhaue, Hammerpickel ; (3) Mex. met. tap-hole, 
see piquera. 

PIQUETE, (1) a small cata (4) ; (2) piquetes, quarr. wooden pegs used in 
breaking down rock ; piquetes conicos, conical wedges used in spilling 
in quicksand, equiv. Fr. picotages, see curia (1), comp. pilote (2) ; (3) 
surv. stake, seeestaca (1) ; (4) depiquete, Mex. said of magistral, when 
a handful, held in cold water, in less than half a minute gets so hot 
that one has to open the hand, not generally liked by azogueros. 

PIQUETERO, boy who carries the picks or mattocks [piquetas (1)] to 
the workmen in mines (Acad.), comp. abajador (1). 

PIQUETILLA, mas. small pickaxe (zapapico), having wide and sharp 
mouth, and used for making small notes in thin walls (Acad.). 

PIR, Chile, lead-amalgam in the state of powder, composed of equal 
parts of lead and quicksilver, sometimes added in the patio process 
to reduce chloride of silver. 

PIRCA, Chile and Peru, dry stone wall ; at Hualgayoc, Peru, pircas are 
used in supporting underground workings (Santolalla), see rnamposteria. 

PIRCADOR, Chile, hedger (Kenwood). 

PIRCAR, Chile, to enclose a residence with a dry stone wall (Acad.) 
Peru, to erect a dry stone wall as a support. 



PIRITA, pyrites, syn. piedra inga, equiv. Ouro Preto, Braz. chumbo 
(4) ; p. arsenical, (a) mispickel, (6) leucopyrite ; p. cobriza, p. de 
cobre or cobre piritoso, copper pyrites, syn. cobre (2) amarillo ; p. 
comun, pyrite or iron pyrites, see marmaja (1) ; p. de estano, bell- 
metal ore or tin pyrites, see u. bronce (3) ; p. de hierro, pyrite ; p. 
de manganese, hauerite [MnS 2 ] ; p. magnetica, pyrrhotite ; p. marcial, 
pyrite ; p. prismatica, marcasite (marcasita) ; p. radiante, fire-stone 
or iron pyrites ; p. roja, niccolite [NiAs] ; piritas sanas, Chile, un- 
decomposed pyrites ; see abronzado (1), acerado (1), azurronado, 
banco (9), bauleao, binches, u. bronce (3), chino (1) and (2), gualda, 
marmaja (1) to (4), mica (2) and (4). 

PIRITOSO, SA, adj. pyritous, containing pyrites ; for cobre piritosa, 
see u. pirita. 

PIR6METRO, pyrometer. 

PIROPO, PYROPE, a magnesia alumina-garnet of a deep red colour, but 
varying to black and green (J. D. Dana), carbuncle (carbuncle), see 
granate (1). 

PIRQUIN, trabajo al p., Chile, tribute system. 

PIRQUINERO, Chile, tributer, see campista ; " el que trabaja sin 
metodo ni recursos " (Acad.). 

PISAR, (1) to dip, see inclinarse ; (2) to beat down stones and earth 
with a mallet ; (3) p. el molino, Ant. Col. said of stamps, when they 
pulverise the ore in the battery (Uribe). 

PISO, (1) floor or level, syn. plan (1), planta (1), see galeria ; strictly 
speaking the whole of the workings from the floor of one level to the 
floor of the next level above ; when 
a thick bed is worked in two or more 
sections, the lower one is called piso 
No. .1, the one above piso No. 2, and 
so on, see Fig. 63 ; (2) bottom work- ^ 
ing of a mine, syn. plan (2) ; (3) floor 

or foot-wall of a vein or deposit, syn. FlG 63 p igo ^ 

yacente, see u. bajo (3) ; (4) floor of 

a level, drift or gallery, syn. suelo (2), see piano (2), comp. costado, 
techo (2) ; (5) p. de madera, timb. bunding or sollar, see camada (3) ; 
(6) hoist, deck of a cage, see jaula (2) ; (7) pisos, Mex. timb. lagging 
on the floor of a gallery, see revestimiento, u. guarnicion ; (8) " floor " 
of a horse-whim, syn. anden (1), see malacate (1). 

PIS6N, (1) rammer for driving earth, stones or piles, see aplanadera ; a 
pavier's rammer ; a pison, by blows of a rammer ; (2) Ant. Col. mech. 
prep, stamper, it has a tenon or neck [espiga (2)] by which it is wedged 
into the wooden stem [cabo (5)], see pilon (4) ; (3) Chile, a wet crushing- 
mill, comp. trapiche. 

PISONEAR, to ram, with a pison (1), see apisonar. 

PISTADERO, pestle, see maja. 

PISTAR, to pound (with a pestle, etc.), see machacar. 



/i f'Piso 


PISTERO, mech. oiler (Ponce de Leon), see engrasador (1). 

PISTOLA (pistol), Mex. small drill-hole (Dwight), see barreno (1). 

PISTOLETE, (1) p. de seguridad, blast, safety-pistol used when fire-damp 
is present ; (2) pistole tes, small boreholes used in regulating or dressing 
(recortar or igualar) the sides of shafts, etc., see barreno (1). 

PISTON, (1) piston of a steam-engine ; ram of a plunger-pump ; p. 
inmergente, plunger, see embolo (1) ; (2) p. de lavado, Chile, hydr. m. 
monitor or giant (giganta) ; (3) blast, detonator (capsula). 

PISTONADA, stroke of a piston, ram, etc., syn. carrera (5), golpe (3). 

PITA, (1) American aloe, see agave ; (2) thread made of the fibre of (1), 
syn. mecate (1) ; cuerdas redondas de p., round pita ropes ; cuerdas 
planes de p., flat pita ropes, see cuerda (1), cucuiza, u. manta (1). 

PITAR, to whistle (of a steam-engine, etc.). 

PITO, p. de vapor, steam -whistle, see silbato. 

PITON, (1) hydr. nozzle (of a monitor, Pelton wheel, etc.), see boquilla 
(3), comp. canon (7) ; (2) pitones, see Fig. 24 d, u. cierre (2). 

PIVOTE (from Fr. pivot), (1) Tepezala, Aguascalientes, Mex. the chimney 
[chimenea (1)], one metre in height, of a small copper smelting -furnace 
(Ramirez), see horno (2) ; (2) see gorron (1). 

PIZARRA, slate ; p. arcillosa, clay slate or argillaceous schist (esquisto 
arcilloso) ; p. astillosa, splintered slate ; p. azul, Cartagena, Sp. slate 
rock stained with silicate of iron, see u. azul (6) ; p. carbonifera, coal 
slate or shale ; see chanto, esquisto, filada, u. laja, tecacolote ; pizarras 
de tejar, roofing slates. 

PIZARRAL, slate quarry, syn. cantera (1) de pizarra, equiv. Port, 
ardosia, ardosieira. 

PIZARRENO, NA, adj. slate-coloured, slaty, with slaty structure. 

PIZARRERO, slater. 

PLACA, plate, mech. foundation plate, see plancha (5) ; Mex. jaw-plate 
of a crusher, see quebrantador ; p. de hierro colado, p. de maniobra 
(Fr. plaque de manosuvre), transp. fixed turn-table or turn-plate, syn. 
plataforma (3) ; p. giratoria, transp. turn-table or turn-plate, syn. 
Mex. cambiavia (2), plataforma (3) giratoria ; placas or placas de 
cobre, Col. gold mill, amalgamated copper plates ; placas plateadas, 
Col. silvered plates, see u. lamina (1), plancha (2) ; placas de union, 
fish-plates, see eclisa. 

PLACER, a placer, generally a gold -placer (placer de oro or aluvion de 
oro), syn. aluvion metalifero, Peru, aventadero (2), aventador (3), Peru 
and Chile, lavadero, Peru, rebosadero (2), equiv. Braz. lavra (2) [if 
small, comp. faisqueira, venero (3)], see abrevadero, aflojar, almocafre, 
alta (2), amarrar, amolinar (2), apique (3), ataje, u. bajo, ja, barequear, 
barredura, barrer, batir (1), bombear (2), burro (7), u. buzo, caballo 
(9), cacho (1) to (3), caliche (8), campana (11), canal (6), canalon (2), 
capotera, Caracas, u. cargado, da, carguero (2), cascalho (2), cascajear 
(2), cascajero, cascajo (2), (5), (6) and (9), cata (3), cerrazon, cerro (2), 
chamburgo, chocar, colgar (1) and (2), cortada, creminel, cueva (3), 



descapotar, descargar (3), desguachar, desmontar (2) and (3), des- 
monte (3) and (4), encierro, frente (3), frio, ia (4), grupiaras, hervezon 
(1), hervida, hondura (2), hoyo (2) and (3), u. indication, invierno, 
juagada, u. lavar, llinqui, mangar, mazamorra ( 1 ) and (2), mazamorrero, 
molino (4), olletas, organal, panar, pila (5), plan (6), planear, u. poner, 
regaton (1), sabana (2), saca (4), sepe, sobresabana, soplado (2), tabo- 
leiros (2) tajo (3), tapanhoacanga, tepostete, tibe (2), u. tierra (3), u. 
tonga, tosca (3), trechero, u. tumbar, vega, veia (2), venerillo, venero 
(3), veraneador, veraneo, verano, zambullir ; for diamond alluvial 
deposits, see u. diamante ; for alluvial tin deposits, see u. estano (2). 

PLAN, (1) see piso (1) ; (2) bottom level or gallery of a mine, syn. piso 
(2), see galeria ; los planes, the bottom levels, comp. alzas (3) ; (3) p. 
del tiro, sump of a shaft, see caja (2) ; (4) inclined plane, see piano 
(3) ; (5) surv. plan, syn. piano (1), planta (3), see carta (3), mapa ; 
(6) p. del canalon (2), Ant. Col. artificial surface, slightly inclined, 
constructed on bed-rock or on sand, for the deposition of the alluvium 
(Uribe) ; (7) Ant. Col. mech. prep, the die or shoe of a stamp, syn. 
dado (1) ; (8) trabajar de p., to sink vertically or on an incline. 

PLANA, trowel, a bricklayer's tool, see trulla. 

PLANADA, top. plain, see llano. 

PLANCHA, (1) cake of metal, see descarga (4), comp. lingote, quesos, 
roela, tejo (2), tejon ; p. de cobre, cake of copper, see u. plancha (2) ; 
p. de plomo, pig of lead ; (2) plato or thick sheet of metal ; p. de acero, 
steel plate ; p. de cobre, copper plate, see also u. plancha (1) ; p. 
electro-plateada, electro-silvered copper plate, see u. placa ; (3) mech. 
prep, bucking-board or -plate, syn. chapa (2), equiv. Ger. Scheide- 
platte ; (4) turn-plate, see u. placa ; (5) foundation-plate, bed-plate, 
syn. p. de cimiento (1), see u. placa ; (6) mud-sill, see muertos ; (7) a 
board [tabla (1)] ; Mex. timb. plank used as sole-piece in very soft 
ground, see solera (3) ; (8) Mex. met. one -quarter of a charge of roasted 
ore 75 Ib. (J. Guillemin) see u. carga (4) ; (9) cramp or cramp-iron, 
see gato (2). 

PLANCHERA, Mex. (1) met. receptacle or mould of white clay, in which 
the cakes of metal are formed (Gamboa), from the planchera the molten 
metal is passed to the ingot-moulds (moldes) ; (2) ingot-mould of sand, 
earth or iron (Dwight), see molde. 

PLANCHETA, surv. plane-table, comp. grafometro. 

PLANCHUELA, for hierro p., see hierro (1) cellar ; planchuelas, Mex. 
fish-plates (Dwight), see eclisa. 

PLANEAR, Mex. alluv. m. to extract the gold that exists on the uneven 
surface or in the fissures, cracks, etc., of soft bed-rock, comp. cas- 
cajear (1), hacer tierras, tumbar las tierras de asiento (u. tumbar). 

PLANEO, Mex. alluv. m. cleaning up the uneven bed-rock, see planear. 

PLANICIE, (1) top. plain, see altiplanicie, llano ; (2) planicies, geol. 
sides or wings of a saddle [silla (4)] when moderately inclined, equiv. 
Fr. plateures, comp. laderas (3). 



PLANILLA, (1) Mex. mech. prep, blanket-board or -table, nicking -table 
or concentrator, comp. cernidor (2) ; in the patio process, an inclined 
platform or sleeping-table, made of bricks or of masonry, for concen- 
trating the tailings from the tina (2), and the residues after retorting ; 
in Pachuca it is a plane table, slightly inclined 3 m. long, 2 m. wide, 
having a receptacle with water at the foot, see polvillo (3) ; (2) Mex. 
met. wooden skimmer for molten metal (Dwight) ; (3) Mex. packing 
or goaf, see echar (2), relleno (1). 

PLANILLERO, Mex. operator on the planilla (1), always paid by weight 
or measure of concentrates produced (Chism) ; usually old men 
(ancianos), who use a horn- spoon [see u. cuchara (1)] and smoke 
cigarettes while they work (Dahlgren). 

PLANILL6N, a large planilla (1). 

PLANO, (1) surv. plan or draught, see plan (5), u. levantamiento (1) ; 
(2) Mex. floor of a mine-working (Dwight), see piso (4) ; (3) plane ; 
p. inclinado, inclined plane, incline, syn. rampa (3) ; p. inclinado 
automator, self-acting plane ; p. automator de simple efecto, auto- 
matic inclined plane with a counterweight ; p. automator de doble 
efecto, ditto, raising empty wagons, see plan (4), rumbon (1) ; p. de 
crucero (4), geol. plane of cleavage ; p. de estratificacion, geol. plane 
of stratification ; p. de fractura, geol. plane of fracture ; p. de junta, 
geol. joint-plane ; (4) p. de resbalamiento (3), geol. slickenside, syn. 
Ant. Col. espejo (2), Mex. espejuelo (8), jabon (4), liso (2), equiv. Fr. 
raies de glissement, Ger. Spiegel, Harnisch, see vetilla (3) ; (5) de piano, 
see u. cobija (2) ; (6) p. de nivel, surv. datum line (often = sea-level), 
comp. u. linea (1). 

PLANTA, (1) floor or level, see piso (1), galeria ; (2) horizontal cut 
in a deposit, see faja (3) ; (3) surv. plan, see plan (5) ; (4) plant (of 
machinery, etc.), see plantel. 

PLANTAR, to erect (machinery, etc.), see montar (1). 

PLANTEADOR DE MAQUINA, engine-fitter (Ponce de Leon). 


PLANTEL, plant (of machinery, etc.), syn. planta (4), planteaje, plantea- 

PLANTILLA, (1) model or pattern ; foundry pattern (see modelo) ; 
mould (seemolde) ; see escantillon (1), patron (2) ; 

(2) transp. iron gauge used in placing rails and i-^ S3 

in fixing the position of the chairs, see Fig. 64 ; (3) 
Hualgayoc, Peru, timb. sole-piece, see solera (3). *'ic. 64. riantilia (2) 

PLASMA, see prasma. 

PLATA, (1) silver, equiv. Port, prata ; p. bruta or p. virgen, crude mass 
of silver ; p. cruda, p. esponja, or esponja (2), silver sponge, spongy 
silver, see p. pasta below ; p. de ley, standard silver ; p. de patio, p. 
de pie, silver produced in the patio process ; p. labrada, wrought silver ; 
p. mixta, alloy of gold and silver ; p. pasta, p. pina, p. de pina, spongy 
silver after retorting, see p. cruda above, marqueta (2) ; silver in its 



rough state, see u. pina (3) ; p. quemada, burnt silver, see candelero 
(4) ; (2) silver ore ; plata, Batopilas, Chih. Mex. native silver or sulphide 
of silver in masses ; p. agria, (a) argentrtj?, (b) p^iybasite, (c) stephanite 
(rosicler negro) ; p. antimonial, discrasite ; p. -azul/ (a) Tlalpujahua, 
Mex. argentite, syn. Zac. p. azul plomillosa, Chile, plomo ronco, 
(6) p. azul acerada, polybasite (p. agria or petlanque acerado of Tlal- 
pujahua), (c) p. azul de Catorce, selbite or" carbonate of silver, syn. 
metal azulado, (d) Zac. Mex. chloride of silver ; 'p^ blanea, native 
silver ; p. blanca pardusca, a var. of argentiferous and antimoniferous 
galena (Humboldt) ; p. ceniza or metal cenizo, Mex. chloride of silver, 
in Catorce, a kind of powdery chloride of a dirty grey colour (Chism) ; 
p. color de rosa, kind of native silver of a reddish tinge ; p. cornea 
or metal bianco, horn silver [AgCl] ; p. cornea amarilla, iodyrite ; 
p. c6rnea blanca, cerargyrite or horn silver ; p. cornea verde, embolite ; 
p. de clavos, Batopilas, Chih. Mex. native silver in nail and wire forms 
occurring in calcite (Dahlgren) ; p. ductil, ductile argentite ; -p. gris, 
horn silver ; p. maciza, Peru, native silver generally in small sheets 
(Dwight) ; p. nativa, native silver ; p. negra, (a) argentite, see u. 
polvorilla (1), (b) p. negra prismatica, stephanite, syn. molonque 
relumbrosa, see psaturosa ; p. parda, horn silver ; p. parda azul y 
verde, horn silver of different colours ; p. roja, ruby silver (generally 
proustite) ; p. seca, silver ore which does not unite with mercury in 
amalgamation ; p. sulfurea agria, stephanite or brittle silver ore ; 
p. verde, (a) chlorobromide of silver or embolite, syn. metal verde, 
(b) Plateros, Mex. bromyrite or bromide of silver ; (c) Catorce, S. L. 
Pot. Mex. a mixture of bromide (bromyrite) and iodide of silver 
(Chism) ; p. vitrea, argentite ; see argirosa, azul (2) and (3), azulaque 
(2) to (4), azurronado, banco (9), bodoque, u. bola (3), u. bronce (3), 
broza (2) and (5), caliche (7), caracol (1), cardenilla, carne de vaca (1), 
cebo (1), chispa (5), colorados (1), colpa (4), frio, ia (2), frios, gancho 
(6), humiento, ixtajales, jabon (2) and (3), lechedor (1) and (2), lipta, 
llicteria, miche, mogino, mogrollo, molonque, mosqueada, mulatos, 
negrillos (1) to (5), negro (5) to (7), (10), (11), pacos (1) and (2), paja 
(4), pasamano (4), pasta (1) to (5), pavonado (1) and (2), petlanque, 
polvillo (2), polvorilla (1), quemazon (1), rasposo, reventon (2), rosicler, 
rueda (6), sil, tacana, tascina, tepostel (1), u. verde ; (3) p. azul, 
argentiferous copper (del Rio), comp. p. azul u. (2). 

PLATAFORMA, (1) platform, stull, sollar or bunding, see camada (3) 
u. rachas, tabladillo (1), tablero (2) ; (2) scaffold or cradle, see des- 
canso (4) ; (3) transpi. turn-table, see u. placa ; (4) p. de descarga, 
hoist, a long-necked two- or three-decker skip or " giraffe " ; (5) u. 
haul, carriage used on steeply inclined planes, syn. tablero (4), true, 
zorilla (2), equiv. Fr. chariot-porteur, Ger. Bremsgestell, Brems- 

PLATILLO, (1) small plate of iron or disc ; disc or valve of the chain - 
pump ; (2) Mex. red earthen plate for testing ore or slimes, comp. 



batea ; (3) small cog-wheel, see u. rueda (1) ; (4) scale-pan of weigh- 
ing-balances, syn. plato. 

PLATINA, an ore of platinum ; for hierro p., see u. hierro (1). 

PLATING, platinum, see juanblanco (1). 

PLATO, plate, scale-pan, see platillo (4). 

PLATON (aug. of plato), pan used for ore-washing (Venator), comp. 
batea ; a small pan = platoncito (Restrepo). 

PLATONCITO, see u. platon. 

PLAYA, (1) shore, strand, beach ; playas, shores or banks of rivers, 
sometimes auriferous ; the formation, generally sandy or stony, 
adjacent to the channel [cauce (1)] on both sides, and not inundated 
by the highest floods or crecientes (Munoz), syn. orillas (1), comp. u. 
vega ; playas bajas, auriferous playas which are now below the level 
of the adjacent river or stream, see saca (4) ; (2) pump, column or 
set, see u. juego (1). 

PLAYERO, Pallasca, Peru, inhabitant employed in gold-washing, see 
lavador (1). 

PLAZA, (1) room, space ; p. de enganche, see concava ; (2) met. bottom 
or sole of a shaft-furnace [see cuba (4)] ; floor or bed of a reverbera- 
tory furnace, see asiento (8). 

PLAZO, term of a bond, or refusal of a mining property, etc. 

PLEGADURA, PLEGAMIENTO, geol. folding, equiv. Fr. plissement. 

PLEGAR, geol. to fold (of strata). 

PLEITO, (1) covenant, contract, see contrato (1) ; (2) law-suit ; "mas 
vale a juste malo que pleito bueno." 

PLIEGUE, geol. fold or slip, equiv. Fr. pli ; p. convexo or inflexion, 
a saddle with a narrow fold, equiv. Fr. crochon, comp. u. undulaciones. 

PLOMADA, plumb, plummet, syn. aplomo, plomo (5), equiv. Port, 
chumbo (2). 

PLOMBAGINA, plumbago or graphite, see grafito. 

PLOMERO, (1) plumber ; (2) Mex. lead-tapper ; furnace-man (Dwight). 

PLOMILLO, (1) plomillas lavados, Mex. mech. prep, schlich, see mar- 
maja (2) ; (2) plomillos, met. leady particles found on the surface of 
slags, see escoria (1) ; (3) S. L. Pot., Mex. tin ore in which hematite 
predominates, or is present in equal proportions with it (J. P. Man- 
zano), see estano (2). 

PLOMILLOSO, SA, adj. for azul plomillosa, see azul (3). 

PLOMO, (1) lead, equiv. Port, chumbo (1) ; p. afinado, p. dulce, refined 
lead ; p. agrio, slag lead, hard lead ; p. de obra, Mex. argentiferous 
lead (Acad.) ; base lead bullion ; p. dulce, see p. afinado ; p. en 
galapagos, pig lead ; p. en plancha, lead in sheets ; plomo-plata, 
lead silver ; p. pobre, lead poor in silver ; p. rico, lead rich in silver ; 
(2) lead ore ; in Mex. generally = galena (galena), when fine-grained 
== reluciente (metal de pinta), when coarse-grained = soroche (metal 
de ayuda) ; p. amarillo, yellow lead ore, wulfenite or lead molybdate, 
equiv. Ger. Gelbbleierz ; p. bianco, cerussite, or lead carbonate, see 



copalillo (2), u. soroche (2) ; p. verde, green lead ore, pyrouiorpliile 

or lead phosphate ; see cuajado (1) and (2), galena, resecos ; (3) plomo 

ronco, Peru, Chile and Arg. argentite, see u. plata (2) ; (4) piedra 

mineral de p., plumbago, see plombagina ; (5) plummet, see plomada. 
PLOMOSO, SA, adj. see u. liga (2) and soroche (2). 
POBLACI6N, (1) population ; (2) inhabited place, town or village 

syn. poblado, obs. puebla (town), see pueblo. 
POBLADO, see poblacion (2). 
POBLADOR, (1) Mex. boss-miner, shift-boss, see sotominero ; (2) blast. 

the miner who points the holes (Dwight). 
POBLAR, to set on workmen in a mine, comp. pueble. 
POBRE, adj. barren, sterile (of rocks, veins, etc.) ; low grade (of ores, 

metals, etc.). 
POBREZA, poverty ; p. de la mina, said when the gold is disseminated 

and not rich (V. Restrepo), comp. tope. 
POAO, Braz. pits in river-beds in which diamantiferous cascahlo is 

found (Fuchs and De Launay). 
POCERO, (1) well-borer or sinker; (2) shaft-man, pitman; (3) c.m. 

onsetter, m.m. filler, see enganchador (1). 
POCILLO, (1) small well, see pozo (1) ; (2) m.m. winze, syn. p. interior, 

see clavada ; (3) small sump at the bottom [caldera (5)] of a shaft, 

equiv. Fr. avant-puits, see caja (3) ; (4) pass or shoot (stoping), 

see paso (2). 
POO, Port. (1) well, see pozo (1) : (2) shaft, syn. Ouro Preto, Braz. 

pia (J. L. Tonkin), see pozo (2) ; (3) small tank or cistern. 
PODER, (1) leg. power of attorney, see carta (5) ; (2) thickness, see 

anchura (1) ; (3) power, force ; p. calorifico, calorific power ; p. in- 

dicado, indicated (horse) power, see potencia (1). 
PODERHABIENTE, attorney, see apoderado. 
PODRIDO, DA, adj. rotten ; piedra podrida, rotten stone. 
PODRIDAS, see terrosas. 
PODRIR (PUDRIR) JAGUAS (3), Ant. Col. to expose concentrates for 

some time to atmospheric influences, in order to oxidiss the 

sulphurets, and thereby facilitate the extraction of the gold. 
POLEA, (1) pulley-wheel or sheave (of a pulley-block), block pulley, 

syn. carrillo (3), roldana (1), equiv. Fr. poulie, Ger. Scheibe, see poli- 

pastos ; (2) ordinary pulley for transmitting power, etc., syn. gar- 

rucha (1), equiv. Fr. poulie, Ger. Rolle ; p. acanalada, grooved pulley ; 

p. de andarivel, traversing pulley ; p. de cambio, change pulley ; 

p. de tension, tension pulley, see tensor ; (3) hoist, pit-head pulley, 

pulley or sheave, syn. roldana (2), rondana, rueda de cuenta (4), equiv. 

Fr. molette, Ger. Seilscheibe, see rayo ; p. de mandibulas, clip-pulley 

(e.g., Fowler's). 
POLIN, (1) mech. wooden roller, see rodillo ; (2) Ant. Col. rail, sleeper, 

see durmiente (1). 



POLIPASTOS, POLISPASTOS, mech. tackle, see aparejo (1). 

POLLOS (chickens), Peru, small bags of rich ore given by the miners 
on Saturdays to the proprietors (Santolalla). 

POLO, (1) geogr. pole ; (2) el. pole. 

POLVEO, Mex. amalgam (amalgama) formed in the caldron process 
[cazo (3)] of a clear lead-grey colour, and formed of very fine particles, 
similar to dust (S. Ramirez) ; it is composed of two parts of mercury 
and one of silver by weight (Dr. Percy), comp. limadura (4). 

POLVILLO (fine dust), (1) gente de p., Mex. day-labourers, see traba- 
jador ; (2) polvillos, Mex. tender rich ores ; polvillos buenos, good 
ores of this class, syn. polvillones ; polvillos y jabones, from the veta 
madre, Guan. Mex., are the richest ores yielding about 2000 ounces 
of silver to the short ton, s:e apolvillado, u. liga (2), plata (2) ; 

(3) Mex. in the patio process, rich black sulphides or concentrates 
left on the planilla (1), these are washed in the boliche (1), the result- 
ing concentrates being also called polvillo ; tailings generally, see 
u. cabecilla (1), quesos and relave, comp. marmaja (2) ; (4) see u 

POLVILLONES, see u. polvillo (2). 

POLVO, dust ; ore in the condition of dust ; flue-dust, see polveo, 
polvora (2) ; polvos de carbon, coal dust, comp. temescuitate (1) ; 
mech. prep, material smaller than fine sand, the size of whose grain 
cannot be appreciated by touch (Ibran), see harina (2), comp. arenas 
(2), u. granzas (1). 

P6LVORA, (1) gunpowder ; in Span. Am. miners' term for any blasting 
material ; p. de algodon, cotton powder ; (2) obs. powder, dust, see 

POLVORERO, powder-man, powder-monkey. 

POLVORILLA, (1) argentite ; Sp. the name given to an earthy var. 
very similar to tacana ; Zac. Mex. and Bol. generally disseminated, 
syn. plata negra (a) ; Cerro de Pasco, Peru, dark, powdery and decom- 
posed ; Arg. pure, when it exists in cavities of ordinary ore, or as a 
mass of little black agglomerated particles, which disintegrate or 
separate on being touched, or when exposed to the air (Hoskold), see 
plata (2) ; (2) Tamaya, Chile, a highly ferruginous pulverulent matter, 
of a dark colour, containing small particles of phillipsite [see pecho (3)], 
forming the filling of the copper deposit near the rich portions (Fuchs 
and De Launay), see cobre (2) ; (3) Peras, Oaxaca, Mex. altered 
marcasite with some gold (Bol. de A. M. e I.), see marcasita, oro ; 

(4) estano de p., Durango, Mex. tin ore penetrating the country 
(rhyolite), and converting it into a very friable rock (C. Patoni), syn, 
polvorillo, see estano (2). 

POLVORILLO, see polvorilla (4). 

POLVORIN, storeroom for gunpowder ; powder magazine. 

POLVORIZACION, see pulverization. 

273 s 


POLVORIZAR, see pulverizar. 

POMBEIRO, Port. S. Afr. leader of a gang of carriers (Elwes). 

P6MEZ, pumice-stone, syn. piedra p. (Port, pedra pomes), piedra tosca 
(a), ponce, see obsidiana, tepetate (3). 

PON, see quita y pon. 

PONCE, pumice-stone, see pomez. 

PONER, p. en juego, mech. to throw into gear ; p. en marcha, mech. 
to start ; met. to blow in a furnace ; p. en obra, to construct, build ; 
p. en principal (1), Ant. Col. alluv. m. to make a current of water 
flow as straight as possible in order to facilitate the exploitation of 
its margins (Uribe) ; p. por tierra, to pull down (a building, etc.) ; 
p. puerta (4), Ant. Col. to put timber-frames (marcos de madera) in 
an adit, in order to prevent a cave or derrumbamiento (Uribe) ; p. un 
forro, see u. forro (3) ; p. un registro, see denunciar. 

PONT6N, pontoon (of a dredge). 

POP A, Choco, Col. a kind of timber, useful for making wheelbarrows, 

POQUITEROS, see buscones. 

PORCA, Port, screw-nut, nut, see botao, tuerca. 

PORCELANA, (1) porcelain ; china-ware, see china (4) ; (2) tierra de p., 

PORFIDITA, porphyrite. 

P6RFIDO, (1) porphyry, syn. porfiro ; p. acanterado, Mex. probably 
rhyolite or piedra acanterada ; p. metalifero, Pachuca and Real del 
Monte, Mex. metalliferous porphyry, pyroxenic andesite for the 
most part ; p. negro, Almaden, Sp. melaphyre (see marmor) ; p. 
traquito, trachyte porphyry ; see u. ojo (5), u. opalo, tosca (1) and (6) ; 
(2) Venez. reddish pink or brown ferruginous hornstone, sometimes 
becoming jasper, sometimes contains crystals of iron pyrites, or 
cavities left by their decomposition visible gold occurs in it, and 
it is regarded as a favourable indication for gold (Dr. Foster), syn. 
porfiro, cuarzo morado, piedra morada, see u. corneo, ea ; (3) jasper, 
see jaspe (1). 

PORFIRIZACI6N, Mex. pulverising ores [molienda (1)], properly speak- 
ing, by reducing granza (1) to an impalpable powder effected by 
arrastres and tahonas (Ramirez), see pulverizacion, comp. granceo. 

P6RFIRO, see porfido. 

POROSO, SA, adj. porous, see u. caliche (1). 

POR PIE, Mex. the patio process (Dwight), see pie (11). 

PORRA, sledge, at Almaden, Sp. weighing 27 lb., see maza (3). 

PORRILLA, small hammer used by smiths, see martillo. 

PORRONGUITO, Peru, a crude quicksilver measure (Dwight). 

PORTA, see puerta. 

PORTAAISLADOR, el. insulator or support. 

PORTABANDERA, surv. flag-bearer. 

PORTACADENA, surv. chain-man. 



PORT ADA, timb. frame in a gallery formed of two leg-pieces and a 
cap-piece (Ger. Thiirstock), see cuadro (1), u. medio, ia ; portadas 
unidas, the Altenberg method of spilling through loose blocks, as 
distinguished from the ordinary Silesian method, see u. labor (2) ; 
vent, wrought-iron frame of doors, which can be hermetically sealed, 
if necessary ; for tabla portada, see tabla alcacena, u. tabla (1). 

PORTADOR, bearer of loads, see gavia ; carrier. 

PORTAMECHA, (1) wick-holder of a lamp (lampara) ; (2) blast, cap- 

PORTAVALVULA, valve bearer or frame. 

PORTAVELA, candle -holder. 

PORTAVIENTO, blast-pipe of a blast-furnace, for conveying air to the 
twyers (toberas). 

PORTE, (1) cost of carriage, freight, see flete ; p. franco, free of postage ; 
(2) burden or tonnage (of a ship). 

PORTEO, portage, cartage. 

PORTERO, porter at the gate ; vent, door-keeper, door-tender ; Peru, 
overseer or boss, see capataz (3). 

PORTEZUELA, Mex. a pass between hills, see paso (4). 

PORUNA, Chile, Arg. a horn dish used in panning 
gold, see Fig. 65, see cuchura (1), comp. batea, 
puruna (2). FIG. 65. Pornna. 

POSESION, possession, see u. registro. 

POSESORIO, I A, adj. possessory, see u. accion (2). 

POSTE, timb. post, stull, stake, pillar ; postes, hoist . masonry pillars 
against which the legs of the head-frame of a mule-whim [malacate 
(1)] abut, see u. puente (3). 

POSTEO, timb. putting in posts or stemples. 

POSTIGO, a by-door ; vent, a door within a larger door, kept open 
in order to pass a portion of the air-current only, see puerta (1). 

POSTILLON, valvula p., ball -valve, see u. valvula. 

POSTIZA, row-lock, see u. horqueta (1). 

POSTIZO, ZA, adj. false ; avance postizo del cilindro, false cylinder- 
head (Fr, tete fausse du cylindre). 

POSTOR, bidder at a public sale, see u. rescate (2). 

POTENCIA, (1) power; p. calorifica, calorific power, see poder (3); 
(2) width or thickness of a vein, see anchura. 

POZACO, Cartagena, Sp. winze (Moncada), see clavada. 

POZO (Port, poc.o), (1) well ; p. absorbente, absorbing well ; p. arte- 
siano, artesian well ; see noria (2), comp. puquio (1) ; (2) shaft or pit, 
syn. Ant. Col. apique (1), hornacho (1), Peru, pique (3), Mex. tiro (1), 
via (2) de comunicacion, equiv. Fr. puits, Ger. Schacht, see ahonde 
(2), cana (4), socavon (4), zurdo, comp. trancada (2) ; p. de arrastre, 
inclined shaft ; p. de bombas, p. de desagiie, pumping shaft, drainage 
shaft ; p. de entrada, de escalas, or de escaleras, ladder-way shaft ; 
p. de entrada de aire, downcast ; p. de extraction, hoisting shaft : 



p. de indagacion or de reconocimiento, exploratory shaft ; p. de 
introduction, shaft used for lowering rock or other material ; p. 
de salida de aire, upcast ; p. de una cuerda, undivided shaft ; p. de 
ventilation, air shaft, see lumbrera (1) ; p. inclinado, inclined shaft ; 
p. maestro, main shaft ; p. quebrado, inclined shaft, the angle of which 
changes brusquely ; p. vertical, vertical shaft ; (3) Mex. winze, syn. 
p. interior or de comunicacion, see clavada ; p. de arrastre, inclined 
winze ; p. y patilla (2), passage, with alternating vertical and inclined 
portions, for the transportation of ore and waste to the surface on 
the backs of labourers (D wight) ; (4) a deep hole in a river ; a whirl- 
pool, see remolino (1). 

PRASIO, prase or leek-green var. of quartz (cuarzo). 

PRASMA, agate (agata) of dark green colour, syn. plasma. 

PRATA, Port, silver, see plata (1) ; p. en barras, silver in bars. 

PRECIOSO, SA, adj. precious ; piedra preciosa, gem or precious stone, 
syn. piedra fina. 

PRECIPICIO, precipice or cliff, syn. acantilado, barranca (3), derrum- 
badero (1), despenadero, fronton (3), voladero, see flaqueza (2). 

PRECIPITADO, Mex. metallic copper precipitated by iron or zinc, 
and used in the patio process. 

PRECIPITADOR, Mex. workman in a leaching-mill who adds the 
precipitant to the silver solutions (Dwight). 

PRECIPITADORA, precipitating vat or tank. 

PREDIO, landed property, farm, real estate ; p. minero, mining property. 

PREFECTO, S. Am. prefect, whose jurisdiction is over the alcalde, syn. 
Mex. jefe politico. 

PREGO, Port, nail, see clavo (1) ; p. trabal, great nail to fasten beams 

PREGONES, publication by the common crier, e.g., of denouncements 
of claims, etc. 

PREMIO, (1) reward, see gratification, merced, regalo ; (2) premium, 

PRENSA, (1) prensas, Ant. Col. very narrow planks (tablones) used 
for the sides of flumes, e.g., 11 feet long by 2 inches by 3 inches ; (2) the 
upper horizontal tie of a head- or pulley-frame, see Fig. 15 c, u. 
barra (9) ; (3) press ; Mex. vice. 

PRENSAESTOPAS, st. eng. and pump, stuffing-box, see caja (5). 

PREPARACION (preparation), (1) opening out or development, as 
distinguished from installation (instalacion) and exploitation (explo- 
tacion) ; (2) p. mecanica, mechanical preparation, dressing or ore- 
dressing, milling. 

PREPARAR, to prepare ; p. minerales, to dress ores. 

PREPARATIVO, VA, adj. preparative, see u, labor (2). 

PREPARATORIO, see u. trabajo (2). 

PRESA, (1) dike, dam, reservoir-dam, mole, bank, see azud (1), barraje, 
cerramiento, malecon (1), parada (4), puerto (4), represa (1), ribero 



tambre, tapa (o), tapon (2), tranque, trincho (2), tupia, vertedero (1), 
vertiente (4), zafareche, comp. dique (1), estanque (1) ; (2) drain, 
trench, conduit, see acequia, w. caz ; (3) Ant. Col. cross-tie of a 
flume or trestle aqueduct [mampuesto (3)], consisting of two cheek- 
pieces of wood united above and below by a horizontal piece of wood 
called the cabezal (5). 

PRESERO, person in charge of a dam or ditch, see presa (1) and (2). 

PRESION, pressure. 

PRESTADO, DA, adj. lent ; ademe de p., or obra de p. or de pasajero, 
provisional or temporary timbering as sollar or bunding [camada 
(3)] or bridge across openings in the lode [see puente (3)]. 

PRESUPUESTO, estimate or calculation of cost, see costo (2), valuation. 

PRETIL, breastwork of masonry or other material in mines, syn. 
parapeto, see u. trincho (1). 

PRETILERO, Guan. Mex. mason, see alarife (2). 

PRIETO, TA, adj. blackish, sez negro (5) ; rebellious, see u. rebelde. 

PRIMERO, RA, adj. first, principal ; primera (clase) or de fuego, Pachuca, 
Mex. ore containing more than 30 marcos of silver per monton of 
30 quintales, and which is sold or exported, comp. u. comun, segundo, 
da ; primeros auxilios, first aid (to the wounded). 

PRINCIPAL, Ant. Col. (1) artificial drain or channel used in alluvial 
mining, see desguachar, hijuelos, ?/. poner, comp. acequia ; (2) large 
axle-tree or cam-shaft of a native mill, it carries the dientes (2) [Sp. 
lenguas (3)] corresponding to the cams of modern mills ; axle-tree 
of any water-wheel, see arbal (3), burro (4). 

PRIVILEGIO, (1) grant, concession, see concesion (1) ; (2) patent. 

PROBETA, chem. test-tube ; p. graduada, graduated test-tube. 

PROCEDIMIENTO, met. process, see via (6). 

PRODUCCI6N, production, output, see extraction (2) 

PRODUCTO, (1) product, return or yield, syn. frutos (1), rendimiento, 
comp. beneficio (2) ; (2) chem. and met. product. 

PROFLJNDIDAD, (1) depth (of a shaft, etc.), syn. hondura (1), tiro 
(10), comp. chile (2) ; (2) profundidades, Almaden, Sp. staples or 
winzes, see clavada. 

PROFUNDIZACION, sinking or deepening, comp. ahonde (1) ; p. bajo 
caldera (5), deepening a shaft below the sump or well (Fr. sous stot). 

PROFUNDIZAR, to sink or deepen, comp. ahondar. 

PROMEDIO, average (termino medio). 

PROMONTORIO, (1) a considerable elevation of ground, comp. cerro 
(1) ; (2) top. promontory, headland, syn. morro (1), punta (9) ; 
(3) Mex. an irregular deposit or mass, see masa (3). 

PROPIEDAD, property ; p. minera, mining property ; p. mueble 
personal property ; p. raiz, real estate, see raiz. 

PROPRIETARIO, proprietor ; p. de una mina, owner of a mine, syn. 
Mex. amo (2), dueno (1), Cerro de Pasco, Peru, minero (4). 

PRORROGA, prorogation ; Mex. an extension of time (Dwight). 



PROSPECTAR (from Engl.), to prospect. 

PROTOCOLIZACION, Span. Am. record of a document by a Public 

PROTOCOLO, minutes, protocol, registry ; a judicial register. 

PROVECHO, profit, see ganancia. 

PROVINICA, province, one of the large divisions of a territory or state 
(Acad.), see marca (3), partido (1). 

PROVISIONALES, Almaden, Sp. brick arches, put in as supports when 
working away the centre of the deposit (Molina), see arco. 

PRUEBA, (1) test ; p. en crudo, Mex. in the cazo or patio pro- 
cesses, testing the condition of the amalgam by washing a small 
portion in a horn spoon ; after having eliminated extraneous sub- 
stances, a little quicksilver is added, in order to ascertain whether 
more is required or otherwise ; (2) pruebas, leg. proofs, evidence. 

PSATUROSA (from Fr. psaturose), brittle silver ore or stephanite, see 
u. molonque. 

PUCELANA, see puzolana. 

PUCHA, Col. one-sixteenth part of an almud. 

PUDINGA (from Engl.), geol. pudding-stone, conglomerate, see con- 


PURDRIR, see podrir. 

PUEBLA, see poblacion (2) ; marmol de Puebla, a species of onyx 
marble from the quarries of Teocalli, near Puebla, Mex. 

PUEBLE, Mex. (1) orig. actual work in a mine, with the number of 
labourers prescribed by the Ordenanzas ; horas de p., actual working 
hours, see u. tequio (2) ; (2) number of workmen on a core or shift 
of eight hours ; (3) core or shift of eight hours ; p. de dia, day-shift ; 
p. de noche, night-shift, see relevo. 

PUEBLO, (1) town, village, inhabited place, see poblacion, comp. 
aldea, caserio, cuadrilla (2) ; (2) population, inhabitants of a place ; 
(3) pueblos, Col. Indian graves [guacas (1)] in groups. 

PUENTE, (1) any bridge of wood, metal or other material ; p. colgante 
or suspendido, suspension bridge ; p. de armadura, girder-bridge, 
truss-bridge ; p. de caballete (10), p. de enrejado, trestle -bridge ; 
p. de celosia, lattice -bridge ; p. de cimbria, Chile, suspension rope- 
bridge, see oroya, tarabita ; p. de contrapeso, cantilever bridge ; 
(2) p. de hogar, fire-bridge of a boiler, see barba, it. puerta (3) ; met. 
bridge (of a furnace), see u. altar (1) ; (3) head-frame of a mule-whim 
[malacate (1)] composed of a horizontal beam (" span-beam ") resting 
on inclined legs or posts, and strengthened with inclined struts or props. 
The foot of the posts is often buried in masonry (Gillman), see u. 
poste ; (4) timb. timber which opposes lateral pressure, and which 
may be horizontal, vertical or inclined (Ezquerra), comp. estemple ; 
(5) puentes, Zac. Mex. timb. thick boards or beams placedjin a"pair 
of stulls [riostra (2)], 1*5 m. to 2 m. apart and perpendicular to them ; 



they are put across openings in a lode not having a level [piso (1)], and 
form a sort of sollar [plataforma (1)], see sopanda (2) ; (6) puentes, 
Zac. Mex. timb. wall-plates, see largueros (2) ; (7) timb. cap-piece, 
see capa (4) ; (8) p. levadizo (draw- bridge), " drop " of Newcastle 
district, England (Molina) ; (9) b. constr. transom, lintel, cross- 

PUERTA, (1) door, obs. porta, see salieran ; p. de corredera, sliding- 
door, see corredera (6) ; puertas, c.m. vent, doors, comp. postigo ; 
puertas de seguridad or de salvamento, safety-doors, which are dropped 
by force of explosion ; (2) p. valla, hoist, barrier or sliding-gate, see 
barrera (5) ; (3) p. de la caldera, manhole. NOTE. Sometimes the 
bridge of a boiler, see puente (2). (4) Ant. Col. timb. door set or 
frame, see u. cuadro (1) and poner ; (5) puertas, Mex. hard rocks 
or large stones [penas (1)] which conceal a vein, and which have to be 
blasted out in order to discover the latter (Gamboa), comp. caballo 
(5) ; (6) p. de graza, Mex. met. slag-tap ; p. de plomo, lead-tap 
(Dwight), see piquera. 

PUERTO, (1) port, harbour, syn. embarcadero (1) ; (2) top. pass, 
see paso (4) ; (3) top. mountain or chain of mountains having one 
or more passes (Acad.) ; (4) prov. dam or palisade of turf, wood 
and gravel, see presa (1). 

PUESTO, TA, pp. of poner, put ; puesta en marcha, mech. started (Fr. 
mise en marche) ; for puesto de tabla, see u. tabla (3). 

PULGADA, inch ; p. de minero, miner's inch, equiv. to 74 or 75 cubic m. 
in twenty-four hours ; una p. (pulgarada) de oro en polvo, a pinch of 
gold dust. 

PULIR, to polish ; for piedra de p., see tizar. 

PULS6METRO (from Engl.), pulsometer (pump). 

PULVERIZACI6N, POLVORIZACI6N, mech. prep, pulverisation or 
comminution (of ores), syn. trituracion ; it comprises two operations, 
(1) granceo and (2) molienda (1) or porfirizacion, comp. maceo. 

PULVERIZADOR, PULVERIZADORA, mech. prep, pulveriser, syn. 
triturador, trituradora. 

PULVERIZAR, POLVORIZAR, mech. prep, to pulverise or grind 
(ores, etc.), syn. triturar, comp. moler. 

PUNA, see paramo. 

PUNT A, (1) sharp end of an instrument, point of a pick, etc., syn. 
boca (6), clavo (5) ; (2) transp. point, see corazon (2) ; (3) cajones (4) 
de p., mech. prep, pointed boxes (Ger. Spitzkasten) ; (4) Mex. cut of 
turf, see u. cuchara (3) ; (5) Mex. small cord for tying ore-sacks 
(Dwight) ; (6) puntas, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, a party of miners who 
work for twelve hours, from 6 A.M. to 6 P.M. or from 6 P.M. to 6 A.M. ; 
each gang is under a mayordomo, comp. parada (3), relevo ; (7) puntas, 
crowbar and gad, " se obtienen regulares avances con las puntas, 
es decir, con la barra y la curia," see barra (1), curia (!) ; (8) top. 
summit, see cima ; (9) top. headland, promontory, see promontorio 



(2) ; (10) end of a log, after beams, etc., have been sawn from it 
(Velazquez), see leno (1) ; (11) see u. vara (2). 

PUNTAL, (1) prop to support a wall, building, etc., see apoyo, cuento, 
tentemozo (1), tornapunta (5) ; (2) timb. upright, post, stanchion 
or leg, leg-piece, see peon (4) ; (3) timb. prop or single prop, see 
mono (2) ; (4) Guan. Mex. timb. end-piece of a shaft-frame, see 
crucero (3) ; (5) see cadena (3) ; (6) encubado con puntales, prop 
crib -timbering. 

PUNTE, Col. tree whose wood contains 8 per cent, of tannin ; this 
and comino are about the only trees of that country not attacked 
by the white ant [comejen (1)] ; puntes are used for the uprights 
(estantillos) of houses. 

PUNTERO, (1) chisel used by stone-cutters, see cincel (1) ; (2) pointed 
borer or gad, see curia (1). 

PUNTEROLA, a short pick, chisel or wedge, used with a handle, Fr. 
pointerolle, comp. curia (1) ; short bar of iron with a steel point 

PUNTILLA, (1) small nail [clavo (1)] with a small head, J, and 1 inch 
in length, comp. tachuela ; a brad ; (2) puntillas, small pointed 
pieces of wood or spiles, used in tubbing, see apuntillado. 

PUNTISTA, Mex. the labourer who knocks down all loose rock in the 
face or stope, leaving it ready for the next shift (Dwight). 

PUNTO, (1) p. de partida, point of discovery of a vein ; (2) p. de partida, 
surv. point of commencement in measuring a claim or claims ; (3) 
p. de enganche, m.m. plat, c.m. inset, see concava ; (4) puntos singu- 
lares, exceptional excavations or workings, e.g., platB (concavas) ; 

(5) (boveda de) medio punto, an arch of semicircular form, see arco ; 

(6) p. de reunion, vent, point where two or more air-currents meet ; 

(7) p. muerto, mech. dead point ; (8) p. de marca, surv. station, see 
estacion (4) ; (9) twelfth part of a line. 

PUNZON, (1) the pointed end of a tool used in watery strata, see cono 
(1) ; (2) gad, see curia (1) ; (3) mech. punch, see contrapunzon, comp. 
botador (1), sacabocados. 

PUQUIO, Peru, (1) puquios, Nazca, narrow galleries driven by the 
Incas or Jesuits to penetrate water-bearing strata, and made of 
arched walls of dry stone roughly hewn and wedged together 
(F. G. Fuchs), comp. manantial, pozo (1) ; (2) natural outlet of 
the waters of the subsoil (underflow) in lands of slight declivity ; 

(3) tech. intersection of the surface of the ground with the waters 
of the subsoil (underflow) ; there are puquios temporales and puquios 
permanentes (Bol. del C. de I. de M.). 

PURGADOR AUTOMATICO, apparatus for depriving steam of its water 
of condensation (Fr. purgeur). 

PURGAR, Mex. to blow off a boiler (Dwight). 

PURUNA, (1) S. Am. a long trough for vanning silver amalgam (Vena- 
tor) ; (2) Peru, a flat dish, of unglazed red earthenware or of wood, 



7 to 8 inches in diameter, for making tests in the patio process, syn. 
chuga, comp. batea, porufia. 

PUZOL, PUZOLANA, PUCELANA, pozzuolana or light-coloured tufa 
used for making hydraulic cement, comp. peperita. 

QUEBRADA, (1) ravine; if deep = barranca (2) ; (2) top. narrow and 
rough pass, deep pass, see paso (4) ; (3) fissure or break in stratified 
rocks, open vertically as well as horizontally, but completely inde- 
pendent of the planes of stratification (Molina), and sometimes lined 
with crystals, or filled with water, clay, etc., see soplado (1), camp. 
hendedura ; (4) broken, uneven ground ; (5) Span. Am. a stream, 
the affluent of a river, and flowing between two slopes (faldas) more 
or less precipitous (Munoz) ; a stream flowing in a gully or ravine 
it is rather more than an arroyo (1), and less than a river (rio), comp. 
amagamiento, Canada (2) ; (6) a commercial failure. 

QUEBRADERO, see quebrantador. 

QUEBRADOR, Mex. (1) ore-breaker or cobber, see apartador (1) ; (2) 
sledge used in cobbing, see martillo, u. pico (3), comp. golpe (2). 

QUEBRADURA, ravine, see barranca (2). 

QUEBRANTADOR, QUEBRANTADORA, (1) stone-breaker or ore- 
crusher, syn. chancador, chancadora, Mex. coche (3) or cochina (1), 
machacadora, machadora, Mex. machucador, Tol. Col. marrano (4), 
Mex. quebradero, quijada (1), rompepiedras, see lengua (2), palanca 
(5), u. placa ; (2) bor. tool used for breaking up stones, etc., equiv 
Fr. casse-pierre or bonnet carre. 

QUEBRANTADURA, see quiebra (1) 

QUEBRANTAMIENTO, see quiebra (2). 

QUEBRANTAR, to crush, break up or spall ore, syn. quebrar. 

QUEBRANTO, see quiebra (1). 

QUEBRANTURA, ravine, see barranca (2). 

QUEBRAR, to cob, break or crush ore, see quebrantar. 

QUEBRAZON DE VETA, Mex. break in a vein (Dwight), comp. quiebra 

QUEDAR TRASCONEJADOS, S. E. Sp. said of miners who are shut off 
from the rest of the mine by a fall of ground (Molina). NOTE. Tras- 
conejarse = to squat : applied to game pursued by dogs (Velazquez). 

QUEMA, QUEME, Mex. (1) in the patio process, the roasting of the 
ore, see tostacion ; (2) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot., calcining of mercury 
ores in clay retorts, see calcinacion, mercuric (2) ; (3) retorting 
amalgam, see u. evaporation ; (4) metal de q., Peru, sulphide ore. 

QUEMADERO, Mex. (1) retort-furnace, used in the patio process, for 
distilling the quicksilver from the pella (2) ; (2) burning-place. 

QUEMADO, DA, pp. of quemar ; plata quemada, burnt silver. 

QUEMADO, Mex. any dark, cindery-looking mineral encountered in 
a vein or mineral deposit, generally manganiferous (Chism), see 



QUEMADOR, Mex. (1) the burner or director of the magistral (Lyon) ; 

(2) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. calciner of mercury ores, see mercuric 

QUEMADURA, (1) burning ; (2) burn (from an explosion, etc.). 
QUEMAR, (1) to roast ore, see tostar ; (2) to calcine ore, see calcinar ; 

(3) to retort amalgam, see evaporar ; (4) q. piedra, to heat a stone 
and then drop it in water, in order to break it up easily ; (5) to 
blast a hole, see tirar (1). 

QUEMAZ6N, (1) Pachuca, Hid. Mex. the upper zone of the silver ores 
in which the matrix consists of a mixture of minerals wherein man- 
ganese ores (psilomelane, pyrolusite and wad) predominate ; silver 
occurs in this zone as native, or as chloride, or chloro-bromide it is 
a var. of colorados, comp. pinta azul ; (2) Peru, outcrop (Dwight), 
see afloramiento. 

QUEME, see quema. 

QUENUA, Chile, a resinous tree, used as fuel (combustible), comp. 

QUESOS (cheeses), Mex. in the patio process, small cakes (tejos) of silver, 
resulting from smelting the sulphides [polvillos (3)] with litharge 
[greta (2)] in small clay furnaces or vasos (1), see plancha (1). 

QUICIAL, jamb of a door or window, see jamba. 

QUICIO, (1) hinge of a door ; a but-hinge, see bisagra ; (2) prop, 
support, see apoyo ; (3) Ant. Col. timb. sole-piece, see solera (3) ; 

(4) mech. bracket plummer-block ; collar of a shaft or pivot (Ponce 
de Leon), syn. rangua, comp. chumacera. 

QUIEBRA, (1) the breaking up of ore, whether by hand or machinery, 
syn. quebrantadura, quebranto ; (2) a fault [see falla (1)], fracture 
or break in rocks, etc., syn. quebrantamiento, comp. hendedura, 
quebrazon ; (3) a depression in a cordillera or in a cuchilla (1), and 
generally comprised between two mountains [cerros (1)] or peaks 
[picos (6)] (Mufioz), comp. terrontera. 

QUEIBRAHACHA, (I) see jabi ; (2) Cuba, a kind of fir. 

QUIJADA (jaw), (1) rock-breaker, see quebrantador ; (2) quijadas, 
jaw-plates of (1) ; (3) quijadas, see u. ensamblado. 

QUIJO, gangue or vein-rock [matriz (1)] generally quartzose, comp. 
panizo (1); q. azucarado, Hualgayoc, Peru, very small transparent 
hexagonal crystals of quartz, covering crystals of barytes (Santolalla) ; 
q. podrido, Lima, Peru, porous quartz often containing gold. 

QUILATADOR, assayer of gold or silver, see ensayador. 

QUILATAR, to assay gold or silver, syn. aquilatar, see ensayar. 

QUILATE, (1) degree of purity of gold or precious stones ; (2) carat 
or twenty-fourth part of gold under assay or estimation, thus gold 
of 22 quilates contains -||- of pure gold ; (3) carat (for precious 
stones), the 140th part of an ounce or 205 mg. (Acad.) = 3'077 grains 
in weight ; (4) a weight of 4 granos, the third part of a tomin or the 
144th part of an ounce. 



QUIMBALETE, see bimbalete. 

QUINTA, country seat, country house. 

QUINTAL, (1) one hundredweight or Spanish centner, a weight of 
100 Ib. Spanish or 4 arrobas = 101-444 Ib. avoir, or 46-0246 k. ; 
the quintal of Castile = 101-61 Ib. avoir. ; q. metrico, 100 k. ; 
(2) fifth part of 100. 

QUINTAL, Braz. village, see aldea. 

QUINTO, Span. Am. a tax on mines, established by Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Spain, and originally a fifth or 20 per cent. ; in Mexico 
reduced to a tenth (diezmo) and, later, to 3 per cent. ; in Colombia 
reduced to one-tenth, one-fifteenth, one-twentieth (see veinteno), 
and, in some cases, to one -twenty -first. In 1755 the tax for the 
right of melting and marking (cobos) was 2 per cent., afterwards 
reduced to 1 per cent. In 1777 the rights of quinto and cobos were 
reduced to 3 per cent. (V. Restrepo), see u. derecho (2). 

QUINUAL, Peru, a tree used for timbering, for duration, see u. lanche. 

QUITAPEPENA, Mex. a guard who stands at the door of the adit or 
mouth of the shaft to see that no stolen ore is carried away by the 
miners, etc., see guardaminas (1). 

QUITA Y PON, mech. adjustable, removable, e.g., rieles de q. y p., 
auxiliary rails used at the heads of inclined planes. 

QUITZALITZTLI, Mex. According to Clavijero, the Aztec name for 
the nephritic stone (piedra nefritica) or jade, see jade, comp. chalchi- 

RABERON, the top of a felled tree, cut for firewood (Velazquez), see 

RABLE (from Fr.), scraper, see legon. 

RABOS (tails of animals), Ant. Col. at the Zancudo mine, tailings 
[colas (7)] are treated in settling- vats, cabeceras from the first are 
coarser and richer in gold, medios from the second are finer and 
show more silver, while rabos from the third produce slimes richer 
in silver (H. F. Granger and E. B. Treville). 

RACHA, Port, fissure, see hendedura. 

RACHAS, large split pieces or branches of timber, used for lagging 
[revestimiento (1)], making sollars [plataformas (1), tapestles (1)], 
etc., see u. astilla (1), comp. raja (1). 

RADIACION, radiation ; vetas en r., veins radiating from a common 
centre, comp. u. reticulado. 

RADIANTE, piedra r., actinolite. 

RADIO, radius ; r. de proteccion, radius of protection [against sub- 
sidence (revenimiento) Gonot's rule]. 

RADOCHIN, Col. lead, iron or rubber rings or washers used for pipe- 
joints, see empaquetadura (2). 

RAEDERA, semicircular rake for collecting mineral at surface or under- 
ground, comp. azadon (3) ; met. rake, see u. rastro. 



RAF A, (1) inclined plane cut in rock to support an arch, see u. arranque 
(2), and fundamental ; (2) subsidence (Venator), see revenimiento. 

RAIZ, see u. propiedad ; bienes raices, landed property. 

RAJA, (1) splinter, chip of wood ; rajas, Mex. (half-round) lagging, 
see revestimiento, comp. rachas ; (2) crack or fissure, see hendedura. 

RAJADURA, prov. cleft, fissure, see hendedura. 

RAJO, Chile, large chamber wrought in a deposit, see casaron. 

RAMA, (1) bough or limb of a tree, syn. gajo (1) ; ramas, timb. small 
branches, comp. laton (2), ramo (1) ; (2) branch road, branch rail- 
way, branch vein, see ramal (3), ramo (2). 

RAMAL, (1) ramales, strands of a rope, see cordon (2) ; (2) principal 
passage in mines, see galeria ; (3) branch or off-shoot of a vein, branch 
vein, syn. Mex. contracajon or cuerpo (5), rama (2), ramita, ramo (2), 
veta ramal ; (4) Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. upper half of an 
inclined plane, see u. meter. 

RAMALEARSE, to split into branches (of a vein), see ramificarse. 

RAMBLA, (1) a sandy place or ground covered with sand after floods 
(avenidas or crecientes), comp. arenal ; (2) a ravine or water-course 
which carries off the water of heavy rains, see barranca (1) and (2). 

RAMEOS, Chile, zones of spotted ores (copper) separating the rich zones 
(Fuchs and De Launay), comp. clavo (2). 

RAMIFICACI6N, (1) division of a lode into branches ; (2) r. arqueada, 
transp. the reunion of an encuentro (2) and a bifurcation (2). 

RAMIFICARSE, to split up (of a lode), syn. ramalearse (Fr. se ramifier). 

RAMITA, r. de filon, branch or leader of a lode, see ramal (3). 

RAMO, (1) branch of a bough or limb, comp. rama (1) ; limb cut off from 
a tree ; (2) branch of a road, railway or vein, see rama (2), ramal (3). 

RAMPA, (1) winning or stoping face, end or breast, see fronton (1) ; 
(2) arco en r., arco rampante or por tranquil, rising or descending 
arch ; (3) inclined plane, see piano (3). 

RAMPL6N, Mex. upright (Lyon), seemontante (1). 

RANA, transp. frog or railway frog (or section of rail at a point where 
one line leads to two branches), syn. Mex. sapo, comp. corazon (2). 

RANCHERIA, Span. Am. collection of huts, like a hamlet. 

RANCHO, (1) an estate or property ; (2) Mex. a farm or detached farm- 
house and ground (Pac. ranch) ; see hacienda (1). 

RANGUA, pivot-collar, shaft-socket, see quicio (4). 

RANURA, groove, syn. rebajo (4) ; rabbet ; r. y lengiieta, carp, groove 
and tongue ; mech. slot, see embrague (3), muesca (1). 

RANURADOR, grooving -plane (Ponce de Leon). 

RAP ASA, a stone very soft and easy to work (Velazquez). 

RAPIDOS, rapids of a river (Ponce de Leon), see raudal. 

RASA, high and clear mountain plain (Acad.), see llano. 

RASANTE, line of street or road considered in its inclination or 
parallelism with regard to the horizontal plane (Acad.) ; rail, eleva- 
tion of outer rail in curves (Molina). 



RASCAR, to scratch (of buscones) on the surface of abandoned mines, 

see raspadores. 
RASGO, Tasco, Guerr. Mex. obs. length of underground workings along 

the strike (MS. 1793), see cuele (2). 

RASO, SA, adj. vulg. smooth (liso), applied to barrel of winch, etc. 
RASPA, (1) coarse file or rasp, see lima ; (2) Mex. in ores containing 

both gold and silver, when mercury is put in the arrastre (3), the 

amalgam, etc., obtained by scraping the bed, syn. raspadura. The 

scrapings are washed in a chuza. 
RASPADORES, Mex. name given to people who scrape or scratch on the 

surface of veins or other deposits (Brackel-Welda), syn. tepuqueros, 

see buscones, rascar. 
RASPADURA, scrapings, see raspa (2). 
RASPAR, (1) to scrape, to remove amalgam from the arrastre (3) by 

scraping ; to scale a boiler ; (2) Mex. to clean up an arrastre (3), see 

RASPOSO, Comanja, Jalisco, Mex. ore containing native silver, generally 

massive (en pegaduras), dendritic or in very small grains (Ramirez), 

see plata (2). 
RASTRA, (1) sledge, syn. narria, trineo ; acarreo por arrastre (1) or 

por rastra, conveyance or transport by sledging (Fr. trainage), see. 

patin (1) ; (2) act of dragging along ; una r. de lena, a load of firewood 

(dragged by mules). 
RASTRERO, see u, cable (1). 
RASTRILLO, see u. rastro. 
RASTRO, rake used in mining loose deposits, comp. azadon (3) ; rastrillo, 

small rake for stirring ore in furnaces ; see raedera. rastrocriba. 
RASTROCRIBA, screen rake used in washing (Molina), see rastro. 
RASTRON, Mex. a Chilian mill (Chism), see chileno. 
RATA (rat), Mex. candle-boy (Dwight), comp. abajador. 
RATO (he-mouse), sistema de r., Mex. ancient method of mining or 

RAUDAL, torrent, rapid stream ; raudales, rapids of a river, syn. chor- 

rera (4), rapidos, reciales, see cabezon (2). 
RAYA, (1) frontier, see frontera ; (2) Mex. day's pay (Dwight), see 

Jornada (2) ; (3) Mex. the time worked by the barreteros, and marked 

with circles, semicircles, strokes (rayas), and half-strokes, representing 

dollars, half-dollars (tostones), reales and medios (Dahlgren)f; the 

pay-roll, see memoria (1) ; (4) tienda de r., see u. tienda. 
RAY ADO, DA, pp. of rayar ; metal rayado, Peras, Oaxaca, Mex. greasy 

quartz with stains of oxide of iron in the form of bands, veins and 

zones (Ramirez) is gold-bearing, see oro, comp. u. acerado (1) and 

guija (2) ; paradas rayadas, see u. parada (3). 
RAYADO, Mex. day-labourer, see jornalero. 
RAYADOR, Mex. the grass-captain, clerk or accountant, who distributes 

candles, powder, tools, etc., and marks the raya (3), see capitan. 




RAYAR, Mex. to pay off (D wight) ; rayarse, to register after work [done] 
in the mine (Dwight). 

RAYO, (1) spoke of a wheel, pulley, etc. ; rayos, spokes or web of a car- 
wheel, see polea (3) ; (2) radius of a circle ; (3) ray of light ; see u. 
enlace (2). 

RAZONABLE, see u. azogue (2). 

REACTIVO, chem. reagent, see magistral. 

REAL, adj. royal, see u. hacienda (1). 

REAL (1) r. de minas, Mex. mining district, syn. asiento (4) de minas, 
mineral (4) de minas, realito, comp. campo (6), comarca (1), distrito (1) ; 
" by Real de Minas was understood those places in which there 
existed a town already established with church, vicar or curate, 
Royal Judge (Judge of Mines), and Deputies of Mining, six mines in 
operation, and four reduction-works " (E. M. Baca) ; with the increas- 
ing prosperity of the mines the reales were converted into pueblos 
or towns, thus Guanajuato real was established in 1554, obtained the 
title of town in 1619, and of city on the 8th of September, 1741 ; (2) 
Huelva, Sp. a gallery driven parallel with the lode (J. Allen), or along 
the strike (Molina), forming a galeria de direccion ; (3) r. de agua, a 
portion of water which can pass an aperture the size of a real (4) ; the 
real fontanero of Sp. = 135-2016 litres per hour (Duque) ; in Madrid 
= 3 cubic inches per second (Acad.) ; (4) Span. Am. a coin, one-eighth 
of a dollar or 12J cents ; in some parts of S. Am. = y 1 ^ or 10 
cents ; for values in Sp. consult Acad. and Velazquez ; (5) real de oro, 
Col. half a tomin, 16 reales = 1 castellano. 

REALCE (raised work), (1) rising drift (Venator) ; any working-place 
that is raised (que realza) above the 
haulage road ; rise at one end of a 
horizontal cut in order to stope down 
the next upper cut (Molina) ; see Fig. 66 
(after Moncada), equiv. Fr. relevage, 
comp. contracielo ; (2) labor de r., 
Linares, Almagrera, Mazarron and Car- 
tagena, Sp. overhand stoping, see testero 
(3) ; r. lateral, method of stoping 
(overhand) wide veins, one-half or one- 
third being stoped first, beginning on the footwall side, comp. rebajo 
(2) lateral. 

REALITO, see real (1). 

REATA, cord or leather strap joining two or more horses, etc., drawing 
in line ; reatas, Mex. cords [cuerdas (1)] about as thick as the finger 
or larger, used for lashing cargo, comp. rejo (3). 

REATILLA, Mex. a single twisted rope, smaller than the reata. 

REBABA, projecting piece of stone in a wall, etc. ; mortar crowded 
out between stones and bricks ; chipped edge of sawed timbers or 
planks (Velazquez). 


Fie. 66. Kealce (1). 


REBAJADO, DA, pp. of rebajar, see u. arco. 
REBAJAR, to stope underhand, syn. Mex. desbordar. 
REBAJE, see rebajo. 

REBAJO, (1) Mex. (rebaje) working out or mining deposits, syn. desfrute, 
comp. arranque (1) ; r. del cielo, overhand stoping, see u. testera (3) 
(2) underhand stoping, syn. explotacion por gradas derechas, labor 
de rebajo (or rebaje), Mazarron, Sp. labor de zanjas or trabajo de zanjeo, 
labor en bancos (2), trabajo de banca (2) or de banco (2) ; for under- 
ground stope, see u. grada (2) ; r. lateral, stoping (underhand) wide 
veins, one-half or one-third being stoped first, beginning on the foot- 
wall side, comp. realce (2) lateral ; (3) Mex. (rebaje) a winze or staple, 
see clavada ; (4) a groove in timber or stone for joining same, see 

REBANADA, slice of mineral, rock, etc. 

REBATIDO, see u. tajo (4). 

REBO, Port, gravel, see cascalho (1). 

REBOLLUDO, see u. diamante. 

REBOLO, see u. muela (4). 

REBORDE, flange, e.g., of a piston, of cast-iron tubbing, of a wheel, 
syn. brida (3), see cuello (4), pestana, rodete (2), solapa (1). 

REBOSADERO (place where anything overflows), (1) overflow waterway 
of a reservoir, dam, etc., syn. vertedero (1), vertiente (4) ; via de 
escape, waste weir ; (2) Peru, gold-placer, see placer ; (3) crest of 
a vein (Elwes), see creston ; (4) irregular deposit or pocket ; " rebo- 
zaderos (sic) 6 impregnaciones de la roca con cierta irregularidad a 
una distancia considerable de la grieta 6 paso de los minerales " (Bol. 
del I. G. de M.), syn. Mazapil, Zac Mex. bufa (2), see masa (3) ; 
(5) stockwork, see cumulo (2). 

REBOTALLEROS, Mex. according to Gamboa, those who search for 
ore on the dumps (terreros or desmontes), see pallaco, pallaquear, 
comp. buscones (1) and (2). 

REBUSCADOR, see buscador. 

RECALCONES, jerks given to the rope in hoisting with a winch (Moncada). 

RECALENTADOR, superheater, e.g., used in Piccard's method of obtain- 
ing salt, see calorifero. 

RECARGOS, Chile, charges on nitrate or caliche (1). 

RECAUDACION, collection of taxes. 

RECEPCI6N, a plat, see concava. 

RECEPTADORA, RECEPTORA, el. motor as distinguished from dynamo 
or generator (generatriz). 

RECEPTOR, receiver ; r. del aire, air-chamber of an air-compressor j 
r. hidraulico, hydraulic receiver, see recipiente. 

RECEPTORA, see receptadora. 

RECHANO, Port, plain on the top of a mountain (Elwes), see meseta (2). 

RECHAZADO, DA, pp. of rechazar ; veta rechazada, dislocated vein, 
see rechazo. 


JPZ^ c. 




RECHAZO (rebound), Ant. Col. deviation of a lode caused by a fault 

[falla(l)], comp. salto (1). 
RECIAL, rapids (of a river), see raudal. 
RECINCHO, Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. hard sandstone (arenisca), 

fine-grained and containing pyrite, occurring in the coal seam (Molina), 

comp. soleta. 

RECIO, I A, adj. coarse ; mena recia, see u. mena. 
RECIPIENTE, receiver, see receptor ; r. de aire, pump, condenser 

r. del pozo de desagiie, sump. (Venator), see caja (2). 
RECOCIDO, the operation of annealing metals (Velazquez). 
RECODO, (1) bend of a river, see retuerta ; (2) refuge-hole (Chalon). 
RECOGEDORES, see lazador (2). 
RECOGER, to gather, pick (of ores), collect. 
RECOGIDA, oro de r., Ant. Col. gold composed of that from different 

mines in small portions (Uribe), see oro. 
RECONCENTRADOS, Mex. concentrates, see concentrados. 
RECONOCER, to search for minerals, veins, etc. ; to prospect, costean. 
RECONOCIMIENTO, (1) exploring, searching, prospecting, see u. trabajo 

(2) ; (2) survey, inspection ; (3) Mex. in the patio process, verifying 

the results obtained, see empleo. 
RECOPILACI6N, abridgment or collection of laws ; R. de Indias, Mex. 

under early Spanish domination, the code of the Indies, which included 

various laws and dispositions relating to mining, see codigo. 
RECORRER, (1) surv. to traverse ; (2) mech. to travel, sweep (Ponce 

de Leon), (3) to repair (machinery, etc.). 
RECORRIMIENTO, surv. traversing as distinguished from triangulation 

RECORTAR, (to cut away, pare off), to regulate or dress the sides of a 

shaft, etc., syn. igualar. 
RECORTE, (1) dressing the sides of a shaft, etc. ; equalising a face after 

a shot (Molina) ; (2) transversal de r., Asturias, Sp. cross-cut, see 

crucero (1) ; (3) transversales de r., Palencia, Sp. see u. transversal ; 

(4) vent, equalisation ; (5) recortes, Ant. Col. mech. prep, blanketings, 

after being washed on an inclined table or frame, and before going 

to the arrastre (3), comp. marmaja (2) ; (6) recortes, mech. prep. 

skimmings, " skimpings " or " toppings " (Venator), see desecho (2). 
RECOSTADO, DA, adj. and pp. of recostar ; veta recostada, inclined 

vein, see u. echado, da ; for testeros recostados, see u. testero (3). 
RECOSTAR, (to recline), to dip, see inclinarse. 
RECOVA, RECUA, Port, drove or gang of horses or mules. 
RECOVAGEM, Port, conveyance of goods on mules. 
RECOVAR, Port, to drive pack-horses or mules. 
RECOVEIRO, Port, mule-driver. 

RECTIFICACI6N, rectification or correction (of a mining claim). 
RECTO, TA, adj. straight, erect ; bancos rectos, underhand stopes, see 

u. banco (2) ; monton recto, see u. rnonton (3). 



RECUBRIMIENTO, la superficie de r. de una valvula, the superficial 
part of a valve, which rests on the seat [asiento (2)]. 

RECUESTE, see recuesto. 

RECUESTO (Mex. recueste), (1) declivity, slope, seependiente (1) ; for tiro 
de recueste, see u. tiro (1) ; (2) inclination or dip of a vein, see echado. 

RECUPERACI6N, recovery. 

RECUPERADOR, RA, adj. aparatos recuperadores, recovery apparatus. 

RED (net) ; una r. de filones or de vetas, a network of veins, a stockwork, 
see cumulo (2). 

REDUCCI6N, Mex. reduction (of number of mining claims), comp. 

REFACCION, REFECCION, Span. Am. repair (of a mill, building, etc.), 
see remiendo, reparo ; pieza de r., repair-piece. 

REFACCIONAR, REFECCIONAR, Span. Am. to repair ; r. un molino, 
to repair a mill, see remendar, reparar. 

REFACCIONERO, Mex. the helper of a rock-drill operative (Dwight), 
comp. hapire (2). 

REFECCI6N, see refaction. 

REFECCIONAR, see refaccionar. 

REFINACI6N, refining, see afinacion. 

REFINADOR, refiner, see afinador. 

REFINADURA, refining metals, etc., see afinacion. 

REFINAR, to refine (metals), see afinar. 

REFOGA, Peru, retorting amalgam, syn. refogue ; distilling free sulphur 
from sulphides. 

REFOGAR, Peru, to retort amalgam, see u. evaporar ; to distil sulphur 
from sulphide?. 

REFOGUE, see refoga. 

REFORZADO, DA, adj. strengthened, see u. capusla and viga. 

REFORZAR, (to strengthen), to re-timber a level, etc., see entibar. 

REFORZE, re-timbering, see entivacion. 

REFRACCIONARIA, compania r., see u. habilitacion. 

REFRACTARIO, IA, adj. met. refractory, see revestimiento (2). 

REFRIGERACI6N, cooling (Fr. refroidissement). 

REGA, Braz. water-conduit or launder, see caz. 

REGADERA, (1) boca de r., pump, snore-piece or strainer, see boca (8) ; 
(2) c.m. pick for deep undercutting, syn. pica, socavadora de mano, 
equiv. Fr. rivelaine ; regaderas mecanicas, mechanical picks for coal- 
cutting ; (3) mech. prep, sprinkler ; (4) c.m. spraying, see riego (2). 

REGADURA, (1) c.m. undercutting, undermining, holing, (N. Engl.) 
" kirving " or " binching under," syn. desanche (2), socava, socavadura 
(Venator), equiv. Fr. entaillement, Ger. Schramen ; (2) c.m undercut 
(N. Engl.) kerf or kerfing, syn. atarjea (2), descalce horizontal or 
inferior, entalladura (1), regadura, regola, reguera, (quarr.) roza (2), 
rozadura (2). socavado, tajea, equiv. Fr. havage, sous-cave, Ger. 

289 T 


REGALO, present, bonus (to miners, etc.), see gratification, premio (1). 
REGAT6N, (1) Col. stone implement of the Indians found in the guacas, 
see Fig. 67 (after Angel) ; (2) Col. alluv. in. kind of chopper used in 
gold-washing ; (3) socket, ferrule, syn. casquillo (3). 
REGENERADOR, met. regenerator ; r. de fuerza, 

pump. Bockholtz' regenerator. 

REGIMEN, vent, when there is equilibrium between 
the air expelled and that introduced, or when the 
resultant of the centrifugal force and the atmo- 
spheric pressure equals zero (Molina). 
REGISTRADOR, mech. registering apparatus, tell- FIG. c?. llcgaton 
tale (Ponce de Le6n). (after M. u. Ansel). 

REGISTRAR, to register a title to a mine, see registro. 
REGISTRO, (1) register, official entry or registration of the possession 
of a mine ; (2) r. de limpieza, mudhole of a boiler, etc., syn. boca (7) 
or orificio de limpieza ; (3) register or damper, syn. Have (2) de humero, 
regulador de tiro (4), see columna (10), comalillo (2) ; (4) pump, valve- 
door of a door-piece [caja (4)]. 
REGLA, (1) carp, rule, syn. codo (2) ; (2) reglas, surv. rods (generally 

of selected pine) used in measuring base of triangulation. 
REGLAMENTO, regulation, ordinance ; reglamentos de la explotacion 

de minas, regulations or rules for working mines. 
REGLON, (1) level used by mason, see u. nivel (1) ; (2) surv. vertica 

pole or upright of a measuring-rod. 
REGO, Port. (1) furrow or trench, see zanja (1) ; (2) Braz. ditch or leat, 

see acequia. 

REGOLA, c.m. undercut, see regadura (2). 
REGUERA, c.m. undercut, see regadura (2). 

REGULADOR, regulator ; governor of a steam-engine (Fr. regulateur) ; 
throttle -valve of a locomotive ; r. de correas, belt-tightener ; r. de 
presion, see acumulador ; r. de velocidad de paletas or molinete (5), 
regulator attached to brakes in automatic inclined planes the float- 
boards (paletas) move in air or water ; r. volumetrico, vent, volumetric 
regulator of Desailly and Dubois (1884) ; see moderador, registro (3). 
REGULAR, adj. metal r., Mex. average ore, ore of fair grade. 
REHABILITACI(3N, rehabilitation, re-opening of mines, etc. 
REIS, Braz. an imaginary coin of reckoning, see milreis. 
REJA, (1) mech. prep, grate ; battery-screen ; grizzly (parrilla (2)] ; 
r. movil or de vaiven, shaking-grate, see criba ; (2) rejas, Mex. gratings 
which must be placed at all points of drainage tunnels where they 
connect with mine-workings on boundary-lines, etc. ; (3) met. grate 
of a furnace, see rejilla (3). 
REJALGAR, realgar [AsS]. 

REJILLA, (1) mech. prep, grizzly, see parrilla (2) ; sieve of a jigger, etc. ; 
see criba ; (2) rejillas, alluv. m. ripples, see tendido (5) ; (3) met. grate 
of a furnace [horno (2), syn. parrilla (1), reja (3), see sabalera. 



RE JO, (1) pointed iron bar or spike ; (2) rim of iron put round the frame 
of a door to strengthen it ; (3) Col. rope made of raw hide, used for 
tying cargoes to mules, and for other purposes, comp. u. reata. 

REL AMP AGO, Mex. met. the brightening of the silver button during 
cupellation, see vuelta (3). 

RELAMPAGUAR, met. to brighten, see relampago. 

RELAVE, second washing of ores ; relaves, residue left in a batea after 
a washing-test ; in the patio process, material remaining after washing 
the torta, e.g., in Guan. heavy ore, abounding in pyrites, remaining 
attached to the amalgam, and which is hand-washed in large bowls, 
and then ground up again in an arrastre (3) it yields a silver amalgam 
rich in gold (St. Clair Duport) ; the heavier and coarse matter deposited 
in settling -tanks, after treatment in tinas or vats, the lamas being the 
lighter slimes, and appears to be equiv. to the cabecilla (1) and pol- 
villo (3) from the arrastres (3) ; Chile, residues left after the Chilian 
process of amalgamation. 

RELECES, Col. mineral left behind by former working as being un- 

RELEJE, Peru, supporting of mines, see fortification. 

RELEJEAR, Peru, to support mines, see fortificar. 

RELEVO, shift or core, or change of shift or core, (Cornw.) relief, e.g., 
r. de la tarde, afternoon shift or core, back shift ; relief of wheelbarrow- 
men (Molina) ; syn. campana (3), Mex. cuarto (3), entrada (2), Jornada 
(3), jornal (3), parada (2), equiv. Fr. journee, poste, Ger. Schicht, see 
dobla, doblar, endoble, nocheros, pueble (3), punta (1), turno. 

RELIZ, (1) Mex. the bounding -plane between the vein and the " country " 
the wall proper (respaldo) ; there may be several of these forming 
" walls within walls," or " walls beyond walls" ; " se ven los relices 
que constituyen los respaldos, adheridos a algunos fragmentos mas 
6 menos voluminosos, en lo general esteriles, con alguna frecuencia 
mezclados con particulas de mineral muy diseminadas en la masa, y 
en algunos casos, ricos " (Ramirez) the same author speaks of the 
filling being compact, or " cargada de relices " ; according to Louis 
Carrion = faces of separation of the different branches [cuerpos (3)] 
of a lode ; (2) Mex. land-slide, see derrumbe (2). 

RELLENA, see u. fractura. 

RELLENAR, to stow attle or deads, syn. ativar, see echar (2). 

RELLENO, (1) mech. packing of pistons, pumps, etc., see empaquetado ; 

(2) stowing or packing, filling-in or filling-up, filling, syn. ativacion, 
explotacion por rellenos, sistema por relleno, equiv. Fr. exploitation 
par remblais, remplissage a decombres, Ger. Versatzung, com p. retaque ; 

(3) attle-packing, waste, gob or goaf used in (2), syn. ativado, Sierra 
de Cartagena, Sp. atoro, atracado, rezago, Mex. trincha (2), equiv. 
Fr. remblais, Ger. Versatz, Bergversatz, see loritos, comp. desecho (3) ; 

(4) r. de un filon, filling of a vein, syn. caja (14), Mex. cuerpo (4), 



llenamiento, masa (6) del filon, equiv. Fr. remplissage, Ger. Gang- 
masse ; (5) refilling of a vein, i.e., secondary filling. 

RELUCIENTE, adj. clear ; Mex. fine-grained (of galena), see it. liga (2), 
plomo (2), soroche (2). 

RELUMBROSO, SA, adj. shining, glistening, see u. liga (2). 

REMACHAR, to rivet, comp. roblar ; remachado, da, pp. riveted. 

REMACHE, (1) riveting, see robradura ; (2) rivet, see roblon. 

REMACH6N, buttress, see contrafuerte (1). 

REMANSO, smooth stagnant water or still pool of a river, " la parte 
quieta causado por el movimiento de las aguas que vuelven sobre si 
mismos detenidas por algun obstaculo " (Munoz), see cadoso, comp. 
charco (3), raudal, remolino (1). 

REMATE, (1) end, conclusion ; r. de cuentas, closing of accounts ; 
(2) highest bidding (at a public auction) ; (3) r. publico, public 
auction, see subasta. 

REMENDADO, DA, pp. of remendar, patched, mended ; timb. a stull 
(estemple) is said to be de remendado when a head-piece or wedges 
are added to give it the necessary length (Molina). 

REMENDAR, to mend, repair, see refaccionar, reparar ; for piedra de 
r., see u. piedra. 

REMESA, remittance of money, bullion, etc., see envio, comp. embarque. 

REMIENDO, repair (of machinery, etc.), see refaction, reparo. 

REMISI6N, the act of sending, Mex. shipment (D wight), see embarque. 

REMOCI6N, eng. earthwork (Chalon). 

REMOLEDOR, Pachuca, Hid. Mex. special grinding-pan of the Boss 
continuous system of extracting silver, see tina (2). 

REMOLINO, (1) whirlpool, syn. olla (3), vortice, equiv. Port, redomoinho 
de agua, see hoyo (4), pozo (4) ; (2) mass or bunch of ore, see bolsa (1), 
clavo (2) ; Pampa de Navar, Peru, " in this plain there have been found 
extending over a surface of more than four English square miles, 
and immediately under the turf, immense masses of red gold ore and 
wire-like threads of pure silver. These are called by the Peruvian 
miners remolinos, clavos and vetas manteadas [see u. veta (1)], and they 
are overgrown by the roots of the Alpine grasses. ... In the Choro- 
pampa there has been found near the surface of the earth a rich 
mass of pure gold, spun round, as it were, with threads of silver " 

REMONTAGEM, Ouro Preto, Braz. rise (J. L. Tonkin), see contracielo (1). 

REMOVIDO, met. stirring or rabbling. 

REMUDA, change or relay of mules or horses, see parada (1). 

RENDIDO, DA, pp. of rendir ; Mex. in the patio process, applied to the 
torta, when the amalgamation is concluded, e.g., "la torta esta 
rendida " or "la torta ha rendido." 

RENDIMIENTO, (1) yield or product, see producto ; (2) mech. efficiency, 
e.g., r. dinamico, geometrico, manometrico^vent. dynamic, geometric, 



manometric efficiency, respectively (equiv. to the co-efficient of useful 
effect of other machines). 

RENDIR, to yield ; rendirse, in the patio process, said of a torta when the 
amalgamation is complete, see u. rendido, da ; r. los humos, Alga- 
niarca, Cajabamba, Peru, said of ores completely oxidised by roasting 

RENIDERO, see cernidero. 

RENIR, see cernir. 

RENTA, rent. 

REPARAR, to repair, see refaccionar, remendar. 

REPARO, repair of an edifice, machinery, etc., see refaction, remiendo. 

REPARTIDORA, hydr. m. distributer, see distribuidor (4). 

REPARTO, profit, return, see beneficio (2). 

REPASADERA, carp, plane, see cepillo (1). 

REPASADORES, Mex. in the patio process, men who mix the ores by tread- 
ing in the mercury, or who drive the mules in that operation (repaso). 

REPASAR, Mex. (1) in the patio process, to work sal tierra into the 
lamero (2), or magistral and quicksilver into the torta by treading 
with mules and men ; (2) r. las valvulas, pump, to examine and 
repair valves which leak, etc. 

REPASIRES, caballos r., Peru, horses used in the repaso. 

REPASO, Mex. in the patio process, the mixing of the ore and quick- 
silver by treading in the torta ; the second treading is called repaso 

REPECHO, declivity, slope, ^ependiente (1). 

REPISA, bracket, see silla (3), soporte (2), comp. can (2) ; r. de los sopletes, 
met. tuyere (twyer) arch (Ponce de Leon), see tobera. 

REPOSADERO, REPOSADOR, (1) Mex. a black soft and porous stone 
in the bed [asiento (8)] of the smelting furnace (Gam boa) ; (2) r. 
exterior, met. receptacle or reservoir for molten metal, etc., in front 
of a furnace, the float ; the contents of the fore-hearth (antecrisol) 
are tapped into this, syn. deposito (10) de colada, fondo (2), pileta (2), 
Mex. vaso (5), comp. marmita ; (3) ". sole" or bottom of the crucible 
[crisol (2)] or hearth of a blast-furnace, syn. fondo (4) ; (4) in the patio 
process, settling-tank, syn. chuza, see u. estanque (3). 

REPOSAR (to rest), Mex. in the patio process, the resting of the torta 
after the incorporo (Dr. Percy). 

REPRESA (1) dam, see presa (1) ; r. encofrada, coffer-dam, syn. ataguia, 
malecon (3), see caballo (9), cerco (5), tapon (3) ; (2) represas, mech. 
prep, riffles, see tendido (5). 

REPRESAR, to bank, sluice, dam. 

REQUIEBRO, (1) breaking-up of ore after exploitation (Molina) ; 
(2) Almaden Sp. medium (quicksilver) ore, comp. metal (4), china 
(2), vacisco. NOTE. According to Barinaga, requiebro (2) and 
china (2) are synonymous. 

RESALTOS, mech. prep, riffles, see tendido (5). 



RESBALADERO, ore-shoot, see paso (2). 

RESBALADO, geol. overlapping, see sobrepuesto. 

RESBALAMIENTO, RESBAL6N, (1) mech. sliding [see u. pendiente (1)], 
slide, slip, see u. valvula ; skid (of wheels) ; (2) geol. sliding, as of 
one rock over the other, fault or slide ; overlap fault, see salto ; 
(3) pianos de r., geol. slickenside ; (4) veta de r., vertical lode. 

RESBALARSE, to run side by side (of two veins). 

RESBALO, EC. a very precipitous hill (Velazquez), see cerro (1) ; abrupt 
slope (Ponce de Leon), see pendiente (1). 

RESBAL6N, see resbalamiento. 

RESCATADOR, (1) Mex. orig. middle-men who bought up ores at the 
mouth of the mine, reducing them in haciendas of their own. Funds 
were provided by capitalists, on condition of receiving the silver 
produced at a rate considerably below the mint or market price 
known as avio a premio de platas (Ward) ; ore-buyer, syn. Peru, 
maquilero, see rescate, rescatin. 

RESCATAR, Mex. to buy ore. 

RESCATE, Mex. (1) orig. ransom received from the Indians; in 1519 
Law 1st, Title XXII., Book IV., orders that the gold of ransom 
received (rescate) from the Indians in manufactured pieces be assayed, 
certified, marked and charged with one-fifth to the Crown (E. M. 
Baca) ; (2) public sale of ores ; ore-buying agency ; in mines which 
sell their products the various lots of ore are spread out [tendidos (4)] 
in the patio (1), so that the ore-buyers (rescatadores) can see them. 
The sale is made to the best bidder (poster) of those who come to 
the rescate ; they make their offers to the administrator in private, who 
announces the result in a loud voice paradas (3) de busca have the 
option of selling their allotted portions of ore to the mine-owners, or 
of taking it away (Bol. del I. G. de M.) ; (3) division of ore among the 
workmen (barreteros), see u. partido (2). 

RESCATfN, Span. Am. one who buys of Indians their small collections 
of ore (Velazquez), see rescatador. 

RESECOS, Santa Eulalia, Chih. Mex. earthy 
carbonates of lead (Dahlgren), see plomo (2) ; 
dry ores (Dwight). 

RESERVAS, (1) reserves of mineral, ore-reserves, 
syn. minerales colgados ; (2) Almaden, Sp. 
name given to the columns of ore left between 
two masses of masonry [obras (3)]. 


estanque (1). 0) resguardo; b, contra 

RESGUARDO, (shelter) Mex. pent-house used resguardo ; e, torno or 
at the bottom of a shaft in re-sinking, see J^"^/' ventanilla or 
Fig. 68 (after Luis Carrion), syn. fondeo, tapon 

(2) equiv. Fr. appentis, solives de protection, Ger. Schutzbiihne, Schuss- 
biihne, see guante, tlascal. 



RESIDUO, (1) waste from picking ore, final sludge from tin-dressing 
(Cornw. gatchers), etc., syn. resto ; (2) chem. residuum ; (3) r. aluvial, 
geol. alluvial detritus (Ponce de Leon). 
RESINITA, (1) a fossil resin ; (2) hydrated quartz (A. del. M. de F.), 

see cuarzo. 

RESORTE, mech. spring, syn. muelle (1) ; mech. prep, spring-buffer 
of rolls (Dwiglit), see cilindro (4) ; r. de tirabuzon, r. de Belleville, hoist, 
springs fixed above cages to neutralise the effects of sudden jerks, 
see u. abrazadera (2), and muelle (1). 

RESPALDO (back or fore-part of anything), wall of a vein, etc., syn. 
caja (13), see hastial (1), lado, pared (3), reliz (1), comp. guarda (1) ; 
r. alto or superior, hanging-wall (Ger. Hangende) see alta (1) ; r. bajo 
or inferior, footwall (Ger. Liegende), see bajo (3). NOTE. The term 
respaldo, like the equiv. term " wall " in English, is often applied to 
the wall-rock [Ger. Nebengestein see roca (4)] or " country " adjacent 
to the vein; strictly speaking, however, it is the bounding-plane 
between the vein and the country, equiv. Fr. eponte, Ger. Sahlband, 
Ulme, see reliz (1). 

RESPIRADERO, (1) vent, air-hole, air-shaft, syn. sopladero ; (2) pump, 
snore-hole ; (3) geol. blow-hole of a volcano through which sulphurous 
fumes are emitted. 

RESPIRADOR, apparatus for breathing in bad air (Gillman), see aeroforo. 

see hendedura. 

RESTO, residue, see residue (1). 

RESUMIDERO, Guerr. Mex. name given to limestone cavern, syn. 
sotano, see cueva (1). NOTE. The above appears to be a corruption 
of rezumadero, dripping-place. 
RETACAR, see retaque ; r. camas, Mineral del Oro, Mex. to fill in all 

open spaces behind lagging [camas (7)] with waste rock. 
RETAJAR (to cut round), Mex. to put new stones in the bed of an 

arrastre (3). 

RETAQUE, operacion de r. Mex. in timbering shafts, laths (made of 
medias viguetas, the lower end being in the form of a bevel or chaflan), 
used in lagging, are forced in by hammering or by using a pile-driver, 
and all holes are filled in between the timber and the rock with cabezas 
de viga (L. Carrion) is lagging and filling [relleno (2)] combined, see 
revestimiento (1). NOTE. S. Ramirez appears sometimes to use the 
word as synonymous with ataques (2) or deads. 
RETARDO, st. eng. back-lash (Ponce de Leon). 
RETEN, mech. detent, ratchet, catch, see fiador (2) ; for Have de r., S3e 

Have (5). 

RETENIDA, Mex. pillar m a stope (Dwight), see pilar (3). 
RETICULADO, DA, adj. resembling network ; filones en reticuiados, 

net -work of veins, comp. radiacion. 
RETINITA, retinite or pitchstone (piedra pez). 



RETIRADO, pp. of retirar, to retreat; explotarse en retirado, c.m. to 
work from the perimeter to the centre, to work out-bye or home, equiv. 
F. en retrait, avec piliers repris. 

RETORTA, retort, see bomba (5), cantaro, u. cornamusa, huairuna. 

RETRANCA, (1) kind of crupper for cargo mules, etc. ; (2) Span. Am. 
brake of a wagon or railway-car, see freno (2). 

RENTRANQUERO, Span. Am. brakesman, see frenero. 

RETRETA, see echar (1). 

RETUERTA, a bend or turn in rivers, etc., see recodo (1). 

REVENIDERO, Ant. Col. (1) apparent alteration of " country " by the 
infiltration of water (Uribe) ; (2) the loose, clayey, boggy and wet part 
of a formation, arising from the slow infiltration of water from the 
interior of mountains (Muiioz) ; quicksand, (arena movediza or arenas 

REVENIMIENTO, partial sinking in of the land [terreno (1)] of a mine 
(Acad.), subsidence, surface movement or draw, syn. Mex. cata (5), 
descenso, rafa (2), zanja (2) equiv. Fr. affaissement, Ger. Pinge, -see 
buzon (6), campana (9), chupon (3), embudo (3), u. radio, soplidos, 
u. tajo (3), comp. hundimiento (3). 

REVENTADERO, (1) rough, uneven ground, of difficult access (Velaz- 
quez) ; (2) outcrop, see creston. 

REVENTARSE, to blast successfully, i.e., without miss firing, comp. 
tirar (2). 

REVENTAZ6N, L. Cal. Mex. outcropping (Lucas), see creston. 

REVENTON, (1) road or path very much inclined, and fatiguing to 
surmount ; (2) reventones, Chile, masses of native silver (Fuchs and 
De Launay), see plata (2). 

REVERBERACI6N, calcination or roasting in a reverberatory furnace, 
syn. reverbero (2), see calcination, tostacion. 

REVERBERAR, Mex. to roast (Dwight), see tostar. 

REVERBERO, (1) reflector, see pantalla (2) ; (2) see reverberation ; 
(3) horno de r., reverberatory furnace. 

REVES, mech. back-stroke (Ponce de Leon). 

REVESTIMIENTO, (1) any lining or covering (Fr. revetement), whether 
of wood, stone or metal, used in mines ; r. de piedra, (a) stone-work 
or walling, see mamposteria (2), (6) stone-tubbing or coffering, see 
encubado (1) ; r. de pozo (1), steining a well ; r. de pozo (2), steining 
or ginging a shaft ; r. impermeable, tubbing, see encubado (1) ; r. 
metalico, metallic lining or support ; timb. lagging, syn. Col. dema 
(2), entibacion con estacas or tablas, Mex. forro (3), Pachuca, Hid. Mex. 
guarda (3), Mex. guarnicion (1), equiv. Fr. garnissage, Ger. Verschies- 
sung, see atiz, bastones, caillapos, costero (1), costilla (4), encamacion 
(1), encofrado (1) and (2), guarnicion (1), orillaje, piso (7), rachas, 
raja, retaque, timba (1), vara (4), varejon, zarzo (1) ; (2) met. lining of 
converters [see u. forro (1)], furnaces, etc. ; r. refractario, refractory 
lining, see paramento (2) ; (3) muro de r., see v. muro (1). 



REVESTIR, to line a shaft or level with wood, etc. ; r. con costeros (1), 
to line with slabs, to lag, see encofrar. 

REVISADOR, (1), examiner of ore and waste separated by miners, syn. 
celador ; (2) examiner or inspector of machinery ; man over the 
palanqueros (2). 

REVISOR DE CUENTAS, auditor, see u. contador (1). 

REVOCAR, to plaster or whitewash, see blanquear. 

REVOCO, see revoque (2). 

REVOLTURA, (1) Mex. the mixing of the ore with fluxes, etc., before 
putting them in the furnace, constituting the charge, smelting or 
furnace charge or mixture, syn. revolturon, see u. carga (4) ; (2) the 
frequent stirring of mineral in desiccation or calcination. 

REVOLTURON, see revoltura (1). 

REVOQUE, (1) act of whitewashing ; (2) plaster, whitewash, syn. revoco, 
see u. lechada. 

REZAGA, REZAGO (remainder, residue), (1) ore left in a mine ; 
(2) waste or goaf, see relleno (3) ; (3) see grancero. 

REZAGADO, Mex. piled up (Dwight). 

REZUMADERO, see u. resumidero. 

RIA, mouth of a river, see desembocadero. 

RIACHUELO, RIATILLO, rivulet, stream, small river, see cano (3). 

RIBAZO, see u. ribera. 

RIBERA, shore of the sea ; bank of a river, syn. banda (4), borde (1), 
margen, orilla (1), equiv. Port, barranceira, see playa (1). NOTE. 
Steep banks of rivers are called ribazos. 

RIBERO, bank or parapet of a dam, see presa (1). 

RIEGO, (1) irrigation ; (2) c.m. laying coal-dust by means of a sprayer 
or diffuser, syn. regadera (4), rociada ; (3) riegos, Ant. Col. fragments 
separated from the outcrop (creston) of a deposit, which have become 
rounded by the declivities of the ground, and which serve as guides to 
the monteadores or buscadores of veins (Uribe) ; float, shode (shoad) or 
shoad-stones of Cornw. Engl., syn. derrame (4) de veta, riegos rodados, 
rodados (1) orsueltos, equiv. Ger. Findlinge, Felsblocke, comp. rollo (2). 

RIEL, (1) small bar or ingot of crude gold, silver or copper, see barra (3) ; 
(2) transp. rail, see carril. 

RIELADO, DA, adj. reduced to ingots ; applied to gold, silver or copper. 

RIELERA, met. mould for ingots of gold, silver or copper, syn. Mex. 
ladrillera (2), lingotera. 

RIFLES, (from Engl.), S. Am. riffles, see tendido (5). 

RIGOLA, mech. prep, labyrinth (Ponce de Leon), see laberinto (1). 

RIMERO, a pile or string of gads (Ger. Riemen), etc. 

RINC6N, inside corner of a wall, building, etc., comp. esquina ; chimenea 
de r., see u. chimenea (4), Fig. 22. 

RINON, (kidney), (1) kidney-shaped mass of ore ; in Mex. reniform 
tin ore (wood tin) is called rinon or estano de r., see u. bolsada (3), 
guijoles, comp. bolsa, nido, nodulo (2), criaderos en rinones, see u. 



criadero ; (2) Ant. Col point in which the ore of a mine appears very 
abundant, syn. nodulo (2). 

RIO, river, stream, see amagamiento, arroyo (1), Canada (2), quebrada (5). 
RIOLITA, (1) rhyolite, syn. Durango, Mex. piedra acanterada, see u. 
mocheta ; according to James D. Dana a quartzophyric var. graduates 
towards and into obsidian (obsidiana), through pearlite and pitchstone 
(piedra pez or retinita) ; (2) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. guadal- 
cazarite in grains, associated with cinnabar, contains 5 to 12 per cent, 
of mercury, syn. metal fierroso, see u. hierroso, sa. H. F. Collins says 
it is possibly a mixture either of guadalcazarite, or possibly of onofrite, 
with other substances ; it is steel-grey, with red streak, occurs in sheets 
and pipes, in gypsum and limestone, and between these two rocks, 
see mercuric (2). 

RIOSTRA, (1) a strut, e.g., timb. a strut supporting a vertical timber, 
see Fig. 58, comp. jabalcon (2), tornapunta (1) ; (2) the backlegs of a 
pulley-frame (Gillman), see tornapunta (4) ; (3) Zac. Mex. timb. a 
stull (estemple) usually inclined the one below is called cumbrera (3), 
see Fig. 49. 

RIOSTRAR, to strengthen by means of oblique posts or struts. 
RIPIA, b. constr. shingle, see tejamanil. 

RIPIAR, to fill up the chinks of a wall with small stones and mortar ; 
to cover over chinks, etc., of underground walls with clay or lime, 
syn. enripiar. 

RIPIO, (1) ripios, mas. rubble, see mampuesto (1) ; (2) transp. ballast 
material, see balasto ; (3) Mex. fragments of stones placed between 
the stones forming the bed of an arrastre (3) ; quarr. fragments, waste, 
see u. escombro (1) ; (4) spoil or debris of coal ; (5) ripios, Ant. Col. 
attle, see desecho (3) ; (6) Ant. Col. spalled ore ; (7) Ant. Col. small 
ore from the mine ; (8) ripios, Chile, residues obtained in evaporating 
caliche (1), in the system called paradas (5), etc., comp. borra (6). 
RIQUITRUM, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, hand-jig (Moncada), syn. 
criba de cajon, c. inglesa, criba movil manual, Mex. harnero (2), see 
harnerero, palanquin, tinanco. 

RISCO, (1) a steep rock, crag, see penasco ; (2) riscos, Mex. (quartz) 
crystalline in part, but opaque, and in part formed of grains in 
the manner of a cauliflower, of a yellow or white colour (Gamboa) ; 
amorphous quartz found in veins or outcrops (Chism), see cuarzo ; 
(3) Villanueva del Rio, Sp. country-rock, see roca (4). 
ROBADO, DA, pp. of robar ; veta robada, Ant. Col. a vein which, on 
exploitation, shows indications of having been worked before, to a 
large extent (Uribe). 
ROBfN, rust of metal, see orin. 
ROBLAR, to clinch a nail, to rivet, comp. remachar. 
ROBLE, oak-tree ( Quercus robur] , see encina. 
ROBL6N, a rivet, see remache (2). 
ROBRADURA, clinching, riveting, see remache (1). 



ROCA, (Port, rocha), (1) rock, standing out from the general surface, 
see madre (6), penasco ; (2) rock or stone, whether in the ordinary 
or geological sense, see borrasca (2) ; (3) vein or bed of hard rock or 
stone, dike, syn. filon de r., see dique (5) ; r. verde, Guan. Mex. dikes 
of diorite ; according to P. Laur, the miners consider the proximity 
of these to veins to be a good indication for the richness of the latter ; 
(4) r. de los respaldos, country or country-rock, syn. Mex. armadura 
(5). caja (15) del criadero, Mex. panino (1), Chile and Peru, panizo (2), 
Col. pena (5), Mex. piedra bruta (a), Villanueva del Rio, Sp. risco (3), r. de 
caja (15), r. de los hastiales or del terreno, tehuilote (2), tepetate (5), 
terrene (3), equiv. Fr. roche encaissante, Ger. Nebengestein, see u. 
montana (2) ; (5) r. madre, gangue, see matriz (1) ; (6) alluv. m. bed- 
rock, bottom, (Cornw.) fast, syn. Chile, cerca (or circa), Peru, loza (2), 
Col. pena (4), see cascajo (2), (5) and (6) ; (7) r. falsa, alluv. m. false 
bed-rock, syn. Col. pena (6) falsa, see cangalli, lama (5). 

ROCALLA, drift of pebbles, washed together by floods or currents ; 
talus of rocks (Velazquez). 

ROCE, friction, see friction, frotacion. 

ROQEIRO, Braz. farmer, see hacendado. 

ROCIADA, ROCIADURA, ROCIAMIENTO, sprinkling, spraying, see 
riego (2). 

ROCHETA, see u. barrillar. 

ROD A, Port, wheel, see rueda (1). 

RODADO, DA, adj. round ; canto rodado, pebble, see u. canto (3) ; 
movimiento rodado, Andalusia, Sp. a uniform movement given to rope 
in hoisting men up or down the shaft (Molina) ; piedra rodada, any 
round stone or rock, see guijarro (1). 

RODADO, (1) piece of mineral, loosened from the vein, and scattered 
naturally in the soil float, syn. suelto, see riego (3) ; (2) nugget, 
(Elwes), seepepita. 

RODADURA, rolling, see u. pendiente ( 1 ) and transporte. 

RODAJA, (1) small wheel, see rueda (1) ; (2) a ring of india-rubber or 
other material for forming a joint between pipes, etc., washer, see 
empaquetadura (2). 

RODAJE, transport by wheel ; galeria de r., rolley-way. 

RODELA, (shield), see u. concentrador. 

RODETE, (1) horizontal water-wheel (Ponce de Leon) ; (2) mech. 
wheel-flange or shoulder (Ponce de Leon), see reborde ; (3) c.m. wedging- 
curb or -crib (Molina), syn. corona (4), r. de asiento, r. fundamental, 
equiv. Fr. trousse picotee, Ger. Tragekranz, Keilkranz, comp. rueda (4). 

RODEZNO, (1) water-wheel with curved buckets and vertical axle, 
an impulse-wheel, see rueda (1) ; (2) toothed-wheel in grist-mills, 
comp. corona (3). 

RODILLO, wooden roller for moving heavy weights along, syn. polin ; 
roller used in rope haulage, etc. (Fr. rouleau), see rollete, rollo ; r. 
atesador, tension -roller ; r. de friccion, friction -roller, see molinete (3). 



ROEDURA (gnawing), corrosion ; attrition ; geol. erosion (erosion). 

ROELA, round piece of crude silver, gold, etc., comp. plancha (1). 

ROER, to erode, see gastar. 

ROJO, JA, adj. red ; for tierras rojas, see u. tierra (3). 

ROLDANA, (1) pulley- wheel or sheave, see polea (1) ; (2) hoist, pulley, 

syn. rondana (1), see polea (2). 

ROLLETE, roller, see rodillo ; mech. tumbler (Ponce de Leon). 
ROLLIZO, ZA, adj. round ; adema rolliza, round timber, see rollizo. 
ROLLIZO, round timber ; by rollizos is generally understood poles of 

pine, usually barked, but not hewn (Moncada), see fajado (3) ; medio 

r., half-round timber. 

ROLLO, (1) roller or drum ; r. de portacable, Mex. bearing-drum of cable- 
tramway (Dwight), see rodillo (1) ; (2) smooth, round and long stone, 

found frequently in arroyos and rivers (Guim), see guijarro (1), comp. 

riego (3) ; (3) coil of fuse, see rueda (5). 
ROMANA, (1) steelyard, syn. Mex. r. de gancho, see caja (26), u. fiel, 

pilon (2) ; barra de la r., beam of ditto ; (2) any large weighing-machine 

on the steelyard principle, e.g., r. de bascula, platform scale, r. de 

plancha, charging scale (Dwight). 

ROMPEDERA, chisel or punch for hot iron, see cincel (1). 
ROMPEPIEDRAS, stone-crusher, see quebrantador. 
ROMPER, (1) to break or crush ore, etc. ; (2) to pierce, penetrate ; to 

communicate or break through, see rompimiento. 
ROMPIMIENTO, communication made between any two given points 

in a mine, etc., breaking through ; cutting across (Venator), equiv. 

Ger. Durchschlag. 
RONCADERA, (1) trompe or water-blast, see trompa (1) ; (2) see u. 


RONCADOR, Almaden, Sp. overseer, overman, see sobrestante. 
RONCO, CA, adj. see u. plomo (3). 
RONDANA, (1) hoist, pulley, see roldana (2) ; (2) Mex. gasket, or packing 

for pistons, etc., see empaquetado ; (3) Mex. washer, see empaque- 

tadura (2). 
RONGUEROS, Algamarca, Cajabamba, Peru, men and boys who carry 

the capachos (2) (Santolalla), see hapire. 
ROSA, (1) rose diamond, see diamante ; (2) see u. circulo (1). 
ROSARIO (rosary), (1) chain-pump, see u. bomba (1), cadena (G) ; 

(2) beaded vein (Fr. filon en chapelet), or stratified deposit of 

similar form (bolsadas estratificadas) ; (3) extraction en r., see u. 

extraction (1). 
ROSCA, (1) screw, syn. tornillo (1) ; for thread of a screw, see filete ; 

r. de Arquimedes, mech. prep, screw-conveyor, see rueda (2) ; (2) Mex. 

blast, a ring or washer of jarcia put round the drill, when water is 

present ; (3) in the patio process, silver left, after retorting ; (4) in the 

patio process, the button (boton) of silver obtained in the tentadura. 
ROSETA, met. rosette copper. 



ROSICLER (bright rose colour), (1) ruby silver, syn. rosiclara ; r. claro, 
proustite [3Ag.,S + As.,S.,] or light ruby silver ; r. negro, stephanite, 
syn. plata agria (c) ; r. oscuro, pyrargyrite [3Ag,S + Sb,SJ or dark 
ruby silver, syn. Potosi, Bol. rosicler ; see nochistle, petlanque, plata 
(2) ; (2) r. de cobre, Chile and Peru, cuprite, see u. cobre (2). 

ROTATORIO, RIA, adj. see u. bomba (1). 

ROYA, see u. chimenea (4). 

ROYO, = mesa (1) de arroyo. 

ROZA, (1) a r. abierta, see u. cielo (3) ; (2) see u. regadura (2). 

ROZADURA, (1) friction, see friction ; (2) c.m. undercut, see regadura (2). 

ROZAMIENTO, (1) friction, see friction ; (2) geol. attrition, see atricion. 

RUANA, see manga (1). 

RUBI, (1) ruby, a var. of spinel [MgO + AL,0 3 ], syn. jacinto (5) oriental, 
rubin ; r. espinela, spinel ruby, see cabujon ; r. rosado, balas ruby 
(balaje), see scravoneta ; (2) r. de estano, Dur. Mex. ruby tin, or a red 
crystalline var. of cassiterite (W. R. Ingalls), see estano (2) ; (3) r. de 
Bohemia, rosy quartz, see cuarzo ; (4) r. del Brasil, red topaz, syn. 
topacio del Brasil. 

RUBIADO, DA, adj. see u. vena (2). 

RUBIN, ruby, see rubi (1). 

RUBIO, Bilbao, Sp. limonite or brown hematite ; rubio " has mostly 
the cellular and concretionary character so familiar to those who are 
acquainted with the Northamptonshire ores, although in places it is 
quite compact and bedded " (J. D. Kendall) ; for r. avenado, see u. 
vena (2), cornp. campanil. 

RUEDA, (1) wheel, see rodaja (1), rodete (1), rodezno (1) and (2) ; r. de 
cabillas, sprocket-wheel ; r. de cangilones, Persian wheel ; r. de cuenta 
(4), pulley, head-wheel ; r. de engranaje recto, spur-wheel ; r. de 
espigas, tenon-wheel, pin-wheel, tumbler ; r. de levas, cam-wheel ; 
r. de molino, mill-wheel ; r. dentada, cog-wheel, see platillo (3) ; r. de 
trinquete, ratchet-wheel ; r. hidraulica, water-wheel ; r. hidraulica 
de abajo, undershot water-wheel ; r. hidraulica de arriba, de artesas, 
de cajones or por encima, overshot water-wheel ; r. hidraulica de 
costado, breast-wheel ; r. Pelton, Pelton wheel ; for parts of a wheel 
see anillo (6), camon (1), cubo (3), llanta (1), pina (2), rayo (1) ; (2) 
r. de helice, mech. prep, screw-conveyor, see u. rosca (1) ; (3) see u. 
espeque (1) ; (4) r. de apeo, timb. crib or curb, or circular frame of 
w r ood, pinned or screwed together, to serve as the foundation for the 
bricking of a shaft, equiv. Fr. rouet de cuvelage, Ger. Kranz, comp. 
rodete (3) ; (5) r. de mecha, blast, coil of safety-fuse, syn. rollo (3) ; 
(6) ruedas, Taviches, Oax. Mex. rounded masses of silver ore, see 
plata (2). 

RUGOSIDAD, see aspereza. 

RUMBADERO, Ant. Col. ore-pass or -shoot, see paso (2). 

RUMBE ADORES, Mex. persons who search for lodes, see buscones (1). 



RUMBO, (1) rhumb, a point of the compass, equiv. Port, rumo ; (2) 
road, route, way, see camino (1) ; (3) strike or direction, syn. arrumba- 
miento, corrida (2), direction (1), hilo (1), equiv. Fr. direction, Ger. 
Streichen ; r. de la veta, line or direction of the vein ; (4) Almeria, 
Sp. round- buddle (Venator), see gandinguera. 

RUMBON, Col. (1) automatic inclined plane, see piano (3) ; (2) inclined 
shoot for ore or timber, syn. rumbadero, see paso (2) ; (3) casual 
crumbling away or mouldering (desmoronamiento) of the ground or 
formation (Uribe), comp. derrubio. 

SABADO (Saturday), Sonora, Mex. a piece of mineral or ore of high 
grade, called so because gambucinos (1) were allowed to search waste 
piles on Saturdays. 

SABALERA, met. iron grate or perforated arch for fuel in reverberatory 
furnaces (Acad.), see rejilla (3). 

SABANA, (1) Span. Am. an extensive natural pasture plain, savannah, 
see llano ; (2) Ant. Col. an alluvial mine on the banks of a river, above 
the surface of the water, comp. aventadero (1), cerro (2), saca (5), 

SABANERA, Col. diorite (diorita), comp. guaracu. 

SACA, (1) exportation, syn. exportation ; renta de sacas, duty on 
exports, see u. derecho ; (2) extraction, see extraction (1) ; extraction 
of the pay-dirt or of gold from auriferous sands, etc. ; (3) Mex. ore 
raised from a mine in a given time, or output, see extraction (2) ; (4) 
Mex. ore-sack, syn. costal, see saco (1) ; (5) mina de s., Col. an alluvial 
mine in which the pay-dirt is below the level of the neighbouring 
waters, so that pumps driven by hand or by water-wheel are neces- 
sary, or the water is taken out with bateas (jamuracion), syn. mina 
baja or de labor, comp. sabana (2). 

SACABARRO, blast, scraper, see cuchara (4). 

SACABOCADO, SACABOCADOS, hollow punch, comp. punzon (3). 

SACADOS, Ant. Col. filled-up stopes, comp. chorrera (1), salon (2). 

SACAMUESTRAS, mech. prep, sampler ; s. automatic, automatic 

SACAR, (1) to extract ore, etc., from a mine, see extraer (1) ; s. piedra, 
to quarry, see tajo (3) ; (2) s. agua, to draw water, pump, syn. sacar 
con bomba, see desaguar (1), extraer (2) ; (3) s. una letra, com. to draw 
a bill of exchange ; (4) s. la barredura, see u. barredura. 

SACATE, see zacate. 

SACO, (1) sack or bag, see bilca, bota, botilla, costal, manta (1), saca (4). 
talega, tenate, zaca, zurron. NOTE. One saco de ixtl or ixtle (2) 
(fibre of the lechuguilla) will hold 5 to 6 arrobas of ore, see u. 
trecho ; (2) criaderos en s., irregular sack-like deposits (Molina) ; 
minas en s. or de s., Ant. Col. irregular deposits [montones (3)]~of "ore 
which fill superficial crevices or cavities, especially in cretaceous 



SACUDIMIENTO, shaking, see u. mesa (1). 

SAETIN, flume of a water-wheel, see. caz. 

SAFIRAS, Braz. blue stones of topaz (Bauer), see topacio (1). 

SAGITA, height, versed sine or rise of an arch (arco), syn. flecha (5). 

SAL, (1) salt [NaCl] ; manantial de s., salt-spring ; mina de s., salt-mine, 
see salero (1) ; s. blanca, Salinas de Torrevieja, Alicante, Sp. washed 
salt, s. comun or s. roja = unwashed salt ; s. de agua, salt crystallised 
from water ; s. de Colima, salt from Colima, Mex. used for domestic 
purposes on account of its purity ; s. de compas, s. de roca, s. gema, 
s. pedres or s. piedra, rock-salt ; s. de primera delgada, s. de primera 
de grano grueso, s. de segunda or de beneficio, three classes of salt 
produced from the Salinas del Tapado, Zamorcha, S. L. Pot. Mex. ; 
s. de manantiales, brine-salt ; sal de tierra or saltierra, Mex. salt 
mixed with earthy impurities, or salt earth from lagunas, containing 
12 to 13 per cent, of salt, and formerly used for mixing in the torta 
the laguna of Peiion Blanco (S. L. Pot.) deposits, by natural evapora- 
tion, chloride of sodium with a little sulphate of sodium, and other 
insoluble salts, as carbonates of lime and magnesium, oxide of iron, 
clay and sand (Ramirez) ; s. gorda or en grumos, clotty salt resulting 
from the quiet evaporation of brine in contact with a saturated 
gaseous atmosphere (Molina) ; s. marina, sea-salt ; s. mineral, mineral 
salt for amalgamation ; (2) chem. any salt which is a compound of a 
base and acid, see fango (2) ; s. amarga, or s. de higuera, epsom 

SALA, the principal room of a hacienda, or any other building, see salon. 

SALAD AR, small pool in which salt is evaporated in marismas (Acad.). 

SALAR, Chile, saline deposit may consist of salt, borax, etc. 

S ALB AND A (Fr. salbande), flucan, or more or less thin layer of clay, 
between the vein and the wall -rock, see guarda (1). 

SALCHICHON, large saucisse ; s. de paja (straw) or de haz (1) is some- 
times used in spilling. 

SALERILLO, vulg. iron or steel plate (placa) on which the pivot [gorron 
( 1 )] of a horse-whim [malacate ( 1 )] rests. 

SALERO, (1) mine of rock-salt, syn. mina de sal ; (2) Island of San 
Fernando, Sp. place where salt is piled up, see tajeria. 

SALIDA DE CARB6N, coal outcrop, see afloramiento. 

SALIENTE, c.m. hoist, sliding-piece of cage (Venator), see abrazadera (2) 

SALIERAN, Mex. door of entrance (G. F. Lyon), see puerta (1). 

SALINA, (1) salt-mine, see salero (1) ; (2) salt-pit or salt-works ; 
(3) natural salt-lakes or -marshes, e.g., the " Salinas Grandes " of 
Argentina are vast salt-marshes situated on a high desert plateau, 
see u. caliche (1), papa (2), comp. salnitrales. 

SALINERO, RA, adj. applied to ores requiring much salt in amalgama- 

SALINERO, dealer in salt ; owner of salt-mines, lagunas or works. 

SALIPA, Minas Geraes, Braz. sleeper (J. L. Tonkin), see durmiente (1). 



SALITRAL, adj. nitrous, see, salitroso, sa. 

SALITRAL, (1) saltpetre beds or works ; (2) salitrales, N. Patagonia, 
Arg. salt-steppes (J. v. Sienoradzki), comp. salnitrales. 

SALITRE, (1) saltpetre or nitrate of potassium, syn. nitro ; (2) Chile, 
nitrate of sodium, see caliche (1). 

SALITRERA, Chile, nitrate deposit, see caliche (1). 

SALITRERO, RA, adj. relating to nitrate of potash or soda. 

SALITROSO, SA, adj. nitrous, syn. salitral. 

SALMA, see tonelada. 

SALMER, buttress of an inclined arch, or one which forms an inclined 
plane, comp. contrafuerte (1) ; mueve (from mover) de s., in under- 
ground walling, said of an arch which rests on an inclined buttress 
or buttresses, comp. cuadrado (3). 

SALMUERA, brine, see muera. 

SALNITRALES, a district where glauber salt effloresces, comp. salina 
(3), salitral (2). 

SAL6N (aug. of sala), (1) Mex. a cavern [cueva (1)] containing ore, a 
chamber-deposit, syn. boveda (2), bovedal, Peru, bovedon (1), criadero 
(2), see clavo (2) ; (2) Mex. a chamber or bunch of ore which has been 
worked out, syn. anchuron (1), Peru, bovedon (2), Chile, casaron, comp. 
chorrera (1), claro (1), comido, sacados ; s. de limpia, see caja (18) 
and u. limpia (2) ; (3) Ant. Col. any place in the adit, spacious and 
well-disposed, made in order to facilitate and simplify the work 
(Uribe) ; (4) Col. the wider portion of a guaca (1). 

SALSEDUMBRE, saltness, degree of saltness. 

SALTADURA, quarr. hollow in surface of stone, due to a piece (lasca) 
having been chipped off. 

S ALTAR, see u. tirar (2). 

SALTARREGLA, (1) false square (escuadra) ; (2) slide-rule. * 

SALTIERRA, see u. sal (1). 

SALTO (leap), (1) fault or throw, slide, syn. botamiento, desplazamiento, 
dislocation, Ant. Col. liso (4) (slide), resbalamiento (1) or resbalon 
(slide), Mex. vetilla (slide), equiv. Fr. rejet, rejettement, saut, ressaut, 
Ger. Sprung, Verwerfung, comp. falla (1), u. falso, sa, rechazo ; s. 
anormal, reverse fault, throw or slide ; s. normal, normal fault, or 
throw ; s. aparente, a newer vein that meets an older one at an acute 
angle and follows its plane for a certain distance ; (2) s. de un barreno, 
a blast, see tiro (6) ; (3) s. de agua, waterfall, syn. caida (3) de agua, 
Sant. Sp. pimplon, vertiente, equiv. Port, cachoeira, Fr. chute d'eau, 
Ger. Wasserfall, see cascada, catarata ( 1 ). 

SALVAPOLEAS, hoist, apparatus to protect pulleys against overwinding, 

SANEAMIENTO, vent, drilling holes in coal, and leaving new faces for 
a time, in order that the marsh-gas may drain away (Molina). 

SANGRADERA, (1) the open channel in the side of a ditch or flume to 
let out the water when it is in excess, it is generally provided with a 



sliding-door. and is then known as flood-gate, sluice-gate, waste-gate, 

syn. compuerta de esclusa, tablacho, Aragon, Sp. tajadera (1), prov. 

templadera, comp. trampa (1) ; (2) met. tap-hole, see bigote (1), piquera. 
SANGRADURA, draining of a canal or river ; letting out the waste 

water of a ditch or flume, syn. sangria (1). 
SANGRAR, (1) to drain a canal, river, ditch or flume ; (2) s. la torta, 

Mex. in the patio process, to take away the water resulting from the 

repasos done at night ; (3) Mex. met. to tap a furnace, see sangria (4). 
SANGRERO, Ant. Col. the arriero (generally a lad) who cooks and prepares 

meals on the road, syn. sanguao, see atajador (2), comp. garitero. 
SANGRIA, (1) letting off water by piercing a bank, dam, etc. ; draining 

a canal, river or flume, see sangradura ; (2) adit-level, see socavon 

(1) ; (3) Mex. cross-cut from shaft to vein (Dwight), see crucero (1) ; 

(4) met. tapping a furnace, syn. colada, see sangrar (3) ; (5) met. 

stream of molten metal that comes out of a furnace (Acad.). 
SANGUAO, see sangrero. 
SANGUINARIA, (1) blood-stone, of a dark green colour, variegated by 

red spots (Velazquez), see dionisia (1) ; (2) hematite, see dipnisia (2). 
SANO, whole or virgin ground, see macizo (1). 
SANO-SANO, Challuma, Peru, a tree-fern through the roots and fibres 

of which auriferous fines are crushed (Sir C. Mansfield). 
SANTA BARBARA ! warning cry given when blasting drill-holes, 

syn. Sierra Almagrera, barreno ! fuego ! equiv. Ger. angesteckt ! 

(= encendido !) 
SAFE, see u. taquara. 
SAPO, see rana. 

SAPONITA, soapstone, see jabon (1). 
SARABIADO, DA, adj. see u. piedra and pena (5). 
SARAPE, see serape. 

SARDINA, Mex. a cross-cut saw (Dwight), see trozador. 
SARDIO, SARDO, sard or a deep brownish red chalcedony of a blood - 

red colour by transmitted light, see cuarzo, sardonic. 
a stone consisting of sard (sardio) and white chalcedony in alternate 
layers, see cuarzo, sardio. 

SARTEN (frying-pan), Mex. pan for drying moisture samples (Dwight). 
SAUCO, elder or elder-tree. 

SCRAVONETA, Port, ruby before being polished (Elwes), see rubi (1). 
SE ABRE, miners' phrase, it widens or opens up (of a vein, etc.), comp. 

se cierra. 

SE ASOMBRE, see asombrarse. 
SE BIFURCA, it branches (of a vein). 

SEBO, (1) tallow or suet, used for lubricating machinery, making candles, 
etc. ; any kind of grease or fat, see cebo (6) ; (2) s. mineral, mountain 
tallow or hatchettite (related to paraffin in composition). 
SE BUFA, see bufarse. 

305 u 


SECA, (1) drought, syn. sequia ; (2) secas, Mex. refined silver, syn. 

limadura (3) ; see u. seco, ca. 
SECADOR, (1) apparatus for drying, e.g., compressed air heated by 

waste steam, coal for briquettes ; (2) Mex. sample-drier (Dwight). 
SECADORA, Ant. Col. a copper vessel in which the wet gold is deposited 

and dried before weighing it. 
SECClON, section ; section showing width and depth of a ditch, etc. ; 

section of a machine ; sectional drawing ; cross-section of a lode, etc. ; 

secciones de planchas de acero, sections (of machinery, furnaces, etc.) 

made of steel plates, syn. cascos. 
SE CIERRA, miners' phrase, it narrows or closes up (of a vein, etc.), 

comp. se abre. 
SECO, CA, adj. dry ; seco, Mex. in the patio process, said of gangue 

which is dry, comp. lamoso (2) ; see u. hierro (4), piedra, plata, seca 

(2), ulla ; veta seca, Ant. Col. a vein lacking water for its exploitation. 
SE CORTA, miners' phrase, used when a vein is cut off by a dike, fault 

or mass of rock. 
SECRETARIA DE FOMENTO, Mex. Secretaryship or Department of 

Encouragement or Promotion, see Fomento ; Secretaria de Hacienda, 

Secretaryship of the Treasury. 
SECRETARIO, secretary. 

SECTOR, sector ; s. de Stephenson, Stephenson's link-motion. 
SEDIMENTO, geol. sediment ; mech. scale or incrustation of boilers, etc. 
SE ENCUENTRA, see encuentro. 
SE ENTREGA, " la veta se entrega," Mex. a phrase used when the shaft 

strikes the walls of a vein (Ramirez), comp. u. sentarse. 
SEGULLO, the first stratum of a gold-mine (Velazquez) ; the first earth 

met with in gold-mines (Guim) ; earth overlying auriferous deposits 

and indicative of gold (Lock), see oro, comp. montera (3) (overburden). 
SEGUNDO, DA, adj. second ; segunda (clase), Pachuca, Hid. Mex. ore 

inferior to primera and superior to comun, sold to smelting-works in 

the country. 

SEGUR, large axe, see hacha (1). 
SEGURO, (1) leave, license ; (2) insurance of goods on sea or land ; 

(3) mech. click, stop, detent, pawl, ratchet, see fiador (2) ; (4) safety- 
fuse, see mecha (2). 
SE HUNDE, see hundirse. 
SEMIALTOS, Tepezala, Aguascal. Mex. furnaces of medium size for 

smelting copper ore (S. Ramirez), see horno (2). 
SEMI6PALO, see u. opalo. 
SENAL, (1) sign, mark, token ; for senates de minas, see indicaciones ; 

(2) surv. mark, see machote ; (3) senales, signals. 

SENALAMIENTO, surv. marking on the surface the position of under- 
ground workings, etc. ; s. de pertenencias, marking out claims. 
SENALAR, (1) surv. to mark out claims, etc., on the surface ; (2) to 




SENDA, SENDERO, path, see u. camino (1), trillo, trocha (1), vereda. 

SENO, sine (of an arc). 

SENORAJE, duty paid to the lord, royalty ; derecho de s., duty formerly 

paid to the King on the coining of silver or gold, see u. derecho (2). 
SENORIAL, Huancavelica, Peru, royalty paid by busconeros to owners 

of pachamanca furnaces, deducted from value of silver obtained, and 

sold to said owners (C. E. Velarde), see derecho (2). 
SENTARSE (asentarse), " s. en la veta," Mex. a phrase used when a 

shaft strikes a vein (S. Ramirez), comp. se entrega. 
SENTAZ6N, Arg. a slide or fall of rock or earth, see derrumbe (1). 
SENTENCIA, judicial decision, sentence. 
SENTIDO, s. del salto (1), direction of throw. 
SEPARACI6N, (1) mech. prep, separation or classification ; sorting ; 

s. por el aire, dry classification ; (2) assay, parting. 
SEPARADOR, mech. separator ; s. de lodo, slime separator. 
SEPARADORAS, Guan. and Real del Monte, Mex. women who take 

picked ore [pepena (2)] from the pepenadoras, and pass it to the heap 

[monton (1)]. 

SEPARAR, mech. prep, to separate, classify or sort. 
SEP, Col. alluv. m. layer of porphyritic clay coloured by iron above 

the pay-dirt [cinta (3)] and below the tosca (3). 
SE PIERDE, miners' phrase, meaning the vein is lost or comes to an end, 

either longitudinally or vertically. 
SEPTENTRIONALES, veins having a north and south trend, see u. 


SEPULTURA, see guaca (1). 
SEQUIA, drought, see seca (1). 
SERA, large pannier or basket, generally without handles, for carrying 

charcoal, etc., see canasta. 
SERAPE, Mex. a narrow blanket, worn by miners, peons, etc., syn. 

sarape, see u. vestido, comp. manga (1). 
SERENO, NA, adj. hoist, a kibble is said to ascend serena when it 

does not oscillate much (Molina). 
SERPENTEADO, DA, pp. of serpentear ; veta serpenteada, a vein which 

has a serpentine direction, or a very variable strike. 
SERPENTlN, SERPENTINA, serpentine (rock or mineral), see ollar. 
SERRA, Braz. mountain, see sierra. 
SERRANIA, ridge of mountains, hills, etc. ; any extension of land, 

generally craggy, composed principally of mountains and ridges 

(Guim), see sierra (1), comp. barrero (2). 
SERRAR, to saw, see aserrar. 
SERRETA, dim. of sierra (2). 

SERRIJ6N, short chain of mountains, see sierra (1). 
SERRIN, sawdust, syn. aserraduras, aserrin ; s. de corcho, cork sawdust. 
SERRINO, NA, adj. belonging to chains of mountains. 
SERROTE. saw used in timbering, see serrucho. 



SERRUCHO, hand-saw with a small handle, see serrote, sierra (2) ; s. 
braguero, pit-saw. 

SERVING, Port, service, labour ; Braz. (alluvial diamond-mining), 
s. do campo, working on the side of a valley above the present high- 
water level ; s. do rio, working of river-deposit ; s. do serra, working 

SERVIDUMBRE, service ; leg. right of way or right of use, easement ; 
Mex. right of way, right of aqueduct, right of drainage and right of 
ventilation ; s. de camino or de transito, right of way. 

SETA (mushroom), see u. carril (3) ; in a bridge rail, the rounded part 
= seta, while the flat portion = patin. 

SHAULA, Minas Geraes, Braz. shovel (J. L. Tonkin), see pa, pala. 

SIDEROSA, spathic iron, siderite or chalybite, syn. Potosi, Bol. cachi, 
calamita (3), carbonate de hierro, espato de hierro, hierro espatico, 
Titiribi, Ant. Col. marga (2), Linares, Carolina, Sp. molinera ; argil- 
laceous var. = hierro arcilloso (clay ironstone), see piedra del aguila 
(u. piedra). 

SIDERURGIA, metallurgy of iron. 

SIERRA, (1) ridge or chain of mountains, e.g., Sierra Madre is the name 
given to the main mountain-ridge of Mexico, equiv. Port, serra ; 
see guajaras, serrania, serrijon ; (2) saw (Port, serra) ; s. abrazadera 
or s. bracera, kind of bow- or frame-saw ; s. de ingletes, tenon-saw ; 
s. de rnano, hand-saw or panel-saw, see serrucho for frame see codal 

(1) ; s. de punta, fret-saw ; s. de trasdos, fine-cutting saw strengthened 
with iron or brass along the back ; s. de traves, s. de trozar, cross-cut 
saw, see trozador ; (3) s. de agua, saw-mill. 

SIETE (seven), (1) carp, clamp, see barrilete ; (2) Col. safety-fuse (? cor- 
ruption of " safety ''), see mecha (2). 

SIF6N, (1) syphon ; (2) downtake of a blast-furnace (Dwight), see 
horno (2). 

SIL, a kind of mineral earth, found in gold and silver mines, and which 
was used in the manufacture of yellow and red colours it was a kind 
of mud (Guim) ; a kind of red ochre (Elwes) ; a kind of yellow ochre 
(Velazquez), see ocre. 

SILBATO, whistle (of a steam-engine, etc.), see chifle (1), pito. 

SILLA (chair), (1) saddle, syn. s. de montar, see galapago (1), montura 

(2) ; (2) a leather strap used as a protection by ore-carriers it passes 
over the shoulders, see vestido ; (3) mech. saddle, shafting-bracket 
or hanger (Ponce de Leon), see repisa ; (4) geol. saddle, syn. s. de una 
capa, equiv. Fr. selle (if the fold is wide if narrow = crochon), see 
falda (2), ladera (3), planicie (2), comp: hondonada (2). 

SILLAR, square hewn stone ; dressed ashlar, syn. cantal (3), canto (4), 
or piedra de canto, morillo (2) tallado, sillar labrado, see sillarejo, comp. 
carretal, mampuesto (1). 

SILLAREJO, small hewn stone : small dressed ashlar, see sillar. 



SILLERfA, construction made of squared stones (sillares), placed one 
over the other, and in rows ; ashlar-work, see canteria (2) ; obra de 
s., ashlaring ; piedra de s., stone used for this purpose, see u. fabrica 
(2) ; s. bruta or de piedra sin labrar, ashlar rubble-work, see mam- 
puesto (1). 

SIMETRIA, symmetry ; s. simple, simple symmetry of Von Cotta 
(banded structure) ; s. multiple, multiple symmetry, i.e., when a 
band of the same substance appears more than once in the same section 
of the vein. 

SISTEMA, system of working (mines, quarries, etc.), see labor (3), metodo ; 
s. a cielo abierto, quarrying, see cielo (3) ; s. de rato, see rato ; s. 
especial de laboreo, special method of working ; s. por abandono de 
macizos, method of abandoning pillars, etc. ; see hundimiento (2), 
u. pilar (3), relleno (2) ; system of treatment ; s. de Cooper, Chile, 
tina process. 

SITIERO, Span. Am. small farmer. 

SITIO, (1) Span. Am. small farm ; (2) Mex. s. de labor, land-measure, 
5000 varas by 5000 varas ; s. de ganado mayor, 1 square league, or 
4338-1123 acres (Dwight) ; s. de ganado menor, 3333 J 

SOBACO, (armpit), Mex. timb. a method of joining timber, 
see Fig. 69. 

SOBARBO, (1) mech. cam, see cama (3) ; (2) mech. tappet 
(Fr. levier) ; tappet of a stamp-mill (bocarte), see leva (2). 

SOBRANTE, surplus, profit, residue. 

SOBRECARGA, see Fig. 8, u. arco ; see u. cabuya. 

SOBREGUf A, intermediate level, see zapa. 

SOBREPAGA, extra pay. 

SOBREPRECIO, extra price (obtained for metals, ores, etc.). 

SOBREPUESTO, geol. overlapping of strata, syn. resbalado. 

SOBRESABANA, Ant. Col. an alluvial deposit intermediate between 
aventaderos (1), and labores bajas, and higher than sabanas (2). 

SOBRESTANTE, overseer, overman, shift-boss, below the " captain " 
(capitan), syn. Mamarto, Cauca, Col. patron, patrona (if a woman), 
Almaden, Sp. roncador, equiv. Braz. feitor, comp. capataz, curador 


SOBRESUELDO, addition to one's pay or allowance. 
SOCABON, see socavon. 
SOCARRA, de socarras, Guan. Mex. opening up through a cave or run of 

ground [derrumbe (1)] (Luis Carrion). 
SOCAVA, the act of mining or undermining (Neuman and Baretti) ; 

c.m. undercutting, see regadura (1). 
SOCAVADO, c.m. undercut, see regadura (2). 
SOCAVADORA, coal-cutting machine, coal-cutter ; s. demano, rivelaine, 

see regadera (2), comp. perforadora. 
SOCAVADURA, c.m. undercutting, see regadura (1). 



SOCAVAR, to excavate, undermine ; c.m. to hole under, undercut or 
hew, syn. descalzar (1), entallar, equiv. Fr. entailler, haver, Ger. 
unterschramen ; for pico de s., see u. pico (2). 

SOC AV(3N,( formerly spelt socabon), (1) Mex. adit or adit-level, drainage- 
level, (N. Staff.) gutter, (Derb.j I sough, (Pennsyl. U.S.A.) water-level, 
syn. contramina (2), galeria (1) de desagiie, sangria (2), equiv. Fr. 
galerie d'ecoulement, porte-eau, Ger. Stolln, Wasserlbsungstolln ; 
s. a hilo de veta, adit driven along the vein or drift ; s. aventurero, 
exploratory adit ; s. crucero, cross-cut adit. NOTE. In Peru the term 
socavon appears to be confined to this class of adit. (2) Mex. any 
gallery, the mouth of which is at surface, see galeria (1) ; s. de 
entrada, gallery used for ingress and egress ; (3) cavern or cave, see 
cueva (1) ; (4) socavones, large holes, pits or shafts, see pozo (2), comp. 
hoya (1). . 

SOCHE, cuero de s., chamois leather, see gamuza. 

SOCIEDAD, society, corporation, company, partnership, syn. compafiia, 
see compromise (2), u. habilitacion (1), u. empresa ; s. accidental, 
company not formally constituted ; s. anonima, joint- stock company, 
limited liability company ; s. comanditaria or en comandita, special 
partnership, in which some lend funds and others manipulate them 
in their private name ; s. incorporada, chartered company ; s. por 
acciones, stock company ; s. regular colectiva, general partnership, 
worked in name of some or all, all equally participating. 

SOCIO, I A, adj. veta socia, a vein joined to another, companion-vein. 

SOCIO, partner, shareholder, stockholder ; s. comanditario, sleeping 
partner (Ponce de Le6n). 

S6FITO, soffit of an arch, see intrados (1). 

SOFOCADO, DA, pp. of sofocar ; Mex. a mine is said to be sofacada 
when it is abandoned, on account of being drowned out, or from other 
causes, see u. ahogado, da. 

SOFOCARSE, " la mina . . . se sofoco a los 900 pies " (Dahlgren), see 
sofocado, da. 

SOGA, rope ; see cable (1), cuerda (1) ; Mex. the rope to which the bota 
is attached, see soguilla ; for the expression cortar sogas, see cortar (7). 

SOGUILLA (dim. of soga), Mex. small rope for the bota chica, botilla 
de burro, or manta (1). 

SOL (sun), (1) veta al s., Ant. Col. a vein showing fragments of ore at 
the surface of the ground ; (2) Peru, one peso fuerte (hard dollar), 
value 2. 

SOLAPA, (1) mech. edge, flange, see reborde ; (2) mech. lap, overlap, 
syn. falda (3), solapadura, traba (1) ; (3) Ant. Col. bituminous schist 

SOLAPADURA, mech. lap, see solapa (2). 

SOLAPAR, to lap, overlap, syn. traslapar, see tapar (2). 

SOLAPO, overlapped part (Ponce de Le6n). 

SOLAYO, Mex. cutting-in hole (D wight), see barreno (1). 



SOLERA, (1) stone bottom of a trapiche ; cast-iron bottom of a Chilian 
or edge-mill (see chileno) ; hearthstone ; well or bottom of a furnace, 
etc. ; (2) lower millstone, syn. And. Sp. solero, comp. muela (1) ; 

(3) timb. sole-piece, foot-piece, ground-sill or stretcher, syn. atravesada 
or atravesado (1), durmiente (5), Zac. Mex. guardapie, Pachuca, Hid. 
Mex. macho (5), Hualgayoc, Peru, plantilla (3), Ant. Col. quicio (3), 
Tolima, Col. tiple (1), equiv. Fr. semelle, sabliere, Ger. Grundschwelle, 
Grundsohle, see cercha (2), plancha (7) ; (4) Guan. Mex. timb. hitch 
or stemple-notch, see huida ; (5) soleras, Ant. Col. long and large 
horizontal poles of a roof, the smaller ones are called encanados ; 
(6) carp, floor timber, etc. ; s. de carrera, ground-sill (Ponce de 
Leon) ; (7) rail, sleeper, see durmiente (1) ; (8) rest for grate-bars 
(Dwight) ; (9) s. de molinete, mech. sole-tree, span-beam (Ponce de 
Leon) ; (10) shoe of a stamp, see zapata ; (11) 3. negra or s. pobre, 
Almaden, Sp. sandstone spotted with cinnabar (Barinaga), comp. 
metal (4) ; the perforated arch of the aludel (Bustamante) furnace is 
covered with a layer, 2 feet thick, of this ore (Schnabel). 

SOLERO, see solera (2). 

SOLETA, Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp. clay band occurring in the 

coal seams, see arcilla, comp. recincho. 
SOLEVANTAMIENTO, geol. uplift, see levantamiento (2) 
SOLICITAR, s. una concession, see denunciar. 
SOLICITUD, Mex. petition or application for a mining claim > comp. 

SOLLAMADIZO, Huelgayoc, Peru, rock liable to run or cave in (der- 


SOLVADERA, pump, snore-piece of a windbore, see alcachofa. 
SOLVER, Ant. Col. pump, to fork, see solvadera. 
SOMBRA (shade), (1) grey tinge of certain ores or matrices of ores 

(M. J. Gloss.) ; (2) see u. manta (3). 
SOMBRERETE (dim. of sombrero), (1) Mex. a kind of crown on the top of 

a mountain (Barcena), syn. bernalejo, comp. bufa (1) ; (2) mech. bonnet, 

cap, see sombrero (5) ; (3) spark-arrester of a locomotive, boiler, 

etc. ; (4) bor. disc of Kind's free-falling apparatus, see sombrero (1). 
SOMBRERO (hat), (1) bor. disc of a free-falling cutter, syn. sombrerete 

(4) ; (2) s. de hierro, gossan, see colorados ; (3) piece of flat iron of 
semicircular form which sometimes covers the spindle [cojinete (2)] 
of a windlass [torno (2)] ; (4) Peru, timb. cap-piece, see capa (4) ; 

(5) mech. cap, cowl, bonnet, hood, dome, see sombrerete (2). 
SOMERO, RA, adj. superficial (of deposits, etc.). 

SONDA, (1) bor. boring-tool as a whole, each separate piece is called a 
barra (4) orvarilla (5), excepting the boring-tool proper, which is called 
the trepano ; (2) s. de cuchara, bor. sludger, see cuchara (2) ; (3) act 
of boring ; s. de tirante, boring by means of rods. 

SONDAR, SONDEAR, to bore (deep), see abrir (2). 

SONDEO, (1) borehole (deep), syn. agujero de s. ; (2) boring (deep) ; 

' 311 


s. con el diamante, diamond-boring ; s. por la cuerda, or s. chino, 

boring by rope or Chinese method ; s. por la sistema canadense, 

American boring system ; s. por percusion, boring by percussion ; 

s. rigido, boring by means of a rod. 
SOPANDA, (1) joist, cross-beam ; (2) timb. a long sollar or bunding 

[plataforma (1), puente (5)] which 

requires two struts [jabalcones (2)] to ^\ 

support it, see Fig. 70 (after Moncada). \J 
SOPAPO, pump, valve or sucker, gene- \A 

rally of leather, seeembolo (2), valvula. s\ 
SOPLADERO, vent, air-hole, comp. lum- 

SOPLADO, DA, adj. aluvion soplado, Ant. 

Col. alluvial deposited by a cataract 

or strong current of water (Uribe), FIG. 70. Sopamla. 

comp. u. hervido, da. 

SOPLADO, large empty space or irregular cavity in a vein, the sides 
of which are sometimes lined with crystals of quartz, calcite, heavy 
spar, carbonate of iron, etc. In the mines of Almagrera and Mazar- 
ron, Sp. soplados or quebradas (3) give out enormous quantities of CO., 
(Molina), comp. drusa. 

SOPLADOR, blower (of gas). 

SOPLANTE (from soplar), aparato s. or maquina s., met. blower. 

SOPLAR, to blow with bellows ; met. to furnish blast for a furnace. 

SOPLETE, (1) blow-pipe: ensayo al s., blow-pipe assay; (2) twyer 
(Dwight), see tobera. 

SOPLIDOS, Peru, subsidences at the surface, due to the caving-in of the 
bovedones (2), see revenimiento. 

SOPLO, blast. 

SOPORTE (support), (1) mech. hanger, cushion, plummer-block, see 
chumacera ; (2) bracket, see repisa ; (3) frame or carriage of a rock- 
drill, see bastidor (1) ; (4) column or stretcher-bar of a rock-drill ; 
(5) frame of a windlass, see caballete (8). 

SOQUETE, Mex. (1) met. clay for stopping furnace-tap (Dwight) ; 
(2) clay in veins (Dwight), see arcilla. 

SOQUETERO, Mex. one who wets and kneads clay to be used at the 
furnace (Dwight). 

SORDO, DA, adj. silent, see u. canonazo. 

SORI, sory or sulphate of iron, comp. caparrosa (1). 

SOROCHE, (1) Peru and Ecuador, disease, caused by rarefaction of the 
air at great altitudes, in men and beasts, mountain sickness, syn. veta 
(6), zaroche ; (2) argentiferous ore of lead, e.g., s. plomoso, Zac. Mex. 
carbonate of lead, etc. ; s. reluciente, argentiferous galena, syn. metal 
plomoso reluciente, see u. liga (2) ; soroches, Sultepec, Mex. galena of 
coarse grain and poor in silver, used as metales de ayuda ( 1 ), see plomo (2). 

SOROQUE, gangue or matrix, see matriz (1). 



SOSA, (1) soda-ash, see barilla ; (2) native carbonate of soda, see natron ; 

(3) chem. soda or oxide of sodium. 

SOSTENIMIENTO, supporting (of mines), see fortificacion. 
S6TANO, see resumidero. 

SOTLANQUE, Guerr. Mex. copper pyrites (S. Ramirez), see cobre (2). 
SOTA ! (under, below), Rio Tinto, Sp. look out ! (call down shaft, etc.), 

comp. aba jo ! 

SOTOMINERO (under-miner), boss-miner, working under the under- 
ground captain or chief miner [minero (3)], syn. poblador (1), comp, 


SOYOTE, Mex. vug (Dwight), see drusa. 
STOCKVERK, stockwork, see u. masa (1). 
SUADERO, Mex. in the patio process, a coating of unmixed ore left on 

the flag-stones, showing that the operation known as traspaleo is 

incomplete ; the bottom of the torta, comp. pelo (5). 
SUBASTA, SUBASTACI6N, judicial sale of goods by public auction ; 

publica s., public auction, syn. almoneda, remate (3) publico, vendeja, 

Span. Am. venduta, see venta. 
SUBASTADOR, auctioneer, syn. vendutero. 
SUBASTAR, to sell by auction. 
SUBIDA, (1) ascent, see u. bajada (1) ; (2) Col. backing of a water-wheel, 

or the narrow inside portion of the bucket. 
SUBIDORA, see u. pena (4). 
SUBIENDO, rail, up grade (Ponce de Leon). 
SUBLEVACI6N, geol. upheaval, see levantamiento (2). 
SUBSIDENCE A (from Engl.), geol. subsidence, sinking, see hundimiento 

SUBTERRANEO, NEA, adj. for transporte subterraneo, see u. transports ; 

see u. excavacion. 
SUCCINO, amber, see electro (1). 
SUCClON, suction, see aspiration. 
SUCOPORA, see u, candea (2). 
SUCRE, Ecuador, a coin ; 8 sucres = $5 gold. 
SUELDO, wages, salary, pay. 
SUELO, (1) surface of the ground, syn. superficie ; (2) floor of a gallery, 

see piso (4). 

SUELTO, TA, adj. loose, see u. terreno (2). 
SUELTO, loose piece of metal or mineral, shoad-stone, see riego (3), 

SUICHE (from Engl. switch), Col. railway-switch, see cambio (1) ; the 

caiman-rana is the triangle which forms part of the switch. 
SULFATO, sulphate ; Mex. in the patio process, sulphate of copper. 
SULFONETE, blast, slow-match, see media (1). 
SULFURO, sulphide ; sulfuros Mex. (1) sulphide ores ; (2) met. rich 

sulphides of silver from lixiviation processes (Dwight). 
SUMIDERO, drain, well, sump (Chalon), see caja (3). 



SUPERFICIE, surface, see suelo (1). 

SUPERINTENDENTE, (1) superintendent or manager, syn. administrador 

(1), capataz (1), director, encargado ; (2) comptroller, overseer, 

supervisor. NOTE. In Sp. == an officer of high rank, e.g., S. de la 

Casa de Moneda, Warden of the Mint. 
SURTIDERO, (1) conduit or sluice, see buzon (3), esclusa ; (2) s. de agua, 

reservoir, basin, see estanque (1). 
SURTIDOR, jet of water or gas. 

SUSPENDIDO, DA, pp. of suspender ; bomba suspendida, sinking-pump. 
SUTIL, see u. moler (1). 

TABAIRE, piedra t., Cartagena, Sp. soft limestone used in masonry- 
work for mines, see mamposteria (2). 

TABIQUE, (1) partition-wall, see pared (1) ; wall separating anchurones 
(1) in Stockwerkbau ; (2) Mex. sterile material separating bands 
[cintas (2)] of ore, see caballete (9) ; horse of rock in a vein, see caballo 
(5) ; (3) c.m. vent, brattice, air-brattice, partition or division in a shaft, 
heading, etc., syn compartimiento de aire, division (2), equiv. Fr. 
cloison, Ger. Wetterscheider, see chimenea (4), huaira (1) ; (4) timb 
dividing-piece or divider of a shaft, see atravesada (2). 

TABLA, (1) board, syn. plancha (7), equiv. Port, taboa ; timb. lagging- 
board, syn. t. estacada, see estaca (6) ; t. alcacena, board 9 feet long, 
24 dedos (about 16^ inches) wide, 3 dedos (about 2 inches) thick (Acad.), 
syn. portada, t. portada ; t. de chilla, thin board of split deal, see 
chilla (2) ; t. de cinta or de medio tallado, half-inch board ; t. de coto, 
board one hand- breadth wide ; t. de gordillo, Toledo, Sp. board 6 feet long, 

6 inches wide and 1J inches thick (Acad.) ; t. degordo, Segovia, Sp. board 

7 to 9 feet long, 10 to 16 dedos (7 to 11 inches) wide, 2 dedos (1J inches) 
thick (Acad.) ; t. de tallado, inch-board ; t. portada, see t. alcacena ; 
t. portadilla, board 9 feet long, 20 dedos (14 inches) wide, and 3 dedos 
(2 inches) thick (Acad.) ; t. gruesa, see tablon ; see tablero (1), tala- 
bordones, valais, varilla (5) ; (2) side of a furnace [homo (2)], of a vein, 
of a shaft or gallery, see costado ; t. de alto, hanging-wall side ; t. de 
bajo, footwall side. NOTE. The tablas of a shaft are the short sides 
or " ends," see testeros (4). (3) The broader face of a board, beam, 
etc., if the widest part is against the rock = puesto de tabla ; in Zac. 
Mex. practically synonymous with width, comp. canto (2) ; (4) flat 
diamond (diamante) of little thickness or one cut in table form. 

TABLACHO, sluice- or flood-gate, see sangradera (1). 

TABLADILLO (small stage), (1) platform [plataforma ( 1)] made of 
boards [tablas (1)], see camada (3), tablero (2) ; for t. movil, see balsa 
(3), for t. provisional, see tarango, u. tapestle (1); (2) Cerro de 
Pasco, Peru, an ingenio (2) with the water-wheel above the grind- 
stones (O. F. Pfordte). 

TABLADO, stage, flooring, see tablero (2). 

TABLAZ6N, board-wood ; lumber. 



TABLERO, (1) board [tabla (1)] planed and fashioned ; tableros, in 
spilling = breast- boards, see escudo (1) ; (2) platform [plataforma 
(1)] made of boards used in rising, syn. tablados entarimados, see 
camada (3) ; (3) t. volante, cradle or suspended scaffold, see descanso 
(4) ; (4) u. haul, carriage used on steeply inclined planes, see plata- 
forma (5) ; (5) t. movil, movable turntable (e.g., Riudant's) ; (6) t. 
movil horizontal, transp. the " tip " of S. Wales (Molina) ; (7) Mex. 
tally-board ; (8) t. de conmutadores, el. switch-board, see cuadro (5) ; 
(9) Ant. Col. mech. prep, inclined table with notches in it, used below 
the cernidor (2) ; (10) explotacion por tableros, working by chess- 
board (Lucas). 

TABLETACA, spilling-lath (Chalon), see pilote (2). 

TABLILLA, carp, batten, slat, lath (Ponce de Leon), see listen. 

TABL6N, plank or thick board (Port, taboao), e.g., 11 feet long, 12 inches 
wide, and 2 inches thick, syn. durmiente (2), tabla (1) gruesa, see 
prensa (1), varilla (5). 

TABLONCILLO, flooring-board, syn. Span. Am. florimbo, florimborde. 

TABOLEIROS, (1) Port, shallow boards ; (2) Minas Geraes, Braz. lower 
bench -deposits or placers (see placer) older than the present river- 
channels, comp. grupiaras, veias (2). 

TABULAR, see u. cuarzo. 

TACA, each plate of the crucible (crisol) or hearth of a forge [forja (1)] 

TACANA, TACANO, ore rich in silver, commonly black (Guim), occasion- 
ally grey or ash-coloured (Barba, 1640) probably a var. of argentite, 
see polvorilla (1), plata (2). 

TACHIA, Bol. llama-dung, see taquia. 

TACHOGRAFO, an instrument for registering the movement of a cage 
in a shaft, syn. cronotaquigrafo, dromografo. 

TACH6N, mech. spindle, equiv. Fr. tourillon, see eje (2). 

TACHUELA, tack or small nail with a large head, syn. clavete, clavo 
(l)dechilla, chillon. 

TACO, (1) stopper or plug, see tapador ; t. de fundicion, cast-iron sleeve 
above the nut of the frame of a Dubois and Frangois boring-machine 
(Molina), see manga (9) ; (2) blast, wadding ; tamping, see ataque (1) ; 
(3) blast, tamping-bar or rammer, see atacadera ; (4) dar taco, see 
tirar (1) ; (5) tacos, Mex. stones in the bottom of an arrastre (3), 
roughly in the form of truncated pyramids, with the larger base above ; 
tacos de banco (3), tacos of larger section, employed when mercury 
alone is used for amalgamation, see ripio (3) ; (6) Ant. Col. timb. 
stemple or stull-piece, see estemple ; (7) timb. leg-piece [peon (4)] or 
prop ; (8) tacos, hoist, keps or keeps, see taquetes ; (9) t. de madera, 
pump, set-off, or method of joining pump-rods to the spear-rod 
(Molina), comp. pescante (2) ; (10) S. Sp. mech. -prep, head-board of 
a round-buddle, etc., see distribuidor. 
TACOMETRO, see taquimetro. M 



TAEL, Phil. (1) ordinary weight, the sixteenth part of a cate, equiv. 
to 39'537 g. ; (2) weight for precious metals, equal to 10 mases or 100 
condrines = 37'68 g. (Acad. gives 36'67 g.). 

TAHONA (or atahona), Mex. spoon-arrastre or grinding- mill for the 
granza or crushed ore ; it is an ordinary arrastre moved by a water- 
wheel, having floats fixed in the same plane as the arrastre, but occupy- 
ing double the space, syn. arrastre (3) de cuchara, t. de cucharas (St. 
Glair Duport), see. cruz (1), espeque (1), taza (1). 

TAHONERO (or atahonero), Mex. man in charge of the tahona. 

TAJADERA, (1) Aragon, Sp. sluice-gate or flood-gate, see sangradera 
(1) ; (2) cold-chisel, see cortafrio ; (3) Mex. in the patio process, the 
wedge [curia (1)] used for breaking up the slime, etc., deposited in the 
vat or tina (2). 

TAJADERO, anvil of a power-hammer (Ponce de Le6n), see yunque (1). 

TAJERIAS, Isl. San Fernando, Sp. large open deposits, squares of 52 m. 
side, in which salt water is evaporated (Molina), see era, salero (2). 

TAJO (cut), (1) cut or opening in a mountain, syn. corte (2) ; (2) t. 
abierto, Mex. open-cut, syn. corta (2), Mex. descarga (6), equiv. Braz. 
talho aberto, see u. cantera (1) ; tajos or tajos abiertos, Cerro de Pasco, 
Peru, immense quarries or open-cuts, largely due to subsidence (reveni- 
rniento) ; (3) a. t. abierto, Mex. open-cutting, working open-cast or 
quarrying, syn. Sp. a cielo abierto, equiv. Fr. travail a ciel ouvert, see u. 
cantera (1), patio (3) and sacar (1) ; (4) working-place or cut ; any 
long and wide working as distinguished from a gallery or shaft (via 
de comunicacion), syn. campo de labor, talla (1), comp. faja (3) ; labor 
en grandes tajos ascendentes or montantes, longwall following the 
inclination of the deposit (ascending), equiv. Fr. ouvrage par tailles 
ascendantes or montantes, Ger. schwebender Strebbau ; labor en 
grandes tajos oblicuos, longwall half-topways, equiv. Fr. ouvrage par 
tailles obliques or couchees, Ger. diagonaler Strebbau ; labor en grandes 
tajos rectos, longwall following the direction of the deposit, equiv. 
Fr. ouvrage par tailles droites, Ger. streichender Strebbau ; t. ascen- 
dente, ascending cut, equiv. Fr. taille montante, Ger. Steigort ; t. 
descendente, descending cut, equiv. Fr. taille descendante, Ger. 
Fallort ; t. recto, a cut taken up the slope of a deposit, and perpen- 
dicular to the main gallery, equiv. Fr. atelier rectiligne (but see above) ; 
tajos inclinados or rebatido, equiv. Fr. rabatage ; tajos sencillos, equiv. 
Fr. methode des chambres mode direct et mode retrograde, see u. 
labor (2), macizo (5), u. metodo ; (5) tajos, Ant. Col. alluv. m. cuts 
or slices into which a barredura (1) is divided, in order to work 
it successively (Uribe), comp. cavas ; (6) entrar t., see u. tonga ; 
(7) carp, block ; t. de yunque, anvil-block, see cepo (5) ; (8) cutting 
edge, see bisel (2) ; (9) task, see tarea. 

TAJ6N, And. Sp. a vein of earth or very white stone, of which lime 
is made (Acad.). 

TALA, felling of trees, see corte (10). 



TALA, Port, lath, see lata (2) ; t. de, fish-plate, see u. chapa. 

TALABORD6N, Ant. Col. (1) talabordones, boards or planks placed 
along the upper sides of flumes or trestle aqueducts so that they can 
hold more water, see mampuesto (3) ; (2) wooden breastworks [trinchos 

(1) de madera] placed in the side or centre of a landslide in order to 
sustain the water of a ditch (acequia), comp. tapon, trincho (2), tupia ; 
(3) t. de un tambor (4), de una zapa (2), etc., edge of a rise, intermediate 
level, etc. (used in measuring ground). 

TALACHA, Mex. pickaxe ; mattock, syn. talbacha, see zapapica. 

TALADRA, bor. wimple or wimble, see u. trepano. 

TALADRAR, to bore or drill, see barrenar. 

TALADRO, (1) carp, gimlet, auger, see barrena (1) ; (2) borer or 
drill, see barrena (2) ; maquina de t., see perforadora ; t. de punta 
de diamante, diamond-drill ; t. de sondeo, boring-chisel or chisel ; 
(3) boring-bit or bit (Chalon), see bisel (2) ; (4) hole bored by (2), bore- 
hole, syn. t. de mina, see barreno (1) ; (5) bor. open auger, see u. trepano. 

TALABACHA, see talacha. 

TALCO, talc, syn. Mex. piedra de jabon (5), see chimaltizatl, espejuelo (1), 
u. hoja (3), tosca (7) ; for soapstone var. of talc., see jabon (1). 

TALEGA (Port, taleigo), bag, sack, syn. Mex. talia, seesaco (1) ; " angosta 
talega ancho costal " (proverb for poor people). 

TALHO ABERTO, see u, tajo (2). 

TALIA, see talega. 

TALLA, (1) working-place or cut, equiv. Fr. taille, see tajo (4) ; metodo 
de grandes tallas, longwall method ; (2) quarr. cutting or dressing ; 
(3) S. Sp. ten journeys made by boys carrying mineral, see u. tarea (2). 

TALLADO, cutting of gems, etc. 

TALLAR, to cut gems, etc. ; quarr. to hew stone. 

TALLER, (1) workshop, machine-shop, syn. obrador (2), oficina (1) ; 
t. de ajustador, fitting-shop ; t. de reparaciones, repairing-shop ; 

(2) laboratory, see laboratorio ; (3) mill, see hacienda (4), molino (1) ; 
t. de monda or partidor, sorting-floors ; t. de preparation mecanica, 
dressing-floors ; (4) Span. Am. timber-yard. 

TALQUE, see tasconio. 

TALUD, slope or declivity of a bank, of the outside of a wall, etc., talus, 
see arrastre (2). 

TAMANO, size ; for different sizes of ore or mineral, see cabezuela (2). 
u. carbon (2), cribado (2), cuesco (2), finos, gabarro, granado (2) and 
(3), grancilla (coal), granilla, granza (1), granzita, granzon (1), grueso, 
nuzco, pachapampa. 

TAMBOR, (1) drum of a horse-whim oj malacate (1), syn. vulg. bombo 
jaula (1), linternilla (2), comp. molinete (2) ; drum of any hoisting- 
engine for round rope, equiv. Fr. tambour, Ger. Fbrderkbrbe ; t. de 
arrollamiento, winding-drum for round ropes ; t. de friction, friction- 
drum ; t. espiraloide, t. de espiral truncada are var., see cono (3), comp. 
bobina ; (2) mech. prep, trommel ; t. clasificador, classifying trommel, 



see u. criba (2) ; (3) veta de t., a bunchy or beaded vein, see u. tope 
(6) ; (4) Col. rise put up between two levels or galleries, see contra- 

TAMBRE, Ant. Col. dam [presa (1)] ; sluice-dam (azud) for irrigating 
purposes, or irrigation canal (caz) (Uribe). 

TAMEN, TAMENE, Mex. Indian porter or carrier, see cargador (2). 

TAMIZ, mech. prep, sieve (of a jigger, etc.), syn. cedazo (2) ; t. de mineral, 
grizzly, see parrilla (2) ; for fondo de t., see cama (9). 

TAMIZADO, sifting, separation by sieves. 

TAMIZADOR, ore-sifter or screener. 

TAMIZAR, Peru, to sift or screen, see cribar (1). 

TANATE, see tenate. 

TANATERO, see tenatero. 

TANDA, (1) task (tarea) or labour set for a certain time, e.g., amount of 
ore or waste obtained in driving or sinking in one shift ; (2) Mex. 
number of days appointed for the Indians to work the mines (see. 
mita), hence each of the periods of days in which men alternately work 
or rest in mines (Acad.) ; (3) gang, see parada (3). 

TANGANILLO, small prop or stay, see apoyo. 

TANQUE, Mex. (1) tank or cistern, see estanque (3) ; t. de asiento, 
settling-tank ; (2) small pool or pond, see balsa (1) ; (3) vat or large 
trough, comp. tina (1). 

TAPA (lid or cover) (1) cap or cover in machinery ; cover of a steam- 
cylinder, etc., comp. buzon (1) ; (2) roof or hanging-wall, see alia (1) ; 
(3) pena t, see pena falsa, u. pena (6) ; (4) alluv. m. sort of coffer-dam, 
see tapon (3). 

TAPABOCA, mouth-coverer of a pneumataphore, equiv. Fr. ferme- 
bouche, see aeroforo. 

TAPADERA, assay, loose lid of a crucible, etc. 

TAP ADO, DA, pp. of tapar, covered up or concealed (of a mine or vein). 

TAPADOR, plug, stopper, see taco (1), tapon (1), tarugo. 

TAPAJUNTA, in wooden tubbing, a covering- joint of india-rubber, wood 
or other material for the horizontal joints of each section of the curb, 
equiv. Fr. couvre-joint ; in pumping, method of joining main rods, 
comp. pescante (2). 

TAPANHOACANGA, Braz. a gold-bearing gravel composed of the 
disintegrated and weathered remains of specular iron ore. The latter 
sometimes occurs as an overflow, and this weakens and breaks up into 
blocks ; "an auriferous superficial deposit of broken fragments of 
ferruginous rocks " (Von Eschwege) ; "a breccia chiefly of massive 
brown iron ore, irregularly mixed with quartzosc iron, mica-slate, 
clay-slate and quartz" (Saint-Hilaire), syn. canga (q.v.},see brecha (2). 
NOTE. Compounded of congo and tapi, Indian words meaning 
" nigger head " (A. M. Gibson). 

TAP AO JOS, in the patio process, the bandage used to cover the eyes of 
the mules when treading, or when being loaded or unloaded. 




TAPAR, (1) to stop (leaks, etc.) ; Mex. to stop a furnace-tap with clay 
(Dwight) ; (2) mech. to overlap (Ponce de Leon), see solapar (2) ; 
see tapado, da. 

TAPATINGA, Braz. parti-coloured clay, in places stratified alternately 
pink and yellow, the pink beds being thickest and of much harder 
texture than the others ; on the top lies a bed of sand, in some places 
several feet thick, the whole rests on a stratum of sandstone. It 
sometimes has calcareous layers thickly studded with marine shells 
interstratified with the clay. Tapatinga clay sometimes forms coarse 
iron cementing conglomerate, and has a compact stony texture, while 
elsewhere it is intermingled with scoria-looking conglomerate ; it 
occurs at intervals over the whole valley of the Amazons. At St. 
Paulo it is 100 feet above the main level of the river (A. Wallace). 

TAPESTLE, (1) Mex. a wooden platform [plataforma (1), tabladillo (1)], 
sollar, bunding or stage. The platform itself may be formed of boards 
[tablas (1)], planks [planchas (7)], round timbers 
(rollizos), large branches of oak [latones (2)], 
large split pieces (rachas), or small branches 
[ramas (1)], in which case the sollar [encama- 
cion (2)] is called entablado, enplanchado, 
enrollizado, enlatonado, enrachado, enramado, 
respectively (Gillman and Molina), see camada 
(3) ; for tapestle made of frames and spilling - 
laths near a shaft, see Fig. 71 ; (2) Mex. 
timbers for supporting roofs of workings ; 
(3) Mex. resting-place or sollar of a ladder- 
way, formed of vigas and cuartones (1), see 
descanso(l) ; (4) tapestles, Ant. Col. pillars of ore left as supports, see 
u. pilar (3). 

TAPIA, (1) mud-wall (Port, parede de taipa), in Col. compressed earth 
used in making houses. NOTE. In Morocco, houses are made of 
tabia, or compressed gravel. See encajonado, pece, tapial ; t. acerada, 
tapia. coated with a mixture of lime and sand ; t. real, wall made of 
earth mixed with some lime ; (2) superficial measure of 50 square 
feet ; in Col. 1 tapia is 6 feet long, 3 feet high, and 1 feet thick = 27 
cubic feet ; (3) section of mud-wall made at one time ; (4) moulded 
and compressed earth for making (1) or (3). 

TAPIADOR, builder of mud-walls, etc. 

TAPIAL, mould for making mud-walls [tapias (1)], see encajonado. 

TAPIAR, (Port, taipar), to stop up with a mud-wall ; to make mud- 

TAP6N, (1) plug, stopper, see tapador ; plug for closing manhole of a 
mine-dam, etc. ; (2) Mex. timb. pent-house, see resguardo ; (3) Ant. 
Col. alluv. m. a dike of timber and branches constructed across a river 
or ground-sluice [canalon (2)] in order to hold the black sand [jagua 
(2)], gold and gravel (Uribe) ; a sort of coffer-dam [see u. represa (1)] 


Fie. 71. Tapestle (1) 
(after Luis Carrion). 



constructed in rivers in the dry season (verano), syn. tapa (5), com p. 

cerco (5), trincho (2). A tapa or tapon is square or rectangular in 

shape, and constructed of a double row of large stakes (estacones), 

arranged crosswise [ca- 

ballos (9)], and driven 

in by a heavy mallet ; 

a beam rests in the 

forks above, and below A fr-gfrL... Affi=: .-...Affi. p A 

a number of battens 

[latas (2)] are tied with 

bejucas. The space be- 
tween the double row 

of stakes, etc., is filled 

with earth, branches, etc. 

The water inside the 

coffer-dam is then 

pumped dry, see Fig. 72 

(after Munoz) ; (4) mine- 
dam, see cerramiento. 
TAPONEAR, Ant. Col. 

alluv. m. to construct a 

dike or tapon (3). 
TAPONERA, Mex. dolly- 
bar (D wight). 
TAQUARA, Braz. laths of 

FIG. 72. Tapon (3) (after Munoz). 

bamboo, used in building estacones forming caballos (9) ; 6, viga or beam ; 

/TT -,* c, latas or battens ; d, mazo or mallet. 

cottages (Hen wood). 

TAQUEADOR, Ant. Col. (1) peon who fires the blast, blaster ; (2) blast. 

tamping-bar, see atacadera. 
TAQUETES (from FT.), keps or keeps, (U.S.A.) landing-dogs, syn. 

morillo (4) de descanse, tacos (8), equiv. Fr. taquets, Ger. Aufsatz- 
. stiitzen, Aufsatzvorrichtung, var. are t. de cerrojo, t. giratorios, t. que 

se ocultan por resbalamiento, por rotation y por retroceso (consult 

TAQUIA, Peru, llama dung (or sometimes dry sheeps' dung) used as fuel 

in the upper regions. The calorific power of taquia surpasses that of 

coal ; both yareta and taquia afford a long flame and do not clinker 

. . . but the heat generated by the yareta is not so powerful as that 

from the taquia (A. L. Pearse), syn. Bol. tachia, ucha, see carrana. 
TAQUIMETRO, surv. tacheometer (sometimes spelt tacometro). 
TARA, (1) tare ; (2) tally. 
TARABITA, Span. Am. rope used for hauling the oroya over rope 

bridges, see u. puente (1). 
TARAJA, see terraja. 
TARANGO, Zac. Mex. a platform [plataforma (1)], stull or bunding on 

which barreteros work in overhand stoping, made of Haves de viga, 



to which cross-pieces [travesanos (1)] are tied with lazos and ropes, 
the latter receive the tabladillo (1), or platform of boards (Luis Carrion), 
syn. tabladilla (1) provisional, Pach. taranguela (2), see camada (3). 

TARANGUELA, (1) see balsa (3) ; (2) see tarango. 

TAREA, (1) task, syn. tajo (9) ; shift ; day-work, see jornal (1), tanda 
(1), tequio (5) ; (2) a certain quantity of wood for fuel, e.g., in Venez. 
1 tarea or cord is 5| feet long by 5| feet high by 33 inches wide (G. P. 
Ashmore and C. Scale) ; a certain quantity of ore set as a task, e.g., 
in Tasco, Mex. = 4 montones of 100 quintales (Humboldt), at Guadal- 
cazar = 4 sacks, see tequio (3) ; a certain number of journeys made 
in carrying ore, etc., see talla (3) ; (3) Ant. Col. in the Remedios and 
other districts, all hands were formerly fed by the companies; on 
Sundays and feast days those who wished to earn rations (raciones) 
for the day had to work up to 10 A.M. (" tarea "), otherwise they 
forfeited them. This custom still exists in some mines. 

TARUGO, wooden peg or plug, stopper, see tapador. 

TAS, see tases. 

TASA, TASAClON, valuation, appraisement ; assessment. 

TASADOR, valuer. 

TASCINA, selenide of silver or naumannite [Ag 8 Se], see plata (2). 

TASCO, (1) " hards " or refuse of flax, wool or hemp (agramiza), used for 
packing ; (2) cupel or crucible, see crisol (1), copela (1), tasconio. 

TASCONIO, a kind of argillaceous earth of which crucibles [crisoles (1)] 
are made, syn. talque. " The crucibles used for this purpose are made 
of ' tasconium,' a white earth similar to potter's clay in appearance," 
(Pliny, Hist. Nat. 1. 33, c. 21). 

TASES, Mex. masses of ore which have been calcined in the open air or 
in heaps, syn. caleras (4), comp. monton (1). 

TAZA (cup or wooden bowl), Mex. (1) central cup or bowl of the tahona 
or arrastre (3), 9 feet in diameter by 1 foot deep, paved with unhewn 
slabs of porphyry (G. F. Lyon) ; (2) crucible of blast-furnace (Dwight), 
see crisol (2). 

TECACOLOTE, Guerr. Mex. aluminous slate (pizarra alumbrosa) from 
Aztec word meaning crow-stone (S. Ramirez). 

TECALE, TECALI, Mexican marble or Mexican onyx found in the 
district of Tecali, Pueblo ; it is a var. of lime alabaster from Aztec 
teocah (Lord's mansion), a name given by the Indians to their temple, 
syn. marmol mexicano, onix mexicano. 

TECHAR, to roof, to cover with a roof (techo). 

TECHEO, see u. testera (3). 

TECHICHIL, Guerr. Mex. a ferruginous compound noxious in the patio 
process ; esmeril (2) is another bad ferruginous compound, also 
lechecilla, which is calcareous (S. Ramirez). 

TECHO (roof), (1) hanging- wall or roof of a deposit, see alta (1) ; 
(2) roof of a level or gallery, syn. Peru, alza (2), cielo (1), comp. 
costado, piso (4) ; (4) back of a stope, see techumbre, u. testero (3). 

321 x 


TECHUMBRE, roof (techo), generally lofty, see tendido (1) ; min. back 

(Ponce de Le6n), see techo (3). 
TECOMATE, Mex. (1) a cup (taza) made of the gourd ; (2) a word of 

contempt given by European Spaniards to the white natives of Mexico 


TECORAL, Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. deads or attle, see desecho (3). 
TECOZAHUITL, Mex. Aztec name for yellow ochre. " El ocre amarillo, 

llamado tecozahuitl servia, como el cinabrio, 6 vermellon, para la 

pintura. El ocre formaba parte de los objetos que componian la 

lista de los tributes de Malinaltepec " (Humboldt). See u. ocre. 
TECPATL, Mex. Aztec name for flint [pedernal (1)], hornstone [cornea 

(1)], or green jade (jade). 
TEGUILOTE, TEHUILOTE, (1) Guerr. Mex. crystallised quartz (cuarzo), 

comp, u. guija (2). NOTE. From Aztec word meaning crystal-stone 

(S. Ramirez) ; (2) Mex. country, see roca (4). 
TEJA, (1) roof-tile ; t. concava, gutter or pantile, see tejoleta ; (2) Mex. 

hind bow of a saddle ; fore bow = cabeza de la silla (Velazquez) ; 

(3) prov. one-fourth or one-twentieth part of a fila (2) de agua (Acad.). 
TEJADO, roof covered with tiles ; t. de tejamanil, shingle-roof ; shed. 
TEJAMANIL, Mex. shingles (ripias) ; spelt also tejamani, tejemanil. 
TEJAR, to cover with tiles ; pizarras de t., roofing-slates. 
TEJEAR, see texear. 

TEJIDO (texture), t. de alambre, wire-cloth, see tela. 

TEJO, (1) yew-tree; (2) round metal plate ; Mex. cake of silver ; cake 
of metal ; t. de oro, gold in the form of bullion, ingot of gold, see 
plancha (1) ; (3) see tejuelo (1). 

TEJOLETA, piece of burnt clay ; tile, see teja (1). 

TEJOLOTE, Mex. stone pestle, see maja. 

TEjON, wedge or plate of gold, see plancha (1). 

TEJUELA, see tejuelo (1). 

TEJUELO, (1) bearing of a vertical spindle, syn. tejo (3), see quicio (4) 
Mex. (tejuela) a die or square piece of steel, conical in the centre, 
which is fixed in the head of the cepo (1) of the arrastre (3), and into 
which the guijo (2) at the base of the peon (3) fits (S. Ramirez) ; mech. 
pillow-block, or iron cradle or bearing to hold the boxes or brasses 
which form a journal-bearing, see chumacera ; (2) the soft metal 
lining of a pillow-block, generally of bronze (" brass ") or Babbitt 
metal ; the hard metal casing, generally steel, enclosing these, being 
known as munon (3). 

TELA, (1) t. de alambre, t. metalica, wire-cloth, syn. tejido de alambre ; 
(2) screen, see criba (2) ; (3) t. de bayeta, baize or " blanket " ; 

(4) t. sin fin, mech. prep, endless band. 

TELERA, Huelva, Sp. heap of copper pyrites of a pyramidal shape for 
calcination (Acad.) ; teleras (tileras) Rio Tinto, met. open piles 
[montones (1)] for the lower grade copper ores ; these are roasted 
with 2 per cent, of salt, comp. torreras, see tostacion. 



TELURIO, (1) tellurium ; (2) tellurium ore, see eslamosa. 

TEMBLADEROS, Mex. (1) near Macuspana, Tabasco, there is a place 
of this name, so called because the ground is elastic, and easily yields 
to the pressure of the foot the formation is asphaltic (Sarlat), see 
betun ; (2) enormous swamps [pantanos (1)] in the plains of Chiapas 
and Tabasco ; in the wet season they form shallow lakes (lagunas) 
of great extension (Dr. E. Bose), see tremedal. 

TEMBLOR DE TIERRA, earthquake, see terremoto. 

earthy part of ground-up ores (Gamboa) ; (2) met. lead scoria or 
litharge (litargirio), rich in silver. 

TEMPERAMENTO, vent. Fr. temperament of Guibal ; "el tempera - 
mento de ventilacion de una mina es lo relacion que hay entre el 
volumen de aire que pasaria por la mina, a la presion de un milimetro, 
y el de un metro ciibico de aire puro a la misma presion de un mili- 
metro " (Molina). 

TEMPLADERA, prov. sluice-gate, see sangradera (1). 

TEMPLADO COMO CUERDA DE VIOLIN, Almaden, Sp. said by miners 
of a stull -piece (estemple) which has been properly fixed in position, 
and which gives the right sound when struck with a hammer. 

TEMPLADOR, Peru, raised central portion of a cerco (4) for the man 
who directs the horses in the repaso, syn. mogote central. 

TEMPLAR, to temper steel, etc. 

TEMPLE, tempering, hardening. 

TEMPORERO, TEMPORIL, temporary labourer. 

TENACILLAS, see tenazas (2). 

TENATE (tanate), Mex. and Hond. large bag made of pita or mecate, 
hide or even linen, or of basket form, usually slung on the shoulders 
for carrying ore, rubbish, etc., or may be drawn up the shaft by ropes ; a 
tenate made of half an ox-hide will hold 9 arrobas of heavy ore 
see saco (1), comp. manta (1), zurron. 

TENATERO (tanatero), Mex. man or lad who carries the ore in a tenate 
to the plat [despacho (3)] or to the surface a tenatero will usually 
carry from four to six arrobas. According to Humboldt, he will 
climb, without fatigue, ladders of 1800 steps, eight to ten times con- 
secutively, with weights varying from 225 to 350 lb., see despacha- 
dores (2), frisada, mecapal (1), u. zurron, comp. acarreador, carretero 
(1), hapire (2). 

TENAZAS, (1) tongs ; (2) pincers (tenacillas), syn. pinzas (2), see alicates, 
mordaza (1) ; (3) bor. large nippers used for extracting broken pieces 
of tools, etc., see pinzas (1) ; (4) clutch or clip for attaching wagons to 
rope, in endless-rope system of haulage. 

TENDEL, mas. line stretched horizontally for walling. 

TENDIDO, DA, pp. of tender ; for barrenos tendidos, see u. barreno (1). 

TENDIDO, (1) roof of a" 1 " house from the ridge [caballete (2)] to the 
eaves (alero), see techumbre ; (2) dip, see echado ; (3) line of dip 



(4) tendidos, Mex. various lots of ore spread out for sale, see u. rescate 
(2) ; (5) tendidos, Span. Am. riffles, sijn. piletas (4), rejillas (2), represas 
(2), resaltos, rifles, see adoquin (2) ; (6) t. de sogas, Span. Am. coil of 
rope, 25 varas long (Ponce de Leon) ; (7) mas. thin layer of lime, 
gypsum or mortar. 

TENEDOR, (1) guardian or trustee, syn. administrador (2), consigna- 
torio (1), curador (2) ; (2) t. de libros, book-keeper or accountant, 
comp. contabilista, contador. 

TENEDURIA DE LIBROS, book-keeping. 

TENENCIA, leg. (1) possession, holding ; (2) tenancy, tenement, tenure ; 
mera t. de una mina, Col. mere tenancy exercised in the name and place 
of the owner. 

TENESTEL, Tasco, Guerr. calcareous stone (MS. 1793) (? bedded lime- 
stone), see caliza, comp. lechecilla. 

TENOR, t. fino, fineness of gold or standard, see ley (3). 

TENSOR (from Fr. tenseur), in endless- rope haulage, the apparatus for 
keeping the wire -rope stretched; see atesador, u. polea (2). 

TENTADURA, (1) Mex. in the patio process, proof made in a bowl 
[jicara (2)] of the ore incorporated with mercury, in order to discover 
what the monton (1) needs to be exactly right (para estar de punto) ; 
the test is made by washing a little of the ore, and getting rid of 
the earth, in order to find out the condition in which the silver and 
mercury are (Gamboa). By means of a special washing (descargar la 
t.), the following are collected in the order of their specific gravity : 
(a) altered and finely divided mercury = desecho (1), (&) amalgam 
which begins to be formed, and which appears to be made up of very 
fine particles = limadura (4), (c) metalliferous schlich or unaltered ore 
= asiento (3), (d) liquid mercury or solidified amalgam (S. Ramirez), 
see achiia, hijuela (2) ; (2) any test made by washing or panning, see 
ensaye (2), toque (2). 

TENTADURERO, Mex. the trier, or the man who makes the tentadura 
(1) in the patio process, comp. ensayador (2). 

TENTEMOZO, (1) prop to support a wall, etc., see puntal (1) ; (2) u. 
haul, backstay, see paradera (2). 

TEODOLITO, theodolite ; a surveying transit. 

TEOTINES, Valley of Mex. curious rocks, near the town of Santa Cruz, 
surrounded by volcanic sand (Bol. del I. G. de M.), seepenasco. 

TEPEGUAJE, Mex. a very hard and compact wood (Velazquez). 

TEPESTATE, Mex. large batea, used for carrying the lama (2), syn. batea 

TEPETATE, Mex. (1) waste rock, rubbish, attle or deads, see desecho 
(3) ; (2) hard compressed clayey sand, almost sandstone (arenisca), 
which disintegrates on exposure ; (3) volcanic tuff, e.g., in the Valley 
of Mexico, a sedimentary rock formed of grains of coarse pumice- 
stone (toba pomosa gruesa Barcena) ; at Pachuca, a~volcanic tuff 
(toba) found below the soil and above the alluvium ; (4) gangue or 



matrix, or any part of the filling, whether mineral or " country," 
which contains no ore, see matriz (1) ; (5) country-rock or country, 
see roca (4) ; (6) snow-white carbonate of lime covering basin-deserts, 
syn. caliche (4), tierra blanca. 

TEPOSTEL (tepoztel), (1) Mex. oxides of iron and other minerals, generally 
silver- bearing, e.g., in Tehuilotepec, Guerr., brown, red and yellow 
oxide, in which impalpable particles of native silver and argentite 
are disseminated, cellular brown iron ore, specular iron, a little galena, 
magnetite and azurite ; in Tasco, Guerr. besides the above, iron 
pyrites and antimonial grey copper are present (Humboldt and 
Dahlgren), see colorados (1), plata (2), comp. hierroso, ixtajales, pacos 
(1), tepostete, tepustete ; (2) Peras, Oaxaca, Mex. masses in which 
more or less wide zones of oxide of iron alternate with massive iron 

|_ pyrites [acerado (1)], and which are gold-bearing ore having this 
character is called atepoztelado (S. Ramirez), see oro. 

TEPOSTETE, Sonoro, Mex. boulders of specular iron ore found in gold- 
placers (D wight), comp. tepostel (1), tepustete, see placer. 

TEPUQUEROS, see raspadores. 

TEPUSTETE, Calamahi, L. Cal. Mex. ferruginous ore a variation of 
tepostel (1). 

TEQUEZQUITE, Mex. a mixture in variable proportions, of sesqui- 
carbonate, chloride and sulphate of soda, and various earthy and 
organic impurities. In Mexico City the following commercial varieties 
are known : rotten (espumilla), granular (confitillo), leafy (cascarilla), 
and pulverulent (polvillo) (M. Barcena). NOTE. It is sometimes 
spelt terquesite. See natron. 

TEQUIO, Mex. (1) charges, tax or duty, see derecho (2) ; (2) the portion 
of ore which, according to its hardness or softness in the mine, the 
barretero yields to the owner in the actual working hours (horas de 
pueble). The whole ore raised is divided between the barretero and 
the owner (amo), and is called partido (2) ; the portion of ore which 
comes from a certain part of a mine, or the quantity taken out by a 
pare (L. Carrion) ; syn. Pachuca, Hid. cuenta (2), see u. tarea (2) ; 

(3) in some places, ore not rich enough to sack underground (Dwight) ; 

(4) tequios, bin-heaps, syn. monton de metal ; (5) a task set as one 
day's work (Dwight), see tarea (1). 

TERCERIA, (1) arbitration ; (2) arbitration dues. 

TERCERO, arbitrator, see arbitrador ; t. en discordia, umpire between 

two disputants. 

TERCIAR, to arbitrate, see arbitrar. 
TERCIO, half a mule-load [carga (2)] ; in Catorce, Mex. = 6 arrobas, 

elsewhere a load for a tenatero ; in Col. (where a carga = 200 Ib. 

usually) = 4 arrobas the grade [ley (2)] of ores is sometimes 

calculated on this system. 
TERMING, (1) landmark, see mojon (1); (2) boundary, see lindero ; 

(3) t. medio, average, see promedio. 



TERRAJA, screw-plate, screw-stock, or die-stock, syn. S. Am. taraja ; 
t. con dados or cojinetes (4) y machos, stock with dies and tap (Ponce 
de Leon) ; machuelos de t., screw- taps. 

TERRAPL&N, TERRAPLENO, (1) platform of earth, embankment; 
rail, graded road-bed ; horizontal surface of a dump, etc., syn. graderia, 
see malecon (4) ; (2) geol. terrace, see terraza. 
TERRAPLENAR, to embark, fill. 
TERRAZA, geol. terrace, syn. terraplen (2). 
TERREMOTO, earthquake, syn. temblor de tierra. 

TERRENO, (1) land ; t. franco, land which can be freely conceded by the 
State for the mining industry (Acad.) ; terrenos baldios, terrenos 
nacionales, Government lands (unappropriated) ; (2) geol. formation 
or group of formations, e.g., t. acuifero, quicksand, t. carbonifero, 
carboniferous formation, t. movedizo or suelto, very soft or loose 
formation or rock ; (3) " country," syn. roca (4) del terreno. 
TERRERA, \vaste-dump, see vaciadero. 

TERRERO, (1) heap of earth, see monton (1) ; (2) terreros, waste rock 
or attle, see desecho (3) ; (3) terreros, heap or dump of attle, see 
vaciadero ; (4) deposit of earth accumulated by the action of water 

TERROJO, red earth. 
TERROMONTERO, hill [cerro (1)], hillock (colina) ; t. de aluvion, 

alluvium deposit or wash (Ponce de Leon), see aluvion. 
TERRONTERA, break in a mountain, comp. quiebra (3). 
TERROSAS, Mex. veins of clay resulting from the alteration of the 
" country " ; when rich in ore, they are known as jaboncillo (3), syn. 

TERROSO, SA, adj. earthy. 
TESCATETE, see u. liga (2) and soroche (2) 

TESORERIA, treasury, treasurer's office, exchequer ; treasurership. 
TESTERA, TESTERO, (1) a dike breaking the course of a lode (A. 
Elwes), see dique (5) ; (2) end or forebreast, see fronton (1) ; (3) solid 
bed of mineral having two faces exposed, one (the lower) horizontal, 
the other vertical, overhand stope, syn. banco (2) invertido, escalon 
(2) de cielo, de testero or inverse, grada (2) al reves (Fr. gradin ren- 
versee) or invertido, comp. banco (2) ; techo (3) del t., roof or back of 
a stope ; labor de testeros or trabajo por testeros, overhand stoping, 
syn. exploration por gradas (2) al reves, S. Sp. and Mex. labor de realce 
(2), Mazarron, Sp. labor de techeo, rebaje (1 ) del cielo, trabajo de cabeza 
(6) or de cielo (4), see u. levante, comp. rebajo (2) ; testeros adosados, 
or metodo inclinado, equiv. Fr. methode incline tranches ; testeros 
recostados, equiv. Fr. maintenages (when the escombro is in the 
form of steps = maintenages avec gradins, when it has a uniform 
slope = maintenages avec talud) ; see u. realce (2) ; (4) testeros, 
the ends or short sides of a shaft, syn. tablas (2), comp. costados ; 
(5) testera de guia, Linares and La Carolina, Sp. gallery driven along 



a deposit, main gallery, see galeria (1) ; (6) testeras, Mex. uprights in a 
mine, whether pillars [pilares (2)], arches [Haves (10)] or posts [mono 
(2)] (Dwight) ; (7) met. side of a smelting furnace (Acad.) ; front of 
a blast-furnace, see delantera. 

TESTIGO (witness), bor. core, see nucleo (2). 

TETILLA, see u. penasco. 

TETZONTLE, TEZONTLE, Mex. scoriaceous and very porous varieties 
of basaltic and andesitic lavas, used for building purposes ; "la 
verdadera lava 6 tezontle, que es una capa de escorias rojas perduscas, 
de mas de un metro de espesor, con grano de olivino, agujita, hierro 
magnetico y cuarzo, siendo su peso especifico de 3*536 " (A. del M. 
de F.). 

TEXEAR (? tejear), t. bien el horno, Mex. to throw out litharge or slag 
(of a furnace) (Gamboa). 

TEZONTLE, see tetzontle. 

TIALES, Guerr. Mex. in the grotto (gruta) of Cacahuamilpa, near Tasco, 
a kind of natural vases, which get filled with water in the rainy season 
(A. del M. de F.), comp. cueva (1). 

TIATALES, Tasco, Guerr. Mex. hard limestone (MS. 1793), see caliza. 

TIBE, Ant. Col. (1) corundum (corindon), known to the ancient Indians 
and used by them to polish their tools (Uribe) ; (2) tibes, alluv. m. 
hard, smooth, flat, elliptical and spherical stones, which are regarded 
as a favourable indication by the miners (Uribe). 

TIBIR, name of gold-dust on the African coast (Velazquez), see oro. 

TIENDA, shop ; t. de raya, Mex. shop at which miners obtain weekly 
credit (M. J. Gloss.). 

TIENTAAGUJA, an auger for testing the ground on which it is proposed 
to build (Velazquez), comp. barrena (3). 

TIERRA (Port, terra), (1) earth, land, soil, ground ; t. arcillosa, clay- 
ground ; t. franca, earth more or less loose or free ; for t. muerta and 
t. virgen, see u. muerto, ta ; (2) region of the earth ; t. adentro, interior 
of a country, Mex. central portion of Mexico ; (3) any rock or mineral 
(generally non-metallic) ; t. blanca, (a) micaceous clay ; (6) Mex. 
calcareous tufa, see u. caliche (4) ; t. de batan, de batanero or de 
machas, fuller's-earth, see greda (1) ; t. de flor, El Caratal, Venez. 
bed of reddish clayey earth, 0'40 to TO m. below the surface, contain- 
ing blocks of auriferous quartz, grains of brown pisolitic hematite, 
and an agglomeration of grains called moco (2) de hierro. When 
washed furnishes, besides decomposed crystals of pyrite, non-magnetic 
sand, and pepitas of gold (Fuchs and De Launay) ; according to Dr. 
Foster it is a superficial gold-bearing rain-wash, see Fig. 21 c. T. de 
porcelana, china-clay (caolin) ; t. de tinta or de caparrosa, see u. 
caparrosa (1); t. grasa, pipe-clay; t. gredosa, clay-marl, see marga 
( 1 ) ; t. pesada, heavy spar, syn. espato pesado ; tierras de asentar y 
de afinar, Tamaulipas, Mex. decomposed reddish and yellowish white 
marls, see marga (1) ; tierras pardas, Dur. Mex. alluvial formation in 



which hydrated peroxide of iron abounds ; tierras rojas, Guadalcazar, 
S. L. Pot. Mex. ferruginous clay covering and staining the limestone 
(A. del M. de F.) ; (4) ore, generally in a fine state of division, whether 
found in that condition, or produced so by mechanical preparation ; 
tierras, San Dimas, Dur. Mex. fines, smalls or fourth-class ore [for 
first, second and third class, see u. metal (3) and granza (2)] ; fine dirt 
impregnated with quicksilver ore, and which must be made into 
adobes (2) before roasting (Raymond) ; Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. smalls 
containing ^ per cent, of quicksilver ; San Alto, Zac. Mex. fine cassi- 
terite ; Almaden, Sp. fine quicksilver ores less than 1*2 inch cube, 
comp. granzita ; tierras apolvillados, ores a degree inferior to azogues 
apolvillados (M. J. Gloss.) ; tierras comunes, common earthy ores ; tierras 
de asiento, see asiento (7) ; tierras de labor, (a) smalls from ore-sorting 
or cobbing, syn. arenilla (5), granza. (3), metal de yunque (2), tierras 
de yunque (2), (&) smalls from the workings ; tierras de molero, 
poor stamped ores ; tierras ordinarias, see u. granza (1) ; (5) tierras, 
deads or attle, see desecho (3) ; (6) gangue or matrix, see matriz ; 
(7) tierras quemadas, met. see u. bola (3) ; (8) hacer tierras, see u. hacer. 

TIJERA, TIJERAS, (1) scissors; (2) carpenter's horse, comp. burro (2) ; 
any timber support, constructed like the letter X, see u. alfarda, and 
tapon (3) ; (3) small channel or drain, see desaguadero ; (4) tijeras, 
framework of beams, crossing one another obliquely, placed across 
a river to stop floating timber a boom. 

TILERA, see telera. 

TILLADO, wooden floor, see entablado. 

TILLAR, to floor with boards, syn. entarimar. 

TIMBA, (1) Span. Am. logs for roofs of mines (Ponce de Leon), see 
revestimiento (1) ; (2) Phil, bucket for water, see cubo (1). 

TIMBRE, (1) bell (campana) provided with a spring ; (2) Mex. stamp-tax. 

TIMBRERO, Mex. bell-man (Dwight). 

TIM6N (naut. rudder), hook for guiding a sledge (Molina), equiv. Fr. 
gouvernail, see gancho (1). 

TIMPA, met. tymp-stone, in front of the hearth of a blast-furnace (horno 

TINA, (1) Mex. in the patio process, the round dolly-tub, kieve or vat 
used for washing or settling the lama (2), but sometimes replaced 
by the box-settler or lavadero (3), syn. Peru, boliche (3), cuba (1), 
cubeta (1), t. or tonel de trepidacion, see batidor (2), u. planilla (1) ; 
any circular tank or vat ; t. cargadera, tank into which the slimes 
are first discharged, a leaching-vat (t. de lejivacion), see tinaco, 
tonel (3) ; (2) a pan ; t. de amalgamation, amalgamating pan, 
syn. paila (1), pan, see remoledor, comp. chuza ; (3) beneficio de t., 
tina system of silver amalgamation (Ger. Sezwasche), for which consult 
Domeyko, Percy, Egleston, etc. ; (4) bucket or kibble, see tonel (2). 

TINACO, wooden trough, tub or vat ; wooden vat used in leaching, see u. 



TINADA, pile of wood or timber, see monton (1). 

TINAJA, (1) large earthen jar ; (2) Mex. basin of water in rock (Dwight)J 
(3) tinajas, Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. small bunches of cinnabar 
formed by the meeting of two or more small veins, from half a vara 
to three or four varas in diameter, and which separate to north and 
south. They are so called from the spherical figures formed by the 
respaldos (Zarate and Floresi), see mercurio (2). 

TINANCO, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, hutch of a hand-jig (Ibran), 
see riquitrum. 

TINCA, (1) timb. cap-piece, see capa (4) ; (2) Peru, timb. stull, syn. 
coche (5), see estemple, tinqueria. 

TINQUERIA, Hualgayoc, Peru, timb. a stull [tinea (2)], from 3 m. long 
by O2 m. in diameter, supported by an inclined strut [see jabalcon 
(2)], on the former are placed polings (caillapos) for supporting the waste 
(Santolalla), forming a sort of sollar, see camada (3) ; sometimes used 
for shaft-frames. 

TINTERO (ink-well), Peru, sump of shaft (Dwight), see caja (3). 

TINTIN (clink), in the tintin process, a hard stone has a circular mortar- 
like cavity, about 9 inches wide and 9 inches deep. The ore is tritu- 
rated in this by an iron pestle with mercury under water ; a small 
stream of water is kept constantly flowing into the cavity at one side 
at the top, and out of the opposite side ; the amalgam is extracted 
from time to time, and the muddy water goes to tanks, the deposit 
therefrom being, if necessary, treated by the patio process described 
by Barba (1640). 

TIPLE, (1) Tolima, Col. timb. sole-piece, see solera (3) ; (2) timb. small 
prop, strut or stay placed below the cap-piece or capa (4). 

TIRABUZ6N (corkscrew), (1) bor. wad-hook or spiral worm, equiv. 
Fr. tire-bourre, Ger. Kratzer, see pinzas (1) ; (2) see u. resorte. 

TIRADA, (1) hoisting or ascension of a cage, etc. ; (2) one complete 

TIRADOR, (1) Torre viejas salt-works, Alicante, Sp. the workman who 
assists the volvedor in raising the salt (Molina) ; (2) slide-valve of a 
steam-engine, crank, etc. (Ponce de Leon). 

TIRANTE, (1) b. constr. joist, see u. viga ; (2) mech. tie-rod of a boiler, 
etc. ; tirantes, ties of a pulley-frame, etc., see barra (9) ; ridge-pole, 
tie-beam, see cumbrera (1) ; (3) pump-rod or spear, syn. asta (3) de 
bomba, Mex. cadena (2), see u. vastago ; t. maestro de desagiie, main- 
rod, may be divided into tirantes macizos en forma de biela or de 
simple barra redonda, and tirantes huecos, en forma de tubo, de cruz 
or de celosia (Molina) ; (4) madre de t, Mex. timb. bearer, see traviesa 
(4) ; (5) Mex. timb. a large beam (viga doble), 8 m. long by 0*28 by 
0-28 m. section, see u. guarnicion, comp. gualdra, gualdrilla, viga, 
vigueta ; (6) eng. span (Ponce de Leon). 

TIRAR, (1) to hoist or wind, see tiro (7) ; (2) to blast or shoot, syn. 
dar fuego al barreno, dar taco, disparar el barreno, hacer saltar el 



barreno, quemar (5), equiv. Fr. allumer, tirer, Ger. sprengen, wegthun, 
see barrenar (2), comp. reventarse, volar ; (3) t. una labor, Calamahi, 
L. Cal. Mex. alluv. m. prospecting the ground, working (hacer tierras), 
and washing it by the gambucino, see cascajear, desmontar (2), planear. 

TIRO, (1) Mex. shaft or pit. see pozo (2) ; t. con arrastre (2), de 
arrastre (2), de recueste (1), or ocinado, inclined shaft ; t. general, 
main shaft ; t. perpendicular, t. vertical, vertical shaft ; comp. 
contratiro ; (2) Las Alpujarras and Sierra Almagrera, Sp. winze, see 
clavada ; strictly speaking, a portion of a shaft, 83 to 85 m. deep, 
worked by a winch ; there are a succession of these to a depth of 300 m. 
or more ; (3) Ant. Col. air-shaft or rise, see contracielo (1) ; (4) t. de 
aire, air-blast, see u. homo (2) ; t. del aire, air-current, draught, see u. 
registro (3) ; (5) t. de mulas, set of mules ; (6) blast or shot, syn. 
disparo or salto (2) del barreno, voladura (if large), equiv. Ger. Explo- 
sion ; (7) hoisting or winding ; longitud del t., depth of winding, see 
tirar (1) ; (8) rope used in hoisting or winding, see cable ; (9) Chile, 
blast, drill-hole, see barreno (1) ; (10) depth of a shaft (Acad.), see 
profundidad (1). 

TIRON, tug or jerk given to wire -rope in hoisting. 

TISIS DEL MINERO, miner's phthisis or consumption. 

TITANIO, titanium ; for ores of titanium see u. agulhas. 

TITULO, title (to a property, etc.) ; t. de propiedad, title to a mining 

TIZA, (1) ground chalk (creta) or whiting ; (2) finely divided gypsum 
(Aragon), see yeso ; (3) Chile, a mixture of ulexite [Na 2 0, 2CaO-B.,O 3 , 
16H..O] with much chloride of sodium, sulphate of soda, lime and 
sand ; " one of the most important of the world's sources of borax 
are the deposits of Ascotan and Maricunga, north of Copiapo, in 
Atacama, Chile, where ulexite, known locally as ' tiza,' occurs in old 
lake beds in layers alternating with layers of salt and salty earth " 
(Min. Ind.). 

TIZAR, Mex. in the Iron Mountain (Cerro de Mercado), near Durango 
City, there is an enormous deposit of firestone (piedra de lumbre), 
mostly converted into a white powder of light pure silica, called tizar 
or piedra de pulir, used in glass-making, etc. (F. Weidner). 

TIZATE, chalk, see creta. 

TIZO, badly made charcoal which yields smoke on burning, see carbon 


TIZON, Mex. mas. bond, see diente (6). 
TLASCAL, Mex. a kind of savin, very resisting, and used for the roof 

of pent -house (resguardo). 
TOBA, (1) volcanic tuff or tufa, or light porous rock of volcanic ashes 

cemented together, and formed in situ or deposited by water, syn. 

tufo, tras, see u. tepetate (3) ; var. are t. basaltica, profidica, traquitica, 

etc. ; (2) t. caliza, calcareous tuff or tufa, syn. tosca (8), see u. caliche 

(4) ; (3) Ant. Col. chalk, see creta. 



TOBERA, twyer of a smelting-furnace, etc., syn. alcribis, mufla (3), 
soplete (2), Peru, tromba (2), tubera, see nariz (2), (4) and (5), repisa. 

TOGA, (1) Port, hole, burrow ; (2) Minas Geraes, Braz. quality of gold, 
comp. ley (3). 

TOCADO, DA, pp. of tocar, Mex. in the patio process, " la torta esta 
tocada " when it has sulphate of copper in slight excess. 

TOCAR, to try metals on a touchstone (toque), -see tocado, da. 

TOCHO, (1) prov. pole, see palo (1) ; (2) hierro t., see u. hierro (1). 

TOCHUELO, hierro t, see u. hierro (1). 

TOCOCHIMBO, Span. Am. blast-furnace (Ponce de Leon), see horno (2). 

TODOUNO, coal as it comes out of the mine, " through coal" (Fr. tout 

TOFO, Dur. Mex. china-clay, see arcilla. 

TOLDO, awning, see vela (3). 

TOLERANCIA, deduction, allowance (in coinage). 

TOLL AS, TOLLOS, turf -bogs consisting of soft and watery peat, see 

TOLVA, (1) hopper of a gold-mill, etc., syn. Mex. embudo (2), see buzon 
(4), chifladero ; (2) ore-pass or -shoot, see paso (2). 

TOMA, opening into a canal or drain ; t. de una agua, or de una acequia, 
Col. part of river, quebrada, stream or torrent where the water is taken 
off to the ditch there is generally a small dam (tupia) in the river 
at this point. 

TOMIN, one-eighth of a castellano de oro, or one-third of an adarme. 

TONEL, (1) barrel, syn. barril (1), see barrica ; metodo de Freiberg or 
de toneles, Freiberg or barrel process ; t. de amalgamation, amalga- 
mating barrel ; (2) hoist, kibble, c.m. corf, syn. barril (2) de extrac- 
tion, caja (6), caldero (3) (of wrought iron), cuba (2), tina (4), vaso (1) 
de extraction (generic), equiv. Fr. cuffat, Ger. Kiibel, see cubilete, ojo 
(10), comp. chalupa (1) ; (3) vat, see tina (1) ; (4) metales de t, pyritic 
ores with a little silver. 

TONELADA, ton, syn. salma ; the ton of Castile = 2032*2 Ib. avoir., 
that of Mex. and Span. Am. generally = 2028*88 Ib. avoir., the 
metrical ton (t. granadina of Col.) = 1000 kil. or 2204*6 Ib. avoir. ; 
t. kilometrico, one ton carried one kilometer. 

TONGA, Ant. Col. differenc3 of level between two points, whereby 
alluvial mines can be un watered by making a ground -sluice [canalon 
(2)] and vein mines by means of adits ; entrar t. or tajo, to drain a 
mine artificially by running in a canalon (2), or an adit ; mina de t., 
a mine on the top of a hill which can be artificially drained as above ; 
t. de la mina, the lowest practical point to which drainage can be 
carried by the above means ; comp. encampane. NOTE. In Spain 
tonga = layer, see tongada. 

TONGADA (or tonga), layer, see u. balaste. 

TOP AGIO (1), topaz, syn. jacinto (4) occidental ; t. del Brasil, reddish, 
rosy, or purplish yellow topaz ; see gota (3), pingoas d'agua, rubi (4), 




FIG. 73. 
Tornapunta (1). 

safiras ; (2) t. ahumado, dark brown rock-crystal ; t. de Hinojosa, 
yellow rock-crystal, syn. t. de Salamanca, see cuarzo ; (3) t. oriental, 
yellow corundum (corindon). 

TOPE, (1) top, summit, apex ; (2) mech. cam, see cama (3) ; (3) head or 
nut end of a lever ; stop, stud or boss, etc., see turrion (4) ; (4) pump, 
catch, see cuerno (2) ; (5) enlace a t, see u. enlace (2) ; (6) Ant. Col. 
a find of ore, bunch, see bolsa (1) ; mina de t., see matera ; veta de t., 
a bunchy or beaded vein (Fr. filon-en-chapelet), syn. veta de tambor 
(3), see huevo (1) ; (7) transp. buffer of a rail way -car. 

TOPO, S. Am. league and a half, see legua. 

TOQUE, (touch), (1) touchstone, syn. piedra de t., see u. jaspe (1), tocar ; 

(2) testing with ( 1 ) ; coin, assay, test, see ensaye ( 1 ) and (2), tentadura (2). 
TORBA, seeturba(l). 

TORCHO, forged into very thin bars (of iron). 
TORCIDA, wick of lamps, etc., see u. mecha (1), 

TORMO, tor, a high, pointed, isolated rock, see 


TORNAMESA, turntable, syn. mesa (3). 
TORNAPUNTA, (1) timb. an inclined stay or 

prop which supports two parallel timbers, see Fig. 73, comp. jabalcon (2), 

riostra (1) ; (2) an inclined stull (estemple), see Fig. 74 (after Gillman) ; 

(3) tornapuntas, backstays of a pulley-frame 
[horca (1)1 syn. Cartagena, Sp. diagonales, 
riostras (2) ; (4) the timbers which tie the 
backstays of a pulley-frame [horca (1)] to the 
uprights, see u. barra (9) ; (5) b. constr. 
prop, see puntal (1). 

TORNEAR, to shape by turning on a lathe, or 

torno (4). 
TORNERO, (1) windlass-man, or man at the 

winch or torno (2) ; (2) turner (of a lathe), 

see torno (4). 
TORNILLO, (1) screw, screw-bolt, see filete, 

rosca (1), tuerca ; t. de madera, wood-screw ; a a, tornapuntas 

t. de filete a la derecha, right-handed screw ; cross - timbering ; 

patas, stringing- or wall- 
t. zurdo or reverso, left-handed screw ; t. de pieces. 

gota de sebo or de cabeza redonda, round- 
headed screw ; (2) t. para alzar cargas, jackscrew, see gato (1) 
de banco, vice or vise ; t. de mano, hand-vice, or hand-vise. 

TORNIQUETE, mech. swivel (Ponce de Leon), syn. alacran (2), eslabon 
(1) giratorio. 

TORNO, (1) axle-tree, see cabria (1) ; (2) windlass, winch or hoist, syn. 
burro (3), cabria (2), ciguefia (2), garrucha (2), equiv. Fr. treuil, Ger. 
Haspel, see mequineses (2), molinete (1) ; t. con action directa, direct- 
acting hoist ; t. con malacate, whim ; t. con pinones, geared winch or 


FIG. 74. Tornapunta (2) 
(after Gillman). 

b b, za- 

(3) t. 


hoist ; t. de albardilla, windlass with lagging [costillas (5)] on the centre 
drum in the form of a small pack-saddle (albardilla), see albardillado, da ; 
t. de galgas (2), winch with a smooth barrel ; t. de mano, hand-winch ; 
t. de tambor, windlass with a cylinder or drum ; t. de vapor, steam- 
winch or hoist, see chigre ; t. mecanico, winch driven by steam, 
electricity or other power. For parts of windlass, see arbol (2), cigiiena 
(1), cojinete (2), costillas (5), galgas (1), mesa (4) and (5), u. muertos, 
pastures, sombrero (3), soporte (5) ; for pique t., see malacate (1). 

(3) T. corrido, mines of Gador and Almagrera, Sp. method of extracting 
with a winch by using five men, one or more of whom rest alternately, 
so that the extraction continues without loss of time (Molina) ; 

(4) lathe, equiv. Fr. tour ; (5) Almaden, Sp. sump, see caja (3). 
TORO (bull), Mex. fire-damp, see grisu. 

TORRE (tower), t. de sondeo, bor. derrick, shear-legs or hoisting tower, 
see caballete (7). 

TORRE-TORRE, Jauja Valley, Peru, curious tower-like rocks formed 
by meteoric waters (E. J. Duenas), see penasco. 

TORREFACCI6N, (1) torrefaction, roasting (tostacion), calcining 
(calcination) ; (2) fire-setting, equiv. Fr. torrefage. NOTE. This 
term was used by Schreiber, who translated Delius. 

TORRENTE DE ANZIN (Fr. torrent d'Anzin), a large subterranean lake, 
15 kilometres square, see estanque (4). 

TORRERAS, Rio Tinto, Sp. met. poor coarse ore built up into the form 
of cones 10 to 15 feet in height, and about 20 to 30 feet apart. A fire 
is lighted in each of these, and the mixed lump and fine ore filled in 
between them the whole heap [monton (1)] amounts to some 4,000,000 
tons. After burning from four to six months, water is turned on the 
torreras, dissolving out the copper sulphate (Min. Ind.), see tostaci6n, 
comp, telera. 

TORTA, Mex. in the patio process, the flat heap of silver ore, in the 
condition of slime or pulp, and from 1 to 20 tons in weight, after the 
magistral and mercury have been added, syn. Bol. cuerpo (3), trilla 
(2), comp. lamero (2) ; la t. esta caliente, said when there is too great 
a chemical activity (due to excess of sulphate of copper) and conse- 
quent loss of mercury copper precipitate, lime, alkaline carbonate 
or hyposulphite of soda is added, see calentura, curtir ; la t. esta fria, 
said when, for want of sulphate of copper, the action is delayed, 
magistral is added, see frio, ia (1), curtir ; la t. ha rendida, said when 
all the silver in the ore has amalgamated ; t. rendida, amalgam ready 
to undergo the washing operations. 

TORTERO, Mex. man in charge of a torta. 

TORTUGA, see u. candil. 

TOSA, Mex. grinding space in the arrastre (3). 

TOSCA, (1) Catorce, S. L. Pot. Mex. veins of altered diorite and amphi- 
bolitic porphyry [seeporfido (1)]. " D'une substance blanchatre, ayant 
assez 1'apparence du kaolin provenant de la decomposition des feld- 



spaths. Ces veines, que ne sont pas, au moins dans quelques points, 
entierement depourvues d'argent, coupent, et font parfois changer de 
direction les filons exploites (Duport), see arcilla, guinar. (2) N. 
Patagonia, Arg. a white calcareous marl, the uppermost formation 
in the Pampa Central (J. V. Siemiradzki), see marga (1) ; (3) Col. 
alluv. m. a bed of volcanic origin, superimposed on sepe, which latter 
lies on the pay-dirt [cinta (3)] ; (4) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. 
lithomarge of a yellow ochre colour, figured by manganese ; it occurs 
in limestone at the contact the surface of the latter has a scoriaceous 
appearance (achicharronada of the miners) ; (5) Guadalcazar, S. L. 
Pot. Mex. local name for an altered granitic rock, especially limestone 
and gypsum, and into which the large masses of granite in the district 
are frequently changed for many hundreds of feet in the neighbourhood 
of mineral veins (H. F. Collins) ; (6) Guadalcazar, S. L. Pot. Mex. in 
the silver districts, much altered porphyry (S. Ramirez), see porfido 

(1) ; (7) Mex. talc seam (Dwight), see talco ; (8) calcareous tufa, see 
toba (2). 

TOSCO, CA, adj. coarse, rough ; piedra tosca, pumice-stone ; tosca 

estratificacion, coarse stratification. 
TOSTACION, roasting, syn. quema (1), tostado, tostadura, tueste, equiv. 

Fr. grillage, see reverberation, torrefaccion (1), comp. calcination. For 

heap roasting, see telera, torreras. 
TOSTADO, met. roast, see tostacion. 

TOSTADOR, Mex. (1) roasting-furnace ; (2) man in charge of (1). 
TOSTADURA, roasting, see tostacion. 
TOSTAR, to roast, see reverberar, tueste, comp. calcinar. 
TOTUMA, TOTUMO, Span. Am. a large dish made from a gourd ; alluv. 

m. gourd used in collecting gold, etc., from batea washing, syn. Cauca, 

Col. mate. 

TOZA, Span. Am. log, see trozo ; t. de caoba, log of mahogany. 
TRABA, (1) lap, overlap joint, see solapa (2) ; (2) see Have (10). 
TRABADOR, carp, saw-set, syn. triscador. 
TRABAJADEROS, Remedies and Santa Rosa, Ant. Col. veins that have 

been worked opencast (Gamba). 

TRABAJADO, DA, adj. wrought (applied to metals). 
TRABAJADOR (Port, trabalhador), workman, labourer, syn. obrador 

(1), obrero, operario (1), peon (1), gente de polvillo (1) ; day-labourer, 

see jornalero ; see cargador (1), (2) and (4), faenero (2). 
TRABAJAR, (1) to work a mine, etc., syn. disfrutar, labrar or explotar 

una mina, equiv. Port, laborar, trabalhar ; for t. de cielo, see cielo (4) ; 

(2) to support, to sustain (of buildings or machinery). 

TRABAJO (Port, trabalho), (1) work, syn. labor (1), obra (1) ; dia de t., 
working-day ; t. mecanico, duty ; t. util, useful effect ; trabajos de 
desagiie, pumping-works or operations ; (2) mine-working, see labor 
(2), obra (2) ; t. or t. de arranque, working-place ; t. del antiguo, Col. 
mine-working giving indications of having been worked in the time 



of the Spanish conquistadores, or a little afterwards ; t. del indio, Col. 
mine -working with indications of having been worked prior to the 
conquest (Uribe), syn. veta de hoyada (2) ; trabajos de reconocimiento, 
exploratory workings ; trabajos preparatories, such workings as cross- 
cuts, levels, rises and winzes, effected preparatory to stoping or 
winning, forewinning workings ; trabajos transversales, or trasver- 
sales, cross-cuts ; (3) a particular method of mine-working, see labor 
(3), metodo, e.g., t. de banca (2) or banco (2), underhand stoping, see 
rebajo (2), t. de cabeza (6), de cielo (4) or por testeras (3), overhand 
stoping, see u. testera (3). 

TRABAL, see u. prego. 

TRABAZ6N, mas. bond, syn. aparejo (4), see diente (6), u. verdugo. 

TRABE, beam, see viga (1). 

TRACCI6N, traction or haulage, syn. arrastre (1) mecanico ; t. mecanico, 
mechanical haulage, generally understood to be by fixed engines, 
see u. cable (1), transporte. 

TRAGANTE, (1) hydr. m. sluice, see canalon (3) ; (2) ditch (acequia) by 
which a portion of a river enters a mill-dam [presa (1)] ; (3) chimenea 
de t., see u. chimenea (4) ; (4) met. mouth of a shaft-furnace or furnace- 
top ; throat of a furnace ; (5) in a reverberatory furnace, the channel, 
passage or flue, generally inclined, leading to the chimney [chimenea (1 )]. 

TRAGAR, to swallow ; t. el fuego, to swallow fire (of men burnt internally 
by explosions). 

TRAMO (piece), (1) t. rico, rich shoot (of ore), see clavo (2) ; (2) Mex. 
portion of timbering in a shaft, see u. cajon (11) ; (3) Guan. Mex. 
second and third portion of timbering in a shaft, see forro (2) ; 
(4) span of a bridge (Ponce de Leon), see luz (4) ; (5) flight of 
stairs ; ladder way between two sollars (in shafts). 

TRAMPA (trap), (1) sluice-gate, with long wooden lever for putting water 
on or off a wheel, comp. sangradera (1) ; (2) gold-mill, mercury trap. 

TRAMP AL, quagmire ; trampales, turf-bogs of little consistency, see 

TRAMPILLA (dim. of trampa), trap-door of an ore-chute [paso (2)], etc. 

TRANCA, Mex. square set of timbers (Dwight), see u. cuadro (1). 

TRANCADA, (1) trench, see zanja (1) ; (2) Almeria, Sp. an inclined 
gallery (galeria trancada) or shaft made in steps [escalones (1) or 
trancos], comp. mequines (1). 

TRANCADO, DA, pp. of trancar ; for galeria trancada, see trancada (2). 

TRANCO (stride), trancos, long steps [escalones (2)] cut in inclined shafts, 
or made of cross-timbers, see u. gavia, trancada (2). 

TRANQUE, Chile, dam, see presa (1). 

TRANQUIL, (1) arch, vertical or plumb-line, (2) see u. rampa (2). 

TRANSFORMADOR, el. transformer. 

TRANSITO, see u. servidumbre. 

TRANSPORTADOR (or trasportador), surv. compass fixed in a round 
case for plotting by the German system (Gillman), see brujula. 



TRANSPORTAR (or trasportar), to transport, convey, haul, syn. llevar. 

TRANSPORTE (or trasporte), transport, haulage or conveyance, syn. 
acarreo (1), arrastre (1), conduction, llevada, see traction ; t. aereo, 
wire-rope transport, see via (3) ; t. a hombros, see paseo ; t. con 
trincos, transport by sledges ; t. interior or subterraneo, underground 
haulage ; t. por rodadura, transport by wheels or by rolling, e.g., 
wheelbarrows, German Hund and wagons ; t. circular, method of 
loading and unloading cages at the inset or plat, when the latter is 
double [enganche doble]. In Belmez, Sp. the name media luna 
is given to the circular gallery which surrounds the shaft (Molina) ; 
t. y extraction (1), conveyance and hoisting. 

TRANSVERSA, see trasversa. 

TRANSVERSAL (or trasversal), adj. trabajo t, cross-cut, see crucero (1) ; 
veta t., cross- vein or lode, see u. legitimas. 

TRANSVERSAL (or trasversal), cross-cut, see crucero (1) ; transversales 
de recorte, Palencia, Sp. c.m. a wagon-road common to several con- 
tiguous seams, from which transversales are driven to cut the remaining 
seams (Molina), see recorte (2) and (3). 

TRANSVERSO, see trasverso. 

TRANVIA, tramway. 

TRAPICHE, Chile, a primitive form of Chilian mill, edge-runners or 
edge-rolls, consisting of two stones, of which the upper one is fastened 
to a long pole, see Fig. 75 (after 
Egleston) ; the large revolving stone 
is generally made of granite, about 
2 m. in diameter, with an edge of 
0*40 m. wide, weighing between 3 and 
4 tons. The inside diameter is slightly 
smaller than the outside, so it inclines 
somewhat towards the centre. The F IG . 75. -Trapiche (after Eglestou). 
bed is formed of hard stones. Some- 
times two wheels are used, placed at different distances from the centre. 
The crushing is sometimes done dry, but generally wet. The ground ore, 
being washed out, is allowed to settle, and is then sent to the arrastre 
(3). There is a post in the centre of the grinding space the horizontal 
arm is pivoted on a heavy piece of metal or hard wood set in the post. 
The next improvement was to put iron tires on the high revolving 
stone wheels (Egleston), comp. pison (3). NOTE. In Tolima, Col. 
the name trapiche is sometimes incorrectly applied to the stone- 
breaker [quebrantador (1)]. 

TRAPICHERO, (1) Chile, r the man in charge of a trapiche ; (2) Choco, 

F^Col. a strong and durable timber (madera). 

TRAQUITA, trachyte, see chiluca, lengiiebuey, panizo r (2). 

TRAS, tuff or tufa, see toba (1) ; mortero de t., a mixture of pulverised 
tufa, quicklime and brick powder ; it is used without sand for works 
destined to resist a strong hydraulic pressure (Gillman),.see argamasa (1). 



TRASCONEJADOS, see u. quedar. 

TRASD6S, (1) extrados, back of an arch (arco), or vault ; (2) inas. 
inner side or back of hewn stones, see Fig. 38 ; (3) sierra de t., see u. 
sierra (2) ; (4) ajuste de t., see u. ajuste. 

TRASDOSADO, see Fig. 8, u. arco. 

TRASERA, met. back of a furnace, comp. delantera. 

TRASLAPAR, to overlap, see solapar. 

TRASPALAR, to shovel ; Mex. in the patio process, to turn the torta 
with a shovel, see voltear. 

TRASPALEO, Mex. the turning of the torta, see traspalar. 

TRASPASAR, to transfer (a deed, etc.), see enajenar. 

TRASPASO, conveyance, transfer (of a deed, etc.), see enajenacion. 

TRASPORTADOR, see transportador. 

TRASPORTE, see transporte. 

TRASVERSA (or transversa), transp. sleeper, see durmiente (1). 

TRASVERSAL, see transversal. 

TRASVERSO (or transverse), Col. timb. bearer, see traviesa (4). 

TRATAMIENTO, met. treatment, see beneficio (3). 

TRAVERSI AS, Arg. deserts separating settlements, see desierto. 

TRAVES, de t. or al t., adv. across, e.g., labor a t., metodo a t. or de t., 
transverse working or cross-cut method, see u. labor (3). 

TRAVESANO (or atravesano), (1) cross-timber ; transom, see travesero 
(1), u. tarango ; (2) timb. cap-piece, see capa (4) ; (3) timb. dividing- 
piece, see atravesado (2) ; (4) transp. sleeper, see durmiente (1). 

TRAVESCAJAS, cross-cut (Chalon), see crucero (1). 

TRAVESERA, TRAVESERO, (1) cross-piece of metal or wood, see 
travesano (1) ; (2) step or rung of a ladder, see escalon (1). 

TRAVESIA, Ant. Col. cross-cut, see crucero (1). 

TRAVESSA, see traviesa (3). 

TRAVIESA, (1) cross-cut or cross-gallery, more or less perpendicular to the 
direction of the main gallery, see crucero (1) ; (2) timb. dividing-piece, see 
atravesado (2) ; (3) transp. sleeper (Port, travessa), see durmiente (1) ; 
(4) timb. bearer, bearing-beam or bearing-stemple, (U.S.A.) reacher, 
syn. descanso (3), Mex. gualdrilla, madre (3) or madre (3) de tirante, 
Col. trasverso, equiv. Fr. pontal, Ger. Tragestempel, see contramadre. 

TRAZADOR, Mex. assistant underground captain who looks after the 
men paid by the day (paradas rayadas), and the work of the peons, 
see u. minero (3). 

TRAZAR, (1) to trace, see calcar ; (2) to draw the first sketch or plan ; 
(3) see u. tumbe. 

TRAZO, sketch, plan, design. 

TRECHEO, passing of ores or waste from one peon (zafrero) to another 
in baskets, see gavia, comp. cuerda (4), hormiguilla (1), ziquitumba. 

TRECHERO, Calamahi, L. Cal. Mex. alluv. m. " se dice en una labor 
que el oro es ' trechero ' cuando con regularidad van apareciendo a 
distancia sus mejores depositos " (J. M. Ramos). 

337 Y 


RECHO (distance), trechos de lechuguilla, Mex. a certain length of small 
rope made of ixtle (2), see u. saco (1) ; the cost of one trecho, 50 m. 
long, twisted into a rope 33| m. long, is $5, and lasts three weeks 
in a dry situation, and from twelve to fifteen days in a wet one 
(S. Ramirez), see cuerda (1). 
TREMADAL, TREMEDAL, marsh, morass, see pantano (1), tembladeros 

(2) ; elastic turf-bog, see turbera. 
TREN, rail, train. 

TREPANO (from F. trepan), bor. cutting -tool, see u. barrena (2), sonda 
(1) ; t. compuesto, equiv. Fr. trepan compose ; t. de aleta, equiv. Fr. 
trepan a teton, Ger. Meisselbohrer mit einer Zitze, see Fig. 16 ; t. de 
cinta, worm auger, equiv. Fr. trepan rubane, Ger. Spiralbohrer ; t. de 
cuchura, auger, open auger, auger-nose shell, open scoop, wimple 
or wimble, gouge-bit, syn. -barrena (4), cuchara (2), taladra, taladro 
(5), equiv. Fr. tariere a glaise, cuiller, Ger. Schapper ; t. de horquilla, 
equiv. Fr. trepan fourchu ; t. de orejas (1), bit or chisel with 
wings, equiv. Fr. trepan a oreilles ; t. simple or sencillo, straight 
bit or chisel, equiv. Fr. trepan simple, Ger. Meisselbohrer. 

TREPIDACI6N, see u. tina (1). 

TRIANGULACI6N, surv. triangulation. 

TRIANGULO (triangle), Mex. cog of a stamp (G. F. Lyon), comp. cama 
(3), diente (2). 

TRIBUNAL, t. de minera or de mineria, mining tribunal ; Mex. a Supreme 
Council of Mines or " Real Tribunal del importante cuerpo de Mineria 
de Nueva Espaiia " was established in 1777 ; this was followed by 
the publication of the Ordenanzas, and the creation of thirty-seven 
Diputaciones (H. G. Ward). 

TRIFACEADO, DA, adj. sistema trifaceada, el. three-phase system. 

TRIFURCACI6N, see u. desvio (2). 

TRILHO, Port, rail, see carril (3). 

TRILLA, Mex. (1) heap of ore, see monton (1) ; (2) heap of slimes on the 
patio (1), seetorta. 

TRILLO, Span. Am. footpath, trail, see senda. 

TRINCHA, (1) Span. Am. socket-chisel, cutting-gouge, see cincel (1), 
gubia ; (2) Mex. piled waste [desecho (3)] used for walling levels, see. 
relleno (3) ; (3) Mex. coke-fork (Dwight), syn. horquilla (2), yelmo, 
see cok. 

TRINCHAR, Col. to construct trinchos, especially in the end of an adit 
(Uribe) ; to dam. 

TRINCHERA, (1) trench, see trincho (1), zanja (1) ; (2) Mex. a roughly 
stacked pile of rock or ore (Dwight), see monton (1). 

TRINCHO, Col. (1) trench [trinchera (1)] or breastwork (parapeto or 
pretil) (Uribe), see talabordon (2) ; (2) dam [dique (1)] of wood, earth 
and stone, or of stone only, to detain or vary the direction of a current 
of water (Uribe) ; alluv. m. in deep portions of a river, two rows of 
beams (vigas), strengthened by large stakes (estacones) and interlacing 



branches, placed across the river, forming a sort of dike. By means 
of two poles, sometimes united in the form of a ladder, placed at a 
moderate inclination and lying on the bottom, the zambullidores 
descend, and bring up bateas of gravel from the bottom (C. A. Eche- 
verri and M. Uribe), see mama, presa (1), comp. buzo, cerco (5), 
talabordon (2), tapon (3), tupia. 

TRINEO, sledge, see rastra (1), u. transporte. 

TRINQUETE, mech. pawl or ratchet, see u. fiador (2) ; rueda dentada 
de t., pawl and ratchet-wheel. NOTE. The terms pawl and ratchet 
are often used synonymously ; strictly speaking, the latter should be 
confined to the teeth of the ratchet-wheel into which the former falls ; 
if the pawl moves the ratchet it is a pallet ; trinquete con fiador 
= ratchet and pawl. 

TRISCADOR, mech. saw-set, see trabador. 

TRITURACI6N, mech. prep, stamping, grinding or crushing, see pulveri- 
zation ; t. a mano, crushing by hand. 

TRITURADOR, pulveriser, see pulverizador. 

TRITURADORA, rock-breaker, crushing-machine, see pulverizadora. 

TRITURAR, to crush or break up ore, see pulverizar ; t. con cilindros, 
to crush with rolls. 

TROCAR (to exchange), t. la batea, Ant. Col. to pass bateas full of gravel 
and earth with great rapidity from hand to hand, the peons being 
placed en fila or in line (Uribe), comp. gavia. 

TROCHA, (1) narrow path (senda), across a high road ; (2) S. Am. 
a path cut through forests, etc., for surveying or other purposes. 

TROJE (granary), trojes de metal, Huitzuco, Guerr. Mex. deposits 
of quicksilver ores, mixed with rock debris, filling natural vertical 
holes in gypsum so called from the supposed resemblance to the 
cylindrical adobe buildings used in that region for storing maize, 
see mercurio (2). 

TROMBA, (1) water-spout, see bomba (4) ; (2) Peru. met. twyer, see 

TR6MEL, mech. prep, trommel, see u. criba (2) ; t. de desenlodar, de 
deslodar or desenlodador, cleaning trommel, equiv. Fr. trommel- 

TROMPA (trumpet), (1) water-blast (Fr. trompe), syn. roncadera ; 
(2) Mex. met. the " nose " of cooled slag, formed by introducing 
a wet bar of iron through the twyer, when the latter does not 
project beyond the inner wall of the furnace, see entromparse, comp. 
nariz (4) ; (3) t. conica, vent, expanding stack or chimney of a Guibal 
or other fan, syn. chimenea (1) conica. 

TROMPO, see u. viaje. 

TRONA, see natron. 

TRONCO, (1) trunk of a tree, see pie (9) ; log (trozo), see leno (1), troza ; 
(2) Mex. team of horses or mules (Dwight). NOTE. In Spain, -hind 
pair of horses in a coach (Velazcmez). 



TRONERA, (1) Hex. chimney ; channel ; flue (Dwight) ; (2) troneras, 
Cerro de Pasco, Peru, holes in the brick cone or chimney used in heap 
coking (E. D. Canseco). 

TROZA, trunk of a tree to be sawn into boards (Velazquez), see tronco (1). 

TROZADOR, Col. cross-cut saw, syn. sierra (2) de traves, or de trozar, 
Mex. sardina. 

TROZAR, see u. sierra (2). 

TROZO, piece or part of a thing cut off ; t. de madera, log of wood, se i 
tronco (1) ; rail, portion of a line, trunk (Fr. tron$on) ; section of work. 

TRUC (from Engl. truck), see u. plataforma (4). 

TRUCHA, crane, see grua. 

TRUEQUE, Mex. truck or trolley (for tramway-bucket) ; truck of a 
railway-car (Dwight). 

TRULLA, mas. trowel, syn. liana (1), paleta (6), palustre, see paletada, 

TUBERA, twyer, see tobera. 

TUBERIA, tubing ; series or set of pipes or tubes, see caneria (2), u. 
desagiie (1) ; t. aspirante, suction tubing ; t. de aspiraci6n, set of 
suction-tubes ; t. de descarga, pump, delivery tubing ; t. de sondeo, 
bor. tubing, see entubado (1) ; t. impelente, discharge tubing. 

TUBO, (1) tube or pipe, see arcaduz (1), atanor, u. caneria, cano (2), 
canon (1), u. conducto ; t. agotado, exhaust-pipe ; t. a vapor, steam- 
pipe ; t. de aspiration, suction-pipe ; pump, wind-bore ; t. de des- 
carga, delivery-pipe ; t. de eduction, exhaust-pipe ; t. de enchufe, 
suction-hose ; t. de equilibrio, bor. Chaudron's equilibrium tube, or 
central tube attached to the false bottom (Fr. cuvette) ; t. de man- 
guera, hose-pipe ; t. de sobrante, waste-pipe ; t. de ventilation, vent, 
air-pipe, see caja (20) ; tubo-estuche, core tube of a diamond drill 
(Fr. tube-carottier) ; tubos elevadores, pumps or pump-trees ; t. de 
vidrio, lamp-chimney or tube, syn. bomba (6), bombilla (1), see u. 
cation (1) ; (2) t. de humo, smoke-stack ; (3) eng. tunnel, see tunel. 

TUCURABABI, Matape, Son. Mex. altered granite (granito). NOTE. 
Name probably of Apache origin ; see tucurubay. 

TQCURUBAY, a kind of gravel (Lucas), see tucurababi. 

TUECA, TUECO, cavity made by wood-lice in timber, see comejen (1). 

TUERCA, nut or female screw, syn. hembra (3), matriz (2), equiv. Minas 
Geraes, Braz. botao, Port, porca. 

TUESTE, roasting, see tostacion. 

TUFO, tuff, see toba(l). 

TUMBA, t. de montes, Span. Am. felling of trees. 

TUMBADOR, Span. Am. woodsman (Ponce de Leon). 

TUMBAGA (pinchbeck), Col. an alloy of equal parts of gold, silver and 
copper, comp. tumbago. 

TUMBAGO, Ant. Col. gold of low grade, comp. tumbaga. 

TUMBAR, (1) Mex, to break ground, win or get, see arrancar ; t. el 
cascajo, see cascajear ; t. las tierras de asiento (7), to win a deposit of 



gravel with a hard floor ; (2) t. monte, Mex. to cut down trees or forests ; 

(3) t. la mina, Ant. Col. to direct the workings in such a way that, 

from want of proper security, they are destroyed. 
TUMBE, Mex. breaking ground, winning or getting. In case of hard 

rock it consists of the following operations : (a) trazar (3) el barreno, 

fixing the position of the borehole, (6) pintado, marking it with a gad 

[see u. barra (6)], (c) abrirlo, boring it, (d) cargarlo, charging it, and 

(e) pegarlo, firing it, see arranque (1), derribo. 
TUNEL (from Engl.), tunnel or gallery ; properly speaking, a tunnel 

open to the surface at both ends, syn. mina (4), tubo (3). 
TUPIA, Ant. Col. a dam ; structure of earth, stone or wood, which 

accidentally stops the course of a current of water (Uribe), see u. 

madrino, presa (1), comp. talabordon (2), tapon (2), trincho (2). 
TUPIAR, Ant. Col. to make dams (tupias) ; to dam up (Uribe). 
TUPIDO, DA, adj. and pp. of tupir, closely woven (of screens). 
TUPIDOS, see encostillado. 
TURBA, (1) turf, peat, sometimes used as fuel, syn. Peru, champa, torba, 

comp. yareta ; (2) dung mixed with coal and moulded in the form of 

adobes, used as fuel in brick-kilns (Acad.). 

TURBAL, (1) turf -bog, see turbera ; (2) collection of peat or fuel. 
TURBERA, peat-bog, turbary, syn. manchon de turba (1), turbal (1), see 

pantano ( 1 ), tollas, trampales, tremedales. 
TURBINA, turbine. 
TUREGA, Ant. Col. una carga en t., a load carried between two 

TURMALINA, tourmaline, see chorlo ; t. azul = indicolite ; t. roja 

= rubellite 

TURNO, Mex. shift of work (D wight), see relevo. 
TURQUESA, turquoise, see xihuitl. 
TURRlON, (1) gudgeon, see guijo (2) ; (2) crank-pm, see boton (1) ; 

(3) wiper, cam, see cama (3) ; (4) stud (Ponce de Leon), see tope (3). 
TUYA, THUYA, white or red cedar (cedro). 
TZINAPU, see obsidiana. 

UBICACI6N, situation (of a mine, etc.). 

UCHA, S. Am. llama dung, see taquia. 

UCHANCHACADO, see u. caliche (1). 

ULE, rubber-tree (Velazquez) ; for rubber, see hule. 

ULLA, ULLERA, ULLERO, see hulla, hullera, hullero, respectively. 

ULLITA, see antracita. 

UMBRAL, (1) b. constr. door-sill ; (2) arch, lintel ; (3) timb. Col. cap- 
piece, see capa (2). 

UMPE, see humpe. 

UNA, (1) mech. claw or hook ; (2) cam, see cama (3). 

UNDULACIONES, geoL undulations (of beds, etc.), syn, ondulaciones, 
comp. pliegue. 



UNETA, chisel [cincel (1)] with a wide straight or curved mouth, used 

by stone-cutters (Acad.). 
tiNICA CONTRIBUCI6N, see u. contribution. 
UNIDAD, mech. unit. 
UNION, mech. coupling (of wire-rope, pipes, etc.) ; carp, clamping 

joint ; u. de gozne, hinged joint, see gozne (1). 
UNIR, to join, couple, clamp, etc. 
URANIO, (1) uranium ; (2) uranium ore, e.g., torbernite or uranmica 

(Ger. Uranglimmer) ; see uranopicco. 
URANOPICCO, uraninite or pitchblende (Ger. Uranpecherz), see uranio 

URAO, Gay-Lussite [Na 2 CO 3 , NaHCO,, 2H 2 O], a mineral resulting from 

the spontaneous evaporation of waters containing carbonate and 

bicarbonate, found in Lagunilla in Maracaibo = trona, found in 

Fezzan and Barbary, and " summer soda " of Ragtown, Nevada, 

U.S.A., comp. natron, tequezquite. 
URGUE, Ant. Col. (1) clay, see arcilla ; (2) flucan or clay salband 

separating the vein from the walls or " country," see cuarache, u. 
f guarda(l). 

tiTILES (utensils), Col. tools, see herramienta (1). 
UTILIDAD, profit, see ganancia. 

VACIA, geol. wacke ; vaciagris, grauwacke. 

VACIADERO, dump, waste-dump, (Austral.) mullock-dump, c.m. spoil- 
bank, syn. acopios, Mex. boleo (3), caballero (Fr. cavalier de deblais), 
Mex. desatierre (2), escombrera, terrera, Mex. terreros (3), equiv. Fr 
halde de deblais, Ger. Halde, comp. botadera (2), cancha (3). 

VACIADOR, (1) dumper of waste ; (2) one who dumps slag-pots (Dwight) 
(3) moulder. 

VACIAR, (1) to dump, to tip, equiv. Fr. vider, Ger. stiirzen ; (2) to cast, 
to mould ; (3) to discharge (of rivers), see desaguar (2) ; hydr. to 
sluice off (Ponce de Leon). 

VACIO, lA, empty ; freno al vacio, vacuum-brake. 

VAClO, (1) vacuum, see u. vacio, ia ; (2) mould for casting metal, see 

VACISCO (or bacisco, Acad.), Almaden, Sp. the fragments remaining 
after breaking the ore (cinnabar) for charging the furnaces (Guim) ; 
smalls or fines moulded into adobes for the furnaces (Acad.) ; small 
ore, see menudo, comp. china (2), metal (4), requiebro (2) ; baciscos, 
pebbles or fragments of gangue, containing some useful mineral, syn. 
gandingas (2) (Ezquerra). 

VADERA, VADO, ford (of a river), syn. botadero (1), see u. pasa (4). 

VAG6N (from Engl.) wagon, see carro (2) ; v. de bascula, v. volcador, 
volquete or de volquete, dumping-car or tipping-wagon, comp. bascu- 
lador ; v. de pico, front- or side-tipping wagon. 

VAGONERO, trammer, see carretero (1). 



VAGONETA (dim. of vagon) (1) transp. small open car ; trolley, syn. 
cangrejo ; (2) Cartagena, Sp. bucket of ropeway, see u. balde. 

VAGUADA, line of intersection of two opposite slopes (Ger. Thalweg) ; 
stream-channel (Dwight) ; watershed or divide, see vertiente (3). 

VAIVEN, (1) mech. reciprocating movement, see u. mesa (1) ; (2) Span. 
Am. swinging hammer (Ponce de Leon), see martillo. 

VAL = contraction of valle. 

VALAIS, lumber, 12 feet long, 4 inches wide, and 2 inches thick (Acacl.), 
see tabla. 

VALIENTE, Mex. a substitute (G. F. Lyon). 

VALLA, c.m. hoist, barrier, see barrera (5). 

VALLAR, to fence, hedge, enclose with stakes, etc., see cercar. 

VALLE, vale, valley, syn. val, see escobio, u. vega (1). 

VALUACI6N, valuation, estimate of cost, see presupuesto. 

VALVULA, valve, syn. ventalla, see embolo (2) and (3), sopapo ; v. chata 
de resbalon, flat slide-valve ; v. de admision, inlet-valve ; v. de 
arandela, clack-valve ; v. de aspiration, suction-valve ; v. de bola, 
v. esf erica, v. postilion, ball -valve ; v. de campana or de doble asiento 
(2), double-beat valve ; v. de chapaleta, or de charnela (1), clack- 
valve ; v. de cierre, stop-valve (Fr. soupape d'arret) ; v. de corredera 
(2), slide-valve ; v. de cuello, throttle -valve ; v. de desahogo del 
vapor, blowing-off valve ; v. de descarga (3), deli very- valve ; v. de 
distribution, slide-valve ; v. de eduction, exhaust-valve ; v. de garganta 
(2), throttle -valve ; v. de impulsion, delivery- or discharge -valve ; v. 
de mariposa (2), butterfly- valve ; v. del obturador (1), trap- valve ; v. 
de movimiento determinado = Fr. soupape gouvernee, e.g., Riedler's ; 
v. de seguridad, safety-valve ; v. roncadera, snifting-valve ; see cara (2). 

VANADATO, vanadinite [(PbCl), Pb 4 (VO 4 ) 3 ], found ^in Cardonal, Zima- 
pan, Hid. Mex. 

VAPOR, (1) steam ; v. agotado, exhaust steam ; v. estrangulado, wire- 
drawn steam ; v. perdido, waste steam (Ponce de Leon), see u. com- 
presion ; (2) steamboat, steamer ; (3) maquina de v., steam-engine ; 
(4) caballo de v., horse-power, see caballo (11) ; (5) Mex. foul air in 
a mine a damp worse than bochorno (1), for, besides extinguishing 
lights, it is pestilent ; it proceeds from the quality of the formation 
(terreno), and want of ventilation in the caverns of mines (Gamboa). 

VAPORIZADOR, horizontal boiler [caldera (2)] used for evaporating 
salt water in Piccard's method, see calorifero. 

VAQUETA, see u. cuero. 

VARA, (1) rod (of an engine, etc., see vastago) ; v. de agrimensor, or 
de medir, surv. measuring-rod ; v. magica, divining-rod, see hurga ; 
(2) Spanish yard of about thirty- three British inches, but it varies 
in different countries, e.g. : 

Metres. Feet. Inches. 

Argentine Republic . . . 0'8667 2*843 34*122 

Brazil M048 3 '624 43'496 



Metres. Feet. Inches. 

Central America . . . 0*9874 3 '239 38*874 

Chile, Peru and Portugal . . 0'8475 2 "780 33 "366 

Colombia O'SOOO 2'624 31-496 

Cuba and Venezuela . '. . 0-8480 2 782 33 '386 

Curacao 0'8477 2781 33'374 

Mexico 0-8382 2 750 33-000 

Paraguay 0-8636 2 -833 34 '000 

Spain (Burgos) , 0-8359 2742 32-909 

Spain (general) .... 0*8489 2 785 33 '423 

Uruguay . . . . . 0-8850 2 "904 34-848 

NOTE. The vara of Burgos is divided into 3 feet, the foot in 12 
inches, the inch in 12 lines, and the line in 12 points (puntas) ; the 
vara granadina (Col.) is divided into 4 quarters (euartas), and the 
cuarta into 2 eighths (octavas). The above measurements are based 
on those given by Duque and Spon. (3) Handle of a wheelbarrow, 
see carreta (2) ; (4) varas, Hualgayoc, Peru, timb. small polings 
used in lagging (revestimiento), from 4 m. long to 0'05 m. diameter 

VAREJ6N, timb. pole, used for lagging, etc., see revestimiento. 

VARILLA (small rod), (1) boring-rod, syn. barra (4), vastago de sondeo ; 
v. del embolo, piston-rod, see alargadera, u. vastago ; (2) transp. 
switch, see cambio (1) ; (3) mech. spindle, pivot, see gorron (1) ; 
(4) blast, shooting-needle (Chalon), see aguja (4) ; (5) Ant. Col. 
narrow piece of sawn wood cut from boards [tablas (1)] or planks 
(tablones), e.g., 11 feet by 4 inches by 2|- inches ; (6) long and thin 
bar of iron, comp. u. cabilla. 

VASIJA, vessel ; butt or cask ; bucket or skip of a wire ropeway ; v. 
de extraction, any vessel used in extracting ores, etc., as skip, kibble, 
cage ; v. de palma, basket made of palm leaves, sometimes used by 
muchachos de gavia ; v. alambique, circulating condenser, see vaso (1). 

VASO, (1) vessel, see vasija ; v. de extraction, kibbJe, see tonel (2) ; those 
used at Guan. Mex. are cylindrical in shape and are made of tanned 
hide (vaqueta), weighing when full 120 arrobas each, and provided 
with two valves (for filling and emptying them), and also a safety 
arrangement (S. Ramirez) ; (2) Mex. met. a furnace ; (a) a small 
adobe furnace lined with clay, etc. To get a strong draught the vasos 
are built against a steep bank, and a flue is run up the hill-side. The 
first part is made of adobes, the upper portion often of split timbers, 
daubed with clay, and covered with dirt (Eng. and M. J.), syn. hornito 
(1). (b) A cupelling furnace, syn. horno (2) de copelacion, comp. mufla 

(2) ; (c) a reverberatory furnace for smelting rich ore ; (d) Tepecala, 
Aguascalientes, a copper refinery furnace, circular, 1*25 m. inside 
diameter, covered with a semi-spherical boveda (3) or arch (S. Ramirez) ; 

(3) met. shaft of a furnace, see cuba (4) ; (4) met. crucible of a blast- 



furnace, see crisol (2) ; (5) Mex. met. receptacle for molten metal in 

front of a furnace, see reposadero (2). 
VASTAGO, mech. rod, see barra (4), vara (1), varilla (1) ; v. de bomba, 

pump-rod, see tirante (3) ; v. de sondeo, boring-rod ; v. de una valvula, 

valve -stem. 

VATIO, el. Watt(Acad.). 
VEGA (Port, veiga), an open plain (see llano) ; meadow ; borders of a 

river ; vegas, alluv. m. low-lying alluvial ground near a river, comp. 

playas [u. playa (1)] ; Col. a small valley (Mufioz), see valle. 
VEHICULO, (1) vehicle, carriage ; (2) el. conductor, see conductor. 
VEIA, (1) Port, vein, see veta (1) ; (2) veias or veios (2), Braz. ordinary 

placers (see placer) the beds of which are younger than the channels 

in which they occur (Antonil), syn. madre (7), comp. grupiaras, tabo- 

leiros (2). 
VEINTENO, twentieth ; the tax of one-twentieth, comp. quinto ; V. 

Restrepo, writing of the territory of Barbacoas, Col., says : " consta 

que el derecho de veinteno pagado en 1686 en Popayan, por solo el 

oro de Barbacoas, valio 3692 castallanos, cifra que representa r una 

produccion de mas de 700 libras de oro." 
VEIO, (1) Port, a vein of marble ; (2) Braz. see veia (2). 
VELA, ( 1 ) watchman, night-guard, see velador ; (2) candle, syn. candela 

(1) ; v. de cera, wax candle, see bujia (1) ; v. de esperma, sperm 
candle ; v. de sebo, tallow candle those used in mines are usually 
of this kind, and weigh from 1 to 2 ounces each, ordinarily 11 to the 
pound ; see cabo (4) ; (3) awning, see toldo ; (4) naut. sail, sheet ; 
(5) wing or arm of a windmill (molino de viento). 

VELADA, Ant. Col. the third part of the night, during which time a 
watchman (velador) is in the mill to see that the blanketings [panos 
(1)] are not robbed (Uribe). 

VELADOR, (1) Mex. watchman or guard who takes care of the mine day 
and night ; syn. vigia, vigilante ; Ant. Col. watchman in mine or mill 
(see u. velada), see guardaminas (1), vela (1 ) ; (2) candle-holder, generally 
of wood, see candelero. * \ -\ 

VELAR, to watch. 

VENA, (1) metalliferous vein, see veta (1) ; small vein or branch, see u. 
aguja (6) and acostarse. NOTE. Sometimes = a vein within a vein. 

(2) Bed or seam, e.g., Bilbao, Sp. compact earthy red hematite (the 
purest) ; a var. of hematite of a dark bluish purple colour, inclined 
to be powdery, and to fall away on exposure to the air [syn. galeria 
(2)], it is then known as v. dulce it sometimes has a rhombohedral 
structure ; v. acampanilada, v. rubiada or rubio avenado is so called 
because it partakes of the nature of campanil or rubio respectively 
(J. D. Kendall) ; see capa (1) ; (3) diverse quality or colour of earth 
or stones ; (4) streak, stripe or vein of a certain colour in stone or 
wood, see veta (5) ; (5) channel^ by""which water circulates below 
ground ; (6) mineral water found underground, see venero ; (7) Fr. 



Guiana, alluv. m. richest part of the pay-dirt [cinta (3)], seldom 
extending more than 2 or 3 m. (L. Levat). 

VENAJE, quantity of water in a river, see caudal. 

VENDEJA, public sale, see subasta. 

VENDUTA, Span. Am. auction, see subasta. 

VENDUTERO, auctioneer, see subastador. 

VENERA, see venero (1) and (2). 

VENERILLO, Tipuani, Bol. pay-gravel (M. Frochet), see cinta (3), comp. 
venero (3). 

VENERO, (1) spring of water, syn. venera (1), see manantial ; salt-water 
source ; (2) vein of metal, syn. venera (2), see veta (1) ; (3) Arg. deep 
lead or deep-seated deposit covered by more or less considerable masses 
of barren material distinct from the auriferous stratum (V. Novarese), 
see placer, comp. aventadero (3), venerillo ; (4) bed or seam, see capa 
(1), e.g., veneros, Bol. bands of auriferous conglomerate (C. Malsch) 
(5) Bol. stream-tin deposit, see estano (2) ; (6) Sandia, Peru, alluv. m. 
pay-dirt of recent placers [aventaderos (3)], see cinta (3) ; (7) any 
mineral deposit (Acad.), see criadero (1). 

VENIDA, overflow of rivers, see crecida. 

VENIDO, Mex. fall of earth, stones, etc., from a hill, comp. derrumbe (2). 

VENILLA, VENITA, small vein or stringer, comp. vena (1), veta (1). 

VENTA, sale ; v. en subasta, sale by auction, see subasta. 

VENTALLA, fan, see abanico (3), ventilador. 

VENTANA, (1) window ; (2) window-shutter. 

VENTANILLA (small window), (1) Mex. plat or station (S. Ramirez), see 
concave ; (2) hoist, opening in the door [compuerta (1)] of an ore-shoot, 
sliding-gate, etc., for the rope to pass through, see Fig. 30, u. compuerta 
(3) ; (3) Peru, natural opening in rocks (Humboldt), comp. hendedura. 

VENTANILLERO, Mex. an underground station-tender (Dwight). 

VENTILACI6N, ventilation ; v. artificial, artificial ventilation ; v. 
circular, ventilation by two shafts sunk close together ; v. diagonal, 
ventilation by two shafts situated at either end of a field of exploita- 
tion ; v. natural, natural ventilation. 

VENTILADOR, ventilator, usually some kind of fan, see abanico (3) ; 
for parts of, see canalize, envolvente, oido (2), paleta (2) ; v. aspirante, 
exhaust ventilator ; v. impelente or soplante, blowing ventilator ; 
v. de Harz, Hartz mine-pump or blower (Ger. harzerWettersatz), syn. 
maquina de campana (10). 

VENTILAR, to ventilate ; v. una mina, to ventilate a mine. 

VENTURINA, aventurine quartz (cuarzo). 

VERA, Span. Am. tree of very hard wood (madera) similar to lignum- 
vitse (guayacan). 

VERANEADOR, Ant. Col. alluvial miner or gold-washer who works in 
the dry season (verano) only, generally from the middle of December 
to the end of March, and in June, July and August the latter season 
or " little summer " (veranillo) is, however, very uncertain. 



VERANEO, Ant. Col. the working of alluvial mines in the dry season 


VERANILLO, see u. veraneador. 
VERANO, summer, syn. estio ; S. Am. dry season ; mina de v., Ant. Col. 

alluvium situated on the margin of large rivers, and which can only be 

worked in the dry season, as in the wet season or " winter " (invierno) 

it is frequently covered by the floods (avenidas or crecientes), comp. 

u. invierno.- 
VERDE, adj. green ; cobre v., malachite, see cobre (2) ; metal v., Mex. 

an argentiferous ore with copper, in the state of carbonate, oxide or 

sulphide, as an essential part of its composition ; for plata v., see u. 

plata (2). 
VERDE, verdigris ; v. hidrofano, v. silicatado, v. terroso are var. of 

copper ores. 

VERDEMAR, see u. berilo. 
VERDETE (verditer or copper acetate), gold-mill, verdigris (on copper 

plates) according to Professor Henry Louis, " hydrated oxide of 

copper with sometimes some carbonate ; probably when water 

containing sulphates is used, a basic sulphate may also form," syn. 

cardenillo (1). 
VERDIONES, Chile, green stains indicative of the presence of copper ore, 

see cobre (2). 

VERDUGADA, see u. verdugo. 
VERDUGO, row of bricks in a wall, syn. verdugada ; verdugadas (or 

hiladas) de ladrillos, rows of bricks in masonry, placed certain distances 

apart, in order to increase the bond (trabazon) of the work. 
VEREDA, path, footpath, see senda ; Peru, sidewalk (Velazquez). 
VERIFICADOR, (1) bor. verifying tool (Fr. verificateur) ; (2) verificador- 

explosor, a telephone applied for testing the quality of explosives 

VERTEDERA, Somorrostro, Sp. inclined shoot (Molina), syn. manga 

VERTEDERO, (1) overflow waterway of a dam [presa (1)] etc., see 

rebosadero (1) ; (2) c.m. scoop (Molina) ; (3) S. Am. spring ; source, 

rivulet (Lucas), see manantial. 
VERTIENTE, pr. p. of verter, see u. agua (1). 
VERTIENTE, ( 1 ) waterfall, see salto (3) ; (2) spring, source, see manantial ; 

vertientes de agua salada, Arg. brine springs ; (3) watershed or divide, 

see vaguada ; (4) waste weir of a dam (Ponce de Leon), see rebosadero 

(1) ; (5) vent, air-drift (Ponce de Leon), see u. galeria (1). 
VESPERTINAS, see u. legitimas. 
VESTIDO, dress ; v. de minero, miner's dress, see boina, cachucha, 

cotense (3), delantal, frisada, gorra (1), jerga, mecapal (1), para, patio, 

pechera, scrape, silla (2). 

VESTIGIO, assay, trace (of gold or silver), see huella (1), humores. 
VETA, (1) vein or lode, equiv. Port, beta, veia, vieiro, Fr. filon, Ger, 



Gang, Erzgang, see canal (14), cantera (3), fibra (2), fibrazon, filon (1), 
guia (5), hebra (2), macho (4), mena (1), ramal (3), vena (1). NOTE. 
The Spaniards use the term filon for the large and more important 
veins, those of less consequence being called veta, vena, and their 
diminutives. In Mexico, and in Spanish America generally, veta = 
lode. In Colombia lodes are generally termed hilos (threads), 
agujas (needles) being leaders, branches or small veins. Mina 
de v., a vein mine, as distinguished from an alluvial mine (mina 
de aluvion) ; v. caldeada al respaldo, vein " frozen " (lit. welded) 
to the walls : v. de cajon (10), inclined lode (in Col. = vertical lode 
or one inclined from 45 to 90) ; v. de cuarzo, cross-spur ; v. de 
resbalon, vertical lode ; v. de sombra, vein inclined from 20 to 60 ; 
v. dislocadora, dislocator ; v. de manta (3), see manta (3) ; v. en curia, 
gash vein ; veta-filon, fissure vein ; v. madre, main lode ; v. manteada, 
horizontal vein, see u. remolino (2) ; v. rechazada, dislocated vein ; 
v. sin crestones, " blind " lode ; v. transversal, cross-vein or lode ; 
see ahogada (1), u. borra (3), clavada (2), u. corrido, da, crucero (2), 
u. echado, da, u. frutos (2), hoyada [u. trabajo (2)], legitimas, manto 
(3), u. oblicuo, cua, u. recostado, da, u. rob ado, da, u. seco, ca, . 
serpenteado, da, u. socio, ia, sol (1), tambor (3), u. tope (6), 
u. transversal. (2) Bed or seam, see capa (1), e.g., sometimes applied 
to a seam of coal ; vetas, Almaden, Sp. the cinnabar-bearing quartzite 
beds and grit, see mercuric (2) ; (3) rib of ore in a vein or lode (S. 
Ramirez), leader, pay-streak, see cinta (2) ; (4) mineral waters found 
underground, see manantial ; (5) vein in wood or marble, grain, see 
vena (4) ; (6) Peru, mountain sickness, see soroche (1). 

VETADORA, see u. batea. 

VETARR6N, big lode, see veta (1). 

VETICA, VETICILLA, small vein, see u. fibra (2), filon (2), veta (1). 

VETILLA, (1) small vein or leader, see nervadura, veta (1) ; (2) Mex. 
slide (Dwight), see u. salto (1) ; (3) vetillas, Mex. grooves in slickenside 
(Dwight), see piano (4). 

VfA, (1) way, road, route, see camino (1) ; rail, line, track, syn. Span. 
Am. carrilera ; v. ferrea, camino de hierro or ferrocarril, railway, 
railroad ; v. mixta, ordinary road with geared portions for ascending 
slopes ; v. muerta, rail, siding (closed at one end) ; v. principal, main 
road or line ; (2) underground road, gallery or shaft ; v. de comunica- 
cion, shaft [pozo (2)] or gallery [galeria (1)] ; vias de transporte 
diagonal = Fr. voies thiernes ; vias generates, main roads or 
galleries ; vias secondarias, secondary roads or galleries ; (3) aerial 
ropeway, cable way or wire -rope tramway ; v. de alambre sus- 
pendido, wire ropeway, syn. andarivel, cable aereo, cable-via aereo 
(Dwight), ferrocarril aereo, transporte aereo, equiv. Fr. cable aerien, 
cable porteur aerien, plan aerien, transport aerien, zeonifere, Ger. 
Drahlseilbahn ; (4) v. vertical, guides for a skip or cage, see guiaderas ; 
(5) v. de escape, overflow waterway of a dam, etc., see rebosadero (1) ; 



(6) chem. way, method, v. humeda, wet way ; v. seca, dry way ; met. 
process, syn. metodo (2), procedimiento ; sistema por v. seca or de 
fundicion, smelting process, see fundicion (2) ; (7) transp. rail, see 
carril (3). 

VIAJE, Zac. and Pachuca, Mex. timb. an oblique face in transverse 
timber, see Fig. 76, the boca (5) abuts against the hanging-wall [alto 
(1)], while the viajes and trompo fit into 
a hitch [carcel (2)] on the foot-wall 
(Carrion). NOTE. From esviaje, a term 
used in arch. 

VIEIRO, Port, vein, see veta (1). FlG 76 ._ V iaje rafter 

VIENTO, wind or current of air. Luis Carrion). 

VIENTRE, met. the widest part or " belly " , viajes ; b, trompo; 

of a blast-furnace [horno (2) alto]. c boca (5>t 

VIGA, beam, syn. obs. cabrial, madero (1), trabe, see cuarton (1), cum- 
brera, durmiente (4), guia (18), jacena, lata (3) ; girder (may be o 
wood, iron or steel, and simple or compound) ; balk (or large squared 
timber) ; joist (horizontal timber supporting floor or ceiling), see can 
(1), carrera (4), cuarton (1), tirante (1) ; rafter (sloping timber of a 
roof extending from the eaves to the ridge), see cabrio or cabriol, 
costanera (2), costilla (2), crucero (5), marrano (3) ; v. apuntalada, 
armada, embragada or reforzada, truss beam or girder ; v. de celosia, 
lattice beam or girder ; v. de piezas, compound or built beam or 
girder (Ponce de Leon) ; Mex. timb. the viga as used underground is 
6 m. long, by 20 cm. by 20 cm., comp. gualdra, gualdrilla, tirante (5), 
vigueta ; v. doble or tirante (5), Mex. large beam ; for small beam, 
see alfarda ; span beam [espeque (1)] of a horse-whim or malacate (1) ; 
v. de aire, long horizontal beam of a horse-whim above the drum. 

VIGIA, watchman, see velador. 

VIGILANTE, watchman, guard, see velador. 

VIGUETA (Port, vigota), small beam ; Mex. as used underground is 
6 m. long x 10 cm. x 7 cm., comp. gualdra, gualdrilla, u. viga, 
tirante (5). 

VINTEM, Braz. one thirty-second part of an oitava. 

VIRADA DE RIO, Braz. alluv. m. a sort of dike [dique (1)] or dam of 
trunks of trees, branches, stones and earth, with a channel open on 
one side (Calogeras), comp. chamburgo. 

VIRGEN (Port, virgem), adj. virgen or native ; plata v., native silver. 

VISTA, sight ; mineral a la v., ore in sight. 

VITREO, REA, adj. vitreous, glassy, see u. feldespato and plata (2). 

VITRIOFIDO, vitrophyre ; in S. L. Potosi, Mex. dikes and small masses 
of this rock are invariably met with in the neighbourhood of tin- 
deposits, hence it becomes a useful guide to the discovery of the 
latter, see u. estafio (2), indicaciones. 

VITRIOLO, vitriol ; v. azul, blue vitriol or copper sulphate, syn. piedra 
azul (c), piedra lipis ; v. bianco, white vitriol or zinc sulphate ; v. 



verde or de marto, copperas or green vitriol = ferrous sulphate, see 
caparrosa (2), comp. caparrosa (1). 

VIUDO, DA, adj. see u. barra (5). 

VIVO, VA, adj. alive, kindled ; cal viva, quicklime ; explosives vivos, 
explosives which burn with great rapidity, comp. u. lento, ta ; piedra 
viva, very hard stone. 

VIZCAINO, NA, adj. pertaining to Vizcaya, see u. barra (1). 

VOLADERA, float or pellet of a water-wheel, see paleta (3). 

VOLADORA, (1) fly-wheel of a steam-engine, see volante (1) ; (2) Peru, 
upper millstone (Dwight), see muela (1) ; (3) Mex. grinding-stone or 
muller of an arrastre (3), syn. caballo (10), Mex. metapil (1), muela (2), 
piedra de mano, Mex. and S. Am. mano (3), comp. volandera (1). The 
lower surface in contact with the bottom of the arrastre (3) is known 
as the asiento (5) ; on the upper surface, near the edge, holes are made, 
and wooden pegs [estacas (8)] fixed to which ropes or lias are attached. 
(4) Rocket, see cohete (4). 

VOLADURA, a large blast, syn. v. de mina, see u. hornillo (3), tiro (6). 

VOLANDERA, (1) runner of a Chilian or edge-mill, syn. muela (3) 
vertical, Chile, volante (2) de piedra (edge-runner of a trapiche) ; 
(2) upper millstone, see muela (1) ; (3) mech. washer, see empaque- 
tadura (2). 

VOLANTE, pr. p. of volar ; bomba v., pump, suspended drawing-lift, 
see u. bomba (1) ; rueda v., fly-wheel, see volante (1) ; tablero v., cradle, 
see tablero (3). 

VOLANTE, (1) fly-wheel (Fr. volant), syn. rueda volante, voladora (1) ; 
(2) v. de piedra, Chile, edge-runner, see volandera (1) ; (3) mech. 
balance-beam, see balancin ; (4) v. de bomba, pump, pump-bob, see 
contrabalanzon ; (5) Asturias, Sp. timberman, see palero (4). 

VOLAR, to blast rocks or mines. NOTE. Generally used for large blasts, 
comp. tirar (2). 

VOLCADOR, transp. a revolving tippler, comp. basculador. 

VOLCAN, (1) volcano ; v. apagado or extinto, extinct volcano ; (2) Ant. 
Col. land-slide, see derrumbe (2). 

VOLQUETE, transp. tipping-wagon, syn. vuelque, see u. vagon, volteo. 

VOLTAJE, el. voltage. 

VOLTEAR (to overturn), v. la torta, Mex. spading, turning the torta, see 

VOLTIMETRO, el. voltmetre. 

VOLTIO, el. volt (Acad.). 

VOLUM6GENOS (Fr. volumognes Murgue), vent, machines which, 
by their movement, generate a well-defined geometric volume, and, 
becoming filled with air from the mine, and all communication with the 
latter being afterwards closed, throw out into the surrounding atmo- 
sphere all the air taken from the mine (Molina), e.g., Hartz ventilator, 
Fabry, Roots, Lemeille, comp. deprimogenos. 

VOLVEDOR, (1) screw-driver, turnscrew, see destornillador ; (2) 



Torrevieja salt-works, Alicante, Sp. the workman who breaks up the 

precipitated salt with the paleta (4), comp. tirador. 
V6MITO, Ant. Col. outcrop, see creston. 
V6RTICE, whirlpool, see remolino (1). 
VUELQUE, see volquete. 
VUELTA, (1) mech. rotation, stroke ; (2) bend, turn of a road, gallery, 

etc. ; (3) dar v. la plata, Mex. said when all the impurities have been 

removed from the silver in the refining process (Gamboa) ; brightening 

of the silver in eupellation, see relampago. 

XACAL, see jacal. 

XIHUITL, Mex. turquoise (turquesas) found by the Aztecs in the Cerro 

Xicohtzonc, close to Atzcapetzalco, near the city of Mexico (S. 

XILOPALO, wood opal, see u. opalo. 

YACENTE, lying-wall, footwall or floor of a vein or ore deposit, see bajo (3). 

YACER (to lie), modo de y., mode of occurrence, see yacimiento (2). 

YACIMIENTO, (1) mineral deposit, see criadero (1) ; (2) occurrence or 
mode of occurrence (Fr. gisement). NOTE. " Esta palabra, ademas 
de la idea de criadero, represente mas concretamente la de su manera 
de ser, 6 del modo como se presenta en la naturaleza " (F. Gillman). 

YANTA, tire of a wheel, see llanta. 

YARETA, Bol. Peru and Chile, a resinous moss, met with only at consider- 
able elevations and used as fuel (J. B. Minchin). " Yareta (Bolax 
globaria) is a highly resinous plant, firm and compact, found distributed 
over the top and sides of the mountains, cropping out from under the 
boulders, and spreading into large mounds as much as 20 feet across " 
(B. Hunt). These mounds are broken up by chisel-headed bars, and 
the pieces are left to dry for three or four months. The cost in 1899 
was 35. per ton delivered at the amalgamation works. Other fuels 
used in Peru are turf (205. per ton), petroleum shale (4 10s. per ton), 
and taquia (6s. Qd. per ton) (A. L. Pearse). Comp. quenua, turba (peat). 

YAREY, Cuba, a species of guano (palm-tree), see jaba. 

YELMO, Mex. coke-fork, see trincho (3). 

YERBA (hierba herb), flaw in the emerald (esmeralda), which tarnishes 
its lustre (Neuman and Baretti), comp. jardin. 

YESAL, YESAR, gypsum-pit, syn. algezar or aljezar. 

YESERA, YESERIA, gypsum -kiln. 

YESERO, preparer or seller of gypsum. 

YESO, (1) gypsum mineral, syn. algez, aljez or aljor ; piedra de y., 
gypsum-rock ; y. especular, selenite, syn. espejuelo (3) ; (2) calcined 
gypsum ; y. bianco, whiting ; y. mate, plaster of Paris. 

YESOSO, SA, adj. gypseous. 

YESOSOS, Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. copper ores in which calcite or 
fluor spar predominates as the matrix, comp. duros, lamosos (1), pastosos. 



YODO, iodine it occurs in the salt of salt springs. 

YUNQUE, (1) anvil, syn. ayunque, bigornia (Port, bigorna, Fr. bigorne 
= beaked anvil). For different kinds of anvils, see bigorneta, coche 
(4), cochina (2), macho (1), tajadero. For parts of anvil, see u. cara 
(1), cepo (5), pico (5). (2) Metal de y. (or llunque), Mex. smalls from 
the cleaners, syn. tierras de y., see u. tierra (4). 

YUNTA, couple, pair, yoke ; y. de bueyes, yoke of oxen. 

ZABULLIR, see zambullir. 

ZACA, Almaden and Linares, Sp. bag of hide (like a large wine-bag or 
zaque), formerly used for draining mines (Molina), comp. bota, see 

ZACATE, Mex. and Phil. (1) meadow or mountain-grass, herbage ; 
(2) hay, forage. NOTE. Sometimes spelt sacate. 

ZAFARECHE, Ar. Sp. pond or reservoir, see estanque (1). 

ZAFIR, ZAFIRO, (1) sapphire, a var. of corundum (corindon) ; z. bianco, 
white, transparent, crystallised var. ; z. oriental, oriental sapphire, 
see asteria (1) ; (2) ultramarine, lapis lazuli. 

ZAFIRITA, blue chalcedony (Ponce de Leon), see cuarzo. 

ZAFRA, (1) gangue, see matriz (1) ; (2) sterile rock or deads, see desecho 
(3), zafrero. 

ZAFRE, zaffre or oxide of cobalt mixed with powdered quartz, etc. 

ZAFRERO, workman occupied in the trecheo of waste rock [zafra (2)] 

ZAGALONES (overgrown lads), Cartagena and Almagrera, Sp. ore- 
bearers from 19 to 20 years of age, see gavia. 

ZAHINO, Ant. Col. timber ; useful for lagging shafts, etc. 

ZAMBULLIDOR, RA, adj. see u. batea. 

ZAMBULLIDOR, Ant. Col. alluv. m. workman who performs the opera- 
tion known as zambullir. 

ZAMBULLIR, ZABULLIR (to plunge or put under water), Ant. Col. 
alluv. m. to extract gold from the bottom of rivers and streams by 
means of the batea zambullidora, see u. trincho (2). 

ZANGARRO, Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mex. small mill or hacienda, see 
molino (1). 

ZANJA, (1) trench or cutting (generally made in exploring for lodes, 
etc.), syn. Ant. Col. brecha (3), calicata (2), Col. catacorte (1) or chamba, 
cuneta (1) (if small), hornacho, trancada (1), trinchera (1), equiv. Port, 
rego (1), Fr. tranchee de recherche, Ger. Schurfgraben, see fosa (1), 
comp. acequia, brecha (5), catacorte (2), u. cortar (5), cuneta (2), 
trincho (1) ; (2) pit dug in the ground, see hoyo (1) ; (3) abrir las 
zanjas, to commence a building ; (4) labor de zanjas, underhand stop- 
ing, see rebajo (2) ; (5) Span. Am. channel of a rivulet (arroyo), see 
arroyada (2). 

ZANJEO, see u. rebajo (2). 



ZAPA, Ant. Col. intermediate level driven between two main galleries 
[guias (9)] syn. entrepiso (1), Mex. entresuelo, Sp. galeria (1) inter- 
media, Asturias, Sp. guia (10), Palencia, Sp. sobreguia, equiv. Ger. 
Mittelstollen, Theilungstrecke or Halbe Gegenstrecke. NOTE. In 
the Remedies district, Antioquia, Col. zapas are driven along lodes that 
dip about 30 ; the lower zapa will be driven a few metres above the 
roof of the main level, in order to leave an arch or pillar of ground 
[contrafuerte (2)] to support the latter, while a higher intermediate 
level (z. alta) may be driven a few metres below the floor of the upper 
main level for a similar purpose, see Fig. 33. The pillars are usually 
stoped down before the main levels are abandoned. 
ZAPAPICO, pickaxe or mattock, syn. azadon (4) de peto or de pico, 
pico (1), piqueta (1), Mex. talacha or talbacho, equiv. Port, enxadao, 
picadeira, see espiocha, piquetilla. 
ZAP ATA, timb. head-piece, see galapago (2). 
ZAPATERA, see zapatero (2). 

ZAPATERO, (1) Venez. purple-heart, used in mining (G. P. Ashmore 

and C. Sealej, see madera ; (2) zapateros or zapateras, name given 

m some localities to the holes [barrenos ( 1 )] drilled along the bottom 

of the face of a large gallery or tunnel (Molina). 

ZAPATILLA (little shoe), z. de hierro, iron shoe of a wooden stamp, see 

zapato (1). 

ZAPATO (shoe), (1) mech. prep, shoe (Austral, head) or stamp (calza- 
dura), syn. solera (10), equiv. Fr. sabot (en fer), Ger. Pochschule, see 
zapatilla ; (2) z. de freno (2), brake-shoe. 
ZAPOTE, see nispera. 
ZAQUE, see ?/. zaco. 

ZARANDA, (1) mech. prep, screen, see criba ; (2) z. de mano, hand- 
screen for sifting earth or sand ; assay, small sieve, see cedazo (1) ; 
(2) mech. prep, grizzly (Dwight), see parrilla (2). 
ZARANDADOR, see zarandero. 
ZARANDAR, ZARANDEAR, to screen, see cribar. 
ZARANDERO, workman who uses a zaranda (1), or who is in charge o f 

it, syn. zarandador. 

ZAROCHE, Ecuador, mountain-sickness, see soroche (1). 
ZARZO (hurdle), (1) Tolima, Col. timber lining above the cap-piece, see 
revestimiento (1) ; (2) Ant. Col. cross-timbers [travesanos (1)] on stull- 
pieces [tacos (6)] to sustain the walls (respaldos). The escombros (2) 
or ripios (5) are packed on these (Uribe), syn. empalado, enmaderado 
(2), see camada (3) ; (3) see u. chimenea (4). 

ZEFRE, safety-fuse, see mecha (2). > 

ZIGUENA, see ciguena. 
ZINC, ZINQUE, zinc, see cine. 

ZIQUITUMBA, Ant. Col. the unwatering of a mine by hand labour, the 
men carrying the water from one shaft or winze to another ( Uribe), 
see desagiie (2), comp. trecheo. 

353 z 


Z6CALO, arch, socle or zocle ; z. de fundicion, in blast-furnaces, the 

circular cast-iron foundation-plate, strengthened Avith flanges, etc. 
ZONA, (1) layer or band of mineral in a vein, see cinta (2) ; (2) geol. 

zone, belt or band of rock, limited horizontally or vertically, and 

characterised by certain minerals, fossils, etc., syn. banda (5), faja (2) ; 

(3) z. de calcination or de preparation, de reduction, de fusion, in 

blast-furnaces, calcination or preparation, reduction and fusion zone 


ZONCHO, Port, piston of a pump, see embolo (1). 
ZOQUETE, (1) block, a short piece of timber, see u. calzar (5) ; (2) a 

short thick stick, used in bending or twisting ropes (Velazquez). 
ZORRA (fox), Mex. the lad who formerly attended the chief miner 

underground and carried the torch (G. F. Lyon), syn. morrongo, 

zorrilla (1), comp. abajador, pepe. 
ZORRILLA, (I) see zorra ; (2) see plataforma (5). 
ZOTLANQUE, see sotlanque. 
ZUA, ZUDA, see azuda. 
ZUFRE, see azufre. 
ZULAQUE, bitumen [betun (1)] artificially made into a paste with tow, 

lime, oil and ashes or ground glass, for stopping leaks in flumes, etc. 
ZUNCHO, band, hoop, collar, ferrule ; hoop-iron strengthening beams, 

vats, etc. 

ZURDO, DA. adj. left-handed, see u. tornillo (1). 
ZURDO, a shaft [pozo (2)] sunk opposite the dipping side of a vein. 
ZURR6N (bag), Mex. raw -hide ore-sack, holding about 150 lb. a load 

for a tenatero (Dwight), see saco (1). 
ZURRONERO, (1) Mex. the peon who carries ore or waste rock in 

zurrones ; (2) maker of zurrones. 




ABERTURA, (5) aberturas de trabajo, met. arches or large spaces 
round a blast-furnace for gaming access to the twyers, etc. 

ACAMPANAR, (2) acampanarse el homo, met. to form an arch (of 
the charge of a blast-furnace), whereby a hollow space is left under- 
neath, which is liable to lead to sudden falls, comp. lobo (2) (suppl.), 
pegadura (4). 

ACENDRADA, Peru, met. whitish marl [marga (1)] used in making 
cupelling-f urnaces . 

ACERADO, (7) Mex. cerargyrite or horn silver (plata gris) (Hermosa). 

ACLARAR, met. to clear a twyer by passing a pointed bar through 
the blast-pipe (busa see supplement). 

ACULAR EN ESTERIL, to end (of a gallery) in dead rock (R. B. 
Johnston), equiv. Port, terminar. 

ACUNADO, mine-dam (Ezquerra), see cerramiento. 

ADEMADORA, Mex. timb. a long and somewhat curved axe [hacha 
(])] with a gouge at one end (Hermosa). 

ADOBE. This name is also given to briquettes (aglomerados), bricks 
of turf, etc. 

AFLORAMENTO, Port, outcrop, see afloramiento. 

AGUA, (1) aguas colgados, water accumulated in old workings (Ez- 

AGUADOR, (4) mech. prep, the man who looks after the water-supply 
of a mill, etc. 

AGUJERO, (6) see canillero (suppl.) ; (7) a. de tobera, met. twyer- 

AGUJILLA, Hualgayoc, Peru, stromeyerite [Ag 2 S + Cu 2 S], called agujilla 
from its radiated or fibrous structure (Santolalla), see cochizo (1) 

AHOGAR, (3) a. las piedras, Huacho, Peru, a method of increasing 
the weight of blocks of salt by putting them in water saturated 
with salt, and leaving them therein for another season (estacion) 
(Raimondi), comp. curar (2) (suppl.). 

ALCAHUETE, see u. rubiales (suppl.). 

ALTURA (height), rise of an arch (Ezquerra), see sagita. 

ALUMBRAMIENTO, a. de aguas, discovery of waters, see iluminar. 



ALZA, (4) Bol. separating gold from sands in a lavadero (4). 

ALZADO, elevation of a building, etc. 

AMASADO, met. kneading of refractory earth, clay, etc., followed 

by the batido (suppl.) ; kneading of peat (turba), coal, etc. 
AMASADOR, knead ing- machine for working clay, etc., into paste. 
AMPLITUD, span of an arch (Ezquerra), syn. anchura, see luz (4). 
APRESTADOR, Vizcaya (Prov.), Sp. man who prepares the ore, etc., 

in the Catalan forge process (Barinaga). 
APURAQAO, Port, (1) refining (of metals, etc.), see afinacion ; (2) Braz. 

gold-washing, see lavadura. 
ARCO, according to Ezquerra, a vault (boveda) of small length compared 

with its width or span ; where the length is considerable = canon 

de boveda ; a. adintelado, flat arch ; a. de boveda, arch -vault ; a. 

escarzano, arch less than a semicircle ; a. en esviaje, oblique or skew 

arch ; a. en rampa, rampant arch, see rampa (2). 
ARMAR, (3) a. una gavia, Sp. to put men in line for a gavia (q.v.). 
ARQUETAS, Almaden, Sp. the two walled spaces of a Bustamante 

furnace, each of which has six flues, in connection with a similar 

number of lines of aludeles (Barinaga). 
ARRANCAR, (3) a. un horno, in lead-smelting, to light up the furnace 

corresponds to " blow in " of a blast-furnace. 
ASTIAES, Port, sides or walls of a vein, see hastial (1). 
ATACADOR, (2) a. de madera, met. wooden stopper, used with a 

piece of clay at one end, for closing the tap-hole of a furnace. 
ATERRAMIENTO, met. extinguishing incandescent coke by means of 

coal-dust, etc. 

ATIZADERO, see puerta (1) (suppl.). 
ATIZAR, met. to feed with fuel, comp. cebar (2). 
ATRAVESADO, (3) a vein crossed by another (Ezquerra), see u. cruzado, 

AVANQO, Port, main level, following the strike (R. B. Johnston), see u. 

galeria (1). 
AZUFRADO, (3) Hualgayoc, Peru, yellow ore from the decomposition 

of galena (Raimondi) ; (4) Chile, nitrate of soda, or caliche (1), of a 

canary-yellow or lemon colour (E. Kaempffer), comp, obispo (suppl.). 

BANCO, (1) b. de monda, mech. prep, bench on which ore is broken up 
and sorted; (11) Chile, a second bed of caliche (1), found in some 
salitrales, below the cova, and lying on the bed-rock (E. Kaempffer). 

BANQUETA, (3) mech. prep, stool or seat for ore-sorters. 

BARDALILLO, met. bridge of a reverberatory furnace (Sanchez), see 
u. puente (2). 

BARRA, (11) see u. plata (2) (suppl.). 

BARRO, (5) barros, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, fine grains [arenas 
(2)], powder and slime, from less than 1 mm. to impalpable powder 



BATIDO, met. beating of refractory earth, etc., see amasado (suppl.). v 
BATIR, (3) = berlingar, see berlingado ; (4) b. las cabezas, Almaden, 

Sp. to beat, with rollers, the condensed fumes of a Bustamante (aludel) 

furnace (Barinaga). 
BERGAMAZO, Vizcaya (Prov.), Sp. small wall, lining the principal wall 

of a Catalan forge (Barinaga), equiv. Fr. piech d'el foe (Ariege). 
BLANDEO, Linares, Sp. in boliche (5) lead-smelting, the sweating or 

roasting stage, comp. u. caldeo, corrida (3), resubida (suppl.). 
BOLA, (7) horno de bolas, met. puddling-furnace, syn. horno de pudlado. 
BOQUINETE, see busa (suppl.). 
BRASA, Almaden, Sp. second period of distillation in the Bustamante 

(aludel) furnace ; it is preceded by the fuego (when fuel is used), 

and followed by the enfrio (Barinaga). 
BROCA, Port. (1) carp, drill or auger, see barrena (1); (2) blast, drill 

or borer, see barrena (2) ; b. trancada, drill " hung-up," see ahorcada. 
BRONZUDOS, Mex. pyritic ores, see bronce (3). 
BROQUEIRO, Braz. miner, borer or driller (P. Ferrand), see barretero. 
BUITR6N, (5) see puerta (1) (suppl.). 
BURACO, (2) b. chulano, Braz. drill-hole, inclined upwards ; b. de agua, 

ditto, inclined downwards (P. Ferrand), see furo (1) (suppl.). 
BUSA (Fr. buse), met. blast-pipe connecting blast-main (portaviento) 

with twyer (tobera) (Ibran), syn. boquinete. 
BUSITA (Fr. busillon), met. nozzle at the end of the busa (Ibran). 

CABEA DO FILAO, Port, visible outcrop (R. B. Johnston), see creston. 

CACO, (2) Braz. plate, of copper, 0'15 to 0'30 m. in diameter, 
filled with juice of plants, for catching very fine gold, see jurubeba 

CADENA, (1) c. chata, a chain made of round and flat links, alternately ; 
c. de chapas, a chain made of flat links ; (5) cadena ! Sierra Alma- 
grera, Sp. call of the capataz, repeated by the miners, when the 
dinner-hour begins a relic of the days when criminals worked in 
mines (Ezquerra), comp. otra (suppl.), tabaco (suppl.) ; (11) c. de 
cangilones, mech. prep, bucket-elevator. 

CADINHO, (2) Braz. small blast-furnace used for smelting iron ores 
(P. Ferrand). 

CAES (wharf), Port, plat (R. B. Johnston), syn. desanche, see concavo. 

CAIXA DE CRIAQAO, Port, country-rock (R. B. Johnston) (roca (4) ). 

CAJA, (11) syn. c. de agua ; (21) c. de tumba (2), German buddle 
(Ger. Schlammgraben), see cajon (5) ; (27) cajas piramidales, mech. 
prep, pointed boxes (Ger. Spitzkasten), syn. cajas puntiagudas, see 
cajon (4) ; cajas piramidales de corrientes ascensionales = Ger. Spitz- 
lutten ; (28) vent, chamber of a ventilator, fan or blower, see u. 
capacidad (suppl.). 

CALCINACION, see note u. tostion (suppl.). 



CALDEIRA, c. do poc,o, Port, bottom of a shaft (R. B. Johnston), see 

caldera (5). 
CALDEIROES, Braz. (3) small shallow trenches formerly cut in the 

massive parts of the outcrops of quartz veins (Spix and Martius). 
CALDEO, met. gradual drying of a furnace before smelting ; Linares, 

Sp. in boliche (5) lead-smelting, the calcination stage, comr>. blandeo, 

corrida (3), resubida (suppl.). 

CALDERO, (4) Puertollano, Sp. met. reservoir or float, see reposador (2). 
CALENTADOR, Rio Tinto, Sp. reverberatory furnace in which balls 

of calcined ore are dried before the derretido (Barinaga). 
CALZA, (2) Peru, operation of putting steel on an iron borer. 
CAMARA, (5) camaras de disolucion, salt-mining, dissolution-chambers, 

equiv. Ger. Sinkwerk ; (13) wheel-pit (Ezquerra) see carcamo (3); 

(14) c. de ejercicios, experimental chamber for using rescue apparatus, 

equiv. Ger. Uebungsraum. 
CAMARETA, part of the old boliche (5) furnace in which the lead 

fumes were condensed. In hornos mixtos, it is suppressed, inde- 
pendent condensing-chambers being used (Sanchez) ; camaretas, in 

the Bustamante (aludel) furnace, chambers at the head of the rabera 


CAMPINA, Port, plain, see llano, comp. planalto (suppl.). 
CANALIZO, mech. prep, any narrow channel or gutter, for the passage 

of water, pulp, etc. 
CANDELERO, (6) Mex. in the patio process, the iron tripod which carries 

the marquetas or bollos (1), and which rests in the vaso (6) (suppl.). 
CANDIL6N, large open lamp (lampara), usually flat and made of iron. 
CANIARDELA, met. an Archimedean blower, see soplante. 
CANILLERO, met. tap-hole of a blast-furnace [homo (2) alto] ; the 

channel connecting the crisol (2) of some furnaces with the reposa- 

dores (2), syn. agujero (6) de sangria, chio, see sangradero (2). 
CANON, royalty ; mine tax, see derecho (2). In Spain, the annual tax 

for iron ore, fuel, etc., is 4 pesetas per hectare, and for precious stones, 

metals and ores, other than those of iron, 10 pesetas per hectare. 
CAPACIDAD, pump, valve-chamber (Moncada), see caja (4) ; vent. 

chamber or casing of a fan or (met.) blower, syn. caja (28) ; any 

chamber or room. 

CAPA-FILON, bedded vein (Ezquerra), see capa (2). 
CAPILLA, (2) hemispherical roof of a shaft-furnace (Sanchez), see copa 

(2), comp. u. cupola. 
CAPORAL, c. demina, Peru, head foreman or boss, syn. cabo (3), mayoral. 

NOTE. Ordinary foreman = mayordomo (2), see capataz (3). 
CAPULI, Huamachuco (Prov.), Peru, wood used for timbering levels, 

CARBONATO, (2) carbonates, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, seconds 

containing 55 per cent, of lead (Moncada) ; Linares, Sp. poor sulphides 



containing from 45 to 50 per cent, of lead (Sanchez) ; elsewhere 
mixture of sulphates, silicates, and other oxidised ores of lead. 

CARBONERA, (1) c. alzada, circular pile of firewood (Ger. Meiler), 
arranged more or less vertically ; c. echada, ditto arranged hori- 
zontally ; c. alargada or prolongada, rectangular or prismatic pile, 
with the firewood arranged transversely or longitudinally, comp. 
u. fosa (1) (suppl.). 

CARBONILLA, (2) Chacas, Peru, lead soot or condensed fumes (E. L. 
Dueiias), comp. hollin (suppl.). 

CARGADERO, (3) met. mouth or furnace top, see tragante (4). 

CARGADOR, (4) Rio Tin to, Sp. man who loads the buckets at the 
bottom of a winch [tornito (1)] (Ezquerra) ; (5) Huamachuco (Prov.), 
Peru, timb. cap-piece (Santolalla), see capa (4). 

CARGADORA, see u. lavadero (3) (suppl.). 

CARREIRO, Port. (1) carter, see carretero (3) ; (2) Braz. trammer, see 
carretero (1). 

CARVOEIRA, (1) Port, coal-pit, see carbonera (3); (2) Catta Preta, 
Minas Geraes, Braz. friable, rough-feeling greasy mass of greyish 
green colour, consisting of a very fine-grained quartz and a smoky 
grey talc with earthy grey manganese ore ; it probably forms a layer, 
several feet thick, between the planes of separation of the quartzose 
mica-slate and the clay-slate below it ; it generally contains a large 
quantity of gold (Spix and Martius), comp. jacutinga. 

CASCALHO, c. bravo, Minas Geraes, Braz. bed of fine gravel, mixed 
with sand, covering gold-bearing cascalho (P. Ferrand). 

CASCO, (2) helmet of a pneumataphore, syn. yelmo, comp. careta. 

CASCOTE, Arnao, Sp. screened coal from 2*5 to 6 cm. in size (Moncada), 
comp. grueso, menudo (suppl.) ; cascotin, ditto from 1 to 2'5 cm. 

CAVADEIRA, Braz. alluv. m. kind of iron chisel [cincel (1)] with a 
straight cutting edge, narrowing upwards, and with a long handle, 
used in digging gravel, etc. (P. Ferrand). 

CAVALLO, Port. " horse " of lodes (R. B. Johnston), syn. burro, see 
caballo (5). 

CERNIDOS, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, sifted ores which have passed a or 
f inch screen (O. F. Pfordte), comp. llampo (1) (suppl.). 

CHAMINE, Port. (1) chimney, see chimenea (1) ; (2) winze or staple 
(R. B. Johnston), see clavada. 

CHANCACA, (2) Hualgayoc, Peru, a mixture of paco and pavonado 
(tetrahedrite) (Raimondi), comp. encajetado (suppl.). 

CHAPEO (hat), Port, gossan (R. B. Johnston), see colorados. 

CHICHARR6N, (2) HuaJgayoc, Peru, wad (Santolalla), see acerdesa ; 
(3) chicharrones, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, a porous and scoriaceous 
var. of cascajo (4) [an altered grit or sandstone, according to Rai- 
mondi] ; when the latter is compact = pedernal [see u. pacos (1)]. 

CHINCHES, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, ore which has passed through the 
cilindros de remoter, syn. remolidos. 



CHIO, see canillero (suppl.). 

CHIRRETE, Cartagena, Sp. mech. prep, product of smails or tierras 

from old dumps, containing 6 per cent, of lead, comp. u. grava (suppl.). 
CHISCARRA, calcareous rock, which readily breaks into small pieces. 
CHISPEADO, (2) Yauli, Peru, tetrahedrite (cobre gris). 
CIARLECUE, Vizcaya (Prov.), Sp. slag-dump (vaciadero) of Catalan 

forge (Barinaga). 
CIARZULO, Vizcaya (Prov.), Sp. front side of Catalan forge (Barinaga), 

syn. mano (9) (Fr. main). 

CIELO, (7) roof or hanging-wall of a mineral deposit, see alta. 
CINCHO, (5) hoop of iron, etc., see zuncho. 
CINGLADO (Fr. cinglage), met. shingling (Barinaga). 
CIRILLO, Vizcaya (Prov.), Sp. bottom of Catalan forge (Barinaga). 
COBERTIZO, (1) roof (techo) of a shed, etc. ; (2) hovel, see jacal (1). 
COCHIZO, (2) Peru, stromeyerite (Raimondi), see agujilla (1) (suppl.) ; 

(3) c. falso, Cerro de Pasco, Peru, bournonite (Raimondi). 
COCHURA, see vuelta (4) (suppl.). 

COLHER, Port, blast, scraper (R. B. Johnston), see cuchara (4). 
COMPANERO, Almaden, Sp. strand of a rope, see cordon (2). 
CONGELO, Chile, floor of caliche (1), formed of loose sand, sulphate 

salts, chlorides mixed with clay, and many isolated crystals of selenite 

(E. Kaempffer), comp. tapa (2) (suppl.). 
CONO, (4) c. desenlodador, mech. prep, sort of masonry hopper where 

the ore is washed clean by a current of water before being sorted, 

syn. Linares, Sp. tolva (3), see pesca (suppl.) ; (5) c. distribuidor, 

met. distributing cone of a shaft-furnace, syn. valvula distribuidor. 
CONTADOR, (4) c. de cubas, Almaden, Sp. lander at surface or at 

mouth of torno (6) (Ezquerra), see amainador, comp. cargador 

CONTRAVIENTO, met. arched side of Catalan forge, opposite the twyer 

(Fr. contrevent or ore). 
CORRIDA, (3) Linares, Sp. in boliche (5) lead-smelting, the third or 

running-down stage, comp. blandeo, u. caldeo, resubida (suppl.). 
CORTAFUEGO, met, damper of a furnace, see registro (3). 
CORTE, (18) Huacho, Peru, in the " Pampas de las Salinas," place where 

the salt is cut, see u. curar (2) (suppl.). 
COSTILLARES, Guan. Mex. round irregular polings, from secondary 

branches, used for transit purposes in inclined shafts (Hermosa). 
CRIAAO, Port, mineral deposit, see criadero (1), jazida (suppl.). 
CRIB A, mech. prep. Cartagena, Sp. hand- jig with two hutches ; one 

with only one hutch = media c. (Moncada) ; c. de trepidacion, shaking 

screen, used in classifying coal in place of rejillas fijas (suppl.), syn. 

Asturias, Sp. cribos ; cribas de sacudimientos, jiggers, including 

cribas intermitentes (e.g., c. de cuba, German hand-jigger, c. inglesa or 

riquitrum), and cribas continuas (e.g., cribas filtrantes or cribas del 

Harz) ; see u. despajar and emparejar, pava (2), piston (suppl.). 



CRIBADO, (2) Asturias, Sp. screened coal of over 45 or 50 mm. 
(Moncada), comp. galleta, granza (1), grancilla, finos (suppl.). 

CRISOL, (2) /crucible or well in the floor of a reverberatory furnace, syn. 
pila (9), pileta (3), reposador (5). 

CRUDIOS, Mex. met. iron matte (Hermosa), see hierro (5). 

CUADRO, (6) Bol. plat, see concavo ; (7) table or index. 

CUELLO, (r>) short tube or neck by which air passes out of a fan or 

CURAR, (1) c. el circo de la calentura 6 de la frialdad, Cerro de Pasco, 
Peru, in the patio process, to add certain reagents, see u. curtir, frio 
ia ; (2) c. las piedras, Huacho, Peru, to increase the weight of blocks 
of salt by spreading them out in the corte (18) (suppl.), and cover- 
ing each with a layer of pieces of salt water saturated with salt 
afterwards forms the whole into one (Raimondi), comp. ahogar (3) 

CUSTANEIRAS, Port. timb. slabs (R. B. Johnston), see costero (1). 

DELINEADOR, (1) draughtsman ; (2) Almaden, Sp. mine surveyor, see 

u. agrimensor. 

DEPOSITO, (11) oil vessel of a lamp, see candileja (2). 
DEPURACI6N, mech. prep, washing (lavadura) of small coal (Fr. 

depuration) ; d. de gas, purification of gas. 
DEPURADOR, d. de agua, water-purifier for gas, generally bell-shaped 

and of one or two cb. m. capacity. 

DERECHO, (4) derechos de los mineros, miners' rights or privileges. 
DERRETIDO, Rio Tinto, Sp. met. fusion of calcined balls of copper ore 

for black copper (Barinaga), see calentador (suppl.). 
DESANCHE, see caes (suppl.). 
DESBASTAR, (3) mech. prep, to separate a large amount of waste 

from an ore. 
DESBASTE, (3) mech. prep, separation of waste from an ore ; coarse 


DESCARGADERO, (2) ore-pass or -shoot (Ezquerra), see paso (2). 
DESCARGADORA, see u. lavadero (3) (suppl.). 

DESLAME, Mex. mech. prep, method of separating the coarse metalli- 
ferous particles (jalsontles) from the fine ; it was formerly done in 

elliptical tanks (pilas de deslamar, syn. Guan. cajstes), or in a laberinto. 
DESPAJAR, criba de d., Sierra Almagrera, Sp. circular hand-sieve 

with mesh of 2 cm. (radius) by 8 cm. (circumference). The smalls 

(tierras) from the mine are screened through this, comp. emparejar 

(3) (suppl.) ; despajar, to screen with the above. 
DESPOJO, (2) despojos, mech. prep, products which for lack of water 

are too poor to mill, and are therefore sold to lavadores or owners 

of polveros (suppl.), syn. horruras (2). 
DESQUINCHAR, Peru, to take down the walls [see quincha (suppl.)] of 

a lode, see ensanchar. 



DESTAJE, DESTAJO, (2) Peru, open-cut, see tajo (2) ; arranque a d., 
crude method of mining, or taking down the ore from the roof, and 
filling the floor with deads, or leaving the whole open, syn. tajeo. 

DIRECCAO, Port. geol. strike, see rumbo (3). 

DISOLVEDORES, Rio Tinto, Sp. masonry tanks in which calcined 
copper ore is dissolved. The solution passes to settling-tanks (pilones 
reposadores), and then to cementing-tanks (pilones cementadores 

EMBASTE, Sierra Almagrera, Sp. product of hand- jigging, afterwards 

passed through the criba de emparejar, comp. majuelo